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Full text of "Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science"

S.I K 



REPORT 



OF THE 



THIRTY -NINTH MEETING 



OF THE 



BRITISH ASSOCIATION 



FOB THE 



ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE ; 



HET.D AT 



EXETER IN AUGUST 1869. 



LONDON: 

JOHN MURRAY^, ALBEMARLE STREET. 

1870. 



PRINTED BY 
TAYLOR ^ND FRANCIS, RED LION COURT, FLEET STREET. 



FL.VMMAJf. 





CONTENTS. 



Page 

Objects and Rules of the Association xvii 

Places of Meeting and Officers from commencement xx 

Presidents and Secretaries of the Sections of the Association from com- 
mencement XXV 

Evening Lectures xxxiv 

Lectures to the Operative Classes xxxvi 

Officers and Council, 1869-70 xxxvii 

Table showing the Attendance and Receipts at previoxis Meetings . . xxxviii 

Treasurer's Account xl 

Officers of Sectional Committees xli 

Pieport of the Council to the General Committee xUi 

Report of the Kew Committee, 1868-69 xliv 

Recommendations of the General Committee for Additional Reports 

and Researches in Science Ixxv 

Synopsis of Money Grants Ixxx 

General Statement of Sums paid on account of Grants for Scientific 

Purposes Ixxxi 

Extracts from Resolutions of the General Committee Ixxxvii 

Arrangement of the General Meetings Ixxxvii 

Address by the President, Professor Stokes, D.C.L., Sec.R.S Lxxxix 



REPORTS OF RESEARCHES IK SCIENCE. 

Report of a Committee appointed at the Nottingham Meeting, 1866, 
for the purpose of Exploring the Plant-beds of North Greenland, 

a 2 



IV CONTENTS. 

Page 

consisting of Mr. Robert H. Scott, Dr. Hookee, Mr. E. H. Whympee, 
Dr. E. P. Wright, and Sir W. C. Teeveltan, Bart 1 

Report of a Committee, consisting of Mr. C. W. Mereifield, F.R.S., 
Mr. G. P. Bidder, Captain Douglas Galton, F.R.S., Mr. F. Galton, 
E.R.S., Professor Ranfcine, F.R.S., and Mr. W. Froude, appointed to 
report on the state of existing knowledge on tlie Stabilitj', Propulsion, 
and Sea-going (Qualities of Ships, and as to the aj^plication which it 
maybe desirable to make to Her Majesty's Goverament on these sub- 
jects. Prepared for the Committee by C. W. Meeeifield, F.R.S. . . 10 

Report of the Committee appointed to consider and report how far 
Coroners' Inquisitions ai'e satisfactory Tribunals for the Investigation 
of Boiler Explosions, and how those Tribunals may be improved, the 
Committee consisting of William Faiebaien , C.E., F.R.S., LL.D., &c., 
Joseph Whitwoeth, C.E., F.R.S., John Penn, C.E., F.R.S., John 
Hick, C.E., M.P., Feederick J. Bramwell, C.E., Thomas Webster, 
Q.C., Hugh Mason, Samuel Rigbt, William Richardson, C.E., and 
E. L.iviNGTON Fletchee, C.E 47 

Preliminary Report of the Committee appointed for the determination of 
the Gases existing in Solution in Well-waters. By Dr. E. Frank- 
land, F.R.S., and Herbert M'Leod, F.C.S. (Reporter, Herbert 
M'Leod.) 55 

The Pressure of Taxation on Real Property. By Feedeeick Purdy, 
Principal of the Statistical Department, Poor Law Board, and one of 
the Honorary Secretaries of the Statistical Society 57 

On the Chemical Reactions of Light discovered by Professor Tyndall. 
By Professor Moreen, of Marseilles 66 

On Fossils obtained at XUtorkan Quarry, Co. Kilkenny. By Wm. Hel- 
LiEE Baily, F.L.S., F.G.S 73 

Report of the Lunar Committee for Mapping the Surface of the Moon. 
Drawn up by W. R. Birt, at the request of the Committee, consisting 
of James Glaishee, F.R.S., Lord Rosse, F.R.S., Sir J. Heeschel, 
Bart., F.R.S., Professor Phillips, F.R.S., Rev. C. Peitchaed, F.R.S., 
W. HuGGiNs, F.R.S., W. Grove, F.R.S., Waeeen De La Rue, F.R.S., 
C. Beooke, F.R.S., Rev. T. W. Webb, F.R.A.S., Herr Schmidt, Ad- 
miral Mannees, President of the Royal Astronomical Society, Lieut.- 
Col. Steange, F.R.S., and W. R. Birt, F.R.A.S 76 

Report of the Committee on the Chemical Nature of Cast Iron. The 
Committee consists of F. A. Abel, F.R.S., D. Forbes, F.R.S., and A. 
Matthiessen, F.R.S 82 

Report of the Committee appointed to explore the Marine Fauna and 
Flora of the South Coast of Devon and Cornwall. — No. 3. Consisting 
of C. Spence Bate, F.R.S., T. Cornish, Jonathan Couch, F.L.S., J. 
Qyrof Jeffreys, F.R.S., and J. Brooking Rowe, F.L.S. Reporter, 
C. Spence Bate 84 

Report on the practicability of establishing " A Close Time " for the 
protection of indigenous Animals. By a Committee, consisting of 



CbNTENTS. V 

Page 

F. BucKLAND, Ecv. H. B. Tristram, F.li.S., Tegetmeier, and H. E. 
Dresser (Reporter) 91 

Experiraeiital Researches on the Mechanical Properties of Steel. By 
W. Fairbairn, LL.D., F.R.S., &c 96 

Second Report on the British Fossil Corals. By Dr. P. Martin Duxcan, 
F.R.S., F. & Sec. Gcol. Soc 150 

Report of the Committee appointed to get cut and prepared Sections of 
Mouutain-Liracstoue Corals for Photographing. The Committee con- 
sists of Henry Woodward, F.G.S., Dr. Duncan, F.R.S., Professor 
Harkness, F.R.S., and James Thomson, F.G.S. (Reporter) 171 

Report on Ice as an Agent of Geologic Change. By a Committee, con- 
sisting of Professor Otto Torell, Professor R.amsat, LL.D., F.R.S., 
and H. Bauerman, F.G.S. (Reporter) 171 

Provisional Report of a Committee, consisting of Professor Tait, Pro- 
fessor Ttndall, and Dr. Balfour Stewart, appointed for the purpose 
of repeating Principal J. D. Forees's Experiments on the Thermal 
Conductivity of Iron, and of extending them to other Metals. By 
Professor Tait 175 

Report of the Committee for the purpose of investigating the rate of 
Increase of Underground Temperature downwards in various Loca- 
lities, of Dry Land and under Water. Drawn up by Professor Eve- 
rett, at the request of the Committee, consisting of Sir William 
Thomson, LL.D., F.R.S., E. W. Binney, F.R.S., F.G.S., Archibald 
Gbikie, F.R.S., F.G.S., James Glaisher, F.R.S., Rev. Dr. Graham, 
Prof. Fleeming Jenkin, F.R.S., Sir Charles Lyell, Bart., LL.D., 
F.R.S., J. Clerk Maxwell, F.R.S., George Maw, F.L.S., F.G.S., 
Prof. Phillips, LL.D., F.R.S.. William Pengelly, F.R.S., F.G.S., 
Prof. Ramsay, F.R.S., F.G.S., Balfour Stewart, LL.D., F.R.S., G. J. 
Symons, Prof. James Thomson, C.E., Prof. Young, M.D., F.R.S.E., 
and Prof. Everett, D.C.L., F.R.S.E., Secretary 176 

Fifth Report of the Committee for Exploring Kent's Cavern, Devon- 
shire. The Committee consisting of Sir Charles Lyell, Bart., F.R.S., 
Prof. Phillips, F.R.S., Sir John Lubbock, Bart., F.R.S., John Evans, 
F.R.S., E. Vivian, George Busk, F.R.S., William Boyd Dawkins, 
F.R.S., and William Pengelly, F.R.S. (Reporter) 189 

Report of the Committee on the Connexion between Chemical Consti- 
tution and Physiological Action. The Committee consists of Dr. A. 
Crum Brown, Dr. T. R. Eraser, and Dr. J. H. Balfour, F.R.S. The 
investigations were conducted and the Report prepared by Drs. A. 
Crum Brown and T. R. Eraser 209 

Report of a Committee, consisting of Lieut.-Col. Strange, F.R.S., Prof. 
Sir W. Thomson, F.R.S., Prof. Tyndall, F.R.S., Prof. Frankland, 
F.R.S., Dr. Stenhouse, F.R.S., Dr. Mann, F.R.A.S., W. Huggins, 
F.R.S., James Glaisher, F.R.S., Prof. Williamson, F.R.S., Prof. 
Stokes, F.R.S., Prof. Fleeming Jenkin, F.R.S., Prof. Hirst, F.R.S., 
Pfof. Huxley, F.R.S., and Dr. Balfour Stewart, F.R.S., appointed 
for the purpose of inquiring into, and of reporting to the British As- 



VI CONTENTS. 

Page 

sociation the opinion at which they may arrive concerning the follow- 
ing questions : — 

I. Does there exist in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ire- 

land sufficient provision for the vigorous prosecution of Physical 
Research ? 

II. If not, what further provision is needed ? and what measures 

should be taken to secure it ? 213 

On Emission, Absorption, and Eeflection of Obscure Heat. By Prof. 
Magnus 214 

Eeport on Observations of Luminous Meteors, 1868-69. By a Com- 
mittee, consisting of James Glaisher, F.R.S., of the Royal Obser- 
vatory, Greenwich, President of the Royal Microscopical and Meteo- 
rological Societies, Robert P. Greg, F.G.S., F.R.A.S., E. "VV. Bratlet, 
F.R.S., Alexander S. Herschel, F.R.A.S., and Charles Brooke, 
F.R.S., Secretary to the Meteorological Society 216 

Report on the best means of providing for a uniformity of Weights 
and Measures, with reference to the luterests of Science. By a 
Committee, consisting of Sir John Bowring, F.R.S., The Rt. Hon. 
C. B. Adderlet, M.P., Samuel Bro-sto, F.S.S., Dr. Farr, F.R.S., 
Frank P. Fellows, Prof. Frankland, F.R.S., Prof. Hennesst, F.R.S., 
James Heywood, F.R.S., Sir Robert Kane, F.R.S., Prof Leone Levi, 
Prof. W. A. Miller, F.R.S., Prof. Rankine, LL.D., F.R.S., C. W. 
Siemens, F.R.S., Col. Stkes, F.R.S., M.P., Prof. A. W. Williamson, 
F.R.S., James Yates, F.R.S., Dr. George Glover, Sir Joseph Whit- 
worth, Bart., F.R.S., J. R. Napier, H. Dircks, J. V. N. Bazalgette, 
W. Smith, Mr. W. Fairbairn, D.C.L., F.R.S., and John Robinson : — 
Prof. Leone Levi, Secretary 308 

Report on the Treatment and Utilization of Sewage. Drawn up by Dr. 
Benjamin H. Paul, at the request of the Committee, consisting of J. 
Bailet Denton, M. Inst. C.E., F.G.S., Dr. J. H. Gilbert, F.R.S., 
Richard B. Grantham, M. Inst. C.E., F.G.S., Chairman, W. D. Hard- 
ing, J. TnoRNHiLL Harrison, M. Inst. C.E., Dr. Benjamin H. Paul, 
Ph.D., F.C.S., Dr. R. Angus Smith, F.R.S., and Prof. J. A. Wanklyn. 313 

Supplement to the Second Report of the Committee on the Condensation 
and Analysis of Tables of Steamship Performance 330 

Report on Recent Progress in Elliptic and HypereUiptic Functions. By 
W. H. L. Russell, F.R.S 334 

Report on Mineral Veins in Carboniferous Limestone and their Organic 
Contents. By Charles Moore, F.G.S 360 

Notes on the Foraminifera of Mineral Veins and the adjacent Strata. By 
Henry B. Brady, F.L.S 381 

Report of the Rainfall Committee for the year 1868-69, consisting of 
C. Brooke, F.R.S. (Chairman), J. Glaisher, F.R.S., Prof. Phillips, 
F.R.S., J. F. Bateman, C.E., F.R.S., R. W. Mylne, C.E., F.R.S., 
T. Hawksley, C.E., Prof. Adams, F.R.S., C. Tomlinson, F.R.S., Prof. 
Sylvester, F.R.S., and G. J. Symons, Secretary 383 



CONTENTS. VU 

Page 

Interim Report of tlie Committee on the Laws of the Flow and Action 
of "Water containing Solid Matter in Suspension, consisting of T. 
Hawkslet, Prof. E.v.nkine, F.R.S., R. B. Gfi-iNTHAM, Sir A. S. Watjgh, 
F.R.S., and T. Login 402 

Interim Report by the Committee on Agricultural Machinery, consisting 
of the Duke of Btjccleuch, F.R.S., The Rev. Patetck Bell, David 
Geeig, J. Oldham, William Smith, C.E., Hakold Littledale, The 
Earl of Caithness, F.R.S., Robert Neilson, Prof. Rankine, F.R.S., 
F. J. Bramwell, Rev. Prof. Willis, F.R.S., and Charles Manbt, 
F.R.S. ; P. Le Neve Foster and J. P. Smith, Secretaries 404 

Report on the Physiological Action of the Methyl and Allied Series. 
By Benjamin W. Richardson, M.A., M.D., F.R.S 405 

On the Influence of Form, considered in Relation to the Strength of 
Railway Axles and other portions of Machinery subjected to rapid 
alterations of Strain. By F. J. Bramavell, C.E 422 

On the Penetration of Armour-plates with long Shells of large capacity 
fired obliquely. By Joseph Whiiworth, C.E., F.R.S., LL.D., D.C.L. 430 

Report of the Committee on Standards of Electrical Resistance 434 



NOTICES AND ABSTRACTS 



OF 

MISCELLANEOUS COMMUNICATIONS TO THE SECTIONS. 



MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICS. 

Address by Professor J. J. Sylvester, LL.D., F.R.S., President of the Section. 1 

Mathematics. 

Mr. W. K. Clifford on the Theory of Distance 9 

on the Umbilici of Anallagmatic Sui-faces 9 

Mr. M. Collins on the Common Tangents of Circles 9 

Mr. R. B. Hay^'ard's sketch of a Proof of Lagrange's Equation of Motion 

refeiTed to Generalized Coordinates 10 

Mr. F. W. Newman on CmTes of the Thii-d Degree, here called Tertian .... 10 

on the Curvature of Surfaces of the Second Degree .... 13 

on Conic Oscidation 13 

Dr. W. J. Macquorn Rankine's Summary of the Thermodynamic Theory 

of Waves of Finite Lono-itudinal Disturbance 14 



VIU CONTENTS. 

Page 

Mr. W. H. Russell on the Mechanical Tracing of Curves 15 

Professor Sylvester on Professor Christian Wiener's Stereoscopic Represen- 
tation of the Cubic Eikosi-heptagram 15 

on the Successive Involutes to a Circle 15 

AsTEOiroMT. 

Mr. W. R. BiBT on Secular Variations of Lunar Tints and Spots and Shadows 

on Plato 15 

Mr. William Huggins on the Heat of the Stars 18 

The Rev. R. Main on the Lon^tude of the RadclifFe Observatory, Oxford, as 
deduced fi'om Meridional Observations of the Moon, made at Greenwich 
and Oxford, in the years 1864-68 18 

on the Discordance usually observed between the results of 

Direct and Reflexion Observations of North Polar Distance IS 

's Remarks on the British Association Catalogue of Stars . . 19 

Dr. A. Neumayee on the recent fall of an Aerolite at Ea-ahenburg in the Pa- 
latinate 20 

The Rev. Dr. Robinson on the Appearance of the Nebula in Argo as seen in 

the Great Melbourne Telescope 20 

Professor P. G. Tait on Comets 21 

Optics. 

Mr. Chaeles Beooke on the Influence of Annealing on Crystalline Structure 21 

Dr. J. H. Gladstone on the Relation between the Specific Refi-active Energies 

and the Combining Proportions of Metals 22 

Dr. Janssen's Methode poiu' obtenir les Images Monochromatiques des Corps 

Lumineux 23 

The Rev. Professor Jellett on a Method by which the Formation of certain 

definite Chemical Compounds may be Optically established 23 

Professor Aug. Moeeen on the Chemical Action of Light discovered by Pro- 
fessor Tyndall 24 

Mr. G. Johnstone Stoney on the Numerical Relations between the Wave- 

Lengths of the Hydrogen Rays 24 

Heat. 

Professor Gustav Magnus on the Absorption, Emission, and Reflection of 

Heat 25 

Meteoeologt. 

Mr. Rogers Field and G. J.Symons on the Determination of the Real Amount 

of Evaporation from the Surface of Water 25 

Mr. James Glaisher on the Changes of Temperature and Humidity of the 
Air up to 1000 feet, from observations made in the Car of M. GiflPard's 
Captive Balloon 27 

Dr. Henry Hudson on the Formation of Dew, and its Efiects 39 

Dr. Janssen's Faits divers de Physique Terrestre 41 

Dr. Mann on the Rainfall of Natal, South Africa 41 

Mr. Balfoue Stewaet's Remarks on Meteorological Reductions, with 

especial reference to the Element of Vapour 43 



contents. ^ 

Electbicitt. 

Page 

Professor G. C. Foster's Description of some Lecture-experiments in Elec- ^^ 
tricity j- 

Mr. J. P. Gassiot on the MetaUic Deposit obtained from the Induction-dis- ^^ 
charge in Vacuum-Tubes 

The Hon. J. W. Strutt on an Electromagnetic Experiment 46 

Mr. F. H. Varley on the Electric Balance 

Mr. Thomas T. P. Bruce Warren on Electrification 47 

Instritments. 

Mr. A. E. Fletcher on a new Anemometer for Measuring the Speed of Air 

in Flues and Chimneys 

Mr. F. Martin's Description of a New Self-recording Aneroid Barometer . . 51 
Mr. Frederick T. Mott on the Maury Barometer, a new Instrument for ^^ 

Measuring Altitudes 

Dr. Balfour Stewart on a Self-recording Rain-gauge 52 

Mr. G. Johnstone Stoney on ColUmators for adjusting Newtonian Telescopes 52 

. on a cheap form of Heliostat 53 

Lieut -Colonel A. Strange on the best Forms of Numerical Figures for Scien- 

tific Listruments, and a proposed Mode of Engraving them b6 

Mr. E. VivL\N on Self-registeiing Hygrometers 5-3 

Mr. T. Warner on Chambered Spirit-levels S4 

Mr. C. J. Woodward on a Self-setting Type Machine for recording the Houriy 

Horizontal Motion of Air ^4 



CHEMISTET, 

Address by H. Debus, Ph.D., F.R.S., President of the Section 54 

Dr. Thomas Andrews on the Absorption-bands of Bile 59 

Mr. Henry K. Bamber on the Water Supplies of Plymouth, Devonport, 

' Exeter, and St. Thomas ^ 

Mr I LowTHiAN Bell on the Decomposition of Carbonic Oxide by Spongy 

■ Iron ; ^2 

Mr. Frederick Braby on Extraction of Ammonia from Gas-Liquor (j3 

Dr H. Cook on the Registration of Atmospheric Ozone in the Bombay Presi- 
dency, and the chief Causes which influence its appreciable amount in the 

Atmosphere 

Professor F. Crace-Calvert on the Amount of Soluble and Insoluble Phos- 
phates in Wheat-Seed ^'^ 

Mr. J. Dewar and G. Cranston on some Reactions of Chloro-Sulphiuic Acid 07 

Mr. D. Fritsche's Notes on Structural Change in Block Tin 67 

M. H. M. Jacobi on the Electro-deposition of Iron 67 

Dr. Janssen sur le Spectre de la vapeur d'eau 67 

Note sur ime nouvelle Mi^thode pour la recherche de la Soude 

et des composes du Sodium par I'Analyse Spectrale 68 

The Rev. Professor Jellett on a Method of determining with accuracy the 

Ratio of the Rotating Power of Cane-sugar and Inverted Sugar 69 



X CONTENTS. 

Page 

Dr. A. MATTHrESSEN and C. R. Wbioht^oii the Action of Hydi-ocliloric Acid 

on Morphia Codeia GO 

Mr. W. D. INIiTCHELi., Are Flint Instruments of the first Stone Age found in 

the Drift ? 69 

Dr. Stevenson Macadam on the Economic Distillation of Gas from Cannel- 

Coal 09 

Dr. Thomas Moffat on the Oxidation of Phosphorus, and the Quantity of 
Phosphoric Acid excreted by the Kidneys in Connexion with Atmospheric 
Conditions 72 

on the Phosphorescence of the Sea and Ozone 72 

Dr. A. Oppenheim on Aceto-sulphu .ic Acid 72 

on Bromo-iodide of Mercury , 72 

Dr. T. L. Phipson on the Solubility of Lead and Copper in pure and impure 

Water 73 

on some new substances extracted from the Walnut .... 74 

Mr. William Chandler Roberts on a specimen of Obsidian from Java . . 74 

Sir. W. J. Russell on the Measurement of Gases as a branch of Volumetric 

Analysis 74 

Mr. H. C. SoRBY on Jai-gonia 75 

Mr. Peter Spence on raising a Temperature higher than 212° F. in certain 

Solutions by Steam of 212° F 75 

Mr. Edw. C. C. Stanford on a Chemical Method of treating the Excreta of 

Towns 76 

Mr. Charles Tomlinson on a remarkable Structural Appearance in Phosphorus 78 

on the Supposed Action of Light on Combustion. ... 78 

Mr. Walter Weldon on the Manufactm-e of Chlorine by means of perpetu- 
ally regenerated Manganite of Calcium 79 

Mr. Stephen Williajis on the Action of Phosphoric Chloride on Hydiic 

Sulphate 82 



GEOLOaT. 

Address by Professor Harkness, F.R.S., President of the Section 82 

Mr. Robert Brown on the Elevation and Depression of the Greenland Coast 85 

Mr. William C.arruthers on Reptilian Eggs from Secondary Strata 86 

on " Slickensides " 86 

Mr. ErGENE A. Conwell on a Fossil Mussel-shell foimd in the Drift in Ire- 
land 87 

Mr. Robert Ethehidge on the occurrence of a large Deposit of Terra-Cotta 

Clay at Watcombe, Torquay 87 

Mr. T. Davidson's Notes on the Brachiopoda hitherto obtained from the 

"Pebble-bed" of Budleigh-Salterton, near Exmouth in Devonshire .... 88 

Mr. C. Le Neve Foster on the Occurrence of the Mineral Scheelite (Tung- 
state of Lime) at Val Toppa Gold Mine, neai- Domodossola, Piedmont . . 88 

Mr. R. A. C. Godwin- Austen on the Devonian Group considered Geologically 

and Geograpliically 88 

Dr. HiCKs's Notes on the Discovery of some Fossil Plants in the Cambrian 

(Upper Longmynd) Rocks, near St. David's 90 

Mr. H. H. Howorth on the Extinction of the Mammoth 90 



CONTENTS. XI 

Page 

Mr. Edward Hull on tlie Source of the Quartzose Conglomerate of the New 

Red Sandstone of the Central portion of England 91 

Mr. Charles Jecks on the Crag Formation 91 

Mr. Julius Jeffreys on the Action upon Earthy Minerals of Water in the 
form of heated Steam, urged hy wood fuel, an experiment reported to the 
Association at its Meeting at Glasgow in 1840 92 

The Rev. J. D. La Touche on an Estimate of the quantity of Sedimentaiy 

Deposit in the Onny 93 

on Spheroidal Structure in Silurian Rocks .... 95 

Mr. John Edward IjEe's Notice of remarkable Glacial Strite lately exposed at 

Portmadoc 95 

Mr. G. A. Lebour on the Denudation of Western Brittany 95 

's Notes on some Granites of Lower Brittany 96 

Mr. James Logan Lobley on the Distribution of the British Fossil Lamelli- 

branchiata 96 

Dr. R. J. Mann on the Gold of Natal 96 

Mr. G. Maw on the Trappean Conglomerates of Middletown Hill, Montgome- 
ryshire , 96 

on Insect Remains and Shells from the Lower Bagshot Leaf-bed 

of Studland Bay, Dorsetshire 97 

Mr. L. C. Miall's experiments on Contortion of Moimtain Limestone 97 

IMr. C. Moore on a specimen of Teleosaunis from the Upper Lias 97 

Mr. H. Alleyne Nicholson on some New Forms of Graptolites 98 

Mr. G. Wareing Obmerod's Sketch of the Granite of the Northerly and 

Easterly Sides of Dartmoor 98 

Mr. C. W. Peach's Notice of the Discovery of Organic Remains in the Rocks 

between the Nare Head and Porthalla Cove, Cornwall 99 

Mr. W. Pengelly on the alleged occurrence of Hippopotamus major and 3Ia- 

chairodus latidens in Kent's Cavern 99 

on the Som-ce of the Miocene Clays of Bovey Tracey .... 99 

Mr. John Randall on the Denudation of the Shropshire and South Stafford- 
shire Coal-fields 100 

Mr. J. W. Reid on the Physical Causes which have produced the unequal 

Distribution of Laud and Water between the Hemispheres 100 

Mr. J. E. Taylor on certain Phenomena in the Drift near Norwich 100 

on the Water-bearing Strata in the neighbom-hood of Norwich 100 

M. Tchihatchef's " Paleontologie de I'Asie Mineure " 100 

Professor J. Tennant on the Diamonds received from the Cape of Good Hope 

during last year 101 

Mr. James Thomson on new forms of Pteroplax and other Carboniferous 
Labyrinthodonts, and other Meyalichthys, with Notes on their Structure 
by Professor Young 101 

on Teeth and Dermal Structure associated with Ctena- 

canthus , 102 

Mr. N. W^hitley on the Distribution of shattered Chalk Flints and Flakes in 

Devon and Cornwall 103 

Mr. H. Woodward on the Occurrence of Stylonurus in the Comstone of Here- 
ford 103 

on the Discovery of a large Myriapod of the genus Eu- 

phoberia in the Coal-measures of Kilmaurs 103 



Xll CbNTENTS. 

Page 

Mr. H. WooBWARD oij Freshwater Deposits of the Valley of the River Lea, 
in Essex 103 



BIOLOaT. 

Address by C. Spence Bate, F.R.S., F.L.S., Vice-President of the Section to 
the Department of Zoology and Botany 104 

Botany and Zoology. 

Miss Lydia E. Becker on alteration in the Structure of Lychnis diurna, ob- 
served in connexion with the development of a parasitic fungus lOG 

Mr. W. T. Blanford on the Fauna of British India, and its relations to the 
Ethiopian and so-called Indian Fauna 107 

Dr. BiBDwooD on the genus Boswellia, with Descriptions and Drawings of 
Three new Species 108 

Mr. C. E. Broome's remarks on a recently discovered Species of Myxogastcr 108 

Mr. R. Brown on the Mammalian Fauna of North-west America 109 

Mr. Frank Buckland on the Salmon Rivers of Devon and Cornwall, and 
how to improve them HI 

Dr. Robert 0. Cunningham on Chiaris alba HI 

on the Flora of the Strait of Magellan and 

West Coast of Patagonia 112 

Mr. George Gladstone's Microscopical Obsei-vations at Munster am Stein . 113 

Mr. F. F. Hallett on the Laws of the Development of Cereals 113 

Mr. Albany Hancock on some curious Fossil Fungi from the Black Shale of 
the Northumberland Coal-field 114 

Mr. W. P. Hiern on the Occurrence of Rapistru7n rugosum, All., in Surrev, 
Kent, and Somersetshire ^ . Hj. 

Dr. Maxwell T. Masters on the Relative Value of the Characters employed 
in the Classification of Plants 114 

Letter from Prof. Wyville Thomson to the Rev. A. M. Norman on the 
successful Dredging of H.M.S. ' Porcupine ' Ho 

Mr. W. Pengelly on Whale Remains washed ashore at Babbacombe, South 
Devon Hq 

Dr. W. R. Scott on a Hybrid or other variety of Perdiv cinerea found in De- 
vonshire 117 

Mr. Ralph Tate on the Land and Freshwater Mollusca of Nicaragua 117 

The Rev. H. B. Tristram on the Effect of Legislation on the Extinction of 
Animals Hg 

Mr. W. F. Webb's Five Years' Experience in Artificial Fish-breeding, show- 
ing in what waters Trout will and wiU not thrive, with some Remarks on 
Fish and British Fisheries Hg 

Mr. Henry Woodward on a new Isopod from Flinder's Island 118 

Prof. E. Perceval Wright on Rhinodon tijpicus, the largest known Shark. 118 

Anatomy and Physiology. 
Dr. Henry Blanc, Human Vaccine Lymph and Heifer Lj^ph compared . . 118 
Mr. W. Kencely Bridgman on Voltaic Electricity in relation to Physiology 119 



CONTENTS. Xlll 

Page 

Prof. Cleland on the Intei-pretation of the Limbs and Lower Jaw 119 

— on the Human Mesocolon illustrated by that of the Wombat. 120 

Mr. John C. Galton on the Myology of Cycluthurtts didactylm 121 

Mr. R. Garner on the Homologies in the extremities of the Horse 121 

The Rev. W. V. Harcoubt on the Solvent Treatment of Uric- Acid Calculus, 
and the Quantitative Determination of Uric Acid in Urine 122 

Dr. Charles Kidd on the Physiology of Sleep and of Chloroform Anaesthesia 126 
Dr. J. D. He.a.ton's further Observations on Dendroidal Forms assxmied by 

Minerals 127 

Dr. J. BuRDON Sanderson's description of an Apparatus for Measm-ing and 

Recording the Respiratory and Cardiac Movements of the Chest 128 

Dr. Benjamin W. Richardson on the Physiological Action of Hydrate of 
Chloral 129 

Dr. Wilson on the Moral Imbecility of Habitual Criminals, exemplified by 
Cranial Measurements 129 

Ethnology, etc. 

Vice-Admiral Sir E. Belcher on Stone Implements from Rangoon 129 

Mr. C. Carter Blake and R. S. Charnock's Notes on Mosquito and Wulwa 

Dialects 129 

Mr. James Bonwick on the Origin of the Tasmanians, Geologically considered. 129 

Mr. W. C. Dendy on the Primitive Status of Man 130 

Mr. Francis Drake on Human Remains in the Gravel of Leicestershire . . 1.30 
Rev. Edgar N. Dumbleton on a Crannoge in Wales 130 

Dr. P. M. Duncan on the Age of the Human Remains in the Cave of Cro- 
Magnon in the Valley of the Vezere 130 

Colonel A. Lane Fox on the Discovery of Flint Implements of Palaeolithic 
Type in the Gravel of the Thames Valley at Acton and Ealing 1.^0 

Sir. Archdeacon Freeman on Man and the Animals, being a Counter Theory 
to Mr. Darwin's as to the Origin of Species 132 

Mr. E. Garner on the Brain of a Negro 132 

Sir Duncan Gibe on the Paucity of Aboriginal Monuments in Canada 133 

on an Obstacle to European Longevity beyond 70 years . . 133 

on a Cause of Diminished Longevity among the Jews. ... 134 

Mr. Townshend M. Hall on the Method of forming the Flint Flakes used 
by the early inhabitants of Devon, in Prehistoric Times 134 

Mr. W. S. Hall on the Esquimaux considered in their relationship to Man's 
Antiquity 135 

Mr. II. H. Ho-worth on the Circassians or White Kazars 135 

on a Frontier of Ethnology and Geology 135 

The Rev. A. Hume on the so-called " Petrified Human Eyes," from the Graves 
of the Dead, Aiica, Peru 135 

Mr. G. Henry Kinahan's Notes on the Race Elements of the Irish People . . 136 

Dr. Richard King on the Natives of Vancouver's Island 137 

Mr. A. L. Lewis's Notes on the Builders and the pui-poses of Megalithic Mo- 
numents 137 

Sir John Lubbock on the Origin of Civilization and the Primitive Condition 
of Man.— Part II 137 



XIV CONTENTS. 

Page 
The Rev. J. M'Cann's Philosophical Objection to Dai^winism or Evolution. . 151 

The Rev. F. 0. Moeris on the Difficulties of Darwinism 151 

Mr. T. S. Pbideaux on the occasional definition of the Convolutions of the 
Brain on the exterior of the Skull 151 

Mr. J. SxiELiiNG on the Races of Morocco 151 

Mr. Ralph Tate's Notes on an Inscribed Rock 151 

Mr. C. Stantland Wake on Initial Life 151 

on the Race affinities of the Madecasees 151 

GEOGEAPHT. 

Address by Sir Babtle Frere, President of the Section 152 

Dr. C. Beke on a Canal to unite the Upper Nile and Red Sea 159 

Vice- Admiral Sir Edward Belcher on the Distribution of Heat on the Sea- 
surface throughout the Globe 159 

Dr. BiRDWooD on the Geography of the Frankincense Plant 159 

Mr. W. T. Blaneohd's Notes on a Journey in Northern Abyssinia 159 

Captain C. Dodd on a Recent Visit to the Suez Canal 160 

's Notes on the Runn of Cutch 160 

Mr. R. Edmonds on Extraordinary Agitations of the Sea 160 

Mr. A. G. FiNDLAY on the Supposed Influence of the Gulf-stream on the Cli- 
mate of North-West Europe 160 

Mr. T. D. FoRSTTH on Trade Routes between Northern India and Central Asia 161 

Dr. C. Le Neve Foster on the Existence of Sir Walter Raleigh's El Dorado 162 

Sir Bartle Frere on the Runn of Cutch and the Coimtries between Raj- 
pootana and Sind 163 

Captain R. V. Hamilton on the best Route to the North Pole 164 

M. Nicholas de Khanikof on the Latitude of Samarcand 164 

Mr. R. J. Mann on Erskine's Discovery of the Mouth of the Limpopo 164 

Captain R. C. Mayne on the Straits of Magellan and the Passages leading 
Northward to the Gulf of Penaa 164 

Dr. G. Neumayer's Scheme for a Scientific Exploration of Australia 165 

Dr. Gustav Oppert on the Kitai and Kara Kitai 165 

Mr. G. Peacock on the Encroachment of the Sea on Exmouth Warren .... 166 

Mr. T. Wyatt Reid on the Influence of Atmospheric Pressm-e on the Dis- 
placement of the Ocean 166 

Mr. Trelawney W. Saunders's Account of Mr. Cooper's Attempt to reach 
India from Western China 166 

, The Himalayas and Central Asia 167 

Mr. Francis F. Searle on Peruvian Explorations and Settlements on the 
Upper Amazons 167 

Mr. J. Stirling on a Visit to the Holy City of Fas, in Marocco 168 

Lieut.-Colonel A. Strange on a small Altazimuth Instrument for the Use of 
Explorers 168 

M. Pierre de Tcttthatchef on Central Asia 168 

Captain T. P. W^hite's Notice of a Bifurcate Stream at Glen Lednoch Head, 
in Perthshire 172 



CONTENTS, XV 

Page 

ECONOMIC SCIENCE aot) STATISTICS. 

Address by the Right Honourable Sir Stafford Northcote, Bart., C.B., 
U.C.L., M.P., President of tlie Section 173 

Mr. William Botley on the Condition of the Agiicultural Labourer 179 

Sir John Bowring on the Devonshire Association for the AdTancement of 
Science and Art 179 

on Penal Law as applied to Prison Discipline 180 

Mr. Ealph Brandon on some Statistics of Railways in their Relation to the 
Public 180 

Mr. Hyde Clarke on the Want of Statistics on the Question of Mixed Races 181 

on the Distinction between Rent and Land-Tax in India . 181 

's Note on Variations in Rapidity and Rate of Human 

Thought 181 

Je.sse Collings on some Statistics of the National Education -League 182 

Mr. J. Bailey Denton on the Technical Education of the Agricultiu-al La- 
bomer 182 

Mr. Henry Dihcks's Statistics of Invention illustrating the Policy of a Pa- 
tent-Law 182 

Dr. W. Farr on International Coinage 18.3 

Mr. Frank P. Fellowes on our National Accounts 190 

Rev. Canon Girdlestone on the Maintenance of Schools in Rural Districts 191 

Mr. John Glover on the Decline of Shipbuilding on the Thames 191 

Mr. Archibald Hamilton on the Economic Progress of New Zealand 192 

Mr. W. Neilson Hancock's Accoimt of the System of Local Taxation in 
Ireland I93 

Mr. J. Heywood on the Examination Subjects for Admission into the Col- 
lege for Women at Hitchin I95 

on Municipal Government for Canadian Indian Reserves . . 19-5 

Mr. James Hunt Holley's Remarks on the Need of Science for the Deve- 
lopment of Agriculture I95 

Prof. Leone Lfa't on the Economic Condition of the Agricultural Labourer 
in England I95 

on Agricultiu-al Economics and Wages 195 

Mr. R. Main on Naval Finance 196 

Dr. R. J. Mann on Assisted Emigration 196 

Mr. F. Purdy's Statistical Notes on some Experiments in Agriculture 197 

on the Pressure of Taxation on Real Property 199 

Mr. W. H. Sankey on Weights and Measures 199 

Mr. James Stark's Contributions to Vital Statistics 199 

Mr. P. M. Tait on the Population and Mortality of Bombay, derived from the 
last Census and the Reports of the Health OiEcers of Bombay to the latest 
dates X99 

Rev. W. TuCKWELL on the Method of Teaching Physical Science 199 

MECHANICAL SCIENCE. 
Address by C. William SiemenS; F.R.S., President of the Section 200 



XVI CONTENTS. 

Page 

Mr. John Fhederic Bateman and Julian John Revy's Description of a 
proposed Cast-iron Tube for carr3aug a Railway across the Channel between 
the Coasts of England and France 206 

Mr. T. D. Bahry on the Utilization of Town Sewage 209 

Vice-Admiral Sir Edward Belcher on a Navigable Floating Dock 209 

Mr. J. T. Chillingworth on an Air-Engine 209 

Mr. Latimer Clark on the Birmingham Wire-Gauge 209 

Colonel H. Clerk on the Hydraulic Buffer, and Experiments on the Flow of 
Liquids through small Orifices at High Velocities 209 

Mr. R. Eaton on certain Economical Improvements in obtaining Motive Power 210 

Mr. Lavington E. Fletcher on Government Action with regard to Boiler 
Explosions 210 

Mr. R. E. Froude on the Hydraulic Internal Scraping of the Torquay Water- 
main 210 

Mr. William Froude on some Difficulties in the received View of Fluid 
Friction 211 

Mr. Thomas Login on Roads and Railways in Northern India, as affected by 
the Abrading and Transporting Power of Water 214 

Mr. J. D. Morrison's Description of a New System of House Ventilation . . 219 

Mr. William Smith on an Improved Vertical Annular High-pressure Steam- 
boiler 219 

Mr. G. J. Symons on a Method of determining the true amount of Evapora- 
tion from a Water-Surface 220 

Mr. Alfred Varley on Railway Passengers' and Guards' Communication . . 220 

Mr. Joseph Whitworth on the Penetration of Armour Plates by Shells with 
Heavy Bursting Charges Fired Obliquely 222 



APPENDIX. 

Dr. Benjamin W. Richardson on the Physiological Action of Hydrate of 
Chloral 222 

Dr. Richard King on the Natives of Vancouver's Island and British Columbia 225 

Mr. T. S. PniDEAUX on the Occasional Definition of the Convolutions of the 
Brain on the exterior of the Head 225 

Prof. Leone Levi on the Economical Condition and Wages of the Agricultural 
Labourer in England 226 

Mr. Richard Eaton on certain Economical Improvements in obtaining Mo- 
tive Power 228 



LIST OF PLATES. 



TLATE I. 

Illustrative of the Eeport of the Committee on tlie Stability, Propulsion, 
and Sea- going Qualities of Ships. 

PLATE II. 

Illustrative of Sir "W. PAiEBiiBs's llcport on the Mechanical Properties of 
Steel. 

PLATES III., IV. 
Illustrative of Mr. Bkamwell's Report on the Influence of Form on Strength. 

PLATE VI (should be Plate V). 
Illustrative of tlie Report of the Committee on Electrical Standards. 



ERRATA IN REPORT POR 1868. 

Reports, p. 399, lines 20-22, fur maximum still occiu's November, read maxima have 

occurred on tlic Cth-7th of December, but of which symptouis (Greg's A^) 
can be distinguished as cai'ly as the 23rd of November. 

p. 399, lines 23, 'l-\,for on... on... date, read in... in... mouth. 

p. 399, line 27, for liny read March or April 

p. 400, last line, for Chapclas. read Cbapelas-Coulvicr-Gravier. 

p. 403, lino 4 from bottom, /w- Max. 1843-52. read Max. J)oc. G-7, 1798 (?), 
1838, 1847, 1848-52. Perhaps connected with Biela's comet. 

p. 407, line 11 (Vdin bottom, for 12th of December, including, perliaps, read 
beginning of December, including 

p. 407, lust line, add, and Father Scechi that of •' urauoliths" to designate aerolites. 



ERRATA IN THE PRESENT VOLUME. 



Reports, p. 274, 20tli lino from bottom, for northward read southward 
„ 19th „ ,, for fifty-four read fifty 

„ 17th „ „ for south read north 

,, 16th „ ,, for northerly read southerly 



OBJECTS AND RULES 

OP 

THE ASSOCIATION. 



OBJECTS. 

The Association contemplates no interference with the ground occupied by 
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who cultivate Science in different parts of the British Empire, with one an- 
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the objects of Science, and a removal of any disadvantages of a public kind 
which impede its progress. 

RULES. 

ADMISSION OF MEMBERS AND ASSOCIATES. 

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All Members of a Philosophical Institution recommended by its Council 
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Associates for the year shall pay on admission the sum of one Pound. 
They shall not receive gratuitously the Reports of the Association, nor be 
eligible to serve on Committees, or to liold any office. 

1S69. h 



Xviii RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

The Association consists of the foUomng classes : — 

1. Life Members admitted from 1831 to 1845 inclusive, who have paid 
on admission Five Pounds as a composition. 

2. Life Members who in 1846, or in subsequent years, have paid on ad- 
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year. [May resume their Membership after intermission of Annual Pay- 
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GENEEAL COMMITTEE. 

The General Committee shall sit dui'iug the week of the Meeting, or 
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2. Members who have communicated any Paper to a Philosophical Society, 
which has been printed in its Transactions, and which relates to such subjects 
as are taken into consideration at the Sectional Meetings of the Association. 



RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. xix 

3. Office-bearers for the time being, or Delegates, altogether not exceed- 
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6. The Presidents, Vice-Presidents, and Secretaries of the Sections are 
ex-officio members of the General Committee for the time being. 

SECTIONAL COMMITTEES.! 

_ The General Committee shall appoint, at each Meeting, Committees, con- 
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The Committees shall report what subjects of investigation they would 
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COMMITTEE OP EECOMMENDATIOIfS. 

The General Committee shall appoint at each Meeting a Committee, which 
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and report to the General Committee the measures which they would advise 
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OPFICEES. 

A President, two or more Yiee-Presidents, one or more Secretaries, and a 
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COTJKOIL. 

In the intervals of the Meetings, the affairs of the Association shall be 
managed by a Council appointed by the General Committee. The Council 
may also assemble for the despatch of business during the week of the 
Meeting. 

TAPERS AND COMMUNICATIONS. 

The Author of any paper or communication shall be at liberty to reserve 
his right of property therein . 

ACCOtTNTS. 

The Accounts of the Association sliall be audited annually, by Auditors 
appointed by the Meeting. 

62 



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PRESIDENTS AND SECEETAKIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



XXV 



Presidents and Secretaries of the Sections of the Association. 



Date and Place. 



Presidents. 



Secretaries. 



MATHEMATICAL AlfD PHYSICAL SCIENCES. 

COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, I. MATHEMATICS AND GENERAL PHYSICS. 



1832. 
183.3. 
1834. 



Oxford 

Cambridge 
Edinburgh 



Davies Gilbert, D.C.L., P.E.S. 

Sir D. Brewster, F.R.S 

Eev. W. Wlievvell, F.E.S 



Rev. H. Coddington. 

Prof. Forbes. 

Prof. Forbes, Prof. Lloyd. 



18,35. 

1836. 

1837. 

1838. 

1839. 

1840. 

1841. 
1842. 

1843. 
1844. 
1845. 



Dublin .... 

Bristol .... 

Liverpool . 

Newcastle. 

Birmingham 

Glasgow . . 

Plymouth.. 
Manchester 

Cork 

York 

Cambridge. 



SECTION A. MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICS, 

Rev. Dr. Robinson 

Rev. William Whewell, F.R.S.. 
Sir D. Brewster, F.R.S 



1846. 

1847. 

1848. 
1849. 

18.50. 

1851. 
1852. 
1853. 
1854. 
1855. 
1856. 
1857. 



Southampton 
Oxford 



Sir J. F. W. Herschel, Bart., 

F.R.S. 
Rev. Prof Whewell, F.R.S. 

Prof. Forbes, F.R.S 

Rev. Prof Lloyd. F.R.S 

Very Rev. G. Peacock, D.D., 

F.R.S. 
Prof M'Culloch, M.R.I.A. , 

The Earl of Ro.sse, F.R.S 

The Very Rev. the Dean of Ely . 

Sir John F. W. Herschel, Bart., 

F.R.S. 
Rev. Prof Powell, M.A., F.R.S. . 



Swansea Lord Wrottesley, F.R.S 

Birmingham! William IIopkin.s, .F.R.S 

Edinburgh.. Prof J. D. Forbes, F.R.S., Sec. 
R.S.E. 



Ijjswich 

Belfast 

Hull 

Liverpool . . . 
Glasgow . . . 
Cheltenham 
Dublin 



Rev. W. Whewell, D.D., F.R.S., 

(fcc. 
Prof. W. Thomson, M.A., F.R.S. 

L. &E. 
The Dean of Ely, F.R.S 

Prof. G. G. Stokes, M.A., Sec. 

R.S. 
Rev. Prof Kelland, M.A., F.R.S. 

L.&E. 
Rev. R. Walker, M.A., F.R.S. ... 

Rev.T. R. Robinson,D.D.,F.R.S., 
M.R.I.A. 



Prof. Su- W. R. Hamilton, Prof. 

Wheatstone. 
Prof Forbes, W. S. Harris, F. W. 

Jerrard. 
W. S. Harris, Rev. Prof. Powell, Prof. 

Stevelly. 
Rev. Prof Chevallier, Major Sabine, 

Prof Stevelly. 
J. D. Chance, W. Snow Harris, Prof. 

Stevelly. 
Rev. Dr. Forbes, Prof. Stevelly, Arch. 

Smith. 
Prof. Stevelly. 
Prof M'Cuiloch, Prof. Stevelly, Rev. 

W. Score.sby. 
J. Nott, Prof Stevelly. 
Rev. Wm. Hev, Prof Stevelly. 
Rev. H. Goodwin, Prof SteVclly, G. 

G. Stokes. 
John Drew, Dr. Stevelly, G. G, 

Stokes. 
Eev. IT. Price, Prof Stevelly, G. G. 

Stoke.s. 
Dr. Stevelly, G. G. Stokes. 
Prof Stevelly, G. G. Stokes, W. 

Ridout Wills. 
W. J. Maequorn Rankine, Prof. 

Smyth, Prof Stevelly, Prof. G. G. 

Stokes. 
S. Jackson, W. J. Maequorn Rankine, 

Prof Stevelly, Prof G. G. Stokes. 
Prof Dixon, W. J. Maequorn Ran- 
kine, Prof Stevelly, J. Tyndall. 

B. Blaydes Haworth, J. D. SoUitt, 
Prof Stevelly, J. Welsh. 

J. Hartnup, H. G. Puckle, Prof. 

Stevelly, J. Tyndall, J. Welsh. 
Rev. Dr. Forbes, Prof. D. Gray, Prof. 

Tyndall. 

C. Brooke, Rev. T. A. Southwood, 
Prof Stevelly, Rev. J. C. TurnbuU. 

Prof. Curtis, Prof Hennessy, P. A, 
Ninnis, W. J. Maequorn Rankine, 
Prof Stevellv. 



XXVI 



REPORT — 1SG9. 



Date and Place. 



Presidents. 



1858. Leeds Rev. W.Wliewell, D.D. , V.P.R.S 



1859. 
1860. 
1861. 
1862. 
1863. 

1864. 
1865. 

1866. 
1867. 
1868. 
1869. 



Aberdeen .. 
Oxford 

Mancliester 
Cambridge . 
Newcastle... 



Bath... 
Birmingham 

Nottingham 
Dundee 

Norwich . . . 
Exeter 



The Earl of Eosse, M.A., K.P.. 

E.R.S. 
Rev. B. Pries, M.A., F.R.S 

a. B. Airy, M.A., D.C.L., F.E.S. 

Prof. G. G. Stokes, M.A., F.E.S. 



Prof. W. J. Ma 
C.E., F.R.S. 



Eankine 



Prof. Cayley, M.A., F.R.S., 

F.R.A.S. 
W. Spottiswoode, M.A., F.R.S.. 

F.R.A.S. 

Prof. Wheatstone, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Prof. Sir W. Thomson, D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
Prof. J. Tyudall, LL.D., F.R.S... 

Prof. J. J. Sylvester, LL.D., 
F.R.S. 



Secretaries. 



Rev. S. Earnshaw, J. P. Ilennessy, 

Prof Stevelly, H. J. S. Smith, Prof. 

Tyndall. 
J. P' Henuessy, Prof Maxwell, H. J. S. 

Smith, Prof. Sterelly. 
Rev. G. C. Bell, Eev. T. Eennison, 

Prof. Stevelly. 
Prof. E. B. Clifton, Prof. H. J. S. 

Smith, Prof. Stevelly. 
Prof. R. B. Clifton, Prof. H. J. S. 

Smith, Prof Stevelly. 
Rev. N. Ferrers, Prof. Fuller, F. Jen- 
kin, Prof. Stevelly, Rev. C. T. 

"\^niitley. 
Prof. Riller, F. Jenkin, Rev. G. 

Buckle, Prof SteveUy. 
Rev. T. N. Hutchinson', F. Jenkin, G. 

S. Mathews, Prof. H. J. S. Smith, 

J. M. Wilson. 
Fleeming Jenkin, Prof. H. J. S. Smith, 

Rev. S. N. Swann. 
Rev. G. Buckle, Prof. G. C. Foster, 

Prof. F idler, Prof Swan. 
Prof. G. 0. Foster, Rev. R. Harley, 

R. B. Hayward. 
Prof G. C. Foster, E. B. Hayward, 

W. K. Clifford. 



CHEMICAL SCIENCE. 



COMMITTEE OP SCIENCES, II. — CHEMISTKT, MINEKALOGY. 



1832. Oxford IJohn Dalton, D.C.L., F.E.S.. 

1833. Cambridge.. I John Dalton, D.C.L., F.E.S.. 

1834. Edinburgh...iDr. Hope 



James F. W. Johnston. 

Prof. aiiUer. 

Mr. Johnston, Dr. Christison. 



SECTION B.' — CHEMISTRY AND MINEKALOGY. 



1835. Dublin . 

1836. Bristol , 



1837. Liverpool.. 

1838. Newcastle.., 

1839. Birmingham 

1840. Glasgow .. 

1841. Plymouth.. 

1842. Manchester. 

1843. Cork 

1844. York 

1845. Cambridge 

1846. Southampton 

1847. Oxford ... 



Dr. T. Thomson, F.R.S. 
Eev. Prof. Gumming 



Michael Faraday, F.R.S 

Rev. William Whewell, F.E.S., 

Prof. T. Graham, F.R.S 

Dr. Thomas Thomson, F.R.S. , 



Dr. Daubeny, F.R.S. 



John Dalton, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Prof. Apjohn, M.RJ.A 

Prof. T. Graham, F.E.S 

Rev. Prof. Cumming 



Michael Faradav, D.C.L , F.R.S. 
Rcv.W.V.Harcourt, M.A.. F.R.S. 



Dr. Apjohn, Prof. Johnston. 

Dr. Apjohn, Dr. C. Henry, W. Hera- 
path. 

Prof. Johnston, Prof. Miller, Dr. 
Reynolds. 

Prof. Miller, R. L. Pattinson, Thomas 
Richardson. 

Golding Bird, M.D., Dr. J. B. Melson. 

Dr. E. D. Thomson, Dr. T. Clark, 
Dr. L. Playfair. 

J. Prideaux, Robert Hmit, W. M. 
Tweedy. 

Dr. L. Playfair, R. Hunt, J. Graham. 

R. Hunt, Dr. Sweeny. 

Dr. R. Playfoir, E. Solly, T.H. Barker. 

R. Hunt, J. P. Joule, Prof. Miller, 
E. Solly. 

Dr. Miller, R. Hunt, W. Randall. 

B. C. Brodie, E. Plunt, Prof Solly. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



xxvu 



Date and Place. 

1848. Swansea ... 

1849. Birmingham 

1850. Edinburgh . 

1851. Ipswich ... 

1852. Bellast 



185^. Hull 

1854. Liverpool... 

1855. Glasgow ... 
185G. Cheltenham 



Presidents. 



Secretaries. 



Richard Phillips. P.R.S 

John Percy. M.D., P.R.S 

Dr. Christison, Y.P.E.S.E 

Prof. Thoma.s Graham, FR.S 

Thomas Andrews, M.D., F.E.S. . 

Prof. J. P. W. Johnston, M.A.. 

P.E.S. 
Prof. W. A. Miller, M.D., F.R.S. 

Dr. Lyon Playfair, C.B., F.R.S. . 
Prof. B. C. Brodie, F.R.S. . . . 



1857. Dublin Prof. Apjohn, M.D., F.R.S., 

M.R.I.A. 

1858. Leeds Sii- J. F. W. Herschel, Bart. 

D.C.L. 
1851). Aberdeen ... Dr. Lyon Playfair, C.B., F.R.S. 

1860. Oxford 'prof. B. C. Brodie, F.R.S 

18G1. Manchester .'Prof. W. A. Miller, M.D., F.R.S. 

1862. Cambridge . Prof. W. A. Miller, M.D., F.R.S, 

1863. Newcastle... Dr. Alex. W.Williamson, F.R.S, 

1861. Bath W. Odling, M.B., F.R.S., F.C.S. 

1865. Birmingham Prof. W. A. Miller, M.D.,V.P.R.S. 

1866. Nottingham H. Bencc Jones, M.D., F.R.S. ... 



1867. Dundee 

1868. Norwich 

1869. Exeter .. 



Prof. T. Anderson,M.D., F.R.S.E 
Prof.E .Frankland, F.R.S., F.C.S. 
Dr. H. Debus, F.R.S., F.C.S. .. 



T. II. Henry, R. Hunt, T. Williams. 

E. Hunt, G. Shavi'. 

Dr. Andcr.son, E. Hunt, Dr. Wilson. 

T. J. Pearsall, W. S. Ward. 

Dr. Gladstone, Prof. Hodges, Prof. 

Eoni-.lds. 
II. S. Blundell, Prof. R. Hunt, T. J. 

Pearsall. 
Dr. Edwards, Dr. Gladstone, Dr, 

Prioc. 

Prof Frankland, Dr. H. E. Roscoe. 
J. Ilorsley, P. J. Worsley, Prof. 

Voelcker. 
Dr. Davy, Dr. Gladstone, Prof. Sul- 
livan. 
Dr. Gladstone, W. Odling, R. Rey- 
nolds. 
J. S. Brazier, Dr. Gladstone, G. D. 

Liveing, Dr. Odling. 
A. Vernon Ilarcoui't, G. D. Liveing, 

A. B. Northcote. 
A. Vernon Harcourt, G. D. Liveing. 
H. W. Elphinstone, W. OdHng, Prof. 

Roscoe. 
Prof. Liveing, H. L. Pattin.son, J. C. 

Stevenson. 
A. V. Harcourt, Prof. Liveing, R. 

Biggs. 
A, V. Harcourt, H. Adkins, Prof. 

Wanklyn, A. Winkler Wills. 
J. H. Atherton, Prof. Liveing, W. J. 

Ru.ssell, J. White. 
A. Crum Brown, Prof. G. D. Liveing, 

W. J. Russell. 
Dr. A. Cram Brown, Dr. W. J. Rus- 

s?ll, F. Sutton. 
Prof. A. Crum Brown, M.D., Dr. W. 

J. Russell, Dr. Atkinson. 



GEOLOGICAL (and, until 1851, GEOGRAPHICAL) SCIENCE. 

COJIMITTEE OF SCIENCES, in. GEOLOGY AND GEOGEAPHY. 



1832. Oxford 

18.33. Cambridge . 
1834. Ediubm-gh . 



R. I. Murchison, F.R.S. 
G. B. Greenough, F.R.S. 
Prof. Jameson 



John Taylor. 

W. Lonsdale, John Phillips. 
Prof. Phillips, T. Jameson Torrie, 
Rev. J. Yates. 



SECTION C. — GEOLOGY AND GEOGEAPHY. 



1835. DubUn , 

1836. Bristol 



1837. Liverpool... 

1838. Newcastle... 

1839. Birmingham 



R.J. Griffith 

Rev. Dr. Buekland, F.R.S.— G^eo- 

(jrufhy. E.I. Murchison,F.R.S.| 
Rev.Prof. Sedgwick,F.E.S.— Geo- 

^?-.Yp/?y. G.B.Grcenough.F.R.S. 

C. Lyell, F.R.S., V.P.G.S.— G'co- 
(jTUfhij. Lord Prudhope. 

Rev. Dr. Buekland, F.R.S.— frco- 
graphi/. G.B.Greonough,F.R.S.| 



ICaptain Portloek, T. J. Torrie. 
William Sanders, S. Stutchbury, T. J. 

Torrie. 
Captain Portloek, R. Hunter. — Gco- 

qraphy. Captain H. M. Denham, 

R.N. 
W. C. Trevelyan, Capt. Portloek.— 

Gcographt/. Cai^t. Washington. 
George Lloyd, M.D., H. E. Strickland, 

Charles Darwin. 



XXVlll 



REPOllT 18G9. 



Date and Place. 



Presidents. 



1840. Glasgow 

1841. Plymouth.. 

1842. Manchester 

1843. Cork 

1844. York 

1845. Cambridge ]. 

1846. Southampton 



Charles Lyell, F.E.S. — Gcoqra- 
ph;/. G.B. Greenough, F.E.S. 

H. T. De la Beche, F.E.S. 

E. I. Murchison, F.E.S 

Eichard E. Griffith, F.E.S.. 

M.E.I.A. 
Henry Warburton, M.P., Pres. 

Geol. Soc. 
Eev. Prof. Sedgwick, M. A., F.E.S. 

Leon.^rdIIorner,F.E.S. — Gcogra- 
Ijhy. G. B. Greenough, F.E.S. J 

Very Eev. Dr. Buckland, F.E.S. 



Secretaries. 



1847. Oxford 

1848. Swansea ... 

1849. Birmingham 

1850. Edinburgh *Sk- Eoderickl.Murchison.F.E.S. 



Sir IT. T. De la Beche, C.B., 
Sir Charles Lyell, F.E.S., F.G.S. 



W. J. Hamilton, D. Milne, Hugh 
Murray, H. E. Sti-iekland, John 
Scoular, M.D. 

W. J. Hamilton, Edward Moore,M.D., 
E. Hutton. 

E. W. Binnev, E. Hutton, Dr. E. 
Lloyd, H. E. Strickland.. 

Francis M. Jennings, H. E. Strick- 
land. 

Prof. Ansted, E._H. Bunbury. 

Eev. J. C. Gumming, A. C. Eamsay, 

Eev. W. Thorp. 
Eobert A. Austen, J. H. Norten, M.D., 

Prof. Oldliam. — Gcographi/. Dr. C. 

T.Beke.] 
Prof. Ansted, ' Prof. Oldham, A. C. 

Eamsay, J. Euskin. 
Starling Benson, Prof. Oldham, Prof. 

Eamsay. 
J. Beete Jukes, Prof. Oldliam, Prof. 

A. C. Eamsay. 
A. Keith Johnston, Hugh Miller, Pro- 
fessor Kicol. 



1851. Ipswich 

1852. Belfast.. 

1853. Hull 

1854. Liverpool .. 

1855. Glasgow ... 

1856. Cheltenham 

1857. Dublin 

1858. Leeds 

1859. Aberdeen... 

1860. Oxford 

1861. Manchester 

1862. Cambridge 

1863. Newcastle... 

1864. Bath 



SECTION c (continued). — geology. 

William Hopkins, M.A., F.E.S... C. J. F. Banbury, G. W. Ormcrod, 

Searles ^'^'ood. 
Lieut. -Col. Portlock,E.E., F.E.S.iJames Brvee, James MacAdam, Prof. 

M Coy .'Prof. Nicol. 

Prof. Sedgwick, F.E.S 'Prof. Harkness, William Lawton. 

Prof. Edward Forbes, F.E.S. ...'John Cunningham, Prof. Harknrss, 

G. W. Ormerod, J. AV. Wood.iH. 
James Bryce, Prof. Ilarkness, Pi-of. 

Nicol. 
Eev. P. B. Brodie, Eev. E. Hepworlh, 
Edward Hull, J. Scougall, T.Wright. 
Prof. Harl;ncss, Gilbert Sanders, Eo- 
bert H. Scott. 
Prof. Nieol, H. C. Sorby, E. \Y. 

Shaw. 
Prof. Harkness, Eev. J. Longmuir, H. 

C. Sorby. 
Pi'of. Harkness, Edward Hull, Capt. 
Woodall. 



Sir E. I. Murchison, F.E.S 

Prof. A. C. Eamsay, F.E.S 

The Lord Talbot de Malahide .. 
WUUam Hopkins, M.A., LL.D.^ 

Sir Charles Lyell, LL.D., D.C.L. 

F.E.S. 
Eev. Prof. Sedgwick, LL.D. 

F.E.S.. F.G.S. 



Sir E. L Murchison, D.C.L., Prof. Harkness, Edward Hull, T. Eu- 



LL.D.. F.E.S., &c. 
J. Beetc Jukes, M.A., F.E.S 

Prof. "Warington, W. Smyth, 

F.E.S., F.G.S. 
Prof J. Phillips, LL.D., F.E.S., 

F.G.S. 



pert Jones, G. W. Ormerod. 

Lucas Barrett, Prof. T. Eupert Jones, 
H. C. Sorbv. 

E. F. Boyd, John Daglish, H. C. Sor- 
by, Thomas Sopwith. 

W. B. Dawkinsi J. Johnston, H. C. 
Sorby, W. Pengelly. 



* At the 'Meeting of the General Committee held in Edinburgh, it was agreed "That the 
subject of Geograpliy be sepaj-atcd from Geology and combined with Ethnology, to const'- 
tute a separate Section, under the title of the " Geographical and Ethnological Section," 
for Prc^ident.s and S^retaries of which see page xxxi. 



PRESlDEiVTS AND SECRETAniES OF THE SECTIONS, 



Xxil 



Date and Place. 



18(55. Birmingham 

1866. Nottingham 

1867. Dundee... 

1868. Norwich 

1869. Exeter ... 



Presidents. 



SirE. I. Murchison, Bart.,E:.C.B. 

Prof.A.C. Eamsay, LL.D., F.E.S. 

Archibald Geikie, F.E.S., F.G.S. 

E. A. C. Godwin-Austen, P.E.S., 

F.G.S. 
Prof. E. Harkness, F.E.S., F.G.S. 



Secretaries. 



Eev. P. B. Brodio, J. Jones, Eev. E. 
Myers, H. C. Sorbv, W. Pengelly. 

E. Etheridge, W. Pongelly, T. Wil- 
son, G. II. Wriglit. 

Edward IIull, W. Pengelly, Henry 
Woodward. 

Eev. O. Fisher, Eev. J. Gunn, W. 
Pengelly, Eev. H. H. Winwood. 

W. Pengelly, W. Boyd Dawkius, Eev. 
H. H. Winwood. 



BIOLOGICAL SCIEJsX'ES. 



COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, IV. ZOOLOGY, BOTANY, PHYSIOLOGY, ANATOMY. 



1832. Oxford 

183.3. Cambridge* 
1831. Edinburgh 



Eev. P. B. Dmican, F.G.S 

Eev. W. L. P. GarnoM, F.L.S.... 
Prof. Graham 



Eev. Prof. J. S. Ilen.slow. 
C. C. Babington, D. Don. 
W. Yarrell, Prof. Bui-nett. 



18.3.5. DubUn , 
1830. Bristol 



1837. Liverpool.. 

1838. Newcastle.. 

1839. Brimingham 

1840. Glasgow .. 

1841. Plymouth.. 

1842. Manchester 

1843. Cork 

1844. York 



1845. Cambridge 

1846. Southampton 

1847. Oxford 



Eev. Prof. Henslow . 

W. S. MacLeay 

Sir W. Jardine, Bart. 



Prof. Owen, F.E.S 

Sir W. J. Hooker, LL.D 



SECTION D. ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY. 

Dr. Allman J. Curtis, Dr. Litton. 

J. Curtis, Prof. Don, Dr. Eiley, S. 
Eootsey. 

C. C. Babington, Eev. L. Jenyns, W. 
Swain.son. 

J. E. Gray, Prof. Jones, E. Owen, Dr. 
Eichardson. 

E. Forbes, W. Ick. E. Patterson. 

Prof. W. Couper, E. Forbes, E. Pat- 
terson. 

J. Couch, Dr. Lankester, E. Patterson. 

Dr. Lankester, E. Patterson, J. A. 
Turner. 

G. J. AUman, Dr. Lankester, E. Pat- 
terson. 

Prof Allman, IT. Goodsir, Dr. King, 
Dr. Lankester. 

Dr. Lankester, T. V. Wolla.ston. 

Dr. Lankester, T. V, Wollaston, H. 
Wooldridge. 

Dr. Lankester, Dr. Melville, T. V. 
Wollaston. 



John Eichardson, M.D., F.E.S. 
Hon. and Very Eev. W. Herbert, 

LL.D., F.L.S. 
William Thompson, F.L.S 

VervEsv. The Dean of Manches- 
ter. 

Eev. Prof. Henslow, F.L.S 

Sir J. Eichardson, M.D., F.E.S. 

H. E. Strickland, M.A., F.E.S.... 



SECTION D {continued). — zoology and botany, includlng physiology. 

[For the Presidents and Secretaries of the Anatomical and Physiological Subsections 
and the temporary Section E of Anatomy and Medicine, see pp. sxs, sxsi!] 

L. W. Dillwyn, F.E.S jDr. E. Wilbraham Falconer, A. Hen- 

frey. Dr. Lankester. 

William Spence, F.E.S >Dr. Lankester, Dr. Eussell. 

Prof Goodsir, F.E.S. L. &E. ... Prof. J. H. Bennett, M.D., Dr. Lan- 
kester, Dr. Douglas MacJagan. 
Prof. Allman, F. W. Johnston, Dr. E. 

Lankester. 
Dr. Dickie. George C. Hyndman, Dr. 
Edwin Lankester. 

* At this Meeting Physiology and Anatomy were made a separate Committee, for 
Presidents and Secretaries of wliicU see p. sxs. 



1848. Swansea 

1849. Birmingham 

1850. Edinburgh.. 

1851. Ipswich 

1852. Beha.st 



Rev. Prof Henslow, M.A., F.E.S. 
W. Ogiiby 



XXX 



REPORT 18G9. 



Date and Place. 



1853. 
1854. 
1855. 
185G. 

1857. 

1858. 

1859, 

1860. 

1861. 

1862. 
1863. 

1864. 

1865. 



HuU 

Liverpool ... 
Glasgow ... 
Cheltenham. 

Dublin 

Leeds 

Aberdeen ... 

Oxford 

Manchester. . 

Cambridge... 
Newcastle ... 



Bath 

Birmingham 



Presidents. 



Secretaries. 



C. C. Babington, M.A., P.E.S.... 

Prof. Balfom-, M.D., P.E..S 

Rov. Dr. Fleeming, F.E.S.E. ... 
Thomas Bell, P.E.S., Pres.L.S.... 

Prof. W.H. Harvey, M.D., F.E.S. 

C. C. Babington, M.A., F.E.S... . 

Sir W. Jardiue, Bart., F.E.S.E.. 

Eev. Prof. Henslow, F.L.S 

Prof. C. C. Babington, F.E.S. ... 

Prof. Huxley, F.E.S 

Prof. Balfour, M.D., F.E.S 

Dr. John E. Gray, F.E.S 

T. Thomson, M.D., F.E.S 



Eobert Hawison, Dr. E. Lankester. 
Isaac Bjerley, Dr. E. Lankester. 
William Keddie, Dr. Lankester. 
Dr. J. Aborcrombie, Prof. Buckman, 

Dr. Lankester. 
Prof. J. E.Kinahan,Dr. E. Lankester, 

Eobert Patterson, Dr. W. E. Steele. 
Henry Denny, Dr. Heaton, Dr. E. 

Lankester, Dr. E. Perceval Wright. 
Prof. Dickie, M.D., Dr. E. Lankester, 

Dr. Ogilvy. 
W. S. Church, Dr. E. Lankester, P. 

L. Sclater, Dr. E. Perceval Wright. 
Dr. T. Alcock, Dr. E. Lankester, Dr. 

P. L. Sclater, Dr. E. P. W'right. 
Alfred Newton, Dr. E. P. Wright. 
Dr. E. Charlton, A, Newton, Eev. H. 

B. Tristram, Dr. E. P. Wright. 
H. B. Brady, C. E. Broom, H. T. 

Stainton, Dr. E. P. Wright. 
Dr. J. Anthony, Eev. C. Clarke, Eev. 

H. B. Tristram, Dr. E. P. Wright. 



SECTioif D {continued). — biology* 



18G6. Nottingham 



1867. Dundee 

1868. Norwich .. 



1869. Exeter 



Prof. Huxley, LL.D., F.E.S.— 
Fhi/slological Bcp. Pi'of. Hum- 
phry, mID., F.E.S.— ylw^/iro^w- 
loqicalBcp. Alfred E. Wallace, 
F.E.G.S. 

Prof Sharpey, M.D., Sec. E.S.— 
Bcp. of Zool. and Hot. George 
Busk, M.D., F.E.S. 

Eev. M. J. Berkeley, F.L.S.— 
Bi'p. of Fhystologt/. W. H. 
Flower, F.E.S. 

George Busk, F.E.S., ¥Jj.'&.,Bcp. 
of But. and Zool. C. Spcnce 
Bate, F.E.S., Bcp. of Ethno. E 
B. Tylor. 



Dr. J. Beddard, W. Felkin, Eev. H. 
B. Tristram, W. Turner, E. B. 
Tylor, Dr. E. P. Wright. 



C. Spcnce Bate, Dr. S. Cobbold, Dr. 

M. Foster, H. T. Stainton, Eev. H. 

B. Tristram, Prof. W. Turner. 
Dr. T. S. Cobbold. G. W. Firth, Dr. 

M. Foster, Prof. Tawson, H. T. 

Stainton, Ilev. Dr. H. B. Tristram, 

Dr. E. P. Wright. 
Dr. S. Cobbold, Prof. Michael Foster, 

M.D., E. Eay Lankester, Professor 

Lawson, H. T. Stainton, Eev. H. B. 

Tristram. 



ANATOMICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL SCIENCES. 



COMMITTEES OP SCIENCES, V. ANAT05IT AND PHTSIOEOGT. 



1833. Cambridge. 

1834. Edinburgh., 



Dr. Haviland 

Dr. Abercrombie 



Dr. Bond, Mr. Paget. 

Dr. Eoget, Dr. William Thomson. 



SECTION E. (TINTIL 1847.) ANATOMT AND MEDICINE. 



1835. Dublin .... 
1886. Bristol .... 

1837. Liverpool . 

1838. Newcastle . . . 



Dr. Pritchard 

Dr. Eogct, F.E.S 

Prof. W. Clark, M.D. 

T. E. Headlam, M.D. 



1839. Birmingham John Yelloly, M.D., F.E.S. 



Dr. Harrison, Dr. Hart. 

Dr. Symonds. 

Dr. J. Carson, jun., James Long, Dr. 

J. E. W. Vose. 
T. M. Greenhow, Dr. J. E. W. Vose. 
Dr. G. O. Eees, F. Eyland. 



* At the ]\reeting of the General Committee at Birmingham, it was resolved : — " That the 
title of Section D be changed to Biology ; " and " That for the word 'Subsection,' in the 
rules for conducting the business of the Sections, the word ' Department ' be substituted." 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



XXX 



Date and Place. 



Presidents. 



Secretaries. 



1840. Glasgow .. 

1841. Plymouth.. 

1842. Manchester 

1843. Cork 

18-14. York 



James Watson, M.D 

P. M. Eoget, M.D., Sec.E.S. 

Edward Holme, M.D., F.L.S. 

Sir James Piteairn, M.D 

J. C. Pritcliard, M.D 



Dr. J. Brown, Prof. Couper, Prof. 

Eeid. 
Dr. J. Butter, J. Fuge, Dr. E. S. 

Sargent. 
Dr. Chaytor, Dr. Sargent. 
Dr. Jobu Popham, Dr. E. S. Sargent. 
I. Ericbsen, Dr. E. S. Sargent. 



SECTION E.- 



-PHYSIOLOGY. 



1845. Cambridge . 
184().Soutbampton 
1847. Oxford* ... 



Prof. J. Hayiland, M.D. . 
Prof. Owen, M.D., P.E.S.. 
Prof Ogle, M.D., F.E.S. . 



Dr. E. S. Sargent, Dr. Webster. 
C. P. Keele, Dr. Laycock, Dr. Sargent. 
Dr. Thomas, K. Chambers, W. P. 
Ormerod. 



1850. Edinburgh 
1855. Glasgow .. 

1857. Dublin 

1858. Leeds 

1859. Aberdeen .. 

18G0. Oxford 

1801. Manchester 
1862. Cambridge 
1803. Newcastle.. 

1864. Bath 

1865. Birminghm.f 



PHYSIOLOGICAL SUBSECTIONS OF SECTION D, 

Prof. Bennett, M.D., F.E.S.E. 
Prof. Allen Thomson, F.E.S. ... 

Prof. E. Harrison, M.D 

SirBeniaminBrodie,Bart..P.E.S 
Pi'of Sharper, M.D., Sec.E.S. ... 
Prof. G. Eolleston, M.D., F.L.S. 
Dr. John Daw, F.E.S.L. & E. . . . 

C. E. Paget, M.D 

Prof Eolleston, M.D., F.E.S. ... 
Dr. Edward Smith, LL.D., F.E.S. 
Prof. Acland, M.D., LL.D., F.E.S. 



Prof J. H. Corbett, Dr. J. Struthers. 
[Dr. E. D. Lyons, Prof. Eedfern. 
C. G. Wheelhouse. 
Prof. Bennett, Prof Eedfern. 
Dr. E. M'Donnell, Dr. Edward Smith. 
Dr. W. Eoberts, Dr. Edward Smith. 
G. F. Helm, Dr. Edward Smith. 
Dr. D. Embleton, Dr. W. Turner. 
J. S. Bartrum, Dr. W. Turner. 
Dr. A. Fleming, Dr. P. Heslop, Oliyer 
Pembleton, Dr. W. Turner. 



GEOGRAPHICAL AND ETHNOLOGICAL SCIENCES. 
[For Presidents and Secretaries for Geography previous to 1851, see Section C, p. xxvii.] 

ETHNOLOGICAL SUBSECTIONS OP SECTION D. 



1846. Southampton 

1847. Oxford 

1848. Swansea ... 

1849. Birmingham 

1850. Glasgow ... 



Dr.Pritchard 

Prof. H. H. Wilson, M.A. 



Vice- Admiral Sir A. Malcolm 



Dr. King. 
Prof. Buckley. 
G. Grant Francis. 
Dr. E. G. Latham. 
Daniel Wilson. 



SECTION E. GEOGRAPHY AND ETHNOLOGY. 



1851. Ipswich ... 

1852. Belfast 

1853. Hull 

1854. Liverpool... 

1855. Glasgow ... 

1856. Cheltenham 



E. Cull, Eev. J. W. Donaldson, Dr. 
Norton Shaw. 

E. Cull, E. MacAdam, Dr. Norton 
Shaw. 

E. Cull, Eev. H. W. Kemp, Dr. Nor- 
ton Shaw. 

Eichard Cull, E«v. H. Hlggins, Dr. 
Ihne, Dr. Norton Shaw. 

Dr. W. G. Blackie, E. Cull, Dr. Nor- 
ton Shaw. 

E. Cull, F. D. Hartland, W.H.Rum- 
sey, Dr. Norton Shaw. 

* By direction of the General Committee at Oxford, Sections D and E were incorporated 
under the name of " Section D — Zoology and Botany, including Physiology " (see p. xxix). 
The Section being then vacant was assigned in 1851 to Geography. 

t Vide note on preceding page. 



Sir E. I. Murchison, F.E.S., Pres. 

E.G.S. 
Col. Chesney, E.A., D.C.L., 

F.E.S. 
E. G. Latham, M.D,, F.E.S. . . . 

Sir E. L Murchison, D.O.L., 

F.E.S. 
Sir J. Eichardson, M.D., F.E.S. 

Col. Sir H. C. Eawlinson, K.C.B. 



XXXll 



REPORT — 1869. 



Date and Place. 

1857. Dublin 

1858. Leeds 

1859. Aberdeen .. 

1860. Oxford 

1861. Manchester 

1862. Cambridge . 

1863. Newcastle... 

1864. Bath 

1865. Birmingham 
1860. Nottingham 

1867. Dmidee 

1868. Norwich ... 

1869. Exeter 



Presidents. 



Rev. Dr. J. Ilenthawn Todd, Pres. 

E.I.A. 
Sir R. I. Murchison, G.C.St.S., 

F.R.S. 

Rear-Admiral Sir James Clerk 

Ross, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Sir R. I. Murcliison, D.C.L., 

F R S 
John Crawfurd, F.R.S 

Francis Galton, F.R.S 

Sir R. I. Murchison, K.C.B., 

F.R.S. 
Sir R. I. Murchison, K.C.B., 

F.R.S. 
Major-General Sir R. Rawlinson, 

M.P., K.C.B., F.R.S. 
Sir Charles Nicholson, Bart., 

LL.D. 

Sir Samuel Baker, F.R.G.S 

Capt. a. H. Richards, R.N., F.R.S . 



Secretaries. 



R. Cull, S. Ferguson, Dr. R. R. Mad- 
den, Dr. Norton Shaw. 
R. Cull, Francis Galton, P. O'Cal- 

laghan. Dr. Norton Shaw, Thomas 

Wright. 
Richard Cull, Professor Geddes, Dr. 

Norton Shaw. 
Capt. Burrows, Dr. J. Hunt, Dr. C. 

Lempriere, Dr. Norton Shaw. 
Dr. J. Hunt, J. Ivingsley, Dr. Norton 

Shaw, W. Spottiswoode. 
J. W. Clarke, Rev. J. Glover, Dr. 

Hunt, Dr. Norton Shaw, T. Wright. 
C. Carter Blake, Hume Greenfield, 

C. R. Markham, R. S. Watson. 

H. W. Bates, C. R. Markham, Capt, 
R. M. Murchison, T. Wright. 

H. W. Bates, S. Evans, G. Jabet, C. 
R. Markham, Thomas Wright. 

H. W. Bates, Rev. E. T. Cusins, R. 
H. Major, Clements R. Markliam, 

D. W. Nash, T. Wright. 

H. W. Bates, Cyril Graham, C. R. 
Markham, S. J. Mackie, R. Sturrook. 

T. Baines, H. W. Bates, C. R. Mark- 
ham, T. Wright. 



SECTION E (contimted). — GEOOEArnY. 

ISirBartle Frere, K.C.B., LL.D.,|H. W. Bates, Clements E. Markham, 
I F.E.G.S. I J.H.Thomas. 

STATISTICAL SCIENCE. 



1833. Cambridge 

1834. Edinburgh 



COMMITTEES OP SCIENCES, VI. STATISTICS. 



Prof. Babbage, F.R.S. ... 
Sir Charles Lemon, Bart. 



J. E. Drinkwater. 

Dr. Cleland, C. Hope Maclean. 



SECTION F.' 



-STATISTICS. 



1835. Dublin.. 

1836. Bristol.. 



1837. Liverpool... 

18.38. Newcastle... 

1839. Birmingham 

1840. Glasgow ... 

1841. Plymouth... 

1842. Manchester. 

1843. Cork 

1844. York 

1845. Cambridge 

1846. Southampton 



1847. Oxford, 



Charles Babbage, F.R.S 

Sir Charles Lemon, Bart., F.R.S. 

Rt. Hon. Lord Sandon 

Colonel Syke.s, F.R.S 

Heni-y Ilallam, F.R.S 

Rt. Hon. Lord Sandon, F.R.S.. 

M.P. 
Lieut.-Col. Sykes, F.R.S 

G. W. Wood, M.P., F.L.S 

Sir C. Lemon, Bart., M.P 

Lieut.-Col. Svkes, F.R.S., F.L.S. 
Rt. Hon. The' Earl Fitzwilliam . . . 
G. R. Porter, F.R.S 

Travers Twiss, D.C.L., F.R.S. ... 



W. Greg, Prof. LongCeld. 

Rev. J. E. Bromby, C. B. Fripp, 

James Ileywood. 
W. R. Greg, W. Langton, Dr. W. C. 

Tayler. 
W. Cargill, J. Heywood, W. R. Wood. 
F. Clarke, R. W. Rawson, Dr. W. C. 

Tayler, 
C. R. Baird, Prof. Ramsay, R. W. 

Rawson. 
Rev. Dr. Byrth, Rev. R. Luney, R. 

W. Rawson. 
Rev. R. Luney, G. W. Ormerod, Dr. 

W. C. Tayler. 
Dr. D. B alien, Dr. W. Cooke Tayler. 
J. Fletcher, J. Heywood, Dr. Laycook. 
J. Fletcher, W. Cooke Tayler, LL.D. 
J. Fletcher, F. G. P. Neison, Dr. W. 

C. Tayler, Rev. T. L. Shapcott. 
Rev. W. U. Cox, J. J. Danson, F. G. 

P. Neison. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



XXXUl 



Date and Place. 



Presidents. 



1848. Swansci . . . ' J. H. Vivian, M.P., F.K.S. 

1849. Birmingham Et. Hon. Ljid Lyttelton .. 



1850. Edinburg]! .. 

1851. Ipswich 



. Very Rev. Dr. John Lee, 

V.P.R.S.E. 
. Sir John P. Boileau, Bart. . . 

1852. Belfast His Grace the Archbisliop of 

I Dublin. 

1853. Hull ' James Hey wood, M.P., F.R.S 

1854. Liverpool ... Thomas Tooke, F.R.S. 

1855. Grlasgow .. 



Secretaries. 



R. Monckton Milnes, M.P. 



J. Fletcher, Capt. R. Shortrede. 

Dr. Finch, Prof. Hancock, F. G. P. 
Neison. 

Prof. Hancock, J. Fletcher, Dr. J. 
Stark. 

J. Fletcher, Prof. Hancock. 

Prof. Hancock, Prof. Ingram, James 
MacAdam, Jun. 

Edward Cheshire, William Newmai-ch. 

E. Cheshire, J. T. Danson, Dr. W. H. 
I Duncan, W. Newmarch. 
.J. A. Campbell, E. Cheshire, W. New- 
march, Prof. R. H. Walsh. 



SECTION p {continued). — economic science and statistics. 



1856. Cheltenham 



1857. Dublin ... 

1858. Leeds 

1859. Aberdeen ... 

1860. Oxford 

1861. Manchester 

1862. Cambridge.. 

1863. Newcastle... 

1864. Bath 

1865. Birmingham 

1866. Nottingham 

1867. Dundee... 

1868. Norwich 

1869. Exeter ... 



Rt. Hon. Lord Stanley, M.P. 



His Grace the Archbisho23 of 

Dublin, M.R.I.A. 
Edward Baines 



Col. Sykes, M.P., F.R.S. ... 
Nassau W. Senior, M.A. ... 
William Newmarch, F.R.S. 



Edwin Chadwick, C.B 

William Tite, M.P., F.R.S 

William Farr, M.D., D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
Rt. Hon. Lord Stanley, LL.D., 

M.P. 
Prof. J. E. T. Rogers 



M. E. Grant Duff, M.P 

Samuel Brown, Pres. Instit. Ac- 
tuaries. 

RtHon.SirStafford H.Northcote, 
Bart, C.B., M.P. 



Rev. C. H. Bromby, E. Cheshire, Dr. 

W. N. Hancock Newmarch, W. M. 

Tartt. 
Prof. Cairns, Dr. H. D. Hutton, W. 

Newmarch. 
T. B. Baines, Prof. Cairns, S. Brown, 

Capt. Fishbom-ne, Dr. J. Strang. 
Prof. Cairns, Edmund Macrory, A. M. 

Smith, Dr. John Strang. 
Edmund Macrory, W. Newmarch, 

Rev. Prof. J. E. T. Rogers. 
David Chadwick, Prof. R. C. Clu-istie, 

E. Macrory, Roy. Prof. J. E. T. 

Rogers. 

H. D. Macleod, Edmund Macrory. 
T. Doubleday, Edmund Macrory, 

Frederick Purdy, James Potts. 
E. Macrory, E. T. Payne, F. Purdy. 

G. J. D. Goodman, G. J. Johnston, 

E. Macrory. 
R. Birkin, Jun., Prof. Leone Levi, E. 

Macrory. 
Prof. Leone Levi, E. Macrory, A. J. 

Wai'deu. 
Rev. W. C. Davie, Prof. Leone Levi. 

Edmund Macrory, Frederick Purdy, 
Charles T. D. Acland. 



MECHANICAL SCIEN'CE. 

SECTION G. MECHANICAL SCIENCE. 



ISnO. Bristol 

18,'J7. Liverpool .. 

1838. Newcastle .. 

1839. Birmingham 

1840. Glasgow ... 

1841. Plymouth... 

1842. Manchester . 

1869. 



Davies Gilbert, D.C.L., F.R.S... . 

Rev. Dr. Robinson 

Charles Babbage, F.R.S 

Prof. Willis, F.R.S., and Robert 

Stephenson. 
Sir John Robinson 



John Taylor, F.R.S 

Rev. Prof. Willis, F.R.S. 



T. G. Bunt, G. T. Clark, W. West. 

Charles Vignoles, Tliomas Webster. 

R. Hawthorn, C. Vignoles, T. Web- 
ster. 

W. Carpmael, William Hawkes, Tho- 
mas Webster. 

J. Scott Russell, J. Thomson, J. Tod, 
C. Vignoles. 

Heni-y Chatfield, Tiiomas Webster. 

J. F. Bateman, J. Scott Russell, J. 
Tliomson, Charles Vignoles. 
C 



XXXIV 



llEPORT 1869. 



Date and Place. 



1843. 
1844. 
1845. 
1846, 
1847. 
1848. 
1849. 
1850. 
1851. 
1852, 

1853. 

1854. 

1855. 

1856. 

1857. 

1858. 
1859. 

1860. 

1861. 

1862. 
1863. 

1804. 

1805. 

1805. 
1867. 
1868. 
1809. 



Cork 

York 

Cambridge .. 
Southampton 

Oxford 

Swansea 

Birmingham 
Edinburgh .. 

Ipswich 

Belfast 

Hull 

Liverpool ... 

Glasgow . . . 
Cheltenham 
Dublin 



Leeds 

Aberdeen .. 



Oxford 

Manchester 

Cambridge .. 

Newcastle . . . 



Presidents. 



Secretaries. 



Prof J. Macneill, M.R.I.A 

John Taylor, F.R.S , 

George Eennie, F.R.S 

Rev. Prof. Willis, M.A., F.R.S. . 
Rev. Prof. Walker, M.A., F.R.S. 
Rev. Prof Walker, M.A., F.R.S. 
Robert Stephenson, M.P., F.R.S. 

Rev. Dr. Robin.son 

William Cubitt, F.R.S 

John Walker,C.E., LL.D., F.R.S. 

William Fairbairn, C.E., F.R.S.. 

John Scott Russell, F.R. S 

W. J. Macquorn Rankine, C.E., 

F.R.S. 
George Eennie, F.R.S 

The Right Hon. The Earl of 

Rosse, F.R.S. 
William Fairbairn, F.R.S. 
Rev. Prof Willis, M.A., F.R.S. . 

Prof. W. J. Macquorn Rankine. 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
J. F. Bateman, C.E., F.R.S 

William Fairbairn, LL.D., F.R.S. 
Rev. Prof. Willis, M.A., F.R.S. 



Bath 

Birmingham 

Nottingham 

Dundee 

Norwich ... 

Eseter 



J. Hawkshaw, F.R.S 

Sir W. G. Armstrong, LL.D., 

F.R.S, 
Thomas Hawksley, V.P.Inst 

C.E., F.G.S. 
Prof. W. J. Macquorn Rankine 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
G. P. Bidder, C.E., F.R.G.S. ... 

C. W. Siemens, F.R.S 



James Thompson, Robert Mallet. 

Charles Vignoles, Thomas Webster. 

Rev. W. T. King.sley. 

William Betts, Jun., Charles Manby. 

J. Glynn, R. A. Le Mesurier. 

R. A. Le IMcsm-ier, W. P. Struve. 

Charles Manby, W. P. Marshall. 

Dr. Lees, David Stephenson. 

John Head, Cliarlcs Manby. 

John F. Bateman, C. B. Hancock, 

Charles Manby, James Thomson. 
James Oldham, J. Thompson, W. Sykes 

Ward. 

John Grantham, J. Oldham, J. Thom- 
son. 
L. Hill, Jun., William Ramsay, J. 

Thomson. 
C. Atherton, B. Jones, Jun., H. M. 

Jeffery. 
Prof. Downing, W. T. Doyne, A. Tate, 

James Thomson, Henry Wright. 
J. C. Dennis, J. Dison, H. Wright. 
R. Abernethy, P. Le Neve Foster, H. 

Wright. 
P. Le Neve Foster, Rev. F. Harrison, 

Henry Wright. 
P. Le Neve Foster, John Robinson, H. 

Wright. 
W. M. Fawcctt, P. Le Neve Foster. 
P. Le Neve Foster, P. Westmacott, J, 

F. Spencer. 
P. Le Neve Foster, Robert Pitt. 
P. Le Neve Fo.ster, Henry Lea, W. P. 

Marshall, Walter May. 
P. Le Neve Foster, J. F. Iselin, M. 

A. Tnrbottom. 
P. Le Neve Foster, John P. Smith, 

W. W. Urquhart. 
P. Le Neve Foster, J. P. Iselin, C. 

Manby, W. Smith. 
P. Le Neve Foster, II. Bauerman. 



List of Evening Lectures. 



Date and Place. 


Lecturer. 


Subject of Discourse. 


1842. Manchester . 


Charles Vignoles, F.R.S 

Sir M. I. Brunei 


The Principles and Construction of 

Atjnospheric Railways. 
The Thames Tunnel 


1843. Cork 


Sir R. I. Murchison, Bart 

Prof. Owen, M.D., F.R.S 

Prof. Forbes, F.R.S 

Dr. Robinson 


The Geology of Ru.ssia. 




The Distribution of Animal Life in 

the jEgean Sea. 
The Earl of Rosse's Telescope. 
Geology of North America. 
The Gigantic Tortoise of the Siwalik 

Hills in India. 
Progress of Terrestrial Magnetism. 
Geology of Russia. 


1844. York 


Charles LyeU, F.R.S 

Dr. Falconer, F.R.S 

G. B. Airy, F.R.S., Astron. Royal 
R. L Murchison, F.R.S 


1845. Cambridge .. 



LIST OF EVENING LECTURES. 



XXXV 



Date and Place. 



Lecturci'. 



1846. Southampton Prof. Owen, M.D., F.E.S 

Charles Lyell, F.R.S 

W. R. Grove, F.E.S 



1847. Oxford 



1848. 
1849. 
1850. 

1851. 
1852. 



Swansea . . . 
Birmingham 
Edinburgh. 

Ipswich 

Belfast 



1853. Hull 



1854, 
1855. 
1856. 



Liverpool .. 

Glasgow 

Cheltenham 



1857. Dublin 


1858 


Leeds 


1859. 


Aberdeen ... 


1860. 


Oxford 


1861. 


Manchester . 


1862. 


Cambridge . 


1863. Newcastle- 




on-Tyne , . 



Rev. Prof. B. Powell, F.R.S. 
Prof. M. Faraday, F.R.S. ... 

Hugh E. Strickland, F.G.S. 
John Percy, M.D., F.E.S 

W. Carpenter, M.D., F.R.S. . . . 

Dr. Faraday, F.R.S 

Eev. Prof. Willis, M.A., F.R.S. 

Prof. J. H. Bennett, M.D., 
F.R.S.E. 

Dr. Mantell, F.E.S 

Prof. E. Owen, M.D., F.E.S. 

G. B. Airy, F.E.S., Astrou. Roy. 
Prof. G.G. Stokes,D.C.L., F.E.S, 

Colonel Portlock, R.E., F.R.S. 



Prof. J. Phillips, LL.D., F.R.S. 
F.G.S. 

Robert Hunt, F.R.S 

Prof E. Owen, M.D., F.E.S. ... 
Col. E. Sabine, V.P.E.S 

Dr. W. B. Carpenter, F.E.S. ... 
Lieut.-Col. H. Eawlinson 



Col. Sir H. Eawlinson . 



W. E. Grove, F.R.S 

Prof, Thomson, F.R.S 

Rev. Dr. Livingstone, D.C.L. ... 
Prof. J. Phillips, LL.D., F.R.S, 
Prof. R. Owen, M.D., F.R.S. ... 

SirR.I.Murchi!3on, D.C.L 

Eev. Dr. Eobinson, F.E.S 

Eev. Prof Walker, F.R.S 

Captain Sherard Osborn, R.N. , 
Prof. W. A. Miller, M.A., F.R.S. 
G. B. Airy, P.E.S., istron.Roy. . 
Prof. TyndaU, LL.D., F.R.S. ... 

Prof. Odling, F.R.S 

Prof Williamson, F.R.S 



James Glaisher, F.E.S. 



Subject of Discourse. 



Fossil Mammalia of the British Isles. 

Valley and Delta of the Mississippi. 

Properties of the Explosive substance 
discovered by Dr. Schonbein ; also 
some Eesearches of his own on the 
Decomposition of Water by Heat. 

Shooting-stars. 

Magnetic and Diamaguetic Pheno- 
mena. 

The Dodo {Bidiis mcjjtus). 

Metallurgical operations of Swansea 
and its neighbourhood. 

Eecent Microscopical Discoveries. 

Mr. Gassiot's Battery. 

Transit of different Weights with 
varying velocities on Railways. 

Passage of the Blood througli the 
minute vessels of Animals in con- 
nexion with Nutrition. 

Extinct Birds of New Zealand. 

Distinction between Plants and Ani- 
mals, and their changes of Form. 

Total Solar Eclipse of July 28, 1851. 

Recent discoveries in the properties 
of Light. 

Recent discovery of Rock-salt at 
Carrickfergus, and geological and 
practical considerations connected 
with it. 

Some peculiar phenomena in the Geo- 
logy and Physical Geography of 
Yorkshire. 

The present state of Photography. 

Anthropomorphous Apes. 

Progress of researches in Terrestrial 
Magnetism. 

Characters of Species. 

Assyrian and Babylonian Antiquities 
and Ethnology. 

Recent discoveries is As.syria and 
Babylonia, with the results of Cunei- 
form research up to the present 
time. 

Correlation of Physical Forces. 

The Atlantic Telegraph. 

Eecent discoveries in Africa. 

The Ironstones of Yorkshire. 

The Fossil Mammalia of Australia. 

Geology of the Northern Highlands. 

Electrical Discharges in highly rare- 
fied Media. 

Physical Constitution of the Sim. 

Arctic Discovery. 

Spectrum Analysis. 

The late Eclipse of the Siu:. 

The Forms and Action of Water. 

Organic Chemistry. 

Tlie chemistry of the Galvanic Bat- 
tery considered in relation to Dy- 
namics. 

The Balloon Ascents made for the 
British Association. 

c2 



XXXVl 



KEPORT — 1869. 



Date and Place. 


Lecturer. 


Subject of Discourse. 


1864. Bath 


Prof. Eoscoe, RR.S 

Dr. Livingstone, F.R.S 


The Chemical Action of Light. 
Recent Travels in Africa. 




1865. Birmingham 


J. Beete Jukes, F.R.S 


Probabilities as to the position and 
extent of the Coal-measures beneath 
the red rocks of the Midland Coun- 
ties. 

The results of SjDectrum Analysis 


1866. Nottingham. 


William Huggins, F.R.S 






applied to Heavenly Bodies. 




Dr. J. D. Hooker, F.R.S 


Insular Floras. 


1867. Dundee 


Archibald Geikie, F.R.S 


The Geological origin of the present 
Scenery of Scotland. 




Alexander Herschel, F.R.A.S. ... 


The present state of knowledge re- 
garding Meteors and Meteorites. 


1868. Norwich .... 


J. Fergusson, F.R.S 


Archaeology of the early Buddhist 
Monuments. 




Dr. W. Odling, F.R.S 


Reverse Chemical Actions. 


1869. Exeter 


Prof. J. Pliillips, LL.D., F.R.S. 


Vesuvius. 




J. Norman Lockyer, F.R.S 


The Physical Constitution of the 
Stars and Nebula;. 



1867. Dundee . 

1868. Norwich 

1869. Exeter . 



Lectures to the Operative Classes. 



Prof. J. Tyndall, LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. Huxley, LL.D., F.R.S. ... 
Prof. Miller, M.D., F.R.S 



Matter and Force. 

A piece of Chalk. 

Experimental illustrations of the 
modes of detecting the Composi- 
tion of the Sun and otlier Heavenly 
Bodies by the Spectrum. 



OFFICERS AND COUNCIL, 1869-70. 



TRUSTEES (PERMANENT). 
Sir Roderick I. Murchison, Bart, K.C.B., G.C.St.S., D.C.L., F.E.S. 
Lieut-General Sir Edward Sabine, K.C.B., R.A., D.C.L., Pres. R.S. 
Sir Philip de M. Geey Egeeton, Bart, M.P., F.R.S. 

PRESIDENT. 
GEORGE G. STOKES, M.A., D.C.L., Sec. E.S., Lucasian Professor of Mathematics in the UniTersity 

of Cambridge. 



The Eight Hon. The Eael of Devon. 

The Right Hon. Sir Staefoed H. Nobthcote, 

C.B., Bart., M.P., &e. 
Sir JOH.N- BoWBiNG, LL.D., F.E.S. 



VICE-PRESIDENTS. 

William B. Carpextee, M.D., F.R.S., F.L.S. 

Robert Were Fox, Esq., F.R.S. 

W. H. Fox Talboi, M.A., LL.D., F.E.S., F.L.e. 



PRESIDENT ELECT. 
T. H. HUXLEY, LL.D., F.E.S., F.L.S., Pros. G.S., Professor of Ifatural History in the Eoyal School of 

Mines. 

VICE-PRESIDENTS ELECT. 

Eight Hon. The Eael of Derby, LL.D., F.R.S 
Bib Philip De M. Gkey Egertox, Bart, M.P. 
The Right Hon. W. E. Gl.ujstoxe, D.C.L., M.P, 
S. E. Graves, Esq., M.P. 



Sir Joseph Whitwobth, Bart., LL.D., D.C.I/., 

F.R.S. 
James P. Joule, Esq., LL.D., D.C.L.. F.E.S. 
Joseph Mayer, Esq., F.S.A., F.R.G.S. 



LOCAL SECRETARIES FOR THE MEETING AT LIVERPOOL. 

Rev. W. Baxister. 

Rev. Henry H. Higgixs, M.A. 

Rev. A. Hume, D.C.L., F.S.A. 

LOCAL TREASURER FOR THE MEETING AT LIVERPOOL. 

H. Duckworth, Esq., F.B.G.S. 



ORDINARY MEMBERS 
Bateman, J. P., Esq., F.R.S. 
Busk, George, Esq., F.E.S. 
De La Eue, Warren, Esq., F.R.S. 
Evans, Johx, Esq., F.R.S. 
Galton, Capt. Douglas, C.B., R.E., F.R.S. 
Galton, Francis, Esq., F.R.S. 
Gassiot, J. P., Esq., F.R.S. 
Godwin-Austen, R. A. C, Esq., F.R.S. 
Houghton, Right Hon. Lord, D.C.L., F.E.S. 
HUGGINS, WiLLlAjr, Esq., F.R.S. 
Lubbock, Sir John, Bart., F.R.S. 
Miller, Prof W. A., M.D., F.R.S. 
Newmaech, William, Esq., F.E.S. 
Odling, Willia.m, Esq., M.B., F.R.S. 



OF THE COUNCIL. 

Playfair, Lyon, Esq., M.P., C.B., F.R.S. 
Ramsay, Professor, F.R.S. 
Eankine, Professor W. J. M., F.E.S. 
Richards, Captain, E.N., F.R.S. 
Shaepey, Dr., See. R.S. 
Smith, Professor H. J. S., F.E.S. 
Strange, Lieut-Colonel A., F.R.S. 
Sykes. Colonel, M.P., F.R.S. 
Sylvester, Prof. J. J., LL.D., F.R.S. 
Tite, Sir W., M.P., F.R.S. 
Tyndall, Professor, F.R.S. 
Wheatstone, Professor Sir C, F.R.S. 
WILLIA MSON, Prof A. W., F.E.S. 



EX-OFFICIO MEMBERS OF THE COUNCIL. 

The President and President Elect, the Vice-Presidents and Vice-Presidents Elect, the General and 
Assistant General Secretaries, the General Treasurer, the Trustees, and the Presidents of former 



years, nz. : — 
EeT. Professor Sedgwick. 
The Duke of Devonshire. 
Rev. W. V. Harcourt. 
Sir John F. W. Herschel, Bart. 
Sir E. I. Murchison. Bart., K.C.B. 
The Rev. T. R. Robinson, D.D. 



i Lt.-Gencral Sir E. Sabine, K.C.B. 

The Earl of Harrowljy. 

The Duke of ArgvH- 

The Rev. H. Lloy.l, D.D. 

Richard Owen, M.D., D.C.L. 
1 Sir W. Fairbairn, Bart., LL.D. 



G.B.Airy,E3q.,A8tronomerRoyal. I The Rev. Professor Willis, F.E.S. 



Sir W. G. Armstrong, C.B., LL.D. 
Sir Chas. Lvell, Bart., M.A, LL.D. 
Professor Phillips, M.A., D.C.L. 
William R. Grove, Esq., F.R.S. 
The Duke of Buccleuch, K.B. 
Dr. Joseph D. Hooker, F.E.S. 



GENERAL SECRETARIES. 
T. Archer Hirst, Esq., F.R.S., F.R. A. S., Professor of Mathematics in University College, London, 
Dr. Thomas Thomson, F.E.S., Kew Green, Kew. 

ASSISTANT GENERAL SECRETARY. 
Geokge Griffith, Esq., M.A., 1 Woodside, Harrow, 



GENERAL TREASURER. 
WiLLLvsi Spottiswoode, Esq., M.A., F.R.S., F.R.G.S., .50 Grosvenor Place, London, S.W. 



Professor W. Allen Miller, F.E.S, 



AUDITORS. 
G. Buek, Esq., F.R.S. 



Irofessor G. C. Foster, r.E.S. 



XXXVXll 



REPORT 1869. 



Table sJiowim/ the Attendance and Receipts 



Date of Meeting. 


Wliere held. 






Presidents. 

Old 

Mem 


Life 

bers. 


New Life 
Members. 


1831, Sept. 27 ... 

1832, June 19 ... 

1833, June 25 ... 

1834, Sept. 8 ... 

1835, Aug. 10 ... 

1836, Aug. 22 ... 

1837, Sept. II ... 

1838, Aug. 10 ... 

1839, Aug. 26 ... 

1840, Sept. 17 ... 

1841, July 20 ... 

1842, June 23 ... 

1843, Aug. 17 ... 

1844, Sept. 26 ... 
1841;, June 19 ... 

1846, Sept. 10 ... 

1847, June 23 ... 

1848, Aug. 9 

1849, Sept. 12 ... 

1850, July 21 ... 

1851, July 2 

1S52, Sept. I ... 
1853, Sept. 3 ... 
1S54, Sept. 20 ... 
1855, Sept. 12 ... 
1 8 56, Aug. 6 

1857, Aug. 26 ... 

1858, Sept. 22 ... 

1859, Sept. 14 ... 
i860, June 27 ... 

1861, Sept. 4 ... 

1862, Oct. I 

1S63, Aug. 26 ... 
1864, Sept. 13 ... 
1S65, Sept. 6 ... 

1866, Aug. 22 ... 

1867, Sept. 4 ... 

1868, Aug. 19 ... 

1869, Aug. 18 .. 
1S70, Sept. 14 .. 


York 


The Earl FitzwiUiam, D.C.L 

The Eev. W. Buckland, F.E.S. .. 

The Rev. A. Sedgwick, F.E.S 

Sir T. M. Bri.sbane, D.C.L 

The Rev. Provo.st Lloyd, LL.D. 

The Marquis of Lansdowiie 

The Earl of Burlington, F.R.S. . 
The Duke of Northumberland. . . 
The Rev. VV. Vernon Harcourt . 
The Marquis of Breadalbane ... 
The Rev. W. Whewell, F.R.S. .. . 1 

The Lord Francis Egerton 3( 

The Earl of Rosse, F.R.S k 

The Eev. G. Peacock, D.D 2 

Sir John F. \\. Herschel, Bart. . 3 
Sir Roderick I. Murchison, Bart. z, 

Sir Eobert H. Inglis, Bart 3 

The Marquis of Northampton ... ij 
The Eev. T. E. Robinson, D.D. . 2 

Sir David Brewster, K.H 2 

G. B. Airy, Esq., Astron. Royal . 1 
Lieut.-General Sabine, Prcs.R.S. 1 
William Hopkins, E.sq., F.R.S. . i 
The Earl of Harrowby, F.R.S. .. 2 

The Duke of Argyll, F.R.S i 

Prof. C. G. B. Daubeny, M.D. ... 1 
The Rev. Humphrey Lloyd, D.D. 2 
Richard Owen, M.D., D.C.L. ... 2 
H.R.H. The Prince Consort ... 1 

The Lord Wrotteslev, M.A 2 

William F.airbairn, LL.D.,F.R.S. 3 
The Rev. Prof Willis, M.A. ... 2 
Sir William G. Armstrong, C.B. 2 
Sir Charles Lyell, Bart., M.A.. . . 2 
Prof J. Phillips, M. A., LL.D.... 2 
William R. Grove, Q.C., F.R.S. 2 
The Duke of Buccleuch, Iv.C.B. 1 
Dr. Joseph D. Hooker, F.R.S. . i 

Prof G. G. Stokes, D.C.L 2 

Prof. T. H. Huxley, LL.D 


59 
^3 

=9 
16 

13 

14 
^9 

27 
35 
7^ 

64 

4-1 
38 

94 
82 
36 

22 

84 
86 

ZI 

39 
03 

87 
92 
07 
67 
96 
04 


65 
169 

28 
150 

36 
10 
18 

3 
12 

9 
8 

10 

13 

23 

33 
14 
15 
42 
27 
21 
113 
15 
36 
40 
44 
31 
25 
18 
21 


Oxford 


Cambridge 


Edinburgh 


Dublin 

Bristol 


Liverpool 


Newcastle-on-Tyne .. 
Birmingham 


Glasgow 


Plymouth 


Manchester 


Cork 


York 


Cambridge 


Southampton 

Oxford 


Swansea 


Bu'mingham 


Edinbiu'gh 


Ipsmch 


Belfost 


HuU 


Liverpool 


Glasgow 


Cheltenham 

Dubhn 


Leeds 


Aberdeen 


Oxford 


Manchester 


Cambridge 


Newcastle-on-Tync .. 
Bath 


Birmingham 


Nottingham 


Dundee 


Norwicli 

Exeter.....' 


Liverpool 





ATTENDANCE AND RECEIPTS AT ANNUAL MEETINGS. XXXIX 



at Annual Meetings of the Association. 








Attended by 


Amount 

received 

during the 


Sums paid on 

Account of 

Grants for 

ficientillc 


Old N« 


sw 










Annual Am 
Members. Mem 


lual 
bei-s. 


Associates. 


Ladies. 


Foreigners. 


Total. 


Meeting. 


Purposes. 














£ .s. d. 


£ s. d. 








... 


... 


353 

9C0 
1298 
































... 


... 




20 

167 

434 14 
918 14 6 


















1350 
1840 








' 








• • > 















I I 00''*" 




2400 
1438 

1353 
891 

1315 




956 12 2 

1595 11 ° 
1546 16 4 
1235 10 ii 
1449 17 8 






• 








34 
40 


















46 3 
75 3' 


7 
16 






60* 




33t 


331* 


28 






71 iS 
45 If 


>5 




160 








1565 10 2 
981 12 8 


9t 


260 


... 








94 : 

65 : 




407 
270 


172 
196 


35 
36 


1079 
857 




830 9 9 
6S5 16 


9 






197 A 


yo 


495 


203 


53 


1260 




208 5 4 




54 2 


-5 


376 


197 


15 


929 


707 


275 I 8 


93 : 


3 


447 


237 


22 


1071 


963 


159 19 6 


128 ^ 


p 


510 


273 


44 


1 241 


1085 


345 iS 


61 z 


\7 


24.1 


141 


37 


710 


620 


391 9 7 


63 ( 


)0 


5>o 


292 


9 


iioS 


iog5 


304 6 7 


56 


7 


367 


236 


6 


876 


903 


205 


121 12 


.1 


765 


524 


10 


1802 


1882 


33° 19 7 


142 IC 


>i 


1094 


543 


26 


2133 


2311 


480 16 4 


104 ^ 


V^ 


412 


346 


9 


1115 


1098 


734 13 9 


156 i: 


.0 


900 


569 


26 


2022 


2015 


5°7 15 3 


III c 


)i 


710 


509 


13 


169S 


1931 


618 18 2 


125 i; 


'9 


1206 


821 


22 


2564 


2782 


684 II 1 


177 


'9 


636 


463 


47 


16S9 


1604 


124 1 7 


184 12 


-5 


1589 


791 


15 


3139 


3944 


III! 5 10 


150 


■7 


433 


242 


25 


1161 


1089 


1293 16 6 


154 2C 


59 


1704 


1004 


25 


3335 


3640 


1608 3 10 


182 K 


53 


1119 


1058 


13 


2802 


2965 


1289 15 8 


215 1/ 


1-9 


766 


Sc8 


23 


1997 


2227 


1591 7 10 


218 IC 


55 


960 


771 


11 


2303 


2469 


1750 13 4 


i9i I 


8 


1163 


771 


7 


2444 


2613 


1739 4 


226 I 


7 


720 


6S2 


t45 


2004 


2042 


1940 


229 ic 


57 


678 


600 


17 


1856 


1931 





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OFFICERS OF SECTIONAL COMMITTEES. xli 

OFPICEES OF SECTIONAL COMMITTEES PRESENT AT THE 

EXETER MEETING. 

SECTION A. MATHEMATICS AND PHTSICS. 

President— Tvohssov J. J. Sylvester, M.A., LL.D., F.R.S. 

Vice-Presidents. — Professor J. C. Adams, M.A., D.C.L., F.R.S. ; J. P. Gassiot, 
V.P.R.S. ; William R. Grove, M.A., F.R.S. ; Rev. Professor Bartholomew Price, 
M.A., F.R.S. ; Rev. T. R. Robinson, D.D., F.R.S. ; Professor Sir Charles Wheat- 
stone, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Secretaries.— Vrofessoi- G. 0. Foster, B.A., F.R.S. ; R. B. Hayward, M.A. ; W. K, 
Cliflbrd, B.A. 

SECTION B. CHEMISTRY AND MINERALOGY, INCLUDING THEIR APPLICATIONS TO 

AGRICULTURE AND THE ARTS. 

President.— Bv. II. Debus, F.R.S., F.C.S. 

Vice-Presidents. — Dr. Andrews ; Dr. J. Hall Gladstone, F.R.S. ; Professor W. A, 

MiUer, M.D., F.R.S. ; Dr. Voelcker, F.C.S. ; Dr. WiUiamson, F.R.S. Pres.C.S. 
Secretaries.— Profe&sov A. Crmu Brown, M.D., F.C.S. ; Dr. W. J. RusseU, F.C.S. : 

Dr. Atkinson, F.C.S. 

SECTION C. GEOLOGY. 

President. — Professor R. Harkness, F.R.S., F.G.S. 

Vice-Presidents.— n. A. C. Godwin-Austen, F.R.S., F.G.S. ; Sir P. de M. Grey 
Egerton, Bart., F.R.S., F.G.S.; Professor Phillips, LL.D., P.R.S., F.G.S. : Pro- 
fessor Huxley, LL.D., F.R.S., P.G.S. ; Edward Vi\ian, F.G.S. 

Secretaries.— W. Peng-elly, F.R.S., F.G.S.; W. BoydDawkins, M.A.,F.R.S.,F.G.S.; 
Rev. H. H. Winwood, M.A., F.G.S. 

SECTION D. BIOLOGY. 

P>-esidcnt.— George Busk, F.R.S., F.L.S., F.G.S. 

Vice-Presidents.— Frotesaov Balfour, F.R.S. ; C. Spence Bate, F.R.S., F.L.S. ; Dr. 

Hooker, F.R.S., F.L.S. ; Sir John Lubbock, Bart., F.R.S. ; Dr. W. Ransom: 

E. B. Tylor; A. R. Wallace, F.R.G.S. ; Professor E. Perceval Wright, M.D., 

F.L.S. 
Secretaries. — Dr. Spencer Cobbold, F.R.S.; Professor Michael Foster, M.D., F.R.S.; 

E. Ray Lankester ; Professor Lawson ; 11. T. Stainton, F.R.S., F.L.S. : Rev. H. 

B. Tristram, M.A., LL.D., F.R.S. 

SECTION E. GEOGRAPHY AND ETHNOLOGY. 

Presidetit.— Sir Bartle Frere, K.C.B., F.R.G.S., LL.D., G.C.S.l. 
Vice-Presidents.— Sir G. Grey, K.C.B., F.R.G.S.; A. G. Findlav, F.R.G.S. ; Major- 

General Sir A. Scott Waugh, R.E., F.R.S. ; Captain Richards, R.N., F.R.S. ; 

Vice-Admiral Sir E. Belcher, K.C.B., F.R.G.S. 
Secretaries.— li.^Y. Bates, Assist. Sec. R.G.S. ; Clements R. Markham, F.R.G.S.; 

J. H. Thomas, F.R.G.S. 

SECTION F. ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 

P-esident.— The Right Hon. Sir Stafford H. Northcote, Bart., C.B., M.P. 
Vice-Presidents.— T. D. Acland, M.A., D.C.L., M.P. ; The Earl of Derby, F.R.S. ; 

The Right Hon. Lord Houghton, D.C.L., F.R.S. ; Sir W. Tite, M.P., F.R.S. ; 

Dr. VVm. Farr, D.C.L., F.R.S. ; Professor J. E. Thorold Rogers, M.A. 
Secretaries. — Edmund Macrory, M,A. ; Frederick Purdy, F.S.S. ; Charles T. D, 

Acland, M.A. 



xlii REPORT — 1869. 

SECTION G.' MECHANICAL SCIENCE. 

President— Q. W. Siemens, C.E., F.E.S. 

Vice-Presidents.— Q. P. Bidder, C.E. ; C. Vignoles, C.E., F.R.S., F.R.A.S. ; Pro- 
fessor W. M. Rankine, LL.D., F.R.S. ; Eer. Professor WUlis, F.R.S. ; C. H. 
Gregory, Pres.I.C.E. ; Admiral Sir E. Belcher, K.C.B. ; Captain Douglas Galton, 
C.B., Pi.E., F.R.S. ; J. F. Bateman, F.R.S. ; F. J. Bramwell ; Sir Joseph Whit- 
wortli, Bart., LL.D., F.R.S. 

Secretaries, — P. Le Neve Foster, M.A. ; H. Bauerman, F.G.S. 

Report of the Council of the British Association for the year 1868-69, 
presented to the General Committee at Exeter on Wednesday, 
August 18, 1869. 

The Reports of the General Treasurer and of the Kew Committee for the 

past year have been received, and will be laid before the General Committee. 

At the Meeting of the Association at Norwich, the General Committee 

referred two Resolutions to the Council for consideration and action, if it 

should be deemed desirable. 

The first Resolution was : — 

That the Council be instructed to prepare and cause to be presented to 

the Houses of Lords aud Commons petitions on behalf of the Association, 

prajdng them without loss of time to pass such measures as wiU remedy 

the existing defects in Secondary Education in Schools, aud that the 

Council be empowered to take such other steps as in their j udgment may 

be best calculated to promote the object of these petitions. 

The Council, after receiving the report of a Committee specially appointed 

by them to consider the question, resolved to act in accordance with this 

Resolution. They consequently prepared the following Petition, which was 

presented by the Right Hon. Lord Lyttelton to the House of Lords, by Sir 

W. Tite to the House of Commons. 

The Humble Petition of the British Association for the Advancement 

of Science 

Sheweth, — That one of the ends for which the Association was established 
was to " obtain a more general attention to the objects of Science, and a re- 
moval of any disadvantages of a pubhc kind which impede its progress." 

That some of the chief impediments to the progress of Science in the 
United Kingdom are to be found in the limited aud defective state of Se- 
condary Education, and in the condition of the Endowed Grammar Schools, 
which, having been founded in past times, represent for the most part the 
knowledge and wants of the past, rather than of the present. 

That, not-withstanding the defects of the Endowed Grammar Schools, they 
are enabled, by their number, antiquity, and endowments, to maintain a 
prescriptive rank and influence, and seriously to impede the adoption of im- 
proved systems of education. 

That the necessity for inquiry into the state of the Endowed Grammar 
Schools, and into the education given in schools generally, above the Ele- 
mentary, has already been recognized in the appointment by Her Majesty of 
three Commissions to report on this Class of Schools in England and 
Scotland. 

That in the year 1866 the Council of the Association appointed a Com- 
Mttee to consider the best means of promoting Scientific Education in Schools, 
.and that thi§ Committee drew up a Report on the subject, which is printed 



REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. xliii 

in the " Report of the Schools-Inquiry Commission," presented to Her Ma- 
jesty, and laid before your Honoiirable House. 

That the recommendations of the Schools-Inquiry Commission, in regard 
to the introduction of the study of Natural Science into all Secondary Schools, 
are in general accordance with the views of the Association. 

That, in the opinion of the Association, the study of Natural Science, 
whether as a means of disciplining the mind, or for providing knowledge 
useful for the purposes of life, is of essential importance to the youth of this 
country; and that it ought to form a part of education in all Secondary 
Schools. 

That the Association consider the Secondary Education of the United 
Kingdom, both in regard to the quality and the range of the subjects of 
study, to be incommensurate with the needs of a well-organized state ; they 
therefore request your Honourable House to enact such laws as shall make 
Natural Science an essential part of the course of education, and to put it on 
a footing of equality with the most favoured subjects of study. 

The Second Ilesolutiou referred to the Council by the General Committee 
at Norwich was : — 

That the Council of the British Association be requested to urge upon 
Government and through the British Government upon the Governments of 
Foreign Nations, the importance of fixing, by permanent bench-marks, cer- 
tain points of level, and also of position in reference to secular changes (1st) 
in the elevation of the land as referred to the sea-level, and (2nd) in relation 
to changes of coast-line, and to the position of ice-masses. 

That the CouncU of this Association be requested to ask the support and 
cooperation in this of the Council of the Iloyal Society ; and that the fol- 
lowing be a Committee to assist the Council and that of the Eoyal Society 
in the definition of the works proposted to be executed : — W. Sartorius von 
Waltershausen, Lieut. -Colonel Sir Hemy James, E.E., F.E.S., Ilobert A. C. 
Godwin- Austen, F.E.S. 

The Council appointed a Committee, consisting of Sir Henry James, Sir 
C. Whcatstone, Mr. Godwin-Austen, Professor Tyudall, Professor Ilamsay, 
the President, General Secretaries, and Treasurer, to consider this resolution 
and to report thereon. 

This Eeport being favourable, your Council applied to the Council of the 
Eoyal Society, who at once promised their support in any application to 
Government, but deemed it unnecessary to augment the Committee already 
elected by your Council for the purpose of defining the works proposed to 
be executed. This Committee has not yet concluded its labours. 

The following foreign men of Science, who were present at the Norwich 
Meetiag, have been elected Corresponding Members : — 

Baron von Miidler, Dorpat. 
Padre Secchi, Director of the Obser- 
vatory at Eome 



Professor Aug. Morren, Doyen de la 

Faculte de Science, Marseilles. 
Professor Yogt, Geneva. 
Professor Broca, Paris. 



Professor L. Eadlkofer, Munich. 

Professor Karl Koch. 

M. D'Avesac, Mem. de ITnstitut de 

France. 
Dr. H. A. Weddell, Poitiers. 
M. A. Heynsius, Leyden. 



The Council are able to report that the Annual Yolume was this year 
again issiicd in June ; a stiU earlier publication being desirable, however, it 
is proposed to publish the next volume at Christmas : but in order to do so 
it win be necessary to defer until the foUowirg year the publication of 



Xliv REPORT — 1869. 

reports ■which arc not ready for the press immediately after the close of this 
present Meeting of the Association. 

The Coimcil have been informed that Invitations for 1870 will be pre- 
sented to the General Committee by Deputations from Liverpool, Edinbiu'gh, 
Brighton, and Bradford. 

Report of the Keiv Committee of the British Association for the Ad- 
vancement of Science for 1868-69. 

The Committee of the Kcw Observatory submit to the Council of the British 
Association the following statement of their proceedings during the past 
year : — 

The nature and amount of assistance to be rendered by this Committee to 
the Meteorological Committee of the lloyal Society have now been clearly de- 
fined, and the duties undertaken at Kew Observatory may, as in the last 
Beport, for clearness" sake be again considered under the two following 
heads : — 

(A) The work done under the direction of the British Association. 

(B) That done at Kew as the Central Observatory of the Meteorological 

Committee, 

This system of division will be adopted in this Eeport, and it has been 
thought desirable, for the information of the Association, in the financial 
statement hereto appended, to include the sums received from the Meteoro- 
logical Committee as well as those received from the British Association. It 
will thus be clearly seen that the woi'k done at Kew for the Meteorological 
Committee has been paid for from funds suj^plied by that Committee, and not 
in any way from money subscribed by the British Association. 

(A) WOEK DONE HT KeAV ObSEEVATOET tTNDEE THE DIEECTION OP THE 

Britisd: Association. 

1. Mac/netic ivorl: — The Self-recording Magnetographs ordered by the 
Mauritius Government for Mr. Meldrum, after having been verified at Kew, 
have been forwarded to their destination. 

A Unifilar and Dip-circle for Mr. Meldrum have likewise been verified. 

A Unifilar and Dip-circle have been repaired and verified for the Rev. M. 
Colombel, who has gone to Nankin, where he intends making magnctical 
observations. 

M. Colombel as well as M. Berg, of the Wilna Observatory, have received 
magnetical instruction at Kew. 

A Dip-circle is in the course of being verified for Lieut. Elagin, of the 
Bussian Navy. 

The usual monthly absolute determinations of the magnetic elements con- 
tinue to be made by Mr. "Whipple, Magnetic Assistant. During the last year 
it has been found necessary to replace the wooden pillars of the magnetic 
house with pillars of Portland stone, which had been previously ascertained 
to be non-magnetic. It has also been found necessary slightly to repair the 
Unifilar and Dip-circle hitherto used in these monthly determinations. 

The Self-recording Magnetographs are in constant operation as heretofore, 
also under the charge of Mr. Whipple, and the photographic department 
connected with these instruments remains under the charge of Mr. Page. 

The task of tabulating and reducing the magnetic curves produced at Kew 



REPORT Ot TflE KEW COMMITTEE. xlv 

subsequent to January 1865 is in progress under the direction of Mr. 
Stewart. Considerable advance has been made in these reductions during 
the present year, and it is hoped that during the next session of the lioyal 
Society a paper may be commviuicated to that body b}- Mr. Stewart, giving 
certain results of these reductions, as well as results of the absolute magnetic 
observations made eveiy month. 

Lieut. Elagin has communicated through Mr. Stewart to the Eoyal Society 
an account of observations made at the various European observatories, bj' 
means of a Dip-circle which had been lent to him from the Kew Observatory. 

Mr. Stewart has likewise communicated to the Eoyal Society a short paper 
by Senhor Capello " On the reappearance of certain periods of Declination- 
disturbance during two, three, or several days;" also a joint paper by the 
Eev. W. Sidgreaves and himself, embodying the results of a preliminary 
comparison of the Kew and Stonyhurst declination-curves ; also a paper em- 
bodying the magnetical results obtained by Lieut. Kokeb}' at the island of 
Ascension, reduced by Mr. Whipple, Magnetical Assistant at Kew. Finally, 
Mr. Stewart has communicated to the Eoyal Society a paper containing a 
preliminaiy discussion of the peaks and hollows of the Kew magnetic curves 
for the first two years during which the Magnetographs were in operation. 

2. Meteorolor/ical ivorh. — The meteorological work of the Observatory 
continues in the charge of Mr. Baker. 

Since the ISTorwich Meeting, 157 Barometers have been verified, and 27 
have been rejected; 1153 thermometers have been verified, and 24 have 
been rejected. Two Standard Thermometers have been constructed for the 
Standards' Commission*, one for Stonyhiirst College, and nine for Professor 
Tait. 38 Hydrometers have likewise been verified. 

The progressive nature of this department of the Kew work will be seen 
by the following statement of the numbers of Barometers and Thermometers 
verified during the last few years : — 

Barometers. Thermometers. 

1863-64 97 389 

1864-65 88 420 

1865-66 126 395 

1866-67 89 608 

1867-68 78 1139 

1868-69 157 1153 

The self-recording meteorological instruments now at work at Kew will 
be again mentioned in the second division of this Eeport. These are in the 
charge of Mr. Baker, the photography being superintended by Mr. Page. 

A Self-recording Barograph verified at Kew for Messrs. E. & J. Beck has 
been disposed of by these opticians to Mr. Meldrum, of the Mauritius Obser- 
vatory. A Barograph and Thermograph have been verified at Kew and dis- 
patched to Mr. Ellery, at Melbourne, and a Barograph has recently been veri- 
fied for Mr. Smallcy, of Sydney. 

At the request of Mr. O. J. Symons, the old Kew Thermometer frame has 
been lent to him for certain experiments, which are being carried on by him 
in conjunction M'ith the Ecv. C. IT. Griffith, at Strathficld Turgis. 

The attention of meteorologists is directed towards an instrument devised 
by Mr. Beckley, mechanical assistant at Kew, for the piu-pose of registering 

* While this Eeport wns being printed, an application was received from the Warden of 
the Standards, through Lieut.-Gen, Sir Edward Sabine, for an Air Thermometer, 



Xlvi REPORT — 1869. 

the rainfall automatically. A description of this instrument will be submitted 
to the Association at Exeter. 

Attention is likewise directed to a paper to be communicated by Mr. 
Balfour Stewart to the Association at the Exeter Meeting, entitled " Eemarks 
on Meteorological Eeductions, with especial reference to the Element of Va- 
pour ; " separate copies of which will be at the disposal of Members. 

The following revised fees are charged for tho verification of meteorological 
instruments at Kew : — 

s. d. 
Barometers (requiring index- and capacity-corrections) . . 10 
Ditto (not requiring capacity-correction — inches measured) 5 

Thermometers (ordinary) 1 

Boiling-point Thermometers 2 G 

Hydrometers 1 

3. Photoheliograph. — The Kew Heliograph, in charge of Mr. De La Rue, 
continues to be worked in a satisfactory manner. During the past year 274 
negatives have been taken on 168 days : 40 pictures of the Pagoda in Kew 
Gardens, as a fixed terrestrial object at a known distance, have likewise 
been taken, with the object of determining, by measurements of these 
pictures, M'hich are taken in difi'erent parts of the field of the telescope, 
both the optical distortion of the sun -pictures and the angular diameter of 
the Sun. 

A paper communicated to the Eoyal Society by Messrs. Warren De La Rue, 
Stewart, and Loewy, entitled " Researches on Solar Physics. — Heliographieal 
Positions and Areas of Sun-spots observed with the Kew Photoheliograph 
during the years 1862 and 1863," is the first of the series of reductions of 
the photographic solar records ; it is in the course of publication in the 
' Transactions ' and will shortly be distributed. 

It is hoped that, during next winter, a paper containing the heliographieal 
positions and areas of the spots observed at Kew during the years 1864, 
1865, and 1866 may be communicated to the Royal Society, as well as a 
paper representing, both numerically and graphically, the spotted area of the 
sun during three complete solar periods, the results being partly derived 
from Schwabe's and partly from Carrington's observations, in addition to those 
made with the Kew photoheliograijh. 

Another paper by the above authors, entitled "Account of some Recent 
Observations on Sun-spots made at the Kew Observatory," has Hkewise been 
ordered to be published in the ' Philosophical Transactions.' 

M. Berg, of the Wilna Observatory, has during the past year received 
instruction at Kew in the method of taking Solar Photographs and in that of 
measuring the positions and areas of sun-spots, the Du-ector of the Obser- 
vatory with which he is connected being dcsiro\is of working along with 
Kew, and of following out the same methods of observation as well as the 
same researches. 

The number of sun-spots recorded after the manner of Hofrath Schwabe, 
together with a Table exhibiting the monthly groups observed at Dessau and 
at Kew for the year 1868, have been communicated to the Astronomical 
Society, and published in their ' Monthly Notices.' 

We regret to mention that Hofrath Schwabe, owing to his great age, has 
found it necessary to discontinue his observations ; but the Committee have 
satisfaction in stating that arrangements have been made for continuing, at 
Kew, the grouping of sun-observations which has been carried on for some 



REPORT OF THE KEW COMMITTEE. xlvii 

time according to Hofrath Scliwabe's plan, and for publishing the results 
annually. 

A minute comparison of the records of Hofrath Schwabe with the simul- 
taneous photographic records at Kew has revealed the great trustworthiness 
of his drawings, which are at present in the possession of Kew Observatory. 
The proposed communication ah-eady alluded to as representing the spotted 
area of the sun during three complete solar periods is thus rendered possible ; 
and whUe it is imagined that by this means a valuable record of the past will 
be obtained, it is hoped that the interest now displayed in solar research will 
secure the uninterrupted continuance of such a record for the future. 

4. Miscellaneous work. — The Superintendent has recently received a grant 
of £60 from the Government-Grant Committee of the Eoyal Society for the 
purpose of continuing certain experiments by Prof. Tait and himself on the 
rotation of a disk {)i vacuo ; and means are iu progress for obtaining a nearly 
perfect vacuum, Mr. Beckley, Mechanical Assistant at Kew, having devised 
an apparatus for this purpose. 

An account of preliminary observations made with Eater's pendulum by 
the Superintendent, in conjimction with Mr. B. Loewy, has been communi- 
cated to the Eoyal Society. 

The instrument devised by Mr. Broun for the purpose of estimating the 
magnetic dip by means of soft iron, constructed at the expense of the British 
Association, remains at present at the Observatory awaiting Mr. Broun's 
return to England. 

The Observatory was honoured on June 25th by a visit from the eminent 
French chemist, M. Dumas, permanent Secretary of the Imperial Academy 
of Sciences, Paris, accompanied by M. Herve-Mangon. 

(B) Work done at Kew as the Central Observatory op the 
Meteorological Committee. 

_ The relation between the two Committees, the Kew and the Meteorolo- 
gical, has during the last year been definitely settled. 

The Kew Committee have undertaken to maintain the self-recording in- 
struments belonging to the Meteorological Committee in regular operation at 
Kew, to tabulate from the traces, and to forward the traces and tabulations 
once a month to the central office of the Meteorological Committee in London, 
where they will be finally reduced, under the supervision of the Director of 
that office. They have also sanctioned the employment of such assistance 
by Mr, Stewart as may be necessary to enable him to examine the records 
which arrive from the various outlying observatories of the Meteorological 
Committee iu accordance with a plan which has been approved by that body. 
Once a week, therefore, documents from these various observatories arrive at 
Kew, and about the middle of each month the documents for all the obser- 
vatories (including Kew) for the previous month, after having been well 
examined, are forwarded to the Meteorological Office with a few remarks, 
which are printed in the Minutes of tlie Meteorological Committee. 

Besides these duties which they have undertaken, the Kew Committee are 
glad to render the Meteorological Committee any occasional assistance which 
it may be in their power to bestow. 

1. Work done at Kew as one of the Observatories of the Meteorological Com- 
mittee. — This consists in keeping in constant operation the Barograph, Ther- 
mograph, and Anemograph furnished by the Meteorological Committee. Mr, 
Baker is in charge of these instruments. From the fii'st two of these instru- 



xlviii REPORT — 18G9. 

mcnts traces ia duplicate are obtained, one set being sent to the Meteoro- 
logical Office and one retained at Kew ; as regards the Anemograph, the 
original records are sent, while a copy by hand of these on tracing-paper is 
retained. The tabulations from the curves of the Kew instruments are made 
by Messrs. Baker, Page, and Foster, 

2. Verification of liecords. — In order to maintain uniformity in the system 
of observation at the \-arious meteorological observatories, it is arranged by 
the Meteorological Committee that Mr. Stewart shall personally visit all the 
observatories once every year, in addition to which, when necessary, some 
one of the Kew assistants will occasionally visit particular stations with a 
specific object in view. At the request of the Meteorological Committee, 
a system of checks has been devised by the Kew Committee for testing the 
accuracy of the observations made at the different Observatories. This system, 
with slight modifications, is now in operation*. As this revision takes place 
at Kew, it has been found necessary to engage an additional assistant for the 
purjjose of undertaking it. Mr. Rigby has been engaged for this duty — Mr. 
Baker, Meteorological Assistant, having the general superintendence of this 
dei)artment. 

3. Occasional Assistance. — In addition to devising the system of checks 
mentioned above, the Kew Committee have also, at the request of the 
Meteorological Committee, examined the subject of instrumental verifica- 
tions, and it has been found that, owing to improved construction, a higher 
standard of excellence in meteorological instruments may be insisted upon 
without rejecting more than a very small percentage of those furnished by 
good makers. 

It has therefore been resolved by the Meteorological Committee that in 
future the following limits of error shall be allowed in the construction of 
their instruments : — 

Marine Barometers of the pattern adopted hy the Meteorological Office. — 
Reject all for which the index-error at the ordinary pressure is greater 
than '015 inch, or the capacity-error greater than -OO-i inch, or for which 
the mercury does not fall from 1| inch to | inch above the present pressure 
in a time between 3 and 6 minutes. But for barometers imrportinc/ to he 
standards, reject all for which the index-error at the ordinary pressure is 
greater than -010 inch. 

Thermometers {graduated on the stem) of the pattern adopted by the Meteo- 
rological Office. — Reject all in which the largest error at any point is greater 
than 0°-3, or in which any space of 10° is more than 0°"3 wrong. 

Hydrometers of the pattern adopted by the Meteorological Office. — Reject all 
in which the largest error at any point is greater than 1 division of the scale 
(equal to -001 sp. gr.), or in which any space of 10 divisions is more than 
0-6 division wrong. 

Models of Pantagraphic Apparatus, designed by Mr. Galton, have been 
made and experimentally used at Kew, at the desire of the Meteorological 
Committee, to reduce the tracings of the self-registering instruments in any 
desired proportions, either in length or in breadtli, with a view to the ulti- 
mate publication by that Committee of all the tracings supplied by the seven 
Observatories in a compact volume. 

It may also be mentioned, under tlie head of Occasional Assistance, that 
at the reqiiest of the Meteorological Committee, Mr. Beckley, Mechanical 

* This scheme, having been extracted, with }3ermission, from the Report of the Meteo- 
rological Committee, will be found in the Appendix to this Report, 



REPORT OS? THE KEW COMMITTEE. 



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1 EEPORT 1869. 

Assistant, was sent to Armagh to examine the Barograph there, and to Sand- 
wick-mause, Orkney, to superintend the erection of an anemometer. The 
expenses have, on both these occasions, been repaid by the Meteorological 
■Committee. 

In conclusion, the Kew Committee desire to bring under the notice of the 
British Association, that the system of automatic records established and in 
actual ■n'ork at the Kew Observatory, comprehends magnetic, barometric, and 
thermometric observations, as well as those of the direction and velocity of 
the wind, to which an electric self-recording instmment will soon be added. 
They think that it would be very advantageous to magnetical and meteo- 
rological science if a fully illustrated work were published descriptive of these 
instruments, and of the method of working them, together with the method 
of reductions actually employed. 

J. P. GASSIOT, CUirman. 
Kew Observatory, 
15th July, 1869. 

APPENDIX. 

A Description of the Means adopted by the Meteorological Com- 
mittee for ensixriug Accuracy in the Numerical Values 
obtained from their Self-recording Instruments. 

(Extracted, with permission, from the Eeport of the Meteorological Committee.) 

In the first Eeport of this Committee the principles of construction of their 
self-recording instraments were fully described, and enough was said to ren- 
der it probable that good results would be obtained ; but the final method 
of tabulating from the traces of these instruments was not then decided on, 
nor had any scheme been devised for ensuring accuracy in the tabulated 
numerical values. 

The labours of the Committee in this department have been materially 
aided by suggestions from the superintending Committee of the Central (Kew) 
Observatory, and also from the Directors of the various outlying observatories, 
and as a result the Committee are now satisfied that the process of examina- 
tion to which the tabulated values are subjected before reaching the central 
office is such as to afford a satisfactory guarantee of accuracy. 

It may be a fitting sequel to the description of these instruments (already 
given), to give here an account of the method adopted for ensuring accuracy 
in the results which they afford. 

In the first place, the nature of the various instrumental errors and the 
best method of avoiding these may with propriety be described, and in the 
next place it may be desirable to give in detaU the code of regulations 
adopted by the Committee for the guidance of their various observatories. 

BAEOGRAPn. 

The values of atmospheric pressure derived from this instrument are 
liable to have their accuracy affected by tliree causes : — 

(1) By an imperfect temperature compensation. 

(2) By a sluggish action of the mercury in the Barograph tube. 

(3) By imperfection in the system of recording and tabulating. 

Temperatuye compensation. — The method by which the Barographs are 
compensated for temperature has been described in the Report of the 
Meteorological Committee for the year 1867. The precise position of the 
fulcrum of the glass rod was determined by means of some preliminary expe- 



REPORT OF THE KEW COMMITTEE. 



H 



riments made at Kew upon the first Barograph. These experiments consisted 
in subjecting the instrument to a very considerable range of temperature 
artificially produced, while frequent comparisons of its indications with those 
of a Standard Barometer gave the means of determining approximately 
what ought to be the position of the fulcrum. It may be presumed that the 
determination thus arrived at cannot be wrong more than one-tenth of the 
whole, and assuming this to be the case, the next point is to find what is the 
actual daily temperature range at the various observatories. 

The following Table exhibits both the mean and the maximum daily range 
for each mouth for each of the seven observatories up to the end of 1868. In 
all these, with the exception of tStonyhurst, a night observation is made of 
the temperature of the Barograph at 10 o'clock, but the result will show that 
in Stouyhurst such an observation is unnecessary. It ought here to be borne 
in mind that from the system adopted in these instruments, namely, constant 
reference each day to a standard, it is only the daily range of temperature 
that we have to consider. 

Daily range of temperature, in degrees Fahrenheit, as given by the 

observation hours. 



1868. 


Aberdeen. 


Armagh. 


Falmouth. 


Glaa 


gow. 


Kew. 


Stonyhurst. 


Valencia. 




n 




a 




a 




a 




a 




a 




a 






r3 




3 




3 




p 




3 









3 




fl 


a 


a 


B 


d 


a 


d 


H 


a 


a 


d 


a 


d 


y 




3 






H 




K 


S 




a 




cd 




C8 


3 




If 


c3 


<u 


o3 


<u 


03 


<u 




<u 


c! 




03 









g 


g 


g 


g 


^ 


g 


a 


§ 


^ 


g 


g 


^ 


g 


§ 


January 














i'9 


49 






0-2 


o'8 






February . . . 










• ■• 


... 


1-4 


3-0 


0-9 


17 


0'2 


0-6 


... 


... 


March 










■ ■• 


• •• 


17 


4' 3 


0-9 


17 


0-2 


1-6 


• •• 


.1. 


April 




37 
5-0 
37 
4-8 
3-2 










f6 


3'4 
3-0 

4' I 
4'4 
4-8 


I'l 


31 

3'3 
37 
5-6 

7"o 


O'l 


0-6 






May 


'•9 

2*1 






I '4 
17 
i'9 

17 


67 

3-6 
2-8 


i'4 
19 

2*1 


I '4 

2'0 


0'2 


0-6 






June 






0-4 

0-8 


1-8 






July 


3-0 

1-9 






3'° 
i'3 






August 


17 


3-q 


1-9 


27 


0-5 


J '4 


2-5 


September . . . 


2-3 


4-6 


1-8 


3-8 


1-8 


6-3 


2 '2 


7'3 


2-4 


87 


o'S 


I"2 


I '2 


2-6 


October 


I'S 


2"'; 


I'Q 


3-6 


I '4 


3'o 


2'0 


6-0 


0-8 


i-R 


06 


27 


1-2 


27 


JNovember ... 


2-1 


37 


19 


3-6 


14 


2-8 


1-3 


3-1 


I'O 


1-9 


07 


i'3 


1-2 


2-4 


December ... 


2'0 


6-3 


i"4 


2*2 


11 


2-3 


13 


4-9 


0-9 


2'5 


07 


2-4 


I'O 


4-3 



From the res.ults of this Table it would appear that, assuming the tempera- 
ture adjustment to be one-tenth wrong, the greatest error introduced from 
this cause into any of the observations during the year 1868 would be about 
0-0024 in., while the mean monthly error would bo inappreciable in all 
cases. 

"We may therefore with confidence presume that in these Barographs the 
method of tabulation exemplified in the Report for 1867 and now practised is 
sufiiciently accurate to obviate all effects of changes of temperature, and that it 
is unnecessary to resort to that more complicated but perfect system of reduc- 
tion alluded to in the same Report, by which the influence of temperature 
may be completely eliminated. The near correspondence between the simul- 
taneous Standard and Barograph readings, as exhibited in page Ivii of this 
Report, is another proof that the temperatiu-e correction is practically perfect. 

8lu(/gishness of Mercurij. — As the Barograph tube is always in perfect 

c?2 



lii 



REPORT — 1869. 



repose, and the adliesion of the inercuiy to the glass is not counteracted by 
tapping or moving the tube, it is desirable to test the results obtained in order 
to see if the influence of adhesion causes a perceptible sluggishness of the 
mercury. The Standard Barometers, to which in aU cases the Barographs 
are referred, are, on the other hand, subject to motion, and are probably 
sufficiently moved in the operation of reading to counteract any sluggishness 
of the mercury. 

Now, four or five times each day, while the light is cut off from the re- 
cording cylinder of the Barograph by the clock an-augment, the Standard 
Barometer is read. We can thus compare these standard readings with the 
simultaneous measurements of the Barograms, these latter being of course 
properly tabulated, converted into true inches, and the residual correction 
applied as described in the Eeport of the Meteorological Committee for 1867. 

Should there be any sluggishness in the mercury of the Barograph we 
might expect to discover it by means of this comparison, for in such a case 
the Barograph would lag behind, and thus read too low with a rising and too 
high with a falling barometer. 

If therefore we presume that the Standard Barometer is free from slug- 
gishness, and denote its readings by S, and those of the Barograph by B, 
theu S — B ought in the case of sluggishness of the Barograph to be positive 
for a risincf and negative for a falling barometer. 

Several months' observations have been discussed in this manner for each 
of the observatories, and the result is exhibited in the following Table : — 



Kame of 
Observatory. 


Months used. 


S-B (Baro- 
meter rising). 


S-B (Baro- 
meter falling). 






in. 

+0-00033 
+0-00045 
+ o-oooo6 
+0-00027 
+ 0-00027 
— 0-00042 
+ 0-00005 


in. 

— 0-OC028 

— 0-00032 

— 0-00C20 

— 0-00025 
-0-00019 
+ 0-00058 
+ 0-00015 


Armagh 


September to December . . . 

August to December 

July to December 


Falmouth 


Glasgow 


Xew 


January to June 


Stonyhurst 


January to Jime 


Valencia 


August to November 





From this Table we see how inappreciable in all the observatoi-ies is the 
retardation of the Barograph Barometer as compared with the Standard, 
while in Stonyhurst the Standard even appears to be a trifle more retarded 
than the Barograph Barometer. 

Errors of recording nml tabulating. — Under this head we maj^ include 
(A) errors of adjustment and attachment of paper, (B) errors of time and 
date, (C) errors in tabulating from the traces. To begin with the first of 
these : — 

(A) Errors of adjustment and attacJiment of j^ajicr. 

Want of definition arising from an improper adjustment of the lens ought 
to be noticed, but it is bcUeved that the definition is good in the case of all 
the observatories. As the instrumental constants for all the various Baro- 
graphs have now been determined, it would hardly seem expedient to alter the 
position of the lens, which Avould alter these constants, for the purpose of 
procuring greater perfection in defiintion. 

The photographic sheet which is attached to the cylinder of the Barograph 



KEPORT OF THE KEW COMMITTEE. liil 

ought to be evenly put on Trithont any bagging or bulging ; as, if it bulged, 
besides giving a bad result, it might come into contact with the end of the 
temperature adjustment bar. 

Care ought to be taken that there is no want of llglit, especially in the case 
of a low barometer ; and finally, great precaution should be taken to avoid 
Jinger-marJcs and every species oi had photography . 

(B) Errors of Time and Date. 

Suppose that the sheet has been placed in an unexceptionable manner 
upon the Barograph cylinder, the next point is for the operator to set the 
instrumental clock before starting to correct Greenwich mean time, as given by 
his chronometer. Now the instrumental clock has an arrangement for cutting 
oif the light for four minutes every two hours, beginning to do so two minutes 
before an even hour and ending two minutes after it, and the practice is for 
the observer to read the Standard Barometer about five times every day at 
periods two minutes after even hours, as ascertained by his chronometer, or 
when the light should be about to be restored after having been cut off by the 
clock-stop. If therefore the instrumental clock keeps good time and its stop 
acts, and if the observer reads the Standard Barometer correctly and at the 
proper moment as ascertained by his chronometer, and if he finally reduces 
his curves properly, the near coincidence between the corresponding curve 
and Standard readings will be a good practical test, not only that all these 
operations have been properly performed, but also that throughout the curve 
the instrumental clock keeps good time with the chronometer. A further 
check with regard to time is afforded by the comparison made between the 
chronometer and the instrumental clock at the moment when the curve is 
taken off the cylinder, the results of which are recorded on the curve. 

The clock may sometimes possibly stop, or the clock-stop may go wrong. 
Without discussing minutely these possibilities, it may be sufficient to state 
that when any such misadventure occurs the curve ought to be inspected by 
the Director of the Central Observatory. 

There still remains the question of date. The security that a curve is 
rightly dated depends ultimately on the strong improbability that an obser- 
ver at any of the observatories should make a mistake with regard to the 
first day of the week. When therefore he returns the Barograph journal 
filled up, we may be quite certain that the observations entered on the line 
with Sunday were really made on that day, although he may possibly put 
the wrong day of the month on the form beside it. 

Again, the photographic operator when he takes off a curve, should mark 
on the back in pencil the day of the week and month when the curve was 
taken off, and should also, after drj^ing, write upon its face the hour and day 
of piittiug on and taking off as recorded by the joiirnal. If, therefore, the 
accuracy of the observer in assigning the proper day of the month to Sunday 
be checked at Kew as each week's journals are transmitted to that establish- 
ment, and if it also be seen that the date written in pencil on the back of the 
curve corresponds to that written on its face, and if the times of starting and 
ending of the curve as described in front are found to agree with the curve 
itself as measured by a simple time-scale, there can hardly be any doubt that 
the curve has been properly dated ; if there still remain any doubt it wiU be 
dispelled when the tabulations from that curve are examined and it is found 
that the tabulated readings agree well with the simultaneous readings of the 
Standard Barometer. 



liv REPORT — 1869. 

(C) Errors in tabulating from the traces. 

It will, in the first place, be necessary to discuss some arrangement for en- 
suring the entry under the projyer date into the tabulation forms of the mea- 
surements from each curve ; for even supposing that by the method now de- 
scribed we can ensure the proper dating of the curve, yet the tabulations from 
this curve may be entered under the wrong date in the tabulation form. 

The appropriate cheek would seem to be the independent entry from the 
journal of the Standard readings reduced. For if either of these two inde- 
pendent entries be wrongly made, this will be seen by a non-coincidence 
of the reduced readings when compared with the simultaneous Standard 
readings. Oiu' security becomes, therefore, the security which we have that 
these two independent readings cannot both be erroneously entered, and this 
may be converted into a certainty if the assistant at the Central Observatory 
sees that the journal readings are entered under their proper dates into the 
Barograph tabulation forms. 

Having thus ascertained the entry into the tabulation forms imder their 
proper dates of the tabulations and of the reduced standard readings, we come 
next to inquire what check there is for accuracy of tabulations ; and here we 
may consider separately the cases of large and small errors. 

But before proceeding to this part of the subject it may be desirable to say 
a few words regarding the system of Barograph tabulation . 

The progress made in tabulating the Barograms up to the date of publica- 
tion of the last Report of the Committee has been described in that Eeport. 
The first operation is to measui-e by the aid of a simple tabulating instru- 
ment, carrying a scale with a vernier attached to it, and capable of being 
read to the thousandth of an inch, the whole depth of the Barogram for every 
hoiu'. 

This system is nevertheless laborioiis, implying two measurements and one 
subtraction for each hour, besides the application of tables of conversion, 
and the consequence is the liability to make an occasional mistake. But 
although at first it is absolutely necessary to have in the ease of the 
Barograph a tabulating instrument measuring inches, in order by its means 
to determine the constants of each instrument, yet when once these instru- 
mental constants have been accurately determined, it has been foimd ser- 
\dceable to replace the tabulating instrument by another which gives the true 
pressure in one measurement, instead of requiring two measurements, one 
subtraction and one conversion. Instruments of this nature have been ob- 
tained by this Committee for their various observatories, by which the labour 
of tabulation has been greatly reduced and acciu'aoy of result much in- 
creased. 

Nevertheless there is still the liability to make an occasional blunder, and 
as this may take the shape of a large error, it is necessary to devise some 
means for detecting and obviating all such mistakes. 

The best remedy appears to be the use of a simple kind of subsidiary tabu- 
lating instrument, consisting of an ivory scale having a breadth equal to one 
hour of the time-scale, by means of Avhich the hoarly depth of the Barogram 
may be read to the hundredth of an inch. If these readings be compared 
with the readings taken independently by the tabulating instrument, any 
error in the latter will be at once discovered ; for the errors to which the 
tabulated measurements are liable are such as five hunclrcclths of an inch, or 
one-tenth of an inch, — errors of a large size, which may easily be detected by 
the system of sudsidiary measurement. 



KEPORT OF THE KEW COMMITTEE. 



Iv 



The following is an example of a day's comparison after this method, ex- 
hibiting an error which has thus been brought to light : — 



August 2Dtli, 


Tabulated reading 
from weekly tabu- 
lation sheet to the 
nearest hundredth. 
A. 


Subsidiary ta- 
bulation with 
ivory scale. 


A-B in 
hundredths 
of an inch. 


1 A.M 

2 


30^22 

•22 
•21 
•2* 
•22 

•23 
•24 
•25 

■26 
■26 
•26 
•25 

•25 

•26 

•25 
•25 

•24 
•24 
•24 

•25 
•24 

•24 
30-24 


30-21 
•22 
•21 
•23 
•22 
•22 
•24 
■25 
■25 
•26 
•27 
•27 
■25 
■25 
•27 
•26 
•25 

■34 
•24 
•25 
•26 
•24 
•24 
30-25 


+ 1 



— I 


+ 1 





— I 

— I 



— I 

— I 


— 10 Error. 


— I 

— I 



— I 


1 






6 




8 


o ,. 




II 


Noon 


IP.M 

2 






C 


6 „ 




8 





lo 


II „ 


Midnight 





It ought to be remarked as necessary to the completeness of the chccli, 
that the observer should first of all by means of his subsidiary ivory scale fill 
in column B, and then (meanwhile concealing E from his view) fill in column 
A from the ordinary tabulation sheets. The correctness of the column A— B 
should be tested at the Central Observatory. 

Having by this means obtained correct tabulations, the next point is to 
check the accuracy with which the residual correction has been obtained and 
applied (see Report for 1867, page 4G). And first, with regard to the method 
by which it is obtained, the latest practice has been to calculate it for each 
day separately, making the day begin at 11 a.m. The advantage of this ar- 
rangement is that each fresli paper, which is always put on between 10 and 
11 A.M., will have its own residual correction*. The accuracy of calcu- 
lation of this correction ought to be checked, and such a check may bo 
devised out of the practice pursued at Kew, of taldng the mean monthly 
difference between simultaneous readings of the Standard and liarograpli 
readings corrected. If these differences are taken for each day apart, 
beginning the day at 11 a.m. and giving each difierence its appropriate sign, 
then the residual correction may be presumed to bo accurate, when for 
that day there are as many tninus as j)lus differences. Also, when any 
such difference exceeds, say, '005 of an inch, the accuracy with which the 

* A special arrangement regarding the residual correction has been made for Sundays 
and those days on which there are few observations of the Standard Barometer. 



Ivi REPORT 1869. 

Standard readings have been reduced to 32° ought in this case to be ex- 
amined. When a Standard reading is evidently wrong it ought to be noted 
as such on the curve, and should not be made use of either in calculating the 
residual correction or the monthly mean difFerence between the Standard 
and Barograph readings. By applying both the above tests any error in the 
calculation of the residual correction will be detected, and ought to be remedied 
at once. Having by this means obtained an accurately calculated residual 
correction, the accuracy with which this is applied to the various hours oiight 
to be tested by the Kew assistant, who, obscuring fi'om his view the coliamn 
which embodies the values after the residual correction has been applied, 
should independently apply it on a separate piece of paper, thus producing 
a new column of corrected pressure, which ought to be compared with the old 
one ; any error discovered by this comparison should be corrected at once. 
Before leaving this subject, it ought to be stated that the tabulating instru- 
ment as well as the subsidiary ivory scale are so arranged as always to ensure 
reading the proper point of the curve for every odd hour. 

Should anjr portion of the curve be too faint for measurement with the 
ordinary tabulating instrument, but not too faint for measurement with the 
ivory scale, it ought to be measured with this scale, applying to the mea- 
surements so obtained their own appropi-iate residual correction. Such read- 
ings ought to be specially noted in the tabulation forms. 

Should any part of tlie curve be deficient from ivant of light or any other 
cause, it ought not to be inked in. If the deficiency be in the border of the 
temperature curve, it will be possible to correct it, but if it be in the baro- 
metric curve, this cannot be done. 

All curves in which the clock has stopped or the cJoclc-stop has been out of 
action, should be personally inspected by the Director of the Central Obser- 
vatory, in order that he may ascertain if the tabulations have been properly 
made. 

Finally, it is right to state that the accitracy of the method of checking 
the tabulated values now described, has been practically confirmed by the 
month of October at Ivew being independently measured by two observers. 
The results of the two sets, when compared together, are found to differ very 
slightly from one another, the greatest difference being -008 in., which may 
be supposed to denote a difference in each of -004 on either side of the truth. 
This extreme difference only occurs three times in the course of the month, 
that is to say, in 744 observations. 

The method of subsidiary tabulations now described is thus proved to be 
effective in discovering the larger errors that the observer is liable to make 
when he measures the curve. But to ensure an efficient standard of correct- 
ness, it is not only necessary that the larger errors should be altogether 
eliminated, but smaller ei-rors should be reduced to a minimum. Thus an 
observer might be sufficiently cautious in reading his scale to make no large 
error, yet sufficiently incautious to read erroneously when he came to the 
third figure of decimals. For rough results such an observer might bo 
reckoned a good one, but for the more delicate class of investigations his 
figures would be of less value. 

The only way of perfectly eliminating this class of errors is for two inde- 
pendent observers to make separate measurements, each with a tabulating 
instrument, a course involving much additional labour and expense. But it 
is obvious that the Standard Barometer affords a ready approximate means 
of estimating the coircctuess of an observer's results. For should he be an 
incautious observer, the mean difference between the simultaneous readings 



REPORT or THE KEW COMMITTEE. 



Ivii 



of the Standard and the Barograph Barometer -will he comparatively great, 
but if he both observe his Standard and measure his curves well, the mean 
difference -will be small. 

The foUo-nang Table exhibits the results of monthly comparisons bet'sveen 
simultaneous Barograph and Standard readings for the year 1868 for all the 
observatories. 

Mean Diiferences bet-ween Barograph and Standard Keadings. 



1868. 

January ... 
February 
March ... 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August ... 
September 
October ... 
November 
December 



Aberdeen. 


Armagh. 


Falmouth. 


Glasgow. 


Kew. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 

0-0067 
0-0045 
0-0039 


in. 

0-0027 
0-C027 
0-0028 


0-0035 






0-0035 


0-0027 


0-0032 




0-0042 


0-0036 


0-0025 


0-0029 


0-0049 


0-0029 


0-0036 


0-0021 


0-0032 


0-0045 




0-0026 


0-0027 


0-0031 


0-0033 


0-0032 


0-C038 


0-0025 


0-0023 


0-0031 


0-0041 


0-0031 


0-0025 


0-0028 


0-0029 


0-0024 


0-0030 


0-0017 


000 1 9 


0-0024 


0-0017 


0-C029 


0-0015 


0-C022 


0-0022 


0-0022 


0-0028 


0-0018 



Stonyhurst 


Valencia. 


in. 


in. 


0-0032 




0-0032 




0-0025 




0-0017 




0-0031 




0-0021 




0-0032 




0-0023 


0-C033 


0-0025 


0-0027 


C-0O2 8 


0-0031 


0-0019 


0-0038 


0-0030 


0-0033 



It is imagined that the mean differences shown by this Table have for all 
the observatories by the end of the year reached a minimum value not much 
larger than would be obtained by two observers reading the same Standard, 
or by the same observer reading it twice. 

But while the simultaneous readings of the Standard and Barograph Baro- 
meter afford us one means of testing the correctness of the observation mea- 
surements, they do not yet do quite enough ; for, in the first place, these 
simultaneous differences may be caused in part by an instrumental error or 
by some local peculiarity, such as rapid heaving of the barometer, and in 
the next place, an observer may unconsciously bestow a greater amount of 
pains upon these measurements, which are simultaneous with Standard read- 
ings, than he does upon his other measurements, and the above differences 
may not therefore be a true representative of his general correctness. A 
certain number of remeasurements of the curves of each observatory should 
therefore be made at the Central Observatory, and the monthly mean differ- 
ence between these and the corresponding measurements by the local observer 
be recorded*. 

* It was not until tlie various observatories bad been supplied with their improved 
tabulating in.strument that the final metliod of making these measurements vi-as decided 
on. Since the beginning of 1809 the plan has been to make for each month for each 
ob.servatory forty remeasurements of the curve at Kew, obtaining also independently the 
residual correction. These final values are then compared with the corresponding values 
obtained at the outlying observatories, and the result of this comparison for the first 
three months of 18C'J has beeu as follows : — 

Mean Difference between 1st and 2nd Measurements. 





Aberdeen. 


Armagh. 


Falmouth. 


Glasgow. 


Kew. 


Stonj-hurst. 


■Valencia. 


1869. 

January 

February 

March 


in. 

0-0020 
0-0030 
0-0024 


in. 

0-0017 
0-0025 
0-002I 


in. 
0-0026 

0-0023 
0-0025 


in. 

0-0022 
0-0022 
0-0026 


in. 

0-0012 
0-0023 
0-0018 


in. 

0-CO29 
0-0031 
0-0030 


in. 

0-0017 
0-0026 
0-0025 





Iviii EEPORT — 1869. 

TmSEMOGEAPH. 

The accuracy of the Thermograph results is liable to be deranged by three 
causes : — 

(1) By a cause depending on the situation and exposure of the instru- 

ment. 

(2) By instrumental deficiencies, and especially the arrangements con- 

nected with the wet bulb. 

(3) By a deficient system of tabulation. 

Sihuition of Instruments. 

The situation of their various Thermographs was a point carefully con- 
sidered by the Meteorological Committee, and there is no reason to think 
that the effect of local peculiarity is considerable in the case of any of their 
instruments. 

In the Report for 1867 this subject was alluded to, and the restdt of 
simultaneous comparisons made at Kew between the readings of two sets of 
dry and wet bulbs was given for the month of Februaiy, one of these sets 
being placed in a frame detached from the main building of the observatory, 
and the thermometers having very small bulbs, the other set being the wet- 
and dry-bulb Standard Thermometers of the Thermograph frame. 

The result seemed to indicate that the local peculiarity of either frame 
was comparatively small ; indeed, taking the average of the month, there 
was no residual difference between the dry bulbs, while, on the whole, the 
Thermograph wet bulb stood 0°*12 higher than the other. 

A similar comparison made for the month of July gave no residual differ- 
ence either for the dry or wet bulbs. 

Dr. Robinson, of Armagh, has hkewise made a similar comparison between 
his Thermograph dry bulb and another Thermometer placed at a higher 
elevation, and has obtained as the result of 150 observations made during 
the months of April and May, a mean difference indicating that the Thermo- 
graph Thermometer read on the whole 0°-27 less than the other, "While 
this difference is not large. Dr. Robinson is of opinion that the upper ther- 
mometer is more liable to be affected by the sun, and that the Thermograph 
Thermometer is in consequence the most correct. No other observations 
have been made on the subject, 

Instrumen tal JDe/iciencies. 

The u'ct-hulb arrangements are peculiarly liable to go wrong, and the fol- 
lowing course of action is suggested in order to reduce this source of error to 
a minimum. 

The Standard Thermometers should be read at least five times a day at 
those moments when the light is cvit off by the clock arrangement. The 
light remains cut off by this arrangement for four minutes, and it is neces- 
sarj^ to read the Standard Thermometers at the le(jinnimi of this interval; 
the exact points in the curves corresponding to certain known readings of 
the Standards may thvis be determined. "When the Standards are read, the 
observer ought to notice if both wet bulbs are acting properly. If both are 
right, the sign y' should be made after the recorded temperature of the wet 
Standard. If the Thermograph wet bulb is wrong, the sign t should be 
made, and if the Standard wet bulb is wrong, the sign s. Either wet bulb, 
if found wrong, ought to be put right at once. Should it happen that the 
wet bulbs are frozen at the moment of obsciTatiou, the present temperature 



REPORT or THE KEW COMMITTEE. lix 

being also below 32°, cold water should be poured over the wet bulbs and 
the connecting strings. In a few minutes the wet bulbs will by this means 
be covered with a fresh coating of ice ; this should be repeated if necessary. 
If this operation is performed two or three times a day during very cold 
weather, there is reason to believe that the Avet bulb will always be covered 
with a sufiScient coating of ice. But if the wet bulb and the water of the 
water-vessel be frozen from previous cold, the present temperature being 
above 32°, the ice of the water- vessel may be thawed by warm water, using 
no more than is necessary for the purpose. 

If these regulations be followed during the cold months of the year, it is 
believed that there are comparatively few instances where we may not know 
the temperature of evaporation during frost. 

During diy weather the wet-bulb arrangement is again liable to go wrong, 
although from a different cause. Tlie thread, which in the arrangement 
adopted lies along a copper groove, gets dry in its passage from the water- 
vessel to the bulb, the capUlary action ceasing. Sometimes it apparently 
rights itself without aid, but sometimes it continues wrong until it is put 
right at the next observation hour. The commencement and termination of 
Buch a wrong state of the wet bulb are generally so clearly indicated by the 
curve itself, that there appears to be little or no uncertainty in ascertaining 
what observations ought to be rejected. This action would best appear to be 
prevented by the use of an india-rubber tube lying along the metallic groove, 
and having one end dipping into the water of the water-vessel ; and through 
this tube the thread ought to be carried in its passage from the water-vessel 
to the thermometer. Evaporation is thus avoided, and the arrangement 
■will probably answer in winter. When the supply of water is too rapid, it 
may be easily and safely altered by turning up the tube. 

Even when the action of the wet bulb is unexceptionable, water must fre- 
quently be added to the water- vessel. It is usual for this water to have the 
temperature of the air ; but in cases of a great difference between the two 
bidbs, this will be much above the temperature of evaporation; the con- 
sequence is found to be, that in such cases there is a rise in the wet-bulb 
curve which, in extreme cases, may not completely right itself until a quarter 
of an hour has elapsed. This can only be remedied by each observatory 
doing all in its power to ensure that under such circumstances the water 
supplied to the water-vessel shall represent as nearly as possible the tem- 
perature of the wet bulb at that moment, and also that the supply of water 
from the water-vessel • to the wet bulb shall be no greater than is necessary 
to keep the bulb thoroughly damp without dripping. 

With regard to other deficiencies, it will only be necessary to remark here 
such as are peculiar to the Thermograph, since all those common to this in- 
strument and the Barograph have already been stated under the head of the 
latter. 

In the first place, it should be noticed that there is sufficient light to illu- 
minate the whole range of the curve in a proper manner. In order to ensure 
this, and at the same time procure the best possible definition, the heights of 
the thermometers may, as occasion requires, aud without detriment to the 
instrument, be altered so as to bring the mean temperature of the time into 
a central position with respect to the lens and light. This change ouoht, 
however, to be made as seldom as possible (perhaps twice or thrice in a year), 
and when made great care ought to be taken that there is no strain upon the 
wet-bidb Thermometer through tightness of the thread, whether arising 
from frost or any other cause. 



Ix REPORT — 1869. 

Errors in Trace and TahvJation. 

The arrangement proposed for ensuring the entry under the proper da*e 
into the tabulation forms of the measuremeuts of the Thermograph curv/s, 
and of the Standard readings corrected, is almost precisely the same as f.iat 
stated in the case of the Barograph. 

Having ascertained the entry into the tabulation forms under their propt" 
dates of the tabulations, and of the Standard readings corrected, -we come in 
the next place to consider the check upon accuracy of tabulation, and here, 
as in the case of the Barograph, it will be necessary to consider separately 
large and small errors. 

In the first place, with respect to large errors, in order to prevent entirely 
their occurrence, it is necessary to resort to the system of subsidiary tabula- 
tions. An instrument for this purpose has been devised at Kew. It is un- 
necessary here to state its principle of construction ; suffice it to say, that 
the results furnished by it arc used in the same manner as in the case of the 
Barograph ivory scale already mentioned. By this means correct columns 
of tabulated readings may be obtained. Again, Avith regard to the Standard 
readings, all that appears to be necessary is to examine both the accuracy of 
entry of the Standard reading coi-rectcd, and the accuracy of tabulation for 
aU those cases in which the recorded Thermograph temperature is more than 
half a degree diiferent from the corresponding Standard reading, and to make 
any correction that may be found to be necessary. When a Standard read- 
ing is evidently wrong, it ought to be noted as such on the curve, and should 
not be made iise of in calculating the monthly mean difference between 
Standard and Thermograph readings. Before leaving this subject, it ought 
to be stated that the tabulating instrument as well as the subsidiary scale, 
are both so arranged as to ensure reading the proper point of the curve for 
every odd hour. 

It ought to be noted that, in tabulating from the Thermograph curves, the 
tabulating instrument should be set from those observation hours where 
there is little thermoraetric fluctuation. 

AU the dry-hidb readings ought to he compared with the corresponding ivet- 
hulb ones, and should the latter ever appear higher than the former, the case 
ought to be marked. 

The maximum and minimum temperatures furnished by the outlying ob- 
servatories ought to be checked. 

All Ia)-ge errors may, it is hoped, be completely obviated by the means now 
described. 

With regard to small errors, the plan adopted is the same as that for the 
Barograph, viz. : — ■ 

(1) To record the monthly mean difference between the sinraltancous 

Standard and Thermograph readings. 

(2) To make forty remeasurements from each month's curves at Kew. 

The following Table exhibits the results of the method employed for test- 
ing the accuracy of the Thermograph tabulations as regards small errors : — 



REPORT OF THE KEW COMMITTEE. 



1X1 



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Ixii REPORT — 1869. 

It is believed tliat tlie results of this Table afford satisfactory evidence not 
only of the accuracy vrith ■which the Standard Thermometers are read, 
but also of the accuracy of tabulation from the traces. A tendency in the 
monthly mean differences to decrease from their first values at starting wiU 
be noticed in the case of all the observatories. 

Anemogeaph. 

The accuracy of the Anemograi^h is, like that of the Thermograph, liable 
to be deranged by three causes : — 

(1) By a cause depending on the situation and exposure of the instru- 

ment. 

(2) By instrumental deficiency, such as fi'iction. 

(3) By deficient traces and tabulations. 

Situation of Instruments. 

These instruments are placed on the highest points of the various obser- 
vatories, and as far as possible out of the reach of local influences. The 
exposure may therefore be considered good in the case of all the obser- 
vatories. 

Instrumental Deficiencies, 

Priction is the most important of these, and may be supposed to affect to 
a small extent both the records of direction and velocit)*. The axle of the 
direction-vane moves in a wooden bearing, which is saturated with oU. It 
is believed that when the instrument is regularly attended to, the friction 
consequent upon this arrangement can be kept very small. 

As regards the influence of friction upon the velocity-records, this has 
been determined in the case of the Kew instrument, and also by Dr. Robin- 
son for his Anemograph, which has been for many years in operation. The 
following friction coefficient has been adopted, with the concurrence of Dr. 
Bobinson, as applicable to the records of all the Anemographs belonging to 
tlie Meteorological Committee : — 



Observed. miles. miles. 

For velocities from 0-0 
to 0-5 



to 



} 

1-01 

3-0 I 

t-0-1 

)-0| 



add 1-5 
add 1-0 



to lo^^^l-addO-r. 



Errors of Trace and Tabulation. 

It ought to be noticed that hotJi the direction- and the velociiy-pencils are 
working well and freely on the j^aper. 

It is also to bo noticed that, for all the observatories except Falmouth, 
the needle on the cylinder goes through the centre of the crosses marked on 
the metallic paper. 

In Palmouth the velocity-pencil is slightly out in position, and in con- 
seqiience that observatory has been directed to set to a point which is not 
quite in the centre of the crosses. The Ealmouth instrument has also been 
oriented for this position of setting. A note of the proper position of setting 
for Falmouth is preserved at Kew, and the assistant there ought to inspect 
each Falmouth Anemogram to see that it has been properly set. 



REPORT OF THE KEW COMMITTEE. Ixiii' 

With, regard to date, each curve when taken off the cylinder should have 
both the day of the week and of the month written upon it, and when it 
reaches Kew it ought to be inspected by the assistant there in order to see 
that the observer has attached the proper day of the month alongside the 
day of the week. 

He should also see that the week's curves sent are dated consecutively. 

With regard to time, a prick made in the small time-scale of the metallic 
sheet denotes in terms of the hour-lines ruled on this sheet, the moment of 
starting, and a similar prick that of taking off. These pricks ought to denote 
the true chronometer times of starting and taking off very nearly, if the in- 
strumental clock has been properly regulated. All stoppac/es of the instru- 
mental doclx: ought to be marked. 

It ought also to bo noticed that the cylinder is well clamped, otherwise the 
friction of the pencil upon the cylinder may occasionally overcome that of 
the clamp, in which case the cylinder will slip. 

With regard to errors of tabulation, the assistant at Kew ought in the first 
place to ascertain that the curve is tabulated under its proper date. Probably 
an intelligent inspection of the direction- and velocity-records in connexion 
with the tabulated results wiU be sufficient to determine this point. 

A simple system of subsidiary tahidations has been adopted in order to 
check the dii-ection-results. The observer at the outlying observatory is 
requested to write down on a separate sheet in numbers the direction of the 
wind at each hour as read from the curve by his eye, and compare it, as in 
the case of the Barograph and Thermograph, with the tabulated results. The 
differences between the two columns or A — B ought to be inspected at Kcav 
and when they are greater than tivo points the ease ought to be examined' 
and any error detected ought to be corrected at once. With respect to direc- 
tion, fractional parts of a point ought not to be recorded. 

_ With regard to velocity-traces, the action of the instrument is sucli as to 
give by a glance at a curve the whole space travelled over by the wind for 
that day. Perhaps, therefore, it will be a sufficient check upon the velocity- 
records if, in addition to an intelligent comparison of the traces and tabula- 
tions, each day's results are added up and the sum total compared with that 
derived by glancing at the curve. When the difference between these two 
daily sum totals is greater than one-twentieth of the whole, the tabulated velo- 
cities for that day ought to be gone over again, and if any error is detected 
it ought to be put right at once. 

It is probably unnecessaiy to check the recorded oscillations, as these are 
of inferior scientific value, and additional labour bestowed upon them would 
appear to be superfluous. 

Finally, in order to keep a check upon small errors, the system of making 
at Kew forty remeasurements for each month, both for direction and velocity, 
has been adopted. 

The following Table exhibits the results of the method employed for testing 
the accuracy of the Anemograph tabulations as regards small errors. 

It will be seen from this Table that the standard of accuracy as repre- 
sented by the smallness of the mean monthly differences has gradually in- 
creased np to the end of the year. 



Ixiv 



UEPORT — 1869. 







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REPORT OF THE KEW COMMITTEE. IxV 

Code of Regulations adopted by the Meteorological Committee 
for ensuring Accuracy ii: 

RECORDING INSTRUMENTS 



for ensuring Accuracy in the Results derived from their Self- 



la the first place a set of rules have been framed for the guidance of the 
various observatories, inchiding the Central Observatory at Kew. Secondly, 
a set of forms have been constructed on which to register the deficiencies and 
mistakes in the returns from the various observatories, copies of which when 
filled up are forwarded to the Directors of these observatories on the one 
hand, and to the Meteorological Office on the other. Thirdly, a diary of 
operations has been constructed, from which each observatory may know the 
times at which the various documents ought to be sent to Kew. Fourthly, 
each month's results are laid before the Meteorological Committee, accom- 
panied with the remarks of the Director of the Central Observatory, which are 
then printed in the minutes of that body*. 

Eegttlations fob Barograph. 

Outlying Observatory. 

(1.) The curves, journals, and tabulation forms to be written upon accord- 
ing to the pattern furnished. 

(2.) Always begin a new month with new forms. The curves and forms 
are to be numbered consecutively from the beginning of the year, 
as will be seen from the diary. 

(3.) Clock to be set to Greenwich mean time at starting, and its error 
not to exceed two minutes in two days. 

(4.) The Barograph Thermometer and the Standard Barometer, and its 
attached Thermometer, ought to be read five times a day if pos- 
sible while the light is cut off by the clock- arrangement. The 
light remains cut off by this arrangement for four minutes, and it 
is necessary to read the Standard Barometer at the end of this 
interval — the exact points in the curve corresponding to certain 
known readings of the Standard may thus be determined. It ought 
to be noticed when the Standard is heaving or oscillating. 

(5.) The instrument should always be started between 10 and 11 a.m. 
Greenwich mean time on those days mentioned in the diarJ^ 

(6.) Every change made in the instrument, every stoppage of clock, &c., 
and all peculiarities in the curve, noticed by the observer, should 
be inserted in the journal under the head of " Remarks," with the 
exact time attached thereto. Should the height of the Barometer- 
cistern be altered, or any change made which will affect the curve, 
this ought, as already mentioned, to be noticed ; it is, however, 
considered that all such changes ought to be avoided. 

(7.) The previous week's curves, journals, and tabulations should be sent 
to Kew every Thursday, as mentioned in the diary. 

* In these remarks there is recorded, amongst other things, each blank in the traces 
during the montli. The following were the blanks for February 1809 :^ 

Anemograph (direction) 10 hourly records lost out of 4704. 

Ditto (velocity) 20 „ „ „ 4704. 

Barograph 13 ,, „ ., 4704. 

Thermograph (dry bulb) 2 „ „ „ 4704. 

Ditto (wet bulb) 12 „ „ „ 4704. 

1869. 6 



Xvi REPORT — 1869. 

Central Ohse^'vatory (Assistant). 

(8.) The assistant at Kew shall examine each curve in order to see if 
there is any want of light or appearance of bagging, or of finger- 
marks, or of bad photography, and he shall occasionally see that 
the temperature bar is in proper action. 

(9.) He shall see that the clock and clock-stop have been in good action 
for the time of the curve. 

(10.) That the instrumental clock docs not differ more than two minutes 
from the chronometer as recorded on the curve. 

(11.) That the date written on the back of the curve agrees with that on 
the face. 

(12.) That the curve is properly written upon after the pattern. 

(13.) That in the Barograph Journal the proper day of the month is placed 
alongside of Sunday, and that the otliers follow conseciitively. 

(14.) That the times of starting and stopping the curve as recorded in the 
journal have been properly recorded on the face of the curve. 

(15.) Finally, he shall ascertain, by means of a simple inspection of the 
curve, that the beginning and ending, as shown by the curve itself, 
are the same as those described on the face of the curve. 

(IG.) He shaU sec that the journal readings of the Standard Barometer 
are entered under their proper dates into the Barograph tabulation 
sheets. 

(17.) Then examine in a general manner the accordance of the Barograph 
and Standard readings for each day. If these two tests be satis- 
factory, he may conclude that the tabulations and Standard read- 
ings have both been entered under their proper dates. 

(18.) Check the accuracy of the subtractions made in the tables of siib- 
sidiary measurements furnished by the outlying observatory. 

(19.) Investigate all cases where A — B is greater than -02 in. ; if an error 
be revealed in the tabulations, this error ought to be corrected at 
once. These corrections ought to be made before the next step in 
the process is commenced. 

(20.) Then ascertain the accuracy with which the residual correction has 
been found according to the method described, and whenever it 
has been found necessary to alter the residual correction, a cor- 
rection sliould also be made in the last column of the tabulation 
papers. 

(21.) Then check after the manner described the accuracy with which the 
residual correction has been applied, producing a new column of 
corrected pressure, which he shall compare with the old one, and 
any error discovered by this comparison shall be corrected at once. 

(22.) Portions of the curve too faint for the ordinary instrument, but 
capable of being measured by the ivory scale, shall be measured, 
corrected, and marked as specified. 

Central Observatory (Director'). 

23. The assistant at Kew shall bring all curves and tabulations which 
exhibit deficiencies personally before the Director of the Central 
Observatory, and the latter shall make the necessary remarks on 
the curves and tabulations, or cause them to be made, and shall 
communicate all cases of failure to the Meteorological Committee 
on the one hand and to the Director of the observatory where the 



REPORT OF THE KEW COMMITTEE. Ixvii 

failure occurred on the other, making any remark that may tend 
in his estimation to obviate in future the cause of faihire. 

(24.) He shall also communicate as above the monthly mean differences 
between the Earograph readings reduced, and the simultaneous 
Standard readings. 

(25.) He shall also communicate as above the result of forty remeasure- 
ments for each observatory for each month, to be made at Kew, 
noting (1) the greatest difference, (2) the mean difference irre- 
spective of sign, (3) the residual difference (if any), taking signs 
into account. 

Regulations fok Theemogeaph. 
Ouilying Observatory. 

(1.) The curves, journals, and tabulation forms to be written upon accord- 
ing to the pattern furnished. 

(2.) Always begin a new month with new forms. The curves and forms 
are to be numbered conseciitively from the beginning of the year, 
as will be seen from the diary. 

(3.) Clock to be set to Greenwich mean time at starting, and its error not 
to exceed two minutes in two days. 

(4.) The Standard Thermometers should be read at least five times a day 
at those moments when the light is cut off by the clock-arangement. 
The mode of dealing with the wet bulb has been already de- 
scribed, p. Iviii. 

(5.) The instrument should always be started between 10 and 11 a.m. 
Greenwich mean time, on those days mentioned in the diary. 

(6.) Every change made in the instrument, every stoppage of clock, <fec., 
and all pecuharities in the curve noticed by the observer, should be 
inserted in the journal under the head of " Remarks," with the 
exact time attached thereto. 

(7.) The muslin and connecting threads ought to be taken off the bulbs, 
washed and replaced as often as they become soiled. 

(8.) The previous week's curves, journals, and tabulations should be sent 
to Kew every Thursday, as mentioned in the diary. 

Central Observatory (Assistant). 

(9.) The assistant shall examine each curve in order to see if there is any 
want of light, bagging, finger-marks, bad photogTaphy, or defective 
action of wet bulb, during however short a space of time. 

(10.) He shall see that the clock and clock- stop have been in good actio-n 
for the time of the curve. 

(11.) That the instrumental clock does not differ more than two minutes 
from the chronometer as recorded on the curve. 

(12.) That the date written on the back of the curve agrees with that in 
front. 

(13.) That the curve is properly written upon after the pattern adopted. 

(14.) That in the Thermograph Journal the ])roper day of the mouth is 
placed alongside of Sunday, and that the others follow conse- 
cutively. 

(15.) That the times of starting and stopping the curve as recorded in the 
journal have been properly recorded on the face of the curve. 

e2 



Ixviii REPORT — 1869. 

(16.) He shall ascertain, bj^ means of a simple inspection, that the he- 
ginning and ending, as shown by the curve itself, are the same as 
those described in front of the curve. 

(17.) That the joiirnal readings of the Standard Thermometer are entered 
under their proper dates into the Thermograph tabulation sheets. 

(18.) He shall examine in a general manner the accordance of the Ther- 
mograph and Standard readings for each day. If these two tests 
be satisfactory, he may conclude that the tabulations and Standard 
readings have both been entered under their proper dates. 

(19.) Check the accuracy of the subti'actions made in the tables of the 
subsidiary measurements. 

(20.) Investigate all cases in which A — B is greater than 0°-5 Fahr. ; 
and if an error is revealed, it ought to be corrected at once. 

(21.) Examine both the corrected Standard reading and the corresponding 
tabulated one for all those cases in which there is a difference 
greater than 0°-5 between the two. 

(22.) Compare the dry-bulb readings with the corresponding wet ones, 
marking and examining all those cases iu which the latter appear 
higher than the former. 

(23.) Check the accuracy of the maximum and minimum temperatures 
furnished by the outlying observatories. 

(24.) Eecord the monthly mean diiferences between the simultaneous 
Standard and Thermograph readings. 

(25.) Make forty remeasurements as specified. 

Central Observatory (^Director'). 

(2G.) The assistant at Kew shall bring before the Director of the Central 
Observatory all curves, with their corresponding tabulations, that 
arc deficient from any cause, and the Director shall make the ne- 
cessary remarks on the curves and tabulations, or cause them to 
be made, and shall commiinicate all cases of failure to the Meteo- 
rological Committee on the one hand, and to the Director of the 
observatory where the failure occurred on the other, making any 
remarks that may tend in his estimation to obviate in future the 
causes of failure. • 

(27.) The Director of the Central Observatory shall also communicate as 
above the monthly mean differences between the simultaneous 
Thermograph and Standard readings, as well as the result of the 
forty remeasurements made at Kew. 



EeGULATIOITS rOR ANElIOGEAPn. 

Outlyhiri Observatory. 

(1.) The curves and tabulation forms to be written upon according to the 

patterns furnished. 
(2.) Always begin a new month with new tabulation forms. The curves 

and forms are to be numbered consecutively from the beginning of 

the year, as will be seen from the diarj-. 
(3.) The pricks on the curve, when compared with the Greenwich mean 

times of commencement and taking off, ought to agree with the 

latter within five minutes at each end. 



REPORT OF THE KEW COMMITTEE. ]xix 

(4.) The curve should be taken off at lO** 30™ a.m., and a new one replaced 
if possible at 10'' 32'", Greenwich mean time. 

(5.) Every change made in the instrument, every stoppage of clock, &c., 
and all peculiarities in the curve noticed by the observer, should 
be recorded on the blank part of the sheet of metallic paper, with 
the exact time attached thereto. The orientation should be tested 
once a month. 

(6.) The previous week's curves and tabulations should bo sent to Kew 
every Thursday, as recorded in the diary. 

Central Observatory (Assistant). 

(7.) The assistant at Xew shall examine each curve in order to see if both 

pencUs work well and freely, and if the paper has been accurately 

attached to the cylinder, and if the cylinder has not slipped. 
(8.) He shall see that the clock has been in good order during the time of 

the curve. 
(9.) That the curve is properly written upon after the pattern adopted. 
(10.) That in the writing upon the curve the proper day of the month ia 

placed alongside the day of the week. 
(11.) That the times of putting on and taking off as recorded by the 

pricker do not differ more than five minutes from the chronometer 

time. 
(12.) He shall inspect the direction- and velocity-curves in connexion with 

the tabulated results, in order to ascertain that each curve is 

tabulated under its proper date. 
(13.) Check the accuracy of the subtractions made in the tables of the 

subsidiary direction measurements. 
(14.) Examine all cases in which A — B is greater than two points, and if 

an error is revealed it ought to be corrected at once. 
(15.) Check the accuracy of the velocity tabulations, according to the 

method herein indicated. 
(16.) Make fortj' remeasurements for each month, both for direction and 

velocity, as in the case of the other instruments. 

Central Ohservatory [Director). 

(17.) The assistant at Kew shall bring before the Director of the Central 
Observatory all curves, with their corresponding tabulations, that 
are deficient from any cause, and the Director shall make the neces- 
sary remarks on the curves and tabulations, or cause them to be 
made, and shall communicate all cases of failure to the Meteoro- 
logical Committee on the one hand, and to the Director of the ob- 
servatory where the failure occurred on the other, making any 
remarks that may tend in his estimation to obviate in future the 
causes of failure. 

(18.) The Director of the Central Observatory shall also communicate as 
above the result of the forty remeasurements made at Kew. 



Ixx 



REPORT 18G9. 



I.— WEEKLY FORM FOR REGISTERING DEFICIENCIES. 



BAEOGEAMS, &c. 



(lieceivecl at Kew,_ 



Tabulation No. 
.) and corresxjonding 

Documents. 



Points noticed at Kew. 


Eesults and Eemarks. 


1. Deficiency in number of documents sent . . . 

2. Errors in numbering and writing upon them 

(A.) "Want of light in curves 

(B.) Bagging in do 

(C.) Finger-markS; tfec., in do 

3. Action of clock 

4. Eegulation of do 




(D.) Action of clock-stop. 

5. Errors in dating curves 

(E.) Do. in entry or date of entry of journal readings 
of standard into tabulation sheets .... 

6. Do. in date of entry of tabulated readings into 

tabulation sheets 

7. Do. of subtraction in subsidiary tables . . . 

8. Do. of tabulation discovered by subsidiary tables 

(c.) Do. in calculating residual correction .... 
(c?.) Do. in applying residual correction .... 

9. Ten remeasurements 

(1.) Greatest difference 

(2.) Mean difference irrespective of sicjn . . . 
(3.) Residual difference 



REPORT or THE KEW COMMITTEE. 



Ixxi 



II.— WEEKLY FORM FOR REGISTERING DEFICIENCIES. 



THERMOGRAMS, &c. 



(^Received at Keiu,_ 



Tabulation No. 
\ and corresponding 
'■' Documents, 



Points noticed at Kew. 


Eesults and Eemarks. 


1. Deficiency in number of documents sent . . . 

2. Errors in numbering and writing upon them 

(A.) Want of light in curves 

(B.) Bagging in do 

(C.) Finger-marks, iScc., in do 

(«.) Defective action of wet bulb 

3. Action of clock 

4. Regulation of do 

(D.) Action of clock- stop 

5. Errors in dating curves 

(E.) Do. in entry or date of entry of journal readings 
of standard into tabidation sheets .... 

6. Do. in date of entry of tabulated readings into 

tabulation sheets 

7. Do. of subtraction in subsidiary tables . . . 

8. Do. of tabulation discovered by subsidiary tables 

(j).) Do. in maxima and minima 

9. Ten remeasurements 

(1.) Greatest difference 

(2.) Mean difference irrespective of sign . . . 
(3.) Residual difference 





Ixxii 



REPORT 1869. 



III.— WEEKLY FORM FOR REGISTERING DEFICIENCIES. 



ANEMOGEAMS, &c. 



{lieceived at Kew, 



Tabulation No. 

and corresponding 

Documents. 



Points noticed at Kew. 


Results and Remarks. 


1. Deficiency iu number of documents sent . 

2. Errors in numbering and writing upon tbem 

(e.) Action of pencils 

(/.) Errors of attachment of paper 

(f/.) Slipping of cylinder 

3. Action of clock 

4. Eegulation of do 




5. Errors iu dating curves 

6. Do. iu date of entry of tabulated readings into 

tabulation sheets 

7. Do. of subtraction in subsidiary tables 

8. Do. in direction discovered by subsidiary tables . 

Qi.) Do. in velocity discovered by subsidiary arrange- 
ment , 

9 (a.) Ten remcasurements (direction) .... 

(1.) Greatest difference 

(2.) Mean difference irrespective of sign , 
(3.) Besidual difference 

9 (6.) Ten remcasurements (velocity) 

(1.) Greatest difference 

(2.) Mean difference irrespective of sic/n 

(3.) Besidual difference 



Sl)ecimen of Diary of Operations for 1869. JANUARY. 



"S 

■s 

1 


OayofWeek. 


No. of Bar. and 
Ther. sheets taken 
off this day. 


No. of Anem. 
sheet taken off 
this day. 


No. of Journals 
and Tabulations 
ending this day. 


Send to Kew. 


Hemarks. 


Bar. and 
Ther. 

Curves, 

Nos. 
incluaive. 


Anem. 
Curves, 

Nos. 
inclusive 


Journals 
and 

Tabula- 
tions, 
Nos. 


Weather 

Eeport 

for 


I. 


Friday . . . 


I 


I 














2. 


Saturday. . . 




2 


I 












3- 


Sunday.. 


2-3 


3 














4- 


Monday ... 




4 














5- 


Tuesday . . . 


4-S 


5 














6. 


Wednesday 




6 














7- 


Thursday. . 


6-7 


7 


... 


I to 3 


1 to 3 


I 






8. 


Friday ... 




8 














9- 


Saturday. . . 


8-9 


9 


2 












lO. 


Sunday... 




10 














11. 


Monday ... 


lO-Il 


11 














12. 


Tuesday . . . 




IZ 














13- 


Wednesday 


12-13 


13 














14. 


Thursday. . 




14 


... 


4 to 11 


4 to 10 


2 






15- 


Friday ... 


14-15 


15 














16. 

17- 
18. 
19. 


Saturday. . . 

Sunday... 

Monday . . . 
Tuesday . . . 


16-17 
18-19 


16 

17 
18 

19 


3 










Kew to send 
in docu- 
ments for 
December 
1868 to the 
central 
office. 


20. 


Wednesday 




20 














21. 


Thursday. . 


20-21 


21 


... 


12 to 17 


11 to 17 


3 






2Z. 


Friday . . . 




22 














23. 


Saturday. . . 


22-23 


23 


4 












24. 


Sunday... 




24 














as- 


Monday . . . 


24-25 


25 














26. 


Tuesday . . . 




26 














*7- 


Wednesday 


26-27 


27 














28 


Thursday. 




28 




18 to 25 


18 to 24 


4 






29 


Friday . . 


28-29 


29 














3° 


. Saturday.. 




30 


5 












3' 

1 


. Sunday.. 


30-31 


3J 


6 













Ixxiv 






REPOUT 1869. 












FEBRUARY, 

■ 1 


1 

ft 


Day of 
Week. 


U 

,, . CO 




u^ J=i tn 


Send to Kew. 


Remarks. 


Bar. and 

Ther. 

Curves, 

Nos. 
inclusiTe. 


Ancm. 
Curves, 

Nos. 
inclusive. 


Journals 

and 
Tabula- 
tions, 

Mos. 


Weather 

Report 

for 


I. 


Monday . . . 




32 














2. 


Tuesday... 


3^-33 


33 














3- 


Wednesday 




34 














4- 


Thursday. . 


34-35 


35 


... 


26 to 31 


25 to 31 


5 






5- 


Friday ... 




36 














6. 


Saturday . . 


36-37 


37 


7 












7- 


Sunday. •• 




38 














8. 


Monday . . . 


38-39 


39 














9- 


Tuesday... 




40 














lO. 


Wednesday 


40-41 


41 














II. 


Thursday. . 




42 


... 


32 to 39 


32 to 38 


6 and 7 


January 




12. 


Friday ... 


42-43 


43 














13- 


Saturday . . 




44 


8 












14- 


Sunday.. • 


44-45 


45 














IS- 


Monday . . . 




46 














i6. 


Tuesday ... 


46-47 


47 














17. 


Wednesday 




48 














i8. 


Thursday. . 


48-49 


49 


... 


40 to 45 


39 to 45 


8 






19. 


Friday ... 




5° 














20. 


Saturday . . 


50-51 


51 


9 












21. 

22. 

23- 


Sunday- 
Monday ... 
Tuesday . . . 


5^-53 


52 
53 
54 










/ 


Kew to send 
in January 
documents 
to the central 
office. 


24 


Wednesday 


54-55 


55 














25 


Thursday. 




56 


... 


46 to 53 


46 to 52 


9 






26 


Friday . . 


56-57 


57 














27 


Saturday . 




58 


10 












28 


Sunday-. 


58-59 


59 


11 













recommendations of the general committee. ixxv 

e-ecoaiaexdatioxs adopted by the ge^•eeal cohmxttee at the exeter 
Meeting in August 1869. 

[When Committees are appointed, the Member first named is regarded as tlie Secretary, 
except there is a specific nomination.] 

Involving Grants of Money. 

That tlie sum of .£600 be placed at the disposal of the Council for main- 
taining the Establishment of tlie Kew Observatory. 

That the Committee, consisting of Dr. Joule, Sir W. Thomson, Professor 
Tait, Dr. Balfour Stewart, and Professor G. C. Foster, be reappointed to effect 
a determination of the Mechanical Equivalent of Heat ; and that the sum of 
£b() be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That the Committee for reporting on the Eaiafall of the British Isles be 
reappointed, and that this Committee consist of Mr. Charles Brooke, Mr. 
Glaisher, Professor Phillips, Mr. G. J. Symons, Mr. J. F. Batemau, Mr. E. 
W. Mylne, Mr. T. Hawksley, Professor Adams, Mr. C. Tomlinson, Professor 
Sylveste]-, Dr. Pole, and Mr. Eogers Field ; that Mr. G. J. Symons be the 
Secretary, and that the sum of £50 bo placed at their disposal for the ordinary 
purposes of the Committee, and that a further swva. of .£50 be granted for the 
purpose of providing additional rain-guages in certain districts where obser- 
vations are not at present made. 

That the Committee on Uudergroimd Temperature, consisting of Sir 'William 
Thomson, Dr. Everett, Sir Charles LyeU, Bart., Prhicipal Forbes, Mr. J. 
Clerk Maxwell, Professor Phillips, Mr. G. J. Symons, Mr. Balfour Stewart, 
Professor Eamsay, Mr. Geikie, Mr. Glaisher, Eev. Dr. Graham, Mr. E. W. 
Binney, Mr. George Maw, and Mr. Pengellj^ be reap'pointed with the addi- 
tion of the name of Mr. S. J. Mackie ; that Dr. J. D. Everett be the Secretary, 
and that the sum of .£50 be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That the Committee on the Thermal Conductivity of Metals, consisting of 
Professor Tait, Professor Tyndall, and Dr. Balfour Stewart, be reappointed ; 
that Professor Tait be the Secretary, and that the sum of £20 be placed at 
their disposal for the purpose. 

That the Committee on Tides, consisting of Sir "W. Thomson, Professor 
Adams, Professor J. W. M. Eankine, Mr. J. Oldham, and Captain Eichards, 
be reappointed, with the addition of the name of Mr. W. Parkes, and that 
they be instructed to institute as soon as possible a comparison between the 
results of the formulte arrived at in their reports (those of observation and 
those of previous methods of reduction and calculation), and that the sum of 
£100 be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That the Committee on Luminous Meteors, consisting of Mr. Glaisher, 
Mr. E. P. Greg, Mr. E. W. Brayley, Mr. Alexander Herschel, and Mr. C. 
Brooke, be reappointed ; and that the sum of £30 be placed at their disposal 
for the purpose. 

That Dr. Matthicsseu, Professor Abel, and Mr. David Forbes be a Com- 
mittee for the purpose of continuing their researches on the Chemical Nature 
of Cast Iron ; ancl that the sum of £80 bo placed at their disposal for the 
purpose. 

That Mr. E. B. Grantham, 1ii\ J. Bailey Denton, Mr. J. E. Harrison, Mr. 
J. W. Wanklyn, \V. Hope, and Dr. B. H. Pari be a Committee for the piu-- 
pose of continuing their investigations on the treatment and utilization of 
sewage ; and that the sum of £50 be placed at their disposal for the piu'pose. 

That Sir Charles LyeU, Bart., Professor Phillips, Su- John Lubbock, Bart., 



Ixxvi KEPORT — 18G9. 

Mr. Jolin Evaus, Mr. Edward Yivian,Mr. William PcngcUy, Mr. George Bxisk, 
Mr. W. Boyd Dawkins, and Mr. W. Ayshford Sandford be a Committee for 
the purpose of continuing the exploration of Kent's Cavern, Torquay ; that 
Mr. Pengelly be the Secretary, and that the sum of =£150 be placed at their 
disposal for the purpose. 

That Dr. P. M. Duncan and Mr. Henry "Woodward he a Committee for the 
purpose of continuing their Eesearches on British Eossil Corals ; that Dr. 
P. M. Duncan be the Secretary, and that the sum of ^50 be placed at their 
disposal for the purpose. 

That Mr. Henry Woodward, Dr. Duncan, Professor Harkness, and Mr. 
James Thomson be a Committee for the purpose of making and photographing 
further sections of such Mountain Limestone Fossils as requii-e to be cut in order 
to display their structure ; that Mr. Woodward be the Secretary, and that the 
sum of .£25 be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That the Rev. W. S. Symonds, Mr. Lightbody, and the Rev. J. B. La 
Touche be a Committee for the purpose of investigating Sedimentary deposits 
in the river Onny ; that the Rev. J. B. La Touche be the Secretary, and that 
£3 be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Dr. Bryce, Sii- W. Thomson, Mr. D. Milne-Home, and Mr. Macfarlane 
be a Committee for the purpose of continuing the researches on Earthquakes 
in Scotland; that Dr. Bryce be the Secretary, and that the sum of £4 bo 
placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Professor Huxley, Mr. Westroppe, and Mr. W. H. Baily be a Com- 
mittee for the purpose of continiiing the investigation of the fossil contents of 
the two Kiltorcan quarries, co. Kilkenny ; that Mr. W. H. Baily be the 
Secretary, and that the sum of £20 be placed at their disposal for the 
purpose. 

That Mr. W. S. Mitchell, Mr. Robert Etheridge, Professor J. Morris, Mr. 
G. Maw, and Mr. Henry Woodward be a Committee for the puri>ose of con- 
tinuing the investigation of the Leaf-beds of the Lower Bagshot Series of the 
Hampshire Basin ; tliat Mr. Mitchell be the Secretarj-, and that the sum of 
£15 be ijlaced at their disposal for the piu'pose. 

That Dr. B. W. Richardson, Dr. Sharpey, and Professor Humphry be a 
Committee for the piirpose of continuing researches on the phj^siological 
action of Organic Chemical compounds ; that Dr. Richardson be the Secretarj', 
and that the sum of £30 be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Mr. W. Carruthcrs, Professor Balfour, Dr. J. D. Hooker, and Professor 
Dickson be a Committee for the purpose of continuing investigations in the 
Fossil Flora of Britain ; that Mr. Carruthers be the Secretary, and that tlie 
sum of £25 be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Mr. Spence Bate, Mr. Joshua Couch, Dr. Mcintosh, Mr. Rowe, and 
Mr. J. Gwyn Jeffreys be a Committee for the purpose of continuing their 
research on the Marine Fauna of Devon and Cornwall ; that Mr. Spence Bate 
be the Secretary, and that the sum of £20 be placed at their disposal for the 
purpose. 

That Mr. George Busk, Mr. H. T. Stainton, and the Rev. H. B. Tristram 
be a Committee for the purpose of drawing up a record of Zoological Literature 
of 1869 ; that Mr. George Busk bo the Secretary, and that the sum of =£100 
be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Mr. C. Stewart, Dr. Giinther, and Mr. W. H. Flower be a Committee 
for the purpose of investigating the structure of the Ear in Fishes, and that 
Mr. Stewart draw up the Report on the subject, and that the sum of £10 be 
placed at their disposal for the purpose. 



RECOMMENDATIONS OK THE GENERAL COMMITTEE, Ixxvil 

Tliat Dr. Arthur Gamgee, Mr. E. Eay Lankcster, and Dr. M. Foster be a 
Committee for the purpose of investigating the amount of Heat generated in 
the Blood, in the process of arterialization ; that Dr. Arthur Gamgee be the 
Secretary, and that the sum of =£15 be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That the Metric Committee be reappointed, such Committee to consist of 
Sir John Bowring, The Bight Hon. Sir Stafford H. Northcoto, Bart., C.B., 
M.P., The Bight Hon. C. B. Adderley, M.P., Mr. Samuel Brown, Dr. Farr, 
Mr.Frank P. FcUowes, Professor Franklaud, Professor Hennessy, Mr. James 
Heywood, Sir Bobcrt Kane, Professor Leone Levi, Professor W. A. Millei', 
Professor Bankiue, Mr. C. W. Siemens, Colonel Sykes, M.P., Professor A. W. 
Williamson, Mr. James Yates, Dr. George Glover, Mr. Joseph "VVhitworth, 
Mr. J. R. Kapier, Mr. H. Dircks, Mr. J. V. JST. Bazalgette, Mr. W. Smith, 
Mr. W. Fairbairn, and Mr. John Robinson ; that Professor Leone Levi be 
the Secretary, and that the sum of .£25 be placed at their disposal for the 
purpose of being applied solely to scientific purposes, printing, and corre- 
spondence. 



Applications for Reports and Researches not involving Grants 

of Money. 

That the Committee, consisting of Mr. E. J. Lowe, Professor Frankland, 
Professor A. W. Williamson, Mr. Glaisher, Dr. Moffat, Mr. C. Brooke, Dr. 
Andi-CM-s, and Dr. B. Ward Richardson, for promoting accurate Meteorological 
Observations of Ozone be reappointed with the addition of the name of Sir 
Edward Belcher. 

That Professor Sylvester, Professor Cayley, Professor Hirst, Rev. Professor 
Bartholomew Price, Professor H. J. S. Smith, Mr. W. Spottiswoode, Mr. R. B. 
Hayward, Dr. Salmon, Rev. R. Townsend, Professor Fuller, Professor Kelland, 
Mr. J. M. Wilson, and Mr. W. K. Clifford be a Committee (with power to add 
to their number) for the purpose of considering the possibility of improving 
the methods of instruction in elementary geometrj-, and that Mr. W. K. Cliffbrd 
be the Secretary. 

That the Committee on Electrical Standards, consisting of Professor 
Williamson, Professor Sir Charles Wheatstone, Professor Sir W. Thomson, 
Professor W. A. MiUer, Dr. A. Matthiessen, Mr. Fleeming Jenkin, Sir 
Charles Bright, Mr. J. Clerk Maxwell, Mr. C. W. Siemens, Mr. Balfour 
Stewart, Dr. Joule, Mr. C. F. Varley, Professor G. C. Foster, and Mr. C. 
Hockin, be reappointed ; and that Professor Fleeming Jenkin be the Secretary, 

That Mr. W. H. L. Russell be requested to continue his Report on recent 
progress in the theory of Elliptic and Hyperelliptic Functions. 

That Dr. Frankland and Mr. M'Leod be a Committee for the purpose of 
continuing their researches on the composition of the gases dissolved in deep- 
well water. 

That Dr. Anderson and Mr. Catton be a Committee for the purpose of 
continuing the researches of Mr. Catton on the Synthesis of Organic Acids, 

That Mr. Mallet be requested to prepare a Report on the ascertained facts 
of Volcanoes, on the general plan of his Report on Earthquakes. 

That Mr. H. E. Dresser, Rev. H. B. Tristram, Professor IN'ewton, Mr. 
J. E. Harting, and the PiCv. H. Barnes, be a Committee for the purpose of 
continuing investigations on the desirability of establishing " a dose time " 
for the preservation of our indigenous animals ; and that Mr. H. E, Dresser 
be the Secretary, 



Ixxviii REPORT — 1869. 

That Colonel Lane Fox, Sir John Lnbbock, Mr. Busk, Mr. Evans, and Mr. 

Stevens be a Committee for the purpose of examining the interior of Stone- 
henge, with instructions to apply to iSir Edward Antrobus for permission to 
do so. 

That the Committee on Agricultural Macliinery, consisting of the Duke 
of Bucclcuch, the Eev. Patrick Bell, Mr. David Greig, Mr. J. Oldham, Mr. 
William Smith, C.E., Mr. Harold Littledale, The Earl of Caithness, Mr. 
Eobert Neilson, Professor Rankine, Mr. E. J. BramweU, Professor Willis, 
and Mr. Charles Manby, be reappointed ; and that Messrs. P. Le Neve Poster 
and J. P. Smith be the Secretaries. 

That the Committee on Boiler Explosions, consisting of Mr. W. Fairbairn, 
Mr. Joseph Whitworth, Mr. Lavington E. Fletcher, Mr. F. J, BramwcU 
(with power to add to their number), be reappointed with a view to their 
considering and reporting on any legislative measiures which may be brought 
forward in reference to the prevention of steam-boiler explosions. 

Involving Ap2Jlicaiions to Government. 

That the President of the British Association, the President of the Geological 
Section, and Mr. Godwin- Ansten, Vice-President of the Section, be a Com- 
mittee for the purpose of calling the attention of Her Majesty's Government 
to the importance of completing, without delay, the valuable investigation into 
the composition and geological distribution of the Haematite Iron Ores of 
Great Britain and Ireland, which has been already in part piiblished in the 
Memoirs of the Geological Survey. 

That the Committee on the Laws regulating the Flow and Action of Water 
holding solid matter in suspension, consisting of Mr. T. Hawksley, Professor 
Eankine, Mr. R. B. Grantham, Sir A. S. Wangh, and Mr. T. Login, be re- 
appointed, with authority to represent to Government the desirability of 
undertaking experiments bearing on the subject. 

That the Committee appointed to report on the state of existing knowledge 
on the stahU'dii, propulsion and sea-r/oinr/ qualities of ships, and consisting of 
Mr. C. W. Merriticld, Mr. Bidder, Captain Douglas Gallon, Mr. F. Galton, 
Professor Eankine, Mr. W. Fronde, be reappointed ; and that tliey be in- 
structed to apply to the Admiralty to make the experiments recommended in 
their First Report. 

Communications to he printed iu cxteiiso in the Annual Report of 

the Association. 

That Professor Magnus's communication " On the Emission, Absorption, 
and Reflexion of Obscure Heat," be printed in e.rtcnso among the Reports. 

That Professor Morren's communication '•' On the Chemical Action of Light 
discovered by Professor Tyndall," be printed in extenso among the Eeports. 

That ^Ir. Glaishcr's observations made by the Captive Balloon be pub- 
lished in the Proceedings. 

That Mr. Frederick Purdy's paper on the " Pressure of Taxation on Eeal 
Property," be printed in extenso among the Eeports. 

That Mr. F. J. BramwcU's paper " On the laws determining the fracture 
of materials when sudden changes of thickness take place," be printed in ex- 
tenso in the Eeport. 

That Mr. Jose])h Whitworth's paper " On the penetration of Armour Plates 
by Shells with heavy bursting charges," be printed in extenso in the Eeport. 



EESOLUTIONS REFERRED TO COUNCIL. IxXlX 

That Mr. Thomas Login's paper " On Eoads and Eailways in Northern 
India as affected by the abrading and transporting power of Water," be 
printed in extenso in the Proceedings, 

Resolutions referred to Council by the General Committee at Exeter. 

That the following Eesolntions be referred to the Conncil for consideration 
and action if it seem desirable : — 

(1) That the Conncil be reqnested to take into their consideration the ex- 
isting relations between the Kew Committee and the British Association. 

That the full influence of the British Association for the Advancement of 
Science should at once be exerted to obtain the appointment of a Eoyal Com- 
mission to consider — 

1. The character and value of existing institiitions and faciUties for 

scientific investigation, and the amount of time and money devoted 
to such purposes. 

2. What modifications or augmentations of the means and facilities that 

are at present available for the maintenance and extension of 
science are requisite ; and, 

3. In what manner these can be best sujjplied. 

(2) That Professor E. B. Clifton, Mr. Glaisher, the Master of the Mint, Mr. 
Huggins, Dr. Matthiessen, Professor W. Hallows Miller, Dr. Balfour Stewart, 
Lieut. -Col. Strange, and Sir J. Whitworth, be a Committee for the purpose 
of reporting on Metric Standards, in reference to the communication from 
Professor Jacobi, appended hereto ; and that the Council be empowered to 
petition the British Government in the name of the Association if they judge 
it expedient to do so. 

" The Academy of Sciences of St. Petersbiirgh, observing that the Standard 
Metric Weights and Measures of the various countries of Eurox)e and of the 
United States diff'er by sensible, though small, quantities from one another, 
express the opinion that the continuance of these errors would be highly 
prejudicial to science. They believe that the injurious effects could not 
be guarded against by private labours, however meritorious, and they have 
therefore recommended that an International Commission be appointed by the 
countries interested, to deal with this matter. They have decided to bring 
the subject before the Eussian Government, and have appointed a Committee 
of their own Body, who have drawn up a careful Eeport containing valuable 
suggestions ; and they have deputed Professor Jacobi to lay this Eeport be- 
fore the British Association, and to request the Association to take action in 
reference to it." 

(3) That the Council be requested to ascertain whether the action of Go- 
vernment in relation to the higher scientific education has been in accordance 
with the principles of impartiality which were understood to guide them in 
this matter ; and to consider whether that action has been well calculated to 
utilize and develope the resources of the country for this end, and to favour 
the free development of the higher scientific education. That the Council 
be requested to take such measures as may appear to them best calculated to 
carry out the conclusions to which they may be led by these inqiiiries and 
deliberations. 

(4) That the rules under which Members are admitted to the General Com- 
mittee be reconsidered. 



IXXX REPORT — 1869. 

Synopsis of Grants of Money appropriated to Scie7itific Purposes by 
the General Committee at the Exeter Meeting in August 18G9. 
The names of the Members who would be entitled to call on the 
General Treasurer for the respective Grants are prefixed. 

Kew Observatory. £ §_ ^^ 

The Council. — Maintaining the Establishment of Kew Obser- 
vatory 600 



Mathematics and Physics. 

* Joule, Dr. — Eemeasurement of the Dynamical Equivalent of 

Heat (renewed) 50 

*Brooke, Mr.— British RainfaU 100 

*Thomson, Professor Sir W. — Underground Temperature .... 50 
Tait, Professor. — Thermal Conductivity of Iron and other 

Metals 20 

*Thomson, Professor Sir "W. — Tidal Observations 100 

*Glaisher, Mr. — Luminous Meteors 30 

Chemistry. 

*Matthiessen, Dr. — Chemical Nature of Cast Iron SO 

*Grantham, Mr. — Treatment and Utilization of Sewage 50 

Geoloyy. 

*Lyell, Sir C, Bart. — Kent's-Cavem Exploration 150 

*Duncan, Dr. P. M. — British Fossil Corals 50 

*Woodward, Mr. H. — Sections of Mountain-Limestone Fossils 25 

Symonds, Rev. W. S. — Sedimentary Deposits in the River Onny 3 

*Bryce, Dr. — Earthquakes in Scotland (renewed) 4 

*Huxley, Professor. — Kiltorcan Fossils, Kilkenny 20 

*Mitchell, Mr. W. S. — Leaf-beds of the Lower Bagshot series . . 15 

BioJof/y. 

*Richardson, Dr. — Physiological Action of Organic Compounds 30 

*Carruthers, Mr. — Fossil Flora of Britain 25 

*Bate, Mr. Spenec. — Marine Fauna of Devon and Cornwall . . 20 

*Busk, Mr. — Record of the Progress of Zoology 100 

Stewart, Mr. C. — Structure of the Ear in Fishes 10 

Gamgee, Dr. — Heat generated in the Arterialization of Blood 15 

Statistics and Economic Science. 

*Bowring, Sir J. — Metrical Committee 25 

Total .£1572 

* Eeappointed. 


































































































































GENERAL STATEMENT. 



Ixxxl 



General Statement of Sums lohich have been paid on Account of Grants 

for Scientific Purposes. 



£ s. d. 
1834. 

Tide Discussions 20 

1835. 

Tide Discussions 02 

British Fossil Ichthyology 105 

^IG7 



1836. 

Tide Discussions 163 

British Fossil Ichthyology 105 

Thermometric Ohservations, &c. 50 
Experiments on long-continued 

Heat 17 1 

Rain-Gauges 9 13 

Refraction Experiments 15 

Lunar Nutation CO 

Thermometers 15 6 



£434 14 



1837. 

Tide Discussions 284 1 

Chemical Constants 24 13 6 

Lunar Nutation 70 

Observations on Waves 100 12 

Tides at Bristol 150 

Meteorology and Subterranean 

Temperature 89 5 

Vitrification Experiments 150 

Heart Experiments 8 4 6 

Barometric Observations 30 

Barometers 11 18 6 



£918 14 6 



1838. 

Tide Discussions 29 

British Fossil Fishes 100 

Meteorological Observations and 

Anemometer (construction) ... 100 

Cast Iron (Strength of) 60 

Animal and Vegetable Substances 

(Preservation of) 19 

Railway Constants 41 

Bristol Tides 50 

Growth of Plants 75 

Mud in Rivers 3 

ICducalion Committee 50 

Ileal t Experiments 5 

Land and Sea Level 267 

Subterranean Temperature 8 

Sieam-vessels 100 

Meteorological Committee 31 

Thermometers 16 











1 10 
12 10 





6 6 




9 5 
4 



£956 12 2 



1839. 

Fossil Ichthyology 110 

Meteorological Ob.servations at 

Plymouth 63 10 

Mechanism of Waves 144 2 

Bristol Tides 35 IS 6 

1869. 



£ s. d. 



Meteorology and Subterranean 

Temperature 21 

Vitrification Experiments 9 

Cast-iron Experiments 100 

Railway Constants 28 

Land and Sea Level 274 

Steam-vessels' Engines 100 

Slars in Histoire Celeste 331 

Stars in Lacaille 11 

Stars in R. A. S. Catalogue 6 

Animal Secretions 10 

Steam-engines in Cornwall 50 

Atmospheric Air 16 

Cast and Wrought Iron 40 

Heat on Organic Bodies 3 

Gases on Solar Spectrum 22 

Hourly Meteorological Observa- 
tions, Inverness and Kingussie 49 

Fossil Reptiles 118 

Mining Statistics 50 



11 





4 


7 








7 


2 


1 


4 








18 


G 








16 


6 


10 











1 























7 


8 


2 


9 









£1595 11 



1840. 

Bristol Tides 100 

Subterranean Temperature 13 

Heart Experiments 18 

Lungs Experiments 8 

Tide Discussions 50 

Land and Sea Level 6 

Stars (Histoire Celeste) 242 

Stars (Lacaille) 4 

Stars (Catalogue) 264 

Atmospheric Air 15 

Water on Iron 10 

Heat on Organic Bodies 7 

Meteorological Observations 52 

Foreign Scientific Memoirs 112 

Working Population 100 

School Statistics 50 

Forms of Vessels 184 

Chemical and Electrical Pheno- 
mena 40 

Meteorological Observations at 

Plymouth 80 

Magnetical Observations 185 









13 


6 


19 





13 











11 


1 


10 





15 











15 

















17 


6 


1 


6 















7 





13 9 



£1546 16 4 



1841. 

Observations on Waves 30 

Meteorology and Subterranean 

Temperature S 

Actinometers 10 

Earthquake Shocks 17 

Acrid Poisons 6 

Veins and Absorbents 3 

Mud in Rivers 5 

Marine Zoology 15 12 

Skeleton Maps' 20 

Mountain Barometers 6 IS 

Stars (Histoire Celeste) 185 







8 











7 























2 


8 








s 


6 









/ 



Ixxxii 



REPORT — 18G9. 



£ 

Stars (Lacaille) 79 

Stars (Nomenclature of) 17 

Stars (Catalogue of) 40 

Water on Iron 50 

Meteorological Observations at 

Inverness 20 

Meteorological Observations (re- 
duction of) 25 

Fossil Reptiles 50 

Foreign Memoirs 02 

Railway Sections 38 

Forms of Vessels 193 

Meteorological Observations at 

Plymouth 55 

Magnetical Observations 61 

Fishes of the Old Red Sandstone 100 

Tides at Leith 50 

Anemometer at Edinburgh 09 

Tabulating Observations 9 

Races of Men 5 

Radiate Animals 2 

J61235 

1842. 

Dynamometrlc Instruments 113 

Anoplura Britanniae 52 

Tides at Bristol 59 

Gases on Light 30 

Chronometers 26 

Marine Zoology 1 

British Fossil Mammalia 100 

Statistics of Education 20 

Marine Steam-vessels' Engines... 28 

Stars (Histoire Celeste) 59 

Stars (Brit. Assoc. Cat. of ) 110 

Railway Sections 161 

British Belemnites 50 

Fossil Reptiles (publication of 

Report) 210 

Forms of Vessels ISO 

Galvanic Experiments on Rocks 5 
Meteorological Experiments at 

Plymouth 68 

Constant Indicator and Dynamo- 
metric Instruments 90 

Force of Wind 10 

Light on Growth of Seeds 8 

Vital Statistics 50 

Vegetative Power of Seeds 8 

Questions on Human Race 7 

J61449 

1843, 
Revision of the Nomenclature of 

Stars 2 

Reduction of Stars, British Asso- 
ciation Catalogue 25 

Anomalous Tides, Frith of Forth 120 
Hourly Meteorological Observa- 
tions at Kingussie and Inverness 77 
Meteorological Observations at 

Plymouth ., 55 

Whewell's Meteorological Ane- 
mometer at Plymouth 10 



s. 


d. 


5 





9 


6 





















1 

12 



11 
12 

8 
14 
17 

5 





18 8 





1 10 
6 3 





10 11 

























































8 


6 













1 II 

9 



17 8 



2 



12 8 











£ S. d. 

Meteorological Observations, Os- 
ier's Anemometer at Plymouth 20 

Reduction of Meteorological Ob- 

ervations 30 

Meteorological Instruments and 

Gratuitfes 39 

Construction of Anemometer at 

Inverness 50 12 2 

Magnetic Cooperation 10 8 10 

Meteorological Recorder for Kew 

Observatory 50 

Action of Gases on Light 18 16 1 

Establishment at Kew Observa- 
tory, Wages, Repairs, Furni- 
ture and Sundries 133 4 7 

Experiments by Captive Balloons 81 8 

Oxidation ofthe Rails of Railways 20 

Publication of Report on Fossil 

Reptiles 40 

Coloured Drawings of Railway 

Sections 147 IS 3 

Registration of Earthquake 

Shocks 30 

Report on Zoological Nomencla- 
ture 10 

Uncovering Lower Red Sand- 
stone near Manchester 4 4 6 

Vegetative Power of Seeds 5 3 8 

Marine Testacca (Habits of) ... 10 

Marine Zoology 10 

Marine Zoology 2 14 II 

Preparation of Report on British 

Fossil MammaHa 100 

Physiological Operations of Me- 
dicinal Agents 20 

Vital Statistics 36 

Additional Experiments on the 
Forms of Vessels 70 

Additional Experiments on the 
Forms of Vessels 100 

Reduction of Experiments on the 
Forms of Vessels 100 

Morin's Instrument and Constant 
Indicator 09 

Experiments on the Strength of 

Materials 60 

£1505 10 2 









5 


8 




















14 


10 









1844. 

Meteorological Observations at 

Kingussie and Inverness 12 

Completing Observations at Ply- 
mouth 35 

Magnetic and Meteorological Co- 
operation 25 8 4 

Publication of the British Asso- 
ciation Catalogue of Stars 35 

Observations on Tides on the 

East coast of Scotland 100 

Revision of the Nomenclature of 

Stars 1842 2 9 6 

Maintaining the Establishment in 

Kew Observatory 117 17 3 

Instruments for Kew Observatory 56 7 3 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



Ixxxiii 



£ 

Influence of Light on Plants 10 

Subterraneous Temperature in 

Ireland 5 

Coloured Drawings of Railway 

Sections 15 

Investigation of Fossil Fishes of 

the Lower Tertiary Strata ... 100 
Registering the Shocks of Earth- 
quakes 1842 23 

Structure of Fossil Shells 20 

Radiata and Mollusca of the 

iEgean and Red Seas 1842 100 

Geographical Distributions of 

Marine Zoology 1842 10 

Marine Zoology of Devon and 

Cornwall 10 

Marine Zoology of Corfu 10 

Experiments on the Vitality of 

Seeds 9 

Experiments on the Vitality of 

Seeds 1842 8 

Exotic Anoplura 15 

Strength of Materials 100 

Completing Experiments on the 

Forms of Ships 100 

Inquiries into Asphyxia 10 

Investigations on the Internal 

Constitution of Metals 50 

Constant Indicator and Morin's 

Instrument 1842 10 

£981 



s. 


d. 














17 


6 








11 


10 

































3 



7 


3 
































3 


G 



12 8 



1845. 
Publication of the British Associa- 
tion Catalogue of Stars 351 14 C 

Meteorological Observations at 

Inverness 30 18 11 

Magnetic and Meteorological Co- 
operation 16 16 8 

Meteorological Instruments at 

Edinburgh 18 11 9 

Reduction of Anemometrical Ob- 
servations at Plymouth 25 

Electrical Experiments at Kew 

Observatory 43 17 8 

Maintaining the Establishment in 

Kew Observatory 149 

For Kreil's Baronietrograph 25 

Gases from Iron Furnaces 50 

The Actinograph 15 

Microscopic Structure of Shells... 20 

Exotic Anoplura 1843 10 

Vitality of Seeds 1843 2 

Vitality of Seeds 1844 7 

Marine Zoology of Cornwall 10 

Physiological Action of Medicines 20 
Statistics of Sickness and Mor- 
tality in York 20 

Earthquake Shocks 1843 15 

£830 9 9 

1846. 
British Association Catalogue of 

Stars 1S44 211 15 

Fossil Fishes of the London Clay 100 



15 






































7 


























14 


8 



Computation of the Gaussian 

I Constants for 1839 50 

I Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory 146 

Strength of Materials GO 

Researches in Asphyxia 6 

Examination of Fossil Shells 10 

Vitality of Seeds 1844 2 

Vitality of Seeds 1845 7 

Marine Zoology of Cornwall 10 

Marine Zoology of Britain 10 

Exotic Anoplura 1844 25 

Expenses attending Anemometers 1 1 

Anemometers' Repairs 2 

Atmospheric Waves 3 

Captive Balloons 1844 8 

Varieties of the Human Race 

1844 7 
Statistics of Sickness and Mor- 
tality in York 12 







16 


7 








IG 


'2 








15 


10 


12 


3 




















7 


6 


3 


6 


3 


3 


19 


3 


6 


3 









£685 16 



1847. 
Computation of the Gaussian 

Constants for 1839 50 

Habits of Marine Animals 10 

Physiological Action of Medicines 20 

Marine Zoology of Cornwall ... 10 

Atmospheric Waves 

Vitality of Seeds 4 

Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory , 107 












U 














9 


3 



7 7 



8 6 



£208 5 4 



1848. 
Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory 171 

Atmospheric Waves 3 

Vitality of Seeds 9 

Completion of Catalogues of Stars 70 

On Colouring Matters 5 

On Growth of Plants 15 



15 


11 


10 


9 


15 
























£275 1 



1849. 

Electrical Observations at Kew 

Observatory 50 

Maintaining Establishment at 

ditto 76 2 5 

Vitality of Seeds 5 8 1 

On Growth of Plants 5 

Registration of Periodical Phe- 
nomena 10 

Bill on account of Anemometrical 

Observations 13 9 

£159 19 6 



1850. 
Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory 255 

Transit of Earthquake Waves ... 50 

Periodical Phenomena 15 

Meteorological Instrument, 

Azores , 25 

£354 

7^ 



18 









18 



Ixxxiv 



REPORT — 1869. 



£ 

i8r>i. 

Maintaining the Eitablishment at 
Kew Observatory (incliules part 

ofgrantin 1849) 309 

Tlieory of Heat 20 

Periodical Phenomena of Animals 

and Plants 5 

Vitality of Seeds 5 

Influence of Solar Radiation 30 

Etlinological Inquiries 12 

Researches on Annelida . 

1S52. 

Maintaining the Establishment at 
Kew Observatory (including 
balance of grant for 1S50) ...233 
Experiments on the Conduction 

of Heat 5 

Influence of Solar Radiations ... 20 

Geological Map of Ireland 15 

Researches on the British Anne- 
lida 10 

Vitality of Seeds 10 

Strength of Boiler Plates 10 

£304 

1853. 

Maintaining the Establishment at 
Kew Observatory 165 

Experiments on tiie Influence of 
Solar Radiation 15 

Researches on the British Anne- 
lida 10 

Dredging on the East Coast of 
Scotland 10 

Ethnological Queries 5 

£205 

1854. 
Maintaining the Establishment at 
Kew Observatory (including 

balance of former grant) 330 

Investigations on Flax 11 

EflTects of Temperature on 

Wrought Iron 10 

Registration of Periodical Phe- 
nomena 10 

British Annelida 10 

Vitality of Seeds 5 

Conduction of Heat 4 

" £380 

1855. ^^^^^ 

Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory] 425 

Eartliquake Movements 10 

Physical Aspect of the Moun 1 1 

Vitality of Seeds , 10 

Map of the World ]5 

Ethnological Queries 5 

Dredging near Belfast 4 

£480 

1.S5G. 

Maintaining the Establishn ent at 
Kew Observatory: — 

1S54 £ 75 01 ,. 

1855 £500 OJ "" 



s. d. 



2 


2 


1 


1 








e 


4 















17 



19 



.. 10 








£391 


9 


7 



2 


9 




















f> 


2 







C 7 






































15 4 


















2 


3 


2 








8 5 
7 11 






u> 













13 


9 









































































8 





7 


4 









£ s. d. 
Strickland's Ornitliological Syno- 
nyms 100 

Dredging and Dredging Forms... 9 

Chemical Action of Light 20 

Strength of Iron Plates 10 

Registration of Periodical Pheno- 
mena 10 

Propagation of Salmon 10 

£734 13 9 

1857. 

Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory 350 

Earthquake Wave Experiments. . 40 

Dredging near Belfast 10 

Dredging on the West Coast of 

Scotland 10 

Investigations into the MoUusca 

of California 10 

Experiments on Flax 5 

Natural History of Madagascar. . 20 

Researches on British Annelida 25 

Report on Natural Products im- 
ported into Liverpool 10 

Artificial Propagation of Salmon 10 

Temperature of Mines 7 

Thermometers for Subterranean 

Observations 5 

Life- Boats 5 

£507 15_ 

1858. 
Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory 500 

Earthquake Wave Experiments.. 25 
Dredging on the West Coast of 

Stolland 10 

Dredging near Dublin 5 

Vitality of Seeds 5 

Dredging near Belfast 18 

Report on the British .\nnelida... 25 
ICxperiments on the production 

of Heat by Motion in Fluids... 20 
Report on the Natural Products 

imported into Scotland 10 

£filS 18 2 

1859. 
Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory 500 

Dredging near Dublin 15 

Osteology of Birds 50 

Irish Tunicala 5 

Manure Experiments 20 

British Medusidie 5 

Dredging Committee 5 

Steam-vessels' Performance 5 

Marine Fauna of South and West 

of Ireland 10 

Photographic Chemistry 10 

Lanarksliire Fossils 20 

Balloon Ascents 39 

£(i84 I 1 ~r 

1860. 
Maintaining the Establishment 

of Kew Observatory 500 

Dredging near Belfast 16 6 

Dredging in Dublin Bay 15 



























5 





13 


2 
























(1 



































1 


1 






GENEEAL STATEMENT. 



Ixxw 



£ s. d. 

In(|uiiy into the Performance of 

Steam-vessels 124 

Exploralions in the Yellow Sand- 
stone of Dura Den 20 

Chemico-mechanical Analysis of 

Rocks and Minerals 25 

Researches on the Growth of 

Plants 10 

Researches on the Solubility of 

Salts 30 

Researches on the Constituents 

of Manures 25 

Balance of Captive Balloon Ac- 
counts 1 13 6 



£\'Ul 7 



ISfil. 
Maintaining the Establishment 

of Kevv Observatory 500 

Earthquake Experiments 25 

Dredging North and East Coasts 

of Scotland 23 

Dredging Committee : — 

1S60 £oQ 0\ 

1861 £22 OJ 

Excavations at Dura Den 20 

Solubility of Salts 20 

Steam-vessel Performance 150 

Fossils of Lesmahago 15 

Explorations at Uriconium 20 

Chemical Alloys 20 

Classified Index to the Transac- 
tions 100 

Dredging in the Mersey and Dee 5 

Dip Circle 30 

Photoheliographic Observations 50 

Prison Diet 20 

Gauging of Water 10 

Alpine Ascents 

Constituents of Manures 25 










72 











































































5 


1 









£1111 5 10 



1SG2. 
Maintaining the Establi^hment 

of Kevv Observatory 500 

Patent Laws 21 

Mollusca of N.-W. America 10 

Natural History by Mercantile 

Marine 5 

Tidal Observations 25 

Photoheliometer at Kew 40 

Photographic Pictures of the Sun 150 

Rocks of Donegal 25 

Dredging Durham and North- 
umberland 25 

Connexion of Storms 20 

Dredging North- East Coast of 

Scotland 6 

Ravages of Teredo 3 

Standards of Electrical Resistance 50 

Railway Accidents 10 

Balloon Committee 200 

Dredging Dublin Bay 10 

Dredging tlie Mersey 5 

Prison Diet 20 

Gauging of Water 12 




C 
















0. 



11 



e 



;; 











10 



£ s. d. 

Steamships' Performance 150 

Thermo-EIectric Currents 5 

£1293 IG (j 

1863. 
Maintaining the Establishment 

of Kew Observatory COO 

Balloon Committee deficiency... 70 

Balloon Ascents (other expenses) 25 

Entozoa 25 

Coal Fossils 20 

Herrings '. 20 

Granites of Donegal 5 

Prison Diet 20 

Vertical Atmospheric Movements 13 

Dredging Shetland 50 

Dredging North-east coast of 

Scotland 25 

Dredging Northumberland and 

Durham 17 3 10 

Dredging Committee superin- 
tendence 10 

Steamship Performance 100 

Balloon Committee 200 

Carbon under pressure 10 

Volcanic Temperature 100 

Bromide of Ammonium 8 

Electrical Standards 100 

Construction and distribu- 
tion 40 

Luminous Meteors 17 

Kew Additional Buildings for 

Photoheliograph 100 

Thermo-Electricity 15 

Analysis of Rocks 8 

Hydroida 10 

£1008" 3 10 

1864. " ^ 
Maintaining the Establislinient 

of Kew Observatory COO 

Coal Fossils 20 

Vertical Atmospheric Move- 
ments 20 

Dredging Shetland 75 

Dredging Ncrthumberland 25 

Balloon Committee 200 

Carbon under |)ressure 10 

Standards of Electric Resistance 100 

Analysis of Rocks 10 

Hydroida 10 

Askham'sGift 50 

Nitrite of Amyle 10 

Nomenclature Committee 5 

Raiu-Gauges 19 15 8 

Cast-Iron Investigation 20 

Tidal Observations in the Humbor 50 

Spectral Rays 45 

Luminous Meteors 20 

£12 81) 15 8 

18.'5. ■ 
Mainlaiiiiiig the Establishment 

of Kew Obsrcrvatory COO 

Balloon Committee 100 

llvdroida 13 



Ixxxvi 



REPORT — 1869. 



£ s. d. 

Rain-Gauges 30 

Tidal Observations in the Humber 6 8 

Hexylic Compounds 20 

Amvl Compounds 20 

Irish Flora 25 

American MoUusca 3 9 

Organic Acids 20 

Lingula Flags Excavation 10 

Eurvpterus 50 

Electrical Standards 100 

Malta Caves Researches 30 

Oyster Breeding .^ 25 

Gibraltar Caves Researches ... 150 

Kent's Hole Excavations 100 

Moon's Surface Observations ... 35 

Marine Fauna 25 

Dredging Aberdeenshire ... 25 

Dredging Channel Islands 50 

Zoological Nomenclature 5 

Resistance of Floating Bodies in 

Water 100 

Bath Waters Analysis 8 10 

Luminous Meteors 40 

£1591 7 10 

1866. ==^= 
Maintaining the Establishment 

of Kew Observatory 600 

Lunar Committee 6-t 13 4 

Balloon Committee 50 

Metrical Committee 50 

British Rainfall 50 

Kilkenny Coal Fields 16 

Alum Bay Fossil Leaf-Bed 15 

Luminous Meteors 50 

Lingula Flags Excavation 20 

Chemical Constitution of Cast 

Iron 50 

Amyl Compounds 25 

Electrical Standards 100 

Malta Caves Exploration 30 

Kent's Hole Exploration 200 

Marine Fauna, &c., Devon and 

Cornwall 25 

Dredging Aberdeenshire Coast... 25 

Dredging Hebrides Coast 50 

Dredging the Mersey 5 

Resistance of Floating Bodies iu 

Water 50 

Polycyanides of Organic Radi- 
cals 20 

Rigor Mortis 10 

Irish Annelida 15 

Catalogue of Crania 50 

Didine Birds of Mascarcne Islands 50 

Typical Crania Researches 30 

Palestine Exploration Fund 100 

£1750 13 4 

1867. ^^^^^^ 
Maintaining the Establishment 

of Kew Observatory 600 

Meteorological Instruments, Pa- 
lestine 50 

Lunar Committee 120 



£ s. d- 

Metrical Committee 30 

Kent's Hole Explorations 100 

Palestine Explorations 50 

Insect Fauna, Palestine ...: 30 

British Rainfall 50 

Kilkenny Coal Fields 25 

Alum Bay Fossil Leaf-Bed 25 

Luminous Meteors 50 

Bournemouth, &c. Leaf-Beds ... 30 

Dredging, Shetland 75 

Steamship Reports Condensation 100 

Electrical Standards 100 

Ethyle and Methyle series 25 

Fossil Crustacea 25 

Sound under Water 24 4 

North Greenland Fauna 75 

Do. Plant Beds ... 100 

Iron and Steel Manufacture ... 25 

Patent Laws 30 

.£1739 4 

1868. ■ 
Maintaining the Establishment 

of Kew Observatory 600 

Lunar Committee 120 

Metrical Committee 50 

Zoological Record 100 

Kent's Hole Explorations 150 

Steamship Performances 100 

British Rainfall 50 

Luminous Meteors 50 

Organic Acids 60 

Fossil Crustacea 25 

Methyl series 25 

Mercury and Bile 25 

Organic remains in Limestone 

Rocks 25 

Scottish Earthquakes 20 

Fauna, Devon and Cornwall ... 30 

British Fossil Corals 50 

Bagshot Leaf-beds 50 

Greenland Explorations 100 

Fossil Flora 25 

Tidal Obsenations 100 

Underground Temperature 50 

Spectroscopic investigations of 

Animal t^ubstances 5 

Secondary Reptiles, &c 30 

British Marine Invertebrate 

Fauna 100 

i:i940 

1869. ==i 
Maintaining the Establishment 

of Kew Observatory 600 

Lunar Committee 50 

Metrical Committee 25 

Zoological Record 100 

Committee on Gases in Deep- 
well Water 25 

British Rainfall 50 

Thermal Conductivity of Iron,* 

&c ,..' 30 

Kent's Hole Explorations 150 

Steamship Performances 30 



GEJsTERAL MEETINGS. 



Ixxxvii 



£ 
Chemical Constitution of Cast 

Iron 80 

Iron and Steel Manufacture ... 100 

Methyl Series 30 

Organic remains in Limestone 

Kocks... 10 

Earthquakes in Scotland 10 

British Fossil Corals 50 

Hagshot Leaf-heds 30 

Fossil Flora 25 

Tidal Observations 100 



s. d: 


























































£ s. d. 

Underground Temperature 30 

Spectroscopic Investigations of 

Animal Suljstances 5 

Organic Acids 12 

Kiltorcan Fossils 20 

Chemical Constitution and Phy- 
siological Action Relations ... 15 

Mountain Limestone Fossils 25 

Utilization of Sewage 10 

Products of Digestion 10 

.£1622 



Extracts from Resolutions of the General Committee. 

Committees and individuals, to whom grants of money for scientific pur- 
poses have been entrusted, are required to present to each following Meeting 
of the Association a Keport of the progress whicli has been made ; with a 
statement of the sums which have been expended, and the balance which re- 
mains disposable on each grant. 

Grants of pecuniary aid foi* scientific purposes from the funds of the Asso- 
ciation expire at the ensuing Meeting, unless it shall appear by a Eeport that 
the Recommendations have been acted on, or a continuation of them be 
ordered by the General Committee. 

Members and Committees who arc entrusted with sums of money for col- 
lecting specimens of Natural History are requested to reserve the specimens 
so obtained for distribution by authority of the Association. / 

In each Committee, the Member first named is the person entitle'd to call on 
the Treasurer, William Spottiswoode, Esq., 50 Grosvenor Place, London, S.W., 
for such portion of the simi granted as may from time to time bo required. 

In grants of money to Committees, the Association does not contemplate 
the payment of personal expenses to the members. 

In all cases where additional grants of money arc made for the continua- 
tion of Ecsearches at the cost of the Association, the sum named shall b-e 
deemed to include, as a part of the amount, the specified balance which may 
remain unpaid on the former grant for the same object. 



General Meetings. 

On Wednesday Evening, August IS, at 8 p.m., in the Yictoria Hall, 
Dr. Joseph Daltou Hooker, E.Il.lS., F.L.S., President, resigned the office of 
President to Professor G. G. Stokes, D.C.L., F.E.S., who took the Chair, 
and delivered an Address, for which see page Ixxxix. 

On Thursday Evening, August 19, at 8 p.m., a Soire'e took place in the 
Albert Memorial Museum. 

On Friday Evening, August 20, at 8.30 p.m., in the Yictoria Hall, Prof. Phil- 
lips, LL.D., F.P.S., F.G.S., delivered a Discourse on '■ Vesuvius." 

On Saturday Evening, August 21, in the Victoria Hall, Prof. W. A. 
MiUer, M.D., F.E.S., delivered a Discourse on "Experimental Illustrations 
of the modes of determining the Composition of the Sun and Heavenly Bodies 
by the Spectrum " to the Operative Classes of Exeter. 



Ixxxviii REPORT — 1869. 

Ou Monday Eveniiig, August 23, at 8.30 p.m., in the Victoria Hall, J. 
Norman Lockyer, F.R.S., delivered a Discourse on the " Physical Constitution 
of the Stars and Nebula;." 

On Tuesday evening, August 24, at 8 p.m., a Soiree took place in the Albert 
Memorial Museum. 

On Wednesday, August 25, at 2.30 p.m., the concludiag General Meeting 
took place, -when the Proceedings of the General Committee, and the Grants of 
Money for Scientific purposes, were explained to the Members. 

The Meeting was then adjourned to Liverpool*. 

* The Meeting is appointed to take place on Wednesday, September 14, 1870. 



ADDRESS 

OF 

GEOEGE GABRIEL STOKES, M.A., Sec. R.8., 

D.C.L. OXOIf., LL.D. DUBLIST, 

FELLOW OF TEMBEOKE COLLEQE, AND LUCASIAlf PROFESSOR OF MATHEMATICS IN 
THE TTNIVERSITT OF CAMBRIDGE, 

PllESIDENT. 



Mr Lords, Ladies, akd Gentlemen, 

As this is the lirst time that the British Association for the Advancement 
of Science has met in the City of Exeter, and it is probable that many now 
present have never attended a former Meeting, I hope the okler members of 
the Association will bear Avitli me if I say a few words in explanation of the 
objects for which the Association was instituted. In the first place, then, 
it aims at fulfilling an office which is quite distinct from that of the various 
scientific societies which are established in different parts of the coimtry. 
These, for the most part, have for their leading object to make the volun- 
tary labours of isolated workers in science available to the scientific Avorld 
generally by receiving, discussing, and publishing the results which they may 
have obtained. The British Association, on the other hand, aims at giving 
a more systematic direction to scientific inquiry, and that in various ways. 

In a rapidly progressing branch of science it is by no means easy to become 
acquainted with its actual state. The workers in it are scattered throughout 
the civilized world, and their results are published in a variety of Transac- 
tions and scientific periodicals, mixed with other scientific matter. To make 
oneself, without assistance, well acquainted with what has been done, it is 
requisite to have access to an extensive library, to be able to read with faci- 
lity several modern languages, and to have leisure to hunt through the tables 
of contents, or at least the indices, of a number of serial works. Without 
such knowledge, there is always the risk that a scientific man may spend his 
strength in doing over again what has been done already ; whereas with 
better direction the same expenditure of time and labour might have resulted 
in some substantial addition to our knowledge. With a view to meet this 
difficulty, the British Association has requested individuals who were more 
specially conversant with particular departments of science, to draw up re- 
ports on the present state of our knowledge in, or on the recent progress of, spe- 
cial branches ; and the influence of the Association as a public body has been 
found sufficient to induce a number of scientific men to undertake the great 
labour of preparing such reports. 

By thus ascertaining thoroughly what we already had, what we still 
wanted was made more clear ; and, indeed, it was one special object of the 
reports I have mentioned to point out what were the more prominent desi- 



XC REPORT 18G9. 

derata in the various subjects to which they related. The Association Avas 
thus the better enabled to fulfil another of its functions, that of organizing 
means for the prosceiition of researches -which require cooperation. When 
the want is within the compass of what can be accomplished by individuals, 
the demand may be left to create the supply ; but it often happens that a 
research can hardly be carried out without cooperation. It may, for instance, 
require a combination of the most profound theoretical knowledge with the 
greatest experimental skill, or an extensive knowledge of very dissimilar 
branches of science ; or, again, the work to be done, though all of one kind, 
may be of such an extent as to be beyond the power of any one man. In 
such cases the limited power of the individual can only be supplemented by 
the principle of cooperation ; and accordingly it becomes an important part 
of the business of the Association to organize committees for the prosecution 
of special researches. The researches thus undertaken at the request of the 
Association are published at length, along with the reports on the progress 
of science, in the first part of the annual volume. 

In close connexion with the last must be mentioned another mode in which 
the Association contributes to the progress of science. Many researches re- 
quire not only time and thought, but pecuniary outlay ; and it would seem 
hard that scientific men who give their time and labour gratuitously to car- 
rying out such researches should be further obliged to incur an expenditure 
which they often can ill afford. The Association accordingly makes grants 
of money to individuals or Committees for defraying the expenses of such 
researches. It appears from the I'cport which has just been published that, 
reckoning up to the year 1867 inclusi\e, the sum of i'29,312 -is. Id, has been 
voted by the Association for various scientific olijccts. Deducting from tliis 
the sum of =£23 IGs. 0(/. for the balances of grants not wholly expended, 
which were returned to the Association, we may say that =£29,288 8s. Id. 
has been expended in the manner indicated. When we remember that these 
grants were mostly of small amount, and do not include personal expenses, 
and that verj'' many of the researches undertaken at the request of the Asso- 
ciation do not involve money grants at all, we may form some idea of the 
amount of scientific activitj^ which has been evoked under the auspices of the 
Association. 

In the address with which the business of the Meeting is opened, it is 
usual for your President to give some account of the most recent progress of 
science. The task is by no means an easy one. Pew indeed are familiar 
with science in all its branches ; and even to one who was, the selection of 
topics and the mode of treating them would still present difficulties. I shall 
not attempt to give an account of the recent progress of science in general, 
but shall select from those branches witli Avhich I am more familiar some 
examples of recent progress which may, I hope, prove to be of pretty general 
interest. And even in this I feel that I shall have to crave your indulgence, 
for it is hard to be intelligible to some Avithout being wearisome to others. 

Among the various branches of physical science, astronomy occupies in many 
respects a foremost rank. The movements of the heavenly bodies must have 
occupied the attention and excited the interest of mankind from the earliest 
ages, and accordingly the first rudiments of the science are lost in the depths 
of antiquity. The grandeur of the subjects of contemplation Avhich it pre- 
sents to us have won for it especial favour, and its importance in relation to 
navigation has caused it to be supported by national resources. Newton's 
great discovery of universal gravitation raised it from the rank of a science 
X)f observation to that of ocie 3.diniJ;fing of the most exact mathematical de- 



ADDRESS. XCl 

duction ; and llic investigation of the consequences of this law, and the 
explanation thereby of the lunar and planetary disturbances, have afforded 
a iield for the exercise of the highest mathematical powers on the part of 
Newton and bis successors. Gradually the apparent anomalies, as they 
might have been deemed, in the motions of the heavenly bodies were shown 
to be necessary consequences of the one fundamental law ; and at last, as the 
result of calculations of enormous labour, tables were constructed enabling 
the places of those bodies at any given time to be determined years before- 
hand with astonishing precision. A still more striking step was taken. 
AYhen it had been shown by careful calculation that the apparent motion of 
the remotest of the planets then known to belong to our system could not 
be wholly explained on the theory of gravitation, by taking account of the 
disturbing powers of the other known planets, Adams in our own country, 
and Le Verrier in France, boldly reversed the problem, and instead of 
determining the disturbing effect of a known planet, set themselves to inquire 
what miist be the mass and orbit of an unknown planet which shall be capa- 
ble of producing by its disturbing force the unexplained deviations in the 
position of Uranus from its calculated place. The result of this inquiry is 
too well known to reqiiire notice. 

After these brilliant achievements, some may perhaps have been tempted 
to imagine that the field of astronomical research must have been well-nigh 
exhausted. Small perturbations, hitherto overlooked, might be determined, 
and astronomical tables thereby rendered still more exact. New asteroids 
might be discovered by the telescope. More accurate values of the con- 
stants with which we have to deal might be obtained. But no essential 
novelty of principle was to be looked for in the department of astronomy ; 
for such we must go to younger and less mature branches of science. 

Eesearches which have been carried on within the last few years, even 
the pi'ogress which has been made within the last twelve months, shows 
how short-sighted such an anticipation would have been ; what an unex- 
pected flood of light may sometimes be thrown over one science by its union 
with another ; how conducive accordingly to the advancement of science 
may be an Association like the present, in which not only are the workers 
at special sciences brought together in the Sectional Meetings, but in the 
General Meetings of the Association, and in the social intercourse, which, 
though of an informal character, is no unimportant part of our procedings ; 
the cultivators of different branches of science are brought together, and 
have an opportunity of enlarging their minds by contact with the minds of 
others, who have been used to trains of thought of a very different character 
from their own. 

The science of astronomy is indebted to that of optics for the principles 
whch regulate the construction of those optical instruments which are so 
essential to the astronomer. It repaid its debt by furnishing to optics a 
result which it is important we should keep in view in considering the 
nature of light. It is to astronomy that we are indebted for the first proof 
we obtained of the finite velocity of light, and for the first numerical deter- 
mination of that enormous velocity. Astronomy, again, led, forty-four years 
later, to a second determination of that velocity in the remarkable pheno- 
menon of aberration discovered by Bradley, a phenomenon presenting spe- 
cial points of interest in relation to the nature of light, and which has given 
rise to some discussion, extending even to the present day, so that the Astro- 
nomer Eoyal has not deemed it unworthy of investigation, laborious as he 
foresees the trial is likely to prove, to determine the constant of aberration 
by means of a telescope having its tube fiUed with water. 



xcii REPORT — 1869. 

If in respect of these phenomena optics received much aid from astro- 
nomy, the latter science has been indebted to the former for information 
which could not otherwise have been obtained. The motions and the masses 
of the heavenly bodies are revealed to us more or less fully by astronomical 
observations; but we could not thus become acquainted with the chemical 
nature of these distant objects. Yet, by the api^lication of the spectroscope 
to the scrutiny of the heavenly bodies, evidence has been obtained of the 
existence therein of various elements known to us by the chemical examina- 
tion of the materials of which our own earth is composed ; and not only 
so, but light is thrown on the state in which matter is there existing, which, 
in the case of nebuloe especially, led to the formation of new ideas respecting 
their constitution, and the rectification of astronomical speculations pre- 
viously entertained. I shall not, however, dwell further on this part of the 
subject, which is now of some years' standing, and has been mentioned by 
more than one of j'our former Presidents, but will pass on to newer re- 
searches in the same direction. 

"We are accustomed to apply to the stars the e]}ithei fixed. Night after 
night they are seen to have the same relative arrangement ; and when their 
places are determined by careful measurement, and certain small correc- 
tions due to known causes are applied to the immediate results of observa- 
tion, they are found to have the same relative distances. But when instead 
of days the observations extend over months or years, it is found that the 
fixity is not quite absolute. Defining as fixity invariabihty of position as 
estimated with reference to the stars as a whole, and comparing the posi- 
tion of any individual star with those of the stars in its neighbourhood, we 
find that some of the stars exhibit " proper motions," show, that is, a pro- 
gressive change of angular position as seen from the earth, or rather as they 
would be seen from the sun, which we may take for the mean annual place 
of the earth. This indicates linear motion in a direction transverse to the 
line joining the sun with the star. IJiit since our sun is merely a star, a 
line drawn from the star exhibiting proper motion to our sun is, as regards 
the former, merely a line drawn to a star taken at random, and therefore 
there is no reason why the star's motion should be, except accidentally, in a 
direction perpendicular to the line joining the star witli our sun. We must 
conclude that the stars, inchiding our own sun, or some of them at least, 
are moving in various directions in space, and that it is merely the trans- 
versal component of the whole motion, or rather of the motion relatively 
to our sun, that is revealed to us by a change in the star's apparent place. 

How then shall we determine Avhether any particular star is approaching 
to or receding from our sun ? It is clear that astronomy alone is powerless 
to aid us here, since such a motion would be unaccompanied by change of 
angular position. Here the science of optics comes to our aid in a remark- 
able manner. 

The pitch of a musical note depends, as we know, on the number of 
vibrations which reach the ear in a given time, such as a second. Sup- 
pose, now, that a body, such as a bell, which is vibrating a given num- 
ber of times per second, is at the same time moving from the observer, the 
air being calm. Since the successive pulses of sound travel all with the 
velocity of sound, but diverge from different centres, namely, the successive 
points in the bell's path at which the bell was when those pulses were first 
excited, it is evident that the sound-waves will be somewhat more spread 
out on the side from which the bell is moving, and more crowded together 
on the side towards which it is moving, than if the IjcU had been at rest. 



ADDRESS. XCm 

Consequently the number of vibrations per second which reach the ear of an 
observer situated in the former of these directions will be somewhat smaller, 
and the number which reach an observer situated in the opposite direction 
somewhat greater, than if the bell had been at rest. Hence to the former 
the pitch will be somewhat lower, and to the latter somewhat higher, than 
the natural pitch of the bell. And the same thing will happen it the ob- 
server be in motion instead of the bell, or if both be in motion ; in fact, the 
effect depends only on the relative motion of the observer and the bell in 
the direction of ^ line joining the two, — in other words, on the velocity of 
recession or approach of the observer and the bell. Tlie effect may be per- 
ceived in standing by a railway when a train in which the steam-whistle is 
sounding passes by at full speed, or better still, if the observer be seated in 
a train which is simidtaneously moving in the opposite direction. 

The present state of optical science is such as to furnish us with evidence, 
of a force which is perfectly overwhelming, that light consists of a tremor or 
vibratory movement propagated in an elastic medium filling the planetary 
and stellar spaces, a medium which thus fulfils for light an office similar to 
that of air for sound. In this theory, to difference of periodic time corresponds 
difference of refrangibility. Suppose that we were in possession of a source 
of light capable, like the bell in the analogous case of sound, of exciting in 
the [Ether supposed at rest vibrations of a definite period, corresponding, 
therefore, to light of a definite refrangibility. Then, just as in the ease of 
sound, if the source of light and the observer were receding from or approach- 
ing to each other with a velocity which was not insensibly small compared 
with the velocity of light, an appreciable lowering or elevation of refrangibi- 
lity would be produced, which would be cajiable of detection by means of a 
spectroscope of high dispersive power. 

The velocity of light is so enormous, about 185,000 miles per second, that 
it can readily be imagined that any motion wliich we can experimentally 
produce in a source of light is as rest in comparison. But the earth in its 
orbit round the sun moves at the rate of about IS miles per second ; and in 
the motions of stars approaching to or receding from our sun we might expect 
to meet with velocities comparable with this. The orbital velocity of the 
earth is, it is true, onlj^ about the one ten-thousandth part of the velocity of 
light. Still the effect of such a velocity on the refrangibility of light, which 
admits of being easily calculated, jiroves not to be so insensibly small as to 
elude all chance of detection, provided only the observations are conducted 
with extreme delicacy. 

Eut how shall we find in such distant objects as the stars an analogue of 
the bell which we have assumed in the illustration drawn from sound? 
AVhat evidence can we ever obtain, even if an examination of their light 
should present us with rays of definite refrangibility, of tlie existence in those 
remote bodies of ponderable matter vibrating in known periods not identical 
with those corresponding to the refrangibilities of the definite rays which we 
observe? The answer to this question will involve a reference, which I will 
cndeavo\ir to make as brief as I can, to the splendid researches of Professor 
Xirchhoff. The exact coincidence of certain dark lines in the solar spectrum 
with bright lines in certain artificial sources of light had previously been in 
one or two instances observed ; but it is to Kirchhoff we owe the inference 
from an extension of Prcvost's theory of exchanges, that a glowing medium 
which emits bi'ight light of any particular refraugibility necessarily (at that 
temperature at least) acts as an absorbing medium, exting-uishing light of the 
same refrangibility. In saying this it is but just to mention that in relation 



Xciv REPORT — 1869. 

to radiant heat (from whence the transition to light is easy), Kirchhoff was 
jjreceded, though unconsciously, by our own countryman Mr. Balfour Stewart. 
The inference which Kirchhoff drew from Provost's theorj^ thus extended led 
him to make a careful comparison of the places of the dark lines of the solar 
spectrum with those of bright lines produced by the incandescent gas or 
vapour of known elements ; and the coincidences were in many cases so re- 
markable as to eataljlish almost to a certaintj' the existence of several of the 
known elements in the solar atmosphere, producing by their absorbing action 
the dark lines coinciding with the bright lines observed. Among other 
elements may be mentioned in particular hydrogen, the spectrum of which, 
when the gas is traversed by an electric discharge, shows a bright line or band 
exactly coinciding with the dark line C, and another with the line F. 

Now Mr. Huggins found that several of the stars show in their spectra 
dark lines coinciding in position with C and F ; and what strengthens the 
belief that this coincidence, or apparent coincidence, is not merely fortui- 
tous, but is due to a common cause, is that the two lines are found asso- 
ciated together, both present or both absent. And Kirchhoff's theory suggests 
that the common cause is the existence of hydrogen in the atmospheres of 
the sun and certain stars, and its exercise of an absorbing action on the light 
emitted from beneath. 

Now by careful and repeated observations with a telescope furnished with 
a spectroscope of high dispersive power, Mr. Huggins found that the F line, 
the one selected for observation, in the spectrum of Sirius did not exactly 
coincide with the corresponding bright line of a hydrogen spark, which latter 
agrees in position with the solar F, but was a little less refrangible, while 
preserving the same general appearance. AVhat conclusion, then, are we 
to draw from the result? Surely it would be most unreasonable to attri- 
bute the dark lines in the spectra of the sun and of Sirius to distinct causes, 
and to regard their almost exact coincidence as purely fortuitous, when we 
have in proper motion a vera causa to account for a minute difference. And 
if, as Kirchhoff's labours render almost certain, the dark solar lino depends 
on the existence of hydrogen in the atmosphere of our sun, we are led to 
infer that that element, with which the chemist working in his laboratory is 
so familiar, exists and is siibject to the same physical laws in that distant 
star, so distant, that, judging by the most probable value of its annual paral- 
lax, light which would go seven times round our earth in one second would 
take fourteen years to travel from the star. What a grand conception of the 
unity of plan pervading the universe do such conclusions present to our 
minds ! 

Assuming, then, that the small difference of refrangibility observed be- 
tween the solar F and that of Sirius is duo to proper motion, Mr. Huggins 
concludes from his measures of the minute difference of position that at the 
time of the observation Sirius was receding from the earth at the rate of 41*4 
miles per second. A part of this was due to the motion of the earth in its 
orbit ; and on deducting the orbital velocity of the earth, resolved in the direc- 
tion of a lino drawn from the star, there remained 29'4 miles per second as 
the velocity with which Sirius and our sun are mutually receding from each 
other. Considering the minuteness of the quantity on which the result de- 
pends, it is satisfactory to find that Mr. Huggins's results as to the motion of 
Sirius have been confirmed by the observations of Father Secchi made at Rome 
with a different instrument. 

The determination of radial proper motion in this way is still in its infancy. 
It is worthy of note that, unlike the detection of transversal proper motion. 



ADDRESS. XCV 

by change of angular position, it is equally applicable to stars at all distances, 
provided they arc bright enough to render the obsei'vations possible. It is 
conceivable that the results of these observations may one day lead to a de- 
termination of the motion of the solar system in space, which is more trust- 
worthy than that which has been deduced from changes of position, as being 
founded on a broader induction, and not confined to conclusions derived fi-om 
the stars in our neighbourhood. Should even the solar system and the nearer 
stars be drifting along, as Sir John Herschel suggests, with an approximately 
common motion, like motes in a sunbeam, it is conceivable that the circum- 
stance might thus be capable of detection. To what wide speculations are we 
led as to the possible i^rogress of our knowledge when we put together what 
has been accomplished in difterent branches of science ! 

I turn now to another recent application of spectral analysis. The pheno- 
menon of a total solar eclipse is described by those who have seen it as one of 
the most imposing that can be witnessed. The rarity of its occurrence and 
the shortness of its duration afford, however, opportunity for only a hasty 
study of the phenomena which may then present themselves. Among these, 
one of the most remarkable, seen indeed before, but first brought prominently 
into notice by the observers who watched the eclipse of July 7, 1842, consists 
in a series of mountain-like or cloud-like luminous objects seen outside the 
dark disk of the moon. These have been seen in subsequent total eclipses, 
and more specially studied, by means of photogi-aphy, by Mr. Warren De La 
Tluc in the eclipse of June 18, 1860. The result of the various observations, 
and especially the study, which could be made at leisure, of the photographs 
obtained by Mr. De La Eue, proved conclusively that these appendages belong 
to the sun, not to the moon. The photographs proved further their light to 
be remarkable for actinic power. Since that time the method of spectral 
analysis has been elaborated ; and it seemed likely that additional informa- 
tion bearing on the nature of these objects might be obtained by the applica- 
tion of the sjjectroscope. Accordingly various expeditions were equipped for 
the pitrpose of obsemug the total solar ecHpse which was to happen on 
August 17, 1868. In o\ir own country an equatorially mounted telescope 
provided witli a spectroscope was procured for the purpose by the Eoyal 
Society, which was entrusted to Lieut, (now Captain) Herschel, who was going 
out to India, one of the countries crossed by the line of tlie central sha- 
dow. Another expedition was organized by the Royal Astronomical Society, 
under the auspices of Major Teunant, who was foremost in pressing on the 
attention of scientific men the importance of avaihug themselves of the 
opportunity. 

Shortly before the conclusion of the Meeting of the Association at Norwich 
last year, the first results of the observations were made knov\ni to the Meet- 
ing through the agency of the electric telegraph. In a telegram sent by 
M. Jansseu to the President of the Eoyal Society, it was announced that the 
spectrum of the prominences was very remarkable, showing bright lines, 
while that of the corona showed none. Brief as the message necessarily was, 
one point was settled. The prominences could not be clouds in the strict 
sense of the term, shining either by virtue of their own heat, or by light 
reflected from below. They must consist of incandescent matter in the 
gaseous form. It appeared from the more detailed accounts received by 
post from the various observers, and put together at leisure, that except in 
the immediate neighbourhood of the sun the light of the prominences con- 
sisted mainly of three bright lines, of which two coincided, or nearly so, 
with C and P, and the intermediate one nearly, but, as subsequent researches 



XCvi REPORT — 1869. 

showed, not exactly, with D. The bright linos coinciding with C and F 
indicate the presence of glowing hydrogen. 

This is precious information to have gathered during the brief interval of 
the total phase, and required on the part of the observers self-denial in with- 
drawing the eye from the imposing spectacle of the surrounding scenery, and 
coolness in proceeding steadily with some definite part of the inquiry, 
when so many questions crowded for solution, and the fruits of months of 
preparation were to be reaped in three or four minutes or lost altogether ; 
especially when, as too often happened, the observations were provokingly 
interrupted by flying clouds. 

But valuable as these observations were, it is obvious that we should have 
had long to wait before we could have became acquainted with the .usual 
behaviour of these objects, and tlieir possible relation to changes which may be 
going on at the surface of the sun, if we had been dependent on the rare and 
brief phenomenon of a total solar ecHpse for gathering information respecting 
them. But how, the (juestion might be asked, shall we ever be able so to 
subdue the overpowering glare of our great luminary, and the dazzling 
illumination which it produces in our atmosphere when we look nearly in its 
direction, as to perceive objects which are comparatively so faint ? Here 
again the science of optics comes in aid of astronomy. 

When a line of light, such as a narrow slit held in front of a luminous ob- 
ject, is viewed through a prism, the light is ordinarily spread out into a 
coloured band, the length of which may be increased at pleasure by substitu- 
ting two or more prisms for the single prism. As the total quantity of light is 
not thereby increased, it is obvious that the intensity of the hght of the 
coloured band will go on decreasing as the Iwigth increases. Such is the case 
with ordinary sources of light, like the flame of a caudle or the sky, wliich 
give a continuous spectrum, or one generally continuous, though interrupted 
by dark bands. But if the light from the source be homogeneous, consisting, 
that is, of light of one degree of refrangibility only, the image of the slit 
win be merely deviated by the prisms, not widened out into a band, and not 
consequently reduced in intensity by the dispersion. And if the source of 
light emit light of both kinds, it will be easily understood that the images of 
the sht corresponding to light of any definite refrangibiUties which the mix- 
ture may contain wiU stand out, by their superior intensity, on the weaker 
ground of the continuous spectrum. 

Preparations for observations of the kind had long been in progress in the 
hands of our countryman Mr. Lockycr. His first attempts were unsuccessful : 
but undismayed by failure, he ordered the coiistruction of a new spectroscope 
of superior power, in wliich he was aided by a grant from the sum placed annu- 
ally by Parliament at the disposal of the lloyal Society for scientific purposes. 
The execution of this instrument was delayed by Avhat proved to be the last 
illness of tbe eminent optician to -nhom it had been in the first instance en- 
trusted, the late Mr. Cooke ; but when at last the instrument was placed in his 
hands, Mr. Lockyer was not long in discovering the object of his two years' 
search. On the 20th of October last year, in examining the space immediately 
surrounding the edge of the solar disk, he obtained evidence, by the occiirrence 
of a bright line in the spectrum, that his slit was on the image of one of 
those prominences, the nature of which had so long been an enigma. It 
further appeared from an observation made on November 5 (as indeed might 
be expected from the photographs of Mr. De La Eue, and the descriptions of 
those who had observed total solar eclipses) that the prominences were merely 
elevated portions of an extensive luminous stratum of the same general cha- 



ADDRESS. XCVll 

racter, wliicli, noAV that the necessity of tlie interposition of the moon -was 
dispensed with, coiild be traced complctclj^ round the sun. Notices of this 
discovery were received from the author by the lioyal Societ}'- on October 21 
and November 3, and the former was ahnost immediately published in No. 105 
of the Proceedings. These were shortly afterwards followed by a fuller paper 
on the same subject. 

Meanwhile the same thing had been independently observed in another 
part of the world. After having observed the remarkable spectrum of the 
prominences during the total eclipse, it occurred to IT. Jaussen that the same 
method might allow the prominences to be detected at any time ; and on trial 
he succeeded in detecting them the very day after the ecHpse. The results of 
liis observations were sent by post, and were received shortly after the 
account of ilr. Lockyer's discovery had been communicated by Mr. De La Hue 
to the French Academy. 

In the way hitherto described a prominence is not seen as a whole, but 
the observer knows when its image is intercepted by the slit ; and by vary- 
ing a little the position of the slit a series of sections of the prominence are 
obtained, by putting which together the form of the prominence is deduced. 
Shortly after Mr. Lockyer's communication of his discovery, Mr. Huggins, 
who had been independently engaged in the attempt to render the promi- 
nences visible by the aid of the spectroscope, siicceeded in seeing a pro- 
minence as a whole by somewhat •svidening the slit, and using a red glass to 
diminish the glare of the light admitted by the slit, the prominence being 
seen by means of the C line in the red. Mr. Lockyer had a design for see- 
ing the prominences as a whole by giving the slit a rapid motion of small 
extent, but this proved to be superfluous, and they are now habitually seen 
with their actual forms. Nor is our power of observing them restricted to 
those which are so situated that they are seen by projection outside the sun's 
limb ; such is the j^ower of the spectroscopic method of observation that it has 
enabled Mr. Lockj-er and others to observe them right on the disk of the sun, 
an important step for connecting them with other solar phenomena. 

One of the most striking results of the habitual study of these prominences 
is the evidence they afford of the stupendous changes which are going on in 
the centi'al body of our system. Prominences the heights of which are to be 
measiired by thousands and tens of thousands of mUes, ajipear and disappear 
in the course of some minutes. And a study of certain minute changes of 
position in the bright line F, which receive a simple and natural explanation 
by referring them to proper motion in the glowing gas by which that line is 
produced, and which we see no other way of accounting for, have led Mr, 
Lockyer to conclude that the gas in question is sometimes travelling with 
velocities comparable with that of the earth in its orbit. Moreover these ex- 
hibitions of intense action are frequently found to be intimately connected 
with the spots, and can hardly fail to throw light on the disputed question 
of their formation. Nor are chemical composition and proper motion the only 
physical conditions of the gas which are accessible to spectral analysis. Ey 
comparing the breadth of the bright bands (for though narrow they are not 
mere lines) seen in the prominences with those observed in the spectrum of 
hydrogen rendered incandescent under different phj'sical conchtions. Dr. 
Fraukland and Mr. Lockyer have deduced conchisions respecting the pressure 
to which tlie gas is subject in the neighbourhood of the sun. I am happy to 
say that Mr. Lockyer has consented to deliver a discourse during our Meeting, 
in which the whole subject will doubtless be fully explained. 

I have dwelt perhaps too long on this topic, and I cannot help fearing that 
18:J9. g 



xcviii REPORT — 1869. 

I may have been tcdioiis to the many scientific men to whom the subject is 
already perfectly familiar. Yet the contemplations which it opens out to us 
are so exalted, and the proof which it affords of what can be accomplished 
by the union of diiferent branches of science is so striking, that I hope I 
may be pardoned for occupying yoiir time. I cannot, however, leave the 
subject of Astronomy without congratulating the Association on the accom- 
plishment of an object which originated with it, and in the promotion of 
which it formerly took an active part. It was at the Meeting of the Asso- 
ciation at Birmingham in 1849, under the presidency of the Eev. Dr. Robinson, 
that a resoliition was passed for making an application to Her Majesty's 
Government to estabhsh a reflector of not less than three feet aperture at the 
Cape of Good Hope, and to make such additions to the staff of that obser- 
vatory as might be necessary for its effectual working. This resolution met 
with the hearty concurrence of the President of the Council of the Royal 
Society, who suggested that the precise locaHty in tlie Southern hemisphere 
where the telescope should be erected had best be left an open question. 
This modification having been adopted by your Council, the application was 
presented to Earl RusseU, then First Lord of the Treasury, by representatives 
of both bodies early in 1850. A reply was received from Government to 
the effect that though they agreed mth the Association as to the interest 
which attached itself to the inquiry, yet there was so much difficulty attend- 
ing the arrangements that they were not prepared to take any steps without 
much further enquiry. This reply was considered so far favourable as not to 
forbid the hope of success if the apphcation were renewed on a suitable 
opportunity. The subject was again brought before the Association by 
Colonel (now General Sir Edward) Sabine, in his opening address as Presi- 
dent at the Belfast Meeting in 1852. The result was that the matter was 
again brought before Government by a Committee of the British Association 
acting in conjunction with a Committee of the Royal Society, by means of an 
application made to the Earl of Aberdeen. By this time the country was 
engaged in the Russian war, in consequence of which, it was replied, no 
funds could then be spared ; but a promise was given that when the crisis 
then impending was past, the matter should be taken up, a promise which 
the retirement from office and subsequent death of Lord Aberdeen rendered 
of no avail. 

But though failing in its immediate object, the action of the British Asso- 
ciation in this matter has not remained fruitless. A few years later the 
subject was warmly taken up at Melbourne, and after preliminary corre- 
spondence between the Board of Visitors of the Melbourne Observatory and 
the President and Council of the B-oyal Society, and the appointment by the 
latter body of a Committee to consider and report on the subject, in April 
1864 a proposition was made to the Colonial Legislature for a grant of 
£5000 for the construction of a telescope, and was acceded to. Not to 
weary you with details, I wiU merely say that the telescope has been con- 
structed by Mr. Grubb, of Dublin, and is now erected at Melbourne, and in the 
hands of Mr. Le Sueur, who has been appointed to use it. It is a reflector 
of four feet aperture, of the Cassegrain construction, equatorially mounted, 
and provided with a clock-movement. Before its shipment, it was inspected 
in Dublin by the Committee appointed by the Royal Society to consider the 
best mode of carrying out the object for which the vote was made by the 
Melbourne Legislatnre ; and the Committee speak in the highest terms of its 
contrivance and execution. "We may expect before long to get a first instal- 
ment of the results obtained by a scrutiny of the southern heavens with an 



ADDRESS. XCIX 

instrument far more powerful than any that has hitherto been applied to 
them — results -which will at the same time add to our existing knowledge 
and redound to the honour of tho Colony, by whose liberality this long- 
cherished object has at last been effected. 

As I have mentioned an application to the Government on the part of 
the Association which was not successful, it is but right to say that such is 
not generally the result ; I wiU refer to one instance. At the Cambridge 
Meeting of the Association in 1862, a Committee, consisting of representa- 
tives of the Mechanical and Chemical Sections, was appointed for the pur- 
pose of investigating the application of gun-cotton to warlike purposes. At 
the Newcastle Meeting, in the following year, this Committee presented 
their Report. It was felt that a complete study of the subject demanded 
appliances which could be obtained only from our military resources, and 
at the Newcastle Meeting a resolution was passed recommending the ap- 
pointment of a Royal Commission. This recommendation was adopted, and 
in 186-1 a Commision was appointed, which was requested to report on the 
application of gun-cotton to Civil as well as to Naval and Military purposes. 
The Committee gave in their report last year, and that report, together with 
a more recent return relative to the application of gun-cotton to mining and 
quarrying operations, has just been printed for the House of Commons. 

A substance of such comparatively recent introduction cannot be fairly 
compared with an explosive in the use of which we have the experience 
of centuries. Yet, even with oiu* present experience, there are some pur- 
poses for which gun-cotton can advantageously replace gunpowder, while 
its manufacture and storage can be effected with comparative safety, since it 
is in a wet state diiring the process of manufacture, and is not at all injured 
by being kept permanently in water, but merely reqxiires to be dried for use. 
Even shoidd it be required to store it in the dry state, it is doubtfid. whether, 
with the precautions indicated by the chemical investigations of Mr. Abel, 
any greater risk is incurred than in the case of gunpowder. In the blasting 
of hard rocks it is found to be" highly efficient, while the remarkable results 
recently obtained by Mr. Abel leave no doubt of its value for explosions such 
as are frequently required in warfare. General Hay speaks highly of the 
promise of its value for smaU arms ; but many more experiments are re- 
quired, especially as a change in the arm and mode of ignition require a 
change in the construction of the cartridge. In heavy ordnance, the due 
control of the rapidity of combustion of the substance is a matter of greater 
difficulty ; and, though considerable progress has been made, much remains 
to be done before the three conditions of safety to the gun, high velocity of 
projection, and uniformity of result, are satisfactorily combined. 

By the kindness of Dr. Carpenter, I am enabled to mention to you the 
latest results obtained in an expedition which coiild not have been under- 
taken without the aid of Government, an aid which was freely given. Last 
year Dr. Carpenter and Professor Wyville Thomson represented to the Pre- 
sident and Council of the Royal Society the great importance to Zoology 
and Palaeontology of obtaining soundings from great depths in the ocean, 
and suggested to them to use their influence with the Admiralty to induce 
them to place a gun-boat, or other suitable vessel, at the disposal of those 
gentlemen and any other naturalists who might be willing to accompany 
them for the purpose of carrying on a systematic course of deep-sea dredg- 
ing for a month or six weeks. This application was forwarded to the Ad- 
miralty with the warm support of the President and Council, and was readily 
acceded to. The operations were a good deal impeded by roiagh weather, 

9^ 



(5 EEPORT — 1869. 

but nevertheless important results were obtained. Dredging was successfully 
accomplished at a depth of 650 fathoms ; and the existence was established 
of a varied and abundant submarine Fauna, at depths which had generally- 
been supposed to be either azoic, or occupied by animals of a very low type ; 
and the character of the Fauna and of the mud brought up was such as to 
point to a chalk formation actually going on. 

It seemed desirable to carry the soundings to still greater depths, and to 
examine more fully the changes of temperature which had been met with in 
the descent. Another application was accordingly made to the Admiralty in 
the present year, and was no less readily acceded to than the former ; and a 
lar"-er vessel than that used last year is now on her cruize. I am informed 
by Dr. Carpenter that dredging has been successfully carried down to more 
than 2400 fathoms (nearly the height of Mont Blanc), and that animal Ufe 
has been found even at that depth in considerable varieti/, though its amount 
and hind are obviously influenced by the reduction of temperature to Arctic 
coldness. A very careful series of temperature soundings has been taken, 
showing, on the same spot, a continuous descent of temperature with the 
depth, at first more rapid, afterwards pretty uniform. Thermometers pro- 
tected from pressure by a plan devised by Dr. Miller were found to main- 
tain their character at the great depths reached, the difference between them 
and the best ordinary thermometers used in the same sounding being exactly 
conformable to the pressure corresponding with each depth, as determined by 
the experiments previously made in smaller depths. All the observations 
hitherto made go to confirm the idea of a general interchange of polar and 
equatorial water, the former occupying the lowest depths, the latter forming 
a superficial stratum of 700 or 800 fathoms. The analyses of the water 
brought up indicate a large proportion of carbonic acid in the gases of the 
deep waters, and a general diffusion of organic matter. 

I must turn for a few moments to another application recently made to 
Government, which has not been successful. The application I have iu_ 
view was made, not by the British Association or other Scientific Societies 
in their corporate capacity, but by a body composed of the Presidents of the 
British Association and of the Royal and other leading Scientific Societies ; 
and its object was, not the promotion of Science directly, but the recognition, 
of preeminent scientific merit. In the history of science few names, indeed, 
hold so prominent a place as that of Faraday. The perfect novelty of prin- 
ciple and recondite nature of many of his great discoveries are such as to 
bear the impress of genius of the highest order, and to form an epoch in the 
advance of science; and while his scientific labours excited tlie admiration, 
of men of science throughout the world, his singularl}- genial disposition, 
and modest imassuming character, won for him the love of those who had 
the happiness of numbering him among their personal friends. At a 
meeting of the Presidents of the Scientific Societies [to which I have al- 
luded, it was resolved to erect a statue in memory of Faraday. He 
was a man of whom England may well be proud, and it was thought 
that it would be a graceful recognition of his merits if the monument 
were erected at the public expense. The present Chancellor of the Ex- 
chequer, however, did not think it right tliat the recognition of scien- 
tific merit, however eminent, should fall on the taxation of the country, 
though even in a pecuniary point of view the country has received so much 
benefit from the labours of scientific men. The carrying oiit of the resolu- 
tion being thus left to private exertion, a public meeting, pi'csided over by 
H.R.H. the Prince of Walesj was held in the Koyal Institution, an establishment 



ADDRESS. CI 

which has the honoui' of beiug identified with Faraday's scientific career. 
At this Meeting a Committee was formed to carry out the object, and a sub- 
scription list commenced. By permission of the Secretaries of this Asso- 
ciation, an office has been opened in the reception-room, where those Mem- 
bers of the Association who may be desirous of taking part in the movement 
^Yill have every facility afforded them. 

In chemistry, I do not believe that any great step has been made within 
the last year ; but perhaps there is no science in which an earnest worker 
is so sure of being rewarded by making some substantial acquisition to 
our knowledge, though it may not be of the nature of one of those grand 
discoveries which from time to time stamp their- impress on difi'erent branches 
of science. I may be permitted to refer to one or two discoveries which are 
exceedingly curious, and some of which may prove of considerable practical 
importance. 

The Turaco or Plantain-eater of the Cape of Good Hope is celebrated for 
its beautiful plumage. A portion of the wings is of a fine red colour. This 
red colouring-matter has been investigated by Professor Church, who finds it 
to contain nearlj- six per cent, of copper, which cannot be distinguished by 
the ordinary tests, nor removed from the colouring-matter without destroying 
it. The colouring-matter is in fact a natural organic compound of which 
copper is one of the essential constituents. Traces of this metal had pre- 
viously been found in animals, for example, in oysters, to the cost of those 
who partook of them. But in these cases the pi'csence of the copper was 
merely accidental ; thus oysters that lived near the mouths of streams which 
came down from copper-mines assimilated a portion of the copper salt, with- 
out apparently its doing them either good or harm. But in the Turaco the 
existence of the red colouring-matter which belongs to their normal plumage 
is dejiendent uj^on copper, which, obtained in minute quantities with the food, 
is stored up in this strange manner in the sj^stem of the animal. Thus in 
the very same feather, partly red and partly black, copper was- found in 
abundance in the red parts, but none or only the merest trace in the black. 

This example warns us against taking too utilitarian a view of the plan 
of creation. Here we have a chemical substance elaborated which is per- 
fectly unique in its nature, and contains a metal the salts of which are ordi- 
narily regarded as poisonous to animals ; and the sole purpose to which, so 
far as we know, it is subservient in the animal economy is one of pure deco- 
ration. Thus a pair of the birds which were kept in captivity lost their fine 
red colour in the course of a few days, in consequence of washing in the 
water which was left them to drink, the red colouring-matter, which is 
soluble in water, being thus washed out ; but except as to the loss of their 
beauty it does not appear that the birds were the worse for it. 

A large part of tlie calicos which are produced in this country in such enor- 
mous quantities are sent out into the market in the printed form. Although 
other substances are employed, the place which madder occupies among dye- 
stuifs with the eaUco-printer is compared by Mr. Schunck to that which iron 
occupies among metals with the engineer. It appears from the public returns 
that upwards of 1(J,000 tons of madder are imported annually into tlie 
United Kingdom. The colours which madder yields to mordanted cloth 
are due to two substances, alizarine and purparine, derived from the 
root. Of these, alizarine is deemed the more important, as producing faster 
coloui's, and yielding finer violets. In studying the transformations of aliza- 
rine under the action of chemical reagents, MM. Graebe and Liebermaun 
were led to connect it with anthracene, one of the coal-tar series of bodies. 



cii REPORT — 1869. 

and to devise a mode of formiug it artificially. The discovery is still 
too recent to allow us to judge of the cost with which it can be ob- 
tained by artificial formation, which must decide the question of its com- 
mercial employment. But assuming it to be thus obtained at a suffi- 
ciently cheap rate, what a remarkable example does the discovery afford 
of the way in which the philosopher quietly working in his laboratory 
may obtain results which revohitionize the industry of nations ! To the 
calico-printer indeed it may make no very important difference whether he 
continues to use madder, or replaces it by the artificial substance ; but what 
a sweeping change is made in the madder-growing interest ! What himdreds 
of acres hitherto employed in madder- cultivation are set free for the produc- 
tion of human food, or of some other substance useful to man ! Such changes 
can hardly be made without temporary inconvenience to those who are in- 
terested in the branches of industry aifected; but we mi;st not on that 
account attempt to stay the progress of discovery, which is conducive to the 
general weal. 

Another example of the way in which practical api)lications unexpectedly 
turn up when science is pursued for its own sake is afl:brded by a result 
recently obtained by Dr. Matthiessen, in his investigation of the constitution 
of the opium bases. He found that by the action of hydrochloric acid on mor- 
phia a new base was produced, which as to composition differed from the for- 
mer merely by the removal of one equivalent of water. But the physiologi- 
cal action of the new base was utterly diflPcrent from that of the original one. 
While morphia is a powerful narcotic, the use of which is apt to be followed 
by subsequent depression, the new base was found to be free from narcotic 
properties, but to be a powerful emetic, the action of which was unattended 
by injurious after-effects. It seems likely to become a valuable remedial 
agent. 

In relation to mechanism, this year is remarkable as being the centenary of 
the great invention of our countryman James Watt. It was in the year 1769 
that he took out his patent involving the invention of separate condensation, 
which is justly regarded as forming the birth of the steam-engine. Little 
could even his inventive mind have foreseen the magnitude of the gift he was 
conferring on mankind in general, and on his own country more pai-ticularly. 
In these days of steamers, power-looms, and railways, it reqiiircs no small 
effort to place ourselves in imagination in the condition we should bo in with- 
out the steam-engine. It needs no formal celebration to remind Britons of 
what they owe to Watt. Of him truly it may be said " si monumentum 
re<i uints circumspice." 

With reference to those branches of science in which we are more or less 
concerned with the phenomena of life, my own studies give me no right to 
address you. I regret this the less because my predecessor and my probable 
successor in the Presidential Chair are both of well-known eminence in this 
department. But I hope I may be permitted as a physicist, and viewing the 
question from the physical side, to express to you my views as to the rela- 
tion which the physical bear to the biological sciences. 

_ No other physical science has been brought to such perfection as mecha- 
nics ; and in mechanics we have long been familiar with the idea of the per- 
fect generality of its laws, of their applicability to bodies organic as well as 
inorganic, living as well as dead. Thus in a railway collision when a train is 
suddenly arrested the passengers are thrown forward, by virtue of the inertia 
of their bodies, precisely according to the laws which regulate the motion of 
dead matter. So trite has the idea become that the reference to it may seem 



ADDRESS. cm 

childish ; hut from mechanics let us pass on to chemistry, and the case will bo 
found by no means so clear. When chemists ceased to be content ^vith the 
mere ultimate analysis of organic substances, and set themselves to study 
their proximate constituents, a great number of definite chemical compoiinds 
•were obtained which could not be formed artificially. I do not know what 
may have been the usual opinion at that time among chemists as to their 
mode of formation. Probably it may have been imagined that chemical 
affinities were indeed concerned in their formation, but controlled and modi- 
fied by an assumed vital force. But as the science progressed many of these 
organic substances were formed artificially, in some cases from other and 
perfectly distinct organic substances, in other cases actually from their ele- 
ments. This statement must indeed be accepted with one qualification. It 
was stated several years ago by M. Pasteur, and I believe the statement 
still remains true, that no substance the solution of which possesses the pro- 
perty of rotating the plane of polarization of polarized light had been formed 
artificially from substances not possessing that property. Now several of the 
natural substances which are deemed to have been produced artificially are 
active, in the sense of rotating the plane of polarization ; and therefore in 
these cases the inactive, artificial substances cannot be absolutely identical 
with the natural ones. But the inactivity of the artificial substance is 
readily explained on the supposition that the artificial substance bears to the 
natural, the same relation as racemic acid bears to tartaric, — that it is, so to 
speak, a mixture of the natural substance with its image in a mirror. And 
when we remember by what a peculiar and troublesome process M. Pasteur 
succeeded in separating racemic acid into the right-handed and left-handed 
tartaric acids, it will be at once understood how easily the fact, if it be a 
fact, of the existence in the natural substance of a mixture of two substances, 
one right-handed and the other left-handed, but otherwise identical, may 
have escaped detection. This is a curious point, to the clearing up of which 
it is desirable that chemists should direct their attention. Waiving then tho 
difference of activity or inactivity, which, as we have seen, admits of a simple 
physical explanation, though the correctness of that explanation remains to 
be investigated, we may say that at the present time a considerable number 
of what used to be regarded as essentially natural organic substances have 
been formed in the laboratory. That being the case, it seems most reason- 
able to suppose that in the plant or animal from which those organic sub- 
stances were obtained they were formed by the play of ordinary chemical 
affinity, not necessarily nor probably by the same series of reactions by 
which they were formed in the laboratory, where a high temperatm-e is com- 
monly employed, but still by chemical reactions of some kind, under the agency 
in many cases of light, an agency sometimes employed by the chemist in his 
laboratory. And since the boundary line between the natural substances 
which have and those which have not been formed artificially is one which, 
so far as we know, simply depends upon the amount of our knowledge, and 
is continually changing as new processes are discovered, we are led to extend 
the same reasoning to the various chemical substances of which organic 
structures are made up. 

But do the laws of chemical affinity, to which, as T have endeavoured to infer, 
living beings, whether vegetable or animal, are in absolute subjection, together 
with those of capillary attraction, of diffusion,and so forth, account for the for- 
mation of an organic structure, as distinguished from the elaboration of the che- 
mical substances of which it is composed ? No more, it seems to me, than the 
laws of motion account for the union of oxygen and hydrogen to form water 



civ iiEPORT — 1869. 

though the poiidcrahle matter so uniting is subject to the laws of motion 
during the act of union, just as well as before and after. In the various pro- 
cesses of crj'stallization of precipitation, and so forth, which we witness in 
dead matter, I cannot see the faintest shadow of au approach to the forma- 
tion of an organic structure, still less to the wonderful series of changes 
which are concerned iu the growth and perpetuation of even the lowliest 
plant. Admitting to the full as highly probable, though not completely de- 
monstrated, the applicability to living beings of the laws which have been 
ascertained with reference to dead matter, I feel constrained at the same time 
to admit the existence of a mysterious something lying beyond, — a something 
sui generis, which I regard, not as balancing and suspending the ordinary 
physical laws, but as working with them and through them to the attainment 
of a designed end. 

What this something, which we call life, may be, is a profound mystery. 
We know not how many links iu the chain of secondary causation may j'^et 
remain behind ; we know not how few. It would be presumptuous indeed to 
assume in any case that we had already reached the last link, and to charge 
with irreverence a fellow-worker who attempted to push his investigations 
yet one step further back. On the other hand, if a thick darkness enshrouds 
all beyond, we have no right to assume it to be impossible that we should have 
reached even the last link of the chain ; a stage where further progress is unat- 
tainable, and we can only refer the highest law at which we stopped to the fiat 
of an Almighty Power. To assume the contrary as a matter of necessity, is prac- 
tically to remove the First Cause of all to an infinite distance from us. The boun- 
dary, however, between what is clearly known and what is veiled in impene- 
trable darkness is not ordinarily thus sharjjly defined. Between the two there 
lies a misty region, in which loom the ill-discerned forms of links of the chain 
which are yet beyond us. But the general principle is not afi'ected thereby. 
Let us fearlessly trace the dependence of link on link as far as it may be 
given us to trace it, but let us take heed that iu thus studying second causes 
we forget not the First Cause, nor shut our eyes to the wonderful proofs of 
design which, in the study of organized beings especially, meet us at evcrj'- 
turn. 

Truth we know must be self-consistent, nor can one truth contradict 
another, even though the two may have been arrived at b}' totally different 
processes, in the one case, suppose, obtained by sound scientific investigation, 
in the other case taken on trust from duly authenticated witnesses. Misin- 
terpretations of course there may be on the one side or on the other, causing 
apparent contradictions. Every mathematician knows that in his private 
work he will occasionally by two different trains of reasoning arrive at dis- 
cordant conclusions. He is at once aware that there must be a slip somewhere, 
and sets himself to detect and correct it. AVhen conclusions rest on proba- 
ble evidence, the reconciling of apparent contradictions is not so simple and 
certain. It requires the exercise of a calm, unbiassed judgment, capable of 
looking at both sides of the question ; and oftentimes we have long to sus- 
pend our decision, and seek for further evidence. JS'onc need fear the efiect 
of scientific inquiry carried on in an honest, truth-loving, humble spirit, 
which makes us no less ready frankly to avow our ignorance of what we can- 
not explain than to accept conclusions based on sound evidence. The slow but 
sure path of induction is open to us. Let us frame hypotheses if we will : 
most useful are they when kept in their proper place, as stimulating inquiry. 
Let us seek to confront them with observation and experiment, thereby con- 
firming or upsetting them as the result may prove ; but let us beware of pla- 



ADDRESS. CV 

cing tlicin prematurely in the rank of ascertained truths, and buikling further 
conclusions on them as if they were. 

When from the phenomena of life we pass on to those of mind, we enter 
a region still more profoundly mysterious. We can readily imagine that we 
may here be dealing with phenomena altogether transcendiug those of mere 
life, in some such way as those of life transcend, as I have endeavoured to 
infer, those of chemistry and molecular attractions, or as the laws of chemi- 
cal affinity in their turn transcend those of mere mechanics. Science can be 
expected to do but little to aid us here, since the instrument of research is 
itself the object of investigation. It can but enlighten us as to the depth of 
our ignorance, and lead us to look to a higher aid for that which most nearly 
concerns our wellbeing. 



E E P E T S 



ON 



THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



Rejwrt of a Committee appointed at the Nottingham Meeting, 1866, 

for the purpose of Exploring the Plant-beds of North Greenland, 

consisting of Mr. Robert H. Scott, Dr. Hooker, Mr. E. H. 

Whymper, Dr. E. P. Wright, and Sir AV. C. Trevelyan, Bart.* 

In their preliminary Report, which was presented to the Association at the 
last Meeting, the Committee stated that the sum voted by the Association 
had been handed over to Mr. Edward "Whymper, one of their members, who 
was in Greenland at the time of the Meeting. 

In the course of the autumn he returned to England, bringing his collection 
of fossil plants with him. 

The Committee then resolved to forward the entire collection to Prof. Heer, at 
Zurich, for the purposes of identification and description, and they accordingly 
made application to the Government-Grant Committee of the Eoyal Society 
for a grant of money to pay for the carriage of the specimens to and from 
Zurich. 

The Government-Grant Committee, who had formerly assisted the expe- 
dition to Greenland by a most liberal grant of money, at once acceded to the 
second application, and the fossils were sent to Switzei-land in the course of 
last spring (1868). 

As soon as they are sent back, a complete series of the specimens will be 
forwarded to the British Museum, in accordance with the conditions laid 
down by the Association at the time the money was voted. 

The Committee append hereto Mr. Whymper's Report of his journey, 
and a notice forwarded by Prof. Heer, giving an account of the most impor- 
tant results obtained by this expedition. 

Jteport of Proceedings to obtain a Collection of Fossil Plants in North Green- 
land for the Committee of the British Association. By Edwaed WnTMPEK. 

July 1868. 
Sir, — I arrived at the Colony of Jakobshavn, North Greenland, on the 16th 
of June, 1867, but was unable to start for Atanekerdluk, distant northwards 
about sixty English miles, before August the 19th. In the meantime I 
purchased the only boat that coiild be spared, and obtained as much infor- 

* Eead at the Norwich Meeting, 1868. 
1869. B 



2 REPORT 1869. 

mation as possible from the Danes and from the natives respecting the loca- 
lities we -were about to visit. From the information so obtained, it was 
evident that the fossil stores on the hill of Atanekerdliik had akeady been 
well ransacked, and that we could not hope to meet with any great novelties 
in that direction. I obtained, however, some amber, through the natives, 
from a locality on Disco Island, which had not been examined, and heard of 
two other places where fossil wood had been discovered. These places, 
Ujarasuksumitok and Kudliset, are described at length further on. I also 
secured by purchase several specimens from Atanekerdluk, and a few fossil 
shells from Paitorfik in the district of Umenak *. 

We were ready to start by the middle of August, but the natives on whom 
we had relied for a crew preferred to go south, to a dance at Claushavn ; and 
it was owing to the kindness of the trader at Jakobshavn, who gave us a 
passage in a blubber-boat returning to Eitenbenk, that we were at length 
enabled to start on our journey. We got to Eitenbenk at 1.30 a.m. on the 
20th of August, and in spite of the inconvenient hour at which we arrived, 
were received with the greatest warmth and hospitality by Mr. Anderson. 
On the evening of the same day we again started ; this time with a strong 
force, by the advice of Mr. Anderson, the trader. There were now with me 
two boats, one hired at Eitenbenk, eleven native men and women, and Messrs. 
Brown and Tegner (naturalist and interpreter). I tried hard to engage the 
natives to go as far as Umenak, but failed to get them to promise to go 
further than Atanekerdluk. 

We started at 10.30 p.m., and our coiu'se soon took us into the midst of 
the Tossukatek ice-stream, a great assemblage of icebergs largo and small, 
which were given off from a glacier whose summit we could jiist see on the 
horizon. This ice-stream was remarkable for the enormoiis number of ice- 
bergs it contained, and was also notable for the small amount of moraine 
matter upon them. Eeally large blocks of rock we did not see, and those of 
a yard in diameter were rare ; but there was abundance of small stones, of 
grit, and of sand upon the bergs. There is no doubt that beneath the course 
of the Tossukatek ice-stream, as below all others t, there are conglomerate 
strata in course of formation, which cannot now be seen, but which may 
possibly be presented to the view of future travellers. 

Shortly after passing through this ice-stream we arrived at the small 
settlement of Sakkak J. This place stands by the water's edge at the entrance 
of a great valley running into the heart of the Noursoak peninsula. A con- 
siderable river that flows down this valley falls into the sea a little to the 
north of the settlement, and appears to form the boundary line of the granite 
districts which we were just quitting, and the trap formation upon which we 
were just entei'ing. 

A solitary Danish man lives at this place, and has done so for twenty- 

* Astarte sulcata, Costa. 

crcbricostata, Forbes, 

elliptica, Brown. 

f On the voyage up Davis Straits we wero becalmed off Eifkol, a noted landmark, and 
ancliored on some banks in eigliteen fathoms. These banks have certainly been greatly in- 
creased, if not originated, by the deposition of matter from the icebergs of tlie Jakobshavn 
ice-stream. At the time vre were anchored a large number of small bergs were aground 
upon them, breaking up and reTolving all around. We took the opportiuiity to put down 
the dredge, and although we only worked irom the ship side, and consequently over a very 
limited amount of bottom, we brought up in two or three hauls fragments of granite, 
gneiss (some vnth garnets), syenite, quartz, hornblende, greenstone, and mica-slate. The 
sounding-lead showed a fine sand bottom, and the anchor flukes brought fetid mud. 

J The word Sakkak means, according to Giesecke, " sunside," i. e. southerly aspect. 



Mya truncata, Fabr. 
Cardium ? 



ON THE PLANT-BEDS OF NORTH GREENLAND. 3 

four years. He says that the glaciers which can be seen from his honse, 
both on the Noursoak peninsula and upon Disco Island, are steadily increas- 
ing ; so much so that their progress can bo noted every year. This state- 
ment coincides with the observation of >Sir C. Gicscckc nearly sixty years ago. 
The latter says*, speaking of the route to Umenak, "formerly they drove 
generally over Gamle Ritcubenkt, but for several years the road has become 
impassable in consequence of the 'iceblink' by which the whole continent 
there is covered. The same will take place with the new road at present in 
use." The glaciers to the south were, however, as far as I observed them, 
decidedly shrinking. 

At Sakkak we were joined by a native guide for Atanekerdluk, named 
Gudemann, and also by two others who volunteered their services. We con- 
tinued our journey after a brief halt, and arrived at our destination shortly 
after 1 a.m. on August the 22nd. 

The name Atanekerdluk is applied by the natives to a basaltic peninsula, 
about half a mile in length, connected with the mainland by a sandy neck, 
which is apparently covered by the sea at spring-tides. A bay with a sandy 
beach stretches about two miles to the south, and at its further extremity 
there is another promontory, of columnar basalt, named Imnarsoit. Between 
these two promontories, and indeed along the whole of the shore from the 
above-mentioned valley at Sakkak to the most northern point of the Noursoak 
peninsula, mountains rise from the water's edge and attain in some places a 
height of 5000 to 6000 feet. Behind the peninsula of Atanekerdluk they 
do not, however, attain a height greater than 3600 or 3800 feet. They are 
cut up by numerous small valleys and ravines. 

The position of Atanekerdluk is indicated at a great distance by means of 
three mountain-peaks of symmetrical form. The fossil bed is one-third way 
up the most northern of these, and between it and the central one. Under 
the guidance of Gudemann we started for it at midday on the 22nd. The 
sides of the hill on which it is situate (an outlying buttress of the -mountain 
already mentioned) were of considerable steepness, and channelled in many 
places by small streams. It was mainly composed of sand and of shales, 
and was strewn with disintegrated fragments of hardened clays, sandstones, 
and basalt. The most prominent features were the dykes of trap which 
appeared in numerous places J, sometimes as regular in form as built walls, 
and in others picturesque as Rhine castles. Five, if not six, of these dykea 
appeared at different places in the section of the coast between the headlands 
of Atanekerdluk and Imnarsoit. 

It has been already mentioned that this locality had been freqiiently 
visited § before 1867 for the sake of its fossil deposit. This was evident by 
numerous fragments that we found in the conrse of our ascent, which had 
been dropped by others in descending, and it seemed at first as if the deposit 
was very extensive. \Ve found it in fact to be confined M'ithin narrow 
limits. It did not appear to extend a greater length than 400 feet, with a 
maximum depth of 150 feet. In most places the portion exposed was 
nothing more than a seam a few feet in depth. It was on a shelf of the hiU. 
at tlie height of 1175 feet H ; the southern end was exposed on the north side 

* Giesecke's MS. Journal, year 1811. 

t The Danish name for the settlement of Sakkak. 

I These, as -svell as the other points of Atanekerdluk, were illustrated by a reference to 
a photograph of a dra-sving made from my sketch taken on tlie spot. 

§ By Daries, or by natives collecting for Danes. 

II The mean of eight observations by aneroid. -Tapt. Inglefield gives the height 1084 
feet. 

b2 



4 KEPORT 1869. 

of tUc most promiuent of the ravines already referred to. The length of the 
deposit, that is to say the face of the hill on which it was found, fronted the 
"VVaigat, due west, magnetic. 

I took from England, besides hammers, picks, and shovels, all the neces- 
saries for blasting; but these latter were unnecessary. The seam was for 
the most part enclosed by sand, and specimens were obtained with ease. The 
division of labour was as follows : — The natives (fourteen) collected, Mr. 
Tegner interpreted, and I selected. I directed Mr. Brown to collect speci- 
mens of the different strata in order that sections might be prepared*. The 
specimens are before me, and comprise : — basalt ; sandstone containing nodules 
of basalt rather smaller than an ordinary walnut ; indurated black mud, pro- 
bably derived from decomposed basaltic rock ; limestone ; calcareous mud, 
containing lime and alumina ; calcareous mud with layers of vegetable matter ; 
sandstones of different degrees of fineness ; sandstone containing a large 
amount of alumina ; coarse sandstone, about equivalent to the millstone grit 
of Derbyshire and Yorkshire ; coarse conglomerate sandstone, with fragments 
of silica about the size of common horse-beans ; calcareous sandstones of 
different degrees of fineness (effervescing readily when hydrochloric acid is 
applied) ; fine-gTaincd calcareous sandstone, in which the lime effervesces 
when hydrochloric acid is appKed, and containing mica distributed in patches 
with silica ; calcareous sandstone, with layers of vegetable matter ; ferrugi- 
nous conglomerate (grains of quartz, cemented togetlier by oxide of iron) ; 
hard clay of black colour ; fine hardened mud containing vegetable impres- 
sions ; streaks of clay, with layers of coal one-sixteenth of an inch thick ; 
bitiyniuous shale ; and lignite f. After a hard day's work we returned to our 
camp, in a ruined native house by the shore. It froze sharply during the 
night. 

On the 23rd we resumed work, and by the close of the day had made a 
large collection of good specimens. It was my endeavour to select, as far as 
possible, perfect specimens of individual species, rather than fine slabs con- 
taining numerous species. Unfortunately a large number of the finest 
specimens were irremediably smashed in transit down the hill ; this was 
due much more to the brittleness of the specimens and the steepness of the 
descent than to carelessness. The natives indeed worked admirably. 

On the 24th we finished our work at this localitj'. A trench had been 
dug by this time 20 feet in length, to a depth of 5 feet, completely through 
the seam, and the section showed : — • 

ft. in. 

1. Stratum of fine sand, light grey colour 1 7 deep. 

2. „ similar to No. 1, darker 8 „ 

3. „ fine white sand 8 „ 

4. ,, similar to No. 2 9 „ 

5. „ „ No. 3 6 „ 

G. „ yellow sand. 

The impressions of leaves were found for the most part in stratum No. 1, 
or ripon the surface; they were also obtained from Nos. 2, 3, 4, but I 
believe not lower. Those found in the uppermost and upon the surface were 
ordinarily in hard clay, red in colour, due to oxide of iron. These did not 
suffer much by transportation ; but the surface had apparently undergone a 
careful scrutiny, and few very perfect specimens were obtained from it. 

♦ The sections have not yet been handed to me. 
. t These specimens haye been named by Prof. J. Tennant, who has obliged me by examining 
and naming all the specimens referred to in this Eeport. 



ON THE PLANT-BEDS OF NORTH GREENLAND. 5 

The impressions in the softer and more brittle shales were obtained some 
depth below the surface ; these yielded the best specimens, but they suffered 
greatly in transit. Those found at the greatest depth were almost invariably 
in lumps of hard clay that fractured irregularly ; these diifered from the 
others in being of an iron-grey colour. They have reddened since they have 
been exposed to the atmosphere. The trench was dug about midway be- 
tween the extremes of the deposit, and examination at other points showed 
a similar arrangement. The hill at this part was mainly composed of sand, 
enclosing numerous thin seams of brittle indurated clay, red in colour, con- 
taining a good deal of iron and of moderately fine-grained sandstones. 

We were unable to find the " perfect stem, standing four feet out of the 
side of the hill," spoken of by Capt. Inglefield *, and it was unknown to the 
natives. It was said to have stood on the edge of a precipice, in the ravine 
on the south of the hill, and it has probably been buried in a fall that 
appears to have taken place not very long ago. In the sides of this ravine, 
both above and below the leaf-deposit, numerous beds of lignite are exposed, 
at least one being of considerable thickness. I brought home from this bed 
a block 1 foot 9 inches in thickness, a portion of which has been analyzed in 
the laboratory of Mr. T. W. Keates of Chatham Place, with the following 
result : — 

" Specific gravity 1-369 

Gaseous and volatile matter 45-45 

Moisture -75 

46-20 

Sulphur -55 

^ 1 f Fixed carbon 47-75 

^^^Ash 5-50 

53-25 

100-00 

The lignite contains a trace of bitumen ; the coke is non-caking, and of little 
use." 

In this lignite we found small pieces of amber, the largest being about the 
size of a common pea. We also found amber, but in stUl smaller fi-agments, 
in the leaf-deposit itself. It was nowhere abundant. 

The scantiness of the living vegetation at Atanekerdluk offered a marked 
contrast to the luxuriance displayed in the leaf-deposit. Although this was 
the sumiy side of the Waigat Strait and the hills were completely free 
from snow, vegetation was as meagre as upon Disco Island itself. The 
drifting of the sand accounts for this doubtless to some extent. The largest 
dead wood measured less than an inch and a half in diameter, and the largest 
growing wood less than an inch. 

The most remarkable natural object at Atanekerdluk is a trap pinnacle f. 
The surrounding soil has been removed, leaving this portion of a former dyke 
standing perfectly isolated. Its height is about eighty feet. 

On the evening of August the 24th we rowed across the Waigat to a little 
settlement on Disco Island, named Unartuvarsok, immediately opposite to 
Atanekerdluk. At this part the Waigat is nearly twelve miles across, and 
its passage took us more than four hours. 

* Private Journal of Capt. E. A. Inglefield, quoted in " A Report on the Miocene Flora 
of North Greenland," by Prof. O. Heer, 1866. Journal of the Eoyal Dublin Society, vol. iv. 
t A photograph of which from a drawing made from a sketch taken on the spot was 
exhibited. 



6 REPORT 1869. 

Unartuvarsok is now the only inhabited place on the Mhole of the "Waigat 
side of Disco Island, and the sole inducement to visit it lay in the expecta- 
tion that Ave should be able to find a native who knew the localities of Uja- 
rasuksumitok and Kudlisct. In this we were not disappointed; the native 
catechist (teacher) oifered to act as guide, and moreover invited us to pass 
the night in his house. AYo did so, and found the atmosphere most filthy. 

Early on the following morning we again started, passing at a short 
distance from the settlement some remarkable peaks that stood in advance 
of the great basaltic clifts which arc the chief features of Disco Island. 
These cliffs are everywhere crowned by glaciers, which occasionally, but 
rarely on the Waigat side of the island, pour over and advance towards 
the shore. Near the settlement of Unartuvarsok there are two or three 
points, at least, at which this glacier-plateau could be reached without much 
difiiculty *. 

Coal-seams are exposed at a number of points both along the Waigat and 
on the coast between Flakkerhuk and Godhavn. Dr. Eink mentions f five 
places at which it is found along those shores ; there are at least three others, 
- — one spoken of by Giesecke ; another near to Issungoak IS'ess, from which I 
obtained amber through the natives ; and a third nearer to Godhavn. At 
the time of our visit fossil wood had been found: — 1st, at Iglutsiak, near 
Godhavn ; 2nd, at Signifik, between the last-named place and Flakkerhuk ; 
3rd, at Ujarasusuk (Ujarasuksumitok) ; and 4th, at Kulfelden (Kudliset). 
Specimens from these places are in the University Museum at Copenhagen, 
and on my return I obtained, through the courtesy of Professor Johnstrup, 
duplicate specimens from the first two named. Until the time of our visit 
leaves had not, however, been found, with the exception of a few specimens 
by Dr. LyaU. Amber had, however, been found at several places ; and from 
this fact, and from the statement by Giesecke that he had himself observed 
impressions of leaves (apparently Anr/elica A)xhan(/elica), there was little 
doubt but that a more careful search would yield results. It was most im- 
portant to find the place spoken of by Giesecke as liitenbenk's Kulbrund. 
There was difficulty in doing so : the natives differed among themselves ; but 
we now know that this name is applied equally to aU the places along the 
Waigat coast of Disco from which coal lias been taken for Piitenbenk, At 
the present time coal for that colony is only taken from one place on Disco, 
namely, Ujarasuksumitok ; but it has been taken from several others, and 
hence we were much puzzled to determine the precise point to which Giesecke 
referred. 

On arrival at Ujarasuksumitok it was found that the coal was exposed in 
the cliff by the shore, at a height of about fifty feet above the sea. It had 
been worked a length of fifty feet to a depth of four and a half: one could 
not say what was the entire depth of the seam, as the lower part was covered 
up by debris. jUI the natives were put to work, but for some hours we failed 
to find anything more than wood (up to five inches diameter), charred stems, 

* The coast -line of the ^yaigat strait is laid down very inexactly in existing maps. Tlio 
chart of Dr. Eink, which is probably the best, makes the Disco coast very nearly a straight 
line from the promontory called I.ssungoak Ness to the shores opposite to Hare Island. 
In fact the coast-line from the above-named point to halfway up tlie strait is formed by 
one great bay tliat includes numerous smaller ones. We coasted these, and remnrked that 
for a considerable distance from the shore they were extremely shallow. At a distance of 
a half English mile, or even more, there were places with a depth of only eight or nine 
feet. The whole of the Waigat, indeed, appeared to be shallow. Small icebergs were 
aground in numerous places in the very centre of it. 

t Gronland Geographisk og Statistisk beski-evet, vol. i. pp. 172, &c. 



ON THE PLANT-BEDS OF NORTH GREENLAND. 7 

doubtful impressions, and a few grains of amber. I then went along the 
coast towards the north, and was at length rewarded by finding a fair speci- 
men, containing leaves, in the bed of a small stream. It was in hardened, 
warm-coloured clay, similar to that obtained at Atanekerdluk. I followed 
the stream to its source, a height of about 1000 feet, without finding 
anything more. Then returning, I went to the south, and in another and 
larger torrent-bed foimd several others. The natives, now put on the right 
track, soon brought in a fair collection. Gudemanu was the fortunate dis- 
coverer of the Magnolia cone, to which Prof. Heer refers, and he was greatly 
surprised at the reward it produced him. 

AU the specimens collected at this place were obtained from these two 
torrent-beds : Mr. Erown, who followed the fossUs up to their soiurce, reported 
that they came from a thin seam difficult to get at. As it was becoming a 
question whether the boats would carry aU the specimens we had ah'cady 
collected, I decided to push onwards the same night to Kudhset, which, from 
reports received, seemed a more promising place for investigation. 

We arrived there about midnight, and camped very smartly. The weather 
had already become sufliciently cold to freeze the salt water in the bays at 
night, and during the whole day fresh water remained frozen in the little 
pools on the land. The whole of this part of Disco Island was very dismal. 
Its aspect allows the sun to shine upon it for but a small portion of the day*, 
and all animal life seemed to shun it. A few ptarmigan were the only 
lining creatures we saw on the land during the days we passed on these 
shores. There was little wonder that the natives Averc akeady wishing to 
return. They wore ill-protected from the weather ; for, from reasons which 
need not be mentioned, it was impossible to allow them to enter the tents, 
and they had only such shelter as they could obtain by piling up turf and 
stones, and covering themselves with a few small blankets and spare skins 
which we had brought with us. 

At this place (Kudliset) coal (lignite) was exposed in a cHft' on the south 
side of the bed of a small stream in two seams, 4 feet apart, for a length of about 
30 feet, difficult to get at. They were 105 feet (by aneroid) above the sea, 
and distant from it about 300 yards. The lowest seam, 2 feet thick, was 
resting on a bed of indurated clay, and between the seams was a coarse and 
very loose, crumbly sandstone. The uppermost seam, one foot thick, was 
capped by a finer and harder sandstone which I could not measure. The 
whole, above and below, was enclosed by sand. 

In the torrent-bed we quickly found some considerable masses of fossilized 
wood, and I followed the stream upwards in hopes of finding leaves. At a 
height of about 800 feet I obtained agates in basalt, and following the stream 
to its source (about 1000 feet above the sea), came nearly to the foot of the 
great basaltic chifs. The specimens collected here include hardened clays 
which have taken form in cavities in the basalt. Returning to my party I 
found that they had in the meantime obtained some indifferent and fair 
specimens from the torrent-bed, and from the sandstone above the coal. 
We afterwards added to their number, but the coarseness of the stone pre- 
vented any very good specimens from being obtained. We also secured some 
good specimens of fossil wood, about one foot in diameter. Nodules of argil- 

* The Danish man at Sakkak informed me that the coal was got out easily enough 
during the summer time, but that at a depth of 12 feet it remained frozen throughout the 
year. On arriving at the frozen coal, they commonly wait two or three days to allow it 
to thaw, before continuing to work it. 



8 REPORT 1869. 

laceous oxide of iron, having usually in the centre kernels of the same, were 
abundant in the stream and in the soil at its sides. 

After a half-day's work we had apparently exhausted this locality. The 
specimens obtained were again chiefly taken from the torrent-bed. It was 
a matter of difficulty, if not of danger, to get any from the sandstone above 
the coal; and as the natives were murmui-ing frequently at being taken 
away further than they had agreed, I sent Mr. Erown to the south with one 
boat, to examine the coast, and then proceed to Eitenbenk, a'/a Atanekerdluk, 
while I went with the other boat as far north along the Disco shore as the 
natives would go. A little further along the coast I found some doubtful 
impressions of leaves in a great wilderness of stones brought down by a 
glacier-torrent, and about three miles still further north came to the magni- 
ficent gorge in the sandstone chfi's by the shore, to which I have vainly 
endeavoured to do justice in the view exhibited*. One mile after this the 
cliffs by the shore came to an end, and the coast apparently continued quite 
flat until opposite Hare Island. The natives agreed that no coal was visible 
along the whole of this shore, and we crossed to Mannik, on the opposite 
side of the "Waigat. Here there was a small thin seam of coal, exposed in a 
clifi' not far from the shore ; but I obtained nothing from it, and we continued 
our course to Atanekerdluk, arriving shortly after midnight; here we passed 
the night of the 27th August. The next day was occupied in loading the 
boat with the specimens we had left there, in sketching, and in completing 
the examination of the locality. At 4 p.m. we started for Sakkak, and left 
it at 8.30, arriving at Eitenbcnk on the morning of the 29th August. Mr. 
Brown had arrived about twelve hours before, but, hke ourselves, had failed 
to make any fresh discoveries. 

At Ritenbenk we remained three days, with foul weather. During this 
time the collections, including many hundred specimens, amounting to con- 
siderably more than half a ton in weight, were repacked. We were then 
favoured, by the kindness of Mr. Anderson, with a passage in a blubber-boat 
to Godhavn, at which place we arrived on September the 4th, after a most 
disagreeable voyage. On the 10th we sailed on board the brig ' Hoalfisken,' 
and arrived at Copenhagen on October the 22nd. 

In conclusion it is right to observe that these collections could not have 
been made excepting by means of the facilities afforded by the Danish 
authorities. We may feel a natural satisfaction that so many as eighty 
species should have been discovered by the labours of Professor Heer ; but 
it shoidd be remembered that they are primarily due to the invaluable in- 
formation given by Herr C. S. M. Olrik, the Director of the Greenland Trade. 
Scarcely less are our thanks due to Herr K. Smith, the present Inspector of 
North Greenland, and to Herr Anderson, of Kitenbenk; both of these 
gentlemen gave much assistance, at considerable personal trouble, which was 
of the greatest service. 

To Bohert H. Scott, Esq., Edward WsTMrER. 

Secretary of the Committee of 

the British Association. 

Preliminary Report on the Fossil Plants collected by Mr. Whymper in North 
Greenland, in 1867. By Prof. Oswald Heek. 

The fossil plants which have been sent to me by Mr. Whymper have come 
partly from Disco Island and partly from Atanekerdlidi. 

* At this part some boulders of granite, probably transported by sea-ioe, were lying on 
the shore. 



ON THE PLANT-BEDS OF NORTH GREENLAND. 9 

The specimens from Disco occur in a coarse-grained sandstone which is at 
times yellowish, and at times reddish-grey. They were collected at two 
localities on the eastern side of the island, on the shore of the Waigat, in 
lat. 70°, or thereabouts. One of these is named Kiidlisot (Kudliset), the 
other is Ujararsusuk (Ujarasuksumitok), and lies some miles to the south of 
Kudlisot. This place is also called Eitenbenk's coal-mine, because of a 
considerable seam of brown coal which occurs in the sandstone, and is some- 
times wrought by the colonists of Eitenbenk. 

The collection contains thirteen species from these two localities, viz. eleven 
from Kudlisot, and six from Ujararsusiik ; four species are common to both. 
Two of these may be described as the commonest trees of the district. One 
is a conifer (Sequoia Couttsice), the other a plane. The collection contains 
splendid specimens of the Sequoia; and with one t^ig from Ujararsusuk we 
find the scales of the cone in good preservation, while among the delicate 
twigs from Kudlisot there is an entire cone. The twigs and cones are 
precisely similar to those which are so common at Bovey Tracey in Devon- 
shire, and which have also been found in the Hempstead beds in the Isle of 
Wight. This remarkable tree, which I have described as Sequoia Couttsice, 
and which is closely allied to Sequoia f/ir/antea ( WeUingtonia gir/antea, Liudl.), 
extends accordingly from the south of England to North Greenland, and has 
ripened its fruit in the latter region. Not less remarkable is the plane, of 
which the collection contains very fine leaves ; it resembles the American 
plane, from which it is not easily distinguishable. 

Among the other plants from this localitj^ we may name a fern (Asj)i- 
dium Meyeri), which is covered with fruit, a reed, the amber-tree of 
Europe {Liquidamhar Europaum, Braun), a Christ-thorn (Paliurus Colomhi), 
and a Dryandra (D. acutiloha), which was only known to occur in the Wetterau 
and at Bilin, in Bohemia. 

The most remarkable discovery, without doubt, is that of two cones of 
Maynolia. In my ' Elora Arctica ' I have already identified the leaves of a 
Magnolia (M. Inglejieldi), and have shown that in respect of their size and 
leathery texture they approach those of M. grandijiora, L. Now we find 
these cones coming to light and confirming the identification of the leaves. 
In addition to a cone of the same size as that of M. grandijiora, there is a 
spray with a large bud, very similar to those of Magnolia. At Kudlisot 
several fragments of leaves were collected. 

Of the thirteen species from Disco three are entirely new, and besides 
seven had not previously been recognized as Greenland species. 

Atanekerdluk lies on the opposite side of the Waigat, on the peninsula of 
Noursoak, and in the same latitude as Kudlisot. This locality has already 
afforded the abundant collections which have been brought to Dublin and 
London, and to Copenhagen and Stockholm, and which are described in my 
' Flora EossUis Arctica.' At this place Mr. Whymper has collected a great 
number of plants, in fact the greater portion of his collection. The majority 
of the species contained in the slabs were already known, as might have been 
expected. The Poplars and Sequoias (S. Langsdorffi, Brgn.) are very abun- 
dant, and the twigs and leaves at times cover the entire surface of the stone. 
We can recognize the male and female flowers in addition to the cones. The 
M'Clintockias, which are in themselves so remarkable, and the leaves of 
oaks and hazelnuts are not rare, and are sometimes very well preserved. 

I have hitherto recognized sixty species ; but as many of the slabs have 
not yet been worked out, it is probable that this number wiU be increased. 
One-fourth of these, i. e. fifteen species, are new, or at least new to Green- 
land, and of these the following deserve special notice ; — 



10 KEroRT — 1869. 

1. A Sassafras (Sassafras Ferretianum), closely allied to the North- American 
species. This species I had obtained from Mcnat in Prance, and it also 
occurs at Sonegaglia. 

2. The fruit of a Ni/ssa, like a species from Bovej and from Salzhausen. 

3. A Ycrjr perfect leaf of a Snowball (Viburnum Whyniperi, Hr.). 

4. Leatherj'^ leaves of a plant which probably belongs to the AraUas (Aralia 
Broivniana, Hr.). 

5. A new species of Cornns and a new Crattecius. 

Important though the discovery of these new species is as extending our 
knowledge of the Miocene Flora, it is not more so than the additional 
information as to known Arctic forms Avhich has been afforded by tliis expe- 
dition, as tending to correct, or rather to confirm their identifications. 

Among these wo should name a very beautiful Fern (Hcmitellites ToreJlii), 
which differs widely from all those of the temperate zone ; the leaf-part of 
a Salisburia, wliieh in its form approaches very closely to the Japanese 
species ; a perfect leaf of Quercus LjieUii, Hr. ; the loaf of a Vine ( Vitis 
arctiea, Hr.) ; several fragments of leaves of nut-trees, and of Magnolia 
Inrflefieldi ; and the fruit of Menijantlies, which species I have already 
identified by means of the leaves. 

On the whole the collection contains sixty-seven species, of which twenty- 
two are new to Greenland, and are accordingly additions to our knowledge 
of the Ibssil flora of the Arctic Zone. 

To these maj' be added three specimens of the fauna, two insects and a 
bivalve. One of the insects exhibits elytra in very good preservation, and 
belongs to the Colcoptera, the other to the Heraiptera. The bivalve is a 
freshwater species (Oydas), and confirms the view that the deposit of Ata- 
nekerdluk, which contains so many plants, is a freshwater formation. 



Report of a Committee, consisting o/Mr. C. W. MEHRiriELD, F.R.S., 
Mr. G. P. Bidder, Captain Dougla.s Galton, F.R.S., Mr. F. 
Galton, F.R.S., Professor Ranking, F.R.S., and Mr. W. Froude, 
appointed to report on the state of existiny knowledge on the Sta- 
bility, Propulsion, and Sea-going Qualities of Ships, ajid as to the 
application which it may be desirable to make to Her Majesty's 
Government on these subjects. Prepared for the Committee by C. 
W. Merrifield, F.R.S. 

The subject referred to us is a very large one, and having regard both to 
the space which a complete report on such a matter would require and to 
the time at our disposal for making it, we have thought it best to lay before 
the present Meeting a First lleport, in which we confine ourselves to the 
resistance luhich ships offer to propulsion, and to their behaviour in 7'espect of 
rolling. These are, in their several directions, the preliminary subjects neces- 
sary to the inquiry committed to us ; and they are also the parts of naval 
science on which exact experiment appears to be most urgently needed, both 
for the direct knowledge of these branches, and also as a foundation for ex- 
periments on propulsion and the other applications which depend upon them. 
Knowledge of the work to be done should precede the selection of the tool 
with which it is to be performed. 



STABILITY^ PROPULSION, AND SEA-GOING QUALITIES OF SHIPS. 11 

EESISTANCE. 

Total Resistance. 

The question of resistance may be treated in two ways, — either in gross, 
as regarding the power required to drive a vessel of certain form and dimen- 
sions at a specified rate ; or in detail, as regarding the exact way in which 
the vessel and the propeller act and react upon the water which they disturb. 
Hitherto there has been but little connexion established between the pheno- 
mena of detail and the general result, the former not being understood with 
any reasonable degree of certainty, and the latter also being far from settled 
with precision. 

The variable elements which go to make resistance what it is are chiefly 
velocity, form, condition of surface, and absolute dimension. The effect of 
form is as varied as the number of forms which can be given to a floating 
body. As regards dimension, assuming the forms te be geometrically the 
same, it has been found that vessels of different absolute size do not corre- 
spond in the degree of resistance which they encounter, whether in smooth 
water or in waves. It will also be seen that the absolute length of a ship, 
considered irrespectively of breadth or depth, has a direct influence on the 
resistance. 

As regards velocity, it is usual to assume, in books on hydrodynamics, that 
the resistance of water varies as the square of the speed. For the purposes 
of naval architecture, this can only be taken to be roughly true under certain 
limiting conditions, beyond which the law of the squares deviates widely 
from the observed facts. It appears to be probable that this increase, as the 
square of the speed, is rather a minimum than a general rule of increase, 
and that such a minimum is only attained by ships of good form, and of a 
length which is a certain function of the speed. The vague words good form 
are used designedly, it being still i;ncertain what the best form may be, and 
what extent of deviation from it takes the vessel out of its operation-. When 
the vessel is shorter than a certain limit of length depending on the velocity, 
the resistance seems to increase more rapidly than the square, and the power 
needed to drive the ship Consequently increases faster than the cube of the 
velocity. 

It may save confusion to remark that the measure of resistance is referred 
to a unit of distance, yvhilc j^oiver is referred to a unit of time. For any law 
of resistance, therefore, the power varies as the product of the resistance and 
speed, and where the velocity varies we have simplj- to use the corresponding 
integral formula. 

As already remarked, the leading formuhe of the resistance of water are 

RaV^HPaEVaV', 

the latter being the strictly necessary consequence of the former. There is 
but little disagreement among- writers up to this point. But the moment we 
attempt either to assign values to the constants of the equations which they 
imply, or to introduce the corrections depending on the complex phenomena, 
which always, more or less, mask the mere question of fluid resistance, we 
find vei-y little agreement. 

The chief elements of the resistance of water to a body moving through it 
are: — 

(1 ) The direct head-resistance due to the work of thrusting the water to 
the right and left, with or without vertical motion, in order to make way 
for the body to pass. 



12 REPORT 1869. 

(2) The sl-in-resistance, or friction, of the water on the surface of the mo- 
ving body, combined -with the effect of surface eddies and other minute phe- 
nomena. 

(3) The bach pressure, due to the diminished pressure in rear of the moving 
body and in wake of any comers or unfairness of surface which may cause 
eddies. 

(4) In addition to those, there are the phenomena of capillarity and of the 
viscosity of water. These are of importance as regards minute bodies, 
including even small models ; but for large ships they are sufficiently ac- 
counted for in the arbitrary constant of skin-resistance. This fourth head 
may therefore be neglected, except when we wish to pass from ships to 
models. 

For extreme shapes it does not appear that the three leading elements of 
resistance can be grouped under one term ; but there is reason to believe 
that, for vessels of a certain form, they all involve, with a respectable degree 
of approximation, the square of the velocity, and also that the forms for 
which this is true are among those which offer, cceteris 2^«>'ibus, the least re- 
sistance. Under these circumstances, the formulte depenchng on skin-resis- 
tance may be made to include the other two by merely altering the constants. 
We conjecture that, when authors state that certain elements of resistance 
may practically be neglected, they usually mean that they can be accounted 
for in assigning the values to the arbitrary constants, which, in any case, 
must be determined from experiment. We have named vessels of a certain 
form ; this form must be regarded as still unknown, except with reference 
to some limitations of a negative character, even these being rather indefinite. 
They include a fine entrance, and a fine run, and an absolute length of not 
less than the length of the trochoidal wave moving with the same velocity. 
The actual determination of the form of least resistance is not only unsolved, 
but the data of the problem are yet unknown. 

The first formulae that occur are the well-known coeflBcients of steam-ship 
performance — 

(Speed)' X (displacement)* 

, Indicated horse-power 

(Speed)' X area of midship section 
Indicated horse-power 

As affording a rough measure of comparison, the tabulation of these for- 
mulae for different ships is extremely convenient. But they are of very little 
assistance in setthng a theory. Even for the same vessel, tried under appa- 
rently similar conditions, these coefficients do not appear to be constant 
quantities. Moreover, the varying efficiency of the steam-engine and of the 
propeller, considered as machines for the transmission of poAver, are inse- 
parably grouped with the work of overcoming resistance. When the con- 
sumption of coal is substituted for the I.H.P., the efiiciency of the furnace 
and boiler also comes in. Some of these remarks apply to Mr. Hawksley's 
approximate formula, — 

Velocity in statute miles = 27 /effective horse-powery. 

\wetted surface m n / 

but this was only intended for rough purposes. 

We may here mention a formula given by Mr, Greene, in a paper read at 
the Franklin Institute of New York, and reprinted in the ' Mechanics' Maga- 
zine ' for 8th July, 1864. It proceeds on the assumption that the power 



STABILITY^ PROPULSION, AND SEA-GOING QUALITIES OF SHIPS. 13 

expended in overcoming back pressure and friction in the engine varies 
directly as the speed — 

H.P. =DJV (-1552 + -0040840 V"), 

the constants being obtained empiricallj-. 

Most modern formula) for resistance take account of the form of the vessel, 
in such a manner as to require the use of the drawings of the exterior sur- 
face of the ship. The Swede, Chapman, in his well-known treatise on ship- 
building, assumes that the surface of the vessel may be divided into small 
portions, the resistance of each of which will be proportional to the projection 
of its area, to the sine squared of the inclination, and to the square of the 
velocitj^ ; with a certain small correction on account of the currents which 
are set up bj' the ship's own motion, and which modify the pressures. But 
he himself saw reason from subsequent experiments to doubt whether the 
law of the sine squared, or even that of the velocity squared, was applicable 
to the forms which he used. 

Euler* and most of the older writers use the sine squared of the incli- 
nation as the factor representing the effect of obliquity ; and this theory has 
been revived by Mr. Hawksley in a discussion at the Institution of Civil En- 
gineers, reported in their ' Proceedings ' for 1856, vol. xvi. p. 356. But we 
think that there is now ample experimental ground for believing that, whether 
or not this law be true with respect to an infinitesimal portion of a plane re- 
ceiving the impact of a thin jet of water, it is not true either of plane sur- 
faces of considerable extent, or, as a differential formula, of curved surfaces. 
It evidently fails to take account of the effect of the stream which is set up along 
the surface in deflecting the impact of water on the part of the surface further 
back from the entrance. The assumption that this has no effect is not one 
which can be admitted without proof ; and the experimental evidence tends 
the other way. Chapman's later experiments, the experiments of the French 
Academy, and those of Col. Beaufoyf are all against the hypothesis of the 
sine squared of the inclination. The supposition that the sine squared of the 
inclination represents the effect of the obliquity of the afterbody is still 
more open to doubt than when it is applied to the forebody. 

As a contribution to the history of the subject, the following translation 
from a tract of M. Dupuy de Lome will be interesting : — 

" Romme, in his Memoir for the Academy of Sciences, in 1784, while 
giving an account of the experiments made by him at Rochefort on models 
of ships, one of which represented a 74, and, again, in his work on the ' Art 
de la Marine,' had very succinctly laid down that this resistance was inde- 
pendent of form. ' Provided,' he went on to say, ' the water-lines have a 
regular, fair curvature, as is the case in modern vessels, the greater or less 
fullness of the bow or stern neither increases nor diminishes the resistance 
of the water to their progress.' 

" In direct contradiction to this too summary rule, which has long ob- 
structed the progress of naval architecture, my experience leads to five prin- 
ciples, which I state as follows : — 

" 1°. Among vessels of similar geometrical form, of different size, but all 
having their immersed surface exceedingly smooth, and driven at the same 

* See his 'Scientia Navalis' (St. Petersburgli, 17 19), vol. i. p. 213. See also D'Alem- 
bert, ' Traite de I'Equilibre et du Mouvement des Fluides,' ed. of 1770, p. 226. 

t See Chapman (by Inman), p. 257 ; Bossut, ' Hydrodynamique,' vol. ii. p. 396 ; Beau- 
foy, p. Ixxxvii. See also Ssott Eussell's ' Naval Architecture,' p. 168 ; or Proceedings of 
Civil Engineers, vol. xxiii. p. 346, as to the French experiments. 



14 REPORT 1869. 

speed, the jiressure needed to attain this speed increases more slowly than 
the sui'face of the greatest transverse section. It is near the truth to say 
that, for similar forms, the resistance per square metre of midship section, at 
the same speed, decreases as the vessel increases, in the ratio of the square 
roots of the radii of curvature of its lines, these radii being themselves pro- 
portional to the linear dimensions of the ships ; it is therefore wrong to 
compare the resistance of different ships by means of experiments made on 
models to reduced scales*. 

" 2°. If the same vessel be driven at different speeds, the force needed to 
obtain these velocities increases less rapidly than the square of the speed, 
while that is small. The force increases as the square for ordinary rates of 
3 to 5 metres per second, according to the condition of the surface in respect 
of smoothness. Beyond that speed it increases faster than the square f. 

" 3°. The diminution of the angle of entrance, and the lengthening of the 
radius of curvature of the lines wliich the water has to follow, especiallj' in 
the replacement in wake of the stern bj^ the water coming up from below, are 
the principal means of diminishing the resistance. This has the greater in- 
fluence the greater the driving-power. For very slow motion, the influence 
of form is less than that of surface friction. 

" 4". The sharpness of the bow, both above and below the water-line, 
which has in calm water the effect just mentioned, has more marked advan- 
tages in a heavy sea-way. 

" 5°. The smoothness of the wetted surface plays a considerable part in 
the resistance ; and this part, due to friction, varies but little with the speed. 

" I add that the resistance of the hull increases markedly in narrow chan- 
nels, and still moi-c where the depth of water does not much exceed the 
draught of the sliip ; so that experiments ought to be made in deep water. 

" Finally, my numerous observations on the resistance of ships, in calm 
weather and open sea, agree, with a close approach to exactness, with the 
following formula, which I have since adopted as the measure of the resis- 
tance : — 

E=KS(V^ + 0-145V')-FK'S^ W. 

" In this formula, I call — 

S, the area of midship section in square inches. 

S', the product of the mean girth (wetted), into the extreme length, 
also in square metres. 

V, the speed in metres per second. 

K, a coefficient varying with the form, diminishing inversely as the 
square root of the radii of the curvature of the longitudinal sections, and 
also diminishing with the mean angle of entrance. This second reduc- 
tion amounts to about 15 per cent., as the mean angle of entrance comes 
clown from 45° to 15°. It is therefore about g per cent, for each degree 
between those limits. 

K^, a coefficient independent of the fonn, and varying only with the 
smoothness of the wet sldu. This coefficient may increase in the ratio 
of 1 to 10, from 0-3 for bottoms very smoothly covered with good copper, 

* M. Eeecli, Director of the Ecole d'Application du Genie Maritime, Las long since 
pointed out in liis lectures the error frequently made of comparing the resistance of vessels 
of various forms by means of experiments upon models driven at the speed proper to the 
vessels themselves. — Kofe b// ihe French author. 

t I am here speaking of vessels only partially immersed, not of vessels vhieh are en- 
tirely imder water. — Note hy the French author. 



STABILITY^ PROPULSION^ AND SEA-GOING QUALITIES OF SHIPS. 15 

and the heads of the nails well beaten down, to 3-0 for huUs covered 
with weed and barnacles. 

R is the resistance expressed in kilogrammes, and corresponding to 
the speed V. 

** Per each ship experimented upon, two trials are sufficient to determine 
K and Iv'. 

" For the ' Napole'on,' while clean, the copper being oxidized, not greased, 
I found 

K=l-96, X'=0-44, 

from which I obtain for the general expression for the resistance to the 
passage of the ship through the Avater, 

R= 1-96S(YH 0-145V')+ 0-440S' ^V. 

A Table previously given shows that during the trial trip of the ' If apole'on ' 
the values of S and S^ were — 

S between 99 and 100 square metres. 
S^ between 1580 aud 1610 square metres. 
* * * * 

" The power needed to obtain this speed is obtained from this calculation 
by mviltiplying the resistance, so calculated, by the velocity." 

The above remarks are translated from a memoir published by M. Dupuy 
de Lome on the occasion of his candidature for the French Academy in 
1865-66. It is reprinted in M. Flachat's ' Navigation a Vapeur Trans- 
oceanienne,' vol. i. p. 206. 

It may not be out of place to mention, in explanation of M. Dupuy de 
Lome's remarks about the angle of entrance, that the ai'chitects of the Im- 
perial Navy avoid the use of the hollow bow. There is at most a slight 
concavity at the fore -foot. Hence the angle of entrance has a meaning 
which is sometimes lost in modern English practice. 

M. Bourgois, in his memoir * on the resistance of water, gives formulae 
which may be grouped under the general form of 



r=b^v^[k,+k,5+K3^], 



B^ being the area of midship section, S the wet surface, and I the breadth 
extreme. K^, K.,, and K^ are constants which vary with different classes of 
vessels. 

The dependence of the resistance of ships upon the theory of waves ap- 
pears to have been first insisted upon by Mr. Scott Russell. That gentle- 
man seems to have been the first to discover that there was a relation 
between the length of the ship and the velocity of advantageous propulsion, 
this relation being taken directly from the theories of the solitary and of 
the trochoidal waves. We will state his theory of resistance in as few words 
as possible. 

Scott BusselVs Theory of the Form of Least Resistance. 

A vessel may be divided longitudinally into three portions, bow, straight 
middlebody (if any), and afterbody. The midship section may be of any 
shape whatever, the resistance due to it depending on its area and wet 

* Published at Paris, by Arthur Bertrand, s.a. Kee also Sonnet, ' Dictionnaire de.s 
Mathcmatiqucs Appliquecs,' art. " Ei'sistance des Fluides." 



16 KEPORT 1869. 

girth only. The forcbody must have for its level sections curves of siucs 
(harmonic curves) whose equation may be written as 

0.'=—, ?/=|/j(l+cos6), 

b being the half breadth of the ship at any level, and 1 the length of the 
forebody, which must not be less than the length of the " solitary wave," 
which has the same speed as the ship is intended to have, in order that the 
resistance may be the least possible. The afterbody is to have trochoids 
for its level lines, their equation being 

.r=— , +|6 sin e, 7j=^h{l + cos 0), 

TT 

Z' being the length of the afterbody, which is not to be less than that of one 
half of the oscillating or trochoidal wave of the same speed as the ship. The 
straight middlebody may be of any length whatever, as it will only affect the 
resistance by increasing the surface for friction ; or, subject to these condi- 
tions, the resistance of the ship will be expressed by 

where © represents the area of midship section, and S the wetted surface, 
K and K^ are coeiRcients, the former of which may be roughly stated at j'^j 
of that due to a flat plate drawn flatwise through the water, and the latter 
depending upon the condition of the surface. For a pure wedge bow, whose 

angle is e, Mr. Scott Eussell considers that the resistance varies as I s | , 

e Ij'ing between the limits of 12° and 144° ; and where the bow is compounded 
of this and of the wave form, he gives, as a rough measure of the resistance, 
a formula obtained by compounding this, in such proportion as may properly 
represent the geometrical combination of form, with the resistance due to the 
wave form. 

As far as can be judged by Mr. Scott Russell's published writings, there 
appears to be some unsettled ground in his theory relatively to the shape of 
the afterbody. The form of the bow is simply that of one-half the profile 
of a solitary wave of translation, laid horizontallj- instead of vertically. The 
form of the stern is also taken from the form of the wave, which is set up 
when a hollow in the surface of water has to be filled up ; but it is nowhere 
made clear whether this form ought to be given to the level sections, or to 
the vertical longitudinal sections, or whether some compromise should be made 
between the two ; and it seems probable that the author himself was doubt- 
ful on the subject. The experiments recently made under the direction of the 
Committee of the British Association appointed to make experiments on the 
difference between the resistance of water to floating and immersed bodies 
(Report for 18G6, p. 148) seem to indicate that that doubt is still unsettled. 

Without hazarding an opinion as to whether this form is really that of 
least resistaiice, it appears certain that the cui-ves used are among those 
along which fluid particles can glide smoothly, without causing supernume- 
rary diverging waves in the liquid. 

The general formiila for the length of a ship given by this theory is : — 

Forebody in feet= — V^ in feet per second; 
Afterbody=— V- in feet per second. 



STABILITY, PROPULSION, AND SEA-GOING QUALITIES OF SHIPS. 17 

The following are the values of the factor and its logarithm, which give 
the length of the forebody in feet, when the velocity is given in — 

Feet, per second 0-19518 log = 9-29045. 

Knots, per hour 0-5561 log = 9-74515. 

Statute miles, per hour . . 0-41985 log = 9-62310. 

Professor Eankine states, as the result of his own observation, that it is 
possible to shorten the bow to two-thirds of the length given by this formula, 
without materially increasing the resistance, but that it is very disadvanta- 
geous to shorten the afterbody. 

In the ' Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers,' vol. xxiii. (for 
1864), p. 321, is a paper by Mr. G. II. Phipps, on the " Resistance of Bodies 
passing through the Water." Mr. Phipps considers that the total resistance 
may be subdivided as follows, into additive parts : — 

Head-resistance — varying directly as the midship section, and inversely 

as the square of the projection ratio of the bow. 
Stern-resistance — a similar function for the stern. 
Friction-resistance — varying directly as the surface immersed. 
Adchtional Head-resistance — an empirical correction assumed to be a 
function of the draught of water. 

The sum of these resistances is then multiplied by the square of the velo- 
city. 

The paper was followed by a discussion in which most of the leading 
English writers on fluid resistance took part. The paper and discussion 
thus constitute a very fair resume of the opinions then held on the subject in 
this country. 

Mr. Phipps considers that the coefficient of friction of water on the outer 
surface of a vessel is less than on the inner surface of a pipe ; and this is, to 
a certain extent, in accordance with the experiments of Darcy on the friction 
of water in pipes, which led to the conclusion that the coefficient of friction 
consists of two terms — one constant, and the other varying inversely as the 
diameter of the pipe. 

Mr. John I. Thornycroft, C.E., in a paper read before the Institution of 
Naval Architects this year, and which wiU appear in their forthcoming volume 
of ' Transactions,' gives the following formula, the form of which is derived 
from experiments on the flow of water in pipes : — 

I. H. P.=Y/t Js/ 3^ vr7_i_^f;in ^'+^V3'7 



{S/J^^Y- + ,S.C."^3V..}, 



where S = the wetted surface, V = the velocity in knots, I = the length, 
h, f, n, C are constants empirically determined : 

log 7i ='3-65450, 
log/ =2-10170, 
log 0=2-20041, 

n=380, 
^S=/(sin «)2-5 ds, 

ds representing an elementary portion of the surface, S, and d the angle 
which this portion of the surface makes with the line of motion. It will be 
noticed that the formula involves a large number of constants, more or less 
arbitrarily determined. 

Professor Eankine, in a paper in the ' Transactions of the Institution of 
1869. c 



18 REPORT 1869. 

Naval Architects ' for 1864 (the substance of which is repeated in a treatise 
on ' Shipbuilding : Theoretical and Practical '), states that the processes 
amongst the particles of water through -which resistance to the ship's motion 
may be caused indirectly may bo thus enumerated : — 

1. The distortion of the particles of water. 

2. The production of currents. 

3. The production of waves. 

4. The production of frictional eddies. 

The first cause he regards as having no appreciable effect on actual ships, 
although possibly sensible in small models. Of the second cause (the pro- 
duction of currents), Professor llankine remarks that it " never acts upon a 
weU-designed ship ; for such a ship is so formed that the particles of water 
glide over her surface throughout its whole length, and are left behind her 
with no more motion than such as is unavoidably impressed upon them 
through adhesion and stiffness ; and hence the failure of the earlier theories 
of the resistance of ships, which were founded on experiments made with 
flat plates, wedges, and blocks of unfair shapes." 

Mr. llankine then gives a detailed account of the waves which accompany 
a vessel driven at a speed greater than the limit to which she is properly 
adapted, showing that they diverge from the course of the vessel at an angle 
depending on the proportion in which their speed of advance is less than her 
speed, and thus carry off energy, which is lost ; and he proceeds to state : 
" The conclusion to be drawn from these principles is, that for each vessel 
there is a certain limit of speed, below which the resistance due to the pro- 
duction of waves is insensible ; and that as soon as that limit is exceeded, 
that resistance begins to act, and increases at a veiy rapid rate with the ex- 
cess of speed Through the discoveries of Mr. Scott EusseU, a vessel can 

be designed in which this kind of resistance shall be insensible up to a given 
limit of speed; and therefore the resistance due to waves has no sensible 
action on a well-formed ship." These remarks of course apply only to 
waves formed by the ship, and not to sea-waves which she may have to 
encounter. 

" The resistance due to frictional eddies thus remains alone to be considered. 
That resistance is a combination of the direct and indirect effects of the ad- 
hesion between the skin of the ship and the particles of water which glide 
over it ; which adhesion, together with the stiffness of the water, occasions 
the production of a Vast niimbcr of small whirls or eddies in the layer of 
water immediately adjoining the ship's surface." Instead of assuming that 
the frictional resistance is simply proportional to the actual immersed surface, 
Mr. llankine uses what he calls the avgmented surface, which is obtained by 
multiplying each infinitesimal element of the surface bj" the cube of the ratio 
which the velocity of gliding of the water over that portion bears to the speed 
of the ship, and summing them. Let s be the actiial surface, and q the velo- 
city-ratio of gliding ; then the augmented surface is^^^ (7s ; and if, further, 
V be the speed, g gravity, iv the heaviness of -^-ater, and / the coefficient of 
friction, then 

Eddy-resistance =V^/— j^^ ds. 

w 
Taking the cubic foot as the unit, ;j- does not differ much from unity for 

sea-water, and the formula thus reduces to ^^ ff q^ ds. 

It is, of course, impossible to ealculatey^'^ ds in detail for every sliip; and 



STABILITY; PROPULSION, AND SEA-GOING QUALITIES OF SHIPS. 19 

it therefore becomes necessary to find some auxiliary formula. In the 
' Philosophical Transactions ' for 1863, pp 134-37, Mr. Rankine has shown that 
the augmented surface of a trochoidal ribbon on a given base and of given 
breadth may be found by multiplying their product by the following coefii- 
cient of augmentation : — 

l+4(sin0)H(sin0)\ 

in which is the angle which the inflexional tangent makes with the base. 
For a ship in which the stream-lines or tracks of the particles of water are 
trochoids, it would be a sufficient approximation to integrate, 

length X I breadth x {1 +4 (sin ^)^ + (sin ^y} 

with regard to the draught of water, considering both the angle (p and the 
half-breadths as variable elements to be determined from the drawings. 
AVhere the stream-lines are not trochoids, f may be taken as the angle of 
greatest obliquity. But the theory has been only partially extended to three 
dimensions ; and indeed if it were possible to do so, the mere introduction 
of a third variable would not meet the case, unless account were taken of 
the vertical displacement of the surface of the water consequent upon the 
uniformity of pressure at that surface. 

The resistance determined by the calculation of the augmented surface 
includes in one quantity both the direct adhesive action of the water on the 
ship's skin, and the indirect action through increase of the pressure at the 
bow and diminution of the pressure at the stern. 

For the coefficient of friction, Professor Eankine takes /=0-0036 for sur- 
faces of clean painted iron. This is the constant part of the expression 
deduced by Professor Weisbach from experiments on the flow of water in pipes. 
The corresponding coefficient deduced from Darcy's experiments is 0-004. 

The augmented surface in square feet, multiplied by the cube of the speed 
in knots, and divided by the I. H. P., gives Hanline's coefficient of propulsion* . 
In good clean iron vessels this ranges about 20,000 ; while in H.M. Yacht 
'Victoria and Albert' (copper sheathed) it reached 21,800. Its falling 
much below 20,000 is considered to indicate that there is some fault cither 
in the ship or in her engines or propeller, or else that the vessel is driven 
at a speed for which she is not adapted. 

Professor Eankine adds that " as for misshapen and Hi-proportioned ves- 
sels, there does not exist any theory capable of giving their resistance by 
previous computation." 

This, again, raises the question. What are good forms ? According to Pro- 
fessor Eankine's theory, they are forms along which a particle of water can 
ghde smoothly. Among these, as a particular case, Mr. Scott EusseU's wave- 
lines appear to be included. But these are by no means the only ones which 
satisfy the problem of smooth gliding, or of stream-lines. Another method 
of constructing curves fulfilling this condition has been given by Mr. Raukine 
in a series of papers published respectively in the ' Philosophical Transac- 
tions ' for 1863, p. 369, and in the ' Philosophical Magazine ' for October 
1864, and January 1865. Elementary descriptions of this method are given 
in the 'Engineer' of the 16th of October 1868, and in a treatise on ' Ship- 
building : Theoretical and Practical.' Their theory has not yet been carried 
very far; and when we have reference to three dimensions, it does not appear 

* For examples of that coeiRcient, see the ' Civil Engineer and Architects' Journal ' for 
October 1860, and the " Eeport of the Committee of the British Association on Steamship 
Performances," 1868. 

c2 



20 REPORT — 1869. 

that any specific mathematical form is to be preferred in respect of its total 
resistance to a long, fine, fair ship, either drawn or modelled by eye by a 
practised draughtsman or modeller. 

A possible connexion between the resistance of ships and their depths of 
immersion has been pointed out by ilr. Eankine in some papers published in 
the ' Proceedings of the Eoyal Society' for 1868, p. 3-1-4, in the ' Reports of 
the British Association ' for 1868, in the ' Transactions of the Institution of 
ISTaval Architects ' for 1868, and in the ' Engineer' of the 28th August and 
30th October, 1868. He shows from theory, corroborated by his own obser- 
vations, and by those of ilr. John Inglis, junior, that every ship is accompa- 
nied by waves, whose velocity of advance is V ^ k, g being gravity, and h 
the mean depth of immersion, found by dividing the displacement by the area 
of water-section. So long as the speed does not exceed V gk, these waves 
cannot produce any additional resistance ; but when the speed exceeds 
that limit, the waves are made to diverge from the ship at the angle whose 

cosine is ^ , and thus to carry away energy, like the other diverging 
speed 

waves previously mentioned. 

The form of the midship section does not appear to exercise any influence 
on the resistance to propulsion in still water, except so far as it affects the 
extent of wetted surface exposed to the action of the water. If the wet 
girth and the breadth at the water-line be given, the form of greatest area 
will be a segment of a circle ; but this will not be the solution of the ques- 
tion which usually presents itself, namely, given the breadth and the draught 
required, the form for which the ratio of area to surface shall be the greatest 
possible. In the particidar case in which the di-aught is half the breadth, it 
is easily seen that the ratio of area to girth is the same for a semicircular as 
for a rectangular section, and therefore that the solution lies between these 
extreme cases. It does not appear that the general problem has yet been 
solved, and perhaps, as the really practical problem relates to the ship and 
not to the midship section, it is of secondary interest. A restricted solution 
has been given by Mr. James Robert Napier in a paper read before the Glas- 
gow Philosophical Society, and reprinted in the ' ilechanics' Magazine ' for 
24th April, 1863, vol. ix. p. 311, and in the ' Engineer ' for 1st May, 1863, 
vol. XV. p. 24.5. 

The best ratio for good propulsion of length to breadth and draught, even 
when it is assumed that the length exceeds Scott Russell's limit, is not yet 
known. This is not perhaps of practical importance, inasmuch as considera- 
tions of economy, capacity, and handiness generally settle these proportions, 
without much reference to a theoretical maximum of efficient propulsion. 
But the extent to which an increase of breadth or depth, lea\'ing other things 
unaltered, affects the propulsion itself can hardly be regarded as within oiir 
settled knowledge. 

The resistance of the air to a ship's hull is not a point to be neglected in 
practice or in experiment; but it is not one which we propose to discuss 
here. 

The above contains an abstract of nearly all that is known concerning the 
TOTAL RESISTANCE of a ship in smooth and deep water. We do not consider 
it necessary in this Report to enter into the question of the increased resist- 
ances due to shallow water, narrow channels, or a rough sea. We may sum 
up the result in the broad statement that there exists no generally recognized 
theory or rule for calculating the resistance of a ship. Many such rules 



STABILITY, PROPULSION, AND SEA-GOING QUALITIES OF SHIPS. 21 

have been put forth ; but they do not agree in their form or in their result, 
and the credit of each consequently rests, as a practical matter, on the repu- 
tation of its author. 

Resistance considered in Detail. 

It cannot be said that our knowledge of the detailed phenomena which 
accompany the motion of a floating body through the water extends far 
below the surface of the liquid. Meanwhile the following things appear to 
be known. 

Por any vessel driven through the water by any power which does not re- 
act on the fluid there must be a certain movement of the surrounding Liquid, 
chiefly in the direction of the vessel's motion, which shall be suflicicnt to 
absorb the work done by the propelling force ; for this is really nothing else 
than the work done by the power in overcoming the resistance. Much of 
this is masked by oscillatory movement. Now the setting up of an oscillation 
involves an expenditure of work; but the maintenance of the oscillation, 
once established, is independent of the force which caused it, to just the 
same extent that it takes work to set a pendulum swinging, but once set 
going, the continuance does not dejiend on the starting force. It follows 
that making a wave takes up propelling work ; but that a wave once started 
maintains itself, or dies out, as the case may be, independently of the pro- 
peller, which it can only affect by getting in its wa3\ 

In a vessel of good form thrust through a fluid, we first meet with a head- 
pressure wliich relieves itself by the formation of a head sAvell, which dis- 
perses itself all round if time be allowed for it, either by the sharpness of 
the vessel's entrance, or by a slow rate of advance. This fixes a limit of 
speed, which cannot be advantageously exceeded, dependent on the length of 
entrance as well as on its form, — on the length alone if the form fulfil cer- 
tain conditions. If the vessel be pushed beyond the speed of dispersion of 
this wave, it has to be pushed up hiU at a loss of useful work. 

The frictional resistance of the surface of the ship also canies a stream of 
water in the direction of the ship's motion. In fact, nearly the whole work 
of friction is expended on producing this stream, which forms a part of the 
ship's wake. 

The necesssity of filling up the vacuum which would otherwise be left in 
rear of the ship also produces a following stream, accompanied with waves. 

In vessels driven at a speed beyond what is suited to their form and dimen- 
sions, there are also supernumerary waves, an accoirnt of which will be found 
in Professor Hankine's writings already referred to. 

In vessels of unfair form there will further be violent eddies or whii'lpools, 
as well as extra waves. Seeing that it takes an expenditure of work to make 
these, it is clear that least resistance means least disturbance. In reality 
very little is known about these eddies. Their surface-action has been 
observed, and may easily be seen in dirty water, with froth esj^ecially ; but 
their extent in depth, and their amplitude as the depth increases, are utterly 
unknown ; and the other phenomena arc not sufficiently wcU understood to 
admit of the eff'ect of these being got at by exhaustion, that is to say, by 
being equated to the unexjjlained residue from the effects of the other known 
causes. Very little, again, is known about the direction in which the replace- 
ment aft takes place. The water may of covu'se pour in eit'ner laterally or 
from behind, or it may well up from underneath as a wave. More or less, 
it probably does all three, and the projiortion in which it does each is among- 
the things which neither experiment nor theory has as yet revealed. 



22 REPORT— 1869. 

Theoretically it is of no importance whether we consider the ship in mo- 
tion and the water at rest, or the ship at rest and the water in motion in an 
opposite direction. Practically the conditions are modified by the consider- 
ation that a stream of water almost always has a sloping surface, in which 
case a resolved part of gravity is one of the active forces*. Besides this, 
streams useful for experiment are restricted in depth and width, and the 
conditions of narrow and shallow channels introduce foreign considerations 
of a very complicated character. 

Propulsion. 

We do not consider it advisable in the present Report to enter into the 
question of propellers, except so far as may be necessary to the choice of ex- 
periments. 

All propellers, except sails, tow-ropes, and punt-poles, do their work by 
the reaction arising from their driving a stream of water in the opposite 
direction to the ship's motion, or to their stopping or reversing streams already 
flowing in that direction. This is the case with oars, paddle-wheels, screws, 
and water-jets alike. But while they thi;s have one principal action in com- 
mon, they are wholly different in their detailed effect upon the currents and 
waves which accompany the ship, and in the way in which these currents 
and waves react upon them. Thus the oars of a row-boat send two streams 
aft, at such a distance from the sides of the boat as to interfere very little 
■with, and to be very little interfered with by, the waves and eddies due to 
the boat's motion. In the screw-propeller, on the other hand, a large pro- 
portion of the wake current is either stopped or reversed by the action of the 
screw, which also interferes with, and is it itself reacted upon by, the wave 
of replacement. These interferences are so large in amount as not unfre- 
qiiently to mask the whole of the slip, from the reaction of which the pro- 
pulsion is obtained, giving rise to the phenomenon of apparent negative slip. 
For a theoretical account of what is supposed to take place under these cir- 
cumstances, we refer to the following Papers in the ' Transactions of the In- 
stitution of Naval Architects,' and the discussions wliich took place upon 
them : — 

Eankine, " On the Mechanical Principles of the Action of Propellers." 

Froude, " Note on the above Paper," vol. vi. for 1865, p. 13 et seq. 

Eeed, " On Cases of Apparent Negative Slip," vol. vii. for 1866, p. 114 
et seq. 

Eankine, " On Apparent Negative Slip." 

Froude, On the same. 

Eigg, " On the Eolations of the Screw to its Eeverse Currents," vol. viii. 
for 1867, p. 68 et seq. 

Eigg, " On the Eeverse Currents and Slip of Screw-propellers," vol. ix. for 
1868, p. 184. 

See also Bourne, ' On the Screw-propeller,' second edition, chap, iii., and 
Eankine, ' Shipbuilding : Theoretical and Practical,' pp. 88, 89, 247, and 
259. 

"We consider it to be beyond doubt that the theoretical investigations of 
this part of the subject have been extended in advance of the point at which 
fresh experimental foundations ought to be laid for them. 

* This remark is due to Bourgois. See his Memoir, sitp. cii. p. 3. 



STABILITY, PROPULSION, AND SEA-GOING QUALITIES OF SHIPS. 23 

Former Experiments on Resistance. 

The first important experiments were those made by Bossut, Condorcet, 
and D'Alembert, by direction of Turgot. The results were published as a 
separate work in 1777, and a very full abstract of them is given by Bossut 
in his ' Hydrodynamique.' The chief results are summarized by Bossut as 
follows : — - 

That the resistance of the same body at different speeds, whatever be 
its shape, varies very nearly as the square of the speed. 

That the direct head-resistance of a plane surface is sensibly propor- 
tional, at the same speed, to the area of the surface. 

That the measure of the direct resistance of a plane surface is the 
weight of a fluid column which has that surface for its base, and whose 
height is that due to the velocity. 

That the resistance to oblique motion, other things being alike, does 
not diminish by a law at all approaching that of the squares of the sines 
of angles of incidence ; so that for sharp entrances, at least, the former 
theory must be completely abandoned. 
Mr. Scott Russell has remarked that between certain limits the observed 
resistances of wedge-bows could be represented with a close degree of ap- 
proximation by a formula of the form 



^-^G-^^y 



where K is a constant, tt stands for 180°, and e is the angle of the wedge, 
which is supposed to be of not less than 12°, and not more than 144°. See 
his ' Naval Architecture,' p. 168, and ' Transactions of Civil Engineers,' vol. 
xxiii. p. 346. 

The next experiments of importance are those of De Chapman, published 
in his ' Architectura Navalis Mercatoria.' The result of these has already 
been mentioned. He performed some fresh experiments at Carlscrona, in 
1795, wliich seemed to lead to somewhat different conclusions. See Inman's 
translation of De Chapman, pp. 41 and 257. 

We then come to Beaufoy's experiments in the Greenland Dock from 
1794-98. This enormous series of experiments can only be regarded as 
establishing very few facts, among which we may mention : — 

That the resistance to oblique surfaces does not vary as the sine 
squared of the angle of incidence. 

That for unfair bodies, such as he experimented upon, the resistance 
increases faster than the square of the velocity. 

That increase of length, within certain limits, has a tendency to de- 
crease resistance. 

That friction of the wetted surface enters largely into the resistance. 

That friction of the wetted surface appeared to increase in a ratio 

somewhat less than that of the velocity squared, — between v^'' and v^'^. 

He also arrives at the conclusion that bodies immersed to a depth of 

6 feet experience less resistance than at the surface ; but in the case of an 

iron plane towed flatwise, he found that resistance increased with the 

depression. 

The whole of these experiments lose much of their value from having 
been tried on small models, and on bodies which are not ship-shape. 

The ' Philosophical Transactions ' for 1828 contain an account of experi- 
ments performed by Mr. James "Walker in the East-India Import Dock. A 



24 REPORT — 1869. 

bluff-bowed boat was towed across the dock by a rope and winch, worked 
by labourers, the rope being fast to a spring weighing-machine on board the 
boat. The boats tried were of somewhat bluff form, and it was found that 
the resistance varied only roughly as the velocity squared, increasing faster 
than that at high speeds. The drawings of the boats are not given with all 
the detail that could be desired, nor is the condition of their surface minutely 
described ; but the experiment was in the right direction, being upon 
actual boats meant for use, and of a size far exceeding the models of pre- 
vious experimenters. 

Some experiments by Mr. Colthurst, both on the forms of floating bodies 
as affecting their resistance to motion, and on the friction of wetted sur- 
faces, are given at p. 339 of vol. xxiii. of the ' Civil Engineers' Trans- 
actions.' 

We also refer to the Eeport of the Committee appointed by the British 
Association upon the comparative resistance of bodies wholly and partially 
immersed (B. A. Reports, vol. for 1866, p. 148). The Committee decided to 
print the observed facts without any deductions. It is not necessary to the 
purposes of this Report that we should discuss them. We have already 
alluded to the difficulty which they indicate as being felt with respect to 
the way in which the water of replacement flows in at the stern. 

We wHl next refer to the experiments of Captain Bourgois, which were 
begun at Indret, in 1844. He first had several boats from 22 to 2-5 feet 
long towed by the 'Pelican' steamer, then under his orders, and later a 
small merchant schooner of a little over 60 feet long, and afterguards the 
' Fabert,' a brig 98 feet long. These vessels were simply towed, and their 
actual resistances measured with a traction-dynamometer. Similar experi- 
ments have also been tried in France with the screw-steamer ' Sphinx,' 109 
feet long ; with the screw despatch-boat ' Marceau,' 131 feet long (with its 
screw upon deck), and with the 74-gun ship ' Duperre,' 180 feet long, buUt 
by Sane. Probably nothing could be better than the experiments thus made, 
and it is from these that M. Bourgois has derived the coefficients of the 
formulte which he has given. But, unfortunately, the particulars of the 
ships experimented upon are not given in great detail, nor are theii" draw- 
ings published. The only particulars given are the length and breadth on 
the water-line, the di'aught, and the area of midship-section immersed, but 
without wet surface, or even displacement. 

M. Bourgois's memoir has no date ; but it is evidently later than 1853, 
since he mentions that as the date of the experiment. It also contains some 
results of trials of propoilers set to work against a dynamometer with the 
vessel made fast, and some trials depending upon the measurement of the 
power exerted by the engine. But we do not proj^ose to discuss the trials on 
steam-ship performance. Not only is this the work of another Committee, 
but, inasmuch as they introduce the uncertain effects of the engine and 
propeller, they fail to give any accurate account of the resistance of the 
water. 

In the earlier history of the subject, it was supposed that models would 
most aptly represent ships at the same speed both for the ship and the 
model. The exi^eriments at the East-India Import Dock in 1827 and 1828 
seem to show a dissatisfaction with the results of small models ; and some time 
later, M. Rcech, the Director of the Ecole d' Application du Genie Maritime 
in France, pointed out that models of different sizes intended for comparison 
should be made to move at velocities varying as the square roots of their 
lineal dimensions. In this case the actual resistances would vary as the 



STABILITY^ PROPULSION, AND SEA-GOING QUALITIES OF SHIPS. 25 

cube of the lineal dimeusions. This would foUow from the theory of the 
resistance of submerged bodies, on the supposition that the resistance varies 
as the square of the speed. If, again, we consider Mr. Scott llussell's theory 
of the length of ships (that their extreme speed should not exceed that of 
an oscillating wave, bearing a definite ratio of length to that of the ship), we 
arrive at the same conclusion, the length of the wave varying as the velocity 
squared. 

Proposed Experiments. 

The experiments upon resistance which we consider most important to be 
made are these : — 

That a ship of considerable size and fine form should be carefully selected ; 
a screw steam-sliip, with a screw capable of being lifted, with a clear deck, 
offering no unnecessary resistance to the air, and with little or no rigging. 

That her form should be carefully measured in dock (her lines taken off, 
as it is technically called), and sight-marks carefully laid down, so as to 
ascertain whether she deforms in any way when afloat. 

That she should be towed at various speeds, from the slowest that can be 
rated to the fastest that can be obtained ; and that the resistance should be 
ascertained by a traction-dynamometer, self-recording. 

That the place selected for the experiments should be a deep inland water, 
free from ground-swell, and such that the speed of the ship can be observed 
from the land as well as from the vessel. The water also should be clear 
enough to admit of being seen through to a considerable depth. The place, 
if tidal at aU, should be free from cross tides or irregular currents. These 
conditions, it is believed, may be found both in Norway and on the west 
coast of Scotland. 

Careful observations should also be made with a view to ascertain the 
direction and velocity of the local currents caused by the ship's motion. 
"WTiat these should be will demand careful consideration, having regard both 
to the ship and to the place selected, and to the personnel of the observers. 

The same remarks will apply to the precautions necessary to i)revent 
interference by the currents thrown back by the towing-vessel or vessels, 
and to eliminate other sources of error. It is of especial importance that the 
ship which is being towed should be kept clear of the wake of the towing- 
vessel or vessels. It might be necessary for this purpose to have two tug- 
boats with hawsers meeting at an angle in the form of the letter Y. 

It is desirable that these experiments should be performed with at least 
two vessels considerably differing both in size and proportions, and, for each 
of them, with different condition as regards smoothness of surface. 

A third class of experiments should also be made to determine the rate of 
retardation of a vessel which has been made to attain a certain velocity, and 
then (the propelling-power suddenly ceasing to act upon her) is allowed to 
come gradually to rest through the resistance of the water. 

It would be desirable that the same vessels (and as nearly as possible 
under similar conditions of draught and trim) should be made use of for 
trials of propulsion, and that in these, again, a dynamometer should be 
interposed between the engine and the propeller ; and in this case also the 
local currents and waves due to the joint disturbance of ship and propeller 
shoidd be observed. 

We consider that experiments of the kinds which we have proposed have 
now become necessary, not only to the theory of resistance, but also to the 
practical calculations of the effect of steering- and propelling-aijparatus, and 



26 REPORT— 1869. 

incidentally to the design of these and to the apportionment of engine- 
power and driving-speed. 

Such experiments are quite heyond the means of any body but the Govern- 
ment of a naval power in time of peace, possessing ships which must be 
exercised with their crews and staff of officers. There would of course be 
extra expense attending such trials ; but this expense is in no way commensu- 
rate with that of building experimental vessels, or arriving tentatively at 
the suitable forms and positions for propellers. 

We therefore recommend that the Council of the British Association 
should authorize a deputation to apply to the Admiralty to provide for such 
a set of experiments in the course of the summer of 1870 ; also, that the 
Council should appoint a Committee, consisting of three Members of the 
Association, to confer mth officers of the Admiralty respecting the detail of 
the experiments, and that the Admu'alty should be requested to give an 
opportunity to the Members of that Committee of taking a share in the 
observations, in order that they may be enabled to make an independent 
report upon the results. 

EOLLING OF SHIPS. 
Stability and Free Oscillation. 

The statical stability of a ship in still water depends upon two equations 
and an inequality. 

Its weight must equal that of the fluid it displaces, or it will adjust itself 
by changing its water-line. This involves a first equation. 

The centre of gravity of the displaced water must be in the same vertical 
line with the centre of weights, or there will be a couple which will produce 
rotation ; after which the ship will take up a fresh position. This involves 
a second equation. 

In case of a small angular displacement, the centre of gravity of the 
displaced water (or cextre of BroTAXcv) must move out faster than the 
centre of weights ; otherwise, on the slightest derangement, there will be 
an upsetting couple, that is to say, the equilibrium is unstable. This in- 
volves an inequality. 

The arm of the couple is the horizontal distance between the centres of 
weight and buoyancy. The moment of the couple is the product of this 
into the weight, or, what is the same thing, the displacement of the ship. 
If the centre of buoyancj' moves out faster than the centre of weight as the 
ship heels, there is a righting couple ; if not, there is an upsetting couple, 
which tends to bring the ship to some new position of equilibrium. 

If we consider a vessel having a plane of sjTumetry like that in which 
the masts, stern, stern-post, and keel of ordinary ships lie, and rolling trans- 
versety, we gain much in geometrical simplicitj% and also in simplicity of 
language. We arc enabled to deal with the mechanical questions by means 
of plane geometry, and we are stOl able to extend them, when necessary, by 
the ordinary rules of the composition of motion. For this purpose we have 
only to consider the axis of motion as parallel to the plane of sj-mmetry and 
to the water-section. The starical stability, as already remarked, is measured 
by the weight, and by the horizontal distance between the centres of weight 
and buoyancy. But when these coincide in horizontal position, as they do 
when there is equilibrium, we are driven to some other measure in order to 
avoid indeterminateness at the limit. For this purpose we avail ourselves 
of the point at which the vertical line through the centre of buoyancy strikes 



STABILITY^ PROPULSION, AND SEA-GOING QUALITIES OF SHIPS. 27 

the plane of symmetry, or middle-line plane, as it is teclinically called. The 
limiting position of this intersection, when the angular deviation is indefi- 
nitely small, is called the metacentee. This metacentre is the critical 
point below which, if the centre of weight be kept, there will be stable 
equilibrium. 

It is shown in books on hydrostatics that if a floating body receive a small 
inclination, the two water-sections intersect in a line passing through the 
centre of gravity of each, and also that the Kne passing through two suc- 
cessive centres of buoyancy tends to parallelism with the water-section. It 
follows that the stability of a ship, statically considered, may be measured 
by the statical stability of a solid, whose centre of gravity coincides with 
that of the ship, but whose surface, instead of floating in water, rests on a 
horizontal table. This representative surface is the surface formed by the 
centres of buoyancy of the ship at different inclinations. The metacentre 
of the ship is then the centre of greatest or of least curvature of this repre- 
sentative surface, called the surface of buoyancy, according to whether we 
consider transverse rolling or longitudinal pitching. 

When we pass from statics to dynamics, the righting or upsetting force 
simply represents an acceleration. But if the ship be considered as concen- 
trated at its centre of gravity (in disregard of the actual distribution of 
weights in respect of inertia), the same geometrical considerations hold, and 
the space through which the centre of gravity rises or falls as the surface of 
buoyancy rolls is called the measure of dynamical stability*. It is simply 
proportional to the integral of the statical stability taken with reference to 
the angle of inclination. Its product into the displacement gives the mecha- 
nical ivorl- required to heel the ship, considered as concentrated at its centre 
of gravity, to a given angle. An example of its use is in the solution of the 
problem of finding how much a ship would lie over to a sudden gust, strong 
enough, if it came on gradually, to heel the ship to a given angle. The 
rough solution is that she woiild lie over to double the angle of the statical 
stability ; and this remark is of importance in judging of the safe limits of a 
ship's stability. This solution, it is to be observed, takes no account of the 
moment of inertia of the ship about its centre of gravity, and very little 
account of external form. 

Experiment and theory both go to prove that the time in which a ship per- 
forms a complete double oscillation varies but very little, whether the am- 
plitude of the oscillation be small or large. Hence every ship has its equi- 
valent pendulum. If k be the radius of gyration of the ship, /x the distance 
between the metacentre and the centre of gravity, the length of the equiva- 

lent pendulum is — , the periodic timet is 2 , and the greatest angular 

^ Vi'/^ 

velocity is — zJUli sin | 6, where d is the amplitude, or departure from the 

vertical ; but the approximation in this last formula is much less than in that 
for the time. 

Dupiu has shown that the free roUing of a ship, regarded without refer- 

* The true dynamical stability is the actual work done in heeling ; but the words are 
ordinarily used in the sense stated in the text. 

+ The time here used is that of a double oscillation ; i. e. the time which elapses be- 
tween the bob of the pendulum passing the lowest point twice in the same direction. 
There is very often confusion between double and single oscillations, both with analysts 
and in the records of experiments. 



28 REPORT— 1869. 

ence to the disturbance or resistance of the water, is analogous to the free 
rolling and sliding, on a smooth plane, of the surface which is the envelope 
of its i^lanes of flotation, the centre of gravity, the upward pressure of the 
fluid, and the moment of inertia being supposed to remain unaltered. But 
although this statement reads simply enough, the expressions for the time 
and the period, which result from it, are exceedingly complex. An inves- 
tigation of it, subject to the sole restriction that the transverse section of 
the surface enveloping the planes of flotation shall be circular, has been 
given by Canon Moscley in the ' Philosophical Transactions ' for 1850, 
p. 626, and is reprinted in his ' Engineering and Architecture.' The result- 
ing expression depends upon a hyperelliptic integral. But we are without 
evidence as to how far the restriction is fulfilled by ordinary ships ; and we 
do not find reason for supposing that the variation of the radius of curvature, 
which is thus taken as constant, has ever been practically investigated. There 
is, however, no difiiculty in extending the formula to the general case ; but 
it does not appear that the integration can be effected without introducing 
restrictions. At any rate the value of the integral has not yet been traced, 
except for small oscillations, when it reduces to the one previously given. 
There is a reduction in some particular cases*, and notably in the case of 
isochronous ships. Professor Eankinef has shown that the condition of 
isochronism is that the curve of buoyancy should be the second involute of a 
circle described about the centre of gravity. 

It does not appear that the arithmetical consequences of the variation of 
the law connecting time and angular velocity in unresisted free rolling have 
ever been worked out. It would be a very laborious business ; and we shall 
see by-and-by that it is not the chief problem. 

* Let 7c be the radius of gyration, X the lieight of the metacentre above the centre of 
buoyancy, IT, and H., the clepfJiK of the centres of gravity and buoyancy — all taken for the 
upright position. Also let 9 be the inclination and e, the extreme, and p the height of 
the centre of curvature above the actual plane of flotation. Then Canon Moseley's formula 
gives for the periodic time of the double oscillation 



9 J -e^ {H,-H,-flX (cos e+cosfy,)} (cos0-cos0i) 

It will be observed that (Hj + p) sin 6 is nothing but the horizontal distance between the 
centre of gravity of the shi]5, and that of the plane of flotation ; or, in other words, the 
perpendicular from the centre of gravity on the normal to the flotation-envelope. It 
seems, at the same time, simpler and more general to use this (which we may call v), 
instead of considering the curvature. We thus get for the periodic time 

V2 r^'^flv/ F+^^^ ~ 



9 1-e, 



9 \ —e {Hj— H2+i\(cos(y-(-cosejl. |cos 0— cos dX 

Now, if V be constant, that is to say, if the flotation-envelope be the involute of a circle 
described round the centre of gravity of the sliip, this reduces to a complete elliptic inte- 
gral of the first kind ; but the solution is not mechanical unless i'=0, or the flotation- 
envelope reduces to a point. When, moreover, the centres of gravity and buoyancy coin- 
cide, Hj — H., vanislies, and the integral may be at once transformed to its regular expres- 
sion by writing sin 6 = sin 0, sin <p. We then get for the periodic time 



Va^ Jo 



VA^' Jo VI — sin^ ©1 sin^ 

The time at any moment is got by integrating from —9, to any value of 9 instead of to 
-fO,.— C. W. M. 

t See Trans. I. N. A. vol. v. for 1864, p. 34. See also Froude "On Isochronism of 
Oscillation in Ships," Trans. I.N. A. vol. iv. for 1863, p. 211. 



STABILITY, PROPULSION, AND SEA-GOING QUALITIES OF SHIPS. 29 

Eeverting to tlie approximate formulae for small oscillations — 
periodic time =2 — zzz ^2 t, suppose ; 

greatest angular velocity = — ^^ sin g 0, 

= — sm j 9, 

we see that the periodic time of the oscillation varies directly as the radius 
of gyration, and inversely as the square root of the metacentric height. This 
teaches us how to regulate the periodic time of a ship, either in settling her 
design, or in the distribution of her weights. We see, for instance, that a 
vessel with a rising floor and flaring sides tends to quick rolling, by having a 
high metacentre ; that a cargo of railway-bars has the same efl^ect, by bring- 
ing down the centre of gravity ; and that running-in the guns and sending 
down the masts has a similar tendency, by decreasing the radius of gyration. 
The expression for the greatest angular velocity has been sometimes inter- 
preted as indicating that quick rollers roll through large angles. The fact 
appears to be experimentally true, but its inference from this formula involves 
reasoning in a circle. The formula only shows that for the same amplitude 
the greatest angular velocity varies inversely as the time ; but this tells us 
nothing about the amplitude, while the formula itself is obtained on the sup- 
position that the amplitude is small. 

The position of the ship's centre of gravity and the length of the radius 
of gyration cannot, practically, be obtained by calculation. The centre of 
gravity is generally found by shifting some known weights through known 
distances, and observing the angular motion. The displacement and meta- 
centre are of course known by calculation, and the problem is then the same 
as if the ship were suspended from her metacentre*. The radius of gyration 
is found by observing the time of a small oscillation in stiU water, and 
then eliminating the effect of resistance f. 

As the metacentre depends upon the moment of inertia of the plane of 
flotation, it is different for pitching from what it is for rolling, and so for 
any intermediate position :J:. Practically, the metacentre for rolling varies 
from to 20 feet (as an extreme limit) above the water-line, while that for 
pitching is from 70 to 400 or more feet high. The moment of inertia of the 
ship also varies greatly with the direction of the axis about which it is 
taken. 

Free HoVing in a Resisting Medium. 

The experiments of Messrs. Fincham and Rawson, undertaken at the sug- 
gestion of Canon Moseley§, led to the conclusion that for vessels of semi- 
circular section in which the disturbance of the water is the least possible, 

* The method, with an account of some experimental determinations on several of 
H.M.'s ships, will be found in the Trans. Nav. Arch. vol. i. p. 39. See also v. p. 1 ; vi. 
p. 1 ; vii. p. 205. 

t As to this, see Mr. Rankine's Note in Trans. I. N. A. vol. v. pp. .31, 32. 

\ See Dupin, ' Applications de Geometric.' He shows that the metacentric heights for 
rolling and pitching are, in fact, only the two principal radii of curvature of the surface 
of centres of buoyancy; and hence the metacentres for intermediate positions may be found 
by the help of the ellipse of curvature. 

§ See Phil. Trans, for 1850, and Moseley's ' Engineering and Architecture,' pp. 616, 617. 



30 REPORT — 1869. 

the dynamical stability found by experiment differed very little from that 
derived from the rise and faU of the centre of gravity ; but in the case of 
a model of txiaugular section, the stability found by experiment was in 
defect. In the semicircular model the extreme inclination produced by the 
sudden application of the force was, with a fair degree of approximation, 
double that due to its statical effect. "With the triangular model the extreme 
was less than double the statical inclination. This is nothing more than 
might be expected from the disturbance of tlie water which would be set up 
by the angular model, and which would, of course, take up part of the work. 
But this experimental confirmation of theory is highly satisfactory ; and, 
however we may now look back upon the matter, it is really upon these ex- 
periments that the confirmation of oiir theories rests. 

In a resisting medium, the amplitude of the oscillations is very quickly 
affected, but the periodic time undergoes very slight change. But the period 
is altered to a slight extent. On this subject we refer, first, to the account 
given by Poisson, Stokes, and other writers on mechanics, concerning the 
oscillation of a pendulum in air ; secondlj', to Mr. Troude's experiments * on 
a pendulum oscillating in water ; and thircUy, to Professor Eankine's paper 
on keel-resistance t) ia which the measure of diminution is given on a certain 
hypothesis. 

Bessel and Poisson have pointed out that the virtual loss of weight due to 
oscillation in a resisting medium is greater than that due to the mere im- 
mersion. Mr. Moseley makes the same remark with reference to the rolling 
of ships. 

^ Professor Bankine has investigated the effect of the steadying-action of a 
keel on the rolling in smooth water, on the assumption tliat the moment of 
the righting couple is simply proportional to the inclination, and also that 
the moment of resistance to rolling, caused by the action of the water on the 
keel and floor, is proportional to the angular velocity. He finds t that the 
periodic time is altered from 

2 TT K 2 TT K 

to 



V 



9F 



"\/^-Sp 



where c is a constant depending on the moment of the resistance ; so that 

moment of resistance of water 
displacement X angular velocity' 

the effect of the resistance thus lengthening the periodic time in the same 

* Trans. Inst. Nav. Arch. vol. iii. p. 31. Mr. Froude bas there shown that when a 
pendulum or ship performs isochronous oscillations in a medium the resistance of which 
varies as the square of the velocity, the amplitudes of the successive oscillations, as reduced 
by resistance, will form successive ordinates of a curve, which approaches, with a great 
degree of exactness, to an equilateral hyperbola, referred to one of its asymptotes, equal 
periods of the oscillations being represented by successive equal increments of the abscissa. 

The experiments with a pendulum as exhibited in the diagram (plate 2 of the volume 
referred to) accord very closely with the law which may be thus expressed :■ — If 6„ be the 
initial amplitude, and 6^ that of the mth oscillation, then that at the end of any other, say 
wth will be 

n W 0„ 9m 

{m — n)i)m + n ^o 
t Trans. Inst. Nav. Arch. vol. v. pp. 30, 31. % Ibid. 



STABILITY^ PROPULSIONj AND SEA-GOING QUALITIES OF SHIPS. 31 

proportion as if the inertia of the rolling mass -were increased in the ratio of 
unity to 

and periodic roUing in smooth water becoming impossible when g c^ is equal 
to or greater than 4 jx l''\ 

Of Easy and Uneasy SJiips. 

There is much vagueness in the use of these terms. They are generally 
applied promiscuously to the practical hindrance caused by motion to the 
persons engaged in working or manoeuvring the ship, to the inconvenience 
felt b}'^ passengers, to the straining of a ship's structure, or the tendency to 
shift her cargo, or to break away half-fastened weights, like boats or guns. 

These all appear to depend in varying proportions on the following exact 
data: — 

The extent or amplitude of angular motion. 

The rapidity of angular motion. 

The acceleration of linear motion. 

Eut the rapidity of linear motion and the angular acceleration (except so 
far as this affects bending stress, or as it involves linear acceleration at a 
distance from the instantaneous axis) do not ax^x^car to have much practical 
influence. 

In still water the only motion ■v\'hich is sufficiently great to cause incon- 
venience is that of rolling. EoUing sometimes produces as secondary pheno- 
mena both pitching and dipping ; but neither of these are sufficient in extent, 
in stm water, to produce inconvenience. The roIHng, however, may be con- 
siderable, especially in the case of a ship going vmsteadily before the wind. 
But if the water itself be oscillating, even moderately, or if there be a gusty 
wind, then a synchronism between any two of the five movements — the wind, 
the waves, the rolhng, the pitching, or the dipping* or even (to a lesser ex- 
tent) their concord at regular intervals — may cause them to enhance the effects 
one of another to such an extent as to become inconvenient, and in certain 
cases dangerous. In the case of a thoroughly uneasy ship in the most un- 
favourable circumstances, the axis of angular motion may assume any and 
every position, and the linear acceleration may take all conceivable directions; 
but although any particular point may describe the most irregular curves, 
both in form and speed, relatively to the vessel's course, yet the chief source 
of practical danger in open water depends upon the accumulation of motion 
arising from synchronism. 

It appears to have been generally observed that vessels which have a short 
period of rolling, also roll through large angles. In this way the uneasiness 
of the rolling undergoes a double increase as the period diminishes. Further 
and more exact experiment is required before we can say how far it is con- 
nected by synchronism with wave-motion, or whether it is an independent 
phenomenon. Our present theories do not show it to be a necessary conse- 
quence of rolling in smooth water. 

Waves. 

We do not consider it necessary to go into a formal discussion of this sub- 
ject. As regards the behaviour of ships, it is quite sufficient to assume that 

* Dipping is the name given to the vertical oscillation of the ship as a whole relatiTely 
to the surface of the water. 



33 REPORT — 1869. 

the profile of a simple wave is trochoidal, and that the particles of water 
move in circles in a vertical plane, at right angles to the ridges and valleys 
of the waves. The consequences of this motion are briefly as follows, on the 
assumption that the depth of water is unlimited. 

The diameter of the circle in which a surface-particle moves is the height 
of the wave from hollow to crest. Particles which in still water would be at 
a lower level, describe smaller circles in the same period. A horizontal plane 
(in the still water) is thus converted into a wave-surface of the same period, 
but of reduced amplitude of oscillation*. The velocity of the particles (and 
on this depends the impact of a wave) is simply the circumference of one of 
these circles divided by the periodic time. 

If we consider a column of particles which is vertical in still water, that 
column oscillates in wave-water like corn-stalks in a gust of wind, and it 
also oscillates vertically. But it always slopes towards the crest of the wave, 
and the obliquity thus induced goes to enhance that due to the wave-slope ; 
so that if we regard the profile of a wave, a small portion of water, rectan- 
gular when still, undergoes a double deformation, the horizontal surfaces 
following the wave-slope, and the vertical surfaces being deflected towards 
the crest, both causes tending to increase the angular deformation instead 
of to preserve rectaugularity. 

The crest of the wave being sharper than the hollow, and the quantity of 
water invariable, the horizontal plane which lies halfway between valley and 
crest is higher than the mean, or still- water, level ; and its elevation has 
been shown to be equal to the height due to the velocity of revolution of Ihe 
particles. 

Considered as trochoids, the wave-profiles are traced by a point within a 
cii'cle rolling under a horizontal line. The line midway between valley and 
crest is the line of centres. 

The particles of water above the line of centres are moving forwards, as 
regards the direction of advance of the wave; those below that line back- 
wards. The particles in the front face of the wave are rising, and those in 
the rear-face falling. 

The wave whose period is -th of a second has a length of \ = ^ — r, 

whence we find the number of waves to a second to be ?i = a / — ^-_. The 

V 27r\ 

velocity of wave-propagation, that is to say, of the apparent advance of the 
wave in a deep sea, is n \ = a / ^ =t~—. In other words, the speed 

of the wave-crest varies as the periodic time, and the length of the wave 
varies as their product, or as the square of either. 

The vertical disturbance of a particle whose depth in still water would 
be h is 

h being the height of the surface-wave. 

* Drawings of the structure of a trochoidal wave will be found in the British Asso- 
ciation Eeports for 1844, plate 56 ; Trans. I. N. A. vol. i. for 1860, plate 7, vol. iii for 
1862, plate 3, vol. iv. for 1863, plate 10, and vol. vi. for 1865, plate 10 ; 'Shipbuilding : Theo- 
retical and Practical,' Eankine, p. 69; Scott Eussell, 'Naval Architecture,' plate 117. 



STABILITY, PROPULSION, AND SEA-GOING QUALITIES OF SHIPS. 33 

'No wave can be sharper thau a cycloidal wave ; for if the trochoid were 
looped, the particles in the loop would be unsupported. When the wave 
form tends to pass the cycloid, it must break. 

The extreme obsei'ved height of ocean-waves appears to be about 40 feet, 
and the greatest observed length 600 feet ; these would have a periodic time 
of 11 seconds (roughly); their crest would advance at a rate of 33 knots an 
hour, and the velocity of the siirf ace -particles would be about 11"4 feet per 
second. In short waves of the same height the particles of water move 
faster, in the inverse ratio of the period ; but the mass of moving water at 
the crest of the longer wave is the greater in the ratio of 

where X and X' are tlie lengths, and h the height. If, therefore, the above- 
mentioned wave were shortened to 200 feet, the surface-particles would be 
moving at a note of 20 feet a second, while the mass of water in the crest 
would be about one-sixth. From such data it is easy to infer both the de- 
structive eft'ect of impact from the top of a wave, and the relative quantity 
of water which a ship would take on board in shipping a sea. 

The front and rear of a trochoidal wave are exactly similar. Observation, 
as well as theory, shows that this is true to an extent not commonly believed 
for ordinary waves. The exceptions are, when the wind is sufficient to push 
the tops of the waves at extra speed, and when the water shoals rapidly. 
But oven here the relative steepness of the advancing face is exaggerated by 
most observers. Until a wave is about to break, the actual difference of slope 
remains very small. 

It should be borne in mind that circular orbits and trochoidal wave- 
surfaces are only approximations, although near enough to the truth for 
Ijurposes connected with the rolling of ships. In particular, it appears both 
from theory and obsei'vatiou that there is almost always some progressive 
motion combined with the orbital motion ; and also that waves begin to break 
long before their crests attain a form so sharp as that of the cusped cycloid, 
the two slopes at the crest of a breaking wave cutting each other at right 
angles, or nearly so*. 

The ordinary wave of a rough sea is usually an aggregate of waves of 
different period, and not unfrequently of different direction. For rough 
purposes, it is sufficient to draw each system of waves separately and add 
their corresponding ordinates, to get the resulting surface. This can hardly 
be reUed i;pon in extreme cases ; and, in any case, the motion of each par- 
ticle is not according to any one or more wave-systems separately, but it is a 
motion compounded of what would bo due to each separately if the otlacrs 
were not. 

Oscillations of a Shijp among Waves, 

A Treatise on ' Shipbuilding : Theoretical and Practical f,' edited by Pro- 
fessor Rankine, contains, in a very clear and condensed form, a n'siime of 
nearly all that was known on this subject up to 1SG4 inclusive. The fol- 
lowing abstract is chiefly taken from that work :-~ 

It is to be observed that what follows relates to the compositioir of the 
ship's oscillation with that of a simple trochoidal Wave. The complete pro- 
blem of a ship's behaviour, depending as it does on wind, waves, roUing, 
pitching, dipping, yaAving, variable head-resistance and lateral resistance, 

* See Phil. Mag. Not. 1861. t See pp. 72, 77 of that work. 

1869. D 



34 REPORT — 1869. 

and direction of motion relatively both to wind and waves, is far too com- 
plicated even for statement in an exact mathematical form. 

If a ship floating passively in the water, and without any progressive 
motion, were wholly without stability, her centre of gravity, centre of buoy- 
ancy, and metacentre coinciding in one point, the motion assumed by that 
point would be exactly that of the centre of gravity of the mass of water 
displaced by the ship— that is to say, it would revolve once_ in each wave- 
period in a vertical circle of the same diameter, with the orbits of the par- 
ticles of water situated in the same layer. 

This motion of the ship has received the name of passive heavhig, that 
term being understood to comprehend the swaying from side to side, as well 
as the rising and sinking, of which the orbital motion is compounded. 

Half the difference between the extent of heaving of the ship and the 
height of the waves is the extent to which, during the passage of the waves, 
her depth of immersion amidships is liable to be alternately increased above 
and diminished below her deptli of immersion in smooth water. It appears 
that deep immersion and large horizontal dimensions, but especially deep im- 
mersion, tend to diminish the extent of the heaving motion of the ship as 
compared with that of the waves, and that the effect of those causes in pro- 
ducing this diminution is greatest among comparatively short waves. 

The weight of the ship, being combined with the centrifugal force due to 
her heaving motion, gives a resultant reaction through her centre of gravity 
inchned to the vertical in a dii-cction which, for passive heaving, is perpen- 
dicular to the wave-surface traversing the ship's centre of buoyancy (a sur- 
face which may be called the effective ivave-surface) ; and that direction is 
the apparent direction of gravity on board the ship, as indicated by plumb- 
lines, pendulums, suspended barometers and lamps, spirit-levels, and the 
positions assumed by persons walking or standing on deck. The equal and 
opposite resulting pressure of the water, acting through the centre of buoyancy, 
is in like manner compounded of actions due to weight and centrifugal force ; 
and it acts in a line normal to the efi^ectivc wave-surface, that is to say, 
parallel to the resultant reaction of the ship. Those tAvo forces balance each 
other, not when the ship's upright axis is vertical, but when it is normal to 
the effective wave-surface ; and when she deviates from that position, they 
form a righting couple tending to restore her to it. Thus the stability of a 
ship among wa\'es, instead of tending to keep her steady, as in smooth water, 
tends to keep her upright to the effective wave-sia-face ; and such is the motion 
of any vessel or other floating body having great stability and small inertia, 
such as a light raft. This may be called passive roUinrj, or rolling luith the 
waves. 

Passive rolling is modified by the inertia of the ship, which makes her 
tend to perform oscillations in the same periodic time as in still water, by 
the impulse and resistance of the particles of water against her keel and the 
sharp parts of her hull, which tend, under certain circumstances, to make 
her roll against the waves, that is, inclining towards the nearest wave-crest, 
and by other circumstances. 

The tendency to keep upright to the effective wave-surface may be distin- 
guished from the tendency to keep truly upright, by calling the former stiff- 
ness and the latter steadiness. In smooth water stiffness and steadiness are 
the same thing ; amongst waves they arc different, and to a certain extent 
opposed ; that is to say, the means used for obtaining one of those qualities 
are sometimes prejudicial to the other. Stiffness is favourable to the dry- 
ness of the ship, and to the power of carrying sail ; steadiness is favourable 



STABILITY, PROPULSION, AND SEA-GOING QUALITIES OF SHIPS. 35 

to her strength and durability, and the safety of her lading, and, in ships of 
war, to the power of working giins in rough weather. 

A ship whose course is either oblique or transverse to the wave-crests is 
made by the waves to perform a series of longitudinal oscillations, which 
may be c&RcA passive 2)itchi7ig and scending. 

In all the oscillatory movements which a ship performs among waves, two 
series of oscillations are combined — those in which the ship keeps time with 
the waves, being her i}assive or forced oscillations, and those which she per- 
forms in periods depending on her own mass and figure, as in smooth water, 
being what may be called her free oscillations. The tendency and ultimate 
effect of the resistance of the water is to destroy the free oscillations after a 
certain time, so that the forced oscillations alone are permanent. 

Passive heaving, or the motion of a ship when each of her particles per- 
forms an orbital motion, similar and equal to that of a certain particle of the 
water in which she floats, takes place when the ship floats amongst waves 
■without having progressive motion. 

The progression of the ship, when under way, alters the action of the 
waves upon her in various ways, which depend mainly upon the apparent 
period of the waves relatively to the ship (that is, the interval of time between 
the arrival of two successive crests at the ship) , and upon the apparent slope 
of the effective wave-surface in a direction athwart the ship, the latter 
circumstance being connected mainly with forced rolling oscillations. 

When the apparent periodic time of the waves is modified by the pro- 
gressive motion of the ship, the time during which the forces act which 
produce the heaving motion of the ship is altered in the ratio of the appa- 
rent period to the true period ; and the extent of the heaving motion is also 
altered in a proportion which, for moderate deviations of the apparent from 
the true period, varies nearly as the square of that ratio. This law, how- 
ever, does not continue to hold for a very great increase of the apparent 
period, the extent of heaving being loss than the ratio first mentioned. 

Hence the heaving motion of a ship is more extensive than that of the 
effective wave- surface, when the angle made by her course with the direc- 
tion of advance of the waves is acute, and less extensive when that angle is 
obtuse. 

Yawing, or swerving of the vessel from side to side by oscillation about an 
upright axis, is, when produced by the waves, the effect of the lateral sway- 
ing, which forms the horizontal component of the heaving motion, taking 
place with different velocities, or in opposite directions at the bow and stern 
of the vessel. The forces producing it are greatest when her course lies 
diagonally with respect to the direction of advance of the waves. 

Tor reasons already stated, a very light and stiff ship tends to float like a 
raft roHiug luith the waves, and assuming at every instant the same slope 
with the effective wave-surface. 

Let a board, having very little inertia, and no stability, be placed so as 
to float upright in smooth water ; then, when the water is agitated by 
waves, that board wiU accompany the motions of the originally iipright 
columns of water — that is to say, it will roll against the ivaves, inchning at 
every instant in a direction contrary to the slope of the effective wave- 
surface. 

It has been shown by ilr. Scott Eussell * tliat the condition of the broad 
and rounded ])arts of a ship, and of her huU between wind and water, is 

* Trans. I. N. A. for 18G3, 

d2 



36 REPORT— 1869. 

analogous to that of a raft ; while the condition of the keel, the sharp part 
of the floor, and the gripe and dead wood (or fine parts of the ends) is analo- 
gous to that of the hoard floating edgewise, so that the ship is iinder the 
action of two conflicting sets of forces — gravity, centrifugal force, and 
pressure (constituting what id ay he called stiffness), tending to make her 
roll with the waves, like the raft ; and tlie action of the water on the keel 
and sharp parts of the hull, which may be called Jceel-resistaiice, tending to 
make her roll against the waves, like the hoard, and hence that she will take 
some kind of intermediate motion. 

It has been pointed out, however, by Mr. Proude and Professor Eankine * 
that there is an essential distinction between the two sets of forces before 
mentioned, in consequence of which, though conflicting, they are not directly 
o]3posod — namely, that the stiftness is an active force, which tends not only 
to prevent the ship from deviating from a position upright to the effective 
wave-surface, but to restore her to that position after she has left it, with a force 
increasing with the deviation ; while the keel-resistance is merely a passive 
force, opposing the deviation of the ship from the position of the originally 
vertical columns of water, with a force depending, not on that deviation, but 
on the velocity of the relative motion of the ship aiul the particles of water, 
and not tending to restore the ship to any defluite position. Hence those 
two kinds of force cannot directly counteract, but only modify one another. 

For the mathematical investigation of the action of those forces reference 
must be made to the original papers in the ' Transactions of the Institution 
of Naval Architects.' The following ai-e the general conclusions : — 

The permanent rolling of a ship of very great stabihty, and without any 
sensible keel-resistance, is governed by the motion of the effective wave- 
surface, so that she rolls vitJi the luaves or Kke a raft. 

"When the period of unresisted roUing of the vessel is to the wave-period 
as a/2 : 1, the permanent rolling is wholly governed by the motion of the 
originally vertical columns of water ; so that she rolls against the ivaves, like 
a board of no stability floating edgewise. 

In both of the preceding cases the vessel is upright when the trough or 
crest of a wave passes her, and her angle of heel is equal to the steepest slope 
of the eflective wave-surface. 

When the period of unresisted roUing of the vessel is less than the above 
value, her upright positions occur hefore the arrival of the troughs and crests 
of the waves, and her angle of heel is greater than the steepest slope of the 
effective wave-surface. 

The greatest angle of heel in permanent rolling occurs when the period of 
unresisted rolling of the ship is equal to that of the waves, and it exceeds the 
slope of the waves in a proportion which is " the greater the less the keel- 
resistance, and becomes infinite when the keel-resistance vanishes. Thus 
isochronism with the waves is the worst quality that a ship can have as 
regards steadiness and safety. 

When the period of unresisted rolling of the vessel exceeds that of the 
waves in a greater ratio than that of /^2 : 1, her upright positions occur 
after the arrival of the troughs and crests of the waves, and her angle of 
heel is less than the steepest slope of the waves. 

The forced or passive oscillations of ships arc those which produce the 
most severe strains, because of their continual recurrence, the free oscilla- 
tions being gradually extinguished by the resistance of the water. It 

* Trans. I. N. A. for 18G3-G4, 



STABILITY^ PROPULSION^ AND SEA-GOING QUALITIES OF SHIPS. 37 

appears, howeTcr, that the periodic time of the free oscillations has an im- 
portant influence on the extent of the forced oscillations, especially in roll- 
ing, the most unfavourable proportions for the periodic time of free rolling 
to that of passive rolling being those which lie near equality, and between 
equality and y' 2 : 1 ; for the equality of these periods tends to produce an 
excess of rolling to which it would be difficult to fix a limit, and the ratio 
of V2 : 1, and those near it, make the shij) roll against the waves, thus 
throwing her into positions in which there is a risk of the wave-crests 
breaking into her. 

A period of free rolling much less than that of passive rolling gives great 
stiffiiess, and makes the ship accompany the motions of the effective wave- 
surface. A period of free roUing exceeding s/ 2 times that of passive rolling 
is favourable to steadiness, provided that this lengthened period be produced 
by the inertia of the ship, and not by insufficient statical stability. 

The action of the water on a deep keel, on a sharp floor, or on fine ends 
below water tends to moderate the extent of rolling produced by coinci- 
dence, whether exact or approximate, of the periods of tree and passive roll- 
ing ; but at the same time it lessens the effect of a long period of free roUing 
in producing the same result. 

A deep draught of water is favourable, on the whole, to steadiness, but not 
to stifliiess. 

Should the centre of gravity rise and fall relatively to the water in roUing, 
and the periodic time of the dipping motion so generated happen to be either 
exactly or nearly one half of that of the passive rolling, the result will be 
uneasy motion. 

The steady pressure of the wind on the sails promotes steadiness, at a 
certain angle of heel depending on the moment of that pressure; the sudden 
gusts of the wind produce lurching. 

As to intchinci, scending, and yawing, it is chiefly important that, for the 
Bake of dryness and safety, those oscillations should be performed in a lively 
manner among waves ; and that object is best promoted by keeping the 
longitudinal radius of gyration short, as compared with the length of the 
ship — that is, by taking care not to place heavy weights in her ends. 

The true principles of a ship's rolhng among waves and their leading 
consequences were first set forth by Mr. Proude, in a series of papers in the 
' Transactions of the Institution of Naval Architects,' in 1861, 1862, and 
1 863. Mr. Froude appears to have been the first to state the proposition 
that the tendency of the ship to roU among waves is primarily due to her 
tendency to keep upright to the effective wave-surface, and that the force 
which induces this tendency is very approximately the same as her stiff- 
ness or resistance to heeling in still water. The disposition of a ship' to 
follow the average motion of the portion of the wave which she displaces is, 
however, controlled (as has been pointed out by Mr. Crosslaud) by the 
circumstances that the wave-water is continually undergoing a deformation 
of which the ship's huU is not susceptible. Mr. Froude has also shown * 
that if two plates be hinged together, so that, when in still water, they 
would float at an inclination of 45° to the vertical, and if the hinge be pa- 
rallel to the wave-crest, the effect of the wave-motion is simply to open or 
close the angle between them, and not to alter (sensibly) the horizontal and 
vertical lines which bisect the angle externally and internally. 

As there is nothing to show that the rigidity of the angle between the 

* See Trans. I. N. A. vol. vi. for 1865, p. 181. 



38 REPORT— 1869. 

plates would tend to make any marked alteration in the invariability of 
direction of the bisectors, the theoretical establishment of this fact is of 
great importance. Its meaning is that the effect of bilge-keels is to increase 
the time, and, in a greater degree still, to diminish the amplitude of the 
oscillation, and that the use of bilge-keels is the direct mode of effecting 
this object. 

The problem of safe rolling is not quite the same with that of easy 
rolling. A roll towards the wave- crest is well known as one of the most 
dangerous things that can happen to a ship in a high-crested sea-way, for 
the whole crest of the wave may then break inboard. Even when the ship 
follows the oscillations of the vertical lines, the wave-particles come flat on 
the ship's bulwarks and side. If she floats quite vertically she is still in the 
position of a cliff resisting a wave of the same period, whose height is the 
difterence of heights of the surface-wave and of the m^can effective wave 
acting upon her. 

As regards the impact of a wave, the most violent blow that a wave can 
give is against a surface parallel to the inflexional tangent and to the wave- 
crest, and at a level with the line of inflexion. The motion of the particles 
is then normal to the wave-surface. This remark, of course, does not apply 
to shore-waves. 

Throughout the discussion of the ship's oscillation among waves, it has 
been tacitly assumed that the wave-period itself might be regarded as con- 
stant. This is very far from either representing the facts or the practical 
problem of the shipbuilder. The wave which a vessel has to encounter may 
be anything, from the 11-seconds wave, 600 feet long, to a mere ripple. 
Practically, a vessel will not roll to waves whose length is much less than 
her breadth, nor will she pitch much among short waves. But, dismissing 
these from consideration, it may still be impossible to avoid some contin- 
gency in which a ship's period of free rolling may be equal to the wave- 
period. Obviously, the remedy in this case is for her commander not to 
keep her hroadskle-on. As a rule, no commander ever would do so in a 
dangerous sea-way ; and even where comfort only is concerned, it is usually 
open to him either to shorten the effective (that is to say, the apparent 
wave-period) by putting her head a little to the swell, or to lengthen the 
apparent wave-period by putting her head a little ofi'. He must do one of 
these things if he meets with actual and exact synchronism in anything like 
heavy weather. 

As a practical matter. Professor Rankine remarks : " It would appear 
that a very close approximation to the form and proportions which are 
most favourable to steadiness has, in some cases, been realized by practical 
trials alone, and that independently of the steadying action of sails ; for 
there are vessels which, when under steam alone, in any moderate swell 
keep their decks very nearly parallel to the horizon. It is of great im- 
portance that the lines and dimensions, and distribution of the weights of 
ships, which have been found by experience to possess tliis excellent quality, 
should be carefully recorded for the information of naval architects. 

" On the other hand, there are vessels (especially screw- steamers) whose 
ordinary extent of rolling each way is from three to four times the slope of 
the waves." 

On the subject of Waves, we refer to the following papers and treatises : — 

Weber, ' Wellenlehre.' 

Aiiy, " On Tides and Waves," Encycl. Metropolitana (reprinted in a 
separate form). 



STABILITY, PROPULSION, AND SEA-GOING QUALITIES OF SHIPS. 39 

Scott Eussell, Eeport to British Association for 1844. Also, 'Modern 
Naval Architecture.' 

Stokes, ' Cambridge Transactions,' 1842 and 1850. 

Earnshaw, ' Cambridge Transactions,' 1845. 

Proude, 'Transactions of the Institution of Naval Architects,' 1862, 
p. 48, and (incidentally) in his papers " On Rolling."' Also, " Remarks on 
the Differential Wave in a Stratified Fluid," Trans. I. N. A. vol. iv. for 
1863, p. 216. 

Rankine, ' Philosophical Transactions; for 1863 ; ' PhU. Mag.,' Nov. 1864 ; 
' Proceedings of the Royal Society,' 1868 ; also, ' Shipbuilding : Theore- 
tical and Practical.' 

Cialdi, ' Sul Moto ondoso del Mare.' 

Caligny, papers in LiouviUe's Journal, 1866. 

T. Stevenson, ' On Harbours.' 

"With regard to the rolling of ships in wave-water, we believe that almost 
the only exact investigations are to be found in the ' Transactions of the 
Institution of Naval Architects,' some of which have been reproduced in 
' Shipbuilding : Theoretical and Practical,' and reprinted in the ' Engineer ' 
and in ' Engineering.' They are as follows : — 

Proude, " On the Rolling of Ships," vol. ii. for 1861, p. ISO, with Ap- 
pendices, vol. iii. pp. 45 & 48. 

WooUey, " On the RolHng of Ships," vol. iii. for 1864, p. 1. 

Crossland, " On Mr. Proude's Theory of RoUing," vol. iii. p. 7. 

Rankine, on the same, vol. iii. p. 22 ; " On the Comparative Straining 
Action of different kinds of Vertical Oscillations upon a Ship," vol. iv. for 

1863, p. 205. 

Scott Russell, " On the Rolling of Ships," vol. iv. p. 219. 

Proude, " Remarks on Mr. Scott Russell's Paper," vol. iv. p. 232. 

Scott Russell, rejoinder, vol. iv. p. 276. 

Woolley, Mem. on same subject, vol. iv. p. 2S4. 

Rankine, " On the Action of Waves upon a Ship's Keel," vol. v. for 

1864, p. 20. " On the Uneasy Rolling of Ships," vol. v. p. 38. 
Lamport, " On the Problem of a Ship's Porm," vol. vi. for 1865, p. 101. 
Proude, " On the Practical Limits of the Rolling of a Ship in a Sea-way," 

vol. vi. p. 175. 

Reed, " On the Stability of Monitors under Canvas," vol. ix. for 1868, 
p. 198. 

An abstract of the leading principles will be found, as already stated, in 
' Shipbuilding : Theoretical and Practical,' edited by Mr. Rankine. 

Some valuable practical observations on the roUing of ships in waves will 
also be found in a pamphlet, ' Du Roulis,' by Captain Mottez, of the 
French Imperial Navj-. 

Measurement of Waves at Sea. 

This is a thing which has seldom been done with any degree of accuracy. 
Not only is the vessel moving, but the apparent direction of gravity is not 
the true one. The result is, that the difference of direction between the 
tangents to two waves from a point a little behind the spectator is generaUj- 
taken for the apparent angular height. This may evidently be far in excess 
of the true apparent height *. 

* See Mr. Kankiue's " Ecmarks," Trans. I. N. A, vol iii. p. 27. 



40 REPORT — 1869. 

Admiral Paris has invented a self-recording instrument for the purjiosc 
of measuring- both the height and form of waves. A description of this will 
he found in the Trans. I. N. A. vol. viii. 1867, p. 279. It is unfor- 
tunately a differential instrument, Avithout any means of getting a good 
datum line. It appears to he much better adapted for getting approximate 
profiles of complex waves than for obtaining accurate measurements of 
simple ones. 

Observations on the lengths of waves present much less diiRculty: a 
float, sunk so as not to catch the wind (such as a bottle), and observed from 
a considerable height, wiU give the periodic time with a fair degree of ac- 
curacy, and the length may be inferred from the period. 

General observations upon waves* are not in point. The object in the- 
present case is to ascertain what the particular waves are in which the 
ship's rolling is being observed. 

Measurement of Boiling. 

It is very well known that a pendulum at sea docs not give a vertical 
line, but a direction due to the joint cfiect of gravity, of its own free oscil- 
lation, and of the forced oscillation due to the motion of its point of sus- 
pension. A suspended clinometer is thus perfectly useless for this purpose. 
Uaromctcrs, cuddy-lamps, and chandeliers generally oscillate through larger 
angles than the ship. 

Mr. Froude (Trans. I. N. A. for 1SG2, p. 41) suggests watching the 
rattlins of the rigging come down to the horizon, as a ready and fairly 
correct way of measuiing the roll. The motion of the mast-heads rcla- 
livcly to the stars may be used in the same waj'. 

M. Normand, jun., of Havre, has invented a very ingenious clinometer 
suspended on gymbals, like a chronometer, in such a way as to be as little 
as possible influenced bj' the ship's motion f. We do not consider that any 
instrument depencUng upon gravitation is to be relied upon at sea, and 
we have been informed that M. Normand himself is not quite satisfied with 
his instrument. 

Apart from observations depending on the stars, or actual sea-horizon, 
the only instrument that can be relied ujion as giving an invariable plane is 
of the gyroscope class. A modification of Foucault's gyroscope was tried in 
the North Sea in 1859, by Professor C. Piazzi Smyth, who gave an account 
of the instrument and its performance in the Trans. I. N. A. for 1863, 
p. 118. 

An instrument upon the same rotatory principle, but self-recording, has 
been invented by Admiral Paris, Hydrographer of the French Imperial 
Navy. It consists of a spinning top, with its point of support above its 
centre of gravity. It spins in an agate cup, and the top of the spindle 
carries a camel's-hair pencil which marks a paper band, driven by clock- 
work, and passing through bent guides so as to keep close to the pencil. 
It is described, and some of its curves copied, in the Trans. I. N. A. 
vol. viii. for 1867. 

What these instruments really give is the deviation from an undeter- 
mined direction. They therefore give the time of rolling or pitching, and of 
any intermediate oscillation of a periodic character, and the amplitude of 

* Although very desirable for other reasons. 
t See Trans. I. N. A. for 1866, p. 187. 



STABILITY, PROPULSIONj AND SEA-GOING QUALITIES OF SHIPS. 41 

deviation from the mean line ; but they evidently would not disclose any 
steady inclination to which the rolling might be superadded. 

The gyroscope or top will, of course, have its own proper oscillatory revo- 
lution, which, however, soon spins out, on the same principle that a peg-top 
" sleeps." 

On the whole, there does not seem to be much room for improvement in 
Admiral Paris's instrument, unless, perhaps, in diminishing the atmospheric 
resistance. Possibly also provision might be made for adjusting the point of 
support to the centre of gravity. 

Recommendation of Experiments on Moiling. 

* 

The mathematical theory of rolling is very far from easy, and leads to equa- 
tions of which there is no known solution. The time of a common pendulum, 
for instance, depends upon an elliptic integral, and, beyond the degree of 
complexity involved in such a function, mathematics are in the condition of 
uncleared ground. Accordingly, while it is possible to give a rational 
account of the immediate gross results of a compound oscillation, these 
results cannot be expressed or measured with the requisite combination of 
generality and accurac3^ In order to treat them, we are obliged to intro- 
duce simplifying suppositions, which do not necessarily belong to our pro- 
blem — as, for instance, isochronism, or the neglect of certain elements of 
resistance, or the grouping of others. 

Now, Avhen this occurs with any branch of practical knowledge, the proper 
mode of applying mathematical investigation is to start, not from the known 
principles of general mechanics, but from an advanced base of observations 
peculiar to the science itself. In hydrodj-namics, between minuteness and 
number, the ultimate molecular unit escapes our notice, and we are only 
able to observe effects in the gross ; being thereby driven to a certain want 
of detail, both of observation and of reasoning, which allows us to trust our 
conclusions only when they have been made to rest on a broad experimental 
foundation. Whether we regard the theory of the propulsion of ships, or 
that of their rolling, our analysis has assuredly been pushed quite to the 
extreme verge to which general reasoning can be trusted ; and a largely in- 
creased extent of exact observation ought to precede further attempts at 
inductive reasoning on these subjects. We have many exact experiments on 
propulsion, although, from the complicated character of the phenomena in- 
volved, it is difficult to separate the issues ; and this wiU probably not be set 
right without further special investigation. With regard to rolling, how- 
ever, we have much vague observation, and but little exact knowledge de- 
rived from experiment. 

We are not aware of any one published experiment on the rolling of ships 
in waves in which the details necessary to make any mathematical use of 
the results are supplied. The data required are, as a minimum for each 
case, — 

1. A draught of the ship, and her calculated elements. 

2. The position of her centre of gravity. 

3. Her periodic time in still water. 

4. The condition of her wet surface. 

5. The extent and period of her roll. 

6. Was the rolling simple, or mixed with pitching ? 

7. The height, length, and period of the waves in which she was rolHng. 

8. Were these waves simple ? 

9. What alterations have been made in her displacement, her trim, and 



42 REPORT— 1869. 

the position of her -weights, as regards both centre of gravity and moment of 
inertia, previously to the trial ? 

10. Force and direction of wind, and condition of ship as regards re- 
sistance to it. 

11. FuU details as to manner in which, and the iastruments or calcida- 
tions by which, these data have been ascertained. 

There is no doubt that for a comprehensive view of the subject, it would 
be necessary that these things should be ascertained with care for a large 
number of ships, of various classes, and under very varied conditions. Eut 
this is too much to expect to get done, although we think it would be a 
good thing for the Government, and other large shipowners, to keep in view 
as an ultimate object. McauwhUe we think it would be a very great expe- 
rimental aid to science if these things could be accurately settled for even 
two or three ships, under different circumstances of weather and different 
arrangements of weight, both in amount and distribution. 

Similar experiments should also be made with reference to pitching. 

The trials should be made with sails furled, and as little disturbance from 
headway as possible. We have every wish to have parallel experiments 
tried under any possible conditions of sail and propulsion, and, if it may be 
done, on the same ships, consecutively with the simpler experiments ; but it 
will be seen that the data are already sufficiently complex at the best, and 
that they must be used clear of headway and leeway before they can be 
discussed with reference to these. 

No experiments are of use for the purpose of inductive reasoning in which 
any one of the data mentioned above are wanting. 

We think that the Government might fairly be asked to institute such a 
set of calculations and experiments. We cannot find that the exact infor- 
mation which we have suggested is in existence anywhere. We are certain 
that it has not been published in any available form ; and we have reason to 
believe that the knowledge is quite as much needed and desired by the 
gentlemen responsible for the construction of the navj^ as by merchant 
builders or by students of theorj'. 

We therefore recommend that the deputation previously mentioned with 
reference to the experiments on resistance be also instructed to urge upon 
the Admiralty the importance, both practical and theoretical, of instituting 
such a set of experiments, of providing suitable instruments for recording 
exact observations, and of publishing the results. We also recommend the 
appointment by the Council of the Association of a committee of three mem- 
bers to confer with the officers of the Admiralty as to the drawing up of 
detailed instructions for conducting these experiments; and that the Lords 
of the Admiralty, in the event of their assenting to the proposals, be 
requested to nominate a committee to confer with the committee named by 
the Association. 

In conclusion, we beg leave to recommend that this Report be officially 
communicated to the Councils of the Institution of jS^aval Architects, the 
Institution of Civil Engineers, and the Institution of Engineers in Scotland, 
and the cooperation of those bodies sought, both in applying to the Govern- 
ment and in making known among shijibuilders, and other persons con- 
nected Avith Naval Architecture, as weU what is the state of our existing 
knowledge as what are the immediate desiderata for its extension. 

Charles W. ILeeeifield. W. J. Macquorn Rankine. 

Geoege p. Biddee. W. Peoude (subject to the fol- 

DoTJGLAs Galton. lowlng exjjianaiions). 



STABILITY, PROPULSION, AND SEA-GOING QUALITIES OF SHIPS. 43 

Mr. Fronde's Exj^Ianations. 

The subject of a ship's resistance is one -which I have for many years been 
independently investigating, both theoretically and experimentally; and I 
have been thus led to conclusions which are in very material respects at 
variance with those -which Mr. Merrifield has placed on record for the Com- 
mittee as representing the existing state of knowledge respecting it, and 
specially at variance with the consequent recommendations which he has 
drawn up, as indicating the experiments for the performance of which the 
assistance of Her Majesty's Government is to be sought : I thus find myself 
somewhat abruptly placed in a position in which I must ask permission to 
present, as part of our proceedings, a supplementary report explaining the 
reasons which oblige me to dissent from the recommendations to which I 
refer. Until the Draft Eeport was in my hands, I was unaware that '•' Ke- 
sistance" was regarded as included in the list of subjects submitted to the 
Committee; for I understood the terms "Stability" and "Sea-going quali- 
ties" as having reference to the theory of " EoUing motion," and " Propul- 
sion" to the theory of the Action of Propellers. The subject of Resistance 
appeared to belong already to the " Steamship Performance Committee." 

Let me say at the outset that Mr. Merrifield's very full discussion of this 
subject appears to me to set forth most lucidly what must be called " the 
existing state of knowledge" respecting it; it has evidently involved much 
laborious research and deep consideration. 

And, on the other hand, the results at which I have arrived are in many 
respects so far from complete that I have hitherto hesitated to bring them 
before the public. But I believe I have so fully established those conclusions, 
to which I shall now refer, and the difference in the Hne of action to which 
they point is so serious that, under the present circumstances, I feel bound 
to press them on the notice of the Committee. 

The Eeport specially recommends, as the experiment which it is important 
to try, the dynamometric determination of the scale of resistances for a 
full-sized ship. 

Now, -without impugning, or rather, while fully asserting that any scale of 
resistance, in terms of velocity, accurately determined for a full-sized ship, 
would be of real value and of great interest, I shall nevertheless contend (1) 
that experiments on the resistances of models of rational size, when ration- 
ally dealt -with, by no means deserve the mistrust -with wliich they are usually 
regarded, but, on the contrarj', can be relied on as truly representing the 
resistances of the ships of which they are the models ; and (2) that in order 
properly to open up the question, so great a variety of forms ought to be 
tried that it would be impossible, alike on the score of time and expenditure, 
to perform the experiments with fuU-sized ships. Both these propositions 
require to be drawn out at some length. The kindred proposition, that as 
accurate results can be obtained far more easily and rapidly in experimenting 
with a model than -with a ship, though of great importance, is so obviously 
true as to require no elucidation. 

The natural expectation that the ascertained resistance of a model will 
furnish a measure of the resistance of a ship similar to the model, depends 
on the prima facie probability that the resistance for a given body wiU vary 
as the square of its velocity ; and that in comparing similar bodies of different 
dimension at a given velocity, the resistance will be as the square of the 
dimension, since that function expresses alike the proportion of the respec- 
tive midship sections and of the respective £riction-.bearing surfapes. Were 



44 REPORT — 1869. 

these propositions true, the ascertained resistance of a model, at given velo- 
city, would supply a complete scale of resistance for all velocities, both for 
the model and for any ship similar to the model. 

Since, however, the resistance of a model or ship deviates from the law of 
the square of the velocity, as under certain cuxumstances it is known to 
do, in a manner dependent on its actual dimensions, it is obvious that 
the simple scale of comparison, which seemed prima facie probable, can he no 
longer accepted, and it has hence been hastily concluded that no assignable 
scale of comparison can be found instead. 

Now it appears to me to be pretty well established, and it is scarcely 
questioned, that, for deeply submerged bodies of tolerable size and fair shape, 
the resistance does foUow the law of the squares with a high degree of 
approximation. Such deviations from this law as appear in Beaufoy's expe- 
riments are, I think, explicable by the angularity of the shapes tried and by 
the mode of trying the experiments, under which the considerable distance 
between the bodies tried and the conducting float by which they were carried 
involved some deviation of the body from true axial motion, when the velocity 
and the consequent resistance became considerable. 

That surface-friction, in particular, follows the law of the squares of the 
velocity very closely, is well established by the experience of the flow of 
water through pipes, in reference to which, I may observe, I have myself 
experimentally verified on a five-mile length of 9 -inch pipe, the law that the 
deiiveiy is almost exactly as the square root of the steepness of the hydravdic 
gradient. The experiments were tried with very great variations in the steep- 
ness*. N'ow Professor Rankine's admirable stream-hue investigations have 
definitely established the conclusion that for symmetrically shaped bodies of 
"fair" lines, not excluding by that description certain very blunt-ended 
ovals, when wholly submerged, the entire resistance depends on the conditions 
of imperfect fluidity, of which surface-friction is the only one so considerable 
that we need take account of if we deal with bodies of rational dimen- 
sions ; and this, as I have pointed out, does follow the law of the squares. 
I set aside the condition of "viscosity"; for though this defect, even as it 
exists in water, is certainly sufficient to afl'ect difl'erently the resistances of 
bodies of different dimensions, this is not sensibly the case unless the bodies 
are very minute ; and havrag regard to the great vitality of such small sur- 
face-waves as (say) one foot in length, and to the fact that discharge of water 
through pipes and orifices exhibits no results indicative of this special action, 
unless the diameters are very small indeed, it seems extremely improbable 
that the resistances of bodies five or six feet in length will be afl'ected by it. 
If, therefore, we were deahng with submerged bodies, we shoidd have no 
reason to mistrust the primd facie deductions founded on experiments with 
models. 

"When, however, we deal with a body moving at the sui-face, we at once 
meet with a vera causa, which alters those simple relations that exist be- 
tween the resistances of differently dimensioned submerged bodies. This 
vera causa is the generation of surface-waves, which accompanies the transit 
of the body along the surface ; and it is, I believe, not merely the only 
known cause, but a suificient one. 

What absolute conformation and magnitude of waves a given vessel moving 
with a given velocity may create, and what excess of resistance may thus bo 

* Though I regard these experiments as sufficiently conclusive in reference to the point 
to which they were directed, I am inclined to think tliat the theory of surface-friction in 
its application to a ship's resistance requires considerable reyision. 



STABILITY, PROPULSION, AND SEA-GOING QUALITIES OF SHIPS. 45 

developed in any individual instance, it is not necessary for the present pur- 
pose to determine ; for it will appear that, whatever the excess may be, how- 
ever abnormally, in virtue of it, the law of resistance for any given ship may 
vary in terms of her velocity, a very simple scale of comparison wiU express 
the relation between the excess as developed in a model and as developed in 
a ship similar to the model when moving at a corresponding velocity. I 
shall show, in fact, that if the velocities of the ship and the model are as the 
square roots, these excesses of resistance thus arising wiU be as the cubes of 
their respective dimensions, a law which, as is easUy seen, expresses also the 
relation founded on those elements of resistance which vary as the square of 
the velocity and as the squares of the respective dimensions. 

The principles on which Professor Eankine's stream-line investigations are 
founded establish generally, in relation to all wholly submerged symmetrical 
bodies moving in a fluid infinitely extended on all sides, that the stream-line 
displacements which the motion of the body imposes on the surrounding 
volumes of fluid are, for a given body, identical in configuration for aU velo- 
cities (an identity which assigns to them always a velocity proportional to 
that of the body itself), and that the configuration is similar for all similar 
bodies. 

If we now suppose that the body is moving along the surface of the fluid, 
and if we imagine the surface to be not under the influence of gravity or any 
such force, it is obvious that here also the configurations of the stream-line 
displacements wiU be identical at all velocities for the same body, and will be 
similar for similar bodies, including those displacements which consist of 
upward disturbances of the surface. 

When we impose the further condition appropriate to an existing water-sur- 
face, that the replacements of the surface, when disturbed, are governed jointly 
by gravity and by the volumes and velocities of the original impiilses of dis- 
turbance, it follows that those impulses of disturbance, being similar for all 
similar bodies at aU velocities, will retain their similarity wherever and in 
the manner which the operation of gi'avity permits : and this will be when 
the similar bodies are moved with velocities proportioned to the square roots 
of their respective dimensions ; in these a similar wave-configuration will, 
in each case, similarly dispose of the originally similar volume of displace- 
ment, since similar-waves have their velocities so related. 

These waves (as is explained by Professor Eankine), when the velocity 
proper to their length along the line of motion is exceeded by that of the 
ship, so that they cannot squarely travel with her, satisfy the conditions of 
their motion by travelling obliquely, and diverging into the surrounding 
fluid, the angle of divergence and their size forming a measure of the work 
constantly running away from the ship, and consequently of the resistance 
caused by theii' generation. 

Xow the similarity of the configuration which has been asserted involves 
the condition that when the velocities of similar ships are as the square roots 
of their respective dimensions, the angles of divergence will be equal, and 
therefore equal lengths of similar wave-crest will be " run ofi' " for equal 
distances travelled by the respective ships ; and hence the energy abstracted 
in each case by',thesc equal lengths of similar wave-crest is clearly as the cube 
of the dimension (since the mass elevated is as the sectional area, and the 
elevation is simply as the dimension) ; and since the forces which supply 
proportionate amounts of energy while travelling a given distance must 
be as the energy, it follows that the excesses of resistance thus called into 
existence are also as the cube of the dimension, agreeing in this respect, as 



46 REPORT — 1869. 

has already been pointed out, with the resistances derived from the surface- 
friction. In fact, vre are thus brought to the scale of comparison which was 
just now enunciated, that the entire resistances of a ship, and similar model, 
are as the cubes of their respective dimensions, if their velocities are as the 
square roots of their dimensions. 

In verification and illustration of the foregoing views, I tried, in the 
autumn of 18G7, a large number of resistance-experiments with a pair of 
models of contrasted forms, six feet long, by towh:g them simultaneously 
from the ends of a pair of ten-foot scale-beams connected with self-recording 
dynamometric apparatus, and mounted on booms projecting sideways from the 
nose of a steam-launch, lent me for the purpose by Mr. Bidder. The water- 
lines of the models arc shown in Plate I. fig. 1. One was of the wave-line 
type, the other, having the same length, form of midship -section, and dis- 
placement, had large rounded ends. I also tried similar experiments with a 
pair of very nearly similar models of twice the dimensions and eiglit times the 
displacement. I had already obtained a series of experimental results of the 
same kind, but with less successful apparatus, from a similar pair of models, 
three feet long. These data enabled me to compile for each model a dia- 
gram of resistance iu terms of velocity. 

The three pairs of such diagrams, proper to the three pairs of models, were 
laid down to scales corresponding to the dimensions of the models, according 
to the system of comparison I have enunciated ; thus the velocity-scale for 
the six-foot models is \/2 times, and that for the three-foot models twice 
as open as that for the twelve-foot models ; and the resistance-scales for the 
six-foot and three-foot are respectively 8 and 04 times as open as that for 
the twelve-foot. According to my proposition, were the three sets of models 
exactly similar the three sets of diagrams should be identical. 

Ileduced copies of these diagrams are shown in Plato I. figs. 2, 3, 4. 
Their general agreement, especially as to the position occupied in the velo- 
city-scale by the several saHent features of the curves and as to the relative 
resistances of the contrasted forms, is very striking. It is true that on com- 
paring the absolute resistances, the correspondence is not so close as it at 
first sight appears. Thus the three-foot models exhibit throughout a 
decided excess of resistance as compared with the six-foot ; but I think this 
is probably attributable to their being small enough to be within the range 
of viscosity. On comparing the diagrams of the twelve-foot and six-foot 
models, however, we find that it is the larger model that has an excess of 
resistance. This excess, which is slight, may be partly due to certain 
minor differences of form which had been introduced iu the larger models. 
It may also have partly arisen from the fact that the twelve-foot models, 
owing to their greater dimensions, swam relatively nearer to the towing- 
boat, a circumstance which may naturally have tended to enhance their 
resistances. 

On the whole, I think that scries of diagrams supplies a very fair veri- 
fication of the alleged scale of comparison. 

Besides thus throwing light on the question of comparison of the per- 
formance of similar vessels of different dimensions, these experiments show 
very clearly that strange forms may possess merits that are entirely un- 
known and unexpected before experiment is made upon them ; for here we 
find that an abnormal form (suggested simply by the appearance of water- 
birds when swimming), if moving with a high though not excessive ve- 
locity, experiences considerably less resistance than the wave-line form, the 
accredited representative of the form of least resistance, particularly at high 



Report Brit. Assoc ISOtX 



Plate, 1 




Fiq.I. 

Half Tfater-7ine.s of the .MocM^s: 






Modd A. 
Model B. 



ajoo gjgo 2^0 z<fio B\fio afio 



Model A 





20 o\to j\eo 3\so 4\oo 4^0 4\ to 



Ydoci^ in /fat pe/^ minute. 













■ 












- 


^ — 


f- — 05 




jr^.s. 




/ 


e. 






' 


.-* 


'd)iag/-anLA- of h'ft. . ^fodeLs. 




1 |/i .'■; 




•^ 


J/, V -/ / 


1 

1 

1 


^ 


/ 


7 

y 


,■ 


=1 


t 














% 


Model B. 

1 1 1 




^.J 










S 


1 











::_:z-^^ l"^ 












— 






■^■^=^ 


^^ 


-^"^ 


'^ ' 
















1 10 \ j\90 


2 


10 


2 30 


Z^O 


2 


70 2 


00 


t( 


w 



Vdadfy iri feet per niinuti- . 



Mj.d. 
jJi'ffQ-raf>i.f of 3 ft. .Models. 



Model A. 
Mode/ B. 




VdocUy irv feet per iniruUU . 



ON coroners' inquisitions on boiler explosions. 47 

speeds. This proves that we can have no ground for certainty that wo have 
found even an approximation to the hest form, unless we have gone experi- 
mentally over almost the whole ground and tested a very wide variety of 
shape. But, independently of this aspect of the question, it is, I think, cer- 
tain that on very many important questions, such as, for instance, the proper 
ratio of length to breadth, there is no really established principle of judg- 
ment on which reliance can be placed. Yet most weighty considerations 
affecting economy and efficiency are involved in the settlement of even that 
single question. Eut unless we build mere experimental ship-sized models, 
there seems no possibility of detennining the question by full-scale expe- 
riments. 

It is true that the circumstances under whicli my experiments were 
tried did not admit of such exactness as to render them absolutely conclu- 
sive as the sole basis of the theory of comparative resistance in terms of 
dimension. Nor do I bj' any means pretend to be certain that there are 
no elements of resistance other than I have taken account of in my theoretical 
justification of it; but if any such do exist, they can be detected, and the 
laws of their operation discovered with far greater facility and completeness 
by small-scale than by full-size experiments. And I contend that unless the 
reliability of small-scale experiments is emphatically disproved, it is useless 
to spend vast sums of money upon full-size trials, which, after all, may be 
misdirected, unless the ground is thoroughly cleared beforehand by an ex- 
haustive investigation on small scale. 



Report of the Committee apjwinted to consider and report how far 
Coronei's' Inquisitions are satisfactory Tribunals for the Investiga- 
tion of Boiler Explosions, and how these Tribunals may be im- 
proved, the Committee consisting of William Fairbairn, C.E., 
F.R.S., LL.D., ^c, Joseph Whitworth, C.E., F.R.S., John Penn, 
C.E., F.R.S., John Hick^ C.E., 31. P., Frederick J. Bramwell, 
C.E., Thomas Webster, Q.C, Hugh Mason, Samuel Rigby, 
William Richardson, C.E., and E. Lavington Fletcher, C.E. 

I. Boiler explosions continue to occur with their accustomed frequency and 
fatality. Since the Meeting of the British Association held last year in 
Norwich not less than 46 explosions have occurred, by which 78 persons 
have been killed, in addition to 114 others having been injured ; and as 
these catastrophes take place with considerable regularitj-, there is every 
reason to apprehend that a similar number of explosions, causi7ig the loss of 
a similar number of lives and a similar amount of bodily injury, wiU trans- 
pire before the next Meeting of the British Association, unless some very 
immediate measures are adopted for arresting these sad disasters. 

The fearful explosion which occurred on the 9th of Juno last, at Biugley, 
by which as many as fifteen persons were killed and thirty-three others in- 
jured, some of them veiy seriously, will be fresh in the remembrance of 
every one ; more especiullj- from the fact that amongst those killed and in- 
jured were a number of women, having no connexion whatever with the 
works at which the explosion occurred, as well as a number of little children. 
These children were exercising in an adjoining playground, when just as 



48 REPORT— 1869. 

they were passing close to the wall of a two-storied building on the premises 
at which the explosion occurred, the boiler burst, demolishing the building, 
burying the children in the ruins, and crushing eight of them to death, in 
addition to seriously injuring seventeen others. 

Sad as it is when those connected with boilers and who gain their liveli- 
hood from working them arc injured, it is even more so when outsiders, who 
have no interest in their use or control over their management, are victimized 
by their explosion, more especially when these victims are women and 
chUdreu. Such, however, is by no means an infrequent occurrence. In one 
case, a child asleep in its bed, unconscious of all danger, was kiUed on the 
spot by a fragment of an exploded boiler sent through the roof like a thunder- 
bolt. In a second case, a young woman working at her needle in an upstairs 
room in her own dwelling, was struck by a boiler which was hurled from its 
seat, and dashed against the window at which she sat. The injury she received 
was serious ; her leg had to be amputated, and death shortly after ensued. In 
a third case, just as an infant was making its first assay at walking across the 
kitchen-floor in a collier's cottage, a fragment of an exploded boiler came crash- 
ing through the roof, and striking down the child, killed it on the spot. In a 
fourth case, a woman was standing at her own cottage-door with an infimt in 
her anus, when one of the bricks sent flying by the bursting of a boiler 
struck her little one on the head, and killed it in its mother's arms. In a 
fifth case, a group of boys were sporting in a meadow, when the boiler of a 
locomotive engine, just drawn up at an adjoining railway-station, burst, and 
scattering one of its fragments among the group, killed one of the boys on the 
spot, and injured another. In a sixth case, a house in which an infirm old 
woman lived, confined to her bed in an upstairs room, was demolished by a 
boiler explosion, so that the poor woman, witli the bed on which she lay, was 
rudely brought to the ground. In a seventh case, a man passing through a 
public thoroughfare on horseback was struck by the debris showered around 
by a boiler that happened to explode at the moment ; so that even those 
casually passing by the premises at which steam-power is employed are not 
safe from the attacks of bad boilers. It is no uncommou thing for dwelhng- 
houses in the vicinity of boilers to be invaded on the occurrence of an explo- 
sion with huge fragments, and to have tlieir windows and roofs riddled as if 
they had been bombarded, while in some cases they are altogether de- 
molished. Many other cases similar to the above might be added ; but the 
facts already given are, it is thought, sufficient to show that those who use 
steam-boilers are not the only parties who sufter from their explosion. Thus 
the subject acquires a wider interest, and becomes not only important to 
steam-users, but also to the public at large. 

It is therefore desirable that public attention should be tlioroughly aroused 
on the subject of steam-boiler explosions, while it is clearly well worthy of 
the consideration of the Members of the British Association. 

II. The Committee pass on, in the second place, to state that the attention 
of its Members has for years been directed to the cause of these sad cata- 
strophes, and that they have invariably found that steam-boiler explosions, 
though so complicated and disastrous in their results, have sprung from 
causes of the simplest character. 

In some cases explosions arise from the boilers having been originally mal- 
constructed, the furnace- tubes, for instance, not having been strengthened, as 
experience has shown to be necessary, by encircling rings or flanged seams, 
or other approved and suitable means ; and, in consequence of the neglect of 
these simple precautious, which may readily be adopted by any one, a con- 



ON coroners' inquisitions on boiler explosions. 49 

siderable number of furnace-tubes have collapsed and ruptured, wlien the 
rusk of steam and hot water resulting therefrom has been attended -with 
the most disastrous consequences both to life and property. Explosions of 
this character are particularly prevalent in Corn^Yall, -where it seems espe- 
cially difficult to persuade steam-users that a furnace-tube can collapse fronr 
any other cause than that of overheating through shortness of water. This 
simple but obstinate prejudice makes Cornwall one of the most proHfic 
counties for steam-boiler explosions; and the Cornish boiler, which, when 
well constructed and strengthened in the furnace-tube as just described, is 
one of the safest and most reliable of any, has been raised to the undesirable 
notoriety of being tke most exijlosive, simply tkrougk the obstinate pre- 
judice just referred to, so that the very county tkat gave tkis boiler birtk and 
name is doing more tkan any otker to damage its reputation. 

Other explosions arise simply through defective staying, as in the case of 
the boiler that exploded at Aberaman on the 31st of May last, killing four 
persons and injuring four others. In this ease the front end of the boiler 
was blown out, consequent on the removal of the furnace-tube in order to 
metamorphose the boiler (most unwisely) from one fired internally to one 
fired externally. When the furnace-tube, which formed a most valuable 
longitudinal stay, had been removed, no adequate provision was made for re- 
pairing its loss, and the consequence was that the end blew out from sheer 
weakness. This explosion is by no means singular; and many similar 
cases have been met with in which the flat ends of boilers have been 
blown out through unwisely removing the furnace-tube in Cornish boilers in 
order to exchange internal firing for external. One other explosion, resulting 
from imperfect staying, may be referred to, which occurred on the 28th of 
July, 1866, at Tunstall, and resulted in the death of two persons and in 
injury to seven others. This boiler was of considerable size, being as muck 
as 36 feet long by 9 feet diameter, while it was worked at a pressure of 
from 3.5 lbs. to 40 lbs. on the square inch. This boiler, which contained an 
internal horseshoe-shaped flue, was constructed with a hemispherical end at 
tkc back, and a flat one at the front. The flat end was insufficiently stayed, 
in consequence of which it was blown out with the horseshoe-shaped tube 
attached to it, and thrown to a distance of about 50 yards in one direction, 
while the shell of the boiler recoiled to about the same distance in another. 
Alongside this boiler was another, in process of completion, with two boiler- 
makers and a boy at work inside it. On the occurrence of the explosion, not 
only was the boiler first referred to torn from its seat, as just explained, but 
the sister one alongside was tlarown on to a public road, and as this road 
happened to be on an incline, the boiler went rolling down, with the men, 
the boy, and their tools inside it, so that their predicament was somewhat 
similar to that of poor Regulus in his spiked cask. 

Other explosions occur from defective material and workmanship, in illus- 
tration of which, the explosion may be referred to which occurred at Norwich 
on the 25th of September, 1866, by which the works were laid in ruins, 
seven persons killed, and two others injured. 

Other explosions, again, arise from defective equipments, the manholes not 
being guarded by substantial mouth-pieces, or the boilers not being mounted 
with suitable safety-valves, glass water-gauges, or other necessary fittings. 

Many explosions occur from the worn-out state of the boilers, the boilers 
being worked on till the plates are so reduced as to be no thicker than 
a sheet of brown paper. One such case occurred on the 24th of April, 1865, 
at Wigan, and resulted in the death of one person, and in injury to four 

1869. V 



50 REPORT — 1869. 

others. Another took place at Leeds on the 27th of March, 1866, by which 
two persons were killed, and six others injured. A third happened at Collj'- 
hurst, Manchester, on the 23rd of December, 1867, by which six persons 
were killed and four others injured. Cases of this class are so numerous that 
they defy enumeration, and the working on of old worn-out boilers, that 
should long since have been discarded altogether, is a prolific source of 
explosions. 

Some explosions arise from neglect of the attendants, who have ignorantly 
tampered with the safety-valves, or neglected the proper supply of water. 
The number of explosions from this cause, however, is not by any means so 
great in proportion to those that arise from malconstructed or worn-out 
boilers, as is generally supposed ; and many more explosions arise from bad 
boilers than from bad attendants, though it is often much to the convenience 
of the steam-user to have the blame of an explosion thrown upon the atten- 
dant rather than on the boiler. 

Such are some of the leading causes of steam-boiler explosions, all of 
which, it will be seen, arc extremely simple ; and the Committee consider 
that, as a rule, boilers burst simply because they are bad — bad either from 
original malcoustruction, or from the condition into which they have been 
allowed to fall ; while they wish to record their o})inion that these lamentable 
catastrophes, by which so many persons arc annually killed, arc not acci- 
dental, but that they might be prevented by the exercise of common Jcnow- 
hclf/e and common care. 

III. The next point the Committee have to consider is, how far the pre- 
sent inquiries conducted by coroners as to the cause of boiler-explosions 
are satisfactor}\ 

On referring to the verdicts returned by coroners' juries on deaths occa- 
sioned by boiler-explosions, it appears that the usual verdict is one of " acci- 
dental death;" in fact this seems to be returned on nearly every occasion, 
whatever the cause of the explosion may be, and even when it has resulted 
from the use of an old worn-out boiler, reduced to the thickness of a sixpence. 
Added to this, the evidence commonly given at these inquiries is anything 
but of a reliable and instructive character. The most visionary theories are 
advanced, and the attempt is frequently made to show that explosions are 
unaccountable and inevitaljle. Thus no suitable information is given to the 
public as to the cause of these sad disasters, and the consequence is that 
boiler-makers can p;ilm oif on the public bad boilers, and steam-users employ 
them TNith the certainty that if they exijlodc with fatal consequences, they 
will, by the help of a coroner and his jury, be pubhcly absolved from all 
responsibility, and the event proclaimed to be accidental. After the conclusion 
the Committee have arrived at, that explosions are not accidental, but may 
be prevented by the exercise of " common Icnowhdge and common care,^' they 
cannot but consider that such evidence and such verdicts are eminently un- 
satisfactory, and that they call for immediate attention. 

IV. In the fourth place, the Committee have to consider how far the pre- 
sent unsatisfactory character of coroners' investigations can bo corrected. 

It has been proposed by the Manchester Steam-users' Association that 
every coroner, when holding an inquiry on a steam-boiler explosion, should 
be both empowered and instructed to avail himself of the assistance of two 
competent engineers having no connexion with the works at which the 
exjilosion occurred, and that these engineers should visit the scene of the 
catastrophe, investigate the cause of the explosion, and attend the inquest in 
order to assist the coroner in his examination of witnesses, as well as to give 



ON coroners' inquisitions on boiler explosions. 51 

evidence themselves before tlie jury, and report on the cause of the explosion, 
their reports (which might either be joint or several, as found most con- 
venient in each case) being accompanied Avith explanatory scaled drawings, 
showing the original construction of the boiler, and as far as possible the 
lines of rent, as well as the direction in which the parts were thrown, and 
the distances at which they fell ; while, in order to secure to the public the 
full advantage of the investigation, it is further proposed that the engineers' 
reports, with the accompanying drawings, along -with the verdict of the jury, 
should be printed and deposited in the Patent Office, and lie there for in- 
spection and purchase, as in the case of specifications of inventions ; and also 
that copies of these Heports should be forwarded to the members of both 
Houses of Parliament, as in the case of rei^orts on railway catastrophes, as 
well as to the various free libraries and scientific societies throughout the 
country. 

The Committee consider that the adoption of this proposition would very 
much raise the character of the present inquiries conducted by coroners, and 
that tlie measure is well calculated to secure the truth being fully arrived at 
and plainly spoken, to which they attach the greatest importance. 

The fact of two engineers being appointed to investigate and report, those 
engineers being altogether independent of the works at which the explosion 
occurred, would, it is thought, secure an unbiassed opinion, while from the 
publicity given to tlie verdict, the coroner and jury woiild be stimidated to 
make a searching investigation. It is possible that in some cases, more 
especially in the early adoption of this i^lan, some coroners might not select 
the most competent engineers to assist them in their inquiry ; but this, it is 
thought, is an error that would soon be corrected from the publicity it is pro- 
posed to give to the whole proceedings, which would make the coroners 
careful to make a wise selection for the sake of their own reputation, while, 
as they would not be limited in their choice to a sj)ecial locality, but might 
take the range of the whole country, there would be no difficulty in their finding 
thoroughly competent men. Were two competent engineers selected, the 
Committee consider there would never, or at all events but very seldom, be 
any practical difference in their views as to the cause of an explosion ; but 
presuming that in a few instances such might be the case, the Committee 
woidd not recommend that, as a rule, a third party should be called in to 
decide the point, since such a question should not be decided simply by a 
majority of opinions. The better plan would be to record the facts and 
the conclusions arrived at, and to leave to public discussion and time to show 
how far the opinions advanced were correct or not. 

One of the results of searching investigations and plain-speaking verdicts 
would be, that when a steam-user has killed some half dozen people by the 
use of a crazy old boiler, the widows and children of the deceased would be 
able to claim from him compensation for the loss of their bread-winners. 
This, it is thought, would operate as a most wholesome check both upon 
boUer-makers and boiler-users, as the one party would be exposed if he sold 
a bad boiler, and the other if he bought it. Some timid steam-users object 
to this measure, lest they should ever be brought in for heavy damages ; biit 
such fears may be altogether dismissed by all those who are working honest 
boilers. Good boilers, as already stated in this Peport, do'not burst. Explo- 
sions are not mysterious, inexplicable, or unavoidable. They do not happen 
by caprice, alike to the careful and the careless. They may all be prevented 
by the exercise of common knowledge and common care, so that timid steam- 
users may dismiss their apprehensions as long as they are doing their duty by 

e2 



52 REPORT— 1869. 

their boilers and boiler-attendants. These improved investigations would at 
the same time have a most wholesome effect upon the operations of boiler- 
inspection associations and boiler-insurance companies, as in the event of the 
explosion of an enrolled boiler, the case would be fully investigated by im- 
partial parties, and the facts brought to light. Such a course would clearly 
promote sound inspection. 

Thus the Committee consider that the adoption of this measure would have 
so wholesome an influence upon boiler-makers and boiler-users, as well as 
upon boiler-attendants and boiler-inspectors, and indeed upon all those con- 
nected with the use of steam, that it would, without any further Governmental 
interference, do much to prevent the recurrence of steam-boiler explosions, 
and they warmly concur with the proposition. 

With regard to the manner in which the expense of these investigations 
should be defrayed, the Committee recommend that this should be met from 
the same source that coroners' inquiries are met at present, viz. either from 
the county or city rates, as the case may be. This course is deemed better 
than that of throwing the cost of the inquiry upon the owner of the exploded 
boiler by way of penalty, as in many cases his resources would be so drained 
by the catastrophe as to be insufficient to meet the charges ; while, in 
addition, it is thought that scientific witnesses, called upon to discharge so 
important a public duty as that now jn'oposed, should not be dependent on so 
uncertain and invidious a source for remuneration. 

It has been proposed that the Crown should levy a heavy deodand on the 
owners of all boilers that explode, unless it could be shown that the explosion 
arose from causes entirely beyond their own control, the oni;s of the proof 
being thrown on the boiler-owners, and not on the Crown. Such a measure 
has, at first sight, much to recommend it. It would doubtless act as a 
powerful stimulant to care ; but inasmuch as the relatives of those killed by 
boiler explosions arc deprived thereby of their means of support, it is thought 
that all payment should go to them in the way of compensation rather than 
to the Crown. In many cases the owner of a boiler is so impoverished by its 
explosion that, had he to pay a deodand, he would have nothing left to com- 
pensate those who were rendered widows and orphans by the catastrophe, so 
that the Crown would be robbing them of their legitimate compensation. It 
is thought therefore it would be better not to impose any deodand, fine, or 
penalty, but to leave the steam-user, in the event of explosion, simply to the 
exposure of full investigation and plain speaking, combined with the liability 
to an action for damages, which the improved verdicts would give increased 
facilities for setting in motion. 

The Committee would wish to add a few remarks upon the misapprehen- 
sion that arises from the use of the word " accidental " in the verdicts re- 
turned by coroners' juries, and the advantage they think would be derived 
from the substitution of the expression " not due to mcdice aforetJiovf/Jit." 
The Committee apprehend that the fundamental object of a coroner's inquiry, 
in the case of a sudden or violent death, is to determine whether that death 
was occasioned by personal malice or not. Thus it may be legally correct for 
the jury to return a verdict of " accidental death " from a steam-boiler 
explosion, though the boiler may have been so worn out that, in an engineer- 
ing and common sense view, the explosion was no accident at all. Thus the 
jury use the word in one sense, but the public accept it in another, and the 
term is taken to be an exoneration of the owner of the boiler. It is thouglit 
that the obligations of the jury would be fulfilled, at the same time that the 
prevention of steam-boiler explosions would be promoted, if juries, instead of 



ON COKONERS' INQUISITIONS ON BOILEK EXPLOSIONS. 53 

rcturuing a verdict of " accidental death,^' ■would state that tlicy consider 
there had been no " mcdice aforetliought," and the following verdict is given 
by way of illustration : — 

" The jury iind that X., X., X., &c. were kiUed by a steam-boiler explosion 

that occurred at street, in town, on day of the week, month, 

and year, on the i^remises occupied by ; and while they consider that 

these deaths were not occasioned by any ' malice aforeihou{/ht,' either on the 
part of the owner of the boiler or others connected with it, they wish to re- 
cord the fact that the boiler was a bad one, its plates being considerably 
reduced by corrosion, and that it was to tliis cause that the explosion 
was due." 

The Committee do not overlook the fact that juries have a third course 
open to them, which lies between the announcement of " accidental death " 
or " wilful murder," and that they have the power of committing owners 
of boilers for " manslaughter," a power which in many cases they arc bound 
in the discharge of their duty to exercise, and in the opinion of the Com- 
mittee much more frequently than they do. The task, however, of com- 
mitting a boiler-owner for manslaughter is frequently an invidious one for a 
coroner's jury, and in practice verdicts of manslaughter are very seldom 
brought in by them. Were the suggestion thus made carried out, coroners' 
juries woidd be extricated from an unpleasant position, and the truth with 
I'egard to explosions would be more fully and freely spoken. 

The following is a recapitulation of the couclusions to which the Committee 
have arrived : — First, that a lamentable loss of hfe is annually caused by 
steam-boiler explosions, which urgently calls for public attention. Secondly, 
that these explosions, as a rule, are not accidental, but may be prevented by 
the exercise of " common knowledge and common care." Thirdly, that the 
jn-csent investigations conducted by coroners with regard to steam-boiler 
explosions are eminently unsatisfactory, and call for immediate improve- 
ment. Pourthly, that coroners should, when conducting inquiries on boiler 
explosions, be instructed and empowered to avail themselves of competent 
engineering advice, so that the cause of every boiler explosion may be fully 
investigated, while the information acquired should be widely circulated. 
Fifthly, the Committee entertain a sanguine hope that tliis course alone 
would do much towards the prevention of the present recurrence of steam- 
boiler explosions, without any further Governmental action. 

Before concluding this Eeport, the Committee feel it incumbent upon 
them to allude to the general movement that has taken place within the last 
year with regard to the adoption of some system of compulsory inspection. 

During the past session a Bill was introduced to Parliament, and carried 
through an early stage, for placing all steam-boilers under Government in- 
spection, by the agency of the Board of Trade. By others it has been pro- 
posed that every steam-user should be compelled to have his boiler examined 
and certified by some private association or company instituted for that ob- 
ject, and authorized by the Government. Others propose that insurance 
should be an essential accompaniment to this arrangement, and that, to secure 
the integrity of the service, the boiler-inspectors should themselves be in- 
spected by the Government. 

With regard to these propositions, the Committee would wish to express a 
strong and, as they think, a wholesome dread of any Government inter- 
ference with the management of private concerns ; and they cannot but con- 
sider that tlie plan proposed of handing over aU the boilers in the country to 
the supervision of the Board of Trade would prove harassing to the steam- 



54 REPORT — 1869. 

user, and a barrier to progress. Such a system, it is thought, must soon 
prove a system of limitation. Inspectors armed with Govornmcntal powers 
must be guided by a code of rules laid down by some higher and central 
authority. They must be instructed what diameter of boiler and what 
thickness of plate to allow for certain pressiires of steam, also what area 
and description of safety-valves, and what number and description of fittings 
generally. Thus the responsibility of construction would be removed from 
the boiler-makers to the Government, and the Board of Trade would become 
the national boiler constructors. However wisely and liberally such a system 
might be worked, and however carefully its code of rules might be devised, it 
is feared it would shortly prove an irksome limitation, and that serious em- 
barrassment would result. "Whether any milder measures could be intro- 
duced to extend the operations of private associations, is a question on which 
the Committee are not in a position to pronounce an "opinion at present ; 
but the subject ajjpears to them to be one of considerable importance, and 
the more public attention is called to it, and the more it is ventilated and 
discussed, the better. 

The Committee would venture, however, to submit to consideration, 
Avhethcr it woi^ld not be worth while to try the effect of more searching 
coroners' investigations, and plain-speaking verchcts, before any other steps 
are taken. Were the course recommended herein with regard to coroners 
adopted, such a mass of well-authenticated information would soon be accu- 
mulated that it would be shortly apparent whctlier this measure were of 
itself sufficient to arrest the course of boiler explosions, or whctlier the reck- 
lessness of steam-users was so great that more stringent measures were 
absolutely necessary ; while, supposing that the latter unfortunately proved 
to be the case, the amount of authentic information obtained would form a 
sure basis for legislative enactment. The Committee therefore venture to 
urge that the plan proposed in this Eeport be fairly tried before any further 
steps be taken, and they recommend this subject to the best consideration of 
this Meeting of the British Association. 

It should not be omitted to mention that since the subject was brouglit 
under the consideration of the Mechanical Section of the British Association 
last year, the Manchester Steam-users' Association memorialized the Home 
Secretary with regard to the improvement of coroners' inquiries in the 
manner referred to in this Report. The deputation was favourably received, 
and the Home Secretary stated, in his place in the House of Commons, only a 
few days since, that he should endeavour, during the Eecess, to prepare a 
measure for the prevention of steam-boiler explosions. Thus considerable 
attention has been drawn to this subject during the past year, and consider- 
able progress has been made in educating public opinion with regard to it. 
The Committee think that this affords ground for congratulation, and that, 
from the interest now aroused i)i connexion with this subject, the attainment 
of the prevention of steam-boiler explosions is not far distant. 

(Signed on behalf of the Committee) 

William Fairbaien, Chairman. 

August 18, 1SG9. 



GASES EXISTING IN SOLUTION IN WELL-WATERS. 55 

Preliminary Repori of the Committee apiiointed for the deter mi7iation 
of the Gases existing in Solution in Well-ioaters. By Dr. E. 
Erankland, F.R.S., and Herbert M'LeoDj F.C.S. (Reporter, 
Herbert M'Leod.) 

Ix consequence of the investigation being far from complete, this Eeport 
must be considered as merely a prclimiuarj'- one ; a more detailed account of 
the results obtained, and the inferences to be drawn from them, must be 
postponed till a future occasion. 

The apparatus employed in these and other experiments was described at 
the last meeting of the Chemical Society, and has been published in the 
Journal *. 

In collecting the waters it is, of course, of the greatest importance that 
they should be prevented from coming in contact with the air, otherwise 
serious errors might be produced in the determination of the gases dissolved. 
In order to avoid these errors, the tap delivering the water from the jjumps 
is connected by means of a caoutchouc tube with a tubulure at the bottom of 
a tin cylinder, about 10 inches high and 7 in diameter. The water is turned 
on and allowed to flow over the edge of the vessel ; thus only the surface of 
the water is exposed to the action of the air, and the liquid at the lower part 
of the vessel is protected by the upward ciu'rent and continual overflow. 

The bottles used for collecting the waters hold a little more than 100 
cubic centimetres, and a separate quantity is used for each experiment. 
Into each bottle a piece of glass tube, bent in the form of a U, is intro- 
duced ; one end of the tube is sealed, and in the closed limb a bubble of air 
is confined by mercury which fills the open limb and the bend. In the col- 
lection of each water, four of these bottles are lowered by means of pieces of 
string into the tin vessel, while the water is flowing over its edge. After 
being filled each bottle is carefully examined, and if any bubbles of gas 
adhere to the sides they must be removed. The bottles are then again 
lowered into the vessel and the temperature observed. A siphon is now 
passed to the bottom of one of the bottles, and after it has drawn two or 
three hundred cubic centimetres of water through the bottle, it is placed into 
the second. The first bottle is now raised, and while its neck is still under 
the water, a slightly greased stopper is put into the neck and carefully 
pressed down. This force compresses the air contained in the glass tube, 
and if the pressure is sufficient, it prevents the escape of gas from the water, 
a precaution which in some cases is very necessary. The siphon is then 
transferred from the second into the tlurd Isottle, and the second is closed and 
removed. When the four bottles have been filled, the stoppers are covered 
"with ground caps. The caps are next filled with mercury through small 
holes at their tops, which are afterwards closed with glass stoppers. 

The gases should be removed from the waters as soon after collection as 
possible. In the following cases, the greatest length of time which was 
allowed to elapse between these operations was five days, but usually the 
removal of the gases was effected the day after the collection. 

With so few results as have been obtained up to the present, it wiU be 
impossible to do more than point out the small quantity of oxygen in the 
waters from deep wells as compared with those from shallow ones, and with 
rain- and river-waters. The quantity of nitrogen is also very remarkable, as 
being in all the cases, except the river- and rain-water, in excess of the 

* Journ. Cliem. Soc, ser, 2, vol, vii. p. 307. 



56 



KEPORT 1869. 



VIII. 

Water from 

waterworks. 

Deal, d.-awn 

from main about 

I mile from the 

reservoir. 


3 
01 S 

o 


5< 5 

OIL- 

01 6 


4-413 


o 


O 
I'- 

(—1 


VII. 

Water from 
chalk well, 11 Ti 
feet deeii,Watcr- 
works, Deal, sur- 
rounded by cul- 
tivated fields. 
Not influenced 
by tide. 


■n 

o 

o 
CI 


IS o 

r^ 6 


o 


CO 
CO 
.— 1 


o 

I-H 

CO 

I- 

I-H 


VI. 

Water from 

surface well to 

face of the chalk, 

27-30 feet deep, 

atMr. Hills's 
Brewery, Deal. 

In the town. 

Influenced by 
tide. 


c 

' — ' & 
M 
O 

CI 


-¥ ro 

l-O 


01 

o 

r-f 


C5 


O 

OI 

o 

-+I 

I-H 


V. 

Water 
from 
chalk 
well at 
Worth- 
ing. 


X 

u 

<D 

01 


01 -o 

r-(6 


o 






IV. 

Water from 
well not down to 
chalk, in course 
of construction, 
143.] feet deep, at 
Messrs. Barclay 

and I'crkins's 
Brewery, South- 
wark. 


-2 
o 

S 

01 's. 

I-H O 

o 


r22 

C-. o 




i 


o 
Ol 

I— t 
.^ 
CO 

o 


III. 

Water from well 
in chalk, 367 feet 
deep, at Messrs. 

Barc^lay and 
Perkins's Brew- 
ery, Southwark. 


a. 

a 

a 
,— i £ 

01 a 

1^ — 


cr oi 

oo 


I- 


?! 

CC 

I- 


o 
Ol 

-*^ 

<r. 

I-H 


II. 
Water fi-om 
cistern of Boyal 
College of Che- 
mistry. Supplied 
hy Grand .) unc- 
tion Company. 


o 
01 


s 

01 


1 


o 

e 

00 

I— 


1 

a 
1 


-2 
OS 

oi 


1-3 

CO 

6 


o 
o 

Ol 


o 

o 

lb 

I-H 

CS 
CO 

I-H 




Cm 

o 

.i 






1-5 


1 


Solubility of nitrogen in 
100 volumes of distilled 
water ('Bunsen'* 




Tenqjeraturc 
col lent ion 





Volumes of 
gases in 

100 volumes 
of water. 




^ 



S -^ fl 

fc .5 i: 
o c p 



1 o 



Coo 
9. _ i- 



Cj 

■■f ir' 



o 

>■ 

c 2 

2 ^ 



OJ ^ 



o 2 



O M '73 



c« 
60 






*-■ . o 



^ 



;2 « S: 

£ ^ § 

P ^ X o 

?-. t- QJ 

g 3 o ?5 



= ro J ^ 

£ ..Do 



C3 r^ 



O n O) rt 

■- hH O ^ 

'o ^-S.s 

tn -E '^ M 

"3 o o . 

-'^ '£.-=> 
-3 S ^ ° 

^ :3 ^ » 



(-! C 

o o 

g 



a g 



OH £: 



O' X cd 



THE PRESSURE OF TAXATION ON REAL PROPERTY. 57 

amount absorbable by distilled water. To show this there is introduced 
into the foregoing Table numbers taken from Bunsen's ' Gasometry,' indi- 
cating the quantities of nitrogen absorbable by 100 volumes of distilled 
water at the temperatures which are nearest to those at which the waters 
were collected. The reasons of this apparent anomaly will be investigated 
during the com-se of the ensuing year, and it is hoped that, by the next 
Meeting of the Association, a much larger amoiint of information will have 
been obtained. The prosecution of the experiments has been much hindered 
by the necessity of pei'fccting the apparatus for the removal of the gases, 
and the means of collection, so that it was not nntU after the beginning of 
July that any systematic work coitld be commenced. Although the investi- 
gation wiU be continued, it is not intended to ask for any additional grant, 
as the amount voted last year wiU probably be sufficient. 



The Pressure of Taxation on Real Property. By Frederick Purdy, 
Principal of the Statistical Dejjartment, Poor Laiu Board, and one 
of the Honorary Secretaries of the Statistical Society. 

[A Communication ordered to be j^rinted in cxtcnso among the Eeports.] 

I. The Peesstjei;. 

The question of the fiscal pressure caused by the incidence of imperial and 
local taxation on real property is no new topic in this country. In 1846 the 
House of Lords appointed a select committee to inquire into the " Burdens 
affecting real property." This committee, of which Lord Beaumont was the 
chairman, gathered from various sources a large body of information, and 
made in the same session a rather brief report to the House upon the volu- 
minous evidence which was subsequently pubhshed. A draft report which 
Lord Monteagle, one of the members, had drawn up was not accepted; it 
was, however, printed as a separate paper by the House of Commons in the 
same j'ear. 

Both documents have rather an historical than practical interest for us in 
the present day. Our imperial financial policy has materially changed since 
1846, and the local burdens of that time are quite dwarfed in absolute 
amount by recent growths in the same field. It therefore appeared a useful 
task to ascertain the taxation laid on real property at this moment with the 
greatest precision that authentic records render possible. I propose to do 
this statistically ; an economic treatment of the subject would be, no doubt, 
as touching the pockets of a large number of people, a more exciting theme. 
But admitting that the aggregate of imperial and local expenses must be 
provided for, throwing a tax off one description of pi'operty means, in the 
sphere of financial policy, placing it on another. The correlation of the 
parts would be disturbed ; the wide and intricate field of taxation must then 
be entirely reviewed and readjusted, a task of no mean difficulty which 
may be fittingly omitted on this occasion. 

The nearest approach, at present, to the annual value of real property in 
England and Wales is expressed by some figures supplied to mo by the 
courtesy of Mr. Erederick Gripper, Accountant and ComptroUer-Gcneral to 
the Board of Inland Eevenue. 

They show the gross sum to be upwards of »C145,000,000 for the financial 
year 1867-68, thus assessed : — 



58 REPORT— 1869. 

£ 

Under Schedule A 7 110,341,387 

Sum formerly charged under A, but since 1865 transferred "I Qf, ^-^ nni 
to Schedule D as profits J ~ ' ' 

Total 145,309,378 

The assessment upon wliicL. the Cro^^n actually gathered the tax was 
upwards of ^9,000,000 i^hort of this gross sum, the statement of the amoimts 
"charged" standing, for the same year, thus: — 

£ 

Under Scliedule A 107,002,092 

Sum formerly charged under A, but since 1865 transferred ] cc^ «, . f,o.> 
to D as jirofits J ""^ ' ' 

Total 130,134,024 

A difference between gross and net value of i!9,000,000 and more, arising 
upon those properties which are stiU retained in Schedule A. 

What originally stood in Schedule A before any transfer was effected can 
be shown in detail for the last year of the old scries thus : — 

Gross Annual Value of Propertij in Enrjland and Wales, Assessed under 
Schedule A of Income-Tax Acts, Year ended oih April, 1865. 

1 . Lands, including tithe-rent charge 4<i,403,000 

2. Messuages 59,286,000 

3. Tithes (not commuted) 58,000 

4. Manors 189,000 

5. Fines 106,000 

6. Quarries D 520,000 

7. INIines D 4,277,000 

8. Iron-works D 1.248,000 

9. Fisheries D 31,000 

10. Canals D 786,000 

11. Eailwavs D ]3,882,0<M) 

12. Gas-works D 1,018,000 

13. Other property* 2,486,000 

14. General profilsf 387,000 

Total 131 34.3,000 

The principal items now placed under Schedule D have that letter marked 
against the sum in the list above ; probably considerable transfers have also 
been made from " other property " and " general profits ; " but this is certain, 
quarries, mines, iron-works, canals, fisheries, railways, and gas-works hereto- 
fore under Schedule A are now accounted for under Schedule D. 

In the British fiscal system real property suflfers an exceptional liability to 
taxation. It bears fully tliree-fourths of our heavy and fast-increasing local 
rates, and then in a variety of ways it is made to supplement the imperial 
budgets. Here I may be permitted to remark that in this country we are 
too much in the habit of discttssing our imperial and local systems of rates 
and taxes as things apart, yet their conjoint bearing on the interests of the 
holders of real property is obvious and practical. This opinion I had the 
honour of indicating to Section F, in a brief paper, when the British Associa- 
tion last met at Cambridge J. 

The amount of local taxation incident upon real property is now known 

* Salt-springs or woi-ks, alum-mines or works, docks, drains and levels; rights of 
markets and fairs, tolls, bridges, and ferries. 

t All other profits arising from lands, tenements, and hereditaments or heritages not 
in the actual possession of the party to be charged, and not before enumerated. 

J See the Transactions of the British Association for 1862, p. 162. 



THE PEESSURE OF TAXATION ON REAL PROPERTY. 59 

with great fullness : mucli is also known of the imperial burden ; but, for the 
reasons hereafter stated, approximate completeness is alone attainable in this 
section of our taxes. As the heaviest in amount the local taxes arc first 
shown by the subjoined list : — 

Local Taxation in England and Wales faUinrj on Heal Propertu in 1SG7-68, 
according to Mr. Ward Hunfs Return, Nos, 497 and 497 — I.' Sess. 1868. 

£ 

1. Amount levied under the name of poor-rate 11,061,000 

2. County, hundred, borough police, not paid out of poor-rate 307,000 

3. Highway-rate, not paid out of poor-rate 917,000 

4. Church-rates 217,000 

b. Lighting- and watching-rate , 77,000 

6. Improvement-commission rates 445,000 

7. General district-rates, levied under the provision of Public 1 ■> t-nf- nnn 

Health and Local Government Acts / ^ ' ' '^^ '^"^ 

8. Eates under Com-ts of Commissioners of Sewers, including "I -,.,q j^.^ 

drainage aud embankment rates j <UJ,UUU 

P. Eates of other kinds, and inclusive of i'981,000 levied in 1 ^ f,no rynn 
the metropolitan district as general and lighting-rates . . J t,-Uo,UUU 

Total 16,733,000 

*^* Taken in round numbers and corrected by the most recent returns in possession of 
the Poor-Law Board. 

It may be well to remember that nearly half of this heavy sum is entailed 
tipon the ratepayers by the absolute right to relief which the legislation of 
England has given to the poor. The expenditure last year for " relief to the 
poor " was £7,498,000 ; but law charges to the amount of .£29,000, the 
cost of making valuations .£50,000, and "money expended for all other 
jHirposes" £532,000, a large portion of which latter sum is solely contingent 
on pauperism, are all items that are excluded from what, in official language, 
is termed "relief;" though it is patent that if pauperism ceased out of the 
land, most of these expenses would be determined. Add a duo proportion of 
the excluded items and we may fairly say that, in round numbers, English 
pauperism last year cost little short of £8,000,000 sterling. 

The imperial taxes that are incident upon realty certainly exceed 
£6,000,000 ; they probably approach to £7,000,000. So far as their respective 
amounts can be discovered, they are exhibited in the following statement :— 

Imperial Taxation in England and Wales falling on Real Property in 1867-68, 
or thereahouts, according to Returns in 2>ossessio7i of the Commissioners of 
Inland Revenue. 

£ 

1. Property-tax, 18G7 2,354,000 

2. Land-tax, 1868 1,058,000 

3. House-duty, 1868 1,003,000 

4. Succession-duty, average of 1867-68-69 562,000 

5. Stamps on deeds and other instruments, not otherwise spc- 1 , ,„- «/-.«„ 

cified, 1868 (a) .....| l.-10o,000? 

6. Fire insurance? 

7. Stamp-duty on wills and letters of administration ? 

8. Probate Court fees ? '.[[.'.W 

Approximate total 0,382,000 

(a) Stamps on sales, conveyances, leases, mortgages, &c. will be included in this sum, 
but what portion is not incident on real estate it is impossible to discover. The stamp- 
duties on wills and letters of administration, some of which will be jjaid on leaseholds for 
years, and therefore indirectly from real property, are excluded from the above, and that 
exclusion may possibly balance the excess under the head of stamps on deeds. The duty 



60 REPORT— 1869. 

ou wills &c. iu England and Wales in 1867-G8 was i'l, 493,000. Probate Court fee 
stamps, which in 18ti8 amounted to ,£124,000, are also excluded. 

The succession-duty experiences considerable variations ; according to 
l^articulars furnished by Mr. Gripper, the sums collected in England and 
Wales for the financial years 1867, 1868, 1869 were respectively £507,081, 
£608,297, and £571,831. For the purposes of this paper the average of the 
three years has been taken. Fire-iusiu-ance duty has ceased ; it is noted 
above as a reminder ; verj' recently it was a tax that largely bore on certain 
descriptions of real property. After trial it is found impossible to unravel 
the stamp-duties so as to exhibit that iwrtion of the impost with which 
alone this paper is concerned. 

Allowing for possible defects in the imperial tax table, the aggregate 
burden is this : — 

£ 

Taken by local taxation 16,733,000 

„ imperial taxation 0,382,000 

Grand total 23,115,000 

upon the gross value assessed under Schedule A— £145,399,000. This is 
equivalent to 3s. 2^d. in the pound ; on the net value (the amount '•' charged," 
£136,135,000) it equals 35. 4^<L in the pound. Here, however, it should 
be remembered that the standards of comjjarison are themselves averages of 
a comprehensive sort; it is not every poimd of gross or of "charged" value 
that is taxable. For example, on many estates the land-tax is redeemed*; 
the inhabited-house tax is not paid by more than one-sixth of all the house- 
holders of the kingdom ; though measured on value alone, more than half the 
house-rental pays. The assessment of houses &c. (other than farm-houses) 
to the property-tax in 1864-65 was, as already stated, £59,286,000 ; but for 
the purposes of the house-tax, the levy was made upon £30,405,000. Again, 
many small proprietors, being outside the statutable limit of the income-tax, 
altogether escape it. In a word, as a taxable corpus, the valuations here 
cited must not be invested with an homogeneity they do not possess. 

Though the Crown valuations under Schedule A be a much truer exponent 
of the country's wealth iu real property than any assessment yet made for 
the purpose of local ratings, it is nevertheless advisable to give, in a theme 
of this kind, some attention to the latter. 

There is no information in existence as to the " rateable value " of England 
and Wales previous to the year 1840-41. This "rateable," or, as it is 
sometimes termed, " annual value," when discovered from returns obtained 
by the Poor Law Commissioners from the overseers of that time, was found 
to be £62,540,000. The parish officers' valuations were notoriously defective. 
The annual value of real property was ascertained by the Commissioners of 
the Income- and Property-Tax Acts to be £85,803,000 iu the subsequent 
year 1841-42. The whole excess of £23,000,000 or so must not, however, 
be ascribed to under valuation in the poor-rate assessment. Some few things 
are in Schedule A that are exempt from poor's rate. The Parochial Assess- 
ment Act of 1837 does not appear to have mended matters muchf. The 
increase of assessable property, and, latterly, the application of sounder prin- 
ciples, introduced by the assessment committees in the practice of valuation, 
though yet very short of attainable completeness, make themselves visible 
in the next statement : — 

* The annual tax redeemed up to 1856 was £770,000.— Statistical Journal, vol. xs. 
t See ' Statistical Journal,' vol. xxiii. p. 292 et seq. 



THE PRESSURE OF TAXATION ON REAL PROPERTY. 



61 



Pai'ochial Tears. 


Poor-Eate Valuation. 


Gro.ss 
Estimated Eental. 


Net Annual 

or 

Rateable Yalue. 


Clear Interval 

between the 

Successive Returns. 


1840-41 

1846-47 

1849-50 

185.5-56 

186.5-66 

1867-68 


£ 

Not known. 

J) 

86,077,676 
110,079,308 
118,.334,0S1 


£ 

62,540,030 
67,320,587 
67.700,153 
71,840,271 
93,638,403 
100,612,734 


6 vears. 
2' „ 
5 ., 
9 » 
1 year. 



A Parliamentary Ilcturn of some interest to the discussion of the incidence 
of taxation was in 1853 obtained upon the motion of llr. Moffatt. The 
growth of the last fifteen or sixteen years has materially changed the relative 
proportion of some of the data selected from the paper and placed hereunder. 
Historically they have value now; hereafter, when we -wish to ascertain 
whither political and economic forces are in this matter of taxation carrying 
us, their worth may be greater. The amounts payable in England and 
Wales out of each sort of rateable property was, in the language of the 
return, " ascertained by the rule of proportion applicable to the poor's rate." 



Different DescriiJtions of 

Property upon 

which the Eates were 

Incident. 


1 

Poor's Eate 

(including 

County, 

Borough 'and 

Police Rates). 


Highway 
Eatc. 


Land-Tax. 


Proportion paid 

by each Description 

of Propertj'. 


Amount. 


Per cent. 


1. Land, including farm-" 

houses 

2. Tithe-rent charge 

3. Houses, including ware- 1 

houses, factories, &c. J 

4. Coal-mines 


£ 
2,707,627 
295,056 


£ 
607,546 
59,123 


£ 
533,112 
60,563 


£ 
3.848,285 
414-742 


41-2 

4-4 


3,002,683 
3,124,526 

61,191 

28,524 

28,471 
204,871 

102,032 


606,669 

889,574 

14,082 
6,236 
7,596 

52,537 

25,881 


593,675 

478,816 

5,981 

5,.581 

3,756 

30,171 

12,937 


4,263,027 
4,492,916 

81,254 

40,341 

39,823 

287,579 

140,850 


45-6 

481 

0-9 
0-4 
0-4 
31 

i'5 


5. Saleable underwoods .... 
0. Canals 

7. Railways 

8. All other descriptions l 

of f)roperty J 

Totals 


6,552,293 


1,662,575 


1,130,917 


9.345.790 


lOO'O 





jS^ofe. — The poor-rate and highway-rate levy are for the year 1851-52 ; the land-tax for 
the previous year. 

Here it is seen that sixteen years ago landed property, including the tithe- 
rent charge, bore 45-6 per cent, of the aggregate amount of the rates and tax 
mentioned above, and the residual property 54-4 per cent. There is not, I 
believe, any subsequent return to show what changes may have taken place 
in these ratios when measured on the basis of the poor-rate valuations ; 
though, from the comparatively slow growth of one and the rapid growth of 
the other portion of assessable property, the differences must be considerable. 

In the absence of a means of comparison similar in each particular with 
the table of 1851-52, we may, bearing in mind the necessary quahfication, 
take the property-tax assessment for ] 864-65 as a guide, especially as the 



02 



KEPORT — 1869. 



mere ratios are much less open to doubt, from the diversity of practice be- 
tween Cro^yn valuers and local valuers, than the absolute amounts. 

Amount and Satio of Gross Assessment in 1864-65, of Lands and of other 
Heal Propertji under Schedide A, in England and Wales. 



Of lands, iiicliidiiig titlie-rciit char^'O 


£ 
46,403,437 

84,938,0G2 


Per cent. 
35-3 
647 


Of all other descriptions of real property assessed 1 
in this schedule J 


Total 


131,341,499 


loo-o 





As against 1851-52, we may say that 10-3 per cent, has passed from the 
land and gone upon other assessable property. Land would appear now 
liable to bear rather more than one-third of any burden laid upon real 
property generally, and real property, other than land, rather less than 
two-tltirds, 

II. The Growtu of the Peopeety under Peessuee. 

It has thus been shown, I may submit, that the imposts upon real property 
are in appearance exceptionally severe, taxed as it is both by the imperial 
and the local assessor. Have these burdens in auj- wise injured or retarded 
the growth of this species of wealth ? is the next question. During the past 
fifty years England has increased largely in numbers, and more largely in 
material prosperity. Under such conditions, it is inconceivable of any com- 
munity that a great iraputus should not have been given to tbe development 
of Avhat English lawyers mean by the term " realty " or real estate. 
Authentic records afford the means of instituting a comparison between the 
years 1815 and 1868 ; or, roughly speaking, after the lapse of half a century. 
In the first-named year the population of England and Wales was 11,004,000 ; 
in 1865 it was 21,5G0,000, the increase being 96-2 per cent. In 1814-15, 
the real property assessed under Schedule A was £53,495,000, and in 1867-68 
it was c£145,3'J9,000, or 171-8 per cent., and thus surpassing the rate of 
development in the population by 75-6 per cent. 

This increase of real property is the more remarkable when the circum- 
stances of what was formerly its most eminent constituent (laud) are 
considered. This natural agent, in a country like England of the present 
century, is within very narrow limits restricted in quantity. Houses, mills, 
factories, railroads, &c. may and do increase indefinitely ; arable land cannot. 
It is impossible to say what was the area under cultivation in 1815 ; and it 
is, I believe, a matter of conjecture which way the balance would incline if 
the loss by the expansion of our towns and by the introduction of railways 
was measured against the acquisitions by enclosui'cs, which, reckoning only 
from 1845 to 1867, amounted to 506,502 acres, a surface much larger than 
the area now under cultivation in Dorset or in Cornwall. The estimated 
quantity of land occupied by a lineal mile of railway, according to a Parlia- 
mentary Paper of last Session, was 12-97 acres ; the total extent 133,430 
acres, or rather more than one-fourth of the quantity brought under culture 
by the Enclosure Commissioners in twentj^-two years. 

The Government has published no return of the gross valuation in eacli 
county, under Schedule A, for a period later than the financial j-ear 1864-65 ; 
but since a comparison of the value of land and of the other descriptions of 
real property in tbat year, in the different parts of the kingdom, with the 
official account in 1814-15, may be of some interest to the Section, the 
details have been worked out and placed in an Appendix *. 
* See ' Statistical Journal ' for September 1869. 



THE PRESSURE OF TAXATION ON REAL PROPERTY. 



G3 



Taken divisionally, the results are these, for the aggregate of real property 
other than land : — 



Diyisions. 


Annual Value of Real Property 
other than Lands*. 


Licrease 
per 

cent. 


1814r-15. 


1864-05. 


Increase in 
1864-65. 


I. The Metropolis and the extra ' 
nu'tropolitan jMrts of Mid- ■ 
dlesex. Surrey, and Kent . . J 

n. South-Eastern,' less the extra ' 
metropolitan parts o/Sarrey 

and Kent 

iir. South Midland, less the extra 1 
metropolitan part of Mid- ■ 
dlesex J 

IV. Eastern 


£ 

6,914,492 
921,408 

664,948 

1,032,175 
1,782,524 
1,429,248 

473,185 
1,856,841 
996,986 
712,777 
450,791 


£ 

31,336,856 
3,215,947 

2,475.068 

2,453.107 
4,695,384 
7.852,049 
4,248,121 
13,138,535 
7,924,120 
4,013,925 
3,584,534 


£ 

24.422,364 

2,294,539 

1,810,120 

1,420,932 
2,912,860 
6,422,801 

3'774'936 
11,281,694 
6,927,134 
3.3°i.i48 
3.J33,743 


353-2 
249-1 

272-2 

137-6 
163-4 

449'S 
798-1 
607-6 
694-8 
462-9 
694-9 


V. South-Western 


VI. We.st Midland 


VII. North Midland 


VIII. North-Western 


IX. York 


X. Northern 


XI. Welsh 

England and Wales 


17,235,375 


84,937,646 


67,702,271 


392-8 



Under the house-tax the farmer's dwelling is separately assessed, but for 
property-tax purposes it is treated as an integral part of the land. 



Divisions. 


Annual Value of Lands (inclusive 
of Tithes). 


Increase 
per 

cent. 


1814-15. 


1864-65. 


Increase in 
1804-65. 


I. The Metropolis and the extra 
metropolitan parts of Mid- ■ 
dlesex, Surrey, and Kent . . J 
II. South-Ea.stern, less the extra | 
metropolitan parts of Surrey i 
and Kent ". J 

III. South Midland, less the extra 

metropolitan 2)arts of Mid- 
dlesex 

IV. Eastern 


£ 
2,018,000 

1,956,000 

3,716,000 

3,209,000 
5,294.000 
4,893,000 
4,339,000 
2.397,000 
3,764,000 
2,498.000 
2,176,000 


£ 
2,.582,315 

2,697,641 

4,935,099 

4.908,096 
6,313,853 
6,189,576 
5,755.138 
2,826,389 
4,431.864 
2,628,.-i92 
3,135,290 


£ 
564- 3 15 

741,641 

1,219,099 

1,699,096 

1,019,853 

1,296,576 

1,416,138 

429,389 

667,864 

130,592 

959,290 


27-9 

37-9 

32-8 

52-9 
19-2 
26*4 
32-6 
17-9 
17-7 

5-2 
44-1 


V. South-Western 


VI. West Midland 


VII. North Midland 


VIII. North- Western 


IX. York 


x. Northern 


XI. Welsh 


England and Wales 


36,260,000 


46,403,853 


10,143,853 


27-9 



* With "lands,'' -wherever mentioned in this paper, tithes in the earlier years, an' 
tithe-rent charge in the later ones, are ahvays included. 



64 



EEPORT 1869. 



In these comparisons no adjustment for the depreciation of the currency 
in the earlier part of the century has been attempted. Professor Jevons has 
given a table in the ' Statistical Journal'*, showing that, in 1814, gold was 
above the standard price of ,£3 17s. lO^d. by 34 per cent., and in the next 
year 20 per cent. ; at the latter ratio one-Jifth must be deducted from all 
values in 1814-15. 

From the absence of any authentic record of the land under cultivation in 
1814-1.5, the means of computing the farm rental per acre are wanting. 
We are in a better position now : the rent for the whole kingdom, as well as 
for individual counties, can be worked out with. I believe, a useful approach 
to accuracy. The rent for all England and "Wales was, in ISGG, ,£1 17.5. 9d. 
per acre. The statistics for this, as well as for the counties of the south- 
western division, are displayed below. 





Total Area 

in 

Acres. 


Acreage under 
all kinds of 
Crops, Bare 
Fallow, and 

Grass in 1866. 


Annual 

Rental, 

Schedule B, 

in 

1864^65. 


Rent 

per 

Acre. 


All England and Wales t 

Soufh-Wcstern Counties: — • 
Wilts 


37,324,883 

865,092 
632,025 

1,657,180 
873,600 

1,047,220 


24.546,607 

636,786 

39^.599 
919.336 
436,071 
735,604 


£ 
46,403,853 

1.161,656 
744.047 

1,780,976 
744,(552 

1,852,522 


£ s. d. 

1 17 9 

I 16 6 
I 18 10 
I 18 9 

1 15 6 

2 10 4 


Dorset 


Devon 


Corn'wall 


Somer.set 





Note. — The agricultural statistics do not include the area of hill-pastures ; holdings under 
fire acres are also excluded. In 1861, according to the census, there were 7050 holdings in 
.England and Wales under five acres each ; their aggregate area was, however, only 19,140. 

These figures have, perhaps, no very immediate bearing on the subject of 
the paper ; but it seemed of possible utility to record them here for future 
guidance. 

While land and other kinds of real property have made, in the past half 
century, the highly satisfactory progress already mentioned, it is certain that 
trades, manufactures, and professions have enormously distanced agricultural 
industry in the race for -wealth. 

The assessment "for all profits or gains arising from ony profession, trade, 
employment, or vocation," under Schedule D, is notoriouslj-, and perhaps 
irremediably defective. In their last Heport, the Commissioners of Inland 
Kevenue estimate, from circumstances within their knowledge, that the 
return of income under this schedule is =£57,250,000 short of the true 
amount ; no exaggei'ation can, therefore, be charged against the figures 
which represent profits and gains in the annexed Table (p. 65). 

The land rental in respect of which the farmer's profits are assessed has, 
during the fifty years ended with 1S65, increased by ,£12,375,000, or 36 
per cent. ; the profits of trades and professions have, in the same interval, 
augmented by .£72,611,000, or 212 per cent., irrespective of the correction 
due for depreciated currency in 1814-15. Two factors enter into the 
increased assessments returned under Schedules A and B since 1864 — real 

* Vol. xsviii. 1805. 

t The rent per acre for land, i. c. for 25,542,427 acres, under eiiltiralion, in all England 
and Wales, according to the Returns of 1807-68, is i'l lis. -id. 



THE PRESSURE OF TAXATION ON REAL PROPERTY. 



65 



advance in quantity and in market value, and an apparent advance by 
better assessment *. 



England and Wales under 


Annual Value Assessed in 


1814-15. 


1864-65. 


Schedule B~ 


34,028,655 

34,287,685 


46,403,853 
106,808,319 


Schedule D — 
Profits of trades and professions 





There is, I fear, no possibility of assigning the true value to each factor. 
The Union Assessment Committees' valuation of 408 unions, embracing 
about half the rateable property of the kingdom, in 18G3 amounted to 
.£43,298,000 ; in the following year, when it may be supposed these bodies 
had obtained greater knowledge of their work, the assessment of the same 
unions was raised <£5,384,000, or 12-4 per cent. 

III. Conclusion. 

Though in the preceding pages the taxes incident upon real property have 
been tenned a burden, this language requires some qualification when we 
examine the objects to which a large portion of oiir local rates are devoted. 
The charges entailed on the ratepayers by crime and pauperism might be 
dispensed with, to the great advantage of the jiroperty now defraying the 
cost, though Enghsh poor-rates largely supplement wages, and consumers 
thereby gain some temporary, but in its consequences more than doubtful, 
benefit. Expenditure upon the maintenance and repair of roads and bridges, 
upon the drainage and embankment of marsh lauds, upon the sewerage, 
paving and hghting of towns, and upon many other services performed by 
improvement commissioners, as well as the sanitary measures undertaken by 
boards of health, are operations signally beneficial to rateable propertj'. 

So far, therefore, as the property is judiciously assessed, and the proceeds 
honestly and iuteUigently administered for these purposes, the local rate is a 
good investment, for which no enlightened owner will manifest an ignorant 
impatience of taxation. The imperial taxes and the other part of the local 
rates stand in a very different category. 

{Note. — An Appendix, consisting of detailed Tables, will be found in the 
' Journal of the Statistical Society ' for September 1869.] 

* Alluding, in 1864, to a new valuation of property then in progress, under the orders 
of the Inland Eevenue Office, the Commissioners mention that in many districts the 
amount of duty was greater at 6c?. than formerly at Id. They state that, " so far as 
Schedules A and B are concerned, this result is attributable in no small degree to the care 
and judgment with which the assessments were made upon this occasion by our surveyors, 
acting under special instructions from this office. We have also been much assisted by 
the valuations under the Union Assessment Act, esj^ecially in the case of land in the occu- 
pation of the owner, where the former unsatisfactory parochial rating to the relief of tlie 
poor was the guide upon which our officers chiefly relied." — Ninth liejjort of Commis- 
sioners, 1865. 

t Farmers' profits were estimated as equal to three-fourths of their rent;il in 1814—15, 
and one-half rental under the Act of 1842. The full rental of both years is given above. 



1869. 



6G REPORT — 1869. 

On the Chemical Reactions of Light discovered by Professor Tyndall. 
By Professor Morren^ of Marseilles. 

[A communication ordered to be printed in exienso among the Reports.] 

SrtfCE the last session of the British Associatiou, Mr. Tyndall has published, 
in several papers, highly interesting researches on a particular species of 
luminous reactions, thus providing physicists and chemists with a new 
instrument, both of synthesis and analysis, to which he invites the attention 
and investigation of all whom it may concern. In obedience to this scientific 
challenge, I have repeated, with the utmost care, all the learned gentle- 
man's experiments. I have found them all as rigorously exact as they are 
ably described. They refer to atomical evolutions in which wc almost seem 
to detect Nature in her most mysterious operations. The molecules of 
bodies, when powerfully lighted, the observer himself being in absolute 
darkness, may be easily perceived in their infinitely minute motions ; in 
following which, Mr. Tyndall, and every one who is passionately desirous 
of penetrating the secrets of the constitution of bodies, cannot but feel the 
most exciting curiosity. Mr. TjTidall has made rise principally of electric 
light, and has caiiscd it to act mostly on organic bodies. I have followed in 
this respect quite a different method and object. 

Most favourably situated with respect to solar light, in Provence, where 
for months together we enjoy a cloudless sky, I proposed to limit myself to 
the iise of solar rays only, and confine myself to those conditions which 
the atmosphere afibrds us. I have carefully avoided organic bodies, the 
molecules of which are higlily complicated and most difficult to follow in their 
multifarious evolutions. I have even preferred the simpler bodies of mineral 
chemistry, as offering an easier field of observation to the physicist desirous 
of arriving at clear and precise results. 

In this exposition I shall follow, step by step, the order which, without 
any preconceived or systematical ideas, directed my successive experiments. 
It is, so to say, a journey in an unknown land. I shall thus the better 
show the deceptions I met with, the incessantly supervening difficulties, 
the necessities of modifying the apparatus, and the various incidents of the 
route. I hope by this means the better to illustrate the object I had in view. 

At the outset I made use of an experimental ajiparatus entirely similar 
to Mr. Tyndall's — a glass tube 8 to 9 centimetres in diameter and 1 metre 
long, fitted at each extremity into a broad brass ring luted with cement, 
and carefully ground in the anterior part ; two plain pieces of plate glass, 
perfectly transparent, resting on the rings, and slightly lubricated on the 
edges with a fatty substance, constituted an air-tight cavity when a vacuum 
was formed. A glass cock, fitted on each extremity, and let into the 
cylindrical rings, allowed me to make the vacuum at one end, and to introduce 
at the other the gas or vapour on which the experiments were to be made. 
Extreme, if not absolute cleanness and perfectly dry tubes arc indispen- 
sable requisites. 

The light arrives in the tube after condensation by a lens which every- 
thing induces me to believe was not achromatic in Mr. Tyndall's experi- 
ments. In his apparatus, as in mine, two cones are formed joined at the apices, 
the first, the converging cone, with an orange-red periphery, the other, the 
diverging one, with a violet-blue peripherj^, circumstances wliich I notice 
here, because the white molecules which are about to appear wiU often 
assume, in passing through them, the hues of the luminous bands in which 
they circulate. When a vacuum has been produced in the tube, the light 



ON THE CHEMICAL REACTIONS OF LIGHT. 67 

passes tlirough it without the couca beiug in the least perceived ; the tube 
is optically vacuous ; but wheu the gas or vapour is iutroduced, a blue cloud, 
or blue precipitate, of au incomparable delicacy appears after a varying 
lapse of time, first at the summit of the cones, then in the converging cone. 
As long as the precipitate is of that beautiful blue colour, the light which it 
sends to the eye is perfectly polarized as Mr. TyndaU has described it. 
Then by slow degrees the precipitate increases, and slowly becomes white, 
the light emitted stUl remaining polarized; but as the sides of the tube 
lighted by the cones send to the eye light wliich is also polarized, and as it were 
the product of a polarizer, the whitish vapour of the cones then behaves like 
a thin polarizing lamina under inspection through the Nicol held by the 
observer ; and when the two polarization planes are perpendicular to one 
another, the whitish cones assume a magnificent blue colour, exactly as a thin 
lamina of selenite of the required thickness would do ; but iu proportion 
as the white precipitate increases, all polarization disappears. The precipi- 
tated molecules become heated, both at the summits of the cones and against 
the entrance glass plate, and there arises a motion, slow at first, which 
brings to the cones other particles of the body under experimentation, not 
yet acted on by the light ; and as these particles, owing to transparency, 
appear dark, their iutermiugling with the white particles produces a series 
of the most beautiful, varying, and often most regular images, such as 
have been described with expressions of genuine admiration by Mr. Tyndall. 

The precipitated molecules seem to increase in diameter, and the two 
cones are then resplendent with reflected light. But there are, for the eye, 
certain points where the cone takes a fine rosy colour ; and the position of 
these points varies in the course of the same experiment. They are some- 
times on a line which forms an angle of 45° with the axis of the converging 
cone, sometimes on a line forming an angle of 90° + 45° with the same axis. 
There is, as in the rainbow, a line of position, and for the precipitated 
molecules a zone of cfiicacious rays, which demand special and ulterior 
inquiries. 

Let me resume the exposition of facts already so well described by the 
English physicist. 

It will be easily seen that either a synthesis or a decomposition of a body 
has taken place, i. e. a new grouping of the atoms, when under the influence 
of concentrated solar light the blue cloud invades the cones. 

The first body of which I have attempted the synthesis is that which I 
have so often and so easily obtained by electricitj% by causing the induction 
spark to pass through a gaseous mixture, formed of one of oxygen, two of 
nitrogen, and three of sulphurous acid *. It is the compound which is 
formed in the leaden chambers in the preparation of sulphuric acid. 

I submitted the gaseous mixture to the solar action immediately the 
compound was produced. The same gaseoiis mixture enabled me to recognize, 
like Mr. Tyndall, that the special rays which produce these reactions are 
neither the less refrangible cjdorific rays, nor the red rays even when highly 
concentrated. I have for this object made xiae of the greatest variety of 
screens — smoky quartz, iodine dissolved in bisulphide of carbon, CS", then 
coloured glasses, red, orange, yellow, green ; biit I dislike and distrust the 
glass screens ; I prefer by far liquid ones. The action produced was insigni- 
ficant. It became, on the contrary, extremely energetic with blue and 
violet glasses. 

It is therefore under the shock of the more rapid oscillations of the chcmi- 
* Jlde Annales cle Chimie et do Physique, vol. vi. series 4, 

f2 



68 



REPORT 1869. 



cal rays that these reactions arc produced. And here I wish to notice, in 
passing, an interesting fact, important espcciall}' for photographers — I mean 
the power of intercepting only the chemical rays of solar light, without 
stopping the luminous rays, j)ossessed by a solution of hisulphate of quinine, 
well filtered and confined, by means of gutta percha, between two glass 
plates. This screen, 5 millimetres in thickness, is of an extreme trans- 
parency to light ; but the chemical rays are intercepted. It might be advan- 
tageously used instead of the yellow glass, which, in photographic opera- 
tions, casts on all objects such peculiar hues as to require a special education 
of the eye which has to judge of the reactions. This screen proved inestimable 
to me, as it allowed of my disposing and regulating the apparatus suitably 
beforehand, while it enabled me to permit the chemical rays, which the 
screen had intercepted, to act at the proper moment only. 

After the experiments on ]S'0'2(80^) (0=8), I tried to unite the most 
resistant bodies. I introduced into the tube hydrogen and nitrogen perfectly 
pure and dry, and my surprise was extreme when I beheld the formation of 
a white cloiid. This iinexpected result, and one which I had considered as 
utterly impossible, obliged me to look still more closely into the matter, and 
to proceed with still greater caution. 

The brass rings at the extremities of the tube were luted with the usual 
resinous cement. Against this cement my first scriiples were now directed ; it 
might still contain some volatile essence (spirits of turpentine for instance) 
which might have penetrated into the tube when a good vacuum was formed ; 
and so small a quantity of matter sufficed perhaps to produce an appreciable 
result ; this might have given rise to the unexpected cloud. It became 
necessary to suppress these rings and simplify the apparatus, which I efiected 
in the following manner. 

I took a cylindrical glass tube (a glass with a foot, Fr. eprouvette) 29 to 30 
centimetres long and 8 to 9 ui diameter, and 1200 to 2000 cubic centims. 
in capacity. The upper edge, somewhat bell-mouthed and carefully ground, 
of above 8 raillims. thickness, was slightly lubricated with a little tallow, wax, 
and oil melted together. A flat square of plate glass, very transparent, was 
placed on the oil and sharply pressed down upon it, and some wax was melted 
all round the contact surface with a hot iron. At the bottom of the cylinder, on 
the side, a glass stop-cock was carefiiUy fitted in. ^Yith this apparatus the 
vacuum may be preserved during a long time, even for months together. The 




vacuum is produced, and the gases are introduced l)y the stopcock solely. But 
there is another method, very important to notice, for introducing into the 
tube the body to be examined, when it is solid or liquid and volatile. A very 



ON THE CHEMICAL REACTIONS Or LIGHT. 69 

small quantity of the substance is put into a very fine thin cylindrical txibc, 
which is closed with the lamp at both ends after the introduction of the 
body, and can be, when necessary, easily broken to pieces by a slight shock 
against the tiibc. The mercury gas-holders which receive and conduct the 
gases are glass, carefully divided, so as to measure the volume of the gases 
experimented on. In lieu of an air-pump I have always made use of a 
mercury exhauster, the only apparatus which can be absolutely relied on, and 
which enables the operator, when the reaction is completed, to withdraw 
the gases from the tube for analysis; the mercury exhauster likewise 
enables us to measiure the elastic force of the gases before and after the reac- 
tion, and thus indicates the variations of volume of the gas employed. 

What therefore gives these experiments a peculiar character is the com- 
plete elimination of^aU gaseous vehicles employed to convey the vapour. The 
conditions of my experiments differ in this respect from Mr, Tyndall's. 

The tubes, of smaller dimensions, which I have employed do not give 
indeed the splendid results which Mr. Tyndall presented to his delighted 
audience ; but these tubes are easier to set up and to clean : the mercury 
exhauster possesses moreover another advantage ; it allowed me to ascertain 
whether the gases were perfectly dry — a most essential point. 

As to the means of conveying the solar light, the process was the following. 
A broad mirror receives and reflects horizontally a voluminous pencil of rays 
which is refracted by a lens 22 centimetres in diameter and of 40 centi- 
metres focal length. The luminous cone is enclosed in a metallic box, 
whence it issues to penetrate into the tube through the glass plate. The 
summits of the two cones, the converging and the diverging, are situated 
pretty nearly in the centre of the tube (A) ; the two cones are therefore easily 
visible when the modifications of the bodies contained in the tube are pro- 
duced. It must not be forgotten that the periphery of the two cones is 
coloiired, as we said before, in consequence of the non-achromatism of the 
large condensing lens. 

Under these circumstances I was very much surprised to see that a mix- 
ture of hydrogen and nitrogen, perfectly pure and dry, produced the reaction 
cloud. They had been dried by a very slow passage through pounded glass 
which had been calcined and moistened with sulphiu-ic acid, pure and highly 
concentrated. I changed the desiccating substance, and successively made 
use of potash, chloride of calcium, phosphoric acid, all recently melted. In 
the three latter cases the cloud did not appear ; the action was null, and the 
solar light passed unperceived. What coiild the s?(?^)7fHr/c acid, then, convey ? 
evidently some little sulplmrous acid ; for sulphuric acid is in fact a real 
emitter of it, and always adds a certain quantity of it to any pure gas 
Avhich passes through it in minute and successive quantities ; and this acts 
in fact as an absorbent of the dissolved gas. Therefore hydrogen and nitro- 
gen cannot be united by solar influence wlicn perfectly freed from other 
gases. Eut, in truth, what could the action of the sulphurous gas be ? 

I applied myself to a special study of sulphurous acid, and have ascertained 
how easy the decomposition of this gas is. As soon as the light passes through 
it, the white cloud appears ; and if its manifestation is followed with care, it 
will easily be seen that it is produced not only at the summit of the cones, 
but likewise on the blue periphery of the first part of the diverging cone, 
and in the interior of the converging cone. I know of no body more 
sensible to luminous action ; and the use of condensed light seems hardly 
necessary for the purpose, since the cloud is formed at other points than the 
summit of the cones. With this body it is certainly both easy and admirable to 



70 EEPORT— 1869. 

behold the coloured bands which form the outline of the cones ; and then even 
the violet rays (scarcely perceptible under ordinary circumstances) can be easily 
seen in the interior of the first cone. One may thus easily follow and account 
for the varied hues which the whitish vapour assumes when the variations of 
tempera tui-e waft it about the cones, intermingled with the black streaks 
arising from such portions of the gas as have not yet been acted on. 

But to return to the sulphurous acid : What was the substance, blue at 
first, then whitish, thus obtained '? The two hues so different were merely 
the consequence of a difference in diameter — the first hue belonging to 
the bodies (perhaps atoms) precipitated in the minutest state of division. The 
white and pearly colours appear when the diameter has sufficiently increased, 
and goes on stiU increasing. These circumstances induced me to endea- 
vour to measure this diameter, a thing feasible by different means, but 
not with ease and faciUty by microscopic inspection, however ; for the small 
spark-like bodies move too rapidly through the field of the microscope. But 
there were other methods. It may be first observed that if you expose sul- 
phurous acid for a sufficient length of time to solar action, the precipitated 
substance becomes sufiiciently abundant for a sort of haze to become per- 
ceptible in the tube. A part of the gas has been acted on ; and the two 
lumiuous cones, when moved about in the tube, find everywhere reflecting 
precipitated molecules. If the tube is left long enough in repose and dark- 
ness, the cloud collapses, forms a deposit, and the gas is restored to its primi- 
tive transparency. If at this jDoint the tube be again placed under solar 
action, the same successive phenomena of haze and return to transparency 
may be repeated indefinitely, tUl there remains no more gas to be decomposed, 
which is a very long process, for the very formation of the precipitate inter- 
cej^ts itself the chemical rays which form it. 

But since transparency has been produced, a deposit of molecules must 
have taken place ; and in this case, if the tube remains in a horizontal posi- 
tion and a broad slip of glass be placed inside it, it is on this slip that the 
molecules will be found. Their diameter might then be measured, either di- 
rectly or by the rings of diffraction ; but unfortunately it became impossible to 
use this expedient : the sulphur was dissolved by sulphuric acid ; and instead 
of the molecules which I expected to find, very small drops only were per- 
ceived. But nevertheless it was possible to obtain the molecules of sul- 
phur in large quantities, and to submit it to all reqiiisite reactions so as to 
recognize it completely. It is sufficient to place in the tube after the 
sulphurous acid three or five cubic centimetres of distilled water ; and after 
the solar rays have sufficiently acted on the gas, the tube is then shaken ; 
the water dissolves the sulphuric acid and renders it powerless for dissolving 
the precipitated sulphur ; the water then becomes milky and the sulphur 
is collected. It is then boiled in a small glass vessel (to di'ive out the sul- 
phurous gas) and filtered in order to collect the sulphur ; the water then 
gives abundant proof of the presence of sulphimc acid. 

The atoms of the molecules of sulphuj'ous acid are therefore not able to 
support the shock of the undulations of the chemical rays ; they divide into 

sulphur and sulphuric acid, 3 S0^=S + 2S0^ (and from the form 




they change to C&kmD> '^^ '"'^ich state they are able to resist the shock of 
the chemical rays) ; but they exhibit other phenomena, to which I shall return 



ON THE CHEMICAL REACTIONS OF LIGHT. 71 

a little further on. During sixteen days of uninterrupted sunshine, from the 
14th to the 31st of July, I exposed to solar light 1900 cuhic centimetres of 
sulphurous acid in a tuhc of 2000 cuhic centimetres capacity ; and the 
decomposing action was, after that lapse of time, heing still carried on in an 
always sensible and wonderful manner. It was CAadent that every day the 
solar action was only partial ; it stopped as soon as the precipitated molecules 
of sulphur in motion in the tube were abundant enough to intercept all the 
chemical rays as an opaque screen. 

The action of light on sidphuric acid was interesting to study ; it is one of 
the most beautiful and instructive experiments which can be executed. It 
smokes abundantly on exposure to air ; and this effect is attributed to the 
absorption of aqueous vapour by this substance. This is not a correct ex- 
planation, since in a perfectly dry vacuum the same phenomenon takes place. 
In the tube with a dry vacuum of i to -^ of a millimetre I had introduced a 
very fine thin tube contaiaing anhydrous sulphuric acid. '\Mien I broke the 
tube, the Uttle explosion, and certainly the great and sudden expansion of 
the substance, scattered about the vapour of the sulphiu-ic acid, which, owing 
to the cold generated, was condensed into a white cloud, and appeared with a 
dazzling resplendency in the luminous cones. Here the chemical rays are 
powerless, they cannot destroy what they have produced. There is no more 
decomposition, but sulphuric acid is, if I may use the comparison, like water 
in the vesicular state in a cooled medium through which heat is about to pene- 
trate. Insensible to the chemical rays, the sulphuric acid absorbs the calorific 
rays, on the contrary, with prodigious energy. This absorption is so perfect 
that all molecular motion ceases instantly. The molecules remain motionless, 
as if busy in absorbing the heat ; and, as aqueous vapoui' does when heated, 
they pass into the state of a transparent gas, assuming previously to their 
apparent annihilation aU the most magnificent hues. If during the operation 
the cock is rapidly opened and immediately closed, the great movement 
of molecules so rapidly and so energetically produced ceases at once, by 
the absorption of the heat. 

This invisible vapour, when stiU further and sirfficiently heated, wiU have 
its component atoms so shaken by the amplitude of their new osciUatory 
vibrations that they will be removed beyond the radius of their sphere of ac- 
tion, and the molecular edifice of sulphuric acid is (in its turn) destroyed. 

I am afraid of fatiguing the attention of my hearers if I dcvelope at a 
greater length the details of various experiments made with a large number of 
gases and vapours. We must stop here. Yet what residts are to be noted ! 

Thus, for instance, in the most natural, perhaps, of all the groups that 
constitute the family of metalloids (that which comprises chlorine, bromine, 
iodine, fluorine) strange anomalies arc observed. Chlorine and hj-drogen 
unite under the action of chemical rays and form hj'drochloric acid. The 
latter, either dry or humid, and prepared with pure crystals of mineral salt 
of chloride of sodium, cannot be decomposed by chemical rays of solar light ; 
whereas hydriodic acid, on the contrary, can be decomposed ; it is true (and 
this circumstance must not be overlooked) it is very difficult to procure this 
gas free from atmospheric air. A curious circumstance in the examination of 
hydriodic acid is, that the first shock of light frees part of the iodine, which 
appears with its peculiar violet hue at the summit of the cones, amidst the 
movements which destroy the molecular edifices — movements, perhaps, pro- 
duced by the calorific rays only. 

Bromine presents the peculiarity, that (as in the case of hydrogen with 
chlorine) if piire and dry hydrogen is introduced with a small quantity of 



73 KEPORT— 1869. 

bromine into the little tube which is placed inside the cylinder previously to the 
experiment, and which is broken before it is submitted to solar action, after 
a few seconds the brownish colour of the bromine disappears and hydrobromic 
acid is formed, smoking abundantly on contact with atmospheric air. 

I could increase stUl further the list of bodies submitted to this interesting 
means of investigation and experiment. I shaU limit myseK to a summary of 
the theoretical considerations which these facts have impressed on my mind. 
We know that the calorific, luminous, and chemical rays are placed side by 
side and are even intermingled in the solar spectrum, with undulatory lengths 
successively decreasing. 

Now aU chemical bodies may be classed in two series : the first (having sul- 
phurous acid for prototype) comprises all bodies formed under the action of 
calorific rays ; the second (having hydrochloric acid for prototj'pe) comprises 
aU bodies formed by the chemical rays. 

The following are the conclusions which the foregoing facts induce me to 
admit : — 

If a body is formed and maintained under certain oscillatory conditions, 
the peculiar oscillations of the atoms Avhich constitute its molecules must 
differ from those of the medium in which the body has been produced. But 
if this body is transferred into another medium in which it meets with oscil- 
lations isochronous to those of its own atoms, these oscillations increase, and 
the vis viva which the atoms acqviire may become so great as to drive the 
atoms beyond the radius of their sphere of action ; the atomic edifice is de- 
molished ; and as the constitutive atoms preserve, nevertheless, their peculiar 
affinities, they form a now edifice adapted to the oscillatory conditions in 
which they are now situated. Thus they escape the shocks of the generating 
medium, by ceasing to vibrate synchronously with it, exactly as an elastic 
sonorous body docs not vibrate and gives no sound when the aerial vibrations 
which strike it are not synchronous with those which it is capable of re- 
producing. But if the new edifice is again submitted to the action of other 
syTichronous rays it is again demolished. 

Most curious evolutions ! They seem to ask of the chemist : — 

1°. Under what peculiar cii'cumstances and influences are bodies formed? 

2". Under what vibrations precisely do their atoms oscUlate ? 

3°. Finally, under the action of what other vibrations may the molecular 
edifice be destroyed ? 

Ozone, and all bodies capable of uniting themselves with other bodies, 
would be simply molecules whose atoms are possessed of a vis viva sufficient 
to animate and set in motion the atoms of the other bodies with which 
they unite themselves. 

Will a simple hochj, even, always remain such to us, if it become possible 
to discover what oscillations have assembled the atoms of its constitutive 
molecule, and what can destroy it ? 

Such is the question which future lovers of nature and science may be one 
day enabled to solve. 

One word more, upon a probable conjecture. 

I have often seen that, under some circumstances not yet determined by me, 
the concentrated action of solar light is not without eff"ect upon atmospheric air. 
In such case an appreciable whitish-blue colour is produced ; might it not, 
then, be presumed that the fine whitish-blue vapour which in Alpine 
valleys bathes the foot of a mountain is produced by the action of a 
brightly luminous sky under favourable and unknown circumstances of heat, 
light, and aqueous vapour ? 



ON FOSSILS OBTAINED AT KILTORKAN QUARRY. 73 

On Fossils obtained at Kiltorkan Quarry, Co. Kilkenny. 
By Wm. Hellier Baily, F.L.S., F.G.S. 

This celebrated fossil locality, in the Upper Old Eed Sandstone, is situated 
between Kilkenny and Waterford, about six miles south of Thomastown and 
a mile south-east of BaUyhalc, ou a ridge of Old-Red-Sandstone hills rising 
gently from beneath the Carbonifcroiis Limestone plain to heights of from 400 
to 500 feet above the sea-level, and sometimes to even 800 feet, as near the 
boundary of the parishes of Derrynahinch and Jerpoint West. 

This quarry has been visited from time to time by private individuals, by 
the representatives of scientific societies in Dublin, and by the officers of the 
Geological Survey of Ireland, on all which occasions it has furnished some 
most interesting fossils, remarkable for their preservation and beauty, each 
time yielding specimens either new to science or such as would assist in 
elucidating those already collected. 

At the meeting of this Association in N'orwich last year, I advocated the 
importance of further excavations at this place, and applied for a grant of 
.£40 towards that object ; £20 was, however, the only amount voted. I felt 
some hesitation in accepting this sum in consequence of its insufficiency to 
carry out the extent of excavation I had intended ; and had I not been aided 
by the Geological Survey, it would have been comparatively useless to attempt 
reopening this quarry with the sum placed at my disposal. 

I did, however, proceed there last month, accompanied by an efficient and 
zealous assistant, Mr. A. M'Henry, and pro\ided with tools, such as bars 
and picks, for excavating with vigour. We were engaged for a fortnight, 
working most laboriously ; and fortimately we had very favourable weather, 
except that it was extremely hot in this exposed situation for the heavy 
work we were occupied upon. 

We engaged the services of two men, who ably assisted in removing the 
superficial soil and unproductive strata to the depth of about four or five feet, 
which was carted away at once ; and we calculated that the total quantity 
removed in this manner and excavated by us amounted to at least 200 loads 
of stone and rubbish. 

The character of the beds beneath this superficial covering, a fine-grained 
greenish sandstone, admitted of great facility in working, splitting up into 
layers, sometimes of large size ; occasionally, however, it is much cut up by 
joints and small dislocations, which prevents its being worked so readily. 
Some of the surfaces of these layers are covered by plant-remains ; and when 
first opened the fossils are most beautifully exhibited, as, from the dampness 
of the stone, their darker colour makes them appear very conspicuoiisly. 

The following is an enumeration of the fossil plants observed : — 

Falceopteris Hihernica, originally named by Prof. Edward Forbes Cyclo- 
pteris Hihernica, then referred to Acliantites by Brongniart, and now placed 
by Prof. Schimper in his genus Falceopteris, the name signifying ancient fern, 
in allusion to the antiquity of its type and its first appearance with the most 
ancient terrestrial vegetables known, before the commencement of the Coal 
period*, that celebrated author on fossil plants observing that it differs 
from Cychpteris in the arrangement of its leaflets &c., and from Adiantides 
(Adiantites) in its mode of fructification. 

Two other ferns have been collected from this place ; they are, however, 
of less frequent occurrence. One of these has already been brought before 
the notice of the members of this Association, and described by me as SpJte- 
nopteris Hooheri; the other, an undescribed species, I propose to name 

* Traits de Paleontologie V^getale &c., par W. Ph. Schimper. Paris, 1869. 



74 REPORT — 1869. 

Sjjlienopteris Himplu-esiana, after a gentleman (Mr. H. T. Humphreys) who 
worked most indefatigably at this quarry, from which he obtained a large 
collection of valuable specimens. 

On our late visit we were fortunate eiiough to procure perhaps the finest 
specimen extant oi Palceojyteris Hibernica, measuring about four feet in length, 
with its base of attachment and fertile pinnules shown at the lower portion. 

A few fragments only of Sjjhenopteris Hooherl were collected ; but we ob- 
tained a finer example of ;S'. Uum])liresiana than any that had been before met 
with, being a branch or stem with several alternating pinnules arranged upon it. 

Large closely fluted stems, which I had formerly regarded as being iden- 
tical with Sagenar'ia VeltJieimiana, and which, with others of a somewhat 
similar character, Dr. Haughton has described under the name of Ci/clostif/ma, 
are also of frequent occurrence at this quarry: one of these stems measured 
six feet in length, with a diameter of six inches at its lower portion, and 
even then its commencement or termination could not be ascertained ; the 
upper portion of this plant having divergent branches, was considered to be 
a distinct species, and referred to Lejndodendron minutum. Its fruit, of 
which we obtained remarkably fine specimens, is a cone-like body, formed of 
elongated scales, some of the detached ones showing very large and distinct 
sporules at their base ; to these are appended long grass-hke or linear leaves ; 
it is remarkable, as Dr. Schimper observes, from the fact that no other spe- 
cies of Lepidodendron of which the fruits are known have such large sporules. 
That gentleman, through whom we sent a small collection of these fossils 
to the Museum d'Histoire Naturellc of Strasbourg, of which he is the Di- 
rector, has done me the honour to name this remarkable plant after me, as 
he considers it distinct from Sagenaria VeWieimiana, especially in the form 
of the scales of the fruit, a part, which I had not the opportunity of exa- 
mining in the latter species. 

Masses of roots with rootlets attached, such as I had observed in Mr. 
Humphreys's collection, and which he assured me were connected with the 
last-mentioned stem, were obtained by us from a bed which was permeated 
by fossils of this character. 

The only example of moUusca found associated with these fossUs, and of 
which we obtained good specimens, is the large bivalve named Anodonta 
Julcesii by Prof. Edw. Forbes, after the Director of our Survey in Ireland, 
whose loss, by death, we have had so lately to deplore. This shell is not 
uufrequent, and is so closely allied to the recent Swan Muscle, Anodonta 
cygncea, of oui- freshwater rivers, that it becomes a valuable auxiliary to- 
wards the presunii)tion as to the freshwater origin of this deposit. It is, 
however, amongst the class Crustacea, especially that of the Eurypteridaa 
and Phyllopoda?, that the most important additions have been made to the 
list of organic remains from this locality by our late visit. 

In one of the earhest collections of fossils made by the Geological Survey 
at this place, a specimen was obtained, portion of a thoracic or body- segment, 
ornamented with the peculiar scale-hke markings characteristic of these Crus- 
tacea : this specimen was labelled by the late Mr. Salter Ewypterus ? Forhesii, 
with a query as to the genus. In the Journal of the Geological Society, vol. xv. 
p. 229, the same palaeontologist, in a paper on some species of Eurgpterus, 
alludes to this specimen, which he figures as being probably identical with 
Eurypierus'l Scoideri (RUshert), a, Coal-measure species from near Glasgow. 

"NYe have since met with other portions which favours the belief that this 
specimen belongs to Pterygotus and not Eurypterus. Amongst the collection 
iust made are two which appear to be heads, although they are not clearly 
defined ; also a more definite but small example of the basal joint of a 



ON FOSSILS OBTAINED AT KILTOKKAN QUARRY. 75 

swimming-foot (ector/nath) , showing very clearly the toothed edges of this 
masticatory and locomotive organ, another specimen being apparently the 
lower portion of a similar appendage. In a previous collection made by the 
Geological Survey are specimens showing the pincers or chelas : in one of 
these the ciu-ved points of both rami are preserved ; the upper one is seen to 
be armed with two large tooth-like projections ; the lower one being imper- 
fect does not show the corresponding parts. 

It is possible aU these fragments may belong to one species, -which I propose 
to name Ptenjgotus Hlhernicus. Another and distinct crustacean is shown in 
a well-marked head (or carapace), to which is attached portions of two of 
the thoracic segments. This specimen I fortunately picked up amongst the 
debris of the quarry immediately after visiting it. The form of this head, 
with its central arched divisions, to which the eyes are attached, is not very 
unlike that of a species of Belhmrus from the Coal-measures ; it is also pro- 
vided with a border, and its posterior portion terminates on each side in a short 
spine. I have provisionally named this species Belinurus ? Kiltorlccnsis. 

Some detached body-segments, which were also procured at the same 
time in the progress of excavation (one of the specimens showing two entire 
segments, with portions of two others united), may possibly have belonged to 
the above species. 

In a former collection from this place made by the Geological Survey, 
there arc three well-defined examples of the detached carapace of a shrimp- 
like crustacean, which in shape approaches more nearly to that of the Silu- 
rian than to any of the Carboniferous species, and most nearly to Hymeno- 
caris of the Lingula-beds. The anterior margin is broad and produced, 
giving it a curved outline, having a sinus running somewhat parallel and 
near to it, which is marked near the centre by a small elongated depression ; 
the surfaces of these fossils are covered by fine labyrinthine markings. One 
of the fossils recently collected, although differing in shape (which may have 
arisen from pressure), is probably a carapace of the same species, it being 
also marked by a similar sculpturing. Some of the detached segments may 
also belong to this species, which, from its peculiar prow-shaped carapace, 
I propose to name Prorkaris MacEcnrici. 

Of fish-remains wc were not successful in obtaining many examples on 
this visit, a few detached scales only having been met with ; those formerly 
collected are of great interest, and we had hoped to have met with specimens 
which might have thrown a better light upon some before collected ; in this 
we were disappointed, but do not despair if another opportunity offers for a 
more extensive excavation. The fish-remains already obtained consist of 
large conical teeth, resembling those of Dendrodus or Bot1inolej;ns, detached 
scales, and a large portion of a fish which appears to be identical with Ghjp- 
tolepis elegans. The majority, however, appear to be referable to Goccosteus, 
some of them veiy closely resembling C. decipiens, Ag., especially a mass of 
plates in juxtaposition, showing the under sides ; they consist, for the most 
part, of detached plates and jaws with teeth, which also resemble very much 
corresponding parts figured by Professor Agassiz in his Old-Eed-Sandstone fish. 
There are also many detached smaller plates, and others with several plates 
united, which may possibly belong to Pterichthys : as some of the latter are in 
Prof. Huxley's hands, we may expect some valuable information about them. 

"With respect to the disposal of the specimens, a large number of which 
were collected, I would beg to suggest that the new species and those 
required for working out details, should be retained for the Geological Survey's 
collection in Ireland, and the duplicates distributed to such public insti- 
tutions as it may be thought desirable to present them to. 



76 REPORT— 1869. 

Repm-t of the Lunar Committee for Mapping the Surface of the Moon. 
Drawn up by W. R. Birt, at the request of the Committee, consisting 
0/ James Glaisher, F.R.S., Lord Rosse^ F.R.S., Sir J. Herschel, 
Bart., F.R.S., Professor Phillips, F.R.S., Rev. C. Pritchard, 
F.R.S., W. HuGGiNs, F.R.S., W. R. Grove, F.R.S., Warren De 
La nv^,F.R.S., C. Brooke, F.R.S., Rev. T. W.Webb, F.R.A.S., 
Herr Schmidt, Admiral jNIanxers, President of the Royal Astro- 
nomical Society, Lieut.-Col. Strange, F.R.S., and W. R. Birt, 
F.R.A.S. 

In presenting the Eeport of the proceedings of the Lunar Committee re- 
appointed at iSTor-ndch, it is desirable to refer as briefly as possible to the 
progress of selenographical research during the entire existence of the 
Committee. Since the Meeting of the British Association at Birmingham 
four areas of the moon's surface, each of 5^ in extent both of longitude and 
latitude, have been carefully and critically surveyed, not so much by the 
determinations of positions (the means at the disposal of the Committee 
being inadequate for instrumental and computative labour, which could only 
be carried on in an establishment exclusively devoted to such an object, the 
cost of which would far exceed the grants with which the Association has 
aided the work) as in an examination of the physical aspects of 100 square 
degrees of the moon's sm-face by means of the comparison and measurement 
of photograms, combined with observation at the telescope, by several 
observers in concert. Outlines of the objects thus siu-veyed have been laid 
down on the orthographical projection on a scale of 200 inches to the moon's 
diameter. The area thus survej-ed includes 443 objects ; a catalogue of 
these objects has been prepared containing numerous selenographical and 
selenological notices, those of the three areas completed previous to the re- 
appointment of the Committee having appeared in the Appendices to the 
Eeports of 1866 and ISGS. 

One of the principal objects which has been kept steadily in view is such 
a description of lunar features that at any future time the similarity of the 
description with the state of any particular crater, mountain, &c., or a depar- 
ture therefrom, may be rcaddy ascertained. The great question of continued 
lunar change, either transient or permanent, as contrasted with apparent 
change dependent upon illuminating and visual angles, is one more likely for 
posterity to settle. If, in geological science, a region undergoing a series of 
changes (during the progress of which, through a long period of geological 
time, lakes have been di'ained, volcanos have burst forth, extensive plateaus 
of igneous ejections formed, and vast denudations of softer materials effected) 
has retained its grander and more imposing features in their integrity, so in 
selenological science we may look for small, and in many cases to us almost 
inappreciable changes in and around weU-rccognized and imposing lunar 
forms, than expect to witness the obliteration of some very striking object as 
an evidence of change. The following are extracts from the catalogue of 
the area completed during the past year. 

" The boundaries of Hipparchm differ materially from those of ordinary 
walled plains, and the cliffs on the S.W. are very unlike those of a circular 
form, inclosing large circidar plains, as may be seen in the neighboiulng 
formation Ptolemaus. They present the appearance of having suffered 
erosion, the character of the S.W. side of these cliffs beiug remarkably 
different from the exteriors of large rings, craters, and plains. These 
features, combined with the gradations of level observable in the floors of 



ON MAPPING THE SURFACE OF THE MOON. 11 

E'tpparchus, IV A" ^i, and the Sinus Medii, tend to invest them with peculiar 
interest. The apparent cutting away of the higher ground forming the E. 
slope of Hind, the projection beyond the general line of cliffs of the N.E. 
border of Ilallei/, the indentations of the cliffs N.W. of HaUet/ by the ravines 
scoring the E. slope of Hind, the general integrity of the cliffs S.E. of Halley, 
and the absence of similar indentations (these cliffs being cat through in one 
instance by a fault and in another scored by an apparent lava-channel) are 
phenomena which do not generally characterize wailed plains. It is extremely 
difficidt in the present state of our knowledge even to conjecture the kind of 
agencies which have operated in the production of a line of cliffs analogous in 
many respects to a terrestrial coast-line. One thing, however, appears to be 
certain, viz. the anterior existence of the E. slope of Hind as regards both 
Hdlley and the line of cliffs, while the fault and lava-channel on the S.E. are 
apparently more recent than the cliffs in which they occur." 

" Hind is situated just W. of the fault IV A" 23, IV A^ «3^ and occupies the 
highest point of the mountain-range IV A"" ^. The slopes around it are of 
very different characters. On the S.E., E., and N.E. the exterior slope is 
grooved or farrowed with well-marked radiating valleys, while on the S.W. 
and N. the slope is uninterrupted and destitute of any radiating markings. 
The more recent production of Hind, as compared with the fault on the E., is 
indicated by the vaUeys on its flank cutting through the fault. The posteri- 
ority of the formation of HalUy, as well as the prodiiction of the depression 
IV A"" 21 and the low floor of Hipparclius, is strongly suggested by the land 
on which the grooved valleys occur being penetrated by Halley on the one 
hand, and abruptly terminated on the other by the depression IV A'' 21 and 
the valley IV A" " on the S.E., and the chff IV A" i" forming the S.W. 
border of Hipparchus on the jST.E. The remarkable smoothness of the floor of 
Hipparchus in close proximity- with the cliffs is very significant." 

" The slope of Hind on the S.E., E., and N.E., with its valley-like furrows 
and interrupted continuity by Halley, and the cliffs on the S.W. of Hippar- 
chus before mentioned, may be advantageously compared with the crater 
Aristillus on the Palus Nehularum, which to all appearance now exists in its 
primeval state surrounded by its furrowed flanks, extending far on the 
surfaces both of the Palus Nehularum and the Palus Putredinis. Only a 
small portion of the flank of Hind remains, the outer portions having been 
cut off by the more recent formations. It is not a little remarkable that the 
cliff IV A'' i*' should be so distinct and precipitous in the neighbourhood of a 
crater partly surrounded by the remnant of a furrowed slope ; and it is 
difficult to conceive with such phenomena, that ejecta from a volcano such as 
Hind appears to be, should extend no further than so precipitous a cliff as the 
S.W. border of Hipparchus. The order of production appears to be as 
follows : — the fault on the ray from Tycho, Hind, Hcdley. It is probable 
that the production of the floor of Hipparchus occui'red at a stiU later epoch. 
* * * The highest portion of the region in which Hind and Hcdley have 
been opened bears some resemblance to the granitic plateau of central 
France." 

" A very strong indication of the protrusion of Hcdley, subsequent to the 
formation of the valley IV A^ 27, ly ^"j 17, and IV A*^ ^^, sui^posing the throe 
portions were once connected, is afforded by the valley being completely 
blocked on the JST.N.E. and S.S.W. by the E.S.E. rim of Hcdley. Mr. Ingall, 
on June 26, 1866, pointed out to me the connexion of the valleys N.N.E. and 
S.S.W. of Hcdley. At first sight this connexion might appear to be in 
direction only. The valley IV Ai 27 ig certainly closed, as appears on the 



78 REPORT— 1869. 

photograms, at the S.W. end by the angle formed by the N.E. border of 
HaJley. The posteriority of the epoch of the valley IV M 2?, lY A" ", and 
IV A*^ 13 to that of Hind is strongly indicated by the continuity of the S.E. 
slope of Hind being interrupted by the valley, much in the same way as the 
N.E. is by the cliff IV A'' ^^. We may trace here with great probabUity the 
following sequences of formations :— 1°, that of the highland IV A'' ^ ; 2", the 
fault IV A" 23, lY A.^ 62 . 30^ the protrusion of Hind ; 4°, the formation of 
the valley IV Ai ^7, IV A'' ^'^, IV A** ^^ (several valleys hereabout are nearly 
parallel with this) ; 5°, the formation of the cliff IV A'' ^^ ; G°, the protrusion 
of HcdUij ; and 7°, the cleft or wall on the E. of IV A'' 2, which is the highest 
in the locality." 

"The exactitude of direction of certain lines of valleys and mountains on 
opposite sides of HijypcircJms indicate a more recent epoch for the formation 
of the floor of Hijyparclius than for the production of the valleys and moun- 
tains on the lines specified. In connexion •with these circumstances the 
following questions suggest themselves. Docs the general parallelism of the 
lines of mountains and valleys in the neighbourhood of Hipjyarchus point to 
contemporaneity of origin? Has the present floor of Hipparclius resulted 
from a subsidence, by which the former surface was depressed below the 
surrounding levels? There are some indications that, prior to the production 
of the fault IV A" ", IV A^ -^, IV" "'-, the sm-faces E. and W. of it were at 
the same level. Was this the level at which the valleys and mountains 
above alluded to were continuous ? and has the sui'face between them, as well 
as the floor of Hipparclms, generally become depressed below its former 
level? If so, it would appear that Horrox was opened upon this former 
irregular surface ; and it may be interesting to inquire further as to what 
may have become of the portions of the mountains and valleys which have 
disappeared. This question may be very difficult to answer, especially in 
the very imperfect state of our selenographical knowledge." 

" There is some reason to believe that Horrox was not the only crater 
opened on this part of Hipparclms previous to the supposed epoch of de- 
pression. The curved mountain-chain IV M ^s presents all the characters of 
an ancient and nearly filled crater, slightly exceeding Horrox in size. Nearly 
half the ring is left, two craterlets are opened in the line of wall, and the 
surface which is traversed by a cleft is slightly depressed below the level of 
the surrounding floor of Hipparclms. It is one of those instances which 
AVebb, in his paper on the Moon (Frasei''s Magazine, Sept. 1868), refers to 
' of cavities in proximity to the grey plains having interiors so flat, so grey, 
so identical in appearance and level with the plain, that hardly a doubt 
remains of their having been subsequently filled iip by intrusive matter of 
the same origin and under the same pressure as that around them.' If 
lY M 5^ be a nearly submerged crater, and the lines of mountains and valleys 
on opposite sides of Hipparclms were once continuous, the intermediate 
portions having also been submerged, the question to be resolved is — Whence 
came the material which has effected the submergence ? The whole of the 
floor of Hipp>arclms, as compared with the surrounding formations, strongly 
exhibits indications of change of level ; it is comparatively smooth, and of 
different reflective powers. The most striking difterence of level occurs near 
the cliff IV A" i« and the mountains IV A^ -^ and IV A^ -t?. Does this at all 
point to a subsidence of the floor of llipparchus, accompanied by an invasion 
of intrusive matter ? Instances of subsidence may be found on the moon'; 
Strain/Id ivcdl may be quoted, the surface on the E. being at a lower level 
(about 1000 feet) than that on the W. The j)lain of Dionysius (Eeport Brit. 



ON MAPPING THE SURFACE OF THE MOON. 79 

Assoc. 1865, p. 304) appears to be a depressed surface S. of the cleft of 
Ariadaus, the N. side being at a higher level. In like manner a portion of 
the surface N.E. of the line of chffs ivom. Ptohmceus to Bitter andL. Sabine va^j 
have subsided and produced the depressed region known as Hipparclius." 

" While areas of depression, if not of subsidence, can be traced on the 
surface of the moon, and also the presence of a material which has invaded 
such regions and in many instances nearly buried preexisting craters and 
other objects, it is not so easy to ascertain whence this material came ; still 
closer scrutiny is indispensable to throw further light upon it." 

" In numerous portions of the moon's surface, as on that of the earth, we 
behold the results of the operation of two opposing forces, — one by which the 
features are moulded and, as it were, built up, imparting to the objects so 
produced an aspect of freshness that it is impossible to question their com- 
parative recent production ; the other by which objects once possessing all 
the characteristics of a recent formation have yielded, it may have been 
gradually, to surrounding influences, whatever they may have been, so that 
at the present time they exhibit the semblance of vast ruins, which in some 
localities are unrelieved by even the slightest indication of the operation of a 
force of an opposite character." 

" Webb, in his very masterly paper on the Moon, in ' Eraser's Magazine ' for 
September 1868, speaks of the possibility that the colossal lunar formations 
may have been the result of forces acting in a more gradual manner and 
with less temporary vehemence than may seem to comport with the term 
explosion. It may be that astronomers may have paid much more attention 
to those lunar features which are clearly the results of explosive action than 
to those which manifest the presence of a degrading agency. It has been 
considered that many of the larger forms have been produced by rapid, 
violent, and tumultuary processes ; and, however true this view may be, it 
is certainly inadeqiiate to account for the present appearances of still larger 
tracts in which no explosive outburst of an epoch which may in any sense 
be called recent occurs. Nearly filled as well as broken rings, interrupted 
mountain-chains, and comparatively smooth tracts without any weU-defined 
boundaries are characteristic of such regions ; and it may be asked in what 
manner and by what agency have they attained their present condition? 
Has the ' erosion ' of Chacornac destroyed the missing portions of the broken 
rings ? and has this 'erosion' acted suddenly or gradually'l Has the 'diluvial,' 
restricted by Webb to the expression of comparative fluidity, independent of 
the nature of the material, invaded and nearly fiUed previously deep craters, 
so as to furnish a connected series of well-known forms, from the smooth, 
floored, waUed plain to the just perceptible ring above the surface? Has 
this same ' dUuvial ' buried the lower i^ortions and the lateral spurs of 
continuous mountain-chains, so that now the higher portions alone remain 
as short and detached ranges in the original line ? One cannot help con- 
trasting the continental region, to use a terrestrial analogy, in which this 
area IV A*" occurs, with the magnificent chains of the Apennines and Hcemus, 
and the lower and smooth levels of the 2Iare Imhrium and Mare Serenitatis, 
as exhibiting in a very marked degree the results of the forces already men- 
tioned. In the latter we see the effects of comparative recent action in the 
production of vast mountain-chains and the neighbouring extensive level 
plains. In the former these grand features are wanting; the surface, 
although far from being smooth as that of the Maria, is roughened only with 
the remains of former mountains, rings, and craters ; the degrading agency, 
whatever it may have been, appears to have operated almost unchecked in 



80 REPORT— 1869. 

this region, and it is a subject of interesting inquiry as to how this state of 
things has been effected. Has the filling up, has the wearing down, if such 
is the case, been gradual? and what forces have been concerned in producing 
the mutilated forms we now observe ? " 

" Brightness and colour may ultimately become keys by means of which a 
better acquaintance may be obtained with the chronological sequence of lunar 
formations. Chacornac refers the great continental formations to an epoch 
anterior to that of the production of the great plains, this, again, being anterior 
to the period of explosive energy, contributing to the existence of numerous 
objects, such as bowl-shaped craters and smaller blow-holes, within the 
interior of which no intrusive matter is found. Reference, however, is not 
prominently made to objects in mountainous regions similar to those which 
we find in various portions of the great plains, viz. partly buried craters and 
partially destroyed rings, of which we have evidence in this and adjoining 
areas to the "W". The contrast of the general coloitr of the surface hereabout, 
as compared with that of the grey plains, its mottled and rugged aspect, 
arising probably from its altered character from that which it possessed at 
a still earlier epoch, the absence of that sharpness of outhne in its remaining 
mountain-peaks or ranges so characteristic of those which we find nearer to 
and often on the grey plains, together testify to a much earlier epoch than 
even that of the production of the partly filled rings on the grey plains. 
Bright, white, glistening surfaces, more or less in the neighbourhood of 
bowl-shaped craters,'and dark patches of deep grey approaching black, appear 
alike to indicate the most recent formations — the first, it may be, from loose 
fragmentary incoherent materials ejected from adjacent craters ; the last 
from substances in a state at least of comparative fluidity, which have escaped 
from the interior reservoii's at the times of eruption. Phillips compares the 
bright glistening region o{ Aristarchits to one in which tvhife trachyte abounds ; 
and many of the basalts in terrestrial volcanic regions present a dark colour. 
Between the brightest and darkest of such limited areas on the moon's surface 
every gradation of intermediate tint occurs ; and from a careful consideration 
of the physical aspect of those regions which, on the one hand, reflect con- 
siderably less light than the brighter, and on the other considerably more 
than the darker, it may be inferred that such regions are amongst the most 
ancient of lunar formations." 

A very ancient formation has been traced on area IV A"", the earliest state 
of which is considered to have been very similar to many of the more recent 
districts, such as those in which perfect craters and mountainous regions 
intermingle. The first change which appears to have taken place on this 
formation is that of the production of a grey plain, traces of which still exist. 
The material of this plain appears to have invaded certain craters, breaking 
down the walls of those immediately facing the plain, and partially filling 
others. The next change appears to have been of an elevatory character, 
the evidences consisting of a line of low mountains which has in a great 
measure obhterated the characteristics of a grey plain and introduced those 
more in accordance -with an ancient district, which are strikingly in contrast 
with the features of the more recent craters to the E. The only instance of 
volcanic outburst on this ancient district consists of a chain of craterlets of 
quite an insignificant character. 

The determination of the successive changes before alluded to rests on the 
strong indications, afforded by the careful study of photograms, of the priority 
and posteriority of weU-marked features, which can only be realized by 
contemplating the lunar picture in the seclusion of the study. "While the 



ON MAPPING THE SURFACE OF THE MOON. 81 

telescopic view is far superior to the photographic, the continual changes of 
illuminating and visual angle prevent that appreciation of the relations of 
different features to certain epochs of production which can be so well studied 
in the photogram ; the detail thus seized upon by the aid of photography is 
vividly realized by the eye at the telescope when the surface of the moon is 
suitably illuminated. 

While engaged upon area IV A"" I have met with a remarkable instance of 
difference between De La Rue's photogram, Eeb. 22, 1858, and Rutherford's, 
March 6, 1865. Lohrmann figures a jjlain, bounded on the AV. by a moun- 
tain-chain on which he gives a little crater, which he numbers 51. In 
De La Rue's photogram the crater, which appears to be shallow, is exactly in 
the position given by Lohrmann. Hot a vestige of this crater is to be discerned 
on RuiherfordJs 2->liotogram seven years later ! Both photograms are under 
nearly the same illumination. 

I have also met with a few instances of apparent variations of tint and 
brightness. The floor of the crater Hind, on the S. W. of Hipparchus, appears 
to have undergone a variability of tint during a period of eleven years 
according to the following numbers : — 

1858-14=5°-9, 1865-18=7°-0, 1868-98 = 3°-6 

The slopes of two valleys, lY A*" ^ and IV A"" ii, which cut through the 
S.W. border of Hipparchus, manifest different degrees of brilliancy on the 
two photograms. They are much brighter on Rutherford's than on De La 
Rue's photogram, and IV A"* ^ appears to have become brighter in a greater 
degree than IV A"" i^. 

De La Rue 1858-14 

Rutherford 1865-18 

A crater, IV A^ i^, the middle of three conspicuous craters W. of Hippar- 
chus, marked E Sec. I. Lohrmann and G by Beer and Miidler, appears to have 
become brighter since 1858. The gradations are exhibited below : — 



IV A^ 6. 


IV A" 11 


4-6 


4-8 


7-4 


7-0 



Beer and Madler. . 1831-34 = 7-00 

De La Rue 1858-14 = 6-30 

Rutherford 1865-18 = 7-14 

Birt 1868-98 = 7-56 

Birt 1868-99 = 8-00 



Full moon. 

Terminator just past Copernicus. 
j> >> jj 

6''80'"past full moon. 

The number of objects on the moon's surface, registered in accordance 

with the plan proposed in 1865 (see Report, 1865, pp. 294-299), is as 
follows : — 

781 on 135 areas in Quadi-ant Ij 

354 „ 86 „ „ IL 

227 „ 59 „ „ IIL 

737 „ 63 „ „ IV. 



Total 2099 343 „ on the moon's surface. 

Of these, 769 only have been published, viz. 492 in the Reports of this 
Committee, and 277 in Mr. Birt's Monogram of the ' Mare Serenitatis.' 



1869, 



82 , REPORT — 1869. 

Report of the Committee on the Chemical Nature of Cast Iron. The 
Committee consists o/F. A. Abel, F.R.S., D. Yorbes, F.R.S., and A. 
Matthiessen, F.R.S. 

The Committee have to report that, during the past year, some material 
progress has heen made in this research. They entrusted the preparation 
of the pure iron to Mr. Matthiesscn, who carried out this part of the inves- 
tigation in conjunction with Mr. Prus Szczepanowski. From a series of ex- 
periments, which are detailed in the Appendix, pure iron appears to be ob- 
tainable in considerable quantities, and wo hope, if the Committee be re- 
appointed, that next year a great deal of valuable information will be obtained 
on the chemical nature and physical properties of pure iron and its alloys. 
The iron obtained by the process described in the Appendix is almost abso- 
lutely pure, containing only a minute trace of sulphur. According to an 
analysis made by Prof. Abel, the iron contained, in a hundred parts, only 
0-00025 part of sulphur. In another analysis, the amount of sulphur found 
by Mr. Prus Szczepanowski amounted to 0-0007 per cent.* Phosphorus and 
silicon were carefully tested for by both analysts, and found to be entirely 
absent. 

"With regard to the physical properties of pure iron, owing to the -want of 
time, nothing as yet has been accm-ately determined. It appears, however, 
that many of the physical properties of the pure metal differ considerably 
from those of the commercial. 

APPENDIX. 

On the Preparation of Pv/re Iron. By A. Matthxessen, F.R.S. , and S. Pktts 

Szczepanowski. 

After numerous trials, the general outline of which was given in the 
lleport of last year, the following method was found to yield nearly abso- 
lutely pure iron, in quantities sufficient for the purpose of this research. 
Pure dried ferrous sulphate and piire dried sodium sulphate are mixed in 
nearly equal proportions, and introduced gradually into a red-hot platinum 
crucible. The mass is kept in fusion until the evolution of sulphurous acid 
gas ceases. The crucible is then allowed to cool, and the fused mass ex- 
tracted with water. If the heat be properly regulated, the whole of the 
iron is left as a very fine crystalline oxide. This oxide is thoroughly washed 
by decantation to remove every trace of the sodium sulphate, and, after 
being dried, is reduced by hydrogen in a platinum crucible ; the spongj'^ iron 
thus obtained is then pressed into solid buttons and melted in lime crucibles 
Avith the oxyhydrogen-blowpipe. 

Before proceeding further, it will be as well to mention the precautions 
observed in obtaining the raw material in the purest state. The commer- 
cial pure ferrous sulphate was freed from every trace of copper by leading 
sulphuretted hydrogen through the warm acetic acid solution. After filtra- 
tion, the ferrous sulphate was twice recrystallizcd and dried, first in a water- 
bath, then in an air-bath. The commercial crystallized sodium sulphate was 
recrystallizcd several times to get rid of the last traces of chloride of sodium, 
and then heated on a water-bath to melt the crystals. As is well known, 
anhydrous sodium svdphate separates out from this solution, which was 
scooped out from time to time, dried on an air-bath, and powdered. The 
purification of the sodium sulphate from chloride of sodium was found to be 
necessary, owing to the fact that, when fusions were made with sodium sul- 
* The amount of substance taken for eacli analysis was about 30 grammes. 



ON THE CHEMICAL NATURE Or CAST IRON. 83 

phate containing that salt, the resulting oxide of iron always contained 
jjlatiuum. The hjalrogen used for the reduction of the iron, as well as for 
the blowpipe, was prepared by the action of sulphuric acid on zinc, and 
purified by leading the gas through two wash-bottles, the first containing 
nitrate of silver and strong nitric acid, and the second caustic soda and 
acetate of lead, both bottles being half filled with pieces of puniicestone. 
The oxygen was prepared by heating a mixture of chlorate of potassium 
with 15-20 per cent, of black oxide of manganese, and washed by leading 
tkrough caustic soda. All wash-bottle &c. connexions were made of glass, 
lead, or pure india-rubber tubing. 

The fusion took place in a large platinum crucible (the contents of which 
was rather more than half a litre) , enclosed in the usual manner in a clay 
crucible. The dimensions were such that about a kilogramme and a half 
of the mixture could be fused at each operation. After fusion the crucible 
is allowed to cool, it is then boiled out with distilled water, and the accu- 
mulated product of 6-8 fusions washed by decautation with boiling distilled 
water. The crystalline oxide settles very quickly, and thus allows of a very 
rapid and thorough washing. The washing was in every case continued 
several times after the wash-waters ceased to give any turbidity Avith 
barium nitrate*. The reduction of the oxide thus formed was made in a 
covered platinum crucible, heated by means of a large Bunsen burner. The 
hydrogen was introduced by means of a platinum-tube, reaching through 
the cover to the bottom of the crucible. The gas, purified as described above 
and dried by chloride of calcium, was always kept slightly in excess, a con- 
stant stream of gas being obtained by not using a generator, but two large 
gas-holders joined together, the contents of each being about 600 litres (20 
cubic feet), two other gas-holders of similar capacity being used for the 
storage of the oxygen, the one being used to coUect the gas from the retort, 
the other to contain the gas purified by passing through a strong solution of 
caustic soda. 

The resulting spongy iroii was pressed into solid buttons by means of a 
strong coining-press and a diamond mortar, the cylinder of which being 
about 70 millimetres in height ; the iron, when pressed, forms a cylinder of 
about 15 millimetres in height, and weighs about 20 grammes. The melt- 
ing of the compressed iron took place in lime-crucibles, the lime having been 
previously burnt, slacked, and reburnt, thus forming a fine impalpable pow- 
der, which was compressed in the crucible mould. 

The best method of fusion was found to be as follows : — The lime-crucible 
was placed in a slanting position on a piece of lime. One of the oxyhydro- 
gen-blowpipes, used in the process, played on the outside of the crucible 
whilst the flame of the other was directed inside. When white-hot, a cylin- 
der of the compressed iron was thrown into it. It quickly melts, but at the 
expense of a large quantity of the iron which is oxidized. The amount losfe 
by oxidation varies between 25 and 50 per cent. In order to obtain a goodi 
solid button of melted iron, it is necessary to cool it in an atmosphere of 
hydrogen, which is easily obtained, simply by turning off the oxygen from 
the blowpipe playing inside the crucible. The button thus obtained weighs 
about 15 grammes. On analysis, it was found that these buttons were free 
from phosphorus, silicon, and calcium, but contained a minute trace of sulphur. 

The preparation, on a large scale, of the pure ferrous sulphate and sodiuia 

* It is worthy of mention that the above process to procure pure oxide from the miX' 
tare of mixed sulphates yields the purest oxide we have as yet obtained. 

g2 



84 REPORT— 1869. 

sulphate was kindly undertaken for us by Mr. J. Williams, who prepared 
for us more than a hundredweight of each of these substances. We are also 
indebted to Mr. W. G. Underhay for the use of his large coining-press for 
the pressing of the lime -crucibles and the iron buttons. 



Report of the Committee appointed to explore the Marine Fauna and 
Flora of the South Coast of Devon and Cormvall. — No. 3. Consist- 
ing of Spence Bate, F.R.S., T. Cornish, Jonathan Couch, F.L.S., 
J. GwYN Jeffreys, F.R.S., and J. Brooking Rowe, F.L.S. Re- 
po7'ter, C. Spence Bate. 

In presenting to the Association the Third Report on the Fauna and Flora of 
the Southern Coast of Devon and Cornwall, I have to state that, independently 
of endeavouring to obtain a complete registration of all the more rare forms 
of life that exist upon the coast-line within dredging distance of the shore, 
the Committee have, as far as practicable, endeavoured to, obtain information 
relative to the development, growth, and habits of those animals of which 
our knowledge has hitherto been imperfect. 

Cetacea. 

I think it desirable to put on record the Cetacea that have been taken 
within the last few years on the coast, specimens of most of which are pre- 
served in the Museum of the Plymouth Institution. 
Delphinus delplds. Dolphin. 

Occasionally in the Channel : the last, January 1864. From the immense 
mass of fat underlying the skin, and from some unknown reason causing the 
skin to shrink, it was found impossible to preserve it. 
D. tursio. Bottlenoso Dolphin. 

No record of any since the one described by Montagu in 1814. 

Phoccena communis. Porpoise. 
Common. 

P. orca. Grampus, 

Occasionally in the Channel. In Mr. Ross's collection, now in the Exeter 
Museum, I believe, was a young one driven on shore at Exmouth in 1844. 
The specimen in the Museum of the Plymouth Institution has been taken since. 
P. melas. Round-headed Porpoise. 

One captured off Plymouth in April 1839, and towed into the harbour. 
Pliyseter macroceplialus. Spermaceti Whale. 

One is stated by Bellamy to have been thrown on shore near Plymouth 
many years since. 

Bcdmnoptera hoops. 

This species has occurred several times. One in 1831 (the specimen now 
in the British Museum) was tound lloating oif the Eddystone ; a second 
was captured in a herring-net in Torbay, in 184G. In 1803 one was ob- 
tained off Plymouth, and the skeleton was purchased by the Alexandra Park 
Company, and is now, I suppose, at Muswell Hill, 
Beluga alhicmis. 

Mr. P. H. Gosse writes :— " On August 6th, 1832, I was returning from 
Newfoundland to England, and was sailing up! the British Channel close 
to the land, when just off Berry Head I saw under the ship's bows a large 



MARINE TAUNA AND FLORA OF SOUTH DEVON AND CORNWALL. 85 

Cetacean of a inilky--white hue, but appearing slightly tinged with green 
from the intervening stratum of clear water. It was about 16 feet long, M'ith 
a round bluff head. It continued to swim along before the Tcssel's head, a 
few yards beneath the surface, for about ten minutes, maintaining our rate 
of speed, which was five knots an hour, all which time I enjoyed from the 
bowsprit a very good view of it. It could have been no other than the "White 
Whale, the B. borealis of Lesson." 
It frequently occurs on the Scottish coast. 

Pish. 

Of the Fish there have been but few novelties that I can add to the pre- 
vious lists. The most interesting specimens are those of a Double-spined 
Ray and a variety of the Short-finned Tunny ; the former is preserved in 
the Museum of the Plymouth Institution, and the latter in that of the 
Natural-History Society of Penzance. The Ilay was taken off' Plymouth, and 
appears to coincide nearly with that of Eaia aquila (L.), except in being 
very much larger, and in the presence of two spines. 

One point of interest that belongs to this specimen is the relation that it 
bears to li. uttavella (L.). Of this Mr. J. Couch says : — " Consulting Artedi, 
and after him Linnajus, and comparing them with Lacepede, I find generally, 
as characters common to R. aquila and H. attavella, the body smooth and a 
slender tail. Linnaeus says R. attavella has two spines often ; but Lacepede 
makes the same remark of JR. aquila. The material difference is that R. 
aquilti has a very long tail, while attavella has it even less than the length 
of half the body. According to Lacepede (who says nothing of a Short- 
tailed Eagle Ray), the pectorals of his aquila are gradually slender, like the 
wing of an Eagle ; but Artedi says that in attavella the pectorals are broad." 

The dimensions of the recent specimen are 2 ft. 4 in. across the fins, 1 ft. 
10 in. from the snout to the base of the spines, and 2 ft. 10 from the 
snout to the extremity of the tail; while those of R. aquila, in the Mu- 
seum of the Plymouth Institution, are 14 in. across the fins, 11| in. to the 
base of spines, and 2 ft. 1 in. from the snout to the extremity of the tail. 

Of the Tunny (Thynnus hracliypterus), or Short-finned Tunny, Mr. Thomas 
Cornish of Penzance says that the specimen that he captured in Mount's Ray 
differs from that given, both in figure and letterpress, vol. iv. Appendix, by 
Mr. Couch, in his work on Rritish Fishes, in having " more fin-rays in the 
first dorsal than my specimen had, and does not show two free soft fin-rays 
between the first and second dorsals, which were conspicuous in my fish." 

CEtrSTACEA. 

I am not aware that there are any novel forms or species to be recorded 
as the result of the dredging-operations of the Committee since the last 
reported list of Crustacea. In fact, the Committee have thought that they 
would be doing more to advance our knowledge of this class of animals, 
in pursuing the life-history of those that are already known to us, than by 
searching for the few stray specimens that have not hitherto been described 
as inhabitants of these seas. 

Mr. Cornish informs me that he has very recently obtained in Mount's 
Bay several specimens of Polybius Henslowii. 

Stenorynchus plialangium. 

The young of Stenorynchus is a true Zoe, but diff'ers from the typical form 
in the absence of the great rostral spine, and in the increased length of the 
great dorsal spine, by a series of latero-dorsal spines on the three posterior 



86 REPORT — 1869. 

somites of the pleon, and in the enormous development of two deciduous spines 
on the base of second pair of antennce. 

Homarus marlnus. 

Common as the European Lobster is, it is very remarkable that a very young 
si)eeimen has, as far as I know, never been met with. I have for several years 
offered a reward for a very small specimen, but have never received one less 
than 3 inches long from the rostrum to the telsou. Many years since Erdl, 
in a memoir on the subject, described the young Homarus as being hatched 
in the form of the adult animal. 

T have, during the last two summers that I have been engaged on this 
Eeport, endeavoured to hatch and develope this among other forms. Having 
specimens brought to me with ova, I have succeeded in hatching the same ; 
but the mystery connected with the preservation of life, so as to enable us to 
watch the development of the animal from one stage to the next, has yet to 
be overcome. 

Thi'ough the kindness of Mr. Alford Lloyd, curator of the aquarium in the 
Zoological Gardens at Hamburg, I have been enabled to obtain a specimen 
hatched under his knowledge about eight days old. This enables me to 
prove that not only is the young liatchcd in a form distinct from that of the 
parent, but, while it has continued to increase in size, and therefore cast more 
than a single moult, that it retains that form for some time after its birth. 
The ovum is about one-tenth of an inch in diameter, and contains a vitellus of 
a dark, almost black, green colour'. In the earlier stages of the develop- 
ment of the embryo, the central or deciduous eye is distinctly seen, but 
appears to be lost at the time of the escape of the larva from the egg-case ; 
at this period the young animal has a short pointed rostrum, that at first is 
bent back under the ventral surface of the ccphalon ; two large eyes, which 
at first are bent under the lateral margin of the cephalou ; two pairs of short 
antenna ; a non-appeudiculated mandible ; two pairs of maxillae, the third 
pair or maxilliped being not yet developed ; seven pairs of pereiopoda, each of 
which carries attached to the third joint a long secondary multiarticulated 
ramus. The third pair is developed into a strong chelate organ, whilst the 
fourth and fifth pairs have rudimentary processes attached to the distal 
extremity of the fifth joint that demonstrates their chelate conditions at a 
very early stage. The pleon consists of six somites only, neither of which is 
furnished with a pair of appendages, or, as far as I could see, the rudiments 
of them. The posterior somite or telson is dorsally and veutrally flattened, 
evenly excavate at the posterior margin, which has the lateral extremities 
produced to a shai'p point ; while a large strong spine projects posteriorly 
from the centre, on each side of which, between it and the lateral point, are 
about twelve short stout pointed hairs. 

Crangon vulgaris. 

The young of the common Shrimp, although I have read of its resemblance 
to that of A. mysis, has not, I am convinced from that description, ever been 
described from the form in which it appears at the period when it leaves the 
egg- case. 

At this stage it has a long straight anteriorly projecting rostrum on the 
carapace, a posteriorly projecting dorsal spine on the third somite of the 
pleon, and a lateral one on the posterior margin on each side of the fifth 
somite. The eyes are large, the antenna3 short ; the mandibles and two 
pairs of maxillae, as well as the three anterior pairs of pereiopoda, are alone 
developed, of which the three last are furnished with secondary appen- 



MARINE FAUNA AND FLORA OF SOUTH DEVON AND CORNWALL. 87 

dages : at a later stage in the develojiineut the posterior pairs of pereiopoda 
are developed with secondary appendages like the Lobster in its primary 
stage. At this time the resemblance to some of the Mijsidce is so great that 
it is highly probable that some of those Mysidce that are distinguished by 
the development of their appendages in the form of true legs may he only 
the young of the several species of Crangon. 

Pcdcemon. 

The larva of the common Prawn differs but little from that of the Shrimp 
in the early stages of its development. The chief points of distinction arc 
only such as could be called specific, and not improbably may be found in the 
young condition of the larva of various species in either genus. They chiefiy 
exist in Palcemon, having a longer rostral spine and a dorsal spine being pre- 
sent on the posterior margin of the fifth somite of the pleon. 

It would be interesting, should we have the opportunity, to compare the 
larva of the enormous freshwater Prawn of Guatemala, a crustacean as large 
as a half-grown Lobster, with that of our European species. 

Palinurus mannus. 

In my last Report are given figures of the young of the genus Palinu- 
rus, an animal that has excited considerable attention amongst carcinologists 
in consequence of its near resemblance to the form of Phyllosoma, a circum- 
stance that has induced many zoologists to believe that they arc but the same 
animal in different stages of growth. Since the presentation of the second 
Report, in which I gave certain reasons for not too readily accejiting this con- 
clusion, Dr. Anton Dohrn has given much time to the subject, and traced the 
development of the ovum from the commencement to the period when the 
j-oung animal quits the egg-case. He writes to me from Messina, February 
1869 : — " I only assure you that the thing is finished. The Phylhsoma are 
the larva3 of the Loricatcv. I have followed the development of Scylhirus and 
Palinurus eggs, and both have brought out Phylhsoma. What is there so 
anomalous in Phyllosoma ? It is nothing but a depressed Megalops. ... I have 
followed the development of the interior organization as well, and there is no 
dift'ercnce of real value between Phyllosoma and Scyllarus, or Palimirus." 

This, which gives the author such confidence, is nothing more than has 
been known for the last twenty years. The question is not as to the forms of 
the larva of Palinurus, Scyllarus, &c., but whether certain animals that are 
like them, but five hundred times as large, that we find mostly in exotic seas, 
are the same but a little older specimens. If they arc, as Dr. Dohrn and 
other naturalists afiirm, then they establish the remarkable fact that the larva3 
of these Crustacea grow from the one-tenth of an inch in length to that of 
one or two inches in length, without any material variation of form, a 
feature that is not consistent with the life-history of the development of the 
animals of this class. 

If we examine the progressive growth of other Crustaceans, we find that 
with every increase in growth there is a fresh moult, and every moult de- 
velopes the animal a stage nearer the tyjie of the adult animal. If the 
Phyllosoma be, as contended, the young of Palinurus, then an arrest in pro- 
gressive development takes place, while that of growth continues. 

An argument in favour of this being the case (that Phyllosoma may be the 
young of Palinurus) may be found in a species described by De Haan in 
Siebold's ' Fauna Japonica ' under the name of Ph. Guerinii, in which an 
intermediate progressive step exists, inasmuch as the carapace is developed 
so far posteriorly as to cover the pereion. 



88 EEPORT— 1869. 

I think, therefore, that although step hy step we may arrive at the true 
knowledge, yet the large amount of negative evidence, which is capable at 
any day of being overthrown, must make us hesitate in accepting as a thing 
proved the statement that Phyllosoma and the closely resembling larvae of 
Palinurus are one and the same creature. 

The genus ScyUarus has now been so frequently captured on our coast, 
that we must consider it not as a mere straggler, but as an old inhabitant of 
the British seas. 

Mr. Cornish writes : — " Some years since I suggested to Prof. Bell, with 
the first specimen that I took, that it was identical with the little lobster 
described by Borlase (Nat. Hist. p. 274) as ' that fine Shrimp (Squilla lata, 
Bondeletii) I found in Careg-KiUas, in Mount's Bay;' but he thought that 
Squilla lata was the other ScyUarus, and not mine. I now beheve that I 
was right and he was wrong. Looking at the rarity of the species in Mount's 
Bay, it is more probable that Borlase's specimen and mine should be the 
same species, than that they should be distinct." 

Borlase took his on Careg-Killas, in Mount's Bay. This name is lost ; but 
it means " slate," or " killas-rock," and it was (fzc^e Borlase, Nat. Hist. p. 254) 
" a ledge where loose stones could be turned over," near Penzance (p. 206). 

There are but two places in Mount's Bay which satisfy this description, 
and the one nearest to the Doctor's residence is Long Rock, where the latest 
specimen of ScyUarus was taken. 

Besides which. Pennant (vol. iv. p. 17, No. 23, Lobster) speaks of Squilla 
lata, Eondeletii, as the size of the S^iny Lobster. Dr. Borlase speaks of his 
specimen as " that fine shrimp." 

The specimen of which Mr. Cornish writes was captured alive, and, being 
in fuU spawn, was sent on to me, with the hope that, should it arrive alive, 
I might be able to hatch the ova, and so make out the hitherto undetermined 
form of the young ScyUarus. Unfortunately the animal was dead when it 
reached me that same evening. The ova were very abundant in quantity, 
each being about ^^ of an inch in diameter, with an orange-coloured vitellus. 
The embryo was in a very immature stage, so that little could be learned 
from it as to the form or character of the larva when it quits the ovum. My 
friend Dr. Andrew Dohrn, however, Avho has on the coast of Sicily been 
giving his attention to this subject amongst others, informs me that the larva 
of ScyUarus is identical with that of Palinurus, and consequently assumes the 
form of Phyllosoma, 

Squilla. 

Several specimens of this genus have been recorded from the coasts of 
Devon and Cornwall ; but the scarcity of their appearance induces us to 
consider them rather as stragglers drifted from the Channel Islands than 
inhabitants of our southern shores. Two other genera of closely allied 
animals are occasionally taken in the same locality. These have been de- 
scribed by Prof. Milne-Edwards, and figured under the respective names of 
Alima and Squillerichihys ; specimens of both these have been taken during 
the last summer, the former by Mr. Hay Lankester, and the latter by Mrs. 
Collings of Serk. The former of these animals has much in its appearance 
that is suggestive of an undeveloped condition ; but it was difficult to define 
the parent stock ; it might be a young Squillerichtliys, or it might be a young 
Squilla, from either of which it differs in having but two flageUa to the 
anterior appendage, and in the absence of the five pairs of pereiopoda ; while 
in Squilla and SquillerichtJiys there are three flagella to the anterior antenna3, 
and all the pereiopoda are present. The general form, however, of Alima is 



MARINE I'AUNA AXD FLORA OF SOUTH DEVON AND CORNWALL. 89 

nearer to Squilleyichthys than is Squill erichthys to Sqidlla. This separation 
appears to receive a wider demarcation from the circumstance that Mrs. 
Collings took attached to her specimen several small ova ; two of these, Avith 
the specimen, she kindly forwarded to me for inspection. These, however, 
after due consideration, I came to the conclusion were only accidentally 
entangled, or else deposited by some parasitic animal, since they were at- 
tached to a large flexile membrane diftering essentially from those that cover 
the ova of Crustacea generally. 

Fortunately, however. Dr. Power, while staying in the Mauritius, hatched 
and forwarded to me a considerable number of the young of different Crus- 
tacea; among these were those of a Squilla. This, although the young of 
an exotic species, bears so close a relation to the genus Alima of Milne- 
Edwards, that we can have no hesitation in accepting them as different stages 
in the growth of animals of the same genus. 

So with Squillerichth)/s, the features that distinguish it from Squilla being 
clearly expressed in the larva of Squilla, and repeated in the form of Alima 
in a condition that is a modification between it and Squillerichthys, conduces 
to the conviction that, like Alima, Squillerichthys is but a stage in the de- 
velopment oi Squilla, a circumstance that enables us with much confidence to 
unite the three supposed genera as different stages in the progressive de- 
velopment of one and the same genus. 

In the entrance to the channel, during the present spring, largo quantities 
of the Crustacea named by Prof. Bell, in his ' Histoiy of the British Crus- 
tacea,' Thysanopoda Couchii, were taken in the stomachs of fish; of these a 
considerable number were sent to me by Mr. Loughrin, but they were not in a 
condition favourable for examination. The pendulous ovipouch, that affords 
such a peculiar feature to the animal, was generally of a bright orange-colour ; 
but, generally speaking, the contents had been so acted upon by tho digestive 
juices that little was determinable from them. This I think we may speak 
with certainty, that they are not of the genus Thysanopoda. 

OSTRACODA. 

The following Ostracoda, which have been examined for us by G. S. 
Brady, F.L.S., were dredged off the Eddystone in 40 fathoms of water : — 

Pontocypris mytiloides, Norman. Loxoconcha guttata, Norman. 

trigonella, G. 0. Sars. tamarindus, Jo?ies. 

angusta, Brady. Xestoleberis aurautia, Baird. 

Bairdia inflata, Norman. Cytherura angulata, Brady. 

■ acanthigera, Brady. cuneata, Brady. 

Cythere pellucida, Baird. striata, Sars. 

tenera, Brady. similis, Sars. 

badia, Brady. acuticostata, Sars. 

convesa, Baird. Cytheropteron punctatum, Brady. 

finmarchica, Sars. nodosum, Brady. 

■ villosa, Sars. miiltiforum, Norman. 

emaoiata, Brady. subcircinatum, Sars. 

semipunctata, Brady. Bathocythere constricta, Sars. 

• cuneiformia, Brady. turgida, Sars. 

antiquata, Baird. Pseudocythere caudata, Sars. 

Jonesii, Baird. Scleroohilus contortus, Norman. 

acerosa, Brady. Paradoxostoma ensiforme, Brady. 

Eucythere parva, Brady. abbreviatum, Sars. 

Loxoconcha impressa, Baird. Polycope compressa, Brady. 

Annelids. 
Dr. M'Tntosh, F.K.S.E., F.L.S., says a considerable collection of Annelids 



90 



REPORT — 1869. 



from the neiglabourhood of riymouth was scut to me for examination by 
Mr. Speucc Bate and Mr. Brooking Eowe ; the former likewise courteously 
gave me the use of some careful drawings, from which sources the following 
list is drawn up. As not unfreqiiently happens with such animals, the 
specimens were in an indifferent state of preservation, especially those 
which had been placed in glycerine. Although somewhat softened, how- 
ever, they were of great interest, and much care had evidently been be- 
stowed on their collection. As a series entirely from the southern shores of 
England, they form an advantageous contrast with the collections of Mr. 
Gwyn Jeffi-eys, which come from the opposite extremity of the British 
Islands, xii. from the Zetlandic seas. 

The majority of the species are weU-known forms, and with regard to 
these it is only necessary to refer to the list. Amongst the rarer forms, 
Lepidonotus dava, Mont., seems to be plentiful, whereas on most of our 
shores it is not commonly met with. Its speckled and adherent scales, 
swollen and ringed cirri, and stout yellow bristles render it an easHy recog- 
nized species. The Nereis Marionii, Aud. & Ed., has not hitherto been re- 
corded as British, and appears to be chiefly a southern form, for I have not 
yet found it elsewhere than in the Channel Islands and in this collection 
from Plymouth. It is characterized by the great development of the superior 
lobe of the foot towards the posterior end of the body. Onuphis sicida, 
De Quatref., is also comparatively common. The range of this species extends 
from the Shetland Islands to the Mediterranean. It has jointed bristles, as 
in Eunice, and the examples were in tubes of gravel and sand. The very 
large size of some of the specimens of Cirratuhis cirratiis calls for notice. I 
have not seen larger. The occurrence of TereheUa medusa, Sav., a gigantic 
form, is likewise interesting ; and it is probable that TereheUa gigantea of 
Montagu refers to this species. The hooks correspond with that figured by 
Dr. Malmgren *, from a specimen procured in the Ilcd Sea near Suez, and 
have five (rarely six) distinctly separated teeth. The TerebeJla {Pohjmnia) 
Danielsseni of Malmgren is a new British form, distinguished by the three 
comparatively short branchiaj and the shape of the hooks, which have a 
large fang and two or three small teeth above it. 



List of Species. 



Hermione bystrix, Sav. 
Lepidonotus squamatus, Linn. 

clava, Mont. 

Harmothoe imbricata, Linn. 

— — longisetis, Gruhe. 

PolyiioiJ asterina (squamosa, Dclk Chiaje). 

Attached to Asterins aurantiaca. 
Sigalion boa, Johnst. 

Nepbtbys ?. softened fragment. 

INotophyllum polynoides, (Erst. 

Eulalia viridis, MiUl. 

Eteone pusilla, (Ersf. 

Syllis armillaris, Mull. 

Grattiola spectabilis, Juhn&f.'i (Drawing.) 

Nereis zonata, Malmgren ? 

pelagicfl, L. 

■ Marionii, A. ^ Ed. 

■ cultrifera, Chrube. 

Nereilepas fucata, Sav. 
Eunereis longissima, Joknst. 



Mull. 



Lumbrinereis fragilis, 

Eunice ? 

Leodice norvegica, L. 

Lysidice ninetta, A. 8f Ed. 

Hyalina:-cia tubicola, Miill. 

Onuphis sicula, Quatref. 

Notooirrus scoticus, McL 

Glycera capitata, (Erst. 

— '— Goesi, Mgrn. 

Arenicola ecaudata, Johnst. 

Chfftopterus norvegicus, Sars. (Drawing.) 

Nerine vulgaris, Johnst. 

Scolecolepis cirrata, Sars. 

Cirratulus cirratus, Miill. 

Capitella capitata, Fahr. 

Ammocbares Ottonis, Gruhe. 

Sabellaria alveolata, L. 

Pectinaria belgica, Pallas. 

Amphictene auricoma, Miill. 

Ampbicteis Gunner!, Sars. 



* Nordista Hafs-annulater, tab, 35. f. 80. 



ON THE PRACTICABIIilT¥ OF ESTABLISHING "a CLOSE TIME." 



91 



Terebella medusa, Sav. 

nebulosa, Mont. 

littoralis, Balyell, &c. 

Danielsseni, Mgrn. 

Nicolea zostericola, (Erst. 
Pista cristata, Mull. 
Thelepus circinnatus, Fabr. 
Leprea textris, DalyeU. 
Sabella penicillus, L. (pavonia, Sav.). 
Dasjchone Dalyelli [BaL), KolUker. 
Protula protensa, Lam. cf Grube. 
Serpiila Termicularis, L. 



Serpula reversa, Mont. 
triqueter, L. 



Pontobdella muricata, L. 
Borlasia olivacea, Johnst. 
Lineus longissimus, Simmons. 
Micrura fiisca ? 
Ommatoplea. Several. 
Sipunculus ? 
Thalassema Neptuni, Gmrtner. 



POEAMINIFERA. 

The Foraminifera, of which the following list was furnished me by Mr. 
David Eobertson of Glasgow, Avere taken in about 40 fathoms seven miles 
south-east of the Eddystonc, and some fourteen miles south-east of the 
Dudman, in about the same depth of water. 



Cornuspira foliacea, Phil. 
Biloculina depressa, d' Orb. 
Spiroloculina limbata, d' Orb. 

planulata, Lamarck. 

Triloculina oblonga, Mont. 
Quinqueloculina seniinulina, d' Orb. 

subrotunda, Mont. 

Trochammina inflata, Mont. 
Lituola canariensis, d^ Orb. 
Lagena la;vis, Mont. 

striata, Mont. 

semistriata, Will. 

globosa, Mont. 

melo, d' Orb. 

Dentalina communis, d'Orb. 
Cristellaria rotulata, Lamk. 

crepidula, F. ^- M. 

Poljmorphina lactea, W. S( J. 



Polymorphina oblonga. Will. 

compressa, d' Orb. 

myristiformi.s. Will. 

Orbulina universa, d' Orb. 
Spirillina vivipara, Fhrenb. 

margaritil'era, d'Orh. 

Textularia sagittula, Lamk. 
Bulimina pupoides, d' Orb. 

ovata, d' Orb. 

Bolivina punctata, fZ' Orb. 
Discorbina globularis, d' Orb. 
Planorbulina mediterraniensis, d' Orb. 
Truncal ulina lobatula, Walker. 
Rotalia Beccarii, L. i|- M. 
Patellina corrugata, Will. 
Nonionina asterizans, F. ^' W. 
turgida, Will. 



Report on the practicability of establishing '' A Close Time " for the 
protection of indigenous Animals. By a Committee, consisting of 
¥. BucKLAND, Rev. H. B. Tristram^ F.R.S., Tegetmeier^ and H. 
E. Dresser (Reporter). 

In accordance with the resolution passed at the Meeting of the British Asso- 
ciation at JSTorwich in August last, appointing Mr. Prank Buckland, Eev. 
H. B. Tristram, Mr. Tegetmeier, and Mr. H. E. Dresser as a Committee for 
the purpose of collecting evidence as to the practicability of establishing a 
close time for the protection of indigenous animals, this Committee met at 
the Zoological Society's rooms (which Dr. Sclater had kindly placed at their 
disposal) on the 13th of January last, the Eev. Dr. Tristram being in the chair ; 
and on Professor A. Newton tendering in evidence the information published 
by the Yorkshire Association for the Protection of Sea-birds, respecting 
the utility of sea-birds, it was resolved, inasmuch as the said Association was 
working in the same direction as this Committee, that we should give every 
reasonable assistance in furthering the object for which the Association had 
been formed, viz. that of getting an Act of Parliament passed to protect the 



92 BEPORT— 1869. 

sea-birds during the breeding-season, the reasons given being that sea-birds 
are useful in destrojdng grubs and worms, in acting as scavengers in the 
harbours, in warning vessels off the rocks during fogs by their cries, and in 
hovering over and pointing out to the iishermen the locality of the shoals 
of fish. 

At the above meeting Mr. J. E. Harting, F.L.S. &c. was proposed and 
elected as a member of this Committee. 

Since then the members of your Committee have to the best of their power 
cooperated with the Association for the Protection of Sea-birds, and that 
Association has fully acknowledged the assistance rendered. The Bill for 
the protection of Sea-fowl was entrusted to the care of C. Sykes, Esq., M.P., 
in the Commons, and His Grace the Duke of Northumberland in the Lords, 
where it met with a most favoiirable reception. 

Before the Bill passed into Committee a meeting of naturalists was held at 
the Hanover Square Booms in order to consider and discuss the various 
clauses. However, as the progress of the Bill has been so fiilly reported iii 
the newspapers, it is needless to enter into details here, and it will be suffi- 
cient to say that at first it was proposed to make it illegal, not only to kill 
the birds during the breeding-season, but also to take their eggs ; and the 
close time was proposed to extend from the 1st of May to the 1st of August. 
However, it was found that so much injurj- would be inflicted on the poorer 
classes living on the coast if they were prevented from taking the eggs or 
young of the sea-birds, as they are often dependent on these for subsistence, 
that the egg clause Avas struck out, and the young, when unable to fly, were 
exempted. It was also considered that it would be expedient to exempt the 
island of St. Kilda, the inhabitants of that island being so entirely dependent 
on sea-birds for their subsistence. 

With these modifications, and the close time being extended one month, 
or from the 1st of April to the 1st of August, the BiU became law in June last, 
and one conviction has already taken place. The person convicted under this 
Act had dead sea-guUs in his possession, and was heavily fined. The Bill for 
the protection of sea-birds having now become law, it has to be considered how 
far it wiU be advisable to press for its extension to other birds and mammals. 
That it wiU be well to afford protection to most, if not all, of our birds, at 
least during the breeding-season, your Committee are fully convinced ; but it 
yet remains to convince the farmer that he will derive benefit from so doing. 

Our British agriculturist is in general no naturalist, and takes it for granted 
that every grain-eating bird must do him harm. He accordingly does his 
best to exterminate sparrows and other small birds, little thinking of the 
benefit they render him in destroying insects. Nor will the game-preserver, 
we fear, countenance so sweeping a measure until he is fully convinced that 
it is necessary to put some limit to the ravages made by his gamekeeper 
amongst our feathered friends. 

On the continent, and particularly where zoology forms a branch of study 
in the schools of agriculture (as in Germany, Sweden, «S:c.), the utility of 
many of our birds, which with us are persecuted as vermin, is fully recognized, 
and instead of forming sparrow clubs, the agriculturists there take steps to 
protect the feathered tribes. 

In the grain-growing countries of Russia near and in every ■s'illage small 
boxes and sections of hoUow branches may be seen fixed on to trees, barns, 

* We may here state that an Act protecting the sea-birds, not only during the breeding- 
season, but during the whole year, has been for some time in force in the Isle of Man, and 
has had the effect of almost entirely stopping the destruction of sea-fowl on that island. 



ON THE PRACTICABILITV OF ESTABLISHING "a CLOSE TIME." 03 

houses, &c., in order to induce sparrows and starlings to take up their abode 
there, and assist in freeing the crops from dcstractivc insects. Sparrows, 
starlings, and particularly jackdaws swarm near most of these villages, and, 
according to what the peasants say, are of infinite use in freeing the crops 
from insects. 

In Sweden, also, the starling is an especial favourite with the agriculturist, 
and the Principal of the Bcida Forest School, Jagmastare Boman, makes 
every one of his pupils prepare and hang up a certain number of these nesting- 
boxes, or " holkar," before leaving the school. 

The late Mr. Charles Waterton also recommended the introduction into 
England of this plan of providing nesting-boxes for starlings. 

In speaking of the starling, we may refer to a letter from Universitiits 
Forstmeister Wiese, published in the ' Journal flir Ornithologie,' 1866, p. 422, 
in which he urges the necessity of putting up nesting-boxes for starlings, and 
states that at Elisenhain in the Griefswald the oak-forests were suffering 
severely from the devastations of Tortriv viridana, when, to destroy this 
insect, the starlings were protected, and these birds soon succeeded in keep- 
ing down the numbers of this insect. 

Some agriculturists of New Zealand are at the present moment endeavour- 
ing, at considerable expense, to introduce into those islands the rook, the 
jackdaw, and the starling, for the purpose of protecting their crops from the 
ravages of caterpillars and locusts. 

The best mode of judging of the good or harm done by birds is most cer- 
tainly that of stiidi/inff the nature of their food; and as almost all our smallest 
birds, even those which are chiefly graminivorous, feed their nestlings on in- 
sects, it would surely benefit the farmer and ; gardener were they protected 
during the time when the insects are most destructive to the crops. Even 
the Raptores should, we think, be protected ; and in proof of this we may refer 
to Professor Newton's paper on the " Zoological aspect of Game-Laws," read 
at the last Meeting of the British Association, and the Eev. Dr. Tristram's 
theory propounded at the Jileeting in 1867, viz. that the birds of prey are 
the sanitary police of nature, and that if they had existed in their original 
strength they would have stamped out the grouse-disease, inasmuch as hawks 
in preference make sickly birds their quarry. 

Regarding the food of our birds we may make the following short re- 
marks : — 

The common Buzzard (Buteo vulgaris), yvhich was once, it is true, common 
in Great Britain, but is now rapidly approaching the fate of the Great 
Bustard, owing chiefly to the mistaken zeal of the gamekeepers, is a bird by 
no means injurious to game. Its food consists chiefly of frogs, mice, snails, 
&c., and but seldom or never of birds. 

The Kestrel (Falco tinnuncidus) feeds almost entu'ely on field-mice, but also 
cats beetles and grasshoppers. 

The Merlin (Falco cesalon) feeds chiefly on mice and small birds. 

The Sparrowhawk {Accipiter nisus) is perhaps the only true enemy of the 
game-preserver ; though at the same time it is probable that if the good and 
evil it does were justly weighed, the balance would be in favour of the hawk, 
its favourite quarry being the Woodpigeon, which is now increasing to an 
extent injurious to agriculture. 

As far as owls are concerned. Professor Newton clearly showed, at the 
last Meeting of the British Association, that these birds are of the greatest 
use to the agriculturist in destroying the small mammals which injure his 
crops. Prof. Newton refers to the researchea of Dr. Altum, the results of 



94 



REPORT 1869. 



which were as follows : — In order to ascertain the natnre of the food of the 
different owls, Dr. Altum collected pellets, or castings, at different seasons of 
the year, from different localities, which pellets he carefully examined. 

Of the Barn-owl {Strix fiammea) he examined 706 rejected pellets, which 
contained remains of the following, viz. : — 
4 Plecotus auritus. 



11 Vesperugo pipistrellus. 
1 Vesperus serotinus. 
3 Mus clecumanus. 

237 musculus, sylvaticus, and mi- 

nutus. 
34 HypurLTius glareolus. 

23 amphibius. 

688 Arvicola arvalis. 
47 agrestis. 



1 Arvicola campestris. 
76 Crossopus fodiens. 
349 Crocidura araneus (and leucodon). 
1164 Sorcx vulgaris. 

1 pygmajus. 

1 Talpa europasa. 
19 Passer domesticus. 

1 FringiUa chloris. 

2 Cypselus apus. 



Of the Wood-owl (Stri.v aluco) he examined 210 pellets, the contents of 
which he classifies as follows — 



1 Mustela erminea. 
6 Mus decumanus. 
42 musculus, sylvaticus, minutus. 

19 IIypuda;us glareolus. 

1 1 amphibius. 

254 Arvicola arvalis. 

12 agrestis. 

1 Sciurus vulgaris. 
5 Crossopus fodiens. 
3 Crocidura araneus. 

20 Sores vulgaris. 
5 pygmteus. 



48 Talpa europea. 

1 Certhia familiaris. 

1 Emberiza citrinella. 

1 Motacilla alba. 

15 Small birds (sp.?). 

15 Carabus granulatus. 

4 Harpalus ? 

9 Ditiscus marginalia. 

14 Scarabeus stercorarius. 

1 sylvaticus. 

1 Elater ? 

1 Silpha rugosa. 



and large quantities of Melolontha vulgaris, some of the pcUets consisting 
entirely of the remains of these insects. 

Of the Short-oared Owl (Strix hracliyotus) he examined a few pellets, 
which he found to contain only remains of Hypudceus amphibius ; but as 
these were only obtained from one locality where this mouse is especially 
abundant. Dr. Altum reserves his remarks on the food of this owl until he 
can make further investigations. 

Of the Long-cared Owl {Strix otus) he examined many pellets, which con- 
tained remains as follows : — 



14 Mus sylvaticus. 
1 Hypvida?us amphibius. 

12 glareolus. 

193 Arvicola arvalis. 



65 Arvicola agrestis. 

2 Sores vulgaris. 

3 Birds, sp.? 



The above proves most clearly that our owls should be protected, as in 
destroying mice &c. they are benefitting the agriculturist. Not only, how- 
ever, do the owls, as is above shown, feed chiefly on mice, but the Wood- 
owl {Strix aluco) is often insectivorous ; and Mr. Leopold Martin of Berlin 
(Journal fiir Ornithologic, 1854, p. 93) states that he found in the stomach 
of one of these birds the remains of no less than 75 Sphinx pinastri. 

Many of our smaller birds arc entirely insectivorous, and are undoubtedly 
useful at all seasons of the year ; and of these we may in particular refer to 
the Woodpeckers and Titmice, the latter of which feed largely on the eggs of 
Bomhyx pini, which is so destructive to the pine forests. Every female of 
this moth will lay from 600 to 700 eggs, and were it not that they are kept 
down in number liy the tits they would increase enormously. Count 0. 
Wodzicki, in a small work on the influence of birds in destroying inju- 



ON THE PRACTICABILITY OF ESTABLISHING '^ A CLOSE TIME/' 95 

rious insects, published at Lemberg in 1851, calculates that a single tit 
will devour 1000 insects' eggs in a single dag, and besides, the tits feed their 
young chiefly on insects' eggs and caterpillars. Count Wodzicki mentions in 
particular Sitta europcea, Qerthia familiaris, and the Eegulidce, as being 
useful in destroying Bombyx pini. He also mentions that the Woodpeckers 
are of great utility in destroying the following insects, viz. Noctua pinastri, 
Geonietm piniaria, Sphinx p>inastn, Tenthredo jnni, T. septentrional is, Bos- 
trichus typographus, and B. clialcographus. M. C. von Heyden also remarks 
(Journal fiir Ornithologie, 1859, pp. 316, 317) that in the winter Sitta 
europcea and Parus major feed on the larvae of Cecidomyia fagi, the Beech- 
gall insect, and states as follows : — " The well-known conical gaU of this 
insect is often found in large numbers on the upper side of the beech-leaves. 
In the autumn it becomes hard like wood, and falls off the leaf. These birds 
then search carefully on the ground under the trees for the galls, and after 
pecking a hole (generally in the side of the point of the gall), pick out and 
devour the insect. The hole is generally so small that the insect cannot 
be extracted with the beak, and the bird must use its tongue for that pur- 
pose. It is curious that the bird should bore a hole at the hard point of the 
gall when the base is merely closed by the thin paper-like web of the 
insect." 

Professor Buckman has also recently observed that the Blue-tit {Farm 
cceruleus) destroys the flies which make the oak-galls, which in many parts of 
the country threaten to ruin the young oak-plantations. 

Many of our seed-eating birds are useful, not only because they feed on 
the seeds of injurious weeds, but also on destructive insects ; and our common 
Yellowhammer {Emberiza citrinella) feeds with avidity on the caterpillar of 
the white Butterfly (Pieris rapm). 

Mr. Mewes, the well-known Swedish naturalist, states (Ofversigt af Kongl. 
Vetenskaps Akademiens Forhandlingar, 1868, p. 256) that at Borgholm in 
Sweden he found the oak-woods near the castle almost stripped of their leaves 
by Tortrix viridana, and that numbers of birds were feeding on the larva; of 
this insect, amongst which he names the common Crossbill {Loxia curvi- 
rostra), which, though in general a seed-eater, was in that instance doing 
good service in eating insects. He states that flocks of these birds were 
busily employed in destroying this insect. 

The much-persecuted Sparrow (Passer domesticiis) is also a good friend to 
the agriculturist, and amply repays him for the little corn he may take by 
destroying many injurious insects, and in eating the seeds of many rank 
weeds. 

During the winter the Tree-sparrow (Passer montanus) feeds chiefly on 
the seeds of Urtjca divica, Chenopodium album, and Polygonum avicidare, all 
of which are injurious weeds. 

It is true that the House-sparrow is a grain-eating bird, but its nestlings 
are fed chiefly on insects. Mr. Berthold Wicke, of Gottingen (Henneberg's 
Journal fiir Landwirthschaft, 16 Jahrgang, 3 Heft) examined the contents of 
the stomachs of 118 sparrows procured between the 21st of April and 24th of 
June, and gives the following results of his investigations : — Of these birds, 45 
were adults and 73 young, ranging from the small naked nestling to the full- 
fledged bird. In the stomachs of three of the adult birds he found only grain, 
m one nothing but the remains of a few beetles ; one had the stomach and 
crop so full of grain that he counted 50 grains ; one stomach contained the 
seed of weeds, pieces of peas and seeds of Stellaria media, and the rest con- 
tamed corn with the remains of beetles ; and in one was the entire skin of a 
Melolontha vidgaris. 



96 REPORT — 1869. 

Whereas, however, the stomachs of the adult birds contained chiefly grain 
and but a small proportion of insect-remains, it proved to be entirely the 
reverse as regards the young birds. Out of the 73 he examined, the sto- 
machs of 46 contained insects, larvse, caterpillars, &c., and only 9 contained 
vegetable matter alone. Of the remaining stomachs 10 contained the re- 
mains of insects mixed with a few seeds, 7 contained chiefly seeds with a 
small proportion of insect-remains, and 1 contained eggshells and small 
stones without trace of anything else. 

Our American cousins have recognized the utility of the sparrow, and have 
introduced it into New York, where it is now found comparatively numerous, 
and has been most useful in keeping the trees free from caterpillars, which 
before its introduction threatened seriously to injure them. 

Our thrushes and blackbirds are also most useful to the gardener from 
the quantities of slugs and snails thej- destroy, and our rook is universally 
acknowledged to be a most useful bird. 

Much information as to the nature of the food of birds is, however, yet 
needed in order to judge correctly of the amount of good or harm they do ; 
and it would be well if the question were fully ventilated in the newspapers, 
and naturalists resident in diff'erent parts of the country encouraged to make 
investigations as to the nature of the food of the diSerent species of birds, 
and compare the results of such investigations. 

Your Committee felt, however, sure that the good done by birds will be 
found largely to predominate over the harm, and that it will prove expedient 
to afford them protection during the breeding-season. 

It is, however, a measure that will require considerable time to carry 
through, and we would suggest that the best mode of affordiug the necessary 
protection to birds would be to prohibit the carr}T.ng of a gun during the 
breeding- season, as is now done in several parts of the continent, as, for 
instance, in Switzerland, some parts of Prance, &c. In the United States of 
North America, where freedom of action exists more perhaps than anywhere 
else, the close-time system is to a large extent carried out, and has proved 
most beneficial, though, as may be supposed, it is most difficult to enforce in 
a thinly popidated country. 

Much information is, however, yet needed as to the practical working of the 
close-time system in those countries where it has been in force, and your 
Committee hope ere long to be able to procure reliable particulars on this 
point. 

Generally it is said to work excelleutly, and, far from interfering with the 
game-preservers, it has been found to act in harmony with their views. 
Were it enforced here in England it would have the good effect of stopping 
the damage done by idle men and boys, who on Sundays are in the habit 
of soing out in the neighbourhood of the towns to shoot small birds. 



Experimental Researches on the Mechanical Properties of Steel. 
Btj W. Fairbairjt, LL.D., F.R.S., ^x. 

In my last Report I had the honour of submitting to the Association an 
experimental inquiry into the Mechanical properties of Steel, obtained from 
the difi'ercnt sources of manufacture in the United Kingdom. On that occa- 
sion several important experiments were recorded from specimens obtained 



ON THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF STEEL. 97 

from the best makers ; and bars were received from others, the experiments 
on which were at that time incomplete. Since then I have had an opportu- 
nity of visiting the important works at Barrow-in-Furnoss, and from there I 
have received bars and plates of different qualities for the purpose of experi- 
ment, and such as would admit of comparison with those recorded in my last 
Report. I have also received specimens from Mr. Heaton for experiment, 
illustrative of the new process of conversion from crude pig iron (of different 
grades) to that of steel, as exhibited in the results contained in this Eeport. 

In every experimental research connected with metals, it is necessary to 
ascertain, as nearly as possible, the properties of the ores, the quality of the 
material, and the processes by which they are produced. Generally this in- 
formation is difficult to obtain, as in every new process of manufacture there 
is a natural inclination (where the parties are commercially interested) to 
keep it as long as possible to themselves, and hence the reluctance to furnish 
particulars. Of this, however, I can make no complaint, as Mr. Bessemer, 
the Barrow Company, and Mr. Heaton have unreservedly not only opened 
their works for inspection, but they have furnished every particular required 
(including chemical analysis) relative to the properties of the ores, and the 
processes by which they are reduced. 

From this it will be seen that in some of the experiments I have had the 
privilege of recording the chemical as well as the mechanical properties of the 
specimens which have been forwarded for the purpose of experiment, and of 
ascertaining their respective and comparative values. 

As regards the works at Barrow, I have, througli the kindness of Mr. 
Ramsden and Mr. Smith the manager, received every facility for investigation, 
and they have kindly sent me the analyses of all the ores in use for the pur- 
pose of manufacturing both iron and steel. In these "Works, it wiU be noticed 
that the manufacture is exclusively confined to the htematite ores, and that 
by the Bessemer process. 

It is curious to trace the progressive development of the manufacture of 
steel from the earliest period down to the present time, and to ascertain how 
nearly the more premature and early stages of manufacture approaches to 
those of Bessemer and others in our own days. To show how closely they 
approximate in princixile (the exception being in the vessels used and the 
power employed), I venture to quote from my own Report to the Barrow 
Company, in which the coincidence between the ancient and modern processes 
is exemplified. 

In treating of the value of the ha3matite formation, I have stated that "we 
have no reliable accounts of the time when the haematite ores were first iised 
for the purpose of manufacture. They must have existed contemporary with 
those in Susses and the Forest of Dean ; for the numerous cinder-heaps in 
those counties and at Furness bear evidence of the smelting-process having 
been carried on from an early period, untU the forests became exhausted during 
the reign of Elizabeth and her successors. The process by which the ores 
were reduced in those days was extremely rude and simple, and was probably 
no better than what had been practised from time immemorial at the ancient 
bloomeries, to which were attached artificial blasts, first practised in this 
country after the Roman conquest. "What was the nature of the apparatus 
for producing this blast we are unable to ascertain ; but it is likely that two 
or more pairs of bellows may have been used, or the method, still practised 
by the natives of Madagascar, might have been adopted of fitting pistons 
loosely into the hollow trunks of trees. In whatever form the hsematite ores 
were reduced, it is clear that the smelting-furnace was not in operation in 

1869. H 



98 REPORT— 1869. 

those days ; aud assumiug that the bloomery was the only process in use, the 
result would be a species of relined iron or steel, wliich, deprived of the greater 
part of its carbon, would become malleable under the hammer. 

" It is interesting to observe how nearly our imiwoved modern process of 
making steel a])proaches to that of those rude and early times. The Bessemer 
system is neither more nor less than the old process of the bloomery and the 
Catalan furnace, the former being adapted to smelt the ore, aud the latter to 
decarbonize and refine it into the malleable state of iron or steel. 

" That such was the state of the early manufacture of hsematite iron can 
hardly be questioned, as the country around Ulverston was covered with 
forests ; and the name given to Furness Abbey shows that its site was in the 
vicinity of furnaces, employed exclusively for the reduction of the ores with 
which the surrounding country abounds. The remains of these ancient fur- 
naces have to some extent been carried down to our own times, and Messrs. 
Harrison and Co. still manufacture a fine quality of charcoal iron, the wood 
being obtained from the adjoining forests. The new works at Barrow have, 
however, entirely changed the nature of this process ; and the system of manu- 
facturing direct from the ore has become a question of such importance, as to 
induce an investigation of its value, and the improvements it is likely to effect 
both in the maniifacture of iron and steel. For this object the foUomng 
experiments have been instituted, in order to show the peculiar properties of 
this manufacture, and the extent to which it is applicable for the general 
purposes of trade aud constructive art. 

" The proprietors of the Barrow Works have confined themselves to certain 
descriptions of manufacture, on the Bessemer principle, these being chiefly 
steel rails, tyres, plates, and girders, manufactured at a comparatively low 
price. From the nature of the ore and fuel (the latter of which is chiefly 
brought by rail from the coal-fields of Durham and Northumberland) a 
description of liighly refined homogeneous iron and steel is produced ; and 
as this manufacture is intended for purposes where tenacity aud flexibility 
are required, it would not be just to compare it with other descriptions of 
manufacture, where the object to be attained is hardness, such, for instance, 
as that employed for carriage-springs and tools. The descrii^tion of steel or 
iron required for rails, beams, girders, &c. is of a differeut character ; te- 
nacity combined with flexibility is what is wanted, to which may be added 
powers to resist imi)act. The same may be said of wheel-tyres and other 
constructions, where the strains are severe, and where the material is suf- 
ficiently ductile to prevent accidents from vibration, or those shocks and 
blows to wMch it may be subjected. Keepiug these objects in view, the 
Barrow Company's Works have, to a great extent, been limited to this de- 
scription of manufacture ; and, judging from the ductility of the material as 
exhibited in the experiments, there is Kttle chance of accidents from brittleness 
when subjected to severe transverse strains, or to the force of impact. 

" In calculating the value of the hsematite steel, we have been guided by 
the same formulae as adopted for comparison with similar productions from 
other works. Yery few of them, however, wiU admit of comparison, as no 
two of them appear to be alike. The haematite steel is manufactured, at the 
Barrow Works, for totally diff'erent purposes from those of other makers, and 
ha^•ing the command of a variety of ores for selection (as may be seen 
from the analysis of the ores given in the Table) the desired quality of steel 
can be obtained at pleasure. We have therefore submitted the diff'erent 
specimens to the same tests as those received from other makers, not only for 
the purpose of ascertaining wherein their powers of resistance difi'er, but also 



ON THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF STEEL. 99 

wherein consists their superiority as regards deflection, elongation, and com- 
pression, from all of which may be inferred their nature and properties, and 
the uses to which they may be applied. It is for this purpose wo have 
appHed the same formulae of reduction to each particular class of experiments 
as in the former cases, and the results have been embodied in the summaries. 
If, for example, it were required to know the modulus of elasticity, the 
work of deflection, or the unit of working strength, these will be found in 
their respective columns, carefully deduced from the experiments as given in 
the Tables. The same principle for ascertaining the amount of work done to 
produce rupture from tension has been followed, and the force required to 
produce compression wdth a given load has also been calculated with the 
same degree of care and attention to facts. 

" As the Bessemer principle of manufacturiug direct from the ore is calcu- 
lated to jiroduce great improvements and important changes in the produc- 
tion of refined iron and steel, and as the homogeneous properties of the ma- 
terial thus produced are of the highest importance as regards security, &c., 
it is essential to construction that we should be familiar with the mechanical 
properties of the material in every form and condition to which it may be 
applied. 

" For this purpose I have given aU the various forms of strain, excepting only 
that of torsion, which is of less moment, as the strains already described in- 
volve considerations which apply with some extent to that of torsion, and from 
which may be inferred the fitness of the material for the construction of shafts 
and other similar articles to which a twisting strain applies. 

" The great advantage to be derived from the Barrow manufacture of steel 
is its ductility combined with a tensile breaking strain of from 32 to 40 tons 
per square inch. With these qualities I am informed that the proprietors are 
able to meet aU the requirements of a demand to the extent of lOUO to 1200 
tons of steel i)er week, which, added to a weekly produce of 4500 tons of pig- 
iron, will enable us to form some idea of the extent of a maniifacture destined 
in aU probabihty to become one of the most important and one of the largest 
in Great Britain"*. 

From the above statement it may be inferred that the description of manu- 
facture practised at Barrow is carried on upon a large scale, and the products 
have reference to certain properties almost exclusively adapted to the formation 
of wheel-tyres, rails, and jjlates. To the attainment of these objects the 
greatest care and attention is devoted by the Company, as may be seen by com- 
paring the reduction of the experiments in the simimary of results. 

In this extended inquiry I have endeavoured to deduce true and correct results 
from the specimens with which I have been favoured from the Barrow Steel 
Company. In the same manner I have now to direct attention to the products 
of an entirely new system of manufacture introduced by Mr. Heaton of the 
Langley MiUs, near Nottingham. The experiments on this peculiar manu- 
facture require a separate introductory notice, as the process of conversion is 
totally different to that of Bessemer, the Puddling-furuace, or that of the old 
system of the Charcoal-beds. 

For the finer description of steel the old process of conversion is still prac- 
tised at Shefiield, from a fortnight to three weeks being required for the con- 
version of wrought iron into steel ; and, with the exception of Mr. Siemens's 
Eeverberatory Gas-furnace, there no improvements had been made on it until 

* In round numbers, it is stated tliat the produce of the Barrow Mines is 000,000 tons 
of ore per annum ; of the Barrow Blast-furnaces 230,000 tons of pig-iron ; and of the 
Eolling Mills 60,000 tons of steel rails, tyres, plates, &e. 

h2 



100 REPORT— 1869. 

Mr. Bessemer first announced his invention by means of which melted pig-iron 
was at once converted into steel. 

This new process of forcing atmospheric air through the metal in a molten 
state took metallurgists by surprise ; and when it was taken into consideration 
that the conversion was effected in twenty minutes and at one heat, the ques- 
tion became one of absorbing interest to the whole of the commercial popu- 
lation. 

By the old process the metal was first deprived of its carbon and reduced 
to the malleable state, when it was rolled into bars and retained (as above 
described) from fourteen to twenty-one days in charcoal-beds until it had 
absorbed by cementation the necessary quantity of carbon. The new process 
of Mr. Heaton, unlike that either of Mr. Bessemer or of cementation, simply 
deals with the pig-iron, and, according to his own statement, eliminates the 
superfluous carbon, so that steel is in the first place produced and thence wrought 
iron by a still further elimination of the carbon. This is totally different to 
the puddling or the Bessemer process, wliich in the former was tedious and 
expensive, wliilst in the latter the pig-iron was rendered malleable without 
any additional fuel and ready for the hammer or the rolls in a very short 
period of time. 

It is unnecessary to notice in detail the subsequent mechanical processes of 
reheating, rolling, hammering, &c., which are common to all the systems of 
conversion ; it is, however, important to mention that an admixture of sjjie- 
geleisen, a description of cast iron containing an excess of carbon, is made into 
the molten mass, without which the conversion is not easily effected by the 
Bessemer process. 

It is asserted by some writers on this subject, "that, whatever are the merits 
of the Bessemer process, the conversion cannot be effected without a destructive 
action upon the converters, and a rapid wear and tear of the tu)''eres, that 
there is waste in filling the moulds, and that the heavy royalties attached to 
the patents ttc. are serious drawbacks to the extension of the process." Mr. 
Hewitt, a writer on this subject, comes to the conclusion "that good steel can 
only be made from good material, no matter what i^rocess is employed;" and 
he further stales " that the Bessemer process wiU not, as Mr. Bessemer origi- 
nally supposed, supersede the puddling-process, which appears to be as yet the 
only method applicable to the conversion of by far the greater portion of pig- 
iron made into wrought iron, because by far the larger portion of pig-iron 
made is of a quality not good enough for the Bessemer process, which abso- 
lutely exacts the absence of sulphur and phosphorus." 

There may be some truth in this statement, as it was found necessary, in 
the selection of the haematite ores at Barrow, to make use of the best quality, 
and only seven or eight out of twenty sorts were found suitable for the pur- 
pose. It is, however, evident from the rapid extension of the process and the 
estimation in which it is held by manufacturers and the general public, that 
whatever objections the process is subject to (on purely economical grounds) 
Mr. Bessemer has succeeded in carrying out the pneumatic principle of con- 
version to the highest degree of excellence at present attainable by that 
process. 

In so important a branch of metallurgy it would be remarkable if Mr. Bes- 
semer had hit upon the only feasible means of converting iron into steel. 
Other minds have been inspired by Mr. Bessemer's success in the same direc- 
tion ; and the admixture of metals to effect a transmutation has been assumed 
in many forms and proportions so as to increase our knowledge and lessen the 
cost of production. Amongst those is the new process of Mr. Heaton, a de- 



ON THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF STEEL. 101 

scription of Avhich we venture to transcribe from a pamphlet published by the 
proprietors of the Heaton process. 

" The furnace (which is a common cnpola) is charged with pig-iron and 
coke, and fired in the usual waj% and the iron when melted is drawn off into 
a ladle, from which it is transferred to the converter. 

"The converter is a wrought-iron pot lined with fire-brick. In the bottom 
is introduced a charge of crude nitrate of soda, usually in the proportion of 
2 ewt. per ton of converted steel, usually but not invariably diluted with 
about 25 lb. of siliceous sand. This charge is protected or covered over with 
a close-fitting perforated iron plate weighing about 100 lb., the diameter of 
the plate being about 2 feet. The converter, with its contents, is then 
securely attached, by moveable iron clamps, to the open mouth of a sheet- 
iron chimney, also lined for 6 feet with fire-brick, and the melted iron taken 
in a crane ladle from the cupola is poured in. The subsequent part of the 
process is thus described by Professor Miller. 

" ' In about two minutes a reaction commenced. At first a moderate 
quantity of brown nitrous fumes escaped ; these were followed by copious 
blackish, then grey, then whitish fumes, produced by the escape of steam, 
carrying with it in suspension a portion of the flux. After the lapse of five 
or six minutes, a violent deflagration occurred, attended with a loud roaring 
noise and a burst of brilliant yellow flame from the top of the chimney. This 
lasted for about a minute and a half, and then subsided as rapidly as it com- 
menced. "When all had become tranquil, the converter was detached from 
the chimney, and its contents were emptied on to the iron pavement of the 
foimdry. 

" ' The crude steel was in a pasty state and the slag fluid ; the cast-iron 
perforated plate, which was placed as a cover to the converter, bad become 
melted up and incorporated with the charge of molten metal. The slag had 
a glassy or blebby appearance, and a dark or green colour in mass.' Professor 
Miller proceeds to detail the subsequent parts of the process, and the results 
of his analysis of some of the products. 

" * A mass of crude steel from the converter was then subjected to the 
hammer. 

" ' About 4| ewt. of the crude steel was transferred to an empty but hot 
reverberatory furnace, where in about an hour's time it was converted into 
four blooms, each of which was hammered, rolled into square bars, cut up, 
passed through a heating-furnace, and roUed into rods varying in thickness 
from 1 inch to five-eighths of an inch. 

" ' Three or four ewt. of the crude steel from the converter was transferred 
to a reheating furnace, then hammered into flat cakes, which, when cold, were 
broken up and sorted by hand for the steel melter. 

" ' Two fireclay pots, charged with a little clean sand, were heated, and 
into each 42 lb. of the cake steel was charged ; in about six hours the melted 
metal was cast into an ingot. 

" ' Two other similar pots were charged with 35 lb. of the same cake steel, 
7 lb. of scrap steel, and 1 ounce of oxide of manganese. These also were 
poured into ingots. 

" ' The steel was subsequently tilted, but was softer than was anticipated. 

" ' These residts are on the whole to be considered rather as experimental 
than as average working samples. 

" ' I have therefore made an examination of the following samples only : — 

No. 4. Crude Cupola Pig. No. 8. Eolled Steely Iron. 

No. 7. Hammered Crude Steel. No. 5. Slag from the converter. 



103 



KEPORT 1869. 



" ' I shall first give the results of my analysis of the three samples of 
metal : — 





Cupola Pig (4). 


Crude Steel (7). 


Steel Iron (8). 


Carbon 


2-830 
2-950 
0-113 
1-455 
0-041 
0-318 

92-293 


1-800 
0-266 
0-018 
0-298 
0-039 
0-090 
0-319 
0-144 
97-026 


0-993 

0-149 

traces. 

0-292 

0-024 

0-088 

0-aio 

traces. 
98-144 


Silicon, with a little Titanium 
Sulnhur 


Phosphorus 


Arsftiiic ,. 


Manganese 


Calcium 


Sodium 


Iron (by difFerence) 


100-000 


100-000 


100-000 



" ' It will be obvious from a comparison of these results that the reaction 
with the nitrate of soda has removed a large proportion of the carbon, silicon, 
and phosphorus, as well as most of the sulphur. The quantity of phosphorus 
(0-298 per cent.) retained by the sample of crude steel from the converter 
which I analyzed is obviously not such as to injure the quality *. 

" ' The bar iron was in our presence subjected to many severe tests. It 
was bent and hammered sharply round ■wdthoiit cracking. It was forged and 
subjected to a similar trial, both at dull red and a cherry-red heat without 
cracking ; it also welded satisfactorily. 

" ' The removal of the silicon is also a marked result of the action of the 
nitrate. 

" ' It is obvious that the practical point to be attended to is to procure re- 
sults which sJiall he uniform so as to give steel of uniform quality when 
pig of similar composition is subjected to the process. The experiments of 
Mr. Kirkaldy on the tensile strength of various specimens afford strong evi- 
dence that such uniformity is attainable. 

" ' I have not thought it necessary to make a complete analysis of the slag, 
but have determined the quantity of sand, silica, phosphoric and sulphuric 
acid, as well as the amount of iron which it contains. It was less soluble in 
water than I had been led to expect, and it has not deliquesced thoiigh left 
in a paper parcel. 

" ' I found that out of 100 parts of the finely powdered slag, 11-9 were 
soluble in water. The following was the result of my analysis : — 

Sand 47-3 

Snica, in combination 6-1 

Phosphoric acid 6-8 

Sulphuric acid 1-1 

Iron (a good deal of it as metal) 12-6 

Soda and lime f 26-1 

100-0 

* It is important to point out that, as no analysis of tlie finished steel tested by Mr. 
lurkakly is given, it is not improbable that this small percentage of phosphorus might have 
been still further reduced before it arrived at its final state of manufacture. 

t The use of lime was exceptional. Its use is now discontinued ; but its use on that 
occasion no doubt accounted for the slag being less deliquescent and soluble than it is 
usually found to be. 



ox THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF STEEL. 103 

" ' This result sho-n-s that a large proportion of phosphorus is extracted by 
the oxidizing ialiuence of the nitrate, and that a certain amount of the irou 
is mechanically diifused through the slag. 

" ' The proportion of slag to the yield of crude steel iron was not ascertained 
by direct experiment; but, calculating from the materials employed, its maxi- 
mum amount could not have exceeded 23 per cent, of the weight of the charge 
of molten metal. Consequently tlie 12-6 per cent, of irou in the slag would 
not be more than 3 per cent, of the iron operated on. 

" ' In conclusion, I have no hesitation in stating that Heaton's process is 
based upon correct chemical principles ; the mode of attaining the result is 
both simple and rapid. The nitric acid of the nitrate in this operation imparts 
oxygen to the impurities always present in cast iron, converting them into 
compounds which combine with the sodium ; and these are removed with the 
sodium in the slag. This action of the sodium is one of the peculiar features 
of the process, and gives it an advantage over the oxidizing methods in com- 
mon use.' 

"The slag produced is akeady utilized at the works, and forms the subject 
of a new and valuable patent. There is every reason to believe that the 
products of combustion may, by the means of a mechanical arrangement, 
devised by Mr. Heaton, be further utilized and afford a large set-off on the 
original cost of the nitrate. It is also a great question whether the phosphorus 
may not be most profitably reduced from the slag for commercial purposes." 

In addition to Mr. Miller's statement, Mr. Robert Mallet reported on the 
subject and expressed himself highly satisfied with the results, both as regards 
the chemical and physical properties of the metal ; and having been present 
at the experiments made on Mr. Kirkaldy's testing machine, he states the 
results as under : — 





Eupturing strain, in 

tons, per square inch 

of section. 


Extension at rupture, 

per cent, of original 

length. 


Heaton's steel iron 

Heaton's cast steel 


22-72 
41-73 


21-65 per inch. 

7-20 „ 



The results recorded in the above Table for cast steel are somewhat 
below the results obtained in my own experiments, being in the ratio (for 
the breaking strain) as 41-73 : 44-94, or as -936 : 1, 

The whole of these experiments appears to be correct ; and assuming the 
statement of cost to be equally satisfactory, we arrive at the conclusion that 
" taking steel from the furnace in ingots, or made into steel rails, or bar iron, 
or in any other form of ordinary manufacture, the net cost of production, after 
adding 10 per cent, for management, including all cost of labour, fuel, and 
material, and making all allowances for wear and tear and the like, is several 
jjounds sterling ])er ton imder the present market prices of similar descriptions 
of the metal." And this will cease to be a matter of surprise when it is 
taken into consideration that, to repeat the words of Mr. Mallet, " steel can 
be produced from coarse, low-priced brands of crude pig-irons, rich in phos- 
phorus and sulphur." " Thus," continues Mr. Mallet, " wrought iron and 
cast steel of very high quality have been produced from Cleveland and Jforth- 
amptonshire pig-irons, rich in phosphorus and sulphur ; and every iron- 
master knows that first-class wrought iron has not previously been produced 
from pig-iron of either of these districts, nor marketable steel at all." 



104 REPORT — 1869. 

With these observations I have now to refer to the drawings of the furnaces 
and apparatus which I have attached in illustration as an Appendix. In 
conclusion I may state that, looking at this new process and its further develop- 
ment as a step in advance of what has already been done by Bessemer and 
others, we may reasonably look forward to a new and important epoch in the 
history of metaUurgic science. 

Before entering upon the experiments, it will be necessary to repeat the 
formula of reduction as given in my previous Report of 1867. This appears 
to be the more requisite, as it may be inconvenient to refer to the Transactions 
of 1867, where it was originally introduced. 

FoKMULiE OF EeDUCTION. 

For the reduction of the Expervinents on Transverse Strain. — When a bar 
is supported at the extremities and loaded in the middle, 

E = 4W^' (1) 

where I is the distance between the supports, K the area of the section of the 
bar, cl its depth, w the weight laid on added to |- of the weight of the bar, 
S the corresponding deflection, and E the modulus of elasticity. 

^=m^ (2) 

when the sectioi" of the bar is a square. 

These formulae show that the deflection, taken within the elastic Hmit, for 

. 2 
unity of pressure is a constant, that is, — =D, a constant. 

Let —,—,..., -p be a series of values of D, determined by experiment 
in a given bar, then 

I>4(^. + |+ ■■•+!) (3) 

which gives the mean value of this constant for a given bar. 
Now, for the same material and length, 

^'°^^^^- (4) 

and when the section of the bar is a square, 

Tu'^'^'^I^ (5) 

If D, be put for the value of D when d=l, then 
D^=DcZ^ 

which expresses the mean value of the deflection for unity of pressure and 
section. This mean value, therefore, may be taken as the measxire of the 
flexihilitif of the bar, or as the modidus of flexure, since it measures the 
amount of deflection produced by a unit of pressure for a unit of section. 
Substituting this value in equation (2), we get 

^=W,' 0) 



ON THE MECHANICAL ruOPEUTIES OF STEEL. 105 

which gives the mean value of the modulus of elasticitj^, where D, is deter- 
mined from equation (6). 

The work (U) of deflection is expressed by the formula 

■n=-xwxY2=2l' (^^ 

where S is the deflection in inches corresponding to the pressure (w) in lbs. 
If lu and ^ be taken at, or near the elastic limit, then this formula gives the 
work, or resistance analogous to impact, which the bar may undergo, Avithout 
suffering any injury in its material. This formula, reduced to unity of sec- 
tion, becomes 

«=24K ^^) 

If C be a constant, determined by experiment for the weight (W) straining 
the bar up to the limit of elasticity, so that the bar may be able to sustain 
the load without injury, then 

^=CKd, (10) 

M^here C = ^ S, or ^ of the corresponding resistance of the^material per square 
inch at the upper and lower edges of the section, 

• '^-'iKd • • • ^^^ 

When the section of the bar is a square, 

c=S' (i2> 

which gives the value of C, the modulus of strength, or the unit of ivorhing 
strength, W being the load, determined by experiment, which strains the bar 
up to the elastic limit. This value of C gives the comparative permanent or 
working strength of the bar. 

Up to the elastic limit the deflections are ^proportional to their corresponding 
strains, but beyond this point the deflections increase in a much higher ratio. 
Hence the deflection corresponding to the elastic limit is the greatest deflec- 
■ tion which is found to foUow the law just explained. 

For the reduction of the Experiments on Tension and Compression.- — The 
work n expended in the elongation of a uniform bar, 1 foot in length and 
1 inch in section, is expressed by 

^=rri:=k^^' (^^^ 

p I 

■where Pj=^=strain in lbs. reduced to unity of section, and Z^ = j-=the cor- 
responding elongation reduced to unity of length. 

The value of u, determined for the different bars subjected to experiment, 
gives a comparative measure of their powers of resistance to a strain analogous 
to that of impact. 

By taking Pj to represent the crushing pressure per unity of section, and 
Zj the corresponding compression per unit of length, the foregoing formula 
will express the work expended in criishing the bar. 

Having given the formulae for calculating the resisting powers of the steel 
bars to a transverse, tensile, and compressive strain, and the amount of work 
expended in producing fracture, we now proceed to the experiments, as 
follows. 



106 



KEPORT — 1869. 






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ra 




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■*- 


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b b b b 



o o 



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moo ^ v^ 
O O el O 

b b b b 



o 
b b b 



o t^ 
M o 



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c3 



u-l -^ t-^ 






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o 









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o o\ 






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c^ O r* f^ 



t-l t-1 C^ HI 

b b i3 b 



b 



CN " 



a 



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t^ O On »-< 
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p 
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ON THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF STEEL. 107 

FIRST SERIES OF EXPERIMENTS. 

TRANSVERSE STRAIN. 

Experiment I, (June 1867). — Bar of Steel from the Barrow Haematite Steel 
Company. Dimension of bar 1-02 inch square. Length between 
supports 4 feet 6 inches. Mark on bar, " H 1. Hard Steel." 



No. of 


Weight laid 


Deflection, 


Permanent 




Exp. 


on, in 


in 


set, in 


Remarks. 


lbs. 


inches. 


inches. 




1 


50 


•065 




Weight of scale &c. 36 lbs. 


2 


100 


•118 






3 


150 


•179 






4 


200 


•240 






5 


250 


•309 






6 


300 


•364 






7 


350 


•426 




: 


8 


400 


•491 






9 


450 


•555 






10 


500 


•611 






11 


550 


•676 






12 


600 


•742 






13 


650 


•803 






14 


700 


•866 






1.5 


750 


•946 






16 


800 


1-006 






17 


850 


1-076 






18 


900 


1-146 






19 


950 


1-206 






20 


1000 


1-266 






21 


1050 


1-346 






22 


1100 


1-406 


•000 




23 


1150 


1-476 


•000 




24 


1200 


1-546 


•016 




25 


1250 


1-646 


-055 




26 


1300 


1-796 


•133 




27 


1350 


2-156 


•429 




28 


1400 


2-746 


•883 


Experiment discontinued. 



Besults of Exp. I. 

Here the weight {lu) at the limit of elasticity is 1210 lbs., and the corre- 
sponding deflection (S) is 1*546. 

By formula (6). — The mean value of the deflection for unity of pressure 
and section (Dj) =-001308. 

By formula (7). — The mean value of the modulus of elasticity (E) 
= 30,096,000. 

By formula (2). — The modulus of elasticity (E) corresponding to 112 lbs. 
pressure =33,830,000. 

By formula (8). — ^Work of deflection (U) up to the limit of elasticity 
= 77-944. 

By formula (9). — Work of deflection (m) for unity of section = 77-917. 

By formula (12). — Yalue of C, the unit of working strength = 6-860 tons. 



108 



REPORT — 1869. 



TRANSVERSE STEATN-. 

Exp. II. — Bar of Steel from the Barrow Hjematite Steel Company. Dimen- 
sion^ of bar '995 inch square. Length between supports 4 feet 
6 inches. Mark on bar, " H 2. Medium." 



No. of 


Weight laid 


Deflection, 


Permanent 




Exp. 


on, in 


in 


set, in 


Ecmarks. 


lbs. 


inches. 


inches. 




1 


50 


•065 






2 


100 


•128 






3 


150 


•201 






4 


200 


•266 






5 


250 


•330 






6 


300 


•396 






7 


350 


•466 






8 


400 


•534 






9 


450 


•601 






10 


500 


•682 


•000 




11 


550 


•760 


•027 




12 


600 


•880 


•052 




13 


650 


1-020 


•115 




14 


700 


2-040 


1-068 




15 


750 






Bar destroyed. 



Results of Exp. II. 

Here the weight («') at the limit of elasticity is 510 lbs., and the corre- 
sponding deflection {S) is -682. 

By formula (6). — The mean value of the deflection for unity of pressure 
and section (Dj) = -001280. 

By formula (7). — The mean value of the modulus of elasticity (E) 
= 30,754,000. 

By formula (2). — The modulus of elasticity (E) corresponding to 112 lbs. 
pressure = 34,443,000. 

By formula (8). — "Work of deflection (U) up to the limit of elasticity 
= 14-242. 

By formula (9). — Work of deflection {li) for unity of section = 14-383. 

By formula (12). — Talue of C, the unit of working strength = 3-108 tons. 



ON THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF STEEL. 



109 



TRANSTEESE STEAIlf. 

Exp. III. — Bar of Steel from the Barrow Haematite Steel Company. Dimen- 
sion of bar 1-01 inch square. Length between supports 4 feet 
6 inches. Mark on bar, " H 3. Soft." 



"Kn nf 


Weight laid 


Deflection, 


Permanent 




Exp. 


on, in 


in 


set, in 


Eemarks. 


lbs. 


inches. 


inches. 




1 


50 


•074 






2 


100 


•127 






3 


150 


•195 






4 


200 


•262 






5 


250 


•330 






G 


300 


•395 






7 


350 


•453 






8 


400 


•515 






9 


450 


•577 


•000 




10 


500 


•645 


•007 




11 


550 


•716 


•018 




12 


600 


•793 


•019 




13 


650 


•873 


•032 




14 


700 


1-029 


•118 




15 


750 


1-279 


•287 




16 


800 


2-709 


1^625 


Experiment discontinued. 



Results of Exp. III. 

Here the weight (w) at the limit of elasticity is 610 lbs., and the corre- 
sponding deflection (5) is •793. 

By formula (6). — The mean value of the deflection for unity of pressure 
and section (Dj) = ^001319. 

By formula (7). — The mean value of the modulus of elasticity (E) 
= 29,717,000. 

By formula (2). — The modulus of elasticity (E) corresponding to 112 lbs. 
pressure = 32,717,000. 

By formula (8). — "Work of deflection (TJ) up to the limit of elasticity 
= 20-155. 

By formula (9). — Work of deflection {u) for unity of section = 19-757. 

By formula (12). — Value of C, the unit of worlung strength = 3*540 tons. 



110 



REPORT 1869. 



TEANSTEESE STEAIN. 



Exp. IV. (January 1868). — Bar of Steel from the Barrow Haematite Steel 
Company. Dimension of bar 1-071 inch square. Length between 
supports 4 feet 6 inches. Mark on bar, " H 1 + ." 



No. of 
Exp. 


Weight laid 
on, iu 


Deflection, 
in 


Permanent 

set, in 


Kemarks. 


lbs. 


inches. 


inches. 




1 


90 


•072 




Very soft steel. 


2 


146 


•147 






3 


202 


•200 






4 


258 


•275 






5 


314 


•352 






6 


370 


•430 






7 


426 


•497 






8 


482 


•558 


•015 




9 


538 


•635 


•015 




10 


594 


•691 


•021 




11 


650 


•771 


•028 




12 


706 


•891 


•053 




13 


762 


1-437 


•586 





Results of Exp. IV. 

Here the weight (w) at the limit of elasticity is 660 lbs., and the corre- 
sponding deflection {K) is '771. 

By formula (6). — The mean value of the deflection for unity of pressure 
and section (Dj) = -001383. 

By formula (7). — The mean value of the modulus of elasticity (E) 
= 28,460,000. 

By formula (2). — The modulus of elasticity (E) corresponding to 112 lbs. 
pressure = 31,740,000. 

By formula (8). — "Work of deflection (U) up to the limit of elasticity 
= 21-20. 

By formula (9). — Work of deflection (h) for unity of section = 18^48. 

By formula (12). — Value of C, the unit of working strength = 3^228 tons. 



ON THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF STEEL. 



Ill 



TEANSTEESE STEAIN. 

Exp. v. — Bar of Steel from the Barrow Haematite Steel Company. Dimen- 
sion of bar 1-032 inch square. Length between supports 4 feet 
6 inches. Mark on bar, " H2 + ." 



No. of 


Weight laid 


Deflection, 


Permanent 




Exp. 


on, in 


in 


set, in 


E«marks. 


lbs. 


inches. 


inches. 




1 


90 


•120 


•000 


Soft steel. 


2 


146 


•190 


•000 




3 


202 


•254 


•on 




4 


258 


•324 


•012 




5 


314 


•405 


•013 




6 


370 


•486 


•021 




7 


426 


•554 






8 


482 


•638 






9 


538 


•692 






10 


594 


•780 






11 


650 


•870 






12 


706 


•968 


•028 




13 


762 


1-199 


•150 




14 


818 


1-448 


•474 





Results of Exp, V. 

Here the weight {iv) at the limit of elasticity is 716 lbs., and the corre- 
sponding deflection {h) is -968. 

By formula (6) . — The mean value of the deflection of unity of pressure 
and section (Dj) = -001384. 

By formula (7). — The mean value of the modulus of elasticity (E) 
= 28,440,000. 

By formula (2). — The modulus of elasticity (E) corresponding to 112 lbs, 
pressure =28,610,000. 

By formula (8). — Work of deflection (U) up to the limit of elasticity 
= 28-28. 

By formula (9). — Work of deflection {u) for unity of section = 25-95. 

By formula (12). — Yalue of C, the unit of working strength = 3-938 tons. 



112 



KEPOET — 1869. 



TRANSVEESE STRAIN. 

Exp. VI. — Bar of Steel from the Hojmatite Steel and Iron Company. Dimen- 
sion of bar 1-016 inch square. Length between supports 4 feet 
6 inches. Mark on bar, " II3 + ." 



No. of 


Weight laid 


Deflection, 


Permanent 




Exp. 


on, in 


in 


set, in 


Eemarks. 


lbs. 


inches. 


inches. 




1 


90 


•130 




Yery soft steel. 


2 


146 


•199 






3 


202 


•274 


•009 




4 


258 


•352 


•016 




5 


314 


•428 


•016 




6 


370 


•505 


•020 




7 


426 


•580 


•042 




8 


482 


•656 


•048 




9 


538 


•734 


•048 




10 


594 


•808 


•056 




]1 


650 


•882 


•079 




12 


706 


•990 


•798 




13 


762 


1^530 


•998 





Jtesults of Exp. VI. 

Here the weight {w) at the limit of elasticity is 660 lbs., and the corre- 
sponding deflection {h) is -882. 

By formula (6). — The mean value of the deflection for unity of pressure 
and section (Dj) = -001406. 

By formula (7). — The mean value of the modulus of elasticity (E) 
= 28,000,000. 

By formula (2). — The modulus of elasticity (E) corresponding to 112 lbs. 
pressure = 29,080,000. 

Bv formula (8). — Work of deflection (U) up to the limit of elasticity 
= 24-25. 

By formiUa (9). — "Work of deflection («) for unity of section = 23-49. 

By formula (12). — Value of C, the unity of working strength = 3-781 tons. 



ON THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF STEEL. 



113 



TRANSVERSE STRAIN. 

Exp. VII. — Bar of Steel from the Barrow Haematite Steel Company. Di- 
mensiou of bar 1 inch square. Length between supports 4 feet 
6 inches. Mark on bar, " H 4+ ." 



No. of 
Exp. 


Weight laid 
on, in 


Deflection, 


Permanent 




in 


set, in 


Eemarks. 


lbs. 


inches. 


inches. 




1 


90 


•150 




Soft steel. 


2 


146 


•215 






3 


202 


•285 


•044 




4 


258 


•352 


•046 




5 


314 


•432 


•048 




6 


370 


•498 


•054 


Weight remained on bar 


7 


426 


•574 




from 5 P.M. to 10 a.m. 


8 


482 


•646 




The deflection in that time 


9 


538 


•734 




increased by -004 of an 


10 


594 


•804 




inch. 


11 


650 


•873 






12 


706 


•968 






13 


762 


1-136 


•151 




14 


818 


1-528 


•516 





Eesults of Exp. YII. 

Here the weight (lu) at the limit of elasticity is 716 lbs., and the corre- 
sponding deflection (l) is -968. 

By formula (6). — The mean value of the deflection for unity of pressure 
and section (Dj) = -001330. 

By formula (7). — The mean value of the modulus of elasticity (E) 
= 29,600,000. 

By formula (2).— The modulus of elasticity (E) corresponding to 112 lbs. 

pressure = 28,590,000. 

By formula (8).— Work of deflection (U) up to the bmit of elasticity 
= 28-28. 

By formula (9).— Work of deflection {u) for unity of section = 28-28. 

By formula (12),— Yalue of C, the unit of working strength = 4-315 tons. 



1869. 



114 



REPORT 1869. 



TKAJSrSVEBSE STRAIN. 

Exp. VIII. — Bar of Steel from the Barrow Haematite Steel Company. Di- 
mension of bar 1-051 inch square. Length between supports 4 feet 
6 inches. Mark on bar, " H 5 + ." 



No. of 


Weight laid 


Deflection, 


Permanent 






Exp. 


on, in 


in 


set, in 


Eemarks. 




lbs. 


inches. 


inches. 







1 


90 


•122 




Bather harder steel. 


2 


146 


•196 








3 


202 


•271 


•002 






4 


258 


•348 


•002 






5 


314 


•420 


•004 






6 


370 


•493 


-006 






7 


426 


•566 


•008 






8 


481 


•648 


■010 






9 


538 


•718 


-012 






10 


594 


•783 


•014 






11 


650 


•848 


•016 






12 


706 


•932 








13 


762 


1-058 


« • • • 


Weight left on from 1 


P.M. 


14 


818 


1-182 


•104 


to 2 P.M. 




15 


874 


1-410 


•295 







Results of Exp. VIII. 

Here the weight (w) at the limit of elasticity is 772 lbs., and the corre- 
sponding deflection (o) is 1-058. 

By formula (6). — The mean value of the deflection for unity of pressure 
and section (Dj) = -001658. 

By formula (7). — The mean value of the modulus of elasticity (E) 
= 23,740,000. 

By formula (2). — The modulus of elasticity (E) corresponding to 112 lbs. 
pressure = 25,720,000. 

By formula (8). — "Work of deflection (U) up to the limit of elasticity 
= 34-03. 

By formula (9). — "Work of deflection (w) for unity of section = 30*81. 

By formula (12). — Value of C, the unit of working strength = 4-108 tons. 



\ 



ON THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF STEEL. 



115 



TEAITSVEESE STRAIN. 

Exp. IX. — Bar of Steel from the Barrow Hasmatite Steel and Iron Company. 
Dimension of bar 1-042 inch square. Length between supports 4 
feet 6 inches. Mark on bar, " H 6 + ." 



No. of 


Weight laid 


Deflection, 


Permanent 




Exp. 


oa, in 


in 


set, in 


Eemarks. 


lbs. 


inches. 


inches. 




1 


90 


•148 


•000 


This steel is of the same 


2 


146 


•220 


•000 


quality as bar 8. 


3 


202 


•228 


•018 




4 


258 


•360 


•018 




5 


314 


•443 


•018 




6 


370 


•508 


•018 




1 


426 


•578 


•022 




8 


482 


•650 


•022 




9 


538 


•732 


•022 




10 


594 


•798 


•022 




11 


650 


•864 


-024 




12 


706 


•966 






13 


762 


1-070 


•050 




14 


818 


1-196 


-081 


"Weight left on bar from 4.30 


15 


874 


1-544 


•494 


P.M. to 10 A.M. 



Results of Exp. IX. 

Here the weight (w) at the limit of elasticity is 772 lbs., and the corre- 
sponding deflection (l) is 1-07. 

By formula (6). — The mean value of the deflection for unity of pressure 
and section (Dj) = -001595. 

By formula (7). — The mean value of the modulus of elasticity (E) 
= 24,580,000. 

By formula (2). — The modulus of elasticity (E) corresponding to 112 lbs. 
pressure = 23,550,000. 

By formula (8). — Work of deflection (U) up to the limit of elasticity 
= 34-42. 

By formula (9). — ^Work of deflection (u) for unity of section = 31-73. 

By formula (12). — Value of C, the unit of working strength = 4-112 tons. 



1 IJ 



116 



REPORT 1869. 

XEANSVEESB STBAXN. 



Exp. X. (April 1869). — Bar of Steel from the Heaton Steel and Iron Company, 
Langley Mills. Dimension of bar 1-018 x 1"04 inch. Length between 
supports 4 feet 6 inches. Mark on bar, " 1." 



No. of 


Weight laid 


Deflection, 


Permanent 




Exp. 


on, in 


in 


set, in 


Eemarks. 


lbs. 


inches. 


inches. 




1 


34 


•054 




Hard cast steel. 


2 


62 


•094 






3 


118 


•162 


•006 




4 


146 


•190 


•002 




5 


174 


•228 


•005 




6 


314 


•436 


•004 




7 


370 


•502 


•004 




8 


426 


•578 


•025 




9 


454 


•614 


•026 




10 


4S2 


•656 


•028 




11 


510 


•696 






12 


538 


•730 






13 


566 


•768 






14 


594 


•802 






15 


622 


•860 






16 


650 


•940 






17 


678 


•985 






18 


706 


1-016 






19 


762 


1-079 






20 


818 


1^141 






21 


874 


1-162 


•028 




22 


930 


1-235 






23 


986 


1-329 






24 


1041 


1-391 






25 


1097 


1-443 






26 


1153 


1-520 






27 


1209 


1-610 






28 


1241 


1-693 






29 


1321 


1-860 


•040 





Besults of Exp. X. 

Here the weight (w) at the limit of elasticity is 1251 lbs., and the corre- 
sponding deflection (2) is 1-693. 

By formula (6). — The mean value of the deflection for unity of pressure 
and section (DJ = -001481. 

By formula (7).- — The mean value of the modulus of elasticity (E) 
= 26,580,000. 

By formula (1). — The modulus of elasticity (E) corresponding to 112 lbs. 
pressure = 26,060,000. 

By formula (8). — Work of deflection (U) up to the limit of elasticity 
•^88-2,5. 

By formula (9). — Work of deflection (?;) for unity of section = 83-410. 

By formula (11).— Value of C, the unit of working strength = 6-831 tons. 



ON THE MECHANICAL PllOPEKTIES OF STEEL. 



117 



TRANSVERSE STRAIN. 



Exp. XI. — Bar of Steel from the Hcaton Steel and Iron Company, Langley 
Mills. Dimension of bar l-U-ii x '028 inch. Length between sup- 
ports 4 feet 6 inches. Mark on bar, " 2." 



No. of 
Exp. 


Weight laid 


Deflection, 


Permanent 




on, ill 


in 


set, in 


Remarks. 


Ite. 


inches. 


inches. 




1 


90 


•120 






2 


146 


•186 


•008 




3 


202 


•242 


•009 




4 


258 


•312 


•009 




5 


314 


•378 


•009 




6 


370 


•470 


•009 




7 


424 


•546 


•010 




8 


482 


•612 


•010 




9 


538 


•677 


•010 




10 


594 


•744 






11 


650 


•812 






12 


706 


•888 






13 


762 


•952 






14 


818 


1-016 






15 


874 


1-084 


-Oil 




16 


930 


1-1.54 






17 


986 


1-212 


•014 




18 


1042 


1-276 






19 


1098 


] -336 






20 


11.54 


1-398 






21 


1210 


1-460 






22 


1266 


1-522 






23 


1322 


1-615 


•016 




24 


1378 


1-708 


•042 




25 


1434 


1-SOl 


•082 




26 


1466 


1-933 






27 


1522 


2-086 


•208 




28 


1578 


3-836 


1-836 





Results of Exp. XI. 

Here the weight (w) at the limit of elasticity is 1444 lbs., and the corre- 
sponding deflection (^) is 1-801. 

By formula (6). — The mean value of the deflection for unity of pressure 
and section (DJ = -001354. 

By formula (7). — The mean value of the modulus of elasticity (E) 
= 29,070,000. 

By formula (1). — The modulus of elasticity (E) corresponding to 112 lbs. 
pressure = 29,640,000. 

By formula (8). — Work of deflection (U) up to the limit of elasticity 
= 108-4. 

By formula (9). — Work of deflection (it) for unity of section = 101-1. 

By formula (11). — Yalue of C, the unit of working strength = 7-879 tons. 



118 



REPORT 18G9. 



TKANSVEESE STRAIN. 



Exp. XII. — Bar of Steel fi'om tlie Heaton Steel and Iron Company, Langley 
Mills. Dimension of bar 1-022 X 1'013 inch. Length between sup- 
ports 4 feet G inches. Mark on bar, " 3." 



l^n nf 


Weight laid 


Deflection, 


Permanent 




Xi U. yJL 

Exp. 


on, in 


in 


set, in 


Eemarks. 


lbs. 


inches. 


inches. 




1 


90 


•144 


-000 




2 


258 


•373 


-022 




3 


370 


•524 


-032 




4 


482 


•672 


-026 




5 


594 


•812 


-047 




6 


706 


•952 






7 


762 


1-038 


■022 




8 


828 


1^124 






9 


884 


1^170 


•023 




10 


940 


1^242 






11 


996 


1-308 






12 


1052 


1-402 






13 


1108 


1-464 


•021 




14 


1164 


1-568 






15 


1220 


1^622 


•046 




16 


1276 


1-722 


•062 




17 


1332 


1-777 


•100 




18 


1388 


1-819 


-160 




19 


1444 


2-652 


•842 




20 


1556 


4-652 


2^588 





Here the weight 
spondiug deflection 

By formula (6).- 
and section (DJ = 

By formida (7), 
= 27,740,000. 

By formula (1).- 
pressure = 26,160 

By formula (8) 
- 105^9. 

By formula (9).- 

By formula (11) 



Results of Exp. XII. 

(w) at the limit of elasticity is 1398 lbs., and the corre- 
ct) is 1-819. 

—The mean value of the deflection for unity of pressure 
-001410. 

.—The mean value of the modulus of elasticity (E) 

—The modulus of elasticity (E) corresponding to 112 lbs. 

000. 

— "Work of deflection (U) up to the limit of elasticity 

—Work of deflection {u) for unity of section = 102-3. 
— Value of C, the unit of working strength = 8-028 tons. 



I 



ON THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF STEEL. 



119 



TBANSVEESE STEAIN. 



Exp. XIII.' — Bar of Steel from the Heaton Steel and Iron Company, Langley 
Mills. Dimension of bar 1-008 x 1-012 inch. Length between sup- 
ports 4 feet 6 inches. Mark on bar, " 4." 



No of 


Weight laid 


Deflection, 


Permanent 




0.1 Kf. \J1. 

Exp. 


on, in 


in 


set, in 


Remarks. 


lbs. 


inches. 


inches. 




1 


90 


•108 






2 


314 


•406 






3 


538 


•686 






4 


762 


•975 






5 


874 


1^090 






6 


986 


1-198 






7 


1042 


1-304 






8 


1098 


1-408 






9 


1154 


1-459 






10 


1210 


1-543 






11 


1266 


1-592 


•001 




12 


1322 


1-676 


•012 




13 


1378 


1-769 


•046 




14 


1434 


1-908 


•094 




15 


1490 


2-428 


•572 





Besults of Exp. XIII. 

Here the weight (w) at the limit of elasticity is 1388 lbs., and the corre- 
sponding deflection (^) is 1*769. 

By formula (6). — The mean value of the deflection for unity of pressure 
and section (DJ = -001295. 

By formiUa (7). — The mean value of the modulus of elasticity (E) 
= 30,400,000. 

By formula (1). — The modulus of elasticity (E) corresponding to 112 lbs. 
pressure = 35,120,000. 

By formula (8).— Work of deflection (U) up to the limit of elasticity 
= 102-3. 

By formula (9). — Work of deflection (u) for unity of section = 100-3. 

By formula (11). — Value of C. the unit of working strength = 8-094 tons. 



120 



REPORT 1869. 



TRANSVERSE STRAIN. 



Exp. XTV. — Bar of Steel from the Heaton Steel and Iron Company, Langley 
Mills. Dimension of bar 1-025 x 1"02 inch. Length between sup- 
ports 4 feet 6 inches. Mark on bar, " 5." 



"Wr» nf 


Weight laid 


Deflection, 


Permanent 




Exp. 


on, in 


in 


set, in 


Remarks. 


lbs. 


inches. 


inches. 




1 


90 


•117 


-000 




2 


146 


•193 


•009 




3 


202 


•257 


-009 




4 


258 


•328 


-009 




5 


314 


•403 


•009 




6 


370 


•477 


-009 




7 


426 


•540 


•010 




8 


482 


•608 


•010 




9 


538 


•673 


•010 




10 


650 


•816 


•010 




11 


762 


•977 


•010 




12 


818 


1-057 


•012 




13 


874 


1^113 


-012 




14 


930 


1-189 


•Oil 




15 


986 


1-263 


•007 




16 


1042 


1-325 


•008 




17 


1098 


1-387 


•009 




18 


1154 


1-457 


•010 




19 


1210 


1-.543 


•015 




20 


1266 


1-607 


•017 




21 


1322 


1-760 


•023 




22 


1378 


1-928 


•029 




23 


1434 


2-188 


. ^073 




24 


1490 


2-339 


•161 




25 


1546 


2-690 


•797 





Results of Exp. ^lY. 

Here the weight (w) at the limit of elasticity is 1276 lbs., and the corre- 
sponding deflection (^) is 1-607. 

By formula (6). — The mean value of the deflection for unity of pressure 
and section (DJ = -001351. 

By formula (7). — The mean value of the modulus of elasticity (E) 
= 29,140,000. 

By formula (1). — The modulus of elasticity (E) corresponding to 112 lbs. 
pressure = 31,140,000. 

By formula (8). — Work of deflection (U) up to the limit of elasticity 
= 85-44. 

By formula (9). — Work of deflection {u) for unity of section = 81-60. 

By formula (11). — Yalue of C, the unit of working strength = 7*209 tons. 



ON THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF STEEL. 



1.21 



TEANSVERSE STRAIN. 

Eip. XV. — Bar of Steel from the Heaton Steel and Iron Corapauy, Langley 
MiUs. Dimension of bar 1-02 x 1'02 inch. Length between sup- 
ports 4 feet 6 inches. Mark on bar, " 6." 



No. of 
Exp. 


Weight laid 


Deflection, 


Permanent 




on, in 


in 


set, in 


Eemarks. 


lbs. 


inches. 


inches. 




1 


90 


•132 


-000 




2 


146 


•200 


•013 




3 


202 


•268 


•016 




4 


258 


•331 


•019 




5 


314 


•406 


•019 




6 


370 


•474 


•019 




7 


426 


•550 


•023 




8 


482 


•610 






9 


538 


•680 


•018 




10 


594 


•774 


•020 




11 


650 


•854 


•024 




12 


706 


•926 






13 


762 


•994 


•014 




14 


818 


1-078 


•014 




15 


874 


1-142 






16 


930 


1-208 






17 


986 


1-274 


•015 




18 


1042 


1^344 






19 


1098 


1^440 






20 


1154 


1^502 


•016 




21 


1210 


1-578 


•022 




22 


1266 


1-719 


•037 




23 


1322 


1-753 


•072 




24 


1378 


1-866 


•078 




25 


1434 


2-003 


•158 




26 


1490 


3-378 


1^378 





Besults of Exp. XV. 

Here the weight {iv) at the limit of elasticity is 1220 lbs., and the cor- 
responding deflection (^) is 1-578. 

By formula (6). — The mean value of the deflection for unity of pressure 
and section (DJ = -001372. 

By formula (7). — The mean value of the modulus of elasticity (E) 
= 28,090,000. 

By formula (2). — The modulus of elasticity (E) corresponding to 112 lbs. 
pressure = 27,590,000. 

By formula (8). — Work of deflection (U) up to the limit of elasticity 
= 80-21. 

By formula (9). — Work of deflection (u) for unity of section = 77-13. 

By formula (12). — Value of C, the unit of working strength = 6-925 tons. 



123 



REPORT 1869. 



CO 

H 



o 

en 






O 



a 

a: 



Value of 
C, the 
unit of 

working 

strength. 
Byeq. 

(11&12). 








^ 00 


00 00 w irsoo rl 


M OsOO «J- OSU-i 


fl vo ^ 


r) cooo MOM 


CO I-, d OS N 


°° ." ."^ 


ci OS r^ CO 1- M 


00 00 c^ OS 


-*^ ^b 'm to 


CO CO CO '^i- rj- ^ 


so t^do 00 Ksb 


^ -A , ^ . .-k 








-=? c o> 


r^ CO t^ 


000000 


000000 




^ 00 0-) 


00 VO OSOO »-« CO 


*-< CO 


On ro t^ 

t-^ ^ bs 


^ Os ■* rl 00 r^ 
00 vn cooo M 


^ «-( CO coso f 

CO M N b M t^ 


t^ M W 


M cl C^ d CO CO 


00 00 t^ 


e« C Q .0 1 t^ 








Work 
deflectio 
(U)upt 
the limi 
of elasti 
city. B 
eq. (8). 


■J- r) u-i 


000000 


000000 


^ ^ vri 


00 *^00 CO c* 


m ^ « 


OS rl >-« 


M d M cl p ^ 


CJ ^ _CS CO _.ri- cl 


K '■* b 


« C<! t1-00 ■-+ '•+ 


00 00 i/~) Vi »^ b 


t^ ~ n 


M d N cl CO CO 


00 «> 00 


<H-i ^-^ 








^^g^l-g^ 


000 


000000 


000000 


000 


000000 


000000 


q q q^ 


000000 


000000 


^Jit%-1^ 


0' ro rC 


6 6 6 6 d 


0" 0" 0" 0" 0" 0" 


fo ^1- -. 


Ti- <-( 00 OS N »>-» 


so ^so f^ ^ Os 


ITS 2 ,— . « 1' o^ 


00 ^ r-- 


t-^so •>-* r^ ^^ 


so ^ 1-1 K( i/-l 


to -f cf 


f^ 06 OsOO ^ CO 


so" osso" s^ M r^ 


CO CO CO 


CO c^ d M c» d 


c1 M d CO CO cJ 


SB 1 

t> ^ -, !>• 


000 


000000 


000000 


000 


000000 


000000 


000 





000000 








•^ -- 05 .^ C^ 


so" tF t-^ 


o~ o' 0" 0" 6 


0" 0' 0" 0" 0' 0" 


^ 5i ^ -*-^ 


Q\\J^ >-^ 


'^■+00 "l-oo 


00 i^ ^ ^ 0\ 


S '^ "^ « ;^ cr" 


r-. c^ 


^ ^ O_so_^ t^so_^ 


"C ° "^ 't f^ 


-cg^^Ho 


0' 0" OS 


OcToo 00 OS CO ^ 


so OS t^ 0" OsOO 


CO CO C) 


C) M Cl C) C4 c) 


d c» d CO c> d 


a:, oi ^^ ■ . 








in valu 
) of th. 
flection 
unity 
■essure 
section 
eq. (6). 


00 OS 


CO -^so 00 »^ 


« -^ OS 10 M IH 


00 — 


00 00 CO vo OS 


00 wo •-< OS »^ t~^ 


CO rt CO 


CO CO ^ coso u-t 


^ CO ^ C^ CO CO 








000 


000000 


000000 




p p 


p p p p p p 


p p p 












00 






t^ 


so 


OS 


so 


00 


so 




00 


>> 


00 

M 




g 


U ^ ^ " " ^ 


r3 - = = - - 

u 


t^ 


1-3 


< 


Mark 

on 

Bar. 


rt (N CO 


++++++ 




KWfc 


i-< rt CO ^ w-,so 


iH d CO tJ- irsvo 


_K W W www 






> 


■i 


> 


■a 








s 


c 








ce 


CO 








fi. . _ 










a " ' 


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1 


1 


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a 




-w 




cd 





VI 


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=s 


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a 











S 


« 


c5 





TO 


S 

8i 


g 

8 




<0 




K 


w 


to 




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^ = : i = :: 


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p 







03 


s 


w 















A 


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H 


H 


H 


=«.i ; 








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. C 

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i2i g a 









Exp. 



ON THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF STEEL. 123 

SECOND SERIES OF EXPERIMENTS. 

TENSILE STRAIN. 

I. (June 1867). — Bar of Steel from the Barrow Haematite Steel and 
Iron Company. Elongations taken on 8 inches length. Mark on bar, 
"HI." Diameter of specimen -744 inch. Area -4347 square inch. 
Eeduced diameter after fracture -744 inch. Area '4347 square inch. 



No. 

of 

Esp. 






Per unit of length. 




Weight 


Breaking-strain per 




Remarks. 






laid on. 


square inch of section. 


Elongation. 


Permanent 

set. 






lbs. 


lbs. 


tons. 








1 


10249 
















2 


11929 
















3 


13609 
















4 


15289 
















5 


16969 
















6 


18649 
















>- 
1 


20329 
















8 


22219 
















9 


23899 










•0062 


•0031 




10 


27259 










•0063 


•0031 




11 


30619 










•0065 


•0031 




12 


32299 










•0125 


•0093 




13 


33979 










•0163 


•0101 




14 


35659 










•0218 


•0171 




15 


37339 










•0375 


•0312 




16 


39019 










•0406 


•0390 




17 


40594 


93383 


41-700 






Broke in neck. 



Besults. — Here the breaking-strain (P,) per square inch of section is 
93,383 lbs., or 41-7 tons, and the corresponding elongation (?^) is -0406. By 
formula (13). — The work (t() expended in producing rupture = 1895. 



Exp. 



II. — Bar of Steel from the Barrow Haematite Steel and Iron Company. 
Elongations taken on 8 inches length. Mark on bar, " H 2." Dia- 
meter of specimen -69 inch. Area -3754 square inches. Eeduced 
diameter after fracture ^66 inch. Area •3401 square inch. 



1 


15289 






•0062 






2 


18649 






•0195 


•0178 




3 


22009 






•0312 


•0226 




4 


25369 






•0522 


•0515 




5 


27049 






■0656 


•0647 




6 


28729 






•0866 


•0863 




7 


30309 


80724 


36^030 






Broke in centre. 



Results.- — Here the breaking- strain (Pj) per square inch of section is 
80,724 lbs., or 36^03 tons, and the corresponding elongation (ZJ is ^0866. 
By formula (13). — The work (i<) expended in producing rupture = 3495. 



124 



REPORT 1869. 



Exp. III. — Bar of Steel from the Barrow Hoematite Steel and Iron Com- 
pany. Elongations taken on 8 inches length. Mark on bar, " H 3." 
75 inch. Area -4417 square inch. 
542 inch. Area -2306 square inch. 



Diameter of specimen 
diameter after fracture 



Beduced 



No. 

of 

Exp. 


Weight 
laid on. 






Per unit of length. 


Eemarks. 


square inch of section. 


Elongation. 


Permanent 

set. 




lbs. 


lbs. 


tons. 








1 


15289 






•0012 






2 


18049 






•0180 






3 


22009 






•0290 


•0163 




4 


25369 






•0656 


•0622 




5 


28729 






•0656 


.0622 


"neck. 


6 


30304 


68607 


30-63 




.... 


Broke 1| inch from 



Results. — Here the breaking-strain (PJ per square inch of section is 
68,607 lbs., or 30-63 tons, and the corresponchng elongation (?j) per unit of 
length is ^0656. By formula (13). — The work {u) expended in producing 
rupture = 2250. 



Exp. rV. (January 1868). — Bar of Steel from the Barrow Hajmatite Steel 
and Iron Company. Elongations taken on 8 inches length. Mark 
on bar, " H I4-." Diameter of specimen -763 inch. Area "4572 square 
inch. Reduced diameter after fracture -51 inch. Area '2043 square 
inch. 



1 


15289 








•0006 






2 


18649 












•0062 






3 


20329 












•0222 


•0195 




4 


22009 












•0281 


•0205 




5 


23689 












•0375 


•0343 




6 


25369 












•0546 


•0483 




7 


27049 












•0765 


•0733 




8 


28729 












•1858 


•1765 




9 


30304 


66281 


29-59 


.... 


.... 


Broke in centre. 



Results. — Here the breaking-strain (P^) per square inch of section is 
66,281 lbs., or 29-59 tons, and the corresponding elongation (ZJ per imit of 
length is -1858. By formula (13). — The work (it) expended in producing 
nipture = 6157. 



ON THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF STEEL. 



125 



Exp. V. — Bar of Steel from the Barrow Hsematite Steel and Iron Company. 
Elongations taken on 8 inches length. Mark on bar, " H 2 + ." Dia- 
meter of specimen -764 inch. Area -458-1: square inch. Eeduced 
diameter after fracture -568 inch. Area -2690 square inch. 



No. 

of 

Exp. 






Per unit of length. 




Weight 
laid on. 


Breaking-strain per 
square inch of section. 




Eemarks. 


Elongation. 


Permanent 

set. 




lbs. 


lbs. 


tons. 








1 


15289 














2 


18649 
















3 


22009 










-0003 






4 


23689 










•0004 


-0003 




5 


25369 










•0118 


-0106 




6 


27049 










•0137 


•0125 




7 


28729 










•0171 


•0156 




8 


30304 










•0233 


•0218 




9 


32014 










-0312 


•0296 


[from centre. 


10 


33574 


73241 


32-69 


.... 




Broke 2 inches 



Besults. — Here the breaking-strain (P^) per square inch of section is 
73,241 lbs., or 32-69 tons, and the corresponding elongation (Z^) per unit of 
length is -0312. By formula (13). — The work (m) expended in producing 
ruptui-e = 1142. 



Exp. VI. — Bar of Steel from the Barrow Haematite Steel and Iron Company. 
Elongations taken on 8 inches length. Mark on bar, " H 3-)-." Dia- 
meter of specimen -771 inch. Area ^4656 square inch. Reduced 
diameter after fracture -598 inch. Area ^2808 square inch. 



1 


15289 








-0053 






2 


18649 










-0116 






3 


20329 










-0187 


-0171 




4 


22009 










-0265 


-0187 




5 


23689 










-0321 


-0250 




6 


25369 










-0375 


-0296 




7 


27049 










-0450 


-0437 




8 


28729 










-0718 


•0593 




9 


30304 










-0812 


•0786 


[from neck. 


10 


32014 


68758 


30-69 





.... 


Broke 1| inch 



Resxdts. — Here the breaking-strain (PJ per square inch of section is 
68,758 lbs., or 30-69 tons, and the corresponding elongation {I ) per unit of 
length is -0812. By formula (13).— The work (w) expended ni producing 
rupture = 2791. 



126 



KEPORT 1869. 



Exp, VII.— Bar of Steel from the Barrow Hcematite Steel and Iron Company . 
Elongations taken on 8 inches length. Mark on bar, "H4 + ." 
Diameter of specimen -768 inch. Area -4039 square inch. Reduced 
diameter after fracture -768 inch. Area -4639 square inch. 



No. 

of 

Esp. 


Weight 
laid on. 




lbs. 


1 


18649 


2 


22009 


3 


23689 


4 


25369 


5 


27069 


6 


28729 


7 


30304 


8 


32014 


9 


33574 


10 


35334 



Breaking-strain per 
square inch of section. 



lbs. 



75736 



tons, 



33-81 



Per unit of length. 




Permanent 


Elongation. 


set. 


•0031 




•0108 




•0226 


•0187 


•0297 


•0222 


•0343 


•0375 


•0438 


•0421 


•0500 


•0491 


•0671 


•0622 


•0906 


•0875 



Remarks. 



Broke in neck. 



Results. — Here the breaking-strain (PJ per square inch of section is 75,736 
lbs., or 33-81 tons, and the corresponding elongation (/J per unit of length 
is •0906. By formula (13). — The work (u) expended in producing ruptui-e 
= 3430. 



Exp. VIII. — Bar of Steel from the Barrow Hasmatite Steel and Iron Com- 
pany. Elongations taken on 8 inches length. Mark on bar, " H 5 + ." 
Diameter of specimen -76 inch. Area -4536 square inch. Reduced 
diameter after fracture -558 inch. Area -2366 square inch. 



1 


18649 








•0027 






2 


22009 










-0062 






3 


25369 










•0296 


•0250 




4 


27049 










•0375 


•0312 




5 


28729 










•0467 


•0437 




6 


30304 










•0622 


•0562 




7 


32014 










•0765 


•0750 


[centre. 


8 


33574 


74016 


33-04 




.... 


Broke 1 inch from 


Re. 


ndts. — He 


•c t 


he br( 


3akin 


g-stn 


lin (PJ 1 


)er square 


inch of section is 



74,016 lbs., or 33^04 tons, and the corresponding elungation (Z,) per unit of 
length is ^0765. By formula (13). — The work (ii) expended in producing 
rupture =2831. 



ON THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF STEEL. 



127 



Exp, IX.— Bar of Steel from the Barrow Haematite Steel and Iron Company. 
Elongations taken on 8 inches length. Mark on bar, "11(3 + ." 
Diameter of specimen -772 inch. Area -4677 square inch. Reduced 
diameter after fracture -581 inch. Area -3651 square inch. 



No. 






Per unit of length. 




of 
Exp. 


Weight 
laid on. 








square inch of section. 


Elongation. 


Permanent 

set. 


Eemarks. 




lbs. 


lbs. 


tons. 








1 


18649 










•0003 






2 


22009 










•0062 






3 


25369 










•0250 


•0218 




4 


27049 










•0335 


•0281 




5 


28728 










•0406 


•0375 




6 


30304 










•0500 


•0468 




1 


31864 










•0686 


•0678 




8 


33424 










•1000 


•0937 




9 


35124 


75120 


33-53 





.... 


Broke in centre. 



Results. — Here the breaking- strain (PJ per square inch of section is 
75,120 lbs., or 33-53 tons, and the corresponding elongation (Z^) per unit of 
length is •I. By formula (13). — The work (u) expended in producing rup- 
ture = 3756. 



Exp. X. (April 1869). — Bar of Steel from the Heaton Steel and Iron Company, 
Langley Mills. Elongations taken on 8 inches length. Mark on bar, 
"1." Diameter of specimen -748 inch. Area -4394 square inch. 
Eeduced diameter after fracture -748 inch. Area ^4394 square inch. 



1 


16969 










-000 






2 


23689 










-000 






3 


27049 










-000 






4 


29119 










-000 






5 


30799 










•000 






6 


32479 










•0012 






7 


34039 










•0156 






8 


35659 










•0208 






9 


37189 










•0235 


•0208 




10 


38704 










•0351 


-0315 




11 


40264 










•0390 


•0351 




12 


41104 


93545 


41-761 


.... 




Broke in neck. 



Results. — Here the breaking-strain (PJ per square inch of section is 93,545 
lbs., or 41^761 tons, and the corresponding elongation (ZJ per unit of leno-th 
is -0390. By formula (13). — The work (u) expended in producing runture 
= 1824. ° ^ 



128 



REPORT 1869. 



Exp. XI. — Bar of Steel from the Heaton Steel and Iron Company, Langley 
Mills. Elongations taken on 8 inches length. Mark on bar, " 2." 
Diameter of specimen -758 inch. Area -4512 square inch. Eeduced 
diameter after fracture -758 inch. Area -4512 square inch. 



No. 






Per unit of length. 




of 


Weight 


Breakmg-strain per 








Exp. 


laid on. 


square inch of section. 


Elongation. 


Permanent 

set. 






lbs. 


lbs. 


tons. 








1 


16969 


. • . • 




•0019 






2 


23479 








•0024 






3 


28669 








•0024 






4 


32119 














,5 


3.5479 








•0125 


•0103 




(^ 


38839 








•0235 


•0187 






40519 








•0312 


•0235 




8 


42199 


93526 


41-7.52 


.... 


.... 


Broke in neck. 



Jiesults. — Here the breaking-strain (P,) per square inch of section is 93,526 lbs., or 
41-752 tons, and the corresponding elongation (/j) per unit of length is -0312. By formula 
(13). — The work (m) expended in producing rupture = 1459. 

Exp. XII. — Bar of Steel from the Heaton Steel and Iron Company, Langley 
Mills. Elongations taken on 8 inches length. Mark on bar, " 3." 
Diameter of specimen ^746 inch. Area ^4370 square inch. Eeduced 
diameter after fracture •626 inch. Area ^3077 square inch. 



1 


16969 












2 


22144 












3 


26149 










•0019 






4 


29794 










•0038 






5 


32944 
















6 


36019 










•0157 


•0125 






37699 










•0208 


•0157 




8 


39379 










•0234 


•0227 




9 


41059 










•0277 


•0250 




10 


41899 










•0312 


•0250 




11 


42739 










•0375 


•02.53 




12 


43379 










.... 


•0390 




13 


44419 
















14 


45259 










•0416 


•0400 




15 


46699 










•0468 


•0416 




16 


46939 










•0520 


•0452 




17 


47359 










•0582 


•0512 




18 


47779 










•0625 






19 


48199 










•0645 


•0580 




20 


48619 










•0781 


•0728 




21 


49039 










•0937 


•0750 


[centre. 


22 


49459 


113178 


50-526 


.... 


.... 


Broke 2 ins. from 



Ecsults. — Here the breaking-strain (Pj) per square inch of section is 113,178 lbs., or 
50-526 tons, and the corresponding elongation {/^) per unit of length is -0937- By for- 
mula (13).— The work {u) expended in producing rupture = 5302. 



ON THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF STEEL. 



129 



Exp. XIII. — Bar of Steel from the Heaton Steel and Iron Company, Laugley 
MiUs. Elongations taken on 8 inches length. Mark on bar, " 4." 
Diameter of specimen -746 inch. Area -4370 square inch. Re- 
duced diameter after fracture -746 inch. Area -4370 square inch. 



No. 

of 

Exp. 


1 

Weight 
laid on. 




lbs. 


1 


16969 


2 


27484 


3 


35459 


4 


39224 


5 


40784 


6 


41628 


7 


43308 


8 


44988 


9 


45828 



Breaking-strain per 
square inch of section. 



lbs. 



104869 



tons. 



46-816 



Per unit of length. 



Elongation. 



•0019 
•0208 
•0234 
•0250 
•0274 
•0364 



Permanent 

set. 



Remarks. 



•0131 
•0206 



•0312 



Broke in neck. 



Results. — Here the breaking-strain (P^) per square inch of section is 
104,869 lbs., or 46-816 tons, and the corresponding elongation {l^ per unit 
of length is -0364. By formula (13).^ — The work {u) expended in produ- 
cing rupture = 1908. 



Exp. XIV. — Bar of Steel from the Heaton Steel and Iron Company, Langley 
Mills. Elongations taken on 8 inches length. Mark on bar, " 5." 
Diameter of specimen -754 inch. Area -4465 square inch. Reduced 
diameter after fracture -754 inch. Area -4465 square inch. 



1 


24049 






-0038 






2 


33629 






•0208 






3 


40784 






•0393 


•0307 




4 


42464 






•0646 






5 


43304 






•0781 


•0750 




6 


43724 






•0937 


-0821 






44144 


98866 


44-136 


.... 


.... 


Broke near neck. 



Results. — Here the breaking-strain (Pj) per square inch of section is 
98,866 lbs., or 44-136 tons, and the corresponding elongation (l^ per unit of 
length is -0937. By formula (13). — The work (m) expended in producing 
rupture = 4631. 



1869. 



130 



REPORT 1869. 



Exp. XY. — Bar of Steel from the Heaton Steel and Iron Company, Langley 
Mills. Elongations taken on 8 inches length. Mark on bar, " 6." 
Diameter of specimen -754 inch. Area -4465 square inch. Ee- 
duced diameter after fracture •528 inch. Area -2560 square inch. 



No. 






Per unit 


af length. 




of 
Exp. 


AVeigbt 


Breaking-strain per 






Remarks, 


laid on. 


square inch of section. 


Elongation. 


Permanent 
set. 




lbs. 


lbs. 


tons. 








1 


24049 










•0038 






2 


32629 
















3 


39784 










•0412 


•0375 




4 


41464 










•0468 


•0419 




5 


42304 










■0500 


•0450 




6 


43144 










•0500 






7 


43984 










•0520 




■ 


8 


44824 










•0663 






9 


45244 










•0693 


•0663 




10 


45664 










•0702 






11 


46504 










•1041 


•1012 


[neck. 


12 


46924 


105093 


46-915 






Broke 2 ins. from 



Eesults. — Here the breaking-strain (P^) per square inch of section is 
105,093 lbs., or 46-915 tons, and the corresponding elongation (?,) per unit 
of length is ^1041. By formula (13). — The work («) expended in producing 
rupture = 5464. 



ON THE MECHANIC.A.L PROPERTIES OF STEEL. 



131 



d 
o 



.§ 

CD 
X 

o 

O 



o 



a 







'^ ■ «-t 


© 




^" 




^ .a 






s © 




a 


o -. © 


s « 


00 

1 


(C o 

r^ .M ^+H 


.3 c! =" -!<1 ^ .d 




" C . 


C . • © ^ c! 


o . © a . 


s i.s 

.S .^ I— ( 


S S .3 S s s 

.s;>';;?.Sr^.a 


.5 -fM .5 a c-1 




© G3 © 


g; o © o © © 


(D O Q^ CD <D 




M.^^ 


-M ..a ^ ^ .ij J4 


^ ^ ^ ^ ^ 




o o o 


o o o o o o 


o O O O O 




!- t. i^ 


!^ U !^ -^ i- ^~^ 


t^ U U %^ i-i 




WWW 


pqpqpqppqm 


p^ pqpqpqpq 


lue of 

work 

Licing 

Aire. 

eq. 

3)- 














vo »^ O 


t>. ri M O "-I 'O 


-^ O Cl 00 .-. -^ 


o^ ON w-i 


U^ tJ- CN CO m vy~i 


d i^ O O f^^ 


ct ^ r^; r^p~^ <-> 


oo •*- rl 


HH M t--. -^OO l>- 


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>■ o o s p5 ^-^ 


« r^ r» 


vo M el m r) m 


M iH tr^ ^ -"^ »j-i 










^ '-I 








«.. F^l 








Corre- 
ponding 
elonga- 
,ion per 
unit of 
length. 


^O vo «.0 


oo el d "O vo o 


o c^ t-- tj- r~^ M 


O VO ^>^ 


Ln J-. M- o ^O O 


C\ 1- covO CO Ti- 


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p p p 


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p p O o p p 








1 M -^ 








1 


O O O 


O O o o o 


_ rl ^O vo ^3 to 


strain 
3 inch 
ion. 


OQ O m r^ 


ON CN Cn - ^ CO 


\^ \^-^ r^ t~, c*"^ >-^ 


c t-^ p ^ 


\^\o »x> oo o «^ 


t^ t>. tooo H-i o^ 


o ^ vb b 


0^ N O ro ro m 


M i- b ^ V^ 
^ ^ 1^ rj- 4 ^ 


->^ ^ m m 


H CO ro ro f^ (r» 


iaO S O 








C § <D 










rn Tj- l~~ 


11 1- oo "O ^ O 


U-%>0 oo ON^O CO 


. CO M O 


oo ri- tj-^ m w e4 


^ Ci r-.'O M3 ON 


QD m r^vo 


rt m c~^ t--. o — 


u-1 U-, !-■ 00 oo O 


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\0 c4 oo ij-i tJ- u-i 


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w & 


■—I <7\C» >« 


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On ON « O ON 


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■^ On Osoo ^ -^ 
O ON i>^ d -^ d 


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.000 


O t-- -^ m i-^ H 


OD VO CO CO 


CO "-0 ro »j-i fH 


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'E '73 


^ o o 


O ro c1 u-i rn Lo 


^ ^ ^ ^ 4 ^ 


p:3 


^^ TJ- C*^ C*l 


m m CO CO m CO 








s-^ i 


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t---oo ri vo r^ o 


u^\0 CO cooo VO 


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M"si K, 


K K i^ 


K r-- K t~^ f-^ r-^ 


t^ t>. t^ r- r-- K 


X 








e^ 


f; 


•O) 


CO 


c .i ^ 


00 


s 


00 


"t- o C 




i-H :;;::::;- 






3 


S 


u 




1-5 


^ 


-H 


/li 




++++++ 




s 3 ?i 


r-H C-l T-5 


rt :-M CO ■+ O O 


.-I CI 0^ Tt^ o O 


g-« 


BMW 


WMHSWH 






6 


d i 






o 


Q 






1 — 1 








o 


© 


K 




o 


© 










1 




M 


M 


p 


s ' ' 


.^ = " = - =^ 


S r :; - :: ^ 


5 


"S 


"S 


o 1 
O 1 


c3 


H 


5 


^ 1 




1^ 


^ 


S 


W 


H 


.4.3 

CQ 


§ 


6: 

p - - 


p ~ :: - :: r 


e3 




pq 


n 


© 




a> 


s 


© 








J3 




H 


S 


H 


6=*^ gn 


M N ro 


<i- vr^kO 1-^00 0\ 


O 1-1 d m T^ vn 


^°W 









k2 



132 



REPORT 1869. 



THIRD SERIES OF EXPERIMENTS. 

COMPEESSrVE STRAIN. 

Exp. I. (June 1867). — Bar of Steel from the Barrow Haematite Steel and 
Iron Company. Mark on bar, " H 1." 

Before experiment. After experiment. 

Height of specimen -981 inch -784 inch. 

Diameter of specimen "72 inch -854 inch. 

Area of specimen -4071 sq. in -5728 sq. in. 



No. 

of 

Exp. 



Weight laid 
on 

specimen. 



Weight laid 

on per square inch 

of section. 



Com- 
pression, 
in inches. 



Eemarks. 



1 
2 

3 

4 
5 
6 

7 
8 
9 



lbs. 
37438 
44966 
52166 
58950 
66022 
73134 
80214 
88134 
91840 



tons. 

16-713 
20-074 
23-288 
26-316 
29-474 
32-649 
35-809 
39-345 
41-000 



lbs. 

91951 
110440 
128124 
144786 
162156 
179722 
197023 
216465 
225568 



tons. 
41-049 
49-303 
57-198 
64-637 
72-391 
80-233 
87-952 
96-636 
100-700 



•033 
-042 
-050 
•066 
•075 
•100 
•133 
-187 
-200 




No cracks. 



Results. — Here the strain per sqnare inch (Pj)causiug rupture is 225,568 lbs., 
or 100-7 tons, and the correspond iug compression (/J per unit of length is -2. 
By formula (13). — The work (m) expended in producing rupture = 22556. 



Exp. II. — Bar of Steel from the Barrow Haematite Steel and Iron Company. 

Mark on bar, " H 2." 

Before experiment. After experiment. 

Height of specimen -971 inch -498 inch. 

Diameter of specimen ^72 inch 1-066 inch. 

Area of specimen -4071 sq. in ^8922 sq. in. 



1 

2 

3 
4 
5 
6 

^- 
I 

8 
9 



37438 
44966 
52166 
58950 
66022 
73134 
80214 
88134 
91840 



16-713 
20-074 
23-288 
26-316 
29-474 
32-649 
35-809 
39-345 
41^000 



91951 
110440 
128124 
144786 
162156 
179722 
197023 
216465 
225568 



40-049 


•100 


' 49-303 


•133 


57^98 


•200 


64-637 


•266 


72-391 


•310 


80-233 


•350 


87-952 


•400 


96-636 


•425 


100-700 


•450 




No cracks. 



Results. — Here the strain per square inch (P^) causing rupture is 225,568 lbs., 
or 100-7 tons, and the corresponding com.pression (l^ per unit of length is -IS. 
By formula (13). — The work (m) expended in producing rupture = 50752. 



ON THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF STEEL. 



133 



Exp. III. — -Bar of Steel from the Barrow Haematite Steel and Iron Company 

Mark on bar, " H 3." 

Before experiment. After experiment. 

Height of specimen -968 inch -536 inch. 

Diameter of specimen -72 inch 1-065 inch. 

Area of specimen -4071 sq. in -8906 sq. in. 



No. 

of 

Exp. 


Weigbt laid 

on 

specimen. 


Weight laid 

on per square inch 

of section. 


Com- 
pression, 
in inclies. 


Eemarks. 


' 1 

2 

3 

4 
5 

6 

7 
8 
9 


lbs. 
37438 
44960 
52166 
58950 
66022 
73134 
80214 
88134 
91840 


tons. 
16-713 
20-074 
23-288 
26-316 
29-474 
32-649 
35-809 
39-345 
41-000 


lbs. 

91951 
110440 
128124 
144786 
162156 
179722 
197023 
216465 
225568 


tons. 

41-049 
49-303 
57-198 
64-637 
72-391 
80-233 
87-952 
96-636 
100-700 


-100 
-153 
-210 
•275 
-312 
-350 
•400 
-412 
•450 


r -1 


IS'o cracks. 



Results. — Here the strain per square inch (PJcausing rupture is 225,5681bs., 
or 100-7 tons, and the corresponding compression (Z^) per unit of length is -45. 
By formula (13). — The work (m) expended in producing rupture = 50752. 



Exp. IV. (January 1868).- — Bar of Steel from the Barrow Haematite Steel 
and Iron Company. Mark on bar, " H 1 + ." 

Before experiment. After experiment. 

Height of specimen 1-00 inch -51 inch. 

Diameter of specimen -72 inch 1-08 inch. 

Area of specimen -4071 sq. in -9175 sq. in. 



1 


37438 


16-713 


91951 


41-049 


•160 


( 1 


2 


44966 


20-074 


110440 


49-303 


•160 




3 


52166 


23-288 


128124 


57-198 


•220 




4 
5 


58950 
66022 


26-316 
29-474 


144786 
162156 


64-637 
72-391 


-283 
-340 




^W/flH 


6 


73134 


32-649 


179722 


80-233 


-383 


7 


80214 


35-809 


197023 


87-952 


•425 


^Nf will llllllllmU^m 


8 
9 


88134 
91840 


39-345 
41-000 


216465 
225568 


96-636 
100-700 


•475 

•480 


^Hi III IlimaK^m 


No cracks. 



Results. — Here the strain per square inch (PJcausing rupture is 225,568 lbs., 
or 100-7 tons, and the corresponding compression {l^ per unit of length is -48. 
By formula (13). — The work (it) expended in producing rupture = 54136. 



134 



REPORT — 1869. 



Exp. V. — Bar of Steel from the Barrow Haematite Steel and Iron Company. 

Mark on bar, "H:2 + ." 



Before experiment. 

Height of specimen -981 inch. 

Diameter of specimen -72 inch. 

Area of specimen -4071 sq. in. 



After experiment. 

-553 inch. 
1-02 inch. 

•8168 sq. in. 



No. 


Weight laid 


Weight laid 


Com- 




of 


on 


on per square inch 


pression, 


Eemarlcs. 


Exp. 


specimen. 


of section. 


in inches. 






lbs. 


tons. 


lbs. 


tons. 






1 


37438 


16-713 


91951 


41-049 


•092 


( 1 


2 


44966 


20-074 


110440 


49-303 


-120 


1 1 
j 1 


3 

4 
5 


52166 
58950 
66022 


23-288 
26-316 
29-474 


128124 
144786 
162156 


57-198 
64-637 
72-391 


•175 

•220 
•283 


1 1 






1 


6 


73134 


32-649 


179722 


80-233 


•325 






B 


7 


80214 


35-809 


197023 


87-952 


•380 






w 


8 
9 


88134 
91840 


39-345 
41-000 


216465 
225568 


96-636 
100-700 


•412 
•525 




1 1 


m 


No cracks. 



Results. — Here the strain per square inch (PJ causing rupture is 225,5681bs., 
or 100-7 tons, and the corresponding compres.siou (J^) per unit of length is 
•525. By formula (13). — The work («) expended in producing rupture 
= 59211. 



Exp. VI. — Bar of Steel from the Barrow Haematite Steel and Iron Company. 

Mark on bar, "H3-f ." 



Before experiment. 

Height of specimen ^97 inch. 

Diameter of specimen .... -72 inch. 
Area of specimen ^4071 sq. in. 



1 

2 
3 
4 
5 

6 

7 
8 
9 



37438 
44966 
52166 
58950 
66022 
73134 
80214 
88134 
91840 



16-713 
20-074 
23-288 
26-316 
29-474 
32-649 
35-809 
39-345 
41-000 



91951 
110440 
128124 
144786 
162156 
179722 
197023 
216465 
225568 



After experiment. 
•504 iach. 
1-07 inch. 
•8984 sq. in. 



41-049 


-100 


49-303 


•160 


57-198 


-220 


64-637 


•257 


72-391 


•325 


80-233 


•374 


87-952 


•410 


96-636 


•450 


100-700 


•474 




Slight cracks 



Results. — Here the strain per square inch (P^) causing rupture is 225,568 lbs., 
or 100-7 tons, and the corresponding compression (?j) per unit of length is 
•474. By formula (13). — The work (m) expended in producing rupture 
= 53459. 



ON THE MECHANICAL PKOPERTIES OF STEEL. 



135 



Exp. TII. — Bar of Steel from the Barrow Haematite Steel and Iron Company. 

Mark on bar, "H:4+," 

Before experiment. After experiment. 

Height of specimen -974 inch. .... -581 inch. 

Diameter of specimen .... •12 inch. .... l-Ol inch. 

Area of specimen -4071 sq. in. .... •8011 sq. in. 



No. 

of 

Exp. 



Weight laid 

on 
specimen. 



Weight laid 

on per square inch 

of section. 



Com- 
pression, 
in inches. 



Remarks. 



1 
2 
3 

4 
5 
6 

7 
8 
9 



lbs. 
37438 
44966 
52166 
58950 
66022 
73134 
80214 
88134 
91840 



tons. 
16-713 
20'074 
23-288 
26-316 
29-474 
32-649 
35-809 
39-345 
41-000 



lbs. 

91951 
110440 
128124 
144786 
162156 
179722 
197023 
216465 
225568 



tons. 
41-049 
49-303 
57-198 
64-637 
72-391 
80-233 
87-952 
96-636 
100-700 



-075 
•100 
•133 
-190 
-225 
•295 
•325 
•375 
•392 




No cracks. 



Results. — Here the strain per square inch(Pj)causingrupture is 225,568 lbs., 
or 100^7 tons, and the corresponding compression ^^Z^) per imit of length 
is -392. By formula (13). — The work (m) expended in producing rupture 
= 44211. 



Exp. VIII. — Bar of Steel from the Barrow Haematite Steel and Iron Company. 

Mark on bar, "H5 + ." 

Before experiment. 

Height of specimen -968 inch. 

Diameter of specimen .... ^72 inch. 
Area of specimen ^4071 sq. in. 



After experiment. 
•58 inch. 
•996 inch. 
•7791 sq. in. 



37438 
44966 
52166 
58950 
66022 
73134 
80214 
88134 
91840 



16^713 

20^074 
23-288 
26-316 
29-474 
32^649 
35^809 
39^345 
41-000 



91951 
110440 
128124 
144786 
162156 
179722 
197023 
216465 
225568 



41-049 
49^303 
57^198 
64-637 
72-391 
80-233 
87-952 
96-636 
100-700 



•087 
•100 
•1.37 
-190 
•233 
-288 
-325 
•375 
•400 




Wo cracks. 



Results. — Here the strain per square inch(Pj)causiugrupture is225,568 lbs., 
or 100-7 tons, and the corresponding compression (ZJ per unit of length 
is -4. By formula (13). — The work (m) expended in producing rupture 
= 45113. 



136 
Exp. IX. 



REPORT 1869. 

-Bar of Steel from the Barrow Hfematite Steel and Iron Company. 
Mark on bar, " H 6 + ." 



Before experiment. 

Height of specimen -985 inch. 

Diameter of specimen .... -72 inch. 
Area of specimen -4071 sq. in. 



After experiment. 

•586 inch. 
1-012 inch. 

•8042 sq. in. 



No. 

of 

Exp. 



1 

2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 



Weight laid 

on 

specimen. 



lbs. 

37438 
44966 
52166 
58950 
66022 
73134 
80214 
88134 
91840 



tons. 

16-713 
20-074 
23^288 
26^316 
29-474 
32-649 
35-809 
39-345 
41^000 



Weight laid 

on per square inch 

of section. 



lbs. 

91951 
110440 
128124 
144786 
162156 
179722 
197023 
216465 
225568 



tons. 
41-049 
49-303 
57-198 
64^637 
72-391 
80-233 
87^952 
96-636 
100-700 



Com- 
pression, 
in inches. 



Remarks. 



•075 
•100 
•150 
•200 
•260 
•300 
•320 
•383 
-400 



No cracks. 



Results. — Here the strain per square inch (PJ causing rupture is 225,568 lbs., 
or 100-7 tons, and the corresponding compression (Zj) per unit of length 
is -4. By formula (13). — The work (w) expended in producing rupture 
= 45113. 



Exp. X. (April 1869).— Bar of Steel from the Heaton Steel and Iron Com- 
pany, Langley Mills. Mark on bar, " 1." 

Before experiment. After experiment. 

Height of specimen 1-00 inch. .... -723 inch. 

Diameter of specimen .... -72 inch. .... -906 inch. 

Area of specimen -4071 sq. in. ..'..' -6448 sq. in. 



1 


44606 


2 


52158 


3 


59646 


4 


68942 


5 


76110 


6 


82382 


7 


85070 


8 


86862 


9 


91840 



19-913 
23-284 
26-627 
30-777 
33-977 
36-777 
37-977 
39^670 
41^000 



109572 


48^916 


-030 


128366 


57^366 


-040 


146514 


65-408 


•065 


169349 


75-602 


•130 


186956 


83-462 


•215 


202363 


90-340 


•290 


208965 


93-288 


•300 


213367 


95-253 


-315 


225568 


100-700 


•333 




No cracks, 



Results. — Here the strain per square inch (PJcausingrupture is 225,568 lbs., 
or 100-7 tons, and the corresponding compression (Z,) per unit of length 
is -333. By formula (13). — The work (m) expended in producing rupture 

=^ OiOOt, 



ON THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF STEEL. 



137 



Exp. XI. — Bar of Steel from the Heaton Steel and Iron Company, Langley 

Mills. Mark on bar, "2." 

Before experiment. After experiment. 

Height of specimen 1-00 inch. .... -74 inch. 

Diameter of specimen -72 inch. .... -908 inch. 

Area of specimen -4071 sq. in -6475 sq. in. 



No. 

of 

Exp. 


Weight laid 

on 

specimen. 


Weight laid 

on per square inch 

of section. 


Com- 
pression, 
in inches. 


Remarks. 


1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 


lbs. 
44606 
52030 
59102 
66662 
74390 
81558 
88726 
92840 


tons. 

19-913 
23-227 
26-384 
29-759 
33-209 
36-409 
39-609 
41-000 


lbs. 
109572 
127806 
145178 
163748 
182731 
200339 
217946 
225568 


tons. 

48-916 
57-056 
64-811 
73-101 
81-576 
89-437 
97-297 
100-700 


•060 
-080 
•110 
•150 
•200 
•240 
•270 
•288 




1 1 

! 


«" 




1 


No cracks. 



Results. — Here the strain per square inch (P^) causing rupture is 225,568 lbs. , 
or 100"7 tons, and the corresponding compression (Z^) per unit of length 
is -288. By formula (13). — The work («) expended in producing rapture 
= 32481. 



Exp. XII. — Bar of Steel from the Heaton Steel and Iron Company, Langley 

Mills. Mark on bar, " 3." 

Before experiment. After experiment. 

Height of specimen 1-00 inch. .... •76 inch. 

Diameter of specimen ^72 inch. .... '866 inch. 

Area of specimen ^4071 sq. in •5898 sq. in. 



44606 


19^913 


109572 


48^916 


52030 


23^227 


127806 


57^056 


59102 


26^384 


145178 


64^811 


66662 


29^759 


163748 


73-101 


74390 


33-209 


182731 


81^576 


81558 


36^409 


200339 


89^437 


88726 


39^609 


217946 


97^297 


91840 


41^000 


225568 


100^700 



•060 
•070 
•090 
•120 
•170 
•200 
•230 
•257 




'No cracks. 



Hesults. — Here the strain per square inch (P^) causing rupture is 225,568 lbs., 
or 100^7 tons, and the corresponding compression (Z^) per unit of length 
is ^257. By formula (13). — The work (ti) expended in producing rupture 
= 28985. 



138 REPORT— 1869. 

Exr. XIII. — Bar of Steel from the Heatou Steel and Irou Coinpauy, Langley 

Mills. Mark ou bar, " 4." 

Before experiment. After experiment. 

Height of specimen 1-00 inch. .... -784 inch. 

Diameter of specimen -72 inch. .... '864 inch. 

Area of specimen -4071 sq. in -5863 sq. in. 



No. 

of 

Exp. 



1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 



Weight laid 

on 
specimen. 



lbs. 
44G0G 
52030 
59102 
60662 
74390 
81558 
88726 
91840 



tons. 
19-913 
23-227 
26-384 
29-759 
33-209 
36-409 
39-609 
41-000 



Weight laid 

on per square inch 

of section. 



lbs. 
109572 
127806 
145178 
163748 
182731 
200339 
217946 
225568 



tons. 
48-916 
57-056 
64-811 
73-101 
81-576 
89-437 
97-297 
100-700 



Com- 
pression, 
in inches. 



•050 
-070 
•080 
•120 
-IGO 
-190 
•230 
•247 



Eeniarks. 







No cracks. 



liemlts. —Here the strain per square inch (P,) causing rupture is 225,568 lbs., 
or 100^7 tons, and the corresponding compression (/,) per unit of length 
is -247. By formula (13).- — The work («) expended in producing rupture 

= 27857. 



Exp. XIV. — Ear of Steel from the Heaton Steel and Irou Company, Langley 

Mills. Mark on bar, " 5." 



Before experiment. 

Height of specimen 1-00 inch. 

Diameter of specimen -72 inch. 

Area of specimeu -4071 sq. in. 



After experiment. 
•78 inch. 
•87 inch. 
•5944 sq. in. 



1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 



44606 
52030 
59102 
66662 
74390 
81558 
88726 
91840 



19^913 
23^227 
26-384 
29-759 
33-209 
36-409 
39^609 
41^000 



109572 


48-916 


127806 


57-056 


145178 


64-811 


163748 


73-101 


182731 


81-576 


200339 


89-437 


217946 


97-297 


225568 


100-700 



•050 
•070 
•090 
•120 
•106 
•200 
•240 
•257 




No cracks. 



or 



Bemlts.—Rexe the strain per square inch (P,) causing rupture is 225,568 lbs., 
100-7 tons, and the corresponding compression (/,) per unit of length 



= 28985. 



By formula (13). — The work («) expended in producing rupture 



ON THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF STEEL. 



139 



Exp. XV. — Bar of Steel from the Heaton Steel and Iron Company, Langley 

MiUs. Mark ou bar, " 6." 



Before experiment. 

Height of specimen 1-00 inch. 

Diameter of specimen -72 inch. 

Area of specimen -4071 sq. in. 



After experiment. 
-734 inch. 
•903 inch. 
•5404 sq. in. 



No. 

of 

Exp. 


Weight laid 

on 
specimen. 


Weight laid 

on per square inch 

of section. 


Com- 
pression, 
in inches. 


Eemarks. 


1 

2" 

3 

4 

5 

6 

/ 

8 


lbs. 
44606 
52030 
59102 
66662 
74390 
81558 
88726 
91840 


tons. 
19-913 
23-227 
26-384 
29-759 
33-209 
36-409 
39-609 
41-000 


lbs. 
109572 
127806 
145178 
163748 
182731 
200339 
217946 
225568 


tons. 

48-916 
57-056 
64-811 
73-101 
81-576 
89-437 
97-297 
100-700 


•060 
•080 
•110 
•150 
•190 
•230 
•270 
288 


; 


r 1 
1 1 

! 1 


1 




1 


K^o cracks. 



Results. — Here the strain per square inch(Pj) causing rupture is 225^568 lbs., 
or 100^7 tons, and the corresponding compression (/j) per unit of length 
is -288. By formula (13). — The work («) expended in producing rupture 
= 32481. 



140 







REPORT 


— i»t3y. 










oi 

^ 






c& 


• 


■M r3 fK 


a: 






-g E = 








si 


^ 




S3 








be 






P? 


O :; :; 








bJD ^A 


1 








'^ *H ,_- f^ -rt ^ 










\0 r4 rt 


-O -H C7S -^ r*^ ro 


t-^ ^ iy-> t^ V/-1 M 




o o ^ -« ^ ^ 


u-i ij-i tn 


r^ „ u-i -, « « 


moo CO vo» OO 




® ? S -^ --. o^ 


*j-> r^ t^ 


HH H ^ N - "H 


m ^ CNoo ,;?N -^ 




3 , Oh ^ :i o 


N O O 


r^ a> f^ '^ 'n »n 


t-H N oo r--oo N 




t^ in Lo 


vo un "^ -^ ■+ -^ 


c<^ en rl c< r* CO 


3 




o o o 


O ^'-i ^ r) O O 


cooc t^ t~^ r-^oo 


'i 

£ 
p^ 


O ij^ u-i 


oo N r-. On O O 


r^-lOO »n -^ o-tOO 


>. :i c o -^ s 
m" 5 ^ o 


.^ .■=*• .^ 


."^ ^ r** P r^ r*" 


ro rt ri N N N 


a 


















o 
O 


S^ 


o o o 


o o o o o o 


O O O O O 


o o o 


O O O O o 


O O O O O 


PI 
o 


•g-B 


t^ r^ r^ 


r-- r- c^ r^ t^ r^ 


t^ r- r^ h~. r^ r^ 


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Abstract of Experiments on Hcematite Steel. 
The strength of these bars, owing to their flexibility, is inferior to the 
strength of the other Bessemer steel bars before experimented npou. 
Taking the average of all these latter bars, the mean value of C, the unit of 
working strength, is 5-8 tons ; whereas this constant for the haematite bars is 
only 4-2 tons, showing that the former are about ^ stronger than the latter. 
M^'ith about 4 'more weight laid on the bars their power of restitution was 



ON THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF STEEL. 141 

measvired by about | of the whole deflection, showing that this load was 
considerably within that requisite to produce rupture. Owing to the high 
flexibility of the haematite bars, their modulus of elasticity is low. It may 
be here worthy of observation that, for bars of the same length, the modulus 
of elasticity varies inversely as the coefficient (DJ of the deflection for 

unity of pressure and section, that is, E oo — -. 

These bars underwent a great elongation by a tensile strain, and a large 
compression by a compressive strain, the average elongation being, per unit 
of length, -0792, and that of compression •41 9 ; whereas these numbers for 
the other bars, before experimented upon, did not, on an average, exceed 
•06 and -355 respectively, showing the flexibility and superiority of this 
steel in its powers to resist impact. The average tensile resistance of the 
bars is about 3-5 tons per square inch, whereas the resistance for the other 
Bessemer bars, before experimented upon, was about 42 tons ; so that the 
tensile strength of the latter is 4 greater than that of the former. 

The quality of hardness of steel and wrought iron may be comparatively 
measured by the amount of extension under a given tensile strain, and the 
amount of compression under a given compressive strain. Applying this 
test to the results of the experiments on the various steel bars, we find that 
the hardest bars are the strongest, irresj[>€ctlve of the companies hij whom they 
were manufactured. We find, for example, that the elongation per unit of 
length for eight of the best Bessemer bars did not exceed -018, and the 
compression per unit of length did not exceed -25. These bars had a 
temper probably exceeding that of spring-steel, and less than that for tools. 
The haematite bars are of a totally diff'erent description of steel from that 
manufactured for springs and tools, and this accounts for their compara- 
tively low powers of resistance. 

The experiments first made upon the haematite steel are anomalous. The 
first bar experimented upon showed great powers of resistance, but the last 
two gave results inferior to those obtained by the last experiments. At the 
same time the value (D,) for unity of pressure and section, ia the first exjie- 
rimeuts, is somewhat below the general average of the results of all the 
other experiments, thereby giving a considerable value to the modulus of elas- 
ticity. I suspect that the temper of the first bar was high ; but Avhether the last 
two bars had a temper too high or too low, I am at a loss to determine. If 
it is desirable to have full justice done to the haematite steel bars as to their 
powers of resistaiice, a series of bars of the same degree of hardness as to 
the first bar mentioned, which gave considerably more than average powers 
of resistance, should be made, in order to compare with the harder descrip- 
tions of steel, as exhibited by other makers — numbers of which have, no 
doubt, been melted in the crucible, and selected for the purposes of ex- 
periment. 

Abstract of the Experiments on the Heaton Steel. 

This steel being the product of a totally different process of manufacture 
from that of aU the other steel bars previously experimented vipou, and as 
those bars were derived from the best known processes and received from 
the best of makers, it is a matter of the greater moment to ascertain how it 
stands ia relation to them as regards strength and those other properties which 
are pecuKar to steel. It is for this object that an abstract separate fi-om that 
of the Barrow steel manufacture has been drawn up. 

These bars, in their resistance to a transverse strain, show a very decided 
superiority over the steel bars which I experimented upon before, and on 



142 REPORT— 1869. 

which I reported to the British Association of 18G7. For instance, the mean 
value of C, the unit of working strength for these bars, is 7-494 tons, whereas 
this value for the other bars was only 5-746 tons, showing that these bars 
are -3 stronger. The value of u, or the work of deflection for unity of 
section, for these bars is 90-970, whereas for the other steel bars it is only 
51-696. This value of u exhibits the powers of the several bars to resist a 
force analogous to that of impact. It is therefore clearly shown that this 
steel must be peculiarly well adapted to resist the force of sudden shocks, 
considering that it is | superior in this quality to any other of the steel bars 
before experimented upon. 

The flexibility of this steel is slightly inferior to that of other steel ; the 
measure of flexibility (DJ being for these bars -001345, and for the other 
bars -001361. The modulus of elasticity is somewhat low for steel, although 
at the same time it is very little below the general average of those from my 
former experiments. 

This steel, I consider, well adapted to withstand severe transverse strains, 
for it combines the two essential qualities of great strength and superior 
powers in its resistance to the force of impact. 

The mean breaking tensile strain, per square inch of section, of this steel is 
45-28 tons ; whereas this value for the other steel bars, before experimented 
upon, is 41-77 tons. The Heaton bars are, therefore, -08 stronger in their 
resistance to the force of tension than the average result obtained from 
the steel bars previously experimented upon. This result, whilst placing 
the Heaton steel in a highly satisfactory position when compared with the 
mean of the whole of the steel experimented upon, places it at the same 
time below that produced by some individual manufacturers. The elongation 
of these bars was considerable, and a good deal above the mean for the other 
bars, thereby giving a large value for the work done in breaking the bar. 

These bars show high powers of resistance to a compressive strain, 
aU the specimens having undergone the test of 100 tons on the square inch 
without any visible external signs of fractiire. 

It would be very difficult to compare the diff"erent bars in their resistance 
to compression, for nearly all the specimens underwent a strain of above 100 
tons on the square inch without exhibiting the slightest trace of a crack. 
As the lever by which the specimens were crushed was not competent to 
produce a greater strain, it was impossible to find out the crushing weight ; be- 
sides, even then, supposing it possible to produce the requisite strain, it would 
be a task of extreme difficulty to find out at what precise weight the column 
began to give way. Under these circumstances, it can only be left to the 
judgment of the person wishing to select steel to resist a compressive force 
to choose that which he thinks best adapted to his purpose, the choice being 
regulated by the ductility of the metal as exhibited by the amount of compres- 
sion. In looking through the experiments, however, one thing is clear, that 
the hardest steels sustained very little compression, whilst the softer ones, in 
the majority of cases, were reduced to almost half their original height. 

From this abstract it will be seen that this steel, manufactured by Mr. 
Heaton, stands in the most favourable light in comparison with steel pro- 
duced by other manufacturers ; and if it be taken into consideration that 
two-thirds of the iron from which this steel was converted, was composed of 
Northamptonshire pig-iron, we may reasonably look forward to this invention 
creating a considerable improvement in the j)roductiou and cost of steel. 

Comparison of Wrour/ht Iron with Steel. 
Having lately had occasion to experiment on some wrought- iron bars, of 



ON THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF STEEL. 143 

the best quality, used in the manufacture of armour-plates, by Messrs. J. 
Brown aud Co., I avail myself of this opportunity of comparing the results 
obtained from this iron with those obtained from the steel bars. The 
wrought-iron bars were tested in exactly the same manner as the steel ones, 
and were successively subjected to transverse, tensile, aud compressive 
strains ; the results obtained from which will be found in the following ab- 
stract, where they are compared in their several strains to the steel bars. 

The average value of C, the unit of working strength for wrought iron, 
is about 2-25 tons, whereas the value of this constant taken for fifteen of 
the best steel bars is 7"4 tons, so that the strength of the latter is 3y?Q- times 
that of the former. The average value, however, of C for the whole of the 
steel bars experimented upon is 5-921, showing that the average strength of 
steel in resisting a transverse strain is more than 2| times that of wrought 
iron. The mean transverse resistance per square inch for the wrought-iron 
bars, at the elastic limit, is equal to 6 C, or 6 x 2^, or I'Si tons, which is some- 
what greater than the resistance usually assigned to wrought-iron bars. 
The average value of D^, for unity of pressure and section, for the wrought- 
iron bars is -00167, whereas the value of this constant for the steel bars is 
about -0013, showing that wrought-iron bars have a much greater flexi- 
bility than steel bars, and, as a necessary consequence, they have a much 
lower modulus of elasticity. Under a transverse strain the work of de- 
flection up to the limit of elasticity is exceedingly low for wrought-iron 
bars ; but the work expended in elongation up to the point of rupture is 
greater than the average of that determined for the steel bars : this is o-wing 
to the extensihiVity of the wrought iron ; for whilst the unit of elongation for 
the average of the steel bars is not quite -05, that of wrought iron is -14, or 
about three times greater. The same observation applies to the work of 
compression. The average compression per unit of length is -45, whereas 
for the steel bars it is only about '3 of an inch. 

The average breaking tensile strain, per square inch of section, of the 
wrought-iron bars is 2b\ tons, while this average for the steel bars is 42^ 
tons, showing that the latter are | stronger than the former. With 



a 



strain of 22| tons per square inch the wrought-iron bars had not entirely 
lost their powers of restitution, or the power of regaining, to some extent, 
the preceding set. 

Although the short columns underwent a large compression under the 
action of a compressive force, yet the pressure corresponding to the first 
visible indication of rupture is considerable, being, on an average, about 
seventy tons per square inch, which is about two-thirds of that of hard steel 
columns. With comparatively soft material, like that of wrought iron, it is 
difficult to determine the exact point at which the material in such columns 
is fractured, so that the fuUest reliance cannot be placed on the results of 
such experiments. 

I have appended a general summary of all my experiments on steel, in 
order that comparisons may be readily made without the inconvenience of 
referring to the preceding Eeport. It may be stated that the experiments 
have given good results, aud prove that steel can be produced of double the 
strength of wrought iron ; and, at the same time, the homogeneity of its 
structure can be depended upon. If the cost of steel be reduced and ap- 
proximates closer to that of iron, we may soon look forward for the sub- 
stitution of this important metal in the place of iron. 



144 



REPORT 1869. 



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The Titanic Steel . 
The Haematite Ste 
Tho Ileaton Steel 





ON THE MECHANICAL PKOPERTIES OF STEEL. 



145 



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146 



REPORT 1869. 

Appendix I. 



In addition, to the foregoing experiments, it was considered desirable to 
have a steel beam made of the usual form, in order to ascertain the compa- 
rative merits of steel and wrought-iron girders. Por this purpose two 
beams were constructed, of that quality of steel best suited to ensure dura- 
bility and safety. A much harder description of steel (40 tons to the square 
inch) might have been chosen ; but that was not wanted, for the object sought 
was ductHity and moderate strength in its powers to resist impact. The fol- 
lowing experiments will show the results. 

Experiment on a Steel Girder from the Barrow Hsematite Steel Company. 
Length between the supports 13-9 feet. Sectional area 2-31 inches. 



No. 

of 

Expt. 



1 
2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 

14 

15 

16 

17 

18 

19 

20 



Weight laid 
on girder. 



lbs. 
866 

3106 

5346 

7586 

9826 

12068 

14308 

16550 

18790 

21020 

23260 

26880 

29120 

33600 

35840 

36060 

38080 

39200 

40320 

40544 



tons. 

0-386 

1-386 

2-386 

3-386 

4-386 

5-386 

6-386 

7-386 

8-386 

9-386 

10-386 

12-000 

13-000 

15-000 

16-000 

16-098 

17-000 

17-500 

18-000 

18-100 



Deflection, 
in 

inches. 



•056 
-108 
•147 
•184 
•201 
-260 
-304 
•322 
•339 
-372 
•423 
•480 
•545 
•626 
•802 
•965 
1^430 
1^872 



Eemarks. 



Weight of slings &e. 



•I 




r ix2| 



iX2^ 



T 



00OOO0O0OOQO 



O O O 







O 
_i 



Broke by tension through the angle-iron of the 
bottom flange, as above. 



ON THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF STEEL. 



147 



A wrought-iron girder of the same dimensions would break with 11-8 
tons. The comparison, therefore, stands as lS-1: 11-8, being in the ratio 
of 1 : -652. The resistance of this description of steel to a transverse strain 
is therefore more than one and a half times greater than that of wrought 
iron. 

Experiment on a Steel Girder from the Barrow Haematite Steel 
Company (April 1868). 

Length between supports 13-9 feet. Sectional area 2-31 inches. 



No. 

of 

Exp. 


Weight laid on 
girder. 


Deflection, 
in 

inches. 


Kemarks. 




lbs. 


tons. 






1 


12152 


5-425 


•196 


This weight remained on 120 hours. 


2 


18872 


8-425 


-330 




3 


24192 


10-800 


•442 




4 


29512 


13-175 


•524 


This last weight having remained 
upon the beam a short time, it sud- 
denly gave way by lateral flexure, 
and one of the angle-irons being 
broken, the experiment was discon- 
tinued. 



There is great difficulty in testing beams of this description, arising from 
the narrow top and bottom flanges, which, to prevent injury from lateral 
flexure, should be loaded and broken through the sides of a rigid frame. In. 
this case the beam was identical in every respect with the previous one, and 
would have carried the same weight but for the lateral injuries it received in 
the early stages of the experiment. Taking, however, the strength of steel 
beams and the amount of deflection when submitted to a transverse strain, 
it will be found that they are not only one-third stronger than those of the 
best wrought iron, but they are much superior in their powers to resist im- 
pact, and therefore more secure under the influence of a rolling load or 
severe vibratory action often repeated. 

Taking into account the peculiar properties of this material, its superior 
strength, the saving of one-third in weight, and other conditions of security, 
it is (under the conditions of perfect uniformity of character in the manufac- 
ture) admirably adapted for roUed joists and gii-ders, as also for bridges, 
where high powers of strength and elasticity are required to resist the united 
forces of load and impact. 



Appendix II. 

The ' Practical Mechanics' Journal ' gives the following description of the 
furnace and apparatus for the manufacture of steel on the Heaton system. 
See Plate II. :— 

The Heaton converter (fig. A) is nearly a cylindrical cupola, lined with 4^- 
inch iire-brick, the shell of boiler plate, and surmounted by a plate-iron coni- 
cal cap and narrower cylindrical flue of a few feet in height. The cupola may 
be supposed cut in two horizontally at about one diameter and a half in height, 

l2 



148 REPORT — 1869. 

and the bottom part tendered moveable and capable of being withdi-awn on 
wheels, without disturbance to the supports &c. of the remaining upper por- 
tion of the converter. Ready means of temporary attachment by clamps and 
cotters are provided to connect the two parts, which thus so far present a 
close resemblance to the Calebasse cupola still in use in Belgium. At one side 
of the cyliudric fixed part of the converter, a sort of hopper, with a loosely 
hinged iron-plate cover, is provided, which communicates with the cavity 

within. 

" The lower part, or " converting-pot," has a cylindrical cavity with a flat 
bottom, and with the sides near the top edge sloping inwards to a cone all 
round. The cavity, up to the level of the lower edge of this cone, is prepared 
to just hold the bulk of crude nitrate of soda required for the volume of liquid 
iron to be operated on, and for the latter when converted ; the proportion of 
nitrate, as at present employed by the patentee, being 2 cwts. to the ton of 
liquid iron, or 10 per cent.— a proportion, we may remark, which both the 
metallurgists who have been engaged in examining this process by the pre- 
sent owners of the patents are of opinion is a good deal in excess of what 
is needed, when the conditions for the most favourable reaction shall be more 
completely and more scientifically understood. The " converting-pot " is 
lined with fire-brick and refractory clay. When the crude nitrate is filled 
in and levelled up to, or a trifle beyond, the narrow part of the conical lining, 
the cast-iron perforated plate is simply laid upon its level surface, and worked 
round a httle until its edges bed firmly into and upon the clay lining. In 
this state the converting-pot is rolled in under the upper part of the converter, 
clamped up to it, and the whole is now ready for work. 

" The charge of cmde cast iron is melted A\-ith coke in an ordinary cupola ; 
at present it is tapped out into a crane-ladle. This is swung round by the 
crane, and the contents at once emptied into the opened hopper of the con- 
verter. The molten iron falls upon the cold cast-iron plate ; its lowermost 
stratum is for the moment chilled and nearly consolidated by the heat with- 
drawn by contact, and for some minutes there is no perceptible action. In 
this state a vertical section of the charged and filled converter is repre- 
sented by fig. 1. Soon, however, tl\e lower stratum recovers its liquidity, and 
begins to penetrate below the now more than red-hot and softened perforated 
cast-iron plate, and reaction commences, evidenced by the appearance of white 
and grey vapours at the top of the converter-funnel. The nitrate has no 
doubt by this time got much impacted and partly fused at its upper strata. 
The reaction producing a large accession of heat at the plane of contact of 
the molten iron and of nitrate, the plate melts and disappears. A burst 
of brilliant yellow flame at the top of the converter-funnel indicates that 
the reaction is then at its height. This lasts steadily for some few minutes 
(three to five usually, with 12 or 15 cwt. charges), and then rajudly subsides. 
The conversion is now complete. The bottom of the converter, or " converting, 
pot," is now detached and roUed away, and the converter is ready for another 
bottom and another charge. 

" When we examine the converting-pot withdrawn, we find its surface 
covered to the depth of an inch or two with a dark " blabby slag," through 
which brilliant jets of yellow sodium-coloured flame from escaping gases are 
constantly sparting. This slag consists chiefly of the soda of the nitrate, 
combined with silica and clayey matters derived from the hning of the con- 
verter, and involving some " shots " of metallic iron or steel, and some little 
silicate of iron, &c. Eencath this is the converted metal, which the patentee 
calls " crude steel." It forms a white-hot, howsovjlee, and tolerably liquid 



a BtprrI finTia jH«utw>. K' 



I 




ON THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF STEEL. 149 

mass, not sufficiently fluid upon the small scale of the 12-cwt. converters to 
.be readily run or tapped out of the converting-pot, but quite readily capable 
of that with a larger converter, and therefore larger mass of material. 

" The converter is upset upon the iron-plated floor, some water is aspersed to 
bring the mass to its frangible state at a dull red heat, and it is then broken 
up into lumps of convenient size, to be brought, after receiving a little renewal 
of heat, under the " shingling hammers," and patted into " cakes of crude 
steel," as denominated by the patentee. It is purely a matter of " metallur- 
gical taste " whether these are to be called crude steel or crude iron. The 
material is in reality a form of steely malleable iron, or mild malleable steel, 
whichever we choose to call it. It wiU not harden in water as perfectly as 
complete steel ; it always (probably where the process is rightly conducted) 
contains more combined carbon than usually belongs to wrought iron. It is, 
however, metal of the purest and finest quality, and from which, by two 
difl'erent methods of treatment, either very strong, but soft, tough, and mal- 
leable, wi'ought iron may be made, or fine cast steel. 

"In the fii-st instance the "cakes of crude steel" are piled, heated inacomraon 
balUng-furnace, and at once rolled out into "steel-iron" bars, plates, or 
rails, &c. ; and so fine is the material that but little difference is produced, 
except that of increased fibre, by cutting up, piling, and balling these bars 
and rolling a second time. 

" Then, for the cast-steel manufacture, these " cakes of crude steel " are 
broken or cut up, melted in 60- or 80-lb. crucibles, with about 2 or 3 lb. per 
lOU lbs. of spiegeleisen, or its equivalent of oxide of manganese, and some char- 
coal, poured out into ingots of iron, i. e. into the usual inciot moulds of iron. 
Those ingots of cast steel are then titled into bars, and are then fit for the 
market, or for any use to which excellent steel is suitable. 

" This is the whole process through its bifurcate train, up to wrought iron 
as good and stronger than Low Moor or Bowling on the one side, and to 
cast steel as good as any other process can produce upon the other. 

" Our illustrations (figs. 1 to 6) represent the jjlant, as the patentee, Mr. 
Heaton, at present advises its construction, and as proposed for the steel plant 
at the Langley Mill Steel and Iron Works, to a scale of one-eighth of an inch 
to a foot. 

" Fig. 1 is a side view of the apparatus, showing also a vertical section of 
one-half of the cupola. Pig. 2 is a front view ; and the same letters refer to 
the same parts in both views. Figs. 3, 4, 5, & 6 show different parts of the 
apparatus in plan. A, A are cupola furnaces in which the metal is melted ; 
F, F in fig. 1 are the tuyeres ; G the hole through which the cupola is 
charged Avith metal and coke from a platform with an inclined tramway 
leading to it. B, B are the converters into which the metal is run direct 
from the cupolas, and from which the melted crude steel is run into the re- 
verberatory furnace, C. D is a steam-boiler, heated with the waste heat from 
the reverberatory furnace. Fig. 3 is a horizontal section of the moveable 
bottom of a converter, showing the fire-brick lining, a, a, a. When charged, 
the converter-pot is filled with nitrate of soda. Fig. 4 shows a perforated 
metal plate, which is placed upon the niti-ate of soda. Fig. 5 is a horizontal 
section of a converter, showing the perforated plate in position. Fig. 6 is a 
sectional plan of a converter, showing the cramps (c, c, &c.) for holding the 
converter-pot up to the cylinder of the converter whilst the converting process 
is going on ; these cramps are shown also in figs. 1 and 2. 

" As given by the patentee, and we have no doubt correctly, the cost per 
ton of converting crude pig-iron into " crude steel," exclusive of the cost of 



150 BEPORT — 1869. 

the pig, but allowing for the waste upon it at the ratio of 60 lbs. per ton, is 
£2 4s. per ton, or £2 15s. in crude steel cakes ; the cost of making it into. 
" steel-iron " bars, from the pig-iron, is £S 10s. per ton for finished bars, and 
the cost of making tilted cast-steel bars, from the pig-iron, is ^12 15s. 
per ton. We have seen the invoices of cast^steel bars of this sort, sold from 
Langley Mills, at prices equal to those now current at Sheffield for well re- 
puted cast steel made by the process of cementation." 



Second Report on the British Fossil Corals. 
Bij Dr. P. Maktin Duncan, F.R.S., F. ^ Sec. Geol. Soc. 

This Report comprehends the description of the Coi'al-faima of the periods 
when the strata of the Gault, Lower Greensand, Portland Oolite, Coral Rag, 
Great Oolite, and Inferior OoKte were deposited. It contains a general view 
of the physico-geographical conditions of the British area during the Tertiary 
and Secondary periods so far as relates to coral growth, and also an enumera- 
tion and a list of the species. 

The result of the labour entailed by the study of the Tertiary and Secondary 
British FossQ corals has been to add 146 species and many varieties to the 
111 or 112 previously known. 

Since the last Report was read, the fossil Corals of the Upper and Lower 
Red Chalk and of the Upper Greensand have been published in my mono- 
graph for the Palaeontographical Society. 

Much progress has been made in the Report on the Palaeozoic Corals, but 
the Report itself cannot be completed for some time. 

Corals from the Gault. 
Only six well-marked species of corals were known to MM. Milne-Edwards 
and Jules Haime as having been found in the Gault. They were all simple 
or solitary forms, and such as one woiild expect to find in moderately deep 
water. It is evident that the area occupied by the English Gault was not the 
coral tract of the period. The resemblance of the coral-faunas of the Gault 
and the London Clay is somewhat remarkable, and probably the physical 
conditions of the areas during the deposition of the strata were not very 
dissimilar. 

MADBEPORAEIA APOROSA. 

Family TURBINOLID^. 

Subfamily Caetophtllin^. 

Division Caetophtlliacks. 

Genus Caetophyllia. 

MM. Milne-Edwards and Jules Haime have changed the generic term 
Cyathina into that of its predecessor Caryophyllia ; consequently Cyathina 
Boiverhanhi, Ed. & H., is now called Cari/ophyllia Bowerbanli, Ed. & H. 
(Hist. Nat. dcs Corall. vol. ii. p. 18). 

Avery interesting variety of this species is in the Rev. T. Wiltshire's Col- 
lection, and has its costas running obliquely to the long axis of the coraUum. 
They are profusolj- granulated. 



ON THE BRITISH FOSSIL COKALS. 151 

Division Tkochoctathace^. 
Genus Tkochoctathtts. 

1. Trochocyathiis Ilarvei/anus, Ed. & H. 

This species was described by MM. Milne-Edwards and Jules Haime in 
their ' Monograph of the British Fossil Corals,' part 1. p. 65. They associated 
it with two species, which are, as they suggest, undistinguishable, viz. 
Trocliocyatlms Konigi and Trochocyathiis Warhurtoni. The first of these 
species is the TurhinoUa Konigi of Mantell. 

An examination of a series of specimens attributed to Trochocyathus 
Harveyanus, Ed. & H., and the consideration of the value of the Trochocyathi 
just mentioned, have led me to recognize five forms of Trochocyathi breves, 
all closely allied and well represented by the original type of Trocliocyathus 
Harveyanus, Ed. & H. When placed in a series with this Trochocyathus at 
the head, there is a gradation of structure which prevents a strictly specific 
distinction being made between the consecutive forms ; but when the first 
and the last forms are compared alone, no one would hesitate to assert that 
there is a specific distinction between them. All the forms are simple, short, 
and almost hemispherical ; all have four cycles of septa and the same propor- 
tion of pali. These are the primary and most essential peculiarities of the 
genus. 

The costse differ in their size, prominence, ornamentation, and relation to 
the septa in some of the foims ; and the exsert nature of the septa, their 
granulation, and the size of the corallum also differ. The structural differ- 
ences are seen in many examples, and are therefore more or less persistent; 
nevertheless it is found that whilst several specimens have the septa spring- 
ing from intercostal spaces instead of from the ends of the costae, one or more, 
having all the other common structural peculiarities, present septa arising 
from the costal ends. This method of origin can hardly constitute a specific 
distinction. I propose to retain Trochocyathus Harveyanus as the type of 
a series of forms, the sum of whose variations in structure constitutes the 
species. 

Variety 1. The corallum is nearly double the size of the type ; its septa 
are rather exsert, and are very granular. The costte are very prominent, 
ridged, marked with numerous smaU. pits, and are continuous with the septa. 
The epitheca is waved and well developed. The spaces between the larger 
costse are more or less angular. The peduncle is large. 

Locality. Gault, Folkestone. In the British Museum. 

Variety 2. The corallum is as large as that of variety 1, but it is more 
conical. The costse are less pronounced, and the septa, which are more 
granular than those of variety 1, arise from the intercostal spaces. The 
costal ends are very elegant in shape, and form a margin of rather sharp 
curves. 

Locality. Gault, Folkestone. In the British Museum. 

Variety 3. The corallum is rather flat, but hemispherical. The septa are 
not exsert, and they arise from the costal ends. The costse are equal : none 
are more prominent than others. They are all rather broad, flat, and beau- 
tifully ornamented with diverging curved hues. Their free ends are equal 
and curved. 

Locality. Gault, Folkestone. In the collection of the Rev. T. Wiltshire, 
F.G.S. 



152 REPORT — 1869. 

Variety 4. The corallum and costae are like variety 3, but the septa arise 
from the intercostal spaces. 
Locality. Gault, Folkestone. 
In the collection of the Rev. T. Wiltshire, F.G.S. 

Variety 5. The coraUum is rather more conical inferiorly than in varieties 
3 and 4. The septa are exsert, and project slightly beyond the costal margin. 
The costae are all rudimentary. The epitheca is well developed, and reaches 
Tip to the septa. 

Locality. Gault, Folkestone. 

The forms may be distinguished as follows : — 

r The type. 
With more or less ridged costae \ Variety 1. 

Yri'. ^' 
With nearly equal flat costae \ '^ ,* 

Costae rudimentary „ 5. 

r The type. 
Septa arising from the costal ends . . . . -^ Variety 1. 

[ ,, 3. 

Septa arising from the intercostal spaces -I ^ / 

All the forms have four cycles of septa and pali before the first, second, 
and third orders. 

2. Trochoeyaihus Wiltshiri, Duncan. 

The corallum is straight, conical, and either cylindrical above or com- 
pressed ; its base presents the trace of a peduncle for attachment. The 
epitheca is scanty and in transverse masses. The costae are distinct and sub- 
equal. The calice is very open and rather deep. The septa are unequal, 
hardly exsert, and broad at the margin of the calice. There are four cycles 
of septa, and six systems. The pali are large, and are placed before all the 
cycles except the last. The columella is rudimentary. 

Height i^^y- inch. Breadth of calice y\^ inch. 

Locality. Gault, Folkestone. In the zone o? Ammonites dentatus. 

In the Eoyal School of Mines, and in the collection of the Eev.T. Wiltshire, 
F.G.S. 

This species is closely allied to Troclwcyathus conidus, Phillips, sp. The 
compressed calice, the rudimentary columella, and the shape of the corallum 
distinguish the new species from Trochocyathus conidus. 

Genus Leptoctathus. 
LeptocyatJms gracilis, Duncan. 

The corallum is small, flat, and circular in outline. The costae are very 
prominent, and join exsert septa ; the primary and secondary costae are very 
distinct, and the others less so. All the costae unite centrally at the base ; 
many are slightly curved. The septa are thick externally, very unequal, thin 
internally, and the largest are more exsert than the others. There are six 
systems and four cycles of septa. The pali are small and exist before all the 
septa. The columella is very rudimentary. The calicidar fossa is rather 
wide and shallow. 

Height hardly -^ inch. Breadth -f^ inch. 

Loccdity. Gault, Folkestone. 

In the British Museum. 



ON THE BRITISH FOSSIL CORALS. 153 

This species is very closely allied to Leptocyatlius elegans, Ed. & H., of the 
London Clay. Leptocyatlius elegans has not a flat base, and it has very gra- 
nular septa. Moreover, its costae are large and small in sets. Nevertheless 
the alliance is of the closest kind. 

Genus Bathtctathtts. 

MM. Milne-Edwards and Jules Haime described a species of this genus in 
their ' Monograph of the British Fossil Corals,' pt. 1. pp. 67, 68. Two spe- 
cimens in the collection of the Rev. T. Wiltshire present all the appearances 
recognized by those distinguished authors. The costae are very granular, and 
not in a simple row. In one specimen the breadth of the base is very great. 

Subfamily TTJEBrNOLiN^. 

Division Titrbinoliace^. 

Genus Smilotrochus. 

Some species of this genus were described amongst the corals from the 
Upper Greensand, and one was noticed as belonging to this geological 
horizon which should have been included in the Lower Greensand forms. 

The Upper Greensand Smilotrochi are : — 

Smilotrochus tuberosus, Ed. ^- H. Smilotrochus angidatus, Duncan. 

elongatus, Duncan. 

There are four species of the genus found in the Gault, which are all 
closely allied : one of them cannot be distinguished from S7nilotrochus elon- 
gatus of the Upper Greensand. 

The specimens of this species found in the Upper Greensand are invariably 
worn and rolled, and are generally in the form of casts ; but in the Gault the 
structural details are well preserved, and even the lateral spines on the septa 
are distinct. 

The Gault forms are shorter and more cylindro-conical and curved than 
those from the Upper Greensand. 

The species of the genus Smilotrochus from the Gault are as follows : — 

1. Smilotrochus elongatus, Duncan. 3. Smilotrochus granulatus, Duncan. 
2. cylindricus, Duncan. 4. insignis, Duncan. 

1. Smilotrochus elongatus, Duncan. 

This species was described in the first Report. 

Locality. Folkestone. 

In the collection of the Royal School of Mines. 

The lateral spines of the septa are very well marked, and the costas are 
equal in size in this species. Its septal number varies, on account of the very 
late perfection of the fourth cycle of septa. 

2. Stnilotrochus cylindricus, Duncan, 

The corallum is small, cylindrical, nearly straight, and has a truncated 
base. The costae are equal, very distinct above, and rudimentary below and 
in the middle ; they are marked with a few large granules in one series. 
The septa are subequal, very exsert, thin, close, and marked with large 
granules, few in number. The septa are in six systems, and there are three 
cycles. 

Height ^ij inch. Greatest breadth rather less than j2_ inch. 

Locality. Gault, Folkestone. 

In the collection of the Rev. T. Wiltshire, F.G.S. 



154 REPORT — 1869. 

3. Smilotrochus c/ranulatus, Duncan. 

The coralliim is conico-cylindrical in shape, and has a more or less trun- 
cated base. The costae are subequal, prominent, very granular, and distinct 
superiorly. The septa are subequal, thick, and very granular. The septa 
are in six systems, and there are three cycles. 

Height -fjj inch. lireadth -^^ inch. 

LocaUt)/. Gault, Folkestone. 

In the 'collection of the liev. T. Wiltshire, F.G.S. 

4. Smilotrochus insignis, Duncan. 

The coraUum is trochoid, short, has a wide calice and a conical and 
rounded base ; the calice is circular in outline, the fossa is deep and small, 
and the septa are wide, exsert, curved above, and so marked with one row of ■ 
granules that their free margin appears to be spined. There are three cycles 
of septa, and the orders are nearly equal as regards size. The costse are 
large, prominent, broad at their base, and are marked with one row of 
granules on the free surface. 

Height -^ inch. Breadth of calice y2_ inch. 

LocaUty. Gault, Folkestone. 

In the 'collection of the Eev. T. Wiltshire, F.G.S. 

An analysis of the genus will be found after the description of the species 
from the Lower Greensand. 

There is a compoimd or aggregate Madreporarian found in the Gault of 
Folkestone. It has much cndotheca, and resembles worn specimens of the 
weU-known Holocystis elegmis of the Lower Greensand. The specimens arc 
not sufficiently well preserved for identification with any genus. 

FamUy FUNGID^. 

Subfamily FuNsiNiE. 

Genus Miceabacia. 
Mlcrahada Fittoni, Duncan. 

The corallum is nearly hemispherical in shape ; its base is flat and ex- 
tends beyond the origin of the septa in a sharp and uninverted margin. The 
breadth of the base exceeds the height of the corallum. The costae are flat, 
straight, convex externally at the calicular margin, and equal. The septa are 
unequal, much smaller than the costae. There are four cycles of septa, in six 
systems ; tlie synapticulaj between the septa are large. 

Height -fjj in. Breadth nearly | inch. 

Localitij. Gault, Folkestone. 

In the 'collection of the Eev. T. Wiltshire, F.G.S. 

The flat base, the flat costas, and the limitation of the septal number to 
four cycles distinguish this species from Micrahacia coronula* of the Upper 
Greensand, and from Micrahacia Beaumontiif, Ed. & H.,of the Neocomian. 

List of new Species from the Gault. 

Variety of Caryophyllia Bowerbanki, Ed. Smilotrochus elongatus, Duncan. 

°! H. granulatus, Duncan. 

Five varieties of Trochoeyathus Harveyanus, • insignis, Duncan. 

Ed. H," H. cvlindricus. Duncan. 

Trochoeyathus Wiltshiri, Du7ican. Micrabacia Fittoni, Duncan. 
Leptocyathus gracilis, Duncan. 



* Hist. Nat. des Coral, vol. iii. p. 30. t Ibid. p. 30. 



ON THE BRITISH FOSSIL CORALS. 155 

List of species from the Gault *. 

1. Caryophyllia Bowerbanti, Ed. cf- H., and 7. Cyclocyatlms Fittoni, Ed. 4- H. 

one variety. 8. Smilotrochus elongatus, Duncan t. 

2. Trochocyathus conulus, PhiUips, sp. 9. granulatus, Duncan. 

'S. Wiltsliiri, Duncan. 10. cylindricus, Duncan. 

4. Harveyanus, Ed. 4- H., and five 11. msigvAi, Duncan. 

varieties. 12. Trochosinilia sulcata, Ed. <f- H. 

b. Bathycyathus Sowerbyi, Ed. % H. 13. Micrabacia Fittoni, Duncan. 

6. Leptocyatbus gracilis, Duncan. 

Corals from the Lower Greensand. 

One species of Coral was described by MM. Milne-Edwards and Jules 
Haime from the Lower Greensand, in their ' Monograph of the British Fossil 
Corals.' 

Fitton had noticed a compound coral in the Lower Greensand, and named 
it Astrcea in his " Essay on the Strata below the Chalk," Geol. Trans. 
2nd series, vol. iv. p. 352 (1843). In 1847 he called the species Astrcea 
elegans; and Lonsdale separated it from the Astrteidce under the name 
Ci/athophora elegans in 1849 (Proceed. Geol. Soc. vol. v. pt. 1, p. 83, 
tab. iv. figs. 12, 15 : 1849). 

MM. Milne-Edwards and Jules Haime recognized the quadrate arrange- 
ment of the septa of this species, and classified it amongst the Rugosa, in 
the family Stauridce. Their Holocystis elegans, Eitton, sp., is a very good 
species, and specimens are found varying in the size of the corallum and of 
the calices. 

Since the publication of their ' Monograi^h on the British Corals,' MM. 
Milne-Edwards and Jules Haime have named a species from Farringdon 
Smilotrochus Austeni (Hist. Nat. des CoraU. vol. ii. p. 71). I have noticed it 
inadvertently in my description of the Upper Greensand Corals. In order to 
complete this part it is introduced here again. 

Family TURBINOLIDJE. 

Division Tuebinoliace.e. 

Genus Smilotkochxjs. 
Smilotrochiis Austeni, Ed. & H. 

The corallum is regularly cuneiform, very much compressed below, and 
slightly elongate. The calice is elliptical ; the summit of the larger axis is 
rounded. Forty-eight costte, subequal, straight, fine and granular. 

Height of the corallum about 1 inch. 

Locality. Farringdon. 

MM. MUne-Edwards and Jules Haime do not mention where the speci- 
men is deposited. 

The genus Smilotrochus has become of some importance in the palasonto- 

* Tbe following autbors bave written upon tbe fossil Corals of tlie Gault : — MM. Milne- 
Edwards and Jules Haime, ' Monograph of tbe Britisb Fos.sil Corals' (Pal. Soc) ; ' Hist. 
Nat. des Coralliaires.' Pliillips, ' Illust. of Geol. of Yorksbire.' Mantell, ' Geol. of Sussex.' 
Lonsdale in Fleming's, ' Briti.sb Animals.' 

Tbe autbors wbo bave written upon tbe Corals of tbe Lower Greensand are : — MM. 
Milne-Edwards and Jules Haime, op. cit. Fitton, ' Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc' vol. iii. 
p. 296 (1847). Lonsdale. ' Proc. Geol. Soc' vol. v. pt. 1. p. 83. M. de Fromentel bas paid 
especial attention to tbe Frencb Neocomian corals, and C. J. Meyer, Esq., bas enabled nic 
to study tbe most interesting species in bis collection. 

t Common to tbe Gault and Upper Greensand. 



156 REPORT — 1869. 

logy of the Cretaceous rocks. The species are distributed as follows in 
Great Britain : — 

8railotrochus tuberosus, Ed. ^~ H. 1 

elongatus, Duncnn. I Upper Greensand. 

angulatus, Duncan. J 

elongatus, Duncan. "j 

granulatus, Duncan. ^ ,. 

■ ■ • n r Gault. 
insignia, Uuncan. \ 



cylindricus, Duncan. j 

Austeni, Ed. <|- H. Lower Greensand. 

Smilotrochus elongatus, Duncan, is found in the Gault and Upper Green- 
sand. 

Smilotrochus Hagenoiui, Ed. & H., is a fossil from the Macstricht Chalk 
(Ed. & H. Hist. ]N"at. des Corall. vol. ii. p. 71). 

Subfamily CAETOPHTLLHf^. 
Division Caetophtlliace^. 
Genus BRAcnrcTATHirs. 
BracJij/cijaf7iHs Orhignijanus, Ed. & H. 

The corallum is very short. The costse are indistinct. The septa are 
long, very slightly exscrt, granulated from below upwards, and there are 
four cycles in six systems. The primary aud secondary septa are equal; 
the tertiary are a little longer than those of the fourth cycle ; all arc 
tliin and straight. The paU are like continuations of the tertiary septa 
before which they are placed ; they are granular. 

Height ^ inch. Breadth J^ inch. 

Locality. East Shalford, Surrey, base of -the Lower Greensand. Found 
Avith Ccrithium Neocoiuicnse, D'Orbig. ; Exogi/ra suhjyJicata, Tqm. ; Area 
liaulina, Leym. ; Terehratula sella, Sow. 

In the collection of C. J. Meyer, Esq., E.G.S. 

The specimen upon which the genus was founded was found in the Neo- 
tomian formation of the Hautes Alpcs, at St. Julien, Beauchene. I have 
added to the original description, as some portions of the English specimen 
are better preserved than the type. 

Family ASTE^ID.?^. 

Subfamily Eusmilinje. 

Division TROCHOSJIlLIACEiE. 

Genus Tuochositilia. 
Trochosjnilia Meyeri, Duncan. 

The corallum is small, cylindrical or cylindro-conical ; its base may be 
•wide or very small, and was adherent. The epitheca is complete. The 
coslse are very small, and are occasionally seen whei'e the epitheca is worn. 
The calice is rather deep. The septa are crowded, unequal, spincd near the 
axis, and form six systems. There are four cycles of septa. The calice is 
usually circular in outline, but it is occasionally compressed. The axial 
space is small. The endotheca is very scanty. 

Height ylj inch. Greatest breadth -j2_ inch. 

Varietij. The corallum is short, broad, cylindrical, slightly constricted 
centrally, and has a broad base. 

Height T5^ inch. Breadth 7— ^ inch. 



ON THE BRITISH FOSSIL CORALS. 157 

LoectliUj. Bargate Stone, upper division of the Lower Greensand, Guild- 
ford, Surrey. Found with " AuicuJa pect.inaia,'" Sow. 

In the collection of C. J. Mej^er, Esq., F.G.S. 

The small TrochosmiUce are common in the Bargate Stone, where they 
were discovered by Mr. Meyer, from whom I have obtained the names of 
the associated fossils. The presence of epitheca would apparently necessi- 
tate these fossils being placed in a new genus ; but after a careful examina- 
tion of the bearings of the absence or presence of the epithecal structures 
upon the natural classification of simple corals, I do not think the j^oint 
sufficiently important to bring about the separation of Mr. Meyer's little 
corals from the TrochosmiUce; they form (;'. e. the type and variety) a 
subgenus of the TrochosmiUce. 

Subfamily Aste^in^. 

Division Aste^ace^. 

Genus Isastr^a. 
Isastrcea Morrisi, Duncan. 

The corallum is flat and very short. The corallites are unequal and 
usually five-sided. There is no columella. The wall is thin. The septa 
are slender, imequal, and most of them reach far inwards. There are in 
the perfect calicos three cycles of septa in six systems; usually some of 
the septa of the third cycle are wanting. 

Breadth of a eahce rather more than j\y inch. 

Locality. Bargate Stone, Guildford, Surrey ; with TerehratelJa Fittoni, 
Meyer. 

In the collection of C. J. Meyer, Esq., F.G.S. 

This small Isastrcea is usually found as a cast, and the restored drawing 
is taken from an impression. The central circular structure is due to fos- 
silization. 

The sjjecics is closely allied to Isastrcea Guettarclana, Ed. & H., of the 
Lower Chalk of Uchaux. 

Family FUNGID^. 

Subfamily Lophoserin^. 

Genus Turbikoseris, gen. nov. 

The corallum is simple, more or less turbinate or constricted midway 
between the base and calice ; the base is either broad and adherent, or 
small and free. 

There is no epitheca, and the costse are distinct. There is no columella, 
and the septa unite laterally, and are very numerous. 
Turbinoseris ch-FromenteU, Duncan. 

The corallum is tall, and more or less cylindro-turbinate. The calice is 
shallow, and circular in outline. The septa are very numerous, long, thin, 
straight, and many unite laterally with longer ones. There are 120 septa, and 
the cyclical arrangement is confused. The synapticulse are well developed. 
There is no columella, and the longest septa reach across the axial space. The 
costa3 are well developed, and often are not continuous with the septal ends. 

Height Ij^- inch. Breadth of calice 1^^- inch. 

Variety. With a constricted wall and large base. 

Locality. Atherfield, in the Lower Greensand. 

In the collection of the Eoyal School of Mines. 

The necessity for forming a new genus for this species is obvious ; it is 



158 REPORT— 1869. 

the neighbour of Trochoseris ia the subfamily of the Lophoserince. This last 
genus has a columella, and the new one has none. 

The species has not been hitherto described, but it has been familiarly- 
known as a MontUvaltia ; but the synapticulae between the septa and costoe 
determine the form to belong to the Fungidce. 

List of new Species from the Lower Greensand. 

1. Brachycyatlius Orbignyanus, Ed. Sf H. 3. Isastrwa Morrisi, Duncan. 

2. Trochosmilia Meyeri, Duncan. 4. Turbinoseris de-Fromenteli, Duncan. 

List of the Species from the Lower Oreensand. 

1. Brachycyathus Orbignyanus, Ed. Sf H. 4. Isastrwa Morrisi, Duncan. 

2. Smilotrochus Austeni, A'(^. if-^. 5. Turbinoseris de-Fromenteli, i)M«ca». 

3. Trochosmilia Meyeri, Duncan. 6. Holocystis elegans, Lonsdale, sp. 

List of the Species from the Cretaceous Formations. 
A. Upp)er and Lower White Chalk. 

1. Caryophyllia cylindracea, Eeuss, sp. 11. Parasmilia centralis, Manfell, sp., and 

2. Lonsdalei, Duncan. two varieties. 

3. Tennanti, Duncan. 12. cylindrica, Ed. S^- H. 

4. Onchotrochus serpentinus, Zij^wcaw. 13. — — Fittoni, ic^. i^'//. 

5. Trochosnulia laxa, Ed. 4' H., sp., and 14. serpentina, Ed.^-H. 

three varieties. 15. monilis, Duncan. 

G. ccrnucopiie, J)MWCa«. 16. granulata, i)i/wea«. 

7. Wiltsbiri, Duncan. 17. Dibla.sus Gravensis, Lonsdale. 

8. Woodwardi, Duncan. 18. Synlielia Sharpeana, Ed. ^- H. 

9. granulata, Duncan. 19. Stephanophyllia Bowerbanki, Ed. ^- H. 

10. cylindracea, Duncan. 

B. Upper Greensand. 

20. Oncliotrochus Carteri, Duncan. 28.*Placosmilia magnifica, Duncan. 

21. Smilotroehus tuberosus, Ed.if H. 29.*A8trocoenia decapbylla. El. cf- //. 

22. elongatus, Duncan. '60.*lsa.^trxa. Haldonensis, Duncan. 

23. angulatus, i?(«iam. 31. Cyatbophora nionticularia, i)'0r6/^»y. 

24. Peplosmilia Austeni, Ed. ^' H. 32. Favia stricta, Ed. (iy- H. 

25.* depressa, E. de From. 33. minutissima, Duncan. 

26.*Placosmilia cuneiformis, Ed. 8; H. 34. Tbamnastra?a superposita, Miehclin. 

27.* Parkinsoni, Ed. cf H. 35. Micrabacia coronula, Goldfuss, sp. 

c. Bed ChalJc of Hunstanton. 

30. Cyclolites polymorpha, Goldficss, sp. 39. Micrabacia coronula, Goldfuss, sp,, and 

37. Podoseris mammiliforinis, Duncan. variety. 

38. elongata, Duncan. 

D. Gault. 

40. Caryophyllia Bowerbanki, Ed. 8f H., 46. Cyclocyathus Fittoni, S/. ^-.H". 

and a variety. 47. Smilotroehus elongatus, Duncan. 

41. Trocbocyatbus conulus, Phillips, sp. 48. granulatus, Duncan. 

42. Wiltsbiri, Duncan. 49. insignis, Duncan. 

43. Harveyanus, Ed.&fH., and five 50. c-^Vmdvicws, Duncan. 

varieties. 5 1 . Trocbosmilia sulcata, Ed. <!^ H. 

44. Batbycyathus Sowerbyi, Ed. &( H. 52. Micrabacia Fittoni, Duncan. 

45. Leptocyatbus gracilis, Duncan. 

E. Lower Greensand. 

53. Bracbycyathus Orbignyanus, Ed. tf- H. 56. Isastrwa Morrisi, Duncan. 

54. Smilotroehus Austeni, Ed. df" H. 57. Turbinoseris de-Fromenteli, Duncan. 
65. Trochosmilia Meyeri, Duncan. 58. Holocystis elegans, Lonsdale, sp. 

Micrahacia coronula is common to the Upper Greensand and the Red 
Chalk, and Smilotroehus elongatus is found in the Gault and in the Upper 
Greensand. 

* Tbe sis species from Ilaldon marked * were described by me after the reading of this 
Export (see Pal. Soc. vol. for 1869), 



ON THE BRITISH FOSSIL CORALS. 159 

The number of species of Madreporuria in the British Cretaceous forma- 
tions is therefore fifty-eight. 

MM. Milne-Edwards and Jules Haime had described twenty-three species 
before this Eeport was commenced ; of these I have ventured to suppress 
Parasmilia Mantelli, Trochocyatlms Konic/i, and Trochocyathiis Warbiirtoni. 

The coral-fauna of the British area was by no means well developed or 
rich in genera during the long period during which the Cretaceous sediments 
were being deposited. The coral tracts of the early part of the period were 
on the areas now occupied by the Alpine Neocomian strata, and those of the 
middle portion of the period were where the Lower Chalk is developed at 
Gosau, IJchaux, and Martigues. 

There are no traces of any coral-reefs or atolls in the British Cretaceous 
area, and its corals were of a kind whose representatives for the most part 
live a depth of from 30 to 600 fathoms. 

Corals from the Oolitic Strata. 

The following authors have contributed to our knowledge of the Oolitic 
Corals : — Parkinson, ' Organic Remains,' 1808. W. Conybeareand W. Phil- 
lips, ' Outlines of the Geol. of Eng. and "Wales,' 1822. Fleming, ' British 
Animals,' 1828. E. Bennet, 'Cat. Org. llemains, Wilts,' 1837. Fitton, 
" Strata below the Chalk," Geol. Trans. 2nd series, 1843. Morris, 'Cat. of 
British Fossils,' 1843. MM. Milne-Edwards and Jules Haime, ' Mouog.' (Pal. 
Soc.) 1851. M'Coy, Ann. Nat. Hist. 1848 (several essays). W. Smith, ' Strata 
Identified,' 1816. J. PhiUips, ' Geol. of Yorkshire,' 1829. R. C. Taylor, 
Mag. Nat. Hist. 1830. S. Woodward, ' Synopt. Table of Org. Rem.' 1830. 
G. Young, ' Geol. Survey of York,' 1828. R. Plot, ' Nat. Hist. Oxfordshire,' 
1676. J. Walcott, ' Descr. and Fig. of Petref. found near Bath,' 1779. T. 
Wright, M.D., F.G.S., Cotteswold Club Trans. 1866. 

An analysis of the work of these authors, with the exception of that of Dr. 
Wright, is found scattered over the pages of MM. Milne-Edwards and Jules 
Haime's " Monograph of the Oolitic Corals," Pal. Soc. 1851. No new species 
of fossil Corals have been described from the Oolitic rock since that date. 
During the last year I have added to the species already known five from the 
Great Oolite, and thirteen from the Inferior Oolite. A careful study of the 
251 ThecosniiUce of the Inferior Oolite at Crickley has enabled me to distin- 
guish five very remarkable varieties of Thecosmilia gregaria, M'Coy, sp., and 
to satisfy myself that the relations of the Thecosmilioi of the Lias to the 
genera Isastrcea, Latimceandra, and others were repeated in the Inferior 
Oolite. There are specimens of Thecosmilia gregaria in Dr. Wright's collec- 
tion which, had I not had a considerable series to examine from other 
sources, might have been associated with Reuss's new genus Heterogyra, with 
Symphyllia and Latirtiaiandra. The relation of these genera to MontJivcdtia 
has been noticed (except Heterogyra) in the first Report (Brit. Assoc. Report, 
Norwich, p. 106 et seq.), and there is a clear proof that the same jAenomena 
of evolution may occur consecutively. That is to say, the St.-Cassianitfon/Zi- 
valtice. and Thecosmilice varied and became permanent, compound, and serial 
corals of such genera as Elysastrcea, Isastrcea, and Latimaiandra : then the 
Liassic Thecosmilice did the same ; and now it is evident that a Montlivaltia 
of the Inferior Oolite occasionally took on fissiparous growth, and superadded to 
others a marginal gemmation and a serial growth, and evolved forms which 
cannot be distinguished from those of the genera above mentioned and Si/m- 
phyllia and Heterogyra. There was evidently an inherent power of variation 
which declared itself in the same direction during the ages which witnessed 



]60 REPORT— 1869. 

the formation of the St. Cassian and the Liassic and the Lower Oolitic deposits ; 
and it is impossible to deny a genetic value to these oft-repeated structural 
phenomena. 

One of the Thecosmilice from the Inferior Oolite at Crickley, which I have 
named T. Wrighti, is very closely allied to the Lower-Liassic species. 

It is interesting to find the genus C'ycloJites represented in the Inferior 
Oolite by two well-marked species, one of which is like the rest of the forms 
of the genus in shape, and the other is exceptional in its trochoid form. This 
last species has, however, all the characteristics of the genus. The Cyclolites 
are extinct ; they flourished in the Lower Cretaceous seas, and lasted during 
the Miocene. MM. Milne-Edwards and Jules Haime (Hist. Nat. des Corall.) 
mention that the genus originated in the Jurassic age, but they give no evi- 
dence. The species now under consideration are, however, clearly from the 
Inferior Oolite. 

A form belonging to a new genus of the Fimr/idce was found by Mr, 
Mansel at East Coker in the Inferior Oolite. In general shape and the 
arrangement of the calices the specimen resembles Bhnorjyhastrcea ; but the 
synapticulae between the septa and costee necessitate its association with the 
Fungidce. There is a central calice, and the others are in a circle around it, 
being separated by long horizontal septo-costal prolongations ; the whole 
is surrounded by an epitheca, and forms a turbinate shape, the free surface 
being flat and circular. The genus foreshadows the genera Cyaihoseris and 
Troehoseris of the Lower Chalk. 

There are several new species of the genus Thamnastraa ; T. Browni, nobis 
(MS. sp.), is remarkable for having in some specimens a long stalk surmounted 
by a knob-shaped head. The calices are small on the stalk, and A'ery large 
on the head ; so that when the form is examined before it is mature, there is 
a danger of producing two species instead of one. The stalk often attains the 
height of 3 or 4 inches. In other specimens there is no stalk, and the knob- 
shaped corallum is sessile. 

A large specimen of Thamnastrc^a Manseli (MS. sp.). Inferior Oolite, is 
pedunculate, short, and verj' expanded superiorly ; the epitheca is weU pre- 
served, and the endothecal dissepiments can be seen. This is a very satisfac- 
tory species, and I have had it very carefully drawn, so that the suspiciously 
synapticular endotheca can be proved to be really dissepimental. 

A specimen of Cladopliyllia Baheana, d'Orb., sp., figured in the inedited 
plates of the PalaBontographical Society at my instance, is remarkable from the 
disposition of the corallites to combine and form serial and fissiparous calices 
as in Thecosmilia. 

The new species of the genera Cyathophora and Isastrcea are well marked, 
and that of the last is a dendroid form. 

MM. Milne-Edwards and Jules Haime collected and described the following 
Oolitic species* in their 'Monograph' (Pal. Soc), 1851 : — 

Portland Stone. 6. Calamophylla Stokesi, Ed. # H. 

1. Isastrtea oblonga, i^/ewmr^r, sp. 7. Cladopliyllia cirspitosa, Com. cf-PAi7., sp. 

8. Goniocora socialis, Eomer, sp. 
Coral Bag. 9. Isastra-a explanata, Goldfuss, sp. 

1. Stylina tubulifera, PMllvps, sp. 10. Greenoughi, Ed. <.\- H. 

2. De la Bechi, Ed. ^- H. H. Thamnastraia arachnoides, Parkins., sp. 

3. Montlivaltia disp'ar, Phillips, sp. 12. concinna, Goldfuss, sp. 

4. Thecosmilia annularis, Fleming, sp. 13. Comoseris irradians, Ed. S; H. 

5. Ehabdophyllia Edwardsi, M'Coy, sp. 14. Protoseris Waltoni, Ed. 4' H. 



* There are three species common to the Great Oolite and the Inferior Oolite, and one 
is common to the Coral Rag, the Great and the Inferior Oolite. The yarieties of Thecos- 



ON THE BRITISH FOSSIL COBALS. 



161 



G-rcat Oolite. Inferior Oolite. 

1. Stylina coaifera, Ed. S; H. 1. Discocyathus Eudesi, Michelin, sp. 

2. solida. M'Coy, sp. 2. Trochocjathus Magnevillianus, Miche- 

3. Ploti, Ed. S'^H. lin, sp. 

4. Cyathophora Liiciensis, (f Or6., sp. 3. Axosmilia Wrighti, £(^. (f ^. 

6. Pratti, Ed. # H. 4. Montliyaltia irocboides, Ed. # H. 

6. Convexastreea Waltoni, Ed. 4' -K 5. tenuilamellosa, Ed. cj- Zf. 

7. Montlivaltia Smitbi, ^rf. ^- /^. 6. Stutchburyi, Ed. ^H. 

8. Waterbousei, Ed. ^- H. 7. Wrigbti, Ed. tj- H. 

9. Calamopbyllia radiata, Lamouroux, sp. 8. ■ cupuliformis, Ed. ^- H. 

10. CladopbyUia Babeana, d'Orh., sp. 9. De la Bechi, Ed. ^ H. 

U. Isastiwa Conybeari, Ed. # H. 10. lens, Ed. ^- H. 

1-. limitata, Lamouroux, sp. 11. depressa, Ed. cf ZT. 

13. explaiiuluta, M'Coy, sp. 12. Tbecosmilia gregaria, M'Coi/, sp. 

14. serialis, Ed. ^- H. 13. Latimaandra Flemiiigi, Ed. §• H. 

1.5. Clausastrffia Pratti, Ed. ^- H. 14. Davidsoni, Ed. # H. 

16. Tbamnastrsea Lyelli, Ed. cj- /?. 15. Isastraja Eicbardsoni, Ed. cf- ^. 

17. mammosa, Ed. di' H. 16. tenuistriata, M'Coy. sp. 

18. scita, £'«'. # i/, 17. Lonsdalei, Ed. cj- iT. 

19. Waltoni, Ed. cf- ZZ. 18. Tbamnastrsea Defranciana, Micheli7i, sp. 

20. Anabacia orbvAites, Lamou7-mix, sp. 19. Terquemi, Ed. tf ^. 

21. Comoseris vermicularis, M'Coy, sp. 20. Mettensis, Ed. ^- i/. 

22. Microsolena regularis, Ed. ^ H. 21. fungiformis, Ed. c|- H. 

23. excelsa, £a. jf- ZT. 22. M'Coyi, Ed. # ZT. 

23. Anabacia hemispberica, Ed. ^ H. 

Mr. Walton has forwarded me Zeplirentis ? TFrtZ^ont, Ed. & H., from the 
Inferior Oolite at Dundiy, which MM. Milne-Edwards and Jules Haime felt 
inclined to think was a remanie fossil. There is no doubt about the specimen 
being a Ze^jhrentis, and it is clear that it was derived from an older rock, just as 
the Carboniferous corals mixed up with the Lower-Lias corals were. 

I can add the following species to the list of Oolitic fossil corals, and most 
of them have been figured, but are not yet published (in 6 plates of the Pal. 
Soc.) : — 

New Species. 
Great Oolite. 3 Montlivaltia Morrisi, 7wbis. 

1. Tbecosmilia obtusa, (^'O/'i. 4. Tbecosmilia Wrigbti, ?io6(s. 

2. Cyatbopbora insignis, nobis. 5. Tbamnastraja Walcotti, nobis. 

3. tuberosa, nobis. 6. Manseli, nobis. 

4. Tbamnastrrea Browni, nobis. 7. Etberidgii, nobis. 

5. Isastrsea gibbosa, nobis. 8. Isastrrea Crickleyi, nobis. 

- . 9. dendroidea, nobis. 

Inferior Oolite. 10. Dimorpboseris Oolitica, nobis. 

1. Montlivaltia Holli, nobis. 11. Cyciolites Lyceti, nobis. 

2. Temmincki, «o6m. 12. Beanii,' woAzs. 

The fauna may be divided as follows : — Species. 

Portland Stone , . . 1 

Coral Rag 14 

Great Oolite 28 

Inferior Oolite 35 

78 

The Oolitic corals, as a whole, indicate the geographical conditions incident 

to reefs and atolls, and do not represent those bathymetrical states which the 

Upper and Middle Liassic coraUiferous strata appear to have illustrated. A 

deep-sea coral-fauna is not found amongst the relics of the Oolites, and the 

milia gregaria are not mentioned or considered as species, although they have a verv fair 
claim. There are three varieties very Sympbyllian, and two very Heterogyran in their 
aspect. There is a well-marked variety of Montlivaliia trochoides at Painswick in the 
Inferior Oolite. 

1869. H 



162 



REPORT — 1869. 



forms peculiarizing the reefs are positively aggregated in an upper and lower 
mass at Crickley on the Inferior Oolitic beds. 

Dr. Wright noticed some years since* an Oolitic coral-reef near Frith 
Quarry, on the northern sjiur of Brown's Hill, about two miles from Stroud. 
There is a corresponding reef on the ojjposite side of the valley, the whole of 
the intervening space having been excavated by denudation. The coral-bed 
consists of large masses of coralline limestone imbedded in a fine-grained 
cream-coloured mudstone. The corals are in a highly crystalline state, so that 
the genera and species are determined with difficulty. The bed is from 1.5 to 
20 feet in thickness, and forms one of the finest examples of fossil coral-reefs 
that Dr. Wright is acquainted with in the district. The bed may be traced 
along the escarpment, in a north-westerly direction, for several miles, to 
Witcomb and Crickley on the west, and to near Cubberley and Cowley on 
the east, where it was worked several years ago. Judging from the thick- 
ness of the bed, and the abundance of corals it contains, it must have formed 
a barrier reef of considerable magnitude in the Jurassic sea. The following 
is a section showing the relative position of the Lower Coral-reef. 

Section of the Lower Coral-reef, in the Inferior Oolite, at the Quarry, North 
Frith Wood, near Broivn''s Bill, Gloucestershire. 



Lithological Characters 
and Tliickness. 



Cream-coloured Marl, with 
several inconstant layers 
of Mudstone, upper part 
passing into a loose, fri- 
able Fi-eestone, with large 
Terebratuta fimbria. 
From 20 to 25 feet. 



Fine-grained Oolitic Lime- 
stone, very white, and 
emitting a metallic ring 
when struck with a 
hammer. 
40 to 50 feet. 



Coarse brown ferruginous 
OoUte. 

Masses of Coralline Lime- 
stone, imbedded in a 
light-coloured Mudstone ; 
the Corals highly crystal- 
line, forming the chief 
Jiart of Ihe bed. 
15 to 25 feet. 



Brown ferruginous Pisohtio 
rock. Pea-grit structure 
not much exposed. 



Beds, 



Upper Freestones. 



Oolite, M.\rl. 
Middle Coral-bed, 



Freestones. 



Lower Ragstoxes. 



Lower Coral-reef. 



Pea-grit. 



Organic Remains. 
Leading Fossils, 



Thamnasirrea, Isastnca, 
Axosmilia, Terebratula 
fimbria^ T. carinafa^ T. 
maxiliata^ Hhyn, Lycetti. 
Lucina fj'righfi, Lima 
pontonis. 



Shelly fragments, not 
determinable. 



Terebratuta plicata. 



Latimceaiidra, Thamtms- 
frcBUj Jftaelrtpa, Axostni- 
Ua, Thecoemilia, Pecfen 
Deicalquei, TricJiifes, Lu- 
cina Wrighfi. 



Jjima sidcafay Hinnites 
nhjeciui, Ceromya Bajoei- 
amt, Acieula cnmplicafa. 
Nerita cosfafa,Trocftofoma 
carinafa, Pyqaster, Hybo- 
clypits, Diadema. 



* Dr. Wright lias kindly sent me these details, 
M.D., F.G,S., Cotteswold Club. 



See " On Coral-Eeefs," by T, Wright, 



ON THE BRITISH FOSSIL CORALS. 



163 



The Middle Coral-bed is included in the Oolite Marl, and in some localities 
as at Frith, Leckhampton, Sheepscombe, and others, it contains masses of 
corals. 

The Upper Coral-reef occupies the horizon of the upper Trigonia Grit, and 
is very well exposed in many sections. That of Cleeve Hill has yielded the 
best corals. The following section is oj^en near Frith. Ascending the bank 
above this quarry for a short distance some fields of arable land are jjassed 
over, on which are several heaps of the Upper Eagstones, with Trigonia cos- 
tata, Grijphcva subloha, and other shells of the higher zone. Walking in the 
direction of i\\e Grove, after passing over the summit of the hill and descend- 
ing a short distance, a good section of the upper reef may be seen in the 
Slad ^'alley. 



Section of the Quarry at Worgin's Corner, Upper Zone of Inferior Oolite*. 

Litholo^j. Beds. Organic Remains. 



Masses of Coralline Lime- 
stone, 4 feet thick. 



Hard shellv Limestone, 
full of the shells of 
Brachiopoda, 5 feet. 



Hard shelly sandy Oolite, 
full of Gryphcea, 6 feet. 



Upper Coral-reef. 



Terebeatula-globata Bed. 



Geyph^a Bed. 



Thamnasircca, Isastrtea, 

Thecosmilia^ Ufagnofia 
Foj'besi, Stomechiitus tH- 
termedius, JPecten, Trigo- 
nia cosfata. 



Terehrafula gJohata, Jihyn- 
ckciiella spinosa^ Fholado- 
niya fidicvla, P. SerauUi, 
Ostrcea, Geniillia, Tri- 
chites. 



Gryphcfa svbloba, 
proboscidea. 



Lima 



The remarkable varieties of Thecosmilia gregaria, which resemble the genus 
Si/mj)JtyIIia and Beterogyra, are found principally in the lower reef, but they 
exist in the upper also. ISome species appear to be peculiar to the different reefs, 
but it is unsafe to form lists at present. There is evidently a considerable 
afhuity between the faunas of the reefs, and there is nothing to indicate any- 
thing more than a temjiorary absence from, and a return of the species to an 
area. 

The corals of the Great Oolite are found in the Upper Eagstones underly- 
ing the Bradford Clay. ISfear Bath large masses of CalamophyUia radiata are 
associated with the roots, stems, and heads of Apiocrinites rotunclus, Mill., 
which flourished like a miniature forest on the reef, and luxuriated amongst 
the polypes uutil the clear water was invaded by a current charged with mud, 
which destroyed the Ennrinites and the Corals alsot. 

The Coral Eag in Wiltshire is divisible into (1) Upper Calcareous Grit, (2) 
Coral Eag, (3) Clay, (4) Lower Calcareous Grit. It is in the Coral Eag 
proper (2) that the Coral-beds are found. 



Of these Mr. Lonsdale J remarks 



* See Dr. Wright's pamphlet 



Oolitic District of Eath," Trans. Geol. £( 



t Dr. Wright, op. cit 
2. 2ud ser. vol. iii. p. 261. 
M 2 



164 REPORT — 1869. 

"The irregular beds of Polyparia consist of nodules or masses of crys- 
tallized carbonate of lime, which afford, invariably, evidences of the labours 
of the Polypus ; and associated with them are othei's of earthy limestone, 
which bear only partial proofs of an organic origin. The whole are con- 
nected by a pale bluish or yellowish stiff clay. It happens frequently that 
a bed is composed of one genus of Polyparia." 

In Yorkshire the Coralline Oolite is well developed, and several reefs are 
found at Hackness, Ayton, Seamer, &c. John Leckenby, Esq., F.G.S., of 
Scarborough, gives the following details (see Dr. Wright, op. cit.) : — • 

" In various parts of the district occupied by the Coralline Oolite around 
Scarborough are found patches of coral-reef sometimes occupying an area 
of fully an acre ; and although never attaining an altitude so high as the 
beds on the inclined surfaces of which they rest, they are truly the uppermost 
beds of the formation. 

" They are sometimes from 10 to 15 feet in thickness, and consist of a 
series of layers of crystallized coral from 18 to 24 inches in thickness, of the 
species Tliamnastrcea concinna, Goldf. (which is the T. micraston, Phillips), 
each layer being separated by rubbly clay and mud, in all probability being 
the decomposition of each successive reef. The rock is quarried to supply 
material for repairing the roads of the district ; but it is by no meains so well 
adapted for the purpose as the adjacent calcareous grit, which, at the cost of 
a Httle additional labour, would furnish a material much more durable. The 
crystalline coral-reef is quickly ground to powder, and its use affords less 
satisfaction to the traveller than to the geologist, as the blocks which are 
stored up for use along the sides of the road yield many a handsome specimen 
to adorn his collection. 

" The largest deposit is near the village of Ayton : there are others not 
quite so extensive; one near the village of Seamer, another close to the 
hamlet of Irton, and others in the neighbourhood of Wykeham and Prompton 
■ — the intervening distances being about a mile in every case." 

Messrs. Leckenby and Cullen visited the coral-reefs of the Coralline Oolite 
near Scarborough with Dr. Wright, who writes as foUows :■ — 

" One quarry, near Ayton, wliich may be considered as a type of the others, 
consisted of masses of crystalline coralline limestone, the beds having an 
irregular undulating appearance. The corals appear to have grown in areas 
of depression of the coralline sea ; the rock consists of largo masses of highly 
crystalline limestone, forming nodulated eminences and concave curves, in 
beds of from 12 to 18 inches in thickness, having a stratum of yellowish clay 
filling up the hollows, and forming a horizontal line again to the stratification ; 
then follows another stratum of crystaUine limestone, which assumes the 
same nodulated condition as the one below it, the siirface of the coral 
masses, where exposed, showing that the whole is almost entirely composed 
of a small-celled Astraa, Th/imnastnea concinna, Goldf., Micraston, Phillips, 
in some altered condition ; the reef is exposed to about 10 feet in section, and 
rests on another, forming the floor of the quarry, and which descends many 
feet deeper ; the corals arc bored by GaatrocTuence, and numerous shells were 
seen imbedded in the coral mass, which had nestled in the crannies of the 
reef." 

Dr. Wright sums up with regard to the French, German, and British strata 
of the Etage Corallieu as follows : — 

" From this general view of the geographical distribution of the Coralline 
zone, it would appear that this formation was composed of a series of coral- 
reefs in the Jurassic sea, which, during the period of their construction, occu- 



ON THE BRITISH FOSSIL CORALS. 



165 



pied a large portion of the region now constituting the soil of modern 
Europe ; and that the bed of the Jurassic sea was a slowly subsiding area of 
great extent, like many parts of the Coral Sea in the Indo-Pacific Ocean of 
our day"*. 

The restriction of species to very definite areas, and to limited zones amongst 
these succeeding coral-reefs, is veiy remarkable, and, as was noticed to occur 
in the Lias, the corals are occasionally persistent, and are associated -with 
different moUuscan species. But the physico-geological changes which pro- 
duced new reefs must have been preceded by considerable geographical changes, 
for, as a rule, the species of the grand divisions of the Jurassic system are 
different. Thecosmilia Wrightl of the lower reef of the Inferior Oolite has 
considerable resemblance to the ThecosmiU.ce of the Inferior Lias ; but no 
Liassic species pass upwards into the Oolites. Only four species are com- 
mon to the Inferior and Great Oolites, and one to the Coral Rag and Great 
Oolite ; yet there was a succession of the physico-geographical conditions 
favourable for the formation of reefs on the same area. The existence of 
reefs in so high a latitude during the Oolitic period, and their formation by 
polypes whose genera were all extinct during the early Cainozoic period, but 
which are clearly represented by allied genera in the existing reefs, are very 
suggestive. These were the last reefs of the British area ; for there are no 
traces of agglomeration of reef-building genera in the Lower Greensand, the 
Gault, Upper Greensand, Chalk, or Tertiary formations. The nearest approach 
to a reef must have been in the Lower Oligocene period, when the Tabulate 
corals and Solenastrcett of Brockenhurst formed a small outlier of the European 
coral sea of the time between the Nummulitic age and the lowest Falunian 
deposits. 

The succession of reefs and deep-sea or littoral coral conditions appears 
to have been as follows on the British area south of Yorkshire, after the 
termination of the Permian period : — 

Triassic No corals (dry land). 

Rhaetic Few corals. Littoral and deep water, from 

5 to 200 fathoms, 

"i C Zone of Amm. planorbis . . Scattered reefs and littoral corals. 

'^ \ „ angulatus . . Barrier reefs and deep-water corals. 

^q I „ Bucklandi . Scattered reefs and deep-water corals. 

Middle Lias No reefs. Littoral and deep-water corals. 

Upper Lias No reefs. Littoral and deep-water corals. 

Inferior Oolite Successive reefs. 

Great Oolite Successive reefs. 

Coral Rag Reefs. 

Portland Oolite Reefs rare. No other corals. 

Lower Greensand Littoral and deep-sea corals. No reefs. 

Gault Littoral and deep-sea corals. No reefs. 

Red Chalk Littoral and deep-sea corals. No reefs. 

Upper Greensand Littoral corals. No reefs f. 

Lower and Upper Chalk Deep-sea corals. Few littoral corals. 

Eocene Deep-sea corals. No reefs. Littoral corals. 

Lower Oligocene Deep-sea corals. Scattered reefs. Lit- 
toral corals. 

Crag Deep-sea corals. No reefs. Littoral corals. 

Recent Deep-sea corals. No reefs. Littoral corals. 

* Dr. Wright, op. cif. t Deep-sea and small reefs in the west. 



166 



REPORT — 1869. 



The reefs were doubtless developed on areas where depression and eleva- 
tion of the sea-bottom was constant, and where old rocks were occasionally 
sufficiently near the surface to afford a nidus for reef-species. The depths 
around these rocks must have been considerable ; there could not have been 
any large bodies of fresh water near, and the sea-water must have been 
pure and in constant motion. The littoral corals resembled the CarjiophylUa 
Smithi of our coasts in bathj'metrical distribution, and the deep-sea corals, 
like the existing CarijophijUia borealis and Loplwhelia prolifera, were simple 
solitary forms distributed at a depth of from 30 to 600 or more fathoms. 

The British reefs of the early Secondary period were not necessarily 
situated in a tropical climate ; for there is no reason why reef-building corals 
shoidd not have been able to exist and multiply in the same temperature 
of sea-water that deep-sea corals now do. The deep-sea corals are abun- 
dant between Norway and the Shetlands, and are quite out of the range of 
the Gulf-stream. The Bermuda reefs are dependent upon the Gulf-stream 
for the supply of sufficiently warm water to produce the development of 
ova. It may have happened that the early Secondary species may not have 
required a greater amount of sea-temperature than that in which the great 
coral caUed Bendrophi/lUa ramea flourishes off Cadiz. These facts and 
considerations must have some weight against the argument that, because 
all existing reefs are tropical, all former reefs must have been so. 

If the area of Europe is compared with that of Great Britain during the 
periods that have elapsed since the Palfeozoic epoch, the distribution of reefs 
and centres of oscillation, and of deep-sea and littoral corals indicating very 
stationary conditions, gives a very good idea of the successive physico- 
geographies of the old seas. 

Great Britain. 
Trias Uncoralliferous 



Ehsetie Few deep-sea and littoral 

corals. 
/Zone of Amm. planorbis 



I 



angulatus 



Bucklandi 



Scattered reefs and deep- 
sea and littoral corals. 

Barrier reefs, deep-sea and 
littoral corals. 



Rest of Europe. 
Rijefs in St. Cassian dis- 
trict. 
Reefs in Lombardy and Swit- 
zerland. 
Scattered reefs in France, 
Lombardy, and Switzer- 
land. 
Reefs in Switzerland. Vast 
areas with simple deep-sea 
and littoral corals in 
France. 
Scattered reefs Rare deep-sea corals in Eu- 
rope. 

Middle Lias Deep water and littoral Rare deep-sea corals. 

corals. 

Upper Lias Very uncoralliferous Very uncoralliferous. 

Inferior Oolite Successive reefs Reefs in Western Europe. 

Great Oolite Successive reefs Reefs in Western Europe. 

Coral Rag Few reefs Few reefs. 

Portland Oolite Reefs rare Reefs rare. 

Neocomian Littoral and deep-sea 

coi'als. 

Guult Littoral and 

corals. 
Cenomanian Littoral corals 



deep-sea 



Reefs in France, Switzerland, 

Germany. 
Littoral and deep-sea corals. 



Lower Chalk Deep-sea corals 



Upper Chalk Deep-sea corals 

Eocene Deep-sea corals and a fev 



littoral. 



Scattered reefs in France and 
Western Germany. 

Reefs in France, Spain, Swit- 
zerland, Germany, 

Few reefs and deep-sea corals. 

Reefs in the Lombardo-Swiss, 
Pyrenean, and Austrian 
areas. 



ON THE BRITISH FOSSIL CORALS. 



167 



Great Britain. Rest of Europe. 

Lower Oligocene Scattered reefs Reefs in the Vicentin; deep-sea 

corals in Germany, and 
littoral species also. 

Crag Deep-sea corals and lit- Deep-sea and littoral species 

toral corals. in Sicily, south of Spain, 

Belgium. Reefs very rare. 

Recent Deep-sea and littoral spe- Deep-sea and littoral species 

cies. in the Mediterranean and 

western seas of Europe. 

The Miocene reefs were in Sonth France, Italy, Spain, and Germany, 
where thei-e were also deep-sea and littoral species. 

The seas of Europe and Great Eritain during the period of the Middle 
and Upper Lias were most uucoralliferous, and also during the deposit of 
the Gault. On the other hand, there were reef and atoll seas during the 
deposition of the sediments of the zone of A. angulatns and hisiilcatiis of the 
Lower Lias, of the Inferior and Great Oolite, and of the Oligocene. 

The European area was more or less a centre of oscillation and of reef- 
formation during the Triassic and the Lower-Liassic periods, duiing the Lower- 
Oolitic periods, and from the Neocomian to the end of the Miocene, inclu- 
sive of these periods. There was a great change in the depth of the seas 
and of the physico-geographical conditions after the formation of the deposits 
containing A. Biu:Mandi, and a second change produced the reefs of the 
Oolites. Again, the deposits of the Portland Oolite and the Gault were pre- 
ceded and followed by gTeat bathymetrical changes. 

The changes on the British area were before the Lower Lias and after it, 
after the Great Oolite and Coral Rag, and after the Eocene and before the 
Crag. Whilst the European area was coraUiferous in the Trias, the British 
area was uucoralliferous ; and whilst the Cretaceous reefs of Western Europe 
flourished, the British area was characterized by deep-sea and littoral corals. 
The lines and curves which may be drawn to explain these variations in 
the two areas are as follows * : — 
Sea-level. Sea-level. 

* \ / a \ n^ 





y 





A- ^\ 



a. Trias. d. Oolites. g. Cretaceous. h. Miocene. 

b. Lower Lias. e. Neocomian. h. Eocene. I. Pliocene. 

c. Upper Lias. /. Gault. i. Oligocene. m. Recent. 

The reef-areas of the Upper Lias and Gault have yet to be discovered. 

It is very remarkable that the Tabulate corals, which were so abundant 
in the Palajozoic Coral-fauna, and which constitute whole reefs at the pre- 
sent time, should not be represented in the British Secondary Coral-fauna. 
The first trace of them is found in the Eocene beds. The perforate corals, 
omitting the Eungidte, which are not included in them by MM. Milne-Edwards 
and Jules Haime, are imknown in the Secondary rocks of Great Britain, 

* The upper diagram refers to the British area, and the lower to the European. Tl.e 
" a " commences at the upper part of the Trias. 



168 



REPORT 1869. 



yet they form masses of existing reefs, and were sebundant in the Oligocene. 
One of the class, i. e. the Protarcea vetusta, appeared in the Lower Silurian 
formation of Ohio ; but the class was not apparently represented on our 
area until the Eocene, if we except the Microsolenas, which are very ex- 
ceptional perforate forms of the Oolites. The absence of these forms must be 
accounted for by the deficiency of the geological record. 



Cainozoic. 



Mesozoic. <( 



Enumeration of Species. Species. 

f Crag 4 

I Lower Oligocene 13 

Eocene 38 

HZ]^-^ " 

Upper Greensand 16 

Red Chalk 4 

Gault 13 

Lower Greensand 6 

Portland Oolite 1 

Coral Rag 14 

Great Oohte 28 

Inferior Oolite 35 

Upper Lias 1 

Middle Lias 2 

i^Lower Lias 65 



List of Tertiary and Secondary British Fossil Corals. 



259 



Sphenotrochus intermedius, Miinsfer, sp. 
Flabellum Woodii, Ed. # H. 



Solenastraea cellulosa, Duncan. 

Koeneri, Demean. 

Eeussi, Duncan. 

gemmans, Duncan. 

Beyrichi, Duncan. 

granulate, Duncan. 

Balanophyllia granulata, Duncan. 

Turbinolia sulcata, Lamarck. 

Dixoni, Ed. 4' H. 

Bowerbanki, Ed, cf H. 

■ Fredericiana, Ed. ^' H. 

humilis, Ed. 4' H. 

minor, Ed. Sf H. 

firma, Ed. # H. 

Prestwiclii, Ed. ^ H. 

affinis, Duncan. 

exarate, Duncan. 

Forbesi, Duncan. 

Leptocyathus elegans, Ed. ^ H. 
Trochocyathus sinuosus, Brongniart, sp. 

Austeni, Duncan. 

insignis, Duncan. 

Paracyathus crassus, Ed. cf- H. 

caryophyllus, Lamarck, sp. 

brevis, Lamarck, sp. 

Haimei, Duncan. 



Crag. 

Cryptengia Woodii, Ed. 4~ H. 
Balanoj)hylUa calyculus. Wood. 

Oligocene. 

Lobopsammia eariosa, Goldfuss, sp. 
Axopora Miehelini, Duncan. 
Lithargea Brockenhursti, Duncan. 
Madrepora Anglica, Duncan, 

Romeri, Duncan, 

Solanderi, Defrance. 



Eocene. 



Paracyathus cylindricus, Duncan. 
Dasniia Sowerbyi, Ed. 4~ H. 
Oculina conferta, Eld. 4' H. 

incrustans, Duncan. 

Wetherelli, Duncan. 

Diplobelia papillosa, Ed. 8f H. 
Stylocoenia emaroiata, Lamarck, sp. 

monticularia, Schweigger, sp. 

Astrocoenia pulchella, Ed. 4' H. 
Stepbanophyllia discoides, Ed. 4' H. 
Balanophyllia desmophyllum, Lonsdale, sp. 
Dendrophyllia elegans, Duncan. 

dendrophylloides, Lonsdale. 

Stereopsammia humilis, Ed. 4'H. 
Dendraceis Lonsdalei, Duncan. 
Porites panicea, Lonsdale. 
Litbaraa Websteri, Bowerbank, sp. 
Axopora Forbesi, Duncan. 
Parisiensis, Michelin, 



ON THE BRITISH FOSSIL CORALS. 



169 



Chalk. 



Caryopbyllia cylinclracea, Reuss, sp. 

Lonsdalei, Duncan. 

Tennanti, Duncan. 

Onchotrochus serpentinus, Duncan. 
Trochosmilia laxa, Ed. ^- H., sp. and va- 
rieties 1 2, 3. 

cornucopijB, Duncan. 

Wiltshiri, Duncan. 

Woodwardi, Duncan. 

granulata, Duncan. 

cylindracea, Duncan. 

Upper 

Onchotrochus Carteri, Duncan. 
Smilotrochus tuberosus, Ed. <|- H. 

elongatus, Duncan. 

angulatus, Duncan. 

Cyathophora monticularia, D' Orhigny. 
Favia stricta, Ed. Sf H. 

minutissima, Duncan. 

Thamnastraa superposita, Michelin. 



Parasmilia centralis, Mantell, sp., varieties 
1,2. 

cylindrica, Ed. iS- H. 

Pittoni, Ed. 4- H. 

serpentina, Ed. Sf H. 

monilis, Duncan. 

granulata, Duncan. 

Diblasus Gravensis, Lonsdcde. 
Synhelia Sharpeana, Ed. iSf H. 
Stephanophyllia Bowerbanki, Ed. 4~ H. 

Grreensand. 

Micrabacia coronula, Goldfuss, sp. 
Peplosmilia Austeni, Ed. S^-R. 

depressa, E. de From. 

Placosmilia cuneiformis, Ed. t^' H. 

Parkinsoni, Ed. ^ H. 

magnifica, Duncan. 

Astrocoenia decaphylla, Ed. cf H. 
Isastrsea Haldonensis, Duncan. 



Red Chalk of Hunstanton. 
Cyclolites polymorpha, Goldfuss, sp. Micrabacia coronula, Goldfuss, sp., and va- 

Podoseris mammiUformis, Duncan. riety. 

eJongata, Duncan. 

Gault. 
Caryopbyllia Bowerbanki, Ed. cf- H., and a Cyclocyathus Fittoni, Ed. ^ H. 
variety. Smilotrochus elongatus, Duncan. 

Trocbocyatbus conulus, Phillips, sp. graniilatus, Duncan. 

Wiltshiri, Duncan. insignis, Duncan. 

Harveyanus, Bid. tf H., and 5 varieties. cylindricus, Duiican. 



Trochosmilia sulcata, Ed. Sf H. 
Micrabacia Fittoni, Duncan. 



Bathycyatbus Sowerbyi, Ed. ^- H. 
Leptocyathus gracilis, Duncan. 

Lower Greensand. 

Brachycyathus Orbygnyanus, Ed. Sf H. Isastrsea Morrisi, Duncan. 

Smilotrochus Austeni, Ed. Sf H. Turbinoseris de-Fromenteli, Duncan. 

Trochosmilia Meyeri, Duncan. Holocystis elegans, Ed. 4~ H. 

Portland Oolite. 
IsastrjKa oblonga, Fleming, sp. 



Coral Rag. 



Stylina tubuUfera, Phillips, sp. 

De la Bechi, Ed.SfH. 

Montlivaltia dispars, Phillips, sp. 
Tbecosmilia annularis, Fleming, sp. 
Ebabdophyllia Edwardsi, M'Coy, sp. 
Calamophyllia Stokesi, Ed.S^R. 
Cladopbyllia caspitosa, Con. i^ Phil., sp. 



Goniocora socialis, Romer, sp. 
Isastrsea explanata, Goldfuss, sp. 

Greenoughi, Ed. &^ H. 

Thamnastrjea arachnoides, Parkinson, sp. 

concinna, Goldfuss, sp. 

Comoseris irradians, Ed. cf- H. 
Protoseris Waltoni, Ed. ^ H. 



Great Oolite. 



Stylina conifera, Ed. ^ H. 

solida, M-Coy, sp. 

Ploti, Ed. ^H. 

Cyathophora Luciensis, d' Orb., sp. 

Pratti, Ed. &c H. 

insignis, Duncan. 

tuberosa, Duncan. 

Convexastrsea Waltoni, Ed. ^ H. 
Montlivaltia Smithi, Ed. cf- H. 

Waterhousei, Ed. cf H. 

ThecosmiUa obtusa, d' Orb. 
Calamophyllia radiata, Lartwuroux, sp, 



Cladopbyllia Babeana, d' Orb., sp. 
Isastreea Conybeari, Ed. 4~ H. 

limitata, Lamouroux, sp. 

explanata, M'Coy, sp. 

serialis, Ed. ^ H. 

gibbosa, Duncan. 

Clausastreea Pratti, Ed. ^ H. 
Thamnastraea Lyelli, Ed. ^- H. 

mammosa, Ed. ^ H. 

scita, Ed. # H. 

Waltoni, Ed. # H. 

Browni, Duncan. 



170 



REPORT 1869. 



Anabaeia orbulites, Lamouroux, sp. 
Comoseris vermioularis, M'Coy, sp. 



Microsolena regularis, Ed. ^ H. 
excelsa, Ed. tf- H. 



Inferior Oolite. 
Discocyathus Eudesi, Michelin, sp. 

Trochocyathus Magnevillianas, Michelin,s]y. 
Axosmilia Wrighti, Ed. Jf H. 
Montlivaltia troohoides, Ed. 4- H. 

tenuilamellosa, Ed. cf- H. 

Stutchburyi, Ed. ij- H. 



Isastraea Kichardsoni, Ed. ^ H 

tenuistriata, M-Cot/, sp. 

Lonsdalei, Ed. ^- H. 

Crickleyi, Duncan. 

dendroidea, Duncan. 



Wrighti, Ed. 4' H. 

cupuliformis, Ed. tf- H. 

De la Bechi, Ed. ^ H. 

lens, Ed. ^- H. 

depressa, Ed. ^ H. 

Holli, Duncan. 

Painswicki, Duncan. 

Morrisi, Duncan. 

Thecosinilia gregaria, M'Coy, sp. 

Wrighti, Duncan. 

Latima>andra Flemingi, Ed. ^ H. 
Davidsoni, Ed. tj- H. 



Thamnastnva Defranciana, Michelin, 

Terquemi, Ed. i\- H. 

Mettensis, Ed. ^' H. 

■- i'ungilbrmis, Ed. cj" H. 

M-Coyi, Ed. cj- H. 

Walcotti, Duncan. 

Man.seli, Duncan. 

Etheridgi, Duncan. 

Anabaeia hemispheriea, Ed. i^H. 
Dimorphoseris Oolitica, Duncan. 
Cyclolites Lyceti, Duncan. 
Beani, Duncan. 



Tipper Lias. 
Thecocyathus Moorei, Ed. ^ H. 

Middle Lias. 
Lepidophyllia Hebridensis, Duncan. Montlivaltia Victorite, Duncan. 



Lower Lias. 



Lepidophyllia Stricklandi, Duncan. 
Oppelismilia geiumans, Duncan. 
Montlivaltia Wallia;, Dmwati. 

Murehisonia;, Duncan. 

Ruperti, Duncan. 

parasitica, Duncan. 

simplex, Duncan. 

• brevis, Dunca7i. 

' jjedunculata, Dzincan. 

• polymorpha, Terq. et Piette. 

Hairaei, Ch. et Dew. 

Hibernica, Duncan. 

papillata, Duncan. 

Guettardi, Blainville. 

■ ■ nummifbrmis, Duncan. 

radiata, Duncan. 

patula, Duncan. 

rugosa, Wright, sp. 

mucronata, Duncan. 

Thecosmilia Suttonensis, Duncan. 

mirabilis, Duncan. 

serialis, Duncan. 

irregularis, Duncan. 

Terquemi, Duncan. 

affinis, Duncan. 

dentata, Dimcan. 

plana, Duncan. 

Brodiei, Duncan. 

Martini, E. de From. 

Michelini, Terq. et Piette. 

Khabdophyllia rugosa, Laube. 
recondita, Lauhe. 



Astroccenia Sinemm'iensis, d'Orh. 

gibbosa, Duncan. 

plana, Duncan. 

insignis, Duncan. 

reptans, Duncan. 

parasitica, Duncan. 

pedunculata, Duncan. 

costata, Duncan. 

favoidea, Duncan. 

superba, Duncan. 

dendroidea, Duncan. 

minuta, Duncan. 

Cyathocoenia dendroidea, Duncan. 

incrustans, Duncan. 

costata, Duncan. 

globosa, Duncan. 

Elysastreea Fischeri, Lauhe. 

Moorei, Duncan. 

Septastra\a excavata, E. de From. 

de-Eromenteli, Terquem. 

Evershanii, Duncan. 

■ Haimei, Wright, sp. 

Latimwandra dentieulata, Duncan. 
Isastraea Sinenniriensis, E. de From. 

globosa, Dunca?!. 

Murchisoni, Wright. 

Tomesii, Dimcan. 

endothecata, Duncan. 

insignis, Duncan. 

Stricklandi, Duncan. 

latimaeandroidea, Duncan, 



ON ICE AS AN AGENT OF GEOLOGIC CHANGE. 171 

Report of the Committee appointed to get cut and prepared Sections 
of Mountain- Limestone Corals for Photographing. The Committee 
consists 0/ Henry Woodward^ F.G.S., Dr. Duncan, F.R.S., Pro- 
fessor Harkness, F.R.S., and James Thomson, F.G.S. (Reporter). 

The operations of this Committee have been carried on indefatigably during 
the past year ; the results are very promising, but much additional work 
must be performed before any satisfactory conclusions can be arrived at. 

"VVe have cut several hundred sections, but many of them have been so 
crushed and fractured, that they are absolutely useless for our purpose ; 
thus in one lot of eighty-seven we found only two specimens sufficiently per- 
fect to be of any use ; this is to be regretted, as it is desirable to select as 
perfect specimens as possible for photographing, and also for the use of Dr. 
Duncan for describing in the Transactions of the Palseontological Society. 

Those cut, and partly cut, consist of the following genera : — Cyathophyllum, 
Cyclojjhi/llum, CUsiophyllum, and allied forms, LonsdaVia, Zephrentis, Am- 
plencu^, Michelinia, i^yringojjora, Lithostrotion and its varieties. 

The time and labour involved in superintending the cutting, examining, 
and finishing those which are sufficiently perfect, will explain the impossibi- 
lity of producing this year so complete a set as we could have wished. 
However, we have been sufficiently successful to warrant us in saying that 
with those made, and others in readiness to make, we wiU be able to produce 
in another year a very full set of plates. 

With the plates already finished we have been trying a number of experi- 
ments in photography ; finding that by the usual process the colour fades by 
exposure to light, we went to Newcastle and examined Mr. Swan's carbon 
process ; and, being satisfied that it was an improvement, we left three plates 
with him, and we now exhibit the results, satisfactory in two of them, while 
the other has some defects ; we are, however, in hopes that soon we wiU be 
able to produce fac-similes on zinc or copper plates. Mr. Swan has been 
trying experiments for that purpose, and he is in hopes of being successfid. 
If so, we will be able to produce them in any number, and at such a mode- 
rate price that they will be available for ordinary publishing purposes. If 
not successful, we expect to be able, by the carbon process, to produce sets 
of plates which wiU. be placed in a few of the principal Museums when com- 
pleted. 



Report on Ice as an Agent of Geologic Change. By a Committee, 
consisting of Professor Otto Torell, Professor Ramsay, LL.D., 
F.R.S., and H. Bauerman, F.G.S. (Reporter). 

We are of opinion that the work already done in the investigation of the 
phenomena connected with ice is not sufficient to enable us to prepare a 
Keport showing the precise effect of " ice as an agent of geologic change ;" 
but enough has been done to show in part the manner in which the subject 
may be followed, for the purpose of obtaining information as to the quanti- 
tative action of glaciers, both as regards their erosive and transporting 
powers. 

First. We would select a well-known glacier-region, such as the Alps, 
and there for preliminary investigation fix on a large glacier, simple in 
structure and easily accessible, such, for example, as the lower glacier of the 



173 



REPORT — 18G9. 



Aar. If not already done, the glacier and the surrounding mountains ought 
to be well surveyed and mapped, and its moraines clearly expressed. 

Secondly. The amount of rocky and earthy matter forming each medial 
and lateral moraine would require to be determined as accurately as possible, 
probably in the manner illustrated by the accompanying rough diagram of 
an imaginary glacier. 

Take of the medial moraine marked a a space, say, from 100 to 500 yards in 
length, and estimate the solid contents of that portion of the moraine. This 
should be done as near as possible to the place where the medial moraine is 
formed by the union of the two lateral moraines x and 3/; for lower down part 




of the material may disappear by falling into crevasses. The same must be 
done for the moraines h and c, or for each medial moraine ; and also, in several 



ON ICE AS AN AGENT OF GEOLOGIC CHANGE. 173 

places, for the lateral moraines d and e. Then ascertain the rates of the 
onward movement of the glacier, according to circumstances, m various por- 
tions of its length, and at various seasons of the year ; and by these means 
wlU be ascertained to a great extent (but not precisely) the quantity of 
matter carried annually on the surface of the glacier to its termination, and 
this matter will represent a very large part of the waste of the sides of the 
mountains that bound the snow and glacier basins o, p, q, and the sides of 
the mountains that bound the glacier lower down towards its terminal 
moraine. 

Thirdly. The chief part of the remainder of the rocky and earthy matter 
that is carried from the mountains to the level of the glacier will pass under 
it at its sides, and mingle with the material that finds its way to the bottom 
of the glacier through the means of crevasses and moulins, and also with 
that which is the product of the erosive action of the glacier exerted on 
its bed and on the stone blocks imprisoned at the bottom of the ice. A 
small part of the above-named remainder may also be caught in the ice and 
imprisoned in rejoined crevasses. 

Fourthly. We see no way of precisely estimating the amount of erosion 
produced by the weight and movement of the glacier — that is to say, the 
rate at which any given glacier may deepen and widen its valley by pure 
wearing action, owing to the circumstance that the sediments discharged 
along with the water that flows from the end of a glacier do not represent 
the amount produced by mere erosive force, for the reason stated under 
head 3. But it is essential to the main question that correct estimates 
should be made of the amount of solid matter brought from under the glacier 
by the help of running water, and also of the amount carried away by the 
continual wasting by streams of the terminal moraine. 

As regards the matter in suspension in the river, and also that forced 
along its bottom, it should be estimated, if possible, at a point r, just below 
where the various streams unite that flow from the ends of most great gla- 
ciers. Where there is only one stream (as in the Aletsch glacier), the closer 
to the glacier the better. The operation would be very laborious ; for, unless 
frost and snow prevented it, it would requii'e to be done for every daj' in a 
year or years, and several times each day, at least in summer and autumn, 
and probably in spring and winter also. For example, in summer the quan- 
tity of water varies largely, according to the heat of various periods of the 
day ; and it would probably be necessary to make an observation every day 
before sunrise, another some time before noon, another between four and six 
o'clock in the afternoon, and another after nightfall ; in fact sufficiently 
often to obtain an average for each day in the year. 

AVith rgard to the transport of heavier matter from the terminal moraine 
(which forms a portion of this part of the subject) by the glacier-streams 
that waste it, an index to the amount may approximately be obtained by 
means of the estimates indicated under head 2, assuming that all terminal 
moraines are formed chiefly from matter transported on the sm-face of the 
glacier. 

Other methods involving special study on the spot would be required for 
the terminal and lower side-moraines of such glaciers as those of La Brenva 
and Miage, which on the sides that face up the valley towards the Lake of 
Comballe are still growing. 

Fifthly. If the foregoing methods are correct, they might afterwards be 
applied to all the glaciers of the Alps, and the rate of waste and transport 
by glacier- action might be approximately determined ; and in like manner 



174 REPORT — 1869. 

they might also be used for well-kuown and comparatively accessible moim- 
tain-ranges like the Scandinavian chain, the Himalaya, the mountains of 
'New Zealand, and in time to the Eocky Mountains, the Andes, and others. 

Sixthli/. Eut the above only forms part of the subject, and to attempt to 
estimate the existing importance of " ice as an agent of geologic change," 
the glacier and glacial phenomena generally as regards erosion and terrestrial 
and marine transport of material must be taken into account in such regioi:is 
as Spitzbergen, Greenland, and Victoria Land in the soiithern hemisphere. 
Something on a small scale may be done in Spitzbergen and the southern 
part of Greenland ; but at present we see no likelihood of definite observa- 
tions being made on the western side of Greenland further north, and in the 
extreme north of that continent, or on its eastern shores, either in respect to 
the erosion produced by its great glaciers, the effect of iloe and shore-ice, or 
the transporting work done by the icebergs that float southwards from its 
shores. 

Something is known of the general results, but it seems very improbable, 
with regard to the number and size of icebergs, and the quantity of matter 
they bear southwards, that anything definite is likely to be ascertained at 
present. The same remarks bear yet more strongly on the glacial pheno- 
mena of Victoria Land. 

Seventlihj. But when so much remains to be done on the Alps and on 
other accessible mountain-areas, such difficult points can aftbrd to wait for 
the present ; and we are of opinion that perhaps it is possible, after the sub- 
ject has been investigated with regard to the existing glaciers of the Alps, to 
apply approximately the same method to the older extension of the Alpine 
glaciers during the last glacial period, and to invent a process by which we 
may be able in some degree to estimate the amount of erosive waste, and of 
transport of moraine matter on the surface, of the great glaciers of that 
epoch. Accurate surveys of the old moraines of that epoch would be essen- 
tial to this end, such, for example, as that of the great moraine of Ivrea. The 
extent of the glacier has been shown by Gastaldi, and the area occupied by, 
and cubic contents of, the moraine must be estimated : and if it be possible 
to feel our way towards the data, attempts must be made to estimate the 
amount of waste of the moraine going on at the time it was deposited by the 
streams flowing from the end of the glacier. Numerous other considerations 
arise from this extended view of the question, one of which is, that perhaps 
it may be applied to other glaciated regions where glaciers no longer exist, 
such as the Vosges, the Black Forest, Wales, the north of England, Scotland, 
ifec, thus : — Given an area such as the Alps and the Lowlands of Switzer- 
land, covered with glacier-ice ; if an approximate estimate can be formed of 
the amount of waste sutfered by that land due to glacier- action, so under 
like circumstances is it possible more or less accurately to estimate the 
amount of erosions and other waste suflPered by an equal area in such a terri- 
tory as the north of Greenland at the present day. 

In conclusion, any qualified person, with proper assistance and time at his 
disposal, could undertake the preliminary work on a single glacier ; but to do 
what is necessary to complete it for such an area as the Alps would probably 
involve national scientific cooperation. 



EXPERIMENTS ON THE THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF IRON. 175 

Provisional Report of a Committee consisting of Professor Tait, Pro- 
fessor Tyndall, and Dr. Balfour Stewart^ appointed for the 
purpose of repeating Principal J. D. Forres's Experiments on the 
Thermal Conductivity of Iron, and of extending them to other Metals. 
By Professor Tait. 

In consequence of a misunderstanding, the standard thermometers ordered 
from the Kew Observatory did not arrive in time to be employed in the ex- 
periments hitherto made, so that the results now to be stated, besides being 
only approximate, are, for the most part, confined to a range of temperature 
of about 100° C. merely. Before the next meeting of the British Association 
the whole question will have been reexamined with far superior instruments ; 
but with such thermometers as I had at hand (including some of those used 
by Principal Forbes, of wlaich, however, I have not succeeded in obtaining 
the corrections determined by Welsh at Kew), results have been obtained of 
a character sufficiently definite for publication, though, of course, subject to 
(slight) future corrections and perhaps limitations. 

The substances experimented on were iron, lead, and copper. Two spe- 
cimens of the latter metal were employed, one of high, the other of low 
electric conductivity, the resistances of equal lengths of wires of the same 
gauge being about 1 to 1-64. The ratio of the thermal conductivities of 
these bars was at once found to be within 5 per cent., the same as that of 
their electric conductivities, a result certainly anticipated, but stiU very 
striking. In specific gravity and specific heat, as well as in chemical com- 
position, mode of manufacture, and drawing, these bars of copper scarcely 
differ. As yet they have been treated for thermal conductivity in the hard- 
drawn state alone ; but annealed wires of the same materials, while showing 
a slightly improved electric conductivity, maintain towards one another a 
ratio practically unaltered. 

Two points have been observed which enable us materially to simplify the 
determination of thermal conductivities by Torbes's method, so long at least 
as moderate ranges of temperature are concerned ; and we seek no greater 
accuracy than admits of 1 or 2 per cent, of error. 

1. The Curve of Cooling is practically the same for aU the substances I 
have tried (even for gas-coke), merely foreshortened or elongated in terms of 
a parameter, which involves the product of the specific gravity and the spe- 
cific heat of the substance employed. This was, of course, to be expected, 
provided the radiating power of the surface be kept the same, and provided 
conductivity do not interfere with the results. 

2. The Curve of Statical Temperature possesses, practically, the same pro- 
perty, at least for the four different bars employed. This proves that within 
the range of the experiments, and subject to the errors of the thermometers, 
the law of change of thermal conductivity with temperature is the same for 
lead and copper as for iron. I showed (Proc. R. S. Edin., 1867-68) that 
Forbes's results for iron agree closely with the statement that the conduc- 
tivity is inversely as the absolute temperature, a result which is identical 
with Matthiessen's determinations of electric resistance of pure metals at 
different temperatures. With a view to foUow up this analogy still further, 
I have ordered a bar of German silver, a substance whose electric conduc- 
tivity is but little altered by temperature. The results cannot fail to be 
interesting. 

Very simple reasoning from the (plotted) curves of Cooling and of Statical 
f^mperature shows that, to the amount of accuracy before mentioned, the 



176 REPORT— 1869. 

thermal conductivities of two metals are as the squares of the foreshorienings 
in their respective curves of statical temperature. I have not considered my 
observations sufficiently exact (chiefly on account of the imperfection of the 
thermometers) to warrant my undertaking the labour of calculating the con- 
stants of empirical formulae to represent them, but have contented myself 
with results derived from tracing, libera manu, curves closely representing 
the result of experiment. 

I may mention, in concluding this provisional Report, that an air-bath has 
been found preferable to melted solder for heating the bars employed in the 
cooling experiments, and that the conductivity of copper is so much superior 
to that of iron that, when a source of heat above 100° C. is employed, the 
further ends of the 8-feet copper bars require to be kept cold by a constant 
stream of water. In this case the curve of statical temperature undergoes 
an ob^aous and easiLv allowed for modification. 



Report of the Committee for the purpose of investigating the rate of 
Increase of Underground Temperature downwards in various Loca- 
lities, of Dry Land and under Water. Draivn up by Professor 
Everett, at the request of the Committee, consisting of Sir "William 
Thomson, XL.Z>.,F.2?.<S., E.W.Binney, F.R.S.,F.G.S., Archibald 
Geikie, F.R.S., F.G.S., James Glaisher, F.R.S., Rev. Dr. 
Graham, Prof. Fleeming Jenkin, F.R.S., Sir Charles Lyell, 
Bart., LL.D., F.R.S., J. Clerk Maxwell^ F.R.S., George Maw, 
F.L.S., F.G.S., Prof. Phillips, LL.D., F.R.S., William Pengelly, 
FR.S., F.G.S., Prof. Ramsay, F.R.S., F.G.S., Balfour Stewart, 
LL.D., F.R.S., G. J. Symons, Prof. James Thomson, C.E., Prof. 
Young, M.D., F.R.S.E., and Professor Everett, D.C.L., F.R.S.E., 
Secretary. 

In the last Eeport it was stated that several small hardy maximum ther- 
mometers suited for rough work were being constructed by Casella under the 
direction of the Committee. These instruments have now been in use for a 
year and have been found to work well. 

Their construction is as follows: — APhiUips's maximum thermometer, about 
10 inches long, graduated in Fahr. degrees from about 30° to 90°, is her- 
metically sealed within a glass tube, which is about three-quarters filled with 
air and one-fourth with alcohol, the thermometer being kept from touching 
the tube by cork rings. The thermometer thus enclosed is inserted in a 
copper case for protection, contact between the glass and the copper being 
prevented by india-rubber. The air within the hermetically sealed tube 
prevents the great pi-essure which acts upon the exterior of the tube in deep 
bores fiUed with water from being transmitted to the thermometer within. 
The use of the alcohol is to lessen the time required for the thermometer to 
come to the temperature of the surrounding medium. 

The Committee would take this opportunity of stating that they will be 
happy to supply these instruments to any persons who wiU undertake to make 
observations of the tempei'ature in borings. 

Mr. M'Farlauc (assistant to iSir AV. Thomson), who furnished for the last Ee- 



ON UNDERGROUND TEMPERATURE, 



177 



port a series of observations taken at Blyths-svood bore, no-w furnishes obser- 
Tations taken with the thermometer above described at two other bores. At 
Kii'kland I^euk bore near Blythswood, his observations were made m March 
and April 1868, and again in August and September of the same year. At 
South Balgray on the north side of the Clyde, his observations were made in 
July 1869. The following are the particulars of the observations. 

Observations of Underground Temperature at Xiikland Neuk Bore, 

Bl}i:hswood, 1868. 





Diameter of bore 2 


1 inches. 


Taken during March and April. 


Taken during August 
and September. 


Depth. 


Temp. 
Fahr. 


Temp. Fahr. 


feet. 








60 


44-67 


Mar. 28. 


48-0 




45-50 


„ 31. 




120 


4815 


„ 20. 


48-7 




48-20 


„ 23. 


48-65 

49-0 

49-0 


180 


50-29 


„ 18. 


50-20 




50-30 


„ 21. 


50-35 


240 


51-70 


„ 13. 


51-3 
51-5 


300 


53-10 


„ 7. 


52-5 
52-5 


354 


53-60 


Apr. 2. 


53-5 
53-53 



This bore was originally 570 feet deep, but was filled with sediment to 354 
feet from the surface. During March and April the weather was rainy, and 
a continual flow of water from the surface passed into the bore, escaping at 
some unknown depth. The temperature observed varied considerably at 
different times, especially towards the surface. Those here recorded were 
taken when the surface-flow was least, the others have been rejected from 
their irregularity as not trustworthJ^ 

In August and September the weather was dry, and the surface of the 
water in the bore remained at a nearly constant depth of 30 feet, and the 
temperatures observed are much more regular. 

An attempt was made to have the sediment taken out so as to render the 
whole depth available for observation, when an accident occurred to the iron 
tube protecting the upper part of the bore, and nothing further has been 
done. 

Observations of Underground Temperature at South Balgray, west from 
Glasgow, north from the Clyde. Diameter of bore 3 inches. 
This bore, originally 1040 feet deep, is available to a depth of 525 feet. 
The observations here recorded were made at the beginning of July 1869, 
the sitrface of the water being constant at 5i feet from that of the ground. 
Diameter of bore 3 inches. 



Depth, 
feet. 
60 .. 



Temp. 



Date. 



48-2 July2, 1869. 

48-2 „ 2 „ 



1869. 



Depth. 

feet. 

60 



Temp. 



Date. 



.48-22 July 6, 1869. 

48-20 „ 9 „ 



N 



178 



REPORT — 18G9. 



Depth, 
feet. 
120 .. 



Temp. 



Date. 



180 



240 



495 July 2, 1869. 

49-5 

49-60 

49-65 

49-52 

49-60 

49-60 

51-0 

51-0 

51-21 

51-20 

51-21 

52-7\y 

52-7r 

52-90 

52-75? 

52-91 

52-90 

52-90 

52-95 



300 



360 



53-9... 
63-8... 
53-86 . 
53-92 . 
53-90 . 
53-90 . 
53-90 . 

65-7?. 
55-40 . 
55-36 . 
55-39 . 
55-31 . 



2 
5 
6 
6 
9 
9 

2 
2 

5 
5 
6 

2 
2 
5 
5 
9 
9 
13 
13 

2 
2 
5 
5 
6 
9 
9 



5 
5 
6 
9 



Depth. 

feet. 
360 ., 



Temp. 



Date. 



390 



420 



55-30 July 9, 1869. 

55-45 „ 13 „ 

55-33 „ 13 ,, 

65-35 „ 13 „ 



5611, 
56-09 . 
5613 . 

56-9 . 
57-30 . 
67-20 . 
57-10. 
57-09 . 
57-18 . 
67-20 . 



450 



480 



488 



525 



57-80?, 
68-10... 
5810... 
58-32... 
68-00... 



58-7 . 
68-72 . 
58-70 . 
58-70 . 

59-05 . 
59-00. 

59-3 . 
59-6 . 
69-9?. 
59-40 . 
59-40 . 
59-45 . 



9 

9 

13 



5 
5 
6 
6 
9 
9 

9 

9 

9 

13 

13 



5 
6 
6 

9 
9 

2 
2 
5 
6 
6 
9 



In regard to these observations, I have to remark that the thermometer 
had to be drawn up with great caution, as I found that the thermometer 
case, or a knot on the cord, meeting -with a slight obstruction from rugged 
parts of the bore, produced a sufficient shock to cause the detached portion of 
the mercury to sink, which rendered the observation useless. The discre- 
pancies in some of the observations marked (?) may be due to this cause. 
In several cases, when the shock was distinctly felt, I found the reading very 
low, and at once rejected it. 

The mode of procedure was as as follows : — the readings were taken gene- 
rally at intervals of 60 feet (10 fathoms). For the smaller depths iced water 
was used to set the thermometer below the temperature of the locality to be 
tested, and on being brought to the surface, it was put into the water while 
taking the reading for considerable depths ; this was unnecessary, as its 
passage through the colder upper strata served the purpose sufficiently. Fre- 
quently two observations were taken at one depth in succession, but never 
more, before proceeding to the next greater ; and in no case was a reading 
taken at any depth after one had been made at a lower on the same day. 

Between the depths 390 feet and 450 feet there is continuous shale, and I 
thought it might be interesting to have the temperature of both these localities. 

At the depth of 488 feet commences a bed of greenstone about 140 feet thick, 
but the sediment prevented me from getting more than 37 feet into this bed. 



ON UNDERGROUND TEMPERATURE. 



179 



As it would be interesting to get through the greenstone, I am at present 
making inquiries as to the expense of having the mud pumped out. 

The following is an account of the strata penetrated by this bore, together 
with an abstract of the foregoing results : — 

July 1869. South Balgray Bore. 



Depth. 


Nature of strata. 


Number 
of layers 


Thickness. 


Tempera- 
ture. 


Differ- 
ence. 


Difference 
per foot. 


ft. 
60 


Surface-soil . . . . 
Sandy clay . . . . 
Dark fakes . . . . 
Grey fakes . . . . 
Dark blaes . . . . 
Sandstone . . . . 
Coal 


1 
1 

1 
2 
8 
1 
1 
4 


ft. in. 

1 
3 6 

2 6 
18 9 
22 6i 
10 o' 

1 
9 


o 

48-20 


o 





Ironstone . . . . 


19 


GO 0^ 


120 


Dark fakes . . . . 
Dark blaes . . . . 
Sandstone .... 
Coal 


2 
9 
2 
1 

6 


6 9 

29 7 

17 G 

3 

5 11 


49-56 


1-36 


0-0227 


Ironstone .... 


20 


GO 


180 


Dark fakes .... 
Grey fakes .... 
Dark blaes .... 
Light blaes .... 
Sandstone .... 

Coal 

Ironstone .... 


4 
3 
3 

1 
3 
2 
3 


9 6 
16 3 

8 5i 
1 2 
22 2 
1 5 
1 Oi 


51-12 


1-56 


0-0260 


19 


60 


240 


Grey fakes .... 
Dark blaes .... 
Sandstone .... 
Ironstone .... 


1 

10 

1 

8 


3 6 

38 9 
10 8 

7 1 


52-84 


1-72 


0-02S7 


20 , 


60 


300 


Dark fakes .... 
Grey fakes .... 
Dark blaes .... 
Sandstone .... 
Ironstone .... 


2 

2 
1 
1 
1 


17 3 
12 10 

4 
2.5 8 

3 


53-88 


1-04 


0-0173 


7 


GO 



n2 



180 



Depth. 



ft. 



360 



390 

420 

450 



480 



525 



KEPORT 1869. 

July 1869. South. Balgray Bore {continued). 



Nature of strata. 



Number 
oflayers. 



Dark fakes .... 
Fakey sandstone 
Dark blaes .... 
Ironstone .... 



Dark fakes 
Dark blaes 
Sandstone 



Dark blaes 



Dark blaes .... 

Dark blaes .... 
Dark limestone . 
Light do. hard 
Limey fakes 
Parting .... 
Fakey limestone 



Fakey limestone 
Greenstone . . . 



Thickness. 



Tempera- 
ture. 



3 

2 



20 

3 
1 
3 



1 
4 
4 
1 
1 



11 



ft. in. 

11 4i 

25 7 

17 6i 

5 6 



60 



19 8J 
6 U 
3 ll' 



30 

30 

30 

6 41 
3 1 

7 
13 1 

1 

41 



30 



10 
34 



lOi 
U 



45 



53-88 



55-40 



56-11 
57-14 

58-13 



58-70 



59-52 



Diflter- 

enoe. 



1-52 



0-71 

1-03 
0-99 



o-s: 



0-82 



Difference 

23er foot. 



0-0253 



0-023/ 



0-0343 



^ 9 



0-0330 






0-0190 



0-0182 



Diiference of temperature for 465 feet . ll°-32, 
Mean difference of temperature per foot 0°-0244, 

being at the rate of 1° for 41 feet. It will be remarked that the shale, 
■which extends from 390 feet to 450 feet, shows a more rapid increase of 
temperature, and therefore smaller conductivity than the other strata*. 

The following is an account of the strata penetrated by the Blythswood 
bore (No. 1), together with an abstract of the temperatures observed in it. 
The particulars of the observations of temperature were given in last year's 
Report. 

* As regards the relation between rate of increase of temperature do-wnwards and 
thermal conductivity, it is to be borne in mind that in comparing different parts of one 
bore these quantities ai-e generally in inverse proportion to each other ; but this rule does 
not apply to the comparison of two bores in different localities. See Mr. Hopkins's paper, 
Phil. Trans, vol. cxlvii. 



ON UNDERGROUND TEMPERATURE. 
1867-68. Blythswood Bore, No. 1. 



181 



Depth. 


Nature of strata. 


Number 
of layers 


Thickness. 


Tempera- 
ture. 


Differ- 
ence. 


Difference 
per foot. 


ft. 
60 


Surface-soil. . . 
Till with stones 
Dark till 


1 
1 
1 


ft. in. 

1 6 
46 6 
12 




47-95 


o 





3 


60 


120 


Dark till 

Fakes 

Dark Maes . . . . 
Blaes and fakes . 
Sandstone . . . . 
Coal 


2 
10 
4 
6 
3 
3 


11 
6 3 

12 4| 
12 6 

15 7i 
1 8 

7 


49-22 


1-27 


-0212 


Ironstone 


28 


60 


180 


Sandstone fakes. 

Blaes 

Sandstone .... 
Coal 


8 
7 
4 
2 
4 


21 2i 

18 1| 

18 3 

1 6i 

10| 


50-50 


1-28 


•0213 


Ironstone 


25 


60 


240 


Sandstone fakes. 
Sandstone .... 

Blaes 

Ironstone 


7 
5 
9 
4 


33 2i 
10 4 
15 8i 
9' 


51-58 


1-08 


•0180 


25 


60 


300 


Sandstone fakes. 
Sandstone .... 
Dark blaes .... 
Ironstone 


2 

2 

12 

11 


10 0| 
8 6| 

36 11 
4 5| 


52-76 


1-18 


-0197 


27 


59 11| 


347 


Sandstone .... 
Dark blaes .... 

Fakes 

Ironstone 


2 
4 
1 
2 


18 2 
27 9| 
3 
9| 


53-69 


•93 


•0198 


9 


47 



Our attempts to obtain the journal of the Kirkland Neuk bore, showing 
the strata penetrated by it, have not as yet been successful. The mean rate 



182 REPORT — 1869. 

of increase, calculated from the observations in August and September, is 
0°-0187 per foot, or 1° for 53-5 feet. 

This is the bore which was referred to in the following passage of last 
year's Eeport. 

" It has been selected because the mining engineer states in his report 
that the coal has been very much burned or charred, showing the effects of 
heat ; and it becomes an interesting question, Are there any remains of that 
heat that charred the coal in ancient times, or has it passed off so long ago 
that the strata are now not sensibly warmer on account of it ? " 

The observations seem to establish the latter alternative, this bore being 
rather colder than its neighbour, the Blythswood No. 1. 

Mr. Q. J. Symons, Member of the Committee, has furnished the following 
account of observations taken by him to the depth of 1 100 feet in an artesian 
boring at Kentish Town : — 

" Observations have been made during a considerable length of time, and 
with every precaution and care, through the London Clay, Thanet Sands, 
Chalk, Upper Greeusand, and Gault, in the vicinity of the metropolis, under 
the following circumstances. 

" There exists in the northern suburbs of London, between Kentish Town 
and Highgate, a remarkably large well, 8 feet in diameter and 540 feet deep, 
lined throughout with the finest brickwork, and reaching 214 feet deep into 
the Chalk. This well was the property of a Company whose Act of Parlia- 
ment bore date 35th Henry VIII. (a.d. 1544), and afforded a sujjply of 
water to the surrounding neighbourhood until, in 1852, when, under the 
joint influence of the Board of Health, who objected to hard water, of in- 
creasing demand and decreasing quantity, the Company decided on seeking 
a fresh supply. It was represented to them as most probable that by sink- 
ing a bore-tube to a depth of about 1000 feet, the Lower Greensand would be 
tapped, and an abundant supply of excellent water obtained. The then 
existing well being more than half the entire depth required, it was decided 
to bore from its bottom, and thus save half the cost. The boring was carried 
down to 1302 feet (nearly a quarter of a mile), but the Lower Greensand was 
absent ; some unknown rocks were penetrated, and the Company, after spend- 
ing on their works, well, and boring nearly £100,000, became bankrupt ; 
the New River Company purchased the plant, but were advised not to con- 
tinue the search ; the buildings were sold for old materials, and the whole 
left in a ruinous condition. 

" I considted other members of this Committee as to the expediency of ob- 
taining from the New River Comp. permission to experiment on this bore, and 
consent having (through the courtesy of Mr. Muir, the Company's engineer) 
been obtained, it was decided that observations should be forthwith commenced. 

" Owing to the ruinous condition of the top of the well, and the depth of 
the top of the bore-tube below the ground, very considerable danger and 
discomfort attended the preliminary arrangements, although these very dif- 
ficulties have eventually led to the detection of sources of error not previously 
suspected, and to exceptionally accurate results. 

" The accompanying sketches explain pretty clearly the exact circumstances 
under which the observations were taken, viz. that a hut was erectied over 
the top of the well to shut out, as far as practicable, external temperature 
and to protect the apparatus ; that a stout floor was fixed 10 feet down the 
weU to afford access to the tube * and safety to the observer, the top of the 

* " It is scarcely necessary to say that the tube commences 9 feet below tlie siu-face of the 
ground, and passes down through the well." 



ON UNDERGROUND TEMPERATURE. 



183 



tube only rises one foot above the floor, and is plugged with a large ball of 
felt to prevent external air having free communication with the tube. The 
exact limits of the various strata are also shown, together with the constant 




A, floor, 10 feet below surface of ground. 
B, briok-ledge. C, bore-tube, fitting tightly 
in floor. D, steps leading to entrance door E. 
G, opening into well, with trap-door. H, 
beam suporting pulleys, over which pass two 
cords Q Q,, one leading to tube and the other 
to well. J, windlass, separately represented 
in second figure. L, registering-apparatus, 
with dials M, indicating amount of cord paid 
out. N, stand of windlass, fixed to brick- 
work B. R, thermometers for temperature 
of observing room. O O, thermometers for 
imdorground temperature. 



depth at which water stands in the tube : this constancy is worth notice ; for 
whereas in most cases water-levels vary with the rainfall in the districts 
whence they obtain their supply, the water at Kentish Town has not varied 
more than six inches during the last ten months, and is very muddy. The 
diameter of the bore-tube is 8 inches. 

Two thermometers have always been used in these observations, — one 




184 



REPORT — 1869. 



similar to those designed for the use of the Committee by Sir Wm. Thomson, 
and the other an extra strong Six's thermometer, as supplied to the Admi- 
ralty by Casella. The iniiuence of great pressure on the indications of ther- 
mometers having recently attracted considerable attention, it may be well to 
state that the greatest pressure to which those used at Kentish Town have 
been submitted is about a fifth of a ton per square inch, and this causes the 
Six's thermometer to rise about 0°-4 ; Sir W. Thomson's thermometer being 
protected by an outer glass tube is entirely uninfluenced by this pressure, or 
even, as Professor Miller's experiments have shown, by a pressure of two tons 
and a half on the square inch*. Hence it is certain that pressure has been 
deprived of aU influence. The use of two thermometers of diff'erent con- 
structions ensured the detection of any slipping or accidental error in the 
observations, but in the regular series not a single instance of the kind has 
occurred. 

" In order to ascertain the depth of the instruments easily, accurately, and 
independently of any variation in the hygrometric condition of the lowering- 
cord, it was conducted from the windlass round a grooved wheel exactly 
86 inches in circumference, to whose axle an endless screw was attached, 
which worked a train of divided wheels, so that the exact distance could 
be taken at any instant. 

" It was supposed that several trustworthy obsei'vations could be obtained 
in the course of one day ; but the following Table shows that this was not 
the case, and confirms the expediencj-, where practicable, of allowing con- 
siderable time for the instruments &c. to come to thermal equilibrium. At 
Kentish Town the observations on which reliance is placed have been made 
at intervals of not less than six days, and generally of seven. On two or 
three occasions, however, attempts have been made to obtain observations at 
short intervals, and the following are the results: — 



Depth, 
in feet. 


Time allowed. 


Date. 


Temperature 
indicated. 


True 
temperature. 


Error. 


100 


1 hour. 


March 5. 


50-1 


51-0 


o 

-0-9 


200 


yj 




51-S 


53-6 


-1-8 


300 








56-1 


56-1 


0-0 


400 








55-0 


58-1 


-3-1 


500 








58-11 




2-1 


55 








60-0 I 


60-2 


-0-2 


55 








60-2 J 




0-0 


550 






Feb." 12. 


61-0 


61-0 


0-0 


600 






March 5. 


58-01 
58-2 J 


61-2 


-3-2 
-30 


700 








62-51 
62-6 J 


62-8 


-0-3 
-0-2 


710 


Half-hour. 




62-8 1 
62-9 


62-9 


-0-1 
0-0 


750 


20 minutes. 


Feb." 19. 


63-0 


63-4 


-0-4 



* " Professor W. A. Miller's experiments were made with an hydraulic press, and are de- 
scribed in the Boy. Sec. Proceedings for June 17, 1869 (No. 113). Several thermometers 



ON UNDERGROUND TEMPERATURE. 



185 



" It is well knoTvn that in the solid crust of the earth the influence of sea- 
sons penetrates but a slight depth, say 60 feet ; but it occurred to me that 
this might not hold good in the case of such an opening as the Kentish Town 
well. I therefore decided on commencing my observations at midwinter, 
contiuuiug them regularly to midsummer, and then repeating every obser- 
vation ; those at each depth will therefore have been taken twice at exactly 
opposite seasons, and at intervals of six months. The necessity for this 
extreme care did not appear obvious at first, and it seemed as if the various 
precautions against the ingress of atmospheric temperatures had rendered it 
superfluous ; but during recent hot periods its desirability has become abun- 
dantly manifest : the temperature at a depth of 50 feet was 49°-2 in Janu.ary 
and 54°-l in July ; that at 100 feet was 51° in January and 54°-3 in July ; 
at 150 feet 52°-! in January and 54°-7 in July. It is therefore evident that 
under the cii'cumstances existing at Kentish Town, it is more easy to deter- 
mine accurately the temperature at great depths than at the lesser ones. It 
is certain that but for the precautions taken, and the unusual mildness of the 
winter, the temperature at 50 feet would have been much below 49°-2. 
Whence it further appears that though a single observation at depths below 
200 feet will probably give accurately the true temperature at any selected 
depth, yet in shafts and bores similarly circumstanced to that now under 
notice, very discordant residts may be obtained at lesser depths. Moreover, 
it is obviously impossible, bj' anj' but long-continued observations, to deter- 
mine accurately the surface-temperature of the ground, or the equivalent of 
a depth of feet ; it may therefore be expedient, for the purpose of com- 
pleting the series, to assume that the mean temperature of 
the surface of the soil at Kentish Town, 187 feet above mean 
sea-level, is identical with that of the air at Green'ndch (49°) 
at 159 feet above the sea, and it is satisfactory to find that 
the observations hitherto made agree perfectly with this 
hypothesis. Although, as we have already stated, the ex- 
periments are by no means concluded, it may be convenient 
to tabulate the results hitherto obtained. Being impressed 
with the high importance of accurate knowledge of the 
rate and amount of seasonal change in the shaft, Mr. Symons 
designed, and Mr. Casella (aided in part by Messrs. Silver & 
Co.) constructed, a very delicate thermometer, which was 
cased 5 inches thick in felt and non-conducting materials, 
and enclosed in an ebonite box, as in the annexed section ; 
the non-conducting powers of this instrument were such that 
on one occasion it was raised into the observing-room show- 
ing a temperature of 51°-14, and after being in a tempera- 
ture of 60° for thirty-five minutes it had only risen 0'^-02. 
By this means it was therefore possible to bring up the exact temperature of 
any required depth, uninfluenced by the warmer or colder strata through 
which it might have to pass. It was regularly obseiwed for some time during 
the present spring, and the following readings obtained : — 




were experimented on. Sir W. Thomson's is that which is designated 'No. 9645. A 
mercurial maximum thermometer, on Professor Phillips's plan, enclosed in a strong outer 
tube containing a little spirit of wine, and hermetically sealed.' " 



186 



REPORT 1869. 



" Temperature by Insulated Thermometer 100 feet below Surface. 

Increase 
per diem. 



' 1869, April 3 


„ „ 12 




, » 17 




, „ 24 




, „ 30 




„ May 7 




„ „ 14 




„ „ 21 




^8 




, June 4 




, „ 11 




' Thfi mnin i 



51-21 
51-40 
51-44 
51-52 
51-54 
51-58 
51-85 
52-00 
51-92 
51-94 
52-10 



0-021^ 
0-008 
0-011 
0'003 
0-006 
0-024 
0-021 
0-011 
-0-003 
+ 0-025 



Increase, April 3 to June 11, 
0-89 or 0°-013 per diem. 



The main results of the experiments in the bore-tube are shown in the 
follo'niug Table : — 
" Abstract of Kesults obtained at Kentish Town "Well, Jan. 1 to June 30, 1869. 



Depth. 


Date of 

observa- 
tion. 


Observed 
tempe- 
rature. 


Differ- 
ence for 
50 feet. 


Eate of 
increase, 
in degrees 
per foot. 


Temperature in 
observing-room. 


Depth 

of 
rain. 


Depth to 

surface of 

water 

in tube. 


Max. 


Min. 


ft. 

50 

100 

150 

200 

250 

300 

350 

400 

450 

500 

550 

600 

650 

700 

750 

800 

850 

900 

950 

1000 

1050 

1070 

1085* 

1085* 

1100* 

1100* 


Jan. 8. 
„ 15. 

,. 29. 
Feb. 6. 

„ 12. 

„ 19. 

„ 26. 
Mar. 5. 

„ 12. 

„ 19. 

„ 23. 

„ 27. 
April 3. 

„ 12. 

.., 17. 

„ 24. 

„ 30. 
May 7. 

„ 14. 

„ 21. 

„ 24. 

„ 28. 
June 4. 

„ 11. 

„ 14. 


49°2 
51-0 
52-1 
53-6 
560 
561 
661 
58-1 
591 
60-2 
610 
61-2 
61-4 
62-8 
63-4 
64-2 
650 
65-8 
66-7 
67-8 
69-0 
69-3 
69-6 
69-8 
69-7 
700 


O 

1-8 
11 
1-5 
2-4 
01 
00 
20 
1-0 
1-1 
0-8 
0-2 
02 
1-4 
0-6 
0-8 
0-8 
0-8 
0-9 
11 
1-2 

0-7 
10 


•036 
•022 
•030 
•048 
•002 
•000 
•040 
-020 
•022 
•016 
•004 
•004 
•028 
■012 
•016 
•016 
•016 
•018 
•022 
•024 

•014 
•020 


o 

46^8 
492 
46^8 
430 
48^4 
49-4 
48^2 
46^5 
46^5 
45^8 
44-0 
445 
430 
43-6 
54^0 
54^4 
52-4 
56^2 
53-8 
54^2 
55-2 

58-0 
560 
61 •O 


38^2 
395 
360 
3r8 
395 
42-3 
39-2 
36-8 
35-2 
352 
34^8 
376 
349 
360 
373 
46-2 
40-8 
406 
435 
45-4 
44-2 

472 
430 

48-5 


in. 

1^06 
-20 
■22 
•64 
•83 
•89 
•38 
•67 
•59 
-10 
•15 
-95 
•05 
■22 
•19 
-38 
-53 
•01 

100 
•47 
■47 

•75 

•58 
•01 


ft. in. 

210 

208 6 (a) 
210 6 

209 6 

210 (4) 

?219 (c) 

211 

209 

210 

210 6 
210 6 {d) 

210 6 

210 6 



Eemarks. 

" (a) First observation in the water. 

" {h) Water becomes muddy. 

" (c) This water-measurement seems erroneous. 

" (d) On attempting to lower the thermometers to 1100 feet, found the mud supported 
them, and the cord became slack. The observations to which an asterisk is attached were 
obtiiined by leaving the cord so slack as to allow the thermometers to bury themselves in 
the mud; but there is much risk in attempting to withdraw them." 



ON UNDERGKOUND TEMPERATUKE. 187 

" Assuming 49° as the surface-temperature, and adopting 70° as the tem- 
perature at 1100 feet, we find, for the mean rate of increase downwards, 
•0191° per foot, or 1° for 52-4 feet. 

" Comparing the first observation in the water (56°) with the temperature 
at the bottom (70°), the mean rate of increase comes out -0165, or 1° for 
60-6 feet. 

" During the remainder of the present year the repetition of the observa- 
tions will be continued, and it is hoped the influence of seasonal changes will 
be measured and eliminated. In conclusion, we have to acknowledge the 
liberality of the New Eiver Company in allowing Mr. Symons unreserved 
access to their grounds, and permission to erect the necessary apparatus, 
which has been efficiently protected by their servants. " 

I desire to say, in reference to the foregoing Report, that the length of 
time which Mr. Symons found it necessary to interpose between his observa- 
tions is a peculiar circumstance of which I can at present off'er no sufficient 
explanation, and I cannot help thinking that it might be obviated by some 
modification of the arrangements. Mr. M'Farlane, in three different bores, 
has found 15 minutes amply sufficient to give the correct temperature. Can 
the difference be owing to the greater size and smoothness of the bore in this 
instance off'ering less resistance to vertical currents ? 

As regards the first 210 feet, being the portion occupied by air, it is not 
siu'prising that the influence of season should here be perceptible, seeing 
that the well is 8 feet in diameter. The temperature of the air in an open- 
ing of this size, even for tJie average of the year, cannot be taken to represent 
that of the solid earth at the same dej)th, but will doubtless be found to be 
intermediate between the latter and the mean temperature of the exter- 
nal air. 

The Rev. Dr. Graham (Member of the Committee) has taken observa- 
tions in a bore at Logie Works, near Dundee, tkrough the kindness of the 
proprietors, Messrs. Edwards, from whom he received much assistance. The 
bore was available to the depth of 640 feet, and was described, before the 
observations, as being filled nearly to the surface with water, in which there 
was no perceptible motion. Much difficulty was experienced from the shak- 
ing down of the detached column of mercury in the thermometer ; but this 
was at length obviated by fixing the thermometer horizontally in a hollow 
cup in a piece of hard wood, which had a hinged glass cover to permit of 
reading the indications, provision being made for the free circulation of the 
water, and a weight being attached to the bottom to act as sinker. The 
temperatures observed were exceedingly anomalous, being about 10° greater 
at 100 feet than at 50 feet, then increasing to the depth of about 400 feet, and 
afterwards decreasing to the bottom. Dr. Graham states that he and his 
assistant observers were convinced that the water which filled the bore was 
obtained at the depth of about 170 feet, and that while one portion rose to 
the surface, another and smaller fiowed downwards and escaped through the 
lower strata. 

Mr. John Hunter, Assistant to the Professor of Chemistry, Queen's Col- 
lege, Belfast, has taken a few observations in two shafts, sunk with a view 
to salt-mining, at high ground near Carrickfergus. In both of them the 
water stood only to the depth of a few feet. It was found that the tempera- 
ture of the air within the shafts increased downwards, at any one time, -with 
tolerable uniformity, but varied greatly with the weather. The shafts were 
kept constantly closed by boarded covers, except during the actual process 
of observing. The temi^erature of the water at the bottom, which is as- 



188 



REPORT 1869, 



Slimed to represent pretty accurately the temperature of the soil at the same 
depth, was 62°*4 in Duncrue shaft at the depth of 570 feet (observed No- 
vember 7, 18G8), and 66° in Mr. Dalway's new shaft at the depth of 770 
feet (observed November 14, 1868). Assuming 48° as the mean surface- 
temperature, the increase of temperature downwards would be at the rates 
of 1° in 40 feet and 1° in 43 feet respectively. The soil in both cases was 
yellow clay. 

Mr. David Burns, of H.M. Geological Survey, now stationed at Allendale 
near Carlisle, has taken observations in that neighbourhood, which he thus 
describes : — " The first shaft I tried is over 50 fathoms in depth, and is 
about half full of water. It is situated on the summit of a ridge a few 
yards distant from a fault of some 900 feet throw. The flow, or rather 
change, of water in it, from these or other causes, is considerable, as is 
shown by the temperature. The result of my observations may be put 
thus : — 

" After a period of drought — 

feet. o 

" Depth 160 Temperature 47-5 

„ 200 „ 47 

„ 250 „ 47-7 

„ 300 „ 47-7 

" The minimum temperature is at 200 feet. This reading may be relied on, 
as I repeated the observation to make sure of it. Perhaps at this level lies 
the chief feeder of water. 

" Shortly after heavy rains — 

feet. ^ 

" Depth 160 Temperature 47 
„ 200 „ 47-5 

„ 250 „ 47-3 

„ 300 „ 47-3" 

Mr. Burns goes on to relate his unsuccessful attempts to take observations 
in two other shafts, which turned out to be closed, probably by platforms, at 
a depth of several feet below the surface of the water. 

In concluding this Eeport, I would beg to direct attention to a valuable 
summary of observations of underground temperature at great depths con- 
tributed by Mr. Hull to the ' Quarterly Journal of Science' for January 
1868, from which the following Table of results has been condensed : — ■ 

Depth, Temperature at Average rate 
in bottom, in of 

feet. degrees Fabr. increase, 
o feet. 

Puits de Grenelle, near Paris 1794-6 81-95 1 for 59 

Boring at Neu Salzwerk, Westphalia . 2281 91-04 1 „ 54-68 

Boring near Geneva .... .... 1 „ 55 

Boring at Mendorff, Luxemburg .... 2394 .... 1 „ 57 

Monkwearmouth Colliery 1499 .... 1 „ 60 

Eose Bridge Colliery, near Wigan . . 1800 80 1 „ 58-3 

Astley Pit, Dukcnfield, Cheshire 2040 75-5 1 „ 83-2 

Mr. Hull strongly insists on the necessity of observations at greater 
depths. He gives reasons for maintaining that, at depths exceeding 2000 



ON KENT^S CAVERN, DEVONSHIRE. 189 

feet, no water would be found in ordinary Coal-measure strata, and offers a 
recommendation in the following terms : — 

" After much consideration, the plan which we venture to recommend, in 
case of experiments being imdertaken by the British Association, or any 
other scieutiiic society', would be, not to commence at the surface, but at 
the bottom of a coal-mine, of not less depth than 600 yards. 

" There are several collieries, particularly in Lancashire and Cheshire, 
sufl&cientl}' deep for the purpose. It would be an easy matter to excavate a 
chamber in the coal and its roof, where the borings might be carried on. The 
chamber ought to be a short distance from the bottom of one of the shafts, 
and out of the way of mining-operations. As the process of boring pro- 
gressed, observations should be taken at every 10 yards, and at every change 
of strata, from sandstone to shale or coal. The boring might be carried 
down at least to a total depth of 1000 yards from the surface, and having 
been completed under proper supervision, could not fail to give results of 
value to science. It is also probable that a proprietor of some colliery of 
the required depth would willingly afford the facilities for caiTying on the 
experiment, for the sake of the information he would derive regarding the 
minerals underlying the coal-seam then being worked." 

With respect to this recommendation, I may say, in the name of the Com- 
mittee, that they consider it very valuable, and would gladly avaU them- 
selves of any opportunity of carrying it out, so far as the funds at their 
disposal permit. 



Fifth Report of the Committee for Exploring Kent's Cavern, Devonshire. 
The Committee consistinc/ of Sir Charles Lyell, Bart., F.R.S., 
Professor Phillips, F.R.S., Sir John Lubbock, Bart., F.R.S., 
John Evans, F.R.S., E. Vivian, George Busk, F.R.S., William 
Boyd Dawkins, F.R.S., and William Pengelly, F.R.S. {Reporter). 

Before commencing the Eeport of their researches during the last twelve 
months, the Committee beg to call attention to a few facts connected with 
branches of the Cavern explored in previous years. 

In their Third Keport, presented to the Association at Dundee in 1867, 
they stated that in a part of that branch of the Cavern termed the " Vesti- 
bule," there was beneath the Stalagmitic Ploor, and generally in direct con- 
tact with its nether surface, a layer of black soil, known as the " Black Band," 
which varied from 2 to 6 inches in thickness, covered an area of about 100 
square feet, and at its nearest approach was 32 feet from the northern en- 
trance of the Cavern. They also stated that this Black Band contained a large 
amoiint of charcoal, and that in it had been found 366 Hint implements, 
flakes, cores, and chips ; a bone harpoon or lish-spear, and a bone awl ; and 
numerous bones and teeth of extinct and recent animals, some of which were 
partially charred. Thej further remarked that were they to speculate re- 
specting the probable interpretation of the Black Band — bearing in mind its 
very limited area, its position near one of the entrances of the Cavern and 
within the influence of the light entering thereby, its numerous bits of char- 
coal and of burnt bones, its bone tools and its very abundant, keen-edged, 
unworn, and brittle chips and flakes of whitened flint, — they might be tempted 
to conclude that they had not only identified the Cavern as the home of an 



190 REPORT— 1869. 

early Britisli family, but the Vestibule as the particular apartment where they 
enjoyed the pleasures of their own fireside, cooked and ate their meals, and 
fashioned flint nodules and bones into implements for war, for the chase, and 
for domestic use*. 

To the foregoing description of the Black Band and its locality, it may he 
added that, even during very wet seasons, that part of the Cavern is very little 
exposed to drip from the roof. 

It may not be out of place to state here that, in order to ascertain to what 
extent the hght penetrating the entrance of the Cavern was available, one of 
the Superintendents of the exploration placed himself near the centre of the 
Black-Band area, and found that without any artificial light he could distinctly 
see to write a letter and to read ordinary print. 

But whilst the Committee have seen no reason to abandon or to modify 
their interpretation of the Black Band, and whilst it has been generally ac- 
cepted by those who by personal inspection have made themselves familiar 
with the phenomena of the Cavern, they have found that by one very able 
and experienced observer it has been regarded with some amount of scepti- 
cism, on the groimd that the smoke of a fire in the Cavern would either suffo- 
cate or expel the inhabitants ; that, in short, the interpretation was incon- 
sistent, since it supposed the Cavern to have been inhabited under conditions 
which would render it uninhabitable. 

To test the force of this objection, six large faggots of wood were piled in a 
heap and set on fire, as nearly as possible on the centre of the area which the 
Black Band had occupied. The fire burnt brilliantly and threw out large 
tongues of flame, which licked the roof, whilst a party of five persons, without 
the least inconvenience from smoke or any other cause, sat on the rocky 
sides of the Cavern and watched the experiment. They were imanimous in 
the opinion that the objection that was thus put on its trial was utterly in- 
valid. It may be mentioned, too, that the temperature of the Cavern is per- 
manent, and stands by night and by day, in summer and in winter, at about 
52° Fahr., or half a degree above the mean annual temperature of the district 
in which Kent's Hole is situated. Hence it may be concluded that, unless 
the Black Band represents a period when the mean temperature of South 
Devon was considerably below that which at present obtains, large fires would 
not have been needed. Artificial heat would have been required, not to make 
the Cavern tenantable, but perhaps for culinary purposes only. 

Before quitting this subject, it may be stated that the smoke drifted to- 
wards the interior of the Cave, and that one of the party, who from time to 
time passed all round the fire and to various distances from it, reported that 
in the narrower adjacent ramifications it was oppressive. 

Soon after the Meeting at Norwich in 1868, Mr. Boyd Dawkins, a member 
of the Committee, intimated his intention of visiting Torquay for the purpose 
of examining and naming the remains of the Cave-animals which had been 
collected during the exploration. It has been stated in previous Reports 
that, from the beginning, a separate box has been appropriated to the speci- 
mens found in each distinct " yard " of deposit, that is, in each pai'allelopiped 
of Cave-earth a yard in length and a foot in breadth and in depth, that 
with each set of specimens was packed a numbered label, and that the 
Secretary recorded in his daily Journal fuU information respecting the 
precise position of the objects thus numerically defined, as well as the date on 
which they were exhumed. It may be added that, as soon as the specimens 

* Report Brit. Assoc. 1867, p. 32. 



ON Kent's cavekn, Devonshire. 191 

were cleaned and packed, the boxes were stowed away in a room set apart 
for them, the door was locked, and the Secretary never parted with the key. 
It is obvious that the number of boxes of specimens waiting for examination 
was equal to the number of " yards " in which fossils have been found. On 
the 31st of December, 1868, this number was 3948 ; and though it is true 
that some of the boxes contained no more than a single bone, it is also true 
that in many of them there were upwards of a hundred ; hence it will be 
seen that the task Mr. Dawkins had before him possessed Herculean dimen- 
sions. When he began his examination, there must have been in store for 
him more than 50,000 bones ; and though many of them were unidentifiable 
chips merely, every one had to pass under review. 

In order that this gigantic labour might be somewhat facilitated, the Secre- 
tary commenced to unpack each box, and to write on every specimen it con- 
tained the number written on the accompanying label. While thus engaged, 
on the 24th of September, 1868, with the box labelled 1847, he found amongst 
its contents what appeared at first to be merely a very small bone, the greater 
part of which was covered with a film of stalagmite. On being touched, the 
investment fell oif (a very common occuiTence in the case of similar speci- 
mens after having been washed and dried), and the object proved to be a por- 
tion of a bone needle, having its point broken off but retaining its perfect 
and weU-formed eye. This part had been concealed and, happily, protected 
by the calcareous covering. The remnant is about -85 inch long and is 
shghtly taper. Its section at right angles to its longest axis is subelliptical, 
resembling that of a modern bodkin rather than that of a needle. Its greater 
diameter at the larger end is about -075 inch, and at the smaller -05 inch ; 
hence, assuming it to have been symmetrical in form and to have terminated 
in a point, its original length must have been 2-55 inches. There are nume- 
rous fine longitudinal striae on its sui-face, suggesting that it had been scraped 
into form. The Secretary's daily journal shows that it was exhumed on the 
4th of December, 1866, and that it belonged to the Black Band beneath the 
Stalagmitic Ploor. 

Since its discovery it has unfortunately been broken, the Line of fracture 
passing through the eye. Before the accident it had been seen by several 
members of the Committee and by many other persons. The parts have been 
very carefully and firmly reunited. The eye was capable of carrjung a thread 
about three-eightieths of an inch in diameter, or about the thickness of fine 
twine. 

On November 26th, 1868, while still engaged in preparing the specimens 
for Mr. Boyd Dawkins, the Secretary had the good fortune to detect, under 
precisely similar conditions, in the box labelled 2206, a bone " harpoon " or 
fish-spear barbed on one side only. When dug out of the deposit it was in 
two pieces, one of which was almost, and the other completely, encrusted 
with stalagmite. Indeed the latter was regarded as a pipe of stalactite, and 
as such was preserved. It is recorded in the Secretary's journal that it was 
disinterred on the 7th of March, 1867, in the Vestibule, in the first or upper- 
most foot-level of Cave-earth, beneath the Black Band, which was 4 inches 
thick, and which was covered with a Stalagmitic Ploor varying from 12 to 
20 inches in thickness, and that this, again, was overlaid with Black Mould 
containing pre-Koman and Romano-British objects. 

The fact that remains of the extinct Cave-bear, Hyaena, and Rhinoceros 
have been met with not only in the Stalagmitic Floor just mentioned, but 
quite at its upper surface, must be borne in mind when attempting to form 
an estimate of the chronology of the needle and " harpoon " just described. 



192 REPORT— 1869. 

Besides the foregoing, there was found during the preparatory examination, 
/^/iJ7t^ in the box numbered 2067j.a canine of a Badger, the fang of wbich had been 
cut or otherwise reduced to a -wedge-hke form, and perforated obHquely as if 
for the purpose of being strung. It was exhumed on February 4th, 1867, in 
the '* Vestibule " in the second foot-level of Cave-earth, which is beUeved to 
have been intact ; but as the overlying Stalagmite had been broken up and 
removed by the earher explorers, the Supeiiutendents do not feel perfect 
confidence in the trustworthiness of its position. 

The foregoing are the only objects of peculiar interest which have been re- 
cently detected among the specimens collected by the Committee, prior to the 
last Meeting of the Association, from the deposits beneath the Stalagmitic 
Floor. 

There have been found, however, two noteworthy objects, among those which 
had been met with in the Black Mould overljing the Stalagmite, and which, 
therefore, can have no pretensions to great antiquity. The first is a bone 
needle, by no means so elegantly designed or so highly finished as that just 
described. Its proportions also are such as to secure for it great strength, and 
to enable it to carry a thi'ead or cord of considerable size. 

The second object is a ring, apparently of Kimmeridge Coal, or some kin- 
dred substance. The diameter of the greater circle is upwards of an inch, 
and of the inner one about half an inch. The annulus is about -2 inch thick 
at its inner edge, and both surfaces are uuifonnly bevelled to a line at the 
outer edge. Its breadth is not uniform, as the circles are not concentric. 

Researches during the year 1868-69. — During the year which has elapsed 
since the Meeting at Norwich in 1868, the Committee have, with very slight 
modifications to be noticed hereafter, conducted the excavation on the method 
desci'ibed in detail in their First lleport (Birmingham, 1865) ; the Superin- 
tendents have continued their daily visits to the Cavern ; the Secretary has 
recorded in his daily joiirnal such facts as have presented themselves ; monthly 
Reports have been regularly forwarded to the Chairman of the Committee ; the 
workmen have continued to be interested in their work, which they have per- 
formed with great zeal and integrity ; the interest felt by the general public in 
the progress of the investigation has suffered no diminution ; and the arrange- 
ments for the admission of visitors, which in previous j'ears worked so satis- 
factorily for all parties, have in all cases been carried out. 

Since the last lleport was sent in, the Superintendents have had the plea- 
sure of showing the Cavern and explaining the operations to the Queen of the 
Netherlands and her suite, the Right Honourable Sir George Grey, the Pdght 
Honourable John Bright, and several Members of the British Association, 
including Sir W. Tite, Mr. G. Griffith (Assistant General Secretary), Pro- 
fessor TyndaU, Mr. W. A. Sanford, Mr. W. Fronde, Mr. J. E. Lee, Mr. S. R. 
Pattison, and others. 

Mr. Everett, who is about to proceed to Borneo to explore some of the 
caverns in that island under the auspices of the Raja of Sarawak, recently 
spent two days (July 31st and August 2nd) in Kent's Hole, accompanied by 
one of the Superintendents, for the purpose of studpng the operations in de- 
tail. It may be hoped that the British Association has in this way been able 
to render valuable aid to the Committee who have undertaken the important 
work of cavern exploration in the far east. 

The South-west Chamher. — In the Fourth Report (1 868) the Committee stated 
that they were occupied in excavating that j^ortion of the Cavern termed the 
" South-west Chamber," which, so far as was then known, was the last or 
most south-westerly branch of the Eastern Series of Chambers and Galleries. 



OiV KENy*! CAVERN'^ DEVONSHIRE. 193 

Thcjf fielded that tlic portion of the Chamber which they had reached -wan 
completely closed with an enormous acciimnlation of IStalagmite, so that it 
was not possible to form a coi'rect estimate of the size of the apartment, that 
it was probably much larger than was then supposed, that the only known 
communication between the Eastern and the Western Divisions of the Cavern 
was the Yestibulc at its 02)posite or north-eastern end, and that the Super- 
intendents inclined to the opinion that a passage would be found opening out 
of the South-west Chamber, which would form a second channel of communi- 
cation between the two Divisions. Respecting the deposits, the Fourth 
Eeport stated that, in the eastern part of the Chamber, they were : — first, or 
uppermost, Stalagmitic Floor, commonly of granular structiu'e ; second, the 
ordinary Cave-earth, with Hint implements and the usual Cave-mammals ; 
third, an Old Floor of Stalagmite of great thickness, and of a peculiar crys- 
talline structure ; fourth, or lowest, a Hock-like Breccia, in which fragments 
of grit, not derivable from the Cavern hiU, were abundant, and which, though 
replete with remains of the Cave-bear, had neither bones nor any other indi- 
cations of Hyaena, Ehinoceros, or other prevalent Cave-species. It was added 
that in proceeding westward the Cave-earth had thinned out and entirely 
disappeared, so that the two Stalagmites, between which was its proper place, 
rested one immediately on the other. 

Soon after that Report was presented, the Committee found that a few feet 
beyond the point where they had lost the Cave-earth, it once more appeared 
in the section, occupying its accustomed position between the Stalagmites, 
resting on the Old crystalline mass, and overlaid with that which is granular 
and comparatively modern. It proved to be merely an insulated patch in 
contact with the northern wall of the Chamber, along which it extended for 
a distance of 11 feet. Its maximum breadth was 6^ feet, and depth 32 inches. 
No sooner did it enter the section than it brought with it the characteristic 
flint and chert implements, teeth of hya3na, mammoth, and fox, and gnawed 
bones. 

Three of the implements deserve more than a brief mention, as they arc 
very fine specimens, belong to different types, and can scarcely be said to bo 
represented by any previously met with in the Cavern. 

The first (No. ^^*) is of a diill light grey colour on the surface, but of 
an undecided black within. In form it is a trapezoid closely approaching a 
rectangle, but having the angles somewhat rounded off. It is about 4 inches 
in length, 2| inches in breadth, and '8 of an inch in greatest thickness. It 
is worked to an edge along the entire margin, and has apparently seen some 
service as a scraper. With it were found a portion of a chert implement, a 
molar of bear, molar of hyasna, four other teeth, a gnawed bone, and several 
small fragments of bone. 

The second implement (No. 3918) is a beautifully white flint of poreeUa- /■i'J^U ^ 
nous aspect. Its form is not easy to describe, but it may perhaps be said to 
be rudely subovoid. Its extreme length is about 3-9 inches, breadth 2-5, 
and depth • 7 inch. It is flat on one face, and from a point near the centre 
of the other side is unequally fined off to an edge all round the perimeter. 

The third (No. 3922) is of the same kind of flint as the second. Every 
part of its surface is elaborately chipped. It is flat on one side, uniformly /Ju,//,) 
rounded on the other, and worked to an edge all round its circumference. It ' y 
may be described as a canoe-shaped implement, or a long, narrow, pointed, 

* .3912, the denominator, is the number of the box or series of specimens ; 1 , the nume- 
rator, is the number of the specimen in the scries j and so on in other cases.— W. P. 
18G9. 



194 REPORT — 1869. 

nearly symmetrical semiellipsoid, the principal diameters of wliich are 4-7 
inches, 1-3 inch, and -6 inch. There were found -mth. it several teeth of 
hyjena, bear, and fox, and a small quartz crystal. 

The Care-earth in which these specimens were found was completely sealed 
lip with the ordinary overlying floor of stalagmite, which, though never 
quite a foot thick, was at its upper surface almost everywhere in contact 
Avith the limestone ceiling of the Chamber, and was nowhere separated from 
it by an interspace of more than 3 or 4 inches. 

The same sections, continued across the Chamber towards its southern 
wall, successively and uniformly showed that, beyond the patch just men- 
tioned, they contained no Cave-earth, but were made up of one undivided 
huge accumulation of Stalagmite, every accessible part of which apparently 
belonged to the Old crystalline Floor, and rested on the Rock-like Breccia. 
The two, conjoined, not only filled the Chamber, but there was nothing to 
show that the Stalagmite did not extend upwards to the external surface of 
the hill. There was no trace of limestone visible ; and the workmen had to 
hew their way through two kinds of material, each more intractable than 
any ordinary rock, and manfully they addressed themselves to their pro- 
tracted toil, feeling some gratification in the fact that every inch they ad- 
vanced was so much added to what had been previously supposed the entire 
extent of the Cavern. 

"With some reluctance, it was decided to abandon the practice of breaking 
up the entire mass of Stalagmite. The men were directed to remove the 
lower or basal portion of it only, to excavate the imderlying Breccia to the 
depth of five feet instead of four, which from the beginning to this time 
had been the invariable practice, to leave the upper and greater part of the 
Stalagmite intact overhead, and to cut a tunnel beneath it, laying bare 
the limestone wall of the Cavern on each side. 

The Stalagmite, as well as much of the Breccia, could only be removed 
with tlie aid of gunpowder ; and considerable care and judgment were 
required in order that the remains of bear wMch both contained, and with 
which the latter was crowded, should be injured as little as possible. 

The Committee have remarked in previous Reports that, on account of its 
comparatively loose texture, stalagmite is blasted with great difficulty. AU, 
however, that the workmen had previously experienced in this way was in- 
considerable in comparison -ndth what they have encountered during the 
last twelve months. In addition to the usual diflUcultics, there were others 
arising from the existence of cavities in the mass, one of which had a ca- 
pacity of upwards of a cubic yard, into Avhich the boring tool would tmex- 
pectedly plunge to inform the men that their labour had been in vain. Not 
unfrequently a hole which had been bored with great labour, and appeared 
to be quite satisfactory, would prove to be incapable of being fired on ac- 
count of its rapidly filling with water, which oozed through the Stalagmite 
as through a sponge. 

The Crypt of Dates. — The Western Division of the Cavern, no part of which 
has yet been explored by the Committee, bifurcates towards its south- 
western extremit}', and, so far as is at present known, terminates in two ca- 
pacious chambers, termed the " Cave of Inscriptions " and the " Bears' 
Den." From the north-east comer of the latter, there extends a narrow 
gallery between almost vertical limestone walls. The greater part of it was, 
from time immemorial, occupied by a pool or " Lake '' of water about 20 
feet long, 8 feet broad, and of unknown depth. It was commonly regarded 
as the end of the Cavern, and was separatee! from the Bears' Den by a consi- 



ON RENTES CAVERNj DEVONSHIRE. 195 

derable mound of Stalagmite. This Lake has called forth much speculation. 
Mr. Northmore believed the Cavern, of which he was the earliest explorer, 
to have been a temple of Mithras, and he spoke of the water as " the bap- 
tismal lake of 'pellucid water ' "*. Others have occupied themselves with 
guesses respecting the source whence the Lake received its supply, and the 
mode by which it was kept from overflowing. Some held that it was fed 
by a small perennial spring ; others that it was replenished by the drip 
from the roof only ; whilst a third party contended that there was neither 
waste nor supply, and that the water ebbed and flowed synchronously with 
the tides of the ocean. 

It is said that one adventurous \T.sitor climbed along its northern or least 
precipitous side from one end to the other ; but, according to the current 
belief, those who gained the further end usually did so by swimming. 
They aU are said to have brought back the report that the Cavern extended 
" a very little way beyond the water " Mr. M'Enery, speaking of the 
water, says, " the Cave beyond it deserves no particular notice ; Admiral 
Sartorius and others have swam across "f. 

From the direction and length of the passages leading to them, it was 
obvious that the Bears' Den and Lake could not be far removed from the 
South-west Chamber. In this opinion the Superintendents were confirmed 
by the fact that when, from time to time, they visited the Den during the 
progress of the excavation of the Chamber, they heard the sound of the work- 
men's tools with great distinctness, and increasingly so as the work ad- 
vanced, untn at length their voices were heard, and ultimately conversation 
could be carried on, by means of shouting, however, rather than talking. 
Finally, on removing the Modern granular Stalagmitic Floor in the north- 
west corner of the Chamber, where it was in contact with the limestone roof, 
a hole, about 3 inches across, and extending obliquely upwards, was dis- 
closed in the limestone, and it was observed that a current of air occa- 
sionally passed through it alternately in opposite directions. The workmen 
were directed to enlarge the hole by breaking away the limestone, and to 
ascertain whither it led. As soon as it was of sufficient dimensions, the 
younger workman, John Farr, ascended thi'ough it, and after a short time 
returned, stating that from the hole he entered a somewhat tortuous pas- 
sage, having an easterly direction through the limestone, and so narrow and 
low that it could only be traversed by lying prostrate, and adopting a ver- 
micular motion ; that after a few feet he entered a longer passage in which it 
was possible to turn round and, in some places, to stand erect ; that this 
second passage had a north and south direction, extending both ways a few 
feet only beyond the point at which he had entered it ; that the inner or 
northern end was closed with stalagmite, on which he observed " writing," 
and that it terminated southward on the end of the Lake most remote from 
the Bears' Den. 

Farr's report induced the other workman, George Smerdon, and one of the 
Superintendents, to follow his steps, when they found his description to be cor- 
rect in all respects. It was farther observed that the floor of the longer or north 
and south passage was entirely composed of stalagmite, and was, in fact, tlie 
upper surface of the mass beneath which they had begun to tunnel, and the 
greater part of which, on accoimt of its enormous thickness and its intracta- 
bihty, they had reluctantly decided to leave intact. At the inner end 
this floor rose in the form of a steep irregular talus, on which, as well as on 

* See TraDS. Devon. Assoc, vol. ii. p. 479-495 (1868). 
t Ibid. vol. iii. p. 242 (1869). 

o2 



196 REPORT— 18G0. 

the walls of the crypt, was the " writing " of which John Farr had spoken. 
This proved to be a series of initials and dates, amounting, probably, to up- 
wards of a hundred, inscribed on the Stalagmite. Amongst the dates arc 
those of 1744, 1728, 1702, and 1618. In several cases the scribes cut the 
figure of a square, and inscribed their initials within it. 

Inscriptions in more accessible parts of the Cavern have long been well 
known. The most famous is the following in the " Cave of Inscriptions :" — 
" Eobert Hedges of Ireland, Feb. 20, 1688," which there is good reason to 
believe is really as old as it professes to be, thus rendering it not imxiroba- 
ble that those discovered in the crypt are genuine also. 

In looking at those dates, it seems impossible to abstain from reflecting on 
the facts that they are cut on the upper surface of a mass of stalagmite up- 
wards of 12 feet thick, in a locality where the drip is unusually copious ; 
and that two and a half centuries have failed to precipitate an amount of 
calcareous matter sufficient to obliterate incisions which at first were proba- 
bly not more than an eighth of an inch in depth. 

It is scarcely necessary to observe that if the Stalagmite had been entirely 
broken up, as was at first intended, the inscriptions would have been de- 
stroyed with it ; or that the discovery of them confirmed the decision to re- 
move no more of the nether surface of the floor than would suffice to give 
the workmen sufficient height for their labour. 

The Lalce. — As the workmen advanced steadily towards the south-west, 
every step rendered it more and more probable that a passage would be laid 
open, leading out of the South-west Chamber in the precise direction of the 
Lake, and thus furnished an additional motive for tunnelling beneath the 
floor, in order that the Lake-basin might be preserved. 

The removal of the Breccia, and of that part of the Stalagmite immediately 
above it, disclosed the fact, with which, indeed, the Superintendents were 
already familiar, that stalagmite is by no means impervious to water. In- 
creased proximity to the Lake rendered this not only more and more patent, 
but augmented the difficulty of blasting the mass, and caused the labour to 
be one of great discomfort. It was therefore found necessary to tap the 
Lake to allow the water to escape. As soon as it was sufficiently dry, the 
workmen were directed to remove and examine carefully such deposits as 
might be found lying on the Stalagmitic Floor of the basin. They proved to 
be, first, or uppermost, the Modern Floor of Stalagmite ; second, the ordinary 
Cave-earth, beneath which was the Old Crystalline Stalagmite of great 
thickness. 

The Stalagmitic Floor, overlying the Cave-earth, was from 10 to 12 inches 
thick. It was finely laminated, and was soil-stained throughout ; but, ex- 
cept at the ends of the basin and along its northern side, where portions of 
it remained in situ in a coherent but brittle condition, it was everywhere 
resolved into an almost impalpable paste, which, on being subjected to hy- 
drochloric acid, rapidly effervesced and left very little residuum. A heap of 
this paste thrown outside the Cavern has, on exposure to the weather, hard- 
need into a coherent mass. 

In this pulpy mass were found numerous objects, none of which were of 
much interest, as the following list shows : — 

1. Extemporized wooden candlesticks, such as are commonly used by 
those who visit the Cavern. 

2. Pieces of candle. 

3. Stems and bowls of clay tobacco-pipes, one of the former being un- 
usually large. 



ON KDNt's CAVBRNj DEVONSHIRE. 197 

4. Bottles of various kinds — wiue, lemoBade, and ginger-beer; some 
entire, but most of them broken. 

5. Wine and other glasses, all broken. 

6. Fragments of earthenware and china cups. 

7. Numerous sticks and branches of trees ; many of tliem charred. 

8. A tin sconce. 

9. A small iron claw-hammer. 

10. The handle of a hammer. 

11. A clasp-knife, shut. 

12. A two-foot rule, closed. 

13. The i^late of a child's iron spado. 

14. A wooden ink-bottle (?). 

15. An oystcr-sheU, 

16. A pecten-shcU, apparently used to hold some kind of paint. 

17. A wooden spatula. 

18. A wooden tally, having the initials W. E. cut on it. 

19. A well-squared block of wood, above 5 inches long and broad, and 
2| inches thick. 

20. A wooden cover of a salting-pan, or of a small furnace. 

21. A portion of a stout iron chain, 44 inches long, consisting of twenty- 
four links and a swivel, and having a padlock at one end. 

22. Numerous broken stalactites, pap-like stalagmites, pebbles, and blocks 
of limestone. 

Many of the objects (such as the candles, candlesticks, bottles, glasses, &:c.) 
present no difficulty. They were, no doubt, thrown into the Lake in frolic, 
or bj'' those Avho did not care to carry them further after thej^ had ceased to 
he of service. Others (such as the knife, foot-rnlo, hammer, &c.) were probably 
dropped unintentionally ; and the cover of a salting-pan or furnace, as well as 
the block of wood, may have been used to float candles by the curious. 
It does not seem easj', however, to account for the chain. It is not an ob- 
ject likely to have been useful during visits to the Cavern, nor is it such as 
people commonly carry about with them. The pebbles were thrown in, 
perhaps, in order to the formation of an opinion respecting the depth of the 
Avater ; and the larger stones probably for the same purpose, or perhaps to 
be used as stepping-stones by those who desired to traverse the Lake. 

It is perhaps worthy of remark that there are no medieval or ancient 
objects ; nor any such as might have been east in as votive oiFcriugs by 
people who regarded the water with religious veneration. 

Mr. M'Enery seems to have believed that there were probably objects of 
interest in the Lake ; he says, "We ought to rake it oat" *. 

In the underlying Cave-earth in the Lake there were found a fragment of 
an elephant's jaw containing a perfect molar, the finest specimen of the kind 
with which the labours of the Committee have been rewarded ; a molar of a 
horse ; several more or less perfect bones, including a humerus, an ulna, a 
scapula, and radii ; and a fragment of a large horn-core. 

That the Lake was supplied with water by infiltrations through the roof 
exclusively there is now no manner of doubt, and that some portion of it 
oozed away through the Stalagmite composing the bottom of the basin is no 
less certain. The mechanism, however, which rendered it impossible for the 
Lake to be filled to overflowing was, on cxamiuatiou, very patent and interest- 
ing. In its left wall, which is almost naked hmestonc, there is a natural tunnel 

* See Trans. Devon. Assoc, vol. iii. p. 242 (1869). 



198 • REPORT— 1869. 

or watercourse about 30 inches high and 20 inches wide, the base of which, 
at its junction with the Lake, is 8 inches below the highest level to which 
the water could rise, and forms an asceusivc inclined plane, having an incli- 
nation of 3°, and a length of about 3| feet. Beyond this point the inclina- 
tion is in the opposite direction, and is very much more rapid. Beyond a dis- 
tance of 18 feet its course has not been traced, but it seems to ramify in 
various directions through the limestone. At the common vertex of the two 
planes, a diaphragm of stalagmite about 9 inches high and something more 
than 1 inch thick, extends quite across the tunnel from wall to waU, having 
its upper edge sensibly horizontal, and leaving above it a free open passage 
several inches high. It is obvious that whenever the water attained to this 
level the Lake was full, and that the surplus flowed over the diaphragm of 
stalagmite or natural weir. The fact that this regulated the maximum level of 
the water is confirmed by a corresponding and strongly marked high-water 
line along the entire boundary of the Lake. It is equally evident that unless 
there had been some other means of escape, this height, once reached, would 
have been permanent. During protracted droughts, however, the water has 
been known to fall upwards of 2 feet below this level — a fact accounted for 
by the slow oozing of the water through the Stalagmite. 

The entire circumference of the Lake, and especially the almost vertical 
limestone wall on the south, is thickly studded with coralloidal tubercles of 
arragonite of various sizes, extending from the high-water to the low-water 
line. Indeed, they occur quite to the bottom of the Lake, but arc less 
abundant than in the zone just mentioned. 

Many parts of the Cavern present phenomena and problems of interest to 
the physicist as well as to the anthropologist and palaeontologist. Thus, to 
go no further than the Lake, there are : — first, the facts that, at one period, 
the water entering through the limestone roof formed a floor by precipi- 
tating carbonate of lime, and that subsequently water, finding access through 
the same channel and lodging on this very floor, was capable of dissolving it 
and reducing it to a mere paste, apparently as calcareous as when it was in 
the coherent condition ; second, that during the work of destruction, coral- 
loidal masses of arragonite were formed on the naked limestone and Old 
stalagmitic walls, but chiefly on the former ; third, that the water had slowly 
increased the capacity of the Lake, by building a weir of stalagmite entirely 
across the narrow tunnel which formed its principal outlet ; and, fourth, that 
had time been allowed, this latter process must iiltimately have closed the 
outlet and cntii'ely changed the drainage of the Lake. 

From the inscriptions in it, the number of persons who, from time to time, 
visited the Crypt of Dates, must have been very great ; and every one of 
them must have talten the same route, namely, along the entire length of 
the Lake. The earliest known mention of the water is that by Polwhclc in 
1797, in his ' History of Devonshire'*, when its condition appears to have 
been identical with that in which the Committee found it. Assuming it to 
have existed, and in the same state when the inscriptions were cut, the 
scribes must have performed the journey by wading through it, by using a 
float, by climbing along its almost precipitous northern wall, or by sAvim- 
ming. The last is perhaps the most probable mode; but in cither case 
they must have provided themselves with the requisite tools and with an 
adequate supply of candles. In some cases the work appears to have con- 
sumed a considerable amount of time. If, however, it is supposed that at 

<f The ' History of Devonshire,' 3 vols. 1797, vol. i. pp. .50, 51. 



ON Kent's cavern, Devonshire. ]99 

least most of the inscriptions belong to the time when the upper Stalagmitic 
Floor of the Lake was yet undissolved, much of the difficulty will disappear, as 
wading would then have been easy — the Stalagmite would have afforded firm 
footing, and the depth of the water would not have been very considerable, 
even if permanently at the overflowing level, and the weir had been as high 
as it is at present. 

The Water Gallery. — Having completed the excavation of the Lake, the 
workmen resumed their tunnelling operations in the recess or passage lead- 
ing out of the South-west Chamber in a south-westerly direction, and which, 
as had been anticipated, was found to extend beneath the floor of the 
basin and along its entire length. To this branch it is proposed to give the 
name of "The Water Gallerj';" and probably no part of the Cavern sur- 
passes it in interest or importance. 

As might have been expected, the deposit it contained was made up of 
the same materials as everywhere else were foimd beneath the Old Ploor 
of crystalline Stalagmite — dark red earth ; angular, subangular, and rounded 
pieces of grit not derivable from the Cavern hill, but which the neighbour- 
ing and loftier Lincombe and Warberry hills can supply ; angular pieces of 
limestone, and pieces of stalagmite (some of them of great size), which, of 
course, were remnants of a floor more ancient still than the Old crystalline 
Floor which lay ahove the Breccia and below the Cave-earth. The points in 
Avhich the Breccia difftTcd from the Cave-earth were the darker colour of 
the red soil forming its stajjle and the much greater prevalence of fragments 
of grit. By the latter character alone it is very easy to distinguish the ma- 
terials of the two dej^osits when thrown into the huge mass of refuse which 
the workmen have lodged outside the Cavern, especially after exposure to a 
shower of rain. Many of the pieces of grit, both angular and rounded, 
were of a very dark colour, and some of them had a polished metallic aspect, 
somewhat like that of a black-leaded hearthstone. The removal of the 
smallest spUnter, however, showed that both colour and polish were su- 
perficial. 

Along a considerable part of the length and breadth of the "Water Gallery 
the Breccia, instead of being in contact with the nether surface of the Sta- 
lagmitic Floor which formed the bottom of the Lake, was sei^arated from it by 
a vacuous interspace, sometimes 14 inches deep. It may be described as a 
rudely lenticular space, as it was of greatest depth in the middle, and, if 
the phrase is allowable, thinned ofl:' in every direction. A correct idea of 
the complete insulation of this vacuity may be conveyed by stating that if 
any animal, however small, could have become its occupant it would have 
been a permanent prisoner unless it could have excavated for itself a passage 
by which to escape. 

Here and there, moreover, the vacuity was interrupted by what may be 
called " outliers " of Breccia, which reached, and were firmly adherent to 
the Stalagmite above. In every other part, the ceiling, or lower surface of 
the Stalagmite, retained traces of the deposit which had once been in con- 
tact with it, and on which, indeed, it had been formed. To it there clung 
angular and rounded pieces of rock, blocks of " Older'' Stalagmite, and bones, 
teeth, and almost entire skulls of the Bear ; whilst between them, in the 
ceiling, were the cavities once filled by similar objects, but which had fallen 
out and were found on the surface of the Breccia beneath. From the ceil- 
ing, too, there shot downwards numerous thin pipes of stalactite, of the 
thickness and colour of goose-quills, some of which reached the Breccia. 
The surface of the latter deposit beneath was here and there covered with 



200 RKPOiiT— 18GU. 

patches of modern, stalagmite, occasionally incorporating pipes of stalactite, 
such as have been just mentioned, which by some means had been broken 
off. In fact a modern floor was in process of formation, vertically beneath 
the old one, by the agency of water filtering through the latter, and carry- 
ing with it the requisite calcareous matter. 

As nothing would have been gained by their removal, the objects just 
described are left adhering to the ceiling — a fact which induces visitors to 
regard the Water Gallery as the most attractive branch of the Cavern. 

All that portion of the Breccia wliich was not more than about a foot 
from its upper surface, and about a yard from the south Avail of the Gallery, 
was invariably cemented into a firm rock-hke concrete, but at aU lower 
levels, and at greater distances from the south wall, it was perfectly in- 
coherent. Where it was cemented it was crowded with fossils, but where it 
was not, there were none. The former was its almost uniform condition in 
the adjacent South-Avest Chamber and Lecture Hall, where its fossils formed 
a very large percentage of the entire mass. 

The problem of the severance of the Breccia from the Stalagmite closely 
occupied the attention of the Superintendents whilst the excavation of the 
Water Gallery was in progress. There ajjpear, « priori, to be three possi- 
ble solutions, — first, that a stream of water had insinuated itself between 
the deposit and the floor, and had carried off the detritus which once filled 
the interspace ; second, that, through failure of support at the base, the 
Breccia had sunk away from the Stalagmite to a slightly lower level ; and, 
third, that Avater passing slowly through the floor had carried the finer 
particles of the detritus from the top of the Breccia to loAver levels, lodging 
a portion of them in such interstices as it encountered, and perhaps carrying 
off' the residue as colouring-matter. 

The first is met by the fatal objection that there is no channel, large or 
small, either of ingress or egress, for the hj'pothetical stream, or the matter 
it is supposed to have removed. 

Since the vacuity was both partial and discontinuous, the second sug- 
gested solution requires that the supposed failure at the base should have 
had the same characters, and hence that the Breccia should have been 
faulted. To this latter point the closest attention was given from first to 
last, and no trace of anything like a fault was ever detected. 

The third hyj^othcsis presupposes that both the Stalagmite and the Breccia 
are permeable by water. On neither of these points is there any doubt. 
Water has been seen oozing through this very Stalagmite, and it is Avell 
kiioAvn that j'ools Avhich in Avet Aveather are formed on the Breccia dis- 
appear in a short time on the cessation of the drip. Indeed, when the Lake 
Avas tapped, the water was led to a depression in the surface of the Breccia 
in the South-west Chamber, and in less than a week the greater part of 
it had disappeared. There seems to belittle doiibt that the third is the true 
solution of the problem of the severance in the Water Gallery. 

The animal remains found in that branch of the Cavern at present under 
notice were, so far as is known, exclusively those of Bear ; and many of 
them are fine specimens, including some splendid canines and molars. 
Many of the bones were found broken, and some of them had been certainly 
fractured where they lay, as the j)arts remained in juxtaposition and, indeed, 
are reunited by some natural cement. When first exhumed, many of them 
Avere so soft that in cleaning them it was found that a soft brush left its 
traces on their surfaces. Exposure to the air hardens them. Some of the 
canines have obviously seen considerable service. Many of the molars are 



ON Kent's cavern, Devonshire. 201 

beautifully ■white and fresh, and it is rarely possible to detect any evidence 
of wear on them. This latter fact was noticed by Mr. M'Enery when 
speaking of the Bears' molars found in a similar deposit in the adjacent 
Bears' JDen ; and was supposed bj- him to " intimate that the Bears of those 
days ■were less exclusively fi'ugivorous than the modern species, and lived 
partly on flesh " *. 

In their Fourth Report, the Committee, speaking of the deposit under the 
Old crystalline Stalagmite, remarked, " Up to this time the Eock-like Breccia 
has been utterly silent on the question of the existence of Man ; it has given 
up no tools or chips of flint or bone, no charred wood or bones, no bones 
sfilit longitudinally, no stones suggesting that they had been used as ham- 
mers or crushers. But whilst they have before them the lessons so empha- 
tically taught by their exploration of the Cavern, the Committee cannot but 
think that it would be premature to draw at present any inference from this 
negative fact " f. 

The cautiousness inculcated in this passage received its justification on 
March 5, 18GU, when a flint flake (No. 31)91) was discovered in the Breccia 
in question in the Water Gallery. The particulars of this discovery were 
forwarded to Sir Charles Lyell, Chairman of the Committee, by the Sujwr- 
intendents, in the following passage in their Monthly lleport, dated April 8, 
18G9 : — " It was found with portions of the teeth of the Cave-bear, lying 
on a loose block of Hmestone, in contact with the north wall of the Gallery, 
in the third foot-level ; that is, from 2 to 3 feet below the surface of the 
Breccia. A section at right angles to its longest axis would be a scalene 
triangle. The face of the flake represented by the smallest side is the 
natural surface of the flint nodule from which the specimen was struck. 
It required no more than three or, at most, four blows to produce it. On its 
larger face the bulb of percussion is well pronounced. It is partially coated 
with a thin ferruginous film, occasionally dendi'itic, and resembhng that 

which commonly coats the pebbles found in the Breccia. Beneath 

this partial envelope it is of a light buff-colour. Its aspect is unlike that of 
any implements or flakes found in the Cave-earth. None of its edges can 
be said to be keen, yet it does not appear to have been roUed. One weU- 
rollcd small flint pebble occurred in the Breccia in the Gallery. 

"Though the flake cannot be regarded as a,Jlne specimen, we think there 
is little or no doubt that it was formed by human agency, and assuming 
this to be the case, it appears to us to be of very great value, as it 
was found in a deposit not only older than the ordinary implement-bearing 
Cave-earth, but separated from it by the Old Floor, which in some cases was 
upwards of 12 feet thick, and which is certainly of great thickness imme- 
diately above the spot where the flake lay. In fact, it was found in a 
deposit which, so far as the Cave evidence goes, was laid down before the 
introduction of that in which were entombed the first traces of the Cave- 
hysena, Cave-lion, Mammoth, and their contemporaries. 

" Being impressed with the probably great importance of the discovery, we 
carefully addressed ourselves to the question, ' Did the flake originally belong 
to the comparatively modern Cave-earth in the Lake above and find its way 
through some crevice in the Old Floor which forms the ceiling of the Gallery? ' 
To this important question we arc prepared to give a negative reply ; for — 

"1st. No crevice or hole of any land is discoverable in either the upper or 
lower surface of the ceihng or Old Floor. 

* See Trans. Devon. Assoc, vol. iii. p. 3G6 (1869). 
t Brit. Assoc. Eeport, 1868, p. 54. 



202 REPORT— 1869. 

" 2nd. The flake was not found vertically beneath any part of the Lake, but 
fully a yard beyond its nearest margin. 

" 3rd. It did not lie on the surface of the deposit, but from 2 to 3 feet be- 
neath it. 

" 4th. If the flake was originally lodged in the Cave-earth found in the Lake, 
it must have been the ouly one deposited there ; for when we carefuUy and 
completely emptied the Lake no flint implement was met with. 

" 5th. If the flake had found its way through the Stalagmite, it might have 
been expected that some such bones as were found in the Lake (Horse and 
JVIammoth, for example) would have descended through the same crevice ; but 
instead of this, the remains of the Cave-bear alone are met with in the 
Lreccia, and teeth of this animal were found in contact with the flake itself. 

" In short, there is no crevice through which the object could have passed ; 
if it descended through the floor, it descended alone ; and if it did so de- 
scend, it ought not to have been where it was found. "We have no hesita- 
tion in stating that the flake is of the same age as the Ercccia which con- 
tained it ; and that if our opinion of its human origin is confirmed, it is 
anthropologically by far the most important object the Cavern has yielded." 

On June 3rd, 1869, the flake was submitted to Mr. John Evans, F.ll.S., a 
Member of the Committee. He drew up the following statement, with the 
intention that it should be inserted in the present Ileport : — " No. 3991 is 
imdoubtedly of human workmanship. It is a flake of flint from the Challv, 
one of the smaller facets of which shows the natural crust of the nodule from 
which it was struck. The other external facet shows the characteristic de- 
pression arising from the bulb of percussion on the flake previously removed 
to form this facet. The flat or internal face of the flake shows a well-deve- 
loped bulb, and the large but-end where the blow was struck has been 
fashioned by two or tliree blows. It has therefore taken four or five blows, 
each administered with a purpose in \'iew, to produce this instrument. 

" Not only, however, has it been artificiallj- made, but it carries upon it 
evidence of having been in use as a tool ; for the edge produced by the inter- 
section of the two principal artificial faces is worn away along its entire 
length, and exhibits the slightly jagged appearance jiroduccd by the breaking 
oft' of the sharp edge, such as I find by experience to result from scraping 
bone or other hard substances with the edge of a flint flake. 

" (Signed) John Evans, June 3, 1869." 

Besides the above, a small perfectly angular piece of coarse-grained white 
flint (No. 4037«) was discovered in the first foot-level of the Breccia in the 
Water Gallery on Friday, April 23, 18G9. It has all the aspect of having 
been struck oft' in making an implement. 

Having ascertained by careful measurements that a very few feet would 
take the workmen into the Bears' Den, it was decided to excavate the Water 
Gallery no further, as it was deemed undesirable to commence the investiga- 
tion of theWcstern Division of the Cavern so long as any branch of the Eastern 
Division remained unexplored. 

The South Scdh/-Port. — Two long, comparatively narrow, and approxi- 
mately parallel galleries extend in a south-easterly direction into the eastern 
wall of the Eastern Division of the Cavern, one from the Great Chamber, the 
other from the Lecture Hall. They were termed " The Sally-Ports " by Mr. 
M'Enery, who believed that they ultimately led to external openings in the 
eastern side of the Cavern hiU. On the discontinuation of the excavation of 
the Water Gallery, the exploration of the South Sally-Port, opening out of 



ON Kent's cavern, Devonshire. 203 

the Lecture Hall, was commenced, aud at present has been completed to up- 
wards of 40 feet from the entrance. 

For the first 15 feet there was the ordinary granular Stalagmitic Floor over- 
lying the tj-pical Cave-earth, but beyond that point there was no stalagmite, 
except a thin and very limited patch in one or two places. At the junction 
with the Lecture Hall the floor was 21 inches thick, but it became rapidly 
thinner as it extended inward ; and for some feet it did not exceed an inch 
in thickness. 

No part of the Cavern is at present less than this exposed to drip. It may not 
be out of place to state here, as a fact of, at least, large generality, and to Avhich 
there is no known exception, that in those branches of the Cavern where the 
drip is at present very copious the Stalagmitic Floor is of great thickness ; 
and where the drip is but little, there is cither no floor or an extremely thin 
one ; that, in short, the present amount of drip in any locality aff'ords a good 
index of the thickness of the floor there, so that the external drainage of the 
Cavern hiU appears to have undergone no change for a very lengthened 
period. 

The South Sally-Port presented phenomena having no parallel in the ex- 
perience of the Committee during the present exploration, but for which Mr. 
M'Eneiy's " Cavern Kesearches " had prepared them. Speaking of the Sally- 
Ports, or " Long Tongues," he says, " their entire area is honeycombed with 
fox-holes, and the loam thrown up in mounds round their edges is mixed 
with scales of the beetle, modern and fossil bones, all of which, as well as 
the rocky contents, resembled bleached or calcined substances exposed on a 
common." Indeed his description of the South Sally Port is not very en- 
couraging. He says, " In attempting to reach the extremity of the lower 
tongue at a point where it suddenly expands into a large grotto, the hollow 
floor gave way like a pitfall with my weight and sank into a cleft of the rock. 
I shall not dissemble my terror at my sudden descent. My eflforts to escape 
would but cause the ground to sink still deeper and deeper into deeper 
abysses. 

" ' At subito se aperire solum vastosque recessiis 
Pandere sub pedibus nigraque voragine i'auces.' 

" The crash routed some animals from their subterranean abodes. I heard 
them forcing their escape towards the oiitside through the incumbent earth, 
and perceived their footmarks. The hounds frequently assemble outside 
about this point, and frequeutlj- earth foxes there " *. 

Happilj' none of the present exploring party have experienced any incon- 
venience during their researches ; but they are constantly meeting Avith tun- 
nels in the Cave-earth, probably made by some burrowing animals, with 
ancient and modern bones commingled both on the surface and at aU depths 
below it, with great clusters of the Aving-cases of beetles exclusively on 
or very near the surface ; and they have had impressed on them daily the 
important but familiar truth that unless sealed up with a Stalagmitic Floor, 
Cavern deposits are just as likely to be fraught with anachronisms as with a 
trustworthy chronological sequence. 

During the present month (August 1869) one of the Superintendents has 
had occasion to pass frequently through " The Labyrinth," a branch of the 
Western Division of the Cavern. As he entered it on the 6th he observed 
some fresh Cave-earth lying on the floor where there was no stalagmite, and 
he directed the attention of the workmen to it. They had all passed alono- 

* See Trans. Derou. Assoc, vol. iii. p. 302 (1869). 



304.. REPORT— 1869. 

the same route the day before, and they were all satisfied that the earth was 
not there then. On examination it was found to have been thrown out of a 
newly made hole, in aU respects resembling those made by rats, and extend- 
ing from the edge of a slab of limestone obhquely through the Cave-earth 
beneath*. 

In the South Sally-Port, the Black Mould, which in most of the other 
branches of the Cavern was found continuously overlying the Stalagmitic Floor, 
did not extend many feet within the entrance. Beyond the point at which 
the Stalagmite ended, the entire deposit was Cave-earth from top to bottom 
of the section, and in aU probability every part of it had been introduced be- 
fore the formation of the calcareous floor began. In previous Reports the Com- 
mittee have recorded the fact that in the Stalagmite itself are lodged remains 
of the Cave-bear, Hyaena, and Rhinoceros. Indeed the only fossU found in 
the scanty floor in that branch of the Cavern now under consideration was a 
tooth of the last-named species, which is not only in quite the upper part of 
tlie stalagmitic sheet, but, instead of being completely covered, projected 
above its surface. Obviously, then, Ursus sjieJceus, Hyania spelcea, Sindlihino- 
ceros tichorhhms ontlived the era of the Cave-earth, and therefore it would 
not be surprising if their remains, together with palfeolithic flint implements, 
were found lying on the surface of this deposit ; nor, if they were left unpro- 
tected, would there be anything inexplicable or strange if they were found 
mixed with objects belonging to more recent periods, or even to the present 
daj'. Such a commingling might or might not be the result of disturbance 
and rearrangement when occurring on the surface, but could not be otherwise 
explained when met with below it. 

Be this as it may, it is imdeniably the fact that in this, but in no other 
branch of the Cavern which the Committee have exjjlored, ancient and modern 
bones, and unpolished flint implements and rude potter^', have been found 
lying together. Remains of the extinct brute inhabitants of Devonshire are 
mixed confusedly with those of the present day, and the handiwork of the 
human contemporary of the Mammoth is found inosculating with the product 
of the potter's wheel. 

It is worthy of remark that whilst potsherds lie on the surface, and the 
mouths of shafts, connected with the tunnels or burrows, stand open to 
receive them, instances of their having fallen in are extremely rare. The 
modern objects found in the body of the Cave-earth are almost without excep- 
tion such as have been actually taken in by the recent animals which made 
their homes there. 

In a sensibly horizontal tunnel about the size of a fox-earth, at a depth of 
4 feet below the surface, there was found a beU, such as huntsmen are wont 
to suspend to the neck of a terrier when sent in after a fox — a fact which in 
all probability explains its presence in the spot it occupied. 

In other and smaller buiTows bundles of moss, each about the size of a 
man's fist, have been met with and supposed to be the nest of some animal. 

Compared with the phenomena of every other branch of the Cavern ex- 
plored by the Committee, those of this Sally-Port are no doubt anomalous ; 

* The visits of rats to the Cavern and tlieir habit of carrying off candles have long been 
well known. In January 1867 the workmen observed a rat in the Cavern on several suc- 
cessive days. At length he made his presence felt iri a very disagreeable manner. At 9 a.m. 
the principal workman placed liis dinner, carefully lodged in a bag, in a stout wicker basket. 
At the dinner-hoiu- (1 p.m.) he found that the rat had eaten a hole through the basket, 
anotlier through the bag, and carried off every particle of his meal. Poisoned food was at 
once prepared for the intruder, and nothing further was seen of him until a few days after 
his dead body was found. 



ON RENTES CAVERX, DEVONSHIRE. 205 

but regard being had to the condition of the deposit in which they occur, thoy 
arc certainly such as might have been looked for, and they present no diffi- 
culty whatever. 

Notwithstanding the obvious disturbance of the Cave-earth, the same me- 
thod of exploration has been followed here as elsewhere ; and the specimens 
found in each " level " and "yard '' have been kept apart in separate boxes 
as heretofore. 

Scarcely any branch of the Cavern has surpassed this Sally-Port in the 
number of the fossils it has yielded, and in no part have finer or more per- 
fect specimens been found. They are the remains of all the common Cave- 
mammals, with a greater number of the teeth of the Mammoth than have 
been met with by the Committee within an equal space elsewhere. The 
bones are generally of less sjiecific gravity, softer, and more brittle than those 
found in the Cave-earth in other branches of the Cavern — a fact perhaps ascri- 
bable to the absence of a calcareous drip. Many of them are gnawed, some 
have entirely escaped this ordeal, and a few have marks on their surfaces 
apparently unlike those produced by teeth. Most of them on being cleaned 
retain impressions of the brush used for that purpose. The surfaces of seve- 
ral are more or less covered with rudely circular punctures of various sizes — a 
fact observed occasionally in those found elsewhere, but much less frequently 
than in these in this branch of the Cavern. Lumps of fiscal matter are by 
no means rare. 

The flint and chert implements and flakes are ten in number, three of which 
were met with on the surface, one in the first foot-level, three in the second, 
two in the third, and one the position of which is somewhat uncertain. 

Four of them only need description. The first (No. 4155) is a splendid z^z^' 
heart-shaped chert implement. It was found June 12,1869, lying on the ^f\ 
surface of the Cave-earth, beneath an overhanging ledge of limestone which 
it almost touched, on the west side of the Sally-Port. It was wrought from 
a chert nodule apparently selected from the supracretaceous gravel of Milber 
Down between Torquay and Newton Abbot. It is about 4^ inches long, 3 
inches in greatest breadth, and 1| inch thick at 1| inch from its broad 
end. The but-end only retains the original surface of the nodule. It is the 
only implement of the kind found by the Committee, and none of those figured 
by Mr. M'Enery at all resemble it. 

The second (No. 4259) is of fine-grained silvery grey flint. It is sjanme- 
trlcally canoe-shaped, 3-6 inches long, 1-2 inch broad, and -4 inch in greatest , ;^, ^. 
thickness. It is flat on one side, somewhat rounded on the other, worked to ' ' -" 
an edge all round the margin, and considerably chipped on both surfaces. It 
belongs to the same type as the implement (No. 3922) previoiisly described, I 

but is much less rounded on the outer surface. It was found on the Cave- - , 
earth, July 5, 1869. ' ' 

The third (No. 4263) is formed of rather coarse white cherty flint. It is 
flat on the inner surface, carinated on the outer, and is not highly finished. 
It is about 4 inches long, 1-3 inch broad, -6 inch in greatest thickness, and 
was found Jidy 6, 1869, 2 feet deep in the deposit. 

The fourth is strongly carinated on the outer surface ; the inner is very 
concave longitudinally, and slightly convex transversely. It is 3-4 inches 
long, 1-2 inch broad, and -5 inch where thickest. It is chiefly remarkable 
from having a square tang at one end, -8 inch long and -6 inch broad, as if 
for fastening into a haft. Its opposite end is rounded, it is fined off to an 
edge all round, and it appears to have been used as a scraper. It was found 
August 5, 1869, 4(1 feet from the entrance of the Sally-Port, in a small mass 



206 REPORT — 1869. 

of Cave-earth which, without being observed, had slipped off the face of the 
section ; hence its exact position is uncertain. 

Charcoal has heen found somewhat plentifully on the surface, where a few 
burnt bones occurred with it. It has also been met with at all depths in the 
deposit, though in no great (Quantity. 

A few marine shells of common species Avere met with on the surface. 

The fragments of pottery differ in colour and in finish, and probably belong 
to more than one period. Two or three of them are rather longer than those 
commonly fouiid in the Cavern. 

During the last twelve months Mr. Boyd Dawkins, assisted by Mr. Ayshford 
Sanford, has made considerable progress in identifying and naming the fos- 
sils. He has prepared and sent in a Catalogue of a large number of speci- 
mens, accompanied by the following Eeport. 



In the determination of the following animals from Kent's Hole Cavern I 
have been aided l)y my friend Mr. Ayshford Sanford. By far the greater 
portion of the labour has been undergone by him. We have examined up- 
Avards of four thousand specimens, or rather less than one-tenth of the whole 
accumulation of the remains in the hands of the Committee. No bones of 
birds or fish have been catalogued ; the latter Dr. Giinther has kindly under- 
taken to name before our Eeport is concluded. The results of our work are 
contained in the following catalogue. 

Homo. — We have met with no bones or teeth from the Cave-earth that can 
be ascribed undoubtedly to man. One or two much-worn or mutilated inci- 
sors, however, may be human, but they may also belong to several other ani- 
mals. The human remains from the prehistoi-ic deposit of Black Mould are 
exceedingly abundant, and many of them, in Mr. Sanford's opinion, bear 
evidence of the former existence of caunibals in the Cave. Some of them 
have been cut and scraped by sharp instruments, the marrow-bones are 
broken, and are mixed indiscriminately with the broken bones of Sheep or 
Goat, Red Deer, Bos hngifrons, and other animals. In one box there are the 
remains of at least three individuals — a large man, a nearly full-grown woman 
or lad, and a child about half-groAvn. 

Man has also left his handiwork on some very remarkable fragments of 
canines of Bear from the Cave-earth, which, in common with many other 
splinters of bone, are in a totally different mineral condition to that presented 
by the ordinary Cave-remains. They are much more crystalline, much 
heavier, and of a darker colour than the ordinaiy teeth and bones, and have 
been so mineralized that they present a fracture almost conchoidal, and 
strongly resembling that of a Greensand chert. One of these had been 
fashioned into a flake, and one of its surfaces presented the usual traces of 
use. It had manifestly been formed after it had lost its normal dentinal 
texture. It is clear, therefore, that they had become fossilized before the in- 
troduction of the present Cave-earth. Viewed in connexion with the evi- 
dence of the existence of an ancient floor that is now represented by masses 
of stalagmite, sometimes ossiferous, we cannot resist the idea that they arc 
samples of the contents of the Cave which had in the main disappeared before 
the introduction of the present Cave-earth. 

Fells spelaa. — The Cave-lion is tolerably abundant in the Cave-earth. 

Felis, sp. ? — A single canine from the Cave-earth indicates an animal of 
the size of Lynx cervaria. 



ON Kent's CAVnRNj Devonshire. 207 

Felis catus '? — A lumbar vertebra from the Cave-earth corresponds in size 
with that of the Wild Cat. 

Hi/cena spelcea. — The Cave-hyajna is very abundant in the Cave -earth. 

Cams lupus. — The Wolf, on the other hand, is comparatively rare. 

Canis domesticus. — The remains of the Dog are sparingly met with in the 
Black Mould, and indicate the presence of more than one variety. 

Canis vidpes. — The Common Fox is found in the Black Mould, and sparingly 
in the older subjacent deposit. 

Canis vulpes (var. spelceus). — Vulpine bones, on the other hand, from 
tlie Stalagmite and Cave-earth indicate an animal larger and stouter than 
the English Fox. These are not found in the Black Mould. 

Canis (size of C. isatis). — With the larger bones there are a few much 
smaller than those of the Common Fox, that correspond most closely with 
those of C. isatis. The vulpine skulls, however, in the Taunton Museiim, 
from the Mendip Caves, rather indicate a species closely related to C. isatis 
than a specific identity, since the true molars are somewhat broader. It is 
well to mention that Mr. Sanford has identified a portion of a skull found 
along with the remains of Hyaena, in a cave on the opposite side of Torbay, 
as belonging to Canis isatis. 

Oulo luscus. — A single os innominatum of a nearly full-grown Glutton in- 
dicates the presence of this rare mammal in the Cave-earth. Although it be- 
longed to an animal not quite adult, it agrees almost exactly in size with that 
of a fully grown male from Sweden. 

Meles taxus. — The remains of the Badger are abundant in the prehistoric 
Black Mould, rare in the Cave-earth. In the latter case we doubt the truly 
fossil condition of the bones. 

Ursiis spelceus. — The bones and teeth of the Cave-bear from the Cave- earth 
indicate greater variation of size than those of any other wild animal with 
which we are acquainted. 

Ursus priscus=ferox. — This species, which has been proved by Mr. Busk 
to be undistinguishable from those of the North-American Grizzly Bear, 
occi;rs abundantly in the Cave-earth, as it does also in the caves of the 
Mendip Hills. The short stout bones of U. spelceus are represented by fiatter, 
longer bones of U.ferox, that are for the most part distinct from the rounder 
bones of U. arctos. We therefore have attributed the isolated flat long bones 
to the second of these species. Bones of intermediate form, however, occur 
which appear to connect the two forms. They are more constant in size than 
those of the other two bears. 

Uvsus arctos. — Teeth and bones of the Brown Bear, stiU living in Europe, 
occur, but not very commonly, in the Cave-earth. Some of those from the 
Black Mould are evidently derived from the lower and older beds ; but others, 
from their condition, apparently belong to animals that lived at the same 
time as Bos longifrons and the Sheep or Goat of the Black Mould. 

Elephas primirjenius. — The Mammoth is but sparingly met with in the 
Cave-earth. 

Rhinoceros ticJiorhinus. — The remains of the Woolly Ehinoceros are 
abundant in the Cave-earth. 

Equus cahcdlics. — The Horse is the most abundant fossil in the Cave-earth, 
Many of the teeth are more or less plicident, but we are unable to draw 
any sharp line separating the Equus plicidens of Prof. Owen from the re- 
cent species. They present almost endless variations in this respect, and 
were apparcnly in a state of transition from the plicident to the common 
type in the postglacial times. 



208 KEPoiiT— 1869. 

Bos primif/enius. — The Urus exists somewhat sparingly in the Cave-earth. 

Bison 2oriscus. — The Bison, ou the contrary, is much more common in the 
same deposit. 

Bos Jowjlfrons. — Bones and teeth of the Celtic Shorthorn occur in the 
Black Mould. The small bones in the Cave-earth belong to the preceding 
species. 

Oervus megaceros. — The Irish Elk is not uncommon in the Cave-earth. 

Cervus elaplias (=Sfro7ir/i/loceros spelmiis, Owen=C destremit, Serres). — 
We have come to the conclusion that the Red Deer was more variable in size 
during the postglacial period than at the present day. Some teeth are not 
larger than those of a small hind from the Hebrides, while others surpass in 
size those of the largest Haddon or Horner Hart. Some even almost rival 
those of the smaller specimens of the Irish Elk. The animal occurs both in 
the superficial Black Mould and in the Cave-earth. 

Cervus tarandus. — The lleindeer is abundant in the Cave-earth. 

Cervus capreolus. — We have met with the Iloedeer only in the Black 
Mould ; it was evidently a common article of food. 

Ovis aries, Cajpra hircus. — The Sheep and the Goat are abundant in the 
Black Mould. 

Sus scrofa. — The Pig occurs in the Black Mould only ; it is small in size, 
and was evidently an article of food. 

Lepus timidus. — The remains of the common Hare are abundant in the Black 
Mould, but are rare in the Cave-earth and Stalagmite. In these deposits 
they are for the most part replaced by larger and stouter bones, which may 
perhaps be referred to Lepus dUuvianus of the French naturalists. These 
stout bones are very rare in the Black Mould. 

Lepus cunicidus.- — Bones of the Rabbit are abundant in the Black Mould; 
a single bone has occurred aj^pareutly from the Modern Stalagmite, but none 
from the Cave-earth. 

Lafjomys spelcBus. — We have met in the Cave-earth with a lower jaw of 
the Cave Pika. It is rather smaller than the type, and is closely related to 
that of Lacjomys pusUlius. 

Arvicola amplnUus. — The Water-rat, or one of the closely allied varieties, 
we have met with, but not abundantly, in the Cave-earth and Black Mould. 

Arvicola agrestis. — There are one or two specimens from the Cave-earth 
of this species that show the same variation in the direction of A. ratticeps 
which Mr. Sanford has remarked in jaws from the Men dip Caves. 

Arvicola glareola (^A. pratensis). — We have met with a single lower 
jaw from the Cave-earth. 

Arvicola Gidielmi. — This new species of Yole, discovered lately by Mr. 
Sanford in the caves of Mendip, is represented by a jaw from the Cave-earth. 
It may be recognized by its viniting a size which nearly approaches that of 
A. ampliihius to the dentition of A. suhterraneus. 

Castor fiber. — We have met with five specimens of the Beaver from the 
Cave-earth. 

Plioccena communis. — A solitary scapula of this cetacean has been fur- 
nished by the Black Mould. 

In this list we have merely noticed the species that have passed through 
our hands, without reference to the previously published list of animals from 
the Cave. 



ON CHEMICAL CONSTITUTION AND PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION. 



209 



Report of the Committee on the Connexion between Chemical Con- 
stitution and Physiological Action. The Committee consists of Dr. 
A. Crum Brown^ Dr. T. R. Fraser, andT>x. J. H. Balfour, F.R.S. 
The investigations were conducted and the Report prepared hy Drs. 
A. Crum Brown and T. R. Fraser. 

Drs. BEOTyy and Fkaser communicated to the Section, at the Noiwick 
Meeting, the results of some experiments (the details of ■which have since 
been published in the Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh) on 
the connexion between change of chemical constitution and change of phy- 
siological actiyity. 

They haye since that time continued their investigations by applying the 
method described in the aboye communication to the alkaloids, ati'opia, conia, 
and trimethylamine. The substances which they have compared in refer- 
ence to their physiological action are, atropia and the salts of methylatro- 
pium, conia, methylconia, and the salts of dimethylconium, salts of ammonia, 
trimethylamine, and tetramethylammonium. They have made in all about 
120 experiments, and give in the accompanying Table the results of thirty- 
six, in which the dose was not much above or below the minimiim fatal. 
It will be seen that these results confirm the conclusions at which they 
formerly arrived, viz. that the action of compounds of triatomic nitrogen is 
different from that of compounds in which the nitrogen is stably pentatomic, 
and that salts of ammonium bases act on the peripheral terminations of the 
motor nerves in the same way as curara. This action, and the absence of 
convulsant action, appear to be generic characters of the salts of ammonium 
bases. Besides this, the salts of the ammonium bases frequently retain cer- 
tain of the special (specific) actions of the nitrile bases from which they are 
derived. 

Tabular Summary of Experiments with Doses that are about the 

minimum fatal. 



Number 

ofesperi- 

ment. 


Substance 


Animal and 


Method of 






employed. 


its weight. 


exhibition. 


Dose. 


Efiect. 


1. 


Iodide of 


Eabbit,.31b. 


Subcutane- 


2-5 grs. 


Dilatation of pupils ; 




methyl- 


13i oz. 


ously. 




slight and then decided 




atropium. 








paralysis ; faint tre- 
mors ; and recovery (in 
more than two hom's 
and ten minutes). 


9, 


Do. 


Eabbit.Slb. 
10 oz. 


Do. 


3grs. 


Ditto; and death (in 
fifty-eight minutes). 


3. 


Do. 


Dog, 8 lb. 6 
oz. 


Do. 


10 grs. 


Dilatation of pupils; 
rapid and decided pa- 
ra ysis ; veiy faint tre- 
mors; and death (in 
thirty-two minutes). 


4. 


Do. 


Frog,.392gr. 


Do. 


000.5 gi-. 


Paralysis ; complete 
suspension of reflex ex- 
citability (motor-nerye 
conductiyity being re- 
tained) ; and complete 
recovery (in less than 
two hours). 


18(39. 










P 



210 



REPORT — 1869. 
Table (continued). 



Number 
of experi- 
ment. 


vSubstance 


Animal and 


Method of 


Dose. 


Effect. 


employed. 


its weight. 


exhibition. 


5. 


Iodide of 


Frog,455gr. 


Subcutane- 


0'025 gr. 


Complete paralysis, 




methyl- 




ously. 




with suspension of mo- 




atropium. 








tor-nerve conductivity ; 
and recovery (in less 
than twenty- fourhours). 


»G. 


Do. 


Frog,422gT. 


Do. 


O'l gr. 


Complete paralysis, 
with suspension of mo- 
tor-nerve conductivity, 
during first, second, 
third, and fourth days ; 
and recovery on fifth 
day. 


7. 


Do. 


Frog,260gr. 


Do. 


0-3 gr. 


Complete paralysis, 
with suspension of mo- 
tor-nerve conductivity 
in thirty minutes ; mus- 
cidar contractility was 
retained until the sixth 
day ; loss of muscular 
contractility and some 
riyor (death) on seventh 
day. 


8. 


Do. 


Rabbit,3 lb. 

12 oz. 
Rabbit,31b. 


by stomach. 


30 grs. 


None. 


9. 


Sulphate of 


subcutane- 


2grs. 


Dilatation of pupils ; 




methyl- 


7i oz. 


ously. 




decided paralysis ; faint 




atropium. 








twitches ; and recovery 
(in about thirty mi- 
nutes). 


10. 


Do. 


Eabbit,2 lb, 
7 oz. 


Do. 


2gi-s. 


Ditto; and death (in 
forty minutes). 


11. 


Do. 


Frog,4G0gv. 


Do. 


01 gr. 


Complete paralysis, 
with suspension of mo- 
tor-nei-ve conductivity 
in about forty minutes ; 
retained muscular con- 
tractility until fifth day ; 
loss of muscular con- 
tractility with some 
rigor (death) on sixth 
day. 


12. 


Iodide of 


Eabbit,31b. 


Do. 


2 gi-s. 


Dilatation of pupils ; 




ethyl-atro- 


8| oz. 






decided paralysis ; faint 




pium. 








tremors; and death (in 
about thirty minutes). 


"13. 


Sulphate ofEabbit,41b. 


Do. 


5 grs. 


Dilatation of pupils. 




atropia. 


10 oz. 






and no serious sym- 
ptom. 


14. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


10 grs. 


Ditto. 


"15. 


Do. 


2 lbs. 5 oz. 


Do. 


15 grs. 


Ditto, diuresis, ca- 
tharsis, and languor, 
followed by recovery. 



" No symptom of exaggerated reflex activity occurred during this experiment. 
* Same rabbit at intervals of several days. 



ON CHEMICAL CONSTITUTION AND PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION. 

Table (continued). 



211 



Number 
of experi- 
ment. 


Substance 
employed. 


Animal anc 

its weight. 


Method of 
exhibition. 


Dose. 


Effect. 


'16. 


Sulphate of 


Dog-, 81b. 6 


subcutane- 


10 grs. 


Dilatation of pupils ; 




atropia. 


oz. 


ously. 




decided paralysis ; fre- 
quent tetanus ; and re- 
covert/. 


17. 


Sulphate of 
atropia. 


Frog,447gr. 


Do. 


0-4 gr. 


Incomplete paralysis 
first day ; spasms second 
day ; tetanus fourth to 
sixth days; stiff reflex 
movementsseventhday; 
and 7-ecoveri/ eighth, day. 


18. 


Do. 


Frog,404gr. 


Do. 


0-4 gr. 


Complete paralysis 
first and second days ; 
tetanus third to ninth 
day; spasmodic move- 
ments tenth and ele- 
venth days; and reco- 
veri/ twelfth day. 


19. 


Hydroclilo- 
rate of me- 
thylconia. 


Rabbit, 31b. 
14i oz. 


Do. 


0-1 gr. 


No obvious effect. 


20. 


' Bo. 


Rabbit, 21b. 
lOi oz. 


Do. 


0-2 gr. 


Exaggeration of re- 
flex activity; decided 
paralysis ; and death (in 
twenty-two minutes). 


"21. 


Do. 


Frog,175gr. 


Do. 


0-2 gr. 


Proof of paralysis of 
motor endorgans at 






















early stage. 


22. 


Iodide of 


Rabbit,3 lb. 


Do. 


2-5 grs. 


slight paralji;ic sym- 




dimethyl- 


Gioz. 






ptoms and recovery. 




conium. 










23. 


Do. , 


Rabbit,41b. 


Do. 


3 grs. 


Decided paralysis ; 
faint tremors ; and death 
(in about one hour and 
fifteen minutes). 


'24. 


Do. 


Frog,225gr. 


Do. 


0-1 gr. 


Complete paralysis 
for three days ; and re- 
covery. 


'25. 


Hydrochlo- 


Rabbit,31b. 


Do. 


0-2 gi-. 


Tremors and decided 




'rate of 


6ioz. 






paralysis ; exaggerated 




conia. 








activity ; and death (in 
about thirty-two mi- 
nutes). 

Paralysis of motor 


"26. 


Do. 


Frog,364gr. 


Do. 


O'l gr. 












nerves, and death on 












fourth day. 


■■27. 


Hydrochlo- 


Rabbit,3 lb. 


Do. 


7 grs. 


Very slight paralysis 




rate of 


2ioz. 






&c. ; and recovery. 




triniethyl- 












amine. 











"^ Same dog as used in experiment 3. ^ Some evidence of reflex exaggeration. 

* No evidence of exaggerated reflex activity. 

<■ Dr. Christisou's preparation ; a specimen from Mr. Morson was found to be less active. 

^ Some evidence of exaggerated reflex activity. 

'' Strong odour in breath of trimethylamine in a few minutes. 



212 



REPORT — 18G9. 







Table (continued). 




Number 
of experi- 
ment. 


Substance 
employed. 


Animal and 

its weight. 


Method of 
exhibition. 


Dose. 


Effect. 


28. 


Hydroeblo- 


Rabbit,31b. 


Subcutaue- 


11 grs. 


Slight sleepiness, sali- 




rate of 


7ioz. 


ously. 




vation for a few minutes. 




trimethyl- 








defsecation and urina- 




amine. 








tion, decided paralysis, 
spasms, and deaiJi. 


29. 


Do. 


Frog,345gr. 


Do. 


0-5 gr. 


Tonic spasm in an- 
terior and left posterior 
extremities (right cut 
off from poisoning by 
ligature of its vessels) ; 
complete paralysis of 
left sciatic nerve (right 
remaining active) ; and 
death. 


30. 


Iodide of te- 


Rabbit, 31b. 


Do. 


0-7 gr. 


Salivation (very pro- 




trametliyl- 


lioz. 






fuse and long con- 




ammonium. 








tinued) ; lachrj'mation ; 
decided paralysis; slight 
tremors ; and recovery. 


31. 


Do. 


Rabbit,2 lb. 
14 oz. 


Do. 


12 gi-s. 


Ditto ; and convul- 
sions ; and death. 




Do. 


Frog,497gr. 


Do. 


0-04 gr. 


Tonic spasm, and mo- 
tor endorgan paraly- 
sis ; and recorery. 


33. 


Do. 


Frog,425gr. 


Do. 


005 gr. 


Ditto ; and death. 


34. 


Chloride of 


Rabbit,3 lb. 


Do. 


12 grs. 


Partial paralysis; fre- 




ammonium. 


12 oz. 






quent tetanus ; and re- 
covery. 


35. 


Do. 


Rabbit,2 lb. 
Soz. 


Do. 


15 grs. 


Decided paralysis ; 
frequent tetanus ; and 
death. 


i.3C. 


Do. 


Frog,435gr. 


Do. 


0-5 gr. 


Partial paralysis ; 
starts and other sym- 
ptoms of reflex exag- 
geration ; complete pa- 
ralysis of motor nerves 
and muscles ; and death. 



' Evidence of motor nerves being paralyzed before muscles. 

Of tlie various substances included in this Table, atropia possesses the 
most remarkable special (specific) actions, viz. a dilating action on the pupils 
and a paralj^zing action on the cardiac iuhibitorj' branches of the vagi nerves. 
It will be seen from the two following experiments that the salts of the 
methyl derivative of atropia retain these special actions : — 

Experiment 37. One minim of a solution of 1 grain of sulphate of mcthyl- 
atropium in 100,000 minims of distilled water (==yjj-jjL_j of a grain of sul- 
jihate of methyl-atropium) was placed on the right ej'ebaU of a rabbit. 
Before the application the right pupil measured || X ^^, and the left^4 X ^ j of an inch. 
39 mns. after the application „ „ flXfl „ ifXii „ 

1 hour 
Ihr. 30 ms. 
2hs. 10 ms. 
22 hrs. 



'; 


)J 


)) 


)! 


Jl 


)> 


)J 


» 



V 

}> 

!) 



V 



1 (i V 1 5 
5 '^ 5 
J Z V lA 
5 ■^ 50 

5 0-^50 

6 ■^ f) 
1 5 V 1 4 
5 -^ S 



» 

V 

» 



J-5. V J-A 

5 '^ 6 
15 V 14. 

6 '^ 6 

15 V li- 
6 0-^50 

lA vlA 

6 0-^60 



V 

» 



PROVISION FOR PHYSICAL RESEARCH IN GREAT BRITAIN. 213 

Experiment 38. The two vagi nerves were exposed in the neck of a rabbit, 
and on separately subjecting the trunk of each nerve to galvanic stimulation 
of a certain strength (obtained by the use of Du Bois-Eeymond's induction- 
apparatus), it was found that stoppage of the heart's contractions resulted on 
each occasion during the five seconds the galvanic stimulation was applied. 
A solution containing half a grain of sulphate of methyl-atropium in fifteen 
minims of distilled water was then injected under the skin of the abdomen. 

5 minutes. . . . after the injection the heart was contracting 28 times in 10 seconds. 

' J> I) » ;> )) -° >} V 

7 mns. 10 sees. „ „ the right vagus was galvanized for 10 seconds, 

and the heart continued to contract during the 

galvauism 28 times in 10 seconds. 

10 minutes. .. . after the injection the heart was contracting 29 „ „ 

-'-•^ jt >j » ji » ^'J » )) 

20 ,, „ „ the left vagus was galvanized for 10 seconds, 

and the heart continued to contract during the 

galvanism 30 times in 10 seconds. 

20 mns. 20 sees, after the injection the heart was contracting .30 „ „ 

-'" » ^ )) )) t) -n )> "O ), ), 

20 „ 20 „ „ „ the right vagus was galvanized for 10 seconds, 

and the heart continued to contract dm'ing the 
galvanism 30 times in 10 seconds. 

It was also found that the special actions on the pupils and on the cardiac 
inhibitory branches of the vagi nerves are possessed by the ethyl derivative 
of atropia. 



Report of a Committee, consisting of Lieut. -Col. Strange, F.R.S., 
Professor Sir W. Thomson, F.R.S., Professor Tyndall, F.R.S., 
Professor Frankland, F.R.S., Dr. Sten house, F./?.-S., Dr. Mann, 
F.R.A.S., W. HuGGiNS, F.R.S., James Glaisher, F.R.S., Professor 
Williamson, F.R.S., Professor Stokes, F.R.S., Professor Fleem- 
ing Jenkin, F.R.S., Professor Hirst^ F.R.S., Professor Huxley, 
F.R.S., and Dr. Balfour Stewart, F.R.S. *, appointed for the 
purpose of inquiring into, and of reporting to the British Asso- 
ciation the opinion at which they may arrive concerning the fol- 
lowing questions : — 

I. Does there exist in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and 
Ireland sufficient provision for the vigorous prosecution of 
Physical Research ? 
II. If not, what further provision is needed ? and what measures 
should be take?i to secure it ? 

Your Committee, having sought the counsel of many of the most eminent 
men of science of the United Kingdom upon these questions, so far as it was 
found practicable to do so, and having carefully deliberated thereon, have ar- 
rived at the following conclusions : — 

I. That the provision now existing in the United Kingdom of Great Britain 

* The following names have since been added to the Committee :-^Alfred Tennyson, 
F.R.S. ; Lyon Playfair, F.E.S., M.P. ; J. Norman Lockyer, F.E.S. 



214 REPORT — 1869. 

and Ireland is far from suflScient for the vigorous prosecution of Physical 
Research. 

II. It is universally admitted that scientific investigation is productive of 
enormous advantages to the community at large ; but these advantages can- 
not be duly reaped without largely extending and systematizing Physical 
Research. Though of opinion that greatly increased facilities are undoubt- 
edly required, your Committee do not consider it expedient that they should 
attempt to define categorically how these facilities should be provided, for the 
following reason : — 

Any scheme of scientific extension should be based on a fuU and accurate 
knowledge of the amount of aid now given to science, of the sources from 
which that aid is derived, and of the functions performed by individuals and 
institutions receiving such aid. Your Committee have found it impossible, 
with the means and powers at their command, to acquire this knowledge. 
A formal inquiry, including the inspection of records to which your Committee 
have not access, and the examination of witnesses whom they are not em- 
powered to summon, alone can elicit the information that is required ; and, as 
the whole question of the relation of the State to Science, at present in a 
very unsettled and unsatisfactory position, is involved, they urge that a Eoyal 
Commission alone is competent to deal with the subject. 

Your Committee hold that this inquiry is of a character sufficiently im- 
portant to the nation, and sufficiently wide in its scope, to demand the use of 
the most ample and most powerful machinery that can be brought to bear 
upon it. 

Your Committee therefore submit, as the substance of their Report, the 
recommendation that the fuU influence of the British Association for the Ad- 
vancement of Science should at once be exerted to obtain the appointment of 
a Royal Commission to consider — 

1. The character and value of existing institutions and facilities for 

scientific investigation, and the amount of time and money devoted 
to such purposes. 

2. What modifications or augmentations of the means and facilities that 

are at present available for the maintenance and extension of 
science are requisite ; and, 

3. In what manner these can be best supplied. 



On Emission, Absorption, and Reflection of Obscure Heat. 
By Prof. Magnus*. 

There was a time when heat was considered to be very different from light. 
Now, however, we are persuaded that the only difference between them is the 
length of the waves by which they are produced and propagated. Therefore 
I thought that the weU-kuown laws of the radiation and absorption of light 
must also exist for heat. I followed in these thoughts Mr. Balfour Stewart, 
who, ten years ago, and several years before Kirchhoff and Bunsen had pro- 
pounded their theory, published a paper in which he developed nearly the 
same ideas for heat as these philosophers did for light. 

I wiU endeavour to give some of the results at which I arrived; but 

* A communication ordered to be printed in extenso among the Eeports. 



EMISSION, ABSORPTION, AND REFLECTION OF OBSCURE HEAT. 215 

before doing this, I must mention that for these experiments it was necessary 
to obtain the rays from the body examined unmixed with those of the flame 
or of any substance by which the body is heated. I succeeded in this by 
making use of a stream of heated air in which the body was suspended. 

I found that different substances heated to 150° C. emit different kinds 
of rays ; some only one kind, or waves of one length, and others waves of 
many different lengths. To the first class belongs pure Rock-salt. There is 
an analogy between the heat emitted by this body and the light produced 
by its vapours, or rather of the Sodium it contains. The light from this sub- 
stance gives only one hue in the spectrum, and the heat also is only of one 
wave-length. It is monothermic, as its vapour is monochromatic. 

Rock-salt absorbs the heat given out by Rock-salt, while it absorbs almost 
none of that given out by other substances. 

There is another crystallized substance, the chloride of potassium, called 
Sylvin, very hke rock-salt in its behaviour ; but it is not monothermic, because 
it absorbs the heat from different substances, not in a very high degree, but to 
a greater extent than rock-salt does. 

If our eyes would allow us to see the dark heat as we see light, and we 
could project a spectrum of the heat of rock-salt, we should see but one line. 
Rut in making use of the heat emitted by chloride of potassi^^m a longer 
space would be iUuminated, but not so long as from lampblack or from a 
flame. 

Here also is an analogy between the heat and light given off by chloride 
of potassium. 

I then made experiments on the reflection of heat, and I foiind that Silver, 
Glass, Rock-salt, Sylvin, and Fluorspar reflect nearly the same quantities of 
heat coming from a flame, from Lampblack, Glass, or from other substances. 
Rut of the heat from Rock-salt, the Fluorspar reflects five times as much as of 
that from other siibstances. Of the heat from Sylvin the Fluorspar reflects 
three times as much. 

It follows from these experiments that if obscure heat were visible, 
and if Rock-salt were used as the source of heat, we should see the Fluorspar 
brighter than all other bodies, as far as I know at present. With Sylvin as 
the source of heat we should see the Fluorspar bright, but not so bright as in 
the heat from Rock-salt. 

Although invisible to the eye there are millions of rays of heat passing 
between difl'erent substances, being partly absorbed and partly reflected ; 
and although we are surrounded by these motions, we cannot observe them 
but by special experiments. 

The analogy between light and heat seems to me to be complete. 



216 REPORT— 1869. 

Report on Observations of Luminous Meteors, 1868-69. By a Committee, 
consisting of James Glaisher, F.R.S., of the Royal Observatory , 
Greenivich, President of the Royal Microscopical and Meteorolo- 
gical Societies, Robert P. Greg^ F.G.S., F.R.A.S., E. W. Brayley^ 
i^. /?.(?., Alexander S. He^scuel, F.R.A. S., and Charles Brooke^ 
F.R.S., Secretary to the Meteorological Society. 

The Catalogue of the Tenth Eeport of this Committee contains the results of 
assiduous observations of shooting-stars, directed principally to the periodical 
dates when shower-meteors are usually expected to occur. Many observations 
are, besides, recorded from the published accounts, and privately communi- 
cated descriptions of observers on the large meteors which have appeared 
with more than ordinary frequency during the interval of the year elapsed 
since the presentation of the last Report. 

The general insufficiency of some of the observations, for the piirpose of 
determining approximately the real distance of the meteors, is not greater 
than must always be expected to arise, when a due allowance is made for 
the unprepared condition of observers at the moment of the appearance of 
such unusually large and brilliant meteors as have during the past year been 
seen in some abundance. The comparison of some of the accounts contained 
in the present list has, nevertheless, led to satisfactory conclusions re- 
garding the real height and course of some of the sj^lendid fireballs recorded 
in the paragraphs of this Report. Among those which principally appear to 
have afforded elements of strict mathematical calculation may be mentioned 
the observations made in France on the large fireball of the 5th of September, 
and those at Cambridge and in Paris on the detonating meteor of the 31st of 
May last. 

Some interesting communications on the same subject, bearing especially 
on the extent, velocity, and direction of the currents observed to exist in the 
loftiest regions of the atmosphere, are included with the heights of certain 
persistent meteor-streaks determined by Professor Newton, in the United 
States, on the 14th of November last. These observations, wdth the last- 
mentioned descriptions of bright meteors seen at the same time in England 
and on the Continent, are contained in the first Appendix of the Report. 

The occurrences of new aerolites and of other large meteors are described 
in detail, and frequent minor notices of similar appearances from foreign 
sources are placed in the second Appendix ; to which is added a Catalogi;e 
of recent fireballs, completing up to the present time the very comprehensive 
list of such appearances which, since their first Report, Mr. Greg has continued 
with unfailing industry to collect for the Committee. 

The observations reported in the next Appendix show that the periodical 
star-shower of August, in the past and present years, has been made the 
subject of increasing attention in England and on the Continent. The sys- 
tematic observation of the rate of frequency, time of maximum, and apparent 
position of the radiant-point has not yet cleared up some of the perplexities 
which surround the exhibition of this well-known but not yet thoroughly 
explained phenomenon. The possible prevalence of several maxima, and an 
apparent oscillation of the radiant-point in successive years between tolerably 
wide limits in the constellations Perseus and Cassiopeia, are features of this 
meteoric current which especially call for further investigation. The charac- 
teristic appearances of the meteors, both as to magnitudes and to the abun- 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OP LUMINOUS METEORS. 217 

rlance and duration of their luminous streaks, are also points of principal and 
recurring interest. 

Owing to the exceptionally overcast state of the sky in England during 
the whole of the winter and summer months of the past }'ear, the number of 
observations of the ordinary shower-meteors of October, December, January, 
and April last have not onl}^ been unusually deficient, but observers in 
England were unfortunately deprived of more than partial views of the great 
star-shower of the 14th of November last. Several interesting notices of the 
bright display, from transatlantic and continental stations, will, however, 
be found in the third Appendix ; and that and previous reappearances of the 
star-shower are further illustrated by papers in the fourth Appendix of the 
Report. Some insight into the phj'sical structure of the November meteoric 
cloud has, it wiU thus be seen, been derived from the simultaneous observa- 
tions of its recent principal displays at places as far apart in longitude as 
Shanghai, Calcutta, Greenwich, and the observatories of the United States. 
It appears that the central and most compact portion of the stream was 
twice encountered in the years 1866 and 1867, while in the years 1865 and 
1868 respectively, two outlying currents of greater width, but of less consi- 
derable density, were crossed, one on either side of the central stream, and 
separated from it, the former in front of, and the latter behind its margin, by 
an equally broad well-defined space comparatively devoid of meteors. This 
curious circumstance, first pointed out by Mr. Marsh, of Philadelphia, is 
drawn from observations at the conclusion of Appendix IV. 

A review of several important pa2)ers published, and received by the Com- 
mittee, during the past year, occupies the whole of the fourth and last 
Appendix of the Catalogue. The consideration now generally bestowed upon 
observations of luminous meteors is sufficiently rewarded by the occasional 
perusal of such papers of eminent scientific interest in the special branches 
of aerolitic and meteoric astronomy ; while the present zeal of observers is 
evinced by their association together in France and Italy to record in a 
regular and systematic form, under the direction, at Metz, of a luminous 
meteor committee like that of the British Association, the transitory pheno- 
mena of meteors and faUing-stars. In consequence of the combination of 
observers to observe shooting-stars together on stated nights, it cannot be 
doubted that a great accession to the present state of knowledge of this 
class of bodies will thus, in the course of a few years, be obtained. The 
star-showers of April last, which, on account of the unfavourable state of the 
weather, were unperceived in this country, were yet conspicuously seen at 
Moncalieri near Turin, and at Urbino, and the radiant-points of these 
meteoric epochs of the 10th, 20th, and 30th of April, already previously 
established by the British Association, received an unexpected confirmation. 

With the object of furthering the views, and assisting the progress of meteoric 
science in its most highly productive sphere of observation, the Committee, 
in presenting this their Tenth Annual Eeport, express the hope that the 
same success may continue to attend their future efforts which has rewarded 
them in the first period of their existence, and which was originally be- 
queathed to them by the great and talented author of the annual Reports to 
the British Association on observations of luminous meteors, when, in the 
year 1860, after compiling the present Catalogue alone and presenting it 
unassisted to the British Association for fifteen years, he for the first time 
placed the preparation of these Reports, and the annual collection of obser- 
vations of luminous meteors, in the hands of a committee. 

1869. a 



218 



REPORT 1869. 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS 



Date. 



1862. 
Nov. 2 7 



Hour. 



h m s 
5 52 p.m. 



1866. 
Sept.l7 10 22 p.m 



17 
17 

17 

17 
Oct. 28 
Nov. 18 



1867. 
Aug. 19 

20 
21 
21 

27 
27 



10 22 30 
p.m. 



Ibid. 
10 55 p.m. Ibid , 



Place of 
Observation. 



Between N. Fore, 
land and Broad, 
stairs. 



Birmingbam 



11 p.m. 



11 22 p.m, 



10 46 p.m, 



5 40 p.m. 



9 27 p.m, 

9 15 p.m. 

11 30 p.m 

11 52 p.m 

11 3 p.m 

11 3 p.m 



Ibid, 



Ibid, 



Ibid 



Apparent Size. 



Apparent diameter 
about one-fifth 
that of the full 



Colour. 



Duration. 



Position, or 

Altitude and 

Azimuth. 



Rather deep 
blue. 



6 seconds 



Wadhurst 
(Sussex). 



Birmingham ... 

Ibid 

Ibid 

Ibid 

Ibid 

Ibid 



= 3rdmag.# 



= 3rd mag.* 



= lst mag.*, then 



= lst mag.* 



= 3rd mag.* 



= lst mag.« 

Splendid meteor. 



Blue 



Blue 



Deep yellow 
and ruby. 



Yellow 
Blue . 
Blue . 



= 2nd mag.* 

= 3rd mag.* 
= 3rd mag.# 
= Sirius 



= lst mag.# 



= 3rd mag.» 



0-5 second . 
0'5 second , 
2'5 seconds , 



2 seconds.... 
1 second .... 
0"75 second. 



Red 



Blue 
Blue 
White 

White 

Blue 



First appeared vei 
close to Mar 
Passed about C 
under the mooi 
and disappear£ 
under Altair 
at an altituc 
of about 1( 
above the hi 
rizon. 

From j; Dracon 
a= d-- 

to 224° +48' 
From i (?, ( 

Draconis to 

Cygni. 
From a Persei to 

Aurigae. 



From 9°-18' 

to 348 -27 

a= d = 

From 90° +27' 

to e Geminoru: 
a= 6-- 
From 346°- 5° 

to 333 -16 
Appeared near tj 

moon. 



1-5 second 

0-5 second ... 
0'5 second ... 
1 second 



0-75 second... 
1 second 



a= = 
From 49° +48"= 

to a Pegasi. 
From 2 Aquilae 

Serpentis. 
From K Bootis t( 

Lyra;. 
From e Caprice 

to X Piscis A' 

tralis. 

a= I 

From 305° +20^ 

to 291 - 8 

Through the bo( 

stars of Came 

pardus. 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 219 



OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 



ppearance; Train, if any, 
and its Duration. 



le nucleus was followed 
by a flame-coloured tail 
about 2° long. It was 
twice nearly extinguish- 
ed in its course, but 
both times regained its 
luminosity. 



Length of 
Path. 



ft a tail 12° long 
or one second. Ruby- 
ioloured sparks issued 
rom the meteor, 
't a train for H second 



I not leave much train 



; a streak 



a streak 



15<= 



Direction ; noting also 

whether Horizontal, 

Perpendicular, or 

Inclined. 



Remarks. 



Observer. 



Inclining towards the The horizon itself was 
earth. invisible. 



From Radiant Rj, j. 
From Radiant V...., 



From Radiant R, 



From Radiant U . 



Beautiful colours. 



James Chapman. 



From Radiant Tj, 3, 4 



From Radiant R„ 



From Radiant e Cassio- 
peise. 

From Radiant e Cassio- 

peiae. 
From Radiant M G- ... 



From Radiant Q G 



Meteors five or six per 
hour. 



Though the moon was 
brilliant, the meteor 
was yet very Ijright ; 
even brighter than 
those of November 
14th, 1866. 



From Radiant e Cassio- 
peiEe. 

From Radiant e Cassio- 
peia;. 



This meteor nearly si- 
multaneous with the 
next. 



W. H. Wood. 

Id. 

Id. 

Id. 
Id. 
Id. 



Communicated 
byA.S.Herschel. 



W. H. Wood. 

Id. 
Id. 
Id. 



Id. 



Id. 



u2 



220 



REPORT 1869. 















Position, or 


Date. 


Hour. 


Place of 
Observation. 


Apparent Size. 


Colour. 


Duration. 


Altitude and 
Azimuth. 


18G7. h m 
Aug.2711 20 p.m. 


Birmingham ... 


= 3rdmag.* 


Blue 


0*5 second ... 


From a Delphini I 
a. Pegasi. 






27 11 20 p.m. 


Iljid 


= Sirius 


Orange colour 


1-5 second ... 


From 329°-13' 
















to 310 -19 


27' n ?.^ Tim. 


ll/id 


= 2nd mag.* 


Blue 


0-5 second ... 


From 6 to ^ Aqui: 


27 


19 n n m 


Ibid 


= 3rd mag.» 


Blue 


2 seconds 


From 336° -21 


















to 348 -18 


28 12 1 a.m. 

28 12 7 a.m. 
28 12 18 a.ni. 


Ibid 


= 2ndraag.» 

= lst mag.* 


Blue 


1-5 second ... 

1 second 

0'5 second ... 


From a Aquarii 


I1)id 


Blue 


a Equulei. 
From I to (3 Ceti 


ll)id 


= 1st mag.* 


Blue 


FroraTrAndromei 








to y Pegasi. 


Sept. 3 Ifi 40 n.m. 


Ibid . ... 


= 3rd mag.» 


Blue 


1 sec. ; slow- 
motion. 


«= S = 










From 335°+18° 














to 350 +15 


3'in 42 n.m. 


Ibid 


>lstmag.» 


White 


0-3 sec. ; rapid 


From « Triangi 










«= ^ = 














to 40° +32° 


3 


10 45 p.m. 


Ibid 


= lstmag.* 


Yellow 


05 second ... 


«= S= 




From 347°- 7 = 














to 353 -18 


3'l0 50 p.m. 

1 


Ibid 


= 3rdmag.» 


Blue 


0-5 second ... 


From a Delphini 






a Equulei. 


22 in l.'i Tim 


Ibid 


= 3rd mag.« 


Blue 


1-5 second ... 


«= Sr= 




-" -" r-"-- 






From 0°- 6° 














to 335 14 


24 


10 20 p.m. 


Ibid .... 


= 2nd mag.* 


Blue 


0-75 second... 


«= ^= 






Froml21° + 61° 














to 196 +71 


28 


9 20 p.m. 


Ibid 


>lstmag.* 


Blue, then 
white. 


0-5 second ... 


From a Lyrae to 




Ophiuchi. 


Oct. 3 


10 3 p.m. 


Ackworth, 
Pontefract 
(Yorlsshire). 


= 2ndmag.* 


Bright white.. 


2 sees. ; rapid 


From 12° + 12= 
to 13 + 8 


8 


10 10 p.m. 


Birmingham ... 


>lstmag.* 


Deep blue ... 


0-75 second ... 


From 298° +30" 
to <T Aquilae. 


18 


9 57 p.m. 


Ackworfh, 
Pontefract 
(Yorlishire). 


= l9t mag.» 


Yellowish . . . 


3 sees. ; slow 
motion. 


From 70° +50^" 
to 310 +60 
Rather north 
the zenith. 

















A CATALOGUE OF OBSEKVATIONS 01' LUMINOUS METEOllS. ^21 



ppearance; Train, if any, 
and its Duration. 



Length of 
Path. 



t a train for 2 seconds 



t a streak 



jhtest in the middle of 
a course. 



i a smoky streak 



a fine train which did 
}t last. 



50° 



Direction; noting also 

whether Horizontal, 

Perpendicular, or 

Inclined. 



From Radiant Q,a 



From Radiant R, 



Remarks. 



Observer. 



From Radiant V , 



From Radiant 'C Capri- 
corni. 



From Radiant /3 Ceti 



From Radiant B^ 

From Radiant e Cassio- 

peiae. 
From Radiant Qj 



This meteor followed at 
a brief interval by the 
next. 

Average rate of fre- 
quency 12 per hour; 
fine clear night. 

Commencement of this 
meteor - shower not 
seen ; but meteors 
came in groups be- 
tween 9'' 30"° and 
1 1'' p.m., with nearly 
a quarter of an hour'; 
interval of repose. 



W. H. Wood. 



Id. 



Id. 



Path curved laterally ... Id 



Id. 



Id. 

Id. 
Id. 



From Radiant Tj Meteors four in ten 

minutes. Clouds pre- 
vented further obser- 
vations. 

From Radiant B A severe thunderstorm.. 



From Radiant B, 



Vertically down. From 
Radiant R G. 



From Radiant G 



From Radiant e Cassio- 
peisE. 



From Radiant B, 



Directed from Capella. 



The last 10° of its path 
curved. 

One meteor in an hour ;, 
fine night. 

Fine nights on the 
10th, 19th, and 25th; 
no meteors seen. 
Night of the 28th 
overcast. 



Two small meteors 
about 9 o'clock. 



Id. 

Id. 

Id. 

Id. 

Id. 
Id. 

J. E. Clark. 



W. H, Wood. 



J. E. Clark. 



222 



REPORT — 1869. 



Date. 



1867 
Oct. 18 



18 



Hour. 



19 



19 



19 



20 



h m s 
9 57 3 
p.m. 

10 16 p.m 



10 11 p.m 



10 20 p.m. 



10 33 p.m, 



10 4 p.m 



Place of 
Observation. 



Ackworth, 
I'ontefract 
(Yorkshire). 

Ibid 



Ibid. 



Ibid. 



Apparent Size. 



= lst mag.*. 



= 2nd mag.* 



-■ Sirius 



= 1st mag.* Red 



20 



20 



20 



Ibid, 



Ibid, 



10 14 p.m. 



11 17 p.m. 
11 20 p.m. 



Ibid, 



Nov. 3 About ^ 
p.m. 



16 
17 

21 



6 10 to 
G 40 p.m, 
8 37 p.m. 



8 20 p.m. 



Birmingham 
Ibid 



= lst mas.* 



= 2^- mag.*. 



= 3rd mag.* 



= 3rd mag.* 
= lst mag.*.. 



Ackworth, 
Pontefract 
(Yorkshire). 

Ibid 



Ibid, 



Ibid , 



Colour. 



Yellowish 



Red 



Red 



Duration. 



l:j sec, ; slow 



2 sees. ; very 
slow. 



2 sees. ; very 
slow. 



White 



Red 



White 



Position, or 

Altitude and 

Azimuth. 



From 60° +50° 
to 35 4-47 ■ 

From 296-5°+ 1° 
to 289 -3 



Near Rigel 



2^ seconds ...Disappeared ve 
near Jupiter. 



0-75 second . 



3^ sees. ; very 
slow. 



1'5 second 



:1st to 4th mag.« 
:1st mag.* 



Half as bright again 
as %. 



Blue 

Orange colour 



White 



Yellowish 



0-5 second . 
0'75 second . 



In the south ; 
the left of Jupit 



In the south ; 
the left of Jupit 



In the direction 
wards and m 
Jupiter. 



From r to 6 ] 

gasi. 
From a Orionis 

of the way tc 

Tauri. 



1'5 second .. 



1 sec. ; rapid 
motion. 



In the E. 



From 295° + 48' 
to 283 +37 



First appeared n 
T) Pegasi, i 
disappeared 
clouds near 
piter. 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 



223 



1 Appearance ; Train, if any, 
and its Duration. 



ueit no streak 



jeft a fine thin train 



^eft a fine train of a green- 
ish tinsre. 



jeft a red train of varying 
brightness. 



^eft a dull train , 



jcft a sliiht train 



.left a slight train 



jCft a bright train for 3 
seconds. 



Length of 
Path. 



11= 



10° 



15= 



10° 



10° 



14= 



40° 



Direction ; noting also 

whether Horizontal, 

Perpendicular, or 

Inclined. 



From Capella, towards 
S.W. 



Remarks. 




/ 



/ 



From Radiant llj, 2-> 
From Radiant Sj (?) 



X 



Another meteor at lO*" 
1 2™ p.m. 

Very distinct. Another 
meteor appeared at 
10'' 25" p.m. 



Very oscillating motion 



Two meteors about si 
multaueous with this. 



From the same Radiant 
as the last. 



Almost disappeared 
during its course. 



Opposed in its direction 
to the last. Another 
at 10^ 16°i p.m. 



Moved along a line 
parallel to /3, a Pe- 
gasi. 



J. E. Clark. 



Id. 



Observer. 



On this night and the 
following five meteors 
were observed. 

Eight meteors were seen 



Id. 



Id. 



Id. 



Id. 



Id. 



W. H. Wood. 
Id. 

J. E. Clark, 

Id. 



Fluctuated in its course. ij;j. 
Another meteor ap- 
peared near Aquila at 
8'' 28-" p.m. 



^ 



The observer's back 
being turned to the 
meteor, his attention 
was drawn to it by 
the reflected light, 
and its course was 
marked by the per- 
sistent streak. 



Id. 



01 1, 



KEroRX — 18G9. 



Date. 



Hour. 



1867. 
Nov.21 



h m s 
About 8 25 
p.m. 



21:10 8 p.m. 



Place of 
Observation. 



Ackworth, 
Poiitefract 
(Yorkshire). 



22'About 7 20 
p.rn. 
10 2 p.m 



26 



20 
27 

28 



1868. 
Feb. 4 



July 14 
15 
30 



Aug.lO 



10 34 p.m. 

8 50 p.m, 

7 17 p.m. 

7 35 p.m. 



10 50 p.m. 
10 35 p.m 

5 55 50 

a.m. 
(local time), 



10 51 p.m, 

(local time). 



Ibid , 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 



Ibid, 
Ibid, 

Ibid . 
Ibid. 



Street 

(Somerset). 
Ibid 



Apparent Size. 



Colour. 



Duration. 



Position, or 

Altitude and 

Azimuth. 



:3rd mag.* White 



Italaya Observa. 
tory, Brazils. 



:2nd mag.» 



= 3rd mao;.* 



About 4' apparent 
diameter. 



=3rd mag.* 

= 2nd mag.* 

= 3rd mag.* 

= ¥ 

= lst or 2nd mag.* 

2nd mag.* 

Apparent diameter 
about 43' of arc 



White 



White 

Brilliant white 



Red ... 
White 



Red 



0'5 second 



Almost instan- 
taneous. 



2 seconds. 

3 seconds. 



White 



White 



Rome 



Large meteor 



Colour of the 
electric light. 



1-5 second .. 
0-25 sec; rapid 

05 sec. ; rapid 



1 second 



From 272° +38° 
to 267 +39 



.\bout 1^° to rigl: 
of Rigel. 



2° to left of a, Gen 

tauri [?]. 

«= ^ = 
From about 4 8° -3 

to about 65 —5 



From 55° -13° 
to 55 —20 

First appeared 
almost in th 
zenith, near 
Persei. 

Centre of patl, 
midway betweei 
the head of Arie 
and the Pleiades 



In the W.S.W. 
from about 30' 
to 22° above thi 
horizon. 



In Draco , 



1 7 seconds 



Commenced at ( 
Draconis. 

Commenced 30' 
from the meri 
dian in the east 
which it crosset 
at S. Decl. 65' 
(Zen. dist. 42' 
32'), and disap- 
peared behind a 
hill 50° 15' wesl 
of south. 

From the head (A 
Bootes, across 
the hand of Her- 
cules to the hand 
of Ojjhiuchus. 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OV LUMINOUS METEOKS. 223 



ppe.iranee; Train, if any 
and its Duration. 



ke a small molten drop 
ailing out of Vega Lyrae. 



Length of 
Path. 



11° 



first scarcely visible ... 2' 



e nucleus was followed 
jy a short brigiit red 
:ail, and proceeded by 
ihree successive jerks, 
fipparently gradually 
adins. 



25° 



iulually faded out 



ed gradually from sight 



meteors appeared 
lOUt the same time. 



lular, followed by a 
ain 9° long, oval and 
reading at the end. 
)th tail and nucleus 
sre as bright as the 
JCtric light, emitting 
ninous drops and 
very sparks. 



a large meteor of the 
(vember shower. 



10° 



10° 



Direction ; noting also 

whether Horizontal, 

Perpendicular, or 

Inclined. 



Perpendicular to the 
horizon. 



Remarks. 



Y 



I 



Ten meteors seen from 
8"^ to Sh 30'" p.m. 



Observer. 



J. E. Clark. 



/ 




•Vlniost perpendicularly 
down. 

Moving towards Cassio 
peia. 



Directed from « Persei 



Seen through light 
clouds, which ob- 
scured the smaller 
stars. A large halo 
of light surrounded 
the meteor, which 
sensibly illuminated 
the landscape. 



Id. 



\ 



Another meteor ap 
peared above Orion 
at 8" 45'" p.m. 



Id. 



Id. 



Length of 
visible path 
77° 41'. 



Towards Corona Bore- 
alls. 

[? Apparent] motion in- 
cbned 17° 40' to the 
ecliptic ; retrograde. 



At the appearance of 
the meteor, the com 
pass-needle oscillated 
15° from the north 
towards the west ; six 
minutes later, a deto 
nation was beard in 
the south-west. 



Seen also at Civita Vec- 
chia by Professor Pi- 
tt elli. 



Id. 



Id. 

Id. 

Id. 

' Anglo-Brazilian 
Times,' August 
7th, 18C8. Dr. 
F. Massena and 
Messrs. Arsenic 
and Veija. 



Mme. Scarpel- 
lini, ' Annales 
de rObserva- 
toire de Brux- 
elles ' for 1868 
-69, p. 164. 



226 



REPORT — 1869. 



Date. 



1868. 
Aug. 15 



15 
23 

25 

25 
25 
25 
25 
Sept. 5 



Hour. 



h m 
10 13 p.m 



10 3G p.m. 
10 12 p.m. 

9 33 p.m. 

10 7 p.m. 

10 49 p.m. 

10 54 p.m. 

10 57 p.m 

Between 
7 and 8 p.m 



Place of 
Observation. 



Primrose Hill, 
London. 



Ibid. 
Ibid . 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 
Ibid , 
Ibid 
Ibid, 



Apparent Size. 



— ]'^ mag.« 

= 2nd mag.* 
>2^ 



Pic de Sancy, 
France. 



About 8 
p.m. 

(Paris time) 



=:3rd mag.* , 

=2nd mag.# 
= 3rdmag.» 
= 2^ mag.* 
= limag.* 
Large meteor 



Clermont, France Large meteor 



8 18 p.m. 
(Paris time) 



Geneva. 



A few mi 
nutes be- 
fore 8 30 
p.m., Tu 
rin time. 



Many times larger 
than Jupiter. 



Aosta, Piedmont 



Colour. 



White 



White 



Bright orange, 
then fiery 
red. 



White 



White 



White 



Duration. 



2-| seconds ; 
moved 
slowly. 

Moved slowly 



Moved very 
swiftly. 



Orange colour 



Position, or 

Altitude and 

A.zimuth. 



Between 4 and 
5 seconds. 



Frora337° + 45° 
to 316 +30 

From 23° +43" 
to 360 +20 

From 310° +44° 
to 335 +34 



From 301° +29° 
to 335 +31 i 

From328°+32° 

to 345 +29 
From 11° +87° i 

to 245 +33 
From 30° +65° 

to 126 +61 
From 221° + 78° I 

to 259 +50 I 
Disappeared eii 

actly at ji Urs' 

Majoris. 



12 seconds ... 



Colourless, or 
reddish. 



Manytimesbrighter 
than a 1st mag.* 



Moved slowly; 
about 20° or 
30° per sec. 



Started from tlj 
mountains of F 
rez, in the eas, 
passed north 
Clermont, ai 
disappeared 1) 
fore reaching ti 
mountains of 
Puy de Dome, \ 
the west. 

The meteor pa» 
close by ?j Ub 
Majoris. 



Brilliant 
white ; with 
yellowish or 
pinkish 
tinge. 



Moved slowly, 
as if resisted 
in its flight. 



Appeared in 
east ; trav( 
the whole viil 
horizon of t 
valley of Aos 
towards the 
W.N.W., k 
disappeared 1 
hind the hills 
that direciion. 



i 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS 01? LUMINOUS METEORS. 



227 



[)pearaiicc ; Train, if any, 
and its Duration. 



;ft a long tapering streak 



;ft a streak like the last 

jft a train on two- 
thirds of its course. 
Threw off a few small 
sparks, 
ft a slight train 



ifl; a faint train which 
faded instantly. 



ift a train on about half 
its course. 

le whole length of the 
meteor from the head 
to the point of the 
rocket-like tail 10°. It 
neither changed colour 
nor form during its 
passage, and went sud 
denly out. 



Length of 
Path. 



10° 



25° 



Not less 
than 45° 



b 



le meteor gradually de 
creased in volume as if 
ly the loss of sparks 
which remained without 
descending to the eartl 
along the bright lumi- 
nous streak. This re 
mained visible on the 
whole of its course for 
some time. 
ew a long tail, but 
left no distinct streak 
on its course. It did 
act burst, but disap 
peared gradually in the 
iistance. 

Itowed by a long taper- 
ng tail of smaller width 
than the nucleus, and 
losing itself at last in a 
faintly luminous vapour. 



Direction; noting also 
whether Horizontal, 
Perpendicular, or 
Inclined. 



From Radiant, near B 
C'amelopardi. 



From the same Radiant 
as the last. 



Downwards to left 
From Radiant, near j3 
Cygni. 

From the same Radiant 
as the last. 



Direction exactly paral- 
lel to the horizon. 



Remarks. 



This and the next very 
much alike. One 
more meteor from 
a Aquilae. 



Observer. 



A splendid meteor with 
perceptible disk. 



Imperfect view 



From due E. to W. 



Its path was horizontal 



Horizontal 



Very fine meteor ; colour 
very marked. 

The time of its ap 
pearance was about 
half an hour before 
the moon rose ; a 
very imposing meteor 
both for magnitude 
and steadiness of 
movement. Another 
large meteor was seen 
at Ashford (Kent) on 
the same evening 
(The Times, Sept. 10). 

.\ most brilliant meteor. 
No sound was heard 
after its disappear- 
ance. (See a calcu- 
lation of its path in 
Appendix I.) 



The commencement not 
seen, but the light as 
ii passed caught the 
observer's eye 

At the same time and 
in the same direction 
(from E. to N.W.) a 
meteor of the same 
appearance was ob- 
served at Moncalieri. 
A splendid meteor was 
also observed at the 
same time (Q"" p.m. 



T. Crumplen. 



Id. 



Id. 



Id. 

Id. 

Id. 

Id. 

Id. 

B. F. Smith ; 
'The Times,' 
Sept. 8th, 1868. 



' Comptes Ren- 
dus,' Sept. 21st. 
1868. 



E. Jones. 



.Denza; 'Stelle 
Cadenti del 
Periodo di 
Agosto Osser- 
vati in Pie- 
monte nel 
1868,' p. 55. 



Roman time) 
rence. 



at Flo- 



228 



REroRT — 18C9. 



Date. 



1868. 
Sept.lO 

10 
10 

10 
10 
10 
12 

12 
13 

13 

13 

13 

13 

14 

14 
23 

26 

26 



Hour. 



h m 

10 II p.m. 

10 33 p.m. 

10 50 p.m. 

10 51 p.m. 

11 1 p.m. 

II 16 p.m. 

About 11 
p.m. 



About 11 

p.m. 
Between 

9 15 and 
10 5 p.m. 
Between 

9 15 and 
10 5 p.m. 
Between 

9 15 and 
10 5 p.m. 
Between 

9 15 and 
10 5 p.m. 
10 31 p.m. 



About 10 30 
p.m. 

About 10 30 
p.m. 

9 26 p.m. 



3 26 a.m. 



3 27 a.m. 



Place of 
Observation. 



Tooting, London 

Birmingliam ... 
Tooting, London 

Birmingham ... 

Ibid 

Ibid 

Pitlochrie 
(Perthshire). 

Ibid 

Ibid 

Ibid 

Ibid 

Ibid 

Birmingham ... 

Pitlochrie 
(Perthshire). 



Ibid, 



Ackworth, 
Pontefract 
(Yorkshire). 



Ibid 

(lat. 53° 40' W., 
long. P» 20'-5.) 



Ibid. 



Apparent Size. 



= 3rd mag.* 

=2nd mag.* 
:3rd mag.# 

= lst mag.# 
= 3rd mag.* 
= 3rd mag.« 
:1st mag.#., 

:2nd mag.* 
:3rd mag.* 

:3rd mag.» 

:2nd mag.» 

:1J mag.fr 

:2ndmag.» 

= 1^ mag.» ., 

:3rd mag.* 
:3rd mag.* 

= lst mag.« 

:2nd mag.» 



Colour. 



White 

Blue 
White 



Yellow 

Reddish 

Blue 

Reddish white 



White .. 
Reddish 



Dull reddish., 



White 



White 



Blue 



White 



Dull 



White 



White 



White 



Duration. 



Very brief 

0"5 second 
J second .., 



0*25 second . 
0*5 second . 

1 second .... 

2 seconds . 

0'75 second . 
05 second . 



From 222° + 40° 
to 226 +28 

From p Pegasi to 
Aquari. 

From 180° + 70° 

to 188 +57 
From270°+29° 

to 270 +10 
From 325°- 2° 

to 321 -11 
From 270° + 10° 

to 267 + 5 

After pursuing one 

third of its course 

it passed over i 

Lyra;. 

Close to L Came 

lopardi. 
Commenced near i 

Persei. 



I second 



Near d Bootis . 



0-75 second ... 
075 second... 
05 second ... 



Slow motion ; 
2 seconds. 



0"3 second .. 



0*2 second .. 



0"3 second .. 



Position, or 

Altitude and 

Azimuth. 



Commenced near j 
Andromedae. 

Commenced new 
and below a An- 
dromedae. 

Midway between ] 
Pegasi and j 
Arietis. 

Commenced in 
Custos Messium 
Disappeared 5' 
below as Persei. 

Commenced in thi 
square of Came 
lopardus. 

From280°+87° 
to 245 +78 



From 52°+10'' | 
to 48 + 9 i 



N'ear p Eridani .^^ 



1 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OP LUMINOUS METEORS. 



229 



ppcarance ; Train, if any, 
and its Duration. 



;ft a streali which in- 
stantly disappeared. 

ucleus followed by an 

adhering tail. 

:ft a streak which was 
inmediatelye.'Ltinguished. 



cleus phosphorescent 
and trained. 



Length of 
Path. 



.More than 
25°. 



About 4°. 



Direction ; noting also 

whether Horizontal, 

Perpendicular, or 

Inclined. 



Slightly curved path ... 
From Radiant ^.^,^,^,.. 



ie a small nebulous bodv 5° 



ft a streak 



.More than 
10^ 



t a train which lasted 
or 4 seconds. 



; a train for 5 seconds 



12= 



From Radiant Nj,, ,3 
From Radiant Bj ... 
From Radiant Bj ... 
Directed from a Cygni 



Directed towards Ursa 
Major. 



Remarks. 



Sky clear; no moon ; 
careful observation. 

Fine clear night , 



Stars brilliant ; carefully 
observed. 



Observer. 



Directed from Ursa 
Minor. 

Directed towards a Per- 
sei. 



Fell vertically 



Directed from Radiant 
QGorTj. 

Directed from Radiant 

N 15 (?). 



From Radiant T, 



W. Jackson. 

W. II. Wood. 

W. Jackson. 

W. H. Wood. 

Id. 

W. Jackson, 

R, P. Greg. 

Id. 

Id. 



From Radiant E in La- 
cert a. 



10° Fell vertically, nearly 

from the direction of 



10° 



3° or 4"* 



Cygnus. 



Directed from a Tauri 



^ 



^ 



Apparently directed 
from the same Ra- 
diant-point as the 
last meteor. 



Id. 
Id. 
Id. 
Id. 
Id. 

Id. 

J, E. Clark. 

Id. 
Id. 



230 



REPORT— 1869. 



Date. 



1868. 
Sept.29 



Oct. 7 



Hour. 



h m 
Evenino; .. 



Troy, U. S. Ame- 



About 10 15 

p.m. 
(Paristime) 



At night 



About 11 30 
p.m. 

About 1 1 45 
p.m. 



Place of 
Observation. 



Large meteor 



Chirac, Lozere, 
France. 



Liskeard 
(Cornwall). 



Sandwich 

(Kent). 

Levtonstone 



Apparent Size. 



As bright as the full 
moon. 



20' or 30' in dia 
meter. 



Colour. 



Bright rose 
and red. 



Like moon- 
light ; bluish. 



Red and blue. 



Duration. 



Position, or 

Altitude and 

Azimuth. 



10 seconds ... 



First appeared 
an altitude 
about 50° in t 
N.E. 



About 3 sees. 



About 11 45 Walworth, 
p.m. London. 



711 48 p.m, 



Large meteor 
,. Large meteor 

Large meteor 



Wolverhampton 



About the apparent 
size of full moon. 



Purple and red 



Colours of the 
train orange 
yellow, and 
blue. 



Disappeared m 
Ursa Minor 



I 



3 or 4 seconds! It started from ( 
centre of t 
heavens and tc 
a southerly 
rection. 
iDescended to 
right of 
cluster of st 
known as C 
siopeia's Chaii 

Disappeared a i 
degrees abi 
the northern 
rizon. 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 



331 



pearance; Train, if any, 
and its Duration. 



lowed by a very bril- 
iliant train. When 
half way on its course 
it exploded and threw 
out a great quan 
tity of brilUant white 
sparks, the meteor 
still pursuing its 
icourse. 

|; a train of brilliant 
larks in the form of an 
ilongated cone, with its 
ase at Ursa Minor. 



first an ordinary 
ihooting-star, expand- 
ng almost instanta- 
leously to a deep red 
jail ; followed by a 
itream of vivid red 
ight, pale bluish near! 
he ball, 1° wide, andl 
J0° in length. Be- 
bre disappearing, the 
|)all became bright 
i)lue, and ultimately 
liurst, emitting nu- 
inerous luminous 
;ragmeuts, which 
rvere instantly ex- 
linguished. 

(irisingly grand and 
illiant appearance. 

leteor of remarkable 
illiancy, which disap 
ared suddenlv. 



rst it was just like 
tar, and in its course 
'increased in a start- 
;g manner, until at 
it reached the ap- 
'•ent size of the moon 
il exploded, scattering 
;s of light in all (U- 
tions. 



Length of 
Path. 



Length of 
the bright 
streak 30" 



Direction ; noting also 

whether Horizontal, 

Perpendicular, or 

Inclined. 



Inclined to the horizon 
at an angle of between 
70° and 80°. 



From S. to N. 



From S. to N. 



About 15' 
or 20°. 



From N. to S. [?] 



Remarks. 



magnificent meteor ; 
seen by many ob^ 
servers. 



The sudden flash of 
the light was like 
that of the fnll 
moon emerging from 
behind a cloud. The 
meteor itself not 
seen. No detona- 
tion heard. Time 
certainly before lO*" 
30"° p.m. 



Observer. 



'The Troy Whig,' 
Oct. 1st, 1868. 



From nearly S. to N. 



Abbe Trueize and 
Abbe Boiral 
' Les Mondes,' 
2nd ser., vol. 
-wiii, p. 332. 



The Times,' 
Oct. 13th, 1868, 



The heavens appeared 
for a moment to be a 
mass of fire. 

The observer's attention 
was first drawn to 
the meteor by an 
unusual and startling 
light. 

The night was very fine 
and clear, and the 
meteor cast an im 
mense glare around. 
Doubtless the largest 
meteor ever seen. 

iXo meteor seen on the 
1-Uh of Nov. 1866 
was equal to it in 
magnitude. The light 
with which objects 
were illumined was 
sufficient for the ob- 
server to have picked 
up a pin. 



Daily Tele- 
graph,' Oct. 
9th. 
W. H. L. (Ibid). 



H. R. (Ibid). 



W. H. Wood 
' Midland 
Counties 
Express.' 



233 



REPORT — 1869. 



Date. 



1868. 
Oct. 7 



h m s 
About 1150 
p.m. 



Hour. 



About 11 50 
p.m. 



About 11 50 
p.m. 



Place of 
Observation. 



Apparent Size. 



Brigbton 
(^Sussex). 



fjQrgc meteor 



Uamsgate 
(Kent). 



Wimbledon , 



About 11 53 
p.m. 

About 11 55 
p.m. 



711 59 54 
p.m. 
(Paris time) 



A great fireball 



Colour. 



1^1 ue, then red 



The body 
white, and 
the tail ol 
all the co- 
lours of the 
rainbow. 



Very large meteor 



Red 



Duration. 



Lasted fully 
half a sec. 



Gordon Square, 
London. 



Sandown, Coast 
guard Station, 
Isle of Wight, 



Large meteor 



At first a small fire- 
ball, gradually 
enlarging. 



Various 



Lasted several 
seconds. 



Position, or 

Altitude and ! 

Azimuth. 



Lasted only a 
moment. 



2 or 3 seconds 



Belleville, Paris Apparent diameter 
30'. 



About 12 

p.m. 
(local time). 



Angers, France... 



Large meteor 



At first white, 7 seconds, 
then red. 
The frag- 
ments blue, 
yellow, and 
green. 



First appeared i 
considerable 
height above 
horizon, due 



About 1 5 sec 



Passed from S( 
of a Cephe 
north of J} I 
Minoris, and 
wards betw© 
and y Ursae 
noris. 



At an appf 
altitude of 
above the 
rizon. 



A CATAtOGUK Ol' UUSfiHVATIOXS OF LUMlxXOUS METEOIl;?. 233 



ipearance; Train, if any, 
and its Duration. 



e meteor itself not 
seen. The whole 
heavens seemed to 
be a mass of bright 
blue light followed 
immediately by a 
crimson hue of equal 
brilliancy. 

."ket-like. A huge fire- 
tall with a flare of light 
ike the comet seen at 
.ondon some years 
ince. It came silently 
nd collapsed sud<ienly. 



ed ball emitting bright 

parks, and followed by 

flaming tail of great 

iiigth. 



idden flash of light liiic- 
ghtning. 



increased from 
small ball, so as, ,„ 
ibout two seconds, to 
ibscure the moon ; 
ind burst into " varie- 
jated stars, springing 
"rom a body which 
kssumed the shape of 
I huge luminous di- 
l.ing-bell;. I can liken 
t to nothing else." 
ilually increased until, 
1 crossing Ursa Minor, 
I burst ; the fragments 
reading in a coue, 15° 
jde at the base, which 
IS turned towards the 
Irth. The meteor at 
jc same time turned! 
fJ, and the fragments! 
i;re blue, yellow, and' 
|3cn. 



Length of 
Path. 



Direction; noting also 

whether Horizontal, 

Perpendicular, or 

Inclined. 



Remarks. 



Observer. 



Descending towards the 
earth. 



Descended in an easterly 
direction at an air^le 
of about 45° towards 
the horizon. 



From S. toN. 



Directed towards N.E. 



09. 



The night ■vvas clear and 
frosty. The observer's 
attention was attract- 
ed by seeing the sha- 
dows of houses clearly 
thrown across the 
parade. 

A very startling and im- 
posing meteor. The 
whole sky seemed on 
fire. The flash of light 
illumined the interior 
of a room, at Bekes- 
bourne, for 4 or 5 
seconds. 
The sky was clear. 
A vivid flash of 
bluish light illumin- 
ed surrounding ob- 
jects, overpowering 
the light of the 
moon, and casting 
actual shadows on 
the ground. 
A beautiful starlight 
night. Seen also ir 
several parts of the 
metropolis. 
During twenty - eight 
years' night - watch- 
ing, and twelve more 
spent at sea, no me- 
teor was before seen 
so large and brilliant. 



J. Fuller ; 
' -Alidlaud 
Counties 
E.\pre3S.' 



A.dara Dickson 
(Ibid). 



P. H. Lawrence ; 
' The Times,' 
Oct. 9th. 



T. r. P. (Ibid). 



John Burt ; 
' Daily Tele- 
graph,' Oct, 
10th. 



About 5™ 28'' after its 
disappearance, a loud 
explosion like the 
bursting of a mine 
in the neighbour- 
hood v.as heard. 
The explosion was 
heard at Paris also 
by M. Le Bacilly 
[Ibid.] ; and the me- 
teor was seen at 
Diisseldorf, in Ger- 
many ['LesMondes,' 
Second Series, xviii, 
282]. 

An extremely bright 
meteor. No sound 
of an explosion was 
heard. 



Mons. Treme- 
chini ; ' Comp. 

tes Rendus,' 
vol. Ixvii, p. 
771, Oct. 12th 

18G8. 



Mons. Morren 
(Ibid). 



E 



234 



KEPORT — 1869. 



Date. 



Hour. 



1868. h m 
Oct. 712 p.m 
(local time). 



Place of 
Observation. 



Apparent Size. 



Colour. 



rilloy les Coiiti, Large meteor 
Somiiie, 
France. 



About 12 
p.m. 

(local time). 



1011 10 p.m. 



10 



11 



11 17 p.m. 



12 45 a.m. 



Brussels, 
Belgium. 



Birmingham 
[bid 



Large meteor ; 
brighter than 
the moon. 



:2nd mag. ;t Blue 



11 12 52 a.m. 



11 
11 

15 
15 



1 a.m. 

7 1 p.m. 

9 22 p.m 

9 22 p.m 



Ibid . 
Ibid . 

Ibid . 



16 



17 
17 



7 45 p.m. 



Ackworth, 
Pontefract 
(Yorkshire). 



Tooting, London 



= 2nd mag.* 

= 3rd mag.» 
= lst maf!;.*.. 



= 3rd magK 

= n 



Blue 
Blue 

Dull . 

Red . 



Ibid , 



Whitby 

(Yorkshire). 



About = 3rd maa: * White 



About=3rd niag.» White 



12 1 a.m.! Birmingham 
11 58 p.m. Ibid 



:3rd mag.«- 
:3rd mas:.* 



Duration. 



Position, or 

Altitude and 

Azimuth. 



Blue 
Blue 



Very brief du- 
ration. 



Very rapid ., 



Dull white ... 



Disappeared in llii 
N.W. 



1'5 second ... 

From G°+25'> 
to TT Pegasi. 

2 seconds «= ^~1 

From 4° +15" 
to 358 +15 
0-5 second ... From ^^ to /3 Ori 

onis. 

0-2 second ... «= ^= 

From 75°-3'' 
to 74-7 
0-5 second ... «= ^= ■ 

From 00^+22° 
to fp Aurigae. 
1-5 sec. ; very In the west ; IC 
slow speed. above the hor 
zon. I 



1 second 



1 second 



O'o second 

I 

iO'5 second 



From 269° +30° 
to 260 +15 

From 5 («, y) to 
(6, K) Cygni. 



From the st; 
to the we 
[?a] of Andn 
meda, to aboi 
the star Alg' 
rith [ ? « ] ; 
Taurus. 

From a Arietis to 

I Pegasi. 
.'From Co Orionis ' 

I V Cctl. 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 235 



ppearance ; Train, if any, 
and its Duration. 



Lengtii of 
Path. 



ih a luminous streak on 
its course. 



Direction ; noting also 

whether Horizontal, 

Perpendicular, or 

Inclined. 



Remarks. 



Moving from E. to W. 



l'"orebl:or- 
tc.'ied 
course. 



ft a slight streak. 



't a streak which was 
ibxtinguished at once. 



I|ft a streak which lasted 
■athcr longer than that 
)f the previous meteor. 



From S.E. toN.W.. 



From Radiant, ■ 
or R], 2- 

From Radiant T, 



Ceti ; 



The meteor cast a vivid 
light. A few mo- 
ments after its dis- 
appearance there was 
heard a dull rumbling 
sound like that of a 
carriage rolling over 
a pavement. 

The meteor threw a 
strong light. Seen 
also at Louvain, 
Liege, and Antwerp. 
According to the de- 
scription at Paris, 
a violent explosion 
was heard a few- 
minutes after its dis- 
appearance. 



Observer, 



From Radiant F„ 
From Radiant F., 



i' I'oni Radiant, 
or U. 



Get: 



t a streak 



Directed from the Ra- 
diant in Orion. 



From Radiant R , 



Directed from RadiantO 



Mons. Roze ; 
' Comptes 
Rendus,' 
vol. l.xvii. p. 
771, Oct. 12th, 
1868. 



M 



Marehal ; 
' Annales de 
rObservatoire 
de Bruxelles ' 
for 1868-69, 
p. 168. 



W. H. Wood. 



Tl'.is and the next two 
meteors were observed 
within a quarter of a 
minute of time. 

No moon ; stars verj 
bright. Another mi- 
nute meteor was seen, 
almost simultaneous 
and nearly in the 
same position, with 
this one. 

Two other meteors ap- 
peared at about 11'' 
p.m. from the bright 
star in the head of 
Petus [.'a Ceti] to the 
head of Capricornus. 



Id. 



Id. 



Id. 



Id. 



Id. 



J. E. Clark. 



W. Jackson. 



B. Livingstone ; 
'Daily News.' 



W. II. Woo J. 
fd. 

T2 



236 



REPORT— 18G 9. 



Date. 



1868. 
Oct. 1/ 



17 

18 
18 

18 

18 

18 



18 



18 



Hour. 



Place of 
Observation. 



Apparent Size. 



li m s 

10 5 p.m. Ackworth, 

Puntefract 
(Yorkshire). 



10 50 p.m. 

12 8 a.m. 
12 9 a.m. 



= lst mag.i 



Somerton 
(Somersetshire) 

Birmingham ... 

Ibid 



12 23 a.m. Ibid 



12 23 30 

a.m. 
12 25 a.m 



Between 
9 15 and 
9 35 p.m 



9 51 p.m. 



Ibid. 
Ibid , 



Tooting, London 



Birmingham ... 



About 10 Tooting, London Uather bright me- 
p.m. teor 



18 10 21 p.m. 



1810 26 p.m. 



About = 1st mag.* 



=3rd mag.* 
>-lst map;.* 



Colour. 



White 



0*4 second .. 



Bright white., 



Dull 

Green and red 



= 3rdmag.;!- Reddish 



=:2Rd mag.» 
= lst maa;.*.. 



Duration. 



0*5 second ... 

1*5 sec. ; slow 
speed. 

0'3 second ... 



Blue I second 



White 



0'5 second 



About=3rd mag.* Dull white ...12 or 3 seconds 



= 3rd max.i 



Blue 



[lornsey Road ... 



Tooting, London 



18 10 17 p.m. [bid 



Large meteor 



:3rd mag. « 



Bright white.. 



— 2nd mag.» ; 
larger and 
brighter than 
the last. 



1 second 



Moved slowlv 



4 to 6 seconds 



3 second 



1 second 



Position, or 

Altitude and 

Azimuth. 



From 5° — 17° 
to 3 -25 



Disappeared near i 
Draconis. 

From « to 
Orionis. 

From 55° 0° 
to y Eridani. 
From 1) Eridani 

to 47°-22' 
From /3 to e Aricti 

Shot from fi Eii 
dani towards • 
Leporis. 

Just beyond an( 
parallel with 
the south edgt 
of the Milk; 
AVay ; near thi 
zenith. 

From the Pleiade 
to « Trianguli. 

.\bout halfway be 
tween the 'Point 
ers' (a, /3 Ursa 
Majoris) and Ca 
pella. 



I 



It passed from i 
litile south of ( 
Cassiopeiae to ; 
(r- ^) Cygni ant 
onwards ^ o 
the way to th( 
horizon. 

From between Pie 
iades and Aide 
baran, a littli 
ncarerthe forme 
than the latter tt 
■J (a, X) Orionis. 

It began under Pie 
iades and enrlei 
between /3 and ; 
Arietis. 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METF.onS. 



lo/ 



Appearance ; Train, if any, 
and its Duration. 



Left no streak 



Lcngtli of 
Path. 



8°. 



Left a slight train 
which vanisherl im- 
mediately. 



Left a streak 



Direction ; noting also 

whether Ilorizontal, 

Perpendicular, or 

Inclined. 



Remarks. 



f'assed slowly, giving out 
a hroad but not very 



More than 
10°. 



bright streak 
was instantly 
guished. 



■vvhicli 
extin- 



60° 



\ 



From Radiant . 
From Radiant Aj, 

From Radiant A, 



From Radiant Ri,^. 
From Radiant A,„ . 



Observer. 



.eft a bright sheet of light 
on its course for 1 or JJ 
1 minute. 



Its course 
curved 
thus — 



about 
half a de- 
gree. 



From Radiant , 



Intercepted view. 



Almost horizontal, to- 
wards Ursa Major, 



e 



ft a bright streak which 
as at once extinguished. 



Probably the same me- 
teor as that seen atHorn- 
sey Road at 10'' (?9h) 
21"'p.m.;nomoon; stars 
less bright than on the 
preceding night. 
One meteor in 15 mi- 
nutes ; sky hazy ; over- 
cast at IQh 45°" p.m. 
Between lO"" and ll"- 
p.m. three small me 
teors moved on a line 
a few degrees below 
and parallel to Plei- 
ades and Jupiter, the 
second below the first, 
and the third below 
the second; all of the 
same length of course 
as that line. 
Very fine meteor and 
fine streak. 



W. II. Wood. 



Id. 

Id. 
Id. 

Id. 

Id. 
Id. 

W. Jackson, 



W. H. Wood. 



W. Jackson. 



In a direction parallel to Careful observation. 

a line from ?j Tanri tn 
a Arietls. 



T. Blunt; 'Daily 
News,' Oct. 1st. 



W. Jackson. 



Id. 



238 



REPORT 1869. 



Date. Hour. 



1868. 
Oct. 18 



19 
19 



19 



19 
19 



19 
19 

19 
19 
19 



h m s 
10 53 p.m, 



Place of 
Observation. 



Tooting, London 



7 33 p.m. Birmingham 



10 52 p.m. 



Ibid, 



11 7 p.m. Ibid 



11 10 p.m, 
11 21 p.m, 



11 o5 p.m. 
11 40 p.m. 

11 42 p.m. 

11 42 30 

p.m. 
11 48 p.m. 



20 
20 

20 

20 



12 4 a.m. 
12 11 a.ra 

12 12 a.m. 



Ibid , 
Ibid , 



Ibid . 
Ibid . 

Ibid. 
Ibid , 
Ibid , 



Ibid . 
Ibid , 

Ibid 



12 17 a.m. Ibid 



21 



8 12 p.m. Ibid 



Apparent Size. 



=3rd mag.* 

= 3rd mag.* 
= lst mag.» 

=:3rd mag.» 

= 2nd mag.* 
= lst mag.*... 

= 2nd mag.* 
=2nd mag.* 

=2nd mag.* 
= lst mag.* 
= Sirius 



= 2nd mag.* 
= 3rd mag.* 



= Sirius 



= 2nd mag.* 



20 12 29 a.m. Ibid =lst mag*. 

i .. , 



21 9 25 p.m. Tooting, London 



= 3rd ma?.* 



= 2nd mag.* 



Colour. 



Duration. 



Pale blue 1 sec. ; slow 

speed. 
Yellow 2 seconds 



Position, or 

Altitude and 

Azimuth. 



Blue 



Blue .... 
Pale blue , 



Blue . 
Yellow . 

Blue . 
Yellow 



0-5 second 



075 second . 
05 second . 



0-5 second 
1 second .. 



White, orange 
dull red. 



0'5 second 
1 second .. 
4 seconds.. 



Yellow 
Dull... 

White 

Orange 

Orange 

Clue 

White 



Commenced alitt 
below i (/3 Ai 
rigas, Castor). 

From K Cygni to 
Draconis. 

From -J (Pleiadi 
^ Persei) 

to 0='4-24° 
From 80° +90° 
to the Pleiades 

From ? to (3 Tai 
From /3 to A 

rigae, and 2° fu 

ther. 
Commenced at 

Aurigae. 

From 94°+ 18° 

to 96 +20 
From y Orionia 

<T Eridani. 
From K Tauri toj 

Persei. 

From TTj Orior 

«= S = 

to 148°+80° 



0-5 second .. 
025 second.. 

1 second 

0-5 second .. 

1 second 

0*5 second .. 

3 seconds 



From K Ceti to 

Pisciura. 
Appeared at 

«= S= 

85''+15° 

From 120°+49'' 

to 139 +45 

From 105°+37' 
to 129 +51 

From 6 Geminon 
a= S= 
to 128'' +56' 
Appeared at 

«= S— 
20° +5° 
From near r to 
(?,.e) Herculisj 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS Ol' LUMINOUS METEOKS. 




239 


Appearance ; Train, if any 
and its Duration. 


Length of 
Path. 


Direction ; noting also 

whether Horizontal, 

Perpendicular, or 

Inclined. 


Remarks, 


Observer. 






From the direction of a 
Orionis. 

From Radiant U, or 

From Radiant 




W. 

W. 
Id. 

Id. 

Id. 
Id. 

Id. 
Id. 

Id. 
Id. 
Id. 

Id. 
Id. 

Id. 

Id. 

Id. 

Id. 

W. 


Jackson. 
H. Wood. 

Jackson. 








Lef^ a green train 25° in 
length. 








From Radiant L II or 
From Radiant 














From Radiant F^ 


From io'' SO"" toil'' 30'" 
p.m. four meteors 
seen. 




20° 


Towards Polaris, from 

Radiant 0. 
From Radiant 










From Radiant 




* 

isft a red streak 




From Radiant 




^leteor showed 1 two 

1 maxima and miniraa. 

; Changed colour from 
white to red, nearly 

' disappearing, and pro- 
stance as a dull object. 

1 Left a streak of 30° 
in length, the first 
half green, the last 

1 red, which lasted five 
seconds. 


The first 5° 
foreshort- 
ened ; 
whole 
path 80°. 


From an unknown 
southern Radiant. 

From Radiant G 








10° 


Directed towards tTj 
Leonis. 


From Radiant 






eft a red streak 




Frora-Radiant 


For remarks on this 
meteoric shower see 
Appendix III. 

From ll"" 30'" p.m. to 
121' 30"" a.m. ten me- 
teors. 

The night of the 20th 
was overcast. 

Moon set; sky clear; 
stars very bright ; two 
faint lightning-flashes 
in the east between 
9'> 45'" and IC' p.m. 


eft a red streak 




From Radiant 




25" 


Directed towards Ceti, 
from Radiant A,„.