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Full text of "Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science"

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I 



I 



HEPOUT 



OP THE 



THIRTY-SEVENTH MEETING 

OF THE >/ 

BRITISH ASSOCIATION 



FOB THE 



ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE ; 



HELD AT 



DUNDEE IN SEPTEMBEE 1867. 



LONDON: 
JOHN MUKRAY, ALBEMARLE STREET. 

1868. 



FEINTED BY 
TAYLOR AND FBANCIS, RED LION COURT, FLEET STREET, 

AlEBE Y FLAMMAM. 





CONTENTS. 



Page 

Objects and "Rules of the Association xvii 

Places of Meeting and Officers from commencement xx 

Presidents and Secretaries of the Sections of the Association from com- 
mencement XXV 

Treasurer's Account xxxv 

Officers and Council, 1867-68 xxxvi 

Officers of Sectional Committees xxxvii 

Corresponding Members xxxviii 

Eeport of the Council to the General Committee xxxix 

Report of the Committee on Scientific Education in Schools xxxix 

Report of the Kew Committee, 1866-67 liv 

Report of the Parliamentary Committee Ix 

Recommendations of the General Committee for Additional Reports 

and Researches in Science Ixi 

Synopsis of Money Grants Ixvi 

General Statement of Sums paid on account of Grants for Scientific 

Purposes Ixvii 

Extracts from Resolutions of the General Committee Ixxii 

Arrangement of the General Meetings Ixxiii 

REPORTS OF RESEARCHES W SCIENCE. 

Report of the Limar Committee for Mapping the Surface of the Moon. 
Drawn up by W. R. Biet, at the request of the Committee, consisting 
of James Glaishee, F.R.S., Lord Rosse, F.R.S., Lord Wrotteseet, 
F.R.S., Sir J. Heeschel, Bart., F.R.S., Professor Phieeips, F.R.S., 
Rev. C. Peitchaed, F.R.S., W. HrGon^s, F.R.S., Waeeen De La 
Rue, F.R.S., C. Beooke, F.R.S., Rev. T. W. Webb, F.R.A.S., J. N, 

LocKTER, F.R.A.S., Herr Schmidt, and W. R. Biet, F.R.A.S 1 

a2 



IV CONTENTS. 

Page 

Third Eeport of the Committee for Exploring Kent's Cavern, Devon- 
shire. The Committee consisting of Sir Charles Lyell, Bart., Pro- 
fessor Phillips, Sir John Lubbock, Bart., Mr. John Evans, Mr, 
Edwaed Vivian, Mr. Geobge Busk, and Mr. William Pengelly 
(Reporter) 24 

The present state of the Manufacture of Iron in Great Britain, and its 
position as compared with that of some other countries. By 1. Low- 
THiAN Bell 34 

Third Eeport on the Structure and Classification of the Fossil Crustacea. 
By Henkt "Woodward, F.G.S., E.Z.S., of the British Museum 44 

Report on the Physiological Action of the Methyl Compounds. By 
Benjamin W. Richardson, M.A., M.D., F.R.S 47 

Preliminary Report of the Committee for the Exploration of the Plant 
Beds of North Greenland appointed at the Nottingham Meeting, 1866 57 

Report of a Committee, consisting of Mr. J. Scott Russell, Mr. T. 
Hawkslet, Mr. J. R. Napiee, Mr. William Faiebairn, and Pro- 
fessor W. J. M. Rankine, appointed to analyze and condense the in- 
formation contained in the Reports of the " Steam-ship Performance " 
Committee and other sources of information on the same subject .... 58 

On the Meteorology of Port Louis in the Island of Maiu'itius. By 
Chaeles Meldeum, M.A 108 

On the Construction and Works of the Highland Railway. By Joseph 
Mitchell, F.R.S.E., F.G.S., C.E., and Member of the Institution of 
CivU Engineers 151 

Experimental Researches on the Mechanical Properties of Steel. By 
W. Faiebaien, LL.D., F.R.S., &c 161 

Report of the Committee appointed to explore the Marine Fauna and 
Flora of the South Coast of Devon and Cornwall. — No. 2. Consist- 
ing of J. GwTN Jeffreys, F.R.S., Rev. Thomas Hincks, Jonathan 
Couch, F.L.S., Charles Stewart, F.L.S., J. Beooking Rowe, F.L.S., 
and J. Ralfs, F.L.S. Reporter, C. Spence Bate, F.R.S. &c 275 

Supplement to a Report on the Extinct Didine Birds of the Mascarene 
Islands. By Alfred Newton, M.A., F.L.S., Professor of Zoology in 
the University of Cambridge 287 

Report on Observations of Luminous Meteors, 1866-67. By a Com- 
mittee, consisting of James Glaishee, F.R.S., of the Royal Obser- 
vatory, Greenwich, President of the Royal Microscopical and Meteo- 
rological Societies, Robeet P. Geeg, F.G.S., E. W. Beayley, F.R.S., 
Alexander S. Heeschel, F.R.A.S., and Charles Beooke, F.R.S., 
Secretary to the Meteorological Society 288 

Fourth Report on Dredging among the Shetland Isles. By J. Gwyn 
Jeffeeys, F.R.S 431 



CONTENTS. , V 

PreKminary Report on the Crustacea, Molluscoida, Echinodermata, 
and Coelentcrata, procured by the Shetland Dredging Committee in 
1867. By the llev. Alfred Merle Norman, M.A 437 

Report on the Poraminifera obtained in the Shetland Seas. By Edward 
Waller 441 

Second Report of the Rainfall Committee, consisting of J. Glaishbk, 
F.R.S., Lord WROirESLEr, F.R.S., Prof. Phillips, E.R.S., J. F. 
Bateman, F.R.S., R. W. Mylne, F.R.S., C. Brooke, F.R.S., T. 
Hawksley, C.E., and G. J. Symons, Secretary 448 

Report on the best means of providing for a uniformity of Weights 
and Measures, ^Hth reference to the Interests of Science. By a 
Committee, consisting of Sir John Bowring, The Rt. Hon. C. B. 
Adderley, M.P., Sir W. Armstromg, Mr. Samuel Broaatj, Mr. 
W. EwAKT, M.P., Mr. Capel H. Berger, Dr. Farr, Mr. Frank 
Fellows, Prof. Frankland, Mr. George Glover, Prof. Hennessy, 
Earl Fortescue, Mi-. Frederick Hendricks, Mr. James Heyavood, 
Sir Robert Kane, Prof. Leone Levi, Prof. W. A. Miller, Prof. 
Rankine, Mr. C. W. Siemens, Col. Sykes, M.P., Prof. A. W. Wil- 
liamson, Lord Wrottesley, Mr. James Yates : — Prof. Leone Levi, 
Secretary 468 

Report of the Committee on Standards of Electrical Resistance. The 
Committee consists of Professor Williamson, Professor Sir C. Wheat- 
stone, Professor Sir W. Thomson, Professor Miller, Dr. A. Mat- 
thiessen, Mr. Fleeming Jenkin, Sir Charles Bright, Professor 
Maxwell, Mr. C. W. Siemens, Mr. Balfour Stewart, Mr. C. F. 
Yarley, Professor G. C. Foster, Mr. Latimer Clark, Mr. D. Forbes, 
Mr. Charles Hockin, and Dr. Joule , 474 



NOTICES AND ABSTRACTS 



OF 



MISCELLANEOUS COMMUNICATIONS TO THE SECTIONS. 



MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICS. 

Pace 

Address by Sir W. Thomson, LL.D., F.R.S., President of the Section 1 

Sir Davtd Brewster on the alleged Correspondence between Pascal and 
Newton 1 

Mr. T. Archer Hirst on the alleged Correspondence between Newton and 
Pascal recently communicated io the French Academy 2 

Mathematics. 

The Hon. J. Cockle on the Inverse Problem of Coresolvents 3 

Mr. W. Barrett Davis's list of 5500 Prime Numbers 4 

The Bev. Professor B. Harley on Finite Solutions of Algebraical Equations 4 

Dr. D. BiERENS DE Haan on a Theorem in the Integral Calculus 4 

The late James Lindsay's proof of the Binomial Theorem 5 

Professor W. J. Macquorn Bakkine on the Approximate Drawing of Circular 
Arcs of given lengths • 6 

Astronomy. 

Major J. F. Tentvant's Preparations for Observing the Total Solar Eclipse of 
August 18, 18G8 5 

Light. 

Sir DA-sao Breavster on the Colours of the Soap-Bubble 6 

— — on the Figures of Equilibrinni of Liquid Films 6 

's Notice respecting the Enamel Photographs executed 

by Mr. M'Baw, of Edinbm-gh 8 

• on the Motions and Colours upon the Films of Alcohol, 

Volatile Oils, and other Fluids 8 

on the Badiant Spectrum 8 



CONTENTS. ▼U 

Page 

Mr. A. R. Catton on the Laws of Symmetry of Ciystalline Forms 10 

's contribution towards the expression of the angle between 

the Optic axes of a Crystal in terms of the angles between the faces 10 

on the Theory of Double Refi'action, with special reference 

to the influence of the Material Molecules on the propagation of Light in 

Crystals 10 

Mr. A. Claudet on a Mechanical Means of producing the differential motion 

required to equalize the focus for the different planes of a solid 10 

's New Fact of Binocular Vision 10 

's Photographic Portraits obtained by Single Lenses of Rock 

Crystal and Topaz 10 

Mr. J. Clerk Maxwell on a Real Image Stereoscope 11 

Dr. J. Moffat's Experiments on the Luminosity of Phosphorus 11 



Heat. 

Mr. R. RxJSSELL on some Deductions by Dr. Tyndall from his recent Experi- 
ments regarding the Radiant and Absorptive Properties of Vapour in the 
Atmosphere 11 

Mr. C. Wheatstone on a New Telegi-aphic Thermometer, and on the Ap- 
plication of the Principle of its consti-uction to other Meteorological In- 
dicators 11 



Electbicity, Magnetism. 

Mr. William Hooper on the Electric Induction of Mr. Hooper's Insulated 
Wires, compared with Gutta-Percha Insulated Wires, for Telegi-aphic 

Cables 13 

Mr. William Ladd on a new form of Dynamo-Magnetic Machine 13 

on a Magneto-Electric Machine 14= 

Dr. T. L. Phipson on the Phenomena which occur when Magnetized Steel is 
dissolved in Acids 14 

Mr. T. Ste^'enson's Notice of a proposal to illuminate Beacons and Buoys 
by Electricity, conveyed through Submarine Wires connected with the 
Shore. With a description of the Induction-Spark Apparatus used for this 
pm-pose in the first experiments made for the Northern Lights Board, also 
the Electrical Apparatus recently designed for the Northern Lights, by 
C. W. Siemens 14 

Sir W. Thomson on a Self-acting Electrostatic Accumulator 16 

— on a Series of Electrometers for Comparable Measiu-ements 

through Great Range 16 

on a Unifonn-Electric-Current Accumulator 16 

on Volta-Convection by Flame 17 

on Electric Machines founded on Induction and Convection 18 



Meteoeologt. 

Sir David Brewster's Notice respecting a Haystack struck by Lightning . . 19 

Mr. Alexander Brown's Observations of the Rainfall at Arbroath 19 

Senhor Capello's Comparison of the Kew and Lisbon Magnetic Curves during 
the Disturbance of February 20-25, 1866 20 



TIU CONTENTS. 

Page 
Dr. J. D. EvKHETT on the Results of Observations of Atmospheric Electricity 

at Kew Observatory and at Windsor, Nova Scotia 20 

Mr. Geoege Forbes on the Meteor Shower of August 1867 20 

Mr. Chaeles Meldeum on the Gales and Hun-icanes of the Indian Ocean 

South of the Equator 21 

Mr. E. W. Moffat on Meteorological Observations at Sea 25 

Mr. Baxfoub Stewart on the Errors of Aneroids at various Pressures .... 26 

Colonel Sykes on Storm-Warnings, their Importance and Practicability .... 27 

Mr. John Thruston on Evaporation from Rain-gauges 28 



CHEMISTET. 

Address by Thomas Anderson, M.D., F.R.S.E., President of the Section . . 28 

Mr. G. Ansell on an Apparatus for indicating the Pressure and Amount of 
Firedamp in Mines 31 

Mr. I. LowTHiAN Bell on a Method of Recovering Sulphur and Oxide of 
Manganese used at Dieuze, near Nancy, France 31 

Dr. A. Crum Brown's Remarks on the Calculus of Chemical Operations .... 31 

Mr. DtiGALD Campbell's Note on Messrs. Wanklyn, Chapman, and Smith's 
method of determining Nitrogenous Organic Matters in Water 32 

Mr. A. R. Catton on the Synthesis of Formic Acid 32 

on Loewig's Researches on the Action of Sodium Amalgam 

on Oxalic Ether 32 

Mr. W. Crookes on a New Polarizing Photometer 32 

Mr. A. E. Fletcher on a Self-Registering Per^ietual Aspirator 32 

on an Ether Anemometer for Measuring the Speed of 

Air in Flues and Chimneys 33 

Dr. Gladstone on the Refraction Equivalents of Salts in Solution 34 

Dr. N. DE Khanikof's Experiments for the Verification of the laws of Dr. 
Henry and Dalton on the Absorption of Gases by Liquids 34 

Mr. J. B. Lawks and Dr. J. H. Gilbert's Preliminary Notice of Results on 
the Composition of Wheat grovrn for twenty years in succession on the 
same Land 36 

Dr. George I^awson's Notes of the Analyses of Gold Coins of Columbia, 
New Granada, Chili, and Bolivia; with some account of the operations of 
Gold Mining in Nova Scotia 37 

Dr. W. Lauder Lindsay on the present Uses of Lichens as Dye-stuffs .... 38 

Messrs. P. T. Main and A. R. Catton on a New Synthesis of Ammonia. ... 40 

Mr. W. L. Scott's Note on the Artificial Production of Oil of Cinnamon . . 40 

on the Bisulphite of Calcium as a Preservative of Animal 

Substances , 40 

Drs. Maxwell Simpson and A. Gautier on a Compound formed by the 
direct union of Aldehyde and Anhydrous Prussic Acid 40 

Dr. Maxwell Simpson on the Formation of Succinic Acid from Chloride of 
Ethylidene 42 

Mr. R. F. Smith on the Gaseous Products of the destructive distillation of 
Hydrocarbons, obtained from Shales and Coals at Low and High Tem- 
peratures 43 



CONTENTS. IX 

Page 
Mr. Pkteb Spence on the Economization of Sulpliurous Acid in Copper 
Smelting 43 

Mr. John Spiller on the Preservation of Stone 44 

on certain New Processes in Photography 45 

Messrs. J. Axfbed Wanklyn and Robert Schenk on the Synthesis of 
Caproic Acid 46 

Mr. J. Alfred Wankltn on the Existence of Putrescible Matter in River 
and Lake Waters 47 

on the Action of Sodium on Valerianic and similar 

Ethers 47 

Mr. T. T. P. Bruce Warren on the Electrical Resistances of the Fixed and 
Volatile OUs 47 

Mr. Walter Weldon on a New Manufacturing Process for the Perpetual 
Regeneration of the Oxide of Manganese used in the Manufacture of Chlorine 48 

GEOLOGY. 

Address by Abchibald Geekie, F.R.S., F.G.S., President of the Section . . 49 

Mr. D. T. Ansted on the passage of Schists into Granite in the Island of 
Corsica 64 

on the Lagoons of Corsica 54 

His Grace the Duke of Argyll on the Granites and other Rocks of Ben 
More, from a Letter addressed to Professor PhUlips 55 

Capt. Fred. Brome's Report on recent Explorations in the Gibraltar Caves . 56 

Mr. F. M. Burton on the Lower Lias, and traces of an ancient Rhffitic Shore 
in Lincolnshire 57 

Mr. William Cabruthers's Enumeration of British Graptolites 57 

on Calamitese and Fossil Equisetacese 58 

Mr. Robert Chambebs's Notice of an " Esker " at St. Fort 58 

Dr. CoLLiNGWooD on the Geology of North Formosa 58 

on the Geology of the Islands round the North of Formosa 58 

The Rev. W. H. Cbosskey's Notes on the relation of the Glacial Shell Beds 
of the Carse of Gowrie to those of the West of Scotland 58 

Mr. F. GoEDON Davis on the Calamine Deposits of Sardinia 58 

Mr. Henry S. Ellis on some Mammalian Remains from the submerged 
Forest in Barnstaple Bay, Devonshire 69 

Mr. C. Le Neve Foster's Notes on the Perseberg Iron-Mines, Sweden .... 60 

Mr. A. Geikib's Account of the Progress of the Geological Survey of 
Scotland 60 

The Rev. J. Gunn on Tertiary and Quaternary Deposits in the Eastern 
Counties, with reference to Periodic Oscillations of Level and Climate .... 60 

Professor Habkness and Dr. H. A. Nicholson on the Coniston Group of the 
Lake-District 1 61 

Mr. D. Milne Home on the Old Sea-cliffs and Submarine Banks of the Frith 
of Forth 61 

Mr. Edwabd Hull on the Sti'ucture of the Pendle Range of Hills, Lanca- 
shire, as illustrating the South-easterly Attenuation of the Carboniferous 
Sedimentary Rocks of the North of England 62 

's Obsei-vations on the relative Geological Ages of the 

principal Physical Features of the Carboniferous District of Lancashire .... 63 



X CONTENTS. 

Page 

Mr. E. Ray Lankesteb on some New Cephalaspidean Fishes 63 

Dr. W. Lauder Lindsay on the Goldfields of Scotland 64 

M. Charles Martins et Edouabd Collomb sur I'Ancien Glacier de la 
Vallee d'Ai-geles dans les Pyrenees 66 

Mr. George Maw on the Cambrian Rocks of Llanberis with reference to a 
Break in the Conformable Succession of the Lower Beds 70 

Mr. P. "W. Stuart Menteath on Tertiaiy and Posttertiary Action in the 
Pyrenees 70 

Mr. Henry Alleyne Nicholson on the Nature and Systematic Position of 
the Graptolitidse 71 

on the Graptolites of the SHddaw Slates . 71 

Dr. Oldham on the Geology of India 72 

Mr. C. W. Peach on Fossil Fishes of the Old Red Sandstone of Caithness 
and Sutherland, with notices of some new to those Coimties 72 

Mr. John Plant on the Geology and Fossils of the Lingula Flags at Upper 
Mawddach, North Wales 72 

Dr. Julius Schvarcz on the Internal Heat of the Earth 73 

Mr. J. E. Taylor on the Relation of the Upper and Lower Crags in Norfolk 73 

Mr. J. F. Walker on a new Phosphatic Deposit near Upware, in Cam- 
bridgeshire 73 

Mr. E. A. WuNscH on some Carboniferous Fossil Trees imbedded in Trap- 
pean Ash in the Isle, of Arran 73 

Mr. J. Wyatt on the Gradual Alteration of the Coast-line in Norfolk 73 



BIOLOGY. 

Address by Professor William Sharpey, M.D,, Sec. R.S., F.R.S.E., Presi- 
dent of the Section 74 

Sir James E. Alexander on the Preservation of Fishing Sti'eams 77 

Professor Allman's Notes on the Structure of certain Hydroid ISIedusae .... 77 

Professor Balfour's Notice of some rare Plants recently collected in Scotland 79 

Mr. William Bho'wn on the Claims of Ai-boricultLu-e as a Science 79 

Mr. William Carruthers on British Fossil Cycadeee 80 

Dr. Cobbold's Remarks on the Entozoa of the Common Fowl and of Game 

Birds, in their supposed relation to the Grouse Disease 80 

Dr. Collingwood's Observations on the Habits of Flyingfish (Krocoetus) . . 80 

on Pelagic floating Animals observed at Sea 81 

's Notes on Oceanic Hydrozoa 81 

on some remarkable Marine Animals observed in the China 

Seas 81 

on Trichodesmium, or Sea-dust 81 

Dr. Anton Dohrn on the Morphology of the Arthropoda 82 

Dr. John Eraser on Amblystegimn confervokles, a Moss new to Britain .... 82 

Dr. Gbiebson on the Destruction of Plantations at Drumlam-ig by a species 

of Vole 82 

Dr. John Deakin Heaton on certain Simulations of Vegetable Growths by 

Mineral Substances 83 



CONTENTS. XI 

Page 

Mr. W. P. HiEBN on the occurrence of Aster salignus (Willd.) in Wicken 
Fen, Cambridgeshire 84 

Mr. E. Rat Lankester on the Boring of Limestones by certain Annelids . . 85 

on the Anatomy of the Limpet . . . : 85 

Dr. W. Lattder Lindsay on the Conservation of Forests in om- Colonies . . 85 

. Is Lichen-growth detrimental to Forest and 

Fnut Trees ? 87 

■ — on Plant Acclimatization in Scotland, with special 

reference to Tussac Grass 88 

. To what extent is Lichen-growth a test of Age ? 88 

on Polymorphism in the Fructification of Lichens 89 

Mr. E. J. Lowe on the Abnormal forms of Ferns 91 

Sir J. Lubbock on some Points in the Anatomy of the Thysanura 91 

Dr. M'Intosh's Remarks on Mr. J. G. Jei&eys's Collection of Hebridean 
Annelids 92 

Report on the Invertebrate Marine Fauna and Fishes of St. 

Andrews 92 

on the Annelids of St. Andrews 92 

M. Charles Mahtins siir les Racines Aeriferes ou Vessies Nalatou-es, la 
synonymic et la distribution geographique de quelques especes aquatic[ues 
du genre Jusdcea 93 

Dr. M. T. Masters on Polliniferous Ovules in a Rose 93 

M. 0. A. L. Morch's Notice of Dredging by the late H. P. C. Moller, off 
Fair Isle, between Orkney and Shetland 93 

Mr. Andrew Murray on the future Administi-ation of the Natimal-History 

Collections of the British Museum 94 

Mr. Henry Alleyne Nicholson on the Nature and Systematic Position of 

the Graptolitidse 96 

Mr. C. W. Peach on the Fructification of Griffithsia corallina, found in the 

West Voe, Outsken-ies, Shetland 96 

on Naked-eyed Medusse foimd at Peterhead and Wick, 

N.B., and other British Localities 96 

The Rev. H. B. Tristram on the Zoological Aspects of the Grouse Disease . . 97 

Mr. Alfred R. Wallace on Birds' Nests and their Plumage ; or the Rela- 
tion between Sexual Differences of Colour and the Mode of Nidification in 
Birds 97 



AlfATOlTT AND PhTSIOLOGX. 

Professor Hughes Bennett on Protagon in relation to the Molecidar Theoiy 

of Organization 97 

on New Investigations to determine the Amount 

of Bile secreted by the Liver, and how far this is influenced by Mercmials . 98 
Professor Cleland on the Epithelium of the Cornea of the Ox in relation to 

the Growth of Stratified Epithelium 100 

on some Points connected with the Joints and Ligaments 

of the Hand 100 

on the Microscopical Preparation of the Nerves of the 



Cornea 100 



XU CONTENTS. 

Page 
Dr. CoLLiNGWOOD on a new form of Cephalopodoiis Ova 100 

Dr. John Davy on the Influence of Atmospheric Air on Vital Action as 
tested by the Air-pump 100 

Mr. Robert Dunn on the Phenomena of Life and Mind 101 

Dr. George Duncan Gibb on Vocal and other Influences upon Mankind, 
from Pendency of the Epiglottis 101 

Mr. E. Ray Lankester's observations with the Spectroscope on Animal 
Substances 101 

M. Charles Martins's NouveUe comparaison des membres pelviens et tho- 
raciques chez I'Homme, les MammLferes, les Oiseaux et les Reptiles, d^duite 
de la torsion de I'humerus 102 

Mr. P. Melville on Life — its Nature, Origin, &c 102 

Dr. M'Intosh's Notes of Experiments with Poisons &c. on Young Salmon . . 102 

Dr. G. OGiL\aE on the Adaptation of the Structure of the Shell of the Bird's 
Egg to the Function of Respiration 102 

Dr. PoLLi on the Antiseptic Properties of the Sulphites 103 

Dr. W. B. Richardson on Coagulation of the Blood — a correction of the 
Ammonia Theory 103 

on some Effects produced by applying Extreme Cold 

to certain parts of the Nervous System 103 

Dr. George Robinson on certain Eflects of the Concentrated Solar Rays 
upon the Tissues of Living Animals immersed in Water 103 

Mr. Went worth L. Scott on the Presence of Quinine and other Alkaloids 
in the Animal Economy 104 

Professor Tuener on the Anatomy of the Pilot "VMiale {Glohiocephalus 
Svineval) 104 



GEOaEAPHT AND ETHNOLOGY. 

Address by Sir Samuel Baker, F.R.G.S., President of the Section 104 

Lieut. Anderson's Notes of a Reconnaissance of some Portions of Palestine 
made in 1865-66 for the Palestine Exploration Fund Ill 

Professor D. T. Ansted on the Lagoons of Corsica 112 

Mr. Thomas Baines on Walvisch Bay and the Ports of South-west Aiiica . . 113 

Mr. J. W. Barnes's Exploration of Beloochistan and Western Scinde, with a 
view to examining the Subterranean Supply of Water 113 

Dr. Collinqwood's Boat-joui-ney across the North end of Formosa from Tam- 
suy to Kelung 113 

]Mr. P. N. CoMPTON on the Coasts of Vancouver's Island, British Columbia, 
and Russian America 114 

Mr. John Crawpurd on the Antiquity of Man 114 

on the History and Migration of Saccliiferous or Sugar- 
yielding plants in reference to Ethnology 114 

on the Animal and Vegetable Food of the Aborigines of 

Australia 114 

on the supposed Plurality of the Races of Man 114 

on the supposed Aborigines of India, as distinguished 

from its Ci^-ilized Inhabitants 114 

on the Complexion, Hair, and Eyes as Tests of the 

Races of Man 114 



CONTENTS. XIU 

Page 

Mr. John Crawfuud ontlie Dissemination of the Arabian Race and Language 114 

Mr. H. C. Criswick's Life amongst the Veys 115 

Dr. John Daty on the Character of the Negro, chiefly in relation to Industrial 

Habits 11-5 

Mr. Cybil Graham on Exploration in Palestine 116 

Mr. H. H. HowoRTH on some Changes of Surface affecting Ancient Ethno- 
graphy • •'■-'■' 

on the Origines of the Norsemen ■ 117 

Mrs. Lynn Linton on the Ethnography of the French Exhibition, as repre- 
sented by National Arts 117 

Sir John Lubbock on the Origin of Civilization and the Early Condition of 
Man 118 

Capt. M. F. Maury on the Physical Geography of Nicaragua with reference 
to luteroceanic Transit 125 

Sir R. I. :MuRcmsoN on the International Pre-historic and Anthropological 
Congress l'^" 

's Observations on the Livingstone Search Expedition 

now m progress •'-^" 

Lieut. S. P. OLmEB's Description of Two Routes through Nicaragua 127 

Mr. W. Perkins's Exploration of the Grand Chaco in La Plata, with an 
Account of the Indians 127 

Capt. Bedford Pim on the Mining District of Chontales, Nicaragua 127 

Mr. J. J. Pratt on the Colony of New Scotland, in Southern Africa 128 

M. LuciEN DE Puydt's Exploration of the Isthmus of Darien, with a view 
to discovering a practical line for a Ship Canal 128 

Professor A. Raimondy's Account of the Wild Indians inhabiting the Forests 
of Huanta, Peru 129 

Major Robert Stuart on the Vlakhs of Mount Pindus 130 

The Rev. H. B. Tristram on the Districts of Palestine as yet imperfectly ex- 
plored 131 

Messrs .Wallace and Mayne on a Peruvian Expedition up the Rivers Ucayali 
and Pachitea 131 

Capt. C. W. Wilson on Recent Discoveries in and around the Site of the 

Temple at Jerusalem 131 

Report of the Palestine Exploration Fimd 131 



ECONOMIC SCIENCE aot) STATISTICS. 

Address by M. E. Grant Duff, M.P., President of the Section 132 

Sir John Bowring on Productive Labour in Prisons aa associated with the 
Reformation of Criminals 135 

Dr. Cuthbert Collingwood on the Consumption of Opium 137 

Mr. Henby Gourlay on the Shipbiulding of Dundee 137 

Mr. F. P. Fellows on the various Methods in which our coinage may be De- 
cimalized — the Advantages and Disadvantages of each 138 

Mr. Frank Henderson on the Leather Manufactui-e of Dundee 140 

Professor Leone Levi on the Condition and Progress of Scotland compared 
to England and Ireland in Population, Education, Wealth, Taxation, Crime, 
consumption of Spirits, Savings' Banks, &c 140 



XIV CONTENTS. 

Page 

Dr. W. Lauder Lindsay on the Obstacles to the Utilization of New-Zealand 
Flax 141 

Mr. Patbick Matthew on Employer and Employed — Capital and Labour . . 143 

Mr, Chables C. Maxwell on the Confectionery and Marmalade Trade of 
Dundee 14.3 

Mr. James Oldham on the Utilization or more Profitable Employment of 
Male Convicts 144 

Mr. James G. Obchab on the Engineering Manufacture of Dundee 144 

Mr. Henby J. Keb Pobteb on the Prevalence of " Spedalske," or Leprosy, 
in the Kingdom of Norway 144 

Mr. E. Renals on Ai-bitration in the Nottingham Hosiery Manufacture .... 145 

Mr. A. Robeetson's Statistics of the Social Condition of Dimdee 145 

Professor J. E. T. Rogees on the Funds available for developing the Machinery 
of Education 145 

Colonel Sykes's Analysis of the Report upon the state of the Empire of 
France, presented to the Senate and Legislative Body, February 1867 .... 145 

Mr. P. M. Tait on the Population and Mortality of Calcutta 145 

Mr. P. H. Thoms's Observations on Community of Language, and Uniformity 
of Notation, Weights, Measures, and Coinage 146 

Mr. Alexandeb J. Wabden on the Linen Manufacture in Dundee and its 
Neighbourhood 146 

Mr. A. Stephen Wilson on the Measure and Value of Oats 147 

Mr. James Yates's Reasons why the Office of Warden of the Standards 
should include Standard Weights and Measures of the Metric System in 
addition to those of the Imperial Weights and Measures 147 

Mr. James Yeaman's Notes on Seal- and Whale-Fishings as prosecuted by 
the North-Sea Fleet, hailing from Dundee 148 



MECHANICAL SCIENCE. 

Address by Professor W. J. Macqtjobn Rankine, C.E., LL.D., F.R.SS. 
L. & E., &c., President of the Section 149 

Mr. J. Van-Nobden Bazalgette on the Difficulty of obtaining Local Infor- 
mation after reaching the Summits of Eminences from which extensive 
Views are obtained 152 

Admiral Sir E. Belcheb on the Methods for Testing the Speed of Vessels 
over the Measured Mile 153 

The Rev. P. Bell on Reaping-Machinery 153 

Mr. James K. Oaied on an Iron Camb for Power Looms 153 

Mr. Latimee Claek on the Birmingham Wire Gauge 153 

Mr. J. EcKEESLEY on J. R. Swan's Improved Calcining IGlns n . . . . 153 

Dr. J. D. Evebett on the Results of Experiments on the Rigidity of Glass, 

Brass, and Steel 153 

Mr. John Fbenie on the Iron and Steel shown at the Paris Exhibition .... 154 

Dr. C. Le Neve Fosteb's Account of Bergstroem's Boring Machine, used at 
the Perseberg Mines, Sweden 164 

Mr. Gbobge Fawcus on the Stowage of Ships' Boats 154 

Ml-. G. B. Galloway on the Application of the Funds derived from Patent- 
Fees 154 



CONTENTS. XV 

Page 
Mr. David Greig on Steam Cultivation 15-5 

Mr. John Halliday on the Heating of Hot Houses 155 

Mr. A. S. Hallidie on an Improved Suspension Bridge 155 

General Haupt on the Application of Machinery to Boring and Tunnelling . . 155 

M. Ferdinand Komsr on the Iron and Steel at the Paris Exhibition 155 

Mr. J. Lewis on an Improved Marine Steam-Boiler 155 

Professor Macdonald on the Construction of the Lifeboat 156 

on an Improved Paddle-wheel 156 

Mr. S. J. Mackie on Iron Floating Forts, Iron Harbours, and other Floating 
Structm-es ; and on Daft's Method of Construction of Iron Fabrics 156 

Mr. J. Clerk Maxwell on the Theory of Diagrams of Forces as applied to 
Roofs and Bridges ' 156 

Mr. George Maw on Covered Life-Boats 156 

Mr. Joseph Mitchell on a new Mode of constructing the Surface of Streets 
and Thoroughfares 156 

Mr. James R. Napier and Prof. W. J. Macquorn Rankine on the Use of 
Moveable Seats for Slide-Valves 156 

Mr. William Paterson on the Consumption of Fuel 157 

Mr. W. W. Urquhart on some of the Difficulties the Scientific Engineer 
meets with in Practice 157 



APPENDIX. 

Mr. John E. Taylor on the Relation of the Upper and Lower Crags in Norfolk 157 

Dr. Julius Scharvcz on the Internal Heat of the Earth 158 

M. Charles Martins's Nouvelle comparaison des membres pelviens et tho- 
raciques chez I'Homme, les Mammiferes, les Oiseaux et les Reptiles, d^duite 
de la torsion de I'hiimerus 158 

M. Charles Martins sur les Racines a^riferes ou Vessies Natatoires, la 
synonymie et la distribution geogi-aphique de quelques especes aquatiques 
du genre Jussicsa 163 



LIST OF PLATES. 



PLATES I., II., III. 



Illustrative of the Report of the Committoe appointed to explore the Marine 
Pauna and Flora of the South Coast of Devon and Cornwall. 



PLATE IV. 

Illustrative of the Eeport of the Committee on the Fall of Rain in the British 
Isles. 



PLATES v., VI. 

Illustrative of the Report of the Committee on Standards of Electrical 
Resistance. 



OBJECTS AND RULES 



OP 



THE ASSOCIATION. 



OBJECTS. 

The Association contemplates no interference with the ground occupied by- 
other institutions. Its objects are, — To give a stronger impulse and a more 
systematic direction to scientific inquiry, — to promote the intercourse of those 
who cultivate Science in different parts of the British Empire, with one an- 
other, and with foreign philosophers, — to obtain a more general attention to 
the objects of Science, and a removal of any disadvantages of a public kind 
which impede its progress. 

RULES. 

ADMISSION OP MEMBERS AND ASSOCIATES. 

All persons who have attended the first Meeting shall be entitled to be- 
come Members of the Association, upon subscribing an obligation to con- 
form to its Rules. 

The Fellows and Members of Chartered Literary and Philosophical So- 
cieties publishing Transactions, in the British Empire, shall be entitled, in 
like manner, to become Members of the Association. 

The Ofiicers and Members of the Councils, or Managing Committees, of 
Philosophical Institutions, shall be entitled, in like manner, to become Mem- 
bers of the Association. 

All Members of a Philosophical Institution recommended by its Council 
or Managing Committee, shall be entitled, in like manner, to become Mem- 
bers of the Association. 

Persons not belonging to such Institutions shall be elected by the General 
Committee or Council, to become Life Members of the Association, Annual 
Subscribers, or Associates for the year, subject to the approval of a General 
Meeting. 

COMPOSITIONS, SUBSCRIPTIONS, AND PRIVILEGES. 

Life Members shall pay, on admission, the sum of Ten Pounds. They 
shall receive gratuitously the Reports of the Association which may be pub- 
lished after the date of such payment. They are eligible to all the offices 
of the Association. 

Annual Subscribers shall pay, on admission, the sum of Two Pounds, 
and in each following year the sum of One Pound. They shall receive 
gratuitoiishj the Reports of the Association for the year of their admission 
and for the years in which they continue to pay ivitfiout intermission their 
Annual Subscription. By omitting to pay this Subscription in any particu- 
lar year. Members of this class (Annual Subscribers) lose for that and all 
future years the privilege of receiving the volumes of the Association gratis: 
but they may resume their Membership and other privileges at any sub- 
sequent Meeting of the Association, paying on each such occasion the sum of 
One Pound. They are eligible to all the Offices of the Association. 

Associates for the year shaU pay on admission the sum of One Pound. 
They shall not receive gratuitously the Reports of the Association, nor be 
eligible to serve on Committees, or to hold any office. 

1867. h 



xvili RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

The Association consists of the following classes : — 

1. Life Members admitted from 1831 to 1845 inclusive, who have paid 
on admission Five Pounds as a composition. 

2. Life Members who in 1846, or in subsequent years, have paid on ad- 
mission Ten Pounds as a composition. 

3. Annual Members admitted from 1831 to 1839 inclusive, subject to the 
payment of One Pound annually. [May resume their Membei'ship after in- 
termission of Annual Payment.] 

4. Annual Members admitted in any year since 1839, subject to the pay- 
ment of Two Pounds for the fii-st year, and One Pound in each following 
year. [May resume their Membership after intermission of Annual Pay- 
ment.] 

5. Associates for the year, subject to the payment of One Pound. 

6. Corresponding Members nominated by the Council. 

And the Members and Associates will be entitled to receive the annual 
volume of Reports, gratis, or to purchase it at reduced (or Members') price, 
according to the following specification, viz. : — 

1. Gratis. — Old Life Members who have paid Five Pounds as a compo- 

sition for Annual Payments, and previous to 1845 a further 
sum of Two Pounds as a Book Subscription, or, since 1845, a 
further sum of Five Pounds. 

New Life Members who have paid Ten Pounds as a compo- 
sition. 

Annual Members who have not intermitted their Annual Sub- 
scription. 

2. At reduced or Members' Pnces, viz. two-thirds of the Publication 

Price. — Old Life Members who have paid Five Pounds as a 
composition for Annual Payments, but no further sum as a 
Book Subscription. 

Annual Members who have intermitted their Annual Subscrip- 
tion. 

Associates for the year. [Privilege confined to the volume for 
that year only.] 

3. Members may purchase (for the purpose of completing their sets) any 

of the first seventeen volumes of Transactions of the Associa- 
tion, and of ivhich more than 100 copies remain, at one-third of 
the Publication Price. Application to be made (by letter) to 
Messrs. Taylor ife Francis, Eed Lion Court, Fleet St., London. 
Subscriptions shall be received by the Treasurer or Secretaries. 

MEETINGS. 

The Association shall meet annually, for one week, or longer. The place 
of each Meeting shall be appointed hj the General Committee at the pre- 
vious Meeting ; and the Arrangements for it shaU be entrusted to the Ofiicers 
of the Association. 

GENERAL COMMITTEE. 

The General Committee shall sit during the week of the Meeting, or 
longer, to transact the business of the Association. It shaU consist of the 
following persons : — 

1. Presidents and Officers for the present and preceding years, with 
authors of lieports in the Transactions of the Association. 

2. Members who have communicated any Paper to a Philosophical Society, 
which has been printed in its Transactions, and which relates to such subjects 
as are takf^n into consideration at the Sectional Meetings of the Association. 



RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. xix 

3. Office-bearers for the time being, or Delegates, altogether not exceed- 
ing three in number, from any Philosophical Society publishing Transactions. 

4. Office-bearers for the time being, or Delegates, not exceeding three, 
from Philosophical Institutions established in the place of Meeting, or in any 
place where the Association has formerly met. 

5. Foreigners and other individuals whose assistance is desired, and who 
are specially nominated in writing for the Meeting of the year by the Presi- 
dent and General Secretaries. 

6. The Presidents, Vice-Presidents, and Secretaries of the Sections are 
e.v-qfflcio members of the General Committee for the time being. 

SECTIONAL COMMITTEES. 

The General Committee shall appoint, at each Meeting, Committees, con- 
sisting severally of the Members most conversant with the several branches 
of Science, to advise together for the advancement thereof. 

The Committees shaU report what subjects of investigation they would 
particularly recommend to be prosecuted during the ensuing year, and 
brought under consideration at the next Meeting. 

The Committees shall recommend lieports on the state and progress of 
particular Sciences, to be drawn up from time to time by competent persons, 
for the information of the Annual Meetings. 

COMMITTEE OF RECOMMENDATIONS. 

The General Committee shall appoint at each Meeting a Committee, which 
shall receive and consider the Recommendations of the Sectional Committees, 
and report to the General Committee the measures which they would advise 
to be adopted for the advancement of Science. 

All Recommendations of Grants of Money, Requests for Special Re- 
searches, and Reports on Scientific Subjects, shall be submitted to the Com- 
mittee of Recommendations, and not taken into consideration by the General 
Committee, unless previously recommended by the Committee of Recom- 
mendations. 

LOCAL COMMITTEES. 

Local Committees shall be formed by the Officers of the Association to 
assist in making arrangements for the Meetings. 

Local Committees shall have the power of adding to their numbers those 
Members of the Association whose assistance they may desire. 

OFFICERS. 

A President, two or more Vice-Presidents, one or more Secretaries, and a 
Treasurer, shall be annually appointed by the General Committee. 

COITNCIL. 

In the intervals of the Meetings, the affairs of the Association shall be 
managed by a Council appointed by the General Committee. The Council 
may also assemble for the despatch of business diuing the week of the 
Meeting. 

PAPERS AND COMMUNICATIONS. 

_ The Author of any paper or communication shall be at liberty to reserve 
his right of property therein. 

ACCOUNTS. 

The Accounts of the Association shall be audited annually, by Auditors 
appointed by the Meeting. 

62 






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PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



XXV 



Presidents and Secretaries of the Sections of the Association. 



MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES. 

COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, I. MATHEMATICS AND GENEEAL PHYSICS. 



Date and Place. 



Presidents. 



Secretaries. 



1832. Oxford 

1833. Cainbridge 

1834. Edinburgh 



Davies GUbert, D.C.L., F.E.S.... 

SirD. Brewster, F.R.S 

Rev. W. Wliewell, F.R.S 



Rev. H. Coddington. 

Prof. Forbes. 

Prof. Forbes, Prof. Lloyd. 



1835. Dublin 

1836. Bristol 

1837. Liverpool . . 

1838. Newcastle.. 



SECTION A. MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICS. 

Rev. Dr. Robinson 

Rev. WiUiam WlieweU, F.R.S. 
Sir D. Brewster, F.R.S 



Sir J. F. W. Herschel, Bart.,: 
F.R.S. 

1839. Birmingham Rev. Prof. WheweU, F.R.S J. D. Chance, W. Snow Harris, Prof. 

Stevelly. 
Prof. Forbes, F.R.S. . . _ _ _ 



Prof. Sir W. R. Hamilton, Prof. 

Wheatstone. 
Prof. Forbes, W. S. Harris, F. W. 

Jerrard. 
W. S. Harris, Rev. Prof. Powell, Prof. 

Stevelly. 
Rev. Prof. Chevallier, Major Sabine, 

Prof Stevelly. 



1840. Glasgow ... 

1841. Plymouth... 

1842. Manchester 



1843. Cork 

1844. York 

1845. Cambridge. 

1846. Southampton 

1847. Oxford . 

1848. Swansea 

1849. Birmingham 

1850. Edinburgh. 



1851. Ipswich 

1852. Belfast 

1853. Hull 

1854. Liverpool... 



Rev. Prof. Lloyd, F.R.S 

Very Rev. G. Peacock, D.D., 
F*R S 

Prof M'Culloch, M.R.I. A 

The Earl of Rosse, F.R.S 

The Very Rev. the Dean of Ely . 

Sir John F. W. Herschel, Bart., 

F R S 
Rev! Prof PoweU, M.A., F.E.S. . 

Lord Wrottesley, F.R.S 

William Hopkins, F.R.S 

Prof J. D. Forbes, F.R.S., Sec 
R.S.E. 

Rev. W. WheweU, D.D., F.R.S. 

Prof W. Thomson, M.A., F.R.S. 

L. &E. 
The Dean of Ely, F.R.S 

Prof. G. G. Stokes, M.A., Sec. 
R.S. 



Rev. Dr. Forbes, Prof. Stevelly, Arch. 

Smith. 
Prof. Stevelly. 
Prof M'CuUoch, Prof. Stevelly, Rev. 

W. Scoresby. 
J. Nott, Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. Wm. Hey, Prof Stevelly. 
Rev. H. Goodwin, Prof. Stevelly, G. 

G. Stokes. 
John Drew, Dr. Stevelly, G. G. 

Stokes. 
R«v. H. Price, Prof. Stevelly, G. G, 

Stokes. 
Dr. SteveUy, G. G. Stokes. 
Prof. Stevelly, G. G. Stokes, W. 

Ridout WiUs. 
W. J. Macquorn Rankine, Prof. 

Smyth, Prof Stevelly, Prof. G. G. 

Stokes. 
S. Jackson, W. J. Macquorn Rankine, 

Prof Stevelly, Prof. G. G. Stokes. 
Prof. Dixon, W. J. Macquorn Ran- 
kine, Prof Stevelly, J. Tyndall. 
B. Blaydes Haworth, J. D. Sollitt, 

Prof Stevelly, J. Welsh. 
J. Hartnup, H. G. Puckle, Prof. 

Stevelly. J. TyndaU, J. Welsh. 



XXVI 



REPORT 1867. 



Date and place. 



1855. Glasgow ... 

1856. Cheltenham 

1857. Dublin 



Presidents. 



Secretaries. 



1858. 


Leeds 


1859. 


Aberdeen ... 


1860. 


Oxford 


1861. 


Manchester . 


1862. 


Cambridge . 


1863. 


Newcastle... 


1864 


Bath 


1865. 


Birmingham 


1866. 


Nottingham 


1867. 


Dundee 



Eev. Prof. Kelland, M.A., F.R.S 

L.&E. 
Rev. E. Walker, M.A., F.R.S. ... 

Rev. T.R. Robinson, DD., F.R.S., 
M.R.I.A. 

Rev. W. Whewell, D.D., V.P.R.S. 



The Earl of Rosse, M.A., K.P. 

F.R.S. 
E«v. B. Price, M.A., F.R.S 

a. B. Airy, M.A., D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Prof. G. G. Stokes, M.A., F.R.S. 

Prof. W. J. Macquorn Rankine, 
C.E., F.R.S. 

Prof Cayley, M.A., F.R.S., 

F.R.A.S. 
W. Spottiswoode, M.A., F.R.S., 

F.R.A.S. 

Prof Wheatstone, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Prof. Sir W. Thomson, D.C.L., 
F.R.S. 



Rev. Dr. Forbes, Prof. D. Gray, Prof 

Tyndall. 
C. Brooke, Rev. T. A. Southwood, 

Prof SteveUy, Rev. J. C. Turnbull. 
Prof. Curtis, Prof. Hennessy, P. A. 

Ninnis, W. J. Macquorn Rankine, 

Prof StereUy. 
Rev. S. Earnshaw, J. P. Hennessy, 

Prof Stevelly, H. J. S. Smith, Prof. 

Tyndall. 
J. P. Hennessy, Prof Maxwell, H. J. 

Smith, Prof Stevelly. 
Rev. G. C. Bell, Rev. T. Rennison, 

Prof Stevelly. 
Prof R. B. Clifton, Prof H. J. S. 

Smith, Prof. Stevelly. 
Prof R. B. CUfton, Prof H. J. S. 

Smith, Prof Stevelly. 
Rev. N. Ferrers, Prof Fuller, F. Jen- 
kin, Prof SteveUy, Rev. C. T. 

Wliitley. 
Prof FuUer, F. Jenkin, Rev. G. 

Buckle, Prof. Stevellv. 
Rev. T. N. Hutchinson^ F. Jenkin, G. 

S. Mathews, Prof H. J. S. Smith, 

J. M. Wilson. 
Fleeming Jenkin, Prof. H. J. S. Smith, 

Rev. S. N. Swann. 
Rev. C. Buckle, Prof G. C. Foster, 

Prof Fuller, Prof Swan. 



CHEMICAL SCIENCE. 



COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, II. CHEMISTRY, MINEEALOGT. 



18.32. Oxford (John Dalton, D.C.L., F.R.S 

1833. Cambridge.. John Dalton, D.C.L., F.R.S 

1834. Edinburgh . I Dr. Hope , 



James F. W. Johnston. 

Prof Miller. 

Mr. Johnston, Dr. Christison. 



SECTION B. CHEMISTRY AND MINERALOGY. 



1835. Dublin 

1836. Bristol 



1837. Liverpool . . . 

1838. Newcastle... 

1839. Birmingham 

1840. Glasgow ... 

1841. Plymouth... 

1842. Manchester. 

1843. Cork 

1844. York 

1845. Cambridge . 



Dr. T. Thomson, F.R.S. 
Rev. Prof. Cumming 



Michael Faraday, F.R.S 

Rev. William Whewell, F.R.S. 

Prof T. Graham, F.R.S 

Dr. Thomas Thomson, F.R.S. 

Dr. Daubeny, F.R.S 

John Dalton, D.C.L., F.R.S.... 

Prof Apjohn, M.R.I. A 

Prof T. Graham, F.R.S 

Rev. Prof. Cumming 



Dr. Apjohn, Prof. Johnston. 

Dr. Apjohn, Dr. C. Henry, W. Hera- 
path. 

Prof. Johnston, Prof. Miller, Dr. 
Reynolds. 

Prof Miller, R. L. Pattinson, Thomas 
Richardson. 

Golding Bird, M.D., Dr. J. B. Melson. 

Dr. R. D. Thomson, Dr. T. Clark, 
Dr. L. Playfair. 

J. Prideaux, Robert Hunt, W. M. 
Tweedy. 

Dr. L. Playfair, R. Himt, J. Graham. 

R. Hunt, Dr. Sweeny. 

Dr. L. Playfair, E. Solly, T. H. Barker. 

R. Hunt, J. P. Joule, Prof Miller. 
E. Solly. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



XXVU 



Date and Place. 



1846. Southampton 

1847. Oxford 

1848. Swansea ... 

1849. Birmingham 

1850. Edinburgh . 

1851. Ipswich ... 

1852. Belfast 



1853. Hull 

1854. Liverpool.. 



Presidents. 



Secretaries. 



-I- 



Michael Faraday, D.C.L., F.E.S.^Dr. Miller, E. Hunt, W. Randall. 



Eev.W. V. Harcourt, M. A., F.R.S. 

Richard PhiUips, F.R.S 

John Percy, M.D., F.R.S 

Dr. Chi-istison, V.P.R.S.E 

Prof. Thomas Graham, F.R.S. . . . 
Thomas Andrews, M.D., F.R.S. . 



Prof. W. A. Miller, M.D., F.R.S. 



1859. Aberdeen 

1860. Oxford ... 



1861. Manche.ster . 

1862. Cambridge . 

1863. Newcastle... 

1864. Bath 

1865. Birmingham 

1866. Nottingham 

1867. Dundee 



B. C. Brodie, R. Hunt., Prof. Solly. 

T. H. Henry, R. Hunt, T. WiUiams. 

R. Hunt, Q. Shaw. 

Dr. Anderson, R. Hunt, Dr. Wilson. 

T. J. Pearsall, W. S. Ward. 

Dr. Gladstone, Prof. Hodges, Prof. 

Ronalds. 
Prof. J. F. W. Johnston, M.A., H. S. Blundell, Prof. R. Hunt, T. J. 

Pearsall. 
Dr. Edwards, Dr. Gladstone, Dr. 

Price. 
Prof. Frankland, Dr. H. E. Roscoe. 
J. Horsley, P. J. Worsley, Prof. 

Voelcker. 
Dr. Davy, Dr. Gladstone, Prof. Sul- 
livan. 
Dr. Gladstone, W. Odling, R. Rey- 
nolds. 
J. S. Brazier, Dr. Gladstone, G. D. 

Liveing, Dr. Odhng. 
A. Vernon Harcom-t, G. D. Liveing, 

A. B. Northcote. 

Prof. W. A. Miller, M.D., F.R.S. A. Vernon Harcourt, G. D. Liveing. 
Prof. W. A. MiUer, M.D., F.R.S. ;H. W. Elphinstone, W. Odling, Prof. 

Roscoe. 
Prof. Liveing, H. L. Pattinson, J. C. 

Stevenson. 
A. V. Harcourt, Prof. Liveing, R. 

Biggs. 
A. V. Harcoiu't, H. Adkins, Prof. 

Wanklyn, A. Winkler Wills. 
J. H. Atherton, Prof. Liveing, W. J. 

RusseO, J. ■Wliite. 
A. Crura Brovni, Prof. G. D. Liveing, 

W. J. Russell. 



1855. Glasgow ... Dr. Lyon Playfair, C.B., F.R.S. . 

1856. Cheltenham IProf. B. C. Brodie, F.R.S 

1857. DubHn IProf. Apjohn, M.D., F.R.S., 

I M.R.I.A. 

1858. Leeds Sir J. F. W. Herschel, Bart., 

D.C.L. 

, Dr. Lyon Playfair, C.B., F.R.S 



Prof. B. C. Brodie, M.A., F.R.S. 



Dr. Alex. W. Williamson, F.R.S. 
W. Odling, M.B., F.R.S., F.C.S.. 
Prof.W. A. Miller, M.D.,V.P.R.S. 
H. Bence Jones, M.D., F.R.S. ... 
Prof. T. Anderson,M.D., F.R.S.E. 



GEOLOGICAL (and, unxu. 1851, GEOGRAPHICAL) SCIENCE. 



COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, HI. — GEOLOGY AWB GEOGEAPHT. 



1832. Oxford 

1833. Cambridge.. 

1834. Edinburgh.. 



R. I. Murchison, F.R.S. 
G. B. Greenough, F.R.S. 
Prof. Jameson 



John Taylor. 

W. Lonsdale, John PhiUips. 
Prof. Phillips, T. Jameson Torrie, 
Rev. J. Yates. 



SECTION C. GEOLOGY AND GEOGKAPHY. 



1835. DubUn R. J. Griffith 

1836. Bristol Rev. Dr. Buckland, F.R.S.— ffeo- 

ffraphy. R.I. Murchison, F.R.S. 

1837. Liverpool... Rev.Prof.Sedgwick,F.R.S.— Geo- Captain Portlock, R^Hunter.— Geo- 
^r«yAy. G.B. Greenough, F.R.S. 



Captain Portlock, T. J. Torrie. 
William Sanders, S. Stutchbury, T. J. 
Torrie. 



1838. Newcastle.. C. Lyell, F.R.S., Y.V.G.S.— Geo- 
I graj)hy. Lord Prudhope. 

1839. Birmingham Rev. Dr. Buckland, F.R.S.— Geo- 
I grafhy. G.B.Greenough.F.R.S. 



Captain H. M. Denham, 



graphy. 

R.N. 
W. C. Trevelyan, Capt. Portlock.— 

Geography. Capt. Washington. 
George Lloyd, M.D., H. E. Strickland, 

Charles Darwin. 



XXVlll 



REPORT — 1867. 



Date and Place. 

1840. Glasgow ... 

1841. Plymouth. 

1842. Manchester 

1843. Cork 

1844. York 

1845. Cambridge , 

1846. Southampton 

1847. Oxford 

1848. Swansea ... 

1849. Birmingham 

1850. Edinburgh* 



Presidents. 



Secretaries. 



Charles Lyell, F.R.S. — Geogra- 
phy. Or. B. Greenough, F.R.S. 

H.T.De la Beche, F.R.S. 

R. I. Murchison, F.R.S 

Richard E. Griffith, F.R.S. 

M.R.I.A. 
Henry Warburton, M.P., Pres. 

Geol. Soc. 
Rev. Prof. Sedgwick, M. A., F.R.S. 

LeonardHorner,F.R.S. — Geogra- 
phy. G. B. Greenough, F.R.S. 

Very R«v. Dr. Buckland, F.R.S. 

Sir H. T. De la Beche, C.B., 

Sir Charles LyeU, F.R.S., F.G.S. 

Sir Roderick I. Murchison,F.R.S. 



W. J. Hamilton, D. Milne, Hugh 
Murray, H. E. Strickland, John 
Scoidar, M.D. 

W. J. Hamilton, Edward Moore,M.D., 
R. Hutton. 

E. W. Binney, R. Hutton, Dr. R. 
Lloyd, H. E. Strickland. 

Francis M. Jennings, H. E. Strick- 
land. 

Prof. Aiist«d, E. H. Bunbury. 

Rev. J. C. Ciunming, A. C. Ramsay, 

Rev. W. Thorp. 
Robert A. Austen, J. H. Norten, M.D., 

Prof. OXAh&va.— Geography. Dr. C. 

T. Beke. 
Prof. Ansted, Prof Oldham, A. C. 

Ramsay, J. Ruskin. 
StarUug Benson, Prof. Oldham, Prof. 

Ramsay. 
J. Beete Jukes, Prof. Oldham, Prof. 

A. C. Ramsay. 
A. Keith Johnston, Hugh Miller, Pro- 
fessor Nicol. 



1851. Ipswich 

1852. Belfast... 

1853. HuU 

1854. Liverpool .. 

1855. Glasgow ... 

1856. Cheltenliam 

1857. Dublin 

1858. Leeds 

1859. Aberdeen... 

1860. Oxford 

1861. Manchester 

1862. Cambridge 

1863. Newcastle.. 

1864. Bath 



SECTION c. {continued.') — geology, 
William Hopkins, M.A., F.R.S 
Lieut.-Col. Portlock,R.E., F.R.S. 



Prof. Sedgwick, F.R.S 

Prof. Edward Forbes, F.R.S. . . . 

Sir R. I. Murchison, F.R.S 

Prof. A. C. Ramsay, F.R.S 

The Lord Talbot de Malahide ... 

WilUam Hopkins, M.A., LL.D., 

Sir Charles Lyell, LL.D., D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
Rev. Prof. Sedgwick, LL.D., 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Sir R. I. Murchison, D.C.L., 

LL.D., F.R.S., &c. 
J. Beete Jukes, M.A., F.R.S 

Prof. Warington, W. Smyth, 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Prof. J. PhilUps, LL.D., F.R.S., 

F.G.S. 



C. J. F. Bunbury, G. W. Ormerod, 
Searles Wood. 

James Bryce, James MacAdam, Prof. 
M'Coy, Prof. Nicol. 

Prof. Harkness, William Lawton. 

John Cunningliam, Prof. Harkness, 
G. W. Ormerod, J. W. Woodall. 

James Bryce, Prof. Harkness, Prof. 
Nicol. 

Rev. P. B. Brodie, Rev. R. Hepworth, 
Edward Hull, J. Scougall, T.Wright. 

Prof Harkness, Gilbert Sanders, Ro- 
bert H. Scott. 

Prof. Nicol, H. C. Sorby, E. W. 
Shaw. 

Prof Harkness, Rev. J. Longmuir, H. 
C. Sorby. 

Prof. Harkness, Edward Hull, Capt. 
WoodaU. 

Prof. Harkness, Edward Hull, T. Ru- 
pert Jones, G. W. Ormerod. 

Lucas Barrett, Prof. T. Rupert Jones, 
H. C. Sorby. 

E. F. Boyd, John Daglish, H. C. Sor- 
by, Thomas Sopwith. 

W. B. Dawkins, J. Johnston, H. C, 
Sorby, W. PengeUy. 



* At the Meeting of the Greneral Committee held in Edinburgh, it was agreed " That the 
subject of Geography be separated from Geology and combined with Ethnology, to consti- 
tute a separate Section, under the title of the " Geographical and Ethnological Section," 
for Presidents and Secretaries of which see page xxxi. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



XXIX 



Date and place. 



1 865 . Birmingham 

1866. Nottingham 

1867. Dimdee ... 



Presidents. 



Sir E. I. Murchison, Bart., K.C.B. 
Prof. A. C.Ramsay, LL.D., F.E.S. 
Archibald Geikie, F.R.S., F.G.S. 



Secretaries. 



Rev. P. B. Brodie, J. Jones, Rev. E. 
Myers, H. C. Sorby, W. Pengelly. 

R. Etheridge, W. Pengelly, T. Wil- 
son, G. H. Wright. 

Edward Hull, W. Pengelly, Henry 
Woodward. 



BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES. 



COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, IV, ZOOLOGY, BOTANY, PHYSIOLOGY, ANATOMY. 



1832. Oxford 

1833. Cambridge* 

1834. Edinburgh 



Rev. P. B. Duncan, F.G.S IRev. Prof. J. S. Henslow. 

Rev. W. L. P. Garnons, F.L.S.... C. C. Babington, D. Don. 
Prof. Graham W. Yarrell, Prof. Burnett. 



SECTION D. — ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY. 



1835. Dublin. 

1836. Bristol. 



1837. Liverpool... 

1838. Newcastle 

1839. Birmingham 

1840. Glasgow ... 

1841. Plymouth 

1842. Manchester 



1843. Cork.. 

1844. York 



1845. Cambridge 

1846. Southampt' 

1847. Oxford 



Dr. A 11 man 

Rev. Prof. Henslow 

W. S. MacLeay .., ..,, 

Sir W. Jardine, Bart., 



Prof. Owen, F.R.S 

Sir W. J. Hooker, LL.D. 



John Richardson, M.D., F.R.S.. . . 
Hon. and Very Rev. W. Herbert, 

LL.D., F.L.S. 
William Thompson, F.L.S 

Very Rev.The Dean of Manchester 

Rev. Prof. Henslow, F.L.S 

Sir J. Richardson, M.D., F.R.S... 

H. E. Strickland, M.A., F.R.S.... 



J. Curtis, Dr. Litton. 

J. Curtis, Prof. Don, Dr. Riley, S. 
Eootsey. 

C. C. Babington, Rev. L. Jenyns, W. 
Swainson. 

J. E. Gray, Prof. Jones, R. Owen, Dr. 
Richardson. 

E. Forbes, W. Ick, R. Patterson. 

Prof. W. Couper, E. Forbes, R. Pat- 
terson. 

J. Couch, Dr. Lankester, R. Patterson. 

Dr. Lankester, R. Patterson, J. A. 
Turner. 

G. J. Allman, Dr. Lankester, R. Pat- 
terson. 

Prof. Allman, H. Goodsir, Dr. King, 
Dr. Lankester. 

Dr. Lankaster, T. V. Wollaston. 

Dr. Lankester, T. V. WoUaston, H. 
Wooldridge. 

Dr. Lankester, Dr. Melville, T. V. 
WoUaston. 



SECTION D. ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, INCLtTDING PHYSIOLOGY. 

[For Anatomical and Physiological Subsections and the temporary Section E of Ana- 
tomy and Medicine, see pp. xxx, xxsi. For the Presidents and Secretaries see p. sxxi.] 



1848. Swansea ... 

1849. Birmingham 

1850. Edinburgh .. 



1851. Ipswich. 

1852. Belfast . 

1853. Hull .... 



L. W. Dillwyn, F.R.S 

William Spence, F.R.S 

Prof. Goodsir, F.R.S. L. & E. . . . 

Rev. Prof. Henslow, M.A., F.R.S. 

W. Ogilby 

C. C. Babington, M.A., F.R.S.... 



Dr. R. Wilbraham Falconer, A. Hen- 
frey. Dr. Lankester. 

Dr. Lankester, Dr. Russell. 

Prof. J. H. Bennett, M.D., Dr. Lan- 
kester, Dr. Douglas Maclagan. 

Prof. Allman, F. W. Johnston, Dr. E. 
Lankester. 

Dr. Dickie, George C. Hyndman, Dr. 
Edwin Lankester. 

Robert Harrison, Dr. E. Lankester. 



* At this Meeting Physiology and Anatomy were made a separate Committee, for 
Presidents and Secretaries of which see p. xxx. 



XXX 



REPORT 1867. 



Date and Place. 



1854. Liverpool ... 

1855. Glasgow . . . 

1856. Cheltenham . 

1857. Dublin 



1858. Leeds. 



Presidents. 



Prof. Balfour, M.D., F.R.S 

Eev. Dr. Fleeming, F.RS.E. ... 
Thomas Bell, F.E.S., Pres.L.S. 

Prof. W. H. Harvey, M.D., F.R.S, 

C. C. Babington, M.A., F.R.S. ... 

1859. Aberdeen ...|Sir W. Jardine, Bart., F.R.S.E. , 

I 

1860. Oxford iRev. Prof. Henslow, F.L.S 

Prof. C. C. Babington, F.R.S. ... 



1861. Manchester . 



1862. Cambridge ..Prof. Huxley, F.R.S 

• Prof. Balfour, M.D., F.R.^..-. 



1863. Newcastle 

1864. Bath 

1865. Birmingham 



Dr. John E. Gray, F.R.S. 
T. Thomson, M.D., F.R.S. 



Secretaries. 



Isaac Byerley, Dr. E. Lankester. 
William Keddie, Dr. Lankester. 
Dr. J. Abercrombie, Prof. Buokman, 

Dr. Lankester. 
Prof. J. R. Kinahan, Dr. E. Lan- 
kester, Robert Patterson, Dr. W. E. 

Steele. 
Henry Denny, Dr. Heaton, Dr. E. 

Lankester, Dr. E. Perceval Wright. 
Prof. Dickie, M.D, Dr. E. Lankester, 

Dr. Ogilvy. 
W. S. Church, Dr. E. Lankester, P. 

L. Selater, Dr. E. Perceval Wright. 
Dr. T. Alcock, Dr. E. Lankester, Dr. 

P. L. Selater, Dr. E. P. Wright. 
Alfred Nevrton, Dr. E. P. Wright. 
Dr. E. Charlton, A. Newton, Rev. H. 

B. Tristram, Dr. E. P. Wright. 
H. B. Brady, C. E. Broom, H. T. 

Stainton, Dr. E. P. Wright. 
Dr. J. Anthony, Rev. C. Clarke, Rev. 

H. B. Tristram, Dr. E. P. Wright. 



SECTION D. BIOLOGY*. 



1866. Nottingham. [Prof. Huxley, LL.D, F.R.S.— 
Physiological Bep. Prof. Hum- 
plu-y, M.D., F.R.S. — Anthropo- 
logical Bcp. Alfred R.Wallace, 
F R G S 

1867. Dundee Prof. Sharpey, M.D., Sec. R.S.— 

Bcp. of Zool. and Bof. George 
Busk, M.D., F.R.S. 



Dr. J. Beddard, W. Felkin, Rev. H. 



B. Tristram, W. Turner, E. 
Tylor, Dr. E. P. Wright. 



B. 



C. Spence Bate, Dr. S. Cobbold, Dr. 
M. Foster, H. T. Stainton, Rev. H. 
B. Tristram, Prof. W. Turner. 



ANATOMICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL SCIENCES. 



COMMITTEES OF SCIENCES, V. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY. 

1833. Cambridge .jDr. Haviland IDr. Bond, Mr. Paget. 

18.34. Edinburgh ..JDr. Abercrombie JDr. Roget, Dr. William Thomson. 



SECTION E. (until 1847.) ANATOMY AND MEDICINE. 



1835. Dublin ... 

1836. Bristol ... 

1837. Liverpool , 

1838. Newcastle 

1839. Birmingham 

1840. Glasgow ... 

1841. Plymouth... 

1842. Manchester . 

1843. Cork 

1844. York 



Dr. Pritchard 

Dr. Roget, F.R.S 

Prof. W. Clark, M.D 

T. E. Headlam, M.D 

John Yelloly, M.D., F.R.S. 
James Watson, M.D 



P. M. Roget, M.D., Sec. R.S. 

Edward Holme, M.D., F.L.S. 

Sir James Pitcairn, M.D 

J. C. Pritchard, M.D 



Dr. Harrison, Dr. Hart. 

Dr. Symonds. 

Dr. J. Carson, jun., James Long, Dr. 

J. R. W. Vose. 
T. M. Greenhow, Dr. J. R. W. Yose. 
Dr. G. O. Rees, F. Ryland. 
Dr. J. Brown, Prof. Couper, Prof. 

Reid. 
Dr. J. Butter, J. Fuge, Dr. R. S. 

Sargent, 
Dr. Chaytor, Dr. Sargent. 
Dr. John Popham, Dr. R. S. Sargent. 
I. Erichsen, Dr. R. S. Sargent. 



* At the Meeting of the General Committee at Birmingham, it was resolved: — "That the 
title of Section D be changed to Biology;"' and " That for the word ' Subsection ' in the 
third paragraph of the business of the Sections, the word ' Department ' be substituted." 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



XXXI 



Date and Place. 



Presidents. 



Secretaries. 



SECTION E. PHTSIOLOGT. 



1845. Cambridge .. 

1846. Southampton 

1847. Oxford* 



Prof. J. Haviland, M.D. . 
Prof. Owen, M.D., F.E.S. 
Prof. Ogle, M.D., F.E.S. . 



Dr. E. S. Sargent, Dr. Webster. 
C. P. Keele, Dr. Laycock, Dr. Sargent. 
Dr. Thomas, K. Chambers, W. P. 
Ormerod. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL SUBSECTIONS. 



1850. 

1855. 
1857. 
1858. 
1859. 
1860. 
1861. 
1862. 
1863. 
1864. 
1865. 



Edinburgh .. 
Glasgow . . . 

Dublin 

Leeds 

Aberdeen ... 

Oxford 

Manchester . 
Cambridge .. 
Newcastle . . . 

Bath 

Birmingham 



Prof. Bennett, M.D., F.E.S.E. ... 
Prof. Allen Thomson, F.E.S. . . . 

Prof. E. Harrison, M.D 

Sir Benjamin Brodie,Bart., F.E.S. 
Prof. Sharpey, M.D., Sec. E.S.... 
Prof. G. EoUeston, M.D., F.L.S. 
Dr. John Davy, F.E.S. L. & E. . . . 

C. E. Paget, M.D 

Prof. EoUeston, M.D., F.E.S. ... 
Dr. Edward Smith, LL.D., F.E.S. 
Prof. Acland, M.D., LL.D.,F.E.S. 



Prof. J. H. Corbett, Dr. J. Struthers. 
Dr. E. D. Lyons, Prof. Eedfern. 
0. G. Wheelhouse. 
Prof. Bennett, Prof. Eedfern. 
Dr. E. McDonnell, Dr. Edward Smith. 
Dr. W. Eoberts, Dr. Edward Smith. 
G. F. Helm, Dr. Edward Smith. 
Dr. D. Embleton, Dr. W. Turner. 
J. S. Bartrum, Dr. W. Turner. 
Dr. A. Fleming, Dr. P. Heslop, Oliver 
Pembleton, Dr. W. Turner. 



GEOGRAPHICAL AND ETHNOLOGICAL SCIENCES. 

[For Presidents and Secretaries previous to 1851, see Section C, p. xxvii.] 



ETHNOLOGICAL SUBSECTIONS. 



1846. Southampton 

1847. Oxford 

1848. Swansea 

1849. Birmingham 



Dr. Pritchard 

Prof. H. H. Wilson, M.A. 



Dr. King. 
Prof. Buckley. 
G. Grant Francis. 
Dr. E. G. Latham. 



1850. Glasgow ... Vice-Admiral Sir A. Malcolm ...[Daniel Wilson. 



SECTION E. GEOGRAPHY AND ETHNOLOGY, 



1851. Ipswich .. 

1852. Belfast .. 

1853. Hull 

1854. Liverpool 

1855. Glasgow 

1856. Cheltenham. 

1857. DubUn 

1858. Leeds 



Sir E. I. Murchison, F.E.S., Pres. 

E.G.S. 
Col. Chesney, E.A., D.C.L. 

F.E.S. 
E. G. Latham, M.D., F.E.S. .. 

Sir E. I. Murchison, D.C.L., 

F.E.S. 
Sir J. Eichardson, M.D., F.E.S. 

Col. Sir H. 0. Eawlinson, KC.B. 

Eev. Dr. J. Henthawn Todd, Pres. 

E.LA. 
Sir E. I. Murchison, G.C.St.S., 

F.E.S. 



E. Cull, Eev. J. W. Donaldson, Dr. 
Norton Shaw. 

E. Cull, E. MacAdam, Dr. Norton 
Shaw. 

E. Cull, Eev. H. W, Kemp, Dr. Nor- 
ton Shaw. 

Eichard Cull, Eev. H. Higgins, Dr. 
Ihne, Dr. Norton Shaw. 

Dr. W. G. Blackie, E. Cull, Dr. Nor- 
ton Shaw. 

E. Cull, F. D. Hartland, W. H. Eum- 
sey, Dr. Norton Shaw. 

E. Cull, S. Ferguson, Dr. E. E. Mad- 
den, Dr. Norton Shaw. 

E. Cull, Francis Galton, P. O'Cal- 
laghan. Dr. Norton Shaw, Thomas 
Wright. 



* By direction of the General Committee at Oxford, Sections D and E were incorporated 
under the name of " Section D — Zoology and Botany, including Physiology " (see p. nix). 
Section being then vacant was assigned in 1851 to Geography. 



xxxu 



REPORT 1867. 



Date and Place. 



Presidents. 



Secretaries. 



1859. 
1860. 
1861. 
1862. 
1863. 
1864. 
1865. 
1866. 



Aberdeen ... 

Oxford 

Manchester . 
Cambridge .. 
Newcastle ... 

Bath 

Birmingham 
Nottingham . 



1867. Dundee . 



Eear-Admiral Sir James Clerk 

Ross, D.C.L., F.E.S. 
Sir R. I. Murchison, D.C.L., 

F.E.S. 
John Crawfurd, F.E.S 

Francis Galton, F.E.S 

Sir R. I. Murchison, K.C.B., 

F.E.S. 
Sir E. I. Murchison, KC.B., 

F.E.S. 
Major-General Sir E. Eawlinson, 

M.P., KC.B., F.E.S. 
Sir Charles Nicholson, Bart., 

LL.D. 

Sir Samuel Baker, F.E.G.S 



Eichard Cull, Professor Geddes, Dr. 

Norton Shaw. 
Capt. Burrows, Dr. J. Hunt, Dr. C. 

Lempriere, Dr. Norton Shaw. 
Dr. J. Hunt, J. Kingsley, Dr. Norton 

Shaw, W. Spottiswoode. 
J. W. Clarke, Eev. J. Glover, Dr. 

Hunt, Dr. Norton Shaw, T. "Wright. 
C. Carter Blake, Hume Greenfield, 

C. E. Markham, R. S. Watson. 

H. W. Bates, C. E. Markham, Capt. 

E. M. Murchison, T. "Wright. 
H. "W. Bates, S. Evans, G. Jabet, C. 

E. Markham, Thomas "Wright. 
H. W. Bates, Eev. E. T. Cusins, E. 

H. Major, Clements E. Markliam, 

D. W. Nash, T. "Wright. 

H. W. Bates, Cyril Graham, C. E. 
Markham, S. J. Mackie, E. Sturrock. 



STATISTICAL SCIENCE. 



183.3. Cambridge. 
1834. Edinburgh. 



COMMITTEES OF SCIENCES, TI. STATISTICS. 

Prof Babbage, F.E.S I J. E. Drinkwater. 

Sir Charles Lemon, Bart |Dr. Cleland, C. Hope Maclean. 



SECTION F.- 



-STATISTICS. 



18.35. Dublin 
1836. Bristol 



1837. Liverpool ... 

1838. Newcastle . . . 

1839. Birmingham 

1840. Glasgow ... 

1841. Plymouth . . . 

1842. Manchester . 

1843. Cork 

1844. York 

1845. Cambridge 
1846.Southampton 

1847. Oxford . 



1848. Swansea ... 

1849. Birmingham 

1850. Edinburgh .. 



1851. Ipswich. 

1852. Belfast . 



1853. Hull 



Charles Babbage, F.E.S. . . . 
Sir Charles Lemon, Bart., F.E.S. 

Et. Hon. Lord Sandon 

Colonel Sykes, F.E.S 

Henry HaUam, F.E.S 

Et. Hon. Lord Sandon, F.E.S. 

M.P. 
Lieut.-Col. Sykes, F.E.S 

G. "W. Wood, M.P., F.L.S 

Sir C. Lemon, Bart., M.P 

Lieut.-Col. Sykes, F.E.S., F.L.S. 
Et. Hon. The Earl FitzwiUiam.. 
G. E. Poi-ter, F.E.S 

Travers Twiss, D.C.Jj., F.E.S. ... 

.J. H. Vivian, M.P., F.E.S 

Rt. Hon. Lord Lyttelton 



Very Rev. Dr. John Lee, 

V.P.R.S.E. 
Sir John P. Boileau, Bart. . . . 
His Grace the Archbishop of 

Dubhn. 
Tames Heywood, M.P., F.R.S. . 



"W. Greg, Prof. Longfiekl. 

Rev. J. E. Bromby, C. B. Fripp, 

James Heywood. 
"W. R. Greg, "W. Langton, Dr. "W. C. 

Tayler. 
W. Cargill, J. Heywood, "W. R. "Wood. 
F. Clarke, R. "W Rawson, Dr. "W. C. 

Tayler. 
C. R. Baird, Prof Eamsay, E. W. 

Eawson. 
Eev. Dr. Byrth, Rev. E. Luney, E. 

W. Eawson. 
Eev. E. Luney, G. W. Ormerod, Dr. 

W. C. Tayler. 
Dr. D. BuUen, Dr. "W. Cooke Tayler. 
J. Fletcher, J. Heywood, Dr. Laycock. 
J. Fletcher, "W. Cooke Tayler, LL.D. 
J. Fletcher, F. G. P. Neison, Dr. W. 

C. Tayler, Rev. T. L. Shapcott. 
Rev. "W. H. Cox, J. J. Danson, F. G. 

P. Neison. 
J. Fletcher, Capt. R. Shortrede. 
Dr. Finch, Prof. Hancock, F. G. P. 

Neison. 
Prof Hancock, J. Fletcher, Dr. J. 

Stark. 

J. Fletcher, Prof Hancock. 
Prof Hancock, Prof Ingram, James 

MacAdam, Jun. 
Edward Cheshire, "William Newmarch. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



XXXlll 



Date and Place. 



1854. Liverpool 

1855. Q-lasgow .. 



President. 



Thomas Tooke, F.E.S 

R. Monckton Miles, M.P., 



Secretaries. 



E. Cheshii-e, J. T. Danson, Dr. W. H. 
Duncan, W. Newmarch. 

J. A. Campbell, E. Cheshire, W. New- 
march, Prof. E. H. Walsh. 



SECTION F. ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 



1856. Cheltenham 

1857. Dublin 

1858. Leeds 

1859. Aberdeen ... 

1860. Oxford 

1861. Manchester 

1862. Cambridge.. 

1863. Newcastle... 

1864. Bath 

1865. Birmingham 

1866. Nottingham 

1867. Dimdee 



Rt. Hon. Lord Stanley, M.P. 



His Grace the Archbishop of 

Dublin, M.R.I.A. 
Edward Baines 



Col. Sykes, M.P., F.E.S. ... 
Nassau W. Senior, M. A. . . . 
William Newmarch, F.E.S. 



Edwin Chadwick, C.B 

William Tite, M.P., F.E.S 

William Farr, M.D., D.C.L. 

F.E.S. 
Et. Hon. Lord Stanley, LL.D., 

M.P. 
Prof. J. E. T. Eogers 



M. E. Grant Duff, M.P. 



Eev. C. H. Bromby, E. Cheshire, Dr. 

W. N. Hancock Newmarch, W. M. 

Tartt. 
Prof. CaLms, Dr. H. D. Hutton, W. 

Newmarch. 
T. B. Baines, Prof. Cairns, S. Brown, 

Capt. Fishbourne, Dr. J. Strang. 
Prof. Cairns, Edmund Macrory, A. M. 

Smith, Dr. John Strang. 
Edmund Macrory, W. Newmai-ch, 

Rev. Prof J. E. T. Eogers. 
David Chadwick, Prof. R. C. Clu-istie, 

E. Macrory, Eev. Prof. J. E. T. 

Eoger.s. 
H. D. Macleod, Edmund Macrory. 
T. Doubleday, Edmund Macrory, 

Frederick Purdy, James Potts. 
E. Macrory, E. T. Payne, F. Purdy. 

G. J. D. Goodman, G. J. Johnston, 

E. Mticrory. 
E. Birkin, Jun., Prof. Leone Levi, E. 

Macrory. 
Prof. Leone Levi, E. Macrory, A. J. 

Warden. 



MECHANICAL SCIENCE. 



SECTION G.— MECHANICAL SCIENCE. 



1836. Bristol 

1837. Liverpool ... 

1838. Newcastle . . . 

1839. Birmingham 

1840. Glasgow ... 

1841. Plymouth... 

1842. Manchester . 

1843. Cork 

1844. York 

1845. Cambridge .. 

1846. Southampton 

1847. Oxford 

1848. Swansea 

1849. Birmingham 

1850. Edinburgh.. 

1851. Ipswich 

1852. Belfast 

1867. 



Davies Gilbert, D.C.L., F.E.S... 

Rev. Dr. Robinson 

Charles Babbage, F.R.S 

Prof. Willis, F.R.S., and Robert 

Stephen.^^on. 
Sir John Robinson 



John Taylor, F.R.S 

Rev. Prof. Willis, F.R.S 

Prof. J. Macneill, M.E.LA 

John Taylor, F.R.S 

George Rennie, F.R.S 

Rev. Prof Willis, M.A., F.R.S. . 
Rev. Prof. Walker, M.A., F.R.S. 
Rev. Prof. Walker, M.A., F.R.S. 
Robert Stephenson, M.P., F.R.S. 

Rev. Dr. Robinson 

William Cubitt, F.R.S 

Jolm Walker, C.E., LL.D., F.R.S. 



T. G. Bunt, G. T. Clark, W. West. 

Charles Vignoles, Thomas Webster. 

R. Hawthorn, C. Vignoles, T. Web- 
ster. 

W. Carpmael, William Hawkes, Tho- 
mas Webster. 

J. Scott Russell, J. Thomson, J. Tod, 
C. Vignoles. 

Henry Chatficld, Thomas Webster. 

J. F. Bateman, J. Scott Russell, J. 
Thomson, Charles Vignoles. 

James Thomson, Robert Mallet. 

Charles Vignoles, Thomas Webster. 

Rev. VV. T. Kingsley. 

William Betts, Jun., Charles Manby. 

J. Glynn, R. A. Le Mesurier. 

R. A. Le Mesiu-ier, W. P. Struve. 

Charles Manby, W. P. Marshall. 

Dr. Lees, David Stevenson. 

John Head, Charles Manby. 

John F. Bateman, C. B. Hancock, 
Charles Manby, James Thomson. 

e 



XXXIV 



REPORT 1867. 



Date and Place. 

1853. Hull 

1854. Liverpool . . 

1855. Glasgow .. 

1856. Cheltenham 

1857. Dublin 

1858. Leeds 

1859. Aberdeen .. 

1860. Oxford 

1861. Manchester . 

1862. Cambridge .. 

1863. Newcastle... 

1864. Bath 

1865. Bu'mingham 

1866. Nottingham 

1867. Dundee 



William Fairbairn, C.E., F.E.S. 
John Scott Russell, F.R.S 



President. 



James Oldham, J. Thomson, W. Sykes 

Ward. 
John Grantham, J. Oldham, J. Thom- 



W. J. Macquom Eankine, C.E., 

F.R.S. 
George Rennie, F.R.S 



Tlie Eight Hon. The Earl 
Eossp, F.E.S. 

WiUiiim Fairbairn, F.E S 

Eev. Prof. Willis, M.A., F.E.S. 

Prof W. J. Macquom Eankine 

LLD., F.E.S. 
J. F. Bateman, C.E., F.E.S 

William Fairbairn, LL.D., F.E.S 
Eev. Prof. Willis, M.A., F.E.S. 



J. Hawkshaw, F.E.S 

Sir W. G. Armstrong, LL.D., 

F.E.S. 
Thomas Hawksley, V.P.Inst 

C.E., F.G.S. 
Prof. W. J. Macquom Eankine. 

LL.D., F.E.S. 



Secretaries. 



L. Hill, Jun., William Eamsay, J. 

Thomson. 
C. Atherton, B. Jones, Jun., H. M. 

Jeffery. 
oflProf. Downing, W.T. Doyne, A.Tate, 

James Thomson, Henry \^'riglit. 
J. C. Dennis, J. Dixon, H. Wright. 
E. Abernethy, P. Le Neve Foster, H. 

Wright. 
P. Le Neve Foster, Rev. F. Harri.son, 

Henry Wright. 
P. Le Neve Foster, Jolm Eobinson, H. 

Wright. 
W. M. Fawcett, P. Le Neve Foster. 
P. Le Neve Foster, P. Westmacott, J. 

F. Spencer. 
P. Le Neve Foster, Eobert Pitt. 
P. Le Neve Foster, Henry Lea, W. P. 

Marshall, Walter May. 
P. Le Neve Foster, J. F. Iselin, M. 

A. Tarbottom. 
P. Le Neve Foster, John P. Saiith, 

W. W. Urquhart. 



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OFFICERS AND COUNCIL, 1867-68. 



TRUSTEES (PERMANENT). 
Sir EODERICK I. MuECHisoN, Bart, K.C.B., G.C.St.S., D.C.L., F.E.8. 
Lieut-General Edward Sabine, R.A., D.C.L., Pres. E.S. 
Sir Philip de M. Gkev Egekton, Bart, M.P., F.E.S. 

PRESIDENT. 
HIS GEACE THE DUKE OF BUCCLEUCH, K.B., D.C.L., F.E.S., ETC. 

VICE-PRESIDENTS. 



The Eight Hon. The Eael of Aielie, K.T. 
The Eight Hon. The Lord Kinnaikd, K.T. 
Sir John Ogilvy, Bart, M.P. 
Sir Roderick I. Muechison, Bart, K.C.B., 
LL.D., F.E.S., F.G.S., &c. 



Sir David Baxter, Bart. 

James D. Forbes, LL.D., F.E.S., Principal of 

the United College of St. Salvator and St. 
Leonard, University of St Andrews. 



PRESIDENT ELECT. 

JOSEPH DALTON HOOKER, M.D., D.C.L., F.E.8., F.L.S., F.G.S. 

VICE-PRESIDENTS ELECT. 



The Eight Hon. The Eael of Leicester, Lord- 
Lieutenant of Norfolk. 

Sir John Peter Boileau, Bart, F.E.S. 

The Eev. Adam Sedgwick, M.A., LL.D., F.E.S., 
F.G.S. , &c., Woodwardian Professor of Geology in 
the University of Cambridge. 



Sir John Lubbock, Bart., F.E.S., F.L.S., F.G.S. 

John Couch Adams, Esq., M.A., D.C.L., F.E.S., 
F.R.A.S., Lowndean Professor of Astronomy 
and Geometry in the University of Cambridge. 

Thomas Bkightwell, Esq. 



LOCAL SECRETARIES FOR THE MEETING AT NORWICH. 

Dr. Daleymple. 

Eev. Canon HiNDS HoWELL. 

Eev. Joseph Ceompton, M.A. 

LOCAL TREASURERS FOR THE MEETING AT NORWICH. 

8. GUEXEY Buxton, Esq. 
Soger Keerison, Esq. 



ORDINARY MEMBERS 

Bateman, J. F., Esq., F.E.S. 
Beodie, Sir B., Bart., F.E.S. 
Busk, George, Esq., F.E.S. 
Ceawfued, John, Esq., F.E.S. 
De LA Rue, Warren, Esq., F.R.S. 
Duff, M. E. Geant, Esq., M.P. 
Galton, Capt. Douglas, C.B., E.E., F.E.S. 
Gassiot, J. p., Esq., F.E.S. 
Godwin-Al'sten, R. a. C, Esq., F.E.S. 
Huxley, Professor, F.R.S. 
Jones, Sir Willoughby", Bart 
Miller, Prof.W. A., M.D., F.E.S. 
Odling, William, Esq., M.B., F.E.S. 



OF THE COUNCIL. 

Peice, Professor, M.A., F.E.S. 
Eamsay, Profe,ssor, F.E.S. 
Eawlinson, Sir H., Bart., M.P., F.E.S. 
Bhaepey, Dr., Sec. E.S. 
Smith, Professor H., F.E.S. 
Smyth, Waeington, Esq., F.E.S. 
Sykes, Colonel, M.P., F.R.S. 
Sylvester, Prof. J. J., LL.D., F.E.S. 
Thomson, Dr. T., F.E.S. 
TiTE, W., Esq., M.P., F.R.S. 
Tyndall, Professor, F.R.S. 
Wheatstone, Professor, F.E.S. 
Williamson, Prof. A. W., F.E.S. 



EX-OFFICIO MEMBERS OF THE COUNCIL. 

The President and President Elect, the Vice-Presidents and Vice-Presidents Elect, the General and 
Assistant General Secretaries, the General Treasurer, the Trustees, and the Presidents of former 
years, viz.- 

G. B. Airy, Esq., the Astronomer 
Eoyal. 

Lieut-General Sabine, D.C.L. 

The Earl of Harronby. 

The Duke of Argyll. 

The Rev. H. Lloyd, D.D. 

Richard Owen, M.D., D.C.L. 



Eev. Professor Sedgwick. 

The Duke of Devonshire. 

Eev. W. V. Harcourt. 

Sir John F. W. Herschel, Bart 

Sir E. I. Murchison, Bart.,K.C.B. 

The Eev. T. E. Robinson, D.D. 



William Fairbairn, Esq., LL.D. 
The Eev. Professor Willis. 
Sir W. G. Armstrong, C.B., LL.D 
SirChas.Lyell, Bart., M.A, LL.D. 
Professor Phillips, M.A., D.C.L. 
William E. Grove, Esq., F.E.S. 



GENERAL SECRETARIES. 

Francis Galton, Esq., M.A., F.R.S., F.R.G.S., 42 Rutland Gate, Knightsbridge, London. 

T. Aechee HlEST,EBq.,F.R.S.,F.R.A.S.,Profe3sorof Mathematics in University College, London. 

ASSISTANT GENERAL SECRETARY. 

George Geiffith, Esq., M.A., 1 Woodside, Harrow. 

GENERAL TREASURER. 
William Spottiswoode, Esq., M.A., F.E.S., F.E.G.S., 50 Grosvenor Place, London, B.W. 

AUDITORS. 

J. GwjTi Jeffreys Esq., F.R.S. P. L. Sclater, Esq., F.E.S. Dr. Odling, P E.S. 



OFFICERS OP SECTIONAL COMMITTEES. XXX^Il 

OFFICERS OF SECTIONAL COMMITTEES PRESENT AT THE 

DUNDEE MEETING. 

SECTION A. MATHEMATICS AlfD PHYSICS. 

President.— Pmtessov SirW. Thomson, D.C.L., F.R.S., &c. 

Vice-Presidents. — Professor Fischer, F.R.S. ; J. P. Gassiot, F.R.S. ; Professor Kel- 

land, F.R.S. ; J. Clerk Maxwell, F.R.S. ; Rev. C. Pritchard, F.R.S., Pres. Astr. 

Soc. ; Professor TjTidall, LL.D., F.R.S. ; Charles Wheatstone, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Secretaries. — Rev. G. Buckle, M.A. ; Professor G. C. Foster j Professor Fuller, 

M.A. ; Professor Swan. 

SECTION B. CHEMISTKT AND JIINERALOGT, INCLt'DING THEIE APPLICATIONS TO 

AGEICT7LTTJRE AND THE AKTS. 

Pz-es/f/wi^.— Professor Thomas Anderson, M.D., F.R.S.E. 

Vice-Presidents. — I. Lowthian Bell ; Dr. J. H. Gilbert, F.R.S. ; Professor Odling, 
F.R.S. ; Professor Penny ; Dr. Maxwell Simpson, F.R.S. ; Professor William- 
son, F.R.S. 

Secretaries. — Dr. A. Crum Brown; Professor G. D. Liveing, F.C.S. ; Dr. W. J. 
Russell. 

SECTION C. GEOLOGY. 

President.— Ai-chihald GeiMe, F.R.S., F.R.S.E., F.G.S. 

Vice-P-esidents.-The Barl ofEnniskillen, F.R.S. ; Sir Philip E^erton, Bart.,M.P., 
F.R.S. ; Professor Ilarkness, F.R.S. ; Dr. T. Oldham, F.R.S. ; Professor Ram- 
sav, F.R.S. 

.Si;c;-e^a/7es.— Edward Hull, F.R.S., F.G.S. ; W. PengeUv, F.R.S. ; Henry Wood- 
ward, F.G.S., F.Z.S. 

SECTION D. BIOLOGY. 

President. — Professor Sharpey, M.D., Sec. R.S. 

Vice-P-esidents. — Professor Allmau, F.R.S.; Professor Balfour, F.R.S. ; G. Busk, 
F.R.S. ; Professor Christison, D.C.L. ; Dr. J. Da\y, F.R.S. ; J. Gwjti Jeffi-evs, 
F.R.S. ; Sir John Lubbock, Bart., F.R.S. ; Professor Allen Thomson, F.R.S. ; 
A. R. Wallace, F.R.G.S. 

Secretaries.— C. Spence Bate, F.R.S. ; Dr. Spencer Cobbold, F.R.S. ; Dr. M. Fos- 
ter ; H. T. Stainton, F.R.S. ; Rev. H. B. Tristram, M. A., F.L.S. ; Professor W. 
Turner, F.R.S.E. 

SECTION E. GEOGRAPHY AND ETHNOLOGY. 

President. — Sir Samuel Baker, F.R.G.S. 

Vice-Presidents. — Sir- James E. Alexander, K.C.L.S. ; Admiral Sir Edward Belcher, 

K.C.B.; John Crawfurd, F.R.S.; Colonel Sir Henrv James, R.E., F.R.S.; Sir 

John Lubbock, Bart., F.R.S.; Sir Roderick I. Murchison, Bart., K.C.B., F.R.S.; 

Admiral E. Ommanney, C.B. ; Major-General Sir A. S. Waugh, F.R.S. 
Secretaries.— B.. W. Bates, Assist. Sec. R.G.S. ; Cviil C. Graham, F.R.G.S. ; 

Clements R. Markham, F.R.G.S. ; S. J. Mackie, F.'G.S. ; R. Stui-rock. 

SECTION F. ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 

President.— M. E. Grant Duff, M.P. 

Vice-Presidents. — Sir John Bowling, F.R.S. ; Dr. Farr, F.R.S. ; Professor Rogers; 

Colonel Sykes, M.P., F.R.S. ; Principal Tulloch. 
Secretaries. — Professor Leone Levi, F.S.A. ; Edmund Macrory, M.A. ; Alex. J. 

Warden. 

SECTION G. MECHANICAL SCIENCE. 

President.— ProiessoT W. J. Macquorn Rankine, C.E., LL.D., F.R.S. 
Vice-Presidents.— Siv W. G. Armstrong, C.B., F.R.S. ; J. F. Bateman, F.R.S. ; 

Admiral Sir Edward Belcher, K.C.B. ; William Fairbairn, LL.D., F.R.S. ; Capt. 

Douglas Galton, R.E., F.R.S.; General Lefroy, R.A., F.R.S.; James Old- 
' ham, C.E. 
Secretaries.— T. Le Neve Foster, M.A. ; J. P. Smith, C.E. ; W. W. Urquhart. 



XXXVlll 



REPORT — 1867. 



CORRESPONDING MEMBERS. 



Professor Agasslz, Camhridge, Massa- 
chusetts. 

M. Babinet, Paris. 

Captain Belavenetz, R.I.N., Cromtadt. 

Dr. H. D. Buys Ballot, Utrecht. 

Dr. D. Bierens de Haan, Amsterdam. 

Professor Bolzani, Kasan. 

Dr. Berj'sma, Utrecht. 

Mr. P. G. Bond, Cambridge, U.S. 

M. Boutigny (d'Evreux). 

Professor Braschmann, Moscow. 

Dr. Caruf, Leipzig. 

M. Des Cloizeaux, Paris. 

Dr. Ferdinand Cohn, Breslau. 

M. Antoine d'Abbadie. 

Gebeimrath von Dechen. 

M. De la Rive, Genera. 

Professor Wilhelm Delffs, Heidelberg. 

Professor Dove, Berlin. 

Professor Dumas, Paris. 

Dr. J. Milne-Edwards, Paris. 

Professor Ehrenberg, Berlin. 

Dr. Eisenlohr, Carlsruhe. 

Dr. A. El-man, Berlin. 

Professor A. E-scher von der Linth, 
Zurich, Switzerland. 

Professor Esmark, Cliristiania. 

Professor A. Favre, Geneva. 

Profesfor E. Freray, Paris. 

M. Frisiani, Milan. 

M. Gaudry, Paris. 

Dr. Geinitz, Dresdett. 

Professor Asa Gray, Cambridge, U.S. 

Professor Grube. 

M. E. Hubert, Paris. 

Professor Henry, Washington, U.S. 

Dr. Hochstetter, Vienna. 

M. Jacobi, St. Petersburg. 

Dr. Janssen, Paris. 

Prof Jessen, Med. et Phil. Dr., Griess- 
wald, Prussia. 

Professor Aug. Kekid^, Ghent, Belgium. 

M. Khanikof, Paris. 

Professor Kiepert. 



Prof A. KoUiker, Wurzburg. 

Professor De Koniuck, Liege. 

Professor Kreil, Vienna. 

Dr. Lamont, Munich. 

M. Le Venier, Paris. 

Baron von Liebig, Munich. 

Professor Looniis, New York. 

Professor Gustav Magnus, Berlin. 

Professor Mannheim, Paris. 

Professor Martins, MontpeUier, France. 

Professor Matteucci, Pisa. 

Professor P. Mevian, BiVe, Switzerland. 

Professor von Middendorfif", St. Peters- 
burg. 

M. I'Abbt? Moigno, Paris. 

Dr. Arnold Moritz, Tijlis. 

Chevalier C. Negi-i. 

Herr Neumayer, Munich. 

Professor Nilsson, Sweden. 

M. E. P^ligot, Paris. 

Prof B. Pierce, Cambridge, U.S. 

Gustav Plaar, Strashurg. 

Professor Pliicker, Bonn. 

M. Constant Prevost, Paris. 

M. Quetelet, Brussels. 

Professor W. B. Rogers, Boston, U.S. 

Professor F. Ronier. 

Herman Schlagiutweit, Berlin. 

Robert Schlagintweit, Berlin. 

M. Werner Siemens, Vienna. 

Dr. Siljestrom, Stockholm. 

Professor J. A. de Souza, University of 
Coimbra. 

Professor Adolph Steeu, Copenhagen. 

Professor Steenstrup. 

Dr. Svanberg, Stockholm. 

M. Pierre de Paris Tchihatchef. 

Dr. Otto Torell, Universitg of Lund. 

M. Vambery, Hungary. 

M. de Yemeuil, Paris. 

Baron Sartorius von Waltershausen, 
Giittingen. 

Professor Wartmann, Geneva. 

Dr. Welwitsch. 



REPORT OP THE SCIENTIPIC EDUCATIONAL COMMITTEE. XXXIX 

Report of the Council of the British Association, presented to the 
General Committee, Wednesday , September 4, 1867. 

The Annual Reports of the Treasurer, the Parliamentary Committee, and 
the Kew Committee have been received, and \viR be presented to the General 
Committee. 

At the last ileeting of the General Committee at Nottingham, the following 
Resolution was adopted: — 

" That the Kew Committee be authorized to discuss and make the neces- 
sary arrangements with the Boai'd of Trade should any proposal be made re- 
specting the superintendence, reduction, and pubHcatiou of Meteorological 
Observations, in accordance with the recommendations of the Rejjort of the 
Committee appointed to consider certain questions relating to the Meteorolo- 
gical Department of the Board of Trade." 

The arrangements which have been made by virtue of the power thus 
granted to the Kew Committee are described in detail in their Rej)ort, to 
which the Council beg to refer the General Committee. 

The General Officers of the Association were requested by the Council 
to inquii'e into the practicability of having lectures delivered to the Opera- 
tive Classes when the Association meets in large towns. The Officers having 
reported in favour of the occasional dehvery of such lectures, and having like- 
wise ascertained that a lecture of the kind was desired by the Local Officers 
at Dundee, the Council have requested Professor Tyndall to deliver one on 
Thursday next. 

At the last Meeting of the Association, the Committee of Recommendations 
referred to the Council certain Resolutions which had been adopted by the 
Committees of two Sections, relative to the teaching of Natural Science in 
Schools. The Council, fully impressed with the importance of the subject, 
appointed a Special Committee for the purpose of inijuiring into the question, 
and of preparing a report thereon. This Committee consisted of tlie General 
Officers of the Association, the Trustees, the Rev. F. W. Farrar, M.A., F.R.S., 
the Rev. T. N. Hutchinson, M.A., Professor Huxley, F.R.S., Mr. Payne, Pro- 
fessor Tyndall, F.R.S., and Mr. J. M. Wilson, M.A. The Council, having con- 
sidered the Report presented by this Committee, adopted the recommenda- 
tions contained therein, and resolved that the Rejiort be submitted to the 
General Committee at Dundee. 

The Coimcil recommend that Sir Roderick Murchison, Bart., be elected a 
Yice-President at the present Meeting. 

At their Meeting on the 9th of March, the Council also decided to recom- 
mend for election, as a Yice-President, the late Provost Parker. They after- 
wards learned, with deep regret, that death had deprived the Association of 
the services of so esteemed and zealous an officer. 

The name of M. Janssen has been added to the list of Corresponding 
Members. 

The Council have been informed that the Association will be invited to 
hold future Meetings at Norwich, Plymouth, Exeter, Edinburgh, Liverjjool, 
and Brighton. 

Report of the Committee appointed by the Council of the British 
Association fur the Advancement of Science to consider the best 
means for promotinff Scientific Education in, Schools. 

1. A demand for the introduction of Science into the modern sj'stem of 
education has increased so steadily during the last few years, and has re- 



xl REPOKT — 1867. 

ceived tlie approval of so many men of the highest eminence in every rank 
and profession, and especially of those who have made the theory and prac- 
tice of education their study, that it is impossible to doubt the existence of 
a general, and even a national desire to facilitate the acquisition of some 
scientific knowledge by boys at our Public and other Schools. 

2. We would point out that there is already a general recognition of 
Science as an element in liberal education. It is encouraged, to a greater or 
less degree, by the English, Scotch, and Irish Universities ; it is recognized 
as an optional study by the College of Preceptors ; it forms one of the sub- 
iects in the Local Examinations of Oxford and Cambridge ; and it has even 
been partially introduced into several Public Schools. We have added an 
appendix containing information on some of these points*. But the means 
at present adopted in our Schools and Universities for making this teaching 
effective, are, in our opinion, capable of great improvement. 

3. That general education in Schools ought to include some training in 
Science is an opinion that has been strongly urged on the following grounds : — 

As providing the best discipline in observation and collection of facts, 
in the combination of inductive with deductive reasoning, and in accu- 
racy both of thought and language. 

Because it is found in practice to remedy some of the defects of the 
ordinary school education. Many boys on whom the ordinary school studies 
produce very slight effect, are stimulated and improved by instmction in 
science ; and it is found to be a most valuable element in the education 
of those who show special aptitude for literary culture. 

Because the methods and results of Science have so profoundly af- 
fected all the philosophical thought of the age, that an educated man is 
under a very great disadvantage if he is unacquainted with them. 

Because very great intellectual pleasure is derived in after life from 
even a moderate acquaintance with Science. 

On grounds of practical utUity as materially affecting the present 
position and future progress of civilization. 

This opinion is fully supported by the popular judgment. AU who have 
much to do with the parents of boys in the upper classes of life are aware 
that, as a rule, they value education in Science on some or all of the grounds 
above stated. 

4. There are difficulties in the way of introducing Science into schools ; 
and we shall make some remarks on them. They will be found, we believe, 
to be by no means insuperable. 

First among these difficulties is the necessary increase of expense. For 
if science is to be taught, at least one additional master must be appointed ; 
and it will be necessary in some cases to provide him with additional school- 
rooms, and a fund for the purchase of apparatus. It is obvious that the 
money which will be requisite for both the initial and current expenses, must 
in general be obtained by increasing the school fees. This difficulty is a real 
but not a fatal one. In a wealthy country like England, a slight increase in 
the cost of education will not be allowed (in cases where it is unavoidable) 
to stand in the way of what is generally looked on as an important educa- 
tional reform ; and parents will not be unwilling to pay a small additional 
fee if they are satisfied that the instruction in Science is to be made a reality. 

Another ground of hesitation is, the fear that the teaching of Science 
will injure the teaching in classics. But we do not think that there 

* See Appendix A. 



REPOai' OF THE SCIENTIFIC EDUCATIONAL COMMITTEE. xli 

Tieed be the slightest apprehension that any one of the valuable results 
of a classical education will be diminished by the introduction of Science. 
It is a very general opinion, in which schoolmasters heartily concur, 
that much more knowledge and intellectual vigour might be obtained 
by most boys, during the many years they spend at school, than what 
they do as a matter of fact obtain. It should, we think, be frankly 
acknowledged, and indeed few are found who deny it, that an exclusively 
classical education, however well it may operate in the case of the very 
few who distinguish themselves in its curriculum, fails deplorably for 
the majority of minds. As a general rule the small proportion of boys 
who leave our schools for the Universities consists undeniably of those who 
have advanced furthest in classical studies, and judging the existing system 
of education by these boys alone, we have to confess that it frequently 
ends in astonishing ignorance. This ignorance, often previously acknow- 
ledged and deplored, has been dwelt on with much emphasis, and brought 
into great prominence by the recent Royal Commission for Inquiry into 
our Public Schools. We need not fear that we shall do great damage 
by endeavouring to improve a system which has not been found to yield 
satisfactory results. And we believe, further, that the philological abilities 
of the very few who succeed in attaining to a satisfactory knowledge of 
classics will be rather stimulated than impeded by a more expansive training. 

Lastly, it may be objected that an undue strain wiU be piit upon the 
minds of boys by the introduction of the proposed subjects. We would rer.ly 
that the same objections were made, and in some schools are still made, to 
the introduction of Mathematics and Modern Languages, and are found by 
general experience to have been untenable. A change of studies, invol- 
ving the play of a new set of faculties, often produces a sense of positive 
relief; and at a time when it is thought necessary to devote to games so 
large a proportion of a boy's available time, the danger of a general over- 
pressure to the intellectual powers is very small, while any such danger in 
individual cases can always be obviated by special remissions. We do not 
wish to advocate any addition to the hours of work in schools where it is be- 
lieved that they are already as numerous as is desirable ; but in such schools 
some hours a week could still be given up to science, by a curtailment of 
the vastly preponderant time at present devoted to classical studies, and 
especially to Greek and Latin Composition. 

5. To the selection of the subjects that ought to be included in a pro- 
gramme of scientific instruction in public schools we have given our best 
attention, and we would make the following remarks on the principles by 
which we have been guided in the selection that we shall propose. 

There is an important distinction between scientific information and scien- 
tific training ; in other words, between general literary acquaintance with 
scientific facts, and the knowledge of methods that may be gained by 
studying the facts at first hand under the guidance of a competent teacher. 
Both of these are valuable ; it is very desirable, for example, that boys shoiild 
have some general information about the ordinary phenomena of nature, such 
as the simple facts of Astronomy, of Geology, of Physical Geography, and of 
elementary Physiology. On the other hand, the scientific habit of mind, 
which is the principal benefit resulting from scientific training, and which is 
of incalculable value whatever be the pursuits of after life, can better be at- 
tained by a thorough knowledge of the facts and principles of one science, than 
by a general acquaintance with what has been said or written about many. 
Both of these should co-exist, we think, at any school which professes to 



xlii KEPORT — 1867. * 

offer tlie highest liberal education ; and at every school it will be easy to 
provide at least for giving some scientific iuformatiou. 

I. The subjects that we recommend for scientific information as distinguished 
from training, should comj^rehend a general descrijition of the solar system ; 
of the form and physical geography of the earth, and of such natural phe- 
nomena as tides, currents, winds, and the causes that influence climate ; of the 
broad facts of Geology ; of elementary Natural History, with especial reference 
to the useful j^lauts and animals ; and of the rudiments of Physiology. This 
is a kind of information which requires less preparation on the part of the 
teacher ; and its effectiveness will depend on his knowledge, clearness, method, 
and sympathy with his pupils. Nothing will be gained by circumscribing 
these subjects by any general syllabus ; they may safely be left to the dis- 
cretion of the masters who teach them. 

II. And for scientific training we are decidedly of opinion that the 
subjects which have paramount claims, are Experimental Physics, Elementary 
Chemistry, and Botany. 

i. The science of Experimental Physics deals with subjects which come within 
the range of every boy's experience. It embraces the phenomena and laws of 
light, heat, sound, electricity, and magnetism; the elements of mechanics, and 
the mechanical properties of liquids and gases. The thorough knowledge of 
these subjects includes the practical mastery of the apparatiis emjiloycd in their 
investigation. The study of experimental physics involves the observation and 
colligation of facts, and the discovery and application of principles. It is 
both inductive and deductive. It exercises the attention and the memory, 
but makes both of them subservient to an intellectual discipline higher than 
either. The teacher can so present his facts as to make them sug- 
gest the princiijles which underlie them, while, once in possession of the 
principle, the learner may be stimulated to deduce from it results Avhich lie 
beyond the bounds of his experience. The subsequent verification of his 
deduction by experiment never fails to excite his interest and awaken his 
delight. The etfecls obtained in the class-room wiU be made the key to the 
explanation of natural phenomena, — of thunder and lightning, of rain and 
snow, of dew and hoar-frost, of winds and waves, of atmospheric retraction 
and reflexion, of the i-ainbow and the mirage, of meteorites, of terrestrial 
magnetism, of the pressure and buoyancy of water and of air. Thus the 
knowledge acquired by the study of experimeiital physics is, of itself, of the 
highest value, while the acquisition of that knowledge brings into healthfid 
and vigorous play every faculty of the learner's mind. Not only are natural 
phenomena made the objects of intelligent observation, but they furnish 
material for thought to wrestle with and to overcome ; the growth of intel- 
lectual strength being the sure concomitant of the enjoyment of intellectual 
victory. We do not entertain a doubt that the competent teacher who loves 
his subject and can sympathize with his pupils, will find in experimental 
physics a store of knowledge of the most fascinating kind, and an instrument 
of mental training of exceeding power. 

ii. Chemistry is remarkable for the comprehensive character of the training 
which it aff'ords. Not only does it exercise the memory and the reasoning 
powers, but it also teaches the student to gather by his own exi)eriments 
and observations the facts upon which to reason. 

It affords a corrective of each of the two extremes against which real 
educators of youth are constantly struggling. For on the one hand it leads 
even sluggish or uncultivated minds from simple and interesting observa- 
tions to general ideas and conclusions, and gives them a taste of intellectual 



REPORT OF THE SCIENTIFIC EDUCATIONAL COMMITTEE. xliii 

enjoyment and a desire for learning. On the other hand, it checks over- 
confidence in mere reasoning, and shows the way in which valid extensions 
of our ideas grow out of a series of more and more rational and accurate ob- 
servations of external natui-e. 

It must not, however, be supposed that all so-called teaching of chemistry 
produces results of this kind. Young men do occasionally come up to public 
examinations with a literary acquaintance with special facts and even prin- 
ciples of chemistry, sufficient to enable them to describe those facts from 
some one point of view, and to enunciate the principles in fluent language, 
and yet who know nothing of the real meaning of the phrases which they 
have learnt. Such mere literary acquaintance with scientific facts is in 
chemistry an incalculable evil to the student if he be allowed to mistake it 
for science. 

^Miether the student is to learn much or little of chemistry his very fii'st 
lessons must be samples of the science. He must see the chief phenomena 
which are described to him ; so that the words of each description may after- 
wards call up in his mind an image of the thing. He must make simple ex- 
periments, and learn to describe accurately what he has done, and what he 
has observed. He must learn to use the knowledge which he has acquired 
before proceeding to the acquisition of more ; and he must rise gradually 
from well-examined facts to general laws and theories. 

Among the commonest non-metallic elements and their simplest compounds 
the teacher in a school will find abundant scope for his chief exertions. 

iii. Botany has also strong claims to be regarded as a subject for scientific 
training. It has been introduced into the regular school course at Ilugby 
(where it is the first branch of Natural Science which is studied) ; 
and the voluntary pursuit of it is encouraged at Harrow and at some other 
schools Avith satisfactory results. It only requires observation, attention, and 
the acquisition of some new words ; but it also evolves the powers of comparison 
and colligation of facts in a remarkable degree ; of all sciences it seems to offer 
the greatest facilities for observation in the fields and gardens ; and to this 
must be added the fact that boys, from their familiarity with fruits, trees, 
and flowers, start with a considerable general knowledge of botanical 
facts. It admits therefore preeminently of being taught in the true 
scientific method. The teaching of Science is made really valuable by train- 
ing the learner's mind to examine into his present knowledge, to arrange and 
criticise it, and to look for additional information. The science must be 
begun where it touches his past experience, and this experience must be 
converted into scientific knowledge. The discretion of the teacher will 
best determine the range of Botany at which it is desirable to aim. 

6. The modes of giving instruction in the subjects which we have I'e- 
commended are reducible to two. I. A compulsory system of instruction 
may be adopted, similar to that which exists at Eugby, where science has 
now for nearly three years been introduced on precisely the same footing as 
Mathematics and Modern Languages, and is necessarily taught to all boys. 
II. A voluntary system may be encouraged as has been done for many years 
at Harrow, where scientific instruction on such subjects as have been enume- 
rated above is now given in a systematic series of lectures, on which the 
attendance of all boys who are interested in them is entirely optional. 

Of these systems it is impossible not to feel that the compulsory system is 
the most complete and satisfactory. The experience of different schools 
will indicate how it may best be adopted, and what modifications of it may be 
made to suit the difi'erent school arrangements. It will often be very desirable to 



xliv REPORT — 1867. 

supplement it by the voluntary system, to enable the boys of higher scientific 
ability to study those parts of the course of Experimental Physics which 
will rarely, if ever, be included in the compulsory school system. Lectures 
may also be occasionally given by some non-resident lecturer with a view of 
stimulating the attention and interest of the boys. We add appendices con- 
taining details of these two systems as worked at Rugby and Harrow *, and 
we believe that a combination of the two would leave little or nothing to be 
desired. 

The thorough teaching of the Physical Sciences at schools will not, how- 
ever, be possible, unless there is a general improvement in the knowledge of 
Arithmetic. At present many boys of thirteen and fourteen are sent to the 
Public Schools almost totally ignorant of the elements of Arithmetic, and in 
such cases they gain only the most limited and meagre knowledge of 
it ; and the great majority enter ill-taught. It is a serious and lasting 
injury to boys so to neglect Arithmetic in their early education ; it arises 
partly from the desire of the masters of preparatory schools to send up 
their boys fitted to take a good place in the classical school, and from the 
indifference of the public schools themselves to the evil that has resulted. 

7. With a view to the furtherance of this scheme, we make the following 
suggestions :— 

i. That in aU schools Natural Science be one of the subjects to be 
taught, and that in every Public School at least one Natural Science 
master be appointed for the purpose. 

ii. That at least three hours a week be devoted to such scientific instruc- 
tion. 

iii. That Natural Science should be placed on an equal footing with 
Mathematics and Modern Languages in affecting promotions, and in 
winning honours and prizes. 

iv. That some knowledge of Arithmetic should be required for admission 
into all Public Schools. 

V. That the Universities and CoUegcs be invited to assist in the intro- 
duction of scientific education, by making Natural Science a subject of exa- 
mination, either at Matriculation, or at an early period of a University 
career. 

vi. That the importance of appointing Lecturers in Science, and off'eruig 
Entrance Scholarships, Exhibitions, and Fellowships for the encourage- 
ment of scientific attainments be represented to the authorities of the 
Colleges. 

With reference to the last two recommendations, we would observe that, 
without the cooperation of the Universities, Science can never be effectively 
introduced into School education. Although not more than 35 per cent., even 
of the boys at our great PubUc Schools, proceed to the University, and 
at the majority of schools a still smaller proportion, yet the curriculum of 
a public school course is almost exclusively prepared with reference to the 
requii-ements of the Universities and the rewards for proficiency that they 
offer. No more decisive proof could be furnished of the fact that the Univer- 
sities and Colleges have it in their power to alter and improve the whole 
higher education of England. 

* See Appendices B and C. 



REPORT OF THE SCIENTIFIC EDUCATIONAL COMMITTEE. xlv 

APPENDIX A. 
I. Oxford, 

The Natural Science School at Oxford was established in the year 1853. By 
recent changes the University allows those who have gained a first, second, 
or third class in this school to graduate without passing the classical school, 
provided they have obtained honours, or have passed in three books at least, at 
the second classical examination, viz., moderations (which is usually passed 
in the second year of residence) ; honours in this school are thus placed 
on an equality with classical honours. The first classical examination, ' re- 
sponsions,' is generally passed in the first term of residence. Arithmetic and 
two books of Euclid, or algebra up to simple equations, are a necessary 
part of this examination. 

The University offers ample opportunities for the study of physics, che- 
mistrj^, physiology, and other branches of natural science. At present only a 
few of the Colleges have lecturers on this subject ; while for classics and mathe- 
matics every College professes to have an adequate staff of teachers. At Christ 
Church, however, a very complete chemical laboratory has been lately opened. 

A junior studentship at Christ Church and a demyship at Magdalen College, 
tenable for five years, are, by the statutes of those Colleges, awarded annually 
for proficiency in natural science. A scholarship, tenable for three years, 
lately founded by Miss Brackenbury at BalUol College for the promotion 
of the study of Natural Science, will be given away every two years. "With 
the exception of Merton College, where a scholarship is to be shortly given 
for proficiency in natural science, no College has hitherto assigned any 
scholarships to natural science. The number of scholarships at the Colleges 
is stated to be about 400, varying in annual value from £100 to £60. 
"With these should be reckoned College exhibitions*, to the number of at least 
220, which range in annual value from £145 to £20, and exhibitions awarded 
at school, many of which are of considerable value. 

The two Burdett-Coutts geological scholarships, tenable for two years, and 
of the annual value of £75, are open to all members of the University who 
have passed the examination for the B.A degree, and have not exceeded 
the 27th term from their matriculation. Every year a fellowship of £200 a 
year, tenable for three years (half of which time must be spent on the Con- 
tinent) on Dr. RadclifFe's foundation, is at present competed for by candidates 
who, having taken a first class in the school of natural science, propose to 
enter the medical profession. 

At Christ Church two of the senior studentships (fellowships) are awarded 
for proficiency in natural science : at the examination for one of these, che- 
mistry is the principal subject, and for the other physiology. 

At Magdalen College it is provided that, for twenty years from the year 
1857, every fifth fellowship is assigned to mathematics and physical science 
alternately. In the statutes of this and of every College in Oxford (except 
Corpus, Exeter, and Lincolnf) the following clause occurs :— " The system of 

* At Magdalen College there will be twenty exhibitions tenable for five years, and of 
the value of £75 a year, to be held by persons in need of support at the University ; in the 
election to these, " the subjects of examination, for one exhibition at least in each year, shall 
be mathematics and physical science alternately." 

t These Colleges exercised the powers of making statutes granted to them by the Oxford 
University Act of 1854, 17 and 18 "Vic. cap. 81. In the statutes of Exeter College it is 
provided that, in the election of Fellows, "preference shall be given to those candidates in 
whom shall be found the highest moral and intellectual qualifications, such intellectual 
qualifications having been tested by an examination in such subjects as the College from time 



xlvi REPORT — 1867. 

examinations shall always be siicli as shall render fellowships accessible, from 
time to time, to excellence in every branch of knowledge for the time being 
recognized in the schools of the University." This clause, so far as it relates 
to the study of natural science, has been acted on only by Queen's College 
and at Merton College, where a natural-science fellowship will be filled up 
during the coui'se of the present year. 

At Pembroke College one of the two Sheppard fellows must proceed to the 
degree of Bachelor and Doctor of Medicine in the University. At the late 
election to this fellowship natural science was the principal subject in the 
examination. The number of College fellowships in Oxford is at present 
about 400. 

II. Cambridge. 

It is important to distinguish, between the University and the Colleges at 
Cambridge as at Oxford. 

There is a natural-science tripos in which the University examines in the 
whole range of natural sciences, and grants honours precisely in the same 
manner as in classics or mathematics. 

The University also recognizes the natural sciences as an alternative sub- 
ject for the ordinary degree. As the regulations on this point are compara- 
tively recent, it will be well to state them here. 

A student who intends to take an ordinary degree without taking honours 
has to pass three examinations during his course of three years, — the first, 
or previous examination, after a year's residence, in Paley, Latin, Greek, 
EucUd, and arithmetic, and one of the Gospels in Greek ; the second, or gene- 
ral examination, towards the end of his second year, in the Acts of the 
Apostles in Greek, Latin, Greek, Latin prose composition, algebra, and ele- 
mentary mechanics ; and the third, or special examination, at the end of his 
third year, in one of the following five subjects: — 1. Theology; 2. Moral 
Science ; 3. Law ; 4. Natural Science ; 5. Mechanism and applied science. 

In the natural-science examination a choice is given of chemistry, geology, 
botany, and zoology. 

There are only five Colleges in Cambridge that take any notice of Natural 
Science ; namely, King's, Cains, Sidney Sussex, St. John's, and Downing. At 
King's two exhibitions have been given away partly for proficiency in this 
subject; but there are no lectures, and it is doubtful whether similar exhi- 
bitions will be given in future. At Cains there is a medical lecturer and 
one scholarship given away annually for Anatomy and Physiology. At 
Sidney Sussex two scholarships annually are given away for mathematics 
and natural science ; and a prize of =£20 for scientific knowledge. There is 
also a laboratory for the use of students. At St. John's there is a chemical 
lecturer and laboratory ; and though at this CoUege there is no sort of exami- 
nation in natural science either for scholarships or fellowships, it is believed 
distinction in the subject may be taken into account in both elections. 
Downing was founded with " especial reference to the studies of Law and 
Medicine ;" there is a lecturer here in medicine and natural science, and in 
the scholarship examinations one paper in these subjects ; no scholarship is 
appropriated to them, but they are allowed equal weight with other subjects 

to time shall determine." In tbe statutes of Lincoln College the following clause occurs : — 
" Pateat autem societas non iis tantum, qui in literis Grtecis et Latinis se profecisse pro- 
baverint, sed etiam aliarum bonarum artium peritis juvenibus." And in the statutes of 
Corpus Christi CoUege, " Quicunque se candidates offerant examinentur in bonis literis et 
scientiis, sicut Prfesidenti et sociis videbitur." 



REPORT OF THE SCIENTIFIC EDUCATIONAL COMMITTEE. xlvii 

iu the choice of candidates. It is believed that the same principle will 
govern the election to fellowships in this College, though no fellowship has 
yet been given for honours in natural science. We believe that, owing to the 
new University regulations (mentioned above), the authorities of Trinity 
CoUege have determined to appoint a lecturer in natural science ; the matter 
is under deliberation in other Colleges, and it is not improbable that the 
same considerations wiU induce them to follow this example. 

It must always be remembered that the practice is rare in Cambridge of 
appropriating fellowships and scholarships to special subjects. At present 
public opinion in the University does not reckon scientific distinction as on a 
par with mathematical or classical ; hence the progress of the subject seems 
enclosed in this inevitable circle — the ablest men do not study natural 
science because no rewards are given for it, and no rewards are given for it 
because the ablest men do not study it. But it may be hoped that the dis- 
interested zeal of teachers and learners will rapidly break through this 
circle ; in that case the subject may be placed on a satisfactory footing 
without any express legislative provision. 

III. The Univeesitt of London. 

At the University of London the claims of science to form a part of eveiy 
liberal education have long been recognized. At the Matriculation Exami- 
nation the student is required to show that he possesses at least a popular 
knowledge of the following subjects : — 

a. In Mechanics: the composition and resolution of forces ; the mechanical 
powers ; a definition of the centre of gravity ; and the general laws of 
motion. 

b. In ffi/(h-ostatics, HyclrauUcs, and Pneumatics : the pressure of liquids 
and gases; specific gravity; and the principles of the action of the 
barometer, the siphon, the common pump and forcing-pump, and the 
air-pump. 

c. In Acoustics : the nature of sound. 

d. In Optics : the laws of refraction and reflection, and the formation of 
images by simple lenses. 

e. In Ghemistrii : the phenomena and laws of heat ; the chemistry of the 
non-metallic elements ; general nature of acids, bases, &c. ; constitution 
of the atmosphere ; composition of water, &c. 

At the examination for the degree of B.A. a more extensive knowledge of 
these subjects is required, and the candidate is further examined in the fol- 
lowing branches of science : — 

/. Astronomij : principal phenomena depending on the motion of the earth 
round the sun, and on its rotation about its own axis ; general description 
of the solar system, and explanation of hmar and solar eclipses. 
g. Animal Physiology : the properties of the elementary animal textures ; 
the principles of animal mechanics ; the processes of digestion, absorption, 
assimilation ; the general plan of circulation in the great divisions of 
the animal kingdom ; the mechanism of respiration ; the structure and 
actions of the nervous system ; and the organs of sense. 
Besides the degree examination there is also an examination for honours 
in mathematics and natural philosophy, in which, of course, a much wider 
range of scientific knowledge is required. 

We would venture to remark that, if a similar elementary acquaintancG 
with the general principles of sciences were required for matriculation at 



xlviii REPORT — 1867. 

Oxford and Cambridge, it is certain that they woidd at once become a subject 
of regular teaching in all our great public schools. 

There are also two specially scientific degrees, a Bachelor of Science and 
a Doctor of Science. For the E.Sc. there are two examinations of a general 
but highly scientific character. The degree of D.Sc. can only be obtained 
after the expiration of two years subsequent to taking the degree of B.Sc. 
The candidate is allowed to select one principal subject, and to prove his 
thorough practical knowledge thereof, as well as a general acquaintance 
with other subsidiary subjects. 

IV. The College of Pkeceptoks. 

In the diploma examinations at the College of Preceptors, one branch of 
science, viz. either chemistry, natural history, or physiology, is required as 
a necessary subject for the diploma of Fellow. In the examinations for the 
lower diploma of Associate or Liceuciate some branch of science may be 
taken up by candidates at their own option. The Council recently decided 
to offer a prize of three guineas half-yearly for the candidate who showed 
most proficiency in science, and who at the same time obtained a second 
class in the other subjects. 

In the examinations of pupils of schools, natural philosophy, chemistrj', 
and natural history are optional subjects only, and are not required for a 
certificate for the three classes. Two prizes are given to those candidates who 
obtain the highest number of marks in these siibjects at the half-yearly 
examinations ; and it is an interesting fact that last year, out of a total of 
651 candidates, 100 brought up natural history, and 36 brought up che- 
mistry as subjects for examination. Two additional prizes were conse- 
quently awarded. 

V. The JFrench Schools. 

In France the " Lycees " correspond most nearly to our Public Schools, and 
for many years science has formed a distinct part of their regular curriculum. 
A strong im))ulse to the introduction of scientific teaching into French schools 
was given by Napoleon I., and since that time we believe that no French 
school has wholly neglected this branch of education. The amount of time 
given to these subjects appears to average two hours in every week. 

The primary education is that which is given to all alike, whatever may be 
their future destination in life, up to the age of eleven or twelve years. 
After this period there is a " bifurcation " in the studies of boys. Those 
who are intended for business or for practical professions lay aside Greek and 
Latin, and enter on a course of " special secondary instruction." In this 
course mechanics, cosmography, physics, chemistry, zoology, botany, and 
geology occupy a large space; and the authorized ofticial programmes of these 
studies are very full, and are drawn up with the greatest care. The remarks 
and arguments of the Minister of Public Instruction (Mons. Duruy) and 
others, in the " Programmes ofiiciels &c. de renseignement secondaire 
special," are extremely valuable and suggestive ; and we recommend the sylla- 
buses of the various subjects, which have received the sanction of the French 
Government, as likely to afford material assistance to English teachers in 
determining the range and limits of those scientific studies at which, in any 
special system of instruction, they may practically aim. The " Enseigne- 
ment secondaire special" might very safely be taken as a model of what 
it is desirable to teach in the " modern departments " which are now attached 
to some of our great schools. 



REPORT OF THE SCIENTIFIC EDUCATIONAL COMMITTEE. xlix 

The boys vrho are destined to enter the learned professions continue a 
classical course, in which, however, much less time is devoted to classical com- 
position than is the case in our Public Schools. Nor is science by any means 
neglected in this course, which is intended to cover a period of three years. 
Besides the "elementary division" there are five great classes in these 
schools, viz., a grammar division, an upper division, a philosophy class, and 
classes for elementary and special mathematics. 

In the grammar division there is systematic instruction on the physical 
geography of the globe. 

In the second class of the upper division the boys begin to be taught the 
elements of zoology, botany, and geology in accordance with the ministerial 
programmes ; and in the rhetoric class descriptive cosmography (which seems 
to be nearly coextensive with the German Erdkunde) forms the subject of a 
certain number of weekly lessons. 

In the class of philosophy, the young students are initiated into the ele- 
mentary notions of physics (including weight, heat, electricity and magnetism, 
acoustics, and optics) and of chemistry, in which, at this stage, the teaching 
is confined to " general conceptions on air, water, oxidation, combustion, the 
conditions and efi'ects of chemical action, and on the forces which result 
from it." 

In the classes of elementary and special mathematics this course of scientific 
training is very considerably extended ; and if the authorized programmes con- 
stitute any real measure of the teaching, it is clear that no boy could pass 
through these classes without a far more considerable amount of knowledge 
in the most important branches of science than is at present attainable in any 
English Public School. 

VI. The German Schools. 

In Germany the schools which are analogous to PubUc Schools in England 
are the Oymnasia, where boys are prejDared for the Universities, and the 
Burger schulen or Realschulen, which were estabhshed for the most part about 
thirty years ago for the pui"pose of aff"ording a complete education to those 
who go into active life as soon as they leave school. An account of the 
Prussian Gymnasia and Realschiilen may be seen in the Public-School Com- 
mission Eeport, Appendix G ; further information may be obtained in ' Das 
hohere Schulwesen in Preussen,' by Dr. Wiese, published under the sanction of 
the Minister of Public Instruction in Prussia, and in the programmes issued 
annually by the school authorities throughout Germany*. 

At the Gymnasia natural science is not taught to any great extent. Ac- 
cording to the Prussian official instructions, in the highest class two hours, 
and in the next class one hoiir, a week are allotted to the study of physics. 
In the lower classes two hours a week are devoted to natural history, i. e. 
botany and zoology. The results of the present training in natural science 
at the Gymnasia are considered by many eminent University professors in 
Germany to be unsatisfactory, owing to the insufiicient time allotted to it. 

In the Eealschulen about six hours a week are given to physics and che- 
mistry in the two highest classes, and two or three hours a week to natural 
history in the other classes. In these schools aU the classes devote five or 
six hours a week to mathematics, and no Greek is learnt. In Prussia there 
were in 1864 above 100 of these schools. 

* See also Etude sur I'instruction secondaire et superieure en Allemagne, par J. F, 
Minssen, Paris, 186(3. A brief Report addressed to the Minister of Public Instruction in 
France. 

1807. d 



1 REPORT — 1867. 

APPENDIX B. 
On the NATUEAL-ScrENCE Teaching at Etigbt. 

Before the summer of ?1864 a boy on entering Eugby might signify 
his -sdsh to learn either modern languages or natural science ; the lessons 
were given at the same time, and therefore excluded one another. If he 
chose natural science he paid an entrance fee of £1 Is., Tvhich went to 
an apparatus fund, and £o 5s. annually to the lecturer. Out of the whole 
school, numbering from 450 to 500, about one-tenth generally were in the 
natural science classes. 

The changes proposed by the Commissioners were as foUows : — That 
natural science should no longer be an alternative -vv-ith modern languages, 
but that all boys should learn some branch of it. That there should be two 
principal branches, — one consisting of chemistry and physics, the other of 
physiology and natural histoiy, animal and vegetable ; and that the classes 
in natural science should be entirely independent of the general divisions of 
the school, so that boj-s might be arranged for this study exclusively accord- 
ing to their proficiency in it. 

Since, owing to circumstances which it would be tedious to detail, it was 
impossible to adopt literally the proposals of the Commissioners, a system 
was devised, which must be considered as the system of the Commissioners 
in spirit, adapted to meet the exigencies of the case. 

The general arrangement is this, — that new boys shall learn botany their 
first year, mechanics their second, geology their third, and chemistry their 
fourth. 

In carrying out this general plan certain difficulties occui", which are met 
by special arrangements depending on the peculiarities of the school system. 
We need not here enter upon these details, because it would be impossible 
to explain them simjily, and because any complications which occur in one 
school would differ widely from those which are likely to arise in another. 

Next, as to the nature of the teaching. 

In botanj- the instruction is given partly by" lectures and 'partly from 
Oliver's Botany. Flowers are dissected and examined by every boy, and 
their parts recognized and compared in different plants, and then named. 
No technical teiTas are given till a familiarity with the organ to be named 
or described has given rise to their want. The terms which express the 
cohesion and adhesion of the parts are gradually acquired vnitil the floral 
schedule, so highly recommended by Henslow and Oliver, can be readily 
worked. Fruit, seed, inflorescence, the forms of leaf, stem, root are then 
treated, the principal facts of vegetable physiology illustrated, and the prin- 
ciple of classification into natural orders explained, for the arrangement of 
which Bentham's 'Handbook of the British Flora' is used. Contraiy to all 
previous expectation, when this subject was first introduced it became at 
once both popiUar and effective among the boys. 

The lectures are Ulustrated by Hcnslow's nine diagrams, and by a largo 
and excellent collection of paintings and diagrams made by the lecturers and 
their friends, and by botanical collections made for use in lectures. Wlion 
the year's course is over, such boys as show a special taste are invited to 
take botanical waUcs with the piincipal lecturer, to refer to the School Hcr- 
bariimi, and are stimulated by prizes for advanced knowledge and for dried 
collections, both local and general. 

In mechanics the lecturer is the senior Natiiral Science Master. The 
lectures include experimental investigations into the mechanical powers, with 



REPORT OF THE SCIENTIFIC EDUCATIONAL COMMITTEE. 11 

numeroiis examples worked by the boys ; into the elements of mechanism, 
conversion of motion, the steam-engine, the equilibrium of roofs, bridges, 
strength of material, &c. They are illustrated by a large collection of 
models, and are very effective and popular Icctiires. 

The lectures in geology arc undertaken by another master. This subject is 
only temporarily introduced, on account of the want of another experimental 
school. "WTien this is buUt the third year's course •will be some part of experi- 
mental physics, for which there already exists at Eugby a fair amount of appa- 
ratus. |It is veiy desirable that boys should obtain some knowledge of geology, 
but it is not so well fitted for school teaching as some of the other subjects on 
several grounds. Perhaps a larger proportion of boys are uiterested in the 
subject than in any other ; but the subject presupposes more knowledge and 
experience than most boys possess, and their work has a tendency to become 
either supei-ficial, or undigested knowledge derived from books alone. The 
lectures include the easier part of LyeU's Principles, i. e. the causes of change 
now in operation on the earth ; next, an account of the phenomena observ- 
able in the crust of the earth, stratification and its disturbances, and the 
construction of maps and sections ; and, lastly, the liistoiy of the stratified 
rocks and of life on the earth. These lectures are illustrated by a fair geo- 
logical collection, which has been much increased of late, and by a good col- 
lection of diagrams and views to illustrate geological phenomena. 

Por chemistry the lecturer has a convenient lecture-room and a small but 
well-fitted laboratory*, and he takes his classes through the non-metallic and 
the metallic elements : the lectures are fuUy illustrated by experiments. Boys, 
whose parents wish them to study chemistry more completely, can go through 
a complete course of practical analysis in the laboratory, by becoming private 
pupils of the teacher. At present twenty-one boys are studying analysis. 

This being the matter of the teaching, it remains to say a few words on 
the manner. This is nearly the same in all the classes, mutatis mutandis : 
the lecture is given, interspersed with questions, illustrations, and experi- 
ments, and the boys take rough notes, which are recast into an intelligible 
and presentable form in note-books. These aro sent up about once a fort- 
night, looked over, corrected, and returned ; and they form at once the test of 
how far the matter has been understood, the test of the industry, care, and 
attention of the boy, and an excellent subject for their English composition. 

Examination papers are given to the sets every three or foiir weeks, and 
to these and to the note-books marks are assigned which have weight in the 
promotion from form to form. The marks assigned to each subject are pro- 
portional to the number of hours spent iu school on that subject. 

There are school prizes given annually for proficiency in each of the branches 
of natural science above mentioned. 

This leads us, lastly, to speak of the results. 

Pirst, as to the value of the teaching itself ; secondly, as to its effects on 
the other branches of study. 

The experience gained at Rugby seems to point to these conclusions : — That 
botany, structural and classificatory, may be taught with great effect and 
interest a large ntunber of boys, and is the best subject to start with. That 
its exactness of terminology, the necessity of care in examining the flowers, 
and the impossibility of superficial knowledge are its first recommendations ; 
and the successive gradations in the generalizations as to the unity of type 
of flowers, and the principles of a natural classification, are of great value to 

* Anotliei- and larger laboratory and school for Experimental Physics will shortly be 
built at Eugby. 

d2 



lii REPORT — 1867. 

the cleverer boys. The teaehiug must he based on personal examination 
of flowers, assisted by diagrams, and everything like cram strongly dis- 
couraged. 

Mechanics are found rarely to be done -well by those who are not also the 
best mathematicians. Eut it is a subject which in its applications interest 
many boys, and would be much better done, and would be correspondingly 
more profitable, if the standard of geometry and arithmetic were higher than 
it is. The ignorance of arithmetic which is exhibited by most of the new 
boys of fourteen or fifteen would be very surprising, if it had not long since 
ceased to surprise the only persons who are acquainted with it ; and it forms 
the main hindrance to teaching mechanics. Still, under the circumstances, 
the results are fairly satisfactory. 

The geological teaching need not be discussed at length, as it is temporary, 
at least in the middle school. Its value is more literary than scientific. The 
boys can bring neither mineralogical, nor chemical, nor anatomical know- 
ledge ; nor have they observed enough of rocks to make geological teaching 
sound. The most that they can acquire, and this the majority do acquire, 
is the general outline of the history of the earth and of the agencies by 
which that history has been effected, with a conviction that the subject is 
an extremely interesting one. It supplies them with an object rather than 
with a method. 

Of the value of elementary teaching in chemistry there can be only one 
opinion. It is felt to be a new era in a boy's mental progress when he has 
realized the laws that regulate chemical combination and sees traces of order 
amid the seeming endless variety. But the number of boys who get real 
hold of chemistiy ft-om lectures alone is small, as might be expected from the 
nature of the subject. 

Of the value of experimental teaching in physics, especially pneumatics, 
heat, acoustics, optics, and electricity, there can be no doubt. Nothing but 
impossibilities would prevent the immediate introduction of each of these 
subjects in turn into the Hugby curriculum. 

Lastly, what are the general results of the introduction of scientific teach- 
ing in the opinion of the body of masters ? In brief it is this, that the school 
as a whole is the better for it, and that the scholarship is not worse. The 
number of boys whose industry and attention is not caught by any school 
study is decidedly less ; there is more respect for work and for abilities in 
the different fields now open to a boy ; and though pxirsued often with great 
vigour, and sometimes with great success, by boys distinguished in classics, 
it is not found to interfere with their proficiency in classics, nor are there 
any symptoms of overwork in the school. This is the testimony of classical 
masters, by no means specially favourable to science, who are in a position 
which enables them to judge. To many who would have left Rugby with 
but little knowledge, and little love of knowledge, to show as the results of 
their two or three years in our middle school, the introduction of science 
into our coiu'se has been the greatest possible gain : and others who have 
left from the upper part of the school, without hope of distinguishing them- 
selves in classics or mathematics, have adopted science as their study at the 
Universities. It is believed that no master in Eugby School would wish to 
give up natural science and recur to the old cui'riculum. 



EEPORT or THE SCIENTIFIC EDUCATIONAL COMMITTEE. liii 

APPENDIX C. 

On the Teaching of Science at Haeeow School. 

From this time forward natural science will be made a regular subject for 
systematic teaching at Harrow, and a natural science master has been 
appointed. 

But for many years before the Royal Commission for Inquiiy into the 
Public Schools had been appointed, a voluntary system for the encouragement 
of science had been in existence at Harrow. There had been every term 
a voluntary examination on some scientific subject, which, together with the 
text-books recommended, was announced at the end of the previous term. 
Boys from all parts of the school offered themselves as candidates for these 
voluntary examinations, and every boy who acquitted himself to the satisfac- 
tion of the examiners (who were always two of the masters) was rewarded 
with reference to what could be expected from his age and previous attain- 
ments. The text-books were selected' with great care, and every boy really 
interested in his subject could and did seek the private assistance of his tutor 
or of some other master. The deficiencies of the plan, if regarded as a sub- 
stitute for the more formal teaching of science, were too obvious to need 
pointing out ; yet its results were so far satisfactory that many old Harro- 
vians spoke of it with gratitude, among whom are some who have since de- 
voted themselves to science with distinguished success. 

One of the 7nain defects of this plan (its want of all system) was remedied a 
year ago, when two of the masters drew vip a scheme, which was most readily 
adopted, by which any boy staying at Harrow for three years might at least 
have the opportunity during that time of being introduced to the elementaiy 
conceptions of astronomy, zoology, botany, structural and classificatory, che- 
mistry, and physics. These subjects were entrusted to the responsibility of 
eight of the masters, who drew up with great care a syllabus on the subject 
for each term, recommend the best text-books, and give weekly instruction 
(which is perfectly gratuitous) to all the boys who desire to avail themselves 
of it ; indeed a boy may receive, in proportion to the interest which he 
manifests in the subject, almost any amount of assistance which he may care 
to seek. Proficiency in these examinations is rewarded as before ; and to 
encourage steady perseverance, the boys who do best in the examination du- 
ring a course of three terms receive more valuable special rewards. 

As offering to boys a voluntary and informal method of obtaining much 
scientific information this plan (which was originated at Harrow, and has 
not, so far as we are aware, been ever adopted at any other school) offers 
many advantages. It is sufficiently elastic to admit of many modifications ; 
it is sufficiently comprehensive to attract a great diversity of tastes and incli- 
nations ; it cannot be found oppressive, because it rests with each boy to decide 
whether he has the requisite leisure or not ; it can be ado2)ted with ease at 
any school where even a small body of the masters are interested in one or 
other special branch of science ; and it may tend to excite in some minds a 
more spontaneous enthusiasm than could be created by a compulsory plan 
alone. 

We would not, however, for a moment recommend the adoption of any such 
plan as a substitute for more regular scientific training. Its chief value is 
purely sup-plemental, and henceforth it will be regarded at Harrow as entirely 
subordinate to the formal classes for the teaching of science which will be 
immediately established. 

In addition to this, more than a year ago some of the boys formed them- 



liv REPORT — 1867. 

selves into a voluntary association for the pursuit of science. This Scientific 
Society, which numbers upwards of thii-ty members, meets every ten clays at 
the hoiise and under the presidency of one or other of the masters. Objects 
of scientific interest are exhibited by the members, and papers are read gene- 
rally on some subject connected witli natural history. Under the auspices of 
this Society the nucleus of a future museum has already been formed ; and 
among other advantages the Society has had the honour of numbering among 
its visitors more than one eminent representative of literatiu'c and science. 
AVe cannot too highly recommend the encouragement of such associations for 
intellectual self-culture among the boys of our public schools. 

Report of the Kew Committee of the British Association for the 
Advancement of Science for 1866-67. 

The Committee of the Kew Observatory submit to the Council of the British 
Association the following statement of their proceedings during the past 
year :— 

At the Nottingham Meeting it was resolved, " That the Kew Committee 
be authorized to discuss and make the necessary arrangements with the Board 
of Trade, should any proposal be made respecting the superintendence, reduc- 
tion, and pubhcation of Meteorological observations, in accordance with the 
recommendations of the Bcport of the Committee appointed to consider cer- 
tain questions relating to the Meteorological Department of the Board of 
Trade." 

On the 18th of October last, a joint Meeting of the Kew Committee, and 
of the President, Vice-Presidents, and other Officers of the Royal Society, took 
place, to take into consideration a communication which had been received 
by the President of the Royal Society from the Board of Trade relative to 
the Meteorological Department, and to consider what reply should be sent. 

At this joint Meeting it was recommended that the Department imder 
whose care the Meteorological observations, reductions, and tabulations are 
to be made shoidd be imder the direction and control of a Superintending 
Scientific Committee, who should (subject to the approval of the Board of 
Trade) have the nomination to all appointments, as well as the power of 
dismissing the usual officials receiving salaries or remimeration. It was also 
understood that while the ser\ices of the Committee were to bo gratuitous, 
they would yet necessarily require the services and assistance of a competent 
paid Secretary. 

Finally, the draft of a reply to the above-mentioned communication from 
the Board of Trade was agreed to at this Meeting, for consideration of tho 
Council of the Royal Society. 

The CouncU of the Royal Society, on 13th Dec. 1866, nominated the following 
Fellows of the Society as the Superintending Meteorological Committee : — 
General Sabine, Pres. R.S., Mr. Do la Rue, Mr. Francis Galton, Mr. Gassiot, 
Dr. W. A. MiUer, Captain Richards (Hydrographer of the Admiralty), Colonel 
Smythc, and Mr. Spottiswoode ; and on the 3rd of January this Committee 
appointed Mr. Balfour Stewart as its Secretary, on the understanding that 
he should, with the concurrence of the Kew Committee of the British Associa- 
tion, retain his present office of Superintendent of the Kew Observatoiy. 

It was also proposed that Kew Observatory should become the Central 
Observatory, at which aU instruments used by or prepared for the several 
observatories or stations connected with the Meteorological Department shoidd 



BEPORT OF THE KEW COMMITTEE. Iv 

be verified, — the entire expense attendant thereon, or any futiu-e expense 
arising through the connexion of the Observatory with the Meteorological 
Department being paid from the funds supplied by the latter, and not in any 
way from money subscribed by the British Association, These proposals 
having been submitted to the Kew Committee, they approved of the Kew 
Observatory being regarded as the Central Observatory of the Meteorological 
Depai-tment, and of Mr. Stewart's holding the oifice of Secretary to the 
Scientific Committee superintending that Department. 

"When the Meteorological Department was placed under the superinten- 
dence of a Scientific Committee, one of the main objects contemplated was 
the establishment of a series of meteorological observatories, working in unison 
with the Kew Observatory, provided with similar self-recording instruments, 
and distributed throughout the country ra such a manner that by their means 
the progress of meteorological phenomena over the British Isles might be re- 
corded with great exactness. 

For this piu-pose it was proposed to have observatories in the following 
places : — 



Kew (Central Observatory). 

Falmouth. 

Stonyhurst. 

Glasgow. 



Aberdeen (probably). 

Armagh. 

Valencia. 



Such a plan of course involves an additional annual expenditure ; but, the 
appointment of a Committee having been sanctioned in the fii'st instance by 
the Government, and the estimates attendant thereon afterwards by the 
House of Commons, the arrangement may now be regarded as established, 
without iavolving any additional expense to the British Association. The 
consequence wiU. be a considerable access of work to Kew Observatoiy, 
and the duties now undertaken by that establishment may, for clearness' 
sake, be considered imder the two following heads : — 

(A) The work done by Kew Observatory under the Direction of the 

British Association. 

(B) That done at Kew as the Central Observatory of the Meteorological 

Committee. 
This system of division will be adopted in what follows of this Eeport. 

(A) WOEK DOIfE BY EIeW ObSERVATOKY FNDEE THE DiEECIION OF IHE 

British: Association. 

1. Magnetic. — The Self-recording Magnetographs ordered by the Vic- 
toria Government for Mr. Ellery, of Melboiu-ne, have been verified at Kew, 
and dispatched to Melbourne, where they have arrived. They will, it is be- 
lieved, be very shortly in continuous action. 

It was mentioned in the last Eeport that a set of Self-recording Magneto- 
graphs ordered by the Stonyhurst Observatory had been verified at Kew and 
dispatched to their destination. These instruments are now in action at 
Stonyhurst, under the direction of the Eev. W. Sidgreaves. 

Mr. Meldrum, of the Mauritius Observatory, who is now in this country, 
has received at Kew instruction in the various processes of that establish- 
ment. His SeK-recording Magnetograi)hs have been verified in his presence, 
and they are now in the hands of the optician, who is awaiting Mr. Meldrum 's 
instructions regarding them. 

It is hoped that very soon a considerable number of Magnetographs after 
the Kew pattern will be in continuous operation at different parts of the 



Ivi REPORT — 1867. 

world; and as during the nest two or three years magnetic disturhances 
may he expected to increase, it will he interesting to institute comparisons 
between the simultaneous records produced hy these various instruments. 

The usual monthly absolute determinations of the magnetic elements con- 
tinue to be made by Mr. "Whipple, magnetic assistant; and the Self-record- 
ing Magnetographs are in constant operation as heretofore, also under Mr. 
Whipple, who has displayed much care and assiduity in the discharge of his 
duties. 

The photographic department connected with the self-recording instruments 
is under the charge of Mr. Page, who performs his duties very satisfactorily. 

The observations made for the purpose of determining the temperature 
coefficients of the horizontal-force and vertical-force magnetographs have 
been reduced. 

In order to obviate the chance of any break in the continuity of the series 
of absolute magnetic determinations made at Kew which might arise from 
a change of the magnetic assistant, the Superintendent has commenced taking 
quarterly observations of the dip and horizontal force, with the ^dew of cor- 
recting any change in personal equation which might be produced by change 
of assistant. 

The magnetic curves produced at Kew previously to the month of Ja- 
nuary 1865, have all been measured and reduced under the direction of 
General Sabine, by the staff of his ofiRcc at Woolwich, and the results of this 
reduction have been communicated by General Sabine to the Eoyal Society 
in a series of interesting and valuable memoirs. It is now proposed that the 
task of tabulating and reducing these curves since the above date be perfonned 
by the staff at Kew working under the direction of Mr. Stewart. 

2. Meteorological tvork. — The meteorological work of the Observatory con- 
tinues in charge of Mr. Baker, who executes his duties very satisfactorily. 

Since the Kottingham Meeting 89 Barometers have been verified ; 608 
Thermometers have likewise been verified, and two Standard Thermometers 
have been constructed at the Observatory. 

The Self-recording Barograph continues in constant operation, and traces 
in duplicate are obtained, one set of which is regailarly forwarded to the 
Meteorological Office. 

A Self-recording Barograph and Thermograph on the new Kew pattern 
about to be made for Mr. EUery of Melbourne, and a Self-recording Baro- 
graph for Mr. Smalley of Sydney, will be verified at the observatory before 
they are dispatched to their destination. 

The Anemometer is in constant operation as heretofore. 

Dr. E. Coleridge Bowles, before he proceeded to Pekin, received meteorolo- 
gical instruction at Kew. 

The weU-known apparatus employed for so long a time by Mr. Robert 
Addams for liquefying carbonic acid, has been purchased by Mr. Stewart from 
funds supplied by the Eoyal Society ; and Mr. Addams has kindly under- 
taken to make a preliminary experiment with his apparatus, as well as to 
give specific instructions regarding it. As the exact thermometric value of the 
freezing-point of mercury has been previously determined by Mr. Stewart, it 
is expected that the apparatus will furnish the means of verifying thermo- 
meters at very low temperatures. 

At the request of the Meteorological Committee, several Aneroids have 
been obtained from the best -known makers of these instruments, and, by 
means of an apparatus constructed by Mr. Beckley for this purpose, they 
have been compared with a standard Barometer at different pressures, being 



REPORT OF THE KEW COMMITTEE. IvU 

meanwhile tapped so as to imitate as well as possible the tapping by the 
hand which these instruments are usually subjected to previously to the read- 
ings being taken. 

These experiments show that, while Aneroids cannot be considered equal 
in accuracy to standard Barometers, yet the best-constructed Aneroids, within 
certain limits, give reliable results. 

3. Photoheliograph. — The Kew Heliograph, in charge of Mr. De la Eue, 
continues to be worked in a satisfactory manner. During the past year 204 
negatives have been taken, on 144 days. Pictures of the Pagoda in Kew 
Gardens are regularly taken by this instrument, in the hope that by this 
means the angular diameter of the Sun may be satisfactoiily determined. 
Since the last Meeting of the Association, a second scries of solar researches, 
in continuation of the first series, has been published (the expense of print- 
ing having been defrayed by Mr. De la Eue), entitled " Eesearches in Solar 
Physics, Second Series, Area Measurements of the Sun-spots observed by 
Mr. Carrington during the seven years 1854-1860 inclusive, and deduc- 
tions therefrom. By Messrs. De la Eue, Stewart, and Loewy." 

The Heliographic latitudes and longitudes of all the spots recorded by the 
Kew Photoheliograph during the years 1862 and 1863 have been calculated, 
and it is hoped that the results may soon be published, forming a thii'd 
series of Solar Eesearches. It is believed that these results will demon- 
strate the superiority of photographic pictures over all other methods of 
observation. 

The sum of <£60 has been obtained from the Government Grant fund of the 
Eoyal Societj', to be applied to the discussion of Hofratli Schwabe's long and 
valuable series of Sun-spots, at present in the possession of Kew Observatory. 
These pictures are now being examined with this object. 

Sun-spots continued likewise to be numbered after the manner of Hofratli 
Schwabe, and a table exhibiting the monthly groups observed at Dessau and 
at Kew for the year 1866 has already appeared in the Monthly Notices of the 
Astronomical Society, vol. xxvii. No. 3. 

4. Ajyparatus for verifying Sextants. — The apparatus constructed by 
Mr. Cooke, for verifying Sextants, has for some time been erected at the 
Observatory ; and a description of it has been communicated by Mr. Stewart 
to the Eoyal Society, and published in their ' Proceedings,' vol. xvi, p. 2. 

Seven Sextants have been verified during the past year. 

5. MisceUaneous worJc. — The preliminaiy observations with Captain Kater's 
pendulum, alluded to in last year's Eeport, have been made ; but the reduc- 
tions are not yet quite finished. 

An account of certain experiments on the heating of a disk by rapid rota- 
tion in vacuo has been communicated to the Eoyal Society by Mr. Stewart 
in conjunction with Professor Tait, and has been published in the 'Pro- 
ceedings ' of that body. 

The instrument devised by Mr. Broun for the purpose of estimating the 
magnetic dip by means of soft iron, remains at present at the Observatory, 
awaiting Mr. Brouu's return to England. 

During the past year two standard yards for opticians have been compared 
with the Kew standard. 

Several instruments, chiefly magnetic, have been sent to Kew by General 
Sabine from his office at Woolwich. 

The Superintendent has received grants from the Eoyal Society for special 
experiments ; and when these are completed an account will be rendered to 
that Society. 



Iviii REPORT — 1867. 

(B) "Work done at Kew as the Centeai Obseetatoet op the 
Meteorological Committee, 

Mr. Stewart, as Director of the Central Meteorological Observatory, having 
been called ixpou to arrange the self-recording instruments required by the 
Meteorological Committee, has obtained the cooperation of Mr. Becklcy, me- 
chanical assistant at Kew, from whom he has derived very great aid, and in 
conjunction with him has arranged the Self-recording Thermograph and 
Barograph which have been adopted by the Meteorological Committee. 

The following are the chief characteristics of these instruments : — 

Tliermogmpli. — In this instrument an air-speck, formed by a break in the 
mercurial column of a thermometer, allows the light of a gas-lamp to pass 
through it, yielding an image that is obtained on a revolving cylinder covered 
with photographic paper. 

As the cylinder revolves once in forty-eight hoiu's, and as the thermometric 
column rises and falls, these motions delineate a curve, by means of which 
the temperature of the thermometer is denoted from moment to moment. 
There would bo but one curve if there were only one thermometer ; in 
practice there are two, the dry and wet bulb, the object of the first being 
to register the temperature of the air, and of the second to register that 
of evaporation. In this Thermograph the simultaneous records of these two 
thermometers are obtained, the one under the other, on the same sheet of 
paper. We have thus an under curve denoting the readings of the wet-bulb 
thermometer, and a curve above it denoting those of the dry-bixlb thermo- 
meter. 

An arrangement connected with the clock of this instrument has been 
proposed and executed by Mr. Beckley, by means of which the light is cut 
olf from the sensitive paper for foiu' minutes every two houi'S. A small 
break is thus produced every two hours on each curve, by means of which 
the time of any phenomenon may be easily ascertained. By drawing lines 
through the simultaneous breaks of the wet and dry-bulb ciu'ves, a series 
of lines is obtained perpendicular to the direction of motion of the cylinder, 
which serves the purposes of a zero-line. Lastly, a Kew Standard Ther- 
mometer, similar in size and figure to those of the Thermograph, and placed 
between them (outside the house), is used as the standard of reference, and, 
as such, is read (by eye) five or six times a day. By this means an independent 
determination of the temperature of the air may bo obtained from time to 
time. 

The Thermograph has been for some time ready to commence continuous 
registration. Hitherto this has been delayed with the view of making ex- 
periments designed to improve the working of the instrimient, because uj) to 
the present time these improvements could be easily adapted to the other 
instruments in course of construction. It is intended to commence the regular 
working of the instrument before the beginning of September. 

Barograph. — The arrangement for cutting ofl^ the light every two hours, and 
the precaiition of comparing the observations with those of a standard instru- 
ment, read five or six times a day, will be introduced in the Barograph as 
well as in the Thermograph. The correction of the Barograph for tempe- 
rature is the only thing to which it is necessary to allude. Here the curve 
denotes an uncorrected Barometer : the zero-line is not a straight line, but 
is formed by the interception of the light from the cylinder by a stop which, 
by means of a lever arrangement, rises and falls with temperature as much 
as the barometric column rises and falls from the same cause ; that is to 



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Ix EEPORT 1867. 

say, in order to find tlie true height of the harometer, we measure between 
the zero-line and the line denoting the top of the uncorrected column, since, 
when the top of the column rises or falls through temperature, the zero- 
hne rises or falls just as much. This mode of correction, although sufficient 
for most purposes, cannot yet be absolutely perfect ; a httle reflection will, 
however, show that the curved zero-line may not only be used as the 
means of correcting the readings of the instrument, but also as giving the actual 
temperature of the mercurial column from moment to moment, so that the 
true temperature-correction may with very little trouble be obtained and 
applied. 

A comparison of the curves of the old Kew Barograph at present in 
operation, with those of the Oxford Barograph, has shown that there is 
probably a slight adhesion of the mercury to the sides of the tube of the 
former instrument ; moreover the instrument is not in all respects the same 
as those about to be supplied to the other observatories. It has therefore 
been resolved that one of the new instruments shall be substitiited for it. 

Anemometer. — This instrument is a modification of Dr. Hobinson's. Its 
time-scale corresponds in length with those of the Thermograph and Baro- 
graph, — the object of having all the time-scales of the same length being to 
obtain the means of accurately placing the simultaneous records of the 
different instruments, one under the other, on the same sheet of paper. The 
present Anemometer wiU have to be altered, as it is not self-recording for 
direction ; and it is then intended to support it above the moveable dome of 
the Observatory so as to be independent of it. 

In order to fit the Observatory for the pui-poses of the Meteorological 
Committee, one of the outhouses, at present only occasionally used for the veri- 
fication of Magnetographs, has been altered so as to make it also available for 
the verification of meteorological self-recording instruments ; this, together 
with the addition of a small brick building outside, wiU be siifficient for the 
purposes of the Meteorological Committee. When this building is completed 
it will receive all the moveable iron at present in the Observatory; this 
arrangement will at the same time set free the present workshop, additional 
room being required for the increasing work of the Observatory. 

J. P. Gassiot, Chairman. 
Kew Observatory, 22nd August 1867. 



Rejwrt of the Parliamentary Committee to the Meeting of the British 
Association at Dundee, Sejitember 1867. 

The Parliamentary Committee have the honour to report as follows : — 
Tour Committee have to express their regret that the Pubhc Schools Bill 
has again failed to obtain the sanction of the Legislatiu'e ; but it is a subject 
for congratulation that the discussions in Parliament and elsewhere, which 
have followed its introduction, have already borne fruit. The attention of 
the public appears to have been awakened to the necessity for introducing 
scientific teaching into our Schools, if we are not wUling to sink into a con- 
dition of inferiority as regards both intellectual culture and skill in art when 
compared with foreign nations. The vokmtary efi^orts of the Masters of two 
of oui- great schools to add instruction in Natiual Science to the ordinary 
Classical course are desei-ving of aU praise ; and some evidence of their sue- 



RECOMMENDATIONS OF THE GENERAL COMMITTEE. Ixi 

cess may be derived from the interesting fact, disclosed in the able Report 
of the Committee appointed by the Council of the Association to consider this 
subject, that some of the boys at Harrow have formed themselves into a 
voluntary Association for the piu'suit of Science. 

Your Committee have communicated to the Lord Chancellor the Reports of 
the Committee on Scientific Evidence in Courts of Law ; and his Lordship 
has promised to consider the subject during the recess. 

The Chairman of your Committee has also lately been in communication 
with the President of the Board of Trade, with the object of prevailing 
on the Government to amend the unsatisfactory provisions now in force, 
under the authority of the Merchant Shipping Act, for securing the proper 
adjustment of the Compasses of the iron-built ships of the Mercantile Marine. 

This measui'e was strongly and ably advocated by the President and 
Council of the Royal Society, in a correspondence which passed between 
them and the Board of Trade in 1865, but hitherto without success. 

Wrotteslet, Chairman. 
3l3t August, 1867. 



Recommendations adopted by the General Committee at the Dundee 
Meeting in September 1867. 

[When Committeea are appointed, the Member first named is regarded as the Secretary, 
except there is a specific nomination.] 

Involving Grants of Money. 

That the sum of ,£600 be placed at the disposal of the Council for main- 
taining the Establishment of the Kew Observatory. 

That the Lunar Committee be reappointed, and consist of Mr. J. Glaisher, 
Lord Rosse, Lord Wrottesley, Sir J. Herschel, Bart., Professor Phillips, Rev. 
C. Pritchard, Mr. W. Huggins, Mr. W. De la Rue, Mr. C. Brooke, Rev. T. W. 
Webb, Mr. J. N. Lockyer, and Mr. W. R. Birt ; and that the sum of ^120 
be placed at their disposal. 

That Dr. Joule, Sir W. Thomson, Professor Tait, Mr. Balfour Stewart, and 
Professor G. C. Poster be a Committee for the purpose of executing a re- 
measurement of the Dynamical Equivalent of Heat ; that Professor Foster 
be the Secretary, and that the sum of £50 be placed at their disposal for the 
purpose. 

That the Committee for reporting on the Rainfall of the British Isles, con- 
sisting of Mr. Glaisher, Lord Wrottesley, Professor Phillips, Mr. G. J. Symons, 
Mr. J. E. Bateman, Mr. R. W. Mylne, and Mr. T. Hawksley, be reappointed ; 
that Mr. G. J. Symons be the Secretary, and that the sum of ^£50 be placed 
at their disposal. 

That the Balloon Committee, oonsistiag of Colonel Sykes, Mr. Airy, 
Lord Wrottesley, Sir David Brewster, Sir J. Herschel, Bart., Dr. Robinson, 
Mr. Fairbairn, Dr. TyndaU, Dr. W. A. Miller, and Mr. Glaisher, be reap- 
pointed for the purpose of ascents, and a further reduction of the observa- 
tions ; and that .£50 (remaining undrawn from the last grant) be placed at 
their disposal. 

That a Committee, consisting of Sir W. Thomson, the Astronomer Royal, 
the Presidents of the Royal and Astronomical Societies, Lord Wrottesley, 
Mr. W. De la Rue, Professor Stokes, Professor Adams, Professor Price, Pro- 



Ixii REPORT — 1867. 

feasor Fuller, Professor Kelland, Professor Eankine, Professor Fischer, Mr. 
Gassiot, Dr. Robinson, Mr. J. F. Bateman, Mr. J. Oldham, Mr. "W. Partes, 
Mr. T. Webster, Mr. W. Sissons, Admiral Sir Edward Belcher, K.C. B., and 
Mr. J. F. Iselin (with power to add to their number), be appointed for the 
purpose of promoting the extension, improvement, and harmonic analysis of 
Tidal Observations ; that Professor Fuller and Mr. J. F. Iseliu be the Secre- 
taries, and that the sum of ^100 be placed at their disposal for the pxirpose. 

That Sir William Thomson, Dr. Everett, Su- Charles Lyell, Bart., Prin- 
cipal Forbes, Mr. J. Clerk Maxwell, Professor Phillips, Mr. G. J. Sjmons, Mr. 
Balfour Stewart, Professor Ramsay, Mr. Geikie, Mr. Glaisher, Rev. Dr. 
Graham, Mr. E. W. Binney, Mr. George Maw, and Mr, Pengelly be a Com- 
mittee for the purpose of investigating the rate of increase of Underground 
Temperature downwards in various localities of dry land and under water ; 
that Dr. Everett be the Secretary, and that the sum of <£50 be placed at 
their disposal for the purpose. 

That the Committee on Luminous ]\[eteors and Aerolites, consisting of 
Mr. Glaisher, Mr. R. P. Greg, Mr. E. W. Braylcy, Mr. Alexander Herschel, 
and Mr. C. Brooke, be reappointed ; that Mr. Herschel be the Secretary, 
and that the sum of £50 be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Dr. Anderson and Mr. Catton be a Committee for the purpose of 
prosecuting the researches of Mr. Catton on the Synthesis of Organic Acids ; 
and that the sum of £60 be placed at their disposal for the piirpose. 

That Sir Charles Lyell, Bart., Professor Phillips, Sir John Lubbock, Bart., 
Mr. John Evans, ill-. Edward Vivian, Mr. WUHam Pengelly, and Mr. George 
Busk be a Committee for the purpose of continuing the exploration of Kent's 
Cavern, Torquay ; that Mr. Pengelly be the Secretary, and that the sum of 
.£150 be placed at their disposal for the pm-pose. 

That Mr. W. S. Mitchell, Mr. Robert Etheridge, Professor J. Morris, and 
Mr. G. Maw be a Committee for the purpose of investigating the Leaf-beds of 
the Lower Bagshot Series of the Hampshire Basin ; that Mr. Mitchell be the 
Secretary, and that the sum of .£50 be placed at their disposal for the pur- 
pose. 

That Dr. P. M. Duncan and Mr. Heniy Woodward be requested to Report 
on the British Fossil Corals ; and that the sum of .£50 be placed at their 
disposal for the purpose. 

That Mr. C. Moore, the Rev. L. Jeuyns, and the Rev. H. H. Winwood be 
a Committee for the purpose of investigating the veins containing Organic 
Remains which occur in the Mountain Limestone of the Mcndips and else- 
where ; that Mr. Moore be the Secretary ; that the sum of .£40 be placed at 
their disposal for the j^urpose, and that the objects of interest found shall be 
disposed in a manner satisfactory to the Council of the Association. 

Dr. Bryce, Sii" W. Thomson, Mr. D. Milne-Home, and Mr. Macfarlane be 
requested to resume the researches on Scottish Earthquakes; that Dr. Bryce 
be the Secretary, and that the sum of £35 be placed at their disposal for the 
purpose. 

That Mr. Henry Woodward, Professor Phillips, and Mr. C, Spence Bate 
be a Committee for the purpose of continuing their investigations on the Fossil 
Crustacea ; and that the sum of £25 be placed at their disposal for the 
purpose. 

That Professor Phillips, Professor Huxley, and Mr. H. G. Seeley be a 
Committee for the purpose of drawing up a Report on the present state of 
our knowledge of Secondary Reptiles, Pterodactyles, and Birds ; and that 
the sum of £50 be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 



EECOMMENDATIONS OF THE GENERAL COMMITTEE. Ixiii 

That Mr. G-wyn JefFrevs, Mr. E. M" Andrew, the Eev. A. Merle Norman, Mr. 
E. Walker, Dr. W. C. M'^Intosh, and Mr. E. Eay Lankester be a Committee 
for the purpose of continuing the investigation of the British Marine Inverte- 
bi'ate Eauna by means of the dredge ; that Mr. Gwyn Jeffi-eys be the Secre- 
tary, and that the sum of ^100 be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Sir John Lubbock, Bart., Mr. H. T. Stainton, and the Eev. H. B. 
Tristram be a Committee for the purpose of prejwring a record of the pro- 
gress of Zoology in the year 1867 ; that Sii' John Lubbock be the Secretary, 
and that the sum of ^100 be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Mr. C. Spenee Bate, Mr. Couch, Sir John Lubbock, Bart., Mr. Gwyn 
Jeffreys, and Mr. Cornish be a Committee for the purpose of exploring the 
Eaima of the south coast of Devon and Cornwall ; that Mr. C. Spenee Bate 
be the Secretary, and that the sum of ,£30 be placed at their disposal for 
the purpose. 

That Mr. G. Busk and Mr. W. Carruthers be a Committee for the purpose 
of carrying on investigations on Eossil Flora ; that Mr. Carruthers be the 
Secretary, and that the sum of £25 be placed at their disposal for the pur- 
pose. 

That Mr, E. Eay Lankester, Mr. Charles Stewart, and Dr. Arthur Gamgee 
be a Committee for the purpose of investigating Animal Substances with the 
Spectroscope ; that Mr. E. Eay Lankester be the Secretary, and that the sum 
of .£15 be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Dr. Bennett, Dr. Christison, Dr. Eogers, Dr. Arthur Gamgee, Dr. W. 
Eutherford, and Dr. Erazer be a Committee for the purpose of carrying on 
investigations to determine the action of Mercury on the Secretion of Bile ; 
that Dr. Bennett be the Secretary, and that the sum of <£25 be placed at their 
disposal for the purpose. 

That Dr. B. W. Eichardson, Professor Humphry, and Dr, Sharpey be a 
Committee for the purpose of continuing the investigations on the physiolo- 
gical action of the Methyl Series and allied organic compounds; and that 
the sum of £25 be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Sir E. I. Murchison, Bart., Dr. J. D. Hooker, Captain Sherard 
Osbora, and Mr. C. E. Markham be a Committee for the purpose of pro- 
moting the exploration of the interior of Greenland, now in prosecution by 
Mr. Edward Whymper ; that Mr. C. E. Markham be the Secretary, and that 
the sum of £100 be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That the Metric Committee be reappointed for the purpose of difiPiising 
knowledge of the relations amongst systems of Moneys, Weights, and Mea- 
sures, such Committee to consist of Sir John Bowring, The Eight Hon. C. B. 
Adderley, M.P., Mr. Samuel Brown, Mr. W. Ewart, M.P., Capel H. Berger, 
Dr. Farr, Mr. Prank P. Fellows, Professor Frauklaud, Professor Hennessy, 
Mr. James Heywood, Sir- Eobert Kane, Professor Leone Levi, Professor W. A. 
Miller, Professor Eankine, Mr. C. W. Siemens, Colonel Sykes, M.P., Professor 
A. W. Wilhamson, Lord Wrottesley, Mr. James Yates, Dr. George Glover, 
Mr. Joseph Whitwortb, Mr. J. E. Napier, Mr. H. Dircks, Mr. J. V. N. 
Bazalgette, Mr. W. Smith, Mr. W. Fairbairn, and Mr. John Eobinson ; that 
Professor Leone Levi be the Secretary, and that the sum of £50 be placed 
at their disposal for the purpose. 

That the Committee, consisting of Mr. J. Scott Eussell, Mr. T. Hawksley, 
Mr. J. E. Napier, Mr. William Fairbairn, and Professor W. J. M. Eankine, 
to analyze and condense the information contained in the Eeports of the 
"Steam-shipPciformance" Committee and other sources of information on 
the same subject, with power to employ paid calculators or assistants, if ne- 



Ixiv REPORT — 1867. 

cessary, be reappointed ; and that the sum of £100 be placed at their dis- 
posal for the purpose. 

That the Committee, consisting of Mr. "W. Fairbairn and Mr. Tait, for con- 
tinuing experiments with a %dew to test the improvements in the manufac- 
ture of Iron and Steel, be reappointed ; and that the sum of .£100 be placed 
at their disposal for the purpose. 

Applications for Reports and Researches not involving Grants 

of Money. 

That the Committee on Electrical Standards, consisting of Professor 
Williamson, Professor Wheatstone, Professor Sir W. Thomson, Professor "W. 
A. Miller, Dr. A. Matthiessen, Mr. Fleeming Jenkin, Sir Charles Bright, 
Mr. J. Clerk Maxwell, Mr. C. AV. Siemens, Mr. Ealfour Stewart, Dr. Joule, Mr. 
C. F. Varley, Mr. G. C. Foster, and Mr. C. Hockin, be reappointed; and 
that Mr. Fleeming Jenkin be the Secretary. 

That Professor Stokes be requested to continue his Researches on Physical 
Optics. 

That Mr. E. J. Lowe, Mr. Glaisher, Dr. Moifat, Mr. C. Brooke, Dr. Andrews, 
and Dr. B. Ward Richardson be a Committee for the purpose of promoting 
accurate Meteorological Observations of Ozone ; and that Mr. Lowe be the 
Secretary. 

That Dr. TyndaU, Dr. Lyon Playfair, Dr. Odling, Rev. C. Pritchard, Pro- 
fessor Kelland, Professor W. A. Miller, and Professor Foster be a Committee 
for the pui'pose of inquiring into the present methods of teaching the elements 
of Dynamics, Experimental Physics, and Chemistry in schools of various 
classes, and of suggesting the best means of promoting this object in accord- 
ance with the Recommendations of the Report of the Committee appointed 
by the Council ; and that Professor Foster and Dr. Odling be the Secretaries. 

That Dr. Matthiessen be requested to continue his researches on the 
Chemical Constitution of Cast Iron. 

That Mr. Thomas Fairley be requested to continue his researches on 
Polycyanides of the Organic Radicals. 

That the Committee on Scientific Evidence in Courts of Law, consisting of 
the Rev. W. V. Harcourt, Professor WiUiamson, The Right. Hon. J. Napier, 
Mr. W. Tite, Professor Christison, Dr. TyndaU, Mr. James Hey wood, Mr. 
J. F. Bateman, Mr. Thomas Webster, Sir Benjamin Brodie, Bart., and Pro- 
fessor W. A. Miller (with power to add to their number), be reappointed ; 
and that Professor WUHamson be the Secretary. 

That the Patent Law Committee be reappointed, such Committee to con- 
sist of Mr. Thomas Webster, Q.C, Sir W. G. Armstrong, Mr. J. F. Bateman, 
Mr. W. Fairbaii-n, Mr. John Hawkshaw, Mr. J. Scott Russell, Mr. H. Dircks, 
Mr. J. V. N. Bazalgette, Professor Rankine, and Mr. P. Le Neve Foster, 
with power to add to their number. 

That a Committee, consisting of the Duke of Buccleuch, the Rev. Patrick 
Bell, Mr. David Greig, Mr. J. Oldham, Professor Ranltine, Mr. William Smith, 
Mr. Harold Littledale, The Earl of Caithness, and Mr. Robert Neilson, be 
appointed to prepare a Report on Agricultural MacJdnery ; and that Messrs. 
J. P. Smith and P. Le Neve Foster be the Secretaries. 

That a Committee, consisting of Admii'al Sir Edward Belcher, Mr. J. 
Oldliam, Mr. J. R. Napier, Mr. George Fawcus, Mr. William Smith, and Mr. 
J. Sissons, be appointed to Report ou the Regulations affecting the safety of 
Merchant Ships and their Passengers. 



RECOMMENDATIONS OF THE GENEIUL COMMITTEE. IxV 

Involving Application to Government. 

That the President of the Association be requested to communicate the 
Eeport of the Committee appointed by the Council to consider the best means 
for promoting Scientific Education in Schools, to the President of the Privy 
Council and to the Parliamentaiy Committee on the part of the Association ; 
and that the General Officers be authorized to take steps to give publicity to 
the Report. 

That Sir Bartle Prere, Sir Ai'thur Phayre, Colonel R. Strachey, Colonel 
Yule, Sir Proby Cautley, Mr. W. Spottiswoode, Dr. J. D. Hooker, and Su* 
John Lubbock be a Committee for the purpose of representing to the Secre- 
tary of State for India the great and urgent importance of adopting active 
measures to obtain reports on the ph^-sical form, manners, customs, &c. of 
the indigenous population of Lidia, and especially of those tribes which are 
still in the habit of erectiag Megalithic monuments ; and that Dr. J. D. 
Hooker be the Secretary. 

That General Sir Andrew S. "VVaugh, Sir Arthur Phayre, General G. 
Balfour, General Sir Yincent Eyre, Captain Sherard Osborn, Mr. George 
Campbell, and Dr. Thomas Thomson be a Committee for the purpose of 
waiting on the Secretary of State for India to rei^resent the desirability of 
an exploration being made of the district between the Burhampooter, the 
Upper Irrawaddy, and the Yang-tze-Kiang, with a view to a route being 
established between the navigable parts of these rivers ; and that Dr. 
Thomas Thomson be the Secretary. 

That Sir Roderick Murchison, Bart., Admiral Erasmus Ommanney, Ad- 
miral Collinson, Admiral Sir E. Belcher, Captain Sherard Osborn, Captain 
AUen Young, and Mr. C. R. Markham be a Committee for the piu-pose of 
representing to Her Majesty's Government the desirability of their under- 
taking an exploration of the area around the North Pole ; and that Mr. C. 
R. Markham be the Secretary. 

Communications to be printed in extenso in the Annual Report of 

the Association. 

That Mr. C. Meldrum's paper, " On the Meteorology of the Mauritius," be 
printed in extenso among the Reports. 

That Mr. I. Lowthian Bell's paper, " On the present state of the Manu- 
facture of Iron in Britain, and its position as compared with that of some 
other countries," be printed in full in the Eeport of the Association. 

That Mr. Mitchell's paper^ " On the Highland Railways," be printed at 
length amongst the Reports. 



Resolved that Resolutions : — 

(1) Relating to the continuation of Storm Signals, 

(2) The introduction of the knowledge of the Metric Sy.steminto Govern- 

ment Schools, 

(3) Natm-al-History Collections in the British Museum, 

(4) The pollution of rivers, and the preservation of Salmon Fisheries, 

be referred to the Council of the Association. 

1867. e 



]xvi REPORT — 1867. 

Synopsis of Grants of Money appj-ojmated to Scientific Purposes by 
the General Committee at the Dundee Meeting in September 1867. 
The names of the Members who ivould be entitled to call on the 
General Treasurer for the respective Grants are prefixed. 

Keiv Observatory. 

Maintaining tlie Establishment of Kew Observatory 600 

Mathematics and Physics. 

*Glaisher, Mr. — Lunar Committee 120 

Joule, Dr. — Eemeasurement of the Dynamical Equivalent of 

Heat SO 

*Glaisher, Mi-.— British Rainfall 50 

*Sj'kes, Colonel. — Balloon Committee (renewed) 50 

Thomson, Professor Sir W. — Tidal Observations 100 

Thomson, Professor Sir "W. — Underground Temperature .... 50 

*(Tlaisher, Mr. — Luminous Meteors 50 

Chemistry. 

*Anderson, Dr. — Synthesis of Organic Acids 60 

Oeology. 

*LyeU, Sir C, Bart. — Kent's Cavern Investigation 150 

Mitchell, Mr. W. S. — Leaf-beds of the Lower Bagshot series . . 50 

Duncan, Dr. P. M.— British Possil Corals 50 

Moore, Mr. C. — Veins containing Organic Remains in the 

Mountain Limestone 40 

Bryce, Dr. — Scottish Earthquakes . . 35 

*Woodward, Mr. H.— Fossil Crustacea (renewed) 25 

*Pliillips, Professor. — Secondary Reptiles, Pterodactyles, and 

Birds ■ 50 

Biology. 

Jeffreys, Mr. J. Gwjai. — British Marine Invertebrate Fauna. . 100 

Lubbock, Sir J., Bart. — The Record of the Progress of Zoology 100 
Bate, Mr. C. Spence. — Fauna of the South Coast of Devon 

and Cornwall 30 

Busk, Mr. G. — Fossil Flora 25 

Lankester, Mr. E. Ray. — Investigation of Animal Substances 

with the Spectroscope 15 

Bennett, Dr. — Action of Mercury on the Secretion of Bile . . 25 

*Richardson, Dr. — Physiological Action of the Methyl Series . . 25 

Geography and Ethnology. 

Murchison, Sir R. I., Bart. — Greenland Exploration 100 

Statistics and, Economic Science. 
*Bowring, Sir J, — Metrical Committee 50 

Mechanics. 
*Russell, Mr. J. Scott. — Analysis of Reports on Steam-ship 

Performance 100 

*Fairbairu, Mr. W.— Manufacture of Iron and Steel 100 



* Reappointed. 



Total 2200 . 



GBNEUAIi STATEMENT. 



Ixvii 



General Statement of Sums which have been paid on Account of Grants 

for Scientific Purposes. 



d. 



1834. 



Tide Discussions 20 

1835. 

Tide Discussions 62 

British Fossil Ichtliyology 105 

£167 



1836. 

Tide Discussions 163 

British Fossil Ichtliyology 105 

Tliermoraetric Observations, &c. 50 
Experiments on long-continued 

Heat 17 1 



Rain-Gauges. 




9 13 

Refraction Experiments 15 

Lunar Nutation 60 

Thermometers 15 6 

£434 14 



1837. 

Tide Discussions 284 1 

Chemical Constants 24 13 6 

Lunar Nutation 70 

Observations on Waves 100 12 

Tides at Bristol 150 

Meteorology and Subterranean 

Temperature * 89 5 

Vitrification Experiments 150 

Heart Experiments 8 4 6 

Barometric Observations 30 

Barometers 11 IS 6 



£918 14 6 



1838. 

Tide Discussions 29 

British Fossil Fishes 100 

Meteorological Observations and 

Anemometer (construction) ... 100 

Cast Iron (Strength of) 60 

Animal and Vegetable Substances 

(Preservation of) 19 1 10 

Railway Constants 41 12 10 

Bristol Tides 50 

Growth of Plants 75 

Mud in Rivers 3 6 6 

Education Committee 50 

Heart Experiments 5 3 

Land and Sea Level 267 8 7 

Subterranean Temperature 8 6 

Steam-vessels 100 

Meteorological Committee 31 

Thermometers 16 



9 5 
4 



£956 12 2 



1839. 



Fossil Ichthyology 110 

Meteorological Observations at 

Plymouth 63 10 

Mechanism of Waves 144 2 

Bristol Tides , 35 18 6 



£ s. d. 



Meteorology and Subterranean 

Temperature 21 

Vitrification Experiments 9 

Cast Iron Experiments 100 

Railway Constants 28 

Land and Sea Level 274 

Steam-vessels' Engines 100 

Stars in Histoire Celeste 331 

Stars in Lacaille 11 

Stars in R.A.S. Catalogue 6 

Animal Secretions 10 

Steam-engines in Cornwall 50 

Atmospheric Air 16 

Cast and Wrought Iron 40 

Heat on Organic Bodies 3 

Gases on Solar Spectrum 22 

Hourly Meteorological Observa- 
tions, Inverness and Kingussie 49 

Fossil Reptiles 118 

Mining Statistics 50 



11 





4 


7 








7 


2 


1 


4 








18 


6 








16 


6 


10 











1 























7 


8 


2 


9 









£1595 11 



1840. 

Bristol Tides 100 

Subterranean Temperature 13 

Heart Experiments IS 

Lungs Experiments 8 

Tide Discussions 50 

Land and Sea Level 6 

Stars (Histoire Celeste) 242 

Stars (Lacaille) 4 

Stars (Catalogue) 264 

Atmospheric Air 15 

Water on Iron 10 

Heat on Organic Bodies 7 

Meteorological Observations 52 

Foreign Scientific Memoirs 112 

Working Population 100 

School Statistics 50 

Forms of Vessels 184 

Chemical and Electrical Pheno- 
mena 40 

Meteorological Observations at 

Plymouth SO 

Magnetical Observations 185 









13 


6 


19 





13 











11 


1 


10 





15 











15 

















17 


6 


1 


6 










7 




13 9 



£1546 16 4 



1841. 

Observations on Waves 30 

Meteorology and Subterranean 

Temperature 8 8 

Actinometers 10 

Earthquake Shocks 17 7 

Acrid Poisons 6 

Veins and Absorbents 3 

Mud in Rivers 5 

Marine Zoology 15 12 8 

Skeleton Maps 20 

Mountain Barometers 6 18 6 

Stars (Histoire Celeste) 185 



Ixviii 



REPOKT — 1867. 



£ s. d. 

Stars (Lacaille) 79 5 

Stars (Nomenclature of) 17 19 6 

Stars (Catalogue of) 40 

Water on Iron 50 

Meteorological Observations at 

Inverness 20 

Meteorological Observations (re- 
duction of) 25 

Fossil Reptiles 50 

Foreign Memoirs 62 

Railway Sections 3S 1 6 

Forms of Vessels 193 12 

Meteorological Observations at 

Plymouth 55 

Magnelical Observations CI 18 8 

Fishes of the Old Red Sandstone 100 

Tides at Leilh 50 

Anemometer at Edinburgh G9 1 10 

Tabulating Observations 9 6 3 

Races of Men 5 

Radiate Animals 2 

£1235 10 11 

1842. 

Dynamometrlc Instruments 113 

Anoplura Britanuiae 52 

Tides at Bristol 59 

Gases on Light 30 

Chronometers 26 

Marine Zoology 1 

British Fossil Mammalia 100 

Statistics of Education 20 

Marine Steam-vessels' Engines... 2S 

Stars (Histoire Celeste) 59 

Stars (Brit. Assoc. Cat. of) 110 

Railway Sections ICl 

British Belemnites 50 

Fossil Reptiles (publication of 

Report) 210 

Forms of Vessels 180 

Galvanic Experiments on Rocks 5 
Meteorological Experiments at 

Plymouth 68 

Constant Indicator and Dynamo- 
metric Instruments 

Force of Wind 

Light on Growth of Seeds 

Vital Statistics 

Vegetative Power of Seeds 
Questions on Human Race 



1843. 

Revision of the Nomenclature of 

Stars 2 

Reduction of Stars, British Asso- 
ciation Catalogue 25 

Anomalous Tides, Frith of Forth 120 

Hourly Meteorological Observa- 

tionsatKingussieandlnverness 77 12 S 

Meteorological Observations at 

Plymouth 55 

Whewell's Meteorological Ane- 
mometer at Plymouth 10 



11 


2 


12 





8 





14 


7 


17 


6 


5 



































10 























8 


6 



.. 90 





.. 10 





.. 8 
.. 50 






8 
.. 7 


1 11 
9 


£1449 


17 8 



£ 

Meteorological Observations, Os- 
ier's Anemometer at Plymouth 20 
Reduction of Meteorological Ob- 
servations 30 

Meteorological Instruments and 

Gratuities 39 

Construction of Anemometer at 

Inverness 56 

Magnetic Cooperation 10 

Meteorological Recorder for Kew 

Observatory 50 

Action of Gases on Light 18 

Establishment at Kew Observa- 
tory, Wages, Repairs, Furni- 
ture and Sundries 133 

Experiments by Captive Balloons 81 
Oxidation of the Rails of Railways 20 
Publication of Report on Fossil 

Reptiles 40 

Coloured Drawings of Railway 

Sections 147 

Registration of Earthquake 

Shocks 30 

Report on Zoological Nomencla- 
ture 10 

Uncovering Lower Red Sand- 
stone near Manchester 4 

Vegetative Power of Seeds 5 

Marine Testacea (Habits of) ... 10 

Marine Zoology 10 

Marine Zoology 2 

Preparation of Report on British 

Fossil Mammalia 100 

Physiological Operations of Me- 
dicinal Agents 20 

Vital Statistics 36 

Additional Experiments on the 

Forms of Vessels 70 

Additional Experiments on the 

Forms of Vessels 100 

Reduction of Experiments on the 

Forms of Vessels 100 

Morin's Instrument and Constant 

Indicator 69 

Experiments on the Strength of 

Materials 60 

£1565 



s. 


d. 














C 





12 

8 


2 
10 



16 




1 


4 
8 



7 










IS 


3 














4 
3 


14 


6 

8 



n 













5 


8 




















14 


10 









10 2 











1844. 

Meteorological Observations at 
Kingussie and Inverness 12 

Completing Observations at Ply- 
mouth 35 

Magnetic and Meteorological Co- 
operation 25 8 4 

Publication of the British Asso- 
ciation Catalogue of Stars 35 

Observations on Tides on the 

East coast of Scotland 100 

Revision of the Nomenclature of 

Stars 1842 2 9 6 

Maintaining the Establishment in 
Kew Observatory 117 

Instruments for Kew Observatory 56 



17 
7 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



Ixix 



£ s. d. 

Influence of Light on Plants 10 

Subterraneous Temperature in 

Ireland 5 

Coloured Drawings of Railway 

Sections 15 17 6 

Investigation of Fossil Fishes of 

the Lower Tertiary Strata ... 100 
Registering the Shocks of Earth- 
quakes 1842 23 11 10 

Structure of Fossil Shells 20 

Radiata and Mollusca of the 

iEgean and Red Seas 1842 100 

Geographical Distributions of 

Marine Zoology 1842 10 

Marine Zoology of Devon and 

Cornwall 10 

Marine Zoology of Corfu 10 

Experiments on the Vitality of 

Seeds 9 3 

Experiments on the Vitality of 

Seeds 1842 8 7 3 

Exotic Anoplura 15 

Strength of Materials 100 

Completing Experiments on the 

Forms of Ships 100 

Inquiries into Asphyxia 10 

Investigations on the Internal 

Constitution of Metals 50 

Constant Indicator and Morin's 

Instrument 18 42 10 3 6 

£981 12 8 

1845. 
Publication of the British Associa- 
tion Catalogue of Stars 351 

Meteorological Observations at 

Inverness 30 

Magnetic and Meteorological Co- 
operation 16 

Meteorological Instruments at 

Edinburgh 18 

Reduction of Anemometrical Ob- 
servations at Plymouth 25 

Electrical Experiments at Kew 

Observatory 43 

Maintaining the Establishment in 

Kew Observatory 149 

For Kreil's Barometrograph 25 

Gases from Iron Furnaces 50 

The Actinograph 15 

Microscopic Structure of Shells... 20 

Exotic Anoplura 1843 10 

Vitality of Seeds 1843 2 

Vitality of Seeds 1844 7 

Marine Zoology of Cornwall 10 

Physiological Action of Medicines 20 
Statistics of Sickness and Mor- 
tality in York 20 

Earthquake Shocks 1843 15 

£830 9 9 



14 
18 11 
IC 8 
11 9 

17 8 



5 






































7 


























4 


8 



1846. 
British Association Catalogue of 

Stars 1844 211 13 



£ 

Fossil Fishes of the London Clay 100 
Computation of the Gaussian 

Constants for 1839 50 

Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory 146 

Strength of Materials 60 

Researches in Asphyxia 6 

Examination of Fossil Shells 10 

Vitality of Seeds 1844 2 

Vitality of Seeds 1845 7 

Marine Zoology of Cornwall 10 

Marine Zoology of Britain 10 

Exotic Anoplura 1844 25 

Expenses attending Anemometers 1 1 

Anemometers' Repairs 2 

Atmospheric Waves 3 

Captive Balloons 1844 8 

Varieties of the Human Race 

1844 7 
Statistics of Sickness and Mor- 
tality in York 12 

£685 



s. 


fl. 














16 


7 








16 


2 








15 


10 


12 


3 




















7 


6 


3 


6 


3 


3 


19 


3 


6 


3 









16 



1847. 
Computation of the Gaussian 

Constants for 1839 50 

Habits of Marine Animals 10 

Physiological Action of Medicines 20 

Marine Zoology of Cornwall ... 10 

Atmospheric Waves 6 

Vitality of Seeds 4 

Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory 107 

£208 



























9 


3 


7 


7 



8 6 



1848. 
Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory 171 

Atmospheric Waves 3 

Vitality of Seeds 9 

Completion of Catalogues of Stars 70 

On Colouring Matters 5 

On Growth of Plants 15 

£275 



15 


11 


10 


9 


15 
























1 8 



1849. 
Electrical Observations at Kew 

Observatory 50 

Maintaining Establishment at 

ditto 76 2 

Vitality of Seeds 5 8 

On Growth of Plants 5 

Registration of Periodical Phe- 
nomena 10 

Bill on account of Anemometrical 

Observations 13 9 

£159 19' 



1850. 

Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory 255 18 

Transit of Earthquriive Waves ... 50 



Ixx 



REPORT 1867. 



£ s. 

Periodical Phenomena 15 

Meteorological Instrument, 

Azores ••• ^" 



d. 







£345 18 



1851. 
Maintaining the Establishment at 
Kew Observatory (includes part 

ofgrantin 1849) 309 

Theory of Heat 20 

Periodical Phenomena of Animals 

and Plants ° 

Vitality of Seeds 5 

Influence of Solar Radiation 30 

Ethnological Inquiries 12 

Researches on Annelida 1" 



1852. 

Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory (including 

balance of grant for 1850) ... 

Experiments on the Conduction 

ofHeat 5 

Influence of Solar Radiations ... 20 

Geological Map of Ireland 15 

Researches on the British Anne- 
lida 10 

Vitality of Seeds 10 

Strength of Boiler Plates ^ 10 



1855. 
Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory 425 

Earthquake Movements 10 

Physical Aspect of the Moon 11 

Vitality of Seeds 10 

Map of the World 15 

Ethnological Queries 5 

Dredging near Belfast 4 



£ s. d. 



2 


2 


1 


1 








6 


4 





















£391 9 7 



233 17 8 



£304 6 7 



1853. 

Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory 165 

Experiments on the Influence of 

Solar Radiation 15 

Researches on the British Anne- 
lida 10 

Dredging on the East Coast of 

Scotland 10 

Ethnological Queries 5 

£205 



1854. 

Maintaining the Establishment at 
Kew Observatory (including 
balance of former grant) 330 15 4 

Investigations on Flax 11 

Effects of Temperature on 

Wrought Iron 10 

Registration of Periodical Phe- 
nomena 10 

British Annelida 10 

Vitality of Seeds 5 2 3 

Conduction of Heat 4 2 



£380 19 7 















8 


5 


7 


11 





















1856. 
Maintaining the Establishment at 
Kew Observatory : — 

1854 £ 75 0\ 

1855 £500 OJ 

Strickland's Ornithological Syno- 
nyms 100 

Dredging and Dredging Forms... 9 

Chemical Action of Light 20 

Strength of Iron Plates 10 

Registration of Periodical Pheno- 
mena 10 

Propagation of Salmon 10 



575 









3 


9 















1857. 
Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory 350 

Earthquake Wave Experiments. . 40 

Dredging near Belfast 10 

Dredging on the West Coast of 

Scotland 10 

Investigations into the Mollusca 

ofCalifornia 10 

Experiments on Flax 5 

Natural History of Madagascar. . 20 
Researches on British Annelida 25 
Report on Natural Products im- 
ported into Liverpool 10 

Artificial Propagation of Salmon 10 

Temperature of Mines 7 

Thermometers for Subterranean 

Observations 5 

Life-Boats 5 



1858. 
Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory 500 

Earthquake Wave Experiments.. 25 
Dredging on the West Coast of 

Scotland 10 

Dredging near Dublin 5 

Vitality of Seeds 5 



£480 16 4 



1859. 
Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory 500 

Dredging near Dublin 15 

Osteology of Birds 50 

Irish Tunicata 5 

Manure Experiments 20 

British Mcdusidce 5 

Dredging Committee. 5 

Steam-vessels' Performance 5 

Marine Fauna of South and West 

oflreland 10 

Photographic Chemistry 10 

Lanarkshire Fossils 20 

Balloon Ascents 39 



£734 13 9 































































s 





7 


4 









£507 15 4 








5 
13 




Dredging near Belfast li 

Report on the British Annelida... 25 
Experiments on the production 

of Heat by Motion in Fluids... 20 
Report on the Natural Products 

imported into Scotland 10 



£618 18 



£684 


































































1 


11 





11 


1 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



Ixxi 



I860. £ s. 

Maintaining the Establishment 

of Kew Observatory 500 

Dredging near Belfast 16 6 

Dredging in Dublin Bay 15 

Inquiry into the Performance of 

Steam-vessels 124 

Explorations in the Yellow Sand- 
stone of Dura Den 20 

Chemico-raechanical Analysis of 

Rocks and Minerals 25 

Researches on the Growth of 

Plants 10 

Researches on the Solubility of 

Salts 30 

Researches on the Constituents 

of Manures 25 

Balance of Captive Balloon Ac- 
counts 113 

^1241 7 



1861. 
Maintaining the Establishment 

of Kew Observatory 500 

Earthquake Experiments 25 

Dredging North and East Coasts 

of Scotland 23 

Dredging Committee : — 

1860 .£50 0\ ^, 

1861 £22 Oj '" 

Excavations at Dura Den 20 

Solubility of Salts 20 

Steam-vessel Performance 150 

Fossils of Lesmahago 15 

Explorations at Uriconium 20 

Chemical Alloys 20 

Classified Index to the Transac- 
tions 100 

Dredging in the Mersey and Dee 5 

Dip Circle 30 

Photoheliographic Observations 50 

Prison Diet 20 

Gauging of Water 10 

Alpine Ascents 6 

Constituents of Manures 25 



1862. 
Maintaining the Establishment 

of Kew Observatory 500 

Patent Laws 21 

Mollusca of N.-W. America 10 

Natural History by Mercantile 

Marine 5 

Tidal Observations 25 

Photoheliometer at Kew 40 

Photographic Pictures of the Sun 150 

Rocks of Donegal 25 

Dredging Durham and North- 
umberland 25 

Connexion of Storms 20 

Dredging North- East Coast of 

Scotland 6 

Ravages of Teredo 3 

Standards of Electrical Resistance 50 

Railway Accidents 10 






















































































5 1 





£1111 5 10 









6 





















































9 


6 


11 


















£ s. d. 

Balloon Committee 200 

Dredging Dublin Bay 10 

Dredging the Mersey 5 

Prison Diet 20 

Gauging of Water 12 10 

Steamsliips' Performance 150 

Thermo-Electric Currents 5 

£1293 16 6 

1863. 
Maintaining the Establishment 

of Kew Observatory 600 

Balloon Committee deficiency... 70 

Balloon Ascents (other expenses) 25 

Eutozoa 25 

Coal Fossils 20 

Herrings 20 

Granites of Donegal 5 

Prison Diet 20 

Vertical Atmospheric Movements 13 

Dredging Shetland 50 

Dredging North-east coast of 

Scotland 25 

Dredging Northumberland and 

Durham 17 3 10 

Dredging Committee superin- 
tendence 10 

Steamship Performance 100 

Balloon Committee 200 

Carbon under pressure 10 

Volcanic Temperature 100 

Bromide of Ammonium 8 

Electrical Standards 100 

Construction and distribu- 
tion 40 

Luminous Meteors 17 

Kew Additional Buildings for 

Photoheliograph 100 

Thermo-Electricity 15 

Analysis of Rocks 8 

Hydroids 10 

£ 1608 3 10 

1864. 
Maintaining the Establishment 

of Kew Observatory 600 

Coal Fossils 20 

Vertical Atmospheric Move- 
ments 20 

Dredging Shetland 75 

Dredging Northumberland 25 

Balloon Committee 200 

Carbon under pressure 10 

Standards of Electric Resistance 100 

Analysis of Rocks 10 

Hvdroida 10 

Askham's Gift 50 

Nitrite of Amyle 10 

Nomenclature Committee 5 

Rain-Gauges 19 15 8 

Cast Iron Investigation 20 

Tidal Observations in the Humber 50 

Spectral Rays 45 

Luminous Meteors 20 

£1289 15 8 



Ixxii 



REPORT — 1867. 



18G5. £ s. d. 
Maintaining the Establishment 

of Kew Observatory 600 

Balloon Committee 100 

Hvdroida 13 

Rain-Gauges 30 

Tidal Observations in the Humber 6 8 

Hexylic Compounds 20 

Arayl Compounds 20 

Irish Flora 25 

American Mollusca 3 9 

Organic Acids 20 

Lingula Flags Excavation 10 

Eurypterus 50 

Electrical Standards 100 

Malta Caves Researches 30 

Oyster Breeding 25 

Gibraltar Caves Researches ... 150 

Kent's Hole Excavations 100 

Moon's Surface Observations ... 35 

Marine Fauna 25 

Dredging Aberdeenshire 25 

Dredging Channel Islands 50 

Zoological Nomenclature 5 

Resistance of Floating Bodies in 

Water 100 

Bath Waters Analysis 8 10 

Luminous Meteors 40 

£1591 TlO 



1866. 
Maintaining the Establishment 

of Kew Observatory 600 

Lunar Committee 64 13 4 

Balloon Committee 50 

Metrical Committee 50 

British Rainfall 50 

Kilkenny Coal Fields 16 

Alum Bay Fossil Leaf-Bed 15 

Luminous Meteors 50 

Lingula Flags Excavation 20 

Chemical Constitution of Cast 

Iron 50 

Amyl Compounds 25 

Electrical Standards 100 

Malta Caves Exploration 30 



£ s. d. 

Kent's Hole Exploration 200 

Marine Fauna, &c., Devon and 

Cornwall 25 

Dredging Aberdeenshire Coast... 25 

Dredging Hebrides Coast 50 

Dredging the Mersey 5 

Resistance of Floating Bodies in 

Water 50 

Polvcyanides of Organic Radi- 
cals 20 

Rigor Mortis 10 

Irish Annelida 15 

Catalogue of Crania 50 

Didine Birds of Mascarene Islands 50 

Typical Crania Researches 30 

Palestine Exploration Fund 100 

£1750 13 4 
1867. ==^ 
Maintaining the Establishment 

of Kew Observatory 600 

Meteorological Instruments, Pa- 
lestine 50 

Lunar Committee 120 

Metrical Committee 30 

Kent's Hole Explorations 100 

Palestine Explorations 50 

Insect Fauna, Palestine ........ 30 

British Rainfall 50 

Kilkenny Coal Fields 25 

Alum Bay Fossil Leaf-Bed 25 

Luminous Meteors 50 

Bournemouth, &c. Leaf-Beds ... 30 

Dredging, Shetland 75 

Steam-ship Reports Condensa- 
tion 100 

Electrical Standards 100 

Ethyle and Methyle series 25 

Fossil Crustacea 25 

Sound under Water 24 4 

North Greenland Fauna 75 

Do. Plant Beds ... 100 

Iron and Steel Manufacture ... 25 

Patent Laws 30 

.£1739 4 



Extracts from Resolutions of the General Committee. 

Committees and iadividiials, to whom grants of money for scientific pur- 
poses have been entrusted, are required to present to each following Meeting 
of the Association a lleport of the progress which has been made ; with a 
statement of the sums which have been expended, and the balance which re- 
mains disposable on each grant. 

Grants of pecimiary aid for scientific purposes from the funds of the Asso- 
ciation expire at the ensuing Meeting, unless it shall appear by a Eeport that 
the Recommendations have been acted on, or a continuation of them be 
ordered by the General Committee. 

In each Committee, the Member first named is the person entitled to call on 
the Treasurer, WiUiam Spottiswoode, Esq., .50 Grosvenor Place, London, S.W., 
for such portion of the sura granted as may from time to time be required. 



GENERAL MEETINGS. Ixxiii 

In gxauts of money to Committees, the Association does not contemplate 
the payment of personal expenses to the members. 

In all cases where additional grants of money are made for the continua- 
tion of Researches at the cost of the Association, the snm named shall be 
deemed to include, as a part of the amount, the specified balance which may 
remain unpaid on the former grant for the same object. 

General Meetings. 

On Wednesday Evening, September 4, at 8 p.m., in the Kinnaird Hall, 
Sir R. I. Murchisou, Bart., K.C.B., F.K.S., Vice-President, ia the absence of 
WiUiam E. Grove, Esq., M.A., F.E.S., resigned the office of President to 
His Grace the Duke of Buccleuch, K.G., E.E.S., who took the Chair, and 
delivered an Address. 

On Thursday Evening, September 5, at 8 p.m., a Soiree took place in the 
Volunteers' Hall. 

On Thursday Evening, September 5, in the Kinnaird Hall, Prof. Tyndall, 
LL.D., F.E.S., delivered a Discourse on " Matter and Force," to the Opera- 
tive Classes of Dundee. 

On Friday Evening, September 6, at 8.30 p.m., in the Kinnaird Hall, 
Archibald Geikie, Esq., F.E.S,, F.G.S., delivered a Discourse on the " Geo- 
logical Origin of the present Scenery of Scotland." 

On Monday Evening, September 9, at 8.30 p.m., in the Kinnaird Hall, 
Alexander Herschel, Esq., F.E.A.S., delivered a Discourse on "The Present 
State of Knowledge regarding Meteors and Meteorites." 

On Tuesday Evening, September 10, at 8 p.m., a Soirc'e took place in 
the Volunteers' Hall. 

On Wednesday, September 11, at 3 p.m., the concluding General Meeting 
took place, when the Proceedings of the General Committee, and the Grants of 
Money for Scientific purposes, were explained to the Members. 

The Meeting was then adjourned to Norwich*. 

* The Meeting is appointed to take place on Wednesday, August 19, 1868. 



Eekaia in Eeport of the Electrical Standard Committee foe 1863. 



P. 140, in equation 9, for M' read Ic. 

P. 144, line 19 from top, for E read Ei. 

T, 1 r,Q /■ f , i. 00002951 , 1 , ., 00000239 . , , 

if. \ol, for force equal to absolute units, or gramme weight, read 

f«..on^„oi f^0'00029olx 00002951 , ,, ., 0000000007053 

lorce equal to — absolute units, or gramme weigbt. 

p. 157, in equation 28, 9= , omit the decimal point erroneously put before 4157 ; 

and three lines lower, /or 24-8G1 and -4157 read 2-1861 and 4157. 
P. 158, /or By the definition of electrochemical equivalents, E=N read Q=N. 



REPORTS 



ON 



THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



EEPORTS 



ON 



THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



Report of the Lunar Committee for Mapping the Surface of the Moon. 
Drawn up by W. R. Birt^ at the request of the Committee, consisting 
0/ James GlaisheRj F.R.S., Lord Rosse, F.R.S., Lord WrottesleYj 
F.R.S., Sir J. Herschel, Bart., F.R.S., Professor Phillips, F.R.S., 
Rev. C. Pritchard, F.R.S., W. Huggins, F.R.S., Warren De la 
Rue, F.R.S., C. Brooke, F.R.S., Rev. T. W. Webb, F.R.A.S., 
J. N. Lockyer, F.R.A.S., Ilerr Schmidt, and W. R. Birt, 
F.R.A.S. 

The Report now presented contains an account of the proceedings of the 
Lunar Committee during the past Association year. These proceedings have 
reference to the following subjects : — First, the registration of craters and 
other visible objects. Secondly, the construction of an outline map. And 
thirdly, an examination of an alleged change upon the surface of the moon. 

The Registration of Objects. — In connexion with this head nothing has 
transpired during the past year to render necessary any addition to the plan 
proposed by the Committee in 1865. The mode of registration was treated 
very fully in the Report presented at Birmingham, and published in the 
volume of Reports for 186.5, pp. 287-300. 

The number of objects now registered are as follows : — 

514 on 124 Areas in Quadrant I. 

349 „ 86 „ „ II. 

205 „ 57 „ „ III. 

557 „ 62 „ „ IV. 



Total 1625 „ 329 „ on the moon's surface 



J) 



The Outline Map. — During the past year the Committee authorized the 
engraving and printing of Areas IV A* and IV^, also the printing of the 
catalogue of objects inserted on those areas, and the distribution of copies to 
gentlemen taking part in the work. As the printing was com]deted, and 
the issue had commenced before the last Report had gone to press, it was 
considered advisable, in order to give them greater circulation, to append 
these areas and catalogue to that Report. They form Appendix III., Report, 
1866, pp. 239-280. 

The Committee, recognizing the great importance of obtaining periodical 
examinations of the moon's disk, suggested that the entire surface should be 
divided into subzones of 1° of latitude (Report, 1866, p. 240), and allotted to 

1867. ^ ^ a 



2 REPORT 1867. 

gentlemen willing to cooperate in the work. The two areas at present 
issued embrace 10 degrees of latitude, and the allotment has been so arranged 
that each purr of subzones overlap and dovetail into the adjoining pairs. 
In Appendix III. to the last Heport, the objects in each pair of subzones are 
specified in the order of their conspicuousness (sec Eeport, 1866, p. 241). 
The following subzones have been allotted as imder : — 

Ai-ea lYA". inches. 

No. 1. G. J. Walker, Esq., Teignmouth, Devon. Apertiu'c 3|, achr. 

„ 2. D. Smith, Esq., Birmingham. „ 3, achi*. 

(Mrs. Jackson, Old Erompton. „ 3|, achr. 

T. "Whitehouse, Esq., West Bromwich. „ 12|, achr. 

J. Leigh, Esq., "Warrington. „ 8-i, refl. 

„ 4. F. Bird, Esq., Bii-mingham. „ 12,"^ refl. 

„ 5. J. Graham, Esq., Ashton-under-Lyne. „ 4|, achr. 

„ G. Eev. W. 0. WilUams, Pwllheli, North Wales. „ A^, achi-. 

y 

Area IV A^. inches. 

No. 1. Eev. W. 0. Williams, Pwllheli, North Wales. Aperture 4yL, achr. 

H. Ingall, Esq., Cambenvell. ,, 4-5, dial. 

C. Grover, Esq., Chesham, Bucks. „ 6|-, refl. 
F. C. Penrose, Esq., Wimbledon. „ 5|, achr. 
T. Petty, Esq., Deddington, near Oxford. „ 3, achr. 

D. GiU, Esq., Aberdeen. „ 12, refl. 

In addition to the above named, the following gentlemen have kindly 
offered to make occasional observations, and to examine particular ob- 
jects:— i„^j,,g. 
J. Buckingham, Esq., Walworth. Aperture 9 & 21|, ar-hr. 
J. N. Loekyer, Esq., Finchley Eoad. „ 6, achr. 
H. Barnes, Esq., HoUoway. „ 10|, refl. 

D. A. Freeman, Esq., Upper Tooting, Surrey. „ 4|, achr. 
W. Huggins, Esq., Upper Tulse Hill. ' „ 8, achr. 
J. Browning, Esq., HoUoway. „ 12, refl. 

E. Crossley, Esq., Halifax. • „ 9-3, achr. 
D. M. Webster, Esq., Dundee. ,, 7, achr. 
G. Knott, Esq., Cuckfield, Sussex. „ Tj, achr. 
Eev. W. E. Dawes, Haddenham. „ 8, achr. 
Eev. T. W. Webb, Hardwick, Herefordshire. ' „ 9|,_ refl. 
H. J. Slack, Esq., Camden Square. „ 6|, refl. 
T. Barneby, Esq., Worcester. „ 9, achr. 
J. Joynson, Esq., Waterloo, Liverpool. ,, 6, achr. 
G. Williams, Esq., Liveiiwol. „ 4|, achr. 
Capt. Noble, Maresfield, Sussex. „ 4-2, achi'. 
C. L. Prince, Esq., Uckfield, Sussex. „ 6-8, achr. 

Eev. 



J. Simpson, Dysart, Fife. „ ] ,' 



achr. 
refl. 



Several rctui-ns have been received, but they are not yet in a state fit for 
publication. 

It has been proposed that, previous to publishing any returns, that may 
be made to the Committee, the objects reported by the several observers 
shall be re-examined by Mr. Birt, or by some other gentleman on behalf of the 
Committee, with the aid of a telescope of superior power. The annual grant, 



ON MAPPING THE SURFACE OF THE MOON. 3 

which the Committee request may be renewed, is uot available for supplj-ing 
an instrument suitable for this puiiDose, as it is necessarilj' expended in 
earryiug on tlie work of mapping, registration, &c. Nevertheless' the Com- 
mittee hope that aid may be afforded by which this desii-able object may be 
attained, as, by the use of such an instrument, an authority will be given to 
the work of a kind which it would not other^dse possess. 

Alleged Change on the Moon's Surface. — On the 27th of November 
186G, the Committee received a communication from Herr Schmidt, Di- 
rector of the Observatory at Athens, announcing that a remarkable change 
had taken place in the crater " Linne." The importance of this communi- 
cation was at once apparent, as bearing in one direction on on interesting 
question on lunar physics, and in another on the labom-s of tlie Committee. 
Two years ago the Committee urged the necessity of so registering an object 
that it might ever after, in all time, be sufficiently identified by all future 
observers (Eeport, 1865, p. 294). Tlie announcement of Schmidt suggests a 
modification ; for if a change sufficiently extensive should take place in any 
object, the condition of which had been definitely settled by more than one 
observer, it might be difficult to identify it as the same object, but the value 
of the determination of its former condition would be increased, both deter- 
minations being equally good. In the particular case of " Linne," it is only 
in the latter part of 1866, and up to September 1867, that its real state may 
be regarded as settled upon the testimony of numerous observers, whose 
observations fairly agree among themselves. With regard to its former 
state there is some doubt, in consequence of real or supposed inexactitude in 
previous observations, from which it is difficult to arrive at a conclusion; 
an earlier observation agreeing (in the opinion of most astronomers) with 
its present appearance, while others of a later date are ii-reconcileablc with 
it. In the present state of Selenography a record of its real condition at any 
particular epoch is so obviously important that nearly the whole of the obser- 
vations, both early and recent, that have come into the possession of the 
Committee, are given in an appendix ; those not inserted are mere repetitions 
of similar features. 

Herr Tempel's opinion of the round white spots on the moon's surface 
(analogous to the appearance which Linne now presents) being of interest 
for the existence of a chemicalhf warm activiti/ (Astronomische Nachrichten, 
No. 1655, translated by W. T. Lynn, B.A., F.R.A.S., Astronomical Eegister, 
No. 58, p. 219), demands attention. These spots, which are very numerous, 
have usually been considered as ground-markings, but as Linne, in 1788, 
and in 1866-67, presented a similar appearance, they will in future com- 
mand more attention. 

During the past year the Committee have issued three Circulars : — No. I. 
announcing the change in Linne ; No. II. Tables of the periods of visibility 
of those portions of the surface near the moon's limb periodically concealed 
by changes of libration ; and No. III. a resimn' of the results of observations 
of Linne up to June 1867. A portion of this Cii'cular, with additional obser- 
vations,- will be foimd in the Appendix. 

APPENDIX. 

Linn£. — Observations, eaelt and recent. 
Linne is marked A in Lohrmanns Section IV. 

1 (a). Scheuter's observation, 1788. — " Nov. 5, 4'' 30'" to 8'' (Seleno- 
topographische Fragmente, vol. i. p. 181). Diesechste Bergader kommt von 

• b2 



4 REPORT — 1SG7. 

einer fast dicht an den siidlichen Griinzgcbirgen befiadliehen, verhiiltlicli 
gezeichneten Einscnkiing a, streiclit nordlich iiauh v, wo seJhst sie wleder erne 
olingefdhr r/lelch grosse, aher ganz fiache, ah ein iveisses, selir Ideines rundes 
Fleclcchen erscheinende, etwas ungewisse Einsenlcimg in sick ]uit.'"[ 

Translation. — The sixth ridge comes from a depression u, situated almost 
close upon the south boundary mountains, passes northwards towards v, wliere 
it again has within it a somewhat uncertain depression of about the same size, 
hut quite flat and resembling a ichite, very small round spot. 

(b). Schmidt's Reference to 8chkoter's Observation. — " I. Schroter, 
5. Nov. 1788, Abends, beriihrte die zunehmende Phase den Ostrand des 
Mare Serenitatis, so dass die Berge des Caucasus und der nordliche Apennin 
schon erleuchtet -waren. Schroter beobachtete diesmal mit 95-maliger 
Vergrosserung des siebenfiissigen Reflectors. Seine Abbildung vom 5. Nov. 
ist Tab. IX., Band I., der Selenotopograpbischen Fragmente. Der kleine 
Crater v daselbst entspricht am ndehsten dcm Orte des Linne, keineswcgs aber 
y, der jetzt noch sichtbar ist, und noch weuiger der dunkle Fleck g." 

Translation.— 1. Schroter, 5 Nov. 178^, in the evening, at the increas- 
ing phase, the terminator was in contact with the eastern boundary of the 
Mare Serenitatis, so that the mountains of Caucasus and the northern 
Apennine were already illuminated. Schroter observed this time with a power 
of 95 on the 7-foot reflector. His drawing of 5 Nov. is in Tab. IX. vol. i. 
of the Sclenotopographic Fragments. The small crater v in it corresponds 
nearest to the place of Linne, y (which is now still visible) not ac aU so, and 
still less the dark spot g. 

Note. — In the Monthly Notices R. A. S., vol. xxvii. p. 298, Mr. Huggins 
has italicized the portion of Schrciter's observation of the spot v. In Schmidt's 
reference I have italicized the word " niichsten"' (nearest). Schmidt does not 
appear to have identified v with Linne (sec post, p. 21). 

2. Lohriiann's Observation.— 1823, May 28, 2" 12"' to 2" 15™ Morgens, 
Wahre Dresdner Zeit (Topographic der Sichtbaren Mondoberfliiche, p. 92): — 
" A ist die zweite Grube auf dieser Fliiche .... neben einer von Sulpicius 
Gallus herkommenden Bergader, hat eincn Durchmesser der etwas mehr 
als eine Meile betriigt, ist sehr tief, und kann in jeder Beleuchtung gesehen 
werden." 

Translation. — A is the second crater upon this plain .... near a ridge 
beginning at Sulpicius Gallus, it has a diameter of somewhat more than a 
mile, is very deep, and can be seen under every illumination. 

Lohrmann's Note to his measure of A (Topographic der Sichtbaren Mond- 
oberfliiche, p. XV of Observations): — " Conon kann zur Zeit des VoUmondes 
nicht deutlich gesehen werden ; dagegen zeigt sich A immer als heller Punkt 
im grauen Mare Serenitatis." 

Translation. — Conon cannot be seen distinctly at the time of the full moon, 
whilst A shows itself always as a bright point in the grey Mare Serenitatis. 

3. Beer and Madler's Measures. — 1831, Dec. 12 and 13. Extract from 
a letter of Professor Miidler in English, dated 18G7, June 6. 

"The crater Linne, situated in 27° 47' 13" N. lat., and 11° 32' 28" W. 
long., has a diameter of 1-4 geographical miles (6-4 English miles). In full 
moon the edge of it is not very sharply limited, but in oblique illumination 
it is very distinct, and I have measured it seven times with great facility. 
The light of the edge is noted permanently 6° ; the very small inner space 
has nearlj', or full the same brightness till the moment when shadows begin." 
4. Schmidt. — IJber die gegenwiirtige Ycriinderung des Mondcraters " Linne." 
Sitzungsberichte der K. Akademie, Wien, Bd. Iv. Feb. 1867. 



ON MAPPING THE SURFACi; OF THE MOON. 5 

In this letter to Herr Haidinger, Herr Schmidt ass.igns to Linne a diameter 
of 5700 toises, or 36449 English feet, with at least a depth of 170 toises, or 
1087 English feet. 

Schmidt's early obseevatioks, which included nearly 1300 lunar drawings. 

1810. " Aiif einer Geueralcharte des Mondcs, von 12 ZoU Durchmesser 
die ich nach cigenen Beobachtimgen wahrseheinlich Eude 1840 ausarheitete, 
finde ich ' Linne ' als Crater angcgeben. Lohrmann's und Miidler's Werke 
wurden mir erst 1843 in Hamburg zugiinglieh." 

Translation. — On a general chart of the moon, diameter 12 inches, which 
I constructed from my own observations probably about the end of 1840, I 
find Linne marlced as a crater. The works of Lohrmann and Miidler were 
not accessible to me imtil the year 1843 at Hamburg. 

" 1841, April 27. Abends ; zunehmende Phase im Ostrande dcs Mare Sere- 
nitatis. In Nr. 4 fehlt Linne, aber zwei kleine Crater im Nordwesten sind 
stai-k ausgezeichnet." 

Translation. — 1841, April 27, evening. The morning terminator on the 
eastern boundary of the Mare Serenitatis. In No. 4 Linne is wanting, but 
two small craters are strongly marked on the north-west. 

" 1841, Mai 28. Abends ; Phase iiber Eratosthenes und Plato. In Nr. 11 
ist Linne nicht angegeben." 

Translation. — May 28, evening. The terminator on Eratosthenes and 
Plato. In No. 11 Linne is not marked. 

" 1841, September 0. Abends ; abnehmende Phase iiber Eudoxus und Me- 
nelaus (Nr. 36) ; Linne nicht gezeichnet." 

Translation. — September 6, evening. Evening terminator on Eudoxus 
and Menelaus (No. 36) ; Linne not marked. 

" 1841, December 2. Morgcns ; abnehmende Phase iiber Atlas und 
Gutenberg. In Nr. 52 habe ich Linne in grossem Abstande von der Licht- 
grenze als Crater gezeichnet."' 

Translation. — December 2, morning. Evening terminator on Atlas and 
Gutenberg. In No. 52 I have marked Linne as a crater at a great distance 
from the terminator. 

" 1841, December 2. Abends ; abnehmende Phase iiber Isidorus imd 
Fracastor. In Nr. 53 ist Linne verhaltlich schr gross als Crater angegeben." 

Translation. — December 2, evening. Evening Terminator on Isidorus and 
Fracastor. In No. 53 Linne is given proportionately very large as a crater. 

" 1841, December 3. Morgens ; abnehmende Phase iiber Posidonius und 
Piccolomini ; Nr. 54 steUt den Linne deutlich als Crater dar." 

Translation. — December 3, morning. Evening terminator on Posidonius 
and Piccolomini ; No. 54 represents Linne distinctly as a crater. 

" 1842, Jiinner 3. Morgens ; abnehmende Phase iiber Eudoxus und Me- 
nelaus. In Nr. 63 ist Linne, hart an der Phase, nicht verzeichnet." 

Translation. — 1842, Jan. 3, morning. Evening terminator on Eudoxus 
and Menelaus. In No. 03 Linne, close to the terminator, is not marked. 

" 1842, Februar 16 und 17 (Nr. 74 und 75) ; bei zunehmender Phase ward 
Linne, der Lichtgrenze nahe, nicht gesehen." 

Translation. — Feb. 16 and 17. Morning terminator. Linne, which was 
near the light-boundary, was not seen. 

" 1842, Juli 14. Abends ; zunehmende Phase im Ostrande des Mare 
Serenitatis. Beobachtet ward zu Hamburg an einem guteu Fernrohre von 
Banks. Unter 88-maliger Vergrtisserung ward Linne als sehr kleiner Crater 
gezeichnet." 

Translation. — July 14, evening. Morning terminator on the eastern 



6 REPORT 1867. 

border of the Mare Sercnitatis. Observed Linne at Hamburg ■with a good 
telescope ])y Banks. With power 88, it was represented as a very small 
crater. 

" 1843, Mai 9. Abends ; zunehmende Phase schon iibcr den Copernicus 
hinaus. Bei vorziiglich gutcr Luft ziihlte ich am zuletzt-genannten Fernrohre 
22 Crater im Mare Sereuitatis, daruntcr in Nr. 270 sicher den Linne." 

Translation. — May 9, evening. Morning terminator already passed over 
Copernicus. The air being particularly favourable, I counted with the last- 
mentioned telescope 22 craters in the Mare Serenitatis, and amongst them in 
No. 270 is certainly included Linne. 

" 1843, August 17, um 13 Uhr ; am grosseu Fernrohre der Hamburger 
Sternwarte beobachtet bei guter Luft. Beide Bergadern von Sulpicius Gallus 
nach Norden zichend, an der abnehmenden Phase, gut siehtbar,aber vom Linne 
keine Spur (Nr. 32(3)." 

Translation. — Axigust 17, about 13 hours; observed in good atmosphere 
with the great telescope of the Hambm-g Observatory. The two mountain 
veins running northerly from Sulpicius Gallus were well visible on the evening 
terminator, but of Linne no trace. 

Eecent Observations — Results. 

1°. An ill-defined white spot, not unlike a cloud, greater in extent than the 
crater of Lohrmann, Beer and Miidler, and Schmidt. 

2°. A large shallow crater that has been very rarely seen. 

3°. A small crater within the shallow crater, first seen as a crater by Father 
Secchi on Feb. 11, 1867. 

These appearances of Linne have not been recorded previously as co- 
existing*. 

Observations of the White Spot. 

These have been very numerous. No doubt whatever has been cast on 
this appeai'ance of Linne since Oct. 15, ISfiG. The only question that exists 
has reference to the variability or invariability of its size, and probably of its 
reflective power. 

ScrorrDT's Recent Observations. Note. — It will be sufficient to quote 
merely the dates of these observations except the fii-st, in which Schmidt 
speaks of his missing for the first time the crater-form of Linne. 

" 1866, October 16. Abends; zunehmende Phase iiber den Caucasus. Luft 
sehr still, schwach dunstig. Viele kleine Crater im Mare Sercnitatis sichtbar ; 
Linne aber, obgloich hochst giinstig beleuchtct, erschien nicht als Crater, 
sondcrn als kleine Wolke, iihnlich dem wcissen Flecken (istlich bei Posidonius 
in der grossen Bergader, welcher Fleck (in Wiiklichkeit cin grauer lioherer 
Gipfel jener Bergader) in Lohrmann's Sect. III. mit 16 bczeichnet ist, bei 
Madler aber y heisst. Zum Ersten Male vermisste ich den Linne, odcr vicl- 
mehi' seine Craterform, die sich jetzt ticf beschattet, imd in besonderer 
Deutlichkeit htitte zeigen miissen." 

Translation. — 186.6, October 16, evening. Morning terminator over Cau- 
casus. Air very still, slightly misty. Many small craters visible in the Mare 
Serenitatis ; but Linne, although most favourably illuminated, did not appear 
as a crater, but as a small cloud similar to the white spot eastward near 
Posidonius in the great mountain-ridge, which spot (in reality a grey highish 

* 1867, Nov. 3. Mr. Prince, of TJckfield, saw the shallow crater and the small crater at 
the same time : see post, p. 13, 



ON MAPPING THE SURFACE OF THE MOON. 7 

peak of that momitain-ridge) is denoted by 16 in Lohrmann's Sect. III., but 
is called y by Madlee. For the first time did I miss Linuc, or rather its 
crater-form, which at that time ought to have sho-svn with especial distinct- 
ness and deeply shadowed. 

Schmidt obserTcd Linuc as a spot of light onhj, more or less similar to y 
Posidonius, on the undermentioned days: 1860, Oct. IS ; Nov. 14, 17, 19, 
22, 23, 24, and 2-5. On Nov. 26 ho recorded " no trace of Linne."' He also 
observed it as alight-spot on Dee. 14-16 (and following evenings), 2.5, and 27. 
On Dec. 27 he speaks of it as "inconsiderable." 1S67, Jan. 13, 14 to 19, 
and 24, he still observed it as a light-spot or small white cloud. A\?,o on 
May 23, he estimated it at 0-6 of Sulpicius Gallus ; May 24, estimated at 0-25 
of S. Galliis ; June 22, 0-33 of S. Gallus ; and July 9, as the usual spot of 
light. 

M. Flammarion observed the white spot on May 10, 1867, and described 
it as under (Comptes Eendus, tom. Ixiv. 20 Mai, 1867, ISTo. 20, p. 1020.) 
He does not appear to have seen either the large shallow crater, or the small 
crater or hUl which were observed on the same day by Eespighi and Schmidt. 

" Une observation attentif montre immediatement que Linne n'est plus un 
cratere. Aucuue ombre exterieure a I'est, aucune ombre au centre. En sa 
place il n'y a plus maintenant qu'une nuee blanche circulaire, ou plutot une 
tache blanche attenant au sol, laquelle, loin de s'elever comme un cratere 
sur le fond un pen verdati-e de la mer de la Serenite parait n'etre ni en relief 
ni en creux et ressemble a un lac plus claire que la plaine avoisinante." 

Trmislntwn. — An attentive observation shows immediately that Liane is 
no longer a crater. No exterior shadow to the east, no shadow at the centre. 
In its place there is now nothing more than a white circular cloud, or rather 
a white spot contiguous to the ground, which, so far from elevating itself as a 
crater on the slightly greenish ground of the Mare Serenitatis, appears neither 
to be in rehef nor as a depression, but resembles a lalce brighter than the 
neighbouring plain. 

1867, July 9. Mr. Huoorys measured the length and breadth of the white 
spot, \\z. 7"'S54 length, and 6""138 breadth. On the same evening I measured 
the white spot in the direction of position angle 0°, and found the diameter 
in this direction 7'''004 ; the mean of the length and breadth gives 6"'996 
for an intermediate diameter. 

1867, Aiigust, 6'' 8'\ Distance of meridian of Linne from meridian crossed 
hy terminator at the moon's equator 0° 6'-4, Linne being unenlightened. 
Later, when the moon was low in the west, Mr. Buckingham saw an oval spot 
rise gradually out of the dark part of the moon, which projected a shadow to 
the edge. 

From the sketch accompanying the note, it would appear that this spot 
was somewhat elevated above the general surface, as the shadow extended to 
the terminator, also the cone of the little crater is shown casting an exterior 
shadow, the orifice being a black spot. On the same evening, at 8'' 30", Mr. 
Bird noticed two notches on the terminator near the neighbourhood of Linne, 

1867, Oct. 5. Mr. Slack, of Camden Square (telescope 6|-inch aperture, 
silvered glass reflector), observed the white spot. He says, " The next 
night (Oct. 5) I thought the white patch round Linne smaller than on many 
former occasions, but changes of this sort are very common." 

Mr. Webstee, of Dundee (telescope 7-inch aperture, achromatic object 
glass by Cooke), records, " Oct. 5, I could see Linne only as a small faint 
nebulosity." 

1867, Oct. 10. Mr. Slack. " The white spot Linne did not melt off gra- 



8 REPORT — 1867. 

diudhj into the colour of the STtrrounding sea as in some previous months. 
It showed as a distinct clear white spot, round which the sea was distinctly 
of a deeper tint — one of the nondescript ochrcous browns. 'No symptoms of 
a cloudy edge was visible vrith my 6| and power lOU." 

In contrast with this and as illustrative of Mr. Slack's opinion of varia- 
tions in the appearance of Linne (see 2')ost, p. 22) I quote the following passage 
from my note-book under date 1SG7, July 8 : — 

" The portion near the south border of the Mare Serenitatis was greatly in 
contrast with Linne and its neighbourhood. While the most minute furrow 
or cleft could have been seen near Sulpicius Gallus, linne was so indistinct that 
nothing Avas visible except the spot of light, and this was quite undefined, so 
that any Avell-marked margin, was invisible. Linne appeared as a light spot, 
hriqliter towards the centre." 

On Oct. 17, to lo*", G. M. T., Mr. F. Bird, of Eirmingham, observed the 
white spot but could not see the small crater, nor any trace whatever of sha- 
dow, but he noticed that the place occupied by the small crater in July was 
in October umisualhj bright. It is to be remarked that the state of the air 
was almost as bad as possible at the time, so that it is doubtful if the small 
crater was really replaced by the small bright spot. 

1867, Oct. 18, le"" to 20'' 30". Mi-. BrcKiNonAM observed the white spot 
to be convex. 

Mr. Crossley on the same day saw the white spot as an irregular badly- 
defined patch, especially towards Bessel, on which side near the centre was 
the only shadow visible, which might have been the shadow of the supposed 
central peak from its position. 

Analogous Spots. 

The spot which, so far as I am aware, exhibits the closest analogy to 
Linne in its present state is lY A* ^\ IT A^^'' : sec Eeport, 1866, pp. 251, 
262 and 276, where it is simply recorded as a bright spot. 1867, May 11, 
8" 0" to S** 30™, I record : — IV A*'', TVA^^^ is a shallow crater on the 
S.W. side of the ridge forming the X.E. boundary of Hipparchus. 1867, 
Oct. 7, Rev. "\V. 0. "Williams of PwUheli recorded it as " veiy bright," but 
said nothing of a crater. 

On Oct. 17, IS*" to 1.5'', G. M. T., Mr. Williams noticed it as a very con- 
spicuous crater, and on Oct. 18, 17'' to 19'', G. M. T., it was also very con- 
spicuous with a central cone casting a shadow. . In preparing area IV A^ 
for engraving, I have met with a spot still more analogous to Linne. It is 
west of Horrox, is marked IV A^^ ^"^ , and will be fully described in the letter- 
press of IV A/3. 

Estimations and measures of the White Spot. 

Table I. contains estimations and measures of the extent of the white spot 
in seconds of arc, English feet, and French metres. Those marked (*) are 
measures, all at an angle of position=0°, except the measures by Mr. Huggins 
marked respectively (t) the length, and {%) the breadth of the white spot. 
The angles of position of these measures arc not given. As the same angle 
of jiosition gives a different line of measurement on the moon's smrface from 
day to day, the measures are not referable to the same line across the 
white spot. 

The number of English feet subtending an angle of l"-0 at the centre of 
the moon's disk at mean distance is 6116-7. At any given distance from the 
centre this quantity is increased in the proportion of the secant of the angle. 



I 



ON MAPPING THE SURFACE Ol'' THE MOON. 9 

measuring the distance from the centre, which in the ease of lannc is erinal 
to 29° 5-i' 40", therefore GllGwx secant 29° 54' 40' = 7056-6 English feet, 
which subtend an angle of l"-0 at the mean position of Linne; hut as this 
mean jjositiou maj' be either at perigee or apogee, ■where the value of l"-0 
may be greater or less, the above is the value at nicaii distance, which is 
never contemporaneous with mean libration. See lieport, 1S6G, p. 245. 

The apparent sizes of objects on the moon's disk are affected both by dis- 
tance and libration. The former presents them alternately to the eye under 
larger and smaller angles, according as the moon is nearer to or further from 
us. The latter alters their positions on the disk, sometimes bringing them 
nearer to the apparent centre, at others removing them to a greater distance 
from it. Approximately, distance may aficct the measurements of objects to 
an extent of about a 9th part of the greatest measures at the epoch of mean 
libration ; for as mean libration may occur when the moon is in perigee, 
a measure taken at the time of apogee, when the moon is in a state of mean 
hbration, will be less by about the 9th part of a measure taken at perigee 
mean libration. 

Libration atfects the measures of objects by presenting them imder larger 
or smaller angles, according as they are nearer to or further from the centre 
of the apparent disk ; thus an object of 6116-7 English feet in diameter, 
occupying the centre of the disk nt mean distance, would subtend an angle 
of l"-0. At mean Libration, moon in Perigee, an object of the same ex- 
tent would subtend an angle of l"-059 + ; moon in Apogee 0"-941. In the 
first case a similar object at an angular distance of 19° 54' 40" would appear 
foreshortened in a radial direction, the longer axis at right angles to a radius 
measuring l"-059, the shorter axis 0"-996 ; the shorter axis of an object of 
the same diameter at a chstance of 29° 54' 40" on the same radius would 
measure only 0"-918 ; the difference, 0"-07S, is the change of angle arising 
from the displacement of such an object by libration (about the epoch of 
Perigee) equal to an arc on a radius of the moon's apparent surface of 10°, i. e. 
between 20° and 30° ; on the oi)posite side of the orbit it is less. 

Table I. 

Estimations and measures of the extent of the white spot on the Crater 
Linne reduced to 29° 54' 40" = angular distance from the moon's centre. 



Authoritv. 



Schmidt 

Birt 

Bii-t 

Birt 

Bii-t 

Schmidt 

Birt 

Buckingham 

Wolf 

Birt 

Hugging . . . 
Huggins . . . 

Birt 

Birt 

Birt 



Ejioch. 



Date. 



Seconds. 



i866 
i866 
i866 
1866 
iS66 
i866 
1S67 
1867 
186- 
1867 
1867 
1867 
1867 
1867 
1867- 



•794- 
■953 
•g6l 
964 
■969 
986 
036 
•197 

443 
515 
S18 
518 
S18 
520 
528 



1866, Oct. 18 
1866, Dec. 15 

1566, „ 18 
1866, „ 19 

1866, ,, 2T 

1866, „ 27 

1567, Jan. 14 
1S67, Mar. 14 
1S67, June 12 

1867, July 8 
1S67, „' 9 
1867, ,, 9 
1867, „ 9 
1867, ,, 10 
1867, „ 13 



6-90 
ii-6i* 

7'07* 
7-32* 

675* 
i-8i 

7-95* 
6 -co* 
4-50 

5"33* 
7-85* 
6-14* 
7'oo* 
5-36* 
6-31* 



Eng. feet. 



Fr. metres. 



4868S 
81932 
49871 
51652 
47644 
127S9 
56105 
42340 

317SS 
37626 
55423t 

43314$ 
49426 

37848 
44528 



14840 
24972 
15201 

15744 
14522 

3898 
17100 
12905 

9679 
11468 
16893 
13202 
15065 
11536 
13572 



10 REPORT 1867. 

Brightness of the Whitish Spot. 

Since Schmidt suspected a change in Limie he has recorded nine compari- 
sons of the brightness of Linne with that of the spot on the S.E. of Posi- 
douius marked y by B. & M. (see ante, p. G). On seven occasions he found it 
less bright than y, viz. on 1866, ^ox. 17, 19, 22, 23, and 2-1; and 1867, 
Jan. 13 and 14 §. On Dec. 16, 1866, he recorded it equal to y ; and on Dec. 
14, 1866, brighter than y. I also found it less bright than y on seven even- 
ings, viz. 1866, Dec. 19, 1867, Jan. 14 §, 15, Feb. 11, May 11 and 15, and 
Aug. 12. On May 17 and July 13 I recorded it as equal to y, and brighter than 
y on March 14 and Aug. 10 ; on March 14 Mr. Buckingham estimated it as 
equal to y. The above are comparisons -with y only, they give no informa- 
tion as to the degree of brightness -n-ith which Linne reflected the sun's light. 
The following are my estimations of the brightness of Linne, the scale being 
shadow =0"^, the bright mountain in Aristarchus = 10°. 

1866, Dec. 14. 3-0 1867, Jan. 

,, lo. o'O ,, 

,, 18. o'o ,, 

„ 19. 5-0 July 

„ 21. 4-0 

These numbers appear to indicate that between 1866, Dec. 14, and 1867, 
Aug. 12, Linne increased in brightness as the altitude of the sun increased. 

The following are estimations of the brightness of y Posidonius contempo- 
raneous with those of Linne. 



12. 


o 

3-0 


1867, July 10. 


o 

4-5 


14. 


4'0 


„ 13. 


5-0 


15. 


5-0 


Aug. 10. 


4-0 


8. 


3-0 


„ 12. 


6-0 


9. 


4-0 







o o 



1866, Dec. 19. 5-1 1867, July 8. 5-0 1867, Julv 13. 5-0 

„ 21. 4-5 „ 9. 5-0 Aug. 10. 3-9 

1867, Jan. 15. 5-5 „ 10. 5-0 „ 12. 6-2 

Observations were made on the evenings of Dec. IS and 19, 1866, with 

the view of confirming the estimations by comparison with other objects. 

They were as follows : — 

Dec. 18. Dee. 19. 

Proclus 9-0 9-0 

Censorinus .... 8-5 9-0 

Dionysius 8-0 8*5 . 

Conon 7-0 7-0 

Linne 5-5 5-0 

y Posidonius. ... 5-1 

Bessel 4-0 (ring) 4-5 

The similarity of appearance under high illumination exhibited by Linne 
and y Posidonius [I E'^ ^'] is remarkable, especially as the two objects are so 
very dissimilar in character. The white spot on the site of Linne, so far as 
we know at present, differs, as we see it, very little, if any, in level from the 
surrounding surface of the Mare Sennitatis. Most of the former records place 
Linne on or very near a ridge crossing the Mare Serenitatis. Since October 
16, 1866, the appearance of this ridge in the immediate neighhourhood of 
Linne has not been recorded. On July 8, 1867, I have this note : — " The 
ridge between Linne and Sulpicius Gallus quite perceptible, except a small 
portion near Linne.'' This ridge is of variable height, the shadows distinct, 

§ Indicates that Schmidt's observation was contemporaneous with mine. — W. R. JB. 



i 



ox MAPPING THE SURFACE OF THE MOON. 11 

especially of the highest part, a little south of Linne. I E^ ^ [y Posidoiiius], 
when near the morning or evening tenuinator, shows itself as a distinct 
mountain peak of 150 toises, or 959-2 English feet in height. It is only 
when the sun attains a considerable altitude on y that it presents the same 
appearance as Linne, viz. that of a white diffused cloudy patch. So far as I 
am aware, it is only recently that this similarity of appearance between these 
objects has been observed. Although many monntains and craters lose their 
distinguishing featnres, and appear as round white spots when the sun is at 
a great altitude above their respective horizons, there are numerous craters 
that present the characteristic appearance of having a darJc interior, sur- 
rounded by a hriglit ring under the more direct rays of the sun, when most 
mountains are seen as bright spots. 

Connected with the similarity of appearance under high illumination is 
another interesting feature characterizing Linne and y Posidonius [I E* '^], 
■\"iz. the existence during the period of observation, of crater-openings on 
both. Of that on Linne I E')' ^ we have numerous records. That on y [I E^ ^] 
is certainly smaller than I E^ ", and has been seen only on five occasions. 
It was discovered 1867, Januaiy 14, by Mr. Knott, with his T^-inch 0. G. 
by Alvan Clark. His own words wiU best describe the nature of the disco- 
very. "Writing under date of March 3, 1867, he says, " While observing 
Linne' on the 14th of Januaiy, at about lO** 30" G. M. T., I had myself a 
strong impression of a darl: sj^oi, as described by Schmidt, but definition was 
so poor, and I saw, or fancied I saw, traces of a simiiar appearance on Posi- 
donius y, that I regarded it as an illusion, and made no note of it at the 
time. I could not, however, free my mind from the idea that there mir/lit be 
something in it, and accordingly, two days afterwards, I added the following 
note, which I transcribe verhatim : — 

" I had a verg strong impression, with various eyepieces, of a small cen- 
tral dark spot on the diffused patch covering (?) Linne, so strong that I 
inclined to regard it as having a real existence ; as, however, I saw a similar 
appearance, though not nearly so strongly marked, on y [Posidonius], I can 
onlj" regard it as a curious optical illusion." — Xote added Januaiy 16, 1867. 

Tliis dark spot on y Posidonius was next seen by Mr. Buckingham on the 
11th of April, 1867. His observation is thus recorded :— 

" 1867, April 11, 6"^ to 10'> 59™. Air very steady, but slightly hazy, and 
found y Posidonius a fine crater, 0"-5, seen well with 360 and higher, 
clearly with 250, but could not with 120." 

1867, May 11. Herr ScinriDT recorded as follows : — " I also see a deli- 
cate black point in y Posidonius ". 

1867, Oct. 16. Mr. BucKiNGnAM saw and described it as very black. 

1867, Dec. 4, 7"^ 30™, G. M. T. Mr. Knott records that it was well seen*. 

The increase of the brightness of Linne as the sun attains a greater alti- 
tude above its horizon, especially as y Posidonius does not exhibit it in so 
marked a degree, may bear a passing remark without at all hazarding an 

* About the middle of January 1866, Mr. Leigh, then of Birkenhead, novr of War- 
rington, detected a curious group of three small craters and three smaU moimtains north 
of Aristoteles, which is figured by Webb in the ' Intellectual Observer,' Ko. 60. vol. x. 
Jan. 1867, p. 441. April 11, 1867, Webb detected on the western of the three mountains 
a shallow pit (I I' ") (see ' Intellectual Observer,' l^o. 64. vol. si. May 1867, p. 282). Webb 
h.id pri->viniisly (1806, April 21) detected a cavity or pit (T I**) on tlie western mountain 
of B. & M.'s r nortli of Ari.stoteles, which was extremely plain 0]i April 11, 1867. In 
connexion with the phenomena presented by Linne, the value of observations of these and 
similar object.'^ is obvious. 



13 KEFOKT 1867. 

opinion as to change. Varying angles of ilhimination appear to affect objects 
on the moon's surface differenthj ; for example, under an oblique illumination, 
when the sun shines more directly on the steep sloping sides of some craters, 
they appear very bright ; this brightness arises from two circumstances, viz. 
the nature of the surface of the sloping sides, and the angle of illumination 
upon them being more direct ; this of itself -will make a difference in the 
brightness (when no real difference exists in the reflective power of the in- 
terior and exterior surfaces) at the times of sun-rising and setting ; as the 
sun rises higher above the horizon the brilliancy from this cause declines. 
The variations in the brilliancy of Linnc, y Posidonius, and other spots which 
arc similarly affected, do not appear to be produced in the same manner. 
The difference arising from elevation in the case of Linnd (if it exists) seems 
to be too slight to occasion any appreciable effect. The gradual brightening 
of such spots as Linne, especially when situated on a ground which darkem 
ujider the more direct rays of the sun, appears to point to something in the 
nature of the surface of the spot — as contrasted with that of the surrounding 
surface — on which the sun's rays exert an influence, rendering it, for the time 
being, capable of reflecting a greater amount of light. While there is a more 
or less constant relation between reflective power and angle of illumination, 
the recorded differences of reflective power under the same angles of illumina- 
tion, would indicate that these differences depend upon other circumstances 
than increase and decrease of illuminating angle. The phenomena presented 
by Linnc during the last twelve months are strikingly in contrast with those 
presented by Plato, as observed by me between 1859 and 1863. Linne is 
faint under "oblique rays, bright under those that are more direct. Plato re- 
flects more light under oblique, and less under more direct rays, i. e. the sur- 
face is of a darler tint under a higher angle of illumination. 

The Shaliow Ckatee. 

This object, of which no measures exist, has not been previously recorded, 
unless SchriJter's description of the spot v refers to it (see ante, pp. 3 & 4). 
His language is, however, rather ambiguous, and it is doubtful as to whether 
he describes a plain on the same level as the adjacent surface of the Mare 
Serenitatis, or one bounded by a low wall which did not rise above the sur- 
rounding level. It appears that he did not determine the precise natiire of 
the spot V. Schrciter's description is quite irreconcileable with the appearance 
of Linne as given by Lohrmann and by Beer and Miidler. 

Observations of the Shallow Crater. — These have been but few, as 
under : — 

1. 1867, Jan. 12. Mr. Kxott, 7.^ Alvan Clark, Dawes's eyepiece, powers 
14.5 and 240, saw the " Ghost " of the ring of Linne. His observation is 
recorded as foUows, January 12, 6"^ 40'» to 7" 15"', G. M. T. :— 

" I saw clearly the ' Ghost' of the ring of Linne. * * * It is broader (and 
brighter?) on the western side. The shading in the interior is of about equal 
intensity with that of the surrounding Mare. I do not see any real interior or 
exterior shadow, though the shadows in neighbouring craters, even those of 
very small dimensions, are very distinct. The ring or wall of the crater has 
a slightly nebulous appearance, and is in brightness barely equal to that of 
the knoll on the Mare east of Posidonius, marked y on B. etM.'s large map. 
Its diameter is, to my eye, less than that of Sulpicius Gallus." — Astronomi- 
cal Eegister, No. 50,"Feb. 1867, p. 33. 

2. Jan. 12. Mr. Buckixgham saw, in moments of quiet air and good de- 
finition, " a very shallow depression all over the enlightened spot of Linne, 



ON MAPPING THE SURFACE OF THE MOON. 13 

except on the south-west, where an elevation could be seen brighter than 
other parts " *. 

3. Jan. 12, 5.15 p.m. The Rev. 3Ie>tit Cooper Key examined Linne 
Tvith his silvered glass reflector of 12 inches apertiu-e. He says " the air was 
very tremulous (the temperature had fallen to 22°) ; but still definition was 
fairly sharp with powers of 250 and 300. At first the appearance was cer- 
tainly that of a wliitish cloud obscui-ing the crater ; but upon long gazing 
and using averted vision, I could plainly make out a centre or nucleus, and 
presently afterwards a marginal ring of perhaps twice the diameter of the 
original Linne." — Astronomical Register, No. 50, Feb. 1867, p. 33. 

4. Feb. 14. Mr. Geoveb, with a 2-foot Gregorian Reflector, 4-in. aper- 
ture, powers 50 to 75, saw the ring of Linne faint, plainest on the preceding- 
side, very obscure on the following. His observation is thus recorded : — 

" I saw the ring of Linne ■with certainty, though but faint ; it was much 
the plainest on the preceding side, and I was tolerably certain of an interior 
shadow ; bo this as it may, the interior floor was certainly seen, and very 
dusky, * * the following side of the object is very obscure." 

5. April 11. Rev. T. W. Webb saw the ring faintly. He says, " With 
close attention I once or twice thought I saw the ' Ghost,' described by Mr. 
Knott as a pale ring, about as large perhaps as that figured by B. and M., a 
little brighter than the included or exterior surface." — Intellectual Observer, 
No. 64, May 1867, p. 282. 

6. May 10. M. Respighi. — Leg Mondes, 13 Juin 1867. " Dans certains 
moments ou Pair etait parfaitement tranquillc, le contour de la taehe blanche 
paraissait forme par le couronnement d'un grand cratere a petite iDrofondeur. 
Le bord de la tache paraissait mieux defini du cote oriental que dans les 
autres parties, et avcc quelque trace d'ombre." 

Translation. — In certain moments, when the air was perfectly tranquil, the 
contour of the white spot appeared formed by the crown of a large crater of 
little depth. The border of the spot appeared better defined on the eastern 
side than on the other parts, vnth. some trace of a shadow. 

7. July 8. Mr. Huggins. " Ou the evening of July 8, when a great part 
of the light reflected from our atmosphere was removed by means of a Nicol's 
prism placed next the eye, I observed a shadow within the western margin 
of the shallow crater." — Monthly Notices, vol. xxvii. p. 296. 

8. Oct. 18, 16** 30'". Mr. Buckingham saw several small projecting points 
of the old ring, and describes the ring-summit of the white spot as verij white. 

9. Nov. 3, 5'' 5™. L.M.T. Maresfield, Sussex. Capt. Noble saw the shallow 
crater complete. The following is an extract from his notc-book : — 

"For the first time I see Linne unmistakeablj' as a crater, with an im- 
doubted dein-essiou in the interior of the ring. The bottom of the crater is 
very light, in fact practically identical in tint with the surrounding Mare ; 
but Linnaeus is a rinrj surely enough * * * It has a good deal of the effect 
of the annular nebula (57 M) in Lyra. The S.W. part of the ring is the 
thickest portion of it. I first detected these appearances with a power of 
154, and subsequently used one of 255 ; but this only rendered them more 
indubitable. Nothing resembling the dark spot seen by Mr. Huggins on the 
11th of last May (Monthly Notices, vol. xxvii. p. 296) could be detected." 

10. Nov. 3, 5"^ 30". Mr. C. L. Prince, of Uckfield, saw the large sliallow 
crater of Linne ivell defined, and the smaller crater as a black point. The 
observation is thus recorded : — 

* See ante, p. 8, 1837, Oct. 18, when Mr. Buckingham saw the white spot convex. 



14 KEPORT — 18G7. 

" Nov. 3. Upou looking at the moon this evening I saw Linne as a well- 
defined crater, with little of that cloudy haziness which has lately supervened 
it ; also by glimpses I saw a dark line (as if a shadow) on the side nest the 
sun, and ■\vithin the crater. Saw also the smaller crater as a black point." 

Mr. Prince adds, " On the following evening the cloudy spot had completely 
obscured the crater again. I could not detect any crater"*. 

11. 1867, Dec. 3, 5"^ 0™. Messrs. Joynson and Williams, of Livei-pool, 
saw the shallow crater. The record of the observation is as follows : — " The 
' shallow ' oval crater was quite distinct, and south preceding there appeared 
to be the commencement of another (see ante, p. 7, Aiig. 6, S""). The thin 
black line of shadow was well defined ; but the impression given was that 
the hill is either very low and rounded, or, if not low, that the sides are of a 
very gradual ascent. The ' small ' crater could not be seen." 

The Small Cratee. 

There is no record whatever of this object as a crater until 1867, Feb. 11. 
As a wliite lull or hJacJc jioint it appears to have been noticed about two months 
earher, From the time when Herr Schmidt suspected that a change had 
taken place in Linne until December 13, 1866, nothing was seen but the 
large white spot. On this day Schmidt discovered a delicate shadow-project- 
ing hUl. The next evening, December 14, Mr. Buckingham saw a shadow, 
or very black point. Dec. 26, and 1867, Jan. 2.5, Schmidt again saw these 
objects ; and on Feb. 11, 1867, Secchi found a small crater. During March, 
April, May, June, and JiUy, this small crater was seen by several observers, and 
estimates of its diameter given. On Julj- 9 its diameter was measured by Mr. 
Huggins. The following are the most important observations of this object :^ 

" 1866, Dec. 13. [Herr Schmidt.] Abends. Lxift mitunter recht gut. 
Die zunehmeude Phase hatte soeben den Linne iiberschritten. An seiner 
Stelle war Anfangs nicht der geringste Gegenstaud zu cntdccken, obgleich die 
dortigen feinen, 10-30 Toisen hohen Adern sich eben so dcutlich darstellten, 
als die kleuien Crater im Nordwesten. Untcr Anweudung einer 300-maligen 
Vergrossening bemerkte ieh am Orte des Linne, der sich nicM durch helleres 
Licht auszeichnetc, eJnen iiusserst feinen schattenwerfenden Hiigel, fiir den 
eine sorgfaltige Schiitzung 300 Toisen Durchraesscr, imd 5-6 Toisen Hohe 
ergab. Gegen 6 Uhr betrug die SonnenhiJhe fiir den Horizont des Linne 1| 
Grad. "\Yeder innerer noch ausserer Schatten war sichtbar ; das ganze Cratcr- 
gebirge fehlte durchaus, uud ich sah urn- glatte graue Ebene." 

Translation. — Dec. 13, evening. Air at times very good. The morning 
terminator had just passed over Linne. At first there was not the smallest 
object to be discovered in its place, although the delicate ridges about, of 
from 1 0-30 toiscs in height (between 60 and 200 English feet), were clearly 
visible, as well as the small craters in the N.W. By applying a power of 
300, 1 remarked in the place of Linne, which did not show itself distinctly 
through the brighter light, an extremely dehcate shadow-projecting hill, for 
which a careful estimation gave a diameter of 300 toises (about 1918 English 
feet), and a height of 5-6 toises (between 30 and 40 English feet). Towards 
6 o'clock, the sun's altitude for the horizon of Linne amounted to l°-5. 
Neither interior nor exterior shadow was visible ; the whole crater-mountain 
was entirely wanting, and I saw only a smooth grey plain. 

1866, Dec. 14. Mr. Bucki:n-giiam. 6'' to 7'', ecjuatoreal 9 inches aperture, 
power 240 and 361. Mr. MacguU of Glasgow present. " Air unsteady, but 

* 1867, Not. 3, S"* 30'». Mr. Lockyer found Linne Tery difficidt to see. It was only 
a white patch. — Astronomical Kegister, Ko. CO, Dec. 1867, p. 254. 



ON MAPPING THE SURFACE OF THE MOON. 15 

occasionally could see a shadow very black near the centre of Linnc'. Either 
in the crater, or it might be the shadow of a very small peak, very white. 
Several times distinctly seen on the W. jiart of the centre of Linne (not at the 
edge), but no ajipearance of usual crater or shadow ; the shadow seen was a 
black but not round spot, but longer N. and S." 

" 1866, Dec. 26. [Herr Schkidt.] Yon 12-lG Uhr. YorziigUch klare, ganz 
stille Luft, so dass ich die stiirksten Oculare anwenden konnte. Die Phase 
beriihrte den Westrand des Mare Serenitatis ; da y Posidonius, der Phase nahe, 
Schatteu warf, und also nicht mehr als Lichtfleck erschien, konnte er 
nicht mehr mit Linnd verglichen werden. Im Marc zahlte ich iiber 100 
Crater, danmtcr nordwcstlich von Linnc deren siebeu fast in ciner Eeihc, die 
schon Schroter am 27 fiissigon Reflector bemerkt liatte. Aber auch jetzt war 
Linne ein gewohnlicher Lichtfleck von gcringer Augenfalligkeit. Yon 14|- 
1(3 Uhr sail ich in ihm mit 500-600-maligen Yergrdsserung, einen ausserst 

(.r \ /BesselN 

~ I schiitzte, aber x=:[ ^" \> was 
6-5/. V 6-5 / 

auf eiiien wahren Durchmcsser von 265 Toisen fiihrt. Entweder war cs der 
Schatten eines sehr kleinen Hiigels, oder der llest des ehemals 5700 Toisen 
breiten Craters. Die Hohe der >Sonne fiir diese Gegend war jetzt =15°-9." 
Translation. — Dec. 2G. From 12'' to 16" particularly clear and perfectly 
stiU atmosphere, so that I could use the most powerful ej'epieces. The ter- 
minator was in contact with the western edge of the Mare Serenitatis. As y 
Posidonius, being near fhe terminator, threw a shadow, it could no longer be 
compared with Linne. In the Marc I coimted more than 100 craters, 
several N.W. of Linne, seven of them almost in a row, which Schroter had 
already noticed with the 27-feet reflector. But even now Linne was an ordi- 
nary spot of light, but little conspicuous. From 14'' 30"" to 16** 0"* I saw in it 
witia a power of 500-600 an extremely delicate black point, which I estimated 

(X \ /Besscl\ 

—^ I, but A'=i '. ~ I*, which indicates a real diameter of 265 

toises (1695 English feet). It was either the shadow of a very smaU hUl, 
or the remainder of the crater, 5700 toises (36,449 English feet) wide. The 
height of the sun at this region was 15° 9'. 

* As illustrative of Herr Schmidt's estimations ofheights the reader is referred to B. and 
M.'s method, as described in ' Der Mond,' § 65, p. 98, a translation of which, by W. T. Lynn, 
Esq., is as ibllows: — "To measure and calcidate the heights of all' the mountains in the 
moon which, luider favourable circumstances, throw peroeijtible shadows, would not only 
be inconceiyably tedious and troublesome, but, besides this, tlie desired degree of ac- 
curacy would still, in the majority of cases, not be attained, because the shadows are too 
short. But when an observer has acquired sufficient practice by repeated measurements 
under different angles of illumination, he may use one measured mountain (selecting 
one as high as possible) as a standard of estimation for others lying in its neighbour- 
hood, especially when they are nearly the same distance from the terminator. Pos- 
sessed of some practice in eye-estimations, he will easjly be able to find how many times 
the length of a small shadow is contained in the greater one formed by the princiisal 
mountain. Thus it was estimated on the 17th of March, 1834, that the shadow of tlie 
N.W. wall of Egede was equal to J^ of the shadow of the wall of Eudoxus, the height 
of which latter was determined by calculation to be 1627 toises. Egede is situated in the 
neighbourhood of Eudoxus, and its distance from the terminator was then -J that of Eu- 
doxus, so that approximately the height of its N.W. wall was^xAxl627=54toises above 
the interior surface. In this, or a similar manner, have many of tlie elevations given in 
the topographical description been determined ; those actually calculated according to the 
above formula; are set down in § 07 following." 

Herr Schmidt, speaking of this method in a letter to Mr. Lynn, says, " Such estima- 
tions are very accurate, and between hills of the height of 50-200 toises which have been 
measured, differencesof elevation of 5 or 6 toises can, when close to the terminator, be sa- 
tisfactorily and certainly estimated." 



16 REPORT 1867. 

" 1866, Dec. 27. [Here Schmidt.] Von 13 bis 19 Ulir. Luft sehr still, 
aber niu- zeitweilig ganz dunstfrei. Aufangs zog die Lichtgrenzo iiber 
Bessel, zuletzt war am Linne die Sonncnhohe nur uoch 3°. Koiuc Spur eiiies 
Craters erscliien, kein Schatten, weder iiinen noch aussen an deni unbedeu- 
tenden, matten Lichtfleck dessen jetzt sehr verringerter Durchmesser nur 
etwa uoch 2000 Toisen haltcn mochte. Dor gesteru in ihm sichtbare sehr 
kleine schwarze Puukt fehlte heute. Es war also nicbt der Schatten eines 
Hiigels, der heute viel grosser hatte erscheinen miissen." 

Translation. — Dec. 27, from 13"^ to 19**. Air very still, but only occa- 
sionally quite free from mist. At first the terminator passed over Bessel, 
afterwards the sun's height at Linne was at the most 3^. There appeared 
no trace of a crater, no shadow, either witliin or without the inconsiderable 
faint spot of light, of which the now much diminished diameter might mea- 
sure only about 2000 toises (12,789 Eng. feet). The very small black point 
visible in it yesterday was wanting to-day. It was therefore not the shadow 
of a hill, which would have appeared much greater to-day. 

1867, Jan. 12. Mr. BrcKixGH.vM saw an elevation on the S.W., in the 
shallow crater, brighter than other parts. See ante, pp. 12, 13. 

"1867. Jan. 2b. [Kerr ScniriDx.] 13"-5-16"-5. Luft besonders gut. 
Sonnenhohe nur noch 12°-13°. Linne ein matter Lichtfleck. Aber an 500- 
maliger Yergrosserang zeigt sich mitten ein iiusserst feiner schwarzer Punkt, 
und ostlich daneben cine sehr feine, wei.sse Kuppe. Beide im Durchmcsser 
respective 200 und 300 Toisen. Keine Spur eines Craters, wie solche in schar- 
fen For men iiberall im Marc zu sehen sind. Auch der westhche matte Fiicher 
am Linne noch kenntlich." 

Translation.— :i aw. 25, 13" 30'"-16" 30™. Air particularly good. Sun's 
height stiU onlj' 12°-13°. Linne a faint spot of light,' but with a power of 
500 there appeared within an extremely delicate black point, and east of 
that, close to it, a very fine white summit. The respective diameters of the 
two 200 and 300 toises (1279 and 1918 Eng. feet). No trace of a crater, as 
such are to be seen generally in the Marc in sharp forms. The westerly 
faint fan of light in Linne is also still discernible. 

During the interval between Jan. 25 and Aug. 20 Herr ScnsiiDT appears 
to have seen the cone only, which he describes as a hill, and not the orifice 
which he had formerly seen and described as a fine black point. 

" 1867, Feb. 10. Ganz unruliige Luft am 9". Linne in der Llc7it(/renze 
erscheint als sehr feiner Hiigel, viel kleincr als die ]!^achbar-Crater gegen 
N.W." 

Translation. — 1867, Feb. 10. The air very much distiu'bed. About 9 
o'clock Linne, on the terminator, appeared as a very delicate hill, much 
smaller than the neighbouring craters towards the N.W. 

" 1867, Feb. 11. SonneHohefiirLinne=12°. Keine Spur eines Craters; cine 
gewohuliche matte Wolkc, darin ein sehr feiner Hiigel, noch mit Schatten." 

Translation. — 1867, Feb. 11. Sun's altitude at Linne— 12°. No trace of a 
crater ; an ordinary faint cloud, in which is a very delicate hill, stiU having 
a shadow. 

Herr Schmidt adds this note : — " Yon dieser Art sind alle hiesigen spiitern 
Beobachtungen. Wenn Andere jetzt noch bchanptcn dass sic am Orte des 
Linne einen Crater schcn, so zeigt es mir dass sic den Ort dcs Linne iiber- 
haupt ganz verhehlt liaben, oder falls sic eincu sehr felnen Crater am Orte 
des Linne sehen, dieser Umstand mcine Bewcisfiihrung nur bestiitigen kann. 
Linne war friiher ein bcdeutender Crater, der dritt-grosstcr im Mare, nach 
Bessel und Gallus." 



ON MAPPING THE SURFACE OF THE MOON. 17 

Translation. — Of this kind are all the more recent observations at this 
place.^ If other persons now still assert that they see a crater in the place of 
Linue, this only proves to me that they have quite missed its place ; or, in 
case they do see a venj delicate crater in the place of Linue, this circum- 
stance can only confirm the fact brought forward by me. Linue was for- 
merly a considerable crater, the third in magnitude in the Mare, next after 
Bessel and Gallus. 

"1867, Feb. 11. [Pabke Secchi.] Le 11, au soir, Liune e'tuit dcja assez 
avance dans la lumiere et a 7 heures on voyait uettement un trts petit 
cratere cnvironne d'une eclataut aure'ole blanche qui brillait franchenient 
surle fond sombre duM. Serenitatis. Le grandeiir de I'Drifice du cratere etait 
de ^ de seconde au plus, et I'aureole etait un pen plus large que Sid^iicius 
Gallus." — Comptes Eendus, torn. Ixiv. 25 Pevrier, p. 345. 

Translation. — On the 1 1th, in the evening, Linne had already advanced 
into the light, and at 7 o'clock a very small crater was distinctly seen, sur- 
rounded by a brilliant white aureole, which glittered against the dark ground 
of the Mare Serenitatis. The size of the orifice of the crater was at most -i 
of a second, and the am-eole was a Little larger than Sulpicius Gallus. '* 

1867, March 14. Mr. Buckingham measured the " cloudy bright patch," 
and found it to be 6" in diameter. He saw into the small crater, which he 
estimated to be equal to the largest on and near to the centre of Plato. He 
saw a slight shadow within the crater on the west side. 

1867, March 15. Mr. Dawes, with power 160 on his 8-inch Cooke, saw 
"an excessively minute black dot in the middle of Linne." 

1867, March 15. Mr. Buckingham again saw the small crater without the 
shadow seen on March 14. 

1867, April 10. Respighi saw at sunrise on Linne', and precisely at its 
place, a brilliant spot or point entirely isolated on an obscure ground. 

1867, April 11. The small crater on Liune was seen by Messrs. 
Respighi. 

Buckingham, luest of the centre, with the cone leading to it. 
Webb, who saw the ring of the shallow crater faintly, not at the same 
time that he saw the small crater, but only in a few doubtful glimpses. 
HuGGiNs, but only its bright west margin. 

Dawes, who saw the dark spot and bright west edge. Mr. Dawes says, 
" On the west side there is a little curved edge which looked slightly 
raised like the edge of a crater.'' 

April 12. Mr. Carpenter, with the Great Equatoreal at the Royal Obser- 
vatory, Greenwich, saw a crater which he has drawn as on the site of Linne, 
surrounded by the aureole as described by Secchi. 

In the suitable and favoiu-able evenings of April and May 1867, Pro- 
fessors d' Arrest and 8chjellerup saw the crater opening in the middle of 
the large bright and somewhat diffused spot, and estin^ated the diameter of 
the circular shadow at not more than 0"-9, at the most 1"-1. Prof. 8chjel- 
lerup adds, '•' I wiU just remark that the crater-opening is not nearly so stri- 
king as might be supposed from Mr. Huggins's drawing in the June Number 
of the Monthly Notices." 

1867, May 10. Schmidt saw, in place of the smaU crater, an enlightened 
mountain, or bright shadow-projecting hill, half the size of the next neigh- 
bouring crater on the north-west (Linne A, B. & M. ; IE *), of 0"-45 

* B. and M. assign a brightness of 5° to this crater, and delineate it as tarffcr than the 
northern of the three craters N.W. of Linne, which they do not notice in their t«xt. A 
is now smaller than the northern crater, and on the evening of Dec. 7, 1867, it was scarcely 
1867. C 



18 REPORT 1867. 

diameter, or 500 toises* (3200 Eng. feet), and 80-90 toises (between 500 
and 600 Eng. feet) high (Les Mondes, 1st Aoiit 1867, p. 566). Also, in a 
letter to W. T. Lynn, Esq.t, he says, "1867, Mai 10. Phase diirch 
Calippus und Hadley. Eiir Linne stand also die Sonne erst wenige Grade 
hoch. Linne sehr veriindert, an seinem Orte ein auflallend heller Schatten- 
werfender Hugel halb so gross als der erste nordN\estlich henachbarte Crater. 
Es ist sicher eiue neue Veriinderuug eingetreten." 

Translation. — The terminator through Calippus and Hadley. On Linue 
the sun Avas therefore only a few degrees high. Linne was much altered ; in 
its place a remarkable bright hiU casting a shadow, half as large as the 
nearest crater on the north-west [I E'^ ^]. A new change has undoubtedly 
taken place. 

1867, May 10. Respighi saw the little crater on an obscure ground. In 
his resume of his observations, Eespighi assigns a diameter of 4"'0 to this 
crater and a great depth. 

1867, May 10. Mr. Ingall, with a 4-5-inch Dialyte, power 200, saw the 
small crater " very faint, only as an ' aspect' or ' idea' of a small crater in the 
centre." 

" 1867, Mai 11. Scdmidt. Linne als weissc Wolke: darin ein fciner weisser 
schatten-werfender Punkt, ohne der gcstrige Hiigol. Audi in y Posidonius 
sehe ieh einen feinen schwarzen Punkt." 

Translation. — Linne like a wh^te cloud : in it a delicate white point casting 
a shadow, without the hill noticed yesterday. I also see a delicate black 
point in y Posidonius. 

1867, May 11. The small crater was seen by Messrs. 
Knott, with iuterior shadow intensely blacl: 

HxjGGiNS, Tery shaiply defined. In centre nearly, but rather nearer 
the west margin. Mr. Huggins adds, "The appearance suggested 
that the bright walls of the crater were a little elevated above the 
' nebulous light.' " 

Mr. Iluggins's observations, with engraving of the white spot and crater- 
opening, will be found in the Monthly Notices of the Eoyal Astronomical 
Society, vol. xxvii. pp. 290 to 298. 

" 1867, Juni 9. [Schmidt] Linne cine unscheinbare Lichtwolke : in ihr, 
etwas westlich, ein fciner hcllerer Hiigel, fast schon ohne Schattenspur." 

Translation. — Linne an insignificant light cload : in it, somewhat west- 
erly, a delicate brightish hill, now almost without tiace of shadow. 

1867, June 9 & 10. Messrs Browning and Barnes, with a silvered glass 
reflector {With) 8|-inch aj^erture, power 225?, saw a white nucleus on Linne, 
which Mr. Browning regarded as a hill, 

brighter than the adjacent surface of the M. Serenitatis. I recorded its brightness as 3°"1, 
that of the northern crater being 5°. See also Schmidt's observations on Aug. 2Q, jjost, 
pp. 19, 20. 

* On Jan. 25, Herr Schmidt recorded a delicate black jioint, and east of, and close \o 
it, a fine white summit. The diameters of these he respectively estimated at 2C0 and 
300 toises ; he did not give the height of the summit. Linne at the time being under tlio 
evening illumination, the positions of these objects were such as a small crater would 
present, the enlightened exterior rim being east of the dark spot. If the objects were the 
interior and rim of the crater seen afterwards by Secclii, and recorded as a remarkable 
hill by Schmidt on May 10. Schmidt's estimates on Jan. 2b and May 10 agree as to the 
diameter of the crater. This diameter, up to May 10, appears, from Schmidt^s and 
Secohi's estimates, to have been under 0"'6. 

t All the following remarks by Herr Schmidt are taken from that letter, which bears 
date, Athens, 1867, August 23. 



ON MAPPING THE SURFACE OF THE MOON. 19 

1867, June 10. Wolf saw the little crater very distinctly ; he speaks of 
it as very deep. Messrs. Dawes and Knoii also saw it on this day. 

1867, June 12. Woi,f estimated the diameter of the little crater at l"-0, or 
a little less, 

" 1867, Juli 8, 8". [Schmidt.] Luft nicht still. Linnc ein sehr kleiner deut- 
licher Hiigel mit Schattenspur, diam. -l des nordwcstlichen Craternaehbars." 

Translation. — 1867, July 8, 8'\ Air disturbed. Linne a very small 
distinct hill, with trace of shadow, \ diameter of the neighboimng crater on 
the north-west [I E^ "]. 

Herr ScnMiDx adds this note : — " Mit sehr miichtigerm Fernrohr imd bei 
guter Luft wiirde man viel melir gesehen haben ; vielleicht Spuren des alten 
CraterwaUs. Phase sehr giinstig." 

Translation. — Much more would have doubtless been seen with a much 
more powerful telescope and still atmosphere ; perhaps traces of the old crater- 
wall. Position of the terminator veiy favourable. 

1867, July 9. The small crater was seen by Messrs. Huggins and Bird. 
Mr. Huggins measured its diameter and foimd found it 1"-71. 

" 1867, Jidi 12 [Qy. 22]*, 15". [Schmidt] Sehr unruhige Liift. Linne genau 
in der abnchmenden Phase : ein isolirter kleiner Punkt, d. h. ein ganz un- 
bedeutender Hiigel." 

Translation. — July 22, W^. Air much disturbed. Linne exactly on the 
evening terminator ; an isolated small point ; that is, an utterly insignificant 
hill. 

1867, July 22. Tempel. " Den Crater Linne habe ich am 22 Juli beobachtet. 
Es seheint als habe sich der kleine Crater ausgefiiUt ; ja es ist jetzt sogar eine 
kleine Auhohe, ein kleiner ruuder Bergkegel an dcssen Stelle sichtbar. Die 
angewandte Vergrosscnmg war cine 300-malige und die Nacht sehr rein." — 
Astronomische Naclirichteu, No. 1656. 

Translation. — I observed the crater Linne on the 22nd of July. It 
appears as if the small crater was filled up ; nay, there is now a small eleva- 
tion, a small round conical hill in its place. The power used was 300 and 
the night very fine. 

" 1867, August 7, 6"'5-8"-5. [Schmidt.] Luft sehr uuruhig : Phase bei 
Aristillus. Linne ein unbedeutender Lichtfleck, darin ein feiner Hiigel von 
1" bis 2" diam." 

Translation. — Aug. 7, 6''-5-8'''5. Air much disturbed ; terminator over 
Ai'istillus. Linne an insignificant spot of light : in it a delicate hiU from 
1" to 2" in diameter. 

1867, Aug. 20. Terminator bisecting Bessel. Mr. Buckingham observed 
the cone very distinctly, it projected a short shadow towards the W. The 
following measures were takeu : — ■ 

Dark interior of the crater, mean of 8 measures. . . . 0"-64 
Exterior base of the cone, mean of 7 measures .... 2" "35 

" Aug. 20, 11'' und IS*". [Herr Schmidt.] Luft unruhig. Abnchmende 
Phase iiber Bessel. Linne ein matter Lichtfleck, etwas kleiner als der Crater 
S. Gallus : der westlichc hiigelartige Kern der Lichtwolke =^\j S. Gallus. 
Die nordwestlich von Linne liegenden Crater batten schon aussere Schatten. 
Der siidliche dieser Crater war auff'allend klein : kaum h vom nordlichen 
Nachbar." 

* At IT)'', Athens mean time of llie 22ncl July, Linne would be close on the evening 
terminator. 

c2 



20 



BEPORT — 18G7. 



Translation. — Aug. 20, 11" audio". Air disturbed. Evening terminator 
over Bessel. Linne a faint spot of light somewhat smaller than the crater 
S. Galliis. The westerly hill-like nucleus of the light cloud = -Jg- S. Gallus. 
The craters situated on the north-west of Linne had akeady exterior shadows. 
The southern of these craters [I E'''^] was remarkably small, scarcely | of its 
northern neighbour. 

1867, Sept. 18, 16". Mr. Carpenter, of the Eoyal Observatory, Green- 
wich, observed the small crater with the great Equatoreal. His record is as 
follows : — " The definition was very good indeed : the crater-form distinctly 
visible : there was a delicate line of light running round the interior shadow, 
indicating the slightly elevated nature of the crater." 

1867. Nov. 3, 5" 30"\ Mr. Peixce saw the small crater as a black point. 
See ante, p. 13. 

1867, Dec. 4, 7" 30"^ G.M.T. Mr. Knott had a very fair view of the small 
crater. The atmosphere was too unsteady to set the wii-es, but from the 
known thickness of the webs Mr. Knott estimated the diameter to be about 
l"-5. 

Projection of the Values in Table II. 



4" Eespighi 4"0. 



D J 

30 


F 

60 


M A M J 

90 120 150 ISC 


210 


















4" 
















?" 
































2" 




























/ 


• 














/ 


1" 












y 








• ^^ 














"^ 









2" 



0" 



0-" 



i. 
ft. 



% % 



£■ 05 



The vertical lines represent intervals of 30 days ; the horizontal, incre- 
ments of 0"-5. Respighi's estimate, 4"-0, is not connected with the curve, 
as it does not fall in with the other estimates. 

In the following Table the estimations of Schmidt on Dec. 13,1866, and Jan. 
25, 1867, were of the shadow-projecting hill and the fine black point (see 
foot-note on p. 18). These features were also seen by Buckingham. After 
Feb. 11, the small crater was the object generally observed. The exact date 
of Respighi's estimate is not given. 



ON MAPriNG THE SURFACE OF THE MOON. 



31 



Table II. 

Estimations and measures of the diameter of the small crater reduced to 
29° 54' 40'' = angular distance from the moon's centre. 



Authority, 


Epoch. 


Date. 


Seconds. 


Eng. feet. 


Fr. metres. 


Schmidt 


i866'947 
1866-983 
1867-066 
1867-066 
1867-112 
1867-353 

1867-443 
1867-518 
1867-632 
1867-632 


1S66, Dec. 13 
1S66, ., 26 
1867, Jan. 25 
1867, „ 25 
1867, Feb. 11 
1867, May 10 

1867, June 12 
1867, July 9 
1867, Aug. 20 
1867, „ 20 


0-27 
0-24 
o-i8 

0-27 

0-33 
0-45 

4-00 

I'CO 

171 

o-64» 
i-35t 


1918 
1695 
1279 
1918 

^352 

3197 

28226 

7057 
12067 

4516 
16583 


584-7 
516-5 
3898 

5847 
716-9 

974-4 
8603-4 

2150-9 
3678-0 
1376-6 
5054-5 




Schmidt 




Secchi 


Schmidt 




Wolf 


Huffffins 


Buckingham 

Buckingham 



Opintons. 

In the preceding parts of this Appendix facts (as given by observation) 
only are mentioned. Since Schmidt's announcement of change several 
opinions have been expressed on the phenomena observed. It is manifestly 
desirable to avoid hazarding an opinion until the observations on the one 
hand have become sufficiently numerous to afford a solid basis on "svhich to 
found a conclusion, and on the other have been so arranged and discussed 
that that conclusion may itself partake of the nature of a more general fact. 
Nevertheless, as the opinions that have been published may assist (in 
connexion -with the observations) in arriving at a safe and general conclusion, 
they are given in. the order in which they refer either to the early or recent 
observations. 

Opinions of the White Spot in Schroter's time. 

For Schroter's description of the spot v, see ante, pp. 3 and 4. 

Mr. HuGGiNS seems to regard this description as closely agreeing mth the 
appearance of Linne at the jiresent time, with the exception of the interior 
crater. — Monthly Notices, vol. xxvii. p. 298. 

Professors D'Arrest and Schjellerup agree with Mr. Huggins. — Astro- 
nomische Nachrichten, No. 1655. 

Schmidt. "Der kleine Crater v daselbst entspricht am n'dclisten dem Orte 
des Linne." 

Translation. — The small crater v corresponds nearest to the place of Linne. 

Eespighi. " II est positif que Schroter, dans ses SelenotopograpMsche 
Fragmente, Table IX., represente cet objet avec une tache blanche, d'un dia- 
metre presque egal a celui du cratere de Sulpicius Gallus, avec la trace d'un 
petit cratere, tel qu'on I'observe maintenant, et nou comme quelques unsl'ont 
affirme, sous la forme d'unc grande tache noire ; il est positif que le cratere 
a des dimensions a peu pres egales a celles que lui assigne M. Schmidt lui- 
meme, c'est-a-dire environ quatre milles de diametre." — Bulletin Meteorolo- 
gique de I'Observatoire du CoUege Remain, 31 Mai 1867. 

Translation. — It is positive that Schroter, in his Selenofopographiscke Frag- 



* The orifice of the crater. 



t The base of the cone. 



23 REPORT 1867. 

mente, Table IX., represents this object as a white spot of a diameter almost 
equal to that of the crater Sulpicius Gallus, with the trace of a small crater 
such as we now observe, and not as some have affirmed under the form of a 
large black spot. It is certain that the dimensions of the crater are almost 
equal to those assigned to it by Schmidt himself, that is to say, about four 
miles in diameter. 

"Wolf. " D'apres la note meme de M. Schmidt, Scliroter semble ne pas 
avoir vu Liune, au moins comme un des crateres principaux de la mer de 
Serenite, bien qu'il en ait note de plus petits." — Comptes llendus, Seance du 
17 Juin 1867. 

Translation. — From the note itself of M. Schmidt, Schrcitcr seems not to 
have seen Linne, at least as one of the principal craters of the Mare Serenitatis, 
although he has noticed some smaller (see a^ite, p. 4 h). 

Eecent opinion of the White Spot. — Mr. Slack, writing under date of 
Oct. 11, 1867, says, " There can be no doubt that Linne varies in appearance, 
sometimes justifying the epithet ' cloudy,' at others gradually toning down 
fi'om the bright central part to an edge difficult to define or discriminate from 
the adjacent portion of sea, and last night (sec observation, ante, pp. 7, 8) 
clear at the margin and distinct from the sea." Mr. Slack adds, " But is 
this peculiar to Linne? I think not, but it must be considered in relation to 
other changes of tint and hue." 



Opinions on the Genekal IIesults. 

Herr Schhidt, 1867, Feb. 7. " Nachdem nun vier Lunationen hindurch 
die sorgfaltigste Priifung dargethan hat, dass ' Linne,' in seiner Tagesperiode 
etwa 13 Tage lang als klcine Lichtwolke, an der Lichtgrenze abcr durchaus 
nicht als Crater, gesehen wird, sondern zur Zeit sehr geringcr Sonnenhohen 
iiberhaupt ganz unsichtbar ist, halte ich jetzt, gestiitzt auf Thatsachen der 
Beobachtung, den Ausspruch geuiigend begriiudet 'dass auf dem Monde 
gegcnwartUj nocJi Ye rdnderungen eintreten, die dnrch den WecJisel der Beleuch- 
tung nicht erkliirt iverden Jconnen.' " 

Translation. — Now that after the most careful examination, continued 
through four lunations, has proved that Linne in its day-period, about 13 
days long, is visible as a small white cloud, but on the terminator- not at all as- 
n crater, whQst at the epochs of very small sun-heights it is quite invisible, 
I regard it as satisfactorily established, relying on the facts of the observa- 
tions, that changes are now still talcing place on the moon, vjJiich cannot be 
e.i'plained hi/ the differences of illumination. 

Herr Schmidt, 1867, August 23. In a letter to Mr. Lynn of this date, 
before referred to, Herr Schmidt says, " AUe Beohachtinigrn lehren einfach 
desselbe, namlich, dass jetzt an Stelle des vormals sehr tiefen und .5000 
Toisen breiten Craters Linne, nur noch eine nicht vertiefte heUe Flache und 
ein kleiner Hiigel gesehen werden." 

Translation. — All the observations teach precisely the same thing, namely, 
that in the place of the formerly existing crater in Linne, which was very 
deep and .5000 toises wide, there can now be seen only a bright spot, not a 
depression, and a small hill. 

Flajimarion. " Si Linne avait eu cet aspect a rcpoque oii Beer et Miidler 
ont construit leur Mappa Selenographica il est impossible qu'ils I'eussent in- 
■diquo comme un cratere." — Comptes Rendus, torn. Ixiv. (20 Mai 1867) No. 20, 
p. 1020. 

Translation.-^i Linjie had had this aspect at the epoch when Beer and 



ON MAPPING THE SURFACE OF THE MOON. 23 

Madlcr constructed their Mappa SelenograpJika , it is impossible that they 
could have indicated it as a crater. 

" On peut done penser maintenant que notre satellite n'est pas uu monde 
entiereoient mort, ct que des mouvemcnts assez seusibles pour etre vus d'ici 
s'accomplissent intervaUes a sa surface." 

Translation. — We are therefore able now to consider that our satellite is 
not an entirely dead world, and that movements at intervals on its surface 
are sensible enough to be seen from hence. 

Padre Secchi, Comptes Reudus, torn. Ixiv. 25 Fevrier 1867, p. 345. 

" La grandeur de I'oriflce du cratere etait de | de seconde au plus, et I'aiu-e'ole 
etait uu pen plus large que Sulpicius Galliis. J'insiste sur cette comparaison, 
car elle fait voir que MM. Madler et Beer, dont j'employais la .jelle carte, 
n'auraient jamais figure uu cratere aussi grand et aussi bien fait que celui 
qu'ils assignent a Linne, pour une tache blanche comme ceUe qui existe a 
present; en effet Sidpicius Galliis est actueUemeut beaucoup plus grand 
que le petit cratere qui forme le centre de la tache. Ce dernier est meme 
encore plus petit que ces autres crateres qu'on indique seulement jjar des 
lettres, sans leur donner de nom, et qui sont repandus a grandes distances 
dans le Mare Serenitatis. " On ne peut done douter qu'il y ait eu un change- 
ment, et il parait probable qu'une eruption a rempli Tancien cratere, d'une 
matiere assez blanche pour paraitre beaucoup plus claire que le fond de la 
mer qui renvironne." 

Translation. — The size of the orifice of the crater was at most -l of a second, 
and the aureole was a little larger than Sulpicius Gallus. I insist on this 
comparison because it shows that B. & M. could never have figured a crater 
as big and as well marked as that which they assigned to Linne, foi.' the 
white spot which at present exists ; in fact Sulpicius Gallus is actually much 
larger than the little crater which foi-ms the centre of the spot. This last is 
even smaller than those craters which are indicated merely by letters with- 
out names, and which are distributed at great distances in 31. Serenitatis. It 
cannot be doubted that a change has taken place, and it seems probable that 
an eruption has filled the ancient crater with a material white enough to look 
bright against the dark ground of the sea. 

Charcoenac. " S'il est vrai, comme I'a decrit Lohrmann, que c'etait un 
cratere profondement scnlpte dans la plaine, representant I'aspect d'un creux, 
rond comrae un pot, il est incontestable que ce cratere s'est efface et qu'il 
n'en est reste qu'une surface blanche." — Comptes Rendus, tom. Ixiv. (20 Mai 
1867) p. 1022. 

Translation. — If it be true, as described by Lohrmann, that this was a deep 
crater sculptured in the plain and represented by the aspect of a pit, round 
as a pot, it is incontestable that this crater is effaced and that there remains 
nothing of it but a white surface. 

" Une derniere eruption dans le vide efface done ce cratere en comblant le 
creux et en annulant les ramparts en forme de bourrclet. Oct important phe- 
nomene montre que I'activite volcanique do notre satellite persiste encore." 

Translation. — The last eruption therefore effaced the void of this crater in 
filling the pit and reducing the ramparts to the form of a hood. Tliis im- 
portant phenomenon shows that the volcanic activity of oiir satellite still con- 
tinues. 

Wolf. " En resume, a part I'indication fournie par les cartes de Lohrmann 
et de Beer et Madler, a laquelle on peut oppooer la centre -indication de Lahire 
et de Schroter, nous ne possedons actuellement qu'un soul document positif 
sur le changement qu'aurait subi Linne : c'est 1' affirmation de M. Schmidt que 



24 REPORT — 1867. 

ses notes et ses dessius de 1S41 reprcsentent cet objet autremcnt qu'on ne le 
voit maintenaut." — Comptes Eendus, torn. Ixiv. (17 Juin 1867). 

Traiislation. — Eesume: — Apart from the iudications furnished by the maps 
of Lohrmann and Beer and Miidler, to ■which we are able to oppose the contra- 
indication of Lahire and of Schroter, we actually possess only one positive docu- 
ment on the change which Linne has undergone : this is the affirmation of 
M. Schmidt, that his notes and his drawings in 1841 represent this object 
otherwise than as we now see it. 

M. DE Beaumont, " Au surplus on doit desirer que les observations rela- 
tives a la permanence absolue ou a de tres legeres, alterations des accidents 
de la surface lunaire se multiplient, car une seule alteration meme tres legere, 
suffirait si elle etait bien constatee poi;r etablir que la vie geologique encore 
dans I'interieur de la lune aussi bien que dans I'interieur de la terre." — 
Comptes Eendus, torn. Ixiv. (17 Juin 1867) p. 1242. 

Translation.— 'Moreover it is to be desii-ed that observations relative 
to the absolute permanence, or to very small alterations of the details of the 
lunar surface, should be multiplied ; for even only one very small change, if 
it were fullj- proved, would be sufficient to establish that geological life is 
still in the interior of the moon as well as in the interior of the earth. 

Eespighi. " Je crois done pouvoir conclure que le cratere n'a pas eprouve 
de changement sensible ou du moins que les arguments produits en faveur 
de ce changement sont vagues et ue sont pas concluants." 

Translation. — I therefore think that we may conclude that a sensible change 
of the crater is not proved, or at least that the arguments produced in favour 
of this change are vague and inconclusive. 

I am greatly indebted to my friend Mr. Lynn, of the Eoyal Observatory, 
Greenwich, for his assistance in kindly translating the records and opinions 
of Foreign observers, and also in furnishing the additional observations by 
Herr Schmidt. -yy^ ^ g 



Third Report of the Committee far Exploring Kent's Cavern, Devon- 
shire. The Committee consisting of Sir Charles Lyell, Bart., 
Professor Phillips, Sir John LubhocKj Bart., Mr. John Evans, 
Mr. Edavard Vivian, Mr. George Busk^ and Mr. William Pen- 
GELLY (Reporter). 

The Eeports presented by the Committee, in 186.5 and 1866, render it 
unnecessary to give a detailed description of either the situation or the cha- 
racter of Kent's Hole. The Cavern may be briefly stated to consist of two 
parallel series of chambers and galleries — an eastern and a western ; and to 
have two external openings or entrances — a northern and a southern. The 
entrances occur in one and the same low vertical clifl^, on the eastern side of 
the hill in which the Cavern is situated. They are nearly on the same level, 
about 50 feet apart, from 180 to 190 feet above the level of mean tide, and 
about 70 feet above the bottom of the vallej' immediately adjacent. 

The Committee have found it convenient to assign names to the various 
branches of the Cavern ; and in order to avoid the risk of confusion, they 
have retained those which had been previously bestowed by the Eev. J. 
M'Enery and others. 

The northern entrance opens, through a short narrow passage, into a 



ON KENT^S CAVERNj DEVONSHIRE. 25 

somewhat spacious chamber — the most northerly of the eastern series, — which 
Mr. M'Enerjr termed the " Yestibule," or " Sloping Chamber." It measures 
about 64 feet from north to south, and 28 from east to west. 

From the north-western angle of the Vestibule, a gallerj-, about 32 feet 
long, and var3-ing from 6 to 1-1 feet broad, extends in a north-easterly chrec- 
tion, and is known as the " North-cast Gallery.'' 

About 22 feet south of the entrance of this Gallery, an opening in the 
western waU of the Vestibule, about 35 feet wide, leads into the western 
series of galleries and chambers. So far as is known, this is the only passage 
connecting the two series. 

A passage, about 22 feet in length and varying from 19 to 27 feet in 
breadth, which Mr. M'Enery termed the " Passage of Urns," leads out of the 
Vestibule south-\\'ards into the most spacious chamber of the eastern series, 
which, therefore, has been termed the " Great Chamber." It measures about 
62 feet from east to west, and, where longest, 53 from north to south. In 
its eastern side is the second or southern entrance of the Cavern ; and from 
its back or western wall — almost immediately opposite the entrance — there 
extends a ad de sac in a westerly direction, for about 29 feet, and varying in 
breadth from 15 to 10 feet. This is known as the '• Gallery." 

The Great Chamber opens southwards into an apartment measuring about 
40 feet from north to south and 26 from east to west. From the fact that, 
during the last twenty years, Mr. Vivian has frequently lectured in the Cavern, 
and has on these occasions always taken his stand here, this apartment has 
received the name of the " Lecture Hall" — a designation which it is proposed 
to retain. 

About 12 feet north of the junction of the Great Chamber and the Lec- 
ture HaU, a gallery opens out of the eastern wall of the former, in a south- 
easterly direction. Its width is about 7 feet at the entrance, and its length, 
which at present is undetermined, exceeds 30 feet. The entrance of a 
similar and parallel gallery occurs near the south-eastern corner of the Lec- 
ture HaU. In accordance with the names given them by Mr. M'Enery, 
they are respectively termed the " North" and " South Sally Ports." 

The Lecture Hall opens southwards into a gallery about 17 feet wide, and 
at least 50 feet long ; but as its further end is blocked up with large accu- 
mulations of stalagmite and stalactite, its true dimensions are at present 
unknown. 

During the year which has elapsed since their Second Eeport was sent in, 
the Committee have continued their laboiu's uninterrupteclly ; the Superin- 
tendents have made daily visits to the Cavern ; the methods of excavation 
and investigation described in detail in the Fii'st Eeport, and which render it 
easy to define accin-ately the position of every object found, have been uni- 
formly followed : the daily joinnal has been carefully kept ; and monthly 
reports of progress have been regularly forwarded to the Chairman of the 
Committee. 

From the commencement to the present time, the work has been carried 
on, under the direction and inspection of the Superintendents, by the same 
two workmen — Charles Keeping and George Smcardon— and the Committee 
have great pleasure in stating that nothing can surpass their zeal, industry, 
intelligence, and integrity. 

The investigation naturally excites much interest amongst the visitors and 
residents at Torquay, and di-aws a considerable number of them to the 
Cavern. But, whilst every reasonaljle facility is afforded them for witnessing 
the operations, no one is admitted to those parts which are under examina- 



26 REPORT — 1867. 

tion unless accompanied by one of the Superintendents, The other branches, 
and these only, are shown to visitors by the guide appointed by the proprie- 
tor, Sir L. Palk, Bart., M.P. Such visits, however, can be made only when 
the Committee's workmen are present, by whom, and not by the guide, the 
keys are kept. In short, every care is taken to find aU the objects reallj^ 
belonging to the Cavern ; and every precaution to prevent anything being 
maliciously or mischievously placed in the dej)osits for the workmen to find. 

Amongst the visitors during the present year, the Superintendents had 
the pleasure of receiving Captain Galton, Mr. Godwin-Austen, Mr. Gwyn 
Jeffreys, and Mr. Prestwich — all members of the British Association. They 
were conducted over the Cavern by the Superintendents, the mode of opera- 
tion was fully explained to them, and they inspected a large and character- 
istic series of the fossils, as well as of the flint implements and other relics of 
human industrial art, which the Cavern has yielded. 

Hitherto the labours of the Committee have been confined to the eastern 
series of galleries and chambers. Of these, the Great Chamber, the Gallery, 
the Passage of Urns, the Vestibule, and the North-east GaUery have been 
completely explored to the depth of 4 feet below the base of the Stalag- 
mitic floor ; to which, from the beginning, and as a first exploration, the 
excavation has been restricted. In the Lecture Hall, in which the workmen 
are at jn-esent engaged, considerable progress has been made. On its com- 
pletion, it is intended to proceed to the gaUery leading out of it southwards, 
and then to the SaUy Ports. 

Mr. M'Enery and the other early explorers carried on some part of their 
researches in a small portion of the Vestibule, and in the Lecture Hall. In 
the latter their works were probably on a somewhat larger scale. Unfor- 
tunately, instead of taking out of the Cavern that portion of the deposits 
which they had examined, they simply threw it on one side. The Commit- 
tee have found it necessary to remove this disturbed material, and, in 
doing this, they have examined it -snth a care almost equal to that they 
bestow on the virgin ground. The result has been the discovery of a large 
number of fine specimens of teeth and other relics of the ordinary Cave 
mammalia, which were either unnoticed or neglected by the early explorers. 
Indeed, the largest Mammoth molar whicli the Committee have found 
occurred in these old workings. In order to the thorough investigation of 
cavern deposits, they must be removed without the cavern — partly to secure 
their complete examination by daylight, and also to prevent the commingling 
of disturbed and undistm-bed soil. Great as may be the pala3ontological 
value of the specimens thus recovered, they can be of no service as evidence 
on questions of chronology or contemporaneity, as they are confusedly mixed 
up with objects belonging to many and widely-separated eras. Hence the 
Committee have carefully kept them apart from the specimens yielded by 
the ground which was unquestionably intact. 

Except in one limited locality, to be noticed hereafter, the succession of 
deposits in the Cavern has been uniformly the same as that described in the 
two previous Eeports, viz. : 

First, or uppermost : Huge angular blocks of limestone. 

Second : Black Mould, from 3 inches to upwards of a foot in depth. 

Third : Stalagmitic Tloor, varying in thickness from 3 inches to as many 
feet, but usually ranging from about 12 to 18 inches. 

Fourth, or lowest yet found: Eed " Cave -earth," with angular pieces 
of limestone, and occasionally rounded stones of kinds not derivable from the 
Cavern hill. 



ON Kent's cavebn, Devonshire. 37 

The excepted locality, just mentioned, was a part of the Vestibule, where 
a layer of black soil, apparently identical with that found almost everywhere 
above the Stalagmitic Eloor, occurred beneath the floor. This layer, termed 
the " Black Band," was of irregular outhne, and covered an area of about 
100 square feet. It contained numerous bits of charcoal, and varied in 
tliickness from 2 to 6 inches. Tliroughout about half of its area, it 
immediately underlay the Stalagmite, but elsewhere it was separated from 
the nether suj-face of the floor by a layer of ordinary Eed Cave-earth, 
from 3 to G inches in thickness. At its nearest aj^proach, it was 32 feet 
from the northern entrance ; but as a great part of the intermediate ground 
had been broken up by the early explorers, it is impossible to say whether 
or not it formerly extended further in that direction. No trace of such 
material beneath the Stalagmite has been encountered by the Committee 
elsewhere. The floor immediately overlying the Black Band was loaded 
with fallen blocks of limestone, which were heaped one on another, and 
cemented by stalagmitic matter into a firm grotesque pile. This mass rose 
to the roof of the Cavern, and originally extended from its eastern almost 
to its western wall, thereby dividing the Yestibule into two separate cham- 
bers. Mr. M'Eneiy states that when he first visited the Cavern, before some 
of the impediments were removed, the only passage — on the west side — was 
"accomplished on all fours"*. A few years ago. Sir L. Palk had a more 
convenient passage cut through the pile on its eastern side. In the course 
of their researches the Committee have had to remove the entire mass. 

The Black Mould overlying the Stalagmitic Floor has, during the last twelve 
months, yielded a large number of objects, such as were described in the 
lieports of 1865 and 1866, as well as several of which no examples had 
been previously found. Marine shells occurred everywhere in this accumula- 
tion, but in the Vestibule they were very abundant ; those of the common 
oyster sometimes forming considerable heaps. It does not appear that in all 
cases they are necessarily to be regarded as evidence of a molluscous diet, 
since many of them, chiefly pectens and oysters, were certainly " dead " 
valves, as serpula; and other smaU shells are attached to their inner surfaces. 

Potsherds also have been numerous ; but though some of them are of con- 
siderable size, nothing approaching a perfect vessel has been found. Judging 
from the varied forms of ornamentation on, them, the pieces represent a 
largo number of utensils. In most cases they are composed of a coarse clay, 
having an admixture of small stones. 

Three spindle-whorls have been added to the collection. One of them is 
composed of coarse grit, and, unlike all the others which have been met ■with 
in the Cavern, its upper and lower surfaces are curved, and give it an oblate 
spheroidal form. Either for ornamentation or some uuguesscd purpose of 
utility, a groove has been cut round its greatest circumference. The two 
remaining whorls are of slate, and have numerous ornamental lines. In 
this connexion may be mentioned an Amber " bead," larger than some of 
the whorls, and in form resembling the grit whorl just mentioned. 

Flakes of both black and white flint, but chiefly the former, have occurred 
in large numbers. During the last twelve months, not fewer than about 220 
were found in this overlying Black Mould. Almost aU of them were met 
with in the Vestibule, and it seems not improbable that, at least, some of 
the wliite specimens were dug up from the Red Cave-earth, and either lost 
or neglected by the earlier explorers. 

* Cavprn Researches, page 5. 



23 REPORT — 1867. 

Amongst the metal articles, there are a small bronze hook, an almost per- 
fect bronze socketed celt, a halfpenny of 1806, and a sixpence of 1846. 

The bone implements include an awl; a portion of some prismatic tool with 
rounded edges, and having on its surface a series of equidistant grooves or 
notches, such as to suggest that it may be part of a measuring rod ; two bone 
combs, and fragments of two others. The combs belong to the same class as 
that descrilxxl in the First Report — " having the form of a shoe-Hfter, with 
teeth at the broad end." One of them is small, and rudely formed ; the other 
is larger, and is highly finished. Two parallel lines traverse its surface, in a 
zigzag series, from end to end. At the end opposite that containing the 
teeth, there is a hole, as if for suspending it. This interesting object, the 
two fragments of combs, the grit spindle-whorl previously mentioned, a cockle 
shell, several potsherds, and a bone cut with sone keen-edged tool were found 
in the south-eastern portion of the Great Chamber, where the overlying Black 
Mould was itself overlaid by a cake of stalagmite, which was attached to the 
wall of the cavern, from 1 to 2 inches thick, and which measured 7 
feet from north to south by 6 from east to west. In many instances, sta- 
lagmite, fuUy as thick, had been found on the large blocks of hmestone lying 
on the Black Mould ; but this was the first, and, indeed, is at present the only 
example of such a cake formed immediately on the Black deposit itself. The 
interest attaching to it lies in the fact that there the lodgement of the Black 
Mould had closed before the formation of the stalagmite lying on it had 
begun ; and that thus a certain amount of antiquity is secured for the objects 
which, as has just been stated, were found sealed up. In short, the geolo- 
gical evidence concurs with the archfeologieal. 

The overlying Black Mould has continued to yield a large number of bones 
of various mammals and birds, none of them probably belonging to extinct 
species. In this series, the most interesting objects found during the last 
year, are several portions of the human skeleton — including ve-tebrte, parts 
of lower jaws containing teeth, several loose teeth, and a skull. The skuU 
was found about 6 inches below the surface, adjacent to the limestone rock, 
and immediately -within the northern external entrance of the Cavern. The 
other human remains were met with in different parts of the Vestibule, and 
on different occasions. The first relic, indeed, the first vestige of the human 
skeleton met with dm-ing the present exploration, was part of a lower jaw 
containing two molars, and was found in December 1866. 

The Stalagmitic Floor has presented its usual characters ; being sometimes 
crystalline and extremely hard, and at others granular and comjiaratively soft. 
Xot unfrequently it is composed of thin lamina^ alternately crystalline and 
granular. The Committee have still to report that comparatively few objects 
have been found in it. Amongst those which have presented themselves, are 
stones of diff'erent kinds, charcoal, flint flakes and cores, and remains of various 
animals, including the bear, fox, horse, and man. The stones, when not 
fragments of limestone, are commonly well-rounded, and were probably 
selected at the adjacent sea shore. One of the artificially formed flints has 
the appearance of being a frag-ment of a polished celt, or axe, and is the only 
specimen of the kind which has been found in the Cavern. Since the Second 
lleport was sent in, a total of ten flakes and chips, of probably artificial 
origin, have been met with in the Stalagmite. The human remains are a 
tooth, and a portion of an upper jaw containing four teeth. They were 
found lying together in the Vestibule, about 30 feet from the northern en- 
trance of the Cavern, and deeply imbedded in the floor, which was 20 inches 
thick. These interesting relics — the most ancient remains of man's osseous 



ON Kent's cavern, Devonshire. 29 

system -nhicli the Cavern has yet yielded — were found on the 3rd of Januarv 
1867. 

The Black Band below the Stalagmitic Floor was extremely rich in objects, 
many of which are of great interest. They include bones and teeth of various 
animals, and traces of the presence of man. The list of animals represented 
in this Band includes the ox, deer (more than one species), horse, badger, 
bear, fox, Uhinoceros tichorlihms and Hycena spelcea. 

The indications of human existence are chips, flakes, cores, and imjilements 
of flint ; bone tools ; and bones partially burnt. The flint specimens form a 
total of 366 in number, or about ten on the average in every cubic foot of the 
material composing the Black Baud. Tliough many of them are mere chips, 
and the majority are flakes, no inconsiderable number are more or less per- 
fect lanceolate implements. By far the greater number are white, and have 
an almost chalky aspect and textm-e. Some of them are so extremely fragile 
as to break on the least pressure. It appears utterly impossible to suppose 
that they were introduced into the Cavern by other than human agency, or 
that they had ever been moved from the spot where they were primarily 
lodged. The bone tools are two, perhaps three, in number. One of them is 
an awl about 3| inches long, and cut at one end to a sharp point. It was 
found on the 27th of November 1866, beneath a floor of Stalagmite 16 inches 
thick, and perfectly intact and continuous in aU directions, at a spot aboiit 
40 feet from the northern entrance of the Cavern. The second tool is a por- 
tion of a so-caUed harpoon, barbed on one side only, and about 3| inches long. 
It was found on the 17th of January, 1867. The third is of a nondescript 
and doubtful character. 

With the exception of the Black Band — found only in one branch of the 
Cavern, and occupying a veiy hmited space — the deposit below the Stalag- 
mitic Floor is everywhere tolerably uniform in character — Bed Cave-earth 
with angular fragments of limestone. The latter vary from mere splinters to 
blocks weighing many tons. Typically, this Cave-earth may be said to be 
composed of about equal parts of loam and stones; but in some places the 
latter greatly preponderate, whilst in others the former is most prevalent. 
EoUed stones, not derivable from the Cavern hill, occur here and there in 
every part which has been explored ; but in those branches with which the 
Committee have been occupied during the last twelve months, they have not 
been so numerous as they were in the Gallery described in the Second Report. 
Blocks of stalagmite, the broken remnants of an old floor, continue to be 
abundant. They occur at aU levels, both in the Cave-earth, and in the 
Stalagmitic Floor which the Committee found intact, and occasionally they 
project obliquely through the latter to the height of a foot or more. Many of 
them are of considerable size, measuring upwards of a cubic yard. Indeed 
one block, in the Lecture Hall, measui-ed fully three cubic yards. So far as 
at present appears, no part of the Cavern is exempt from them, with the ex- 
ception of that part of the Great Chamber extending from the soutliern en- 
trance to 40 feet within it. From their first appearance, it was obvious 
that they were either of stalagmitic or of stalactitic origin. Their structure 
was strongly in favour of the former view, and this has been recently con- 
firmed by the discovery of stones and bones incorporated within several of the 
blocks found in the Lecture Hall. It was stated in the First Report that matter 
of probably faecal origin was frequently met with in the Cave-earth in tlie 
Great Chamber. A large quantity of this material, frequently forming consider- 
able heaps, was found in the southern portion of this Chamber, which has 
been recently explored. With the exception of a few small pieces in the 



30 REPORT — 1867. 

Leetui-e Hall, nothing of the kind has presented itself in the other branches 
of the Ca-sern which the Committee have yet investigated. 

In the Lecture Hall, as -well as in the immediately adjacent part of the 
Great Chamber, a series of subterranean tunnels have occasionally been broken 
into by the workmen. They are more or less eylinrbical, sensibly horizontal, 
and except in rare cases, upwards of 4 feet below the iipper surface of the 
Cave-earth. Their size appears pretty uniform, and is such as would allow 
a fox, or perhaps a badger, to turn in them. Mr. M'Enery, who mentions 
them, thinks, and with much probability, that they are " Fox-earths." 

Fragments of bui-nt bone have been found, here and there, in the Cave- 
earth in every chamber and gaUery. 

No other branch of the Cavern has proved to be quite so rich in bones as the 
Great Chamber, the larger portion of which was explored in 1865, and of 
which the particulars were given in the Eeport presented that year. Never- 
theless, a very large number of teeth and other remains of the ordinary cave 
mammals have been exhumed from the Eed loam during the last twelve 
months. It may be doubted, however, whether any important additions have 
been made to the list of animals given in the two previous Eeports. As a 
provisional statement, the mammals represented by the vast collection which 
has now been made, may be still said to be the Cave-bear, Cave-lion, Cave- 
hycena. Fox, Horse (probably more than one species). Ox, several species of 
Deer, the tichorhine Ehinoceros, Mammoth, and Badger. The condition of the 
bones is the same as that of those described in the previous Eeports. Many of 
them are of an almost chalk-like whiteness, whilst others are discolored ; some 
are more or less coated with films of stalagmite ; many are merely fragments 
or splinters ; a considerable number have been gnawed ; those found imme- 
diately imder heavy blocks of limestone are crushed; several are split longi- 
tudinally in such a manner as to betoken human agency ; they are all cha- 
racterized by a specific gravity greater than that of the bones found in the 
Black Mould overlying the Stalagmitic Floor ; on the tongue being apphed to 
them, they all more or less adhere to it ; and in no instance have the elements 
of an entire skeleton, or anything approaching it, been found together. It is 
still true that, so far as is laiown, no bone or tooth of Machairodus, Hippopo- 
tamus, or Man has yet been found in the Cave-earth. 

The Eed earth has also yielded a considerable number of chips and flakes 
of flint diu-ing the last twelve months. The aggregate from the four foot- 
levels amounts to 238 specimens, which were thus distributed : 120 in the 
first foot-level, 53 in the second, 36 in the third, and 29 in the fourth or low- 
est. There are not amongst them any ovate implements, nor can the series 
as a whole, perhaps, be regarded as quite equal in interest to those which were 
described in the Eeports of 1865 and 1866. The artificially wrought flints, 
inclusive of chips and flakes, which have been found in the Cavern during 
the last twelve months, form a total of 834 ; =220 from the overlying Black 
Mould, +10 from the Stalagmitic Floor, +366 from the Black Bard, +238 
from the Eed Cave-earth. 

Though the Committee have not on this occasion the pleasure of laying 
before the Association any higlily-wrought flint implements, they have the 
gratification of producing tools formed of another material, and of a kind not 
previously found in the Cavern. Though it may be difiieult to understand it, 
there is reason to believe that a few persons continue to be sceptical respecting 
the artificial character of even the best unpolished flint implements found in 
the Cavern or elsewhere. The Committee venture to entertain the opinion 
that the evidence which the last twelve months have put into their possession 



ON Kent's cavern, Devonshire. 31 

renders it impossible for any one to doubt that Man occupied Devonsliire 
when it was also the home of the extinct Hon, hyaena, bear, rhinoceros, mam- 
moth, and their contemporaries. 

Of the tools alluded to, two have already been mentioned — the bone awl and 
the " harpoon " found in the Black Band, beneath the Stalagmitic Floor, in 
the Vestibule. As has been stated, in this same thin band there occurred, 
with the implements just mentioned, teeth of rhinoceros, hyaena, and other 
of the common cave mammals ; and the story they tell is at once clear and 
resistless. These, however, are neither the only," nor the best bone imple- 
ments which have been exhumed. Two others have -been met with, and both 
of them in the Red Cave-earth, below the Black Band. One is a portion of a 
highly finished " harpoon," 2^ inches in length, and dififering from that pre- 
viously mentioned, in the form of its point, and in being barbed on two sides. 
To use a botanical term, the barbs are " opposite," not " alternate," as is the 
case with many of the doubly-barbed implements of the kind found in cer- 
tain French caverns. It is worthy of remark that whilst in France the same 
cavern has rarely, if ever, yielded both singly- and doubly-barbed " harpoons," 
an example of each kind has been found in Kent's Hole. This implement 
was met with on March 18th, 1867, in the Vestibule, in the second foot-level 
of Bed Cave-earth. Vertically above these 2 feet of loam, there lay the Black 
Baud about 3 inches thick, and containing flint flakes and remains of extinct 
Mammals ; over this again came the Stalagmitic Floor, IS inches thick, gra- 
nular towards its base, crystalline and laminated towards the upper surface, 
continuous in all directions, unquestionably intact, and without fracture or 
crevice of any kind ; and supei-posed on this, was the ordinary Black Mould 
with Romano-British potsherds. Like all bones found in the Cave-earth, 
the '^ harpoon," when applied to the tongue, firmly adheres to it. It has the 
condition which, from the spot it occupies, might have been looked for. 

The second bone tool from the Cave-earth is a well-finished pin, 3\ 
inches in length. It was found on the 3rd of January, 1807, and, like 
all the other bone tools, in the Vestibule. It was met with in the fourth 
foot-level below the Stalagmite — the greatest depth to which the ercavation 
has been carried, — and in immediate contact with the crown of a molar of 
Ehinoceros tichorhinus. Vertically over this specimen there lay, in ascending 
order, 4 feet of Cave-earth ; then the Black Band ; over this the Stalga- 
mitic Floor, 20 inches thick, perfectly intact, and continuous in all directions ; 
this was surmounted by the Black Mould ; and the whole was crowned 'R'ith 
large blocks of Limestone, cemented with carbonate of lime into a firm breccia, 
which reached the roof of the Cavern. The pin is well made, almost per- 
fectly round, tapers uniformly from the head to the point, and has a consi- 
derable polish. It is, perhaps, more than probable that it was an article of 
the toilet, and hence the polish it bears, instead of having been designed, may 
have been the result of the constant use to which it was put. It may pro- 
bably be said of its original possessor, as it has been of a more modern savage, 

" The shaggy wolfish skin he wore, 
rinnecl by a polished bone before." 

_ Though the Committee abstain from drawing any inference from the fact, 
since it applies to a limited number of objects only, it may be worthy of re- 
mark that the most highly finished implements, whether of flint or of bone, 
are those which have been found at the lowest levels. 

Each of the great divisions of the Cavern^the Great Chamber, the Vesti- 
bule, and the Lecture Hall— in which the researches of the Committee have 



32 REPORT— ISGr. 

been carried on, has been marked by some prominent facts. Thus, ovate flint 
implements have been found in the Great Chamber only, and there too the 
ffecal matter was almost exclusively met with. Bone tools and the Black 
Band presented themselves in the Vestibule, but not elsewhere ; and the same 
branch of the Cavern was marked by the great numbers of chips and flakes 
of flint, and of blocks of old Stalagmitic Floor. Indeed the latter were so 
numerous and so piled on one another, esx^ecially on the western verge of the 
area occupied by the Black Baud, as to assume the aspect of a rudely formed 
wall. In the Lecture Hall, extremely few specimens of flint occurred ; but 
many of the blocks of old Stalagmite contained bones and teeth, the great 
majoi'ity of the latter bemg those of the Cave-bear. The blocks themselves 
were just as numerous in the other branches, but not one of the77i was found 
to be ossiferous. 

Were we to speculate respecting the probable interpretation of the Black 
Band found beneath the Floor of the Vestibule — bearing in mind its very 
limited area, its position near the northern entrance of the Cavern and within 
the influence of the light entering thereby, its numerous bits of charcoal and 
of burnt bones, its bone tools audits very abundant, keen-edged, unworn, and 
brittle chips and flakes of whitened flint, — we might be tempted to conclude 
that we had not only identified Kent's Cavern as the home of one of our earlj' 
ancestors, but the Vestibule as the particular apartment in which he enjoyed 
the pleasures of his own fireside ; where he cooked and ate his meals ; and 
where he chipped flint nodules, and cut and scraped bones into implements 
for war, for the chase, and for domestic use. 

It is not improbable that some feeling of disappointment may rest in a few 
minds, and possibly something akin to rejoicing may find a place in others, at 
the fact that the labour which has been expended on this Cavern from the 
time of M'Enery to the present moment, has failed to detect beneath the 
Floor of Stalagmite any portion of the human skeleton. The results of these 
labours, however, do not justify either of those feelings, nor do they increase 
our confidence in negative evidence. Mr. M'Enery, at the end of the re- 
searches which, from 1825 to 1829, he carried on, was able to report the dis- 
covery of flint implements as the onlj' indications of human existence. To 
the same eff'ect were the subsequent investigations of Mr. Godwin-Austen ; 
and, in like manner, the Torquay Natm-al History Society, at the close of their 
search in 1846, were unable to report further than that they had found man's 
flint tools mixed up, in the lied Cave-earth, with the remains of extinct ani- 
mals in such a way as to render it impossible to doubt their contemporaneity. 
In 1865, the Committee appointed by the British Association commenced the 
exploration entrusted to them ; and for some months they too were unable to 
report more than the discovery of flint implements. 

In 1858, moreover, the celebrated cavern at Brixham, on the opposite side 
of Torbay, was discovered and methodically explored. The trustworthiness 
of the facts disclosed there may be said to have at once revolutionized the 
opinion of the scientific world on the question of human antiquity. The facts 
themselves, however, were identical mth those which Kent's Cavern had 
yielded, at intervals, for upwards of thirty years, — flint tools inosculating with 
the remains of extinct mammals, in the Cave-earth, below a continuous floor 
of stalagmite. If ever merely negative evidence, then, could establish a pro- 
position, it seemed safe to conclude that the only traces of man contained by 
the ossiferous caves of Devonshire were the so-called flint implements, about 
whose human origin some persons were still sceptical. 

The Kent's Cavern Committee, however, were enabled in their First Re- 



ON Kent's cavern^ Devonshire. 33 

port, in 1865, to add the new fact that several pieces of burnt bone, as well 
as a stone having the appearance of a whetstone, and undoiibtedly of distant 
derivation, had been met with in the cave-earth. Before the end of another 
twelvemonth, their attention had been arrested by a further phenomenon, 
and in their Second Report they remarked that " many of the long bones had 
been split longitudinally," and that it Avas " difficult to suppose that less than 
human agency could have so divided them." In this, their Third Report, 
they are able to advance another step, and to record the discovery of bone 
tools, about the character of which there can be no difference of opinion, 
which have the mineral condition characteristic of bones found in the deposit 
they occupied, which occiu'red with the remains of extinct mammals in soil 
indubitably intact, one of them at the greatest depth to which the excavation 
has been carried, and all of them beneath a thick unbroken Floor of Stalag- 
mite, which has itself yielded remains of at least three of the extinct cave- 
mammals. These successive discoveries, after labours so protracted, are cal- 
culated to warn us not to place implicit confidence in merely negative evi- 
dence ; to encourage the hope that the bones of man may yet be exhumed, 
though probably in sparing numbers only ; and, should this hope be never 
realized, to justify even the most cautious in holding and avowing the belief 
that man was, in Devonshire, the contemporary of animals that had become 
extinct before the times of history or of tradition. 

Again, that Kent's Hole was largely visited in Romano-British times, is 
testified by numerous and varied objects of that age, foimd in the Black 
Mould overlying the Stalagmite ; and that the curious frequently made 
excursions to it during the last century, may be safely inferred from state- 
ments in the works of the local historians Polwhele and Maton . But waiving 
this point, and going no further back than the last forty years, it is capable 
of proof that, within that time, the Cavern was visited by more than ten 
thousand persons — including not only scientific inquirers, but large pic-nic, 
dancing, and Bacchanalian parties. All the visitors had to be accompanied 
by the appointed guide, who was invariably paid for his attendance. The 
payments were generally made in the Vestibule ; and it might have been 
expected that, from time to time, money would have been lost, at least, in 
that part of the Cavern. Jfevertheless, though the Black Mould has been 
most carefully examined, and has yielded a very large and most miscellaneous 
collection of objects, it was not until the close of twenty-one months that the 
labours of the Committee met with a pecuniary reward, in the form of a half- 
penny of George the Third. Two months afterwards, they had the happiness 
of finding a sixpence of forty years later date. Besides these, no coin has been 
met with from the commencement of the work to the present time. 

Further, in their First Report the Committee reminded those who were 
disposed to attach importance to the fact that man's bones were not forth- 
coming as readily as his implements, that in the Black Mould, as well as in 
the Red Loam of the Cavern, the only indications of his existence were rem- 
nants of his handiwork ; that pottery, implements varying in kind and in 
material, the remnants of his fires, and the relics of his feasts were numerous, 
and betokened the lapse of at least two thousand years ; but that there, as 
well as in the older deposit — the Cave-earth below, — they had met with no 
vestige of his osseous system. This remained to be their experience, not only 
when their Second Report was sent in, but up to December last. Then the 
speU was broken by the discoveiy, in the Black Mould, of part of a human 
lower jaw containing two molars. This, as has been stated, was followed by 
the exhumation, fi'om the same deposit, of parts of other jaws, a skull, and 

1867. D 



34 KEPORT — 1867. 

other portions of the skeleton ; and, as if to emphasize the fact, whilst these 
remains were being found, a fragment of a human upper jaw containing four 
teeth was, as previously mentioned, detected deep in the next older formation 
— the Stalagmitic Floor. 

Lastly, during the past two years, the blocks of stalagmite previously men- 
tioned have been found in every branch of the Cavern, and in all parts of the 
deposits. Their structure indicated that they were portions of an old floor, 
which, in some way not easy of explanation, had been broken up, and the 
fragments incorporated in the detrital accumulations subsequently lodged in 
the Cavern, and on which was formed that Stalagmitic Floor which the Com- 
mittee found intact, and are breaking iip every day. This view of the origin 
of the blocks was confirmed by the fact that a considerable remnant of an 
old floor still remains in situ in one branch of the Cavern, and which, under 
the name of " The Ceiling," was minutely described in the Report sent in 
last year. Nevertheless, as the existing floor very often graduates down- 
wards into a breccia, and frequently contains bones, stones, and other 
extraneous bodies, it was reasonable to expect that some objects of the kind 
would be found attached to, or incorporated in the blocks if they were really 
fragments of an old floor which formerly spread over the Cavern. Accord- 
ingly, as the blocks presented themselves, all their surfaces were carefully 
examined, but no such trace or indication of their having once covered a 
detrital mass was to be seen on any of them. The more thoroughly to sift 
this question, hundreds of them have been broken by the workmen into small 
pieces, with the same invariable results — a structure indicative of stalagmitic 
origin, but without the disclosure of either bone or stone. At length, how- 
ever, this large accumulation of negations was utterly set aside. On the 
6th of last month (August 1867), one of these blocks, in the second foot- 
level of Cave-earth, and in the Lectm-e Hall, was found, on being fractured, 
to contain a bone ; and thus any lingering doubt respecting its claims to 
represent an old perished Floor disappeared at once and for ever. Rince that 
time ossiferous blocks have been fo\uid in the same Hall, at least two or 
three times a week. 

The foregoing facts are calculated to stimulate to continued researches, 
and to encourage the hope that whilst a spadeful of deposit remains dis- 
lodged, a discovery may remain to be made. 



The present state of the Manufacture of Iron in Great Britain, and 
its position as compared with that of some other countries. By 
I. LowTHiAN Bell. 

[A communication ordered to be printed among the Reports.] 
The object of such exhibitions as that which now occupies so large a share 
of public attention at Paris being to compare the results of human industry, 
it is not surprising that we have been favoured with many expressions of 
opinion on the relative merits of manufacturing science, as manifested in 
individuals as well as in nations. 

These opinions are necessarily founded upon the information conveyed by 
the specimens of workmanship exposed for inspection ; and therein, it is to 
be feared, is involved more or less of a serious fallacy. No one of any 
practical experience has diflliculty in, or attributes the slightest skill to a 
manufacturing chemist for, exhibiting any of his usual products in a state of 



ON THE PRESENT STATE OF THE MANUFACTURE OP IRON. 35 

great purity, provided he pays a little additional care in their preparation, 
and is regardless of the expense incurred in this exceptional mode of treat- 
ment. In like manner the iron-master, by selecting veiy pure ore and pure 
coke, may run from his furnaces an unusually fine specimen of pig iron, 
which, being puddled by his best men, hammered and rolled any number of 
times, gives, as it cannot fail to do, a sample of iron of great excellence. 

If the question were asked, whether the articles we have the opportunity 
of examining upon such occasions convey in every case a correct idea of the 
average quality of the goods manufactured by and sold at the current rates 
of the exhibitor, it is much to be apprehended that such would not be found 
to be the fact. 

The Industrial Exhibition at Paris has afforded an occasion for the iron- 
masters, engineers, and practical chemists of the United Kingdom to be told, 
on the authority of very influential names, and possessing, we are informed, 
very intimate acquaintance with the subject, that while foreign nations have 
in recent times been making wonderful advances in manufacturing science, 
little progress has been effected in this country. It will probably be beyond 
the power of any one individual to speak with a proper degree of confidence, 
from personal knowledge, on all the questions embraced in the general charge 
against our national industry. This paper will be confined to an attempt to 
institute a comparison between our position and that of our neighbours in 
the treatment of the ores of iron and their products. 

This subject is selected because it is one to which the most pointed allusion 
has been made, and because in it any deficiency on our part would be the least 
excusable, seeing that nature has provided us with advantages which ought 
to afford the means of our competing with those nations which, by their 
superior intelligence and energy, are said to threaten us most. 

If cost of production has to form no element in the calculation, it is clear 
results might be obtained which would lead to very erroneous conclusions in 
any comparative estimate. It is equally evident that any inherent excellence 
in his ores of iron would confer upon the smelter the power of producing a 
superior quality of metal, in doing which little, if anything, may be due to 
s kill in manipulation. These circumstances are referred to merely to remind 
you of the difiiculty in pronouncing, with certainty, upon a question where, 
in drawing a parallel, so many allowances have to be made. For the present, 
however, these disturbing influences will be disregarded, and attention only 
directed to the information conveyed by the numerous specimens of the metal 
to be seen at the Champs de Mars, and which by many have been assumed 
to proclaim our inferiority as manufacturers of iron. 

No one who gives himself the trouble to study this department of the 
International Exhibition at Paris, can be otherwise than impressed with the 
pains the French makers have taken, not only to afford proofs of the quality 
of their produce by ingenious devices in showing fracture and tests of resist- 
ance, but also by a great number of sections of iron, which, from thinness 
and distribution of material, or great length, or with all these conditions 
combined, prove at once the chemical excellence of the metal, and the per- 
fection of the machinery used in its mechanical preparation. After giving 
the most ample margin to the French, who in their own country would -wish 
to do it aU honour, and probably would possess some superior facilities in 
securing the necessary space for the display of their manufactures, an 
Englishman cannot but feel disappointed at the attempts, as exhibitors, 
made by some of our iron-masters, who have aspired to represent their own 
nation ; indeed, nothing can excuse the careless indifference of one or two 

d2 



36 REPORT— 1867. 

who have intruded slovenly heaps of raw materials, intermingled with pieces 
of rusty iron, upon an occasion which may be looked upon as a state cere- 
monial of industry. 

The practical man, however, notwithstanding these disadvantages, has 
there materials and opportunity enough, to enable him to pronounce an 
opinion with sufficient precision, on the question of quality of the samples 
submitted for examination. I have myself carefully aud repeatedly studied 
all the great divisions of this important branch of metallurgical industry at 
Paris. I have done so alone, and in company with English and French 
engineers, iron-shipbuilders, and iron-masters, both British and foreign, 
including men of the greatest experience and knowledge of the subject, — and,, 
suj^ported by their concurrent testimony, I imhesitatiugly advance the opinion 
that no evidence whatever is to be found there that this coimtry occu:pies a 
position less conspicuous for excelleuee of its produce than that of other 
nations. Of course, it is not pretended that in such a coinpetition the four 
and a half millions of tons of British-made iron have to be brought into com- 
parison with those 300,000 or 400,000 tons of the metal which it requires 
the collective power of every European nation to smelt from the pui-est and 
rarest known ores and charcoal, and which cannot be made or sold at much 
imder double the price of our most esteemed brands. 

It is of importance, in an inquiry like the present, to bestow especial atten- 
tion to what may be considered the purely mechanical treatment of iron — to 
that treatment b)* which it is obtained in the various forms known in com- 
merce. Those sections of bars which present mechanical difficulties in rolling, 
have those difficulties greatly increased by the presence of certain chemically 
combined impurities. A good skin, as it is called, and unbroken edges, par- 
ticularly in some forms, may be accepted as a fair indication of quality of 
iron as well as of excellence of machinery employed. Judged by this standard, 
the French as weU as some other nations, have every reason to congratulate 
themselves on the state of iron-manufacturing science in their respective 
countries, as evinced by some of the really marvellous pieces of iron they 
exhibit. One firm, for example, has sent solid rolled bars of double "]" iron 
27 inches, and others 33 inches deep, by 30 and 40 feet long, each bar in 
both cases weighing forty-six cwts. ; but the greatest chef iVceuvre in this 
way is a girder of the same form as the preceding, from the works of 
Chatillon and Commentary, 43 inches deep, with flanges 11| inches wide and 
web of I5 inch in thickness. This last achievement has not so far met with 
any practical application, but it is of value in showing engineers what can 
be done, and that when occasion requires it, they have it within their power 
to obtain perfectly solid masses of ^vl■ought iron of these large dimensions : 
at the same time it may be questioned whether, looking at the lengths which 
generally accompany the use of iron of such sectional strength, it will not be 
found more economical to construct the girder by rivettiug plates or bars and 
angle-iron together. It should be stated that the Butterly Iron Company 
have for some time past rolled iron of this description, in a somewhat different 
way, for which they charge 40^. a ton less than the French quotations. Plates 
of iron, too, are exhibited, roUed so as to require no shearing along the sides, 
as has hitherto been practised. In many instances, such, for example, as in 
the construction of tanks, bridges, and other articles v.hcre a slight deviation 
from perfect soundness on the edge is immaterial, this mode of manufacture 
offers advantages by reason of the economy it effects. Against these proofs 
of efficiency of miU-machinery and skill in its use, may be placed the armour- 
plate, weighing eleven tons and a quarter, from the works of Messrs. Erown 



ON THE PRESENT STATE OF THE MANUFACTUKE OF IRON. 37 

and Company, of Sheffield, who have rolled plates of this kind ■«'eighing nearly 
twenty-five tons eacli. There arc, it is true, pieces of forged iron in the 
Exhibition heavier than even this, bnt the difficulty our manufacturers had 
to encounter in transhipment would offer impediments in carriage not expe- 
rienced by continental nations in sending objects to Paris, where size alone 
formed the test of merit. 

Any one having any recollection of the state of metallurgical science at the 
time of the London Exhibition of 1851, will detect, in the means afforded 
him at the Champs do Mars, a wonderful change in the manufacture of steel. 
This is apparent in the number and dimensions of the objects now produced 
in that material. More recently even than sixteen years ago, the use of 
steel might almost be said to have been confined to small articles of cutler}' ; 
today, railway wheels, axles, heavy working parts of steam-engines, nnd 
even railway bars, absorb immense quantities of this form of iron. The 
manufacturers of other nations, in this substance as in iron, maintain their 
superiority as exhibitors, and jirobably at the head of all will be placed the 
name of Krupp (of Essen), from whose establishment has proceeded, among 
other admirable specimens of workmanship, the gigantic mass of cast steel in 
the shape of a piece of ordnance, weighing upwards of fifty tons. 

Wc shall presently endeavour to discover to whose energy and inventive 
genius tlie credit is most due of having led the way in dealing with iron 
and steel of such extraordinary dimensions as are to be met with in our own 
days ; and at the same time seek to establish what is the true position of 
different nations which have laboiu'cd in raising this remaikabh; branch of 
industry to its present colossnl proportions. 

In attempting this, the only mode of procedure is by reference to the 
history of the past, which shall be done in terms as brief as is consistent with 
clearness ; at tlie same time it is obvious that in a manufacture involving 
both mechanical and chemical appliances, upon this occasion as well as here- 
after, we shall be compelled to exceed those limits which ought to be observed 
in any section set apart for discussing a particiilar science. Some indulgence 
also must be extended to anj' minor inaccuracies in an endeavour to trace the 
progress of an art which owes imjjrovemcnts in its details to different indi- 
viduals, whoso position in questions of priority it is sometimes so difficult to 
determine. 

It is not so very long ago that the attention of the Government of this 
country was called to the fact that the iron furnaces of that day threatened 
to place the kingdom in a position of considerable difficulty, from the rapid 
manner in which they were consuming the forests of certain districts, and, 
indeed, for a time, under the pressure of circumstances which arose, the make 
of iron, insignificant as it was, suffered considerable diminution.. From this 
state of things the nation was reUeved by the Darbys, in the midland coimties, 
succeeding during the last century in applying upon a practical scale Dudley's 
discovery of the capabilities of mineral fuel being cmjiloyed as a substitute 
for charcoal in the blast furnace. It is quite impossible to overrate the im- 
l)ortance of this event in the history of the iron trade, because in localities 
where timber is only of little value, the rapid manner in which even a limited 
mnke consumes the forests near the smelting establishment, causes charcoal 
quickly to rise in price, owing to the increasing cost of carriage. This is easily 
perceived when it is remembered that in Styria and Carinthia something like 
twenty-five square miles of wood are stated as being required to supply the 
wants of each furnace, and that in consequence the best charcoal, owing to 
the distance it has to be conveyed, often costs nearly 50s. to GOi". per ton 



38 REPORT — 1867. 

before it reaches the iron works. Simple as this substitution of pit-coal for 
charred wood appears, it was a long time before the difficulties attending its 
introduction were overcome, and the jirejudice against its use set aside — 
Dudley liimself beiiig in his grave long before the accomplishmcut of either. 
This cardinal improvement in iron-smolting brings us, witliout fv;rther 
change, down to about the beginning of the present century, when our blast- 
furnaces were running thirty or forty tons a week, and that portion of their 
produce which had to be converted into bar iron was obtained in this con- 
dition by means of the old "hearth," a most laborious, costly, and wasteful 
mode of treatment. In it charcoal was frequently the fuel stiU employed, 
and the small tilt hammer the only means possessed for reducing the malleable 
product to the state of the bar. 

This was our position when our countryman Gort effected an entire revolu- 
tion in the character of the operations carried on in our forges, hj the inven- 
tion of the rolling mill and the puddling furnace. The latter contrivance 
was subsequently greatly improved by Rogers abandoning the old sand 
bottoms used by its original designer, and by substituting iron plates pro- 
tected by iron slag. 

Fostered l)y the discoveries of Dudley and of Cort, the use of iron extended 
in every direction, rendering each subsequent im])rovement of increased im- 
portance, by reason of the enlarged field provided for its exercise. 

It was thus a fortunate circumstance that the labours of James Watt, in 
connexion with the steam-engine, placed in the hands of tlie iron manufac- 
turer the means of dri\ing his new machinery, for which the water-wheels of 
our old forges were, in many instances, totally inadequate. 

If the other changes which have been iritroduced in later times into our 
iron processes are to be considered as modifications and improvements only 
of what Dudley and Cort effected many years ago, that of N^eilson in applying 
heated air to the blast furnace has been followed by results of such magni- 
tude as to rank in importance with discoveries of the highest order. The 
effect Neilson's idea has had in reducing the consumption of fuel and the 
expense generally in smelting the ores of iron, is too familiar to all to require 
repetition here. 

It would appear, however, tluit it is only to those greater and more sudden 
changes that the world at large seems to attach any siguiiicance ; for, judging 
by recent criticism on the progress of metallurgical science in this country, 
the fact apparently has been overlooked tliat the iron-masters of Durham and 
North Yorkshire, M'ithin the List four years, have introduced great alterations 
in tlie character of their furnaces, and have succeeded in raising the tempe- 
rature of the blast they employ to a point never contemplated by Neilson 
himself. These progressive changes have enabled their projectors to effect a 
sa\dng in coal and an increase of produce, greater than the difference between 
those cold and hot blast furnaces still in common use in other parts of 
England. 

Our rolling-mill engineers had kept pace with the constantlj' increasing 
rc(]uircmcuts for malleable iron, iintil aliout a dozen years ago, Avhen the 
I'xampJe of the Enqjeror of the French created a demand for an article 
beyond +hc powers "of any rolls then in existence. Possibly they were never 
applied to, owing to the belief then prevailing that hammered slabs of metal 
alone would satisfy the necessary conditions attending the protection of sliips 
of war, by means of the so-called armour-plating — at all events it was by 
means of the steam-hammer (a French idea, it is said, originally, but in- 
debted for its practical introduction here to Nasmyth) that we in this country, 



ON THE PRESENT STATE OF THE MANUFACTURE OF IRON. 39 

in the year 1855, manufactured the iron for two floating batteries. To Mr. 
G. G. Sanderson, of the Park Gate Works, we owe the idea that rolled plates, 
by reason of their toughness, would be found superior in resisting shot to 
those of hammered iron ; and to him, and to the owners of that establisli- 
ment, is due the merit of hanug, in the same year, provided a mill and rolled 
the plating for a third floating battery, buUt by Messrs. Palmer on the 
Tyne*. The correctness of Mr. Sanderson's views have been justified by 
subsequent experiments. Sir William Armstrong's ingenious method of 
builchng up wrought iron so as to produce ordnance, having incredible 
powers of penetration, has called for greatly increased thickness in armour- 
plating. Manufacturers of this description of iron, however, by increasing 
the powers of their heating furnaces, miUs, and other appliances, are now able 
to supply our naval yards and military establishments with material stiU more 
invulnerable 'than that formerly deemed suffieient as a means of defence. 

It is this character of machinery which has enabled mill-owners here and 
abroad to handle such huge masses of wrought iron as have excited the 
admiration of all who interest themselves in such matters, and it is bj'' means 
of the so-called universal mill designed by Mr. Arrowsmith that our friends 
in France are rolling their smooth-edged plates. 

This hasty sketch is, it is hoped, an impartial account of what has been 
done in this countrj'^ towards advancing the manufacture of iron to its present 
position. 

As soon as the occasion arose, other nations profited by the wisdom our 
more matured experience had acquired, and every improvement in machinery 
or in process, found immediate imitators in each locality where the " forge 
Anglaise " had been constructed. It is mere repetition of a truth, admitted 
on all sides, that the modern blast-furnaces, forges, and mills abroad are in 
principle, and in most details identical with those of this country, and of 
such excellent construction as to have placed their owners on a level with 
ourselves so far as perfection of machinery is concerned. 

It is, however, not to be expected that those conditions which prevail here 
should find an exact counterpart abroad; and wherever a deviation from 
things as they exist with ourselves occurred, the foreign iron-master was 
found, of course, adopting his mode of procedure so as to suit the change of 
circumstances. The chief difference between other countries and this is in 
the important matter of fuel. Here, regular lying beds of coal, generally of 
great purity, and in very accessible positions, have furnished us with abun- 
dant supplies of this clement for the production of iron, and upon terms more 
favourable than those within reach of the continental iron-maker, who very 
frequently has to work Avith a combustible costly in itself, and containing a 
considerable amount of impurity. Long before it was thought of here, 
because the same necessity did not exist, our neighboiirs occupied themselves 
with devising ingenioiis methods of washing out the dirt contained in their 
coal, and afterwards in constructing ovens so as to coke the purified product 
with the least possible waste. Thej- also conceived, and now practice on a 
very large scale, the idea of securing the advantages of large coal by cemcnt- 

* Sinco writing (lio above, I percoive Mr. Charles M. Palmer, in a paper on " Ship 
Building," rend bofore the Britisli Association in ISijO, claims to have originated the idci 
that rolled jilatcs would bo found suporior in power of resistance to tliosi^ of liammei-cd 
iron, and that it was at liis request that tlif^ Park Crate Iron Company, then imder Iho 
nianagement of Mr. Gr. ft. Sanderson, undertook to provide the necessary means for 
manufacturing the plating for the floating battery then in course of construction at Mr. 
Palmer's work.s. 



40 REPOKT — 1867. 

ing together in verj- well-contrived machinery the improved small coal thus 
placed at their disposal. To meet the increased demand for pitch, which 
constitutes the cement used in this last-mentioned process, coke-ovens are 
now in use ahroad foi- condensing aU the products of distillation, both of a 
tarry as well as those of an ammoniacal nature. In like manner the excess 
of heat, which passes away from the puddling and balling fui-nace, instead of 
being permitted to escape, was made available in France for raising the steam 
for driving the forge and rolling-mill machinery ; but i^erhaps the most ele- 
gant and interesting application of a waste product was that effected by em- 
ploying the gases, which formerly flamed at the tops of their blast-furnaces, 
for a variety of purposes for which hitherto solid fuel had been used. 

Now, it may be asked, were our own iron-masters indifferent spectators to 
those valuable ameliorations contributed by other nations to an art in which 
Britain might be supposed to occupy the first rank ? The answer is, that no 
sooner did a change in the ]nicc of our fuel enable them to adopt, with profit, 
the purification of coal andtlic imjjrovements in its conversion into coke, than 
both processes were imported into this kingdom ; and at the present day there 
is scarcely an ircn-work in it of any consideration, where the machinery is 
not driven by the Avaste heat from its OAvn furnaces in the manner suggested 
by the example of our neighbours. As regards the use of the blast-furnace 
gases, not onlj' h ive our furnace-owners availed themselves of the lesson 
tauglit them bj' foreign industry, but the mode of collection has been so im- 
jiroved as to afford in many eases results better than those obtained by the 
original inventors. At this tim.e not less than 500,000 tons of coal are 
annually saved in the Cleveland iron district alone, by the state of perfection 
to which this admirable discovery has been carried. 

For many years past such are the advantages possessed by this country for 
the economical working of metals that, although the raw material for the 
finer kinds of steel had to be imported from other nations, we have been able, 
notwithstanding, from our position in other respects, to rank first as manu- 
factui'ers of this modified form cf iron. The rapid speeds attained on our 
railways, and the great strain to which the machinery there, as well as on 
other occasions, is exposed, has rendered increased strength of material, 
combined with lightness, an object of the highest importance. Metallurgists 
have thus been led to devise some more ready and less expensive methods of 
producing steel, this substance being, as is well known, possessed of the 
desired qualities, unequalled bj' any other known condition of iron. It is 
needless to dwell on the various i)rojects which have been suggested for 
securing this desideratum, inasmuch as every one appears to have been 
driveu out of the field liy that last great discovery of Eessemer, the success 
of which still maintains for this nation its old position in an industry in 
which it has laboured so incessantly and to such good purpose. It is true in 
Prussia there exist gigantic steel-works (those of Krupp and others) where 
the process is carried on by methods confined, it is alleged, to themselves. 
Whatever these methods may be, they are not of that character to liave ])re- 
veuted the directors of the establishments named from adding the converters 
of Bessemer to any appliances or modes of procedure of which they have the 
merit of being the original inventors. 

In concluding this endeavour to trace, in its main features, the progress of 
the manufacture of iron, I may be permitted to mention that, during a per- 
sonal acquaintance with the works of this and other countries, extending 
over twenty -five years, I can detect no change in the relative position of our- 
selves and continental nations as iron manufacturers. No doubt, abroad, the 



ON THE PRESENT STATE O? THE MANUFACTURE OF IRON. 41 

production of this metal has increased immensely in late years, but this is duo 
to circumstances entirely disconnected with any greater comparative pro- 
ficiency than that possessed in former days. During the ■\yholc of the period 
named, the existing iron-works were equal to similar establishments of our 
own, and certainly those which have been constructed of late have no pre- 
tensions whatever to be otherwise considered. 

The present depressed state of our own iron trade and its recent extension 
abroad, have probably countenanced the idea that the distress here has some 
connexion with the nature of the progress of the continental manufactures. 
It becomes, therefore, not unimportant to ascertain upon wliat grounds such 
a supposition is based. 

The first question to which an investigator would address himself in such 
an inquiry, is the powers possessed by dififerent localities for obtaining the 
raw materials required in the works themselves. Immediately connected 
with tliis matter is the right of ownership in the minerals. In foreign 
countries gCDcrally, this charge is one of trifling extent, which is far from 
being the case Avith ourselves, where, on a ton of pig iron worth about 4-oh., 
the manufacturer will contribute about 4s. for royalty to the owner of the 
soil; while on the continent one-fourth of this sum wiU sometimes cover 
all that is levied for the right of working the coal and ironstone for the same 
quantity of iron. In spite, however, of these disadvantages, and of others 
related to the extraction of coal in Britain, the purity of the produce of our 
collieries and the favourable conditions under which it occurs, conduce to 
place this country, so far as fuel is concerned, in a position rarely approached 
by that of any European nation. "When the ores themselves have to be con- 
sidered, much greater difficulty meets us than is experienced in the case of 
coal. In addition to price we have to look to the percentage of iron they 
contain, and also to the widely diff'erent qualities of the metal they yield. 
Any verj- lengthened exposition of facts, however, would not only bo tedious, 
but would lead to some confusion. We must therefore content ourselves 
with the statement that the advantages in cost and quality of iron ore pos- 
sessed by Scotland, Staffordshire, Wales, and the West of England, are all to 
be severally met with on the continent, and from this general statement we 
cannot even except the Cleveland ironfield, for a similar dejjosit is extensively 
wrought in the Moselle district, and at a price fully below that paid in North 
Yorkshire. 

Conditions, however, immediately connected with the economy of producing 
pig iron, obtain in this kingdom which are seldom met Avith abroad. The ore 
which has to be smelted is here either often got from the same strata which 
furnish the coal, or the space of country which separates the two is incon- 
siderable. The distances, on the other hand, which as a rule intervene 
between the coalfields and the iron mines on the continent, are so great as 
to prove a source of considerable outlay for conveying the produce of the one 
to the other. 

With regard to the application of science to those sections of our operation 
which are dependent on chemical action, viz. the blast-furnace and the pud- 
dling process, the iron-master in other coiintries, as here, can only lament 
liov/ little chemistry has hitherto been able to eftect for either. The labours 
of Karsten, Schcerer, Bunsen, Tunner, and others, have thrown great light 
on the intricate and interesting problems connected with the working of oui* 
blast-furnaces. We have been informed by means of their investigations, 
and those of philosophers in this country and clsoAvhcre, that differences we 
know to exist between certain qualities of iron were due to minute quantities 



42 REPORT — 1867. 

of silicon, phosphorus, or sulphur; but these experimenters have never 
taught us how to separate, ccouomically, those almost infinitesimal amounts 
of substances, lo rid our produce of which has defied their science and our 
practice. 

Both on the continent and in this country, the success attending the use 
of the blast- and puddling-furnaces rests, in a great measure, with the work- 
men ; and so far as waste of material, quality of produce, or any other test, 
enables one to judge of the results, it is as absurd to impute any superiority 
to either side, as it is impossible to find a higher degree of science, Avhcre 
both British and foreign artisans are equally uninstructed in respect to the 
true nature of the process under their control. 

It may be well, at the same time, for our own workpeople to know that, 
although we had the start in this particular field of industry, there is not one 
department, from rolling the finest wire iron and the thinnest tin plates or 
hoops, to turning out the largest rails or heaviest armour plating, in which 
these operations are not performed quite as well by foreign labour as by the 
most expert rollers in the best mills in this country. 

Reverting now to the relative facilities enjoj'cd on the continent and here 
in the manufacture of iron, it may be remembered that ours have been stated 
to lie in the possession of mines yielding coal upon more favourable condi- 
tions, and in the more convenient geographical distribution of our minerals. 
To the last may be added the easier transport of our manufactured produce 
to a seaport, due to the insular character of our country. Against this we 
have to set the lesser charge for roj^alties on coal and ironstone abroad, 
together with the fact, not previously noticed, that their railway trausijovt 
is somewhat less costly than with us, reckoned for equal distances. The 
saving thus efifcetod in France and other places cannot account for the dis- 
appearance which occurs, to a great extent, of the effect of those natural 
advantages, economically speaking, placed at the disposal of the iron manu- 
facturers of this kingdom. 

So far as a careful examination of iron-works producing above one-half 
of the collective make of France, Belgium, and the lluhr district has enabled 
Mr. Lancaster, the iron-master of Wigan, and myself to judge, this is dp.(_> 
neither to greater science possessed by the iron-master, nor to greater skill 
on the part of the workmen, but is wholly to be ascribed to the cheaper rare 
at Avliich labour is obtained abroad than with us. 

To ascertain as exactly as possible whether the foreign artisan could, from 
surrounding circumstances, dispose of the work of his hands upon cheaper 
terms than persons of his own condition are able to do with ourselves, I 
made myself acquainted, while in Sweden, France, Belgium, and Prussia, 
with the cost of the necessaries of life consumed by the working population. 
It is almost superfluous to say that the creation of additional industry abroad, 
and above aU, the ecjualizing effect on prices by the introduction of free trade 
here, have entirely changed the aspect of affairs, and that, in consequence, 
provisions are at least 20 to 30 per cent, dearer to the foreign labourer than 
they were twenty years ago. Without going into details, it may suffice to 
say that animal food is only 3 per cent, cheajier in the chief seats of con- 
tinental manufacture than with us — while house-rent and clothing are aL'out 
the same in value with both. On the other hand, at the present moment, 
'wheat is fully lower in England, and our own workmen do not pay half the 
price charged to persons of their own class abroad for firing employed for 
domestic use. 

Notwithstanding this almost perfect equality in the cost of the necessaries 



ON THE PRESENT STATE OF THE MANUFACTURE OF IRON. 43 

of life, labour on the continent is, in very many instances, 30 per cent, below 
the price it commands in this kingdom. This estimate is based on calcula- 
tions where there is no room for any great diiference in the nature of the 
work performed, common brick-making being assumed as one of the standards 
of comparison. In the manufacture of iron itself this difference is occasionally 
still more remarkable. Colliers, miners, mechanics, iron workers, in short, 
every one engaged in the process appear to be receiving 20 to 30 per cent, 
below the rates current in this country, and in some cases double, and more 
than double, the wages paid abroad are earned in our English iron-works. 
The ii-on-masters here have endeavoured to meet what would be an intole- 
rable burden in the production of an article made up almost exclusively 
of labour, by adopting means for reducing its amount, often considerably 
in advance of those met with in foreign establishments. After all this has 
been done, however, it leaves us to contend with an extra charge of at least 
1.5 to 20 per cent, in the item of wages, which, in the majority of instances, 
will be found to annihilate any advantage of position we may otherwise 
possess. 

It must be clear that when this country has to compete with foreign 
nations in articles invoh-ing a still higher amount of labour, such as steam- 
engines and other kinds of machinery, the difference in wages just alluded to 
acts still more prejudicially to the advancement of our national industry. 

To the political economist, the question of the future of our iron trade, from 
its magnitude, cannot fail to be one of great interest. The extent also to 
which steel has lately taken the ])laee of iron in the arts, necessarily confers 
upon this material a conspicuous position in any consideration ho or the 
metallurgist may bestow on the subject. This becomes more necessary from 
the fact that only a very limited number of ores are capable of affording iron 
of the necessary quality for the production of steel, by any of the processes 
now in existence. It is of importance, therefore, to know that even in 
Austria, Sweden, and Germany, where suitable mineral for this purpose does 
occur, it is found in quantities quite as limited in extent as prevails with us ; 
in France also, where preparations for manufacturing Bessemer steel on a 
very extensive scale arc being made, large quantities of ore are required to 
be imported from Algeria and elsewhere to obtain that kind of pig iron which 
their own minerals alone arc found incapable of supplying. 

The great strength, however, of our own position as iron manufacturers, it 
appejirs to me, must bo sought for in these incomparable fields of coal which 
constitute so important a feature in our mineral wealth. I am very sanguine 
that the advantages thus secured to us will, notwithstanding present diffi- 
culties, maintain the iron trade among the most prominent of our national 
branches of commerce. This conclusion is arrived at from a consideration of 
the various circumstances connected with the use of coal and the means 
possessed by different nations of satisfjang the constantly increasing demands 
this use creates. In Great Britain we raise annually something like 
100,000,000 tons of this mineral, of which 10,000,000 are exported, and 
about 20,000,000 are devoted to the use of our iron-works, leaving thus 
70,000,000 of tons for consumption in other descriptions of manufactories, 
purposes of locomotion, and for domestic use. In France and Belgium 
together, less than one-fourth of our production is obtaiucd, and this only by 
gi'eat exertions being made to obtain the largest possible quantity their mines 
are capable of affording. After satisfying the requirements of the iron-works 
of these two countries, not much over 15,000,000 of tons would remain for 
carrying on those operations in which, with a smaller population, we are 



44 REPORT — 1867. 

consuming 70,000,000 tons of coal. ' 'Now, when we remember the various 
purposes to which coal is now applied, and where even a considerable ang- 
meutation of price will not preclude its use, wc must at the same time perceive 
the serious effect any great change in the value of fuel must exercise on the 
production of an iron railway bar requiring five or six tons of coal for its 
manufacture. In reality, this disj^roportion between the value of coal and 
iron as compared with this country is already perceived abroad, where, not- 
M'ithstanding greater mining difficulties than wc have to contend with, fuel 
commands a price sufficient to cover this, and also leave a greater margin of 
profit than falls to the share of the coal owner in this country. 

Favoured thus, as we undoubtedly are by nature, there seems nothing 
wanting for our success in this noble branch of manufacturing science than 
a continuance of that unflagging spirit of enterprise on the part of the 
masters, and the exercise of that operative skill on the side of our workmen, 
which is still imsurpassed in any iron-producing country of Europe ; but in 
this alliance a correct knowledge by both of the competition wc have to meet, 
and a thorough belief in the inseparable union of the interests of each, arc 
indispensable. 



Third Report on the Structure and Ctassifii acion of the Fossil 
Crustacea. By Henry Woodward, F.G.S., F.Z.S., of the British 
Museum. 

Since I had the honour to submit to the British Association my last Report 
on the Structure and Classification of the Fossil Crustacea, the first part of 
my monograph on the Merostomata has been issued by the Palicontographical 
Society. About seven more plates are already prepared for the second part, 
of some of M^hich I am enabled to exhibit proofs. 

The magnificent collection of remains of this remarkable group of Cnis- 
tacca from the Devonian of Forfarshire, belonging to ilr. James Powric, 
F.G.S., of Reswallie, are on view in the Volunteer Drill Hall. 

A fine series, comprising several new forms, from the black shales (Upper- 
most Silurian) are exhibited at the present Meeting (Panmure St. Chapel) by 
Mr. 11. Slimon from Lesmahagow, Lanarkshire, and are M'orthy of a careful 
inspection by all who are interested in geology. 

In the immediate neighbourhood of Dundee, at Montrose, at the Univer- 
sity of St. Andrews, at Arbroath, at Rossie Priory, and in the "Watt Insti- 
tution in the town itself, some of the best specimens ever jxt found of the 
remains of Pteryriotus are to be seen ; Avhilst Balruddcry Den, Carmyllie, 
and the quarries in the Sidlaw Hills, exhibit the " Arbroath paving-stones " 
and overlying fissile shales, whence these remains were procured. 

Among the new forms which have been obtained by Mr. Slimon in his 
exploration of the shales of Logan Water, are some almost entire remains 
of a form allied to Pteryriotus punctatus (called by Mr. Salter i¥. scorpioides^-), 
which prove it to be an Eurypterus and not a Fteryyotus. Another new form 
allied to Pt. hiJohus and perornatus, but having the anterior segments much 
broader and shorter, and with a somewhat different form of thoracic plate, 

* A MS. label bearing this name is .ittached to a specimen of a portion of this same 
species in the Miiseiiui at Jcrmyu Street. 



ON THE STRUCTURE AND CLASSIFICATION OP THE FOSSIL CRUSTACEA. 45 

has been met with. It will be needful to modify the specific name of Pt. 
bilobus, as the new form, and ji:>ero mat us ; both have a bilobcd telson likewise. 

If the name is retained, it must be apphed to all three forms thus : — Pt. 
bilobus, var. inornatus ; Pt. bilobus, xar. crassus* ; Pt. bilobus, \&v. pevornatus. 

In the Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society, vol. xxii. part 1, 
Februaiy 1867, p. 28, and in the British Association Heport for 1866, 
p. 180, and Sections, p. 79, I pointed out the affinities of the Limulidie 
^\ith the Eurypteridce, and in the first-named paper I recorded all the forms 
then known which tended to confirm their alliance. 

I have now to notice a new genus from Lesmahagow, Lanarkshire, which 
offers further evidence in confii'mation of the correctness of the above-men- 
tioucJ classification. 

It is a small Limuloid formf, the carapace of which measures only 6 Lines 
in breadth and 2 in length, having 5 thoracic and 3 abdominal segments, all 
of which appear to be free and distinct. The telson is unfortunately 
wanting, the specimen being close to the border of the matrix. 

This httle form carries the Limulidce back in time from the Coal-measures 
to the Uppermost Silurian, a great and important extension. 

I shall take an early opportunity to describe this form in detail, and to 
work out its relationship to Belinurus on the one hand and Hemiaspis on the 
other. 

New Lower Lias Crustacean from Barrow-onSoar. 

A new Crustacean, obtained some years since by Sir Philip Egerton, Bart., 
M.P., from the Lower Lias of Barrow-on-Soar, has since been also found by 
Mr. Charles Moore, F.G.S., near Bath. It is quite distinct from every other 
form which I have examined from the Lias or Oohte. Its nearest analogue 
is the recent Atya scabra of Leach, from South America. The limbs are 
monodactylous and extremely rugose ; the antenuaj are rigid, and the basal 
joints thick and spinose, resembling in these points of structure the genus 
Palinurina. The rostrum is short and curved downwards. The carapace 
was extremely thin, and less chitinous than in the genera Aer/er and Pcnceus, 
it is therefore more easily destroyed or distorted. 

I propose to name this new form Prcmtija scabrosa. 

Upper Lias Crustacea from Ilminster. 

Having been favoured with the loan of a large series of specimens for ex- 
amination from the Upper Lias of Ilminster, collected by Mr. Charles Moore, 
r.G.S., of Bath, I have been enabled to add a considerable number of genera 
and species to our list of Liassic Crustacea. 

The two species of Eryon, E. antiquus and E. Moorei, have been already 
noticed bj- me from this localitv (see Quart. Joui-n. Geol. Soc. vol. xxii. 
p. 499, pi. 25, fig. 3). 

I have since determined the following genera and species, which will be 
described at length in a paper by Mr. Charles Moore on the Ikninster Lias, 
now in preparation J : — 

* This interesting form of bilobus exhibits in one instance well-preserved brancMce, to 
which attention was called, and drawings of which were shown by Mr. Woodward. 
They will be figured in the Palwontogi-aphical Society's Monograph on the Mcrosto)iiata. 

t The original specimen was exhibited of this, and also figures and specimens of the 
other forms from Mr. Slimon's collection, believed to be new. 

I See the Proceedings of the Somersetshire Archteological and Natural-History Eccict 
vol. xiii. Published November 18G7. Taunton. 



46 REPORT — 1867. 

1. Eryon, Desmarest. 

aiitiquus, Brod. sp. 

Moorei, H. "W. 

2. Palinurina, Miinst. 

jij^f/mcea, Miinst. Upper Lias, Ilminster. 

longipes, Miinst. Upper Lias, Ilminster, 

3. Penceus, Fabricius. 

latipes, Oj^pel. Upper Lias, Ilminster. 17^ 

4. Eryma, Meyer. 

< elegans, Oppel. Upper Lias, Ilminster. 

Greppini, Oppel. tipper Lias, Ilminster. 

fuciformis, Oppel. Upper Lias, Ilminster. 

5. Hefriga, Miinster. 

Frischmanni, Oppel. Upper Lias, Ilminster. 

6. Glypluea, Meyer. 

Heeri, Oppel. Upper Lias, Ilminster. 

7. Pseudoglyphcea, Oppel. 

Winwoodi, H. W. Lias, "Weston. 

(Figures and specimens of these new species were exhibited.) 

The above list shows an addition to our Liassic Crustacea of seven genera, 
and probably nine species new to Britain. 

It is extremely interesting to notice so many forms common to our Lias 
and to the Lithographic stone of Solenhofen in Bavaria. 

The persistence of such forms as Eryon, Eryma, and Qlypluxa through 
the whole Oolitic series seems clearly to demonstrate that having escaped 
total extinction in the Lower Lias sea, they migrated from time to time to 
more favourable areas, and thus were enabled to live on during the periods 
of time I'cpresented by the long series of deposits from the Lower Lias to the 
Lithographic stone, in which so many examples are found fossil. 



Oolitic forms of Decapoda Brachyura. 

The genus Prosojwn was established by H. von Meyer for certain minute 
forms of Crustacea from the Upper White Jura of Qirlinger Thai, and other 
localities in Germany, of which he has described 29 species (see Palaeonto- 
graphica for December 1860, vol. vii.). In addition to these he has described 
1 species from the Lower Oolite, 3 from the Coral Rag, and 1 from the Neo- 
comian. 

Amongst them, however, are placed forms belonging to a widely different 
genus in no way related to the Corystidte. 

In Professor Bell's monograph on the Crustacea from the Greensand and 
Gault (Pal. Soc. Mon. 1862) he has figured and described one of these, and 
has correctly referred it to the Prnnotlicridte, under the generic name of 
Plagioplithahnus. 

This genus would probably include the following species of H. von Meyer : — 
Prosopon hehes, P. simplex, P. rostratum, P. spinosum, P. ehngatum, P. de- 
pressum, P. ohlusum, P. Iceve, P. suhlceve, P. punctatum, P. Stotzingense, P. 
tuberosum. 

The following are doubtful : P. insigne, P. aquilatwm, P. marginatum, 
P. grande, P. excisum, P. lingulatum. 



ON THE PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION OF THE METHYL COMPOUNDS. 47 

For the remainder the generic name Prosopon should be retained, viz. : 
P. acideatum, P. ornatum, P. torosum, P. Heydeni, P. cequum, P. paradoxum. 

To this last division I have now the pleasure to add a new British species 
from Stonesfield. 

This form was first noticed by Professor Morris, F.Gr.S., who obtained an 
imperfect carapace many years since ; it was next observed by Mr. Samuel 
Stutterd, of Banbury, but likewise in an imperfect state. The perfect cara- 
pace now exhibited was kindly lent me by George Griifith, Esq., M.A., the 
Assistant-General Secretary of the British Association. AU these three 
specimens are from Stonesfield, and they add another new genus to our list 
of British Oolitic Brachyura. I propose to name it Prosopon mammiUatum. 

New Fossil Land- Crab from the Lower Eocene, 

Lastly, I wish to call attention to a new genus of Cmstacea from the 
Bed Marl of the Plastic Clay, High Cliff", Hampshire, and is, I beheve, the 
first discovered example of a British land-crab, or shore-crab, yet met with. 
Its oblong quadrangular-shaped carapace, with obtusely rounded anterior 
angles and short blunt rostrum, remind one immediately of the Ocypoda. In 
addition to this, the eyes have extremely elongated pediincles, which are 
seen preserved in the fossil, lying in the groove along the fronto -orbital 
margin of the carapace, as in the recent genera Gelasimus, Macrophthalmus, 
and Ocypoda. The hands are both small ; and from this, as well as from the 
very broad posterior border of the carapace, I infer that this is a female 
example, as in most of the recent species of Quadrangulares the male has one 
hand enormously developed for burrowing, whereas the hands of the female 
are both small and very feeble. The other limbs are, like those of the recent 
species, well formed for rapid movement along the ground. I propose to 
name this interesting little Cmstacean Goniocypoda Edwardsi, in honour of 
the great French carcinologist to whom science is so much indebted*. 



Report on the Physiological Action of tKe Methyl Compounds. 
By Benjamin W. Richardson, M.A., M.D., F.R.S. 

In the present paper I produce the fourth of a series of Eeports which I have 
had the honour to prepare for the British Association. The Eeports have all 
had relation to the physiological action of bodies of organic type. The first 
Report treated of the action of the substance known as nitrite of amyl. The 
second was on amyUc alcohol, acetate of amyl, and iodide of amyl. The third 
was on the nitrite of amyl as a remedy, and the action of the amyls as anti- 
septics ; it included also notes of a research on the physiological action of 
absolute ether, hydrofluoric ether, acetate of ethyl, and nitrite of ethyl. 

As the matter of the present Report is long, I shall not attempt to reca- 
pitulate at any length the results of previous Reports ; I shall be content to 
offer as the more salient points the following facts : — 

In respect to the amyls — 

1. Nitrite of amyl was found to be the most active known excitant of the 
circulation. 

* See Geol. Mag. Dec. 1867, vol. iv. p. 529, pi. 21. fig. 1. 



48 REPORT— 1867. 

2. All the compounds of amyl which were studied were found to modify i." 
a singular manner the motive animal power. 

3. One compound, amylene, is an anaesthetic. 

4. All the amyls were found to be antisejjtics ; and acetate of amyl, it was 
suggested, might probably be used, on an extensive scale, for the preservation 
of animal substances. 

In respect to the ethyls — 

1. Pure oxide of ethyl was found to be the best and safest anaesthetic for 
general anaesthesia. 

2. Hydrofluoric ether was found to be a most powerful agent for the de- 
struction or resolvency of living animal tissues. 

3. Nitrite of ethyl was discovered to possess an action similar to that of 
the nitrite of amyl, but with this striking difference in young animals, — that 
when they are made to receive it until they seem to be quite dead, they 
will remain as if dead for eight and even ten minutes, and will then faintly 
recommence to breathe, the heart following in its action ; this condition, look- 
ing like an actual return of life, will sometimes last as long as half an hour, 
and will then gradually cease, the animal lapsing into actual inertia or death. 

Such are a few of the facts elicited by these preceding researches ; but as 
the Association is always anxious to learn what practical results have been 
obtained from its works, or from works performed under its auspices, I shall 
be pardoned if I refer to one or two of the results that have followed upon 
the present series of Reports. 

The experimental tniths which have been brought out in regard to the 
nitrite of amyl have led to the application of this substance to the alleviation 
of human suffering. Dr. Heydon of Dublin has used the nitrite with advan- 
tage in the treatment of cholera, in the later stages of the malady. DDuted 
with ether in the proportion of 5 per cent., the nitrite has been shown 
to exert a marked controlling inHuencc over painful spasmodic breathing ; 
and I hear that Dr. Brunton, of Edinburgh, has resorted to it with great 
success in the treatment of one of the most terrible of all maladies, cardiac 
apnoea, or angina pectoris. 

The Report last year on ether, although written very briefly, has excited 
much practical interest both here and in America. It has led to the intro- 
duction iuto medicine of a more stable and reliable ether compound ; and it 
has caused many surgeons to return, with satisfaction, to the iise of ether as 
an anaesthetic in preference to the more dangerous agent chloroform. 

It is my hope that the Report now in hand, and which at the request of 
the Committee is, this year, on the Methyl compounds, will not prove of less 
service. 

RESEARCH ON THE METHYLS. 

The methyl series of organic compounds are already known in physiologi- 
cal science through one or two of their representatives, direct or substituted. 
Thus we have in the series the hydride of methyl, or marsh-gas, or fire- 
damp, which, as a cause of death, has been generally studied, and which, in- 
deed, has not escaped the intelhgent observation of Mr. Nunneley, of Leeds, 
as an anaesthetic agent. Then, again, as substitution-products of this scries, 
we have the well-known agent chloroform, the terchloride of formylc ; and 
lastly, we have a substance concerning which there has been considerable 
discussion of late, the tetrachloride of carbon, also an anaesthetic. 

Before I go further, and that all may be carried with me, let me briefly 



ON THE PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION OF THE METHYL COMPOUNDS. 49 

state what compounds of the methyl series arc about to engage our attention, 
and what is their nature and derivation. 

The most common methyl-compound, that, in fact, which came first to the 
use of the world at large, is what is called methyl-alcohol or wood-spirit- 
naphtha, — a substance which comes over in combination with water during the 
dry distillation of wood. Chemically considered, this and all the other bodies 
of the series are constructed on a radical called methyl. This radical, whicli 
has only been isolated by one or two observers, exists as a permanent gas. Its 
composition, according to the new formula, is C H^. 

Prom this radical we have handed to us by the chemist two sets of com- 
pounds. In one set we have the radical acting as a base, producing by com- 
bination with other elements bodies which may be taken as the analogues of 
salts. In the second set we have the carbon continuing steady, but the hy- 
drogen replaced by some other element. For convenience sake, I will place 
such compounds as I have studied physiologically in two groups, as fol- 
lows : — 

Groxtp (A). 

Methylic alcohol TT l ^* 

Hydride of methyl 1 P TT IT 

Marsh-gas — firedamp J ^ 

Chloride of methyl CH3CI. 

Iodide of methyl C H, I. 

Bromide of methyl C H, Br. 

Acetate of methyl l n TT^ r ^" 

Methylic ether { CH' I ^* 

Nitrite of methyl C H^, NO^. 

Nitrate of methyl | ^^' \ 0. 

Geoup (B). 

Chloroform C H CI3. 

Tetrachloride of carbon C Clj. 

Bichloride of methylene C H., Cl^. 



Physiological action op Methy'lic Alcohol. 

The methylic alcohol used was the pure alcohol. It is a colourless spirit, 
its specific gravity 0-810, its boiling-point 140° Pahr. The physiological ac- 
tion may be obtained either by dii-ect administration witli water, or by inha- 
lation of the vapour. When the methylic alcohol is thus administered so as 
to produce distinct efi'ects, the first symptoms are those of excitement followed 
by languor. These symptoms are succeeded by laboured breathing, and soon 
by gaspings, and by deep sighs which occur at intervals of about foiu: 
seconds. There is evidenced upon this, want of power in the limbs with rol- 
ling movements on the side and complete intoxication. Prom this time, if 
the dose of the alcohol is continued, the animal lapses into utter prostration, 
and the breathing becomes blowing, with what is technically called bron- 
chial rale, due to the passage of air through fluid in the finer bronchial pas- 
sages. Throughout all these stages of intoxication there is imperfect 

1867. E 



50 REPORT — 1867. 

anaesthesia, and, up to what would seem the extremity of living action, sbme 
evidence of sensibility — reflex — is shown when irritation is applied. Brought 
to the lowest state of prostration by methylic alcohol, an animal will always 
recover slowly in a warm atmosphere ; the period required for recovery being 
from four to six hom-s at 65° F. Diuing recovery there are no active con- 
vulsive movements, and tremors are not marked symptoms. 

When the intoxication arising from methylic alcohol is carried to the ex- 
tent of destrojdng life, the respiration and circulation cease almost simulta- 
neously. The lungs are left with a fair amount of blood, and both sides of 
the heart contain blood. The brain is much engorged with blood, and aU the 
vascular organs are in the same state. The blood is not objectively changed 
in character. At fi^rst, during the state of excitement, it gives to the external 
vascular parts a marked redness ; but as the symptoms are more permanent 
on the one side, or as recovery is pronounced on the other side, this passes 
away. The coagulation of blood is somewhat prolonged, but is not pre- 
vented. 

The evidence, on the whole, is to the effect that methylic alcohol influences 
principally the motor centres of the neiwous system. At all events these 
centres are prominently influenced, and it is probably only when they begin 
to fail that the centres of consciousness and sensation succumb. In this 
respect the methylic, the ethylic, and the amylic alcohols have a common 
action. But on comparing the effects generally of methylic alcohol with those 
of amylic and of ethylic or common alcohol, I find the methylic much less 
potent. It produces prostration and muscular paralysis more quickly, but from 
that prostration recovery is far more rapid. I showed, previously, in regard to 
amylic alcohol that when the loss of power of the animal under its influence 
is complete a peculiar symptom is developed, viz. a universal tremor, accom- 
panied with a very deep inspiration. There is no spasm, no pain, no rigidity, 
but, in medical language, rigors of an intense kind. These rigors are soon 
established in regular rhythm, and by maintaining the experiment cautiously, 
they may be kept up for several hours. I have seen them for one hour at 
the rate of sixteen in a minute as regularly as possible, and by reduction 
of the agent have lowered them to twelve, eight, and foiu* per minute. All 
through the breathing is tranquil and the action of the heart good. The 
rigor occurs spontaneously in this manner, but it can be excited at any mo- 
ment by touching the animal or blowing upon it, or even by a sharp noise, 
such as the snap of the finger. "When the animal is reduced to entire insen- 
sibility, if it be laid in the open air it begins to recover its sensibility at 
once, but the power to move is suspended for two or three hours, and the 
rigors also continue, but with decreasing force and frequency. Ultimately 
the animal recovers thoroughly, and is always very eager for food. When 
these urgent and, as they would seem, extreme symptoms are carried to their 
full extent, even an experienced observer would think that recovery wei-e im- 
possible; but in truth the animal cannot be killed by any fair play with amylic 
alcohol. In order actually to kill, it is necessary to complicate the experi- 
ment by actual reduction of air, or by closing the chamber and retaining the 
carbonic acid of the breath. I showed again, in regard to ethylic alcohol, 
that in a minor degree these same symptoms were developed. In poisoning 
by metliylic alcohol these symptoms are ncarlj- altogether absent. The recovery 
is not only rapid, but casj', approaching, in fact, recoveiy from the inhala- 
tion of ether. 

I notice specially this difference of action of the three analogous alcohols 



ON THE niYSIOLOaiCAL ACTION OF THE METHYL COMPOUNDS. 51 

for two reasons ; first, because the fact is an exposition of a general physio- 
logical law in relation to bodies of the same series ; and secondly, because 
there is a practical lesson behind bearing upon the employment of these sub- 
stances. The physiological law is this, that the period of time required by 
these bodies to produce their effects, and the period of time required for re- 
covery, turns altogether on the evaporating-point of the fluid used. This is so 
certain that when in an analogous series of fluids the action of one of the 
series is well learned, the action of the others may be safely predicted from 
the boiling-point. In illustration, here are these three alcohols — amylic 
alcohol, ethylic alcohol, and mcthylic ; the first boils at 270° Fahr., the 
second at 174°, the third at 140°. If wo intoxicate three animals of the 
same kind with these alcohols, carrying the symptoms in each case to the 
same degree, and then leave the animals to recover in the same temperature, 
say 60°, — then if the animal in the methylie alcohol be four hours recovering, 
the one in ethylic alcohol will be seven hours, and the one in amylic will be 
sixteen hours. 

The explanation of this fact is very simple, and reduces the phenomenon 
to a question, I had almost said, of mechanical force. The alcohols taken 
into the body enter into no combination which changes their composition. 
They pass out of the body chemically as they entered it, and theii- evolution 
and the time of their evolution is a mere matter of so much expenditure of 
force (caloric) to raise them and carry them off. To test this more directly, 
intoxicated animals were placed in different degrees of temperature with the 
unerring result of a quickened recovery in the higher degrees. 

The practical lessons I would refer to are two in number. I would sug- 
gest that in all cases of alcohohc poisoning in the human subject, the most 
important condition for recovery is a high temperature. The use of the hot- 
air bath raised to 150° or even 180° would be the most perfect means of re- 
covery. Next I would point out that as methyhc alcohol is much more rapid 
in its action, and much less prolonged in its effects than is common alcohol, it 
would be used with great advantage by tlie physiological physician in all 
cases where he feels a demand for an alcohoHc that shall act instantly, and 
with the least possible ultimate expenditure of animal force for its elimina- 
tion. It must be observed that in the end aU these alcoholic bodies are 
depressants, and although at first, by their caUiug vigorously into play the 
natural force,- they seem to excite, and are therefore called stimulants ; they 
themselves supply no force at any time, but take up force, by which means 
they get away and therewith lead to exhaustion and paralysis of power. In 
other words, the calorific force which should be expended on the nutrition and 
sensation of the body is expended on the alcohol. 

I have only to acid to this recommendation of methylie alcohol as a me- 
dicine in substitution for common alcohol, that the methylie spirit when quite 
pure is extremely palatable, that it mixes easily with water, hot or cold, and 
that it makes excellent toddy in the proportion of half an ounce to half a 
pint of hot water. In a conversation I had a few days ago with one of those 
veterans in physic, Avho links the medicine of the last generation with the 
present, he told me that the most celebrated physician and scholar of his 
acquaintance ha.ving once tasted wood-spirit took to it as a drink, and Hked 
it so much better than any other stimulant that he held to it to the last, to 
the long term of well nigh ninety years. 

e2 



52 REPORT — 1867. 

TnE Hydride of Methyl. 

The hydride of methyl occurs naturally in the form of firedamp in mines, 
and marsh-gas on land. It is made artifically by heating together in a strong 
flask acetate of soda, caustic potash, and well-dried lime. For physiological 
experiment the hydride of methyl can only be administered by inhalation. It 
is a pleasant gas to inhale, producing no irritation, nor yet giving rise to any 
of those feelings of excitement which are induced by nitrous oxide gas, or 
the vapour of chloroform. 

As the gas is often a cause of death in mines, I thought it was worth in- 
quu-ing what percentage of it would prove fatal in the air. I therefore had 
constructed a glass chamber through which an atmosphere charged with 
known quantities of the gas could be passed. To my surprise I found that 
even pigeons, animals peculiarly susceptible to the influence of narcotic gases, 
could live in an air charged with not less than 35 per cent, of the gas for the 
space of half an hour, while I could myself inhale the air coming from 
their chamber without anxiety. 

When by pushing the inhalation further death is induced, it is as a very 
gentle sleep, so gentle indeed that it is dilRcult to say when the action 
either of the circulation or of the respiration is over. The lungs are left 
with blood in them, the heart has blood on both sides, and the blood itself 
retains its natural character. The death is by the slow negation of breath- 
ing. We may gather from these facts many important lessons in regard to 
the risks and dangers of miners from firedamp. I should think it is almost 
impossible that any body of men, or any men who were awake in a mine, 
could be so entrapped witli fii-edamp only as to die in the absence of an ex- 
plosion. In accidents where this seems to have occurred, I should imagine 
that with the firedamp there is also evolved carbonic acid gas. I can, how- 
ever, imagine after an explosion, when the mine becomes for a moment a 
great vacuum, that there would be sufficient entrance of the gas to produce 
a fatal atmosphere. In such case death would be prolonged, but as easy as 
sleep ; two truths, which in cases of accident should inspire thankfulness and 
hope — thankfulness that those who thus die for us suffer little, hope as to 
the possibility of rescue which should not for days be abandoned. The best 
direct means of recoveiy of those under the influence of firedamp is expo- 
siu-e to heated air, with the administration of warm nourishing drinks, such as 
milk. Alcoholics do decided harm. 

[From this point the author proceeded at length A\ath the descriptions of 
the actions of chloride of methyl, the iodide, bromide, and acetate, methj'lic 
ether, nitrite of methyl, and the nitrate, wliich we must very briefly record, 
and pass to his researches on chloroform and its allies.] 

Chloride of Methyl. 

The chloride of methyl made by the direct action of hydrochloric acid on 
methylic alcohol can only be conveniently used for physiological purposes, 
as a gas, or as a gas saturating ether. It must therefore be administered by 
inhalation to see its full effect. I took some of it by the mouth in solution 
with ether, but the heat of the mouth prevented me from swallowing it per- 
fectly. Inhaled Avith atmospheric air, in the proportion of 15 per cent, it 
produces in all animals good ana}sthesia, without excitement and with excel- 
lent recovery. Carried to the extent of causing death, the action of the 
heart outlives the respiration ; the lungs are left with blood in the pulmonic 



* 



ON THE PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION OF THE METHYL COMPOUNDS. 53 

circuit, and both sides of the heart are filled with blood which is little 
changed in colour. The muscles retain their irritability after death, and are 
capable of response to galvanism for two and even three hours after death, 
while the heart will continue to pulsate spontaneously for half an hour or 
even forty minutes. 

Iodide op Methtl. 

The iodide of methyl that was used was made, in the usual way, by distil- 
ling wood-spirit with iodine and phosphorus ; viz. 12 of spirit with 8 of 
iodine, and 1 of phosphorus. The fluid at first was nearly colouiiess, and 
boiled at 108° Fahr., its sp. gr. being 2-199. Although kept well excluded 
from the light it underwent slight change, setting iodine free. It is altoge- 
ther a very difficult compoiuid to manipulate with, physiologically, in the con- 
centrate form. It can be managed better when diluted with methylic alcohol 
or with ether. I succeeded, however, to subject animals to the vapour, and 
discovered that in proportions of 10 per cent, the action of the iodide is the 
same as that of the chloride, i. e. it is a very good anaesthetic. When, how- 
ever, the iodine is escaping there is profuse lachrymation and salivation. 
There is also free secretion from the bronchial surface, and one animal died 
I'rom this accidental bronchitis some hours after it had recovered from the 
anaesthesia. 

Beomide or Methyl, 

The bromide of methyl, the analogue of the chloride and iodide, bromine 
taking the place of chlorine or iodine, is a substance having a specific gravity 
of 1-660, and a boiling-point of 55° F. I used it in experiment by inhalation 
alone, and also in combination with ether in equal parts. It Avas discovered 
as good an anfesthetic as the chloride, and recovery was perfect ; but there 
was some degree of irritation and sahvation excited, results probably due to 
free bromine. The irritation is produced chiefly in the eyes and in the 
salivary glands, causing lachrymation and salivation. 

Acetate of Methyl. 

The acetate of methyl obtained by distilhng acetate of soda, oil of vitriol, 
and methyhc alcohol, with rectification over lime and chloride of calcium, is 
a clear fluid with an agreeable odour. Its specific gravity is -910, and its 
boiling-point 13G° Fahi-. It is administered easily by inhalation, and in four 
minutes, in the proportion of 9 per cent., it produces gentle sleep with quick 
recovery if the administration be short. Prolonged inhalation causes difficult 
breathing. It is a substance which admits of being largely used in medicine, 
in cases where a diaphoretic and narcotic are required in combination. 

Methylic Ethee. 

This substance, obtained by the action of sulphuric acid on methylic alcohol, 
is a gas at ordinary temperatures, and does not admit of being used physio- 
logically in any other state. It has an agreeable odour, and is taken up 
easily by ether. I used it most conveniently with ether, liberating it by heat 
below the boiling-point of the ether. Administered by inhalation it produced 
perfect anaesthesia, and that in an easy and rapid manner. The breathing 
is scarcely disturbed, and the action of the heart is extremely regular. Ee- 
covery is not very rapid, but perfect. 



54 KEPORT — 1867. 

Nitrite and Nitrate of Methyl. 

The nitrite and tlie nitrate of methyl possess an action so much in com- 
mon that I may take them together. The nitrite made by the action of ni- 
trous acid on methylic alcohol is most conveniently used with ether. The 
nitrate made by distilling the wood-spirit with nitrate of potash and suljihuric 
acid can be used directly. It is a heavy liquid, having a specific gravity of 
1-180 and a boiling-point of 140° Fahr. 

As with the nitrites of amyl and ethyl, the action of these substances is 
to produce intense excitement and rapid action of the heart and arteries. 
The action, however, is not so vehement as from nitrite of amyl, and a lon- 
ger inhalation is required before the excitement is perceived. In the human 
subject the face becomes red, the vessels of the head seem fall and distended, 
and the pulse is readily brought up to 120 and even 130. On the inferior 
animals the same excitement is manifested, and death is preceded by convul- 
sive jerks. After death the lungs are found collapsed and v.liite, and the 
heart flaccid and full of blood on both sides. On exposure to the air the 
heart recommences to contract, and continues its contractions for long periods, 
in one case (a rabbit being the subject) for forty minutes. The blood in the 
blood-vessels remains fluid for an hour or more, but coagulates readily on 
exposure to a Avarm air. The muscles througliout the whole of the body are 
flaccid, but will contract, for periods of one and two hours after death, under 
the influence of the galvanic current. Neither nitrite nor nitrate of methyl 
produce true ana3sthcsia. 

Of the two substances the nitrate of methyl is most conveniently used, 
and as it possesses aU the physiological properties of nitrite of amyl with less 
energy, it would, I tliink, be the best agent in medicine. Its power in pro- 
ducing muscular relaxation is most marked and general, and its employmcjit 
in cases of a desperate spasmodic character, as in tetanus, would be a ratioiial 
scientific procedure. 

I now come to the second group of substances to which I have directed 
attention; viz., cliloroform, tetrachloride of carbon, and bichloride of metliy- 
lene. 

Chloroform. 

Chloroform made by the action of bleaching-powder on methylic alcohol, 
or ethylic alcohol, is a substance so well known as an anaesthetic that I shall 
dwell but very briefly upon it. It has a specific gravity of 149.5, and it boils 
at 142° Eahr. From the large number of experiments I have made v.'ith this 
substance to determine its mode of action, and the manner in which it some- 
times destroys life, I am led to the conclusion that its fii-st influence is always 
exerted on the centres of motion of the nervous system with an extension of 
that action to the centres of volition and sensation. I agree with Dr. Snow 
in tracing out four distinct stages in its action, one of gentle excitement of 
the circulation, a second of exalted action of the motor centres, a tliird of 
depression of motion with destruction of consciousness, and a fourth of com- 
plete paralysis of motion and sensation. I have also been led slowly to the 
conviction that the cause of death from chloroform is in every case due to 
arrest of nervous function, and that the idea of any direct action of tlic agent 
on the muscular structure of the heart is without foundation. In eighty-seven 
experiments conducted specially to determine the direct influence of chloro- 
form on the heart, I found in every case that organ capable of reaction on its 



ox THE PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION OF THE METHYL COMPOUNDS. OO 

exposure to the air, and the lungs always bloodless, white, and collapsed ; I 
found, in fact, precisely the same state of things as occm-s when the medulla 
oblongata is rendered inactive by extreme cold. The mean period of timo 
during which the muscles respond to galvanism after death by chloroform 
varies from twenty minutes to half an hour. The coagulation of the blood 
is natural. 

The advantages of chloroform over other anaesthetics, so far known, are its 
readiness of application, and the prolonged action of the ana3sthesia induced. 
Its maiu disadvantage lies in its high boiling-point, and the consequent 
amount of force required to eliminate it from the body. Indeed, according 
to my experience it is never eliminated purely by the lungs, but by all the 
excreting organs, so that any error or deficiency in those organs may lead to 
such suppression of elimination that the nervous centres may become over- 
whelmed, with consequent arrest of their activity. The 'temperature of the 
air exerts a marked inlluence on the effects of chloroform in this respect of 
elimination ; the influence of the anaesthetic being greatly prolonged when 
the air is loaded with moisture and the thermometer is low. The best means 
of restoration in impending death from chloroform is the introduction into 
the lungs by artificial respiration of air heated to 130° Fahr. Under this 
influence, in animals even with the chest Inid open, the heart is seen to leap 
into instant activity and the arteries to recommence pulsation. In one expe- 
riment this restoration of vascular motion was so distinct that the blood made 
its way round the arterial circuit, the nervous centres regained power, and 
the animal (a dog) may be said temporarily to have lived again. 

To fill the lungs with warm air for the purpose described, a small pair of 
handbeUows connected with a tube of thin metal, in a coil, answers well. 
With a spirit lamp the coil can be almost instantly made hot, and the air 
passing through it with brisk force can easily be raised to 130° Fahr. It is 
only necessary to inject the air through one nostril. 

Teteachlokide of Caeboi]-. 

Recently, the substance known as C Cl^ — the tetrachloride of carbon — 
has been brought into use as a substitute for chloroform. In this body aU 
the hydrogen elements of marsh-gas are substituted by chlorine, and it is 
indeed the final result of the action of chlorine on that gas. It is a fluid of 
not very pleasant odour; its boiling-point is 172° Fahr., its specific gra-\dty 
is 1-600. As this substance is now gaining importance, I have thought 
it proper to subject it to very careful experiment, and I feel it my duty to 
state, both on theoretical and practical grounds, that it is more dangerous 
than chloroform, and it' it were as generally used it would act fataUy in 
a much larger number of cases. In its action it presents the same four 
stages as chloroform, but the second stage is more prolonged and intensified. 
In one animal (a rabbit) tetanic convulsion of an extreme character was 
presented diuing this stage. But the worst feature in the administration 
of this body is the slowness of its elimination, a slowness fuUy accounted 
for by the boihug-point. Saturating the nervous centres, and expending 
their force to the fullest, it kiUs far more quickly and determiiiately than 
chloroform, and so completely is motion paralyzed that the muscles scarcely 
respond to galvanism five minutes after dissolution. In order to make an 
exact comparison (and it is from this comparison I draw the results arrived 
at), I placed animals of the same kind, at the same time, at the same tem- 



56 REPORT — 1867. 

perature in chambers of the same size, and administered the same doses of 
chloroform and of the tetrachloride of carbon. Pigeons and rabbits alike 
gave evidence of the more severe effects of the Inttcr substance. In this opi- 
nion my friend Dr. Sedgwick, who has rendered me the most valued aid in 
these inquiries, entirely coincides. 

The Bichloeide of Methtlexe. 

The last compound on our list is of great interest, from the circumstance 
that it promises to be a new and valuable anaesthetic. In experimenting 
with chloride of methyl in ether, I was so struck with its good action that I 
asked Mr. Bobbins, the chemist who has prepared the compounds for me, to 
endeavoiu' to find a more stable compound, having similar physical properties, 
from the methyl series. In a few days he brought me the fluid I now place 
before the Section, made for him by Dr. Versman. This fluid is the bichlo- 
ride of methylene. It is formed by the action of nascent hydrogen on 
chloroform, and it differs from chloroform in that one atom of chlorine is re- 
placed by an atom of hydrogen. Its boiling-point is 88° Fahr, and the odour 
of its vapour is sweet and much like that of chloroform. On testing it phy- 
siologically I found it to be a gentle and perfect general anaesthetic. Under 
its influence animals lapse into the third stage of anassthesia, with the 
slightest exhibiton of the stage of excitement. The insensibility is deep and 
weU sustained, and the recovery quiet and good. [Dr. Eichardson liero 
showed an experiment of putting a pigeon into a deep sleep.] In some 
experiments, in order to see the extreme effect, I have carried the adminis- 
tration to the extent of arresting the phenomena of life. I have thus learned 
that the respiration and circulation, under the last action of this agent, cease 
simultaneously, and that the muscles retain their ii-ritability for even an 
hour after death. The lungs are left M'ith blood in the respiratory circuit, 
both sides of the heart are charged with blood, and the blood itself remains 
unaltered in physical property. Compared with other antesthetics, the bichlo- 
ride of methylene appears to me to combine the anaesthetic power of chloro- 
form with the safer properties of ether. It is too early to speak positively on 
this point, but if the expectation be fulfilled, the perfection of a general 
anaesthetic will have been obtained for the benefit of the world. And, even 
should this happy result not be accomplished, the way at least is paved to- 
wards the discovery of some intermediate body wliich shall answer to the re- 
quired jDhysical demand. 

In renewing all the facts connected with the physiological action of the 
methyl series, w"e gather that, according to their composition, they exert cer- 
tain definite influences on different parts of the nervous organism. The oxide 
produces an influence of its own, that of slowly paralyzing the motor func- 
tion before destroying common sensibility. The nitrite and nitrate rapidly 
paralyze the centres of motion; while the chloride, the iodide, and the bromide, 
together with the substitution chlorine compounds, not only paralyze motion 
but also destroy sensation. I conclude this Eeport with one other observa- 
tion. At first sight it may seem that the isolation of the phenomena pro- 
duced by special agents, and the discovery of a new antesthetic are sufficient 
characteristics of this research. "With every respect, I submit that a broader 
question is involved. At the Meeting at Birmingham I suggested, almost 
with a feeling of fear, that out of these studies might spring up a fixed prin- 
ciple of therapeutical discovery. Now I have the conscious happiness of 



EXPLORATION OF THE PLANT BEDS OF NORTH GREENLAND. 57 

kno-mng that the hypothesis was correct. I feel convinced, on this longer 
experience, that by continued labour vre shall be able to pronounce the pre- 
cise physiological meaning and value of aU the organic compounds, to extend 
the knowledge of the cm-ative action of these compounds to every condition 
of disease that is physically remediable, and to bring therapeutics into the 
position of a positive science. 

Postscript. 
"WTiile these Transactions have been in preparation the opportunity has 
been afforded me of testing the action of bichloride of methylene as a general 
anaesthetic on the human subject, and with the happiest results. On October 
15th of last year (1S67), having first inhaled the vapour myself to complete 
anaesthesia, I afterwards administered it to a lady wliile Mr. Spencer Wells 
performed one of the formidable operations in surgery. Not one imfavour- 
ablc symptom resulted, and since thc7i the bichloride of methylene has been 
in frequent use in surgery. Tp to the present time (January 20, 1S6S) no 
untoward event has followed its administration. — E. "W. K. 



Preliminary Report of the Committee for the Exploration of the 

Plant Beds of North Greenland, appointed at the Nottingham 

Meeting, 1866. 
Mr. "WnYMPER, one of the Members of the Committee, having made arrange- 
ments for visiting Greenland, a meeting of the Committee was held on the 
4th of April, in London, and it was there resolved that the sum of £1U0 
voted by the British Association for the purposes of this exploration be 
handed to Mr. Whymper, on his giving a written undertaking to fulfil the 
conditions laid down by the Association, as far as lay in his power. 

In addition to this grant, Mr. AVhymper was further assisted by a grant of 
.£200 from the Government Grant Committee of the Eoyal Society. 

Mr. Whymper started from Copenhagen about the 20th of April, taking 
with him as assistant Dr. Eobert Brown, a gentleman already well known 
for his explorations in North-west .imerica, especially as to the Natural 
History of British Columbia. 

Since the expedition left Copenhagen, no intelligence from it has been 
received by this Committee. 

The description of the plant remains from North Greenland which have 
been already brought to these countries has been completed by Prof. Oswald 
Heer of Zuiich, and his work on the ' Fossil Plora of the Polar Eegions ' is 
now nearly printed, and will be published in a short time. 

Egbert H. Scott, Sec. 



58 REPORT — 1867. 



Report of a Committee, consisting of Mr. J. Scott Russell^ Mr. T. 
Hawksley, Mr. J. R. Napier, Mr. William Fairbairn, and Pro- 
fessor W. J. M. Rankine, appointed to analyze and condense the 
hiformation contained in the Reports of the " Steam-ship Perform- 
ance " Committee and other sources of information on the same sub' 
ject. 

Ax the Nottingham Meeting of the British Association in 1S66, the following 
recommendation -was passed, — " That Mr. J. Scott Eussell, Mr. T. Hawksley, 
Mr. James E. Napier, Mr. William Fairbaira, and Professor W. J. Macquom 
Eankine he a Committee to analyze and condense the information contained 
in the Pi,eports of the Steam-Ship Performance Committee, and other soui'ces 
of information on the same subject, with power to employ paid calculators or 
assistants, if necessary ; and that the sum of .£100 be placed at their disposal 
for that purpose," 

The Committee so appointed employed as a calculator and assistant 
Mr. John Quant, Naval Architect, v.'ho has discharged the duties entrusted 
to him with great industry and ability. 

The whole of the sum of £100 has been expended. 

The contents of the present Eeport are arranged as foUows :■ — • 

Catalogue of Tables as pubLished in the years 1857, 1858, 1859, ISGO, 
1861, 1862. 

Method of condensation. 

Table I. Condensed Table of Merchant Paddle Steamers. 

Table II. Condensed Table of Merchant Screw Steamers. 

Tables III., IV., Y., and VI. Condensed Tables of Meu-of-War, forming 
four groups. 

Catalogue of Tables as puhlished in the years 1857-62. 

" 1857, Appendix A. — Tabular compai'ison, the old, the present, and proposed 
measurement for tonnage ; an analysis of ships and steamers, their proportions, dis- 
placement, weight, and resistance ; engines and stuam-power, and result of speed 
realized." 

This Table is of little or no use for analyzation, for this reason — that of 
the few steamers of which the displacement and speed are given, no indi- 
cated horse-power has been returned, and vice versd. Some of the vessels 
contained in it are mentioned in the condensed Tables ; but theii* quantities 
are given as taken from other Tables. 

" Table A. — Summary of returns, showing the performance of the Chester and 
Holyhead Company's steam-vessels ' Anglia,' ' Cambria,' and ' Scotia,' and the 
consumption of coal between Holyhead and Kingstown, under certain conditions 
taken at standard tests." 

" 1858, Appendix II. — Table showing the difterence which exists between the 
' register tonnage ' of vessels and the ' tons weight ' of cargo actually carried in the 
trade and navigation of the United Kingdom with foreign countries and British 
possessions in 1852, 1853, 1854, and 1855, deduced from retm-us of the Board of 
Trade." 

" 1859, Appendix V., Table I. — Return of the peifomiance of the Chester and 
Holyhead Company's steam-vessels, under trial for a standard test." 

" Appendix v., table II. — Cojiy of a return laid before a Select Committee of 



ON STEAM-SHIP PERFORMANCE. 59 

the House of Commons. See Blue Book on Dublin and Ilotyhead Mail Semce, 
1853, Appendix, p. 176. A return of the speed and consumption of fuel of the 
steamboats under reg-ulated conditions of time, pressure, and expansion, for the 
midermentioned periods." 

" Appendix V., Table IIL — Chester and Holyhead Railway, Steamboat Depart- 
ment, 1857. A retm-n of the speed and consumption of coal, imder reg-ulated con- 
ditions of time, pressure, and expansion, for the undermentioned period (namely, 
three months, from January 1 to March 31, 1857)." 

" Appendix V., Table IV. — Chester and Holyhead Bailway, Steamboat Depart- 
ment. A return of the speed and consumption of coal of the steamboats, under 
regidated conditions of time, pressm-e, and expansion, for the imdermentioned 
period (namely, from April 1 to June 30, 1857)." 

" Appendix V., Table V. — Chester and Holyhead Railway, Steamboat Depart- 
ment. A retm-n of the speed and consumption of coal of the steamboats, mider 
regiilated conditions of time, pressure, and expansion, for the undermentioned 
period (namely, from July 1 to September 30, 1857)." 

" Appendix V., Table VI. — A return of the speed and consumption of coal of 
the steamboats, under regulated conditions of time, pressure, and expansion, for 
the undermentioned period (namely, from October 1 to December 31, 1857)." 

"Appendix v., Table VH. — Chester and Holyhead Railway, Steamboat Depart- 
ment. A return of the speed and consumption of coal of the steamboats, under 
regulated conditions of time, pressure, and expansion, for the imdcrmentioned period 
(namely, from January 1 to March 31, 1858)." 

''Appendix v., Table VIII. — Chester and Holyhead Railway, Steamboat De- 
p.artment. A return of the speed and consumption of coal of the express and cargo 
boats, under regidated conditions of time, pressure, and expansion, for the under- 
mentioned period (namely, Irom April 1 to June 30, 1858)." 

"Appendix V., Table IX. — Chester and Holyhead Railway, Steamboat Depart- 
ment. A return of the speed and consumption of coal of the express and cargo 
boats, imder regulated conditions of time, pressure, and expansion, for the under- 
mentioned period (namely, from July 1 to September 30, 1858)." 

" Appendix V., Table X. — Chester and Holyhead Railway, Steamboat Depart- 
ment. A return of the speed and consumption of coal of the express and cargo 
boats, imder regidated conditions of time, pressure, and expansion, for the under- 
mentioned period (namely, from October 1 to December 31, 1858)." 

" Appendix V., Table XI. — Chester and Holyhead Railway, Steamboat Depart- 
ment. Consumption of coal for the six months ending June 30, 1858." 

" Appendix V., Table XII. — Chester and Holyhead Railway, Steamboat Depart- 
ment. Consumption of coal for the six months ending June 30, 1858." 

" Appendix V., Table XHI. — A return showing the number of years run before 
the 'Anglia,' ' Cambria,' 'Scotia,' and ' Ilibemia' had new boilers ; number of miles 
run, and consumption of coal per mile, with and without raising steam, banldug fires, 
lying- at Kingsto-wn and Holyhead ; steam-pressure in boilers." 

" Appendix V., Table XIV. — Chester and Holyhead Railway, Steamboat Depart- 
ment. A return of passages made by the steamboats in 3^ hours," &c. 

" Appendix V., Table XV. — Chester and Holyhead Railway, Steamlwat Depart- 
ment. Slileage run, and expenses per mile, of the passenger boats in the years 1849 
and 1850, 1857, 1858." 

"Appendix VII., Table I. — Result of experiments with the j'acht 'Undine,' 
July 6, 1858, on the measured mile at Greenhithe." 

''Appendix VII., Table II. — Result of experiments with the yacht 'Undine,' 
July 29 and .30, 18.j8." 

" Appendix VII., Table IIL— Residt of experiments with the yacht ' Undine,' 
October 26, 27, and 28, 1858." 

"Appendix VH., Table IV.— E.\periments with the yacht 'Erminia,' 12th Oc- 
tober 1858, in Stolies Bay." ' 

This Table docs not give indicated horae-powcr nor displacement. 

" ISGO. Appendix I., Table I.— Table showing- the results of performances at sea 
and on the measured mile, of seventeen vesseLs of the Royal Navy, of twenty-two 



60 REPORT — 18G7. 

vessels in tLe Merchant Service, and of two vessels of tlie United States Navy; 
together with the particulars of their machinery." 

This Table contains data of the Chester and Holyhead Railway boats, as 
mentioned in former Eeports ; the quantities given in it have therefore 
been selected for the present Report. But in taking the dimensions of the 
ships, former printed Tables have been compared with this in order to ensure 
accuracy. 

" Appendix I., Table II. — Results of performances of the steamships in the 
service of the ' Messageries Imperiales ' of France during the year 1858." 

No dimensions of these ships have been given ; they have therefore been 
left out of the present Report. 

" Appendix H., Table I. — Chester and Holyhead Railway, Steamboat Depart- 
ment. A return of the speed and consumption of coal of the express and cargo 
boats, under regulated conditions of time, pressure, and expansion, for the under- 
mentioned period (namely, from January 1 to December 31, 1859)." 

" Appendix II., Table II. — Chester and Holyhead Railway, Steamboat Depai-t- 
ment. Chester and Holyhead steamboat's consumption of coal for the six months 
ending 30th June 18.59." 

Appendix II., Table HI. — Chester and Holyhead Railway, Steamboat Depart- 
ment. Chester and Holyhead steamboats' consumption of coal for the six months 
ending 31st December 1859." 

These three Tables show the performance of eight ships, the ' Anglia,' 'Cam- 
bria,' ' Scotia,' ' Telegraph,' ' Hibemia,' ' Hercules,' ' Ocean,' ' Sea Nymph.' 

"Appendix IV. — Table showing the ratios between the indicated horse-power 
and the gi-ate, the tube, the other heatiug and total heating-surfaces, and the in- 
dicated horse-power ; also between the grate- and heating-surfaces and between 
the indicated horse-power and the coal consumed." 

This Table contains two ships of the United States Navy, the same as have 
been mentioned in Appendix I., Table I. : nineteen vessels of the Royal Navy, 
whose quantities also are mentioned in other Tables : and nineteen vessels of 
the Merchant Service, amongst which are the ' Anglia,' ' Cambria,' ' Scotia,' 
and ' Telegraph.' 

" Appendix \. — Description of the hull, engines, and boilers of the United 
States sloop ' '^^'yoming.' Table I. Perfonnauce of United States steima-sloop 
' Wyoming ' under steam alone. Table II. Performance of United States steam- 
sloop ' "Wyoming' imder steam and sail." 

" Supprementary Appendix. — Table showing the trial performance of the steam- 
vessels ' Lima ' Jmd ' Bogota ' when fitted with single-cylinder engines, and after 
being refitted with double-cylinder engines. Also the sea performances of the 
same vessels under both these conditions of machineiy, and on the same service." 

This Table has also been embodied in Table 11. of printed Report, 1861. 

" 1861. Table I. — Return of performance of Her Majesty's vessels, furnished 
by the Admiralty.'' 

" " Table II. — Showing the results of the performance of six of Her Majesty's 
vessels under various circumstances." 

" Table III. — Performance of Her Majesty's Ship ' Victor Emmanuel ' at sea." 

" Table IV. — Retm-n of seven trials on the measured mile in Stokes Bay of Her 
Majesty's Ship 'Victor Emmanuel.' " 

" Taiale V. — Return showing the results of performance of eighteen vessels in the 
Merchant Service under various conditions." 

•' Table VI. — Chester and Holyhead Railway, Steamboat Department, A return 
of the speed and consumption of coal of the express and cargo boats, imder re- 



ON STEAM-SHIP PERFORMANCE. 61 

gulated conditions of time, pressure, and expansion, for the undermentioned period 
(namely, from tlie 1st January to :31st March I860)." 

" Table VII. — Chester and Holyhead Eailway, Steamboats. Consumption of 
coal for the twelve months ending December -31, 1860." 

" Table VIII. — City of Dublin Steam Packet Company. A retm-n of the average 
time of passage and consumption of coal of the mail steamers for six months, end- 
ing June 30, 1860." 

"" Table IX. — City of Dublin Steam Packet Company. A return of the average 
time of passage and consumption of coal of the mail steamers for three months, 
ending September 30, 1860." 

"Table A. — Resultats de la navigation des paquebots des services maritimes 
des Messageries Imperiales pendant I'anuee 1859." 

ITo dimensions of those ships have been given ; and they have therefore 
been left out of the present Eeport. 

" Table XI. — Resultats de la navigation des paquebots des services maritimes des 
Messageries Imperiales pendant I'annee 1800." 

Of those ships also no dimensions have been given ; and they have there- 
fore been left out of the present Report. 

" Appendix, Table XII. — Return of the average passages of mail packets, and 
consumption of coal for six mouths, ending 31st March 1861." 

" Appendix, Table XIII. — Steamship 'Leinster,' on trial from Holyhead to Kinos- 
tow-n, April 4, 1861." 

" Appendix, TaWe XIV. — Steamship ' Ulster,' on trial from Kingstown to Holy- 
head, April 5, 1861." 

" 1862. Table II.— Return of the particulars of the dimensions of twenty vessels 
in Her Majesty's Navy, with the results of their trials upon completion for service." 

" Table III.— Results of the performances at sea, and when on trial, of Her 
Majesty's ships ' Colossus,' 'St. George,' and ' ^'Vi-rogant.' " 

Of these steamers also no displacement or indicated horse-power has been 
recorded. 

"Table IV.— Residts of the trials of Her Majesty's Screw Ships, officially tabu- 
lated by the Admiralty in 1850." 

" Table V.— Results of the trials of Her Maj esty's Screw Ships, officially tabulated 
by the Admiralty in 1856." 

"Table VI.— Results of the trials of Her Majesty's Screw Ships, officially tabu- 
lated by the Admiralty in 1861 (being a continuation of Tables IV and 'X' ) 
Steam transport Service, Tables VII., VIII., IX., X., XI., XII., XIII., XIV., XV., 
and XVI. (the last live Tables being summaries of the Tables VII. to XI.)." 

These Tables give the results obtained from vessels employed in trans- 
port service during the latter part of the Crimean war, showing "the respective 
values of the several steamships, classified according to the nature of the 
employment, or the special character of the duties required to be performed ; 
and giving, in addition, the cost of moving each ship 1000 miles, &c. 

''Table XVII. (continued).— Royal (West India) Mail Packet Company. St. 
Thomas to Southampton, distance 3622 miles." 

" Table XVII.— Royal (West India) Mail Packet Company. Southampton to 
St. Thomas, distance 3622 miles." 

In these Tables, namely, Tabic XVII. and Table XVII. (continued), no 
draught of water is stated. They give the speed of the ship and consumption 
of coals, under various conditions of the state of the hull, of five steamers, 
viz., the ' Seine,' 'Tasmanian,' ' Atrato,' ' Shannon,' and ' La Plata.' 

" Table XVIH.— Royal (West India) Mail Packet Company. Summary made 
from the Tables of diagrams from indicator and working of the engines belouo-ino- to 
the various ships included in the return furnished of the performances from South- 



63 REPORT— 1867. 

ampton to St. Thomas, between June 3, 1861, and June 17, 1862, as given in the 
preceding Tables. 

" Table XVIII A.— Table of diagrams from indicator and working of engines, 
showing the manner in which the summaries in the above Table ai'e obtained." 

In both these Tables dimensions are wanting. 

" Tnble XIX. — Eeturn of particulars of the dimensions of the Peninsular nnd 
Oriental Steam Navigation Company's Steamship * Moultan,' with tabulated 
statement showing the results of her performance as compared ■with six other 
vessels in the same service." 

" Table XX. — Table of results of the performances of sixtj^-eight vessels of the 
Imperial and Royal Austrian Lloyd's Steamship Company." 

No dimensions of ships nor indicated horse-power are given in this Table, 

"Table XXI.— Table of experiments with Her Majesty's Gunboat 'Stork.' " 

No displacement given. 

"Table XXII. — Eight logs of voyages of the 'Great Eastern.' " 

Of the eight logs only three are returned with the indicated horse-power ; 
and those are used in the condensed Tables. 

"Table XXIII. — Dimensions and abstract of performances of the Pacific Steam 
Navigation Company's new paddle-wheel steamships ' Peru' and ' Talca.' " 

No dimensions of wheels are returned. 

" Table XXIV. — Abstract log of, and notes upon, the performances of the African 
Eoyal Mail Company'.s steamship ' M'Gregor Laird.' " 

" Table XXV. — Notes on the performance of the North German Lloyd's Com- 
pany's steamship ' Ilausa.' " 

"Table XXVI. — Log of the Earl of Durham's sailing yacht ' Beatrix ' on her 
recent Mediterranean vo3'age." 

The Tables published in the Eeport of the British Association for 1863, 
and various data as to the performance of steam-vessels which have been 
obtained from other sources, still remain to be coudoused, in the event of the 
reappointment of this Committee. 

Method of Condeiisation. 

The following method of condensation was drawn up by the Committee in 
order that it might be followed as far as practicable. In some cases the 
nature of the data rendered deviations from the method in matters of detail 
unavoidable ; but its principles have been adiiered to throughout. 

1. All results belonging to any special theory, and aU quantities calculated 
approximately by inference, or ascertained otherwise than by dii'ect mea- 
surement, to be excluded from the condensed Tables. 

2. Vessels for which any of the essential data (marked E in. the annexed 
list) are wanting to be excluded. 

3. The remaining vessels to be divided into groups, according to their 
speed on trial ; for example, — 

Group 1, below 7 knots. 



1, 


below 7 


2 


from 7 to 9 


3, 


„ 9 „ 11 


4, 


„ 11 „ 13 


5, 


„ 13 „ 15 


6, 


» 15 „ 17 


7, 


above 17 knots. 



ON STEAM-SHIP PERFORMANCE. 63 

4. Groups that are very numerous to be divided iuto subgroups, according 
to displacement, viz. : — 

Subgroup A, below 125 tons 

„ B, from 125 to 250 tons 





c, 




250 


„ 500 




D, 




500 


„ 1000 




E, 




1000 


„ 2000 




P, 




2000 


„ 4000 




G, 




4000 


„ 8000 




H, 




8000 


,,16000 




I, 


above 


16000. 





5. Eesults of trials at low speedtJ, or " half-boUer power," to be placed in 
the group proper to the speed. 

6. In the following plan for the arrangement of a Table, each vessel of a 
group or subgroup occupies a column, and the several data for each vessel 
appear in a series of lines. The data consist of twelve essential items 
marked E (without which no vessel should be admitted) and twenty others, 
making thirty-two in all ; so that octavo pages will hold the Tables. 

7. Where trials of performance under sail have been recorded, supple- 
mentary Tables may be added. 

Arrangement of Table for a given group or subgroup. 

Group No , speed between .... and .... knots. 

Subgroup No , displacement between .... and .... tons. 

1. E. Name of vessel (or reference number) I I I • 

Vessel. 

2. E. Length on loadwater-line, in feet. 

3. „ of fore-body (marked F. in tables). 

4. „ middle-body (marked M. in tables). 

5. „ after-body (marked A. in tables). 
G. E. Breadth, extreme immersed, in feet. 

7. E. Dej^th of immersio i, mean, in fee^. 

8. Immersed midship section in square feet. 

9. E. Displacement, tons of 35 cubic feet. 

10. Mean immersed girth, feet (from actual measurement, and not other- 

wise) . 

11. Material and state of skin. 

12. Coefficient of fineness of waterlines= displacement -^(L x 0). 

Propeliee. 

13. E. Description (paddle, common or feathering : screw, Smith's, "Wood- 
ci-ott's, Mangin's, Griffith's, (tc. : jet propeller). 

14. E. Diameter (for common paddles, to outer edge ; for feathering 
paddles, to joiu-nals ; for screw, to tips of blades), in feet. 

15. Number of blades or paddles. 

16. E. Pitch of screw (if not uniform, state extreme and mean pitches), 
in feet. 

17. Aggregate mean length of screw-blades (along axis). 

18. Immersion (of upper and lower edges of paddle or screw), in feet. 



64 REPORT — 1867. 

19. Area (pair of paddles ; screw disc, deductuig boss ; pair of jet-nozzles), 
in square feet. 

20. E. Speed of vessel iu nautical miles* per hour. 

Engines. 

21. Description (single, double, treble; single-cj'lindered, double- cylin- 
dercd; condensing, non-condensing, geared, not geared, &c.). 

22. Final volume of steam per revolution of propeller, in cubic feet. 

23. Steam cut off at (decimals of final volume). 

24. E. Revolutions of propeller per minute (paddle or sci'ew). 

25. Effective pressure of steam, lbs. 2)er inch. 

26. E. Indicated horse-power. 

EoiLEES. 

27. Total capacity, in cubic feet. 

28. Heating surface, in square feet. 

29. Eiregrate area, in square feet (including dead-plate and bars). 

30. Pressure during trial (lbs. on the square inch). 

31. E. Fuel consumed; description and weight, in lbs. per hour. 

32. Eemarks and cross references. 

In drawing up the preceding form of arrangement, the Committee have had 
iu view not only the guidance of themselves and their calculators, but the in- 
formation of those Avho may hereafter furnish the British Association ^ith 
data as to the performance of steamships. 

Paddle steamers, screw steamers, and men-of-war have been separately 
condensed and grouped. 

In condensing the Tables of the ships of war, there are vessels of which 
many trials were reported. The mean of the majority of trials with the same 
draught and the same propeller have been given in this Report, 

The diameter of the paddle-wheel, as given in the condensed Tables, is the 
diameter as returned iu the printed Reports, and must not be confounded 
with the effective diameter of the wheel. In only a few cases the effective 
diameter has been returned, and even upon these quantities very small de- 
pendence can be placed. For example, in Table V., Report ISGl, the diameter 
of paddle-wheel of the ' Delta ' is 26 feet, and the effective diameter is given 
as 22 feet ; the ' Lima ' has the same diameter of wheel, but the effective 
diameter is given as 25-16 feet. Both are feathering wheels, and there is 
only a difference of 1-5 feet iu the width of the float, the ' Delta having 
a float 4-5 feet broad, and the ' Lima ' a float of 3 feet broad. 

* The length of the nautical mile is vai-ioiisly estimated. By the British Admiralty, it 
is defined to be one minute of the equator, which, according to the latest detorniinali'ons, 
is G08(5 feet. Another estimate is the mean length of a minute of latitude, or 0070 feet. 
Most of the speeds in the Tables are given in Admiralty knots. 



ON STEAM-SHIP PERFORMANCE. 

Table I.— MERCHANT PADDLE-STEAMEES. 



65 



Groups of a Speed 



Subgroups of Displacement. 



Wame of Vessel . 



[icngth on load-water-line, in feet 



Jreadth, in feet 

iToan draft of water, in feet 

Ijca of immersed midship section, sq. ft. 
)is])Iacement, in tons of 35 cubic feet 

ff ean immersed girth, in feet 

ifaterial and state of skin 



Engines. 

)escription 

fumber of cylinders 

)iameter of cylinders, in inches 

■ength of stroke, in feet 

fumber of revolutions, per minute 

Tominal horse-power 

ndicated horse-power 



Propeller. 

'escription 

iameter, in feet 

ength of paddle, in feet 

readth of paddle, in feet 

umber of paddles 

epth of immersion of lower edge, in feet 
seed of vessel, in nautical miles per hour 

Boilers. 

eseription 

•essure of steam in boiler, Ibs.on the sq.in. 

eam-room, in cubic feet 

I'ater-room in cubic feet 

umber of furnaces 

.-imber of boilers 

<-ate surface, in square feet 

' >tal heating surface 

t.nsumption of coals, in lbs. per hour .. 

Weights. 

^tal of engines, in tons 

ch wheel 

ilers without water 

iter in boilers 



From 9 to 1 1 

knots. 



F. 

Between 2000 
and 4000 tons. 



La Plata. 



Between 11 and 13 knots. 



Between 500 and 1000 tons. 



Anglia. 



Admiral. 



Cambria. 



284 

40-5 
1909 

3809 



Side lever. 
2 

103 
9 

I2'3I 

876 



Radial, fixed. 
36 
105 

316 
28 



1079 

Tubular. 
14-82 
4240 
5125 

24 

4 

616 

16947 

8149 

495"5 
37-5 
219 

131 



ference to Eeports | jgSo 

•ormation supplied by '..'.['..',', (Royal Mail Co. 

'"^'•'^s Moderate wind 

and tide. 



187-83 

2616 

9 

18625 

620 



Doub. cyl. 
4 

48-5 

45 

33°'52 
81607 

ModiEMorgan's. 
24-5 

95 
3-67 

12 
5-16 

12-96 

Tubidar. 

14 

300 



F=84] 
INI = 54 1 210 
A-72J 
32 

7-5 
214 
820 

3143 
Iron painted ; 
clean. 

Double cylinder. 
4 

;76-s 

425 
24 



'9775 



744 



2616 


887 


201-1 


840 


Side lever 


2 


73-5 


5 


23 


39210 


99535 



Feathering. |Modif. Morgan's 
20-05 to journals. 28 

7 I 7 

3 
II 



12 



12 

2 
160 

4508-44 
5580 



40-97 

35 

7860. 

Admiral 

Moorsom. 

Fair wind; fair 

tide ; mo 

derate sea. 



25 



4 
16 


5-83 


12-2 


Tubular. 


14-5 



100 
2206 



210, with boilers. 



i«(J7. 



i860. 

Prof. Eankine & 

J. R. A^apier. 



4 

16s 

6134 

5760 



117 

23'5 

66 

60 

1860& 1861. 



Wind light. 



66 



REPORT — 1SG7 



Groups of a Speed 



Subgroups of Displacement. 



Name of Vessel . 



Length on load-water-line, in feet 



Breadth, in feet 

Mean draft of water, in feet 

Area of immersed midship section, sq. ft. 
Displacement, in tons of 35 cubic feet . . . 

Mean immersed girth, in feet 

Material and state of skin 



D. 

Between 500 
and 1000 tons. 



Cambria 
(lengthened). 



Engines. 



Description 

Number of cylinders 

Diameter of cylinders, in inches . 



Length of stroke, in feet 

Number of revolutions, per minute 

Nominal horse-power 

Indicated horse-power 



Propeller. 

Description 

Diameter, in feet 

Length of paddle, in feet 

Breadth of paddle, in feet 

Number of paddles .• 

Deptli of immersion of lower edge, in feet 
Speed of vessel, in nautical miles per hour 

Boilers. 
Description 



Pressure of steam in boiler, lbs. on the sq.in, 

Steam-room, in cubic feet 

Water-room, in cubic feet 

Number of furnaces 

Number of boilers 

Grate surface, in square feet 

Totalheatmg surface 

Consumption of coals, in lbs. per hour . . 

Wefghts. 

Total of engines, in tons 

Each wheel 

Boilers without water 

Water in boilers 



Reference to Reports . . . . 
Information supplied by 



Remarks 



237 

a6-i6 
931 

200'03 

980 



Side lever. 

2 

73-5 
5 

20'25 
39210 
837-34 

Common. 
8 

2' 1 6 

32 
3'33 

I2'23 

Tubular. 
14 



12 

4 

450 
6893 

5241 



Table I. 



4. 

Between 11 ai 



Between 1000 1 



4 



Callao. 



117 
11-95 

83 
63 

1860& 1861. 



Valparaiso. 



Moderate breeze; 
variable tide ; 
comparatively 
smooth sea. 



232 
29 

I I'I2 
280 
1 1 50 



Double cylinder 

4 
f 2 of 90 ~1 

t 2 of 52 J 

5 

24 

320 

1050 

Feathering. 

26 

8-5 

3-08 

12 

4 

I2'9 

Tubular. 

26 

1600 
2000 

6 

2 
140 

334° 
2240 

220 
26 
60 

40 

i860 & 1861. 
Randolph, Elder 

&Co. 
Light headwind 

variable tide 

light head sea. 



Lima. 



232 

11-67 
308 
1220 



Doub. cyl. 

4 

r2of9ol 

\^ 2 of 52 I 

5 

24 

320 

800 

Feathering. 
26 

833 
3"i6 
10 

3-5 
11-53 

Flue. 

22 

39° 

720 

6 

2 

130 

2530 

2464 



^5 
34 
36 

i860. 

Randolph, 
Elder & Co. 
Light wind; 

alternate 
tide ; no sea. 



251 

30 
115 

302 
1345 



Doub. cyl, 

4 



f2 0f 

I2 of 



90 
52 J 



5 

14 

320 

1 1 60 

Featherini 
26 
8-16 

3 
12 

4 
12 

Tubular, 

superheatec 

26 

1600 

2000 

6 

2 

136 

3336 

3024 

220 
20 
60 
40 

1 860 & 186 
Randolph 
Elder & C< 



ON STEAM-SHIP PERFORMANCE. 



67 



continued.) 



Lima. 



251 

30 

12-15 
321 



73 
6 

22*5 

400 

1300 

Prdinary. 
26 

8-S 

2-5 

24 



13 



220 
16 
80 

70s 



Bogota. 



250 

30 

1191 
302 
1410 



Double cylinder, 

4 
f 2 of 90 I 

1 2 of 52 ; 

s 

23 

320 

1 100 



Feathering. 

26 
8s 
3-08 

12 

4 
125 

Tubular. 

26 

1600 

2000 

6 

2 
140 

3340 
2240 

220 
26 
60 
40 

1860&1861. 



Wind abeam ; 
variable tide ; 
short beam sea. 



Bogota. 



2S0 

30 



Side lever. 

2 

73 
6 



400 
1300 

Ordinary. 

27-s 
8-s 
^'5 

24 



127s 
Tubular. 



1450 

2520 

12 

4 
252 

7652 
6720 

220 
II 
80 
70 

1860&1861. 



5. 

Between 1 3 and 1 5 knots. 



Between 125 and 
250 tons. 



Vulcan. 



• 160 



rF = 8ol 
lA=8o/ 
16-3 

4-5 
56 
140 

i4"75 
Iron painted, clean. 

Oscillating. 

2 

36 

3-5 
About so. 



D. 

Between 500 and 
1000 tons. 



E. 

Between 1000 
and 2000 tons. 



Scotia. 



412 

Feathering. 
i2'2 to journals. 
6 
2-25 



HS 



192-57 

27 
883 
188-78 

680 



Double cylinder. 
4 

52 

4-5 
*4 
379'92 
93418 

Modif. Morgan's. 
24- S 
10 

3-67 
12 

6 
13-61 



Professor Kankine, 
and Jas. R. Napier. 



Tubular. 

12 
325 



12 

2 
186 
5390-91 
6240 



*3 

47' 1 7 
39 



i860. 
Admiral Moorsom. 

Light wind; tide 
partly favoui-able. 



Telegraph. 



243-8 

2gl6 

967 
224-7 
1173 



Side lever. 
2 

77-25 

5'S 
as 

448 
1165-98 

Modif.Morgan's. 
26-83 
10 

4 
14 

4-42 

1323 

Tubular. 

14 
406 



12 

2 
166-25 
8758-01 
7800 



»3 

70 

65 

i860. 

Admiral Moor- 
som. 

Light wind ; tide 
partly favour- 
able. 



r2 



68 



REPORT 1867. 



Table I. 



Groups of a Speed 



Subgroup of Displacement 



E. 

Between looo 
and 2000 tons. 



Name of Vessel . 



Length on load-water-line, in feet 



Mersey. 



Breadth, in feet 

Mean draft of water, in feet. 

Area of immersed midship section, sq. ft. 
Displacement, in tons of 35 cubic feet . . . 

Mean immersed girth, in feet 

Material and state of skin 



Engines. 

Description 

Number of cylinders 

Diameter of cylinders, in inches 

Length of stroke, in feet 

Number of revolutions, per minute 

Nominal horse-power 

Indicated horse-power 



Propeller. 

Description 

Diameter, in feet 

Length of paddle, in feet 

Breadth of paddle, in feet 

Number of paddles 

Depth of immersion of lower edge, in feet. . 
Speed of vessel, in nautical miles per hour 

Boilers. 
Description 



Pressure of steam in boiler, in lbs 

Steam-room, in cubic feet 

Water-room, in cubic feet 

Number of furnaces 

Number of boilers 

Grate surface, in square feet 

Total heating surface 

Consumption of coals, in lbs. per hour . 

Weights. 

Total of engines, in tons 

Each wheel 

Boilers vrithout water 

Water in boilers 



Eeference to Reports . . . . 
Information supplied by . 



Remarks 



254-42 

30 

1025 
261 
1300 



Oscillating. 

2 

60 

5 
30-25 
250 
1088 

Feathering. 
21-33 

8-5 
3-42 
12 

4 
12288 

Tubular. 



1125 
1620 



4 
178 

5407 



81 
13 

75 
45 

i860. 
Royal Mail 

pany. 
Wind No. 4 



Delta. 



308 

3S'i5 
15 

400 
2300 
397 



Oscillating. 

2 

72 

7 

25'5 

400 

1624 

Feathering. 
26 
9'5 
4"S 
12 
6-25 
14-67 

Lamb's flue. 

20 
460 



Between 131 






Between 2000 



Atrato. 



95 

J 45 
120 



Com- 

; ebb 
tide: smooth sea. 



336-5 

40-92 
16-33 

3°34 



Side lever. 

2 
96 

9 

14-8 
800 
2396-44 

Feathering. 
36-5 
12 

4' 5 
15 

5-5 
13-771 

2 Multiplying tubes, 
2 Sheetwater space. 
16 
6392 



^4 

4 

520 

16894 



1861. 
ThamesShipBuild- 

ing Company. 
Wind light, S.W. 



800 
38 



i860. 
Caird & Co. 

Confused tide. 



ON STEAM-SHIP PERFOKMANCE. 



69 



continued.^ 



>d 15 knots. 



id 4000 tons. 



Shannon. 



33013 

44 

16-96 
606 
3840 
547 



Side lever. 

2 

97 

9 

19075 

775 
2928-5 

?eathering. 
to journals, 
II 
45 
IS 
596 
13898 

Tubular. 

16 

,3070 
5*50 

24 

4 
567 
18456 



Paramatta. 



709 

77-5 
282 
150 



329-42 

4375 
16-71 

606-16 
3862 



Double cylinder. 

4 
68125 

9 

'7 

764 

2940 

Feathering. 
38-5 

12 
4-5 

IS 

6-67 

13-906 

Tubular. 

17-5 
5292 
6440 

24 

4 
S94 

S407 



i860, 
fapier and 
ns. 



291 
69 

220 
184 



i860. 

Eoyal Mail Com- 
pany. 

Wind variable ; 
tide and sea 
moderate. 



Above 1 6000 tons. 



Great Eastern. 



23*62 
1678 
20250 
7S'3 



F = 33o 

M=I20 

A=23o 
82-5 
23-71 
1685-42 

20500 
7S'4 



680 



10-95 
3600 



Iron painted. 



Oscillating. 

4 

74 

14 

10-58 
1000 
341 1 



23-60 
167635 

20240 
7S'3 



10-49 



3411 



Radial, fixed floats. 

S6 

13 

3 

30 

11-84 
I i3'4o 

Tubular. 
Average. 



11-75 
14-28 



11-77 
»3'i3 



40 
4 



12700 I 16150 I 11804 

836 

185 



1862. 



6. 

Between 1 5 and 1 7 knots. 



C. 

Between 250 
and 500 tons. 



John Penn. 



171-75 

1875 
679 

99 
280 



Oscillating. 

2 

46 

416 
40 
150 
798 

Feathering. 

14-83 
6-16 
2-92 

10 
0-83 

i5'3 

Tubular. 



2 
129 

3S7S 



J. Scott Russell, and results of John Penn and 



three logs, 



27 
8 



i860. 



Son. 
Wind No. 8 ; 
flood tide. 



E. 

Between 1000 
and 2000 tons. 



Leinster and 
Ulster. 



3^7 



rF=i72i 

U = .5S/ 



3S 

13'37 
330 
1815 
40-24 
Iron painted. 

Oscillating. 

2 

96 

7 

23s 
750 
4160 

Feathering. 

33 
12 

4 
14 

6-25 
16-28 



Tubular. 



3500 

■■48' 
8 

870 

17670 
22400 



710 

60 

170 

140 

1861. 
James Watt and 

Company. 
Against tide ; calm 

sea. 



70 



REPORT 1867. 



Table II.— MEKCHANT 



Groups of a Speed 



Subgroups of Displacement 



Name of Vessel . 



Length on load-water-line, in feet 



Breadtli (extreme), in feet 

Mean draft of water, in feet 

Area of immersed midship section, sq. ft. 
Displacement, in tons of 35 cubic feet . . . 

Mean immersed girth, in feet 

Material and state of skin 



Engines. 

Description 

Number of cylinders 

Diameter of cylinders, in inches 

Length of stroke, in feet 

Number of revolutions, per minute 

Nominal horse-power 

Indicated horse-power 



Propeller. 

Description 

Diameter, in feet 

Pitch, in feet 

Length in line of shaft 

Number of blades 

Boss, diameter in feet 

Depth of immersion at bottom 

Speed of vessel, in nautical miles per hour 
Number of revolutions, per minute 



3. 

Between 91 



A. 

Under 125 tons. 



Midge. 



Boilers. 



Description 



Pressure of steam in boiler, in lbs 

Steam-room, in cubic feet 

AVater-room, in cubic feet 

Number of furnaces 

Number of boilers 

Grate surface, in square feet 

Total heating surface, in square feet ... 
Consimiption of coals, in lbs. per hour , 

Weights. 

Total of engines, in tons 

Total of boilers, in tons 

Total of water in boilers 

Propeller 



Reference to Reports .... 
Information supplied by . 



Remarks 



5875 

4 
40 

45 



Inverted. 

I 

16 

133 
160 

^5 
100 



4 

4"67 
9 

15 
3 
9-6xii6 

5*4 
io'53 
160 

Cyl mult. tub. 

60 

70 

140 

I 

I 

198 

326-8 

2go 

5-5 
575 
•25 

1861. 
T. W. Dudgeon. 

GaleN.E.; heavy 
head- and beam 



Penelope. 



74" 3 3 

12-75 
4-08 
32 
46-5 



High pr. inver. 
2 
11-5 



20 
93 



C. 

Between 250' 



Undine. 



/FB=7o"l 
!=5o] 



\AB= 



125 



25 
io-i6 

154'33 
294 

Iron painted. 
Inverted direct. 



4-25 
10-s 
•67 

3 

71 
4-67 
10-85 
146 

Tubular. 

45 

38-05 
86-45 
I 
I 
13-062 
311-302 
336 

2-7 

39 
^•5 
•'5 

1861. 
Morrison & Co. 

Moderate -wind ; 
no sea ; with and 
against tide. 



24 

1-25 
101-74 

50 
157-09 



7-83 
11-25 

i'33 

1-25 
9-50 
9-26 

101-74 

Tubular. 

15-8 
456 

4 
I 

45'i7 
98917 



i°'3 

1775 
6-5 
-85 

i85g& i860. 
Duke of Sutherlaiu 
andJ.ScottRusscl! 



Jl 



ON STEAM-SHIP PERFORMANCK. 



71 



SCREW-STEAMERS. 



and II knots. 




Between 11 


4. 

and 13 knots. 


and 500 tons. 


Between 200c 


F. 

and 4000 tons. 


Between 25c 


C. 

and 500 tons. 


Laneefield. 


Macgregor 
Laird. 


Candia. 


San Carlos, 


Leonidas. 


r F = 62] 

• M= 8 ,45 

I A=75J 
23 
8 
'57 


245 

30 

1716 
440 
2035 


281 

38-9 
18-75 


192 

30 

11-83 
260 
700 


203 

29-12 

775 
207 
810 


359 
27-64 


2520 


Iron painted. 










Inverted. 

2 
28 

2'5 

84 

50 
200 

Gaining pitch. 


Inverted geared. 

2 
62 
316 

349 
200 

550 


Trunk. 

2 
70-75 
4 


Double cylinder. 

4 
53 and 31. 
292 

47-S 
120 

500 


Vert. inv. cyl. 

2 

40 

100 
340 


450 
1415 


. 8 




20 

3-33 

2 

2-2 


io'5 

^ 13-33 
Variable. 

2 

25 
II 

11-75 

48 

Spiral flue. 

50 

750 

800 

I 

I 

76 

2276 

1176 

70 
1-6 

55 
27 

i860, 
landolph, Elder & ] 
Co. 

n 


""'8'83 
18 
.-83 

3 

2 

808 
11-70 
78 

Tubular. 


16 to 17 






3 






10 
84 

Chamb. 2, uprt. 
water-tubes. 




9-5 


29-26 
36 

Lamb's patent. 


Tubular. 
Average. 








225 
460 

4 
2 

70 

2274 
1204 

24 

1-35 
23 
21 

1861. 
Morrison & Co. 

ropsail breeze; mo- 
derate swell ; last of 
flood, first of ebb. 


2 

I 

48 

1278 

, 672 




16 

4 
286 

7922 


2 

96 

4200 
























1861. 
lofessor Rankine, 1 
md Jas. R. Napier. 
I derate sea ; quar- 


1862. 
loyal African ( 
Mail Co. 


1861. 
3^eorge Rennie &I 
Son. 


erebb; favourable 

ide. 









72 



REPORT 1867. 



Table II. 



Groups of a Speed 



Subgroups of Displacement. 



Between 250 and 500 tons. 



4 

Between 11 



D 

Between 5Cf 



Name of Vessel . 



Guayaquil. 



Length on load-water-line, in feet 



Breadth (extreme), in feet 

Mean draft of water, in feet 

Area of immersed midship section, sq. ft. 
DispLac«ment, in tons of .35 cubic feet . . . 

Mean immersed girth, in feet 

Material and state of skin 



Engines. 

Description 

Number of cylinders 

Diameter of cylinders, in inches 

Length of stroke, in feet 

Number of revolutions, per minute 

Nominal horse-power 

Indicated horse-power 



Propeller. 

Description 

Diameter, in feet 

Pitch, in feet 

Length in line of shaft 

Number of blades 

Boss, diameter in feet 

Depth of immersion at bottom 

Speed of vessel, in nautical miles per hour. . 
Number of revolutions, per minute 

Boilers. 

Description 

Pressure of steam in boiler, in lbs 

Steam-room, in cubic feet 

Water-room, in cubic feet 

Number of furnaces 

Number of boilers 

Grate surface, in square feet 

Total heating surface, in square feet 

Consumption of coals, in lbs. per hour 

Weights. 

Total of engines, in tons 

Total of boilers, in tons 

Total of water in boilers 

Propeller 



195 

30 

1 1 "7 1 
260 
840 



Double cylinder. 

4 
5 3 and 3 1 

3 

5° 

120 

600 



Maurocordato. 



lo-s 
12 

2-5 

2 

i'67 
II 
12 

104 



Reference to Reports .... 
Information supplied by , 



Remarks 



Patent spiral flue. 

5^ 
1000 
1200 

I 

I 

74 
2274 
1 120 

70 
23 
30 

25 



221 

3*75 
1575 

444 

1963 



Vert. inv. cyl. 

2 

48 

49 
150 

545 



1475 
17 
2-i6 

3 

2'25 
1575 

ii'i9 
49 

Tubular. 

15 

415 

1165-4 

6 

2 

iir3 

3543-4 
2128 



5' 

4-15 
42 
26-42 



1861. 
MailMorrison & Co. 



Colombo. 



313 

37-25 
1825 
518 
2487 

445 



Beam geared. 
2 

72 

5-5 
26 

45° 
1528 



1861. 
West India 

Company. 
Light wind ; heavy Calm ; no sea ; tide 

sea. in favour. 



15 
18 
3-61 

3 



18 
12-46 

78 

Lamb's sheet flue. 
18-25 
2250 



16 

4 

340 

8992 

4054 

263 

8 

119 

loi 



1861. 
P. & O. CompanT.^ 



It 



ON STEAM-SHIP PERFORMANCE. 



73 



Pera. 



300 



IS8 
142 

44-08 
18-25 
592 

2972 
48-25 

)n painted 

Trunk. 
2 
70-75 
4 

32-5 
4-50 
1414 



»5-5 
21 

3-67 
3 

2'l6 

12-556 
6S 



Between 13 and 15 knots. 



C. 

Between 250 
and 500 tons. 



Between 500 and 1000 tons. 



Thunder. 



240 

30 

14 

342 
1000 



Vertical dir. 

2 

55 

3 

56-5 
210 
924 



Ceylon. 



(?::£} 300 



Tasmanian. 



Above 16000 tons. 



Great Eastern. 



IA= 



15 
21 

4 

2 
2 
15-67 

14-5 
56-5 

Tubular. 

13 

780 

1714 

8 

2 

214-6 

4796 

1456 



41 

18-25 
582 
2940 
52-4 



Inr. dir. 
2 

72 

3 
61-3 

450 

2040 



i6-5 
24 

4 

3 



i3'34 
6i-3 



332 

39 
190S 

577 

3375 



Trunk inverted. 

3 
68 

3-5 
52 
550 
2800 



2362 

1678 

20250 

75-3 



F=33o) 
M=I20 I 680 
A = 23o J 
82-5 



2371 
1685-42 
20500 
75'4 



Iron painted, 



23-60 
1676-35 
20240 
75'3 



96 

4 
56 
49 

861. 1861. 

RenniajJ. W. Dudgeon. 



Lamb's sheet flue. 
20 



strong. 



1867, 



Calm ; no sea ; 
1 mile against 
tide. 



20 

4 

450 

945° 



7 
136 

64 



1783 
335 

3-75 

3 

5 
19-25 
14-25 
5^ 

Tubular. 

'9 

3957 

9375 

26 

6 

510 

12058 
8400 

390 

14 
201 
150 



38-58 
4656 



Horizontal direct, 

4 
84 

4 

3 7 '45 
1600 
4886 



24 
44 



14-28 
38-58 



15859 



13-40 
37-45 

Tubular. 
Average. 



72 
6 



16161 



36-35 


4886 


13-13 



36-35 



14186 



500 

36 



1861. i860. 

Himiphreys, Ten- A. & J. Inglis. 
nant & Co. 

Fresh breeze ; 
flood 2 runs 
ebb 2 runs. 



1862. 
J. Scott Russell, and logs of G.E. 



74 



REPORT 1867. 



Table III.— MEN^ 



Groups of a Si^eed 



Subgroups of Displacement . 



Name of Vessel . 



B. 

Between 125 
and 250 tons. 

Minx. 



Length on waterline, in feet 

Breadth (extreme), in feet 

Tonnage, biulder's measui'ement 

Mean cbaft of water, in feet 

Area of immersed midship section, sq. ft. 
Displacement, iu tons of 35 cubic feet . . 



Engine.?. 



Description 

Number of cylinders 

Diameter of cylinders, in inches 

Length of stroke, in feet 

Number of revolutions, ■per minute . . . 
Weight per sq. in. on .safety valve, in lbs 

Nominal horse-power 

Indicated hor.^e-power I . . . . 



PnopEr.LEK. 

Diameter, in feet 

Pitch, in feet 

Length in line of shalt 

Immersion of lower edge, in feet . . . 
Number of revolutions, per minute . 
Speed of ship, in knots per hour . . . 
Speed of propeller, in knots per hour 
Speed-^ XDti-r indicated horse-power 



Wind 

Sea . . , 



Remarks 



Eefereuce to Eeports. 



I31'02 
22'o8 

303 

59 
145 



n. n. p. 

2 
9-18 

•75 
196 

55 
10 

36-5 



4-08 

3'56 
"57 
2"33 
[96 

5 "44 1 
6-888 



1S62. 



D. 

Between 500 and 1000 tons. 



Plumper. 



Wasp. 



140 

27-5 
490 

12-58 
252 
679 



V.o. geared 

2 

27 

2 

54 

14 

60 

127-3 



8-69 
6-10 
ri6 
6-42 

109-08 
6-381 
6-568 

157-6 

No. 3. 



1862. 



188-33 

33-83 
970 

12 
302 
970 



V. OS. 

2 

34 
2-75 

58-58 

II 
100 
236-2 



1 1 

13-5 

■2, 

475 
58-58 
6-976 
7-801 
140-8 

No. 4. 



Cruiser. 



1862. 



i6o 

31-92 
753 

i3'4i 
328 
998 



H. geared. 
2, 
28-06 
2 

49 

10 

60 

123-7 



9 
6-67 

I-I2 

7-83 
98 
6-295 

6-445 



Calm. 



1862. 



ON STEAM-SHIP PERFORMANCE. 



75 



AR (Group 1). 



:uots. 



lo and 2000 tons. 



latton. 



72-5 
4520 

35 
8s 

79 
40 



H. P. 

2 

2 
7 

52 

;o 

?3"4 



6-ai 

4 

a'27 
S16 
7 
4-5 

r539 



Massa- 
suclietts. 



156-25 
3^ 

15-67 
405 
1361 



D.Ac. 

2 
24-875 

3 
44' 3 9 

162-54 



10-5 
16 

2 
1333 
44" 3 9 

5-616 



Mod.breeze. 

Moderate 

swell. 



!62. 



IS60. 



Between 2000 and 4000 tons. 



Ampliion. 



177 

43-16 
1474 
19 

546 
2025 



Ilor. 

2 
48 

4 

45 

10 
300 
592-2 



15 

21 

2-5 

45 
6-75 
9-321 



Eigged and 

fully 

equipped. 

1862. 



Cornwallis. 



177-08 
49-08 
1809 

2i'37 
736 
2718 



H.Tr.H. 

2 

= 30-02 

2"S 

96 

60 
200 
572-8 



9'5 
i'57 

H7S 
96 

5-8 

S-996 



Smooth 

water ; a 

little swell. 



1862. 



Hastings. 



176-87 
48-5 
1763 

20-83 
725 
2730 



H. 



P. 



H. 

2 

30 

2'5 

78 

65 
200 

597'3 



12 
12-29 

1'92 

14 
78 

6-702 
9'457 



1862. 



Blenlieim. 



I 181-23 
48-5 
1832 

21-12 

738 
2790 



Her. 

4 

52 

3 

43 

10 

450 

938-4 



16 

20 
3-33 



Hawke. Ajax. 



43 
5-816 
8-483 



Eigged and 

p.-irtiallj 

equipped 

1862. 



176-08 
4S-46 

1753 

2i'37 
757 
2808 



H.Tr.H. P. 



^■5 
89 

5° 
200 

500 



12 

9'5 

i"57 
14-08 
89 
6-525 
8-340 



IN^O- 



1S62. 



176 

48-54 
1761 

2221 
790 
3013 



Hor. 

4 

55 

2-5 

521 

10 

450 

930-6 



:6 

18-42 
3-0S 

12-57 

52 
6-83 

9-447 



1862. 



Light. 
Smooth 



a 2 



76 



KEPORT 1867. 



Table IV.— 3*IEN-0i 



Groups of a Speed 



Subgroups of Displacement. 



Name of Vessel. 



Between 7 ari 



B. 

Between 115 
and 250 tons. 



Length in waterline, in feet 

Breadth (extreme), in feet 

Tonnage, builder's measurement 

Mean draft of water, in feet 

Area of immersed midship section, sq. ft. 
Displacement, in tons of 35 cubic i'eet . . . 



Engines. 



Description 

Number of cylinders 

Diameter of cylinders, in inches 

Length of stroke, in feet 

Number of revolutions, per minute 

Weight per sq. in. on safety-valve, in lbs. 

Nominal horse-power 

Indicated liorse-j)ower 



Propeller. 



Diameter, in feet 

Pitch, in feet 

Length in line of shaft 

Immersion of lower ledge, in feet — 
Number of revolutions, per minute . 

Speed of ship, in knots per hour 

Speed of propeller, in knots per hour. 
Speed'''xDi J -r indicated horse-power . 



Wind. 



Sea 

Remarks 



Eeferenee to Reports . 



Teazer. 



130 
2179 
296 

5-25 
82-9 
205 



V. OS. 
2 

27'o6 

51-5 

9 

40 

1282 



5 
7 
i-i6 

iga'og 
7-685 
13263 



Between 250 and 
500 tons. 



Cygnet*. 



Not rigged ; 
fine stern. 

1862. 



i45'o8 
25-42 
428 

9-14 
168 
393 



Hor. 

2 
32 
I'S 

82 

21 

80 

162-6 



9 

I2"OI 
1-97 
496 

82 

8-6-7 
9833 
215-5 



No. 



JS62. 



Swallow. 



139 

27-92 

486 

10-25 
180 
455 



Hor. 
2 
25'5 

175 
76-5 
20 
60 
164-6 



9 

10-87 
i-8i 

5 
76-5 
7-429 
8206 
i47'4 



Ariel. 



No. 



5- 



1862. 



139 
27-92 
486 

10-79 

195 

500 



Hor. 

2 
25'5 

175 

82 

20 

60 

190-1 



9 
II 
i-8i 

4-83 
82 
7-647 
8-897 
i48'2 



1862. 



160 
25-33 

477 
10-42 
198 
5465 



Ilor. 
2 
40-5 
2 
63-33 
20 
160 
224-6 



11-08 

15 

2-52 

4-33 
63-33 
8-012 
9-371 
15308 



i86z. 



* Half boiler power, 



ON STEAM-SHIP PERFOHMANCE. 



V 



AE (GKorp 2). 



Between 500 and 1000 tons. 



'iper. 


Torch. 


Lynx. 


Eeynard. 


Lyra. 


Eifleman. 


Pantaloon. 


Hornet. 


Nimrod. 


)0 


145 


160 


147-67 


139 


150 


151 


160 


200 


•5-33 


2S'33 


25'33 


27-83 


27-83 


26-57 


29*08 


31-87 


30-16 


■7 


4^5 


477 


516 


485 


486 


577 


753 


851 


0-46 


11-37 


10-83 


10-92 


I2-20 


11-54 


13-08 


i3'37 


10-75 


'9 


224 


209 


222 


239 


233 


263 


312 


253-5 





557 


586 


604 


638 


678 


798 


937 


969 


Tor. 


Her. 


Hor. trunk. 


Hor. 


Hor. 


V. OS. geared. 


Hor. 


Hor. 


Hor. 


'2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


o-s 


32 


= 35-1 


28 


25-5 


34 


38 


38-06 


58-06 


7. 


1-5 


1-67 


2 


175 


275 


2 


2 


2-25 


6 


9175 


80 


56 


84 


35-57 


100 


78 


60-625 





20 


20 


14 


20 


10 


20 


20 


20 


;o 


80 


160 


60 


60 


100 


150 


100 


350 


■ri 


2807 


222-1 


153-6 


227-1 


166-5 


483-75 


411-4 


383-1 


I 


9 „ 


II 


8-92 


9 


9 


10 


ID 


11 


|5 


1308 


975 


7-25 


II 


842 


12 


15-46 


20-5 


'"57 


2-25 


2-42 


133 


1-83 


1-45 


2-29 


1-96 


3 


i-'sy 


625 


492 




6-33 


6-5 


6-5 


7-08 


4-75 




3 


91-75 


80 


112 


84 


89-64 


100 


78 


60-625 


S-8 


8843 


7-033 


7-3 


7-45 


7-15 


8-934 


8-744 


8-818 


19765 


11-841 


7-694 


8009 


9-114 


7-441 


11-837 


11-893 


12-259 


i['i 


i66'8 


109-7 
No. 4. 




i34'9 




126-8 


155-6 

No. 2. 




ght 

Eeze. 


No. 3 to 
No. 4. 






No. 3. 


175 3 

No. 3 to 
No. 4. 












Moderate 
swell. 








Smooth. 






















Rigged and 
fully 




Fully rigged 
ind ready for 


























equipped. 




sea. 








62. 


1862. 


186;. 


1862. 


1862. 

i 
1 


1862. 


1862. 


1862. 


1862. 



7.8 



REPORT 1867. 



Table IT 



Groups of a Speed 



Subgroups of Dii?placemeufc. 



Name of Vessel . 



Falcon. 



Length on watorliiie, iu feet 

Breadth (extreme), iu feet 

Tonnage, builder's measurement 

Mean draft of water, in feet 

Area of immersed midsliip section, sq. ft. 
Displacement, in tons of l!5 cubic feet .. 



Engixf.s. 



Description 

Number of cylinders 

Diameter of cylinders, in inches 

Length of st roke, in feet 

Number of revolutions, per minute 

Weight per sq. in. on safety-valve, in lbs. 

Nominal horse-power 

Indicated horse-power 



Pkopellek. 

Diameter, in feet 

Pitch, in feet 

L-ength in line of shaft 

lunnersion of lower ledge, in feet .... 
Number of revolutions, per minute . 

Speed of ship, in knots per bom* 

Speed of propeller, in knots per Iiour, 
Speed^xD't-r indicated horse-power . 



Wind 



Sea 

Remarks. 



Between io< 



1 60 

31-83 
748 

14 

330 

1006 



Ilor. 
2 

3^ 
2 
81-5 

20 
100 

312'2 



10'02 

II77 
198 

7 
Si-s 

7-87 
9-465 
1567 

No. 3. 



Supply. 



i79'5 
a7'i2 

638 
14-25 

324 
1070 



In. Sing. Tr. 

2 

= 34-5 
2-25 

45 

14 

80 

265-2 



10 

12 
1-67 
8-57 

45 
8 

10-653 
ao2 



Eeference to Eeports 



1862. 



1862 



Hni-rier. 



160 
31-83 

747 

1475 
356 
1097 



ITor. 
2 

34 
175 

9383 

20 
100 
3^3-5 



10 

I 1-12 
1-92 

8-33 
93-83 

7-655 
10-297 

147-5 



Archer. 



No. 



1862. 



186-33 

33-S3 
970 

14-75 
378 
1263 



H. geared. 

46-01 
3 

42 

10 

200 

447-1 



9 

7-25 

1-33 

7-08 
126 

7-8 
901 1 
124 



1862. 



= 30-15 
2-5 
93-33 
60 
200 
561-8 



ON STEAM-SHIP PERFOKMANCE. 



79 



I 'limed.) 



Ill 9 knots. 



.".ooo tons 


!. 












^ ' ilacca. 


Cossack. 


PLconix. 


Wyorainff, 
U.S. 


Niger. 
Half-boilerpr 


Conflict. 


Fc'i-tli. 


192 


195 


174-5 


209-7S 


194-33 


192-54 


159 


34-33 


38-S 


31-83 


33 


34-67 


34-33 


42-16 


1034 


1322 


809 


997 


1072 


1038 


122S 


14-16 


14-04 


15-62 


13-29 


15-79 


15-08 


17-62 


377 


383 


405 


391- 


437 


421 


493 


1363 


1365 


1460 


1475 


1496 


1530 


1704 


i.Tr.H.P. 


Ilor. 


V. 0. geared. 


Ilor. 


Hor. 


Ilor. 


ir.Tr.H.Pr. 


^ 


2 


2 


2 


4 


4 


2 


— -J 


SI 


62-25 


5° 


47-625 


46-25 


= 30-25 


-■5 


2-2S 


4-5 


2-5 


1-83 


2, 


2-5 


S7 


66-33 


22 


52-5 


55 


7i 


no 


'lO 


12 


10 


17 


12 


10 


60 


-co 


250 
S7 3'4 


260 




400 
431-8 

12-5 


400 
79° 

13-52 




675 


524-1 
11-87 




814 

12 


13-5 


12-0S 


13-08 


II'I2 


16-57 


9-83 


19 


17-25 


16-37 


10 


I-S5 


2-75 


1-60 


2-5 


2-48 


2-73 


1-67 


6'25 


6-57 
66-33 


6-75 
88 




8-25 
55 


7-83 
72 


11-57 
110 


S7 


52-5 


8708 


8-655 


7-674 


7-1 


7-6 


885 


S-6 


9 '547 


10-851 
139-1 


S-536 




9-359 
133 


n-630 
116-5 

No. 3 to 

_ No. 4. 


10-851 


120-3 




No. 2. 








Fresh breeze. 




' 


















Light swell. 


Little swell. 












1S62. 


1S62. 


1S62. 


1S6:. 


1S62. 


1S62. 


1S62. 



80 



REPORT— 1867. 



Tabli 



Groups of a Speed 



Betv 



Subgroups of Displacement. 



Length on T\-aterline, in feet 

Breadth (extreme), in feet 

Tonnage, builder's measurement 

Mean draft of water, in feet 

Area of immersed midship section, sq. feet. 



ESGIXES. 



Description 

Number of cylinders 

Diameter of cylinders, in inches 

Length of stroke, in feet 

Number of revolutions, per minute 

Weight per sq. in. on safety- valve, in lbs. 

Nominal horse-povrer 

Indicated horse-power 



Propeller. 



Diameter, in feet 

Pitch, in feet 

Length in line of shaft 

Immersion of lower ledge, in feet 

Number of revolutions, per minute . 

Speed of ship, in knots per hour 

Speed of propcll?r, in knots per hour. 
Speed^ X D'i -r indicated horse-power . 



Wind . 



Sea 

Eemarks 



Eetweeu 



Name of Vessel Eussell, 



176.5 
48-33 
1751 
12*85 

58s 



Pembroke. 



Displacement, in tons of 00 cubic feet 2106 



H.Tr.H.P. 

= 30-25 
2-5 
103 
60 
200 
701-3 



9*5 
i'57 
10-46 
103 

7-5 
9-652 
98-8 



Eeference to Reports 



1S62. 



176 

48-5 

1758 

19-5 

660 

2465 



H. H. P. 

2 
30 

^5 
82 

65 

200 

57^ 



12 
12 
2 
i2-o8 

82 

7'6o2 
9-706 



No. 



1862. 



Arrogant. 



200 

4573 
1872 
19-41 

604 
2565 



H. trunk. 

2 
= 55 

64-833 

12 
360 
894-8 



i5'5 
15-46 
2-42 
io-i6 
64833 
8-935 
9-886 
149-4 

No. 3. 



1862. 



Edinburgh. Maj 



176-5 
48-61 

1772 

22-12 

785 
3005 



Hor. 
4 
55 

2'5 

52 
6 

45° 
963-6 



16 

18-75 

3-08 

11-71 

52 
8-498 
9-618 



1862. 



19- 

56 
2590 

21- 

749 
3C28 



He 

2 

64 

3 

49' 

20 

400 

1199 



17 
21 

3 
II 

49 
8 

10 
118 



iS 



ON STEAM-SHIP PERFORMANCE. 



81 



(continued.) 



and 9 knots. 



id 4000 tons. 



Ilogue. 



184 

48-37 
1846 

22-49 

805 
3081 



Her. 

4 
51-5 

3 
56 
10 

45° 
797-3 



i6'o6 
1875 

125 

56 

8328 
10-357 



Hannibal. 



Brunswick. 



217-5 
48-13 

3136 

20-55 

777 
3300 



H. geared. 
2 
71-25 

4 
27-5 
12 
450 
1071-2 



17 

12-5 
2-08 
8-83 

64-87 
8-6 

7'999 



^'iilly rigged Launching ; 
and com- j cleats not 



plete with 
sea stores. 
I 1862. 



removed. 



1862. 



190 

5575 
2484 

24-24 

882 

3632 



Hor. 

2 
64 

3 

S3-S 
20 

4c o 

1438 



17 
20-57 

3 
14-16 

53-5 
7742 
10-862 



No. 7, very 
strong. 



1862. 



Centi; 



190 

57-08 
2590 
24-37 
895 
3680 



Hor. 

2 
64 

3 

54 

20 

400 

1255 



17 
21 

3 
13-57 
54 

8-5 
11-186 



Fresh breeze. 

Considerable 
swell. 



1862. 



Cress 



198-42 

55 
2540 
24-41 

855 
3707 



Ilor. 
2 
64 

3 
48-2 
20 
400 
1076-3 



J7 

21 
3-08 

J2-92 

48-2 
7-206 
9984 

83-3 



1S62 



Sanspareil. 



200 
52-25 

2339 
24-14 

994 
38C0 



Hor. 

2 
64 

3 
58 

15 

400 

1471 



16 
23 

3 

I4'20 

58 
9-3 
13-159 



Calm. 

Smooth. 



1862. 



Between 4000 and 
8000 tons. 



Nile. 



205.5 
54-29 

2622 
24-96 

1013 

4480 



Hor. 

4 
62*25 

3-5 

30 

16 

5C0 

1247-3 



17 
16 

2-67 
1392 
60 

8-2 

9-470 

I20-1 

Light breeze. 
Smooth. 



1S62. 



Niagara, 

U.S. 



328-S7 
53-67 

22 
856 

5075 



Hor. 
3 

72 

3 

45 

19 

700 

195-509 



18-27 
31-27 
1-888 

45 
10-9 

13-88 



1862. 



83 



REPORT 18G7. 



Table V.— MEN-OF- 



Gronps of a Speed 



Subgroups of Displacement. 



Name of Vessel . 



Length on waterline, in feet 

Breadth (extreme), in feet 

Tonnage, builder's measurement 

Mean draft of water, in feet. 

Area of immersed midsliip seetion, sq. ft. 
Displacement, in ton.s of 35 cubic feet . . . 

Engines. 



Description 

Number of cylinders 

Diameter of "cylinders, in inclies 

Length of stroke, in feet 

Number of revolutions, per mimito_ 

Weight per sq. in. on safety-valve, in Ib.s 
Nominal horse-power 



Proteller. 



Diameter, in feet 

Pitch, in feet 

Length in line of shaft 

Immersion of lower ledge, in feet . . . . 
Number of revolutions, per minute . 

Speed of ship, in knots per hour 

Speed of propeller.'in knots per hour. 
Speeds x Dtt -f indicated horse-power . 



Wind 

Sea 

Remarks 



Eeference to Reports 



A. 

Under 
125 tons. 



Dwarf. 



130 

165 
164 
5'5 

44 

98 



Vert. 

2 
40 

2-67 

35-5 



, 90 

Indicated horse-power 2 1 6 



5'67 



182-8 
10-537 
14-427 



Not 
rigged. 

1862. 



Dart. Lee. 



145 
2S'33 
425 

9-08 
166 
350 



Hor. 

2 

32 

IQI 

20 

80 
361-7 



9 

1233 
2 

4-67 

lOI 

10-19 

12-287 
156-2 



1862. 



Between 9 antl 



Between 250 and 



Snipe. 



145 
25'33 
425 

9'12 

167 
392-5 



Hor. 

2 

32 

1-5 

98 

20 

80 

343'i 



J2-33 
2 

5 
98 

I0'022 
II'922 

157-2 



Sparrow, 



145 
25'33 
425 

9-16 
16S-5 
395 



Hor. 



103 

20 

80 
363-4 



12-33 
2 

S'2S 

103 
10-32 

12-531 
162-8 



1862. 



Nimble. 



145 
25'33 
425 

9-20 
169-5 
39S 



Hor. 

2 
32 

15 
io3 

20 

So 
391-8 



12-3 
2 

S'33 
108 
10-872 
13-139 

177-5 



1862. 



145 
25-33 

425 

9-25 
170-5 
401 



Hor. 

2 

30 

1-67 

J 00 

20 



80 
3 34 



11-75 
4-67 

ICO 

9'933 
II-59C 

159-6 



1862. 



4 



] 



ON STEAM-SHIP PERFORMANCE. 



83 



WAE (Group 3). 



1 1 knots. 



$00 tons. 



Mullet 



H5 

25-33 
4.25 

9-45 

176 
416 



For. 

2 
30 

98 

20 
80 

330-3 



9 

1175 
2 

4-83 
98 

io'05 

ij-359 

171-3 

No. 5. 

Smootli. 



1862. 



Espoir. Griffon. 



14s 
25-33 
425 

9-46 
176 
A16 



iror. 

2 
32-125 

1-5 

lOI 

20 
80 

325-9 



9 
12-33 

2 
5 

lOI 
lO'iig 

12-287 
177-2 

No. 4 to 
No. 5. 



1862. 



Snake. 



D. 

Between 500 and 1000 tons. 



160 

25-33 
477 

9-62 
179 
482 



H. trunk 

= 35-1 

1-67 
109-83 
20 
160 
459-8 



1 1 
10 
2-33 

3-67 
109-83 
10-303 
10-834 
146-2 



1862. 



Sharp- 
shooter. 



150 
26-61 

503 

9-25 
196 
518 



Hor. 

2 

46 

3 

41-5 

10 
200 
365-2 



9 
9 

1-5 

124-5 
9-189 
11052 



Rigged and 

partially 

equipped. 

1862. 



Beagle. 



160 

25-33 
477 

10125 
192 
523 



Hor. 
2 
42-125 

I-7S 

72 

20 
160 
295 



1108 

14-71 
229 

4-42 
72 

9-409 
10-446 
183-3 

No. 1 to 
No. 2. 



1862. 



Eanger. 



145 

25-33 
425 

11-33 

223 

550 



H.sing.T. 

2 
= 30-2 

1-5 

95-5 
20 
80 
283-6 



9 
11-5 

1-83 
6 

95-5 
9-006 
10-833 
172-9 

No. 3 to 

No. 4. 



1862. 



Philomel. 



145 

25-33 

425 
11-58 

230 
570 



Hor. 
2 

32 

'-5 
108 

20 

80 
354-2 



9 

I2-l8 

2-21 
6-42 

108 
9-548 
13-032 

168-9 

No. 3 to 

No. 4. 



Eigged 

and 

stored. 

1862. 



Gannet. Cordelia. 



151 

29-08 

577 

10-87 
202 
533 



nor. 
2 

39 
2 

906 

20 
150 
6i6-6 



10 

14-5 

2-5 

4-5 
90-6 
10-817 
12-958 
143-3 

Calm. 
Smooth. 



1862, 



151 
290S 

577 

1 1 

204 

591 



Hor. 
2 
38 



150 
46o'l 



10 
16 

2-5 

5-67 

78 

9-912 

12-310 

148-8 

Light 
breeze. 
Little 
swell. 



1862 



84; 



HEPORT — 1867. 



Table V. 



Groups of a Speed 



Subgroups of Displacement. 



Name of Vessel . 



Breadth (extreme), in feet 

Tonnage, builders measurement 

Mean di-aft of water, in feet 

Area of immersed midship section, sq. feet. 
Displacement, iu tons of 35 cubic feet .... 



Engines. 



Description 

Number of cylinders 

Diameter of cylinder.';, in inches 

Length of stroke, in feet 

Number of revolutions, per minute 

Wcicht per sq. in. on safety-valve, in lbs. 

Nominal horse-power 

Indicated horse-power 



Propeller. 



Diametei', infect 

Pitch, in feet 

Length in line of shaft 

Immersion of lower ledge, in feet 

Number of revolutions, per minute . 

Speed of ship, in knots per hour 

Speed of propeller, in knots per hour. 
Speed^ xDtf -vindicated hor.se-power . 



Wind. 



Sea. 



Remarks. 



Reference to Reports 



Between 9 and 



Length on waterhne, in feet i 



Between 500 and 



Alacrity. 



180 

28-33 
670 
9-25 

195 
605 



Hor. 
2 

45 
2 

85-5 

20 
200 
587-1 



Icarus. 



151 

29'o8 

577 

II 

211 

618 



H.sin.Tr. 

z 
= 38-875 
1-83 
92 
20 
150 
6o2-8 



Eclipse. 



Lily' 



II 

16 

3-42 

10-651 

1 3 "494 
147-2 



10 

14-42 
219 
5-67 
92 

1 01 46 
13-083 
125-7 



185 

28-33 
695 

9'33 
198 
625 



Hor. 

2 

45 
2 

96 

20 
200 
838-4 



II 

16-5 
2-42 
3-92 

96 

1 1 

15-625 
116-1 



1S62. 



1S62. 



1S62. 



Surprise. 



185 
28-33 
695 

9-83 
200 
634 



Hor. 

2 

45 

2 

76 

20 

200 

474' I 



II 

17 
3-25 
4-83 

76 

10 

11-744 
1557 



Wan- 
derer. 



1862. 



180 

28-33 
670 

9-5 

203-5 

637 



Hor. 

2 

45 
2 

93 

20 
200 
721-4 



II 

i5'83 
2-5 
3-92 

93 

10-81 
14-525 
129-6 



Smooth. 



1862. 



180 
28-33 
670 

9"S7 
206 

645 



Hor. 

2 

45 
2 

88-5 

20 
200 
627-8 



II 
1654 

2-67 

3-5 
88-5 
10-258 
14-440 
128-4 

No. 3. 



1862 



Hall'-boilcr power. 



ON STEAM-SHIP PERFORMANCE. 



85 



continued.) 



;;ii knots. 



, 000 tons. 



Rapid. 



1 60 

30*33 
669 

1171 
228 
666 



Hor. 

2 

38 

2 

100 

20 
150 
613 



10 
13 

3 

575 
100 

IO'2 
12'823 
132 



Coquette. 



1862. 



180 

28-33 
670 

11-41 
242 
790 



Hor. 

2 

45 
2 

82-25 

20 
200 
690 



II 

16 

2"5 

4-57 
82-25 

10-853 
l2-q8i 



No. 



1862. 



Fawn. 



160 
31-83 

748 
11-33 

247 
709 



Hor. 

2 

32 

2 

92-5 

20 

100 

406-9 



10 

12 

2 

5'33 
92-5 

9-21 
10-949 

152-7 



1862. 



Ring- 
dove. 



180 
28-33 
670 

IO-21 
223 

714 



Hor. 
2 

45 
2 

84 

20 
200 
676-8 



II 

15-71 

2-5 
4-16 
84 

10-824 
13-016 



No. 



1862. 



Race- 
horse. 



185 

28-33 
695 

io-i6 
221 
718 



Hor. 
2 

45 
2 

85 

20 
200 
731-6 



II 

16-5 
2-46 
4-67 

85 
10-937 

13-834 
i43'4 

No. 3 to 

No. 4. 



1862. 



Alert. 



160 

31-83 
748 

1 1-41 
250 
718 



Hor. 

2 

32 

2 

92 

20 

100 

387-4 



10 
12 

2 

5-25 
92 

9607 
10-890 
183-5 

Light. 

Smooth, 

Without 
masts or 
rigging. 

1862. 



Lapwing. 



i8o 

28-33 
670 

10-S3 
240 
781 



Hor. 

2 

45 

2 

85 

20 
200 
689-2 



II 

i5'65 

2-5 
4-42 

85 

11-021 

13-101 



No. 



1862 



Mohawk, 



28-33 
670 

10-87 
242 
785 



11-08 

14-25 

2-56 

4-42 

88 

10-721 
12-370 



No. 2 to 
No. 3. 



Vigilant. 



180 

28-33 
670 

11-04 

Z45"5 
803-5 



Hor. 


Hor. 


2 


2 


42-25 
2-16 
88 

20 


45 

2 

84 

20 


200 
641-5 


200 
629-9 



II 

16-46 
2-64 

4-57 
84 

9763 
13-257 

127-7 

No. 5 to 
No. 6. 



1862. 



Steam main- 
tained at not 
more than 

18 lbs. 

1862. 



86 



REPORT 1867. 



Table V. 



Groups of a Speed 

Subgroups of Displacement 

Name of Vessel 

Length on water-line, in feet 

Breadth (extrprne), in feet 

Tonnage, builder's measurement... 

Mean draft of water, in feet 

Area of immersed midship sect.sq.ft. 
Displacement, in tons ot 35 cub. ft. 



Engines. 



Description 

Number of cylinders 

Diameter of cylinders, in inches.. 

Length of stroke, in feet 

Number of revolutions, per minute' 
Wt. ]ier sq.in. on safety valve,in lbs 

Nominal horse-power 

Indicated horse-power 



Propeller. 



Between 9 and 



D. 

Between 500 and 1000 tons. 



O.sprey. Eacer. 



Victor. 



Diameter, in feet 

Pitch, in feet 

Length in line of sliaft 

Immersion of lower ledge, in feet 
Number of i-evohitions, per minute 
Speed of ship, in knots per liour 
Speed ofpropeller.in knots per hour 
Speed^ X Dt| -H indicated h.-p 



Wind 



Sea . 



Eemarks 



Reference to Reports 



180 

a8-33 
670 

1120 
250-5 
826-5 



Hor. 

2 
45-06 
2 



S93'4 



11-04 

15-83 

259 

4-5 
80 

10-15 
12-495 

155-2 



1S62. 



151 
29-08 

577 

13-37 
272 
829 



Hor. 

2 
40 

1-67 
965 
22 
150 
522-2 



10 

13-5 
2-19 
6-92 

96-5 

9'.S'9 
12-85 
145-8 

No. 3. 



Industry. 



200 

30-16 
851 

10-04 

233 

875 



Ilor. 

55 
2-5 
84-5 
20 

35° 
973-8 



11 

20-5 

3 
4-16 

84-5 
9-056 
17-087 
698 



1S62. 



Bottom 
foul. 

1S62. 



179-5 
27-12 

638 
12-66 

281 

903 



Cscil. 

2 
36-5 

3 
42 

ico 

317-8 



9 
11 
183 
6-9Z 

97-548 
9-12 
10-585 
2231 



1S62. 



Zebra. 



Intrepid. 



185 

33-16 
950 

11-83 
277 
912 



Hor. 

42-5 
2-16 
112 
20 

200 
984-8 



12 
15 
2'75 
4-25 
112 
10-714 
16-572 
117-4 



200 

30-16 
85. 

11-29 

270 
1040 



Hor. 

2 

5806 
225 

70 

20 
350 
930-1 



II 

21-25 
3-02 
5-16 

70 

10-25 

14-673 
118-9 



1862. 



Rattler. 



176-5 
32-71 

888 
13-79 

338 
1112 



V. d. c. g. 

4 
40-125 

4 

25-43 

10 
200 
519-2 



10 
II 
1-25 

7-5 
101-72 
9-141 
10-037 

159 



Smooth. 



1862. 



1862. 



ON STEAM-SHIP PERFORMANCE. 



87 



(continued.) 



II knots. 



E. 

Between looo and 2000 tons. 



C'luime- 
leon. 



''5 
-316 

9';o 

1 3 '54 

33- 
'3^ 



Hor. 

2 
45 

So-8 
I 20 

BOO 

584-2 



i2'33 
13-5 

2'29 

5*33 
8o-8 

IO"2o6 

10-742 

98-4 

bvbt. 



Flying Grey- 
F'isb. hound. 



Mutine. Einaldo. 



218 

30-33 
950 

11-92 

286 
1161 



Hor. 

2 
5806 
2-25 

74-5 
20 

350 

1222-6 



13-16 
19-96 

3 

575 
74-5 
12-43 
14-667 
173-5 



No. 



1862. 



1S62. 



172-5 
33-16 

8;8 
13-78 

342 
II7S 



Hor. 

2 

45 

2, 

8o'5 
20 
200 

744'9 



12-33 
14-5 
2-42 

5-67 
80-5 
9-87 
11-448 
143-7 

Light. 

Smooth. 



1862. 



172-5 
33-16 
878 

14 

349 

I2C0 



Hor. 

45 
2 

82 

20 
200 
786-4 



i2'33 
i3'5 
2-67 
6-16 
82 

10-25 
10-92 
1546 



1862. 



185 

33-16 
950 

14-62 
367-4 
1286 



Hoi'. 

42-5 
2-i6 

92-083 

20 
200 
75i'4 



12 
13-87 

2,* I 2 

7-33 

92083 

10-588 

12-603 

186-6 



No. 



Fully 

equipped 

for sea. 

1862. 



Fox. 



Miranda. 



i59'33 
40-33 

1131 

i6"29 
449 
1340 



Hor. 

2 

45 
2 

93 

20 
200 
740-8 



12-04 
IO-86 

2 

9-42 

93 
9-325 

10-884 
133 



K-Q. 



1862. 



196-04 

34 
1039 

12-37 

336 

1350 



H.geared 
2 

56-375 

375 
285 

13 
250 
613-1 



12 
11-5 
1-92 

5-25 
87-87 
10-75 

9-968 



ISV5 
abeam. 



Tartar. 



195 
38-s 
1322 

i3'96 
379 
1350 



Hor. 
2 

51 
2-25 
72-25 

14 

250 

731 



12-08 

16-5 
2-75 
6-16 

72-25 
9 '4 

11759 
138-8 

No. 5 to 

No. 6. 



1862. 1862. 



Brisk. 



i93'57 

35 
1074 

13-75 

350 
1370 



Hor 
2 

rs 
39 
14 
250 

595-6 



12 
12-16 

2 

6-33 

8775 

9-035 
10-531 

152-8 

No. 4 to 
No. 5. 



1862. 



En- 
counter. 



190 

43-20 

953 

13-70 
382 

1459 



H. trunk. 
2 

= 55 

=1-15 
81-75 
12 

300 

844 



12 

'5-75 
2-67 
6-54 
81-75 
10699 
12-735 



Cahn. 



Fully 
rigged. 



88 



KEPOKT — 1867, 



Table V. 



Groups of a Speed 



Subgroups of Displacement 



3. 

Between 9 



Name of Vessel. 



Niger. 



Lengtb on waterline, in feet ! '9+^33 

Breadth (extreme), in feet 

Tonnage, builder's measurement 

Meau draft of water, in feet 

Area of immersed midship section, sq. ft 
Displacement, in tons of 3j cubic feet . . 



Engines. 



34.-67 
107a 

1579 
437 
1497 



Description 

Number of cylinders 

Diameter of cylinders, in inches 

Length of stroke, in feet 

Number of revolutions, per minute 

Weight per sq. in. on safety-valve, in lbs. . 

Nominal horse-power 

Indicated horse-power 



Propelleb. 



Ilor. 

4 
47-625 

1-83 

78 

12 

400 

I002'I 



Megrera, 



Despe- 
rate. 



Diameter, in feet '^'5 

Pitch, infect '7;iS 

Length in line of shaft ^'45 

Lnmersion of lower ledge, in feet 8-25 

Number of revolutions, per minute 7 8 

Speed of ship, in knots per hour 10-25 

Speed of propeller, in knots per hour j 13-271 

Speeds xDtf-^ indicated horse-power i4O'0 



207 

37-83 
139s 
13-29 

383 
'554 



Hor. 

4 
49'5 
2 
74-21 

S 
350 
925-6 



14-46 
16 
2-73 
667 
74-21 
10-241 
11-711 



Wind 



Sea. 



Remarks 

Reference to Reports 



Terma- 
gant. 



192-33 

34'35 
1037 

15-96 
452 
1663 



H. geared 

4 
55-01 

37 

10 
400 
891-7 



13-08 
13-83 

2-25 
8-42 

80-727 

9-6 

ii'oi6 
i39'3 

Light 

breeze. 

Smooth. 



Between 1000 and 



High- 
flyer. 



Seahorse. 



210-08 
40-5 

1547 

14-05 
436 
1670 



Hor. 

2 

62-5 

3 
62 

15 

400 
1205-6 



15-61 

24 
2-87 

5'5 
62 

IO-66 
14-678 
141-4 

No. 4- 



192 

36'33 
1153 

16-s 
476 
1775 



Ilor. 

2 
55-18 

2-5 
53'37 



250 
702 



12-06 
971 
1-67 

8-33 
106-74 

9599 

10-222 



41-83 
I2I2 
I8-2I 
518 

'799 



H.T.H.P, 

2 
= 30-25 

112-25 
60 
200 
832-4 



12 

10 

1-67 

II 08 

112-25 

9298 
11-072 



No. 3. 



ON STEAM-SHIP PERFORMANCE. 



89 



ontinued.) 



d n knots. 



00 tons. 



Esk. 



92 
36-25 

59 

16-87 
?8 
!5 



. oscil 
2 
o 
2-75 



2-20 
7-5 

S 

9-25 

11-738 



Green- 
ock. 



Pylades. 



213 
37-40 
1418 

14-20 
419 
183s 



Hor. 

2 
71 

4 
32 



564 
7193 



14 
13 
2-16 



75-2 

959 
9-643 



192-75 

38-4^ 
1278 

17-5 
522 

1956 



H. trunk 
2 

= 55 
3 
62-5 
20 

35° 
1106 



I57S 
20 

3 

8-83 
62-5 
lo'i 19 

12-330 



No. 



F. 

Between 2000 and 4000 tons. 



Chal- 
lenger. 



200 

40'33 
1462 

i7"43 

522 

2018 



H. trunk. 

2 
= 58-11 
3-25 
54-6 
20 
400 
1190-8 



16 
23-5 

3 

7-67 
54-6 
10601 
12-656 
159-S 

No. 5 to 
No. 6. 



Pearl. 



200 
40-33 
1462 
17-92 

538 

2107 



H. trunk. 

2 
= 58-11 

3-25 

55-25 
20 

400 

1078-1 



16 

22-92 

3 
8-83 

55'25 

10-9S8 

12-49 



No. 



Kacoon*. 



Satellite, t Satellite*. 



200 
40-33 
1462 

17-96 
540 
2115 



Hor. 

2 
64 

3 
56 

20 

400 
1485 



16 
26 

3 
8-92 

56 
10-918 

14-362 
144-3 

No. 3 to 
No. 4. 



2C0 

40-33 

1462 

180S 

546 

2138 



H. trunk. 

2 
= 58-11 

3-25 

57 

20 

400 

1213-5 



16 

23'5 
3 
8-92 

57 

10-55 
13-213 
160-6 

Fresh 
breeze. 

Little 
swell. 



200 
40-33 
1462 

18-08 
546 
2138 



H. trunk. 

2 
= 58-11 

3'25 

47-5 

20 
400 
700-4 



16 

23-5 

3 
8-92 

47'5 
9-366 
ii-oii 
1947 

Freih 
breeze. 
Little 
swell. 



Tribune. 



192 

43 
1570 
18-5 

578 
2220 



Hor. 

2 

55 

2-5 

72-5. 
20 
300 
1068 



T4-08 

17-57 
2-87 
9-83 

72-5 

10-41S 

12-575 



No. 2. 



Assistance. 



282-87 
36-39 

1793 

16-62 
440 
2260 



H. S. Tr. 

4 
=45-16 

3 

45-083 

12 
400 
878-8 



17-18 
2262 

2-75 

7-67 

54-083 

10-663 

12-075 

237-6 

No. 2 to 
No. 3. 



* Ilalf-boilor power, 



■ 1807; 



H 



90 



REPORT 1867. 



Tabk' 



Groups of a Speed 



Subgroups of Displacement. 



Name of Vessel 



Betwee 



BetTreen 2 



Ad- 
venture. 



Vulcau. 



Lengtli on waterline, in feet 281-87 

Breadtli (extreme), in feet . 36-37 

Tonnage, builders measurement U793 

Mean draft of water, in feet ly'zi 

Area of immersed midship section, sq. ft. ...I 461 
Displacement, in tons of 35 cubic feet 2388 



Engines. 



Description 

Number of cylinders 

Diameter of cylinders, in inches 

Lengtli of stroke, in feet 

Number of revolutions, per minuto 

Weight per sq. in. on safety-valve, in lbs. . . 

Nominal horse-power 

Indicated horse-power 



Propeller. 



Tr 



H. S 

4 
=4.5-16 

3 

517s 

10 
400 
824-9 



Lion. 



Diameter, in feet 17-18 

Pitch, infect ' 22-62 

Length in line of shaft j 2-75 

Immersion of lower ledge, in feet ', 8-33 

Number of revolutions, per minute S^'75 

Speed of ship, in knots per hour 10-316 

Speed of propeller, in knots pev hour ' i ' ' 5 5 5 

Speed^xDtf -vindicated horse-power i *37'^ 

Wind j No. 4- 

Sea I 

i 

Remarks ' 



220 
41-42 
1764 
17-20 

553 
2520 



Ilor. 

2 

64 

3 

48-375 

10 

4C0 

857-3 



17-08 

22-37 

3 
1067 

48-375 

9-511 

10-915 



Simoon. 



No 5 to 
No. 6. 



192 

57 
261 

19-75 
635 

'54° 



H. trunk 

2 

= 58-11 

3-25 

66 

20 

400 

1771-2 



17 

lo 3 

3 
10-42 
66 

10-91 1 
12-044 
136-5 

Light 
breeze. 

Little 
swell. 



246 


240-5 


41 


515 


1980 


2848 


15-95 


17-95 


528 


573 


2550 


2700 



Phoebe*. 



Reference to Reports 



of .steam 
deficient. 



Hor. 

2 

62-5 

3 

57 

20 
400 
■255-3 



15-92 

24-57 
2-71 
8-o8 

57 

io-86i 
13-822 
190-5 

No. 5 to ! 
No. 6. I 



Hor. 

2 

65 

3 

5°-5 

20 
500 
844-3 



GolijI 



I go ■ 

2590 

20-( 
684 

2737 



II. tri 

2 

= 58- 

3-: 

69 

20 

400 

1437' 



18 

22 

3-25 

7-5 
50-5 

9959 
10-959 
226-3 

No. 4. 

Moderate 

swell. 



i8- 

17 

3 

10' 

60 

9" 

10- 
104' 

No. 



^' Ilalf-lxiiler j-iower. 



ox STEAM-SHIP PERFORMANCE. 



01 



ntimied.) 



In 


knots. 


















■4000 tons. 


















teton 


. J Colossus 


1 Im- 
■ ' perieusc 


, London*.! Aboukii 


•. Nelson - 


. "Windsor 
■ Castle. 


Cresar. 


Eoyal 

George. 


Chesa- 
peake. 


0*26 
.83 

7 

> 


1 190 

! 57 
12590 
i 2104 
1 708 
2855 


212 
I 50 

12355 

i 2°'49 
: 688 

J 3 044 


215-25 

5429 
2687 

19-83 

735 
j3Ji5 


204 

60 

3091 

[ 20-5 

740 
3150 


j 

216-25 

54-5 
2736 

19-66 

750 

13158 


2C4 

1 60-04 

1 3101 

I 20-25 
770 

13245 


207-33 
56-06 
2767 

21-04 
726 
3250 


205-57 
2616 

20*l6 

760 

3270 


212 

50 

2356 

21-66 

746 

3334 


or. 

•33 

•a 


H. trunk 

2 
= 58-25 
3-25 
6183 
20 
400 
14206 


H. trunk 
2 

;=55 

68 

20 

360 

1199-8 


Hor. 

1 ^ 
70-07 

3 

49 

20 
500 
878-7 


H. trunk 

= 58-25 
3-25 
623 
20 
400 
1533-3 


Hor. 

2 

71 

3 

54-66 

20 

500 

1190-8 


H. trunk. 
2 

= 64-33 
3-33 
68-5 

20 

500 

2052-3 


H. trunk. 

2 

= 58 

3-25 

60 

22 

400 

1420 


H. trunk. 

2 
= 58-11 
3-25 
60-33 
20 
400 
1397-9 


Hor. 

a 

64 

3 

52 

20 

400 

1159-2 


33 
466 

1" 


17-12 
18-46 
2-S9 
10-42 
61S3 

9-65 
11-258 
134-9 


15-96 

»7 
2-61 

11-25 

68 

lo-iii 

11-403 

181 ! 


18 

20 

3 

9-83 1 
49 

9-508 

9-667 : 
2086 


17 
17-5 

io-i6 
62-3 j 
9-55 1 

iC'-754 ; 

1 22- 1 I 


18 
20-16 

3-75 

9-83 
5466 
10-363 ! 
10-875 

201-2 


17 
18-5 

3 
10-75 
63-5 
10-955 
12-503 
140-4 


17-12 
18-89 
2-96 
11-42 
60 

10-274 
11-183 


17 
18 

3 
10 1 
60-33 
9-568 
10-712 
138 


17 
22-5 

3 
11-75 

52 

9-658 I 
11-541 1 
173-4 


to 
6. 




No. 4. : 


No. 4. 

1 


Ko. 7 to 
No. 8. 


No. 3. 

1 


No. 4. 


No.i. 


Calm. 


No. 4 to 
No. 5. 


■• 




1 


Little 


HeaYT 








Smoolli 








swell. 


swell. 












■ 


1 

1 

1 






i 













"' Half-boiler jiower. 



h2 



93 



REPORT — 1867. 



Table 



Groups of a Speed 



Subgrovips of Displacement. 



Betweei 



Between 2000 and 4000 tons 



Name of Vessel 



Length on waterline, in feet 

Breadth (extreme), in feet 

Tonnage, builder's measurement 

Mean draft of water, in feet 

Area of immersed midship section, sq. ft. 



Nar- 
cissus. 



Royal 
William. 



228 

51-25 
2665 
21-42 
706 



Displacement, in tons of 35 cubic feet 3412 



ExCilXES. 



Description 

Number of cylinders 

Diameter of cylinders, in inches 

Length of stroke, in feet 

Number of revolutions, per minute 

Weight per sq. in. on safety-valve, in lbs.. 

Nominal horse-power 

Indicated horse-power 



Propeller. 



Diameter, in feet 

Pitch, in feet 

Length in line of shaft 

Immersion of lower ledge, in feet 

Number of revolutions, per minute .. 

Speed of ship, in knots per hour 

Speed of propeller, in knots per lumr.. 
Speed'' X Dtf vindicated liorse-power 



Hor. 

2 

64 

3 

63-5 

20 

400 

lyoi'i 



21675 

5575 
2849 

21 "04 
820 
3520 



Hor. 

2 

65 

3 

62-5 

20 

500 

1763-1 



, , . J, Immor- 
Algiers*. ^^^ij.»_ 



218-57 
60 

3347 

21 

814 

3550 



Hor. 
2 

76-125 
3-5 

4775 

20 

600 

1361-8 



Wind -.. 

Sea 

Remarks 



17 
18-5 

3'57 
11-67 
63-5 
10-936 
11-588 
i74'3 

Light 
breeze. 
Little 
swell. 



Reference to Rjports 



18 

20 

3 
10-42 

62-5 

10581 

12-330 

155-5 

Light 
breeze. 
Little 
swell. 



251 

52-08 
3059 

21-42 

715 
3625 



Hor. 

2 
76 

3-5 
46 

20 

600 

13377 



Tra- 
falgar. 



216 

55-46 
2900 

22-91 
880 
3850 



Hor. 
2 
66 

3"5 
62-166 

20 

500 

2275-1 



Quee 



214 
60 

3249 
22-7 
910 
3930 



18-12 
26-08 

3 
10-75 

4775 
10-487 
12-286 
156-6 

No. 4. 

Slight 
wave. 



19-42 
25-5 

3'39 

9-5 
46 

10-94 
11-571 
231 

No. 2. 



18 

19 

3-04 

11-33 
62-166 
10-908 
11-651 
140- 1 

Calm. 

Smooth. 



Hoi 

2 
66 

63-; 
20 
500 

2282-( 



18 
19 

3': 
ir 
63-; 
10- 
11' 
129- 

No. 

Distiv 



Half-boiler power, 



ON STEAM-SHir PERFOBMANCE. 



93 



itinued.) 



II knots. 



Between 4000 and 8000 tons. 



ix- Saint 

uth. I George. 



■37 



)r. 



5 + 



33 



216-5 

54' 3 7 
2864. 

23-95 
966 
4313 



Hor. 
2 

71 

3 

59-5 
20 

500 

1730-4 



18 
20 
3 
i2'57 
59'S 
10-933 
11-738 
200-1 

No. 5. 

Moderate 
swell. 



Orion. 



Neptune. 



238 

5575 
3232 
24-12 
894 
4580 



H. trunk. 
2 

= 70-75 

3-5 

54 

20 

6co 

1956-7 



18 

23 
3-16 

12-25 

54 

lo-i 

12251 

145-2 

Light 

breeze. 

Smooth. 



216-5 

55-42 
2830 

24-96 
1018 
4589 



Hor. 
2 

71 
3 
63'5 

20 

j 5°o 
2002-5 



18 

1975 
3 

14-42 
63-5 
10-897 
12-371 
178-4 

No. 2 to 
Ko. 3. 



Aga- Duke of I Victor 

memnon. Wellington. 'Emanuel*. 



230 

55'33 
3074 

23-04 

1012 

4806 



H. trunk. 
2 

70-75 

3-5 
60-58 

20 
600 

19485 



18 
21-83 

3-33 
i3'33 
60-58 
10-717 
13 048 
179-9 

No. 4 to 
No. '5. 



240-5 
60 

3759 

23-62 
98S 
5080 



H. geared 
2 
93-87 

4-5 
29-5 

15 

700 

1979 



18 

16-25 
2-81 
11-92 
66-6 
10-15 
10-675 



No. 4. 



230 

55-33 
3087 

24-12 
1065 
5106 



Ilor. 

2 
76125 

3-5 
45'75 
20 
600 
1273-8 



18-16 

26-16 

3-08 

12-83 

45-75 
9-072 
11-809 
173-S 

No. 4. 



Victor 
Emanuel 



230 

55-33 
3087 

24-12 
1065 
5106 



Hor. 
2 

76-125 

3-5 
56-75 
20 
6co 
2423-8 



18-16 

26-16 

3-08 

12-83 

56-75 
10-874 
14-648 
157-3 

No. 4. 



James 
Watt. 



230 

55-42 
3083 

24-33 
1085 

5226 



Hor. 

4 
52-25 

3 
52 
16 
6co 
1531 



17 
24 

3 
13 
52 

9-5 
12-310 
16S-6 

Light. 

Smooth. 



Ee- 

nown*. 



244-75 
55-33 
3318 

23-67 
1050 
5320 



H. trunk. 

2 
= 82 

4 

43-5 
20 
Soo 
1427 



19 

28 

3'5 
11-16 

43-5 
9-H5 
12-014 
163-3 



No. 4. 



* Half-boiler power. 



94 



EEPORT — 18G7. 



Table VI.— MEN-Ol 



Groups of a Speed 



Subgroups of Displacement. 



Between hi 



Name of Vessel . 



Between 250 and 500 tons. 



Cygnet. Steady. Penguin, 



Length on vvaterline, in feet 

Breadth (extreme), in feet 

Tonnage, builder's measurement 

Mean draft of water, in feet •■• 

Area of immersed midship section, sq. it.. ^ 
Displacement, in tons of 3-5 cubic foot 393 



Engines. 



PROrELLEU. 



Diameter, in feet 

Pitch, in feet 

Length in line ol' shaft 

Immersion of lower ledge, in feet 

Number of rcvohitions, per minute . 

Spe=d of s';:ip, in liiiots pr.- hour 

Speed of propell.-r, in knots per hour. 
Speed'' xDt^-^ indicated liorse-pov.vr. 



Wind . 



Sea 

Reference to Eeports 



i45-o8 
25-42 
428 

9-14 
168 



Description 

N umber of cylinders 

Diameter of cylinders, in inches 

Length of stroke, in feet 

Number of revolutions, per minute 

Weight per sq. in. on safcly-valve, in '.bs. ... 

Nominal horse-power 

Lidicatcd horse-power 



Ilor. 

2 

1-5 

II o 

21 

80 

354'^ 



U5 

25'33 
425 

9-33 
173 
407 



Hor. 

2 

32 

1-5 
106 

20 

80 
360-4 



9 

1 20 I 
1-97 
4-96 
HO 
11-233 
13-032 
214-7 

No. 2. 



145 

25'33 
425 

9'37 
174 
410 



Ilor. 




1-5 
107 

20 

80 
364-6 



1862. 



9 

12-33 

2 

4-5 

106 
11053 
12-896 

205-8 



1862. 



Arrow. 



160 

'i5'33 
477 

10-83 
209 
586 



Ilor. 

4^ 
1-75 

93 

20 
160 
594 



180 

28-33 
670 

9-17 
194 
601 



9 
12-33 

2 

4' 5 

107 
1 1-078 
13-017 

205-8 



1862. 



11-04 

>3 
2-30 

4-57 
93 
1 1 
11-926 



1862. 



16 



Hor 
2 

42 

2 

94 

20 
200 
5995 



1 1 

15 

2-54 

3 
94 
11-6 
13-908 
185-4 



1S62. 



ON STEAM-SHIP rEKl'OKMAXCE. 



95 



A.R (Group 4). 



knots. 



D. 



: Between 500 and 1000 tons. 



f^z 



5 

> 
; Soi 



Star. 



1S5 

2S-33 
695 

9'62 

206 

657 



Hor. 

2 

45 

2 

102 

20 
200 
892-3 



II 

165 

2'42 
3-92 
102 
III 

i6'6oi 
115-8 



1862. 



C'oi-mo- 
raiit. 



185 

28-33 
695 

10-16 
221 
718 



nor. 

45 

2, 

S5 

20 
200 
722-8 



II 


,6-5 


2-46 


4-42 


«5 


11-155 


13-834 


54 



No. 



1862. 



Sparrow-f A.ssu- 
hawk. ranee. 



28-33 
670 
10-83 

240 
781 



Hor. 

2 
42-25 

2-16 
92 

20 
200 
725-6 



II 

14-25 
2-58 

4-33 
92 

11-065 
12-932 



No. 2 to 
No. 3. 

1S62. 



Pelican. 



28-33 
670 
10-83 

240 
781 



Hor. 

2, 

45 
2 

87 

20 
200 
744 



II 

16 

2'5 
4-25 

87 

11-142 

13-731 



CV. 



1882 



185 

33-16 
950 

11-S9 

279 
920 



Hor. 
2 

45 

89-75 

20 
200 
758-5 



12 

14-13 

2-42 

4-67 

89-75 

11-666 

12-514 

19S 

Calm. 



1862. 



E. 

Between icoo and 2000 tons. 



Eoebuck. Pioneer. Scout. Pelor 



200 

30-16 
851 

10-49 
246 
935 



Hor. 

2 
55 

2'S 

95-833 
20 

35° 
1277-9 



11-08 

20-42 

3 

4-42 

95-833 
11-144 

19-300 
103-6 

No. A to 
No.' 5. 



i862. 



30-33 
868 

10-91 

262 

lOIO 



Hor. 

2 

55 

2-5 

82 

20 

350 

1150 



II 

20-5 

3 

5 
82 

11-332 
16-582 



No. 6 on 
the beam. 



1862. 



200 
40-33 
1462 

14-37 
399 
1478 



H. trunk. 

2 
= 58-11 

3-25 

66 

20 

400 

1421-6 



15-94 
23-5 

3 

5-i6 
66 
11-6 
15-299 
142-5 



1862. 



200 

40-33 
1462 
14-83 

417 
1558 



Hor. 

2 

6+ 

3 

57 

20 

400 

1437-6 



16 

26 

3 
6-25 

57 
11-93 

14-619 
158-7 

Light 

breeze. 

Smooth. 

1862. 



96 



HEFORT^ — 1867. 



Table \ 



Groups of a Speed 



Between lit 



Subgroups of Displacement. 



Name of Vessel 



Between looo and 2000 tons. 



Clio. 



Length on -waterline, in feet 2co 

Breadth (extreme), in feet 40-33 

Tonnage, Builder's measurement 1462 

Mean draft of water, in feet ■_ 1 14-87 

Area of immcr.sed iuidshi|i section, sq. ft. ...| 41c) 
Displacement, in tons of '6o cubic feet ,1565 



Cha- 
rvbdis. 



Engines. 



Description 

Number of cylinders 

Diameter of cylinders, in inches 

Length of stroke, in feet ._ 

Number of revolutions, per minute _ 

Weight per .•-q. in. on safety-Talve, in lbs. 

Nominal horse-power 

Indicated horse-power 



Propeller. 



Diameter, in feet 16 

Pitch, in feet 26 

Length in line of shaft 3 

Immersion of lower ledge, in feet . 
Number of revolutions, per minute 
Speed of ship, in knots per hour . 

Speed of propelh^r, in knots per hour | i4'83i 

Specd^ xDtit-f indicated horso-power [ 149-8 



nor. 

2 

64 

3 

57-83 

20 

400 

1539-2 



200 
40-33 
1462 

14-92 
421 
1572 



Hor. 
2 
64 

3 
61-5 

20 

400 

15S0-6 



Orpheus. 



22s 

40-67 
1702 
15-25 

443 
1672 



Hor. 

2 
64 

2-67 

65 

20 
4c o 
I4J5-2 



Orestes. Barossa. 



Cadm 



225 
40-67 
1702 

15-49 
453 
1720 



225 ! SCO 
40-67 4-C-; 

1702 !I462 

15-83 17-' 

466 1 537 

1780 |2c6i 



S 



57-»3 
1 196 



Wind 

Sea 

Remarks 

Eeference to Eeports 



16 
26 

3 
483 

61-5 

11-752 

15-773 
138-8 



16 

23 
3-Si 
6-16 

65 

12-449 

14-747 
188-1 



Hor 

2 
60-7 

3 

65 

20 

400 

1521-6 



16 

23 
3-81 
6-c8 

65 

12-265 

14-747 
174-1 

No. 5. 



Hor. 

2 
64 

3 
66 

20 

400 

1798-2 



16 

24 

3 

6-57 
66 
11-92 

15-625 
138-3 

No. 2 to 
No. 3. 



Ilor. 

= 58- 

3' 
58- 

20 

4CO 

1424 



16 

'3' 

3 

8- 

58- 

II 

1 3' 
164 

No. 

f'mo 



ON STEAM-SHIP PKlirORMANCE. 



97 



(co ithiued.) 



Bet^reen 2000 and 4CC0 tons. 



I acoon. 



. DO 

146a 

iS-37 
55S 

ZI92 



Hor. 

2 
64 

3 
58-66 



Jason. 



16 
26 

3 

9 
58-66 
ii'4i6 
15-046 

I52'I 



225 
40-67 
1702 
18-5 

575'5 
2294 



Hor 

2 

64 

3 

54' 5 
20 
400 
1549-2 



16 

26 

3'S7 
9-67 

54-5 
1 1-632 
13-977 
176-7 



No. 



Perseve- 
rance. 



272-58 

38-5 
1967 
18-C4 
500-5 
2299 



T. 



Hor 

2 

= 55 

3 

57-5 

16 

360 

911-8 



16-06 
21-97 

3-02 

8-5 

57-5 
11-297 
12-460 
275"4 



Call 



Urgent. 



273-90 

38-54 
19S1 
18-37 

5'3 
2370 



Hor. 

64 
3 
59'25 
15 

400 

1226-8 



17 
22-33 

3-5 
9-42 

59"25 
11-996 
12 S58 
250-1 

No. 2. 
Sniootli. 



Forte. 



212 

5o-c8 
2364 

1774 
55° 
2370 



Hor. 

64 

3 

56-33 
20 
400 
1538-9 



17 
22-5 

3 

7-5 

56-33 

11-485 

12-503 

175 



Transit. 



300 

41-5 
2522 

18 
528-5 
2628 



Hor. T. 

2 
= 58-5 
3-25 
56-75 
15 
400 
1234-3 



17 
24-25 

3 

9 
56-75 
11-909 

13-575 
260-6 

No. 4. 



240-5 

5° 
2712 

18-57 

536 

2638 



Hor. 

66 

3-5 
67-166 

20 

500 

1977-6 



18 

20 

3 

8-67 

67-166 

12-132 

13-251 

172-4 



Phoebe. 



No. 



4- 



240-5 

51-5 
2848 

17-95 

573 
2700 



Hor. 

65 

3 

62 

20 

500 

1779-9 



18 

22 
3-25 

7-5 
62 

11-9 

13-455 
185-6 

;no.4. 

Mod. 
swell. 



Melpo- 
mene. 



237 

52 

2852 

18-53 

568 

2741 



Hor. T. 
2 

= 70-75 

3-5 

59 

20 

600 

2171-4 



18-04 
25-02 

3-33 
7-08 

59 

12-436 
14-562 
173-5 

No. 3. 



Emerald. 



237 

52 
2852 

18-91 
586 
2835 



Hor. 
2 
76 

3-5 
54 
20 
600 
2060-9 



18 
28 

3-5 
7-83 

54 

12 

14-915 
168 



98 



REPORT — 18G7. 



Table YI 



Groups of a Speed 



From II t' 



Subgroups of Displacement. 



Name of Vessel 



Lengtli on watcrline, in feet 

Breadth (extreme), in feet 

Tonnage, Builder's measurement 

Mean draft of water, in feet _. . . 

Area of immersed midship section, sq. ft. 
Displacement, in tons of So cubic ieet ... 



Exo!:>"E3. 



Description 

Number of cylindtM-s 

Diameter of cylinders, in inches 

Length of stroke, m feet 

Number of revolutions, ]5er minu(e 

^Veight per sq. in. on safety-valve; in Has. 

Nominal horse-power 

Indicated horse-power 



Propelleu. 



Diameter, in feet 

Pitch, in feet 

Length in lino of shaft 

Immersion of lower ledge, in feet 

Number of revolutions, per minute .. 

Speed of sliip, in knots per hour 

Speed of propeller, in knots per hour 
Speed^ xDt§-^indic.ilcd horse-power 



Wind. 



Sea 

Remarks 



Between ac 



Irre.sist- 



190 

5675 
.6.4.2 

21-08 
708 
,855 



Ilor. T. 

2 
= 5811 
3-25 
66 
20 
4c o 
1668-5 



Topaze. 



235 

5° 
2651 

1S-71 
635 
3000 



Ilor. 

2 
76 

3-5 

49 

20 

600 

2131-4 



London. 



Eeference to Eeports 



17 


i9"33 


17 


29 


3-33 


3'S 


11-25 


7-5 


66 


49 


ll-Ol 


12-l6 


11-068 


14-017 


161 


175-5 




No. 5 to 




No. 6. 




Consid. 




swell. 



215-25 
54-29 

2687 

19-83 

735 
3115 



rior. 

2 
70-875 

3 

60-75 
20 
500 
1804-1 



18 

20 

3 
983 

60-75 
11-522 
11-985 
i8o-8 

No. 4. 

Little 
swell. 



Rodney. 



2i4'33 

54 
2770 
20-12 

737 
3126 



Ilor. 

2, 

66 

3-5 
71-666 
20 
500 
2245-6 



18 
i6-5 

3 

9-67 
17-166 
11-479 

iJ-583 
144 

No. I to 

No. 2. 



Nelson. 



216-25 

54-5 
2736 

19-66 

750 

3158 



Ilor. 

71 

3 
65-83 
20 
5C0 
2101-8 



2o-i6 

375 
9-33 

65-83 
11-533 
13-096 
157-1 



No. 



Frederic 

Willian 



214 

60 

3241 

20'2C 
770' 
3245 



Ilor. 

2 
66 

35 
72-66 
20 
500 
7,276-3 



lS-12 

17-79 
3-22 
10-91 
72-66 
11-77 
IO-I2. 
157-2 



K 



0.4. 



I 



ON STEAM-SHIP PERFOttJMAXCE. 



99 



{cwithiued.) 



13 knots. 












. 






and 4000 tons. 




Prince.ss 
Royal. 


Waterloo. 


Hood. 


Algiers. 


Bacchante. 


Inimor- 
talite. 


Doris. 


Himalaya. 


Diadem. 


217 


218-20 


233 


2IS-57 


235 


251 


240 


340-42 


240 




58-12 


55-33 


5575 


60 


50 


52-08 


48 


46-14 


48 




3129 


2S45 


3232 


33+7 


2651 


3059 


2479 


3453 


2479 




20-90 


20-79 


20-58 


21-07 


21 


21-45 


20-49 


18-83 


20-54 




805 


807 


697 


819 


750 


717 


732 


652 


763 




3400 


3440 


3470 


3562 


3631 


3638 


3714 


3857 


3880 




Hor. 


Hoi-. 


Hor. T. 


Hor. 


Hor. 


Hor. 


Hor. T. 


Hor. T. 


Hor. 




2 


2 


2 


2 




2 


2 


n 


2 




64-125 


71 


70-75 


76-125 


76 


76 


= 82 


= 73 


82 




3 


3 


3'5 


3-5 


3-5 


3-5 


A 


3-5 


4 




58 


62 


62 


57-66 


55 


55 


53-71 


55 


56-33 




20 


20 


20 


20 


20 


r 2° 


20 


12 


20 




400 


500 


6co 


600 


600 


600 


8co 


700 


800 




1491 


1889-9 


2385-3 


2518-4 


2490-1 


2392 


3005 


1830 


2978-5 




17-03 


18 


18 


l8-I2 


19-33 


19-42 


20-08 


i8-oS 


18 




2-54 


20 


23 


2608 


25-79 


25-5 


30 


28 


33-42 




3 


375 


3-16 


3 


3-25 


3-39 


A-20 


4-75 


3-57 




979 

58 


10-33 


9-42 


10-83 


10-33 


9-5 


975 


9-92 


10-42 




62 


62 


57-66 


55 


55 


5371 


55 


56-33 




11-031 


11-329 


11-752 


11191 


12-074 


12-538 


12-158 


12-5 


12-C05 




12-324 


12-231 


14-066 


'4"835 


13-993 


13-834 


15-894 


15-191 


18-568 






175-3 


156 


167-8 


167 


197 


143-4 


262-5 


143-4 




No. •% to 


No. 2 to 


No. 3. 


No. 5. 


No. 2 to 


No. 2 to 


No. 1 to 


Lit. breeze. 


Calm. 


- 


No. 5. 


No. 3. 


Smooth. 


SUght 
wave. 


No. 3. 


No. 3. 


No. 2. 


Smooth. 





100 



REFOKT — 1867. 



Tahle TI. 



Groups of a Speed 

Subgroups of Displacement 

Kame of Vessel 

Length on waterline, in feet 

Breadth (extreme), in feet 

Tonnage, builder's measurement 

Mean draft of water, in feet 

Area of immersed midship section, sq. ft. ... 
Displacement, in tons of 35 cubic feet 



Engines. 



4. 

From II 



G. 

Between 40CC 



Eoyal 
Sovereign. 



Gibraltar. ,ir , i Anson. 
1 \\ ales. I 



Edgar. 



240-5 
6o- 

3759 

20-54 
S02 
4023 



Description 

Number of cylinders 

Diameter of cylinders, in inches 

Length of stroke, in feet 

Number of revolutions, per minute 

Weight per sq. in. on safety-valve, in lbs. 

Nominal horse-power 

Indicated horse-power 2795 



PliOPELLER. 



Hor. 

2 

82 

4 

54 

20 

8co 



252 

58 
3716 . 

20-25 

832 

4120 



252 
6o-i6 

3994 
20-42 
goo 
4170 



Hor. j Hor. Tr. 

2 I 2 

82 =82 

4 4 

59 57'4 

20 20 

800 800 

3S04'8 .3352 



Diameter, in feet 

Pitch, in feet 

Length in line of shaft 

Immersion of lower ledge, in feet . . 
Number of revolutions, per minute 

Speed of ship, in knots per hour 

Speed of propeller, in knots per liour. 



19-12 

27-52 

3'S9 
9-08 

54 

12-253 
14-659 
Speed^xDtf -vindicated horse-power ! 166-4 



19 

27.5 

433 
10 

59 
12-48 

16-005 

142-5 



Wind No. 2. ' Liglit 

I I breeze. 

Sea Smooth. 



Remarks 

Reference to Reports 



19-08 
29-27 

3"97 
10-16 

57-4 

12-569 

16573 

i53"5 
Calm. 



244'75 
55"33 
3317 
20-16 
856 
4190 



ITor. 

2 
82 

4 

59 

20 

800 

35826 



19 

27-5 
4-16 
7-67 

59 

12-984 
16-005 
1587 

No. 2 to 

No. 3. 

Smooth. 



I 23o'25 
I 55'33 
^3086 
22*42 

977 
4614 



Hor. 
2 
75 

3'5 
54-83 
20 
6co 
2474' 5 



18 

25'5 
3-04 
1016 
54-8 
11-371 
13-792 
164-7 



ON STEAM-SHIP PERFORMANCE. 



101 



(continued.') 



to 13 knots. 



and 8cco tons. 




18 
25*5 
3-5 
ii'Sj 

56 

Ji'35 

i4'o86 

1555 

Light 

breeze. 

Smooth. 



Howe*. Donegal. 



260 
61 
4236 
21-62 

949 

4770 



Hor. 


Hor. Tr. 


2 


2 


76 


= 92-5 


3-5 


4 


56 


4575 


20 


20 


600 


1000 


2662-1 


2186-7 



20 

28 

4-5 
9-25 

4575 
11-161 

12-636 

180-2 

No. 3 to 
No. A. 



240 

55-33 
3224 

23-16 

1004 
4960 



Hor. Tr, 

2 

= 82 

4 

5^-5 
20 

800 

2832-3 



19 

28 

3"5 
II 

52-5 
11-912 
14-500 
173-6 

Calm. 

Smooth. 



St. Jean 
d'Acre. 



238 

55'33 
3200 

24-25 
1067 
5340 



Hor. Tr. 
2 

= 7075 

3-5 

61 

20 

600 

2136 



18 

21-67 

3-5 
13-25 
61 
11-199 

13-037 



No. I. 



Revenge. 



^4475 

55-33 
3318 

24 

1065 

5446 



Hor. 

2, 

82 

4 
54-5 
20 
8co 
3028-2 



19 

25 

3-5 
11-67 

54-5 
11-53 

13-440 

158-6 

No. 6 to 
No. 7. 



Renown. 



Mersey. 



Marl- 
borouffh. 



244-75 
55-33 
3318 

24-33 
1082 
55-20 



Hor. Tr. 

2 
= 82 

4 

56-5 
20 
800 
3182-6 



19 
28 

3-5 
12 

56-5 
11-815 
15-605 
161-9 



300 
52 

3727 

22-57 

917 
C678 



Hor. 

2 

92 

4 

57-66 
20 
800 
3877-8 



20 

29-42 
4-25 
11-42 
57-66 
12-796 
16-728 
172 



No. 



2. 



245-5 
61-20 

40C0 
2625 
11-89 

6035 



Hor. 

2 
82 

4 

54-66 
20 
8co 
3054-3 



19 

27-25 
3-61 

14-5 
54-66 
11-217 
14-692 
153-2 

No. 2 to 

No. 3. 

Smooth. 



^ Half-boiler power. 



10:2 



REPOKT 18Gr, 



Table YII.— MEX-OF- 



Groups of a Speed 

Subgroups of DispLxcement 

Names of Vessels 

Length between the perpendiculars . . . 

Breadth (extreme) 

Tonnage 

Mean draft of water 

Area of immersed 

Displacement 

Engines. 

Description 

Number of cylinders 

Diameter of cylinders 

Length of stroke 

Number of revolutions, per minute 

Weight per square inch on safety-valve 

Nominal horse-power 

Indicated horse-power 

Propeller. 

Description 

Diameter 

Pitch 

Length 

Immersion of centre at trial 

Number of revolutions 

Speed of ship, in knots 

Speed of propeller, in knots 

Speed^ X n§ -r indicated horse-power . . . 

Wind 

Sea 

Remarks 



5, 

Between 1 3 



Newcastle. 



250 

52 
3027 

lyzo 
58. 
2655 



Horizontal. 
2 
76 

rs 

60166 
20 
600 
2452-2 



ig 

26 

rs7 
8-67 

6o-i66 

I3'2S7 

15-431 
183-3 

No. 3. 



P. 

Between 2000 



Sutlej. 



2 54' 5 

51-67 
3065 
18-70 
530 
2760 



Horizontal. 
2 
66 

3-5 
70-5 
20 



5C0 
2323-8 



18-oS 

20-42 

3-16 

8-OI 

70-5 
13-067 
14-198 
18S-9 

Calm. 



ON STEAM-SHIP PERFORMANCE. 



103 



AVAR (Geotjp 5). 



and 15 knots. 












G. 




and 4.0G0 tons. 




Between 4000 and 8oco tons. 




Atlas. 


Duncan. 


Ariadne. 


Howe. 


Orlando. 

1 


24475 


25a 


2S0 


260 


300 

52 




55-33 


58 


50 


61 




3317 


3716 


3214 


4236 


3727 




19-37 
810 


19S3 
808 


21-33 

771 


21-61 
949 


21-87 
S80 




3940 


3985 


4426 


4770 


54»6 




Horizontal. 


Horiz. trunt. 


Iloi'izonta]. 


Horiz. trunk. 


Horiz. trunk. 




2 


2 


2 


2 


2 




82 


= S2 


82-06 


92-5 


92-5 




4 
60-333 


4 


3-67 


4 


4 




55 


6i-6 


57-375 


50 




800 


20 


20 


20 


20 




800 


800 


1000 


1000 




3731-5 


3217-5 
Common, 3 blades 


335°-3 


4523-8 


36166 




'9 


19-08 


20 


20 


20 




27-5 


27-83 


25 


28 


32-5 




4-16 
8-oS 


3-5 
8-92 


3-5 
10-57 


4-5 
9-25 


4-5 

10-25 




60-333 ; 


55 


6i-6 


57-375 


50 




13-022 
16-366 


13-239 


13-087 


13-565 


13-001 




15-000 


15-191 


15-847 


16029 




147-6 


183-3 


180-3 


156-4 


187-4 




No. 5. 


Calm. 


No. 2. 


No. 3 to No. 4. 
Smooth. 


Light breeze. 
Smooth. 





















104 



REPORT 1867. 

Table Till.— MEN-OF-WAE of 



Length, in feet 

Breadth, in feet 

Mean draft of water, in feet 

Area of immersed section, in square feet 
Displacement, in tons 



Engines. 



Description 

Number of cylinders 

Diameter of cylinders, ii\ inches 

Length of stroke, in feet 

Number of revolutions, p^r minute 
Speed of piston, in feet per minute 

Nominal horse-power 

Indicated horse-power 

Total weight of engines, in tons 



PltOPELLER. 



Q-Rour 1. Under 7 knots. 



Gkoit 2. 7 to 



St. GeorM. 



200'5 

55-46 
24-85 

IOI2'4 

4559 



Horizontal. 

a 

71 

3 

46 

276 

500 

1123 

IIS 



Description 

Diameter 

Pitch 

Length in line of shaft 1 

Number of blades 

Depth of immersion from top of blade to "i 

surface of water J 

Boss, in feet 

Weight of screw, in tons 

Speed of ship, in knots per bom- 

No. of revolutions of propeller, per minute.. 

Boilers. 

Pressure of steam in boiler, lbs. on the sq. in. 

Description 

Length, in feet 

Breadth, in feet 

Height, in feet 

Steam-room, in cub'c feet 

Water-room, in cubic feet 

Number of I'urnaecs 

Grate surface, in square feet 

Total heating surface, in square feet 

Number of boilers 

Weight of boilers, total, in tons 

Weight of water in boilers, .in tons 



20 

3 
2 

5-46 

375X1-83 
6-6 

4-5 



17 
Tubular. 

15-5 

11-33 

ii-oS 

1996 

2170 
ao 

337-5 
9449-5 
4 

123 



Colossus. 



194-33 
56-42 
12-32 

911 

3785 



Hor 



trunk. 
2 
58-25 
3-25 
53 
344-5 
400 

1020 
70 



17-12 
18-46 

2-89 

2 

5-22 

3-16x2 

695 
6 



20 
Tubular. 
12-oS 
11-75 
11-67 

128S 

1680 
12 

753 
6644 

'4 
90 



Chesapeake. 



207 

5° 
21-93 

758 

3402 



Horizontal. 

2 

64 

3 



400 

897 

93 



17 
22-5 

3 
2 

2-79 

3X1-75 
6-55 

7-2 



Tubular. 
13-08 
11-5 
11-5 

1568 

2100 

16 

277 

73S7 
. 4 

112 



ON STEAM-SHIP PERFORMANCE, 
which the particulars of Boilers are given. 



105 



9 knots. 




Group 3. 9 to 11 1 


mots. 




Bullfinch. 


E«nown. 
HaLf-boiler. 


Lee. 


Leyen. 


Algerine. 


Slaney. ■ 


io6 


24475 


125 


125 


125 


12; 


22 


SS-33 


23 


23 


23 


23 


6-75 


23-67 


8-08 


8-25 


8-12 


8-08 


132 


1050 


1505 


'54'5 


J5i'5 


150-5 


266 


5320 


367 


378 


370 


367 


H.p.doub.trunk 


H. doub. acting. 


Hor. H. Pr. 


Hor. H. P. 


Hor. H. P. 


Hor. H. P. 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


22-92 


89-5 & 36 


18 


18 


18 


18 


I 


4 


»-5 


i"S 


15 


i'5 


194. 


43-5 


»54 


156 


158 


'55 


388 
60 


342 
800 


462 
80 


468 
80 


474 
80 


465 
80 


241-48 
6-25 


1429 


303-6 


299-5 


2939 


2998 


163 


6-05 


6-05 


6-05 


6-05 


Griffiths. 
6 












19 


6-5 


6-5 


6-5 


6-5 


S"57 
i-o6 

2 


28 

35 

2 


7-67 


7-67 


7-67 


7-67 


2 


2 


2 


2 


o'o8 


1-83 


0-61 


1-20 


0-87 


1-04 


1-67XI7S 


3'5Xa 


1-16x75 


1-16x75 


i-i6xo-75 


1-16x0-75 


0-30 


10-75 


0-612 


0-612 


0-612 


0-612 


8-534 


9145 


9-270 


9-270 


9'3o 


9-350 


>9+ 


43-5 


154 


156 


158 


155 


1 

60 


20 


60 


60 


60 


60 


Cyl. tubular. 
13-67 


Com. tubular. 
13-67 


Cyl. tubular. 
16-25 


Cyl. tubular. 
16-25 


Cyl. tubular. 
16-25 


Cyl. tubular. 
16-21; 


433 


11-25 

13 

3562 


4-67 


4-67 


4-67 


467 


127 


131 


131 


131 


131 

446 


360-5 


3780 


446 


446 


446 


3 


24 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3375 
1096-25 

3 
»3-5 


544 
14854 
6 
179-8 


33 
1517 

3 
14-25 


33 
1517 

3 
14-25 


33 
1517 

3 
14-25 


33 
1517 

3 

14-25 


10-3 


108 


12-75 


12-75 


1275 


12-75 



1867. 



106 



REPORT — 1867. 



TABLE VIII. 



Length, in feet 

Breadth, in feet 

Mean draft of water, in feet 

Ai-ea of immersed section, in square feet 
Displacement, in tons 



Engines. 



Description • • • • 

Number of cylinders 

Diameter of cylinders, in inches.... 

Length of stroke, in feet 

Nionber of revolutions per minute. 
Speed of piston, in feet per minute. 

Nominal horse-power 

Lidicated horse-power 

Total weight of engines, in tons .... 



Gkoup 4. 1 1 to 



Marlborough. 



Flyingfish. 



PrOPELIiER. 



Description : • ■ 

Diameter ; 

Pitch 

Length in line of shaft...- '•■■ 

Number of blades 

Depth of immersion from top of blade to 

surface of water 

Boss, in feet 

Weight of screw, in tons 

Speed of ship, in knots per hour 

No. of revolutions of propeller per minute. . 

Boilers. 

Pressure of steam in boiler, Ib.s. on the sq. in 

Description ■ 

Length, in feet 

Breadth, in feet 

Height, in feet ..•-• 

Steam-room, in cubic feet 

Water-room, in cubic feet 

Number of furnaces 

Grate sm'face, in square feet 

Total heating surface, in square feet 

Number of boilers 

Weight of boilers, total, in tons 

Weight of water in boilers, in tons 



245'S 

6l'20 

26-24 
II69 

6035 



Horizontal. 

2 

82 

4 
54-66 

437'33 
800 
3oS4'26 
160 



Maudsley. 

19 

27-25 
3'6i 
2 

475 

3-83X2 
12 

II'2I7 

54-66 



20 

Com. tubular. 
13-92 
11-75 

i3'33 
2700-8 
3920 

24 

544 
15166-8 
6 
211-8 



200 

3o'33 
11-42 
226 
1033 



Horizontal. 

2 

58-5 
2-25 

79 
3S5"4 

350 
1049-68 

49 



Common. 
13-16 
19-96 

3-01 

2 

0-08 

3X1-5 
3-85 
11-536 

79 



19-5 

High & low tub- 
10-25 
10 
II 
1528 
1365 
18 
247 
7005 
6 
76-6 
39 



Renown. 



244-75 

S5'33 
23-67 

1050 

5320 



H. doub. acting. 

2 
89-5 & 36 

4 

54- S 
436 
800 
2754-64 
163 



19 
28 

3'S 

2 

1-83 

3-5X2 

10-75 
11-43 
54'S 



20 
Com. tubular. 
13-67 
11-25 

13 

3562 

3780 
24 

544 

14854 

6 

179-8 

108 



ON STEAM-SHiP PERFORMANCE. 



107 





(continued.) 








13 knots. 


Geoup 5. I 


3 to 15 knots. 




Diadem. 


Doris. 


Orlando. 


Mersey. 




240 


240 


300 


300 




48 


48 


52 


52 




20-67 


20-49 


21-79 


21-57 




768 


732 


876 


865 




3918 


3716 


5456 


5308 




Horizontal. 


H. doub. acting. 


H. doub. acting. 


H. doub. acting. 




2 


2 


2 


2 




82 


89-5 & 36 


100 & 38 


92 




4 


4 


4 


4 




55-25 


53-71 


53 


55-25 




442 


429-68 


424 


442 




800 


800 


1000 


1000 




2685-04 


3009-03 


3992 


4044 




160 


162 


194 


200 




Griffiths. 
18 


Griffiths. 
2o-o8 








20 


20 




13-08 


30 

4-20 


29-75 
4-5 


29-42 

4-25 









2 


2 


2 


2 




1-35 


0-29 





0-16 




375X5 


3-67X5-00 


3-83X2-25 
12 






10-20 


11-38 


13 




11-899 


12-158 


13-16 


13-290 




55-25 


5371 


53 


55-25 




18-5 


20-6 


19-67 


20 




Com. tubular. 


Com. tubular. 


Com. tubular. 


Com. tubular. 




13-S3 


1375 


14-42 


14-57 




11-61 


11-25 


12-25 


11-5 




12-57 


11-75 


n-83 


i2-o8 




2454-4 


2263 


3316 


3666 




3920 


4620 


5740 


4760 




24 


24 


32 


32 




544 


544 


688 


720 




15166-8 


14749 


J 943 1 


18881 




6 


6 


8 


8 




192-25 


172 


228 


263-7 




112 


132 


164 


136 



i2 



108 REPORT — 1867. 

On the Meteorology of Port Louis in the Island of Mauritius. 
By Charles Meldrum, M.A. 

[A communication ordered to be printed in extenso.'\ 

MATJEiTiirs Kes nearly between the parallels of 20° and 21° S. latitude and 
the meridians of 57° and 58° E. longitude. With the exception of the small 
islands of Reunion, Eodrigues, and the Cargados, which are from 100 to 300 
miles distant, the nearest land is Madagascar, about 500 miles due west. 
The nearest point of Africa is about 1100 miles W. b. N., and of India about 
2000 mUes N.E. b. N. Towards the E.N.E., E., and E.S.E., are the Indian 
archipelago and Australia, at distances of 2600 to 3400 miles ; while to the 
southward an almost unbroken ocean stretches away to the polar seas. 

Thus surrounded by a great expanse of ocean, especially to windward, 
Mauritius may be regarded as a locality in which the meteorological elements 
may be determined in a form comparatively free from the complications 
caused by neighbouring masses of land. 

The island itself, -which is of volcanic origin, has an area of 700 square 
miles, and is of an oval form. Its greatest length is 39 miles, and its 
greatest breadth 34 miles. Nearly one-third of it is under the cultivation 
of the sugar-cane, the other two-thirds consisting chiefly of pastiu-age, 
forest, and mountaia. In the interior, and more or less surrounded by three 
chains of mountains, varying from 1000 to nearly 3000 feet in height, and 
sending off spurs towards the coast, is a tableland, -which attains an eleva- 
tion of 800 to 1400 feet, and a considerable portion of which has of late 
years been planted with the sugar-cane, the primeval forests having, to a 
great extent, been cut down for the purpose. Between tlicse mountain- 
chains and the shore, particularly in the northern parts of the island, are 
plains generally covered -with sugar-cane, and gently sloping to the sea, 
above which they are but little elevated. For beauty and variety of scenery, 
for bold mountains, generally clothed halfway up their steep sides with ever- 
green trees and shrubs, and rearing their naked heads against skies of the 
softest blue, for rugged precipices, fantastic knolls, peaks, and ridges, for 
tangled forests, deep ravines and caverns, picturesque waterfalls, shady groves, 
and rich fertUe plains and valleys, this little island is perhaps unsurpassed. 

The Observatory is situated on the west side of the harbour of Port Louis, 
on the north-west coast of the island, in 20° 9' 5G" S., and 57° 29' 30" E. 
It stands upon a coral-rock. Erom "NY.S.W. to E.N.E., through the east, it 
is suiTOunded by a chain of mountains rising to the height of 700 to 2707 
feet. As these mountains bear in the direction from -which the prevailing 
-wind blows, and are only from a quarter of a mile to a mile and a half dis- 
tant, the position of the Observatory is not very favourable. 

The observations which form the basis of this communication embrace a 
period of seven years, namely 1860 to 1866 inclusive. 

There are two classes of observations, — 1st, observations taken daily at 
3| A.M., 9| A.M., 3| P.M., and 9| p.m. ; and, 2nd, observations taken hourly 
on the 21st of each month. 

The former are referred to as the six-hourly observations, and the latter as 
the term-day observations. 

As the principal use of the term-day observations is for determining the 
epochs of the turning-points and the range of the meteorological elements 
in their diurnal march, they are not, like the six -hourly observations, dis- 



ON THE METEOROLOGY OF PORT LOUIS. 109 

cussed for the whole period, Liit for such portions of it as have been deemed 
sufficient for the object in view. 

The instruments are by Newman, J^egretti and Zambra, and Casella, and 
have been compared with the Greenwich and Kew standards. The barometer, 
the tube of which has an interior diameter of -564 inch, is, with the thermo- 
meters, 30 feet above the sea-level. The rain-gauge and solar thermometers 
are 40 feet above the ground, and the vane of Osier's anemometer 10 feet 
above the highest point of the building. 

From 1852 to 1859 a sinular series of observations was taken by the 
Koyal Engineers, in a tower about 400 yards west of the Observatory ; so 
that the two series embrace a period of 14 years. I confine myself to the 
second series (1860-66), taken under my own direction. The results are 
given in 42 Tables, to which I beg to prefix a few remarks, intended to 
direct attention to some of the more salient features. I begin with the 
temperature. 

I. Tempekatuee. 

Diiinwl Variation. — The last line but one in Table I. exhibits the mean 
temperature of the air at 3i a.m., 9^ a.m.. 3| p.m., and 9| p.m. The means 
for these hours are 75°-50, 77°-59,' 78°-99, and 76°-36, respectively, which 
gives a mean daUy temperature of 77°- 11. The last line shows the excess 
or defect of the mean for each observation hour on the mean (77°-ll) of 
the 10,220 observations taken during the whole period of seven years. 

As the intervals between the observation hours are considerable, it is neces- 
sary, in order to obtain more complete information regarding the diurnal 
march of the temjierature, to have recourse to the hourly observations taken 
on the term-days. The results of these, for a period of four years, are pre- 
sented in Table II., in which the last column but one gives the mean tem- 
perature for each hour, commencing with 6 a.m. We perceive that there is 
a single progression, having one ascending and one descending branch, the 
temperature gradually increasing from 75°-55 at 6 a.m. to 79°-43 at 1 p.m., 
and then decreasing till 6 a.m. This progression, it need scarcely be 
remarked, is dependent on the earth's rotation on its axis with regard to the 
sun. In the last column is presented the amount by which the mean for 
each hour falls short of (— ), or exceeds (-|-), the mean for the 24 hours 
(77°-14). We see that there are nine hours, namely, 10 a.m. to 6 p.m. 
inclusive, during which the temperature is above the mean for the day, and 
fifteen hom's during which it is below the mean. The range is 3°-88, The 
greatest increase in any two hours takes place between 9 and 11 a.m., and 
amounts to 1°-81, and the greatest faU in any two hours from 3 to 5 p.m., 
and amounts to 1°. The mean temperature for the day occurs very nearly 
at 9 A.M. and 7 p.m. 

On inspecting the other columns, which give the diurnal variation for 
each month, it may be seen that, though the minimum generally occurs at 
6 A.M., and the maximum at 1 p.m., the epochs of the turning-points vary a 
little with the season. 

Comparing Tables I. and II., we find that the mean daUy temperature is 
almost identical in both, being 77°-ll in the one, and 77°-14 in the other, 
notwithstanding the fewness of the observations in the latter case. 

Greatest Diurnal Range. — Table III. shows the greatest range of tem- 
perature, on any one day, in each month, obtained fi'om daily observations of 
the maximum and minimum thermometers for five years (1862-1866). It 
\\i)l be seen that the greatest range on any one day during that period was 



110 REPORT— 1867. 

13°, in ITarcli 1866, and tlie least of the extreme diurnal ranges G"^-i, in 
October and jSTovember 1862, and that the greatest variations of temperature 
take place diu'ing the summer months, namely, from November to May. 

Least Diurnal Range. — The least range of temperatiu-e, on any one day, 
during the same five years, was l°-4 in June 1866, and the greatest of the 
least diurnal ranges 6° in January 1865, as appears from Table lY., "which 
likewise sho'ws that the summer months are subject to greater fluctuations 
of temperatiu'e than the svinter months. 

Mean Diurnal Range. — Table V., in which the mean diurnal range for 
each month is given, shows that the mean diurnal range for the year is 
6°-69, and that the greatest fluctuations occiu- in the summer months. 

Annual Variation. — The annual march of the temperature, derived from 
the daily six-hourly observations for seven j-ears, is exhibited in the last 
column but one of Table YI. Like the diurnal march it is a simple progres- 
sion, having one ascending and one descending branch. The least mean 
monthly temperature is 71°'95 for July, and the greatest 81°-72 for Januaiy. 
From July to January the temperature increases, and from January to July 
it decreases. This progression, as is well known, depends on the motion of 
the earth in its orbit. The epochs of highest and lowest temperature, how- 
ever, do not coincide with those of the sun's highest and lowest meridional 
altitudes, but occur at later periods, the maximum temperature about the 
4th of February, and the minimum about the 7th of August. The last 
column shows the amount of variation, or the excess and defect of the mean 
temperature (77°"11) on the monthly means. During the six summer 
months the temperatiu'e is above, and dui-ing the si^c winter months below, 
the mean temperature, the epochs of which are the 7th of Maj- and the 5th 
of November. 

For the sake of comparison, I have given in Table YII. the mean monthly 
temperature obtained by taking the mean of the daily readings of the maxi- 
mum and minimum thermometers. The mean annual temperature thus 
derived is 77°-80, or 0-69 higher than that given by the six-hourly obser- 
vations. 

Temperature in the Sun's Rags. — Table YIII. shows the mean monthly 
maximum temperature in the sun's rays, obtained by daily observation of a 
black bulb thermometer inclosed in an exhausted tube, exposed at an eleva- 
tion of 40 feet above the ground, and protected, as far as jiossible, from local 
radiation. The results, which, as measures of solar radiation, are, of course, 
subject to the usual objections, present a progression similar to that of the 
temperature in the shade, the greatest mean monthly maximum being 117°"6 
for January, and the least 101°-2 for July, — the progression being harmo- 
nious, except that the temperature in February is somewhat lower than in 
March, o-wing probably to the former month being cloudier than the latter. 

E.vtreme Monthly Eange. — Table IX. shows the maximum and minimum 
temperature and the extreme range of temperature for each month, and 
their monthly and yearly means. The greatest range in any one month was 
18° in November 1864, and the least 6°-4 in October 1862. The greatest 
fluctuations occur in the warmest months. 

Secular Variation. — The last line in Table YI. shows that the tempera- 
ture has varied little, it being for foru* years out of the seven almost the same, 
and the greatest difference between any two years being only 0°-95. 

A similar remark applies to the numbers in the last line in Table YII., 
showing the mean annual temperature as deiived from the self-registering 
thermometers. 



ON THE METEOROLOGY OF PORT LOUIS. Ill 

The last line in Table VIII. shows that the temperature in the sun's rays 
was cousiderably greater in 1860 than in any other year, and that, upon the 
whole, it decreased till 1864, and has been increasiag since that year. 

Extreme Annual Range. — The extreme annual range of temperature for 
each year is given in Table X., containing the highest and lowest readings 
of the self-registering thermometers, and the epochs of occui-rence. The 
mean annual range is 22°- 52. 

II. Elastic Poece op Vapour. 

The pressure of the atmosphere, as measiu-ed by the barometer, is the 
combined pressures of the dry air and the aqueous vapour suspended in it ; 
and many are of opinion that, by means of simvdtaneous observations of the 
barometer and dry and wet thermometers, the two pressures may be sepa- 
rated and exhibited apart. 

Diurnal Variation. — The last line but one in Table XI. gives the diurnal 
march of the vapour-pressiu-e in inches of mercury, as deduced by Glaisher's 
Tables from the six-hourly observations of the dry and wet thermometers. 
"We perceive that the pressure is greatest (-6.58) at the warmest observation 
hour (3| P.M.), and least (-646) at the coldest hour (3| a.m.), which is what 
would be expected, since the' capacity of air for vap'our is directly as the 
temperature. The last line shows the amount of variation, which is shght. 

The last two columns in Table XII. exhibit the mean vapour-pressure for 
each hour of the day, and its deviation from the daily mean, obtained from 
the houi-ly term-day observations for four years (1863-66). Here we have 
complete evidence of a direct harmony between the diurnal march of the 
vapour-pressure and that of the temperature, the hours of the greatest vapour- 
pressure coinciding with those of the greatest temperature, and vice versa. We 
see that the march of the vapour-pressure, though a little irregular, is like the 
march of the temperature, a single progression, havmg two brauches, the one, 
upon the whole, ascending from 4 a.m., when the pressui-e is least (-621), to 
1 P.M., when it is greatest (-646), and the other descending from 2 p.m. to 
4 A.M. Between 6 and 8 a.m., as the heat increases, the pressure takes a start 
upwards, and from 8 a.m. to 3 p.m. it is nearly stationary. From 3 to 4 p.m., 
as the heat declines, the vapour-pressru-e also declines, and again continues 
nearly uniform till 2 a.m., between Avhich hour and 4 a.m. it falls once more. 
From 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. it is above the mean for the day, and from 5 p.m. to 
8 A.M. below it, attaining its mean value about 7 a.m. and 5 p.m. 

Anniwl Variation. — The last two cohunns in Table XIII. give the annual 
march of the vapour-pressure, and the amount of its deviation from the 
annual mean, derived from the six-hourly observations. Here also we have, 
upon th^ whole, a single progression. The vapour-pressure attains its maxi- 
mum (-767) in February, and its minimum (-550) in July. From February to 
July it decreases, and from July to February it increases, except in September, 
when it is less than in August,— August, as m'c shall presently see, being a 
month in which not only the vapom'-pressure, but also the humidity, rain- 
fall, and cloud are greater than in the months immediately preceding and 
following it, these elements showing a tendency to a small second maximum. 
During the six summer months the vapour-pressure exceeds the mean for 
the year (-652), and during the six winter months it falls short of it. There 
is thus a connexion between the annual variation of the vapour-pressure 
and that of the temperature of a kind similar to that between the diurnal 
variations of the same elements, the progressions being in the same dii-ec- 
tion, and the turning-points nearly coincident. 



112 REPORT— 1867. 

Extreme Monthly Bange. — From Table XIY., \rhich gives the maximum 
and minimum vapour -pressure and the range for each month, together with 
their monthly means, it •will be seen that the greatest range in any one 
month was -384 in March 1864, and the least -149 in May 1863 and Septem- 
ber 1864, and that January to May inclusive are the months subject to 
the greatest fluctuation. 

Secular Variation. — An examination of the last two lines in Table XIII. 
wUl show that, upon the whole, the vapour-pressure has been decreasing since 
1860. This becomes more evident when we take the means of the results 
for eveiy two consecutive years. The mean pressure for 1866 was "033 
below the mean for the seven years, and -061 below the mean for 1860. 
Looking at the columns which give the monthly means iu each year, we find 
that the greatest mean monthly pressure was '792 in February 1860, and 
the least -498 in July 1866. 

Extreme Annual Bange. — Table XV. gives the greatest and least vapour- 
pressure and the range for each year, with the dates. The mean annual 
range is -494 inch. 

in. Humidity. 

The degree of humidity is the ratio of the amount of vapour contained iu 
the air to the amount it would contain if saturated with vapour. Hence, if 
complete saturation be denoted by 100, and complete dryness by 0, the 
degree of humidity at any temperature will be obtained by multiplying the 
actual tension of vapour at that temperature by 100, and dividing the 
product by the tension required for complete saturation at the same tem- 
perature. 

Diurnal Variation. — Table XYI. gives the diurnal variation of the rela- 
tive humidity, so far as it can be directly determined by six-hourly observa- 
tions. An inspection of the last line but one will show that the humidity is 
least (67"3) at the warmest observation hour (3| p.m.), and greatest (73-7) 
at the coldest observation hour (3| a.m.), and that at the other hours it has 
intermediate values. The mean relative humidity is 70-9, or, complete satu- 
ration being 100, nearly 71 hundredths. 

Table XYIII., in which the hourly means of the relative humidity, and 
thcii' deviation from the daily mean, are given, as obtained from four years' 
term-day observations, shows that the diurnal march, like that of the tem- 
perature and vapour-pressure, is a single progression, with two branches 
and two turning- jjoints. In this case, however, the march is in a contrary 
direction, the greatest humidity occurring at the coldest hours of the day, 
and the least at the warmest. Thus, the least humirhty (63-6) occurs at 
1 P.M., from which hour till 2 a.m. it increases to 69-9. It then remains 
nearly stationary till 8 a.m., showing, however, a tendency to a second 
minimum at 4 a.m. From 8 a.m. to 1 p.m. it decreases. From 9 a.m. to 
7 P.M. it is below the mean for the day, and during the other hours above 
it, attaining its mean daily value about 9 a.m. and 7 p.m. 

Annual Vanation. — The annual march of the relative humidity, and its 
variation, are shown in the last two columns of Table XYIII. Here we see 
that February is the most humid month, and November the driest, the 
mean for the former being 74-7, and for the latter 68-1. From Februaiy 
to June the humidity decreases ; from June to August it increases ; from 
Aug-ust to November it decreases again, and from November to February 
increases. There are thus two maxima and two minima, the February 



ON THE METEOROLOGY OF PORT LOUIS. 113 

maximum, however, being considerably greater than the August maximum, 
and the November minimum considerably less than the June minimum. 

We have seen that the diurnal march of the humidity corresponds with 
that of the temperature in an inverse sense, the coldest hours being the 
moistest, and the warmest hours the driest. Such is not the case with the 
annual march, for the most humid months are the warmest. This seems to 
arise from the greater length of time that the high temperature prevails in 
the one case than in the other. Prom August (which is nearly the coldest 
month) to November, the humidity goes on decreasing with an increasing 
temperature, the relation between the two elements in their annual march 
being here analogous to that between them in their diurnal march ; but it 
would appear that by December the vapour has accumulated so much that, 
notwithstanding the increasing temperature, the humidity, instead of de- 
creasing further, begins to increase, and it goes on increasing till February, 
Owing to the excess of accumulated vapour, time is now required to restore 
the two elements to their normal relation ; and although the temperature 
decreases, the humidity does not increase but decreases, the evaporation from 
the surrounding ocean becoming less active ; and it is not till June that the 
humidity begins to increase with a decreasing temperature. In August the 
temperature commences to rise, and then the humidity decreases with the 
increasing temperature till November or December, when the overpowering 
effect of evaporation again causes the humidity to increase with the tem- 
perature. 

Extreme Monthly Range. — Table XIX. gives the highest and lowest 
humidity and the extreme range for each month. The greatest range for 
any one month was 38-7 in January 1860, and the least 17"5 in November 
1866. January, February, March, and August are the months in which 
the greatest fluctuations occur. 

Secular Variation. — The last two lines in Table XYIII. show that 1860 
was the most humid year (73-6), and 1866 the driest (66"4) ; and that, upon 
the whole, the humidity, Hke the vapour-pressure, has been decreasing since 
1860. The most humid month during the seven years was August 1860 
(77-8), and the driest November 1866 (57-0), when a severe drought pre- 
vailed. 

Extreme Annual Range.— Tah\e XX. shows the maximum and minimum 
relative humidity, the epochs, and range for each year. The mean annual 
range is 41-5. 

IV. Atmospheric Pressure. 

Diurnal Variation. — Table XXI. exhibits the mean pressure of the atmo- 
sphere for each of the hours 3| a.m., 9^ a.m., 3| p.m., and 9| p.m. ; and 
whether we regard the monthly results, or the yearly results, for those 
hours, we find two maxima and two minima, the maxima occurring at 9| 
A.M. and p.m., and the minima at 3| a.m. and p.m. From the last hue but 
one it appears that from 3| a.m. to 9^ a.m. the barometer rises from 30-038 
to 30-086 inches, which gives a range of -048 inch; from 9^ a.m. to 3| p.m. 
it falls from 30-086 to 30-015, that is, to the extent of -071 ; from 3^ p.m. 
to 9| P.M. it rises from 30-015 to 30-085, or to the extent of -070 ; and 
from 9^ P.M. to 3i a.m. it falls to the extent of -047. 

But in order to know with certainty whether the march is a double progres- 
sion, and, if so, what are the epochs of the turning-points, we must examine 
the term-day observations. The results of these for four years are pre- 
sented in Table XXII. The last two columns exhibit the mean atmospheric 



114 RE PORT 1 867. 

pressure for each hour of the day, and its deviation from the mean of all 
the observations. Beginning with 9 a.m., we find that for that hour the 
mean height of the barometer is 30-090 inches. It then gradually falls to 
30-017 at 3 P.M., from which hour it ascends till 10 p.m., when it stands at 
30-086. It again gradually falls to 30-037 at 4 a.m., from which hour it 
again rises till 9 a.m. We thus see that the diurnal march of the atmo- 
spheric pressure is a double progression with four turning-points, namely, 
two maxima at 9 a.m. and 10 p.m., and two minima at 4 a.m. and 3 p.m. 

This diurnal oscillation of the atmospheric pressure at Mauritius, as at 
other tropical stations, is extremely systematic and regidar. Its amount, 
and the epochs of its turning-points, vary a little according to the time of 
year, as may be seen from the Table ; but, except on very rare occasions, as 
on the 13th of January 1863, when the centre of a revolving storm was pas- 
sing near the Observatory, it makes its appearance unerringly in aU kinds of 
weather. Several theories have been framed with the view of explaining it, 
but none of them has met with entire acceptance. 

Annual Variation. — In the last two columns of Table XXIII. we have 
the annual march of the atmospheric pressure, and the monthly deviation 
from the mean for the year. We perceive that the mean pressure for 
February is 29-843 inches, that from February to August it gradually in- 
creases to 30-193, and then gradually decreases till February, and that thus 
the progression is single, having one maximum and one minimum. The 
annual march of this element, therefore, is in a contrary direction to that of 
the temperature, the maximum of the one corresponding nearly, but not 
exactly, with the minimum of the other, and vice versa, the turning-points 
of the atmospheric pressure occurring later than those of the temperature. 
From December to April inclusive, the barometer is below its mean for the 
year (30-056), and during the other months above it, the epochs of the mean 
being about the 11th of May and the 9th of November. 

Extreme Monthly Range. — Table XXIV. gives the maximum and minimum 
pressure and the range for each month, with their means. The greatest range 
in any one month was 0-977 inch in February 1861, and the least "170 inch 
in December 1860. December, January, February, March, and June are the 
months in which the greatest fluctuations occur. 

Comparing the mean monthly oscillation of the atmospheric pressure given 
in this Table M'ith that of the vapour-pressure in Table XIV., we find that, 
if the oscillations of the vapour-pressure aff'ect the barometer to their full 
extent, the barometric oscillations depend more upon those of the vapour- 
pressure than of the diy pressure. 

Secular Variation.^On looking over the last line in Table XXIII., show- 
ing the annual means, we find that since 1861 the atmospheric pressure has 
been increasing. The lowest annual mean is 30-032 for that year, and the 
highest 30-081 for 1864 and 1866, which gives a range of -049 inch, an 
amount no doubt mainly due to the disturbing effect of hurricanes. Owing 
to the great prevalence of hurricane weather in February 1861, for ex- 
ample, the mean for that month (29-665) is less than it would otherwise 
have been, and consequently that for the year. 

Extreme Annual Range. — Table XXV. gives the greatest and least pres- 
sure, the epochs, and range for each year. The mean annual range is 0-918 
inch, while that of the vapour-pressure (Table XV.) is 0-494 inch. 

V. Pressure of the Dry Air. 
The phenomenon of the double maximum and minimum, exhibited by the 



ON THE METEOROLOGY OF PORT LOUIS. 115 

diurnal march of the total atmospheric pressure, has received from M. Dove, 
and, after him, from General Sabine, Sir John Herschel, and others, an ex- 
planation founded on the supposed effect of one of the constituents of the total 
pressure, namely, the aqueous pressure. Assuming that observations of the 
•wet and diy thermometers enable us to detennine the whole pressure of the 
vapour in ^the atmosphere, and finding in many instances that ■when the 
vapour-pressure thus obtained is deducted from the total pressure, the march 
of the residual dry pressure presents a single progression, having one maxi- 
mum and one minimum, corresponding with the coldest and hottest hours, 
it has been inferred that the double maximum and minimum of the total 
pressure is owing to the march of the vapour-pressure being contrary to 
that of the gaseous pressure, au increase of temperatiure causing an increase 
of vajjour-pressurc, but a decrease of dry pressure, and vice versa. 

Let us see whether this view will afford an explanation of the double 
maximum and minimum of the total pressure at Mauritius. 

Diurnal Variation. — In Table XXXVIII. will be found the total atmo- 
spheric pressure, the vapour-pressure, and the dry pressure for each hour, 
derived from the term-day observations ; and it will be seen that the diy 
pressure does not present a single progression, but, like the total pressure, a 
weU-marked double progression, having two maxima at 9 a.si. and 10 p.m., 
and two minima at 3 p.m. and 3 a.m. 

The hourly observations from which these results have been deduced were 
not numerous, but there is little doubt that more extensive observation 
would have led to the same conclusion ; for the six-hoirrly observations, 
extending over a period of seven years, also give a double maximum and 
minimi;m for the dry pressure, as wiU appear from an inspection of Table 
XXXYII., which shows that the dry pressure has a maximum at 9| a.m. 
and P.M., and a minimum at 3| a.m. and p.m., just like the total pressure. 

We are thus led to conclude that, if the observations of the dry and wet 
thermometers afford the means of determining the vapour-pressure, the 
gaseous pressure at Mauritius has a progression in every respect similar to 
that of the total atmospheric pressure, and therefore that the phenomenon 
in question cannot be accoimted for by the dii-ect action of the vapour- 
pressure. 

- A similar progi-ession of the dry pressure at Bombay has been referred to 
the relations which arise from the juxtaposition of land and sea, causing 
land and sea bi'eezes. At Mauritius, surrounded on all sides by the Indian 
Ocean, the double progression of the dry pressure occurs in aU kinds of 
weather, and from whatever quarter the wind may come, and is most marked 
on those days when the trade-wind blows steadily; and hence it is presu- 
mable that it occurs at sea, away from the influence of land. 

Annual Variation. — At many extratrojncal stations, the annual variation 
of the total pressure shows little trace of periodicity, but when the vapour- 
pressure is deducted, the dry pressure is found to have a progression in 
inverse harmony with that of the temperature. On examining Table 
XXXIX., it will be seen that at Mauritius the annual march of the dry 
pressiire is exactly like that of the total pressure, and that both have appa- 
rently the same relation to the temperature. 

VI. DlEECTION AKD VeERING OF THE WiND. 

Table XXVI. shows the number of times the wind blew from the principal 
points of the compass. The observations were taken fom- times a day during 



116 REPORT— 1867. 

five years, and their number therefore was 7300, of which 1076 were for 
calms, and 98 for variables, leaving 6126 for the direction of the wind. The 
distribution of this latter number for the foiu- quarters of the horizon was as 
follows : from north to east (not including east) 683, from east to south (not 
including south) 47-40, from south to west (not including west) 158, and 
from west to north (not includiag north) 515, — showing that the number of 
times the wind came from the points between east and south was nearly four 
times as great as the number of times it came from the remaining thi-ee 
quarters together. From east to S.E. inclusive, the number of observations 
was 4286, which is more than two-thirds of the total number of observations. 
This shows the great preponderance of the trade-wind, which prevails 
throughout the whole year, but is strongest and steadiest from May to No- 
vember, and more especially in June, July, and August. 

The wind veers almost always with the sun, or from S.E. through east to 
north, IST.W., &c., decreasing in force as it veers. It often remains steady at 
E.S.E. for a week or ten days. After it passes N.E., calms and variables 
with light north-westerly and westerly breezes, and close sultry weather pre- 
vail for two or three days. The trade-wind then reappears at S.S.E. A similar 
revolution sometimes takes place in the course of a day. The wind seldom 
veers in the opposite direction ; but it always does so during the passage of a 
revolving storm on the east side of the island. 

VII. EORCE OF THE WlND. 

Diurnal Variation. — As Osier's anemometer is not affected by light breezes, 
the force of the wind at the observation hours has usually been estimated. 
Table XXVII. gives the mean estimated force derived from the six-hourly 
observations. The results are but approximations; for, independently of 
other sources of error, the site of the Observatory is not favourable for de- 
termining the true force and direction of the wind, even with the most ap- 
proved instruments. StiLL, the observations indicate that the force varies 
directly as the temperature, the greatest pressure occurring at the waiTuest 
hours. 

The last column in Table XXXVIII. gives the mean estimated force for 
each hour derived from the term-day observations. Here Ukevnse, notwith- 
standing the fewness of the observations, we see a general agreement between 
the variations of the force of the wind and the temperature. 

Annual Variation. — Table XXVIII. gives the mean estimated force. Ja- 
nuary, February, and March are the months in which the wind is strongest 
at the observation hours, and next to them June, Jul}', and August. In the 
former months huj-ricancs occur, and in the latter the S.E. trade-wind blows 
in full force. From February to May the -wind decreases ; in June, July, and 
August it is high ; from August to November it decreases, and from Novem- 
ber to February it increases. There is thus an indication of a double pro- 
gression. 

Mean Monthly Maximum Force. — Table XXIX. shows the mean maximum 
force of the wind for each month, as recorded by Osier's anemometer, with- 
out regard to the hour of the day. We find that, notwithstanding the severe 
hurricanes which occasionally occur in the summer months, the mean maxi- 
mum force of the wind is greater for June, July, and August than for any 
other three months. We perceive also that this Table, like the former, points 
to a double maximum and minimum. From November to February the wind 
increases with an tacreasiag temperature, and from February to April it de- 



ON THE METEOROLOGY OF PORT LOUIS. 117 

creases with a decreasing temperature. But from April to June it again in- 
creases with a decreasing temperature, and stands high in the latter month, 
and in July and August, owiog probably to the high temperature in the 
northern hemisphere causing an influx of air (S.W. monsoon) towards the 
heated regions, and thus exciting the S.E. trade-wind in the southern hemi- 
sphere. From August to November the mean maximum force decreases. 

Secular Variation. — The last Unes in Tables XXVIII. and XXIX. show 
that 1860, 1861, and 1863 were the years in which the force of the wind 
was greatest, and we shall presently see that these were the years in which 
hurricanes were most frequent and violent. The years 1862 and 1864 were 
remarkable for an absence of hurricanes, and these were the years in which 
the mean force of the wind was least. 

Extreme Annual Force. — Table XXX. shows the greatest force of the wind, 
and the epoch, for each year. 

VIII. Cloud. 

Tables XXXI. and XXXII. exhibit the mean amount of cloud for each of 
the four daily observation hours, each month and each year. The nights 
and mornings are comparatively cloudless. Towards 10 a.m. the clouds be- 
gin to gather, by 2 p.m. the sky is often overcast, and in the evening the 
weather usually clears up. The mean amount of cloud for the year is 
47, 100 denoting completely overcast. February is the cloudiest and June 
the least cloudy month, the means being 59 and 40 respectively. The last 
column in Table XXXII. points to a connexion between the amount of cloud 
and the temperature. From Jfovember to February the amount of cloud in- 
creases, and fi'om February to June it decreases. From June to November, 
however, there is a tendency to a second progression. 

IX. Eainpail. 

Table XXXIII. gives the amount of rainfall for each month and year. 
The greatest fall ia any one month during the seven years was 46'57 inches in 
February 1861. In September 1861 and November 1866 thei'e was no 
ramfaU sufficient to affect the gauge. The greatest mean monthly fall is 
14-23 inches for February, and the least 0-39 inch for September. From 
September to February the rainfall increases ; from February to June it de- 
creases; from June to August it increases again, and then falls in September, — 
showing, upon the whole, a double progi'ession, having its maxima in Febru- 
ary and August, and its minima in June and September. The mean annual 
fall is 37'87 inches, and the mean monthly fall 3-16 inches. The greatest fall 
in any one year was 68-76 inches in 1861, and the least 20-56 inches in 1866. 
The principal rain-bearing wind is the trade-wind from E.S.E. to E.N.E. ; 
but at times, during the summer months, torrents of rain descend with north- 
erly and north-westerly winds, and on those occasions the mountains become 
enveloped in dense mist. The greatest rainfall on any one day, in each year, 
with the date, is shown in Table XXXIV. 

There is reason to fear that the rainfall is decreasing : the fall during the 
first three years was considerably greater than that during the last four years 
of the period of seven years. 

In some parts of the island the rainfall is much greater than at Port Louis, 
as will be seen from Table XXXV., showing the rainfall at nineteen stations 
for periods ranging from two to five years. Of these stations, Gros Cailloux 
and Port Louis, both on the coast, and not many feet above the sea-level, are 



118 REPORT— 1867. 

the furthest west, and it is at them that the rainfall is least, the mean annual 
amount for five years being 28-03 inches at the former, and 30-24 inches at 
the latter station. Mont Choisy is also on the west coast near the northern 
extremity of the island, but further east than Gros Cailloux and Port Louis, 
and at it the mean annual fall for the same period was 51-54 inches. Some 
miles south-eastward of Mont Choisy, further from the coast, and at elevations 
of 200 to 600 feet, are four other stations, namely, Les Eochers, Labourdon- 
nais, the Botanical Gardens, and Lucia; and, with the exception of Les 
Rochers, where the mean annual fall was 50-10 inches, the rainfall at each 
of these stations was considerably greater than at Mont Choisy, having been 
63-62 inches at Laboiirdonnais, and 67-98 inches at Lucia; while at the 
Botanical Gardens, in 1864 and 1865, it was also greater than at Mont Choisy. 
It should here be remarked that Lucia, the station at which the greatest 
rainfall occurs in that part of the island, lies south-eastward of the other 
stations, and at a higher elevation. About fourteen miles due north of Lucia 
is a small island, called Flat Island, about five miles from the mainland. 
Observations on the rainfall were taken there in 1862 and 1863, and it wiU 
be seen that the amounts for those years were 28-02 and 36-54 inches, re- 
spectively, or nearly the same as at Port Louis. About seven miles S.S.W. 
of Lucia, and at the same distance E.S.E. of Port Louis, is Esperance, on the 
central tableland, at an elevation of about 1400 feet. Here, in 1865, the 
rainfall was 147-74 inches against 101-56 at Lucia, 44-73 at Port Louis, 
and 36-57 at Gros Cailloux. Westward and south-westward of Esperance, at 
distances of five to eleven miles, and at elevations of 900 to 1300 feet, are five 
stations more, namely, Croft-an-Eigh, Beau Sejour, Trianon, the Braes, and 
Mesnil, at each of which the rainfall, though more than double what it is at 
Port Louis, is considerably less than at Esperance. At a distance of about 
eight miles east of Esperance, and about four miles from the east coast, is 
La Gaite. Here the rainfall is also less than at Esperance, but greater than 
at the stations westward and south-westward of it (except Mesnil, the highest 
of them), although these are more elevated than La Gaite. But the rainiest 
station of all is Cluny, which lies about eleven miles south of Esperance, and 
sixteen miles S.E. of Port Louis, at a height of about 900 feet above the sea, 
and nearly surrounded by mountains and forests. At this station, in 1865, 
the rainfall was 192-45 inches, and the mean fall for five years was 142-80 
inches. Southward and south-eastward of Cluny, nearer the coast, and at 
lower elevations, are three more stations, namely, Gros Bois, Beau Vallon, and 
St. Aubin, at each of which the rainfall is also very considerable, having, in 
1865, been 135-21, 100-85, and 115-61 inches, respectively. 

These observations illustrate the influence of local circumstances, as eleva- 
tion, direction of wiud, mountain, and forest on the rainfall of a place. Thus, 
at La Gaite, near the east coast, the rainfall (in 1865) was 97-55 inches ; at 
Esperance, nearly due west, but at a much higher elevation, it was 147*74 
inches ; at Croft-au-Eigh, westward of Esperance, and at a lower level 
than it, but at a considerably higher level than La Gaite, the rainfall was 
79-44 inches ; and at Gros Cailloux, west of Croft-an-Eigh, on the west coast, 
it was only 36-57 inches, or not much more than one-third the rainfall at 
La Gaite on the east coast. These stations arc situated nearly in a line and 
in the dii'ection of the prevaihng wind ; and the greater fall at Espe'rance 
than at La Gaite is probably due to the higher elevation and lower tempera- 
ture of the former ; while the greater faU at La Gaite than at Croft-an-Eigh, 
though the latter stands at a higher level, seems to be due to the situation 
of La Gaite on that side of the island on which the vaporu" first impinges 



ON THE METEOROLOGY OF PORT LOUIS. 119 

as it comes up from the sea. Comparing tlie rainfall at Beau Vallon, Cluny, 
Beau Sejour, and Gros Cailloux, which lie nearly in a S.E. and N."W. direc- 
tion, we find similar relations. 

For some years past many parts of the island, particularly on the western 
and northern coasts, have been suffering from drought ; the rivers have been 
gradually diminishing, and the lakes and marshes in the interior been drying 
Up. As we have already seen, last year (1866) has been the driest of all, 
the rainfall ia some places having been little more than half the average fall. 
The consequence is that this year's crop wiU be very much reduced. 

The evil which is thus pressing on the colony is generally attributed to 
the extensive clearings which have been carried on in all directions during 
the last fifteen years. The primeval forests with which this little island was 
at one time clothed have to a great extent been replaced by the sugar-cane, 
and now the cauo languishes and dies for want of moisture. It would be 
satisfactory to those interested in the welfare of Mauritius to have the 
opinions of men of science as to the probable effect of the destruction of 
forests on the rainfall and humidity, and I am glad of having an opportunity 
of bringing the subject before the Association. Given a small mountainous 
island in the trade-wind region, covered with dense forests, and surrounded 
by a tropical sea : what eflfect, if any, with respect to rainfall and humidity, 
would be produced by stripping that island of its forests, and exposing 
soil and rocks to the sun's rays ? It seems to me that, whether the annual 
rainfall would diminish or not, the air would become drier, as the greater 
portion of the rains would be speedily carried away to the sea, and the re- 
maining portion speedily evaporated. This last year, however, shows a very 
marked decrease of rain, and if the previous six years do not so to the same 
extent, they show a tendency to a recurrence of floods and droughts — that 
is, to a disturbance in the distribution of the rainfall. The humidity of the 
air also has, as we have seen, been upon the whole decreasing at Port Louis 
since 1860. In that year it was 73-6, while in 1866 it was only 66-4. 

X. Thunder and Lightnikg. 

Table XXXVI. shows that in the course of the seven years no lightning was 
seen between May and November, except on one day in August 1864. Ja- 
nuary, March, February, and April are the months in which thunder-storms 
prevail ; they generally occur in the afternoon, but occasionally at other 
periods of the day, or iu the night. Some are local, and others travel over a 
considerable extent of ocean. The average number of days per annum on 
which lightning was visible is 26-4. The greatest number of days in any one 
year on which lightning was observed was 40 iu 1863, and the least 19 in 
1862. 

XI. Gales and Httreicanes. 

Mauritius, as is well known, is subject to hurricanes. The hurricane 
months are December to April inclusive, but more especially January, Feb- 
ruary, and March, particularly February. Strong gales occur also in June, 
July, and August. I will present a few of the leading facts connected with 
the gales and hurricanes which took jAace during the period under review. 

1860. — Four gales occurred in 1860. The first took place between the 
11th and 17th of January. The barometer fell to 29'6S0 inches. The vidnd 
veered from S.E. to S., S.W., and W., and attained a maximum pressure 
of 10 lbs. on the square foot. The rainfall was 7 inches. This was a 



120 REPORT— 1867. 

great revolving storm, the centre of wMeh passed on the east side of the 
island, at a nearest distance of 129 miles. 

Another gale took place between the 22ud and 27th of February. The ba- 
rometer fell to 29-660. On this occasion the wind veered from S.E. to E., 
N., and N.W., and had a maximum force of 9 lbs. The rainfall was 7-455 
inches. This was another revolving storm, which, as shown by the veering 
of the wind, passed the island on its north and west sides. The nearest 
distance of the centre was 220 miles. 

The nest gale occurred between the 18th and 27th of March. The lowest 
reading of the barometer was 29-464. The wind veered from S.E. to S., 
S.W., W., and N.W., and exerted a maximum force of 13 lbs. on the square 
foot. The rainfall was 4-075 inches. This was another revolving storm, 
which, Kke the fii'st, passed on the east and south sides of the island. The 
nearest distance of the centre was 170 miles. 

A fourth gale took jJace on the 21st of June, with the barometer standing 
at 30-252 to 30-314. The wind was from south to S.S.E., and blew with a 
maximum force of 18 lbs. There was no rain. This was not a revolving 
storm, but one of the -winter gales, in which the wind veers very little, and 
which are apparently the immediate effect of the trade-wind being put in 
violent motion by the same causes that produce the S.W. monsoon of the 
Bay of Bengal, which the S.E. trade-wind supplies with air. 

1861. — In Eebruaiy 1861 a hurricane occurred which lasted six days, 
namely, from the 11th to the 17th. It was a revolving one. For three 
days it remained nearly stationary, its centre bearing about 110 miles N.N.E. 
of the Observatory. The wind blew in fearful gusts, attended -with torrents 
of rain, from S.S.E. to E.S.E., for &\e days, and then veered to E., N.E., 
N.W., andW. The barometer fell to 29-009 on the mornrag of the 16th, 
the centre of the storm at that time bearing N.W. 50 miles, which was its 
nearest distance. In the night of the 13th, the vane of Osier's anemometer 
was blown away, the pressure being then about 30 lbs. ; the greatest pres- 
sure afterwards cannot have been less than 40 lbs. From 9| a.m. on the 
11th to 9| A.M. on the 17th, 44-730 inches of rain fell at the Observatory, 
and at Yacoas, 13 miles to the southward, at an elevation of 1200 feet, 99 
inches feU in the same time. The centre of the storm passed between 
Mauritius and the neighbouring island of Reunion. 

Another severe hurricane took place from the 7th to the 16th of February, 
in the space between 10° and 20° S. and 76° and 84° E. ; so that two hurri- 
canes raged at the same time. 

A third severe hm-ricanc, but of much shorter duration, took place on the 
2nd and 3rd of March. The wind veered from S.E. to S., S.W., and W., 
and blew with a maximum force of about 36 lbs. The barometer fell to 
29-282, the centre of the storm, which was a rotatory one, being then 140 
miles E.S.E. of the Observatory. This hurricane passed on the east side of 
the island. 

1862. — This was comparatively a tranquil year at Mauritius, only two gales 
having occurred, neither of which was violent. The first took place on the 
26th of February. The wind was from S.S.E. to E., and attained a maximum 
force of 12-50 lbs. The barometer fell to 29-888. The weather at Port 
Louis, except on the 26th, when it was overcast and showery, was fine ; but 
away to the north-eastward, between 8° to 16° S. and 60° to 110° E., the 
S.E. trade-wind and IS^.W. monsoon wore in stormy collision, and two severe 
hurricanes were encountered in that locality, both raging on the same days. 

The next gale in the course of this year was experienced on the 1st and 



ON THE METEOROLOGY OF PORT LOUIS. 121 

2nd of December. The wind veered from S.E. to S., S.W., and W., and 
its maximum force was 9-50 lbs. The rainfall was only 0-430 inch. The 
barometer fell to 29-666. This was a small revolving storm, which passed 
on the east side of the island. Its nearest distance was 150 miles. 

1863. — Several hurricanes occurred iu 1863. The first took place on the 
13th of January. The wind veered from E. b. S. to jST.E., K, N.W., W., 
and W.S.W., and its maximum force was 17 lbs. The rainfall, from 9§ a.m. 
on the 11th to 9^ a.m. on the 14th, was 7-22-5 inches. This was a rogatory 
storm, which came down from the north-westward, and the centre of which 
passed over the S.W. extremity of the island. The barometer fell to 29-332. 

A second gale took place between the 31st of January and the 4th of Feb- 
ruary. The wind veered from E.S.E. to N.E., N., and IST.W., and attained a 
force of 12 lbs. The barometer fell to 29-700. The rainfall was 1-681 inch. 
This was another revolving storm, which passed about 50 miles west of Re'- 
union, and caused great loss in that island. 

A third revolving storm passed on the northward and north-westward of 
the island between the 9th and 13th of February. Its nearest distance was 
200 miles. The barometer at the Observatory feU to 29-816. The wind 
veered from S.E. to E. and N.E., and attained a force of 14 lbs. The rain- 
fall was 3-192 inches. 

Between the 18th and 22nd of February a fourth rotatory storm of great 
violence passed on the north and west of the island, the wind veering from 
S.E. to E. and N.N.E., and attaining a maximum force of 36 lbs. The 
nearest distance of the centre was 50 miles. The barometer fell to 29-438. 
The rainfall was 2-430 inches. 

1864. — The year 1864 was remarkable for an absence of hurricanes. The 
strongest gale took place on the 2nd of July, with the barometer at 30-209. 
The wind blew from S.E. to E., with a maximum force of 8-7 lbs. Scarcely 
any rain fell. 

1865. — This year was also characterised by an absence of hurricanes. 
One or two gales, however, occurred in February. On the 12th of that 
month the wind, which had been previously veering from S.E. to E., sud- 
denly increased from N.E. by E., and attained a force of 7-5 lbs. at 3-15 p.m., 
and then died away to hght airs tiU midnight, when it increased to a force of 
3 lbs. from N.W. When the wind came round to 1!^. and N.W., the moun- 
tains became speedily enveloped in dense masses of vapour down to theii- 
bases, and between 7 and 9 p.m., during a thunder-storm, rain fell in torrents. 
The streams rose rapidly ; bridges and causeways were swept away, stores 
inundated, and several lives lost. The rainfall at Port Louis in 24 hours was 
7-460 inches, the greater portion of which fell between 6 and 9 p.m. ; but at 
La Gaite it was 18-307 inches, and at Croft-an-Eigh 14-65 inches. The baro- 
meter fell to 29-507. There was no revolving storm in the neighbourhood of 
the island on this occasion ; but the IST.W. monsoon advanced to the south- 
ward, and heavy rains, accompanied with strong winds, thunder, and light- 
ning, fell in the localities where it came into collision with the S.E. trade- 
wind. 

The strongest gale during this year took place between the 19th and 22nd 
of February. The wind remained at S.S.E. to E.S.E., and its maximum force 
was 13-5 lbs. The rainfall was only 0-665 inch. The barometer fell to 
29-730. On this occasion two or three revolving storms occurred at some 
distance to the northward and north-eastward of the island, between the 
confines of the N.W. monsoon and S.E. trade-wind. 

1866. — The strongest gale in the course of this year took place between 
1867. K 



122 REPORT— 1867. 

the 13th and 20th of April. The wind remained at S.E. to E.S.E. and E. 
throughout, and in the gusts blew with a force varying from 1 to 13'5 lbs on 
the square foot. The barometer ranged from 30"174 to 29-944, and oscillated 
during the gusts. Very little rain fell. On the 21st the wind veered to the 
north of east and fell light. It was afterwards ascertained that several re- 
volving storms occui'red from the 6th to the 25th of April, between the inner 
borders of the monsoon and trade-wind, away to the northward and north- 
eastward of Mauritius. 

This is not the time to enter into a discussion regarding the nature and 
origin of these storms : I wiU only remark that, by watching the barometer, 
the wind, and the clouds, their existence and approach may be known with 
certainty, even when the distance is very considerable. 

XII. Synopsis of Eestjlts. 

With a view of facilitating a comparison of the results, I have prejoared 
a few Tables in which the diurnal, monthly, and annual means of the prin- 
cijial elements are placed side by side. 

Diurnal Variation.- — Table XXXVII. exhibits the means for each observa- 
tion horn' of the six-hourly series, derived from seven years' observation ; 
and Table XXXVIII. those for each hour of the day, derived from term-day 
observations taken for foiu* years. As akeady remarked, the diurnal march 
of the temperature, vapour-pressure, force of wind, and amount of cloud are 
all more or less accordant, being in the same sense, and having the turniug- 
points nearly at the same hours. The diurnal march of the humidity is in a 
contrary sense, but the turning-points are nearly coincident with those of 
the temperature. With regard to the total atmospheric pressui'e, and the 
pressure of the dry aii', they have a double progression, with four turning- 
points. 

Amiual Variation. — Table XXXIX. exhibits the monthly means. The 
temperature in the shade and in the sun's rays decreases from January to 
July, and then increases from July to January. The atmospheric pressure 
increases from February to August, and then decreases from August to Feb- 
ruary ; and the march of the dry pressure is similar. The vapour-pressure 
has a progression in direct agreement with that of the temperature, showing, 
however, a tendency to a second maximum in August. With respect to the hu- 
midity, we see that it has a double progression, with two maxima in February 
and August, and two minima in June and November. The mean monthly 
force of the wind also has, upon the whole, a double i)rogression, having 
two maxima in February and June, and two minima in April and November. 
The rainfoU, too, has a double progression, with two maxima in February 
and August, and two minima in June and September. The amount of cloud 
has a maximum in February and a minimum in June, with a tendency to a 
second maximum in August. A similar remark applies to the frequency of 
lightning. 

Table XL. gives the means of the extreme monthly range of the principal 
elements. The temperature and humidity are, on the whole, subject to greater 
fluctuations in the summer than in the winter months, and the greatest fluc- 
tuations of the vajiour-pressure take place from January to June inclusive. 
A comparison of the oscillations of the total atmospheric pressure and va- 
pour-pressure will show the important part played by the latter. 

Secular Variation. — Table XLI. exhibits the extreme annual range, and 
Table XLII. the annual means of the several elements for each year. 



ON THE METEOROLOGY OF FORT LOUIS. 



123 



As might be expected of an island exposed to the bracing S.E. trade- 
wind, having a mean annual tempei'atiu-c of 07° to 77° (the temperature in 
the interior is from 4° to 10° loAver than at Port Louis), and a mean humi- 
dity of 71, clothed with vegetation, and subject to so small variations of 
temperature and humidity, Mauritius possesses one of the best tropical cli- 
mates in the world. At one time it was a sanatoiium for invalids from 
India in search of health ; and if, of late, it has been the scene of di-ead- 
ful mortality, this is not to be ascribed to an unbountiful Nature, but, there 
is reason to fear, to a neglect and violation of her laws. 

I mentioned at the outset that the site of the Observatory was objection- 
able. In conclusion I beg to state, that a new Observatory is about to be 
erected in a more favourable locality. The old Observatory and grounds 
have been sold for ,£10,000, and the local government have voted a portion 
of that sum for the erection of a new Observatory, which is to be supplied 
with self-recording meteorological and magnetical instruments. Plans of 
the buildings have been prepared at the request of the Secretary of State 
for the Colonies ; and although Mauritius has lately been sorely tried, 
it is expected that the buildings will soon be commenced. The Governor, 
Sir Henry Barkly, who has done so much for science in other colonies, 
is a warm promoter of the measure, and His Excellency's influential endea- 
voiu's are seconded by the principal Government officials and the leading 
planters and merchants. Nor can I close this communication Avithout making 
mention with becoming respect of the efforts and recommendations of Gene- 
ral Sabine, who, for a number of years, has lost no opportunity of urging the 
importance of Mauritius as a meteorological and magnetical station, and is 
still pleased to take much interest in the subject. 



Table I. — Showing the Mean Temperatui-e of the Air for each Observation 
Hour, derived from Six-hourly Observations taken daily from 1860 to 
1866, both inclusive. 



Mouths. 



January 

February 

Marcli 

April 

May 

June 

Jiiiy 

August 

September 

October 

November 

December 

Mean for each hour 

(+) above ( — ) below mean 



3i A.M. 



8o-oi 
79-87 
79-11 
78-21 
74.-84 
72-31 
70-71 
70-81 

7i'33 
73-48 
76-56 
78-95 



75-5° 



9i A.M. 



-I-61 



82-23 

8i-6i 
8 1 -co 
80-38 

77-05 
73-70 
72-14 
72-50 
73-64 
75-85 

7 9 '47 
Si-53 



77'59 



+0-48 



83-67 
82-98 
82-51 
81-77 
7S-30 

75'37 
73-64 

73'95 
75-16 
77-07 
80-74 
82-64 



78-99 



+ I-SS 



91- P.M. 



80-97 
80-58 

79"93 
79-07 

75"63 
72-65 
71-30 
71-57 
72-37 
74-50 

7771 
80-04 



76-36 



-0-75 



Monthly 
means. 



81-72 
81-26 

8064 
79-86 
76-45 
73-46 

71-95 

72-21 
73-12 
75-22 
78-62 
80-79 



77-11 



(+) above 

( — ) below 

mean for year. 



+4-61 
+4-15 
+ 3"53 
+275 
-0-66 

-3'65 
-5-16 

-4-90 
-3-99 
-1-89 

+ 1-51 
+ 3-68 



k2 



124 



REPOHT 1867. 



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^ ^ b b b "«-• ci "n rt "rt 'w U b b b b b b ^ '»-' ^ "■-' ^ »-• 

1 1 1 1 + ++++++4-+ 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 






1 


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CO co*X> CO rt rt »jn^O oo^o ■-• coCN-^rt O O^O »o ■^ vo wtsO v^ 

ooOO^rtcorocococorort'-i — "^"^00 00 000 





1 


a 


00 rt tJ-oo O rt'sOoo rt Ooooovo O -^ ■^'O o ■^ oo rt 

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^ w rt CO ''^i- ioOa vb v^vo^^cocortrtrt rt rt rt rtrt rt rt 


CO 


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vp 

1 


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vOvO M ^^u-irooo MVO'O t^vooo^ -"^rt rt 0*^ "j-jI^-^tI-t^ 

o ^ tJ- un un^b K V^oo oooo V^vb »oiolo"u^i^ioT}-"T*-rJ*^^rJ- 


00 

oo 


li* 




O -<i-^o OOooOOoo'^i-OOvD -^^o ooo Ooooovo -^rtO 

covort rt p -^CNONr-^ _r-^oo r^os^rt -" Csrtoooo r- t-voo -o 

OooooonO'-'O'-'^^'hi-i-.OcnOon onoo b\oo oo oc oo oo oo 

t^t^r^oooooooooooooooooo r~^t^r^t^r^i>.r^t^t^i>.r~^r^ 


oo 
oo 


rt 

+ 


1 


00 "O 00 rt '^ '^vo oo oo \Ci o ^o rt '^vo o o vo oo vo O ri-VO 

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c?\ c^ ON b I-" rt rt rt rt rt rt -< b b^ cn o "o ctn on b\ oo oo 'o\ 

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CO 

b 

00 


« 

+ 




rt rt^ovoooo r^rt rtvo '^ooo -^"O^ Ooocooooooo 

ON-^r-'COci r^cot^u-^t-. ooo ^r^vo t-^vr^^u-irort •-« «-< 0\ 

oo^oo -"rtrt cococororort rt ^ '-'b'oobbbb b"c\ 

r^oooooooooooooococooooooooooooooooooooooooooo r^ 


oo 


CO 

+ 


s 

1-5 


rt*^oo O rtoovO'^ O O -^"^ rt oo CO -"^oo O rt ^i- O O 

rt ^^ rt o «^^£3 rt r^r-^'^o *^coi-i r^rt Ooovo iou-ivocotJ- 

OOO Mrtrtrtcococococortrt rt^Mw b'o bobb b 

OOCOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOQOOOOOOOOOOOOOO 


rt 
oo 


00 
+ 


ry5 

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,; ^^ 5H 







ON THE METEOROLOGY OF PORT LOUIS. 



125 



Table III. — Sho\dng the Greatest Range of Temperature on any one Day 
in each Month, from 1862 to 1866, both inclusive. 



Months. 



1862. 



January 9-3 

February 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September 

October 

November 

December .. 



Yearly means 841 



81 

yo 

9'5 
III 
II-3 

87 
7-3 
6-9 
6-4 
6-4 
8-9 



1863. 


1864. 


1865. 


1866. 


Monthly 
means. 

















io'4 


9-1 


12-4 


II'O 


10-4 


7-2 


ii'i 


ii-o 


12'0 


99 


8-3 


11 -2 


9-0 


13-0 


9-7 


9-8 


9-2 


ic-o 


II'O 


99 


8-8 


127 


109 


9'S 


IO-6 


7-8 


9"4 


7-0 


8-4 


8-8 


II-3 


lo-o 


7-1 


7"3 


8-9 


9"4 


9-6 


7-6 


11-3 


9-0 


lO'O 


9-8 


IO-5 


ii-o 


9-6 


8-4 


9'5 


lo-o 


9-5 


8-7 


10-6 


12-1 


lo-o 


io"9 


lo-o 


12-5 


12-0 


93 


1 1 -2 


10-8 


954 


10-47 


9-56 


10-50 


9-69 



Table IY. — Sho-wing the Least Range of Temperature on any one Day in 
each Month, from 1862 to 1866, both inclusive. 



Months. 



January 

February 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September 

October 

November 

December 

Yearly means 



1862. 



4-6 
5-0 
4-8 

57 
3-9 

3-8 

2'I 
2-1 
0-7 
2-1 

3-9 

4-0 



3-56 



1863. 



3-0 
3-3 
3-4 
3-2 
4-6 

3-9 
31 

4-2 

3'S 
5'S 
5-8 
3-3 



3-65 



1864. 



5-1 

3-4 
4-4 
3-0 
3-0 

4-5 
3-0 

4-5 
S-o 

51 

5-0 
5-0 



4-25 



1865. 



6-0 
4-0 

3'9 

4-0 
3-6 
4-0 

3'5 
3-0 
3-8 

39 
3 9 

3'o 



3-90 



1866. 



4-6 

4-5 
31 
i'5 
1-4 
31 
3 '4 
4'i 

2-2 
6-0 

5-4 



Monthly 
means. 



3-70 



4-6 

4' I 

4-2 

3-8 

3'3 

3-5 
2-9 

3-4 
3 '4 
3-6 

4-9 

4' I 



3-8i 



126 



REPORT 1867. 



Table Y. — Showing the Mean Diurnal Eange of Temperature for each Month 
and Year, from 1862 to 1866, both inclusive. 



Months. 



1862. 


1863. 


1864. 


18G5. 


1866. 


Monthly 
means. 


O 

















6-5 


6-0 


7-5 


8-1 


7-2 


7'i 


6-9 


5-3 


7-1 


7"4 


8-5 


7-0 


6-2 


5-7 


7-3 


6-3 


S-o 


6-7 


7-4 


6-8 


6-5 


6-9 


b-cf 


6-9 


7-2 


6-6 


8-0 


7-0 


5-6 


6-9 


6-9 


5-7 


6-S 


5'5 


5-3 


6-0 


S'o 


6-3 


6-4 


5-8 


5-3 


5-8 


4-3 


6-6 


6-4 


5'9 


5-8 


1"^ 


4-7 


fa-9 


7-1 


7-2 


6-5 


6-5 


4-8 


7-2 


7-2 


6-7 


5-9 


6-4 


4-9 


8-2 


8-7 


7-9 


8-9 


77 


6-5 


7-7 


7-8 


6-6 


8-7 


7-5 


5-94 


6-6o 


7-23 


678 


690 


6-69 



January .... 
February . 
March .... 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August . . . , 
September . 
October .... 
November , 
December , 



Yearly means 



Table VI. — Sho-n^ing the Mean Temperature of the Air for each Month and 
Year, from 1860 to 1866, both incluf5ive. 



Months. 


1800. 


1861. 


1862. 


1863. 


1804. 


1805. 


1806. 


Monthly 

means. 


Deviation 

from mean 

for year. 
















































January . . . 


8 I -22 


82-85 


81-42 


82-32 


81-37 


S2-22 


80-62 


81-72 


+4-61 


February .. 


80-90 


So'io 


8l-I2 


81-55 


8 1 -02 


82-17 


81-97 


81-26 


+415 


March...... 


8o-o2 


7975 


79-92 


81-48 


80-47 


80-87 


81-95 


80-64 


+ 3-53 


April 


78-77 


79-27 


79-92 


80-55 


79-17 


80-50 


80-82 


79-86 


+275 


May 


76-62 


76-70 


75"97 


77-82 


75-07 


76-70 


76-30 


76-45 


-0-66 


June 


73-00 


73-05 


74-35 


74-00 


73-15 


72-85 


73-82 


73-46 


-3-65 


July 


72-77 


71-87 


72-95 


71-11 


71-42 


71-75 


71-80 


71-95 


-5-16 


August 


73-15 


71-30 


73-85 


72-05 


7i"35 


71-87 


71-85 


72-20 


-4-91 


September. 


74-07 


72-70 


74-72 


73-05 


72-52 


72-82 


71-95 


73-12 


-3-99 


October ... 


75-25 


75-65 


76-35 


74-42 


76-07 


75-25 


73-60 


75-22 


-1-89 


November. 


79-27 


78-30 


79-15 


76-75 


78-57 


78-85 


79-45 


78-62 


+ 1-51 


December.. 


8 1 -02 


81-25 


82-32 


79-62 


80-47 


79-32 


81-52 


8079 


4-3-68 


Yearly ' 
means. 


77-17 


76-90 


77-67 


77-10 


76-72 


77-10 


77-14 


77-11 





ON THE METEOROLOGY OF PORT LOUIS. 



137 



Table VII. — Sho-wing tlie Mean Temperature of the Air for each Month and 
Year, obtained from Daily Observations of the Maximum and Minimum 
Thermometers, fi'om 1860 to 1866, both inchisive. 



Months. 


1860. 


1861. 


1862. 


1863. 


1864. 


1865. 


1866. 


Monthly 
means. 


Deviation 
from 
mean. 


January . . . 
February ... 

March 

April 

May 




81-20 

82-10 

80-90 

79-90 

77-70 

74-45 
73-40 

74-35 
75-55 
76-30 

80-00 
81-05 


82-30 
8o-io 
79-90 

79-35 
76-65 
73-10 
72-40 
71-70 
73-10 

75-50 
78-65 
81-25 




82-55 

82-45 
81-20 
8o-8o 
77-ao 

74-15 
73-20 

73-75 
74-75 
76-50 

79-35 
82-95 



S3-20 

82-35 
82-25 
81-20 

78-70 

74-85 
71-18 
73-00 

74-05 
75-40 
77-60 
80-45 


82-45 
81-95 
81-65 
80-15 
75-70 
73-90 
72-10 
72-20 

73-35 
76-90 

79-35 
81-60 


82-85 
83-20 
8185 

81-45 
77-50 

73-65 
72-60 
72-75 
73-60 
76-25 
79-65 
So-30 



81-60 

82-75 
83-00 
8155 
76-40 

73-95 
72-05 
72-10 
72-05 
73-65 
79'95 
82-45 


82-30 
82-16 
81-53 
80-63 

77-12 
74-00 
72-52 
72-83 
74-16 
75-78 
79-22 
81-44 



+4-50 
+4-31 

+ 373 
+ 3-83 
-0-68 
-3-80 
-5-28 

-4-97 
-3-O4 
— 2-oa 
+ 1-42 
+3-64 


June 

July 


August 

September 
October . ... 
November . . 
December... 


Yearly means 


77-80 


77-00 


78-23 


77-93 


77-61 


77-97 


77-62 


77-80 





Table YIII. — Sho-wing the Mean Monthly Maximum Temperature in the 
Sun's Eays, obtained from Daily Observations of the Black Bulb Thermo- 
meter (»i vacuo), from ISGO to 1866, both inclusive. 



Months. 



January 

Februai-y 

March 

April 

May , 

June 

July 

August , 

September 

October 

November 

December 

Yearly means 



1860. 



119-1 
116-9 
119-1 
115-6 

108-3 
105-0 
103-0 
108-1 
111-3 
113-8 
118-2 
117-1 

112-9 



1861. 



II8-5 
112-4 
115-0 

114-3 
104-5 
102-9 
101-8 
103-3 
106-9 
1 1 2-8 

115-5 
117-3 

110-4 



1862. 



117-5 
116-4 
114-6 
114-3 
105-9 

103-4 
102-7 
103-1 
109-3 
112-4 
114-3 
116-5 

110-9 



1863. 



116-5 
113-2 
114-3 
112-9 
108-2 
102-5 
1 00-0 
104-2 
106-6 

111-2 

II3-5 
115-5 

109-9 



1864. 



116-8 
115-3 
1 14-5 
1 10-9 
103-6 
101-4 
99-8 
103-3 
106-2 
112-2 
114-6 
ii6-o 

109-5 



1865. 



117-9 
115-0 
115-2 
112-1 
io6-2 
102-3 
100-9 
1029 

105-9 
111-5 

11 6-0 

113-2 
109-9 



1866. 



117-0 
1181 
117-4 
II 1-6 
106-2 
102-2 
joo-6 
102-9 
104-9 
1 120 
112-8 
"5-3 

iio-i 



Monthly 
means. 



117-6 

115-3 
115-7 
113-1 
106-1 
102-8 
101-2 
104-0 
107-3 
112-3 
115-0 
115-8 

110-5 



128 



REPORT — 1867, 



Table IX. — Showing the Maximum and Minimum Temperature, and the 
Extreme Eange of Temperature in each Month, from 1860 to 1866, 
both inclusive. 



Months. 


1860. 


1861. 


1862. 


1863. 


1864. 


1865. 


1866. 


Monthly 
means. 


r Maximum 

January ■ Mininium 

( Range ... 


O 

88i 
73 -o 
15-3 




88-0 
76-5 
11-5 


88-0 
76-9 
ii'i 


88-0 
75-0 
13-0 




87-S 

77-8 

97 




8g-o 

75-6 

13-4 


88-0 
74-0 
14-0 


88-07 

75'54 
12-55 


r Maximum 

February < Minimum 

[Range ... 


87-0 
75-0 

12-0 


87-5 
72*0 
i5'S 


87-0 
76-9 

lO'I 


86-9 

77-1 

9-8 


88-0 
75-6 

12-4 


90-0 
75-5 
14-5 


88-2 
76-0 

12-2 


87-80 

75'44 
12-36 


C Maximum 

March ... -, Minimum 

[Range ... 


85-0 
73-0 
I2-0 


85-8 
75-0 
IO-8 


87-5 
75-0 
11-6 


87-5 
77-2 
10-3 


87-1 
74-1 
13-0 


88-0 
76-5 
11-5 


88-6 
75-0 
13-6 


87-07 

7S'i4 
11-83 


r Masinuim 

April "} Minimum 

[Range ... 


S6-0 
71-5 
14-5 


85-5 
74-0 
II-5 


87-0 

74' 9 
12-1 


869 

75-4 
US 


86-9 

739 
13-0 


88-0 
76-0 

I2-0 


89-0 
74-0 
15-0 


87-04 

74-24 
i2-8o 


r Maximum 

May " I Minimum 

[ Range . . . 


82-0 
70-0 

I2-0 


82-2 

72-0 

10-2 


86-1 

70-8 
15-3 


85-4 
71-4 
140 


82-1 
66-8 

15-3 


85-0 
71-9 
J3I 


84-0 
69-2 
14-8 


83-83 

70-30 
13-53 


1 Maximum 

June ■ Mininium 

[Range ... 


79-0 

66-s 

12-5 


79-8 
67*2 

12-6 


8o-2 

680 

12-2 


81-4 
70-0 
II-4 


81-2 
66-4 
14-8 


79-5 
67-8 

11-7 


79-0 
65-5 
13s 


80-01 

67-34 

1267 


C Maximum 

July < Minim uxa 

[ Range . . . 


79"° 
68-5 

10-5 


76*0 

68-2 

7-8 


79-5 

68-2 
11-3 


78-2 
65-9 
12-3 


78-4 
66-5 
11-9 


77-0 

67-6 

9'4 


78-4 
66-1 

12-3 


78-07 
67-29 
10-78 


( Maximum 

August . . . • Minimum 

[ Range . . . 


79-0 
68-0 
no 


76'o 
67-8 

8-2 


78-3 

690 

9-8 


79'5 
66-6 

12-9 


79-0 
66-0 
13-0 


78-0 
68-0 
lo'o 


78-0 
628 
15-2 


78-25 
66-89 

11-36 


( Maximum 

September- Minimum 

[ Range . . . 


80-5 
69-0 
II-5 


78-9 

67-0 
11-9 


79-0 

7o'o 

90 


79'5 
68-0 
ii-S 


8o-o 
67-2 

12-8 


So-o 
68-0 

12-0 


78-5 
64-6 

139 


79-49 
67-69 
11-80 


r Maximum 

October...- Minimum 

[ Range ... 


82-0 
67-5 


8i-o 
70-5 
10-5 


80-4 

74-0 
6-4 


8ro 
69-9 
III 


83-4 

71-0 
12-4 


69-0 
12-5 


8o-o 
68-4 
11-6 


81-29 
69-93 

11-36 


f Maximum 

NoTember \ Minimum 

[ Range ... 


86-0 
73-5 

12-5 


83-5 

73'o 
10-5 


85-0 
73-6 
11-4 


8s-2 
71-9 
13-3 


88-0 
70'o 
i8-o 


86-0 
73-6 

12-4 


86-9 

73-4 
i3'5 


85-80 

72-71 
13-09 


f Maxinnim 

December - Minimum 

[Range ... 


87-0 

74-5 

12-5 


86-5 
76-0 
10-5 


89-4 

75-4 
i4'o 


87-3 
71-9 

15-4 


89-0 

74-0 
15-0 


87-0 
74-0 
130 


89-6 

75-2 
14-4 


87-97 
74-43 
13-54 


x^ 1 r Maximum 

^'^'"■'y Minimum 
means. -r, 

[ Range ... 


83-38 

70-82 

12-56 


82-56 
71-67 
10-89 


83-96 

7273 
11-23 


83-90 
71-69 

12-21 


84-22 
70-78 
i3'44 


84-09 
71-96 
12-13 


84-01 
70-35 
1366 


83-74 
71-43 

12-30 



ON THE METEOROLOGY OF PORT LOUIS. 



129 



Table X. — Showing the Highest and Lowest Eeadings of the Self-registering 
Thermometers, the Dates of occurrence, and the Eange in each Year. 



Tears 


1860. 


1861. 


1862. 


1863. 


1864. 


186.5. 


1866. 


Means. 




Maximum ... 




8iJ-i 


880 


89-4 



88-0 



89-0 



go'o 



89-0 


88-77 


Date 1 


31st 
Jan. 


i4tli 
Jan. 


27th 
Dec. 


2 3rd 

Jan. 


2nd 
Dec. 


4th 
Feb. 


ist 
April. 


23rd 
Jan. 


Minimum ... 


66-5 


67'o 


68-0 


65-9 


66-0 


676 


628 


66-25 


Date 1 


22nd 
June. 


nth 
Sept. 


24th 
June. 


8th 

July. 


2nd 
Aug. 


loth 
July. 


29th 
Aug. 


24th 
July. 


Range 216 


21-0 


21-4 


22'I 


23-0 


22"4 


26-2 


22-52 



Table XI. — Showing the Mean Vapoiir-pressure for each Observation Honr, 
obtained from Six-hourly Observations taken daily diu-ing seven years 
(1860-66). 



Months. 



January 

February 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September 

October 

November 

December 

Means 

Deviation from mean 



3i A.M. 



■749 
-756 
•736 
•706 
-630 
-564 
•547 
■555 
■553 
■591 
•649 

■714 

•646 

— ■006 



-764 
-772 

•749 
■715 
•639 

•575 
•555 
-562 

■557 
•595 
•654 
-716 

■654 

+ •002 



t>2 



-767 

■773 
•752 
•719 
•639 
•580 

•551 
•565 
-562 
■599 
"659 
-725 

•658 

+ ■006 



9i P.M. 



•758 

•766 

-738 

■713 
•635 
•570 
■546 
-564 

-560 

■597 

-655 

•723 

•652 



Monthly 
means. 



•759 
■767 

■744 
•713 
-636 
-572 
•550 
■561 
■558 
■595 
•654 
•719 

■652 



Deviation 
from mean. 



+ -107 

+ •115 
+ ■092 
+ •061 

— ■016 
--080 
—•102 
— -091 
-■094 
--057 

— •002 
+ -067 



130 



REPORT 1867. 



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ON THE METEOROLOGY OF PORT LOUIS, 



131 



Table XIII. — Showing the Mean Vapour-pressure for each Month and 
Year, derived from Six-hourly Observations taken daUy from 1860 to 

1866, both inclusive. 



Months. 


1860. 


1861. 


1862. 


1863. 


1864. 


1865. 


1866. 


Monthly 
means. 


Deviation 
from 
mean. 


January 

February ... 
March 


773 
•792 
•769 
•698 
•662 

•585 
•605 
•628 
•625 
•627 
■649 
•747 


•770 

757 
•725 
•708 
•663 

■559 
•540 

•557 
•536 
•613 
•687 
•748 


•774 
764 
•720 
731 
•640 
•563 
•585 
•587 

•584 

•595 
•689 

•722 


773 
•773 
■767 
•711 
•644 
•586 
•531 
•554 
•558 

•579 
•627 

•717 


•725 

739 
738 
•709 
•600 
•567 
■547 
•550 
•535 
■619 

•681 
•710 


754 
•790 
738 
•710 
•629 
•570 
■544 
•549 
•558 
•607 
•674 
741 


•749 
•752 

•743 
725 
•621 

•573 
•498 
•508 
•507 
•531 
•575 
•650 


•759 
•767 

•743 
•713 
•637 
•572 

■550 
•562 

•558 
•596 
•655 
719 


4-"io7 

+ •115 
+ •091 
+ •061 
-•015 

— •080 

— •102 

— ■090 
-•094 
—•056 
+•003 
4- -067 


Mav 


June 


July 


August 

September... 
October 

November... 
December ... 


Yearly means 


•6S0 


•655 


•663 


•652 


•643 


•655 


•619 


•652 




Deviation | 
from mean J 


+•028 


+ •003 


4- 'Oil 


o-ooo 


—•009 


4- -003 —'033 







The above Table, as already remarked, indicates a gradual decrease of the 
vapour-pressure. This becomes more evident when we take the means for 
consecutive periods of two years each. Thus : — 



Years. 
i860 
1861 
1862 
1863 
1864 
1865 



Yap. -pressure. 
•680 1 

•655/ ••■ 
•663 1 

•643 1 
•655/ ■■■ 



Means. 
•667 

•657 

•649. 



The pressure for 1866 (•619) is so much lower than the greatest (-680) 
that it is very probable the mean pressure for 1866 and 1867 will bo the 
least of aU. 

It is possible that this diminution of vapour -pressure may be owing to 
the great extent to which the primeval forests have been cut down during 
the last twenty years. As the rains are evaporated and carried away sooner 
than they would bs if protected from the sun's rays, we may suppose that the 
mean annual amount of vapoiu' in the air must be less than it was before 
the forests were cut down ; and that if this is the case at Port Louis, on the 
west coast, it miist be still more so in the interior of the island, where the 
forests existed. 



132 



REPORT — 1867. 



Table XIV. — Showing tlie Maximum and Minimum Vapour-pressure, and 
its Extreme Eange, for each Month, from 1860 to 1866, both inclusive. 



Months. 


1860. 


1861. 


1862. 


1863. 


1864. 


1865. 


1866. 


Monthly 
means. 


r Maximum 

Janimry - Minimum 

L Range ... 


•914 

•657 
■257 


•896 
•659 

■237 


•903 
•638 
•265 


■955 
•659 
■296 


•827 
•638 
•189 


•910 
•617 
•293 


•925 
•607 
•318 


•904 
•639 
•265 


f Maximum 

February ■< Minimum 

(_ Range . . . 


•879 
•707 
•172 


•847 
■620 
•227 


•896 
■643 
•^53 


•925 

■715 
•210 


•854 

•597 

•257 


•940 
•628 
•312 


•940 
•617 
•323 


•897 
•647 
•250 


r Maximum 

March ...- Minimum 

[ Range . . . 


■866 

■594 

•272 


•814 
•626 
•188 


•903 

■519 
•384 


•868 
•648 
•220 


■868 

•578 
■290 


•940 
•597 
•343 


•840 
•648 
•192 


•871 
•601 
•270 


( Maximum 

April ■ Minimum 

I Range ... 


•872 

■542 
•330 


•847 
■586 
•261 


•847 
•622 
•225 


•854 
•578 
■276 


•840 
■607 
•241 


■827 

•559 
•268 


■854 
•578 
•276 


■849 
•581 
•268 


r Maximum 

May -1 Minimum 

[ Range . . . 


•S05 
■503 
•302 


•756 
■571 
•i8s 


•745 
•460 
•28s 


•727 
•578 
■J49 


•787 
•450 

•337 


•840 
•481 
•359 


•840 
■515 
•325 


•786 
•508 
•277 


r Maximum 

June < Minimum 

[Range ... 


•694 

•443 
•251 


•789 
■463 
•326 


•704 
•450 
•254 


■739 
•473 
•266 


•692 
•450 
•242 


•751 
■437 
•314 


•670 
•450 
•220 


•720 
•452 
•268 


r Maximum 

July ' Minimum 

[Range ... 


•722 
•507 
•215 


•636 

■449 
•187 


•681 
•489 
•192 


•638 
•400 
•238 


•692 
•408 
•284 


•638 

•465 
•173 


•646 
•383 
•263 


•665 

■443 
•222 


r Maximum 

August..." Minimum 

[Range ... 


•721 

■505 
•216 


•686 

■474 
•212 


•692 
•464 
•228 


•659 
•461 

•198 


•692 
•408 
•284 


•704 

■435 
•269 


•621 
•382 
•239 


•682 
•447 
■235 


r Maximum 

September-, Minimum 

[ Range . . . 


•760 

•514 
•246 


•628 

■470 
•158 


•670 

•473 
•197 


•692 

•450 
•242 


•607 
•458 
•149 


•692 
•465 
•227 


•637 
•367 
•270 


•669 
•456 
•213 


r Maximum 

October...- Minimum 

[ Range ... 


•752 
•482 

•270 


•776 
•i;2o 
■^56 


•715 
•506 
•209 


•727 
•481 
•246 


•727 

•541 
•186 


•727 
•498 
•239 


•648 
•410 
•238 


•724 
•491 
•233 


f Maximum 

November • Minimum 

[ Range ... 


■783 
•542 
•241 


•827 

•513 
•314 


•827 

•541 
•286 


•751 
•541 
•210 


•827 
•550 
•277 


•854 

•578 
•276 


•598 

■533 
•065 


•781 
•542 
•239 


[■ Maximum 

December- Minimum 

[Range ... 


•8S9 
•668 
•191 


•868 
•622 
•246 


•840 
•617 
•223 


•827 

■597 
•230 


•814 
•588 
•226 


•868 
•617 
•251 


•802 
•513 
•289 


•840 
•603 
•^37 


Yearly /Maximum 

means. Minimum 

[Range ... 


•802 

•555 
•247 


•781 

•548 
•233 


•785 
•535 
•250 


•780 
•548 
•232 


•769 
•522 
■247 


•807 

■531 
•276 


•752 
•500 
•252 


•782 

■534 
■248 



ON THE METKOROLOGY OF PORT LOUIS. 



133 



Table XV. — Showing the Greatest and Least Vapour-pressure, the Dates of 
occurrence, and the Eange in each Tear. 



Years 


1860. 


1861. 


1862. 


1863. 


1864. 


1865. 


1866. 


Means. 




Maximum ... 


•914 


•896 


•903 


■9SS 


■868 


■940 


■940 


•916 


Date I 


29tll 

Jan. 


31st 
Jan. 


27th 
Jan. 


19th 
Jan. 


6tli 
March. 


19th 
Feb. 


2ISt 

Feb. 


8th 
Feb. 


Minimum ... 


■446 


•449 


•450 


•400 


•408 


•435 


•367 


•421 


Date 


aoth 
June. 


19th 
June. 


ISth 
Jime. 


aoth 
July. 


31st 
July. 


12th 

Aug. 


27th 
Sept. 


2ist 

July. 


Eanffe 


•467 


•447 


•453 


•sss 


•460 


•505 


■573 


■494 









Table XVI. — Showing the Mean Humidity of the Air (complete saturation 
being 100) for each Observation Hour, obtained from Six-hourly Obser- 
vations taken daily during seven years (1860-1866). 



Months. 


3I A.M. 


9^ A.M. 


3i P.M. 


9^ P.M. 


Monthly 
means. 


Deviation 
from mean. 


January 


747 
77-1 

75-3 
74"S 
73-6 
72-3 
72-9 
73-8 
72-6 
72-6 
71-9 
73-6 


71-2 

74'3 
72-3 
70-4 
70-3 
70-1 
7I-I 
70-9 
677 
67-6 
66-0 
68-5 


68-5 

71-4 
694 
6S-I 

67-3 
67-4 
66-5 
68-2 
65-2 
65'o 
64-1 
66-3 


73-5 
76'o 

73'9 
73"3 
72-9 
717 
71-9 

73'4 
71-3 
70-8 
70-4 
71-9 


72*0 

747 
727 
71-6 
71-0 
70-4 
70-6 
7i'6 
69-2 
690 
681 
70-1 


4-I-I 
+ 3-8 
+ 1-8 
+07 
+0-I 
-0-5 

-0-3 
+07 
-17 
-1-9 
-2-8 
-0-8 


February 


March 


April 


May 


June 


July 


August 


September 


October 


November 


December 




Monthly means . . . 


737 


70-0 


67-3 


72-5 


70-9 




Deviation from ' 
mean 


+ 2-8 


-0-9 


-3-6 


4-17 







134 



REPORT 1867. 



o 

o 
t> 

•S 
o 

fi 
o 

o 



nd 




o 




d 




0) 




^ 




o 




■s-l 




,^^ 




O 




O 




T-H 




in 


. 




o 


O 


CD 


rJ3 


1 


^ 


CO 


<— ■ 


cn 




30 


-*-" 


1—1 


c3 


^x 


^ 








~i-s 


a 


rt 


o 


so 


-tj 


T) 


F* 


-M 


t> 


CJ 


M 


»— 1 


Cl 


(-!< 


»j 


o 


o 


o 


>> 




r-; 




n3 


^ 






a 


o 


H 


rrt 


<D 


*J 


H 


Cm 










rd 


t^ 


4-> 


-»-> 








TS 








a 




d 




w 




^ 








CS 




O) 




^ 





6D 



o 
C/2 



(J 



o rt 


^ ^ "< M -^ ^ v>,00 'J- u-^vo f^M O r-^rt u-,t^Osro»orivo rl 




++++ 1 1 i i 1 M 1 1 ++++++++++ 


QQ 


( 

00 00 tJ-i\0 O O OnVD O OOO Mt-i^M-O CTsHi r^t^ On'O O vO 


rh 


1 


**D "sD "O "O 'O "^O ^O vO VO \0 VO 'O "O "sO "^D vO vC VD VD VO VD VD "O "O 


NO 


g 


t^ "O 00 '^vo w Osoo -ovooo t-^0 0"^ ovo tnoo On'O oo 


VO 


•-i M CN^ -O u~,u-^roi>->»j-i>J-iu-it^ u-ivo -^ OO OSOO OO OS ON 0\ O 


NO 






^- 








C7sr<->ii->vr-,roOsu-^c^N m woo miOM o^O in-cj- «jioo t^oo oo 


CO 




r--r--r^r-sc*->'-iOooo r^r^ i^oo m m u-i'o yD oo o On r^ r^'O vo 
»^VOvOvo>OvO u^Loiovrjio wi>0 »0 *>0 VO VO ^O t^vO vO VO '^O ^O 


VO 


t^ 








tJ-Cs'^I-vH '^O OS^^O^ r^-inw OOOO rl (^ t^OO 'O 


M 


3 


^^mNO^ini-tH'-<r»ooO'-'r*-»-;J-^ t^oo r^oo OO r-- r^ ON 

VO "O ^ NO O 'O VO vO VO vO '^VO "O O NO no NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO 


VO 


O 








NO o •-• >j-^oo wtj^Orot-iHr^p) c^iNO moo t^co t^ t^co c^ O 


►-( 


^ 

§" 


oo oo r-^NO r}-r^o N c^r)-' m u-,NO r-^oo oo oo co co co r-NO 0\ 

NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO ^O NO NO NO NO NO NO ^O 




Ul 






^ 






s 


r-^rn-^h-i roc^ nvo rl^^-^ cono Osno 00 *■* OnO O^co0 r^^n 


00 


3 


c4 rl rl b>bboovD r^NOOo t---oo b ^ O O '0'-.'<3\0 •-< '-' 'o\'o 
t^ r-^ l>.NO t^ t^NO NOVONONONDNO t^l>t^ t^NO NO C-- 1^ r*-NO c-^ 


U5 


>. 


Cnoo Ti-00 d i^'^ M tJ- t^ r^ lo f^ r^oo o "o c^ h to t^ m tJ*\o 


CO 


H? 


OCTnOOO u-it*^mN •- n mro voNO nonONOOO O^OnO t^ 
NO NO t~^NO nonOnONONONOnOnondnOnONOnononononO t~^ C-^nO 






P M i-i pj (^ t^NO M TJ- t-^ l>. u-1 r» -^OO O NO cJ d CO t^ M -<;t-vO 


ON 


oo 00 On tN. *o CO 'm d *^ O d ro ro i^NO nOnOnoOO ONOxb b i^ 
Vj5 ^O no no no no no no NO NO NO NO NO ^ NO ^O NO NO NO "O NO r^ t^NO 


vb 

VO 


K 


I'^fib^CNrt Ti•o^f^oo cntno t--CNr^oo doo « O d t^d 


t^ 


a 


r^NO t^NO vj^ ri- rl rJ "-• »-» M u-iNO no no no vis t^NO c^ t~^ r-* »j-vnO 
NOvOnOnononOnOnonOnononOnonOnonOnONONOVO'O'-Ono'O 


VO 


d 


N rt 00 -^vo oo ^d OnO 'tJ-'^o r> rooo o r-- -"^ en On d Os 


o 


a. 


c^or-v^-H "-"bb "--bfi mND M oo On ON CNob oo &0 oo r^ r^ 
NO r^NO nonononononononononononononononononono^ovo 


VO 
VO 


"o 


vnNO --^ ON o> cno o r^ r» -i- ■^- d onoo u^no oo d m ■+<:*• tn 


vj-i 


^ 


C\ ^ O NO ^ ro NT^NO '^r\ t^ i^^NO K 0\ ON b Cv On On <-< ^ O O •-< 

NO t^ r^No nonononononononononono c^no no no t^ c^ i^ r^ r^ 


oo 

VO 




T^ U-t OS r^ pr, ^00 »>100 ro r^^NO O CnOO CO 'rfOO - r^ d r^ u-^ r-s 


VO 


oooooo r-.inr*->d — "i d m ri f^-^w-^NO r--r^co t^i--t^NONO 


VO 






.^ 






§ 
1 


d d oo to t^ i^ roNO NO r^ M M t\ t^ cnno c-^O tor^w tnco 


00 

VO 


O O Cn r^ t^ [^ nonO no r^OO no t-^NO t^oo i~-.co o o^oo M O 

t~^C~^t-^NONONO^ONONONONONDNDVDNONONONONONONDND f^t^ 






o 






'O r^OO 0\0>^^*^t\tr\^ lONO t^OO OnO w^h •-< rl co-^io 


g 



ON THE METEOROLOGY OF PORT LOUIS. 



135 



Table XVIII. — Showing the Mean Humidity of the Air for each Month and 
Year, from 1860 to 1866, both inclusive. 



Months. 1860. 


1861. 


1862. 


1863. 


1864. 


1865. 


1866. 


Monthly 
means. 


Deviation 
from mean. 


January 

February 

March 


74-6 

ir° 

76-5 
72-6 
73-3 

71-2 

75-6 
77-8 

757 
72-3 
67-3 

72-2 


70-4 
76-2 
73-1 
72-4 

73-5 
696 
699 

73-4 
677 
70-3 
72-3 
71-8 


74-5 
74"o 
727 
73-0 
727 
69'! 

73-5 
711 

69-5 
667 
70-6 
67-6 


71-6 

79"5 

73-2 

69-9 
68-6 
7I-0 
69*i 
70-4 
69-6 
687 
69'o 
72-4 


69-3 
71-6 

72-8 
72-8 
70'o 
70-4 
71-9 
72-4 
68-0 
70-2 
70-2 
70-0 


70-2 
73-8 
717 
69-6 
69-2 
71-3 
70-8 
71-3 
70-1 
70-5 
70-1 
75-9 


73-1 
70-6 
699 
707 
69-8 
69S 
63-4 
647 
64-2 
63-8 
57-0 

6o'2 


719 
747 
72-8 
7i'6 
71-0 
70-3 
70-6 
71-6 
69-2 
68-9 
68-1 
70'o 


+ ro 

+ 3-8 
+ i'9 

+07 

+ 0-I 

-0-6 

-0-3 
+07 
-17 

— 2-0 

-2-8 

-0:9 


Ai)ril 


May ... ,,,,. 


Juno 


July 


August 

September.... 

October 

November.... 
December 


Yearly "1 
means. J 


73-6 


717 


7r2 


7I-I 


70-8 


71-2 


66-4 


70-9 




Deviation 1 
from mean. J 


+27 


+0-8 


+0-3 


+ 0*2 


—01 


+0-3 


-4-5 







"We have seen that Table XIII. indicates a decrease of vapour-pressure. 
We now see that Table XYIII. iudicatcs a decrease] of humidity ; in other 
words, an increasing dryness of the air. This decrease is perhaps more ap- 
parent when we take the means for periods of two years each. Thus : — 



Years. 
i860 
1861 
1862 
1863 
1864. 
1865 



Humidity. 

•• 73'6]. 

•• 717/ 
.. 7i-2| 

.. 71-1 J 



71-2 



Means. 
72"6 

7I-I 

7i"o. 



The humidity for 1866 is so small as to render it almost certain that the 
mean for 1866 and 1867 wiU be the least of aU. 

These results are interesting in connexion with the destruction of the fo- 
rests, and the diminishing sugar-crops. 

The year 1866 was remarkable not only for diminished humidity, but also 
for diminished vapour-pressure, diminished rainfall, absence of hurricanes, 
and a severe drought, which, after destroying a large portion of the young 
canes, was followed by a terrible fever, which has not yet disappeared. At 
the Observatory the 

Humidity was 66-4 (100—0). 

Vapour-pressure 0-619 inch. 

EainfaU 20-56 inches. 



13G 



REPORT — 18G7. 



Table XIX. — Showing the Maximum anrl Minimum Humidity, and the 
Extreme Eange of Humidity, for each Month, from 1860 to 1866, 

both inclusive. 



Months. 


1860. 


1861. 


1862. 


1863. 


1864. 


1865. 


1866. 


Monthly 
means. 


C Maximum 
January -, Minimum 
[ Range . . 


94" I 

55-4 
3S-7 


86-6 
6r8 
24-8 


88-8 
562 
326 


86-8 
58-9 
27-9 


82-6 
561 
26-5 


86-6 
589 

277 


91*0 

53-4 
37-6 


88-1 

57-2 
30-9 


r Maximum 

February ■ Minimum 

[ Range . . . 


91-8 
6i-o 

30-8 


95'3 
57-6 

377 


909 
58-8 
32-1 


86-7 
647 

22'0 


86-5 
56-1 

30-4 


90-9 
53-6 
37-3 


867 
53-6 
33-1 


89-8 

57-9 
319 


r Maximum 

March ..A Minimum 

[Range ... 


87-5 
567 

30-8 


93-6 
589 

347 


88-8 
60-3 
28-5 


82-6 

617 

20-9 


867 

55-8 
309 


86-6 

55-9 

307 


82-s 
56-2 
26-3 


86-9 
57-9 

29'0 


C Maximum 

April < Minimum 

[ Range . . . 


87-8 

57-4 
30-4 


88-8 

57-4 
31-4 


787 

6o"2 

i8-5 


907 

55-8 
34'9 


867 
58-8 
27-9 


826 
6r8 

20-8 


824 

587 

237 


85-4 
58-6 
26-8 


r Maximum 

May < Minimum 

[ Range . . . 


85-4 
58-1 
27-3 


84-9 

S7-I 
27-8 


82-4 

59'5 
229 


82-3 
58-6 

237 


867 
52-6 
341 


86-5 

55-3 

31-2 


867 
58-2 
28-s 


85-0 

57-1 
27-9 


f Maximum 

June ■ Minimum 

[ Range . . . 


87-8 
52-1 

357 


86-2 

539 
32-3 


82-4 
58-0 
244 


82-3 
58-2 
24-1 


86-5 

55-3 
31-2 


864 

6i-o 

25-4 


82-4 
58-0 
24-4 


84-9 
567 
282 


r Maximum 

July < Minimum 

[ Range . . . 


939 
6i-5 

32-4 


82-2 
58-2 
24-0 


824 
64-1 
i8-3 


82-4 
SS-o 
24-4 


86-5 

52-5 
34-0 


85-4 

527 
327 


78-0 
480 
30-0 


84-4 
56-4 
28-0 


f Maximum 

August ... • Minimum 

^ Range . . . 


96-7 
653 
31-4 


865 
59-6 
26-9 


86-s 

55-6 
30-9 


78-4 

55-3 
23-1 


907 

55-1 
35-6 


907 
52-5 
38-2 


79-0 
52-6 
26-4 


869 
56-5 
30-4. 


f Maximum 

September-! Minimum 

[Range ... 


96-3 
60-7 
35-6 


8o-o 
56-4 
23-6 


78-4 

55"3 
23-1 


86-4 
58-2 
282 


810 

55-2 
25-8 


78-4 

581 

20-3 


79-0 
483 

307 


82-8 
56-0 
26-8 


r Maximum 

October... • Minimum 

[ Range . . . 


86-6 
51-0 
35-6 


869 

54"4 
32-5 


82-3 
55-6 
26-7 


86-4 

58-3 
28-1 


843 
58-2 
26-1 


82-4 
58-2 
24-2 


77-0 
54-6 
22-4 


837 
55-8 
27-9 


r Maximum 

November- Minimum 

[ Range . . . 


8. -7 
56-6 


86-5 
49-6 
36-9 


82-3 

53-3 
29-0 


82-3 
52-8 
29-5 


82-6 
55-8 
26-8 


82-4 
55-8 
26-6 


69-6 
52-1 

17-5 


8ro 

537 

27-3 


r Maximum 

December ■ Minimum 

[ Range . . . 


897 
58-1 
3. -6 


85-3 

52-2 

331 


82-s 
53-6 
289 


82-6 
58-9 

237 


787 
56-0 

227 


907 
56-0 

347 


8i-5 

54-5 
27-0 


84-4 
55-6 
28-8 


Means for J ^«^°^""^ 
< Minimum 

y^^^"^-l Range ... 


899 

57-8 
32-1 


86-9 

56-4 
30-5 


839 
57-6 
26-3 


84- 1 
58-2 
25-9 


84-9 
55-6 
29-3 


85-8 
56-6 
29-2 


8i-3 

54-0 
27-3 


853 
566 

287 



ON THE METEOROLOGY OF PORT LOUIS. 



137 



Table XX. — Showing the Greatest and Least Humidity, the Dates of occur- 
rence, and Eange in each Year. 





1860. 


1861. 


1862. 


1863. 


1864. 


1865. 


1866. 


Means. 




Maximum ... 


967 


95-3 


909 


907 


907 


90-9 


9fo 


92-31 


Date 1 


2ISt 

Aug. 


1 6th 
Feb. 


9th 

Feb. 


5th ! 1 2th 
April. , Aug. 


12th 
Feb. 


4tli 
Jan. 


8th 
April. 


Minimum ... 


50-3 


46-3 


53-3 


52-8 


52-5 

nth 
July. 


51-5 


48-0 


50-81 


Date j 


7th 
Oct. 


loth 
June. 


Tyth 
Nov. 


ist 

Nov. 


12th 
Aug. 


26th 
July. 


29th 
Aug. 


Bansre 


46-4 


49-0 


37-6 


37'9 


38-2 


38-4 


43"° 


41-5 





Table XXI. — Showing the Mean Height of the Barometer (corrected and 
reduced to 32°) for each Observation Hour, obtained from Six -hourly 
Observations, taken daily, from 1860 to 1866, both inclusive. 



Months. 



January 

February 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September 

October 

November 

December 

Means 

Deviation from mean 



A. jr. 



in. 

29908 

29-823 

29-912 

29-977 

30-050 

30-138 

30-174 

30-176 

30-169 

30-113 

30-045 

29-967 



30-038 



n A.M. 



29-951 
29-870 
29-963 
30026 
30-105 
30190 
30-228 
30228 
30-221 
30-160 
30-084 
30-007 



30-086 



U P.M. 



in. 

29-890 

29-804 

29-895 

29-954 

30-030 

30-121 

30-152 

30-150 

30-140 

30-082 

30-017 

29-947 



30-015 



in. 

29958 

29-877 

29968 

30-027 

30-097 

30-181 

30-212 

30-218 

30-218 

30-158 

30-094 

30-017 



30-085 



Monthly 



29-927 
29-843 
29-934 
29996 
30-070 
30-157 
30-191 
30-193 
30-186 
30129 
30-060 
29984 



30-056 



— -OI)! 



-I--030 



— -041 



+ -029 



1867. 



138 



REPOKT 1867. 



P 



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c3 S 




oooooooooooooooooooooooo 






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+++++++ 1 1 1 1 1 1 +++++++ 1 1 M 






«i 




'H r» o (^iooo»^r--.0 o ^O -^ ^'O wrior^CNr--r^ 1-^ 






\o t^&o ooo T'- lo m rl ►-* rt ro -^^o t^oo ooool~^*0'^c^c^'T| *^ 






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ft 



ON THE METEOROLOGY OF PORT LOUIS. 



139 



Table XXIII. — Showing the Mean Height of the Barometer (corrected and 
reduced to 32°) for each Month and Year, as derived from Six-hourly 
Observations taken daily from 1860 to 1866, both inclusive. 



Months. 


1860. 


1861. 


1862. 


1863. 


1864. 


1865. 


1866. 


Monthly 
means. 


Deviation 
from mean. 


January ... 
February.. 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September. 
October ... 
November. 
December.. 


in. 

29846 

29'842 

29-859 

30026 

30-048 

30-171 

30-196 

30-167 

30-142 

30-102 

30-088 

29-994 


in. 

29-909 

29-665 

29-950 

30-035 

30-050 

30-127 

30-182 

30-187 

30-193 

30- 11 6 

30-026 

29-943 


in. 

29899 

29-890 

29-944 

30-018 

30-062 

30-093 

30-151 

30-174 
30-151 
30-139 
29-992 
29-921 


in. 

29-921 

29-824 

29-929 

29-957 

30-102 

30-170 

30-161 

30*184 

30-147 

30-115 

30-057 

30012 


in. 

29-950 

29-937 

29-923 

29-9S6 

30-080 

30-195 
30-219 
30-206 
30-258 
30-142 
30-064 
30-017 


in. 

30-007 
29-836 
29-960 
29-990 
30080 
30-190 
30-237 
30-221 
30196 
30-136 
30-085 
29"935 


in. 

29-952 

29-914 

29-969 

29-965 

30-062 

30-159 

30-195 
30-212 
30-221 
30-152 
30-102 
30-072 


in. 

29-927 

29843 

29-934 

29-996 

30-070 

30-157 
30-191 
30-193 
30-186 
30-129 
30-060 
29-984 


m. 
--129 
--213 
— -122 

— -060 
+-014 
+-101 
+•135 
+■137 
+-130 
+-073 
+ -004 
--072 


Yearly \ 
means. J 


30-040 30-032 


30-036 


30-048 


30-081 


30-073 


30-081 


30-056 





"While Tables XIII. and XVIII. show a decreasing vapour-J)ressure and 
humidity, Table XXIII. shows an increasing atmospheric pressure. Hence 
the gaseous pressure has also been increasing. 

The gradual diminution both of the vapoui'-pressure and humidity may 
be due to the clearings which have been extensively carried on in the interior 
of the island diuing the last fifteen or twenty years. It would be easy to 
attribute the change to some general cause affecting the surrounding ocean, 
but there seems to be no necessity for having recom-se to that supposition 
•when we know that forests must act as preservers of moisture, and that the 
forests of Mauritius have been rapidly disappearing. If observations had 
been taken at localities where forests existed, before and after they were cut 
down, the change would doubtless be much more marked than at Port 
Louis. 

As to an increase of the atmospheric and gaseous pressures, -with a de- 
crease of vapour-pressure, that is in accordance with a general law. 

The foUo-sving are the means of the atmospheric and dry pressures for con- 
secutive periods of two years each : — 



Years Atmospheric 

Pressure. 

1860-61 30-036 . 

1862-63 30-042 . 

1864-65 



Bty 

Pressure* 

29-369 

29-385 

30-077 29-428 



These results are no doubt partly due to the disturbing action of hurri- 
canes. 



l2 



140 



REPOllT — 1867. 



Table XXIV. — Showing the Maximum and Minimum Headings and the 
Extreme Eange of the Barometer for each Month, from 1860 to 18GG, 

both inclusive. 



Months. 



1860. 



r Maximum 29^99 1 
January -; IMinimuni' 29542 
Eange . . . 0-44.9 



r MaAimuni 

February ^ Minimum 

[ Eange . . . 



March 



r Maximum 
\ Minimum 
[ Eange . . . 



r Maximum 

April -'. Minimum 

[Range ... 

r Maximum 

May •! Minimum 

[ Eange . . . 

Maximum 

June \ Minimum 

Eange ... 



July 



August .. 



Maximum 
Jlinimum 
Eange ... 

Maximum 
Minimum 
Eange . . . 



{Maximum 
Minimum 
Eange . . . 



October. 



r Maximum 30-186 
- Minimum 29-930 
[ Eange ...! 0-256 



18G1. 



m. 

30*0 II 

29-544 

0-467 



1862. 



ni. 
30-029 

29745 
0-284 



1863. 



m. 

30-081 

29-231 

0-850 



29-906:29-986 30-039 3o"oi3 
29-520! 29-009 29-730 29-329 
0-476 0-977 0-309J 0-684 



30-059 

29-454 

0-605 

30-131 

29-834 

0-297 

30-190 

29-S4S 

0-342 

30-297 

29-969 

0-328 

30'384 
30-051 

o'333 

30-245 

29'9S4 
0291 

3o'24o 
29-963 

0-277 



30-083 30-150 30-065 
29-2S2 29-750129-734 
0*801 0-400 0-331 



r Maximum 

November J Minimum 

[ Eango . . . 

r Maximum 

December < Minimum 

[ Eange . . . 



Means for 
years 



■■{ 



Maximum 30-161 



30-164 

29-938 

0-226 

30-048 

29-878 

0-170 



Minimum 
Eange . . . 



19-823 
0-33S 



30-109 

29-897 

0-212 

30-127 
29-893 

0-234 

30-246 

29945 

0-301 

30-253 

29977 

0-276 

30-304 
30-016 
0-2 

30-279 

30-006 

0-273 

30-208 
29-951 

0-257 

30-076 

29-844 

0-232 

30-018 

29-773 
0-245 



30-1171 30-123 

29-898 29-755 

0-219 0-368 



1864. 1865, 



m. 

30-085 30-142 

29-706^29-875 

0-379 °'267 



30-107 

29-693 

0-414 

30-096 

29667 

0-429 

30-09, 
29-S59 
0-235 



30-185 30-2291 30-209 



29-947 
0-23S 

30-255 

29-863 

0-392 

30-300 

30-025 

0-275 

3o'337 

30-065 

0-272 

30-259 

30-062 
0-197 

30-265 

30-053 

0212 

30-124 

29-S26 

0-29S 

30-029 

29-564 

0-465 



30-142 30-174 30-186 



"9953 

0-276 

30-282 
30-048 
"0-234 

30-310 

30-007 

0-303 

30-323 

30-087 

0-236 

30-279 

29-988 

0291 

30-273 

29-859 

0-414 

30-147 

29-925 

0*222 

30-111 

29-915 
0-196 



29-765 29-S77 
0-377 0-297 



29-820 
0-366 



29-963 
0-246 

30-335 
30-069 

0-266 

30-356 

30-077 

0-279 

30-373 

30-063 

0-310 

30-385 

30-137 
0-248 

30-311 

30-014 
0-297 

30-199 

29'933 
0-266 

30-119 

29-936 
0-183 



30-222 

29-926 

0-296 



30-037 

29-511 

0-526 

30-0: 

^9757 
0-331 

30-071 

29-871 

0-200 

30-218 

29-941 

0-277 

30-400 

29-971 

0-429 

30-382 

30-111 

0-271 

3°"355 

30-073 

0-282 

30-375 
29-964 

0-41 1 

30-288 

29-823 

0-465 

30-231 

29-962 

0-269 

30-081 

29-650 
0-431 



1866. 



30-107 

29-748 

0-359 

30-044 

29-746 

0-298 

30-072 

29-836 

0-236 

30132 

29-820 

0-312 

30-227 

29-882 

o'34S 

30-295 

29-988 

0-307 

30-313 

30-015 

0-298 

30-340 

30-004 

0-336 

30-358 

30-009 
0-349 

30-257 

30-008 

0-249 

30-230 
29-986 

0-244 

30-202 

29-709 

0-493 



Monthly 
means. 



30-222 30-215 

29-876. 29-896 

0-3461 0-319 



30-063 

29-627 

0-436 

30-032 

29-505 

0-527 

30-088 

29-640 

0-448 

30-111 

29-848 

0-263 

30-X9S 

29-918 

0-280 

30-301 

29-979 

0-322 

30-328 

30-038 

0-290 

30-325 

30-037 

0-288 

30-311 

30-018 

0-293 

30-255 

29-948 

0-307 

30-167 

29.916 

0-251 

30-087 

29775 
0-312 



30-189 

29-854 

0-335 



ON THE METEOROLOGY OF PORT LOUIS. 



141 



Table XXV. — Showing the Greatest and Least Eeadings (corrected and 
reduced) of the Barometer, the Dates, and Eange in each Year. 



Years 


1860. 


1861. 


1862. 


1863. 


1864. 


1865. 


1866. 


Means. 




Maximum . . . 


30-327 


30-334 


30-337 


30-323 


30-385 


30-400 


3°'3S8 


30-352 


Dates 


25th 
June. 


26th 

Aug. 


15th 
Aug. 


i5t.h 

Aug. 


22nd 
Sept. 


30th 
June. 


gtb 

Sept. 


i2th 
Aug. 


Minimum ... 


29-454 


29-C09 


29-564 


29-231 29-667 


29-511 


29-630 


29-438 


Dates 


24th 
March. 


15th 
Feb. 


2nd 
Dec. 


13th i 4th 
Jan. |March. 

1 


12th 
Feb. 


7tb 
Dec. 


28th 
Jan. 


Range 


0-873 


1-325 


0-773 


1*092 0"7l8 


0-SS9 


0-728 


0-914 









Table XXYI. — Showing the Numher of times the Wind blew from the 
principal points of the Compass during each Year, from 
1861 to 1865 inclusive. 



Direction. 


1861. 


1862. 


1863. 


1864. 


1865. 


Totals. 


North 


26 

14 

19 

173 

395 
203 
136 

'I 

5 
6 
12 
28 
29 
14 

19 

233 

83 


14 

14 

14 

88 

226 

376 

227 

80 

8 

3 

5 

19 
31 
30 
27 
21 
271 
6 


12 
8 

15 
95 
209 
366 
281 
102 

4 
6 

4 
13 
21 

40 
38 

3^ 
207 

7 


5 
8 

14 
66 

288 

403 

268 

82 

9 

5 

7 

12 

22 

34 

37 

18 

181 
I 


12 

3 
11 

72 
162 

455 
291 

133 

10 

6 

10 

6 

9 

43 

33 

1 04 

I 


69 

47 

73 

494 

1280 

1803 

1203 

454 

39 

25 

32 

62 

III 

176 

149 

log 

1076 

98 


North to N.E. ... 

N.E 

N.E. to East 

East 


EasttoS.E 

S.E 

S.E. to South 

South 


South to S.W. ... 
S.W 


S.W. to West 

West 


WesttoN.W. ... 
N.W 


N.W. to North ... 
Calm 


Variable 




Totals 


1460 


1460 


1460 


1460 


1460 


73CO 



143 



REPORT 1867. 



Table XXVII. — Showing the Mean Estlmatccl Force of the "Wind, in Pounds' 
Pressure on the Square Foot, for each Observation Hour, derived from 
Six-hourly Observations, taken daily during Seven Years (1860-1866). 



Hours. 


1860. 


1861. 


1862. 


1863. 


1864. 


1865. 


1866. 


Means. 


3iA.M 

94 A.M 

34r-M 

gip-" 


lb. 

074 
0-86 
076 

072 


lb. 

0-5S 

0-59 

0-53 

0-49 


lb. 

0-23 
0-36 
0-31 
o'2g 


lb. 

0-38 

0-43 

0-47 
0-37 


lb. 
0-27 
0-34 
0-33 

0-25 


lb. 

0-31 
0-32 
0-34 
0-33 


lb. 
0-35 

0-37 
0-42 
0-30 


lb. 

0-41 

0-48 

0-45 

0-39 




077 


0-54 


0-30 


0-41 


o'3o 


0-32 


0-36 


0-43 





Table XXVIII.— Showing the Mean Estimated Force of the Wind for each 
Month, in Pounds' Pressure on the Square Foot, as derived from Six- 
hourly Observations, taken daily during Seven Years (1860-1866). 



Months. 



January 

February . . . . 

Marcli 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September .... 

October 

November .... 
December .... 

Yearly means 



18G0. 



lb. 

I'I2 

1-25 
071 
0"62 
I-I2 
0-82 
077 

o-6o 
0-54 
0-69 
o'S3 
°'3S 



1861. 



lb. 

0-57 
072 
172 
0-50 
0-29 
0-63 
0-46 
0-68 
0-29 
o'i7 
0-24 
0-26 



1862. 



1863. 



lb. 
0-44 
0-99 
0-56 

0-I2 

o-is 
o"i4 
o-i8 

0'20 

o'i6 
0-19 

0*2 1 
0-23 



lb. 
0-48 
171 

o-i8 

0'27 

0-34 

0-50 

0-34 

0-40 
0-24 
o'lg 

0'12 

o'i6 



1864. 



lb. 

0-27 

0-25 

0-24 

0-29 

0-23 

0-42 

0-33 

0-35 

0-45 

0-2S 
0'2I 
0-27 



1865. 



lb. 

0-32 

0-57 

0'32 
0'20 
0-28 
0-47 
0-36 
0-35 
0-27 
0-26 

o 24 
0-29 



1866. MontMy 



lb. 

0-34 
0-23 

0"2I 
0-64 
0"2S 
0-45 
0-42 
0-42 
0-48 

0-33 
0*26 

0'27 



lb. 

0-51 
0-82 
0-56 
0-38 
0-38 
0-49 
0-41 
0-43 
0-35 
0-30 

0"26 

0-26 



076 



0-54 



0*29 



o'4i 



o'3o 



0-33 



0-36 



0-43 



The general accordance of the results in Tables XXVIII. and XXIX. is 
evident, both showing two maxima in February and June, and two minima 
in April and November. The discrepancy in the amount of force is due to 
the results in the former Table having been derived from four daily obser- 
vations of the estimated force during seven years, while the results in the 
latter have been obtained by taking the means of the daily maximum force 
recorded by Osier's anemometer during six years. 



ON THE METEOROLOGY OF PORT LOUIS. 



143 



Table XXIX. — Showing the Mean Maximiim Force of the Wind for each 
Month, during Six Years, in Pounds' Pressure on the Square Foot, as 
obtained by Osier's Anemometer. 



Months. 


18G0. 


1861. 


1862. 


1863. 


1864. 


1865. 


1866. 


Monthly 
means. 


January 

February . . . 

March 

April 


lbs. 
4-00 
3-00 

2'00 

1-85 

470 

2'6o 

2-50 
2-50 

2-34 
1-95 
2-35 


lbs. 

2-10 

io'69 

a 
,^ 
2 

-s 

a 


i 


lbs. 
0-93 

2-8s 
2-28 

0'29 

0-99 

0-37 
1-56 
ris 
0-50 
0-68 
o'gi 
0-65 


lbs. 

2-20 
4-46 
0-38 

i"35 
179 

2-34 
2-o8 
i'96 
0-85 
0-50 
0-27 
0*40 


lbs. 
076 
0-93 
0-53 
0-51 
0-66 
2-48 
2-23 
2-34 
2-50 
0-95 
0-94 
0-85 


lbs. 

I'lO 

1-88 
1-59 
078 

i"34 
2-52 
2-28 

2'6o 

179 
0-83 
071 
1-03 


lbs. 
1-13 
0-63 
0-63 
2-49 
1-31 
2-48 
2-05 

2-20 
2'06 
0-84 
0-42 
049 


lbs. 
1-69 
2-29 

1-23 
I'2I 

1-59 

248 
2-13 

2'12 

170 
I -02 
0-87 
0-96 




June 


July 


August 

September . . . 

October 

November ... 
December ... 


Yearly means 


277 




l"IO 


I'SS 


1-31 


i'54 


1-39 


r6i 



Table XXX. — Showing the Greatest Force of the Wind, in Pounds' Pressure 
on the Square Foot, and the Dates, in each Tear. 



Years 


1860. 


1861. 


1862. 


1863. 


1864. 


1865. 


1866. 


Means. 




Maximum "1 
force j" 


lbs. 
i8-o 


lbs. 
40-0 


lbs. 

12-5 


lbs. 
36-0 


lbs. 
87 


lbs. 
i3'5 


lbs. 
i3'S 


lbs. 
20-3 


Date 


2ist 

June. 


15th 
Feb. 


26th 

Feb. 


20th 
Feb. 


2nd 

July. 


2ISt 

Feb. 


1 6th 
April. 


5th 
April. 



Table XXXI. — Showing the Mean Estimated Extent of Cloud for each Ob- 
servation Hour, as derived from Six-hourly Observations taken daily 
dui'ing Seven Years (1860-66), 10 being taken for an entirely overcast 
sky, and for an entirely cloudless sky. 



Hours. 


1860. 


1861. 


1862. 


1863. 


1864. 


1865. 


1SG6. 


Means. 


ii AM 


4'i 


4"o 


2-9 


3"o 


3-6 


4-0 


4" 3 


37 


9-^ A.jr 


6-0 


57 


5-1 


5'5 


5-6 


5'9 


57 


5-6 


3^ P.M 


67 


6-1 


5-8 


57 


6-3 


6-4 


6-3 


6-2 


92i"-M 


4-0 


3-5 


3-0 


3'° 


3-5 


37 


3-S 


3-5 


Means 


5 '2 


4-8 


4-2 


4-3 


47 


5-0 


5-0 


47 



144 



REPORT 1867. 



Table XXXII. — Showing the Mean Extent of Cloud, in each Month and 
Year, from 1860 to 1866, both inclusive, 10 being taken for an entirely 
overcast sky, and for an entirely cloudless sky. 



Months. 



1860. 



January 

February . . . . 

March 

April 

May , . . . . 

June , 

July 

August 

September . . . , 

October 

November .... 
December ... 

Yearly means 



6-0 
6-7 
4-6 

4'4 

4-9 
4-6 

5'9 
4-6 

4-9 
5-8 
4-8 

57 



1861. ; 1862. 



5-8 
6-9 

5'3 
5-0 

5'i 
4-2 

41 
4-3 
3-9 

VI 
4-z 

4-5 



5"3 
5'3 
4-5 
3'4 
3 "9 

2'8 

3*5 
4-2 

3-8 

57 
42 

37 



1863. 


1864. 


1865. 


47 


5*1 


4-6 


7'i 


6i 


5"5 


5-8 


4-0 


5-9 


4-0 


5*2 


3-8 


2-9 


4-0 


4-3 


31 


3-8 


5-1 


4-2 


4'S 


41 


3"5 


4-9 


5-4 


3^9 


4"9 


4" I 


4" 5 


4-2 


5"5 


3"2 


5'2 


4'3 


4-8 


5-0 


7-3 


4'3 


47 


S-o 



1866. 



Monthly 
means. 



6-1 

5"i 
47 
5-6 
49 
4'5 
4-2 
4-8 

4-9 
6-3 

4-2 

4-9 



5'4 
5-9 
4*9 
4-5 
4" 3 
4-0 

4-3 
4*9 
4*3 
5'i 
4"3 
5-1 



5'2 



4-8 



42 



5"° 



47 



Table XXXIII. — Showing the Amount of Rainfall, in inches, for each 
Mouth and Tear, from 1860 to 1866, both inclusive. 



Months. 


1860. 


1861. 


1862. 


1863. 1864. 


1865. 


1866. ^°"*"y 

means. 


Deviation 
from 
mean. 


January 

February . . . 

March 

April 


in. 
14-65 

13-55 
758 
1-25 
1-33 
0-45 
0-85 
2-i8 
0-38 
0-53 
o'i6 

2-27 


in. 

5-37 

46-57 

2-48 

3-23 

3-73 
0-87 
0-45 
1-84 

O'OO 

o'03 
2-15 
2-04 


in. 

4'02 

469 

5-97 
184 
676 
0-58 

o-6o 
1-09 
0-31 
0-59 
0-8 1 
ri3 

28-39 


in. 
9-48 
10-95 

3-43 
1-49 
0-71 
1-71 

0-73 
0-29 
0-72 
i-i8 

0-35 
2-37 


in. 
2-32 

5-75 
2-99 
1-92 
0-51 
0-31 
1-47 

3-94 

0-37 

0-83 
:"9o 
1-83 


in. 

3-27 

15-54 

3-17 

0-77 

0-22 
0-78 

2-35 

3-28 

o-6o 

0-82 

1-84 

12-09 


in. 

5-41 
2-54 

3-8i 
4-78 
i-i6 

0-37 
0-36 

0-73 
0-37 

0-24 
o-oo 

079 


in. 
636 

14-23 
4-20 
2-18 
2"o6 

0-72 
0-97 
1-91 
0-39 

o"6o 
1-03 

3-22 


in. 

+ 3'20 

+ II-07 
+ 1-04 

- 0-98 

- i-io 

- 2-44 

- 2-19 

- 1-25 

- 2-77 

- 2-56 

- 2-13 
■\- 0-06 


May 


June 


July 


August 

September . . . 

October 

November ... 
December . . . 


Fall for year 


4S-i8 


68-76 


33-41 


24-14 


44-73 


20*56 


37-87 




Deviation 
from mean 


+r3i 


+ 30-89 


-9-48 


-4-46 


-13-73 


+6-86 


-17-31 


3-i6 





The rain-gauge is 40 feet above the ground ; the mouth of the receiver is 
20 by 10 inches ; and the rain is conducted by a leaden tube to a room in 
the Observatory. 



ON THE METEOKOLOGY OF PORT LOUIS. 



145 



Table XXXIV. — Sho-wing the Greatest Rainfall, in inches, ou any one day, 

in each Year, with the Date. 



Years. 


1860. 


1861. 


1862. 


1863. 


1864. 


1865. 


1866. 


Means. 


Greatest rainfall | 
in 24 hours J 


in. 
5-82 


in. 
10 -co 


in. 
3-25 


in. 
3-17 


in, 
2-45 


in. 
7-46 


in. 

1-72 


in. 
4-84 


Date 1 


26th 
Jan. 


15th 
Feb. 


25th 
May 


13th 
Jan. 


iitli 
Feb. 


12th 
Feb. 


24th 
Mar. 


26th 
Feb. 



Table XXXY. — Sho-\ving the Annual llainfall, in inches, at different 
Stations in Mauritius, from 1862 to 1866, both inclusive. 



Stations. 



Flat Island 

Gros-Cailloux ... 

Port Louis 

Mont Choisy 

Les Rochers 

Botanical Gardens... 
Laboui-donnais ... 

Lucia 

Croft-an-Righ . . . 

Beau Sejour 

Trianon 

The Braes 

Mesnil 

Esperance 

La Gaiet6 

Cluny 

Gros Bois 

Beau Vallon 

St. Aubin 



1862. 



m. 
28-02 

2S'3S 
28-39 
41-56 
41-84 



52-23 
60-71 



69-07 
S9'5i 



122-54 



1863. 



36-54 

33'35 
33-41 
5466 
64-27 



70-72 
67-87 



99-76 
8066 
81-09 



147-09 



1864. 



24-17 
24-14 
48-89 
42-65 
51-55 
57-25 
57-94 
56-61 
56-60 
48-58 
70-59 



122-4S 
83-36 



1865. 


1866. 


Means. 


1 in. 


in. 


in. 


36-57 


20-72 


28-03 


4473 


20-56 


30-24 


67-53 
60-95 

85-37 

87-63 

101-56 


45-°S 
40-81 

• 50-29 
51-84 


51-54 
50-10 

63-62 
67-98 


79-44 
87-12 


40-68 
44-56 


71-42 


81-19 

78-77 


43-24 
48-70 
67-67 


67-73 


147-74 


88-02 




97-55 


57-77 




192-45 


129-42 


142-80 


135-21 


70-24 




100-85 


51-05 




115-61 


70-51 





It may be proper to mention that, with the exception of Port Louis, Mont 
Choisy, Les Eochers, the Botanical Gardens, Labourdonnais, Mesnil, and La 
Gaiete, aU the stations are supphed with rain-gauges of the same form and 
size, viz., Glaisher's rain-gauge as made by Negretti and Zambra. Except 
at Port Louis and La Gaiete the gauges are i)laced on the ground. 



146 



REPORT 1867. 



Table XXXVI. — Showing the number of Daj^s on which Lightning was 
seen, or Thunder heard, in each Month and Year, from lyGO to 1866, 
both inchtsive. 



Months. 


18G0. 


1861. 


1SG2. 


18G3. 


1804. 


18G5. 


1866. 


Means. 


tfanuary 


9 

lO 

3 
I 


lo 

2 

n 
3 

I 
2 


S 
4 

2 

4 

I 


II 

9 

13 
6 

I 


6 

7 

2 

10 

5 

I 
2 




II 

3 
2 
2 

2 


2 

8 

10 

5 
I 




6-6 
6-0 

5-9 
4-6 

17 


February . 


March 


April . 


May 


June 

July 

August 

September 

October 




O'l 




0-8 

0-7 


December 




Totals 


^4 


20 


19 


40 


33 


22 


26 


26-4 





Table XXXVII. — Showing the Mean Values of the principal Meteorological 
Elements for each Observation Hour, derived from Six-hourly Observa- 
tions taken daily during Seven Years (1800-66). 



Hours. 


Tempe- 
rature of 
air. 


Atmo- 
spheric 
pressure. 


Yapoiu'- 
pressure. 


Dry 
pressure. 


Ilumidlty 

100—0. 


Estimated 

force of 

wnd, 

in lb.s. 


Amount 

of cloud 

10 — 0. 


3iA.M. ... 

9r}A.5I. ... 
SJP.M. ... 
9|P.M. ... 


75-5° 
77-59 
78-99 
76-36 


in. 
30-038 

3o^o86 

30-015 

30-085 


in. 
-646 

•654 

•658 

•652 


m. 

29-392 

29-432 
i9'357 
29'433 


737 
7o'o 
67-3 
72-6 


lb. 

o'4i 

©•48 
o"45 
o'39 


37 
5-6 

6^2 

3-5 


Means . . . 


77"ii 


30-056 


•652 


29-404 


70-9 o'43 


47 



It appears from Table XXXVII. that the march of the diy pressure is 
similar to that of the total or atmospheric pressure, the rise and fall for both 



being as foUoAVS : — 





Total 


Dry 


Period. 


Pres. 


Pres. 


3g A.nr. to 9| A.nr. 


-f-04S 


+ •040 


^h A.JI. to 3i P.M. 


-•071 


—•075 


3| P.M. to 9i P.M. 


+ •070 


+ •076 


9i P.M. to 3:^ A.M. 


-•047 


-■041 



ON THE METEOROLOGY OF PORT LOUIS. 



147 



Table XXXYIII. — Sho-\ving the Means of the principal Meteorological 
Elements for each Hour of the Day, derived from Hourly Observations 
taken on the 21st of every Month, from 1863 to 1866, both inclusive. 



Hours. 


Tempe- 
rature of 


Atmo- 
spheric 
pressure. 


Vapour- 


Dry 


Humidity 


Estimated 
force of 




air. 


pressiu-e. 


pressure. 


100 — 0. 


wind. 






m. 


in. 


in. 




lb. 


6 A.M. ... 


75-55 


30-060 


■628 


29-432 


69-8 


0-20 


7 .. •■• 


75'77 


30-071 


•633 


29-438 


69-8 


0-30 


8 „ ... 


76-54 


30-082 


-642 


29-440 


69-5 


0-18 


9 .. - 


77-11 


30-090 


•640 


29-450 


67-6 


0-25 


lo 


78-12 


30-087 


•644 


29-443 


66-0 


0-30 


11 „ ... 


78-92 


3°-075 


-645 


29-430 


65-0 


0-31 


Noon 


79-18 


30-059 


■644 


29415 


63-9 


030 


I r.M. ... 


79-43 


30-039 


-646 


29-393 


63-6 


0-30 


2 „ ... 


79-36 


30-025 


-646 


29-379 


64-0 


0-40 


3 .. ••• 


79-22 


30-017 


•644 


29-373 


63-9 


0-26 


4 .. - 


78-86 


30-020 


•634 


29-386 


63-8 


0-25 


5 .. - 


78-22 


30-030 


-636 


29394 


65-1 


0-25 


6 „ ... 


77-61 


30-044 


•634 


29-410 


66-3 


0-22 


7 =. - 


77-08 


30-060 


-633 


29-427 


67-4 


0-30 


8 „ ... 


76-76 


30-074 


-634 


29-440 


681 


0-23 


9 » - 


76-46 


30-084 


•634 


29-450 


68-6 


018 


lO 


76-31 


30-086 


-632 


29-454 


68-9 


0-17 


II „ 


7619 


30-081 


•631 


29-450 


691 


0-19 


Midnight.. 


75-96 


30-072 


-629 


29-443 


693 


0-19 


I A.M. ... 


7589 


30-059 


-630 


29429 


69-7 


0-23 


2 „ ... 


75-82 


30-047 


•629 


29-418 


699 


0-25 


3 .. ••• 


75-72 


30-039 


-625 


29-414 


696 


0-23 


4 „ •■• 


75-71 


30-037 


-621 


29-416 


69-0 


0-26 


5 .. - 


75-59 


30-043 


-623 


29-420 


69-6 


0-20 


Daily \ 
means J ■" 


77-14 


30-057 


i -635 

1 


29*422 


67-4 


0-25 



Table XL *. — Showing the Means of the Extreme Eange of the principal 
Meteorological Elements for each Mouth, derived from Six -hourly Ob- 
servations taken daily from 1860 to 1866, both inclusive. 



Months. 


Tempe- 
rature of 
air. 


Atmo- 
spheric 
pressure. 


Yapour- Humidity 
pressure. 100—0. 


January 



12-55 
12-36 
11-83 
12-80 

13-53 
12-67 
10-78 
11-36 
ii-8o 
11-36 
13-09 

13-59 


in. 
0-436 
0-527 
0-448 
0-263 
0-280 
0-322 
0-290 
0-288 
0-293 
0-307 
0-251 
0-312 


in. 
■265 


30-9 


Pebruary 


March 


250 ji y 

-270 29-0 

-26S "'■'•5 


April 


May 


-276 
-268 
-222 
-221 
•213 

-333 
•229 
-237 


27-9 
28-2 
28-0 
30-4 
26-8 
27-9 
27-3 
28-8 


June 


July 


Aueust 


September 


October 


November 


December 




Yearly means 


12-29 


0-335 


-246 


28-7 



Tables XXXIX. and Xli, he^ye been transposed in order to save space. 



148 



REPORT — 1867. 






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ON THE METEOROLOGY OF PORT LOUIS. 



149 



Table XLI. — Showing the Highest and Lowest Values, and the Extreme 
Ranges, of the principal Meteorological Elements for each Year, from 1860 
to 1866, both inclusive, with the Epochs of Maximum and Minimum. 



Observations. 


1860. 


1861. 


1862. 


1863. 


1864. 


1865. 


1866. 


Annual 

means. 




" Highest ... 


88-1 


88-0 


89-4 


88-0 


89-0 


90-0 


89-0 


88-77 


3 


Date ... • 


31st 


14th 


27th 


23 rd 


2nd 


4th 


ist 


23 rd 


* !-■ 


Jan. 


Jan. 


Dec. 


Jan. 


Dec. 


Feb. 


April. 


Jan. 


s!^ '\ 


Lowest ... 


66-5 


67-0 


68-0 


65-9 


66-0 


67-6 


62-8 


66-25 




Date ... 1 


22nd 


nth 


24th 


8th 


2ud 


loth 


29th 


24th 




June 


Sept. 


June 


July. 


Aug. 


July. 


Aug. 


July. 




__ Range 


21-6 


21-0 


21-4 


22-1 


23-0 


22-4 


26-2 


22-52 


u 


Highest ... 


30-327 


30'334 


30-337 


30-323 


30-385 


30-400 


30-358 


30-352 


i> al 


Date ... 1 


25 th 


26th 


15th 


15 th 


22nd 


30th 


9th 


12th 


li 


June. 


Aug. 


Aug. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


June. 


Sept. 


Aug. 


fr 


Lowest ... 


29-454 


29-009 


29-564 


29-231 


29-667 


29-511 


29-630 


29-438 


s ^ 


Date ... J 


24th 


15th 


2nd 


13th 


4th 


1 2th 


7th 


28th 




Mar. 


Feb. 


Dec. 


Jan. 


Mar. 


Feb. 


Dec. 


Jan. 




Range 


0-873 


1-325 


0-773 


1-092 


0-718 


0-8S9 


0-728 


0-914 




' Highest ... 


0-914 


0-896 


0-903 


°-955 


0-868 


0-940 


0-940 


0-916 


.. . 


T)aff> } 


29th 


31st 


27th 


19th 


6th 


19th 


2 1 St. 


8th 


3 2 


±JavKj ... 1 


Jan. 


Jan. 


Jan. 


Jan. 


Mar. 


Feb. 


Feb. 


Feb. 


S.| ■{ Lowest ... 


0-446 


0-449 


0-450 


0-400 


0-408 


0-435 


0-367 


0-421 


7i o 


Date ...| 


20th 


19th 


15th 


20tll 


31st 


12th 


27th 


2ist 


'"' 


June. 


June. 


June. 


July. 


July. 


Aug. 


Sept, 


July. 




Range 


0-467 


0-447 


0-4S3 


0-555 


0-460 


0-505 


°-573 


0-495 




' Highest ... 


96-7 


95-3 


90-9 


90-7 


90-7 


90-9 


91-0 


92-31 


!^ 


Date ...| 


2lst 


1 6th 


9th 


5 th 


12th 


12th 


4th 


8 th 


r-3 


Aug. 


Feb. 


Feb. 


April. 


Aug. 


Feb. 


Jan. 


April. 


•^ ■{ Lowest .. 


50-3 


46-3 


53-3 


52-8 


52-5 


52-5 


48-0 


50-81 


5 


Date ...- 


7th 


loth 


17th 


i.st 


nth 


1 2th 


26th 


29th 


K 


Oct. 


June. 


Nov. 


Nov. 


July. 


Aug. 


July. 


Aug. 




_^ Range 


46-4 


49-0 


37-6 


37-9 


38-2 


38-4 


43-0 


41-5 


Maximum foree' 


















of wind in 


















pounds press- S- 
ure on square 


i8-o 


40-0 


12-5 


36-0 


8-7 


13*5 


I3-5 


20-31 


















foot _ 


















Date ... 


2lst 


15th 


26th 


20th 


2nd 


2ISt 


16th 


5th 


June. 


Feb. 


Feb. 


Feb. 


July. 


Feb. 


April. 


April. 


Greatest rainfall ] 


















in twenty- > 


5S2 


10-00 


3-25 


3-17 


2-45 


7-46 


1-72 


4-84 


four liours ... J 


















Date ... 1 


26th 


15th 


25th 


J 3 th 


nth 


12th 


24th 


26th 


Jan. 


Feb. 


May. 


Jan. 


Feb. 


Feb. 


Mar. & 


Feb. 
















3rd Apr. 





150 



REPORT 1867. 



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M 



ON THE CONSTRUCTION OF THE HIGHLAND RAILWAY. 151 

On the Construction and Works of the Highland Railway. By Joseph 
Mitchell^ F.R.S.E., F.G.S., C.E., and Member of the Institution 
of Civil Engineers. 

This title represents the iinion of several Coropanies in the north of 
Scotland, amalgamated three years ago under the name of the Highland 
Eailway Company. The works consist of a main line from a point near 
Perth, extending northward 117 miles to the town of Forres, and a base- 
line running nearly at right angles to the other, extending westwards from 
the town of Keith by Elgin and Forres along the shores of the Moray Firth 
to Inverness, and thence along the Beauly, Dingwall, and Dornoch Firths, 
northwards to Bonar Bridge, measuring from Keith to Inverness 55 miles, 
and from Inverness to Bonar Bridge 58 miles, and making together a base- 
line of 113 miles. These railways traverse the northern part of Perthshire, 
and are the main lines of communication through part of Banffshire and 
the counties of Inverness, Nairn, Moray, and Koss, the whole including three 
branches — two to the ports of Burghead and Findhorn in Morayshire, and the 
other to the village of Aberieldy in Perthshii-e — and extending to 24G miles 
length. 

The countiy is fertile and comparatively flat for a distance of about 40 
mUes north of Perth, and also along the shores of the Moray, Dingwall, and 
Dornoch Firths ; but between Perthshire and Morayshire the line crosses two 
ranges of the Grampian Mountains, the one separating the vaUey of the Tay 
from that of the Spcy, and the northern range separating the Spey from the 
valley of the Findhorn. 

The large rivers which chain these mountain -regions debouch into the Tay, 
the Moray, the Dingwall, and the Dornoch Firths, and as the railway in 
most cases crosses these rivers near the sea, bridges of considerable magnitude 
Avere required. Besides the crossing of these rivers, other difficulties of a 
formidable character arose in crossing the mountains at so great an eleva- 
tion, and in passing the rocky and precipitous defiles through which portions 
of the line had to run. 

The northern counties traversed by these railways, except along the shores of 
the Firths, are chiefly pastoral, exporting large numbers of sheep and cattle^ 

The fisheries also are on an extensive scale ; besides the salmon fisheries 
in the rivers, the annual take of white fish in the Moray Firth amounts to 
about 60,000 tons. 

The object of the promoters, therefore, was to sweep the fertile shores of 
the Moray Firth, ancl to send the produce of the country by the most direct 
route to Perth, across the mountains, thus saving a detour by Aberdeen of 
nearly 60 miles. In laying out the main line and crossing the Grampians 
between Perth and Forres, long and steep inclines could not be avoided, but 
there is no steeper gradient than 1 in 70 throughout. The line to Blair, 
36 miles fi-om Perth, rises only 443 feet above the level of the sea, but from 
Blair to the summit of the southern range of the Grampians, a distance of 17 
miles, the line rises 1045 feet, making the extreme summit 1488 feet above 
the sea. In this distance there are gradients for 10 continuous miles of 1 
in 72 and 1 in 70, and in the remainiag 7 miles the inclines vary from 1 in 
78 to 1 in 110. After passing this summit the line descends into the vaUey 
of the Spey, falling 747 feet in 18 miles, the steepest gradient being 1 in 80. 
On crossing the Spey, the line is comparatively level for a distance of 24 miles, 
when it again ascends by gradients of 1 in 84, 80, and 100, in order to pass 
the northern ridge which separates the vaUey of the Spey from that of the 



153 REPORT — 1867. 

Findhom. This summit is 1046 feet above the sea-level. It afterwards de- 
scends to Forres (the point of junction with the base-line) by gradients, the 
steepest of which are 1 in 70 ibr S miles, and 1 in 70 for 4 miles. 

In this length of the main direct line of 104 miles, there are two small 
tunnels, one of 350 yards near Dunkeld, and the other in the Pass of Killie- 
crankie of 110 j-ards in length, both constructed very much with the view of 
avoiding injury to the adjoining scenery. 

The principal difficulties that arose in laying out the line were in passing 
through the narrow defile at Dunkeld, the beautiful demesne of the Duke of 
Athole, and again in penetrating through the picturesque Pass of KiUiecrankie, 
where the mountains, as it were, close in upon each other for a great height ; 
likewise in passing along the narrow, precipitous, and rocky valley of 
the Garry, close to a large and rapid mountain-stream ; also the Park at 
Castle Grant, and the defile at Huntley's Cave near Grantown. These 
points in particular required much study, with repeated trial and contour 
levels, so as to obtain a kno-wledge of the precise formation of the ground, 
and to choose the best direction at the lowest possible cost. At the Pass of 
KiUiecrankie the banks were so precipitous and steep that the line had to be 
supported by breast or retaining walls to the extent of 690 lineal yards, and 
to the average height of 26 feet, the extreme height of one being 55 feet ; 
and in order to carry the railway at the narrowest point in the Pass where 
the precipices close in, as it were, on either side, and afford scarcely any ad- 
ditional space beyond that occupied by the channel of the river, instead of 
supporting the line by brcastwaUs, it was deemed prudent to construct a 
viaduct of 10 arches, 60 feet above the river, which with a tunnel at the 
north end carries it successively through the Pass. At two other points on 
the line, in running up the sides of the Garry, brcastwaUs had to be formed, 
respectively 94 and 35 yards in length, and 15 feet in average height. All 
these breastwalls, extending to 1650 lineal yards, are buUt with Ume, and 
set on a solid foundation of dry gravel or rock, at right angles to the face of 
the waU, which batters at the rate of 1| inch to the foot. 

The spaces behind the waUs are fiUed with rubble stones, set by hand for 
10 feet wide, and further back with dry gravel, it being important that aU 
earth or clayey substances should be excluded. The writer prefers the curved 
to the straight batter, as it gives more effectual resistance if well built ; but 
breastwalls are to be avoided wherever earth embankments can be substi- 
tuted, as, in his experience, there are subtle influences in the Scottish climate 
of alternate frost and wet in winter, which operate imperceptibly to their 
destruction, and they require careful and constant inspection. Except where 
those breastwaUs became necessary, the whole of the lines were formed in 
cuttings and embankments, and for considerable distances along the slopes of 
vaUeys. Where the ground was precipitous or irregular in the cross 
section, level benchings were formed, 10 feet in width, immediately under- 
neath the pei-manent way, in order that the sleepers should have an equal 
and solid bearing throughout. 

In rimning through so large an extent of mountainous country, the line, 
as might be expected, had to pass over some lengths of soft ground and 
morass. The piincipal of these were for two mUes near the town of Nairn, 
also for about two miles near Keith, one mile on Dava Moor, and about a 
mile in crossing through a hoUow at Drumochter on the summit of the 
Grampians. In aU places where the ground was particularly soft, a uniform 
mode of treatment was adopted. Two par;iUel drains were first cut outside 
the fences, about 50 feet apart, from 4 to 6 feet deep, and with slopes of 1 



ON THE CONSTRUCTION OF THE HIGHLAND RAILWAY. 153 

to 1. This drained off the surface-water; and, after making up the holes 
and other irregularities of the surface with turf, the space for the railway to a 
breadth of about 15 feet was covered with two or three layers of swarded 
or heather tuif, having the sward side of the lower layer undermost, and 
that of the top layer up, the joints breaking band. In this way a good sus- 
taining surface has uniformly been obtained*. On this bed of turf the 
ballast was laid for 2 or 3 feet in depth. This was quite sufficient to support 
the traffic, but as in some cases the bed of moss was from 20 to 30 feet in 
depth, the railway merely floated on the surface, and was in the first instance 
undulating, and yielded in some parts from 3 to 4 inches under the weight 
of the engines passing over. To obviate this undulation longitudinal beams 
of timber were tried at one place, 30 to 40 feet long, below the sleepers, but 
this was found objectionable, as rendering it more difficult to raise or repair 
the surface of the road ; and an additional sleeper (making the sleepers 2 
feet 6 inches from centre to centre, instead of 3 feet) was found preferable. 
There was nothing for it, at the worst, but to hft the road every other week 
as it sunk, until it had acquired a soUd bearing. In many places we had to 
lay on 4, 5, or 6 feet in depth of additional gravel, and in one place no less 
than 27 feet, before the road became solid. In the course of two or three 
years, however, with due attention, the rails being fished, the lines through 
these mosses were aU that could be desired for solidity and permanence. 

As the writer has said, in crossing so many mountain-rivers, bridges of 
magnitude had to be constructed, involving considerable varieties of execution. 
The principal of these bridges may now be described, and any peculiarity 
will be noticed which may have arisen during the progress of the works. It 
will be observed that the beds of the rivers in the north of Scotland differ in 
many respects from what is common in England, consisting frequently of 
depths of 10 or 12 feet of gravel and boulders, the solid and compacted debris 
of successive floods, below which, if the country is of rocky formation, there 
is usually hard clay, and then rock, or, as in one case at the mouth of the 
River Ness, after penetrating 12 feet of shingle and boulders, a sort of ad- 
mixtui'e of whitish clay and sand was obtained. In some cases we had to 
deal with soft clay and mud of great depth, but these were exceptions. Nor 
was it possible in general to ascertain, by boring, the precise nature of the 
foundations, because many bf the boulders in the gravel were of large size, 
and were often mistaken for rock. The only way in which an approximate 
knowledge of the foundations could be obtained was by driving ii-on rods at 
various places, and, when the bed of the river admitted of it, wooden piles. 
StUl we worked very much in the dark ; but the writer's long experience of 
these rivers, and of the natiu-e of their floods, was of great advantage in 
enabling him to fix the depth of the foundations and the precise description 
of works, to secure the necessary stability of construction. In only two or 
three cases was there any fear of sinking. What had chiefly to be guarded 
against was sudden and impetuous floods, sometimes accompanied with 
floating ice and trees, undermining the foundations and damaging the piers ; 
it was therefore important to provide ample waterway. The construction of 
these bridges ranged over twelve years, and during that time there has been 
considerable changes in bridge building, by the adoption of iron cylinders for 
piers, and lattice girders in spanning the waterways, so that, as the works 
progressed, these improvements were adopted where found suitable. 

* Had this plan, whicli the writer has found to answer so well both for roads and 
railways, been adopted in the clayey ground at Balaklava in the Crimea, a good road might 
hare been formed. 

1867. M 



154 REPORT — 1867. 

In planning these works, the writer, while having every regard to economy, 
felt the importance of their being of the most substantial character, seeing 
that they were exposed in these districts to every vicissitude of climate and 
flood ; but indeed he feels that aU permanent public works involving the 
safety of the lives of the community should be of undoubted stability. On 
the whole system there are only three timber bridges, which he was forced 
to adopt, chiefly with a view to save time, but these are very substantial of 
their kind. All the other bridges are constructed of stone, and where iron 
is adopted the piers are in general constructed of masonry. 

The iron work of the bridges on all these lines were constructed by Messrs. 
Fairbairn and Sons of Manchester, for about ,£20 per ton on the average, 
and are admirable specimens of workmanship in this department. 

Accompanying this paper, the writer furnished the working drawings of 
fourteen of these bridges, with the sections and dimensions in detail. They 
exhibit a variety of forms suited to the localities in which they are built. 

No. 1 is an iron-girder bridge across the Tay, 6 miles north of Dunkeld, 
with stone abutments and pier, constructed on platforms and piles in the 
usual way. The banks are low, and the river is spanned by two openings, 
one of 210 feet, and the other of 141 feet. The cost of this work was 
£20,395. Extreme length 515 feet; height above the bed of the river 
67 feet ; cost per lineal foot £39 12s. 

Nos. 2 and 3 are the most recent bridges erected by the writer ; and here 
he has taken advantage of the modern plan of using cylinder piers to carry 
the girders. Both bridges are constructed in the same manner, and on the 
same principle. The cyhnders form the piers in the centre and abutments. 
Each cylinder is 8 feet in diameter, and has been sunk into the bed of the 
river 27| feet in their extreme depth, by means of divers. When these cy- 
linders were adjusted and brought to the full depth, about 3 feet of cement 
concrete was lowered into the Taottom. On the concrete setting, the water 
was pumped out, and the interior fiUed in vrith rubble masonry, laid with 
Portland cement. To provide for extreme floods, two side openings were 
made, 41 1 and 35 feet span, of plate girders, one end resting on the masoniy 
in the cast-iron cyhnders, and the other on a stone abutment landward, secured 
on a platform and pUes. These bridges answer their purpose very satisfactorily. 
The cost of No. 2 bridge, which consists of two openings of 122 feet, and two 
side openings of 35 feet span, was £11,156. Total length of No. 2 350 feet ; 
cost per lineal foot £31 17s. Qd. ; height above the bed of the river 36 feet. 

The cost of No. 3 bridge, consisting of two openings of 137 feet span, and 
two side openings of 41| feet span, the cylinders being sunk into the bed of 
the river 25 feet, amounted to £13,772. Length of No. 3, 419| feet; cost 
£32 16s. Id. per lineal foot; height above the bed of the river 49 feet. 

No. 4 is the viaduct in the Pass of Killiecrankie already alluded to. It 
consists of 10 arches of 35 feet span, with an extreme height from the foun- 
dations to the top of the parapet of 54 feet, and is built with a curve of 20 
chains radius. The Pass of Killiecrankie is a well-known object of picturesque 
beauty, and it is generally admitted that the railway, now that the slopes 
have attained their proper verdure, has in no way diminished its attractions. 
Indeed this viaduct is thought to give it additional interest. 1 he cost was 
£5720. It is adapted to the single line, and is 17 feet in width over 
parapets. Length 508 feet ; cost per lineal foot £11 5s. 

No. 5 is a viaduct across the Biver Tilt, near Blair Atliole, spanning the 
river by one wrought-iron girder of 150 feet. The abutments are of stone, 
laid three feet below the bed of the river on a platform of timber 6 inches 



ON THE CONSTRUCTION OF THE HIGHLAND RAILWAY. 



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156 REPORT — 1867. 

thick secured to piles. As it is situated close to Blair Castle, it has been 
made somewhat more ornate than was otherwise necessary. The cost of 
this bridge is ^6500, being for a single line. Length 256 feet; cost 
.£25 7s. 9d. per lineal foot ; height above the bed of the river 40 feet, 

No. 6 is a bridge across the River Garry at Calvine of 3 spans, one of 
80 and two of 40 feet, and is 55 feet from the bed of the river to the top of 
the parapet. There was considerable difficulty in fixing the crossing of the 
river at this place. The Garry is here a large and rapid mountain-stream, 
on a rocky bed, with several falls immediately adjoining, running through an 
ornamental plantation, and as this was a spot of interest in the grounds of 
Blair Castle, we were precluded from crossing the river at any other point 
within the demesne. It occurred to the writer, however, as the road-bridge 
passed over about the narrowest part of the river, the object aimed at could be 
effected both economically and unobjectionably by spanning both road and river, 
thus forming an object of additional interest in this peculiar locality. The cost 
of this bridge was =£5100. Length 274 feet ; cost per lineal foot ,£18 12s. 3d. 

No. 7 is a bridge of no particular interest, 80 feet span, crossing the 
Eiver Dahudn, a mountain-stream near Grantown, but is given as a specimen 
of a substantial bridge of this size. The cost was :— Masonry £2238 ; iron 
work £1060. Total £3298. Length 148 feet ; height 27 feet ; cost per 
lineal foot £22 5s. M. 

No. 8 is a viaduct crossing a picturesque ravine and stream called the 
Divie, 10 miles south of Forres. Its length is 477 feet, constructed for a 
single line, and the cost amounted to £10,231. It is 106 feet in height from 
the river-bed to the top of the parapet, and 16 feet in width; all the piers 
within the limits of the stream are founded on rock. It consists of seven 
arches of 45 feet span each. Cost per lineal foot £21 9s. 

These viaducts constitute the principal works on the through line between 
Perth and Forres. Tlie writer wiU now proceed to allude briefly to the 
principal works on the coast-line between Keith and Bonar Bridge. 

The portion from Keith to Inverness being one-half the distance of the 
railway from Aberdeen to Inverness, the capital of the Highlands, extends 
to 55 miles in length. It may be stated that this portion from Inverness to 
Keith originally formed part of the Great North of Scotland Railway, the act 
for which was obtained in 1846, but pecimiary difficulties prevented the 
promoters from constructing this part of their scheme, involving, as it was then 
supposed, the construction of very heavy work in the neighbourhood of the 
River Spey, and it was eventually left to theHighland Companies to carry it out. 
There is a deep and precipitous ravine on the south side of the Spey, 
with flat meadows on the north side, and the original plan of the Great 
North of Scotland Company was to cross the river at a gradient of 1 in 
90 with a high viaduct, with expensive works in the ravine, at a cost 
of about £100,000, the bridge being estimated at £60,000. After much 
careful survey and consideration, and consultation with Messrs. Locke 
and Errington regarding this work, it was fixed to pass through the ravine 
by a gradient of 1 in 60 for 2| miles, which is the steepest gradient on 
the Highland system, and span the river by a box girder of 230 feet, with 
six side arches of masonry, each of 30 feet span, to meet the contingency 
of flood waters, which are on this river very sudden and very rapid, and the 
work has been carried out successfully. It may be mentioned that this was 
about the greatest single span of an open girder at the time built (1856). 
The propriety of a stone bridge at this place, with a gradient of 1 in 70, was 
considered by the Directors, but it was found to be too expensive. The 
present Hne, however, answers quite sufficiently for the traffic of the country. 



ON THE CONSTRUCTION OF THE HIGHLAND RAILWAY. 157 

which is now chiefly local since the opening of the Highland line. The cost 
of the bridge, which is 660 feet long and 74 feet high from the foundations 
to the top of the towers, constructed for a double line, was .£34,480 ; cost 
per lineal foot £52 5s. The east abutment of this bridge is founded on rock, 
and it was provided that the west abutment should be sunk and founded on 
piles and a platform, the iirst imperfect trials having led to the conclusion 
that there was nothing bej'ond indurated shingle at this place. On sinking 
14 feet from the surface, however, through a conglomerate of boulders 2 to 
3 feet in diameter, hard mountain clay appeared, and on penetrating this 
for about 3 feet, rock was found, thus securing for this structure a rock 
foundation on either side. Immediately at the east end of this viaduct, the 
line, as already said, runs through a narrow and precipitous ravine, the 
stream of which had to be diverted for the railway, by a new channel cut out 
of the sohd gravel 30 feet wide, sloping longitudinally 1 in 40, and pitched 
with stones from 12 to 18 inches deep. This pitching, which consists of squared 
stones, had to a smaU extent broken up several times since the line was 
opened ten years ago, from the floods bringing down stones and trees, and 
we found that the most efl'ectual way of securing it was by inserting^walings 
of timber 40 feet apart, 12 inches by 4 inches, across the channel, secured 
at every 3 feet by iron piles, and grouting the joints of the pitching in dry 
weather with lime-grout so as to prevent the lodgment of aii* and water, 
which imder the pressure of floods has a tendency to dislocate the stone work. 

No. 10 is a viaduct crossing the Finclhorn, a dangerous and rapid river. 
It sometimes comes down in great flood, almost in a body of 2 or 3 feet 
of perpendicular height at a time, notwithstanding that in summer it is a 
very moderate-sized stream. This bridge consists of three spans of 150 feet 
each, with stone abutments and piers of solid ashlar, and is constructed for a 
single line. There was no appearance of rock in the immediate neighbour- 
hood of the site, although rock appeared on one side of the river about half 
a mile above ; and the channel, as far as could be ascertained, consisted of 
shingle and gravel. It was provided, therefore, that the foundation should 
be sunk 6 feet below the deepest part of the bed of the river on a platform and 
piles. The east abutment was so sunk, and the piles were driven through 
the gravel to a depth of 10 feet, making 16 feet below the bed of the river. 
It was observed that at that depth the piles uniformly would drive no further, 
and this suggested the possibiHty of rock. Rock was accordingly searched 
for, and it was found that about 18 feet under the bed of and across the 
river, rock existed. Cofferdams were therefore formed, and rock foundations 
were secuj'ed for the remaining piers and abutment. The cost of the bridge, 
including a pitched embankment on the east side, the bottom of which was 
secured by piles and a waling of timber, amounted — masonry to .£11,170 ; 
ironwork =£10,260, making a total of .£21,430. Extreme length 608^ feet ; 
height above foundations 46^ feet ; cost per lineal foot .£35 4s. M. 

No. 11 is a hi-idge across the River Nairn, consisting of four arches of 55 feet 
span, and is an admirable piece of masonry. An incident connected with the 
foundations of this bridge deserves to be mentioned. The contractor, when 
instructed to ascertain the nature of the foundations, insisted that it was 
unnecessary to take any trouble about them, as rock cropped out on either 
bank ; the turnpike-road bridge across the river a quarter of a mile below 
was founded on rock, and he said there could be no doubt that rock would 
be got in the centre 3 or 4 feet below the bed of the river. Eock, however, 
was not reached until we sunk from 13 to 14 feet, showing that experienced 
persons may be misled even under the most convincing circumstances. The 
structure, however, is founded on the solid rock throughout, and the cost for 



158 REPORT— 1867. 

a double line was £8620. Length 371 feet ; height 56 feet ; cost per 
Kneal foot £23 4s. 8d. 

No. 12 is a viaduct across the Ness, consisting of five arches of 73 feet span 
over the river, 4 land arches of 20 feet span, and 2 cast-iron openings 
of 27 and 35 feet span over roads. The foundations of this bridge, as in 
many others, consisted of shingle for 20 feet down, but at the north abut- 
ment and pier tlie iron rods driven in appeared to penetrate considerably 
easier than at other points of the channel, and it was deemed prudent to 
construct this abutment and pier upon bearing piles and a platform, and 
they were accordingly so done, as exhibited in the drawings. The total 
length of this bridge, including the side arches, is 669 feet, and the total 
height from the bed of the river to the top of the parapet is 40 feet. It is 
constructed for a single line, and cost £13,410. Cost per lineal foot =£20. 

No. 13 is a good example of a siuing bridge built across the Caledonian 
Canal, which the line spans on a skew of 65 degrees. It consists of 2 
girders of 126 feet in length, 78 feet of which, from the centre of the turn- 
table, spans the canal, and the remaining 48 feet forms the balance weight. 
Advantage was taken of the canal being emptied for repaii-s to lay the foun- 
dations of the masonry, which are on a platform and piles in the sohd gravel, 
9 feet below the surface of the water. The depth of the canal is 18 feet, 
and the width of the locks 40 feet, the canal banks being 120 feet apart. 
Some difficulty occurred at first during hot weather from the expansion of 
the iron aff'ecting the adjustment and closing of the bridge, which was 
remedied by means of a powerful screw, and the bridge has been worked with 
satisfaction and safety for the last five years. This bridge, with its machinery, 
timber, wharves for protection from vessels, distant and station signals, &c., 
complete, cost £4718. 

No. 14 spans the River Conon in Ross-shire. From peculiar circumstances 
it was necessary that this bridge should cross the river on a skew of 45 
degrees to the stream, and as there were rock foundations, there was no 
difficulty to contend with beyond that of 4 or 5 feet of water in the channel 
of the river to reach the rock, which was successfully accomplished. The 
peculiarity of the skew with the river at this place would have been more 
easily provided for by the adoption of iron girders from pier to pier, but 
as the writer found at that time that iron girders would be fully as expen- 
sive, and not so permanent as a stone bridge, and as there were admirable 
quarries in the neighbourhood, he resolved to construct this bridge, as already 
said, on a skew of 45 degrees with the river, by a series of right-angled ribs 
or arches spanning from pier to pier. This is no new arrangement ; but the 
writer is not aware of the plan being adopted for a series of arches of so 
large a span in any previous instance. The bridge consists of 5 arches of 
73 feet span each, the arches being constructed of four ribs, each 3 feet 9 
inches wide ; the arch-stones are 4 feet deep at the springing, and 3 feet 
deep at the crown. The keystones of the centre part of each arch were made 
to connect with each other, as were the stones in the haunchings of the 
arches, and some cramps of iron were inserted at the joints to connect the 
ribs. The work was successfully accomplished, and constitutes a very perfect 
piece of bridge masonry. The total length of the bridge is 540 feet, and the 
height 45 feet from the bed of the river. The north abutment is founded 
304 feet lower down the river than the south, and the whole structure, when 
the centres were removed, was found so accurately built that no joint in it 
showed any indication of setting. The cost of this bridge for a single line 
was £11,391. Cost per lineal foot £21 2s. 

There are many other bridges, as may be supposed, over so great an extent 



ON THE CONSTRUCTION OF THE HIGHLAND RAILWAY, 139 

of country, and a country so much exposed to floods, but those above de- 
scribed are the principal ; the entire waterway spanned over the entire system 
being 9828 feet. 

On the Central Railway from Dunkeld to Forres, 104 miles, being a single 
line, there are 8 viaducts, 126 bridges over streams, 119 public and ac- 
commodation road-bridges, and 8100 yards of covered drains, varying in size 
from 18 to 36 inches square. There are 1650 lineal yards of breastwalls, 
.304,700 cubic yards of rock cutting, and 3,416,000 cubic yards of earth- 
work, being, including rock and earth, at the rate of 35,776 cubic yards to 
the mile. The largest embankment was at Rafford near Forres, which con- 
tained 308,000 cubic yards. 

The permanent way consists of larch and natural-grown Scotch fir sleepers 
of the usual size, 3 feet apart ; the chairs are 22 lbs. in weight ; the rails 
weigh 75 lbs. to the lineal yard, are in lengths of 24 feet, and are fished at 
the joints. 

The total cost of the works, including all extra and accommodation works, 
amounted for the 104 miles, to £798,311 ; the land, including severance, to 
J70,000 ; and the preliminary, parliamentary, engineering, and law expenses 
to i;50,893, making the cost of this portion of the Companv's lines £919,204, 
or £8860 per mile*. 

The contracts were entered into immediately after the passing of the Bill 
in July 1801 ; the first turf of the railway was cut on the 17th of October of 
the same year, and the whole line was passed by the Government Inspector, 
and opened for pubUc traffic on the 9th of September 1863, being one year 
and ten months, an uuprecedentedly short time for works of such magnitude. 
The works between Forres and Dunkeld were divided into nine contracts let 
by public competition, and were undertaken £15,705 below the Engineer's 
estimate, and were completed at 12 per cent, over the Engineer's estimate, 
including 4 per cent, for accommodation works ordered by land valuators. 

The trafiic has been worked successfully and without accident for four 
years. The mail trains perform the journey between Inverness and Perth 
(144 miles) in 5^ hours. It was proposed to the Post Office, but not agreed 
to, on account of the expense, to run them in four hours. 

An ordinary goods train of 20 waggons, or 200 tons gross load, is drawn 
up the steepest inclines by one engine, having 17-inch cylinders and 24- 
inch stroke. 

The traffic is rapidly increasing. The sheep and cattle, which used to 
reach the southern markets by a toilsome journey of a month or six weeks, 
are now conveniently transported in a day at less cost, the Company having 
carried in one week upwards of 21,000 sheep. 

In passing over the mountain-ridges already described, it was feared that 
serious interruptions would arise from snow during the winter, but as the 
writer had a knowledge of the whole country for many years, he did not 
anticipate any difficulty on this head which might not be overcome. The 
summit is about 500 feet higher than that of the Caledonian line, or some 
1500 feet in all above sea-level, and is no doubt more exposed. The first 
winter, viz. 1863-64, it was wholly open and the traffic uninterrupted ; in 
February of the second winter, viz. 1865, a very heavy snow-storm occurred 
all over the north of Scotland, impeding the traffic of almost all the northern 
railways, and stopping the traffic on the Highland line for four or five days, 
which was only restored with great difficulty by the labour of large bodies of 

* The extra work claimed by one Contractor is still unsettled, but is valued and paid at 
the rate at which the extra works on 160 miles of this system of railways have been amicably 



160 REPORT — 1867. 

men. It was evident, therefore, that some decided steps must be adopted 
to overcome the snow difficulty, and in the beginning of 1866 the road was 
kept pretty well open by the application of snow-ploughs ; and the expe- 
rience of that winter made it quite clear that this difficulty might, with 
proper appliances, be effectually overcome, and means were accordingly 
adopted for that piirpose. 

In these elevated regions, when a snow-storm occurs, it is accompanied 
with high wind, and the snow is consequently drifted with great rapidity 
into the hollows and cuttings. With the view of obviating this, screen 
fences of light timber, or of decayed sleepers, or earthen mounds were 
erected a few yards from each side of the cuttings where the line was exposed. 
These were found very effective for intercepting the drifts. There was then 
provided snow ploughs of three descriptions, viz : — One, a light plough fixed 
to all the engines running on the line, and capable of clearing 12 to 24 inches 
of new snow. The second was a more formidable snow plough, which was 
fixed to a pilot engine, and was found capable of clearing 2 to 5 feet of 
snow. This pilot engine was attached to goods or passenger trains. The 
thii'd, and largest class of plough was found to clear snow 10 or 11 feet 
deep, with the aid of four or five goods engines. These appliances, notwith- 
standing the very serious snow-storms which were encountered on the line 
in January last, were capable of keeping the line almost whoUy clear. 

This I consider a great triumph, inasmuch as the Highland line, over 
such high elevations, was kept clear, while, by the same storm, the lines 
throughout Scotland, England, and France were more or less blocked up ; 
the lines in the north of Scotland being stopped entirely five or six days — 
the mails for Aberdeen being delayed three days from London, and two from 
Edinburgh. The Norfolk line was blocked up for some days ; the Holyhead 
mail detained from 12 to 16 hours ; the London, Chatham, and Dover blocked 
up for two days, as well as the trains in France to Marseilles. 

Much credit is due to the activity and attention of the Highland Company's 
officers — Mr. Stroudley, the Locomotive Superintendent, and Mr. Buttle, Su- 
perintendent of Permanent Way — Mr. Stroudley having planned and con- 
structed the snow-ploughs. 

As a specimen of a cheaply constructed line of railway, the -writer annexes 
a note of the details of the northern portion of the Highland Railway, from 
Invergordon to Bonar Bridge, 26 ^ miles in length. The country through 
which this section of the line passes is comparatively level, and several parts 
skirt and run through the sea, where the works had to be protected at con- 
siderable cost. The cuttings amounted to 549,000 cubic yards, of which 
about 20,000 were rock. There are 27 bridges over streams, 4 of them 
40 to 50 feet span, 26 public and accommodation road-bridges, and 2942 
lineal yards of drains, varying from 18 to 36 inches square. The rails are 
double-headed and weigh 70 lbs. to the yard, and are fished at the joints ; 
I of the chairs are 20 1 lbs., and § 28 lbs. in weight. There are ten stations, 
with permanent dwelling-houses for the agents and porters. 

The total cost of this portion of the line, the works being of the very best 
quality, and the masonry aU of stone, amounted to £5018 per mile, or in- 
cluding parliamentary and law expenses and land, £5888 per mile. 

Commercially, these lines, extending over 246 miles, have not as yet been 
quite successful, from the fact of too great an extent of line having been 
undertaken at once, it requiring in an agricultural country considerable 
time to develope the traffic. 

Under the whole circumstances, however, the traffic is satisfactory. 

The works are of the most substantial character. The capital account, 



ON THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF STEEL. 161 

which is under ,£2,800,000, is about closed as far as new works are concerned, 
while the revenue is rapidly increasing. For the half-year just ended, the 
Company will be able to pay its preference and debenture stocks, 5 per cent, on 
its floating liabilities, and about 2 per cent, on its ordinary stock of =£740,000. 

It will thus be seen that if the revenue increases in the same ratio that it 
has hitherto done, viz. from ,£15,000 to ,£20,000 per annum, the Company will 
be able to pay in two or three years a satisfactory dividend of 5 per cent. When 
that event occm-s, the Directors may with propriety give some moderate aid 
to the farther extension of the main lines of commmaication to Caithness and 
Skye, both of which must prove valuable feeders to the Highland system. 

These lines were promoted chiefly by the great landed proprietors in the 
country, among the most prominent of which were the Earl of Seafield, 
Lord Fyfe, Mr. Matheson of Ardross, M.P., Mr. Meriy of BeUadrum, M.P., 
Mr. M'Intosh of Raigmore, Col. Fraser Tytler, the Duke of Sutherland, &c. 



Experimental Researches on the Mechanical Properties of Steel. 
By W. Fairbairn, LL.D., F.R.S., &^c. 

There is probably no description of material that has undergone greater 
changes in its manufacture than iron ; and, judging from the attempts that 
are now making, and have been made, to improve its quality and to enlarge 
its sphere of application, we may reasonably conclude that it is destined to 
attain still greater advances in its chemical and mechanical properties. The 
earliest improvements in the process of the manufacture of iron may be 
attributed to Cort, who introduced the process of boiling and puddling in the 
reverberatory furnace, and those of more recent date to Eessemcr, who first 
used a separate vessel for the reduction of the metals, and thus eflected 
more important changes in the manufacture of iron and steel than had been 
introduced at any former period in metallurgic history. To the latter system 
we owe most of the improvements that have taken place ; for by the compara- 
tively new and interesting process of burning out the carbon in a separate 
vessel almost every description of steel and refined iron may be produced. 
The same results may be obtained by the puddling furnace, — but not to the 
same extent, since the artificial blast of the Bessemer principle acts with 
much greater force in depriving the metal of its carbon, and in reducing it to 
the state of refined iron. By this new process increased facilities are aftbrded 
for attaining new combinations by the introduction of measured quantities 
of carbon into the converting vessel, and this may be so regulated as to form 
steel or iron of the homogeneous state, of any known quality. 

By the boiling and puddling processes, steel of similar combinations may 
bo produced, but with less certainty as regards quality, as everything depends 
on the skill of the operator in closing the furnace at the precise moment 
of time. This precaution is necessary in order to retain the exact quantity 
of carbon in the mass so as to produce by combination the requisite 
quality of steel. It will be observed that in the Bessemer process this un- 
certainty does not exist, as the whole of the carbon is volatilized or burnt 
out in the first instance ; and by pouring into the vessel a certain quantity 
of crude metal containing carbon, any percentage of that element may be 
obtained in combination with the u-on, possessing qualities best adapted to 
the varied forms of construction to which the metal may be applied. Thus 
the Bessemer system is not only more perfect in itself, but admits of a greater 
degree of certainty in the results than could possibly be attained from the 

1868. N 



163 REPORT — 1867. 

mere employment of the eyes and hands of the most experienced puddler. 
Thus it appears that the Bessemer process enables us to manufacture steel 
"with any given proportion of carbon, or other eligible element, and thus to 
describe the compound metal in terms of its chemical constituents. 

Important changes have been made since Mr. Bessemer first announced his 
new principle of conversion, and the results obtained from various quarters 
bid fair to establish a new epoch in metaUurgic manipulation, by the pro- 
duction of a material of much greater general value than that which was pro- 
duced by the old process, and in most cases of double the strength of ii'on. 

These improvements are not exchisively confined to the Bessemer process, 
for a great variety of processes are now in operation producing the same 
results, and hence we have now in the market homogeneous, and every other 
description of iron, inclusive of steel of such density, ductility, &c., as to meet 
all the requirements of the varied forms of construction. 

The chemical properties of these diflereut kinds of steel have been satis- 
factorily established ; but we have no reliable knowledge of the mechanical 
properties of the ditferent kinds of homogeneous iron and steel that are now 
being produced. To supply this desideratum, I have endeavoured, by a 
series of laborious experiments, to determine the comparative values of the 
different kinds of steel, as regards their powers of resistance to transverse, 
tensile, and compressive strain. 

These experiments have been instituted not only for those engaged in the 
constructive arts, but also to enable the engineer to make such selections of 
the material as will best suit his purpose in any proposed construction. In 
order to arrive at correct results, I have applied to the first houses for the 
specimens experimented iipon, and judging from the results of these experi- 
ments, I venture to hope that new and important data have been obtained, 
which may safely be relied upon in the selection of the material for the 
different forms of construction. 

For several years past attempts have been made to substitute steel for 
iron, on account of its superior tenacity and increased security in the con- 
struction of boilers, bridges, &c. ; and assuredly there can be no doubt as to 
the desirability of emplopng a material of the same weight and of double the 
strength, provided it can at all times be relied upon. Some difficulties, how- 
ever, exist, and until tlioy are removed it would not be safe to make the 
transfer from iron to steel. These difficulties may be summed up in a few 
words, viz. the want of uniformity in the manufacture, in cases of rolled 
plates and other articles which require perfect resemblance in character, and 
the uncertainty which pervades its production. Time and close observation 
of facts in connexion "SNith the different processes wiU, however, surmount 
these difficulties, and will enable the manufactm-er to produce steel in all 
its varieties with the same certainty as he formerly attained in the manu- 
factture of iron. 

In the selection of the different specimens of steel, I have endeavoured to 
obtain such information about the ores, fuel, and process of manufacture as 
the parties supplying the specimens were disposed to furnish. To a series of 
questions, answers were, in most cases, cheerfully given, the particulars of 
which wiU be found in the Tables. 

I have intimated that the specimens have been submitted to transverse, 
tensile, and compressive strain, and the summaries of results wiU indicate 
the uses to which the different specimens may bo applied. Table I. gives 
for each specimen the modulus of elasticity and the modulus of resistance to 
impact, together with the deflection for unity of pressui-e ; from these experi- 



ON THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF STEEL. 



1G3 



mental data tlie engineer and architect may select the steel possessing the 
actual quality required for any particiUar structure. This wiU be found 
especially reqxusite in the construction of boilers, ships, bridges, and other 
structures subjected to severe strains, where safety, strength, and economy 
should be kept in view. 

In the case of transverse strain some difficulties presented themselves in 
the course of the experiments, arising from the ductile natui-e of some part 
of the material, and from its tendency to bend or deflect to a considerable 
depth without fracture. 

But this is always the case with tough bars whether of iron or steel, 
and hence the necessity of fixing upon some unit of measure of the deflections, 
in order to compare the flexibility of the bars with one another, and, from 
the mean value of this unit of deflection, to obtain a mean value of the 
modiilus of elasticity (E) for the different bars. This unit or measure of 
flexibility given in the Table is the mean value of aU the deflections corre- 
sponding to unity of pressure and section. The modulus of elasticity has 
also been calculated from the deflection produced by 112 lbs., in order that 
it may be compared with the results of experiments on cast iron, given at 
pages 73 and 74 in my work ' On the Application of Iron to BuUding Pur- 
poses.' In order to determiae the resistance of the bars to a force analogous 
to that of impact, the ivorl- in deflecting each bar up to its Emit of elasticity 
has been calculated. These results differ considerably from each other, 
showing the different degrees of hardness, ductility, &c. of the material of 
which the bars are composed. The transverse strength of the different bars 
up to their limit of elasticity is shown by the amount of the modulus of 
strength or the unit of strenfjth calculated for each bar. 

Table II., on tensile strain, gives the breaking strain of each bar per 
square inch of section, and the corresponding elongation of the bar per unit 
of length, together with the ultimate resistance of each bar to a force analo- 
gous to that of impact. 

Table III., on compression, gives the force per square inch of section 
requisite to crush short columns of the different specimens, with the corre- 
sponding compression of the column per unit of length, together with the work 
expended in producing this compression. 

Having selected the requisite number of specimens from different works, 
the experiments commenced with the transverse strains, which were con- 
ducted as on former occasions, by suspending dead weights from the middle 
of the bar, which was supported at its extremities, the supports being 4 feet 
6 inches apart. The apparatus for this class of experiments consisted of the 




n2 



164 REPORT— 1867. 

wooden frame A, to which were bolted two iron brackets, BE, on which the 
bars were laid. Immediately over the centre of the bar, at a point equi- 
distant between the supports, the wheel and screw C was attached to the 
scale D on which the weights were placed, 56 lbs. at a time ; after each 
weight was laid on, the deflections were taken, and the experiment was con- 
tinued until a large permanent set was obtained. The permanent set was 
observed at intervals in the following manner : — After the deflection pro- 
duced by the load had been ascertained, the screw C was turned so as to raise 
the scale and relieve the bar of the load, thus enabling the experimenter to 
ascertain the eff'ects of the load upon the bar and to register the permanent 
set. This operation was conducted with great precision, as may be seen on 
consulting the Tables in the experiments which follow. 

Each of the bars have been treated in this way, care having been taken to 
secure portions of each bar for the experiments on tension and compression. 
In addition to these distinct tests, I have the advantage of my friend 
Mr. Tate's assistance in the reduction of formula; as follows : — 

Formula of Redxjction. 

lor tlie reduction of the Experiments on Transverse Strain, — When a bar 
is supported at the extremities and loaded in the middle, 

^=4^-^' ^^^ 

where I is the distance between the supports, K the area of the section of 
the bar, d its depth, iv the weight laid on added to f ths of the weight of the 
bar, B the corresponding deflection, and E the modulus of elasticity. 
When the section of a bar is a square, 

E=~ (2) 

These formula} show that the deflection, taken within the elastic limit, 
for unity of pressure is a constant, that is, — =D, a constant. 

Let -^ _2 J . . . J _!L be a series of values of D, determined by experiment 

in a given bar, then 

J)=l(k + k+...+k\ (3) 

which gives the mean value of this constant for a given bar. 
Now, for the same material and length, 

^ , or D x Ji^ ; (4) 

lu Kd- ' 

and when the section of the bar is square, 

-,orD(^l (5) 

w a 

If Dj be put for the value of D when J=l, then 

=l('A4.1a+...+!!LVz', (6) 

which expresses the mean value of the deflection for unity of pressure and 
section. This mean value, therefore, may be taken as the measure of the 



ON THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF STEEL. 165 

Jlexibilitij of the bar, or as the modulus of flexure, since it measures the 
amount of deflection produced by a iiiiit of pressure for a unit of section. 
Substituting this vahie in equation (2), we get 

===^7 P) 

which gives the mean value of the modulus of elasticity, where Dj is deter- 
mined from equation (6). 

The work U of deflection is expressed by the formula 

^ H>""4=h'' («) 

where S is the deflection in inches corresponding to the pressure (w) in lbs. 
If w and d be taken at, or near to the elastic limit, then this formula gives 
the work, or resistance analogous to impact, which the bar may undergo, 
without suffering any injury in its material. This formula, reduced to unity 
of section, becomes 

"=24K (^) 

If C be a constant, determined by experiment for the weight (W) straining 
the bar up to the limit of elasticity, so that the bar may be able to sustain 
the load without injury, then 

^=CKcZ, (10) 

where C=^S, or ^ of the corresponding resistance of the material per square 
inch at the upper and lower edges of the section, 

\V7 

•••«=fs (") 

"When the section of the bar is a square, 

«=S' (1^) 

which gives the value of C, the modulus of strength, or the unit of worl-'uig 
strength, W" being the load, determined by experiment, which strains the bar 
up to its elastic limit : this value of C gives the comparative permanent or 
working strength of the bar. 

Up to the elastic limit the deflections are jyroportional to their corresponding 
strains, but beyond this point the deflections increase in a much higher ratio. 
Hence the deflection corresponding to the elastic limit is the greatest deflec- 
tion which is found to follow the elastic law jiist explained. 

Tensile Strain, 6fc. — The work u expended in the elongation of a uniform 
bar, 1 foot in length and 1 inch in section, is expressed by 

H-l-i^''-' (15) 

P 7 

where P, = —=the strain in lbs. reduced to unity of section, and Z =_ 
' K ^ L 

=the corresponding elongation reduced to unity of length. 

This value of u, determined for the diff'erent bars subjected to experiment, 
gives a comparative measure of their powers of resistance to a strain analogous 
to that of impact. 

By taking P^ to represent the crushing pressure per imity of section, and 
?, the corresponding compression per unity of length, the foregoing formula 
wiU express the work expended in crushing the bar. 



166 



REPORT 1867. 



FIRST SERIES OF EXPERIMENTS. 



TKANSYEESE STRAIN. 



Experiment I. — Bar of Steel fi-om Messrs. John Brown & Co., Sheffield. 
Dimension of bar -97 inch square. Length between supports 4 feet 
6 inches. Mark on bar, " B 1." 





Weight laid 


Deflection, 


Permanent 




No. of 


on, in 


in 


set, in 


Eemarlis. 


Exp. 


lbs. 


inches. 


inches. 




1 


50 


•088 




Specimen of best cast steel 


2 


100 


'148 




from Ilussian and Swedish 


3 


150 


•219 




iron. Used for turning- 


4 


200 


•283 


•004 


tools. 


5 


250 


•353 


•006 




6 


300 


'415 


•008 




7 


350 


'433 


•009 




8 


400 


•555 






9 


450 


•616 


•Oil 




10 


500 


•690 


•012 




11 


550 


•760 






12 


600 


•837 






13 


650 


•927 






14 


700 


•977 






15 


750 


1^047 






16 


800 


1^117 


•012 




17 


850 


1-187 


•015 




18 


900 


1-237 






19 


950 


1-307 


•016 




20 


1150 


1-747 


•101 




21 


1400 


.... 




Sunk with this weight. 



Results of Ea'p. I. 

Here the weight («>) corresponding to the limit of elasticity is 960 lbs., 
and the corresponding deflection (2) is 1-307. See formulae of reduction, 
p. 105. 

By formula (6). — The mean value of the deflection for unity of pressure 
and section (D^) = -0012048. 

By formula (7). — The mean value of the modulus of elasticity (E) 
= 32,672,000. 

By formula (2). — The mqdulus of elasticity (E) corresponding to 112 lbs. 
pressure = 33,047,000. ' 

By formula (8). — Work of deflection (U) up to the limit of elasticity 
= 52-280. 

By formula (9)-. — Work of deflection (m) for unity of section = 55-563. 

By formula (12). — Value of C, the unit of working strength = 6-326 
tons. 



ON THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF STEEL. 



167 



TBANSTEESE STEAIN. 



Exp, II. — Bar of Steel from Messrs. John Brown & Co., Sheffield. Dimen- 
sion of bar -97 inch square. Length between supports 4 feet 
6 inches. Mark on bar, " B 2." 





Weight laid 


Deflection, 


Permanent 




No, of 


on, in 


in 


set, in 


Eemarks. 


Exp. 


lbs. 


inches. 


inches. 




1 


50 


•088 




Specimen of best cast steel 


2 


100 


•166 




from Eussian and Swedish 


3 


150 


•236 




iron, of milder quality than 


4 


200 


•310 




No. 1. Used for chisels &c. 


5 


250 


•393 






6 


300 


•462 






7 


350 


•537 






8 


400 


•614 






9 


450 


•692 






10 


500 


•772 






11 


550 


•852 






12 


600 


•932 






13 


650 


1-012 






14 


700 


1-082 


•001 




15 


750 


1-172 






16 


800 


1-242 






17 


850 


1-312 


•001 




18 


900 


1-402 


•005 




19 


950 


1-482 


•012 




20 


1150 


2-642 


•327, 


Gradually sinking with this 
weight. 



Besults of Exp. II. 

Here the weight {tv) corresponding to the limit of elasticity is 960 lbs., 
and the corresponding deflection (o) 1^482. 

By formula (6). — The mean value of the deflection for unity of pressure 
and section (D^) = -0013377. 

By formula (7). — The mean value of the modulus of elaij-cicity (E) 
= 29,415,000. 

By formula (2). — The modulus of elasticity (E) corresponding to 112 lbs. 
pressure = 29,465,000. 

By formula (S). — Work of deflection (U) up to the limit of elasticity 
= 59-280. 

By formula (9). — Work of deflection {u) for unity of section = 63-003. 

By formula (12). — Value of C, the unit of working strength = 6-326 
tons. 



168 



REPORT— 18G7. 



TRANSVERSE STRAIN. 

Exp. III. — Bar of Steel from Messrs. John Brown & Co., Sheffield. Dimen- 
sion of bar 1-001 inch square. Length between supports 4 feet 
6 inches. Mark on bar, "B 3." 



"\T r 


Weight laid 


Deflection, 


Permanent 




No. of 


on, in 


in 


set, in 


Eemarks. 


Exj). 


lbs. 


inches. 


inches. 




1 


50 


•072 




Specimen of cast steel from 


2 


100 


•134 




Swedish iron. Employed 


3 


150 


•191 




in the constrnction of tools. 


4 


200 


•259 




&c. 


5 


250 


•321 






6 


300 


•397 






7 


350 


•461 






8 


400 


•527 






9 


450 


•597 






10 


500 


•649 






11 


550 


•715 






12 


600 


•780 






13 


650 


•867 






14 


700 


•927 






15 


750 


•987 






16 


800 


1-057 






17 


850 


1-107 






18 


900 


1-167 






19 


950 


1-247 


•000 




20 


1150 


1-507 


-0166 




21 


1400 


1^887 


-0420 


Sinking with this weight. 



Results of Ed-p. III. 

Hero the weight (w) at the limit of elasticity is 1160 lbs., and the corre- 
sponding deflection (Z) is 1-507. 

By formula (0). — The mean value of the deflection for unity of pressure 
and section (Dj) = -0012891. 

By formula (7). — The mean value of the modulus of elasticity (E) 
= 30,550,000. 

By formula (2). — The modulus of elasticity (E) corresponding to 112 lbs. 
pressure = 32,171,000. 

By formula (8). — Work of deflection (U) up to the limit of elasticity 
= 72-838. 

By formula (9). — Work of deflection («.) for unity of section = 72-690. 

By formula (12). — Value of C, the unit of woiking strength = 6-958 
tons. 



ON THE MKCHANICAL PROPERTIES OF STEEL. 



169 



TKANSTEESE STKAIN. 



Exp. IV. — Bar of Steel from Messrs. John Brown & Co., Sheffield. Dimen- 
sion of bar -98 inch square. Length between supports 4 feet 6 inches. 
Mark on bar, "B 4." 



TVT i* 


Weight laid 


Deflection, 


Permanent 




No. of 


on, in 


in 


set, in 


Eemarks, 


Exp. 


lbs. 


inches. 


inches. 




1 


50 


•082 




Specimen of cast steel from 


2 


100 


•160 




Swedish iron, of milder 


3 


150 


•214 




quality than No. 3. Used 


4 


200 


•282 




for chisels. 


5 


250 


•348 






6 


300 


•423 


•000 




/ 


350 


•494 


•004 




8 


400 


•556 


•007 




9 


450 


•618 


•008 




10 


500 


•691 






11 


550 


•755 


•009 




12 


600 


•820 






13 


650 


•908 


•Oil 


-" 


14 


700 


•978 


•012 




15 


750 


1^048 


•008 




16 


800 


1^113 






17 


850 


1-178 






18 


900 


1-258 






19 


950 


1-318 


•008 




20 


1150 


1-708 


•095 




21 


1400 






Sunk with this weight. 



Results of Exp. IV. 

Here the weight {tu) at the limit of elasticity is 960 lbs., and the corre- 
ponding deflection (I) is 1^318. 

By formula (6). — The mean value of the deflection for unity of pressure 
and section (D^) = -0012581. 

By formula (7). — The mean value of the modulus of elasticity (E) 
= 29,463,000. 

By formula (2). — The modulus of elasticity (E) corresponding to 112 lbs. 
pressure = 29,370,000. 

By formula (8).— Work of deflection (U) up to the limit of elasticity 
= 52-720. 

By formula (9).— Work of deflection (?f)for unity of section = 54-893. 

By formula (12).— Value of C, the unit of working strength = 6-134 
tons. 



170 



REPORT 1867. 



TBAXSVERSE STKAIN. 

Exp. v. — Bar of Steel from Messrs. John Browu & Co., Sheffield. Dimen- 
sion of bar -98 inch square. Length between supports 4 feet 
6 inches. Mark on bar, " B 5." 





Weight laid 


Deflection, 


Pei-manent 




No. of 


on, in 


in 


set, in 


Eemarks. 


Exp. 


lbs. 


inches. 


inches. 




1 


50 


•083 




Specimen of steel cast from 


2 


100 


•149 




Swedish iron, of mild qua- 


3 


150 


•209 




lity for welding. 


4 


200 


•277 






5 


250 


•349 






6 


300 


•427 






7 


350 


•497 






8 


400 


•527 






9 


450 


•631 






10 


500 


•702 






11 


550 


•777 


.... 


This specimen is consider- 


12 


600 


•845 




ably more ductile than any 


13 


650 


•927 




of the previous bars expe- 


14 


700 


•997 




rimented upon. It is simi- 


15 


750 


1-057 


-000 


lar in character to that in 


16 


800 


1-127 


•003 


Exp. II. 


17 


850 


1-197 






18 


900 


1-267 


•004 




19 


950 


1-337 


•014 




20 


1150 


2-402 


-6G4 


The deflection continues to 
increase with this weight. 



Results of Exp. Y. 

Here the weight {iv) at the limit of elasticity is 960 lbs., and the corre- 
sponding deflection (o) is 1-337. 

By formula (6). — The mean value of the deflection for the unity of pressure 
and section (D^) = -0012673. 

By formvda (7). — The mean value of the modulits of elasticity (E) 
= 29,248,000. 

By formula (2). — The modulus of elasticity (E) corresponding to 112 lbs. 
pressure = 31,510,000. 

By formula (8). — Work of deflection (U) up to the limit of elasticity 
= 53-480. 

By formula (9). — Work of deflection («) for unity of section = 55-685. 

By formula (12). — Value of C, the unit of working strength = 6-134 
tons. 



ON THB MECHANICAL PROPEETIES OF STEEL. 



171 



TEANSVEESE STRAIN. 

Exp. VI. — Bar of Steel from Messrs. John Brown & Co., Sheffield. Dimen- 
sion of bar -992 inch square. Length between supports 4 feet 
6 inches. Mark on bar, " B 6." 





Weight laid 


Deflection, 


Permanent 




No. of 


on, in 


in 


set, in 


Eemarlis. 


Exp. 


lbs. 


inches. 


inches, 




1 


50 


•076 




Bar of Bessemer steel. 


2 


100 


•138 






3 


150 


•208 






4 


200 


•280 






5 


250 


•346 






6 


300 


•414 






7 


350 


•486 






8 


400 


•554 






9 


450 


•624 






10 


500 


•694 






11 


550 


•757 






12 


600 


•824 






13 


650 


•894 






14 


700 


•964 






15 


750 


1-024 






16 


800 


1-094 


'000 




17 


850 


1-174 


•008 




18 


900 


1^284 


•044 




19 


950 


1-434 


•133 


Experiment discontinued. 



Beaults of Ex)). VI. 

Here the weight (tv) at the limit of elasticity is 860 lbs., and the cor- 
responding deflection (g) is 1-174. 

By formula (6). — The mean value of the deflection for unity of pressure 
and section (DJ = -0013024. 

By formula (7). — The mean value of the modulus of elasticity (E) 
= 30,224,000. 

By formula (2). — The modulus of elasticity (E) corresponding to 112 lbs. 
pressure = 32,361,000. 

By formula (8). — Work of deflection (U) up to the limit of elasticity 
= 42-068. 

By formula (9). — Work of deflection (m) for unity of section = 42-749. 

By fonnula (12). — Value of C, the unit of working strength = 5-297 
tons. 



172 



KEPOKT 1S67. 



TKANSTEESE 8TEAIX. 



Exp. VII. — Bar of Steel from Messrs. John Brown & Co., Sheffield. Dimen- 
sion of bar '978 inch square. Length between supports 4 feet 
6 inches. Mark on bar, " B 7." 





Weight laid 


Deflection, 


Permanent 




No. of 


on, in 


in 


set, in 


Eemarks. 


Exp. 


lbs. 


inches. 


inches. 




1 


50 


•073 




Specimen of double shear 


2 


100 


•141 




steel from Swedish bar. 


3 


150 


•215 






4 


200 


•281 






5 


250 


•355 






6 


300 


•425 






7 


350 


•493 






8 


400 


•565 






9 


450 


•630 






10 


500 


•703 






11 


550 


•775 






12 


600 


•855 






13 


650 


•925 






14 


700 


1^015 






15 


750 


1-065 


.... 


The experiments in this and 


16 


800 


1-145 


-000 


the two next Tables were 


17 


850 


1-225 


•005 


made for comparison with 


]8 


900 


1-325 


-031 


Exp. VI. 


19 


950 


1-535 


•142 





Mesults of Exp. VII. 

Here the weight (w) at the limit of elasticity is 860 lbs., and the corre- 
sponding deflection (F) is 1-225. 

By formula (6). — The mean value of the deflection for uuity of pressure 
and section (DJ = -0012643. 

By formula (7). — The mean value of the modulus of elasticity (E) 
= 31,135,000. 

By formula (2). — The modulus of elasticitj^ (E) corresponding to 112 lbs. 
pressure = 33,523,000. 

By formula (8). — "Work of deflection (U) up to the limit of elasticity 
= 43-900. 

By formula (9). — Work of deflection (u) for unity of section = 45-897. 

By formiila (12). — Value of C, the unit of Avorking strength = 5-527 
tons. 



ON THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF STEEL. 



173 



TRANSVEESE STRAIN. 



Exp. VITI. — Bar of Steel from Messrs. John Brown &, Co., Sheffield. Di- 
mension of bar -986 inch square. Length between supports 4 feet 
6 inches. Mark on bar, " B 8.", 





Weight laid 


Deflection, 


Permanent 




No. of 


o 

on, in 


in 


set, in 


Eemarls. 


Exp. 


lbs. 


inches. 


inches. 




1 


50 


•069 




Specimen of " Foreign Bar," 


2 


100 


•143 




not melted, but tilted direct 


3 


150 


•204 




from the ingot. 


4 


200 


•273 






5 


250 


■340 






6 


300 


•418 






7 


350 


•485 






8 


400 


•550 






9 


450 


•623 






10 


500 


•700 






11 


550 


•777 






12 


600 


•850 






13 


650 


•930 






14 


700 


•990 






15 


750 


1-050 






16 


800 


1-130 






17 


850 


1-210 


•000 




18 


900 


1-310 


•017 




19 


950 


1-430 


•059 





Besults of E,vp. YIII. 

Here the weight (w) at the limit of elasticity is 860 lbs., and the cor- 
responding deflection {S) is 1-210. 

By formula (6).— The mean value of the deflection for unity of pressure 
and section (D,) = -0012863. 

By formula (7). — The mean value of the modulus of elasticity (E) 
= 29,335,000. 

By formula (2).— The modulus of elasticity (E) corresponding to 112 lbs, 
pressure = 30,686,000. 

By formula (8).— Work of deflection (U) up to the limit of elasticity 
= 43-358. 

By formula (9). — Work of deflection («) for unity of section = 44-598. 

By formula (12).— Yalue of C, the unit of working strength = 5-394 
tons. 



1^4 



REPORT 1867. 



TEANSVERSE STRAIN. 



Exp. IX. — Bar of Steel from Messrs. Jolin Brown & Co., Sheilfield. Dimeu- 
siou of bar 1 inch square. Length, between supports 4 feet 6 inches. 
Mark on bar, " B 9," 



TVT I' 


Weight laid 


Deflection, 


Permanent 




No. of 
Exp. 


on, ill 


in 


set, in 


Eemarks. 


lbs. 


inches. 


inches. 




1 


50 


•076 




Specimen of (JB) bar. Eng- 


2 


100 


•136 




lish tilted steel made from 


3 


1.50 


•206 




English and foreign pigs. 


4 


200 


•270 






5 


250 


•318 






6 


300 


•380 






7 


350 


•450 






8 


400 


•516 






9 


450 


•570 






10 


500 


•640 






11 


550 


•700 






12 


600 


•780 






13 


650 


•840 






14 


700 


•900 


.... 


It will be observed that the 


15 


750 


•960 




value of C, formula (12) of 


16 


800 


1-020 


•008 


this experiment, is lower 


17 


850 


1-100 




than those of Exp. YL, 


18 


900 


1-180 


•024 


YII., and YIII. 


19 


950 


1-300 


•083 





Results of Ex]^. IX. 

Here the weight (iv) at the Umit of elasticity is 860 lbs., and the corre- 
sponding deflection {I) is 1^100. 

By formula (6). — The mean value of the deflection for unity of pressure 
and section (Dj) = •001258. 

By foi-mula (7). — The mean value of the modulus of elasticity (E) 
= 31,292,000. 

By formula (2). — The modulus of elasticity (E) corresponding to 112 lbs. 
pressure = 31,833,000. 

By formula (8). — Work of deflection (U) up to the limit of elasticity 
= 39^416. 

By formula (9).— Work of deflection 0') for unity of section = 39-416. 

By formula (12). — Yalue of C, the unit of Avorking strength = 5-170 tons. 



ON THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF STEEL. 



176 



Exp. 



X. Bar of Steel from Messrs. Charles Cammell & Co., Sheffield. 

Dimension of bar 1-054 inch square. Length between supports 4 
feet 6 inches. Mark on bar, " 1." 





Weight laid 
on, iu 


Deflection, 


Permanent 




No. of 


in 


set, in 


Remarks. 


Exp. 


lbs. 


inches. 


inches. 




1 


50 


•064 




Specimen of cast steel, termed 


2 


100 


•117 




" Diamond Steel." 


3 


150 


•172 






4 


200 


•225 






5 


250 


•273 






6 


300 


•333 






7 


350 


•382 






8 


400 


•427 






9 


450 


•476 


•000 




10 


.500 


•534 


•006 




11 


550 


•585 






12 


600 


•632 






13 


650 


•687 






14 


700 


•741 






15 


750 


•801 






16 


800 


•860 


• > • * 


This is a remarkably fine 


17 


850 


•932 




specimen of flexible steel ; 


18 


900 


•982 


•006 


highly elastic. 


19 


950 


1-042 


•Oil 




20 


1000 


1^092 


•019 




21 


1050 


1^162 






22 


1100 


1^192 






23 


1150 


1^242 






24 


1200 


1^302 


-022 




25 


1250 


1-362 






26 


1300 


1-372 






27 


1350 


1-452 






28 


1400 


1-512 






29 


1450 


1-562 


•023 




30 


1500 


1-662 


•028 




31 


1550 


1-742 


■059 




32 


1600 


1-832 


•065 




33 


1654 


1-922 


•120 




34 


1710 


2-062 


•189 




35 


1766 


2-302 


•356 




36 


1822 


2-062 


•546 




37 


1878 


3-042 


•800 




38 


1934 


3-732 


1-302 


Sinking with this load. 



Results of Eaj}. X. 

Hero the weight (w) at the limit of elasticity is 1400 lbs., and the corresponding deflec- 
tion (5) is 1-562. By formula (6). — The mean ralue of the deflection for unity of pres- 
sure and section (Dj) — -OOlSOSl. By formula (7).— The mean Tahie of the modulu.s of 

elasticity (E) = .30,088,000. By formula (2).— The modulus of elasticity (E) corre- 
sponding to 112 lbs. prcssvu-e = 29,996,000. By formula (8).— Work of deflection (U) 

for unity of section = 95-000. By formula (9).— Work of deflection {u) for unity of sec- 
tion =85-515. By formula (12).— Value of C, the unit of working strength = 7-504 tons. 



176 



REPORT 1867. 



Exp. XI. — Bar of Steel from Messrs. Charles Cammell & Co., Sheffield. 
Dimension of bar 1-104 inch square. Length between supports 4 
feet 6 inches. Mark on bar, " 2." 





Weight laid 


Deflection, 


Permanent 




No. of 


on, in 


in 


set, in 


Eemarlis. 


Exp. 


lbs. 


inches. 


inches. 




1 


50 


•064 




Specimen of steel termed 


2 


100 


•120 




" Tool Steel." 


3 


150 


•174 






4 


200 


•232 






5 


250 


•287 






6 


300 


•324 






7 


350 


•396 






8 


400 


•437 






9 


450 


•500 






10 


500 


•563 






11 


550 


•624 






12 


600 


•665 






13 


650 


•718 






14 


700 


•776 






15 


750 


•834 






16 


800 


•884 






17 


850 


•944 






18 


860 


•964 




This appears to be a supe- 


19 


890 


•994 




rior quality of steel, well 


20 


920 


1-024 




adapted for the purpose 


21 


950 


1^054 




for which it was manufac- 


22 


990 


1-094 




tured. 


23 


1010 


1-1.34 






24 


1040 


1-164 






25 


1070 


1-194 






26 


1100 


1-224 






27 


1130 


1^254 






28 


1160 


1^284 






29 


1200 


1^314 






30 


1230 


1^374 






31 


12G0 


1^404 






32 


1300 


1-414 






33 


1350 


1-524 






34 


1400 


1-614 


•000 




35 


1450 


1-684 


•010 




36 


1500 


1-784 


•019 




37 


15.50 


1-854 


•059 




38 


1600 


1-864 


•137 




39 


1654 


1-964 


•306 





Results of E.vp. XI. 

Here the weight (w) at the limit of elasticity is 1460 lbs., and the corresponding deflection 

(5) is 1-684. By formula (6). — The mean value of the deflection for unity of pres.sure 

and section (Dj) = -001637. By formula (7 1. — The mean value of the modulus of elas- 
ticity (E) = 22,965,000. ■ By formula (2). — The modulus of elasticity (E) corresponding 

to 112 lbs. pressure = 24,288,000. By formula (8).— Work of deflection (U) up to the 

limit of elasticity = 102-443. By formula (9). — Work of deflection (m) for unity of sec- 
tion = 84 048. By formula (12). — Value of C, the unit of working strength = 5-904 tons. 



ON THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF STEEL, 



177 



TEANSTERSE STRAIN. 



Exp, XII.— Bar of Steel from Messrs, Charles CammeU & Co., Sheffield, 
Dimension of bar ^994 inch square. Length between supports 
4 feet 6 inches. Mark on bar, " 3." 



No. of 


Weight laid 


Deflection, 


Permanent 




on, in 


in 


set, in 


Remarks. 


Exp. 


lbs. 


inches. 


inches. 




1 


50 


•076 




Specimen of cast steel, termed 


2 


100 


•141 




« Chisel Steel." 


3 


150 


•202 






4 


200 


•268 






5 


250 


•330 






6 


300 


•398 






^ 
1 


350 


•464 






8 


400 


•522 






9 


450 


•634 






10 


500 


•653 






11 


550 


•726 






12 


600 


•804 






13 


650 


•864 






14 


700 


•924 


a * ■ , 


This is a description of steel 


15 


750 


1-004 




similar to that in Exp. 


16 


800 


1-064 




XI., but more ductUe, 


17 


850 


1-104 






18 


900 


1-194 


•000 




19 


950 


1-244 


•001 




20 


1000 


1-274 






21 


1050 


1-347 


•002 




22 


1100 


1-454 


•007 




23 


1150 


1-504 


•014 




24 


1200 


1-594 


•022 




25 


1300 


1-924 


•165 




26 


1380 


2-484 


•589 




27 


1400 


2-884 


•898 




28 


1430 


3-114 


1-076 




29 


1450 


3-294 


1-285 





Besults of Exp. XII. 

Here the weight (w) at the limit of elasticity is 1210 lbs., and the corre- 
sponding deflection (2) is 1-594. 

By formula (6). — The mean value of the deflection for unity of pressure 
and section (DJ = -0012612. 

By formula (7). — The mean value of the modulus of elasticity (E) 
= 31,212,000. 

By formula (2). — The modulus of elasticity (E) corresponding to 112 lbs. 
pressure =31,474,000. 

By formula (8). — Work of deflection (U) up to the Hmit of elasticity 
= 77-864, 

By formula (9). — ^Work of deflection (m) for uuity of section = 78-825, 

By formiila (12). — Yalue of C, the iinit of working strength = 7-413 tons, 
1867. 



178 



REPORT — 1867. 



TBANSTEESE STBAIN, 

Exp. XIII.— Bar of Steel from Messrs. Charles CammeU & Co., Sheffield. 
Dimension of bar 1-04 inch square. Length between suj)ports 
4 feet 6 inches. Mark on bar, " 4." 



No. of 
Esp. 


Weight laid 


Deflection, 


Permanent 




on, in 


in 


set, in 


Remarks. 


lbs. 


iucbes. 


inches. 




1 


50 


•068 




Specimen of cast steel, termed 


2 


100 


•125 




" Double Shear Steel." 


3 


150 


•179 






4 


200 


•239 






5 


250 


•298 






6 


300 


•346 






7 


350 


•389 






8 


400 


•456 






9 


450 


•508 






10 


500 


•568 






11 


550 


•626 






12 


600 


•693 






13 


650 


•740 


•000 




14 


700 


•797 


•001 




15 


750 


•850 






16 


800 


•936 


•002 




17 


850 


•996 


•003 




18 


900 


1-056 






19 


950 


1-106 


•003 




20 


1150 


1-946 


•106 




21 


1400 


3-536 


1-695 


Sunk with this weight. 



Eesults of E^ip. XIII. 

Here the weight (iv) at the limit of elasticity is 960 lbs., and the corre- 
sponding deflection (2) is 1-106. 

By formula (6). — The mean value of the deflection for unity of pressure 
and section (DJ = -0013254. 

By formula (7). — The mean value of the modulus of elasticity (E) 
"= 29,700,000. 

By fornrala (2). — The modulus of elasticitv (E) corresponding to 112 lbs. 
pressure = 30,120,000. 

Bv formula (8). — Work of deflection (IT) up to the limit of elasticity 
= 44-240. 

Bj formula (9). — Work of deflection (m) for imity of section = 40-903. 

By formula (12). — Yalue of C, the unit of working strength = 5-132 tons. 



ON THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF STEEL. 



179 



TEANSVEK8E STHArfir. 

Exp. XIV.— Bar of Steel from Messrs. Charles Cammell & Co., Sheffield. 
Dimension of bar 1-02 inch square. Length between siipports 
4 feet 6 inches. Mark on bar, " 5." 





Weight laid 


Deflection, 


Permanent 




No. of 


on, in 


in 


set, in 


Eemarks. 


Exp. 


lbs. 


inches. 


inches. 




1 


50 


•060 


.... 


Bar of hard Bessemer steel. 


2 


100 


•120 






3 


150 


•169 






4 


200 


•228 






5 


250 


•288 






6 


300 


•350 






7 


350 


•425 






8 


400 


•487 






9 


450 


•550 


1 • • • 


This metal is of nearly the 


10 


500 


•604 




same quality as that in 


11 


550 


•664 




Exp. YI. 


12 


600 


•733 






13 


650 


•780 


•000 




14 


700 


•880 


•004 




15 


750 


•940 


•Oil 




16 


800 


1-000 


•Oil 




17 


850 


1-060 


•018 




18 


900 


1-140 


•028 




19 


950 


1-270 


■083 





Results of Exp. 5IV. 

Here the weight {w) at the limit of elasticity is 810 lbs., and the corre- 
sponding deflection (^) is 1-000. 

By formula (6). — The mean value of the deflection for unity of pressure 
and section (DJ = -0012805. 

By formula (7). — The mean value of the modulus of elasticity (E) 
= 30,742,000. 

By formula (2). — The modulus of elasticity (E) corresponding to 112 lbs. 
pressure = 33,205,000. 

By formula (8). — Work of deflection (U) up to the limit of elasticity 
= 33-750. 

By formula (9). — Work of deflection («) for unity of section = 32-439. 

By formula (12).— Value of C, the unit of working strength = 4-588 tons. 



o2 



180 



REPORT — 1867. 



TEANSVEESE STRAIN. 

Exp. XV.— Bar of Steel from Messrs. Charles CammeU & Co., Sheffield. 
Dimension of bar -992 inch square. Length between supports 
4 feet 6 inches. Mark on bar, " 6." 



No. of 


Weight laid 


Deflection, 


Permanent 




Exp. 


on, in 


in 


set, in 


Remarks. 


Iba. 


inches. 


inches. 




1 


50 


•077 




Bar of soft Bessemer steel. 


2 


100 


•142 






3 


150 


•208 






4 


200 


•280 






5 


250 


•343 






6 


300 


•427 






7 


350 


•481 






8 


400 


•544 






9 


450 


•615 






10 


500 


•673 


•000 




11 


550 


•739 


-001 


This bar is much more duc- 


12 


600 


•818 




tile than those previously 


13 


650 


•888 




experimented upon. 


14 


770 


1-052 


-001 




15 


800 


1-098 






16 


850 


1-188 


•094 




17 


860 


1-228 






18 


890 


1-248 


•104 




19 


900 


1-318 






20 


920 


1-358 


•160 




21 


950 


2-898 


1-588 





Results of Exp. XV, 

Here the weight (w) at the limit of elasticity is 810 lbs., and the cor- 
responding deflection, {I) is 1-098. 

By formula (6). — The mean value of the deflection for unity of pressure 
and section (DJ= -0012995. 

By formula (7). — The mean value of the modulus of elasticity (E) 
pressure=30,291,000. 

By formula (2). — The modulus of elasticity (E) corresponding to 112 lbs. 
pressure=31,056,000. 

By formula (8). — ^Work of deflection (U) up to the limit of elasticity 
=37-057. 

By formula (9).^ — Work of deflection (m) for unity of section =37-657. 

By formula (12).— Value of C, the unit of working strength=4-988 tons. 



ON THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF STEEL. 



181 



TRANSVERSE STRAIN. 

Exp. XVI.— Bar of Steel from Messrs. Naylor & Vickers, Sheffield. 
Dimension of bar 1 inch, square. Length between supports 4 feet 
6 inches. Mark on bar, " Axle Steel." 



No, of 
Exp. 


Weight laid 


Deflection, 


Permanent 




on, in 


in 


set, in 


Eemarks. 


lbs. 


inches. 


inches. 




1 


50 


•072 


.... 


Specimen of cast steel, con- 


2 


100 


•140 




verted in the crucible 


3 


150 


•200 




from bar -iron with the 


4 


200 


•261 


•000 


addition of manganese. 


5 


250 


•340 






6 


300 


•404 






7 


350 


•460 






8 


400 


•522 






9 


450 


•580 






10 


500 


•648 


•010 




11 


550 


•700 






12 


600 


•780 






13 


650 


•840 




From this experiment it 


14 


700 


•900 




would appear that man- 


15 


750 


•950 




ganese has a considerable 


16 


800 


1^020 


•016 


effect in combination with 


17 


850 


1^090 




the other constituents of 


18 


900 


1^180 


•018 


steel. 


19 


950 


1-250 


•046 




20 


1000 


1-370 






21 


1050 


1-620 






22 


1100 


3^380 


1-915 


Sunk with this weight. 



Results of Exp. XVI. 

Here the weight (iv) at the limit of elasticity is 910 lbs., and the cor- 
responding deflection (S) is 1-180. 

By formula (6). — The mean value of the deflection for unity of pressure 
and section (DJ = -001273. 

By formula (7). — The mean value of the modulus of elasticity (E) 
=30,923,000. 

By formula (2). — The modulus of elasticity (E) corresponding to 112 lbs. 
pressure =30,940,000. 

By formula (8). — Work of deflection (U) up to the limit of elasticity 
==.44-741. 

By formula (9). — ^^Vork of deflection (u) for unity of section =44- 741. 

By formula (12). — Yalue of C, the unit of working strength= 5-472 tons. 



183 



KEPORT 1867. 



TBANSTEESE STRAIN. 

Exp. XVII. — Bar of Steel from Messrs, Naylor & VIckers, Sheffield. Di- 
mension of bar '998 inch square. Length between supports 4 feet 
6 inches. Mark on bar, " Tyre Steel." 



No. of 


Weight kid 


Deflection, 


Permanent 




Exp. 


on, in 


in 


set, in 


Eemarks. 


lbs. 


inches. 


inches. 




1 


50 


•087 




Specimen of cast steel, con- 


2 


100 


•157 




verted in the crucible from 


3 


150 


•219 




bar-iron with the addi- 


4 


200 


•287 


•002 


tion of manganese. 


5 


250 


•342 






6 


300 


•412 






7 


350 


•475 






8 


400 


•547 






9 


450 


•591 






10 


500 


•667 


•015 




11 


550 


•732 






12 


600 


•797 






13 


650 


•857 






14 


700 


•927 






15 


750 


•987 


•023 




16 


800 


1-057 






17 


850 


1-117 






18 


900 


1-197 


•027 




19 


950 


1-287 


•038 




20 


1000 


1-367 


•074 




21 


1050 


1-537 






22 


1100 


2-697 


1-192 





Results of E.vp. XVII. 

Here the weight (w) at the limit of elasticity is 910 lbs., and the corre- 
sponding deflection (2) is 1-197. 

By formula (6). — The mean value of the deflection for unity of pressure 
and section (D^) = -0013124. 

By formula (7). — The mean value of the modulus of elasticity (E) 
=29,994,000. 

By formula (2). — The modulus of elasticity (E) corresponding to 112 lbs. 
pressure=27,847,000. 

By formula (8).— "Work of deflection (U) up to the limit of elasticity 
=40-025. 

By formula (9). — Work of deflection (?() for unity of section =40 -184. 

By formula (12). — Value of C, the unit of working strength= 5-505 tons. 



ON THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF STEEL. 



183 



TKANSVEESE STRAIN. 

Exp. XVIII. — Bar of Rtcel from Messrs. JSTaylor & Tickers, Sheffield. 
Dimensiou of bar 1-026 inch square. Length between supports 
4 feet inches. Marli on bar, " Vickers' Cast Steel, Special." 



No, of 
Exp. 


Weight laid 
on, in 


Deflection, 
in 


Permanent 
set, in 


Remarks. 


lbs. 


inches. 


inches. 




1 


100 


•133 




Specimen of cast steel, con- 


2 


200 


•253 




verted in the crucible from 


3 


300 


•363 




bar-ii'ou vrith the addition 


4 


400 


•485 




of manganese. 


5 


500 


•599 






6 


600 


•711 






7 


700 


•828 






8 


800 


•983 






9 


900 


1-163 


•000 




10 


950 


1-213 


•000 


The bar in this and the 


11 


1150 


1-393 




following experiment in- 


12 


1250 


1-523 




dicate a fine quality of 


13 


1400 


1-693 


•016 


metal, and great powers 


14 


1500 


1-183 




of resistance to a trans- 


15 


1600 


1-973 




verse strain. 


16 


1712 


2-133 


•072 





Eesults of Exp. .XVIII. 

Here the weight (iv) at the limit of elasticity is 1410 lbs., and the cor- 
responding deflection (^) is 1^693. 

By formula (6). — The mean value of the deflection for unity of pressiu'e 
and section (0^)= -0013386. 

By formula (7). — The mean value of the modulus of elasticity (E) 
= 29,407,000. 

By formula (2). — The modulus of elasticity (E) corresponding to 112 lbs. 
pressure =29,385,000. 

By formula (8). — Work of deflection (U) up to the limit of elasticity 
=99-463. 

By formula (9). — Work of deflection (iC) for unity of section =94-485. 

By formula (12). — Value of C, the unit of working strength =7-856 tons. 



184 



REPORT 1867. 



TEANSTEESE STEAIN. 

Exp. XIX.— Bar of Steel from Messrs. Naylor & Tickers, Sheffield, Di- 
mensions of bar 1-01 inch square. Length between supports 4 
feet 6 inches. Mark on bar, " Naylor & Vickers' Cast Steel, 2-66." 



No.«f 


Weight laid 
on, in 


Deflection, 
in 


Permanent 
set, in 


Eemarks. 


Exp. 


lbs. 


inches. 


inches. 




1 


50 


•076 




Specimen of cast steel, con- 


2 


100 


•140 




verted in the crucible 


3 


150 


•195 




from bar-iron with the 


4 


200 


•257 


•000 


addition of manganese. 


5 


250 


•313 






6 


300 


•372 






7 


350 


•440 






8 


400 


•500 






9 


450 


•560 






10 


500 


•620 


•008 




11 


550 


•678 






12 


600 


•737 






13 


650 


•800 






14 


700 


•870 






15 


750 


•940 






16 


800 


1-000 


•010 




17 


850 


1-050 






18 


900 


1-120 


•014 


This bar is similar to the 


19 


950 


1-190 


•017 


foregoing, but less rigid. 


20 


1000 


1-250 






21 


1050 


1-310 






22 


1100 


1-370 






23 


1150 


1-440 






24 


1200 


1-500 






25 


1250 


1-570 


•017 




26 


1400 


1-850 






27 


1500 


2-310 


•353' 




28 


1585 


2-650 






29 


1637 


3-350 


1-020 





Results of Exp. XIX. 

Here the weight (iv) at the limit of elasticity is 1260 lbs., and the cor- 
responding deflection (h) is 1-570. 

By formula (6). — The mean value of the deflection for unity of pressure 
and section (Dj)= -0012789. 

By formula (7). — The mean value of the modulus of elasticity (E) 
=30,788,000. 

By formula (2). — The modulus of elasticity (E) corresponding to 112 lbs. 
pressure = 29,752,000. 

By formula (8). — Work of deflection (U) up to the limit of elasticity 
=82-412. 

By formula (9). — Work of deflection (m) for unity of section =80-788. 

By formula (12). — Value of C,. the unit of working strcngth= 7-358 tons. 



ON THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OP STEEL. 



185 



TKANSYEESE STRAIN. 

Exp. XX.— Bar of Steel from Mr. S. Osborn, Clyde Works, Sheffield. Di- 
mension of bar 1-03S inch square. Length between supports 4 feet 
6 inches. Mark on bar, " 1. Best Tool Cast Steel, ^ ■ " 



No. of 


Weight laid 


Deflection, 


Permanent 






on, in 


in 


set, in 


Eemarks. 




Exp. 


lbs. 


inclies. 


inches. 






1 


100 


•140 




Specimen of turning - 


tool 


2 


200 


•252 


•010 


cast steel. 




3 


300 


•364 








4 


350 


■424 








5 


400 


•482 


-017 






6 


450 


•540 








7 


500 


•600 


•020 






8 


550 


•666 








9 


600 


•727 








10 


650 


•787 








11 


700 


•844 








12 


750 


•904 








13 


800 


•964 


•034 






14 


850 


1-044 








15 


900 


1-094 








16 


950 


1-144 


•035 






17 


1000 


1-204 








18 


1050 


1-274 








19 


1100 


1-324 


•059 






20 


1200 


1-474 


-076 






21 


1300 


1-684 








22 


1350 


2-044 


•343 






23 


1400 


2-344 








24 


1450 


2-6.54 








25 


1500 


3-034 


1-001 


Sinkiiig under this load 





Results of Exp. 

Here the weight (w) at the limit of elasticity is 1010 lbs., and the cor- 
responding deflection (l) is 1-204. 

By formula (6). — The mean value of the deflection for unity of pressure 
and section (DJ=-0013886. 

By formula (7). — The mean value of the modulus of elasticity (E) 
=28,353,000. 

By formula (2). — The modulus of elasticity (E) corresponding to 112 lbs. 
pressure=26,689,000. 

By formula (8). — Work of deflection (U) up to the limit of elasticity 
=50-668. 

By formula (9). — Work of deflection {\i) for unity of section =48-813. 

By formula (12). — Value of C, the unit of working strength =5-432 tons. 



186 



REPORT 1867. 



TEANSTEESE STRAIN. 

Exp. XXI.— Bar of Steel from Mr. S. Osborn, Clyde Works, Sheffield. Di- 
mensiou of bar 1-01 x 1-014 inch. Length between supports 4 feet 
6 inches. Mark on bar, " 2. Best Chisel Cast Steel." 





Weight laid 


Deflection, 


Permanent 




No. of 


on, in 


in 


set, in 


Eemarks. 


Exp. 


lbs. 


inches. 


inches. 




1 


100 


•136 




Specimen of best cast steel 


2 


200 


•260 


"•002 


for cold-chipping chisels. 


3 


300 


•382 






4 


400 


•508 






5 


500 


•628 


•009 




6 


600 


•712 






7 


700 


•836 






8 


800 


•978 


•010 




9 


850 


1-068 






10 


900 


1-138 


•008 




11 


950 


1-198 


•013 




12 


1000 


1-248 






13 


1050 


1^318 


. . > > 


This bar is close ground and 


14 


1100 


1-388 


•029 


well adapted for tools. 


15 


1150 


1-448 






16 


1200 


1-538 






17 


1250 


1-648 






18 


1300 


1-808 






19 


1350 


2-028 






20 


1400 


2-328 


•471 




21 


1450 


2-588 






22 


1500 


3-058 


•970 


Sunk under this weight. 



Results of Exp. XXI. 

Here the weight {w) at the limit of elasticity is 1110 lbs., and the cor- 
responding deflection (S) is 1-388. 

By formula (6).— The mean value of the deflection for unity of pressure 
and section (Dj)= -001278. 

By formula (7). — The mean value of the modulus of elasticity (E) 
=30,802,000. 

By formula (2). — The modulus of elasticity (E) corresponding to 112 lbs. 
pressure=30,523,000. 

By formula (8). — "Work of deflection (U) up to the limit of elasticity 
= 64-195. 

By formula (9). — Work of deflection («) for unity of section = 62-684. 

By formula (12). — Value of C, the unit of working strength = 6-400 tons. 



ON THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF STEEL. 



187 



TEAjSTSTEESE steain. 



Exp. XXII.— Bar of Steel from Mr. S. Osborn, Clyde Works, Sheffield. 
Dimension of bar 1"09 inch square. Length betAveen supports 
4 feet 6 inches. Mark on bar, " 3. Silver Steel, 





Weight [laid 


Deflection, 


Permanent 




No. of 


on, in 


in 


set, in 


Eemarks. 


Exp. 


lbs. 


inchea. 


inches. 




1 


100 


•139 




Specimen of best cast steel 


2 


200 


•266 


•007 


for hot and cold sates - 


3 


300 


•387 




cups, shear-blades, and 


4 


350 


•458 




boiler-makers' steel. 


5 


400 


■520 


•014 




6 


450 


•576 






7 


500 


•636 


•014 




8 


550 


•701 






9 


600 


•760 






10 


650 


•840 






11 


700 


•910 


•014 




12 


750 


•950 






13 


800 


1^010 


•019 




14 


850 


1-090 






15 


900 


1-150 






16 


950 


1^230 


•019 




17 


1000 


1-290 






18 


1050 


1-370 






19 


1100 


1-500 


•075 




20 


1150 


1-660 






21 


1200 


1-910 


•314 




22 


1250 


2-210 






23 


1300 


2-760 


•931 


Yielded -nith this weight. 



Results of Exp. XXII. 

Here the weight (w) at the limit of elasticity is 1010 lbs., and the cor- 
responding deflection (^) is 1-290. 

By formula (6). — The mean value of the deflection for ixnity of pressure 
and section (D^) = -0017814. 

By formula (7). — The mean value of the modulus of elasticity (E) 
= 22,098,000. 

By formula (2). — The modulus of elasticity (E) coiTesponding to 112 lbs. 
pressure = 22,072,000. 

By formula (8). — "Work of deflection (U) up to the limit of elasticity 
= 54-287. 

By formula (9). — Work of deflection (m) for unity of section = 47-845. 

By formula (12). — Value of C, the unit of working strength = 4-691 tons. 



188 



REPORT — 1867. 



TEAirSTDESE STEAUT. 

Exp. XXIII.— Bar of Steel from Mr. S. Osborn, Clyde Works, Sheffield. 
Dimeusion of bar -994 x 1-006 inch. Length between supports 
4 feet 6 inches. Mark on bar, " 4. Improved Die Steel, Q ^ ' ." 



No. of 


Weight laid 


Deflection, 


Permanent 




on, in 


in 


set, in 


Eemarks. 


Exp. 


lbs. 


inches. 


inches. 




1 


100 


•144 




Specimen of best cast steel 


2 


200 


•284 


•010 


for taps and dies. 


3 


300 


•408 






4 


350 


•472 






5 


400 


•538 


•oil 




6 


450 


•600 






7 


500 


•672 






8 


550 


•748 






9 


600 


•804 






10 


650 


•894 






11 


700 


•954 


•012 




12 


800 


1-074 


•016 


Specimen of steel similar to 


13 


850 


1-154 




the last. 


14 


900 


1-214 


•018 




15 


950 


1-264 


•025 




16 


1000 


1-344 






17 


1050 


1-434 






18 


1100 


1-544 


•091 




19 


1150 


1-694 






20 


1200 


1-934 






21 


1250 


2-474 


•688 


Slink with this weight. 



Results of Exp. XXIII. 

Here the weight {w) at the limit of elasticity is 1010 lbs., and the cor- 
responding deflection {h) is 1^344. 

By formula (6). — The mean value of the deflection for unity of pressure 
and section (DJ = -0013409. 

By formula (7). — The mean value of the modulus of elasticity (E) 
= 29,368,000. 

By formula (2). — The modulus of elasticity (E) corresponding to 112 lbs. 
pressure = 29,718,000. 

By formula (8). — Work of deflection (U) up to the limit of elasticity 
= 56-433. 

By formula (9). — Work of deflection (?<) for unity of section = 56-435. 

By formula (12). — Yalue of C, the unit of working strength = 6-037 tons. 



ON THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF STEEL. 



189 



TEANSVEESE STEAIN. 



Exp. XXIV.— Bar of Steel from Mr. S. Osboru, Clyde Works, Sheffield. 
Dimension of bar 1-03 inch square. Length between supports 4 feet 
6 inches. Mark on bar, " 5. Toughened Cast Steel for Shafts, &c." 





Weight laid 


Deflection, 


Permanent 




No. of 


on, in 


in 


set, in 


Kemarks. 


Eip. 


lbs. 


inches. 


inches. 




1 


50 


•072 




Specimen of toughened cast 


2 


100 


•130 




steel for shafts, piston- 


3 


150 


•185 




rods, and machinery pur- 


4 


200 


•238 


•010 


poses. 


5 


250 


•298 






6 


800 


•358 






7 


350 


•414 






8 


400 


•474 






9 


450 


•532 






10 


500 


•586 


•014 




11 


550 


•642 






12 


600 


•700 




An average quality, suitable 


13 


650 


•764 




for general purposes. 


14 


700 


•818 






15 


750 


•900 






16 


800 


•940 






17 


850 


1^030 






18 


900 


1^080 


•009? 




19 


950 


1^140 


•009? 




20 


1000 


1^190 






21 


1050 


1-270 






22 


1100 


1-330 






23 


1150 


1-420 






24 


1200 


1^560 


•152 




25 


1300 


2-880 


1^259 





Besults of Exp. XXIV. 

Here the -weight {w) at the limit of elasticity is 1010 lbs., and the cor- 
responding deflection (o) is 1-190. 

By formula (6). — The mean value of the deflection for unity of pressure 
and section (Dj) = -0013112. 

By formula (7). — The mean value of the modulus of elasticity (E) 
= 26,398,000. 

By formula (2). — The modulus of elasticity (E) corresponding to 112 lbs. 
pressure = 29,610,000. 

By formula (8). — Work of deflection (U) up to the limit of elasticity 
= 50-079. 

By formula (9). — "Work of deflection (i«) for unity of section = 53-194. 

By formula (12). — Value of C, the unit of working strength = 5-559 tons. 



190 



REPORT 1867. 



TEANSTEESE STRAIN, 



Exp. XXV.— Bar of Steel from Mr. S. Osbom, Clyde Works, Sheffield. Di- 
mension of bar 1-04 inch square in centre. Length between supports 
4 feet 6 inches. Mark on bar, " 6. Double Shear Steel, 





Weight laid 


Deflection, 


Permanent 






No. of 


on, in 


iu 


set, in 


Eemarks. 




Exp. 


lbs. 


inches. 


inches. 






1 


300 


•346 


-007 


Specimen of best 


double 


2 


500 


•572 


•020? 


shear steel. 




3 


550 


•625 








4 


600 


•682 


■018 






5 


650 


•737 








6 


700 


•802 








7 


750 


•872 








8 


800 


•942 


•030 






9 


850 


1-012 








10 


900 


1-072 


•051 






11 


950 


1-152 


•074 






12 


1000 


1-272 








13 


1050 


1-432 








14 


1100 


1-562 


•321 






15 


1150 


1-892 


•547 






16 


1200 


2-362 


•920 







Eesiilts of Ex2}. XXV. 

Here the weight (iv) at the limit of elasticity is 860 lbs, and the cor- 
responding deflection (S) is 1^012. 

Bv formula (6). — The mean value of the deflection for unity of pressure 
and 'section (DJ = •OOieSSl. 

By foi-mula (7). — The mean value of the modulus of elasticity (E) 
= 23,319,000. 

By formula (2).— The modulus of elasticity (E) corresponding to 112 lbs. 
pressure = 23,948,000. 

By formula (8). — Work of deflection (U) up to the limit of elasticity 
= 31-792. 

By formula (9). — Work of deflection (u) for unity of section = 29-393. 

By formula (12).— Value of C, the unit of working strength = 4-329 tons. 



ON THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF STEEL. 



191 



TEANSVEESE STEAHT. 

Exp. XXyi.— Bar of Steel from Mr. S. Osborn, Clyde Works, Sheffield. 
Dimension of bar 1-02 inch in middle. Length between supports 
4 feet 6 inches. Mark on bar, " 7. Extra Best Tool Cast Steel, < 



No. of 


Weight laid 


Deflection, 


Permanent 




on, in 


in 


set, in 


Remarks. 


Exp. 


lbs. 


inches. 


inches. 




1 


100 


•143 




Specimen of extra best cast 


2 


200 


•265 


•007 


steel for turning-tools, 


3 


300 


•388 




wheel-axles, &c. 


4 


400 


•503 


•010 




5 


450 


•576 






6 


500 


•627 






7 


550 


•683 






8 


600 


•748 






9 


650 


•823 






10 


700 


•883 






11 


750 


•943 


• . . • 


This is a superior quality. 


12 


800 


1-013 




well adapted for axles. 


13 


850 


1-083 






14 


900 


1-143 


•009 




15 


950 


1^203 


•009 




16 


1000 


1-263 






17 


1050 


1-313 






18 


1100 


1-363 


•029 




19 


1150 


1-443 






20 


1200 


1-503 


•025 




21 


1250 


1-553 






22 


1300 


1-643 






23 


1350 


1-743 






24 


1400 


1-803 


•055 




25 


1450 


1-913 






26 


1500 


2-103 






27 


1550 


2-323 






28 


1600 


2-653 






29 


1650 


3-153 


•824 


Sunk with this weight. 



Results of Exp. XXYI. 

Herethe weight {iv) at the limit of elasticity is 1210 Ib.s., and the cor- 
responding deflection (^) is 1-503. 

By formula (6). — The mean value of the deflection for unity of pressure 
and section (D^) = •001348. 

By formula (7). — The mean value of the modulus of elasticity CE) 
= 29,188,000. ^ ^ 

By formula (2). — The modulus of elasticity (E) corresponding to 112 lbs. 
pressure = 28,013,000. 

By formula (8).— Work of deflection (U) up to the limit of elasticity 
= 75-776. ^ 

By formula (9).— Work of deflection {u) for unity of section = 72-826. 

By formula (12).— Value of C, the unit of working strength = 6-860 tons. 



193 



REPORT 18G7. 



TEANSTEESE STEAnf, 



Exp. XXYII.— Bar of Steel from Mr. S. Osborii, Clyde Works, Sheffield. 
Dimension of bar 1-006 inch square in centre. Length between 
supports 4 feet 6 inches. Mark on bar, " 8. Cast Steel for Boiler 



Plates, (^ 





Weight laid 


Deflection, 


Permanent 




No. of 


on, in 


in 


set, in 


Remarks. 


Exp. 


lbs. 


inches. 


inches. 




1 


100 


•143 




Specimen of cast steel for 


2 


200 


•266 


•012 ? 


boiler plates. 


3 


300 


•390 






4 


400 


•500 






5 


500 


•630 






6 


550 


•693 






7 


600 


•751 


•010 




8 


650 


•823 






9 


700 


•900 






10 


750 


•960 


.... 


It is assumed that this bar 


11 


800 


1-020 


•016 


has been taken from the 


12 


850 


1-120 




ingot intended for boiler 


13 


900 


1-180 


•013? 


plates. 


14 


950 


1^250 


•021 




15 


1000 


1-320 






16 


1050 


1-390 






17 


1100 


1-450 


•063 




18 


1150 


1-550 






19 


1200 


2-000 


•430 




20 


1250 


2-240 






21 


1300 


3-160 


1^399 


Disabled with this weight. 



Results of Ea^p. XXVII. 

Here the weight {w) at the limit of elasticity is 1010 lbs., and the cor- 
responding deflection (l) is 1-320. 

By formula (6).— The mean value of the deflection for unity of pressure 
and section (DJ = •0013007. 

By formula (7). — The mean value of the modulus of elasticity (E) 
= 30,335,000. 

By formula (2). — The modulus of elasticity (E) corresponding to 112 lbs. 
pressure = 29,585,000. 

By formula (8).— Work of deflection (U) up to the limit of elasticity 
= 50-000. 

By formula (9). — Work of deflection (m) for unity of section = 49^406. 

By formula (12).— Value of C, the unit of working strength = 5^671 tons. 



ON THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF STEEL. 



193 



TRANSVERSE STRAIN. 

Exp. XXYIII.— Bar of Steel from Messrs. Bessemer & Co., Sheffield. Di- 
mension of bar -99 inch square. Length between supports 4 feet 
6 inches. Mark on bar, " B S 1." 



No. of 
Exp. 


Weight laid 
on, in 


Deflection, 
in 


Permanent 
set, in 


Eemarks. 


lbs. 


inches. 


inches. 




1 


100 


•155 




Specimen of hard Bessemer 


2 


200 


•294 


•010 


steel. 


3 


300 


•434 






4 


400 


•570 






5 


500 


•710 


■012 




6 


600 


•840 






t 


700 


•980 


•010 




8 


750 


1-050 






9 


800 


1-090 






10 


850 


1-170 


• • . • 


This is a valuable quality of 


11 


900 


1-250 




metal. 


12 


950 


1-320 


•010 




13 


1000 


1-390 






14 


1050 


1-450 






1.5 


1100 


1-530 


•023 




16 


1200 


1-690 


•060 




17 


1300 


1-990 


•165 




18 


1350 


2-180 






19 


1400 


2-520 


•519 




20 


1450 


3-660 


1-450 


Disabled with this weight. 



Results of Exp. XXVIII, 

Here the weight {iv) at the limit of elasticity is 1110 lbs,, and the cor- 
responding deflection (I) is 1-530. 

By formula (6).— The mean value of the deflection for unity of pressure 
and section (D,) = -0021814. 

Bj formula (7).— The mean value of the modulus of elasticity CE) 
= 29,652,000. ^ ^ ' 

By formula (2).— The modulus of elasticity (E) corresponding to 112 lbs. 
pressure = 29,104,000. 

By formula (8).— Work of deflection (U) up to the limit of elasticity 
= 70-762. \ J i. i 

By foi-mula (9).— Work of deflection («) for unity of section = 72-199. 
By formula (12).— Yalue of C, the unit of working strength = 6-882 tons. 



194 



REPORT 1867. 



TEANSVEESE STEAIN. 

Exp. XXIX. — Bar of Steel from Messrs. Bessemer & Co., Sheffield. Dimen- 
sion of bar 1 X 1'02 inch. Length between supports 4 feet 6 inches. 
Mark on bar, "BS 2." 





Weight laid 


Deflection, 


Permanent 






No. of 


on, in 


in 


set, in 


Remarks. 




Exp. 


lbs. 


inclie.s. 


inches. 






1 


100 


•144 




Specimen of milder 


Besse- 


2 


200 


•274 


•osi 


mer steel than No. 


1. 


3 


300 


•305 








4 


400 


•466 


•029 






5 


500 


•590 


•030 






6 


600 


•716 








7 


700 


•850 


•030 






8 


750 


•910 








9 


800 


•970 


•030 






10 


850 


1^020 








11 


900 


1-110 


•034 






12 


950 


1-270 


•047 






13 


1000 


1^340 








14 


1050 


1-540 








15 


1100 


2-98 


1^565 







Hesiilts of Exp. XXIX. 

Here the weight (w) at the limit of elasticity is 910 lbs., and the cor- 
responding deflection (d) is I'llO. 

By formula (6). — The mean value of the deflection for unity of pressure 
and section (D^) = -0012946. 

By formula (7). — The mean value of the modulus of elasticity (E) 
= 30,478,000. 

By formula (2). — The modulus of elasticity (E) corresponding to 112 lbs. 
pressui-e = 28,379,000. 

By formula (8). — "Work of deflection (U) up to the limit of elasticity 
= 42^087. 

By formula (9). — Work of deflection («) for unity of section = 41^261. 

By formula (12). — Value of C, the unit of working strength = 5^317 tons. 



ON THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF STEEL. 



19? 



TEANSVEESE STRAIN. 

Exp. XX X . — Bar of Steel from Messrs. Bessemer & Co., Sheffield. Dimen- 
sion of bar -957 X -966 inch. Length between supports 4 feet 6 
inches. Mark on bar, " B S 3." 



No of 


Weight laid 


Deflection, 


Permanent 




Exp. 


on, in 


in 


set, in 


Eemarks. 


lbs. 


inches. 


inches. 




1 


100 


•176 




Specimen of soft Bessemer 


2 


200 


•328 


"•006 


steel. 


3 


300 


•479 






4 


400 


•628 


•009 




5 


450 


•704 






6 


500 


•788 


•014 




7 


600 


•944 






8 


650 


1^034 




• 


9 


700 


1-094 


•026 




10 


750 


1-204 






11 


800 


1-454 


■237 


This bar is much inferior to 
the two preceding ones. 



Results of Exp. XXX. 

Here the weight (w) at the limit of elasticity is 710 lbs., aud the cor- 
responding deflection (^) is 1^094. 

By formula (6). — The mean value of the deflection for unity of pressure 
and section (D,)=^0015293. 

By formula (7). — The mean value of the modulus of elasticity (E) 
=29,310,000. 

By formula (2). — The modulus of elasticity (E) corresponding to 112 lbs. 
pressure=28,536,000. 

By formula (8).— Work of deflection (U) u]) to the limit of elasticity 
=32-304. ^ 

By formula (9).— Work of deflection (n) for unity of section =35-008. 

By formula (12).— Value of C, the unit of working strength =4- 778 tons. 



i'2 



196. 



REPORT 1867 



TEANSVEESE STRAIN. 



Exp. XXXI. — Bar of Steel from ITcssrs. Sanderson Brothers, Sheffield. 
Dimension of bar 1-048 inch square. Length between supports 
4 feet 6 inches. Mark on bar, " S 1." 



No of 
Exp. 


Weight kid 


Deflection, 


Permanent 




on, in 


in 


set, in 


Remarks. 


lbs. 


inches. 


inches. 




1 


100 


•114 




Specimen of bar of cast 


2 


200 


•216 


*-002 


steel, from K. B., a Rus- 


3 


300 


•322 




sian iron, suitable for 


4 


400 


•424 




•vrelding. 


5 


500 


•530 


-002 




6 


600 


•640 






1 


700 


•740 


-002 




8 


800 


•856 


■002 




9 


900 


•990 


•004 




10 


9.50 


1-050 


•006 




11 


1000 


1-130 






12 


1050 


1-180 






13 


1100 


1-240 


•057 




14 


1150 


1-340 






15 


1200 


1-440 






16 


1250 


1-500 






17 


1300 


1-590 


•409 




18 


1350 


2-100 






19 


1400 


2-790 






20 


1450 


3-480 


1-720 





Results of Exp. XXXI. 

Here the weight {iv) at the limit of elasticity is 1060 lbs., and the cor- 
responding deflection (l) is 1-180. 

By formula (0). — The mean value of the deflection for unity of pressure 
and section (D,)= -0012822. 

By formula (7). — The mean value of the modulus of elasticity (E) 
= 30,700,000. 

By formula (2). — The modulus of elasticity (E) corresponding to 112 lbs. 
pressure=31,482,000. 

By formula (8). — Work of deflection (U) up to the limit of elasticity 
=52-116. 

By formula (9). — "Work of deflection (m) for unity of section =47-452. 

By formula (12). — Yalue of C, the unit of working strength =5-539 tons. 



ON THE MKCHANICAL PROi'ERTIES Of STEEL. 



197 



TRANSVEESE STRAIN. 



Exr. XXXII. — Bar of Steel from Messrs. Sanderson Brothers, Sheffield. 
Dimension of bar 1*044 inch square. Length between supports 
4 feet 6 inches. Mark on bar, " S 2." 



No. of 


Weight laid 


Deflection, 


Permanent 




on, in 


in 


set, in 


Eenwrks. 


Exp. 


lbs. 


inclies. 


inclies. 




1 


100 


•130 




Specimen of double shear 


2 


200 


•238 


-010 


steel, from G- Swedish 
iron. 


3 


300 


•342 




4 


400 


•448 






5 


500 


•568 


•010 




6 


600 


•682 






7 


700 


•794 






8 


800 


•920 


•010 




9 


900 


1-040 


•018 




10 


950 


1-110 


•054 




11 


1000 


1-190 


•075 




12 


1100 


1-680 


•427 




13 


1200 


2-110 






14 


1250 


2-470 






15 


1300 


2-740 


•954 




16 


1350 


3-130 


1-450 





Results of Exp. ^XXLl. 

Here the weight (w) at the limit of elasticity is 910 lbs., and the cor- 
responding deflection {l) is 1-040. 

By formula (6). — The mean value of the deflection for unity of pressure 
and section (D^) = -0013412. 

By formula (7). — The mean value of the modulus of elasticity (E) 
= 29,351,000. 

By formula (2). — The modulus of elasticity (E) corresponding to 112 lbs. 
pressure=28,074,000. 

By formula (8). — The work of deflection (U) up to the limit of elasticity 
=39-433. 

By formula (9). — Work of deflection (?<) for unity of section =37- 022. 

By formula (12). — Value of C, the unit of working strength= 4-808 tons. 



198 



REPORT 1867. 



TEAlSrSVEESE STRAIN. 

Exr. XXXIII. — Bar of Steel from Messrs. Sanderson Brothers, Sheffield. 
Dimension of bar 1'024 iach square. Length between supports 
4 feet 6 inches. Mark on bar, " S 3." 



No. of 
Exp. 


Weight laid 


Deflection, 


Permanent 




on, in 


in 


set, in 


Eeniarks. 


lbs. 


inches. 


inches. 




1 


100 


•132 




Specimen of single shear 


2 


200 


•250 


'-004 


steel from G a Swedish 
iron. 


3 


300 


•364 




4 


400 


•478 






5 


500 


•596 


-004 




6 


600 


•716 






7 


700 


•832 


-004 




8 


800 


•956 


-004 




9 


900 


1^076 


-004 




10 


950 


1-136 


-007 


A fine flexible metal, not 


11 


1000 


1-186 




subject to fracture. 


12 


1050 


1-256 






13 


1100 


1-306 


-021 




14 


1200 


1-416 






15 


1300 


1-586 


-045 




16 


1500 


2-546 


-647 




17 


1600 


3-576 


1-883 





Eesults of Exp. XXXIII. 

Here the weight (w) at the limit of elasticity is 1210 lbs., and the cor- 
responding deflection (3) is 1-416. 

By formula (6).— The mean value of the deflection for unity of pressure 
and section (DJ = -0012963. 

By formula (7). — The mean value of the modulus of elasticity (E) 
=30,368,000. 

By formula (2). — The modulus of elasticity (E) corresponding to 112 lbs. 
pressure=29,858,000. 

By formula (8). — Work of deflection (U) iip to the limit of elasticity 
= 71-390. 

By formula (9). — Work of deflection (?<) for unity of section = 68-082. 

By formula (12). — Yalue of C, the unit of working strength =6-780 tons. 



ON THE MECHANICAL PROPEllTIES OF STEEL. 



199 



TBANSYEESE STRAnST. 



Exp. XXXIV. — Bar of Steel from Messrs. Sanderson Brothers, Sheffield. 
Dimension of bar 1-046 inch square. Length between supports 
4 feet 6 inches. Mark on bar, " S 4." 



-\r p 


Weight laid 


Deflection, 


Permanent 


- 


jNo. of 


on, in 


in 


set, in 


Eemarks. 


Esp. 


lbs. 


inches. 


inches. 




1 


100 


•124 




Bar of faggot-steel drawn 


2 


200 


•235 


'•008 


from ^ bar-steel, simply 


3 


300 


•341 




welded to make it sound. 


4 


400 


•446 






5 


500 


•550 


•008 




6 


600 


•657 








700 


•768 






8 


soo 


•890 


•008 




9 


900 


1-000 






10 


950 


1-050 


•Oil 




11 


1000 


1-120 






12 


1050 


1-170 






13 


1100 


1-240 


•045 




14 


1150 


1-320 






15 


1200 


1-460 






16 


1300 


2-300 


•763 




17 


1400 


3-190 


1-479 


Sinking with this load. 



EesuJts of Exp, XXXIV. 

Here the weight {iv) at the limit of elasticity is 1060 lbs., and the cor- 
responding deflection (3) is 1-170. 

By formula (6).— The mean value of the deflection for unity of pressure 
and section (DJ = •0013616. 

By formula (7). — The mean value of the modulus of elasticity (E) 
= 29,922,000. 

By formula (2). — The modulus of elasticity (E) corresponding to 112 lbs. 
pressm-e = 29,184,000. 

By formula (8). — Work of deflection (U) up to the limit of elasticity 
= 51^675. 

By formula (9). — Work of deflection («) for unity of section = 47^230. 

By formula (12).— Value of C, the unit of working strength = 5^572 tons. 



200 



KEPOKT — 18G7, 



TEANSVBKSE STEAIN. 

Exp. XXXV. — Bar of Steel from Messrs. Sanderson Brothers, Sheffield. 
Dimension of bar 1-037 inch square. Length between supports 
4 feet 6 inches, lilark on bar, <' S 5 extra (7 ^ — n ." 



No. of 
Exp. 


Weight laid 


Deflection, 


Permanent 




on, in 


in 


set, in 


Eemarks. 


lbs. 


inches. 


inches. 




1 


100 


•133 


.... 


Specimen of drawn bar from 


2 


200 


•245 


•Oil 


^ steel, not welded. 


3 


300 


•359 




4 


400 


•459 






5 


500 


•573 


•015 




6 


600 


•691 






7 


700 


•807 






8 


800 


•927 


•016 




9 


900 


1^057 


•019 




10 


950 


1-137 


•034 




11 


1000 


1-217 






12 


1100 


1-737 


•420 




13 


1200 


2-757 


1-237 





liesidts of Exp. XXXV. 

Here the weight (iv) at the limit of elasticity is 910 lbs., and the cor- 
responding deflection (h) is 1-057. 

By formula (6). — The mean value of the deflection for unity of pressure 
and section (DJ = -0013333. 

By formula (7).- — The mean value of the modulus of elasticity (E) 
= 29,524,000. 

By formula (2). — The modulus of elasticity (E) corresponding to 112 lbs. 
pressm-e = 28,] 79,000. 

By formula (8). — Work of deflection (U) up to the limit of elasticity 
= 40-078. 

By formula (9). — "Work of deflection («) for unity of section = 37-269. 

By formula (12). — Value of C, the unit of working strength = 4-907 tons. 



ON THIS MECHANICAL rKCTiilKTIES Or STEEL. 



201 



TEANSVEKSE STRAIX. 

Exp. XXXVI.— Bar of Steel from Messrs. 
Dimension of bar 1'023 inch square. 
4 feet 6 inches. Mark on bar, " A." 



Turton & Sons, Sheffield. 
Length between supports 



No. of 


Weight laid 


Deflection, 


Permanent 




on, in 


in 


set, in 


Eemarks. 


Exp. 


lbs. 


inches. 


inches. 




1 


100 


•128 




Specimen of steel employed 


2 


200 


•246 


'-ooV 


in the manufacture of 


3 


250 


•300 




cups. 


4 


300 


•360 






5 


400 


•476 


•007 




6 


500 


•596 


•006 




t 


GOO 


•714 






8 


700 


•850 


-004. 




9 


800 


•970 


•005 




10 


900 


1-090 


•009 




11 


950 


1-160 


•013 




12 


1000 


1-230 






13 


1050 


1-370 






14 


1100 


1-910 


•574 




15 


1150 


2-660 


1-187 


This steel is very soft. 



Results of Exp. XXXVI. 

Here the weight (w) at the limit of elasticity is 960 lbs., and the corre- 
sponding deflection {?■) is 1-160. 

By formula (6). — The mean value of the deflection for unity of pressure 
and section (D^) = -0013033. 

By formula (7). — The mean value of the modulus of elasticity (E) 
-= 30,204,000. 

By formula (2). — The modulus of elasticity (E) corresponding to 112 lbs. 
prcssiu-e = 30,895,000. 

By formula (8). — Work of deflection (U) up to the limit of elasticity 
= 46-400. 

By formula (9). — Work of deflection (») for unity of section = 45-369. 

By formula (12), — Value of C, the unit of working strength = 5-392 tons. 



302 



REPORT — 1867. 



TKANSVERSE STRAIN. 

Exp. XXXVII.— Bar of Steel from Messrs. Tui-ton & Sons, Sheffield. Di- 
mension of bar 1-032 inch square. Length between supports 
4 feet 6 inches. Mark on bar, " B."' 



No. of 
Esp. 


Weight laid 
on, in 


Deflection, 
in 


Permanent 
set, in 


Kemarks. 




lbs. 


inches. 


inches. 






1 


100 


•122 


.... 


Specimen of steel 


used in 


2 


200 


•233 


-002 


the maniifacture 


of drUls. 


3 


300 


•35S 








4 


400 


•460 


•003 






5 


500 


•580 








6 


GOO 


•690 








7 


700 


•830 


•004 






8 


800 


•930 








9 


950 


1-100 


-004 






10 


1050 


1^220 


•Oil 


Useful tool steel. 




11 


1100 


1^280 








12 


1150 


1^340 


•014 






13 


1200 


1-410 








14 


1250 


1-480 


•030 






15 


1300 


1^540 








16 


1350 


1-630 


•037 






17 


1400 


1-700 








18 


1450 


1-870 








19 


1500 


2-140 








20 


1600 


2-810 


-748 


Disabled. 





Results of Exp. XXXYII. 

Here the ■vreight («') at the limit of elasticity is 1210 lbs., and the corre- 
sponding deflection {I) is 1-410. 

By formida (6). — The mean value of the deflection for unity of pressure 
and section (DJ = -0012958. 

By formula (7). — The mean value of the modulus of elasticity (E) 
= 30,390,000. 

By formula (2). — The modulus of elasticity (E) corresponding to 112 lbs. 
pressiire = 31,297,000. 

By formiUa (8). — Work of deflection (U) up to the limit of elasticity 
= 71-087. 

By formula (9). — Work of deflection («) for unity of section = 66-748. 

By formula (12). — Value of C, the unit of working strength = 6'625 tons. 



ON THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF STEEL. 



203 



TKANSTEHSE STRAIN. 



Exp. XXXYIII.— Bar of Steel from Messrs, Turton and Sons, Sheffield. 
Dimension of bar -OOS inch square. Length between supports 4 feet 
6 inches. Mark on bar, " C." 





Weight laid 


Deilection, 


Permanent 




No. of 


on, in 


in 


set, in 


Remarks. 


Exp. 


lbs. 


inches. 


inches. 




1 


100 


•137 




Specimen of steel used in the 


2 


200 


•259 




manufacture of cutters. 


3 


300 


•395 






4 


400 


•527 


•024 




5 


500 


•645 






6 


600 


•770 






7 


700 


•915 


•025 




8 


800 


1-035 






9 


950 


1-225 


•025 


The same in quality as that 


10 


1050 


1-335 




iu the previous experi- 


11 


1100 


1-415 


•031 


ment. 


12 


1150 


1-495 


•034 




13 


1200 


1-575 






14 


1250 


1-685 


•077 




15 


1300 


1^805 






16 


1350 


2-305 






17 


1400 


2-935 


•968 


Sunk. 



Eesitlfs of Exp. XXXYIII. 

Here the ■weight (if) at the limit of elasticity is 1100 lbs., and the cor- 
responding deflection (3) is 1-415. 

By formula (6). — The mean value of the deflection for unity of pressure 
and section (D^) = -0012598. 

By formula (7). — The mean value of the modulus of elasticity (E) 
= 31,247,000. 

By formula (2). — The modulus of elasticitv (E) corresponding to 112 lbs. 
pressure = 31,859,000. 

By formula (8). — Work of deflection (U) up to the limit of elasticity 
= 65-443. 

By formula (9). — Work of deflection («) for unity of section = 65-705. 

By formula (12). — Value of C, the unit of working; strength = 6-718 tons. 



204 



REPORT 1867. 



TBASSTEBSE SXEAIN. 

Exr. XXXIX. — Bar of Steel from Jlessrs. Tnrton and Sons, Sheffield. 
Dimension of bar -986 inch square. Length between supports 4 feet 
6 inches. Mark on bar, " D." 





Weight laid 


Deflection, 


Permanent 


1 


No. of 


on, in 


in 


set, in 


Kemarks. 


Exp. 


lbs. 


inches. 


inches. 




1 


100 


•141 




Specimen of steel iised in 


2 


200 


•278 




the construction of turn- 


3 


300 


•417 




ing tools. 


4 


400 


•558 






5 


500 


•693 






6 


600 


•828 






7 


700 


•978 


•001 


The same quality as before. 


8 


800 


1^078 


•002 




9 


950 


1-348 


•009 




10 


1000 


1-408 






11 


1050 


1-488 






12 


1100 


1^578 


•055 




13 


1150 


1^82S 


•185 




14 


1200 


2-078 






15 


1250 


2-538 


•619 





Besults of Exp. XXXIX. 

Here the weight (w) at the limit of elasticity is 1010 lbs., and the cor- 
responding deflection (S) is 1-408. 

Ey formula (6). — The mean value of the deflection for unity of pressure 
and section (D^) = •001287. 

By formula (7).- — The mean value of the modulus of elasticity (E) 
= 30,887,000. 

By formula (2). — The modulus of elasticity (E) corresponding to 112 lbs. 
pressure = 32,462,000. 

By formula (8).— Work of deflection (U) up to the limit of elasticity 
= 59-253. 

By formida (9).— Work of deflection (m) for unity of section = 60-949. 

By formula (12). — Yalue of C, the unit of working strength = 6-337 tons. 



ON THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OP STEEL. 



205 



TRANSVERSE STRAIN. 

Exp. XL. — Bar of Steel from Messrs. Turton & Sons, Sheffield. Dimension 
of bar 1*02 inch square. Length between supports 4 feet 6 inches. 
Mark on bar, " E." 



No. of 


Weight laid 


Deflection, 


Permanent 




Exp. 


on, in 


in 


set, in 


Remarks. 


lbs. 


inches. 


inches. 




1 


100 


•130 




Specimen of steel used in 


2 


200 


•254 




the manufacture of ma- 


3 


300 


•373 




chinery. 


4 


400 


•484 


•004 




5 


500 


•593 


•006 




6 


600 


•718 






t 


700 


•842 






8 


800 


•982 


•007 




9 


950 


1-172 


•Oil 


The whole of these specimens 


10 


1050 


1-262 




(XXXVI., XXXYII., 


11 


1100 


1-342 


•014 


XXXVIIL, XXXIX., 


12 


11,50 


1-402 


•015 


and XL.) are remarkable 


13 


1200 


1^472 




for uniformity in strength 


14 


1300 


1^722 


•138 


and texture. 


15 


1350 


1-942 






16 


1400 


2-162 






17 


1450 


2-472 






18 


1500 


2-842 


•818 





Results of Exp. XL. 

Here the weight {tv) at the limit of elasticity is 1160 lbs., and the corre- 
sponding deflection (o) is 1-402, 

By formula (0). — The mean value of the deflection for unity of j^ressure 
and section (D^) =-001303. 

By formula (7). — The mean value of the modulus of elasticity (E) 
= 30,211,000. 

By formula (2). — The modulus of elasticity (E) corresponding to 112 lbs. 
pressure = 30,764,000. 

By formula (8). — Work of deflection (U) up to the limit of elasticity 
= 67-763. 

By formula (9). — "Work of deflection («() for unity of section = 65-131. 

By formula (12). — Value of C, the unit of working strength = 6-576 tons. 



206 



REPORT 1867. 



TRAKSVERSE STRAIN. 



Exp. XLI. — Bar of Steel from Messrs. Turton & Sons, Sheffield. Dimension 
of bar 1'02 inch square. Length between supports 4 feet 6 inches. 
Hark on bar, " F." 



No nf 


Weight laid 


Deflection, 


Permanent 




J.1 U. Ui 

Exp. 


on, in 


in 


set, in 


Eemarks. 


lbs. 


inches. 


inches. 




1 


100 


•123 




Specimen of steel used in the 


2 


200 


•242 




manufacture of punches. 


3 


300 


•396 






4 


400 


•487 






5 


500 


•605 






6 


600 


•735 






7 


700 


•866 


•000 




8 


800 


•976 


•000 




9 


950 


1^156 


•015 




10 


1100 


1-426 


•099 




11 


1150 


1-616 


•169 




12 


1300 


2-266 


•555 




13 


1400 


2-876 


•982 


Disabled. 



Results of Exp. 'KLl, 

Here the weight {w) at the limit of elasticity is 960 lbs., and the corre- 
sponding deflection (g) is 1^156. 

By formida (6). — The moan value of the deflection for unity of pressure 
and sectiou (D,) = -001302. 

By formula (7). — The mean yaluc of the modulus of elasticity (E) 
= 30,218,000. 

By formula (2).^ — The modulus of elasticity (E) corresponding to 112 lbs. 
pressui-e = 32,480,000. 

By formula (8). — "Work of deflection (U) up to the limit of elasticity 
= 46-240. 

By formula (9). — Work of deflection (m) for unity of section = 44-444. 

By formula (12). — Value of C, the unit of working strength = 5-440 tons. 



ON THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF STEEL. 



207 



TEANSTEESE STRAIN, 



Exp. XT.TT. — Bar of Steel from Messrs. Turton & Sons, Sheffield. Dimension 
of bar -995 inch square. Length bet^-een supports 4 feet 6 inches. 
Mark on bar, " G." 



No. of 


Weight laid 


Deflection, 


Permanent 




Exp. 


on, in 


in 


set, in 


Eemarks. 


lbs. 


inches. 


inches. 




1 


100 


•141 




Specimen of steel used in the 


2 


200 


•280 




manufacture of Mint dies. 


3 


300 


•410 






4 


400 


•541 


•009 




5 


500 


•672 


•010 




6 


600 


•805 








700 


•950 






8 


800 


h070 


•009 




9 


900 


1^210 






10 


950 


1-290 


•Oil 




11 


1050 


1-520 






12 


1100 


2-250 


•735 




13 


1150 


3^280 


1-627 


Sunk under load. 



Results of Exp, XLII. 

Here the weight («') at the limit of elasticity is 960 lbs., and the corre- 
sponding deflection (^) is 1-290. 

By foi-mula (6).— The mean value of the deflection for unity of pressure 
and section (DJ = -001205. 

By formula (7).— The mean value of the modulus of elasticity (E) 
= 30,898,000. 

By formula (2). — The modulus of elasticity (E) corresponding to 112 lbs. 
pressure = 31,325,000. 

By formula (8). — Work of deflection (U) up to the limit of elasticity 
= 51^600. 

By formula (9). — Work of deflection (n) for unity of section = 52^120. 

By foi-mida (12). — Value of C, the unit of working strength = 5^161 tons. 



.208 



REPORT 1867. 



TEANSYEESE STEAIN. 



Exp. XLIII.— Bar of Steel from Messrs. Turton & Sons, Sheffield. Dimension 
of bar 1-012 inch square. Length between supports 4 feet 6 inches. 
Mark on bar, " H." 



No. of 
Exp. 


Weight laid 


Deflection, 


Permanent 






on, in 


in 


set, in 


Remarks. 




lbs. 


inches. 


inches. 






1 


100 


•150 




Specimen of steel used in 


the 


2 


200 


•282 




manufacture of dies, 




3 


300 


•406 








4 


400 


•533 


•on 






5 


500 


•653 


•016 






G 


600 


•782 








7 


700 


•910 


-021 






8 


800 


1-050 








9 


900 


1-190 








10 


950 


1-270 


•021 






11 


1000 


1-350 








12 


1050 


1-470 


•099 






13 


1100 


1-720 


•249 






14 


1150 


2-000 


•432 






15 


1200 


2-390 








16 


1250 


2-820 


•995 


Disabled. 





Results of Exp. XLIII. 

Here the weight {w) at the limit of elasticity is 960 lbs., and the corre- 
sponding deflection 1-270. 

By formula (6). — The mean value of the deflection for ruiity of pressure 
and section (DJ = -001382. 

By formula (7). — The mean value of the modulus of elasticity (E) 
= 28,484,000. 

By formula (2). — The modulus of elasticity (E) corresponding to 112 lbs. 
pressure = 27,542,000. 

By formula (8). — The vrork of deflection (U) up to the limit of elasticity 
= 50-800. 

By formula (9). — "Work of deflection {u) for unity of section = 49-602. 

By formula (12). — Yaluc of C, the unit of working strength = 5-570 tons. 



ON THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF STEEL. 



209 



TKANSTERSE STEAIN. 

Exp. XLIV.— Bar of Steel from Messrs. Turton & Sons, Sheffield. Dimen- 
sion of bar -98 inch square. Length between supports 4 feet 
6 inches. Mark on bar, " I." 





Weight laid 


Deflection, 


Permanent 






No. of 


on, in 


in 


.set, in 


Eemavks. 




Exp. 


lbs. 


inches. 


inches. 






1 


100 


•170 • 




Specimen of steel 


used in 


2 


200 


•310 




the manufacture 


of taps. 


3 


300 


•455 








4 


400 


•604 


•012 






5 


500 


•746 


•013 






6 


600 


•900 








7 


700 


1^040 


•012 






8 


800 


1-190 


•018 






9 


900 


1-390 


•030 






10 


950 


1-530 


-094 






11 


1000 


1-900 


-349 






12 


1050 


2-460 


•747 


Disabled. 





Results of Exp. XLIV. 

Here the weight {w) at the limit of elasticity is 91 lbs., and the corre- 
sponding deflection (g) is 1-390 

By formula (6). — The mean value of the deflection for unity of pressure 
and section (DJ = -001368. 

By formula (7).— The mean value of the modulus of elasticitv (E) 
= 31,198,000. 

By formula (2). — The modulus of elasticity (E) corresponding to 112 lbs, 
pressure = 27,646,000. 

By formula (8).— Work of deflection (U) up to the limit of elasticity 
= 52-704. 

By formula (9).— Work of deflection (m) for unity of section = 54-877. 
By formula (12).— Value of C, the unit of working strength = 5-788 tons. 



1SC7. 



210 



REPORT 1867. 



TRAl^'SVEESE STEAITr. 



Exp. XLV.— Bar of Steel from Messrs. Turton & Sons, Sheffield. Dimen- 
sion of bar 1*022 inch square. Length between supports 4 feet 
6 inches. Mark on bar, " U." 



No. of 
Exp. 


Weight laid 


Deflection, 


Permanent 




on, in 


in 


set, in 


Eemarks. 


lbs. 


inches. 


inches. 




1 


100 


•127 




Specimen of double shear 


2 


200 


•256 




steel. 


3 


300 


•372 






4 


400 


•492 


•007 




5 


500 


•604 


•010 




6 


600 


•730 






7 


700 


•866 


•010 




8 


800 


•986 


•oil 




9 


950 


1-216 


•034 




10 


1000 


1-316 






11 


1050 


1-436 


•113 




12 


1100 


1-696 


•277 




13 


1150 


2-136 


-601 




14 


1200 


2-506 






15 


1250 


3-216 


1-420 





Here the weight 
spending deflection 

By formula (6) .- 
and section (DJ = 

By formula (7) 
= 29,710,000. 

By formula (2).- 
prcssure = 31,2.32, 

By formula (8).- 
~ 33-277. 

By formula (9) .- 

By formula (12). 



Results of Eivp. XLV. 

(yi) at the limit of elasticity is 810 lbs., and the corre- 
{l) is -986. 

-The mean value of the deflection for unity of pressure 
-001325. 
— The mean value of the modulus of elasticity (E) 

The modulus of elasticity (E) corresponding to 112 lbs. 
000. 
-Work of deflection (U) up to the limit of elasticity 

-Work of deflection (ii) for unity of section = 31-859. 
—Value of C, the unit of working strength = 4-561 tons. 



ON THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF STEEL. 



211 



Exr. XLYI.— Bar of Steel from the Titanic 
mension of bar 1-004 inch square. 
4 feet 6 inches. Mark on bar, " A X." 



Steel Co., Worcester. Di- 
Length between supports 



No. of 


Weight laid 


Deflection, 


Permanent 




on, in 


in 


set, in 


Eemarks. 


Exp. 


lbs. 


inches. 


inches. 




1 


50 


•065 




This steel is intended for 


2 


75 


•095 




rods, plates, and girders. 


3 


100 


•133 






4 


125 


•163 






5 


150 


•195 






6 


175 


•231 








200 


•258 






8 


225 


•292 






9 


250 


•313 






10 


300 


•383 






11 


350 


•449 






12 


400 


■508 




We have no particulars of 


13 


450 


•569 




the properties of this 


14 


500 


•632 




metal.' It is one of our 


15 


550 


•692 




best specimens. 


16 


600 


•754 






17 


650 


•839 






18 


700 


•889 






19 


750 


•969 






20 


800 


•999 






21 


850 


1-079 






22 


900 


1-129 






23 


950 


1^199 






24 


1000 


1-279 






25 


1050 


1-369 






26 


1100 


1-389 






27 


1150 


1-449 






28 


1200 


1-509 






29 


1250 


1-589 






30 


1300 


1-669 


-000 




31 


1350 


1-739 


■000 




32 


1400 


1-809 


•000 




33 


1450 


1-899 


•012 




34 


1500 


1-969 


•025 




35 


1600 


2-319 


•206 




36 


1712 


3-289 


•855 


Experiment discontinued. 



llesidts of Exp. XLVI. 

Here the weight («) at the limit of elasticity is 1460 lbs., and tlie corresponding de- 
flection (5) is 1-899. By formula (6).— The mean value of the deflection for unitv of 

pressure and section {!){) = -00126.5. Bv formula (7).— The mean value of tlie modu- 
lus of elasticity (E) = 31,119,000.- By formula (2).— The modulus of elasticity (E) 

corresponding to 112 lbs. pressure = 32.120.000. By formula (8).— The work of de- 
flection (U) up to the limit of elasticity = 115-522.— ^By formula (9).— Work of deflec- 
tion {u) for unity of section = 114000. By formula (12).— Value of C, the unit of 

working strength = 8-682 tons. 

q2 



212 



REPORT 1867, 



TRANSVERSE STRAIX. 



Exp. XLVII.— Bar of Steel from the Titanic Steel Co., Worcester. Dimen- 
sion of bar -99 inch square. Length between supports 4 feet 6 inches. 
Mark on bar, " B X." 



No. of 


Weight laid 


Deflection, 


Permanent 




on, in 


in 


set, in 


Remarks. 


-EiXp. 


lbs. 


inches. 


inches. 




1 


50 


•062 




Steel intended for « Wheel 


2 


100 


•129 




Tyres." 


3 


150 


•182 






4 


200 


•247 






5 


250 


•322 






6 


300 


•376 






7 


350 


•440 






8 


400 


•500 






9 


450 


•559 






10 


500 ■ 


•628 






11 


550 


•692 






12 


600 


•772 






13 


650 


•832 






14 


700 


•892 






15 


750 


•952 






16 


800 


1^012 






17 


850 


1^092 






18 


900 


1^152 






19 


950 


1^212 


•000 




20 


1000 


1^232 


•008 




21 


1050 


1-382 


•027 




22 


1100 


1-482 


•078 




23 


1150 


1-612 


•142 




24 


1200 


2-172 


•596 




25 


1250 


3-042 


1-446 


Experiment discontinued. 



BesuUs ofEx'p. XLVII. 

Here the weight (w) at the limit of elasticity is 1010 lbs., and the cor- 
responding deflection {I) is 1-232. 

By formula (6). — The mean value of the deflection for uuitv of pressure 
and section (DJ = -001177. 

By formula (7). — The mean value of the modulus of elasticity (E) 
= 33,446,000. 

By formula (2). — The modulus of elasticity (E) corresponding to 112 lbs. 
pressure = 34,935,000. 

By formula (8). — Work of deflection (U) up to the limit of elasticity 
= 51-846. 

By formula (9).— Work of deflection {ii) for unity of section = 52-892. 

By formula (12). — Value of C, the unit of working strength = 6-621 tons. 



ON THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF STEEL. 



213 



TEANSTEKSE STKAIN". 

Exp. XL VIII. — Bar of Steel from the Titanic Steel Co., Worcester. Dimen- 
sion of bar 1-002 inch square. Length between supports 4 feet 



6 inches. Mark on bar, " C X." 



No. of 
Exp. 


Weight laid 
on, in 


Deflection, 
in 


Permanent 

set, in 


Remarks. 


lbs. 


inches. 


inches. 




1 


50 


•062 




Steel intended for general 


2 


100 


•123 




purposes. 


3 


150 


•185 






4 


200 


•256 






5 


250 


•319 






6 


300 


•376 






7 


350 


•443 






8 


400 


•505 






9 


450 


•572 






10 


500 


•631 






11 


550 


•692 






12 


600 


•752 






13 


650 


•829 






14 


700 


•889 






L5 


750 


•959 






16 


800 


1-029 






17 


850 


1-119 






18 


900 


1-169 


•000 




19 


950 


1-249 


•004 




20 


1000 


1-329 


•032 




21 


1050 


1-459 


-099 




22 


1100 


1-719 


-282 




23 


1150 


1-899 


1-296 


Experiment discontimied. 



Eesidts of Exp. XLYIII. 

Here the -weight (w) at the limit of elasticity is 960 lbs., and the corre- 
sponding deflection (o) is 1-249. 

Bv formula (6). — The mean value of the deflection for unity of pressure 
and ^section (D,) = -001237. 

By formula (7). — The mean value of the modulus of elasticity (E) 
= 31,823,000. 

By formula (2). — The modulus of elasticity (E) corresponding to 112 lbs. 
pressure = 34,879,000. 

By formula (8). — Work of deflection (TJ) up to the limit of elasticity 
= 49-960. 

By formula (9). — Work of deflection («) for unity of section = 49-76. 

By formula (12). — Value of C, the imit of working strength =5-739 tons. 



314 



REPOHT 1867. 



IKANSVEKSB STRAIN. 



Exp. XLIX. — Bar of Steel from the Titanic Steel Co., "Worcester. Dimen- 
sion of bar 1-008 inch square. Length between supports 4feet6inches. 
Mark on bar, " D X." 



No. of 


Weight laid 


Deflection, 


Permanent 




Exp. 


on, in 


in 


set, in 


Eemarks. 


Iks. 


inches. 


inches. 




1 


50 


•059 




Steel intended for " "Wheel 


2 


100 


•138 




Tyres." 


3 


150 


•178 






4 


200 


•248 






5 


250 


•316 






6 


300 


•384 






7 


350 


•440 






8 


400 


•500 






9 


450 


•559 






10 


500 


•621 






11 


550 


•687 






12 


600 


•748 






13 


650 


•808 






14 


700 


•878 






15 


750 


•938 






IG 


800 


I^OIS 


•000 




17 


850 


1^098 


•018 




18 


900 


1^188 


•046 




19 


950 


1-348 


•150 




20 


1000 


3^308 


1-997 


Experiment disconthmcd. 



liesults of Exp. XLIX. 

Here the weight (w) at the limit of elasticity is 860 lbs., and the corre- 
sponding deflection (S) is l^OOS. 

By formula (6). — The mean value of the deflection for unity of pressure 
and section (D^) = ^001261. 

By formida (7). — The mean value of the modulus of elasticity (E) 
= 31,218,000. 

By formula (2). — The modulus of elasticity (E) corresponding to 112 lbs. 
pressure = 30,418,000. 

By formula (8). — The work of deflection (U) up to the hmit of elasticity 
= 39-345. 

By formula (9). — "Work of deflection (m) for unity of section = 36^915. 

B^ formula (12).— Value of C, the unit of working strength = 4-699 tons. 



ON THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF STEEL. 



215 



TKANSVEESE STRAIN. 

Exp. L. — Bar of Steel from the Barrow Hematite Co., Furness. Dimension 
of bar 1-02 inch square. Length between supports 4 feet 6 inches. 
Mark on bar, "HI." 



No. of 


Weight laid 


Deflection, 


Permanent 




Exp. 


on, in 


in 


set, in 


Eemarks. 


lbs. 


inches. 


inches. 




1 


50 


•065 




Hard steel. 


2 


100 


•118 






3 


150 


•179 






4 


200 


•240 






5 


250 


•309 






6 


300 


•364 






7 


350 


•426 






8 


400 


•491 






9 


450 


•555 




• 


10 


500 


•611 






11 


550 


•676 






12 


600 


•742 






13 


650 


•803 






14 


700 


•866 






15 


750 


•946 






16 


800 


1-006 






17 


850 


1-076 






18 


900 


1-146 






19 


950 


1-206 






20 


1000 


1-266 






21 


1050 


1-346 






22 


1100 


1-406 


•000 




23 


1150 


1-476 


•000 




24 


1200 


1-546 


•016 




25 


1250 


1-646 


•055 




26 


1300 


1-796 


•133 




27 


1350 


2^156 


•429 




28 


1400 


2-746 


•883 


Experiment discontinued. 



Results of Exp. L. 

Here the weight (w) at the limit of elasticity is 1210 lbs., and the corre- 
sponding deflection (e) is 1-546. 

By formula (6).— The mean value of the deflection for unity of pressure 
and section (DJ = -001308. 

By formula (7).— The mean value of the modulus of elasticity (E) 
= 30,096,000. 

By formula (2).— The modulus of elasticity (E) corresponding to 112 lbs. 
pressure = 33,830,000. 

By formula (8).— Work of deflection (U) up to the limit of elasticity 
= 77-944. ^ 

By formula (9).— Work of deflection {u) for unity of section = 77-917. 
By formula (12).— Value of C, the unit of working strength = 6-860 tons. 



216 



REPORT 1S67. 



TKANSTEESE STRAIN. 



Exp. LI. — Bar of Steel from the Barrow Haematite Co., Fiimess. Dimen- 
sion of bar -995 inch square. Length between supports 4 feet 
6 inches. Mark on bar, " H 2." 



No. of 
Exp. 


Weight laid 


Deflection, 


Pei-nianent 




on, in 


in 


set, in 


Eemarks. 


lbs. 


inches. 


inches. 




1 


50 


•065 




Soft steel. 


2 


100 


•128 






3 


150 


•201 






4 


200 


•266 






5 


250 


•330 






6 


300 


•396 






7 


350 


•466 






8 


400 


•534 






9 


450 


•601 






10 


500 


•682 


•000 




11 


550 


•760 


-027 




12 


600 


•880 


•052 




13 


650 


1-020 


•115 




14 


700 


2-040 


1-068 




15 


750 


.... 




Destroyed. 



Results of Exji. LI. 

Here the weight (w) at the limit of elasticity is 510 lbs., and the corre- 
sponding deflection (r) is -682. 

By formula (6). — The mean value of the deflection for unity of pressure 
and section (Dj)= -001280. 

By formula (7). — The mean value of the modulus of elasticity (E) 
=30,754,000. 

By formula (2). — The modulus of elasticity (E) corresponding to 112 lbs. 
pressure = 34,443,000. 

By formula (8). — Work of deflection (U) up to the limit of elasticity 
= 14-242 

By formula (9). — "Work of deflection (u) for unity of section =14-383. 

By formula (12). — Value of (C), the unit of working strength =3- 108 I 
tons. 



ON THE MECHANICAL PROPEKTIES OF STEEL. 



217 



TKANSVEESE STEAIN. 

Exp. LII. — Bar of Steel from the Barrow Hfcmalite Co., Furncss. Dimen- 
sion of bar 1-01 inch square. Length between supports 4 feet 
6 inches. Mark on bar, " H 3." 



No. of 
Exp. 


Weight laid 


Deflection, 


Permanent 




on, in 


in 


set, in 


Eemarks. 


lbs. 


inclies. 


inclies. 




1 


50 


•074 




Soft steel. 


2 


100 


•127 






3 


150 


•195 






4 


200 


•262 






5 


250 


•330 






6 


300 


•395 






7 


350 


•453 






8 


400 


•515 






9 


450 


•577 


•000 




10 


500 


•645 


•007 




11 


550 


•716 


•018 




12 


600 


•793 


•019 




13 


650 


•873 


•032 




14 


700 


1^029 


•118 




15 


750 


1-279 


•287 




16 


800 


2-709 


1-625 


Experiment discontinued. 



Results of Exp. LII. 

Here the weight {w) at the limit of elasticity is 610 lbs., and the corre- 
sponding deflection ((<) is •793. 

By formula (6). — The mean value of the deflection for unity of pressure 
and section (D,) = -001319. 

By formula (7). — The mean value of the modulus of elasticity (E) 
=29,717,000. 

By formida (2). — The modulus of elasticity (E) corresponding to 112 lbs. 
pressure =32,71 7,000. 

By formula (8). — ^Work' of deflection (F) iip to the Umit of elasticity 
=20-155. 

By formula (9). — Work of deflection {u) for unity of section= 19-757. 

By formula (12). — Value of C, the unit of working strength=3-540 tons. 



218 



REPORT 1867. 



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ON THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF STEEL. 



219 



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steel for shafts, 
i; double sheai- st 
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T 

s- 


H. Besseme 
d Bessemer steel 
dcr do. 
do. 


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Steel intended for tlie manufactu 

Do. do. 

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220 REPOKT~1867. 

Prom the above Summary of Results may be taken almost every descrip- 
tion of steel manufactured for the purposes of construction, when subjected to 
a transverse strain. The utmost care has been taken to work out the con- 
ditions and properties of the specimens ; and assuming that these conditions 
would be fuliillcd by the manufacturer, the engineer, the architect, or the 
builder, he could have no difficulty in selecting such material as he may 
requii'e in the varied forms of constructions and uses for which it is in- 
tended. 

It will be observed that in every description of manufacture, and in every 
description of each manufacture, the whole of the transverse properties 
have been determined, both as regards the modulus of elasticity and de- 
flection, and the measure of work done (as indicated by the unit of working 
strength, which will be found in the last column). The deflections up to the 
limit of weights laid on, as also for unity of section, wiU be found in the 
fourth and fifth columns. 

It might have been desirable to have received from the makers more ex- 
tended information as regards the different processes of conversion, and the 
quality of the ores, crude iron, &c. from which the specimens were obtained ; 
these with the chemical constituents of the material would have been highly 
valuable. But in my endeavours to arrive at correct results, much had to be 
left to the discretion' of those who selected the samples, and to the honesty 
of purpose by which they were guided in the selection. It is only natural 
that the manufacturer shoidd select samples from which the best results 
would be obtained, in order that he might in every test stand high in the 
scale of utility. On the other hand, it must be observed that it is not the 
material of the greatest density and strength that is required on all occasions ; 
on the contrary, it is quite the reverse for many purposes, as in some cases it 
is essential to have the metal soft and ductile, easily worked, and convertible 
into shapes where its flexibihty would be important. Again, any hard 
brittle steel capable of retaining a fine edge is of inestimable use for tools, 
but it is totally inapplicable to structural purposes, where elasticity and 
strength is required for endurance. All these are points which I have en- 
deavoured to attain and simplify in the experiments, and having indicated 
then- properties in the above Summary on Transverse Strain, we now proceed 
to those which refer to tension. 

In submitting wrought iron or steel bars to a transverse strain, the same 
results are not obtained as in cast iron, as bars 4 feet 6 inches long of the 
former material will bend or deflect through a depth of some feet before 
fracture ensues, the deflections in this case being equivalent to a permanent 
set nearly equal to the deflection. Under these conditions, when the per- 
manent set arrives at one-half the amount of the deflection, I have considered 
the resisting powers of the bars so much injured as to render any additional 
strain of no practical value. In the case of steel bars of greater density and 
hardness, the same law between the deflection and the permanent set does 
not exist, and hence the diiference of elasticity in the diff'erent kinds of steel 
of which the bars are composed. To remedy these discrepancies and effect a 
comparison between the different qualities of the material, it was necessary 
to iix; some limitation to the weights laid on, and to ascertain the point of 
strain corresponding to the clastic limit, — which in the calculations is that 
point where the deflection is not in excess of what the law of deflection (viz. 
in proportion to the strain) would indicate, whilst the next greater strain 
gives a deflection decidedly in excess of that law. This is, however, clearly 
explained in the abstract of results. 



ON THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF STEEL. 



221 



A very slight variation in the observed deflection at the commencement of 
the experiments before the bar had got its natural set would increase the 
difficulty of ascertaining the correct permanent set corresponding to very 
limited strains. We all know when a bar is a little bent we can make it 
straight by hammering or by pressure, but the probability is that the first 
form is the natural disposition of the material. 

This principle is adopted in the calculations, as the elasticity of a bar is 
impaired when the deflection decidedly exceeds what the law of deflection 
would give. After the elastic limit is passed the deflections increase in a 
geometric progression, whereas up to that limit the deflections are in propor- 
tion to the strain. 

One of the marked peculiarities of steel as compared with iron is, that the 
strain corresponding to the elastic limit approaches more nearly the breaking 
strain. Hence will be found the comparative high value of the constant G, 
or the unit of pressure determined for the bars. A load of one-third the 
breaking weight has always been considered a safe rule, but it is only con- 
ventional ; but there is something still wanting relative to the point of strain 
corresponding to the injury done to the material, as the inference drawn 
from the Tables indicates that the strain producuig the permanent set had 
not seriously affected the soundness of the bars. This is a question of con- 
siderable importance, and requires further investigation, which I hope to 
accomplish at some futm-e time. 



SECOND SERIES OF EXPERIMENTS. 



TENSILE STKADr. 



Elongations 



Exp. I. — Bar of Steel from Messrs. Brown & Co., Shefiield. 

taken on 8 inches length. Mark on bar, " B 1." Diameter of specimen 
•77 inch. Area -4656 square inch, lleduced diameter after fracture 
•77 inch. Area ^4656 square inch. 



No. 

of 

Exp. 


Weight 
laid on. 






Per unit of length. 


Eemarks. 


square inch of section. 


Elongation. 


Permanent 

set. 


1 
2 
3 

4 

5 


lbs. 
22009 
25369 
28729 
30304 

31849 


lbs. 

68404 


tons. 
30^53 


•0018 
•0018 
•0031 
•0056 


•0025 


Specimen of best 
cast steel from 
Eussian and Swe- 
dish iron. Used 
for turning-tools. 

Broke in neck. 



Results. — Here the breaking strain (P,) per square inch of section is 
68,404 lbs., or 30-53 tons ; and the corresponding elongation (l.^) per unit of 
length is -0056. By formula (13). — The work («) expended in producing 
rupture =191. 



222 



REPOKT 1867. 



Exp. II.— Bar of Steel from Messrs, Brown & Co., Sheffield. Elongations 
taken on 8 inches length. Mark on bar, " B 2." Diameter of speci- 
men -744 inch. Area -4347 square inch. Reduced diameter after 
fracture -74 inch. Area -43 square inch. 



"IVn 






Per unit of length. 




of 
Exp. 


Weight 
laid on. 


Breaking strain per. 
square inch of section. 






Eemarks. 


Elongation. 


Permanent 

set. 




lbs. 


lbs. 


tons. 








1 


10249 






« • > * 


> > ■ • 


Specimen of best 


2 


13609 












cast steel from 


3 


16969 












Eussian and 


4 


18649 












Swedish ii'on, 


5 


20329 












of milder qua- 


fi 


23689 












lity than No. 1. 


7 


25369 








•0012 




Used for chisels 


8 


27049 








•0012 




&c. 


9 


28729 


.... 






•0012 






10 


30304 








•0012 






11 


31879 








•0012 






12 


33439 








•0087 






13 


36664 


. • • • 






•0118 






14 


38224 








•0275 






15 


39784 


91520 


4( 


)-85 





•0150 


Broke in neck. 



Besults. — Here the breaking strain (Pj) per square inch of section is 
91,520 lbs., or 40^85 tons ; and the corresponding elongation {\) per unit of 
length is •0275. By formula (13).— The work (w) expended in producing 
rupture =686. 

Exp. III. — Bar of Steel from Messrs. Brown & Co., Sheffield. Elongations 
taken on 8 inches length. Mark on bar, " B 3." Diameter of specimen 
•602 inch. Area ^2846 square inch. Reduced diameter after fracture 
•602 inch. Area ^2846 square inch. 



1 


10451 








.... Specimen of cast 


2 


12131 














•0006 




steel from Swe- 


3 


13811 














•0012 




dish iron; for 


4 


1.5494 














•0012 




tools, &c. 


5 


17171 














•0031 






6 


18851 














•0031 






7 


20531 














•0037 






8 


22211 














•0044 






9 


23891 














•0044 






10 


25571 














•0()44 






n 


27146 














•0050 






T^ 


28796 














•0143 






13 


30371 


106714 


47-64 




•0100 


Broke in neck. 



BesuUs.—RexQ the breaking strain (P,) per square inch of section is 
106 714 lbs., or 47-64 tons ; and the corresponding elongation (Z,) per unit 
of length is ^0143. By formula (13).— The work («) expended in produ- 
cing rupture =763. 



ON THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OP STEEL. 



223 



Exp. IV. — Bar of Steel from Messrs. Brown & Co., Sheffield. Elongations 
taken on 8 inches length. Mark on bar, " B 4." Diameter of speci- 
men -737 inch. Area -4266 square inch. Eeduced diameter after 
fracture -726 inch. Area '4139 square inch. 









Per unit of length. 




No. 


Woio-lif 


Breaking strain per 
square inch of section. 








of 
Exp. 


laid on. 


Elongation. 


Permanent 

set. 


Eemarks. 




lbs. 


lbs. 


tons. 








1 


25369 






.... 


•0001 


■ • • • 


Specimen of cast 


9 


28729 










•0012 




steel from Swe- 


3 


31849 










•0025 




dishiron,ofmild- 


4 


33439 










•0037 




er quality than 


5 


35014 










•0118 




No. 3. Used for 


6 


36664 










•0125 




chisels. 


7 


38224 










•0150 






8 


39784 










•0181 






9 


41344 










•0193 






10 


42904 










•0231 






11 


44464 










•0262 






12 


46249 










•0293 






13 


47959 










•0337 






14 


49564 


116183 


51-86 




•0362 


Broke in neck. 



Results. — Here the breaking strain (Pj) per square inch of section is 116,18.3 lbs., or 
51-86 tons; and the corresponding elongation (l^) per unit of length is 'OSS?. By 
formula (13). — The work {u) expended in producing rupture = 1957- 



Exp. Y. — Bar of Steel from Messrs. Brown & Co., Sheffield. Elongations 
taken on 8 inches length. Mark on bar, " B 5." Diameter of spe- 
cimen •608 inch. Area ^29 square inch. Eeduced diameter after 
fracture •OO inch. Area ^2827 square inch. 



1 


10249 










Specimen of steel 


2 


11929 










cast from Swe- 


3 


13609 










dish iron, of mild 


4 


15289 










quality for weld- 


5 


16969 










•OOOG 




ing. 


6 


18649 










•0060 • 






7 


20329 










•0087 






8 


22009 










•0137 






9 


23689 










•0168 






10 


25369 










•0187 






11 


27049 










•02.50 






12 


28729 










•0300 






13 


30371 










•0375 






14 


31916 


110055 


49^13 


.... 


•0331 


Broke in neck. 



Results. — Here the breaking strain (Pj) per square inch of section is 110,05.5 lbs., or 
49-1.3 tons; and the corresponding elongation {Ij) per unit of length is -0375. By 
ormnla (13). — The work (m) expended in producing rupture — 206.3. 



224 



REPORT — 18G7. 



Exp. VI.— Bar of Steel from Messrs. Brown & Co., Sheilfield. Elongations 
taken on 8 inches length. Mark on bar, " B 6." Diameter of specimen 
•742 inch. Area -4324 square inch, lleduced diameter after fracture 
•525 inch. Area •2164 square inch. 



No. 

of 

Exp. 






Per iniit of length. 




Weight 


Breaking strain per 










laid on. 


square inch of section. 


Elongation. 


Permanent 

set. 






lbs. 


lbs. 


tons. 








1 


10249 




.... 


•0012 




Bar of Bessemer 


2 


18649 










•0025 




steel. 


3 


25369 










•0043 






4 


27049 










•0187 






5 


28729 










•0275 






6 


30304 










•0325 






7 


31849 










•0387 






8 


33439 










•0475 






9 


35014 










•0612 






10 


36664 










•0650 






11 


38224 










•0837 






12 


39764 


91972 


41-05 


.... 


•1962 





Besults. — Here the breaking strain (Pj) per square inch of section is 
91,972 lbs., or 41^05 tons ; and the corresponding elongation (1^) per unit of 
length is "0837. By formula (13). — The work (m) expended in producing 
rupture = 4522. 



Exp. VII. — ^Bar of Steel from Messrs. Brown and Co., Sheffield. Elongations 
taken on 8 inches length. Mark on bar, " B 7." Diameter of specimen 
•74 inch. Area '43 square inch. Reduced diameter after fracture 
•72 inch. Area -4071 square inch. 



1 


22009 






•0012 




Specimen of dou- 


2 


25369 










•0018 




ble shear steel 


3 


28729 










•0143 




from Swedish 


4 


30304 










•0175 




bar. 


5 


31849 










•0200 






6 


33439 










•0218 






7 


35014 










•0268 






8 


36664 










•0300 






9 


38224 










•0406 






10 


39799 


92555 


41^31 





•0543 


Broke in neck. 



Results. — Here the breaking strain (Pj) per square inch of section is 
92,555 lbs., or 41-31 tons ; and the corresponding elongation (I,) per unit of 
length is -0406. By formula (13). — The work (m) expended in producing 
rupture = 1878. 



ON THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF STEEL. 



225 



Exp, YIII. — Bar of Steel from Messrs. Brown & Co., Sheffield. Elongations 
taken on 8 inches length. Mark on bar, " B 8." Diameter of specimen 
•607 inch. Area='2893 square inch. Reduced diameter after 
fracture -555 inch. Area "242 square inch. 









Per unit of length. 




No. 

of 
Exp. 


Weight 


Breaking strain per 












laid on. 


square inch of section. 


Elongation. 


Permanent 

set. 






lbs. 


lbs. 


tons. 








1 


10451 








•0000 


.... 


Specimen of "fo- 


2 


12131 








•0000 




reign bar " not 


3 


13811 






.... 


•0087 




melted, but tilted 


4 


15491 








•0250 




direct. 


5 


17171 








•0362 






6 


18851 








•0518 






7 


20531 








•0968 




[neck. 


8 


22211 


76774 


34-27 


.... 


•1356 


Broke 1 inch from 



Results. — Here the breaking strain (Pj) per square inch of section is 
76,774 lbs., or 34^27 tons ; and the corresponding elongation (ZJ per unit of 
length is •0968. By formula (13). — The work (m) expended in producing 
rupture =3715, 

Exp, IX. — Bar of Steel from Messrs. Brown & Co., Sheffield. Elongations 
taken on 8 inches length. Mark on bar, " B 9." Diameter of specimen 
•606 inch. Area -2884 square inch. Reduced diameter after frac- 
ture ^41 inch. Area "132 square inch. 



1 

2 
3 

4 


10451 
12131 
13811 
15494 


.... 





•0143 

•0275 
•0412 
•0762 




Specimen of (B) 
bar, English 
tUted steel, 
made from En- 
glish and fo- 


5 


17171 


59538 


26-57 


.... 


•2106 


reign pigs. 
Broke in the cen- 
tre. 



Results. — Here the breaking strain (PJ per square inch of section is 
59,538 lbs., or 26"57 tons ; and the corresponding elongation (l^) per unit of 
length is •0762. By formula (13).-^The work {u) expended in j)roducing 
rupture =2268, 



18G7, 



iL 



'^^ 



226 



REPORT 1867. 



Exp. X. — Bai- of Steel from Messrs. CammeU & Co., Sheffield. Elonga- 
tions taken on 8-5 inches length. Mark on bar, " 1." Diameter of 
specimen -608 inch. Area -29 square inch. Eeduced diameter 
after fracture -606 inch. Area -2884 square inch. 



No. 

of 

Exp. 






Per unit of length. 




Weight 
laid on. 


Breaking strain per 
square inch of section. 






Remarks. 


Elongation. 


Permanent. 

set. 




lbs. 


lbs. 


tons. 








1 


10451 


> ■ • > 


.... 


.... 


. . . • 


Specimen of cast 


2 


12131 










steel, termed 


y 


13811 










"Diamond 


4 


15491 


> • > • 






•0000 




Steel." 


5 


17171 












•0005 






6 


18851 












•0005 






7 


20531 












•0005 






8 


22211 












•0005 






9 


23891 












•0005 






10 


25571 












•0011 






11 


27146 












•0118 






12 


28796 












•0160 






13 


30341 












•0177 




■ Held this weight ^ a 


14 


31916 


110055 49-13 




•0153 


minute, and broke 
2^ ins. from neck. 



Besults. — Here the breaking straia (PJ per square inch of section is 
110,055 lbs., or 49-13 tons; and the corresponding elongation (?j) per unit of 
length is •0177. By formiila (13). — The work (u) expended in producing 
rupture =974. 

Exp, XI.— Bar of Steel from Messrs. Cammell & Co., Sheffield. Elongations 
taken on 8 inches length. Mark on bar, " 2." Diameter of specimen 
•61 inch. Area ^2922 square inch. Eeduced diameter after frac- 
ture -605 inch. Area ^2874 square inch. 



1 


10451 










Specimen of steel 


2 


12151 










termed " Tool 


3 


13811 










Steel." 


4 


15491 












5 


17171 












6 


18851 




* ■ • 


• > • 




•0025 






7 


20531 












•0025 






8 


22211 












•0025 






9 


23891 




• • • 








•0025 






10 


25571 




• » • 








•0025 






11 


27131 












•0150 






12 


28706 




> • • 








•0150 






13 


30281 




• t • 








•0206 






14 


31871 


109072 


48-69 


.... 


•0150 


Broke in neck. 



IS 



Results. — Here the breaking strain (PJ per square inch of section ^„ 
109,072 lbs., or 48-69 tons; and the corresponding elongation (\) per unit of 
length is -0206. By formiila (13). — The work («) expended in producing 
rupture =1123. 



ON THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF STEEL. 



227 



Exp. XII. — Bar of Steel from Messrs. CammeU & Co., SheiReld. Elonga- 
tions taken on 8 inches length. Mark on bar, " 3." Diameter of 
specimen "609 inch. Ai-ea '2912 square inch. Reduced diameter 
after fracture -605 inch. Area -2874 square inch. 



No. 

of 

Exp. 






Per unit of length. 




Weight 
laid on. 


Breaking strain jjer 
square inch of section. 






Eemarks. 


Elongation. 


Permanent 

set. 




lbs. 


Ic 


s. 


tons. 








1 


10451 


. . 




* ■ • 




•0018 


■ • • * 


Specimen of cast 


2 


12131 












•0018 




steel, termed 


3 


13811 












•0018 




" Chisel Steel." 


4 


15494 












•0018 






5 


17171 












•0018 






6 


18851 


, . 










•0025 






7 


20531 












•0025 






8 


22211 












•0037 






9 


23891 












•0050 






10 


25571 












•0143 






11 


27221 












•0162 






12 


28796 












•0194 






13 


30371 












•0217 






14 


31916 












•0243 






15 


33506 












•0281 






16 


35066 


120398 


53-75 


.... 


•0250 


Broke in. neck. 



Besults. — Here the breaking strain (PJ per square inch of section, is 
120,398 lbs., or 53-75 tons ; and the corresponding elongation (1^) per unit of 
length is -0281. By formula (13). — The work («) expended in producing 
rupture = 1691. 



Exp. XIII. — Bar of Steel from Messrs. CammeU & Co., Sheffield. Elonga- 
tions taken on 8 inches length. Mark on bar, " 4." Diameter of 
specimen -738 inch. Area -4277 square inch. Reduced diameter after 
fracture ^729 inch. Area ^4173 square inch. 



1 


25369 










•0025 




Specimen of cast 


2 


28729 










•0081 




steel, termed 


3 


30304 










•0100 




"Double Shear 


4 


31849 










•0137 




Steel." 


5 


33439 










•0150 






6 


35014 


. . 








•0162 






7 


36664 










-0187 






8 


38224 










•0218 






9 


39784 










•0250 






10 


41344 


96665 


43-15 


.... 


•0237 


Broke in neck. 



Hesidfs. — Here the breaking strain (Pj) per square inch of section is 
96,665 lbs., or 43-15 tons; and the corresponding elongation (l^) per unit of 
length is -0250. By formula (13). — -The work (m) expended in producing 
rupture =1208. 

k2 



238 



REPORT — 1867. 



Exp, XIV. — Bar of Steel from Messrs. Cammell & Co., Sheffield. Elonga- 
tions taken, on 8 inches length. Mark on bar, " 5." Diameter of spe- 
cimen "739 inch. Area ^4289 square inch. Reduced diameter after 
fracture -511 inch. Ai'ea -2042 square inch. 



No. 
of 






Per unit of length. 




Weight 
laid on. 


Breaking strain per 
square inch of section. 






Remarks. 


Elongation. 


Permanent 

set. 




lbs. 


lbs. 


tons. 








1 


25369 








•0206 


.... 


Bar of hard Bes- 


2 


27049 








•0268 




semer steel. 


3 


28729 








•0337 






4 


30304 








•0543 






5 


31849 








•0687 






6 


33439 








•0700 






7 


35014 








•0937 






8 


36664 








•1437 






9 


38224 


89121 


39-78 


.... 


•2087 


Broke near centre. 



Results. — Here the breaking strain (Pj) per square inch of section is 
89,121 lbs., or 39-78 tons ; and the corresponding elongation (\) per unit of 
length is •1437. By formula (13). — The work (u) expended in producing 
rapture = 6403. 



Exp. XV. — Bar of Steel from Messrs. Cammell & Co., Sheffield. Elongations 
taken on 8 inches length. Mark on bar, " 6." Diameter of specimen 
•611 inch. Area ^2932 square inch. Eeduced diameter after fracture 
•391 inch. Area '12 square inch. 



1 


10451 










Bar of soft Bes- 


o 


12131 














semer steel. 


3 


13811 
















4 


15491 










•0000 






5 


17171 










•0056 






6 


18851 










•0331 








20531 










•0743 






8 


22211 










•1200 






9 


23891 


81483 


36-37 




•2043 


Broke near centre. 



Results. — Here the breaking strain (Pj) per square inch of section is 
81,483 lbs., or 36-37 tons ; and the corresponding elongation (7^) per imit of 
length is -1200. By formula (13). — The work {ii) expended in producing 
rupture = 4888. 



ON THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES Ol' STEEL. 



229 



Exp. XVI.— Bar of Steel from Messrs. ISTaylor, Vickers & Co., Sheffield. 
Elongations taken on 8 inches length. Mark on bar, " Axle Steel." 
Diameter of specimen "606 inch. Ai'ea •28S-i square inch. Eeduced 
diameter after fracture -44 inch. Area '152 square inch. 









Per unit of length. 




No. 

of 

Exp. 


Weight 


Breaking strain per 












laid on. 


square inch of section. 


Elongation. 


Permanent 
set. 






lbs. 


lbs. 


tons. 








1 


104.51 










•0031 


.... 


Specimen of cast 


2 


12131 










•0031 




steel, converted 


3 


13811 










•0031 




in the crucible, 


4 


15491 










•0031 




from bar-iron 


5 


17171 










•0031 




with the addition 


6 


18851 










•0218 




of manganese. 


7 


20531 










•0300 






8 


22211 










•0412 






9 


23891 










•0625 






10 


25571 


88665 


3i 


)-5S 


.... 


•1625 


Broke in centre. 



Besiilis. — Here the breaking strain (PJ per square inch of section is 
88,665 lbs., or 39^58 tons ; and the corresponding elongation (1^) per ituit of 
length is -0625. By formula (13). — The work (ii) expended in producing 
rupture =? 2270. 



Exp. 



XYII.— Bar of Steel from Messrs. Kaylor, Yickers & Co., Sheffield. 
Elongations taken on 8 inches length. Mark on bar, " V T." Diameter 
of specimen ^744 inch. Area ^4347 square inch. Eeduced diameter 



after fracture •oS inch 



Ai'ea ^2206 square inch. 



1 


18649 












Specimen of cast 


2 


25369 














steel, converted 


3 


27049 










•0031 




in the crucible, 


4 


28729 










•0068 




from bar-iron 


5 


30304 










•0100 




with the addition 


6 


31849 










•0150 




of manganese. 


7 


33439 










•0225 






8 


35014 










•0287 






9 


36664 










•0362 






10 


38224 










•0475 






11 


39784 


91520 


40-85 


.... 


•0900 


Broke 2| in. from 

neck. 



Results. — Here the breaking strain (Pj) per square inch of section is 
91,520 lbs., or 40-85 tons ; and the corresponding elongation (?,) per unit of 
length is ^0475. By formula (13). — The work {u) expended in producing 
rupture = 2173. 



330 



REPORT — 1867. 



Exp. XVIII. — Bar of Steel from Messrs. Naylor, Vickers & Co., Sheffield. 
Elongations taken on 8 inches length. Mark on bar, "Y S." Dia- 
meter of specimen -738 inch. Area -4277 square inch. Ecduccd 
diameter after fracture -734 inch. Area -4231 square inch. 



No.- 

of 

Exp. 








Per unit of length. 




Weight 


Breaking strain per 






Remarks. 






laid on. 


square inch of section. 


Elongation. 


Permanent 

set. 


iX-%^\/ MJ-XW^ JlhJt 




lbs. 


lbs. t 


ons. 








1 


25369 







.... 


.... 


Specimen of cast 


2 


27049 










steel, concerted in 


3 


28729 










the' crucible, from 


4 


30304 










bar-iron with the 


5 


31849 










addition of man- 


6 


33439 










ganese. 


7 


35014 












8 


36664 












9 


38224 






•0006 






10 


39784 






•0012 






11 


41344 






■0014 






12 


4.'2904 






•0018 






13 


44464 






■0020 






14 


46054 






•0025 






15 


47764 






•0037 






16 


49549 






•0050 






17 


51619 






•0069 






18 


63525 






•0093 




('Held tliis weight 


19 


65414 






•0100 




J 15 seconds, and 


20 


67374 


134i45 £ 


)9-87 





•0100 


1 then broke. 



Besulfs. — Here the breaking strain (P,) per square inch of section is 134,145 lbs., or 
59-87 tons; and the corresponding elongation {l^) per unit of length is •0100. By 
formula (13).— The work (u) expended in producing rupture = 670. 

Exr. XIX.— Bar of Steel from Messrs. Naylor, Vickers & Co., Sheffield. 
Elongations taken on 8 inches length. Mark on bar, " 2-GQ Cast Steel." 
Diameter of specimen -615 inch. Area -297 square inch. Eeduced 
diameter after fracture •609 inch. Area -2912 square inch. 



1 


10451 






•0000 




Spechnen of cast 


2 


12131 






•0016 




steel, eonvertt'd in 


3 


13811 






•0016 




the crucible, from 


4 


15491 






-0016 




bar-ii'on with the 


5 


17171 






-0016 




addition of man- 


6 


18851 






•0016 




ganese. 


7 


20531 






•0016 






8 


22211 






-0016 






9 


23891 






-0093 






10 


25.571 






•0093 






11 


27221 






■0131 






12 


28796 






-0150 






13 


30371 






•0175 






14 


31960 






-0275 






15 


33506 






-0287 






16 


35066 


lisooe 


52-70 





-0175 





Results. — Here the breaking strain {V-^ per square inch of section is 118,066 lbs., or 
52*70 tons; and the corresponding elongation (/,) per unit of length is -0287. By- 
formula (13). — The work (?«) expended in producing ruptiu-e = 1694. 



ON THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OP STEEL, 



231 



Exp. XX. — Bar of Steel from Messrs. Osbom & Co., Sheffield. Elongations 
taken on 8 inches length. Mark on bar, " 1." Diameter of specimen 
•745 inch. Area -4359 square inch. Reduced diameter after fracture 
•739 inch. Area -4289 square inch. 









Per unit of length. 




No. 

of 

Exp. 


Weight 


Breaking strain per 






Remarks. 






laid on 


square inch of section. 


Elongation. 


Permanent 
set. 




lbs. 


lbs. 


tons. 








1 


18649 










.... 


.... 


Specimen of best 


2 


22009 












•0012 




cast turning-tool 


3 


25369 












•0012 




steel. 


4 


27049 












•0012 






5 


28729 












•0012 






6 


30304 












•0018 






7 


31849 












•0025 






8 


35014 












•0060 






9 


36664 












•0160 






10 


38224 












•0160 






11 


39784 












•0118 






12 


41344 












•0156 






13 


43129 


98942 


44-17 





•0093 


Broke in neck. 



Results. — Here the breaking strain (P^) per square inch of section is 
98,942 lbs., or 44^17 tons; and the corresponding elongation (\) per unit 
of length is •0156. By formida (13). — The work (u) expended in producing 
rupture = 771. 



Exp. XXI. — Bar of Steel from Messrs. Osborn & Co., Sheffield, Elongations 
taken on 8 inches length. Mark on bar, " 2." Diameter of specimen 
•731 inch. Area ^4196 square iach. Reduced diameter after fracture 
•721 inch. Area '4082 square inch. 



1 


25369 










•0018 




Specimen of best 


2 


28729 










•0031 




cast steel for 


3 


31849 










•0068 




cold-chipping 


4 


35014 










•0106 




chisels. 


5 


38224 










•0143 






6 


41344 










•0193 






7 


44464 










•0238 






8 


46054 










•0256 






9 


47764 










-0275 






10 


49694 










•0318 






11 


51899 


123686 


55-21 




•0318 


Broke in neck. 



Besulfs. — Here the breaking strain (PJ per square inch of section is 
123,686 lbs., or 55-21 tons; and the corresponding elongation {\) per unit 
of length is -0318. By formula (13). — The Avork (m) expended in producing 
rapture = 1966. 



233 



EEPORT 1867. 



Exp. XXII. — Bar of Steel from Messrs. Osborn & Co., Sheffield. Elongations 
taken on 8 inches length. Mark on bar, " 3." Diameter of specimen 



■738 inch. Area "4277 square inch. 
•728 inch. Area '4162 square inch. 



Eeduced diameter after fractiu-e 



No. 

of 

Exp. 






Per unit of length. 




Weight 


Breaking strain per 












laid on. 


square inch of section. 


Elongation. 


Permanent 

set. 






lbs. 


lbs. 


tons. 








1 


22009 








•0018 


.... 


Specimen of best 


2 


25369 








•0025 




cast steel for hot 


3 


28729 








•0050 




and cold sates- 


4 


31849 








•0081 




cups, shear 


5 


33439 








•0093 




blades, and 


6 


35014 








•0118 




boiler - maker's 


^7■ 
1 


36664 








•0156 




steel. 


8 


39784 








•0193 






9 


42904 








•0225 






10 


44464 








•0237 






11 


46054 








•0268 






12 


47764 








•0298 






13 


49549 


115849 


51-71 


.... 


•0212 


Broke in neck. 



Results. — Here the breaking strain (Pj) per square inch of section is 
115,849 lbs., or 51^71 tons ; and the corresponding elongation (Z,) per unit of 
length is -0298. By formula (13). — The work (?t) expended in producing 
rupture = 1726. 



Exr. XXIII.— Bar of Steel from Messrs. Osborn & Co., Sheffield. Elonga- 
tions taken on 8 inches length. Mark on bar, " 4." Diameter of 
specimen ^73 inch. Area ^4185 square inch. Eeduced diameter after 
fracture ^725 inch. Area ^4128 square inch. 



1 


25369 








•0037 




Specimen of best 


2 


27049 








•0050 




cast steel for taps 


3 


28729 








•0062 




and dies. 


4 


30304 








•0075 






5 


31849 








•0100 






6 


33439 








•0118 






7 


35014 








•0131 






8 


36664 








•0143 






9 


38224 








•0168 






10 


39784 








•0181 






11 


41344 


98790 


44^10 




•0168 


Broke in neck. 



i?c.«?!(7('s.— Here the breaking strain (P^) per square inch of section is 
98,790 lbs., or 44-10 tons; and the corresponding elongation (7,) per unit of 
length is ^0181. By formula (13). — The work (m) expended in producing 
rupture = 894. 



ON THE MECHANICAL PROPEKTIES OF STEEL. 



233 



Exr. XXIY.— Bar of Steel from Messrs. Osborn & Co., Sheffield. Elonga- 
tions taken on 8 inches length. Mark on bar, " 5." Diameter of 
specimen -714 inch. Area '4312 square inch. Reduced diameter 
after fracture '72 inch. Area -4071 sqiiare inch. 



No. 

of 

Exp. 



Weight 
laid on. 



Breaking strain per 
square inch of section. 



Per unit of length. 



Elongation, 



Permanent 

set. 



Eemarks. 



1 
2 
3 

4 
5 
6 

7 



lbs. 
28729 
31849 
33439 
35014 
38224 
41344 
44464 



lbs. 



tons. 



•0125 
•0168 
•0200 
•0231 
•0312 
•0431 



103116 



46^03 



Specimen of tough- 
ened cast steel 
for shafts, piston- 
rods, and machi- 
nery purposes. 



•0525 Broke in neck. 



Results. — Here the breaking strain (P^) per square inch of section is 
103,116 lbs., or 46-03 tons; and the corresponding elongation (?,)pcr unit of 
length is -0431. By formula (13). — The work (h) expended in producing 
rupture = 2222. 



Exp. XXY.— Bar of Steel from Messrs. Osborn & Co., Sheffield. Elonga- 
tions taken on 8 inches length. Mark on bar, " 6." Diameter of 
specimen -744 inch. Area -4347 square inch. Reduced diameter 
after fractm-e ^734 inch. Area •4231 square inch. 



1 


22009 










•0031 




Specimen of best 


2 


25369 










•0062 




double shear 


3 


28729 










•0125 




steel. 


4 


30304 










•0143 






5 


31849 










•0168 






6 


33439 










•0187 






7 


35014 










•0206 






8 


36664 










•0243 






9 


38224 


87931 


39^25 





•0243 


Broke in neck. 



Results. — Here the breaking strain (PJ per square inch of section is 
87,931 lbs., or 39-25 tons ; and the corresponding elongation (Z,) per unit of 
length is -0243. By formula (13). — The work (m) expended in producing 
rupture = 1068. 



234 



REPOHT — 1867. 



Exp. XXYI. — Bar of Steel from Messrs. Osborn & Co., Sheffield. Elongations 
taken on 8 inches length. Mark on bar, " 7." Diameter of specimen 
•738 inch. Area -4277 square inch. Reduced diameter after fracture 
•736 inch. Area -4254 square inch. 



No. 

of 

Exp. 


Weight 
laid on. 






Per unit of length. 


Eemarks. 


square inch of section. 


Elongation. 


Permanent 

set. 


1 
2 
3 

4 


lbs. 
28729 
31849 
35014 

36664 


lbs. 

85724 


tons. 

38-26 


•0037 
•0037 
•0037 


•0043 


Specimen of extra 
best cast steel 
for turning-tools, 
cast steel wheel 
axles, &c. 

Broke in neck. 



Results. — Here the breaking strain (P^) per square inch of section is 
85,724 lbs., or 38-26 tons ; and the corresponding elongation (ZJ per unit of 
length is •0037. By formula (13). — The work (m) expended in jiroducing 
rupture = 158. 



Exp. XXVII.— Bar of Steel from Messrs. Osborn & Co., Sheffield. Elongations 
taken on 8 inches length. Mark on bar, " 8." Diameter of bar 
•738 inch. Area -4277 square inch. Reduced diameter after fracture 
•596 inch. Ai-ea -2789 square inch. 



1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 



28729 
31849 
35014 
38224 
41344 
44464 
46054 
47764 



111676 



49^85 



•0131 
-0162 
•0231 
•0312 
•0456 
•0625 
•1062 



•1350 



Specimen of cast 
steel for boiler- 
plates. 



Broke in centre. 



Besults. — Here the breaking strain (Pj) per square inch of section is 
111,676 lbs., or 49^85 tons ; and the corresponding elongation (?,) per unit of 
length is -1062. By formula (13). — The work (t«) expended in producing 
rupture = 5930. 



ON THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF STEEL. 



335 



Exp. XXVIII. — Bar of Steel from Messrs. Bessemer & Co., Sheffield. Elon- 
gations taken on 8 inches length. Mark on bar, "B SI." Diameter of 



specimen -728 inch. Area -4162 square inch, 
after fracture '719 inch. Area -406 square inch. 



Reduced diameter 



No 






Per unit of length. 






Weight 
laid on. 


Breaking strain per 
square inch of section. 








of 
Exp. 


Elongation. 


Permanent 
set. 


Remarks. 




lbs. 


lbs. 


tons. 








1 


18649 




• • f • 


.... 




Bar of hard Bes- 


2 


25369 








, 


•0018 




semer steel. 


3 


28729 








. 


•0068 






4 


30304 








, 


•0081 






5 


31849 








k 


•0093 






6 


35014 










•0131 






7 


38224 


.... 






. 


•0168 






8 


41344 








. 


•0187 






9 


42904 


103085 


46-02 


.... 


•0187 


Broke in two places. 



IS 



Besults. — Here the breaking strain (Pj) per square inch of section ._ 
103,085 lbs., or 46-02 tons ; and the corresponding elongation (ZJ per unit of 
length is -0187. By formula (13). — ^The work (u) expended in producing- 
rupture = 963. 



Exp. XXIX. — Bar of Steel from Messrs. Bessemer & Co., Sheffield. Elon- 
gations taken on 8 inches length. Mark on bar, " BS2." Diameter of 
specimen -743 inch. Area -4335 square inch. Eeduced diameter 
after fractiu-e -531 inch. Area -2214 square inch. 



1 


18649 










•0012 




Specimen of milder 


2 


22009 










•0017 




Bessemer steel 


3 


25369 










•0237 




than No. 1. 


4 


27049 










•0300 






5 


28729 










•0332 






G 


30304 










•0362 






7 


31849 










•0462 






8 


33439 










•0600 






9 


35014 






. 




•0818 






10 


36664 










•1093 






11 


38224 


88175 


39-36 




•2000 


Broke near centre. 



Eesults. — Here the breaking strain (P^) per square inch of section is 
88,175 lbs., or 39-36 tons ; and the corresponding elongation (ZJ per imit of 
length is -1093. By formula (13). — The work (to) expended in producing 
rupture = 4818. 



336 



REPORT — 1867. 



Exp, XXX. — Bar of Steel from Messrs. Bessemer & Co., Sheffield. Elouga- 
tions taken on 8 inches length. Mark on bar, " B S 3." Diameter of 
specimen -736 inch. Area •4254 square inch. Eeduced diameter 
after fi'aeture '486 inch. Area •1885 square inch. 



No. 

of 

Exp. 






Per unit of length. 




Weight 
laid on. 


Breaking strain per 
square inch of section. 




Kemarks. 


Elongation. 


Permanent 

set. 




lbs. 


lbs. 


tons. 








1 


22009 








•0025 


* • • • 


Specimen of soft 


2 


25369 








•0293 




Bessemer steel. 


3 


27049 








•0418 






4 


28729 








•0593 






5 


30304 








•0718 






6 


31849 








•0981 






7 


33439 


78606 


35^09 


.... 


•1912 


Broke in centre. 



Results. — Here the breaking strain (Pj) per square inch of section is 
78,606 lbs., or 35*09 tons ; and the corresponding elongation (?,) per unit of 
length is •0981. By formula (13). — The work (») expended in producing 
rupture =3855. 



Exp. XXXI. — Bar of Steel from Mr. Sanderson, Sharrow Yale Works. 
Elongations taken on 8 inches length. Mark on bar, "S 1." Dia- 
meter of specimen ^697 inch. Area' ^3815 square inch. Eeduced 
diameter after fracture -694 inch. Area ^3782 square inch. 



1 


22009 






•0050 




Specimen of bar of 


2 


25369 


.... 


.... 


•0087 




cast steel, from 


3 


28729 


.... 


.... 


•0162 




K. B., a Eussian 


4 


30304 


.... 


.... 


•0187 




iron, suitable for 
welding. 


5 


31849 


83484 


37-26 




•0225 


Broke in neck. 



Results. — Here the breaking strain (P^) per square inch of section is 
83,484 lbs., or 37*26 tons ; and the corresponding elongation (Z,) per unit of 
length is •0187. By formula (13). — The work (m) expended in producing 
rupture =780. 



ON THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF STEEL. 



237 



Exp. XXXII. — Bar of Steel fi'om Mr, Sanderson, Sharrow Yale "Works. 
Elongations taken on 8 inches length. Mark on bar, " S 2." Diameter 
of specimen -737 inch. Area '4266 square inch. Eeduced dia- 
meter after fracture '723 inch. Area -4105 square inch. 



No. 

of 

Exp. 


M^eight 
laid on. 


Sreakinff 


«f-i»nin r\p\* 


Per unit of length. 


Eemarks. 


square inch of section. 


Elongation. 


Permanent 
set. 




lbs. 


lbs. 


tons. 








1 


22009 










•0018 


.... 


Specimen of double 


2 
3 
4 


25369 
27049 

28729 










•0050 
•0075 
•0093 




shear steel, from 
2, a Swedish 


5 


31849 










•0100 






6 


33439 










•0131 






7 


36664 










•0875 






8 


39784 










•0231 






9 


41344 










•0256 






10 
11 
12 


42904 
44464 
46054 


107 


940 


4^ 


i-is 


•0293 
•0318 


•0331 


f Bore this weight 15 
•j seconds, and then 
[ broke in neck. 



IS 



Results. — Here the breaking strain (PJ per square inch of section __ 
107,940 lbs., or 48^18 tons ; and the corresponding elongation (7,) per unit 
of length is ^0318. By formula (13). — The work (m) expended in produ- 
cing rupture = 1716. 



Exp. XXXIII. — Bar of Steel from Mr. Sanderson, Sharrow Vale Works. 
Elongations taken on 8 inches length. Mark on bar, " S 3." Diameter 
of specimen ^714 inch. Area -4003 square inch. Eeduced dia- 
meter after fracture ^693 inch. Area ^3771 square inch. 



1 


22009 










•0037 




2 


25369 










•0100 




3 


28729 










•0156 




4 


31849 










•0212 




5 


35014 










•0225 




6 


38224 










•0250 




7 


41344 










•0275 




8 


42904 


1071^ 


52 


r 


r^84 


.... 


•0281 



Specimen of single 

shear steel from 

^, a Swedish 



iron. 



Broke in neck. 



Residts. — Here the breaking strain (PJ per square inch of section is 107,182 
lbs., or 47"84 tons ; and the corresponding elongation (ZJ per unit of length is 
•0275. By formula (13). — The work (u) expended in producing rupture 
= 1473. 



238 



REPORT 1867. 



Exp, XXXIV. — Bar of Steel from Mr. Sandersou, Sharrow Vale Works. 
Elongations taken on 8 inches length. Mark on bar, " S 4." Diameter 
of specimen '744 inch. Area '4374 square inch. Eeduced diameter 
after fracture "737 inch. Area '4266 square inch. 



No. 

of 

Exp. 



1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 



Weight 
laid on. 



lbs. 
22009 
25369 
27049 
28729 
30304 
31849 
32689 



Breaking strain per 
square inch of section. 



lbs. 



75199 



tons 



33-57 



Per unit of length. 



Elongation. 



•0031 
•0043 
•0081 
•0087 
•0125 
•0137 



Permanent 
set. 



•0125 



Remarks. 



Bar of faggot steel 
drawn from ^ 
bar steel, simply 
■vrelded to make 
it sound. 

Broke in neck. 



Results. — Here the breaking strain (P,) per square inch of section is 
75,199 lbs., or 33*57 tons ; and the corresponding elongation (l^ per unit 
of length is -0137. By formula (13). — The work (it) expended in producing 
rupture = 515. 



Exp. XXXV. — Bar of Steel from Mr. Sanderson, Sharrow Vale "Works. 
Elongations taken on 8 inches length. Mark on bar, " S 5." Diameter 
of specimen '738 inch. Area ^4277 square inch. E«dueed diameter 
after fracture ^723 inch. Area -4105 square inch. 



1 


253G9 










•0037 




Specimen of drawn 


2 


27049 










•0050 




bar from ^ steel 
not welded. 


3 


28729 










•0087 




4 


30304 










•0156 






5 


31879 










•0162 






6 


33439 










•0187 






7 


35014 










■0212 






8 


36664 










•0243 






9 


39784 










•0262 






10 


41344 
















11 


42904 
















12 


44464 


103960 


46-41 


.... 


•0343 


Broke in neck. 



I 



Results. — Here the breaking strain (PJ per square inch of section is 
103,960 lbs., or 46^41 tons; and the corresponding elongation (?,) per unit 
of length is ^0262. By formula (13). — The work {u) expended in' producing 
rupture = 1782. 



ON THE MECHANICAi PROPERTIES O? STEEL. 



239 



Exp. XXXVI. — Bar of Steel from Messrs. Turton & Sons, Sheffield. 
Elongations taken on 8 inches length. Mark on bar, "A." Diameter 
of specimen -725 inch. Area -4128 square inch. Reduced diameter 
after fracture -709 inch. Area -3948 square inch. 









Per unit of length. 




No. 

of 

Exp. 


Weight 


Breaking strain per 












laid on. 


square inch of section. 


Elongation. 


Permanent 

set. 






lbs. 


lbs. 


tons. 








1 


22009 












•0025 


.... 


Specimen of steel 


2 


25369 


, . 










•0043 




employed in the 


3 


28729 


. . 










•0100 




manufacture of 


4 


31849 


• • 










•0143 




cups. 


5 


35014 












•0187 






6 


38224 












•0250 






7 


39784 












•0312 






8 


41344 


100155 


44-71 


.... 


•0275 


Broke in neck. 



Results. — ^Here the breaking strain (P^) per square inch of section is 
100,155 lbs., or 44^71 tons ; and the corresponding elongation (Z^) per unit 
of length is -0312. By formula (13). — The work (m) expended in producing 
rupture = 1562. 



Exp. XXXYII.— Bar of Steel from Messrs. Turton & Sons, Sheffield. 
Elongations taken on 8 inches length. Mark on bar, " B." Diameter 
of specimen ^745 inch. Area ^4359 square inch. Eeduced diameter 
after fracture -74 inch. Area -43 square inch. 



1 


22009 






•0018 




Specimen of steel 


2 


25369 






•0018 




used in the manu- 


3 


28729 






•0018 




facture of drills. 


4 


31849 






•0031 






5 


35014 






•0106 






6 


36604 






•0106 






/ 


38164 


87552 


39^b8 


.... 


•0106 


Broke in neck. 



Results. — Here the breaking strain (P^) per square inch of section is 
87,552 lbs., or 39-08 tons; and the corresponding elongation {\) per iinit 
of length is -0106. By formula (13). — The -work (w) expended in jiroducing 
rupture = 464. 



240 



REPORT 1867. 



Exp. XXXVIII.— Bar of Stoel from Messrs. Turtou cfe Sons, Sheffield. 
Elongations taken on 8 inches length. Mark on bar, " C." Diameter 
of specimen -743 inch. Area -4335 square inch. Eeduced diameter 
after fracture -74 inch. Area -43 square inch. 



No. 
of 






Per unit of length. 




Weight 


Breaking strain per 






'R.pTTinvTra 






Exp. 


laid ou. 


square inch of section. 


Elongation. 


Permanent 

set. 






lbs. 


lbs. 


tons. 








1 


22009 










•0031 


.... 


Specimen of steel 


2 


25369 










•0031 




used in the ma- 


3 


28729 










•0031 




nufacture of 


4 


30304 










•0031 




cutters. 


5 


31849 










•0037 






6 


33439 










•0106 






7 


35014 










•0137 






8 


36664 










•0150 






9 


38224 










•0162 






10 


39784 










•0181 






11 


41344 


95372 


42-57 


.... 


•0137 


Broke in neck. 



Results, — Here the breaking strain (P^) per square inch of section is 
95,372 lbs., or 42-57 tons ; and the corresponding elongation (\) per unit of 
length is -0181. By formula (13). — The work (if) expended in producing 
rupture ^ 863. 



Exp. XXXIX.— Bar of Steel from Messrs. Turfcon & Sons, Sheffield. Elon- 
gations taken on 8 inches length. Mark on bar, " D." Diameter 
of specimen -719 inch. Area -4060 square inch. Reduced diameter 
after fracture ^717 inch. Area -4037 square inch. 



1 


22009 






.... 




Specimen of steel 


2 


25369 




.... 


•0006 




used in the con- 


3 


28729 


.... 


.... 


-0018 




struction of 
turning-tools. 


4 


31849 


80273 


35-02 


.... 


•0012 


Broke in neck. 



Results. — Here the breaking strain (PJ per square inch of section la 
80,273 lbs., or 35-02 tons ; and the corresponding elongation (l^) per unit of 
length is •0018. By formula (13). — The work (h) expended in producing 
rupture = 72. 



ON THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF STEEL. 



241 



Exp. XL.— Bar of Steel from Messrs. Turton & Sons, Sheffield. Elon- 
gations taken on 8 inches length. Mark on bar, "E." Diameter 
of specimen '743 inch. Area -4335 square inch. Reduced diameter 
after fracture -737 inch. Area '4266 square inch. 



No. 

of 

Exp. 


Weight 


laid on. 




lbs. 


1 


22009 


2 


25369 


3 


28729 


4 


31849 


5 


35014 


6 


36664 


7 


39784 


8 


42904 


9 


44614 



Breaking strain per 
square inch of section. 



lbs. 



102915 



tons 



45-94 



Per unit of length. 



Elongation 



•0006 
•0018 
•0031 
•0062 
•0093 
•0106 
•0143 
•0181 



Permanent 
set. 



•0143 



Eemarkg. 



Specimen of steel 
used in the ma- 
nufacture of ma- 
chinery. 



Broke in neck. 



Results. — Here the breaking strain (P^) per square inch of section is 
102,915 lbs., or 45-94 tons ; and the corresponding elongation (l^) per unit 
of length is •0181. By formula (13). — The work (m) expended in produ- 
cing rupture = 929. 



Exp. XLI.— Bar of Steel from Messrs. Turton & Sons, Sheffield. Elon- 
gations taken on 8 inches length. Mark on bar, " F." Diameter 
of specimen -743 inch. Area ^4335 square inch. Eedueed diameter 
after fracture ^738 inch. Area ^4277 square inch. 



1 


22009 






•0025 


.... 1 Specimen of steel 


2 


25369 










•0050 




used in the ma- 


3 


28729 










•0081 




nufacture of 


4 


31849 










•0100 




punches. 


5 


35014 










•0125 






6 


38224 










•0131 








41344 










•0206 






8 


44464 


102567 


45-79 


.... 


•0162 


Broke in neck. 



Results. — Here the breaking strain (PJ per square inch of section is 
102,567 lbs., or 45-79 tons ; and the corresponding elongation (l^) per unit 
of length is -0206. By formula (13). — The work («) expended in producing 
rupture = 1056. 

1867. 8 



243 



REPORT 1867. 



Elonga- 



Exp. XLII.— Bar of Steel from Messrs. Turton & Sons, Sheffield 

tions taken on 8 inches length. Mark on bar, " G." Diameter of 
specimen -743 inch. Area -4335 square inch. Reduced diameter 
after fracture -729 inch. Area -4173 square inch. 



No. 






Per unit of length. 




Weight 


Breaking strain per 






Remarks. 






of 
Exp. 


laid on. 


square inch of section. 


Elongation. 


Permanent 

set. 






lbs. 


lbs. 


tons. 








1 


22009 










•0018 


.... 


Specimen of steel 


2 


25369 










•0018 




used in the manu- 


3 


28729 










•0050 




facture of Mint 


4 


31849 










•0081 




dies. 


5 


35014 










•0112 






C 


38224 










•0150 








41344 










•0187 






8 


42904 










•0243 






9 


46054 


106237 


47-42 


.... 


•0287 


Broke in neck. 



Results. — Here the breaking strain (P,) per square inch of section is 
106,237 lbs., or 47-42 tons; and the corresponding elongation (l^) per unit 
of length is •0243. By formula (13).— The work (m) expended in producing 
rupture = 1290. 



Exp. XLIII.— Bar of Steel from Messrs. Turton & Sons, Sheffield. Elonga- 
tions taken on 8 inches length. Mark on bar, "H." Diameter of speci- 
men ^746 inch. Area ^4370 square inch. Reduced diameter after 
fracture ^741 inch. Area ^43 square inch. 



1 

2 
3 
4 
5 


25369 
28729 
31849 
35014 
38224 


87471 


39^04 


•0025 
•0031 
•0093 
•0131 


•0087 


Specimen of steel 
used in the ma- 
nufacture of dies. 

Broke in neck. 



EesuUs. — Here the breaking strain (P^) per square inch of section is 
87,471 lbs., or 39-04 tons; and the corresponding elongation (ZJ per unit of 
length is •0131. By formula (13).— The work («) expended in producing 
rupture = 572. 



ON THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF STEEL. 



343 



Exp. XLIV.— Bar of Steel from Messrs. Turton & Sons, Sheffield. Elonga- 
tions taken on 8 inches length. Mark on bar, "I." Diameter of epe- 
cimen -733 inch. Area -4219 square inch. Reduced diameter after 
fractui'e '725 inch. Area •4128 square inch. 



No. 


Weight 




Per unit of length. 




of 


Breaking strain per 






Remarks. 


Exp. 


laid on. 


square inch of section. 


Elongation. 


Permanent 

set. 






lbs. 


lb.s. 


tons. 








1 


25369 












•0031 


• • • • 


Specimen of double 


2 


28729 












•0056 




shear steel. 


3 


31849 












•0087 






4 


33439 












•0106 






5 


35014 












•0118 






6 


36664 












•0143 






7 


38224 












•0169 






8 


39784 












•0193 






9 


41344 


97994 


43-74 




•0187 


Broke in neck. 



Eesults. — Here the breaking strain (Pj) per square inch of section is 
97,994 lbs., or 43^74 tons ; and the corresponding elongation (Z,) per unit of 
length is ^0193. By formula (13). — The work (m) expended in producing 
rupture = 945. 



Exp. XLV.— Bar of Steel from Messrs. Turton & Sons, Sheffield. Elonga- 
tions taken on 8 inches length. Mark on bar,"ir." Diameter of spe- 
cimen -744 inch. Area -4347 square inch. Reduced diameter after 
fracture ^74 inch. Area ^43 square inch. 



1 


22009 






•0037 




Specimen of double 


2 


25369 


• . . . 


«... 


•0050 




Shear steel. 


3 


28729 


• t . . 


• • • • 


•0087 






4 


31849 


73266 


32-70 




•0081 


Broke in neck. 



^ Results. — Here the breaking strain (PJ per square inch of section is 
/ 3,266 lbs., or 32^70 tons; and the corresponding elongation (1^) per unit of 
length is ^0087. By formiUa (13).— The work (m) expended in producing 
rupture = 318. 



s2 



244 



REPORT 1867. 



ci 
u 

CD 

H 

o 



CI 
ID 

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o 



a 

a 

s 

CO 



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Hi 

n 

■< 





■i 


,!<) 


^ 




s 


O 


o 




fl 


o 


a> 




a 


n 




IB 


<o 


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^ 


-g 


:g 


CD 

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. a 


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^^ 1 


<D O 


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.M 'H ^ 


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d ""^ fl 


rJfH O . 


a"i?fl =^ 




■" I :; = : I i^ •" 


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o o o 


o o o 


o o o 




t^ u u 


u ^ :-> 


b t-( t-l 




pq m pq 


fppq pq 


P5fqpq 


or 
pro- 
ing 
ure. 


i-i\Or^t^r^N0OVi oo 


tJ- ro w 00 rooo 


CO O ■<*• 


OOO VO u-vvo (^ t^ i-i \o 


t-- rt OS O O oo 


f^ t^ r^ C3\ 




I-" \o t^ c\ o »^oo r^ rt 


OS <-i VO r4 -^oo 


t^ M VO VO 


»-> C< Ti- r^ c<^ rJ 


c. 11 « VO -^ 


rt w ■-> 


bD . t, _ fci 








Corre- 
apondin 

elonga- 
tion pe 

unit of 
length 

value. 


VO ro t--s in h^\o 00 (^ 


t-^vo ti o r^ o 


1^ m o t^ 


u-iiOT^-mr-^roO^O vo 


r^ oo VO m o 


« t^ O M 


0»-.i-.rocoGCTj-CTs ^ 


M fi N r> ^ H 


VO Th « r) 


poop p pop p 


p p p p H, ;-. 


p p p p 


u 








CD 


•roinrij-'Orovo'-'i^ f- 


m OS VO u-,00 t- 


oo v^ t^x O 


J- vooo ^o cc •-. o ro N y 


1 ^ so I>- "-" r-. r' 


1 inoo oo r^ 


C o 


O b b i^ ^ On •-'»-' '"^ vc 


ONoo CO m onvo 


bv b bv N 


E|d 


■^rO"<i--<i-u-)Ti-Ti-^c^ rl 


t1- -^^O T:i- CO cv 


1 CO tJ- u-> lo 








■S .S .2 








bo s> tj 
a !-( <u 


^O^rntnrttn-^ oo 


VO rt 00 vn 11 r* 


■t trv o wivo 


.ONt-iootor~-»nr-^ r* 


1 VO t^ o\vo rt 00 


VO H -^VO 


ria ^ 


WT*-vnt~^i-iOCs'^'^ w 


1 O O cnvO n ■^ 


VO VO M O 


« CTl 


-^00*-i\0VD0^r*vO C 


N O OS O VO OS M 


oo « -^oo 


a> CD 


vcoNOM'-iQNaNr^ " 


"> « O C^ OsOO 00 


oo OS ro HI 




M M I-t 


" " " 




light 

on, in 
, pro- 
ving 
ture. 


OS Ti- >-« tJ-vO Ti- O m ■- 


VO w VO rj- t}- w 


M ^-.J-VO 


tJ-OO t-v\D "-• VO ON >-■ ^ 


^ t^vo -^ r^ O 


N f-oo r^vo 


oor->.rou-iO>r-t^H 1- 


Osoo O CO rl 00 


*o 1-^ to o 


^%i^^ 


i->O00\*-'0N0xrJ ^ 


n M VO « oo c* 


-I U-, CTv t^ v^ 


t*icocOTi*mroroN >-• 


CO CO CO Ti- CO (^ 


rt ro VO <o 




r^HOOOroOooti oo 




■<*- : VO o o 


N W-, -vj- ov r^ 


1.^§ 


Or4vooN'4-c*-t*nt^ oo 




CO : « -^oo 


M 00 VO H 


OS u-> ONOO H. VO t^ H OC 




O • OS rt rt 


O •+ CO OS 


o ? " 


r^t^r~-.r^ooi>.t^t^ r- 




oo : t-^OO 00 


f^ r- ov _r~- 




t^t^Kt-^c^t^r^t^ r 




t^ : t~^ t^ t^ 


00 t^ t^ r^ 


bo C3 








Mark 

on 

Bar. 




1-1 CM CO -^ lO :c 


to 

02 




1 

g 












: : c 
J- . bo 

2 i'E 

^ •'^ 
13 : S 

(D ; « 


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to 

a 


mm 




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t^ : j3 


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CO 




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d S rS o ■-=< 




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o fe 

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CO 3 

£ g 




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a i'bb 
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■SiS a 

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O S o.S-§ 

s a = a s-- 




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1 




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»H t1 M M 



ON THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF STEEL. 



345 



-§ 



m 



w 



►1 vO 



t~^00 H O M Cn 



VO oo 
O O 



r* NN -^ H O O 
O O O O U M 



Li 


aa g 


1 


g ° s 

P t, <D 




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a 


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(DO)© 

o o o 



WHW 



t1- ri 



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o « o 



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C7\ 



o 

a 



o 
u 

pq 



o 

Li 
W 



0*0 ro lo r» 
oo HH t^ hi oo 
t-^ l^ -cj- o-t f^ 



t^ "^ CO N ON'O o ri >ooo 

*^ "^00 O. O N lO C\ CO 



rtVD MOO MVO cOMmt^ 
M Ooomoo o Tj-fo o^oo 
roi-.-tO'-NNwi-.O 

oooooooooo 



5i 



•H O CO u^\0 u-j 
t^ M o N rt OO 

M ^«i) bvOO On 

vo Tj- '^i- CO CO -^ 



CM VO 


On 1^ 


M TJ-VO 


Thoo 


T^ o « 


CO M (-, 


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oo m 


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ci o> ■^ ^vO c^ ^o "^ 

MOO incorj-r<>^t^ 

CO w OS M Ti-oo vo r^ 

^*o ^Tt-^cocoTi- 



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t--.oo r- covis 
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O oo OnOO O O O 00 On t^ 



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CO M rooo NO -^ O H COOO 
« OO M ^ t4- rj-VO OO M M 
Ti-COT^COr^^TJ-CO-^CO 



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r-^ to TT i-« O CO t:J* tJ-VO N 
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t^ t^ !>. t^ t-. c^ t^ r^oo t^ 



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mmui 

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COCOCOcO-^^T^«*-Tj-rJ- 



246 REPORT — 1867. 

It will be observed from tbe above Summary of Results, that in the re- 
duction of tbe experiments to tbe vahie of u, or work done in producing 
rupture, some of tbe specimens are as low as 72 when tbe metal is bard and 
brittle, and as bigb as 6403 (in Exp. 14) wbere tbe specimen is of ductile 
Bessemer steel. It required tbe utmost precision to determine witb perfect 
accuracy tbe elongations of tbe barder specimens at tbe potut of rupture ; and 
altbougb tbe elongationsVere magnified and carefully taken, tbey are uever- 
tbeless not to be relied upon wbere tbe value of u is under 300. It would 
bave been more correct to bave taken tbe elongations from bars three or four 
times tbe length ; but this could not be accomplished from tbe same bars, as 
m most cases it was next to impossible to bave them reduced to tbe required 
dimensions without heating tbe bars and drawing them out under the hammer. 
This process would bave rendered them useless for comparison, which is not 
the case in tbe present experiments, where the rupture by tension is identical 
with that by compression, as they were cut from the same bars after having 
been submitted to a transverse strain. Prom this it will be seen that each 
bar has undergone without change the three separate tests of tensUe, com- 
pressive, and transverse strain. 



ON THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF STEEL. 



247 



THIRD SERIES OF EXPERIMENTS. 



COMPEESSION. 



Exp. I. — Bar of St6el from Messrs, John Brown & Co., Sheffield. Mark on 



bar, " B 1.' 



Before experiment. 

Height of specimen 1-004 inch. 

Diameter of specimen "72 inch. 

Ai-ea of specimen -40715 sq. in. 



After experiment. 
•755 inch. 
•774 inch. 
•47015 sq. in. 



No. 

of 

Exp. 



Weight laid 

on 

specimen. 



Weight laid 

on per square inch 

of section. 



Compres- 
sion, in 
inches. 



Remarks. 



lbs. 
37438 
44966 
52166 

58950 
66022 
73134 
80214 
88134 
91840 



tons. 

16-731 
20-074 
23-288 
26-316 
29-474 
32-649 
35-809 
39-345 
41-000 



lbs. 

91951 
110440 
128124 
144786 
162156 
179772 
197023 
216465 
225568 



tons. 

41-049 
49-303 
57-198 
64-637 
72-391 
80-233 
87-952 
96-636 
100-700 



-020 
-025 
-043 
-049 
-078 
•117 
•166 
•225 
•253 




One 



very 



crack appeared. 



Results. — Here the strain per square inch (PJ causing rupture is 225,568 
lbs., or 100-7 tons ; and the corresponding compression (f^) per unit of length 
is -253. By formula (13). — The work (tt) expended in producing rupture 
= 28533. 



Exp. II. — Bar of Steel from Messrs. John Brown & Co., Sheffield. Mark on 

bar, " B 2." 



Before experiment. 

Height of specimen -980 inch. 

Diameter of specimen .... -72 inch. 
Area of specimen ^40715 sq. in. 



After experiment. 
•724 inch. 
•785 inch. 
•48398 sq. in. 



37438 
44966 
52166 
58950 
66022 
73134 
80214 
88134 
91840 



16-731 

20-074 
23-288 
26-316 
29-474 
32-649 
35-809 
39-345 
41-000 



91951 
110440 
128124 
144786 
162156 
179772 
197023 
216465 
225568 



41-049 
49-303 

57-198 
64-637 
72-391 
80-233 
87-952 
96-636 
100-700 



020 
025 
043 
069 
088 
147 
196 
265 
263 




No cracks. 



Results. — Here the strain per square inch (PJ causing rupture is 225,568 
lbs., or 100-7 tons ; and the corresponding compression (ZJ per unit of length 
is -263. By formula (13).— The work (y) expended in producing rupture 



248 REPORT— 1867. 

Exp. III. — Bar of Steel from Messrs. John Brown & Co. Mark on 

bar, "B3." 

Before experiment. After experiment. 

Height of specimen 1-002 inch. -832 inch. 

Diameter of specimen -72 inch. .... -748 inch. 

Area of specimen -40715 sq. in -43943 sq. in. 



No, 

of 

Exp. 



Weight laid 

on 

specimen. 





lbs. 


] 


37438 


2 


44966 


3 


52166 


4 


58950 


5 


66022 


6 


73134 


7 


80214 


8 


88134 


9 


91840 



tons. 

16-713 
20-074 
23-288 
26-316 
29-474 
32-649 
35-809 
39-345 
41-000 



Weight laid 

on per square inch 

of section. 



lbs. 

91951 
110440 
128124 
144786 
162516 
179722 
197023 
216465 
225568 



tons. 
41-049 
49-303 
57-198 
64-637 
72-391 
80-233 
87-952 
96-636 
100-700 



Compres- 
sion, in 
inches. 



•010 
-015 
•023 
•029 
•038 
•067 
•096 
•155 
•183 



Remarks. 




One very slight 
crack of outside 
skin. 



Besults. — Here the strain per square inch (PJ causing rupture is 225,568 
lbs., or 100-7 tons ; and the corresponding elongation (\) per unit of length 
is -183. By formula (13). — The -work (u) expended in producing rupture 
= 20591. 



Exp. IV.— Bar of Steel from Messrs. John Brown & Co. Mark on 

bar, " B 4." 

Before experiment, After experiment. 

Height of specimen 1-01 inch. -739 inch. 

Diameter of .specimen -72 inch. .... -781 inch. 

Area of specimen -40715 sq. in ^47783 sq. in. 



1 


37438 


16-713 


91951 


41-049 


2 


44966 


20-074 


110440 


49-303 


3 


52166 


23-288 


128124 


57-198 


4 


58950 


26-316 


144786 


64-637 


5 


66022 


29-474 


162156 


72-391 


6 


73134 


32-649 


179722 


80-233 


1 


80214 


35-809 


197023 


87-952 


8 


88134 


39-345 


216465 


97-636 


9 


91840 


41-000 


225568 


100-700 



-030 
•035 
•053 
•079 
-108 
•157 
•206 
•255 

•293 




No cracks. 



Results. — Here the strain per square inch (P^) causing rupture is 225,568 
lbs., or 100-7 tons ; and the corresponding compression (?J per unit of length 
is -293. By formula (13). — The work (t() expended in producing rupture 
=32968. 



ON THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF STEEL. 



349 



Exp. V. — Bar of Steel from Messrs. John Brown & Co. Mark on bar, " B 5." 

Before experiment. After experiment. 

Height of specimen -99 inch. .... -743 inch. 

Diameter of specimen -72 inch. .... -776 inch. 

Area of specimen '40715 sq. in '47299 sq. in. 



No. 

of 

Exp. 



Weight laid 

on 

specimen. 



Weight laid 

on per square inch 

of section. 



Com- 
pression 
in inches 



Remarks. 



1 
2 

3 
4 
5 
6 

7 
8 
9 



lbs. 

37438 
44966 
52166 
589.50 
66022 
73134 
80214 
88134 
91840 



tons. 

16-713 
20-074 
23-288 
26-316 
29-474 
32-649 
35-809 
39-345 
41-000 



lbs. 

91951 
110440 
128124 
144786 
162156 
179722 
197023 
216465 
225568 



tons. 
41-049 
49-303 
57-198 
64-637 
72-391 
80-233 
87-952 
96-636 
100-700 



•010 
-015 
•023 
-039 
-068 
•107 
■166 
•215 
•243 




No cracks. 



Results. — Here the strain per square inch (P,) causing rupture is 
225,568 lbs., or 100-7 tons ; and the corresponding compression (/ ) per unit of 
length is -243. By formula (13).— The work (tt) expended in producing 
rupture =27342. 



Exp. VI. — Bar of Steel from Messrs. John Brown & Co. Mark on bar, " B 6.' 

Before experiment. After experiment. 

Height of specimen -987 inch ^592 inch. 

Diameter of specimen -72 inch. .... -84 inch. 

Area of specimen -40715 sq. in -55417 sq. in. 



1 


37438 


16-713 


91951 


2 


44966 


20-074 


110440 


3 


52166 


23-288 


128124 


4 


58950 


26-316 


144786 


5 


66022 


29-474 


1621.56 


6 


73134 


32-649 


179722 


7 


80214 


35-809 


197023 


8 


88134 


39-345 


216465 


9 


91840 


41-000 


225568 



41-049 
49-303 
57-198 
64-637 
72-391 
80-233 
87-952 
96-636 
100-700 



-050 
•075 
•123 
•179 
•238 
•297 
•346 
•385 
•403 




No cracks. 



Results. — Here th^e strain per square inch (PJ causing rupture is 
225,568 lbs., or 100^7 tons; and the corresponding compression (\) per unit 
of length is -403. By formula (13).— The work (m) expended in producing 
rupture =45345. 



350 



REPORT 1867. 



Exp. VII.— Bar of Steel from Messrs. John Brown & Co. Marklon bar, " B 7." 

Before experiment. After experiment. 

Height of gpeeimen -101 inch. .... -559 inch. 

Diameter of specimen -72. inch. . . ; . '886 inch. 

Area of specimen '40715 sq. in -61653 sq. in. 



No. 

of 

Exp. 



1 

2 

3 
4 
5 
6 

7 
8 
9 



Weigl 


it laid 


Weight laid 


Com- 


on 


on per square inch 


pression, 


specimen. 


of section. 


in inches. 


lbs. 


tons. 


lbs. 


tons. 




37438 


16-713 


91951 


41-049 


-030 


44966 


20-074 


110440 


49-303 


•065 


62166 


23-288 


128124 


57-198 


•103 


58950 


26-316 


144786 


64-637 


•169 


66022 


29-474 


162156 


72-391 


•238 


73134 


32-649 


179722 


80-233 


•297 


80214 


35-809 


197023 


87-952 


-366 


88134 


39-345 


216465 


96-636 


•425 


91840 


41-000 


225568 


100-700 


•44.3 



Remarks. 




Three large cracks, 
with several 
smaller ones. 



Hesults. — Here the strain jjer square inch (PJ causing rupture is 
225,568 lbs., or 100-7 tons ; and the corresponding compression (l^) per unit of 
length is -443. By formula (13). — The Avork (u) expended in producing 
rupture =49846. 



Exp. VIII,— Bar of Steel from Messrs. John Brown & Co. Mark on bar, " B 8." 

Before experiment. After experiment. 

Height of specimen -989 inch. .... -497 inch. 

Diameter of specimen '72 inch. .... ^886 inch. 

Area of specimen "40715 sq. in -61653 sq. in. 



1 


37438 


16^713 


91951 


41-049 


■040 


2 


44966 


20-074 


110440 


49-303 


•085 


3 


52166 


23-288 


128124 


57-198 


•143 


4 


68950 


26-316 


144786 


64^637 


•219 


5 


66022 


29-474 


162156 


72-391 


•298 


6 


73134 


32-649 


179722 


80-233 


•347 


7 


80214 


35-809 


197023 


87-952 


•426 


8 


88134 


39-345 


216465 


96-636 


•475 


9 


91840 


41-000 


225568 


100-700 


•493 t 

1 




]Much cracked. 



IS 



Results. — Here the strain per square inch (P^) causing ruj^ture 
225,568 lbs., or 100-7 tons ; and the corresponding compression (/j) per unit of 
length is -493. By formula (13). — The work (m) expended in producing 
rupture = 55472. 



ON THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF STEEL. 251 

Exp. IX. — Bar of Steel from Messrs. John Brown & Co., Sheffield. Mark 

on bar, " B 9." 

Before experiment. After experiment. 

Height of specimen -983 inch. -430 inch. 

Diameter of specimen -72 inch. .... -QS inch. 

Area of specimen . . -40715 sq. in -75429 sq. in. 



No. 

of 

Exp. 



Weight laid 
on 
specimen. 



lbs. 

37438 
44966 
52166 
58950 
66022 
73134 



80214 
88134 
91840 



tons. 

16-713 
20-074 
23-288 
26-316 
29-474 
32-649 



35-809 
39-345 

41-000 



Weight laid 

on per square inch 

of section. 



lbs. 

91951 
110440 
128124 
144786 
162156 
179722 



197023 
216465 

225568 



tons. 
41-049 
49-303 
57-198 
64-637 
72-391 
80-233 



87-952 

96-636 

100-700 



Com- 
pression, 
in inches 



-150 
-215 
-273 
-359 

•418 
-457 



•486 
-535 
-553 



Remarks. 



Commenced to crack. 




Three large cracks. 
Much cracked. 



Results — Here the strain per square inch (P^) causing rupture is 225,568 
lbs., or 100-7 tons ; and the corresponding compression (ZJ per unit of length 
is -553. By formula (13). — The work (w) expended in producing rupture 



Exp. X.— Bar of Steel from Messrs. Cammell & Co., Sheffield. Mark on 

bar, " 1." 

„ . , , ^ . Before experiment. After experiment. 

Height ol specimen -971 inch. .... -749 inch. 

Diameter of specimen -72 inch. .... -772 inch'. 

Area of specimen -40715 sq. in -46808 sq. in. 



1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 



37438 
44966 
52166 
58950 
66022 
73134 
80214 
88134 
91840 



16-713 
20-074 
23-288 
26-316 
29-474 
32-649 
35-809 
39-345 
41-000 



91951 
110440 
128124 
144786 
162156 
179722 
197023 
216465 
225568 



41-049 
49-303 
57-198 
64-637 
72-391 
80-233 
87-952 
96-636 
100-700 



-010 
•015 
-023 
-029 
-058 
-087 
-146 
-205 
•233 




No cracks. 



Results.— Rere the strain per square inch (Pj) causing rupture is 225,568 
lbs., or 100-7 tons ; and the corresponding compression (ZJ per unit of length 
is -233. By formula (13). — The work (m) expended in producing rupture 



253 



REPORT— 1867. 



Exp. XI. — Bar of Steel from Messrs. Cammell & Co., Sheffield. Mark on 

bar, « 2." 

Before experiment. After experiment. 

Height of specimen 1-005 inch. .... -749 inch. 

Diameter of specimen -72 inch. .... '772 inch. 

Area of specimen •40715 sq. in '46808 sq. in. 



No. 

of 

Exp. 



Weight laid 

on 
specimen. 



Weight laid 

on per square inch 

of section. 



Compres- 
sion, in 
inches. 



Remarks. 



1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 



lbs. 
37438 
44966 
52166 
58950 
66022 
73134 
80214 
88134 
91840 



tons. 

16-713 

20-074 
23-288 
26-316 
29-474 
32-649 
35-809 
39-345 
41-000 



lbs. 
91951 
110440 
128124 
144786 
162156 
179722 
197023 
216465 
225568 



tons. 
41-049 
49-303 
57-198 
64-637 
72-391 
80-233 
87-952 
96-636 
100-700 



•020 
•025 
•033 
•049 
•068 
•117 
•176 
•235 
•263 




No cracks. 



Besidts. — Here the strain per square inch (P^) causing rupture is 225,568 
lbs., or 100-7 tons ; and the corresponding compression (l^) per unit of length 
is -263. By formiila (13), — The work {u) expended in producing rupture 
= 29592. 



Exp. XII. — Bar of Steel from Messrs. CammeU & Co., Sheffield, Mark on 

bar, " 3."„ 

Before experiment. After experiment. 

Height of specimen 1-00 inch. .... -705 inch. 

Diameter of specimen -72 inch. .... ^79 inch. 

Area of specimen "40715 sq. in "49016 sq. in. 



37438 
44966 
52166 
58950 
66022 
73134 
80214 
88134 
91840 



16-713 

20-074 
23-288 
26-316 
29-474 
32-649 
35-809 
39-345 
41-000 



91951 
110440 
128124 
144786 
162156 
179722 
197023 
216465 
225568 



41-049 
49-303 
57-198 
64-637 
72-391 
80-233 
87-952 
96-636 
100-700 



•020 
•035 
•053 

•089 
•138 
•187 
•236 
•285 
•313 




Besults.—Kere the strain per square inch (Pj) causing rupture is 225,568 
lbs., or 100-7 tons ; and the corresponding compression (?j) per unit of length 
is -313. By formula (13). — The work (w) expended in producing rupture 
= 35218. 



ON THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF STEEL. 



253 



Exp. XIII.— Bar of Steel from Messrs. Cammell & Co., Sheffield. Mark 

on bar, " 4." 

Before experiment. After experiment. 

Height of specimen 1-001 inch -704 inch. 

Diameter of specimen '72 inch. .... '80 inch. 

Area of specimen -40715 sq. in -50265 sq. in. 



No. 

of 

Exp. 


Weight laid 

on 

specimen. 


Weight laid 

on per square inch 

of section. 


Com- 
pression, 
in inches. 


Eemarks. 


1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 


lbs. 

37438 
44966 
52166 
58950 
66022 
73134 
80214 
88134 
91840 


tons. 
16-713 
20-074 
23-288 
26-316 
29-474 
32-649 
35-809 
39-345 
41-000 


lbs. 

91951 
110440 
128124 
144786 
162156 
179722 
197023 
216465 
225568 


tons. 
41-049 
49-303 
57-198 
64-637 
72-391 
80-233 
87-952 
96-636 
100-700 


•030 
•045 
•053 
•079 
•128 
•177 
•236 
•285 
•303 






1 






Very slight cracks. 



Results. — Here the strain per square inch (P^) causing rupture is 225,568 
lbs., or 100^7 tons ; and the corresponding compression (l^) per unit of length 
is -303. By formula (13). — The work (m) expended in producing rupture 
=34171. 



Exp. XIY. — Bar of Steel from Messrs. Cammell & Co., ShefSeld. Mark 

on bar, « 5." 

Before experiment. After experiment. 

Height of specimen ^996 inch '579 inch. 

Diameter of specimen ^72 inch. .... '865 inch. 

Area of specimen '40715 sq. in '58765 sq. in. 



37438 
44966 
52166 
58950 
66022 
73134 
80214 
88134 
91840 



16-713 
20-074 

23-288 
26-316 
29-474 
32-649 
35-809 
39-345 
41-000 



91951 
110440 
128124 
144786 
162156 
179722 
197023 
216465 
225568 



41^049 

49-303 
57-198 
64-637 
72-391 
80-233 
87-952 
96-636 
100-700 



•060 
•095 
•143 
•199 
•268 
•317 
•406 
•415 
•433 




'No cracks 



Results. — Here the strain per square inch (Pj) causing rupture is 225,568 
lbs., or 100^7 tons ; and the corresponding compression (Zj) per unit of length 
is •433. By formula (13). — The work (m) expended in producing rupture 
=48721. 



354 



REPORT — -1867. 



Exp. XY. — Bar of Steel from Messrs. Cammell & Co., Sheffield. Mark 

on bar, " 6." 

Before experiment. After experiment. 

Height of specimen -997 inch -514 inch. 

Diameter of specimen -72 inch. .... "891 inch. 

Area of specimen -40715 sq. in -63334 sq. in. 



No. 

of 

Esp. 


Weight laid 

on 

specimen. 


Weight laid 

on per square inch 

of section. 


Com- 
pression, 
in inches. 


Eemarks. 


1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 


lbs. 

37438 
44966 
52166 
58950 
66022 
73134 
80214 
88134 
91840 


tons. 

16-713 
20-074 
23-288 
26-316 
29-474 
32-649 
35-809 
39-345 
41-000 


lbs. 

91951 
110440 
128124 
144786 
162156 
179722 
197023 
216465 
225568 


tons. 
41-049 
49-303 
57-198 
64-637 
72-391 
80-233 
87-952 
96-636 
100-700 


-080 
■135 
•203 
•269 
•328 
•387 
•426 
•465 
•493 






r — 1 




1 


B 


No cracks. 



Results. — Here the strain per square inch (P^) causing rupture is 225,568 
lbs., or 100-7 tons ; and the corresponding compression (1^) per unit of length 
is •493. By formula (13). — The work (u) expended in producing rupture 
=55472. 



E?P. XVIfTTT^ar of Steel from Messrs. Naylor, Vickers &, Co. Mark 

on bar, " V. A." 

Before experiment. After experiment. 

Height of specimen ^983 inch -569 inch. 

Diameter of specimen -72 inch. .... •SeS inch. 

Area of specimen ^40715 sq. in -58765 sq. in. 



1 
2 
3 

4 
5 

6 

7 
8 
9 



37438 
44966 
52166 
58950 
66022 
73134 
80214 
88134 
91840 



16-713 
20-074 
23-288 
26-316 
29-474 
32-049 
35-809 
39-345 
41-000 



91951 
110440 
128124 
144786 
102150 
179722 
197023 
216465 
225568 



41-049 
49-303 
57-198 
64-637 
72-391 
80-233 
87-952 
96-036 
100-700 



-050 
•075 
-123 
•179 
•248 
•307 
•356 
•395 
•423 




Results.- — Here the strain per square inch (Pj) causing rupture is 225,568 
lbs., or 100^7 tons ; and the corresponding compression (Z^) per unit of length 
is •423. By formula (13). — The work (it) expended in producing ruptiu-e 
=47596 



ON THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF STEEL. 255 

Exp. XVII.— Bar of Steel from Messrs. Naylor, Tickers & Co., Sheffield. 

Mark on bar "Y.T." 

Before experiment. After experiment. 

Height of specimen -992 inch. .... -605 inch. 

Diameter of specimen '72 inch. -840 inch. 

Area of specimen -40715 sq. in -55417 sq. in. 



No. 

of 

Exp. 


Weight laid on 
specimeu. 


Weight laid 

on per square inch 

of section. 


Com- 
pression, 
in inches 


Eemarks. 


1 
2 
3 

4 
5 

6 

7 
8 
9 


lbs. 
37438 
• 44966 
52166 
58950 
66022 
73134 
80214 
88134 
91840 


tons. 

16-713 

20-074 
23-288 
26-316 
29-474 
32-649 
35-809 
39-345 
41-000 


lbs. 
91951 
110440 
128124 
144786 
162156 
179722 
197023 
216465 
225568 


tons. 

41-049 
49-303 
57-198 
64-637 
72-391 
80-233 
87-952 
96-636 
100-700 


-050 
-075 
•113 
•169 
•228 
-257 
-326 
-365 
-388 


1 

i 

1 






( 






w 


No cracks. 



Results. — Here the strain per square inch (P^) causing rupture is225,5681bs., 
or 100-7 tons; and the corresponding compression (l^) per unit of length 
is -388. By formula (13). — The work (u) expended in producing rupture 
= 43758. 



Exp. XVIII.— Bar of Steel from Messrs. Naylor, Vickers & Co., Sheffield. 

Mark on bar " V.S." 

Before experiment. After experiment. 

Height of specimen -989 inch. .... -847 inch. 

Diameter of specimen -72 inch. .... -742 inch. 

Area of specimen -40715 sq. in -43241 sq. in. 



1 


37438 


16^713 


91951 


41-049 


-010 




i i 


2 


44966 


20^074 


110440 


49-303 


•015 




Am 




jiyUjUMUilUn 


3 


52166 


23-288 


128124 


57-198 


-023 


■ 


1 


iHin 


4 


58950 


26-316 


14478G 


64-637 


•029 


H 




HNn 


5 


66022 


29-474 


162156 


72-391 


-038 


1 




Hi^H 


6 


73134 


32-649 


179722 


80-233 


-047 


n 


IHhH 


7 


80214 


35-809 


197023 


87-952 


■076 


G 


lillln 


8 
9 


88134 
91840 


39-345 
41-000 


216465 
225568 


96-636 
100-700 


-125 
-153 


li 


HIHlH 


No cracks. 



Eesults. — Here the strain per square inch (PJcausing rupture is 225,568 lbs., 
or 100-7 tons ; and the corresponding compression {\) per unit of length 
is -153. By formula (13). — The work (v) expended in producing rupture 
= 17255. 



256 



REPORT — 1867. 



Exp. XIX.— Bar of Steel from Messrs. Naylor, Vickers & Co., Sheffield. 

Mark on bar, " V.2." 

Before experiment. After experiment. 

Height of specimen -998 inch. .... -818 inch. 

Diameter of specimen -72 inch. .... -76 inch. 

Area of specimen -40715 sq. in -45364 sq. in. 



No. 

of 

Exp. 


Weight laid 

on 

specimen. 


Weight laid 

on per square inch 

of section 


Com- 
pression, 
in inches 


Remarks. 


1 
2 
3 
4 
5 

7 
8 
9 


lbs. 
37438 
44966 
52166 
58950 
66022 
73134 
80214 
88134 
91840 


tons. 

16-713 
20-074 
23-288 
26-316 
29-474 
32-649 
35-809 
39-345 
41-000 


lbs. 
91951 
110440 
128124 
144786 
162156 
179722 
197023 
216465 
225568 


tons. 

41-049 
49-303 
57-198 
64-637 
72-391 
80-233 
87-952 
96-636 
100-700 


-010 
-015 
-023 
•029 
•038 
-057 
-096 
-155 
-183 






1 




1 


No cracks. 



Results. — Here the strain per square inch (PJcausing rupture is 225,5681bs., 
or 100-7 tons ; and the corresponding compression (?,) per unit of length 
is -183. By formula (13). — The work (u) expended in producing rupture 
= 20591. 



Exp. XX.— Bar of Steel from Samuel Osborn, Esq., Sheffield. Mark on 

bar " 1." 

Before experiment. After experiment. 

Height of specimen -999 inch. .... -796 inch. 

Diameter of specimen '72 inch. .... -764 inch. 

Area of specimen -40715 sq. in -45843 sq. in. 



1 
2 

3 
4 
5 
6 

7 



37438 
44966 
52166 
58950 
06022 
73134 
80214 
88134 
91840 



16-713 
20-074 
23-238 
26-316 
29-474 
32-649 
35-809 
39-345 
41-000 



91951 

110440 
128124 
144786 
162150 
179722 
197023 
216465 
225568 



41-049 
49-303 
57-198 
64-637 
72-391 
80-233 
87-952 
96-636 
100-700 



-020 
-025 
•033 
-039 
-058 
•077 
•126 
•185 
•203 




No cracks. 



Results. — Here the strain per square inch (Pj) causing rupture is 225,5681bs., 
or 100^7 tons ; and the corresponding compression (l^) per unit of length 
is -203. By formula (13). — The work (u) expended in producing rupture 
= 22841. 



ON THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF STEEL. 



257 



Exp. XXI, — Bar of Steel from Samuel Osbom, Esq., Sheffield Mark on 

bar, « 2." 

Before experiment. After experiment. 

Height of specimen -991 inch. .... -766 inch. 

Diameter of specimen -72 inch. .... -70 inch. 

Area of specimen -40715 sq. in -45364 sq. in. 



No. 


Weight laid 


Weig 


bt laid 


Compres- 


of 


on 


on per square inch 


sion, m 


Exp. 


speciinen. 


of section. 


inches. 




lbs. 


tons. 


lbs. 


tons. 




1 


37438 


16-713 


91951 


41-049 


-030 


2 


449(36 


20-074 


110440 


49-303 


•035 


3 


52166 


23-288 


128124 


57-198 


-043 


4 


58950 


26-316 


144786 


64-637 


-069 


5 


66022 


29-474 


162156 


72-391 


-088 


6 


73134 


32-649 


179722 


80-233 


•127 


7 


80214 


35-809 


197023 


87-952 


•176 


8 


88134 


39-345 


216465 


96-636 


•225 


9 


91840 


41-000 


225568 


100-700 


•243 



Bemarks. 




No cracks. 



Eesults. — Here the strain per square inch(Pj) causing rupture is 225,568 lbs. , 
or 100^7 tons; and the corresponding compression (l^) per unit of length 
is -243. By formula (13). — The work (u) expended in producing rupture 
=27342. 



Exp. XXII. — Bar of Steel from Samuel Osbom, Esq., Sheffield. Mark on 

bar, " 3." 

Before experiment. After experiment. 

Height of specimen ^986 inch. .... -748 inch. 

Diameter of specimen ^72 inch. .... ^768 inch. 

Area of specimen -40715 sq. in "46324 sq. in. 



1 


37438 


2 


44966 


3 


52166 


4 


58950 


5 


66022 


6 


73134 


7 


80214 


8 


88134 


9 


91840 



16-713 
20-074 
23-288 
20-316 
29-474 
32-649 
35-809 
39-345 
41-000 



91951 
1 10440 
128124 
144786 
162156 
179722 
197023 
216465 
225568 



41-049 
49-303 
57-198 
64-637 
72-391 
80-233 
87-952 
96-636 
100-700 



•030 
•035 
•043 
•059 
•078 
•117 
-166 
•225 
•253 




No cracks 



Results. — Here thestrain per square inch (Pj)causing rupture is 225,5681bs., 
or 100^7 tons ; and the corresponding compression (?j) per unit of length 
is ^253. Bj' formula (13). — The work (it) expended in producing rupture 
1=28467. 

1867. 1 



258 



REPORT 1867. 



Exp. XXIII.— Bar of Steel from Samuel Osborn, Esq., Sheffield. Mark on 

bar, " 4." 

Before experiment. After experiment. 

Height of specimen -993 inch. -743 inch. 

Diameter of specimen -72 inch. '768 inch. 

Area of specimen -40715 sq. in -46324 sq. in. 



No. 

Ol 

Exp. 


Weight laid 

on 

specimen. 


Weight laid 

on per square inch 

of .section. 


Compres- 
sion, in 
inches. 


Remarks. 


1 

2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 


lbs. 
37438 
44966 
52166 
58950 
66022 
73134 
80214 
88134 
91840 


tons. 

16-713 

20-074 
23-288 
26-316 
29-474 
32-649 
35-809 
39-345 
41-000 


lbs. 

91951 
110440 
128124 
144786 
162156 
179722 
197023 
216465 
225568 


tons. 

41-049 
49-303 
57-198 
64-637 
72-391 
80-233 
87-952 
96-636 
100-700 


-020 
•035 
-043 
•059 

•078 
•117 
•186 
•235 
•263 












1 
1 


■ 


No cracks. 



Eesiilts. — Here the strain per square inch (PJ causing rupture is 225,568 lbs., 
or 100-7 tons ; and the corresponding compression (ZJ per unit of length 
is -263. Byformxila (13). — The -work (m) expended in producing rupture 
=29592. 



Exp. XXIV.— Bar of Steel from Samuel Osborn, Esq., Sheffield. Mark on 

bar, " 5." 

Before experiment. After experiment. 

Height of specimen 1-01 inch. .... -697 inch. 

Diameter of specimen -72 inch. .... -79 inch. 

Area of specimen -40715 sq. in -49016 sq. in. 



1 


37438 


16-713 


91951 


41-049 


•030 






2 


44966 


20-074 


110440 


49-303 


•045 




3 
4 


52166 
58950 


23-288 
26-316 


128124 
144786 


57-198 
64-637 


•083 
•109 




J 




IMk 


5 


66022 


29-474 


162156 


72-391 


•158 


Ji 




H^u 


6 


73134 


32-649 


179722 


80-233 


•197 


fi 




|i|H| 


1 


80214 


35-809 


197023 


87-952 


-266 


u 




iNHi 


8 
9 


88134 
91840 


39-345 
41-000 


216465 
225568 


96-636 
100-700 


•295 
•323 


n 




liii^^ 


No cracks. 



BesnJts. — Here the strain per square inch (P,) causing rupture is225,5681bs., J 
" and the corresponding compression (Z,) per unit of length " 



or 100-/ 
•323. 



is 



=36344 



tons 
By formula (13). 



-The work (m) expended in producing rupture 



ON THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF STEEL. 



259 



Exp. XXV. — Bar of Steel from Samuel Osborn, Esq., Sheffield. Mark on 

bar, " 6." 

Before experiment. After experiment. 

Height of specimen '982 inch .... -669 inch. 

Diameter of specimen '72 inch. .... -80 inch. 

Area of specimen •40715 sq. in •50265 sq. in. 



No. 

of 

Exp 



1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 



Weight laid 

on 

specimen. 



lbs. 
37438 
44966 
52166 
58950 
66022 
73134 
80214 
88134 
91840 



tons. 
16-713 
20-074 
23-288 
26-316 
29-474 
32-640 
35-809 
39-345 
41-000 



Weight laid 

on per square inch 

of section. 



lbs. 
91951 
110440 
128124 
144786 
162156 
179722 
197023 
216465 
225568 



tons. 
41-049 
49-303 
57-198 
64-637 
72-391 
80-233 
87-952 
96-636 
100-700 



Com- 
pression 
in ins. 



-030 
•045 
•073 
•099 
•148 
•207 
•266 
•305 
•323 



Remarks. 




No cracks. 



Results. — Here the strain per square inch (Pj) causing rupture is 225,568 lbs., 
or 100-7 tons; and the corresponding compression (ZJ per unit of length 
is -323. By formula (13). — The work (m) expended in producing rupture 
=36344. 



Exp. XXVI.— Bar of Steel from Samuel Osborn, Esq., Sheffield. Mark on 

bar, "0 7." 

Before experiment. After experiment. 

Height of specimen 1-011 inch -826 inch. 

Diameter of specimen -72 inch. .... -748 inch. 

Area of specimen -40715 sq. in -43943 sq. in. 



1 

2 
3 
4 
5 

6 

7 
8 
9 



37438 
44966 
52166 
58950 
66022 
73134 
80214 
88134 
91840 



16-713 

20-074 
23-288 
26-316 
29-474 
32-649 
35-809 
39-345 
41-000 



91951 
110440 
128124 
144786 
162156 
179722 
197023 
216465 
225568 



41-049 
49-303 
57-198 
64-637 
72-391 
80-233 
87-952 
96-636 
100-700 



•010 
•015 
•023 
•029 
•038 
•077 
-106 
•165 
•193 




No cracks. 



Results. — Here the strain per square inch (PJ causing rupture is 
225,568 lbs., or 100-7 tons; and the corresponding compression (?,) per unit 
of length is -193. By formula (13). — The work (u) expended in producing 
rupture =21716. 

I2 



260 



BEPORT 1867. 



Exp. XXVII.— Bar of Steel from Samuel Osborn, Esq., Sheffield. Mark on 

bar, " 8." 

Before experiment. After experiment. 

Height of specimen -984 inch. .... '652 inch. 

Diameter of specimen -72 inch. .... -812 inch. 

Area of specimen -40715 s(j. in -51784 sq. in. 



No. 

of 

Exp. 



Weight laid 

on 

sisecimen. 



Weight laid 

ou per square inch 

of section. 



Com- 
pression, 



Eemarks. 



lbs. 
37438 
44966 
52166 
58950 
66022 
73134 
80214 
88134 
91840 



tons. 
16-713 
20-074 
23-288 
26-316 
29-474 
32-649 
35-809 
39-345 
41-000 



lbs. 
91951 
110440 
128124 
144786 
162156 
179722 
197023 
216465 
225568 



tons. 
41-049 
49-303 
57-198 
64-637 
72-391 
80-233 
87-952 
96-636 
100-700 



-030 
•035 
•063 
•099 
•158 
•217 
-266 
•315 
•333 




No cracks. 



Besults. — Here the strain per square inch (PJ causing rupture is 225,568 
lbs., or 100^7 tons ; and the corresponding compession (IJ per unit of length 
is •333. By formula (13). — The work (m) expended in producing rupture 
= 37469. 



Exp. XXYIII.— Bar of Steel from Messrs. Bessemer and Co., Sheffield. Mark 

on bar, "BS 1." 

Before experiment. After experiment. 

Height of specimen -993 inch. .... '773 inch. 

Diameter of specimen ^72 inch. .... ^764 inch. 

Area of specimen -40715 sq. in ^45843 sq. in. 



37438 
44966 
52166 
58950 
66022 
73134 
80214 
88134 
91840 



16-713 

20-074 
23-288 
26-316 
29-474 
32-049 
35-809 
39-345 
41-000 



91951 
110440 
128124 
144786 
162156 
179722 
197023 
216465 
225568 



41-049 
49-303 

57-198 
64-637 
72-391 
80-233 
87-952 
96-636 
100-700 



•030 
•035 
•043 
•049 
•068 
-097 
•146 
•195 
•223 




No cracks. 



Results. — Here the strain per square inch (PJ causing ruptm-e is 
225,568 lbs., or 100-7 tons ; and the corresponding compression (ZJ per unit 
of length is -223. By formula (13). — The work (w) expended in producing 
rupture =25092. 



ON THI>MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF STEEL. 



261 



Exp. XXIX.-- -Bar of Steel from Messrs. Bessemer & Co., Sheffield. Mark 

on bar, « B S 2." 



Before experiment. 

jj-uigiiL (ji speciuieii 1-01 inch. 

Diameter of specimen .... -72 inch. 
Area of specimen '40715 sq. in. 



Height of specimen 



After experiment, 
•572 inch. 
•856 inch. 
•57549 sq 



m. 



No. 

of 

Exp. 


Weight laid 

on 

specimen. 


Weight laid 

on per square inch 

of section. 


Compres- 
sion, in 
inches. 


Remarks. 


1 

2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 


lbs. 
37438 
44966 
52166 
569.50 
66022 
73134 
80214 
88134 
91840 


tons. 

16-713 
20-074 
23-288 
26-316 
29-474 
32-649 
35-809 
39-345 
41-000 


lbs. 
91951 
110440 
128124 
144786 
162156 
179722 
197023 
216465 
225568 


tons. 
41-049 
49-303 
57-198 
64-637 
72-391 
80-233 
87-952 
96-636 
100-700 


•060 
•095 
•143 
•219 
•278 
•337 
•386 
•425 
•443 






i 
i 

! 






1 












\ 

'I 


No cracks. 







Results. — Here the strain per square inch (P,) causing rupture is 225,568 
lbs., or 100^7 tons ; and the corresponding compression (?J per unit of length 
is ^443. By formula (13).— The work (m) expended in producing rupture 
= 49846. 



Exp. XXX.— Bar of Steel from Messrs. Bessemer & Co., Sheffield. 

on bar, " B S 3." 



Mark 



Before experiment. 

Height of specimen 1-002 inch. 

Diameter of specimen .... -72 inch. 
Area of specimen ^40715 sq. in. 



After experiment. 
•532 inch. 
-894 inch. 
•62771 sq. in. 



1 

2 
3 

4 
5 
6 

7 
8 
9 


37438 
44966 
52166 
56950 
66022 
73134 
80214 
88134 
91840 


16-713 
20-074 
23-288 
26-316 
29-474 
32-649 
35-809 
39-345 
41-000 


91951 
110440 
128124 
144786 
162156 
179722 
197023 
216465 
225568 


41-049 
49-303 
57-198 
64-637 
72-391 
80-233 
87-9.52 
96-636 
100-700 


•080 
•125 
•183 
•249 
•318 
•367 
•416 
•445 
•473 






i 
j 




1 






1 
1 


1 


\ 

X 

1 


No cracks. . 



Results. — Here the strain per square inch (PJ causing rupture is 225,568 
lbs., or 100-7 tons; and the eorre.sponding compression (ZJ per unit of length 
is -473. By formula (13). — The work (u) expended in producing rupture 
= 53222. 



263 



REPORT — 1867. 



Exp. XXXI.— Bar of Steel from Messrs. Sanderson & Co., Sheffield. 

on bar, " S. 1." 

After experiment, 
. . -576 inch. 
. . -850 inch. 
. . -56745 sq. in. 



Mark 



Before experiment, 

Height of specimen -98 inch. 

Diameter of specimen .... '72 inch. 
Area of specimen •40715 sq. m. 



No. 

of 

Exp. 



Weight laid 



specimen. 



lbs. 
374.S8 
44966 
52166 
58950 
66022 
73134 
80214 
88134 
91840 



tons. 

16-713 

20-074 
23-288 
26-316 
29-474 
32-649 
35-809 
39-345 
41-000 



Weight laid 

on per square inch 

of section. 



lbs. 

91951 
110440 
128124 
144786 
162156 
179722 
197023 
216465 
225568 



tons. 
41-049 
49-303 
57-198 
64-637 
72-391 
80-233 
87-952 
96-636 
100-700 



Compres- 
sion, in 
inches. 



•030 
•045 
-073 
•139 
-198 
•257 
•316 
•375 
•398 




Two large cracks 
and a small one. 



Results. — Here the strain per square inch (P,) causing rupture is 225,568 
lbs., or 100^7 tons ; and the coiTcsponding compression (/j) per unit of length 
is ^398. By formula (13). — The work (t«) expended in producing rupture 
= 44783. 



Exp. XXXII. — Bar of Steel from Messrs. Sanderson & Co., Sheffield. 

on bar, " S. 2." 



Mark 



Before experiment. 

Height of specimen ^992 inch. 

Diameter of specimen .... ^72 inch. 
Area of specimen ^40715 sq. ' 



m. 



After experiment. 
•698 inch. 
•785 inch. 
•48398 sq. in. 



37438 
44966 
52166 
58950 
66022 
73134 
80214 
88134 
91840 



16-713 

20-074 
23-288 
26-316 
29-474 
32-649 
35-809 
39-345 
41-000 



91951 
110440 
128124 
144786 
162156 
179722 
197023 
216465 
225568 



41-049 
49-303 
57-198 
64-637 
72-391 
80-233 
87-952 
96-636 
100-700 



-030 
•035 
•053 
•079 
•118 
•177 
•236 
•275 
-303 




Very slight crack. 



Results. — Here the strain per square inch (PJ causing rupture is 225,568 
lbs., or 100-7 tons ; and the corresponding compression (/,) per unit of length 
is -303. By formula (13). — The work (u) expended in producing rupture 
= 34093. 



ON THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF STEEL. 



263 



Exp. XXXIII.— Bar of Steel from Messrs. Sanderson & Co., Sheffield. Mark 

on bar, " S 3." 

Before experiment. After experiment. 

Height of specimen -99 inch. .... -710 inch. 

Diameter of specimen -72 inch. .... -768 inch. 

Area of specimen -40715 sq. in -46324 sq. in. 



No. 

of 

Exp. 


Weight laid 

on 

specimen. 


Weight laid 

on per square inch 

of section. 


Compres- 
sion, in 
inches. 


Remarks. 


1 

2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 


lbs. 
37438 
44966 
52166 
58950 
66022 
73134 
80214 
88134 
91840 


tons. 

16-713 

20-074 

23-288, 

26-316 

29-474 

32-649 

35-809 

39-345 

41-000 


lbs. 
91951 
110440 
128124 
144786 
162156 
179722 
197023 
216465 
225568 


tons. 
41-049 
49-303 
57-198 
64-637 
72-391 
80-233 
87-952 
96-636 
100-700 


•020 
•025 
-033 
•049 

-078 
-147 
•206 
•255 
•283 










J 

: 








1! 


1; 


i| 




No cracks. 



Besults. — Here the strain per square inch (P^) causing rupture is 225,568 
lbs., or 100-7 tons ; and the corresponding compression (/J per unit of length 
is -283. By formula (13). — The work (ii) expended in producing rupture 
=31843. 



Exp. XXXIV.— Bar of Steel from Messrs. Sanderson & Co., Sheffield. Mark 

on bar, " S 4." 

Before experiment. After experiment. 

Height of specimen ^977 inch. .... •658 inch. 

Diameter of specimen ^72 inch. .... -794 inch. 

Area of specimen ^40715 sq. in ^49514 sq. in. 



1 

2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 



37438 
44966 
52166 
5S950 
66022 
73134 
80214 
88134 
91840 



16-713 
20-074 
23-288 
26-316 
29-474 
32-649 
35-809 
39-345 
41-000 



91951 
110440 
128124 
144786 
162156 
179722 
197023 
216465 
225568 



41-049 
49-303 
57-198 
64-637 
72-391 
80-233 
87-952 
96-636 
100-700 



-030 
•035 
•053 
•079 
•128 
■187 
•246 
•295 
•323 




Several slight cracks. 



Results. — Here the strain per square inch (PJ causing rupture is 225,568 
lbs., or 100-7 tons ; and the corresponding compression {1^ per unit of length 
is -323. By formula (13). — The work (w) expended in producing rupture 
=36344. 



364 



REPORT 1867. 



Exp. XXXV.— Bar of Steel from Messrs. Sanderson & Co., Sheffield. Mark 



^ " 



on bar, " S 5. 

Before experiment. 

Height of specimen I'Ol inch. 

Diameter of specimen "72 inch. 

Area of specimen •40715 sq. in. 



After experiment. 
•678 inch. 
•790 inch. 
•49016 sq. in. 



No. 


Weight laid 


Weight laid 


of 


ou 


on per square inch 


Exp. 


specimen. 


of section. 




lbs. 


tons. 


lbs. 


tons. 


1 


37438 


10-713 


91951 


41-049 


2 


44966 


20-074 


110440 


49-303 


3 


.52166 


23-288 


128124 


57-198 


4 


589.50 


26-316 


144786 


64-637 


5 


66022 


29-474 


162156 


72-391 


6 


73134 


32-649 


179722 


80-233 


7 


80214 


35-809 


197023 


87-952 


8 


88134 


39-345 


216465 


96-636 


9 


91840 


41-000 


225568 


100-700 



Compres- 
sion, in 
inches. 



•030 
•045 
-063 
•07^ 
•138 
•187 
•246 
•305 
•333 



Eemark; 




Commenced 
crack. 

Cracks widened 



Eesults. — Here the strain per square inch (P,) causing rupture is 225,568 
Ihs., or 100^7 tons ; and the corresponding compression (I^) per unit of length 
is •333. By formula (13). — The work (a) expended in producing rupture 
= 37469. 



Exp. XXXVI.— Bar of Steel from Messrs. Turton & Sons, Sheffield. Mark 

on bar, " A." 

Before exi^eriment. After experiment. 

Height of specimen -988 inch. ' .... "71 inch. 

Diameter of specimen -72 inch. .... "781 inch. 

Ai-ea of specimen -40715 inch "47783 sq. in. 



1 
2 
3 

4 
5 
6 

7 
8 
9 



37438 
44966 
52166 
58950 
66022 
73134 
80214 
88134 
91840 



10-713 
20-074 
23-288 
26-316 
29-474 
32-649 
35-809 
39-345 
41-000 



91951 

110440 
128124 
144786 
162156 
179722 
197023 
216465 
225568 



41^049 
49-303 
57-198 
64-637 
72-391 
80-233 
87-952 
96-636 
100-700 



•020 
-035 
-043 
•069 
•108 
•157 
•206 
•265 
•283 




No cracks 



Eesulfs. — Here the strain per square inch (Pj) causing nipture is 22.5,.568 
lbs., or 100-7 tons ; and the corresponding compres.sion (7J per unit of length 
is -283. By formula (13). — The work (it) expended in producing rupture 
=31843. 



1 



ON THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF STEEL, 265 

Exp, XXXYII,— Bar of Steel from Messrs. Turton & Sons, Sheffield. 

Mark on bar, " B." 

Before experiment. After experiment. 

Height of specimen -986 inch. .... -804 inch. 

Diameter of specimen -72 inch. .... -748 inch. 

Area of specimen -40715 sq. in -43943 sq. in. 



No. 

of 

Exp. 



1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 



Weight laid 

on 

specimen. 



lbs. 

37438 
44966 
52166 
58950 
66022 
731.34 
80214 
88134 
91840 



tons. 

16-713 
20-074 
23-288 
26-316 
29-474 
32-649 
35-809 
39-345 
41-000 



Weight laid 

on per square inch 

of section. 



lbs. 

91951 
110440 
128124 
144786 
162156 
179722 
197023 
216465 
225568 






tons. 
41-049 
49-303 
57-198 
64-637 
72-391 
80-2.33 
87-952 
96-636 
100-700 



Com- 
pression 
in inches 



-020 
•025 
-033 
•039 
•048 
•077 
•116 
•175 
•193 



Eemarks. 




No cracks. 



Eesults. — Here the strain per square inch (P^) causing rupture is 225,568 lbs. 
or 100-7 tons; and the corresponding compression (?j) per unit of length 
is -193. By formula (13). — The work (u) expended in producing rupture 
= 21716. 1 o i 



Exp. XXX^^III.— Bar of Steel from Messrs. Turton & Sons, Sheffield. 

Mark on bar, " C." 

Before experiment. After experiment. 

Height of specimen -96 inch. .... -716 inch. 

Diameter of specimen -72 inch. .... '781 inch. 

Area of specimen ^40715 sq. in ^47783 sq. in. 



1 
2 
3 

4 
5 
6 

7 
8 
9 



37438 
44966 
52166 
58950 
66022 
73134 
80214 
88134 
91840 



16-713 
20-074 
23-288 
26-316 
29-474 
32-649 
35-809 
39-345 
41-000 



91951 
110440 
128124 
144786 
162156 
179722 
197023 
216465 
225568 



41-049 
49-303 
57-198 
64-637 
72-391 
80-233 
87-952 
96-636 
100-700 



-030 
•035 
•043 
•049 
•078 
•127 
•166 
•225 
•243 




'No cracks. 



BesuUs.—Rere the strain per square inch (P^) causing rupture is 225,568 lbs., 
or 100-7 tons; and the corresponding compression (Z,) per unit of length 
is ^243. By formula (13).— The work (u) expended in producing rupture 
=27342. ^ 



266 



REPORT 1867. 



Exp. XXXIX.— Bar of Steel from Messrs. Turton & Sons, Sheffield. Mark 

on bar, " D." 

Before experiment. After experiment. 

Height of si^ecimen -982 inch, .... -751 inch. 

Diameter of specimen -72 inch. .... '774 inch. 

Area of specimen -40715 sq. in -47051 sq. in. 



No. 

of 
Exp. 


Weight laid 

on 

specimen. 


Weight laid 

on per square inch 

of section. 


Com- 
pression, 
in inches 


Remarks. 


1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 


lbs. 

37438 
44966 
52166 
58950 
66022 
73134 
80214 
88134 
91840 


tons. 

16-713 
20-074 
23-288 
26-316 
29-474 
32-649 
35-809 
39-345 
41-000 


lbs. 

91951 
110440 
128124 
144786 
162156 
179722 
197023 
216465 
225568 


tons. 
41-049 
49-303 
57-198 
64-637 
72-391 
80-233 
87-952 
96-636 
100-700 


•030 
-035 
•043 
•059 
•078 
•117 
•186 
•235 
•263 








1 






j 


,1 


1 




1 


No cracks. 







Results. — Here the strain per square inch(PJ causing rupture is 225,568 lbs., 
or 100-7 tons; and the corresponding compression (l^) per unit of length 
is -263. By formula (13). — The work {u) expended in producing rupture 
=29592. 



Exp. XL. — Bar of Steel from Messrs. Turton & Sons, Sheffield. Mark on 

bar, " E." 

Before experiment. After experiment. 

Height of specimen 1-00 inch. .... -77 inch. 

Diameter of specimen -72 inch. .... '76 inch. 

Area of specimen -40715 sq. in "45364 sq. in. 



1 


37438 


2 


44966 


3 


52166 


4 


58950 


5 


66022 


6 


73134 


7 


80214 


8 


88134 


9 


91840 



16-713 

20-074 
23-288 
26-316 
29-474 
32-649 
35-809 
39-345 
41-000 



91951 
110440 
128124 
144786 
162156 
179722 
197023 
216465 
225568 



41-049 
49-303 
57-198 
64-637 
72-391 
80-233 
87-952 
96-636 
100-700 



•020 
-025 
-033 
-049 
-068 
•107 
•156 
•205 
•233 




No cracks. 



Results. — Here the strain per square inch (PJ causing rupture is 225,568 lbs., 
or 100-7 tons ; and the corresponding compression (ZJ per unit of length 
is -233. By fonnula (13), — The work (u) expended in producing rupture 
=26217. 



ON THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF STEEL. 



267 



Exp. XLI. — Bar of Steel from Messrs. Turton & Sons, Sheffield. Mark on 

bar, « F." 

Before experiment. After experiment. 

Height of specimen 1-0 inch. -748 inch. 

Diameter of specimen -72 inch. .... -785 inch. 

Area of specimen -40715 sq. in -48398 sq. in. 



No. 

of 

Expt. 



1 

2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 



Weight laid 

on 

specimen. 



Weight laid 

on per square inch 

of section. 



lbs. 

37438 
44966 
52166 
58950 
66022 
73134 
80214 
88134 
91840 



tons. 

16-713 
20-074 
23-288 
26-316 
29-474 
32-649 
35-809 
39-345 
41-000 



lbs. 

91951 
110440 
128124 
144786 
162156 
179722 
197023 
216465 
225568 



tons. 
41-049 
49-303 
57-198 
64-637 
72-391 
80-233 
87-952 
96-636 
100-700 



Com- 
pression, 
in inches. 



-020 
•025 
-033 
•049 
-078 
-127 
■176 
•225 
•253 



Remarks. 




No cracks. 



Jlesults. — Here the strain per square inch(PJ causing rupture is 225,568 lbs., 
or 100^7 tons ; and the corresponding compression (l^) per unit of length 
is •253. By formula (13). — The work (m) expended in producing rupture 
=28467. 



Exp XLII. — Bar of Steel from Messrs. Turton & Sons, Sheffield. Mark on 

bar, " G." 

Before experiment. After experiment. 

Height of specimen -998 inch. .... -71 inch. 

Diameter of specimen -72 inch. .... -79 inch. 

Area of specimen -40715 sq. in -49016 sq. in. 



1 


37438 


2 


44966 


3 


52166 


4 


5S950 


5 


66022 


6 


73134 


7 


80214 


8 


88134 


9 


91840 



16-713 
20-074 
23-288 
26-316 
29-474 
32-649 
35-809 
39^345 
41-000 



91951 
110440 
128124 
144786 
162156 
179722 
197023 
216465 
225568 



41-049 
49-303 
57-198 
64-637 
72-391 
80-233 
87-952 
96-636 
100-700 



I 




Results. Here the strain per square inch (PJ causing rupture is 225,568 lbs., 

100-7 tons ; and the corresponding compression (Z,) per unit of length 
is -293. By formula (13). — The work («) expended in producing rupture 
=32968. 



or 



268 REPORT— 1867. 

Exp. XLIII.— Bar of Steel from Messrs. Turton & Sons, Sheffield. Mark on 

bar, " H." 

Before experiment. After experiment. 

Height of specimen -993 inch. .... -731 inch. 

Diameter of specimen '72 inch. .... '776 inch. 

Area of specimen -40715 sq. in -47294 sq. in. 



No. 

of 

Exp. 



1 

2 
3 
4 

5 
6 

7 
8 
9 



Weight laid 

on 

specimen. 



lbs. 

37438 
44966 
52166 
58950 
66022 
73134 
80214 
88134 
91840 



tons. 

16-713 

20-074 
23-288 
26-316 
29-474 
32-649 
35-809 
39-345 
41-000 



Weight laid 

on per square inch 

of section. 



lbs. 

91951 
110440 
128124 
144786 
162156 
179722 
197023 
216465 
225568 



tons. 
41-049 
49-303 
57-198 
64-637 
72-391 
80-233 
87-952 
96-636 
100-700 



Com- 
pression, 
ininchea 



•020 
•025 
•043 
•059 
•088 
•137 
•196 
•245 
•273 



Remarks. 




No cracks. 



Results. — Here the strain per square inch (P^) causing rupture is 225,568 
lbs., or 100-7 tons; and the corresponding compression (7J per unit of length 
is -273. By formula (13). — The work {u) expended in producing rupture 
=30718. 



Exp. XLIV.— Bar of Steel from Messrs. Turton & Sons, Sheffield. Mark on 

bar, " 1." 

Before experiment." After experiment. 

Height of specimen '988 inch. .... ^722 inch. 

Diameter of specimen ^72 inch. .... ^781 inch. 

Area of specimen "40715 sq. in "47783 sq. in. 



1 

2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 



37438 
44966 
52166 
589.50 
66022 
73134 
80214 
88134 
91840 



16-713 

20-074 
23-288 
26-316 
29-474 
32-649 
35-809 
39-345 
41-000 



91951 
110440 
128124 
144786 
162156 
179722 
197023 
216465 
225568 



41-049 
49-303 
57-198 
64-637 
72-391 
80-2.33 
87-952 
96-636 
100-700 



•020 
•025 
-043 
-059 
•108 
•157 
•206 
•255 
-273 




Yery slightly cracked. 



Results. — Here the strain per square inch (PJ causing rupture is 
lbs., or 100-7 tous ; and the corresponding compression (ZJ per unit of 
•273. By formula (13). — The work (u) expended in producing 
=30718. 



225,568 

length is 

rupture 



ON THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF STEEL. 269 

Exp. XLV.— Bar of Steel from Messrs. Turton & Sons, Sheffield. Mark on 

bar, " U." 

Before experiment. After experiment. 

Height of specimen -984 inch. .... -701 inch. 

Diameter of specimen -72 inch. .... '785 inch. 

Area of specimen -40715 sq. in -48398 sq. in. 



No. 

of 

Exp. 



Weight laid 

on 

specimen. 



lbs. 

37438 
44966 
o2166 
58950 
66022 
73134 
80214 
88134 
91840 



tons. 
16-713 
20-074 
23-288 
26-316 
29-474 
32-649 
35-809 
39-345 
41-000 



Weight laid 

on per square inch 

of section. 



lbs. 

91951 
110440 
128124 
144786 
162156 
179722 
197023 
216465 
225568 



tons. 
41-049 
49-303 
57-198 
64-637 
72-391 
80-233 
87-952 
96-636 
100-700 



Com- 
pression, 
in inches 



-030 
-035 
-053 
-069 
•118 
-167 
-226 
•275 
•293 



Remarks. 




No cracks. 



Eesulfs. — Here the strain per square inch (P,) causing rupture is 225,568 
lbs., or 100-7 tons ; and the corresponding compression (\) per unit of length 
is -293. By formula (13). — The work (u) expended in producing rupture 
=32968. 



270 



REPORT — 18G7. 



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ON THK MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF STEEL. 



271 



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272 REPORT— 1867. 

Abstract of the Results of Tables I., II., and III. 

Transverse Strain. — Table I. 

The results of these experiments show that, within the elastic limits, the 
deflections are in proportion to the pressures ; for example, in Experiment 1, 
the deflections are almost exactly expressed by the formida 2 = -001361 lu, 
where the constant -001361 is the mean, D^, of all the deflections for a 
unity of weight derived from formula (3). By aid of this principle the value 
of the weight, w, with its equivalent deflection, corresponding to the elastic 
limit, was determined. 

The mean value of Dj, given in col. 4, the deflection corresponding to unity 
of pressure and section, may be taken as the measure of the Jlexibiliti/ of the 
different bars. In general, the least flexible bars give the highest values of 
E and C, and, other things being the same, or nearly the same, the most 
flexible bars give the highest values of u, the work of deflection correspond- 
ing to unity of section. 

The bars of some of the experiments, 10, 18, 28, &c., with more than 
an average flexibility, gave very high values for C, the working unit 
of resistance to transverse strain, showing their great value when applied to 
the springs of carriages and other constructions, where flexibility and 
strength should be combined. Such bars as those of experiments 1, 12, 21, 
&c., with less than an average flexibility, gave at least an average value for 
C, showing their apphcability to all constructions where rigidity and strength 
are requu-ed ; and so on to other cases. 

The mean value of E, the modulus of elasticity, given in col. 5, taken for 
thirty of the best specimens, is 31,000,000 nearly, whilst the mean taken 
for a like number, in col, 4, is about 32,000,000. This modulus exceeds 
that of wrought iron by more than the 30th part. Steel having a much 
greater flexibility than wrought iron, accounts for the approximation of their 
values for the modulus of elasticity. The bars that have the greatest flexi- 
bility, or the great value of Dj, other tilings being the same, have the least 
value for the modulus of elasticity. 

The values of w, or the work of deflection for the unity of section up to 
the elastic Hmit, may be taken as measures of the qualities of bars where 
flexibility and strength are required. 

The bars generally exhibit very high powers of resistance to transverse 
strain. The mean value of the unit of working strength, C, given in col. 9, 
taken for one-half the number of experiments, is 6-83 tons, and for the 
remaining half (omitting the last two experiments) this constant is 5-23 
tons, giving a general mean of 6 tons. In the model tube of the Britannia 
and Conway bridges, the value of the constant for hreahing weight is 
6-7 tons. 

Taking 11 tons per square inch as the mean value of the compressive and 
tensile resistances of wrought iron at the elastic limit, the value of C in 
this case will be less than 2 tons ; hence it follows that the transverse 
strength of these steel bars will be about 3| times the strength of wrought- 
iron bars of the same dimensions. 

In order to determine the relative value of the two kinds of material 
undergoing transverse strain, let us suppose two bars of the same length, 
one steel and the other iron, having the same strength, to be similar in their 
transverse sections ; then, as the strength of bars of similar section are as the 
cubes of their depths, 



J 



ON THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF STEEL. 273 



3/C 



where d is the depth of the steel bar, d^ that of the iron bar, and p =3-5, 
the ratio of their units of working strength. 

_ iiut as the areas of similar section are as the squares of their like dimen- 
sions, 

Section iron bar 3-5t <Z^ 

Section steel bar = d- =3-5- = 2-3052. 

Now taking the cost of iron at £7 per ton, and that of steel at .£12, we 
have for the relative cost of the two materials of the same strength. 

Iron 7x2-3052 16-1364 

Steel - 12 - ~12~ = ^ ■^^^"' 

that is, the cost of the iron would be about 1-1- times that of the steel. 

In the case of railway bars and such constructions, besides this saving in 
the cost of material, it must be borne in mind that the steel rail would last 
four times as long as the iron rail. 

Tensile Strain. — Table II. 

Taking the mean of the results of the experiments on thirty of the best 
specimens, we find the mean tenacity per sqiiare inch =47-7 tons. 

Now if we take 25 tons per square inch as the tenacity of the best Eno'lish 
hammered iron iu bars, it follows that the tenacity of these steel bars will 
be about twice (1-91 time) that of the iron bai's. 

Economic use of the Material. 

For bars of equal strength, undergoing tensUe strain, the iron bar should 
be about twice the section of the steel bar; now if the cost of steel be -£12 
per ton, and that of iron .£7, then, for a ton of metal in each case, the com- 
parative cost of bars of equal strength will be 

Iron bars 7x1-91 13-37 

Steel bars"^ l2 = -i2~ = l"ll-*5 

that is, the cost of the iron would be more than once and one-tenth that of 
the steel ; in this case, therefore, the steel would be the more economical 
metal. The saving per ton of material would be ,£1-37, or £1 7s. 4|f?. 

The work producing rupture in the different specimens is very variable, 
owing probably, to some extent, to the errors arising from the determina- 
tion of such exceedingly small elongations. This irregularity would have 
been avoided if the specimens had been of greater length, so that the elonga- 
tions might have been ascertained with greater accuracy. 

The greatest value (6403) of this work of elongation is given in expt. 14, 
where the breaking strain of the specimen is below the average, being only 
about 40 tons per square inch. 

The specimen (see expt. IS) which had the greatest tenacity, viz. about 
60 tons per square inch, required only 670 units of work to produce rup- 
ture ; this arises from the very small elongation, viz. -01, which the bar 
sustained at the point of rupture. 

1867. V 



374 KEPORT— 1867. 

The ultimate elongations are unaccountably variable, and seem much below 
what might have been expected ; even the greatest elongation, •1437, given 
in the Table, is below the average for iron bars, whilst the least elongation, 
•0037, produced by a strain of 38^ tons per square inch, is only about the 
60th part of this average. 

Compression. — ^Table III. 

Thirty-two of the bars supported each a pressure of 100-7 tons per square 
inch of section without undergoing any sensibble fracture, whilst twenty- 
three bars were more or less fractured with this pressure. 

The mean value of the compression per unit of length, given in col. 6 of the 
Table, taken for 24 of the best specimens, is -372 ; whilst the mean taken for 
the remaining specimens is '232, giving a general mean deflection of "302. 

The work, u, expended in crushing the material in short columns is re- 
markably large. The mean value of u, given in col. 7, taken for 26 of the 
best specimens, is 41300 ; whilst the mean taken for the remaining speci- 
mens is 25400, giving a general mean value of 33400. 

If 6000 be taken as the value of m, in the case of tensile strain, then the 
work expended in rupturing the material by compression wUl be 5| times 
the work expended in rupturing the material by extension. 

Tensile and compressive Resistances compared. 

Taking the mean tensile resistance to rupture at 47^7 tons per square 
inch, it follows that their resistance to compression is more than double 

(2-1 times) their resistance to extension : thus -2pv7^=2-l. Hence it fol- 
lows that the most economic form of a steel bar imdergoing transverse strain 
would be a bar with double flanchcs, having the area of the bottom flauch 
aboiit double that of the top flanch. 

This conclusion is borne out by the results of experiments on transverse 
strain, where S^, the strain per square inch of the material at the elastic 
limit, =6C=6x 6-83 tons=40-98, or 41 tons nearly; but the mean break- 
ing strain per square inch by extension =47"7 tons, clearly indicating that 
the compressive resistance in the former case was considerably .in excess of 
the tensile resistance. 

It is important in every experiment on the strength of materials, which 
enters so largely into constructive art, that we should be thoroughly ac- 
quainted with the properties of the material of which the striicture is com- 
posed, and that its resistance in all the different forms of strain should be 
clearly and distinctly ascertained. In the foregoing experiments we have 
determined the resisting powers of the different specimens to bending, ten- 
sion, and compression ; but we have omitted that of torsion, or twisting, 
until we have an opportunity of doing so upon the same identical bars. 
These I hope to accomplish in a separate commiuiication, and also to give 
some further results on an enlarged scale, calculated to coniinn what has 
already been done, and to ascertain some additional facts in regard to the 
changes now in progress in the manufacture of Bessemer steel. 



SOUTH DEVON AND CORNWALL MARINE FAUNA AND FLORA. 275 

Rejiort of the Committee appomted to explore the Marine Fauna and 
Flora of the South Coast of Devon and Cornwall. — No. 2. Consist- 
ing of J. Gw\N Jefyueys, F.R.S., Rev. Thomas Hincks, Jonathan 
CoucHj F.L.S., Charles Stewart, F.L.S., J. Brooking RowEj 
F.L.S., and J. Ralfs, F.L.S. Reporter, C. Spence Bate, F.R.S. ^c. 

In presenting their Second Report, the Committee heg to state that their 
eudeavonr has been, as much as possible, to direct their researches towards 
the discovery of rare or new species, — to retake, upon the ground on Avhich 
they were originally found, specimens similar to those that have been de- 
scribed by Leach and Montagu, some of whose typical specimens have been 
lost, misplaced, or destroyed. This is more tiiie in regard to the Crustacea 
than perhaps of any otlier class of animals — a circumstance, when taken in 
connexion with the curt descriptions of the animals given by the authors, 
that materially interferes with the power of zoologists to pronounce with con- 
fidence upon the relation that any fresh specimens may bear to those tyi^es. 

To carry out this plan as much as possible, we have du'ected our investiga- 
tions hitherto mostly between Bigbury Bay toward the east, and the Dodman 
toward the west. "S^^ithin these limits our dredging and trawling has been 
mostly carried on within a distance of about twenty miles of the shore, and 
in water that has not exceeded fifty fathoms in depth. 

Eisn.— As regards the obtaining of fish, the sweep of a dredge, Mr. Couch 
says, is too limited to aiford a prospect of much success ; and our notes about 
them can be but few. In shallow depths the Megrim or Scaldfish {Bhomhus 
arnoghssus) was obtained in abundance ; but none were found at between 
forty and fifty fathoms. At the latter depth the Launcelet and larger Launce 
had lain biu'ied in the sand ; as regards the latter, it seems worthy of notice 
that at this season the large abundance of its species have changed their 
quarters so as to approach the shore, while at least in this one instance an 
example has remained buried in its winter haunt. An observation made by 
an intelligent fisherman may also be deserving of notice. It refers to the 
habit of some small individuals of several kinds of fish seeking shelter within 
the cavity of some of the larger species of medusfe. Very small Scads, Bibs, 
and "Whiting Pollacks are often found thus attending on these medusa?, so as 
to accompany them wherever they float ; and on the least alarm they have 
recourse to the shelter thus off'ered to them ; so that on lifting one of these 
creatures into the boat there were found concealed within the cavities no 
less than sLrty-hvo young Scads — from which the question arises, As these 
medusas are generally believed to come to us from a warmer region, may they 
not be the means of conveying to us young fishes of rarer sorts, which other- 
wise might not have visited us ? 

Among the rarer fishes which have come to our knowledge since our last 
Report to the Meeting of the British Association, I may be permitted to 
mention Ausonia cuvieri, of which an account is given in the Journal of the 
Zoological Society, — and also what there is some reason to judge a distinct 
species, to which the name has been assigned of A. coclsii. We have had 
also the Scabbard fish {Lepidopus argyi-evs), which was found floating on 
the surface near Falmouth, and also the Silvery hairtail (TricJiinrvs lep- 
turits) taken in a drift-net near Penzance. 

MoLLTJSCA. — Bostellaria ijes-pelecani, in all stages of groAvth ; Psammobia 
vespertina, Crassina danmomi, Cardium esinnah'm, C. hvigahm, Ccrithivm 
lima, Acmaa virginea, from a trawl (but this example differs from the figure 

v2 



276 



REPORT 1867. 



given by Forbes, as if from greater age), Chione islandica, Venus sarniensis, 
y. fasciata, Solen peUucklus, Saxicava arct'ica, Lima Mans, or L. Josiconii (a 
single valve from thirty-five fathoms) ; Pectens, numerous, among them F. 
tlgrinus, but all empty shells ; Dentaliiim entails ; D. tarentinum (?), Pilidium 
fulvum, on the dead shell oi Pinna nigra; Fasus 2^1'opinquus ; F.longirostns, 
from fortj^ fathoms ; Bulla lignana ; Turritella terehra ; Troclms papillosus ; 
Scalaria clathratulus ; Natica alderi; N. niticla, from the stomach of Asterias 
aurantiaca ; Pandora imequivalvis ; two or three examples of a genus which 
Forbes terms Trophon, but of which he has not given figures ; Emarginula 
rosea ; Marginella rosea. 

Ceustacea. — The Reporter states that the number of Crustacea that have 
been taken off this south-western coast of England has been very large, 
being, with few ai'ctic excejjtions, the whole that have hitherto been known to 
the British seas, to which we have the pleasure of adding several interest- 
ing and important species. 

The entrance to the English channel appears in its position to be the 
boundary or extreme limits of two several faunas. We find species that are 
decidedly arctic in their character rejjresented by specimens that have a 
generally depauperized appearance, both as to size and tyjncal expression, 
while Mediterranean species are represented without any large amount of 
variation in form or dimensions of specimens. But our observations induce 
us to believe that the southern forms, when taken on our shores, are gene- 
rally dredged from water of considerable depth, whereas those of the arctic 
types are as invariably taken in shallow water. 

The variation of depths and local habitats appear to us to depend more 
upon the condition of food and its general supply than from other causes ; 
we therefore think that the geographical distribution of animals in limited 
regions can only be worked out by a previous knowledge of the history of the 
animals, particularly in relation to their food — and even then cannot be very 
rehable. 

The annexed list of Crustacea exhibits the various species that have been 
recently taken by members of this Committee. 

Beachyura. 





Range 


Ground. 


Frequency. 


Stenorbyncbus, Lamarcl: 

phalangium, Penn 

tenuu-ostris, Leach 

Achseus, Leach. 

cranchii, Leach 


Fatb. 
3-45 
6-30 

6-20 

5-30 

10-20 

6-4^ 

3- 8 

4^40 

6-20 
6-20 

4-45 


Zoopliytic. 
Zoopliytic. 

Zoophytie. 

Eocky. 

Weedy. 

Weedy. 

Weedy. 

Weedy. 

Rocky. 
Rocky. 

Stony. 


Common. 
Frequent. 

Occasionally. 

Occasionally. 

Not common. 

Frequent. 

Frequent. 

Frequent. 

Occasionally. 
Occasionally. 
Frequent. 


Inachus, Fabr. 

dorsettensis, Penn 

Pisa, Leach. 

tetraodon, Leach 


Hyas, Leach. 

aranea Fahr 


Maia, Lam. 

squinado, Merlist 


Euiynome, Leach. 

aspera, Leach 


Xantho, Leach. 

florida, Leach 


rivulosa, JEd 


tuberculata, Couch 





SOUTH DEVON AND CORNWALL MARINE FAUNA AND FLORA. 277 
Bkachyuba — contimted. 





Eange. 


Ground, 


Frequency. 


Primula, Leach. 

denticulata, IMoiit 


4 3 
0- i 

0- 1 
4-45 
3-45 
5 


Zoophytic. 
Eocky, 

Eocky. 
Zoophytic. 
Zoophytic. 
Eocky, 

Trawled. 

Oyster-bed. 

Stony. 

Zoophytic. 

On hving turtle. 


Frequent. 
Common. 

Frequent. 
Occasionally. 
Occasionally. 
Occasionally. 

Occasionally. 

1 m mussel, Saltash. 

1 in Pinna. 

Occasionally. 

2 near French coast. 

Frequent. 
Frequent. 
Frequent. 

Occasionally. 

Common. 


Carcinus msenas, Linn 


Portunus, Leach. 

puber, Linn 


depurator, Leach 


marmoreus, Leach 


pusillus, Leach 


Polybius, Leach. 

henslowii, Leach 


Pinnotheres, Latr. 

pisum, Penn 



30 

12 


veterum, Bosc 


Gonophax, Leach. 


Planes, Leach. 

liunseana, Leach 


Ebaha, Leach. 


40 

4-15 

40-45 

30-45 

12 


bryerii. Leach 


Shelly. 
Shelly. 

Stony. 

Zoophytic. 


cranchii. Leach 


Atelecyclus, Leach. 

heterodon , Leach 


Corystes, Leach. 

cassiTelaimus, Leach 



Anomttba. 





Eange. 


Ground. 


Frequency. 


Pagurus, Fahr. 


Fath. 
0-30 
6-45 
3-10 
6 
4-10 
0- 6 

0- 3 

4-40 

12 

4-40 

0-10 

40 

10-45 

20-30 
30 


Stony. 

Zoo23hytic. 

Eocky. 

Mud and stone. 

Eocky. 

Sand, rocky. 

Eocky. 
Zoophytic, rocky. 

Zoophytic. 

Zoophytic. 

Stony. 

Slielly. 

Zoophytic. 

Stony. 
Stony. 


Common. 

Occasionally. 

Not common. 

Occasionally. 

Occasionally. 

Common atExmouth, oc- 
casionally at the mouth 
of the Yealni. 

Common. 

Common. 

Occasionally. 

Common. 

Common. 

Occasionally. 

Frequent. 

Occasionally. Mr. Couch 
says, common in sto- 
mach of codfish. 

2 specimens. 


prideauxii, Leach 


cuanensis. Thorn 

hyndmanni, Thorn 

lajvis. Thorn 


dillwynii, Sp. B 


Porcellana, Lam. 

platycheles, Penn. . . . 


longicornis, Penn 


Galathca, Fair. 

squamifera. Leach 


dispersa, Sp. £ 


slrigosa. Fair 


nexa, Ftnb 


andrewsii, Kin 


bamffica, Penn. (Munida 
rondeletii, Pell) 

digitidistans, iS^. £ 



378 



REtORT 1867. 

Maceuea. 





Range. 


Ground. 


Frequency. 


ScyUarus, Fait: 

arctus, Jjlmi 


Fath. 
6 

3-10 

4 

1- 6 

0-40 

20 

6-15 

G 

30 
30 

4 
30 

G-10 

0-10 

4- G 

G 
1-40 


Eocky. 

Eocky. 

Mud. 

Eocky. 

Sand. 

Stony. 

Zoopliytic. 

Eocky. 

Stony. 
Stony. 

Stony. 
Stony. 


5 specimens : 1 Ply- 
mouth, 1 Polperro, 
and 3 Penzance. 

Common. 

1 specimen. 

Common. 

Common. 

Occasionally. 

Frequent. 

4 specimens, Bigsby Bay. 

Several specimens. 
Several specimens. 

4 specimens in a siDOnge. 

Occasionally. 
Off Polperro. 
Common. 


Palinm'us, Fair. 


Callianassa, Leach. 

subterranea, Leaoh 

Homarus, M.-Fd. 

marinus, FahT 


Crangon, Fair. 

vuLraris. Fahr, . 


boreas, Ph-qrps (fasciatus, 
Hisso, sculptus, Sell) 


trispinosus, Haihlr 

Alpheus, Fair. 


edwardsii 


Typton, Costa. 

spongiosum, Sp. £ 

Nika, Bisso. 

edulis (Risso), coucliii, 
(Bell) 


Atbanas, Leach. 


Hippolyte, Leach. 


Stony. 

Stony. 
Stony. 

Eocky. 

Rocky. 


Caradina, Film. 


Common. 


tenuirostris, Sp. B 

Pandalus Jcffreysii {tip. B.) 

(Thompsoni?, Bell) 

Palsemon, Fair. 

sGvvatus. Fenn 


Several. 
Common. 







Among the Brachyiira we know not of any that call for especial remark, 
except Planes linmcana, of which Mr. Couch says, " In the sjjring of the 
present year (1867) an example of the Hawk's-bill Turtle was taken in the 
Channel, at not a great distance from the French coast, and therefore not to 
be classed as British ; but when brought alive and active to Polperro, there 
were found, adliering closely under the shelter of its tail, two full-grown 
examples of the Crab Flanes linnceana, — the situation evidently chosen for 
support and shelter ; for, from the structure of their hind legs, it does not 
appear probable that they can maintain themselves at the surface without 
the aid of some extraneous support." 

These would not have been recorded here if the species had not pre- 
viously been taken on onr coast ; for there can be little doubt that they arc 
mere strangers ; and the specimens having been taken attached to a living 
turtle corroborates the fact, while it also shows that the exotic reptile must 
have gathered them as it travelled by the Sargossa weed. 

Amongst the anomurous Crustacea we would wish to notice the genus that 
Leach has named Mnnida in order to distinguish it from that of Gcdatliea ; 
but the points of distinction are not sufficient to warrant so great a separation, 
and naturally they aj^pear to us to be but species of one genus. 



SOUTH DEVON AND CORNWALL MARINE FAUNA AND FLORA. S/Q 

\Ve have recently taken three fine specimens on the shelly ground off the 
Dodman in about thirty fathoms of water. The fii'st specimen that we ob- 
tained differed from those previously known and described bj having, instead 
of a long central rostriform spine flanked by two shorter ones of atialogous 
construction, three equally important anteriorly porrected spines — this in 
consequence of the two lateral spines being developed to a length corre- 
sponding with that of the central in normal sjjecimens ; whilst in another 
specimen the central spine appears to be rather longer in proportion to the 
lateral ones than that figured by either Leach or Prof. Bell, and the specimen 
bears a very close relationship to Galathea monodon of Milne-Edwards from 
Brazil— a cii'cumstance that supports an opinion that we have elsewhere 
expressed, that there is a very considerable resemblance between the Crustacea 
of the South-American coast and that of the British seas. 

This species, Galathea hamffica (Munida rondeletri, BeU), is stated to be one 
of the rarest of our Crustacea, and is seldom to be met with in our museums. 
Its habitat is most probably the temperate latitudes in tolerably deep water 
on the western shores of Europe ; for although extending as far as the Shet- 
lands, yet the specimens that have been dredged in the colder regions are, 
we believe, invariably very small and the inhabitants of very deep water. 

Among the Galathece that we have taken on our coast, and which embrace 
all that have been previously known as British, is one that we think must be 
accepted as not having been previously described. 

The largest specimen, measuring from the extremity of the tail to that of 
the extended hands, is little more than two inches, of which the animal 
itself, measuring from the extremity of the rostrum to that of the taU, is 
little more than one inch. This species differs from either of the others in 
having the large pair of chelate pereiopoda flat and broad, the fingers much 
curved, very distant, and meeting only at their apex when closed, furnished 
on the inside mth a considerable brush of hairs, and armed near the base of 
the moveable finger with a prominent tubercle or tooth, but which appears 
to be of little importance, since it is not able to impinge against the ojDposite 
finger. "VVo have sometimes thought that this specimen may only be an 
extreme form of the male of Galathea squamifera ; but the armature of the 
surface of the hands, which is generally a safe guide in specific character, 
has a distinct variation. In G. squamifera the arms are covered generally 
with a series of curved scale-like tuberculations, the anterior margin of 
which is divided into a series of bead-like elevations, while in the most 
typical parts, such as on the surface of the meros and carpus, the central 
prominence is elevated to a point, and the whole of the tubercular ridge is 
crowned by a row of short hairs so minute that they arc not perceptible ex- 
cept by the assistance of a lens. These tuberculations are closely packed and 
regular. 

In the supposed new species the tuberculations are less prominent and 
defined, the margins of which can only be perceived to be at all baccatcd by 
careful arrangement of the light, while the cilia, being far less numerous, are 
yet more conspicuous under the lens. If it be only a variation of G. squami- 
fera, as we are much inclined stiU to consider it, it is too important a 
variation to be passed over without notice, and the Eeporter has named it 
provisionally Galathea digitidistans, until the observation of a larger series 
of specimens than we have as yet seen may enable us to arrive at a correct 
conclusion. 

The zoe of the genus Porcellana has, we believe, been figured from exotic 
species by Dana ; and having the opportunity of observing that of P. x^laty- 



280 KEPORT— 1867. 

cheles, we have taken advantage of the circumstance (PI. T. fig. 4). It differs 
from the recognized typical zoe of the common shore-crab (Carciniis mcenas') 
in the monstrous development of an anterior and two posterior coniuoiis pro- 
cesses to the carapace, and in the formation of the telson ; but in its complete 
character it offers an intermediate condition between the larvae of the bra- 
chyurous and macrurous Crustacea. It has the appendages of the cephalon 
and pereion developed to a similar extent with those of the Brachyura, 
whereas the telson and carapace bear a nearer resemblance to the same parts 
in the Macrura, from which they differ in degree only. In the carapace, 
instead of the rostrum and the posterior angles of the carapace being only 
just pronounced, as in the macrurous zoe, they are developed to a larger ex- 
tent in the anomurous larva?, and in the young of the PorceJlam^ to nearly 
twice or three times the length of the animal ; while the telson, instead of 
being shaped like the caudal fin of a fish, has in the Anomura the central 
portion sometimes produced to an angle posteriorly. 

Beyond this stage of the development of this species, or, we believe, any 
species of the Anomura, we have no siire knowledge, except that which we 
stated in the last Report relative to the genus Glaucothoe being a stage in the 
development of the genus Par/urns. 

The zoe of Pagnrus (PI. I. fig. 1) is probably tolerably well known to car- 
cinologists, but we are not aware of its having been figured or described. It 
has the anomurous character of having a pointed rostrum and a projecting 
point at each of the posterior angles of the carapace, and the telson termi- 
nating in a gradually widening fishtail-like appendage, fringed with a few 
terminal spines — the appendages being developed rather on the type of those 
of the Brachyura than of the Macrura. During our expeditions we have 
taken specimens that we believe to be the zoe of the same genus still further 
developed ; we say believe to be, because it is only from analysis that we have 
come to this conclusion, and we have not the testimony of direct observation 
that the one is the older stage of the other. 

That which we take to be the second stage of the genus Pagurus (PI. I. 
fig. 2) we took, in the latter end of May, in a towing-net, in Plymouth Sound. 
Prom its general appearance our first impression was that it was the young of 
& Palcfmon ; but closer observation and a careful dissection of its parts induce 
lis strongly to believe that it is the young of one of the anomurous group 
of Crustacea, — in the first place the form of the carapace, in the next the 
general divergence from and the resemblance to the appendages of the zoe of 
a macrurous decapod. The superior antenna is developed upon the brachy- 
urous type, but the inferior has the squamiform appendage of the macrurous 
Crustacea. All the other appendages that pertain to the cephalon and pereion, 
except the last pair of pereiopoda (and these are not developed, at least they 
were not perceptible to oiir examination), have the macrurous type — a cir- 
cumstance tliat would accord with the animal being that of an luideveloped 
anomurous crustacean. The plcon and its appendages bear a very close resem- 
blance to those of the larva of a prawn, since it is cquilaterally developed and 
furnished with a pair of appendages, posteriorly and vcntraUy, attached to each 
somite, the last of which is much larger than the others, and is evidently a 
progressive stage in the development of the great caudal plates of the macni- 
rous Crustacea. 

We attribute it to the geniis Pagmnis rather than to any of our other 
anomurous Crustacea, because it differs from the known zoe of Porcellana, 
and of that of Galatlxca wo have no knowledge ; but from the nearer 
approach of these last genera to each other in their adult stage than to 



SOUTH DEVON AND COHNWALL MAEINE FAUNA AND FLORA. 281 

Pagurus, we are inclined to believe in a near resemblauce of their larvae. 
Hence onr assumption that this present immature species is a young Pagurus. 

The next stage (PL I. fig. 3) to which we allude is one that we noticed 
in our preliminary Heport to this Association. 

The animal is a small creature that we took floating near the siirface of 
the sea in a warm day in June. Its general appearance is that of a j'oung 
maerurous crustacean ; and as such has been classified near to CaUianassa and 
Calliadina. It is symmetrical, except in the larger development of the great 
chela of the right side. The two succeeding pereiopoda are very long, but 
simple, in their formation. The last two are considerably reduced in size ; and 
the anterior terminates in a small imperfectly didactyle forceps ; and the pos- 
terior has a copious brush, consisting of cilia and short and broad spines, 
amongst which the short obtuse and spinous dactylos is discernible. The 
pleon is well developed, having each somite clearly defined, and all, except 
the first, carrying an equally developed pair of appendages, each of which 
consists of a peduncle and two unequal rami. The posterior pair, or uropoda, 
differ from the others in having the peduncle shorter, and the outer ramus 
longer and more robust ; it is likewise, in the older specimens, curved slightly 
more on the left side than on the right. 

In this condition they probably continue untU they find a suitable molluscous 
shell in which to reside. We imagine that they may continue to cast their 
exuvia and grow according to the length of time that they are deficient of such 
shell, because we have taken specimens occupants of shells that are stiU smaller 
than the one described, and yet further advanced to maturity. It would be 
curious to see if, when deprived entirely of the use of a shell for a habitat, 
they shoiild continue to grow and retain the normal form of the pleon gene- 
rally — a feature that characterizes some of the exotic closely allied genera. 

Thus a careful examination of numerous specimens has enabled us to 
demonstrate the progressive development of the genus Pagun(S, and to affirm 
with much confidence, judging by the descriptions and figure of the authors, 
that the genera Ghucothoe of M. -Edwards, and Prophylax of LatreiUe, are 
none other than an immature stage of the genus Pagurus ; but since their 
specimens were exotic, they were probably the yoimg of some foreign species. 

Amongst the maerurous Crustacea, we have had the opportunity of exa- 
mining and figuring the larva of Palinurvs (PI. II. fig. 2). The young of this 
genus was first made known to this Association by the late Mr. E. Q. Couch 
of Penzance, at the Meeting at Dublin in 18-57, when he drew attention to the 
near resemblance existing between it and the genus Phjlhsoma. In ] 864-65 
M. Gerbe (see the ' Comptes Eendus ') repeated the discovery of Mr. Couch, 
and asserts that the larva of PaVmurus is identical with the genus Phyllosoma. 

The larva of most of the decapod Crustacea has the largest amount of deve- 
lopment, commencing with the cephalon and the pleon ; whilst in the larva 
of the Palimirus the greatest advancement exists in the anterior part of the 
cephalon and in the pereion, whereas the pleon is almost rudimentary. 

On comparing it with the genus Phyllosoma (PI. II. fig. 1), as M. Gerbe 
has done, there is little in the general structure of the animals that can war- 
rant a separation of the two, or that might not be accounted for by an 
increasing development of the younger specimens. Yet there are certain 
points that weigh heavily in the balance of evidence against the larva of Pa- 
linurus and Phyllosoma being but different stages of the same animal : — 

(1) It is contrary to our experience that so small an amount of progressive 
development shall have taken place in an animal that has increased in 
growth to about thirty times its size. We generally perceive in the develop- 
ment of Crustacea that the most important changes are those that imme- 



282 REPORT — 1867. 

diately succeed the birth of the larva. (2) The most certain mark by which 
a young animal may be known is the immature condition of the antennaj, 
more especially the iiageUa ; now, whilst in the larva of the FaJinunis they 
are very rudimentary, in Phylhsoma they assume an adult character, and, in 
the second pair, one that is of a peculiar feature, at least in the species to 
^^■hich we refer. (3) The oral appendages appear to be present, though 
only as the germs of the future parts, whilst in PhijUosoma they appear to 
exist in a rudimentary condition that assimilates little to a progressive stage. 
(4) Double branchial vesicles are attached to the coxae of each pair of 
pereiopoda, whUst none exist in the larva of PaVinurus. "VVe must admit, 
however, that this argument is not very strong, seeing that in the adult 
Palinurus branchial organs are present, and that there must be a period 
when they first appear; and it is most probable that their earliest stage 
is of the most simple character. And perhaps we should not have thought 
it sufhciently important to have remarked upon, had not M. Gerbe stated 
that PhyUosoma, like the larva of Palinurus, was Avithout branchial appen- 
dages ; and M. M.-Edwards remarked that these vesicular aj)pendages are 
vestiges of the external branch of the limbs. (5) Phi/Uosoma is a tropical 
genus, and with such we can only compare the larva of Pal'umnis ; two 
specimens only of the former have been obtained in the British seas, whereas 
Pcdinurus is very common on our coasts — an argument that might be very 
forcible were we not cognizant of the fact that we are quite as much, if not 
more, in the dark in relation to the development of the common lobster. 

Our ignorance upon these interesting and important points in the history 
of the Crustacea, together with the discovery of Pritz MiiUer, that the larva 
of Peneus, and probably that of some other prawns, very closely resembles 
that of the cirripedes and other entomostracous larvaj, shows that there is 
much yet to be done of far more interest to zoological science than the mere 
discovery of new species to be added to our fauna. The great diversity of 
structure and the wonderful variation in the development of animals that 
possess a great similarity in their adult condition indicate that carcfid study 
of these animals will probably assist in thi'owing considerable light on some 
of the more profound problems of biological knowledge. 

Several specimens of ScijUams arctus have been taken recently on our 
coasts. It is some years since Mr. Couch announced the fii'st appearance of 
this as a British species ; and none has since been recorded until these last 
two years, when several have been taken near Penzance by Mr. Cornish, and 
one off the Mewstonc, near the eastern entrance of Plymouth Sound ; two 
of these were furnished with spawn, and two were found in the stomach of 
a cod-fish. That which we obtained off the Mewstonc was four inches and 
a half long, and one of the most interesting additions to our local fauna. 
This length is half as long again as that recorded by M. Milne-Edwards 
of the Mediterranean specimens. 

In the dredging list published by this Association, the common lobster of 
Europe is called Astacus gammarus (L.), rnarinus (Pabr.), and Homarus vul- 
garis (M.-Edwards). But since the desciiptions of Linnajiis of Crustacea are so 
very general, and the specific name used by him has been long closely associ- 
ated with that of a very distinct genus, we think that of Pabiicius (the 
next in succession) should be adopted. Again, the generic name given by 
Pabricius, Astacus, although prior to all others, yet included the freshwater 
genus, with which it is so -closely associated that it would be inconvenient 
to make an exchange. We therefore propose, in accordance with the rules 
laid down by this Association, to retain the generic name of M. M.-Edwards 
and the specific name of Pabricius, and call it Homarus marlnus (Pabr.), 



SOUTH DEVON AND CORNWALL MARINE FAUNA AND FLORA. 283 

AVo eanuot turu away from this species without noticing the manner in 
which the process of repair is carried on in the development of a new 
flagellum to the inferior paii- of antenna. Mr. Lloyd, Conservator of the 
Marine Zoological Collection at Hamburg, to whom the reporter is indebted 
for the preparation from which fig, 4 in Plate III. is taken, -writes to us, 
" The animal lost the antenna by accident, just where the jiincture with the 
peduncle takes place ; and then the antenna began to grow in a spiral case, 
the spiral growing larger and iacreasing the number of its turns as it grew 
older, but never getting hard or coloured. "When the entu'e exuviation of 
the lobster took place (in about foui- months after the antenna was broken 
off), the antenna was di-awn out of its special case and came forth straight, 
the spiral skin retaining its shape. Hardening of the antenna does not take 
place (or at least it does not appear hard) tdl after exuviation ; and in like 
manner the limbs of aU the lobsters here which renew their limbs." 

A specimen of the genus Axius was taken by Mr. Couch off Polperro, and 
described by him as new in the ' Zoologist,' pp. 52-82, 1856 ; but we are not 
aware that it has been since met with. 

We have taken what we beheve to be specimens of Crangonfasciatiis and CV. 
scuJjJtus ; and a careful comparison of them Avith the descriptions and figures 
of the authors has failed to convince us that they are not more or less spinous 
varieties of the same species ; and in character they agree so well with the 
description of Crangon boreas (Phipps) that it is difficult to believe that they 
are not depauperized specimens of that large arctic species. 

Several specimens of Alpheus ruber have been taken on shelly ground off 
the Dodman, and from the same locahty two other specimens of A. edwurdsii, 
(PI. III. fig. 2) — which we beheve is the first time that this latter species has 
been recorded as British. "We had them alive for several days. Their colour 
is a brdliant crimson red, A. ruber being rather paler and more banded 
than A. edwardsii. One peculiar and interesting feature in the structure of 
this animal is the alteration of the character of that portion of the carapace 
that covers and protects the organs of vision ; this, which is due not so much 
to the anterior development of the carapace as it is to the eyes having re- 
ceded beneath it, is so changed that, while it offers protection to the organs 
of vision, yet it has become so transparent that it is only by close and careful 
examuiation that, in the hving state, the relation of the two parts to each 
other can be distingiiished. 

The next genus to whicli wo have to allude is one that is new to our 
fauna. It was first described under the name of Tiipton by Costa, from 
species taken at Naples as far back as 1844 (Annali dell' Acad. degU Aspir. 
Mat. di Nap. ii.), by Grube (Ein Ausflug nach Triest und dem Quarnero, pp. 
Go and 125), and in 1856 by Heller under the name of Pontonella (Verhand- 
lungen des zool.-bot. Yereins in Wien, p. 627, Tafel ix. figs. 1-15). 

The British species differs in several points of detail from the figure of the 
Mediterranean species given by Heller in his ' Crustaceen des siidlichenEm'opa.' 
We have therefore considered it a distinct species, and have named it 

TyptOH spongiosum, of which the following is a short description : — 

Gen. CH.A.E. — Cai'apace short and deep, covering the entire pereion. Pleon twice 
as long as the carapace, with the lateral walls deep. Eyes prominent, not 
concealed under the carapace, superior antenna having a secondary branch. 
First pair of pereiopoda equal, slender, long, and chelate. Second pair large, 
in general the right much larger than the left. 

Spec. Chab. — Carapace liaving a short, simple rostrum. Eye longer tliau the 
rostrum. Anterior antennse with the secondary appendage longer than the 
primary; posterior antennas havmg the squamiform plate of the third joint 



284 KEPORT— 1867. 

small, pointed, and not ciliated. Second pair of pereiopoda having the pro- 
podos as long and nearly as broad as the carapace. Dactylos of the right 
hand with the cutting margin convex and simple, on the left hand less convex 
and cuneated. Posterior pair of pleopoda with the posterior external angle of 
the outer ramus dentated, the inner tooth being the longest. Telson armed 
with four lateral dorsal spines, and tipped with a few spines and hairs. 

"We have taken several specimens of Nilri ; and from their general resem- 
blance to N. coucMi, while possessing the channelled telson of N. edulis, so 
particularly pointed out by Bell as a specific distinctive test, we are much 
inclined to believe that there is but a single British species yet knovra, 
and that N. couc?ui is but a variety of N. edulis, Eisso. An examination of 
its parts in detail has shown us that the mandibula (PI. III. fig. 3) is formed 
on a plan that nearer associates the genus with that of Crangon than with 
Alpheus, in the family of which, the latter being the type (Alpheid^), Nilca 
is placed by M. -Edwards and Bell, while Dana, more correctly we think, has 
placed it in a subfamily of the CRANGONiniE, the Ltsmatin^. 

Two or three specimens of Athanas nitescetis have been taken off Polperro. 

Hippohjte barleei, which was described by us from a Shetland specimen 
several years ago, must, we think, be expunged from the list of species, since, 
as pointed out by the Rev. A. M. Norman some time since, it is only an 
accidental variety of IT. cranchii. Our observations of the Stomapoda have 
been limited to a few of the commoner species ; whether this arises from the 
species not being abundant on our southern shores as compared with those 
on the northern, or from accidental causes, attributable to our collecting- 
arrangements, is yet to be determined. 

Amongst the smaller'crustacea there is little to which we should wish to draw 
special attention, except that we have recently taken what may prove to be 
an undescribed Antlmra, and to some observations on the structure of Tanais. 

In 1861 Van Bcneden asserted that the proper place of the genus Tanais 
was near to that of the family of the Diastiflidcr, because the cephalon was 
developed upon the type of the carapace of the Decapoda. In 1864 this 
opinion was followed by Dr. Fritz Miiller, who stated that though he had 
been unable to identify branchial appendages, yet he felt assured that it 
possessed rudimentary organs, because he had observed a current of water 
playing from beneath the carapace. Eecently having obtained some living 
specimens, we have been able to support Dr. Pritz MiiUer's conclusion relative 
to the current of water ; for by the assistance of transmitted light we have 
been able through the walls of the carapace to see the branchial appendage 
waving to and fro ; we have since dissected out the organ, a drawing of 
which accompanies this Eeport (Plate III. fig. 5, 7(). 

EcHiNODEKMATA. — Mr. Couch, reporting on the Echinodermata, says : — "We 
have taken Ecliinus sphcera, E. miliaris, Echinociiamus pusillus, Spatangus 
purpureus, Ampliidotus o'oseus, small examples of Palmipes memhranaeeus, 
Astenas aurantiaca, A. glacialis, Porania pidvillea (by far the most beautiful, 
in splendour and variety of colour, of all our native starfishes, and also the 
scarcest; the colours are liable to variation in diff'erent individuals), Luidia 
fragilissima, Ophiocoma Jilifonnis. 

There was a time when the flexible species of corals were in abundance on 
the rather hard and what fishermen, from its being free from large stones 
and rocks, term clean ground ; but this for the most part has been swept 
doubly clean by trawling; and the shelter of these corals and the lower 
animals Avhich grew among them, which in\'ited fish to seek it for spawning, 
and also afi'orded refuge especially to the young fish, is destroyed, on which 
account very little of these corals was seen. From a fisherman's hook, how- 



SOUTH DEVON AND CORNWALL MARINE FAUNA AND FLORA. 285 

ever, in rather shallower water, was obtained a large example of the species 
named, in the Journal of the Zoological Society, by Dr. J. E. Gray, lihodo- 
phyton couchii, the second that has been met with, more fleshy than the 
former, and now also deposited in the British Museum. An incrusting 
Alcyonium was also found, which took the form, in its contorted windings, 
of the slender substance that passed through and supported it. Added to 
these, we dredged np Cellepora ramulosa, and what I believed to be C. 
laevigata ; but having sent the specimen to our lamented friend the late 
Joseph Alder, he hesitated to decide regarding it. 

Spokges. — The sponges were not the least interesting of the objects that we 
have obtained — and so much the rather as oiu" observations on them have had 
the advantage of the assistance of Dr. Bowerbauk, to whom specimens of all 
were submitted for his opinion. Among the sponges examined by Dr. 
Bowerbank, we have to congratulate oiu'selves on the acquisition of two 
which that naturalist pronounces new to science and the first as such which 
he has seen since the publication of his Treatise on this department of Natu- 
ral History by the Ray Society. 

These examples, of course, remain with Dr. Bowerbank, who has done 
Mr. Couch the honour to name the first of them Halichondria couchii. Of 
these we annex the author's descriptions. 

" Halichondria couchii, Bowerbauk. — Sponge massive, compressed, sessile. 
Surface even. Oscula simple, dispersed, minute. Pores inconspicuous. 
Dermal membrane pellucid, spiculous, reticulated ; spicula of the rete same 
as those of the skeleton ; tension specula acerate, minute, and very slender, 
few in number ; retentive spicula simple and contort bihamate, minute and 
slender, not very numerous. Skeleton : — Reticulations regular and distinct ; 
rete rarely more than unispicnlous ; spicula acerate, rather stout. Intersti- 
tial membranes pellucid, spiciilous; tension and retentive sincula same as 
those of the dermal membrane. 
" Colour. Dried, light grey. 

" Habitat. Coast of Cornwall, Mr. Jonathan Couch. 
" Examined in the dried state." 

The next novelty was observed to bear a resemblance to the rare Micro- 
ciona fictitia, but on dissection, with the aid of a microscope, it also showed 
itself to be new, and it is accordingly named M. fraudator : — 

" Microciona fraudator, Bowerbank. — Sponge massive, sessile, parasitic on 
Euci or Zoophytes. Surface uneven, pustulous. Oscula simple, dispersed. 
Pores inconspicuous. Dermal membrane abundantly spiculous; tension 
spicula same as those of the skeleton, irregularly fasciculated or dispersed ; 
fasciculi broad and flat, multispiculous ; retentive spicula bidentate, equi- 
anchorate, minute, not very numerous. Skeleton : — Columns diffuse, long, and 
very irregular ; spicula fusiformi-acerate, short and stout. Internal defen- 
sive spicula attenuato-acuatc, variable in length, very numerous, rather 
stout ; tension spicula same as those of the skeleton, intermixed with internal 
defensive spicvda ; retentive spicula same as those of the dermal membrane. 
" Colour. Dried, broAvn, with a tint of yellow. 
" Habitat. Polperro, Mr. Jonathan Couch. 
" Examined in the dried state." 

Halichondria paiiicea, a large specimen ; H. alhescens, Johnston; Hynieni- 
acidon albescens, Bowerbank ; H. simulans, Johnston ; Isodictya simulans, 
Bowerbank. 

Halichondria suherea.— In a ball of this I fomid shut up, but with an ori- 
fice, the crustacean Pagurus cuanensis ; and in one or two similar balls there 



286 KEPORT — 1867. 

were otlier hermit crabs ; but in tlicso instances there was not a shell on which 
the sponge had iucrusted itself, I can scarcely imagine how a shell can 
have disappeared after having been thiis incriistcd ; and it is difficiilt also 
to imagine how, without a solid support, this sponge could have formed itself 
into a baU round the crab (which had a defined cavity within) as we find it 
to have done*. 

IJ. incrustans, covering the carapace and legs in patches, of a species of 
spider crab. 

Hispida dictyocylindnis, H. Eowerbank. — There is something remarkable 
in the circumstances which have attended the dredging of this species, and 
which I can explain only by su^iposing that two species are confounded 
together, which on the other hand I am assured, on high authority, is not 
the case. Thus, in spaces or districts at the depth of about twenty, and 
again in forty fathoms, there came up examples of this slender, branched 
sponge, measuring, some of them, a foot in length, with the surface truly 
hirsute, and which had been fixed to the ground by a well-marked and 
rather broad root. But at other places and in deeper water, there clearly 
had never been, of any one of the many examples obtained, an attachment 
to the ground; and the branching growth proceeded from both ends, with an 
intermediate space, not always in the middle, of from one to two or three 
inches in length, and which appeared to be that middle Line or stem from 
which the branches at each end derived support, but which had not even a 
slight mark of a root or point of attachment. Secondary branches are at 
least rare, if they occur at all in this (variety) ; and its surface has a much 
finer grain than is common on the rooted examples. Some of these speci- 
mens at least appear to have lain along the ground ; but in a single instance 
one of the ends must have been erect, since on it was growing, parallel with 
it, a flexible coral and two examples of FolUcipes scaJpdlum. In one instance 
also a fine specimen of Graniia dliata had become fixed on a prostrate branch ; 
and of another, of small size, now in the possession of Dr. Eowerbank, 
with three liranches at each end of a short middle stem, it was the opinion 
of that gentleman that two examples had been brought into contact with 
each other and had thus become united ; but on examination I was not able 
to discern any such mark of union, and of a root or footstalk there was no 
appearance. 

Other species of sponge obtained in these dredgings are : — Ilalichondria 
ficus, named by my late friend Joshua Alder, from sixty fathoms ; Desma- 
cidon fruticosa, Eowerbank ; Hymcniacidon vm/idtosa, Eowerb., near the 
land at Lantwit Bay ; Dysidea fragilis, Johnston ; Grantia compressa ; 
G. Jistulosa, Johnst. ; Leuconia JisHdosa, Eowerb. ; G. ciliata ; G. lacunosa, 
Johnst. ; Lcucosolenia, Eowerb., in shallow Avater, on the carapace of the 
Corwich crab ; Aniouraciwn prolifermn and A. lave, from rocks in Lantwit 
Bay. 

Of a large abundance of Annelids wc are not able to give an account, but 
they have been placed in safe hands, examples having been sent to the Ee- 
portert and to the British Musonm. What appear to be three species of 
Aphrodyte have afforded mc figures. Folynoc sqvamaUi, Oanis hnmnevs, and 
two or three species of Sipvnndus derive their interest in our labours from a 
knowledge of the depth of water and distance from land in which they live. 

* [The sponge is first formed on the shell, wliich is afterivards destroyed hy the sponge, 
by the snme power that enable sponges to bore into shells. — EEroTiTEu.] 

t These arc sent to Dr. Mactinlcsh for csaniination, and will be described in oiu* neit 
Report. 



i7^Rq}an. BrU. Assoc J867 



Platfl. 




CM Sate Uth 



yyWexC 



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/^'^ A. ; -if-- ■'i* r-"^*^ 



ST^TbporbBrit M^eo 18 &7. 



FUi^ IT 




CMhtOeUih.. 



W We^t unp 



& -t' ■>-■■.=•■ ' \ 




•7"' He/>vrt. Bra A.^^soc ISIi7 



Plate III 




: M.Ii<iU Lt/h 



ffTfew 



jn^ 



mil 



'•<ii. 



#> 



ON THE EXTINCT DIDINE BIRDS OF THE MASCARENE ISLANDS, 287 

Plate I. Development of Pagurus. 
Pig. 1. First stage*. 
Fig. 2. Second stage. The author gives this vrith the reservation stated, having taken it 

swimming in the open sea. c. Dorsal view of cephalon. a. Eye. b. Sup. ant. 

c. luf. ant. d. Mandible, ff. Posterior niaxilliped. h. First jsair of gnathopoda. 

i. Second pair. k. First pair of pereiopoda. /, m, n, o. Four posterior pairs of 

pereiopoda. ^, q, t. Pleopoda. «. Sixth pair of pleopoda, z. Telson. 
Fig. 3. Third stage, representing the genus Glaucothoe of Milne-Edwards and Profo- 

])hi/Iax of Latreille. 7i. Penultimate pair of pereiopoda. o. Ultimate pair of 

pereiopoda. p. A pleopod. v. Sixth, or posterior pair of pleopoda. z. Telson. 

p. Pleon of an older specimen. 
Fig. 4. Tioes oi Porccllana platt/cJieles. z. Telson. 

Plate II. 
Fig. 1. Phyllosoma. Fig. 2. Zoe of Palinurus marinits. 

Plate HI. 
Fig. 1. Typfon spongiosum, new species. Eeferences as above. 
Fig. 2. AJphcus cdwardsii. Fig. 3. Kika edulis. 

Fig. 4. Homarus marinus. Development of flagellum to lower antenna. 
Fig. 5. Tanais. h. First pair of gnathopoda, with branchial appendage attached. 



Supplement to a Report on the Extinct Didine Birds of the Mascarene 
Islands. By Alfred NewtoNj M.A., F.L.S., Professor of Zoology 
in the University of Cambridye. 

In 1865, at Birmingham, a Committee was appointed to assist the author's 
brother, Mr. Edward Newton, Auditor General of Mauritius, in his researches 
into the Didine Bii-ds of the Mascarene Islands. Last year, at Nottingham, 
the Committee reported ; but their Eeport, printed in the Annual Yolume of 
the Association for 1866 (p. 401), was in one respect very unsatisfactory ; it 
could only speak of promise, not of performance. Indeed almost the sole 
feat it could recount was the having drawn the money granted. The powers 
of the Committee, however, being now ended, the only thing left was to show 
that they had been properly applied, and this was best done by exhibiting a 
selection from the large series of bones of the Didine Birds of the island of 
Eodriguez, which had been collected by labourers sent expressly to that island 
by Mr. Edward Newton in the autumn of 1866, as stated in the Eeport of 
the Committee. It had been formerly shown by the late lamented Hugh 
Edwin Strickland (The Dodo and its Kindred, p. 46) that this bird, PezopTiaps 
solitaria (Gmel.), was Didine in its affinities, though genericaUy separable 
from the true Dodo, Dklus ineptus, Linn. This conclusion, though originally 
arrived at on very slight evidence, was now shown to be completely correct, 
and the establishment of the genus Pezophaps is proved to have been fully 
justified by the examination of the almost complete series of bones obtained 
by Mr. Edward Newton. On some of the peculiarities presented by these 
bones the author dwelt slightly, but in particular on an tmexpected confirma- 
tion of the evidence of Leguat, by the discovery of an extraordinary bony 
knob near the extremity of the wing. Leguat, whose aceountf of the liabits 
of the Solitaire was the only one we possessed, mentioned that " I'os de 
railcron grossit a rextremitc, et forme sous la plume une petite masse ronde 
comme une baUo de mousquet." Now the existence of this " mas.se ronde " 
was proved by the bony knobs attached to several metacarpal bones exhibited ; 
and thus the veracity of Leguat was established on this point, as it had been 
on so many others. In conclusion, the author stated that at present we know 
little more of tlio Didine Bird of the Island of Eeuuion than that it was nearly 
wliite. In the course of last year Mr. Tegetmeier had shown him an old 

* This was taken so young from the ovum that the reporter is not certain whether th6 
long projecting rostrum is a feature or not, as at this period it is generally folded under, 
t Voyage et Avantures de Fi-an9oi3 Leguat, &c. (Londres : 1708. 2 vols. 12nio). vol. i. p. 9a 



288 REPORT— 1867. 

water-colour pamting of a nearly ivTiite Dodo, which he was inclined to 
believe might represent this lost species ; but he trusted that the French 
naturalists in that island would succeed in obtaining actual relics of it. 



Report on Observations of Luminous Meteors, 1866-67. By a Committee, 
consisting of James Glaisher, F.R.S., of the Royal Observatory , 
Greenwich, President of the Royal Mici'oscopical and Meteorolo- 
gical Societies, Robert P. Greg, F.G.S., E. W. Brayley, F.R.S., 
Alexander S. Herschel, F.R. A. S., and Charles Brooke, F.R.S., 
Secretary to the Meteorological Society. 

The object of collecting observations of Luminous Meteors to serve as a basis 
of reference for calculations, and pointing out whatever conclusions may be 
drawn from them, is kept in view by the Committee, in presenting with this 
Report a continuation of the Catalogue of former years. 

The apparent places of the meteors are given either (most conveniently) by 
their right ascensions (a) and declinations (o, + north, and — south), by the 
weU-known method of their aUineations with certain neighbouring stars, or 
(in some cases of, generally speaking, less accurate approximations) by their 
apparent azimuths and altitudes with respect to the visible horizon. 

A large proportion of the descriptions contained in the present Catalogue 
refer to great meteors recorded on the morning of the 14th of November, 
1866. A long list of meteors of a less striking description than those se- 
lected for entry in the Catalogue, noted on tlie same morning, was received 
by the Committee from observers, whose reports on the jiarticular phenomena 
of the shower are noticed, Avith more or less detaQ, in the fourth Appendix 
of the Catalogue. 

The gi'eatest multitude of the meteors on the morning of the 14th of No- 
vember made their appearance exactly during the hour from one to two 
o'clock A.M., which was the hour appointed beforehand by the Committee, 
with a view to secure the cooperation of observers, for making simultaneous 
observations of the shower. 

One meteor during the hour was simultaneously recorded at Sidmouth, at 
Cardiff, and at Strettou, Hereford ; and the length of the terminal portion of 
its phosphorescent streak, which remained visible for ten minutes, was found 
to be eighteen miles (Appendix 1.). 

The heights of three other meteors of the November shower were satisfac- 
torily foimd. One, which left a remarkably persistent luminous streak over 
the town of Dundee, was from 51 to 57 miles above the earth's surface. 

One meteor also, on the 10th of Augiist last, was simultaneously obsei-ved 
at London and at Birmingham. This disappeared at a height of 76 miles 
above the neighbourhood of Bristol. 

The supposed region of the true radiant-point of many of the individual 
meteors in the Catalogue is indicated by the observers. Excellent means 
are thus afforded for distinguishing the obvious peculiarities of light and 
motion which characterize meteors from particular radiant-points. To assist 
observers in this inquiry, all the observations hitherto entered in the Cata- 
logue are mapped on a series of charts, the first four maps of which series 
are now lithographed, and 25 impressions are presented to the British Asso- 
ciation with this Report. 

The position of each radiant-point amongst the constellations is conspi- 
cuously entered upon the maps, with its annual dates of maximum, and dura- 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS, 289 

tion ; and upon the same chart the meteor-tracks proceeding from the parti- 
cular radiant-point are denoted by such plain signs as to indicate directly 
the particular radiant-point with which they are connected. 

In the case of the best-established star-showers, the meteor-tracks engraved 
upon the maps will generally be found to tell beforehand the course which 
meteors appearing at any part of the sky from one of those radiant-points 
will pursue across the sky, like wires stretched for the meteors to run upon 
(to use the words of one observer of the November shower last year). 

In other cases, where the position of the radiant-point is not yet so well 
established, its printed place must be regarded as provisional and as reqiiiring 
further confirmation by observations to decide its real place. A copy of one 
of the first four maps exhibited, showing the radiant-point of the November 
meteors, as observed at the Eoyal Observatory, Greenwich, will be fovmd in 
the fourth Appendix of the Catalogue. The three other plates refer to the 
special radiant-points in January, August, and October. The whole series 
will be in readiness to distribute to observers this year before the reap- 
pearance, as anticipated, of the great star-shower on the morning of the 
14th of November next. 

If the space of the Committee has been taxed to secure insertion in the 
Catalogue for the multitudinous observations of meteors of the 14th of No- 
vember last*, it is much more difficult to represent adequately more than 
twenty French, and about as many German descriptions of a large detonating 
fireball seen by daylight in the north of France on the 11th of June last, 
which the Committee have received. The luminous streak left by the meteor 
was visible, at many places, for more than an hour after the first appearance 
of the meteor, and exhibited unusual contortions. Its occurrence very near 
the date of the 9th of June, marked last year by the prodigious stonefall of 
Knyahinya, and in the present year by the fall of three aerohtes atTadjera, 
in Algeria, is pointed out, in Appendix II. and III., as probably connecting 
these three extraordinary occurrences together in a single aerolitic period. 

At the end of the Eeport is placed an addition to the Catalogue of large 
meteors and aerolites, by Mr. E. P. Greg, in continuation of that printed in 
the volume of Reports for the year 1860 ; supplying the omissions, and 
bringing up the date of that Catalogue to the present time. It will, it is 
believed, be found a perfect repertory of this kind of meteoric occurrences, 
for the possession of which the British Association will congratulate itself. 

Abstracts of a number of important papers on the subject of shower- 
meteors are deferred until a time when the maximum display of the Novem- 
ber star-shower will probably have been observed in America in November, 
1867, and the spectacle, in that case, will probably give rise to a new discussion 
on the subjects of which they treat. Some recent papers by M. Daubree, on 
the synthesis and classification of meteorites, will also then be reviewed. 

Approaching hours of daylight will probably deprive observers in the 
British Isles of aU participation in the specially interesting display of the 
November meteors in the current year, although the stage of the gradual 
commencement of the shower will be better observed in England than in 
America. It was thus that the August meteors, this year, were nearly in- 
visible, from the hoirrs of daylight appearing in England ; but according to an 
American account contained in Appendix IV., they were visible there " in 
countless numbers" soon after midnight, on the night of the 10th of August 
last. 

* The Gri-eenwich obseitations of meteors "which hitherto have appeared in these Cata- 
logues, will in future be printed in the volumes of the Greenwich Magnetical and Meteoro- 
logical Observations for their respective years. 

1867. X 



390 



KEPOKT 1867. 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS 



Date. 



Hour. 



1857. 
June 1 



Sept.22 

1858 
Apr. 24 



May 24 



Sept. 3 

1862 
Apr. 25 



h m 

9 15 p.m. 

local time. 



5 10 a.m. 
local time, 



Place of 
Observation. 



Hobart Town, 
Van Diemen's 
Land. 



Ibid, 



8 10 p.m. Ibid, 
local time. 



1864. 
July 13 



1865. 
June 10 



5 5 p.m. 
local time. 



4 10 a.m 
local time 

8 20 p.m. 
local time. 



Ibid, 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 



10 15 p.m. 
local time. 



Boston, Mass., 
U.S.A. 



11 48 p.m 



lO'll 



5d p.m. 



18 
19 
21 



1 17 a.m. 
11 30 p.n^ 



Weston - super 
Mare. 



Ibid . 
Ibid. 
Ibid . 



10 55 p.m. Ibid 



Apparent Size. 



Twice as brigbt as 
Jupiter. 



= n. 



Colour. 



Red colour 



Faint white ... 



One-third diameter Pale white, 
of moon; 10' di- inclining to 
ameter; well de- blue, 
fined disk. 

Equal Mars in in- Pale white .. 
tensity. A disk 
about one-tenth 
diameter of the 



moon. 
= V- 



Estimated diameter 
15'. 



White 



As bright as Vega 
Lyroe appears in 
a telescope of low 
power. 



= lst mas.; 



White 



"-if- iWhite 



1st mag.*.. 
= 3rd mag.* 



Brighter than a 
1st mag.* 



Yellow 
Blue . 
Yellow 



Duration. 



About 2 sees... 



2 seconds 



4 seconds. 



7 seconds. 



2 seconds 



4 seconds. 



1 second 

1 second , 
1 second , 
1 second . 
1 second . 



Position, or 

Altitude and 

Azimuth. 



Between a and /3 
Capricorni. 



From Mira (o Ceti) 
to i3 Ceti. 



From S Canis Ma- 
joris to a Hydri. 



From 6 Sagittarii to 
(i Scorpii. 



From (3 Canis Ma 
joris to y Eri- 
dani. 

From V Centauri to 
Nebula Major. 



Commenced near e 
Delphini. Passed 
2° or 3° below e 
and 9 Pegasi. 



From 318°4- 47° 

to 314 + 39 
From 72 + 55 

to 80 + 40 
From 225 + 13 

to 209 + 10 
From 250 - 3 

to 218 - 15 
From 230 4- 28 

to 210 + 20 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS 01' LUMINOUS METEORS. 



291 



OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 



i\.ppearance ; Train, if any, 
and its Duration. 



Length of 
Path. 



Left no train 



Left a train 8° in length. 



Left a train of yellowish 
colour 4° in length. 



Left a train 3° in length- 



Left a long train of 
sparks for ten minutes, 
which gradually con- 
tracted itself into an 
oblong form from 1° 
to 2'^ in diameter, 
and for a time ap- 
peared to station itself 
a little to the west of 
■y Crucis. 

At first tailless, but 
shortly afterwards left 
train 3° or 4° long 
which was cigar- shaped, 
apparently consisting 
of condensed particles, 
and remained visible 3 

i seconds ; from e to 6 

I Pegasi. 



Stationary 
object. 



Direction ; noting also 

whether Horizontal, 

Perpendicular, or 

Inchned. 



60' 



Remarks. 



Observer. 



Train not visible, be 
cause of the com- 
mencement of twi- 
light perhaps. 

Seen by several persons 



The meteor gare a bril 
liant illumination, 
much more incandes 
cent than that pro- 
duced by the full 
moon. 



Seen also at Hartford, 
100 miles S.W. from 
Boston. 



Sky clear ; full moon . 



PrincipalBadiant during 
this month, W. 



' Twenty - five 
years' Meteo- 
rological Ob- 
servations at 
HobartTown,' 
F. Abbott, 
p. 13. 

Id., p. 14. 



Id., p. 16. 



Id. 



Id., p. 17. 



Id. 



James Gardner, 
Am. Jour. Sci., 
2nd Ser., vol. 
x.wiii. p. 295. 



W. H. Wood. 

Id. 
Id. 
Id. 
Id. 



29.2 



REPORT 1867. 



Date. 



Hour. 



1865. 
June21 



h m 
II p.m. 



21 11 p.m 
21 12 p.m. 



22 



28 



Placfi of 
Observation. 



Apparent Size. 



Weston - super - 
Mare. 



45 a.m. 



22 11 p.m 
2611 30 p.m 
27 40 a.m. 
12 p.m, 



1866. 
Feb. 2 



10 50 p.m 



Ibid, 

Ibid 

Ibid, 



Ibid, 
Ibid, 
Ibid, 
Ibid. 



Mar.13 10 39 p.m. 



May 14 
July 22 



22 



Aug. 6 



Sept.24 



9 55 
11 11 



p.m 
p.m 



11 40 p.m 



9 15 



p.m 



lOtollp.ra, 



West Peckham, 
Maidstone. 



Hawkhurst 
(Kent). 



Manchester . 

Hawkhurst 

(Kent). 



Ibid, 



Ibid, 



BirmioKham 



= 3rd mag.* 

= 3rd mag.jf 
= 2nd maa;.# 



Colour. 



Brighter than a 
1st mag.-N- 



= lst mag.*.. 
= 1st mag.*.. 
= lst mag.*.. 
= 2nd mas.* 



Very brilliant me 
teor. 



= lst mag.*, then 
= 2nd mag.* 



-H mag.*.... 
= 2nd mag.* . 



:2nd mag.* 



Blue 

Blue 
Blue 
White 



White 
White 
White 
Blue 



I Position, or 
Duration. Altitude and 

Azimuth. 



0-5 second 



05 second 



0*25 second .. 



0-75 second . 
1 second .... 
0'5 second . 
O'/S second . 



Bluish, chan- 
ging to red. 



White, then 
red. 



Scarcelv a sec. 



2*5 seconds , 



Bright white.. 
White 



Yellow. 



= 3rd mag.* 'White 



i second ... 
1'5 sec; very 
swift. 

1'3 sec. ; mo, 
derate speed 



From 260^+ 27° 

to 270 + 20 
From 260 + 27 

to 257 + 34 
From 218 + 30 

to 211 + 20 
From 317 + 70 

to 0+90 



From 70 + 60 

to 77 + 50 
From 218 + 28 

to 190 + 41 
From 346 + 23 

to 6+29 
From 32 + 48 

to 50 + 49 

About 5° above the 
horizon, a little 
east of south. 

From i(?, 78) two- 
thirds of the way 
to z Virginis. 



0-5 second 



Close to P Aurigae 
From i (^, V,,) 

Herculis to y 

Serpentis. 
From yPegasi to I 

(r- '?) Cygni 






From K Cephei to x 
Draconis. 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 



293 



Appearance; Train, if any, 
and its Dui-ation. 



Left an irregular phos- 
phorescent patch about 
14' diameter near the 
centre of its path, which 
remained visible 3 or 4 
seconds. 



It burst with very greatly 
increased brilliancy, but 
without any fragments, 
and disappeared. 

In the first half {a, b) 
of its course, bright 
white. Then dimi- 
nished, and changea 
to red, drawing a 
train of red sparks 
and disappearing with 
a flash at c. 



Left a streak on its whole 
course for 1^- second. 

Left no train or sparks. 
Disappeared gradually. 



No train or sparks 



Length of 
Path. 



Direction ; noting also 

whether Horizontal, 

Perpendicular, or 

Inclined. 



.\lmost sta- 
tionary. 



Remarks. 



Obser\ 



W. H. Wood. 



Id. 



Id. 
Id. 



Id. 
Id. 
Id. 
Id. 



Rather ascending, and 
then slightly falling. 




30 
15 



Directed from Polaris.. 
Directed from Perseus., 



Last half of course de- 
cidedly serpentine. 



View in the south-east Ernest Jones, 
direction uninter- 
rupted ; no sound 
heard. 

Two meteors seen in A. S Herschel. 
20 minutes : clear 
sky ; no moon ; one 
observer. 



R. P. Greg. 
A. S. Herschel. 



Seven meteors in one Id. 
hour : clear sky ;t 
no moon ; one ob- 
server. 



Six meteors seen in 
45 minutes : beauti- 
fully clear sky ; no 
moon ; one ob- 
server. 

Clear fine night. In 
one hour no me- 
teors seen. On the 
nights of the 25th 
and 2Cth sky over 
cast. 



Id. 



W. H. Wood. 



294 



REPORT — 1867. 



Date. 



1866 
Oct. 14 



14 



15 



16 



19 



21 



24 



Hour. 



h m 

7 28 p.m. 

9 3 p.m 



6 34 p.in 



8 58 p.m. 



AboutSa.m, 



8 25 p.m. 
(local time). 



4 40 p.m, 



28, 7 50 p.m. 
28 7 54 p.m. 



Place of 
Observation. 



West Hendon, 
Sunderland. 



Ibid, 



Ibid, 



Hawkhurst 
(Kent). 



At sea, on the 
passage be- 
tween Dover 
and Holyhead. 



Hoboken, New 
Jersey, U. S. A 



The Curragb, 
Kildare, 
Ireland. 



York 
Ibid.. 



Apparent Size. 



= 2nd mag.tt 



: 2nd mag.«- 



— Sirius 



= 2nd mag.» 



5' or 6' in diameter 
Most briUiant. 



Large fireball 



Much brighter than 
the planets. 



Colour. 



Yellov? . 



Orange colour 



Yellow 



Violet, ap- 
proaching to 
scarlet. 



Bright gi-een. 



= 3rd mag.s 'Yellow 



Duration. 



Moved slowly 
Rapid , 



Moved slowly 



I second 



Fell slowly ... 



^ second 



jstraag.« .Yellow ^ second 



Position, or 

Altitude and 

Azimuth. 



From near T, to 
2° below 6 Pe 
gasi. 

Disappeared at a 
point about a = 
180°, S=+78'" 



Went behind 
cloud about 10° 
preceding r} 13o- 
otis. 

From T Cephei to <p 
Draconis. 



Appeared at an alti 
tudeofabout70° 



From near tlie 
zenith ; moved 
towards the 
S.W. ; disap 
pearing over 
Jersey city. 



From about R. A 
335°,N.Dccl. 3\ 
to about R. A, 
358°, S. Decl. 5°. 
Rough positions 
from a drawing. 



Near a Ursfe Ma- 

joris. 
From S Cygni to 

Equuleus. 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 



295 



Appearance; Train, if any, 
and its Duration. 



Length of 
Path. 



Brightest near the middle 
of its path. 



Left a train for five 
minutes by the watch, 
which changed its form 
from a straight line 
to two straight lines, 
making an obtuse angle 
thus — 



and then resumed its 
former rectilinear ap- 
pearance. Sparks were 
projected forward by 
the meteor towards the 
direction where it dis- 
appeared. 
Burst without noise into 
a thousand briUiant 
green fragments, leav- 
ing a bright green 
train, which, like the 
head, broke into a per- 
fect rain of emerald- 
green - coloured frag- 
ments. 

Like a piece of lighted 
paper falling. 



About 40' 



Direction ; noting also 

whether Horizontal, 

Perpendicular, or 

Inclined. 



Horizontally to the right 



35° to the left of per- 
pendicular; down. 



From S. to N. 



/ 



if 



Horizon. 



Remarks. 



Two meteors seen in A. S. Herschel. 
forty-five minutes 
clear sky ; quarter- 
moon. 

Sufiiciently brilliant to J. S. Davies. 
illuminate the whole. Communicated 
vessel. The attention by A. S. Herschel, 
of all on board of the 
steamer was drawn to 
it, 



Observer. 



T.W. Backhouse, 



Id. 



Id. 



A curious circumstance 
was its stationary 
appearance at first, 
and its rapidly in- 
creasing velocity 
afterwards ; the 
brilliant emerald 
colour of the me- 
teor, and of the frag, 
ments. 

Seen in twilight ; two 
stars only visible. 



Ernest Turner, 

• Scientific 

American,' 

Nov. 17tb. 



Coramimicated 
byA.S. Herschel, 



J. E. Clark. 
S. Thomson. 



296 



REPORT 1867. 



Date. 



1866. 
Oct. 28 



28 
28 



30 
31 



Hour. 



Nov. 1 



h m 

7 58 p.m, 



8 1 p.m. 
8 6 p.m. 

10 29 p.m. 
10 30 p.m. 



Place of 
Observation. 



Ibid, 

Ibid . 
Ibid . 



Apparent Size. 



= lst mag.#. 

= lstmag.». 
= 2^-mag.« . 



8 40 p.m, 
6 58 p.m, 



310 16 p.m. Ibid 



West Ilendon, =:3rd mag.* 

Sunderland. ' 
Chesham(Buclvs) Telescopic .. 



Colour. 



Duration. 



Yellow 

Yellow 
YeUow 



Orange colour 
Vcrv red ... 



West Hendon, 
Sunderland. 

Primrose Ilill ., 



5 55 p.m, 



6 30 p.m 
6 59 p.m. 



Ewhurst 
(Sussex). 



York 



Wimbledon 
(Surrey). 



:2nd mag.* 



= 4th mag.*, then 
twice 
as 2f 



twice as bright 



Yellow 

Vivid blue .. 



Twice as bright as Blue 



About three times 
as bright as Ve 
nus. 



= 3rd ma?.* 



Apparent diameter 
and brightness 
of V-- 



Yellow 



i second 

i second 
3 second 



Momentary 



Position, or 

Altitude and 

Azimuth. 



From cluster in 
Perseus to Great 
Nebula in An- 
dromeda. 

From /3 Aurigae to 
Pleiades. 

From y Cassiopeiae 
to X Persei. 

Disappeared near 

30 Aquarii. 
Crossed the Pleia- 

des west of Al 

cyone. 



>^ 



^J^ 



2 seconds. 



Disappeared at 
«=220% S= + 
50°. 

a= S = 

From 63°+ 50° 
to 185 + 69 



Began ^° to left of 
« Aiietis. 



7 or 8 seconds, From near Venus 
motion un-| to Ursa Major, 



usually slow. 



second 



disappearing be. 
neath /3 of that 
constellation 
[Position of Ve- 
nus a = 262°-5, 
^=-28°.] 



From X Persei to /i 
Andromeda;. 



3 seconds in From 8° north. 



half its path 



west of Capella 
to 4° north and 
4° west of 
Ursffi Majoris. 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 



297 



Appearance ; Train, if any, 
and its Duration. 



Left no train 



Length of 
Path. 



23° 



24° 



17' 



4°. 



Left a long scarlet 
streak on its whole 
course for 5 seconds, 
which became sepa- 
rated from the nucleus 
just before final disap- 
pearance. 

Ended with a brilliant 
flash. Left a train on 
the whole length of 
its path, which faded 
suddenly. 

from its slow motion, 
the eye could easily 
see a process of com- 
bustion like that of 
ignited iron wire in a 
nearly exhausted vessel 
of oxygen gas. 



40° 



10° 



Direction ; noting also 

whether Horizontal, 

Perpendicular, or 

Inclined. 



From 7 Leonis 



Directed from e Pegasi 



20° to the left of per- 
pendicular, down. 

From Radiant, ? Persei. 



Directed from Aldeba- 
ran. 




cparated just before 
vanishing into several 
heads. 



14° 



Remarks. 



Four or five other me 
teors seen with the 
above. 



Darted across the field 
of view of the tele- 
scope like a red star 
of the 5th magnitude; 
very slightly woolly 
at the edges. 



The nucleus threw off a 
few sparks, and be- 
came quite detached 
from the train. 



Imperfect view 



Stars faintly visible. 
Hazy vapour in the 
sky. There was no 
continuous train, but 
sparks were thrown 
off which died away 
immediately. Its 

more vivid phases 
are represented in the 
sketch. 



Observer. 



J. E. Clark. 



Id. 



Id. 



T.W. Backhouse, 
C. Grover. 



T.W. Backhouse, 



T. Crumplen. 



Id. 



H. P. Harrison. 



J. E. Clark. 



No detonation audible... F. C. Penrose. 



298 



REPORT — 18G7. 



Date. 



1866 
Nov. 6 



Hour. 



Place of 
Observation. 



h m 

11 30 p.m. 

11 40 p.m. 



Evening 



6 2 p.m. 

8 30 p.m. 

8 52 p.m. 

9 16 p.m. 

3 41 a.m. 

5 5 a.m. 



5 8 a.m. 

5 45 a.m. 

7 45 p.m. 

8 5 p.m. 
8 14 p.m 

8 40 p.m. 



Wisbeach (Cam' 

bridgesbire). 
Ibid 



Carthagena, 
Columbia, 
U.S.A. 



York 

Ibid 

West Hendon, 
Sunderland. 
Ibid 

Ibid 

Glasgow 



Primrose Hill 
(London). 

Glasgow 

York 

Ibid 

.West Hendon, 
Sunderland. 



Chesliam(Bucks) 



Apparent Size. 



Colour. 



Brighterthan Venus 

Nearly as bright as 
Venus. 



Like a ship's red 
light, as seen at 
a distance of 200 
vards. 



= lst mag.# 



= 3rd mag.* 
= 3rd mag.* 
= 2nd mag.* 

=2nd mag.* 



= n- 



Twice as bright as 
Capella. 



= 3rd mag.* 

= 2nd mag.* 
=2nd mag.* 
= 1st mag.* 



Bright blue , 
Blue 



Red 



Bright orange 



Yellow 



Orange yellow 



Duration. 



About 10 sees. 



Floated away 
steadily for 
3 minutes. 



I second 



second 
Rapid ... 



2'2 seconds , 



Pale blue Swift motion 



White 



Yellow 



Far surpassed Ve- 
nus at her bright 
est. 



Bluish white.. 



0"4 second .. 



A second 
i: second 



2 or 3 seconds 



Position, or 

Altitude and 

Azimuth. 



From Taurus to 

Cetus. 
Through Gemini to 

Taurus. 



At a low altitude in 
N.W. by W. 



Disappeared at 

Coronas Bore- 

alis. 
From /3 Aurigas to 

N.E. horizon. 
Passed close to /j. 

Ceti. 
Disappeared at 

«=277r, ^=+ 

51°. 
Passed midway 

between a and « 

Lconis. 
From ff Lyncis to | 

{a, /j) Ursaj Ma- 

joris. 



From 31° 4- 62° 
to 8+48 

From fi Leonis to 
2° over a Comae 
Berenicis. 



From j; AurigK to 

Kochab. 
From Algol to the| 

Pleiades. 
Passed between i 

and K Pegasi. 



First appeared at 
a point a little 
above and rather 
west of J/ Dra- 
conis. 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 



299 



Appearance ; Train, if any, 
and its Duration. 



Burst and fell in sparks 

like liquid drops. 
The train brightened up 

and ran back in this 

form — 



widening as it short, 
ened, and remaining 
several seconds. 
Like a parachute - light 
thrown off from a 
rocket. Disappeared be 
hind houses. 



Length of 
Path. 



Direction ; noting also 

whether Horizontal, 

Perpendicular, or 

Inclined. 



FuUv 25° . 



Gradually increased and 
then gradually dimi- 
nished in brightness 
Left a streak for two 
seconds. 



Left a ruddy 

coloured train 

seconds. 
Left a streak for 2 seconds 



orange- 
for ten 



Descending towards the 

N.W. by W. 



Remarks. 



Clear sky 



Directed from ^ (Pleia- 
des, 41 Arietis). 
Directed from p Dra- 



Directed from y Leonis 
Directed from Taurus... 



From Radiant, near 
Leonis. 



The sky was cloudy 
and the night dark, 
but the light could 
not have had any 
artificial origin. 



Observer. 



S.H.Miller. 
Id. 



Three smaller 
this night. 



meteors 



Directed from Leo . 



Nine meteors seen in 
one hour ; two of 
them from Leo. A 
fourth part of the 
sky clear ; no moon ; 
one observer. 



A. De G. de Fon- 
blanque, ' The 
Times,' Jan. 2, 
1867. 



Bright double au 
roral arch over 
north-west horizon 
on the previous 
evening. 



Left no train. It increased 15° 
in size and brightness,! 
and vanished suddenly 
without bursting. 



S. Thomson. 

Id. 

T.W. Backhouse. 

Id. 

Id. 

A. S. Herschel. 



T. Cruraplen. 



A. S. Herschel. 



J. E. Clark. 



Fell straight downwards It paused three times 
in its descent. Lit 
up the sky with daz- 
zling brightness. 



Id. 

T.W. Backhouse, 



C. Grover. 



300 



REPORT — 1867. 



Date. 



Hour. 



Place of 
Observation. 



1866. h m 
Nov. 9 10 15 p.m. 



11 26 p.m. 



10 5 10 a.m. 



10 



11 



12 



12 



12 



12 



12 



12 
12 



5 3:> a.m. 



5 46 p.m. 



2 4 a.m. 



2 14 a.m, 



West Hendon, 
Sunderland. 



Primrose Hill, 
London. 



Three times as Pale orange 
bright as a Cygni., colour. 



Glasgow 



Ibid, 



West Hendon, 
Sunderland. 



Primrose HUl, 
London. 



Ibid, 



3 2 a.m. Glasgow 



3 5 a.m. 

5 20 a.m. 

10 25 p.m, 

11 16 p.m 



Ibid. 



Ibid, 



West Hendon, 
Sunderland. 

Observatory, 
Aberdeen. 



Apparent Size. 



At first small and 
faint, gradually 
increasing to a 
1st mag.* 



Colour. 



Deep yellow., 



= 2nd mag.* 



= 2nd mag.* 



White 



White 



= 2nd mag.» 



=2nd mag.« 



= 1st mag.* 



Pale blue . 



Vivid blue ... 



White 



= 2nd mag.* , 

= lstmag.* jYellow 

= 3rdmag.* Orange yellow 



:2nd mag.4c 
:3rd mag.* 



Duration, 



Position, or 

Altitude and 

Azimuth. 



Rather slow... From near e. Ce 
phei towards c 
Cephei, disap 
pearing 1° or 2 
before reaching 
that star. 
From near tj Pe, 
gasi to a point 
forming an equi, 
lateral triangle 
with 6 and ? 
Cygni. 

1 second jFrom/BGeminorum 

to /3 Canis Mi 
uoris. 
From H Geminorum 
to y Ononis. 



1 second 



0*7 second .. 



0-5 second .. 



Centre of path at 
§ (y UrsK Ma. 
joris, Cor Ca- 
roli). 

From 47'+ 54° 
to 34 -1- 50 



From 42 J + 44 J 
to 14 + 30 



I 



0-7 second ...Commenced at J 
Ursae Majoris. 



0-9 second .. 



From « to y Ursse 
Majoris. 



1-5 second ...'From 6 Aurig.-e to^ 
(g Lyncis, Castor) 



Near 16 Draconis 

From /3 to c Ursse 
Majoris. 



i 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 



301 



Appearance ; Train, if any, 
and its Duration. 



Drew a tapering red tail, 
2^ or 3'' long, vanishing 
with the head. 



The head surrounded by 
a large nebulous haze 
Threw off many sparks. 



Hazy nucleus; left uo 
train. 



Length of 
Path. 



Left no train 



Direction ; noting also 

whether Horizontal, 

Perpendicular, or 

Inclined. 



Remarks. 



Observer. 



Course slightly undula- 
ting. 



Left a short train ; took a 8°. 
sudden turn after three- 
fourths of its course. 



Left a short bright train... 



One smaller meteor this 
evening. 



Directed from e Ursas 
Majoris. 



From Radiant, in Leo. 



25° 



left a streak for 2 seconds 11 0= 



From Radiant, near 
Leonis. 



Four meteors seen in 
thirty minutes. Sky 
mostly clear. On 
the nights of the 
10th and 11th, sky 
cloudy with rain and 
wind. 



T.W. Backhouse, 



T. Crumplen. 



A. S. Herschel. 



Id. 



.Moved as if retarded in 
its flight ; very cu 
rious. 



T.W. Backhouse, 



T. Crumplen. 



icft no streak. 



eft no streak. 



Dii'ected from ft Leonis. 



7 Well observed. Three Id. 

meteors seen in one 

hour fifteen minutes. 

Two from Leo and 

one from Cassiopeia, 

at right angles to 

Milky Way. Morn- 
ing hazy. Stars rather 

dull. Overcast at 3'' 

25"". 
Four meteors seen in A. S. Herschel. 

15 minutes: no moon; 

one observer. 
Sky generally clear but Id. 

hazy. Afterwards 

overcast. 
Two meteors seen in Id. 

fifteen minutes : sky 

hazy ; one - third 

clouded, then quite 

overcast. 



Another, 3rd magnitude, 
simultaneously with 
it from ^ to y Ursae 
Majoris. 



T.W. Backhouse, 
D.Gill. 



302 



REPORT 1807. 



Date. 



Hour. 



Place of 
Observation. 



Apparent Size. 



Colour. 



Duration. 



Position, or 

Altitude and 

Azimuth. 



1866. 
Nov.] 2 



12 



12 



h m s 
11 33 p.ra 



11 39 p.m 



11 50 p.m 



Observatory, 
Aberdeen. 



Ibid. 



Ibid 



12 

13 

13 

13 

13 
13 

13 

13 



13 



II 55 p.m, 



12 27 43 
a.m. 

12 40 33 

a.m. 

1 6 13 

a.m. 



3 a.m. 

3 2 a.m. 

8 37 p.m. 

8 40 p.m. 



Ibid. 



Ibid. 



Ibid. 



Ibid. 



Glasgow 
Ibid 



York 



Ibid, 



9 30 p.m. 



Bracondale, 
Norwich. 



=3rd maj;.* 



= lst mag.i 



= lst niag.« 
= lst mag.» 
= lst mag.* 
= lst mag.* 
=3rd mag.* 



1 3rd mag.* 



=3rd mag.* 



=2nd mag.* 



From Aldebaran to 
within 3° of the 
belt of Orion. 

From a point 2'^ 
above « to -y Ge- 
minorum. 



Castor. 



Pollux. 



Meteor. 



Mars. 5) -^^ 



Greenish yel- 
low. 



2* seconds 



H second 



Yellow 
White . 



0"5 second 



0*9 second ... 



Orange yellow 



i second 



Red 



1'5 second .. 



Splendid meteor. 



Passed across a 
Ursse Majoris 
which bisected 
its flight. 

Crossed over « and 
7 Tauri. 



From e Virginis, 
to a point just 
under j3 Le 
onis. 

From the upper 
part of Leo Ma- 
jor to a Gemino 
rum. 

Commenced at ^ 
(/3, S) Aurigae. 

Disappeared at r 

Lyncis. 

From y Ursae Ma- 
joris to I Ursee 
Majoris. 



From Delphinus to 
a Aquilae. 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 



303 



Appearance; Train, if any, 
and its Duration. 



Length of 
Path. 



Direction ; noting also 

whether Horizontal, 

Perpendicular, or 

Inclined. 



■Jeft a train . 



"fabulous appearance ; like 
a dense train without a 
nucleus. 



Remarks. 



Observer. 



icft a brilliant pale green 
train. 



eft a long train -visible 
during the time of the 
meteor's flight. 



brilliant meteor, leaving 
a long train. 



Directed from Leo to 
wards a Ursae Ma 
joris. 

From a to y Tauri 



From 10'' to lli" p.m. 
six meteors seen 
clear sky ; five ob^ 
servers. 

From 11'' to 12'' p.m 
twenty-four meteors 
seen : clear sky ; five 
obseners. 

The dotted line indi- 
cates the direction 
and length of arc. 



D. Gill. 



Id. 



Id. 



streak left . 



;ft a faint streak for half 
a second. 



10" 



Directed from v Cancri. 



From 12'' to l"" a.m. 
fifteen meteors seen : 
clear sky ; five ob 
servers. 



ft a short train which 
lasted a quarter of 
second; burst at last. 



Course f of 
the way 
from Cas- 
tor. 

20° .... 



124= 



Directed from Castor . , 



Inclining 75° 



From I'' to l"" 30"' a.m 
seven meteors seen ; 
clear sky ; five ob- 
servers. 

Two meteors seen hi 
twenty minutes ; one 
observer. 

Sky one-third overcast. 
The rest generally 
clear but hazy ; no 
moon. 



Id. 



Id, 



Id. 



Id. 



^ 




From nearly E. to W., 



A. S. Herschel. 



Id. 



S. Thomson, 



Id. 



J. Crompton, 



304 



REPORT — 1867. 



Date. 



1866. 
Nov.] 3 



13 



13 



13 



13 



Hour. 



h m s 
U 8 p.m. 



11 15 p.m. 
11 22 p.m. 

11 23 p.m. 
11 29 p.m 



Place of 
Observation. 



13111 30 p.m, 



13 



13 



13 



11 30 p.m 



11 30 30 
p.m. 

11 37 38 
p.m. 



Primrose Hill, 
London. 



Nevs'castle - on 
Tyne. 

Haddenliam, 
(Bucks). 



Primrose Hill, 
London. 



Birmiugbam . . 

Primrose Hill, 
London. 

Hawkhurst 
(Kent). 



Primrose Hill, 
London. 



Observatory, 
Aberdeen. 



13 
13 

13 

14 



11 45 p.m. 

11 48 p.m, 

11 59 p.m 

12 5 a.m. 



Haddenham, 

(Bucks). 

Primrose Hill, 
London. 



Hawkhurst 
(Kent). 



London 



Apparent Size. 



= 4th niag.», then 
2X $ 



Pale blue 



Splendid meteor. 



Brighter than Mars 
orSirius. Nearly 
equal Venus. 



One-sixth diameter 
of full moon. 



— Sirius 
2X$ .. 



Colour. 



Pinkish 



Duration. 



1-5 second 



Orange colour 



Brighter than Sirius 



One-eighth diame- 
ter of full moon 



Twice as bright as 
Venus. 



As bright as Venus 
at maximum. 

One-sixth diameter 
of full moon. 



Almost as bright as 
Venus. 



Same colour as 
Venus. 



Very large meteor. 



Position, or 

Altitude and 

Azimuth. 



From \ («, 13) Ge- 
minorum. Passei 
between (a, y. 
Orionis to n Eri 
dani and 5° be 
yond. 
Swept across Orion 
disappearing nea 
Cetus. 
Passed a littli 
south of Rigel 
and became ex 
tinguished 
an altitude o 
25°. 

From S Orioni 
to 6 Eridan 
and onwards to 
wards the he 
rizon. 
From Musca to 

Ceti. 
From -1° beloi 
Castor to 2° abov 
Aldebaran. 
Through the zenit 



Shot from Cast( 
across the Pie 
ades, and 5° b( 
yond. 

Passed 3° aboA 
the pointers ( 
and (3) Urs 
M.ijoris, and p; 
rallel with then 



Shot from Ma 
over the zenith 

FromaAurigJEto 

above tj Tauri, ai 

beyond. End n 

seen. 

Passed near t' 

Pole - star, ai 

disappeared 

Cassiopeia. 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 



305 



Appearance ; Train, if any, 
and its Duration. 



iSft a superb streak of 
scarlet about 50° long, 



jeft behind it a long train 
of blue light. 



Length of 
Path. 



jeft a long bright train . 



fucleus egg-shaped. Left 
a fine train. 



.eft a red train for 2 sees 



eft a train at least 60° 
long. 



eft a ruddy streak 



he nucleus suddenly 
burst without noise, 
and remained sus- 
pended like a nebu 
lous cloud, visible for 
some seconds. 



eft a long bright zenith. 



TO meteors exactly pur- 
suing each other. 



ain like sparks from a 
rocket-stick. 



Direction ; noting also 

whether Horizontal, 

Perpendicular, or 

Inclined. 



Course due W. 



Radiant, n Leonis 



Remarks. 



[Identical with the pre- 
ceding; see Appendix 



[Probably identical 
with the preceding 
or with the follow- 
ing-] 

Well observed 



18U7. 



A binary pair 



Observer. 



T. Crumplen. 



Newcastle 
Chronicle,' 
Nov. 15th. 
W. R. Dawes, 
' Monthly 
Notices,' 
Vol. xxvii. p. 
46. 

T. Crumplen. 



W. H. Wood. 
T. Crumplen. 

Communicated 
byA.S.Herschel, 

T. Crumplen. 
D. Gill. 



iVnother tolerably large 
one about 12'> 45"" 
a.m., and a third very 
brip;ht one about P 
20°" a.m., but not 
equal in size to the 
first, thoiigli perhaps 
equal in train. 



W. R. Dawes, 
' M'' Notices,' 
Vol.xxvii.p.46. 

T. Crumplen. 



Communicated 
byA.S.Herschel. 

' Evening Stand- 
ard,' Nov. 15. 



306 




EEPORT — 1867, 






Date. 


Hour. 


Place of 
Observation. 


Apparent Size. 


Colour. 


Duration. 


Position, or 

Altitude and 

Azimuth. 


1866. 
Nov. 14 


h m s 

12 6 30 

a.m. 


Haddenham, 
Bucks. 


As bright as Venus 
at maximum. 






From a little soutk 
of Procyon tc 
15° above Si- 






14 
14 

14 


12 10 a.m. 
12 17 a.m. 

12 28 a.m. 


Carlton Hill Ob- 
servatory. 
Birmingham ... 

Ibid 


Ijuvffp meteor 






nus. 


— % 


White 


1*5 second ... 
2-5 seconds ... 


From a Leonis 

to 149°+ 8° 
From 150°-f-38° 
to a Ursae Ma 


= n..:..., 


Pale green ... 




14 


12 29 49 
a.m. 


Sidmouth 
(Devonshire). 


Much brighter than 
Sirius. 


White 




jons. 
Just over Sirius .. 






14 


12 30 a.m. 


St. Andrews 
(Scotland). 


-0 






From the head oi 
Hydra to horizon; 








14 


12 32 50 

a.m. 


Observatory, 
Glasgow. 


Three or four times 
as bright as Ju- 
piter. 


Wliite 


1 second 


From » Honorunj 
Frederici to /S 
Pegasi. 
















i 


14 


12 40 45 
a.m. 


Ibid 


Two or three times 
as bright as Ve- 
nus. 


White 


1 second 


From 1 («, y) Ursa 
Majorjs to v Ursa 
Minoris. 

r 


















' i 

i 

i 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 



307 



Appearance ; Train, if any, 
and its Duration. 



Left a train for 12 minutes 

Left a brilliant green train 
for 3-J- seconds. 



Length of 
Path. 



Direction ; noting also 

whether Horizontal, 

Perpendicular, or 

Inclined. 



Left a greenish streak 



rhe light of the star 
was momentarily ex 
tinguished by the me 
teor's brightness. Left 
no streak. 



left a thin bright 
train. The first part, 
broken into pieces, 
quickly disappeared. 
The latter half, 8 
long, soon formed a 
wisp ^° wide, con 
cave to the south, 
which gradually col- 
lected itself into a 
knot 1° wide, and 
drifted south to 
Andromedae, which it 
reached at 12" 37 , 
and soon afterwards 
disappeared. Total du- 
ration 5 minutes, 
eft a brilliant straight 
streak upon its whole 
course. The first 

' half became diffuse, 
/Collecting itself at the 
i same time into a 
;knot at -\ (S Ursa; 
iMajoris, X Draconis), 
brightening up as it 
did so, and then 
drifted slowly to 
(a, l3) Ursae Majoris, 
where it disappeared 
at 12'> 49°" a.m. Total 
duration 8 minutes 15 
seconds. 

The latter half of 
the streak remained 
in a straight line, and 
so faded in less than 
30 seconds. 



Remarks. 



Directed from r/ Leonis 



Stationary, 



Directed from the ra 
diant in the head of 
Leo. 



Observer. 



W. R. Dawes, 

' Monthly No- 
tices,' vol, 
xxvii. p. 46. 
C. P. Smyth. 

W. H, Wood. 



Id. 



H. S. Heinecken 



G. Forbes. 



A. S. Herschel 
and A. Mac- 
gregor. 



Id. 



"t2 



308 



REPORT 1867. 



Date. 



1866. 
Nov. 14 



14 



14 



14 



Hour. 



h m s 
12 41 a.in. 



12 41 30 
a.m. 



12 45 a.m. 



1 7 a.m. 



14 



14 



Place of 
Observation. 



Apparent Size. 



St. Andrews 
(Scotland). 



Observatorj', 
Aberdeen. 



Birraiughain ... 

Primrose Hill 
(London). 



1 8 a.m. CardiflF 



1 8 a.ra. 



Stretton (Here, 
ford). 



Twice as bright as 
Venus. 



Brighter than a 1st 
mag.*., then equal 
to Venus. 

Large and bright 



3x:^ 



Very large meteor. 



Colour. 



Blue 



Purple , 



Duration. 



4 seconds. 



Position, or 

Altitude and 

Azimuth. 



th 
re 



Position of 
meteor not 
corded. The ovi 
mass of the trai 
disappeared 
the Milky Waj 
close to 6 Perse 



Commenced in Le« 
and disappeare 
in the wester 
horizon, crossin 
the zenith con 
pletely across tl 
vault. 

Stationary at 
148°, J=+25' 

Disappeared 5° b( 
low Aldebaran. 



Appeared nea 
Castor, and sho 
across the Plei 
ades. 



Passed across 



Orionis, and disi 
appeared beneati 
the Pleiades si 
a point wherl 
two lines draw, 
from those stai| 
unite to form 
right angle abou 
equidistant fror 
both. 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 



309 



Appearance; Train, if any, 
■ and its Duration. 



Triple meteor, each 
equal to Venus. A 
' part of tlie train got 
I shorter and thicker, 
I until it was of an oval 
shape. This part re- 
mained visible until 
12'> 49"" a.m., the stars 
being visible through 
it. 
Left a long train which 
remained luminous for 
30 seconds after the 
disappearance of the 
nucleus. 



Seft no train 



An arc of 

160°. 



Stationary 
object. 



jCft a train visible in the 
telescope for 10 minutes. 



ucft a train some mi 
nutes broad, and at first 
quite straight. A part 
of the train, 15° long, 
near the Pleiades and 
Aldebaran, remained 
visible after the ends 
had faded aad assumed 
a serpentine form 
After this it took 
the form of a small 
oval cloud, and 

moved from between 
c and ^ Tauri to 
wards y Orionis ; 

' being visible as i 
faint cloud until 1'' 
20"" a.m. 

L,eft a streak which re 

I mained visible for 2°' 8". 



Length of 
Path. 



Directed from Leo . 



Direction; noting also 

whether Horizontal, 

Perpendicular, or 

Inclined. 



Remarks. 



[Identical with the pre 
ceding ; see Appendix 
I-] 



The train was first 
a band about 5' 
broad, and then be- 
came a circular patch 
slightly elongated 
eastwards, which 
drifted about 5° to- 
wards the north-west 
horizon before it dis- 
appeared. 

The brightest meteor of 
the night. 



\V. H. Wood. 



T. Crumplen and 
H. J. Wix. 



[Identical with the pre 
ceding.] 



Observer. 



G. Forbes. 



D. Gill. 



A. and J. Thomp- 
son. 



H. Cooper Key. 



310 



REPORT — 1867. 



Date. 


Hour. 


Place of 
Observation. 


Apparent Size. 


Colour. 


Duration. 


i 

Position, or 
Altitude and ; 
Azimuth, 


1866. 
Nov.l4 


h m s 
1 8 9 
a.m. 


Sidmouth 


One- third diameter 
of full moon. 






From the fore foo 
of Ursa Major t 




















Cassiopeia. 


14 
14 


1 8 20 
a.m. 

1 10 a.m. 


Wimbledon 








Commenced nca 
Capella, and dis 
appeared near / 
Ursa; Minoris. 

Moved at an alti 
tude of 10° alon 
theN.E.horizor 


Chesham(Bucks) 


One-third of the 
moon's apparent 
diameter. 


Very red 


2 seconds ... 


14 


1 15 a.m. 




Larce meteor 


• 




Commenced nearl 
at 6 Orionis. 










14 


1 20 a.m. 


Wimbledon 


Verybright meteor, 
probably as bright 
as Venus. 






In the SM 








14 


1 23 40 
a.m. 


Radcliffe Obser- 
vatory, O.xford. 








Appeared in th 
sword - belt o 
Orion. 


' 






14 


1 27 28 

a.m. 


Sidmouth 


Quite one-third di- 
ameter of full 
moon. 






A few degree 
south of thi 
zenith. 








14 


1 30 a.m. 


Hadfleuliara 
(Bucks). 


About the size of 
Mars. 


Dull colour of 
red-hot iron. 


Motion much 
slower than 
that of most 
others. 


From near Pro 
cyon ; passed i 
little above i 
and y Orionis 
disappearing a 
bout 25° W. 
y Orionis. 


14 


1 40 33 

a.m. 


Observatory, 
Glasgow. 


3XV 


White 


1'3 second ... 


From Tauri to 3 
south of a Pi 


















scium. 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 


311 


Appearance ; Train, if any, 
and its Duration. 


Length of 
Path. 


Direction ; noting also 

whether Horizontal, 

Perpendicular, or 

Inclined. 


Remarks, 


Observer. 


Left a splendid bluish 
train which was very 
conspicuous for six 
minutes, and remained 
visible for at least ten 
minutes. 






[Identical , with the 
preceding; see Ap- 
pendix I.] 


H. S. Heinecken. 
F. C. Penrose. 


40° 


S. to N. ; obviously un- 
conformable to the 
Leo radiant. 








Left a magnificent green 
train. 




Moved nearly horizon- 
tally. 


Illumined the whole 
north-east horizon. 
It partly disap- 
peared, and lighted 
up again, in its 
course. 


C. Grovet. 




Left a bright streak, a 
part of which remained 
visible as a fleecy cloud 
of faintly luminous 
light for several mi- 
nutes. 

Left a train plainly visible 




" 




' Evening Stand- 
ard.' 

F. C. Penrose. 

R. Main, 
' Monthly 
Notices,' vol. 
xxvii. p. 45. 




Towards S.W 


The meteor itself was 
not seen, but it pro- 
duced a very sensible 
light. 

The streak remained 
visible four or five 
minutes, collecting 
itself into a ball 
of faint cometic ap- 
pearance, of about 
15' in diameter, 
before it disap- 
peared. [Seen also 
at Haddenham, Bucks, 
by Mr. Dawes]. 


for two minutes. 

Left a bright streak ; at 
first attached to X, Ori- 
onis, but afterwards 
separating from it to a 
distance of one degree. 










Left a train which 




E, to W 




H. S. Heinecken. 

W. U. Dawes, 
' Monthly 
Notices,' vol., 
xxvii. p. 48. 

A. S. Herscbel 
and A. Mac- 
gregor. 


was very conspi- 
cuous for three mi- 
nutes. 

Perfectly round ; like 
a large red - hot shot 
at a great distance. 
Its brightness gra- 
dually faded after 
passing Orion, with- 
out any appear- 
ance of combus- 
tion, and it left no 
train. 

Disappeared with a 
sudden flash ; nearly 
as bright as Venus; 
leaving a patch of 
green light at the 
spot for fifteen se- 
conds. 






The attention of another 
observer was called to 
it, who saw it exactly 
the same. 













313 



REPORT — 1867. 



Date. 



Hour. 



1866. 
Nov.14 



h m s 
1 45 a.iD 



14 

14 

14 
14 

14 



1 51 a.m. 

1 59 a.m. 

2 6 a.m 
2 10 a.iii. 

2 10 a.m 



14 



14 



2 12 a.m 



2 12 30 
a.m. 



Place of 
Observation. 



London 



Birmingham 
Ibid 



Apparent Size. 



Large meteor 






Ibid. 



Wisbeach, Cam- 
bridgeshire. 

Newcastle-upon- 
Tyne. 



Colour. 



Greenish yel- 
low. 



Blue or green- 
ish. 
White or green 



Deep red . 



Beeston Obser 
vatory, Not 
tinghara. 



Hawkhurst 
(Kent). 



Larger than Venus! Blue 
As bright as Venus., 



As bright as Sirius 



Duration. 



Position, or 

Altitude and 

Azimuth. 



1'5 second .. 
2 seconds .. 

2'5 seconds .. 
4 seconds 



Shot from neai 
Regulus through 
the belt of Orion- 



Commenced at X 

Leonis. 
From Z Leonis to e 

UrsBe Majoris. 

Appeared at S Le- 
onis. 

From Sirius to j3 
Leporis. 

Passed through 
Cassiopeia, and 
onwards to /3 
Pegasi, when it 
became extinct. 



Passed 2° above 
Procyon. 



f: 

Disappeared at jS 
Arietis. 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 


313 






Direction ; noting also 






Appearance ; Train, if any 
and its Duration. 


Length of 
Path. 


whether Horizontal, 

Perpendicular, or 

IncKned. 


Remarks. 


Observer. 


Left a train of steel- 








J. Browning. 


grey colour, which 








remained visible for 










nearly three minutes 










although partially ob- 










scured by fleecy 










clouds. 










Left a bright train 


4° 


Directed from ? Leonis. 




W. H. Wood. 
Id. 

Id. 

S. H. MiUer. 

T. P. Barkas. 


Left a train 






Left a brilliant train 

Left a train 


4° 


Directed from y Leonis. 




15° 


Horizontal 




Left a long luminous 
streak which gra- 














dually collected to 










a nebulous cluster. 










The line and cluster 










moved 5° and re- 










mained visible four 










minutes. 










Left a streak that was 






Possibly identical with 
the preceding, at Wis- 


E. J. Lowe. 


visible three minutes, 






M-sm V • ^Lj\/ ff v/# 


and drifted slowlv 






beach, 2^ 10™ a.m. 




along in a south-west 










current. 










Left a train (a), of 
which the part from 


Very long 
path. 






Communicated 
byA.S.Herschel. 






« to j8 Arietis lasted 










fully six minutes by 










watch, and drifted gra- 










dually southwards (6), 










gathering together, and 










curving and turning as 




- 






it went, so that another 




I 1 






brilliant meteor (c), also 




' U 






conformable, crossed 




• \ 






over it almost at right 




1 Ui 






angles ; see figure. 




Aries. 






1 


- 









314 



REPORT 1867. 



Date. 



1866. 
Nov. 14 

14 



14 

14 

14 



14 
14 



14 



14 



Hour. 



h m s 
2 13 a.m. 

2 14 a.m 



2 15 a.m 



2 15 30 

a.tn. 
2 15 43 

a.m. 



2 16 a.m. 
2 20 a.m. 



2 39 a.m, 



2 40 a.m, 



Place of 
Observation. 



St. Andrew's, 
Scotland. 

Observatory, 
Glasgow. 



Peebles ., 

Wisbeach,. 
Greenvfich 



Birmingham 



Hawkhurst 
(Kent). 



Beeston Obser- 
vatory, Not- 
tingham. 

Oundle (Notts.) 



Apparent Size. 



3x:^ 



Very brilliant me- 
teor. 



Equal to Venus 



Twice as bright as 
Jupiter, 



Brighter than 
Venus. 

= ]st mag.*, then 

2x2. 



Eight times as 
bright as Venus. 

Exceedingly large 
fireball. 



Colour, 



White 



Bright blue . 



Green 



Green 



Bright blue , 



Duration. 



1-5 second 



20 seconds 
1^ second 



2 seconds. 



Position, or 

Altitude and 

Azimuth, 



Position a little 
north of a. Ceti, 

From A («, 0) Ge. 
minorum to ^ 
(«, I) Tauri, 



Appeared between 
the zenith and 
Orion, and shot 
far westvrard. 

From /3Geminorum 
to X Tauri, 

Burst near j; Leonis 



From 148°+ 25' 
to 135 + 20 

Commenced on a 
line from e Le 
onis, continued 
through $ Le. 
onis, to about 
the distance 
between those 
stars. 

Just above the 
N,N.W. horizon. 

Fell in tlie north 
point of the ho. 
rizon. 



A CATALOGUE OP OBSERVATIONS OP LUMINOUS METEORS. 



315 



Appearance ; Train, if any, 
and its Duration. 



Left a train for 2 minutes 

Left a bright streak on 
its whole course, di- 
vided into two por- 
tions at I Tauri. 
The part from i to a 
Tauri became curved, 
concave to the soutli, 
and collected itself 
into a knot, which 
drifted across y On- 
onis southwards, half- 
way to \ Orionis, 
and disappeared at 
the latter point at 
1^ 19™ 30^ a.m. 
(Duration 5 minutes 45 
seconds.) 

Left an orange - yellow 
streak for 60 seconds. 



Left a train which lingered 
several seconds. 

The meteor burst into 
several sparkling frag 
ments and left a dense 
vapour which entirely 
obscured r\ Leonis. 



Length of 
Path. 



Left a broad green train 
in sight for one or two 
minutes. 

Suddenly blazed out just 
before disappearing, 
leaving a puff and a 
short tail, which lasted 
two minutes and fifty 
seconds, and drifted 
very shghtly eastward. 



25° 



Nearly sta- 
tionary. 



Equal to the 
space be- 
tween e 
and S Le- 
onis. 



Direction ; noting also 

whether Horizontal, 

Perpendicular, or 

Inclined. 



Remarks. 



G. Forbes. 

A. S. Herschel 
and A. Mac^ 
gregofi 



Directed from Leo 



Directed from the same 
two stars. 



The vapour, while 
dense, was examined 
through the spectro- 
scope, but nothing 
could be elicited. 
After the lapse of 
some seconds, the star 
(j> Leonis) was seen 
faintly through the 
vapour, but this ap- 
pearance was not dis- 
sipated until one 
minute and a half 
had elapsed ; the va^ 
pour gradually fading 
away during that 
time. 



Seen through trees. 



For a moment it lit up 
the whole heavens as 
with the light of day. 



Observer. 



Daily Review,' 
Nov. 16, 1866 



S. H. Miller. 
W. C. Nash. 



W. H. Wood. 



Communicated 
byA.S. Herschel 



E. J. Lowe. 



H. Weightmau. 



316 



REPORT — 1867. 



Date. Hour. 



1866. 
Nov. 14 



14 



h m 
2 40 



s 
a.m 



2 40 a.m. 



14 



14 



Place of 
Observation. 



Carlton Hill 
Observatory. 



Newcastle-upon- 
Tyne. 



Apparent Size. 



Large meteor 



Colour 



Duration. 



Position, or 

Altitude and 

Azimuth. 



2 41 a.m 



2 40 58 
a.m. 



Glasgow Obser- 
vatory. 



Three times as 
bright as Venus. 



Very large 



Observatory, 
Aberdeen, 



One-fifth diameter 
of full moon. 



Theluminous streak 
remained nearly 
stationary be- 
tween the ' Poin- 
ters ' in Ursa Ma- 
jor and Polaris. 

Passed from Leo 
north of a, and /3 
Ursae Majoris, 
skirting Polaris, 
and became in- 
visible near Al- 
derarain, a Ce- 
phei. 



Slow motion, 
and appa- 
rently di- 
minishing 
speed. 



Commenced be- 
tween Mars and 



Pollux, 

nearer 

latter. 

peared 

Tauri. 



rather 

to the 

Disap- 

at e 

Fig. 1, 



appearance of 

the streak when 

first deposited. 

Fig. 2, ditto at 

2'' 43™ a.m. 

Fig. 3, ditto at 
Oh 44m 3Q, g_jjj_ 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 



317 



tVppearance ; Train, if any, 
and its Duration. 



Left a train for ten mi- 
nutes, which underwent 
a series of changes of 
its form before it disap- 
peared. 

Left a train like molten 
silver several minutes in 
width and 15° in length, 
which gradually became 
contorted, like a skein 
of silk when thrown 
upon a table, until it 
resembled a letter L, or 
a horseshoe ; the sum 
mit of the arch pointing 
to Ursa Major, and 
curved round (3 Cephei. 

Left a bright orange- 
red light cloud of 
horseshoe form (fig. 1), 
extending from 5 Ca- 
num Venaticorum to 
near y, S Ursae Ma- 
joris. At 2^ 44™ a.m. 
the streak was heart- 
shaped (fig. 2), the apex 
at X Ursae Majoris. At 
2'' 48" a.m., one branch 
extended to | {j3, y), and 
the apex was at {p) 
Ursae Majoris (fig. 3). 
At 2^ 52"" a.m., the ex 
tremity of one branch 
was at the ' Pointers ' {. 
j3) ; the apex was at 
Ursae Majoris, and the 
other extremity was sta 
tionary throughout the 
time at 5 Canum Vena 
ticorum, until 2'' 58" 
a.m., when the light 
faded away and disap 
peared. 

Left a luminous streak 
which assumed succes- 
sive forms, as in the 
figure. 

* Castor. 

e Pollux. 



Length of 
Path. 



Direction ; noting also 

whether Horizontal, 

Perpendicular, or 

Inclined. 



Cast the observer's sha- C. P. Smyth, 
dow on the ground. 



Remarks. 



Observer. 



T. P. Barkas. 



(X 




Ursa Major. 






A. S. Herschel 
and A. Mac- 
gregor. 



J * 



>^.-. 






;r%«» 



Aldebaran. 



Aldebaran, 



r,P^~ 






%%3 ® 



Aldebaran. 



The light of the meteor 
was more like sun 
light than any other. 
The brightest meteor 
of any seen on this 
night. No report 
heard. (See Ap 
pendix II.) 



D. Gill. 



( 


518 




REPORT — ; 


1867. 






Date. 


Hour. 


Place of 
Observation. 


Apparent Size. 


Colour. 


Duration. 


Position, or 

Altitude and 

Azimuth. 


1866. 

Nov.14 

14 
14 

14 
14 

14 

14 
14 
14 
14 
14 
14 

14 


h m 

2 41 30 

a.m. 

3 6 a.m 
3 7 a.m. 

3 18 20 
a.m. 

3 20 a.m. 

3 26 a.m. 

3 35 a.m. 
3 39 a.m. 

5 35 a.m. 

6 16 a.m. 
6 40 p.m. 
6 40 p.m. 

6 55 p.m. 


Royal Observa- 
tory, Green- 
wich. 

Wimbledon 

Wisbeach 


2x2/. 


Bright bluisl 
white. 


2 seconds .. 


From the direc- 
tion of 9 Dra- 
conis towards r | 
Cygai. 
Centre at 

«= 5= 
13'' 12",-f 37°. 

First appeared at ^ 
(y, ?) Leonis. 

Crossed e Ursae 
Majoris. 

Disappeared in the 
S. by W., at an 
altitude of about 
12° above the 
horizon. 

From near j8 Ursae 
Majoris to J 
(y, v) Ursaj Mi- 
noris. 

From I Ursae Ma- 
joris to Coma: 
Berenices. 

Crossed e Ursa; 1 
Majoiis. 1 

Disappeared near 
5 Monocerotis. 

In the S.W.; de- 
scending to the 
horizon. 

From i (y, x), past 
X Ursae Majoris. 

It came from the i 
east and shot 
upwards. 

From a. Persei to 
within 2° of a 
Aurigae. 


Bright meteor ... 






7 seconds . . . 


Beeston Obser- 
vatory, Not- 
tingham. 

Wimbledon 

• 
Wisbeach 


Large meteor 




About equal to Mars 
Equal to Venus ... 


Very red 

Blue 


Slow motion... 

5 seconds 

Slow motion ; 
3 seconds. 


Wimbledon 


Red 


Beeston Obser- 
vatory, Not- 
tingham. 

Wimbledon 

Near Primrose 
Hill (London). 

York 


Large and bright 
meteor. 

Verybright meteor, 
brighter than Si- 
rius. 

Bright meteor 












= lstmag.* 

Brighter than any 
in the previous 
shower. 

= 1st mag.* ( 


Bluish 


5 second 


Greenock 




York 


Drange 


1 second 



















A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 



319 



Left a train lasting 10 se- 
conds after disappear- 
ance of the meteor. 

Left a bright short train 
which remained visible 
in the telescope for 
many minutes. 

Left a train which curled 
up thus — 



rVppearance; Train, if any, 
and its Duration. 



Its path appeared undula- 
ting as in the sketch. 



Horizon. 



Length of 
Path. 



10° 



Direction ; noting also 

whether Horizontal, 

Perpendicular, or 

Inclined. 



Inclined 



Remarks. 



This meteor burst 



Observer. 



The train seen in the 
telescope appeared like 
a riband with many 
bends. 
The curved train re- 
mained visible for 
three minutes, and 
appeared like a dim 
nebula in the tele- 
scope. (SeeAppendix.) 



Nearly horizontal, from 
left to right. Slightly 
unconformable in its 
direction. 



12° 



South. 



Left a train for 20 seconds 



Left a very brilliant and 
rather persistent streak, 



Left a train which lasted 
1^ minute. 



Left a slight train ; moved 
in curves, seeming to 
oscillate. 



12° 



19° 



From W. to E. Totally 
unconformable in path 
to the Leo Radiant. 



Inclined 



X 



Arthur Harding. 



F. C. Penrose. 



S. H. Miller. 



E. J. Lowe. 



F. C. Penrose, 



Unsteady flight 



Two other bright me- 
teors appeared nearly 
at the same time. 

Seen in broad daylight 
and in sunshine. 



The light was so great 
as to cause observers 
looking in an opposite 
direction to turn 
round. Seen also at 
Glasgow. 



S. H. Miller. 

F. C. Penrose. 

E. J. Lowe. 

F. C. Penrose. 
T. Crumplen. 



R. G. and C. 
Barclay, and A. 
J. Crossfield. 
North British 
Daily Mail,' 
Nov. 16th. 



J. E. Clark. 



320 



REPORT 1867. 



Date. 



1866. 
Nov. 14 



14 
14 



14 

14 

14 
14 



Hour. 



20 



25 

25 

25 
27 



h m s 
8 8 p.m. 

8 11 p.m. 

8 11 30 
p.m. 

8 16 p.m. 

8 21 p.m. 

8 20 p.m 

8 28 p.m. 



Place of 
Observation. 



Apparent Size. 



York. 

Ibid., 
Ibid. 

Ibid .. 
Ibid.. 



4 a.ra. 
(local time.) 



Ibid, 



Ibid, 



:3rd mag.* 

:3rd mag.» 
=2nd mag.* 



Colour. 



Yellow . 



=3rd mag.* 

:1st mas.* 



=2 J mag.* 



= 2nd mag.* 



Nashville, 
Tennessee 
(U. S. A.). 



Appeared as large 
as the sun. 



Bright yellow 
Yellow ... 



Yellow . 
Yellow . 



Reddish 



Orange. 



5 52 p.m. West Hendon 
(Sunderland). 



27 



7 30 p.m. 

7 41 p.m 

6 2 30 
p.m. 



Birmingham .. 



7 37 p.m. 



27 



7 57 p.m. 



Ibid. 
York. 



Ibid , 



= 2nd mag.* 



:3rd mag.* Orange. 



:3rd mag.* 
--V- 



Ibid . 



:3rd mag.* 



Blue ... 
Greenish 



Yellow. 



= 1| mag.» 



Yellow 



Duration. 



I second 

i second 
J second 



i second .. 
1^1 second 

second .. 

second .. 



Position, or 

Altitude and 

Azimuth. 



Rapid motion 



From y Andre 

medae to a Ari 

etis. 
From a to > 

Aurigas. 
From d Andro- 

medae to a Cas. 

siopeiae. 
From 1 6 Cephei to 

4^ Draconis. 
From y Cephei 

to 78 Andro- 

medffi. 
From y Andro- 

medie to a Ari- 

etis. 
From I to y Ursae 

Minoris. 



In the direction of 
Rome (Georgia) 



Near « Lyra; 



1 second 



1"5 second ... 
1 second ... 



i second 



«= c = 
From 42°+ 10° 

to a Ccti. 
From 5°+ 4° 

to 11—25 
From X Bootis to 
jj Herculis. 



1 second 



From /3 Cassiopeiae 
to within 4° of 
(3 Lacertae ; very 
near the zenith. 



From a Cassiopeia! 
to Cygni. 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 



321 



Appearance ; Train, if any, 
and its Duration. 



Left a very slight train 



Left a short train for a 
quarter of a second. 



15° 

7°... 
15° 

13° 
32° 

13° 

12° 



Like a ball of fire lighting 
the whole heavens. 



Left a train of sparks for 
an instant. 



Length of 
Path. 



37= 



30° 



40° 



Inclined at an angle of 
80°. 



Direction ; noting also 

■whether Horizontal, 

Perpendicular, or 

Inclined. 



Remarks. 



Moving south-vrest . 



Moved in a curve from 
Ursa Major. 



Directed from 
onis. 



Le- 



Directcd 
onis. 



from y Le- 



A. C. Marriage. 

Id. 

S. Thomson. 

A. C. Marriage. 
A. K. Brown. 

A. C. Marriage. 

Id. 



Exploded apparently 
about ten miles off 
■with a tremendous 
report like a 40-lb. 
cannon, which shook 
the earth and made 
the windows rattle. 



It seemed brighter at 
one time and hazy 
at another, but each 
stage was about the 
same brightness. 
There was still a 
good deal of twi- 
hght. 



Another 3rd magnitude 
meteor near a Cas 
siopeise nearly simul 
taneous. 



Observer. 



New York ' Jour- 
nal of Com- 
merce ' and 
' World; Nov, 
24th. 



T.W. Backhouse, 



W. H. Wood. 



Id. 

J. E. Clark. 



Id. 



J. E. Clark and 
J. WaUer. 



1867. 



333 



REPORT 1867. 



Date. 



1866. 
Nov.27 



Hour. 



h ni s 

8 35 p.m. York. 



Place of 
Observation. 



28 



28 



28 
30 

30 



30 
30 

30 



6 a.m 



8 55 p.m. 



9 p.m 

6 49 p.m, 

7 51 30 
p.m. 



8 14 15 
p.m. 

8 17 30 
p.m. 



8 35 p.m 



Ibid 



Ibid, 



Ibid, 



West Hendon 
(Sunderland). 



York. 

Ibid . 
Ibid. 

Ibid. 



30 8 38 p.m. Ibid 



30 
30 



9 12 p.m. 
10 2 p.m. 



Apparent Size. 



= ¥. 



= 2nd mag.* 



= 2nd mag.<e 



= l8t mag.*... 
=2nd mag.* 

=2nd mag.* 



=2| mag.* 



=2nd mag.* 



= V-- 



Ibid. 
Ibid, 



=3rd mag.* 



=3rd mag.* 



Colour. 



Yellow 



2 seconds 



Yellow . 



Yellow . 



Yellow . 



Yellow. 



Yellow 



Yellow. 



Yellow 



Yellowish. 



Half as bright again 
as Jupiter. 



J second 



J second , 



Light blue ... ^ sec, slow 



Duration. 



second 



1 sec, quick. 



1 second . . . 
1 sec., rapid... 



Position, or 

Altitude and 

Azimuth. 



i second 



From J) to a little 
west of /3 Cygni. 



From within a few 
degrees of a he 
onis towards the 
south. 

From Cygnus to- 
wards Aquila. 



Same as the last . 

Disappeared at ^ 

(Castor, Au, 

rigae). 
From 3° W. of 

Alpharet to 3° E 

of Algenib. 



From Mirfak to 

within 5° of the 

Pleiades. 
From 10° E. of 

Mirfak to B An. 

dromedoe. 



From 10° N. of . 
Cygni to d Del 
phini. 



From Z Aurigas to 
within 5° of the 
Pleiades. 



About 5 sec, 

One-tenth of a 
second while 
in sight. 



Seen near Ursa 
Major. 

Appeared in the 
W.N.W., a few 
degrees above** 
the horizon. 
Disappeared be- 
hind a house- 
roof. 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 333 



Appearance ; Train, if any, 
and its Duration. 



Left a slight streak for a 
moment. 



24° 



Length of 
Path. 



Downwards ; 75° ; in- 
clined ; from y Leonis, 



6° while in 
sight. 



10° while in 
sight. 



12° 



24° 



35° 



Direction ; noting also 

whether Horizontal, 

Perpendicular, or 

Inclined. 



Remarks. 



/ 



It nearly disappeared in 
the middle of its 
course, but regained 
its former brightness. 



From y Leonis 



/ 



Similar to the last .... 
Directed from Polaris. 



Inclined 80° 



/ 



Disappeared gradually ; 45° 
left a slight train for 
1 second. 



19° 



3° while in 
sight. 




I 



Seen through a break in 
clouds. 



As described in the last 
meteor. 



At 7" 30"", a small 
meteor on nearly the 
same path. 



Observer. 



R. G. Barclay. 



Seen from a third story 
almost on a level with 
the opposite roof. 



C. Barclay. 



J. E. Clark. 



Id. 

T.W.Backhouse 



J. E. Clark and 
F. Bewley. 



A. C. Marriage. 



J. E. Clark and 
A. C. Marriage. 



J. E. Clark. 

A. C. Marriage. 

F. H. Longman. 
J. E. Clark. 



z2 



324 



REPORT 1867. 



Date. 



Hour. 



186G. h m s 

Dec. 2 7 30 to 

7 45 p.m. 

9 27 p.m. 



8 23 p.m. 



9 44 p.m. 



9 1/ p.m. 



9 58 30 
p.m. 



510 1« p.m. 

9 21 30 
p.m. 



710 4 p.m. 



5 6 p.m 



8 7 49 p.m 



8 8 10 
p.m. 



Place of 
Observation. 



York. 
Ibid. 

Ibid. 



Ibid 



West Hendon 
(Sunderland). 



York. 



West Hendon 
(Sunderland). 



York 



West Hendon 
(Sunderland). 



York 



Ibid, 



Ibid, 



Apparent Size. 



= lst mag.*. 



= lst mag.* 



= 3rd mas-* 



=2nd mag.* 



= lst mag.* 



= 3rd mag.# 



:H mag.» 



=2nd mag.* 



=Mars or '4 



= 2nd mas.* 



= 3rd ma?.* 



Colour. 



Yellow 



Very bright 
yellow. 



Blue 



White 



^ second, very 
rapid. 

y second, very 
rapid. 



4 sec, rapid. 



Light yellow... 



Orange colour 



Yellow 



Red 



Yellow 



Blue 



Duration. 



Slow 



^ sec, rapid.. 



Quick ... 
I second 



I^ second 



1 second, slow 



i sec, rapid.. 



Position, or 

Altitude and 

Azimuth. 



From 10° E. of, to 
2°W.of Algenib 

From 4° S. of /3 
to within 1° of 
Aurigse. 



From a Equulei to 
within 3° of v 
Capricorni. 



Disappeared at 
R. A. 11" 40", 
N. Decl. 6U°. 



From a Aurigae tO' 
wards the N. 



Disappeared at 

R.A. 13''36°,N. 

Decl. 62°. 
From 4° E. of a 

Aurigae to h UrsK 

Majoris. 



Disappeared at | 
(5 Geminorum, 
to (3 Canis Mi 
noris). 

From 10° to 40° 
below Polaris. 



From 38°+ 55° 
to 73 + 58 



From 87°+ 45° 
to 105 + 43 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 



325 



Appearance ; Train, if any, 
and its Duration. 



Left a very slight train 



Towards tlie end of its 
course it left a bright 
green train 2° long, and 
15' broad for about 1 sec. 



Length of 
Path. 



12° 



8°. 



17° 



5°. 



Extremely bright meteor ; 
left a slight train. 



Left a short sparkling 
train. 



A few sparks were seen 
to fall from it when 
brightest. 



Short 



25° 



10° 



10° 



Direction ; noting also 

whether Horizontal, 

Perpendicular, or 

Inclined. 



Nearly horizontal 



Directed at first from /3 
Aurigje. 



/ 



/ 



Perpendicular , 



I 



Horizontal 



Remarks. 



Sky clear ; a strict watch 
kept ; none seen. 

Appeared from behind 
a cloud whose edge 
it slightly illuminated 

Path distinctly curved, 
as shown by the 
arrow. 



Observer. 



J. E. Clark. 

J. E. Clark and 
A. C. Marriage. 

J. E. Clark. 



Id. 



T. H. Backhouse, 



J. E. Clark. 



Directed from ^ (/3, y) 
Ursae Minoris. 



/ 



Four other meteors seen 
during the evening, 

From 7'^ 40™ to 7'> 55™ ; 
on the morning of the 
7th watched for me- 
teors, but none seen 



Directed from g Gemi- 
norura. 



\i 



Ursa Major. 
Directed from Cassiopeia 




From Cassiopeia , 



/ 



Only a few stars visible 
in twilight. 



T.W. Backhouse, 



\. C. Marriage 
and J. E. Clark 



T.W. Backhouse, 



J. E. Clark. 



Id. 



Id. 



326 



REPORT 1867. 



Date. 


Hour. 


Place of 
Observation. 


Apparent Size. 


Colour. 


Duration. 


Position, or 

Altitude and 

Azimuth. 


1866. 
Dec. 8 


h m s 
8 4 p.m. 


York 


=2nd mag.# 


Blue 


5 sec., rapid... 


From 18° +26^° 
to 12^ -f 38| 






8 


8 24 p.m. 


Ibid 


= 2ndmag.# 


Yellow 


5 sec, rapid... 


From 25°+ 63° 
to 336 +58 




8 


8 27 p.m. 


Ibid 


= lstmag.* 




i second 


From 70° +66^° 
to 20 +98| 






8 


8 28 30 
p.m. 


Ibid 


= 2nd mag.* 


Red . . 


i sec, rapid... 


From 90°+60^ 
to 105 +40 






8 


8 47 30 
p.m. 


Ibid 


= f apparent dia- 
meter of full 


Red 


1 second 


From 323° -1-70" 
to 245 +62i 












moon. 








8 


9 4 p.m. 


Ibid 


= l8tmag.» 


Yellow 


i sec, rapid... 


From 348°+27.F 
to 350 4-12"" 




8 


9 12 p.m. 


Ibid 


= 3rdmag.* 


Blue .... 


^ sec, rapid... 


From 11° -t-16° 
to lOi +11 ' 






8 


9 15 p.m. 


Ibid 


— 71 


Yellow 


1 second while 
in sight. 


From 310°+45° 
to 318 -f-30 






8 


9 28 p.m. 


Birmingham ... 


= 2hd mag.#i then 
= Sirius. 


Ruby - red, 
then orange- 
colour. 




1 
From d Draconis to ' 
R. A. 290°, N. : 
Decl. 35°. 




8 


9 35 p.m. 


York 


= 2ndraag.* 


Yellow 


One-fifth sec, 
very rapid. 


From 3°+32i° 1 
to 11 +164 1 

1 





il 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 



327 



Appearance ; Train, if any, 
and its Duration. 



Was not very bright, but 
emitted sparks which 
disappeared with the 
nucleus ; the latter 
separated into small 
fragments at disappear, 
ance. 

Left a slight train 



Left a bright green train 20° while in 



Length of 
Path. 



10° 



17° 



12° 



10° 



18° 



13° 



5° 



Direction ; noting also 

whether Horizontal, 

Perpendicular, or 

Inclined. 



From Cassiopeia . 



/ 



Perpendicular from Cas^ 
siopeia. 



From Cassiopeia , 



i 



From jS Cassiopeia . 



I 



Remarks. 



Observer. 



J. E. Clark. 



Id. 



[The north declination Id. 
at disappearance is 
apparently in error.] 



Id. 



S. Thomson. 



during its whole course. 



Left a train 25° in length 



Extremely rapid, and 
rather faint. 



sight. 



15° 



\ 



From Cassiopeia . 



/ 



Directed from ?; Leonis 



From Cassiopeia . 



/ 



Came into view from 
behind a house and 
gradually disappeared. 



J. E. Clark and 
A. C. Marriage. 



J. E. Clark. 



J. E. Clark and 
A. C. Marriage. 



Increased from a 2nd 
mag.* to larger than 
Sirius; drew a smoke- 
like tail which disap- 
peared with the me- 
teor. 



W. H. Wood. 



J. E. Clark and 
C. Barclay. 



328 



KEPORT 1867. 



Date. 



1866. 
Dec. 8 



Hour. 



h m s 
9 37 p.m. 



8 10 43 p.m. 



10 



10 



10 



10 



10 



5 28 p.m 

5 28 3 
p.m. 



5 42 30 
p.m. 



6 49 p.m 



7 1 p.m. 



Place of 
Observation. 



York 



Birmingham 



York 



Ibid , 



[bid, 



Ibid 



Ibid, 



10 



10 



10 



7 10 p.m. 



8 41 p.m 



9 20 p.m. 



Ibid , 



ibid , 



Ibid, 



Apparent Size. 



= lst mag.*. 



Yellow 



= 1st mag.* 

=3rd mag.» 

= 3rd mag. stars... 



= lst mag.*. 



= one-eighth dia- 
meter of full 
moon. 



V-. 



Colour. 



Ruby-red .. 



Bright yellow 



One-tenth sec. 
while in sight 



1-5 second 



Dull red 



Yellow , 



= 1st mas.*. 



= 1st niag.*. 



= 3rd mag.* 



Pale yellow ... 



Bright yellow 



Yellow 



Yellowish 



Yellow 



Duration. 



1 second 



1 second 



i second 



14 sec, very 
slow. 



I second 



second 



One - tenth 
second ; 
almost in- 
stantaneous 



Position, or 

Altitude and 

Azimuth. 



From 23°-f50° 
to 25 +47 



From 95°- V 
to y Canis Ma- 
joris. 

From 313^+47° 
to 48 +48* 

From 313=+47® 
to 48 +iSi 



From 166° +634° 
to 2104+65" 



From 7° +33° 
to 5 +20 



From 115°+33'' 
to 142 +73 



From 54°+20^ 
to 38 +12 



From 72°+46" 
to 54 +50 



From 26° + 62.J" 
to 32 +G1 



1 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 



329 



Appearance; Train, if any, 
and its Duration. 



Left a slight train 



Left a train 



This meteor appeared 
to consist of 5 meteors 
very close together ; 
so that a circle of 20' 
of diameter would have 
enclosed all of them. 
It moved in just the 
same path as the 
last. 

Left a slight train 



45° 



45° 



Left a green train for 
1 second. 



Left a slight train which 
disappeared with the 
meteor. 



Length of 
Path. 



12° 



40^ 



12"= 



Direction ; noting also 

whether Horizontal, 

Perpendicular, or 

Inclined. 



From Cassiopeia . 



Directed from Castor. 



Directed from Castor . . 



From the Pleiades 



From Castor 

From Cassiopeia .. 



Remarks. 



Crossed the zenith 



Crossed the zenith 



Moved in a curve 



Clouded view 



J. E. Clark. 



W. H. Wood. 



J. E. Clark. 




Observer, 



Id. 



Id. 



A. C. Marriage. 



J. E. Clark and 
A. C. Marriage 



J. E. Clark. 



Id. 



A. C. Marriage. 



330 



REPORT 1867. 



Date. 



1866. 
Dec. 10 



10 



10 



Hour. 



h m s 
9 20 15 

p.m. 



9 21 p.m, 



II 25 p.m. 



York 



10 11 37 p.m. 



11 



11 



11 



11 



11 



11 



12 48 a.m 



Place of 
Observation. 



Ibid, 



Ibid, 



Ibid. 



Ibid. 



5 48 p.m. Ibid 



6 27 p.m. Ibid 



7 2 p.m. Ibid 



7 14 p.m. Ibid =2nd mag.* 



7 29 p.m.'ibid 



Apparent Size. 



= 3rd mag.* 



=3rd mag.* 



= ?■ 



= 3rd ma";.* 



= ?■ 



-l6t mag.* 



= n- 



= lst mag.#. 



Colour. 



Yellow Same as the 

last. 



Duration. 



Position, or 

Altitude and 

Azimuth, 



Yellow One - eighth 

second ; 

moderate 

speed. 

Bluish white... 1 second, verj 
slow. 



= lstmag.* White 



Yellow 



Yellow 



YeUow 



Yellowish 



Yellow . 



1 second, slow 



1^ sec, very 
slow. 



One - eighth 
sec, rapid. 



1 second, slow 



i sec, rapid.. 



f second 



From 26°+62i° 
to 32 +61 



From 32°+61° 
to 45 +53 



From 112''+32° 
to 114 +35 



From 141° +24^ 
to 150 +42,^ 



From 131°- 3° 
to 121 -19 



From 340°+33° 
to 325 +30 



From 45° +65° 
to 46* +47 



From 45° +20° 
to 38+5 



1 



i 



From 105° +60° 
to 322 +70* 



i\ 



From 332° +33° 
to 3.33-J +11 




A CATALOGUE OF