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Full text of "Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science"

S K ^. 



EEPOET 



OF THE 



THIRTY-EIGHTH MEETING 



OF THE 



BRITISH ASSOCIATION 



FOE THE 



ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE ; 



HELD AT 



NOEWICH IN AUGUST 1868. 



LONDON: 

JOHN MURRAY, ALBEMARLE STREET. 

1869. 



PRINTED BY 
TATLOB AND FEANCIS, RED LION COURT, FLEET STREET. 




/^,tjk- u'i- ■>>> -A 



CONTENTS. 



Page 

Objects and Rules of the Association xvii 

Places of Meeting and Officers from commencement xx 

Presidents and Secretaries of the Sections of the Association from com- 
mencement XXV 

Treasurer's Account xxxv 

Officers and Council, 1868-69 xxxvi 

Officers of Sectional Committees xxxvii 

Report of the Coimcil to the General Committee xxxviii 

Report of the Kew Committee, 1867-68 xxxis 

Recommendations of the General Committee for Additional Reports 
and Researches in Science xlv 

Synopsis of Money Grants 1 

General Statement of Sums paid on account of Grants for Scientific 

Purposes li 

Extracts from Resolutions of the General Committee Ivii 

ib-rangement of the General Meetings Ivii 

Address by the President, Dr. Joseph D. Hooker, F.R.S Iviii 

REPORTS OF RESEARCHES IN SCIENCE. 

Report of the Limar Committee for Mapping the Surface of the Moon. 
Drawn up by W. R. Biet, at the request of the Committee, consisting 
of James Glaisher, P.R.S., Lord Rosse, F.R.S., Lord 'Wkottesley, 
P.R.S., Sir J. Herschel, Bart., F.R.S., Professor PniLiiPS, F.R.S., 
Rev. C. Peitchard, F.R.8., W. HuGams, F.R.S., Warren De La 
Rue, F.R.S., C. Beookk, F.R.S., Rev. T. W. Webb, F.R.A.S., J. N. 
Lockter, F.R.A.S., Herr Scmncx, and W. R. Birt, F.R.A.S 1 



IV CONTENTS. 

Page 

Poui'th Report of the Committee for Exploring Kent's Cavern, Devon- 
shire. The Committee consisting of Sir Chaeles Ltell, Bart., Pro- 
fessor Phillips, Sir Jonx Lubbock, Bart., Mr. John Ev.v:n's, Mr. 
Edwaed Vivia3^, Mr. GEOEeE Bttsk, and Mr. William Pengelly 
(Reporter) 4.5 

On Puddling Iron. By C. W. Siemens, F.R.S 58 

Eom-th Report on the Structure and Classification of the FossU Crustacea. 
By Henet Woodwaed, F.G.S., F.Z.S., of the British Museum 72 

First Report on the British Fossil Corals. By P. Martin Duncan, M.B. 
Lond., F.R.S., F.G.S., Sec. Geol. Soc 75 

Report of a Committee ajjpointed to investigate Animal Substances ■with 
the Spectroscope. By E. Rat Lankestee 113 

Second Report of the Committee on the Condensation and Analysis of 
Tables of Steamship Performance 114 

On the Results of Spectrum Analysis as applied to the Heavenly Bodies ; 
a Discourse delivered before the British Association at Nottingham, on 
August 24, 1SG6. By William Huggins, F.R.S., Hon. See. to the 
Royal Astronomical Society 140 

On some further Results of Spectrum Analysis as applied to tho 
Heavenly Bodies. By William Huggins, F.R.S., Hon. Sec. to the 
Royal Astronomical Society 152 

On Stellar Spectrometry. By Padre SEOcni 165 

Report on the Physiological Action of the Methyl and allied Com- 
pounds. By Benjamin W. Richaedson, M.A., M.D., F.R.S 170 

Report of tho Edinburgh Committee on the Action of Mercilry on the 
Biliary Secretion. By J. Hughes Bennett, M.D., F.R.S.E., Chairman 
and Reporter 187 

Last Report on Dredging among the Shetland Isles. By J. Gttvn 
Jeffeeys, F.R.S 232 

Shetland Final Dredging Report. — Part II. On the Crustacea, Tuiiicata, 
Polyzoa, Echinodermata, Actinozoa, Hydrozoa, and Porifera. By the 
Rev. Alfeed Meele Noeman, M.A 247 

Report on the Annelids di'edged off the Shetland Islands by Mr. Gywn 
Jeffreys, 1867-68. By W. C. M'Intosh, M.D., F.L.S 336 

Report on the Shetland Foramiuifera for 1868. By Edavaed Waliee. . 340 

Addenda to the Rev. A. M. Noeman's Report 341 

Report on the Chemical Nature of Cast Iron. — Part I. Account of some 
Experiments made to obtain Iron free from Sulphur. By A. Mat- 
THiEssEN, F.R.S., and S. Peus Szozepanowski 342 

Interim Report of the Committee on the Safety of Merchant Ships and 
their Passengers 344 



CONTENTS. V 

Page 

Ecport on Observations of Lnminous Meteors, 1867-68. By a Com- 
mittee, consisting of James Glaishee, F.E.S., of the Eoyal Obser- 
vatory, Greenwich, President of the Eoyal Microscopical and Meteo- 
rological Societies, Eobekt P. Gkeg, F.G.S., E. W. Beatlet, F.E.S., 
AiEXANTDEE S. Heeschel, F.E.A.S., and Chakles Beooke, E.E.S., 
Secretary to the Meteorological Society 344 

Preliminary Eeport on Mineral Veins containing Organic Eemains in 
the Carboniferons Limestone. By Chaeles Mooke, P.G.S 428 

Eeport of a Committee, consisting of General Sir Ain)EEAV S. WAXJcn, 
Sir Aethtje Phaxee, General G. Balfoub, General Sir Vincent Etee, 
Captain Sheeaed Osboen, Mr. Geoege CAiirBELL, and Dr. Thomas 
Thomson, appointed for the purpose of waiting on the Secretary of 
State for India to represent the desirability of an Exploration being 
made of the district between the Brahmaputra, the Upper Irawadi, 
and the Yang-tse-Kiang, with a view to a route being established 
between the navigable parts of these rivers 430 

Eeport of the Eainfall Committee, for the year 1867-68, consisting of J. 
Glaishee, F.E.S., Prof. Phillips, F.E.S., J. E. Bateman, E.E.S., 
E. W. MTL>n=, E.E.S., C. Beooke, E.E.S., T. Haavxslet, C.E., and 
G. J. Stmons, Secretary 432 

Eeport of Synthetical Eesearches on Organic Acids. By Alfeed E. 
Cattox, M.A., E.E.S.E., Eellow of St. John's College, Cambridge 475 

Eeport on the best means of providing for a uniformity of Weights 
and Measures, with reference to the Interests of Science. By a 
Committee, consisting of Sir John Boweing, The Et. Hon. C. B. 
Addeelet, M.P., Mr-'SAMtTEL Beown, Mr.W. Ewaet, M.P., Dr. Faee, 
Mr. J. Eeank Eellows, Prof. Eeankland, Prof. Hennessy, Mr. James 
HEm-ooD, Six- Eobeet Kane, Prof. Leone Levi, Prof. W. A. Millee, 
Prof. Eankine, Mr. C. W. Siemens, Col. Stkes, M.P., Prof. A. W. 
Williamson, Mr. James Yates, Dr. Geoege Glovee, Mr. Joseph 
Whitwoeth, Mr. J. E. jSTapiee, Mr. H. Diecks, Mr. J. N. V. Baz.u:.- 
GETTE, Mr. W. Smith, Mr. W. Eaiebaien, Mr. John Eobinson : — 
Prof. Leone Levi, Secretary 484 

Committee for the purpose of promoting the extension, improvement, and 
harmonic analysis of Tidal Obsers'ations. Consisting of Sir William 
Thomson, LL.D., E.E.S., Prof. J. C. Adams, E.E.S., The Asteonomee 
EoTAL, E.E.S., J. E. Bateman, E.E.S., Admiral Six- Edwaed Belchee, 
K.C.B., T. G. BxjNT. Staff-Commander Buedwood, E.IST., Waeeen De 
La Eue, E.E.S., Prof. Fischee, F.E.S., J. P. Gassiot, F.E.S., Prof. 
Haughton, F.E.S., J. E. Hind, F.E.S., Prof. Xelland, E.E.S., Staff- 
Captain Moeiaett, C.B., J. Oldham, C.E., W. Paeees, M. Inst. C.E., 
Prof. B. Peice, F.E.S., Eev. C. Peitchaed, LL.D., E.E.S., Prof. Ean- 
kine, LL.D., F.E.S., Captain Eichaeds, E.N., F.E.S., Dr. Eobinson, 
E.E.S., Lieut.-General Sabine, President of the lloval Society, W. 
SissoNs, Prof. Stokes, D.C.L., E.E.S., T. Webstee, M.A., F.E.S., and 
Prof. FxJLLEE, M.A., and J. E. Iselin, M.A., Secretaries.— Eeport by 
Sir W. Thomson 489 



VI CONTENTS. 

Pago 

Report of the Committee for the purpose of investigating the rate of 
Increase of Underground Temperature downwards in various Loca- 
lities, of Dry Land and under Water. Drawn up by Professor Eve- 
rett, at the request of the Committee, consisting of Sir William 
Thomson, LL.D., F.E.S., Mr. E. W. Binney, F.R.S., F.G.S., Principal 
Forbes, LL.D., F.R.S., Mr. Archtbald Geieie, F.R.S., F.G.S., Mr. 
James Glaishee, F.R.S., Rev. Dr. Grauam, Mr. Fleeminc Jenkin, 
C.E., F.R.S., Sir Charles Lyell, Bart., LL.D., F.R.S., Mr. J. Clerk 
Maxwell, Mr. George Maw, F.L.S., F.G.S., Prof. Phillips, LL.D., 
F.R.S., Mr. Pengellt, F.R.S., F.G.S., Professor Ramsay, F.R.S., 
F.G.S., Mr. Balfour Stewart, LL.D., F.R.S., Mr. G. J. Symons, 
Prof. James Thomson, C.E., Prof. Young, M.D., F.R.S.E, and Prof. 
Everett, D.C.L., F.R.S.E., Secretary 510 

Changes of the Moon's Surface. By Baron Von Madler 514 

Report on Polyatomic Cyanides. By Thomas Faieley 619 



NOTICES AND ABSTRACTS 



OF 



MISCELLANEOUS COMMUNICATIONS TO THE SECTIONS. 



MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICS. 

Page 
Address by Professor Tyndall, LL.D., F.RS., &c., President of the Section 1 

Lieut.-Ool. A. Strange on the necessity for State Intervention to secui-e the 
Progress of Physical Science 6 

MATnEMATICS. 

Mr. W. Bahrett Davis's Historical Note on Lagrange's Theorem 8 

Mr. T. DoBSON on a new Correction to be applied to observations made with 
Iladley's Sextant. 8 

Professor J. D. Everett's resnme of Experiments on Rigidity 8 

Mr. Arthur Gearing's Examples of Ocular Demonstration of Geometrical 
Propositions 8 

Mr. R. B. Hay^vard on the Chances of Success or Failure of Candidates for 

three-cornered or four-cornered Constituencies 9 

Mr. W. H. L. Russell on the Division of Elliptic Functions 10 

Professor H. J. Stephen Smith on a construction for the Ninth Cubic Point 10 

on Geometrical Constructions involving 

imaginary data 10 

on a property of the Ilessian of a Cubic 

Sm-face 10 

Mr. J. J. Sylvester on the Successive Involutes to a Circle 10 

Professor P. G. Tait on the application of Quaternions to the rotation of a Solid 11 

Asteowomt. 

Mr. W. R. BiRT on the extent of evidence which we possess elucidatory of 
" change " on the Moon's Surface 11 

Mr. George Forbes on the Meteor Shower of August 1868 13 



VIU CONTENTS. 

ACOTTSTICS. 

Page 
Mr. W. Fletcher B/Uirktt on a simple method of exhibiting the Combi- 
nation of Rectangular Vibrations 13 

Heat. . 

Mr. W. Fletcher B.vkrett on Sources of Error in determinations of the Ab- 
sorption of Heat by Liquids 14 

Mr. Frederick Guthrie on the Thermal Eesistance of Liquids 15 

Light. 

Mr. A. R. Catton on certain facts bearing on the Theory of Double Refraction 17 

Mr. Louis Bing on Actinometiy 17 

Mr. George Gladstone's observations on the Atmospheric Lines of the Solar 
Spectrum in High Latitudes 18 

Dr. J. H. Gladstone on the value of the Hollow Wedge in examining Ab- 
sorption Spectra 18 

Professor Morren sur une action particuliere de la lumiere sm- les sels d'argent 10 

Electeicity, Magnetism. 

Mr. W. Ladd on a further development of the Dynamo-Magneto-Electric 
Machine 19 

Mr. C. W. Siemens on the Electric Conductivity of Platinum as affected by 
the Process of Manufacture 20 

Hon. .1. W. Sthutt on a permanent deflection of the Galvanometer-needle by 
a rapid series of equal and opposite Induced Ciu-rents 20 

Mr. F. II. Varley on the construction of a Galvanometer for the Detection of 
weak Electric Currents 20 

Professor C. Zenger on a new Automatic Telegi-aphic Apparatus 21 

Meteoeologt. 

Ml". Robert James Mann on the Resemblance and Contrasts of the Climates 
of the Mauritius and Natal 21 

Dr. Mann'.s abstract of IMeteorological ObseiTations made at Pietermaritz- 

burg, Natal 24 

Mr. Charles Meldrum on SjTioptic Weather-Charts of the Indian Ocean . . 28 

on Storm- Warnings in Mauritius 30 

Padre Secchi on some Meteorological Results obtained in the Obsei-vatory 
at Rome 30 



CHEMISTET. 

Address by Professor E. Frankland, F.R.S., President of the Section 31 

Mr. F. A. Abel on the Chemical Composition of the Great Cannon of Mu- 



hammed II., recently presented by the Sultan Abdul Aziz Khan to the 
British Government 



34 



CONTENTS. IX 

Page 

]\Ir. Alfred R. Catton's Note on Lowig's Eeseai'clies on the Action of 

Sodium Amalgam on Oxalic Ether 35 

on Mitscherlich's Law of Isomorphism^ and on the 

so-called cases of Dimorphism 85 

Mr. J. Dewar on the Coal-Tar Bases 35 

on Kekul6's Model to illustrate Graphic Formulae 36 

Mr. W. DiTTJiAR on the Vapoiu'-tension of Formiate of Ethyl and of Acetate 

of Methyl 36 

Professor Edwaud Fbankland on the Combustion of Gases under Pressure 37 

Dr. J. H. Gladstone on Eefraction-Equivalents and Chemical Theories .... 37 

Mr. E. Gerstl on different Spectra of one Chromium Salt 38 

Mr. Frederick Guthrie's Note on Methylacetonamine, Ethylacetonamine, 

and Amylacetonamine 38 

Dr. M-VTTHiESSEN and Dr. W. J. Eussell's Note on the Vesicular Structure 

of Copper 38 

Dr. E. INIeusel and Mr. C. Haughton Gill on ParatHn, and its Products of 

Oxidation 39 

Dr. Ed-ward Meusel on a Physical Property of two Coloured Compoimds . . 39 

Dr. LuDWiG MoND on the Manufacture of Sulphur from Alkali Waste in 

Great Britain 40 

Mr. W. II. Perkin on Chloride of Methylene obtained from Chloroform by 

means of Nascent Hydrogen 40 

's Note on the Preparation of some Anhydrous Sodiimi 

Derivatives of the Salicylic Series 41 

Dr. T. L. Phtpson on Sulphocyanide of Ammonium 41 

Dr. Otto Richter's General Outline of an original System of Chemical 
Philosophy, comprising the Determination of the Volume-equivalents, as 

also a new Theoiy of the Specific Volumes of Liquid and Solid Substances 42 

Mr. John Spiller's Analysis of the Eoman Mortar of Burgh Castle, Sufiblk 43 

Dr. E. Angus Smith on the Absorption of Gases by Charcoal 44 

Mr. Chables Tomlinson on the Action of Nuclei in inducing Crystallization 45 

Professor J. A. Wanklyn's Note on Sea-water 46 

Eesearches on the Ethers 46 

Dr. Thomas Wood on Chemistry as a Branch of Education 49 



GEOLOGY. 

Address by Egbert A. C. Godwin-Austen, B.A., F.E.S., &c., President of 
the Section 51 

]Mi\ Wm. Hellier Baily's Notes on the Fossils from the Old Eed Sandstone 
of Kiltorcan Hill, County Ivilkenny 58 

Mr. Alfred Bell on the MoUuscan Fauna of the Eed Crag 59 

The Eev. James Brodle on recent Geological Changes on the British Islands GO 

Dr. Hyde Clarke on the Western Asia Minor Coal and Iron Basins, and on 
the Geology of the District , 61 

Dr. Edavards Crisp on the Skeleton of a Fossil Whale recently exhumed on 
the Eastern Coast of Sufiblk 61 



X CONTENTS. 

Page 
Professor Henui Coqtjand on the Parallelism of the Cretaceous Strata of 
England and the North of France, with those of the West, South- West, 
and South of France and the North of Africa 61 

Mr. J. Cubby on the Formation of certain Columnar Structures 62 

Dr. P. Mabtin Duncan on the genus Clisiophylhim 62 

The Rev. 0. Fisheb on the Denudations of Norfolk 63 

The Rev. W. Fox on the Skull and Bones of an Iguanodon 64 

Professor Goppebt on the inapplicability of Fossil Plants to support the Theory 
of Gradual Transformation 65 

Mr. W. R. Gbove's experiment on Ai-tificial Rocking-stones 65 

The Rev. J. Gunn on the Alternate Elevations and Subsidences of the Land, 
and the order of Succession of Strata in Norfolk and Suifolk 6G 

Mr. Henby Hicks on some recent Discoveries of Fossils in the Cambrian 
Rocks 68 

Mr. Chables Jecks on the Ferruginous Sandstone in the Neighbourhood of 
Northampton 69 

Mr. H. M. Jenkins on the Tertiary Deposits of Victoria 70 

Mr. S. Jenkins on the Noted Slate-veins of Festiniog 70 

Mr. E. Ray Lankesteb on the Oldest Beds of the Crags 70 

Mr. J. Logan Lobley on the Range and Distiibution of the British Fossil 
Brachiopoda 71 

Dr. John Lowe on the occurrence of Spherical Iron Nodules in the Lower 
Greensand 72 

Dr. Mann on the Coal-field of Natal 73 

Mr. Geobge Maw on the Sequence of the Deposits in Norfollc and Suffolk 
superior to the Red Crag 73 

Mr. Chables Moobb on New Discoveries connected with QuatornaryDeposits 74 

The Rev. C. G. Nicolay on the Geology of the Chapada Diamentina in the 
province of Bahia, Brazil 74 

Mr. C. W. Peach on the Fossil Fishes of Cornwall 76 

Mr. W. Pengelly on the Condition of some of the Bones fomid in Kent's 
Cavern, Torquay 76 

Mr. C. B. Rose on the Conchoidal Fracture of Flint as seen on Flint-faced 
buildings in Norwich, Yarnioutli, &c 77 

on the Crag at Aldeby 77 

on the Thickness of the Chalk in Norfolk 77 

Mr. J. W. Saxteb on a New Pterygotus, from the Lower Old Red Sand- 
stone 



ti 



]\L.\ H. G. Seeley on the Relations between extinct and Living Reptiles, and 
on the present state of our knowledge of Pterodactyle 78 

]Mi'. H. G. Seeley on the Classification of the Secondaiy Strata of England . . 78 

Mr. Samuel Shabp on a Remarkable Incrustration in Northamptonshire .... 78 

Mr. J. E. Taylob on the Noi-wich Crags and their relation to the Manimalifo- 
rous Bed 7g 

Prof. Tennant on the recent Discovery of Diamonds in the Cape Colony 79 

Mr. James Thomson's Notes on certain Reptilian Remains found in the Car- 
boniferous Strata of Lanarkshire 79 

Prof. Otto Toeeell on some New Fossils from the Longmynd Rocks of 
Sweden 80 



CONTENTS. XI 

Page 
Mr. Seakles V. Wood, Jim., and F. W. Habmeb on tlio Gkcial and Post- 
glacial Structui-e of Norfolk and Suflblk 80 

BIOLOGY. 
Address by the Eev. M. J. Beekeley, M. A., F.L.S., President of the Section 83 

B0TA]!fT AND ZOOLOGT. 

Professor George J. Axlman on the Structure of Coppinia arcta 87 

Professor T. C. Archer on the oecuiTence of Erysimum orientate imder pecu- 
liar circumstances at Edinbiu'gh 88 

Professor Balfour's Notice of the Occun-ence of Hieracimn collinum (Fries) 
in Selkirkshire, with Piemarks on some recent Additions to the Scottish Flora 89 

Remarks on the Properties of Atropa rhmnhoidea (Hooker), 

in connexion with its Botanical Character 89 

Mr. C. Spence Bate and Professor Westwood on the Geographical Distribu- 
tion of the British Genera of the Sessile-eyed Crustacea 89 

Mr. A. D. Bartlett on the Crested or Top-Knotted Turkey 89 

Mr. William Brown on Arboriculture as a Science 90 , 

Mr. Frank Buckland on the Progress of Oyster and Salmon Cultivation in 
England 90 

Dr. Hugh Cleghorn on the Distribution of the principal Timber Trees of 
India, and the progress of Forest Conservancy 91 

Dr. Alexander Dickson on some of the Principal Modifications of the 
Receptacle, and their Relation to the " Insertion" of the Leaf-organs of the 
Flower 94 

Professor E. Faivee's Experimental Studies on Annular Incisions on Mulberry 
Trees 95 

Mr. John Fraser on a new BHtisli Moss, Hypnum Bamhergeri 9G 

IMi". Robert Garner's Notice of a Male Octopodous Cuttlefish and some other 
Cephalopoda 90 

Mr. T. B. Geierson on Education in Natural Science in Schools 97 

Mr. T. E. Gunn's Notice of RareTishes occm-ring in Norfolk and Lothino-land 97 

Professor Hennessy on the possible introduction of South-Eui'opean Plants in 
the West and South of Ireland 98 

Mr. John Hogg on the Wellingtonia yiyautea, with remarks on its Form and 
Rate of growth, as compai'ed Avith the Cedrus Lihani IQO 

's Notes on Two British Wasps,' and their Nests, illustrated by 

Photographs 101 

Professor T. H. Huxley on some Organisms which live at the bottom of the 

I, ^ North Atlantic, in depths of 6000 to 15,000 feet 102 

Dr. Karl Koch on the Necessity of Photogi-aphing Plants to obtain a better 
knowledge of them IO2 

on the Specific Identity of the Almond and the Peach 102 

on the Classification of the Species of Crocus 102 

Mx. M. A. Lawson's Notes on the Flora of Slrye IO.3 

on the Discovery of Biubaitmia apJiyUa near London .... 104 

Mr._ Benjamin T. Lowne on Tyjie Variation and Polymorphism in their rela- 
tion to Mr. Darwin's Theory of the Origin of Species IO4 



XU CONTENTS. 

Page 

Mr. W. C. M^Intosh on the Proboscis of Ommatoplea 105 

on the Boring of certain Annelids 105 

]\Ir. George Ma"W on the occurrence of Lastrea rigida in North "Wales 105 

]\L'. M. MoGGHiDGE on the "Muffa" of the Sulphui' Sprinffs of Valdieri in 
Piedmont T 106 

Mr. A. Gf. Mobe's Discovery of Scirjms parvuhis in Ireland 106 

Rev. F. 0. MoEEis on the DifEculties of Darwinism . .' 107 

Professor Alfeed Newton on the Zoological Aspect of Game Laws 108 

Mr. C. W. Peach on a new Esehara from Cornwall 100 

Professor Eadlkofeh. on the Sti'uctural Peculiarities of certain Sapindaceous 
Plants 109 

Mr. II. Ste\t;nson on the Extinction of the Great Bustard in Noi-folk and 

Suffolk Ill 

Dr. Otto Toeeell on the Tusks of the Wabus Ill 

Professor E. Peeceval 'VVbight's Notes on the Flora and Faima of the Sey- 
cheUe group of Islands Ill 



Anatomy and Phtsiologt. 

Mr. Francis E. Anstie on certain Effects of Alcohol on the Pulse Ill 

Dr. Behier on the Generation of White Blood-corpuscles 112 

Mr. W. Kencely Bridgman on Electrolysis in the Mouth 112 

Dr. A. Ceujx Beown on the Connexion between Chemical Constitution and 
Physiological Activity 113 

Professor Cleland, Is the Eustachian Tube Open or Shut in Swallowing ? . . 11-3 

Dr. CoBBOLD on Flukes from the Indian Elephant 11-3 

Mr. Edwards Ceisp on the Eelative Weight and fonn of the Eye and Colour 
of the Iris in Vertebrate Animals 114 

. on some Points relating to the Visceral Anatomy of the 

Thylacimis 114 

on the Intestinal Canal and other Viscera of the Gorilla 114 

Dr. Thompson Dickson on Vitality as a Mode of Motion 114 

Mr. R. Dunn on the power of Utterance in respect to its Cerebral Bearings and 

Causes 114 

Mr. W. H. Flower on the Homologies and Notation of the Teeth of Mam- 
malia 11*5 

Mr. Robert Garner on the Anatomy of the Carinaria Mediterranea 116 

Professor Heynsics on the Albuminoid Substances of the Blood-cor[iuscles . . 117 

Mr. E. R. Laxkestee and H. N. Mosely on the Nomenclatm-e of Mammalian 

Teeth and the Teeth of the Mole 117 

Mr. AxEXANDEE Macalistees Notes on the Homologies and Compai-ative 

Anatomy of the Atlas and Axis 117 

Dr. Richardson on the Transmission of Light thi-ough Animal Bodies US 

. on Effects of Extreme Cold on Organic Function 119 

Professor G. Rolleston on the Pectorales Muscles 120 

on the Phj'siology of Pain 120 

Professor Traquaie's additional researches on the Asj-mmetry of the Pleuro- 
nectidffi 1-0 



CONTENTS. XUl 

Page 

Professor Paul Beoca on the Seat of the Faculty of Articulate Languages. . 120 

Dr. HuGHLiNGS Jackson on the Phj'siology of Language 120 

Professor George Rolleston on sixteen Eskimo Crania 120 

Mr. Edwaed B. Tyloe's Bemarks on Language and Mji;hology as Depart- 
ments of Bioloo-ical Science 120 



GEOaEAPHY AKD ETHNOLOGY. 

Address by Capt. Eichards, E.N., F.R.S., President of the Section 121 

Mr. T. Baines on the Victoria and Albert Rivers, North Austi-alia 130 

Dr. H. Blanc on the Native Races of Abyssinia 130 

Commander Lindesay Brine on the Past and Present Inhabitants of the 
Cyrenaica 131 

Mr. R. Beown on the Physical Geogi'aphy of the Queen Charlotte Islands . . 133 

■ on the FoiTuation of Fiords, Caiions, Benches, Prauies, and 

Intermittent Rivers 134 

Mr. W. Hepwoeth Dixon on the Great Prairies and the Prairie Indians .... 134 

Sir Waltee Elliot on the Sepulchral Remains of Southern India 134 

Rev. F. W. Holland on the Peninsula of Sinai, and its Geographical Bearings 
on the History of the Exodus 1 35 

Mr. H. H. IIowoETH on the Nomade Races of European Russia 13G 

Mr. T. J. Hutchinson on the Rivers and Territories of the Rio de la Plata . . 137 

- — on the Tehuelche Indians of Patagonia 137 

Mr. J. Logan Lobley on the Topography of Vesuvius, with an account of the 
recent eruption 137 

Dr. Mann on the Gold-field of South Africa 137 

Mr. Clements R. Maekham on the Physical Geography of the Portion of 
Abyssinia traversed by the English Expeditionary Force 138 

Mr. W. Glffoed Palgeave on the North-East Turkish Frontier and its 
Tribes 140 

Mr. Gean\ille Sharp's Description of Hong Kong 141 

Professor A. Vambeey on the Uigurs 141 

Mr. A. Waddington on the Overland Route through British North America 141 

Mr. Edwaed Whympee's Explorations in Greenland 143 

Professor E. Peeceval Weight on the Seychelles Islands 143 



ECONOMIC SCIENCE and STATISTICS. 

Address by Samui;l Beown, F.S.S., President of the Institute of Actuaries, 
President of the Section , 144 

Lydia E. Beckee on some supposed Differences in the Minds of Men and 
Women with regard to Educational Necessities 155 

Sir John Bo wring on the Moral and Pecimiary Results of Prison Laboui- . . 156 

Dr. Hyt)e Claeke on the Progress of Turkey 157 

Mr. F. S. CoER.\NCE on the Past, Present, and Future of the Wage-paid 
Classes 157 

Mr. Edwards Ceisp on the Statistics of Pulmonary Consumption in G23 Di- 
stricts of England and Wales 158 



XIV CONTENTS. 

Page 
Mr. PIenry Dircks on Patent Monopoly as affecting the encouragement, im- 
provement, and progress of Science, Arts, and Manufactures 159 

Mr. Frank P. Fellows on the New Scliemo of Mr. C. Seely, M.P., and Mr. 
F. P. Fellows for Admiralty Estimates, and " Finance," " Expense," " Ma- 
nufacturing," and other Accounts, &c., recommended for adoption hy the 
Committee of the House of Commons on Naval Monies and Accounts, and 
now being introduced 159 

Mr. J. G. Fitch on Educational Endowments 163 

Mr. G. Bell Galloway on Inventors and Inventions 165 

The Rev. Edward Girdlestone on the Condition of the Agricultm-al La- 
bourer, specially in the West of England 165 

Mr. W. D. Harding ou the Drainage of the Fens of Cambridgeshire, Him- 
tingdonshire, Norfolk, and Suffolk 1G6 

Mr. James Heywood on the Sanitary state of Indians in the Settlement of 
Kanyeageh, Canada, 18G8 167 

Mr. Henry Jeula's Brief Statement of the Recent Progress and Present 
Aspect of Statistical Inquiry in relation to Shipping Casualties 168 

Sir WiLLOUGHBY JoNEs on the Arterial Drainage of Norfolk 168 

Professor Leone Levi on the Progress of Learned Societies, illustrative of 
the Advancement of Science in the United Kingdom during the last Thirty 
Years 160 

■ on the Present State of the Question of International 

Coinage 17.3 

Mr. Horace Mann's Statistics relating to the Civil Service 174 

Mr. Francis G. P. Neison, Jun., on the Influence of Occupation upon Health 174 

Mr. Joseph Payne on the relation between Learning and Teaching 175 

Mr. Henry J. Ker Porter on the Extension of the Contagious Diseases Act 175 

Mr. C. S. Read on the Recent Improvements in Norfolk Farming 177 

Mr. W. Smith's Statistics of the Progress and Extermination of the Cattle 
Plague in Norfolk 177 

Mr. G. Johnstone Stoney on the Natural System of Coinage 177 

Ml". F. Wilson on Classification of Labom- » . . . . 179 



MECHANICS. 

Address by George Parker Bidder, C.E., F.R.G.S., President of the 
Section 180 

Mr. C. J. Appleby on the Mechanism for utilizing and regulating Convict 
Labom- 188 

Professor Archer on R. W. Thomson's Patent Road Steamer 188 

Mr. C. Blyth on an Improved Machine for Drawing-off, Measuring, and Cut- 
ting Cloth and other Materials for Manufacturing Purposes 188 

Mr. li. Bright on London Street Tramways , 189 

Mr. E. Charles worth on the substitution of Hand- for Shoulder-guns, 
illustrated by an explanatory exhibition of an Elevator Hand-gun made on 
the Breech -loading Principle 189 

Mr. Latimer Clark on the Advisability of obtaining a Uniform Wire-Gauge 189 

Mr. W. J. Cooper on an Improvement in Watering Roads 189 



CONTENTS. XV 

Page 
Mr. G-. Fawcus on Improyements in the Packing- of Boats, Lifeboats, and 
Pontoons 180 

]Mr. Lavington E. Fletchee, on the Unsatisfactory Character of Coroners' 
Inquests consequent on Steam-Boiler Explosions 190 

Mr. P. Le Neve Fostee, Jun., on the Irrigation of Upper Lomhardy by New 
Canals to be derived from the Lakes Lugano and Maggiore 190 

Capt. D. Ctalton's Description of a Ventilating Fireplace, with Experiments 
upon its Heating Power as compared with that of ordinary Fireplaces .... 191 

Mr. E. B. Grantham on the Broads of East Norfolk, having reference to the 
Water-supply, Stowage, and Drainage 191 

Mr. J. H. GwvNNE on an Improved Centrifugal Pump 102 

Mr. S. Jenkins on the Noted Slate-veins of Festiniog 192 

Mr. John Jones on some Points affecting the Economical Manufacture cf Iron 192 

Mr. Febdinand Kohn on the recent Progi-ess of Steel Manufacture lO.T 

Mr. T. Login on the Abrading and Transporting Power of Water 193 

Mr. Chaeles W. Meerifield on the Necessity for further Experimental 
Knowledge respecting the Propulsion of Ships 193 

Mr. A. Nobel on Dynamite, a recent Preparation of Nitro-glycerine, as a 
Blasting Agent 194 

Professor W. J. Macquoen Eankine on a Probable Connexion between the 
Resistance of Ships and their Mean Depth of Immersion 194 

Mr. W. Thoeold's AiLxiliary Eailway for Tiu-npike Roads and Highways 
passing through Towns 195 

The Rev. Professor Willis on the Ari-angements employed for the distribution 
of Water to towns and dwellings in the Middle Ages 195 ■ 

Mr. Joseph W^hitworth on the Proper Form of Projectiles for Penetration 
under Water 195 

Mr. Henry Dircks on Patent Monopoly as affecting the Encouragement, 
Improvement^ and Progress of Science, Arts, and Manufacturers 198 



LIST OF PLATES. 



PLATE I. 

Illustrative of the Eeport of the Lunar Committee for Mapping the Surface 
of the Moon. 

PLATE IT. 

Illustrative of Mr. Henry "\Vood-\vaed's Fourth Report on the Structure and 
Classification of the Fossil Crustacea. 



PLATES III., IV., V. 

Illustrative of Mr. William Huggins's papers on the Spectrum Analysis of 
the Heavenly Bodies. 



OBJECTS AND RULES 

OP 

THE ASSOCIATION. 

OBJECTS. 

The Association contemplates no interference mth. the ground occupied by 
other institutions. Its objects are, — ^To give a stronger impulse and a more 
systematic direction to scientific inquiry, — to promote the intercourse of those 
■who cultivate Science in different parts of the British Empire, with one an- 
other, and with foreign philosophers, — to obtain a more general attention to 
the objects of Science, and a removal of any disadvantages of a public kind 
which impede its progress. 

E U L E S. 

ADMISSION OF MEIIBEKS A3SD ASSOCIATES. 

All persons who have attended the first Meeting shall be entitled to be- 
come Members of the Association, upon subscribing an obligation to con- 
form to its Eules. 

The Fellows and Members of Chartered Literary and Philosophical So- 
cieties publishing Transactions, in the British Empire, shall be entitled, in 
like manner, to become Members of the Association. 

The Officers and Members of the Councils, or Managing Committees, of 
Philosophical Institutions, shall be entitled, in like manner, to become Mem- 
bers of the Association. 

AH Members of a Philosophical Institution recommended by its Council 
or Managing Committee, shall be entitled, in hke manner, to become Mem- 
bers of the Association. 

Persons not belonging to such Institutions shall be elected by the General 
Committee or Council, to become Life Members of the Association, Annual 
Subscribers, or Associates for the year, subject to the approval of a General 
Meeting. 

COMPOSITIONS, SITBSCRIPTIONS, AND PRIVILEGES. 

Life Members shall pay, on admission, the sum of Ten Pounds. They 
shall receive gratuitously the Reports of the Association which may be pub- 
lished after the date of such payment. They are eligible to all the offices 
of the Association. 

Annual Subscribers shall pay, on admission, the sum of Two Pounds, 
and in each following year the sum of One Pound. They shall receive 
f/ratuitousl;/ the lle]3orts of the Association for the year of their admission 
and for the years in which they continue to pay tvithout intenvhsion their 
Annual Subscription. By omitting to pay this Subscription in any particu- 
lar year. Members of this class (Annual Subscribers) lose for that and all 
future years the prinlege of receiving the volumes of the Association yratis : 
but they may resume their Membership and other privileges at any sub- 
sequent Meeting of the Association, ])aying on each such occasion the sum of 
One Pound. They are eligible to all the Offices of the Association. 

Associates for the year shall pay on admission the sum of One Pound. 
They shall not receive gratuitously the Reports of the Association, nor be 
eligible to serve on Committees, or to hold any office, 

1868. 6 



xnu RULES or the association. 

The Association consists of tlie following classes : — 

1. Life Members admitted from 1831 to 1845 inclusive, who have paid 
on admission Five Pounds as a composition. 

2. Life Members who in 1846, or in subsequent years, have paid on ad- 
mission Ten Pounds as a composition. 

3. Annual Members admitted from 1831 to 1839 inclusive, subject to the 
payment of One Pound annually. [May resume their Membership after in- 
termission of Annual Paj'ment.] 

4. Annual Members admitted in any year since 1839, subject to the pay- 
ment of Two Pounds for the fii-st year, and One Pound in each foUovring 
year. [May resume their Membership after intermission of Annual Pay- 
ment.] 

5. Associates for the year, subject to the payment of One Pound. 

6. Corresponding Members nominated by the Council. 

And the Members and Associates will be entitled to receive the annual 
volume of Reports, gratis, or to purchase it at reduced (or Members') price, 
according to the following specification, viz. : — 

1. Gratis. — Old Life Members who have paid Five Pounds as a compo- 

sition for Annual Payments, and previous to 1845 a further 
sum of Two Pounds as a Book Subscription, or, since 1845, a 
further sum of Five Pounds. 

New Life Members who have paid Ten Pounds as a composition. 

Annual Members who have not intermitted their Annual Sub- 
scription. 

2. At reduced or Members' Prices, viz. two-thirds of the Publication 

Price.— Old Life Members who have paid Five Pounds as a 

composition for Annual Payments, but no further sum as a 

Book Subscription. 
Annual Members who have intermitted their Annual Subscription. 
Associates for the year. [Privilege confined to the volume for 

that year only.] 

3. Members may piu'chase (for the purpose of completing their sets) any 

of the first seventeen volumes of Transactions of the Associa- 
tion, and of tuliich more than 100 copies remain, at one-third of 
the Publication Price. Application to be made (by letter) to 
Messrs. Taylor & Francis, lied Lion Court, Fleet St., London. 

Volumes not claimed within tM-o years of the date of publication can only 
be issued by direction of the Council. 

Subscriptions shall be received by the Treasui'er or Secretaries. 

MEETINGS. 

The Association shall meet annually, for one week, or longer. The place 
of each Meeting shall be appointed by the General Committee at the pre- 
vious Meeting ; and the Arrangements for it shall be entrusted to the Oflicers 
of the Association. 

GEIOKAL COjniITTEE. 

The General Committee shall sit during the week of the Meeting, or 
longer, to transact the business of the Association. It shall consist of the 
following persons : — 

1. Presidents and Officers for the present and preceding years, with 
authors of Reports in the Transactions of the Association. 

2. Members who have communicated any Paper to a Philosophical Society, 
•which has been printed in its Transactions, and which relates to such subjects 
as are taken into consideration at the Sectional Meetings of the Association. 



RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. XIX 

3. Office-bearers for the time being, or Delegates, altogether not exceed- 
ing thi'ee in number, from any Philosophical Society pubhshrag Transactions. 

4. Office-bearers for the time being, or Delegates, not exceeding thi-ee, 
from Philosophical Institutions established in the place of Meetiug, or in any 
place ^vhere the Association has formerly met. 

5. Foreigners and other indi^'iduals whose assistance is desired, and who 
are specially nominated in writing for the Meeting of the year by the Presi- 
dent and General Secretaries. 

6. The Presidents, Vice-Presidents, and Secretaries of the Sections are 
ex-officio members of the General Committee for the time being. 

SECTIONAI, COMMITTEES. 

The General Committee shall appoint, at each Meeting, Committees, con- 
sisting severally of the Members most conversant with the several branches 
of Science, to advise together for the advancement thereof. 

The Committees shall report what subjects of investigation they would 
particularly recommend to be prosecuted during the ensuing year, and 
brought under consideration at the next Meeting. 

The Committees shall recommend Reports on the state and progress of 
particular Sciences, to be drawn up from time to time by competent persons, 
for the information of the Annual Meetings. 

COMMITTEE OF RECOMMElTOATIOlfS. 

The General Committee shaU appoint at each Meeting a Committee, which 
shall receive and consider the Recommendations of the Sectional Committees, 
and report to the General Committee the measiu'es which they would advise 
to be adopted for the advancement of Science. 

All Recommendations of Grants of Money, Requests for Special Re- 
searches, and Reports on Scientific Subjects, shall be submitted to the Com- 
mittee of Recommendations, and not taken into consideration by the General 
Committee, unless previously recommended by the Committee of Recom- 
mendations. 

LOCAL COMMITTEES. 

Local Committees shall be formed by the Officers of the Association to 
assist in making arrangements for the Meetings. 

Local Committees shall have the power of adding to their numbers those 
Members of the Association whose assistance they may desire. 

OFFICERS. 

A President, two or more Yice-Presidents, one or more Secretaries, and a 
Treasurer, shall be annually appointed by the General Committee. 

COXTN'CII. 

In the intervals of the Meetings, the affairs of the Association shall be 
managed by a Council appointed by the General Committee. The Council 
may also assemble for the despatch of business during the week of the 
Meeting. 

PAPERS AND COMMTmiCATIOlfS. 

The Author of any paper or communication shall be at liberty to reserve 
his right of property therein. 

ACCoiryTS. 
The Accoimts of the Association shall be audited annually, by Auditors 
appointed by the Meeting. 

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PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



XXV 



Presidents and Secretaries of tlie Sections of the Association. 



Date and Place. 



Presidents. 



Secretaries. 



MATHEAIATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES. 



COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, I. MATHEMATICS AND GENEEAL PHYSICS, 



1832. 

1833. 
1834. 



Oxford 

Cambridge 
Edinburgh 



Davies Gilbert, D.C.L., F.E.S.... 

8irD. Brewster, F.E.S 

Eev. W. Whewell, RE.S 



Eev. H. Coddington. 

Prof. Forbes. 

Prof. Forbes, Prof. Lloyd. 



1835. 

1836. 

1837. 

1838. 

1839. 

1840. 

1841. 
1842. 

1843. 
1844. 
1845. 

1846. 

1847. 

1848. 
1849. 



Dublin 

Bristol 

Liverpool . . 

Newcastle.. 

Birmingham 

Glasgow . . 

Plymouth. . 
Manchester 

Cork 

York 

Cambridge. 

Southampton 

Oxford... 



SECTION A. MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICS. 

'Rev. Dr. Eobinson 

Eev. Williim WheweU, F.E.S.... 
Sir D. Brewster, F.E.S 



Swansea . 
Birmingham 



1850. Edinburgh.. 



1851. 
1852. 
1853. 
1854. 
1855. 
1856. 



Ipswich... 
Belfast ... 

HuU 

Liverpool . . . 

Glasgow . . . 
Cheltenham 



Prof. Su- W. E. Hamilton, Prof. 

Wheatstone. 
Prof. Forbes, W. S. Harris, F. W. 

Jerrard. 
W. S. Harris, Eev. Prof. PoweU, Prof. 

Stevelly. 
Eev. Prof. ChevaUier, Major Sabine, 

Prof. Stevelly. 
J. D. Chance, W. Snow Harris, Prof. 

Stevelly. 
Eev. Dr. Forbes, Prof. Stevelly, Arch. 

Smith. 
Prof. Stevelly. 
Prof. M'Cuiloch, Prof. Stevelly, Bev. 

W. Scoresby. 
J. Nott, Prof. Stevelly. 
Eev. Wm. Hey, Prof. Stevelly. 
Eev. H. Goodwin, Prof. Stevelly, G. 

G. Stokes. 
John Drew, Dr. Stevelly, G. G. 

Stokes. 
Eev. H. Price, Prof. Stevelly, G. G. 

Stokes. 
Dr. Stevelly, G. G. Stokes. 
Prof. Stevelly, G. G. Stokes, W. 

Eidout Wills. 
W. J. Macquorn Eankine, Prof. 

Smyth, Prof. Stevelly, Prof. G. G. 

Stokes. 
S. Jackson, W. J. Macquorn Eankine, 

Prof. Stevelly, Prof. G. G. Stokes. 
Prof Dixon, W. J. Macquorn Ean- 
kine, Prof. SteveUy, J. Tyndall. 
B. Blaydes Haworth, J. D. SolUtt, 

Prof. Stevelly, J. Welsh. 
Prof. G. G. Stokes, M.A., Sec.ij. Hartnup, H. G. Puckle, Prof. 

E.S. I Stevelly. J. Tyndall, J. Welsh. 

Eev. Prof Kelland, M.A., F.E.S. lEev. Dr. Forbes, Prof. D. Gray, Prof. 

L. & E. 1 Tyndall. 

Eev. E. Walker, M.A, F.E.S. ...C. Brooke, Eev. T. A. Southwood, 

I Prof. SteveUy, Eev. J. C. Tumbull. 



Sir J. F. W. Herschel, Bart., 

Eev! Prof. WheweU, F.E.S 

Prof. Forbes, F.E.S 

Eev. Prof Lloyd, F.E.S 

Very Eev. G. Peacock, D.D., 

FES 
Prof M'Cuiloch, M.E.I.A 

The Earl of Eosse, F.E.S 

The Very Eev. the Dean of Ely . 

Sir John F. W. Herschel, Bart., 

Eev! Prof PoweU, M.A., F.E.S. . 

Lord Wrottesley, F.E.S 

WiUiam Hopkins, F.E.S 

Prof J. D. Forbes, F.E.S., Sec. 
E.S.E. 

Eev. W. WheweU, D.D., F.E.S., 

Prof. W. Thomson, M.A., F.E.S. 

The Dean of Ely, F.E.S 



XXVI 



REPORT 1868. 



Date and place. 

1857. Dublin 

1858. Leeds 

1859. Aberdeen ... 

1860. Oxford 

1861. Manchester. 

1862. Cambridge . 

1863. Newcastle... 

1864. Bath 

1865. Birmingham 

1866. Nottingham 

1867. Dundee 

1868. Norwich .. 



Presidents. 



Eev. T. R. Robinson, DD., F.R.S.. 
M.R.I.A. 

Rev. W. Whewell, D.D., V.P.R.S. 



The Earl of Rosse, M.A., K.P., 

F.R.S. 
Rev. B. Price, M.A., F.R.S 

G. B. Airy, M.A., D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Prof. G. G. Stokes, M.A., F.R.S. 

Prof. W. J. Macquorn Rankine. 
C.E., F.R.S. 

Prof Cayley, M.A., F.R.S., 

F.R.A.S. 
W. Sjjottiswoode, M.A., F.R.S., 

F.R.A.S. 

Prof. Wheatstone, D.C.L., F.R.S, 
Prof Sir W. Thomson, D.C.L., 
Prof. J. TyndaU, LL.D.,F.R.S.... 



Secretaries. 



Prof. Curtis, Prof Hennessy, P. A. 

Ninnis, W. J. Macquorn Rankine, 

Prof Stevelly. 
Rev. S. Earnshaw, J. P. Hennessy, 

Prof Stevelly, H. J. S. Smith, Prof 

Tyndall. 
J. P. Hennessy, Prof Maxwell, H. J. 

Smith, Prof Stevelly. 
Rev. G. C. Bell, Rev. T. Rennison, 

Prof Stevelly. 
Prof R. B. Clifton, Prof H. J. S. 

Smith, Prof Stevelly. 
Prof R. B. Clifton, Prof H. J. S. 

Smith, Prof Stevelly. 
Rev. N. Ferrers, Prof Fuller, F. Jen- 
kin, Prof SteveUy, Rev. C. T. 

Whitley. 
Prof Fuller, F. Jenkin, Rev. G. 

Buckle, Prof Stevellv. 
Rev. T. N. Hutchinson' F. Jenkin, G. 

S. Mathews, Prof H. J. S. Smith, 

J. M. Wilson. 
Fleeming Jenkin, Prof H. J. S. Smith, 

Kev. S. N. Swann. 
Rev. C. Buckle, Prof G. C. Foster, 

Prof Fuller, Prof Swan. 
P)-of G. C. Foster, Rev. R. Harley, 

R. B. Hayward. 



CHEMICAL SCIENCE. 



COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, II. CHEMISTRY, MINERALOGY. 



1832. Oxford 

1833. Cambridge.. 

1834. Edinburgh . 



John Dalton, D.C.L., F.R.S 

John Dalton, D.C.L., F.R.S 

Dr. Hope , 



James F. W. Johnston. 

Prof Miller. 

Mr. Johnston, Dr. Christison. 



SECTION B. CHEMISTRY AND MINERALOGY. 



1835. Dublin 

1836. Bristol 



1837. Liverpool... 

1838. Newcastle... 

1839. Birmingham 

1840. Glasgow ... 

1841. Plymouth... 

1842. Manchester. 

1843. Cork 

1844. York 

1845. Cambridge . 

1846. Southampton 

1847. Oxford 



Dr. T. Thomson, F.R.S. 
Rev. Prof Gumming 



Michael Faraday, F.R. S 

Rev. William Wliewcll, F.R.S. .. 

Prof T. Graham, F.R.S 

Dr. Thomas Thomson, F.R.S. .. 

Dr. Daubeny, F.R.S 

John Dalton, D.C.L., F.R.S 

Prof Apjohn, M.R.I.A 

Prof T. Graham, F.R.S 

Rev. Prof. Camming 



Michael Faraday, D.C.L., F.R.S, 
Rev.W. V.Harcourt, M. A., F.R.S. 



Dr. Apjohn, Prof Johnston. 

Dr. Apjohn, Dr, C. Henry, W. Hera- 
path. 

Prof Johnston, Prof Miller, Dr. 
Reynolds. 

Prof'Miller, R. L. Pattinson, Thomas 
Richardson. 

Golding Bird, M.D., Dr. J. B. Melson. 

Dr. R. D. Thomson, Dr. T. Clark, 
Dr. L. Play fur. 

J. Prideaux," Robert Hunt, W. M. 
Tweedy. 

Dr. L. Playfair, R. Hunt, J. Graham. 

R. Hunt, Dr. Sweenv. 

Dr. L. Playfau-, E. Solly, T. H. Barker. 

R. Hunt, J. P. Joule, Prof Miller, 
E. Solly. 

Dr. Miller, R. Hunt, W. Randall. 

B. C. Brodie, R. Hunt., Prof Solly. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



XXVll 



Date and Place. 

1848. Swansea ... 
18-1:9. Bii'iningham 

1850. Edinburgh . 

1851. Ipswich .. 

1852. Belfast 

1853. Hull 

1854. Liverpool.. 

1855. Glasgow ... 

1856. Cheltenham 

1857. Dublin 

1858. Leeds 

1859. Aberdeen .. 

1860. Oxford 

1861. Manche.ster. 

1862. Cambridge . 

1863. Newcastle... 

1864. Bath 

1865. Birmingham 

1866. Nottingham 

1867. Dundee 

1868. Norwich ... 



Presidents. 



Secretaries, 



Richard Phillips, F.R.S 

John Percy, M.D., F.R.S 

Dr. Cliristisou, V.P.R.S.E 

Prof. Thomas Graham, F.R.S. ... 



T. H. Henry, R. Hunt, T. Williams. 
R. Hunt, G. Shaw. 
Dr. Anderson, R. Hunt, Dr. Wilson. 
T. J. Peiirsall, W. S. Ward. 
Thomas Andrews, M.D., F.R.S. .!Dr. Gladstone, Prof. Hodges, Prof. 

Ronalds. 
Prof. J. F. W. Johnston, M.A.,IH. S. Blundell, Prof. R. Hunt, T. J. 

F.R.S. I Pearsall. 

Prof. W. A. MiUer, M.D., F.R.S.'Dr. Edwards, Dr. Gladstone, Dr. 

I Price. 
Dr. Lyon Playfair, C.B., F.R.S. . Prof. Frankland, Dr. H. E. Roscoe. 

Prof. B. C. Brodie, F.R.S J. Horsley, P. J. Worsley, Prof. 

Voelcker. 
Prof. Apjohn, M.D., F.R.S., Dr. Davy, Dr. Gladstone, Prof. Sul- 



M.R.I.A 
Sir J. F. W. Herschel, Bart., 

D.C.L. 
Dr. Lyon Playfair, C.B., F.E.S. . 

Prof. B. C. Brodie, M.A., F.E.S. . 

Prof W. A. Miller, M.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. W. A. Miller, M.D., F.R.S. 

Dr. Ales. W. Williamson, F.R.S. 

W. Odling, M.B., F.R.S., F.C.S.. 

Prof W. A. MiUer, M.D.,V.P.E.S. 

H. Bence Jones, M.D., F.R.S. ... 

Prof T. Anderson.M.D., F.R.S.E. 

Prof E.Frankland,F.R.S.,F.C.S. 



livan. 

Dr. Gladstone, W. Odling, R. Rey- 
nolds. 

J. S. Brazier, Dr. Gladstone, G. D. 
Liveing, Dr. Odling. 

A. Vernon Harcourt, G. D. Liveing, 
A. B. Northcote. 

A. Vernon Harcourt, G. D. Liveing. 

H. W. Elphinstone, W. Odling, Prof. 
Roscoe. 

Prof Liveing, H. L. Pattmson, J. C. 
Stevenson. 

A. V. Harcourt, Prof. Liveing, E. 
Biggs. 

A. V. Harcourt, H. Adkins, Prof. 
Wanklyn, A. Winkler Wills. 

J. H. Atherton, Prof. Liveing, W. J. 
Russell, J. White. 

A. Crum Brown, Prof. G. D. Liveing, 
W. J. RusseU. 

Dr. A. Crum Brown, Dr. W. J. Rus- 
seU, F. Sutton. 



GEOLOGICAL (and, until 1851, GEOGEAPHICAL) SCIENCE. 



COMMITTEE OP SCIENCES, HI. GEOLOGY ANB GEOGEAPHT. 



1832. Oxford 

18.33. Cambridge. 
1834. Edinburgh. 



R. I. Murchison, F.R.S 

G. B. Greenough, F.R.S 

Prof. Jameson 



John Taylor. 

W. Lonsdale, Jolm Phillips. 
Prof. Phillips, T. Jameson Torrie, 
Rev. J. Yates. 



SECTION C. — GEOLOGY AND GEOGEAPHY, 



1835. DubUn R. J. Griffith 



1836. Bristol . 



1837. Liverpool. 



Rev. Dr. Buckland, F.R.S.— 

qr(q)h>/. R.I.Miu'chison,F. 

Rev. Prof Sedgwick.P.R.S.— 

graphy. G.B. Greenough, F. 



1838. Newcastle. .C. Lyell, F.R.S., V.P.G.S.— 

graphy. Lord Prudhope. 

1839. Birmingham Rev. Dr. Buckland, F.R.S.- 

I graphy. G.B.Greenough.F, 



Geo- 
R.S. 
Geo- 
E.S. 

Geo- 

Geo- 
'.E.S. 



Captain Portlock, T. J. Torrie. 

William Sanders, S. Stutchbury, T. J. 
Torrie. 

Captain Portlock, E. Hunter. — Geo- 
graphy. Captain H. M. Denham, 
E.N. 

W. C. Trevelyan, Capt. Portlock.— 
Geography. Capt. Washington. 

George Lloyd, M.D., H.E.Strickland, 
Charles Darwin. 



XXVUl 



REPORT — 1868. 



Date and Place. 



1840; Glasgow .. 

1841. Plymouth.. 

1842. Manchester 

1843. Cork 

1844. York 

1845. Cambridge , 

1846. Southampton 



Presidents. 



Charles Lycll, RE.S. — Geogra- 
phij. G. B. Greenough, P.E.S. 

H. T. De la Beche, F.E.S. 

R. I. Murchison, F.E.S 

Eichard E. Griffith, F.E.S., 

M.R.I.A. 
Henry Warburton, M.P., Pres. 

Geol. Soe. 
Eev. Prof. Sedgwick, M. A., F.E.S. 

Leonard IIorncr,F.E.S. — Geogra- 
phy. G. B. Greenough, F.E.S. 

Very Eev. Dr. Buckland, F.E.S. 



Secretaries. 



1847. Oxford 

1848. Swansea ... 

1849. Birmingham 

1850. Edinburgh *,Su- Eoderiokl. Murchison.F.E.S 



Sir H. T. De la Beche, C.B., 
Sir Charles Lyell, F.E.S., F.G.S. 



W. J. Hamilton, D. Mihie, Hugh 
Murray, H- E. Strickland, John 
Scoular, M.D. 

W. J. Hamilton, Edward Moore,M.D., 
E. Hut ton. 

E. W. Binney, E. Hutton, Dr. E. 
Lloyd, H. E. Strickland. 

Francis M. Jennings, H. E. Strick- 
land. 

Prof. Ansted, E. H. Bunbury. 

Eev. J. C. Gumming, A. C. Eamsay, 

Eev. W. Thorp. 
Eobert A. Austen, J. H. Norten, M.D., 

Prof. Oldham. — Geography. Dr. C. 

T. Beke. 
Prof. Ansted, Prof. Oldham, A. C. 

Eamsay, J. Euskin. 
Starling Benson, Prof. Oldham, Prof. 

Eamsay. 
J. Beete Jukes, Prof. Oldliam, Prof. 

A. C. Eamsay. 
A. Keith Johnston, Hugh Miller, Pro- 
fessor Nicol. 



1851. Ipswich .. 

1852. Belfast 



1853. Hull... 

1854. Liverpool .. 

1855. Glasgow ... 

1856. Cheltenham 

1857. Dublin... 

1858. Leeds ... 

1859. Aberdeen 

1860. Oxford... 

1861. Manchester 

1862. Cambridge 

1863. Newcastle.. 

1864. Bath 



SECTION C. GEOLOGY. 

WiUiam Hopkins, M.A., F.E.S... ' 
Lieut.-Col. Portlock,E.E., F.E.S. 



C. J. F. Bunbury, G. W. Ormerod, 
Searles Wood. 

James Bryoe, James MacAdam, Prof. 
MCoy, Prof. Nicol. 

Prof Harkness, William Lawton. 

John Cunningham, Prof. Harkness, 
G. W. Ormerod, J. W. Woodall. 

James Bryoe, Prof. Harkness, Prof. 
Nicol. 

Eev. P. B. Brodie, Rev. E. Hepworth, 
Edward Hull, J. Scougall, T.Wright. 

Prof Harkness, Gilbert Sanders, Eo- 
bert H. Scott. 

Prof. Nicol, H. C. Sorby, E. W. 
Shaw. 

Prof Harkness, Rev. J. Longmuir, H. 
C. Sorby. 

Prof Harkness, Edward HuU, Capt. 
Woodall. 

Sir R. I. Murchison, D.C.L., Prof. Harkness, Edward Hull, T. Ru- 
LL.D., F.E.S., &c. pert Jones, G. W. Ormerod. 

Lucas Barrett, Prof. T. Eupert Jones, 
H. C. Sorby. 

E. P. Boyd, John Daglish, H. C. Sor- 
by, Thomas Sopwitli. 

W. B. Dawkins, J. Johnston, H. C. 
Sorby, W. Pengelly. 



Prof. Sedgvrick, F.E.S 

Prof. Edward Forbes, F.E.S. . . 

Sir R. L Murchison, F.R.S 

Prof. A. C. Ramsay, F.R.S 

The Lord Talbot de Malahide .. 

William Hopkins, M.A., LL.D.; 

K T? S 
Sir Charles Lyell, LL.D., D.C.L., 

F.E.S. 
Rev. Prof. Sedgwick, LL.D., 

F.R.S., F.G.S 



J. Beete Jukes, M.A., F.R.S 

Prof. Warington, W. Smyth, 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Prof J. Phillips, LL.D., F.R.S., 

F.G.S. 



* At the Meeting of the General Committee held in Edinburgh, it was agreed "That the 
Bubject of Geography be separated from Geology and combined with Ethnology, to consti- 
tute a separate Section, under the title of the " Geographical and Ethnological Section," 
for Presidents and Secretaries of which see page xxxi. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



XXIX 



Date and place. 



1SG5. Birmingham 

1866. Nottingham 

1867. Dundee ... 

1868. Norwich... 



Presidenta. 



Sir E. I. Murchison, Bart.,K.C.B. 

Prof. A. C.Kamsay, LL.D.,F.E.S. 

Archibald Geikie, F.E.S., F.G.S. 

E. A. C. Godwin- Austen, F.E.S., 
F.G.S. 



Secretaries. 



Eev. P. B. Brodie, J. Jones, Eev. E. 
Myers, H. 0. Sorby, W. Pengelly. '■ 

E. Etheridge, W. Pengelly, T. Wil-'" 
son, G. H. Wright. 

Edward Hull, W. Pengelly, Henry- 
Woodward. 

Eev. O. Fisher, Eev. J. Gunn, W. 
Pengelly, Eev. H. H. Winwood. 



BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES. 



COMMITTEE OF SCrENCES, IV. ZOOLOGY, BOTANY, PHYSIOLOGY, ANATOMY. 



18.32. Oxford... 

18.33. Cambridge* 
1834. Edinburgh 



Eev. P. B. Duncan, F.G.S 

Eev. W. L. P. Garnons, F.L.S.... 
Prof. Graham 



Eev. Prof. J. S. Henslow. 
C. C. Babington, D. Don. 
W. Yarrell, Prof. Bui-nett. 



SECTION D. — ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY. 



18.3.5. 
1836. 

1837. 

1838. 

1839. 
1840. 

1841. 
1842. 

1843. 

1844. 

1845. 
1846. 



Dublin. 

Bristol. 



Liverpool... 

Newcastle 

Birmingham 
Glasgow ... 

Plymouth 
Manchester 

Cork 

York 



Prof. Owen, F.E.S 

Sir W. J. Hooker, LL.D. 



Cambridge 
Southampt" 



Dr. Allman 

Eev. Prof. Henslow . 

W. S. MacLeay ... ... 

Sir W. Jardine, Bart.. 



John Eiehardson, M.D., F.E.S. . . . 
Hon. and Very Eev. W. Herbert, 

LL.D., F.L.S. 
William Thompson, F.L.S 

Very Eev.Tlie Dean of Manchester 

Eev. Prof Hcn.slow, F.L.S. .. . 
Sir J. Eiehardson, M.D., F.E.S. 



1847. Oxford H. E. Strickland, M.A., F.E.S.... 



J. Curtis, Dr. Litton. 

J. Curtis, Prof. Don, Dr. Riley, S. 
Eootsey. 

C. C. Babington, Eev. L. Jenyns, W. 
Swainson. 

J. E. Gray, Prof. Jones, E. Owen, Dr. 
Richardson. 

E. Forbes, W. Ick, E. Patterson. 

Prof. W. Couper, E. Forbes, R. Pat- 
terson. 

J. Couch, Dr. Lankester, R. Patterson. 

Dr. Lankester, R. Patterson, J. A. 
Turner. 

G. J. Allman, Dr. Lankester, E. Pat- 
terson. 

Prof. Allman, H. Good sir, Dr. King, 
Dr. Lankester. 

Dr. Lankester, T. V. Wollaston. 

Dr. Lankester, T. V. WoUaston, H. 
Wooldridge. 

Dr. Lankester, Dr. Melville, T. V. 
WoUaston. 



SECTION D. ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, INCLUDING PHYSIOLOGY. 

[For the Presidents and Secretaries of the Anatomical and Physiological Subsections 
and the temporary Section E of Anatomy and Medicine, see pp. xxx, xxxi.] 



1848. Swansea ... 

1849. Birmingham 

1850. Edinburgh .. 



1851. Ipswich. 

1852. Belfast . 



L. W. Dillwyn, F.E.S 

William Spence, F.E.S 

Prof. Goodsir, F.E.S. L. & E. . . . 

Rev. Prof. Henslow, M.A., F.R.S. 

W. Ogilby 



Dr. R. Wilbraham Falconer, A. Hen. 
frey. Dr. Lanke.ster. 

Dr. Lankester, Dr. Rus.seU. 

Prof. J. H. Bennett, M.D., Dr. Lan- 
kester, Dr. Douglas Maclagan. 

Prof. Allman, F. W. Johnston, Dr. E. 
Lankester. 

Dr. Dickie, George C. Hyndman, Dr. 
Edwin Lankester. 



* At this Meeting Physiology and Anatomy were made a separate Committee, for 
Presidents and Secretaries of which see p. xxx. 



XXX 



REPORT — 1868. 



Date and Place. 



1853. 
1854. 
1855. 
1856. 



Hull 

Liverpool .. 
Gla.sgow . . 
ChelterLham 



Presidents. 



1857. Dublin 



1858. 

1859. 

1860. 

1861. 

1862. 
1863. 

1864. 

1865. 



Leeds 

Aberdeen ... 

Oxford 

Manchester . 

Cambridge .. 
Newcastle . . . 

Bath 

Birmingham 



C. C. Babington, M.A., F.E.S.... 

Prof. Balfour, M.D., F.E.S 

Rev. Dr. Fleeuiing, F.R.S.E. ... 
Thomas BeU, P.R.S., Pres.L.S. 

Prof. W. H. Harvey, M.D., F.E.S 



C. C. Babington, M.A., F.E.S. .. 

Sir W. Jardine, Bart., F.E.S.E. 

Eev. Prof. Henslow, F.L.S 

Prof C. C. Babington, F.E.S. .. 

Prof. Huxley, F.E.S 

Prof Balfour, M.D., F.E.S 

Dr. John E. Gray, F.E.S 

T. Thomson, M.D., F.E.S 



Secretaries. 



Eobert Harrison, Dr. E. Lankester. 
Isaac Byerley, Dr. E. Lankester. 
William Keddie, Dr. Lankester. 
Dr. J. Abercrombie, Prof. Buckman, 

Dr. Lankester. 
Prof J. E. Kinahan, Dr. E. Lan- 
kester, Eobert Patterson, Dr. W. E. 

Steele. 
Henry Denny, Dr. Heaton, Dr. E. 

Lankester, Dr. E. Perceval Wright. 
Prof Dickie, M.D, Dr. E. Lankester, 

Dr. Ogilvy. 
W. S. Church, Dr. E. Lankester, P. 

L. Sclater, Dr. E. Perceval Wright. 
Dr. T. Alcock, Dr. E. Lankester, Dr. 

P. L. Sclater, Dr. E. P. Wright. 
Alfred Newton, Dr. E. P. Wright. 
Dr. E. Charlton, A. Newton, Eev. H. 

B. Tristram, Dr. E. P. Wright. 
H. B. Bradv, C. E. Broom, H. T. 

Stainton, Dr. E. P. Wright. 
Dr. J. Anthonv, Eev. C. Clarke, Eev. 

H. B. Tristram, Dr. E. P. Wright. 



SECTION D. BIOLOGY*. 



1866. Nottingham 



1867. Dundee 

1868. Norwich .. 



Prof Huxley, LL.D, F.E.S.— 
Physiological Dqy. Prof Hum- 
phry, M'D., Y.'R.^.—Anfkropo- 
logical Dep. Alfred E. Wallace, 
P.E.G.S. 

Prof Sharpey, M.D., Sec. E.g.— 
Bcp. of Zool. and Bot. George 
Busk, M.D., F.E.S. 

Rev. M. J. Berkeley, F.L.S.— 
I)ep. of Physiology, W. H. 
Flower, F.E^S. 



Dr. J. Beddard, W. Felkin, Eev. H. 
B. Tristram, W. Turner, E. B. 
Tylor, Dr. E. P. Wright. 



0. Spence Bate, Dr. S. Cobbold, Dr. 

M. Foster, H. T. Stainton, Eev. H. 

B. Tristram, Prof W. Turner. 
Dr. T. S. Cobbold, G. W. Firth, Dr. 

M. Foster, Prof Tawson, H. T. 

Stainton, Rev. Dr. H. B. Tristram, 

Dr. E. P. Wright. 



ANATOMICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL SCIENCES. 



COMMITTEES OF SCIENCES, V. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY. 



18.33. Cambridge . 
1834. Edinburgh .. 



Dr. Haviland IDr. Bond, Mr. Paget. 

Dr. Abercrombie jDr. Eoget, Dr. William Thomson. 



SECTION E. (until 1847.) ANATOMY AND MEDICINE. 

183,5. Dublin 

1836. Bristol 

1837. Liverpool ... 



1838. Newcastle ... 

1839. Birmingham 



Dr.Pritchard 

Dr. Eoget, F.E.S 

Prof W. Clark, M.D 



T. E. Headlam, M.D 

John Yelloly, M.D., F.E.S. 



Dr. Harrison, Dr. Hart. 

Dr. Symonds. 

Dr. J. Carson, jun., James Long, Dr. 

J. E. W. Vose. 
T. M. Greenhow, Dr. J. E. W. Vose. 
. Dr. G. O. Eees, F. Eyland. 



# At the Meeting of the General Committee at Birmingham, it was resolved : — " That the 
title of Section D be changed to Biology ; " and " That for the word ' Subsection ' in the 
rules for conducting the business of the Sections, the word 'Department' be substituted." 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



XXXI 



Date and Place. 



Presidents. 



Secretaries. 



1840. Glasgow . 

1841. Plymouth . 



James Watson, M.D 

P. M. Koget, M.D., Sec. E.S. 



1842. Manchester . Edward Holme, M.D., F.L.S. 

1843. Cork Sir James Pitcairn, M.D 

1844. York j J. C. Pritchard, M.D 



Dr. J. Brown, Prof. Couper, Prof. 

Eeid. 
Dr. J. Butter, J. Fuge, Dr. E. S. 

Sargent. 
Dr. Chaytor, Dr. Sargent. 
Dr. John Popham, Dr. E. S. Sargent. 
I. Erichsen, Dr. E. S. Sargent. 



SECTION E. — PHTSIOLOGT. 



1S45. Cambridge .. 

1846. Southampton 

1847. Oxford* 



Prof. J. Haviland, M.D. . 
Prof. Owen, M.D., F.E.S. 
Prof. Ogle, M.D., F.E.S. . 



Dr. E. S. Sargent, Dr. Webster. 
C. P. Keele, Dr. Laycock, Dr. Sargent. 
Dr. Thomas, K. Chambers, W. P. 
Ormerod. 



PHTSIOLOGICAl STTBSECTIOirS OF SECTION D. 



1850. Edinburgh .. 


18.0.5. 


G-lasgow . . . 


18.57. 


Dublin 


18,')8 


Leeds 


1859. 


Aberdeen ... 


18fi0. 


Oxford 


1861. 


Manchester . 


1862. 


Cambridge .. 


1863. 


Newcastle . . . 


1864 


Bath 


1865. 


Birmingham 



Prof. Bennett, M.D., F.E.S.E. ... 
Prof. Allen Thomson, F.E.S. ... 

Prof. E. Harrison, M.D 

Sir Benjamin Brodie,Bart..F.E.S. 
Prof. S'harpey, M.D., Sec. E.S.... 
Prof. G. EoUeston, M.D., F.L.S. 
Dr. John Davy, F.E.S.L.&E. ... 

C. E. Paget, M.D 

Prof. Eolleston, M.D., F.E.S. ... 
Dr. Edward Smith, LL.D., F.E.S 
Prof. Acland, M.D., LL.D.,F.E.S, 



Prof. J. H. Corbett, Dr. J. Struthers. 
Dr. E. D. Lyons, Prof. Eedfern. 
C. G. Wheelhouse. 
Prof. Bennett, Prof Eedfern. 
Dr. E. M'Donnell, Dr. Edward Smith. 
Dr. W. Eoberts, Dr. Edward Smith. 
G. F. Helm, Dr. Edward Smith. 
Dr. D. Embleton, Dr. W. Turner. 
J. S. Bartrum, Dr. W. Tmner. 
jDr. A. Fleming, Dr. P. Heslop, Oliver 
Pembleton, Dr. W. Turner. 



GEOGEAPHICAL AND ETHNOLOGICAL SCIENCES. 

[For Presidents and Secretaries for Geography previous to 1851, see Section C, p. xxvii.] 

ETHNOLOGICAL STTBSECTIONS OF SECTION D. 



1 846. Southampton'Dr. Pritchard 

1847. Oxford Prof. H. H. Wilson, M.A. 

1848. Swansea.... 



1849. Birmingham 

1850. Glasgow ... 



Yice-Admiral Sir A. Malcolm . . 



Dr. King. 
Prof. Buckley. 
G. Grant Francis. 
Dr. E. G. Latham. 
Daniel Wilson. 



SECTION E. GEOGRAPHY AND ETHNOLOGY. 



1851. Ipswich ... 

1852. Belfast ... 

1853. HuU 

1854. Liverpool 

1855. Glasgow 



Sir E. I. Murchison, F.E.S., Pres. 

E.G.S. 
Col. Chesney, E.A., D.C.L., 

E. G. Latham, M.D., F.E.S. . . . 

Sir E. I. Murchison, D.C.L., 

F.E.S. 
Sir J. Eichardson, M.D., F.E.S. 



E. Cull, Eev. J. W. Donaldson, Dr. 
Norton Shaw. 

E. Cull, E. MacAdam, Dr. Norton 
Shaw. 

E. Cull, Eev. H. W. Kemp, Dr. Nor- 
ton Shaw. 

Eichard Cull, Eev. H. Higgins, Dr. 
Ihne, Dr. Norton Shaw. 

Dr. W. G. Blackie, E. Cull, Dr. Nor- 
ton Shaw. 



* By direction of the General Committee at Oxford, Sections D and E were incorporated 
under the name of '' Section D — Zoology and Botany, including Physiology " (see p. xxix). 
T he Section being then vacant was assigned in 1851 to Geography. 



XXXll 



REPORT 1868. 



Date and Place. 



Presidents. 



Secretaries. 



1856. 
1857. 
1858. 

1859. 
1860. 
1861. 
1862. 
1863. 
1864. 
1865. 
1866. 

1867. 
1868. 



Cheltenham 

DubUn 

Leeds 



Aberdeen ... 
Oxford 
Manchester . 
Cambridge 
Newcastle ... 
Bath ... 
Birmingham 
Nottingham 

Dimdee 

Norwich .. 



Col. Sir H. C. Eawlinson, KC.B. 

Rev. Dr. J. Henthawn Todd, Pres. 
R.I.A. 

Sir E. I. Murchison, G.C.St.S., 
F.R.S. 

Rear-Admiral Sir James Clerk 

Ross, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Sir R. I. Murchison, D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
John Crawford, F.R.S 

Francis Galton, F.R.S 

Sir R. I. Murchison, K.C.B., 

F.R.S. 
Sir R. I. Murchison, KC.B., 

F.R.S. 
Major-General SirR. RawHnson, 

M.P., K.C.B., F.R.S. 
Sir Charles Nicholson, Bart., 

LL.D. 

Sir Samuel Baker, F.E.G.S 

Capt. G. H. Richards, R.N., F.R.S. 



R. Cull, F. D. Hartland, W. H. Rum- 

.«ev, Dr. Norton Shaw. 
R. Cull, S. Ferguson, Dr. R. R. Mad- 
den, Dr. Norton Shaw. 
R. CuU, Francis Galton, P. O'Cal- 

laghan, Dr. Norton Shaw, Thomas 

Wright. 
Richard Cull, Professor Geddes, Dr. 

Norton Shaw. 
Capt. Burrows, Dr. J. Hunt, Dr. C. 

Lempriere, Dr. Norton Shaw. 
Dr. J. Hunt, J. Kingsley, Dr. Norton 

Shaw, W. Spottiswoode. 
J. W. Clarke, Rev. J. Glover, Dr. 

Hunt, Dr. Norton Shaw, T. Wright. 
C. Carter Blake, Hume Greenfield, 

C. R. Markham, R. S. Watson. 
H. W. Bates, C. R. Markliam, Capt. 

R. M. Murchison, T. Wright. 
H. W. Bates, S. Evans, G. Jabet, C. 

B. Markham, Thomas Wright. 
H. W. Bates, Rev. E. T. Cusins, R. 

H. Major, Clements R. Marldiam, 

D. W. Nash, T. Wright. 
H. W. Bates, Cyril Graliam, C. R. 

Markham. S. J. Mackie, R. Sturrock. 
T. Baines, H. W. Bates, C. R. Mark- 
ham, T. Wright. 



STATISTICAL SCIENCE. 



1833. Cambridge 

1834. Edinburgli 



COMMITTEES OF SCIENCES, VI. STATISTICS. 

Prof Babbage, F.R.S i J. E. Drinkwater. 

Sir Charles Lemon, Bart jDr. Cleland, C. Hope Maclean. 



SECTION F. STATISTICS. 



18.35. Dublin 

1836. Bristol 

1837. Liverpool . . . 

1838. Newcastle ... 

1839. Birmingham 

1840. Glasgow ... 

1841. Plymouth... 

1842. Manchester . 

184.3. Cork 

1844. York 

1845. Cambridge .. 
1846.Southampton 

1847. Oxford 



Charles Babbase, F.R.S. ... 
Sir Charles Lemon, Bart., F.R.S. 

Rt. Hon. Lord Sandon 

Colonel Sykes, F.R.S 

Henry Hallam, F.R.S 

Rt. Hon. Lord Sandon, F.R.S., 

M.P. 
Lieut.-Col. Sykes, F.R.S 

G. W. Wood, M.P., F.L.S 

Sir C. Lemon, Bart., M.P 

Lieut.-Col. Svkes, F.R.S., F.L.S. 
Rt. Hon. The Earl Fitzwilliam... 
G. R. Porter, F.R.S 

Travers Twiss, D.C.L., F.R.S. ... 



W. Greg, Prof Longfield. 

Rev. J. E. Bromby, C. B. Frijip, 

James Heywood. 
W. R. Greg," W. Langton, Dr. W. C. 

Tavler. 
W. Cargill. J. Heywood, W. R. Wood. 
F. Clarke, R. \V Rawson, Dr. AV. C. 

Tavler. 
C. R. Baird, Prof Ramsay, E. W. 

Raw.son. 
Rev. Dr. Byrth, Eev. R. Luney, R. 

W. Rawson. 
Rev. R. Luney, G. W. Ormerod, Dr. 

W. C Tayler. 
Dr. D. Bulleu, Dr. W. Cooke Tayler. 
J. Fletcher, J. Heywood. Dr. Laveock. 
J. Fletcher, W. Cooke Tavler, LL.D. 
J. Fletcher, F. G. P. Neis'on, Dr. W. 

C. Tavler, Rev. T. L. Shapcott. 
Rev. W. H. Cos, J. J. Danson, F. G. 

P. Neison. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



XXXIU 



Date and Place. 



President. 



Secretaries. 



1848. Swansea ... J. H. Vivian, M.P., F.R.S. 

1849. Birmingham Et. Hon. Lord Lyttelton .. 



1850. Edinburgh .. 



18.51. Ipswich. 



. Very Rev. Dr. John Lee, 

V.P.E.S.E. 
. Sir John P. Boileau, Bart. . . . 

18.52. Belfast iHis Grace the Archbishop 

j Dublin. 

1853. HuU 'James Heywood, M.P., F.R.S. 

1854. Liverpool . . . iThomas Tooke, F.R.S 



1855. Glasgow R. Monckton Miles, M.P 



of 



J. Fletcher, Capt. R. Shortrede. 

Dr. Fmch, Prof. Hancock, F. G. P. 
Neison. 

Prof. Hancock, J. Fletcher, Dr. J. 
Stark. 

J. Fletcher, Prof. Hancock. 

Prof. Hancock, Prof. Ingram, James 
Mac Adam, Jun. 

Edward Chesliire, WiUiam Newmarch. 

E. Chesliii-e, J. T. Danson, Dr. W. H. 
Duncan, W. Nevvniarch. 

J. A. Campbell, E. Cheshire, W. New- 
march, Prof. R. H. Walsh. 



SECTION F. ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 



1856. Cheltenham 

1857. Dublin 

1858. Leeds 

1859. Aberdeen ... 

1860. Oxford 

1861. Manchester 

1862. Cambridge.. 

1863. Newcastle... 

1864. Bath 

1865. Birmingham 

1866. Nottingham 

1867. Dundee 

1868. Norwich ... 



Rt. Hon. Lord Stanley, M.P. ... 



His Grace the Archbishop of 

Dublin, M.R.I.A. 
Edward Baines 



Col. Sykes, M.P., F.R.S. .. 
Nassau W. Senior, M.A. .. 
William Newmarch, F.R.S. 



Edwin Chadwick, C.B 

William Tite, M.P., F.R.S. 



Rev. C. H. Bromby, E. Cheshire, Dr. 

W. N. Hancock Newmarch, W. M. 

Tartt. 
Prof. Cairns, Dr. H. D. Hutton, W. 

Newmarch. 
T. B. Baines, Prof. Cau-ns, S. Brown, 

Capt. Fishbourne, Dr. J. Strang. 
Prof. Cairns, Edmund Macrory, A. M. 

Smitli, Dr. John Strang. 
Edmund Macrory, W. Newmarch, 

Rev. Prof. J. E' T. Rogers. 
David Chadwick, Prof. R. C. Christie, 

E. Macrory, Rev. Prof. J. E. T. 

Rogers. 
H. D. Macleod, Edmund Macroi-y. 
T. Doubleday, Edmund Macrory, 

Frederick Purdy, James Potts. 
E. Macrory, E. T.' Payne, F. Purdy. 



William Farr, M.D., D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
Rt. Hon. Lord Stanley, LL.D., G. J. D. Goodman, G. J. Johnston, 

M.P. 1 E. Macrory. 

Prof. J. E. T. Rogers R. Bii-kin, Jun., Prof. Leone Levi, E. 

Macrory. 

M. E. Grant Duff, M.P Prof. Leone Levi, E. Macrory, A. J. 

Warden. 
Samuel Brown, Pres. Instit. Ac-|Rev. W. C. Davie, Prof. Leone Levi. 

tuaries. 



MECHAXICAL SCIEXCE. 

SECTION G, MECHANICAL SCIENCE. 



18.36. Bristol 

1837. Liverpool ... 

1838. Newcastle ... 

1839. Birmingham 

1840. Glasgow ... 

1841. Plymouth... 

1842. Manchester . 

1868. 



Davies Gilbert, D.C.L., F.R.S... . 

Rev. Dr. Robinson 

Charles Babbage, F.R.S 

Prof. Willis, F.R.S., and Robert 

Stephenson. 
Sir John Robinson 



John Taylor, F.R.S 

Rev. Prof. WiUis, F.R.S 



T. G. Bunt, G. T. Clark, W. West. 

Charles Vignules, Thomas Webster. 

R. Hawthorn, C. Vignoles, T. Web- 
ster. 

W. Carpmael, WUKam Hawkes, Tho- 
mas Webster. 

J. Scott Russell, J. Thomson, J. Tod, 
C. Vignoles. 

Henry Chatfield, Thomas Webster. 

J. F. Batemau, J. Scott Russell, J. 
Thomson, Charles Vignoles. 
c 



XXXIV 



REPORT 1868. 



Date and Place. 



1843. 
1844. 
1845. 
1846. 
1847. 
1848. 
1849. 
1850. 
1851. 
1852. 



Cork 

York 

Cambridge .. 
Southampton 

Oxford 

Swansea 

Birmingham 
Edinburgh .. 

Ipswich 

Belfast 

HuU 



1853. 

1854, 

1855. 

1856. Cheltenham 

1857. 



President. 



Liverpool 
Glasgow 



1858. 
1859. 



Dublin .. 

Leeds 

Aberdeen 

Oxford .. 



1860. 

1861. Manchester 



1862. 
18G3. 

1864. 
1865. 



Cambridge .. 
Newcastle . . . 

Bath 

Birmingham 



1866. Nottingham 

1867. Dundee 

1868. Norwich ... 



Prof. J. Macneill, M.E.I. A 

Jolm Taylor, F.E.S 

George Eennie, F.E.S 

Eev. Prof. Willis, M.A., F.E.S. . 
Eev. Prof Walker, M.A., F.E.S. 
Eev. Prof Walker, M.A.,' F.E.S. 
Eobert Stephenson, M.P., F.E.S. 

Eev. Dr. Eobinson 

William Cubitt, F.E.S 

Jolm Walker, C.E., LL.D., F.E.S 

WiUiam Fairbairn, C.E., F.E.S. 

John Scott Eussell, F.E.S 



Secretaries. 



James Thomson, Eobert MaUet. 

Charles Vignoles, Thomas Webster. 

Eev. W. T. Eingsley. 

William Betts, Jun., Charles Manby. 

J. Glynn, E. A. Le Mesiu-ier. 

E. A." Le Mesurier, W. P. Struv^. 

Charles Manby, W. P. Mai-shall. 

Dr. Lees, David Stevenson. 

John Head, Charles Manby. 

John F. Bateman, C. B. Hancock, 

Charles Manby, James Thomson. 
James Oldham, J. Thomson, W. Sykes 

Ward. 
John Grantham, J. Oldham, J. Thom- 



W. J. Macquom Eankine, C.E. 

F.E.S. 
George Eennie, F.E.S 

The Eight Hon. The 
Eosse, F.E.S. 

WiUwm Fau-bairn, F.E.S 

Eev. Prof WiUis, M.A., F.E.S. . 

Prof W. J. Macquom Eankine. 

LL.D., F.E.S. 
J. F. Bateman, C.E., F.E.S 

William Fairbairn, LL.D.. F.E.S. 
Eev. Prof WiUis, M.A., F.E.S. 



L. Hill, Jun., WiUiam Eamsay, J. 

Thomson. 
C. Atherton, B. Jones, Jun., H. 'M. 
Jeffery. 
Earl of'Prof Downing, W. T. Doyne, A. Tate, 
James Thomson, Henrv Wright. 
J. C. Dennis, J. Dixon, H. Wright. 
E. Abernethy, P. Le Neve Foster, H. 

Wright. 
P. Le Neve Foster, Eev. F. Harrison, 

Henry Wright. 
P. Le Neve Foster, John Eobinson, H. 

Wright. 
W. M. Fawcett, P. Le Neve Foster. 
.P. Le Neve Foster, P. Westmacott, J. 
I F. Spencer. 

J. Hawkshaw, F.E.S JP. Le Neve Foster, Eobert Pitt. 

Sir W. G. Armstrong, LL.D., IP. Le Neve Foster, Henry Lea, W. P. 

F.E.S. Marshall, "S^'alter May. 

Thomas Hawksley, V.P.Inst. P. Le Neve Foster, J. F. Iselin, M. 

C.E.. F.G.S. I A. Tarbottom. 

Prof. W. J. Macquom Eankine, P. Le Neve Foster, 



LL.D., F.E.S. 
G. P. Bidder, C.E., F.E.G.S. 



W. W. Urqubart. 
P. Le Neve Foster, 
Manby, W. Smith. 



John P. Smith, 
J. F. Iselin, C. 



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OFFICERS AND COUNCIL, 1868-69. 



TRUSTEES (PERMANENT). 

Sir RODEHICK I. MURCHISON, Bart, K.C.B., G.C.St.S., D.C.L., P.E.S. 
Lieut.-General Edward Sabine, E,A., D.C.L., Pres. E.S. 
Sir Philip de M. Geey Egeetok, Bart, M.P., F.R.S. 

PRESIDENT. 

JOSEPH DALTON HOOKEE, M.D., D.C.L., F.E.S., F.L.S., F.G.S. 



VICE-PRESIDENTS. 



The Eight Hon. The Earl of Leicester, Lord- 
Lieutenant of Norfolk. 

The Eev. Ai>,\.M SEDGWICK, M.A., LL.D., F.E.S., 
F.G.S. , &c., Woodwardian Professor of Geology in 
the University of Cambridge. 



Sir JoiiK Lubbock, Bart., F.E.S., P.L.S., F.G.S. 

John Couch Adams, Esq., M.A., D.C.L., P.E.S., 
F.E.A.8., Lowndsean Professor of Astronomy 
and Geometry in the University of Cambridge. 

Tuo.MAS Brightwell, Esq. 



PRESIDENT ELECT. 
GEOEGE G. STOKES, M.A., D.C.L., Sec. E.S., Lucasian Professor of Mathematics in the University 

of Cambridge. 



The Eight Hon. The Earl of Devon. 

The Eight Hon. Sir Stafford H. Northcote, 

C.B., Bart, M.P., &e. 
Sir John Bowrihg, LL.D., F.E.S. 



VICE-PRESIDENTS ELECT. 

William B. Carpenter, M.D., F.E.S., F.L.S. 

EoiiERT Were Fox, Esq., F.E.S. 

W. H. Fox Talbot, M.A., LL.D., F.E.S., F.L.S. 



LOCAL SECRETARIES FOR THE MEETING AT EXETER. 

John C. Bowring, Esq. 
Henry S. Ellis, Esq., F.E.A.S. 
The Eev. E. Kirwan. 

LOCAL TREASURER FOR THE MEETING AT EXETER. 

William Cotton, Esq. 



ORDINARY MEMBERS 
Bateman, J. F., Esq., F.E.S. 
Busk, George, Esq., F.E.S. 
Duff, M. E. Grant, Esq., M.P. 
Evans, John, Esq., F.E.S. 
G.VLTON, Capt. Douglas, C.B., E.E., F.E.S. 
Galton, Francis, Esq., F.E.S. 
Gassiot, J. P., Esq., F.R.S. 
Godwin-Austen, R. A. C, Esq., F.E.S. 
Houghton, Eight Hon. Lord, D.C.L. 
HuGGiNS, William, Esq., F.R.S. 
Huxley, Professor, F.R.S. 
Miller, Prof.W. A., M.D., F.R.S. 
Newmaech, William, Esq., F.R.S. 
Odling, William, Esq., M.B., F.R.S. 



OF THE COUNCIL. 

Ramsay-, Professor, F.R.S. 
Rankine, Professor W. J. M., F.R.S. 
Eawlinson, Sir H., Bart., l'\E.S. 
EiCHAEDS, Captain, R.N., F.R.S. 
Smith, Professor H. J. S., F.R.S. 
Smyth, Warington, Esq., F.R.S. 
Strange, Lieut.-Colonel A., F.E.S. 
Sykes, Colonel, M.P., P.E.S. 
Sylvester, Prof. J. J., LL.D., F.E.S. 
Tite, W., Esq., M.P., P.E.S. 
Tyniiall, Professor, F.E.S. 
Wheatstone, Professor Sir C, F.B.8. 
WiLLiAJHSON, Prof. A. W., F.E.S. 



EX-OFFICIO MEMBERS OF THE COUNCIL. 

The President and President Elect, the Vice-Presidents and Vice-Presidents Elect, the General and 
Assistant General Secretaries, the General Treasurer, the Trustees, and the Presidents of former 



years, viz.: — 

Eev. Professor Sedgwict. 

The Duke of Devonshire. 

Eev. W. V. Harcourt 

Sir John F. W. Herschel, Bart. 

Sir E. I. Murehison, Bart, K.C.B. 

The Eev. T. E. Robinson, D.D. 

G. B. Airy,E8q.,AstronomerRoyal. 



Lieut.-General Sabine, D.C.L. 
The Earl of Harrowby. 
The Duke of Argvll. 
The Rev. H. Lloyd. D.D. 
Richard Owen, M.D., D.C.L. 
William Fairbairn, Esq., LL.D. 



GENERAL SECRETARIES. 



The Rev. Professor Willis. 
Sir W. G. Armstrong, C.li., LL.D. 
SirChas. Lvell, Bart., M.A. , LL.D. 
Professor Phillips, M.A., D.C.L. 
William R. Grove, Esq., F.E.S. 
The Duke of Buccleuch, K.B. 



T. Archer Hirst, Esq., P.R.S., F.R.A.S., Professor of Mathematics in University College, London 
Dr. Thomas Thomson, F.R.S., Kew. 

ASSISTANT GENERAL SECRETARY. 

George Griffith, Esq., M.A., 1 Woodside, Harrow. 



GENERAL TREASURER. 
William Spottiswoode, Esq., M.A., F.E.S., F.R.G.S., 60 Grosvenor Place, London, 8.W. 



Dr. Odling, P.E.S. 



AUDITORS. 
W. H. Plower, Esq., F.E.S. 



Professor G. C. Foster, P.C.S. 



1 



OFFICERS OF SECTIONAL COMMITTEES. XXXVll 

OFFICERS OF SECTIONAL COMMITTEES PRESENT AT THE 
NORWICH MEETING. 

SECTION A. MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICS. 

President.— Professor Tyndall, LL.D, F.R.S. 

Vice-Presidents.— J. P. Gassiot, F.R.S. ; Rev. Canon Heaviside ; Rev. Professor 
Eart]iolomewPrice,M.A., F.R.S. ; Rev. C. Pritchard, M.A., F.R.S.; Professor 
H. J. S. Smith, M.A., F.R.S. ; Professor Stokes, D.O.L., Sec. R.S. ; Rev. Pro- 
fessor Willis, M.A., F.R.S. 

Secretaries.— Froieasor G. C. Foster ; Rev Robert Harley, F.R.S. ; R. B. Hayward, 
M.A. 

SECTION B. CHEMISTKY AND MINERALOGY, INCLUDING THEIE APPLICATIONS TO 

AGEICULTURE AND THE ARTS. 

President. — Professor Edward Frankland, F.R.S., F.C.S. 

Vice-Presidents.— Br. J. H. Gladstone, F.R.S.; Professor Liveing, F.C.S. ; 

Professor Odling-, F.R.S.: Dr. Stenhouse, F.R.S.; Professor WiUiamson, 

F.R.S. 
Secretaries.— Br. A. Cnun Brown, F.R.S.E., F.C.S. ; Dr. W. J. Russell, F.C.S. ; 

F. Sutton, F.C.S. 

SECTION C. GEOLOGY. 

President.— n. A. C. Godwin-Austen, F.R.S., F.G.S. 

Vice-Presidenfs.—Sir Chas. J. F. Bunbury, Bart., F.R.S., F.G.S. ; Jobn Evans, 
F.R.S., F.G.S. ; R. Fitch, F.G.S. ; Professor Harkness, F.R.S. ; Professor Hux- 
ley, F.R.S. ; Sir Charles Lvell, Bart., D.C.L., F.R.S. ; Professor PhilUps, D.C.L., 
F.R.S., F.G.S. ; Warington W^ Smyth, F.R.S., F.G.S. 

Secretaries.— W. Pengellv, F.R.S. ; Rev. H. H. Winwood, M.A., F.G.S. ; Rev. J. 
Gunn, F.G.S. ; Rev. Osmund Fisher, M.A., F.G.S. 

SECTION D. BIOLOGY. 

President.— TLeY. M. J. Berkelev, M.A., F.L.S. 

Vice-P-esidents.—Vroiessor Balfour, M.D., F.R.S. ; George Bentham, F.R.S. ; 

George Busk, F.R.S. ; W. H. Flower, F.R.S. ; Professor Humphry, F.R.S. ; 

Professor Newton, M.A., F.L.S. ; Professor Rolleston, F.R.S. ; E. B. Tylor, 

F.L.S. 
Secretaries.— G. W. Firth; M. Foster, M.D., F.L.S.; Professor Lawson, M.A. ; 

H. T. Stainton, F.R.S. ; Rev. H. B. Tristram, LL.D., F.R.S. ; Professor E. 

Perceval Wright, M.D., F.L.S. ; T. S. Cobbold, M.D., F.R.S. 

SECTION E. GEOGRAPHY AND ETHNOLOGY. 

President— CsiTpt. G. H. Richards, R.N., F.R.S., Hydrographer to the Admiralty. 

Vice-Presidents. — Vice-Admiral Sir Edward Belcher ; Sir W^alter Elliot ; Sir F. 
Leopold M'Clintock, F.R.S. ; .Sir Charles Nicholson, Bart. ; Admiral Erasmus 
Ommanney, F.R.S. ; Sir Arthur Phayre; General Sir A. Scott Waugh, F.R.S. 

jS6'creta/-(>.s.—H. W. Bates, Assist. Sec.'R.G.S. ; Thomas Baines, F.R.G.S. ; Cle- 
ments R. Markham, Sec. R.G.S. ; T. Wright, Sec. Ethnological Society. 

SECTION F.— ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 

President. — Samuel Brown, President of the Institute of Actuaries. 
Vice-Presidents. — Sir Willoughby Jones, Bart. ; Sir Samuel Bignold, Knt. ; Sir 

John Bowring, F.R.S.; Dr. FaiT, F.R.S.; W. Newmarch, F.R.S.; R. J. H. 

Harvey, M.P.'; James Hey wood, M.A., F.R.S. 
Secretaries.— 'Vxoiiii^&or Leone Levi, F.S.A. ; Rev. W. Cufaude Davie, M.A. 



xxxviii REPORT — 18G8. 

SECTION G. MECHANICAL SCIENCE. 

President.— G. P. Bidder, F.R.G.S. 

Vice-Presidents. — J. F. Bateman, F.R.S. ; Admiral Sir Edward Belcher, K.C.B. ; 

William Fairbairn, LL.D., F.R.S. ; C. Hutton Greoorv, Pres. Inst. C.E. ; T. 

Hawksley, C.E. ; Jame.s Nasmvtli, F.R.S. ; Professor W. J. Macquorn Ran- 

kine, LL.D., F.R.S. ; C. Vignoles, F.R.S. ; J. Whitwortli,LL.D., F.R.S. ; Rev. 

Professor Willis, F.R.S. 
Secretaries. — P. Le Neve Foster, M.A. : Charles Manby, F.R.S. ; J. F. Iselin, 

M.A. ; WilUam Smith, C.E. 



Report of the Council of the British Association, presented to the 
General Committee, Wednesday , August 19, 1868. 

The Council have received Eeports from the General Treasurer, and from 
the Ivew Committee at each of their Meetings, and their Reports for the past 
year will be laid before the General Committee. 

0-«ang to the death of Lord Wrottesley, the Chairman and most active 
member of the Parliamentary Committee, no Report of this Committee is 
presented this year. 

At their Meeting on March 14th, Mr. F. Galton, General Secretary, in- 
formed the Council that considerations of health precluded him, to his sincere 
regret, from continuing to hold office. The Council, in accordance with their 
previous practice, appointed a Committee, consisting of the General Secre- 
taries and the gentlemen who had formerly filled that office, for the purpose 
of reporting a recommendation to the Council of a successor to Mr. Galton. 
From this Committee the Council have received the following Report : — 
" Resolved that Dr. T. Thomson, F.R.S., &c., be recommended as highly 
qualified for election as Joitit- General Secretary of the Association." The 
Council recommend that Dr. T. Thomson be now elected Joint-General Secre- 
tary. 

At the last Meeting of the Association the General Committee referred to 
the Council a Ptcsolution relating to the administration of the Natural- History 
Collections of the British Musenm, in whicli it was recommended to press on 
the Government the importance of transferring the control of these Collections 
from the Board of Trustees to a single officer of Government responsible to 
Parliament. After deliberating on the Report of a Committee specially 
appointed to consider the qvicstion, the Council sent a deputation to urge on 
the Government the desirability of making the proposed changes. 

Professor Martins, of Montpellier, and Professor Mannheim, of Paris, who 
attended the Meeting of the Association at Dundee, have been elected Cor- 
responding Members by the Council. 

The Annual Report of the Association for last year has been issued in an 
improved form and at an earlier date than usual. It is hoped that with the 
cooperation of the Authors of Ptcports it may in future be published at a still 
earlier period, and thereby its utility much increased. 

Owing to the modifications made at the Birmingham Meeting, in the 
arrangements of Section D, the Council have had under consideration the 
advisability of omitting the word " Ethnology " in the designation of Section 
E. They recommend that a Resolution to this eifect be passed by the 
General Committee. 

The Council have been informed that invitations for 1869 will be presented 
by Deputations from Exeter, Liverpool, Edinburgh, and Brighton; — and an 
invitation for the following year, by a Deputation from Bradford. 



REPORT OP THE KEW COMMITTEE. XXXIX 

Report of the Kew Committee of the British Association for the 
Advancement of Science for 1867-68. 

The Committee of the Kew Observatory submit to the Council of the British 
Association the following statement of their proceedings during the past 
year :— 

The Meteorological Office, to which allusion was made in the last Eeport, 
continues in operation, Kew being the Central Observatory as aiTanged with 
the Meteorological Committee appointed by the Council of the Eoyal Society 
In consequence of this arrangement there has been during the past year a con- 
siderable access of work to the Kew Observatory, and the duties imdertaken 
by that establishment may, as in the. last Keport, for clearness' sake, be again 
considered under the two following heads : — 

(A) The work done by the Kew Observatory uader the Direction of the 

British Association. 

(B) That done at Kew as the Central Observatory of the Meteorological 

Committee. 
This system of division wiU therefore be adopted in this Report ; but it 
ought to be mentioned that the financial statement appended to it refers only 
to the first of these divisions, since the work done at Kew for the Meteoro- 
logical Committee has been paid from funds supplied by the Committee, and 
not in any way from money subscribed by the British Association. 

(A) WOEK DONE BY KeW ObSERVATOET UNDEE THE DiEECTION OF THE 

British Association. 

1. J^ew Instruments for CoJaba Observatory. — The Chairman of the Kew 
Committee, shortly after the Meeting at Dundee, received a communication 
from Mr. Chambers, the Superintendent of the Colaba Observatoiy, Bombay, 
requesting the support of the Kew Committee in his application to the India 
Board for a supply of Self-recording Magnetographs and other instruments 
required for his observatory. This was ultimately brought before the Council 
of the British Association ; and in consequence of the steps taken. Sir Stafford 
JSTorthcote, in a letter to General Sabine, dated 30 January, 1868, sanctioned 
the supply of new instruments for the observatory at Bombay, while General 
Sabine, on behalf of the Kew Committee, undertook to select the following 
instruments required : — 

(1) A set of Self-recording Magnetometers for registering by photo- 

graphy changes of Declination, Horizontal Force, and Vertical 
Force. 

(2) Thomson's Electrometer, arranged for photographic self-registration. 

(3) A Self-recording Barograi)h and Thermograph, of the pattern 

adopted by the Meteorological Committee (added afterwards). 

(4) Apparatus for measuring and tabulating the curves given by the 

above-named instruments. 

(5) Photographic apparatus, porcelain dishes, and boxes for paper and 

photograms. 

(6) Mofi"at's Ozonometer, in box with clockwork and rotating cylinder. 

(7) Beam-compasses, with steel points and tangent screw adjustment to 

measure 4 feet (for verification of distances in deflection experi- 
ments). 

(8) Rotating frame with large glass jar for testing thermometers. 

2. Magnetic worh. — The Self-recording Magnetographs, ordered by the 



xl REPORT 1868. 

India Board for Mr. Chambers, have been verified at Kew, and returned to 
the India Office, from which they have been doubtless despatched ere this to 
Bombay. 

A Differential Declinometer (received from General Sabine's Office) has 
been verified at Kew for Dr. Lemstrom, who has gone out as physical 
observer with the Spitzbergen expedition. 

A Unifilar has been received at Kew for Mr. Meldrum, of the Mauritius 
Observatory, and its constants are in progress of being determined. 

Senhor Viegas, of Coimbra, and Lieutenant lelagiu, of the Imperial Eussian 
"Nayj, have received magnetic instruction at Kew ; and a Dip-circle has been 
prepared for the latter gentleman, who purposes making observations with it 
at the various European Observatories, 

The usual monthly absolute determinations of the magnetic elements con- 
tinue to be made by Mr. Whipple, magnetic assistant ; and the Self-recording 
Magnetographs are in constant operation as heretofore, also under Mr. 
Whipple, who has displayed much care and ability in the discharge of his 
duties. 

The photographic department connected with the Self-recording instru- 
ments is under the charge of Mr. Page, assisted by Mr. Foster, both of whom 
discharge their duties very satisfactorily. 

An arrangement connected with the instrumental clock for shutting off the 
light every two hours, and thereby increasing the accuracy of the time-scale, 
originally devised by Mr. Beckley, in connexion with the self-recording 
meteorological instruments, has been adapted to the Kew, and also to the 
Mauritius and Bombay Self-recording Magnetographs, and the time-scale of 
the Kew Magnetographs has been made the same as those of the other 
instruments. 

It was proposed in the last Ecport that the task of tabulating and reducing 
the magnetic curves produced at Kew subsequently to January 1865 should 
be performed by the staff at Kew working under the direction of Mr. Stewart. 
In accordance with this resolution 787 curves, being those of the declination 
from February 18G5 to April 1867, have been measured for every hour, and 
the process of reduction of these measurements is well advanced. 

The magnetical observations made at Ascension by Lieut. Rokeby, R.M., 
have been nearly reduced by Mr. "S^Tiipple, and it is proposed to communicate 
the results to the lloyal Societ}^ 

A comparison of the Kew and Lisbon mngnetic curves during the magnetic 
storm of February 20-25, 1866, made by Senhor Capello, of the Lisbon 
Observatory, has been communicated to the Eoyal Society, and will be found 
published in their Proceedings for May 28, lb68, 

Mr. Stewart has likewise received from Senhor Capello a short paper, " On 
the reappearance of certain periods of Declination disturbance during two, 
three, or several days," wliich he proposes to communicate to the Royal 
Society. 

The Eev. W. Sidgreaves and Mr. Stewart have been engaged in making 
intercomparisons of simultaneous chsturbances of the declination at Stony- 
hm-st and at Kew, for both of which stations the instruments have the same 
scale. It would appear from these that during slow disturbances there is an 
absolute identity between the indications of the two instruments, even to 
their most minute features. On the other hand, the more abrupt distur- 
bances appear to be exaggerated at Stonyhurst as compared with Kew to an 
extent which appears (at first sight) to depend upon the abruptness. Messrs. 
Sidgreaves and Stewart are investigating this phenomenon, which has clearly 



REPOKT OF THE KEW COMMITTEE. xli 

a physical and not an instrumental origin, and purpose communicating their 
results in a joint paper to the Eoyal Society. 

3. Meteorolotjical WorJc. — The meteorological work of the Observatory 
continues in the charge of Mr. Baker, who executes his duties veiy satis- 
factorily. 

Since the Dundee Meeting, 78 Barometers have been verified, and 71 are 
at present in hand ; 1139 Thermometers have likewise been verified, and 14 
Standai'd Thermometers have been constructed for the Thermographs of the 
Meteorological Committee. 32 Thermograph Thermometers have Hkewise 
been tested, 24 of these being for the Meteorological Committee and 8 for 
opticians. 

The self-recording meteorological instruments now at work at Kew wUl 
be again mentioned in the second division of this Report. These are in the 
charge of Mr. Baker, the Photography being superintended by Mr. Page. 

Mr. liobert Addams has kindly made a preliminary experiment with his 
apparatus for freezing carbonic acid, which is now at Kew, and has also 
left specific instructions regarding it, so that the operation can in future be 
performed without assistance. The point corresponding to the temperature 
of freezing mercury has been determined for two Thermometers belonging to 
the Meteorological Committee. 

The Self-recording Barographs, Thermographs, and Anemographs for the 
sis outlying Observatories of the Meteorological Committee have been verified 
at Kew. A Self-recording Barograph and Thermograph have hkewise been 
verified for Messrs. R. and J. Beck, opticians ; and the verification of another 
set for Mr. Chambers, of the Colaba Observatory, has been very recently 
completed. 

The experiments made on Anei'oids at Kew, by the request and at the ex- 
pense of the Meteorological Committee, have formed the subject of a com- 
munication recently made to the Royal Society by that bod3'. 

4. PhotoheUof/raph. — The Kew Heliograph, in charge of Mr. DeLaRue, con- 
tinues to be worked in a satisfactory manner. Dui'ing the past year 224 
negatives have been taken on 140 days. 90 pictures of the Pagoda in Kew 
Gardens have hkewise been taken, in the hope of being able by this means 
to determine accurately the angular diameter of the Sun. 

Since the last Meeting of the Association, a series of solar researches, 
in continuation of the second series, has been pubhshed (the expense of 
printing having been defrayed by Mr. De La Rue), entitled "Researches on 
Solar Physics. Appendix to Second Series. — On the Distribution in Heho- 
graphic Latitudes of the Sun-spots observed by Carrington ; by Messrs. De 
La Rue, Stewart, and Loewy." 

Two papers have likewise been commimicated to the Royal Society by 
these gentlemen. The fii'st of these is entitled " Researches on Solar Physics. 
Heliographical Positions and Areas of Sun-spots observed with the Kew 
Photoheliograph during the years 1862 and 1863." 

The second is entitled " Account of some Recent Observations on Sun-spots, 
made at the Kew Observatory." 

Sun-spots continue likewise to be niimbered after the manner of Hofrath 
Schwabe ; and a Table, exhibiting the monthly groups observed at Dessau 
and at Kew for the year 1867, has been commimicated to the Astronomical 
Society, and pubhshed in their Monthly Notices. 

The measurements of the Kew pictures for the year 1864 are approaching 
completion ; when complete, they will be communicated to the Royal 
Society. It is intended to work up rapidly the back years, preparatory to 
a final discussion. 



xlii REPORT — 1868. 

Mr. De La Eue has recently received a letter from M. Struve, in •which it 
is stated that the arrival at Kew of M. Berg, of the Wihia Observatory, in 
order to practise with the Photoheliograph, may he shortly expected. 

5. Apparatus for Verifying Sextants. — Several determinations have been 
made of the angular distances between the collimators of this instrument ; 
but the result appears to indicate a greater want of fixedness in these than 
is desirable. Should, however, the apparatus come to be extensively employed 
for the verification of sextants, this may be overcome by means of frequent 
determinations of these angular distances by a theodolite. 

6. Miscellaneous Worh. — The time and attention of the Observatory Staff 
have been so much absorbed dirring the last year with the regular work of 
the Observatory, that little or no progress has been made in miscellaneous 
experiments. 

The instrument devised by Mr. Broun for the purpose of estimating the 
magnetic dip by means of soft iron, remains at present at the Observatory, 
awaiting Mr. Broun's return to England. 

The Superintendent has received grants from the Eoyal Society for special 
experiments ; and when these are completed, an account will be rendered to 
that Society. 

(B) WOEK DONE AT KeW AS THE CeNTEAL ObSERVATOET OF THE 

Meteoeological Committee. 

This work may be divided into four heads, the first of these being the arrange- 
ment of seK-recording meteorological instruments, theu- verification at Kew, 
and erection at the various stations ; the second being the arrangement of a 
system of tabulating from the automatic records of these instruments ; the 
third being the arrangement of a system by means of which the continued 
accuracy of the instruments themselves, and of their tabulated records, may 
be secured ; while the fourth is the work done at Kow as being itself one 
of the Observatories of the Meteorological Committee. 

1. Arrangenient,VeriJication,andEreHionof Self-recording Instruments. — In 
the last Report of this Committee a short accoimt was given of the principles 
of construction of the system of self-recording meteorological instruments 
arranged at Kew, comprising the Thermograph, Barograph, and Anemograph. 
A more detailed account has since been given by the Meteorological Com- 
mittee in their Report to Parliament for the year 1867, and it is therefore 
unnecessary to enter here into the subject. It ought, however, to be men- 
tioned that the principle adopted in these instruments is to check the accuracy 
of their automatic records by means of reference to standards ; and with this 
view the Kew Committee have constructed a Standard Wet and Dry Bulb 
Thermometer for each Thermograph, and has verified a Standard Barometer 
for each Barograph. When the various self-recording instramcnts had been 
completed by the opticians, they were sent to Kew, where they were ex- 
amined and verified. They were then dispatched to their respective sta- 
tions in charge of the observer, who had been previously instructed at Kew ; 
and finally, Mr. Beckley, Mechanical Assistant at Kew, went to ihe various 
stations and superintended the erection of the instruments. By his aid this 
was accomplished in a very thorough and satisfactory manner. 

2. System of Tabulation. — It is not proposed to discuss here the system of 
tabulation. This has already been done, to a certain extent, in the Report of 
the ^Meteorological Committee presented to Parliament ; and the whole sub- 
ject wiU, it is hoped, be fully treated of on some future occasion. Suffice 



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Xliv REPORT — 1868. 

it to say, that the system of tabulation was arranged at Kew, and that the 
tabulating instruments were all verified there before being sent to their 
respective observatories. 

3. Verification of Records. — It has already been mentioned that the com- 
petency of the observers at the various stations to undertake the charge of 
the self-recording instruments was secured by a course of instruction at 
Kew, where they became acquainted with the principles of construction of 
the various instruments, with the photographic process necessary to obtain 
curves, and with the system of tabulation. In addition to this, the instru- 
ments were erected at the various stations by Mr. Beckley, and each observer 
was thus well started. It is not, however, enough, in a project of this 
nature, to secure a good beginning ; it is, moreover, indispensable to see that 
the standard of excellence is maintained. 

For this purpose it is proposed by the Meteorological Committee that Mr. 
Stewart should personally visit all the Observatories every year ; in addition 
to which, some one of the Kew assistants might occasionally visit some station, 
with a specific object in view. Mr. Stewart has already visited Stonyhurst, 
Glasgow, and Aberdeen ; and, in addition to the preliminary visit to the 
various stations made by Mr. Beckley, Mr. Whipple has visited Falmouth. 

Besides this inspection, it is also necessary to check at Kew the accuracy 
of the tabulated results that arrive there from the various stations. A close 
and constant scrutiny of these results is therefore made at Kew ; and when 
any error is detected, it is brought before the notice of the observer who made 
it. All this involves a very considerable amount of labour, more especially 
at the commencement of the undertaking, and until the various observatories 
are in thorough working order. For the purpose of securing accuracy and 
uniformity in the reduction of the records of these instruments, it has been 
proposed that a set of rules should be drawn up under the sanction of this 
Committee. 

4. Worlc done at Kew as one of the Observatories of the Meteorological 
Committee. — This consists in keeping the Barograph, Thermograph, and 
Anemograph furnished by the Meteorological Committee in constant opera- 
tion. The Barograph is erected in the room which contains the Magneto- 
graphs, and which has a very small daily range of temperature. The outer 
part of the Thermograph is attached to the north side of the Observatory, 
towards the west, while the Anemograph has been erected above the centre 
of the dome, so as not to interfere with the Photoheliograph. 

For the first two of these instriiments traces in duplicate are obtained, one 
set being sent to the Meteorological Office, and one retained at Kew ; as 
regards the Anemograph, the original records are sent, while a copy of these 
on tracing-paper is retained. 

The tabulations from the curves of the Kew instruments, and the exami- 
nation of the results forwarded to Kew from the outlying Observatories, so 
far as this last is not personally done by Mr. Stewart, are performed in a 
very satisfactory manner by Messrs. Whipple, Baker, and Page. 

Mr. Steventon, a nephew of Captain Toynbee, of the Meteorological Ofiice, 
has been in attendance at the Observatory for instruction for about twelve 
months, and latterly has given much assistance in the meteorological de- 
partment of the Observatory, with the details of which he is now fully con- 
versant. 

J. r. GASSIOT, Chairman. 
Kew Observatory, 7th August, 1868. 



recommendations of the general committee. xlv 

Eecoiotendations adopted by the General Committee at the Norwich 
Meeting in Au&dst 1868. 

[When Conmiittees are appointed, the Member first named is regarded as the Secretary, 
except there is a specific nomination.] 

Involving Grants of Money. 

That the sum of =£600 be placed at the disposal of the Council for main- 
taining the Establishment of the Kew Observatory. 

That Professor Tait, Professor Tyndall, and Dr. Balfour Stewart be a 
Committee for the purpose of repeating Principal J. D. Forbes's experiments 
on the Thermal Conductivity of Iron, and extending them to other metals ; 
and that the sum of <£50 be placed at their disposal for the pur[Dose. 

That Dr. Joule, Sir W. Thomson, Professor Tait, Dr. Balfoui- Stewart, and 
Professor G. C. Poster be reappoiated as a Committee for the purpose of 
executing a remeasurement of the Dynamical Equivalent of Heat; that 
Professor Foster be the Secretaiy, and that the sum of .£50 be placed at 
their disposal for the purpose. 

That the Committee for the purpose of investigating the rate of increase 
of Undergroimd Temperature downwards in various localities of dry land and 
under water, consisting of Sir William Thomson, Dr. Everett, Sir Charles 
Lyell, Eart., Principal Forbes, Mr. J. Clerk Maxwell, Professor Phillips, Mr. 
G. J. Symons, Mr. Balfour Stewart, Professor Ramsay, Mr. Geikie, Mr. 
Glaisher, Bev. Dr. Graham, Mr. E. W. Binney, Mr. George Maw, and Mr. 
Pengelly, be reappointed ; that Dr. J. D. Everett be the Secretary, and that 
the sum of =£30 be placed at their disposal for the pui-pose. 

That the Committee for reporting on the BainfaU of the British Isles, con- 
sisting of Mr. Charles Brooke, Mr. Glaisher, Professor PhiUips, Mr. G. J. 
Symons, Mr. J. F. Bateman, Mr. E. W. Mylne, Mr. T. Hawksley, Professor 
Adams, Mr. C. Tomlinsou, and Professor Sylvester, be reappointed ; that Mr. 
G. J. Symons be the Secretary, and that the sum of <£50 be placed at their 
disposal. 

That the Committee on Tidal Observations be reappointed, and consist of 
Sir W. Thomson, Professor Adams, Professor J. "W.M. Rankiue, Mr. J.Oldham, 
and Captain Richards (with power to add to their number) ; and that the 
sum of £100 be placed at their disposal. 

That the Lunar Committee be reappointed, and consist of Mr. J. Glaisher, 
Lord Rosse, Sir J. Herschel, Bart., Professor Phillips, Rev. C. Pritchard, Mr. 
W. Huggins, Mr. W. R. Grove, Mr. W. De La Rue, Mr. C. Brooke, Rev. T. W. 
"Webb, Herr Schmidt, Admiral Manners, Mr. W. R. Birt, and Lieut. -Colonel 
Strange ; and that the sum of £-50 be placed at their- disposal. 

That Dr. Anderson and Mr. Catton be a Committee for the purpose of 
continuing the researches of Mr. Catton on the Synthesis of Organic Acids; 
and that the sum of £12 be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Dr. Frankland and Mr. M'Leod be a Committee for the purpose of 
investigating the composition of the gases dissolved in deep-well water ; and 
that the sum of £25 be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Dr. Matthiessen, Mr. Abel, and Mr. David Forbes be a Committee for 
the purpose of investigating the Chemical Nature of Cast Iron ; and that 
the sum of £80 be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Sir Charles Lyell, Bart., Professor Phillips, Sir John Lubbock, Bart., 
Mr. John Evans, Mr. Edward Vivian, Mr. William Pengelly, Mr. George Busk, 
and Ml". W. Boyd Dawkins be a Committee for the purpose of continuing the 



Xlvi REPORT — 1868. 

exploration of Kent's Cavern, Torquay ; that Mr. Pengelly be the Secretary, 
and that the sum of .£150 be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That the Committee for the purpose of investigating the Leaf-beds of the 
Lower Bagshot Series of the Hampshire Basin, consisting of Mr. W. S. 
Mitchell, Mr. Robert Etheridge, Professor J. Morris, and Mr. G. Maw, be re- 
quested to continue their investigations ; that Mr. Mitchell be the Secretary, 
and that the sum of £30 be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Dr. P. M. Duncan and Mr. Henry Woodward be requested to continue 
their Eesearches on British Fossil Corals ; and that the simi of .£50 be 
placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That the Committee for the purpose of investigating the veins containing 
Organic Remains which occur in the Mountain Limestone of the Mcndips 
and elsewhere, consisting of Mr. C. Moore, the Rev. L. Jenyns, and the Rev. 
H. H. Winwood, be requested to continue their investigations ; that Mr. 
Moore be the Secretary, and that the sum of .£10 be placed at their disposal 
for the purpose. 

That Dr. Bryce, Sir W. Thomson, Mr. D. Mihie-Home, and !Mr. Macftirlane 
be requested to continue the researches on Earthquakes in Scotland ; that Dr. 
Bryce be the Secretary, and that the sum of =£14 be placed at their disposal 
for the purpose. 

That Mr. Henry Woodward, Dr. Duncan, Professor Harkness, and Mr. 
James Thomson be a Committee for the purpose of making and photographing 
sections of such Mountain Limestone Fossils as require to be cut in order to 
display their structure ; that Mr. Woodward be the Secretary, and that the 
sum of <£25 be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Professor Beete Jukes, Professor Huxley, and Mr. W. H. Baily be a 
Committee for the purpose of exploring the fossils of the twoKiltorcan quarries, 
CO. Kilkenny ; that Mr. W. H. BaUy be the Reporter, and that the sum of 
£20 be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Mr. W. Carruthers, Mr. Busk, and Professor Balfour be a Committee for 
the purpose of continuing researches into the Fossil Flora of Britain ; that 
Mr. Carruthers be the Secretary, and that the sum of £25 be placed at their 
disposal for the purpose. 

That Dr. B. W. Richardson, Professor Humphry, and Dr. Sharpey be a 
Committee for the purpose of continuing researches on the physiological 
action of the Methyl Series and allied organic compounds; and that the 
sum of .£30 be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Dr. M. Foster, Mr. W. H. Flower, and Professor Humphry be a 
Committee for the piirpose of investigating the course taken by the products 
of digestion ; that Dr. M. Foster be the Secretary, and that the sum of .£10 
be placed at their disposal for the pui'pose. 

That Dr. Crum Brown, Professor Balfour, and Dr. Frazer be a Committee 
for the purpose of investigating the relation between Chemical Constitution 
and Physiological Action ; that Dr. Crum Bro'\\Ti be the Secretary, and that 
the sum of £15 be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Mr. E. Ray Lankester, Mr. Charles Stewart, and Dr. Arthur Gamgee 
be reappointed as a Committee for the purpose of investigating Animal Sub- 
stances with the Spectroscope ; that Mr. E. Ray Lankester be the Secretary, 
and that the sum of £5 be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Dr. E. Perceval Wright, Dr. J. E. Gray, and the Rev. Dr. Tristram be 
a Committee for the purpose of dredging on the coast of Lisbon ; that Dr. E. 
P. Wright be the Secretary, and that the sum of £20 be placed at their 
disposal for the pui-pose. 



RECOMMENDATIONS OF THE GENERAL COMMITTEE. xlvii 

That Sir John Lubbock, Bart., Mr. H. T. Stainton, and the Rev. H. B. 
Tristram be a Committee for the piirpose of preparing a record of Zoological 
Literature for the year 18<fc ; that Sir John Lubbock be the Secretary, and 
that the sum of £100 be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That the Metric Committee be reappointed, such Committee to consist of 
Sir John Bowring, The Eight Hon. C. B. Adderlej, M.P., Mr. Samuel Brown, 
Mr. "W. Ewart, M.P., Dr. Farr, Mr. Frank P. Fellows, Professor Frankland, 
Professor Hennessy, Mr. James Heywood, Sir Eobert Kane, Professor Leone 
Levi, Professor W. A. Miller, Professor Rankiue, Mr. C. W. Siemens, Colonel 
Sjkes, M.P., Professor A. W. Williamson, Mr. James Yates, Dr. George Glover, 
Mr. Joseph Whitworth, Mr. J. R. J^apier, Mr. H. Dircks, Mr. J. V. N. Bazal- 
gette, Mr. W. Smith, Mr. W. Fairbairn, and Mr. John Robinson ; that Pro- 
fessor Leone Levi be the Secretary, and that the sum of £25 be placed at 
their disposal. 

That the Committee, consisting of Mr. J. Scott Russell, Mr. T. Hawksley, 
Mr. J. R. Napier, Mr. William Fairbairn, and Professor W. J. M. Rankine, 
to analyze and condense the information contained in the Reports of the 
" Steam-ship Performance " Committee and other sources of information on 
the same subject, with power to employ paid calculators or assistants, if ne- 
cessary, be reappointed ; and that the sum of =£30 be placed at their dis- 
posal for the purpose. 

That the Committee, consisting of Mr. W. Fairbairn and Mr. Tait, for con- 
tinuing experiments with a view to test the improvements in the manufac- 
ture of Iron and Steel, be reappointed ; and that the grant of =£100 placed 
at their disposal last year and not drawn be renewed. 

That a Committee, consisting of Mr. R. B. Grantham, Mr. W. B. Harding, 
Dr. J. H. Gilbert, and Dr. Angus Smith (with power to add to their number), 
be appointed to report on the treatment and utilization of Sewage ; and that 
the sum of =£10 be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

Applications for Reports and Researches not involving Grants 

of Money. 

That Lieut. -Col. Strange, Professor Sir W. Thomson, Professor Tyndall, 
Professor Frankland, Dr. Stenhouse, Dr._ Mann, Mr. Huggins, MJr. Glaisher, 
Professor Williamson, Professor Stokes, Professor Fleeming Jenkin, Professor 
Hirst, Professor Huxley, and Dr. Balfour Stewart be a Committee for the 
purpose of inquiring into, and of reporting to the British Association the 
opinion at which they may arrive concerning the following questions : — 

I. Does there exist in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland 

sufficient provision for the vigorous prosecution of Physical Research ? 

II. If not, what further provision is needed ? and what measures should 
be taken to secure it ? 

and that Dr. Robert James Mann be the Secretary. 

That Mr. E. J. Lowe, Professor Frankland, Professor A. W. Williamson, 
Mr. Glaisher, Dr. Moffat, Mr. C. Brooke, Dr. Andrews, and Dr. B. Ward 
Richardson be a Committee for the purpose of promoting accurate Meteoro- 
logical Observations of Ozone ; and that Mr. Lowe be the Secretary. 

That the Committee on Electrical Standards, consisting of Professor 
Williamson, Professor Sir Charles WTieatstone, Professor Sir W. Thomson, 
Professor W. A. Miller, Dr. A. Matthiessen, Mr. Fleeming Jenkin, Sir 
Charles Bright, Mr. J. Clerk Maxwell, Mr. C. W. Siemens, Mr. Baltbur 



xliii REPORT — 1868. 

Stewart, Dr. Joule, Mr. C. F. Varley, Mr. G. C. Poster, and Mr. C. Hockin, 
be reappointed ; and that Professor Meeming Jenkin be the Secretary. 

That the Committee on Luminous Meteors »ud Aerolites, consisting of 
Mr. Glaisher, Mr. R. P. Greg, Mr. E. W. Brayley, Mr. Alexander Herschel, 
and Mr. C. Brooke, be reappointed ; and that Mr. Herschel be the Secretary. 

That the Committee, consisting of Dr. Tyudall, Dr. Lyon Playfair, Dr. 
Odling, Rev. C. Pritchard, Professor KeUand, Professor W. A. Miller, 
Professor Poster, Professor WilHamson, Mr. Griffith, Mr. J. M. Wilson, and 
James Young, be reappointed for the purpose of inquiring into the pre- 
sent methods of teaching the elements of Dynamics, Experimental Physics, 
and Chemistry in schools of various classes, and of suggesting the best means 
of promoting this object in accordance with the Recommendations of the 
Report of the Committee appointed by the Council ; and that Professor 
Poster and Dr. OcUing be the Secretaries. 

That Mr. "W. H. L. RusseU be requested to prepare a Report on recent 
progress in the theory of Elliptic and HypereUiptic Transcendents. 

That Mr. Pairley be requested to continue his researches on the Poly- 
atomic Cyanides. 

That Mr. H. Bauerman, Professor Otto Torell, and Professor Ramsay be a 
Committee for the purpose of preparing a Report on Ice as an Agent of 
Geologic Change ; and that Mr. H. Bauerman be the Secretary. 

That Mr. P. Buckland, Rev. H. B. Tristram, Mr. H. E. Dresser, and 
Mr. Tegetmeier be a Committee for the purpose of collecting evidence as to 
the practicability of establishing " a close time " for the protection of indige- 
nous animals ; and that Mr. P. Buckland be the Secretary. 

That the Committee to prepare a Report on Agricultural MacJiinery be 
reappointed, such Committee to consist of the Duke of Buccleuch, the Rev. 
Patrick Bell, Mr. David Greig, Mr. J. Oldham, Mr. William Smith, C.E., 
Mr. Harold Littledale, The Earl of Caithness, Mr. Robert Neilson, Pro- 
fessor Ranldne, Mr. P. J. Bramwell, Professor Willis, and Mr. Charles Manby ; 
and that Messrs. P. Le Neve Poster and J. P. Smith be the Secretaries. 

That Mr. Thomas Hawksley, C.E., Professor Rankine, Mr. Richard B. 
Grantham, C.E., Sir A. S. Waugh, and Mr. T. Login, C.E. (with power 
to add to their number) be a Committee for the purpose of reporting on the 
Laws of the Plow and Action of Water containing solid Matter in Suspension. 

That a Committee, consisting of Mr. W. Pairbairn, Mr. Joseph Whitworth, 
Mr. Lavington, Mr. Pletcher, Mr. P. J. Bramwell (with power to add to 
their number), be appointed to consider and report how far Coroner's Inqui- 
sitions are satisfactory tribunals for the investigation of Boiler Explosions, 
and to consider the manner in which these tribunals may be improved. 

That the Committee, consisting of Admiral Sir Edward Belcher, Mr. J. 
Oldham, Mr. J. R. Napier, Mr. George Pawcus, Mr. William Smith, and Mr. 
J. Sissons, be reappointed to Report on the Regulations affecting the safety of 
Merchant Ships and their Passengers. 

That a Committee, consisting of Mr. C. W. Merrifield, P.R.S., Mr. G. P. 
Bidder, Captain Douglas Galton, P.R.S., Mr. P. Galton, P.R.S., Professor 
Rankine, P.R.S., and Mr. AV. Proude, be appointed to report on the state of 
existing knowledge on the stability, propulsion, and sea-going qualities of 
Ships, and as to the application which it may be desirable to make to Her 
Majesty's Government on these subjects. 



RECOMMENDATIONS OP THE GENERAL COMMITTEE. xlix 

Involving Application to Government. 

That General Sir Andrew "Waugli, Sir Arthur Phayre, General G. Balfour, 
General Sir Vincent Eyre, Cajjtain Sherard Osborn, Mr. George Campbell, 
and Dr. Thomas Thomson be a Committee for the purpose of representing to 
the Secretary of State for India the desirability of an exploration being 
made of the district between the Burhampooter, the Upper Irrawaddy, and 
the Yang-tsze-Kiang, with a view to a route being established between the 
navigable parts of those rivers ; and that Dr. T. Thomson be the Secretary. 

That application be made to the Admiralty for aid in establishing stations 
in tbe Orkneys and on the Coast of Ireland, where the actual temperature of 
the sea may be taken either daily or weekly, so as to prove or disprove any 
alteration of temperature presumed to result from the deflection of the Gulf- 
of- Florida Stream ; that Admiral Manners, Admiral Sir E. Belcher, Admiral 
Ommanney, and Mr. Milne-Home be a Committee to press this matter on the 
Government. 

Communications to be published in extenso in the Annual Report. 

That the communication of Mr. Huggins on the Progress of Spectroscopic 
Discovery be printed in extenso among the Heports, and that he be requested 
to prepare an abstract of the Discourse which he delivered to the British 
Association at its Meeting at Nottingham, and prefix it to the paper 
referred to. 

That Father Secchi's communication, entitled " Researches in the Spectral 
Analysis of the Stars," be printed in extenso among the Reports. 

That Baron Miidler's paper, " on Changes of the Moon's Surface," be 
printed in extenso among the Reports. 

That the Paper by C. W. Siemens, " On Puddhng Iron," be printed in the 
Reports in extenso. 

That the word " Ethnology " be omitted from the designation of Section E. 

That henceforth the Parliamentarj' Committee consist of those ilcmbers 
of the CouucU who are likemse Members of one of the two Houses of Par- 
liament. 

That Members and Committees who may be entrusted with sums of money 
for collecting specimens of Natural History be requested to reserve the spe- 
cimens so obtained for distribution by authority of the Association. 



1868. d 



1 REPORT 1868. 

Synopsis of Grants of Money appropriated to Scientific Purposes by 

the General Committee at the Norwich Meeting in August 1868. 

The names of the Members loho would be entitled to call on the 
General Treasurer for the respective Grants are prefixed. 

Kew Observatory. £ s. d. 

Maintaming the Establishment of Kew Obsei-vatory 600 

Mathematics and Physics. 
Tait, Professor. — Thermal Conductivity of Iron and other 

Metals 30 

*Joule, Dr. — Eemeasurcment of the Dynamical Equivalent of 

Heat (renewed) 50 

*Thomson, Professor Sir "W. — Underground Temperatiu'c .... 30 

*Thomson, Professor Sir W.— Tidal Observations 100 

*Brooke, 3JJ-.— British Eaiufall 50 

*Glaisher, Mr. — Lunar Committee 50 

Chemistry. 

*Anderson, Dr. — Synthesis of Organic Acids (renewed) 12 

Erankland, Dr. — Composition of Gases dissolved in Deep-'VN'ell 

Water 25 

Matthiessen, Dr. — Chemical Nature of Cast Iron 80 

Geoloyy. 

*LyeU, Sir C, Bart.— Kent's-Cavem Exploration 150 

*Mitchell, Mr. W. S.— Leaf-beds of the Lower Bagshot series . . 30 

*Duncan, Dr. P. M.— British Fossil Corals 50 

*Moore, Mr. C. — Veins containing Organic Remains in the 

Mountain Limestone of the Mendips and elsewhere 10 

*Bryce, Dr. — Earthquakes in Scotland (renewed) 14 

"Woodward, Mr. H. — Sections of Mountain-Limestone Fossils 25 

Biohfiy. 

Jukes, Professor. — Kiltorcan Fossils, Kilk enny 20 

*Carruthers, Mr. — Fossil Flora of Britain 25 

*Eichardson, Dr. — Physiological Action of the Methyl Series . . 30 

Foster, Dr. — Products of Digestion 10 

Brown, Dr. Crum. — Relation between Chemical Constitution 

and Physiological Action 15 

*Lankester, ]\Ir. E. Ray.— Investigation of Animal Substances 

with the Spectroscope (renewed) 5 

Wright, Dr. E. P.— Dredging on the coast of Lisbon 20 

*Liibbock, Sir J,, Bart. — Record of the Progress of Zoology. . 100 

Statistics and Economic Science. 

*Bowring, Sir J. — Metrical Committee 25 

Mechanics. 
*RusseU, Mr. J. Scott.— Analysis ^of Reports on Steam-ship 

Performance ' 30 

*Faii-bairn, Mr. W.— Manufacture of Iron and Steel (renewed) 100 

Grantham, Mr.— Treatment and utilization of Sewage 10 

Total ^1696 

* Eeappointed. .^— .^— 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



li 



General Statement of Sumsiohich have been paid un Account of Gh'ants 

for Scientific Purposes. 



£ s. d. 
1834. 

Tide Discussions 20 

1S35. 

Tide Discussions 62 

British Fossil Ichthyology 105 

£167 

1S36. 

Tide Discussions 163 

British Fossil Ichthyology 105 

Thennometric Observations, &c. 50 
Experiments on long-continued 

Heat 17 1 

Rain-Gauges 9 13 

Refraction Experiments 15 

Lunar Nutation 60 

Thermometers 15 6 



£434 14 



1837. 

Tide Discussions 284 1 

Chemical Constants 24 13 6 

Lunar Nutation 70 

Observations on Waves 100 12 

Tides at Bristol 150 

Meteorology and Subterranean 

Temperature 89 5 

Vitrification Experiments 150 

Heart Experiments 8 4 6 

Barometric Observations 30 

Barometers 11 18 6 



£918 14 6 



1S3S. 

Tide Discussions 29 

British Fossil Fishes 100 

Meteorological Observations and 

Anemometer (construction) ... 100 

Cast Iron (Strength of) 60 

Animal and Vegetable Substances 

(Preservation of) 19 

Railway Constants 41 

Bristol Tides 50 

Growth of Plants 75 

Mud in Rivers 3 

Education Committee 50 

Heart Experiments 5 

Land and Sea Level 267 

Subterranean Temperature 8 

Steam-vessels 100 

Meteorological Committee 31 

Thermometers 16 











1 10 
12 10 





6 6 



3 

8 7 
C 


9 5 

4 



£956 12 2 



1839. 

Fossil Ichthyology 110 

Meteorological Observations at 

Plymouih 63 10 

Mechanism of Waves 144 2 

Bristol Tides 35 18 6 



£ *. (/. 



Meteorology and Subterranean 
Temperature 

Vitrification Experiments 

Cast-iron Experiments 

Railway Constants 

Land and Sea Level 

Steam-vessels' Engines 

Stars in Histoire Celeste 

Stars in Lacaille 

Stars in R.A.S. Catalogue 

Animal Secretions 

Steam-engines in Cornwall 

Atmospheric Air 

Cast and Wrought Iron 

Heat on Organic Bodies 

Gases on Solar Spectrum 

Hourly Meteorological Observa- 
tions, Inverness and Kingussie 

Fossil Reptiles 

Mining Statistics 



21 

9 

100 

28 

274 

100 

331 

11 

6 

10 

50 

IG 

40 

3 

22 

49 
118 

50 



£1595 



11 

4 7 


7 2 

1 4 


15 6 


16 6 
10 



1 






1 s 

2 9 


n 





13 6 

19 

13 




11 



80 
185 



1840. 

Bristol Tides 100 

Subterranean Temperature 13 

Heart Experiments IS 

Lungs Experiments 8 

Tide Discussions 50 

Land and Sea Level 6 

Stars (Histoire Celeste) 242 

Stars (Lacaille) 4 

Stars (Catalogue) 204 

Atmospheric Air 15 

Water on Iron 10 

Heat on Organic Bodies 7 

Meteorological Observations 52 

Foreign Scientific Memoirs 112 

Working Population 100 

School Statistics 50 

Forms of Vessels 184 

Chemical and Electrical Pheno- 
mena 40 

Meteorological Observations at 

Plymouth 

Magnetical Observations 



10 

15 










17 
1 





7 




13 9 
£1546 16 4 



1841. 

Observations on Waves 30 

Meteorology and Subterranean 

Temperature 8 

Actinometers JO 

Earthquake Shocl.s 17 

Acrid Poisons 6 

Veins and Absorbents 3 

Mud in Rivers 5 

Marine Zoology 15 

Skeleton Maps 20 

Mountain Barometers 6 

Stars (Histoire Celeste) 185 

d2 







8 











7 























12 


8 








18 


6 









lii 



REPORT 1868. 



£ 

Stars (Lacaille) 7!) 

Stars (Nomenclature of) 17 

Stars (Catalogue of) 40 

Water on Iron 50 

Meteorological Observations at 

Inverness 20 

Meteorological Observations (re- 
duction of) 25 

Fossil Reptiles 50 

Foreign Memoirs 02 

Railway Sections 3S 

Forms of Vessels 193 

Meteorological Observations at 

Plymouth 

Magnelical Observations . 
Fishes of the Old Red Sandstone 

Tides at Leith 

Anemometer at Edinburgh 
Tabulating Observations ... 

Races of Men 

Radiate Animals 

1S42. 
Dynamoraetric Instruments 

Anoplura Britannias 

Tides at Bristol 

Gases on Light 

Chronometers 

Marine Zoology 

British Fossil Mammalia .. 

Statistics of Education 

Marine Steam-vessels' Engines... 
Stars (Histoire Celeste)... 

Stars (Brit. Assoc. Cat. of ) 110 

Railway Sections 1(JI 

British Belemnites 50 

Fossil Reptiles (publication of 

Report) 210 

Forms of Vessels ISO 

Galvanic Experiments on Rocks 5 
Meteorological Experiments at 

Plymouth CS 

Constant Indicator and Dynamo- 
metric Instruments 00 

Force of Wind 10 

Light on Growth of Seeds S 

Vital Statistics 50 

Vegetative Power of Seeds 8 

Questions on Human Race 7^ 

iil44y 



s. d. 

5 

10 













1 c 
12 



... 55 



18 


1 
6 







... 61 


S 


ne 100 
... 50 






... 09 
9 


10 


5 





9 









£1235 


10 


11 


... 113 
... 52 


11 

12 

8 

14 

17 

5 










2 



... 59 





... 30 


7 


... 26 


6 


... 1 





... 100 





... 20 





... 2S 
... 59 









10 








8 











1 11 

9 



17 iS 



1843. 

Revision of the Nomenclature of 

Stars 2 

Reduction of Stars, British Asso- 
ciation Catalogue 25 

Anomalous Tides, Frith of Forth 120 

Hourly Meteorological Observa- 
tions at Kingussie and Inverness 77 12 8 

Meteorological Observations at 

i'lymouth 55 

Whewell's Meteorological Ane- 
mometer at Plymouth 10 



£ 

Meteorological Observations, Os- 
ier's Anemometer at Plymouth 20 
Reduction of Meteorological Ob- 

ervations 30 

Meteorological Instruments and 

Gratuities 39 

Construction of Anemometer at 

Inverness 56 

Magnetic Cooperation 10 

Meteorological Recorder for Kew 

Observatory 50 

Action of Gases on Light 18 

Establishment at Kew Observa- 
tory, Wages, Repairs, Furni- 
ture and Sundries 133 

E.xperiments by Captive Balloons 81 
O.xidation of the Rails of Railways 20 
Publication of Report on Fossil 

Reptiles 40 

Coloured Drawings of Railway 

Sections 147 

Registration of Earthquake 

Shocks 30 

Report on Zoological Nomencla- 
ture 10 

Uncovering Lower Red Sand- 
stone near Manchester 4 

Vegetative Power of Seeds 5 

Marine Testacea (Habits of) ... 10 

Marine Zoology 10 

Marine Zoology 2 

Preparation of Report on British 

Fossil Mammalia 100 

Physiological Operations of Me- 
dicinal Agents 20 

Vital Statistics 36 

Additional E.\periments on the 

Forms of Vessels 70 

Additional E.xperimenis on the 

Forms of Vessels 100 

Reduction of Experiments on the 

Forms of Vessels 100 

Morin's Instrument and Constant 

Indicator 69 

Experiments on the Strength of 

Materials 60 

A"15(i.5 



s. 


d. 














6 





12 


2 


8 


10 








16 


1 


4 


7 


8 

















IS 


3 














4 


fi 


3 


8 














14 


11 














5 


8 




















14 


10 









10 2 



1S44. 

Meteorological Observations at 

Kingussie and Inverness 12 

Completing Observations at Ply. 

mouth 35 

Magnetic and Meteorological Co- 
operation 25 8 

Publication of the British Asso- 
ciation Catalogue of Stars 35 

Observations on Tides on the 

East coast of Scotland 100 

Revision of the Nomenclature of 

Stars 1842 2 9 

Maintaining the Establishment in 

Kew Observatory 117 17 

Instruments for Kew Observalory 56 7 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



liii 



Influence of Light on Plants 10 

Subterraneous Temperature in 

Ireland 5 

Coloured Drawings of Railway 

Sections 15 

Investigation of Fossil Fishes of 

the Lower Tertiary Strata ... 100 
Registering the Shocks of Earth- 
quakes 1S42 23 

Structure of Fossil Shells 20 

Radiata and Mollusca of the 

iEgean and Red Seas 1S42 100 

Geographical Distributions of 

Marine Zoology 1842 10 

Marine Zoology of Devon and 

Cornwall 10 

Marine Zoology of Corfu 10 

Experiments on the Vitality of 

Seeds 9 

Experiments on the Vitality of 

Seeds 1S42 8 

Exotic Anoplura 15 

Strength of Materials 100 

Completing Experiments on the 

Forms of Ships 100 

Inquiries into Asphyxia 10 

Investigations on the Internal 

Constitution of Metals 50 

Constant Indicator and Morin's 

Instrument 1842 10 



s. 


d. 














17 


6 








11 


10 





















£9 SI 














3 


7 




3 



















3 


c 


12 


8 



1845. 
Publication of the British Associa- 
tion Catalogue of Stars 351 14 6 

Meteorological Observations at 

Inverness 30 18 11 

Magnetic and Meteorological Co- 
operation 16 16 8 

Meteorological Instruments at 

Edinburgh IS H 9 

Reduction of Anemometrical Ob- 
servations at Plymouth 25 

Electrical Experiments at Kew 

Observatory 43 17 8 

Maintaining the Establishment in 

Kew Observatory 149 15 

For Kreil's Barometrograph 25 

Gases from Iron Furnaces 50 

The Actinograpli 15 

Microscopic Structure of Shells... 20 

Exotic Anoplura 1843 10 

Vitality of Seeds 1843 2 7 

Vitality of Seeds 1844 7 

Marine Zoology of Cornwall 10 

Physiological Action of Medicines 20 
Statistics of Sickness and Mor- 
tality in York 20 

Earthquake Shocks 1843 15 14 8 



£830 9 9 



1846. 
British Association Catalogue of 

Stars 1844 211 15 



£ s. d. 

Fossil Fishes of the London Clay 100 
Computation of the Gaussian 

Constants for 1839 50 

Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory 146 

Strength of Materials 60 

Researches in Asphyxia 6 

Examination of Fossil Shells 10 

Vitality of Seeds 1844 2 

VitaUty of Seeds 1845 7 

Marine Zoology of Cornwall 10 

Marine Zoology of Britain 10 

Exotic Anoplura 1844 25 

Expenses attending Anemometers 1 1 

Anemometers' Repairs 2 

Atmospheric Waves 3 

Captive Balloons 1844 8 

Varieties of the Human Race 

1844 7 
Statistics of Sickness and Mor- 
tality in York 12 

£685 16 



16 


7 








16 


2 








15 


10 


12 


3 




















7 


6 


3 


6 


3 


3 


19 


3 


6 


3 









1847. 
Computation of the Gaussian 

Constants for 1839 50 

Habits of Marine Animals 10 

Physiological Action of Medicines 20 

Marine Zoology of Cornwall ... 10 

Atmospheric Waves 6 

Vitality of Seeds 4 

Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory 107 

£208~ 



























9 


3 


7 


r 



8 6 



5 4 



1848. 
Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory 171 15 11 

Atmospheric Waves 3 10 9 

Vitality of Seeds 9 15 

Completion of Catalogues of Stars 70 

On Colouring Matters 5 

On Growth of Plants 15 

£275 1 8 



1849. 
Electrical Observations at Kew 

Observatory 50 

Maintaining Establishment at 

ditto 76 2 

Vitality of Seeds 5 s 

On Growth of Plants 5 

Registration of Periodical Phe- 
nomena 10 

Bill on account of Anemometrical 

Observations 13 9 

£159 ~\V 



1850. 
Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory 255 18 

Transit of Earthquake Waves ,.. 50 



Uv 



REPORT 18G8. 



£ s. d. 

Periodical Phenomena 15 

Meteorological Instrument, 

Azores 25 

~ii345 18 

1S51. 
Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory (includes part 

ofgrantin 1849) 309 2 2 

Theory of Heat 20 1 1 

Periodical Phenomena of Animals 

and Plants 5 

Vitality of Seeds 5 6 4 

Influence of Solar Radiation 30 

Ethnological Inquiries 12 

Researches on Annelida 10 

ii3<Jl 9 7 

1852. 

Maintaining the Establishment at 
Kew Observatory (including 

Mbalance of grant for 1850) ... 233 17 8 

Experiments on the Conduction 

ofHeat 5 2 9 

Influence of Solar Radiations ... 20 

Geological Jlap of Ireland 15 

Researches on the British Anne- 
lida 10 

Vitality of Seeds 10 G 2 

Strength of Boiler Plates 10 

~£"304 6 7 

1853, "^^^^ "^"^ 
Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory Ifio 

Experiments on the Influence of 

Solar Radiation 15 

Researches on the British Anne- 
lida 10 

Dredging on the East Coast of 

Scotland 10 

Ethnological Queries 5 

~^205 'O 
1S54. ■===* 
Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory (including 

balance of former grant) 330 15 4 

Investigations on Flax 11 

Effects of Temperature on 

Wrought Iron 10 

Registration of Periodical Phe- 

iiomena 10 

British Annelida 10 

Vitality of Seeds 5 2 3 

Conduction of Heat 4 2 

" A'380 li) : 

1855. 
Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Obssrvatory 425 

Earthquake Movements 10 

Physical Aspect of the Moun U 8 5 

Vitality of Seeds , 10 7 11 

Map of the World , 15 o 

Ethnological Queries 5 

Dredging near Belfast 4 

4i480 10 4 



£ .1. d. 



1S5G. 
Maintaining the Establishment at 
Kew Observatory : — 

1854 £ 75 01 ... 

1855 £500 OJ ^'■^ 

Strickland's Ornithological Syno- 
nyms 100 

Dredging and Dredging Forms... 9 

Chemical Action of Light 20 

Strength of Iron Plates 10 

Registration of Periodical Pheno- 
mena 10 

Propagation of Salmon 10 













13 


9 



























£734 13 y 



1857. 
Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory 350 

Earthquake Wave Experiments. . 40 

Dredging near Belfast 10 

Dredging on the West Coast of 

Scotland 10 

Investigations into the MoUusca 

ofCalifornia 10 

Experiments on Flax 5 

Natural History of Madagascar. . 20 
Researches on British Annelida 25 
Report on Natural Products im- 
ported into Liverpool 10 

Artificial Propagation of Salmon 10 

Temperature of Mines 7 

Thermometers for Subterranean 

Observations 5 

Life-Boats 5 






















(1 


























s 





7 


4 









£507 15 4 



1858. 
Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory 

E-arlhquake Wave Experiments.. 
Dredging on the West Coast of 

Scotland 

Dredging near Dublin 

Vitality of Seeds 5 

Dredging near Belfast 18 

Report on the British Annelida... 25 
Experiments on the production 

of Heat by Motion in Fluids ... 20 
Report on the Natural Products 

imported into Scotland 10 



500 








25 








10 








5 








5 


5 





18 


13 


2 









18 2 



1859. 
Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory 500 

Dredging near Dublin 15 

Osteology of Birds 50 

Irish Tunicata 5 

Manure Experiments 20 



British Medusida,- 

Dredging Committee 5 

Steam-vessels' Performance 5 

Marine Fauna of South and West 

oflreland , 10 

Photographic Chemistry 10 

Lanarkshire Fossils 20 

Balloon Ascents 39 























1 

11 



£684 II 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



Iv 









6 












1860. £ s. d. 

Maintaining the Establishment 
of Kew Observatory 500 

Dredging near Belfast 16 

Dredging in Dublin Bay 15 

Inquiry into the Performance of 
Steam- vessels 124 

Explorations in the Yellow Sand- 
stone of Dura Den 20 

Chemico-mechanical Analysis of 
Rocks and Minerals 25 

Researches on the Growth of 
Plants 10 

Researches on the Solubility of 
Salts 30 

Researches on the Constituents 
of Manures 25 

Balance of Captive Balloon Ac- 
counts., 1 

±•1241 7 

































13 


6 



1S6I. 
Maintaining the Establishment 

of Kew Observatory 

Earthquake Experiments 

Dredging North and East Coasts 

of Scotland 

Dredging Committee : — 

1S60 i'oO 0\ 

isoi £22 o; 

Excavations at Dura Den 

Solubility of Salts 

Steam-vessel Performance 

Fossils of Lesmahago 

Explorations at Uriconium 

Chemical Alloys 

Classified Index to the Transac- 
tions 

Dredging in the Mersey and Dec 

Dip Circle 

Photoheliographic Observations 

Prison Diet 

Gauging of Water 

Alpine Ascents 

Constituents of Manures 

£1 



500 
25 








23 







20 








20 








150 








15 








20 








20 








100 








5 








30 








50 








20 








10 








6 


5 


1 


25 









111 3 10 



1862. 
Maintaining the Establishment 

of Kew Observatory 500 

Patent Laws 216 

MoUusca of N.-W. America 10 

Natural History by Mercantile 

Marine 5 

Tidal Observations 25 

Photoheliometer at Kew 40 

Photographic Pictures of the Sun 150 

Rocks of Donegal 25 

Dredging Durham and North- 
umberland 25 

Connexion of Storms 20 

Dredging North- East Coast of 

Scotland 6 9 6 

Ravages of Teredo 3 11 

Standardsof Electrical Resistance 50 

Railway Accidents , 10 



£ s. d. 

Balloon Committee 200 

Dredging Dublin Bay 10 

Dredging the Mersey 5 

Prison Diet 20 

Gauging of Water 12 10 

Steamships' Performance 150 

Thermo-Electric Currents 5 

£1293 16 6 

1863. 
Maintaining the Establishment 

of Kew Ubsen'atory 600 

Balloon Committee deficiency... 70 

Balloon Ascents (other expenses) 25 

Entozoa 25 

Coal Fossils 20 

Herrings 20 

Granites of Donegal 5 

Prison Diet 20 

Vertical Atmospheric Movements 13 

Dredging Shetland 50 

Dredging North-east coast of 

Scotland 25 

Dredging Northumberland and 

Durham 17 3 10 

Dredging Committee superin- 
tendence 10 

Steamship Performance 100 

Balloon Committee 200 

Carbon under pressure 10 

Volcanic Temperature 100 

Bromide of Ammonium 8 

Electrical Standards 100 

Construction and distribu- 
tion 40 

Luminous Meteors 17 

Kew Additional Buildings for 

Photoheliograph 100 

Thermo-Electricity 15 

Analysis of Rocks 8 

Hydroids 1 

£ 1608 3 1 

1864. 
Maintaining the Establishment 

of Kew Observatory GOO 

Coal Fossils 20 

Vertical Atmospheric Move- 
ments 20 

Dredging Shetland 75 

Dredging Northumberland 25 U 

Balloon Committee 200 

Carbon under pressure 10 

Standards of Electric Resistance 100 

Analysis of Rocks 10 

Hydroida 10 

Askham'sGift 50 

Nitrite of Amyle 10 

Nomenclature Committee 5 

Rain-Gauges 19 15 8 

Cast-iron Investigation 20 

Tidal Observations in the Humber 50 

Spectral Rays 45 

Luminous Meteors 20 

£1289 15 8 



Ivi 



REPORT — 1868. 



1865. £ s. d. 
Maintaining the Establishment 

of Kew Observatory 600 

Balloon Committee 100 

Hydroida 13 

Raiu-Gaiiges 30 

Tidal Observations in the Humber 6 8 

Hexylic Compounds 20 

Anivl Compounds 20 

Irish Flora 25 

American MoUusca 3 9 

Organic Acids 20 

Lingula Flags Excavation 10 

Eurypterus 50 

Electrical Standards 100 

Malta Caves Researches 30 

Oyster Breeding 25 

Gibraltar Caves Researches ... 150 

Kent's Hole Excavations 100 

Moon's Surface Observations ... 35 

Marine Fauna 25 

Dredging Aberdeenshire 25 

Dredging Channel Islands 50 

Zoological Nomenclature 5 

Resistance of Floating Bodies in 

Water 100 

Bath Waters Analysis 8 10 

Luminous Meteors 40 

£1591 TTo 

1866. — "^^-^ -^ 
Maintaining the Establishment 

of Kew Observatory COO 

Lunar Committee 64 13 4 

Balloon Committee 50 

Metrical Committee 50 

British Rainfall 50 

Kilkenny Coal Fields 16 

Alum Bay Fossil Leaf-Bed 15 

Luminous Meteors 50 

Lingula Flags Excavation 20 

Chemical Constitution of Cast 

Iron 50 

Amyl Compounds 25 

Electrical Standards 100 

Malta Caves Exploration 30 

Kent's Hole Exploration 200 

Marine Fauna, &c., Devon and 

Cornwall 25 

Dredging Aberdeenshire Coast... 25 

Dredging Hebrides Coast 50 

Dredging the Mersey 5 

Resistance of Floating Bodies in 

Water 50 

Polycyanides of Organic Radi- 
cals 20 

Rigor Mortis 10 

Irish Annelida 15 

Catalogue of Crania 50 

Didine Birds of Mascarene Islands 50 

Typical Crania Researches 30 

Palestine Exploration Fund 100 

£1750 13 4 



£ s. cl. 
1867. 
Maintaining the Estabhshment 

of Kevv Observatory 600 

Meteorological Instruments, Pa- 
lestine 50 

Lunar Committee 120 

Metrical Committee 30 

Kent's Hole Explorations 100 

Palestine Explorations 50 

Insect Fauna, Palestine 30 

British Rainfall 50 

Kilkenny Coal Fields 25 

Alum Bay Fossil Leaf-Bed 25 

Luminous Meteors 50 

Bournemouth, &c. Leaf-Beds ... 30 

Dredging, Shetland 75 

Steamship Reports Condensa- 
tion 100 

Electrical Standards 100 

Ethyle and Methyle series 25 

Fossil Crustacea 25 

Sound under Water 24 4 

North Greenland Fauna 75 

Do. Plant Beds ... 100 

Iron and Steel Manufacture ... 25 

Patent Laws 30 

il7^9 4~^ 



1868. 
Maintaining the Establishment 

of Kew Observatory 600 

Lunar Committee 120 

Metrical Committee 50 

Zoological Rt'cord 100 

Kent's Hole Explorations 150 

Steamship Performances 100 

British Rainfall 50 

Luminous Meteors 50 

Organic Acids 60 

Fossil Crustacea 25 

Methyl series 25 

Mercury and Bile 25 

Organic remains in Limestone 

Rocks 25 

Scottish Earthquakes 20 

Fauna, Devon and Cornwall ... 30 

British Fossil Corals 50 

Bagshot Leaf-beds 50 

Greenland Explorations 100 

Fossil Flora 25 

Tidal Observations 100 

Underground Temperature 50 

Spectroscopic investigations of 

Animal s>ubstances 5 

Secondary Reptiles, &c 30 

British Marine Invertebrate 

Fauna . 100 

il940 



GENERAL MEETINGS. Ivii 

Extracts from Resolutions of the General Committee. 

Committees and individuals, to -n-hom grants of money for scientific pur- 
poses have been entrusted, are required to present to each following Meeting 
of the Association a Eeport of the progress whicli has been made ; with a 
statement of the sums which have been expended, and the balance which re- 
mains disposable on each grant. 

Grants of pecuniary aid for scientific purposes from the funds of the Asso- 
ciation expire at the ensuing Meeting, unless it shall appear by a Eeport that 
the Eecommendations have been acted on, or a continuation of them be 
ordered by the General Committee. 

Members and Committees who are entrusted with sums of money for col- 
lecting specimens of Natural History are requested tq reserve the specimens 
so obtained for distribution by authority of the Association. 

In each Committee, the Member first named is the person entitled to call on 
the Treasurer, WiUiam Spottiswoode, Esq., 50 Grosvenor Place, London, S.W., 
for such portion of tho sum granted as may from time to time be required. 

In grants of money to Committees, the Association docs not contemi^late 
the payment of personal expenses to the members. 

In all cases where additional grants of money are made for the continua- 
tion of Eesearches at the cost of the Association, the sum named sliall be 
deemed to include, as a part of the amount, the specified balance which may 
remain unpaid on the former grant for the same object. 

General Meetings. 

On Wednesday Evening, August 19, at 8 p.m., in the Drill Hall, His 
Grace the Duke of Bucclcuch, K.G., F.E.S., President, resigned the ofiice of 
President to Dr. Joseph Dalton Hooker, F.E.S., F.L.S., who took the Chair, 
and delivered an Address, for which see page Iviii. 

On Thursday Evening, Aiigust 20, at 8 p.m., a Soiree took place in St. 
Andrew's Hall. 

On Wednesday Evening, August 2C), in the Drill Hall, Prof. Huxley, 
LL.D., F.E.S., delivered a Discourse on " Chalk," to the Operative Classes 
of Norwich. 

On Friday Evening, August 21, at 8.30 p.m., in the Drill Hall, J. Fergusson, 
Esq., F.E.S,, delivered a Discourse on the " ArchiEology of the Early Bud- 
dish Monuments." 

On Tuesday Evening, August 25, at 8 p.m., in the Drill Hall, Dr. W. 
Odling, F.E.S., dehvered a Discourse on " Eeverse Chemical Actions ; " after 
which, at 9 p.m., a Soiree took place in St. Andrew's HaU. 

On Wednesday, August 26, at 3 p.m., the concluding General Meeting 
took place, when the Proceedings of the General Committee, and the Grants of 
Money for Scientific purposes, were explained to the Members. 

The Meeting was then adjourned to Exeter*. 

* The Meeting is appointed to take place on Wednesday, August 18, 1869. 



A D D 11 E S S 



OF 



JOSEPH D. HOOKEH, E.E.S., 

D.C.L. OXOJT.; LL.D. CAJS^TAB.; &C. 

PRESIDENT. 



My Loeds, Ladies, and Gentlesiek, 

Thirty years will to-morrow have elapsed since I first attended a ITeeting 
of the British Association ; it was the one which opened at Newcastle on the 
20th of August, 1838. On that occasion, the Council of the Association 
resolved to recommend to Her Majesty's Government the despatch of an 
expedition to the Antarctic regions, under the command of Captain James 
lloss ; and it was from Newcastle that I wrote to my friends announcing my 
resolve to accompany it, in whatever capacity I could obtain a situation 
amongst its officers. It was thus that my scientific career was first shaped ; 
and it is to this expedition, which was one of the very earliest results of the 
labours of the British Association, that I am indebted for the honour you 
have conferred upon me, in placing me in your President's chair. 

If I now look back with pride to those immediately following years, when 
I had a share, however small, in the discovery of the Antarctic Continent, 
the Southern Magnetic Pole, the Polar Barrier, and the Ice-clad Volcanos 
of Victoria Land, I do so also with otlier and far different feelings. Thirty 
years, as statisticians tell us, represent the average duration of human life ; 
I need not say, that, as measured by the records of the British Association, 
a human lifetime is far shorter than this ; for of the fourteen officers who 
presided over us in 1838, but two remain, youi- former President and devoted 
adherent for thirty-five years, Sir Roderick Murchison, who delivered the 
opening address on that occasion, and whose health, I regret to add, prevents 
his attendance at this Meeting ; and your faithful and evergreen Secretary, 
Professor Phillips, upon whose presence here I congratulate both you and 
him. 

Again, looking back beyond thirty years ago in the pages of youi- Records, 
I find those to have been halcyon years for Presidents, when the preparation 
and delivery of the Addresses devolved upon the Treasurer, Secretary, or 
other officer than the President ; and that in fact Presidential Addresses 
date from the first Meeting after that at Newcastle. Of late years these 
Addresses have been regarded, if not as the whole duty of the President, 
certainly as his highest ; for your sakes, as well as for my own, I wish this 
were not so ; both because there are amongst youi' ofiicers so many men far 
more competent than I am, and because I believe that the responsibility 
which the preparation of these Addresses entails, disadvantageously hmits 
yom- choice of Presidents. The impression is very prevalent that the Address 
should either be a scientific foio- de force, philosophical and popular, or a 
resume of the progress of one or more important branches of science ; and 
this view of the duty has greatly embarrassed me, inasmuch as I am unable 



ADDRESS. lix 

to fulfil either of these requirements. On various occasions during the last 
half year I have essayed to fulfil the wishes of my botanical friends, that I 
should either discuss the phenomena of the Vegetable kingdom in their 
relation to collateral sciences, or sketch the rise and progress of Scientific 
Botany during the present century, or a portion of it ; but every such essay 
has been qiiickly frustrated by the pressure of official duties. Such themes 
require much research, much thought, and, above all, some continuous leisure, 
during which the whole mind may be concentrated on the method of treat- 
ment, as well as on the material to be treated 'of; and this leisure was 
incompatible with the discharge of my duties as administrator of a large 
public department, entailing a ceaseless correspondence with the Government 
offices, and with Botanical establishments aU over the globe. And I do not 
ask your indulgence for myself alone, for there are at this Meeting official 
men ot" scientific attainments, who have accepted the Presidentships of Sections, 
but who, on leaving their posts to do your bidding, drag a lengthening chain 
of correspondence after them, and sacrifice no short portion of those brief 
holidays which are allowed to j^blic officers. After all, it is deeds, not 
words, that we want from them ; and I am proud to find oiu" Sections pro- 
sided over by men who have won their spurs in theii" respective sciences, and 
who will wear them in the chairs they occupy, and use them, too, if needs 
must. 

For my own part I propose to offer you some remarks upon several matters 
to which the attention of your Committee was directed when at Dundee, and 
then upon some of the great advances that have been made in Botany during 
the last few years ; this wUl infallibly drag me into Darwinism : after which 
I shall allude to some matters connected with that dawning science, the 
Early History of Mankind, a theme which wiU be a distinguishing collateral 
feature of the Norwich Association. If in all this I disappoint you, it will be 
my solace to hope that I may thereby break the fall of some future President, 
who, like myself, may have the will, but not the time, adequately to meet 
your great expectations. 

Before commencing, however, I must advert to a circumstance which 
cannot but be uppermost in the minds of all habitual attendants at these 
annual gatherings ; it is, that but for a severe accident there would have 
been present here to-night the oldest surviving, and indeed the first but two 
of the Presidents of the British Association : my geological friends will 
understand to whom I aUude, as that Eock of Science in whom age and the 
heat and shocks of Scientific Controversy have wrought no metamorphosis, 
and developed no cleavage planes — a man of whom both Norwich and the 
Association are proud — your Cauon, our father, Sedgwick. 

My first duty as President is the pleasant one of introducing to you the 
members of the International Congress of Pre-historie Archaeology, who, under 
the Presidency of Sii- John Lubbock, himself a master of this branch of 
knowledge, open their third session to-morrow in this citj'. The researches 
which specially occupy the attention of the Congress arc perhaps the most 
fascinating that ever engaged the faculties of man ; and pnrsued as they now 
are in a scientific spirit, and in due subjection to scientific methods, they will 
command all the sympathy, and their meetings wiU receive all the support 
that my fellow members of the British Association can afford to them. And 
there is one way in particular by which we can show our goodwill and give 
our support, so simple that I hope no one will neglect it ; and that is that we 
shall all call at their official residence at the Free Library, inscribe our names 
in their books, and obtain cards for their meetings. 



IX REPORT — 1868. 

The next subject whicli I have to briug officially before you ^yill interest 
the members of the Congress no less than ourselves, and relates to the action 
of your Committee appointed last year to represent to the Secretary of 
State for India " the great and urgent importance of adopting active measures 
to obtain reports on the physical form, manners, and customs of the indige- 
nous populations of India, and especially of those tribes which are still in the 
habit of erecting Megalithic monuments." 

Upon consideration the Committee decided that it would be better in the 
first instance, to direct the attention of the Secretary of State to the last- 
mentioned subject only, both because the whole inquiry was so vast, and 
because systematic efforts are now being made by the Indian Government to 
obtain photographs and histoi'ies of the native Indian tribes. Their efforts 
are, as regards the photographs obtained in India, eminently successful, which 
renders it all the more disappointing that the descriptive matter appended to 
them in this country, and which is happily anonymous, is most fliscreditablo 
to the authority under which it Ls issued*. 

It will, no doubt, surprise many here to be told that there exists within 
300 miles of the British capital of India, a tribe of semi-savages who 
habitually erect dolmens, menhirs, cysts, and cromlechs, almost as gigantic 
in their projiortions as the so-called Druidical remains of \Yestern Europe, 
which they greatlj' resemble in appearance and construction ; and what is 
stiU more curious, though described and figured nearly a quarter of a century 
ago by Col. Yule, the eminent oriental geographer, except by Sir John Lub- 
bock these erections are scarcely alluded to in the modern literature of 
prehistoric monuments. In the Bengal Asiatic Journal for 1844, you wiU 
find Col. Yule's description of the Khasia people of East Bengal ; an Indo- 
Chinese race, who keep cattle but drink no milk, estimate distances traversed 
by the mouthfuls of pawn chewed en route, and amongst whom the marriage 
tie is so loose that the son commonly forgets his father, while the sister's son 
inherits property and rank. Dr. Thomson and I dwelt for some months 
amongst the Khasia people, now eighteen years ago, and found Col. Yule's 
account to be correct in aU particulars. The undulatory eminences of the 
country, some 4r-6000 feet above the level of the sea, are dotted with groups 
of huge unpolished square pillars, and tabular slabs supported on three or four 
rude piers. 

In one spot, buried in a sacred grove, we found a nearly complete circle 
of menhirs, the tallest of which was thirty feet out of the ground, six feet 
broad, and two feet eight inches thick ; and in front of each was a dolmen or 
cromlech of proportionately gigantic pieces of rock. 

The largest slab hitherto measured is thirty-two feet high, fifteen feet 
broad, and two feet thick. Several that we saw had been very recently 
erected, and wc were informed that every year some are put up, but not during 
the rainy season, which we spent in the country. The method of separating 
the blocks is by cutting grooves, along which fires are lighted, and into which, 
when heated, cold water is run, which causes the rock to split along the 
groove ; the lever and rope are the only mechanical aids used in transporting 
and erecting the blocks. The objects of their erection are various — sejiulture, 
marking spots where public events had occurred, &c. It is a curious fact 
that the Khasian word for a stone, "Mau," as commonly occurs in the names 
of their villages and places, as that of Man, Maen, and Men, does in those of 

* I am informed that measures have been taken to repair this, and that Col. Meadows 
Taylor, than whom a more competent man could not be found, has been appointed to 
undertake the literary and scientific portions in futiu-e. 



ADDRESS. Ixi 

Brittany, Wales, Cornwall, &c. ; thus Mausmai signifies in Kliasia the Stone 
of Oath ; Mamloo, the Stone of Salt ; Mauflong, the Grassy Stone, just as in 
Wales, Penmaenmawr signifies the HiU of the Big Stone ; "and in Brittany a 
Menhir is a Standing Stone, and a Dolmen a Table Stone, &c. 

At the date of Cul. Yule's, as of my visit to these people, our intercourse 
with them was limited, and not always friendly ; we Avere ignorant of their 
language, and they themselves were far from communicative. Of late, how- 
ever, the country has been more opened up, and the establishment of a Bri- 
tish cantonment amongst them renders it all the more important that the 
inquiry into their origin, language, beliefs, customs, &c. should be followed 
up without delay. This will now be done, thanks to your representations ; 
and I cannot doubt that it will throw great light upon that obscure and 
important branch of Prehistoric Archaeology, the Megalithic monuments of 
Western Earope. 

The Council of the Association, upon the recommendation of the Biological 
Section,^ appointed a committee to report upon the subject of the Government 
of the IS'atural-History Collections of the British Museum ; which resulted in 
a deputation which represented to the Prime Minister in the name of the 
Council, that it was desirable that these collections should be placed under 
the control of a single officer, who should be directly responsible to a Minister 
of the Crown ; and that this opinion was shared by an overwhelming majo- 
rity of British naturalists. The reasons stated were, that there appeared' no 
reason why the IN'ational Collections of Natural History should be administered 
in a way different from that which was found apphcable to the Eoyal Gar- 
dens and Botanical Collections at Kew, the Museum of Practical Geology, and 
the Eoyal Observatory at Greenwich*, and that the interposition of any Board 
or Committee between the Superintendent of the Collections and the Govern- 
ment must interfere with the responsibility of the Superintendent and the 
efficient control of the Minister. 

It was not the first time that this subject had been brought before Her 
Majesty's Government : since ten years previously a few Naturalists, consisting 
of Messrs. Bentham, Busk, Darwin, Huxley, Dr. Carpenter, and myself, 
together with the late Professors Lindley, Henslow, Harvey, and Hcnfrey, 
had presented a memorial to Mr. Disraeli, then Chancellor of the Exchequer', 
embodying precisely the same views as to the government of the Natural- 
History Department of the British Museum, together with a scheme for the 
administration of the whole Metropolitan Natural-History Collections, Geolo- 
gical and Botanical ; and I have only to add, regarding this document, that 
the surviving memorialists have not during the ten intervening years, found 
reason to alter the views therein expressed on any vital point. 

Of the objections to the present system of government by Trustees, some of 
the most grave have been stated by Mr. Andrew Murray in a communication f 

* Since writing the above, I have been reminded of the constitution of the Board of 
Visitors to the Royal Observatory by tlie Astronomer Eoyal, who has favoured me with 
copies of the Regulations of the Royal Observatory (1852), and of his Report (for 1808^ 
to the Board of Visitors. ' 

From a perusal of this document, I find that the Board of Visitors is authorized to 
direct the Astronomer Royal to make such observations as the Board shaU think proper • 
to mspeet the instruments, and to communicate with the Lords of the Admiralty upon tlie 
arrangements for keeping them in order ; to make any suggestions to tlie Lords of the 
Admiralty touching the Observatory, and to require of the Astronomer Royal every three 
months, a copy of the observations made, with a view to printing them. I also gather 
tliat, lor the efficient administration of all the duties of the Observatory, the Astronomer 
Koyal IS solely responsible to the Lords of the Admiralty. 

t Report for 1867. Transactions of Sections, p. 95. 



Ixii REPORT — 1868. 

made to the Biological Section at Dundee ; to which I would only add, 
that though the Zoological Collections are the finest in the world, and 
the Geological and Palreontological of prodigious extent and value, there are 
of the forty-five Trustees, only three who have any special knowledge what- 
soever of the branches of science these collections illustrate ; that since Sir 
Joseph Banks's death, nearly half a centuiy ago, no Botanist has ever been 
appointed a Trustee, though the Banksian Herbarium and Botanical Library, 
then amongst the most valuable in Europe, were left by their owner to the 
nation ; and, in fine, that the interests of Botany have by the Trustees been 
greatly neglected. 

Much as has been written npon the uses of museums, I believe that the 
subject is still far from being exhausted, for in the present state of education 
in this country, these appear to me to afl'ord the only means of efficiently 
teaching to schools the elements of Zoology and Physiology. .1 say in the 
present state of education, because I believe it will be many years before 
we have schoolmasters and mistresses trained to teach these subjects, and 
many more years before either provincial or private schools will be sup- 
plied with such illustrative specimens as are essential for the teacher's 
purposes. 

Confining myself to the consideration of provincial and local museums, and 
their requirements for educational purposes, each should contain a connected 
series of specimens illustrating the principal and some of the lesser divisions 
of the Animal and Vegetable Kingdoms, so disposed in weU-lighted cases, 
that an inquiring observer might learn therefrom the principles upon which 
animals and plants are classified, the relations of their organs to one another 
and to those of their aUies, the functions of those organs, and other matters 
relating to their habits, uses, and place in the economy of nature. Such an 
arrangement has not been carried out in any museum Imown to me, though 
partially attained in that at Ipswich ; it requires some space, many pictorial 
illustrations, magnified views of the smaller oi'gans and their structure, and 
copious legible descriptive labels, and it should not contain a single specimen 
more than is wanted. The other requirements of a provincial museum 
are, complete collections of the plants and animals of the province, which 
should be kept entirely apart from the instructional series, and from every- 
thing else. 

The Curator of the Museum should be able to give elementary demonstra- 
tions (not lectures, and quite apart from any powers of lecturing that he may 
possess) upon this classified series, to schools and others, for which a fee 
should be charged, which should go to the support of the Institution. And 
the museum might be available (under similar conditions of payment) for 
lectures and other demonstrations. 

Did such an illustrated typical collection exist in your rich and weU- 
arranged Norwich Museum, I am sure that there is not an intelligent school- 
master in the city who would not see that his school profited by the demon- 
strator's offices, nor a parent who would grudge the trifling fee. 

You boast of a superb collection of Birds of Prey ; how much would the 
value of this be enhanced, Avere it accompanied by such an illustration of tlio 
nature, habits, and affinities of the Raptores, as might well be obtained by 
an exhibition of the skeleton and dissected organs of one Hawk and one Owl, 
so laid out and ticketed that a schoolboy should see the structure of their 
beak, feet, wings, feathers, bones, and internal organs — should see why it is 
that Hawks and Owls are preeminent amongst birds for powers of sight and 
of flight ; for cii'cling and for swooping ; for rapacity, voracity, and tenacity 



ADDRESS. Lsiii 

of life, — should see, iu short, the affinities and special attributes of Birds of 
Prey*. 

A series of illustrated typical specimens, occupying some 500 to 800 feet of 
wall space, would give at a glance a connected and intelligible elementary 
view of the classification and structure of the whole animal kiagdom ; it would 
stand in the same relation to a complete Museum and Systema Natm-se as a 
chart on which the principal cities and coast-lines are clearly laid down does 
to a map crowded with uudistinguishable details. 

Excellent manuals of many branches of Zoology are now published which 
are invaluable to the advanced student and demonstrator, but from which 
the schoolboy recoils, who nevertheless would not refuse to accept objects and 
pictures as memory's pegs, on which to hang ideas, facts, and hard names. 
To schoolboys skeletons have often a strange fascination, and upon the struc- 
ture of these the classification of the vertebrata much depends. ^Tiat boy, 
who had ever been shown their skulls, would caU a Seal or Porpoise a fish, 
or believe that a hedgehog could milk cows ! as I am told many boys in 
Norfolk and Suffolk (as elsewhere) do implicitly beheve. 

Much of the utility of Museums depends on two conditions often strangely 
overlooked, viz. their situation, and their lighting and interior arrangements. 
The provincial Museum is too often huddled away, almost out of sight, in a 
dark, crowded, and dirty thoroughfare, where it pays dear for ground-rent, 
rates and taxes, and cannot be extended ; the object, apparently, being to 
catch country people on market days. Such localities are frequented by 
the town's people only when on business, and when they consequently 
have no time for sight-seeing. In the evening, or- on holidays, when they 
could visit the Museum, they naturally prefer the outskii'ts of the town to 
its centre. 

Hence, too, the country gentry scarcely know of the existence of the 
Museum; and I never remember to have heard of a provincial Museum that 
was frequented by schools. I do not believe that this arises from indifference 
to knowledge on the part of the upper classes or of teachers, btit to the gene- 
rally uninstructive nature of the contents of these Museums, and their unin- 
viting exterior and interior. There are plenty of visitors of all classes to the 
Museums at Kew, despite the counter attractions of the gardens ; and I know 
no more pleasing sight than these present on Sunday and Monday after- 
noons, when crowded by intelligent visitors, directing their children's atten- 
tion to the ticketed objects in the cases. 

The Museum should be in an open grassed square or park, planted with 
trees, in the town, or its outskirts ; a main object being to secure cleanliness, 
a cheerful aspect, and space for extension. Now vegetation is the best inter- 
ceptor of dust, which is injurious to the specimens as well as unsightly, whilst 
a cheerful aspect and grass and trees will attract visitors, and especially 
families and schools. 

If the external accessories of provincial Museums are bad, the internal 
arrangements are often worse ; the rooms are usually lighted by windows on 
one side only, so that the cases between the windows are dark, and those op- 
posite the windows reflect the light when viewed obliquely, whUst the visitor 
standing ia front is in his own light. For provincial Museums, Avhere space 
is an object, there is no better plan than rectangular long rooms, with opposite 
windows on each side, and buttress cases projecting into the room between 

* This, which refers to the teaching of Natural History, is an operation altogether apart 
from training the mind to liahits of exact observation ; which, as is now fully admitted, is 
best attained in schools by Professor Henslow's method of teaching Botany. 



Ixiv REPORT — 18G8. 

each pair of windows. Tliis arrangement combines economy of space with 
perfect illumination, and affords facilities for classification*. 

In respect of its Natural-History Collections, the jiosition of the British 
Museum appears to me disadvantageous ; it is surrounded by miles of streets, 
including some of the principal Metropolitan thoroughfares, which pour 
clouds of dust, and the products of coal-combustion into its area day and 
night ; and I know few more disappointing sights, to me, than its badly 
lighted interior presents on a hot and crowded public hoHday, when whole 
famines from London and its outskirts flock to the building. Then young and 
old may be seen gasping for fresh air in its galleries, with no alternative but 
the hotter and dustier streets to resort to. How different it would be were 
these Collections removed to the town ward end of one of the great parks ! 
where spacious and well-lighted galleries could be built, amongst ti'ees, grass, 
and fountains ; and where whole families need not be cooped up for the day 
in the building, but avail themselves of the fresh air and its accessories at the 
same time as they profit by the Museum. 

Norwich, I hear with surprise, has no Public Park worthy of the name. 
That she may soon have one should be the endeavour of every citizen, and to 
have a good instructional series added to your admirable Museum, and this 
transferred to the Park, should be the aspiration of all who are interested in 
the education and moral well-being of their townsmen. 

My remarks on the British Museum convey no reflection on the able ofHcers 
who have, in so short a time, formed this wonderful Collection. Lawrence, in 
his Lectures delivered in iSlS, congratulates his audience on the formation 
of a Zoological Collection having just been determined upon; in 1838, when 
I first knew the Museum, in Old Montague House, I was told it ranked about 
the sixth in Europe — now, and for some years past, it has been considered to 
be the finest in the world. This is due to the energy and ability of the 
Keepers and Curators ; and in mentioning them, I would wish to pay a passing- 
tribute to the merits of the venerable Dr. Gray, who has devoted his life to 
the development of the Zoological Department, with a singleness of purpose, 
liberality, and zeal that are bej'ond all praise. 

At the time when Old Montague House contained the National Collections, 
there was but one Museum in the Metropolis in which the Naturalist could 
study to much purpose ; this was the Hunterian (belonging to the Eoyal 
College of Surgeons), then under the superintendence of the late Mr. Clift 
and of Professor Owen, the friend of my early youth, when preparing myself 
to accompany the Antarctic Expedition, and who instructed me in the use of 
that now unrivalled series of Catalogues, that owes so much to himself. 
Prom the Museum of the Koyal College of Surgeons, the national and pro- 
vincial Museums of England have much to learn and to copy ; and, thanks 
to the wisdom and munificence of the Council of the CoUege, and to the zeal 

* Upon this plan the large Museum in Kew is built, where the three principal rooms 
are 70 ft. long by 45 ft. wide, and each accommodates 1000 square feet of admirably lighted 
cases, 600 or 700 feet of wall-room for pictures and for portraits of naturalists, besides 
two fireplaces, four entrances, and a well-staircase, 11 feet square. A circular building, 
with cases radiating from the wall between the windows, would probably be the best ar- 
rangement of all. A light spiral staircase in the centre would lead to the upper stories. 
Two or more of the bays might be converted into private rooms, without disturbing the 
symmetry of the interior or intercepting the lighting of the cases. The proportions of the 
basement and first floor might be such as to admit of additional stories being added, and 
the roof might be so constructed as to be removable without difficulty, when an additional 
story was reqvdred ; furthermore, rectangular galleries might be built, radiating from the 
central building, and lighted by opposite windows, with buttress cases between each pair 
of windows. 



ADDRESS. Ixv 

and ability of the present Conservator, Mr, Flower, it retains the position it 
attained thirty years ago, of being the best and richest institution of the kind 
in Europe. 

In my own special science, the greatest advances that have been made 
during the last ten years have been in the departments of Fossil Botany and 
Vegetable Physiology. 

In the past history of the globe two epochs stand prominently forward 
(the Carboniferous and the Miocene) for the abundant materials they afford, 
and the light they consequently throw on the early conditions of the vege- 
table kingdom. Why plants should have been so much more abundantly 
preserved during these than during some of the intervening or earlier epochs, 
we do not rightly know ; but the comparative poverty of the floras of these 
latter is amongst the strongest evidences of the imperfection of the geological 
record. 

Our knowledge of coal plants, which, since the days of Sternberg, Brong- 
niart, and Lindley and Hutton, has been chiefly advanced by Goeppert and 
Unger on the Continent, and by Dawson in Canada, has of late received 
very important accessions through the untiring energy of Mr. Binney, of 
Manchester, who has devoted nearly thirty years to the search for those 
rarely found specimens which exhibit the internal structure of the plant. 
His elaborate descriptions of the most abundant, and, before his researches, 
the least understood plant of the coal-measures, Galamites, have just appeared 
in the memoirs of the Palseontographical Society ; and some of Mr. Binney's 
materials having also formed the subject of a very recent and valuable paper 
by Mr. Carruthers, of the British Museum, I may quote their joint results as 
one. These show that Calamites is an actual member of the existing family 
of EquisetaceEe, which contained previously but one geniis, that of the com- 
mon mare's tails of our river-banks and woods ; as also, that nearly a dozen 
other genera of coal-measure plants may be referred to it. This afiinity of 
Calamites had, indeed, been guessed at before, but the genera now referred 
to it, having been founded on mere fragments, were always doubtful ; but 
the value of these positive identifications is none the less on this account. 
It may hereafter prove of some significance, that these Calamites, which, in 
the coal epoch, assumed gigantic proportions, and presented multitudinous 
forms and very varied organs of growth, are now represented by but one 
genus, differing most remarkably from its prototype in size, and in the sim- 
plicity and uniformity of its vegetable organs. 

Passing to the Tertiary Flora, the labours of Count Saporta in France, of 
Gaudin and Strozzi, and of Massolonghi in Italy, of Lesquereus in America, 
and above all, of Heer in Switzerland, have within the last ten years accu- 
mulated a vast mimber of species of fossil plants ; and if the determinations 
of the affinities of the majority are to be depended on, they prove the per- 
sistence, throughout the Tertiary strata, of many existing families and genera, 
and the rarity of others than these. Here, however, much value cannot bo 
attached to negative evidence. Almost the only available materials for de- 
termining the affinities of the vast majority of these Tertiary plants are their 
mutilated leaves, and, unlike the bones of vertebrate animals and the shells 
of MoUusks, the leaves of individual plants are extremely variable in all their 
characters. Furthermore, the leaves of plants of different natural families, 
and of different countries, mimic one another to such a degree that, in the 
case of recent plants, every botanist regards these organs as most treacherous 
guides to affinity. Of the structural characters, which are drawn from the 
internal organs of plants, and especially from their fruits, seeds, and flowers, 

1868. e 



Ixvi REPORT — 1868. 

few traces are to be found in fossils ; and it is from these exclusively that 
the position of a recent plant iu the vegetable kingdom can be certified. An 
instructive instance of over-reliance on leaves, and perhaps too on precon- 
ceived ideas, happened not long ago to a Paleontologist of such distinguished 
merit that his reputation cannot suffer from an allusion to it. In the course 
of his labours upon some imperfect specimens from a most interesting locality, 
he referred three associated impressions of fossil leaves to three genera, 
belonging to as many different families of plants ; and was thus helped to 
what would have been some important conclusions as to the vegetation of the 
period in which they were deposited. A subsequent observer, who is a 
botanist but not a pateontologist, declares the leaves thus referred to three 
genera to be the three leaflets of the leaf of one plant, and this the common 
blackberry, which still grows on the spot. Which of the two is right, I do 
not say ; the fact shows to what opposite conclusions different observei'S of 
the same fossil materials may be led. 

In this most uni'eliable of sciences — Fossil Botany — we do but grope in the 
dark ; of the thousands of objects we stumble against, we here and there 
recognize a likeness to what we have elsewhere known, and rely on external 
similitude for a helping hand to its aflSnities ; of the great majority of speci- 
mens we know nothing for certain, and of no small proportion Ave are utterly 
ignorant. If, however, much is uncertain, all is not so, and the science has 
of late made sure and steady progress, and developed really grand results. 
Heer's labours on the Miocene and Pliocene floras especially, are of the 
highest value and interest ; his conclusions regarding the flora of the Bovey 
Tracey Coal-beds (for the jjublication of which, in a form worthy of their 
value and of their author's merit, we are indebted to the wise liberality of 
Miss Burdett Coutts) are founded on a sufficient number of absolute deter- 
minations ; and his more recent ' Flora Fossilis Arctica ' threatens to create a 
revolution in Tertiary Geology. In this latter work Professor Heer shows, 
on apparently unassailable evidence, that forests of Austrian, American, and 
Asiatic trees flourished during the Miocene period in Iceland, Arctic Greenland, 
Spitzbergen, and the Polar American Islands, in latitudes where such trees 
could not now exist under any conceivable conditions or positions of land, 
sea, or ice ; leaving little doubt that an arboreous vegetation once ex- 
tended to the Pole itself. Discoveries such as these appear at first actually 
to retard the progress of science, by coufoimding all previous geological 
reasoning as to the climate and condition of the globe during the Tertiary epoch. 

I have said that the greatest botanical discoveries made during the last ten 
years have been physiological ; and I here alluded especially to the series of 
papers on the Fertilization of Plants which we owe to Mr, Darwin. You 
are aware that this distinguished naturalist, after accumulating stores of 
facts in geology and zoology during his circumnavigation of the globe with 
Captain Fitzroy, espoused the doctrine of the continuous evolution of life, 
and by applying to it the principles of Natural Selection, evolved his theory 
of the Origin of Species. Instead of publishing these views as soon as con- 
ceived, he devoted twenty more years to further observation, study, and ex- 
periment, with the view of maturing or subverting them. Amongst the 
subjects requiring elucidation or verification, were many that appertained to 
Botany, but which had been overlooked or misunderstood by botanical 
writers ; and these he set himself to examine rigorously. 

The first fruit of his labours was his volume on the 'Fertilization of 
Orchids,' undertaken to show that the same plant is never continuously 
fertilized by its own pollen, and that there are special provisions to favour' 



ADDRESS. 



Ixvii 



the crossing of individuals. As his study of the British species advanced, he 
became so interested in the number, variety, and complexity of the con- 
trivances he met with, that he extended his survey to the whole family ; 
and the result is a work, of which it is not too much to say that it has 
thrown more light upon the structure and functions of the floral organs of 
this immense and anomalous family of plants, than had been shed by the 
labours of all previous botanical writers. It has further opened up entirely 
new fields of research, and discovered new and important principles that 
apply to the whole vegetable kingdom. 

This was followed by his paper on the well-known forms of the Primrose 
and Cowslip*, popularly known as the pin-eyed and thrum-eyed: these 
forms he showed to be sexual and complementary, their diverse functions 
being to secure, by their mutual action, full fertilization, which he proved 
could only take place through insect agency. In this paper he established 
the existence of homomorjihic or legitimate, and heteromorphic or illegitimate 
unions amongst plants, and detailed some curious observations on the struc- 
ture of the pollen. The results of this, perhaps more than any other of 
Mr. Darwin's papers, took botanists by siu^prise, the plants being so familiar, 
their two forms of flower so well known to every intelligent observer, and his 
explanation so simple. For my own part I felt that my botanical knowledge 
of these homely plants had been but little deeper than Peter Bell's, to whom 

A primrose by the river's brim 
A yellow primrose was to him, 
And it was nothing more. 

Analogous observations on the dimorphism of flax and its allies f formed a 
subsequent paper; during the course of which observations he made the 
wonderful discovery that, in the common flax, the pollen of cue form of 
flower is absolutely impotent when apphed to its own stigma, but invariably 
potent when applied to the stigma of the other form of flower; yet the 
pollens and stigmas of the two kinds are utterly undistinguishable under the 
highest powers of the microscope. 

His third investigation was a very long and laborious one on the Common 
Loosestrife J {Lyihrum salicaria), which he showed to be trimorphic ; this one 
species having three kinds of flowers, all annually abundantly produced, and 
as different as if they belonged to ditferent species ; each flower has, further, 
three kinds of stamens, differing in form and function. We have in this 
plant, then, six kinds of pollen, of which five at least are essential to com- 
plete fertility, and three distinct forms of style. To prove these various 
differences, and that the co-adaptation of aU these stamens and pistils was 
essential to complete fertility, Mr. Darwin had to institute eighteen sets of 
observations, each consisting of twelve experiments, 216 in all. Of the 
labour, care, and delicacy required to guard such experiments against the 
possibility of error, those alone can tell who experimentally know how 
difficult it is to hybridize a large-flowered plant of simple form and structure. 
The results in this case, and in those of a number of allied plants experi- 
mented on at the same time, are such as the authoi"'s sagacity had predicted ; 
the rationale of the whole was demonstrated, and he finally showed, not only 
how nature might operate in bringing these complicated modifications into 
harmonious operation, but how through insect agency she does do this, and 
also why she does it. 



* Journal of the Linnean Society of London, vol. vl, p 77 
t Ibid. vol. vii. p. 69. J Ibid. vol. viii. p. 



169. 
e2 



Ixviii REPORT — 1868. 

It is impossible even to enumerate here the many important generaliza- 
tions that have followed from these and other papers of Mr. Darwin on the 
fertilization of plants ; some that appear to be commonplace at first sight are 
really the most subtle, and like many other apparent commonplaces, are 
what, somehow, never occur to commonplace minds : as, for instance, that 
all plants with conspicuously coloured flowers or powerful odours or honeyed 
secretions are fertilized by insects; all with inconspicuous flowers, and 
especially such as have pendulous anthers or incoherent pollen, are fertilized 
by the wind : whence he infers that, before honey-feeding insects existed, 
the vegetation of our globe could not have been ornamented with bright- 
coloured flowers, but consisted of such plants as pines, oaks, grasses, nettles, &c. 

The only other botanical paper of Mr. Darwin to which I can especially 
allude, is that " On the Habits and Movements of Climbing Plants" *, which 
is a most elaborate investigation into the structure, modification, and func- 
tions of the various organs by which plants climb, twine, and attach them- 
selves to foreign objects. In this he reviews every family in the vegetable 
kingdom, and every organ used by any plant for the above purposes. The 
result places the whole subject in a totally new light. The guesses, crude 
observations, and abortive experiments that had disfigured the writings of 
previoiis observers are swept away; organs, structures, and functions, of 
Avhich botanists had no previous knowledge, are revealed to them ; and the 
whole investigation is made as clear as it is interesting and instructive. 

The value of these discoveries, which add whole chapters to the principles 
of botany, is not theoretical only : already the horticulturist and agri- 
culturist have begun to ponder over them, and to recognize in the failure 
of certain crops, the operation of laws that Mr. Darwin first laid down. What 
Paraday's discoveries are to telegraphy, Mr. Darwin's will assui-edly prove 
to rural economy, in its widest sense and most extended application. 

Another instance of successful experiment in Physiological Botany is Mr. 
Herbert Spencer's observations on the circulation of the sap and the forma- 
tion of wood in plants f. As is well known, the tissues of herbs, shrubs, 
and trees, from the tips of their roots to those of their petals and pistils, are 
permeated by tubular vessels. The functions of these have been hotly dis- 
puted, some physiologists affirming that they convey air, others fluids, others 
gases, and still others assigning to them far-fetched uses, of a wholly 
different natiu-e. By a series of admirably contrived and conducted experi- 
ments, Mr. Spencer has not only shown that these vessels are charged at 
certain seasons of the year with fluid, but that they are intimately connected 
■with the formation of wood. He further investigates the nature of the 
special tissues concerned in this operation, and shows not merely how they 
may act, but to a great extent how they do act. As this paper will, I 
believe, be especially alluded to by the President of the Biological Section, I 
need dwell no further on it here, than to quote it as an example of what may 
be done by an acute observer and experimentalist, versed in Physics and 
Chemistry, but above all, thoroughly instructed in scientiflc methods. 

Mr. Darwin's recent volumes " On Animals and Plants under Domestica- 
tion," contain a harvest of data, observations, and experiments, such as 
assuredly no one but himself could have gathered. It is hard to say whether 
this book is most remarkable for the number and value of the new facts it 
discloses, or for its array of small forgotten or overlooked observations, 

* Journal of the Linnean Society, vol. ix. p. 1, 
t Linnean Transactions, vol. xxv. p. 405. 



ADDRESS. Ixix 

neglected by some naturalists, and discarded by otters, wbich, under his 
mind and eye, prove to be of first-rate scientific importance. An eminent 
surgeon and physiologist (Mr. James Paget) remarked to me, a 'pro])os of these 
volumes, that they exemplify in a most remarkable manner that power of 
utilizing the waste materials of other men's laboratories which is a very 
characteristic feature of their author. As one of those pieces justljicatives of 
his previous work, ' The Origin of Species,' which have been waited for so 
long and impatiently, these volumes will probably have more than their due 
influence ; for the serried ranks of facts in support of his theories which they 
present, may weU awe many a timid naturalist into swallowing more obnoxious 
doctrines than that of natural selection. 

It is in this work that Mr. Darwin expounds his new hypothesis of Pan- 
genesis, which certainly correlates, and may prove to contain the rationale of 
aU the phenomena of reproduction and of inheritance. You are aware that 
every plant or animal commences its more or less independent life as a single 
cell, from which is developed an organism more or less closely similar to 
its parent. One of the most striking examples I can think of is aff"ordcd by 
a species of Begonia, the stalks, leaves, and other parts of which are super- 
ficially studded with loosely attached cellular bodies. Any one of those 
bodies, if placed under favourable conditions, will produce a perfect plant, 
similar to its parent. You may say that these bodies have inherited the 
potentiality to do so ; but this is not all, for every plant thus produced, in like 
manner developes on its stalks leaves and myriads of similar bodies, endowed 
with the same property of becoming new plants, and so on, apparently 
interminably. Therefore the original cell that left the grand parent, not only 
carried with it this so-called potentiality, but multiplied it and distributed 
it with undiminished power through the other cells of the plant produced 
by itself, and so on, for countless generations. What is this potentiahty ? 
and how is this power to reproduce thus propagated, so that an organism can, 
by single cells, multiply itself so rapidly, and within very narrow limits, so 
surely and so interminably ? Mr. Darwin suggests an explanation, by as- 
suming that each cell or fragment of a plant (or animal) contains myriads 
of atoms or gemmides, each of which gemmule he supposes to have been 
thrown off from the separate cells of the mother-plant, the gemmules 
having the power of multiplication, and of circulating throughout the plant : 
their future development he supposes to depend on their affinity for other 
partially developed cells in due order of succession. Gemmules which do 
not become developed, may, according to his hypothesis, be transmitted 
through many succeeding generations, thus enabling us to understand 
many remarkable cases of reversion or atavism. Hence the normal organs 
of the body have not only the representative elements of which they consist 
difi'used through all the other parts of the body, but the morbid states of 
these, as hereditary diseases, malformations, &c., all actually circulate in the 
body as morbid gemmides. 

As with other hypotheses based on the assumed existence of structures and 
elements that escape our senses, by reason of their minuteness or subtlety, 
this of Pangenesis will approve itself to some minds and not to others. To 
some these inconceivably minute circulating gemmules will be as apparent 
to the mind's eye as the stars of which the Milky Way is composed ; others 
will prefer embodying the idea in such a term as potentiality, a term which 
conveys no definite impression whatever, and they will like it none the less 
on this account. 

Whatever be the scientific value of these gemmules, there is no question 



IXX REPORT — 1868. 

but that to Mr. Darwiu's eminciation of the doctrine of Pangenesis we owe it 
that we have the clearest and most sj^stematic resume of the many wonderful 
phenomena of reproduction and inheritance that has yet appeared ; and 
against the giiarded entertainment of the hypothesis, or speculation if you 
will, as a means of correlating these phenomena, nothing can be urged in the 
present state of science. The President of the Linneau Society, a proverbially 
cautious naturahst, thus well expresses his own ideas of Pangenesis : — " If," 
he says, " we take into consideration how familiar mathematical signs and 
symbols make us with numbers and combinations, the actual realization of 
which is beyond all human capacity, how inconceivably minute must be 
those emanations which most powerfully affect our sense of smell and our 
constitutions, and if, discarding all preventions, we follow llr. Darwin, step 
by step, applying his suppositions to the facts set before us, we must, I think, 
admit that they may explain some, and are not incompatible with others ; and 
it appears to me that Pangenesis will be admitted by many as a provisional 
hypothesis, to be further tested and to be discarded only when a more 
plausible one shall be brought forward." 

Ten years have elapsed since the publication of ' The Origin of Species by 
Natural Selection,' and it is therefore not too early now to ask what 
progress that bold theory has made in scientific estimation. The most widely 
circulated of all the journals that give science a prominent place on their title- 
pages, the • Athenteum,' has very recently told to every country where the 
English language is read, that Mr. Darwin's theory is a thing of the past, 
that Natural Selection is rapidly declining in scientific favour, and that, as 
regards the above two volumes on the variations of animals and plants under 
domestication, they " contain nothing more in support of origin by selection, 
than a more detailed reasseveration of his guesses founded on the so-called 
variations of pigeons." 

Let us examine for ourselves into the truth of these inconsiderate state- 
ments. Since the ' Origin ' appeared ten years ago, it has passed through 
four English editions, two American, two German, two French, several 
Russian, a Dutch, and an Italian; whilst of the work on Variation, which 
first left the publisher's house not seven months ago, two English, a German, 
Russian, American, and Itahan editions are already in circulation. So far 
from Natural Selection being a thing of the past, it is an accepted doctrine 
with almost every philosophical naturalist, including, it will always be under- 
stood, a considerable proportion who are not prepared to admit that it ac- 
counts for all Mr. Darwin assigns to it. 

Eeviews on ' The Origin of Species ' are stUl pouring in from the con- 
tinent ; and Agassiz, in one of the adfkesses which he issued to his coUobora- 
teurs on their late voyage to the Amazons, dii'ccts their attention to this 
theory as a primary object of the expedition they were then undertaking. 
I need only add, that of the many eminent naturalists who have accepted it, 
not one has been known to abandon it ; that it gains adherents steadily ; and 
that it is par excellence an avowed favourite -with, the rising schools of natui'a- 
lists ; perhaps, indeed, too much so, for the yormg are apt to accept such 
theories as articles of faith, and the creed of the student is but too likely to 
become the shibboleth of the future professor. 

The scientific writers who have publicly rejected one or both of the 
theories of continuous evolution and of natural selection, take their stand 
upon physical or metaphysical grounds, or both. Of those who rely on the 
metaphysical, their arguments are usually strongly imbued with theological 
prejudice and even odium, and as such are bejond the pale of scientific 



ADDRESS. Ixxi 

criticism. Having myself been a student of Moral Philosophy in a northern 
University, I entered on my scientific career fuU of hopes that metaphysics 
■would prove a useful mentor, if not a guide in science. I soon, however, 
found that it availed me nothing, and I long ago ai-rived at the conclusion, so 
■well put by Agassiz, ■when he says, " we trust that the time is not distant 
when it ■will be universally understood that the battle of the evidences wiU 
have to be fought on the field of Physical Science, and not on that of Meta- 
physical" *. Many of the metaphysicians' objections have been controverted 
by that champion of N"atural Selection, Mr. Darwin's true knight, Alfred 
Wallace, in his papers on '' Protection "f and " Creation by Law"j, &c., in 
which the doctrines of " Continual Interference," the '' Theory of Beauty," 
and kindi'cd subjects, are discussed with admii-able sagacity, knowledge, and 
skill. But of Mr. Wallace and his many contributions to i^hilosophical 
biology, it is not easy to speak without enthusiasm ; for, putting aside their 
great merits, he, throughout his writings, with a modesty as rare as I believe 
it to be in him unconscious, forgets his own unquestioned claims to the 
honour of having originated, independently of Mr. Dar-win, the theories 
which he so ably defends. 

On the score of geology, the objectors chiefly rely on the assumed perfection 
of the geological record; and since almost aU who believe in its imperfection, 
and many of the other school, accept the theories both of evolution and natural 
selection, wholly or in part, there is no doubt that Mr. Darwin claims the 
great majority of geologists. Of these, one is in himself a host, the veteran 
Sir Charles Lyell, who, after having de-\'oted whole chapters of the first edi- 
tions of his ' Principles ' to establishing the doctrine of special creations, 
abandons it in the 10th edition, and this, too, on the showing of a pupil ; for, 
in the dedication of his earliest work, ' The Naturalist's Voyage,' to Sir C. 
Lyell, Mr. Darwin states that the chief part of whatever merit he or his works 
may possess, has been derived from studjing the ' Principles of Geology.' I 
know no brighter example of heroism, of its kind, than this, of an author 
thus abandoning, late in life, a theory which he had for forty years regarded 
as one of the foundation stones of a work that had given him the highest 
position attainable amongst contemporary scientific writers. Well may he be 
proud of a superstructure, raised on the foundations of an insecure doctrine, 
when he finds that he can underpin it and substitute a new foundation ; and 
after aU is finished, survey his edifice, not only more secure, but more har- 
monious in its proportions than it was before ; for assuredly the biological 
chapters of the tenth edition of the ' Principles ' are more in harmony with 
the doctrine of slow changes in the history of our planet, than were their 
counterparts in the former editions. 

To the astronomers' objections to these theories I turn ■with difiidenco ; 
they are strenuously urged in what is in my opinion the cleverest critique of 
them that I have hitherto met with, and which appeared in the North British 
Review. It is anonymous, I am wholly ignorant of its author, and I regret 
to find that, in common with the few other really able hostile critiques, it 
is disfigured by a dogmatism that contrasts unfavourably ■with Mr. Darwin's 
considerate treatment of his opponents' methods and conclusions. The author 
starts, if I read him aright, by professing his unfamiliarity with the truth 
and extent of the facts upon which the theories of Evolution and Natural 
Selection are founded, and goes on to say, that " the superstructure based on 

* Agassiz on the Contemplation of God in the Kosmos. Christian Examiner, 4th Series, 

vol. XT. p. 2. 

t Westminster Eeview. ^ Journal of Science, October, 1867. 



Ixxii KEPORT — 1868. 

them may be discussed apart from all doubts as to the fundamental facts." 
The liberty thus to discuss no one may disunite or curtail, but the biologist 
■will ask, to what end can discussion lead ? Who woiild attach much weight 
to the verdict of a judge passed on evidence of which he knew neither the 
truth nor the extent ? As well might a boy guiltless of mathematics, set 
himself to test the 47th proposition of the 1st book of Euclid, by constructing 
paper squares corresponding to the sides of a right-angled triangle, then 
cutting up the smaller squares, try to tit the pieces into the larger, and 
failing to do this with exactitude, conclude of the problem, as the reviewer 
does of the theory, that it is " an ingenious and plausible speculation, marking 
at once the ignorance of the age and the ability of the philosopher." 

The most formidable argument urged by the reviewer is, that " the age of 
the inhabited world as calculated by solar physics, is proved to have been 
limited to a period whoUy inconsistent with Darwin's views." This would 
be a valid objection if these views depended on those of one school of geolo- 
gists ; and if the 500,000,000 years, which the reviewer adopts as the age of 
the world, were, as an approximate estimate, accepted by either astronomers 
or physicists. But, in the fh'st place, the reviewer assumes that the rate of 
change in the condition of the earth's surface was vastly more rapid at the 
beginnii]g than now, and has gradually slackened since ; but overlooks the 
consequence, that according to all Mr. Darwin's principles the operations of 
natural selection must in such cases have been formerly correspondingly more 
rapid ; and in the second, are these speculations as to the solidity of the 
earth's crust dating back only 500,000,000 years, to be depended upon ? In 
his great work, the author* quoted for these numbers, gives as possible limits 
20,000,000, or 400,000,000 years, whilst other philosophers assign to the 
haijitable globe an age far exceeding the longest of these periods. Surely, 
in estimates of such a nature as the above, which are calculated from data 
themselves in a great degree hypothetical, there are no principles upon ■which 
we are warranted in assuming the speculations of the astronomer to be more 
worthy of confidence than those of the biologist. 

A former most distinguished President, and himself an astronomer, Pro- 
fessor WhewcU, has said of astronomy that "it is not only the queen of 
sciences, but the only perfect science, the only branch of human knowledge 
in which we are able fully and clearly to interpret nature's oracles, so that 
by that which we have tried we receive a prophecy of that which is un- 
tried "f. Now, whilst fully admitting, and proudly as every scientific man 
ought, that astronomy is the most certain in her methods and results of all 
the sciences, that she has called forth some of the highest eftbrts of the intel- 
lect, and that her results far transcend in grandeur those of any other science, 
I think we may hesitate before we therefore admit her queenship, her per- 
fection, or her sole claims to interpretation and to prophecy. Her methods 
are those of the mathematicians ; she may call Geometry and Algebra her 
handmaidens, but she is none the less their slave. No science is really per- 
fect, certainly not that which lately erred nearly 4,000,000 miles in so fun- 
damental a datum as the earth's distance from the sun. Have Faraday and 
Yon Baer iutci-preted no oracles of nature fully and clearly ? Have Cuvier 
and Dalton not prophesied, and been tnxe prophets ? Claims to queenship do 
not accord with the spirit of science ; rather would I liken the domain of 
natural knowledge to a hive, in which every comb is a science, and truth 
the one queen over them all. 

■* Thomson and Tait, Treatise on Natural Philosoplij, vol. i. p. 716. 
t Kev. W. Whewell. Reports, 1833, p. siii. 



ADDRESS. Ixxiii 

It remains to say a few words on some prospects which this Norwich Meet- 
ing opens. 

A new science has dawned upon us, that of the Early History of Mankind. 
Prehistoric archasology (including as it does the origin of language and of 
art) has been the latest to rise of a series of luminaries that have dispelled 
the mists of ages and replaced time-honoured traditions by scientific truths. 
Astronomy, if not the queen, yet the earliest of sciences, first snatched the 
torch from the hands of dogmatic teachers, tore up the letter and cherished 
the spirit of the law. Geology next followed, but not till two centuries had 
elapsed, nor indeed till this our day, in divesting religious teaching of many 
cobwebs of scientific error. It has told us that animal and vegetable life 
preceded the appearance of man on the globe, not by days but by myriads of 
years ; and how late this knowledge came we may gather from the fact that 
Lawrence in his previously quoted lectures *, delivered so late as 1818, says 
of the extinct races of animals, " that their living existence has been sup- 
posed, with considerable probability, to be of older date than the formation 
of the human race." 

And, last of all, this new science proclaims man himself to have inhabited 
this earth for perhaps many thousands of years before the historic period — 
a result little expected less than thirty years ago, when the Rev. W. V. Har- 
court, in his address to the Association at Birmingham t, observed that 
" Geology points to the conclusion, that the time during which mankind has 
existed on the globe, cannot materially diff"cr from that assigned by Scrip- 
ture," referring, I need not say, to the so-called Scripture chronology, which 
has no warrant in the Old Testament, and which gives 587-1 years as the 
age of the inhabited globe. 

Pre-historic Archaeology now off"ers to lead us where man has hitherto not 
ventured to tread. Can we, whilst truthfully and fearlessly pursuing this 
inquiry, separate its physical from its spiritual aspect ? will be the upper- 
most thought in the minds of many here present. To separate them is, I 
believe, indeed impossible, but to search out common truths that underlie 
both is permitted to all. Mr. Disraeli J has well said of Truth, that it is the 
sovereign passion of mankind. And it should be emphatically so in the minds 
engaged in this search, where rehgion and science should speak peace to one 
another, if they are to walk hand in hand in this our day and generation. 

A great deal has of late been said and written about the respective attitudes 
of Religion and Science ; and my predecessor, the Duke of Buccleuch, dwelt 
on this in his address last year with great good sense and good taste, and 
pointed out how much the progress of knowledge depended on this attitude 
being mutually considerate and friendly. During the first decades of my 
scientific life, science was rarely, within my experience, heard of from the 
pulpits of these islands : during the succeeding, when the influence of the 
* Reliquiffi Diluvianse ' and the Bridgewater Treatises was still felt, I often 
heard it named, and always welcomed. Now, and of late years, science is 
more frequently named than ever, but too often with dislike or fear, rather 
than with trust and welcome. 

The Rev. Dr. Hanna, in an eloquent and candid contribution to the ' Con- 
temporary Review "§, has adduced a long list of eminent clergymen of various 
denominations, Avho have adorned science by their writings, and religion by 
their lives. I do not ignore their contributions, still less do I overlook the 
many brilliant examples of educated preachers who give to science the respect 

* Lectures on Pliysiology, Zoology, &c., p. 52. t Report, p. 17. 
" ' '" ^ .. - § Vol. Ti. No. 21, September, 1867. 



Ixxiv BE PORT — 1868. 

due to it. But Dr. Hanna omits to observe that the majority of these 
honoured contributors were not religious teachers in the ordinary sense of 
the term ; nor does he tell us in what light many of their scientific writings 
were regarded by a large body of thcii' brother clergj^men, those resident in 
the country especially, from whom alone an overwhelming proportion of the 
population ever hear the name of science. 

To return, let each pursue the search for truth, the archaeologist into the 
physical, the religious teacher into the spiritual history and condition of 
mankind. It will be in vain that each regards the other's pursuit from afar, 
and turning the object-glass of his mind's telescope to his eye, is content 
when he sees how small the other looks. 

To search out the whence and whither of his existence, is an unquench- 
able instinct of the human mind ; to satisfy it, man in every age, and in 
every country, has adopted creeds that embrace his past history and his 
future being, and has eagerly accepted scientific truths that support the 
creeds ; and but for this unquenchable instinct, I for one believe that neither 
religion nor science would have advanced so far as they have into the hearts of 
any people. Science has never in this search hindered the religious aspira- 
tions of good and earnest men ; nor have pulpit cautions, which are too often 
iU-disguised deterrents, ever turned inquiring minds from the revelations of 
science. 

A sea of time spreads its waters between that period to which the earliest 
traditions of our ancestors point, and that far earlier ]Dcriod, when man first 
appeared upon the globe. For his track upon that sea man vainly questions 
his spiritual teachers. Along its hither shore, if not across it, science now 
offers to pilot him. Each fresh discovery concerning pre-historic man is as 
a pier built on some rock its tide has exposed, and from these piers arches will 
one day spring that will carry him further and further across its depths. 
Science, it is true, may never sound the depths of that sea, may never buoy 
its shallows, or span its narrowest creeks ; but she will still build on every 
tide-washed rock, nor will she deem her mission fulfilled till she has sounded 
its profoundest depths and reached its further shore, or proved the one to be 
unfathomable and the other unattainable, ripon evidence not yet revealed to 
mankind. And if in her track she bears in mind that it is a common object 
of religion and of science to seek to understand the infancy of human ex- 
istence, that the laws of mind are not yet relegated to the domain of 
the teachers of physical science, and that the laws of matter are not within 
the religious teacher's province, these may then work together in harmony 
and with good wiU. 

But if they would thus work in harmony, both parties must beware how 
they fence with that most dangerous of all two-edged weapons. Natural 
Theology ; a science, falsely so called, when, not content with trustfully 
accepting truths hostile to any presumptuous standard it may set up, it seeks 
to weigh the infinite in the balance of the finite, and shifts its ground to 
meet the requirements of every new fact that science establishes, and every 
old error that science exposes. Thus pursued, Natural Theology is to the 
scientific man a delusion, and to the religious man a snare, leading too often 
to disordered intellects and to atheism. 

One of our deepest thinkers *, Mr. Herbert Spencer, has said: — " If reh- 

gion and science are to be reconciled, the basis of the reconciliation must be 

this deepest, widest, and most certain of facts, that the power which the 

universe manifests to us is utterly inscrutable." The bonds that unite the 

* First Principles, by Herbert Spencer, cd. ii. p. IC. 



ADDRESS. IXXV 

physical and spiritual history of mau, and the forces which manifest them- 
selves in the alternate victories of mind and of matter over the actions of the 
individual, are, of all the subjects that physics and psychology have revealed 
to us, the most absorbing ; and are, perhaps, utterly inscrutable. In the 
investigation of their phenomena is wrapped up that of the past and the 
future, the whence and the whither, of his existence ; and after a knowledge 
of these the human soul still yearns, and thus passionately cries, in the 
words of a living poet : — 

" To matter or to force 
The all is not confined ; 
Beside the law of tilings 

Is set the law of mind ; 
One speaks in rock and star, 
And one within the brain, 
In nnison at times, 
And then apart again ; 
And both in one have brought us hither. 
That we may know our whence and whither. 

" The sequences of law 

We learn through mind alone ; 
We see but outward forms, 

The soul the one thing known ; — 
If she speak truth at all, 

The voices must be true 
That give these visible things, 
These laws their honour due, 
But tell of One who brought us hither. 
And holds the keys of whence and whither. 

****** 

" He in His science plans, 

What no known laws foretell ; 
The wandering fires and fix'd 

Alike are miracle : 
The common death of all, 
The life renew'd above. 
Are both within the scheme 
Of that all-circling love. 
The seeming chance that cast us hither, 
Accomplishes His whence and whither " *. 

* The Eeign of Law, by F. T. Palgrave. Macmillan's Magazine, March 1867. 



ERRATA. 

P. 399, lines 20-22, for maximum still occurs . . . November read maxima have occurred 
on the 6th-7tli of December, but of which symptoms (Greg's A,(.) can be dLstinguished as 
early as the 23rd of November. 

P. 399, lines 23, 24, for on . . . on . . . date read in . . . in . . . month. 

P. 399, line 27, for May read March or April. 

P. 400, last line, for Chapelas read Chapelas-Coulvier-Gravier. 

P. 403, line 4 from bottom, for Max. 1848-52 read Max. Dec. 6-7, 1798 (?), 1838, 1847, 
1848-52. Perhaps connected TN-ith Biela's comet. 

P. 407, line 1 1 from bottom, for 12th of December, including, perhaps, read beginning 
of December, including. 

P. 407, last line, add, and Father Secchi that of " uranoliths" to designate aerolites. 



ERllATA 

In Transactions of the Sections foe 186G. 

P. 65, line 12 from bottom, /or Vaginicula read Vaginulina. 
„ line 10 from bottom, /or Frotalia read Rotalia. 



AUU.V*. r^JL. V/(AVA UXJ.tA \.V 



1868. . • ■ B 



V^JJ, 



m 



LUXAU .MAP 
I(>" w.,. u»s„„d, ;>' 



ZONE II 

H" SOUTH 7" 



AKI'.A IV A 




REPORTS 



ON 



THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



Report of the Lunar Committee for Mapping the Surface of the Moon. 
Drawn up by W. R. Birt, at the request of the Committee, consisting 
0/ James Glaisher, F.R.S., Lord Rosse, F.R.S., Lord Wrottesley, 
F.R.S., Sir J. Herschel, Bart., F.R.S., Professor Phillips, F.R.S., 
Rev. C. Pritchard, F.R.S., W. Huggins, F.R.S., Warren De La 
Rue, F.R.S., C. Brooke, F.R.S., Rev. T. W. Webb, F.R.A.S., 
J. N. Lockyer, F.R.A.S., Herr Schmidt, and W. R. Birt, 
F.R.A.S. 

[Plate I.] 

In presenting the annual Report of the proceedings of the Lunar Com- 
mittee, the usual course has been to specify the amount of work done 
under the respective heads of Registration of Objects, the progress of the out- 
line map, the results of observation, and a notice of any striking pheno- 
menon that may have come under the cognizance of the Committee. Pre- 
viously to entering upon the above-mentioned subjects, the Committee have 
the pleasure to announce that, by the kindness of Edward Crossley, Esq., 
of Halifax, who has lent his equatorial of 7-3 in. aperture and 12 feet focal 
length expressly for this work, they are in a better position not only for 
more effectively constructing the map and compiling the catalogue, but also 
for examining the observations which are transmitted to them from time to 
time. With this view the telescope has been mounted at Walthamstow, and 
has received several accessions to render it more suitable for the work. The 
number of eyepieces capable of being used with it is twelve. Mr. Birt (who 
is now engaged in examining in detail the areas already issued, in observing 
such spots as Linne, Alpetragius d, lY A" "^ IV M ^9, and others that present 
any remarkable phenomena, and also in cheeking zone and other observations) 
reports that its performance is very satisfactory. 

The acquisition of this instrument, the zones at present under systematic 
observation, and particularly the increased number of observations (see post, 
pp. 3 and 4) requisite to elucidate questions that may be raised relative to the 
physical aspect and condition of the moon's surface induce the hope that more 
observers will join in the work, especially gentlemen in possession of power- 
ful optical means. The Committee are desirous that the basis of observation 
of the physical aspect of the moon's surface may be laid broad and deep, 

1868. B 



2 REPOKT — 1868. 

tliat the superstructure may be characterized by accuracy and precision as 
well in recording detail as in discussing observations, and that the results 
arrived at may be beyond dispute and fully capable of testing any question 
that may arise as to the state of the moon's surface. 

Registration of Objects. — During the past Association year, the regis- 
tration of objects has proceeded in conformity with the mode adopted in pre- 
vious years. The numbers are as follows : — 

553 on 128 areas in Quadrant I. 

^53 „ 86 „ „ 11. 

215 „ 57 „ „ 111. 

642 „ 62 „ „ lY. 



Total 1763 333 

Outliist: Map. — The drawing of area IV A^ has been prepared, engraved, 
and a number printed for distribution ; also a catalogue of 99 objects upon 
this area has been compiled and printed. Several corrections and additions 
to areas IV A" and IV A^ have been made ; so that the number of objects in- 
serted on the maps, either engraved or in MS., and included in the Catalogue, 
amounts to 337, which is a trifle less than 1 of the number inserted in the 
folio registers. 

In preparing the catalogue, every care has been taken to meet the growing 
requirements of selenographical research. The doubts that surround the 
labours of earlier selenographers, as to correctness of details, many delinea- 
tions being conventional rather than actual, combined with the absence of 
precision in describing lunar features, render it essential that the description 
of an object should, if possible, embody its principal characteristics at a given 
epoch. The compilation of the catalogue was commenced with this view ; and 
it has been steadily maintained in the portion accompanying this Eeport as 
well in the previous ones, each description being as much as possible equiva- 
lent to a trustworthy observation. 

As the positions of objects on the outline map are for mean libration, it 
may be weU to mention that the moon attains a state of mean libration 
(nearly) in 1868 on October 24'^ 20" 8". 

Eesttlts of Observations. — More than thirty-two gentlemen have under- 
taken the examination of special zones or particular objects. The work 
acconiplished in accordance with the instructions in the lettei-press of IV A", 
IV Ai is as foUows : — 106 objects in the three areas have been independently 
identified, /. e. originally laid down from De La Hue's and Rutherford's pho- 
tograms, or from observations made by the Secretary ; they have been reob- 
served by gentlemen in whose zones they occur. In seven cases the obser- 
vations were made by four independent observers, in six cases they 
were made by three independent observers, in 32 cases by two, and in 61 
by one obseiTer only. Appendix II. contains the Association symbols of 
these objects, with such notes as may be deemed necessary, also the addi- 
tions to the map and catalogue. See jjos^, pp. 40 and 41. 

Observations of this kind may be greatly facilitated by choosing " test 
objects" in accordance with the suggestion of Mr. Slack, who recommends 
" Crater-Row " (IV A( is, IV Ai ", IV Ai i5, IV Ai is, IV A( i^, five craterlets) 
as very suitable for area IV Ai. If the craterlets, especially IV Ai i^ and 
IVA^i^, come out sharply and well defined, and can be seen distinctly and 
without tremor, the earth's atmosphere is in a good state for observation ; and 
if, at the same time, neighbouring objects are indistinct, hazy, and Hi-defined 
(phenomena that may be occasionally noticed), then it would appear that this 



ON MAPPING THE SURFACE OF THE MOON. d 

indistinctness is not occasioned by the state of the earth's atmosphere, hut 
bj some other agency. 

Particuiar Phenomena. — Under this head may bo classed observations of 
LinnS, the spot IV A" i^, lY A.( ^^, Alpetrac/iiis d, and others of the same kind 
(see^30S<, pp. 29 and 41). From my own observations, and from several others 
which have come to hand, it appears that those phenomena that have been 
considered indicative of " change " have been mostly characterized by occa- 
sional indistinctness of the objects observed, contributing to the suspicion 
that such objects have either disappeared, or that new craters have been 
formed. Without a very careful discussion in connexion with solar alti- 
tudes and azimuths, and the difference between the angle of incidence on the 
moon's surface and the angle of reflexion from the moon's surface, which is 
equal to the supplement of the angle ^ — ©, it is very difficult to refer 
such phenomena to their legitimate sources. 

Change. — The question of " change " on the moon's surface still remains 
undecided. Although the circumstances associated with the earlier records 
and delineations fail to invest them with that authority which is necessary 
to a decision of the question, they are nevertheless exceedingly important, 
and a careful study of the works of the foiu' leading selenographers, Schi'oter, 
Lohrmaim, Beer and Madler, and Schmidt, is essential to a competent know- 
ledge of the surface of our satellite. The "facts" recorded by them are 
very numerous. These facts, compared with the results obtained by the aid 
of photography, and with those of recent observation, must tend in no small 
degree to advance selenographical knowledge. 

In the course of such a comparison many differences will be found. Ear- 
lier delineations and photograms will not agree ; and in seelcing for an expia- 
tion of such differences, we are natiirally led to regard variations of distance, 
libration, and illumination as fi-uitful sources of apparent change. It has 
been a matter of solicitude in preparing the areas and catalogue already issued, 
to define the extent of apparent change produced by alterations of distance 
and by libration, which near the middle of the moon is but small. Appa- 
rent changes occasioned by differences in the angles of illumination are not 
so easily dealt with. Before we can venture to express an opinion on a sup- 
posed apparent change as dependent upon the sun's altitude above and his 
azimuth at any particular spot, it is manifestly necessary to know all the 
changes of appearance which the object undergoes as the sun rises higher 
above it, cidminates, and declines. This necessarily involves a considerable 
amount of calculation, especially if the three coordinates are employed, viz. 
the latitude of the spot, the sun's declination, and his hour-angle. Some 
approximation, however, may be made to the sun's altitude at intervals of 
12 hours, from his rising at the moon's equator, on a point at which the lon- 
gitudes of the terminator and the spot agree, to his meridian passage at the 
same point. I am accordingly prejiaring a set of Tables of Solar Altitudes 
at intervals of twelve hours (nearly) for every five degrees of lunar latitude, 
and also for the solstices and equinoxes at each. The Tables for the Equator, 
5°, and 10° of latitude wiU be foimd on pp. 10 and 11. 

Before a correct judgment can be formed on the gradations of appearance 
presented by any one spot as the sun's altitude increases and declines, it is 
necessary to obtain observations of that spot at intervals of at least 12 hours. 
The greatest change of altitude during this interval is a little more than 6° 
on the equator. This change in 12 hours decreases as a spot is situated 
N. or S. of the equator. To obtain a sufficient number of observations for 
this purpose, observers must confine in some degree their attention to parti- 

b2 



4 REPORT — 1868. 

cular objects for many lunations, so that a normal character of the appearance 
of a certain spot with any given mean solar altitude may be determined. 
Ten observations for each interval would be necessary before the normal 
character could be considered sufficiently ascertained, in order to distinguish 
between apparent and real change. This process is clearly a work of time ; 
it is nevertheless absolutely necessary to settle such a question as that which 
has been raised in respect of Linne. The observations of this spot are now 
numerous ; various opinions have been expressed vdth regard to it ; but as 
yet they are inconclusive, the observations being little better than " raw 
material." "When they have undergone the examination above proposed, we 
may be the better able to arrive at some conclusion respecting Linne. 

In the course of " Zone Observations," and therefore entirely originating 
with the labours of this Committee, another spot of apparently the same 
nature as Linne, so far as recent observations are concerned, has been detected. 
Not previously known, it has been described imder the symbols IV A" i^, 
IVAf39 as a "bright spot." The Eev. W. 0. Williams of Pwllheli, in 
whose pair of subzones it occurs (see letterpress IV A", IV A?, pp. 5 & 6, 
and Report British Association, 1866, pp. 241, 242), has fully confirmed an 
observation which I made in 1867 on May 11, when I saw it as a shallow 
crater. Mr. Williams has observed it as a crater with a central cone, Mr. 
Baxendell has seen it as a well-marked shallow crater, and Mr. Williams has 
frequently seen it as a bright white spot, I have lately ascertained, by the 
aid of the Crossley Equatorial, that it is situated on the summit of a mountain- 
range, and is opened in an irregxilar depression on this summit. For 
a digest of the existing observations arranged in order of solar altitudes 
see p. 29. They are, however, too few in number to determine at present 
the normal character for each group of 6° of altitude ; but there are a few 
differences of appearance with similar altitudes which claim attention. 

Probably the only circumstance that we are acquainted with as connected 
with our own atmosphere capable of rendering an object on the moon's sur- 
face indistinct, and sometimes obliterating it altogether, is the agitation pro- 
duced by the mixture of air of different densities. Every observer knows the 
difference between good and bad definition, which passes through a variety 
of gradations from the greatest steadiness to the most violent " boiling." 
When the normal character of a spot under a certain altitude of the sun is 
well known, departures from this character become apparent ; and if the ob- 
servations have been well recorded and all known circumstances capable of 
affecting it registered, these departures stand out as residual pltenomena 
awaiting explanation. It may be that the differences above alluded to are 
of this nature ; but it is manifestly premature to discuss them until the ob- 
servations have sufficiently accumulated to determine the normal character of 
the spot under every angle of illumination. 

Herr Schmidt has announced that another spot, Alpetragius d [III Kv 4], 
has manifested somewhat similar phenomena. I have carefully examined it 
with the Crossley Equatorial, and find it exactly as desricbed by Schmidt, 
viz. a bright nebulous round spot of light, larger than Linne, with a small 
crater on the extreme S. edge of the bright spot. Lohrmann gives a bright 
elongated spot with a small hUl on it ; and B. & M. have drawn it distinctly 
as a crater. 

The following is the letter addressed by Herr Schmidt to the Secretary of 
the Lunar Committee of the British Association for the Advancement of 
Science. The translation is by W. T. Lynn, Esq., of the Royal Observatory, 
Greenwich : — 



ON MAPPING THE SURFACE OP THE MOON. O 

Athens, 18G8, June 5. 

HoNOTTEED SiK, — I have lately given attention to a region of the moon 
which deserves in future a more accurate investigation. Although it fur- 
nishes by no means so significant a case as was afforded by Linne, it shows, 
however, something analogous, and leads to a better knowledge of certain 
spots of light which cannot in all cases be explained by mere phenomena of 
reflexion. The region in question is situated easterly near Alpetragius, the 
spot of light to which I direct your attention in 12° east longitude and 14° 
south latitude =cZ. Schroter has nothing about it. Lohrmann's (unedited) 
plate gives a very large spot of light, almost 2° in magnitude, and a very 
small hill inside it. 

Madler draws a crater of almost a mile [4*6 miles English] in diameter, 
and says in his * Selenography ' [Der Mond], page 304, line 22 from above, 
" In the fm-thest east shines also with a light of 8° the smaU crater d." 

This crater d now no longer exists ; but in its place is a round spot of 
Hght more than 2 miles [9-2 English] broad, extremely brilliant, which has 
quite the character of the light spot Linne, and of the few others of this kind 
which also are found upon the moon. The small neighbouring crater south 
of d which Madler gives is still distinctly visible. 

I have annexed three sketches — the first from Madler, the second from 
Lohrmann, the third my own, on the scale of my chart. 

WlU you have the goodness to take an opportunity of informing the Lunar 
Committee of this notice, and request new observations with large instru- 
ments ? 

With the greatest esteem. 

Yours most truly, 

J. E, JiTLnTS Schmidt. 

Bright spots on the moon are of two kinds, viz. those which are clearly 
and unmistakeably the slopes of mountains or the interiors of craters, and 
those which appear as round nebulous spots, apparently on the moon's sur- 
face, the true nature of which we are at present ignorant of. The bright- 
ness of the first class depends upon the following conditions, which determine 
the angle of Ulumination — 1° and 2° the sun's altitude and azimuth at the 
spot, 3° and 4°, the angles which the slope and direction make with the lunar 
horizon and meridian. In the case of each particidar spot certain values of 
the above-mentioned angles determine the maximum of illumination, and 
consequently the greatest brightness in the course of the lunar day. The 
bright spots of the second class do not conform to the before-mentioned con- 
ditions. They are apparently horizontal ; biit it has not yet been ascertained 
by observation whether they are in contact with the surface or otherwise. 
The three spots of this nature which have been most extensively observed 

are Linne [IE*' i], Posidonins y [lE"^], and IV A" i? lY Af 39, and these 
present some very remarkable differences. Nearly throughout the whole 
course of the lunar day Linne appears as a white spot, varying slightly in 
brightness, and more so in size ; generally it appears as nearly as possible of 
about the same size and brilliancy as Posidonius y, sometimes slightly ex- 
ceeding y, and at other times a trifle less both in size and brightness. Posi- 
donius y is the highest part of a ridge on the Mare Serenitatis, having on its 
summit a minute pit. Linne, from the latest observations, is a small cone 
on a nearly level portion of the Mare. At and shortly after sunrise both have 
been distinctly seen as well-defined bright spots of the first class. At a very 
early period of the lunar day Linne exchanges the characteristics of the first 



6 REPORT— 1868. 

class for those of the second. Posidonius y has not been observed so assidu- 
ously as Linne ; it has, however, been found to retain the appearance of a 
mountain to a later period in the lunar day, when Linne has exhibited nothing 
but the ill-defined nebulous spot. 

IV A" 1^ IV Ai 39, which differs from Linne and Posidonius y, is a crater 
opened in the bottom of a depression which occurs in a mountain-chain on 
the east border of HipparcJms. Similarly to Linne and Posidonius y, it is dis- 
tinct and well defined shortly after sunrise, but, unlike them, it retains this 
appearance for a much longer period of the lunar day. Fnder a low solar 
altitude the eastern interior side of the depression in which the crater is situ- 
ated is very bright, showing that for some time after sunrise it must be in- 
cluded in the first class of bright spots. On some occasions, when the sun 
has attained an altitude of about 20° above its horizon, it has presented a 
very similar appearance to that of Limit and Posidonius y. On other occa- 
sions this appearance has not been observed until the sun has attained an 
altitude of nearly 40°. A bright streak has also been noticed extending from 
it towards the east, while the crater-form has been distinctly visible, with a 
solar altitude of nearly 30°. With solar altitudes above 48° to meridian 
altitude 85°, the appearance has been that of two nehidous bright sjjots of the 
second class. 

While the three objects under high solar altitudes present precisely the 
same appearance, the lunar surface in each case differs materially : — Linne, a 
small isolated cone with crater opening (?) on a comparatively level surface ; 
Posidonius y, the highest point of a mountain-ridge, having a minute perfo- 
ration ; IV A" 1'' IV M 39, a somewhat large opening, -ndth a small central 
one, in a depression also upon the summit of a mountain-range. It is clearly 
the province of observation to endeavour to ascertain in each case the circum- 
stances which are intimately connected with t\i.e first appearance of the white 
spot. Apparently these spots appear to be on the surface. In the case of 
Linne the spot spreads around the cone or crater ; in that of Posidonius y it 
extends around the summit of the mountain, while in that of IV A" ^'^ 
IV A? 39 it covers the depression and included crater. Of the four conditions 
of brightness in the first class of bright sj)ots, the sun's altitude appears to be 
connected with the first appearance of the white spot in the second class, but 
not regularly so, inasmuch as it appears earliest in Linne and latest in 
IV A" 17 IV M 39. The discussion of observations is not sufficiently advanced 
to ascertain if the sun's azimiith at all affects these spots. The third and 
fourth conditions of the first class are clearly inappHcable to spots of the second 
class. 

It has been suggested that the nature of the surface in these localities is 
such as to reflect the hazy light we see. We have in the three examples 
before us three different kmds of surfaces, as above mentioned. The greatest 
similarity of appearance of the white spot occurs in those cases in which the 
surfaces are most dissimilar, viz. a nearly level plain from which rises a 
small cone, and a mountain peak having a small orifice. While the surfaces 
are dissimilar, the feature in which the two objects closely resemble each 
other is the minute orifice which has been seen in both. We have conse- 
quently in two objects greatly dificring from each other, two very close points 
of resemblance — the minute orifice seen ■\vith very low solar altitudes, and the 
comparatively large white spot seen under higher altitudes. 



ON MAPPING THE SURFACE OF THE MOON. 



APPENDICES. 



I.— BRITISH ASSOCIATION^ OUTLINE^ MAP OF THE MOON, 
Zone II., Aeea IV A^. (See Plate I.) 

Preliminary HemarJcs. 

The principles upon which the map is constructed and the catalogue compiled, 
with the materials employed for these purposes, have heen already mentioned 
in the Eeport presented at Nottingham in 1866. Instructions for observing 
the objects and correcting the detail wiU be found in the letterpress accom- 
panying the areas IV A"^ and IV Af. In preparing IV A^ for engraving and 
printing, a few additional notices have become requisite. In addition to the 
symbols for indicating certain objects on the maps, inserted on p. 4 of letter- 
press to areas IV A", TV AC, and Report Brit. Assoc. 1866, p. 240, three 
others may be found useful ; so that the revised code of symbols will be as 
follows : — 

Points of the first order. 
X Points of the second order. 

-o- Bright spots. 

o Craters. 

O Rings. 

^ Depressions. 

A Mountains. 

V Valleys. 

N.B. The arrow head ) I , r , • i in • i 

is directed towards I I Mountam-slopes and valley-sides. 

the lowest point. J __ Clefts 

** Very conspicuous objects. 

* Easy objects. 

f Difficult objects. 

j Objects rarely visible. 
B. & M. Beer and Miidler. 
L. S. Lohrmann's Sections. 
L. M. Lohrmann's Map. 
S. R. Schmidt's RiUs. 
Eng. ft. English feet. 
Metres. 

Of the photograms employed, De La Rue's, being so near the epoch of mean 
libration (Report Brit. Assoc. 1866, p. 215), is used for the determination of 
positions, while Rutherford's is the most suitable for the measurement of 
the extents and distances of objects. The elements of this photogram are as 
under : — 

Epoch 1865, March 6. 

o , 

For illumination : — Longitude of terminator = 21 6-1 E. 
Inclination of terminator to meridian = 1 6-6 
North pole enlightened. 

» This map is not intended to be a perfect or complete Lunar Map, but only a guide to 
observers in obtaining data for the construction of a complete map. 



8. REPORT— 1868. 



o 



For season : — 0—8 =133 40-4 

Lunar summer in the northern hemisphere. 

For position : — N. and S., Moon's latitude = 4 54-8 S. 
E. and W., Moon past perigee 200 hours. 
Moon less apogee 150 hours. 
Objects are south and east of their mean places. 

For size: — Moon's semidiameter 15' 12"-9; mean semidiameter 15' 32"*3. 

A circle of one degree in diameter at the centre of the moon's disk is seen 
under an angle of 16"-277 ; at 5° of longitude W. or E. the degree is fore- 
shortened in a radial direction, ?. e. on the equator by 0"-061, the shortest 
diameter being 16"-216. At 10°, the N.W. angle of area IV A^, or N.E. of 
III A^, the foreshortening amounts to 0"-247, or nearly a quarter of a second, 
the shortest diameter being 16"-030. 

The number of English feet subtending an angle of l"-0 at the centre of the 
moon's disk at mean distance is 6116-7. This value is increased in receding 
from the centre in the proportion of the secants of the angular distances from 
the centre ; consequently at the middle point of each area the value of 1"*0 is 
greater than at the centre of the moon's disk ; for, by reason of the spherical 
surface of the moon, l"-0 covers a greater portion of the surface at a point 
removed from the centre than at the centre. At the middle point of IV A", 
or 2° 30' W. long., 2° 30' S. lat, the angular distance from the centre =3° 32', 
which gives 6128-3 English feet for the value of l"-0. At the middle point 
of IV A^, or 7° 30' W. long., 2° 30' S. lat., the angular distance from the centre 
=7° 54', -which gives 6175-3 EngUsh feet for the value of l"-0. This is also 
the value for the middle point of IV M. At the middle of IV A\ or 7° 30' 
"W. long., 7° 30' S. lat., the angular distance from the centre = 10° 35', -which 
gives 6222-7 English feet for the value of l"-0. 

While the values of l"-0 vary in the proportion of the secants as -we recede 
from the centre of the disk, the objects themselves remain of the same extent, 
and are seen at mean Ubration, either under the larger angle produced by the 
moon passing her perigean point, or under the smaller as she passes her apo- 
gee. Taking 6116-7 as a standard quantity, expressing the diameter of a 
circle seen under an angle of l"-0 at mean distance, this quantity is seen at 
the centre of the disk, onean Ubration, moon in perigee, under an angle of 
l"-059 + , moon in apogee 0"-941. At perigee, mean Ubration, at the middle 
point of IV A"*, the foreshortening of an object of this extent is given by the 
following numbers : — Longest diameter l"-059, shortest l"-057. The differ- 
ence is perfectly inappreciable ; it is therefore presumable that we see very 
nearly the true forms of the objects on this area. At apogee, mean Ubration, 
the proportions are — 0"-941 longest diameter, 0"-939 shortest. For the 
middle points of IV A^ and IV Af we have : — longest diameter l"-059, shortest 
1"*049, moon in perigee; and 0"-941 longest diameter, 0"- 932 shortest, moon 
in apogee. At the middle point of IV A"" the foreshortening is greater, but 
still small : — moon in perigee, longest diameter l"-059, shortest 1"-041 ; moon 
in apogee, longest diameter 0"-941, shortest 0"-925. 

All the objects situated in areas IV A" and IV A^ are so affected by libration 
that we see alternately more or less of their N. and S. sides. From the ele- 
ments of Eutherford's photogram already given, it is easy to perceive that 
although the places are laid down on the areas for mean libration, the IST. sides 
of the objects are presented in that photogram more directly to the eye ; and 
this will to some extent affect the outline, inasmuch as the measures, more 



ON MAPPING THE SURFACE OF THE MOON. 9 

particularly of the mountain-slopes, must necessarily include the larger angle 
under which they are seen on the photogram. It is only such objects as the 
orifices of craters, rings, and generally surface-markings, that are foreshort- 
ened to a greater degree as they are removed further from the eye by the 
effect of libration. The angle under which a mountain-slope, or any object 
which is elevated above the surface, is seen, is increased by libration as it is 
carried further from, and decreases as it is brought nearer to the eye ; for if 
we take a mountain-range lying E. and W. on the equator, moon in node, we 
see the N. and S. slopes under the smallest angles. As the moon attains a 
greater N. latitude, the mountain-range is seen N. of its normal position, and 
we see more of its S. slope and lose its N. slope, the reverse taking place as 
the moon attains S. latitude. The degree of visibility of mountain- slopes or 
objects that are more or less elevated above the surface within the areas 

above mentioned is dependent more or less upon three conditions : 1°, the 

angle which the crest or longitudinal direction of an object makes with a lunar 
meridian ; 2°, the angle which the slope makes with a vertical perpendicular 
to the moon's surface; and, 3°, the angle through which it is moved by the effect 
of libration. In each case there is a maximum effect, determined by the posi- 
tion and direction of the object. The visibility of objects -ndthin a zone of 
1° 32' 9" N. or S. of the moon's equator is also affected by another circumstance, 
viz. the direction in which the sun's rays faU upon such objects at different sea- 
sons of the lunar year ; for example, a mountain-range lying E. and W. on the 
moon's equator wiU have its IST. slope illuminated wMle the sun is N. of the 
moon's equator, and its S. slope duiing the opposite season. The lunar sea- 
sons are easily found. When the sun's longitude, as seen from the moon 
(which does not at the utmost differ more than 8' from the longitude as seen 
from the earth), is equal to the longitude of the moon's ascending node, the 
sun is vertical to the moon's equator, passing from S. to N". When the differ- 
ence between the longitudes of the sun and node equals 90°, the N. pole is 
enlightened, and the season is summer in the northern hemisphere. When the 
longitudes of the sun and node differ 180°, it is the autumnal equinox in the 
northern hemisphere, and when the difference amounts to 270° it is winter, 
the S. pole being illuminated. These quantities may be thus expressed for 
the northern hemisphere : — 

O— S3 = 0°+ Siin in equator ascending. 

O— S3 = 90 + Sun in tropic, IST. pole illuminated. 

O— £3 =180 — Sun in equator descending. 

O— S3 =270 — Sun in tropic, S. pole illuminated. 

In order to find the season, and consequently the illumination due to it of 
an object in the tropical zone 1° 32' 9" N. and S. of the moon's equator, nothing 
further is requisite than to find from the Nautical Almanac the longitudes of 
the sun and node : the quantity © — £3 wiU give the season as above. 

If the sine of the angle © — S3 be multiplied into the sine of 1° 32' 9", the 
inclination of the moon's equator to the ecliptic, we obtain the sine of an angle 
which represents respectively the following quantities:— 1°, the sun's decli- 
nation as seen from the moon ; 2°, the inclination of the equator of illumina- 
tion to the moon's equator ; and, 3°, the inclination of the terminator to the 
lunar meridian which it intersects. 

Erom the above considerations it follows that in the tJiree areas now issued, 
and also in the corresponding areas in Quadrants I., II., and III., we see lunar 
objects of very nearly their true forms, and that libration does not materially 
affect either their forms or magnitudes, 

1868. c 



10 



REPORT — 1868. 



The visibility of objects generally is affected in a much greater degree by 
the morning and evening illuminatious. Shortly after sunrise the slopes of 
mountains facing the W. are so illuminated that their detail may be well and 
satisfactorily made out. It is only a little before sunset that the E. slopes are 
similarly illuminated. Most of the apparent changes in the appearance of 
objects are due to these illuminations. It is, however, manifest that loiu and 
fiat objects are less affected than high and sloping ones. We have already 
indicated (letterpress, areas IV A", \V M, p. 7, and Report Brit. Assoc. 1866, 
p. 243) the mode of finding epochs of similar iUumination ; still the changes 
which some objects imdergo as the sun rises above their horizons are so re- 
markable that it may in some measure assist the observer in endeavouring to 
refer these changes to their legitimate sources, if we give for the limits of 
each zone of 5° the sim's altitude for intervals of 12 hours during the period 
elapsing from sumise to meridian passage, which will also be applicable to 
the decline from meridian passage to sunset. The epoch of sunrise at any 
particular spot with — £3 =0° or 180° is manifestly that at which the lon- 
gitudes of the spot and tenniuator are equal; with 0— £8 =270° the sun 
is slightly above the horizon, and with — gj = 90° as shghtly below in the 
southern hemisphere. 

The longitude of the terminator may be found by the following formulas : — 
Calling the longitude of terminator l^, the moon's mean longitude l^, the sun's 
true longitude 0, Avcst longitude on the moon's equator "W, and E longi- 
tude E, then for the morning terminator we have 

W Z,=O-(270°+?„), E ?,=(270° + O-O, 
and for the evening terminator 

W Z,=O-(90°+Z„), E Z, = (9O°+g-0. 



Table of Solae Altitudes at the Moon, 
Equator. 



Int. 


Hour-angle. 


Winter Solstice. 


Equinoxes. 


Summer Solstice. 


h 



O 1 II 

90 


O ( /, 




6 6 





12 


83 54 15 


6 5 37 


6 5 46 


6 5 37 


24 


77 48 30 


12 10 34 


12 15 


12 10 34 


36 


71 42 45 


18 16 49 


18 17 16 


18 16 49 


48 


65 37 


24 22 27 


24 23 


24 22 27 


60 


59 31 15 


30 28 


30 28 48 


30 28 


72 


53 25 30 


36 33 35 


36 34 29 


36 33 35 


84 


47 20 


42 38 52 


42 40 


42 38 52 


96 


41 14 15 


48 44 19 


48 45 44 


48 44 19 


108 


35 8 30 


64 49 46 


54 51 30 


54 49 46 


120 


29 2 45 


60 55 4 


60 57 13 


60 55 4 


132 


22 57 


67 5 


67 3 


67 5 


144 


16 51 15 


73 4 40 


73 8 40 


73 4 40 


156 


10 45 30 


79 7 50 


79 14 25 


79 7 50 


168 


4 39 45 


85 5 20 


85 20 20 


85 5 20 


Mcr. 





88 27 51 


90 


88 27 51 



on mapping the surface of the moon. 

Table of Solar Altititdes at the Moon. 

Latitude 5°. 



11 



Int. 


Hour-angle. 


Winter Solstice. 


Equinoxes. 


Summer Solstice. 


h 


O / // 


O 1 n 


O / II 


O / // 





90 








8 


12 


83 54 15 


5 56 10 


6 4 20 


6 12 18 


24 


77 48 80 


12 14 


12 8 40 


12 16 37 


36 


71 42 45 


18 4 6 


18 12 56 


18 21 


48 


65 37 


24 7 44 


24 17 2 


24 25 18 


60 


59 31 15 


30 11 5 


30 21 2 


30 29 38 


72 


53 25 30 


36 14 


36 24 47 


36 33 53 


84 


47 20 


42 16 


42 27 57 


42 37 43 


96 


41 14 15 


48 17 27 


48 30 51 


48 41 38 


108 


35 8 30 


54 17 32 


54 33 


54 45 7 


120 


29 2 45 


60 15 30 


60 33 47 


60 48 4 


132 


22 57 


66 9 44 


66 32 25 


66 49 54 


144 


16 51 15 


71 56 27 


72 26 25 


72 49 27 


156 


10 45 30 


77 25 30 


78 8 50 


78 43 


168 


4 39 45 


81 58 30 


83 9 45 


84 11 40 


Mer. 





83 27 51 


85 


86 32 9 



Table of Solar Altitxjdes at the Moon. 
Latitude 10°. 



Int. 


Hour-angle. 


Winter Solstice. 


Equinoxes. 


Summer Slstice. 


h 



O / II 

90 


/ II 




O 1 II 




( 11 

16 


12 


83 54 15 


5 43 56 


6 10 


6 16 6 


24 


77 48 30 


11 43 37 


12 14 


12 16 21 


36 


71 42 45 


17 42 47 


18 


18 16 2i3 


48 


65 37 


23 41 20 


23 59 22 


24 16 23 


60 


59 31 15 


29 38 55 


29 58 5 


30 15 53 


72 


53 25 30 


35 35 18 


35 55 55 


36 14 50 


84 


47 20 


41 29 38 


41 52 12 


42 12 35 


96 


41 14 15 


47 21 41 


47 46 45 


48 9 18 


108 


35 8 30 


53 9 53 


53 38 25 


54 3 50 


120 


29 2 45 


58 52 4 


59 25 24 


59 55 


132 


22 57 


64 24 23 


65 4 30 


65 40 15 


144 


16 51 15 


69 38 16 


70 28 40 


71 13 48 


156 


10 45 30 


74 15 34 


75 21 9 


76 21 50 


168 


4 39 45 


77 33 51 


78 58 36 


80 21 


Mer. 





78 27 51 


80 


81 32 9 



The above Table has been computed from formulae obligingly communi- 
cated by J. E. Hind, Esq., Superintendent of the Nautical Almanac. For 
the Altitudes, — 

c2 



13 REPoK'i' — 1868. 

Nat sin of alt = nat siu of mer alt minus ver sin hour-angle x cos 
lat X cos dec and checked by 

Ver sin zen dist = ver sin (lat + dec) plus ver siu hour-angle x cos 
lat X cos dec. 

One or two trials for obtaining the longitude of the terminator will be 
quite sufficient for finding the altitude for any given interval. In the case 
of the morning terminator, if its longitude is east of and differs from the 
longitude of the spot a few degrees only, the altitude will be found between 
interval and 12 hours. It will, however, be best to compute a longitude 
of the terminator as near as may be to that of the spot, from the epoch of 
which intervals of 12 hours to meridian passage may very readily be found. 

In addition to the period of similar phase, SQ'i l** 28°\ we have a still closer 
one of 442*1 23'' 0™, or 15 lunations. The numbers in the column on page 
XX of each month of the Nautical Almanac, headed " Days elapsed of the 
Julian Period," wUl greatly facUitate the application of this longer period. 
Changes arising from season and libration may, in consequence of comparing 
observations at epochs so distant, become more strikingly manifest. 

A^EA IV A^. 

Introduction. 

A few remarks upon the classes of objects found on this area and one or two 
other points may not be inappropriate ; they are given under the following 
heads : — Points of the first order. Extent of surface. General features. 
Mountain-chains. Faults. Levels. Craters. Sequence of objects. 

Points of the flrst Okdee. — The deteiiniuation of one or two points of the 
first order in this area w^ould be very advantageous for correcting the positions 
of objects in this and the neighbouring areas. For the mode of observing and 
computing, with an example, see Report Brit. Assoc. 1866, pp. 233 to 238. 
There are no isolated objects near the centre that would be suitable for this 
pui-pose; but IV A^ i^ is well situated for areas IV A", IV A^, and IV A'', and 
the crater IV A^^ for the N.W. part of area IV A^. 

Extent of Surface. — This is the same as area IV A", viz. 8877"925 square 
miles English, but, in consequence of foreshortening (see ante, p. 8), it does not 
appear to be so. The difference, however, is slight ; for IV A" occupies on the 
moon's equator -0872 parts of the moon's radius considered as unity, and IV A^ 
•086.5 such parts. 

General Features. — This area consists principally of an elevated district 
bordering upon the lower surface of the W. part of Hipparchus. It is not 
marked by any very bold features, except the W.N.W. border of Hipparclius, 
which presents apparently a steep slope towards the lower land. This slojae 
may be well studied under the evening illumination, at about 19 or 20 days 
of the moon's age. With this exception, the surface is slightly irregular, 
dotted here and there with low mountains. The N.W. angle contains the 
central portion of what appears to be the remains of a large walled plain, biit 
so altered by subsequent changes of the surface as to be scarcely recognizable. 
(See IV A^ 2^ p_ \Q_^ A comparatively undisturbed tract extends across the 
area from N.E. to S.W. external to the S.E. portion of the ancient ring sur- 
rounding the plain IV A^ ^, IV A^ ^. This tract is situated entirely on the 
lii(jh land N.W. of Hip2oarclius, and separates two regions of considerable 
disturbance, viz. that marked by the cliffs which extend from the plain 
IV A^ 2^ JVA^s^ ^o the ancient ring, and that characterized by the three 



ON MAPPING THE SURFACE OF THE MOON. 



13 



largest craters on the area, IV A^ i^, IV A^ ^*, and IV A^ i^. It appears to 
have some relation to the ancient ring in its curvilinear direction. 

MoTJNTArsr-CHAiNS. — This term is employed to designate long series of 
mountains, either in unbroken lines or, it may be, detached mountains occur- 
ring in lines. A portion of such a mountain- chain just crosses the S.W. 
angle of the area. It commences at the junction of the S. border ofPtolenurus 
with the W. border of Alplwnsus, and rises into high peaks on the S.W. 
border of Ptolemceus : it forms the N.E. border of Albategnius, the ridges 
IV M 6^ and IV Ai ^^ (described as crater-riUs by Schmidt, and so catalogued 
in area IV Af) being the highest portions. From IV A? "^ it passes onward 
to the N.E. border of Halley, where the peak IV A? 29 rises to an altitude of 
3543 English feet ; it then passes along the cliff IV A*" i'^, facing the lower 
surface of the S.W. jjart of Hipparchus, and is interrupted by a succession of 
valleys, but is resumed in the momitain IV A'' ^^. At this part of the chain 
the hills are low compared with those on the borders oiPtolemreus and Alba- 
tegnius. Skirting the border of IV A^ ^^ ^nd IV A^ "9, a plain intervenes 
between IV A^ 9- and IV A ^ ^0, from whence the chain is continued S. of the 
ring IV A^ ^^. With various interruptions, it can be traced as far as Sabine 
and Bitter. 

A short chain of cliffs occurs in the N. part of the area. The crests are 
generally transverse to the direction of the chain, which extends from IV A^ ^ 
to IV A^ ^. 

Eatjlts*. — Several "faults" traverse this area — one, IV A''^-^ IVA^62^ 
connected with the great Tychonic system, and three comiected with the 
smaller system, of which IV A"" ^ ajjpears to be the centre. The radiating 
character of the streaks from Tyclio 
is well known . The " faults " con- 
nected with IV A*" 2 do not appear 
to be radiating,buttoconsistof three 
main "faults," one on the S.S.W., 
the others on the N. of the 
crater, both of which can be traced 
to a considerable distance. The 
annexed diagram (fig. 1) is in- 
tended to show the general direc- 
tion of these "faults," IV A'' 36 
and IV A'' 11, as emanating from 
IV A" 2, also the fault IV A" 35 
IVA^63^ diverging from IVA"!! 
in the direction of the mountain- 
ranges IV A" 12, IV A" 13, lY A^^, 
IV A3 35, &c. The fault IVA"" 
IV A3 20 lY A." 72 is specially de- 
scribed in the letterpress to areas 
IV A", IV A^, p. 19, and Report 
Krit. Assoc. 1866, p. 255. 

Parallel with IV A'' ", IV A3 20^ 
IV A" 72 in the N. part of the area 
are two of a minor character, IV A3 5i and IV A3 42, -^bich apparently arc not 
connected with any point of outburst. It is not improbable that these may 
be strictly contemporaneous with the main fault, and form portions of the 
same system. (Sec IV A3 12, pp, 30, 31.) 

" See note on p. 33. 



Fig. 1. 
ssw 



Sovlh line 
o£ iault 



W A y 36 



Fault 



Fault TV A 3 63 




Fault TV A H 20 



NNE 



14 REPORT 1868. 

In the W. part of the area is a very minor " fault," IV A^ 89, nearly parallel 
with the main fault. 

Levels. — There are only two levels on this area — the higher W. of Hip- 
parchiis, and the depressed W. floor of Hipparclms. These levels are sepa- 
rated hy the " fault » IV A" n IV A^ -'o ly A" ". 

Craters. — The probable uncertainty which appertains to_ the earlier obser- 
vations of the physical aspects of the moon's surface, by which it is difficult to 
arrive at any satisfactory conclusions relative to alleged physical change, ren- 
ders it not only important but imperative that observations should now be 
conducted with such precision that no doubt may hereafter arise as to the 
real state of the object observed and recorded ; it is accordingly intended that 
the description of each object recorded in the foUowiug pages shall be equi- 
valent to a trustworthy and accurate observation ; and as such observations 
can be obtained by means of photography, the epoch is that of the photogram 
employed, viz. 1865, March 6, unless otherwise expressed. Among the most 
prominent objects on the moon's surface are craters. It is m this class of 
objects that change has been suspected. To indicate the precision attainable 
with our present means, a list of the craters on area IV A^ is subjoined in the 
order of magnitude, so that, if any question should hereafter arise as to any 
one of them, this record, with the photogram from which it is compUed, vdll, 
it is hoped, be sufficient evidence of the state of each in the year 1865 on 
March 6 ; and to prevent any after-misapprehension as to whether these ob- 
jects are actually craters, engravings are given of most of them, with the 
proportions of shadow to illuminated interior, at an epoch which may be ap- 
proximately indicated by the longitude of terminator being equal to 21° E. 

There are very few craters on IV A^ for so large an area — only fifteen, and 
most of these but smaU. Five are found near the fault IV A" ", IV A^ ^, 
IV A" ^^. Nearly aU the others are isolated. 

(l)IVA^i^ 19-67 

(2)IVA^i-* 11-19 

(3)IVA^i9 9-42 

(4)IVA^3 8-02 

(5)IVA^^ 6-71 

(6) IV A^ 15 6-25 

(7)IVA^*'* 6-25 

(8)I7A^2i 5-31 

The first column of seconds (") are measures on the photogram of the 
longest diameters, the second of the shortest diameters. The last column 
contains the magnitudes, the diameter of Dionyshis being regarded as unity. 
(See letterpress, areas IV A", IV M, p. 9, and Report Brit. Assoc. 1866, 
p. 245.) 

Sequence of Objects. — The continiiation of the subzones (see letter- 
press, areas IV A", IV Af, pp. 5 and 6) in area IV A^ are as under :— 

No. 1. Lat. 0° to 1° S.— 1**, 2**, 3**, 29**, 49**, 52**, 4*, 10*, 11*, 
12*, 13*, 53*, 40, 42, 45, 46, 50, 51, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 
90 91 5"*" 6"^ 7+ 8-^ 9+. 

No.'2."^Lat 0°"*"^ 2° st— 1**, 2**, 3**, 29**, 44**, 49**, 52**, 4*, 10*, 
11*, 12*, 13*, 39*, 43*, 53*, 20, 32, 33, 40, 41, 42, 45, 46, 50, 51, 54, 55, 
56, 57,58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 67, 77, 78, 79, 90, 91, 99, 5+, 6+, 7+ 8t, 9+. 

No. 3. Lat. 1° to 3° S.— 3**, 14**, 44**, 4*, 10*, 39*, 43*, 20, 26, 27, 
30, 31, 32, 33, 40, 41, 42, 45, 46, 51, 55, 62, 63, 65, 66, 67, 73, 74, 77, 
78, 79, 80, 89, 91, 98, 99. 



it 

7-43 


1-17 


(9) IV A^ 12 .. 


.... 4-47 


0-26 




0-66 


(10)IVA^85 .. 


.... 3-54 


317 0-20 


8-48 


0-53 


(ll)IVA^^^ .. 


.... 310 


018 


6-25 


0-42 


(12)IVA^37 .. 


.... 3-00 


018 


4-47 


0-33 


(13) IV A^ 99 . 


.... 2-90? 


017? 


5-31 


0-32 


(14)IVA^^ .. 


.... 2-70 


016 


3-17 


0-28 


(16) IV A^ 3^ . 


.... 2-70 


016 


3-54 


0-26 









ON MAPPING THE SURFACE OF THE MOON. 15 

No. 4. Lat. 2° to 4° S.— 14**, 16**, 47**, 69*, 70*, 83*, 15, IS, 20,22, 
23, 25, 26, 27, 28, 30, 31, 34, 35, 36, 37, 42, 48, 51, 62, 63, 65, 66, 72, 73, 
74, 75, 80, 84, 85, 86, 88, 89, 96, 97, 98, 76t. 

No. 5. Lat. 3° to 5° S.— 16**, 19**, 38**, 47**, 69*, 70*, 83*, 15, 17, 
18, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 28, 31, 34, 35, 36, 37, 42, 48, G2, 63, 64, 68, 
71, 72, 74, 75, 81, 82, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 76t. 

No. 6. Lat. 4° to 5° S.— 16**, 19**, 38**, 69*, 70*, 17, 18, 20, 21, 24, 
25,35,42,48, 62, 63, 64, 68, 71, 72, 81, 82, 87, 88, 89, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97. 

Objects. 

Points of the First Order. None. 

Points of the Second Order, indicated thus x : — 

X\ Y\ S. lat. W. long. 

IV A^ 3 -02385 -16357 1 22 9° 25 

IVA^i2 -00000 -12187 7 

IV A^ w .05379 -12573 3 5 7 14 

IVA^ie -06976 -11149 4 6 25 

N.B. — The Arable numerals folloiuing the symbols of the areas, and desig- 
nating the particidar objects in this and other areas, are intended to be un- 
alterable. See Report Brit. Assoc. 1865, p. 292. 

^g° AH measures for diameters of craters, unless otherwise expressed, are 
made at right angles to a line joining the N. edge of Dlonyslus and the S. 
edge of Agrippa. See Report, 1866, p. 245. 

Mr. Slack has suggested that " crater-row " (see letterpress, areas LV A", 
IV Af, p. 23, 1 19, and Brit. Assoc. Report, 1866, p. 259) should he regarded 
as a "test object" of the state of the earth's atmosphere, particularly with 
regard to definition; for example, if the craters, some of which are difficult, 
come out sharply and well defined, and can be seen distinctly and without 
tremor, the earth's atmosphere is in a good state for observation. When this 
is the case, and neighbouring objects are indistinct, hazy, and ill-defined, it 
may be inferred that such indistinctness is not occasioned by the state of the 
earth's atmosphere, but is dependent upon some other agency. In accordance 
with this suggestion, it is recommended that in the examination of the fol- 
lowing objects the state of " crater-row " should be first ascertained. 

While these sheets were passing through the press, Edward Crossley, Esq., 
of Halifax, kindly lent the Committee his 7-3-iQch achromatic of 12 feet focal 
length, equatorially mounted. This instrimient is now in working order at 
Walthamstow, and a systematic examination of the objects in the three areas, 
IVA", IVA^, and IV A?, commenced. The numeral of each object thus 
examined is followed by (x) , thus ** 1 (x). 

**l(x). A mountain-range, forming part of the northern boundary of 
the plain IV A^ 2 iy Ay 3, Length of crest 13"-425 ; do. from the highest 
point westward 10''-255, from the highest point eastward 3"-170 ; breadth 
of base at highest point 7"-645, at eastern end 6"- 712, at western end 
6"-239. 

This boundary does not consist of a continuous range of mountains, but of 
detached or broken ranges. Commencing on the east, we have the mountain- 
arm IV A^ 33 lying in the depression IV A*^ ■^^ The moimtain-arm IV A^ ^9 

' In the British Aasociation Report, 1865, p. 295, will be found an explanation of the 
coordinates X and T, with the formulas for computing them when the position of the object 
on the moon's surface has been determined. 



IG REPORT— 1868. 

is separated from the short range IV A^ * by a break or gorge, through which, 
under favourable circumstances, the sun has been seen clearly shining. 
IV A^ * forms the E. rim of the crater IV A^ ^, at the IST. end of which 
another break occurs. Eeyond this break is seen the mountain-range IV A^ i. 
The direction of IV A^ * and IV A^ i is nearly at right angles to that of 
IV A^ 39_ -Q ^ ^ describe and figure upon IV A^ i Jive mountain-peaks, 
IV A^ 5 to IV A^ ^. They are inserted in the catalogue upon their authority ; 
but, not having seen them, I have not yet inserted them upon the map. There 
are no traces of them upon Rutherford's photogram. E. & M. speak of them 
as being like a string of pearls. It is probable they may be detected a short 
time after sunrise. At the western end of IV A^ i another break in the boun- 
dary occm-s. This is succeeded by the range IV A^^^^ IV A ''i — the two 
ranges IV A^ ^ IV A^ ^^, and IV A'' ^ forming a gentle ciu've, which is con- 
tinued by the depression IV A^ *. This depression completes the boundary — 
the plain IV M'^, IV A^ ^ being quite open towards the S.W. 

1864, Dec. 5, 6^ 30" to 7*" 55", this region was carefully observed with 
the Royal Society's achromatic of 4|-in. aperture, power 230. The details 
recorded then mostly agree with the features as seen on the photogram. A 
few have not been recognized, of which the principal are as follows : — " The 
western part of the boundary was seen to consist of three detached rocks, of 
which the southern one was rather elongated. The mountain-arm IV A^ -'^ 
was observed to end in an irregular boss or club-shaped elevation, of less 
brightness than the mountain-arm." 

**2(x). The E. part of the plain enclosed on the "W. bj' the depression 
IV A'' i, on the N. by the mountain-ranges IV A^ \ IV A^ i3, on the E. by 
IV AP 1 and IV A^ *, and on the S.E. by IV A^ 39. 

This plain is quite open towards the S.W., and has upon it the following 
objects : — The crater IV A^ ^, which is the most conspicuous ; a somewhat 
short elevated ridge, i^robably Lohrmann's 61 of his Sec. I., which I do not 
recognize on the photogram ; and two minute hillocks between the ridge and 
crater. These hillocks are recorded in Obs. Bk. p. 164, No. 315, 1864, Dec. 
5, 7.15 G.M.T. They are neither inserted in the map nor symboHzed, as I 
do not find a second observation of them, and, not having made a sketch at 
the time, I am uncertain as to their position. I have the following note : — 
" With the exception of 60 and 61, Lohrmaun gives the surface of this forma- 
tion smooth. At present I do not see any other inequahties than the two 
minute hillocks." On Rutherford's photogram I find two objects to which 
the hillocks observed in 1864 may answer — IV A^ ^^, described as a "hillock 
on the plain, and IV A^ ^i, a shallow depression." It is probable I saw only 
the slope of the depression, which I regarded as that of a hillock. 

This plain on Rutherford's j^hotogram has greatly the appearance of a large 
ancient crater which has suffered from irruption and become nearly filled. 
If such has been the case, the wall has been broken through on the S.W., the 
open portion facing a somewhat smooth tract, agreeing in this respect with 
the numerous ruined craters (as they appear to be) on the borders of the 
Maria. The plain is interestingly situated with regard to Godin and Agrippa. 
The crater IV A^ ^, as weU as the cliffs between IV A^ ^ and IV A^ i-*, are 
probably of more recent origin than the plain. The depressions IV A^ ■* and 
IV A^ 41 at the extremities of the N.W. and S.E. ranges are remarkable. 
The occurrence of mountains standing in shcdloiv depressions is not uncommon 
in some parts of the moon ; it is a curious feature, and deserves careful con- 
sideration as weU as observation. 

A very remarkable and interesting feature is connected with this plain, 



ON MAPPING THE SURFACE OF THE MOON. 17 

viz. a kind of '' circumvallation " (consisting either of low mountains or, at 
some parts, of depressions) surrounds it, at an average distance from the 
centre of 35"-24, not very unlike the second rampart of lihceticus (see letter- 
press, areas IV A", IV A^, p. 12, and Brit. Assoc. Eeport, 1866, p. 248), or 
the cliiFs surrounding IV A""* (see ibid. pp. 13, 249). A portion of a similar 
circumvallation exists on the N.W. of Agrijipa. The circumvallation sur- 
rounding IV A^ 2 is hest traced on the N. in the mountains W. and E. of 
Godin, including the S. border of that crater. The depression IV A^ ^^ and 
the mountain IV A^ *^ are situated upon this line of circumvallation. Here 
it becomes obscui-e, but cau be traced passing between IV A^ ^* and IV A^ "t^, 
and continued in the mountain-chain extending from the junction of Ptole- 
mceus and Alplionsus towards Sabine and Eifter (see ante, p. 13). From this 
mountain-chain the curve is continued to its junction with the S. of Godin. 

The area enclosed by this " circumvallation " is about equal to that of the 
floor of Ptolemceus. Is this the remnant of a large walled plain which in- 
cluded a crater, nearly central, within it ? Its position with regard to Ptole- 
mceus is interesting, especially as the diverse groups on and near Hipparchus 
intervene. Its ancient character may be inferred from its being traversed by 
more than one " fault :" — first, a " ray from Tycho," which passes across its 
eastern segment; second, by the "fault" IV A^ ''2, which also crosses this 
segment. The "fault" IV A''35 IV A^'^-^ grazes the E. edge of the ancient waU. 

The following passage from the Eev. T. W. Webb's notice of Chacornac's 
* Theory of Lunar Physics ' is so much to. the purpose that I quote it at length. 
" Among other characteristics of the primitive surface, we notice immense 
rings, whose crests alone project above the surrounding plain by some hundreds 
of yards — circular ramparts, the last visible vestiges of great buried craters ; 
and these are cut through by considerable breaches, which permit us to follow 
the level of the maritime soil, where it penetrates their interiors, and to re- 
mark the absence of the slightest difference in surface or structure." — Intel- 
lectual Observer, No. xlvii. Dec. 1865, p. 373. 

The surface of the area included within the line of circumvallation is in 
strildng contrast with that of Ptolemceus. If it has ever been in the same 
state as that magnificent plain, the changes it has undergone must have been 
considerable. From a smooth level surface, surrounded by a rampart of 
mountains, the remains of which we are now only able to trace imperfectly, 
it must have passed into a state during which the central parts have been 
elevated, and the surface attained a degree of subdued irregularity very diffe- 
rent from the surfaces of the great walled plains. While nearly every vestige 
of the characteristics of a Availed plain has disappeared, the surface included 
by the circumvallation possesses a certain uniformity of aspect which gives an 
individuality to it, and which clearly separates it fi'om the features external 
to it. It is singularly free from craters, two only of any magnitude being 
foimd upon it, viz. IV A^^^ and the crater S.S.E. of Godin, I A^^. Should 
the conjecture be correct that we have here the remains of a large walled 
plain, the intermediate changes that it has imdergone indicate it to have 
been very ancient, perhaps among the most ancient of lunar forms. 

Hipparchus may be regarded as intermediate in character between this for- 
mation widi Ptolemceus. We shall have to direct attention (seQpost, p. 37) to 
the probability that at some anterior epoch the depressed floor of Hipparchus 
and the higher land W. of it were at the same level, and that the whole of 
the district W. of Hipparchus, including the plain under consideration, has 
since been elevated. If so, from the appearance which this waUed plain now 
presents, it is probable that the rampart was nearly ^e^ prior to the general 




18 REPORT— 1868. 

elevation of the district of which it forms a part. This also points to its great 
antiquity, especially as the " fault " separating Hipparclius from the district 
appears to be comparatively recent. 

**3(x). A crater on the E. part of the plain lY A^ - IV A*" i, position second 
order X 3, -0103 S.W. of photogram, M of B. & M., who mark it 7° of bright- 
ness. Lohrmann gives it 8°. It is 60 of his Section I. He de- jij„ 2. 
scribes it as small, and very deep. Its E. interior slope forms 
the W. slope of the mountain -range IV A^ ^, which is the first 
of a series of short mountains connecting IV A^ ^ with IV A^ i-". 
It, as well as IV A^ ^^ and IV A^ 1^, is very deep, the shadow 
being still gibbous when the morning terminator has just passed Copermcus. 
The proportion of shadow to illuminated interior, when the longitude of the 
morning terminator=21° E., is as 1 to 1-833. See fig. 2. In the following 
engravings, representing the proportion of shadow to illuminated interior, 
the extent of shadow in all cases is equal to 1, bi;t not upon the same 
scale, neither are the craters given on the same scale. IVA^^ jg \^q 
fourth crater in order upon area IV A^. Diameter 6" -2.5 ; longest dia- 
meter on a hne passing through IV A"' ■^*' 8""02, mag. 0*42. It appears as 
a white spot under a high illumination. 

1868, May l"* 8*^ 0™ G. M. T., I observed ^dth the C'rossley equatorial a 
white spot S. of IV A^^^ which was also seen with the Royal Astronomical 
Society's Sheepshanks telescope, No. 5, aperture 2-75 in., power 100, on May 
30d Qh 3()m Q ^ T., 1808.— [W. R. B.] 

*4(x). A short mountain-range forming part of the E. boundary of the 
plain IV A^ 2 jy \y 3^ The I^. end of this mountain -chain is \ of B. & M., 
whose measures give 6177 English feet, or 1883 French metres, for its alti- 
tude. Length of crest 8"-48. The breadth of base includes the depth of the 
crater IV A ^ '^, and is accordingly difficult to measure. Its E. slope appears 
to be very gradual. 

+.5. The S.E. of B. & M.'s five peaks on IVA^i N. of IV A^", gge 
ante, p. 16. 

t6. A peak between IV A^ s and IV A^ 7. 

J7. A peak between IV A^ ^ and IV A^ 8, 

+8. A peak between IV A^ " and IV A^ 9. 

J9. The N.W. of B. & M.'s five peaks on IV A^ 1. See nnie, p. 16. 

*10(x). A short mountain-range parallel with IV A^ ^. Length of crest 
6"-25. It is situated near the point of intersection of two " faults," IVA'' -^ 
IV A^ ^2^ and IV A^ ^2, the latter of which, although not so well marked as 
the " fault " IV A" " IV A^ 20 jy a" 72^ can be easily traced as parallel with 
it on Rutherford's photogram. 

It is difficult to determine whether Lohiinann really intended the S. ex- 
tremity of his 63, Sec. I., to represent IV A^ 1°. If he did, then he has an addi- 
tional range between 63 and 60, which is not apparent on the photogram. 
If he did not, then his range 63, Sec. I., is much longer than it ought to be. The 
cliffs between IV A^ ^ and IV A^ 1* are very indiflerently shown by Lohrmann. 
The boldest are certainly in the neighboui'hood of IV A^ ^. His 59, See. I. 
(IV A^ ^^), which he has made the boldest, is certainly the lowest, as well as 
the last of the chain connecting IV A^ -^ with IV A^ 1^. The direction of this 
chain is S.E.-iS'.W. See also IV A^ 5i, post, p. 32. 

*ll(x). A formation somewhat of the character of a circular hill with a 
depression of the nature of a crater nearly central. The E.N.E. boimdary 
consists of a high mountain-range, IV A*^ °^, which, with IV A^ --^ form a 
rampart parallel with the "W.S.W. wall of Rhseticus. The interior of IV A^ 11 



ON MAPPING THE SURFACE OF THE MOON. 19 

dips on the E.N.E. from the W. edge of IVA^i^ to the W.S.W. foot of 
IV A^ 52 . the ridge IV A^ ^i crosses IV A^ " from S. to N. 

Lohrmann describes aud figures this formation as an enclosed plain, J of 
Sec. I. with central mountain, the surrounding mountains being 62 (IV A^ ^^), 
63 (IVA^si), and 64 (lA^-'S) of his Sec. I. He also speaks of two low 
rows of mountains between them. He says that in the midst of the Interior 
plain a small central mountain is elevated. There is certainly nothing of the 
kind on Eutherford's photogram, March 6, 1865, neither jj^a^i nor central 
mountain. On the W. of IV A^ ^^ is a hoUow, IV A^-^^, communicating with 
a semicrater, neither of which are shown by Lohi-maun . The boldness with 
which the formations IV A^ ^^ and IV A^ *^ appear on the photogram is quite 
absent in B. & M.'s large map. IV A^ ^i is more distinct in the small map, 
1837, but shown as a plain without a central mountain. 

1867, Dec. 3, lO"". Royal Astronomical Society's Sheepshanks telescope, 
No. 5, aperture 2-75, power 100. Identified IV A^ 29 and IV A^ 52, the E. 
mountainous boundary of the two formations IVA^ 11, IV A^ *9, answering 
to Lohrmann's 62, Sec. I., which are laid down correctly by him. Also IV A^s? 
aud IV A^ 54^ the "W. boundary answering to his 63, Sec. I. The two low 
mountain-chaius spoken of by Lohrmann I failed to identify, but I saw on 
the moon a mountain, between the two mountain-boundaries above specified, 
which is not the central mountain of J, Sec. I., but the mountain-ridge 
IV A^ •'i of IV A3 11. It is probable that the mountain-ridge of IV A^ " is 
the E. of Lohrmann's two low ridges ; and between this and his 63, Sec. I., 
is the depression IV A^ *9, not shown by him, and, instead of a plain 
and central mountain between the ridges IV A^ ^^ and IV A*^ 29 jy A^ 52^ 
the S. part of the space is filled with the crater IV A^ ^^, and the N. part 
clips to the N. angle of the formation IV AS n I A^ so.— [W. E. B.] 

1868, May 1" 8" 45"" G. M. T. ; Crossley equatorial 7-3 inches, power 122. 
Crater-row pretty well defined ; IV A^ 11 very distinct, with the crater 
IV A3 12 upon it. The surface of the hill is in the form of a tableland, 
IV A3 29 and IV A3 52 rising higlier on the E., the W. slope of IV A3 «i 
descending to the hollow. 

It is very possible that Lohrmann regarded the tableland as an enclosed 
plain. The question now is whether the crater IV A3 12 was regarded by 
him as a mountain. I do not see an exterior shadow on the E. ; fig. 3 is too 
dark on the E. and N.E. The shading is not intended to indicate shadow, 
but the slope of the mountain on the N.E. — [W. R. B.] 

As in the case oi Linne, it may possibly be considered that both Lohrmann 
and B. & M. are in error. It does not appear that B. &. M. mention the 
formation. The following is a translation by the Eev. T. "W. "Webb, of Lohr- 
mann's notice {Topograpliie der sichtharen Mondoherfidche, erste Abtheilung, 
p. 51):— 

" (§ 47. L)_ This landscape lies under 7° of W. longitude iipon the equa- 
tor, and is circularly encompassed by the high mountains 62, 63, and 64. 
Between these mountains, however, are also found two lower rows of moim- 
tains, going parallel with 63, that more closely encompasses I. In the 
mickUe of the inner plain a small central mountain raises itself." 

*12(x). The central craterlet in IV A3 n 4"'47, mag. 0-26. The ninth in 
order upon area IV A3, position second order x 12 on "W. rim. This crater- 
let appears to be destitute of a raised wall, and is more of the cha- -rv„ o 
racter of a dimple at the summit of the circidar Mil composing 
IV A3 11. With a morning terminator advanced a little beyond 
Copernicus the shadow is crescentiform ; proportion to illuminated 




20 REPORT— 1868. 

interior as 1 : 1-75 (see fig 3), breadth of shadow 1"-61 +, illuminated inte- 
rior 2"-89 + . 

*13(x). A mountain-range forming theN.W. portionof the boundary of the 
partly enclosed plain IV A^ ^ IV A'*' ^ ; it is gently curved. Its W. por- 
tion is IV A'' 1. The central part is hollowed interiorly; length 13"-42; 
breadth of base, the E. part, 7''-18, the central part G"-71, the W. part 6"-71. 

**14(x). The northern of three very conspicuous craters, W. of Hipparchus, 
which are seen under every variety of illumination, the second in order on 
area IV A^, 11"-19, mag. 0-66, E" of B. & M. 7° of brightness, G of Lohr- 
mann. Sec. I., 8° of brightness. Position second order x 14, 
•0138 W.S.W. of photogram. It is N.W. of Horrox, and 
has a small shallow crater, IV A^ i^, adjoining it on the S.E. 
It is situated very nearly on the border of the high land form- 
ing the W. border of Hipparclms. It appears from the pho- 
togram to be very deep. With a morning terminator ad- 
vanced beyond Copernicus, long. 21° E., the interior shadow of the W. rim 
is still gibbous, the E. interior sloping upwards from it to the E. rim. At 
this stage of illumination the proportion of shadow to illuminated interior 
is as 1 : 1-667 (see fig. 4). Breadth of shadow 4"-20, of illuminated inte- 
rior 6"-99. 

15(x). A small shallow crater adjoining IV A^^^ on the S.E., the sixth 
in order upon area IV A^. It is shown by B. & M. and Lohrmann. 
Longest diameter 6"-25, shortest 5"'31, mag. 0-32. It is situated on the 
very border of the high land W. of Hijjparclms, and on the " fault " IV A"" " 

IV A ^ 20 lY A" 72. 

**16(x). HoEEOx^. — The largest crater on area IV A^. It is marked b on 
B &M.'smap, 232 on Lohrmann's, and F onLohrmann's Sec. I. Position second 
order x 16, "0204 W. of IVA^22 q^^ photogram. Longest diameter E. by N.- 
W. by S. (nearly) 19"-67, shortest N. by W.-S. by E. 17"-43, mag. 1-17. 
B. & M. record a brightness of 3° for the interior, and 5° for the border, 
when seen under favourable circumstances. Lohrmann's value is from 4° to 
5°. Its form consists of a semiellipse on the east side, and two nearly rec- 
tilineal walls on the W., which are inclined to each other at an obtuse angle. 
It has a low central hill, IV A^ ^^, but not a very level floor, on which are 
two hillocks, IV A^ -^ and IV A^ -^. The interior is probably bowl-shaped. 
The E. interior slope rises from this floor, and with a morning terminator 
advanced beyond Copernicus is brightly illuminated ; the E. -p- ^ 
boundary of the shadow of the W. border is nearly rectilinear. 
Proportion at this stage : — shadow to illuminated portion as 
1 : 1-509 (see fig. 5) ; breadth of shadow 7"-84, of illuminated 
interior ll"-83. Thei-e are two ridges on the interior W. slope. 
Horrox appears as an isolated crater on the lower level of the N.W. part oi Hip- 
parclms. The space between the N.W. wall of Horrox and the fault IV A"" ^ 
IV A^2o lY A" "2 is mentioned by Lohrmann as a narrow valley (^Topographic 
der sicJitbaren Mondoherjlache, sec. i. p. 50). This appears to be the mouth 
of the valley IV A^ ^i jy A" ", in which is the depression IV A^ ^s. 

17. HipPAECHUs^. — Lohrmann's Map 233. The north-western part. This 
formation is described in the letterpress to areas IV A", IV Af, pp. 12, 13, 
and in the Eeport of the Brit. Assoc. 1866, pp. 248, 249. As it is only seen 

» Named in commemoration of Mr. Horrox, who computed and observed the transit of 
Venus in the year 1(530. 

'' Named by Riccioli in commemoration of Hipparchus, who compiled the^rs^ catalogue 
of the fixed stars in the second century before our era. 




ON MAPPING THE SURFACE OP THE MOON. 



21 



to advantage shortly after the time of sunrise and a little before sunset, and 
is lost to view as a separate formation under a high illumination, to mark 
more clearlj- the territory of -which it forms the western part, and which is of 
a much more indi\-idual character than Hi2}parclius, it is proposed to group 
the various objects which this territory contains under the general designation 
of " Terra Astroiiomica ," as suitable for the district, a portion of which is com- 
memorated by the name of the greatest astronomer of his time, and which is 
surroimded by walled plains and craters, named in commemoration of cele- 
brated ancient and modern astronomers. The term is also suitable as a com- 
panion to the region in the south, which has been named " Terra Photogra- 
pJika," to commemorate the labours of De La Eue in Celestial Photography. 
Sec Eeport, 18G5, p. 305. 



Terka Asteonomica. 
An extensive formation situated on the following areas :- 



IV A" 
IV A^ 



IV Af 
IV A" 



IIIAf 
III A" 



Fig. 6. 



( 


/ \ 


^ ^ 


hC 


\ Uerschel 


Sorpoa: \ { ) 


) \ 


y 


^q 


)JSS.A.OL 9 

\ 


IV A ^ isOXT-'T 


KlVAOUO/^ 
j °IVAOC 


ncA tx 


) 


IVA^ V 

Jlhceticus 1 


c 




/^~^^ 


i 


1^ 


4^ 


~U'^ 





It is N. of Alhategnius, N.W. 
of Ptolemieus, and extends from 
these walled plains as far N. as 
the equator. 

This interesting region may ^^^ \y ^ ^v-**' 

be described under the heads of 
"Boundaries" and "Interior i^at/ 

Formations." 

BotrNDARTES. — Commencing 
at the angle formed by the 
junction of the walls of Alha- 
tegnius and Ptolemceits, at which 
point we find the crater IV A^i^^ 
and proceeding W.N.W. as far 
as the small crater TVAi^^, 
along the crest of a range of 
hills on which IV Ai ^e ig 
situated upon the highest point, we traverse the common boundary of Terra 
Astronomica and Alhategnius. At the point IV Af 33 -^-e leave Alhategnius, and 
proceeding along IV AS^^, we arrive at the mountain IV Af 29^ on the E. of 
Halley, which is a fine crater just exterior to the S.W. border of Hippar- 
chus. From the IST. angle of Halley, the chflp IV A" i«, terminating the high 
land from IV A*" 3 to IV A" 6 facing Hipparchus and forming the continua- 
tion of its S.W. border, proceeds in nearlv the same direction as IVAf 26 
towards the depression IV A" e. This chflf terminates with the peak IV A" i9, 
a of B. & M. and 29 of Sec. I. of Lohrmann ; but the range of mountains 
of which it forms a part preserves its nearly rectilineal direction from the 
junction of the S.W. border of Ptolemceus with the N.W. border of Al- 
jpJionsvs to Bitter and Sahine (see ante, p. 13). It is between this cliff and 
IV A^ 19 that we meet with certain valleys which break through the wall 
of Hipparchus, viz. IV A'' is and IVA"". N.W. of IV A" « is the peak 
IV A" 20, 30 Sec. I. of Lohrmann, immediately adjoining which on the N.W. is 
the long narrow vaUej IV A" ", described by Julius Schmidt as a crater-riU 
(cleft) in his Catalogue of Rills, No. 362. The openings of these vaUeys to- 



23 REPOKT — 1868. 

wards Hipparchus impart a somewhat curvilinear form to the boundary here- 
about. From the N.E. end of IV A" ", which lies in the depression IV A" ^i, 
as far as the E. edge of the crater IV A^ ^■^, the boundary is nearly rectilinear 
and nearly coincident with the "fault " IV A" n, IV A^ 20^ IV A" 72, which, 
probably originating in the crater IV A"" 2, has either elevated the sui-face on 
the W. or depressed the surface of the W. portion of Hippcu-clms, so that it is 
considerably below the high land ; between IV A^ i9 and IV A^ i^ this high land 
rises into the peaks IV A^ ^s ^nd IV A^ *7. At the crater IV A^ i'^ this portion 
of the boundary forms a very obtuse angle with the valley IV A^ 3i iya." ", 
which extends as far as the IS", end of IV A" 10. Here the boimdary becomes 
indistinct. Eeer and Miidler, who do not give the " fault " nor the valley, 
show the boimdary as turning E. at IV A^ ^^, passing the cliff or moimtain 
IV A" 1* at the S. end of IV A'' 10, and passing along the depressions IV A" 12 
and IV A'^ i^ (neither of which they show), proceeding to the crater IV A" 7, 
and further continued parallel with the "W. mountainous border (IV Ai ■*'') 
of IV Af 24^ Lohrmann's W, Sec. I., through the crater IV A^^ to or near 
the small crater IV Af 33. The dotted line shows the approximate direction 
of the N. and S.E. boundaries as given by B. & M. and Lohrmann. Lohr- 
mann in Sec. I. indicates, although not very distinctly, the " fault " and 
valley. 

The IS", and S.E. boundaries of Hipparclius, as laid down by B. & M. and 
Lohrmann, are by no means so distinct on the photogram as shown on the 
map and section. The natural boundary of the large formation Terra As- 
tronomica appears to be continued from the junction of the valley IV A^ 3i 
IV A" " with the " fault " IV A" " IV A^ 20 ly A" «, along the higher land 
between the valley and Bhceticus, through the S.E. mountainous border of 
Bhaiticus to the N.E. angle of Rhaiticus N. of the equator ; it then trends 
E.S.E. along the S.W. border of the Sinus Medii to the N". border of the little 
plain N.E. of Eeaiunur. From thence it trends E. to the mass of high land 
on the N.W. border of Lohrmann's U, Sec. I., IIIA"S the W. border of which 
carries it on to the cii'cular " tableland" III A" ^, N. of Hersehel ; the W. edges 
of this " tableland " and Herscliel briag us to the N. of Ftolemo'us, the N.W. 
border of this walled plain being common to Ptolemceus and Terra Astro- 
nomica. 

Within the boundary now traced out, a more or less individualized forma- 
tion will be fovmd ; and as no part has received a distinct name except the 
S.W. (" Hipparclius "), the whole may not inappropriately be termed " Terra 
Astronomica." 

Intekiok Formations. — These may be characterized as Cliffs, Lines of 
Upheaval'*, Mountains, Plains, Depressions, Faults, and Craters. 

cuffs. — Two well-marked lines of cliffs cross the Terra Astronomica in 
divergent directions from the N.W. angle of Bhceticus. They are both di- 
stinct on the photogram. 

The W. line of cliffs fi'om the N.W. angle of Rha'ticus, along its W. border, 
passes W. of IV A"^ 10, through the W. part of Hipparclius, past the prominent 
cuff rV A^ 38 (where the curved chain IV M ^^ branches from it) towards the 
space between IV Af 27 and IV Af 28^ through the middle of IV Af 25, to IV Af 36, 
on the N.E. border of Alhatcffnius. Leaving Hijiparclms, this line of cliffs 
crosses the N.E. part of Albatec/nius, and terminates on the E. border of the 
crater IV A^ ^, on the E. of Alhategnius. The faces of these cliffs are of a 

" The lines of iipheayal and depression upon areas IV A", TV A^ are tabulated and de- 
scribed in tlie letterpress to those areas, pp. 33 to 39, and Brit. Assoc. Eeport, 1866, 
pp. 269 to 275. 



ON MAPPING THE SURFACE OF THE MOON. 23 

gently sloping character, are directed towards "W. by N., and in " Full Moon" 
the line is seen as a " Eay " from " Tycho." See letterpress, areas IVA", 
IV AC, pp. 31 and 32, and Eeport Brit. Assoc. 1866, pp. 267, 268, Neither 
B. & M. nor Lohrmanu give this line of cliffs. 

The N.E. line of chffs (direction N.W.-S.E.) is a portion of a somewhat in- 
terrupted line which extends from the E. border of Ptolemmis to a mass of 
high land E. of Agrippa. In crossing the Terra Astronomica from the W. 
border of Herschel, it is slightly curved, the convexity being towards the 
S.W. and the faces of the cliiis towards the N.E. The altitude may be about 
equal to the lower portions of the mountainous border of Ftolemceus. It is 
very imperfectly represented on B. & M.'s and Lohrmann's maps, but it may 
be traced on Lohrmann's Sec. I., although the character of a range of cliff's 
is not given. Passing along the range from Herschel towards the N.W., we 
find it fu-st cut through by the vaUey III A" ^ m Af 2 ; and parallel with this 
valley on the N.W. is a short mountain-arm, which springs from the line of 
cliffs, and probably forms the highest part of the boundary of the valley on 
the N.W. It is next cut by a " fault," III A" » and III A^ i5, which will be 
hereafter described. Just W. of this " fault " is the crater IV A"" « III A " lo, 
which is situated on the hne of cliffs and appears to be its culminating 
point. From thence the line is continued to the S. edge of Reaumur, and 
merges into the S.W. and W. border oi Reaumur, of which IV A" 5 is the 
highest point. From the W. border of Reaumur the crater IV A" ^ appears 
to connect it with the short mountain-chain IV A" ^^, which joins the S.E. 
border of Rha'tiais. This line of cliffs is more strongly marked on the 
photogram than the boundary of Hipparchus, as shown by B. & M. and 
Lohrmann. 

Mountahis. — The isolated mountains on this formation are but few ; the 
most important are IV A? ^o and IV Af ^i on the subformation IV Ai ^s. The 
remainder are either chffs or mountain-borders of depressions and plains. 

Plains. — Three distinct plauis may be specified as occurring on this forma- 
tion — Lohrmann's W, Sec. I., Reaumur, and the small plain N.E. of it. They 
are aU surrounded by mountain-borders. To these may be added the S.W. 
part of Hlpparclms, W. of the westerly line of cliffs, which is the most level 
part of the formation. 

Depressions. — The most remarkable and important of these is the valley 

III A" 2 III M 2, N.W. of Herschel, crossing the N.E. line of chffs ; and next 
is IV A" 10^ which is fully described under the symbols IVA"io, IVA°^ in 
letterpress to areas IV A", IV Ai, j^p. 14 & 17, and Eeport, Brit. Assoc. 1866, 
pp. 250 and 253. IV A" 12, ly A" i3 may also be included. In addition a 
large depression, IV A^ 122^ ig found between two ridges, which extend from 

IV A" 7 and IV A" 2s to IV A^ se. it ig ^ell shown in De La Eue's photogram 
of Feb. 22, 1858, and another, IV Ai "9, between the crater IV AC 1 and the 
mountains IV Af ^7 and IV AC •'i. 

The most remarkable subformation on Terra Astronomica is IVAf 25^ a 
careful description of which will be found under its symbol in letterpress 
to areas IV A", IV A?, pp. 24 and 25, and Eeport of British Association, 1866, 
p. 261. 

Faults.— 1\\ addition to the "fault" on the W.N.W. boundary, a remark- 
able one, III A" 8 III Af 15, extends from the N.W. border of Ptolemaus to the 
E. border of Reaumur. It crosses the space between Ptolemceus and the 
plain IV A" 9 IIIA"^ HIAf " IVAf 24 (w, Lohr. Sec. I.), grazes the S.W. 
extremity of the valley III A" 2 m A? 2, N.W. oi Herschel, and then traverses 
the plain, just grazing the E. edge of the crater III A" 10, where it cuts the 



24 



REPOttT — 1868. 



line of cUffs III M i3, III A« s, IV A" ». From thence the " fault " extends 
to the E. edge oi Reaumur; its face is towards the E. 

This "fault" is not unlike, but lower in altitude than, StraigJit Wall. It 
is not so prominent an object as Straight Wall, which, occurring throughout 
its entire length on a plain, is very easily seen, whereas the " fault " now 
under notice traverses a variety of surface, and is moreover surrounded by 
striking and conspicuous objects, among which it may readily be overlooked. 
It is nevertheless an interesting object. 

Craters. — The following is an enumeration of the craters and craterlets 
at present recorded as existing on or within the boundaries of the Terra 
Astronomica, as now described. 

Area IV Ai. 



1. 

2. 
3. 


IVAfi2 .. 
IVA?5 .. 

IVAf95 .. 


In the S.E. angle 


B. & M. G. 


L. 
L. 


Ph. 
Ph. 


On 8.E. portion S.W. of IV A^ i 
„ „ „ S. oflVAf^. 




4. 


IVAf4 .. 


„ „ „ S.W. oflVAfi.. 


B. &M. 


L. 


Ph. 


5. 


IVAfi .. 




B. & M. 


L(x). 
L. 


Ph. 


6. 


lYAi^ .. 


;; ;; ;; N.ofivAVi":: 


B. & M. K. 


Ph. 


7. 


IVAf2i .. 


„ „ „ E. ofIVAf7 .. 


B. &M. 






8. 


IV A? 22 . 


„ „ „ W. ofIVA^7 .. 

These seven craters form a fine 
and conspicuous group. 


B. &M. 






9. 


IVA^i3 .. 


Between IV Ai i and Ptolemseus . . 


B. & M. 






10. 


IVAfi* .. 


j> » j> >j 


B. &M. 






11. 


IVA^is .. 


5J J> » >) 


B. &M. 






12. 


IVAfis .. 


» j; 5> }} 


B. & M. 






13. 


IVAfi9 .. 


y> j> 3! >j 

These five craters form a " row" 
connecting IV A( i with the 
N.W. border of Ptolemsciis. 
B. & M. give sir. See letter- 
press, areas IV A", lYAi, p. 23. 
IV A? 19. The " crater-row" ap- 
pears as a lucid streak on the 
photogram, but is easily re- 
solvable in the telescope. 


B. & M. 






14. 


IV A? 121.. 


N. of IV Af 13. 








15. 


IVAfiis.. 


N. of IV A? 1*. 








16. 


IVAf49 .. 


On the S. end of IV AC «. 








17. 


IVA?39 .. 


A crater"* "W. of the mountain- 
arm, IV A^«. 








18. 


IVAfii2.. 


S.S.W. of IV A? 39. 








19. 


IV A^ 113.. 


S.E. of IV Af 112. 


• 







* This crater is one of a class which has been but recently susjiected to exist on the 
moon, and of which the crater Linne in the Mare Scre^iitatis was probably the first 
observed. The prhicipal characteristic of this class of objects consists in the occasional 
obscuration of the crater-form, nothing being seen but a white spot, which is very often 
indistinct and undefined in its outline. In the case of Limit this white spot has been 
observed to present itself rather suddenly. See Astronomical Register, No. GO, Dec. 18(17, 
p. 254. The observations of IV A^ 39 will be found in the same work. No. 62, Feb. 18C8, 
p. 43, and also in the Proceedings of the Manchester Literary and Philosophical Society, 
vol. vii. p. T'>. 



ON MAPPINO THE SURFACE OF THE MOON, 



25 



Area IV A^ (continued). 



20. 


IVAfws.. 


E. of IV Af 112 and IV Af 113. 








21. 


IVAf6 .. 


A conspicuous crater "W. oflVAfi. 


B & M. i. 


L.35 


Ph. 


22. 


IVAfi3 .. 


Between the N.E. border of Alba- 
tegnius and IV A? ^. On the 








23. 
24. 


IVA^« .. 
IVAf93 .. 


"W. line of cliffs 






Ph. 
Ph. 


Between IV A^ 12 ^nd IV Af * . . 






N-.W. of IVA?i3. 






25. 


IV Af 91 . . 


N.W. of IV Af 93, 








26. 


IVAf9i .. 


N.W. of IV Af 91. 








27. 


IVAf90 .. 


S. of IV Af 91. 








28. 


IV Af 92 . . 


On W. Hne of cliffs S. of IV Af ^ 








29. 
30. 
31. 
32. 


IVAf« .. 
IVAf« .. 
IV Af i« . . 

IVAfioo.. 


W.S.W. ofIVAf« 






Ph. 
Ph. 
Ph. 


N.W, of IVAf« 






N.N.W. of IV A? 15 






In the line of ancient wall of IV A^58 






33. 


IVAf62 .. 


N. of IV Af 29. 








34. 


IVAf63 .. 


N.E. of IV Af 63. 








35. 


IVA?6i .. 


N.E. of IV Af 83. 













Area III A". 








36. 


Ill A" 10 . . 


On N.E. line of cliffs 


B. &M.A. 


L.92 


Ph. 





Area IV A". 



37. 

38. 
39. 
40. 
41. 
42. 
43. 
44. 
45. 
46. 
47. 
48. 
49. 
50. 
51. 

52. 

53. 
54. 
55. 

56. 
57. 


IV A" 1 .. 

IVA^ss .. 

IVA"90 .. 
IVA^sa .. 
IV A" 57 .. 

IVA"6 .. 
IV A" 7 .. 

IV A" 1' . . 

IVA"23 .. 
IV A" 23 .. 

IVA"2i . . 

IV A" 26 .. 

IV A" 93 .. 

IV A'' IS .. 

IVAM8 .. 

IV A" 11 .. 

IV A" 15 .. 
IV A" 16 .. 

IVA^eo .. 

IV A'^97.. 
IV A" 93 .. 


Central in the depressed tract 
IVA" 11 


B. & M. H, 


L. 


Ph. 

Ph. 
Ph. 
Ph. 
Ph. 
Ph. 
Ph. 
Ph. 
Ph. 

Ph. 

Ph. 

Ph. 
Ph. 
Ph. 
Ph. 
Ph. 
Ph. 


N. of IV A" 1. 

W.N.W. of Eeaumur. 

On S.S.W. border of Reaumur. 

On the S. border of Eeaumur . . 


The W. part of the crater III A" 10 
Between Horrox and III A" i" . . 
The W". part of the crater IV Af 39 
S.E. oflVA"? 


B.&M.A. 
B. & M. F. 


L.92 
L. 






S.E. ofIVA''22 






N.N.E. of 1VA"7 






KW. of IV A" 21 


B. &M. 


L. 


E. of IV A" 21. 

S.E. of Horrox 


In the angle between IV A"* 38 and 
IVA"is 






The southern craterlet on [the 
ridge IV A^is 






Tlie middle craterlet on IV A" i3 . . 






The northern craterlet on IV A" i3 
At the N. end of IV A" 53 










The southern craterlet in IV A" 58 
The northern craterlet in IV A" ss 
















18( 


J8. 




i 


) 





26 



REPORT — 1868. 

Area IV A^. 



58. 



IVA^ie 



HoEROx. — The most conspicuous 
crater on Terra Astronomica, 
mag. = 1-17 



B. & M. b. 



L.F. 



Ph. 



The initials B. & M. signify that the crater is to be found in Beer and 
Miidler's Map, L. in Lohrmann's Secaons, and Ph. on De La Eue's and 
Kutherford's Photograms. 



18(x). A depression W. of Horrox and the W. border oi Hipparclius, nearly 
midway between IV A*^ i* and IV A^ i^. It is very irregular in form, and 
filled with a mountain -mass which gradually ascends from the W. and N. to 
the very liordcr of Hipparclms. This mountaui-mass rises from the W. foot 
of IV A^ 1^, and culminates in the peak IV A^ ^s^ which is the highest point 
in the W. border of Hipparchus. It has upon it a ivliite spot, IV A^ ^7^ j^st 
where the rise commences towards Hipparchus. This spot is probably the 
small crater given by B. & M. and Lohrmann*^. It presents an appearance 
analogous to that of Linne, both on the photogram and as seen in 1867, and 
should be watched attentively from time to time. It spreads gradually from 
a hrir/Jd centre, and degrades in brilliancy as the valley at the foot of the 
mountain-mass is approached. The brightness of IV A^ ^7 scarcely equals 
that of Linne on Eutherford's photogram, 1865, March 6. 

A mountain-crest ci'osses IVAf^i^ from N".W. to S.E., the N.E. side being 
filled with the mountain-mass IV A^^^, which also culminates on the border 
of Hipparchus. Between IV A^ ^s ^nd IV A^ ^'^ is an inlet, IV A*^ '^^, in the 
mountain-border facing the plain W. of Horrox. IV A^ ^^ appears as a 
somewhat large bright spot in full moon, but is not a very conspicuous object 
at other times. 

** 1 9 (x) . The middle of three very conspicuous craters W. of Hipparchus (see 
rV A^ 1*). It is G of B. & M., who record it as of 7° of brightness, and E 
of Lohrmann's Sec. I. It is the third crater in order upon area IV A^. Its 
longest diameter measures 9"-42, and shortest 8"-48, mag. 0-53. This crater 
is very deep, and has a small crater, IV A^ -^, adjoining it on the j'ig. 7. 
N.E. It is situated on the sloping edge of the high land W. of 
Hipparclms, and in the angle formed by the intersection of 
the fault IV A" 11 IVA^so IV A" « with the fault IV A" 23 
IVA^62 (see letterpress to aieas IV A", IV A?, pp. 19, 20, 
and Eeport Brit. Assoc. 1866, pp. 255, 256). "With a morning 
terminator advanced beyoad Copernicus, the inter?or shadow of the "W. rim is 
decidedly gibbous (see fig. 7), the E. interior sloping upwards from it to the 
E. rim. Breadth of shadow at this stage of illumination 3"-78, of illuminated 
interior 4" -71. The proportion of shadow to illuminated interior of the 
E. slope is as 1 : 1-25. This is not so small as the proportion of shadow to 
the bright interior of the crater IV A*^ i-* ; and this, with the shadow of 
IV A^ 19 teing more gibbous than that of IV A^ ", indicates that IV A^ i9 is 
the deeper crater. 

The form of IV A^ i9 departs very considerably from that of a circle ; the 

* 18C8, May l"" 9'' 4.5™ G-.M.T., it Tvas seen Tvith tlie Crossley equatorial, 7-3-in. aper- 
ture, most unmistakeably as a crater with gibbous interior shadow of about -33 of tlie dia- 
meter. On May 2"' 7'' 25" G.M.T., it exhibited some apiwosimaticn to the class of "light- 
centres." See Brit. Assoc. Report, 1S66, p. 218. 



Kg. 7. 



I 



ON MAPPING THE SURFACE OF THE MOON. 27 

S.W. edge is nearly but not quite straight. It is slightly ciurved, with the 
convexity towards the centre of the crater. This edge measures 5"-78. The 
curvature of the remainder of the rim is much greater, and the convexity 
outwards. 

20 (x). Part of the " fault " from IV A" 2 to Eliceticm. This fault is fully 
described under IV A" ^2 in letterpress to areas IV A", IV Af, pp. 19, 20, and 
Report Brit. Assoc. 1866, pp. 255, 256. 

21(x). A craterlet opened on the S. slope of the mountain IV A^ ^s ^nd 
adjoining IV A^ ^^ on the N.E. It is shown by B. & M. but not by Lohrmann, 
and is the eighth in order upon IV A^. Longest diameter (which aligns with 
N.W. angle of IV M ^9, and S. angle of IV A^ i'3) = 5"-31. Diameter at a right 
angio to the normal line, viz. a line joining IST. edge of Biony^ius and the S. edge 
of Agr'ippa ,=^" -54:, mag. 0-26. With a morning terminator advanced beyond 
Copernicus, the interior shadow of the W. rim is crescentiform, the chord 
being at a right angle to the direction of the longest diameter ; breadth of 
shadow 2"-70, of illuminated interior 3"-17. Proportion of shadow to illu- 
minated interior as 1 : 1-171. It is deeper than the somewhat similarly 
situated crater IV A^ i'. 

This craterlet is well situated for observing the effect of libration on the 
precipitous W.F.W. wall of Hip^parchus. This wall, which has a direction 
S.S.W.-lSr.N.E., is at times brought by libration into such a position that 
the eye looks along its E.S.E. slope ; but when the rroon is in the opposite part 
of her orbit, it is so situated with regard to the eye that the slope is more 
readily seen, and probably a portion of it lower than the craterlet maybe 
detected. In the latter case it would reaUy be further from the eye ; but the 
slope would be seen under a larger angle, while the craterlet wovild by fore- 
shortening be seen under a smaller angle ; the difference, however, would be 
but slight, and scarcely appreciable by the eye. 

22(x). AsmaU eminence nearly central in IV A^i^(iror)'oa7), diameter 3"*17. 

23. A smaU hiUock in IV A^ i« N.N.E. of IV A^ 22, 

24. A small hiUock in IV A^ i« S.S.E. of IV A^ 23, 

2o(x). The lower part of the E. interior slope of IVA^i*'. The upper 
part is IV A" 34. 

26. A moimtainN. of Horrooo;^ length of crest 4"'94, breadth of base 3"'5. 
This monntaui is elevated on the N. slope of IV ^ 1^. 

27. A mountain W.N.W. of IV A^ 26 . length of crest 4"-01, breadth of base 
4"'01. The crest of this mountain is a continuation of that of IV A^ 26^ with a 
slight break between them. The W. end is separated from the E. exterior 
slope of IV A^ i"* by a narrow valley which lies in the hne of fault IV A^ 20^ 
and opens into the broader valley IV A^ ^i (see IV A^ 3i)_ 

"I'i. A crateritbrm depression on the N.W. slope of Horrox ; diameter 5"- 13, 
mag. 0-30. 

**29(x). A mountain W. of Bha'tims. "Well shown by Lohrmann, S. of 
his 62, Sec. I., but indifferently by B. & M. Length of crest 6"-71, breadth 
of base 8"-02. This mountain, with IV A^ ^2 (Lohrmann's 62, Sec. I.), forma 
the W. part of the secondary rampart around Rhceticus (see letterpress to 
areas IV A'^, IV Af, p. 12, and Ecport Brit. Assoc. 1866, p. 248). 

30 (x). A depression N. of IVA^2g. length E.-W. 10"-25, breadth N.-S. 
6"-25. This depression, which \s very fJiallow, lies in the valley IVA^^i^ 
and also in the line of cliffs IV A"^ W'.N.W.-E.S.E., No. 1 (see letterpress, 
areas IV A% IV Af, p. 34, and Report Brit. Assoc. 1866, p. 270). The 
fault IV A" 11 IV A^ 20 lY a.'' 72 appears to have dislocated this depression, 
as there is the appearance of the W. part on the higher level west of 

n2 



28 REPORT— 1868. 

the " fault."' It is not a little remarkable that while a rauge of cliffs 
somewhat of the same nature as IV A" W.N.W.-E.S.E., No. 1, extends 
from IV A^ i3 towards Hoi-rox, the craters IV A^ " and IV A^is with Hor- 
rox forming its S.E. portion, the crater IV A^-', and the cliffs IV A^*, 
IV M 10, IV A^ 43, and IV A ^ « ^e in the prolongation of IV A" W.N.W.- 
E.S.E., No. 1. Does this point to a focus oiuphurst in the neighbourhood 
of Horrox, contemporaneous with the fault IVA"" ^i IVA^^o IV A'^^^^ and 
marked by the three large openings, Horrox, IV A^ !■*, and IV A^ i^ ? If 
so, the line of cliffs extending from IV A" ^i to IV A^ ^^ -^ould probably 
be more ancient than the " fault," the upburst occurring S. of the line of 
cliffs. It is to be remarked that on the line of cliffs a few small craters 
only are found, of which IV A" ^ and IV A^ ^ ^re the principal, scarcely 
exceeding 8" in diameter, and at a considerable distance from each other. 
In describing the fault (see letterpress, areas IV A'', IV M, p. 20, and Ee- 
port. Brit. Assoc. 1866, p. 256), we suggested that it might be more recent 
than the " ray from Tycho," on which the steep and rugged W. border of 
Albater/niiis occurs. On the parallel ray to the E. we noticed two points of 
upburst, one near IV Af ^s, the other near IV A^ ^2 (-ggg letterpress, areas 
IV A% IV A^, p. 39, and Eeport Brit. Assoc. 1866, p. 275), the activity of 
which might be more ancient than that of IV A'' ^. Should these considera- 
tions at aU approximate to the truth, then we have a probable recent epoch 
for the production of the group of craters near the W. portion of Hipparchiis. 
The close similarity, both in form and direction, of the valleys IV A" ^2 and 
IV A'' 18 on opposite sides of Hipj^u^'f^ius also points to the priority of age of 
the line of cliffs in which IV A" -^2 occurs, as compared with the floor of Hip- 
parcJius, which appears to be more recent. 

31(x). The S.S.W. part of the valley IV A"^". 

This valley is interrupted but not obliterated by the fault IV A" " IV A^ 20 
IV A" 72. _^t first, in the neighboiu'hood of IV A" 'f^, it is wide ; but as the 
fault is approached it becomes much narrower. The W. side of the crateri- 
form depression IV A^ i^ appears to be part of the W. slope of this valley, on 
which the E. rim of the crater IV A^ ^ has protruded, which indicates a more 
recent epoch for the production of IV A^ i'. Beyond the group connecting 
IV A^ 11 ^ith IV A^ 16, the valley IV A" ".IV A^ si can be traced as a narrow 
darlc cleft through the ascent to the bright spot IV A^ 37. This cleft is not in 
Schmidt's catalogue. 

32. Acraterlet S. of IVA^ss^E. of IV A^^o^ 2"-70, mag. 0-16. The fifteenth 
in order on area IV A^. 

33. The \Y. part of the S. portion (IV A" is) of the second waU of Rhcetmis 
(see letterpress to areas IV A", IV A?, p. 12, and Eeport Brit. Assoc. 1866, 
p. 248). It has been dislocated by the fault IV A" n IV A^ 20 ly ^'^ t2^ 

34. A pit S.S.E. of IV AP is adjoining IV A^ 28. 

This pit is surrounded by a broad hiUy border ; longest diameter of border 
= 7"-18, shortest =4" -94. It, with the E. border of IV A^ i5, is situated 
very exactly in the line of fault IV A"" IVA^2o IV A" 72; IVA^is, 
IV A^ 34^ aiid IV j^^ 2s fopQ^ a connexion between IV A^ i* and IV A.^ i". 

35(x). A mountain W.N.W. of IV A^ is, on the line of fault IV A" ^ 
IV A^ *53^ f^igQ Qjj l-|jp u j.jjy f^.Qjj-^ Xycho " on which Bessel is situated. Tlie two 
intersect at this mountain, which appears to have been thrust forward in 
the line of " cleft " IV A^^ fs. 

36. The mountain-peak at the W. angle of IV A^ i^ 

37. The bright wiiite spot (crater) on the W. slope of IV A^^ 3S, the twelfth 
crater in order on lY M. 



ON MAPPING THE SURl^lCE OF THE MOON. 



29 



This spot sliould be assiduously -watched. The spot IV Ai ^^ TV A" ^"', de- 
scribed in letterpress to areas lY A", IV AC, pp. 15 and 26, and Keport 
Brit. Assoc. 1866, pp. 251 and 262, as a bright spot, has been seen by the 
author and by the Eev. W. 0. Williams as a crater — on one occasion (Oct. 18, 
1867) by Mr. Williams conspicuously so with a central cone casting a shadow. 
In the December lunation Mr. Williams was unable to detect any trace of 
a crater ; but on January 3, 1868, the succeeding lunation, Mr. Baxendell saw 
it as a shallow crater about | of the diameter of IV A "^ ^. Mr. Williams has 
steadily continued his observations on this spot, from 1867, Oct. 7, to 1868, 
May 7, which I have arranged iu the order of the sun's altitude above it ; 
and as this arrangement illustrates the use of the Table on pp. 10, 11, it may 
be wcU to introduce it here, both as an example of referring observations to 
solar altitudes, and also as indicative of the changes of appearance dependent 
ou the angle of illumination. 



( 


Dbservations or IV A° 


IT IVA^ 


59; L.VTITtrDE 


5° S., LOSGITTTDE 2° WeST. 


Horning Illumination. 


No. 


Date. 


G.M.T. 


Autho- 


alt. 


Bright- 


Character. 








rity. 


ness. 




1. 


1867, May 11. 


8^ 


Birt 


O 

0-6 





A shallow crater. 


2. 


1868, Feb. 1. 


5-6 


Williams 


6-12 




Crater well seen. 


3. 1868, Mar. 31. 


7^ 


Birt 


6-12 




Crater well defined. 


4. ' 1808, Jan. 3. 


5-6 


Williams 


12-18 




Discerned central cone,not certain. 


5. 


1868, Jan. 3. 




Baxendell 


12-18 




Well-marked shallow crater. 


6. 


1867, Nov. 5. 


9-10 


Williams 


18-24 


7 


Very bright, streak of interior sha- 
dow on the west. 


7. 


1868, April 1. 


5-6 


Williams 


18-24 


4 


Whitish patch of light. 


8. 


1867, Dec. 5. 


6-8 


Williams 


24-30 


5 


Whitish spot ; no crater. 


9. 


1868, May 1. 


10-11 


Williams 


24-30 




Whitish patch, line of interior sha- 
dow on the west. 


10. 


1867, Oct. 7. 


8^10 


Williams 


24^0 




A verv bright spot. 


11. 


1867, Nov. 6. 


8-10 


Williams 


30-^6 


6 


A bright patch of liglit ; streak of 
shadow scarcely discernible. 


12. 


1868, April 2. 


5-6 


Williams 


.30-36 


4 


Whitish patch of light. 


13. 


1868, April 2. 


8h 


Birt 


30-36 


4 


Very shallow crater with interior 
shadow. 


14. 


1867, Dec. 6. 


9-10 


Williams 


36-42 


5 


Whitish spot ; no crater. 


15. 


1868, Mav 2. 


6i-10 


Williams 


36-42 




Long patch of light to east. 


16. 


1868, May 4. 


lOA-lH 


Williams 


48-54 




Two bright spots. 


17. 


1868, May 5. 


lOJ-lli 


Williams 


60-66 




Two bright spots nearly equal and 
circular. 


18. 


1868, May 6. 


H-wi 


Birt 


72-78 


6-5 


Two bright spots. 


19. 


1868, May 7. 


11^-12 


Williams 


83-85 




Two bright spots ; E. spot largest. 






Evening Ulun 


lination 




2(1. 


1867, Nov. 1.5 


18-20 


Williams 


36-30 


10 


Very bright. 


21. 


1868, Feb. 12. 


20^ 


Williams 


30-24 


6,4 


Crater very conspicuous ; with east 
peak very bright; 6°. 


oo 


1867, Oct. 17. 


13-15 


Williams 


30-24 




Crater very conspicuous. 


.)■> 


1867, Oct. 17. 


13i 


Iiigall 


30-24 




Drawn as a ci-ater. 


24. 


1867, Oct. 18. 


17-19 


Williams 


18-12 




Crater very conspicuous ; small 
central cone casting a shadow. 


25. 


1868, Jan. 15. 


20^ 


Williams 


12- 6 





The crater conspicuous, with inte- 
rior shadow on east, fully 
equal to that of IV A"'. 

















30 iiEPOBT— 1868. 

The desideratum connected with spots of this nature is not so much the detec- 
tion of physical change as the exact determination of the value or extent of 
apparent change dependent upon variations of distance, libration, and angle of 
ilLuminatiou ; for until such determinations are reduced to numerical values, we 
are not in a position to decide wpon the absolute ^a-i^y o^ such objects ; nor can 
we be certain that there is more than apparent change until a large number of 
observations are discussed with especial reference to the elements above named. 

The Eev. T. W. Webb, in contrasting his seeings of Eratosthenes with the 
description of that crater by Beer and Miidler in ' Der Mond,' has the following 
very important remarks. Speaking of the appearance which Eratosthenes pre- 
sented on the evening of Nov. 8, 1867, he says, " Eratosthenes now all in local 
coloiu'; from point of junction oi Apennines round the E. semicircle, the out- 
side glacis of wall shows a curious dark-grey border. This is penetrated in two 
places by the streaks of Copernicus, which extend perhaps across Eratosthenes 
itself. Curious as to chronological sequence ... It is just possible, however," 
Mr. Webb continues, " that some process affecting the reflective power of the 
surface may at this time be working here ; for B. & M. say that this crater is 
'in full moon not very distinct'* : we only see a very undefined faint light 
spot in a vicinity almost equally luminous. No mention is made of any 
darker portions, or of their being so situated as to indicate the position of the 
ring ; and the description certainly does not tally well with present appearances. 
This is a peculiarly suitable spot for examrning the question whether the Full- 
moon marlcings are unchangeable. Fixity, of coiu'se, if established by a long 
course of observation here, or anywhere else, would be no argument for its 
universal jirevalence, since a state of quiescence in this respect might be attained 
at very different epochs in different regions ; but should the reverse be clearly 
ascertained in a single well-marked, even though minute, case, it need not be 
mentioned that one distinct, incontrovertible affirmation weighs down any 
number of negative instances, and merely throws back the date of their change 
to a prehistoric period." — Intellectual Observer, vol. xii. pp. 435, 436. 

**38(x). A mountain-peak on the W. border of Hipparchiis, the culmi- 
nating point of the mountain-mass in IV A^ i^. 

The high mountain-border on which IV A^ ^s jg situated, extends from the 
mouth of the valley IV A"" ^i, in the depression IV A"" '■^", to the N. part of the 
peak IV A^ ^^ (see ante, p. 22). 

*39(x). A mountain-arm Ijing in the shallow depression IV A^ ■*!, which 
it scarcely fills. Its direction is N.E.-S.W. ; it springs from the S. end of 
the depression IV A^ ^", between IV A^ ■* and IV A^ i" ; its highest poin t is 
the N.E., from which it gradually declines in altitude to the S.W. part of 
the depression IV A^ -^i. Length of crest 8"*95, breadth of base 6"'25 (see 
ante, pp. 15, 16). 

40(x). A depression having somewhat of the crater character, between 
IV A^ * and IV A^ ^^, which rise to a considerable elevation on the W.N.W. 
and E.S.E. It is closed on the N. by lower hiUs, and on the S. by the N.E. 
extremity of the moimtain-arm IV A^ •'^^. 

41. The shallow depression in which IV A^ ^9 ^g situated. 

42. A " fault " passing through IV A^ 69^ the E. foot of IV A^ ^\ grazing the 
E. foot of IV A^ ^3^ along the axis of IV A'' "'j and the W. mountain-border 
oflVA^^a. 

* It is necessary to bear in mind that Mr. Webb's aperture is much larger than the one 
with which B. & M. observed ; it would nevertheless be important for gentlemen possessed 
of smaller apertm-es to examine Eratosthenes with the view of making out the details 
recorded by Mr. Webb. 



ON MAPPING THE SUilFACE OF THE MOON. 31 

This "fanlt" is the westernmost of if/jj-ee that are nearly parallel and equi- 
distant, viz. IV A^ -12, IV A^ 51^ and IV A^ 20. These agree more or less in the 
steeper escarpments of the mountains found on them facing the E.S.E., their 
general direction being S.S.W.-IN'.N'.E. Of the three, the faidt IV A"" 
IVA^2o IV A" 72 (see letterpress, areas IV A", IV Af, p. 19, and Eeport 
Erit. Assoc. 1866, p. 255) is the longest and most distinctly marked as well as 
the easternmost. It is situated on the W. border of Hipjiarclius, and sepa- 
rates an elevated from a depressed tract of surface. If the parallelism of these 
faults points to a contemporaneity of origin, may we not recognize here the 
simultaneous operation of the upheaving force over a comparatively large 
area ? It may be remarked, in connexion with this suggestion, that the two 
mountain-ranges forming the S.S.W. and N.N.E. boundaries of the depressed 
portion E.S.E. of the main fault IV A" " IVA^^o IVA"'^ i^ave their steep 
escarpments towards depressed surfaces. 

With regard to the comparative ages of these faults, we have already sug- 
gested (letterpress, areas IV A", IV Af p. 20, and Report Brit. Assoc. 1866, 
p. 256) that the fault IV A"" IVA^2o IYA"72 fg more recent than the 
'•■ ray from Tycho " which it intersects ; this suggestion is founded upon the 
fact that the "fault" is continuous throughout, but the "ray" is interrupted 
at the point of intersection. 

*43(x). A somewhat low moimtaiu-range between IV A^ i" and IVA^ **. 

**44(x). A mountain-range S.E. of IV A^^-^^ situated ou the line of cir- 
cumvaUation around IV A^ 2 jy A^ ^^ 

The short mountain-ranges IV A^ ^, IV A^ 10, IV A^ ^-, and IV A^ ", with 
the crater IV A^ >* and the intervening depressions, nearly form a radius from 
the centre to the circumference of the supposed ancient waUed plain in which 
IV A^ 2 ly j\^/ 3 ig situated. There are but fcAv irregularities ou the remaining 
portion of the plain. It is probable these mountains are posterior in date to 
the plain. 

45(x). The crateriform depression between IV A^ ^^ and IV A^ ^^. 

46. The valley between IV A^ ^3 and IV A^ -^K 

This valley can be traced in a serpentine direction from between IV A^ ^^ and 
IV A^ ■'^, past the W. end of IV A^ ■'>'^, which slopes towards it, also past IV A^ s^, 
which slopes towards the fault IV A^ ^, th-ough ivhicli IV A^ '"^ passes. 

**47(x). A mountain-peak on the W. border of Hipparchus, N.N'.E. of 
IV A^ 38, It is also ou the fault IV A" ^i IV A^ 20 ly j^- 72, 

48. A wide opening or inlet in the mountain-border of Hipparchus, between 
the two mountain-peaks IV A^ 38 and IV A^ ^7. 

**49. A depression "W. of IV A^ ", and between it and IV A^ ^^. It is 
situated on the line of " circumvaUation " around IV A^ 2 ly j\^/ 3_ 

50. A shallow depression or crater ou the S.W. border of IV A*^ 11, 
diameter 8"'02, mag. 0-47, which includes a continuation of the depres- 
sion northwards (see IV A^ °^). 

51. A fault parallel with and between IV A^ ^2 and IV A^ 20. 

This fault is the shortest of the three nearly parallel (see IV A^ ^) . It 
extends northward as far as the smooth surface on which TrieanecX-er is 
situated, and passes between IVA^29 and IV A^ =2^ along the W. border of 
IV A^ S3 and the low ridge IV A^ "', towards the crater IV A^ ^, where it 
meets the line of fault IV A" 3S ly A^ 63. 

**52. A mountain-range forming the E.N.E. border of IV A^ ", and part 
of the second waU of JRhceticus ou the west. It is 62 of Lohrmann's 
Sec. I. 

*53(x). A semicrater on the " fault " IV A^ s\ S.S.E. of IV A^ n. Length 



32 EEPORT — 1868. 

of ^Y. arm 4"-47, of E. arm 5"'78, opening between the arms 8"-02. Not 
shown by B. &M. but by Lohrmann. 

This semicrater appears to have been modified by the " fault " IV A^ ^i^ 
by -which a kind of buttress has been thrown up in the interior against the 
N.W. rim. It has a craterlet, IV A^ ^^, on the S. end of the buttress. 

54. The S.W. end of the mountain-range I A^ ^s ^9^^ forming the ^Y. 
mountain- border of IV A^ ^^. 

On Eutherford's photogram, IV A^ " andlVA^-'s are enclosed by moun- 
tains, cf which IVA^52 is on the E. and IVA^s^ on the W. IVA^52 is 
clearly Lohrmann's 62, Sec. I. The mountain in area I A^ forming the N. 
edo-e of IV A^-*-*, most probably is Lohrmann's 64, Sec. I., although it does 
not occupy the position which Lohrmann assigns it. IV A^ 54 occupies the 
position of the X. end of Lohr-nann's 63, Sec. I. Lohrmann appears to be in 
error here, inasmu chas he makes the chain 63, Sec. I., contimwtis from a point 
S. of the latitude of IV A^ 3 (60, Sec. I.) to a point a little N. of the latitude 
of the N. edge of J, Sec. J. On the photogram IV A^ lo and IV A^ 54 are 
(hsconneded, IV A^i'^ occupj-iug the position of the S. end of 63, Sec. I., and 
IV A'' 54^ as before mentioned, the N. end. The valley IV A^ ^ passes between 
them. See ante, p. 1 8, IV A^ lo. 

The direction of Lohrmann's chain is also greatly in error; he makes it 
align with E and B of Sec. I. (IV A^ ^^, and Hind). The true ahgnment is 
very different, viz. the line of fault IV A^ '2_ 

55. A low mountain running E. and W. ; length of crest 10"-26, breadth 

of base 4"*48, 

This mountain is situated between IV A^ -i^ and IV A^ H; its base approaches 
in form to a parallelogram, the crest forming the dingonal. 

56. A small hillock on the line of fault IVA^^i^ between IVA^52 ^^^^ 
IV A^ 53 . it is close to the S.E. foot of IV A^ ". 

57. A low mountain N.N.E. of the dejiression TV A^ ■^^ ; length of crest 
6"-71, breadth of base 7"-i8. 1867, Dee. 3, 10\ with the Eoyal Astrono- 
mical Society's Sheepshanks telescope, jS'o. 5, aperture 2-75 inches, power 
100, I identified IVA^S', IV A^ f*, and lA^-'Sas Lohrmann's 63, Sec. I. 
I also proved the inaccuracy of Lohrmann in continuing the chain to IV A^ lo. 
See IV A^ 54, 

58. A low mountain between IV A^ ii and IV A^ 55 . length of crest 7"-18, , 
breadth of base 7"-18. The three mountains IV A^ 55^ jy a^ 5-^and IV A^ 58 
mark an area of subordinate elevation between the faults IV A^*^ and 
IVA^5i. 

59. A shallow depression on the W. slope of IV A^ ", N. of IV A^ 50, 

60. A craterlet on the E. slope of IV A^ i*^ between the crest and the faiilt 
IV A^ ■*-. It is situated on the higher land W. of the " fault," and is in this 
respect somewhat similar to the craters IVA^is, lVA^2i^ and IVA^^s. 
2"-7, mag. 0-16, the fourteenth in order upon IV A^. 

61. The ridge crossing IV A^" from S. to K 

This ridge was discovered on Dec. 3, lO*", 1867, with the Eoyal Astrono- 
mical Society's Sheepshanks telescope, Ko. 5, aperture 2-75 inches, power 
100. The observation is thus recorded: — " IV A^ 57 and IV A^-^ IVAP52 
form the "NV. and E. boundaries of Lohrmann's plain J, Sec. I., containing 
the two low mountain-chains and central mountain. The two low mountain- 
chains 1 neilher identify on the moon nor on the photogram ; but 1 see on 
the moon a mountain between them [IV A^ 57 and IV A/^-^ IVA^52-j^ -which 
is not the central mountain of J, Sec. I., but the mountain-ridge between the 
two, i. e. IV A^ 57 and IV A^-^ IVA^52_ I apprehend the mountain-ridge 



ON MAPPING THE SURFACE OF THE MOON. 33 

IV A^ 61 of IV A^ 11 is the E. of the t-^o low ridges of Lohrmann. Eetween 
this and his 63, Sec. I., is the depression IV A^-i^, not shown by him ; and in- 
stead of a plain and central mountain between the ridge IV A^ "^ and IV A ^ 29 
IV A^ 52, the S. part of the space is filled with the crater IV A^ ^-, and the jST. 
part dips to the N. angle of the formation IV A^ " and I A^ 3o » (see IV A^ i'). 
— [W. E. B.] 

62. The jS^N.W. part of the fault IV A" 23 IVA^62. Direction S.S.E.- 
N.N.W., face towards E.N.E. 

This fault is nearly coincident with the "ray from Tycho " on which 
Bessel is situated. It takes its rise on the E. border of Hind, and passes, but 
does not obliterate, the narrow valley IV A*" i*. Erom the S.AV. end of the 
valley IV A"" '^, which is on the lower level E.N'.E. of the fault, to the long 
narrow valley or cleft" IV A'' ii (crater-rill No. 362 of Schmidt), where it in- 
tersects but docs not divide the fault IV A" " IV A^2o ij A." 72 (see letter- 
press, areas IV A"^, IV A^, p. 20, and Report Brit. Assoc. 1866, p. 256), it 
is nearly coincident with the W. border of Hipparchus. The surface has 
been greatly disturbed near the point of junction of this fault with the fault 
IV A"" 11 IV A^ 20 lY jf^^ 72^ i^ g^^^l^ g, manner as to indicate that the force 
which prodiiced IV A"" n IV A^ -" IV A" ^2 i^^s been exerted at an epoch 
more recent than that which produced IV A*" 23 IV A^.*'2_ j^ is i2i this chs- 
turbed locality thfit the craters IV A ^ i^ and IV A^ 21 have been opened. 
After grazing the W. wall of IVA^i^, the fault IV A" 23 IVA^«2 passes 
onward by the W. wall of the depression IV A^ 1^, just "W. of the crater 

» It lias been decided, upon mature consideration, to substitute the term "cleft" for 
"rill" as being more significant and comprehensive. It may bo important to mention 
that a "cleft" differs from a "fault" in one essential particular; for example, a "fault" 
marks a line of dislocation, which in some instances is characterized by an elevation of the 
surface on one side, and a depression on the other ivithout jtracnting the appearance of a 
crack or narrow valk?/. In other eases, long narrow depressions may be found, mostly in 
lines of fault, and often in the same line with cliffs which have been upheaved probably by 
the same agency, and near the same epoch at which the narrow valley or " cleft" has been 
produced. Tlie term "fault" is consequently employed to signify the residt of a force 
apparcntli/ acting in many instances more or less in radial lines from a centre or focus of 
disturbance, such as Tycho, from winch numerous lines of "ftiult" diverge (see Report 
Brit. Assoc. 1847, p. 61), while the term " cleft " is used to signify a partial result only, and 
one which has been manifested in depression as contradistinguished from elevation. (See 
'Intellectual Observer,' No. LXVII. August 1867, vol. xii. p. 52 ct scq. for some interest- 
ing remarks on Lunar Clefts by the Eev. T. W. Webb.) 

It may be well here to quote Sir C. Lyeil'.s definition of a "fault" as used in geologi- 
cal language, ' Principles of Geology.' ninth edition, 1853, (Glossary) p. 805. " Fault, in 
the language of miners, is the sudden interruption of the continuity of strata in the same 
plane, accompanied by a crack or fissure varying in width from a mere line to several 
feet." 

It is clear that the signification of the term " fault," as applied to the moon, cannot be of 
precisely the same nature as when it is used in geology; for we cannot observe " faults "of 
this kind. Nevertheless the general principle holds good, viz. the elevation or depres.sion 
of the surface plane on one side of the Lunar line of faxdt. It has been recognized as a 
peculiarity of geological " faults," that the higher portions of the dislocated beds are 
usually on the sides towards wliich the " faults" incline in ascending (Eeport Brit. Assoc. 
1847, p. 62), so that the ends of the raised strata jiresent steep escarpments towards the 
depressed portions — phenomena of frequent occurrence on the moon's surface. In the 
areas already mapped, we have the esearj)ments of the cliffs facing the lower level IV A"^ ", 
the level of the floor of Hipparchus being nearly identical with the summits of the cliffs (see 
letterpress to areas IV A" and IV Af' pp. 12, 13, and Eeport Brit. Assoc. 1866, pp. 248, 
249) — also the steep escarpments of the mountains between IV A^i^ and IV A^ '* facing 
the floor of Hipparchus, while the general level W. of the mountains is much higher than 
the floor on the E. Numerous other examples may easily be given. Dislocations of 
mountains and craters arc very apparent on lines of " fault." 



34 . BEPORT — 1868. 

IV A (3 65^ and grazes the N.E. end of tlie mountain-arm IV A^ 39. The pre- 
cipitous E. face of the mountain IV A^ * appears to have been produced hj 
this fault. 

G3. The N. part of the fault IV A" 35 IVA^e-^ Direction N. by W.-S. 
hyE. 

This fault appears to have originated in connexion with the outburst which 
jH-oduced the crater IV A" -, as it forms one of a system of faults Jf . and 8. 
of that hght-centre (see fig. 1, ante p. 13). This fault, ou the IN", of IV A'' ^, is 
first apparent in the mountain -chain IV A'' i-, which is situated on it. From 
this mountain-chain the faults IV A"" ^^ and IV A'' 35 diverge. The course of 
IV A'' 11 is described in letterpress, areas IV A"^, IV A?, pp. 19, 20, andEeport 
Brit. Assoc. 180(3, pp. 255, 256. IV A'' 35 IV A^ «3 passes along the W. range 
of IV A" 12 to the W. wall of IV A^ is, where it intersects the faults IV A" 2^, 
IV A^ 62^ on the " ray from Tycho." It then passes along the range on which 
IV A'^ ^ is situated, where it intersects the fault IV A*^ 5i_ j^ next j^asscs 
through IV A^ ^^ to the "W. border of IV A^ -i^, where it intersects the fault 
IV A^ ^, and is traced still more northerly through the mountain I A^ 3i 
(Lohr. Sec. I. 65) towards Manilius. 

The evidence of the more recent origin of this fault than the "ray from 
Tycho," as compared with that of "^the fault IV A"" IVA^so IV A"--' 
(see letterpress, areas IV A", IV A?, p. 20, and Report Brit. Assoc. 1866, p. 
256), is not so striking as in that instance. There does not appear at the 
point of intersection to be any breaking through of the fault IV A"" 23 
IV A^ «2 \)j the fault IV A" 35 IV A^ «3 . and therefore it is not so easy to 
determine whether IV A'' 35 IV A^ ''3 be posterior to the ray from Tycho and 
contemporaneous with IV A""!! IVA^2o IV A" ''2, or othe"wise. There can, 
however, be very little doubt of its connexion with the crater IV A"" 2, aud 
that it forms one of a system of " faults " of which that crater is the centre. 

64. A mountain-peak at the S. end of IVA^35 on the Line of fault 
IV A" 35 IVA^63. 

65. A shaUow crater W. of IV A^ i^. on the line of fault IV A" 35 ly A^ 63. 
Longest diameter (on a line passing through IV A^ i*) 6"-71, shortest (at right 
angles to this line) 4"'47, mag. 0-33, the fifth crater in order upon area 
IV A^, 1865, March 6. 

This crater is shown by B. & M. but not by Lohrmann. B. & M. give a 
crater between IV A^ •'5 and IV A ^ 21^ which is in Lohrmann, and on Ituther- 
ford's photogram, 1865, March 6, appears to be the Ti.E. angle of the depres- 
sion IV A^ IS (see IV A^ i^) ; IV A^ ^s appears to be shallow, and is situated on 
a mountain-mass which is nearly in the line of fault IV A^5i_ "SS^iHi a morning 
terminator past Copernicus, the shadow, which is scarcely discernible, measures 
2""7; the longest diameter =:6"*71 ; therefore the proportion of shadow to 
iUurainated interior is as 1 to 1-483. It is noteworthy that IV A^ ''5^ jy _^p 15^ 
and IV A^ 21 are similarly situated with regard to the mountains on which 
they are opened ; all three are near faults, and all are suggestive of the 
exertion of a force by which the masses on which they occur were thrown 
towards S.S.E., the direction of the faults in this neighbourhood coincident 
with the " rays from Tycho." 

66. The moimtain-mass on which IV A^ ^ is opened. Length of crest 
ll"-65, breadth of base at S. end, including crater, 12"-03, at N.'pnd 8"-25. 

67. A low mountain-range in cont-'nuation of IV A^ 'i3 . it lias upon it 
two peaks. 

68. A plateau west of, or a very gentle slope westward from, the S.W. 
rim of IV A3 19. 



ON MAPPING THE SUilFACE OF THE MOON. 35 

*69. A shallow depression E. of IVAf^'o, probably 58 of Lobrmann's 
Sec. I. 

Lolirmaun appears not to have made the distinction between this depres- 
sion and the plain that extends eastward from it, as far as the mountains 
XV A^« IVA^s^ and IV A^*;^ but has given between IV A^™ and these 
mountains a smooth plain. The depression IV A^ "J^ is well marked in 
Rutherford's photogram. 

*70. A mountain-range in the chain that extends from the junction of 
Ftolemceus and AJplionsus to and beyond IVA^'^i. This range "forks" 
into two small branches at the S. end. Length of crest from N. end to fork 
6"-71, from fork to S.E. end 4"-01, from fork to S.W. end 7"-18. 

71. The depression enclosed by IV A^ i9, IVA^^t, IVA/^ss, IV A^^'^^ 
IV A^ 18^ lY ^,8 33^ and IV A^ -'i^ ij is i^ot shown by Lohrmann as a de- 
pression. 

This depression is situated in so yery interesting a group of objects, the 
S. part of which occurs in area IV AP, that, anticipating to some extent a 
notice of the objects in that area, it may be well to describe the group 
in this place. 

This group consists of IV A" 6, IVA''i-\ IV A" is, IV A" 21, the partly 
enclosed surface IV A" ''2, with the valley IV A" n, and the mountains 
IV A" 20, IV A" 30, IV A" 33, and IVA''3i. Were these objects in a level 
portion of the moon, IV A'' 32 -svould present the aspect of a depression partly 
surrounded by mountains. As it is, it has greatly the appearance of one of 
those partially destroyed craters which are met with on the borders of the 
Maria ; and it is not a little remarkable that the mountainous boundary ends 
abruptly both on the S.E. and N.W. at the line of cliffs in the chain from 
the junction of Ftolemceus and Alplionsus to and beyond IVA^^i, tj^(, pQj._ 
tion S.E. of the valley IVA""!! facing the depressed surface oi HipparcJius. 
There is not the slightest indication of a complete boundary having existed 
at any anterior epoch similar to IV A.i ss (see letterpress, areas IV A", IV Ai, 
p. 27, and lleport Brit. Assoc. 1866, p. 263) ; indeed the mountains are 
scarcely disposed in the segment of a ring. The object which presents 
the nearest analogy to IV A" 32 is IV A" 10 ; and it is noteworthy that the 
southern mountainous boundaries of both are curved, the convexities being 
towards the S. ; and both are traversed by vaUeys running in the same 
direction. IVA''32, as it is seen on Rutherford's photogram, and also on the 
moon, is very individualized ; it forms, however, only part of a larger forma- 
tion, which is not the less well and distinctly marked. Among the remaining 
objects are IV A^*^, IV A^35, and IV A^3o, three mountains in a line with 
IV A" 12, IV A" 13, and IV A" 21, but separated from them by the plateau or 
slope IV A^ 6s_ Together these mountains form the W. wall of the larger 
formation, the N". boundary of which consists of the low N.N.W. wall of the 
depression IVA^is, and the N'.E. foot of the mountain IVA^«; the E.S.E. 
boundary consists of the cliffs bordering Hipparclms on the W.IS'.W., of 
which the highest point is IV A^ 3S_ 

The striking peculiarities of this formation are the depression IV A'' 32 at 
its S. end, and the elevated boss filling IV A^ i® at its N". end ; so that there 
is a gradual slope from N. to S. Two craters are opened upon it, IV A^^ i9 
and IV A3 2i_ iv A^ 21 ^g peculiarly situated, as if the northern mass had 
been heaved forwards towards the S.E. The faults IV A'' " IV A^ 20 iv A"" "'^ 
and IV A" 23 IV A^ «2 include a great portion of this formation, which is 
traversed by the " ray from Tycho " on which Bessel is situated. This 
" ray " passes close to IV A^ i^, which is situated on its E.N.E. slope. 



35 REPOKT — 1868. 

72. A narro-sv shallow valley extending from the mountain IV Af^ ^ into 
the depression lYA^eO; length 17"-43, breadth between IV A^'^ and 
jy A,^ 35 3"-54, breadth in IV A^ "^ 2"-24. This valley appears to be poste- 
rior in date to the depression IV A^'^'^ or at least to the very low E. waU, 
which has been broken through in the line of valley. 

73. A mountain S.S.W. of IV A^ i^. Length of crest S.S.W.-JsT.N.E. 
11"-19, length of crest on K.W. 5"-31. It is in the hue of fault IV A^ ■^. 

74. A moimtain-mass lying in a shallow depression between IVA^^o 
and IV A^ '■', near the line of circumvallation around IV A^ - IV A'>' 3. 

The base of the mountain-mass is of an elliptical form. Longest diameter 
13"-42, nearly in a line with the summits of IV A^ *! fmd IV A^ ^-^ ; shortest 
diameter at right angles, S"'95. The summit is on the K. of the longest 
diameter. 

75. A mountain-peak on the N. border of IV A^ ^^, near the line of " cir- 
cumvaUation " around IV A^ 2 jy A'' 3. 

t76. A small depression at the E. foot of IV A^ '^. 

77. A low ridge in 'continuation of the interior AV. wall of IV A^ ^'^, co- 
incident with the fault IV A^ 5i . length 7"- 64. 

78(x). A shallow depression E.S.E. of and in continuation of the line of 
cliffs IV A^ Mo IV A^". 

The interior of this depression appears as a iv7dte spot on Eutherford's pho- 
togram, 1865, March 6. 1868, May 1^ 9" 45" G. M. T., I observed it with 
the Crossley equatorial of 7-3 inches aperture, and saw it as a round craterlet 
with interior shadow of about -33, diameter of craterlet=l. It was slightly 
larger than IV A^"^ and is the eleventh in order on IV A^. On May 2^ 
1^ 45" G. M.T. it exhibited some approximation to the class of " light-centres " 
(see Eeport Brit. Assoc. 1866, p. 218). I have also recorded that in 1868, on 
March 31^1 8"^ 30" G. M. T., and May 30'i 10" 20" G. M. T., it was seen as a 
crater with the Eoyal Astronomical Society's Sheepshanks Telescope, No. 5. 

79. A cleft from the end K of IVA^"to IVA^'»; Icugth 9"-79; not 
in Schmidt's catalogue. 

80. A mountain between IV A^ *^ and IV A^ ". 

This mountain has a gentle slope towards S.S.AV. ; the X.N.E. side is hol- 
lowed out, and receives the depression IV A^ '*. It is 59 of Lohrmanu's 
Sec. I. ; he has given it a much bolder character than it possesses (see 

ante, p. 18). 

81. A mountain-range W. of, and in imion with, IV AP"^. Length of 
crest 10"-26, breadth of base at N. end 5"-31. 

82. The valley between IV A^ '« and IV A^ si. Length 6"-2o. 

*83. A raised and nearly filled ling on the chain from the junction of 
Ptolemtxus and J^Z^^/iOHSMS towards Sabine and EHier, N.X.W. of IVA^^i. 
Leno'th 9"-79, aUgns with the mountain IVA/^^' through Ilorrox; breadth 

7"-64. 

This ring is not given either by Lohrmanu or by B. and M. It is cer- 
tainly distinct on Eutherford's photogram, but may be overlooked among the 
mountains sirrrounding it; it is just within the line of circumvallation 
around IV A^ 2 lYA'^K 

84. An cUiptical crater between IV A^ ^^ and IV A^ "'^ in the angle formed 
by the junction of IV A^^^ and IV A^ ^^ ; length on a line passing through 
the N. angle of Horrox 6"-25, breadth 3"-17, mag. 0-28. 

This crater, which is the seventh in order upon IV A^, is not shown by 
B. & M. Lohrmann has four small craters W. of his plain 58, Sec. I., to 
which he alludes in his text ; they are probably the valley IV A^ ^'^, the crater 



ON MAPPING THE SURFACE OF THE MOON. 37 

IV A^ ^'^, the depressiou IV A^ '^'\ and tlio W. slope of tlie mountain-peak 
IV A^ ^"5, -which appear best to answer to them. 

85. A craterlet in the S.W. angle of IVA^s"; length N.W.-S.E. 3"-54, 
breadth 3"-17, mag. 0-20. It is the tenth in order upon area IV A^. 

86. The depression containing IV A^'^ IV A^ '!■', and IVA^s^ 

87. The depression in which IV A^ ^i ^nd IV A^ ^2 ^re situated. 

88. The plain E. of the depression IVA^«9 and N. of the valley 
IV A^ 72^ ^lie E_ part of Lohi-manu's 58, See. I. 

89. A " fault " of a minor character, which is traceable along the W. 
wall of the depression IV A^ ^'^ ; it grazes the E. edge of the ring IV A^ *^, 
passes along the N. part of the crest IV A^ ^^, through the vaUey IV A'^ ^^, 
to a point westward of IV A"" *. 

90. A hillock on the plain IV A^ ^ jy j^v 3. 

91. A shallow depression on the plain IV A^ " IV A*' ^. 

92. A mountain-range between IV A"" ^^ and IV A^ '"^ ]^. end. 

A large portion of this range lies in area IV A'' ; length of crest 4"-01, 
breadth of base 8"-4S. 

93. A low mountain N. of IV A^ 92 . length of crest 9"-79. 

94. A vaUey-like depression S. of IVA^". length 8"-48, breadth 4"-01. 

95. A "cleft" from the S. angle of Horrox to the middle point of the E. 
border of IV A^ i9. 

Tliis " cleft," which is visible on Eutherford's photogram, appears 
either to have broken through the S. border of Horrox or to have originated 
there ; the almost rectilinear S.W. part of the rim of Horrox ends ahruptJy at 
the point where the " cleft '' cuts it. The cleft has not affected IV A^ ^'^, but 
reappears in the high land on its W. side, passes through the depression 
IV A^ "'^, and opens out beyond the mountain IV A^ ^^, the S. end of which 
is thrust forward in the direction of the line of " cleft " into the valley 
IVA^72^ and is traced stiH further between IV A^ 83 and IV A^ «'\ The 
objects above specified are among the faintest on the moon's disk. If 
the surfaces E. and W. of the fault IV A"" IVA^2o IV A" 72 were con- 
tinuous at the time of the i^roduction of the " deft,^' and the " cleft," 
when formed, cut through the rim of Horrox, we might be able to infer that 
the date of Horroxvras anterior to the dates of the " cleft," fault, and craters 
IV A^ 19^ lY ^^ 21^ and that the period of upheaval of the high land forming 
theW. border oi Hipparchus was posterior to the epoch of the production of the 
W. floor of Hipparchus. The character of IV A^ ^'^, combined with the 
absence of any trace of the "cleft" upon the crater, strongly indicates the 
posteriority of IV A^ i^ ; and this, taken in connexion with the probable recent 
date of the fault IV A" " IV A^ 20 ly A" "''^ tends to establish that the con- 
formation of the features in this part of the lunar surface is of more recent 
origin than the system of " rays " from Tycho. 

96(x). The western of two ridges on the interior W. slope of Horrox. 

97. The eastern of two ridges on the interior W. slope of Horrox. 

These ridges are inserted provisionally, having been observed but once. 
06 was seen very satisfactorily on 1868, May 1^ 9'' 45™ with the Crossley 
equatorial of 7'3 in. aperture. 

98. A cleft running from the N.E. border of IV A^ i^ to the fault IV A" " 
IV A^ 20 IV A" 72, near IV A^ 32. 

99. A craterlet at the S. extremity of the buttress in the semicrater 
IV A^ 53, discovered with the Crossley equatorial on May 2, 1868. It is the 
thirteenth in order on IVA^. 



38 REPORT — 1868. 

II.— ADDITIONS TO AEEAS IV A", IV A^, AND IV Af, WITH 
IDENTIFICATIONS OF OBJECTS IN THESE AREAS. 

The requirements of selenographical research render it necessary that con- 
siderable attention should be given to the discovery of new objects not yet 
inserted in maps or catalogues, as wcU as the identification of those already 
recorded. If " fixity " is to be established or " change " detected, in either 
case it must be by constant and systematic observation, the only means by 
which the invarlahlc character of an object may be ascertained and apparent 
changes eliminated, or by which it may be discovered that changes which 
seem to be only apparent are of such a nature as to lead to the suspicion, 
and, if well founded, the ultimate detection of real change. The objects re- 
corded in Areas IV A", IV A'^, and IV Af are mostly taken from Eutherford's 
photogram, 1865, March 6, and are consequently brought up to that date. 
In a few cases the dates are later. The identification of objects fixes their 
characters to the dates of observation, which in those of Areas IV A" and 
IV A? are mostly in the autumn of 1867. Those of IV A^ are in the 8j)ring 
of 1868, some being as late as November 5, 1868. 

Additions to Catalogue. 
■ Area IV A". The numbering of objects in this area in the printed cata- 
logue extends to 88, the following have been added since. 

89. A craterlet at the mouth of Lohrmann's valley, Sec. I. 87. 

This craterlet is on the S.W. border of Eeaumur, near the line of cliffs 
IV A" 8. 

90. A craterlet between IV A"* and IV A'' i'^ nearest IVA"i». It was 
first seen with Mr. Barnes's silvered glass mirror on June 10, 1867. 

91. The western interior slope of Eeaumur. 

92. A short mountain-chain S.E. of and nearly parallel with IV A" i^. 

93. A craterlet just E. of IV A" 24^ discovered bv the Eev. W. 0. Williams, 
1867, October 17. Estimated at 2"-0 ; mag. 0-11. 

94. The north part of an extensive depression between two low ridges, 
the western of which stretches northward from the mountain IV A? ^^ to the 
mountain IV A"2s. The eastern in like manner extends from IV A? ^^ to the 
mountain-arm on which IV M ^9 IV A" i^ is situated. See IV Af 122 ^i g^g_^ 
post, p. 40. 

95. The north part of the western ridge. 

96. A ridge just north of IV A" ^\ extending from IV A" 7 to IV A" ". 
The depression and ridges Avere discovered (1867, Dec. 23) on De La Eue's 

photogram, 1858, Feb. 22, by W. E. Birt. 

97. A craterlet in IV A" 58 ; diameter 3"-17, mag. 0-18. 

98. A craterlet in IV A" ^8^ N.N.E. of IV A"»' ; estimated diameter l"-5, 
mag. 0-09. 

99. A valley extending from IV A" 59 to 1° S. lat. between IV A" ^^ and 

IV A'' 58. 

The dotted line on Area IV A", between the crest of IV A" ^^ and the W. 
side of the valley IV A" 5S, I find on Eutherford's photogram to be a subordi- 
nate ridge on the slope upwards to the W. side of the valley IV A" 58. 

100. A cleft at the W. foot of IV A" -is. 

This cleft was discovered by Mr. G. J. Walker of Teignmouth. Writing 
under date of 1868, Feb. 1, he says, " The lower part of IV A" '^^, or the foot 
of the ridge, always looks to me like a sort of continuation of the cleft IV A" ^"i, 
or like a long ravine communicating with it." 

101 . A shaUow vaUey between IV A" * and I VA " ^^, S. of IV A^ 5S. 



ON MAPPING THE SURFACE OF THE MOON. 39 

It is of a curved form ; the S.W. end bisects a line di-awn from tlie S. end of 
IV A" *3 to the W. side of IV A"-^. 

IV A" 99, IV A" i^o, and IV A" loi were first seen by Mr. "Walker ; they are 
all on Rutherford's photogram, 1865, March 6. 

102. A depression of a semicircular form on the mountain-range forming 
the east border of Hipparchus, the northern part. It is in this depression 
that the crater IV A"^!' IV xU^^ is situated (see IV Af i26, jjos<, p. 40). 

103. A short spur on the S.W. side of IVA"i5, near IV A"-io. 

This spur is not numbered on the map. It was recognized by Mr. G. J. 
Walker of Teignmouth, who thus mentions it under date of March 30, 1868 : 
— " The space numbered 15 in the map was dark, whilst the two ridges 40 
and the nearer shorter one appeared. In the middle of 15 [Query, the spur 
next to Ehseticus, see 105] there was a spotof hght indicating a lower ridge." 

104. An oval space (Mr. Walker queries it as a crater), not numbered in 
the map, but shown lying in the angle between the lines of fault IV A" '•'■^ 
and IV A'' -19 on the S.W. of Ehajticus. 

105. A short spur on the S.W. side of IV A" ^^, close to the S. end of 
Ehffiticus (see note on 103). 

106. The west wall of Rhceticus. 

Additions to Area IV A^. 
IV A^ 100. A craterlet on the S.E. boundary of Lohrmann's 58, Sec. I., 
S.W. of IV A^ 64. 

101. A craterlet on the S.E. boundary of Lohrmann's 58, Sec. I,, S.W. of 
IYA/3 100. 

These craterlets were seen with the Crossley equatorial, 7'3 inches aper- 
ture, power 122, on May 28, 9.15 to 10.30. They were seen by glimpses 
only, the atmosphere being hazy and somewhat unsteady. 

102. A craterlet? S. of IV A^^^ seen as a white spot with the Crossley 
equatorial, 7-3 inches apertiu-e, power 122, on May 1, 1868, and probably seen 
as a craterlet with the Royal Astronomical Society's Sheepshanks telescope 
No. 5, power 100, on May 30, 1868. 

103. The north part of the formation between the faults IV A" ^s IV A^ ^^, 
—IV A" 11 IVA^2o IV A" '2,— IV A" 23 IVA^62. 

104. The gorge between IV A^ 39 and IV A^ \ 

105. The mountain-crest between IV A^ « and IV A^ s^. 

Additiom to Area IV Ai. 

IV Ai 115. A depression or crater N. of IV Ai " and IV AC is ; estimated 
diameter 2"-0, mag. 0-12. 

It is recorded as sketched on map 1867, April 11, and was afterwards seen 
1807, May 11, with the Royal Society's 4^-inch achromatic, power 230. It 
is shown by B. & M. 

The Rev. W. 0, Williams ascertained in October 18G7 that the moimtaiu- 
range IV Ai -^^ presented the form of a stem with two branches in the form 
of a " fork." Restricting the designation IV Ai '*s to the northern part or 
stem, we have : — 

116. The east branch of IV A^^s from the fork. 

117. The west branch of IV AC 'i^ from the fork. 

118. The valley between IV A^ "S and IV Ai i". 

These objects were discovered independently by the Rev, W. 0. Williams 
and Herbert Ingall, Esq., on October 18, 1867. 

119. The depressed surface between IV Af land IV A? ''^j with which the 
valley IV Ai -^ communicates. 



40 KEPORT— 1868. 

Mr. Grover (1867, Nov. 5) describes the opening from the valley as slojjing 
to a point about halfway between IVAf'^i and IVAf^^on the N.W., and 
IV M 1 on the S.E. This depression is very marked in the photograms. 

120. A ridge forming the W. side of the vaUey IV A? 9*^, discovered by 
the Eev. W. 0. W^iUiams, 1867, Nov. 15. 

121. A craterlet N. of IV A? i^^ discovered by the Eev. W. 0. Williams, 

1867, Oct. 18. 

IV A? 11° and IV M i^i are shown on Eutherford's photogram. 

122. A large depression between two low ridges, viz., 

123. The east ridge, and 

124. The west ridge. 

The following objects occur on lY M^-^, viz. IV A" i^ IVAfso^ and 
IVAfii2. 

The following objects occur on IV M ^-^, viz. IV A" ' i and IV A^ 102. 

Both ridges converge to the mountain IV Af ^^. 

For the northern portions of the depression and ridges see IV A" ^' to 
IV A" 96, anie p. 38. 

125. A ridge between IVA^s^ and IVAfii5_ 

This ridge was identified by the Eev. W. 0. Williams, 1868, Jan. 2. 

126. The S. part of the depression in which IV A" i' IV Ai ^^ is situated 
(see IV A" 102^ rmfe p. 39). 

Ideni'>Jicat'wns. 
The identifications of objects are arranged in subzones, as being the most 
convenient for comparison with the sequence of objects in each. (See Eeport, 
1866, pp. 241, 242, and ante, pp. 14, 15.) 

The small index figures, as 632, iucUcate that the object has been identified 
"by as many observers, in this instance by two. 
Zone II. 
Subzone No. 2. Lat. 0° to 2° S. Area IV A« 15, 40, 43, 47, 58, 632, 552^ 

72, 862, 87. 
Area IV A^ I2*, 22, 32, 42, 102, II2, 122, 
13, 20, 292, 392, 402t, 432, 
442, 4.52, 46, 52, 532, 782. 
Area IV A" 42,16,41. 
Area IV A^ 14, 15, 16, 18, 20, 30, 31, 

47, 96. 
Area IV A" 6, 72, 9, 18, 22, 23, 242, 

28, 51, 71^ 76. 
Area IV A^ 19, 21,22,35,38. 

Area IV Af 242, 37, 393+, 473,493, 
582, 96^ 103, 104, 105, 106, 
108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 
113, 114. 
* IV A^^ Mr. Walker appears (1868, Sept. 7) to have obtained a glimpse of the 
difficult objects IV A^''' "' ^' '^i and ^ on this mountain-range, but he could not dis- 
tinguish them as separate peaks or count tliem ; the mou)itain-range he describes as 
having a sei-rated edge, like hiUocks close together. Oct. 7, 1868, he found 4 or 6. 

t IV A^'"', 1868, May 4. The colour of this depression was a dark grey, probably 
the darkest in the immediate locality. It is recorded as 2°-5, IV A" ^' being l°-5. 

X IV A" ^'' IV A? 39, Tliis object is variable, sometimes appearing as a crater, at 
others as a white spot. With liigh illuminations two spots have been seen (see ante, p. 29). 

1868, April 4, Mr. Baxendell discovered a small crater on the site of the eastern spot, 
which is not yet inserted iu the catalogue, as its exact locality is undetermined. 



Subzone No. 4. Lat. 


2° to 4° S. 


Subzone No. 6. Lat. 


4" to 5° S. 


Zone IV. 




z ) I e No. 2. Lat. 


5° to 7° S. 



ON MAPPING THE SURFACE OF THE MOON. 41 

Subzone No. 4. Lat. 7° to 9° S. Area lY Ai 1^, 3, 4*, 5*, 62, 7^, 82, 9-', 

134, 14^ 15^. 18^ 194, 21, 
22, 432, 44, 45, 483, 61, 71, 
772 95 1072 1152 121 

Subzone No. 6. Lat. 9° to 10° S. Area lY A^ 34, 50, 51, 53, 122.' 

The lunar objects to which the above designating numbers in each area are 
appended have been examined since the construction of the maps of the areas, 
and may be regarded as testifying to the character of each object as it ex- 
isted at the time of examination, which in most cases agree with the descrip- 
tion in the catalogue. 

III.— LINNE. 

Observations of this object continue to be made by gentlemen in concert 
with the Committee. In the last Report (Eeport, 1867, pp. 3 to 24) three 
essential features were described, viz. a large shallow crater, containing 
within it a small crater, both being replaced by a large ill-defined white 
spot under an increase of solar altitude. On the 26th of June 1868 Linne 
was observed under very favourable circumstances by Messrs. Huggins, Pen- 
rose, Birt, Webb, Carpenter, Joynson, and Williams, from 8.30 to 11.30 
G.M.T. During the earlier observations nothing was seen but a small cone, 
which cast a shadow to the east. This cone was not situated upon a ridge, 
the sixth of Schroter, as he states his spot v to be (see post, p. 44, and 
Eeport, 1867, p. 4), but appeared as if isolated, standing upon a slightly 
raised portion of the Mare Serenitatis, having Schroter's sixth ridge to the 
south, the cone being in the line of prolongation of this ridge to the north. 
On the west a curvilinear ridge of lower altitude (given by Beer and Madler) 
was seen, from the east foot of which the surface rose very slightly to the 
base of the cone. There was not the slightest indication of a shallow crater, 
nor was there the least appearance in the surface around the cone which 
might be considered indicative of its becoming a white spot, as the sun rose 
above it. The terminator was a little east of the cone, and the next ridge 
beyond the cone towards the east was becoming visible. 

Mr. Carpenter was the only observer who saw on the cone the crater- 
opening. From the drawings and descriptions of this object, it would appear 
to be very similar to a terrestrial volcanic cone, the eastera side being broken 
do'mi. Messrs. Joynson and Williams record the cone as " a bright point," 
an appearance it would present in telescopes of smaller aperture than those 
in which it was seen as a cone with crater-opening. 

During the earlier period of the observations the altitude of the sun was 
less than 1°, but as it became higher a change was observed, which wiU be 
described presently. The great importance of determining the true natui'e 
of this change is obvious. Was it actual, or was it optical ? So far as the 
observations from 1866 (Oct. 16) to 1868 (Sept. 7) testify, this change takes 
place, more or less constantly, with loiu solar altitudes (see j^ost, p. 45, points 
of contrast 7th and 8th). It is consequently of importance to ascertain by 
future observation whether the transition from the visibility of the lunar 
surface to that of a white spot, by or in which the character of the surface 
is no longer rendered apparent, is constant for solar altitudes and azi- 
muths of the same value. If the change be purely optical and dependent 
upon the two oonditions following, viz. the nature of the lunar surface on 
the one hand, and the incidence of the solar rays on the other, as soon as 
the sun attains the requisite altitude and azimuth, the altered appearance 

1868. E 



43 REPORT — 1868. 

supervenes : but if the surface itself sliould at any time be altered so that 
with the same incidence of the sun's rays the former altered appearance 
should be no longer observed, the change, of whatever nature it may be, 
could not in that case be referred to a purely optical source, some real 
change, either of a temporary or lasting character, must have transpired. 
^VTiile the change about to be described is constant for constant solar alti- 
tudes and azimuths, the question whether it is purely optical, or whether it 
is connected with a temporary but real diurnal change cannot be resolved ; 
but as soon as the character of the surface, as seen at sunrise and sunset, is 
also clearly perceptible with solar altitudes Mr/her than those at which the 
white spot now appears and disappears, the phenomenon is at once removed 
from the category of optical to that of real change, — it may be temporary as 
referred to the luni-solar day, or of a more lasting nature if the surface 
itself should undergo a physical change. This will to a great extent pre- 
clude the expression of opinion, which is generally founded more or less on 
insufficient evidence ; observation alone can guide us to a safe conclusion 
in connexion with the questions raised on Linne. WhSla refraining from 
expressing an opinion, we ought not to relax in collecting, arranging, and 
discussing evidence, as the only means by which we can obtain such an 
acquaintance with the phenomena of the moon's surface as may enable us 
finally to dispose of such questions as are at present agitated respecting them. 
The change above alluded to is best elucidated by the following records of 
observation. 

The first notice of change occurs in the following extracts from Mr. Birt's 
note-book : — 

" 10.30. During the last half-hour a decided change has occurred in the 
appearance of Linne * * * The cone is no longer visible, nor the shadow, but 
a somewhat bright white spot, larger than IE** ^ [the southern of the three 
craters to the N.W.], and nearly as large as I W i" [the middle of the three 
craters]. 

I have received from Mr. Gorton a drawing of Linne made by Mr. Wil- 
liams of Liverpool, on the evening of June 26, at 11 p.m., in which Linne is 
represented as a white spot. This diff'ers so very materially from the earlier 
observations that a correspondence ensued, of which the following is the 
result : — 

" Although the drawings [Mr. Huggins's, Mr. Carpenter's, and Mr. "Wil- 
liams's] were made on the same evening, and differ amongst themselves, 
there docs not appear to be any contradiction. Some observers saw the cone, 
another the opening, and others the bright white spot, the formation of wliich 
appears to have been actually witnessed. Mr. Joynson places the observa- 
tions of Mr. Bii-t and those of Mr. Williams in conjunction with his own in 
juxtaposition, thus : — 

1868. Mr. Birt reports. Messrs. Joynson & Williams report. 

June 2'), 10.0 Cone-shadow well marked. A bright point. 

10.30 Cone disappeared ; a some- Spot duller and flatter. 

what bright white spot. 

10.45 Spot as drawn \i. e. the ordi- 

to dinary white spot]. Moon 

11.30 low." 

Mr. Joynson adds, " I think it is quite clear that the cone or bright point 
gradually took the aspect of a spot, and as it enlarged it became duller and 
flatter." 



ON MAPPING THE SURFACE OF THE MOON. 43 

The transition, to which allusion has been made, was seen on the eveuino- 
of the 26th of June by thi-ee observers. 

The next favourable opportunity for seeing Linne near the terminator 
occurred on the 24th of August 1868. The following is a record of observa- 
tions by Mr. Walker, of Teignmouth : — 

" 1868, August 24'' 7^ 45"". Linne: crater on the top of a gently rising 
ground (conical shape), wall to right (east) in stronger illumination ; below 
to left appearance of depression. Definition good. Could not make out any 
thing inside the crater ; crater looked clean ; no appearance of white cloud or 
haze." 

Subsequently Mr. Walker furnished the following explanation : — 
" The gently rising ground I spoke of was exterior to Linne, nothing of 
the interior or floor of which was visible, the iUumination not being yet high 
enough. By a conical shape (not a well- chosen phrase) I meant that the 
ground rose in aU directions around Linne, which thus presented the aspect of 
a shallow crater on the summit of a rising ground. The impression of shal- 
lowness was conveyed by the thinness of the illuminated circuit of the cra- 
ter, and I think also by the shade of darkness of the interior of the crater. 
Of the cone I saw nothing." 

Mr. Walker's observation very fairly agrees with those made on June 26. 
The rising groimd appears to be the surface between the ridges upon which 
the cone or crater is situated. Mr. Walker speaks of the thinness of the cir- 
cuit [Qy. rim] of the crater, from which he inferred that it was shallow ; he is 
decisive upon the absence of the white cloud or spot. 

Under the evening-iUumination of the same luni-solar day, on Sept. 7, 
1868, 11.30 to 12.0 L.M.T., Maresfield, Sussex, Capt. Noble recorded the 
following observation : — 

" With powers of 154, 255, and 394, Linne, which is now tolerably near 
the terminator, suggests the idea of being a mammiUarifbrm object. I some- 
times seem to glimpse a darker (though by no means black) spot near the 
middle of it, giving it the aspect of a thick ring ; but as the shading is in the 
opposite side to the sun, and is moreover faint, it is just possible that it may 
be the result of the convexity of this wonderful object." 

Two hours later, viz. Sept. 7, 1868, 14'^, Mr. Walker, of Teignmouth, re- 
corded as follows : — 

" Endoxus on terminator. Linne. Hill on east side of the crater bright. 
Crater dark inside. Curved ridge, N.W. cut by the terminator. Two other 
ridges S., the east one sweeping up to Sulpicius Gallus, which was very 
marked, round, and has higher walls than Linne, which is rather the larger 
perhaps of the two, and oval-shaped. Fancied the hill or elevated portion of 
the crater E. had a crater on it." 

Mr. Walker's observation is accompanied by a sketch, from which it ap- 
pears that the portion designated as the crater is the surface between the 
ridges, the rising ground of the morning illumination, and that the hiU on 
the east is the cone on which Mr. Walker thought he saw a crater (the cra- 
ter-opening) ; this hiU occupies the precise position of the cone in the observa- 
tions of June 26. 

The observations of Mr. Walker and Capt. Noble, on Sept. 7, bear the same 
relation to each other as the earlier observations on June 26 do to the ob- 
servation of Messrs. Joynson and Williams on the same evening. In one 
case we have the topographical features of the district near Linne replaced 
by the white spot ; in the other the white spot is first seen, but in a short 
time it has disappeared, and the features of the district have become visible. 

e2 



44 REPORT — 1868. 

The change to and from the white spot in each case is well marked ; and it 
now remains to ascertain if this change always takes place with the same 
solar altitudes and azimiaths. To observe the topographical features and 
witness the transition, it is necessary that Linne should be very near the 
terminator. 

Herr von Madlor has obligingly communicated the following memorandum 
respecting Linne : — 

" The insrument I made iise of to produce drawings of the moon was a 
refractor of 3| feet of focal length and 43 lines of aperture. Commonly I 
employed a magnifying-power of 300, but the trigonometrical measurements 
have been executed with a magnifying-power of 120, which allowed me to 
reach to the edge of the moon." 

"Respecting the crater Linne, it was a principal point in my trigonometri- 
cal network, and consequently I have observed it very often. 

" I remember that this crater did occupy the greatest part of the diameter 

of the circular wall, so that if a 6 extended over 1-4 Ger- 

man mile (6-4 English), a' b' was at least 0-9. /^ -x\ 

" I have never seen any real change, only optical ones. ^/ /^r jN '•, j 

" Only in or near the full moon it was a white spot, almost '\ \ j j 

as white in the middle as on the edges ; these edges were '••./- ---/'' 

not wholly distinct, but always circular and fit for measure- 
ment. 

" The deepness of the crater must have been considerable ; for I have 
found an interior shadow when the sun had attained an altitude of 30°. I 
have never seen a central mountain in the interior. 

(Signed) " Madler." 

Without expressing the slightest opinion on the questions of change or 
fixity derived from a comparison of the above with recent observations, it 
may be permissible to notice the points of contrast between the earlier and 
more recent observations of Linne which the statements of the Baron Madler 
afford. Such a comparison and contrast is essential if we desire to arrive at 
a true conclusion. The following appear to be the most important. 

Points of contrast between earlier delineations and recent observations of 
the lunar crater Linne : — 

1st. The earliest authentic delineations and records of Linne represent this 
object as a crater, assign to it a diameter of about six English miles, and 
speak of it as being very deep. 

2nd. Kecent observations, i. e. from 1866, Oct. 16, to 1868, Sept. 7, are 
decisive as to the existence of a small cone, with crater-opening on the por- 
tion of the Mare Sereniiatis surrounded by ridges. 

3rd. It has been assumed that the white spot v in Schroter's Tafel ix. 
represents Linne as seen on Nov. 5, 1788, and that its present state is 
nearly similar. 

4tli. Capt. Noble pointed out,^at a Meeting of the Eoyal Astronomical So- 
ciety, that a line drawn from Plinius through Bessel will fall on Linne. This 
line on Schroter's drawing falls very nearly on the dark spot, which is 
very unlike the appearance of Linne at present. 

5th. Herr von Madler has \eTj recently recorded that in 1831 the crater- 
opening occupied 0-9 of the diameter of the external wall, which measured 
about 6-4 miles English. 

6th. The diameter of the base of the cone recently observed is less than 
three English mUes, and the crater-opening still smaller. 



ON Kent's cavern, Devonshire. 45 

7th. In the year 1831 {authority Herr von Miidler) the white spot was 
seen only near the time of full moon, almost as white in the middle as at the 
edges. 

8th. In the years 1867 and 1868 the white spot appeared shortly after 
sunrise and disappeared a little before sunset, and was frequently observed 
to have a brighter nucleus, instead of being almost as white in the middle as 
at the edges. 

9th. In the year 1831 {authority Herr von Madler) the interior shadow 
was perceptible imtil the sun attained an altitude of 30°. 

10th. In the years 1867 andl868 the small crater-opening has been seen as 
a smaE. black spot, rather west of the centre of the white spot, long after 
the terminator has passed Linne, but the usual interior crater-shadow has 
not been seen except with comparative low solar altitudes. 



Fourth Report of the Committee for Exploring Kent's Cavern, Devon- 
shire. The Committee consistinff of Sir Charles Lyell, Bart., 
Professor Phillips, Sir John Lubbock, Bad., Mr. John Evans, 
Mr. Edward Vivian, Mr. George Busk, and Mr. William Pen- 
GELLY (Reporter). 

In their Third Report, presented to the Association in 1867, the Committee 
stated that the Cavern consists of two parallel series of chambers and gal- 
leries, having, approximately, a north and south direction ; that their re- 
searches had been confined to the Eastern Series, in which the North-east 
Gallery, the Vestibule, the Passage of Urns, the Great Chamber, and the 
Gallery had been completely explored to the depth of 4 feet below the base 
of the Stalagmitic Floor ; that the investigation of the Lecture Hall had been 
begun, but that the greater part of it, as weU as the entire South-western 
Chamber and the North and South " Sally Ports," remained untouched. 

The year 1867-68 has been devoted to the Lecture Hall and South-west 
Chamber. The exploration of the former has been completed, and, so far as 
an estimate can at present be formed, the latter will have been thoroughly 
investigated in about two months from the present time. There is, however, 
some iincertainty on this question, since the further end of this Chamber is 
now closed with an enormous accumulation of stalagmite ; and it is not im- 
probable that when this is removed the apartment may prove to be much 
larger than is at present supposed. The Superintendents of the work incline 
to the opinion that a gallery will sooner or later be laid open here, which 
wiU lead into the Western Series of Chambers and Galleries. There is at 
present but one known channel of communication between the two series — 
that leading westward out of the Vestibule, near the opposite or northern 
end of the Cavern. 

The Committee continue to follow the mode of exploration laid down at 
the commencement of the work, and described in detail in their First Report, 
presented in 1865. The deposits are excavated in successive foot-parallels, 
and each parallel is removed in foot-levels, to the depth of 4 feet beneath 
the lower surface of the Stalagmitic Floor. In no instance has anything like 
a continuous hmestone bottom of the Cavern been reached ; but a depth 
greater than 4 feet would be incompatible with convenient, economical, tmst- 
worthy working, as it would be necessary to be continually putting up and 



46 REPORT— 1868. 

taking down scaifolding or working-platforms, and there would be a great 
liability for the deposit to " cave in," which, by rendering it impossible to 
determine their exact positions and associations, woiild deprive the objects 
found of much of their interest, as weU as of their value as evidence. 

The workmen still foUow the practice of first examining the deposits in 
situ, and of re-examining them by dayhght at the entrance of the Cavern ; 
the lines described in the First Eeport (1865) are still employed in 
order to fix the precise position of every object found; the specimens, as at 
the beginning, are all carefully cleaned and labelled, those fouud in each 
" yard" (mass of deposit a yard long and a foot square in the section) are 
kept together in a separate box ; the Cavern is visited daily by the Superin- 
tendents ; the Secretary continues to keep a daily journal of the work ; Re- 
ports, signed by both Superintendents, are, at the end of each month, for- 
warded to Sir C. Lyell, Chairman of the Committee ; and well-defined and 
satisfactory arrangements exist for the admission of visitors accompanied by 
the Superintendents, so as at once to keep alive a healthy interest in the 
exploration and to prevent inconvenience from their visits. 

Amongst the niimerous visitors during the past year, the Superintendents 
had the pleasure of receiving Dr. Hooker, President of the British Associa- 
tion. 

The Lecture Hall. — In their Third Report (1867), the Committee stated 
that researches, probably on a somewhat large scale, had been carried on in 
the Lecture Hall by Mr. M'Enery and the other early explorers, who, in- 
stead of taking out of the Cavern that portion of the deposits which they 
had examined, simply threw it on one side. On the removal of this dislodged 
material, the Committee found that they had considerably over-estimated the 
extent of the old working, and that by far the greater portion of the deposits 
in this Hall remained indubitably intact. 

The objects met with, not only in the broken ground, but in every locality 
about which tliere was the least uncertainty, were carefully kept distinct 
from those found in undoubted virgin soil. 

Without at present entering into details, it may be stated that in the Lec- 
ture Hall the deposits were of the same general character and order as in 
those parts of the Cavern which the Committee had previously explored and 
reported on, — Red Cave-earth of unknown depth, completely sealed up with 
a Stalagmitic Floor, which, in its turn, was covered with a layer of Black 
Mould. 

The objects found in the overlying Black Mould were less numerous than, 
but similar to, those described from the same accumulation in former Reports. 
Amongst them may be mentioned several pieces of pottery, a spindle-whorl, 
a roughly shapen piece of New Red Sandstone, a portion of a bone comb, 
■ part of a small vase, a small red earthenware pan, marine shells, a small piece 
of smelted copper, the entire lower jaw and an almost complete skull of a 
badger, part of a human upper jaw with eight teeth, of which four are still 
in their sockets, and the internal cast of a fossil shell. 

The potsherds do not require detailed description, most of them are of 
black coarse clay mixed with small stones, some of them are ornamented, 
whilst others are plain, and, in short, they closely resemble those described 
in the former Reports. 

The spnidle-whorl is of clay-slate, measures an inch in diameter and half 
an inch in depth, and is ornamented with a series of curvilineal and straight 
lines, both on its curved and flat surfaces. It is, perhaps, worthy of remark 
that, though the Cavern has yielded spindle-whorls formed of different kinds 



ON Kent's cavern, Devonshire. 47 

of stone, tlie best made, the most highly finished, and the only ornamented 
specimens are fashioned in slate. 

The piece of red sandstone was perhaps a spindle-whorl marred in the 
making. Good specimens formed of the same material have been found in 
the Cavern in previous years. It is rudely of the required form, about the 
size of a rather large whorl, but is imperforate. 

But for the more or less perfect specimens found in former years, it would 
not have been easy perhaps to identify the fragment of bone comb. It is 
but a portion of what may be called the shaft, both ends having been broken 
off. It must have been of the same type as those described in previous lie- 
ports, aU of which had their teeth at one end ; but it differs from all those 
found. before in being ornamented with well-drilled, small, circular punctures, 
which traverse the shaft obliquely in two parallel series, the direction of one 
set being at right angles to that of the other. 

The red earthenware vessel is no doubt a pan of the kind used for flower- 
pots to stand in, and is clearly modern. 

The marine shells are chiefly those of the Oyster, Cockle, and Pecten. 
One of the last has, near its anterior margin, a small elliptical hole, which is 
probably artificial. 

The human jaw and teeth may be comparatively modem. They were 
submitted to Messrs. Rodway, the eminent dentists of Torquay, who stated 
that " several of the alveoli possessed peculiar ii'regularities, which confirm 
other unmistakeable evidence that the whole of the teeth belonged to the 
same individual ; that the loose teeth were considerably worn away, parti- 
cularly the canine, at the end of which is exostosis, which was caused by the 
whole, or the greater part, of the mastication of later years being performed 
by the canine ; that they were the teeth of an old person, probably a man ; 
and that they w ould be likely or certain to preserve their freshness of aspect 
for an indefinite period." 

The cast of the fossil shell is apparently from the Oolite, and was perhaps 
lost in the Cavern by some geological tourist just arrived from the neighbour- 
ing Jurassic district of Dorsetshire. 

With the exception of the ground broken by the early explorers, which 
has been already mentioned, the Stalagmitic Floor was everywhere continu- 
ous. It varied from 2 to 32 inches in thickness, but rarely measured less, 
and commonly more, than 6 inches. It was generally of granular structure, 
but occasionally crystalliue, and sometimes made up of alternate crystalline 
and granular layers. It contained numerous blocks of limestone and of old 
stalagmite ; the former had no doubt fallen from the roof from time to time, 
and some of them measured as much as 4 feet in length. In addition to 
such as were completely incorporated in the Floor, there were many, as in 
other branches of the Cavern, which were lodged in and rose above it, whilst 
others projected from it downwards into the Cave-earth. 

The imbedded masses of stalagmite were invariably of a structure unlike 
that of the fioor in which they were lodged. In all cases, they were, at 
once, finely laminated and highly crystalline, the latter character being dis- 
played in a columnar or fibrous structure at right angles to the laminae, whe- 
ther the latter were plane or curvilinear. In some cases, these blocks, like 
those of limestone just mentioned, projected above or below the Floor into the 
Black Mould or Cave-earth respectively, whilst others were completely in- 
vested. It cannot be doubted that they were fragments of an oldei' Floor, 
which, as stated in previous Reports, and especially the third (1867), had 
been at least partially broken up at a comparatively early period in the 



48 REPORT— 1868. 

Cavern's history. It will be convenient thereforeto speak, in future, of the 
floor represented by these blocks as " The Older Floor," and of that which 
the Committee found spreading in an unbroken sheet through aU branches of 
the Cavern as " The Modern Floor." 

As in former years, bones were occasionally found in the Modern Floor of 
Stalagmite in the Lecture Hall. Amongst the most important are a fine molar 
of Rhinoceros, a premolar of Hyaena, two or three molars of Bear, a large 
part of a humerus, probably of Bear, and an os calcis of some large animal. 

The teeth of Rhinoceros and Hyaena were found, in the presence of one of 
the Superintendents, September 21, 1867, lying together very little below the 
upper sm-face of the Stalagmite. Since the tim.es oi Hhinoceros tiehorhinus 
and Hyrena spelcea in Devonshire, therefore, the increase of thickness of the 
Stalagmitic Floor, in that particular part of the Cavern, has been barely suf- 
ficient to cover these interesting relics. 

A few examples of charred wood were found in the same Floor. 

In most cases, the composition of the Cave-earth was of the ordinary 
typical character — about equal parts of red loam or clay, and of compara- 
tively small angidar fragments of limestone. In this condition it almost in- 
variably contained bones, but when there was any marked departure from it, 
by either loam or stones being greatly in excess, bones were extremely rare. 
In a few instances, the deposit was a mixture of fine earth and sand, resem- 
bling ordinary road-washing, and contained no trace of bone. 

The Cave-earth contained a considerable number of fragments of Devonian 
grit, huge blocks of limestone, large masses of old stah gmite, and loose 
lumps of rock-like breccia. 

The grit fragments could not have been derived from the Cavern-hiU, but 
were probably furnished by neighbouring loftier eminences. They have 
assumed subangular or well-rounded forms indicative of the rolling action of 
water, but their transportation into the Cavern by this agency would require 
that the district should have a surface- configuration very unlike that which 
now obtains. 

In addition to the grit pebbles, there were found mingled with them sub- 
angular and rounded pieces of quartz and flint, and also a small angular piece 
of crystalline schist, such as is not found in any part of the Torbay district, 
but is characteristic of the southern angle of Devonshire, or what may be 
called the Start and Bolt district. A pebble believed to have been derived 
from the same locality was mentioned in the Second Report (1866). 

The blocks of limiestone occurred at all levels in the deposit ; they were all 
quite angular, and some of them many tons in weight. 

The masses of old stalagmite were of the same structure as those in the 
Modem Floor, and were found everywhere in the Cave-earth ; they were 
all in the form of huge cuboidal blocks, with sharp unrounded edges. The 
Older Floor, of which they are obviously remnants, appears to have been 
broken up by being fractured along planes at right and other high angles to 
its iipper and lower surfaces. There appears to have been no instance of 
division in planes even distantly approaching parallelism to these surfaces. 
Many of them contained teeth and bones, all, so far as they were identified, 
the remains of the Cave-bear. 

The loose lumps of rock-like breccia were of a more or less rounded form, 
and were composed of red earth, angular pieces of limestone, and rounded 
and subangular pieces of Devonian grit ; they diff'ered from the Cave-earth 
in being invariably cemented together like a firm mass of concrete, and in 
containing a considerably greater proportion of fragments of grit. Almost 



ON RENTES CAVERN, DEVONSHIRE. 49 

all of them were crowded with teeth and bones, which, so far as is known, 
are those of the Cave-bear. No teeth-marks have been detected on any of 
them, nor were there any traces of faecal matter. Many of the canines and 
molars were of great size, and some of the former were so much worn as to 
suggest that they had belonged to old animals whose molars had become in- 
capable of performing their functions. 

These lumps of breccia had not the appearance of being portions of the 
ordinary Cave-earth agglomerated in situ. Their aspect was rather that of 
remnants of a deposit older than that in which they were incorjjorated, — the 
deposit, in fact, which the Older Eloor of Stalagmite had covered, and on 
which it had been formed. To a large extent, this opinion received confir- 
mation in the fact, already mentioned, that the osseous remains in the lumps 
of breccia as well as in the blocks of old stalagmite were, at least mainly, 
those of the Cave-bear, the other members of the Cave-fauna being iinre- 
presented. 

The Cave-earth in the Lectui'e Hall contained teeth of Horse, Rhinoceros, 
Hyaena, Bear, Fox, Deer, Mammoth, Lion, Ox, and Badger ; their prevalence 
being indicated by the order in which their names are given, those of the 
Horse being the most, and of the Badger the least abundant. The teeth 
were accompanied by a considerable number of bones, many of which were 
deeply scored with teeth-marks, others were split longitudinally, and several 
were invested with thin films of stalagmite, irrespective of the depth at 
which they were found. These different conditions of the bones are inter- 
esting and significant, — the first implying the presence of the living hyaena, 
the second the operations of man, and the last the slow and intermittent 
accumulation of the Cave-earth, since each bone must have lain on what was 
the uiyper surface of the deposit for a considerable period, during which it 
was exposed to the action of the lime-laden drip from the roof of the Cavern. 

The statement, in the Third Report (1867), that faecal matter was met 
with almost exclusively in the Great Chamber, requires considerable modifica- 
tion. During the year 1867-68 a greater quantity of this material was found 
in the Cave-earth, in the Lecture Hall, than had been met with previously 
in the adjacent Chamber just spoken of; it occurred at all levels, and some- 
times in masses a foot high. Occasionally individual coprolites were en- 
cotmtered which had undergone no change either of place or of form since 
they were originally dropped by the hyaena — a fact which goes far to show 
that the Cave-earth was neither all introduced at one and the same time, nor 
by violent agency, such as a great rush of water. 

This branch of the Cavern was not very productive of flint tools, or, 
with the exception of split bones, other evidences of human existence. 
Omitting mere chips and doubtful flakes, it yielded no more than five imple- 
ments, aU of which are very inferior to the fine specimens discovered in 
former years. Two of them were found in the first foot-level, two in the 
second, and one in the third. One of them is formed of grey cherty flint, of 
a kind which the old men of Kent's Hole frequently employed ; the others 
are of a finer variety, and of the prevalent white colour. They aU belong to 
the LanccoJate type of implement. The best of the series is that composed 
of chert ; it was found in the fu-st or uppermost fool-level, October 18th, 
1867. Its point had been broken off before it was met with. At present it 
measures 2-8 inches in length, and 1-3 inch in greatest breadth. There 
does not appear to have been much skilled labour expended on it, and its 
edges are considerably broken. 

South-ivest Chamber. — The " Lecture Hall " opens on its soiith-western 



50 REPORT— 1868. 

side into an apartment, which, on account of its position in relation to the 
other branches of the Eastern Series, has been termed the " South-west 
Chamber." It is at present comparatively small, but, as has been already 
remarked, it may prove when completely emptied to be much larger. At 
the junction of the two apartments, the space between the opposite walls of 
the Cavern is inconsiderable ; and this, before the workmen commenced their 
excavations, was much diminished by an enormous mass of limestone which 
had fallen from above, and was estimated at upwards of 100 tons. Its base 
was buried from two to three feet deep in the Cave-earth, and its summit 
reached a height of fully sis feet above the Modern Floor of Stalagmite. On 
account of its form it was commonly known as the " Pulpit Rock," but it 
not unfrequently received the appellation of the " Lecturer's Rostrum," 
mainly because, when lectures were delivered within the Cavern on its his- 
tory and formation, the speaker always took his stand on this rock, his au- 
dience being assembled in the adjacent Lecture Hall. The removal of the 
Pulpit absorbed a considerable amount of time, but it was quite indis- 
pensable in order to the excavation' of the South-west Chamber, the entrance 
of which it guarded. 

In the South-west Chamber there was no trace of the overlying Black 
Mould. This accumulation had presented itself in every other branch of the 
Eastern Series of chambers and galleries, with the single exception of the 
inner portion of the Gallery in the western wall of the Great Chamber, where 
it gradually thinned out. It covered the entire Floor of the Lecture Hall to 
a depth as great as in any other part of the Cavern, but it terminated 
abruptly at the Pulpit Rock, and was not resumed southwards. 

In 1846, a Subcommittee of the Torquay Natural-History Society, con- 
sisting of Dr. Battersby and the Superintendents of the present work, com- 
menced a search in this Chamber, when they broke iip the Modern Floor of 
Stalagmite over a rudely circular area about 6 feet in diameter. They ex- 
cavated the underlying Cave-earth to the depth of about 2 feet, when, having 
found nothing, they abandoned the search, leaving the pit empty and the 
materials dug out of it lying in a heap near. Probably no part of the Cavern 
is in wet weather more exposed to drip than this ; hence it might have been 
expected that here, if anywhere, twenty-two years would have produced a 
film of stalagmite of appreciable thickness, especially as it was known that 
the Modern Floor attains an average thickness considerably surpassing that 
in any other part of the Cavern which the Committee have explored. Yet 
not a film was to be found either at the bottom of the pit, on the section 
made in digging it, or on the Cave-earth thrown out of it. This remote 
part of the Cavern was very rarely entered by visitors, and the operations of 
nature went on without check or interference ; but everything was found 
precisely as it was left upwards of twenty years ago. 

The form of the South-west Chamber, as well as the huge accumulation 
of stalagmite on its western side, rendered it expedient to excavate the de- 
posits it contained in two distinct " Divisions " or series of workings — an 
eastern and a western, the working direction in the former being southward, 
and in the latter westward. The first has been completed, and considerable 
pi'ogress has been made in the second. 

With the exception of the ground broken by the Torquay Natiiral-History 
Society, the Modern Floor of Stalagmite was everywhere perfectly continuous 
throughout this Chamber. In the Eastern Division it averaged 28 inches 
in thickness ; in one instance only it wa.s no more than 6 inches ; it was very 
seldom so little as a foot, and it several times attained to 5 and even 



ON Kent's cavern, Devonshire. 51 

6 feet. Ill its structure it was commonly granular, except at and near 
its junction with the walls of the Cavern, where it frequently consisted of 
thin crystalline laminae, and was extremely hard and tough. Numerous 
angular masses of limestone were found in it, and some of them were of 
great size ; hut there were no incorporated blocks of old stalagmite. 

In the northernmost or first eight foot-parallels in this Division, the Cave- 
earth occupied each entire section, from the bottom of the Modern Stalag- 
mitic Floor to the base of the lowest or foui'th foot-level. It was of the 
ordinary type, and, like that in every other branch of the Cavern, contained 
large blocks of limestone and of old stalagmite, as well as lumps of breccia, 
such as had presented themselves in the adjacent Hall. 

In the more southerly parallels there was found at the base of the section, 
and extending quite across it from end to end, a deposit, in situ, of a new 
type, on which the Cave-earth at once rested. This proved to be a rock- 
like breccia composed of I'ed earth, angular pieces of limestone, siibangular 
and rounded pieces of grit in considerable numbers, blocks of ciystalline 
stalagmite, and bones, all cemented into a firm and hard concrete ; in 
short, with the single exception of its being undisturbed, it was of precisely 
the same character as the loose lumps previously met with in the Lecture 
Hall. In each succeeding parallel it rose higher and higher in the section, 
the overlying Cave-earth gradually thinning out. 

Six feet south of its first appearance, this Breccia was found to be imme- 
diately overlaid by a Eloor of Crystalline Stalagmite nearly 2 feet thick, 
which separated it from the Cave-earth above ; in short, there were in this 
parallel, in the same vertical section, two Floors of Stalagmite, each imme- 
diately overlying the accumulation of detritus on which it had been formed. 
From this point to the end of the Eastern Division of the Chamber every 
parallel disclosed the two Floors ; but with every additional foot southwards, 
the intermediate band of Cave-earth became thinner and thinner, until, 
before the southern wall was reached, it altogether disappeared, and the 
Modern Floor rested at once on the Older one. These two accumulations of 
stalagmite were commonly distinguishable by their different structures, — the 
upper being granular except when near the waU of the Cavern, the lower 
invariably crystalline. 

In a few of the southernmost parallels, the materials at the bottom of the 
sections were not cemented, and there were but few bones mixed with them. 
In all other respects they were identical with the concrete immediately above. 

It has been already stated that the Modern Floor of Stalagmite was every- 
where continuous. Instead of this being the case with the Older Floor, it 
usually extended from each end of the section several feet towards its centre, 
but in all cases terminated more or less abruptly, leaving an interspace, 
sometimes as much as 7 feet wide. 

In this branch of the Cavern, where the conditions were at once so novel 
and so variable, the work was watched with the utmost care, and accurate 
measurements and descriptions were frequently made. The following sec- 
tions from difi'erent parts of the Chamber will show in a general way the 
succession of the deposits, in descending order : — 

Section I. Near the northern end of the Eastern Division of the South- 
west Chamber. Length 21 feet at the top, and 11 feet at the bottom. Di- 
rection from W. 5° N. to E. 5° S. (mag.). 

First, or uppermost : Modem Floor of Stalagmite, granular, continuous, 
contained large masses of limestone ; thickness varied from 28 to 36 inches. 

Second: Cave- earth, typical, contained a considerable number of large 



53 REPORT— 1868. 

blocks of limestone and a few pieces of crystalline stalagmite ; thickness un- 
known, but more than 4 feet. 

Section II. Near the middle of the Eastern Division of the South-west 
Chamber. Length 15 feet. Direction from W. 5° N. to E. 5° S. (mag.) 

First, or uppermost : Modern Floor of Stalagmite, granular, continuous, 
no incorporated stones; thickness varied from 17 to 29 inches. 

Second : Cave-earth, typical, contained large pieces of limestone and crys- 
talline stalagmite ; thickness varied from 3 inches at the ends of the section 
to 12 inches in the middle. 

Third : Older Floor of Stalagmite, crystalline, discontinuous, there being a 
considerable hiatus near the middle of the section ; thickness 14 inches. 

Fourth : Rock-like Breccia, composed of red earth, small angular pieces of 
limestone, subangular and rounded pieces of grit, large angular masses of 
limestone and of crystalline stalagmite, cemented into a strong concrete ; 
thickness unk^o^vn, but more than 31 inches. The Cave-earth rested im- 
mediately on it near the middle of the section. 

Section III. Near the southern end of the Eastern Division of the South- 
west Chamber. Length 8 feet. Direction from W. 5° N. to E. 5° S. (mag.) 

Fii'st, or uppermost : Modern Floor of Stalagmite, generally granular, con- 
tinuous, no incorporated stones ; thickness varied from 18 to 21 inches. 

Second : Older Floor of Stalagmite, crystaUine, discontinuous ; thickness 
varied from 8 to 38 inches. 

Third : Rock-like Breccia, in all respects like that of the 2nd section ; 
thickness 2 feet. 

Fourth : Uncemented Breccia, dififering from the overlying mass only in 
being uncemented and in containing but few bones. 

The Modern Stalagmitic Floor in this Division of the Chamber, as else- 
where in the Cavern, was found to contain a few bones and pieces of charred 
wood. Of the former, the most important are part of the upper jaw of the 
Cave-bear, containing both canines and two molars, none of which are much 
worn. With this fine specimen, which was extracted in the presence of the 
two Superintendents, several loose molars of bear were found, and also a claw 
of some large carnivore. Besides the foregoing, there were found elsewhere 
in this Floor a fine canine of Ursus spelceus, which does not appear to have 
seen much service, and an os calcis of some large animal. 

The Cave-earth, too, no matter how thin the band to which it had dwin- 
dled, continued to the last to yield remains of its characteristic fauna. In 
this deposit there were found, in the Division of the Chamber now under 
notice, teeth and other relics of Bear, Fox, Horse, Hyaena, Rhinoceros, Mam- 
moth, Hare, and bird. The frequency with which they were met with, rather 
than the aggregate number of specimens in each case, is indicated by the 
order in which the names stand, the remains of Bear being most prevalent, 
whilst those of bird were found once only. In the same branch of the Cavern 
was found the femur of a Bear, having the distal end perfect, but the proxi- 
mal extremity wanting. This is the largest bone found during the present 
exploration ; it was lying, with the anterior portions of the two rami of the 
lower jaw of a young Hycvna spelcea, in the fourth or lowest foot-level. 

As elsewhere, many of the bones were well scored with teeth-marks, and 
some were split lengthways. Lumps of fsecal matter also were occasionally 
met with. 

A few flint chips were likewise found. They are probably of artificial 
origin, but are not of suflScient value to require description. 

Though fragments of stone which the Cavern hill could not have supplied 



ON Kent's cavern, Devonshire. 53 

were much more abundant in the rock-like Breccia than in the Cave-earth, 
none of them were of very distant derivation : no pieces of granite fi-om 
Dartmoor, or of crystalline schist from the Start and Bolt, or even of slate 
from the more immediate neighbourhood, all of which have been found in 
the Cave- earth. 

The Breccia was so extremely hard and difficult to work as to render it 
necessary to split it out with chisels, which frequently played sad havoc with 
the bones it contained. These were sometimes so abundant as to form fully 
50 per cent, of the entii-e accumulation. To use the language of one of 
the workmen, " they lay about as if they had been thrown there with a 
shovel." 

The progress of the work, as in most other cases, has rendered it necessary 
to qualify somewhat the first impressions respecting the bones and teeth. 
Instead of " exclusively the remains of bear," it may be said that " almost 
exclusively " they are so ; for recently there have been found amongst them a 
tooth of some cervine animal, a tooth of a Fox, and one or two bones of a bird. 
Moreover, some of the bones are apparently too large to have formed part of 
the skeleton even of Ursus spelceus. Nevertheless, it remains to be a fact 
that in this deposit there have not been identified any relics of Bhinoceros, 
Horse, Ox, Mammoth, Badger, Lion, or Hyaena, all of which were so frequently 
exhumed from the Cave-earth ; nor are there any traces of fajces, or, with 
one sohtaiy exception, of gnawed bones to indicate the presence of the last- 
named animal. 

The bones found in the Cave-earth are divisible into two classes with 
respect to their colour. The first includes specimens of an almost chalk-like 
whiteness, and are very numerous ; the second those of a dark tinge, and are 
very few. The dark hue of the second class is merely a surface discolora- 
tion. Beneath a thin superficial film, the bones of this group are just as 
white as those of the other. The colour of the specimens found in the Bock- 
like Breccia differs from that of each of the foregoing series ; all of them are 
characterized by the same somewhat light coffee-coloured tinge, which, more 
or less, penetrates their entire substance. 

None of these older fossils appear to have been rolled, or to have been 
fractured before they were lodged in the place in which they were found. 
Fragments of jaws are numerous, and many of them contain teeth ; but, 
with this exception, the relics lie together without the least reference to 
their anatomical relations. 

In many respects their condition is precisely the same as that of the spe- 
cimens in the Cave-earth. Thus, those found beneath large fallen blocks of 
limestone are crushed, the severed parts remaining in position, and com- 
monly held together by some firm cement. Again, other specimens are 
covered with a film of stalagmitic matter. Further, the bones from the older 
deposit adhere to the tongue just like those found in the Cave-earth, and 
no distinction can be drawn between the two series on this quality alone. 
These facts show, first, that the older formation, like the more modern 
one, was compact, firm, unyielding, and capable of offering resistance to a 
heavy falling block ; second, that, as has been already remarked in the case 
of the Cave-earth, the bones had successively lain exposed on the surface for 
a long period, and that the materials of the Breccia were introduced into the 
Cavern at many different times, with protracted intermittences ; third, that 
the fact that bones found in the same Cavern will adhere to the tongue with 
equal tenacity is not, in itself, trustworthy evidence that they are of equal 
antiquity. 



54 REPORT — 1868. 

Up to this time, the Eock-like Breccia has been utterly sUent on the ques- 
tion of the existence of Man ; it has given up no tools or chips of flint or 
bone, no charred wood or bones, no bones split longitudinally, no stones sug- 
gesting that they had been used as hammers or crushers. But whilst they 
have before them the lessons so emphatically taught by their exploration 
of the Cavern, the Committee cannot but think that it would be premature 
to draw, at present, any inference from this negative fact. 

In the Western Division of the South-west Chamber, the very difficult 
exploration of which is now in progress, the thickness of the Stalagmitic 
Floor surpassed everything previously met with. Up to this time it has 
averaged moi'e than 7 feet, in two instances only and over very limited spaces 
it was so little as 3 feet, and it has reached so much as 12| feet. 

Cave-earth presented itself at the northern end of each section in the fii'st 
seven foot-paraUels only, where it was rapidly thinning out, both southwards 
and westwards. It was covered with its OAvn Modern Floor of Stalagmite, 
and rested on the Older Floor of the same material, beneath which lay the 
Eock-like Breccia. This, so far as is at present kno'ftTi, was the termination 
of that great deposit of Cave-earth which, in unbroken continuity, has been 
followed from the entrances of the Cavern, which has yielded so many 
thousands of bones of extinct animals, and at least hundreds of Man's flint 
and bone implements and their concomitant chips, and which in other still 
larger branches of the Cavern awaits exploration. It will be shortly seen 
that to the last it was true to its character. 

As in this Division the Modern Floor rested at once on the Older one and 
assumed a crystalline structure, especially beyond the liae at which the Cave- 
earth disappeared, it is sometimes not easy to say how much of the great 
thickness just spoken of is to be ascribed to the period which separated the 
era of the Rock-like Breccia from that of the comparatively modern Cave- 
earth, and how much to the time which has elpased since the introduction 
of the latter deposit terminated. 

In the upper part of this enormous accumulation some examples of charred 
wood have been found ; and several stalactites, which no doubt had dropped 
from the roof above, have been met with lodged in the mass. There are a 
few peculiarities in the structure of this Stalagmite which have not been 
noticed elsewhere. It sometimes has a honeycombed or cellular structure, 
and in other places it is traversed in various directions by a series of tubular 
cavities, both of which have greatly contributed to the difficulty which the 
workmen have experienced in breaking it up ; for whilst the cavities do not 
appear to diminish the strength of the mass, they allow the ignited gun- 
powder room to expand, and thus render it almost impossible to excavate it 
by blasting. When it is added that the Stalagmite is not traversed by great 
divisional planes, as almost all rocks are, and that it nearly fills the Chamber 
to the roof, it will be seen that at present, at least, the exploration requires 
very pertinacious and skilful labour. 

It has been already stated that biit few flint implements were found in 
the Lecture Hall, that these were much inferior to those brought to the 
Association in previous years from other parts of the Cavern, and that the 
Eastern Division of the South-west Chamber yielded a few chips only. It 
was, pei'haps, not unreasonable to ascribe this paucity to the comparative 
remoteness of the branches of the Cavern in which the researches have been 
carried on during the year 1867-68. Be this as it may, the Superhitcndents 
had but little hope or expectation that better fortune was awaiting them so 
long as the work was day by day carrying them further on in the same 



ON Kent's cavern, devonshihe. 55 

direction. Scarcely, however, had the exploration of the Western Division of 
the South-west Chamher commenced, when the spell was broken. 

On June 25, 1868, a good implement was found 2 feet deep in the Cave 
earth, in a small recess in the wall of the Chamber, and sealed up with the 
Modern Floor of Stalagmite 80 inches thick. It was found broken, appa- 
rently into four pieces, three of which have been recovered. Some of the 
fractured edges are coated with Stalagmite. It lay with a fine almost un- 
worn molar of bear, a molar of horse, and a few other teeth, one of which 
probably was that of a fox. 

On July 4, a second implement was found. This also was 2 feet deep 
in the Cave-earth, over which the Stalagmite was 32 inches thick. With it 
there were a few bones, and immediately below it, thirteen molars of horse, 
a canine of hyaena, and a gnawed bone. This specimen is of the Lanceolate 
type, and is one of the finest implements the Committee have found in the 
Cavern. It is barely 4-2 inches long, 1-2 in greatest breadth, and -5 inch 
in greatest thickness. It is strongly carinated, sharply pointed at one end, 
chisel-shaped at the other, and has a keen edge all round its perimeter. A 
great amount of labour appears to have been expended in making it, but it 
probably had never been used since it was last " retouched." It is of piebald 
flint, being partly white, and partly a dull drab. It was dug out in the pre- 
sence of one of the Superintendents. 

On July 10, a thu-d implement presented itself. This was 3 feet deep 
in the Cave-earth, over which was 24 inches of Stalagmite. It is a fine 
specimen, but scarcely equal to the second, which, excepting that it is not 
quite so broad, and that its wider end is not chisel-shaped, it resembles in 
size and in form. It is made of an almost uniformly white flint. 

On July 25, a fourth was met with in a recess in the wall of the Cavern, 
1 foot deep in the Cave-earth, having over it upwards of 7 feet of Stalagmitic 
Floor. It does not appear to have been so good a specimen as either of the 
two last mentioned, but on this point there is some uncertainty, as it was 
unfortunately broken by the workmen, who, notwithstanding a careful search, 
were unable to recover all the fragments. Judged from the exterior only, it 
would have been pronounced white flint ; but in consequence of the fracture 
it is seen that this colour is merely superficial, extending to a depth of about 
•05 inch only, the interior being uniformly black. It was lying with eleven 
molars of horse, a sectorial tooth of hysena, several bones and bone fragments, 
and a few small lumps of faecal matter. Judging from the character of its 
point, this implement was a "borer." 

Thus, within about a month, four flint implements, all of them good, and 
two of them very fine specimens, were found within a space of 5 feet, and 
from 140 to 150 feet from the nearest of the external entrances of the 
Cavern. They were attended by the usual accompaniments, and with the 
last of them the Cave-earth terminated in that direction, so far as is at pre- 
sent known. 

The Rock-like Breccia in this Division of the Chamber presented the ordi- 
nary characteristics, and calls for no special remark. 

In their Third Report (1867) the Committee called attention to the facts 
which, successively and slowly discovered, had led to the conviction that 
there was a Chapter in the history of the Cavern earlier than that represented 
by the Cave-earth. It has been already stated, and at some length, that 
further and most conclusive evidence on the point has presented itself dm-iug 
the year 1867-68. The case is of so much interest, so characteristic of 
Cavern researches, and so fuU of instruction and encouragement, that it 



56 REPORT — 1868. 

may be worth while to give a brief recapitulation of the facts from the be- 
ginning : — 

1st. The Committee had been at work upwards of five months when 
cuboidal blocks of Stalagmite fii'st appeared in the Cave-earth and in the 
overlying Stalagmitic Floor. After much deliberation, it was concluded that 
they were fragments of an older Floor, which had covered a deposit of stiU 
higher antiquity, and had been wholly or partially broken up before or during 
the introduction of the Cave-earth in which the blocks were lodged. To this 
conclusion, there was the great objection that there were no bones or stones 
either within or attached to the blocks. 

2nd. After the labour of six fui'ther months, during which every day dis- 
interred additional blocks, but with the same negative characters, a large 
portion of an old Floor was actually found in situ, but without having beneath 
it any trace of a deposit which it had once sealed up. Though the probable 
interpretation was that the deposit had been washed out, or had sunk away 
from the floor through failure of support at its base, it seemed reasonable to 
suppose that, in either case, stones or other remnants of it would be found 
attached to the lower surface of the Floor. Instead of presenting such relics, 
however, this lower surface was a beaiitiful cream-coloured plate of stalag- 
mite, bristling with short stalactites of the same colour. 

3rd. In order to determine whether the so-called " remnant of old Floor " 
was really stalagmitic throughout, several holes were bored through it, which 
not only decided the question affirmatively, but caused a portion of its nether 
surface to scale off, and to disclose the fact that the " cream-coloured plate " 
was but a modern veneer formed on what had been the original surface ; 
and this, when thus laid bare, proved to be soil-stained and crowded with 
small particles of detrital matter — relics of the missing mechanical deposit. 

4th. After this, seventeen months passed, and though in the meantime 
blocks of stalagmite were foimd everywhere, and some of them of great size, 
and though the workmen purposely broke them into small pieces, stUl no 
bone or stone was found within or projecting from them. At length, at the 
end of the time just mentioned, one of them was broken and a bone M'as 
found within it. After this, ossiferous blocks of stalagmite were dug out 
frequently, and some of them were found to contain stones also. 

5th. Within the compass of another month, loose round lumps of Rock-like 
Breccia were met with in the Cave-earth, and, from their composition and 
external form, were regarded as dislodged remnants of the older deposit which 
had so long been seen by the mind's eye only. This opinion was strengthened 
by the fact that the bones with which they were crowded did not appear to 
represent precisely the same fauna as did those met with in the Cave-earth. 

6th. At the end of six additional months, the workmen came upon the 
old deposit in situ, having all the characters of the lumps just mentioned, but 
not separated from the Cave-earth above it by any Floor of Stalagmite. 

7th. At the close of a fui'ther period of six weeks, or after three full years 
of daily research, there was found, in one and the same vertical section, the 
Old deposit of Breccia capped by its Stalagmite, on which lay the Cave-earth, 
protected, in its turn, by its Stalagmitic Floor also. The early inference 
from the blocks alone was justified ; not a link of the evidence was missing. 
The entire chain was presented to the eye at one view. The case was at 
length complete. 

The following fact may be appropriately mentioned in connexion with this 
case. As has been ah'eady stated, a Subcommittee of the Tonjuay Natural- 
History Society, in 1846, broke through the Modern Stalagmitic Floor in the 



ON Kent's cavern, Devonshire. 57 

South-west Chamber, and excavated the Cave-earth to the depth of 2 feet, 
when, hav'ing found nothing, they abandoned the work. Had they continued 
their labours but another half hour, had they dug but 2 inches lower, they 
would have entered the richly ossiferous Breccia, and, in all probabihty, 
caught sight of the earlier chapter of the history of the Cavern. 

It has been already mentioned that the Rock-like Breccia contains, amongst 
other things, considerable pieces of stalagmite. There can be no doubt that 
the same interpretation applies to these as applied to those found in the 
Cave-earth. If the latter were correctly regarded as evidence of a floor older 
than the deposit in which they were lodged, the former must be hold to 
indicate the existence of a floor still older than the Breccia — a floor of the 
third order of antiquity, which, in harmony with the terminology hitherto 
used, may, for the present at least, be termed the '•' Oldest Floor of Stalag- 
mite." 

If the present state of the evidence be trustworthy, the Cavern, during 
the era of the Rock-like Breccia, was almost exclusively a mausoleum for 
f/y-SMs spelceus. Up to this time, no trace of Hycemi spelcea, Felis spelcea, 
Eleplias primix/mius, Ehinoceros tichorhinus, Eqims fossUis, or of several 
other well-known cavern species has been found in the old deposit. Though 
he was subsequently their contemporary in Devonshire, the Great Cave-Bear, 
so far as the present evidence goes, seems to have had his home there very 
long before them. 

The Committee have again to state that they have not yet had the good 
fortune to discover any remains of Hippopotamus major or Machairodiis 
Inlidens, either in the Cave-earth or in the Breccia. 

Whilst it must be admitted that the labours of the past twelve months 
have not added anything to the kind, or very greatly to the amount, of evi- 
dence of the antiquity of Man in Devonshire, it must also be admitted that 
the continued and careful researches of three and a half years have utterly 
failed to detect a single fact having even a remote tendency to invalidate the 
conclusion to which the early Cavern researches had led. Up to this time, 
the various kinds of evidence are in the most complete accord; there is 
nothing conflicting. No comparatively modern object has been found below 
its place, and no ancient one has been met with in a modern niche. The 
Modern Floor of Stalagmite has kept the two apart and perfectly distinct. 
There is nothing incongruous in the belief that the ancient Cave-Men made 
and used impolished flint imi^lements, split the bones of animals, and cut and 
scraped the fragments into pins and fish-spears, employed fire in the prepa- 
ration of their food, and selected some stones for hammers or crushers, and 
others to rub down the asperities on their bone tools ; and this belief ap- 
parently embraces all the Cavern Anthropology which up to this time has 
been discovered. 

The researches of 1867-68, however, have been by no means barren or 
unimportant. They have, as has been pointed out, established the existence 
of two Chapters in the Cavern history during the times of the extinct mam- 
mals, and have given a glimpse of a third and still earher one ; they have 
solved one problem, and, in doing so, have suggested several others ; they 
have given an increased stimulus to research by prompting the following 
questions : — 

1st. "VNTiat were the conditions which at three diff'erent and widely sepa- 
rated times allowed detrital matter to be carried into the Cavern ? 

2nd. How was the introduction of this material suspended during, at least, 
two protracted periods, in which thick floors of Stalagmite were formed ? 

186S. F 



>8 



REPORT 18G8. 



3rd. By what agency were these floors partially and largely broken up ? 
and why, where they have been removed, have they left no scar on the walls 
of the Cavern ? 

4th. Since, heretofore. Suspension has been followed by Excavation and 
Ee-introduction, may this recur at some future time ? 

5th. Had the Great Cave-Bear any spelaean contemporaries at first ? and, 
if so, What were they? and was Machairodus latidens or Hippopotamus major 
amongst them ? 

6th. How, during the era of the Breccia, were the remains of the Cave- 
Bear carried into the Cavern, seeing that none of them are rolled, broken, or 
gnawed, yet they lie together without the least reference to their anatomical 
relations ? 

It may be hoped that future researches may furnish solutions for at least 
some of these questions. 



On Puddling Iron. By C. W. Siemens, F.R.S.* 

Norwi'rnsTANDiNG the recent introduction of cast steel for structural pur- 
poses, the production of wrought iron (and puddled steel) by the puddling 
process ranks among the most important branches of British manufacture, 
representing an annual production exceeding one and a half million of tons, 
and a money value of about nine millions sterling. 

Although the puddling process must be admitted to be of great commercial 
importance, and involves most interesting chemical problems, it has received 
less scientific attention than other processes of more recent origin and infe- 
rior importance, owing probably to the mistaken sentiment that a time- 
honoured practice implies perfect adaj^tation of the best means to the end, 
and leaves little scope for improvement. 

The scanty scientific literature on the subject will be found in Dr. Percy's 
important work on iron and steel. Messrs. Crace-Calvert and Kichard 
Johnson of Manchester! have supplied most valuable information by a series 
of analyses of the contents of a puddling-furnace during the difierent stages 
of the process. These prove that the molten pig metal is mixed intimately, 
in the first place, either with a molten portion of the oxides, (or fettling,) 
which form the lining or protecting covering to the cast-iron tray of the 
puddling-chamber, or with a proportion of oxide of ii'on in the form of 

* Ordered to be printed in extenso among the E€ports. 

t Pliil. Mag., September 1857. The following Table from Messrs. Calvert and John- 
son's paper includes the chief results of their investigations : — 



Pig iron charged 
Sample No. 



Puddled bar 
Wire iron 



1 
2 

3 
4 
5 
6 

7 

8 

9 

10 



Time. 



Carbon. 



12- 


2-275 


2-720 


12-40 


2-726 


0-915 


1-0 


2-905 


0-197 


1-5 


2-444 


0194 


1-20 


2-305 


0-182 


1-35 


1-647 


0-183 


1-40 


1-200 


0163 


1-45 


0-963 


0-163 


1-50 


0-772 


0-168 




0-296 


0-120 




0-111 


0-088 



Silicon. 



i 



ON PUDDLING IRON. 59 

hammer-slag or red ore, thrown in expressly with the charge, that the 
silicon is first separated from the iron, that the carbon only leaves the iron 
during the " boil " or period of ebullition, and that the sulphur and phos- 
phorus separate last of all while the metal is " coming to nature." 

The investigations by Price and Nicholson and by M. Lan confirm these 
results, from which Dr. Percy draws some important general conclusions, 
which have only to be followed up and supplemented by some additional 
chemical facts and observations in order to render the puddling process per- 
fectly intelligible, and to bring into relief the defective manner in which it is 
at present put into practice, involving, as it does, great loss of metal, waste 
of fuel and of human labour, and an imperfect separation of the two hurtful 
ingredients, sulphiir and phosphorus. 

Silicon. — In forming (by means of the rabble) an intimate mechanical 
mixture between the fluid cast metal and the cinder, the silicon contained in 
the iron is brought into intimate contact with metallie oxide, and is rapidly 
attacked, being found afterwards in the cinder in the form of silicic acid 
(combined with oxide of iron). The heat of the furnace is always kept low 
during this stage of the process, and the flame is maintained as reducing as 
possible. 

Carbon. — The disappearance of the carbon from the metal is accompanied 
by the appearance of violent ebullition and the evolution of carbonic oxide, 
which rises in innumerable bubbles to the surface of the bath, and burns (in 
an ordinary puddling-furnace) with the blue flame peculiar to that gas. In 
puddling in a regenerative gas-furnace this blue flame cannot be observed, 
because the flame of this furnace is strictly neutral, and there is no free 

oxygen present to burn the carbonic oxide rising from the fluid mass a cii-- 

cumstance which by itself explains the superior results obtained from the 
gas furnace. 

It is popularly believed that the oxygen acting upon the silicon and carbon 
of the metal is derived directly from the flame, which should, on that account, 
be made to contain an excess of oxygen ; but the very appearance of the pro- 
cess proves that the combination between carbon and oxygen does not take 
place on the surface, but throughout the body of the fluid mass, and must be 
attributed to the reaction of the carbon upon the fluid cinder in separating 
from it metallic iron ; while as the removal of the silicon is stiU more rapid^ 
and is effected under a reducing flame, there is strong evidence that it also is 
oxidized rather by the oxygen of the cinder than by the flame*. 

But it has been arg-ued that, although the reaction takes place below the 
surface, the oxygen may, nevertheless, be derived from the flame, which may 
oxidize the iron on the surface, forming an oxide or cinder, which is then 
transferred to the carbon at the bottom, in consequence of the general agita- 
tion of the mass. 

This view I am, however, in a position to disprove by my recent expe- 
rience in melting cast steel upon the open flame-bed of a furnace, having 
invariably observed that no oxidation of the unprotected Jluid metal takes 
place so long as it contains carbon in however slight a proportion. 

But being desirous to ascertain by positive proof what is the behaviour of 
silicon and carbon in fluid cast iron when contact with the atmosphere or 
the flame of the furnace is strictly prevented, I instituted the following ex- 
periment at my Sample Steel Works at Birmingham : — 

* At the end of this paper is appended a Table showing the comparative quantities of 
carbon in various kinds of iron and steel. 

f2 



REPORT — 1868. 

Ten cwt. of Acadian pig metal and 1 cwt. of broken glass were charged 
upon the bed of a regenerative gas furnace (usually employed for melting 
steel upon the open hearth). 

The bed of this furnace was formed of pure siliceous sand, and one object 
in view was to ascertain whether any reaction takes place between silica and 
fluid cast metal, it being generally supposed that metallic silicon is producetl 
under such circumstances by the reducing action of the carbon in the metal 
upon the silica or silicates present. 

The cast metal employed in this experiment was Acadian pig containing 

Silicon 1-5 per cent. 

Carbon 4-0 „ 

In the course of an hour the metal and glass were completely melted. A 
sample was taken out, containing 

Silicon 1'08 per cent. 

^ , ck nn r '6 per cent, combined carbon. 

C^^'^*^" 2"^ " 12-3 „ graphite. 

At the end of the second hour another sample was taken out and tested, the 
result being, 

Silicon -96 per cent. 

Carbon 2-40 „ combined. 

The physical condition of the metal had now undergone a decided change ; 
the cai-bon having wholly combined with the iron, rendered it extremely 
hard. 

The amount of silicon having steadily diminished, these results prove 
that no silicon is taken up bij Jiuid east metal in contact with silica or siliccttes. 
The reduction of the amount of silicon in the metal might be accounted 
for by the presence of minute quantities of oxides of iron, produced in melting 
the pig metal, which oxides were now increased by the addition of haematite 
ore in small quantities. 

At the end of the thu-d hour another sample was taken, containing 

Silicon -76 per cent. 

Carbon 2-40 ,, combined, 

the metal being extremely hard as before. Additional doses of red ore were 
added gradually without agitating the bath, and the effect upon the fluid 
metal was observed from time to time. 

At the end of the fifth hour the samples taken from the fluid bath assumed 
a decidedly mild temper, when the addition of ore was stopped, and exactly 
six hours after being charged the metal was tapped and run into ingots ; it 
now contained 

Silicon '046 per cent. 

Carbon -2.50 „ 

Thus both the silicon and the carbon had been almost entii'ely removed from 
the pig metal by mere contact with metallic oxide, under a protecting glass 
covering. 

The quantity of red ore added to the bath amounted to 2 cwt., and the 
weight of metal tapped to 10 cwt. 5 lbs., being slightly in excess of the 
weight of pig metal charged. 
But the pig metal had contained 

Silicon 1-5 per cent. 

Carbon 4-0 „ 

Total 5-5 „ 



I 



ON PUDDLING IRON. 61 

whereas the final metal contained only -296 of silicon and carbon, showing 
a gain of metal of 

5-5 - -296 =5-204 per cent., 
or, including the 5 lbs. of increased weight, a total gain of 5-7 per cent, of 
metallic iron. 

Supported by these observations, I venture to assert that ilie removal of the 
Silicon and Carbon from the piff iron in the ordinary puddling or " boiling" 
process is due entirely to the action of the fluid oxide of iron present, and that 
an equivalent amouiit of metallic iron is reduced and added to the bath, which 
gain, however, is generally and unnecessarily lost again in the subsequent 
stages of the process. The relative quantity of metal thus produced from the 
fluid cinder admits of being accurately determined. 

The cinder may be taken to consist of Fe'' 0* (this being the fusible com- 
bination of peroxide and protoxide), together with more or less tribasio sili- 
cate (3 FeO, SiO''), which may be regarded as a neutral admixtiire, not 
affecting the argument, and silicic acid or silica is represented by Si 0^, from 
which it follows that for every four atoms of sUicon leaving the metal, nine 
atoms of metallic iron are set free ; and taking the atomic weights of iron 
= 28, and of silicon = 22-5, it follows that for every 

4x22-o=90-0 
grains of silicon abstracted from the metal, 

9x28 = 252 
grains of metallic iron are liberated from the cinder. 

Carbonic oxide, again, being represented by CO, and the cinder by Fe^ 0^, 
it follows that for every four atoms of carbon removed from the metal three 
atoms of iron are liberated ; and taking into account the atomic weights of 
carbon =6 and of iron =28, it follows that for every 

6x4=24 
grains of carbon oxidized, 

28x3=84 
grains of metallic iron are added to the bath. Assuming ordinary forge pig, 
after being remelted in the puddling-fui-nace, to contain about 3 per cent, of 
carbon and 2 per cent, of silicon, it follows from the foregoing that in re- 
moving this sUicon 

252 

-qjT X 2=5-6 per cent., and in removing the carbon 

84 
24X3=10-5 

per cent, of metallic iron is added to the bath, making a total increase of 

5.6 + 10-5-5=11-1 
per cent., or a charge of 420 lbs. of forge pig metal ought to yield 466 lbs. 
of wrought metal, whereas from an ordinary piiddling-furnace the actual 
yield would generally amount to only 370 lbs. (or 12 per cent, less than the 
charge), showing a difference of 96 lbs. between the theoretical and actual 
yield in each charge. 

This difference, amounting to fully 20 per cent., is due to the enormous 
waste by oxidation to which the iron is exposed after it has been " brought 
to nature " (by the removal of the carbon), when it is in the form of a 
granular or spongy metallic mass and during the process of forming it into 
balls. So great a waste of metal by oxidation seems at first sight almost 
incredible ; but considering the extent of surface exposed in the finely divided 
puddled mass, it is not at all exceptional, and is in fact almost unavoidable 
in a furnace of the ordinary construction, maintained as a puddling-fumace 
is at a welding heat. Many attempts have been made (for example, by 



63 REPORT— 1868. 

Chenot, Clay, Renton, and others) to produce iron directly from the purer 
ores, by reducing the ore in the first instance to a metallic sponge, and ball- 
ing up this sponge, which is a loose porous mass somewhat similar to spongy 
puddled iron, on the bed of a furnace ; but all these attempts have failed, 
simply on account of the gi-eat waste of iron, a waste amounting to from 25 to 
60 per cent, in balling up the sponge. Indeed the loss in an ordinary pud- 
dling-fumace would probably be gi-eater than 20 per cent, if the metal were 
not partly protected from the flame by the bath of cinder in which it lies ; 
for in one instance in which the cinder accidentaUy ran out of a puddling- 
furnace during the balling up of the charge, leaving the iron exposed to the 
flame, I found the yield reduced from the average of 413 lbs. down to 370 
lbs., showing an increased waste of 43 lbs., or over 10 per cent., due to the 
more complete exposure of the metal to the oxidizing action of the flame. 

In order to realize the theoretical result, a suflicient amount of oxides must 
have been supplied to effect the oxidation of the silicon and carbon of the 
pig iron, and to form a tribasic silicate of iron (3FeO, SiO^) with the silicic 
acid produced. 

The amount of oxide required may be readily ascertained. 

In taking the expression Fe^ 0*, the atomic weight of which is 

3x28 + 4x8=116, 

while that of the three atoms of iron alone is 

3x28=84, 

it foUows that 

116 , 
gj X 46=63-5 lbs. 

of cinder or oxide of iron are requisite to produce the 46 lbs. of reduced iron 
which were added to the bath. There must, however, remain a sufficient 
quantity of fluid cinder in the bath to form with the silicon (extracted from 
the iron) a tribasic silicate of iron, or about 60 lbs., making in all 124 lbs. of 
fettling, which would have to be added for each charge, a quantity which is 
generally exceeded in practice, not^vithstanding the inferior results univer- 
sally obtained. 

There remain for our consideration the sulphur and phosphorus, which being 
generally contained in Enghsh forge pig in the proportion of from -2 to '6 
per cent, each, can hardly affect the foregoing quantitative results, although 
they are of great importance as affecting the quality of the metal produced. 

It has been suggested by Percy that the separation of these ingredients 
may be due to Jiqualion. This I understand to mean that the crystals of 
metallic iron which form throughout the boiling mass when the metal " comes 
to nature," exclude foreign substances in the same way that the ice formed 
upon sea-water excludes the salt, and yields sweet water when remelted. 

According to this view, pig metal of inferior quality wUl really yield iron 
almost chemically pure, to which foreign ingredients are again added by me- 
chanical admixture with the surrounding cinder, or semireduced metal. 

It may be safely inferred that the freedom of the metal from impurities 
thus taken up will mainly depend upon the temperature, which should be 
high, in order to ensure the perfect fluidity and complete separation of the 
cinder. 

Led by these chemical considerations, and by practical attention to the 
subject, extending over several years, I am brought to the conclusion that the 
process of puddling, as practised at piresent, is extremely ivastefid in iron and 
fuel, immensely laborious, and yielding a metal only imperfectly separated from- 
its impurities. 

How nearly we shall be able to approach the results indicated by the che- 



ON PUDDLING IRON. 



63 



mical reasoning here adopted, I am not prepared to say ; but that much can 
be accomplished by the means actually at our doors is proved by the result 
of the working of a puddling-furnace erected eighteen months since to my 
designs by the Bolton Steel and Iron Company in Lancashire. 

This furnace consists of a puddling-chamber of very nearly the ordinary 
form, which is heated, however, by means of a regenerative gas furnace, a 
system of which the principle is now sufficiently well established to render a 
very detailed description here unnecessary. The general arrangement of the 
furnace is shown in the accompanying illustrations. It consists of two 
essential parts : — 

The Gas-producer, in which the coal or other fuel is converted into a com- 
bustible gas ; and 

The Furnace, with its " regenerators " or chambers for storing the waste 
heat of the flame, and giving it up to the incoming air or gas. 




Scale -j^ inch to a foot. 



Fig. 1. — Section of Gas-producer. 

The Gas-producer is shown in fig. 1 ; it is a rectangular firebrick chamber, 
one side of which, b, is inclined at an angle of from 45° to 60°, and is pro- 
vided with a grate, c, at its foot. The fuel, which may be of any descrip- 
tion, such as coal, coke, lignite, peat, or even sawdust, is filled in through a 
hopper. A, at the top of the incline, and falls in a thick bed upon the grate. 

Air is admitted at the grate, and, in burning, its oxygen unites with the 
carbon of the fuel, forming carbonic-acid gas, which rises slowly through 



64 REPORT — 1868. 

tlie ignited mass, taking up an additional equivalent of carbon, and thus 
forming carbonic oxide. The heat thus produced distils off carburetted 
hydrogen and other gases and vapours from the fuel as it descends gradually 
towards the grate, and the carbonic oxide already named, diluted by the 
inert nitrogen of the air, and by any small quantity of unreduced carbonic 
acid, and mixed with these gases and vapours distilled from the raw fuel, is 
finally led off by the gas-flue to the furnace. The ashes and clinkers that 
accumulate in the grate are removed at intervals of one or two days. 

E is a pipe for the purpose of supplying a little water to the ash-pit, to be 
decomposed as it evaporates and comes in contact with the incandescent fuel, 
thus forming some hydrogen and carbonic oxide, which serve to enrich the 
gas ; G is a small plughole by which the state of the fire may be inspected, 
and the fuel moved by a bar if necessary ; and d is a sliding damper by which 
the gas-producer may be shut off at any time from the flue. 

It is necessary to maintain a slight outward pressure through the whole 
length of the gas-flue leading to the furnaces, in order to prevent the burn- 
ing of the gas in the flue through the indraught of air at crevices in the 
brickwork. 

Where the furnaces stand much higher than the gas-producers, the re- 
quired pressure is at once obtained ; but more frequently the furnaces and 
gas-producers are placed nearly on the same level, and some special arrange- 
ment is necessary to maintain th^ pressure in the flue. The most simple 
contrivance for this purpose is the " elevated cooling-tube." The hot gas 
is carried up by a brick stack, n, to a height of eight or ton feet above the top 
of the gas- producer, and is led through a horizontal sheet-iron cooling-tube, 
J (fig. 1), from which it passes down either directly to the furnace, or into 
an underground brick flue. 

The gas rising from the producer at a temperature of about 1000° Fahr., 
is cooled as it passes along the overhead tube, and the descending column is 
consequently denser and heavier than the ascending column of the same 
length, and continually overbalances it. The system forms, in fact, a siphon 
in which the two limbs are of equal length, but the one is flUed with a heavier 
gaseous fluid than the other. 

In erecting a number of gas-producers and furnaces, I generally prefer to 
group the producers together, leading the gas from all into one nuiin flue, 
from which the several furnaces draw their supplies. 

The Puddling-Furnace proper is shown in figures 2, 3, and 4. 

Fig. 2 is a front elevation of the furnace, showing the gas-reversing valve 
and flues in section. 

Fig. 3 is a longitudinal section at a, b, c, d (fig. 4). 

Fig. 4 is a sectional plan at l, m (fig. 3). 

The peculiarity of the regenerative gas furnace, as applied cither to 
puddling or to any other process in which a high heat is reqiured, consists 
in the utilization in the furnace of nearly the whole of the heat of combus- 
tion of the fuel, by heating the entering gas and air by means of the waste 
heat of the products of combustion after they have left the furnace, and are 
of no further use for the operation being carried on. The Avaste heat is, so 
to speak, intercepted on its passage to the chimney by means of masses of 
firebrick stacked in an open or loose manner in certain chambers, called 
"regenerator chambers," c, e, e . c^ (fig. 3). 

On first lighting the furnace the gas passes in through the gas-regulating 
valve, B (fig. 2), and the gas-reversing valve, b', and is led into the flue, m, 
and thence into the bottom of the regenerator chamber, c (fig. 3) ; while the 



ON PUDDLING IRON. 65 

air enters through a corresponding " air-reversing valve," behind the valve, 




Fig. 2.— Front Elevation of Puddling-Furnace. Scale ^ inch to a foot. 

b' (fig. 2), and passes thence through the flue, n, into the regenerator cham- 
ber, E (fig. 3). 




Fig. 3 —Longitudinal Section at A, b, c, d (flg. 4). 



66 



REPORT 1868. 



The currents of gas and air, both quite cold, rise separately through the 
regenerator chambers, c and e (fig. 3), and pass up through the flues, o, g, and 
F, F, F (fig. 4) respectively, into the furnace above, where they meet and are 
lighted, burning and producing a moderate heat. The products of combus- 




Fig. 4.— Sectional Plau at l, m (fig. 3). 

tion pass away through a similar set of flues at the other end of the furnace 
into the regenerator chambers c , e^ (fig. 3), and thence through the flues 
m', n' (fig. 2), and through the gas- and air-reversing valves into the chimney- 
flue, 0. The waste heat is thus deposited in the ujiper courses of open fii'e- 
brick work filling the chambers, c,, e, (fig. 3), so heating them up, while the 
lower portion and the chimney-flue are still quite cool ; then, after about an 
hour, the reversing-valves, b' (fig. 2) (through which the air and gas are 
admitted to the furnace) are reversed, by means of the levers, p, and the air 
and gas enter through those regenerator chambers, e^, c, (fig. 3), that have 
just been heated by the waste products of combustion, and in passing up 
through the open brickwork they become heated, and tJien, on meeting and 
entering into combustion in the furnace, n, d, they produce a very high tem- 
perature, probably 500° Fahr. higher than when admitted cold ; the waste 
heat from such higher temperature of combustion heating up the previously 
cold regenerator chambers, c, e, to a correspondingly higher heat. 

After about an hour's work, the reversing-valves, b' (fig. 2), are again 
reversed, and the air and gas enter the first pair of regenerator chambers, 
c, E (fig. 3), but which are now very hot, and therefore the air and gas 
become very hot, and enter the fm*nace in this state, meeting and entering 
into combustion, and thus producing a stiU higher temperature, probably 
500° higher still, and again heating the second pair of regenerator chambers, 
c,, E^, so much higher, which enables them to again heat the air and gas to a 
stiU higher degree, when the valves, b' (fig. 2), are again reversed. Thus an 
accumulation of heat and an accession of temperature is obtained, step by step, 
so to speak, until the furnace is as hot as is required ; for unless cold mate- 
rials are put in to be heated, and thus abstract heat, the temperature rises as 
long as the furnace holds together, and the supply of gas and air is con- 
tinued. The heat is at the same time so thoroughly abstracted from the pro- 
ducts of combustion by the regenerators, that the chimney-flue remains 
always quite cool. The command of the temperature of the furnace and of 
the quality of the flame is rendered complete by means of the gas and air re- 
gulating valves shown at b, in fig. 2, and by the chimney-damper. These 
are adjusted to any required extent of opening by the notched rods, q, e, and 
s (fig. 2), respectively, so that, having the power of producing as high a tem- 
perature as can be desired, there is also the power of varying it according to 
the requirements in each case. 

The bed of the furnace, d d (fig. 3), is of the ordinary construction, formed 
of iron plates, and is provided with water-bridges at the ends, as shown, to 



ON PUDDLING IRON. 



67 



protect the "fettling" (or oxide of iron used for lining the furnace) from 
being melted away. The overflow from one of the water-bridges is led into 
a sheet-iron tank below the bed, and then away. The evaporation from tliis 
tank keeps the bottom plates cool and preserves the cinder covering them 
from melting off, and the steam is carried away by a draught of air entering 
through two holes, i, i (fig. 2), below the tap-hole, and passing off by small 
ventilating shafts, k, k (fig. 4), at the back of the furnace. 

A heating chamber, h (fig. 3), is arranged at each end of the furnace, in 
which the charge of pig iron may be heated to redness before it is introduced 
into the puddling-chamber, d d. 

The advantages of this furnace for puddling are, that the heat can be 
raised to an almost unlimited degree, that the flame can be made at will 
oxidizing, neutral, or reducing, without interfering with the temperature, 
that indraughts of air and cutting flames are avoided, and that the gas- 
fuel is free from ashes, dust, and other impurities which are carried into an 
ordinary puddling-furnace from the grate. In this last respect, the new 
furnace presents the same advantages as puddling ^vith wood. 

The following Tables give the working results which were obtained from 
this furnace, as compared with the results obtained at the same time in an 
ordinary furnace from the same pig (the ordinary forge mixture). 

Regenerative Gas Furnace. 
Table No. 1. 



Date. 


No. of 
heat. 


Time charged. 


First ball out. 


Metal 
charged. 


Yield. 


First shift. 






h. m. 


h. m. 


lbs. 


lbs. 


1867. 


1 


5 25 


6 32 


410 


392 


May 7. 


2 


6 45 


7 50 


433 


396 




3 


8 8 


9 9 


430 


410 




4 


9 15 


10 7 


425 


426 




5 


10 20 


. 11 22 


426 


430 




6 


11 40 


12 46 


412 


412 


Second shift. 




1 


1 48 


2 47 


428 


410 




2 


2 50 


3 47 


420 


414 




3 


3 56 


4 53 


426 


418 




4 


5 


6 3 


432 


417 




5 


6 5 


7 12 


425 


407 




6 


7 20 


8 15 


420 


422 


Tliird shift. 




1 


9 10 


10 15 


423 


414 




2 


10 25 


11 30 


422 


412 




3 


11 35 


12 40 


420 


420 




4 


12 45 


2 


430 


410 




5 


2 10 


3 10 


424 


418 




6 


3 16 


4 20 


420 


400 



G8 



REPOHT — 1868. 







Table No. 1 


(continued). 






Date. 


No. of 
heat. 


Time charged. 


First ball out. 


Metal 
charged. 


Yield. 






First shift. 




1867. 




h. m. 


h. m. 


lbs. 


lbs. 


May 28. 


1 
2 


5 38 

6 50 


6 45 

8 


428 

422 


402 
400 




3 


8 6 


9 8 


430 


390 




4 


9 15 


10 25 


426 


407 




5 


10 85 


11 45 


426 


420 




6 


11 55 


1 8 


430 


416 


Second shift. 




1 


2 


3 1 


422 


422 




2 


3 6 


4 


424 


415 




8 


4 5 


5 18 


423 


424 




4 


5 23 


6 27 


423 


415 




5 


6 88 


7 46 


427 


420 




6 


7 49 


8 50 


420 


406 


Third shift. 




1 


10 


11 20 


420 


424 




2 


11 25 


11 38 


420 


410 




3 


12 40 


1 45 


428 


412 




4 


1 50 


2 58 


425 


420 




5 


8 13 


4 20 


430 


418 





6 


4 30 


5 35 


422 


426 



cwt. qrs. lbs. 
132 2 2 



cwt. qrs. lbs. 
186 1 2 



Total yield 132 2 2 Total charge 

being at the rate of 20 cwt. 2 qrs. 2 lbs. of pig iron per ton of puddled bar. 

Ordinary Furnace. 
Table No. 2. 







Weight 


Weight of 






Weight 1 Weight of 


Date. 


Time. 


of metal 


puddled bar 


Date. 


Time. 


of metal 


puddled bar 






charged. 


produced. 






charged. 


produced. 








lbs. 








lbs. 


1867. 


2 s;p s 




424 


1867. 


g §.s s 




482 


May 17 


were r 

ch char{ 

were pi 

12hou 


r-H 

00 


425 
405 
480 


May 17 


were i 
ch char 
were pi 

12hou 


CO 


426 
420 
422 




g S^ ^^ 


^ 


480 




03 s5 ^ r* 


-* 


422 




a u '^ '^ 
y o as ^ 


CD 


488 




9 S 2 t> 

•^ eg ^ ffi 


(3 

03 


425 




<a ^^'t 


3 


416 






^ 


480 








456 








450 








410 




^ -2^-5 




410 



ON PUDDLING IRON. 69 

Mean charge 484 lbs. 

Mean yield 426 „ 

or 22 cwt. 2 qrs. 20 lbs. of pig iron per ton of puddled bar. 

It will be observed that the ordinary furnace received charges of 484 lbs. 
each, and pelded on an average 426 lbs., representing a loss of 12 per cent., 
whereas the gas furnace received charges averaging 424 lbs., and yielded 
413 lbs., representing a loss of less than 2-6 per cent. 

It is important to observe, moreover, that the gas furnace turned out eighteen 
heats in three shifts per twenty-four hours, instead of only twelve heats 
per twenty-four hours, which was the limit of production in the ordinary 
furnace. 

This rate of working was attained without the employment of any 
arrangement for heating the pig iron before charging it into the furnace, 
the heating-chambers at the ends not having been used. The adoption of 
the plan of heating the metal beforehand (a system already extensively in 
use both in this country and on the Continent) effects a further saving of ten 
to fifteen minutes in the time required for working each charge, as weU as a 
considerable economy in fuel. 

The quality of the iron produced from the gas furnace was proved de- 
cidedly superior to that from the ordinary furnace, being what is technically 
called " best best" in the one, and " best " in the other case, from the same 
pig iron of average quality. 

The following was the result of an analysis of an inferior English pig iron 
before and after being puddled in the gas furnace : — 

Pig Metal. Puddled Bar. 

Sulphur -08 Sulphur -017 

Phosphorus 1-16 Phosphorus -237 

Silicon 1-97 Silicon -200 

Iron and Carbon (by Iron by difference .... 99-546 

difference) 96-79 



100-00 100-000 

showing the extent to which foreign matters are actually removed by the 
process of puddling. 

These analyses were made a few days ago by Mr. A. "WiUis in my labora- 
tory at Birmingham. 

The economy of fuel was also greatly in favour of the gas furnace, but 
could not be accurately ascertained, because some mill-furnaces were worked 
from the same set of producers. StiU, judging from the experience of 
several years in the working of regenerative gas furnaces as reheating or 
mill-furnaces and as glass-furnaces, the saving of fuel in puddling cannot be 
less than 40 to 50 per cent, in quantity, while a much cheaper quality may 
be used. 

The consumption of "fettling" was, however, greater in the gas furnace, 
and the superior yield was naturally attributed by the forge managers to 
that cause, although the writer held a different opinion. 

The gas furnace, however, had not been provided with water-bridges ; 
these were subsequently added, and the furnace put to work again in 
February last, since which time it has been worked continuously. 

The result of the water-bridges has been that the amount of " fettling " 
required is reduced to an ordinary proportion, the average quantity of red 
ore used being 92-6 lbs. per charge, besides the usual allowance of bulldog, 



70 



REPORT 18G8. 



while the yield per charge of 483-3 lbs. of grey forge pig has been increased 
to 485 lbs. of puddled bar, as shown by the following return of a series of 
eighty consecutive charges in June last : — 

Reijenerative Gas Furnace. 
Table No. 3. 



Date. 


No. of 
heats. 


Total charges and yields. 


Average 
per heat. 


June 1868. 


80 


lbs. cwt. qr. lbs. 

Pig iron charged 38,668=345 1 

Puddled bar returned 38,808=346 1 25 
Red ore for "fettling" 7,406= 66 14 


lbs. 

483-3 

485 
92-6 



proving that the yield of puddled bar slightly exceeds the charge of pig metal 
(representing a saving of fully 12 per cent, over the ordinary furnace), ivhile 
the superiority of quality in favour of the gas furnace is fully maintained. 

It is also worthy of remark that these results are obtained regularly by 
the ordinary puddlers of the works, and that no repairs have been necessary 
to the gas puddling-furnace since November last, the roof being reported to 
be still in excellent condition. 

In these investigations I have confined myself to the puddling of ordinary 
English forge pig, in order to avoid confusion ; but it is self-evident that the 
same reasoning also applies, in a modified degree, to white pig metal or 
refined metal, the use of which I shoiild not, however, advocate. 

Water-bridges. — Regarding the water-bridges, I was desirous to ascertain 
the expenditure of heat at which the saving of " fettling " and greater ease 
of working was eff'ected. The water passing through the bridges was accord- 
ingly measured by Mr. W. Hackney (who has also furnished me with the 
other working data), and found to amount to 25 lbs. per minute, heated 
40° Fahr. This represents 60,000 units of heat i)er hour, or a consumption 
not exceeding 8 lbs. to 10 lbs. of solid fuel per hour, an expenditure very 
much exceeded by the advantages obtained where water or coohng-cisterns 
are available. 

The labour of the puddler and of his underhand being very much shortened 
and facilitated by means of the furnace, I should strongly recommend the 
introduction of three working shifts of 8 hours each per 24 hours, each shift 
representing the usual number of heats, by which arrangement both the 
employer and the employed would be materially benefited. 

The labour of the puddler may be further reduced with advantage by the 
inti'oduction of the mechanical " rabble," which has already made conside- 
rable progress on the Continent. 

By working in this manner, a regenerative gas puddling-furnace, of ordi- 
nary dimensions, would produce an annual yield of about 940 tons of bar 
iron, of superior quality, from the same weight of grey pig metal and the 
ordinary proportion of " fettling." 

In conclusion I may state that a considerable number of these puddHng- 
furnaces have been erected by me abroad, and that in this country they are 
also being taken up by the Monkbridge Iron Company, Leeds, and a few 
other enterprising firms. 

The construction of these furnaces has been still further improved lately 
by the application of horizontal regenerators, to save deep excavations, and 



ON PUDDLING IRON. 



71 



by other arrangements, whereby the first cost is diminished, and the working 
of the furnace facilitated. 

Table No. 4. 

Percentage of Carhon and Silicon contained in various kinds of cast and 

wrought iron and steel. 



Description. 



Spiegeleisen (New Jersey, U. S.) 

„ (German) 

„ (Miisen) 

Lofsta pig iron (Dannemora, Sweden) 

Grey pig iron No. 1 . (Tow Law) 

Grey pig iron No. 1. (Acadian Iron Co.) 

Grey Foundry pig iron No. 1. (Netherton, 1 

South Staffordshire) J 

Grey Foundry pig iron No. 2. Ditto, ditto... 
Grey Forge pig iron Ditto, ditto... 

Forge pig iron Ditto, ditto... 

Strong Forge pig iron Ditto, ditto... 

Grey pig iron (Dowlais) 

Mottled pig iron „ 

White pig iron ,, , 

Mottled pig iron (Wellingborough) 

White pig iron (Blaenavon) 

Refined iron (Bromford, S. StafTordshire) 

Puddled steel, hard ( Konigshiitte) 

,, ,, mild (South Wales) 

Cast steel: Wootz , 

„ for flat files 

„ (Huntsman's) for cutters 

,, for chisels 

., Die steel (welding) 

„ Double Shear steel , 

,. Quarry Drills 

,, Mason's Tools 

„ Spades 

„ Railway Tyres 

,, Rails 

,, Plates for Ships 

,, very mild (melted on 1 

open hearth) J 

Hard bar iron (South Wales) 

„ ,, (Kloster, Sweden) 

,, ,, (Russian) 

)f jj j» ■ 

Boiler plates (Russell's Hall, S. Staffordshire) . 
Armour „ (Weardale Iron Co.), too steely. . , 

Bar iron (Lofsta, Sweden) 

. „ (Gysinge, Sweden) 

„ (osterby, Sweden) 

Armour plates (Beale & Co.) 

,, „ (Thames Iron Co.) 

,, ,, (Low Moor) 



Carbon. 


Silicon. 


per cent. 


per cent. 


6-900 


0^100 


5-440 


0-179 


4-32.3 


0-997 


4-809 


0-176 


2-795 


4-414 


3-500 


4-840 


3-07 


1-48 


3-04 


1-27 


3-12 


M6 


3-03 


0-83 


2-81 


0-57 


3-14 


2-16 


2-95 


1-96 


2-84 


1-21 


210 


211 


2-31 


1-11 


3-070 


0-630 


1-380 


-006 


-501 


•106 


1-645 


-042 


1-2 




1-0 




•75 




•74 




•7 




-64 




•6 




•32 




32 to 27 




26 to 24 




•25 




•18 




•410 


-080 
•252 


-386 


•340 


trace 
•062 


•272 


•190 


•144 


•170 


•110 


•087 


•115 


•087 


•056 


•054 


■028 


•044 


•174 


•033 


-160 


•016 


•122 



Authority. 



Henry. 

Schafhiiutl. 

Fresenius. 

Henry. 

Riley. 

Tookey. 

Woolwich Arsenal. 



Riley. 



Woolwich Arsenal. 

Percy. 

Dick. 

Braims. 

Parry. 

Henry. 

A. Willis. 



Various. 

A. WilUs. 

Schafhiiutl. 
Henry. 



Percy. 
Henry. 



Percy. 

Tookey. 



72 REPORT — 1868. 

Fourth Report on the Structure and Classification of the Fossil 
Crustacea. By Henry Woodward^ F.G.S., F.Z.S., of the British 

Museum. 

(Plate II.) 

During the past year no new Silurian forms of Crustacea have come under 
my notice, save the series which I had the pleasure to exhibit at Dundee. 
Of these, belonging to the Order Merostomata, the following have been 
fully described and figured : — 

a. EnETPTEBID^*. 

1 Eurypterus (Fterygotus) punctatus, Salter, sp. 

2. scorpioides, sp. uov. 

3. obesus, sp. nov. 

4. Pterygotus raniceps, sp. nov. 

b. LlMULIDiEt. 

Neolimulus falcatus, sp. et gen. nov. 

Perhaps the most interesting point which I have been able to determine 
in connexion with these Upper-SUurian forms is the occurrence of gill-plates 
in P/eri/gotus in precisely the same relative position as we find they occupy 
in Lhmdus at the present day, but differing in form. These leaf-like 
branchiae occur in rows, and still exhibit their highly vascular structure, and 
indicate by their aspect in the fossil state their extreme tenuity. 

It is very interesting to me, and I cannot but oelieve that it will also in- 
terest others working at the Invcrtehrata, to find the number of points which 
Fteri/r/otus possesses in common with the Scorpionidce among the Arachnida. 

If the organs called " combs," which are attached to the first thoracic seg- 
ment of Scorpio, be rudimentary gills, not wholly aborted, we have another 
point of analogy gained between the two J. 

That rudimentary gills existed in Pterygotus at the border of the segments, 
and in that position in which the pulmonary sacs in Scoi^^io are found, I 
have evidence both from the Devonian and Silurian species. 

The position also of the ovaries in Pteryyotus and /Scorp/o is the same, 
though in the former the opening to the sacs is double, as in Limidus and 
other Crustacea, whereas in Scorpio it is externally central as in Insects. A 
bilobed plate conceals the apertui-es in both forms. My conclusion is that 
there is good ground for assuming that Pterygotus represented, in Palaeozoic 
time, the aquatic condition of Scorpio, just as the aquatic larvae of Libellula 
represent to day the imago of a futai'e season. 

I have lately received specimens from the Carboniferous shales of Carluke 
of a new form of Crustacean allied to Cyclus. I was at first doubtful whe- 
ther the Cyclus radialis of M. de Koninck, from Belgium, reaUy represented 
the Agnostus radicdis of Prof. Phillips, from the Carboniferous Limestone of 
BoUand, Yorkshii'e. I have fortunately been able to see and examine the 
original specimen of Cyclus radialis of De Koninck, and find that it does agree 
with the figure in Phillips's ' Geology of Yorkshire ' (vol. ii. t. 22. fig. 25) ; 
but it entirely disagrees with M. de Koninck's magnified figure. I have 
therefore redi-awn the Belgian form, and propose to figure it by the side 
of the new British form from Carluke. (See Plate II. figs. 1 & 2.) 

* See Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. 1868, vol. xxiv. pp. 289-294, pis. 9 & 10. 
t See Geol. Mag. 1868, vol. v. p. 1, pi. 1. figs. 1 & 1«. 

^ I am preparing injections of recent specimens of Scorpio in the hope of being able to 
demonstrate tliis point certainly. 



■i>'/'Iief>oti BriL-issoc. 1868. 



flcct.e n 



*^- t^Wv^ 





U Moodytca-S. deV^ 




JJV.Zourv iadpf 



Bnt7s7/ Fossil Cr//shzc€^i' 



ON THE STRUCTURE AND CLASSIFICATION OF THE FOSSIL CRUSTACEA. 7^J 

Cifclus radialis (PI. II. fig. 1) is an elegant little shield-shaped buckler 
5 lines long by 4 in breadth ; its general form is hemispherical, with a 
narrow smooth border; the shield is divided down its centre by a raised 
longitudinal ridge, from which radiate seven diverging ribs whose rounded 
ends reach the lateral and posterior border. 

The anterior cephalic portion occupies about a quarter of the entire shield, 
and is ornamented by the spreading oiit of the raised central ridge, and by 
two subcentral rounded prominences which correspond in position to eye- 
spots, but are not facetted. The ribs are ornamented each with from three 
to five tubercles irregidarly disposed over their surface. 

The new form of Cyclus (PI. II. fig. 2) discovered by Dr. Eankine of 
Carluke, in the Carboniferous shales of that place, is most remarkable in 
appearance, and certainly far more like a parasitical Crustacean than the 
Cyclus radialis, which certainly seems to have been furnished vsdth a hard 
calcareous test. A comparison of the two, however, leaves no doubt in my 
mind in referring them both to one genus. 

The shield is about 4 lines in diameter, and conveys the idea of an ex- 
tremely thin test flattened out on the soft shale by pressure. The eye-spots 
occupy the same relative position as in 0. radialis ; but the divisions which 
represent the costae are six, not seven in nimiber in this species, and these 
anastomose together on the lateral border, and diverge, not from a median 
raised ridge, but a broad V-shaped central area. One is reminded by this 
Crustacean of the appearance of Argulus, Bojyyriis, and other recent parasitic 
forms, and also of the disk-shaped Discinoearis, from which it diSers, how- 
ever, in the prominent eyes and costated shield. 

Por this new species (Plate II. fig. 2) I propose the name of Cyclus Ban- 
Jrini, after its discoverer. 

In describing Cyclus radialis, M. de Koninck observes : — • 

" There is no doubt this animal should be ranged with the Crustacea, 
and in Milne-Edwards's order Trilobita abnormalia and battoidea, near to 
Aynostus." 

M. de Koninck also thinks it probable that the body of Cyclus was soft and 
very contractile, that it was a parasite, and that the two tubercles which 
we have called the eyes really covered those organs — and, further, that the 
ribbed border protected the feet when the animal was in repose. 

We must differ from M. de Koninck in referring this form to the Trilobita. 
If truly an adult, it must be placed near to Apus with the other shield- 
bearing PhyUopoda ; if a larval form, it may have been the early stage of 
Prestwichia or some other of the Coal-measures Liimdidce. Nor do we think 
it in the least probable that the shield of Cyclus radialis was flexible or con- 
tractile, its original segments being completely soldered together into one 
piece. 

Hermann von Meyer has figured a small Crustacean head-shield under the 
name of Halicyne agnota, and a second species, H. la.va*, from the Mus- 
chelkalk of Eottweil in Germany. Goldfuss originally figured it as an 
Olenus (0. serotinus) ; afterwards it was referred to Linndus by Miinster 
(Beitrage, 1841, Bd. i. t. v. f. 1). To both these conclusions Meyer demurs— 
to Linndus because no eyes are visible, and to the Trilobita because none are 
found older than the Carboniferous. 

The form of this head-shield is extremely like that of Arjnostus ; but the 
Aynostidoi are confined to the Lower Silurian strata, between which and the 

* See Piilaeontographica, 1847, vol. i. p. lo4. 
18G8. 



74 REPOKT — 1868. 

Trias are the long intervening series of Upper SUurian, Devonian, Carboni- 
ferous, and Permian formations. I consider this form may more properly 
be placed with Bunodes, Hemiaspis, &c. among the aberrant forms of the 
Limulidce, of which it may possibly have been a larval state. 

Among the Secondary forms of Crustacea I have described the following 
from British specimens during the past year. 

Palinurina longipes. Lower Lias, Lyme. (Geol. Mag. 1868, vol. v. 

p. 260, pi. 14. fig. .5.) 

Pseudoghjpheagrandis. Lower Lias, Weston. (Ibid. p. 353, pi. 17. fig. 1 .) 
Ghjphea rostmta. Lower Lias, Weston. (Ibid. p. 354, pi. 17. fig. 2.) 

Heeri. Lower Lias, Lyme Regis. (Ibid. p. 355, pi. 17. fig. 3.) 

Tomesii. Lower Lias, Welford HiU, Stratford-on-Avon. (Ibid. 

p. 356, pi. 17. fig. 4.) 

I have now to notice another species, of the genus Penaus of rabricius, 
from the Lower Lias, Northampton. This is a remarkably persistent form ; 
and the genus is actually found now living in the Mediterranean, if Dr. 
Oppel's determination be correct, which I feel little doubt in endorsing. 

This handsome Crustacean (see Plate II. fig. 3) was not less than 9^ 
inches in length when measured along the dorsal line, the carapace being 
about 3 inches, and the abdomen 6| ; the rostrum was very strongly serrated 
as in the Pcdcemonidce, but the serrations have been abraded in the fossil. 
This form most nearly resembles in size and appearance the Penwus speciosus 
of Miinster, but diff'ers slightly in the form of the border of the abdominal 
segments, and also in the direction of the strong and deeply forked sulcus 
which marks each side of the latero-anterior portion of the carapace near 
the base of the great antennae. The surface of the carapace and segments 
was highly enamelled, some portions of which may stiU be observed in the 
fossil. I have named it Pence-iis Sharpii, after Mr. Samuel Sharp, F.G.S., who 
is the discoverer of the fossil. 

Of the Cretaceous Crustacea two have been noticed by me, viz. a new 
Cirripede from the Norwich Chalk, Pyrgoma cretacea (Geol. Mag. vol. v. 1868, 
p. 258, pi. 14. figs. 1 & 2), and Necrocarcinus tricarinatus, from the Gault 
of Folkestone (ibid. p. 259, pi. 14. fig. 4). 

I am now enabled to add two new species of a family not hitherto before 
noticed in a fossil state in Britain, the fanuly of the TJialassinidce. 

This curious group contains several genera and species. Those of which 
we know the habits, burrow in the sand, which they readily excavate with 
their feet. 

Although frequently foimd fossU, especially in the Upper Chalk of Maes- 
tricht, of Prance, and Bohemia, we rarely see atracc of their bodies. Even 
in dredging, the usual thing is to find the two fore claws only in the dredge 
(if any part of them is taken at aU). In the fossil state it is to be also 
anticipated that their occurrence would be rare, as the integument of their 
bodies (like that of the Hermit-Crab and others which conceal themselves 
in foreign substances) is extremely thin, and often soft. I may compare 
the difference of their test to that which exists between a lady's hand encased 
from infancy in a kid glove, and the hand of a savage who uses his digits 
constantly for delving in the ground after roots. In the one, the covei-ing 
membrane is thin and soft ; in the other, hard and horny. One might even 
go further and imagine (liy repeated exclusion from use) the nails would 
be no longer developed ; certainly they are less powerful as ofiensive weapons. 
This is precisely what we find docs take place in the burrowing Crustacea ; 



ON THE BRITISH FOSSIL CORALS. 75 

the hard and shelly epimeral pieces of the hody-segments are not properly 
developed (as they are in the common lobster and other active swimming 
long-tailed forms), and the lobes of the tail are in like manner mdimentary. 
Such changes I cannot but conceive to have been the result of long habit, 
arising from the disuse of the organs of a part of the body, causing first their 
gradual reduction in size, and finally resulting in their abortion. The 
two new species of TlmlassinidcB I have to notice belong to the genus 
Callianassa, hitherto characteristic of the Maestricht Chalk, and found also 
living in our ovni seas. We are now able to take it back to the Lower 
Greensand on the one hand, and link together the Cretaceous and Recent 
periods by a species in the Eocene beds of Hempstead, Isle of Wight. I have 
named the first Callianassa Neocomiensis, from the Greensand, Colru Glen, 
Belfast (PI. II. fig. 5), and the second Callianassa Batei (after Mr. C. Spence 
Bate), fi-om Hempstead Upper Marine series. Isle of Wight. (Plate IT. fig. 4.) 

This is a genus which should be looked out for by collectors of Upper- 
Chalk fossils in Norwich. 

The Plates exhibited are intended for the second part of my Monograph on 
the fossil Merostomata, which now awaits its turn of publication. I wish to 
add a word here in favour of the Palseontographical Society, as deserving of 
support, as a means of enabling authors writing upon special branches of 
Palaeontology to secure the publication of their researches. If more sub- 
scribers would only come forward in its aid, more authors would be enabled 
to make their work known, and much time would be saved. The last volume 
issued is an illustration of what they give for their annual guinea subscrip- 
tion*. 

Casts of the largest of the Paleozoic Crustacea have already been prepared 
and coloured, and copies sent to Liverj)ool, Dublin, Oxford, Cambridge, 
Edinburgh, Glasgow, Norwich, and elsewhere, for the Museums of those 
cities.- 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE H. 

Eig. 1. Cyclm radialis, Phillips, sp. From the Carboniferous Limestone of BoUand, 

Lancashire, and Vise, Belgium. Enlarged five times the natural size. 
Fig. 2. Ci/clm Eankini, sp. nov. From the Coal-shales, Carluke, Scotland. Magnified 

five times. 
Fig. 3. Penmus Skarpii, sp. nov. Lower Lias, Northampton. A fourth less than the 

natural size (the outlined parts are restorations). 
Fig. 4. Callianassa Batei, sp. nov. Upper Marine series, Hempstead, Isle of Wight. 

Natural size. 
Fig. 5. Callianassa Neocomiensis, sp. nov. Greensand, Colin Glen, Belfast. Natural size. 



First Report on the British Fossil Corals. 
By P. Martin Duncan, M.B. Lond., F.R.S., F.G.S., Sec. Geol. Soc. 

This Eeport consists of notes of observations made upon the Coral-faunae 
described by MM. Milne-Edwards and Jules Haime in the monograph of the 
•British Fossil Corals' (Palseontographical Society, 18.50), of descriptions of 
new and unpublished species, of notices of species published by me in 1867 
and 1868, and of examinations into the affinities of the forms and their 
geological positions. 

* The last volume issued contained 45 Plates (9 of which were double quarto) and 238 
4to pages of text. 

g2 



76 REPOKT 1868. 

The fossil Corals of the Crag, Brockenhurst beds, Eocene deposits. Upper 
and Lower "Wliite Chalk strata, Upper Greensand and Red Chalk rock of Hun- 
stanton are considered, and also those of the Rhaetic beds and of the great 
Liassic series. 

The fossil Corals of the Lias have been described by me and published in 
two parts by the Palaeontographical Society during the last twelve months. 
This great fauna, with- the exception of one species, is new to Great Britain, 
and has been illustrated in seventeen plates. 

The fossil Corals of the Red Chalk of Hunstanton have just been litho- 
graphed in one plate ; and those from the interesting Tertiary deposit at 
Brockenhurst have been already published and illustrated (1866). 

The Report dwells fully upon these three new faunae. The species de- 
scribed by MM. Milne-Edwards and Jules Haime, from the strata whose 
Corals are noticed here, are forty-three in number. 

. I am glad to add notices of 115 species new to Great Britain, twenty-five 
of the species having been described in the Coral-faunae of the Continent. 

LIST. 

New Eocene species 12 Described elsewhere 2 

„ Brockenhurst 11 „ „ 2 

„ Upper Chalk 10 „ „ 1 

„ Upper Greensand . . 4 „ „ 2 

,, Hunstanton Red rock 2 „ „ 2 

Middle Lias .... 2 „ „ 

Zone of Amm. raricostatus 1 -■ r> q 

„ Bucklaudi.. / ^^ " " -^ 

„ „ angulatus ..37 „ „ 13 



>) 



planorbis . . 2 „ „ 1 



Total new species .... 90 25 

25 



115 



Species described by MM. Milne-Edwards and Jules Haime, 43. Total 
species, 158. 

The labour of passing so many forms under review, and of superintending 
twenty- six plates published by the Palaeontographical Society, two plates in 
the Philosophical Transactions, and one in the Journal of the Geological 
Society, may perhaps be explanatory of the impossibility of my concluding 
the Report on the Cretaceous Coral-fauna. 

The new species from the Gault, however, have been lithographed but not 
published ; but those from the Upper Greensand and Neocomian have not yet 
been drawn. 

There remains for a future Report the description of the fossil Corals of 
the Gault, Lower Greensand, and of.the Oolitic rocks. 

The vast Coral-remains of the Palasozoic age have not been alluded to in 
this Report ; and although I have had the advantage of Mr. Thomson's 
valuable skill in producing sections of Carboniferous corals, and also of inves- 
tigating large series of Devonian and Siliuian forms, I can only assert that, 
before any satisfactory communication on these early Zoantharia can be 
written, much time must be occupied and much labour be undergone *. 

* The Grant of £30 for reporting on the British Fossil Corals has been spent. 



ON THE BRITISH FOSSIL CORALS. 



REPORT. 



The researches of Darwin, Dana, and others have been so long before the 
scientific world, that the external physical conditions accomjianying Coral - 
life are universally well understood. The physico-chemical changes which 
take place in dead corals and influence their future fossil condition have been 
described ; and it is most reasonable to assert that the representatives of the 
existing Coral-faunae flourished under the same kind of conditions, and were 
subjected to the same prefossil incidents and changes. 

Corals are either aggregated in reefs or distribvited sparely over the sea- 
bottom. In the strata of nearly every formation, somewhere or other, 
aggregations of corals are found, either in great banks, or as distinct reefs 
hanging on to the older rocks ; moreover sparely distributed solitary or 
simple forms are universal. 

In the Caribbean Sea, the Indo-Pacific, the Great Ocean, the China seas, 
aggregations occur and the species flom-ish in comparatively shallow water. 
Ill the deep water from 50 to 200 fathoms, between reefs, simple and sparely 
distributed species occur ; and in other seas, where there are no reefs, the sea- 
bottom from about 50 to 200 fathoms supports larger or smaller simple and a 
few compound forms. 

The Mediterranean, the Atlantic off the Spanish coast, the Bay of Biscay, 
the South-west British sea, and especially the seas between Unst and 
Norway are characterized by numerous simple Madreporaria and a few com- 
pound forms. 

This geographical and bathymetrical distribution must influence us in 
reasoning geologically upon the presence of corals in strata ; and a tropical 
climate must not be of necessity inferred from the discovery even of fine 
specimens. 

Corals cannot migrate except by the floating away of their ova ; and very 
slight alterations in the very definite physical conditions destroy the parent 
stock as well as the ova. It is not surprising therefore to find the species very 
much restricted in their vertical range in strata. Recent species vary greatly 
under slight modifications of the sea-depth, force of wave, and purity of sea- 
water ; and it is found that corresponding variations occurred in every age, 
the minute structural differences repeated over and over again in specimens 
from the same deposits having clearly a genetic relation to a definite type. 
As there are now geographical provinces of corals differing in genera, species, 
and in physical peculiarity, so in every formation down to the Lower Silu- 
rian there are evidences of areas characterized by reefs or by simple and 
solitary species, and the species of distant localities were, as now, different, 
peculiar, and occasionally identical. From those early days there have been 
opportunities for the migration of distant species by their ova ; and it is 
found that the fossil species peculiar to a certain geological horizon in one 
part of the world are often represented by closely allied species, varieties, or 
identical forms in higher or lower horizons in other parts. Some few 
forms are very persistent ; and those which have lasted through the Tertiary 
ages into the present have a great geographical range, just as those which 
had a great vertical range in older deposits had also a great horizontal area. 

It is necessary, in considering the relative ages and contemporaneity of 
coral species, to remember that a coral reef on the side of a precipitous sub- 
merged mountain-top had its debris carried down the abyss for ages, and 
that this is enormous in amount. 

It must be remembered that in the course of time the distance between 



78 REPORT— 1868. 

the bottom of the reef and the top of the detritus vnll decrease very 
sensibly, and that any gradual elevation of the reef above the sea, pro- 
ducing its destruction, would be accompanied by a more rapid descent 
of debris. In after ages the upper and stony deposit would perchance be 
considered of different age from the marly and fine sediment below. Again, 
deep seas creeping over littoral areas and then over the land during the 
gradual subsidence of great areas would bring simple corals over littoral 
and terrestrial remains, the species all being really contemporaneous. On 
the other hand, a long-continued subsidence would equally tend to the increase 
of the reef and of the deep-water sediment. After the loweiing of the area 
had been destructive to the reef, and no more detritus could fall, the usual 
ooze of the deep sea would gradually invade aU. These suggestions wUl 
perhaps render the occurrence of large coraUiferous deposits in certain strata 
only, in large areas of formations, more comprehensible, and wiU tend to the 
belief that when coraUiferous deposits occur at the base of a great series of 
uncoralliferous strata (and this is often the case) the idea of contemporaneity 
is not overcome by the evident succession of the deposits. 

The relation between such faunae as the St.-Cassian and South "Wales 
Lower Lias of the zone of Ammonites angulatus is evident; but the inter- 
mediate faunae of Azzarola and of the lowest zones of the Lias on the Con- 
tinent are less closely allied to the Welsh fauna. Again, the fauna of the 
Welsh Lower Lias is more closely allied to the Lower Oolitic Coral-fauna of 
England than are the Coral-faunae of the zones of A. BucMandi, A. raricos- 
tatus, and of the Middle and Upper Lias. 

How interesting is the affinity between the Coral-fauna of Gosau and the 
Miocene Coral-fauna of the Caribbean area ! yet the British Chalk hardly 
represents any part of the Gosau fauna, and our Eocene fauna has no 
resemblance to it. These considerations tend to prove how vast and com- 
plicated the gradual migrations must have been, even of animals which 
could only live under veiy definite and limited conditions, how really con- 
temporaneous were the species entombed in vast consecutive deposits, 
how complicated the relations of the fauna have ever been, and how clearly 
the absence of corals from strata does not prove their absence in adjoining 
and equivalent areas. The notion that successive new creations of corals 
followed repeated destructions of faunae is not supported by a single fact ; on 
the contrary, all the evidence disproves it. The amount of individual varia- 
tion, of gradual structural changes, and of decided variation amongst the 
Madreporaria is not without significance ; and the examination of large series 
of forms from all parts of the world, and from consecutive formations, im- 
presses the belief in the continuous evolution of new forms by variation from 
the old during the whole of the Coral ages. 

Fossil Corah from the Crag. 

The following authors have written upon this subject : — Searles Wood, Ann. 
&Mag. Nat. Hist. 1844, vol. xiii. p. 12. Lonsdale, Searles Wood's Catalogue, 
Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. 1844. Milne-Edwards and Jules Haime, " Mem. sur 
les Astraeides," Comptes Rendus de I'Acad. des Sciences, vol. xxvii. p. 496 
(1868) ; " Monog. des Turbinolides," Ann. des Sciences NatureUes, 3rd ser. 
vol. ix. (1848); Hist. Nat. des Corall. 1857, Paris. R. C. Taylor, Mag. 
Nat. Hist. 1830, vol. iii. p. 272. G. de Fromentel, ' Introd. a I'Etude des 
Polyp. Foss.' 1858. 

The Sclerodermic Zoantharia, or true Madreporaria, are rarely found in 
any of the Crags. Bryozoa abound, and thus gave the term " Coralline " to 



ON THE BRITISH FOSSIL CORALS. 79 

the Crag. As a general nile, tlie most preservable and commonest of the 
true corals are not found in recent seas with Bryozoa ; but certain forms 
inhabiting the sea-bottom from the lowest spring-tide level to 200 or more 
fathoms are brought up by the dredge with Bryozoa. These forms are 
strongly represented in the Crag Coral -fauna. 

List of Crag Species. 

Sphenotrochus intermedius, Mmster, sp. Cryptangia Woodii, Ed. ^- H. 
Flabellum Woodii, Ed. # H. Balanopbyllia calyciilus, Wood. 

Splienotrochus intermedins is found in the Coralline Crag and in the Eed 
Crag of England, and it has been found in the Antwerp Crag. The genus 
still exists, and is represented in the south-western and western British and 
Irish seas. 

Sphenotrochus M'Andretvamis, Ed. & H., the Turhinolia Milletiana of 
William Thompson, from Cornwall and Arran, is closely allied to the Cra* 
species ; and it is very evident, from the variability of these simple corals, that 
■Sphenotrochus Milleticinus (Defrance, sp.) of the Anjou andTouraine Miocene, 
Sphmiotrochus intermedius, and Sphenotrochus M'Andrewanus have descended 
from one type, and that they have been slightly modified to meet the changes 
in the external conditions in the later Tertiary and recent seas. Probably 
these Crag and recent species should be considered varieties of the Miocene 
form. My researches in the Australian Tertiary Coral-fauna have brought 
two species of Sphenotrochus to hght ; but they are only remotely allied to 
the British species. 

The aUiance between Fhthellum Woodii and F. Eoissyanum of Dax and 
Malaga, and F. cristatum of the Bolderberg, is not close ; and the affinity 
between the British Crag species and the living F. anthophjillum, Ehrenberg, 
of the Mediterranean and Spanish coast, and perhaps from our north-east 
seas, is slight. FlaheUum Woodii is closely allied to F. subturhinatum, Ed. 
and H., of the iliocene of Plaisance, and F. OalJapagense, from the GaUapagos 
Miocene. F. Woodii is found in the Coralline Crag. 

Cryptangia Woodii, Ed. & H. — This genus is extinct, and the second 
species of it is a form very like the Crag species ; it is from the Ealuus, and, 
like the Crag species, is imbedded in a Cellepore. The septal arrangement of 
the species is rather abnormal, and there is an evident tendency to revert to 
some old type in which the quaternary arrangement prevailed. The genus is 
closely aUied to Rhizangia and to Cijlieia. The first of these is extinct, and 
flourished in the Lower Chalk of Gosau, in the Eocene, and in the Miocene ; 
and the last is recent, its species living in the South- African and Austrahan 
seas. 

Balanophyllia calyeulus, "Wood, is represented in the Southern British 
seas by B. regia, Gosse, to which it is closely allied. The Mediterranean 
species is not closely allied ; and the same may be said for the Cape-of-Good- 
Hope B. capensis, Verrill, and the Miocene B. cylindrica. The species is 
found in the Red Crag, and the specimens are usually very badly preserved 
about the calice. The genus is fully noticed in the report on the Fossil 
Corals of the Bi-ockenhui-st beds. 

It will thus appear that three out of the four genera of Crag corals are 
represented in the existing seas of our coasts by more or less closely allied 
species. One genus is extinct. 

The fine Stejihanophyllia Nysti of the Black Crag of Antwerp is not found 
in the British Crags. 



80 REPORT — 1868. 

Judging from the conditions surrounding the existing species and their 
allies, it might be asserted that no very great bathjTnetrical or climatal 
changes have taken place between the deposit of the Crag and the present 
lime. The intervention of a long glacial period is not proved by the study of 
the corals. But doubtless during that period migration to deep water or to 
the south occurred. When the cold period was succeeded by more temperate 
times a return of the fauna took place ; and it must be remembered that two 
opportunities at least were thus given for variation in form. 

Fossil Corals from Brockenhurst. 
Lower Oligocekte. 

Before 1866 no species of corals were known to exist in any beds between 
the top of the Barton series of the Eocene and the base of the " Crag." I 
published in that year, in the Supplement to the British Fossil Corals, 
Palseontographical Society's vol. for 1865, descriptions of thirteen species of 
corals from Brockenhurst in Hampshire. The species were, with the exception, 
of two, new to science, and indicated very different external conditions to those 
prevailing at the time of the deposition of the Bracklesham and Barton corals. 
Moreover the two species which had been desci'ibed from foreign sources 
also indicated a very different state of things from those favourable to the life 
of the tiny simple Turhinolice of the Loudon Clay and of the Barton series. 

The facies of the whole collection was clearly intermediate between the 
Eocene and the Falunian coral-faunae. The species were collected from beds 
which are distinctly represented in White Cliff' Bay, and which belong to 
the Middle Headon series. 

Overlying freshwater remains (the Lower Headon), it is evident that great 
marine and terrestrial changes had occurred subsequently to the estuarine 
conditions prevailing towards the end of the deposition of the Barton 
series. The genera of the corals discovered at Brockenhurst prove that the 
conditions inseparable from a coral-reef succeeded those favourable to the 
development of estuarine and freshwater species of moUusca. The existing 
species of such genera as Madrejyora and Solenastrcea are reef-dweUers, and 
Axopora and Litharcea are represented in modem reefs by PocUhpora and 
Porites. Such genera as BcdanophylUa and Lohopsammia were and are 
dwellers in from 20 to 100 or more fathoms, and are found in the deeper 
water, close to the reefs. A corresponding succession occurs in North Ger- 
many, and deep seams of fossil wood are covered with marine deposits of the 
same relative age as the marine bed at Brockenhurst. Both the marine 
deposits are covered with greater or less depths of sands and gravels. The 
moUuscan fauna of Brockenhurst has much in common with those of the 
North German Lower Oligocene deposits superimposed on the fossil-wood 
seams of Magdeburg, Berusberg, Aschersleben,Egeln, Helmstedt, andLatdorf ; 
and the British as well as the German deposits are moreover the equivalents 
of the " Tongrien Inferieur." 

The palaeontology of the deposits has been sufficiently studied to determine 
the necessity of their separation in classificatory geology from the Eocene 
and Miocene formations. As yet no satisfactory alliances have been deter- 
mined to exist between the Ohgocene coral-fauna of North Germany and that 
of Brockenhurst. But inasmuch as the moUusca are closely alhed, there is 
a great probability of the deep-water, oceanic, and reef tracts having been to 
the west of the North German littoral tracts. 



ON THE BRITISH FOSSIL CORALS. 81 

List of the Species. 

1. Solenastrsea cellulosa, Duncan. 8. Lobopsammia cariosa, Goldfuss, sp. 

2. Koeneni, Duncan. 9. Axopora Michelini, Duncan. 

3. Eeussi, Duncan. 10. Litharsea Brockenhursti, Duncan. 

4. gemmans, Duncan. 11. Madrepora Anglica, Duncan. 

5. Beyrichi, Duncan. 12. Rdmeri, Duncan. 

6. granulata, Duncan. 1-3. Solanderi, Defrance. 

7. Balanophyllia graniilata, Duncan. 

The species of tlie genus Solenastrcea from Brockenhurst form a very in- 
teresting series, wluch might almost be made a subgenus. The high septal 
number in conjunction with the highly inclined endotheca and the defective 
columella characterize the group. The species described by Reuss from the 
Castelgomberto district, and those from Ghent and Touraine by MM. Milne- 
Edwards and Jules Haime, are very distinct from the Brockenhurst species. 
Those I have published in my ' West-Indian Fossil Corals,' and a species 
noticed by Michelotti and Duchassaing, from St. Thomas's, are equally 
remotely allied to the British forms. 

The recent Solenastrcece are world-wide — the Hed Sea, the Indian Ocean, 
and the Caribbean Sea being their favoiuite localities. 

The Madreporce from Brockenhurst arc very interesting species, for fossil 
forms of the genus are very rare. Madrepora Solanderi, Defrance, was 
known as a form from Anvert and Valmondois ; but it appears to me that 
the correct geological age of the deposit whence it and another coral (also 
common to the Brockenhurst, viz. Lobopsammia eariosa) came is not free from 
doubt. It is not improbable that they are true Oligocene corals, especially 
as the last-named species is identical with Lohopsammia dilatata, Rdmer, 
from Latdorf. 

Madrepora Anglicais a grand form, with a great trunk and short branches, 
equalling in size any of the most luxuriant recent species. It is allied to 
Madrepora crassa, Ed. & H., from the Pacific and Southern oceans. The 
genus comprehends nearly 100 species now flourishing • but the fossil forms 
are only eight in number. The recent species are found, for the most part, 
in the boiling surf of the reef, in every part of the globe where the condi- 
tions for reefs exist. 

A.vopora is a genus which has absorbed the genus Holarcea. The species 
have very rudimentary septa, enormous columellse, well developed tabulae, 
and a reticulate ccenenchyma. The species are found in the Eocene of 
Great Britain and France, and at Brockenhurst, and they are all closely 
allied. 

Litharcea Broclcenhursti is remotely allied to the species from the Brac- 
klesham beds and the French and the Javan tertiaries. The genus is extinct ; 
but the Brockenhurst species, although not the latest in geological age, points 
to Goniophora, a large recent genus of Pacific and Ped-Sea corals. 

The species of BalanopliyUia from Brockenhurst, like that from Brackles- 
ham, has no epitheca, but its large base, distinct costre, and veiy granular sur- 
face render it easily distinguishable. Keuss, F. Romer, and Philippi have 
described species from the Lower Marine Sand of Weinheim and Latdorf; but 
they are not closely allied to the species under consideration. 

As the genus is present in the whole of the Cainozoic coraUiferous beds 
of Great Britain, and is represented in the existing South British and 
Mediterranean seas, the following Table may be useful concerning its divi- 
sions. 



82 



REPORT 1868. 



Balanophtllia. 
Subgenus 1. Corallites with broad bases. 
Balanophyllia desmophyllum, Lons- 
dale, sp Bracklesham. Eocene. 

— — geniculata, B'Archiac, sp. . . Port des Basques. „ 

tenuistriata, Ed. 6f H. .... Paris basin. „ 

granulata, Duncan Brockenhurst. Oligocene, 

— cylindrica, Michelotti, sp. . . Turin and Yerona. Miocene. 

subcylindrica, PJiilippi, sp. Sicily. „ 

Italica, Michelin, sp Astesan. Pliocene (recent). 

calyculus, Wood Crag. Pliocene. 

capensis, Yerrill Cape of Good Hope. Recent. 

■ verrucaria, Pallas, sp Mediterranean. „ 

Cumingii, Ed. Sf H. Philippines. „ 

regia, Gosse South Britain. „ 

Bairdiana, Ed. Sf H. Unknown, „ 

Subgenus 2. Corallites more or less pedicellate. 

Gravesi, Michelin, sp. . . . . . . Henouville (Oise). Eocene. 

sinuata, "1 

intequidens, y Eeuss ...... Weinheim. Oligocene. 

fascicularis, J 

praelonga, Michelotti, sp. . . Turin. Miocene. 

Australiensis, Duncan .... South Australia. Miocene ? 

ineplaris, Seguenza Sicily. Pliocene. 

Fossil Corals from the British Eocene Formation. 
The following authors have written upon this subject : — Fleming, ' Hist, 
of British Animals,' 1828. Milne-Edwards and Jules Haime, op. cit. Lons- 
dale, in Dixon's ' Geology of Sussex.' J. de Carle Sowerby, Trans. Geol. Soc. 
vol. V. p. 136 (1834). J. S. Bowerbank, Mag. Nat. Hist. 1840, WethereU, 
Trans. Geol. Soc. 2nd ser. vol. v. (1834). 

The labours of these naturalists and palaeontologists were collected in the 
great monograph of the ' British Fossil Corals ' by 

M. Milne-Edwards and Jules Haime, and by P. Martin Duncan, Supp, 

Mon. Brit. Foss. Corals, Palaeontograph. Soc. 1866, part 1, Tertiary, 

In the monograph last named in the list, thirteen species were added to 

those noticed in the previously published monograph by MM. MUne-Edwards 

and Jules Haime. The following is a complete summary of the Eocene 

species. 

1. Turbinolia sulcata, Xajwarc/t. 15. Trochocjathus inaignis, Duncan. 

2. Dixoni, Ed. ^ H. 16. Paracyathus crassus, J£d. ^- H. 

3. Bowerbankii, Ed. ^ H. 17. caryophyllus, Lamarck, sp. 

4. Fredericiana, Ed. ^ H. 18. brevis, Lamarck, sp, 

5. humilis, Ed. <|- H. 19. Haimei, Duncan. 

6. minor, Ed. tf H. 20. cylindrious, Duncan. 

7. firma, Ed. # H. 21. Dasmia Sowerbyi, Ed. 8f H. 

8. — — Prestwichii, Ed. % H. 22. Oculina conferta, Ed. Sf H. 

9. affinis, Duncan. 23. incrustans, Duncan. 

10. exarata, Duncan. 24. Wetlierelli, Duncan. 

11. Forbesi, Duncan. 25. Diplohelia papillosa, Ed. ^- H. 

12. Leptocyathus elegans, Ed. 8f H. 26. Stylocoenia emarciata, Lamarck, sp. 

13. Trochocyathus sinuosus, Brongniart, sp. 27. monticularia, Schweigger, sp, 

14. Austeni, Duncan. 28. AstroccEnia pulchella, Ed. Hf H. 



ON THE BRITISH FOSSIL CORALS. 83 

29. Stephanopbyllia diseoides, Ed. 8f H. 34. Dendracis Lonsdalei, Duncan, 

30. Balanophyllia desmopliylluin, Lonsdale, 35. Porites panicea, Lonsdale. 

sp. 3G. Litharsea Websteri, Bowcrhank, sp. 

31. Dendrophyllia elegans, Duncan. 37. Axopora Forbesi, Dun-can. 

32. denclrophylloides, Lonsdale. 38. Parisiensis, Michelin. 

33. Stereopsammia humilis, Ed. ^ H. 

Notice of the Species. 

Turhinolia sulcata, Lamarck, is found in the Eocene deposits at Grignon, 
Hauteville, and Ghent, and is not found, I believe, in higher beds than the 
Bracklesham in England. The other species are purely British. T. Prest- 
wichii, Ed. & H., is probably the oldest form, and T. sulcata and T. Bixoni 
are next in age. The remaining species come from the Barton beds. With 
the exception of the occm-rence of T. sulcata in the Parisian Eocene, there is 
little to connect these Turbinolise with others. The genus is not represented 
in the great Nummulitic coral-fauna of the South of Erance, the North 
of Italy, or of Sindh. A species is found in the Eocene of Alabama ; and 
three species, characterized by very bad specimens, were determined from 
forms found in the Lower Oligocene deposits of Germany. The genus is 
extinct. 

The genus Leptocyathus is one of those artificial groups which surround the 
great genus Trochocyathus. It is closely allied to StepJianocyathus, Seguenza ; 
and indeed the only distinction between these two genera is the distribution 
of the pali before certain septa. Doubtless some further information will 
enable those interested in the classification of the Zoantharia to make the 
genera Leptocyathiis and Stephanocyathus mere subgenera of TrocJiocyathus. 
L. elegans is a very beautiful form ; and the structure of its base is a curious 
instance of symmetry and simplicity of structure, producing in a coral which 
doubtless was a dweller in deepish water and on an oozy bottom, great per- 
fection of ornamentation. 

There is a second species, L. Atalayensis, D'Archiac, sp., from the Eocene 
of Biarritz ; but there is some doubt about its genus. 

The Trochocyathi of the British Eocene are insignificant species of the 
great genus which is so fully represented in the Sindhian and European 
Nummulitic series. I have noticed in my ' Supplement to the British Fossil 
Corals,' Part I., that it is doubtful if T. sinuosus was ever found in England, 
and I have described two new species. 

One of these, T. Austeni, Duncan, is the representative in the Brackles- 
ham deposits of T. elongatus, Ed. & H., of the Eocene of Quartier-du-Yit 
(Basses Alpes) ; but T. insignis, Duncan, so readily distinguishable by its 
costal ornamentation and wavy spino-granulose septa, is very solitary as 
regards its affinities. The Trochocyathi commenced in the Jurassic period, 
culminated in the Miocene, and are extinct, being represented by the Cary- 
ophyllice of the Pliocene and recent coral-faunae. 

There are several genera of perforate corals in the British Eocene. Four 
genera of these belong to the Eupsammidce, one to the Turbinarince, and 
two to the Poritidcv. 

The Eupsammian genera are : — 

Stephanopbyllia. Dendropbyllia. 

Balanopbyllia. Stereopsammia. 

The StephanophyllicB are Cyclolitoid Eupsammidce, and range from the 
"White Chalk to the Pliocene. 

The Cretaceous species form a group readily distinguished from the Ter- 



84 REPORT— 1868. 

tiary forms ; and these have a calicular and columeUary structure which forms 
them into a subgroup. 

The Eocene species is distantly allied to S. elegans from the Miocene of 
Tortona. The genus is extinct. 

The BalanophyUia, from the Bracklesham beds, is readily distinguished 
from the Crag species by its having no epitheca. This is one of the oldest 
species of the genus, whose species are found also in the Paris Eocene, and 
in the Nummulitic strata of Port-des-Basques. The recent species are 
British, South African, and Pacific (20 to 80 fathoms). 

The new species, DendrophyUia elegans, nobis, is one of the most beautiful 
corals ever discovered. The elegant branching and gemmation, the graceful 
costal curvature and granulation, and the symmetrical repetition of the septal 
cycles render the coral an object of great interest. Its nearest ally is D. 
yracills, Ed. & H., of the Chinese seas, a dweller in twenty-five fathoms 
water. The Miocene and Pliocene species of the genus are well marked ; 
and the recent species are found in the Mediterranean Sea, in the sea otf 
Cadiz and Madeira, and in the Chinese, Pacific, and AustraHan seas. The 
most vigorous species are from Cadiz and Madeira, Dendrojihyllia ramea 
living there in twenty-five to eighty fathoms. 

Stereopsammia is a genus with only one species ; and this was determined 
from the study of a very good compound corallum in the Bracklesham beds. 
It is interesting to note that a genus appeared in the Upper Sicilian Ter- 
tiaries (and has many species in the Australian, New-Zealand, and Chinese 
seas, besides some off Panama and in the Pacific coral-sea, »fec.) which is 
closely allied to Stereopsammia, for its only distinction is the existence of a 
columella in its species. Both the genera are very erratic members of their 
subfamily, for the peculiar Eupsammian direction of the septa is not noticed 
either in Stereopsammia or in Coenoptsammia. 

The aporose condition of the lower part of the corallites of Stereopsammia, 
and their perforated calicular ends, taken into consideration with the pecu- 
liarity of the septal direction, prove that the genus links the Eupsammince 
amongst the perforate corals with the Aporosa. 

The genus Dendracis has hitherto been little known. MM. Milne-Edwards 
and Jules Haime described the first species, out of the Madrepora Gervilii of 
Defrauce, from the Hauteville beds ; but no species was known to be of 
British growth. Whilst examining the Dixon collection in the British Museum, 
I found a species, D. Lonsdalei, nobis. Very recently Peusshas described: — 
D. seriata, Castelgomberto ; D. mammiUosa, Castelgomberto ; D. Haidingeri, 
Oberburg and Java ; and D. nodosa, Oberburg. D'Achiardi has also described 
a species from the Castelgomberto district. 

Lonsdale was correct in his diagnosis of his Porites panicea ; and it is a 
most interesting species, for it is a true Porites and a perforate coral. The 
form has its septa less spieulate and more lamellate than is usual in the 
Porites, moreover the coenenchyma is very decided. This Eocene species has 
thus characteristics of the genera Porites, Astrceopora, and Litharcea. 

Eeuss has described Porites nimimiditica, Oberburg ; P. minuta, Castel- 
gomberto ; P. incrassata, Java, tertiary. This last species is closely allied 
to Porites panicea. 

Some years since, I described a Porites from the Lower (Hippurite) Lime- 
stone of Jamaica. Our knowledge of the genus, therefore, extends from the 
Lower Chalk to the present day. The Miocene forms and the recent are the 
most numerous. Asfra^opora panicea, Ed. & H., must give way to the original 
species, Porites panicea, Lonsdale. The Astrceoporce flourished in the Castel- 



ON THE BRITISH FOSSIL CORALS. 85 

gomberto deposits. The genera Axopora and lAtharcea have been noticed in 
the report on the Brockenhurst corals. The first genns represented the 
Milleporidce in the Eocene. 

The five species of Paracyaihus from the British Eocene are : — • 

Paracyathus crassus, Ed. Sf H. Paracyathus Haimei, Duncan. 

caryophyllus, Lonsdale, sp. cylindricus, Duncan. 

brevis, Ed. # H. 

P. caryophyllus is found in the Jamaican Eocene, and is closely allied to 
P. cylindricus. P. crassus and P. Haimei are also allied. 

It is doubtful whether the genus should be considered more than a sub- 
genus of the great genus TrocJiocyathus. There are recent species in the 
Mediterranean and in the West Indies. They are found at a depth of from 
fifteen to eighty fathoms. 

M. de Eromentel has described a species of the extraordinary Eocene 
genus Basmia, from the Neocomian of St. Dizier. The genus stands by 
itself, unless the opinion of MM. Milne-Edwards and Jules Haime be ad- 
mitted to be correct, viz. that each lamina is a septum. To carry this 
opinion further would place the genus amongst the Eupsammidce. 

The OcuUnidce are represented in the British Eocene by two genera and 
four species. 

Oculina conferta, Ed. 8c H. Oeulina Wetherelli, Duncan. 
incrustans, Duncan. Diplohelia papillosa, Ed. S( H. 

The three species of Oculina belong to a subdivision of the genus in which, 
the calices are distributed without order, the costal striae being rudimentary 
or absent. Ocidina conferta has some analogy with Oculina Halensis, Duncan, 
from the nummulitic limestone of Sindh ; but the Sindhian coral has its 
calices arranged in a serial order. The genus flourished in the Miocene and 
Pliocene periods, and is represented in almost every coralliferous sea by 
species living either in tolerably deep water or at a very great depth. 

Diplohelia is an extinct genus, and characterizes Tertiary deposits. There 
is a species, D. raristella, Defrance, sp., in the Eocene of Paris and Biarritz. 
In the corresponding deposits of Lacken there is D. multistellata, Galeotti, 
sp. The Miocene species from the Sicilian Tertiaries have lately been de- 
scribed by Seguenza ; and D. reflexa, Michelotti, sp., is from Superga. The 
great devolopment of the columella in Diplohelia separates the genus from its 
nearest ally Astrohelia, whose species are Miocene forms from the Faluns and 
from Maryland. The transition between the genera is through Astrohelia Le- 
sueuri, Ed. & H., from the American Walnut-HiU Miocene. This species has 
a small, lax, and spongy columella, and its closest afiinity is with the Diplo- 
helia witb costal striae. M. Milne-Edwards remarks that Astrohelia (thus 
united with Diplohelia) is a passage from between tbe OcuUnidce and the 
Astrmdce, particularly in relation to tbe Cladanyia;, a Miocene genus. The 
affinity between Olaclangia and the recent Astrangince is evident. 

The genera Styloccenia and Astrocoenia have been removed from the 
Eusmilinai to the Astraince in consequence of the discovery that their septa 
are dentate. 

Styloccenia emarciata has an immense geological range. It characterizes 
the Eocene of Jamaica, Sindh, Italy, France, and England. 

S. monticidaria is common to the French and British Eocene beds. (See 
remarks on the genus in the report on the fossil corals of the Lias.) 

Astrocoenia is a very important secondary genus ; its peculiarities are fully 
discussed in the Eeport on the Fossil Corals of the Lias. There are three 
species in the Eocene, but only one is British. Reuss has lately described 



86 REPORT — 1868. 

two species from the Castelgomberto district. The genus became extinct 
in the Miocene age. 

The smaller Heliastraeans and Astrseans appear to represent these genera 
in the recent coral-faunae. 

It may be assumed, from our knowledge of the habits of the representatives 
of the Eocene species in the existing seas, that the bulk of the fauna lived 
on oozy sea-bottoms, at a depth of from 10 to 100 fathoms. Such a sea (as 
regards its depth, bottom, and magnitude, but not as regards its temperature) 
as has been di-edged off Unst, or the Southern China Sea, where there are no 
reefs, might resemble that which contained the old Turhinolice, Trochocyatlii, 
Paracyathi, Oculince, Stephano^hyllice, Balanophyllice, Dendropliyllice, and 
Stereopsammice. 

The genera Stylocoenia, Astrocoenia, Dendracis, Pontes, LWiarcea, and Axo- 
pora were probably located on small reefs, or in shallower water than the 
others. The fauna, as a whole, is insignificant, and bears a very feeble re- 
lation to the magnificent Eocene Coral-fauna of Castelgomberto, the South of 
France, and Sindh. These were the coral-tracts of the period, and were full 
of great reefs, whose corals are represented uow-a-days by large and quickly 
growing species. 

The immense break between the Upper Chalk and the British coralliferous 
Eocene deposits is proved by the total difference of their coral-faunae. 

The scanty relationship between the British Eocene and Lower Oligocene 
coral-faunae has already been noticed. Part of the British Eocene coral-fauna 
is represented by species now living in the British, Spanish, and Mediter- 
ranean seas, and the rest by species in the Pacific and East-Inchan oceans. 
The slight affinity between the British Eocene and the recent West-Indian 
coral-faunae is therefore worthy of notice. 

Fossil Corals from the Upper and Lower White Chalk of Great Britain. 

The following authors have written upon this subject : — MM. Milne-Ed- 
wards and Jules Haime, op. cit. Lonsdale in Dixon's '^Geology of Sussex.' 
Parkinson, ' Organic Remains of a Former "World.' Mantell, ' Geology of 
Sussex,' and Trans. Geol. Soc. 2nd ser. vol. iii. Fleming, ' British Animals,' 
1828. Phillips's ' Illustrations of the Geology of Yorkshire,' pt. 1, 1829. S. 
Woodward, ' Synopt. Tab. Brit. Org. Remains,' 1830. R. C. Taylor in Mag. 
Nat. Hist. vol. iii. p. 271 (1830). 

MM. Milne-Edwards and Jules Haime noticed and described nine species 
from these formations. One of these species had been previously described 
by Mantell, and another by Reuss; but seven species were added to our 
British fauna through the industry of the great French zoophytologists. 

During the last few mouths I have thoroughly examined the specimens 
offered to me, and those which had been studied by MM. Milne-Edwards and 
Jules Haime, Lonsdale, and ManteU. I can add ten new species to the list of 
the corals from the White Chalk, and five good varieties of formerly known 
species. It is necessary also to admit a species of Mr. Lonsdale's, and to 
uppress one of MM. Milne-Edwards and Jules Haime. 

Corals from the Upper and Lower White CJialk. 
1 . Caryopliyllia cylindraoea, Beuss, sp.* 4. Onchotrochus serpentinus. Dtincnn f . 

2. Lonsdalei, Buncan\. 5. Trocliosmilia laxa, Ed. <f- H., sp. and 

3. Tennanti, Dimcan'f. varieties 1, 2, 3 |. 

* Synonym Cyathina Icevigata. t Species not hitherto described. 

\ Varieties or subspacies not hitherto described. 



ON THE BRITISH FOSSIL COBALS. 87 

6. Trochosmilia cornucopite, Duncan*. 13. Parasmilia Fittoni, Ed. &( H.f 

7. Wiltshiri, Buncati*. 14. serpentina, Ed. ^ H. 

8. Woodwardi, Duncan *. 15. monilis, Duncan *. 

9. granulata, Duncan *. 16. granulata, Duncan*. 

10. cylindracea, Duncan *. 17. Diblasus Orrai\&a%\s,L<»isdale. 

11. Parasmilia centralis, Mantell, sp., va- 18. Synhelia Sharpeana, £<;?. ^ //■. J 

rieties 1, 2. 19. Stephanophyllia Bowerbanki, Ed. &( H.\ 

12. oylindrica, Ed. ^ H. 

The list of species presents a remarkable assemblage of forms. The Caryo- 
phyllice are represented in existing seas, especially in from low spring-tide 
level to 80 or 100 fathoms, in the West Indies, tbe Mediterranean, and in 
the south-east and north-east British seas. They are, with one exception 
(the Caryopliyllia Smythi), always dwellers in many fathoms ; and this coral 
is evidently a littoral variety of C. horealis. Tbe Oculinidce of the present day 
are usually found under the same conditions as ihe'CaryojphylUoe ; and doubt- 
less the ParasiniU(ea,nd Trocliosmilice were dwellers in from 10 to 100 fathoms. 

There are no forms which indicate shallow waters, or anything like a reef. 
The fauna is essentially a deep-sea one. 

The continental development of Cretaceous corals is very remarkable ; and 
the horizon of Gosavx and Martigues, probably that of our Lower White Chalk 
and part of the Upper Greensand, is characterized by the reef species. A 
more decided equivalency between the higher horizons of the Upper Chalk of 
the continent and the Norfolk beds has been established by the discovery of 
some of the species now noticed for the first time. 

Family TUEBINOLIDtE. 
Division Cartophtllaci;^. 

MM. Milne-Edwards and Jules Haime adopted for a coral from the Upper 
Chalk the name of Cyathin-a Icevigata. They published this name in their 
" Monog. des Turlinohdes," Ann. des Sciences Nat. 3rd series, vol. ix. p. 20 
(1848), and in their " Monograph of the Corals of the Upper Chalk," Pal. 
8oc. 1850. Lonsdale named the same coral Monocarya centralis, Dixon, 
* Geol. of Sussex,' 1850, and probably Monocarya cidtrata also. 

In 1850 D'Orbigny (Prodr. de Paleont. t. ii. p. 275, 1850) gave the coral 
the specific name cylindracea, it having become evident that Eeuss was the 
primary discoverer of the species in 1846. In his ' Kreideformation,' p. 61, 
pi. 14, figs. 23-30, Eeuss gives the name Anfhophyllium cylindraceum. The 
genus of the coral is evidently Caryojphyllia, in' the sense adopted by Charles 
Stokes in 1828. 

MM. Milne-Edwards and Jules Haime, having all this information before 
them, very properly determined the generic and specific names to be Caryo- 
phyllia cylindracea, Eeuss, sp., in their ' Hist. Nat. des CoraU.' vol. ii. p. 18. 

This species is very polymorphic, and the pah of some specimens are very 
like the outer terminations of the columellary structures in some Parasmilia. 
Very frequently it is hardly possible to determine which are the pah and 
which the ends of the columellary fasciculi. Moreover in some specimens 
the base is small and the costae reach low down ; whilst in others the base is 
normal and large, the costee being abnormal from their length. There is a 

* Species not hitherto described. 

t See the remarks on the propriety of absorbing P. Mantelli. 

M. de Fromentel has described Caryoi^hyllia dfcameris, from Southfleet. Much experi- 
ence in these species inclines me to believe the deeameral arrangement he speaks of to be 
a monstrosity. His species has but one specimen. 

J Lower Chalk. 



88 EKPORT— 1868. 

new species of this genus in the Dunstable chalk, and another in the chalk of 
Sussex. There are thus three species of Caryophyllia in the Upper Chalk of 
England : — 



-■o^ 



1 . Caryophyllia cylindracea, Beuss, sp. 3. Caryophyllia Tennanti, Duncan. 

2. Lonsdalei, Duncan. 

Caryophyllia Lonsdalei, Duncan. 

The corallum has a large and incrusting base, and the stem is cyliudro- 
conical and straight. There is a slight curve near the base. The calice is 
circular, small, not very open, and moderately deep. The columella is small, 
and is terminated by rod-shaped processes. The septa are slightly exsert, 
the primary especially. There are three complete cycles ; and the septa of 
the higher orders of the fourth cycle are not developed in every system. The 
primary, secondary, and tertiary septa are very much alike. They have a 
wavy inner edge and are granulated. The pali are situated before the ter- 
tiary septa, and are knob-shaped, and rather flat from side to side. The costse 
are nearly equal at the calicular margin, and pass downwards as flat, band- 
like prominences, separated by shallow intercostal grooves. They are con- 
tinued to the base, but are hidden midway by an epithecal growth. 

Height of the coraUum ^ inch. Breadth of the calice ^ inch. 

Locality. Dunstable. 

In the collection of the Rev. T. Wiltshire. 

This species is readily distinguished by its costse, and is more closely allied 
to C. cylindracea than to any other form. 

Caryophyllia Tennanti, Duncan. 

The corallum has a large base, a curved cylindrical stem, and an inclined 
elliptical calice. It is short in relation to its broad base. The calice is open 
and shallow. The columella is small, and terminates in twelve knob-shaped 
endings to the fasciculi. The septa are unequal, and there are five incom- 
plete cycles. The laminae are marked with curved lines of granules, are wavy 
and unequal. The pali are longer than the columellary processes, are wavy, 
flattened, and curved. The costse are subequal in the upper third, but are 
not seen below. 

Height Ij inch. Length of calice f inch. 

Locality. Sussex, Upper Chalk. 

In the collection of Professor Tennant, F.G.S. 

This species connects the Tertiary and recent Caryophyllice with those of 
the Cretaceous system. 

Division Turbinoliace^. 

Gen. nov. Onchoteochtjs. 

The corallum is simple, tall, slender, rather hook-shaped or clavate, and 
presents evidence of ii'regular growth. 

There is no endotheca. The costae are rudimentary, nnd there is no colu- 
mella. The septa are few in number. The epitheca is pellicular and striated. 

The genus is somewhat allied to Smilotrochus, Stylotrochris, and very dis- 
tantly to Flahellum. 

Onchotrochus serpentinus, Duncan. 

The corallum is tubulate, curved superiorly, and straight, and tapering in- 
feriorly. There is a sudden diminution in the diameter of the upper part of 
the corallum. The costae are quite rudimentary. The epitheca is marked 
with fine transverse striations. The septa are continuous with what appear 
to be rudimentary intercostal spaces. The laminae are twelve in number ; 



ON THE nraTisH fossil corals. S9 

tliey project into the circular calice, but are not exsert. A section proves 
tliat they are very stout even low dovrn in the corallum. 

Length of corallum 1 inch. Diameter of the calice ^ inch. 

Locality. Charlton, Kent. 

In the collection of the Ilev. T. Wiltshire. 

This species is mimetic of Parasmilia serpentinn, Ed. & H., from the same 
geological horizon, just as Thecosmilia cylindrica is of Parasmilia cylindrita. 
The Stylotrochi of the Cambridge Upper Greensand are closely allied to the 
Upper-Cretaceous form. 

Family ASTR^ID.E. 

Genus Teochosmilia. 

Subgenus Coelosmilia. 

It is a great question whether Coelosmilia can stand as a g-enus. It is im- 
possible to separate its species from those of Trochosmilia by an external 
examination ; and sections prove that there is no columella and a vejy 
scanty endotheca. Still there is an eudotheca ; and the visceral cavity is not 
open from top to bottom, as in the Turbinolidcr. It is true that there is a 
facies common to the Cctlosmilice, and that they are a natural group ; but in 
fact they would not differ from a well-known Trocliosmilia with scanty endo- 
theca, were there such a species. On studying the genus Trochosmilia, it will 
be noticed that many of its species have never been described with reference 
to their endotheca. Many were determined from one or two specimens, and 
sections of the majority have not been taken. Now Trochosmilia sulcata, 
Ed. & H., has very little endotheca ; it is a species from the Gault, and the 
Coelosmilice are aU from the Upper Cretaceous, Eocene, and recent coral-faunae. 
In placing Coelosmilia as a subgenus, but included in Trochosmilia, it must bo 
admitted that the classification becomes simpler and more natural. Since 
MM. Milne-Edwards and Jules Haime published their ' Hist. Nat. des Coral- 
liaires'some new species oi Ccelosmilia have been published or described. 
The known species were as follows : — 

I. Coelosmilia poculum, S;?. ^ //. Recent. 6. Coelosmilia Atlantica, J)' Orb. Tuber 
2. • Faujasi, Ed. # H. White Chalk. Creek, New Jersey. 

3. — — punctata, Ed. ^- H. White Chalk. 7. excavata, Hciff., sp. 

4. laxa, Ed. ^ H. Norwich Chalk. 8, radiata, Quenstedf. Natheim. 

5. Edwardsi, B' Orb. Sezanne. 

The new species are ; — • 

10. Coelosmilia elliptica, ff«<ss. Castelgom- 14. Coelosmilia Woodwardi, Z>i«;^aw. White 
berto. Chalk, England. 

I I. Javana, Duncan, MS. Java. 15. ■ granulata, Duncan. White Chalk, 

12 cornucopiae, Duncan. Trimming- England. 

ham chalk. 16. cylindrica, Duncan. White Chalk, 

13. Wiltshiri,i)«W(;a«. Norwich Chalk. England. 

The species cornucopice, Wiltshiri, Woodivardi, gramdata, and cylindrica 
are new to British palaeontology, and are very characteristic of the Upi)er 
Chalk. 

I have discovered three weU-marked varieties of C. laxa. 

An analysis of the species produces the following results : — - 

1. The species Atlantica, punctata, Edwardsi, excavata, and radiata either 
pertain to other species, or are reaUy indeterminable. 

2. The species whose septal arrangement shows more cycles than four, or 
some septa of the fifth cycle, are ; — 

ISfiS. H 



90 REPORT — 18G8. 

Ccelosmilia poculum. Ccelosmilia Wiltshfri, 

Faujasi. Woodwardi. 

Javana. elliptica. 

corniicopiK. 

3. The species whose septal arrangement shows three cycles, or four cycles, 
or some septa of the fourth cj'cle, are ; — 

Calosmilia granulata. Cceiosmilia laxa. 
cylindrica. 

4. The species with large bases and with more than four cycles are : — 

Ccelosmilia poculum. Ccelosmilia elliptiea. 

5. The species with a large base and with more than three cycles of septa, 
but not more than four, is 

Ccelosmilia eylindrica. 

Having scanty endothecaj with wide bases : — 

The costal hardly prominent, replaced .i'lferiorly 1 ^ j j^j ^^ poculum, Ed. &■ H. 

by granules, 5 cycles, corallum straight J '^ / j^i/k.l.iuui, i^u. y ^x. 

The costte cristiform, superiorly with intermediate! ,r\\ n- i- d 

costffi, coraUum curVed | ^^'^ ^"'P''«*' ^'''''' «?• 

The costffi very distinct, flat, wide, intercostal"! ,ri ^ i i • t^ 

qmces linear, 4 cycles, coraUum cylindrical. . . \ ^^'^ "ylmdrica, Duncan. 

With pedicel, or a small trace of former attachment, 5 cycles : — 

The costae throughout indistinct, plane, and imequal. Trochosmilia (C) Faujasi, Ed. ^- H. 
The costoe alternately large and small, subcristi- 1 /n \ t t> 

form above, crossed by ornamentation ) (<^-) J'*^'^"'''' -»"«^««- 

The costjesubcristiform throughout, subequal above... (C.) cornucopije „ 

The costffi very distant, distinct and subcristiform, 1 ,-^ , „^.i, , . . 

smaller, much ornamented / (,UJ VMltshin, „ 

The costoe long, the principal cristiform, many ] 

smaller between them, coraUimi long and I (C.) Woodwardi, „ 

cornute J 

Four cycles or part of the fourth : — 

The costae well marked, distant, very granular, "1 

intercostal spaces very granular and strongly i- (C.) granulata „ 

marked, corallum curved J 

The costre distant, distinct, and cross-marked in in- 1 //-, v t n. . tt 

tercostal spaces } (C.) laxa, £tf. ^- S 

TrochosmiJia (Ccehsmilia)huva, Ed. & H. 

In examining good specimens of this species I found the fourth cycle 
of septa to be present. Its laminae are small, but decidedly visible ; conse- 
quently the calice, as drawn by MM. Mibie-Edwards and Jules Hairae, ' Mo- 
nog. Brit. Eoss. Corals,' pt. 1. tab. viii. fig. -ic, is incori-ect. The following 
description will apply to the three varieties of the species. 

Varieti/ 1. The corallum is conico-cylindrical and straight. The eostse are 
intensely granular inferiorly, and two large costas are separated by three 
smaller. Near the calice the larger costse have a wavy cristifoi-m ridge upon 
them, the intermediate costse being very granular, with clievron patterns, or 
thej^ may be moniliform. At the calicular margin the costae are nearly flat 
and granular. The fourth cycle of septa is distinct. 

Vanety 2. Inferiorly, in structure as varieti/ 1. Superiorly the principal 
costse are very cristiform, and weU marked with a secondary ridge. The 
chevron pattern of the intermediate costae are very distinct. 

Varieti/ 3. Costae inferiorly wavy and sparely granidar. Superiorly the 
costae are subcristiform and plain, the continuity of the crests being defective. 
The intermediate arc broken and moniliform, and here and there chevroned. 



ON THE BRITISH FOSSIL CORALS. 91 

Trocliosmilia (Coelosmilia) cornucopics, Duucan. 

The corallum is strongly curved in the plane of the smaller axis, and it is 
compressed superiorly, and is finely pedunculate. The growth-rim's and 
swellings are moderately developed. The costaj are subequal above and 
cristate, and unequal interiorly. The septa are numerous and very unequal. 
There are five cycles of septa, and six systems. The primary septa are very 
exsert, and the secondary ones less so. The septa of the fifth cycle are very 
small. The calice is elliptical and the fossa very deep, the larger septa join- 
ing those opposite at its bottom. There are traces of epitheca. 

Height 1 inch. Breadth of calice | inch. Length of calice 1 inch. Depth 
of fossa f inch. 

Locality. Trimmingham, Upper Chalk, 
In the collection of the Kev, T. Wiltshire, F.G.S, &c. 
TrovJiosmilia (Ccehsmilia) WiltsJiiri, Duucan. 

_ The corallum is tall, finely pedicellate, and is not compressed. The growth- 
rings are distinct. The costte are very distinct and unequal, and they reach 
from base to cahce. The smaller intermediate costae are ornamented with 
chevrons and horizontal lines. The larger costaj have a secondary crest upon 
their free surface. The septa are unequal, slender, and not crowded. The 
calice is circular. There are five cycles of septa, but the fifth is incomplete 
in some systems. The primary septa are large, slightly exsert, and extend 
far inwards. The calicular margin is very thin, and the fossa is deep. 
Height If inch. Diameter of calice | inch. 
Locality. Norwich, Upper Chalk. 
In the collection of the Rev. T. Wiltshire, F.G.S. &c. 
Trocliosmilia (Coelosmilia) Woodwarcli, Duncan. 

The corallum is tall, cornute, slightly pedicellate and narrow. The growth- 
markings are distinct. The costae are distinct from base to calice. Two 
large subcristiform and very distinct costae bound three intermediate small 
and more or less monHiform costae. Sets of these costae occur around the 
corallum. The septa are crowded, wavy, and unequal ; many unite late- 
rally, and the largest reach far into the axial space. The calice is circular, 
and the waU is very thin. 

Height 2 inches. Breadth of calice ^ inch. 

Locality. Chalk of South of England. 

In the British Museum, Dixon Collection. 

Trocliosmilia (Ccelosmilia) granulafa, Duncan. 

_ The corallum is taU and slightly curved ; it has a long pedicel with a very 
distinct base. The corallum is slightly compressed, and bulges here and there. 
The costae are well marked, distant, subequal, and intensely granular. The 
larger costae are more distinct inferiorly and midway than close to the caK- 
cular margin ; they are cristiform in some places, notched by chevron-shaped 
ornamentation in others, and occasionally shar-ply pointed or absent. The 
spaces between the larger costae are wide, faintly convex, and are marked 
longitudinally by small costae, and transversely by wavy or chevroned orna- 
mentation. The whole external surface of the corallum is very granular. 
The calicular wall is very thin, and the calice is elliptical. There are three 
perfect cycles of septa, and some orders of the fourth cycle in some of the 
systems. The septa are wide apart, slightly exsert, unequal, and slender ; 
they do not reach far inwards at once, but dip downwards with a gentle curve. 
In a section the inner margin of the lower septa is wavy. The endotheca is 
scanty. 

h2 



92 REPORT— 18G8. 

Height 1 1 inch. Length of calice f inch. Eroadth f inch, 
Localitif. Norwich, and Chalk of South of England. 
In the British Museum, Dixon Collection. 

Troclwsmilta (CoelosmUia) cyUndrica, Duncan. 

The corallum is tall, cylindrical, and very slightly bent. The calicular 
opening is smaller in diameter than the rest of the corallum. The costae are 
nearly equal, broad, slightly crowded, and are separated bj^ shallow, narrow 
and undulating intercostal grooves. The costse are profusely ornamented 
with transverse ridges, straight, curved, or angular, and with large gi-anules. 
The calicular edge is very thin, and the broad convex costse are continuous 
with slender unequal septa. The primary are exsert, and the laminse of the 
higher orders are very small. There is no columella, the larger septa uniting 
by a few short attachments from their inner margins. The endotheca is 
scanty. 

Height several inches. Breadth of the calice ^ inch. 

Locality. Norwich, Upper Chalk. 

In the coUection of the Rev. T. Wiltshire, F.G.S. &c. 

The subgenus Coelosmilia is thus represented in the British chalk by one 
species formerly known, by three varieties of it, and by five new species : — 

1. Trochosmilia (Coelosmilia) laxa, £a. ^ //. 4. Trochosmilia (Coelosmilia) Woodwardi, 

( ) , y&rs. \, 2, 'd, Duncan. Duncan. 

2. ( ) cornucopiae, Duncan. 5. ( ) granulata, Duncan. 

3. ( ) Wiltshii'i, Duncan. 6. ( ) cylindrica, Duncan. 

These Trochosmilicv., with a slight amount of endotheca (and what there is 
of it is generally low down), are very characteristic of the Upper Chalk ; and 
their presence suggests that the Upper Chalk of Norwich and Trimmingham 
is, from the evidence of its corals, as well as from the proofs already adduced 
from its MoUusca, on a higher horizon than the Upper Chalk (usually so 
called) in the south-eastern district. The coral evidence brings the Norfolk 
chalk closer in relation with the Faxoe, Eugen, and Ciply deposits t. 

The affinity between Trochosmilia (C.) comucojnce and Coelosmilia excavata. 
Hag., sp., a doubtful form, but weU drawn by Quenstedt, is evident. It is 
from Rugen and Moeii. T. Wiltshiri and the species Faujasi, from Ciply, are 
also closely allied. 

The depth of the space between the calicular margin and the top of the 
upper dissepiment in these species indicates that the animal had great mesen- 
teric, ovarian, perigastric, and water systems. They were probably very 
rapid growers. The wall is merged into the costal system, which is strength- 
ened by a most unusual cross-bar and cristiform ornamentation ; and this 
development, which is almost epithecal, is complementary to the defective 
endotheca. 

Family ASTR^IDJS. 

Division Tkochosmilia. 

Genus Pakasmilia. 

MM. Milne-Edwards and Jules Haime described five species of this genus 
from the Upper Chalk, viz.: — ■ 

1. Parasmilia centralis, Mantell, sp. 4. Parasmilia Fittoni, Ed. ^- H. 

2. ManteUi, Ed. # H. 5. serpentina, Ed. # H. 

3. cylindrica, Ed. &f H. 

t With regard to the depth at which Ocidinida and simple corals can live, it has been 
discovered by Dr. Carpenter and Prof. Wyville Thompson that they exist at a depth of 
530 fathoms. 



ON THK BRITISH FOSSIL CORALS. 93 

P. cylindrica and serpentina are readily distinguished by their external 
shape ; but, owing to the polymorphic character of P. centralis, it is by no 
means easy to separate it from P. Mantelli and P. Fittoni. 

Parasmilia Mantelli, Ed. & H., was determined from one specimen alone, 
and it is clearly united to P. centralis by P. Gravesana, Ed. & Haime, of the 
White Chalk of Chalons-sur-Marne and Eeauvais (Oise). This species I have 
found in England ; and having had many specimens of P. centralis with costse 
like those of P. Mantelli in some parts of the corallum, and normal costse in 
others, I consider P. Mantelli a variety of P. Gravesana, and that this last 
species is a variety of P. centralis, a good subspecies. 

Parasmilia Fittoni, Ed. & H., has a large columella and a definite struc- 
tural distinction in its tertiary costae from P. centralis. 

The new forms I have noticed with the older are shown in the following 
list :— 

1. Parasmilia centralis, Mantell, sp. 3. Parasmilia cylindrica, Ed. # H. 

, var. Mantelli. 4. serpentina, Duncan. 

, subspeciesGravesana, S/.<^/f. 5. m.on\\\a, Duncan. 

2. Fittoni, Ed. Sf H. 6. granulata, Duncan. 

Parasmilia monilis, Duncan. 

The corallum is long, much cui'ved, and distorted. It is more or less 
cylindrical above and contracted here and tliere. Inferiorly it is pedunculate, 
the peduncle being small, curved, and long. The costse are nearly equal on 
the peduncle; there they are rather subcristiform, a secondary crest being 
on the costae ; and in the intercostal spaces there is either a faint ridge or a 
moniliform series of granules. The calice is often smaller than the body, and 
the wall is very thin. The septa are small ; and there are four cycles, the 
last cycle being rudimentary. The columella is small. 

The height varies from | inch to 2 inches, and the diameter from g to f 
inch. 

Locality. Gravesend. 

In the collection of the Eev. T. Wiltshire, F.G.S. 

Parasmilia granulata, Duncan. 

The coraUum is tall, nearly straight, finely pedunculate, and cylindro- 
conical. The calice is very large, widely open, deep, and has a thin margin. 
The columella is well developed. The septa are barely exsert, reach but 
slightly inwards, but pass downwards at once. They are very unequal, 
alternately large and small, and there are four complete cycles and part of 
the fifth. The costae are subequal near the calice, and the broadest are con- 
tinuous vrith the smallest septa. On the body the costse are subcristiform 
and in sets of four. On the pedicel they are very granular and very distinct. 

Height IJ- inch. Breadth of calic« | inch. 

In the British Museum, Dixon Collection. 

This species was included by Lonsdale in his genus Monocarya, and was 
termed M. centralis. Parasmilia has the priority as a genus ; and the species 
is evidently not P. centralis. The position of the genus Parasmilia is some- 
what lilve that of Ccelosmilia ; but MM. Milne-Edwards and Jules Haime 
have created the genus Cylicosmilia for Parasmiliee with abundant endotheca. 
Now in careful sections I have found that P. centralis and its varieties have 
endothecal dissepiments reaching close to the calicular fossa. The genus 
must therefore absorb Cylicosmilia ; and C. Altavilensis, Defrance, sp., of the 
Eocene of Hauteville must become Parasmilia Altavilensis, Defrance, sp. 
Reuss has described an Eocene Parasmilia from Monte Grumi which is closely 
allied to the centralis series. 



94 iiEroRT— 1868. 

(Order ZOANTHARIA APOROSA.) 

Family OCULINID^. 

Genus Diblastjs, Lonsdale. 

This genus was established by Lonsdale in Dixon's ' Geol. of Sussex,' 

1850, and was described by the learned zoopliytologist with all that critical 

acumen which characterizes him, pp. 248 to 254, pi. 18. figs. 14 to 28. 

MM. Milne-Edwards and Jules Haime, whilst they acknowledge the genus 
to be " voisin des Synhelia" (Hist, Kat. des Corall. vol. ii. p. 115), do not 
give it a place in their classification. I have therefore carefully studied and 
drawn the specimens from the Dixon Collection in the British Museum, and 
have great pleasure in doing justice to Mr. Lonsdale, by inserting his 
genus with slight alterations to meet the present terminology. 

Genus Diblasus, Lonsdale (amended). 

The corallum is incrusting, very irregular in shape ; the calices are wide 
apart and projecting ; the intercalicular tissue is costulate. The septa are un- 
equal. There are no pali. The columella is formed by the junction of the 
larger septa, and does not exist as a separate structure. Gemmation marginal 
and intercalicinal. The genus is CAadently not closely allied to Synhelia ; for 
it has no palular or true columellary structures. It approaches the genus 
Astrohelia, which is a transition genus bringing the Oadinidce in relation with 
the Astrceincv, through the Chidangice (Milne-Edwards and Jules Haime, 
' Hist. Nat. des Corall.' vol. ii. p. 111). 

Diblasiis Grevensis, Lonsdale. 

The corallum is very irregular in shape and size. The calices project, and 
are irregular in their jn-ojection and size. The costae are granular, equal, 
subequal, and unequal in different parts of the same coraUum. ITie septa 
are in three cycles, and are unequal and dentate ; the primary reach those 
opposite, and form a rudimentary columella ; they are crowded, and are 
granular laterally. Diameter of usual-sized calices ^ inch. 

Locality. Gravesend Chalk. 

In the British Museum, Dixon Collection. 

The condition in which the specimens of this species is found is very 
remarkable : the inside of nearly every calice has been worn away, so that 
the mural edges of the septa are all that remains of them ; the perfect 
calices appear to have shrunk from the surrounding coenenchyma ; and in 
many places the costse have been worn off. 

Lower Challc. 

There are several specimens of corals from the Lower Chalk; but I 
have not been able to identify them, on account of their fragmentary con- 
dition. Onchotrochus serj^entinus is a Lower-Chalk form. 

Fossil Corals from the Ujyper Greensand, 

The following authors have written on this subject : — ^W. H. Smith, ' Strata 
identified by Oi'ganic Fossils,' 1816. God^xan-Austen, Trans. Geol. Soc. 2nd 
Series, vol. vi. p. 452. Morris, ' Cat. of British Fossils,' p. 46 (1843). MM. 
Milne-Edwards and Jules Haime, op. tit. 

The scanty Coral-fauna of this deposit was described by MM. Milne- 
Edwards and Jules Haime ; and although some j^ears have elapsed since the 
publication of the first part of the ' British Fossil Corals ' (Pal. Soc), and the 
beds have been well searched, very few additions can be made to the list of 
fossils. 



ON THE BRITISH FOSSIL CORALS. 95 

The following is a list of the published species (1850). 

1. Peplosmilia Austeni, Ed. Sf H. 3. Parastrrea stricta, Ed. ^ H. 

2. Trochosmilia tuberosa, Ed. ^ H. 4. Micrabacia coronula, Goldfuss, sp. 

In theii- ' Hist. Nat. des Corall.' vol. ii., MM. Milne-Edwards and Jules 
Haime make some alterations in the synonyms of the genera, and add a 
species to the list. They do not give any further information respecting 
some doubtful species noticed by Messrs. Godwin- Austen and Prof. Morris. 

Their amended list is as follows. 

1. Peplosmilia Austeni, Ed. ^ H. 4. Fayia striata, Ed. S( H. 

2. Smilotrochus tiiberosus, Ed. ^ H. 6. Micrabacia coronula, Goldfuss, sp. 

3. Austeni, Ed. S( H. 

Specimens belonging to the following species have been submitted to me. 

1. Oncbotrochus Carteri, i>!mcfm. 4. Cyathophora monticularia, i)' Oriiywy. 

2. Smilotrocbus elongatus, Dicncan. 5. Favia minutissima, Duncan. 

3. angulatus, Duncan. 6. ThamnastrDea superposita, Michdin. 

Trocliosmilia tuberosa, Ed. &II., was found to be without endotheca, and 
therefore to be of necessity included amongst the Turhinolidce. The genus 
Smilotrochus was determined in order to receive the species. 

Genus Smilotrochus, Ed. & H. 

The corallum is simple, straight, cuneiform, free, and without trace of for- 
mer adhesion. There is no columella, the wall is naked and costulate. There 
is no epitheca, and the simple costae are distinct from the base to the calice. 

This is the simplest form of Aporose Zoantharia; and its structures 
are confined to a wall, septa, and costce. Flahellum has an epitheea in 
addition, and Stylotrochus of De Eromentel is a Smilotrochus with a styliform 
columella, the septa uniting also by their thickened internal margins. 
Onchotrochws, nobis, has a pellicular epitheca, no columella ; but, like Stylo- 
trochus, the septa are united internally. 

1. Smilotrochus tuherosus, Ed. & H. 
Trochosmilia tuberosa, Ed. Sf H. 
Turbinolia compressa ? Morris. 

This species with five cycles of septa was described in the ' Monog. of the 
Brit. Foss. Corals,' Upper Greensand, Milne-Edwarc' and Jules Haime (Pal. 
Soc). 

2. Smilotrochus Austeni, Ed. & H. 

This species is described in the ' Hist. Nat. dcs Corall.' vol. ii. p. 71. 

The corallum is regularly cuneiform, very compressed below, and slightly 
elongate. The calice is elliptical, the summit of the larger axis rounded ; 
forty-eight costae, subequal, straight, fine, and granular. 

Height of the corallum about i inch. 

Locality. Farringdon. 

MM. Milne-Edwards and Jules Haime do not mention where the speci- 
men is. 

3. Smilotrochus elongatus, Duncan. 

The corallum is tall, straight, and neai'ly cyliudi-ical. The columellary space 
is large. The septa are fine and unequal, especially in length ; there are 
four cycles of septa. 

Height about an inch. 

Locality. Upper Greensand of Cambridgeshire. 

In the collection of James Carter, Esq. 



yd K£F«JKT — 1868. 

4. SmilutrocJius aagulatut, Duncan. 

The corallum is conical, hexagonal, slightly curved at its very fine inferior 
extremity. It is broad superiorly, and has six prominent angles, and is 
compressed slightly. The septa are fine, unequal, and each plane between 
the angles has a system of four cycles. The columeUary space is large. 

Height I inch. Breadth \ inch. 

Localitt/. Upper Greensand of Cambridge. 

In the collection of James Carter, Esq. 

Genus Oxchotrochus. 

Numerous specimens of a species of this genus are in the possession of 
James Carter, Esq. and the Kev. T. Wiltshire. The species has great resem- 
blance to the lower part of Onchotrochus serpentin^is, nobis. A cai'eful ex- 
amination of sections and calicos proves that there is no columella, that the 
inner ends of the septa produce a false one, and that the styloid appearance 
is due to fossilization. 

OnhotrocJius Carter!, Duncan. 

In the young corallum there is a flat and round expansion at the base, by 
which it was attached to foreign substances ; but this is lost as growth proceeds. 
The corallum is either straight or slightly curved, is taU, very slender, conico- 
cylindrical, clavate, and enlarged here and there. Unworn specimens are 
more or less angular in transverse outline. The costae are angular projec- 
tions, extend from base to calice, are subequal, wide apart, and are connected 
and covered with a fine pellicular epitheca, Avhich readily disappears. Growth- 
mai'kin^s very common. The cahce is circular and shallow. The septa are 
short at the wall, and wedge-shaped ; they are roimded inferiorly, and do not 
extend far inwards. There are twelve septa, and they are subequal. The 
septa in sections often appear equal, and their inner ends are joined, and the 
axial space is filled up by a deposit of coral-structure. But the reverse is 
the case occasionally, and the irregularity of the septa may be well seen. 
The septa are continuous with the costse. 

Height g-|^-l inch. Diameter of calice -jL- inch. 

Localiti/. Cambridge Greensand. 

In the collection of James Carter, Esq. and Eev. T. Wiltshire. 

The discovery of better sjiecimens may perhaps lead M. de Fromentel to 
consider his StyhtrocJim, which so resembles this form, to be of the same 
genus. 

Genus Cyathophora, Michelin. 

This genus has the usual characters of compound Astraeinae ; but the dis- 
sepiments act as tabute, and shut in the calice below, just as in some of the 
Liassic Tsastr<v(r. There is no columella*. Curved dissepiments are not 
noticed ; and the family of the genus must remain unsettled, for the minute 
structure is clearly tabulate. The genus flourished in the Lower and Middle 
Oolites ; and the only Cretaceous species is that under consideration, and 
which has been described by D'Orbigny from the Craie Tuffen, Les Martignes 
— Cijathophora monticularia, D'Orb., sp. 

The septa are rather thick. There are three cycles, but the third is often 
deficient in one or two systems. 

Locality. Haldon. 

In the collection of the Geological Society. 

* See remarks on Liassic Isaifram. 



ON THE BRITISH FOSSIL COKALS. 97 

Genus Favia. 

This genus has absorbed the Parastrcece, so that F. stricta has become 
Favia stricta. 

Favia minutissima, Duncan. 

The corallum is incrusting, gibbous, and small. The calices are very small, 
close, and with veiy scanty intercorallite tissue. There are twelve septa, 
and the costae are continuous. 

Diameter of the calices under ^ inch. 

Locality. Haldon. 

In the collection of the Geological Society. 

This is the smallest of the Favice. 

Genus Thamnastr^a. 

Thamnastrcea superposita, Michelin, sp. 

MM. Milne-Edwards and Jules Haime thus notice this species (Hist. Xat. 
des Corall. vol. ii. p. 559) : — - 

" M. Jlichelin's specimen is very young. It is encircled by a strongly 
folded epitheca, which is formed of two layers. No columella is distinguish- 
able. The septa are tolerably strong and unequal. There are three cycles, 
with the rudiments of a fourth in one or two systems." 

The superposition of the calices is remarkable ; and I cannot but place a 
coral found in the Irish Upper Greensand by Ralph Tate, Esq., E.G.S., in 
this species. 

Locality. Ireland, Upper Greensand. 

In the collection of E. Tate, Esq., E.G.S, &c. 

Fossil Corals from the Red Chalk of Hunstanton. 

The Red Chalk of Hunstanton contains several forms of Madreporaria. The 
small fauna has this peculiarity ; its species belong to the group of Fungida) 
without exception. The specimens are small, usually much worn at the 
cahcular end, and are readily distinguished by their mammiliform appearance 
and white colour. 

There are no compound Fungidae in the Red Chalk, but such small, simple 
forms as would now characterize the presence of physical conditions unfavour- 
able for coral-life. The recent simple Fimgidse are found at all depths ; vast 
numbers of them are to be collected in the Gosau Lower Chalk ; a few existed 
in the Upper Greensand and the Neocomian, and are found in the existing 
coral-fauna ; none are found in the West- Indian seas, whilst the Red Sea"^ 
Pacific, and Indian oceans abound with them. It is probable that peculiar 
conditions are necessary for their development. 

List of species in the Red Chalk of Hunstanton. 

1. Mierabacia coronula, Goldfuss, sp. 3. Podoseris mammilliformis, Duncan. 
] , var. major. 4. elongata, Duncan. 

2. Cyclolites polymorpha, GoMfiiss, sp. 

Family FUNGID^. 

Subfamily Fxtngi^. 

Genus Miceabacia. 

There are specimens of a small form of Mierabacia coronula, Goldfuss, sp., 

and of a large variety, in the red rock ; the species is well known in the 

Upper Greensand of England, and in the Chalk of Essex. There is another 



98 REPORT— 1868. 

species, which is hardly distinguishable from M. coronula, in the Neocomian 
of Caussols (var.). 

The variety of the species in the red rock rather resembles the Neocomian 
species in its diameter and flatness. The genus had a very short vertical 
range, and was represented ra later times by the StephanophylUce. 

Subfamily LopHOSEEiNiu. 

Geniis Ctclolites. 

This genus almost characterized the geological horizon of the Craie-TufFeau 
of Gosau, the lie d'Aix, les Martigues, Vaucluse, Corbicres, Uchaux, etc. A 
few species ai'e found in the White Chalk, in the Eocene, and Miocene. There 
are some doubtful Neocomiaii species ; and the genus is extinct. 

Cyclolltes polymorpha, Goldfuss, sp. 

The corallum is very irregular in shape, generally subelliptical, and not 
very tall. The highest point of the calice is subcentral, and the central 
fossula is very variable in its place. The septa are very numerous, thin, close, 
flexuous, crenulate, and larger in front. 

The solitaiy S2)ecimen of this form is small, but the fossula and septa are 
tolerably distinct. 

Genus PoDOSEEis, Duncan. 

The corallum has a large concave base, by which it is attached to foreign 
bodies. The epitheca commences at the basal margin, and is stout and 
reaches the calicular margin. The height of the corallum varies. The calice 
is generally smaller than the base, and is convex. The sepia are numerous 
and unequal, the largest reaching the rudimentary columella. The central 
fossula is circular and small. The costas are seen when the epitheca is worn ; 
they are distinct, connected by synapticulae, and are straight. 

The genus has been created to admit Micrabacice with adherent bases and 
more or less of a peduncle. 

Podoseris mammiUlformls, Duncan. 

The corallum is short, straight, and broad. The base is concave, and is 
either larger than the calice, or there is a constriction immediately above it, 
and it is slightly smaller than the caHce. The calice is round, convex, 
depressed in the centre, and is bounded inferiorly by the epitheca. The 
laminae are stout, unequal, curved superiorly, and often join. There are five 
cycles in six systems, the last cycle being very rudimentary. The synapti- 
culae are numerous. The costas are straight and subequal, and are smaller 
than the septa. The ornamentation of the septal and costal apparatus varies ; 
and there may be an almost moniliform series of enlargements on the septa, 
or they may be plain. The cohimella is formed principally by the ends of 
the longest septa. The height of the corallum appears to be determined by 
the growth of the body between the base and the calice. 

Height of the corallum \ inch. Breadth of calicular margin i inch. 

Height ^ inch. Breadth of calicular margin | inch. 

Height 1 inch. Breadth of cahcular margin ^i inch. 

Monstrosities are often found amongst specimens of this species. 

Podoseris eJonr/ata, Duncan. 

The corallum is tall, a broad circular and shghtly concave base, a long 
conico-cylindrical stem, and a small calice much narrower than the base. The 
epitheca is in bands. The costae are alternately large and very small, some- 
what distant, wavy, and united by synapticute, many of which are oblique. 



ON THE BRITISH FOSSIL CORALS. 99 

The septa frequently unite by their axial ends to each other, the short to the 
long. There appear to be five cycles of septa. The base of the corallum has 
a cellular tissue, probably from the fossihzation of some body to which it was 
adherent. 

Height 1^ inch. Breadth of base ^ inch. Breadth of calice | inch. 

The shape of this species is most unusual. 

These corals are all in the collection of the Rev. T. Wiltshire, F.G.S. 

It is evident that the coral evidence places the Red rock in the Upper- 
Greensand horizon. 

Corals from the Lias. 

When MM. Milne-Edwards and Jules Haime wrote their ' Monograph of 
the British EossO. Corals' (Pal. Soc.),;only onegood species was known asLiassic. 
There was a great palajontological break between the coral-faunse of the In- 
ferior Oolite and of the Mountain-limestone. The distinction between the 
Palaeozoic and Jurassic coral-fauna3 was so great that any student of the Mc- 
sozoic Zoantharia appeared to enter another Madreporarian world when the 
Carboniferous forms were presented to his notice. On leaving the study of the 
Monilivaltice, Thecosmilm, Isastrcece, and other familiar Secondary genera, and 
entering upon the investigation of such genera as Cuatliophylhmi, Lithostro- 
tion, Loiisdalia, and AnijAexus, a new classificatory philosophy had to be com- 
prehended, and it required much experience in the habit of determining 
species before the foreshadowing of the Secondary forms could be appreciated 
in the Palaeozoic. The break was produced by the very uncoraUiferous na- 
ture of the Permian strata, the absence of any corals from the Trias in this 
countrj , and the solitary species from the Lias. 

Of late years the distinction between the Pala:ozoic and Oolitic coral-fauna 
of continental Europe has been lessened by the careful study by Laube and 
Reuss of the Triassic coralliferous limestones, and by De Fromentel, Eerry, 
Terquem,Piette, and Stoppani of the corals oi VaQ Avicula-contorta zone, and 
of the strata sometimes called lufraUas, in which Ammonites planorhis and 
A. angidatus are found. The Palaeozoic genera said to be found in the Mus- 
chelkaUi and in the St.-Cassian beds were proved by Laube to be Secondary, 
and the small coral-fauna of the Lias below the zone of Ammonites BucLIandi 
(bisulcatits) was determined to be decidedly Jurassic in its affinities. The 
break was thus narrowed ; but it was nevertheless very great ; for the absence 
of any satisfactory assemblage of forms in the Permian formation and in the 
Muschelkalk rendered the aspect of the Carboniferous specific group very 
foreign to the student of the lowest Mesozoic corals. 

Some recent discoveries of Permian corals in Iforth America do not help to 
diminish this break. 

The practical geologist will readUy appreciate the vast physical changes which 
intervened between the Mountain -limestone and the Avicula-contorta beds in 
this country. The depth of the Permian magnesiau and sandy deposits and 
of the Bunter on the Continent and its limestone (Muschelkalk), and that of 
the Keuper and its St.-Cassian and Kossen sti'ata, will strike all who know 
that corals are the rarest of specimens in this pile of deposits ; so that when 
the admirable condition of preservation of the Carboniferous corals and of 
those from the Lower Lias is considered, the imperfection of the record ap- 
pears to be immense. 

The earliest evidences of the existence of Secondary corals in this country are 
the casts of simple forms, probably oi Monilivaltice from the Avicula-contorta 
beds, and the casts and coraUites of Montlivaltice and the Thecosmilice from the 



100 HEPORT— 18G8. 

true White Lias. As the balance of the Palfeontological evidence is in favour 
of these beds being younger than the Trias, they must be considered the 
feebly coralliferous strata of the Rhaetic strata, or of the Infralias, or Lower 
Lias, according to the taste of the student of dogmatic systematic geology. 
The deposits containing Avicula contorta in England, Wales, and Ireland are 
not of that physical and mineralogical character which attends corallifeious 
sediments ; and the assemblage of other organisms is not that wliich usually 
accompanies coral life. 

A cast of a Montlivultia was discovered in the Avicida-contorta zone, by 
Charles Moore, P.G.S. ; and it is therefore an interesting fossil ; for, except the 
few Permian specimens, there are no corals known in Great Eritain between 
this cast and the Madreporaria of the Carboniferous. 

Throughout Europe the strata containing Avicula contorta are generally 
uncoralliferous ; but the great deposits at Azzarola have an old coral-bank. 
These were the coral-reef areas of the period, jiist as the Gosau and Mar- 
tigues were the coral-reef areas of the Lower Chalk, and as the Dax and 
Caribbean strata were the coral-reef areas of the Miocene. 

The White Lias of Great Britain and Ireland is a local deposit which is 
intercalated between the beds containing Avicukt contorta and those consti- 
tuting the zone of Ammonites planorhis (or its equivalent Ammonite, such as 
A, Burgunclice). It is absent on the continent, the Ammonites planorhis (or 
its equivalent deposit) succeeding the beds with Avicula contorta. The White 
Lias is very uncoraUiferoua ; and I have never seen a perfect specimen of a 
Madreporarian from it. The White Lias of Watehet contains imperfect 
Montlivaltice and stunted conico- cylindrical Thecosmilice. A cast of a The- 
cosmilian from Sparksfield resembles that of a species found in the deposits 
above the White Lias in the zone of Ammonites-planorhis and A. anr/uhdiis. 

A large Montlivaltia from the White Lias near Leamington has an ellipti- 
cal calice ; but it is not possible to give it a specific determination. A cast of 
a multiseptate discoidal Montlivaltia is found at Punt HiU, Warwickshire ; it 
resembles that of Montlivaltia Haimei, Chapuis et Dewalque. Corals of this 
type are common in the Ammonitcs-plctnorhis beds of the east of PVance and 
Luxembourg, but they do not appear to have existed in England until the 
zone of Ammonites angulatus. This species, having a range from the east of 
France to the west of England and Ireland, is very variable in its form and 
in some structural detaUs. 

It is evident from an examination of the MoUusca of the White Lias, that 
it was a deposit not likely to have corals located in it. The stunted Theco- 
smilice and discoid Montlivalticp, have no congeners now existing ; but many 
genera of simple corals of tubular form are frequenters of the sea-bottom 
from 100 fathoms to the lowest spring-tide range. 

The coral-fauna of this deposit is unimportant, and even that of the next 
series of beds, those containing Ammonites planorhis, is small; but when the 
strata in which Ammonites angulatus existed was examined, a large and veiy 
varied assemblage of species, indicating old coral-reefs, as well as deep-water 
conditions, was proved to exist. In South Wales a reef hung on to the 
Mountain -limestone coast ; and in the Noi'th of Ireland, as well as in the 
Lincolnshire area, subhttoral and deep-water forms flourished. Changes 
occurred in the physical geography of these areas, and an arenaceous series 
of deposits containing Gryphcea incurva and Ammonites BacJclancli succeeded 
the Welsh deposits just mentioned, and the deeper sea-beds of the east and 
west. The alteration in the sea-depth due to the lowering of these areas 
produced not only an alteration in the mineralogy of the strata, but great 



ON THE BRITISH FOSSIL CORALS. 101 

modifications iu the faunae, especially as regards the corals. The arenaceous 
limestones situated upon the coralliferous dolomitic limestones of the old 
"Welsh reef contain a feeble coral assemblage, and present no evidence of the 
existence of coral reefs. A great number of Mollusca are found in the depo- 
sits ; some existed during the deposition of both, and others were limited in 
their range to one or the other ; but the bathymetrical changes gave the corals 
no chance, and doubtless the reef species died out, their ova finding no rest- 
ing place on that particular area. 

The zones which succeeded Ammonites BucMandi appear to have been 
unfavourable to certain forms of corals, especially to those which collect 
together in vast tracts, forming varieties of reefs. The modern representa- 
tives of the species found in the Liassic strata above the zone of Ammonites 
angulatus indicate deep water (30 to 100 fathoms). Where the reefs of the 
period were is certainly not determinable. 

The corals of the Middle and Upper Lias are very rare. 

The corals contained in the Liassic strata of Britain, France, Germany, 
and Italy have a very decided community of facies ; at the same time it is 
evident that some portions of the Liassic coral-fauna resemble Triassic types, 
and that another portion is allied to the Oohtic. 

This was to have been expected ; for it is evident that the stunted Theco- 
smi.lice and the Astroccenioe of the zone of Ammonites angulatus are the de- 
scendants of the equally stunted Thecosmilice, and Astrocoenice of the Triassic 
age. Moreover the descendants of the Isastrcece and of the larger Montli- 
valtice of the Lower and Middle Lias luxuriated in the Oolitic seas. The bulk, 
however, of the Liassic coral-fauna is charactciistic of and special to the 
formation, and, as is the case in the other great series of strata, certain as- 
semblages of species appear to characterize certain definite horizons. Yet 
not unexceptiouably ; for some species range into higher zones in certain 
areas, whilst others, which are confined to a definite horizon in one area, ai-e 
found below and above the equivalents of the horizon in a distant locaUty. 
Thus a species which is only foimd in a particular bed, and is associated with 
a particular molluscan fauna in one locahty, may be found associated with a 
moUuscan fauna antecedent or subsequent in its recognized succession in 
another place. 

The persistence of a species in a succession of deposits and its consecutive 
association with different groups of contemporaries and competitors is con- 
stantly observed in the Lias. 

The groups of Madreporaria have a general relation to certain zones of 
life and to certain strata, besides very definite relations to others. It is not 
probable that corals and Ammonites had any close biological relations, but 
only those of a general nature ; but corals were certainly en rapport with 
certain molluscan genera, especially with lithodomous groups ; so that when 
corals of the Lias are said to belong to such and such a zone of Ammonites, it 
is to serve the purpose of the artificial but very necessary classificatory system 
of geology. If the Madreporaria are associated with certain Ammonite zones, 
it must be understood that it is only an approximative classification, and that 
the Ammonites and the Madreporaria may range higher than their supposed 
restricted zone, or not even be j-epresented in certain portions of its area. 

There are a few Triassic species in the Liassic coral-fauna, and the branch- 
ing corals of the Sutton stone have generally a Triassic facies. The majority 
of the corals of the Lower Liassic strata are peculiarized by the imperfection 
of the septal arrangement, and by their epithecate wall. It may, in fact, be 
asserted that the so-called " rugose " characteristics of the greater part of the 



102 REPORT — 1868. 

ralteozoic coral-fauna had liardly left their hold upon Madreporarian life at 
the time when the Lower Liassic strata were deposited. No Palajozoic genus 
is represented in the Lias. The facies of the Lower Liassic Coral-fauna is 
produced by the multitude of branching Thecosmilice, stunted Montlivaltice, 
and small-caliced Astrocoenice. 

It is remarkable that neither Tabulate nor Perforate genera have been 
found in the Lias. The Tabulata must have been in existence during the 
Lias, for they are so fully represented in Pateozoic as well as in Cainozoic 
reefs. 

Corals from the Zone 0/ Ammonites planorbis. 

There are some small Thecosniilice in the so-called Guinea beds at Biuton 
and Wilmeote, which are doubtless the descendants of the Thecosmilice of the 
White Lias. One species passes up into the zone of Ammonites angulatus 
(T. Terquemi, Dune). 

A very remarkable species of Isasfrcea is found in No. 3 bed of the Street 
section, associated with Septastr(ea Haimei, Wright. 

This Isastrcea, found so low in the secondary rocks, is especially interesting, 
on account of its possessing LatimaBandraean characters, as well as true cali- 
cular gemmation close to the margin of the non-Latimteandraean calices. 

Were certain portions of the corallum separated from others, two distinct 
genera would be made from them, according to the established rules of clas- 
sification. The long serial calices without calicular buds are clearly Lati- 
mcfundrcean, and they grow in length by the gradual production of small 
septa amongst the others without a cycHcal arrangement. In the non-serial 
calices the cyclical arrangement of the septa is not by any means perfect ; 
and these calices differ from the non-serial cahces of the Latimceandrceoi of 
the Inferior Oolite by their calicidar gemmation. 

Modern research into the relation between the hard and soft parts of recent 
corals has proved that the tentacular and oral structures of serial calices differ 
greatly from those which increase by a more or less cyclical arrangement of 
the septa. Moreover, the Isastrtean under consideration is rather an abnor- 
mal form, from the size of the septal dentations, and the great development of 
the endothecal dissepiments. These last close in the bottom of the calices, 
stretching across the fossa after the manner of tabulae. 

The earliest known Isastrcra' are from the Triassic beds, and /. Haueri, 
Laube, from St. Cassian, is certainlj' like the species now under examination — 
Latimseandra?an in some respects. These species are synthetic, and point out 
the origin of the Latimo'andrcece, which in later times became prominent 
members of the Jiu'assic coral-faimse. 

It must be remembered that St.-Cassian species of Thecosmilia and other 
genera have been found in the beds higher in the geological scale than the 
No. 3 bed (Street section), and also that Isastrcea', perfect in their generic 
attributes, have been described from the St.-Cassian limestone. I have named 
the new form Isastrcea latimceandroidea. 

Septastrcea Haimei, Wright, sp., is found with the last species. It has 
fissiparous calices, no definite cyclical arrangement of its septa, and a strongly 
developed endotheca. Its alliance to Septastrcfa excavata, De Prom., is evi- 
dent ; but this last species has a definite hexameral arrangement of its cycles, 
as well as frequent fissiparity. 

Fissiparity is produced by two large septa stretching across the calicular 
fossa, joining and then developing small septa from their sides. The large 
septa form the walls which separate the newly formed calices. 



ON THE BRITISH FOSSIL CORALS. 



103 



This is the earliest species of the genus which has been found in this 
country ; but Septastraa Fromenteli, Terquem et Piette, which belongs to the 
zone of A. planorbis of the west, has been found in the zone of A. angulatus 
in the east of England. It may have flourished in the zone of A. planorbis 
in the west, and evidently existed contemporaneously with Septastraa Haimei. 
These are the earliest forms of the genus, which has many Isastraean charac- 
ters, which has its corallite walls rather imperfectly united, and which is re- 
produced by ova and by fissiparity. It is evidently related to a genus of St.- 
Cassian corals which, although not found in the zone of Ammonites planorbis 
in this country, is represented by two sijecies (one a St.-Cassian type) in the 
zone of Ammonites angulatus, in Glamorganshire. The genus is Elysastrcea, 
Laube, which wiU be noticed presently. 

Septastrtea'. are not found in Great Britain later than the Lias ; but species 
occvu' in the French Oolites and in the Miocene. The genus is extinct. 

It was always an assemblage of variable forms, and the irregiilar septal 
arrangement of the species was the rule. This wiU be observed from the 
study of the following Table. 





Eegular 

septal 

arrangement. 


Variable 

species. 


Irregular 

septal 

arrangement. 


-^^ ^■ , f Seotastrtea Haimei 


"i 
"i 


1 
1 

1 

i 


1 
1 

1 

"i 
1 
1 


^^'^'''' i ^ DeFromenteU 

A. angulatus [ De rromenteli 

® 1 excavata 


A. Bucklandi Eveshami 


_ , . , . r exnlanata 


ooiiti« i dispar : :.;:. 


Miocene Forbesi 





There are thus three genera of corals represented in the British zone of 
Ammonites planorbis : — 

Thecosmilia Terquemi, Duncan. Septastrsea Haimei, Wright, sp. 

Isastr£ea latimwandroidea, Duncan. 

And by inference those genera were in existence during the deposition of the 
sediments of the zone which lived in St.-Cassian times, and in the age of the 
zone of Ammonites angulatus — such genera, for instance, as Montlivaltia, 
Elysastnea, Astroccenia, KhabdophyirHi. 

The zone oi Ammonites planorbis is very distinctly developed in France and 
in Luxembourg, and it succeeds without any White Lias intervening upon 
the beds with Avinda contorta. In England the zone is but feebly developed, 
and the upper part of the White Lias cannot be separated from it. The 
separation of the zones of Ammonites planorbis (or its equivalent) and^. an- 
gulatus is satisfactorily determined on the continent, but it is not to be arbi- 
trarily asserted for Great Britain ; and in both cases large percentages of 
species are common to the upper and lower zone. 

Triassic fish pass upwards into the zone of Ammonites angidatus in the 
French area, and Triassic Madreporaria are found in the corresponding zone 
in Glamorganshire. Avicida contorta and an Astrocoenian are common to the 
Azzarola beds, the Avicida-contorta zone of Great Britain, and the zone of 
A. angulatus. The French zones of the Lower Lias contain Azzarolan 
species. It must be conceded that the White Lias was deposited during the 
age of A. planorbis or A. Burgundice of the French area, the deposits being 
contemporaneous in a general sense — that the Azzarola deposit of Lombardy 



104 UEPORT— 1808. 

was developed whilst the sediments containing Avicula contorta, the fossils of 
the Wliite Lias, and those of part of the zone of Ammonites planorhis were 
being formed in the north-west of Europe — that the fauna of the A. pla- 
norhis zone was extended westwards, and became more decidedly associated 
with that of the zone of A. angulatus — that the St.-Cassian fauna was re- 
presented more or less in the Azzarola deposits — that the European area 
was not subject to violent distui'bances between the deposition of the Azzarola 
beds containing Avicula contorta, and the commencement of the age of Ory- 
pJi-ea incurva — that simple bathymetrical changes produced first local, and 
subsequently general modifications of the fauns — that faunae which appear 
to have been consecutive were really synchronous, and that the lifetime of 
the St.-Cassian, Azzarola, Avicula-contorta, and Lower-Lias faunae was em- 
braced in a less extensive period than has usually been admitted. It is of 
the greatest importance to the palaeontologist that every objection to the arbi- 
trary classification of systematists in geology should be fully stated ; and it is 
very evident that the physical breaks in the Upper Trias, Rhsetic, and Lower 
Liassic strata are not accompanied by such decided palaeontological changes 
as might be beheved to have taken place. 

Corals from the Zone 0/ Ammonites angulatus, Schl. 

There are some highly fossiUferous beds in South Wales, the West of Eng- 
land, the county of Lincoln, and in the North of Ireland which hare the 
homotaxis of the typical strata of the continental zone of Ammonites angu- 
latus, viz. the Calcaire de Yalogne, the Foie de Veau in the Cote d'Or, and 
the Gres Calcareux in the Duchy of Luxembourg. The strata whence the 
ablest French palaeontologists of the present day derived the magnificent 
Lower-Liassic (Infrahassic of some) moUuscan fauna are the evident equi- 
valents biologicalh', and perhaps chronologically of the Sutton stone, the 
conglomeratic deposits at Brocastle, the coralUferous bed at Cowbridge (all 
being in Glamorganshire, and known so thoroughly, thanks to Charles Moore), 
the beds above the White Lias at Marton in Lincolnshire, and some deposits 
at Waterloo, Larne, in the North of Ireland. 

The British and continental deposits contain large numbers of molluscan 
species in common, and not a few Madreporaria"; but the British strata were 
soon proved to be veiy coraUiferous, especially in the west. 

The following is a list of the species of corals from the continental zone 
of Ammonites angulatus. 

1. Montlivaltia Sinemuriensis, D' Orb. 11. Thecosmilia Michelini, Terq. et Piette. 

2. dentata, De From, et Ferry. 12. coronata, Terq. ef Piette. 

3. Martini, De From. 13. Septastrrea Fromenteli, Terq. et Piefte. 

4. Ehodana, De From, et Ferry. 14. excavata, De From. 

5. discoidea, Terq. et Piette. 1.^. Isastraea Condeaua, Chnp. et Dev\ 

6. Haimei, Chap, et Dew. 16. Sinemuriensis, De From. 

7. Guettardi, Chap, et Dew. 17. Stylastrfea Sinemuriensis, De From. 

8. polymorphs, Te)-q. et Piette. 18. Martini, De From. 

9. denticulata, De From, et Ferry. 19. Astrocoenia Sinemuriensis, D' Orb. 

10. Thecosmilia Martini, De From. 20. clavellata, Terq. et Piette. 

Probably some of the species of Montlivaltia will have to be absorbed by 
others ; but this Ust, when added to the Table of British Corals from the zone 
of Ammonites angulntus, proves that, instead of the Lias being an uncoralU- 
ferous series, it was quite the contrary. The great development of coral Hfe 
in the Azzarola series, the scanty remains of it in the Western and North- 
western European Avicula-contorta zones, and in the 'VMiite Lias and in the 
zone of Ammmnte.'i planorhis, and the luxuriance of the species in the zone of 



ON THE BRITISH FOSSIL CORALS. 



105 



Ammonites angnlatus in the westernmost Lower Lias are most significant 
facts ; and the significance is not diminished when the paucity of tlie species 
of the zone of Ammonites Buckhndi, and their distinctness from those of 
Am^nonites angulatus, is considered. 

List of British Species from the zone 0/ Ammonites angulatus. 

1. Oppelismiliagemmans, i);«Mea«. Ire- ff. 26. Ehabdophyllia recondita, Lauhe. 

land. South Wales. 

2. Montlivaltia Walliw, Duncan. South b. 27. Astroccenia Sinemuriensi.s, 

Wales. D'Orb. South Wales. 

3. Murohisonise, Duncan. South 28. gibbosa, Duncan. South Wales. 

Wales. 29. plana, Duncan. South Wales. 

4. Ruperti, Z)«wca«. England. 30. ms\gn\s, Duncan. South Wales. 

6. parasitica, Duncan. South 31. reptans, I>;f;icaw. South Wales. 

Wales. 32. jjarasitica, Duncan. S. Wales. 

fi. simplex, Duncan. South Wales. 33. pedunculata, Duncan. South 

7. brevis, Duncan. South Wales. Wales. 

8. peduncukta, Duncan. South 34. costata, Duncan. South Wales. 

Wales. 35. f avoidea, Dutican. South Wales. 

*• 9- polymorpha, Terq. et Piette. 36. supei-ba. Duncan. South Wales. 

b. 10. Haimei, Ch. et Dew. England 37. • dendroidea, Dimcan. South 

and Ireland. Wales. 

11. Jiihermca, Duncan. Ireland. 38. minuta, Dutican. South Wales. 

12. ])apillata, Duncan. England. 39. Cyathoccenia dendroidea, Duncan. 

<". 13. Guettardi, BlainviUe. England. South Wales. 

14. Thecosmilia Suttonensis, Duncan. 40. inoYiis,tans,Dimcan. South Wales. 

South Wales. 41. costata, Du7ican. South Wales. 

15. rairabilis,7)?rara«. South Wales, rt. 42. Elysastrsea Fischeri, Laube. South 

16. serialis, Duncan. South Wales. Wales. 

17. irregularis, Duncan. South 43. Moorei, Duncan. South Wales. 

Wales. A. 44. Septastrtea excavata, E. de From. 

18. Terquemi, Duncan. South South Wales. 

Wales. e. 45. Fromenteli, Terqicem. South 

19. affinis, Duncan. South Wales. Wales. 

20. dentata, Duncan. South Wales. 46. Latiiria?andra denticulata, Duncan. 

21. plana, Duncan. South Wales. South Wales. 

22. BroAiex, Duncan. South Wales. 6.47. Isastrtea Sinemuriensis, E. de From. 

b. 23. Martini, E. de From. England. South Wales. 

6.24. MicheWm, Terq. et Piette. Eng- 48. globosa, D?<»c«m. South Wales. 

o. T,, V '^^- Murchisoni, Wright. Skye. 

a. 2o. RhabdophyUia rugosa, Zrt2(ie. South 50. Tomesii, Duncan. Worcester- 
Wales, sliire. 

This large Coral-fauna is made up of — 

Series 1. Species ranging from the St.-Cassian beds 3 

„ 2. Species ranging from continental zones of Ammonites 

angulatus ... n 

„ 3. Species from the Azzarola deposits 1 

„ 4. Species from the continental zone o{ Ammonites pla- 

noi'bis o 

„ 5. Species peculiar to the British deposits 37 

_ ^ . Total 50 

The first senes comprehends — 

Thecosmilia rugosa, Latibe, 

Rhabdophyllia recondita, Laube, 

Elysastraea Fischeri, Laube, 

species which are common to the white dolomitic limestone of Sutton in 
Glamorganshire, and the St.-Cassian beds. 

These widely ranging forms link the distant formations together in the 
1868. 



106 REPORT— 1868. 

same manner as the fish which are found in the Triassic strata and also in 
the French zone of Ammonites angulatus. Not only are these species of 
Madreporaria not rare, but they are accompanied in the Siitton stone by 
closely allied species, which of course are allied to the St.-Cassian types. 

Thecosmilia Siittonensis, Duncan, and T. serialis, Duncan, are in structure 
and in their methods of reproduction similar to Thecosmilia rugosa, Laube, a 
St.-Cassian species. Eh/sastrcea Fischeri, Laube, is accompanied by a closely 
allied species in the Glamorganshire beds ; and the genus is remarkable for its 
obvious connexion with the early secondary Astrceidce with more or less 
united walls. 

KlmhdopliyJlia is a genus closely allied to Thecosmilia, and as tli'' forms 
included in these genera commence as simple corals, and become compound 
or serial during growth, it is obviously necessary to compare them in their 
young stage with the genus MontlivaJtia. Thus MM. Milne-Edwards and 
JulesHaime say thatThecosmiliie are compound Monti ivaltice; and this opinion 
is rendered important when it is remembered that some- Montlivaltice have 
calycinal gemmation, and thus approach the Thecosmilian type still more. 
MontlivaJtia is a genus with species in the lowest corallifcrous secondary 
rocks ; so that there is a fair assumption to be made that from MontlivaJtia de- 
scended ThecosmiJia and RhahdophyJJia. The Thecosmilice of the Sutton stone 
are principally capitate forms ; that is to say, they spring from a peduncle 
and divide suddenly (by gemmation or by fissiparity). Amongst the non- 
capitate forms is ThecosmiJia rugosa ; moreover one of the species common in 
the French zone of Ammonites angidatus is also fissiparous and non-capitate, 
viz. MicheJini, Terq. et Piette. ThecosmiJia Sidtonensis, Duncan, has some 
resemblance to ThecosmiJia rttgosa, Laube, in its calice, but not in its fissi- 
parity, and it is allied to ThecosmiJia sericdis, Duncan, in its short peduncle 
and capitate swelling. The origin of the corallites in T. Sidtonensis by in- 
tercalycinal gemmation is very distinctive. 

ThecosmiJia scriaJis, Duncan, belongs to the stunted ThecosmiJicB so cha- 
racteristic of the Triassic and Lower Liassic coralliferous strata. It is 
readily distinguished by the number of corallites springing from the pedun- 
cle, and by its long serial calices mixed with rounded ones. 

The existence of corallites produced, in one individual, by lateral gemma- 
tion, calicinal gemmation, and fissiparity is as remarkable as is the restriction 
of other individuals of different species to one of these forms of reproduc- 
tion. 

It is necessary to bear in mind that there are these diverse methods of 
gemmation and increase in these early ThecosmiJice, because the genera 
which are structurally allied, and doubtless genetically related, possess one 
or more of these methods. 

Moreover it is remarkable that the feeble true wall, the strong epithecate 
wall, the strong endotheca, the irregular septal arrangement, and the absence 
of true costse should have existed in these old secondary forms, linking them 
on to the Palteozoic Coral-fauna in these particulars, whilst in OoHtic times 
the wall, costae, and septa became developed according to the Mesozoic type. 
The gradation of structure between the species of the genus in consecutive 
periods, however, is very palpable. 

ThecosmiJia Martini and MicheJini belong to the second series* ; they are 
closely allied to each other and to several British species ; they are bush- 

* The species of tlie 1st series are marked a in the list of the British species. 
)j ,5 ^nd ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, 

)} i» ord ,, ,, c ,. ,, ,, 



J 



ON THE BRITISH FOSSIL CORALS. 107 

shaped, and have a great range. It would appear that the following Table 
gives a correct idea of the dispersion of the early The:osmilue. 

( — s» Azzarola, species ... 1 — '- Species of the Luxembourg and 
St.-Cassian types .A A. planorbis, species J French Zone of A. angidatus. 

I A. angulatus, species — »- Oolitic species. 

The genus Elysastro'a has its corallites separate and covered with an 
epitheca below, but united above at the calicular margin. The calicular ]iart 
is clearly Isastraean, and the basal is Thecosmilian. Now bush-shaped The- 
cosmilice, such as T. Michelini and T. Martini, are noticed to become united by 
their walls in some individuals, and the w;ills of some species of genera 
closely allied to Isaatrcea are not united inferioily. 

The genus is clearly a transition, not only between Thecosmilla and 
Isastnm, but between several groups of genera. For instance, 

ThecoxmUia — Elysastraa — Isastrcm — Latimceandrcea. 
Mon tUva Itia — - — Sejitastnm . 

■ — Prionastrcari. 

The earliest reliable IsastrcFce are from St. Cassian ; and several species are 
found with the St.-Cassian Elysastnean ; but they are aU erratic and rather 
abnormal forms. Thus Isastnea Haueri, Laube, and /. sj)Iendi>hi, Laube, have 
a very irregular calicular development, and not one of the Liassic species 
ever attained that regttlarity of septal arrangement which characterizes the 
Oolitic Isastra?ans. 

In the Sutton stone, at Erocastle, in Skye, and in the Worcestershire beds 
of Ammonites angulatus, there are the following Isastrcece. 

Isastrafa Sinemuriensis, Be From. Isastr.-sa Murcliisoni, Wright, sp. 
globosa, Duncati. Tomesii, Duncan. 

I. Sinemuriensis \ ^as deep ealices, great irregularity of septal arrangement, 

[ 7b septa, sometimes no distinct cyclical arrangement. 
/. qJohosn [ sp^^/'ical, caHces shallow, sometimes 36 septa, but no cy- 

' "^ ' \ clical arrangement. 

f large, convex, flat, calices shallow ; wall grows after the 
/. Murcliisoni, J. development of the contiguous calices ; 40 or more 

[ septa ; no cyclical arrangement. 
I. Tomesii ( large, massive ; wall thin; septa thin, with dissepiments 

' \ between them visible ; not 4 cycles. 

The first of these species has a great range, and connects the St.-Cassian 
and Oohtic species with a high septal number. 
The second belongs to a series comprising 

I. Eichardsoni, Ed. ^ H., Inf. Oolite. 
I. dissimilis, Mich., sp. ,, 

The third has evident affinities, from the structure of the wall, with Ehj- 
sastrcea and Lepidopliyllia, and it is an unusual form. 

The fourth resembles more or less /. Bernardiana, Ch. and Dew. Inf. 
Oolite. 

It will be observed that these species have only a remote, but of course 
generic, affinity with the IsastracK of the succeeding arenaceous deposits of 
the zone of Ammonites BucMandi, but that their affinities with the species 
of the St.-Cassian and Inferior-Oolite coral-faunae are decided. 

They have only a generic relation to Isastrmi latimcfandroidea, Duncan, of 
the zone of Ammonites planorbis, as no serial calices are found in them. 

t2 



108 



REPORT 1868. 



There is a species oi Latimceandrcea in the British zone o{ Ammonites angulatus, 
L. clenticulata, Duncan ; its calices are very like the serial calices of Isastrau 
latimaandroklea. 

I have already noticed that probably Astrocosnia gibhosa, nobis, is reallj' 
a form from Azzarola, for the casts of both are very alike. Now there is an 
Astroccenian in the St.-Cassian, A. OppeJi, Laiibe ; it is unfortunately hardly 
specifically differentiated, but it is evidently closely allied to the Astrocoenia 
of the Sutton stone, as well as to A. Sinemuriensis, D'Orb., sp., from the 
French zone of Ammonites ane/ulatus. This last species is also hardly suffi- 
ciently differentiated ; but I have placed it amongst the British species 
provisionally. 

There are eleven species o{ Astroccenia special to the Welsh Lias, and the 
species just noticed. The genus was evidently flourishing in the St.-Cassian 
and Azzarolan times, and was singularly abundant in species amongst the 
Lower Liassic reefs at Sutton and Brocastle, to which the Mountain Limestone 
formed the support. 

The Liassic Astrocoenice occur as large and massive, small and dendroid, or 
as irregular and, sometimes, as iuerusting foi-ms. All the species are very 
irregular in their septal arrangements, and none of them present definite and 
clear cycles of septa. 

Some of the species have the coenenchyma between the calices irregularly 
ridged, so as to present the first traces of that coenenehymal development 
which characterizes the genus Sti/Ioccenia. The columella is very distinct in 
all the species, and the junction of the largest septa to it is marked in some 
forms by a paliform swelling ; but there are no paH. The dentate condition of 
the septal edge is very marked. The size of the corallum, its shape and habit, 
the size of the calices. the character of the costae, and the density, thickness, 
and ornamentation of the free portion of it appear to difter in various forms, 
and separate eleven new species from those already described. 

The following is a scheme of the Astroccenice from the zone of Ammonites 
anyidatus, at Sutton and Brocastle. 



Corallum. 



Astrocoenia. 

( gibbousand tall 

( large ... J flat and short \ 

\ short and irregular outline 
'' incrusting 

pedunculate, with epitheca .. 

dendroid 

V small ...■{ flat and narrow 

globose 

irregular 

flat and semiincrusting 



( scanty 



Corallum having the coenenchyma ■ 



abundant. 



1^ moderately developed •{ 



Astrocoenia gibbosa, Duncan. 

plana, Duncan. 

insignia, Duncan. 

septans, Duncan. 

parasitica, Duncan. 

pediuicvilata, Duncan. 

dendroidea, Duncan. 

superba, Duncan. 

favoidea, Duncan. ' 

costata, Duncan. 

■ minuta, Duncan. 



J Astrocoenia favoidea. 

\ niiuuta. 

f parasitica. 

- dendroidea. 

- superba. 

- pedunculata. 
(^ insignis. 

( septans. 

- costata. 



I- 



gibbosa. 
plana. 



ON THE BRITISH FOSSIL CORALS. ]09 

r and straight... Astrocceiiiaiiisignis. 

fomameuted... " opined... superba. 

^ „ wavy costata. 



Tlia »urface of the coeiienchj-ma 



gibbosa. 



( gibbosa. 



plana, 
ridged ^ minuta. 

I reptans. 

\ dendroidea. 

plain ( parasitica. 

(^ ' pedimculata. 

^rudimentary favoidea. 

Astrocoema clavellata, Terq. et Piette, is found in the Luxembourg Lower 
Lias, but the zoues above that of Ammonites anr/ulatus in the Lias do not 
present, as yet, any species. The species is represented in the Oolites, and 
became extinct in the Falunian. 

Ci/athocania is a new genus, which I have suggested and published in 
order to admit forms which, had they been furni.shedwith a columella, would 
have been classified as Astroc^xnicr. There is a species in the zone of Amtno- 
nites Biicklandi. Some of the species are mimetic of the Astroccenice. The 
following is a scheme of the genus. 

Ci/athocoenia. 

/■ branching, having costjc C. dendroidea. 

Cyathocoenia with j intrusting, no cosr;v, cwnencliyma granular C. incrustans. 

the corallum . . . . ; flat large costa-, and a deep calic* C . costata. 

I, globular, no cost*, coenenchyma plaii i C. globosa. 

The gradation of structure in the genera just passed under our notice 
becomes more and more evident as such forms as those included under the 
genus Cyatlioccenia are studied. In the early stage Thecosmilia cannot be 
distinguished from Montlivaltia ; but gemmation from the calice, from the 
calicular waU, or from the wall ensued, or fissiparous division occurred, as 
the corals grew. There was an evident tendency in Montlivaltia WaUice, 
Duncan, for instance, to reproduce by caUcular gemmation; but in Opjieli- 
smilia distinct calicular budding occurred. Under these circumstances the 
genetic relations of the three genera Thecosmilia, Montlivaltia, and Oppeli- 
smilia are of the closest. 

Now in bush-shaped Thecosmilice union often occurs between a bud from 
the wall and the parent stem. A section transverse to the line of growth 
shows, (1) low down, two corallites with their septa, walls, and epitheca per- 
fect ; but higher up the epitheca is not seen in a section, and the walls may 
be (2) slightly separate, or (3) quite fused, and they then appear as one 
lamella between the corallites. 

(1) is what is observed in Elysastraa ; (2) is the Septastrsean peculiarity ; 
(3) pcculiarizes Isastrcea. 

The origin of Latimceanclrcea from Isastrcea has already been noticed. In 
Elysastrcm the epitheca and one wall become absorbed at the calicular 
margin. In Cyatlioccenia the epitheca between the walls becomes ccenen- 
chymal, and variously ornamented ; whilst in Astroccenia the same thing occurs 
besides the growth of a columella. 

The following grouping of the genera is made with a view to assert that 
they had genetic relations with Montlivaltia, and that some Cainozoic types 
revert to more ancient. 



110 REPORT— 1868. 

Montlivaltia ( ^"'^'"^'«"?j'i«- 

iheeosmuia. 



Tliecosmilia with 



f gemmation from the wall Ehsa8tra''a Cj-atboccenia. 

Phj-niastrrea (a) .. Astrocoenia. 
Solenastraa (A) ... Thamnastra'a. 

Heliastra2a (c) I.*astr«a?a. 

Priona.straja. 

Astra?a. 

Metastrffia. 

calicular gemmation Lepidophyllia. 

serial calices Latima?anclra;a. 

i, fissiparous development Septastr«a. 

a. An evident reversion to Eh/saafrtea in a recent genus. 

h. t'iolcnasfraa i.s a case of reversion to an ancestral Tkccosmilio-Elyaastrea type in the 
later Neozoic ages. 

c. Has great probability of being a case of atavism with much modification of Theco- 
smilia and Solenastraa. 

The Monilivaltice of the zone of Ammonites angulatus are remarkable for 
their septal regularity, the amount of disscpimental endotheca, the usiially 
rudimentar)' couditiou of the true wall, and the development of the strong and 
compensating endotheca. These characteristics are observed in the St.-Cassian 
Montlivaltiw, and in those which are found in the strata intervening between 
the Ammonites-caujuhttns and the St.-Cassian beds. These structural pecu- 
liarities, in a genus whose later Jura.ssic species have a perfect hcxameral 
arrangement, a perfect wall, and moderate endotheca and epitheca, indicate 
the descent of the MontUvalthv fi'om a Palaeozoic stock. lu MoiitHvaltla 
Mufchhoni, Duncan, the wall and epitheca are united perfectly into one 
structure with the intercostal spaces, just as the septa of some simple Palaeozoic 
corals are continuous, not with costaj, but with the intercostal spaces or 
their analogues. 

M. parasitica is remarkable for its septal number ; and M. simplex has 
distant and curved septa. 

M. papHlata, Duncan, M. Hibernice, Duncan, and 31. Haimei, Chap, et 
Dew., are closely allied species ; they are broad-based, pedunculate, short, 
and turbinate, and vary greatly. The last-named species ranges probably 
over the whole area of the zone of Ammonites angulatus. 

Closely allied to Montlivaltia and Tliecosmilia is the new genus Oppeli- 
smilia. Its Palaeozoic aspect is distinct, the multiseptal and non-cychcal 
calice, the calicular budding, and the strong epitheca all refer it to bygone 
types. 

These corals, from the Lias beneath the zone where Gryphcea incurva and 
Ammonites BucMandi are abundant, indicate that, like the succeeding forma- 
tions of the Chalk and the Oolite, the Lias was very coralliferous. Nothing 
marks the progress of pateontology more strongly than the ability of making 
this statement from well-ascertained data ; for within a very few years the 
Lias was considered so mitddy a deposit as to be obnoxious to coral life. 

Now, with a great fauna, part of it indicating reef conditions and the rest 
moderately deep water, the Lower Lias will assume as great an importance 
to the zoophytologist as the Eocene. The Liassic coral-faima reflects the 
Pala?ozoic as the Eocene foreshadows theEecent coral-fauna. Unfortunately 
the paucity of our information respecting the earliest Secondary coral-fauna, 
that of the Lower Trias, is so great that the Liassic species are still greatly 
removed from the original types. 

Corals from the Zone of Ammonites Bucklandi (bisulcatus). 
Corals are not numerous as regards their species in this zone, and the com- 



ON THE BRITISH FOSSIL CORALS. Ill 

monest species of tlie zone of Ammonites angulatus have not been found in 
any of its strata. 

It is probable that Thecosmilia Martini, E. de Prona., which in France 
ranges from the beds containing Ammonites Moreanus into those in which 
Ammonites bisidcatus is found, has a corresponding vertical range in England. 
Thecosmilia Jlirhelini, Terq. et Piette, appears to be present in the zone of 
Ammonites bistdcatt(^ ; but as yet only casts of its specimens, which resemble 
those of the species from Abbot's Wood in the zone of Ammonites angulatus, 
have been found. These casts, and some of Thecosmilia Martini, have been 
assigned to the genus Chulophyllia, but without svifhcient reason. Thecosmilia 
is a large genus, and of course the species present individuals of aU sizes ; so 
that to give to small cylindroid Th cosmilice the generic appellation of 
Cladojihi/llia is unreasonable. In fact this last genus is but a subgenus of 
Thecosmilia at the best. 

List of Species from this Zone. 

1. MontliTolUa. Gaettardi, Blavivi lie. 6. Isastrsba, insignia, Buncav. 

2. Septastrrea Eveshami, Diniean. 6. Stricklandi. Duncan. 

3. Lepidophyllia Stricklandi, Duncan. 7. Cyathocoenia globosa, Duncan. 

4. Isastraea endothecata, Duncan. 

Septastrcea Eveshami has very irregular calices ; and when the wall has 
been worn away between them, a groove is seen indicating that separation of 
the corallites which I have already noticed to obtain in the Elysastrcpce. The 
species is rather abnormal ; for although fissiparity is common, still there is 
a disposition to serial increase. 

The genus Isasfrca has three well-marked species in this zone, and they 
are very distinct from those of the zone of Ammonites angulatus. In Isastrcea 
endothecata the depth of the calices, the extraordinary development of the 
endotheca, and the great number and the irregularity of the septa are differ- 
ential. Isastrcea Stricllandi also has a great development of endotheca ; for 
large plates of it cross the coraUites, and shut in the calicular fossae below, 
acting perfectly like tabulae, just as in Cyathaphora. The septa are few in 
number ; and no cyclical arrangement is to be noticed. 

Isastrcea insignis belongs to a section of the genus which comprises /. 
Henocquei, Ed. & H., from the Hettangian, I. pohjgonalis, Muschelkalk, and 
/. Lonsdalci, Ed. & H., from the Inferior Oolite. 

A new genus, Lepidophyllia, has a species in this zone, and a very fine one 
in the zone of Ammonites Jamesoni: it is an interesting form, and presents 
some Eugose characteristics, such as a repeated calicular gemmation and an 
epithecate waU. 

The only Montlivcdtia I have seen from the zone of Ammonites Bucklandi 
has a lower horizon on the continent. Having thus a very considerable 
vertical and geographical range, the species is, of course, very variable, and 
many local varieties have been found, which are separated with difficulty from 
Montlivcdtia Uaimei. These flat multiseptate MontlivcdtiiP are very charac- 
teristic of the Lower Lias. They have a representative in the zone of Ammo- 
nites obtusus, in the form of M. patula, Duncan, whose dentate septa are 
wonderful. Such septa began then to be the fashion ; for in the next zone 
the Montlivaltice are famous for their grandly ornamented dentations. 

Corcds from the Zone o/ Ammonites raricostatus. 
The" Montlivcdtia; from Fenny Compton, Honeybourne, and Cheltenham 
belong to several species, and two of these are singularly polymorphic. 
Shape has not much to do with the specific diagnosis of some recent simple 



112 REPORT— 18G8. 

corals ; and it is necessary to assert this in collecting under one fossil species 
corals of very different external forms. The Monilivaltue from the zone of 
Ammonites rcwicostatus are common, and their mineral condition has been 
preservative of the minutest details : even the granulations on the minute 
septal dentations are preserved. 

Dr. Wright collected and described a very remarkable series of corals from 
the Hippopodium and coral-beds of Marie Hill, Cheltenham, Honeybourne, 
and Fenny Compton, naming them TJiecoct/afhus rur/osus. The assemblage 
of forms thus named contains very varied specimens, the external shape 
especially being rarely alike in two or three instances. A careful examination 
of sections of most of the forms enabled me to place them all in the genus 
Montlivaltia. The absence of pali and the presence of short endothecal 
dissepiments proved that they could not belong to the genus Thecocyathvs. 
But the general Montlivaltian characteristics have also the palaeozoic peculi- 
arities already noticed in considering the Montlivaltice of the zone of Ammo- 
nites angulatus. Montlivaltia riigosd, Wright, sp., will therefore take the 
place of Thecocyatlms rugosns, Wright, MS. 

Montlivaltia mucronata, Duncan, is a polymorphic species, remarkable for 
its elegance and ornamentation ; some of its specimens are amongst the most 
beautiful of the Madreporaria. The study of a large collection enabled 
me to place some very different-looking forms in the same species, the inter- 
mediate varieties having been in my possession. 

There is a decided affinity between these Montlivaltice and M. Stuchburyi, 
Ed. & H., of the Inferior Oolite. Moreover the 31. nummiformis, Duncan, 
of this zone is related, if structural affinity be of value, to M. lens, E. & H., 
Inf. Oolite. Montlivaltia radiata, Duncan, is a very abnormal species, and 
retains the quadrate septal arrangement, which is fully represented in many 
Liassic species, but which is so characteristic of many Palseozoic forms. It 
must be remembered that such strange structural peculiarities in later forms 
may arise from atavism. 

List of Corals from the Zones of the Lower Lias ahove the Zone of 
Ammonites Bucklandi. 

Montlivaltia patula, Duncan. Montlivaltia nummiformis, Duncan. 

rugosa, Wright, sp. - — — radiata, Duncan. 

mucronata, Duncan. 

There are then twelve species in the Lower Lias above the zone of Amvio- 
nites angidatus, five of which are above the zone of Ammonites Buchlandi. 
It needs no care to decide that the fauna of the zone of Ammonites angu- 
latus has little affinity with that of the other zones. 

Corals from the Middle Lias. 

1. Lepidophyllia Hehridensis, Duncan. 

2. Montlivaltia Victonce, Duncan. 

The first species is from the island of Pabba, and was collected by Dr. 
Wright ; it forms a bed there, and was doubtless a rapid grower. 

The genus has already been slightly noticed ; its calicular gemmation and 
the growth of epitheca on the free waU of the corallites, where they grow 
higher than their neighbours, refer to an Elysastraean, Thecosmilian, and 
Septastraean series. 

A great number of specimens of all sizes of a very polymorphic Montlivaltia 
have been found on the sui-face of the fields at Chemington, near Skipton, and 
in a watercourse or ditch section of the Middle Lias close by. Ammonites 



SPECTROSCOPIC INVESTIGATION OP ANIMAL SUBSTANCES. 113 

Henleyi, A. Cliiltensis, Cardinia attenuata, and C. elonrjata were found with 
the corals. 

MontUvaltia Vktorice, Duncan. This coral grows to a height of five inches, 
and may be two inches broad ; it is the largest simple secondary form, and 
has the epithecal waU so pccuhar to the Liassic Montlwaltke. Its septal 
number is very great, and the endotheca is highly developed. It is very 
variable in shape. 

There are some fragmentary corals in the Marlstone, but their genera are 
doubtful ; and the cast of a MontUvaltia was found by Mr. Charles Moore at 
Wells, but I cannot determine the species. 

Corals from the Upper Lias. 

The only species is that which was found years since, and which was 
described by MM. Milne-Edwards and Jules Haime, Thecocyathus Moorel, 
Ed. & H. 

Total numher of Species of Corals from tlie Bntlsli Liassic Strata.] 

Lower Lias .... 64 species. 

Middle Lias 2 „ 

Upper Lias .... 1 „ 

67 species. 

The descriptions and drawings of sixty-six of these species are in my 
'Monograph of the Liassic Corals,' 1867, 1868, Pal. Soc. 

The Thecoci/afhus Moorei, Ed. & H., was described and drawn in tlie 
' Monog. Oolitic Corals,' by Milne-Edwards and Jules Haime, Pal. Soc. 



Report of a Committee appointed to investigate Animal Substances 
with the Spectroscope. By E. Ray Lankester. 

DuEiKG the year attempts have been made to obtain a supply of Sipho- 
nostoma or Sahdlce for the purpose of investigating the derivatives of the 
body described by me last year as chlorocruorine ; at present a sufficient 
supply has not been obtained. The absorption-spectrum of chlorocruorine 
from Sahella, however, has been carefully observed and recorded. The 
Sponge-chlorophyll has been investigated with the object of determining 
which of the two green and two yellow bodies, spoken of by Professor Stokes 
as being present in plants, is present in the sponge ; and some interesting 
results appear likely to be obtained when the history of plant-chlorophyll is 
more fully known. 

The feathers of twenty-two species of birds, mostly red, green, or blue, have 
been examined for absorption-spectra; none was obtained; but Prof. Church 
has discovered a red matter containing cojiper in the feathers of the Turacou ; 
and to this body he gives the name turacin. The spectrum of this substance 
I have carefully examined and recorded. As stated by Prof. Church, it gives 
two absorption-bands, when in the feather, close to those of haemoglobin, but 
readUy separable from them, and by no means indicating anything like 
identity in the bodies, as Prof. Church appears to have thought. 

A scheme with the chief solar lines and Sorby's standard interference lines 
1868. K 



] 14 REPORT — 1868. 

ruled in has been prepared for recordiug absorption-spectra. I have taken 
notes of many by this means, which is very useful. A more satisfactory 
means of measurement than Sorby's scale appears to be required, since the 
quartz plate cannot be readily obtained of the right thickness. 

In a futui-e Report I hope to give the results of observations -which have 
now to be deferred. 



Second Report of the Committee on the Condensation and Analysis of 
Tables of Steamship Performance. 

At the Dundee meeting of the British Association in 1867, the Committee 
on the above-mentioned subject, consisting of John Scott Russell,Esq., P.ll.S., 
William Faii-bairn, Esq., LL.D., Thomas Hawksley, Esq., C.E., James 11. 
Napier, Esq., F.ll.S., and W. J. Macquorn Eankine, Esq., LL.D., was reap- 
pointed, for the purpose of continuing its duties as defined in the resolution 
by which it was originally appointed in 1866 ; and a sum of i^lOO was j^laced 
at its disposal. The Committee, as before, employed Mr. J. Quant, naval 
architect, as calculator, and have reason to be highly satisfied with the 
manner in which his duties have been performed. 

The sum of .£100 has been expended. 

The contents of the Eeport now submitted to the Association arc as 
follows : — 

List of detailed tables whose condensed results appear in the present 
Eeport. 

Condensed tables. 

Analyzed tables, according to the method of Mr. Scott Eussell. 

Analyzed tables, according to the method of Professor Eankine, so far as 
that method is at present complete ; that is to say, taking into account eddy- 
resistance depending on friction, and wave-resistance due to shortness of 
afterbody. Just at the commencement of the Meeting to which this Eeport 
is presented, Professor Eankine pointed out a hitherto neglected kind of wave- 
resistance, depending on a relation between speed and depth of immersion ; 
but the data of observation necessary in order to determine its amoimt and 
laws have not yet been obtained. 

In explanation of the distinction between " condensed " and " analyzed " 
tables, it has to be stated that the condensed tables contain nothing except 
quantities ascertained by measurement, observation, and experiment ; while 
the analyzed tables contain certain functions of those quantities, which 
functions are connected with theoretical views as to the probable nature and 
laws of the actions that take place between the vessel and the water. 

List of Detailed Tables wJiose condensed results appear in this Report. 

The detailed tables whose condensed results appear in the present Eeport 
consist of those which were published in the Eeport of the British Associa- 
tion, 1863. 

Table I. — Engineer's log of City of Dublin Steam Packet Company's 
Steamship ' Mimster,' June and July, 1861. 
No information as to draught of water or displacement is given. 



ON STEAMSHIP PERFORMANCE. ] 15 

Table II. — Abstract of the log of the Pacific Steam Navigation Company's 
Eoyal Mail Steamship ' Qiiinto ' from Liverpool to St. Yiacent, 1864. 
No dimensions of the ship are given. 

Table III. — Eoyal (West-India) Mail Packet Companj, Southampton to 
St. Thomas, distance 3622 miles, from July 2nd, 1862, to June 2nd, 1863. 

This Table contains the perfoi-mance of five ships, the 'Atrato,' the 'Shannon,' 
tke 'Seine,' the ' Tasmanian,' and 'La Plata.' No draft of water is given, but the 
condition of the hull is stated. 

Table IV. — Eoyal (West-India) Mail Packet Company, St. Thomas to 
Southampton, July 30th, 1862, to June 30th 1863. 

This Table contains the same steamers as the preceding. Table III. contains 
the performance of those ships on their outward voyage, and Table IV. their per- 
formance on their homeward voyage, during twelve months' work. No draft of 
water on leaving port, nor area of midship section has been given, although mean 
displacement has been stated. 

Table V. — Eoyal (West-India) Mail Packet Company. Summary made 
from the Tables of diagrams from indicator and working of the engines be- 
longing to the various ships included in the return furnished of the perfor- 
mances from St. Thomas to Southampton, between July 30, 1862, and June 
30, 1863, as given in Table IV. 

This Table contains very useful data ; the quantities of two ships have been reset 
and repeated in this condensed Report, and as far as possible the lines of the 
ships have been obtained, and the draft of water and area of midship section 
corresponding to the mean displacement are inserted in the condensed Tables. 

Tables VI., VII., VIII., and IX. contain abstracts of engineer's log of the 
* Great Eastern.' 

The indicated horse-power has been given in Table IX. only ; and therefore that 
performance only is available for calculation. 

Table X. — Abstract of engineer's log of the Steamship ' Great Eastern,' 
eighteen voyages, 1860-1863. 

No statement has been made of indicated horse-power. 

Table XL — Eeturn of H.M. Steam Line-of-Battle Ship ' Victor Emmanuel.' 

This Table contains twenty-seven runs, of which sixteen were made under steam. 
Quantities of the vessel have already been given in last year's condensed Report, 
Table V. Her performance appears in this Report under diti'erent conditions of 
draft of water and displacement, and consumption of coals. 

This Table has been condensed to eleven runs under different conditions ; and, 
although not strictly according to the form laid down in last year's Report for the 
condensation of tables, it bas been thought proper to insert tbe whole of the items 
given in the Report of 18fi.3, so as to form a Table by itself. The indicated borse- 
power as given in the condensed Table has been calculated from the indicator-dia- 
grnms as published in the Report of 1863. This is the only one of the condensed 
Tables in which the degree of expansion of steam has been given. It is much to 
be desired that the lines of this vessel, as also those of other ships of war, should 
be obtained from the Admiralty, in order to furnish data for analysis. 

Table XII. and XIII. — Ee'sultats de la navigation des Paquebots des 
Services Maritimes des Messageries Imperiales, pendant I'annee 1861 et 1862. 

No particulars of these ships have been given, with the exception of the draft of 
water. 

Table XIV. — Particulars of 12 steamers indicated by letters of reference 
(A to K). 

No area of midship section nor displacement has been returned. 

k2 



116 



REPORT 1868. 



Table A. — Particulars of the trial trips of four Holyhead MaU Steamers 
' Banshee,' ' Llewellyn,' ' Leinster,' and ' Connaught,' in comparison with 
H.M.S. paddle-yacht ' Victoria and Albert.' 

This Table does not mention the displacement of the ships. Where it has been 
possible these quantities have been tilled up from the lines and from other sources 
of information. 

Eeport 1863 contains two Plates showing indicator-diagrams of H.M.S. 
' Yictor Emmanuel ' (fore-cylinder and aft-cjlinder). 

The pressure of steam in the cj'linders, and the indicated horse-power as cal- 
culated by these diagrams, are given in Table IX. of this Report. 

Of the five Poyal (West-India) Mail Packet Company's Steamships 
whose performances were published in Tables III., IV., and V., Eeport 1863, 
the performances of two have been condensed and inserted in this Report, 
viz. the ' Atrato ' (paddle) , built by Messrs. Laird and Co., and the ' Tas- 
manian ' (screw), by Messrs. Laurence HUl and Co. 

The nominal horse-power of the screw-stcaraer 'Tasmanian' is given as 
744 in Eeport of 1863, and 550 in earlier printed Tables. In earlier Tables 
the nominal power of the ' Atrato ' is given as 800, whereas in the Eeport of 
1863 it has been published as 766. Further, it appears that the indicated 
horse-power, as given in the condensed Eeport of 1867, is the I. H. P. as 
measured in 07ie cylinder only, in the case of the paddle-steamers ' Atrato,' 
' Shannon,' and ' La Plata.' 

Condensed Tables. 

Performance of two Royal (West-India) Mail-Packet Company's Steamships 

on a voyage of 3622 miles. 



Names 

Length on load water-line, in feet 

Breadth (extreme), in feet 

Mean draft of water, in feet 

Area of immersed midslii]) section, in sq. ft 

Displacement, in tons of 'Sij cubic feet 

Mean immersed girtli, in feet 

Engixes. 

Description 

Number of cylinders 

Diameter of cylinders, in inches 

Length of stroke, in feet 

Number of revolutions, per minute 

Average steam as per card, in lbs 

Average vacuum as per ca rd 

Pressure of steam as per gauge, in lbs 

Vacuum as per gauge, in inches 

Nominal horse-power 

Indicated horse-power from one cylinder . . . 

Coals consumed, in lbs. per hour 

Speed of ship, in knots per hour 



Atrato, 
paddle. 



336-5 
40-92 

18-35 
653- 

3979' 
5i'S4 



Side lever. 

z 

96- 

9" 

14-42 

6-547 
11-181 
13-41 
26- 
8co- 
2207-98 
7936- 

11-22 



Tasmanian, 
screw. 



33^' 

39" 

19-8 

666- 

3760- 

52-52 



Tr. inverted. 

3 
68- 

3-5 
41-76 

5-137 
9-712 
15-1 

25-95 
550- 
1442-19 
6896- 
10-67 



From " Particulars of Trial Trips, Table A," Eeport 1863, in which the 
performance is given of the four vessels on the Mail Service between Dublin 
and Holyhead with a voyage on the same route of the ' Victoria and Albert,' 



ON STEAMSHIP PERFORMANCE. 



iir 



only the performance of the 'Leinster' and Her Majesty's yacht has been 
extracted and given in this Report. 

In studying the quantities of these mail-boats, it was found that in Report 
1861, Table IX., the nominal power of ' Leinster' is given as 750, whilst in 
Report 1863 it is printed as 720. Again, in Report 1861 the diameter of 
the wheel is given as 33 feet outside the floats, and 29 feet to centre of 
journals, whilst in Report 1863 the diameter is given as 31 feet outside 
floats, and 27 feet to centre of journals — a difference therefore of 2 feet in 
each case. Purther, in Report 1861 the quantities of the 'Leinster' and 
' Ulster ' are given under one bracket, leading to suppose that those two 
ships are alike in all respects, whereas such is not the case. The diameter 
of cylinders of both ships is given in that Report as 96 inches with a stroke 
of 7 feet, whilst in the Report of 1863 the diameter of cylinder of the ' Lein- 
ster' is printed as 98 inches, with 6 feet 6 inches stroke, and that of the 'Ulster' 
as 96 inches, with 7 feet stroke. 

In oi'der therefore to ascertain the truth it was necessary to write to the 
manufacturer of the engines ; and the correct quantities of the ' Leinster ' 
are given in the Table below. 

In making the condensed Report of last year, the Ptcport on Steamship Per- 
formance of 1863 was not in the calculator's hands, and the quantities of 
the ' Leinster,' therefore, were given as he found them in former Reports ; but 
by a comparison with the Table^below the errors may be corrected. The dis- 
placement, as here given, and which was not mentioned in Report 1863, has 
been calculated from the lines. 



Names 

Length, in feet 

Breadth, in feet 

Draft of water, in feet 

Area of immersed midship section 

Displacement, in tons of 35 cubic feet . 
Mean immersed girth, in feet 

Engines. 

Description 

Number oi cylinders 

Diameter of cylinders, in inches 

Diameter of air-pump, in inches 

Stroke of cylinder, in feet 

Stroke of air-pump 

Number of revolutions, per minute 

Nominal horse-power 

Indicated horse-power 

Speed of vessel, in knots 

Speed of vessel, in statute miles 

Pressure of steam by safety-valve, in lbs, 

Vacuum in condenser, in inches 

Diameter of wheel outside float, in feet . , 
Diameter of wheel to journals 



Leinster. 


Victoria and 
Albert. 


327- 


300- 


35' 


40-27 


12-68 


13-92 


336- 


401* 


1675- 


i98o* 


40-18 


40- 


Oscillating. 




2 




98- 




54' 




6-5 




^■5 




26-25 


25-4 


720- 


6oo- 


4751" 


2980" 


17-747 


16-827 


20-429 


I9-377 


25- 


23- 


25- 


25- 


31- 




27- 





118 



REPORT 1868. 



Table IX. — Condensed Table of trials of H.M. Steam Line- 



Date of trial 

Ship's course 

Wind's direction 

Wind's force 

State of sea 

Mean draft of water 

Displacement, in tons 

Area of midship section, in square feet 

Average sjjeed per hour, in knots 

Duration of trial, in hours 

Steam cut off in proportion of stroke 

Average number of revolutions 

Pressure of steam near cylinder, in lbs 

Mean pressure on piston, in lbs 

Barometer (fore), in inches 

Barometer (aft;, in inches 

Indicated horse-power 

Speed of screw, in knots per hour 

Slip, in knots per hour 

Slip, per cent 

Number of furnaces at work in the boiler . . . 

Grate-surface at work, in square feet 

Heating surface at work, in square feet 

Pressure of steam in the boilers, in lbs 

Consumption of coals, in cwt. per hour 

Consumption of coals, in cwt. per knot 

Consumption of coals, per I. H.. P. per hour 

I. H.P. 

Y^xDf 

I.H.P. 

Disfcmce run with i ton of coals 

Description of sail set 

Area of sail set, in square feet 

Remarks 



March i6. 
S.W. by W. 

Westerly. 

I 
Smooth. 

23'54 
5000- 
1040- 
6-8 



35- 
i6- 
9'6i 

24i 
6494 

894 
214 

239 

lo- 

217-5 

57266 

i6- 

23¥ 

3 4 
39 

S°3- 

141- 
588 



March 24. 
W. by N. 
Southerly. 

I to 2 
Smooth. 

23'54 
5000' 
1040' 

8-05 

8- 

1 

8 
40- 

17* 

I2'7I 

25" 

25" 

ioo6'5 

IO-22 

2-17 

206 

15- 

326^25 

8589-9 

17' 

31* 

395 
3-5 

539" 
151- 

5'OS 



March 25. 

W. ^N. 

N.E. 

o to I 



Foul bottom. 



23-54 
5000- 
I040* 

657 

4- 

To 

35' 
[16- 

99 

25" 

25' 
730-7 
894 

2-37 
265 

lO' 

217-5 

5726-6 

16- 

24- 

365 
3-6 

403- 

113- 

5 '47 



Foul bottom. 



March 26. 

W. iS. 

S.W. 

1 to 3 

Slight swell. 

23-46 
4970- 
1035- 
6-7 

9' 

1 

TS 
36- 

995 

24^ 

24i 

691-5 
92 

25 

27-1 

15- 

326-25 

8589-9 

17- 

33- 
492 

53 

450- 

I26- 

4-06 



ON STEAMSHIP PERFORMANCE. 



119 



of-Battle Ship ' Yictor Emmanuel ' during the year 1862. 



March 29. 


March 30. 


April 5. 


March 25. 


April 1. 


April 6. 


April 6. 


S.W. I S. 


W.N.W. 


N.W. ^ W. 


W. iN. 


W. 


N.W. i W. 


N.W. 


w.s.w. 


S.W. by W. 


N.W. 


E.N.E. 


N.W. by W. 


N.N.E. 


N.E. 


I 


6 to 7 


3 


3 to 4 


2 to 3 


2 to 3 


2 to 3 


Heavy swell, 




Smo-itb. 


SUght swell. 


Moderate 

swell. 


Moderate 
swell. 




s'.w. 




23-35 


23-29 


23-33 


23-54 


23-27 


23-22 


23'22I 


4923- 


4910- 


4925- 


5000- 


4903- 


4887- 


4887- 


1030- 


1026- 


1029- 


1040" 


1025- 


1024" 


1024- 


60 


6-82 


6-5 


8-5 


8-02 


7-6 


7-2 


5' 


6- 


4- 


3' 


3' 


7* 


S' 


•158 


•307 


i 


> 


i 


1^ 


1 


42- 


46- 


43- 


38- 


42- 


38- 


al- 


18- 


18- 


I?- 


i6- 


I?" 


17' 


le- 


12-66 


15-26 


12-04 


9-98 


11-9 


9-6 


ys I 


24- 


244 


24i 


24- 


254 


25- 


24- 


24- 


24^ 


24i 


24- 


245 


23- 


23J 


10266 


13558 


999-6 


730-7 


965-0 


704-4 


473'4 


io'73 


11-75 


10-99 


971 


10-73 


9-71 


7-92 


473 


493 


449 


1-21 


2-71 


2-11 


0-72 


44-1 


41-9 


40-8 


12-5 


25-3 


21-7 


9- 


'5' 


20- 


10- 


10- 


15- 


15- 


15- 


326-25 


435- 


217-5 


217-5 


326-25 


326-25 


326-25 


8589-9 


114532 


5726-6 


5726-6 


8589-9 


85899 


8589-9 


18- 


18- 


17' 


i6- 


17' 


17' 


i6- 


35J 


651 


46- 


32- 


54t 


34- 


22| 


5-96 


9-62 


7-07 


3-76 


6-81 


4'47 


3-11 


39 


5-4 


51 


4-9 


61 


5-4 


5-7 


2l6- 


240- 


282- 


874- 


547' 


638- 


8o8- 


6i- 


67-5 


79-5 


246" 


154- 


178- 


227* 


335 


2-08 


2-82 


5-31 


2-93 


4'47 


6-421 








Plain sail to 


Fore- and aft- 


Fore- and aft- 


All sail to fore- 








single reefed 


sails. 


sails. 


top and fore- 








top-saiL 






top-gallant and 
studding sails. 








2631- 


1126- 


1126- 


3649- 


Bad coals ; 






Foul bottom. 


Foul bottom. 






bip pitching 




heavily. 















120 REPORT— 1868. 

Example of Analyzation according to the method of Mr. Scott Riissell. 
Royal Mail Steamship ' Atrato.' 

Length on load water-line, in feet 336*5 

Breadth, in feet 40-92 

Mean draught of water without keel 18-35 

Area of immersed midship section, in square feet 653 

Displacement in tons of 35 cubic feet 3979 

Diameter of paddle-wheel oiitside floats, as taken from the draw- 
ing, in feet 36-5 

Diameter of wheel to jom-nals in feet or effective diameter 32 

Indicated horse-power 2207-98 

Speed of ship in knots per hour 11-22 

One knot being = 1-69 feet per second, henco speed of ship in 

feet per second 18-96 

Consumption of coals, in lbs. per hour 7936 

Coefficient of fineness of midship section or 653 -f-B X d= 0-869 

„ „ bodyor 3979x35 4- Bxc?xL= 0-5512 

„ „ ends or D in cubic feet-;-® x L= .... 0-6339 

„ performance V^X D5^-^ I. H.P 160-62 

V^xD^^W 5005 

W in this formula means consumption of coals in cwt. per hour. 

Coefficient of performance V^ X©-^I.H. P. = 419-66 

Bevolutions of paddle-wheel per minute 14-42 

Velocity in paddle-wheel, in knots per hour 14-29 

To find the velocity of the paddle-wheel, the effective diameter has been 
multiplied by 3-1416; this product has been multiplied by the number of 
revolutions per minutt, this product again by 60, and the last product has 
been divided by 6082-66 to find as quotient the velocity in knots per hour. 

Slip in knots per hour equal to 14-29—11-22 = 3-07 

sup in feet per second equal to 3-07 X 1'69 = 5-19 

Speed of ship : speed of slip : : 1 : 0-27 

Dip of paddle-board, measured from lower edge, in feet 9 

Length of paddle-board, in feet 12 

Area of paddle-race 12 x 9 X 2, in square feet 216 

Area of midship section : Area of paddle-race : : 1 : -33 

Resistance due to area of paddle-race equal to speed of slip, in feet per 
second^ multiplied by the area of paddle-race, or 

5-19= X 216 = 5818 lbs. 

Resistance due to length of paddle-race equal to resistance due to area of 
paddle-race multiplied by the speed of the ship -h speed of slip, or 
21,263 lbs. 

Coefficient of diminished resistance. — This coefficient belongs to a pure- 
mathematical wave-line bow. The question offers itself, what is the 
length of this bow ? 

The length of the bow of the ship can be denoted 

1. By the speed, 

2. By the place of half the beam in the light water-line, 



ON STEAMSHIP PERFORMANCE. 121 

3. By the coefficient of fineness of ends, and 

4. By the actual length as found by the Knes. 

For the afterbody the length would be f of the above quantities, with the 
exception of 4, where it is given by the lines. 1 , 2, 3, 4 worked out for the 
* Atrato ' would give a length of bow as computed by 

1. 70-16 feet* 

2. 80 

3. 176 

4. 166 „ 

quantities which differ immensely. But whatever the length of forebody, 
afterbody, and middlebody may be as computed above, the three together 
must form the given displacement with the given draught of water. The 
wave-line method supplies formulse by means of which the exact length of 
bow answei-ing both conditions may be found ; and in order to prove which of 
the four quantities is correct we proceed as foUows : — 

Let^ denote the coefficient of fineness of midship section, 
q the coefficient of fineness of body, 
r the coefficient of fineness of ends equal to q -^p ; then 

volume of forebody equal to -5 B?c/p =-5 Z x 

afterbody „ -5 B?V?p +-19635 B\//j = (-5 Z' + -19635 B)© 
,, middlebody ,, Wdp=l" x@ 

total displacement „ •5'iildp -{-■5Wdp-\--lQQ2>riWdp-\-W,"dp. 

Dividing this by the parallelepiped, BLcZ, will give the coefficient of fineness of 
body, or q, 

■51 +-51' +-19635B-Z"=?L=:rL; but l + l' = 'L-r; 

P 
hence •5L+-5r + -19635B=)-L, 

from which equation I", or the length of the middlebody, may be determined; 
and having the length of the middlebody deducted from the total length of 
the ship, six-tenths of the remainder will give the length for the- forebody, 
and four-tenths of the remainder will give the length of the afterbody. 
Working the above formula out for the ' Atrato ' we shall get 

•5 X 336-5 -I- -51" + -19635 x 40-92 = -6339 x 336-5, 

•5Z" =37-02, or Z" = 74-04 equal to length of middlebody. 

hence length of forebody equal to -6(336-5— 74-04) = 157-476, 
and length of afterbody „ •4(336-5-74-04) = 104-984. 

It will be seen from these quantities that already twice as long a bow has 
been obtained as is necessary for a speed of 11-22 knots. 
Let us now test these quantities for the displacement. 

* A curve is appended at the end of this Eeport, by which for any given speed in statute 
miles the length of bow and stern might be measured. 



122 



REPORT 1868. 



Porebody. 
Log 653 =2-8149132 
Log 157-476=2-1972144 
Log -5 =9-6989700 



Log 35 



Nat' 



4-7110976 
r 1-5440680 

3-1670296 
= 1469 tons 



Afterbody. 
Log 653=2-8149132 
Log 104-984=2-0211066 
Los -5 =9-6989700 



Log 



35 



4-5349898 
=1-5440680 



Nat' 
Log 
Log 



Log 653 



Log 35 



Nat' n' 



2-9909218 
n-^ = 979-3 tons 

•19635 = 9-2930309 
40-92 =1-6119356 
=2-8149132 



3-7198797 
=1-5440680 

2-1758117 
= 149-9 



Log 
Los: 



Middlebody. 
653 =2-8149132 

74-04 = 1-8094664 



Log 



Nat' 



35 



4-6843796 
= 1-5440680 

3-1403116 
= 1381 



1469 + 979-3 + 149-9 + 1381=3979-2 tons, or jnst t-w^o-tenths of a ton more 
than the actual displacement. Now there is no hnigth of forebody, after- 
body, and middlebody possible that ^riU fulfil the conditions required ; and it 
■R^ould therefore be wrong to compute the length of forebody in any other 
way than through means of the coefficient of fineness of ends. The ' Atrato ' 
has no actual middlebody ; but -we see that she really could have had a 
parallel middlebody of 74 feet without in the least injuring her qualities. 

The length of forebody, afterbody, and middlebody, through means of the 
mentioned formula;, have been calculated for several ships, and the result has 
been appended in a Table which follows the Table of Analysis according to 
Mr. Scott Eussell's method. 

It will easily bo seen that this length of middlebody varies with the draft 
of water ; the lighter the vessel is, the shorter the middlebody, and the 
deeper the vessel the longer the middlebody, the different coefficients of fine- 
ness necessarily becoming smaller when light, and larger when laden. 

The coefiicieut of diminished resistance is therefore (40-92 ^157-476)^ 
=0-0675. 

Eesistanee due to ship's way, equal to area of midship section multiplied 
by the square of the speed of the ship in feet per second ; and this product 
multiphed by the coefficient of diminished resistance gives 15850 pounds' re- 
sistance due to ship's way. 

Girth at midship section in feet 62-80 

This item, -when the lines are in hand, is not immediately necessary, al- 
though, when such is the case, that girth must be measured, in order to lay 
down the surface of the skin ; but iu the absence of the lines of the vessel 
the girth at the midship section becomes a great function of the siu'face of 
the skin. The 66 feet, as above, has been actually measured from the 
body-plan; but where a certain proportion exists between the beam and 
the draft of water, the girth may be found to a close approximation by 
multiplying the beam plus twice the draft with a certain coefficient, which 
coefficient may be found from a Table at the end of this Eeport, in which the 
girths at the midship section have all been found from the hues of the ship. 



ON STEAMSHIP PERFORMANCE. 123 

In the case of the ' Atrato,' where the proportion between breadth and draft 
is as i : -448, the coefRcient would be like H.M.S. ' Warrior ' and ' Achilles,' 
or the mean between the two would give -8 ; and this multiplied by 40-92 
+ 2 X 18-35 = 62-09, or -71 feet shorter than is actually the case. The cause 
of this is that the ' Warrior ' and ' AchiUes ' both have more rise of floor than 
the ' Atrato,' and this rise of floor may be judged from the coefficient of fine- 
ness of midship section ; therefore, by using a little caution in the use of this 
Table, the girth at the midship section may be found to a very close ap- 
proximation. 

Surface of skin in square feet 17233 

This surface has been exactly measured from the lines of the ship ; and 
where this has not been possible, the coefficient of -77 may be judiciously 
used from a comparison with other ships, of which the surface of skin has 
been laid down and calculated, and given at the end of this Report. 

Resistance due to skin equal to the surface of the skin mul tiplied by the 
square of the speed of the ship, in knots, and the product divided by 100, 
supposing that the skin of the ship is clean and smooth, or 

= 27300 pounds skin resistance. 

Total resistance equal to 15850 + 27300=431.50 po^^nd3. Horse-power 
required for ship's way equal to the resistance due to ship's way multiplied 
by the speed of the ship, in feet per minute, and the product divided by 
33000, or 

=546 horse-power for ship's way. 

Horse-power required for skin-resistance equal to the resistance due to 
skin multiplied by the speed of the ship, in feet per minute, and the product 
divided by 33000, or 

= 940 horse-power for skin-resistance. 

Horse-power required for slip equal to the total resistance multiplied by 
the slip, in feet per minute, and the product divided by 3300, or 

=406 horse-power for slip. 

Total horse-power required 546 + 940 + 406= 1892 

Horse-power expended on engines and propeller . . 2207 — 1892=315 
Percentage of total horse-power employed in dx-iving 

the ship -24 

Percentage of total horse-power employed in driving 

the skin -42 

Percentage of total horse-power expended on slip . . -13 
Percentage of total horse-power expended on engines 

and propeller .14 

Consumption of coals per nominal horse-power, per 

tour . 9-9 

Consumption of coals per indicated horse-power, per 

hour 3-6 



124 



REPORT 1868. 



TABLE A.— Performance of Ships, analyzed by the method 



Proportion of breadth to length : : 1 : 
Proportion of draught to breadth : : 1 : ... 

Coefficient of fineness of ^ a 

Coefficient of fineness of body b 

Coefficient of fineness of ends - 

a 

Coefficient of diminished resistance 

Coefficient of performance V^xD^-^I.H.P. 

Coefficient of performance V^ X D^-^ W. . . 

Coefficient of performance V^X^^-^I-H.P 

ESsctive diameter of wheel 

Velocity of paddle-wheel, in knots per hour- 
Slip, in knots per hour 

Slip, per cent 

Slip, in feet per second 

Ratio of slip to speed of ship : : 1 : 

Area of paddle-race, in square feet 

Resistance due to area of paddle-race, in lbs. 

Resistance due to length of paddle-race 

Girth, in feet..... 

Surface of skin, in square feet 

Skin re.sistance, in pounds 

Speed of .ship, in feet per second 

Resistance due to ship's way, in lbs 

Total resistance, in lbs 

Resistance of paddle-race to resistance of 
ship : : 1 : 

Horse-power required for ship's way 

Horse-power required for skin resistance . . . 

Horse-power required for slip 

Horse-power expended on engines and pro- 
peller 

Percentage of total I.H.P. required for ^ 

Percentage of total I.H.P. required for skin 

Percentage of total I.H.P. required for slip 

Percentage of total I.H.P. required for 
engines 

Consumption of coals per N.H.P. per hour.. 

Consumption of coals per I.H.P. per hour.. 



Anglia. 



y2i 

2'90 

79" 
•6148 

•7771 

•063s 
193-9 
3176. 
496-8 
22-06 
17-09 
4-13 

31- 

7-04 

98-04 
4858- 
20063- 

35'34 
5135- 
8626- 

22-11 
5781- 
14407- 

0-71 
232- 

347' 
228- 

8-07 
28- 

28- 

I- 

17- 



Admiral. 



6-56 
4-26 
-8916 
•5694 

•6386 

•0767 

203- 

7569- 

497' 
18-5 

13-75 
1-85 

IS' 
3-15 



3 1 '43 
66oo- 
9504- 

20-47 

5877- 
5381- 



2i8- 

353' 
100- 

73' 
40- 

47' 

»3' 



Cambria. 



2.9 



7'5S 
2-94 
•8666 
•6392 

•7376 

•0576 
162-8 
3151- 
366- 

i5'34 
18-06 
5-85 
47- 
997 
2-o8 
81-62 
8113- 
16875. 
35-12 
5347- 
7972- 

20-83 
3490-2 
11462- 

0-67 
132- 
301- 
165- 

397'35 
13' 
30- 
i6- 

40- 
15' 
5'7 



Note 1. The coefficient of diminislied resistance has been taken with a length of bow 
Nofe 2. The effective diameter of the wheel as used for analysis has been taken at the 
This has been done for the sake of uniformity in the calculations, there being an effective 
and ' Telegraph,' in Appendix V. Table I. Report 1859, and of the ' Cambria,' lengthened, 
are correct. For example, the diameter of the wheel of the 'Delta' is 26 feet, and the 
the effective diameter of wheel is given in tlie Reports as 2516 feet. Both are feathering- 
for breadth of float 4-5, and tlie ' Lima ' 3 feet. 



ON STEAMSHIP PEKFORMANCE. 



135 



of Mr. Scott Eussell (Merchant Paddle Steamers). 





Cambria 


Callao. 


Valpa- 


Lima. 


Lima. 


Bogota, 
single 




lengthened. 




raiso. 






cylinder. 




906 


7-31 


7-31 


8-36 


8-36 


8-33 




2-8i 


2-6o 


248 


2-61 


2-46 


2-52 




•8213 


•8702 


-9101 


-9752 


-8806 


•8459 




•5942 


■5379 


•5451 


•5463 




•553° 




•7234 


•6I8I 


-5989 


■6210 




-6538 




•0402 


•0515 


-0515 


-042 


-042 


-042 




215- 


224-4 


218-7 


181-5 




223-2 




3926- 


11787- 


8657- 


7774- 




12279- 




4369 


572- 


590- 


450- 


542- 


536- 




23-25 


23-96 


23-90 


24- 


24-34 


23-96 




14-59 


17-82 


17-77 


17-85 


16-97 


17-07 




2-36 


4-92 


6-24 


S-85 


3'97 


4-57 




19- 


38- 


■54 


45- 


30- 


36- 




4'02 


8-49 


10-64 


10-64 


22-08 


7-79 




5-i8 


262 


1-84 


2-22 


3-27 


2-73 




5296 


68- 


58-30 


65-28 


68- 


68- 




864- 


4901- 


6600- 


6501- 


2750- 


4126- 




4460" 


12840- 


12144- 


13327- 


9586- 


11263- 




35-82 


3996 


40-82 


42-4 


43-44 


43-05 




6536- 


7138- 


7292- 


8194- 


8395- 


8287- 




9777- 


11879- 


9694- 


11800- 


14188- 


12948- 




20-87 


22-06 


19-67 


20-47 


22-12 


21-33 




3484-9 


7017- 


6137- 


5314- 


6411- 


5770- 




13261- 


18896- 


15831- 


17114- 


20599- 


18718- 




2-97 


1-47 


1-30 


1-28 


2-14 


1-66 




132- 


281- 


219- 


197- 


258- 


223- 




370- 


476- 


346- 


439- 


570- 


501- 




969 


291- 


306- 


356- 


238- 


315- 




238-s 


2- 


-71- 


i68- 


234- 


6i- 




16- 


26-7 


27-3 


16-9 


19-8 


20-2 




44- 


45-3 


43-2 


37-8 


43-8 


45-5 




11- 


27-7 


38-2 


30-6 


i8-3 


28-6 




28- 




-8-7 


14- 5 


18- 


s-s 




13-3 


7- 


7-7 


9-4 


16-8 


7- 




6-2 


2-1 


308 


2-6 


5-1 


2- 



equal to -55 of tbe length of the ship. 

diameter of the wheel as given in the condensed Tables, minus f of the width of the float, 
diameter given in tlie Eeports of only the follovring ships, ' Anglia,' ' Cambria,' ' Scotia,' 
' Lima,' and ' Delta ' in Table \. Eeport 1861. It is rather doubtful that these quantities 
effective" diameter is given as 22 feet; the 'Lima' has the same diameter of vpheel, but 
wheels; and there is only a difference of 1-5 in the width of the float, the 'Delta' having 



126 



BEPORT — 1868. 



TABLE A (continued). — Performance of Ships, analyzed by the 



Proportion of breadth to length : : 1 : 

Proportion of drauglit to breadth : : 1 : 

Coefficient of fineness a 

Coefficient of fineness of body b 

Coefficient of fineness of ends - 

a 

Coefficient of diminished resistance 

Coefficient of performance V^xDI-^I.H.P. 

Coefficient of performance V^ xDf-=-W. ... 

Coefficient of performance V^X0^I.H.P. 

Effective diameter of wheel 

Velocity of paddle-wheel, in knots per hour. 

SUp, in knots per hour 

Slip, per cent 

Slip, in feet per second 

Eatio of slip to speed of ship : : 1 : 

Area of paddle-race, in square feet 

Resistance due to area of paddle-race, in lbs. 

Re.sistance due to length of paddle-race 

Girth, in feet 

Surface of skin, in square feet 

Skin resistance, in pounds 

Speed of ship, in feet per second 

Resistance due to ship's way, in lbs. 

Total resistance, in lbs 

Resistance of paddle-race to resistance of 
ship : ; 1 : 

Hor.se-power required for ship's way 

Horse- power required for skin resistance .. 

Hor.se-power required for slip 

Horse-power expended on engines and pro- 
peller 

Percentage of total I. H. P. required for .. 

Percentage of total I. HP. required for .skin 

Percentage of total I.H.P. required for sHp 

Percentage of total I.H.P. required for 
engines 

Consumption of coals per N.H.P. per hour. 

Consumption of coals per I.H.P. per hour... 



Scotia. 



7-13 

3'oS 
•7918 
•5184 

•654.6 

190. 
2o8-6 

3491" 
510- 

22*o6 

1 6 '40 

279 

20' 
476 
4-87 
I20* 
2266' 
11035- 
3572 
5296- 
9810' 

23'22 
6208- 

i6oig- 

I 45 
262' 
414- 
185- 

73" 
28- 

44'4 
19-8 

7-8 

16-4 

6-6 



Tele- 
graph. 



8-65 

2'91 

•8251 
•6184 

■7494 

•0441 

220-8 
3698- 
446- 

24-17 
1872 

S"49 
41' 
9'36 

2'4I 

88-4 

7744" 
18663- 

38- 

7133" 
12486- 

22-57 
5047- 
17533- 

094 

207- 
512- 
298- 

148- 
i8- 

44' 
25. 

13" 

17-4 
6-7 



Mersey. 



848 

2-92 
•8487 
•5815 
•6S52 

•042 
256-4 



563- 
19-05 
17-85 
4-57 
34' 

779 
2-90 
68- 
4?26- 
11965- 
40-40 
79»4' 
I39S7" 
2266 
5628- 
19585- 

1-63 
231- 

575' 
277- 

5- 
21-2 

52-76 

2546 

•5 



ON STEAMSHIP PERFORMANCE. 



127 



method of Mr, Scott Eussell (Merchant Paddle Steamers). 





Delta. 


Atrato. 


Shannon. 


Para- 
matta. 


John 
Penn. 


Leinster 
and 

Ulster. 




8-73 


8-22 


7-5 


7-53 


9-16 


9-42 




2-35 


2-50 


259 


2-6i 


2-76 


2-6i 




■7565 


-8051 


-8107 


-8484 


-7776 


•7479 




•4943 


■4722 


•5455 


■5743 


-4481 


■4113 




•6534 


•5865 


•6729 


•6769 


'5763 


■5500 




•043 


-041 


-0585 


-058 


•049 


-0414 




346-6 


160 6 


224-4 


227-2 


192-1 


154-3 






6840- 


8754- 


8018- 




3210- 




777- 





555' 


554- 


444' 


342- 




23- 


33-5 


33' 


35-5 


12-89 


30-34 




18-17 


18-68 


1943 


19-25 


i5'97 


22-09 




3-50 


4-91 


5'54 


5-30 


0-67 


5-81 




23- 


35' 


40. 


38- 


4* 


35' 




5-97 


8-37 


9'45 


9-04 


1-14 


9-91 




4-19 


2-80 


2-50 


2-62 


25-8 


2-76 




118-74 


132- 


130-24 


i6o-c8 


537 


150- 




4231- 


9246- 


11630- 


13081- 


69-27 


14731- 




17685- 


25889- 


29191- 


34403- 


581-43 


41246- 




52" 


5886 


60-77 


61-73 


2586 


44-5 




13271- 


15251- 


15447- 


15658- 


3419' 


13164- 




28560- 


28917- 


29802. 


30471- 


8005- 


34889- 




2503 


23-49 


23-70 


23-80 


26-10 


27-78 




10775- 


10128- 


19912- 


19914- 


3304' 


11182- 




39335- 


39045' 


49714' 


50385' 


11304- 


46071- 




2-22 


1-55 


1-89 


i-6i 


r 


1-27 




490- 


432- 


858- 


861- 


156. 


564- 




1299- 


1235- 


1284- 


1318- 


379' 


1762- 




59S- 


594' 


S54- 


828- 


23- 


727- 




-763- 


135- 


-68- 


-67- 


240- 


1107- 




30- 


18- 


29- 


29- 


19-5 


13-55 




79- 


51- 


43' 


45' 


47 '4 


42-36 




37- 


25- 


29- 


28- 


2-88 


17-48 




-47' 


6- 


— 2- 


— 2- 


30- 


26-61 






11-2 


IO-8 


12 2 




z°- 






37 


2-8 


31 




S'3 



128 



REPORT 1868. 



TABLE B. — Performance of Ships, analyzed by tlie method 



Proportion of breadth to length : : 1 : 

Proportion of draught to breadth : : 1 : 

Coefiioient of fineness of midship section a. . 
Coefficient of fineness of body b 

Coefficient of fineness of ends - 

a 

Coefficient of diminished resistance 

Coefficient of performance V^ x D^ -=- I.H.P. 

Coefficient of performance V^ X D* -^ W 

Coefficient of performance V^ X -^I.H.P. 

Speed of screw, in knots per hour 

Slip, in knots per hour 

Slip, in feet per second 

Ratio of slip to speed of ship : : 1 : 

Area of screw-race (minus boss), in square 
feet 

Area of midship section : area of screw- 
race : : 1 : 

Resistance due to area of sorew-race, in lbs. . . 

Resistance due to length of screw-race, in lbs, 

Resistjince due to ship's way, in lbs 

Girth, in feet 

Surface of skin, in .square feet 

Skin resistance, in lbs 

Speed of ship, in feet per second 

Total resistance, in lbs 

Resistance of length of screw : resistance of 
ship : : 1 : 

Horse-power required for ship's way 

Horse-power required for skin resistance ... 

Horse-power required for slip 

Horse-power expended on engines and pro- 
peller 

Percentage of total I.H.P. required for mid- 
ship section 

Percentage of total I.H.P. required for skin 

Percentage of total I.H.P. required for slip 

Percentage of total I.H.P. required for 
engines 

Consumption of coals per N.H.P., in lbs. 
per hour , 

Consumption of coals per I.H.P., in lbs. 
per hovir 



Tasmanian 



8-si 

2 -04 

•77s 
■478 

•617 

•0453 
210-5 

868o- 
596-29 
17-18 
2-93 

5' 
4-86 

230-20 

•39 

5755- 
27969- 

15447' 
61-72 

15778- 

32039- 
24-31 

40838- 

1-46 
683- 
1416- 
431- 

270- 

24- 
50- 

15' 
9-6 

15' 

3' 



Oneida. 



7-66 
2-29 
•835 



•0561 



1175-1 
13-91 
i-oi 

1-72 
12-7 

237-83 

-42 
701-59 
8959- 
15056- 

58-4 
13445' 
2^373' 

22-OI 
37329- 

4' I 
602- 
895- 
II- 

-496- 

59- 
88- 
1-08 

-49' 
14-9 
6-6 



San Carlos. 



6-40 
2-53 
-732 
•359 
-490 

-0806 

256- 

12208- 

845-5 
6-31 

-5'44 
-92 
— 2-i6 

81-68 

•31 



8424- 

41-85 
6187- 
8541- 

20-05 
16965- 



307- 

31T- 

-283- 

165- 

61- 

62. 

-56. 

33' 
9-8 

2-3 



Gruayaquil. 



6-50 
2-56 
•740 
-429 

•579 

-0778 
256- 

»5383- 
7488 
12-31 
0-13 
022 
92- 

85-37 

-32 
4-09 
376- 

8475' 
41-66 

6255- 

9007- 
20-47 
17482 

46- 
315- 
335' 
699 

-56-99 

52-5 
55-8 
1-16 

-9-49 

9-3 
1-86 



ON STEAMSHIP PERFORMANCE. 



129 



' Mr. Scott Russell (Merchant Screw Steamers). 



Undine. 



Ceylon. 



5'oo 
246 
•607 
•324 

'533 

•1275 
223" 

78o"07 
11-29 

2'03 

3 '46 
455 

4697 

•30 

562-23 
563- 
912- 
37-84 

343' 
866- 

15-80 

I778- 
I 3-03 



Colombo. 



I 

HI" 
82- 
48-9 

114-9 

89- 

52" 
31' 

-73 



6-82 
2-24 

■777 
•491 

•631 



238- 



•08576 



677-26 

14-51 

1-17 

1-99 

11-4 

211-42 



•36 

537-22 

6124- 

25855- 

6r 

14240- 

25340- 

22-76 
51195- 
8-3 

1069- 

1048- 

185- 

— 262- 

52' 

5i' 

9' 

— 12. 



8-40 
2 04 
-761 
•409 

•537 

•0466 
232" 
9863- 
655-78 
1385 

'•39 

^'37 
8-95 

176-71 

•33 

99i"34 

8882- 

10910- 

62- 

15136- 

23493' 

21-26 
34408. 
3-8 

421- 

908- 

148- 

51- 

27- 

59- 
9-6 

3-3 

9' 

2-6 



Pera. 



7-12 
2-30 
-770 
•426 

•553 

-0645 
289- 

827-56 

13-46 

0-91 

'•55 

137 

179"97 
•30 

43192 

555°' 

17226- 

58- 

14080- 

22176- 

21-24 
39402. 
T 

528- 

856- 

111- 

-8i- 

37" 
60- 

7-8 
-57 



Leonidas. 



6-97 

375 
-917 
-618 

•673 

•0817 
409- 
13006- 
975-10 
13-85 
2-15 
3-66 
5-42 

58-07 

•28 

775-55 
4043- 

6737- 

34-35 
5438- 
7444" 
19-96 
14181- 
35 

244- 

270- 

94'3 
-26-8 

71- 

79- 
27- 

-78- 

12-04 

3-5 



Penelope. 



582 

3-12 
-615 
-420 

•682 

•1576 



15-12 

4-27 
7-28 
2-54 

13-81 
•43 

731-79 
1858- 
1727- 
16-10 

933- 
ii68- 

18-51 
2895- 
1-5 

58- 

393 

38-3 

-42- 

62- 
42- 
41- 

-45- 



3-6 



Midge. 



4-63 
3-16 

789 
•529 

•670 

•1536 

147- 
5908- 
467-02 
14-20 

3-67 
626 
2-87 

16-62 

"41 

651-17 
i868- 
1807- 
16-12 

738- 

818- 

1715 
2625- 

1-4 

56- 

25-5 

298 

-11-3 

56- 

25-5 

298 

-11-3 



Lancefield. 



630 

2-47 

•737 
•407 

•552 

•0829 

"3-5 
8418- 

785- 
13-25 
3-25 

5-54 
3-07 

50-26 

•32 

1542-47 

4735" 
3788- 

33-20 
3851. 
3851. 

17-06 
7639. 
1-6 

117- 
119-4 
769 
-113- 

58- 

597 
38-4 

-56- 



5-6 
3-36 



J68. 



130 



REPORT 1868, 



TABLE C. — The quantities in the following Table have been calculated in order 

shape might have possessed a middlebody, a forebody, and corresponding 

of fineness of ends, -5 L + -5 Z" + -19635 B=r L for finding the length of 
placement. Also a coefiicient of diminished resistance has been calculated 
giving the length of bow as belonging to the speed. 



Name of Ship. 



Anglia 

Admiral 

Cambria 

„ lengthened 

Callao 

Valparaiso 

Lima 

Bogota 

Scotia 

Telegraph 

Mersey 

Delta 

Atrato 

Shannon 

Paramatta 

John Penn 

Leinster 

Midge 

Penelope 

Lancefield 

Maegregor Laird . . 

Guayaquil 

Mau rocordato 

Colombo 

Pera 

Ceylon 

Tasmanian 

Vulcan 



Length 

of 

ship. 



feet. 
i87-g3 

2I0' 

I977S 

237- 

232- 

232" 

251- 

250- 

192-57 

243-8 

254-42 

308- 

336-5 

330-13 

329-42 

171-75 

327- 

58-75 

74' 3 3 

H5- 

245- 

'95- 
221- 

3'3" 
300- 
300- 

332* 
160- 






° s 

-° p 

o 3 



tog „• 

a s o 

3S;^ 



feet. 
91-7472 
98-604 
68058 
847992 
112-73 
11887 
121-224 
110-976 
86-238 

79'932 
103-188 
136-404 
176-592 

139746 
138-132 

9>734 

169-644 

26266 

33-018 

83-376 

106-824 

105-384 

87228 

182-724 

159072 

»57-5 
161-916 
90*840 



feet. 
84- 



162- 



172* 
285 

62- 



158- 

140- 

164- 

80- 



I 



'a 

^^ 

S o 



I 

O 3 



ceo 



feet. 
61-1648 
65-736 

45-372 

56-5328 

7516 

79-25 

80816 

73-984 

57-492 

53-288 

68-792 

90-936 

117-728 
93-164 
92088 
61-156 

113*086 
17-484 
22-01 

55584 
71-216 
70-256 
58-152 

122-816 

106-048 

105- 

107-944 
60-560 



feet. 

72- 



163- 



155' 
27-5 

75- 



142- 

j6o- 

156- 

80- 



Ki a 



CD 13 

T3 3 

a g 

C rj3 
O O 

M .0 < 



feet. 
34-918 
4566 
84-32 
95-668 
44-11 
33-88 
48-96 
65-04 
4884 
110-58 
82-44 
80-66 
42-18 
97-22 
99-20 
18-86 
44-26 
15-04 

19-30 
6-04 
66-96 
19-36 
75-62 
8-46 
34-88 

37-5 
62-14 
8-60 



feet. 
54- 






tons. 

244- 

301-44 

195-52 

242-3 

45092 

522-72 

522-99 

47878 

232-68 

256-61 

38474 
779-42 

1357-2 

1209- 

1196-14 
129-73 

79993 
14-98 

J 5-56 
187- 
671-44 
428-55 

553-27 
1352-1 
1345-2 
1309-5 
»334-6 
72-67 



1 knot = 1151 
"Where the coefficient of fineness of ends is less than -5, no length of middle- 



body is possible, 
fineness of ends 



This is the case -with the ' San Carlos,' where the coefficient of 
is equal to -4907, and ?'' becomes negative ; also with the 
' Thunder,' where the coefficient of fineness of ends is equal to -4264, the smallest 
coefficient yet obtained. This Table has expressly been prepared to show that 



ON STEAMSHIP PERFORMANCE. 



131 



to show ho-w shape might have been economized, and how each vessel of entire 

afterbody. The formulae used for the calculations are >~ j~^ for the coefficient 

the middle body and -5 /© + -5 r© + -19635 50 + ?"© for testing the dis- 
belonging to the length of bow thus found ; further, a column has been added 



2 ® 
g « 



tons. 

189- 

23936 

159-81 

190-89 

346-19 

398-81 

39948 

370-08 

183-63 

206-54 

300-42 

598-72 

1028-32 

945-6 

946-1 

96-90 

597-90 

12-83 

12-76 

144-91 

521-69 

304-70 

450-42 

1017-03 

1036-60 

1006-86 

10l6-OT 

53-56 



s-s 



»<3 



tons. 

185- 

279-17 

484-47 

546-74 
352-88 
29824 
422-45 
561-20 
263-31 
709-92 
614-76 
921-82 
648-36 

1683- 

1718- 

53"34 

4i7'3 

17-18 

1819 

27-09 

841-78 

143-81 

961-4 

125-20 

589-97 
623-57 
1024-4 
13-76 



C3 



tons. 
618- 
819-97 
839-8 

979'95 
1149-99 

1219-97 

1344-92 

1410-06 

679-62 
1173-07 
1299-92 
2299-96 
3033-88 
3048-03 
3860-1 

279-97 
1815-13 

44'99 
46-51 

359' 
203491 

839-92 
1965-09 
2494- 
2971-77 
2939-93 
3375-01 

13999 



< a 



tons. 
620 
820 
840 
980 
1150 
1220 

1345 
1410 

680 
1173 
1300 
2300 
3034 
3840 
3862 

280 
1815 

45 
465 

359 

2035 

840 
1963 
2487 
2972 
2940 

3375 
140 






03 

o 



S S 



O 



•5806 
-5969 

-6130 

■5905 
■5757 
•5718 

■5734 
■5797 
•5924 

•6037 

•5856 
-5761 
-5232 
-5862 
•5932 

-5601 

■5659 

-6421 

-6148 
•5811 

■5827 
•5838 

-6105 

■5595 
•5779 
-5766 

•5709 
•5527 



^ C •r' 

C3 P- 



«3 2 9 -^ 
o s -^ ^ 



•0812 
•1053 
-1476 

-0951 

-0661 

-0595 

-0612 

-0731 

-0980 
•I24I 

-0845 

-0667 

-0536 
•0991 

-01003 
-0417 

•0425 

■2333 
•1491 

-0761 

-0788 

-0810 

-1409 

-0415 

-0699 

•0677 
•05S0 
•0321 



Speed 
of ship. 



knots. 
12-96 

12- 

12-2 
12-23 
12-9 
11-53 

12* 

12-5 

13-61 

i3'23 

12-288 

14-67 

13-771 

13-898 

13-906 

'5-3 
16-28 
10-53 
10-85 
9-6 

9-5 

12- 
11-19 

12-46 
12-556 

i3"34 

14-25 

14-5 



statute miles. 



S ^ 
to g 



95'5 

82- 

84-57 
85-33 

95' 
76- 

82- 

89-08 
105-5 
100- 

85-92 
122- 
io7"67 
110- 

110- 

1315 
148- 

63-5 

67- 

53' 

51-20 

82- 

71- 

88-5 

89-5 
ioi-i6 
115-92 
119-5 



Speed, 

in statute 

miles. 



i5-°3 
13-92 

I4'i5 
14-18 
14-96 

J3'37 
13-92 

14-50 
15-78 

I5'34 
14-25 

17-01 

»5-97 
1612 
16-13 

I7'74 
1888 
12-21 
12-58 
11-13 
11-02 

i3'92 
12-98 

i4'45 
1456 

15 '47 
16-53 
16-82 



even the virtual length of forebody, answering to the given displacement is in 
most cases even longer than the length of foi^ebody asTequired^for sTeed- and 
that, therefore, m very few cases the ratio in which the actual length of^af embody 
,s less than least proper length as required for speed can be calculated '^"'"'"''^ 



r2 



132 



REPORT — 1868. 



Table D. — Girths of Midship section as measured from the Lines of the 

Ships. 



Name. 



G-irth, in 

feet. 



Scotia 

Hibernia 

G-uienne 

Tigre 

Delta 

Pera 

Bremen 

Nubia 

Ceylon 

Australasian 

Douro 

Leinster 

Undine 

Great Eastern . . . 

Great Britain 

European 

Hope 

lona 

Queen of the Orwell 

Persia 

H.M. Rattler 

Fire Queen 

H. M. Victoria and 

Albert 

H. M. Warrior .., 
H. M. Achilles .. 



8o- 
66- 
55-5 
59' 

ss- 

6i-5 

57'S 
6i- 

71' 
66- 

49' 5 
32-84 
ii6- 
72- 
38- 
48- 
30- 
^^• 
7i' 
44" 

22'67 

86- 
89- 



Draft= 

breadth, 

multiplied by 

coefficient. 



•469 
•57.9 
■421 
•487 
•438 
•440 
•436 
•469 
•414 

'S 
•476 

■357 
■407 
•342 
•381 
•440 
•242 
•180 
•237 
•444 
■344 
•282 

•335 
•448 
•429 



B+2(? 

multiplied by 

coefficient. 



•879 
•868 
•816 
•796 
•800 

•743 
•798 
•756 
•783 
•842 
•846 
•825 
■808 
•843 
•782 
•808 
•923 

•941 
•846 
•847 
•814 

■743 

•778 
•788 
•824 



Coefficient 

of fineness 

of midship 

Section. 



■9644 
•9225 
•8338 
■7514 
•7565 
•7718 



•7780 
.9038 
•9078 

•7479 
•6072 
•8614 
•8281 
•8399 



•7025 
■7903 



•8064 
•8651 



Paddle or 
screw. 



Paddle, 

Screw. 

Screw. 

Screw. 

Paddle. 

Screw. 

Screw. 

Screw. 

Screw. 

Screw. 

Screw. 

Paddle. 

Screw. 

Both. 

Screw. 

Screw. 

Paddle. 

Paddle. 

Paddle. 

Paddle. 

Screw. 

Screw. 

Paddle. 

Screw. 
Screw. 



It is evident that great judgment must be used in using these Tables, an 
to select the same class of steamer. 



ON STEAMSHIP PERFORMANCE. 



133 



Example of Analysis of the Royal Mail Paddle Steamer ' Atraio,' 
according to Professor HanJcine's method. 

1, L, length on load water-line, in feet 336"5 

2. G, mean immersed girth, in feet, as calculated 

from the girths at twenty-five equidistant 
cross-sections by Simpson's multipliers . . 52 

The girths are measured for the purpose of calculating an integral, viz. 

JG'c^a:, where G' is any girth, and dx an element of the length ; the use of 

Simpson's multipliers gives a more accurate value of the true mean girth, 
than is given by merely adding together the girths and dividing by their 
number. In practice, however, where the cross-sections are very numerous, 
there is scarcely any difference between the ordinary arithmetical mean 
and the mean as found by Simpson's multipliers. Where there are few 
cross-sections, the use of Simpson's multipliers becomes necessary. 

3. 0, area of immersed midship section, in square feet 653. 

4. m, ratio in which virtual length of afterbody is less than least proper 
length for speed by the wave theory. 

5. m', ratio in which virtual length of forebody is less than length of soli- 
tary wave for speed by the wave theory. 

The virtual lengths here referred to are those deduced from the displace- 
ment and dimensions by Mr. Scott RusseU's method ; that is to say, the 
lengths of wave-line afterbody and forebody, which would give the same 
displacement. 

These two quantities are to be calculated only when less than 1 ; for 
when equal to or greater than 1, they have no influence on the results. 

6. y^, mean of squares of sines of angles of obliquity of stream-lines of 
afterbody at their points of inflexion '0611. 

Calculated thus : — 



Water-lines. 
1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
LWL 



Sines of 


Squares of 


obliquity. 


sines. 


•0871 


•0075 


•1391 


•0193 


•1736 


•0301 


•2079 


•0432 


•2588 


•0669 


•3090 


•0954 


•4067 


•1654 




Sum ^4278 




Mean •0611=/ 



134 



REPORT 1868. 



7. ft', mean of squares, and /3*, ineau of fourth powers, of sines of angles 
of obliquity of streamlines of forebody at their ^points of inflexion. 
Calculated thus : — 





Sines of 


Squares of 


4th power 


^ater-lines. 


obliquity. 


sines. 


of sines. 


1 


•0871 


•0075 


•000057 


2 


•1391 


•0193 


•000374 


3 


•1736 


•0301 


•000908 


4 


•2079 


•0432 


•001868 


5 


•2419 


•0585 


•003424 


6 


•2588 


•0669 


•004486 


LWL . 


•2923 


•0854 


•007299 




Sums -3109 


•018416 






Means •0444=/3- . . . 


•002631 =/3* 



6 and 7 should be measured upon normal lines if possible. In the present 
ease the angles have been measured upon water-lines, as shown in the half- 
breadth plan. 

8, A, augmented surface in square feet=LG (1 + 4/3^ + /3*), 



or 



Log L 
LogG 
Log 1 + 4/3^-1-/3* 



Nat' n"- 



= 2-5269851 

= 1-7160033 

= 0-0719556 

4-3149440 
= 20651-= augmented surface. 



The factor 1 + 4 /3^H-/3* is called the " coefficient of augmentation." 



9. A', correction of augmented sm-faco, in sqiiare feet, or 560y-© Vl — "'■^• 
This quantity disappears in tlie present case ; because ra >- 1 ; and it has 
to be calculated for those vessels only in which the afterbody is too short 
for the speed. 



10. Coefficient of propiUsion (A+A!)^ = 13211 



I.H.P. 

The meaning of the term " Augmented Surface " is explained by the fol- 
lowing extract from the * Transactions of the Institution of Naval Archi- 
tects,' vol. V. 1864 : — " The resistance to the motion of the ship, due to the 
production of fi-ictional eddies, by a given portion of her skin, is the product 
of the following factors : — 

" I. The area of the portion of the skin in question. 

" II. The aihe of the ratio which the velocity of gliding of the particles of 
water over that area bears to the speed of the ship, being a quantity depend- 
ing on the figure of the ship and the position of the part of her skin under 
consideration. 

'•■ III. The height due to the ship's speed, that is (in feet), 

(speed in feet per second)- , (speed in knots)- 
64^4 ' '^^' 22^6 



ox STEAMSHIP PERFORMANCE. 135 

" IV. The heaviness (or weight of an unit of volume) of the water (64 lbs. 
per cubic foot of sea-water). 

" V. A factor called the coefficient of friction, depending on the material 
with which the ship's skin is coated, and its condition as to roughness or 
smoothness. 

" The sum of the products of the factors I. and II, for the whole skin of the 
ship is called her augmented surface ; and the eddy-resistance of the whole 
ship may therefore be expressed as the product of the augumented surface by 
the factors III., IV., and V., above mentioned." 

The " coefficient of propulsion " may be defined as the nimiber of square 
feet of augmented surface which are driven at one knot by one indicated 
horse-power. 



136 



REPOKT — 1868. 



TABLE E.— Performance of Ships, 



Displacement in tons of 35 cubic ft. 


H.M.S. 

Lily*. 


H.M.S. 
Eclipse. 


H.M.S. 
Dwarf. 


H.M.S. 
Imperieuse. 


H.M.S. 
Warrior. 


634- 


625- 


98- 


3044- 


8997- 


Length on load-water-line, in feet 


iSs- 


,8s- 


126-5 


212- 


380- 


Mean immersed girth, in feet 


31-80 


3°" 


17- 


61-24 


76-3 


Area of immersed midship sec-" 
tion, in square feet 


200- 


198- 


44' 


688- 


1230- 


Speed of ship, in knots per hour. . . 


lo" 


11- 


10-537 


lo-iii 


14-356 


Indicated horse-power 


474" I 


838-4 


2i6- 


1199-8 


5469- 


Eatio in whicli virtual length of " 
afterbody is less than least 
proper length as required for 
speed by wave theory J 


... 


... 


... 


... 


... 


Eatio in which virtual length of 1 
forebody is less than least pro- 
per length as required for speed 
by wave theory J 


... 




... 


... 


... 


Mean of squares of sines of angles "] 
of obliquity of .stream lines of 
afterbody at their points of in- 
flexion J 


■0878 


•0878 


•0240 


•2534 


•2586 


Mean of squares of sines of angles "1 
of obliquity of stream lines of i 
forebody at their points of in- 
flexion 


•043 1 8 


•04318 


-0199 


•2721 


-0528 


Coefiicient of augmentation 


I-I749 
6911-9 


I -1 749 
6520- 




2-1968 

28562- 


1-275 
36976- 


Augmented surface, in square feet. 


2323- 


Correction of augmented surface. . . 




... 


... 






Coefficient of propulsion 


'4579' 


10351- 


12581- 


24607- 


20950- 


Speed' X Displacement I-hI.H. P. 


1557 


116-1 


'1513 


iSi- 


2 34" 

I 


In the above Table five -wooden copp 
the ' hUj,' ' Jiclipse,' ' Imperieuse,' ' "V 


er-sheathec 
'ectis,' and 


ships hav 
' Victoria 


e been inserted, viz. 
and Albert.' 


* HdlC-b 


oiler power. 




1 

11 















ON STEAMSHIP PERFORMANCE. 



137 



analyzed bj Professor Eankine's method. 



H.M.S. 

Achilles. 



380- 

77T 

1321- 

I4"322 

5724' 



•2637 
•0662 

1*2701 

37366. 
19172- 



Undine. 



294- 
125- 
309 

154-33 

926 

157-09 



Leinster. 



Atrato. 



1675- 
327- 
40-18 

330. 

16-28 
4160- 



•0653 



•0295 

1-1191 

4322'5 

21848- 
223- 



-0302 



-0142 

1-057 
1388777 

14404. 
iS4'3 



3979" 
336-5 

653- 

1122 

2207-98 



•0611 



•0444 

1-1801 

20651- 

13211 - 
i6o-6 



Tasma- 
nian. 



3760- 
332' 
52-52 
666. 

10-67 

1442-19 



-0382 



-0363 

1-1468 
19541- 

16461- 

210-5 



Midge. 



45' 

5875 

11-18 

40- 

io'53 
100- 



-63 



Great 
Eastern. 



-46 



•0884 



•0851 

i'349 
88605 

1538. 
28303- 

147- 



20250- 

680- 

80. 

1678- 

1428 
8256- 



Lancefield. 



359' 
145- 
27-64 

157' 
about 96 
about 200- 



•0318 



■0225 

1-0905 
59323- 

20923. 
263. 



1-165 
4450- 

about 19700- 
2235 



138 



REPORT — 1868.. 
TAELE E (continued). — Performance of Ships, 





Vectis. 


Lyons and 
Orleans. 


Scotia. 


Jason* 

(screw). 


Sea-King* 
(screw). 


Admiral 
(paddle). 




Displacement in tons ' 
of 35 feet 






... 


1730- 


1830- 


825- 




Length on load-water- " 
line, in feet 


227-5 


189-75 


362-42 


2o8- 


220* 


210- 




Mean immersed girth, " 
in feet 


33-II 


20-82 


67-5 


43'43 


41-92 


3 1 '43 




Area of immersed mid- 
ship section, in 
square feet J 


28-4 


HO" 


950- 


404- 


376- 


... 




Speed of ship, in knots "1 
per hour J 


IS- 


15-2 


13-9 


io'6 


1082 


12' 




Indicated horse-power. . 


13-00 


1108- 


4950- 


S75- 


8oo- 


744' 




Eatio in which virtual "j 
length of afterbody 
is less than least , 
proper length as re- '' 
quired for speed by 
wave theory* ^ 


... 


-81 


... 


... 


... 


... 




Eatio in which virtual ' 
length of forebody 
is less than least 
proper length as re- 
quired for speed by 
wave theory** j 


... 


•81 




... 




... 




Mean of squares of 
sines of angles of 
obliquity of stream- 
lines of afterbody at 
their points of in- 
flexion ) 


-0765 


■03 12 






... 


... 




Mean of squares of^ 
sines of angles of 
obliquity of stream- 
lines of forebody at 
their points of in- 
flexion ) 


•02744 


•0105 


-0441 


... 


... 


... 




Coeflicient of augmen- 
tation 


i-iio6 


1-0423 


1-1786 


1-63 


i'336 


i-?.97 




Augmented surface in" 
square feet " 


8365- 


4116- 


28405- 


I475S' 


12530- 


8560- 




Correction of aug-'_ 
mented surface _ " 


... 


1134- 




... 


... 






CoeiBcient of propulsion zz(>^^^' 


16543- 


i54'i' 


200S8- 


19844- 


19881' 




Speed^xDisp.f-r \\ 
I.H.P li 




... 


196- 


237- 


2o6- 












* I 


uformatiou p 


dven by 





ON STEAMSHIP PERFORMANCE. 

analyzed by Professor Rankine's method. 



139 



Black Swan 
(screw) 



H.M.S. 

Fairy 

(screw). 



i68- 

144.- 

19" 



364- 



Vulcan 
(paddle). 



Qiieeflofthe'^.^-^?-^- , 
Orwell ^ictonaand 



(paddle). 



1123 
3071- 

19960' 
198- 



140' 
i6o' 
H7S 



14-5 
412" 



155' 
i66- 
16-56 

6i- 

15-065 
65Si- 

0-71 



Albert 
(paddle). 



0-67 



1-0715 
2572- 

9034- 
•203 '5 



1980' 
300- 

40- 



16-827 
2980* 



I -0704 

2982' 

967' 
20500* 
151- 



13224- 

21143- 
252-6 



Neptune 
(paddle). 



212" 



198- 



Colombo 
(screw). 



i7'43 
1316* 



0-7 nearly. 



o'7 nearly, 



2487- 
313- 
44' 5 
518- 

12-46 
1528- 



Shannon 
(paddle). 



3965' 

20500- 
143- 



3840- 
330- 

547 
6o6- 

13-898 
2928-5 



0-0723 o"o686 



Messrs. A. and J. Inglis. 



0-0413 

ri68 
16268- 



20595- 
228- 



0-0499 

1-203 
21716' 

19907- 
224-6 



140 REPORT — 1868. 

On the Results of Spectrum Analysis as applied to the Heavenly Bodies; 
a Discourse delivered before the British Association at Nottingham, 
on August 24_, 1866. By William Huggins^ F,R,S., Hon. Sec. to 
the Royal Astronomical Society. 

(Abstract*'.) 

[Plates III. IV.] 

The speaker commenced with a few pi-eliminary remarks on the importance 
to Astronomy of the analysis of light hy the prism. The researches of 
Kirchhoff have placed in the hands of the astronomer a method of analysis 
which is specially suitable for the examination of the heavenly bodies. So 
unexpected and important are the results of the application of spectrum 
analysis to the objects in the heavens, that this method of observation may 
be said to have created a new and distinct branch of astronomical science. 

Physical Astronomy, the imperishable and ever-growing monument to the 
memory of Newton, may be described as the extension of terrestrial dyna- 
mics to the heavens. It seeks to explain the movements of the celestial 
bodies on the supposition of the universality of an attractive force similar to 
that which exists upon the earth. 

The new branch of astronomical science which spectrum analysis may be 
said to have founded, has for its object to extend the la's^'s of terrestrial 
l^hysics to the other phenomena of the heavenly bodies, and it rests upon the 
now established fact that matter of a nature common to that of the earth, 
and subject to laws similar to those which prevail upon the earth, exists 
throughout the stellar universe. 

The peculiar importance of Kirchhoff's discovery to astronomy becomes 
obvious, if we consider the position in which we stand to the heavenly bodies. 
Gravitation and the laws of our being do not permit us to leave the earth, it 
is therefore by means of llyht alone that we can obtain any knowledge of the 
grand array of worlds which surround us in cosmical sj)ace. The star-lit 
heavens is the only chart of the universe we have, and in this luminous 
chart each twinkling point is the sign of an immensely vast, though distant 
region of activity. 

Hitherto the light from the heavenly bodies, even when collected by the 
largest telescopes, has conveyed to us but very meagre information, and in 
some cases only of their form, their size, and their colour. The discovery of 
Kirchhoff enables us to interpret symbols and indications hidden within the 
light itself, which furnish trustworthy information of the chenucal, and also 
to some extent of the physical condition of the excessively remote bodies 
from which the light has emanated. 

Newton found that when white light is made to pass through a prism of 
glass it is decomposed into the beautiful colours which are seen in the rain- 
bow. These colours, when they are in this way separated from each other, 
form the Spectrum of the light. 

About a century later AVoUaston and Fraunhofer made the discovery that 
when the light of the sun is decomposed by a prism, the rainbow colours 
which form its spectrum are not continuous, but are interrupted by a large 
number of dark lines. These lines of darkness are the symbols which indi- 
cate the chemical constitution of the sim. It was not imtil recently, in the 
j-ear 1859, that Kirchhoff taught us the true uatiu'e of these lines. He him- 
self immediately applied his method of interpretation to the dark lines of the 

* Commuuicated by the lecturer in coulbrmity with a Kesolution of the General Com- 
mittee at Norwich, 1868. 



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/K .-I., li< .s,i It ,1' It, ,v„ /i, 



SPECTRUM ANALYSIS OF THE HEAVENLY BODIES. 14,1 

solar spectrum, and was rewarded by the discovery that several of the che- 
mical elements which exist upon the earth, are present in the solar atmo- 
sphere. 

The speaker stated that it was his intention on this occasion to bring before 
the Association the results of the extension of this method of analysis by the 
prism to the heavenly bodies other than the sun. These researches have been 
carried on in his Observatory during the last four years. In respect of a 
large part of these investigations, viz. those of the moon, the planets, and 
fixed stars, he has had the great pleasure of working conjointly with the 
very distinguished chemist and philosopher Dr. W. Allen Miller, Treas. R.S. 

The speaker then referred to the principles of spectrum analysis upon 
which theii- interpretation of the phenomena observed in the spectra of the 
heavenly bodies was based, stating that spectra may be arranged under 
three orders. 

1. The si)ecial character which distinguishes spectra of the Jlrst order con- 
sists in that the continuity of the coloured band is unbroken either by dark 
or bright lines. We learn from such a spectrum that the light has been 
emitted by an opake body, and almost certainly by matter in the solid or 
liquid state. A spectrum of this order gives to us no knowledge of the che- 
mical nature of the incandescent body from which light comes. 

2. Spectra of the second order are very different. These consist of coloured 
lines of light separated from each other. Prom such a spectrum we may 
learn much. It informs us that the luminous matter from which the lifht 
has come is in the state of gas. It is only when a luminous body is free 
from the molecular trammels of solidity and liquidity that it can exhibit its 
own peculiar power of emitting some coloured rays alone. Hence substances 
when in a state of gas, may be distinguished from each other by their spectra. 
Each element, and every compound body that can become luminous in the 
gaseous state without suffering decomposition, is distinguished by a group of 
lines peculiar to itself. It is obvious that if the groups of lines character- 
izing the different terrestrial substances be known, a comparison of these, as 
standard spectra, with the spectrum of light from an unknown source, will 
show whether any of these terrestrial substances exist in the source of the 
light. 

3. The tJbird order consists of the spectra of incandescent solid or liquid 
bodies, in which the continuity of the coloured light is broken by dark Hues. 
These dark spaces are not produced by the source of the light. They tell 
of vapours through which the light has passed on its way, and which have 
robbed the light by absorption of certain definite colours or rates of vibra- 
tion ; such spectra are formed by the light of the sun and stars. 

Kirchhoff has shown that if the vapours of terrestrial substances come 
between the eye and an incandescent body, they cause groups of dark lines, 
and further, that the groi(2J of dark lines produced by each vapour is identi- 
cal in number and in position in the spectrum mth the group of bright lines 
of which its light consists when the vapour is luminous. 

It is evident that Kirchhoff by this discovery furnished us with the 
means of interpreting the dark lines of the solar spectrum. Por this pur- 
pose it is necessary to compare the bright lines in the spectra of the light of 
terrestrial substances when in the state of gas with the dark lines in the 
solar spectrum. _ When a group of bright lines coincides with a similar 
group of dark lines, we know that the terrestrial substance producing the 
bright lines is present in the atmosphere of the sun. For it is this substance, 
and this substance alone, which by its own peculiar power of absorption can 



142 KEPORT— 1868. 

liroduce that particular group of dark lines. In this way Kirchhoff disco- 
Tered the presence of several terrestrial elements in the solar atmosphere. 

Methods of Observation. 

The speaker then described the special methods of observation by which, 
in their investigations, they applied these principles of spectrum analysis to 
the light of the heavenly bodies. He stated that several circumstances unite 
to make these observations very difficult and very irksome. In our climate, 
on few nights only, even of those in which the stars shine brilliantly to the 
naked eye, is the air sufficiently steady for these extremely delicate observa- 
tions. Further, the light of the stars is feeble. This difficulty has been met, 
in some measure, by the employment of a large telescope. The light of a star 
falling upon the surface of its object-glass of eight inches aperture is gathered 
up and concentrated at the focus into a minute and briUiant point of light. 

Another inconvenience arises from the apparent movement of the stars, 
caused by the rotation of the eartli, which carries the astronomer and his 
instruments with it. This movement was counteracted by a movement given 
by clockwork to the telescope in the opposite direction. In practice, how- 
ever, it is not easy to retain the image of a star for any length of time 
exactly M^thin the jaws of a slit only the t^-^-^ inch apart. By patient 
perseverance these difficulties have been overcome, and satisfactory results 
obtained. They considered that the tnistworthiness of their results must 
rest chiefly upon direct and simultaneous comparisons of terrestrial spectra 
witli those of celestial objects. For this purpose the apparatus which is re- 
presented in fig. 1, and fig. 2, Plate III., was contrived. 

By the outer tube c the instrument is adapted to the eye-end of the tele- 
scope, and is carried round with it by the clock motion. Within this outer 
tube a second tube h slides carrjdng a cylindrical lens, a. This lens is for the 
purpose of elongating the round point-like image of the star into a short line 
of light, which is made to fall exactly within the jaws of a narrow sUt, d. 
Behind the slit, an achromatic lens, r/ (and at the distance of its own focal 
length), causes the pencils to emerge parallel. They then pass into two 
prisms, h, of dense flint glass. The spectrum which results from the decom- 
position of the light by the prisms is viewed through a small achromatic 
telescope, 1. This telescope is provided with a micrometer screw, q, by which 
the lines of the spectra may be measured. 

The light of the terrestrial substances which are to be compared with the 
stellar spectra is admitted into the instrument in the followdng manner : — 

Over one half of the slit is fixed a small prism, e, which receives the light 
reflected into it by the moveable mirror/' placed above the tube. The mirror 
faces a clamp of ebonite, r, provided with forceps to contain fragments of the 
metals employed. These metals arc rendered luminous in the state of gas 
by the intense heat of the sparks from a powerful induction coil. The light 
from the spark reflected into the instrument by means of the mirror and the 
little prism passes on to the prisms in company with that from the star. In 
the small telescope the two spectra are viewed in juxtaposition, so that the 
coincidence and relative positions of the bright lines in the spectrum of the 
spark with dark lines in the spectrum of star can be accurately determined. 

Moon and Planets. 

The speaker referred in a few words only to the spectra of the moon and 
planets. These objects, unlike the stars and nebulae, are not orir/incd sources 



SPECTRUM ANALYSIS OF THE HEAVENLY BODIES. 143 

of light. Since they shine by reflecting the sim's light, their spectra re- 
semble the solar spectrnm, and the only indications in their spectra which 
may become sources of knowledge to us are confined to any modifications 
which the solar light may have suffered either in the atmospheres of the 
planets, or by reflection at their surfaces. 

Moon.— On the moon the results of their observations have been negative. 
The spectra of the various parts of the moon's surface, when examined under 
different conditions of illumination, showed no indication of an atmosphere 
about the moon. The speaker also watched the spectrum of a star, as the 
dark edge of the moon advanced towards the star, and then occulted it. No 
signs of a lunar atmosphere presented themselves. 

Jupiter. — In the spectrum of Jupiter, lines are seen which indicate the 
existence of an absorptive atmosphere about this planet. In fig. 3, Plate III. 
these lines are presented as they appeared when viewed simultaneously with 
the spectrum of the sky which, at the time of observation reflected the light 
of the setting sun. One strong band corresponds with some terrestrial atmo- 
spheric lines, and probably indicates the presence of vapours similar to those 
which are about the earth. Another band has no counterpai't amongst the 
lines of absorption of our atmosphere, and tells vis of some gas or vapour 
which does not exist in the earth's atmosphere. 

Saturn. — The spectrum of Saturn is feeble, but lines similar to those 
which distinguish the sjjectrum of Jitpiter were detected. These lines are 
less strongly marked in the ansse of the rings, and show that the absorjjtive 
power of the atmosphere about the rings is less than that of the atmosphere 
which surrounds the ball. Janssen has quite recently found that several of 
the atmospheric lines are produced by aqueous vapour. It appears to be 
very probable that aqueous vapour exists in the atmospheres of Jupiter and 
Saturn. 

Mars. — On one occasion some remarkable groups of lines were seen in the 
more refrangible part of the spectrum of Mars. These may be connected 
with the red coloiir which distinguishes this planet. 

Venus. — Though the spectrum of Venus is brilliant and the lines of 
Fraunhofer were well seen, no additional lines affording evidence of an 
atmosphere about Venus were detected. The absence of lines may be due 
to the circumstance that the light is probably reflected, not from the 
planetary surface, but from clouds at some elevation above it. The light 
which reaches us in this way by reflection from clouds would not have been 
exposed to the absorbent action of the lower and denser strata of the planet's 
atmosphere. 

The Fixed Stars. 

The fixed stars, though immensely more remote, and less conspicuous in 
brightness than the moon and planets, yet because they are original sources 
of light, furnish us with fuller indications of their nature. The telescope 
was appealed to in vain, for in the largest instruments the stars remain 
disldess — brilliant points merely. 

The stars have, indeed, been represented as suns, each upholding a dependent 
family of planets. This opinion rested tfpon a^^ossibh analogy alone. It was 
not more than a speculation. We possessed no certain knowledge from 
observation of the true nature of those remote points of light. This long and 
cai-uestly coveted information is at last furnished bj' spectrum analysis. "We 
are now able to read in the light of each star some indications of its nature. 
The speaker referred to two bright stars which had been examined with 
great care. The spectra of these stars are represented in Plate IV. 



144 



REPORT — 1868. 



The Tipper one represents tlie spectrum of Aldebaran, and the other that 
of Betelgeux, the star marked a in the constellation of Orion. 

The positions of all these dark lines, about eighty in each star, were 
determined by careful and repeated measures. These measured lines form 
but a small part of the numerous fine hnes which may be seen in the spectra 
of these stars. 

Beneath the spectrum of each star are arranged the bright lines of the 
metals which have been compared with it. These terrestrial spectra appeared 
in the instrument, as they are represented in the diagram, in jiuvtaposition 
with the spectrum of the star. By such an arrangement it is possible to 
determine with great accuracy whether or not any of these bright lines 
actually coincide with any of the dark ones. 

The results on these stars are given in the following Table : — 



Elements compared with 
Aldebaean. 

Coincident. 

1. Hydrogen with lines C and F. 

2. Sodium with double line D. 

3. Magnesium with triple line b. 

4. Calcium with four lines. 

6. Iron with four lines and E. 

6. Bismuth with four lines. 

7. Tellurium with four lines. 

8. Antimony with three lines. 

9. Mercury with four lines. 

I^ot coincident. 
Nitrogen compared with three lines 



Cobalt 

Tin 

Lead 

Cadmium 

Barium 

Lithium 



two lines, 
five lines, 
two lines, 
three lines, 
two lines, 
one line. 



Elements compaeed avith 
Betelgeux. 

Coincident. 

1. Sodium with double line D. 

2. Magnesium with triple line b. 

3. Calcium with four lines. 

4. Iron with three lines and E. 

5. Bismuth with four lines. 

6. Thallium (?). 

Not coincident. 
Hydrogen compared with C and F. 



Nitrogen 

Tin 

Lead 

Gold (?). 

Cadmium 

Silver 

Mercury 

Barium 

Lithium 



three lines, 
five lines, 
two lines. 

three lines, 
two lines, 
four lines, 
two lines. 
one line. 



Now, in reference to all these elements, the evidence does not rest upon 
the coincidence of one lino, which would be worth but little, but upon the 
coincidence of a group of two, three, or four lines, occurring in different 
parts of the spectrum. Other corresponding lines are probably also present, 
but the faintness of the star's light limited the comparisons to the stronger 
lines of each element. 

What elements do the numerous other lines in the star represent ? Some 
of them are probably due to the vapours of other terrestrial elements which 
we have not yet compared with these stars. But may not some of these 
hnes be the signs of primary forms of matter unknown upon the earth? 
Elements new to us may here show themselves, which form large and 
important series of compounds, and therefore give a special character to the 
physical conditions of these remote systems. In a similar manner the spectra 
of terrestrial substances have been compared with several other stars. 

/3 Pegasi contains sodium, magnesium, and perhaps barium. 
Sirius contains sodium, magnesium, iron, and hydrogen. 
a Lyr£e (Vega) contains sodium, magnesium, iron. 
Pollux contains sodium, magnesium, iron. 

About sixty other stars have been examined, all of which appear to have 
some elements in common "with the sun and earth, but the selective grouping 
of the elements in each star is probably peculiar and unique. 



SPECTRUM ANALYSIS OF THE HEAVENLY BODIES. 115 

A few stars, however, stand out from the rest, and appear to bo charac- 
terized by a peculiarity of great significance. These stars are represented by 
Botelgeux and j3 Pegasi. The general grouping of the lines of absorption in 
these stars is peculiar, but the remarkable and exceptional feature of their 
spectra is the absence of the two lines which indicate hydrogen, one line in 
the red, and the other in the green. These lines correspond to Praunhofer's 
C and F. The absence of these hues in some stars shows that the lines 
C and F are not due to the aqueous vapour of our atmosphere. 

It is worthy of consideration that the terrestrial elements which appear 
most widely diffused through the host of stars are precisely some of those 
which ai-e essential to life, such as it exists upon the earth, namely, hydro- 
gen, sodium, magnesium, and iron. Besides, hydrogen, sodium, and magne- 
sium represent the ocean, which is an essential part of a world constituted 
like the earth. 

We learn from these observations that iti plan of structure the stars, or at 
least the brightest of them, resemble the sun. Their light, Hke that of the 
sun, emanates from intensely white-hot matter, and passes through an atmo- 
sphere of absorbent vapours. With this unity of general plan of structure, 
there exists a great diversity amongst the individual stars. Star differs 
from star in chemical constitution. May we not believe that the individual 
peculiarities of each star are essentially connected with the special purpose 
which it subserves, and with the living beings which may inhabit the 
planetary worlds by which it may possibly be surrounded. 

When they had obtained this new information respecting the true nature 
of the stars, their attention was directed to the phenomena Avhich specially 
distinguish some of the stars. 

COLOITES OF THE SxARS. 

The colour of the light of the stars which are bright to the naked eye is 
always some tint of 7'ed, orange, or yellow. When, however, a telescope is 
employed, in close companionship with many of these ruddy and orange 
stars, other fainter stars become visible, the colour of which may be blue, or 
green, or purjjle. 

Now it appeared to be probable that the origin of these differences of 
colour among the stars may be indicated by their spectra. It was obvious 
that if the dark lines of absorption were more numerous or stronger in some 
part of the spectrum, then those colours would be subdued in power, rela- 
tively to the colour in which few lines onlj- occur. These latter colours 
remaining strong would predominate, and give to the light, originally white, 
their own tints. 

This supposition was confirmed by observations of the spectra of several 
white and coloured stars. The grouping of the dark lines in the stars Sirius, 
a Lyras, a Herculis, jl Cj'gni, and some othei's which were examined for this 
purpose, was such as to account for the difference of colour exhibited by their 
light. The spectra of the two stars forming ft Cygni are represented in 
fig. 4, Plate III. 

It appears, therefore, that the colours of the stars are in general produced 
by the vapours existing in their atmosphere. The chemical constitution of a 
star's atmosphere will depend upon the elements existing in the star and upon 
its temperature. 

Variable Stars. 

The brightness of many of the stars is found to bo variable. From night 
to night, from month to month, or from season to season, their light mav be 

1868. M 



146 REPORT — 1868. 

observed to be continually changing, at one time increasing, at another time 
diminishing. The careful study of these variable stars by nixmerous ob- 
servers has shown that their continual changes do not take place in an 
uncertain or irregular manner. The greater part of these remarkable objects 
was and wane in accordance with a fixed law of periodic variation which is 
peculiar to each. 

The speaker stated that he had been seeking for some time to thi'ow light 
upon this strange phenomenon by means of observation of their spectra. If 
in any case the periodic variation of brightness is associated with physiml 
changes occurring in the star, we might obtain some information by means of 
the prism. Again, if the diminution in brightness of a star should be caused 
by the interposition of a dark body, then in that case, if the dark body be 
surrounded with an atmosphere, its presence might possibly be revealed to us 
by the appearance of additional lines of absorption in the spectrum of the 
star when at its minimum. Some small changes have been suspected, but 
further observations are required before any conclusion can be with certainty 
deduced from them. 

Tempoeaet Stars. 

With the variable stars modern opinion would associate the remarkable 
phenomeua of the so-called new stars which occasionally, but at long- 
intervals, have suddenly appeared in the sky. But in no case has a per- 
manently Inight star been added to the heavens. The splendour of all these 
objects was temporary only, thoiigh whether they died out or still exist as 
extremely faint stars is uncertain. In the case of the two modern temporary 
stars, the one seen by Mr. Hind in 1845, and the bright star recently observed 
in Corona, though they have lost their ephemeral glory, they still continue 
as stars of the 10th and 11th magnitude. 

The old theories respecting these strange objects must be rejected. "We 
cannot believe, with Tycho Brahe, that objects so ephemeral are neiv creations, 
nor with Iliccioli, that they are stars brilliant on one side only, which have 
been suddenly turned round by the Deity. The theory that they have sud- 
denly darted, towards us with a velocity greater than that of light, from a 
region of I'cmote invisibility, "^vill not now find supporters. 

On the 12th of May last a star of the 2nd magnitude suddenly burst forth 
in the constellation of the Northern Crown. Thanks to the Idndness of the 
first discoverer of this phenomenon, Mr. Birmingham, of Tuam, the speaker 
was enabled, conjointly with Dr. MiUer, to examine the spectrum of this star 
on the 16th of May, when it had not fallen much below the 3rd magnitude. 

The spectrum of this star consists of two distinct spectra. One of these is 
formed of four bi'ight lines. The other spectrum is analogous to the spectra 
of the sun and stars. 

These two spectra represent two distinct sources of light. Each spectrum 
is formed by the decomposition of light, which is independent of the light 
which gives birth to the other spectrum. 

The continuous spectrum, crowded Avith groups of dark lines, shows that 
there exists a photosphere of incandescent solid or liquid matter. Further, 
that there is an atmosphere of cooler vapoiu-s, which give rise, by absorption, 
to the group of dark lines. 

So far the constitution of this object is analogous to that of the sun and 
stars ; but, in addition, there is the second spectrum, which consists of bright 
lines. There is therefore a second and distinct source of light, and this must 
be, as the character of the spectrum shows, luminous gas. Now the two 



SPECTRUM ANALYSIS OF THE HEAVENLY BODIES. 1,47 

principal of the bright lines of this spectnim inform us, by their position, 
that one of the luminous gases is hydrogen. The great brightness of 
these lines shows that the luminous gas is hotter than the photosphere. 
These facts, taken in connexion with the suddenness of the outburst of 
light in the star and its immediate very rapid decline in brightness, from 
the 2nd magnitude down to the 8th magnitude in tivelve days, suggested the 
startling speculation that the star had become suddenly enrapt in thejiames of 
luminous or burning hydrogen. In consequence, it may be, of some great 
convulsion enormous quantities of gas were set free. A large part of this gas 
consisted of hydrogen, which was either intensely glowing, or burning about 
the star in combination with some other element. This flaming gas emitted 
the Light represented by the spectrum of bright lines. The spectrum of the 
other part of the star's light may show that this fierce gaseous conflagration 
had heated to a more vivid incandescence the solid matter of the photosphere. 
As the free hydrogen became exhausted the flames gradually abated, the 
photosphere became less vivid, and the star waned down to its former 
brightness. 

We must not forget that light, though a swift messenger, requires time to 
pass from the star to us. The great physical convulsion, which is new to us, 
is already an event of the past with respect to the star itself. For years 
the star has existed under the new conditions which followed this fiery 
catastrophe. 

Nebtjlje. 

When the eye is aided by a telescope of even moderate power, a large 
number of faintly laminoiis patches and spots come forth from the darkness 
of the sky, which are in strong contrast with the brilliant but point-like 
images of the stars. A few of these objects may be easily discerned to con- 
sist of very faint stars closely aggregated together. Many of these strange 
objects remain, even in the lai'gest telescopes, unresolved into stars, and 
resemble feebly shining clouds or masses of phosphorescent haze. During 
the last 150 years the intensely important question has been continually 
before the mind of astronomers, " What is the true nature of these faint, 
comet-like masses ? " 

The interest connected with an answer to this question has much increased 
since Sir Wm. Herschel suggested that these objects are portions of the pri- 
mordial material out of which the existing stars have been fashioned ; and 
further, that in these objects we may study some of the stages through 
which the siins and planets pass in their development from luminous cloud. 

The telescope has failed to give any certain information of the nature of 
the nebulse. It is true that each successive increase of aperture has resolved 
more of these objects into bright points, but at the same time other fainter 
nebulae have been brought into view, and fantastic wisps and diffused 
patches of light have been seen, which the mind almost refuses to believe 
can be due to the imited glare of innumerable suns still more remote. 

Spectrum analysis, if it could be successfully applied to objects so exces- 
sively faint, was obvioiisly a method of investigation specially suitable for 
determining whether any essential physical distinction separates the nebulae 
from the stars. 

The speaker selected for the first attempt, in August 1864, one of the 
class of small, but comparatively bright .nebulae. 

His surprise was very great, on looking into the small telescope of the 
spectrum apparatus, to perceive that there was no appearance of a band of 
coloured light, such as a star would give ; but in place of this, there were 

m2 



148 KEPORT— 1868. 

three isolated hriglit lines only. The spectrum of this nebula is represented 
in fig. 5 of Plate HI. 

This observation was sufficient to solve the long-agitated inquiry in refer- 
ence to this object at least, and to show that it was not a group of stars, but 
a true nehulxi. 

A spectrum of this character, so far as our knowledge at present extends, 
can be produced only by light which has emanated from matter in the state 
of gas. The light of this nebula, therefore, was not emitted from incan- 
descent solid or liquid matter, as is the light of the suu and stars, but from 
gloiving or luminous gas. 

It was of importance to learn, if possible, from the position of these 
bright lines, the chemical nature of the gas or gases of which this nebula 
consists. 

Measures taken by the micrometer of the most brilliant of the bright 
lines showed that this line occurs in the spectrum very nearly in the position 
of the brightest of the lines in spectrum of nitrogen. The experiment was 
then made of comparing the spectrum of nitrogen directly with the bright 
lines of the nebultie. The speaker found that the brightest of the lines of 
the ncbulaj coincided with the strongest of the group of lines which are 
peculiar to nitrogen. It may be, therefore, that the occui'reuce of this one 
line only indicates a form of matter more elementary than nitrogen, and 
which our analysis has not yet enabled us to detect. 

In a similar manner the faintest of the lines was found to coincide with 
the line of hydrogen coincident with F. 

The middle line of the three lines which form the spectrum of the nebula 
does not coincide with any very strong line in the spectra of about thirty of 
the terrestrial elements. It is not far from a Line of barium, but it does 
not coincide with it. Besides these bright lines there was also an exceedingly 
faint continuous spectrum. The spectrum had no apparent breadth, and 
must thercfoi'e have been formed by a minute point of light. Its position, 
crossing the bright line about the middle, showed that the point of light was 
situated about the centre of the nebula. Now this nebula possesses a mi- 
nute but bright nucleus. We learn from this observation that the matter 
of the nucleus is almost certainly not in a state of gas, as is the material of 
the surrounding nebiila. It consists of opake matter, which may exist in 
tlie form of an incandescent fog of solid or liquid particles. 

The new and unexpected rcsidts arrived at by the prismatic examination 
of this nebula sliowed the importance of examining as many as possible of 
these remarkable bodies. Would all the nebula give similar spectra? Espe- 
cially it was of importance to ascertain whether those nebulas which the 
telescope had certainly resolved into a close aggregation of bright points 
would give a spectrum indicating gaseitj'. 

The observation with the prism of these objects is extremely difficult, on 
account of their great faintness. Besides this, it is only when the skj^ is 
very clear and the moon is absent that the prismatic examination of their 
light is even possible. During the last two years the speaker has examined 
the spectra of more than GO nebulaj and clusters. These may be divided into 
two groat groups. One group consists of the nebula) which give a spec- 
trum similar to the one already described, or else of one or two oiily of the 
three bright lines. Of the 60 objects examined about one-third belong to 
the class of gaseous bodies. The light from the remaining fort}- nebula; and 
clusters becomes spread out by the prism into a spectrum which is apparently 
continuous. 



SPECTRUM ANALYSIS OF THE HEAVENLY BODIES. 149 

A remarkable nebula, and possibly one of the nearest to our system, of the 
nebulae presenting a ring formation, is the well-known Annular Nebula in 
Lyra. The spectrum consists of one bright line only. 'When the slit of the 
instrument crosses the nebula, the line consists of two brighter portions cor- 
responding to the sections of the ring. A much fainter line joins them, 
which shows that the faint central portion of the nebula has a similar con- 
stitution. 

A nebula remarkable for its large extent and peculiar form is that known 
as the Dumh-heJl Nebula. The spectrum of this nebula consists of one line 
only. A prismatic examination of the light from diflFerent parts of this 
object, showed that it is throughout of a similar constitution. 

The most widely known, perhaps, of all the nebulae is the remarkable 
cloud-like object in the sword-handle of Orion. 

This object is also gaseoirs. Its spectrum consists of three bright lines. 
Lord Eosse informed the speaker that the bluish-green matter of the nebula 
has not been resolved by his telescope. In some parts, however, he sees a 
large number of very minute red stars, which, though apparently connected 
with the irresolvable matter of the nebula, are yet doubtless distinct from it. 
These stars would be too faiut to furnish a visible spectrum. 

All the true Clusters, which are resolved by the telescope into distinct 
bright points, give a spectrum, which does not consist of separate bright 
lines, but is apparently continuous in its light. There are many nebulee 
which furnish a similar spectrum. 

As an example of these nebula?, the gi'eat nebula in Andromeda may be 
taken, which is visible to the naked eye, and is not seldom mistaken for a 
comet. The spectrum of this nebula, though apparently continuous, has 
some suggestive peculiarities. The whole of the red and part of the orange 
are wanting, besides this eliaracter, the brighter parts of the spectrum have 
a very unequal and mottled appearance. 

It is remarkable that the easily resolved cluster in Hercules has a spec- 
trum precisely similar. The prismatic connexion of this cluster with the 
nebula in Andromeda is confirmed by telescopic observation. Lord Eosse 
has discovered in this cluster dark streaks or lines similar to those which are 
seen in the nebula in Andromeda. 

In connexion with these observations, it was of great interest to ascertain 
whether this broad classification afforded by the prism of the nebula? and 
clusters, would correspond with the indications of resolvability furnished by 
the telescope. Would it be found that all the rinrcsolved ncbulce are gaseous, 
and that those which give a continuous sj^ectrum are clusters of stars? 

Lord Oxmantowu has examined all the observations of the 60 nebulae and 
clusters in the speaker's list, Avhich have been made with the great reflecting 
telescope erectecl by his father, the Earl of Eosse. 

The results are given in the following Table : — • 

Continuous spestrum. Gaseous spectrum. 

Clusters 10 

Resolved, or resolved '? 5 

Eesolvable, or resolvable ? ... 10 6 

Blue or green, no resolvabihlj, / 4 

no resolvability .seen [ 6 5 

31 15 

Not observed by Lord Eosse... 10 4 

41 19 

Considering the great difficulty of successful telescopic obrervation of these 



150 REPORT— 1868. 

objects, the correspondence between the results of prismatic and telescopic 
observation may be regarded as close and suggestive. 

Half of the nebulae which give a continuous spectrum have been resolved, 
and about one-third more are probably resolvable ; while of the gaseous 
nebidse none have been certainly resolved, according to Lord Rosse. 

The inquiry now presses itself iipon us — What superstructure of interpre- 
tation have we a right to raise upon the new facts with which the prism has 
furnished us ? 

Is the existence of the gaseous nebulse an evidence of the reality of that 
primordial nebulous matter required by the theories of Sir William Herschel 
and Laplace ? 

Again, if we do not accept the view that these nebulae are composed of 
portions of the original elementary matter out of which suns and planets have 
been elaborated, what is the cosmical rank and relation which we ought to 
assign to them ? As aids to ii, future determination of these great questions, 
some other observations made by the speaker may be briefly referred to. 

Comets, 

There are objects in the heavens which occasionally, and under some con- 
ditions, resemble closely some of the nebulae. In some positions in their 
orbits some of the comets appear as round vaporous masses, and except by 
their motion, cannot be distinguished from nebulae. Docs this occasional 
general resemblance indicate a similarity of nature ? In 1864 Donati found 
that the spectrum of a comet visible in that year consisted of hrirjlit lines. 

Last January a small telescopic comet was visible. It was a nearly circular, 
very faint vaporous mass. Nearly in the centre, a small and rather dim 
niicleus was seen. When this object was viewed in the spectroscope, two 
spectra were distinguished. A very faint continuoas spectrum of the coma 
showed that it was visible by reflecting the solar light. About the middle of 
this faint spectrum, a bright point was seen. This bright point is the spec- 
trum of the nucleus, and shows that its light is diflerent from that of the 
coma. This short bright line indicates that the nucleus of this comet was 
self-luminous ; and further, the position of this line of the spectrum suggests 
that the material of the comet might possibly be similar to the matter of 
which the gaseous nebulas consist. 

Measures of the intrinsic liRioHTNEss of the Nebttl^. 

It appeared to the speaker that some information of the nature of the 
nebulae might be obtained from observations of another order. If physical 
changes of the magnitude necessary for the conversion of these gaseous bodies 
into suns are now in progress in the nebulas, surely this process of develop- 
ment would be accompanied by marked changes in the intrinsic brightness of 
their light, and in their size. 

Now since the spectroscope shows these bodies to be continuous masses of 
gas, it is possible to obtain an approximate measure of their real hri(/7ilness. 
It is known that as long as a distant object remains of sensible size, its bright- 
ness remains unaltered. By a new photometric method the intrinsic inten- 
sity of the light of three of the gaseous nebula) was found in terms of a sperm 
candle burning at the rate of 1.58 grains per hour. 

Nebida No. 4628 ttVs" P^rt of the intensity of the candle. 

Annular Nebula in Lyra . . ^J^^ ,, ^, 

Dumb-beU Nebula ^^^ 



SPECTRUM ANALYSIS OF THE HEAVENLY BODIES. 151 

These numbers represent not the ajjjxtnnt brightness only, but the true 
brightness of these luminous masses, except so far as it may have been 
diminished by a possible power of extinction existing in eosmical space, and 
by the absorption of our atmosphere. It is obvious that similar observations, 
made at considerable intervals of time, may show whether the light of these 
objects is undergoing increase or diminution, or is subject to a periodic vari- 
ation. If the dumb-bell nebula, the feeble light of which is not more than 
one twenty-thousandth part of that of a candle, be in accordance with popular 
theory a sun-germ, then it is scarcelj' possible to put in an intelligble form 
the enormous number of times by which its light must increase before this 
faint nebula, feebler now in its glimmering than a rushlight, can rival the 
dazzling splendour of our sun. 

Measxjees oe the NEBtri^. 

Some of the nebute are sufS.ciently defined in outline to admit of accurate 
measurement. By means of a series of micrometric observations, it will bo 
possible to ascertain whether any considerable alteration in size takes place 
in nebulae. 

Mexeoks. 

Mr. Alexander Herschel has recently succeeded in subjecting another order 
of the heavenly bodies to prismatic analysis. He has obtained the spectrum 
of a bright meteor, and also the spectra of some of the trains which meteors 
leave behind them. A remarkable result of his observations appears to be 
that sodium in the state of luminous vapour is present in the trains of most 
meteors, 

CONCLTISION. 

In conclusion, the new knowledge that has been gained from these obser- 
vations with the prism may be summed up as follows : — 

1. AU the brighter stars, at least, have a structure analogous to that of the 
Bun. 

2. The stars contain material elements common to the sun and earth. 

3. The colours of the stars have their origia in the chemical constitution of 
the atmospheres which surround them. 

4. The changes in brightness of some of the variable stars are attended 
■witli changes in the lines of absorption of tlieir spectra. 

5. The phenomena of the star in Corona appear to show that in this object 
at least great physical changes arc in operation. 

6. There exist in the heavens true nebulce. These objects consist of 
luminous gas. 

7. A part of the light of comets is self-luminous. 

8. The bright points of the star-clusters may not bo in all cases stars of 
the same order as the separate bright stars. 

It may be asked what eosmical theory of the origin and relations of the 
heavenly bodies do these new facts suggest? It would be easy to speculate, 
but it appears to me that it would not be philosophical to dogmatize at present 
on a subject of which we know so very Httlc. Our views of the universe are 
undergoing important changes ; let us wait for more facts mth minds un- 
fettered by any dogmatic theory, and therefore free to receive the obvious 
teaching, whatever it may be, of new observations. 

Star differs from star in glory, each nebula and each cluster has its own 
special features, doubtless in wisdom and for high and important purposes 
the Creator has made them all. 



152 



REPORT— 1868. 



On some further Results of Spectrum Analysis as applied to the 
Heavenly Bodies. By William Huggins^ F.R.S., Hon. Sec. to the 
Royal Astronomical Society"^. 

[Plate v.] 

Two years ago, at the ITeeting of the British Association at Nottingham, I 
had the honour to give, in an evening discourse, a summary of the results 
of Spectrum Analysis as applied to the heavenly hodies, which had been 
obtained partly by myself and partlv as the conjoiut work of myself and 
Dr. W. AUeu Miller, Trcas. and Y.P.E.S. 

I beg now to offer to the Association a brief accoimt of some of the prin- 
cipal results of the observations which I have made since August 1866. 

These observations may be arranged according to the classes of the hea- 
veuly bodies to which they relate. 



§ I. On the Fixed Stars. 

§ II. On the Nebulse. 

§ III. On the Light of Comets. 



§ IT. On the Spectra of Sun- 
spots. 
§ Y. On the Planets. 



§ I. Ojs" THE Fixed Stabs. 



A. Ohsc rvations to determine whether the Stars are moving toivards or from 

the Earth. 

The determination of the proper motions of stars from observations of 
their angular motions among the stars apparently near them, gives to us 
information of that part only of their motion whick is at right angles to a 
ray of light coming from the star to the observer. It would be a rare acci- 
dent only if the motion thus obtained represented the whole of their motion. 
The other part of tlie star's motion, namely, the movement of the star in the 
direction of the visual ray towards or from the earth, seemed to be beyond 
the reach of our means of observation ; for photometric estimation of the 
increase or diminution of the light of the star was obviously too coarse and 
uncertain a method for so delicate an investigation. 

Now it is precisely information on this point which appeared to be inacces- 
sible to us, which has been brought within our reach by means of observa- 
tions with the prism. Supposing waves to be coming in upon the shore, a 
ship leaving the harbour would encounter a larger number of these waves in 
a given time than a ship would at anchor ; and further, the increased velo- 
city of succession of the waves which would strike its x^row could be deter- 
mined if the velocity of the ship and that of the Avaves were known. Con- 
versely, if the period and the velocity of the waves had been ascertained, the 
captain, by counting the number of waves which met the ship in a given 
interval of time, could determine therefrom the motion of his vessel. A little 
consideration will make it evident that a similar effect would take place if 
the vessel were at rest, and the source of wave-motion were supposed to 
approach or recede from the vessel ; in this case the velocity of the soiircc 
of wave-motion coirld be determined, if the initial period of the waves and 
the velocity of their propagation were known. This illustration sets forth 
the principles on which is founded the method of investigation which is now 
to be described. 

The idea that a change of period in hmiinons or sonorous waves would 
arise in consequence of a motion of the observer, or of the source of the light, 

* A communication ordered to be printed in c.xicnto. 



> 

I 






ft. 









sJi Ji 




/ 



SPECTEUM ANALYSIS OF THE HEAVENLY BODIES. 153 

or of the sound, towards or from each other, is due to Doppler. In 1841 
Doppler showed that since the impression which is received by the eye or 
the ear does not depend upon the intrinsic strength and period of the 
waves of light and of sound, but is determined by the interval of time in 
wliich they fall upon the organ of the observer, it follows that the colour 
and intensity of an impression of light and the pitch and strength of a sound 
will be altered by a motion of the source of the light or of the sound, or by 
a motion of the observer, towards or from each other *. 

Doppler then went wrong ; for he sought by these considerations to account 
for the remarkable difference of colour which some of the binary stars present 
and for some other phenomena of the heavenly bodies. IN^ow it is obvious 
that if a star could be conceived to be moving with a velocity sufficiently 
great to alter its colour sensibly to the cj-e, still no change of colour would 
be perceived, for the reason that, beyond the visible spectrum, at both extre- 
mities there exists a store of invisible waves which would be at the same time 
exaltedor degraded into visibility to take the place of the waves which had 
been raised or lowered in refrangibility by the star's motion. 'No change of 
colour, therefore, could take place until the whole of these invisible waves of 
force had been used up, which would only be the case when the relative 
motion of the source of light and of the observer was several times greater 
than that of light. 

It is obvious from these considerations that this method of research could 
afford us information of the motion of the star only in the case in which we 
hieiv the period of the light at the time of its emission from the star ; for then a 
comparison of this initial period with that observed "at the earth would show 
the exact amount of the change of refrangibihty due to the relative motions of 
the observer and the star, and as the earth's motions arc known, the motion 
of the star could bo determined. 

Now this one essential condition, namely, the knowledge of the period of 
the light when emitted by the star, is fulfilled by spectrum analysis. When 
we learn the existence of a terrestrial substance in a star, we have the 
means of knowing the initial refrangibility of the dark lines in the star's 
spectrum, which are due to the absorption of the vapour of this substance. 

It may be thought that if the lines in the spectra of the stars are subject 
to an unknown amount of displacement from the cause we have now under 
consideration, it woidd not be possible to make use of these lines to learn the 
star's chemical constitution. This objection, however, does not obtain ; for 
the amount by which the lines would be displaced by any velocity we could 
with probability assign to the stars, would be too small to be even perceived 
in the spectroscopes which had hitherto been apj^lied to the heavenly bodies 
Por example, a velocity ten times greater than that of the earth in its orbit 
would cause a line to move through a space in the spectrum about as great as 
that Avhich separates the components of the double line D of the solar spec- 
trum. Besides this consideration, the trustworthiness of the results obtained 
by myself and Dr. Miller in our joint researches, was not allowed to rest 
upon the position of a single Hue, but upon the coincidence in general cha- 
racter as well as in position of a groiqj of severed lines. At the time, indeed 
when we made our observations, Ave were fully aware that these direct com- 
parisons were not only of value for the determination of the chemical con- 
stitution of the stars, but tliat they might tell us something of the motions 

* ",,'^J^,^'' "^^^ ^^f?'",lP'?^* ■?," Doppclsternc unci einiger audcrer Gestirne des Him- 
mels," Bolim. Gesell. Abh. ii. 1842-44, s. 4G5. 



154 REPORT — 1868. 

of the stars relatively to our system. The great velocity of light rehitively to 
the known planetary velocities and to the probable motions of the few stars 
of which the parallax is known, showed that any alterations of position which 
might be expected from this cause in the lines of the stellar spectra would 
not exceed a fraction of the interval between the double line D, a change 
which could not be detected in our instrument. "VVe were, however, in pos- 
session of the information that the stars, the spectra of Avhieh had been com- 
pared with the necessary care, were not moving towards or from the earth 
with a velocity so great as 190 miles per second. Among these stars are 
Aldebaran, a Oriouis, (i Pegasi, Sirius, a Lyrce, CapeUa, Arcturus, Pollux, 
and Castor. 

Hecently (in 1866) Klinkerfues published a memoir on the influence of the 
motion of a source of light upon the refrangibihty of its rays, and described 
therein a series of observations, from which he deduces certain amounts of 
motion in the case of some objects observed by him. As Klinkerfues em- 
ploys an achromatic prism, it does not seem possible by his method to obtain 
any information of the motions of the stars ; for in such a prism the difference 
of period of the luminous waves would be as far as jjossible annulled. It is, 
however, conceivable that his observations of the light when travelling from 
E. to W., and from W. to E., might show a difference in the two cases, 
arising from the earth's motion through the ether *. 

Eather Secchi has quite recently called attention to this subject. In his 
paper he states that he has not been able to detect any change of rcfraugi- 
bility in the case of certain stars of an amount equal to the difference 
between the components of the double line D. These results are in accord- 
ance with those obtained by Dr. Miller and myself in 1803, so far as they 
refer to the stars whith had been examined by us. Eather Secchi's method 
of using an unrefracted image as a fiducial mark, with diverging rays pass- 
ing through the prisms, might, it is conceivable, be open to objection. He 
appears to consider that, to produce a certain alteration of refrangibility, half 
the velocity would be required in the case of the approach of a star, of that 
which would be necessary if the star were receding. This is not the caso ; 
for equal velocities of separation or approach give equal change of wave- 
length. It is true that a difference of an octave is produced by a relative 
velocity of separation equal to that of light, and by a velocity of approach 
equal to half that of light ; but the difference in length of a wave and its 
octave below (which is twice as long) is, in the same proportion, greater tliau 
the difference between it and the octave above (which is half as long) t- 

The subject of the influence of the motions of the heavenly bodies on the 
index of refraction of light had already (in 1864) occupied the attention of 
Mr. Maxwell, E.R.S., Avho made some experiments in an analogous direction. 
In the spring of last year Mr. Maxwell sent to me a statement of his views 
and experiments, which he has permitted me to include in a paper pre- 
sented by me to the Itoyal Society^. 

Mr. Maxwell puts the subject in the following way : — 

" Let a source of light be such that it produces n disturbances or ■vibra- 
tions per second, and let it be at such a distance from the earth that the 
light requires a time T to reach the earth. Let the distance of the source 
of light from the earth be altered, either by the motion of the source of light, 

* "Fernere Mittbeilungen iiber den Einfluss der Bewegung dei- Liohtquelle auf die 
Breolibarkeit eines Strahls, von W. Klinkerfues," Nachr. der K G. der Yi. zu GGttiniren, 
No. 4, s. 33. 

T Comptes Eendus, 2 Mars 1868, p 398. J Pliil. Trans. 1868. 



SPECTRUM ANALYSIS OP THE HEAVENLY BODIES. 155 

or by that of the earth, so that the light which emanates from the source t 

seconds afterwards reaches the earth in a time T'. 

"During the t seconds n t vibrations of the source of Ught took place, and 

these reached the earth between the time T and the time t-\-T', that is, 

during <+T'— T seconds. The number of vibrations which reached the 

t 
earth per second was, therefore, no longer n, but n ,.„ — pr-,. 

Z —J— X — X 

" If V is the velocity of separation of the soui'ce of light from the earth, and 
V the velocity of the light between the bodies, then v ^=V(T' — T), and the 

Y 
number of vibrations per second at the earth will be n y . 

" If, therefore, the light of a star be due to sodium, or be absorbed by vapour 
of sodium, then the light, when it reaches the earth, will have an excess or 
defect of rays whose period of vibration is to that of the period of sodium as 
V+w is to V." 

There is another quite distinct way in which, under some circumstances, 
it is conceivable that an alteration of refraugibility might take place. If 
the motion of the luminiferous medium be different from that of the earth, 
that is, does not accompany the earth in its motion, a deviation might be 
exjjeeted, according to the direction of the ray within the prisms. The essen- 
tials of this experiment are entirely terrestrial, and depend only on the 
relative motion of the prism and the luminiferous medium, and on the direc- 
tion in which the ray passes through the prism. Mr. Maxwell has made 
some careful experiments in this direction, but has obtained only negative 
results. 

Several of my early attempts failed in consequence of insufficient disper- 
sive power in the apparatus employed. It was only after several quite dis- 
tinct forms of apparatus were successively constructed, that I succeeded in 
obtaining an instrument suitable for these very dehcate observations. 

A serious difficulty presented itself from the inconvenience, and in some 
degree untrustworthiness for this investigation, of the ordinary method of 
reflecting into the instrument a spectrum of comparison, bj' means of a small 
prism placed over one half of the slit, even when the precautions described 
in my papers presented to the Eoyal Society, for the purpose of ensuring 
perfect accuracy in relative position in the instrument of the star-spectrum 
with that to be compared with it, were carefully observed. 

A description of the apparatus which I finally adopted, and which appears 
in all respects trustworthy, is contained in the paper presented to t]ie lloyal 
Society. This apparatus gave an amount of dispersion equal to about seven 
prisms of dense flint glass of 60°. 

The chief difficulties I encountered arose from the unsteadiness of oiu- 
atmosphere. Stars of the first and second magnitude give sufficient Hght for 
examination with tlie large spectroscope described ; but unless the air is ex- 
ceptionally steady, the lines are seen too fitfully to permit of any certainty 
in the determination of coincidence, of the great degree of delicacy required. 
From this cause, the work of very many nights has had to be rejected. I 
will describe here those observations only which have led to a successful 
result. 

Siriiis. — The l)rilliant light of Sirius, and the great intensity of four strong 
lines of its spectrum, made this star specially suitable for my purpose, 
tliough from its low altitude in our latitude, it can be successfully observed 
fur au hour only on each side of the meridian. 

The coincidence of two of the strong lines of this star with those of 



156 REPORT — 1868. 

hydrogen, hfid been satisfactorily determined by myself and Dr. Miller in 
18G3. We found also in the star lines coincident with some of those of iron, 
magnesium, and sodium. Of all these lines, the one -which corresponds to F 
of the solar spectrum was alone seen with the steady distinctness necessary 
for comparison, when the powerful train of prisms was used. 

We have sufficient proof from our observations referred to, that this line 
is produced by hydrogen ; at the time, therefore, of its formation at the 
star, its period would be identical with that of the corresponding line of 
hydrogen. 

This line in the star appears rather broader than in the solar spectrum ; 
it includes, perhaps, a range of wave-length about equal to that of the sepa- 
ration of the double line I) ; it is in a small degree nebulous at both edges. 

As the corresponding bright hue of the spectrum of hydrogen, when the 
spai'k is taken in hydrogen at the pressure of the atmosphere, is too expanded 
for accurate comparison, the hydrogen was employed as it exists in the so- 
called vacuum-tubes. In this state the hydrogen gives a narrow and well- 
defined line. 

The result of a great many comparisons on many nights is to show that 
the bright line of hydrogen is, in a small degree, more refrangible than the 
dark line in the star (see fig. 4, PL V.). The amount of degradation in 
wave-length which the line had sutlered, was found to be equal to 0'109 mil- 
lionth of a millimetre. 

If the velocity of light be taken at 185,000 miles per second, and the 
wave-length of F at 480-50 millionths of a metre, the alteration in period 
observed in the line of Sirius will indicate a motion of recession between the 
earth and the star of 41-4 miles per second. 

Of this motion a part is due to the earth's motion in space. As the earth 
moves round the sun in the plane of the ecliptic, it is changing the direction 
of its motion at every instant. There are two positions separated bj^ 180°, 
where the effect of the earth's motion is a maximum, namely, when it is 
moving in the direction of the visual ray, either towards or from the star. 
At two other positions in its orbit, at 90° from the former positions, the 
earth's motion is at right angles to the directiou of the light from the star, 
and therefore has no influence on the refrangibility of its light. 

The position of the star is also of importance ; for the effect of the earth's 
motion will be greatest upon the light of a star situated in the plane of the 
ecliptic, and will decrease as the star's latitude increases, until, with respect 
to a star at the pole of the ecliptic, the earth's motion, during tlie whole of 
its annual course, will be perpendicular to the direction of the light coming to 
us from it, and will be therefore without influence on the period of the light. 

Now at the time the observations on Sirius were made, the earth was 
moving from the star with a velocity of twelve miles per second. There 
remains, tJierefore, a motion from the earth of 29-4 miles per second, which 
ai^pears to hehvr/ to the star itself. 

The solar motion in space will not materially affect this result; for, ac- 
cording to Struve, the sun advances in space Avith a velocity but little 
greater than one-fourth of the earth's orbital motion. If the apex of the 
solar motion be situated in Hercules, nearly the whole of it will be from 
Sirius, and will therefore diminish the velocity to be ascribed to that star. 

It is interesting to remark that at the present time the proper motion of 
Sirius in declination is less than its average amount by nearly the whole of 
that part of it which is subject to variation. It may be that a greater part 
of the star's motion is now in the direction of the visual ray. 



SPECTRUM ANALYSIS OP THE HEAVENLY BODIES. 157 

It must not be forgotten that the whole of the proper motion which can 
be directly observed by us, consists of that portion only which is at right 
angles to the visual ray. This motion, according to the parallax wo attri- 
bute to Sirius (IIendersou=0"-150, Abbe=0"-27), wiU vary from 24 miles 
to 43 miles per second. 

The real motion of the star will consist of this motion, combined with the 
motion at right angles to it, obtained by the present investigation, of 29 miles 
from the earth. 

Similar observations have been made of several other stars ; I desire, how- 
ever, to submit them to a re-examination. 

B. Other Spectroscopic Observations of the Fixed Stars. 

a Herculis. — On several occasions the spectrum of this star was re-ex- 
amined. The observations agree with the measures and comparisons of 
the chemical elements of this star obtained in 1863. The spectrum is con- 
tinuous, with numerous groups of dark lines. 

Mira Ceti gives a spectrum apparently identical,, or nearly so, with a 
Ononis. At the time the star was waning in brightness there was an appear- 
ance of greater intensity in several of the groups, but further observations 
are reqiiired before any opinion is hazarded as to the cause of its remarkable 
periodical variation in brightness. 

y Cassiopeiie. — In addition to the bright line near the boundary of the 
green and blue observed by Father Secchi, I discovered a line of equal bril- 
liancy in the red. There are also in the spectrum of this star dark lines due 
to absorption. The two bright lines are narrow and defined, but are not 
veiy brilliant. Micrometrical measures of these bright lines show that they 
are doubtless coincident in position in the spectrum with Frauuhofer's C and 
F, and with two of the bright lines of luminous hydrogen. 

I have confirmed the interesting observations of MM. Wolf and Rayet, so 
far as to the presence of bright lines in the three small stars described by 
them. I have not determined the number and positions of these lines. 

§ II. Observations of the Nebula. 

My observations on these bodies have confirmed the results of my former 
investigation, but have not afi:brded much iuformation which is new. Out 
of about seventy nebulaj, nearly one-third gave a spectrum of bright lines. 

The differences which have been observed between the spectra of the 
objects which give bright lines, may be regarded as modifications only of the 
typical form of spectrum represented in fig. 2. PI. V. 

The variations consist of differences of relative intensity, and, in some 
cases, of the absence of one or two of the lines. It is worthy of remark 
that, so for as the nebula) have been observed, the brightest of the three 
lines, which is coincident with a. line of nitrogen, is always present, and 
sometimes the spectrum consists wholly of this line. It is a suggestive fact 
that in no nebula have any additional lines been observed on the less refran- 
gible and brighter side of the line common to all the nebula). In two or 
three nebuke a fourth line, more refrangible than those represented in the 
diagram, has been detected. 

The spectrum of the Great Nebula in Orion was observed and compared 
with terrestrial lines, in the powerful spectroscope described in this paper. 

The coincidence of the strongest line with a double line of nitrogen, though 
now subjected to a much more severe trial (to a spreading out of the spec- 
trum nearly three times greater than iu my former observations), appeared 
as perfect as before. 



158 REPORT — 1868. 

I was not able, even with this great dispersive power, and after long and 
careful scrutiny directed to this point, to discover any duplicity in the line 
of the nebula corresponding to that which characterizes the line of nitrogen. 
The line of the nebula appeared to me narrower, under the same circum- 
stances of slit, than the double line of nitrogen ; but the latter line may 
have appeared broader in consequence of irradiation, as it was brighter 
than the line of the nebula. It is worthy of remark that when the induc- 
tion spark was placed before the object-glass, the line of nitrogen was so 
much fainter that it ceased to appear double, and resembled the nebidar 
lino *. 

The third lino of this nebida was also compared, with equal care, with the 
narrow line of hydrogen when the spark is taken in rarefied hydrogen. The 
coincidence of the line of the nebula with that of hydrogen appeared to be 
perfect. 

Now these coincidences with hydrogen and nitrogen were made with an 
appnratus in which a difference in wave-length of 0-0460 millionth of a 
millimetre would have been detected. The great probability that these lines 
are emitted by hydrogen and nitrogen existing in the nebula, appears by 
these observations to be strengthejicd almost to certainty. We learn also 
that the nebula was not receding from us with a velocity greater than 10 
miles per second ; for this motion, in addition to the earth's motion in the 
same direction at the time, would have caused a want of coincidence that 
could have been observed. If, however, the nebula were approaching us it 
might have a velocity as great as 20 miles per second ; for part of this motion 
would be annulled by the earth's motion in a contrary direction. 

It was found that when the intensity of tlio spectrum of nitrogen was 
greatly diminished by removing the induction-spark in nitrogen to a dis- 
tance from the slit, the whole spectrum disappeared with the exception of 
the double line, which agrees in position with the line in the nebulte, so 
that under these circumstances the spectrum of nitrogen resembled the mono- 
chromatic spectnim of some nebuloe. It is obvious that if the spectrum of 
hydrogen were similarly reduced in intensity, the strong line in the blue, 
which corresponds to the third line of the nebular ^wctrum, woidd remaia 
visible after the line in the red and the lines more refrangible than P had 
become too feeble to affect the eye. 

These observations suggest the interesting question, whether the few lines 
of the spectra of these objects represent the whole of the light emitted by 
them, or whether these lines are the strongest lines only of their spectra 
which have succeeded in reaching the earth. At present we have no posi- 
tive evidence on this point. Since those bodies have a sensible diameter, 
and in all probabilitj' present a continuous luminotis surface, we can hardly 
suppose that any lines have been extinguished by the effect of the distance 
of the objects from us. If we should ever have reason to believe that the 
other lines which are present in the spectra of nitrogen and hydrogen are 
quenched on their way to iis, we should, it seems, have to regard their dis- 
appearance as an indication of a power of extinction residing in cosmical 
space, similar to that which was suggested from theoretical considerations 
by Cheseaux, and afterwards supported on other grounds by Olbers and the 
elder Struve. 

* Seechi, indeecl, states that with his d'rect spectroscope this line in the annular nebula 
in Lyva was double. As, liowevcr, the image of the nebula was viewed directly after 
elongation by a cylindrical lens, and without a slit, it is probable that the two lines may 
correspond to the two sides of the elongated annulus of the nebula. 



SPECTRUM ANALYSIS OF THE HEAVENLY BODIES. 159 

§ III. Obseetations of Comets, 

As soon as I had successfully applied the analysis by the prism to the 
light of the nebulce, it appeared to me to be of great importance to subject 
the light of comets to a similar examination, especially as we possessed no 
certain knowledge of the intimate nature of these singular and enigmatical 
bodies, or of the cosmical relations they may sustain to the solar system. 

Several attempts which I made to obtain a prismatic observation of Comet I., 
1864, were rendered unsuccessful by the position of the comet, and by un- 
favourable weatlier. M. Donati sjicceeded in making an observation of its 
spectrum. He describes it as consisting of three bright bands *. 

In the discourse I had the honour to give before the Association at Not- 
tingham, I described the results of the analysis of a very small and faint 
comet. Comet I. 1866. Its spectrum was compound, and showed that the 
nucleus was self-luminous, and the surrounchng coma was visible by reflect- 
ing solar light. The position of the bright line, into which the hght of the 
nucleus was resolved, appeared, as far as the faintness of the object per- 
mitted a determination, not to differ greatly from that of the brightest line 
of the nebuloe. I was led by this circumstance to suggest that possibly the 
material of the comet was similar to the matter of which the gaseous nebulae 
consist. A subsequent examination of three other comets, of which the 
principal results vrill be given in this paper, shows that this suggestion of 
the identity of the material of comets with that of some of the nebulae can- 
not be maintained. 

The spectrum of a faint comet examined in May 1867 resembled that of 
Comet I., 1866. The light of the self-luminous nucleus gave a line between 
h and E, and the coma was represented by a continuous spectrum, which 
showed that it reflected solar light. 

Beorsen's Comet. 

From May 2 to May 13 I examined the spectrum of Brorsen's comet at 
its reappearance in 1868. This comet was brighter than the two comets I 
had previously examined ; and I was, from this cause, enabled to obtain a 
fuller and more complete analysis of its light. 

Its spectrum, as seen in a spectroscope furnished with two prisms of dense 
flint glass, with a refracting angle of 60°, is represented in fig. 2. PI. V. 

The comet appeared in the telescope as a nearly round nebulosity, in 
which the light increases rapidly towards the centre, where on some occasions 
I detected, I believe, a small nucleus. 

The spectrum consisted, for the most part, of three bright bands, into 
which the light of the brighter portions of the coma was dispersed. These 
bands I was unable to resolve into lines, oven when the slit was made narrow. 

The position of the bands was determined by micrometrical measures, and 
also by the simultaneoiis comparison of them with the bright lines of mag- 
nesium, sodium, hydrogen, and nitrogen. The brightest band, which may be 
considered to represent about three-fourths of the whole light of the comet, 
occurs between h and F, and is, in a small degree, less refrangible than the 
line of nitrogen with which the brightest of the three lines of the nebulte is 
coincident. The band in the blue was considerably more refrangible than 
F, and was nearly as refrangible as the group of bright lines in the air- 
spectrum which have the numbers 2642 to 2669 in the maps and tables of 

* Monthly Notices of the Eoyal Astronomical Society, vol. xxv. p. 490 ; and Astrono- 
mische Nachrichten, No. 1488. 



160 REPORT— 1868. 

my paper " On the Spectra of the Chemical Elements" *. The least refran- 
gible of the bauds occurred in the yeUow portion of the spectrum at about 
the distance from E of one-third of the interval which separates E from D. 

In Brorsen's comet, at the time of the observations, the whole of the bright 
middle part of the nebulosity foi'ming the coma was self-luminous, and it 
was only the extreme very faint portions of the object which gave a conti- 
nuous spectrum. 

Comet II., 1868. 

On June 18 a comet was discovered by Dr. Winnecke at Carlsruhe, and 
also independently the same night by M. Becquet, Assistant-Astronomer at 
the observatory of Marseilles. 

On June 22 I examined this comet, which consisted of a nearly circular 
coma, which became rather suddenly brighter towards the centre, where 
there was a nearly round sjiot of light ; from this a tail was traced for nearly 
a degree (see fig. 1. PI. Y.). 

When a spectroscope, furnished with two prisms of 60°, was applied to 
the telescope, the light of the comet was resolved into three very broad bands, 
which, as will be seen in the diagram, do not correspond exactly to the bright 
bands of Brorsen's comet. 

In the two more refrangible bands the light was brightest at the less re- 
frangible limit, and gradually diminished towards the other side of the bands. 
In the middle and brightest band the gradation of light was not uniform, 
but continued of nearly equal brilliancy for a distance from the less refran- 
gible side of about one-third of the breadth of the band. Tliis band appeared 
to be commenced at its brightest side by a distinct bright line. 

The least refrangible of the bands did not exhiliit a similar gradation of 
brightness, but was rather brighter about the middle of its breadth. 

It will be seen, by a reference to the diagram (fig. 2. PL V.), that the two 
more refrangible bands are longest at their brightest limits, and become shorter 
in the same proportion as they become fainter. This appearance does not show 
any difference between the light of the coma and of the bright central spot, 
but arises from the circumstance that the light of the comet becomes gra- 
dually fainter from the centre towards the circumference ; and consequently 
the light which the eye perceives in the spectrum, though similar through- 
out, is too feeble to be perceived at the ends, as the bands become fainter. 
This obvious explanation is shown to be the right one by the appearance of 
the least refrangible band, in Avhich a gradation of light did not take place. 
In this band the increase of light towards the centre of the coma showed 
itself as a bright axial line gradually fading off in both directions. 

"When the marginal positions of the coma were broiight upon the slit, the 
three bright bands could still be seen ; but when the light became verj'' 
faint, the spectriim appeared to me to be continuous, but it was too faint to 
be traced beyond the positions of the bands, towards the violet, or the red. 
The tail was brought upon the slit, but I was unable, from its excessive faint- 
ness, to determine anything as to the character of its spectrum. 

The bands are laid down in the diagram from careful measures obtained 
with the micrometer-screw attached to the small telescope of the spectrum- 
apparatus. "When I compared the spectrum of the comet obtained in this 
way with some diagrams of the spectrum of carbon which I had jireparcd in 
1SG4, I was much interested to find that the three bands of the comet's 
spectrum agreed exactly, not onlj^ in position, but also in their general cha- 

* Phil. Traus. 18G4, p. 151. 



SPECTRUM ANALYSIS OP THE HEAVENLY BODIES. 161 

racters, with the spectrum of carbon as it appears when the iudiictiou-spark 
is taken in a current of olefiant gas. 

These observations on the spectrum of carbon were undertaken in con- 
tinuance of my researches on the " Spectra of the Chemical Elements." I 
have not yet made them public, as they are not so complete as I hope to 
make them. 

It may be stated, as the general result of this investigation, that though 
in all cases the essential features of the spectrum of carbon remained unal- 
tered, certain small modifications were observed when the spectrum was 
obtained under different conditions. 

Two of these shghtly modified forms of the spectrum of carbon are given 
in fig. 2. PL Y. The first spectrum was obtained by taking the induction- 
spark between the points of platinum wires, sealed in glass tubes, and im- 
mersed in olive-oil. This spectrum may be taken as exhibiting the typical 
form of the spectrum of carbon. The brilliant line in the red part of the 
spectrum, which is in a small degree less refrangible than the line of hydro- 
gen corresponding to Fraunhofer's C, is not seen when carbon is heated in 
the presence of hydrogen*. 

The second spectrum in the diagram exhibits the slightly modified spectrum 
which is produced when the induction-spark passes in a current of olefiant 
gasf. It will be seen that the carbon emits light of the same refrangi- 
bility as in the former case ; but the separate lines are no longer distinct, 
and the shading is not resolved into the numerous fine lines which were then 
visible. The very close agreement of the comet's spectrum with this form of 
the spectrum of carbon showed the importance of comparing the two specti-a 
directly in the spectroscope. 

On the following evening this was satisfactorily accomplished. My friend 
Dr. W. Allen MiUer was present in the observatory on this evening, and kindly 
took part in the observations which were made. 

A glass gas-holder, a (woodcut, p. 162), containing olefiant gas, was con- 
nected by a flexible tube with a glass tube, b, into which platinum wires were 
soldered. This tube was so fixed that the spark between the wires was suit- 
ably reflected by the small mirror, c, into the spectroscope attached to the 
telescope, so that the spectrum of carbon appeared directly below the spec- 
trum of the comet. 

"We were satisfied that within the limits of the dispersive power of the 
instrument employed, which may be taken at about the breadth of the double 
line D, the two spectra were coincident, not only in the position of the bands, 
but also in their general characters, and their relative brightness. 

This du-ect comparison I repeated on June 2-5, with an equally satisfactory 
result. 

The lines of hydrogen (which, of course, were present in the spectram of 
the olefiant gas) were not to be seen in the spectrum of the comet. 

The very close resemblance of the spectrum of this comet to the spectrum 
of carbon necessarily suggests the identity of the substances by which, in 
both cases, the light was emitted, though indeed the great fixity of carbon 
seems to raise a difiiculty in the way of accepting this conclusion. Some 
two or three comets have been known to approach the sun sufficiently near 
to acquire a temperature high enough to convert even carbon into vapour. 
Indeed for such comets a body of some fixity seems to be necessarj\ With 

* Phil. Trans. 1S64, p. 14.5. 

t In the Plate tlie bright line at the begiimhig of the middle band of this spestriim is 
made too strong. 

1868. N 



163 



REPORT — 1868. 



respect to tlie majority of comets, which are subjected to a less fierce glare of 
solar heat, it may be suggested that this supposed difficulty is one of degree 
only; for we do not know of any conditions iinder which even a gas permanent 
at the temperature of the earth could maintain sufficient heat to emit light 




WIV 



— a state of things which appears to exist permanently in the case of the 
gaseous nebula). 

The important difference which exists between the spectrum of Brorsen's 
comet and that of Comet II., 18G8, appears to show that the constitution of 
comets may possibly not be in all cases the same. In a paper presented to 
the Royal Society, I have ventured on some speculations with reference to the 
bearing of these observations on certain phenomena which are usually exhi- 
bited by comets. 

§ IV. Observations of the Sitk. 

I have observed the sun with the spectroscope with three distinct objects 
in view : — 

1. To discover if the light from the less luminous part of the sun near 
the limb gives a spectrum which differs in any respect from that which is 



SPECTRXJM ANALYSIS OF THE HEAVENLY BODIES. 163 

formed by the light from the bright central parts of the solar disk. I have 
as yet failed to detect any difference. 

2. It appeared possible that a view of the red prominences visible during 
a solar eclipse might be obtained by reducing the light of our atmosphere 
by means of prismatic dispersion ; for, under these circumstances, if the red 
prominences give a spectrum of bright lines, these lines would remain but 
little diminished in brightness, and might become visible. Observations with 
this object in view have been made during the last two years by different 
methods, but hitherto without success. 

3. The third investigation, in which some success has been obtained, was 
with a view to gain, from an examination of the spectra of the umbrse and 
penumbrse of spots, some information as to the nature of these phenomena. 
I had already made some observations in this direction, when, in August 
186(3, I received a note from M. Faye, in which he suggests to me the 
prismatic examination of solar spots with reference especially to the theo- 
retical views of the sun proposed by him. 

My first observations were made with a small spectroscope, which Avas so 
arranged that the imago of the sun was formed upon the slit after its heat 
had been enfeebled by reflection from a prismatic solar eyepiece. The prin- 
cipal solar lines were observed to be stronger in the spectrum of the light 
from the umbra. 

I use the term " umbra" to describe the whole of the dark part within the 
penunibra, since it was not possible in these observations to distinguish the 
two distinct parts of which, in most spots, it is seen to consist, namely, the 
nucleus and the cloudy stratum, which were first described by Mr. Dawes. 

In October 1866, Mr. Lockyer, Avho had independently made similar ob- 
servations, presented a paper to the Royal Society. He observed the lines 
to be thicker where they crossed a spot. 

It was not until April 15, 1868, that a favourable opportunity occurred 
to observe the spectrum of a spot with the powerful spectroscope described 
in this paper. The spectroscope was rotated until the length of the slit was 
in the direction of the length of the spot. When the middle of the umbra 
was brought upon the slit, its spectrum appeared as a feebly illuminated 
band upon the bright solar spectrum. The band appeared divided into two 
parts by the spectrum of the bright prominence, which at the time ex- 
tended nearly across the umbra. It was obvious that a part only of the 
light which appeared to form the spectrum of the umbra came from that 
region of the sun. The imperfect transparency of our atmosphere causes 
it to become strongly illuminated when the sun shines upon the earth ; and 
the brilliant light which is seen to be radiated by it near the sun's limb is 
also radiated by that part of the atmosphere which is between the observer 
and the sun. 

In order to determine how much of the light came from the atmosphere, I 

made use of a graduated wedge of neutral-tint glass, which was first inter- 

I posed before the eye when the atmosphere near the limb was upon the slit. 

\ The wedge was moved until the lines ceased to be distinguishable. When 

, the umbra was upon the slit, the wedge was agaiu moved so as to bring the 

j same part of the spectrum to the same degree of obscurity, as nearly as could 

I be judged by the inability of the eye to distinguish the lines. In this way ' 

, it was found that, roughly, about three-fourths of the light which formed 

; the spectrum of the umbra was really due to that part of the sun. 

_ As, in consequence of the way in which the spectrum is formed, under 

similar instrumental conditions the dark lines should appear rather thicker 

n2 



164 REPORT — 1868. 

when tlio light is feeble, the lines as they appeared in the still feebler light 
of the atinosplicre near the sun's edge were carefully compared with the 
same lines in the spectrum of the umbra. The lines in the former case, 
though they appeared slightly stronger, were not so in a degree that could 
be accepted as an explanation of the more marked increase of strength 
which they presented in the spectrum of the umbra. There seemed, there- 
fore, to be evidence of a peculiarity due to the light of the umbra itself. 

In the spectrum of the umbra, which was sufficiently extended to show 
all the lines in Kirchhoff's maps, no lines were detected which were not also 
present in the spectrum of the sun's normal surface, nor were any lines 
observed to be wanting. 

The increase of thickness did not take place in the same proportion for all 
the lines. The lines C and F, due to hydrogen, apj^eared to be increased but 
in a very small degree, not more so than would be due to the feebler inten- 
sity of the hght. 

There is a small group of lines a little less refrangible than h, at 1601 to 
1609 of Kirchhoff's scale, and which in his map are marked as coincident 
with chromium, which were increased in a very marked degree. The lines 
D appeared in a small degree broader, as if by the addition of a faint and 
narrow nebulosity at both edges (see fig. 3. PI. Y.). The group of lines at 
B was stronger, also the lines b and E and many lines found by Kirchhoff 
to be coincident with lines of iron. The absence of sensible increase in F 
was marked, in comparison with the greater strength of a line or lines, on 
the less refrangible side of F, at about 2066-2 to 2067-1 of Kirchhoff's scale. 

No bright lines were detected in the spectrum of the umbra. 

It may be permitted to refer to some of the conditions of the solar surface 
by which the phenomena observed might be brought about*. 

A cooler state of the heated vapours by which the dark lines of the solar 
spectrum are produced Avould diminish the radiation from the gas itself, and 
thus leave more completely uncompensated the absorption by the gas of the 
light from behind it. Such a cause would produce increased blackness of the 
lines, but would not account for more than a very slight apparent increase of 
bj'eadth. Tlie greater breadth of the lines may point to a condition of the 
solar vapours in which their power of absorption embraces, for each line, a 
greater range of wave-length. Such an alteration we know to occur in 
hydrogen as its tension increases. It may therefore be due to an increase 
of the density of the vapours existing vs'ithin the umbra. 

We do not know from how a great a depth below the layer of bright gra- 
nules the light came that we have now under considei'ation. Probably it 
was emitted, for the most part, by that part of the sun which Mr. Dawes 
has named the cloudy stratum. 

We have at present no certain knowledge of the true nature of a solar 
spot. Telescopic observation would seem to suggest that it consists essen- 
tially of the unveiling, by the withdrawal and dissipation of the layer of 
bright granules, of that part of the sun which is immediately beneath the 
granules, and of which we obtain some glimpses through the pores, which are 
always present, and arc of different degrees of blackness. 

The absence of bright lines from the spectrum of the umbra may show 
that no considerable part of the light which emanates from the umbra of a 
spot is due to luminous gas. This laegative evidence, however, is probably 

* [The absence of increase in the lines C and F may show that the absorption by hydro- 
gen is not materially increased, or it may be caused by the bright lines of prominences 
lying over the umbra of the spot. — January 18G9.] 



ON STELLAR SPECTROMETRY. 165 

not sufficient to support the conclusion that no part of the light of the umbra 
is from such a source. The luminous gas -vrould emit light of the same re- 
frangibilitj as some of the dark lines of the solar spectrmn. If these existed 
above the same substance in a cooler state, the light might be absorbed, and 
the feebler emanations of the still luminous but cooler vapours might not 
do more than render less intense the dark gaps produced by the vapours on 
the stronger light of all rcfrangibilities which is also present. What may- 
be the source of this light we do not know. It is not impossible that the 
dense and intensely heated gases which probably form the inner substance of 
the sun may in some cases emit lines so greatly expanded as to form, when 
numerous spectra are superposed, a sensibly continuous spectrum.- Gases, 
when dense, appear to give a continuous spectrum, in addition to that con- 
sisting of bright lines. 

§ V. Observations of the Planets. 

Mars. — In a paper presented to the Eoyal Astronomical Society in March 
1867*, I gave the results of a further examination of the spectrum of Mars. 
In that paper I describe more fully than in my former papers the lines in 
the spectrum of this planet, which show the existence of an atmos]3here 
similar to that of the earth, though probably not identical with it. 

I give reasons which appear to show that the distinctive ruddy colour of 
the planet is not to be attributed to the absorptive properties of its atmo- 
sphere, but to some peculiarity which attaches to certain parts of its surface. 

Neptune. — I have several times observed the spectrum of Neptune, but 
failed to detect any very marked lines of absorption which might account 
for the blue colour of the planet. The faintness of its spectrum does not 
permit any great value to be attached to this negative result. 



On Stellar Spectrometry. By Padre SECCHif. 

Feafnhofee was the first to analyze with the prism the light of some of the 
stars. He discovered in them lines analogous to those Avhich he had dis- 
covered in the solar spectrum. Donati, an Italian astronomer now at 
Florence, resumed these researches and extended their field. Several astrono- 
mers followed, and amongst them the distinguished Mr. Huggins, to whom we 
owe a description of the spectra of a great number of stars and the ap- 
l^lication of the principle of determining the substances contained in a star 
from the black lines of absorption which we see in its spectrum, as was 
proposed by Kirchhoff. Mr. Huggins also made the wonderful discovery of 
the gaseous state of the nebulae. 

The field opened by these discoveries was immense, and even before the 
date of Mr. Huggins's publications 1 tried to glean some ears in it. In the 
first stage of these studies the principal stars only were examined, the im- 
perfection of my instruments not allowing the examination of all the hea- 
venly bodies. 

An optical combination which I had the good fortune to discover, enabled 
me to extend the researches to the whole of the visible stars, and even to 
several telescopic ones, which i)resent perhaps the greatest mysteries of this 
kind. 

* Monthly Notices of the Eoyal Astronomical Society, vol. xxvii. p. 178. 
t A communication ordered to be printed in extenno. 



166 REPORT— 1868. 

This optical combination consists of a single prism of that kind which is used 
for direct vision, combined with a cylindrical lens. This combination allows 
us to employ the full light of the stars, not diminished as in common spec- 
troscopes by absorption, or by a sht and the several surfaces and thicknesses 
through Avhich the light must pass. The image of the star in this system is 
formed in the focus as a luminous line of white colour if there is no prism ; 
and with the prism the image is decomposed into a series of luminous lines 
arranged according to their refrangibilities, the interruptions due to the dis- 
continuity of the light appealing as black lines. 

In such a spectriim the relative position of the lines can be measured with 
a common screw-micrometer ; and their absolute position can be determined by 
comparison with fundamental stars, whose lines, on account of their in- 
tensity, can be fixed in an absolute manner relatively to known substances 
by a common slit-spectroscope. The comparison and measurement are 
rendered more easy by an improvement introduced in the instrument, by 
means of which I can see the direct image of the star together with its spec- 
trum. The superposition of this image on a spectral line in a part of the 
field of the telescope, marked by a wire, is susceptible of great nicety in 
measurement, and gives very accurate results. 

This, in a few words, was the apparatus employed in my researches. This 
year I have made a considerable improvement by emploj-ing an eyepiece 
made with cylindi'ical lenses only ; with these such an intensity of light is 
obtained that I have been able to observe the spectra of stars of the seventh 
and eighth magnitudes, which are of course quite invisible to the naked eye. 

Let us come now to the results. Many hundred stars of every magnitude 
to the sixth were passed in review. A catalogue of the" chief of them has 
been made, and partly published. The work of the last year, yet impub- 
li.shed, has been especially the examination of the red stars of smaller mag- 
nitudes, of which a particular research was instituted, but which was 
superseded after the reception of the catalogue of Prof. Schjelemp. All 
the objects contained in this catalogue (printed also in Chambers's Treatise 
on Astronomy) have been examined to the eighth magnitude, beyond which 
limit my instrument cannot give a good spectrum. 

The principal results and conclusions at which I have arrived are these : — 

1st. All the stars in relation to their spectrum can be divided into four 
groups, for each of which the type of spectrum is quite different. 

The first type is represented by the stars Sirius, and Yega or a Lyrae, and 
by all the white stars, as a Aquilce, Eegulus, Castor, the large stars in the 
Great Bear, a excepted, &c. The spectra of all these stars consist of an 
almost imiform prismatic seiies of colours, interrupted only by four very strong 
black lines. Of these black lines the one in the red is coincident with the 
solar Hue C of Fraunhofer ; another, in the blue, coincides with the line F ; the 
other two are also in the sun's spectrum, but tliey have no prominent place. 
These lines all belong to hydi-ogen gas ; and the coincidence of these four 
black lines with those of the gas has been, by careful experiments, ali-eady 
proved by Mr. Huggins, and also lately by myself. In a Lyras the coinci- 
dence is found to be perfectly aceiu-ate. Mr. Huggins, however, finds a 
little difference in the spectrum of Sinus, for which we may account in an- 
other way, as I wOl explain presently. 

Stars of this first type are very numerous, and embrace almost one-half of 
the visible stars of the heavens. "We obsei-ve, however, some difference in 
individual stars ; so that in some the lines are broader, and in others nar- 
rower ; this may be due to the thickness of the stratum which has been 
traversed by the lu mi nous rays. The more ■sivid stars have other very fine 



I 



ON STELLAR SPECTROMETRY. 1G7 

lines occasioually visible, but ■wliich are not characteristic of the tjjie-form. 
In this type the red rays are very faint in proportion to the blue, violet, and 
green, so that the colour of the star tends to the blue hue, and occasionally 
to the green. Of this last kind is the group of the large constellation Orion 
and its neighbourhood. 

The second type is that of the yeUow stars, as Capella, Pollux, Ai'cturus, 
Aldebai-an, a Ursae Majoris, &c. These stars have a spectrum exactly like 
that of our sun — that is, distinguished by very iine and numerous lines. 
These stars give occasionally a continuous spectrum, when the state of the 
atmosj)here is not good ; but in general the lines may be distinguished very 
easily. A fuUer descrii^tion is unnecessary, since the spectrum of the sun 
is verj- well known. The only thing which deserves j)articular attention is 
that in this class occasionally the magnesium lines are veiy strong, so as to 
produce very strong bands, and the iron lines in the green are in some very 
distinct. These stars can be distinguished even Avithout the prism by the 
difference of colour, a rich yellow, which contrasts strongly with that of the 
fii'st tyi^e. Stars of this second type are veiy numerous, and embrace almost 
the other half of the stars. 

The third and very remarkable type is that of orange or reddish stars. 
These have as a prototype the stars a Herculis, a Orionis, Antares, o Ceti, 
/3 Pegasi. The spectra of these stars show a row of columns at least eight in 
niimber, which are formed by strong luminous bands alternating with darker 
ones, so arranged as to represent apparently a series of round piUars, closely 
resembling a colonnade, a Herculis is exceedingly remarkable in this respect ; 
the other stars are more or less clearlj' divided into pillars ; but it is quite 
impossible to describe the beauty of the appearance which is visible in a 
telescope on a fine night. 

All the pillars are generally resolved more or less completely in different 
stars into smaller and finer lines, very sharp and clear. I have carefully 
drawn, after actual measurements, the spectrum of a Orionis and a Herci;lis ; 
and in my memoir those of Antares and Aldcbaran are given. In these stars 
some of the divisions of the pillars correspond to some principal lines of Fraun- 
hofer, as D and h ; but others, although veiy near, do not coincide with them, 
as C and F. The presence of hydrogen, however, is certain, the lines C and 
F having been found in the jirincipal of them. 

The divisions of the pillars after many measurements have been found to 
agree perfectly in all these stars ; so that this type is very constant and well 
marked. In my catalogue 25 of these most interesting objects are registered ; 
and I do not imagine that I have exhausted the number. 

A veiy interesting feature connects this type with the preceding one. 
Here I must remark that we have to distinguish between lines and bands 
of shadow. The lines are strips narrow and sharp, the bands are shaded; 
although perhaps each band may be composed of very small lines, the 
aspect with our instruments (as at present constructed) is that of a more or less 
continuous shade. This shade is analogous to that which is produced by the 
vapour of our atmosphere in the spectrum of the sun when it is near the 
horizon. 

Now it is a very remarkable fact that these tyijes seem to differ from one 
another not in the metallic lines, but in the nebulous bands. Thus, for in- 
stance, the spectrum of ^ircturus and Aldcbaran represent the same metallic 
lines as a Orionis, but this has bands in addition ; the feature, however, is 
altogether so peculiar that a different type must be constituted. It is to be 
remarked also that aU the pillars have their luminous sides toward the red, 



168 



REPORT 1868. 



while the shadowed sides are towards the violet ; this ditfereuce is very sub- 
stantial, as we shall see presently. 

The following is a list of the most remarkable stars of this type : — 



o 



Schjel 



Ceti 
a, Ceti 
p Persei 
44 
45 
59 
Orionis 

67 
120 



Nova 

137 

160 

102 
Arcturus 
Schjel. 178 
Antares 
a Herculis 

Nova 



234 

254 

Pcgasi 

266 

267 

Idrse 

Yirginis 



(Their positions can be obtained from Chambers's ' Astronomy.') 

The fourth tj-pe is not less remarkable. This is the result of a laborious 
research on the telescopic stars of a red colour. Some of these are very 
small ; and none of them exceed the sixth magnitude. This is the reason 
why in ray first memoir I limited the spectra to three types only, being en- 
gaged on larger stars only. The spectrum of this tj-po consists of three large 
bands of light, which alternate with dark spaces so distributed as to have 
the most luminous side towards the violet. 

A very fine prototype of this is seen in the small star of the Great Bear, of 
the position Il.A. = 1 2'' 38™-5, Decl. =46° 15' N. But occasionally there are in 
the yellow and red numerous interruptions, which divide these large luminous 
spaces into smaller ones, as in the stars E.A. =22'' 52™-5, Decl. = — 25°51', and 
E.A. = 6'^ 26"'-0, Decl. = 38° 33'. A great part of the red stars of the catalogue 
of Lalande, and of that of M. Schjelerup, belong to this or the preceding tyj^e ; 
of tliis last class I have found seventeen remarkable examples. The cha- 
racteristic colour here also may be a guide in the research, since some of 
these are like drops of blood in the field of the telescope. It is to be noticed 
that the line of magnesium b falls almost exactly at the end of the second 
luminous band in the green ; but the full aspect of the spectrum does not 
justify the presence of such metal, but rather of a gas like carbon, which has 
luminous bands corresponding almost to the dark ones of the star, but not 
exactly. 

I do not attempt, however, to fix the nature of the substances, since I 
have not yet made a sufficient number of comparative measurements ; but it 
seems to me that we are authorized in supposing these stars to be still in a 
diffei'cnt condition from others, perhajjs partly in the gaseous state, or at least 
surrounded by a very large atmosphere different certainly from that of the 
others. 

The following is a Catalogue of these Stars of the fourth type. 



















Z, 
^ 






Eight 

Ascension. 


Declination. 




'2 
to 


Ecmarks. 




Eight 
Ascension. 


Declination. 




'B 
be 


Eemarks. 


o s=« — 






rt 




O -StM-H 






es 




IZiO o 






a 




l2;o o 






i=i 






h m 


/ 








h m 


o / 






41 


4 36-2 


+ 67 54 


6» 


Fine. 


152 


12 38-5 


+ 46 15 


Q" 


Superb. 


43 


4 42-8 


+ 28 16 


8« 




159 


13 19-3 


- 11 69 


54 




51 


4 58-1 


4- 59 


6" 




163 


13 47-3 


-1- 41 2 


7' 




78 


6 26-9 


+ 38 S3 


64 


Fine. 


229 


19 26-5 


+ 76 17 


64 




89 


7 11-5 


- 11 43 


7''4 




238 


20 8-6 


- 21 45 


6« 




124 


9 440 


— 22 22 


6H 




249 


21 25-8 


4- 60 58 


9" 




128 


10 3 8 


- 34 38 


7' 




252 


21 386 


-1- 37 13 


8«4 




132 


10 30-7 


- 12 39 


6« 


l<'ine. 


273 


23 39-2 


+ 2 42 


6" 


Fine. 


136 


10 44-8 


- 20 30 


64 




276 


22 62-5 


- 25 51 


6» 


Very fine. 



ON STELLAR SPECTROMETRY. 169 

The most striking object for its singularity which I have met in this ex- 
amination of the heavens, and which is quite nniqne, with the exception of a 
very faint companion, is y Cassiopeise. This star showed to me for the first 
time the lines of hydrogen in a luminous state, exactly the reverse of the 
dark lines of the stars of the first type. The star ft Lyrse has the same fea- 
ture, but in a very faint degree. 

We have therefore, without doubt, in. the heavens a grand fact, the fun- 
damental distinction between the stars according to a small number of 
types ; this opens a field for very many important cosmological speculations. 

2. Another grand fact which was brought out from these researches was, 
that the stars of the same type are occasionally crowded in the same space 
of the heavens. Thus the white stars are thickly gathered in Leo, in Ursa 
Major, in Lyra, Pleiades, &c., while the yellow ones are very frequent in 
Cetus, in Eridanus, Hydra, &c. The region of Orion is very remarkable for 
having all over and in its neighbourhood green stars of the first type, but with 
very narrow lines and with scarcely any red colour. It seems that this par- 
ticular kind of star is seen through the great mass which constitutes the 
great nebula of Orion, whose spectrum may contrast with the primitive 
spectrum of the stars. Sirius is perhaps too near us to bo affected by this 
influence. 

This distribution of stars seems to indicate in space a particular distribu- 
tion of matter or of temperature in different regions. 

3. A third very remarkable conclusion arrived at is, that all the spectra 
of the third and fourth type belong to variable stars. The representative of 
these is the ivonderful star Mira Ceti. This has been carefully examined ; 
and it is found that even when it is only of the seventh magnitude it has 
the same typical spectrum, only reduced to its few bright columns, a Orionis 
is in the same condition, a Tauri (or Aldebaran) and Arcturus this year 
appeared to be smaller and of a more red hue than in the past year ; and in 
the first there appeared traces of columns which were not seen the year 
before ; so that it is evident that the change of these stars depends on a 
periodical change which happens in their atmosjiheres. 

It is not so, however, with Algol, which has the very same spectrum of the 
first class or type in every stage of magnitude, which induces me to believe 
that there the variation is produced by the passage of an opaque body pass- 
ing between it and the central star, giving thus an example of eclipse of 
a fixed star by its own obscure planet. 

4. Pinally, a very dehcate question was proposed by myself, to be resolved 
by spectrum analysis ; this consists in ascertaining whether the star has a 
proper motion, by the displacement of the lines which ought to take place 
in the spectrum owing to the combined motion of the star and the propaga- 
tion of light. From this new kind of observation it would be easy to ascer- 
tain if a star has a motion whose velocity is five times that of our earth 
around the sun. The star a Lyrae, examined in this manner, has not 
given any such displacement; >© that it appears not to have such a motion. 
In^ some other stars I have found that there is a little displacement, as in 
€ Ursae Majoris ; but this seems especially due to the different breadth of the 
hydrogen line in the star and in the chemical spectrum. I have used in this 
investigation the comparison of the direct image of a star with its own spec- 
trum, but I have found no appreciable displacement. My first researches 
of this kind commenced with the supposition that in Sirius there was a per- 
fect coincidence of the lines of hydrogen with those of the star. Now I am 
told that your distinguished countryman, Mr. Huggins, has found a little dif- 



170 EEPORT— 1868. 

ference for Sirius. As his experience in making sucli comparisons is greater 
than miae, I leave to him the solutioa of this question, satisfied that the first 
proposal of this method for determining the proper motion of the stars, which 
I made in 1863, has been well received by such a competent judge. 

I will conclude with a few words on the nebulee, and especially on that of 
Orion. I have the honour to exhibit a drawing of it, made with every care ; 
it is intended to show how far we may see with a single 9^-inch object-glass, 
leaving to your gigantic iustruments to penetrate more deeply into these 
wonderful objects. I shall only say that on the other side of the galaxy I 
have examined several nebulas, and found them to have the same spectrum 
as d Orionis. A difficulty, however, arose in mj' mind about this subject, which 
is as follows: — How can it be that while hydrogen gas has so fine and rich 
a spectrum, we do not see in the nebulaj anything except the simple hne F? 
I undertook, therefore, a Idnd of photomotrical discussion of tlie intensity of 
luminosity of the different lines which constitute the spectrum of this sub- 
stance ; and the result is that, in diminishing the light by an absorbing screen 
and simple reflections, we co.uld reduce the spectrum to a single line F, as we 
see it in the nebulaj. Even hydrogen buruiug at the ordinary temperature 
has not given any line besides this after reflection. The difficulty is there- 
fore comjiletely removed, being only a question of intensity of light. 

Here you see that the matter is not exhausted. "U'e want j-et to make a 
more thorough review of oui' discoveries to settle many doubtful points. It is 
for the chemical philosopher to resolve some of these difficulties, the astrono- 
mer can walk here only with the lamp of chemistiy. We have already had 
great satisfaction in seeing quite latelj' that the brilhaney of a comet was due 
to the rays of carbon*. Ere long we shall more accurately know what main- 
tains light and heat in so many bodies which are scattered in the profundity 
of space. 



Report on the Physiological Action of the Methyl and allied Compounds. 
By Benjamin W. Richardson, M.A., M.D., F.R.S. 

During the past t\velve months, in accordance with the request of the Asso- 
ciation, I have continued my researches on the physiological action of the 
methyl compounds and their allies. I have had in this research four 
objects in view : — 

1. To bring into actual practice as remedies some of the substances the 

physiological action of which I had already ascertained, and on which 
1 had previously reported. 

2. To examine further the special mode of action of those bodies of the 

series which will produce sleep and insensibility to pain — the ane- 
sthetics of the series. 

3. To investigate the action of some other bodies of the series, which 

have not as yet been studied by the physiologist, in relation to 
anajsthesia. 

4. To test the antidotal influence of some of the compounds against the 

action of certain active alkaloidal poisons. 
To render the Eeport systematic, I shall place the subject-matter under 
the heads above named. 

* The discovery of the lines of carbon was made by the author and communicated to 
the French Academy while Mr. Hugging was independently discovering the same thing. 



ON THE PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION OF THE METHYL COMPOUNDS. 171 

PART I.— O:^ THE PRACTICAL APPLICATION OF CERTAIN OF THE 
SUBSTANCES BROUGHT FORWARD OR DESCRIBED IN PRE- 
VIOUS REPORTS. 

Bichloride of Methylene. 

In my last Report I described that the bichloride of methylcDe, CH, Cl,„ 
■was an excellent anaesthetic substance, and for many reasons preferable to 
chloroform. I have since confirmed this view fully by practice. After sub- 
jecting myself to the action of the vapour to the i^roduction of perfect insen- 
sibility, I ventured to administer it for surgical purposes on the 15th of 
October last. The sleep produced was of the deepest and gentlest character, 
and the operation, performed by Mr. Spencer Wells, and which lasted 35 mi- 
nutes, was quite painless. One trifling difficulty only stood in the way : the 
air of the room being warm, and the fluid having a low boiling-point, the 
water from the breath of the patient, with which the inhaler was saturated, 
became frozen, and was somewhat troublesome to use. This difficulty was 
soon met by the invention of a new form of inhaler, exhibited to the Section. 
This inhaler answers, not only for the administration of bichloride of methy- 
lene, but for all fluids wliich hoil at a low temperature and are useful for in- 
halation. 

The iastrument is constructed in such manner that the fluid can be con- 
veyed, grain by grain, and distributed in the form of spray on a smface 
of thin flannel, spread over a mouthpiece made of vulcanite. 

Bichloride of methylene differs from chloroform in action in several parti- 
culars. The aujesthetic sleep is produced more quickly, and when produced 
is more prolonged. On the other hand, recovery, when it commences, is far 
more rapid ; indeed the period of recovery, according to my experience, is 
never extended over fowc minutes, and there are no prolonged or painful 
after-effects. 

"^Tien animals are allowed to sleep to death in vapour of bichloride of 
methylene, the lungs are found containing blood, but not congested, while 
the heart contains blood on both sides. In this respect the vapour acts dif- 
ferently from both chloroform and ether. After death in chloroform-vapour 
the lungs are left bloodless, and the right side of the heart gorged with 
blood. After death from vapour of ether the lungs are left intensely con- 
gested, with the heart containing blood on both sides. 

Bichloride of methylene holds a place between ether and chloroform. It 
is safer than chloroform, but not so safe as ether. In matter of efficiency of 
action it is equal to chloroform, while it is quicker in action, and more per- 
sistent, and far more manageable than ether. 

Bichloride of methylene has been largely used by other observers during 
the past year. Reports of its employment have reached me from New York^, 
Paris, Hanover, and other parts of Germany, from Australia, and from dif- 
ferent towns in England. These reports are unexceptionally good, and no 
fatal accident has as yet befallen the administration. 

There is, however, as yet one di-awback to its general introduction ; I 
mean the difficulty of manufactiuing it on a large scale at a reasonable cost. 
It is also, when pure, more difficult to keep than chloroform, its hoihng-point 
being at least 33 degrees lower on Fahrenheit's scale (18°-3 C). 

The question of the exact composition of the bichloride of methylene has 
been recently determined from analysis by one of our best organic chemists, 
Mr. Perkin, who has confirmed the composition as C H., Cl^. He has, however' 
made a correction of the boiling-point, which he places at 104° F. (40° C.)! 



172 REPORT— 1868. 

This is 16° F. (8°-8 C.) higlier than has been given to it by other observers, 
as -well as by myself. Quite independently I had also detected this error, 
which has arisen, I doubt not, from the jjresence, in the earher specimens of 
the fluid, of a little chloride of methyl. I think that even yet there is some 
slight cause of error, and that the boiling-point is actually 111° E. (43°-8 C). 
The difficulty of manufacturing bichloride of methylene in sufficient quan- 
tities at a reasonable cost is, I repeat, the only objection to its more general 
employment. In quantities of two or three ounces the manufacture is easy ; 
but the distillation at a low temperature, which is required, renders the pro- 
cess tedious on a large scale, and therefore expensive. The difficulties, I 
trust, will in time be overcome. 

Nitrite of Amtl. 

In my first Keport on nitrite of amyl I suggested its employment by in- 
halation in cases of acute spasmodic disease, as in tetanus. I reported last 
year that the nitrite had, at the instance of Dr. Brunton, been used for the 
treatment of one of the most painful spasmodic complaints ; I mean cardiac 
apnoea, or, as it was formerly called, angina pectoris. The practice continues 
to be followed, and the effect has been remarkable for good : the paroxysm of 
angina is often relieved with almost instant action ; and from experience of 
the value of this ready means of giving breath to persons whose chests are for a 
moment immoveably fixed it is becoming widelj' applied. I have seen myself 
the happiest results from this method, and I have therefore given attention to 
the details of the administration, so as to render it safe. In my last Keport 
I mentioned ether as a solvent ; but on testing the solubility of the nitrite 
and the solutions which give it up most steadily, I find nothing to answer so 
well as absolute alcohol. The best solution is one containing ten parts of the 
nitrite in 500 of alcohol. Practically, and for easy remembrance, 50 minims 
of the nitrite to 1 fluid ounce of the alcohol may be considered a proper mix- 
tiu-e. I exhibited this compound ; and it wiU be found even agreeable as a 
flmd for inhalation. In using it not more than two fluid drachms should be 
applied at once. The fluid should be poured upon a handkerchief arranged 
in the shape of a funnel, or into a funnel of paper, and the vapour should be 
inhaled gently. 

I dwell on the necessity of using this dilute alcoholic solution, because the 
nitrite of amyl, in its pure state, is one of the most potent of agents. In one 
instance, as I have before recorded, a friend of mine, by inhaling it incau- 
tiously, nearly destroj-ed himself. It is, in fact, as quick to kill, by the sudden 
paralysis of the blood-vessels which it induces, as it is to relieve muscles of 
spasm. 

Nitrite of amyl has been used in the later stages of cholera by Dr. Hayden, 
of Dublin. I recorded this fact last year at Dundee. Happily we have had 
no occasion to test the virtue of the remedy further in this direction during 
the past twelve months. 

Iodide of Methyl. 

Iodide of methyl, briefly noticed in my last Report, has come into very 
important use during the past year. I showed at Dundee that it was an agent 
which could be made, by careful inhalation, to produce anaesthesia, but that 
it was very difficult to manage in the form of vapour. Its remarkable seda- 
tive effect led me to study its influence when administered by the mouth, and 
I commenced to learn the dose that could be borne by taldng it myself, in 
solution with alcohol. I found that a grain could be taken with perfect 



ON THE PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION OF THE METHYL COMPOUNDS. 173 

safety. I then prescribed it iu an inveterate case of specific ulceration, in wWch 
iodide of potassium had failed, and, carrying the dose up to three grains, 
found the most rapid curative result. Further, the great pain and irritability 
of the ulcerated surfaces was singularly relieved. Repeating this observation 
with further success, I solicited permission of Mr. Nunn to treat some hope- 
less cases of canceroiis ulcer in the cancer wards of the Middlesex Hospital. 
Four cases were assigned to me, and the suggested plan was carried out by 
Mr. Nunn himself. His report of the results, after four months' trial, is of 
the most encouraging character. One case of ulceration is reported as healed 
so that the patient has left the hospital ; another, in which there was intense 
hyjjeraesthesia (extreme sensibility of skin), a symptom which had resisted all 
prcAious means, was directly relieved, and the patient has greatly improved. 
In a third example pain of an extreme kind was reheved ; and in the fourth 
the symptoms remain in abeyance. Mr. Xunn concludes by stating that his 
observations show the iodide of methyl can be safely administered for long 
periods of time, that it removes pain, particularly that form of pain called 
hyperaesthesia, and that cancerous ulceration may heal iinder its use. 
He is not, however, prepared to say that it wiU prevent the deposit of 
cancer. 

I put before the Section a solution of the iodide as it is ready for use. The 
solution contains 6 grains of the iodide in 60° of alcohol. The quantity to 
begin with is 10 minims in water. It is agreeable to take. 

The same solution can be administered by inhalation. 

PART II.— AN ANALYSIS OF VARIOUS PHENOMENA CONNECTED 
WITH THE ACTION OF CERTAIN OF THE METHYL AND 
ETHYL COMPOUNDS. 

There are certain of the compounds of the methyl and ethyl series which 
possess the common property of producing sleep and the insensibihty of living 
organisms. This general fact seems at first sight to link them all together ; 
and in regard to the one fact they are closely united. But there are, not- 
withstanding, points of difference of the most important character. For ex- 
ample, they all sometimes kill during their administration, but they are not 
all equally powerful to kUl. This alone is sufficient to distinguish them ; and 
as from them we derive those agencies by which some hundred thousands 
of our kindred are each year relieved of pain with some risk of life, I have 
thoiight it of moment to study the differences of phenomena presented by 
different agents, so that we may be able to ajiproach to a knowledge of first 
principles, and seize all the real good, with avoidance of what at this moment 
appears an inevitable degree of evil. 

As it was impossible to investigate all the bodies of the sex-ies, I confined 
my research to a few representatives only ; and, indeed, what has been ga- 
thered in this way is too long to be recorded in anything but abstract. 

Physical Changes of Blood xiroduced hy different Methyl and Ethyl 

Compounds. 

"When a man or an inferior animal is subjected to one of the ordinary 
anaesthetics, great difference is observed iu the change of colour of the 
blood, the difference itself being determined by the class of agent that is 
being used. Under the influence of all the chlorides, of both the methyl and 
ethyl series, the blood retains its bright-red colour on the arterial side, while 
on the venous side the colour is slightly heightened. Under the influence of 
the oxides of the methyl and ethyl series the reverse obtains ; the arterial 



174 REPORT — 1868. 

blood is rendered dark iu colour, and the venous blood is made darker tban 
is natural. 

When these fluids arc added to blood freslily drawn, tbese same changes 
are also observed, together with a difference in the jjeriod of coagulation, the 
process of coag-ulation being quickened by the chlorides, and slightly retarded 
by the oxides. In the blood of some animals, such as the sheep and the 
common fowl, the period of natiual coagulation is so rapid that the difference 
is not easily computed ; but the blood of the ox, which at the temperature of 
60° F. (15-''"5 C.) coagulates normally in three minutes, shows the fact clearly, 
ten per cent, of chloroform quickening the coagulation a full minute and a 
half, while the same proportion of ether delays it an interval of two minutes 
beyond the normal period. 

Wlien the different agents are added to defiibrinatcd fresh blood in the 
proportion of five per cent., the most striking differences are observed in 
respect to colour, fluidity, change in the corpuscles, and development of 
blood-crystals. In investigating these changes, I siibjected equal q^iantities of 
freshly defibrinated sheep's blood to representatives of the methyl and ethyl 
series, and set them aside for observation during a period of thirty-five days. 
They were examined careliiUy on the first and thirty-fifth day, as wcU as on 
intervening days, by my friend Dr. Sedgwick, who was so good as to relieve 
me greatly of this labour, and who has condensed the record of the changes 
as they were observed to occur stage by stage in the course of the inquiry. 

Bichloride of McthyJene. — On addition of the bichloride of methylene to 
blood, the colour was rendered bright and full red ; and this colour was main- 
tained until the thirty-fifth day. The blood remained fluid throughout. The 
red corpitscles commenced to dissolve on the first day, and by the thirty-fifth 
day scarcely a corpuscle was left. Blood- crystals were at no time developed ; 
but plates and masses undefined in shape were observed to form on the last 
days of observation. 

Chhroform. — On the addition of the chloroform the colour of the blood 
became of a dark red ; but it grew lighter in course of time, and remained 
light. The blood became of thicker consistenc}^ and at last gelatinous. The 
corpuscles commenced to undergo solution at once, and on the thirty-fifth day 
had all disappeared. No blood-crystals were found. 

Tetracliloride of Carhon. — The changes were identical in blood charged with 
the tetrachloride ^vith those in blood charged with chloroform. 

Methijlic Alcohol. — The blood retained its natural colour throughout. The 
fluidity remained unchanged. The corpuscles remained the same. On the 
thirty-fifth dny a few octahedral crystals were present. 

Acetate of Mcthijl. — The blood was rendered at once dark. On the first 
day the blood was thickened ; but it became thin afterwards, and remained so. 
The corpuscles were unchanged. No crystals. 

Bromide of 3Ieth>/l. — Blood became at once dark, and changed to dark- 
brown, which colour it retained. On the first day the corpuscles remained 
unchanged, but soon began to dissolve, and on the thirty-fifth day all were 
dissolved. No crystals. 

MethyJal. — Blood at once became dark, and changed to dark-brown. The 
blood maintained its fluidity at first ; but it began to grow thick, and at last 
was semisolid. The corpuscles were at no time dissolved, but from the first 
were irregi^lar in outline and serrated. No crystals. 

Ethylic Ether. — Blood at once became dark, and remained so. Pliiidity 
was maintained. Thcblood-corpi:scles were perfect throughout. No crystals. 

In aU the specimens the blood remained free from any putrefactive change. 



ON THE PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION OF THE METHYL COMPOUNDS. 175 

Influence on the Circulation and Respiration. 

I have studied as a special point the influence of certain of the ethyls and 
methyls, with a view to determine the all-important subject of their relative 
action, upon the respiration and the circulation. On this point there has been 
long- controversy — the most accepted rule being that chloroform always kills 
by paralyzing the heart, while ether is free from that danger. It must be 
confessed that at fii'st sight this view seems to be in accordance with the 
general facts of observation ; but a long and careful watching, in which ex- 
periment succeeds experiment, leads in time to this certain truth, that 
chloroform does not always kill by paralyzing the heart, but that with chlo- 
roform, as with ether, the heart wiU continue to beat after the respii-ation 
has ceased. The rule, therefore, is not general ; the question is how far it 
is at aU true. 

To test this, I proceeded first to see whether the heart could be sustained 
in its action while respu-ation, with an atmosphere containing a narcotizing 
dose of chloroform, was artificially supplied. I found in this experiment no 
difficulty whatever, and no remaining doubt after it. A "J"-shaped tube hav- 
ing been inserted into the trachea of a strong animal (a dog) narcotized with 
vapour of chloroform, the animal was made still to breathe air charged with 
the vapour, in steadily increasing dose, until some change occurred. During 
this time, in the deadest silence from aU other motions, the sounds of the 
heart were listened to, with the double stethoscope, by myself, while an 
assistant watched for the cessation of respiration. " The respiration stops " 
was the report ; but I could stiU hear, not only the motion of the heart, but 
both the sounds in due order of time. Then the first soimd began to fail, 
and soon the second. At this moment, on a signal from me, artificial respi- 
ration, with the same chloroform atmosphere in which the animal had gone 
to sleep, was set up by means of double-acting bellows ; and at once, as the 
air filled the lung, the blood made its way again through the heart, the 
motion of the heart returned, the sounds returned, and the general signs of 
life returned. Once more the experiment was tried, and once again with the 
saine result ; and so decided was the experiment that, on giving it fresh air 
artificially, the animal recovered, in the end, as from simple sleep. 

In a further instance I repeated the famous experiment first performed by 
Hook, with the difi'erence that the animal throughout was held insensible by 
chloroform. In this case, after insensibility was complete, and respiration, 
which for some minutes had been carried on through the tracheal tube, had 
ceased, the heart was directly exposed to view, together with the lungs. The 
heart was pulsating vigorously on both sides, the lungs generally were 
blanched, from the blood ceasing to make its way by the pulmonary circuit: 
but artificial respii-atiou of the chloroform atmosphere was reestablished ; and 
as the lungs filled with the air the right side of the heart was set at liberty, 
the blood passed over the pulmonary circuit, and on withdrawing the chloro- 
form, and for a brief period suj^plying the air pure, the general signs of life 
began to rGajipear. They were, of course, suppressed by repeating the chlo- 
roform ; but before the heart was finally stopped in its action, the fact of being 
able to call it again into play by reinducing respiration was several times 
demonstrated. 

Taking a very important practical hint from Dr. M'Intosh, who read an 
admirable paper at Dundee before this Section, I followed up my research 
by watching the circulation and respiration in young transparent trout 
while they were being subjected to the action of methyl and ethyl com- 
pounds. I was so fortunate at the close of last year as to be able to obtain 



176 REPORT— 1868. 

young trout iu quantity, and so sccm'o a very goocl inquir}\ I hoped at first 
to be able to see the motion of the heart on a screen, by placing the animals 
in a trough in the oxyhydrogeu lantern ; and I have to thank Mr. Pepper 
and the Managers of tlio Royal Polytechnic Institution very heartily for 
placing their very perfect optical chamber at my service. I could not, how- 
ever, carry out in this way all T desii'ed ; for when the figure of the animal 
was projected on the screen, there were no visible movements except those 
of respiration. I therefore turned to the microscope, and fotmd here all I 
could require. To carry out m)- plan properly, Dr. Sedgwick was so good 
as to devise for me a little trough, in which the trout could be placed for 
observation, and through which water charged with the required compound 
could be passed in a steady stream. This plan prevented the accumulation of 
carbonic acid ; and when no foreign substance was introduced into the cur- 
rent, the circulation and respiration of the fish could be observed for long- 
periods natiu'allj'. 

Thus provided, three substances from one series were made to act upon 
the trout, viz. chloroform, ether, and chloride of methyl. The observations 
were most interesting, but to give them in detail would be too long ; I shall 
therefore only offer the results in an abstract, which Dr. Sedgwick, who had 
the observations daily before him for several weeks, has been good enough to 
draw out for me. 

When chloroform is added to the water in which the young trout is living, 
in amount sufficient to destroy life in half a minute, the heart ceases acting 
at once, stops in diastole, full of blood. The gill and blood respiratory 
routine continue some little time afterwards. No contraction of extreme 
vessels is noticeable for some time after death. If the chloroform be added 
in smaller quantities, the first effect is violent sti'uggling, which by degrees 
subsides. The respiration is at first much quickened, then becomes slower, 
and finally ceases — that is, so far as the gill, fin, and jaw motion is con- 
cerned. The heart at first beats quickly, then slowly, after a time intermits, 
and then totally ceases to act. No contractions of minute vessels could be 
observed under a power of 600 diameters. Not one of these fishes recovered 
from the narcotism of chloroform after the rcsjnratoiy movements had ceased. 
With chloride-of-methyl gas in water, on the other hand, and also with 
ethylic ether, recovery was observed after all external respiratory movements 
had ceased, even for fifteen minutes, the heart beating all the time, but very 
slowly, the contractions reduced from 246 to 15 in a minute. The ijheno- 
mena observable in these animals when narcotized with chloride of methyl 
is in other respects like those which occur irnder the use of chloroform, the 
notable points being the cessation of respiratory movements before the cir- 
culatory, and the absence of any definite contraction of the small vessels when 
the agents are administered in quantities not sufficient to produce immediate 
death. 

These experiments prove, I think, beyond cavil, that the chlorides of the 
methyl scries do not of necessity destroy life by their direct action upon the 
heart. Indeed they indicate rather that when the heart itself is sound, 
and the chloride is let into the system by the process of inhalation, the heart 
is not primarily interfered with. It was therefore all-important to learn 
whether the heart could be primarily arrested by making it the primary 
recipient of the narcotic. 

To test this, a large animal was selected, and a twenty-minim dose of 
chloroform was slowly instilled, by one of Mr. Hunter's syringes for sub- 
cutaneous injection, into a large vein in the ear. Within a few seconds 



i 



ON THE PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION OF THE METHYL COMPOUNDS. 177 

(indeed as soon as the last rniuini was injected) the animal was convulsed and 
dead. As quickly as the operation, with every appliance at hand, could be 
performed, the thorax was laid open, and the lungs and heart exposed. The 
heart on both sides was found firmly contracted on firmly clotted blood 
which filled its cavities. The lungs were intensely congested with blood, 
also firmly coagulated, so that they cut like substance of liver ; the brain 
was quite natural. Excited by the galvanic current, the muscles of respira- 
tion and the voluntary muscles responded well for an hour, but the heart 
could be roused to no sign of motion. 

Here, then, we had a proof that chloroform carried directly to the heart 
may stop the heart primarily. In this sense, however, it does not act by 
paralyzing, in the ordinary sense of that word, but by exciting a vigorous 
contraction, prolonged to the death. 

By injecting chloroform through the aorta over the whole body of an 
animal just dead, I saw the same sudden and permanent contraction univer- 
sally developed in the muscular system. 

The conclusions I have up to this time arrived at in respect to the action 
of chloroform and all the other chlorides of the methyl and ethyl series, are :— 
1. That when these are administered by inhalation to healthy bodies, their first 
action, as they diff'use through the different organs, is exerted directly on the 
muscles, which they call into powerful contraction. 2. That this action, 
extendmg further to the arterial muscular system, suspends the influx of 
blood, generally leading, in return, to relaxation of the common muscles, and 
to arrest of cerebral function. 3. That the heart, if its coronary canals 
and its walls he good, lives through the catastrophe better than any other 
structure, and, in short, is the organ on whose power the ultimate recovery 
rests. 4. That death from chloroform in the healthy animal is due to faihng 
respiratory power, and, above all, to contraction of the pulmonary artery, by 
which the current of blood from the right to the left side is p-evented. 

This view, in respect to animals, associates all the phenomena in death 
from chloroform; it accounts for the stage of muscular excijement, the ces- 
sation of the beat of the pulse while the heart is still beating, the continu- 
ance of the action of the heart when the respiration has stopped, and the 
white and bloodless condition in which the lungs are invariably discovered 
when death is complete. 

This same view tallies moreover with aU the known facts respecting sudden 
death under the influence of the chlorides in cases where the heart is not 
healthy, where, unable to live through the preliminary excitement into 
which, with tbe other muscles, it is thrown, it ceases action altogether— ceases 
for the same reason that it ceased in the animal when the narcotic was thrown 
direct into it, I mean because it is overcome by the excitation to which it is 
subjected. A little want of elasticity in the coronary arteries, an undue ten- 
dency to contraction in them, a deficiency of muscular substance, an intersti- 
tial deposit m the muscle,— any one of these conditions is amply sufficient to 
account for death from the heart under the influence of the exciting chlo-ides. 

Under the action of the oxides of methyl and ethyl the living body avoids 
these dangers to a degree as yet little understood. These from the first pro- 
dace very ht tie excitabihty of the muscular mechanism ; and when they ulti- 
mately kiU, the act is not by contraction of vessels, but by slow asphyxia, the 
gradual extinction of oxidation from the exclusion of air. 

Hence, after death by ether, the lungs are not found blanched, but con- 
gested, the heart still active, the muscles flaccid, and the blood in all the 
tissues dark in colour. 

1868. 



178 REPORT — 1868. 

Influence on the Animal Temperature. 

A subject of mucli importance seemed to me to be open for inquiry in 
respect to the conditions of the finimal temperatui-e under the action of those 
methyl and ethyl compounds which produce temporary inseusibihty. At- 
tempts had already been made by myself and others to determine the order 
of facts from the human subject. But the circumstances under which the 
narcotizing agents are administered to human kind are so peculiar that 
no separate observer could conduct a satisfactory research in a sufficient 
number of cases to be reliable. To arrive at correct data, a period of three 
hours at least is required for each observation ; the air of the room m which 
the observation is made must be kept at a steady and uniform heat ; three 
observers are also wanted, and the utmost quiet must prevail, that excite- 
ment of an external character do not move or annoy the subject. To meet 
these necessities, I determined to conduct the research on inferior animals. 
I selected from two kinds of animals,— the guiueapig, whose temperature is 
not more than two degrees above man, and the pigeon, an animal which has 
a mean temperature fuU ten degrees above that of man. I next selected 
chloroform and ether as the two agents to be tested ; it was necessary, from 
the labour and time demanded, not to take more than two substances, and 
these I considered were fair representatives of two distinct series, while at 
the same time they were substances with which the world of science generally 
is most familiar. 

I had the pleasure of being most ably assisted in observation by my 
friends Dr. F. Versmann and Dr. Sedgwick, with Mr. Alfred Nutt occasionally, 
and Mr. Alfred Haviland ; in every case another pair of eyes besides my own 
kept strict watch. The thermometers uf.ed were by Casella. The plan of 
proceeding was first to bring the air of the laboratory to a fixed temperature, 
the mean of 54° Fahr. being carefully sustained. In this air the animal was 
allowed to live for two hours before the observation, and the natural tempe- 
rature of the animal was carcfuUy noted— in the pigeon from the cloaca, m 
the guineapig from the rectum. 

The animals were put to sleep by being made gently to inhale the vapours 
to which they were subjected from a mask covered with thin flannel, and the 
thermometer was watched and registered through every stage of narcotism, 
and for one hour or more after recovery. 

In one pigeon the observation was conducted three separate times, m 
another pigeon twice, and in five other pigeons once. In one guineapig the 
observation was made three times, in another twice, and m five others once. 

The phenomena were amongst the most uniform I have ever recorded in 

experiment. . , 

In the pigeons subjected to chloroform there was m every case a tall m the 
thermometer, during the narcotism, of from G^-5 to 0° Fahr. Tins was so 
singularly correct that the result actually varied with tlie natural tempe- 
ratures of the birds. Thus in one of the birds, in which the natural tempe- 
rature was 107°-5, the thermometer came down regularly to 101° ; while m 
another bird, the natural temperature of which was ll(t°, the thermometer 
regularly feU to 104°. 

This decline in temperature did not date from the actual commencemeiit 
of inhalation. For the fii'st stage the thermometer remained steady ; as the 
second stage advanced it rose on an average half a degree, to sink at once as 
the excitement passed away ; Avhile as the third stage was reached (witli en- 
tire loss of sensation and of motion) it fell from three to four degrees. As the 
third stage became more determined, and the foui-th approached, the decline 



ON THE PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION OF THE METHYL COMPOUNDS. 179 

continued, the mmimum of six degrees being marked by aU the signs of 
impending death, viz. feeble breathing, intermittent pulse, and complete 
muscular relaxation. At this extreme recovery yvas permitted. The tem- 
perature during the recovery began in all eases to rise in from two minutes and 
a halt to three minutes after the chloroform was withdrawn : it would even 
rise a degree m this period, and would continue to ascend with the same 
rapidity for as many as three degrees. But the last three degrees were re- 
gained always slowly, as long a time as an hour occurring for the progress of 
each degree ; this was particularly the fact where the temperature at the 
begmnmg was very high. The bird whose temperature was 110° was three 
hours recoveriug four degrees of heat, and nine in recovering the full quan- 
tity lost, b . Uno symptom common to the action of chloroform (I mean 
vomiting) exerted a marked and sudden change, causing a rapid fall in the 
mercury of frequently two degrees. The change was not observed during the 
act or strain of vomitmg, but instantly afterwards. The loss of heat thus 
sustained was not made up so long as the inhalation and the narcotism were 
continued. 

Under ether the decline of temperature in pigeons is not so determinate as 
under chloroform but it is continuous, i.e. without any temporary rise, from 
the farst. The faU amounts to an average of four degrees. The absence of 
vomiting diirmg administrations of ether may account for this difference to 
some extent ; but the grand reason why the temperature keeps up so well is 
the quietude that prevails, the avoidance of that muscular excitement which 
so prominently distinguishes the action of the chlorides 

In the administration of chloroform to guiueapigs the same changes of 
temperature were observed, but in a less marked degree. The temperature 
dunng the stage of excitement rose P Fahr., and then sunk three degrees, 
that IS to say 2° below the natural standard. The temperature also re- 
mamed at the lower degree during the whole period of recovery, and did not 
return to the natural condition for a period of nearly four houre 

Under ether the temperature of guiueapigs showed extremely sHght 

rr« r* .if"" ""^l ""^ Pf^^^^^^^y i^<^^^^«^ «^ temperature, and under the 
deepest anaesthesia the reduction never reached beyond one degree and a 
halt. The natural standard was regained within the horn-. 

In two short series of final experiments on temperature I inquii-ed whether 
any extrcnie changes would result, or any differences, by artificially in- 
creasing the temperature of the air in which the animal inhaled the vapour 
oi chloroform. A pigeon, having a natural temperature of 108° Fahr., was 
placed in a hot-air bath at 112° Fahr. ; in a short time the temperature of the 
animal rose three degrees, where it remained stationary, the further accumu- 
lation of heat being arrested by copious elimination. The animal was now 
put to sleep with chloroform, the sleep being induced with extremest 
rnpichty, as !« common m high temperatures. During the passing interval of 
1 AQo Tu* ^^"^ tliermometer remained steady, and then suddenly fell to 
109 . The vapour was withdrawn at this point with a return to sensibility 
that was startling from its rapidity. Narcotism once more induced the ther- 
mometer went down to 107°, but rose once more almost instantly to 109° 
on the vapour being withdrawn. 

I o/fino'*f,°*^!'' °^^'^''y^'itio° oil a pigeon, having a natural temperature of 108°, 
at 60 the temperature of the animal, in a room at 96°, rose to 110° Fahr 

, JJuring narcotism m this state the temperature fell to 108°-5, 107°-8 107°' 
and then suddenly to 105°, when insensibihty was complete. As recovery 
progressed, the temperature rose to 108°-4, but during a sHght vomiting 



o2 



180 REPORT— 1868. 

fell again to 107°'7. After this the temperature rose to 108°, and remained 
there, the animal seeming entirely -well. 

In a further short scries of experiments the influence of cold during 
narcotism from ether-vapour was tested. The temperature of a pigeon 
having been reduced by narcotic action of ether from 107° to 104°, the sjjray 
of ether was directed upon the head luitil the superficies of the cerebrum 
were solidified. Under these combined influences the temperature of the body 
ran down as low as 97°"7. At this point of extreme reduction of heat there 
occiirred a severe tremor ; but on restoi'ing warmth, the recovery was steady 
and good, the natural heat being back in ten hours. 

In a similar experiment made with chloroform-vapour, the results were 
the same within a little less than a degree. The reduction of temperature 
was from 107°'5 to 98°-5. The recovery was good. 

One other experiment deserves notice, for the accident attending it. In 
administering chloroform to a rabbit having a temperature of 102°, the 
thermometer, during a sharp paroxysm of muscular excitement, rose at one 
move to 103°-8, or nearly two degrees. At the moment the heart ceased to 
pulsate, and the animal was dead. The occurrence is entirely in character 
with what has often happened in the human subject under chloroform. The 
heart involved in the sudden muscular excitement has contracted spasmo- 
dically, and the motion of life has ceased for good. 

I ought almost to apologize for relating these facts on the temperature of 
animals under chloroform and ether with so much minuteness ; but practical 
physiologists, who wiU at once see their bearing, will pardon me. The facts 
we have gathered are : — 

(a) That during tlie stage of the muscular excitement incident to the cir- 
culation of chloroform through the body there is a temporary increment 
of heat. 

(h) That with the cessation of the muscular motion there is a gradual 
decrease of heat. 

(c) That the decrease of temperature is greatly accelerated and intensified 
by the act of vomiting. 

(d) That coincidently with the minimum of reduced animal temperature 
there is intermittent action of the heart and the extreme of muscular 
prostration. 

Influence of Electrical Excitation durowj the Action of Methyl and Ethyl 

Comj^ounds. 

The observations already recorded led me to make a further inquiry in 
jrespect to the influence of the galvanic current at different stages of nar- 
cotism. In this research chloroform was the only narcotic used, and pigeons 
were the subjects of experiment. 

In the first experiment, the animal having been subjected to the vapour 
of chloroform until the development of the stage of excitement, and the con- 
sequent increase of temperature, a needle connected with one pole of an elec- 
tro-magnetic machine was passed through the skin of the neck, while a 
second needle was passed through the leg. The free end of the second pole 
was next brought to the needle in the leg, and a moderate current was passed 
through the bodj'. In an instant the muscular over-action was converted into 
general rigidity, the chest was fixed, the lieart was fixed, and death was the 
immediate result. 

In the next experiment, the same arrangements for the transmission of 
the current having been made as before, and the same strength of current 



ON THE PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION OF THE METHYL COMPOUNDS. 181 

being used, the other details were changed. The animal was allowed 
to pass through the stage of muscular excitement into the third stage of 
musciilar relaxation. This stage reached, the current was transmitted 
through the body of the animal. The eifect, again instantaneous, was not 
to destroy life, but to excite all the phenomena of apparent active life. The 
wings were moved as in the act of flight, motions attended with progressive 
or propulsive action were strongly marked, the breathing was quickened, the 
impulse of the heart was increased, and the temperature rose ; but when the 
current was withdrawn all these striking phenomena were withdrawn also, 
and the animal again slept inactive and prostrate, but ready to recover. 

Eor the sake of comparison another experiment of a similar character was 
carried out, in which, instead of reducing the animal body by the administra- 
tion of chloroform, the spray of ether was directed upon the cerebrum until 
the phenomena of entire unconsciousness and of muscular prostration were 
fuUy pronounced. Then the current from the coil was j^assed through the 
body as before, with the temporary development of the phenomena of mus- 
cular activity. 

The lessons taught by these experiments are in confirmation of aU that 
has gone before. They prove how distinct a double action on the muscular 
organs is exerted by chloroform, and they indicate an independency of in- 
fluence upon the muscular and nervous systems, between insensibility, or I 
had better say unconsciousness, and deficiency of motor power, which I was 
not myself, previous to the experiments, prepared to recognize. It is clear 
that in the narcotism induced by chloroform, and perhaps by all other similar 
agents, the muscles can be called into action while the brain is vii'tually dead; 
we can, in short, supply the muscles with an artificial nervous energy. 

Bangers attending administration of Methyl or Etliyl Compounds. 

E,ecasting these experiments and putting the various facts in order, I have 
been led to consider from them the dangers which waylay the administrators 
of the methyl and ethyl compounds, the causes of these dangers, and the 
way to avoid them. 

And here, I think, is a primary truth, the basis of progress in the discovery 
of new agents : — that the danger in anaesthesia does not lie in the produc- 
tion of sleep, nor even of deep sleep, but in the production, in the course of 
the process, of symptoms which, although the prime sources of danger, are not 
connected by any necessity with the aufesthesia. I refer especially to the 
symptoms of muscular excitement and rigidity, followed, as we have seen, 
by decrease of temperature of the animal. 

Again, I think there is another truth hardly secondary, viz. that we 
already possess agents which by their action prove to us their power of pro- 
ducing antesthesia without exciting muscivlar rigidity, and without materially 
disturbing the animal temperature. If this be true, we ought as men of 
science to exclude at once from the list of safe anaesthetics all such as on 
experiment are found to produce rigidity of muscle or vomiting (which is 
an indication of the same action), and reduction of heat by its transference 
into motion at a moment when the conditions for the liberation of force are 
most unfavourable. 

The exclusion here named would, I conceive, of itself save many lives, and 
would bring the danger of artificially induced sleep to the danger, and no 
more, of mere natural sleep. The only cause of accident would be in carry- 
ing the insensibility to the extreme of extinguishing life, an accident for 
which the administrator would be clearly culpable, and which, even now, 



182 KEPORT — 1868. 

when very dangerous agents are in daily use, has never, as far as I know, 
happened. 

In searching for the agents we require, we must begin by exchiding bad 
ones, which is, in fact, to exclude whole classes. The class of the clilorides, 
under this rule, would aU go. It is true they are not all equally dangerous, 
and that the increase of danger is in proportion to the substitution of chlo- 
rine ; but, as a class, they one and aU do more than we require, they produce 
muscular rigidity, vomiting, and decrease of animal heat. This same rule holds 
good in relation to the iodides and the bromides. Supposing, then, we keep to 
the methyl and ethyl series as bases, we are driven back to the oxides, to what 
are commonly the ethers, for our agents. None of these which have yet been 
applied have been actually perfect ; but it is almost certain that in course of 
time the chemist will produce for the physiologist the precise requirement. 
That it may be generally known what this requirement is, I will state in a 
few sentences the theoretical formula of a safe anaesthetic, an ansesthetic 
that shall be applicable to long and short operations ahke, and shall become 
acceptable generally from its readiness and safety. 

1. It must be a fluid. Gases, however good, are not practicable as agents 
for general and daily use ; more than this, as at the temperature of the blood 
they remain as gases, and when dissolved in blood they exert no action from 
change of form in the organism. To narcotize with them it is consequently 
necessary to give them in large quantities, even it may be to the exclusion 
of air altogether. The influence of a gas thus administered is of necessity 
limited to the briefest interval of time ; steady continuance would lead to 
certain death from asphyxia. 

2. The fluid must possess homogeny and stability. Mixtures of fluids are 
utterly unreliable. Fluids which easily decompose under the infliience of 
heat or of light are unreliable. 

3. The fluid must be of pleasant odour, and must produce no irritation 
when inhaled or when applied to the skin. All the fluids which, like chloro- 
form, amylene, and turpentine, cause redness and irritation of skin, cause 
also, when introduced into the blood, irritability of muscle and rigidity, toge- 
ther with vomiting. 

4. The boiling-point of the fluid should be not less than 110° Fahr., and 
not over 130^. Fluids which pass into vapour below the temperature of the 
animal body act practically as gases, and must be used in free quantities to 
the exclusion of air ; common ether, amylene, and bichloride of methylene have 
this fault, the last least. Fluids, on the other hand, which pass altogether 
into vapour at a point much above the animal temperature, as at 140° or 
upwards, condense in the pulmonary blood too determinately, and although 
tliey create a long sleep, they remain for a considerable period in the body, 
creating continued nausea and depression from interference with the conser- 
vation of the animal heat. Chloroform, tetrachloride of carbon, and common 
alcohol are objectionable on these grounds. A fluid which should have a 
boiling-point some 20° above the body, and other properties equally good to 
commend it, would be convenient in every respect. It could be easily preserved, 
and as an anaesthetic it would be alike applicable to long and short operations. 

5. The density of the vapour of the fluid should be about 40, taking 
hydrogen as unity. 

In the large Table before the Section I have named a list of substances 
(23 in all), which have received from me the most careful investigation ; 
tliey arc all wanting in some jiroperty that is essential, but one or two new 
observations respecting the action of certain of them are worthy of notice. 



ON THE PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION OF THE METHYL COMPOUNDS. 183 

On Methylic Ether in Ethi/Jio Ether. — To obtain a very quickly acting and 
safe anaesthetic fluid I saturated common ether with methylic ether. A very 
agreeable but, of coui'se, unstable fluid was iu this way obtained. After nar- 
cotizing several animals with this compound, I allowed my friends Dr. Sedg- 
wick and Mr. Marshall to subject me to it on the 20th of May of this year. 
The vapour caused no irritation, and I was, I learn from Dr. Sedgwick's 
note, "well off" in one mimite, the pulse rising from 70 to 96. At first the 
respiration was slightly sobbing, two or, three rapid inspirations being fol- 
lowed by two or three similar expirations. There was no change of colour in 
the face, and no coldness. After being insensible for seventy seconds, I 
awoke sufiiciently to speak to my friends, but I do not remember the circum- 
stance, and I am reported to have fallen off quietly to sleep again, after moving 
from the chair in which I was sitting to a couch, on which I lay down. 
Here I slept very quietly, with easy breathing, for at least two minutes, and 
then I awoke with slight sobbing, followed by a violent and irrepressible fit 
of laiighter. Recovery was rapid, indeed instantaneovis, after this, and was 
unattended by any one disagreeable symptom ; there was no vomiting, no 
nausea, no headache ; indeed in five minutes I was following my occupations 
as if nothing had interfered with them. 

In order to see the extreme effect of methylic ether, I allowed a guinea- 
pig, when profoundly narcotized, to remain in an atmosphere holding 15 per 
cent, of the gas. The animal continued to breathe easily for nine minutes in 
this atmosphere, then the breathing became irregular, and at fourteen 
minutes it stopped. I now removed the animal into pure air at 75°, and on 
examining the heart I found that organ beating steadilj^, and with the sounds 
most distinct. I continued to watch for restoration of breathing, and four 
miniites and twenty-three seconds afterwards observed a slight movement of 
breathmg ; in two or three seconds more these movements were repeated, in 
another minute there were sixteen inspirations in forty-five seconds, and the 
animal in the end recovered rapidly and soundlj', with nothing worse than 
a slight shivering. In this experiment tlierc was the longest complete sus- 
pension of respiration in a warm-blooded animal I have ever seen, followed 
by recovery. 

In a further series of experiments I allowed pigeons, rabbits, and guinea- 
pigs to sleep to death in methylic ether. In all cases the respiration ceased 
before the heart stopped its rhythmical pulsation, and in every case there 
was found after death slight congestion of the lungs, blood on both sides of 
the heart, and blood on the arterial side darkened in colour. In no case did 
spasmodic action precede death. 

In recording the phenomena induced by the inhalation of methylic ether, 
we cannot but be struck with an analogous action between it and nitrous 
oxide or laughing-gas. Like nitrous oxide it acts quickly, and its effects 
quickly pass away, but it does not produce the same degree of asphyxia, and 
it acts when freely diluted with air. 

Methtlal. 

Another substance which promised to be a good agent was methylal. The 
composition of methylal is Q^ H, 0^ ; its specific gravity is 0-855, and its 
vapour density is 38. It was made for me by Dr. E. \ ersmann. It is made 
by distilling methylic alcohol and sulphuric acid with peroxide of manganese. 
It is a clear fluid, boiling at 108° F., and having a sweet ethereal odour. It 
is soluble in water as well as in ether and alcohol. 

In the vapour of methylal animals pass into s^.eep gently and slowly with 



184 REPOET — 1868. 

perfect insensibility. The peculiaritj' of action is slowness. When the sleep 
has been produced, it lasts a considerable period, and is undisturbed, but 
the respiration is slow and heavy. There is no marked excitement and no 
vomiting. If the action were less prolonged, methylal would rank amojigst 
the best of anaesthetics. It is a very agreeable vapour to inhale. 

FOEMIATE OF ElHTt. 

The last agent which I tested was the formiate of ethyl. The composition 
of the formiate is C^H^ 0„ the boiling-point 130°, the vapour- density 37°. 
It is made by distilling alcohol with formic acid. In the vapoiu- of this 
substance animals fall into a stupor, but do not actually sleep. They have 
considerable muscular excitement, and vomiting is easily excited. The 
vajwur is also irritating to the throat and to the air-passages of the lung. 

Mj' chief object in testing the formiate of ethyl was to compare its action 
with that of the acetate of methyl, with which it is isomeric. The action of 
the two is different ; the acetate produces deep stupor without muscular ex- 
citement. 

Ox THE Neutralization of some Poisoks bt the Hethtj, and EiiriL Series. 

The last line of research to which I shaU refer in this Eeport relates to the 
employment of the members of the methj-1 and ethjd scries for the purpose 
of neutralizing alkaloidal poisons. Trom the fact that iodide of potassium 
and iodide of methyl produce very definite curative effects in some forms of 
disease, it occurred to me that possibly they underwent change of constitution 
in the body, forming, vrith a foreign and injurious agent, a new compound, 

This view was confirmed by an observation made some years ago while con- 
ducting experiments on the synthesis of cataract. I found then, and recorded 
the fact in Brown-Sequa-d's journal in 1860, that while chloride of potassium 
and chloride of sodium would ^U'oduce a synthesis of cataract, the correspond- 
ing iodide salts would not. Hence I concluded that the iodides, even in 
organisms so low as frogs, were decomposed. The question, therefore, came 
before me, whether the iodides would neutralize in the organism the action 
of some of the better known poisons of the allcaloidal typo. 

To test this the following research was made ; it dated from the 24th of 
October last year, 1867. 

Three solutions were prepared. One consisted of 2 minims of iodide of 
ethyl, mixed with 30 of water. Tivo consisted of 30 minims of water and 
alcohol, holding the J^, of a grain of strychnia. Three consisted of -J^ of a 
grain of strychnia with 2 miuims of iodide of ethyl and 30 of alcohol and 
water. 

A frog was injected with the solution number 1. It became tetanic in 
one minute and a half. Another frog was injected with the solution num- 
ber 3, i. e. the solution of strycliuia and iodide of ethyl. This frog also be- 
came tetanic in one minute and a half. 

The frog number 1 was Jiow injected Avith a solution containing 5 minims of 
the iodide of ethyl ; within ten minutes the spontaneous tetanus had ceased, 
and spasm produced under the influence of ii'ritation was very much less. In 
twenty minutes there was entire relaxation, but with faint twitches when the 
skin was touched. 

The frog number 2 was next injected with a solution containing 1 minim 
of iodide of ethyl. There was immediate relaxation of the tetanic spasm, and 
irritation brought on no spasm. 

One hour after this the frog number 1 still twitched when touched, while 



ON THE PHYSIOLOGICAL- ACTION OF THE METHYL COMPOUNDS. 185 

frog 2 remained relaxed and living, bnt paralyzed. Eotli frogs died on the 
following day, retaining their symptoms to the end. 

It was clear in these two cases that the iodide of ethyl exerted an anti- 
dotal action to the poison, hut as the animals died with ditferent classes of 
symptoms, a further research was made. 

A large frog was injected with 10 minims of the iodide simply. It seemed 
quite unatfcctcd for some hours, but on the following day it cUcd, presenting 
symptoms of general paralysis similar to the frog that had received the 
five-minim injection after the strychnia. Thus the question had to be solved 
whether any precise formula of neutralization could he arrived at. In one 
experiment I had not used enough iodide to overcome the spasm, in another 
I had thrown in so much of the iodide as to more than neutralize, and, in 
fact, to kill by the iodide itself. Can, then, any known quantities for exact 
neutralization be arrived at in a living body ? 

I believe they can, but up to this time I have failed, after the most careful 
study, to find the quantitj-. I can certainly prolong life twenty-four and 
even twenty-eight hoiu-s after a terribly intense dose of stryclmia, but ulti- 
mately there is death. 

Iodide of methyl acts in precisely a similar way as the iodide of ethyl, as 
do also the bromides of methyl and ethyl. 

Another series of experiments were at the same time made with nicotin. 
On October the 26th, 1867, two minims of nicotin were injected subcu- 
taneously into a large rabbit. The animal died in twenty-five seconds. 

A second rabbit was injected with two minims of nicotin and two of iodide 
of ethyl. It died also in twenty-five seconds. 

A third rabbit was injected with one minim of nicotin and ten of the 
iodide. It died in one minute and fifty-one seconds. 

A guineapig and a rabbit were treated with ten minims of the iodide 
only. They remained well for several hours, but both died next day. 

Again, varied experiments were carried out to get at the neutralizing pro- 
portions of these two agents, and guineapigs were mnde to replace the rab- 
bits ; but the point was never reached. The effect of a large dose of nicotin 
was modified, i. e. the convulsive action was prevented, but in the end there 
was death. 

In my Ileport at the Meeting at Birmingham, I suggested that possibly it 
would be practicable to make new chemical compounds, siibstitution-com- 
pounds, in the living body. While I have been thinking and trying to work 
out this idea, Drs. Eraser and Crum Brown have been conducting the most 
singularly beautiful series of research bearing on the same question, but 
carried on differently. These experimentalists have shown conclusively that 
an intensely poisonous dose of strychnia can be rendered inert by first con- 
verting the aUcaloid into a methyl-iodide. 

This is a wonderful advance. But the question remains, can the same 
thing be done within the living body ? Can a new chemical compound be 
produced there ? When we consider the circumstances under which the sub- 
stitution-compounds are made in the laboratory, I confess I am liardly pre- 
pared to see that they can be formed in the body. On the other hand, we 
have now evidence that to a certain extent iodide of methyl and ethyl are 
directly antidotal to strychnia or nicotin. 

In the body, however, there are two distinct actions to be considered, the 
physiological action and the chemical. The antidotal efifects of the methyl- 
iodide might, therefore, be due, not to chemical union or substitution, but to 
physiological neutralization. 



186 KEPORT— 1868.- 

To ajiproach. a conclusion on this particular point I moved from the 
iodides altogether, and from the mouocarbon series altogether, and repeated 
some experiments, which I had commenced as early as 1864, with various 
nitrites of the bodies of which carbon is the base. I began w4th nitrite 
of amyl, passed to nitrite of ethyl, and next to the nitrite and nitrate of 
methyl. The results are rich in interest ; for each one of these substances 
proves to be singularly antidotal to the acute action of strychnia. So re- 
markably is this true in respect to nitrite of amyl, that in a frog tetanized 
with strychnia I was able to hold back every convulsion for three days by 
the simple experiment of keeping the animal on a bed of moist moss, cove- 
ring it with a beU-jar, and by introducing into the jar two minims of the 
nitrite every eight hours on a strip of paper. 

But here came the singular fact, and in different degrees it was seen in 
all the other experiments ; so soon as the bell-jar was removed, and the 
antidote was able to escape from the body of the animal, the strychnine 
tetanus retm'ned. In one case, however, by great care in the experiment, 
a slightly tetanized frog was kept long enough under the nitrite to allow 
the effects of the tetanic poison to cease, and this animal recovered. 

These truths are so convincing that I can have no hesitation in confirming 
another suggestion I made at the Birmingham Meeting, for the careful em- 
ployment of the nitrite of amyl, by inhalation, in the treatment of tetanus 
in the human subject. The remedy can be inhaled from the alcoholic sohition 
which I have already placed before the Section, and it may be applied, imder 
cautious or, rather, careful administration, whenever there is spasmodic 
paroxysm. 

But what is the action ? I do not think there can be any doubt on the 
point in the case of the nitrites. It is clear that the action is purely phy- 
siological, because when the antidote is not rencAved the action of the 
strychnine returns. I am bound at this moment to confine myself to the 
strict narration of this fact, without applying it by inference to the iodides, 
bromides, or other bodies of the organic scries. Next year, after a new 
course of experimental research, I shall, I trust, be able to show the posses- 
sion of some more definite knowledge on the subject. 

I conclude. It is not a practice of mine to trespass beyond due hounds 
on the patience of an audience, a7id if on this occasion I may appear to 
have broken a wholesome rule, I really cannot apologize. The subject I 
have had to treat goes to the root of principle in the study of means for 
the cure — I am bold to say the cure, by true and certain scientific methods, 
of the diseases which most severely scourge the human family and many of 
the lower families in the scale of living organization. 

Gradually, but surely as gradually, the curer of bodies will learn from tlie 
chemist and the practical physiologist that his remedies, rapid in action, easy 
in administration, positive in result, must all come from the organic com- 
pounds, wnich are of themselves a part of the organic nature. 

Thus learned, the physician will exchange dogmatism for wisdom, faith 
for knowledge, and doubt for certainty. He will compete " ,ith his fellows 
by the pure struggle of intellect ; he wiU be responsible for results without 
evasion, and his duties will be more solemnly his own ; but he will stand, 
where he never stood before, a conscious master in his art ; he will know in 
what he doth believe, and the world, assured by his exactitude, wiU soon 
learn to know none but him in his vocation. 



ON THE ACTION OF MERCURY ON THE BILIARY SECRETION. 187 

Report of the Edinburgh Committee on the Action of Mercury on the 
Biliary Secretion. By J. Hughes Bennett^ M.D., F.R.S.E., 
Chairman and Reporter. 

At the Meeting of the Association in Dundee (1867), I read as a communica- 
tiou some of the results arrived at by a Committee which had been in- 
vestigating the action of mercury as a cholagogue. The inqxiiry originated 
in a suggestion made by myself, in the annual address in medicine I delivered 
to the British Medical Association at Chester in 1866. The physioloo-ical 
department of Section D considered the results so interesting and important 
that a grant of money was voted in aid of the Committee's researches, with 
the understanding that a full report was to be made on the whole inquiry 
at the next Meeting of the Association to be held in Norwich. The Com- 
mittee consisted of Dr. Hughes Bennett, Professor of the Institutes of Medic-ne 
and Physiology in the University of Edinbiu-gh, the Chairman and Reporter, 
Dr. Christison, Professor of Materia Medica, Dr. Maclagan, Professor of 
Medical Jurisprudence, Dr. James Rogers, formerly of St. Petersburg, Dr. 
"W. Rutherford, assistant to the Professor of Physiology, Dr. Gamgee, 
assistant to the Professor of Medical Jurisprudence, and Dr. Fraser, assistant 
to the Professor of Materia Medica, Edinburgh. 

The first meeting of the Committee was held JSTovember 16th, 1866. On 
proceeding to consider by what method the action of mercury on the biliary se- 
cretion was to be accurately ascertained, the conclusion was arrived at that no 
kind of examination of the fseees could yield trustworthy results. Supposing 
that the chief and characteristic constituents of the bUe found their way into 
the alvine evacuations unchanged, imperfection in the analytical methods at 
our disposal render their quantitative analysis impossible. The plan of 
ascertaining bUe-acids indirectly by means of nitrogen and sulphur determina- 
tions of the alcoholic extract, while most unsatisfactory in the case of ]iure 
bile, is still more so when applied to the alcobolic extract of fieces. The 
method of Professor Hoppe-Seyler of Tubingen, who calculated the amount 
of bile-acids from the effect which their solutions exert upon the ray of 
polarized light, presents such complexity and difficulty as to render its 
systematic employment in any series of analyses altogether inapplicable. As 
to the colouring-matters of bile, there is no direct method known by which 
they can be estimated. But it was further argued that, did we even possess 
proper means of estimating the bile-products, it is only a small portion of 
such as are secreted by the hver which can be found in the alvine discharges. 
Bidder and Schmidt ascertained that the amount of unoxidized sulphur in 
them only represented one-eighth part of the total sulphur which the liver 
secretes, and that of the other constituents of the bile the larger proportion 
are absorbed. Indeed the utter impossibility of detecting the constituents 
of bile in the faeces is admitted by one of the most reliable physiological chemists 
of Europe, viz. Professor Hoppe-Seyler. That under the influence of purga- 
tives unchanged bile is occasionally discharged from the bowel is true ; but 
this furnishes no proof of any increase of that secretion ; for under ordinary 
circumstances it is decomposed and absorbed in the alimentary canal, and 
any cause which increases the rapidity of its passage there, must render ab- 
sorption and decomposition less complete. 

As it was evident that no accurate information concerning the amount of 
bile secreted by the liver was to be obtained by an examination of the faeces, 
the Committee arrived at the conclusion that the formation of biliary fistul^ 
in living animals, and collecting the bile directly through such fistulas from 



188 REPORT— 1868. 

the gall-bladder, Tvas the only means open to them of determining how far 
mercury influenced that secretion. 

HlSTOEY. 

It next became necessary to ascertain -what had been made out by prerious 
observers as to the amount of bile secreted by the liver, under varied cir- 
cumstances, through biliary fistula;. For hterary researches into this matter, 
the Committee are greatly indebted to Dr. Rogers. He informs the Com- 
mittee, in his rejjort on this branch of the inquiry, that efforts to establish 
biliary fistulse and to collect the bile have been attended mth exti'cme 
diflSculty in the hands of all experimenters, and have led to a large mortality 
among the animals operated on. Of 18 dogs operated on for this purpose by 
Professor Schwann of Louvain, 10 died within a week after the operation, 
from its immediate effects ; six in from eight to eighty days from inanition, 
although the appetite remained good. In 2, the choledic diet was rees- 
tablished. Some years afterwards he operated on 12 other dogs, so that 
the total number operated on amounted to 30 ; and Bidder and Schmidt 
inform us that of these one lived four months, and another a whole year, 
after the operation. The last-mentioned authors say*, " "VYe shall not take 
into account the unsuccessful cases, of which the number at the commence- 
ment of our investigation of this subject was not very small." Again, thej 
say, "After ten or twelve unsuccessful attempts to establish permanent 
biliary fistulas in cats, we were obliged to have recourse to dogs." Dr. Flint, 
in his paper on a New Function of the Liver, does not mention the number 
of dogs on which he performed the operation ; but it is evident that a great 
number perished. He says, " All the experiments made during the winter 
1860-61 were unsuccessful, no animal surviving the operation more than 
three days." After a number of trials during the following winter, which 
were not more successful than the in'cvious ones, he succeeded at last with 
one animal. There is every reason to believe that, had other experimenters 
informed us of their failures, the number of these wouldhave been equally great. 
In the few eases which have succeeded, however, it is important to remember 
that a large amount of valuable information regarding the bile has been ob- 
tained that never would have been arrived at without them. 

The operation performed by physiologists on animals in order to establish 
biliary fistulffi has, with a few modifications, been essentially the same, and 
will be subsequently de'scribed when detailing the experiments of the Com- 
mittee. 

The results arrived at may be divided into : — 1, the amount of the 
biliary secretion in health, and the circumstances which influence it ; 2, the 
special effect of mercuiy on the secretion of bile. 

1. Previous ResearcJies to determine the amount of Bile Secreted in Docjs, 
and the Circumstances which influence it. 

HALLERf. — In Haller's ' Physiology,' reference is given to several cases in 
which attempts had been made to ascertain the quantity of bile secreted in a 
given time by experiments on living dogs. The description of them, however, 
is so very vague and general that they possess little interest for the phy- 
siologists of the present day. Yan Eeverhord found the quantity of bile se- 
creted by a dog in twenty-four hours to be 6 oz. ; and Haller, estimating the 
secretion in the human subject at four times that in the dog, suggested 24 oz. 

* Verdauungs-Siifte imd der Stoffweebsel, 1852, page 125. 
t Pbysiologia, torn. vi. page C05. 



ON THE ACTION OF MERCURY ON THE BILIARY SECRETION. 189 

to be the quantity secreted daily in the healthy human adult. He likewise 
alludes to an interesting case of a man in whom a biliary fistula was formed 
in consequence of a wound of the gall-bladder. Tacconus, who saw the case, 
estimated the amount of bile discharged by the fistula at 4 02. ; but whether 
the expression "eodem tempore" refers to six or twenty-four houi-s, it is 
impossible to say — probably to the former. 

ScuwANN*. — It was not till 1844 that any serioiis attempts were made to 
investigate this subject by Professor Schwann of Louvain. He made several 
interesting experiments, by means of biliary fistidae, to ascertain the utiUty 
of bile in the animal economy. Unfortunately he does not appear to have 
carried out his intention of ascertaining accurately its amount. 

BLOXDLOTt. — In 1846 Blondlot succeeded in establishing a biliary fistula 
in a dog of middle size, in which he gives approximately 40 to 50 grammes 
as the amount of bile secreted in twenty-four hours. His estimate, however, 
was not made with great precision ; for he only collected the fluid for short 
periods at a time, and coiild not therefore ascertain its exact amount in twenty- 
four hours. 

H. NasseJ. — Heinrich Nasse of Marburg published in 1851 an in- 
teresting memoir giving an account of a series of experiments performed on 
one dog in Avhich a biliary fistula had been established, and which lived 
afterwards five months and a half. His object was to ascertain the influence 
of the quantity and quality of the food on the biliary secretion. As we have 
not succeeded in obtaining the original work, the result of his researches will 
be subsequently tabulated as obtained from the abstract given of them in 
Canstatt§. 

Bidder and ScnMiDT||. — In 1852, Bidder and Schmidt, in their work on 
the Digestive Pluids, gave an account of the most elaborate experiments yet 
made to determine the amount of the biliary secretion. They succeeded in 
estabhshiug biliary fistulaj in foux dogs. In one dog the daily observations 
extended from Feb. 17th to April 15th, when he was killed. The bile was 
collected by holchng a balloon-shaped glass over the fistulous opening for 
fifteen minutes at a time ; and this was repeated daily from six to ten times 
successively. The varying amount of biliary secretion obtained at one period 
was corrected by the results obtained at other periods, and the average amount 
calculated from a large number of observations. This method, though 
excellent for determining the amount of the secretion at difl'erent periods of 
the digestive process, is, as regards the daily quantity, evidently iinsatisfactory. 
Besides, as the dog did not consume the same amount of food under these 
varied circumstances, that might vitiate the result. To simplify the Tables, 
and render calculation easier, they estimated the amount of bile secreted at 
so much per kilogramme weight of dog. Thus, if a dog weighing 5 kilo- 
grammes secreted 100 grammes of bile in twenty-four hours, it would be 
said that 20 grammes of bile were secreted for each kilogramme of dog in 
twenty-four hours. They estimate the average amount of bile per kilogramme 
in twenty-four hours at 19-999. 

The following Table gives the average amount of biliary secretion in the 
four dogs, with the average amount of food per kilogramme taken hourly and 
daily. One Idlogramme weight of dog gives 6 grammes. 

* Milller's ' AroLiv,' 184i, page 127. 

t Essai sur Ics Fimotions du Foie, 1846. 

J Commentatio de bilis quotidie a cane secrette eopia et indole. Marburg, 1851. 

§ Canstatt's Jahresbericht, 1856, 1st Heft, p. 87. 

II Yerdauuugs-Siifte und der Stoffweclisel, 1852. 



190 



REPORT 1868. 





I. 


2. 


3- 


4- 


5- 


6. 


In 1 Hour. 
JFresh bile 


o'539 
0-040 

12-936 
0-960 


0-663 

0-035 

15-912 
0-840 

32-49 

flesh ; I -74 

bacon and 

butter. 


0-696 

0-029 

16-704 
0-696 

17-85 

fle.sh ; 

7-87 

milk. 


1-023 
0-049 

24-550 
1-176 

79'SI 

flesh ; 

8-32 

bread. 


1-198 

0-057 

28-750 
1-268 

66-42 

flesh; 8-59 

bread 

(rye). 


0-824 
0-042 

19-99 
0-988 


Dry residue 

In 24 Hours. 
Fresh bile 


Dry residue 

Daily amount ' 
of food per 
kilogramme 
weight of dog. 



The first column gives the qiaantity of bile obtained from recently formed 
biliary fistulfe, the four foUo-wing ones the quantity obtained in cases of 
fistulas of some standing, and the sixth gives the average amount of the 
different observations. 

Bidder and Schmidt fouud that the amount of bile secreted in a given 
period varies much in different species of animals. Thus for every kilo- 
gramme of animal there is produced on an average — 



In 1 Hour. 


Cat. 


Dog. 


Sheep. 


Babbit. 


Goose. 


Crow. 


0-608 
0-034 


0-824 
0-042 


1-059 
0-056 


5-702 
0-103 


0-491 

0-034 


3-004 Fluid. 
0-219 Solids. 


In 24 Hours. 


14-50 
o-8i6 


19-990 
0-988 


25-416 
1-344 


136-84 
2-47 


11-784 
0-816 


Fluid. 
5-256 Solids. 



It appears remarkable that the rabbit should secrete five times as much bile 
as the other larger animals do, aud that the crow should secrete so much more 
than the goose ; but from the manner in -^'hich the bile-coUections -were made, 
little confidence can be placed in these results. They found that the amount 
of the biliary secretion was much influenced by the quantity and quality of 
the food and drink. Taking from six ounces to ten ounces of -water produces 
a rapid increase of the secretion, attaining its greatest measure in from forty- 
five to sixty-one minutes after it had been taken, and diminishing as rapidly. 
They found that, when the food of cats consisted almost exclusively of fat, 
the secretion of bile was reduced to about the quantity furnished by fasting 
animals. Blondlot (p. 62) says that the use of fat increases the amount of 
bile ; and Bitter and Nasse say that the addition of fat to the food increases 
the secretion — at least when the supply of fiesh at the same time is not great. 
Bidder and Schmidt also ascertained that the quantity of the biliary secretion 
varies at different periods of the digestive process, and that it attained its 
maximum thirteen to fifteen hours after a meal. On this point it may be 
here observed that Arnold supposed it to reach its maximum two to four 
hours after solid food was taken, KoUiker and Miiller generally from five to 
eight hours, and Dr. Flint from two to eight hours. Dr. Dalton, from ob- 
servations made on a case of duodenal fistula, thinks biliary secretion is at 
its maximum an hour after feeding. Bitter and Nasse, like Arnold, re- 
marked two maxima in the course of the day — the first occurring during the 



ON THE ACTION OF MERCURY ON THE BILIARY SECRETION. 191 

first or second hour after feeding, the other so much the earlier the more 
scanty the supply of food. 

In Bidder and Schmidt's tabulated observations on the first dog, it will be 
seen that the greatest amount of fresh bile was secreted between six and 
seven hours after a meal. It is true that the greater amount of dry biliary 
residue was found in one of the collections made from fourteen and a half to 
fifteen and a half hours after feeding ; but in another quantity collected at 
the same period after feeding the amount both of fresh bile and dry residue 
was miich less than that coU.cted between six and seven hours after a meal. 
Again, of two quantities collected respectively on the 2 id and 6th of Novem- 
ber, from fourteen to fifteen and a haM hours after feeding, the amount of 
fresh bile in the fii'st collection was only about the half of what was secreted 
from three to four hours after a meal ; and in the second collection it was 
about half of that secreted from four and a half to five and a half hours after 
a meal. The tabulated observations on the third dog seem to give mo-e 
support to Bidder and Schmidt's opinion ; but quantities of biliary secretion 
given for dift'erent periods after feeding are too fluctuating to permit the 
amount of bUe secreted at any given stage of digestion to be accurately 
estimated. The observations of Bidder and Schmidt themselves, therefore, 
do not support their own conclusion ; and as this is opposed to those of 
other experimenters, it must be concluded that the amount of bile secreted 
varies considerably in the same animal, and at the same period of digestion, 
even independently of food and drink. 

Arnold*. — In 1854 Dr. Arnold pviblished a work on the ' Physiology of 
the Bile,' and afterwards made some additional experiments on the subject in 
1857. The apparatus he employed consisted of a canula 4| centimetres long 
and 4 centimetres wide, attached by a screw to an elastic caoutchouc bag 10 
centimetres long and 1 centimetre broad. Fifteen millimetres above this 
attachment, and at right angles with the canula, was a metallic plate, 12 
millimetres in diameter. This plate was placed between the skin and the 
muscles ; and the wound healed perfectly over it, preventing all escape of bile 
between the soft parts and the canula. The distal extremity of the bag had 
a cork stopper, by taking out which the bile collected in it could be removed. 
The operation was performed in the usual manner on a healthy dog of middle 
size, weighing 9-250 kilogrammes, on the 18th of June, 1853. The common 
duct was first tied close to the duodenum, and again half an inch from the 
gut. The portion between the two ligatures was then excised. Although 
after the operation the dog was exhausted, and vomited its food more than 
once, on the following day he appeared to be quite well. The bile flowed 
freely through the canula until July 1st, when it ceased. Anol,her and 
wider canula, with a broader border, was then inserted. This also, sub- 
sequently, was so forced forwards by the cout'action of the wound that no 
bile could flow, and the canida was withdrawn. The apparatus fii-st in- 
serted was then employed, and answered perfectly, as the canula was firmly 
fixed in its place by the wound healing over it ; so that not a drop of bile 
escaped at its edges. From the 1 8th of June until the 6th of July, the dog 
wasted on bread, milk, flesh, and potatoes. It lost 375 grammes in weight 
during this period, without any perceptible derangement of digestion. The 
ffeces were pultoceous, without any trace of bUe-pigment, had a putrid 
odoiu", and contained a considerable quantity of fat, but no trace of mascular 
fibre. To prevent him from licking the bile he was muzzled. From July 
6th to August 2nd he was fed entirely on flesh. From the 6th to the 9th 

* Zur Pliysiologie der Galle, 4to, Mainz, 1854. 



193 



REPORT 1868. 



of July he ate daily 500 grammes of fat flesh. During this period the fteces 
•were like clay, soft, and contained a quantity of fat. The weight of the 
body diminished rapidlj*, so that on the Sth it was 8-203 kilogrammes, and 
on the 9th 7' 750 kilogTammcs. He was then lean, but lively, and had 750 
grammes of flesh, pretty free from fat, divided into three portions, which he 
ate morning, midday, and evening. During the period he lived on flesh his 
hair fell out largely, and could easily be pulled out in tufts without causing 
pain. There was also a large development of gas in tlie intestines, Mith 
borborygmi and liquid faeces. About the 20th of July they assumed their 
natural consistence, and were brown externally, though of an ash-colour in- 
ternally. Each time the fistulous opening was interfered with or irritated, 
the faeces became softer and more liquid, and their odour more cadaverous ; 
while, when consistent, it was less penetratingly putrid. From August 3rd 
to September 1st, the food consisted of old rye-bread, of which there was 
consumed, on an average, daily 470 grammes, and was commenced because 
the dog refused all animal food. During this period its weight increased to 
8 kilogrammes, the emaciation disappeared, and the falling off of the hair 
diminished. Indeed the hair in a few mouths grew abundantly, so that it 
presented a black shining coat, as before the operation. The appetite re- 
turned, and he ate greedily. The digestion was good ; the fieces of firm 
consistence, of a yellowish-grey colour, like that of the bread, and less offen- 
sive than when he was fed on flesh. Their quantity also was increased as 
throe to two. Their average daily weight was 320 grammes ; whereas, when 
fed on flesh, it was 210 grammes. He also drank more. When the diet was 
bread, he drank daily the average quantity of 450 cubic centimetres ; when 
fed on flesh, only 340 cubic centimetres. 

The quantity of bile secreted on the average, when fed upon 750 grammes of 
flesh and upon 470 grammes of rye-bread, is shown in the following Table : — 



Daily food. 


Weight of 
dog. 


Bile secreted 
daily. 


Bile solids 
daily. 


Bile secreted 
daily per kilo. 


Bile secreted 
hourly p. kil. 


75ogrms.flesh. 

470 grms. rye- 
bread. 


775okilogs. 
7-812 kilogs. 


90-295 grms. 
63-024 grms. 


2-892 grms. to 
3-056 grms. 

1-662 grm. to 
2-634 grms. 


11-65 grms. 
8-067 grms. 


0-486 grm. 
0-336 grm. 



From hourly observations it appears that the largest quantities of bile were 
secreted during the first hours after getting food ; drinking water also in- 
creased the secretion. The dog caught cold September 1st, and died Septem- 
ber 3rd, from peritonitis. On September 4th the body of the animal weighed 
7"512 kilogrammes. On dissection, it was found that where the ductus com- 
munis choledochus had been cut out, a new one three lines long was formed, ' 
having on one side of it a small collection of pus containing the ligatures. 
It was therefore believed that in a short time the common duct would have 
been reestablished. Eound the plate of the canula a newly formed mucous 
membrane was discovered, continuous with the gaU-bladder. 

The following are the more important conclusions di-awn by Arnold from 
the whole inquiry (p. 19) : — 1. Cutting off the bile from the intestines, if a 
sufficiently increased quantity of food can be digested, is not injurious to an 
animal. For two dogs of the same weight, one with and the other without 
fistula, the first will require five-eighths more flesh or three-fifths more bread 
than the second. 2. The quantity of bile secreted is influenced by the 
quantity and quality of the food. A dish of bread gives rise to a less secre- 
tion of bile than one of flesh. 3. From experiments on dogs with biliary 



ON THE ACTION OV MERCURY ON THE BILIAIIY SECRETION. 193 

fistula!, iu cousequeuce of the increased diet they require, no conclusion can 
he drawn as to the quantity of bile likely to be secreted in healthy dogs 
iu proportion to the amount of food they take. 4. The quantity of bile 
secreted in proportion to the weight of the animal is estimated too highly 
by Bidder and Schmidt, and also by ISTasse ; because all animals with 
biliary fistula) retjuire much more than their ordinary food to keep up their 
usual weight, while the quantity of diet influences the amount of bile 
secreted. 5. Besides food, the drinking of water considerably increases the 
secretion of bile. 0. The nature of the food does not much influence the 
solid constituents of bile. Arnold admits, however, that in this respect 
Basse's observations may be more accurate than his own. 7. The secretion 
of bile, apart from the influence that it exerts on the absorption of fat, plays 
an important part in the process of nutrition. 8. In Arnold's dog the biliary 
secretion was most copious during the first hours after taking food. After 
the fourth hour it began to diminish until the twenty-fourth hour, when it 
was least, but the diminution was not regular. His manner of collecting it. 
however, like that of Bidder and Schmidt, is objectionable, viz. at varying 
periods of fifteen minutes, half an hour, and an hour. Instead, therefore, of 
determining how much bile flowed in twenty-four hours, this was made to 
appear by multiplying so many times the half-hour or hour collections. 

KoLLiKEE and Mitllee* made some experiments on the bile during the years 
1853 and 1854, of which they published an account in the "Wurzburg Ab- 
handlungen for 1855. They succeeded in establishing biliary fistula) in 
three dogs. For one kilogramme of dog, they found in twenty-four hours — - 



Hours after food. 


Fresh bile. 


Dry residue. 


No. of ob.servations. 


Ito 2 

3 to 5 

6 to 8 

16 to 22 


1-450 
1-407 
1-514 
1-320 


0-051 
0-047 
0-048 
0-051 


8 
5 

8 

7 



Another dog gave the largest quantity four to five hours after feeding, 
and least after nineteen to twenty-one hours. A third dog gave the 
maximum five to six hours after a meal, and not much less after sixteen or 
seventeen hours. They found, as other observers had done, that the quantity 
of food consumed has a decided influence on the quantity of the biliary 
secretion. When, for example, a dog ate 18i ounces of flesh in twenty-four 
hours, the bile collected amounted from 5-3 to 6-6 grammes in an hour, but 
when it ate 33| ounces of flesh, it was increased from 7-5 to 7-8 grammes. 
It is important to observe that the calculations of XoUikcr and Miiller, like 
those of Bidder and Schmidt, were derived from collections of bile made 
during a quarter of an hour, half an hour, and occasionally one hour, and 
the amount per day was estimated from the averages of these. In no case 
was it collected continuously for twenty-four hours. 

ScoxT t. — Dr. Scott appears to have been the first who collected aU the bile 
secreted by a dog during twenty-four consecutive hours. We must refer to his 
paper for a description of the method he adopted for collecting it, and for the 
account he gives of his interesting and carefully conducted experiments and 
analyses. He avoided the error hable to occur in calculating the amount of 
bile secreted in twenty-four hours from quantities obtained during a part only 
of that period. Ho estimated the araonnt of fresh bile given off" in twenty- 
four hours at about 23-15 grammes ; of dried residue at l"l3 per kilogramme. 

* Wiirzburg Abbandlungcn fiir 1855, Band V. t B-ale's ' Arcliive« ' vol i 

1808. ■' ■ ■ 



194 



REPORT 1868. 



Dalton*. — Dr. Dalton of Nc-^v York attempted to ascertain the amount of 
bile whicli passed into the duodenum from the choledic duct by means of a 
duodeual fistiila. But as in this manucr it is obviously impossible to deter- 
mine the amount of the entire quantity given off by the liver, no account of 
his researches need be given. 

Flint f. — The last experimenter we need cite is Dr. Flint of New York. 
As his object, however, was rather to ascertain the amount of cholesterine 
secreted by the liver, than to determine the quantity of biliary secretion, he 
does not g'ive us much information on this point. In one dog the bile was 
collected for thirty minutes at a time during various periods of the day, and 
was found to be secreted at its maximum four hours, and at its minimum 
twenty hours, after feeding. The dog weighed 10 pounds ; and there were 
collected, in the twenty-four hours, 243-233 grains— an amount which gives 
an index of the quantity secreted during that period. He further says that, 
disregarding slight variations, which might be accidental, it may be stated in 
general terms that the maximum flow of bile from the liver is from the 
second to the eighth hour after feeding, during which period of time it is 
about stationary. 

We here subjoin a Table containing the results of the experiments of 
different physiologists who have investigated the subject of the biliary secre- 
tion. "With the exception of the results of those of Dr. Flint and Dr. Scott, 
the Table, of which the arrangement is slightly changed, is taken from 
Canstatt's Jahresbericht for the year 1863, No. 1. p. 141. The weight is 
given in grammes. 





Amount of bile se- 1 




Quantity of bile 




crcted in 


24 hours 




secreted in 


24 hours 




per kilogramme 


Food taken in 24 hours 


for 100 grammes 


Names of observers. 


weight 


of dog. 


per kilogramme -weight 
of dog. 


of food. 




Fresh 


Dry 


Fresh 


Dry 




bile. 


residue. 




bile. 


residue. 


Nasse, 1851 


19-2 


0-685 


155 flosh 


12-3 


0-440 




22-8 


0-700 


208 „ 


11-1 


0-337 




2.31 


0-784 


260 „ 


8-9 


0-300 




24-0 


0-7(15 


At -n-ill 




... 




28-4 


0-760 


)) 








17-7 


0-440 


100 flesh and 100 br. 




... 




17-0 


0-400 


130 „ 100 „ 




... 




12-2 


0-500 


87 bread 


i'3-9 


0-575 


Bidder and Schmidt, 


15-9 


0-8-10 


32-4 flesh, 17 fat 


49-3 


2-608 


1852. 


lfi-7 


0-696 


17-8 „ 7-8 milk 


83-5 


3-48 




24-5 


1-176 


79-5 „ 8-3 bread 


25-7 


1-23 




28-7 


1-268 


66-4 ., 8-5 „ 


35-1 


1-54 


Arnold, 1851-57 ... 


iro 


0-373 


96 flesh 


120 


0-385 




8-1 


0-215 


60 bread 


13-4 


0-357 


Kollikcr and Midler, 


S2-7 


1034 






... 


1853. 


32-f. 


1-290 


98 flesh 








20-1 


1-013 


'.)'2 


28-i36 


1-694 




21-5 


0-748 


94 1 


22-85 


0-792 




36-1 


1-162 


64 „ 


56-50 


1-816 




53-6 


1-083 


94 „ 


50-7 


1-79 




321 




37-9 bread, 90 cubic 
centimcti'cs of milk 






SnoU, 18.58 


23-11 
11-88 


1-128 
0-440 


58-7 flesh, 10-3 milk 


35'b 


I'o' 


Flint, 1802 





4 



* Physiology, p. 190, 3rd edit. 

t American Journal of Medical ftciences, vol. sliv. p. 3G6. 



ON THE ACTION OF MERCURY ON THE BILIARY SECRETION. 195 

2. Previous llesearclies to determine the Influence exercised hy Mercury on 

the Biliary Secretion. 

Nasse*. — Professor H. ]!^asse was the first who attempted to ascertain, bj' 
experiment oa the dog with biliary fistula, the influence of mercury on the 
secretion of bile. It is stated in Canstatt that the result of his experiments 
was that calomel increased the absolute quantity of the bile, but diminished 
its solid constituents. 

KoLLiKEE and Muller administered to one of their dogs, which had biliary 
fistula, 4 grains of calomel at ten o'clock on the morning of the 2Sth. Pive 
lialf-hour observations made after midday gave an average of 3-823 grammes 
of bile excreted, an amount a little above that of previous a-s-erages. On the 
following day, however, four half-hour observations gave on an average 
3-267 grammes, — that is, rather less than the usual average. 

On the 21st and 29th days the dog took again 4 grains of calomel, but the 
biliary secretion, instead of increasing, diminished. Seven observations of 
half an hour each, from the 2Sth to the 31st day, gave an average of only 
2-183 grammes, and the bile at the same time was of a brownish colour, and 
so thick that at last it scarcely dropped from the canula. This circumstance 
was undoubtedly owing to the dog's health, which was bad. It had lost 
weight, had diarrhoea, greyish- coloured and oven later bloody stools. For 
several days at this period the animal took only a little bread and milk. 

Dr. MosLERt, in his investigations, proposed to himself the question, 
" What substances introduced into the blood appear in the bile ? " In some 
of the experiments a solution of the substance to be tried was injected into 
the blood, in others the medicine was given by the mouth, and the bile 
afterwards tested, to ascertain if it contained any trace of the substance ad- 
ministered. With regard to mercury, he teUs us that on the 23rd of May, 
at seven o'clock a.m., 5 grains of calomel in a little bread and milk were 
given to a dog, who had a completely healed biliary fistula. AB. the bile 
secreted till three o'clock p.m. was collected by means of a sponge and tested 
for mercury, but }iot the slightest trace of it could be discovered. At four 
o'clock P.M. 10 grains of calomel were administered to the same animal, and for 
greater accuracy a small tube with a caoutchouc bag attached was introduced 
into the fistula, and kept there till next morning. No trace of mercury was 
found in the collected bile, and no striking increase of the biliary secretion 
was remarked. After this experiment the animal was dull, ate less than 
usual, and had thin very oifensive stools. To make a trial of the drug in 
smaller doses. Dr. Mosler gave the same animal one grain of calomel every 
hour from the 2.5th to the 26 th of May, so that altogether 25 grains of 
calomel were given ; no trace of mercury could be found in the collected 
bile. To another powerful dog with biliary fistula he gave, on the 19th of 
August, at_ nine o'clock, three pills, each containing 3 grains of calomel. 
Kext morning at six o'clock a.m., three similar pills were given, and at nine 
o'clock two more— so that the dog had 30 grains of calomel in eighteen hours. 
The bile discharged from the fistula was carefully collected by a sponge, 
from three o'clock on August 11th till the same" hour on .August 12th.' 
Compared with the quantity collected during twent}--four hours on the day 
previous to that of the experiment, there was no striking increase of bile, 
nor did it contain any trace of mercury. He repeated this experiment with 
24 grains of calomel with the same negative result. Dr. Mosler concludes 

* Cantsatt's Jabresbei-icLt, 18.32, Heft. i. p. 156. 
t Virchow's ' Arobiy,' Band xiii. S. 29 (1S5S), 

p2 



19G REPORT — 18G8. 

from tlieso experiments tliat, wlicn mercury is administered in tlic form of 
calomel, either in small or large doses., it docs not pass so rapidly into the 
bile, nor produce the marked increase of the biliary secretion that medical 
men imagine. It is much to be regretted that Dr. Mosler did _ not measure 
the bile passed during these experiments, which would have given far more 
value and precision to his observations. 

gcoTT.^The only other experiments made to determine the influence of 
mercurial preparations or, rather, of calomel on the biliary secretion with 
which we are acquainted are those of Dr. Scott, who deserves great credit 
for the careful and scientific manner in which he has carried them out. 
We shall have occasion, however, to indicate some circumstances which 
seem clearly to show that they must be regarded rather as valuable contri- 
butions to aid us in determining the influence of calomel on the biliary 
secretion than as data which, of themselves, warrant any definite conclusion ; 
indeed Dr. Scott himself has fully admitted the truth of this remark. Dr. 
Scott made four trials -with calomel, in which he estimated the amount of 
increase of the biliary secretion by taking the average of two days previous 
and of two days subsequent to its administration. 

In the first trial 3 grains of calomel were given to the dog at three o'clock 
P.M. on the 13th of June*. The daily average amount of bile secreted on 
the 11th and 13th of June was 1960 grains, and that of bile secreted on 
the 14th and loth, 1358 grains, showing an average diminution of 602 
grains for each of the two days subsequent to the administration of the 
calomel. 

In the second trial 6 grains of calomel were administered at eleven o'clock 
A.M. on the 16th of Juncf. The amount of bile secreted during twenty-four 
hours, and collected on the morning of the 16th, was 1639 grains, and of 
that secreted during the subsequent twenty-four hours, and collected on the 
17th of June, was 518 grains, indicating a diminution of 1121 grains in the 
biliary secretion during twenty-four hours after the administration of the 
calomel. 

In the third trial 12 grains of calomel were given at 4.30 p.m. on the 
3rd of July, the average daily secretion of bile for two previous days (2nd 
and 3rd of July) amounting to 3044 grahis, and that for the two subsequent 
days (4th and 5th of July) to 2720 grains, showing a diminution of 324 
grains on the average daily quantity of bile secreted after the administration 
of the calomel. 

In the last trial 12 grains of calomel were given at 5.45 p.m. on July 7th ; i 
the daily average amount of biliary secretion on the two preceding days (the I 
6th and 7th) being 2658 grains, and on the 8th and 9th July being 1724 ^ 
grains, showing a diminution of 934 grains in the daily average quantity of 
bile secreted after the administration of the calomel. 

AVe subjoin a Table of the daily amount of fresh bUe collected for several 
days, in order that our subsequent remarks may be intelligible to the reader. 
The " t " before the dates iudicates the days on which calomel was ad- 
ministered. 

* The bile secreted during twenty-four Lours was always collected on the morning of 
the day indicated. Tlie amount obtained on June 12th was not used in calculating an 
average, as a considerable quantity was lost in collecting it. 

t The amount of bile collected on the 1.5th was not used in making an average, pro- 
bably because Dr. Scott supposed the secretion of the previous twenty-four hours was still 
under the influence of the calomel. 



ox THE ACTION 01' MERCURY ON THE BILIARY SECRETION. 197 



Amount of Bile secreted in Ttventy-four Hours, in Grains. 



June 11 162800 

„ 12 1767-700 

t„ 13 2293-527 

., 14 1810-636 

„ 15 896-680 

t„ 16 1639-968 

„ 17 518-701 

„ 18 1810-450 

„ 19 817-717 



July 1 2168-051 

,. 2 2941-239 

t„ 3 3148-400 

„ 4 2560-300 

„ 5 2881-500 

„ 6 2644-300 

t„ 7 2673-900 

„ 8 1963-500 



Dr. Scott concluded that all the trials gave but one result, viz, " a dimi- 
nution in the amount of bile and bile solids secreted after the administration 
of large doses of calomel." We are of opinion, ho-wever, that the diminution 
is not nearly so groat as he has made it appear ; thus, for example, if in the 
first trial we set aside the results of June 12th (as Dr. Scott has done), and 
only take the amount of bile secreted during the t-vrenty-four hours previous 
and subsequent to the administration of calomel (as Dr. Scott has done in 
the second trial), the amount of decrease will be considerably less than he 
has calculated it to be. 

Again, if we take the average amount of bile collected during two days 
pre^-ious and two days subsequent to the administration of the second dose 
of calomel, the result will be very different from what Dr. Scott's calcula- 
tions make it. Instead of a diminution of 1121 grains, it will amount only 
to 104 grains ; and we must not overlook the fact that on the day when the 
calomel was administered the dog did not get any food. 

Dr. Scott does not mention at what hour of the morning the bile was 
collected. If we suppose it was collected at 10 o'clock a.m., twenty-three 
hours would thus be left for the action of the calomel, which was ad- 
ministered at 11 o'clock A.M. on the preceding day. It might be said that 
the action of the calomel would not be exhausted in that time, and that we 
ought not, therefore, to admit the collection of bile of the loth into the cal- 
culation for obtaining a daily average amount on the two days previous to the 
administration of the calomel. On June ISth, however, the second day after 
the second administration of calomel, the amount of biliary secretion increased 
from 518 grains on the 17th to 1810 grains on the 18th, 171 grains more 
than the quantity secreted on the 16th, a day on wliich calomel could not 
have had any influence on the amount. Consequently we must conclude 
that the influence of the calomel did not extend, in this case, to the second 
day after its administration ; or, if it did, it was not to diminish, but to in- 
crease very largely the secretion. Up to the present time we know little or 
nothing of the duration of the action of a dose of calomel on the biliary secre- 
tion ; so that we have no reason to assign a period of two days, ratlier than 
of one or of three, as the duration of its action. It would be to ascribe in 
the one case an increase and in the other a diminution to the same cause ; 
that is, the action of the mercury on the second day after its administration. 
In short, the number of Dr. Scott's observations are far too few, and not 
sufficiently long continued, to allow us to draw any definite conclusions 
fi-om them. 

It miist, I think, be evident, from this notice of all that has been previously 
accomplished, that no exact information has yet been obtained as to the in- 
fluence of mercury on the secretion of bile, or as to any other action it may 
exercise on the liver. 



198 REPOBT— 1868. 

Description op the Mode of operating for BniARr Fistul^e and of 

COLLECTING THE BiLE PRACTISED BY THE COMMITTEE. 

All the operations were performed by Dr. W. Eutherford, who ultimately 
succeeded in overcoming the great difficulties which presented themselves. 
The propriety of collecting the bUe for a period of at least twenty-four hours 
at a time was considered incumbent to avoid error, a proceeding which caused 
great trouble and constant failures ; it was considered necessary, however, 
in order to avoid the obvious fallacies into which all previous experimenters, 
with the exception of Dr. Scott, had fallen. In now giving a detailed de- 
scription of the method followed, the Committee are of opinion that they 
wlU save future experimenters much of that trouble and mortification which, 
from want of experience, they themselves encountered. It will be regarded 
as more valuable in consequence of the modifications Avhich have been intro- 
duced having led to a far greater amount of success than has attended the 
efforts of other physiologists. 

1. Operation for estahlisldng Biliary Fistulas. 

1. Place the animal under the influence of chloroform, taking care to 
administer it slowly with an abundant admixtiu'c of air. 

2. Open the peritoneal cavity by an incision extending from the xiphoid 
cartilage to the umbiHcus. Before opening the peritoneum, all bleeding 
should be stopped. 

3. Make an incision through a non-vascular part of the omentum, to the 
same extent as the external wound. 

4. Find the gall-bladder and seize the most prominent part of its fundus 
with artery forceps. See if the fundus can be brought to the linea alba 
without subjecting it to any tension. If it can, proceed with the operation. 
If it cannot, judging from the experience of the Committee, it is better to 
abandon the operation altogether, as the dragging of the gall-bladder will 
almost certainly give rise to peritonitis, or such irritation as will prevent ad- 
hesion of the fundus to the cut edges of the linea alba. 

5. Find the common bile-duct ; draw the duodenum gently downwards and 
towards the left side of the animal, and the liver upwards and to the right, so 
as to stretch the duct. 

6. "With a blunt-poi]itcd bistoiuy make an incision about one-eighth of an 
inch in length along the duct about its middle ; gently isolate it with the point 
of an aneurism needle, pass the aneurism needle with a double strong silk 
ligature round the duct, and tie it in two places, at a suflscieut distance from 
each other to allow of the duct being simply divided between them. After 
division of the duct cut the ligatures close. 

7. Observe at what part of the hnea alba the fundus can be most easily 
retained. Pass a curved needle with a silk ligature through the skin, linea 
alba, and gaU-bladdcr on either side of the fundus, so as to stitch the gall- 
bladder to the linea alba, and retain it there. 

8. Make a slit by means of a sharp-pointed bistoury in the most prominent 
part of the fundus, and allow the bile to flow out, taking care to hold a sponge 
at the side of the opening to prevent, as much as possible, the entrance of bile 
into the peritoneal cavity. With the same view, the animal should be turned 
on its side before the opening is made in the gall-bladder. This opening 
should be just large enough to admit easily a piece of india-rubber tubing about 
two lines in diameter. 



ON THE ACTION OF MERCURY ON THE BILIARY SECRETION. 199 

9. Introduce a portion of india-rubber tubing of the above calibre into the 
apertiu-e in the gall-bladder, put a silk suture through it, and fasten it to the 
ligatures holding the fundus to the linea alba, in order that the tube may be 
kept from coming out. 

10. Close the wound in the abdomen by interrupted sutures, placed deeply 
in the hnea alba, and then connect the edges of the skin in the same way. 
The skin should not be closed completely around the tube, but should be left 
open for an inch or so, in order that blood may be prevented from accumulating. 

11. The projecting extremity of the tube should be cut within a quarter of 
an inch from the abdominal wall, in order that when the dog lies on its face 
there may be less danger of closing the tube by its being bent upon itself. 

.12. The tube should be removed at the end of forty-eight hours or so, for 
then adhesions will in most cases have taken place between the gaU-bladder 
and linca alba, which the continued pressure of the tube would only tend to 
break up. The dogs operated upon by the Committee were never kept 
muzzled after the operation, and no dog ever interfered with the elastic tube. 

13. The operation should always be performed when the stomach is empty, 
for if distended it is a most serious impediment to the operator. Very soft 
sponges, perfectly freed from all sandy particles, should be used, and the 
greatest care should be taken to prevent hairs from getting inside the peri- 
toneum. 

14. In male dogs the urine is apt to be discharged into the wound during 
the operation, and against this the operator must carefully be on his guard. 

15. Great care should be taken to prevent bleeding into the peritoneal 
cavity. Any accumulation of blood inside the abdomen gives rise almost 
certainly to ])eritonitis. In aU cases a little bile escaped into the peritoneum, 
but it seemed to produce no inji;rious effect. 

16. The ligatures around the common bile-duct usually become eucj'sted. 
The wound almost always heals by first intention ; this union is very rarely 
permanent in the cutaneous wound, however ; commonly pus is formed be- 
tween the skin and the wound in the linea alba. When such is the case, 
sutures must be removed from the cutaneous wound to give free exit to the 
purulent matter. No lotions or other dressings are necessary for the wound. 
The bile as it flows over it forms au excellent dressing, under which healthy 
granulation proceeds, in most cases with rapidity. 

17. Por two days after the operation the animal should be fed on milk, 
given in small quantities at a time, so that the abdomen may not be distended. 

The above mode of performing the operation differs from those described 
by other operators in two particulars : — 1. The mode of fixing the fundus of 
the gall-bladder to the abdominal wall. Bernard recommends a clamp to fix 
the fundus to the edges of the wound, and act as a canula also. 2. In the 
non-removal of any portion of the common bile-duct. Other operators re- 
commend that two ligatures be applied to the common duct, one close to the 
duodenum, the other close to the junction of the cystic Mith the hepatic duct, 
and that the intervening portion should be excised. The object is to prevent 
as much as possible the reestablishment of the duct, a contingency which 
appears to have been very liable to occur in the experience of other observers. 
The shock produced by cleaning and removing the whole duct is very great, 
owing to the extensive injury of the sympathetic nerves ; and the danger from 
hoDmorrhage is most serious. 

Since the removal of any portion of the common bUe-duct has been aban- 
doned, the success attending the operations of the Committee has been un- 
precedented. In only two out of the thirty-three dogs operated on has the 



200 iiEroRT— 18G8. 

common bile-duct become rccstablisbcd ; in one of tbese nearly tlic whole duct 
had been excised, in the other the duct had simply been divided between the 
two ligatures. 

The experience of the Committee has shown that young dogs arc not suitable 
for the operation, only fidl-c/rcwn stronr/ good-tempered dogs of any breed 
should be selected. Had the Committee been aware of this precaution, their 
success as regards the number of useful fistulse might have been greater even 
than it has been. 

2. MetJwcl of collecting the Bile. 

The collection of the bile maj' be begun usually Avithin a fortnight after 
the operation, as soon indeed as the fistula can bear the daily pressure of a 
silver canula. Before its insertion into the fistula, it is well to wait until 
the whole of the wound except the fistulous opening is completely healed. 
During the healing process, the fistula must be kept patent by the daily 
passage of a glass rod, which serves admirably the purpose of a bougie ; for 
notwithstanding the flovr of the bile, the canal has a great tendency to close. 

The great difficulty which the Committee have had to overcome, has been 
the daily collection of bile for a period of twenty-four hours. The following- 
apparatus, devised by Drs. Euthcrford and (iamgee, has been found to accom- 
plish the end perfectly. 

The canula iised was that of Scott (Beale's Archives, vol. i. p. 210), with 
the cup removed, and the holes in the tube filled up. The Committee found 
that in the very first case in which they used Scott's canula, the cup failed 
to fit the skin accurately, and soon produced ulceration by its pressure. 
They have found that there is no need for providing for an escape of bile 
along the side of the canula, provided ix perfectly free exit be allowed throucfh 
it. The canula was retained in the fistula by elastic bands attached to it, 
and passed round the body of the dog. These bands were fastened to each 
other by hook^^ and eyes, which permit of their easy removal and adjustment. 
Scott collected the bile in a bottle. It appeared to the Committee that an 
clastic bag tied on the free end of the canula would be less apt to be damaged 
by the movements of the animal. They found, however, that a much more 
satisfactory method is to collect the bile flowing from the canula by means of 
a large sponge. In this way no nsistance is oft'ered to the flow of bile through 
the canula — such as is apt to occur when the bag is UFcd, by its folding over 
the free end of the tube. This acted as a valve, which resisted the feeble 
pressure with v,-hich the bile flowed tlirough the fistula. 

The sponge was placed in a tin box, fixed round an oval opening on the 
abdominal aspect of a thick gutta-percha shield, which extended from the 
fore legs to a little behind the umbilicus. The shield was made to fit accu- 
rately the body, so that it might have no tendency to turn round when the 
animal lay down. It embraced three-fourths of the circumference of the body, 
and the one side of it was connected M'itli the other over the animal's back by 
means of leather straps with buckles. Between the back and these, a soft 
leather saddle was placed to prevent ulceration by their pressure. With the 
same view a flat bag filled with air was placed between the shield and the 
sternum, and a piece of thick-walled india-rubber tubing an inch or so in 
diameter, was placed between the skin and the posterior part of the shield. 
To this the bag and tube were both immoveably fixed. 

The shield tends to slip backwards, owing to the pyramidal shape of the 
body of the animal. To prevent this, a leather collar must be placed loosely 
round the neck, and the anterior edge of the shield fixed to it by thick twine 







t Transactions of Mccl. and Piiys. Society, Bombay," 1841, p. 11. 



r 



T./^„Xl.i 










TABIJi 1.- 


-SlIllWlNl 


THK UJNSTITI'TIUSAI, EFKK(TN or MKIICIIHY i»N SIX U008. 
















Dooa WTTIIOITT BlUART FlSTDl-B. 


DooB vmrt Bilubv Fiwdlji. 


»»l-ll«H™r. E™il..J4.*!M3>Hta. 


1 Jk>g B— CoUie. S monlhi old. ircighl 181 Ibn- 


Dog C-Skjt IKniw. 10 monlli. oM. inriglrt 3** Ihi- 


Dog D-Youne Botriarer. raontba old, weight 11* Ib^ 


Dog E— Bull-dog 2 7C4rs old, weight Sflj lb». 


1 Dog F-Collio, 18 montliB old. weight 37 Ite. j 




-Ixxmiof 






.Amount of 






Amount of 






Amount of 






Aniouiit of 






Amount of 




B^ 




EffiM.. 


DV*. 


OOTPOsiW 


EO-eete. 


D-j.. 




Bdhcto. 


Daj* 




E1IW.. 


Day*. 




EIToet*. 


Dayn. 








P««. 






^nm. 






giw,. 






giTen, 






glTWl. 












1 AaflMl a (neUaiit hoJlh: 






T "mid o iSr l" loJuT 












Animnl in rather «mk; 












Animal ia in eioellunt henllh. 






fam c< ■ Uri.t-|»t>m> 






f«a soUd, brtHm. 






huM mIuI, light broini. 






fiwcsclaj-colour-jil. 






fa'cva doj-culoiiml. 






coloured. 


U^. 




S.d»4. 


ladiT. 


10 g^. 


KodiMge. 


,-d.,. 


■30e>«in, 


No chaogo. 


latdny. 


l^i grain 
Howt. witli 


Twmtj liaur» after the DmI 


1 lot day. 
! 2d .. 




4 groin. 


No Phange. 


M .. 


,3"^ 




3d - 


■10 .. 






M „ 


■w ., 




3d „ 


'GO „ 






of moeiia was obwrTod. 






































■>0 Lour.' 


4tU „ 




i „ 
















I ah ;. 










"'SSS""- 




interral ho- 








S „ 










all . 




















dowil wuobMCTcdtobo 


(llh „ 




s .. 








Appotitu mueh impairvd. 


TA . 


■«> _ 




Tlh .. 










Slight diorrlNBai £«<• 












3 .. 










eu . 


SO . 


Cehut a Sten cbuigi^ to [I ftUi „ 




Colnur of (Ma changed 












in a itato oC eonitant ln>- 






2 .. 














. mr d-rk bmwn. 














mor, and •tnggcnrd iu at- 
temntinc to walk. Liauid 
fn«4 o7 a o1a}-.<»rm.r 






B „ 






Ho inoreury 


FcEtid brcntli. Saliralion. 














glTcn. 
















giTon. 






0th.. 


Ko nerouiy. 






So mcdicino 


PrafuM uliration. Bnath 








3 „ 










11?^ - 


ras .. . .. „ 1 


ilhrnin 

iDorpR. mur. 

pvcn. 


^o». 






TWT fiplid. Slight naial 






nuxnl iriUi btond ware 












lAk . 


4o : : : :: | 








fiMCB brown. 






na>anl. Naml ditchaive 


13ih „ 


4'5 „ 


Appetilo impalrod. Brontli 






formed in tho skin vrhcro 






.. n loih ., 




Dmrhoo prorofe: &Nca 

f"r.r«,n tlocJ. Slielil 




«)p.in. - 














Slightnonldiwhar^o. Pro- 




















Deg found Iring in the 






frelor of brmtli. 




Biwn. 
















tin*, opii 








mliio Uoiring from lU 
mouth. BrffllStcij-f"*"!- 






Sog found d«d thirtj->ii 






of nlivn flowing from llm 




















































DorrluEi prufuK; tiettt of 










wasgiven, Weielit ] 1 lb,. 
(Sec Dog fi, TabTo DL) 












Nasal dii^bargo and aali- 

Blood in fiiw. which arc 

Bomitolid and of a alalc- 


ITIh . 


tiBcb dpi IwwnitJ nllinr. 




totf. opu 


■ •l»ls-hroira TOlmir. 
XiwI dwlmrgv more 
•bunJint Dccidtd 
Bid i™ lion, Gum» un- 
ch«nscd. 






tho nde of the toDguc 
and on the made of the 
lipi. Tha u)«™ h.Tc a 






151h ,. 




offtclny-oolour. 
Died during tlie night. 
Weightaijlbi. 










I2ili ,. 




















ttlh ,. 








i»cl.<pL 


r^^t ^1 CW (IVI ■ uf<iV A. 












blood Dog died in tho 




























































(J>»n OD prorious day. 






Tulnoiu. Weieht:>Ijlb» 






















SaltniHn ; not prorusn. 
































































SlJriil olowation under 


































fD«rna(toD^ue. TonguB 






tikeudmo^lnorood. 


































Fauaddnd- Weight IJ^IIh. 






























nmeisoa of nim. Pro- | 










































































































pror«. FtoM Ouid. 
































































ua> . 




Dc<f™dlj™;a»d. with 
floia on Ihe Boot of Ibe 


































o^ wHA Ud trridfntlj 1 
































amrrd bam id moath. 


































































W«f:bi S lbs 


t 




























t\ gralnn. prm (luring a period of 8 daj» 


7J gnlM. giion during n pcFfiod of D daj"- 


1# gmin. p-ren during 1 day. j i,,j g„,„,, ^^^^ j^.^^ „ ^^^-^j ^^ ^^ ^^^ 


15^ f^iM. giTen during a period of 7 days. 




APPEARANCES FOUJ 


fl) ON DISSECTION 




■ 


SlliniT it* ri^ martin- Vumlutly of 


rilj orulifiiy e'™'" oiX "<cKucd. 


ToDguo oOTectd wild a white fur. UIodh inmdo Upt 
■m ^mt and below mofpn of tongue. VascidoriU 
of mUnrj glands not incroisul. 


Nothing abnorma] in llu! appcorauoo of the moulL or 
sJiTary ginndi. 


Tooguapnl 


n. Glim, ulocratcd. 


TongiiopnlnandBdomatou.. No ulMtaHon. 


StonUC& l>i*™WbydeiirlIoidlaiBnlwiaibat ConhiiE(d a q«nlitj of portullr diaadcd food. Mn- 1 
Hoaxu.nHnbruU'LHlll.r. rout ii>nDbr.w hwllhy. j 


EmpQ-. Muoouj. mnnbnme hfoltby. 


retained 

hralthj, 

3Inrk«l m 
Sliulit r« 
lalloi- ron 




Cotilniucd 
Mueou* 


.iKa:' "'""■" "'•■'"■'■• 


Ccmlainod a Inrgo qunnlilr of oolourlMs wntopj lliiid. 


1 of doBtnum. ;rjuni,m. il*oiii. ana DurlRl irilli brii;hl ml lino and pat^ (rran Dm 1 
luvc diMmt f'mill inMiv «m- 1 £,|.>ri( orifftT nf (h- Amntch In lh<f ilco-roUc wKt 


S1if;htrulnn*ofji-juni>mandilLiim, Mutowtmcm- 
tosoe of largo intortino mwW irilh bright r«l striii- 


dnr« ..f iJiat or the lareo inlnttino. Tl.o 
lomwl fiem. miinl with Uuod. 


nriglit red pnleliM on tlic duodenal and joiunul muoou. 


r«l |mldl«froiL; Ihopjlorio oriBceofthe Moran^lf li 










iS"^ ^i" '""'*""' '""''"• "'«' loiieitudinni 




Same w the [irftwtlng. 


'"SS.-'ntS""™"""™- -■'■'" -"■ 


8uno M tiio 


pnwding. 


Samo «« tho prwfding, 


*'-' ri-^-j'T^^i a^'ys^^arsL^i""— ■"-! 


Pnin™* ti-rj mwiitaf. rirpodenoiK l>«u« adwnn- 
orgMii iiurmal. 


OUiororfju 


" "'^"'■ 


^"nirSfT''".""' 8i""l!«b.c«uea„ndorlho,kin [l 


'lS^;S9-^iB 










.__ 1 















i 



I 



ON THE ACTION OF MEBCUBY ON THE CILIARY SECRETION. 201 

or leather straps with buckles. If the dog be a male, means must be taken 
to prevent the urine from reaching the sponge. This is effectually done by a 
sheet of thin india-rubber, laced round the posterior part of the shield and 
body in front of the penis, so as fairly to prevent the access of a single drop 
of urine. The Avhole apparatus was removed, washed and reapplied once 
in the twenty-four hours. The sponge was then weighed and placed in the 
shield dry. At the end of the period it Avas removed and weighed again, to 
ascertain the amount of bile. Two sponges are necessary for observations on 
a single dog, each sponge used on alternate days. They must be cleaned, 
after the collection of bile, with great care. It was found best to wash them 
in dilute hydrochloric acid, in order that they might be thoroughlydisinfected, 
for putrid matter soon produces decomposition of the bile. 

The shield should be firmly secured on the animal to prevent its being 
moved. The Committee have in only one instance found it necessary to muzzle 
a dog while it wore the apparatus. 

The dogs were kept in large cages, the lower half of the sides and entire 
floor of which consisted of sheet zinc. Th(! floor sloped to a central hole, 
through AA'hich the urine was collected. The dogs were mostly taken out to 
the open air for a few hours daily. 

Observations to beteemine how far Dogs are subject to tue action of 

Meecurt. 

The Committee had not proceeded far with their experiments, before it 
became evident that a preliminary investigation was necessary, in order to 
determine how far dogs are capable of being influenced by mercurials. Al- 
though in veterinary and other works it is admitted that this animal may 
be salivated, although Overbeck states that by means of frictions with mer- 
curial ointment he succeeded in producing marked salivation with spongy gums 
in three dogs out of five *, and Murray in his experiments with large doses of 
calomel also produced salivation in one dog t, the Committee were of opinion 
that further careful observations should be made on this j^oint. 

Accordingly great pains were taken by Dr. Gamgee to produce salivation in 
two dogs, by means of inunction of mercurial ointment, during the winter and 
spring of 18G7. The hair of the animal was shaved from the back, and daily 
frictions made with the hand on the naked skin with strong mercurial ointment. 
In one dog a drachm of the ointment was rubbed in daily for twenty-eight 
dnys, and in another for eight days. K"o marked symptoms were produced, 
nor was their health impaired. In the first of these dogs a most elaborate 
series of observations on the urine was made to determine whether that secre- 
tion was in any way influenced. These consisted of careful analyses before 
and after the inunction, but with a negative result. 

The frictions occasioned so much troiiblo and loss of time, and appeared to 
be attended with such little result, that it was resolved to adopt the more 
commodious method of subcutaneous injection of a solution of corrosive sub- 
limate. This investigation was undertaken by Dr. W. Eutherford, who car- 
ried it to a successful termination, as seen in Table I. 

It will be seen from Table I. that of the six dogs experimented on, three 
had, and three had not biliary fistulaj established. This selection was made 
with a view to ascertain whether or not the existence of a biliary fistula 
affected the action of the mercurinl. Of the six dogs, five were salivated by 

* Mereur imd Syphilis (Berlin, 18G1), pp. 110-114. 

t Transactions of Med. and Pliys, Society, Bombay, 1841. p. 11. 



202 REPORT— 1868. 

the drug ; of these, three (Dogs A, B, and C) were small dogs -without fistulcc, 
while two (Dogs E and F) were large strong dogs with fistula?. 

In dogs A and E the action of the drug upon the salivary glands was 
inferred from the occurrence of imusual wetness of the mouth merely ; while 
in dogs C, E, and F a stream of saliva was observed flowing from the mouth. 

In the thi-ee dogs without listukc — aged 5 (Dog B), 12 (Dog A), and 15 
(Dog C) months respectively, — all of them small animals, decided salivation 
followed the administration of 4^ grains of corrosive sublimate, extending 
over a period of eight daj"s, to the dog aged 5 months ; of 12i grains, extending 
over a period of eighteen days, to the dog 12 months old ; and of 7i grains, 
extending over a period of nine days, to the dog 15 months old. 

In the two large strong dogs (Dogs E and F) with bihary fistulas, much 
larger quantities of the drug were required to produce well-marked saKvation. 
19-,L grains, extending over a period of seven days, to dog F, aged 18 months, 
and 19 1 grains, extending over a period of thirteen days, to dog E, aged 24 
months. The dog which was not salivated (Dog D) was a retriever 6 months 
old, which was poisoned by 1| grain of corrosive sublimate, given in two doses 
during twenty hours. 

In all the .six dogs a discharge of mucus from the nostrils was observed 
during the administration of the drug ; in some cases it preceded, in others it 
was coincident with decided salivation. In dog D the nasal discharge was 
decided, although sahvation was not observed. 

It can hardly fail to strike anyone that the doses required to produce sali- 
vation in these dogs are much larger than those usually required in the case 
of man. The dose required in the dog is, however, perhaps not nearly so 
great as Table I. makes it appear ; for it must be remembered that a dog 
cannot, like a man, tell us when it feels unusual moisture in the mouth. '\\Tieu, 
therefore, we have noted salivation as having been produced, it has only been 
when the salivation had become very marked, giving rise to unusual wetness 
of the mouth, or to a stream of saliva flowing from it. 

In aU the dogs, excepting dog D, the appetite became much impaired, and 
the breath remarkably foetid. In dogs A, C, and E the mucous membrane of 
the mouth became ulcerated. Mere spongiuess of the gums vras never observed. 

All the dogs, with the exception of dog D, became much emaciated. During 
the very decided action of the drug, blood appeared in the fasces of all the dogs, 
excepting dog E. Profuse diaiTlioea was produced in all the dogs without 
biliary fistulfe ; it was slight in the little dog D, while it was entirely absent 
in the other two dogs with fistula;, although these, like all the other dogs, 
were kUled by corrosive sublimate. During the exhibition of the drug, the 
fasces in dog A changed from a light to dark brown, brownish yellow, and 
greenish brown ; in dog B they changed from brown to greenish brown, greenish 
yellow, and slate-brown ; while in dog C they hardly underwent any change 
in colour. In dogs D and E there was no change in the colour, whUe in dog F 
they changed from a clay to a slate-colour: this dog, like the two previous 
ones, had a biliary fistula. 

Appearances found on Dissection. 

In all the dogs the mucous membrane of the stomach was found healthy. 
In all there were numerous bright red vascular patches found on the mucous 
membrane of the small intestine, extending from the pylorus to the Ueo-colic 
valve. In dog B there were patches of lymph on the inner surface of the 
mucous membrane of the ilium. In dogs C and F this redness was most 
marked in the duodenum, but the orifice of the common bile-duct was not 
redder than the other portions of the duodenum. In all the dogs, except 



ON THE ACTION OF MERCURY ON THE BILIARY SECRETION. 203 

dog B, the mucous membraue of the large intestine was streaked with bright 
red lines running lougitiidinall_y throughout its entire length. 

In all the dogs, except dog I), there was unusual vascularity of the pan- 
creas, but in none was there anj- abnormal appearance of the salivary glands. 

In no case did the liver present any unusual appearance. 

These facts show that on the dog mercury has the same action as it exerts 
on man. 



Eesttlts of the Expeeiments made on Dogs with Biliary Fistula xo 

BETEEMINE THE ACTION OP MeECUET AS A CHOLiGOGUE. 

During the two years over which the Committee's inquiries extended, forty- 
one dogs were subjected to the operation for establishing a biliary fistula. 
Of these, four died during its performance from the effects of chloroform. In 
four others the operation was not proceeded with after opening tlie peritoneum, 
in consequence of the impossibility of bringing the fundus of the gall-bladder 
in contact with the abdominal wall. The operation was completed in thirty- 
three cases, but from various causes, which the Committee consider it unne- 
cessary to detail minutely, satisfactory observations could only be carried on 
in nine dogs. These have been numbered consecutively from one to nine, but 
it has been thought better to arrange the numerous observations made upon 
them according to the preparation of mercury employed. 

Observations ivith Pil. Hydrargyy'i, 

The first dog' (No. 1) in which a biliary fistula was successfully established 
by the Committee was a healthy retriever about eighteen months old, weighing 
18-5 kilogrammes, for which we are indebted to Mr. Nunneley of Leeds. The 
operation was perfonned on the 29th of May, 1867. The wound in the 
abdominal wall healed rapidly. Shortly after the operation the fteces became 
clay-coloured. The general health of the animal was excellent when on the 
10th of June the apparatus for collecting the bile was applied, and the obser- 
vations recorded in the following Table (Table II.) wore commenced. 

As the metrical system of weights is used in all the Tables with regard to 
everything except the doses of drugs, it may be of service to remind the 
English reader that — 

1 gramme= 15-434 grains, 28-34 grammes = 1 ounce, 1 kilogramme = 2-2 
pounds. 



Table II. — First Series of Observations on Dog 1. 
Bile secreted without Mercuiy. 



Daily amount of 



1 


2 






3 






4 






5 






6 




Date. 


1 
Weight 
of 
dog. 

1 
Kilogs. 


Amount of food, 
grammes. 


in 


Quantity of bile 

secreted in 2-1 

hours. 


For each kilo- 
gramme of dog there 
were secreted 


For each 100 

grammes of dry 

tood there were 

secreted 


Water. 


Mitt.' Bread. 

i 


Meat. 


Fluid 
bile. 


Bile 
solids. 


Bile 

salts. 


Fluid 
bile. 


Bile 
solids. 


Bile 

salts. 


Fluid 
bile. 


Bile 
solids. 


Bile 
salts. 


1367. 












grms. 


grms. 


grm. 


grms. 


grm. 


grm. 


grms. 


grms. 


grm. 


June 11. 


i 13-5 


None. 


667 


170-1 


283-5 


150-4 


»-843 


1-221 


8-12 


0-478 


0-066 


65-5 


3-S5 


0-53 


„ 12. 












125-0 


3-400 


1-355 














„ 15. 












75-7 


.5--91 


0-8.36 


409 


0-313 


0-045 


32-9 


£-52 


0-36 


„ n. 


i 


1 ., 






,^ 


121-8 


6-954 


1-230 














,. 18. 












11.5-0 


7-290 


1-345 














„ 19. 






" 






130-7 


3-4.56 


1-520 














Mean 






119-76 


7-622 


1-2.59 


6-47 


0-412 


0-068 


52-18 


3-32 


0-548 













Note. — The amount of dry food consumed daily dui-ing the above period amounted to 22-5 grammes. 
„ „ „ for each kilogramme of dog amounted to 12-3 grammea. 



204 KEPOKT— 1868. 

The above series of observations was undertaken with a view to ascertain 
the average amount of bile secreted daily previous to the administration of 
mercury to the animal. It was thought necessary to collect the bile for six 
consecutive days before calculating its average dailj- amount ; for, as is evident 
from the Table, the secretion was very inconstant. Thus on June 15th the 
quantity secreted was only about a half of wliat it was upon the 11th. 

In the above Table three days (the l^th, 14th, and IGth) have been 
omitted, owing to a portion of the bile having been lost. This resulted from 
slipping of the apparatus. Despite every care in its adjustment, it was some- 
times so 'shifted by the movements of the animal that the canula was di-aggcd 
out of the fistula, and the bile consequently lost. 

The average daily amount of bile secreted during the six days was 119-7G 
grammes of fluid bile, 7"G22 grammes of bile solids, and 1-259 gramme of 
bile salts*. The daily amount of food consumed during the whole period was 
uniform. This was due to the fact that for some daj's previous to the com- 
mencement of the bile- collections the dog was offered an excess of food ; the 
amount consumed was estimated, and this amount was given on subsequent 
days, and always entirely eaten by the animal. With a view to assimilate 
all the Tables, a column for water is introduced, although in this ease none 
was given. 

In this and all the following Tables, the amount of fluid bile, bile solids, and 
salts secreted is estimated with regard to each kilogramme-weight of the 
animal, and each 100 grammes of dry food consumed by it. In columns 5 and 
C of the foregoing Table these estimates are made on the days when the maxi- 
mum and minimum quantities of bile were secreted; and the average quantities 
given at the foot of these columns are, in this and all the subsequent Tables, 
estimated from the average quantities of columns 2, 3, and 4. Columns 5 and 
6 have a special physiological interest, and will be afterwards referred to at 
length. For the present the attention of the reader need not be directed to 
column 5, for the experience of the Committee has shown that there is no 
relation between the amount of bile secreted and the weight of the animal ; 
the relation between the amount of food consumed and the quantity of bile 
secreted is not a very close one either (as the foregoing Table is sufficient to 
show), yet in some cases it seems to be such as to render necessary its being 
taken into account when the influence of any agent upon the biliary secretion 
is under consideration f. 

During all the observations on this animal, however, the same amount of 
food was taken daily ; therefore any variation in the biliary secretion caiinot 
be ascribed to variation in the diet, so thr.t the relation between the secre- 
tion of bile and amomit of food may i)i this case for the present be disre- 
garded. 

On the 19th of Jiuie it was found necessary to discontinue the observations, 
as the pressure of the apparatus liad caused ulceration of the sldn over the 
sternum, and the fistula had assumed a vtrj' irritable appearance. The 
wound having healed, and the fistula become more healthy, the observations 
were resumed on the 28th of June, and continued for other six consecutive 
days. 

The results are given in the following Table : — 

* By the term bile salts in tliis and all subspqnent Tables is meant (lie ino)-tjrivic solids 
of the bile left aftei* its incineration. 

i' To give completeness to the Tables the absolute amomit of dry food talccn dailj" or on 
some particular day, together with the amount consumed per kilogramme of dog, has been 
given. 



ON THE ACTION OF MERCURY ON THE BILIARY SECRETION. 



205 



Table III.* — Second Scries of Observations on Dog 1. 
Bile secreted without Mercury. 



Dailj' amount of 



1 


2 






3 






4 






.5 






e 




Date. 

1867. 
June 2il. 

„ 30. 
July 1. 

,. 2. 

„ 3. 

„ ■!. 


Weight 

ot 

dog. 

Kilogs. 


Amount of food, in 
grammes. 


Quantity of bile 

sc-creted in 24 

hours. 


For eacli kilo- 
gramme of dog there 
were secreted 


For each luO 

grammes of dry 

food there were 

secreted 


Water. 

None. 


Milk. 


Bread. 


Meat. 


Fluid 
bile. 


Bile Bile 
solids, salts. 


Fluid 
bile. 


Bile 
solids. 


Bile 

salt s. 


Fluid 
bile. 


Bile 
solids. 


Bile 

salts. 


16-S 


.567 


170-1 


2S3-5 


grms. 
106-2 
148-0 
117-.5 
18-5-1 
Sl-6 
149-5 


grms. 
3-S65 

t 
4-31 
6-60 
2-il7S 
5-80 


grms. 
1-15 

t 
1-116 
2-010 
0-S24 
1-615 

1-343 


grms. 

U-01 
4-85 


grm. 

0-392 
0-177 


grm. 

0-119 
0-049 


grms. 

80-6 
35-5 


grms. 

2-87 
1-29 


grms. 

0-S7 
0-35 






131-31 


4-71 


7-82 


0-2S 


0-079 


57-21 


205 


0-58 







The amount of dry food consumed daily dm-ing the above period amounted to 229-5 grammes. 
» „ „ for each kilogramme of dog amounted to 13-6 grammes. 

* In columns 5 and 6 the maximum, minimum, and mean quantities are calculated ; the last, however, 
are estimated from the mean quantities of column 4. 
t Not determined. 

This second series of observations was again directed to ascertain the 
normal secretion of bile, in the hope that the secretion would become more 
constant ; the Table, however, shows that this expectation was not realized, 
the variation in the daily quantity of bile was indeed even greater. Owing 
to the experience gained in this experiment, all subsequent observations 
directed to ascertain the normal secretion of bile previous to the administra- 
tion of a drug were seldom prolonged beyond four or five days. 

Table III. shows that the average amount of fluid bile secreted daily 
during this series of observations was slightly above the average amount 
secreted during those in Table II. ; but it shows that there was a great 
diminution in the bile solids. The average quantity during the first series 
was 7-622 grammes, during the second series only 4-71 grammes. This 
was entirely due to a falling off in the amount of the organic constituents of 
the bile ; for the Tables show that during the second series the inorganic 
solid.s (Jjih salts) were somewhat greater in amount than Biey were during 
the first series of observations. The animal had lost weight to the extent 
of 1*7 kilogramme, but was nevertheless in excellent health generally, 
although the irritable state of the fistula rendered necessary an interrup- 
tion of the observations until the 8th of Julj^ 

As it seemed impo.ssible to obtain a better standard of comparison than 
was afforded by Table III., it was resolved to commence the administration 
of mercury. Table IV. shows the results. 

Five grains of Pil. Hydrargyri were given as one dose daily during eight 
days ; the pill was always given twenty-four liours previous to the collection 
of the bile. 

On July 11th, the apparatus having shifted, the bile escaped. On the 
other seven days, however, the collections were perfect, and the results show 
that the administration of the drug Avas accompanied by slight diminution 
(3-71 grammes) in the average quantity of fluid bile secreted daily, and a 
slight augmentation (0-45 gramme) in the average quantity of bile solids. 
This shght increase in the bile solids cannot be regarded as a proof of 
the power of blue pill to increase the biliary secretion, when the extreme 
variations of the secretion in this case arc taken into account. In favour 



206 



UEPORT 1868. 



of the idea it may, indeed, be alleged that on July 14th (Table lY.) more 
fluid and solid bile was secreted under the influence of blue pill than had 
been secreted on any day without it ; but as a counterpart to this it can 
be said that on July 17th (Table IV.) the amount of fluid and solid bile was 
less than it had ever been on any jirevious day. On the whole, therefore, 
it may be concluded that in this case there was no e^^idence that the admi- 
nistration of blue pill affected the biliary secretion. 

Table IY.* — Third Series of Observations on Dog 1. Amount of Bile secreted 
in twenty-four hours when 5 grs. of PH. Hydrargyri were given daily. 



1 


o 




3 








4 






5 






6 




Date. 


Weight 
of 

dog. 


Amount of food, in 
grammes. 


Quantity of bile 

secreted in 2i 

hours. 


For each kilo- 
gramme of dog there 
were secreted 


For each 100 

grammes of dry 

food there were 

secreted 


Kilogs. 


Water. 


Milk. 


Bread. 


Meat. 


Fluid 
bile. 


Bile 
solids. 


Bile 

salts. 


Fluid 
bile. 


Bile 
solids 


Bile 

salts. 


Fluid 
bile. 


Bile 
solids. 


Bile 

salts. 


1867. 












grms. 


grms. 


grms. 


grms. 


grm. 


grm. 


grms. 


grms. 


grm. 


July 9. 


15 


Xone. 


567 


170-1 


283-0 




















,. 10. 




„ 


,, 






; 100 


4-27 


1-10 














„ 11. 






























,, 12. 






»» 






; ^fi 


3-729 


1-023 














„ 13. 












' 170-6 


6-19 


1-74 














,. 14. 






„ 




.. 


204-0 


8 9 


2-29 


13-6 


0-39 


0-152 


8S-8 


3-52 


0-99 


„ 15. 






,) 






I 139 


5-«6 


1-52 














„ 16. 






„ 






127-6 


5-13 


l.'O 














„ 17. 






- 






67-0 


2.=!3 


0-73 


4-46 


0-19 


0-042 


29-19 


1-246 


0-31 






127-6 


5-16 


1-38 


8-.50 


0-344 


0-09 


55-6 


2-24 


0-601 







Note. — The amount of dry food consumed daily during the above i>.-r:od amounted to 229-5 grammes. 
„ „ „ for each kilogramme of dog amounted to 15-27 granunea. 

* In columns 5 and 6 the maximum, minimum, and mean quantities only are calculated. The last, however, 
are estimated from the moan quantities of column 4. 

The above-mentioned doses of blue pill did not purge the animal. 

On July 17th the observations were interrupted on account of renewed 
ulceration over the sternum by the pressure of the apparatus. At that date 
the animal Avas in excellent health. 

The observations were resumed after an interval of six days. The results 
are given in the following Table : — 



Table Y.f — Fourth Series of Obsei-vations on Dog 1 . Amount of Bile secreted 
in twenty-four hours when 5 grs. of Pil. Hydrargyri were given daily. 



1 


2 




3 








4 






.T 






6 




Date. 


Weight 
dog. 


Amount of food, in 
grammes. 


Quanty of bile 

secreted in 24 

hours. 


For each kilo- 
gramme of dog there 
were secreted 


For each 100 

grammes of dry 

food there were 

secreted 


Kilogs. 


Water. 


Milk. 


Bread. 


Meet. 


i Fluid 
1 bile. 


Bile 
solids. 


Bile 
salts. 


Fluid 
bile. 


Bib- 
solids. 


Bile 

salts. 


Fluid 
bile. 


Bile 
solids. 


Bile 

salts. 


1867. 










j grms. 


gi-ras. 


grm. 
lost. 


grms. 


grms. 


grms. 


grms. 


grms. 


grms. 


July 23. 


15 


None. 


8-46 


2?2 


225-6 


231-9 


7-5.> 














„ 24. 


,, 




„ 






! 56-7 


1-61 


lost. 














„ 2.-1. 


,, 










9."-0 


2-S6 


0-931 














., 26. 


„ 




., 


^^ 




40-1 


1-73 


lost. 














27. 






^^ 






;i8-2 


1-41 


0-443 














,. 2S 






„ 






175-0 


4- 88 


1-66 














,. 29. 


14-9 




" 


„ 


" 


C9-3 


2-C4 


0-691 













+ In this and all subsequent Tables tlie amount of medicine said to be given on any day was always given 
during the twenty-four ho'MS precions to the bile collection of the same date. 



ON THE ACTION OP MERCURY ON THE BILIARl' SECRETION. 207 



Pil. Hydrargyri was again given. Extraordinary variations occurred in 
the amount of bile obtained during its exhibition, and the quantities appear 
to show that the secretion of bile was diminished ; but they are in truth ren- 
dered valueless by the circumstance that a considerable quantity of bile was 
separated by the "kidneys, owing, most probably, to its free exit by the fistula 
having been" interfered with. The animal was never purged until July 30th, 
when it twice passed a considerable quantity of liquid fasces. Although it 
did not lose weight to any notable extent cluring the period embraced by 
Table V., its strength diminished. In order that the dog might rally, the 
observations were suspended, and a more liberal diet allowed. It grew gra- 
dually weaker, however, and died ou the 5th of August. On dissection a 
layer" of recent lymph was found over the whole surface of the peritoneum. 
The cause of the peritonitis was not evident *. 

Ohsh'vations wiili Calomel. 

The second dog (No. 2), with a biliary fistula, was a full-grown half-bred 
collie, weighing 15-6 kilogrammes. The operation was performed on the 5th 
of September, 1867. The wound healed perfectly, and collection of the bile 
was begun on the 20th of September. The general health of the animal 
was, however, indifferent ; its appetite was uncertain, and its general strength 
feeble. When the apparatus was applied, the animal appeared to be much 
distressed by its weight, and by the constriction of the thorax and abdo- 
men, whicli its proper application rendered necessary. After the operation 
the feces became clay-coloured. 

During seven days, from September 21st to 27th inclusive, observations 
were made with a view to determine the normal secretion of bile : the results 
are given in the following Table (Table YI.) : — ■ 

Table VI. — First Series of Observations on Dog 2. Daily amount of Bile 

secreted without Merciu'y. 

12 3 15 6 



Date. 


Weight 
of 

dog. 


Amount of food, in 
grammes. 


Quantity of bile 

secreted in 24 

hours. 


For each kilo- 
gramme of dog there 
were secreted 


For each 100 

grammes of dry 

food there were 

secreted 




1 




Fluid 


Bile 


Bile 


Fluid 1 Bile 


Bile 


Fluid 


Bile 


Bile 




Kilogg. 


Water. 


Milk. 


liread. 


Meat. 


bile. 


solids. 


salts. 


bile. 


solids. 


salts. 


bile. 


solids. 


salts. 


1867. 












grms. 


grms. 


grm. 


gi-ms. 


gnn. 


grm. 


grms. 


grms. 


grms. 


Sept. 21. 
„ 22. 


15- G 


None. 


.')61 


None. 


None. 


130 


7-29 


1-41 


8-333 


0-467 


0-09 


230 


12-9 


2-51 




„ 


.=i61 




„ 


81 


4-4S 


0-S07 


















/Not a 


ccnra tely no 


ted. ~) 




















„ 23. 




) State 


ment in book 


is ( 


94-15 


C072 


1-205 
















) "scar 
( ken." 


cely 


any loo 


dta- C 




















„ 24 




None. 


?.?.n-(y 


None. 


None. 


94-70 


5-750 


1-01 














„ 25. 


15-6 




•>s? 




310-2 


78-SO 


5-92 


1-25 








73-9 


5-60 


1-13 


„ 26. 






197-4 




225 


G2-50 


5-70 


1-08 














„ 27. 




Hasonly takjenalitt 


lemilk 


35-50 


J-99 


0-436 


2-27 


0-12 


0-027 








Mean : 


or seven 


da s ' 


82-46 


5-31 


1-042 


5-27 


0-34 


0-066 








y 














-, 



jfoTE.— On the 25th September the di-y food consumed amounted to 105-7 grammes, or 6-7 grres. per 
kilog. of dog; on the 21st, 56-4 grms., or 3-6 grms. per kilog. of dog. 

In tliis Table, as well as in several others, it will be observed that the 
amount of bile collected was greater on the first than on other days — a rule, 
however, by no means inviiriable. The occurrence was probably due to the 
canula having permitted a freer exit to the bile than the fistulous opening 

* For further observation.s on the action of Pil. ITvdrargyri see Tables IX. ani X. 



208 REPORT— 18G8. 

wliicli the contraction of the recti abdominis always tended to close. At 
first, therefore, after the introduction of the canula, a large quantity of Ijilo 
pent irp in the ducts may have escaped, or the larger qirautity may have been 
due to increased bihary secretion. 

The average quantity of bile secreted daily by dog 2 during the seven 
days embraced by Table VI. was of fluid bile 82-46 grammes, of bile solids 
5-31 grammes, of bUe salts 1-042 gramme. During the whole period the 
animal took a very variable quantity of food ; on two days the amount was 
not accurately recorded ; the average quantity of dry food consumed daily 
could not therefore be estimated. The biliary secretion was, when com- 
pared with the amount of food, extremely variable, however, as column G of 
the Table suffices to show. 

The general health of the animal had not materially suffered by the con- 
tinued ajiplication of the apparatus, although it at first occasioned so much 
distress. 

It was now decided to observe the effects of calomel. Table VII. (p. 209) 
gives the results. 

During the six days embraced by Table VII t. calomel was given in- 
ternally in varying doses. The effect of the medicine upon the general 
healtli of the animal was very decided ; it grew daily weaker and thinner, it 
lost its appetite, had attacks of vomiting on October 2nd and 3rd, and died 
on October 5th, apparently from inanition. Purgation, foetor of the breath, 
or ulceration of the gums were never produced by the drug, nor was there 
any evidence of salivation. 

On October 2nd the bile was lost, and on the 3rd, two days before the 
death of the animal, and when it took no food, only 2-2 grammes of bile 
■were secreted. An average has been taken from the first four days during 
which the animal took food. The average quantity of fluid bile secreted 
during these four days was 60-02 grammes. 

The average qrrantitics of bile solids and salts have not been estimated 
seeing that they were not ascertained on September 29t]i. The Table shows 
that under the action of the calomel less bile was secreted than there was 
previous to its exhibition ; but as the amount of calomel given had seriously, 
indeed fatallj', injured the health of the animal, it was determined to try in 
the nest case the efiect of minute and frequently repeated doses. 

Dog 3 was a young healthy retriever, weighing 12-9 kilogrammes. The 
operation for biliary fistula was performed on the 13th of October, 1867. A 
few hours afterwards the dog pulled the india-rubber tube out of the fistula, 
and the external opening of the fistula closed, so that on October 15th the 
fistulous opening had to be reestablished by an incision. The wound in 
the abdominal wall healed satisfactorily, the fteces were clay- coloured, and 
the animal was in excellent health when the collection of bile was begun, 
October, 26th 1867. It was decided to observe the effects of very small 
doses of calomel (-J^ of a grain) frequently repeated. The bile was col- 
lected on four successive days previous to, and on four consecutive days 
during the exhibition of the drug without any break between the two scries. 
Table VIII., p. 209, gives tlie results of both series of observations. 

During the four days previous to the administration of the calomel the 
animal secreted daily on an average 70-62 grammes of fluid bile, 3-792 
grammes of bile solids, and 0-83 gramme of bile salts. The health of the 
i.nimal during these days ^yas excellent. 



ON THE ACTION OV MERCURY ON THE BILIARY SECRETION. 



209 



tc 





• 


□ 




o 




> 
'tc 


•ains. 

rains 
ains. 
ns. 


'a 




"Z 


-w 


cr, =■;; 2^ 


P 

o 


£ 


„ II «-- a 
























s a c c c c 








3 s s 3'3 3 








tt^tCicSoa! 




W ?1 ?1 r-1 M M 



•X3 

o 
o 

CO K 



i/ a t- o 
M O 1^ t- 



Z i 



2 c-. 


■ 2 • ■ • 
:j, : : : 




tn .X) 
(JJC 


- o ■ • • 





S^j is; 






fe = 3 



0; !n 



5^ 



I «^ 



3 — 



s r 

"I 

u? O 
O O 



s s 

^ to 
o 



a 

3 s 

o 






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00 T^ CstO 

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d !D M b- »C 00 C^ 

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1868. 



210 REPORT — 1868. 

On October 30tli seven pills, each containing ^ of a grain of calomel, 
were given with an houi-'s interval between each. On October 31st seven 
pills, on November 1st fourteen piUs, and on November 2nd sis piUs were 
administered in the same way as above mentioned.' 

The effect on the general health was very marked. Soon after the admi- 
nistration of the drug was beg-uu the appetite failed, and the animal took no 
food of any kind during three of the four days. The strength became 
rapidly exhausted, and the animal died on November 3, apparently from 
inanition. No salivation, foetid breath, ulceration of gums, or purgation 
were produced by the medicine. 

The average of the second series of observations shows that during the four 
days on which the calomel was given the secretion of bile was not influenced. 
It was almost exactly the same in the second as during the fii-st period, thus 
distinctly showing that the calomel cannot be said to have afifected it at all. 
It is al«o to be observed that although during the second four days the animal 
took food only once, the amount of bile secreted was on an average very nearly 
the same as during the first four days when it ate well. This might at first 
sight be considered as supporting the notion that mercury increases the 
biliary secretion. But were it true that in the present case the mercury had 
kept up the secretion notwithstanding the diminution in the food, then cer- 
tainly it ought to increase the secretion when a due supply of food is taken ; 
for it cannot be held that the influence of food is anything but highly favour- 
able to the secretion. The results given in Table IX, will show that such is 
not the case. 

Dog 4 was a healthy collie, about eighteen months old, weighing 19 kilogs. 
The operation for biliary fistula was performed on the 19th of October, 1867. 
The wound in the abdominal wall healed slowly. As the fistulous opening- 
was very irritable, the canula was not introduced. Instead of the canula and 
india-rubber bag previously employed, a sponge was used to collect the bile ; 
it was seciu'cd in a tin box below the fistulous opening. The faeces became 
clay-coloured soon after the fistula was established. 

The general health of the animal was excellent when the observations re- 
corded in Table IX. p. 211, were begim. 

The bile was collected for five consecutive days previous to the administration 
of mercury, in order to ascertain the average amount secreted daily. This was : 
of fluid bile 67*1 grammes, of bile sohds 3-592 grammes, of bile salts 
0-842 gramme. At the end of this period the dog was in excellent health. 

On is ovember 8th the administration of mercury was begun. During the 
twenty-four hoiu'S previous to the collection of bile on that day, ten pills, 
each containing one-twelth of a grain of calomel, were given, one jnll fit a 
time, vnth an hour's interval between each. On the next day twelve such 
pills were given. On November 10th ten grains Pil. Hydrargyri were admi- 
nistered in one dose. On the 11th and 12tli no mercury was given. On the 
13th the ten grains of Pil. Hydiargyri were repeated. On the 14th nine calo- 
mel pills were given as above ; and on the last day of the observations the 
merciuy was -svithheld. 

During the five days on which calomel or blue pill was administered in the 
above modes, the amount of bile secreted was diminished to nearly a half of 
what it was in the period preceding the administration of the mercuiy ; and 
this, although nearly as much food was consumed during as before the exhi- 
bition of the drug. Moreover, during the second period, the average amount of 
bile sccrcled was, on the whole, greater on the days when no mercury was 



ON THE ACTION OF MERCURY ON THE BILIARY SECRETION. 



311 



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219 uepout— 1868. 

giveu thau ou the other days. No purgation or any signs of specific action 
were produced by the mercury ; but shortly after its first administration the 
strength of the animal began to decline. Sores, produced by the pressure of 
the apparatus, formed upon the back, in consequence of which the observations 
were interrupted on November loth. The appetite failed, and the animal 
became so much emaciated that it was killed on the 28th of November. 

It is evident that in this case the mercury diminished the biliary secretion, 
and it is remarkable that it did so without impairing the appetite, and without 
producing purgation. 

In the foregoing experiments purgation had never been produced by the 
mercurials while the bile was being collected ; it seemed, therefore, desirable 
to ascertain the effect upon the biliaiy secretion of purgative doses. This 
was done in the following experiment. 

Dog 5 was a strong collie, twelve months old, weighing 16-7 kilogrammes. 
The operation for biliary fistxila was performed on the 2nd of June, 1868. The 
fistula became satisfactorily established, but on June 28th the dog escaped. It 
was reobtaincd on the 11th of July. The fistulous opening had closed, the 
dog was jaundiced, conjunctiva and skin yellow, uiine loaded with bile. As 
the fceces Avere, however, clay-coloured, an attempt was made to open the 
fundus of the gall-bladder. This was found distended with a thick, gelatinous, 
colourless fluid like white of egg. About ten ounces of this fluid at once flowed 
from the opening. It was not in tlie least tinged with bile. The glairy fluid 
continued to di'op from the opening for several hours, after which the bile 
began to flow, and continued to do so. 

In ten days every symptom of jaundice had disappeared, the faeces were 
clay-coloui'ed, and the -svound was sufliciently healed to permit of observa- 
tions being begun. In Table X., p. 213, are recorded the results obtained 
before, during, and after purgative doses of calomel and PH. Hydrargyri were 
given. 

The bile was collected perfectly on six days in order to ascertain the normal 
secretion. The average dally quantity during this period was 357'4 grammes 
of fluid bile, 13-11 grammes bile solids, and 3-12 grammes of bile salts. 
During the first four days the dog was in exceUeut health. On July 26th it 
was seized with a smart attack of diarrhoea. On that day both the fluid and 
solid portions of the bile were diminished. The diarrhoea did not recur after 
the 26th. On the 27th the collection of bile was rejected, owing to urine 
having mingled with it. On the 28th it had risen to a little above the average 
quantity. 

Twenty-four hours previous to the collection of the bile on the 29th, ten 
grains of blue pill were administered. During the three succeeding days ten 
grains of calomel were given daily in one dose on each occasion twenty-four 
hours previous to the bile collection. The dose of blue pill and the first dose 
of calomel produced slight purgation, while decided purgation followed the 
administration of the two last doses. There was a marked diminution in the 
biliary secretion during this period, the average daily amount being : of fluid 
bile 272-67 grammes, of bile solids 7-78 grammes, of bile salts 2-06 
grammes. It will be seen from the Table that this diminution is quite as 
marked in the solid as in the fluid bile. 

Tke high amount which the fluid bile attained when ten grains of blue pUl 
were given might be supposed to indicate an increase in the secretion. The 
variations in the amount of solid constituents of the bile are, however, those 



ON THE ACTION OF MERCURY ON THE BILIARY SECRETION. 



213 



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214 EEPOET— 1868. 

which are of paramoiint importance in the present inquiry, and the dimi- 
nution of these on the 29th is unmistakeable. 

The bile was finally collected for two days, August 2nd and 3rd, on which 
no mercury was given. There was no purgation on these days, and the 
amount of bUe secreted suddenly increased. Though the amount was not 
nearly so great as before mercury was given, it was nevertheless much above 
the last two days during its administration. 

Previous to the exhibition of mercury the fasces were of a clay-colour, 
mixed with slate-coloured patches. During and on the two days after the mer- 
cury was given they were more uniformly slate-coloured. During the whole 
experiment the health of the animal was excellent, neither the diarrhoea nor 
the mercurial purgation seemed to affect it. 

This series of observations is most conclusive as to the influence of purgative 
doses of calomel upon the biliary secretion. Under their influence there was 
a steady diminution in the secretion, and the moment the administration of 
the drug was suspended, the secretion underwent an increase. 

It is important to observe that in this case purgation, whether spontaneous 
as on the 26th, or as the result of mercurials, diminished the secretion of bile. 
Other observations wiU be given further on (sec Tables XVII., XVIII., and 
XIX.), which show that when induced bj other drugs it likewise diminishes 
the biliary secretion. 

The amount of bile secreted by this dog was very large, greater in proportion 
to the weight of the animal than in any other case. At first we were inclined 
to suppose that this might be due to the animal being fed upon liver ; but in 
the case of dog 6, to be described jircsently, the amount secreted per kilo- 
gramme of dog Avas nearly as great, although the animal ate no liver ; and 
the amount per 100 grammes of dry food was very much greater. 

In the foregoing experiment the dose of blue pill given, although it 
diminished the bile soKds. increased that of the bile fluid. It was 
important to ascertain whether or not the same result would be obtained on 
another trial. In another dog (No. 7) ten grains of blue pill were given on 
one day, and fifteen grains on the day following. Slight purgation was pro- 
duced by the first dose, decided purgation by the second. On the day pre- 
ceding the administration of the mercury, the amount of fluid bile was 173-9 
grammes, of bile solids 9-35 grammes. The bile was lost on the day that 
the first dose of blue pill was given, but on the next day it had fallen to 119-9 
grammes, and the bile solids to 7-5 grammes. 

On both days the animal consumed about the same quantity of food. It is 
therefore clear that the obsei'vation recorded in the case of dog 5 on the 29th 
of July cannot be held as indicating the power of blue pill to increase the 
fluid portion of the bile ; while this observation on dog 7 only confirms the 
result in the case of dog 5, viz. that a purgative dose of blue pill diminishes 
the amount of bile solids secreted. 

Hesults of the precedinri observations on tJie Cholagogue Action of 
Pil. Hijdrargyri and Calomel. 

1. Pil. Hydrargyri, when given in doses which did not produce purgation, 
caused no increase of the biliary secretion (Tables IV. and IX.) . 

2. PU. Hydrargyri, when given in doses which produced purgation, dimi- 
nished the bihary secretion (Table X., and non-tabulated observations on 
dog 7). 

3. Calomel, given in doses of -jij- of a grain from six to fourteen times a day, 



ON THE ACTION OF MERCURY ON THE BILIARY SECRETION. 



315 







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I 



216 REPORT— 1868. 

and ia doses of two grains from two to six times a day, did not produce pur- 
gation or increase the biliary secretion (Tables YII., VIII., and IX.). 

4. Calomel, when given in doses which produced purgation, diminished the 
biliary secretion (Table X.). 

Observations with Corrosive Sublimate, 

Dog 6, a retriever, six months old, weighing 54 kilogrammes, was operated 
on for biliary fistula, Febi'uary 26th, 1868. The recovery was in this case 
speedy and perfect. Soon after the operation the faeces became clay-colonred. 
The health of the animal was excellent, and was not appreciably injured by 
the operation or the effects of the fistula. 

Table XI. p. 215, gives the results of the observations, with corrosive sub- 
limate on four consecutive days, three previous to, and one during the admi- 
nistration of tlie drug. 

During the three days previous to the administration of the mercury, the 
secretion of fluid and solid bile was rcmarkablj^ constant, and this notwith- 
standing great variation in the amount of food taken. The mean quantity 
was, of fluid bile 105-4 grammes, of bile solids 4-144 grammes, of bile 
salts 0-948 gramme. The constancy in the secretion rendered the case a 
very valuable one for observing whether or not it was aftected by the drug. 
On tlie fourth day two doses of 4 of a grain of corrosive sublimate were 
injected imder the skin. The first dose was given at 1 r.Ji. on the 11th, 
immediately after the collection of bile had been made on that day. The 
second dose was given at 9 a.m. on the 12th, and the last collection of bile 
was made at 1 p.m. on the same day. The amount of fluid bile on this the 
fourth day was 78 grammes, of bile solids 3-178 grammes, of bile salts 
0-717 gramme. Twenty hours after the first dose of the drug was given, a 
slight discharge of mucus from the nostrils was observed, and a patch of 
semisolid clay-coloured faeces mingled with a few di'ops of blood was found 
upon the floor. Two hours following the administration of the second dose, 
the animal was observed to be exceedingly weak ; it was in a state of con- 
stant tremor, and staggered on attempting to walk. At 1 r.M. on the 12th, four 
hours after the second dose of mercury was given, the last collection of bile 
was made ; at that time the nasal discharge had become more marked. There 
was no apparent salivation, nor was the breath foetid. The animal was last 
seen alive at 5.30 p.m. on the 12th, eight and a half hours after the second 
dose had been given. At that time there was no apparent change in its 
condition, further than that it had become so weak that it was no longer able 
to stand, unless supported. It died during the following night. In the 
morning (13t]i) a patch of liquid faeces of a clay-colour was found upon the 
floor. Ten grammes of bile were foimd in the bag attached to the canula. 

The result of this experiment was briefly this : — li grain corrosive subli- 
mate, given in the course of 24 hours to a dog 6 months old, caused purgation 
Avith liquid bloody faeces, nasal discharge, diminution of the biliary secretion, 
general tremor, and finally death. 

For dissection of this dog see Table I., Dog D. It will be observed that 
the stomach still contained a portion of undigested food. 

As the animal had been poisoned by the drug, it was determined to 
observe the efl'ects of smaller and gradually increasing doses. It was thought 
that if the drug can increase the biliary secretion, we, by beginning with a 
very small dose a7id gradually increasing its strength, would certainly hit 
upon the amount necessary to do so ere poisonous symptoms set in ; moreover 
we should observe the effects of the repeated exhibition of small 4oses. 



I 



ON THE ACTION 01' MERCURY ON THE BILIARY SECRETION. 217 



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318 REPORT — 1868. 

Dog 7 "was a strong full-grown retriever, weighing 27*4 kilogrammes, 
for which we were indebted to Dr. Kelburne King, of Hull. The operation 
for biliary fistula was performed on the 24th of April, 1868. The healing 
of the wound around the fistula was so slow that observations could not be 
begun before the 29th of May. Table XII. p. 215, gives the results pre- 
vious to the administration of corrosive sublimate. 

During the five days embraced by Table XII., the amount of food 
consumed was constant. On May 31st the bile was unfortunately lost, 
owing to the apparatus having slipped. The average quantity secreted 
during the remaining four days was of fluid bile 127"15 grammes, of bile 
solids 6-43 grammes, of bile salts 1-03 gramme. The observations were 
interrupted on accoant of repairs needed in the apparatus. When resumed 
on the 5th of June, the dog was in excellent health. Table XIII. p. 217, 
gives the results of observations during the administration of small and gra- 
dually increasing doses of corrosive sublimate. 

During the first three days i of a grain of corrosive sublimate was 
injected u.nder the skin once a day. During the next six days the same 
quantity was injected twice a day, and on the tenth day (June 16) the dose 
was increased to g of a grain at the second injection. 

During these ten days the biliary secretion underwent marked variations ; 
the average daily quantity was IIS'S grammes of fluid bile, 5-972 grammes of 
bile solids, and 0-99 gramme of bile salts. These figures show that there was 
a slight diminution in the biliary secretion during this period. At the same 
time, however, the amount of food consumed had undergone a considej'ablc 
decrease, but the health of the animal had not suffered, and its weight 
remained almost exactly the same. On June 17, the increased dose of i 
of a grain twice a day was given. Athough these doses produced no pur- 
gation, foetid breath, or salivation, yet the dull eye and general drooping 
uneasy aspect of the animal showed that the general health was deci- 
dedly impaired. On that day (l7th) there was a great decrease in the 
biliary secretion. The bile solids fell to about a third, and the fluid bile to 
about a fourth of what it had been on the previoiis day. The amount of 
food consumed, however, had been but slightly diminished, as compared 
with the previous day ; but a glance at the Table will suffice to show that 
more food was consumed on the 17th than on the 11th, 13th, and 15th. On 
all these days at least thrice as much fluid bile, and about twice as much 
bile solids had been secreted. On June 18 only -1- of a grain was given ; 
and after the collection of bile on that day the observations were suspended, 
on account of the very marked impairment of the general health occasioned 
by the mercury. On that day the following is the note that was taken of 
the condition of the animal: — "Tlie dog looks miserable and lifeless, his 
health is evidently much impaired, there is no salivation, foetid breath, 
nasal discharge, or purgation." The quantity of bile secreted on the 18th, 
though above that of the previous day, was nevertheless very low. The 
consumption of food had greatly diminished ; and it should be noticed that 
on the 10th the biliary secretion, instead of undergoing a still further dimi- 
nution, consequent on the decreased consumption of food, was, in fact, 
augmented. This, in our opinion, could only be attributed to the inf uence 
of a smaller dose of the drug. 

The collection of the bile was in this case quite perfect on every day, 
with one exception (May 31), recorded in Table XII. The observations 
distinctly show that corrosive sublimate, given in small gradually increasing 
doses, did not augment the bihary secredon. On the contrary, they point out 



ON THE ACTION Ol? MERCURY ON THE BILIARY SECRETION, 



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220 REPORT— 1868. 

that so long as the general health remained good, the amount of bile ■n^as 
not changed, but as soon as the animal became weak, diminution of the 
secretion at once took place. 

Dog 8 was a strong mongrel collie, about five years old, weighing 19-3 
kilogrammes. The operation for biliary fistula was performed on the 2nd of 
June, 1868. The recovery was rapid, and observations, with a view to 
determine the normal secretion of bile, were commenced June 17th. The 
results are given in Table XIY. p. 217. 

The bile was perfectly collected for eight days. On one day (20th) the 
apparatus was not applied. AVheu the observations were commenced, the 
animal was in perfect health, the faeces were quite white and semisolid. 
On the 21st it had a slight attack of diarrhoea, which had, however, disap- 
peared on the following day. With this exception, the health of the animal 
was exceedingly good during the whole period, and instead of a loss there 
was a slight gain in weight. The diminution of the biliary secretion on 
the 21st cannot be ascribed to the diarrhoea, seeing that on the next day, 
when it had ceased, a still greater decrease took place. The average daily 
amount of bile during the above period was, of fiuid bile 180-2 grammes, 
of bile solids 5-96 grammes, of bile salts 1-07 gramme. The dog's appetite 
was remarkably good. It was decided that corrosive sublimate should now 
be given in small and gradually increasing doses as in the previous case. 
Table XV. p. 219, gives the results. 

During the first eight days i of a grain of corrosive sublimate was 
given twice a day. On July 5th and Gth f of a grain were given in the 
day. On July 7th and Sth the dose was | of a grain twice a day. Until 
July Sth the animal continued in good health ; then its appetite began 
to fail. 

The average amount of bile secreted daily during the twelve days from 
June 27th to July Sth inclusive was, of fluid bile 150-19 grammes, of bile 
solids 3-37-1 grammes, and of bile salts 1-135 gramme. During this period 
the amount of fluid bile was one-sixth less than during the premerciu'ial 
period ; but the diminution in the bile solids was still more marked, the 
average quantity not being much more than a half of what was secreted 
during the prcmcrcurial period. This diminution was entirely due to a de- 
crease in the organic solids of the bile, indeed the amount of the inorganic 
solids was slightly increased. 

On July 9th two-thirds of a grain were given, as on the two previous 
days. The falling off in the appetite now became more marked, and the 
animal looked ill. There was a great failure in the biliary secretion ; fluid 
and solid bile were reduced to abo\it a half of what they had been on the 
previous day. One-third of a grain was given upon the following day 
(10th). This was the last dose. Symptoms of seriously deteriorated health 
were very apparent some hours after it was given. The animal refused 
almost all food ; it looked very languid ; its breath was fretid ; there was 
slight salivation, and on the mucous membrane inside the upper lip there 
was an incipient ulcer, which experience regarding the eff'ccts of mcrcurinls 
on the mouths of other dogs enabled us to recognize as mercurial. The 
fseces, which previous to the administration of the mercury had been white, 
were during the greater period of exhibition sometimes white, at other times 
grey, and during the two last days of a slate-coloiar. There never was 
purgation. Latterly the animal became rapidly emaciated. Up to tlie 0th 
it maintained its weight well, but during the last four days it lost 3--19 kilo- 



ON THE ACTION OF MERCURY ON THE BILIARY SECRETION. 231 

grammes. The amount of bile secreted on the 10 th was still further dimi- 
nished, the fluid bile being little more than a ninth of the average quantity 
secreted during the twelve days from June 27th to July Sth inclusive ; while 
the bile solids were little more than a thirtieth of the average quantity se- 
creted during the same period. 

_ In the case of dog 8 six grains, in that of dog 7 four grains of corro- 
sive sublimate were required to bring about the same result as regards the 
biliary secretion. This was apparently due to the fact that dog 8 was an 
older and a stronger dog. But although the biliary secretion held out longer 
against the drug in this animal, the constitutional symptoms were more 
marked. Thus salivation, foetid breath, and ulceration of the gums were 
present, while these were wanting in dog 7. This fact adds greatly to the 
value of the observations on dog 8 ; for it shows when mercury is given to an 
extent sufficient to increase the function of the salivary glands, it diminishes 
the biliary function of the liver. 

The impression produced by the drug upon the health of dog 8 was deep 
and lasting. Although its administration and the collection of bile wore 
stopped on July 10th, the emaciation of the animal continued to increase 
rapidly. The appetite was very poor on the 14th, there was cofFce-ground 
vomiting, blood was passed in the faBces, and there was a decided muco- 
purulent discharge from the left nostril. The ulcer in the mouth became 
larger. The animal, which previous to the administration of the mercury 
had been so strong and vigorous, grew so weak that it could hardly walk, 
and it was killed July 25th. On dissection six hours after death nothing 
abnormal was found. The hepatic cells seemed healthy. The intestine, 
pancreas, and salivary glands were not unduly vascular. 

Besults of the preceding Observations on the Cholagoc/ue Action of Corrosive 

Sublimate. 

These two series of obseiwations on dogs 7 and 8 so closely resembled 
each other, and were so perfectly carried out, that there was no possibility 
of fallacy. They show : — • 

1. That corrosive sublimate, when given in small doses, gradually in- 
creased in strength, docs not augment the biliary secretion, but that it dimi- 
nishes it the moment the dose reaches a strength sufficient to deteriorate the 
general health. 

^ 2. That corrosive sublimate given in the above method may diminish the 
biliary secretion, while it does or does not produce an evident action on the 
salivary glands and mouth, and without producing purgation. 

3. Case 6 shows that the biliary secretion is likewise diminished when 
this drug is given in a dose sufficient to produce purgation. 

The next subject which engaged our attention was the mode in which 
the mercury had caused a diminution of the biliary secretion in dogs 7 
and 8. 

The experiment on dog 8 seemed strongly to point to the diminished 
consumption of food as the cause of the diminished biliary secretion. With 
a view to throw furtlier light on this matter, we performed the following 
experiment on the 

Influence of Partial Starvation on the Biliary Secretion. 

For the following experiment dog 7 was used, whicli had thoroughly 
recovered its health and strength. 



232 REPORT — 1868. 

Table XYI., p. 219, shows the results of the observations before, during, 
and after partial starvation. 

During the first two days the amount of bile fiiiid and solids secreted was 
very nearly the same. The amount of dry food consumed was also nearly 
alike. 

On the 2Sth, bread, milk, and water were withheld. It was intended to give 
the usual allowance of tripe, but as it could not be obtained, liver was given 
instead. On this day the amount of fluid bile feU to 104-8 grammes, as 
compared with 140 grammes on the two previous days, but the bUe solids 
rose to about a half more than they had previously been. This was almost 
wholly due to increase of the organic constituents of the bile ; for it will be seen 
from the Table that the bile salts (inorganic solids) were scarcely at all in- 
creased. July 29th 453 grammes of water were given without any dry food. 

The quantity of fluid bile secreted was only 41-6 grammes, less than a 
third of the quantity on the days previous to starvation. The amount of bile 
solids was 2-77 grammes, rather more than a half of the quantity secreted 
during the first period, while the inorganic constituent of the bile feU to 
0-40 gramme, less than a half of the amount during the fii'st period. On 
the 30th of July it was intended that the animal should return to the diet 
of July 27th, but the tripe was accidentally withheld. The amount of fluid 
bile rose on that day to 85-7 grammes, bile solids to .5'11 grammes, and 
bile salts to 0-87 gramme. iUthough the dry food consumed on this day 
was hardly one-fifth of what it was on July 26th, the amount of bile sohds 
and salts was almost the same. On July 31st the partial starvation was 
discontinued ; the animal consumed the same amount of diy food as on July 
26th, with nearly a fourth more A\atcr. The fluid bile on that day reached 
a quantity 33-1 grammes above what it was on the 26th, when the same 
quantity of food Avas given, while the amount of bile soHds and salts was nearly 
doubled. It is difficult to account for this marked increase in the biliary 
secretion when the full diet was again given. Dm-ing the whole experiment 
the animal was in excellent health, and lost only 0-9 kilogramme in weight. 

The preceding observations are sufiieient to show that the biliary secretion 
is greatly influenced by the great amount of food consumed, and it permits of 
the inference that diminution in the bihary secretion observed in the case 
of dog 8 under the influence of corrosive subhmate may have been due to 
impaired appetite. The same explanation cannot apply to the diminution in 
the bihary secretion observed in the case of dog 7 on June 17 (see Table XIII.) ; 
for, as has been previously pointed out, on that day the animal took more food 
than it had done on many previous days on Avhich it had secreted a larger 
amount of bile. 

On the v>holc, therefore, the legitimate conclusion seems to be that mercury, 
when administered so as to impair the general nutrition, lessens the biliary 
secretion. This mny result without impairment of the appetite; but when 
there is a diminished consumption of food, the failiu'e in the biliary secretion 
is all the more marked. 

Conclusions regardincf the Cholagogue Action of Mercury. 

The foregoing observations seem to us clearly to show that Pil. Hydrargyri, 
calomel, and corrosive subhmate, when given to dogs in either small, gradually 
augmented, or in large doses, do not increase the bihaiy secretion ; they do not 
even influence it so long as neither purgation nor impairment of health are 
produced, but they diminish it as soon as they do either or both. It may be 



OS THE ACTION OF MERCXJIIY ON THE BILIARY SECRETION. 223 

urged that, although we have proved this regardLag dogs, it does not follow 
that on man these drugs will have the same action. It must be admitted 
that some animals are altogether insensible to remedies which produce power- 
ful effects on oiliers, that different doses are often requisite to occasion similar 
results, and that there may be peculiarities so very decided as to render it 
impossible to infer what will be the action of a remedy on one animal from its 
influence upon another. But have we any reason to conclude that in the pre- 
sent instance there exists such difference iu the action of mercury as to prevent 
any inference being drawn from the dog regarding man? All the facts with 
which we are acquainted show that it is legitimate to infer that the action of 
mercury ought to be regarded as similar in both cases. We have demon- 
strated that, as regards its action upon the saHvarj' glands, mouthy intestine, 
appetite, and general nutrition, the influence of mercmy is the same. We there- 
fore infer that it is in the highest degree probable that its action on the hepatic 
secretion will also be the same. The only difference that there seems to be be- 
tween the dog and man, as regards the action of mercury, consists iu the fact 
that in the dog larger doses are generally requii'ed to produce the same effects 
as those observed in man. But even here it may be argued that more marked 
results are required to satisfy the observer, and hence the greater dose neces- 
sary. These circumstances, therefore, cannot be held as affecting the conclu- 
sion at which v,c have arrived. 

We have not deemed it worth our while to experiment upon any other 
animal, for we are unable to see how such experiments could materially 
strengthen our position. Even though we had shown that mercury when 
given to a rabbit, eat, pig, donke}', or horse diminishes the biliary secretion, 
it might still be said that this does not apply to man. But there are several 
special reasonswhich render experiments on these animals either impracticable 
or less reliable than those on the dog. Bidder and Schmidt failed to establish 
biliary fistulas in cats, we therefore thought it not worth our while to spend 
money and time in making the attempt. Horses and donkeys are too un- 
wieldy for the purpose and have no gaU-bladders, a peculiarity which would 
in all probability render it impossible to establish bUiary fistulse in them. In 
pigs the hepatic secretion differs from that of man, inasmuch as it contains 
hyocholic acid, and according to Strecker no sulphur. It might, therefore, not 
unfairly be objected to any inferences from experiments on pigs that, inasmuch 
as the porcine differs from the human hepatic secretion, it could not be held as 
altogether probable that mercury would iufluonce both in the same way. 
Everything seems to show that the animals used by the Committee are those 
best suited for the observations they have made. In addition to the thera- 
peutical facts previously mentioned, which after all are the most important, 
there are these, that the qualitative composition of canine is the same as that 
of human bile, and that the dog, like man, can be fed on a flesh, vegetable 
or mixed diet. In this respect they are superior to most others, even to the 
Quadrumana, which though in conformation most resembling man are vege- 
table feeders. So far, therefore, as direct experiment and exact observations 
are capable of determining the influence of mercury upon the biliary secretion, 
the Committee have no doubt that the dog is superior to the animals above 
mentioned. 

But it may be supposed that mercurials posse&s some specific power of ex- 
citing the biliary secretion by acting on the orifice of the common bile-duct, 
and so stimulating the secretion through the nerves which connect it with the 
liver, just as pyrethrum or vinegar stimulates the salivary glands when they are 
applied to the orifices of the saKvary ducts. It might also be objected that. 



224 REtoRT— 18G8. 

inasmuch as in our experiments tlie common bile-duct had been divided, the 
nerves aUuded to might have been so injured that stimulation of the orifice of 
the common bile-duct could no longer excite the secretion. It remains to be 
shown, however, that mercurials do speciallj* excite the oi'ifice of the bile-duct. 
It is not probable, at any rate, that their influence on the biliary secretion was, 
in the cases of dogs G, 7, and 8, prevented by division of hepatic nerves. In 
these experiments the common bUe-duct was simply divided with as little 
injury to neighbouring parts as i^ossible (in previous experiments a portion 
of the bile-duct was removed), and these animals did not suffer in the least 
from the shock after the operation ; so that nervous injury could not have 
been extensive. Moreover, in the case of dog 7, the parts around the com- 
mon bile-duct were dissected after death, and the nerves proceeding from the 
solar plexus to the liver were found at some distance from the duct, and had 
apparently suffered no injury at the place where it had been divided. The 
Committee, therefore, do not attach anj- value to this objection. 

But some may say that although wc have proved that mercurj" diminishes 
the biliary secretion in dogs and that in man its action wiU in all probability 
be the same, yet our experiments have been performed on animals in a state 
of health, and that had they been made on dogs with diseases such as those 
in which mercury has been siqrposed to increase the hepatic secretion, it would 
possibly, in the case of such dogs, have been increased. With such an hypo- 
thesis we need not seriously occupy om-selves until the objectors prove tliat, 
in any case whatever, mercury can increase the biliary secretion in man. 

We have been unable to discover any facts brought to light in this or any 
other age which prove that mercury stimulates the biliary secretion. So far 
as we can make out, the notion that it does so originates in some vague 
statement made by Paracelsus*, or the authors of his time, as to the good 
effects of mercury in what he has called " icteritia.'' Bnt, we repeat, not 
only do we not know how such a notion has arisen, but wo are ignorant 
how to make direct observations on the subject in man. AVe have already 
stated that such observations are, in the present state of physiological che- 
mistry, impossible (sec p. 187). We do not deny the possibility of mercury 
being useful in some diseases of the liver ; we simply say that the notion 
of its doing good by increasing the biliary secretion is untenable. 

Observations on PonopnTLLixE and Taraxacum as CnoLAGOGiTES. 

Before concluding our observations on dogs with biliary fistuloe, the Com- 
mittee thought it would bo important to try the effect of two other drugs 
■which have been supposed to exercise a cholagogue influence on the liver, 
viz. podophylline and taraxacum. 

Observations with PoflophyUlne. 

Dog 9 was a retriever, about three years old, weighing 2G-G kilogrammes, 
and the operation for biliary fistulas was performed upon July 2-1:, 18G8. The 
recovery was rapid. tShortly after the operation tlie fajcos were clay- 
coloured. Table XVII., p. 225, shows the results of the bile collections pre- 
vious to, during, and after the administration of podophylline. 

* Paracelsus (Aur. Phil. Tlieopli.), Opsra Medico-Cliemica, 3 torn. 4to, Fi-ancof. 1603- 
1G05. De Icteritiis, vol. i. p. 329. 



ON THE ACTION OF MERCURY ON THE BILIARY SECRETION. 225 



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226 REPORT — 1868. 

On August 7th and 8th the bile was collected to ascertain the normal 
secretion previous to the exhibition of the drug. On the ninth day 2 grains 
of Eesina PodophyUi (prepared by Messrs. Gardner and Ainslie, druggists, 
Edinburgh) were given. This amount did not produce purgation. The 
bile was collected 24 hours after the dose was given, and it was found that 
the fluid bile had risen from 285-8 to 304-2 grammes, but the solid bile had 
fallen from 14-5 to 12-9 grammes. On the 10th no medicine was given. On 
that day the fluid bile fell somewhat, while the solid bile rose. On the 
11th 4 grains of podophylline were given. Decided purgation followed. 
A marked diminution in the fluid and solid bile was the result — the fluid 
bile fell from 287 to 203-2 grammes, the bile sohds from 13-31 to 10-85 
grammes. On the 12th no medicine was given : the fluid bile rose to 238-2 
grammes, while, strange to say, the bile solids fell to 6-62 grammes. On 
the 13th 6 grains of podophylline were given. Decided purgation followed. 
The fluid bile fell to 151-2, the bile sohds to 4 grammes. On the 14th 
no medicine was given, and, notwithstanding the purgation, the dog was in 
excellent health. On the 14th the fluid bile rose to 238-4, the bile solids 
to 12-87 grammes. 

These observations clearly show that in this case podophylline, when it 
produced purgation, diminished the biliary secretion. This decrease cannot 
be accounted for by diminution in the amount of food taken. Certainly 
such an explanation might be advanced to account for the fall in the quan- 
tity secreted on the 11th, but it cannot possibly apx^ly to the great fall upon 
the 13th. 

Little attention need be paid to the increase in the bile fluid on the 9th, 
when 2 grains of podophylline were given without purgation resulting ; for 
it was only 18-4 grammes, whereas on the 8th there had been a rise of 12-8 
grammes over the quantity on the previous day, without any di'ug having 
been given ; moreover, on the 9th the bile solids fell to a decided extent. 

The observations recorded in Table XVIII. p. 225, were made on dog 7, 
after he had regained his health. 

The bile was collected for five days previous to the exhibition of podo- 
phylline. On one of these (August 8) the dog had a smart attack of dysen- 
tery ; on that day the solid and fluid bile was much below what it was 
on any other day of the period — another evidence of the lowering influence 
of purgation upon the biliary secretion. 

On August 15th 8 grains of podophylline were given; it produced 
profuse purgation, and so weakened the animal that it staggered when it 
Avalked. The bile was collected 24 hours after the dose was given ; both 
fluid and solid bile had undergone a great diminution. It is curious to 
observe that the purgation produced by the podophylline, although it was 
accompanied by a diminished consumption of food, did not lessen either the 
fluid or solid portions of the bile to the extent effected by the attack of 
dysentery, although the latter was accompanied by comparatively slight 
depression of the general health and appetite. Throughout the observations 
in Table XYIII. the faeces were of a slate-colour. 

The observations were discontinued owing to the weakness of the animal. 
The observations recorded in Table XIX. p. 227, were made on dog 5 after 
it had regained its health. 

The bile was collected for two days, August 23rd and 24th, to ascertain 
the normal secretion. On August 25th and 26th 6 grains of Eesina Podo- 
phyUi were given ; both doses occasioned decided purgation. The effect on 
the biliary secretion was unequivocal. On the day preceding that on which 



ON THE ACTION OF MERCURY ON THE BILIARY SECRETION. 227 

the first dose was given tlie fluid bile was 220-9 grammes, bile solids 10-42 
grammes ; on the foUowiiig day the fluid bile was 154-5 grammes. After 
the second dose the fluid bile was 150 grammes, the bUe solids 1-95 gramme. 
The next day (27th) no medicine was given, and the fluid bile rose to 297 
grammes, and the bile solids to 11-99 grammes, most conclusively showing 
that doses of i)odophylline which produce purgation diminish the fluid and 
solid constituents of the bile. 

Table XIX. — Second Series of Observations on Dog 5. Daily amount of 
Bile secreted before, during, and after Podophylline and Taraxacum were 
given. 



1 


2 












4 




5 




Weight 


Amount of food, 


in 


Quantity of bile 
secreted in 24 




Date. 


dog. 




grammes. 




hours. 




Observations. 


Kilogs. 


Water. 


Milk. 


Bread 


Spleen. 


Fluid 
bile. 


Bile 
solids. 


Bile 

salts. 


1868. 












grms. 


gpnia. 


grms. 




Aug. 23. 


14-7 


566 


566 


225-6 


906-8 


232-8 


11-56 


30 


Dog in good health, though rather lean. 
Faeces semisolid. 


„ 24. 


•• 


»» 


»» 


»> 


1) 


22M 


10-42 


2-84 


Dog in good health, though rather lean. 
Fseees semisolid. 


„ 25. 


•■ 


M 


t> 


n 


>f 


154-5 


4-20 


1-58 


6 grains Eesina Podophylli given 20 hours 
preyious to the collection of bile. Pro- 
jitse purgafioii. 




















., 26. 


14-6 


J» 


" 


»» 


)» 


150 


1-95 


0-52 


6 grains Eesina Podophylli given 23 hours 
previous to this collection of bOe. De- 
cided purgation. 


.. 27. 




f) 


y* 


9l 


»v 


297 


11-99 


3-21 


No medjcine given. 

60 grains solid extract of tarajfacum given 
24 hours bi'fore this collection of^bile. 


,. 28. 


.. 


tj 


tt 


ll 


842-1 


396 


1021 


2-42 






































No purgation. 


n 29. 


14 






tl 


906-8 


340 


9-36 


2-12 


60 grains solid extract of taraxacum given 
24 hours before this collection of bile. 






































No purgation. 


„ SO. 




)» 


J, 


»l 


** 


Lost. 


. , 


, , 


No medicine given. 


„ 31. 


, , 


5» 


„ 


»» 


11 


Lost. 






No medicine given. * 


Sept. 1. 




*» 


„ 


»» 


i» 


317 


9-42 


2-46 


No medicine given. 


,, 2. 




» 


„ 


»» 


ty 


355-5 10-61 


3-02 


No medicine given. 


„ 3, 


14-3 


J» 


'» 


»1 




293 9-53 


2-27 


No medicine given. 



Note. — As the weight of the dog and the amount of food eaten by it were so constant in this case, we 
have not thought it necessary to calculate the amoimt of bile secreted per kilogramme weight of dog, or 
per 100 grammes of food consumed. 

Observations with Extract of Taraxacum. 

After dog 5 had had a day's rest from the action of podophylline, 60 
grains of solid extract of taraxacum were given 24 hours previous to the 
collection of bile on August 28th ; on that day the fluid bile rose to the 
extent of 99 grammes, but the bUe solids fell to the extent of 1-78 gramme. 
Next day the same dose was repeated ; the fluid bile fell to the extent of 
56 grammes, the bile solids to the extent of 0-85 gramme. Neither dose 
produced any efl'ect upon the bowels. After this no more medicine was 
given. The bile was unfortunately lost on August 30th and 31st, owing 
to slipping of the apparatus ; on the three following days the amount of 
fluid bile fluctuated greatly. On September 2nd it was 355-5 grammes, — 
a larger quantity than that secreted during the 24 hours after the second 
dose of the taraxacum was given ; on that day also (September 2nd) the 
amount of bile solids secreted was greater than on either of the days on 
which taraxacum was given. It is therefore evident that the taraxacum 
did not increase the solid constituents of the bile ; and it is extremely 
probable that the large amount of fluid bile secreted after the flrst dose was 



228 



REPORT 1868. 



due to other causes. On September 2nd, when no taraxacum was given, 
the bile rose to the extent of 38-5 grammes over the amount on the previous 
day, and on September 3rd it fell to the extent of 57-5 grammes without any 
assignable cause. On the whole, therefore, it seems that taraxacum exercised 
no influence upon the biliary secretion. On Sej^tember 3rd the observations 
were discontinued, as the margins of the fistula liad bejome much lalcerated. 
Taraxacum was also given to dog 7, which had been the subject of the 
observations recorded in Tables XII., XIII., XVI., and XVIII., which had 
recovered his health. 



Table XX.- — Fifth Series of Observations on Dog 7. Daily amount of BUe 
secreted before and during the administration of Extract of Taraxacum. 



I 


2 




3 








4 




5 




Weight 


Amount of food, in 


Quantity of bile 
secreted in 24 




Date. 


dog. 




granunea. 


hours. 




Observations. 




Kiiogs 


Water. 


Milk. 


Bread. 


Tripe. 


Fluid 
bile. 


Bile 

solids. 


Bile 
salts. 


1868. 












grms. 


grma. 


grms. 




Aug. 26. 


29-4 


846 


564 


225-6 


1353-6 


192 


8-53 


2-10 


Dog in excellent health. Faeces solid. 


„ 27. 




»» 


,, 


»» 


„ 


176 


10-.52 


2-36 


Dog in excellent health. Fse.:ea solid. 


„ 28. 


29-5 


») 


ft 


»> 


" 


214 


8-93 


1-94 


60 grains solid extract of taraxacum given 
twenty-four hours before this collection 
of bile. No purcjation. 


„ 29. 




»1 


*' 


)) 


»t 


1S8 


9-64 


2-12 


120 grains solid extract of taraxacum 
given twenty-fours before this collec- 
tion of bile. 


„ 30. 




>t 


It 


J, 




1.51 


9-99 


2-45 


\ 


,. 31. 


29-3 




It 


„ 


None. 


140 


8-43 


1-64 




Sept. 2. 




652 




„ 


1353-6 


212-2 


12-9 


3-76 


1 No medicine given. Dog in excellent 


„ 3. 


29'2 


846 


J, 


tt 


,j 


16S 


8-04 


2-51 


r health. 


„ 8. 


31-2 


„ 


„ 


»t 


„ 


2.11-1 


12-17 


3-21 




„ 9. 




„ 


»t 


>i 


,, 


169-4 


8-61 


2-61 


; 


„ 10. 


1 


" 


t» 


»» 


" 


lSO-6 


8-84 


1-98 


120 grains solid extract of taraxacum given 
twenty- four hours before this collection 
of bile. iVo purgation. 


„ 11. 


31 


" 


» 


ii 


5» 


1.59 


9-12 


2-31 


240 grains solid extract of taraxacum 
given tw enty-four hours before this col- 
lection of li'ile. No purgation. Dog in 






































excellent health. 



After the bile had been collected for two days 60 grains of solid extract of 
taraxacum were given ; twenty-four hours afterwards (August 28) the fluid 
bile rose to the extent of 38 grammes, while the bile solids fell to the extent 
of 1-59 gramme. Next day (29)120 grains were given, and the fluid bile 
fell to the extent of 26 grammes, while the bile solids rose to the extent of 
0-71 gramme as compared with the previous day. These doses had no eff'ect 
upon the bowels. After this, the bile was collected for five consecutive days, 
on which no medicine was given ; on one of these days (September 1) the 
bile was lost owing to slipping of the apparatus. On September 2 the 
fluid bile reached a figure very nearly as high as it had attained during the 
administration of taraxacum, and the bile solids were higher than they had 
ever been on any of the previous days. On September 4 the apparatus was 
left off owing to ulceration of the skin ; on September 7 it was reapplied, 
and the bile was collected on the four subsequent days. The large quantities 
obtained (September 8) the first of these days need not be paid attention 
to ; it was most probably due to escape of bile pent up in the bile-ducts, 
owing to the cannla not having been used during the previous four days. 
Twenty-four hours previous to the collection on the 10th, 120 grammes of 
solid extract of taraxacum were given ; on that day the fluid bile rose to 



ON THE ACTION OF MERCURY ON THE BILIARY SECRETION. 229 

the extent of 1 1-2 grammes, and the bile solids to the extent of 0-23 gramme. 
Next day 240 grains were given, and the fluid bile fell to the extent of 21-6 
grammes, while the bile soUds rose to the extent of 0-38 gramme. These 
doses produced no effect upon the bowels. The faeces were always solid. 
The dog was in most exceUeut health when these observations were discon- 
tinued. 

The observations recorded in Table XX. show, even more conclusively than 
those recorded in Table XIX., that taraxacum did not influence the biliary 
secretion in any way whatever. 

Results of the Observations recorded in Tables XVII., XVIII. , XIX., 

and XX. 

1. Doses of podophylline, varying from 2 to 8 grains, when given to dogs 
diminished the solid constituents of the bile, whetlier they produced purga- 
tion or not. 

2. Doses which produced purgation lessened both the fluid and solid con- 
stituents. 

3. During an attack of dj'sentery both the fluid and solid constituents of 
the bile were greatly lowered. 

4. Doses of the solid extract of taraxacum, varying from 60 to 240 grains, 
aff'ected neither the biliary secretion, the bowels, nor the general health of 
the animal. 

Influence of Purgation upon the Biliary Secretion. 
The observations of the Committee conclusively show that purgation pro- 
duced by a variety of causes diminished both the" fluid and solid constituents 
of the biliary secretion. Spontaneous diarrhoea (Table X.), dysentery, 
(Table XVIII.), and purgation produced by Pil. Hydrargyri (Table X., and 
non-tabulated observations on dog 7, see p. 214),' by calomel (Table X.), 
by corrosive sublimate (Table XI.), and by podoiihyllinc (Tables XVII., 
XVIII., aud XIX.) always diminished the solid constituents of the bile, and 
with one exception (see July 29, Table X.) the fluid portion of the bile also. 
That purgation diminishes the biliary function of the liver is one of the most 
important facts established by the Committee. It is, however, nothing more 
than ^^•lmt might have been expected, seeing that purgation drains the portal 
blood from which the bile is almost entirely formed. 

Relation of Biliary Secretion to Consumption of Food. 
The observations of the Committee show that the relation between the 
biliary secretion and the amount of food consumed is by no means such a 
close one as Bidder, Schmidt, Arnold, and others have supposed. On looking 
at the collections of bile in the healthy animal previous to the administration 
of drugs, it will frequently be seen that while eating the same food, and 
without there being any apparent disturbing cause, such as diarrhoea, &c., 
the amount of bile was nearly a half (Tables II. and III.) and even four- 
fifths less (Table VIII.) than on previous and subsequent days. Further, it 
was frequently observed that although the amount of food consumed varied 
greatly the secretion of bile was remarkably constant. In Table XI. are 
observations which illustrate this fact. During three days of perfect health 
the animal secreted very nearly a constant amount of bile fluid and bile sohds, 
although the amount of food varied greatly. Thus on the first day it took 
73-7 grammes of dry food, on the second day it took 14-16, and on the 
third day 62-37 grammes ; on these days the amount of bile secreted per 



230 



REPORT 1868. 



100 grammes of dry food was on tlie first day 5-64 grammes, on the second 
day 30*4 grammes, and on the third day 6-9 grammes. The observations 
recorded in Table XVI. show, however, that the biliaiy secretion was in the 
case of dog 7 greatly influenced by the amount of dry food ; it will there be 
.seen that the amount of bile secreted was greatly diminished by stai-vation. 
It therefore appears that the biliary secretion is in some cases greatty in- 
fluenced by the amount of food taken, while in other cases it is not influenced 
at all. 

Relation between Biliast Secretion and Weight of Antmal. 

The close relation supposed to exist between the amount of the biliary 
secretion and the size or weight of the animal has not been supported by the 
observations of the Committee. The amount of bUe secreted for every kilo- 
gramme weight of dog varied greatly in different cases, as the following 
Table shows. 

Table XXI. — Average amount of BUe secreted per Kilogramme Weight of 
the Dog« observed by the Committee before drugs were administered. 



No. of dog. 


Fluid bile. 


Bile solids. 


Bos 1 


grms. 
6-47 
7-82 
5-27 
5-76 
3-53 

21-8 

20-66 
4-64 
9-24 

10-2 


grui. 
0-412 
0-28 

o-;34 

0-293 

0-146 

0-801 

0-818 

0-23 

0305 

0-58 


„ 1 


2 


„ 3 


„ 4 


„ 5 


„ 6 


,, 7 


„ 8 


:; 9:::...;:: 





The foregoing Table gives the per kilogramme bdiary secretion only when 
the dogs were healthy, and not subjected to the action of di-ugs. The 
Table shows how fallacious are the calculations which have been made re- 
garding the human biliary secretion, from observations upon dogs, by Bidder 
and Schmidt. We at one time thought that the large secretion in the case 
of dog 5 might be due to the fact that it ate Hver instead of muscle like the 
other dog 9 ; it secreted nearly as much bile, however, when, instead of 
liver, it ate spleen. Moreover, such an explanation could not be offered in 
the case of dog 6, which secreted nearly as much bile per kilogramme as 
dog 5. This dog was fed on a diet the same as that given to dogs 1, 2, 3, 
and 4, so that no peciiliarity in the nature of the diet can be alleged as the 
cause of the large secretion in the case of dog 6. Nor can the quantity of 
food it took have been the cause; for the animal secreted more bile per 100 
grammes of dry food than any other dog under the observation of the 
Committee. Seeing, then, that in the case of dog 6 neither the food nor the 
size of the animal can at all account for the amount of bile secreted, we 
must look for the cause elsewhere. One member of the Committee sug- 
gested that perhaps the amount of bUe secreted may have a closer relation 
to the size of the liver than to the size of the animal. Unfortunately this 
idea did not occur until after dog 6 was killed, so that its liver was not 
weighed ; but there is this much to be said, that dog 6 was a young dog (six 
months' old) ; and we know that in young animals the liver is larger in pro- 



ON THE ACTION OF MERCURY ON THE BILIARY SECRETION. 231 

portion to the rest of the body than it is in more advanced age. To ascer- 
tain whether or not there he anything in this idea would require observations 
to be made on dogs of various sizes and ages. The biliary secretion, amount 
and nature of food, and weight of the animal would require to be observed 
for three or four days ; the animal ought then to be immediately killed and 
its liver weighed, and calculations based on such data. It is, however, 
improbable that the size of the liver determines the amount of the biliary 
secretion ; the great variation which we frequently observed in the secre- 
tion from day to day in the same animal is opposed to such an idea. 

Effect of the loss of Bile upon the Health of the Animal. 

Although an animal may live in perfect health for a considerable time 
without any bile passing into its ahmentary canal, it would appear, from the 
observations of all who have experimented on the subject, that, even when 
a fistula has been established without accident, the health sooner or later 
begins to suffer. Emaciation comes on, and death results from inanition. 
Much depends on the strength of the animal, which, when vigorous, usually 
preserve their health. 

Dog 7, the retriever sent us by Dr. Kelburne King of Hull, had the 
operation for biliary fistula performed on April 24, 1868. jSTotwithstanding 
the wearing of apparatus for collecting the bile during a period of nearly 
two months, partial poisoning with corrosive sublimate, purgation with 
podophylline, and dosing with taraxacum, the animal was on the 11th of 
September, 1868, when our observations terminated, as strong as it was 
before the fistula was made ; and so far from exhibiting any signs of emacia- 
tion, it had gained nearly 4 kilogrammes (8-8 pounds) in weight during the 
five months it lived, without a drop of bile passing into the intestines. Such 
a case favours the view of Blondlot and Arnold, as to the inutility of the 
bile for the purposes of digestion. It is in itself quite sufiicient to show 
that the entrance of bile into the alimentary canal is not essential for the 
health of the animal, and supports the idea that the bile is a secretion 
destined to be little more than a mere excretion. 

Effect of Musctjlab Movements upon the Plow of the Bile. 

It was frequently observed that when the dogs were taken out of their 
cages, in which their movements were much circumscribed, and allowed to 
run about, that during the first half hour or so of their increased movement 
the amount of bile discharged by the fistula was greatly augmented. This 
was in all probability due to the bile being more rapidly expelled from the 
hepatic ducts by the pressure upon the liver of the contracting abdominal 
muscles, which must, when in action, compress the liver like a sponge, and 
so expel its contained fluid. This fact is valuable in serving to show that 
exercise may have an important influence upon the liver. It further points 
out, however, how utterly fallacious must the results have been had we 
endeavoured to estimate the daily secretion of bile from collections made 
during a few minutes at a time, such as were made by Bidder and Schmidt 
regarding which, however, we have previously expressed our opinion. 

It is unnecessary to dwell upon the importance of the results which the 
Committee have taken so much pains to arrive at. If the refutation of a 
widespread error be as important as the establishment of a new truth, the 
practical advantage of demonstrating that mercury is not a cholagogue can- 
not be too highly estimated. Although in recent times the administration of 



233 KBPOKT— 1868. 

mercurials for hepatic diseases has greatly diminished, their employment is 
stiU very general, and in India almost universal. Eecent cases demonstrate 
that long-continued salivation and great loss of health have been produced 
in the attempt to remove old abscesses or other chronic diseases of this organ, 
and there are few of its lesions in which it is stiU not thought advisable to 
try small or fuU doses of the drug. 

On this subject, however, it is unnecessary to dwell at present ; the real 
question is, whether the evidence is satisfactory, or whether further re- 
searches are necessary. On this and many other topics connected with 
therapeutics, what we require are not unfounded assumptions and vague spe- 
culations, but positive knowledge based on imquestionable data ; these we 
have furnished, and consider them amply sufficient to demonstrate the fallacy 
of the opinions everywhere prevalent as to the cholagogue action of mercury. 

It would be vain attempting to convey an adequate idea of the great la- 
bour, wearisome repetitiou of observations, numerous disappointments, and 
loathsome manipulations which have tested the zeal, endurance, and courage 
of Drs. Rutherford and Gamgee, on whom the entii'c labour of the experi- 
ments devolved. 

The difficulties and expense have been greatly increased by the want of a 
proper locality for carrying on such investigations, and by the necessity of 
combating the well-meaning but, we humbly think, mistaken notions of those 
who maintain that physiologists are not justified in experimenting on animals, 
even with the objects of determining more accurately the use of poisonous 
drugs and of preserving the life of man. A very different doctrine might 
have been expected to exist in a great University like that of Edinburgh ; but 
its Senatus, led astray by the reasoning, we regret to say, of an influential 
member of the Medical Faculty, unquestionably, by its resolutions, greatly 
added to the toil and annoyance of the Committee's proceedings. On the 
other hand our warmest thanks are due to Mr. Nunnelcy of Leeds, to Dr. Kel- 
burne King of Hull, and Dr. Andrew Buchanan of Glasgow, for their kind 
assistance in forwarding animals to us. 



Last Report on Dredging among the Shetland Isles. 
By J. GwYN Jeffreys, F.R.S. 

This was my eighth expedition to the northern extremity of our seas, and 
occupied the whole of the summer. It was not so successful as those in some 
previous years, owing to the stormy state of the weather. While my friends 
in England, Wales, Ireland, and Scotland were enjoying calm sunshine, our 
climate was exactly the reverse ; and the persevering course of the wind 
(from north-west to south-west) prevented our doing much at sea. This 
part of the North Atlantic is notoriously subject to broken weather, it being 
the point where the warm air induced by the Gulf-stream and westerly 
winds meets the cold air brought down by the arctic current. The fauna of 
the Shetland waters, however, is by no means exhausted. Every expedition 
has produced novelties, not only in the MoUusca, but in aU other depart- 
ments of marine zoology. 

On the present occasion I obtained, at a depth of 120 fathoms, a living 
specimen and a larger dead one of a fine species of Pleurotoma, P. carinata 
of Bivona. It was originally described as a Calabrian fossil ; Jan and Bel- 
lardi have given it from the Upper Tertiaries of North Italy, the former un- 
der the name of Fusus modiolus ; and Scarlcs Wood records a single specimen 



ON DREDGING AMONG THE SHETLAND ISLES. 233 

having been found in the Coralline and another in the Red Crag. Professor 
Sars and Mr. M'Andrew dredged a few specimens off the coasts of Norway ; 
and the former gave some interesting particulars of the animal, which I 
have been able to confirm by my own observation. Although allied to P. 
nivalis, and found in the same locality, it has distinct eyes placed on rather 
prominent stalks or ommatophores, whereas P. nivalis has no eyes nor any 
trace of eye-stalks. On this account Sars proposed the generic name Tiiphlo- 
maagelia for the latter species ; but it must be borne in mind that Eulima 
steiiostoma is also eyeless, and yet is closely related to its congeners and com- 
panions, all of which have very conspicuous eyes. It is a somewhat remark- 
able coincidence that the shell of E. stenosfoma resembles a large Achatina 
acicula, which is in the same category as regards these so-called organs of 
sight. The shells of P. carinata and P. nivalis are easily distinguishable. 

Among the rarer and more noteworthy moHusks procured this year were 
the following: — 

Montacuta tumidida, St. Magnus Bay and near Fetlar. Described by me 
from the Hebrides in the Repoi'ts of the Association for 1866. 

M. donacina, S. Wood. A single valve from deep water in St. Magniis 
Bay. Another valve had been dredged by me at Falmouth in 1839. It is a 
rare Coralline Crag fossil. Its nearest ally is M. suhstriata. 

Utriculus f/lobosiis, Loven. A small living specimen occurred this year 
also in St. Magnus Bay. 

CT. expansus, Jeffr. A few young specimens again in St. Magnus Bay. 

Odostomia Warreni, Thompson. Never having seen this shell in a fresh 
and perfect state, I considered it (Brit. Conch, iv. p. 143) a variety of 0. 
ohliqua. But the discovery of hve specimens in St. Magnus Bay and near 
Fetlar enables me to separate the two as distinct species. 0. Warreni has a 
shorter spire and more swollen whorls than 0. ohliqua, the suture is deeper, 
the striae are much stronger at the base of the shell, the whole surface is covered 
with most delicate and close-set microscopic spiral lines, and the umbilicus 
is well developed and deep. The animal of 0. Warreni has a peculiar foot ; 
this is not plain and rounded at its extremity, as in 0. ohliqua, but is deeply 
bilobed or forked like the tail of a swallow. No other species of Odostomia, 
so far as I am aware, has a similar foot. One individual spun a fine gluti- 
nous thread from the middle of the foot, and kept itself suspended for some 
time from the surface of the water, with the point of the shell downwards. I 
found a dead specimen of 0. ohliqua on the same ground with 0. Warreni. 

0. uinhilicaris, Malm. A young specimen from St. Magnus Bay, nearly 
globular, and thus exhibiting the same distinctive characters as the adult. 

Siphonodentalium Lofotense and Cadidus (or Loxoporns) suhfusiformis were 
again found, the former being more widely distributed. Both inhabit the 
Mediterranean : and the latter is a Sicilian and Viennese fossil. 1 had an 
excellent opportunity of observing them ahve and in active motion. The 
thread-like and extensile organs by which the Solenoconchia seize their prey 
are unlike the tentacles of any Gastropod, and their function is quite dif- 
ferent. I would call these organs captaada, an appropriate word and not less 
clas.«ically formed than tentacula. 

Leda pernv.la was dredged, as before, in St. Magnus Bay ; but with it was 
a dead and apparently semifossil valve of Tellina calcaria. 1 must therefore 
hesitate in considering the one more than the other recent or an inhabitant 
of the British seas at the present time. 

Perhaps Lamellaria prodita, Love'n, may be added to the list; but unfor- 
tunately the specimen was handled too roughly, and the shell was crushed to 

1868. 8 



234 REPORT— 1868. 

pieces. Its extraordinary size (considerably more than an inch in length) 
and the depth (110 fathoms) at which it was dredged deserve notice. 

Being in the south of Europe last winter I had an opportunity of examin- 
ing Mediterranean and Adriatic shells ; and the result greatly surprised as 
well as interested me. The dredgings of Capt. Acton (the Commandant of the 
Italian navy) in the Gidf of Naples, and the extensive collections of Dr. Tiberi 
at Portici, General Stefanis at Naples, Herr Weinkauf from Algeria, and 
of Dr. Brusina at Zara, especially yielded a vast quantity of new material 
for a comparison of the marine testacea of the north and south of Europe. 
Many of the species having been described (some insuiEcientty) under dif- 
ferent names, the difficulty of identification is considerable ; but there is no 
doubt that a remarkable concordance exists, and to a great extent, between 
the moUusca which inhabit the deeper parts of the Atlantic and Mediterranean 
seas from 62° to 36° N. lat. The littoral kinds differ much more — a cir- 
cumstance which may have been occasioned by climatal conditions. To ex- 
emplify the former proposition I subjoin a list of 76 species, usually considered 
northern, which are common to the North Sea and the Mediterranean, with 
their principal synonyms. 

Kritnes of Sjjecies. Synotiyms. 

Terebratula caput-serpentis, Linne. ^ 

Argiope luuifera, Fhilippi Terebratula cistellula, Seaj-les Wood. m 

Crania anomala, Midler Anomia turbinata, PoH. 

Pecten septemradiatus, Mull. Ostrea inflexa and O. clavata, PoK. 

P. aratus, Gmelin P. Bruei, Pdi/rcmdeati. 

P. Testae, Bwmia P. fiutivus, Loven. 

P. striatus, Midi. 

P. Hoskynsi, Forbes P. imbrifer, Lor. 

P. vitreus, CJiemnitz P. Gemellarii-filii, Bioncli. 

P. similis, Laskey P. pj'gmseus, von 3Iiinster. 

Lima Sarsii, Lov Perhaps L. crassa, Forbes. 

L. elliptica, Jeffreys. 

L. subauriculata, Montagu,. 

Pinna rudis, L P. pectinata of some authors, not 

Mytilus phaseolinus, PA. of Linne. 

Modiolaria discors, L. 
Nucula nitida, G. B. Soicerby. 

N. tenuis, Mont N.decipiens, Ph.; N. segeensis, Jbr6. 

Leda pygmsea, v. Miinst, 

Ai-ca obliqua, Ph A. Kovenii, Danielssen. 

A. nodulosa, Midi. A. scabra, Puli; A. aspera, Ph. 

Lepton nitidum, Tnrtm. 
Montacuta ferruginosa, Mont. 
Lucina borealis, L. 
Axinus Croulinensis, Jeffr. 
Cyamium minutmn, Fabricim. 

Cardium minimum, Ph C. suecicum, Lor. 

Astarte sulcata, Da Costa Tellina fusca, Poll. 

Luciuopsis undata, Pennant Venus incompta, Ph. 

Tellina balthica, L T. rubigiuosa, Puli. 

T. pusilla. Ph. 

Scrobicularia nitida, Midi. Syndesmya intermedia, Thompson. 

Lyonsia Norvegica, Ch Pandorink coruscans, Scaccht. 

Thracia couvexa, W. Wood T. veutricosa, Ph. 

Nerera rostrata, Spenc/ler N. attenuata, Forb. 

Xylopbaga dorsalis, Tini.. 

Siphouodentalium Lofotense, Sars. 

S. quinquangulai-e, Forb Dentalium variabile, Costa (Faun. 

Nap.), not of Deshayes ; S. penta- 

gonum, Sars, 



ON DREDGING AMONG THE SHETLAND ISLES. 235 

Names of Species. Synontjms. 

Cadulus siibfiisifonuis, Sars. 
Chiton Hanleyi, Bean. 
0. cancellatiis, G. B. Soiv. 

C. cinereus, L C. asellus, Sp. 

C. Isevis, Mont C. coralliniis, Risso. 

Tectura virginea, MiiU. 
Propilidium ancyloides, Forh. 

Scissurella crispata, Fleming S. aspera, Ph., var. 

Trochus cinerarias, L., var. variegata. 

Rissoa reticidata, Mont R- Beanii, Hanlet/. 

IL cimicoides, Forb R. sculpta, Forbes Si' Hanexj, not of 

R. Zetlandica, Mont. Philipjti- 

R. abyssicola, Forh. 

R. pai-va, Mont., and var. intemipta R. obscura and R. simplex, Ph. 

R. inconspicua, Alder. 

R. albella, Lov R. Oenensis, Brusina. 

R. \'itrea, 3Iont. 

Jefli-eysia diapliana, Aid. Rissoa ? glabra, Aid., not of Broion. 

J. opalina, Jeffr. 

Scalaiia Trevelyana, Leach. 

Aclis Walleri, Jeffr. 

Odostomia clavula, Lov. 

O. albella, Lov. 

O. umbilicaris, Malm. 

0. conspicua, Aid. 

O. Scillfe, Scacchi. 

0. nitidissima, Mont. 

Eiilima bUineata, Aid. 

Natica catena. Da C. Probably Nerita Lelicina, Brocchi 

Velutina Itevigata, Penn. 

Cerithium metula, Lov Mediterranean,_^fZe Hanley. 

Purpura lapillus, L. 

Trophon Morchi, Malm Bela demersa, Tiber i. 

Bulla utriculus, Brocchi B. Crancbii, Leach. 

Philine scabra. Mull BuUrea angustata, Biv. 

Aplysia punctata, Cuvier A. hybrida, J. Sowerhj. 

Spinalis retroversiis, Fl Scsea stenogyra, Ph. ; oceanic. 

Clio pyramidata, L Oceanic. 

How is this concordance to be accounted for ? I have carefully read again 
Forbes's elaborate essay " On the Connexion between the distribution of the 
existing Fauna and Flora of the British Isles, and the Geological changes 
which have affected their area, especially during the epoch of the Northern 
Drift " (Memoirs of the Geological Survey of Great Britain, vol. i. 1846) ; but 
I cannot find in it a satisfactory solution of the question. He, indeed, men- 
tions the continuance of some " arctic " species in the British seas, the rest 
having " retired for ever," and that certain other species which he called 
" Boreal or Celtic " occurred in a fossil state in Sicily ; and he states (p. 390) 
that " in the deepest of the regions of depth in the ^gean " the same repre- 
sentation of a northern fauna as exists in our own seas is maintained, " partly 
by identical and partly by representative forms." The instances he gives do 
not support such a view ; and I am not a believer in " representative forms." 
He evidently was not aware of the fact that boreal (not arctic) species still 
live in the Mediterranean. I, however, fully agree with him that at some 
former period (which he designates "the newer pliocene epoch") there was 
an open communication between the Atlantic (according to him the " North 
Seas") and the Mediterranean, by which the fauna became diffused. I 
should be inchned to place the Atlantic point of communication at Bordeaux, 
and that of the Mediterranean at Narbonne, in the line of the Languedoc 



s 



o 



236 REPORT — 1868. 

Canal, whicli extends from one coast to the other, and is very little above 
the present level of the sea. This communication must have been very wide ; 
and it remained open during the glacial epoch, which affected not only the 
north of Europe, hut also Naples, Sicily, and probably Rhodes. Dr. Tiberi 
showed me a fine valve of Pecten IslioirUcus which had lately been fished up 
in the Gulf of Naples at a depth of 50 fathoms, and with it a valve of 
P. opercularis quite as large as northern specimens ; both the valves were in 
a semifossil state, and the former was covered with the same Greenland species 
of Sjjirorbis (S. canreUafiis, Fabr.) as I noticed on valves of P. Ishmdicus 
dredged in the Shetland seas at depths varpug from 75 to 170 fathoms. 
Sir Charles Lyell has not adverted, in the last edition of his ' Principles of 
Geology,' to the remarkable occurrence of such glacial fossils in the Shetland 
sea-bed, to which I called the attention of geologists in my former Reports 
as well as in the second volume of ' British Conchology,' p. 58 ; and he 
seems to have overlooked the observations of Philippi and Seguenza on 
the fossils of Calabria and Sicily, when he stated (Princ. Geol. i. p. 298) that 
" deposits filled with arctic species of marine shells are to be seen in full force 
on the North American continent ten or more degrees further south than in 
Europe." Possibly he was misled by one of Forbes's conclusions (Rep. Geol. 
Surv. p. 402), that " no glacial beds are known in Southern Europe." This, 
however, was more than twenty years ago. I have myself identified from 
the Calabrian and Sicilian deposits several high-uortliern shells (e. g. Tcre- 
hratula cranium., T. septata, Lima e.vcavata, MytUua modiolus, Gijprina Islan- 
dicn, Ml/a fruncata, var. UddevaUensis, Saxicava Norvegica, Puncturella Noa- 
cJiina, Eiiiari/inula crassa, Buccinum unditum, and JViiticn offinis or clausa), 
and from the Rhodian deposits Terehrattda septata and Lima Sarsii. 

My old companion, Mr. Waller, picked up on the b^ach in a small bay on 
the west coast of Shetland a shell of Spirula aiistndis. It is a tropical 
Cephalopod, and is not unfrequently thrown up by tlie waves on the southern 
and western shores of England, Wales, and Ireland, together with exotic 
species of Teredo, lanthina, and Hi/ahva brought from southern latitudes. 
Dr. Morch informs me that several shells of the Spirida have this year been 
found in the Faroe Isles. The transport of such tropical productions to 
northern latitudes has been usnallj" attributed to the Gulf-stream. It now, 
however, appears more probable that this is the consequence, not of the direct 
action and course of the Gulf-stream, but of the prevalence of westerly and 
south-westerly winds, which waft onwards to northci-n latitudes, in a north- 
erly and north-easterly direction, the floating objects carried to a certain 
distance by the Gulf-stream. The direct course of the Gulf-stream has not 
been observed further north than about 45° N. lat. ; from that point it would 
seem to dwindle into a north-castei'ly surface drift. A chart will shortly be 
published by the Admiralty in explanation of this view of the case ; and the 
following papers on the subject ought to be consulted by physical geographers : 
— Dr. Stark " On the Temperature of the Sea around the coasts of Scotland 
during the years 1857 and 1858, and the bearing of the facts on the theoiy 
that the mild climate of Great Britain during winter is dependent on the 
Gulf-stream" (Trans. R. S. Edin. 1859), and Capt. Thomas's tables and re- 
marks in Mr. Alex. Buchau's Report " On the Temperature of the Sea on 
the Coast of Scotland '' (Journ. Scottish ileteor. Soc. Oct. 1865). See also 
' Br. Conch.' vol. i. (Introd.) pp. xcviii and xcix. 

I will add a short summarj' of the observations recorded in my Reports on 
Shetland dredgings and in the work last cited. 

1. The bathymetrical zones have been too much divided by Risso and sub- 
sequent authors. There are two principal zones, littoral and submarine ; the 
nature of the habitat and the supply of food influence the residence and mi- 



ON DREDGING AMONG THE SHETLAND ISLES. 237 

gration of animals, not the comparative depth of water. Psammobia costu- 
lata and Bucciniim undatitm are instances in support of this proposition. 

2. Specimens or varieties of the same species are larger in the littoral and 
laminarian zones than in deeper water : e. g. Mactra soUdct and its variety 
elliptica, Sohcurtus candklus, Pandora inceqidvaJvis and its variety ohtusa or 
pinna, Chiton Javis, Tectura virghwi, Trochus zizyphinus, Pkurotoma Iceul- 
gata, and Philine aperta. 

3. The size of North-European specimens is usually greater than that of 
South-European specimens of the same species, e. g. Pecten septemradiatus, 
P. opercidaris, Lima hians, Mijtdus Adriuticus, Isocardia cor, Astarte sulcata, 
Venus exoleta, V. lincta, Ttllina balaustina, Chiton Hanleyi, Tectara vircfinea, 
Natica Alderi, Defrancia teres, D. purpurea, and BuUa utriculus. 

4. The coloiir of specimens from the greatest dejiths is not less vivid than 
of those from shallow water, although each zone has colourless specimens. 
Venus ovata, Trochus zizijphinus, Turritclla terehra, and Eulima hilineata may 
be mentioned as examples. This was lately confirmed by a great authority, 
Professor Sars,who has given* numerous instances in illustration of it, founded 
on his sou's drcdgings at depths varying from 250 to 300 fathoms among 
the Loffoden Isles. The recent investigations of Dr. W. B. Carpenter and Pro- 
fessor Wyville Thomson in the North Atlantic, by means of the dredge, at 
much greater depths show also tliat the shells there procured (e. g. Venus ovata 
and Columhella haliceeti) were liighly coloured and variegated. In the ' Bul- 
letin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology ' at Harvard College, Cambridge, 
U.S., for ISliS, wiU be found an interesting paper by Count L. F. Pourtales, 
entitled "Contributions to the Fauna of the Gulf-stream at great depths." 
He says that at the greatest depths which he explored, reaching to .517 fathoms, 
" the prevaihng colours are white, pink, sometimes playing into orange, and a 
pale green. Blue was only seen in a small encrusting sponge." And he 
further remarks that " the deep-sea animals have generally well- developed 
eyes, larger, if anything, than those of their congeners of shallow water." 

5. Mollusca inhabiting deep water have a larger supply of oxygen for the 
aeration of their gills than those which Uve in shallow water. See my account 
of Columhella haliceeti. 

6. The occurrence of the same species in the North Sea and the Mediter- 
ranean results partly from former geological or cosmical conditions, and partly 
from a communication which once existed between the Bay of Biscay and the 
Gulf of Lyons. 

7. Oceanic or floating shells of exotic species are carried northwards by west- 
erly winds, and not directly by the Gulf-stream,which does not reach our coasts. 

8. Land and freshwater mollusca are scarce in Shetland, owing to the 
scantiness of succulent vegetation for their food, and of lime for the con- 
struction of their shells. These are smaller than southern specimens ; and 
the same fact is observable with