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Full text of "Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science"

3. Ik 



REPORT 



OF THE 



FORTIETH MEETING 




BRITISH ASSOCIATION 



rOE THE 



ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE ; 



HELD AT 



LIVEEPOOL IN SEPTEMBER 1870. 



LONDON: 
JOHN MURRAY, ALBEMARLE STREET. 

1871. 



rniNTED BY 



TAYLOIi AND FRANCIS, DUD LION COrBT, FLEET STREET. 



AI.EKE FLAMMAir. 







)l^l 



CONTENTS. 



Objects and Eules of the Associatiou xvii 

Places of Meeting and Officers from commencement xx 

Presidents and Secretaries of the Sections of the Association from 

commencement^ xxvi 

Evening Lectures xxxv 

Lectures to the Operative Classes xxxvii 

Table showing the Attendance and Eeceipts at previous Meetings . . xxxviii 

Treasurer's Account , xl 

Officers and Council, 1870-71 xli 

Officers of Sectional Committees xlii 

Eeport of the Council to the General Committee xliii 

Report of the Kew Committee, 1869-70 xlv 

Recommendations of the General Committee for Additional Reports 

and Researches in Science Iviii 

Synopsis of Money Grants Ixiii 

General Statement of Sums paid on account of Grants for Scientific 

Purposes Ixv 

Extracts from Resolutions of the General Committee Ixxi 

Arrangement of the General Meetings Ixxii 

Address by the President, Professor Huxley, LL.D., F.E.S Ixxiii 

REPORTS OF RESEARCHES IN SCIENCE. 

Report of the Committee appointed to consider and report on the various 
Plans proposed for Legislating on the subject of Steam-Boiler Ex- 
plosions, with a view to their Prevention,- — the Committee consisting 

a2 



ii CONTENTS. 

Page 

of Sir William Pairbvirn, Bart., C.E., LL.D., F.R.S., (fee, Sir Josepu 
WniTWORxn, Eart., C.E., F.R.S., John Penn, C.E., F.ll.S., Frederick 
J. Bramwell, C.E., Hugh Masox, Samuel IIigby, Thomas Schofield, • 
Charles F. Beyer, C.E., Thomas Webster, Q.C, and Latington E. 
Fletcher, C.E 1 

lleport of the Committee appointed for the purpose of calling the atten- 
tion of Her Majesty's Government to the importance of completing, 
without delaj'^, the valuable investigation into the composition and 
geological distribution of the Haematite Iron-ores of Great Britain 
and Ireland, which has been already in part published in the Memoirs 
of the Geological Survey, — consisting of Prof. Stokes, F.R.S., Prof. 
Harkness, F.B.S., and B. A. C. Godwix-Austen, F.ll.S 9 

Eeport on the Sedimentary Deposits of the Iliver Onny. By the Rev. 
J. D. La Toxjche H 

Eeport of the Committee on the Chemical Xaiure of Cast Iron. The 
Committee consists of F. A. Abel, F.E.S., D. Foubios, F.K.S., and 
A. Matihiessex, F.E.S 13 

Eeport on the practicability of estabhshing " A Close Time " for the pro- 
tection of indigenous Animals. By a Committee, consisting of Prof. 
Newton, M.A., F.L.S., Eev. H. B. Tristram, F.E.S., J. E. Hartikg, 
F.L.S., F,Z.S., Eev. H. Barnes, and H. E. Dresser (Eeporter) 13 

Eeport of the Committee on Standards of Electrical Ecsistance. The 
Committee consists of Prof. Williamson, F.E.S., Prof Sir Charles 
Wheatstone, F.E.S., Prof. Sir W. Thomson, F.E.S., Prof. W. A, 
Miller, F.E.S., Dr. A. Matthiessen, F.E.S., Sir Charles Bright, 
C.E., F.E.G.S., J. Clerk Maxavell, F.E.S., C. W., Siemens, F.E.S., 
Balfour Stewart, F.E.S., Dr. Joule, F.E.S., C. F. Yarlet, Prof. G. 
C. Foster, F.ll.S., C. Hockin, M.D., and Prof. Fleeming Jenkin, 
F.E.S. (Secretary) 14 

Sixth Eeport of the Committee for Exploring Kent's Cavern, Devon- 
shire, — the Committee consisting of Sir Charles Lyell, Bart., F.E.S., 
Professor Phillits, F.ll.S., Sir John Lubbock, Bart., F.R.S., John 
Evans, F.E.S., Edward Vivian, George Busk, F.ll.S., William Boyd 
Dawkins, F.E.S., William Ayshford Sanford, F.G.S., and William 
Pengelly, F.ll.S. (Eeporter) 16 

Third Eeport of the Committee for the purpose of investigating the rate 
of Increase of Underground Temperature downwards in various Locali- 
ties of Dry Land and under Water. Drawn up by Professor Everett, 
at the request of the Committee, consisting of Sir William Thomson, 
F.E.S., Sir Charles Lyell, F.E.S., J. Clerk Maxwell, F.E.S., Pro- 
fessor Phillips, F.E.S., G. J. Symons, F.M.S., Dr. Balfour Stewart, 
F.E.S., Prof. Eamsay, F.E.S., A. Geikie, F.ll.S., J. Glaisher, F.E.S., 
Eev. Dr. Graham, E. W. Bikney, F.E.S., George Maw, F.G.S., W. 
Pengelly, F.E.S., S. J. Mackie, F.G.S., and Professor Everett, D.C.L. 
(Secretary) 29 

Second Eeport of the Committee appointed to get cut and prepared 
Sections of Mountain-Limestone Corals for Photographing. The 
Committee consists of Henry Woodward, F.G.S., Prof. Duncan, 
F.E.S., Prof. H.VRKNESS, F.E.S., and James Thomson, F.G.S 44 



CONTENTS. Ill 

Page 

Second Eeport of tlie Committee, consisting of C. W. MEKEirrELD, 
F.R.S., G. P. Bidder, C.E., F.K.G.S., Capt. Pofglas Galton, IMl.S., 

F, Galton, F.E.S., Prof. IIankixe, F.ll.S., and W. Feottdb, appointed 
to report on the state of existing knoTvlcdge on the Stability, Pro- 
pulsion, and Sea-going Qualities of Ships, and as to the application 
■which it may be desirable to make to Her Majesty's Government on 
these subjects. Prepared for the Committee by C. "W. Merkipield, 
F.ll.S 44 

Report of the Committee on Earthquakes in Scotland. The Committee 
consists of Sir W. Thomson, M.A., LL.D., F.R.S., D. Miine-Home, 
F.E.S.E., P. Macfaelane, and J. Beyce, M.A., LL.D., F.G.S. (Re- 
porter) 48 

Report of the Committee on the " Treatment and Utilization of Sewage," 
reappointed at Exeter, 1869, and consisting of Eichaed B. Gbantham, 
M. Inst. C.E., F.G.S., Chairman, M. C. Cooke, M.A., Prof. Corfield, 
M.A., M.B., J. Bailey Denton, M. Inst. C.E., F.G.S., John Thoen- 

HTLL HaEEISON, M. lust. C.E., WlLLIAM HoPE, V.C, Pl'of. MaESHALL, 

F.E.C.S., F.E.S., Benjamin H. Paul, Ph.D., F.C.S., Prof. Wankltn, 
Prof. Williamson, Ph.D., F.E.S., and Sir John Lubbock, Bart., M.P., 
F.E.S., Treasurer 49 

Eeport on Observations of Luminous Meteors, 1869-70. By a Com- 
mittee, consisting of James Glaishee, F.E.S., of the Eoyal Observa- 
tory, Greenwich, Eobeet P. Greg, F.G.S., F.E.A.S., Alexandee S. 
Heeschel, F.E.A.S., and Chaeles Brooke, F.E.S., Secretary to the 
Meteorological Society 7G 

Eeport on Recent Progress in Elliptic and Hvperclliptic Functions. Bj^ 
W. H. L. Eussell, F.E.S ' 102 

Committee for the purpose of promoting the extension, improvement, 
and harmonic analysis of Tidal Observations, Consisting of Sir 
AVilliam Thomson, LL.D., F.E.S., Prof, J. C. Adams, F.E.S., The 
Astronomer Eotal, F.R.S., J. F. Bateman, F.E.S., Admiral Sir 
Edward Belcher, K.C.B., T. G. Bunt, Stuff-Commandcr Burdwood, 
R.N., Warren De La Rue. F.R.S., Prof. Fischer, F.R.S., J. P. Gassiot, 
F.R.S., Prof. Hacghton, F.R.S., J. R. Hind, F.R.S., Prof. Ivelland, 
F.R.S., Staff-Captain Moriarty, C.B., J. Oldham, C.E., W. Parkes, 
M. Inst. C.E., Prof. B. Price, F.R.S., Rev. C. Pritchaed, LL.D., 
F.R.S., Prof. Rankine, LL.D., F.R.S., Captain Eichaeds, E.JST., F.E.S., 
Dr. EoBiNsoN, F.E.S., General Sabine, President of the Eoyal Society, 
W. SissoNs, Prof. Stokes, D.C.L., F.E.S., T. Webstee, M.A., F.E.S., 
and Prof. Fullee, M.A., and J. F. Iselin, M.A., Secretaries 120 

On a New Steam-power Meter. By Messrs. Ashton and Storey .... 151 

Report on the Action of the Methvl and AUied Series. By Benjamin 
W. Eichaedson, M.D., Jf.E.S. .". 155 

Report of the Eainfall Committee for the Year 1869-70, consisting of 
C. Brooke, F.E.S. (Chairman), J. Glaishee, F.E.S., Prof. Phillips, 
F.R.S., J. F. Bateman, C.E., F.E.S., E. W. Mylne, C.E., F.E.S., 
T. Hawksley, C.E., Prof. Adams, F.E.S., C. Tomlinson, F.E.S., 
Prof. Sylvester, F.E.S., Dr. Pole, F.E.S., Eogees Field, C.E., and 

G. J. Symons, Secretary 170 



IV CONTENTS. 

Page 

Report on the Heat generated in the Blood in the process of Arteria- 
lization. By Arthur Gamgee, M.D., F.R.S.E., Lecturer on Physiology 
in the Medical School, Surgeons' Hall, Edinburgh 228 

Report on the best means of providing for a uniformity of "Weights and 
Measures, with reference to the Interests of Science. By a Committee, 
consisting of Sir Joh:n- Bowring, F.R.S., The Right Hon. Sir C. B. 
Adderlet, M.P., Samuel Brown-, F.S.S., Dr. Farr, F.R.S., Frank P. 
Fellowes, Professor Franklaxd, F.R.S., Professor Hennessy, F.R.S., 
James Heywood, F.R.S., Sir Robert Kaxe, F.R.S., Professor Leone 
Levi, F.S.A., F.S.S., Professor W. A. Miller, F.R.S., Professor Rax- 
KiNE, LL.D., F.R.S., C. W. Siemens, F.R.S., Colonel Sykes, F.R.S., 
M.P., Professor A. ^Y. Williamson, F.R.S., James Yates, F.R.S., Dr. 
George Glover, Sir Joseph Whitworth, Bart., F.R.S., J. R. Napier, 
H. DiRCKS, J. V. N. Bazalgette, W. Smith, Su- W. Fairbaien, Bart., 
F.R.S., ami John Robinson : — Professor Leone Levi, Secretary .... 232 



NOTICES AND ABSTRACTS 

OP 

MISCELLANEOUS COMMUNICATIONS TO THE SECTIONS. 



MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICS. 

Addi-ess by Professor J. Clerk Maxwell, LL.D., F.R.S., President of the 

Section 1 

Mathematics. 

Professor A. Oayxey on the Problem of the in-and-circumscribed Triangle . . 9 

on a Correspondence of Points and Lines in Space .... 10 

Mr. Robert Stawell Ball on the small Oscillations of a Particle and of a 

Rigid Body 10 

Mr. W. K. Clifford on an Unexplained Contradiction in Geometry 12 

Mr. R. Leslie Ellis's Observations on Boole's ' Laws of Thought ' 12 

Rev. Robert Harley on Boole's ' Laws of Thought ' 14 

Mr. William Spottiswoode on Musical Intervals 15 

Mr. W. H. L. Russell on Linear Differential Equations 16 

Mr. W. H. Walenn on a Numerical Theorem, with practical applications . . IG 

GejS^eeal Physics, 

Prof J. Cleek Maxmtill on HiUs and Dales 17 



CONTENTS. V 

Page 
Dr. W. J. Macquobn Rankine's Investigation of the Mathematical Theory 

of Comhined Streams 18 

__ on the Thermodynamic Acceleration and 

Retardation of Streams 18 

Mr. John T. Towson's Report of the Liverpool Compass Committee 19 

Mr. W. Pabkes on Non-tidal Variations of the Sea-level on the Coast of 
India 19 

Astronomy. 

Mr. W. R. BiRT on the Present State of the Question relative to Lunar Ac- 
tivity or Quiescence 20 

Mr. A. S. Dayis on the Distribution of Cometic Perihelia 22 

The Rev. Fredemck Howlett on Solar Spots observed during the past 

Eleven Years 23 

The Rev. R. Main on Shooting-stars 24 

Mr. R. A. Pboctor on the Laws of Star-grouping 24 

Electeicitt and Magnetism. 

Mr. C. Beckeb on Faure's Battery 24 

Mr. John Bbowning on an Induction-coil, specially arranged for use in Spec- 
trum Analysis 25 

Mr. H. HiGHTON on the Maximum amovmt of Magnetic Power which can be 
developed by a given Galvanic Battery 25 

Dr. Joule's Letter on a New Dip-Circle 2-5 

Mr. W. Ladd on an Improved Lantern for Lecture demonstrations with Elec- 
tric Light 26 

Professor Sir William Thomson on a New Absolute Electrometer 2(3 

Mr. Fbedebick H. Vabley on a New Field of Magnetic Research 26 

on a Constant Battery 26 

Mr. S. Alfred Vabley on a Magnetic Paradox 27 

's Description of the Electric Time-Signal at Port 

Elizabeth, Cape of Good Hope 27 

on the Mode of .i^ction of Lightning on Telegraphs, 



and on a New Method of constructing Telegraph-coils 28 

Meteohologt. 

Mr. Chakles Chambers on Rainfall — its Variation with Elevation of the 

Gauge 30 

Professor J. D. Eveeett on a Scale for computing Humidity 31 

Mr. Fbancis Galton on Barometric Predictions of Weather 31 

Mr. James Glaisheb on the Temperature of the Air at 4 feet, 22 feet, and 
50 feet above the Ground 33 

Mr. John J. Hall on a New Electro-Magnetic Anemometer, and the mode 
of using it in Registering the Velocity and Pressure of the Wind 35 

Professor J. Henby on the Rainfall of the United States 36 

Heat, Light. 
Mr. Charles Brooke's Queries respecting ^Ether , 36 



vi CONTENTS. 

Page 

Mr. H. Whiteside Cook on certaiu Objections to the Dynamic Theory of 

Heat "... 38 

Dr. Henby Hudson ou the Wave Theory of Light, Heat, &c 39 

Optics. 

Dr. John Bakkeii on the Immersion Slcthod of Illumination of the Micro- 
scope 39 

Mr. S. Holmes on the New Binocular Microscope 39 

Prof. J. Clerk Maxwell on Colour- vision at different points of the Retina. . 40 
Mr. G. Johnstone Stoney on the Cause of the Interrupted Spectra of 

Gases ' 4 1 

The Hon. J. W. Strutt's Experiments on Colour 4.*] 

31r. W. M. Watts on two Spectra of Carbon existing at the same Temperature 41 



CHEMISTRY. 

Address by Professor Henry E. IIoscoe, B.A., Ph.D., F.R.S., F.C.S., Presi- 
dent of the Section 41 

Mr. J. Fenwick Allen on the Alloys of Copper, Tin, Zinc, Lead, and other 
Metals with Manganese &0 

Mr. J. Campbell Brown on the Chemical Composition of the Bones of 
General Paralytics 51 

Mr. John Browning on a Spectroscope in which the Prisms are automatically 
adjusted for the Minimum Angle of Deviation for the particular Ray 
im'der examination ^'2 

Mr. W. Lant Carpenter on the Examination of Sea Water on board 
H.M.S. ' Porfupine,' iu July 1870, for dissolving Gases and varying pro- 
portions of Chlorine C-T 

]Mr. A. H. Church's Contributions to Mineralogical Chemistry 5.3 

Experiments on the Presenation of Stone 5.j 

Mr. W. J. Cooper on the Purification of Public Thoroughfares by the appli- 
cation of Deliquescent Chlorides 5.'? 

Mr. Henby Deacon on a new Chlorine Process without Manganese 54 

Mr. James Dewar's Note on Thermal Equivalents. — 1. Fermentation. 
2. Oxides of Chlorine 54 

Mr. Thomas Fairley on Cyanogen 54 

. 's Note on the Ilistillation of Sulphuric Acid 55 

Mr. Alfred E. Fletcher on the Purification of Sankey Brook 55 

on Air-pollution from Chemical Works 50 

Mr. David Forres on the Utilization of Sewage, with special reference to the 
Phosphate Process 50 

Dr. B. W. Gerland on the Action of Sulphurous Acid, in Aqueous Solution, 
on Phosphates and other Compounds 50 

's Note on the Occurrence of Vanadium 57 

Dr. John H. Gladstone on Reciprocal Decomposition viewed with reference 
to Time 57 

Mr. W. Gossage on the Soda Manufacture 53 

Mr. A. Vernon Harcourt on a Method for the Determination of Sulphur 
in Coal-gas 50 



\ 



CONTEXTS. Vll 

Page 

Mr. James Hargheates on the Separation from L-on-Furnace Cinder of 

Phosphoric Acid for Manurial Purposes GO 

The Rev. H. Highton on Artificial Stone and various kinds of Silica CO 

Dr. HuBTER on the Time needed for the completion of Chemical Changes . . GO 

Mr. A. GoRDOX on the Prevention of Lead-poisoning in Water CO 

Mr. W. Marriott on the Estimation of Sulphur in Coal-gas GO 

Dr. Mac Vicar on the Typical Hj-drocarbous, from Marsh-gas to Anthracene, 
■with the Oxidation of the latter into Anthroquinone and Alizarine Gl 

Mr. T. Moffatt on Atmospheric Ozone CI 

on the Quantity of Phosphoric Acid excreted from the 

System in connexion with Atmospheric Conditions Gl 

Mr. J. BiRKBECK Neyins on a New Theory respecting the Heating of 

Liquids Gl 

Mr. W. H. Perkins on Artificial Alizarine 01 

Mr. J. Arthur Phillips's Note on Claudet's Process for the Extraction of 

Silver Gl 

]\Ir. W. Chandler Roberts on the Absorption of Hydrogen by Electro- 
deposited Iron G.w 

Professor H. E. Roscoe on Vanadium, illustrated by Preparations of its Com- 
pounds Go 

Mr. E. ScHUNCK on the Chemical Composition of Cotton 63 

Mr. J. Bergeb Spence on the Phenomena of the Crystallization of a Double 

Salt G3 

Mr. Peter Spence on an Attempt to determine the Boiling-point of the 

Saturated Solutions of various Salts by boiling with Steam of 100° CI 

Mr. J. Spiller on the Discrimination of Fibres in Mixed Fabrics 64 

Mr. Edward C. C. St^vnford on Marbles from the Island of Tyree 64 

on the Retention of Organic Nitrogen by Char- 
coal Go 

Mr. Charles R. C. Tichborne on Dust as a Ferment G5 

Mr. C. ToMLiNSON on the Action of Low Temperatures on Supersaturated 

Saline Solutions G7 

on a Salt invisible in its Mother Liquor 67 

Mr. W. H. Walenn on the Electro-deposition of Copper and Brass 67 

Mr. Walter Weldon on the Weldon Process for the Manufacture of 

Chlorine G8 

Professor A. W. Williamson's Communication respecting a Resolution of 
the Committee of Section B on the proposed establishment of a New School 
of Applied Science by Government G8 

GEOLOGY. 

Dr. Leith Adams on Newly discovered Species of Elephants 69 

Mr. D. T. Ansted's Notes of a recent Visit to the Great Tunnel through the 
Alps, and of several points of Geological interest suggested by the condi- 
tion of the Works in their present nearly complete state GO 

Mr. James Bryce on the Matrix of the Gold in the Scottish Gold-fields 70 

Mr. William Carkuthehs on the History and Affinities of the British 
Coniferse > 71 



Viii CONTENTS. 

Pago 

Mr. William Carruthers on tlie Sporangia of Ferns from the Coal-mea- 
sures ' l 

's Remarks on the Fossils from the Railway Sec- 
tion at Huyton ^1 

Note on an Antholithes discovered by C. W. 

Peach 72 

The Rev. H. W. Crosskey on the Glacial Phenomena in the Central District 
of England 72 

The Rev. J. Gunn on the Formation of Boulder-clays and Alternations of 
Level of Land and Water 72 

Mr. Hugh F. Hall on the Glacial and Postglacial Deposits in the Neigh- 
bourhood of Llandudno 72 

Professor Harkness and Mr. H. A. Nicholson on the Green Slates and Por- 
phyries of the Lake-district 74 

Mr. F. W. Haemer on some Thermal Springs in the Fens of Cambridgeshire 74 

Professor Edward Hitll on the Extension of the Coal-fields beneath the 
newer Formations of England, and the successive Stratigraphical Changes 
to which the Carboniferous Rocks have been subjected 74 

Mr. Charles Jecks on the Red and Coralline Crags 75 

Mr. J. GwYN Jefpreys's Remarks on New Tertiary Fossils in Sicily and Ca- 
labria 76 

Mr. John W. Judd on the Age of the Wealden 77 

Professors King and Rowney on some points in the Geology of Strath, Isle 
of Skye 78 

Mr. Charles Lapworth on the Discovery of Upper Silurian Rocks in 
Roxburgh and Dumfriesshire 78 

Mr. G. A. Lebour and AV. Mundle on the Tertiary Coal-field of Southern 
ChUe 78 

Mr. J. L. Lobley on the Stratigraphical Distribution of the British Fossil 
Gasteropoda '8 

Professor Constantine Mal,\ise (of Gembloux) on the Silurian Formations 
of the Centre of Belgium 78 

Mr. L. C. Mi all on the Formation of Swallow-holes or Pits with Vertical 
Sides in Mountain Limestone 79 

Mr. George Maw on the Evidences of Recent Changes of Level on the 
Mediterranean Coast '9 

]\Ir. W. Stephen Mitchell's Remarks on the Denudation of the Oolites 
of the Bath District 80 

Mr. Thomas Moffat on Geological Systems and Endemic Diseases 80 

Mr. G. H. Morton on the Glaciated Condition of the Surface of the Triassic 

Sandstone around Liverpool 81 

on the Mountain Limestone of Flintshire and part of 

Denbighshire 82 

Mr. R. A. Peacock on some Future and Past Changes of the Earth's Climate 82 

Mr. W. Pengelly on the IModern and Ancient Beaches of Portland 84 

Mr. T. A. Readwin's Notes on a Merionethshire Gold Quartz Crystal, and 
some Stream Gold recently found in the River Mawddach 84 

]Mi'. Charles Ricketts on Sections of Strata between Huyton and St. Helen's 85 
Mr. G. Johnstone Stoney on the recent Formation of Gravel-beds resembling 
Middle Drift 86 



CONTENTS. ix 

The Rev. W. S. Symonds on the Physical Geology of the Bone-caves of the 
Wye 88 

Mr. J. E. Taylob on the Occurrence of Seams of Hard Sandstone in Middle 
Drift of East Anglia 88 

Mr. Ralph Tate on a Census of the Marine Invertebrate Fauna of the Lias 88 

]\Ir. J. Tennant on the Diamonds of South Africa 88 

Mr. James Thomson on the Occurrence of Pehbles and Boulders of Granite in 
Schistose Rocks in Islay, Scotland S3 

Mr. Alfred R. Wallace on a Diagram of the Earth's Eccentaicity and the 
Precession of the Equinoxes, illustrating their Relation to Geological 
Climate and the Rate of Organic Change 89 

Professor W. C. Willlimson on the Organization of the Stems of Calamites 89 

Mr. Searles V. Wood and F. W. Harmer on the Palfeontological AsjDects 
of the Middle Glacial Formation of the East of England, and on their 
bearing upon the Age of the Middle Sands of Lancashire 00 

Mr. Henry Wood-ward's Notes on FossU Crustacea ^ 91 



BIOLOGY. 

Address by Prof. Rolleston, M.D., F.R.S., President of the Section 91 

Botany and Zoology. 

Colonel Sir James Alexander on the Effects of the Pollution of Rivers on 
the Supply of Fish 100 

Prof T. C. Archer's Notes on the Changes produced in Lottts corniculatns by 
Cultivation 109 

Mr. Edward Atkinson on the Osteology of Chlmmjdophorus truncatus .... 110 

Mr. John Barker's Notes on Pleuronema doliarium, a new Infusorium .... Ill 

Prof. Van Beneden sur les Parasites Ill 

ilr. Alfred W. Bennett on Protandiy and Protogyny in British Plants . . Ill 

Mr. Edwin Birch all on some Hybrid Sphingidse and other Lepidoptera . . Ill 

Mi\ Henry Bird on the Steypireyor Whale of the Icelanders 112 

Mr. Henry B. Brady's Notes on Brackish-water Foraminifera 11,3 

Mr. Robert 0. Cunningham on the Terrestrial and Mai-ine Fauna of the 
Strait of Magellan and Western Patagonia 114 

Prof. Alexander Dickson's Note on the Embryo of the Date-Palm 11-5 

Dr. Anton Dohen on the Foundation of Zoological Stations 11,5 

Sir Walter Elliot on the Habits of the Indian Rock-snake [Python molurtis) 115 

Mr. Thomas Gibson on Abnormal Petals on Flowers of Ranunadus aquatilis 115 

on Parasitic Habits of PyroJa rotundifolia 116 

Col. J. A. Grant on the Vegetable Products of Central Afiica 117 

Dr. J. E. Gray's Notes on the Whalebone- Whales of the Southern Hemi- 
sphere 117 

Dr. J. E. Gray on the Portuguese Globular Anchor-Sponge {Pheronema Grayi) 117 

Mr. Townshend M. Hall on the Abnormal Growth of Ferns 117 

Mr._ Albany H.\ncock's Note on the Larv^al State of Molgula, with Descrip- 
tions of several new Species of simple Ascidians 118 



X COXTENTS. 

Prof. T. 11. Huxley on the relations of PenicilUinn, Tunda, and Badertmn . . ll'J 

Mr. J. G-N\TN jKFFiir.YS on a Pentacriuus (P. WyciUc-Thomsom) from the 
Coasts of Spain and Portugal '. 110 

Mr. W. Saville Kent on an existing Favositoid Coral 119 

's Note on the Affinities of the Sponges to the Corals 120 

Mr. E. Ray Lankester on a Stock-form of the Parasitic Fiatworm 120 

on Oligochfetous Worms 120 

Mr. E. J. Lo-ft-E on Abnormal Forms of Ferns 120 

Mr. Robert M'Andrew's Report on the Testaceous Mollusca obtained during 
a Dredging-Excursion in the Gulf of Suez during the months of February 
and March 1809 120 

Mr. W. C. M'Intosh's Preliminary Report on certain Annelids dredged in the 
Expedition of H.M.S. ' Porcupine ' (1869) 121 

Mr. Thomas J. Moore on the ' Mortimer ' Ship-equarium 121 

on Rhinodon ti/picus, a rare Shark lately added to the 

Free Museum, Liverpool 121 



on work done by the Mercantile Marine of Liverpool 



in furtherance of Zoology 121 

-, Exhibition of a remarkable hinged Fish -jaw and of 



a young Lamantin 121 

Dr. C. Parry on the Desert Flora of North America 122 

Mr. C. W. Peach on an Ebalia new to the British list 1 22 

Mr. John Price's Notes on the Cuckoo-flower or Lady's-Smock (Cardmitine 
pratmsis) 122 

Mk p. L. Sclater on certain Principles to be observed in the Establishment 
of a National Museum of Natural Ilistory 123 

Mr. Robert Swixhoe on the Natural History of Hainan 128 

Prof. Wyville Thomson on Hyalonema and some other Vitreous Sponges . . 128 

• on some of the Echinoderms of the Expedition of 

H.M.S. ' Porcupine ' 128 

Mr. Tyerman's Note on the Growth oi Zodoi'cea SeycheUannn 128 

Mr. Henry Woodward on the Structure of the Shell in the Pearly Nautilus 128 

Mr. H. Charlton Bastian's Statement in reply to the two Objections of 
Professor Huxley relative to certain Experiments 129 

Mr. Alfred W. Bennett on the Theory of Natural Selection looked at from 
a Mathematical Point of View 130 

Mr. Gilbert W. Child on Protoplasm and the Germ Theories 101 

Dr. CoBBOLD on some of the more Important Facts of Succession in Relation 
to any Theory of Continuity 1.31 

Dr. F. Crace-Calvert on the Development of Germ-life 1.32 

Mr. James Samuelson on the Controversy on Spontaneous Generation, with 
new Experiments 1.3,3 

Mr. Frederic T. Mott on the Scientific Value of Physical Beauty 13-1 

Dr. Brown Seql^ard on various Alterations of Nutrition due to Nervous 
Influence 1,3.X 

on Apparent Transmission of Abnormal Conditions due 



to Accidental Causes , , 1,34 



CONTENTS. XI 

Page 

Dr. Caton's Contribution to the Migration Theory 134 

Professor John Cleland on the Physical Eelations of Consciousness and the 
Seat of Sensation : a Theory proposed 135 

Dr. CoBBOLD on a rare and remarkable Parasite from the Collection of the 
Rev. W. Dallinger 135 

's Remarks on the Heart of a Chinese Dog containing Hsema- 

tozoa, received from R. Swinhoe, Esq., H.B.M. Consul, Amoy, China 135 

Notice respecting the Embryonal Development of the Hsema- 



tozoon Bilharzia 13d 

Professor W. II, Flo"sveb on the Connexion of the Hyoid Arch with the 
Cranium 136 

on the C&iTCspondence between the Anterior and 



Posterior Extremity, and the Modifications of the Position of the Limbs in 
the higher Vertebrata 137 

Mr. R. Gabnek's Comparison of the Thoracic and Pelvic Limb's in Mammalia . . 137 
Mr. John Goodman on Albumen and its Transformation into Fibrin by the 
Agency of Water 139 

Mr. T. B. Gbiebson's Remarks on Variation of Colouring in Animals 140 

Mr. William Hope on the Antiseptic Treatment of Contagia as Illustrative 
of the Germ Theory of Disease 140 

Professor G. M. Humphry on the Comparison of the Shoulder-bones and 
Muscles with the Hip-bones and Muscles 140 

on the Ilomological Relations to one another of 

the Fins of Fishes 141 

Mr. RiCHABD King on Blight in Man and in the Animal and Vegetable World 141 

Mr. E. Ray Lankester's Note on Methffimoglobin 141 

Mr. B. W. Richardson's New Physiological Researches on the Effects of 
Carbonic Acid 141 

Mr. E. Ray Lankesteb on the Action of some Gases and Vapours on the 
Red Blood-corpuscles ; 142 

Dr. S. Stricker and Dr. Evrdon Sanderson on a new Method of studying 
the Capillary Circulation in Mammals 142 

Dr. P. H. Smith on Lefthandedness 143 

Professor Ramsay H. Thaquair on the Cranial Osteology of Polypterus 
Birchii 143 

Mr. A. T. H. Waters on the Intimate Structure of the Human Lungs 143 

Mr. John Beddoe on the Anthropology of Lancashire 143 

on the Ottoman Turks 144 

Dr. Bleek on the Position of Australian Lany-uao-es 144 

Mr. F. Bridges on New Views of Craniology 144 

Mr. G. Campbell on the Village Sj'stem in India 144 

Mr. Hyde Clarke's Note on the Distribution of the Names of Weapons in 
Prehistoric Times 144 

Mr. Eugene Alfred Conwell on Ancient Sculptures and Objects of Art 
from Irish Cairns 145 

Mr. W. Boyd Dawkins and George Busk on the Discovery of Platycnemic 
Men in Denbighshire '. 148 

Mr. W. Boyd Dawkins on the Exploration of the Victoria Cave, Settle, 
Yorkshire 148 

Mr. W. C. Dendy on the Shadows of Genius 149 



Xll CONTENTS. 

rage 
Professor P. Martin Duncan ou the Geological Changes which haye Occurred 
since the first Traces of Man in Europe 149 

The Rev. C. D. GrNSBURG on the Pielation of the Ancient Moabites to Neigh- 
bouring Nations^ as disclosed in the newly discovered Moabite Stone .... 149 

Mr. T. B. Geieeson, Anthropological Note on Carved Stones recently dis- 
covered in Nithdale, Scotland 150 

Professor Haekness on the Discovery of a Kitchen-midden at Balycotton in 
County Cork 150 

Mr. William Hitchman's Remark on the Anatomy of the Intellect 151 

Mr. T. SiNCLAm Holden on some forms of Ancient Interment in County 
Antrim , 151 

]Mi\ H. H. Ho WORTH on the Massageta3 and Sacas 151 

on Pre-Turkish Frontagers of Persia 151 

on the Avares 152 

ilr. J. Kaines on the Racial Aspects of Music 152 

Mr. Richaed King on the Manx of the Isle of Man 153 

Dr. A. S. Lewis on the Builders of the Megalithic Monuments in Britain . . 163 

Sir John Lubbock's Remarks on Stone Implements from Western Afiica. . 154 

Mr. J. S. Phene on a recent Examination of British Tumuli and Monuments 
in the Hebrides and on the Western Coast of Scotland, with suggestive In- 
ferences 155 

Mr. John Plant on a Flint-flake Core found in the Upper Valley-gravel at 
Salford, Manchester 156 

Mr. Charles Ricboetts on a Wooden Implement found in Bidston Moss, near 
Birkenhead 157 

The Rev. C. Sewell on certain remarkable Earthworks at Wainfleet, in Lin- 
colnshire 157 

Mr. G. Thin on the Use of Opium among the Chinese 157 

]\Ii'. C. Staniland Wake on the Mental Characteristics of the Australian 
Aborigines 157 

on the Physical Characters of the Australian 

Aborigines 157 

Mr. Henry Woodward on an Implement of Quartz fe-om St. George's Sound 158 



GEOGRAPHY. 

Address by Sir Roderick Impey Muechison, Bart.,K.C.B., D.C.L., LL.D., 
F.R.S., F.G.S., President uf the Section 158 

Sir Samuel Baker's Letter from the White Nile 166 

Mr. Alexander Buchan on the Great Movements of the Atmosphere 167 

Mr. George Campbell on the Physical Geogi-aphy and Races of British 

India 1G8 

Captain Carmichael on the Ruined Cities of Central America 1C8 

Mr. T. T. Cooper on Eastern Tibet 160 

Mr. W. Hepworth Dixon on Holy Islands in the White Sea 169 

Mr. A. Fedchenko's Topographical Sketch of the Zerafshan Valley 1G9 



CONTENTS. XIU 

Mr. T. D. Forsyth's Letter on Eastern Tiu-kestan lUi) 

Governor Gilpin on the Physical Geography of Colorado and adjacent Regions 170 

General W. Heine on Lines for a Ship-Canal across the American Isthmus. . 170 

Ml". John K. Laughton on the Great Currents of the Atmosphere 170 

Mr. R. H. Major on the Landfall of Columbus 171 

Lord Milton on Railway Routes across North America and the Physical 
Aspects of the Country 172 

Mr. Werner Munzinger's Joiu-ney into the Interior of Hadramaut » 172 

Major-Gen. Sir Henry Rawlinson's Notes on the Site of the Terresti-ial 
Paradise 172 

on Early Traditions reffardina; the River 

Oxus •; ......! 174 

Mr. W. WiN-\vooD Reade's Journey to the Upper Waters of the Niger .... 175 

Mr. E. G. Squier on the Basin of Lake Titicaca 175 

Captain Su- John Swinburne on the South-Afiican Gold-fields 176 

Mr. R. S^v^NH0E on the Island of Hainan 176 

Captain Taylor (late) on the Harbours of AVestern India 176 

Mr. John T. Towson on Windward Great Circle Sailing 177 

Colonel H. Yule's Notes on Analogies of Manners between the Indo-Chinese 
and the Races of the Malay Ai-chipelago 178 



ECONOMIC SCIENCE and STATISTICS. 

Address by Professor W. Stanley Jevons, M.A., President of the Section. . 178 

Mr. R. Dudley Baxter on National Debts 187 

Mr. C. H. W. Briggs on Middle- Class Schools as they are, and as they ought 
to be 188 

Mr. William Botly on the Economy of Lai-ge and Small Farms 188 

Mr. George Campbell on the Duties of the Government of India and of the 
Merchants of England in promoting Production in India 188 

Mr. J. S. Campbell on the Tobacco Trade of Liverpool 189 

Mr. Hyde Clake's Proposition for a Census of Local Names 189 

Mr. J. Walter Ellis on the Decline of Small Farmers in Yorkshire and 
Lancashire, the Cause and Effect 100 

Mr. Frank P. Fellowes on our Navy 190 

Mr, William B. Forwood on the Influence of Price upon the Cultivation 
and Consumption of Cotton during the past ten years, embracing the period 
of the American War and Cotton Famine 191 

^^'•,.^^.^^^^ ^^^■"I'A^'D on a Proposed Rearrangement of the Registration 
Districts of England and Wales, for the purpose of facilitating Scientific 
Muuy : 193 

Mr James Heywood on the Aptitude of North-American Indians for 
Agriculture 193 

Mr. Berkeley Hill on the Statistics of the Contagious Diseases Acts 194 

The Rev. John Jones on Intemperance, purely with reference to Liverpool 195 



XIV CONTENTS. 

Page 

Dr. Thomas De Meschin on the Impolicy, ou economic grounds, of convert- 
ing the National Debt into Terminable Annuities 196 

■ • on the Compulsory Conversion of Substantial 

Leaseholds in Towns into Freeholds 196 

Mr. R. M. Pankhurst on the Policy and Provisions of a Patau t-law 196 

Mr. J. Parry on Baths and Washhouses 197 

Mr. John Patterson on Railway Accounts for 1808 just issued by the Board 
of Trade, with suggestions for Railway Reform 197 

Mr. E. Renals on Mechanics' Institutions and the Elementary Education Bill 200 

Mr. Thomas Rose on the Utilization of Fibrous Cotton-seed 200 

Mr. Robert T. Saunders on the Physical Geography of the United States 
of America as aSecting Agi-iculture, with suggestions for the Increase of 
the Production of Cotton 201 

Mr. G. Johnstone Stoney on the Effect which a Mint Charge has upon the 
value of Coins, to which is added a Proposition for securing at once some of 
the advantages of International Coinage 201 

Mr. Thomas A. Welton on Immigration and Emigration, as affecting the 
increase of Population in England and Wales 203 

Mr. William Westgauth on Decimal Money and a Common International 
Unit 205 

Mr. R. Wilkinson on Statistics on Tobacco, its Use and Abuses 206 

Mr. 0. Williams on Local Taxation 207 



MECHANICAL SCIENCE. 

Messrs. Ashton and Storey on a New Steam-power Meter 208 

Admiral Sir Edward Belcher on the unprotected state of Liverpool 208 

Mr. A. W, Bickerton on a New Heat-Engine 208 

Mr. GusTAV BiscHOF, jun., on a New System of Testing the Quality of the 
AfallAable Metals and Alloys, with Experimental Illustrations 209 



Gauge Railways ". -*- 

Mr, William Hoopee on the North-China and Japan Submarine Cables . . 219 



CONTENTS. XV 

Page 

Mr. W. Hope on the lEstory of the Shell that won the Battle of Sedan 219 

Mr. G. Lauder on Frictional Screw Motions 219 

Mr. J. H. Lloyd on Hammering and Stone-dressing Machinery 219 

Mr. Samuel J. Mackie on the Defence of Liverpool by Floating Forts 219 

Mr. William P. Marshall on the Martini-Henry and Westley-Richards 

Eifles ^-^ 

Mr. E. B. Martin on Boiler-Explosions 222 

Messrs. Reade and Goodison on the Construction of Sewers in Running 

Sand ^-- 

Professor Osborne Reynolds on an Oblique Propeller 222 

Captain Rowett on Ocean Telegraphy 224 

Alderman R. Rumney on the Ash-pit System of Manchester 224 

Mr. Robert Sabine, Pneumatic Dispatch.— On Pneumatic Transmission 



through Tunnels and Pipes 



227 



Mr. Michael Scott on a Submarine Ram and Gun 228 

on Ships of War of moderate dimensions 228 

_^ on the Machinery and Working of Submarine Gims . . 228 

Mr James N. Shoolbred on the Sewage of Liverpool and the Neighbour- 
hood 228 

Mr. James Smith on Mechanical Stolring --'J 

Mr. W. E. Teale on a New Safety-lamp 329 

Mr. Percy Westmacott's Description of the Hydraulic Bucketting-engine 
for the Herculaneum Graving-dock, Liverpool 229 

Mr. F. Wilson on Street Management 229 



APPENDIX. 

Lieut.-Colonel J. A Grant on the Vegetable Products of Central Africa 229 



1S70. 



LIST OF PLATES. 



PLATES I., II., III. 



Illustrative of the Report of the Committee on the Treatment and Utili- 
zation of Sewage. 

PLATE IV.* 
Illustrative of the Report of the Committee on Tidal Observations. 

PLATES IV., V. 
Illustrative of the Report of the Rainfall Committee. 



OBJECTS AND RULES 



OF 



THE ASSOCIATION. 



OBJECTS. 

The Association contemplates no interference with the ground occupied by 
other institutions. Its objects are, — To give a stronger impulse and a more 
systematic direction to scientific inquiry, — to promote the intercourse of those 
who cultivate Science in different parts of the British Empire, with one an- 
other and with foreign philosophers, — to obtain a more general attention to 
the objects of Science, and a removal of any disadvantages of a public kind 
which impede its progress. 

E U L E S. 

ADMISSION OF MEMBEES AND ASSOCIATES. 

AU persons who have attended the fii-st Meeting shall be entitled to be- 
come Members of the Association, upon subscribrag an obligation to con- 
form to;its Rules. 

The Fellows and Members of Chartered Literary and Philosophical So- 
cieties publishing Transactions, in the British Empire, shall be entitled, in 
like manner, to become Members of the Association. 

The Oificers and Members of the Councils, or Managing Committees, of 
Philosophical Institutions, shall be entitled, in like manner, to become Mem- 
bers of the Association. 

All Members of a Philosophical Institution recommended by its CouncU 
or Managing Committee shall be entitled, in hke manner, to become Mem- 
bers of the Association. 

Persons not belonging to such Institutions shall be elected by the General 
Committee or Council, to become Life Members of the Association, Annual 
Subscribers, or Associates for the year, subject to the approval of a General 
Meeting. 

COMPOSITIONS, SUBSCRIPTIONS, AND PRIVILEGES. 

Life Members shall pay, on admission, the sum of Ten Pounds. They 
shall receive gratuitously the Eeports of the Association which may be pub- 
lished after the date of such payment. They are eligible to all the offices 
of the Association. 

Annual Subscribers shall j^ay, on admission, the sum of Two Pounds, 
and in each following year the sum of One Pound. They shall receive 
gratidtoushj the Reports of the Association for the year of their admission 
and for the years in which they continue to pay ivithout intermission their 
Annual Subscription. By omitting to pay this Subscription in any particu- 
lar year. Members of this class (Annual Subscribers) lose for that and all 
future years the pri\'ilege of receiving the volumes of the Association gratis: 
but they may resume their Membership and other privileges at any sub- 
sequent Meeting of the Association, paying on each such occasion the sum of 
One Poimd. They are eligible to all the Offices of the Association. 

Associates for the year shall pay on admission the sum of One Pound. 
They shall not receive gratuitously the Reports of the Association, nor be 
eligible to serve on Committees, or to hold any office. 

The Association consists of the foUo\ving classes: — 

1. Life Members admitted from 1831 to 1845 inclusive, who have paid 
on admission Five Pounds as a composition, 

1870. 6 



XVlll RULES or THE ASSOCIATION. 

2. Life Members who in 1846, or in subsequent years, have paid on ad- 
mission Ten Pounds as a composition. 

3. Annual Members admitted from 1831 to 1839 inclusive, subject to the 
payment of One Pound annually. [May resume their Membership after in- 
termission of Annual Payment.] 

4. Annual Members admitted in any year since 1839, subject to the pay- 
ment of Two Pounds for the fii-st year, and One Poimd in each following year. 
[May resume their Membership after intermission of Annual Payment.] 

5. Associates for the year, subject to the payment of One Pound. 

6. Corresponding Members nominated by the Council. 

And the Members and Associates will be entitled to receive the annual 
volume of Reports, gratis, or to purcliase it at reduced (or Members') price, 
according to the follo-w-ing specification, viz. : — 

1. Gratis. — Old Life Members who have paid Five Pounds as a compo- 

sition for Annual Payments, and previous to 184.5 a further 
sum of Two Pounds as a Book Subscription, or, since 1845, a 
further sum of Five Pounds. 

New Life Members who have paid Ten Pounds as a composition. 

Annual Members who have not intermitted their Annual Sub- 
scription. 

2. At reduced or Memhers* Prices, viz. two-thirds of the Publication 

Price. — Old Life Members who have paid Five Pounds as a 

composition for Annual Payments, but no further sum as a 

Book Subscription. 
Annual Members who have intermitted their Annual Subscription. 
Associates for the year. [Privilege confined to the volume for 

that year only.] 

3. Members may piu'chase (for the purpose of completing their sets) any 

of the first seventeen volumes of Transactions of the Associa- 
tion, and of which more than 100 copies remain, at one-third of 
the Publication Price. Application to be made (by letter) to 
Messrs. Taylor & Francis, Red Lion Court, Fleet St., London. 

Volumes not claimed within two years of the date of publication can only 
bo issued by direction of the Council. 

Subscriptions shall be received by the Treasurer or Secretaries. 

MEETINGS. 

The Association shall meet annually, for one week, or longer. The place 
of each Meeting shall be appointed by the General Committee at the pre- 
vious Meeting ; and the Arrangements for it shall be entrusted to the Officers 
of the Association. 

GENERAL COMMITTEE. 

The General Committee shaU sit during the week of the Meeting, or 
longer, to transact the business of the Association. It shall consist of the 
following persons : — 

Class A. Permanent Members. 

1. Members of the Council, Presidents of the Association, and Presidents 
of Sections for the present and preceding years, with Authors of Reports in 
the Transactions of the Association. 

2. Members who by the publication of "Works or Papers have furthered 
the advancement of those subjects which are taken into consideration at the 
Sectional Meetings of the Association. With a vieiu of submittinr/ new claims 
under this Eide to the decision of the Council, they must he sent to the Assistant 
General Secretary at least one month before the Meetinc/ of the Association. 



RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. xix 

The decision of the Council on the claims of any Member of the Association to 
he x^laced on the list of the General Committee to be final. 

Class B. Tempoeaey Mejibees. 

1. Presidents for the time being of any Scientific Societies pubKshing Trans- 
actions or, in his absence a delegate representing him. Claims under this Rule 
to be sent to the Assistant General Secretary before the opening of the Meetiny. 

2. Office-bearers for the time being, or delegates, altogether not exceeding 
three, from Scientific Institutions established in the place of Meeting. 
Claims under this llule to be approved by the Local Secretaries before the 
openiny of the Meetiny. 

3. Foreigners and other individuals whose assistance is desired, and who 
are specially nominated in writing, for the Meeting of the year, by the Pre- 
sident and General Secretaries. 

4. Vice-Presidents and Secretaries of Sections. 

SECTIONAL COMMITTEES. 

The General Committee shall appoint, at each Meeting, Committees, con- 
sisting severally of the Members most conversant with the several branches 
of Science, to advise together for the advancement thereof. 

The Committees shall report what subjects of investigation they would 
particularly recommend to bo prosecuted during the ensuing year, and 
brought under consideration at the next Meeting. 

The Committees shall recommend Reports on the state and progress of 
particular Sciences, to be drawn up from time to time by competent persons, 
for the information of the Annual Meetings. 

COMMITTEE OF RECOMMENDATIONS. 

The General Committee shall appoint at each Meeting a Committee, which 
shall receive and consider the Recommendations of the Sectional Committees, 
and report to the General Committee the measures which they would advise 
to be adopted for the advancement of Science. 

AU Eecommendations of Grants of Money, Piequests for Special Researches, 
and Reports on Scientific Subjects, shall be submitted to the Committee of 
Recommendations, and not taken into consideration by the General Committee 
unless previously recommended by the Committee of Recommendations. 

LOCAL COMMITTEES. 

Local Committees shall be formed by the Officers of the Association to 
assist in making arrangements for the Meetings. 

Local Committees shaU have the power of adding to their numbers those 
Members of the Association whose assistance they may desire. 

OFFICERS. 

A President, two or more Vice-Presidents, one or more Secretaries, and a 
Treasurer shall be annually appointed by the General Committee. 

COUNCIL. 

In the intervals of the Meetings, the affairs of the Association shall be ma- 
naged by a Council appointed by the General Committee. The Council may 
also assemble for the despatch of business during the week of the Meeting. 

PAPERS AND COMMUNICATIONS. 

The Author of any paper or communication shall be at liberty to reserve 
hig right of property therein. 

ACCOtTNTS. 

The Accounts of the Association shall be audited annually, by Auditors 
appointed by the Meeting. 

52 



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XXVI 



REPORT — :1870. 



Presidents and Secretaries of the Sections of the Association. 



Date and Place. 



Presidents. 



Secretaries. 



MATHEMATICAL ATfD PHYSICAL SCIENCES. 



COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, I. MATHEMATICS AND GENEEAL PHYSICS. 



1832. Oxford 

1833. Cambridge 

1834. Edinburgh 



Davies Gilbert, D.C.L., F.E.S....iRev. IT. Coddington. 

SirD. Brewster, RR.S Prof. Forbes. 

Rev. W. WhevveH, RE.S |Prof. Forbes, Prof. Lloyd. 



1835. Dublin 

1836. Bristol 

1837. LiveriJool . . 

1838. Newcastle... 

1839. Birmingliam 

1840. Glasgow .. 

1841. Plymouth.. 

1842. Manchester 



1843. Cork 

1844. York 

1845. Cambridge.. 

1846. Southampton 

1847. Oxford... 



SECTION A. MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICS. 

Rev. Dr. Robinson 

Rev. William Whewell, P.R.S.... 
Sir D. Brewster, F.R.S 



1848. Swansea . 

1849. Birmingham 

1850. Edinburgh. 



1851. Ipswich 

1852. Belfast 

1853. Hull 

1854. Liverpool... 

1855. Glasgow ... 

1856. Cheltenham 

1857. Dublin 



Sir J. F. W. Herschel. Bart., 

Rev. Prof. WheweU, F.R.S. 

Prof. Forbes, F.R.S 

Rev. Prof. Lloyd, F.R.S. ... 
Very Rev. G. Peacock, D.D., 
F.R.S. 

Prof. M'Culloch, M.R.LA 

The E:irl of Ro.sse, F.R.S 

The Very Rev. the Dean of Ely 

Sir John F. W. Herschel, Bart., 

F.R.S. 
Rev. Prof. Powell, M.A., F.R.S. . 

Lord Wrottesley, F.R.S 

Wilham Hopkiiis, F.R.S. 

Prof. J. D. Forbes, F.R.S., Sec. 
R.S.E. 

Rev. W. Whewell, D.D., P.R.S., 

Prof.'w. Thomson, M.A., F.R.S 

L.&E. 
The Dean of Ely, F.R.S 

Prof G. G. Stokes, M.A., Sec. 

R.S. 
Rev. Prof. Kelland, M.A., F.R.S. 

L.&E. 
Rev. R. Walker, M.A., F.R.S. .. 

Rev.T. R. Robinson,D.D.,F.R.S.. 
M.R.LA. 



Prof. Su- W. R. Hamilton, Prof. 

Wheatstone. 
Prof. Forbes, W. S. Harris, F. W. 

Jerrard. 
W. S. Harris, Rev. Prof. PoweU, Prof. 

Stevelly. 
Rev. Prof Clievallier, Major Sabine, 

Prof. Stevelly. 
J. D. Chance, W. Snow Harris, Prof. 

Stevelly. 
Rev. Dr. Forbes, Prof. Stevelly, Arch. 

Smith. 
Prof Stevelly. 
Prof. M'Cuiloch, Prof. Stevelly, Rev. 

W. Scoresby. 
J. Nott, Prof Stevelly. 
Rev. Wm. Hey, Prof Stevelly. 
Rev. n. Goodwin, Prof. Stevelly, G. 

G. Stokes. 
John Drew, Dr. Stevelly, G. G. 

Stokes. 
Rev. II. Price, Prof. Stevelly, G. G. 

Stoke.s. 
Dr. Stevelly, G. G. Stokes. 
Prof. Stevelly, G. G. Stokes, W, 

Ridout Wills. 
W. J. Macquorn Rankine, Prof. 

Smyth, Prof. Stevelly, Prof. G. G. 

Stokes. 
S. Jackson, W. J. Macquorn Rankine, 

Prof Stevelly, Prof. G. G. Stokes. 
Prof. Dixon, W. J. Macquorn Ran- 
kine, Prof. Stevelly, J. Tyndall. 

B. Blaydes Haworth, J. D. Sollitt, 
Prof Stevellv, J. Welsh. 

J. Hartnup, H. G. Puckle, Prof. 

Stevelly. J. Tyndall, J. Welsh. 
Rev. Dr. Forbes, Prof. D. Gray, Prof. 

TyndaU. 

C. Brooke, Rev. T. A. Southwood, 
Prof Stevelly, Rev. J. C. Turnbull. 

Prof. Curtis, Prof. Ilennessy, P. A. 
Ninnis, W. J. Macquorn Rankine, 
Prof. SteveUy. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



XXVli 



Date and Place. 



1858. Leeds 



Presidents. 



Secretaries. 



Eer.W.Wliewell, D.D., V.P.E.S, 



1859. Aberdeen ... 

1860. Oxford 

1861. Manclie.ster , 

1862. Cambridge., 

1863. Newcastle... 

1864. Bath 

1865. Birmingham 

1866. Nottingham 

1867. Dundee 

1868. Norwich ... 

1869. Exeter 

1870. Liverpool ... 



The Earl of Eosse, M.A., K.P., 

Rev! B. Price, M.A., F.R.S 

a. B. Airy, M.A., D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Prof. G. Q. Stokes, M.A., F.R.S. 

Prof. W. J. Macquorn Rankine 
C.E., F.R.S. 

Prof. Cayley, M.A., F.R.S., 

F.R.A.S. 
W. Spottiswoode, M.A., F.R.S., 

F.R.A.S. 

Prof. Wheatstone, D.C.L., F.E.S. 
Prof. Sir W. Thomson, D.C.L., 
Prof. J. Tyndall, LL.D., F.E.S... 

Prof. J. J. Sylvester, LL.D., 

F.R.S. 
J. Clerk Maxwell, M.A., LL.D., 

F.R.S. 



Rev. S. Earnshaw, J. P. Hennessy, 

Prof. Stevelly, H. J. S. Smith, Prof. 

Tyndall. 
J. P". Hennessy, Prof. Maxwell, H. J. S. 

Smith, Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. Q. C. Bell, Rev. T. Eennison, 

Prof. Stevelly. 
Prof. E. B. Clifton, Prof. H. J. S. 

Smith, Prof. Stevelly. 
Prof. R. B. Clifton, 'Prof. H. J. S. 

Smith, Prof Stevelly. 
Rev. N. Ferrers, Prof. Fuller, F. Jen- 
kin, Prof. Stevelly, Rev. C. T. 

Whitlev. 
Prof. Fuller, F. Jenkin, Rev. G. 

Buckle, Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. T. N. Hutchinson, F. Jenkin, G. 

S. Mathews, Prof. H. J. S. Smith, 

J. M. Wilson. 
Fleeming Jenkin, Prof. II. J. S. Smith, 

Rev. S. N. Swann. 
Rev. G. Buckle, Prof. G. C. Foster, 

Prof. Fuller, Prof Swan. 
Prof. G. C. Foster, Rev. R. Harley, 

R. B. Hayward. 
Prof. G. C. Foster, R. B. Hayward, 

W. K. Clifford. 
Prof. W. G. Adams, W. K. Clifford, 

Prof. G. C. Foster, Rev. W. Allen 

Whitworth. 



CHEMICAL SCIENCE. 

COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, II. CHEMISTKT, MINEEALOGT. 



18.32. Oxford iJohn Dalton, D.C.L., F.R.S 

18.33. Cambridge.. 'John Dalton, D.C.L., F.R.S 

1834. Edinburgh... jDr. Hope 



James F. W. Johnston. 

Prof. Miller. 

Mr. John.ston, Dr. Christison. 



SECTION B, CHEMISTET AND MINEKALOGT. 



1835. Dublin , 

1836. Bristol . 



Dr. T. Thomson, F.R.S 

Rev. Prof. Cumming 



1837. Liverpool... 

1838. Newcastle... 

1839. Birmingham 

1840. Glasgow .. 

1841. Plymouth.. 

1842. Manchester. 

1843. Cork 

1844. York 

1845. Cambridge. 



1 846. Southampton 

1847. Oxford 



Michael Faraday, F.E.S 

Eev. William Whewell, F.E.S.... 

Prof. T. Graham, F.R.S 

Dr. Thomas Thomson, F.R.S. ... 

Dr.Daubeny, F.R.S 

John Dalton, D.C.L., F.R.S 

Prof. Apjohn, M.R.I. A 

Prof. T. Graham, F.R.S 

Rev. Prof. Cumming 



Michael Faraday, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Rev.W.V.Harcourt, M.A., F.R.S. 



Dr. Apjohn, Prof. John.ston. 

Dr. Apjohn, Dr. C. Henry, W. Hcra- 

pnth. 
Prof. Johnston, Prof. Miller, Dr. 

Reynolds. 
Prof. MiUer, R. L. Pattinson, Thomas 

Richard.son. 
Golding Bird, M.D., Dr. J. B. Melson. 
Dr. R. D. Thomson, Dr. T. Clark, 

Dr. L. Playfair. 
J. Prideaux, Robert Hunt, W. M. 

Tweedy. 
Dr. L. Playfair, R. Hunt, J. Graham. 
R. Hunt, Dr. Sweeny. 
Dr. R. Playfair, E. Solly, T. H. Barker. 
R. Hunt, J. P. Joule, Prof. Miller, 

E. Solly. 
Dr. Miller, R. Hunt, W. Randall. 
B. C. Brodie, E. Hunt, Prol'. Solly. 



XXVlll 



REPORT — 1870. 



Date and Place. 



Presidents. 



Secretaries. 



1848. 
1849. 
1850. 
1851. 
1852. 

1853. 

1854. 

18.55. 
1856. 

1857. 

1858. 

1859. 

1860. 

1861. 
1862. 

1863. 

1864. 

1865. 

1866. 

1867. 

1868. 

1869. 

1870. 



Swansea . . . Richard Phillips, F.R.S. , 
Birmingham John Percy, M.D., F.R.S., 



Edinburgh . 
Ipswich 
Belfast , 



Hull 

Liyerpool . . . 

Glasgow . . . 
Cheltenham 

Dublin 

Leeds 

Aberdeen . . . 

Oxford 



Manchester 
Cambridge . 

Newcastle . . . 

Bath 

Birmingham 

Nottingham 

Dundee . . . 

Norwich . . . 

Exeter 

Liyerpool . . . 



Dr. Christison, V.P.R.S.E 

Prof. Thomas Graham, F.R.S. ... 
Thomas Andrews, M.D., F.R.S. . 

Prof. J. F. W. Johnston, M.A., 

Prof. W. A. MHler, M.D., F.R.S. 

Dr. Lyon Playfair, C.B., F.R.S. 
Prof. B.C. Brodie, F.R.S 

Prof. Apjobn, M.D., F.R.S. 

M.R.LA. 
Sir J. F. W. Herschel, Bart. 

D.C.L. 
Dr. Lyon Playfair, C.B., F.R.S. . 

Prof. B. C. Brodie, F.R.S. 

Prof. W. A. Miller, M.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. W. A. Miller, M.D., F.R.S. 

Dr. Alex. W. Williamson, F.R.S. 

W. Odling, M.B., F.R.S., F.C.S. 

Prof. W. A.Miller, M.D.,V.P.R.S. 

H. Bence Jones, M.D., F.R.S. ... 

Prof. T. Anderson,M.D., F.R.S.E. 

Prof.E .Frankland, F.R.S., F.C.S. 

Dr. H. Debus, F.R.S., F.C.S. ... 

Prof. H. E. Roscoe, B.A., P.R.S., 
F.C.S. 



T. H. Henry, R. Hunt, T. Williams. 

R. Hunt, G. Shaw. 

Dr. Ander.son, R. Hunt, Dr. Wilson. 

T. J. Pearsall, W. S. Ward. 

Dr. Gladstone, Prof. Hodges, Prof. 
Ronalds. 

H. S. Blundell, Prof. R. Hunt, T. J. 
Pearsall. 

Dr. Edwards, Dr. Gladstone, Dr. 
Price. 

Prof. Frankland, Dr. H. E. Roscoe. 

J. Horsley, P. J. Worsley, Prof. 
Voelcker. 

Dr. DaTy, Dr. Gladstone, Prof. Sul- 
livan. 

Dr. Gladstone, W. Odling, R. Rey- 
nolds. 

J. S. Brazier, Dr. Gladstone, G. D. 
Liveing, Dr. Odling. 

A. Vernon Harcoiirt, G. D. Liveing, 
A. B. Northcote. 

A. Vernon Harcoiu-t, G. D. Liveing. 

H. W. Elphinstone, W. Odling, Prof. 
Roscoe. 

Prof. Liveing, H. L. Pattinson, J. C. 
Stevenson. 

A. V. Harcourt, Prof. Liveing, R. 
Biggs. 

A. V. Harcourt, H. Adkins, Prof. 
Wanklyn, A. Winkler Wills. 

J. H. Atherton, Prof. Liveing, W. J. 
Russell, J. White. 

A. Crum Brown, Prof. G. D. Liveing, 
W. J. Russell. 

Dr. A. Cram Brown, Dr. W. J. Rus- 
sell, F. Sutton. 

Prof. A. Crum Brown, M.D., Dr. W. 
J. Russell, Dr. Atkinson. 

Prof. A. Crum Brown, M.D., A. E. 
Fletcher, Dr. W. J. Russell. 



GEOLOGICAL (and, tjntil 1851, GEOGEAPHICAL) SCIENCE. 

COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, IH. GEOLOGY AND GEOGRAPHY. 



1832. 

1833. 
1834. 



Oxford 

Cambridge . 
Edinburgh . 



R. L Murchison, F.R.S 

G. B. Greenough, F.R.S 

Prof. Jameson 



John Taylor. 

W. Lonsdale, John Phillips. 
Prof. Phillips, T. Jameson Torrie, 
Rev. J. Yates. 



1835, 
1836. 



Dublin 
Bristol 



1837. Liverpool... 



1838. 
1839. 



Newcastle. . . 
Birmingham 



SECTION C. — GEOLOGY AND GEOGRAPHY, 

R.J. Griffith 

Rev. Dr. Buckland, F.R.S.— Geo- 

graph/. R. I. Mm-chison, F.R.S. 
Rev.Prof. Sedgwick,F.R.S.— Geo- 

graphy. G.B.Greenough,F.R.S 



C. Lyell, F.R.S., V.P.G.S.— Gco- 

graphy. Lord Prudhope. 
Rev. Dr! Buckland, F.R.S.— 6-Vo 



graphy. G.B.Greenough,F.R.S.| Charles Darwin. 



Captain Portlock, T. J. Torrie. 

William Sanders, S. Stutchbury, T. J. 
Torrie. 

Captain Portlock, R. Hunter. — Geo- 
graphy. Captain H. M. Denham, 
R.N. 

W. C. Trevelyan, Capt. Portlock.— 
Geography. Capt. Washington. 

George Lloyd, M.D., H. E. Strickland, 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OJ? THE SECTIONS. 



XXIX 



Pate and Place. 



1840. Glasgow .. 

1841. Plymouth. 

1842. Manchester 

1843. Cork 

1844. York :.. 

1845. Cambridge ,. 

1846. Southampton 



Presidents. 



Charles Lyell, F.R.S. — Geogra- 
phy. G. B. Greenough, F.R.S. 

H. T. De la Beohe, F.R.S. 

R. I. Murchison, F.R.S 

Richard E. Griffith, F.R.S., 

M.R.I.A. 
Henry Warborton, M.P., Pres. 

Geol. Soc. 
Rsv. Prof. Sedgwick, M.A., F.R.S. 

LeonardHorner,F.R S. — Gcogra- 
■phi. G. B. Greenough, F.R.S. 

Very Rev. Dr. Buckland, F.R.S. 



Secretaries. 



1847. Oxford 

1848. Swansea ... 

1849. Birmingham 

1850. Edinburgh *!Sir Roderick I. Murchison.F.R.S 



Sir H. T. De la Beche, C.B., 
Sir Charles Lyell, F.R.S., F.G.S. 



W. J. Hamilton, D. Mdne, Hugh 
Murray, H. E. Strickland, John 
Scoidar, M.D. 

W. J. Hamilton, Edward Moore,M.D., 
R. Hutton. 

E. W. Binney, R. Hutton, Dr. R. 
Lloyd, H. E. Strickland. 

Francis M. Jennings, H. E. Strick- 
land. 

Prof. Ansted, E. H. Bunbury. 

Rev. J. C. Gumming, A. C. Ramsay, 

Rev. W. Thorj}. 
Robert A. Austen, J. H. Norten, M.D., 

Prof. Oldham. — Geography. Dr. C. 

T. Beke. 
Prof. Ansted, Prof. Oldham, A. C. 

Ramsay, J. Ruskin. 
StarUng Benson, Prof. Oldham, Prof. 

Ramsay. 
J. Beete Jukes, Prof. Oldliam, Prof. 

A. C. Ramsay. 
A. Eeith Johnston, Hugh Miller, Pro- 
fessor Nicol. 



1851. Ipswich ... 

1852. Belfast 

18.j3. Hull 

1854. Liverpool .. 

1855. Glasgow ... 

1856. Cheltenham 

1857. Dublin 

1858. Leeds 

1859. Aberdeen... 
18G0. Oxford 

1861. Manchester 

1862. Cambridge 

1863. Newcastle... 

1864. Bath 



Lieut.-Col. Portlock,R.E., F.R.S. 

Prof. Sedgwick, F.R.S 

Prof. Edward Forbes, F.R.S. 

Sir R. I. Murchison, F.R.S 

Prof. A. C. Ramsay, F.R.S 

The Lord Talbot de Malahide ... 

WiUiam Hopkins, M.A., LL.D., 

F R S 
Sir Charles Lyell, LL.D., D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
Rev. Prof. Sedgwick, LL.D., 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Sir R. I. Murchison, D.C.L., 

LL.D., F.R.S., &c. 
J. Beete Jukes, M.A., F.R.S 

Prof. Warington, W. Smyth, 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Prof. J. Phillips, LL.D., F.R.S., 

F.G.S. 



SECTION c {continued^. — geology. 

William Hopkins, M.A., F.R.S... C. J. F. Bunbury, G. W. Ormerod, 

Searles Wood. 

James Bryce, James MacAdam, Prof. 
M'Coy, Prof Nicol. 

Prof. Harkness, William Lawton. 

John Cunningham, Prof. Harkness, 
G. W. Ormerod, J. W. Woodall. 

James Bryce, Prof. Harkness, Prof. 
Nicol. 

Rev. P. B. Broclie, Rev. R. Hepworth, 
Edward Hull, J. Scougall, T.Wright. 

Prof. Harkness, Gilbert Sanders, Ro- 
bert H. Scott. 

Prof. Nicol, H. C. Sorby, E. W. 
Shaw. 

Prof. Harkness, Rev. J. Longmuir, H. 
C. Sorby. 

Prof. Harkness, Edward HuU, Capt. 
Woodall. 

Prof. Harkness, Edward Hull, T. Ru- 
pert Jones, G. W. Ormerod. 

Lucas Barrett, Prof. T. Rupert Jones, 
H. C. Sorby. 

E. P. Boyd, Jolin Daglish, H. C. Sor- 
by, Thomas Sopwitli. 

W. B. Dawkins, J. Johnston, H. C. 
Sorby, W. Pengelly. 



* At the Meeting of the General Committee held in Edinburgh, it was agreed " That the 
suhjoct of Geography be se]iarated from Geology and combined with Ethnology, to consti- 
tute a separate Section, under the title of the " Geographical and Ethnological Section," 
for Presidents and Secretaries of which see page xxxii. 



XXX 



REPORT — 1870. 



Date and Place. 



Presidents. 



Secretaries. 



1865. Birmingham 

1866. Nottingham 

1867. Dundee 

1868. Norwich ... 

1869. Exeter 

1870. Liverpool... 



Sir E. I. Murchison, Bart.,K.C.B. 

Prof.A.C. Eamsay, LL.D., F.E.S. 

Archibald Geikie, F.E.S., F.G.S. 

E. A. C. Godwin- Avisten, F.E.S., 

F.G.S. 
Prof. E. Harkness, F.E.S., F.G.S 

Sir Philip de M. Grey-Egerton. 
Bart., M.P., F.E.S. 



Eev. P. B. Brodie, J. Jones, Eev. E. 
Myers, H. C. Sorby. W. Pengelly. 

E. Etlieridge, W. Pengelly, T. Wil- 
son, G. II. Wright. 

Edward Hull, W. Pengelly, Henry 
Woodward. 

Eev. O. Fisher, Eev. J. Gunn, W. 
Pengelly, Eev. H. H. Winwood. 

W. Pengelly, W. Boyd Dawkins, Eev. 
H. H. Winwood. . 

W. Pengelly, Eev. H. H. Winwood, 
W. Boyd'Dawkins, G. II. Morton. 



BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES. 

COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, IT. ZOOLOGY, BOTANY, PnYSIOLOGY, AN.VTOMY. 



1832. Oxford lEev. P. B. Duncan, F.G.S 

183.3. Cambridge * Eev. W. L. P. Garnons, F.L.S... 
183-1. Edinburgh jProf. Graham 



Eev. Prof. J. S. Henslow. 
C. C. Babington, D. Don. 
W. Yarrell, Prof. Bui-nett. 



SECTION D. ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY. 



1835. DubUn 

1836. Bristol 



1837. Liverpool.. 

1838. Newcastle... 

1830. Brimingham 

1840. Glasgow ... 

1841. Plymouth... 

1842. Manchester 



1843. Cork . 

1844. York. 



1845. Cambridge 

1846. Southampton 

1847. Oxford 



Dr. Allman 

Eev. Prof Henslow 



W. S. MaoLeay 

Sir W. Jardine, Bart 

Prof Owen, F.E.S 

Sir W. J. Hooker, LL.D 



John Eichardson, M.D., F.E.S.. 
Hon. and Vei'y Eev. W. Herbert, 

LL.D., F.L.S. 
William Thompson, F.L.S. ... 

Very Eev. The Dean of Manches- 
ter. 

Eev. Prof Hen.slow, F.L.S 

Sir J. Eichardson, M.D., F.E.S. 

H. E. Strickland, M.A., F.E.S... 



J. Curtis, Dr. Litton. 

J. Curti.s, Prof Don, Dr. Eiley, S. 
Eootsey. 

C. C. Babington, Eev. L. Jenyns, W. 
Swainson. 

J. E. Gray, Prof. Jones, E. Owen, Dr. 
Eichardson. 

E. Forbes, W. Ick, E. Patterson. 

Prof. W. Couper, E. Forbes, E. Pat- 
terson. 

J. Couch, Dr. Lankestor, E. Patterson. 

Dr. Lankester, E. Patterson, J. A. 
Turner. 

G. J. Allman, Dr. Lankester, E. Pat- 
terson. 

Prof Allman, H. Goodsir, Dr. King, 
Dr. Lankester. 

Dr. Lankester, T. V. Wollaston. 

Dr. Lankester, T. V. Wollaston, H. 
Wooldridge. 

Dr. Lankester, Dr. Melville, T. V. 
Wollaston. 



SECTION D (continued). — zoology and botany, includtng physiology. 

[For the Presidents and Secretaries of the Anatomical and Physiological Subsections 
and the temporary Section E of Anatomy and Medicine, see pp. xxxi, xxxii.] 

. Dr. E. Wilbraham Falconer, A. Hen- 



1848. Swansea ... 

1849. Birmingham 

1850. Edinburgh.. 



1851. Ipswich. 

1852. Belfast . 



L. W. DiUwyn, F.E.S 

William Spence, F.E.S 

Prof Good.sir, F.E.S. L. &E. ... 

Eev. Prof Henslow, M.A., F.E.S. 

W. Ogilby 



frey, Dr. Lankester. 

Dr. Lankester, Dr. Eussell. 

Prof J. II. Bennett, M.D., Dr. Lan- 
kester, Dr. Douglas Maclagan. 

Prof Allman, P. W. Johnston, Pr. E. 
Lankester. 

Dr. Dickie. George C. Hyndman, Dr. 
Edwin Lankester. 

* At this Meeting Physiology and Anatomy were made a separate Committee, for 
Presidents and Secretaries of which see p. xxxi. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



XXXI 



Date and Place. 



18r):3. 
1854. 

i8r)o. 

ISoC. 

1857. 

1858. 

1859. 

1860. 

1861. 

1802. 
1803. 

1864. 

1865. 



Hull 

Liverpool ... 
Glasgow . . . 
Cheltenham . 

Dublin 

Leeds 

Aberdeen ... 

Oxford 

Manchester.. 

Cambridge... 

Newcastle ... 

Bath 

Birmingham 



Presidents. 



C. C. Babington, M.A., P.R.S... 

Prof. Balfour, M.D., F.R.S 

Rev. Dr. Fleeming, P.R.S.E. .. 
Thomas BeU, E.R.S., Pres.L.S... 

Prof. W.H. Harvey, M.D., F.R.S 

C. C. Babington, M.A., F.R.S... 

Sir W. Jardine, Bart, F.R.S.E. 

Rev. Prof. Henslow, F.L.S 

Prof. C. C. Babington, F.R.S. ... 

Prof Huxley, F.R.S 

Prof. Balfour, M.D., F.R.S 

Dr. John E. Gray, F.R.S 

T. Thomson, M.D., F.R.S 



Secretaries. 



Robert Harrison, Dr. E. Lankester. 
Isaac Byerley, Dr. E. Lankester. 
William Keddie, Dr. Lankester. 
Dr. J. Abercrombie, Prof. Buckman, 

Dr. Lankester. 
Prof J. R.Kinahan,Dr. E. Lankester, 

Robert Patterson, Dr. W. E. Steele. 
Henry Denny, Dr. Ileaton, Dr. E. 

Lankester, Dr. E. Perceval Wright. 
Prof. Dickie, M.D., Dr. E. Lankester, 

Dr. Ogilvy. 
W. S. Church, Dr. E. Lankester, P. 

L. Sclater, Dr. E. Pereoval Wright. 
Dr. T. Alcock, Dr. E. Lankester, Dr. 

P. L. Sclater, Dr. E. P. Wright. 
Alfred Newton, Dr. E. P. Wright. 
Dr. E. Charlton, A, Newton, Rev. H. 

B. Tristram, Dr. E. P. Wright. 
H. B. Brady, C. E. Broom, H. T. 

Stainton, Dr. E. P. Wright. 
Dr. J. Antliony, Rev. C. Clarke, Rev. 

H. B. Tristram, Dr. E. P. Wright. 



SECTION D (continued). — biology^ 



1866. Nottingham . 

1807. Dundee 

1808. Norwich .. 

1869. Exeter 



1870. Liverpool . . 



Prof. Huxley, LL.D., F.R.S.— 
Physiological Bcp. Prof. Hum- 
phry, M.D., Y:R.^.—Anthro'po- 
loqicalDcp. Alfred R. Wallace. 
F.R.G.S. 

Prof. Sharpey, M.D., Sec. R.S.— 
Bep. of Zool. and Bat. George 
Busk, M.D., F.R.S. 

Rev. M. J. Berkeley, F.L S.— 
Bej). of I'h/siologi/. W. H 
Flower, F.R.S. 

George Busk, F.R.S., F.L.S.- 
Bip. ofBof. and Zool. C. Spence 
Bate, F.R.S.— i>fp. of Ethno. 
E. B. Tylor. 

Prof. G. Rolleston, M.A., M.D., 
F.R.S., F.L.S.—Z'fp. Anat. and 
Phi/do. Prof. M. Fo.4er, M.D., 
F.L.S.— 2>c;j. of Ethno. J. 
Evans, F.R.S. 



Dr. J. Beddard, W. Felkin, Rev. H- 
B. Tristram, W. Turner, E. B. 
Tylor, Dr. E. P. Wright. 



C. Spence Bate, Dr. S. Cobbold, Dr. 
M. Foster, H. T. Stainton, Rev. H. 

B. Tri.stram, Prof. W. Turner. 

Dr. T. S. Cobbold, G. W. Firth, Dr. 

M. Foster, Prof. Tawson, H. T. 

Stainton, Rev. Dr. H. B. Tristram, 

Dr. E. P. Wright. 
Dr. T. S. Cobbold, Prof M. Foster, 

M.D., E. Ray Lanke.ster, Professor 

Lawson, H. T. Stainton, Rev; H. B. 

Tristram. 
Dr. T. S. Cobbold, Sebastian Evans, 

Prof. Lawson, Thos. J. Moore, H. 

T. Stainton, Rev. 11. B.Tristram, 

C. Stanilaud Wake, E. Ray Lan- 
kester. 



ANATOMICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL SCIENCES. 

COMMITTEES OF SCIENCES, T. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY. 



1833. Cambridge... 

1834. Edinburgh... 



Dr. Haviland |Dr. Bond, Mr. Paget. 

Dr. Abercrombie |Dr. Roget, Dr. William Thomson. 



SECTION E, (until 1847.) ANATOMY AND MEDICINE. 

1835. Dublin |Dr. Pritchard [Dr. Harrison, Dr. Hart. 

1830. Bristol ......[Dr. Roget, F.R.S. .„ Dr. Symonds. 



1837. Liverpool ... Prof. W. Clark, M.D. 



Dr. J. Carson, jun., James Long, Dr. 
J. R. W. Vose. 



* At the Meeting of the General Committee at Birmingham, it was resolved : — "That the 
title of Section D be changed to Biology ; " and "That for the word ' Subsection,' in the 
rules for conducting the business of the Sections, the word ' Department' be substituted." 



XXXll 



REPORT 1870. 



Date and Place. 



Presidents. 



Secretaries. 



1838. Newcastle 

1839. Birmingham 

1840. Glasgow ... 

1841. Plymouth... 

1842. Manchester. 

184.3. Cork 

1844. York 



T. E. Headlam, M.D 

John Yelloly, M.D., F.E.S. 
James Watson, M.D 



P. M. Roget, M.D., Sec.E.S. 

Edward Holme, M.D., F.L.S. 

Sir James Pitcairn, M.D 

J. C. Pritchard, M.D 



T. M. Greenhow, Dr. J. R. W. Vose. 

Dr. G. O. Rees, F. Eyland. 

Dr. J. Brown, Prof. Couper, Prof. 

Reid. 
Dr. J. Butter, J. Fuge, Dr. R. S. 

Sargent. 
Dr. Chaytor, Dr. R. S. Sargent. 
Dr. John Popham, Dr. R. S. Sargent. 

Erichsen, Dr. R. S. Sargent. 



SECTIOJiT E. PHTSIOLOGY. 



184.5. Cambridge .'Prof. J. Haviland, M.D. 



1846. Southampton 

1847. Oxford* 



Prof. Owen, M.D., F.R.S... 
Prof. Ogle. M.D., F.R.S. .. 



Dr. R. S. Sargent, Dr. Webster. 
C. P. Keele, Dr. Laycock, Dr. Sargent. 
Dr. Thomas, K. Chambers, W. P. 
Ormerod. 



1850. Edinburgh 
1865. Glasgow ... 

1857. Dublin 

1858. Leeds 

1869. Aberdeen ... 

1860. Oxford 

1861. Manchester. 

1862. Cambridge . 

1863. Newcastle... 

1864. Bath 

1865. Birminghmf . 



PHYSIOLOGICAL STJI5SECTI0NS OF SECTION D. 

Prof Bennett, M.D., F.R.S.E. 
Prof. Allen Thomson, F.R.S. ... 

Prof R. Harrison, M.D 

Sir Benjamin Brodie, Bart.. F.R.S. 
Prof. S'harpey, M.D., Sec.R.S. ... 
Prof. G. RoUeston, M.D., F.L.S. 
Dr. John Davy, F.R.S.L. & E.... 

C.E.Paget, M.D 

Prof RoUeston, M.D., F.R.S. ... 
Dr. Edward Smith, LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. Acland, M.D., LL.D., F.R.S. 



Prof J. H. Corbett, Dr. J. Struthers. 
Dr. R. D. Lyons, Prof. Redfern. 
C. G. Wheelhouse. 
Prof. Bennett, Prof Redfern. 
Dr. R. M'Donnell, Dr. Edward Smith. 
Dr. W. Roberts, Dr. Edward Smith. 
G. F. Helm, Dr. Edward Smith. 
Dr. D. Embleton, Dr. W. Turner. 
J. S. Bartrum, Dr. W. Turner. 
Dr. A. Fleming, Dr. P. Heslop, Oliver 
Pembleton, Dr. W. Turner. 



GEOGRAPHICAL AND ETHNOLOGICAL SCIENCES. 

[For Presidents and Secretaries for Geography previous to 1851, see Section C, p. xxviii.] 
ETHNOLOGICAL SUBSECTIONS OF SECTION D. 



1816.Southampton'Dr. Pritchard 



1847. Oxford 

1848. Swansea ... 

1849. Birmingham 

1850. Glasgow ... 



Prof. H. H. Wilson, M.A. 



Vice- Admiral Sir A. Malcolm ... 



Dr. King. 
Prof. Buckley. 
G. Grant Francis. 
Dr. R. G. Latham. 
Daniel Wilson. 



1851. Ipswich ... 

1852. Belfast 

1853. Hull 

1854. Liverpool... 

1855. Glasgow ... 

1856. Cheltenham 



SECTION E. GEOGEAPHT AND ETHNOLOGY. 

Sir R.LMurchison, F.R.S., Pros. R. Cull, Rev. J. W. Donaldson, Dr. 

R.G.S. I Norton Shaw. 

Col. Chesney, R.A., D.C.L.,iR. Cull, R. MacAdam, Dr. Norton 



Shaw. 

R. Cull, Rev. H. W. Kemp, Dr. Nor- 
ton Shaw. 

Richard Cull, Rev. H. Higgins, Dr. 
Ihne, Dr. Norton Shaw. 

Dr. W. G. Blackie, R. Cull, Dr. Nor- 
ton Shaw. 

R. Cull, F. D. Hartland, W.H.Rum- 
I I sey. Dr. Norton Shaw. 

* By direction of the General Committee at Oxford, Sections D and E were incorporated 
under the name of "Section D — Zoology and Botany, including Physiology" (sec p. xxx). 
The Section being then vacant was assigned in 1851 to Geography. 

t Vide note on preceding page. 



F.R.S. 
R. G. Latham, M.D., F.R.S. ... 

Sir R. I. Murchison, D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
Sir J. Richardson, M.D., F.R.S. 

Col. Sir H. C. Rawlinson, K.C.B. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OP fHE SECTIONS, 



Sxxia 



Dat? and Placa. 


Presidents. 


Secretaries. 


1857. 


Dublin 


Esv. Dr. J.IIenthawnTodd, Pres. 


R. Cull, S. Ferguson, Dr. E. R. Mad- 






U.I.A. 


den. Dr. Norton Shaw. 


185S. 


Leeds 


Sir R. I. Murchison, G.C.St.S.. 


R. Cull, Francis Galton, P. O'Cal- 






F.R.S. 


laghan. Dr. Norton Shaw, Thomas 
Wright. 


1859. 


Aberdeen ... 


Rear-Admiral Sir James Clerk 


Richai'd Cull, Professor Geddes, Dr. 






Ross, D.C.L., F.R.S. 


Norton Shaw. 


18G0. 


Oxfoi-d 


Sir R. I. Murchiso:i, D.C.L., 


Ca 3t. Burrows, Dr. J. Hunt, Dr. C. 






F.R.S. 


Lempriere, Dr. Norton Shaw. 


18G1. 


Mancliester . 


John Crawfurd, F.R.S 


Dr. J. Ilunt, J. Kingsley, Dr. Norton 
Shaw, W. Spottiswoode. 


1862. 


Cambridge . 


Francis Galton, F.R.S 


J. W. Clarke, Rev. J. Glover, Dr. 








Ilunt, Dr. Norton Sliaw, T. Wright. 


18G3. 


Newcastle... 


Sir R. I. Murchison, K.C.B., 


C. Carta- Blake, Hume Greenfield, 






F.R.S. 


C. R. Markham, R. S. Watson. 


ISGt. 


Batli 


Sir R. I. Murchison, K.C.B., 


H. W. Bates, C. R. Markliam, Capt. 






F.R.S. 


R. M. Murchison, T. Wright. 


18G5. 


Birniingbam 


Maior-General Sir R. R.iwlinson. 


H. W. Bates, S. Evans, G. Jabet, C. 






M.P., K.C.B., F.R.S. 


R. Markham, Thomas Wright. 


ISCG. 


Nottingham 


Sir Charles Nicholson, Bart., 


II. W. Bates, Rev. E. T. Cusins, R. 






LL.D. 


H. Major, Clements R. Markliam, 
D. W. Na.sh, T. Wright. 


1SG7. 


Dundee 


Sir Samuel Baker, F.R.G.S 


H. W. Bates, Cyril Graham, C. R. 
Markham, S. J. Mackie, R. Sturrock. 


13G8. 


Norwich ... 


Capt. G. H. Richards, R.N., F.R.S . 


T. Baines, II. W. Bates, C. R. Mark- 
ham, T. Wright. 



18G9. Exeter 



1870. Liverpool. 



SECTION E {continued). GEOGK.\PHr. 

Sir Bartlc Frere, K.C.B., LL.D.,|H. W. Bates, Clements E. Markham, 

F.R.G.S. J. II. Thomas. 

Sir R, I. Murchison. Bt.,K.C.B.,!lL W. Bates, David Buxton, Albert 

LL.D., D.C.L., F.R.S., F.G.S. | J. Mott, Clements R. Markliam. 



18.'?3. Cambridge 
lS3i. Edinburgh 



STATISTICAL SCIENCE. 

COsraiTTEES OF SCIENCES, VI. STATISTICS, 

Prof. Babbage, F.R.S I J. E. Drinkwator. 

Sir Charles Lemon, Bart |Dr. Cleland, C. IIopo Maclean. 



SECTION F. 



-STATISTICS. 



183.5. Dublin 'Charles Babbage, F.R.S 

183;;. Bristol ;Sir Charles Lemon, Bart., F.R.S. 



18.37. Liverpool.. 



Rt. Hon. Lord Sandon 



18.38. Newcastle... Colonel Sykcs, F.R.S. 
1839. Birminghamllenry Hallam, F.R.S. 



Rt. Hon. Lord Sandon, F.R.S., 

M.P. 
Lieut.-Col. Sykes, F.R.S 



1840. Glasgow ... 

1811. Plymouth... 

1812. Manchester .'G. W. Wood, M.P., F.L.S, 



184.3. Cork Sir C. Lemon, Bart., M.P 

1844. York |Lieut.-Col. Sykes, F.R.S., F.L.S. 

1845. Cambridge .Rt. Hon. The Earl Fitzwilliam.., 
184G. Southampton G. R. Porter, F.R.S 

1870. 



W. Greg, Prof. Longficld. 

Rev. J. E.. Bromby, C. B. Fripp, 

James Heywood. 
W. R. Greg, W. Langton, Dr. W. C. 

Tavler. 
W. Cargill. J. Heywood, W. R. Wood. 
F. Clarke, R. W. Rawson, Dr. W. C. 

Tayler. 
C. R. Baird, Prof. Ramsay, R. W. 

Rawson. 
Rev. Dr. Eyrth, Eev. R. Luney, R. 

W. Raw.son. 
Rev. R. Lunev, G. W. Ormerod, Dr. 

W. e. Tavler. 
Dr. D. Bullen, Dr. W. Cooke Tayler. 
J. Fletcher. J. Heywood, Dr. Lavco'k. 
J. Fletcher, W. Cooke Tayler, LL.D. 
J. Fletcher, F. G. P. Neison, Dr. W. 

C. Tayler, Rev. T. L. Shapcott. 



XXXIV 



KEPOUT — 1870. 



Date and Place. 


Prosidcnts. 


Secretaries. 


1847. Oxford 

1848. Swansea ... 

1849. Birtninghani 


Travers Twiss, D.C.L., F.E.S. ... 

J. H. ViTian, M.P., F.R.S 

Rt. Hon. L/ord Lyttelton 


Rev. W. H. Cos, J. J. Danson, F. G. 
P. Neison. 

J. Fletcher, Capt. R. Shortrede 

Dr. Finch, Prof. Hancock, F. G-. P. 
Keison. 

Prof. Hancock, J. Fletcher, Dr. J. 
Stark. 

J. Fletcher, Prof HancocI'. 

Prof Hancock, Prof. Ingram, James 
MacAdam, Jun. 

Edward Cheshire, William Newmarch. 

E. Cheshire, J. T. Danson, Dr. W. H. 
Duncan, W. Neivmarch. 

J. A. Camjibell, E. Cheshire, \Y. New- 
march, Prof R. H. Walsh. 


1850. Edinburgh .. 

18.31. Ipswieli 

1852. Belfast 

1853. Hull 


Very Rev. Dr. John Lee, 

V.P.E.S.E. 

I'-'ir John P. Boileau, Bart 

His Grace the Archbishop oi' 

Dublin. 
.James Heywood, M.P., F.R.S. ... 


1854. Liverpool ... 

1855. Griasgow 


Thomas Tooke, F.R.S 

R. Monckton Milnes, M.P 



SECTION F (continued). ECOXOMIC SCIENCE AND ST.iTISTICS. 



1850. Cheltenham 



1857. 
1858. 
1859. 
18G0. 
1861. 

18G2. 
1863. 

1864. 

1865. 

1866. 

18G7. 

1868. 

1869. 

1870. 



Dublin 

Leeds 

Aberdeen ... 

Oxford 

Manchester 

Cambridge. . 
Newcastle . . . 

Bath 

Birmingham 

Nottingham 

Dundee 

Norwich ... 

Exeter 

Liverpool... 



Rt. Hon. Lord Stanley, M.P. ... Rev. C. H. Bromby, E. Cheshire, Dr 

W. N. Hancock Newmarch, W. M 
Tartt. 

His Gi-aco tlie Archbishop of Prof Cairns, Dr. H. D. Hutton, W. 



Dublin, M.R.I.A. 
Edward Baincs 



Col. Sykes, M.P., F.R.S. .. 
Nassau W. Senior, M.A. .. 
William Newmarch, F.R.S. 



Edwin Chadwick, C.B 

Wilham Tile, M.P., F.R.S 

William Farr. M.D., D.C.L.. 

F.R.S. 
Rt. Hon. Lord Stanley, LL.D.. 

M.P. 
Prof. J. E. T. Rogers.. 



M. E. Grant DufT, M.P 

Samuel Brown, Prcs. Instit. Ac- 
tuaries. 

Rt. Hon. Sir Stafford H. North- 
eote, Bart., C.B., M.P. 

Prof. W. Stanley Jevons, M.A. . . 



Newmarch. 
T. B. Baines, Prof Cairns, S. Brown, 

Capt. Fishbourne, Dr. J. Strang. 
Prof Cairns, Edmund Macrory, A. M. 

Smith, Dr. John Strang. 
Edmund Macrory, W. Newmarch, 

Rev. Prof J. E. T. Rogers. 
David Chadwick, Prof R. C. Christie, 

E. Macrory, Rev. Prof., J. E. T. 

Rogers. 
H. D. Maelcod, Edmund Macrory. 
T. Doubleday, Edmimd Macrory, 

Frederick Purdy, James Potts. 
E. Macrory, E. T." Payne, F. Purdy. 

G. J. D. Goodman, G. J. Jolmston, 

E. Macrory. 
R. Birkin, Jun., Prof Leone Levi, E. 

Macrory. 
Prof Leone Levi, E. Macrory, A. J. 

Warden. 
Rev. W. C. Davie, Prof. Leone Levi. 

Edmund Macrory, Frederick Purdy, 

Charles T. D. Acland. 
Chas. R. Dudley Baxter, E. Macrory, 

J. Miles Moss. 



MECHANICAL SCIENCE. 



SECTION G. MECHANICAL SCIENCE. 



1836. Bristol 

18.37. Liverpool ... 

1838. Newcastle ... 

1839. Birmingham 

1840. Glasgow ... 



Davies Gilbert, D.C.L., F.R.S.... 

Rev. Dr. Robinson 

Charles Babbage, F.R.S 

Prof WiUis, F;R.S., and Robert 

Stephenson. 
Sir John Robinson 



T. G. Bunt, G. T. Clai-k, W. West. 

Charles Vignoles, Thomas Webster. 

R. Hawthorn, C. Vignoles, T. Webster. 

W. Carpmael, William Hawkes, Tho- 
mas Webster. 

J. Scott Russell, J. Thomson, J. Tod, 
C. Vii^nolcs. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES 01' THE SECTIONS. 



XXXV 



Date and Place. 



1841. 
1842. 

1843. 
1844. 
1845. 
1846, 
1847. 
1848. 
1849. 
1850. 
1851. 
1852. 

1853. 

1854. 

1855. 

1856. 

1857. 

1858. 
1859. 

1860. 

1861. 

1862. 
1863. 

1864. 
1865. 

1866. 

1867. 

1868. 

1869. 
1870. 



Plymouth . . . 
Manchester . 

Cork 

York 

Cambridge .. 
Southampton 

Oxford 

Swansea 

Birmingham 
Edinburgh .. 

Ipswich 

Belfast 



Presidents. 



John Tavlor, F.E.S 

Rey. Prof. Willis, F.E.S 

Prof J. Macneill, M.R.I. A 

John Taylor, F.E.S 

George Eennie, F.E.S 

Rev. Prof Willis, M.A., F.R.S. . 
Rev. Prof Walker, M.A., F.E.S. 
Rev. Prof Walker, M.A., F.R.S. 
Robert Stephenson, M.P., F.R.S. 

Re r. Dr. Robinson 

William Cubitt, F.R.S 

John Walker.C.E., LL.D., F.R.S. 



Secretaries. 



Hull 

Liverpool ... 
Glasgow . . . 
Cheltenham 
Dublin 



Leeds 

Aberdeen ... 

Oxford 

Manchester . 

Cambridge .. 

Newcastle . . . 

Bath 

Birmingham 

Nottingham 

Dundee 

Norwich ... 

Exeter 

Liverpool ... 



William Fairbairn, C.E., F.R.S.. 

John Scott Russell, F.R.S 

W. J. Macquorn Rankine, C.E., 

F.R.S. 
George Rennic, F.R.S 

The Right Hon. The Earl of 
Rosse, F.R.S. 

WiUiam Fairbairn, F.E.S 

Eev. Prof Wilhs, M.A., F.E.S. . 

Pi'of. W. J. Macquorn Rankine, 

LL.D., F.E.S. 
J. F. Bateman, C.E., F.E.S 

William Fairbairn, LL.D., F.E.S. 
Rev. Prof. WillLs, M.A., F.R.S 

J. Hawkshaw, F.R.S 

Sir W. G. Armstrong, LL.D.. 

F.E.S. 
Thomas Hawksley, V.P.Inst 

C.E., F.G.S. 
Prof. W. J. Macquorn Eankine 

LL.D., F.E.S. 
G. P. Bidder, C.E., F.E.G.S. .. 

C. W. Siemens, F.E.S 

Chas. B. Vignoles, C.E., F.E.S. . 



Henry Chatfleld, Thomas Webster. 
J. F. Bateman, J. Scott Russell, J. 

Thomson, Charles Vignoles. 
James Thompson, Robert Mallet. 
Charles Vignoles, Thomas Webster. 
Rev. W. T. Kingsley. 
William Betts, Jun., Charles Manby. 
J. Glynn, R. A. Le ivTesurier. 
R. A. Le Mesurier, W. P. Struve. 
Charles Manby, W. P. Marshall. 
Dr. Lees, David Stephenson. 
John Head, Charles Manby. 
John F. Bateman, C. B. Hancock, 

Charles Manby, James Thompson. 
James Oldham, J. Thompson, W. Sykea 

Ward. 
John Grantham, J. Oldham, J. Thom- 
son. 
L. Hill, Jun., WiUiam Ramsay, J. 

Thomson. 
C. Atherton, B. Jones, Jun., H. M. 

Jeffery. 
Prof Downing, W. T. Doyuc, A. Tate, 

James Thomson, Henry Wright. 
J. C. Dennis, J. Dixon, H. Wright. 
R. Abernethv, P. Le Neve Foster, H. 

Wright. 
P. Le Neve Foster, Eev. P. Harrison, 

Henry Wright. 
P. Le Neve Foster, John Eobinson, H. 

Wright. 
W. M. Fawcett, P. Le Neve Foster. 
P. Le Neve Foster, P. Westmacott, J. 

P. Spencer. 
P. Le Neve Foster, Robert Pitt. 
P. Le Neve Foster, Henry Lea, W. P. 

Marshall, Walter May. 
P. Le Neve Foster, J. F. Iselin, M. 

A. Tarbottom. 
P. Le Neve Foster, John P. Smith, 

W. W. Urquhart. 
P. Le Neve Foster, J. F. Iselin, C. 

Manby, W. Smith. 
P. Le Neve Foster, H. Bauerman. 
H. Bauermgji, P. Le Neve Foster, T. 

King, J. N. Shoolbred. 



List of Evening Lectures. 



Date and Place. 



1842. Manchester 



1843. Cork , 



Lecturer. 



Subject of Discourse. 



Charles Vignoles, F.E.S. .. 

Sir M. L Brunei 

Sir R. I. Murchison, Bart, 
Prof Owen, M.D., F.R.S. 
Prof Forbes, F.E.S 

Dr. Robinson 



The Principles and Construction of 

Atmospheric Eailways. 
The Thames Tunnel. 
The Geology of Eussia. 
The Dinornis of New Zealand. 
The Distribution of Animal Life in 

the TEgean Sea. 
The Earl of Rosse's Telescope. 

c2 



XXXV 1 



REPORT 1870. 



Date and Place. 




Subject of Discourse. 



1844. York 

1845. Cambridge .. 

1846. Southampton 



1847. Oxford 



1818. Swansea ... 

1849. Birmingham 

1850. Edinburgh. 

1851. Ipswich 

1852. Belfast 



1853. Hull 



1854. Liverpool .. 

1855. Glasgow 

1856. Cheltenham 



1857. Dublin 

1858. Leeds 

1859. Aberdeen .. 



1860. Oxford 

1861. Manchester 
■1862. Cambridge 



Charles Lyell, RR.S 

Dr. Falconer, RR.S 

G. B. Airy, F.R.S., Astron.Royal 

R. I. Murchison, RR.S 

Prof. Owen, M.D., F.R.S 

Charles Lyell, F.R.S 

W. R. Grove, F.R.S 



Rev. Prof. B. Powell, F.R.S. ... 
Prof. M. Faraday, F.R.S 

Hugh E. Strickland, F.G.S. . . . 
John Percy, M.D., F.R.S 

W. Carpenter, M.D., F.R.S. ... 

Dr. Faraday, F.R.S 

Rev. Prof. WiUis, M.A.. F.R.S. 

Prof. J. H. Bennett, M.D. 
F.R.S.E. 



Dr. Mantell, F.R.S 

Prof. R. Owen, M.D., F.R.S. 

G. B. Airy, F.R.S., Astron. Roy, 
Prof. G.G. Stokes, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Colonel Portlock, R.E., F.R.S. 



Prof. J. Phillips, LL.D., F.R.S. 

F.G.S. 

Robert Hunt, F.R.S 

Prof. R. Owen, M.D., F.R.S. .. 
Col. E. Sabine, V.P.R.S 

Dr. W. B. Carpenter, F.R.S. .. 
Lieut.-Col. H. Rawlinson 



Col. Sir H. Rawlinson , 



W.R. Grove, F.R.S 

Prof. Tliomson, F.R.S 

Rev. Dr. LivinEfstone, D.C.L. .. 
Prof. J. PliiUips, LL.D., RR.S 
Prof. R. Owen, M.D., F.R.S. .., 

SirR.I.iMm-chison, D.C.L 

Rev. Dr. Robinson, F.R.S 

Rev. Prof. Walker, F.R.S 

Captain Sherard Osborn, R.N. 
Prof. W. A. Miller, M.A., F.R.S, 
G. B. Airy, P.R.S., Astron. Rov. . 
Prof. Tvndall, LL.D., F.R.S.'... 
Prof. Odling, F.R.S 



Geology of North America. 

The Gigantic Tortoise of the Siwalik 
Hills in India. 

Progress of Terrestrial Magnetism. 

Geology of Russia. 

Fossil Mammalia of the British Isles. 

Valley and Delta of the Mississippi. 

Properties of the Explosive substance 
discovered by Dr. Schonbein ; also 
some Researches of his own on the 
Decomposition of Water by Heat. 

Shooting-stars. 

Magnetic and Diamagnetic Pheno- 
mena. 

The Dodo {Didi(s incp/its). 

Metallurgical operations of Swansea 
and its neighbourhood. 

Recent Microscopical Discoveries. 

Mr. Gassiot's Battery. 

Transit of different Weights with 
varying velocities on Railways. 

Pas.-age of the Blood through the 
minute vessels of Animals in con- 
nexion with Nutrition. 

Extinct Birds of New Zealand. 

Distinction between Plants and Ani- 
mals, and their changes of Form. 

Total Solar Eclipse of July 28, 1851. 

Recent discoveries in the properties 
of Light. 

Recent discovery of Rock-salt at 
Carrickfergus, and geological cand 
practical considerations connected 
with it. 

Some peculiar phenomena in the Geo- 
logy and Physical Geography of 
Yorkshire. 

The pre.sent state of Photography. 

Anthropomorphous .-i-pes. 

Progress of researches in Terrestrial 
Magnetism. 

Characters of Species. 

Assyrian and Babylonian Antiquities 
and Ethnology. 

Recent discoveries in Assyria and 
Babylonia, with the results of Cunei- 
form research up to the present 
time. 

Correlation of Physical Forces. 

The Atlantic Telegraph. 

Recent discovei-ies in Africa. 

The Ironstones of Yorkshire. 

The Fossil Mammalia of Australia. 

Geology of the Northern Highlands. 

Electrical Discharges in highly rare- 
fied Media. 

Physical Constitution of the Sun. 

Arctic Discovery. 

Spectrum Analysis. 

Tlie late Eclipse of the Sun. 

The Forms and Action of Water. 

Organic Chemistry. 



LIST OF EVEXING LECTUEES. 



XXXVll 



Date and Place. 


Lecturer. 


Subject of Discourse. 


1863. Kewcastle- 


Prof. WilUamson, P.E.S 


The chemistry of the Galvanic Bat- 


on-Tyne. 




tery considered in relation to Dy- 
namics. 




James Glaisher, F.E.S 


The Balloon Ascents made for tlio 
British Association. 


1864. Bath 


Prof. Eoscoe, F.K.S 


The Chemical Action of Light. 




Dr. Livingstone, F.E.S 


Eecent Travels in Africa. 


1865. Birmingham 


J. Becte Jukes, F.E.S 


Probabilities as to the position and 
extent of the Coal-measures beneath 
the red rocks of the Midland Coun- 
ties. 

The results of Spectrum Analysis 


1866. Nottingham. 


William Huggins, F.E.S 






applied to Heavenly Bodies. 




Dr. J. D. Hooker, F.E.S 


Insular Floras. 


1867. Dundee 


Archibald Geikie, F.E.S 


The Geological origin of tlie pi-esent 
Scenery of Scotland. 




Alexander Herschel, F.E.A.S 


The present state of knowledge re- 
garding Meteors and Meteorites. 


1868. Norwich .... 


J. Fergusson, F.E. S 


Archaeology of tlie early Buddhist 
Monuments. 




Dr. W. Odling, F.E.S 


Eeverse Chemical Actions. 


1869. Exeter 


Prof. J. Phillips, LL.D., F.E.S. 


Vesuvius. 




J. Norman Lockyer, F.E.S 


The Physical Constitution of the 
Stars and Nebula;. 


1870. Liverpool ... 


Prof. J. Tyndall, LL.D., F.E.S. 


The Scientific U.se of the Imagination . 




Prof. W. J. Macquorn Eankine, 


Stream-lines and Waves, in connexion 




LL.D., F.E.S. 


witli Naval Architecture. 



1867. Dundee.. 

1868. Norwich 

1869. Exeter .. 



1870. Liverpool . 



Lectures to the Operative Classes. 



Prof. J. Tyndall. LL.D., F.E.S. 
Prof. Hiix'lev. LL.D., F.E.S. ... 
Prof. MiUer", M.D., F.E.S 



Sir John Lubbock, Bart , M.P. 
F.E.S. 



Matter and Force. 

A piece of Chalk. 

Experimental illustrations of the 
modes of detecting the Composi- 
tion of the Sun and other Heavenly 
Bodies by the Spectrum. 

Savages. 



XXXVIU 



REI'OKT 1870. 



Table slioivinq the Attendance and Receipts 



Date of Meeting. 


Whero held. 


Presidents. 




Old Life New Life 
Members. Members. 




1831, Sept. 27 ... 

1832, June 19 ... 

1833, June 25 ... 

1834, Sept. 8 ... 

1835, Aug. 10 ... 

1836, Aug. 22 ... 

1837, Sept. II ... 
1S38, Aug. 10 ... 

1839, Aug. 26 ... 

1840, Sept. 17 ... 

1 841, July 20 ... 

1842, June 23 ... 
1S43, Aug. 17 ... 

1844, Sept. 26 ... 

1845, June 19 ... 

1846, Sept. 10 ... 

1847, June 23 ... 

i848,Aug. 9 

1849, Sept. 12 ... 
1S50, July 21 ... 

1851, July 2 

1852, Sept. I ... 

1853, Sept. 3 ... 

1854, Sept. 20 ... 

1855, Sept. 12 ... 

1856, Aug. 6 

1857, Aug. 26 ... 

1858, Sept. 22 ... 

1S59, ^"^Pt- 14 ••■ 
i860, June 27 ... 
1861, Sept. 4 

1S62, Oct. I 

1863, Aug. 26 ... 
1S64, Sept. 13 ... 

1865, Sept. 6 ... 

1866, Aug. 22 ... 

1867, Sept. 4 ... 

1868, Aug. 19 ... 

1869, Aug. 18 ... 

1870, Sept. 14 ... 

1871, Aug. 2 


York 


The Earl PitzwiUiam, D.C.L. ... 
The Eev. W. Buckland, F.E.S. .. 
The Rev. A. Sedgwick, F.R.S.... 

Sir T. M. Brisbane, D.C.L 

The Rev. Provo.st Lloyd, LL.D. 

The Marquis of Lansdowne 

The Earl of Burlington, F.R.S. . 
The Duke of Northumberland... 
The Rev. W. Vernon Harcourt . 
The Marquis of Breadalbane . . . 
The Rev. VY. Whewell, F.R.S... . 

The Lord Francis Egerton 

The Earl of Rosse, F. R. S 

The Rev. G. Peacock, D.D 

Sir John F. W. Herschel, Bart. . 
Sir Roderick I. Murchison, Bart. 

Sir Robert H. Inglis, Bart 

Tlie Marquis of Nortliampton . . . 
The Rev. T. R. Robinson, D.D. . 

Sir David Brewster, K.H 

G. B. Airy, Esq., Astron. Royal . 
Lieut.-General Sabine, Pres.R.S. 
William Hopkins, Esq., F.R.S. . 
The Earl of Harrowby, F.R.S. .. 

The Duke of Argyll, F.R.S 

Prof. C. G. B.Daubenv, M.D.... 
The Rev. Humphrey Lloyd, D.D. 
Richard Owen, M.D., D'.C.L. ... 
H.R.H. The Prince Consort . . . 

The Lord Wrottesle v. M. A 

William Fairbairn, LL.D.,F.R.S. 
The Rev. Prof. WiUis, M.A. ... 
Sir William G. Armstrong, C.B. 
Sir Charles Lyell, Bart., M.A... . 
Prof J. Phillips, M.A.,LL.D.... 
WiUiam E. Grove, Q.C., F.R.S. 
The Duke of Buecleuch, K.C.B. 
Dr. Joseph D. Hooker, F.R.S. . 

Prof. G. G. Stok&s, D.C.L 

Prof. T. H. Huxley, LL.D 

Prof. Sir W. Thomson, LL.D.... 




65 
69 

28 

50 
36 
10 
18 

3 
12 

9 

8 

10 

13 
23 

33 
J4 
IS 

42 

27 
21 
13 
15 
36 
40 
44 
31 
25 
18 
21 
39 




Oxford 

Cambridge 


:: 

16 

22 


9 

3 1 
9 

r, I 




Edinburgh 

Dublin 

Bristol 

LiverjDool 

Newcastle-on-Tyne .. 
Birmint^liam 




Glasgow 

Plymouth 

Manchester 

Cork 

York 




Cambridge 


313 

241 

314 
149 

227 
23s 
172 
164 

J41 

238 

194 

182 

236 

222 

184 

2S6 

321 I 

239 

203 

287 

292 

207 

167 

196 

204 

314 




Southampton 

Oxford 




Swansea 




Birmingham 




Edinburgh 




Ipswich 


: 


Belfast 




HuU 




Liverpool 




Glasgow 




Cheltenham 




Dublin 

Leeds 

Aberdeen 

Oxford 

Manchester 

Cambridge 




Newcastle-on-Tyne .. 

Bath .' 

Birminsham 




Nottingham 




Dundee 




Norwich 

Exeter 

Liverpool 

Edinburgh 








1 





ATTENDANCE AND RECEIPTS AT ANNUAL MEETINGS. 



XXXIX 



at Annual 


Meetings of the Association. 










Attended by 






Amount 

received 

during the 

Meeting. 


Simis paid on 

Account of 

Grants for 

Scientific 

Purposes. 


Old Ne 
Annual Am 


lual 


Associates. 


Ladies. 


Foreigners. 


Total. 


Members. Mem 


jers. 
























£ .s. d. 


£ s. d. 










*.. 




353 

9C0 
1298 














































20 




















167 

434 14 ° 
918 14 6 


















1350 
1840 












•• 





















1100* 






2400 
1438 

1353 

891 

1315 




956 12 2 

1595 11 

1 546 16 4 

1235 10 II 

1449 17 8 

1565 10 2 

981 12 8 

830 9 9 

685 16 

208 5 4 

275 I s 














34 
40 


















46. 3 

75 3" 
71 il 

45 IS 
94 : 

65 : 

197 ^ 
54 : 


7 
'6 






60* 




33t 


331* 
160 


28 




!5 

.2 






9t 

407 

270 

495 
376 


260 








172 
196 
203 
197 


35 
36 

53 

15 


1079 

S57 
1260 




i9 

1-0 

-5 






929 


707 


93 : 


!3 


447 


237 


22 


1071 


963 


159 19 6 


128 I 


^^ 


510 


273 


44 


1241 


1085 ° ° 


345 18 


6i I 


^7 


244 


141 


37 


710 


620 


391 9 7 


63 f 


)0 


510 


292 


9 


1108 


iog5 


304 6 7 


56 


;7 


367 


236 


6 


876 


903 


205 


121 1: 


-I 


765 


524 


10 


1802 


1882 


33° 19 7 


142 IC 


31 


1094 


543 


26 


2133 


2311 


480 16 4 


104 / 


^8 


412 


346 


9 


1115 


109S 


734 13 9 


156 I; 


-O 


900 


569 


26 


2022 


2015 


507 15 3 


III c 


)I 


710 


509 


13 


1698 


1931 


618 18 2 


125 I^ 


79 


1206 


821 


22 


2564 


2782 


6S4 II I 


177 


59 


636 


463 


47 


1689 


1604 


1241 7 


1S4 1: 


-5 


1589 


791 


15 


3139 


3944 


I III 510 


1 50 


)7 


433 


242 


25 


1161 


ICS9 


1293 t6 6 


154 2t 


^9 


1704 


1004 


25 


3335 


3640 


1608 3 10 


182 IC 


33 


1119 


1053 


13 


2802 


2965 


1289 15 8 


215 1/ 


1-9 


766 


Sc8 


23 


1997 


2227 


1591 7 10 


218 I< 


=5 


960 


771 


II 


2303 


2469 


1750 13 4 


193 I 


18 


1163 


771 


7 


2444 


2613 


1739 4 


226 1 


■7 


720 


682 


t45 


2004 


2042 


1940 


229 I( 


37 


678 


600 


17 


1856 


1931 


1572 


303 I 


?5 


1103 


910 


14 


2878 


3096 


• 



* Ladies were not admitted by purchased Tickets until 1843. 

t Tickets for admission to Sections only. \ Including Ladies. 



xl 



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LIST OF OrriCERS. 

OFFICERS AND COUNCIL, 1870-71. 



xli 



TRUSTEES' (PERMANENT). 

Sir KoDEracK I. Muncmsox, Bart.K.C.B., G.C.St.S., D.C.L,, F.E.S. 
Gtn:-ral Sir EDWARD Sabine, K.C.B., K.A., D.C.L., Pres.E.S. 
Sir PuiLip DE M. Gr.EV Egekio.v, Bart, M.P., F.R.S. 

PRESIDENT. 
T. H. HUXLEY, LL.P., F.R.S., F.L.S., F.G.S., Professor of Natural History in the Royal School of 

Mines. 

VICE-PRESIDENTS, 

The Eight Hon. Loed Deeby, IX.D.. F.E.S. 1 §• E. Graves, Esq^, M.P. 



The Right Hon. W. E. Gi.Ai.tTOXK. D.C.L., Jf.P. 
Sir Philip De M. Grey Egeutox, Bart, M.P. 
Sir Joseph VVuiTWORTH,Bart.,LL.D.,D.C'.L.,F.E.S. 



James P. Joi le. Esq., LL.D., P.C.L., F.R.S. 
Joseph Mayek, Esq., F.S.A., F.R.G.S. 



PRESIDENT ELECT. 
SIB WILLIAM THOMSON, M.A., LL.D.. D.C.L., F.E.S.L. & E., 

the University of Glasgow. 



Profeasor of Katiiral Philoscihy in 



VICE-PRESIDENTS ELECT. 



His Grace The Duke of Buccleucu, K.G., D.C.L., 

P.E.S. 
The Eight Hon. The Lord Provost of Edinburgh. 
The Eight Hon. JoKX Ixglis, D.C.L., Ll.D., Lord 

Justice General of Scotland. 
S'r Alkxaxujje Graxt. Bart, M.A., Principal of 

the UuiTcrsity of Edinburgh. 



Sir EODERICK I. MrECHlsON, Bart, K.C.B., 

G.C.St.S., D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Sir Charles Lyell, Bart, D.C.1..P.R.S., F.G.S. 
Dr. Lyon Playfair, M.P., C.B., F.R.S. 
Professor Chrisiison, M.D., D.C.L, Pres. B.S.E. 



LOCAL SECRETARIES FOR THE MEETING AT EDINBURGH. 

Professor A. Cru.m Beowx, M.D., F.E.S.E. 
J. D. M.VRWICK, Esq., F.E.S.E. 

LOCAL TREASURER FOR THE MEETING AT EDINBURGH. 

David Smith, Esq., Trcas.R.S.E. 



ORDINARY MEMBERS 
Batemax, J. F., Esq., F.E.S. 
Beddoe, Johx, M.D. 
Busk, George, Esq., F.E.S. 
Debus, Dr. H., F.E.S. 
De La Rue, Waeeex, Esq., F.E.S. 
Evans, John, Esq., F.E.S. 
Galton, Copt. Douglas, C.B., E.E., F.E.S. 
Galton, Franci.s, Esq., F.R.S. 
Gassiot, J. p., Esq., D.C.L., F.R.S. 
GoDWiN-AusTEx, R. A. C, Esq., F.R.S. 
Houghton, Right Hon. Lord. D.C.L., F.R.S. 
HUGGINS, WlLLi.\M, Esq., F.R.S. 
LuuJiOCK, Sir John, Bart, M.P., F.E.S. 



OF THE COUNCIL. 

Nevmarch, William, Esq., F.R.S. 

NoETHCOTE,EtHon.SirST.\FroEDH.,Bt,M.P. 

Ramsay, Professor, F.R.S. 

Eankixe, Professor AV. J. M., LL.D., F.E.S. 

Sharpey', William, M.D., Sec. E.S. 

Simon, John, D.C.L., F.E.S. 

Strange, Lieut-Colonel A., F.E.S. 

Bykes, Colonel, M.P., F.R.S. 

TiTE, Sir W., M.P., F.R.S. 

Tyxdall, Professor, LL.D., F.R.S. 

Wallace, A. R., Esq , F.R.G.S. 

Wheatstone, Professor Sir C, F.R.S. 

Williamson, Professor A. W., F.R.S. 



EX-OFFICIO MEMBERS OF THE COUNCIL. 

The President and President Elect, the Vice-Presidents and Vice-Presidents Elect, the General and 
.\s3istant General Secretaries, the General Treasurer, the Trustees, and the Presidents of former 
years, riz. : — 



The Earl of Harrowby. 
The Duke of Argyll. 
The Rev. H. Lloyd, D.D. 



Rev. Professor Sedgwick. 

The Duke of Devonshire. 

Sir John F. W. Herschel, Bart 

Sir R. I. Murehison, Bart.,K.C.B. ! Richard Owen, M.D., D.C.L. 

The Rev. T. K. Eobinson, D.D. i Sir W. Fairbairn, Bart, LL.D. 

G.B.AirT,Esq.,AstronomerRoyal. The Rev. Professor Willis, F.R.S. 

General Sir E. Sabine, K.C.B. I Sir W. G. Armstrong, C.B., LL.D. 



Sir Chas. Lyell, Bart., M.A.,LL.D. 
Professor Phillips, M.A., D.C.L. 
William R. Grove, Esq., F.E.S. 
The Duke of Buccleuch, K.B. 
Dr. Joseph D. Hooker, D.C.L. 
Professor Stokes, D.C.L. 



GENERAL SECRETARIES. 

Dr. T. ARrHER HiEST,F.R.S.,F.E.A.S., The Athenaeum Club, Pall Mall, London, S.W. 
Dr. Thomas Thomson, F.E.S., F.L.S., The Athenteum Club, Pall Mall, London, S.W, 

ASSISTANT GENERAL SECRETARY. 
George Geiff ith, Esq., M.A., Harrow. 

•GENERAL TREASURER. 
William SPOlTis-n'OODE, Esq., M.A., F.E.S., F.R.G.S., 50 GroBvenor Place, London, S.W. 



G. Busk, Ecq., F.E.S. 



AUDITORS. 

FrofiSiror M. Foster, M.D., F.L.S. 



J. Gvtyn Jiffreys, Esq., F.E.S. 



xlii . REPOiiT — 1870. 

OPFICErwS OF SECTIOI^AL COMMITTEES PRESENT AT THE 
LIYEliPOOL MEETING. 

SECTION A. MATHE2HAJICS AND rHTSICS. 

President— J. Clerk Maxwell, M.A., F.R.S. L. and E. 

Vice-Presidents.— J. P. Gassiot, D.C.L., F..E.S. ; W. R. Grove, M.A., F.R.S. ; 

Professor Stokes, D.C.L., F.R.S. ; Professor Tyndall, LL.D., F.R.S. ; Sir Charles 

Wheatstone, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Sccretaries.—TToiessor W. G. Adams, M.A. ; AV. K. Clifford, M.A. ; Professor G. 

C. Foster, M.A., F.R.S. ; Rev. W. Allen WMtworth, M.A. 

SECTION B. CHEMISTET AND MINERALOGT, INCLUDING THEIR APPLICATIONS TO 

ASPaCULTURE AND THE ARTS. 

P/Wffew!!.— Professor Henry E. Roscoe, B.A., Ph.D., F.R.S.. F.C.S. 
Vice-Presidents.— J. Lowthian Bell, F.C.S. : J. II. Gilbert, F.R.S. ; W. Gossage; 

E. Schimck, F.R.S. ; Professor Williamson, F.R.S. ; J. Yoimg-, F.R.S.E., F.C.S.; 

R. Angus Smith, F.R.S. 
Secretaries.— Tvoiessor A. Cram Brown, M.D., F.R.S.E., F.C.S. : A. E. Fletcher, 

F.C.S.; Dr. W. J. Russell, F.C.S. 

SECTION C. GEOLOGY. 

President.— Sh- Philip de Malpas Grev-Egerton, Bart., M.P., F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Vice-Presidents.— J. Bryce, M.A., LL.D., F.G.R. ; Professor Ilarkness, F.R.S. L. 

and E., F.G.S. ; Sir "Charles Lyell, Bart., LL.D., F.R.S., F.G.S. ; Professor 

Phillip.s, M.A., LL.D., D.C.L., F.R.S., F.G.S. ; J. Prestwich, F.R.S., Pres. G.S.; 

W. W. Smvth, M.A., F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Secretaries.— \V. Peugelly, F.R.S., F.G.S.; Rev. H. II. Winwood, M.A., F.G.S.; 

W. Boyd Dawkins, M.A., F.R.S., F.G.S. ; G. II. Morton, F.G.S. 

SECTION D. BIOLOGT. 

Presidmt.—VioiessoT G. RoUeston, M.A., M.D., F.R.S., F.L.S. 

F?'ce-P;-es/f7c;(fe.— Professor Balfom-, M.D., F.R.S.; John Beddoe, M.D. ; G. Ben- 
tham, F.R.S., Pres. L.S. ; G. Busk, F.R.S., F.L.S., F.G.S. ; .John Ev.ans, F.R.S., 
F.G.S., F.S.A. ; Professor M. Foster, M.D., F.L.S. ; Dr. Hooker, F.R.S., F.L.S. ; 
Professor Humphry, M.D., F.R.S. ; Sir John Lubbock, Bart., M.P., F.R.S. 

Sccretaries.—Tli: T. S. Cobbold, F.R.S., F.L.S. ; Sebastian Evans, M.A., LL.D. ; 
Professor Lawson, F.L.S. ; Thomas .1. Moore, Corr.M.Z.S. ; II. T. Stainton, 
F.R.S., F.L.S., F.G.S. ; Rev. H. B. Tristram, M.A., LL.D., F.R.S. ; C. Stani- 
land Wake, F.A.S.L. ; E. Ray Lankester. 

SECTION E. GEOGRAPHY AND ETHNOLOGY. 

President.— Sh' Roderick I. Murchison, Bart., K.C.B., D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S., 

F.G.S. 
Viee-Prcndents.—Siv Henry Barkly, K.C.B. ; Admiral Sir E. Belcher, K.C.B., 

F.R.G.S. ; Francis Gallon, F.R.S. ; Rear-Admiral Sir John D. Hay, Bart., M.P. ; 

Lord Milton, M.P. ; Sir Henry Rawlinson, Bart., K.C.B., D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S. 
Sccrefaries.—ll. W. Bates, Assist. Sec. R.G.S ; David Buxton, Ph.D., F.R.S.L. ; 

Albert J. Mott; Clements R. Markham, F.R.G.S. 

SECTION F. ^ECONOJIIO SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 

President. — Professor W. Stanley Jevons, M.A. 

Vice-Presidents.— The Earl of Derby, F.R.S. ; William Farr, M.D., D.C.L. F.R.S. ; 
Principal Greenwood ; James Heywood, M.A., F.R.S ; Lord Houghton, D.C.L., 
F.R.S. ; Sir Stafford H. Northcote, Bart., C.B., M.P. ; Professor Bonamy Price, 
M.A. ; Sir J. Kay Shuttleworth, Bart. ; Professor Waley. 

Secretaries. — R. Dudley Baxter, M.A. ; Edmund Macrory, M.A. ; John Miles Moss, 
. M.A. 



REPORT or THE COUNCIL. xliu 

SECTION G. MECHANICAL SCIENCE. 

Presideta.—Chs.vleB B. Vifynoles, President I.C.E., F.R.S., M.Rl.A., F.R.A.S. 

Vice-Presidents.— Sir W. CI. Armstrong, O.B. ; Admiral Sir E. Belcher, Iv.C.B., 
F.R.G.S. ; Sir William Fairbairn, Bart., LL.D., F.R.S. ; Thomas Ilawksley, 
V.P.I.C.E. ; Professor W. J. Macquom Eankine, O.E., LL.D., F.R.S. ; 0. W. 

Siemens, D.C.L., F.R.S. ,. ^ ,r a t m t- r^ -n 

Secretaries.— R. Banerman, F.G.S. ; P. Le Neve Foster, M.A. ; J. 1. King, C.E. ; 
Jas. N. Shoolbred, C.E. 

Report of the Council for the Year 1869-70, presented to the General 
Committee at Liverpool, on Wednesday, September lAth, 1870. 

The Couucil have received the visual reports from the General Treasurer 
and'from the Kew Committee. Their reports for the past year will he laid 
before the General Committee this daj'. 

The Council have to report upon the action they have taken relative to 
each of the four resolutions referred to them by the General Committee at 
Exeter. 

The first of these resolutions -svas — 

" That the Council be requested to take into their consideration the ex- 
isting relations between the Kew Committee and the British Association." 

The Council accordingly appointed a Committee of their own body to ex- 
amine into these relations. This Committee had before them a special report 
drawn up by the Kew Committee, and, after due deliberation, they recom- 
mended T. V T- 

" That the existing relations between the Kew Observatory and the British 
Association be continued unaltered until the completion, in 1872, of the mag- 
netic and solar decennial period ; but that after that date ail connexion be- 
tween them shall cease." 

The Council adopted this recommendation, and now ofi"cr it, as their own, 
to the General Committee. 

The second resolution referred to the Council was as follows : — 
" That the full iuiiueuce of the British Association for the Advancement of 
Science should at once be exerted to obtain the appointment of a Eoyal Com- 
mission to consider — 

First. The character and value of existing institutions and facilities for 
scientific investigation, and the amount of time and money devoted 
to such purposes ; 
Secondly. What modifications or augmentations of the means and faci- 
lities that are at present available for the maintenance and exten- 
sion of science are requisite ; and, 
Thirdly. In what manner these can be best supplied." 

By a third resolution the Council was " requested to ascertain whether the 
action of Government in relation to the higher scientific education has been in 
accordance with the principles of impartiality which were understood to guide 
them in this matter ; and to consider whether that action has been well cal- 
culated to utilize and develope the resources of the country for this end, and 
to favour the free development of the higher scientific education. That the 
Council be requested to take such measures as may appear to them best cal- 
culated to carry out the conclusions to which they may be led by these 
inquiries and deliberations." 

The Committee of the Council appointed to consider these two resolutions 



Xliv REPORT — 1870. 

reported their opinion to be favourable to the appointment of a Boyal Com- 
mission to inqnire into the relations of the State to scientific instrnction and 
investigation ; and they added that no such inquiry would, in their opinion, 
be complete which did not extend itself to the action of the State in relation 
to scientific education, and the cifcct of that action upon independent edu- 
cational institutions. 

Your President and Coimcil, acting on the advice of this Committee, con- 
stituted themselves a Deputation and waited upon the Lord President of the 
Council. They are glad to be able to report that their efforts to bring this 
important subject before Her Majesty's Government have been attended with 
success. On the 18th of May, Her lilajesty issued a Commission " to make 
inquiry with regard to Scientific Instruction and the Advancement of Science, 
and to inquire Avhat aid thereto is derived from grants voted by Parliament 
or from endowments belonging to the several universities in Great Britain 
and Ireland and the colleges thereof, and whether such aid could be rendered 
in a manner more cifectual for the purpose." The Commissioners ai)pointed 
by Her Majesty are the Duke of Devonshire, the Marquis of Lansdowne, Sir 
John Lubbock, Bart., Sir James Phillips Kay Shuttleworth, Bart., Bernard 
Samuelson, Esq., M.P., Dr. Sliarpey, Professor Huxley, Dr. W. A. MiUer, 
and Professor Stokes. J. Norman Lockyer, Esq., F.P.S., has been appointed 
Secretary to the Commissioners, who, up to last July, were engaged taking 
evidence with great assiduity, and have now adjourned their meetings until 
November. There is every reason to hope that valuable results will follow 
from their deliberations. 

The fourth resolution which the General Committee referred to the Council 
was — 

" That the rules under which Members arc admitted to the General Com- 
mittee be reconsidered." 

A Committee of the Council devoted considerable care to a revision of the 
existing rules. The modified rules approved by the Council are now submitted 
for adoption to the present General Committee, whose constitution is, of 
course, not aftcctcd thereby. The most important of the proposed changes 
are that henceforth new claims to membership of the General Committee shall 
be forwarded to the Assistant General Secretary at least one month before 
the next ensuing Annual Meeting of the Association ; that these claims shall 
be submitted to the Council, whose decision i:pon them is to be final ; and 
that henceforth it is not the authorship of a paper in the Transactions of a 
scientific society which is alone to constitute a claim to membership of the 
General Committee, but the publication of any works or papers which have 
furthered the advancement of any of the subjects taken into consideration at 
the Sectional meetings of the Society. 

Your Council has, also, had under its consideration the desirability of re- 
moving certain administrative inconveniences which arise from the circum- 
stance that the next place of meeting is never decided upon by the General 
Committee until near the close of the actual meeting. They are of opinion 
that the arrangements of the General Ofiiccrs would be greatly facilitated, 
and at the same time the convenience of those who invite the Association con- 
sulted, if the General Committee were to decide upon each place of meeting 
a year earlier than they do at present. In order to make the transition 
from the existing practice to the proposed one, your Council recommend that 
two of the invitations which will be received at the present Meeting be ac- 
cepted, one for 1871, and another for 1872. 

It has often been urged that the Association labours under disadvantages 



REPORT OF THE KEW COMMITTEE. xlv 

in consequence of its not possessing central offices in London, where its 
Council and numerous committees could hold their meetings, where the books 
and memoirs which have been accumulating for years could be rendered 
accessible to Members, and where information concerning the Association's 
proceedings could be promptly obtained during the interval between annual 
meetings. The Council have had the subject under consideration, and in the 
event of the establishment at Kew being discontinued, they arc prepared to 
recommend that suitable rooms, in a central situation, should be procured. 
The additional annual expenditure which this would involve would probably 
not exceed .£150. 

The Council having been informed by the Local Officers of their desire to 
have ilr. Reginald Harrison appointed as an additional Local Secretary, to 
assist in making arrangements for the present Meeting, have nominated that 
gentleman to the office. 

Mr. Arnold Baruchson and Mr. "Wm. Crosflcld, Jun., have also been nomi- 
nated Local Treasurers, vice Mr. Duckworth resigned. 

The Council have added the names of Professor H. A. Newton and Pro- 
fessor C. S. Lyman, who were present at the Exeter Meeting, to the Hst of 
Corresponding Members. 



Report of the Kew Committee of the British Association for the 
Advancement of Science for 1869-70. 

The Committee of the Kew Observatory submit to the Council of the British 
Association the following statement of their proceedings dm-ing the past 
year : — 

At the Meeting of the General Committee at Exeter it was resolved that 
the existing relations between the Kew Committee and the British Associa- 
tion be referred to the Council to report thereon. 

In consequence of this resolution, the Kew Committee on the 23rd No- 
vember, 1S69, prepared for the infox-mation of the Council a statement on 
the past and present condition of the Observatory, which was presented to 
the Council on the 11th December. 

In this statement it was shown that while the establishment at Kew Ob- 
servatory received its main support from the British Association, and was 
under the control of that body, yet much of the apparatus in use at Kew was 
furnished from other sources. Thus the Eoyal Society had from the Go- 
vernment-Grant Fund sujiplied the establishment with the apparatus for 
testing Barometers, with that for testing Sextants, with the dividing-machine 
for constructing Standard Thermometers, and also with the set of Self- 
recording Magnetographs at present in use, while from the Donation Fund 
they had furnished the Photoheliograph and the Whitworth lathe and plan- 
ing-machine. - 

The Roj-al Society had likewise defrayed from the Donation Fund the 
expense of introducing gas into the Observatory, and of building a house for 
the verification of magnetic instruments, besides whicli they had borne from 
the Government-Grant Fund since 18-63 the whole expense of working the 
Photoheliograph (including the purchase of a Chronometer) and of reducing 
its results. 

The instruments used at Kew for determining tlie absolute magnetic 
elements are the property of Her Majesty's Government, and have been lent 



xlvi KEPORT 1870. 

to the Kew Observatory by the Magnetic Office at Woolwicli, under tbe di- 
rection of Sir E. Sabine, and many of those magnetic instruments with which 
Kew has been the means of furnishing scientific travellers have been derived 
from the same source. 

Of late Kew has become the Central Observatoiy of the Meteorological Com- 
mittee, and a commodious workshop has been erected near the Observatory 
by that Committee, since otherwise the main buUding would have been too 
small for the access of work consequent upon the arrangement entered into. 

The statement prepared hj the Kew Committee contained likewise a sum- 
maiy of the scientiiic work done at the Observatory, as well as some 
interesting liistorical remarks connected with the origin of the establish- 
ment, drawn np by Sir C. Wheatstone, and in this shape it was submitted 
to the Council of the British Association. 

The Council decided to recommend " that the present relations between 
the Kew Observatory and the British Association be continued unaltered until 
the completion, in 1872, of the magnetical and solar decennial period ; that 
after that date all connexion between them shovdd cease." 

In consequence of this recommendation, the Kew Committee were led to 
contemplate the dissolution of the Kew establishment in 1872, and they 
became anxious to make such arrangements as might enable them to complete 
their scientific labours in a creditable manner before the time of the antici- 
pated dissolution. The magnetic work in particular caused them anxiety ; 
for the annual income of the establishment is insufficient to permit of that 
work being fully completed by the time of the Annual Meeting of the Asso- 
ciation in 1872. Under these circumstances the Chairman offered to sup- 
plement the deficiency (see Appendix, p. Ivi). It will be seen by this Eeport 
that the magnetical tabulations and reductions are now proceeding very fast. 

The recommendation of the Council was also a matter of anxiety to the 
Superintendent, Mr. Stewart ; and as the Professorship of Natural Philosophy 
at Owens College, Manchester, became vacant about this time, he applied 
for the appointment and was successful in obtaining it. 

This will render it necessary for Mr. Stewart to reside in Manchester, but 
the staff at the Observatory are such that Mr. Stewart will undertake by 
their aid to assist the Committee in the superintendence of the work of the 
Observatory until IS 



o 



(A) Work doxe ur Kew Observatory trxDun inn directioi; of tee 
British Association. 

1. Magnetic Worl: — In the present state of magnetical science it would 
appear to be desirable to preserve as completely as possible the details of 
observations ,so that future theorists may have a large and valuable source of 
information by which to test tlieir speculations. 

The Committee are therefore desirous that by the autumn of 1872 a 
manuscript record should be completed, containing aU the hourly tabulated 
values from the Kew Magnetographs arranged in monthly tables. 

This record should be carefully preserved, along with the original photo- 
graphic traces, in the Archives of the Association. 

Pursuing the method indicated by Sir E. Sabine, and adopting the sepa- 
rating values finally determined by him, the Committee further propose to 
obtain monthly results indicating the following points for each of the three 
magnetic elements, distributed according to the hour of the day ; — • 



REPORT OF THE KEW COMMITTEE. xlvil 

1. Aggregate of clistui'bancc tending to increase the numerical values. 

2. Aggregate of disturbance tending to decrease the same. 

3. Solar-diurnal range of the undisturbed observations. 

They suggest that the monthly results embodying these facts should be 
published in detail. 

Finally, they propose to continue the discussion of tlie Lunar-Diurnal 
variations commenced by Sir E. Sabine, and carried on by him up to the end of 
the year 1864. In order to work this scheme with sufficient rapidity to com- 
plete it before the autumn of 1872, additional assistance has been procured, the 
expense of which has been defrayed by the Chairman. Mr. "Whipple, Mag- 
netical Assistant, has displayed much zeal and ability in organizing the work 
and in superintending its immediate execution. 

Already the hourly numerical values of the three magnetic elements have 
been obtained and tabulated in monthly forms from the commencement of 
the series in 1858 to the present date ; and considerable progress has also been 
made in the next step of the reduction. 

A Unifilar, formerly em^jloyed by Captain Haig, and of which the constants 
have been determined at the Observatory, has been lent to Lieut. Elagin, of 
the Russian Navy, for use in the Japanese seas and elsewhere. 

A Dip-circle by Dover has been verified and sent to Prof. JeHnek, of 
Vienna, and another, by the same maker, has been verified for Dr. A. B. 
i[eyer, for use in the East Indies. This gentleman has likewise received 
magnetic instruction at the Observatory. 

A Dip-circle by Adie, furnished with a deflecting cylinder aj^paratus, has 
been verified and dispatched to Prof. Bolzani, of the University of Kasan. 

Three Dipping-needles have likewise been constructed for Dr. Bergsma, of 
Batavia, and one for Mr. Chambers, of the Colaba Observatory, Bombay. 

A Deflection-bar has been procured and verified for the Eussian Central 
Observatory. A Dechnometer has been sent to the Lisbon Observatory, and 
a Fox's Circle has been lent to Dr. Keumayer, after having been repaired by 
Adie. 

The instrument de\-ised by Mr. Broxm for the purpose of estimating the 
magnetic dip by means of soft iron, and constructed at the expense of the 
British Association in pursuance of a resolution of that Body passed at the 
Oxford Meeting, has been forwarded to that gentleman at his request. 

The usual monthly absolute determinations of the magnetic elements con- 
tinue to be made by Mr. Whipple, Magnetic Assistant. 

A paper erabodying the results of the absolute observations of Dip and 
Horizontal Force, made at Kew from April 1863 to April 1869, has been 
communicated by the Superintendent to the Eoyal Society, and published in 
the ' Proceedings ' of that body. The results obtained evidence the accuracy 
with which the monthly observations have been made bj- Mr. Whipple. 

The Self-recording Maguetographs are in constant operation as heretofore, 
also under his charge ; and the photographic department connected with these 
instruments remains under the charge of Mr. Page. 

2. Meteorohgical worJc. — The meteorological work of the Observatory 
continues in the charge of Mr. Baker. 

Since the Exeter Meeting, 150 Barometers have been verified, and 30 have 
been rejected ; 11 60 Thermometers and 103 Hydrometers have likewise been 
verified. Nineteen Standard Thermometers have been constructed for Prof. 
Tait, and two for the Meteorological Ofiice. 

The self-recording meteorological instruments now in work at Kew will 



xlviii REPORT — 1870. 

be again mentioned in the second division of this Report. These arc in the 
charge of Mr. Baker, the photography being superintended by Mr. Page. 

3. Photoheliogvajih. — The Kew Heliograph, in charge of Mr. Warren De La 
Rue, continues to be worked in a satisfactory manner. During the past year 
351 pictures have been taken on 237 days. 

It was considered desirable that sis prints should be obtained from each 
of the negatives of the sun-pictures taken at the Observatory during the 
whole time that the Photoheliograph should remain at work, Avhich will pro- 
bably be from February 1862 to February 1872. 

In order to accomplish this, an outlay of ^120 spread over two years was 
found to be necessary, and this sum has been voted from the Donation Fund 
of the lioyal Society. 

A large number of these prints has already been obtained, and it is pro- 
posed to present complete sets to the following institutions : — 

The Royal Astronomical Society, 

The Imperial Academy of Paris, 

The Imperial Academy of St. Petersburg, 

The Royal Society of Berlin, 

The Smithsonian Institution, United States, 

leaving one set for the Royal Society. 

A paper embodying the positions and areas of the sun-groups observed at 
Kew during the years 1864, 1S65, and 1866, as well as fortnightly values 
of the spotted solar area from 1832 to 18G8, has been communicated to the 
Royal Society by Messrs. Warren De La Rue, Stewart, and Locwy. 

This paper is in the course of publication in the Philosophical Trans- 
actions, aud wUl shortly be distributed. 

A Table exhibiting the number of sun-spots recorded at Kew during tho 
year 1869, after the manner of Hofrath Schwabe, has been communicated to 
the Astronomical Society, and published in their Monthly IS'oticcs. 

M. Otto Struve, Director of the Imperial Observator}- at Pulkowa, visited 
England in the month of August last. He brought with him, for the Kew 
Observatory, some sun-pictures made at Wilna with the photoheliograph, 
which, it will be recollected, was made some years ago, under the direction 
of Mr. De La Rue, by Mr. Dallmcyer. This instrument combines several 
important iuaprovemeuts on the original Kew model, the value of which i.s 
forcibly brought out in the superior definition of the Wilna sun-pictures. As, 
however, the series of the ten-yearly record at Kew was commenced with 
the instrument as originally constructed, it was not deemed desirable to alter 
it in any way initil the series had been completed and reduced, and the 
corrections for optical distortion ascertained and applied. In the event of 
the sun-work being continued after 1872, it wiU be desirable to do so with 
a new and improved heliograi)h. 

M. 0. Struve proposed to exchange tlie complete series of pictures obtained 
at Wilna for that made at Kew. He also stated that it is contemplated to 
erect a second heliograph at the Central Observatory at Pulkowa. 

4. Miscellaneous Worlc. — A few experiments have been made on the ro- 
tation of a disk in vacuo. By an arrangement devised by Mr. Beckley, a 
very perfect carbonic-acid vacuum has been obtained, the residual pressure 
being 0-02 inch as indicated by a mercurial gauge with a contracted tube, but 
it was believed that the vacuum was even more perfect. 

A disk of paper and one of ebonite gave very sensible heat effects in such 
a vacuum, and it was hoped that the experiments might have been satisfac- 



REPORT OF THE KEW COMMITTEE. 



xlix 



torily completed ; but while they ■were iu progress the pressure of the outer 
atmosphere shattered the receiver into a number of pieces, fortunately without 
any injury to the experimenters. 

Another receiver has now been made, and it is purposed in future to use 
it with a cover. 

A Transit instrument has been lent to Mr. G. J. Symons, and one Sextant 
has been verified. 

(B) "WoEK DONE AT KeW AS THE CENTRAL OBSERVATORY OF THE 

Meteorological Committee. 

It is stated in the Eeport for 1867 that the Meteorological Committee had 
appointed Mr. Balfour Stewart as their Secretary, on the understanding that 
he should, with the concurrence of the Kew Committee, retain his office of 
Superintendent of the Kew Observator}^ 

On the 8th October, 1869, Mr. Stewart resigned his appointment as Secre- 
tary to the Meteorological Committee and Director of their Central Obser- 
vatory — a step which took effect on 31st of March, 1870, and which was 
followed by a modification of the relation between the two Committees. 

The Meteorological Committee, at their Meeting on 12th November, 1869, 
resolved that they were prepared to make the following proposals to the 
Council of the British Association : — 

I. That Kew be continued as one of the ordinary self-recording observa- 
tories, in which case the Committee would bo prepared to allot to it annu- 
ally £250 ; or, 

II. In addition to the foregoing work, that Kew be maintained as the 
central observatory for examination of records and tabulations from all the 
other observatories, in which case the Committee will be prepared to allot a 
further annual sum of £400. 

The Kew Committee having been furnished with this resolution of the 
Meteorological Committee, resolved that it bo recommended to the Council 
of the British Association that Kew be continued for the next two years as 
one of the ordinary self-recording observatories of the Meteorological Com- 
mittee, that body allowing it annually £250 ; and that, in addition, it bo 
maintained as the central observatory for the examination of the records and 
tabulations from all the other observatories, for the further sum of .£400 per 
annum. This arrangement was approved by the Council ; and it was there- 
upon resolved by the Kew Committee, that out of the £650 received from the 
Meteorological Committee, £200 be given to Mr. Stewart for superintending 
the meteorological work of the Observatory, this resolution to take efi'ect after 
31st March, 1870. 

1. Work clone at Kew as one of tJie Observatories of the Meteorological Com- 
mittee. — The Barograph, Thermograph, and Anemograph furnished by the 
Meteorological Committee are kept in constant operation. Mr. Baker is in 
charge of these instruments. From the first two instruments traces in du- 
plicate are obtained, one set being sent to the Meteorological Office and one 
retained at Kew ; as regards the Anemograph, the original records are sent, 
while a copy by hand of these on tracing-paper is retained. The tabulations 
from the curves of the Kew instrument are made by Messrs. Baker, Page, 
and Foster. 

2. Verification of Records. — The system of Checks devised by the Kew 
Committee for testing the acciiracy of the observations made at the different 
Observatories continues to be followed, the only alteration being that the Kew 

1870. d 



1 REPORT — 1870. 

Staff, at the suggestion of the Meteorological Office, have undertaken to rule 
on the Barograms and Thermograms a set of zero lines, which are of great 
use in Pantagraphic operations. 

Mr. lligby continues to perform the main part of this -work ; Mr. Baker, 
Meteorological Assistant, having the general superintendence of the de- 
partment. 

3. Occasional Assistance. — The Meteorological Committee have availed 
themselves of the permission to have the occasional services of Mr. Beckley, 
Mechanical Assistant at Kew ; and ho has lately been visiting the various 
observatories of the Meteorological Committee. 

The Self-recording Eaiu-gauge mentioned in last Eeport as having been 
devised by Mr. Beckley has been adopted by the Meteorological Committee, 
and instruments of this kind are at present being constructed for their various 
Observatories. 

The Staff at Kew continue to make occasional absolute hygrometrical ob- 
servations by means of Eegnault's instrument, "with the view of testing the 
accuracy of the method of deducing the dew-point from the observations with 
the dry- and wet-bulb thermometers. 

Two erections have been made in the grounds adjoining the Observatory ; 
and on one of these a large Robinson's Anemometer is placed, while a small 
instrument of the same kind is placed on the other. 

By this means the indications of the large and those of the small-sized 
instrument may be compared with each other. The cost of this experi- 
ment has been defrayed by the Meteorological Committee. 

J. P. GASSIOT, 
Kcw ObseiTatoi-y, Chairman, 

yth September, 1870. 



Appendix to Keio Report of 9th September, 1870. 

At the Meeting of the Kcw Committee held at Burlington House on 2nd March 
1870, it was Resolved that the remarks by Sir E. Sabine and Mr. Stewart 
be printed, along with extracts from the Eeport for 1866-G7, and from 
the Minutes of June 18, 1869 ; and that copies be forwarded to the 
several Members of the Committee, with a statement by Mr. Stewart 
as to the manner in which he proposes to complete the reductions, so as 
to carry out the Resolutions of the Committee. 



No. 1. 

Memorandum by General Sir E. Sabino regarding the Investigations for 
v/hich the loan of the Kew Photograms from 1857 to 1862 was re- 
quested. 

March 1, 1870. 
The photograms here referred to were duly received at Woolwich, and duly 
returned to Kcw ; Mr, Gassiot has a paper stating the dates at which the 
several photograms were returned to Kew. 

The investigations for which these documents were temporarily borrowed 
formed the substance of a paper presented to the Royal Society in June 1863, 
and printed in the Philosophical Transactions of that year (Art. XII.). The 



REPORT OP THE KEW COMMITTEE. H 

1st Section contained a Tabular Synopsis of ninety-five of the principal dis- 
turbances of the Declination recorded by the Kew photograms from January 
1858 to December 1862, with a comparison of the Laws of the Distui-bances 
derived therefrom with the Laws derived by the more usual method then 
practised. The tabular summary at the close of Section 1 shows the result- 
ing aggregate values both of Easterly and of "Westerly disturbance at each 
of the 24 hours (or at 24 equidistant epochs) in each of the five years, as 
well as in the whole period. It is strictly a tabular detail for the period in 
question, showing the Disturhance-cliurnal Variation as it would result if the 
investigation were limited to the 95 most disturbed days, and may be con- 
sidered to represent the mode of investigation then practised by some mag- 
neticians. 

The 2nd Section of the paper compared the Laws of the Disturbances thus 
obtained with the Laws derived from a wider selection of disturbed obser- 
vations ; i. e. a selection including eveiy anomalous record of which the ano- 
malous character cannot with probability be ascribed to any other source than 
that of the disturbing action whose laws are sought. This Section is also 
accompanied by a tabular statement in full detail ; and from an examination 
of the contents of the 1st and 2nd Sections the following conclusions arc 
drawn : — 

1. That the disturbances have systematic laws : 

2. That both easterly and westerly deflections have eacli their own 
systematic laws, distinct and different each from the other : 

3. That the laws are approximately the same, whether derived from the 
more limited or the more extended selection, though the latter com- 
prises three times as many cases of disturbance as the former. 

Hence it is inferred that, by taking into account only the most notable 
days of disturbance (as was then the practice of some magneticians), an 
approximately correct view of the disturbance-diiu-nal variation may be ob- 
tained ; but, if we desire to eliminate the influence of the distiu'bances on 
the diurnal variation due to other causes, the more comprehensive method 
must be adopted. 

A selection of this latter character was then made for the five years 1858 
to 1862, and the results exhibited, both in tabular and graphical represen- 
tations ; and the laws derived therefrom were compared with corresponding 
investigations in other parts of the globe. 

In the 4th Section of the paper is discussed the " Diurnal Inequality," 
comprehending 1°, the disturbance-diurnal variation, and 2°, the undisturbed 
solar-diurnal variation. This discussion may be regarded as exhibiting what 
should be ih.Q primary step in the analysis of the periodical variations. 

The solar-diurnal variation derived from the record of the five years at 
Eew, 1858 to 1862, is then compared with solar-diurnal variations similarly 
obtained at Toronto, Nertschinsk, Pekin, St. Helena, the Cape of Good 
Hope, and Hobartou ; and the several points of agreement or difference are 
discussed. 

In the same 4th Section, the semiannual inequality which is seen to exist 
at all the stations enumerated above is discussed, and is shown to manifest 
a solar influence, evidenced by the diiferences exhibited in different parts of 
the globe. 

In Section G the Lunar-diurnal Variation derived in each of the five years 
at Kew is deduced and discussed. 

In Section 7 the Secular Change and Annual Variation of the Declination 

d2 



Hi REPORT — 1870. 

are disciisscd, and a semiannmil variation is shown to exist having epochs 
coincident (or nearly so) with the equinoxes — a conclusion which is shown 
to be in accordance with similar investigations at Hobarton, 8t. Helena, and 
the Cape of Good Hope. 

The 8th Section establishes the existence of an " annual variation " or " se- 
miannual ineqiiality" of the Inclination and of the horizontal and total Forces, 
derived from the observations made at Kew in 1858 to 1862, with instiii- 
ments which had been supplied by the Magnetic Office at Woolwich, and 
employed by Mr. Chambers at Kew. The calculation of the Kew results 
made at the Woolwich Office was shown to be in accordance with the pheno- 
mena at Hobarton, St. Helena, and the Cape of Good Hope. 

A subsequent paper, communicated bj" mo to the Royal Society in 1866, 
contained the Lunar-diurnal Variation of the three magnetic elements derived 
from the Kew photograms from January 1858 to December 1864, being an 
extension of two years upon the records discussed in the former paper, and 
limited only by the epoch to which the photograms had then been carried, 
i. e. to the close of 1804. The general agreement of the Kew results with 
those derived at Hobarton and Philadelphia was satisfactorily established by 
the discussion of the Kew records up to the date of December 1864, and 
se\eral points of difference in minor respects, requiring further investigation, 
were indicated : for these the continuation of the Kew photograms, subse- 
quently to December 1864, may be expected to sujiply the materials. 

(a) 

What appears now to be required is the continuation of the same process 
of examination, and comparison with the results obtained at other stations, 
of the results derivable from the Kew photograms in the years which have 
elapsed since the investigations were completed of which an account had thus 
been given. 

These additional years are from December 31, 1864, to December 31, 1869, 
i. e. five years. And this is the work which, if I correctly understood the 
resolution of the Kew Committee, passed (I think) at the Meeting before the 
last (viz. in June 1809), the Superintendent was requested to proceed with. 

T rt /^ • J ri EdWAED SaBINE. 

J. F. Gassiof, Li^q., 

Chairman of the Keiu Committee, 



ITo. 2. 

Suggestions by Mr. Stewart as to the best form of Publication of the llesults 
derived from the Traces of the Kew Magnetographs. 

In the present state of magnetical science, it would appear to be desirable to 
preserve as completely as possible the details of the original observations, — a 
course similar to that which has been pursued by Dr. Neumayer in his de- 
scription of the results of the Elagstaif Observatory, Melbourne. 

Photographic Traces. 

The original documents of the Kew Observatory arc the photographic 
traces. As these are supposed to be liable to fade in the course of time, I 
woiild suggest that a careful copy of them on tracing-paper would be the 
simplest and least expensive mode of retaining them. Such a copy would 
not be sufficiently accurate for investigations regarding peaks and hoUows, 



KEPORT OF THE KEW COMMITTEE. liu 

but these phenomena will, it is hoped, be investigated before the time whcii 
the Observatory ceases to be connected with Ihe British Association. 

The curves are as yet all in good order. The whole expense of preserving- 
traces would probably not much exceed .£100. And I would suggest that I 
might with propriety direct to this object a grant of .£100 which I have at 
present in hand from the Eoyal Society for procuring impressions of mag- 
netic curves. 

(h) Hourly Tuhvlations from Traces. 

The documents next in order are the hourly tabulated numerical values, 
as exhibited in monthly tables for each of the elements. Although indi- 
A'idual results of this nature have been published by Dr. Neumayer, the cost 
of the piiblication of the Kew series in this country would be very great ; 
and bearing in mind tlie limited reference to such individual results, I would 
suggest that a carefully preserved manuscript record would probably be suf- 
ficient. 

(c) Separation of Disturbances and Solar-Diurnal Variations. 

Pursuing the method indicated by Sir E. Sabine, and adopting the sepa- 
rating value finally determined by him, we should obtain monthly results 
indicating the following points for each of the three elements, distributed 
according to the hour of the day : — 

1. Aggregate of disturbances tending to increase the numerical values. 

2. Aggregate of disturbances tending to diminish the same. 

3. Solar-diurnal range of the undisturbed observations. 

I would suggest that the monthly results embodying these facts should 
be published in detail. The publication Avould not probably occupy more 
than thirty-six quarto pages well filled with figures. 

Lunar-Diurnal Variations. 

Adopting Sir E. Sabine's method of treating these, I would suggest, in 
addition, a classification according to the relative position of the sun and 
moon. We might perhaps have quarterly means of lunar days, each quarter 
being divided into four groups representing the four well-known relative 
positions of the sun and moon. 

This might occupy about fifteen quarto pages well filled with figures. 

(d) Secidar C]ian(/e and Semiannual Inequality. 

Presuming that these elements are best determined for the two compo- 
nents of magnetic force from the absolute observations, I would suggest that, 
as regards the declination. Sir E. Sabine's plan be pursued. As he has al- 
ready given the details of his results up to the end of 1863, it would only be 
necessary to continue these up to the time when the series is complete. 

Remarlcs on the ahove. 

If a condensed series of results be published as above, and if, in addition, 
the traces and hourly observations be preserved, as is suggested, future theo- 
rists would have a large and valuable source of information by which to test 
their speculations. I should be happy, had I the opportunity of using such 
a series, to discuss it after the manner that Sir E. Sabine has indicated in 
the very valuable papers which he has presented to the Royal Society. 



liv KEPOUT — 1870. 

No. 3. 

Memorandum containiug extracts from the Minutes of the Kew Committee 
relating to Magnetic Reductions, and containing also an estimate of 
the probable Expense of carrying out the list of suggestions (paper 

No. 2). 

Eew Observatory, 

4tb March, 1870. 

My deak Sie, 

In accordance with the wish expressed at the last Meeting of the Kcw 
Committee for full information regarding the present state of the magnetic 
reductions, I beg to send you the following statement : — 

The first extract bearing on this subject is one from the Report of the Kew 
Committee to the Aberdeen Meeting of the British Association. It is as 
follows : — 

" As the staff of assistants at the Observatory is not sufficiently large to 
" undertake these tabulations, General Sabine has undertaken to have the 
" results tabulated at "Woolwich for every hour." 

. In a scheme for the working of the Observatory after it became the cen- 
tral Observatory of the Meteorological Committee, I suggested that it would 
be very desii'able to undertake the tabulation and reduction of the magnetic 
curves. 

Simultaneously with this scheme, their Report to be presented to the 
Meeting of the Association in 1867 was discussed by the Kew Committee, 
and in the Report the following statement occurs ; — ■ 

" The magnetic curves produced at Kew previously to the month of 
" Jauuarj' 1865 have aU been measured and reduced, under the direction of 
" General Sabine, by the staff of his office at "VYoolwich ; and the results of 
" this reduction have been communicated by General Sabine to the Royal 
" Society in a series of interesting and valuable memoirs. It is now pro- 
" posed that the task of tabulating and reducing these curves since the above 
" date be performed by the staff at Kew working under the direction of Mr. 
" Stewart." 

In accordance with this resolution, the magnetic tabulations were proceeded 
with as fast as the funds at the disposal of the Observatory would allow, and 
the exact progress made was from time to time reported to the Committee. 

In my Report to the Meeting of the Kew Committee held on June 18, 
1869, the following passage occurs : — 

" In the present organization of the Observatory, it is the surplus funds 
" that are devoted to magnetic reductions; but it will hardly be possible be- 
" fore the yearly accounts are closed to state the probable amount of the 
" sm-plus. 

" It is, however, imagined that if the probable sur^dus for the year 
" 1869-70 be anticipated and devoted to tabulation while the summer wea- 
" ther lasts, then before the end of next whiter session the reductions will 
" be very far advanced for all of the three magnetic elements." 

At the same Meeting the following resolution was passed : — 

Resolved,--" That Mr. Balfour Stewart be authorized to apply the eur- 
" plus funds iu his hands to tho tabulation and reduction of the magnetio 



REPORT OF THE UEW COMMITTEE. Iv 

" photographic records ; and that he be requested to have the work done 
*' with as much rapidity aa is consistent with accuracy — the final reduction 
" to include both monthly and annual means, but in the first instance the 
" phenomena of the disturbances from 1863 to 1870 to be proceeded with. 

" In reference to Mr. Balfour Stewart's proposal that a more intimate 
" comparison between solar and magnetic records be made, it was resolved 
" that he bo requested to prepare such a comj)arison for one magnetic ele- 
" ment, for a whole period of solar disturbance, for the consideration of the 
" Committee." 

Erom all these extracts it will, I think, appear that the Committee con- 
sidered that they would have funds sufiicient to tabulate and reduce the 
magnetic curves since the beginning of 1865, the date at which Sir E. Sabine 
left off tabulating, and that any resolution having reference to curves of a 
previous date did not contemplate any retabnlation of such curves. I con- 
ceive, therefore, that at present I am under obligation to tabulate and reduce 
the curves obtained since the beginning of 1865, the Committee acting on 
the supposition that the funds which accrue to the Observatory from various 
sources are sufficient for this purpose. If, however, the Committee should 
consider that, in addition to this, it would bo desirable to systematize the 
whole Kew results "after the method indicated in the suggestions by me which 
accompany this letter, it would be quite possible to accomplish this work 
before 1872, and to do so without materially interfering with the work of the 
Observatory ; but it would require additional funds for the purpose ; in fact, 
the question resolves itself into one of expense. The following estimate, pre- 
pared by Mr. Whipple, and revised by mo, wiU give a tolerably good idea of 
the probable expense of doing this : — 

(«) £ s. d: 
Purchase of two new Tabulating instruments and fit- 
tings 30 

Measurement of curves to y^xr of an inch from Jan. 

1, 1858, to Dec. 31, 1864 143 14 

Subsidiary measurements 63 

Copying out and systematizing results 126 

Extraction of disturbances 100 

Paper and forms 10 



472 14 



This sum would probably enable aU these suggestions to be complied with, 
except those relating to the means connected with the luuar-diurual varia- 
tions. The production of such means since 1865 will, of course, form part 
of the reductions at present in hand, and it would bo very easy to give the 
tables such a shape as to exhibit a classification according to the relative 
position of the sun and moon. If the results of this proved sufficiently 
valuable, the same classification might be afterwards extended to the results 
pi'ovious to 1865, provided the details of such results have been obtained and 
preserved by means of the outlay of ,£472 14s., as mentioned above. This 
particular form of reduction does not appear so pressing ; and as it would 
cost i£130 to recast the individual results previous to 1865 into the precise 
form of lunar tables mentioued in tho suggestions, this matter may be allowed 
to wait, 



Ivi REPORT — 1870. 

But the other matters mentioned in these siTggcstions are, I think, of 
greater importance, more especially as, in the very valuable paper of results 
produced by Sir E. Sabine, there would appear to have been contemplated 
an exhibition to the world of the most valuable and important facts derived 
from the Kew results, rather than an exhaustive reduction of the same (sec 
paper No. 1), The Committee might, therefore, if the above outlay were 
incurred, exhibit the distribution over the various months of every year of 
the disturbed observations for the whole Kew series, and also esiubit the 
solar-diurnal variations of the horizontal and the vertical force. 

If it be allowable to devote to this pui-pose £100 which I have in hand 
from the Eoyal Society, it would so far lessen the expense, and in this case 
c£400 might be regarded as the extreme limit of what would be incui-rcd. 

I remain, 

Yours very truly, 

13. Stewart. 
J. r. Gassiot, Esq., 

Chairman of the Kciv Committee. 



Extracts from Minutes of Kew Committee held at Burlington House on 9lh 
March, 1870, Present Mr. Gassiot (in the Chair), Sir E. Sabine, Sir C. 
Wheatstonc, Col. Strange, Dr. Miller, Mr. Galton, Mr. De La Hue, Mr. 
Spottiswoodc. 

" Kesolvcd, — That the following work be executed at Kew, under the 
*' superintendence of Mr. Stewart. 

" Current Worh. 

" The work as defined in paragraph marked («), pagelii (General Sabine's 
" Memorandum). 

" Arrears of WorJc. 

" 1st. Hourly tabulations from traces as defined in paragraph marked {b), 

" page liii (Mr. Stewart's statement). 
" 2nd. Separation of disturbances and solar-diurnal variations, para- 

" graph (f), page liii. 
" 3rd. Secular change and semiannual inequality, paragraph (d), page 

" liii. 
" These arrears to be executed in accordance with the estimate (e), pagclv." 

It appearing that the only sum at the disposal of Mr. Stewart for back 
magnetic work was £100, Mr. Gassiot ofrercd to supplement the diflTerencc 
required, provided the sum required from him did not exceed £400. 

Ilesolved unanimouslj', — " That the Committee accept with thanks the 
" munificent offer of their Chairman, and that Mr. Stewart be empowered 
"to proceed with the work on the understanding that the total cost shall 
*' not exceed £500." 



REPORT OF THE KEW COMMITTEE, 



Ivii 



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Iviii KEPOBT — 1870. 



Eecomitendations .vdopted by the General Committee at the LiVERrooL 

MEETIIfG IN SEriElIBEK IS 70. 



[When Committees are appointed, the Member first named is regarded as the Secretary, 
except there is a specific nomination.] 

Applications involving Gi-ants of Money. 

That the sum of £600 be placed at the disposal of the Council for main- 
taining the establishment of the Kew Observatory. 

That the Committee for reporting on the llainfall of the British Isles be 
reappointed, and that this Committee consist of Mr. Charles Brooke, Mr. 
Glaisher, Professor Phillips, Mr. G. J. Symons, Mr. J. P. Bateman, Mr. 11. 
W. Mylne, Mr. T. Hawksley, Professor Adams, Mr. C. Tomlinson, Professor 
Sylvester, Dr. Pole, and Mr. llogcrs Field ; that Mr. G. J. Symons be the 
Secretary, and that the sum of £50 be placed at their disposal for the 
purpose. 

That the Committee on Underground Temperature, consisting of Sir William 
Thomson, Dr. Everett, Sir Charles LyeU, Bart., Mr. J. Clerk Maxwell, Pro- 
fessor PhiUips, Mr. G. J. Symons, Mr. Balfour Stewart, Professor Ramsay, 
Mr. Geikie, Mr. Glaisher, Rev. Dr. Graham, Mr. E. W. Biuney, Mr. George 
Maw, Mr. Pcngellj^, and Mr. S. J. Mackie, be reappointed with the addition 
of the name of Mr. Edward Hull ; that Dr. J. D. Everett be the Secretary, 
and that the sum of £150 be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That the Committee on the Thermal Conductivity of Metals, consisting of 
Professor Tait, Professor Tyndall, and Dr. Balfour Stewart be reappointed ; 
that Professor Tait be the Secretary, and that the sum of £20 be placed at 
their disposal for the purjjose. 

That the Committee on Tides, consisting of Sir W. Thomson, Professor 
Adams, Professor W. J. M. Eankine, Mr. J. Oldham, Bear- Admiral Richards, 
and Mr. W. Parkes be reappointed, and that the sum of £100 be placed at 
theii- disposal for the purpose. 

That the Committee on Luminous Meteors, consisting of Mr. Glaisher, 
Mr. R. P. Greg, Mr. Alexander Herschel, and Mr. C. Brooke be reappointed, 
and that the sum of £30 be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Mr. Edward Crossley and Rev. T. AV. Webb be a Committee for dis- 
cussing Observations of Lunar Objects suspected of change ; that Mr. Cross- 
ley be the Secretary, and that the sum of £20 be placed at their disposal for 
the purpose. 

That Sir J. Herschel, Bart., and Professor Erman be a Committee for the pur- 
pose of procuring the Recomputation by Professor Petersen of the Gaussian 
Constants for 1839, so as to make the additional available observations, and 
that the sum of £50 be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Professor Balfour Stewart, Mr. Latimer Clark, and Mr. C. T. Yarley 
be a Committee for the purpose of investigating the best method of Measu- 
ring Electrical Capacity, and of constructing Standard Measures of Capacity ; 
that Prof. Balfour Stewart be the Secretary, and that the sum of £20 bo 
placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Professor Sir "William Thomson, Mr. J. Clerk Maxwell, and Professor 
Fleeming Jenkin be a Committee for the purpose of investigating the bes 
method of measuring differences of Electrical Potentiul, and issuing a Stan, 



RECOMMENDATIONS OF THE GENERAL COMMITTEE. lix 

dard Potential Gauge ; that Professor Fleeming Jenkin be the Secretary, and 
that the sum of £20 be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Mr. Hockin, Dr. Matthiessen, and Prof. A. W. Williamson be a Com- 
mittee for the purpose of investigating the best method of measuring Elec- 
trical Currents and constructing a Standard Electrodynamometer ; that Mr. 
Hockin be the Secretary, and that the sum of £20 be placed at their disposal 
for the purpose. 

That it be an instruction to each of the three last-named Committees, that 
it shall carry out the system adopted by the Electrical Standards Committee, 
and that these Committees have the use of all instruments hitherto con- 
structed with the Funds of the Association. 

That Professor A. W. "Williamson, Professor Eraukland, Professor Eoscoe, 
and Professor OdHng be a Committee for the purpose of superintending the 
pubHcation of the Monthly Eeports of the Progress of Chemistry by the 
Chemical Society, and that the sum of .£100 be placed at their disposal for 
the purpose. 

That Professor A. Crum Erown, Professor Tait, and Mr. Dewar be a Com- 
mittee for the purpose of carrying on the researches of Mr. Dewar on the 
Thermal Equivalents of the Oxides of Chlorine, and that the sum of £25 be 
placed at their disjiosal for the purpose. 

That Sir Charles Lyell, Bart., Professor Phillips, Sir John Lubbock, Bart., 
Mr. John Evans, Mr. Edward Vivian, Mr. William Pengelly, Mr. George Busk, 
Mr. W. Boyd Dawkins, and Mr. W. Ayshford Sandford be a Committee for 
the purpose of continuing the exploration of Kent's Cavern, Torquay ; that 
Mr. PengeUy be the Secretary, and that the sum of £150 be placed at their 
disposal for the purpose. 

That Dr. P. M. Duncan and Professor Ansted be a Committee for the 
purpose of continuing Researches on British Fossil Corals ; that Dr. P. M. 
Duncan be the Secretary, and that the sum of £25 be placed at their dis- 
posal for the purpose. 

That the Eev. W. S. Symonds, Mr. Lightbody, and the Eev. J. B. La 
Touche be a Committee for the purpose of continuing to estimate the quantity 
of Sedimentary deposits in the river Onny ; that the Eev. J. B. La Touche be 
the Secretary, and that the sum of £10 be placed at their disposal for the 
purpose. 

That Mr. W. S. Mitchell, Mr. Henry Woodward, Mr. Eobert Etheridge, 
Mr. G. Maw, and Mr. W. Carruthers be a Committee for the purpose of con- 
tinuing to investigate the Leaf-beds of the Lower Bagshot Series of the 
Hampshire Basin ; that Mr. Mitchell be the Secretary, and that the sum of 
£20 be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Mr. James Thomson and Professor Harkness be a Committee for the 
purpose of slicing Fossil Corals, in order to show their structure by means of 
Photography ; that Mr. Thomson be the Secretary, and that the sum of £20 
be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Mr. Eobert H. Scott, Dr. J. Hooker, Dr. E. P. Wright, and Sir W. 
Trevelyan, Bart, bo a Committee for the purpose of exploring the Mesozoic 
Deposits of Omenak and other Localities in North Greenland ; that Mr. Scott 
be the Secretary, and that the sum of £50 be placed at their disposal for the 
purpose. 

That Mr. Henry Woodward, Dr. Duncan, and Mr. Eobert Etheridge be a 
Committee for the purpose of carrying on researches in the British Fossil 
Crustacea ; that Mr. Woodward bo the Secretary, and that the sum of £25 
bo placed at their disposal for the purpose. 



Ix KEPORT — 1870. 

That Mr. G. Busk and Mr. Boyd Dawkins be a Committee for the purpose 
of assisting Dr. Leith Adams in the preparation of pUitcs illustrating an 
account of the Fossil Elephants of Malta ; that Mr. Busk be the Secretary, 
and that the sum of £25 be placed at their disposal for the pui'pose. 

That Dr. J. D. Hooker, Mr. W. Carruthcrs, and Professor Balfour be a 
Committee for the purpose of continuing investigations into the Possil Flora 
of Britain ; that Mr. Carruthers be the Secretary, and that the sum of £25 
be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Dr. Sharpey, Dr. B. W. Eichardson, and Professor Humphry be a 
Committee for the purpose of continuing researches on the physiological 
action of the IMethyl and other allied compounds ; that Dr. Richardson be the 
Secretary, and that the sum of .£25 be placed at theu' disposal for the purpose. 

That Mr. Sclater, Dr. Giinther, Professor Kewton, Mr. N'ewton, and the 
Rev. H. B. Tristram be a Committee for the purpose of continuing a record of 
Zoological Literature ; that Mr. Sclater be the Secretary, and that the sum of 
£100 be placed at their disposal for the puri^ose. 

That Prof. M. Foster, Dr. Arthur Gamgee, and Mr. E. Bay Lankester be a 
Committee for the purpose of investigating the amount of Heat generated in 
the Blood, in the process of arterialization ; that Dr. Gamgee be the Se- 
cretary, and tliat the sum of ,£15 be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Prof. Balfour, Dr. Cleghorn, and Mr. Robert Hutchison be a Com- 
mittee for the purpose of taking observations on the effect of the denudation of 
timber on the Rainfall in North Britain ; that Prof. Balfour be the Secretary, 
and that the sum of £20 be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That it is desirable to undertake a Geographical Exploration of the country 
of Moab, and that the following Members of the Association be a Committee 
for this purpose, — Sir R. I. Miu-chison, Bart., Rev. Dr. Ginsburg, Mr. Hep- 
worth Dixon, Rev. Dr. Tristram, General Chesney, Rev. Professor Rawlinson, 
Mr. John A. Tinne ; that the sum of .£100 be placed at their disposal for the 
purpose. 

That the Metric Committee be reappointed, such Committee to consist of 
Sir John Bowring, The Right Hon. Sir Stafford H. Northcote, Bart., C.B., 
M.P., The Right^Hon. C. B. Adderley, M.P., Mr. Samuel Brown, Dr. Farr, 
Mr. Frank P. Fcllowcs, Professor Frankland, Mr. James Heywood, Profes- 
sor Leone Levi, Professor AV. A. Miller, Mr. C. W. Siemens, Professor 
A. W. "Williamson, Dr. George Glover, Sir Joseph "Whitworth, Bart., Mr. 
J. R. Napier, Mr. J. V. N. Bazalgette, and Sir W. Fairbairn, Bart. ; that 
Professor Leone Levi be the Secretary, and that the sum of £25 be placed 
at their disposal for the purpose of being applied solely to scientific pur- 
poses, printing, and correspondence. 

That Sir J. Lubbock, Bart., Mr. D. T. Ansted, Professor Corfield, Mr. 
J. Bailey Denton, Dr. J. H. Gilbert, Mr. R. B. Grantham, Mr. J. ThornhiU 
Harrison, Mr. T. Hawksley, Mr. W. Hope, Lieut. -Colonel Leach, Professor 
Odling, Dr. A. Yoelcker, and Professor A. AV. Williamson, be a Committee 
for the purpose of carrying on the investigations of the Committee appointed 
last year on the Treatment and Utilization of Sewage ; the expenses incurred 
being defrayed from the contributions, already received by the former Com- 
mittee, from the towns. 

That the Committee on the Treatment and Utilization of Sewage, appointed 
last year, having collected sums of money from several towns, it is resolved 
that the money collected by the said Committee, or the balance thereof, be 
paid over to the General Treasurer. 



RECOMMENDATIONS OF THE GENERAL COMMITTEE. Ixi 

That no Committee shall raise money in the name or under the auspices of 
the British Association without special permission from the General Com- 
mittee to do so ; and that no money so raised shall be expended except in 
accordance with the rules of tlic Association. 



Applications for Reports and Researches not involving Grants 

of Money. 

That the Committee, consisting of Dr. Joule, Sir W. Thomson, Profesr^or 
Tait, Professor Balfour Stewart, and Mr. J. Clerk Maxwell, be reappointed to 
effect a determination of the Mechanical Equivalent of Heat. 

That Professor E. B. Clifton, Mr. Glaisher, Mr. Huggins, Dr. Matthiessen, 
Professor W. Hallows Miller, Dr. Balfour Stewart, Mr. G. Johnstone Stoney, 
Licut.-Col. Strange, and Sir J. Whitworth, Bart., be a Committee for the 
l)urpose of reporting on Metric Standards, in reference to the communication 
from Professor Jacobi, appended hereto. 

The Academy of Sciences of St. Petersburgh obser%-ing that the Standard 
Metric Weights and Measures of the various coimtries of Europe and of the 
United States, differ by sensible, though small, quantities from one another, 
express the opinion that the continuance of these errors would be highly 
prejudicial to science. They believe that the injurious effects could not be 
guarded against by private labours, however meritorioiis, and they have 
therefore recommended that an international commission be appointed by 
the countries interested to deal with this matter. They have decided to 
bring the subject before the Eussian Government, and have appointed a Comf- 
mittee of their own Body, who have drawn up a careful Eeport containing 
valuable suggestions ; and they have deputed Professor Jacobi to lay this 
llcport before the British Association, and to request the Association to take 
action in reference to it. 

That Mr. AY. H. L. Eussell be requested to continue his Eeport on recent 
progress in the theory of Elliptic and Hyperelliptic Functions. 

That Dr. Matthiessen, Professor Abel, and Mr. David Forbes be a Com- 
mittee for the purpose of continuing their researches on the Chemical Natiuo 
of Cast Iron. 

That Dr. Bryce,'Su- "VV. Thomson, Mr. D. Milne-Home, Mr. Macfarlane, and 
Mr. J. Brough be a Committee for the purpose of continuing investigations 
on Earthquakes in Scotland. 

That Dr. Anton Dohrn, Professor Eolleston, and Mr. P. L. Sclater be a 
Committee for the purpose of promoting the foundation of Zoological Stations 
in different parts of the world, recognizing the foundation of a Zoological 
Station at Naples as a decided step in this direction; that Dr. Anton Dohrn 
be the Secretary. 

That Mr. H. E. Dresser, Mr. J. E. Harting, Eev. H. Barnes, Eev. 
H. B. Tristram, and Professor Xewton be reappointed for the pui-pose of 
continuing their investigations on the desirability of establishing " a close 
lime " for the preservation of our indigenous animals ; and that Mr. Dresser 
be the Secretary. 

That the Committee appointed last year " to consider and report on the 
various plans proposed for legislating on the subject of Steam-Boiler Ex- 
plosions with a view to their prevention," be requested to continue their 
labours ; such Committee consisting of Sir Wm. Fairbairn, Bart., Sir Joseph 



Ixii REPORT — 1870. 

Whit-wortli, Bart., Mr. Jolin. Penn, Mr. F. J. Bramwell, Mr. Hugh Mason, 
Mr. Samuel Eigby, Mr. Thomas Schofield, Mr. Charles P. Beyer, Mr. T. 
Webster, Q.C., Mr. Lavingtou E. Fletcher. 



That the Committee of Sectiou D (Biology) be requested to dra-vv up a state- 
ment of their y'levi's xipon Physiological Experiments in their various bearings, 
and that this document be circulated among the Members of the Association. 

That the said Committee be further requested to consider from time to time 
whether any ste])s can be taken by them, or by the Association, -which wiU 
tend to reduce to its minimum, the suffering entailed by legitimate physiolo- 
gical inquiries ; or any which will have the effect of employing the influence of 
this Association in the discouragement of experiments which are not clearly 
legitimate on live animals. 

The following resolution subsequently passed by the Committee of Section 
D (Biology) was adopted : 

That the following gentlemen be appointed a Committee for the purpose of 
carrying out the suggestion on the question of Physiological Experiments 
made by the General Committee, — Professor KoUeston, Professor Lawson, 
Professor Balfour, Dr. Gamgee, Professor M. Foster, Professor Humphry, 
Professor "W. H. Flower, Professor Sanderson, Professor Macalister, and Pro- 
fessor Ecdfern ; that Professor Rolleston be the Secretary, and that they be 
requested to report to the General Committee. 

Involving Applications to Government. 

That Sir E,. I. Murchison, Bart., Sir Charles Lyell, Bart., Mr. Findlay, 
and Adm. Sir John D. Hay, be a Committee for the purpose of bringing to 
the notice of the Commissioners of the Admiralty the importance of revising 
the Survey of the "West Coast of South America, with a view to ascertaining 
what changes have taken place in the levels since the recent great earth- 
quakes on that coast ; that Mr. Clements Markham be the Secretary. 

That Prof. Jevons, Mr. E. Dudley Baxter, Sir John Bowring, Mr. J. T. 
Danson, Mr. James Heywood, Dr. W. B. Hodgson, and Professor Waley, be 
a Committee for the purpose of urging upon Her Majesty's Government the 
expediency of arranging and tabulating the results of the approaching Census 
in the three several parts of the United Kingdom in such a manner as to 
admit of ready and effective comparison ; that Mr. Edmund Macrory be the 
Secretary. 



Communications to he jjrinted in extenso in the Annual Report of 

the Association. 

That Professor Cajdey's papers (1) " On In- and Circumscribed Triangles," 
and (2) " On the Correspondence of Lines and Points in Space," be printed 
iti extenso in the Proceedings. 

That the paper by Dr. Leith Adams on. " Xewly discovered Species of Ele- 
phants," be printed in extenso in the Eeport. 

That the paper on " Ashton and Storey's Steampower Meter," bo printed 
in extenso in the Transactions. 

That owing to the great length and consequent cost of printing the tabular 
catalogue of Meteors presented by the Committee on Luminous Meteors, that 
part of their Eeport bo not printed. 



RECOMMENDATIONS OF THE GENERAL COMMITTEE. Ixiii 

Resolui'ions referred io the Council for consideration and action if it 

seem desirable. 

That the discontimiance of the maiutenance of Kew Observatory by the 
British Association having been determined on, the President and Council bo 
authorized to communicate with the President and Council of the Poyal 
Society, and with the Government, so that the future use of the Buildings 
may in 1872 be placed at the disposal of the Eoyal Society, in case the Royal 
Society should desire it, under the same conditions as those Buildings are 
at present held by the British Association. 

That the Council be empowered to cooperate with the Eoyal and Astrono- 
mical Societies, in the event of a new application being made to Government, 
to aid in the observation of the Solar Eclipse of December 1870. 

That the Council be requested to take such steps as they deem wisest, in 
order to urge upon Government the importance of introducing Scientific In- 
struction into the Elementary Schools throughout the Country. 

That the Council of the British Association be authorized, if it should 
appear to be desirable, to urge upon Her Majesty's Government the expedi- 
ency of proposing to the Legislature a measure to insure the introduction of 
the metric system of weights and measures for international purposes. 

That it is inexpedient that new Institutions for the teaching of Science, 
pure or applied, such as the proposed Engineering College for India, should 
be established by Government, imtil the Eoyal Commission now holding an 
inquiry into the Eelation of the State to Scientific Instruction shall have 
issued their Eeport. That the Council of the British Association be requested 
to consider this opinion, and should they see fit, to urge it upon the atten- 
tion of Her Majesty's Government. 



Synopsis of Grants of Money appropriated to Scientific Pmposes by 
the General Committee at the Liverpool Meeting in Sep)temher 1870. 
The names of the Members who would be entitled to call on the 
General Treasurer for the respective Grants are prefixed. 

Kew Observatory. £ g. d. 

Tlic Council. — Maintaining the Establishment of Kew Obser- 
vatory GOO 



Mathematics and Pliysics, 

*Brookc, Mr.— British Rainfall 50 

*Thomson, Professor Sir W. — Underground Temperature .... 150 

Carried forward .£800 

* Reappoihtcd. 



Ixiv REPORT — 1870. 

£ s. d. 

Brought forward 800 

*Tait, Professor. — Thermal Conducti\ity of Iron and other 

Metals 20 

*Thomson, Professor Sir W.— Tidal Observations 100 

*Glaisher, Mr. — Luminous Meteors 30 

Crossley, Mr. — Observation of Lunar Objects 20 

Herschel, Sir J. — Eecomputation- of the Gaussian Constants 

for 1839 50 

Stewart, Prof. B. — Standard Measures of Electrical Capacity . 20 

Thomson, Prof. Sir W.— Standard Electrical Potential Gauge 20 

Hockin, Mr. — Standard Electrodynamometer 20 

Chemistry. 

Williamson, Professor. — Reports of the Progress of Chemistry 100 
Brown, Professor Crum. — Thermal Equivalents of the Oxides 

of Chlorine 25 

6eolof/j/. 

*LyeU, Sir C, Bart.— Kent's-Cavern Exploration 150 

*Duncan, Dr. P. M.— British Fossil Corals 25 

*Symonds, Rev. AV. S. — Sedimentary Deposits in the River Onny 10 

*Mitchell, Mr. W. S. — Leaf-beds of the Lower Bagshot series . . 20 

Thomson, Mr. James. — Sections of Fossil Corals 20 

Scott, Mr. R. H. — Mesozoic Deposits of Omenak, North Green- 
land 50 

Woodward, Mr. H. — British Fossil Crustacea 25 

Busk, Mr.— FossU Elephants of Malta 25 

Biolof/)/. 

• *Dr. Hooker.— Fossil Flora of Britain 25 

*Hharpey, Dr. — Physiological Action of Methyl Compounds . . 25 

*Sclater, Mr.— Record of the Progress of Zoology 100 

*Foster, Professor M. — Heat Generated in the Arteriali/.ation 

of Blood 15 

Balfour, Professor. — Effect of the Denudation of Timber on 

the RainfaU in North Britain 20 



Geo(/raj)lii/. 
Murchison, Sir R., Bart. — Exploration of the Country of Moab 100 

Statistics and Economic Science. 



*Bowring, Sir J. — Metrical Committee . 



:io 



Total .£1840 

Eoappolnted. 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



Ixv 



General Statement of Sums ivhich have been paid on Account of Grants 

for Scientific Purposes. 



£ s. d. 
1834. 

Tide Discussions 20 

1835. 

Tide Discussions 62 

British Fossil Iclitliyology 10.5 

£)i>7 



1836. 

Tide Discussions 103 

British Fossil Ichthyology 105 

Thermometric Observations, &c. 50 
Experiments on long-continued 

Heat 17 1 

Rain-GeiUges 9 13 

Refraction Experiments 15 

Lunar Nutation 60 

Thermometers 15 ') 



£rn 14 U 



1837. 

Tide Discussions 284 1 

Chemical Constants 24 13 6 

Lunar Nutation 70 

Observations on Waves 100 12 

Tides at Bristol 150 

Meteorology and Subterranean 

Temperature 89 5 

Vitrification Experiments 150 

Heart Experiments 8 4 6 

Barometric Observations 30 

Barometers 11 18 6 



;€!)1S 14 6 



1838. 

Tide Discussions 29 

British Fossil Fishes 100 

Meteorological Observations and 

Anemometer (construction) ... 100 

Cast Iron (Strength of) 60 

Animal and Vegetable Substances 

(Preservation of) 19 

Railway Constants 41 

Bristol Tides 50 

Growth of Plants 75 

Mud in Rivers 3 

Education Committee 50 

Heart Experiments 5 

Land and Sea Level 267 

Subterranean Temperature 

Steam-vessels 100 

Meteorological Committee 31 

Thermometers 16 










1 10 
12 10 





6 6 



3 

8 7 




8 6 




9 5 
4 



£956 12 2 



1839. 

Fossil Ichthyology 110 

Meteorological Observations at 

Plymouth 63 10 

Mechanism of Waves 144 2 

Bristol Tides 35 18 6 

1870. 



Meteorology and Subterranean 

Temperature 21 

Vitrification Experiments. 9 

Cast-iron Experiments 100 

Railway Constants 28 

Land and Sea Level 274 

Steam-vessels' Engines 100 

Stars in Histoire Celeste 331 

Stars in Lacaille 11 

Stars in R.A.S. Catalogue C 

Animal Secretions 10 

Steam-engines in Cornwall 50 

Atmospheric Air 16 

Cast and Wrought Iron 40 

Heat on Organic Bodies 3 

Gases on Solar Spectrum 22 

Hourly Meteorological Observa- 
tions, Inverness and Kingussie 49 

Fossil Reptiles 118 

Mining Statistics 50 



£ s. d. 



11 





4 


7 








7 


2 


1 


4 








18 


6 








16 


6 


10 











1 























7 


8 


2 


9 









£1595 11 



1840. 

Bristol Tides 100 

Subterranean Temperature 13 

Heart Experiments 18 

Limgs Experiments 8 

Tide Discussions 50 

Land and Sea Level 6 

Stars (Histoire Celeste) 242 

Stars (Lacaille) 4 

Stars (Catalogue) 264 

Atmospheric Air 15 

Water on Iron 10 

Heat on Organic Bodies 7 

Meteorological Observations 52 

Foreign Scientific Memoirs 112 

Working Population 100 

School Statistics 60 

Forms of Vessels 184 

Chemical and Electrical Pheno- 
mena 40 

Meteorological Observations at 

Plymouth 80 

Magnetical Observations 185 









13 


6 


19 





13 











11 


1 


10 





15 











15 

















17 


6 


I 


6 















£1546 



7 




13 9 
T(r~4 



1841. 

Observations on AVaves 30 

Meteorology and Subterranean 

Temperature 8 

Actinometers 10 

Earthquake Shocks 17 

Acrid Poisons 6 

Veins and Absorbents 3 

Mud in Rivers 5 

Marine Zoology 15 

Skeleton Maps 20 

Mountain Barometers 6 

Stars (Histoire Celeste)...., 185 







8 











7 























12 


8 








18 


G 









Ixvi 



REPORT 1870. 



£ 

Stars (Lacaille) 79 

Stars (Nonien;lature of) 17 



s. d. 

6 

19 6 















Stars (Catalogue of) 

Water on Iron ou 

Meteorological Observations at 

Inverness 20 

Meteorological Observations (re- 
duction of) 25 

Fo^sil Reptiles 50 

Foreign Memoirs 62 

Railway Sections 38 1 6 

Forms of Vessels 193 12 

Meteorological Observations at 

Plymouth 55 

Magnelical Observations CI 18 8 

Fishes of the Old Red Sandstone 100 

Tides at Leich 50 

Anemometer at Edinburgh C9 1 10 

Tabulating Observations 9 6 3 

Races of Men 5 

Radiate Animals 2 



£1236 10 11 



1842. 

Dynamometric Instruments 113 

Anoplura Britannise 52 

Tides at Bristol 59 

Gases on Light 30 

Chronometers 26 

Marine Zoology 1 

British Fossil Mammalia 100 

Statistics of Education 20 

Marine Steam-vessels' Engines... 28 

Stars (Histoire Celeste) 59 

Stars (Brit. Assoc. Cat. of) 110 

Railway Sections 161 

British Belemnites 50 

Fossil Reptiles (publication of 

Report) 210 

Forms of Vessels 180 

Galvanic Experiments on Rocks 5 
Meteorological Experiments at 

Plymouth 68 

Constant Indicator and Dynamo- 
metric Instruments 90 

Force of Wind 10 

Light on Growth of Seeds 8 

Vital Statistics 50 

Vegetative Power of Seeds 8 

Questions on Human Race ....jj 7 



11 2 

12 
8 

14 7 

17 6 

5 











10 







8 6 











1 II 

9 



iiU49 17 8 



2 



1843. 

Revision of the Nomenclature of 
Stars 

Reduction of Stars, British Asso- 
ciation Catalogue 25 

Anomalous Tides, Frith of Forth 120 

Hourly Meteorological Observa- 
tions at Kingussie and Inverness 77 12 8 

Meteorological Observations at 
Plymouth 55 

Whewell's Meteorological Ane- 
mometer at Plycnouth 10 



Meteorological Observations, Os- 
ier's Anemometer at Plymouth 
Reduction of Meteorological Ob- 
servations 

Meteorological Instruments and 

Gratuities 

Construction of Anemometer at 

Inverness 

Magnetic Cooperation 

Meteorological Recorder for Kew 

Observatory 

Action of Gases on Light 

Establishment at Kew Observa- 
tory, Wages, Repairs, Furni- 
ture and Sundries 

Experiments by Captive Balloons 
Oxidation of the Hails of Railways 
Publication of Report on Fossil 

Reptiles 

Coloured Drawings of Railway 

Sections 

Registration of Earthquake 

Shocks 

Report on Zoological Nomencla- 
ture 

Uncovering Lower Red Sand- 
stone near Manchester 

Vegetative Power of Seeds 

Marine Testacea (Habits of) ... 

Marine Zoology 

Marine Zoology 

Preparation of Report on British 

Fossil Mammalia 

Physiological Operations of Me- 
dicinal Agents 

Vital Statistics 

Additional Experiments on the 

Forms of Vessels 

Additional Experiments on the 

Forms of Vessels 

Reduction of Experiments on the 

Forms of Vessels 

Morin's Instrument and Constant 

Indicator 

Experiments on the Strength of 
Materials 



£ 


s. 


d. 


20 








30 








39 








50 
10 


12 

8 


2 
10 


50 
18 



10 



1 


133 

81 
20 


4 

8 



7 





40 








147 


IS 


3 


30 








10 








4 
5 

10 

10 

2 


4 
3 


14 


6 
8 


11 



100 



20 








36 


5 


8 


70 








100 








100 








69 


14 


10 


60 









£1505 10 2 











1844. 

Meteorological Observations at 

Kingussie and Inverness 12 

Completing Observations at Ply- 
mouth 35 

Magnetic and Meteorological Co- 
operation 25 8 4 

Publication of the British Asso- 
ciation Catalogue of Stars 35 

Observations on Tides on the 

East coast of Scotland 100 

Revision of the Nomenclature of 

Stars 1842 2 9 6 

Maintaining the Establishment in 

Kew Observatory 117 17 3 

Instruments for Kew Observatory 56 7 .3 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



Ixvii 



£ 

Influence of Light on Plants 10 

Subterraneous Temperature in 

Ireland 5 

Coloured Drawings of Railway 

Sections 15 

Investigation of Fossil Fishes of 

the Lower Tertiary Strata ... 100 
Registering the Shocks of Earth- 
quakes 1842 23 

Structure of Fossil Shells 20 

Radiata and Mollusca of the 

iEgean and Red Seas 1842 100 

Geographical Distributions of 

Marine Zoology 1842 10 

Marine Zoology of Devon and 

Cornwall 10 

Marine Zoology of Corfu 10 

Experiments on the Vitality of 

Seeds 9 

Experiments on the Vitality of 

Seeds 1842 8 

Exotic Anoplura 15 

Strength of Materials 100 

Completing Experiments on the 

Forms of Ships 100 

Inquiries into Asphyxia 10 

Investigations on the Internal 

Constitution of Metals 50 

Constant Indicator and Morin's 

Instrument 1842 10 

£9 SI 



s. 


d. 














17 


6 








11 


10 

































3 



7 


3 





























_3 6 

8 



12 



1845. 

Publication of the British Associa- 
tion Catalogue of Stars 351 14 6 

Meteorological Observations at 

Inverness 30 18 11 

Magnetic and Meteorological Co- 
operation 16 16 8 

Meteorological Instruments at 

Edinburgh 18 11 9 

Reduction of Anemometrical Ob- 
servations at Plymouth 25 

Electrical Experiments at Kew 

Observatory 43 17 8 

Maintaining the Establishment in 

Kew Observatory 149 15 

For Kreil's Barometrograph 25 

Gases frum Iron Furnaces 50 

The Actinograph 15 

Microscopic Structure of Shells... 20 

Exotic Anoplura 1843 10 

Vitality of Seeds 1843 2 7 

Vitality of Seeds 1844 7 

Marine Zoology of Cornwall 10 

Physiological Action of Medicines 20 
Statistics of Sickness and Mor- 
tality in York 20 

Earthquake Shocks 1843 15 14 8 

"1E830 9 9 

1846. 
British Association Catalogue of 

Stars 1844 211 15 

Frossil Fishes of the London Clay 100 



16 


7 








16 


2 








15 


10 


12 


3 




















7 


6 


3 


6 


3 


3 


19 


3 


6 


3 









£ s. d. 
Computation of the Gaussian 

Constants for 1839 50 

Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory 146 

Strength of Materials 60 

Researches in Asphyxia 6 

Examination of Fossil Shells 10 

Vitality of Seeds 1844 2 

Vitality of Seeds 1845 7 

Marine Zoology of Cornwall 10 

Marine Zoology of Britain 10 

Exotic Anoplura 1844 25 

Expenses attending Anemometers 11 

Anemometers' Repairs 2 

Atmospheric Waves 3 

Captive Balloons 1844 8 

Varieties of the Human Race 

1844 7 
Statistics of Sickness and Mor- 
tality in York 12 

^£685 16 

1847. 
Computation of the Gaussian 

Constants for 1839 50 

Habits of Marine Animals 10 

Physiological Action of Medicines 20 

Marine Zoology of Cornwall ... 10 

Atmospheric \Vaves 6 

Vitality of Seeds 4 

Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory 107 

JE208 

1848. 
Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory 171 

Atmospheric Waves 3 

Vitality of Seeds 9 

Completion of Catalogues of Stars 70 

On Colouring Matters 5 

On Growth of Plants 15 

ii275 r 











9 3 

7 7 

8 6 



15 


11 


10 


9 


15 
























1849. 
Electrical Observations at Kew 

Observatory 50 

Maintaining Establishment at 

ditto 76 2 

Vitality of Seeds 5 8 

On Grouth of Plants 5 

Registration of Periodical Phe- 
nomena 10 

Bill on account of Anemometrical 

Observations 13 9 

iil59 19 

1850. 
Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory 255 18 

Transit of Earthquake Waves ... 50 

Periodical Phenomena 15 

Meteorological Instrument, 

Azores , , 25 

£354 18 



Ixviii 



REPORT — 1870. 



£ s. d. 
1851. 
Maintaining the Establishment at 
Kew Observatory (includes part 

ofgrantin 1849) 309 2 2 

TheoryofHeat 20 1 1 

Periodical Phenomena of Animals 

and Plants 5 

Vitality of Seeds 5 6 4 

Influence of Solar Radiation 30 

Ethnological Inquiries 12 

Researches on Annelida 10 

jE39 1 9 7 

1852. 

Maintaining the Establishment at 
Kew Observatory (including 

balance of grant for 1850) ... 233 17 8 

Experiments on the Conduction 

of Heat 5 2 9 

Influence of Solar Radiations ... 20 

Geological Map of Ireland 15 

Researches on the British Anne- 
lida 10 

Vitality of Seeds 10 6 2 

Strength of Boiler Plates 10 

£,{04 6 7 

1853. 

Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory 165 

Experiments on the Influence of 

Solar Radiation 15 

Researches on the British Anne- 
lida 10 

Dredging on the East Coast of 

Scotland 10 

Ethnological Queries 5 

£'Hib ~0 

1854. ~ 
Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory (including 

balance of former grant) 330 15 4 

Investigations on Flax 11 

Effects of Temperature on 

Wrought Iron 10 

Registration of Periodical Phe- 
nomena , 10 

British Annelida 10 

Vitality of Seeds 5 2 3 

Conduction of Heat 4 2 

X".i.SO 19 7 

1855. ■=^=== 
Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory 425 

Earthquake Movements 10 

Physical Aspect of the Moon 11 8 5 

Vitality of Seeds 10 7 H 

Map of the World 15 

Ethnological Queries 5 

Dredging near Belfast 4 

£48(1 16 4 

1856. «==^i=i. 
Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory: — 

1854 £ 75 Ol ,^, „ „ 

1855 £500 0/ *'^ " " 









3 


9 









































































8 





7 


4 









£ K. d. 

Strickland's Ornithological Syno- 
nyms 100 

Dredging and Dredging Forms... 9 

Chemical Action of Light 20 

Strength of Iron Plates 10 

Registration of Periodical Pheno- 
mena 10 

Propagation of Salmon 10 

£734 13 9 

1857. 

Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory 350 

Earthquake Wave Experiments. . 40 

Dredging near Belfast 10 

Dredging on the West Coast of 

Scotland 10 

Investigations into the Mollusca 

of California 10 

Experiments on Flax 5 

Natural History of Madagascar. . 20 

Researches on British Annelida 25 

Report on Natural Products im- 
ported into Liverpool 10 

Artificial Propagation of Salmon 10 

Temperature of Mines 7 

Thermometers for Subterranean 

Observations 5 

Life-Boats ,,,., 5 

£507 15 4 

1858. 
Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory 500 

Earthquake Wave Experiments.. 25 
Dredging on the West Coast of 

Scotland 10 

Dredging near Dublin 5 

Vitality of Seeds 5 

Dredging near Belfast 18 

Report on the British Annelida... 25 
Experiments on the production 

of Heat by Motion in Fluids ... 20 
Report on the Natural Products 

imported into Scotland 10 

£018 18 2 

1859. 
Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory 500 

Dredging near Dublin 15 

Osteology of Birds 50 

Irish Tunicata 5 

Manure Experiments 20 

British Medusidte 5 

Dredging Committee 5 

Steam-vessels' Performance 5 

Marine Fauna of South and West 

of Ireland 10 

Photographic Chemistry 10 

Lanarkshire Fossils 20 

Balloon Ascents 39 

" £684 I I 1 

1860. ''^^^^^^^''^ 

Maintaining the Establishment 

of Kew Observatory 500 

Dredging near Belfast 16 6 

DreJging in Dublin Bay 15 



























5 





3 


2 
















































































1 


11 






GENEEAL STATEMENT. 



kix 



Inquiry into the Performance of 
Steam- vessels 124 

Explorations in the Yellow Sand- 
stone of Dura Den 20 

Chemico-niechanical Analysis of 
Rocks and Minerals 25 

Researclies on the Growth of 
Plants 10 

Researches on the Solubility of 
Salts 30 

Researches on the Constituents 
of Manures 25 

Balance of Captive Balloon Ac 
counts 1 



£ s. d. 

















13 



£\-Hl 7 



1861. 
Maintaining the Establishment 

of Kew Observatory 500 

Earthquake Experiments 25 

Dredging North and East Coasts 

of Scotland 23 

Dredging Committee : — 

ISfiO £50 0"! 

1861 £22 j "^ 

Excavations at Dura Den 20 

■iolubility of Salts 20 

Steam. vessel Performance 150 

Fossils of Lesmahago 15 

Explorations at Uriconium 20 

Chemical Alloys 20 

Classified Index to the Transac- 
tions 100 

Dredging in the Mersey and Dee 5 

Dip Circle „... 30 

Photoheliographic Observations 50 

Prison Diet 20 

Gauging of Water 10 

Alpine Ascents (j 

Constituents of Manures 25 



1862. 
Maintaining the Establishm'ent 

of Kew Observatory 500 

Patent Laws 21 

Mollusca of N.-W. America 10 

Natural History by Mercantile 

Marine 5 

Tidal Observations 25 

Photoheliomeler at Kew 40 

Photographic Pictures of the Sun 150 

Rocks of Donegal 25 

Dredging Durham and North- 
umberland 25 

Connexion of Storms 20 

Dredging North-East Coast of 

Scotland g 

Ravages of Teredo 3 

Standards of Electrical Resistance 50 

Railway Accidents 10 

Balloon Committee 200 

Dredging Dublin Bay 10 

Dredging the Mersey 5 

Prison Diet 20 

Gauging of Water 12 



















































































5 


1 









£1111 5 lU 









6 





















































s 


6 


11 





r\ 



































10 






,. , £ s. d. 

Steamships Performance 150 

Thermo-Electric Currents 5 

£7293 16 6 

1863. 
Maintaining the Establishment 

of Kew Observatory 600 

Balloon Committee deficiency... 70 

Balloon Ascents (other expenses) 25 

Entozoa 25 

Coal Fossils 20 

Herrings 20 

Granites of Donegal 5 

Prison Diet 20 

Vertical Atmospheric Movements 13 

Dredging Shetland 50 

Dredging North-east coast of 

Scotland 25 

Dredging Northumberland and 

Durham 17 3 \q 

Dredging Committee superin- 
tendence 10 

Steamship Performance 100 

Balloon Committee 200 

Carbon under pressure 10 

Volcanic Temperature 100 

Bromide of Ammonium 8 

Electrical Standards 100 

Construction and distribu- 
tion 40 

Luminous Meteors 17 

Kew Additional Buildings for 

Photoheliograph 100 

Thermo-Electricity 15 

Analysis of Rocks 8 

Hydroida 10 

£ ib08 3 10 
1864. >==*. 
Maintaining the Establishment 

of Kew Observatory 600 

Coal Fossils 20 

Vertical Atmospheric Move- 
ments 20 

Dredging Shetland 75 

Dredging Northumberland 25 

Balloon Committee 200 

Carbon urider pressure 10 

Standards of Electric Resistance 100 

Analysis of Rocks 10 

Hydroida 10 

Askham's Gift 50 

Nitrite of Amyle 10 

Nomenclature Committee 5 

Rain-Gauges 19 15 8 

Cast-iron Investigation 20 

Tidal Observations in the Humber 50 

Spectral Rays 45 

Luminous Meteors 20 

jE "T289 15 8 

1855. "^ 
Maintaining the Establishment 

of Kew Observatory 600 

Balloon Committee 100 

Hydroida 13 



Ixx 



REPORT 18/0. 



Rain-Gauges 30 

Tidal Observations in the Humber 6 

Hexylic Compounds 20 

Aniyl Compounds 20 

Irish Flora 25 

American MoUusca 3 

Organic Acids 20 

Lingula Flags Excavation 10 

Eurypterus 50 

Electrical Standards 100 

Malta Caves Researches 30 

Oyster Breeding 25 

Gibraltar Caves Researches ... 150 

Kent's Hole Excavations 100 

Moon's Surface Observations ... 35 

Marine Fauna 25 

Dredging Aberdeenshire 25 

Dredging Channel Islands 50 

Zoological Nomenclature 5 

Resistance of Floating Bodies in 

Water 100 

Bath Waters Analysis 8 

Luminous Meteors 40 



s. 


d. 








8 























9 








(1 
















































































10 












1866. 
Maintaining the Establishment 

of Ke w Observatory 600 

Lunar Committee 64 

Balloon Committee 50 

Metrical Committee 50 

British Rainfall 50 

Kilkenny Coal Fields 16 

Alum Bay Fossil Leaf-Bed 15 

Luminous Meteors 50 

Lingnia Flags Excavation 20 

Chemical Constitution of Cast 

Iron 50 

Amyl Compounds 25 

Electrical Standards 100 

Malta Caves Exploration 30 

Kent's Mole Exploration 200 

Marine Fauna, &c., Devon and 

Cornwall 25 

Dredging Aberdeenshire Coast. . . 25 

Dredging Hebrides Coast 50 

Dredging the Mersey 5 

Resistance of Floating Bodies in 

AVater 50 

Polyeyanides of Organic Radi- 
cals 20 

Rigor Mortis 10 

Irish Annelida 15 

Catalogue of Crania 50 

Didine Birds of Mascarene Islands 50 

Typical Crania Researches 30 

Palestine Exploration Fund 100 



£1591 7 10 









13 


4 



















































































































































£1750 13 4 



1867. 

Maintaining the Establishment 

of Kew Observatory COO 

Meteorological Instruments, Pa- 
lestine 50 

Lunar Committee 120 



£ s. d. 

Metrical Committee 30 

Kent's Hole Explorations 100 

Palestine Explorations 50 

Insect Fauna, Palestine 30 

British Rainfall 50 

Kilkenny Coal Fields 25 

Alum Bay Fossil Leaf-Bed 25 

Luminous Meteors 50 

Bournemouth, &c. Leaf-Beds ... 30 

Dredging, Shetland 75 

Steamship Reports Condensation 100 

Electrical Standards 100 

Ethyle and Alethyle series 25 

Fossil Crustacea 25 

Sound under Water 24 4 

North Greenland Fauna 75 

Do. Plant Beds ... 100 

Iron and Steel Manufacture ... 25 

Patent Laws 30 

J1739 4 

1868. ^^^^^"^^ 
Maintaining the Establishment 

of Kew Observatory 600 

Lunar Committee 120 

Metrical Committee 50 

Zoological Record 100 

Kent's Hole Explorations 150 

Steamship Performances 100 

British Rainfall 50 

Luminous Meteors 50 

Organic Acids 60 

Fossil Crustacea 25 

Methyl series 25 

Mercury and Bile 25 

Organic remains in Limestone 

Rocks 25 

Scottish Earthquakes 20 

Fauna, Devon and Cornwall ... 30 

British Fossil Corals 50 

Bagshot Leaf-beds 50 

Greenland Explorations 100 

Fossil Flora .• 25 

Tidal Observations 100 

Underground Temperature 50 

Spectroscopic investigations of 

Animal Substances 5 

Secondary Reptiles, &c 30 

British Marine Invertebrate 

Fauna 100 

i:i940 

1869. ===^ 

Maintaining the Establishment 

of Kew Observatory 600 

Lunar Committee 50 

Metrical Committee 25 

Zoological Record 100 

Committee on Gases in Deep- 
well Water 25 

British Rainfall 50 

Thermal Conductivity of Iron, 

&c 30 

Kent's Hole Explorations 150 

Steamship Performances 30 



GENERAL MEETINGS. 



Ixxi 



£ s. d. 
Chemical Constitution of Cast 

Iron 80 

Iron and Steel Manufacture ... 100 

Methyl Series 30 

Organic remains in Limestone 

Rocks 10 

Earthquakes in Scotland 10 

British Fossil Corals 50 

Bagshot Leaf-Beds 30 

Fossil Flora 25 

Tidal Observations 100 

Underground Temperature 30 

Spectroscopic Investigations of 

Animal Substances 5 

Organic Acids 12 

Kiltorcan Fossils 20 

Chemical Constitution and Phy- 
siological Action Relations ... 15 

Mountain Limestone Fossils 25 

Utihzation of Sewage 10 

Products of Digestion 10 

£1622 



1870. 

£ s. d. 
Maintaining the Establishment of 

Kew Observatory 600 

Metrical Committee 25 

Zoological Record 100 

Committee on Marine Fauna ... 20 

Ears in Fishes 10 

Chemical nature of Cast iron ... 80 

Luminous Meteors 30 

Heat in the Blood 15 

British Rainfall 100 

Thermal Conductivity of Iron &c. 20 

British Fossil Corals." 50 

Kent's Hole Explorations 150 

Scottish Earthquakes 4 

Bagjhot Leaf-Beds 15 

Fossil Flora 25 

Tidal Observations 100 

Underground Temperature 50 

Kiltorcin Q larries I'osiiU 20 

Mountain Limestone Fossils ... 25 

Utilization of Sewage 50 

Organic Chemical Compounds... 30 

Onny River Sediment 3 

Mechanical Equivalent of Heat 50 

£1572 








































































































































Extracts from Resolutions of the General Committee. 

Committees and individuals, to whom grants of money have been entrusted 
by the Association for the prosecution of particular researches in Science, 
are required to present to each following Meeting of the Association a Report 
of the progress which has been made ; and the Individual or the Member first 
named of a Committee to whom a money grant has been made, must (pre- 
viously to the next meeting of the Association) forward to the General 
Secretaries or Treasurer a statement of the sums which have been expended, 
and the balance which remains disposable on each grant. 

Grants of money sanctioned at any one meeting of the Association expire 
a weelc before the opening of the ensuing Meeting; nor is the Treasurer 
authorized, after that date, to allow any claims on account of such grants, 
unless they be renewed in the original or a modified form by the General 
Committee. 

No Committee shall raise money in the name or under the ausinces of the 
British Association without special permission from the General Committee 
to do so ; and no money so raised shall be expended except in accordance 
with the rules of the Association. 

In each Committee, the Member first named is the only person entitled to 
caU on the Treasurer, W. Spottiswoode, Esq., 50 Grosvenor Place, London, 
S.W., for such portion of the sums granted as may from time to time be 
required. 

In grants of money to Committees, the Association does not contemplate 
the payment of personal expenses to the members. 
_ In all cases where additional grants of money are made for the continua- 
tion of Eesearches at the cost of the Association, the sum named is deemed 



Ixxii REPORT 1870. 

lo include, as a part of the amount, whatever balance may remain impaid on 
the former grant for the same object. 

All Instruments, Papers, Drawings, and other property of the Association 
are to be deposited at the Office of the Association, 22 Albemarle Street, 
Piccadilly, London, W., when not emploj-ed in carrying on scientific inquiries 
for the Association. 

General Meetings. 

On "Wednesday Evening, September 14, at 8 p.m., in the Philharmonic 
Hall, Professor G. G. Stokes, D.C.L., F.R.S., President, resigned the office of 
President to Professor T. H. Huxley, LL.D., F.R.S., F.L.S., &c., who took 
the Chair, and delivered an Address, for which see page Ixxiii. 

On Thursday Evening, September 15, at 8 p.m., a Soiree took place in 
the Free Public Library and iluseum. 

On Friday Evening, September 16, at 8.30 p.m., in the Philharmonic Hall, 
Prof. Tyudall, LL.D,, F.ll.S., delivered a Discourse on " The Scientific Use 
of the Imagination." 

On Saturday Evening, September 17, in the Music HaU, Lord Nelson 
Street, Sir John Lubbock, Bart., M.P., F.R.S. , delivered a Discourse on 
" Savages " to the Operative Classes of Liverpool. 

On Monday Evening, September 19, at 8.30 p.m., in the Philharmonic 
Hall, Professor W. J. Macquorn Rankine, LL.D., F.R S., delivered a Dis- 
course on " Stream-lines and Waves in connexion with Naval Architecture." 

On Tuesdav evening, September 20, at 8 p.m., a Soiree took place in the 
St. George's Hall. 

On Wednesday, September 21, at 2.30 p.m., the concluding General Meet- 
ing took place, when the Proceedings of the General Committee, and the 
Grants of Money for Scientific purposes, were explained to the Members. 

The Meeting was then adjourned to Edinburgh*. 

* The Meeting is appointed to take place on Wednesday, August 2, 187 L 



ADDRESS 



OF 



THOMAS HENRY HUXLEY, LL.D., E.E.S., 

PRESIDENT. 



Mr Lord?, L.vdies, and Gentleitex, 

It has long been tho custom for the newly installed President of the British 
Association for tho Advancement of Science to take advantage of the elevation 
of the position in which the suffrages of his colleagues had, for the time, 
placed him, and, casting his eyes around the horizon of the scientific world, 
to report to them what could be seen from his watch-tower ; in what direc- 
tions the multitudinous divisions of the noble army of the improvers of 
natural knowledge were marching ; what important strongholds of tlie great 
enemy of us all, Ignorance, had been recently captured ; and, also, with duo 
impartiality, to mark where the advanced posts of science had been driven 
in, or a long-continued siege had made no progress. 

I jjropose to endeavour to follow this ancient precedent, in a manner suited 
to the limitations of my knowledge and of my capacity. I shall not presume to 
attempt a panoramic survey of the world of Science, nor oven to give a sketch 
of what is doing in the one great province of Biology, with some portions of 
which my ordinary occupations render me familiar. But I shall endeavour 
to put before you the history of the rise and progress of a single biological 
doctrine ; and I shall try to give some notion of the fruits, both intellectual 
and practical, which we owe, directly or indirectly, to the working out, by 
seven generations of patient and laborious investigators, of the thought 
which arose, more than two centuries ago, in the mind of a sagacious and 
observant Italian naturalist. 

It is a matter of every day experience that it is difficult to prevent 
many articles of food from becoming covered with mould ; that fruit, sound 
enough to aU appearance, often contains grubs at the core ; that meat, left to 
itself in the air, is apt to putrefy and swarm with maggots. Even ordinary 
water, if allowed to stand in an ojjen vessel, sooner or later ^becomes turbid 
and full of living matter. 

The philosophers of antiquity, interrogated as to the cause of these pheno- 
mena, were provided with a ready and a plausible answer. It did not enter 
their minds even to doubt that these low forms of life were generated in the 
matters in which they made their appearance. Lucretius, who had drank 
deeper of the scientific spirit than any poet of ancient or modern times ex- 

1870. / 



Ixxiv REPORT 1870. 

cept Goethe, intends to speak as a philosopher, rather than as a poet, when 
he writes that " with good reason the earth has gotten the name of mother, 
since all things arc produced out of the earth. And many living creatures, 
even now, spring out of the earth, taking form by the rains and the heat of 
the sun"*. The axiom of ancient science, " that the corruption of one thing 
is the birth of another," had its popular embodiment in the notion that a seed 
dies before the young plant springs from it ; a belief so widespread and so 
fixed, that Saint Paul appeals to it in one of the most splendid outbursts of 
his fervid eloquence : — 

" Thou fool, that which thou sowest is not quickened, except it die"t. 

The proposition that life may, and does, proceed from that which has no 
life, then, was held alike by the philosophers, the poets, and the people, of the 
most enlightened nations, eighteen hundred years ago ; and it remained the 
accepted doctrine of learned and unlearned Europe, through the Middle Ages, 
down even to the seventeenth century. 

It is commonly counted among the many merits of our great country- 
man, Harvey, that he was the first to declare the opposition of fact to vene- 
rable authority in this, as in other matters ; biit I can discover no justification 
for tWs widespread notion. After careful search through the ' Exercita- 
tiones de Generatione,' the most that appears clear to me is, that Harvey 
believed all animals and plants to spring from what he terms a " primor- 
clium vegetale," a phrase which may nowadays be rendered " a vegetative 
germ ; " and this, he says, is " oviforme," or " egg-like ; " not, he is 
careful to add, that it necessarily has the shape of an egg, but because 
it has the constitution and nature of one. That this " prhnordium oviforme" 
must needs, in all cases, proceed from a living parent is nowhere expressly 
maintained by Harvey, though such an opinion may be thought to be implied 
in one or two passages; while, on the other hand, he does, more than once, 
use language which is consistent only with a full belief in spontaneous or 
equivocal generation t- In fact, the main concern of Harvey's wonderful 
little treatise is not with generation, in the physiological sense, at all, 
but with development ; and his great object is the establishment of the 
doctrine of epigeuesis. 

The first distinct enunciation of the hyjiothesis that all living matter has 
sprung from preexisting living matter, came from a contemporary, though a 
junior, of Harvey, a native of that countiy, fertile in men great in all de- 
partments of human activity, which was to intellectual Europe in the six- 

* It is thus that Mr. Munro renders : — 

" Linquitur, ut merito niaternum nomen adepta 
Terra sit, e terra quoniam sunt cuneta creata. 
Multaque nunc etiam exsistunt animalia terris 
Imbribus et calido solis concreta vapore." 

De Rerum Natura, lib. v. 793-79G. 

But TTOuld not the menning of the last line be better rendered " Developed in rain-water 
and in the warm vapours raised by the sun ? " f 1 Corinthians, iv. 36. 

\ See the following passage in Exercitatio I. : — "Item sponfe nasccniia AKuniwr; non 
quod ex 2}i(fredine oriunda sint : sed quod casu, naturaj sponte, et a^quivocS. (ut aiunt) 
generatione, a parentibus sui dissimilibus proveniant." Again, in ' De Uteri Membranis' : — 
" In cunctorum viventivim generatione (sicut diximus) hoc solenne est, ut ortum ducunt a 
primordio aliquo, quod turn mnteriam turn efficiendi potestatem in se habet; sitque adeo 
id, ex quo et a quo quicquid nascitur, ortum suum ducat. Tale primordium in anima- 
libus {sive ab aliis generantibus 2>^'ovenianf, sive spotife, cnit c.v puti-cdhw iiasccntur) est 
humor in tunica aliqua aut putamine conclusus." Compare also what Eedi has to say 
respecting Harvey's opinions, 'Esperienzc,' p. 11. 



ADDRESS. IxXV 

tecnth and seventeenth centuries ■what Germany is in the nineteenth. 
It was in Italy, and from Italian teachers, that Harvey received the most 
important part of his scientific education. And it was a student trained in the 
same schools, Francesco Eedi — a man of the widest knowledge and most versa- 
tile abilities, distinguished alike as scholar, poet, physician, and natru'alist, — 
who, just two hundred and two years ago, pubhshed his ' Esperienze intorno 
alia Generazione degl' Insetti,' and gave to the world the idea, the growth of 
which it is my purpose to trace. Eedi's book went through five editions in 
twenty years ; and the extreme simplicity of his experiments, and the clear- 
ness of his arguments, gained for his views, and for their consequences, 
almost universal acceptance. 

Eedi did not trouble himself much with speculative considerations, but 
attacked particular cases of what was supposed to be " spontaneous genera- 
tion " experimentally. Here are dead animals, or pieces of meat, says he ; 
I expose them to the air in hot weather, and in a few days they swarm with 
maggots. You tell me that these are generated in the clead flesh ; but if I 
put similar bodies, while quite fresh, into a jar, and tie some fine gauze 
over the top of the jar, not a maggot makes its appearance, while the 
dead substances, nevertheless, putrefy just in the same way as before. 
It is obvious, therefore, that the maggots are not generated by the cor- 
ruption of the meat ; and that the cause of their formation must be a some- 
thing which is kept away by gauze. But gauze will not keep away aeriform 
bodies, or fluids. This something must, therefore, exist in the form of sohd 
particles too big to get through the gauze. Nor is one long left in doubt 
what these solid particles are ; for the blowflies, attracted by the odour of the 
meat, swarm round the vessel and, urged by a powerful but, in this case, 
misleading instinct, lay eggs, out of which maggots are immediately hatched, 
upon the gauze. The conclusion, therefore, is unavoidable; the maggots are 
not generated by the meat, but the eggs which give rise to them are brought 
through the air by the flies. 

These experiments seem almost childishly simple, and one wonders how it 
was that no one ever thought of them before. Simple as they are, however, 
they are worthy of the most careful study, for every piece of experimental 
work since done, in regard to this subject, has been shaped upon the model 
furnished by the Italian philosopher. As the results of his experiments 
were the same, however varied the nature of the materials he used, it is 
not wonderful that there arose in Eedi's mind a presumption, that in all 
such cases of the seeming production of life from dead matter, the real ex- 
planation was the introduction of living germs from without into that dead 
matter*. And thus the hypothesis that living matter always arises by the 

* " Pure contentandomi sempre in questa ed in ciascuna altra cosa, da ciascuno piu 
savio, la dove io dii'ettuosamente parlassi, esser corretto ; non tacero, che per molte osser- 
vazioni molti volti da me fatte, rvA sento inclinato a credere cbe la terra, da quelle prime 
piante, e da quel primi animali in poi, che ella nei primi giorni del mondo produsse per 
comandemento del sovrano ed omnipotente Fattore, non abbia mai piii prodotto da se 
medesima ne erba ne albero, ne animale alciino perfetto o imperfetto cbe ei se fosse ; e 
che tutto quello, che ne' tempi trapassati e nato e che era nascere in lei, o da lei veggiamo, 
venga tutto dalla semenza reale e vera delle j)iante, e degli animali stessi, i quali col 
mezzo del proprio seme la loro spezie conservano. E se bene tutto giorno scorghiamo 
da' cadaveri degli animali, e da tutte quante le maniere dell' erbe, e de' fiori, e dei frutti im- 
putriditi, e corrotti nascere vermi infiniti — 

Nonne vides qurecunque mora, fluidoquo calore 
Corpora tabescunt in parra auimalia verti — 
Io mi sento, dice, inclinato a credere cbe tutti quei vermi si generino dal seme 

/2 



Ixxvi REPORT 1870. 

agency of preexisting liviug matter, took definite shape ; and had, hence- 
forward, a right to be considered and a claim to be refuted, in each particular 
case, before the production of li\dug matter in any other way could be 
admitted by careful reasoncrs. It will be necessary for me to refer to this 
hypothesis so fre(iuently, that, to save circumlocution, I shall call it the 
hypothesis oi Biogenesis ; and I shall term the contrary doctrine — ^that living 
matter may be produced by not living matter — the hypothesis of Ahiogenesis. 
In the seventeenth ceutury, as I have said, the latter was the dominant 
view, sanctioned alike by antiquity and by authority; and it is interesting to 
observe that Kedi did not escape the customary tax upon a discoverer of 
having to defend himself against the charge of impugning the authority of 
the Scriptures * ; for his adversaries declared that the generation of bees 
from the carcass of a dead lion is affirmed, in the book of Judges, to have 
been the origin of the famous riddle with which Samson perplexed the 
Philistiaes : 

" Out of the eater came forth meat, 
And out of the strong came forth sweetness." 

Against all odds, however, Hedi, strong with the strength of demonstrable 
fact, did splendid battle for Biogenesis ; but it is remarkable that he held the 
doctrine in a sense which, if ho had lived in these times, would have infallibly 
caused him to be classed among the defenders of " spontaneous generation." 
" Omne vivum ex vivo," " no life without antecedent life," aphoristically 
sums up B-edi's doctrine ; but he went no further. It is most remark- 
able evidence of the philosophic caution and impartiality of his mind, that, 
although he had speculativel)' anticipated the manner in which grubs really 
are deposited in fruits and in the galls of plants, he deliberately admits that 
the evidence is insufficient to bear him out ; and he therefore prefers the 
supposition that they are generated by a modification of the living substance 
of the plants themselves. Indeed, he regards these vegetable growths as 
organs, by means of which the plant gives rise to an animal, and looks upon 
this production of specific animals as the final cause of the galls and of, at 
any rate some, fruits. And he proposes to explain the occurrence of para- 
sites within the animal body in the same way t. 

paterno ; e che le cami, e I'erbe, e I'altrc cose tutte putrefatte, o putrefattibili non facciano 
altra parte, nij abbiano altro ufizio nella generazione degl' insctti, se non d'apprestiire uii 
luogo o un nido proporzionato, in cui dagli animali nel tempo della fighatura sieno por- 
tati, e partoriti i vermi, o I'uova o I'altre semenze dei vermi, i quali tosto che nati sono, 
trovano in esso nido un sufRciente alimento abilissimo per nutricarsi : e se in quello non 
son portate dalle madri queste suddette semenze, niente mai, e replicatamente niente, vi 
s'ingegneri e nasca." — Redi, Esj^cr/ence, pp. 14-16. 

* " Molti, e molti altri ancora vi potrei annoverare, se non fossi chiamato a rispondero 
alle rampogne di alcuni, che bruscamente mi rammentano cio, che si legge nel capitolo 
quattordicesimo del sacrosanto Libro de' giudici " — Redi, I. c. p. 45. 

t The passage (Esperienze, p. 129) is •n-orth quoting in full: — 
'" " Se dovessi palesarvi il mio sentimento crederei che i frutti, i legumi, gli alberi e lo 
foglie, in due maniere inverminassero. Una, perchc renendo i bachi per di fuora, e cer- 
cando I'alimento, col rodere ci aprono la strada, ed arrivano alia piu interna midolla de' 
frutti e de' legni. L'altra maniera si e, die io per me stimerei, che non fosse gran fatto 
disdicerole il credere, che quell' anima o quella virtu, la quale genera i fieri ed i frutti nelle 
piante viventi, sia quella stessa che generi ancora i baelii di esse piante. E chi sa forse, 
che molti frutti degli alberi non sieno prodotti, non per un flue primario e principale, nia 
bcnsi per un uffizio secondario e servile, destinato alia generazione di que' vermi, servendo 
a loro in vece di matrice, in cui dimorino un prefisso e determinate tempo ; 11 quale arri- 
vato escan fuora a godere il sole. 
I " Io m' immagino, che questo mio pensiero non vi parra totalmente un paradosso ; mentre 



ADDRESS. Ixxvii 

It is of great importance to apprehend Redi's position rightly; for 
the lines of thought he laid down for lis are those upon which naturalists 
have heen working ever since. Clearly, he held Biogenesis as against Abio- 
genesis ; and I shall immediately proceed, in the first place, to inquu-o how 
far subsequent investigation has borne him out in so doing. 

But Eedi also thought that there were two modes of Biogenesis. By the 
one method, which is that of common and ordinary occurrence, the living 
parent gives rise to offspring which passes through the same cycle of changes 
as itself — like gives rise to like ; and this has been termed Homogeyiesis. 
By the other mode, the living parent was supposed to give rise to offspring 
which passed through a totally different series of states from those exhibited 
by the parent, and did not return into the cycle of the parent : this is what 
ought to be called Heterogenesis, the offspring being altogether, and perma- 
nently, unlike the parent. The term Heterogenesis, however, has unfor- 
tunately been used in a different sense, and M. Milne-Edwards has there- 
fore substituted for it Xenogenesis, which means the generation of something 
foreign. After discussing Eedi's hypothesis of universal Biogenesis, then, 
I shall go on to ask how far the growth of science justifies his other hypo- 
thesis of Xenogenesis. 

The progress of the hypothesis of Biogenesis was triumphant and un- 
checked for nearly a century. The application of the microscoi^e to anatomy 
in the hands of Grew, Leeuwcnhoek, Swammerdam, Lyonet, Yallisnieri, 
Eeaumur, and other illustrious investigators of nature of that day, displayed 
such a complexity of organization in the lowest and minutest forms, and 
everywhere revealed such a prodigality of provision for their multiplication 
by germs of one sort or another, that the hypothesis of Abiogenesis began 
to appear not only untrue, but absurd ; and in the middle of the eighteenth 
century, w'hen Needham and Buffon took up the question, it was almost 
universally discredited*. 

farete riflepsione a quelle tante sorte cli galle, tli gallozzole, di coccole, di ricci, di calici, di 
conietU di hipjjole, clie son produtte dalle querce, dalle farnie, da' cerri, da' sugberi, da' 
lecci e da altri simili alberi da ghianda ; impercioccbe in quelle gallozzole, o particolar- 
mentc nolle piii grosse, clie si cbiamano coronati, ne' ricci capelluti. clie ciuffoli da' nostri 
conladini fon dctti; nei ricci legnosi del cerro, ne' ricci stellati della quercia, nelle galluzze 
dclla foglia del leccio si vede evidentissimamente, clie la prima e principale intcnzione 
della nalura e formare dentro di quelle un animale volante ; vedendosi nel centre della 
gallozzola un novo, che col crescere e col maturarsi di essa gallozzola va crescendo e matu- 
rando anch' egli, e cresce altresi a sue tempo quel verme, che nell' novo si racchiude ; il qual 
verme, quando la gallozzola e finita di niaturare e clie e venuto il terniine destinato al 

8uo nascimento, diventa, di verme che era, una mosca lo vi confesso ingenua- 

mente, che prima d'aver fatte queste mie esperienze intorno alia generazione degl' insetti 
mi dava a credere, o per dir meglio sospettava, che forse la gallozzola nascesse, perche 
arrivando la mosca ncl tempo della primavera, e facendo una piccolissima fessura ne' rami 
pill teneri della quercia, in quella fessura nascondesse uno de suoi semi, il quale fosgo 
cagione che sbocciasse fuora la gallozzola ; e che mai non si vedessero galle o gallozzole o 
ricci o cometti o calici o coccole, se non in que' rami, ne' quali le moscbe avessero depositato 
le loro semenze ; e mi dava ad intendere, che le gallozzole fossero una malattia cagionata 
nelle querce dalle punture delle mosche, in quella giiisa stessa che dalle punture d' altri 
animaletti simiglievoli veggiamo crescere de' tumori ne' corpi degli animali." 

* Needham, wi-iting in 1750, says : — ■ 

" Les naturalistes modemcs s'accordent unanimcment a etablir, crmimc une T^rit^ cer- 
taine, que toute plante vient de sa semence specifique, tout animal d'un couf ou de queJ- 
que chose d'analogue preexistant dans la plante, ou dans I'animal de meme espece qui 1 a 
produit." — Nov.velles Observations, p. 169. 

" Les naturalistes ont generalement cru que les animaux mieroscopiques ^talent engen- 
dr^s par dcs ocufs transportes dans I'air, ou deposes dans des eaus dormautes par des 
insectes Tolans." — Ibid. p. 176. 



Ixxviii REPORT — 1870. 

But the skill of the microscope-makers of the eighteenth century soon 
reached its limit. A microscope magnifying 400 diameters was a chef- 
cVceuvre of the opticians of that day, and, at the same time, by no means 
trustworthy. But a magnifying-power of 400 diameters, even when de- 
finition reaches the exquisite perfection of our modern achromatic lenses, 
hardly suffices for the mere discernment of the smallest forms of life. A 
speck, only ^^ of an inch in diameter, has, at 10 inches from the eye, the 
same apparent size as an object , ^^m„ of an inch in diameter, when mag- 
nified 400 times ; but forms of living matter abound the diameter of which is 
not more than ^nroinr '^^ ^^ inch. A filtered infusion of hay, allowed to 
stand for two days, will swarm with living thiiigs, among which any which 
reaches the diameter of a human red blood-corpuscle, or about .^ .,\ ^ of an 
inch, is a giant. It is only by bearing these facts in mind that we can deal 
fairly with the remarkable statements and speculations put forward by Buifon 
and Needham in the middle of the eighteenth century. 

"When a portion of any animal or vegetable body is infused in water, it 
gradually softens and disintegrates ; and, as it does so, the water is found to 
swarm with minute active creatures, the so-called Infusorial Animalcules, none 
of which can be seen, except by the aid of the microscope ; while a large pro- 
portion belong to the category of smallest things of which I have spoken, 
and which must have aU looked like mere dots and lines under the ordinary 
microscopes of the eighteenth century. 

Led by various theoretical considerations which I cannot now discuss, but 
which looked promising enough in the lights of that day, Buftbn and Need- 
ham doubted the applicability of Eedi's hypothesis to the infusorial animal- 
cules, and jS^eedham very properly endeavoured to put the question to an ex- 
perimental test. He said to himself, if these infusorial animalcules come 
from germs, their germs must exist either in the substance infused, or in the 
water with which the infusion is made, or in the superjacent air. Now the 
vitality of all germs is destroyed by heat. Therefore, if I boil the infusion, 
cork it up carefully, cementing the cork over with mastic, and then heat the 
whole vessel by heaping hot ashes over it, I must needs kill whatever germs 
are present. Consequently, if Redi's hypothesis hold good, when the infu- 
sion is taken away and allowed to cool, no animalcules ought to be developed 
in it ; whereas, if the animalcules are not dependent on preexisting germs, 
but are generated from the infused substance, they ought, by-and-by, to make 
their appearance. Needham found that, under the circumstances in which 
he made his experiments, animalcules always did arise in the infusions, when 
a sufficient time had elapsed to aUow for their development. 

In much of his work Needham was associated with Buflbn, and the results 
of their experiments fitted in admirably with the great French naturalist's 
hypothesis of " organic molecules," according to which, life is the indefeasi- 
ble property of certain indestructible molecides of matter, which exist in aU 
living things, and have inherent activities by which they are distinguished 
from not living matter. Each individual living organism is formed by their 
temporary combination. They stand to it in the relation of the particles of 
water to a cascade, or a whirlpool ; or to a mould, into which the water is 
poured. The form of the organism is thus determined by the reaction be- 
tween external conditions and the inherent acti%'ities of the organic mole- 
cules of which it is composed ; and, as the stoppage of a whirlpool destroys 
nothing but a form, and leaves the molecules of the water with aU their 
inherent activities intact, so, what we call the death and putrefaction of an 
animal, or of a plant, is merely the breaking up of the form, or manner of 



ADDRESS. Ixxix 

association, of its constitxient organic molecules, wliich are then sot free as 
infusorial animalcules. 

It will be perceived that this doctrine is by no means identical ^vith 
Abiogenesis, with which it is often confounded. On this hypothesis, a piece 
of beef, or a handful of hay, is dead only in a limited sense. The beef is 
dead ox, and the hay is dead grass ; but the " organic molecules " of the beef 
or the hay are not dead, but are ready to manifest their vitality as soon as 
the bovine or herbaceous shrouds in wliich they are imprisoned are rent by 
the macerating action of water. The hypothesis therefore must be classified 
under Xenogenesis, rather than under Abiogenesis. Such as it was, I think 
it will appear, to those who will be just enough to remember that it was pro- 
pounded before the birth of modern chemistry and of the modern optical arts, 
to be a most ingenious and suggestive speculation. 

But the great tragedy of Science — the slapng of a beautiful hypothesis 
by an ugly fact — which is so constantly being enacted under the eyes of phi- 
losophers, was played, almost immediately, for the benefit of Bufi'ou and 
Needham. 

Once more, an Italian, the Abbe SpaUanzani, a worthy successor and repre- 
sentative of Eedi in his acuteness, his ingenuity, and his learning, subjected 
the experiments and the conclusions of Keedham to a searching criticism. 
It might be true that Needham's experiments yielded results such as he had 
described, but did they bear out his arguments ? Was it not possible, in the 
first place, that he had not completely excluded the air by his corks and 
mastic ? And was it not possible, in the second place, that he had not suf- 
ficiently heated his infusions and the superjacent air ? SpaUanzani joined 
issue with the English naturalist on both these pleas ; and he showed that 
if, in the first place, the glass vessels in which the infusions were contained 
were hermetically sealed by fusing their necks ; and if, in the second place, 
they were exposed to the temperature of boiling water for three-quarters of 
an hour *, no animalcules ever made their appearance within them. It must 
be admitted that the experiments and arguments of SpaUanzani furnish a 
complete and a crushing reply to those of J^Ieedham. But we aU too often 
forget that it is one thing to refute a proposition, and another to prove the 
truth of a doctrine which implicitly, or expUcitly, contradicts that proposition ; 
and the advance of science soon showed that though ISTeedham might be quite 
wrong, it did not foUow that SpaUanzani was quite right. 

Modern Chemistiy, the birth of the latter half of the eighteenth century, 
grew apace, and soon found herself face to face with the great problems 
which Biology had vainly tried to attack without her help. The discovery 
of oxygen led to the laying of the foundations of a scientific theory of re- 
spu-ation, and to an examination of the marveUous interactions of organic 
substances with oxygen. The presence of free oxygen appeared to be one 
of the conditions of the existence of life, and of those singular changes in 
organic matters which are known as fermentation and imtrefaction. The 
question of the generation of the infusoiy animalcules thus passed into a 
new phase. For what might not have happened to the organic matter of the 
infusions, or to the oxygen of the air, in SpaUanzani's experiments ? What 
security was there that the development of life which ought to have taken 
place had not been checked, or prevented, by these changes ? 

The battle had to be fought again. It was needful to repeat the expe- 
riments under conditions which would make sure that neither the oxygen 

* See SpaUanzani, ' Opere,' vi. pp. 42 & 51. 



IxXX BEPORT 1870. 

of the air, nor the composition of the organic matter, ■was altered, in such a 
manner as to interfere with the existence of life. 

Schulze and Schwann took up the question from this point of view in 
1836 and 1837. The passage of air through red-hot glass tubes, or through 
strong sulphuric acid, does not alter the proportion of its oxygen, while it 
must needs arrest, or destroy, any organic matter which may be contained in 
the air. These experimenters, therefore, contrived arrangements by which 
the only air which should come into contact Avith a boiled infusion should be 
such as had either passed through red-hot tubes, or through strong sulphuric 
acid. The result which they obtained was that an infusion so treated deve- 
loped no living things, while if the same infusion was afterwards exposed to 
the air such things appeared rapidly and abundantly. The accuracy of these 
experiments has been alternately denied and aiFirmed. Supposing them to 
be accepted, however, all that they really proved was, that the treatment to 
which the air was subjected destroyed something that was essential to the 
development of life in the infusion. This " something " might be gaseous, 
fluid, or solid; that it consisted of germs remained only an hypothesis of 
greater or less probability. 

Contemporaneously with these investigations a remarkable discovery was 
made by Cagniard de la Tour. He found that common yeast is composed of 
a vast accumulation of minute plants. The fermentation of must, or of wort, 
in the fabrication of wine and of beer, is always accompanied by the rapid 
growth and multiplication of these Toridce. Thus fermentation, in so far as 
it was accompanied by the development of microscopical organisms in enormous 
numbers, became assimilated to the decomposition of an infusion of ordinary 
animal or vegetable matter ; and it was an obvious suggestion that the 
organisms were, in some way or other, the causes both of fermentation and of 
putrefaction. The chemists, with Berzelius and Liebig at their head, at first 
laughed this idea to scorn; but in 1843, a man then very young, who has 
since performed the unexampled feat of attaining to high eminence alike iu 
Mathematics, Physics, and Physiology, — I speak of the illustrious Helmholtz 
— reduced the matter to the test of experiment by a method alike elegant 
and conclusive. Helmholtz separated a putrefying, or a fermenting liquid, 
from one which was simply putrescible, or fermentable, by a membrane, which 
allowed the fluids to pass through and become intermixed, but stopi)ed the 
passage of solids. The result was, that while the putrescible, or the 
fermentable, liquids became impregnated with the results of the putrescence, 
or fermentation, which was going on on the other side of the membrane, they 
neither putrefied (in the ordinary way) nor fermented ; nor were any of the 
organisms which abounded in the fermenting, or putrefying, liquid generated 
in them. Therefore, the caiise of the development of these organisms must 
lie in something which cannot pass through membrane; and as Helmholtz's 
investigations were long antecedent to Graham's researches upon colloids, his 
natural conclusion was, that the agent thus intercepted must be a solid ma- 
terial. In point of fact, Helmholtz's experiments narrowed the issue to this : 
that which excites fermentation and putrefaction, and at the same time gives 
rise to living forms iu a fermentable, or putrescible, fluid, is not a gas and is 
not a diff'usiblo fluid ; therefore it is either a colloid, or it is matter divided 
into very miniite solid particles. 

The researches of Schroeder and Dusch in 1854, and of Schroeder alone in 
1859, cleared wp this point by experiments which are simply refinements 
upon those of Eedi. A lump of cotton-wool is, physically speaking, a pile of 
many thicknesses of a very fine gauze, the fineness of the meshes of which 



ADDRESS. Ixxxi 

depends upon the closeness of the compression of the wool. Now, Schrocder 
and Dusch found, that, in the case of all the putrefiable materials which they 
used (except milk and yolk of egg), an infusion boiled, and then allowed to 
come into contact with no air but such as had been filtered through cotton- 
wool, neither putrefied nor fermented, nor developed living forms. It 
is hard to imagine what the fine sieve formed by the cotton-wool could 
have stopped except miniite solid particles. Still the evidence was incom- 
plete until it had been positively shown, first, that ordinary air does contain 
such particles ; and, secondly, that filtration through cotton-wool arrests 
these particles and allows only physically pure air to pass. This demon- 
stration has been furnished within the last year by the remarkable experi- 
ments of Professor Tj'ndall. It has been a common objection of Abiogenists 
that, if the doctrine of Biogeny is true, the air must be thick with germs ; and 
they regard this as the height of absurdity. Eut Nature occasionally is ex- 
ceedingly unreasonable, and Professor Tyndall has proved that this particular 
absurdity may nevertheless be a reality. He has demonstrated that ordinary 
air is no better than a sort of stirabout of excessively minute sohd particles ; 
that these particles are almost wholly destructible by heat; and that they are 
strained off, and the air rendered optically p\ire, by being passed through 
cotton-wool. 

Eut it remains yet in the order of logic, though not of history, to show 
that, among these solid destructible particles, there really do exist germs 
capable of giving rise to the development of living forms in suitable menstrua. 
This piece of work was done by M. Pasteur in those beautiful researches 
which will ever render his name famous ; and which, in spite of all attacks 
upon them, appear to mo now, as they did seven years ago*, to be 
models of accurate experimentation and logical reasoning. He strained air 
through cotton-wool, and found, as Schrocder and Dusch had done, that it 
contained nothing competent to give rise to the development of life in fluids 
highly fitted for that purpose. Eut the important further links in the chain 
of evidence added by Pasteur are three. In the first place, he subjected to 
microscopic examination the cotton-wool which had served as strainer, 
and found that sundry bodies, clearly recognizable as germs, were among 
the solid particles strained off. Secondly, he proved that these germs 
Avcre competent to give rise to living forms by simply sowing them in a solution 
fitted for their development. And, thirdly, he showed, that the incapacity of 
air straiued through cotton-wool to give rise to life, was not due to any occult 
change eflPected in constituents of the air by the wool, by proving that the 
cotton-wool might be dispensed with altogether, and perfectly free access left 
between the exterior air and that in the experimental flask. If the neck of 
the flask is drawn out into a tube and bent downwards ; and if, after the con- 
tained fluid has been carefully boiled, the tube is heated sufficiently to destroy 
any germs which may be present in the air which enters as the fluid cools, 
the apparatus may be left to itself for any time, and no Hfe will appear in 
the fluid. The reason is plain. Although there is free communication 
between the atmosphere laden with germs and the germless air in the flask, 
contact between the two takes place only in the tube ; and as the germs 
cannot fall upwards, and there are no currents, they never reach the interior 
of the flask. But if the tube be broken short off where it proceeds from the 
flask, and free access be thus given to germs falling vertically out of the air, 

* " Lectures to Working Men on the Causes of the Phenomena of Organic Nature," 
1863. ° 



Ixxxii REPORT — 1870. 

the fluid whicli has remained clear and desert for months, becomes, in a few 
days, turbid and full of Ufe. 

These experiments have been repeated over and over again by independent 
observers with entire success ; and there is one very simple mode of seeing 
the facts for one's self, which I may as well describe. 

Prepare a solution (much used by M. Pasteur, and often called " Pasteur's 
solution ") composed of water with tartrate of ammonia, sugar, and yeast-ash 
dissolved therein*. Divide it into three portions in as many flasks ; boU all 
three for a quarter of an hour; and, while the steam is passing out, stop the 
neck of one with a large plug of cotton-wool, so that this also may be 
thoroughly steamed. Now set the flasks aside to cool, and when their 
contents are cold, add to one of the open ones a drop of filtered infusion of 
hay which has stood for twenty-four hours, and is consequently full of the 
active and excessively minute organisms known as Bactei-ia. In a couple of 
days of ordinary warm weather, the contents of this flask will be milky, 
from the enormous multiplication of Bacteria. The other flask, open and 
exposed to the air, will, sooner or later, become milky with Bacteria, and 
patches of mould may appear in it ; while the liquid in the flask, the 
neck of which is plugged with cotton-wool, wUl remain clear for an inde- 
finite time. I have sought in vain for any explanation of these facts, 
except the obvious one, that the air contains germs, competent to give rise to 
Bacteria, such as those with which the first solution has been knowingly and 
purposely inoculated, and to the mould Funr/i. And I have not yet been 
able to meet with any advocate of Abiogenesis who seriously maintains that 
the atoms of sugar, tartrate of ammonia, yeast-ash, and water, under no 
influence but that of free access of air and the ordinary temperature, rear- 
range themselves and give rise to the protoplasm of Bacterium. But the 
alternative is to admit that these Bacteria arise from germs in the air ; and if 
they are thus propagated, the burden of proof, that other like forms are gene- 
rated in a different manner, must rest with the assertor of that proposition. 

To sum up the effect of this long chain of evidence : — 

It is demonstrable, that a fluid eminently fit for the development of the 
lowest forms of life, but which contains neither germs nor any protein com- 
pound, gives rise to living things in great abundance if it is exposed to 
ordinary air ; while no such development takes place if the air with which 
it is in contact is mechanically freed from the solid particles, which ordinarily 
float in it and which may be made visible by appropriate means. 

It is demonstrable, that the great majority of these particles are de- 
structible by heat, and that some of them are germs, or living particles, 
capable of giving rise to the same forms of life as those which appear when 
the fluid is exposed to unpurified air. 

It is demonstrable, that inoculation of the experimental fluid with a drop 
of hquid known to contain living particles gives rise to the same phenomena 
as exposure to unpurified au\ 

And it is fiuther certain that these living particles are so minute that the 
assumption of their suspension in ordinary air presents not the slightest 
difficulty. On the contrary, considering their lightness and the wide 
diftusion of the organisms which produce them, it is impossible to conceive 
that they should not be suspended in the atmosphere in myriads. 

Thus the evidence, direct and indirect, in favour of Biogenesis for aU 
known forms of life must, I think, be admitted to be of great weight. 

* Infusion of hay, treated in the same way, yiekls similar results ; but as it contains 
organic matter, the argument which follows cannot be based upon it. 



ADDRESS. Ixxxiii 

On the other side, the sole assertions worthy of attention are, that 
hermetically sealed flnids, which have been exposed to great and long- 
continued heat, have sometimes exhibited living forms of low organiza- 
tion when they have been opened. 

The fii'st reply that suggests itself is the probability that there must 
be some error about these experiments, because they are performed on an 
enormous scale every day, with quite contrary results. Meat, fruits, vege- 
tables, the very materials of the most fermentable and putresciblc infusions, 
are preserved to the extent, I suppose I may say, of thousands of tons every 
year, by a method which is a mere application of Spallanzani's experiment. 
The matters to be preserved are well boiled in a tin case provided with a 
small hole, and this hole is soldered up when all the aii' in the case has 
been replaced by steam. By this method they may be kept for years, with- 
out putrefying, fermenting, or getting mouldy. Now this is not because 
oxygen is excluded, inasmuch as it is now proved that free oxygen is not 
necessary for either fermentation or putrefaction. It is not because the 
tins are exhausted of air, for Vibriones and Bacteria live, as Pasteur has 
shown, without air or free oxygen. It is not because the boiled meats or 
vegetables are not putrescible or fermentable, as those who have had the 
misfortune to be in a ship supplied with unskilfully closed tins well know. 
"What is it, therefore, but the exclusion of germs ? I think that Abio- 
genists are bound to answer this question before they ask us to consider 
new experiments of precisely the same order. 

And in the next place, if the results of the experiments I refer to are reaUy 
trustworthy, it by no means follows that abiogenesis has taken place. The 
resistance of living matter to heat is known to vary within considerable 
limits, and to depend, to some extent, upon the chemical and physical qualities 
of the surrounding medium. But if, in the present state of science, the al- 
ternative is offered us, either germs can stand a greater heat than has been 
supposed, or the molecules of dead matter, for no valid or intelligible reason 
that is assigned, are able to rearrange themselves into liviug bodies, exactly 
such as can be demonstrated to be frequently produced in another way, I 
cannot understand how choice can be, even for a moment, doubtful. 

But though I cannot express this conviction of mine too strongly, I must 
carefully guard myself against the supposition that I intend to suggest that no 
such thing as abiogenesis ever has taken place in the past, or ever will take 
place in the futui-e. "With organic chemistry, molecular physics, and phy- 
siology yet in their infancy, and every day making prodigious strides, I 
think it would be the height of presumption for any man to say that the 
conditions under which matter assumes the properties we call " vital " may 
not, some day, be artificially brought together. All I feel justified in affirm- 
ing is, that I see no reason for believing that the feat has been performed 
yet. 

And, looking back through the prodigious vista of the past, I find no record 
of the commencement of Kfe, and therefore I am devoid of any means of 
forming a definite conclusion as to the conchtious of its appearance. Belief, 
in the scientific sense of the word, is a serious matter, and needs strong 
foundations. To say, therefore, in the admitted absence of evidence, that 
I have any belief as to the mode in which the existing forms of life have 
originated, would be using words in a wrong sense. But expectation is per- 
missible where belief is not ; and if it were given me to look beyond the 
abyss of geologically recorded time to the still more remote period when the 
earth was passing through physical and chemical conditions, which it can no 



Ixxxiv REPORT 1870. 

more see again than a man can recall his infancy, I should expect to he a 
•witness of the evolution of living protoplasm from not living matter. I 
should expect to see it appear under forms of great simplicitj', endowed, like 
existing Fungi, with the power of determining the formation of new pro- 
toplasm from such matters as ammonium carbonates, oxalates and tartrates, 
alkaline and earthy phosphates, and water, without the aid of light. That 
is the expectation to which analogical reasoning leads me ; but I beg j-ou 
once more to recollect that I have no right to call my opinion any thing but 
an act of philosophical faith. 

So much for the history of the progress of Redi's great doctrine of Biogenesis, 
which appears to me, with the limitations I have expressed, to be victorious 
along the whole line at the present day. 

As regards the second problem offered to us by Eedi, whether Xenogenesis 
obtains, side by side with Homogencsis ; whether, that is, there exist not- 
only the ordinary living things, giving rise to offspring which run through 
the same cycle as themselves, but also others, producing offspriug which are of 
a totally different character from themselves, the researches of two centuries 
have led to a different result. That the grubs found in galls are no product 
of the plants on which the galls grow, but are the result of the introduction of 
the eggs of insects into the substance of these plants, was made out by Yal- 
lisnieri, Reaumur, and others, before the end of the first half of the eighteenth 
century. The tapeworms, bladderworms, and flukes continued to be a strong- 
hold of the advocates of Xenogenesis for a much longer period. Indeed 
it is only within the last thirty years that the splendid patience of Von Sie- 
bold, Yan Beneden, Leuckart, Kiichenmeister, and other helminthologists has 
succeeded in tracing every such parasite, often through the strangest wander- 
ings and metamorphoses, to an egg derived from a parent, actually or poten- 
tially like itself ; and the tendency of inquiries elsewhere has all been in the 
same direction. A plant may throw off bulbs, but these, sooner or later, give 
rise to seeds or spores, which develope into the original form. A polype may 
give rise to Medusae, or a pluteus to an Echinoderm, but the Medusa and the 
Echinoderm give rise to eggs which produce polypes or plutei, and they are 
therefore only stages in the cycle of life of the species. 

But if we turn to pathology it offers us some remarkable approximations 
to true Xenogenesis. 

As I have already mentioned, it has been known since the time of Vallisnicri 
and of Reaumur, that galls in plants, and tumours in cattle, are caused by 
insects, which lay their eggs in those parts of the animal or vegetable frame 
of which these morbid structures are outgrowths. Again, it is a matter of 
familiar experience to everybody that mere pressure on the skin will give rise 
to a corn. Now the gall, the tumour, and the corn are parts of the living 
body, which have become, to a certain degree, independent and distinct 
organisms. Under the influence of certain external conditions, elements of 
the body, which should have developed in due subordination to its general 
plan, set up for themselves and apply the noui-ishment which they receive to 
their own pm-poses. 

Prom such innocent productions as corns and warts, there are all grada- 
tions to the serious tumours which, by their mere size and the mechanical ob- 
struction they cause, destroy the organism out of which they are developed ; 
whUe, finally, in those terrible structures known as cancers, the abnormal 
growtii has acquired powers of reproduction and multiplication, and is only 
morphologically distinguishable from the parasitic worm, the life of which 
is neither more, nor less, closely bound up with that of the infested organism. 



ADDRESS. IxXXV 

If there were a kind of diseased structure, the histological elements of which 
were capable of maintaining a separate and independent existence out of the 
body, it seems to me that the shadowy boundary between morbid growth and 
Xenogenesis would be effaced. And I am inclined to think that the pro- 
gress of discovery has almost brought us to this point already. I have been 
favoured by Mr. Simon with an early copy of the last published of the valu- 
able " Reports on the Public Health," which, in his capacity of their Medical 
Officer, he annually presents to the Lords of the Privy Council. Tlie Ap- 
pendix to this Report contains an introductory essay " On the Intimate Pa- 
thology of Contagion," by Dr. Rurdon Sanderson, which is one of the clearest, 
most comprehensive, and well-reasoned discussions of a great question which 
has come under my notice for a long time. I refer you to it for details and 
for the authorities for the statements I am about to make. 

You are familiar with what happens in vaccination. A minute cut is made in 
the skin, and an infinitesimal quantity of vaccine matter is inserted into the 
wound. Within a certain time, a vesicle appears in the place of the wound, 
and the fluid which distends this vesicle is vaccine matter, in quantity a 
hundred- or a thousandfold that which was originally inserted. Now wliat 
has taken place in the course of this operation ? Has the vaccine matter by its 
irritative property produced a mere blister, the fluid of which has the same 
irritative property? Or does the vaccine matter contain living particles, 
which have grown and multiplied where they have been planted ? The 
observations of M. Chauveau, extended and confirmed by Dr. Sanderson 
himself, appear to leave no doubt upon this head. Experiments, similar in 
principle to those of Helmholtz on fermentation and putrefaction, have proved 
that the active element in the vaccine lymph is non-difi'usible, and consists of 
minute particles not exceeding -j-iyj-g-fr of an inch in diameter, which are 
made visible in the lymph by the microscope. Similar experiments have 
proved that two of the most destructive of epizootic diseases, sheep-pox and 
glanders, are also dependent for their existence and their propagation upon 
extremely small living solid particles, to which the title of microzymes is 
applied. An animal suffering under either of these terrible diseases is a source 
of infection and contagion to others, for precisely the same reason as a tub 
of fermenting beer is capable of propagating its fermentation by " infection," 
or " contagion," to fresh wort. In both cases it is the solid living particles 
which are efficient ; the liquid in which they float, and at the expense of 
which they live, being altogether passive. 

Now arises the question, are these microzymes the results of Homoc/enesis, 
or of Xenogenesis ; are they capable, like the Torultv of yeast, of arising 
only by the development of preexisting germs ; or may they be, like the 
constituents of a nut-gaU, the results of a modification and individualization 
of the tissues of the body in which they are found, resulting from the opera- 
tion of certain conditions ? Are they parasites in the zoological sense, or are 
they merely what Yirchow has called " heterologous growths " ? It is ob- 
vious that this question has the most profound importance, whether we look 
at it from a practical or from a theoretical point of view. A parasite may bo 
stamped out by destroying its germs, but a pathological product can only 
be annihilated by removing the conditions which give rise to it. 

It appears to me that this great problem will have to be solved for each 
zymotic disease separately, for analogy cuts two ways. I have dwelt upon 
the analogy of pathological modification, which is in favour of the xenogenetic 
origin of microzymes ; but I must now speak of the equally strong analogies 
in favour of the origin of such pestiferous particles by the ordinary process 
of the generation of like from like. 



IxXXvi REPORT 1 870. 

It is, at present, a -svell-established fact that certain diseases, both of plants 
and of animals, which have all the characters of contagious and infectious 
epidemics, are caused by minute organisms. The smut of wheat is a well- 
known instance of such a disease, and it cannot be doubted that the 
grape-disease and the potato-disease fall under the same category. Among 
animals, insects are wonderfully liable to the ravages of contagious and in- 
fectious diseases caused by microscopic Fungi. 

In autumn it is not uncommon to see flies, motionless upon a window-pane, 
with a sort of magic circle, in white, drawn round them. On microscopic 
examination, the magic circle is found to consist of innumerable spores, 
which have been thrown off in all directions by a minute fungus called 
Empusa musca, the spore-forming filaments of wliich stand out like a pile of 
velvet from the body of the fly. These spore-forming filaments are connected 
with others, which fill the interior of the fly's body like so much fine wool, 
ha\-ing eaten away and destroyed the creature's viscera. This is the full- 
grown condition of the Empusa. If traced back to its earlier stages, in flies 
which are still active, and to all appearance healthy, it is found to exist in 
the form of minute corpuscles which float in the blood of the fly. These 
multiply and lengthen into filaments, at the expense of the fly's substance ; 
and when they have at last killed the patient, they grow out of its body 
and give off spores. Healthy flies shut up with diseased ones catch this 
mortal disease and perish like the others. A most competent observer, M. 
Cohn, who studied the development of the Empusa in the fly very carefully, 
was utterly unable to discover in what manner the smallest germs of the 
Empusa got into the fly. The spores could not be made to give rise to 
such germs by cultivation ; nor were such germs discoverable in the air, or in 
the food of the fly. It looked exceedingly like a case of Abiogenesis, or, at 
any rate, of Xenogenesis ; and it is only quite recently that the real course 
of events has been made out. It has been ascertained, that when one of the 
spores falls upon the body of a fly, it begius to germinate and sends out a 
process which bores its way through the fly's skin ; this, having reached the 
interior cavities of its body, gives oft' the minute floating corpuscles which 
are the earliest stage of the Empusa. The disease is "contagious," because a 
healthy fly coming in contact with a diseased one, from which the spore- 
bearing filaments protrude, is pretty sure to carry off a spore or two. It is 
" infectious '' because the spores become scattered about all sorts of matter in 
the neighbourhood of the slain flies. 

The silkworm has long been known to be subject to a very fatal conta- 
gious and infectious disease called the Miiscardine. Audouin transmitted it 
by inoculation. This disease is entirely due to the development of a fungus, 
Boirytis Bassiana, in the body of the caterpillar ; and its contagiousness 
and infectiousness are accounted for in the same way as those of the fly- 
disease. But of late years a still more serious epizootic has appeared among 
the sUkwoiTQS ; and I may mention a few facts which wiR give you some 
conception of the gravity of the injury which it has inflicted on France alone. 
The production of silk has been, for centuries, an important branch of 
industry in Southern France ; and in the year 1853 it had attained such a 
magnitude, that the annual produce of the French sericulture was estimated 
to amount to a tenth of that of the whole world, and represented a money 
value of 117,000,000 of francs, or nearly five millions sterling. What may 
be the sum which would represent the money-value of all the industries con- 
nected with the working up of the raw silk thus produced is more than I can 
pretend to estimate. Suffice it to say, that the city of Lyons is built upon 



ADDRESS. IxXXvii 

French silk, as much as Manchester was upon American cotton before the 
civil war. 

Silkworms are liable to many diseases ; and, even before 1853, a peculiar 
epizootic, frequently accompanied by the ai^pearance of dark spots upon the 
skin (whence the name of " Pebrine " which it has received), had been noted for 
its mortahty. But in tlie years following 1853 this malady broke out "with. 
such extreme violence, that, in 1856, the silk-crop was reduced to a third of 
the amount which it had reached in 1853 ; and, up till within the last year 
or two, it has never attained half the yield of 1853, This means not only 
that the great number of people engaged in silk-growing are some thirty 
millions sterling poorer than they might have been ; it means not only that 
high prices have had to be paid for imported silkworm-eggs, and that, after 
investing his money in them, in paying for mulberry-leaves and for atten- 
dance, the cultivator has constantly seen his silkworms perish and himself 
plunged in ruin, — but it means that the looms of Lyons have lacked employ- 
ment, and that for years enforced idleness and misery have been the por- 
tion of a vast population which, in former days, was industrious and well 
to do. 

In 1858 the gravity of the situation caused the French Academy of 
Sciences to appoint Commissioners, of whom a distinguished naturalist, M. 
de Quatrefages, was one, to inquire into the nature of this disease, and, if 
possible, to devise some means of staying the plague. In reading the Eeport* 
made by M. de Quatrefages, in 1859, it is exceedingly interesting to observe 
that his elaborate study of the Pebrine, forced the conviction upon his mind 
that, in its mode of occurrence and propagation, the disease of the silkworm 
is, in every respect, comparable to the cholera among mankind. But it 
differs from the cholera, and, so far, is a more formidable disease, in being 
hereditary, and in being, under some circumstances, contagious, as well as 
infectious. 

The Italian naturalist, FUippi, discovered in the blood of the silkworms 
affected by this strange disease a multitude of cylindrical corpuscles, each 
about -g-inro °^ ^^ ^^^^^ long. These have been carefully studied by Lebert, 
and named by him PanJiistopliyton ; for the reason that, in subjects in which 
the disease is strongly developed, the corpuscles swarm in every tissue 
and organ of the body, and even pass into the undeveloped eggs of the 
female moth. But are these corpuscles causes, or mere concomitants, of the 
disease ? Some naturalists took one view and some another ; and it was not 
until the French Government, alarmed by the continued ravages of the ma- 
lady and the inefficiency of the remedies which had been suggested, dis- 
patched M. Pasteur to study it, that the question received its final settlement ; 
at a great sacrifice, not only of the time and peace of mind of that eminent 
philosopher, but, I regret to have to add, of his health. 

But the sacrifice has not been in vain. It is now certain that this devas- 
tating, cholera-like, Pebrine is the effect of the growth and multiplication 
of the PanTiistopliytoii in the silkworm. It is contagious and infectious 
because the corpuscles of the Panhistophi/ton pass away from the bodies of 
the diseased caterpillars, directly or indirectly, to the alimentary canal of 
healthy silkworms in their neighbourhood; it is hereditary, because the 
corpuscles enter into the eggs while they are being formed, and consequently 
are carried within them when they are laid ; and for this reason, also, it 
presents the very singular peculiarity of being inherited only on the mother's 

* Etudes gur les Maladies Actuelles des Vers i Soie, p. 53. 



Ixxxviii REPOKT — 1870. 

side. There is not a single one of all the apparently capricious and un- 
accountable phenomena presented by the Pebrino, but has received its expla- 
nation from the fact that the disease is the result of the presence of the mi- 
croscopic organism Panhistophyton. 

Such being the facts with respect to the Pobrlue, what are the indications 
as to the method of preventing it ? It is obvious that this depends upon the 
way in which the Fanhistopliyton is generated. If it may be generated by 
Abiogenesis, or by Xenogenesis, within the silkworm or its moth, the extirpa- 
tion of the disease must depend upon the prevention of the occurrence of the 
conditions under which this generation takes place. But if, on the other 
hand, the Panhistophyton is an independent organism, which is no more 
generated by the silkworm than the mistletoe is generated by the oak, or the 
apple-tree, on which it grows, though it may need the silkworm for its de- 
velopment in the same way as the mistletoe needs the tree, then the indica- 
tions are totally different. The solo thing to be done is to get rid of and 
keep away the germs of the Panhistophyton. As might be imagined, from 
the course of his previous investigations, il. Pasteur was led to believe that 
the latter was the right theory ; and guided by that theory, he has devised 
a method of extirpating the disease, which has proved to be completely 
successful wherever it has been properly carried out. 

There can be no reason, then, for doubting that, among insects, conta- 
gious and infectious diseases, of great malignity, are caused by minute orga- 
nisms which are produced from preexisting germs, or by Homogeuesis ; and 
there is no reason, that I know of, for believing that what happens in insects 
may not take place in the highest animals. Indeed, there is already strong 
evidence that some diseases of an extremely malignant and fatal character 
to which man is subject are as much the work of minute organisms as is 
the Pebrino. I refer for this evidence to the very striking facts adduced 
by Professor Lister in his various well-known publications on the antiseptic 
method of treatment. It seems to me impossible to rise from the perusal of 
those publications without a strong conviction that the lamentable mortality 
which so frequently dogs the footsteps of the most skilful operator, and 
those deadly consequences of wounds and injuries which seem to haunt tho 
very walls of great hospitals, and are, even now, destroying more men than 
die of bullet or bayonet, are due to the importation of minute organisms into 
wounds, and their increase and multiplication ; and that the surgeon who 
saves most lives will be he who best works out the practical consequences 
of the hypothesis of Redi. 



I commenced this Address by asking you to follow me in an attempt to 
trace the path which has been followed by a scientific idea, in its long and 
slow progress from the position of a probable hypothesis to that of an esta- 
blished Law of Nature. Our survey has not taken us into very attractive 
regions ; it has lain, chiefly, in a land flowing with the abominable, and 
peopled with mere grubs and mouldincss. And it may be imagined with 
what smiles and shrugs practical and serious contemporaries of Redi aad 
of Spallanzani may have commented on the waste of their high abilities in 
toiling at the solution of problems which, though curious enough in them- 
selves, could be of no conceivable utility to mankind. 

Nevertheless you will have observed, that before we had travelled very far 
upon our road, there appeared, on the right hand and on the left, fields laden 
with a harvest of golden grain, immediately convertible into those things 



ADDRESS. Ixxxix 

which the most sordidly practical of men will admit to have value — namely, 
money and life. 

The direct loss to France caused by the Pebrine in seventeen years, cannot 
be estimated at less than fifty millions sterling ; and if we add to this what 
Redi's idea, in Pasteur's hands, has done for the wine-grower and for the 
vinegar-maker, and try to capitalize its value, we shall find that it will go a 
long way towards repairing the money losses caused by the frightful and 
calamitous war of this autumn. 

And as to the equivalent of Redi's thought in life, how can we overesti- 
mate the value of that knowledge of the nature of epidemic and epizootic 
diseases, and consequently of the means of checking, or eradicating, them, the 
dawn of which has assuredly commenced ? 

Looking back no further than ten years, it is possible to select three (1863, 
18C4, and 1869) in which the total number of deaths from scarlet-fever alone, 
amounted to ninety thousand. That is the return of kiUed, the maimed and 
disabled being left out of sight. Why, it is to be hoped that the list of killed 
in the present bloodiest of all wars will not amount to more than this ! But 
the facts, which I have placed before you, must leave the least sanguine 
without a doubt that the nature and the causes of this scourge will, one day, 
be as wcU understood as those of the Pebrine are now ; and that the long- 
sufi'ered massacre of our innocents will come to an end. 

And thus mankind will have one more admonition that "the people perish 
for lack of knowledge ; " and that the alleviation of the miseries, and the 
promotion of the welfare, of men must be sought, by those who will not 
lose their pains, in that diligent, patient, loving study of all the multitudi- 
nous aspects of Nature, the results of which constitute exact knowledge, or 
Science. 

It is the justification and the glory of this great Meeting that it is gathered 
together for no other object than the advancement of the moiety of Science 
which deals with those phenomena of Nature which we call physical. May 
its endeavours be crowned with a full measure of success ! 



1870. 



I 



REPORTS 



ON 



THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



REPORTS 

ON dlS 

THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



Report of the Committee appointed to consider and report on the 
various Plans prropwsed for Legislating on the subject of Steam- 
Boiler Explosions, ivith a view to their Prevention, — the Committee 
consisting of Sir William Fairbairn, Bart., C.E., LL.D., F.R.S., 
&;c.. Sir Joseph Whitworth, Bart., C.E., F.R.S., John Penn, C.E., 
F.R.S., Frederick J. Bramwell, C.E., Hugh Mason, Samuel 
RiGBY, Thomas Schofield, Charles F. Beyer, C.E., Thomas 
Webster, Q.C, and Lavington E. Fletcher, C.E. 

To the frequent occurrence of steam-boiler explosions, with the loss of life 
and property caused thereby, attention was called in a Keport read before the 
Mechanical Section of the British Association last year at Exeter, and in a 
Paper read the year before that, at Norwich. These sad catastrophes still 
continue with unabated frequency. In the interval between the Norwich 
and Exeter Meetings, 46 explosions occurred, killing 78 persons and injuring 
114 others. Since then 57 more explosions have occurred, killing 99 more 
persons and injuring 96 others. So great is the regularity with which these 
catastrophes occiu:, that it was stated at Exeter that it was to be feared that as 
many lives would be lost by explosions before the next Meeting as had been 
lost since the last. This, it will be seen from the figures just given, has been 
more than fulfilled. Taking the average of a number of years, it appears that 
about 50 explosions occur every year, killing about 75 persons and injuring 
as many others. 

It is not intended in this Eeport to enter on a consideration of the causes 
of steam-boiler explosions. That has already been done on other occasions. 
It need, therefore, merely be stated in passing that the experience of another 
year only confirms the Committee in their opinion, previously expressed, that 
explosions are not accidental, that they are not mysterious, but that they 
arise from the simplest causes, and may be prevented by the exercise of 
common knowledge and common care. Boilers burst simply from weakness, 
that weakness arising in some cases from original maleonstruction, in others 
from defective condition consequent on wear and tear, and in others again 
from neglect of attendants (through allowing the plates over the furnace 
to become overheated from shortness of water &c.). Competent inspection 

1870. B 



2 REPORT — 1870. 

is adequate to detect the weakness of the boiler in time to prevent explosion, 
whether that weakness arise from malcoustruction or from defective condition, 
while it tends to stimulate attendants to carefulness, and thus to diminish 
the number of those explosions arising from oversight. It is very generally 
thought that most explosions result from the neglect of the attendant. Such, 
however, is not the case. On analyzing the causes of the explosions that 
occurred from the 1st of January 1861 to the 18th of June 1870, it appears 
that 120 explosio- equal to 40 per cent, of the whole number, were due to 
the malconstructiou of the boilers, either in the shells or fittings ; 88 explo- 
sions, equal to 29 per cent., were due to the defective condition of the boilers, 
either in the shells or fittings ; 44 explosions, equal to 15 per cent., were 
due to the failure of the seams of rivets at the bottom of externally fired 
boilers ; 38, equal to 13 per cent., were due to overheating of the plates ; 
5, equal to 2 per cent., were due to excessive pressure of steam through the 
attendants tampering with safety-valves ; while 1, equal to, say, | per cent., 
occurred to an economizer, but whether from gas or overpressure of steam is 
uncertain ; and 1 other, equal to, say, i per cent., arose from causes entirely 
independent of the construction or condition of the boiler, and may thus be 
termed " accidental." Of those due to overheating of the plates, 30 explo- 
sions, equal to 10 per cent, of the whole number, arose from shortness of 
water ; 6, equal to 2 per cent., from incrustation ; 1, equal to | per cent., 
from the use of boiler-compositions ; and 1, equal to | per cent., from causes 
requiring further consideration. The total number of these explosions the 
causes of which were ascertained, was 297. From this list it will at once 
be seen that the two leading causes of the explosions enumerated therein 
were malconstructiou and defective condition, a small proportion only being 
due to the neglect of the attendants. It may be put shortly, that for every 
explosion due to the boiler-minder through neglecting the water-supply &c., 
six are due to the boiler-maker or boiler-owuer through making or using 
bad boilers. It is clear, therefore, that the adoption of competent inspection 
by every boiler-owner in the kingdom would do much to prevent the constant 
recurrence of boiler explosions, and to save the greater part of the 75 lives 
annually sacrificed. This fact is now generally admitted; and hence the 
question is not unfrequently asked. Since competent inspection would pre- 
vent explosions, and steam-users neglect so simple a precaution, why is not 
inspection enforced by law ? Juries, in bringing in verdicts consequent on 
steam-boiler explosions, frequently recommend that the Government should 
render inspection compulsory ; and this view appears to be very widely enter- 
tained, in consequence of which various plans for legislative enactment have 
been proposed. The object of this lieport is to deal with these plans, and 
give the result of the Committee's dehberations thereon. 

This is a particularly opportune moment for the presentation of such a 
Beport. Last Session of Parliament a Select Committee of the House of 
Commons was appointed to inquire into the cause of steam-boiler explosions, 
and the best means of preventing them ; and this Committee, whose labours 
are not yet completed, have been investigating whether it is expedient that 
boiler -inspection should be enforced by law, and, if so, what is the best way 
of enforcing it. It is therefore important at this time that discussion on this 
subject should be encouraged, and suggestions from all parties obtained. It 
is trusted that this Report will aid in promoting this object and in arriving 
at the best means of rendering the inspection of boilers universal throughout 
the entire country. 

With these introductory remarks the Committee will proceed to the con- 



ON STEAM-BOILER-EXPLOSION LEGISLATION. tJ 

sideration of such of tlie plans " proposed for legislating on the subject of 
steam-boiler explosions, with a view to their prevention," as have come 
under their notice. 

Five systems of compulsory inspection appear to be now before the public. 
These may each be stated and considered in turn. 

Plan No. 1. — It has been jiroposed that the inspection of all the boilers 
in the kingdom should be carried out by the Board of Trade. To this plan 
there are many objections. On the one hand, it would impose on the 
Government additional burdens, which they have expressed themselves 
unwilUng to incur; Avhile on the other it would prove harassing to the 
steam-user. It would, it is feared, be found to work arbitrarily. Such a 
system would lack that elasticity which is necessary to conform to the con- 
venience of the individual steam-user. There would be a great danger of its 
hampering progress. It would certainly not find favour -with the generality 
of steam-users, nor ever be voluntarily accepted by them except as the 
last resort. 

Plan No. 2. — A second proposition is, that, instead of the inspection being 
caiTied out by the Board of Trade, it should be carried out by town councils 
or other local authorities, such authorities appointing their own inspectors. 
This plan would admit of more elasticity than the previous one, inasmuch as 
the inspection would emanate from several centres instead of from one. 
From the fact, however, of the inspections emanating from several centres 
instead of from one, an element of discord would be introduced, from which 
many contradictious and many absurdities would ensue. If it were a question 
of establishing Greenwich time in every market town and country village 
throughout the kingdom, there might be little difficulty in effecting such an 
object by such an organization, since Greenwich time, by the help of the 
Asti'ouomer Royal, could be put beyond all question, and the work of 
estabhshing it throughout the kingdom would be one of diffusion and not of 
origination. To regulate the construction of steam-boilers, however, is a 
totally different matter. The science of boiler-making is a growing one. It 
is in a transition state ; and, in spite of the amount of information constantly 
disseminated, great ignorance prevails with regard to it. In consequence of this, 
one corporation would declare a boiler safe which another corporation would 
declare unsafe, so that a boiler carried by rail from one part of the country 
to another might be counted safe at the beginning of its journey and unsafe 
at the end. For instance : in Lancashire the practice of strengthening flue- 
tubes at the ring-seams with flanged joints or hoops of T-iron, or other 
suitable section, is highly approved. In fact it is thought that no high- 
pressure boiler should be constructed nowadays without these appliances. 
In Cornwall, however, nothing can convince steam-users of their necessity, 
and Cornishmen persistently adhere to the ignorant superstition which the 
Frankhn Institute of Pennsylvania endeavoured to dispel thirty-four years 
ago, viz. that a boiler cannot explode as long as it is properly supplied with 
water. They appear to believe that furnace- tubes, though of great length 
and diameter, and though worked at high pressures of steam, can only 
collapse from the neglect of the water-supply, or, in other words, from the 
neglect of the attendant and not of the owner or the maker. In Cornwall, 
boiler-flue after boiler-flue collapses, simply from weakness, till the Cornish 
boiler stands in the return of explosions as one of the most dangerous. These 
explosions are the result of gross malconstruction, coupled with neglected 
condition. Yet Cornishmen wiU not see it, and they only attribute every 
explosion to shortness of water. Local administration \inder such circum- 

* b2 



4 REPORT 1870. 

stances would be powerless; while, even apart from undue influence, and 
simply from the want of due experience in so important a matter as the 
construction of steam-boilers, the decisions of local authorities would be 
frequently contradictory. Such a system would reintroduce the evils we are 
trying to eradicate from our courts of law, viz. that a verdict given in one 
couit* is frequently contradicted in another. Though the plan of intrusting 
the inspection of all the boilers in the kingdom to local authorities might 
answer in the neighbourhood of some of the large manufacti;riug centres, it 
would not do so throughout the entire country. 

Plan "No. 3. — Another proposition is, to hand over the duty of inspecting 
and certifying all the boilers in the kingdom to divers authorized parties, 
such as accredited boiler-makers, private-inspection associations, insurance 
companies, &c. This plan would, like the one just referred to, be liable 
to produce contradictory verdicts, while it has the additional objection that 
it fails to secure the responsibility of the inspections. To allow certificates 
to be granted by boiler-makers would be a most invidious course. It could 
not be a wholesome practice, especially under the influence of keen com- 
petition, for one maker to be called in to approve or condemn a boiler made 
by another ; while the fact that 40 per cent, of the explosions that happen 
are due to malconstruction, shows that boiler-makers are not, after all, good 
judges in this matter, — a view which is corroborated by the unsatisfactory and 
contradictory evidence frequently given bj- them at coroners' inquests conse- 
quent on boiler explosions. Further, it is presumed that every boiler-owner 
would have to pay for his own certiflcate ; so that on this system the most in- 
dulgent offices would clearly get the greatest amount of custom, and those which 
only granted faithful certificates would be driven out of the market by the 
less scrupulous. Under these circi;mstances it is feared that the sale of 
certificates would soon degenerate into a sale of indulgences. Besides this, 
how is this system to be practically worked ? Who is to see that the steam- 
user has the certificates on his boilers regularly renewed as they fall out ? 
These certificates would extend for a year only from each " entire " examina- 
tion, and would lapse at different parts of the year. A steam-user with 
twelve boilers would want twelve certificates every year ; and one of these 
might faU out each month. Is the Government to undertake the responsi- 
bility of seeing that these certificates are regularly renewed ? Is it to inspect 
the inspectors? Such a plan, it is thought, would be impracticable, while it 
would be after all but another form of Governmental inspection, and one of a 
very complicated description. 

Plan No. 4.- — The fourth plan starts on the same basis as the preceding 
ones, viz. that of rendering inspection compulsory, and recommends that 
Parliament should enact that no boiler should be worked unless periodically 
inspected and certified, at least once a year, as safe and trustworthy. Instead, 
however, of intrusting the duty of carrying out these inspections and 
granting the certificates to the Board of Trade, or to the town councils, or 
other local authorities, or to certified boiler-makers, private-inspection asso- 
ciations, or insurance companies, it proposes that there should be formed a 
National Steam-Users' Board, and that this Board should be empowered to 
carry out the system of inspection required, including the granting of certi- 
ficates, fixing the rate of charge for each boiler, &c. This Board to be an 
honorary and representative body, about one-half of its members being men 
of commerce (that is to say, mill-owners or others using boilers for mercantile i 
purposes), and the remainder to be men of science (that is to say, engineers 1 
and others competent to advise on matters relating to the inspection of I 



ON STEAM-BOILER-EXPLOSION LEGISLATION. 5 

boilers, and to add weight to the counsels of the Board)*. None of the 
members of the Board to retain office longer than four years without re- 
election, one-fourth retiring every year, so that every four years the Board 
would be entirely recruited, either with new members or re-elected ones. 
The Board to be appointed in such a way as to secure the fair representation 
of the general body of steam-users, and to merit their confidence, the 
appointment being effected either by popular election, every steam-user 
having a vote for each of his boilers, or by any other appropriate method. If 
preferred, there might be a number of district steam-boards with geographical 
limits assigned to each, instead of a single national one ; and it is weU worthy 
of consideration which would be the better plan of the two. If the plan of 
district boards were adopted, it would then be well for an annual conference 
to be held, composed of deputies from each of the district boards, in order 
that the results of the working of each district might be compared ; and this, 
it is thought, would promote a wholesome rivalry. 

The following are set forth as some of the distinctive features and advan- 
tages of this system of administration, and as equally applicable whether the 
central Steam Board or the district ones are adopted. 

No. 1. This system would throw no administrative responsibility on the 
Government, whether of a financial or engineering character. 

No. 2. It would secure the integrity and efficiency of the inspections, 
inasmuch as the work would not be undertaken for profit, and the Board or 
Boards would be established on too wide a basis to be influenced by local or 
private interests. At the same time the boiler-owners would be protected 
from arbitrary interference, inasmuch as the inspections in each case would 
be controlled by a Board or Boards composed principally of steam-users, and 
appointed by themselves. 

No. 3. This plan would secure to the country a large amount of valuable 
engineering information. It would afford the opportunity of ascertaining 
how many boilers there are in the kingdom, how many varieties of con- 
struction, and how many boilers to each class, as well as the various pressures 
at which they are worked. Also it would afford the opportunity of ascer- 
taining the approximate horse-power throughout the whole lungdom, as well 
as the consumption of fuel for boiler-purposes. Added to this it would afford 
the means, at a perfectly nominal outlay per boiler, of establishing a fund for 
scientific research on any doubtful questions with regard to the safety and 
economical working of steam-boilers and engines. 

The above is but a very brief outline of the fourth plan^ proposed for 
carrying out compulsory inspection ; and it is found impossible in the compass 
of this Report to enter upon it in detail. The sketch given, however,^ may 
be sufficient to afford a general idea. It wiU be seen that this plan is inde- 
pendent of Governmental interference further than the passing of an act, in 
the first instance, to enforce the inspection of every boiler in the kingdom, 
and to empower the Steam Board or Boards to carry out these inspections 
and adjust the rates, &c. Thus the steam-users would be left to govern 
themselves, a responsibility with which it is thought they might be intrusted, 
since they have a strong desire to avoid Governmental interference, and they 
would know that, unless they succeeded, the Government would take the 
matter into its own hands. The Committee consider this plan calculated to 
guard the inspections against being las and contradictory on the one hand, 

* It might be desirable that clauses should be introduced to prevent parties with special 
and private interests having a seat at the Board ; but details of this character are purposely 
avoided in this sketch. 



6 REPORT — 1870. 

or arbitrary and oppressive on the other — dangers against which the three 
previous plans would not, they think, afford sufficient protection ; and thus 
they regard the proposed national Steam Board or national system of district 
Boards as adequate to the prevention of explosions without harassing steam- 
users. 

Plai^ No. 5. — This plan differs from the preceding inasmuch as it does 
not propose to enforce inspection directly by law, but to impose a heavy 
penalty on the occurrence of every explosion, with the view of inducing 
steam-users to take precautionary mea-sures, and have their boilers in- 
spected*. With this penalty system it is proposed to ally the principle of 
steam-boUer insurance by joint-stock companies, thinking that while boiler- 
owners would be driven by the penalty to insure, insurance companies would 
be driven to inspect, as the penalty, though falling in the first instance on 
the owner, would be ultimately paid by the insurance company. 

On considering this proposition, it appears by no means clear that a penalty 
would have the effect of inducing all steam-users to enrol their boilers. The 
incredulity of many as to the possibility of their boilers exploding is so great 
that nothing would convince them but the occurrence of the calamity itself. 
It would therefore, it is thought, be some time before the penalty system 
took effect, and, this beiag the case, several lives would be lost in the mean- 
time. Indeed, unless the simple announcement that the Government had 
established a penalty were sufficient to promote general enrolment, the system 
could not come into force until the penalty was exacted ; and before this 
coidd be done, explosions must happen, and thus lives be lost. StiU the 
Committee cannot doubt, though the effect of the penalty might be tardy in 
its operation, that in process of time it would induce many steam-users, if 
not all, to avail themselves of inspection. 

Passing over the question as to the success of the penalty in promoting 
inspection, the next question is as to the value of the inspections by com- 
peting joint-stock insurance companies. This is by no means a simple 
subject, and one on which a great deal of misapprehension occurs. A few 
brief remarks upon it are all that can be offered in the limits of this paper. 

Commercial insurance is founded on the principle of a commutation of 
risks. Given the number of fires that occur per annum on an average, and 
we have the risk of fire-insurance. Given the number of deaths that occur 
throughout the country per annum, and we have the risk of hfe-insurance. 
Given the number of persons injured every year by raUway-travelling, and 
we have the risk of railway-passenger insurance. Now, it will be seen in 
these cases that the companies adopt little or no preventive measures. It is 
true that before a house or a life is insured, a general examination is made 
in each case ; but these are not followed up by a series of preventive measures. 
In the case of accidental-death insurance, no precautionary measures axe 
adopted whatever. A passenger, on taking his railway ticket, takes also an 
insurance ticket, and thereby enters what may be termed a legalized lottery. 
If he is injured in his journey he receives some return for his outlay ; if not, 
he loses it, and the company gains it. This is a perfectly above-board trans- 
action. It is qiaite understood that the company adopt no precautionary 
measures. They do not inspect the railway-line, they do not inspect the 
axles or tires of the carriages, the points and crossings, the signals or the 
signalmen. The whole matter is understood on both sides to be simply a 
commutation of risk ; and the company merely profess to iasure against 

* These penalties to be applied to forming a general fund for compensating those 
injured by the explosions. 



ON STEAM-BOILER-EXPLOSION LEGISLATION. 7 

accident. Now it will be seen that before this principle can be applied to 
the prevention of boUer explosions, some serious qualifications must be made. 
It has already been seen that boiler explosions are not accidental. To term 
a boiler explosion an accident is to mislead, and thus do much mischief. 
Boiler explosions may be prevented by common knowledge and common care ; 
and these every boiler-owner is bound in justice to his workmen to exercise. 
A boiler-owner has no right to insure himself against the pecuniary results 
of his own neglect which may cost the lives of his workpeople. To this it 
may be replied that when the principle of insurance has been applied to 
boUers, inspection has been coupled with it, and further, that it is the interest 
of insurance offices that such should be the case, since, inasmuch as they have 
dividends to pay, they are bound to inspect in self-protection. This view 
obtains very general currency. It is, however, a total fallacy that the joint- 
stock insurance principle, as at present applied, affords any inducement to the 
adoption of inspection. This can be plainly shown in a few words. The 
object of a joint-stock company is clearly pecuniary profit — not philanthropy ; 
and this being the case, such a company woidd not expend a pound to save a 
shilling. Now it appears, from data which have been accumulated for years, 
that the risk of explosion with steam-boilers is about one in two thousand ; so 
that the cost of insurance is Is. per =£100. The cost of an annual " entii-e " 
examination, which is essential to sound inspection, may be taken in round 
numbers as about 20s. per boiler. Thus, inspection costs about 20s., while 
insurance costs Is. ; or, at all events, inspection costs much more than in- 
surance. Consequently it will pay an insurance office better to allow boilcz's 
to blow up, and pay compensation, than to prevent explosions aud pay for 
inspection. Inspection is dear, insiu'ance is cheap. Inspection eats away 
the dividends. The interest of a joint-stock company, therefore, is to lavish 
insurance and stint inspection. 

There are further points in the mode in which joint-stock insurance is at 
present applied to steam-boilers which may be called attention to. Insurance 
companies adopt scales of charges according to the risk run ; and thus they 
class the boilers A, B, and C, as they may be first-, second-, or third-rate. 
This is insuring boilers simply on the principle of risks, and ignores altogether 
the danger to life. If boilers can only be worked at a risk, they should not 
be worked at all. Again, the charge for insurance rises according to the 
pressure of the steam. This is to tax progress, and make a market of 
engineering enterprise. Again, insurance companies charge so much for the 
first ^100 insured on a boiler, the same amount for the second =£100, the 
same for the third ,£100, and so on, though the payment for the insurance of 
the first ,£100 included the charge for inspection. In this arrangement the 
value of inspection appears to be ignored. The danger of explosion is 
assumed to be as great after the charge has been paid for inspection as before. 
An accidental-death company, insuring railway-passengers' lives, could not 
adopt a scale of charges that would more consistently ig-nore the principle of 
prevention, and adopt that of hazards. Again, insurance companies pay 
compensation in case of minor damage, which emboldens a boiler-owner to 
neglect any precautionary advice given in consequence of the inspections. If 
he employ an inferior attendant in order to save 5s. a week in his wages, and 
the boiler becomes injured thereby, the cost of repair is paid by the company, 
and not by himself. This system entu'ely absolves a boiler-owner from the 
results of his own neglect. 

These remarks will suffice to show that the principle of insurance, as at 
present applied to steam-boUers by joint-stock companies, is not all that is 



8 REPORT — 1870. 

to be desired for the prevention of steam-boUer explosions, and that before 
the Government will be justified in handing over the inspection of all the 
boilers in the kingdom to a number of competing joint-stock companies, 
considerable modifications will have to be enforced ; and it wiU be well now 
to consider whether the imposition of the proposed penalty would have the 
desired effect, or whether any other steps would be necessary. 

The penalty upon the boiler-user in the event of explosion would, as already 
stated, ultimately faU upon insurance companies — that is to say, in those cases 
where the boilers were enrolled. Now if that penalty were made sufficiently 
heavy, it might make it more expensive for companies to permit explosions 
and pay compensation, than to prevent them and pay for inspection, and thus 
just reverse the position that obtains at present. For this it would be neces- 
sary that the penalty should not be less than £1000 or £2000. Added to the 
penalty imposed on the boiler-owner, in the event of explosion, to induce 
him to enrol, it might be well to impose another penalty of equal amount on 
the company, more fully to induce them to inspect. The first of these 
penalties, the one imposed on the boiler-owner, should be exacted uncon- 
ditionally; the other, imposed on the insurance company, only after it had 
been shown on an examination by a Government officer that the company had 
failed in their duty. Added to the imposition of these penalties, it would be 
necessary for it to be enacted that no company should have more than one rate 
of charge ; otherwise they would meet the risk on dangerous boilers simply by 
raising the rate. A fixed rate would also put an end to the taxing of high- 
pressure steam, as the rate would be the same for 10 lbs. as for 100 lbs. Added 
to this, the present system of insuring against minor damages should be pro- 
hibited, as this completely destroys the owner's responsibility. Such are some 
of the restrictions which it appears necessary to impose upon the principle of 
joint-stock insurance before it would be applicable, by a number of competing 
companies, to steam-boilers, with a view to the prevention of explosions. 

The Committee are not without apprehensions, however, that though the 
principle of joint-stock insurance might be surrounded with a series of checks 
and counterchecks, it yet would lead to inspection being cut down to the 
lowest possible point. On the other hand, were the inspection enforced by 
law, and nationally administered, either by a central Steam Board or by a 
scries of district ones, they consider that a far more generous system would 
be secured. The Steam Boards, uninfluenced either by private or local 
interests, or by the desire to accumulate profits, would take altogether higher 
ground, and inspect, not simply in their own interests, and just sufficiently 
to narrowly escape explosion, but with a view to assist steam-users, dissemi- 
nate practical information on the making and management of boilers, and 
promote progress. These objects would be altogether foreign to competing 
joint-stock insurance companies. 

The Committee have now stated, they trust impartially, the various plans 
which have come under their notice, remarking, as they proceeded, on such 
of the points in each as appeared to them to be defective, and they would 
now beg to solicit the most ample discussion of this important subject. 

In drawing this Report to a close, the Committee wish to make a brief 
reference to the one they presented to the Mechanical Section of the British 
Association last year, on the subject of " Coroners' Inquiries in connexion 
with Boiler Explosions." In that Report they pointed out the defects in 
these investigations, and how necessary it was that improvements should be 
effected, expressing their belief that full investigation and plain-speaking 
would, of themselves, do much to prevent the recurrence of these catastrophes. 



COMPOSITION AND DISTRIBUTION OF HAEMATITE IRON-ORES. 9 

The Committee still hold this view, and think that, had coroners' vercUcts 
been as satisfactory as they might have been, boUer explosions would not 
have been as numerous as they now are. "With the additional experience 
of another year they feel compelled to take one other step in advance, and 
they have come to the conclusion that the time has arrived when the Govern- 
ment should enforce the periodical inspection of all steam-boilers, though, as 
ah-eady stated, they do not think that the Government should turn boUer- 
inspector*. They are convinced that explosions might be, and ought to 
be, prevented ; that competent inspection is adequate for this purpose, and 
that any weU-organized system of inspection, extended throughout the entire 
country, would practically extinguish boUer explosions, and save the greater 
part of the 75 lives now annually sacrificed thereby. 

(Signed on behalf of the Committee) 

William Faikbaien, Chairman. 
Manchester, September 12th, 1870. 



Report of the Committee appointed for the pwrpose of calling the atten- 
tion of Her Majesty's Government to the importance of completing, 
without delay, the valuable investigation into the composition and 
geological distribution of the Hcematite Iron-ores of Great Britain 
and Ireland, which has been already in part published in the Memoirs 
of the Geological Survey, — consisting of Prof. Stokes, F.R.S., Prof. 
Harkness, F.R.S., and R. A. C. Godwin-Austen^ F.R.S. 

The Committee appointed at the Exeter Meeting of the Association " for the 
purpose of calling the attention of Her Majesty's Government to the import- 
ance of completing, without delay, the valuable investigation into the com- 
position and geological distribution of the hsematite iron-ores of Great Britain 
and Ireland, which has been already in part published in the Memoirs of the 
Geological Survey," present to the General Committee the following Report : — 
In execution of their duty, the Committee had in the first instance to 
consider to what department of Government the application should be 
addressed. For the reasons stated in the application itself, they decided that 
it belonged to the Education department. They accordingly addressed the 
following letter to the Lord President of the Council : — 



-'o 



" Lensfield Cottage, Cambridge, 

17th December, 1869. 

" My Lord, — I have the honour to inform your Lordship that, at the last 
Meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science, a resolu- 
tion was passed appointing a Committee ' for the purpose of caUing the atten- 
tion of Her Majesty's Government to the importance of completing, without 

* From the conclusion that " the time has arrived when the Grovernment should enforce 
the periodical inspection of all steam-boilers," one of the members of the Committee, 
F. J. Bramwell, Esq., C.E., wishes to express his dissent, " as in his judgment not even 
the best of the modes yet suggested for an inspection would be free from hindering 
improvements in the construction and use of sceam-boilers, and, in his opmion, the saving 
of some out of the few lives annually now lost would be dearly purchased by fettering the 
progress of mechanical engineering." 



10 REPORT 1870. 

delay, the valuable investigation into the composition and geological distri- 
bution of the haematite iron-ores of Great Britain and Ireland, which has 
been already in part published in the Memoirs of the Geological Survey.' 

"Your Lordship is doubtless aware of the remarkable process invented 
some years ago by Mr. Bessemer, for the conversion of crude cast iron into 
steel or wrought iron, — a process by the apphcatiou of which those important 
materials can be manufactured at a much cheaper rate than formerly. The 
royalty which at present exists on iron to which the Bessemer process has 
been apphed will shortly expire, and its expiz-ation will probably give a great 
impetus to the iron trade of the countrj'. 

" It is not, however, every ii'on-ore that u'on-masters have been in the habit 
of employing which can be used for the production of cast iron destined for 
conversion by the Bessemer process ; for there are certain impurities which 
that process fails to remove, and which are extremely injurious to steel or 
wrought iron. This difficulty is got over by preparing the iron from hsema- 
tite, an iron-ore which is free from those impurities. 

" Accordingly, on the expiration of the Bessemer royalty, a great demand 
for haematite is Hkely to arise ; and it will be important for the iron trade of 
the country that it should be known where haematite is to be found. For 
many of the counties of England the requisite information is contained in 
the Memoirs referred to in the resolution quoted above ; and the object of 
the British Association is merely to urge on Her Majesty's Government the 
importance of continuing and completing, vrithout delay, the investigation 
thus so ably begun. 

" Although the application of the British Association relates to trade, I 
have addressed myself to your Lordship rather than to the President of the 
Board of Trade, because it is to be presumed that the investigation would be 
best completed by the same body by which it was begun, namely the Staff 
of the Geological Survey ; and that belongs to the department over which 
your Lordship presides. 

" The Committee vnll be ready to wait on your Lordship, should you think 
a personal interview expedient. The Committee consists of Professor Harkness, 
President of the Geological Section at the Exeter Meeting of the British 
Association, R. Godwin-Austen, Esq., F.E.S., Vice-President, and myself. 

" I have the honour to be, &c., 

" To the Eight Honourable " G. G. Stokes." 

TJie Earl de Grey and Ripoyi, 

Lord President of the Council.'^ 

To this application the following reply was received : — 

" Science and Art Department, London, W., 
8th day of February, 1870. 

" Sir, — Your letter to the Lord President, of the 17th of December, 1869, 
stating that, at the last Meeting of the British Association for the Advance- 
ment of Science, a resolution was passed appointing a Committee ' for the 
pui-pose of calUng the attention of Her Majesty's Government to the import- 
ance of completing, without delay, the valuable investigation into the com- 
position and geological distribution of the haematite iron-ores of Great 
Britain and Ireland, which has been already in part pubhshed in the Memoirs 
of the Geological Survey,' has been under the consideration of the Lords of 
the Committee of Council on Education. 

" I am directed by their Lordships to inform you that, after consulting -with 
Sir Eoderick Murchison on the subject, they have come to the conclusion that 



ON THE SEDIMENTARY DEPOSITS OF THE RIVER ONNY. 11 

they are not in a position to direct that the former investigation shall be 
continued by the officers of the Geological Survey. 

" The investigation referred to was not made at the public cost ; and it 
does not appear to My Lords that a special inquiry of this nature, involving 
considerable additional expense, falls within the object for which the sum 
voted by Parliament for the Geological Survey has been granted. 

" I am, Sir, 

" Your obedient Servant, 

" NoEMAj^- Macleod, 
" Prof. Q. G. Stol-es, M.A., F.R.S., Assist. Secretary." 

Lensfield Cottage, Cambridge.'" 

After this reply, the Committee did not think that they could take any 
further steps in the matter. 

G. G. Stokes. 

llOBERT HaRKNESS. 
E. GODWIN-AUSXEN. 



Report on the Sedimentary Deposits of the River Onny. 
By the Rev. J. D. La Touche. 

The principal rainfalls in the valley which supplies the waters of the Onny 
during the past year, occurred from December 17th to 20th, January 6th 
to 9th, 13th and 14th, February 1st to 10th, and March 1st to 4th. At 
none of these dates did the river attain the height it has done on former 
occasions. For this reason, and the long-continued droughts, the results of 
these experiments have been rather barren. 

The accompanying Table shows that the relation of deposit to rainfall is 
modified by many circumstances. As might be expected, the greatest quan- 
tity is attained when a flood takes place after continued wet weather. Thus, 
after the rains of last February, the floods of the 1st and 2nd of March were 
followed by the largest amount of deposit observed in the year ; on this 
occasion from 1318 lbs. per minute on the 2nd, to 2128 lbs. per minute on 
the 3rd (that is, about 57 tons per hour), passed down. 

In considering these quantities, it must be remembered that the Onny is 
a small stream : its width is 60 feet ; the area of the section where these 
experiments are made is, at summer level, 92 square feet ; and the discharge 
at a high flood amounts to about 80,000 cubic feet per minute. The area 
of the Severn at summer level is 512 square feet ; and its discharge, under 
similar circumstances, would probably be about 900,000 cubic feet per 
minute. Assuming that the ratio of deposit in the water of the Severn were 
the same as that observed in the Onny, no less than 1239 tons per hour of 
solid matter would be carried by it in suspension past each spot. This, of 
course, leaves out of account the pebbles and sand, which are occasionally 
rolled along the bottom in great quantities. 

"Within the last year a gauge has been erected on the Severn, at Shrews- 
bury, at the cost of the grant made by the Association. A register of the 
floods has moreover been kept ; but as yet there has been some difliculty in 
obtaining water for examination. This, it is hoped, may be done during the 
ensuing year, as well as at Hereford, where a record is regularly kept of a 
gauge on the Wye. 



12 



REPORT — 1870. 



An attempt has been made, from the accompanying register, to estimate 
the total quantity of sediment carried down in suspension during the year. 
Each pair of succeeding entries in the fifth column, viz. "discharge per 
minute," have been added together, the sum divided by 2, and the quotient 
multiplied by the number of minutes between the observations. The result 
is a total of 3564 tons for the year. 

The surface of the valley of the Onuy is 84 square miles ; and the effect of 
the above result would be (taking the average specific gravity of the Silurian 
rocks as 2-5) to reduce the level of the whole by -0025, or ^-i-jj of an inch. 
Probably, however, the rate of denudation during the year has been exception- 
ally low ; and, besides, no account is here taken of any but suspended matter. 



Date. 


Hour of 
day. 


Height 
on gauge. 


No. of grains 

of sediment 

in 100 oz. of 

water. 


Discharge 

of sediment 

per minute, 

in lbs. 


Average 

rainfall over 

84 square 

miles. 


1869. 

December 17 

»» 

„ 18 

:: 19:::::: 

., 20 

1870. 
January 6 

:; J:::::: 

»» 

J) 

)> 

a 

9 

„ 13 

„ 14 

February 1 

9 
jj *j ...... 

3 

6 

7 

» 

» 

8 

Jj 

J) 



„ 10 


3 p.m. 
9 p.m. 
11a.m. 
6 p.m. 
9 a.m. 

5 P.M. 


1-00 
0-90 
1-25 
1-40 
1-00 
1-00 






■45 

•19 

•24 
■50 

•19 
•24 

•23 

•11 

•27 
•10 

•29 
•18 

•56 
•43 

•54 

•54 
•64 

•16 


4^35 


373 

407 
199 
100 


3-34 




10 A.M. 
10 A.M. 

12 

3 P.M. 

5 p.m. 

10 P.M. 
8 A.M. 


•50 
•60 
•70 
•80 
•90 
•90 
•70 


4-62 


121 
136 

185 
347 
464 
464 
316 


5-38 
9-60 








10 A.M. 
1 P.M. 


1^00 
•90 


13-46 
4^35 


792 
211 


10 A.M. 

10 a.m. 

6 P.M. 

10 a.m. 
6 p.m. 

10 P.M. 

9 a.m. 

5 P.M. 

10 P.M. 

8 a.m. 

11 A.M. 


•60 


9-62 
2^50 


282 
74 

""isQ 

924 

1270 

299 

394 

508 
747 
206 


•30 

•70 
1-00 
1-30 

•90 
1^00 
1-30 
1-20 

■60 


6-.54 
15^77 


6-15 

6-68 


7-65 






2 

3 :::.:: 

1 

4 


10 A.M. 

12 

6 p.m. 
10 p.m. 

9 A.M. 

12 

1 P.M. 

4 P.M. 

10 A.M. 


•60 
■60 
■80 
•85 
•70 


12^31 
23-73 
36-00 


362 

847 

1318 

1531 

711 

2128 

2104 
116 


14^45 
29^85 


1-20 

140 

•75 


22-54 
3-19 

















ON THE PRACTICABILITY OF ESTABLISHING '^A CLOSE TIME." 13 

Report of the Committee on the Chemical Nature of Cast Iron. The 
Committee consists o/F. A. Abel, F.R.S., D. Forbes, F.R.S., and 
A. Matthiessen, F.R.S. 

"We regret to have to report that it has not heen in our power during the 
past year to make any important progress in the investigation of the chemical 
nature of cast iron, which was intrusted to us. 

In the Appendix to the Report which we submitted last year, a process 
was described by which pure iron could be prepared in considerable quan- 
tities ; and it was intended to apply this process at once to the preparation of 
the material necessary for our investigations. The apparatus and arrange- 
ments required for this purpose, however, have been unavoidably in a dis- 
mantled condition during the greater jiart of the year, in consequence of the 
reconstruction of the Laboratories of St. Bartholomew's Hospital. They are 
now again in working order, and it is hoped that the experiments will be 
resumed without much further delay. 

Numerous experiments have been made with a view to ascertain whether 
the piire-iron sponge, prepared by the process above referred to, can be con- 
verted, by welding, into thoroughly solid masses without detriment to the 
purity of the metal. Hitherto the results obtained (though instructive in 
connexion with the physical properties of the pure metal) have not been of 
a promising nature in the particular direction desired. It is contemplated, 
however, to continue these experiments with the aid of facilities which, we 
believe, will be available for this purpose at the Eoyal Arsenal, Woolwich. 

For the foregoing reasons we beg leave to suggest that the reappointment 
of this Committee be recommended ; but we do not consider it necessary to 
apply for a grant of money on this occasion. 



Report on the practicability of establishing "A Close Time " for the 

protection of indigenous Animals, By a Committee, consisting of 

Prof. Newton, M.A., F.L.S., Rev. H. B. Tristram, F.R.S., J. E. 

Harting, F.L.S., F.Z.S., Rev. H. Barnes, and H. E. Dresser 

(Reporter). 

The Committee appointed for the purpose of continuing investigations as to 
the advisability of establishing a close time for the preservation of our indi- 
genous animals beg leave to report as foUows : — Having regard to the state 
of business during the late session of Parliament, your Committee have not 
thought it expedient to press the object your Committee are directed to 
obtain on the attention of Members of the Legislature, or the general public. 
Your Committee have learnt with satisfaction that, in several cases where 
the provisions of the Sea-birds' Preservation Act have been enforced, very 
beneficial results have followed, instances of which are added in the appendix. 
In consequence hereof, your Committee see good reason to hope that an 
extension of similar protection to other groups of indigenous animals will 
be attended by similar happy results ; and your Committee consider that 
such extension could not be better commenced than with the group of 
bu'ds commonly known as " wild foivl," comprising as that does, very mam 



14 REPORT 1870. 

kinds of birds which, being largely used as food, are of great value to the 
community, and are generally admitted to be entirely innocuous. At pre- 
sent, very great numbers of Wild Ducks, of many species, Snipes, Wood- 
cocks, Plovers, and other kindred birds are killed during the spring months, 
even when in the act of breeding. The destruction thus effected cannot 
fail to continue the ever-increasing diminution of these birds, if indeed it 
does not promise, at no distant date, to result in their utter extermination. 
Accordingly, your Committee are unanimously of opinion that protection 
should be afforded by law, during the breeding-season, to such "wild fowl" as 
these, in order to prevent that result ; while your Committee think that, 
with protection, these birds may long continue to furnish, at other times of 
the year, valuable food to the public, notwithstanding the changes which 
some parts of the country are undergoing through agricultural improve- 
ments and increase of the population. 

Your Committee respectfully suggest the reappointment of this Committee. 

Extract of a letter from H. L. Stevenson of Norwich. — " The beachmen at 
Salthouse (Norfolk) are delighted with the new Act, as, through summer 
shooters, their means of earning a few shillings were going fast. Only thi-ee 
or four paii's of Lesser Terns nested there this year ; and, as the men reminded 
me, ten years ago they had forty or fifty pairs at least. I am sure the 
marshmen on the Broads would be equally glad of a close time there, as they 
complain to me of gentlemen shooting Snipe into May." 

Extract of a letter from the liev. H. F. Barnes of Bridlitigton. — " With 
regard to our Sea-bird Act, I am happy to teU you that here it has been very 
effective. * * * It renders the birds, however, remarkably tame. They sit 
on the cliffs only a few feet below the observer, and nod and bow in the 
most amiable manner, as if all that breathed must needs be kin. Then, 
again, they swim about the shore, on a calm day, like ducks in a pond. All 
this may safely be set down to the degree of immunity they have enjoyed. 
One noticeable and very valuable fact is, that they have bred (in small 
numbers) this year at Flamborough, which they have not done for the last 
twenty years." 

Captain Hadfield, of Ventnor, in a communication to the 'Zoologist' 
(Jime 1870, p. 2184), has remarked on the " increase of the sea-fowl breed- 
ing on the freshwater cliffs" since the passing of the Act. 



Report of the Committee on Standards of Electrical Resistance. The 
Committee consists of Prof. Williamson, F.R.S., Prof. Sir Charles 
Wheatstone, F.R.S., Prof. Sir W. Thomson, F.R.S., Prof. W. A. 
Miller, F.R.S., Dr. A, Matthiessen, F.R.S., Sir Charles Bright, 
C.E., F.R.G.S., J. Clerk Maxwell, FR.S., C. W. Siemens, F.R.S., 
Balfour Stewart, F.R.S., Dr. Joule, F.R.S., C. F. Varley, Prof. 
G. C. Foster, F.R.S., C. Hockin, M.D., and Prof. Fleeming 
Jenkin, F.R.S. (Secretary). 

The Committee are unable to report any material progress during the last 
year in the work which remains to be done, and beg leave to suggest that 
this work may probably be more effectually expedited by the appointment 
of several small Committees than by retaining the large but somewhat cum- 



ON STANDARDS OF ELECTRICAL RESISTANCE. 15 

brous organization by which their work was commenced. When the Com- 
mittee was first appointed, no coherent system of units for the measurement 
of electrical resistance, cm-rents, quantity, capacity, or electromotive force 
had met with general acceptance. The so-called absolute system existed 
indeed on paper, but in far too intangible a form to be either understood or 
used by practical men. At the same time, proposals for the adoption of 
isolated units, variously determined, had been carried out, with more or less 
success, so as to meet in some degree the immediate requirements of tele- 
graphy. Many competing imits of this nature were in the field. The Com- 
mittee chose a system based on the absolute measure, and so, at least as far 
as electrical resistance was concerned, made this measurement a tangible and 
practical operation ; and their choice has been ratified by men of science over 
a great portion of the globe. Copies of the unit of resistance adopted by 
the Committee in 1864 were deposited at the Kew Observatory ; and others 
exist in the hands of electricians in various parts of the world. Comparisons 
of several of the copies, which were published in the Report of the Committee 
for 1867, showed that, with one or two exceptions, the ratio of their resist- 
ances remained unchanged. It is, however, desirable that additional com- 
parisons should be made from time to time. Incidentally many researches of 
considerable value were carried out by th^ Members of the Committee; and 
the yearly reports have been so generally in request that it may be advisable 
to reprint the entire series. 

No second unit, however, has been issued by the Committee, although 
apparatus for the determination of the irnits of capacity, quantity, potential, 
and intensity of current have been constructed, both with the funds of the 
Association and from the private means of its members. The great numbere 
of the Committee render meetings of rare occurrence ; and the Subcom- 
mittees appointed to undertake the work have been lately remiss in its exe- 
cution ; the Committee, believing that direct responsibility to the Association 
and greater freedom of action will act as a stimulus to individual members, 
beg to suggest that the Electrical-Standards Committee be not reappointed, 
but that three new Committees of smaller numbers be chosen, to determine 
and issue: — 1st, a condenser representing the unit of capacity; 2nd, a 
gauge for showing the unit difference of potential ; 3rd, an electrodynamo- 
meter adapted to measm-e the intensity of currents in a decimal multiple of 
the absolute measui-e. 

They would also suggest that it be an instruction to each Committee that 
it shall carry out the system adopted by the Electrical- Standards Committee, 
and that these new Committees shall have the use of all instruments hitherto 
constructed with the funds of the Association, a list of which is appended (in 
account book). 

Considering that the principal instruments have already been constructed, 
the Committee believe that a small grant of, say, £20 to each Committee, 
will be sufficient to meet the expenses of the next year. 

In conclusion, should this suggestion be adopted, they beg to recommend 
•that a volume, containing the complete series of reports, be issued by the Asso- 
ciation, and sold to the public, feeling assured, from the demand for isolated 
copies, that such an issue would involve no expense to the Association. 



16 REPORT 1870. 

Sixth Report of the Committee for Exploring Kent's Cavern, Devon- 
shire, — the Committee consisting of Sir Charles Lyell, Bart., 
F.R.S., Professor Phillips, F.R.S., Sir John Lubbock, Bart., 
F.R.S., John Evans, F.R.S., Edward Vivian, George Busk, 
F.R.S., William Boyd Dawkins, F.R.S., William Ayshford 
Sanford, F.G.S., c>^c? William Pengelly, F.R.S. (Reporter). 

During the year which has elapsed since the Association met at Exeter, the 
Committee have continued their researches without intermission, and have 
in all respects adhered to the method of exploration adopted at the com- 
mencement and described in detail in their First Eeport (Birmingham, 
1865). The Superintendents have continued to visit the Cavern daily, and to 
send Monthly Reports of progress to Sir Charles Lyell, the Chairman of the 
Committee ; the daily results have been regularly journalized ; the workmen, 
George Smerdon and John Farr, have continued to give the most entire satis- 
faction ; and the great interest felt in the investigations by visitors and resi- 
dents in Torquay has undergone no abatement. 

At the close of the last Meeting of the Association, a large number of the 
Members and Associates visited the Cavern, where they were received by one 
of the Superintendents, who conducted them through it and explained the 
most striking phenomena connected with it. In addition to this large party, 
the Cavern has, from time to time during the year, been inspected, under the 
guidance of the Superintendents, by Professor Stokes (President, British 
Association), the Duke of Somerset, Lord Talbot de Malahide, Lord H. 
Thynne, Sir H. Verney, Sir J. Kay Shuttleworth, Sir A. Malet, General 
Cotton, Genei'al Lefroy, General Tremenhere, Rev. Dr. Robinson, Rev. Prof. 
Maurice, Rev. 0. Fisher, Rev. H. H. Winwood, and Messrs. W. R. A. Boyle, 
J. Dundas, A. MacmUlau, E. B. Tawney, R. Yalpy, W. Vicary, and A. 
R. Wallace, and many others. 

The Committee have again the pleasure of reporting that they have been 
enabled to render assistance to those engaged in similar researches elsewhere. 
Sir J. Kay Shuttleworth, Chairman of the Committee who have recently 
undertaken to explore the caves in the Mountain-Limestone near Settle, in 
Yorkshire, opened a correspondence with the Superintendents of the work in 
Kent's Cavern, which eventuated in an arrangement that Mr. Jackson, Super- 
intendent of the Yorkshire investigations, should visit Devonshire for the 
purpose of making himself fully acquainted with the mode of operation 
carried out there. Accordingly, on March 1, 1870, he reached Torquay, 
where every facUity was given him by the Superintendents and the workmen 
for familiarizing himself with the work in aU its details. 

It has been stated in previous Reports : — that Kent's Cavern consists of an 
Eastern and a Western Division, each composed of a series of chambers and 
galleries ; that it has two Entrances, which are about 50 feet apart, 200 feet 
above the mean sea-level, from 60 to 70 feet above the bottom of the valley 
in the same vertical plane, situated in one and the same low vertical chff in 
the eastern side of the hill, and which open at once into different branches 
of the Eastern Division ; and that the labours of the Committee have been 
restricted to the Eastern Division, the different branches of which were known 
as the North-east Gallerj', the Vestibule or Sloping Chamber, the Gallery, 
the Lecture Hall, the South-west Chamber, the Water Gallery, and the North 
and South Sally-ports. In their Fifth Report (Exeter, 1869) the Committee 
stated that, with the exception of the last two, the exploration of the entire 
series had been completed to the depth of 4 feet below the stalagmitic floor. 



ON KENT^S CAVERN, DEVONSHIRE. 17 

without, however, reaching the bottom of the cavern ; and that some pro- 
gress had been made in the South Sally-port. 

The Sally-ports were so named by the late Rev. J. M'Enery, who firmly 
believed that if excavated they would be found to lead to new external 
openings in the eastern slope of the hiU, through which, indeed, burrowing 
animals, especially foxes, had found ready access to the body of the cavern. 
The year which has elapsed since the Fifth Eeport was presented has been 
spent in the exploration of these branches and their ramifications, the cha- 
racters and contents of which are to be the subjects of the present Eeport. 

The South SaUij-port. — The entrance of the South Sally-port is in the 
eastern wall of the Lecture Hall. It is about 10 feet wide, SO feet west 
and 52 feet south of the Arched or Southern Entrance of the cavern. Its 
direction is, ou the whole, towards the south-east ; and with its ramifications 
it occupies a space of about 80 feet from east to west, and 40 feet from north 
to south. Its width, however, varies from 21 to 2 feet, and averages about 
10 feet. There is not the least indication that it leads to an external opening, 
or that any animals ever found or formed a passage into it from the exterior. 
Indeed, its direction is not such as to take it to the hill -side. 

Before the Committee commenced their operations in it, the height of its 
roof above the deposits at the entrance was about 4 feet. At 45 feet in the 
interior this had so diminished as to render it necessary to excavate to the 
depth of 5 feet, instead of the customarj' 4 feet, in order to secure sufficient 
height for the workmen ; and through nearly 30 feet before reaching the 
inner end the deposits and roof were in contact. 

At the entrance, and for some distance within it, the roof and walls bore 
no indications of either the corrosive or erosive action of water, the edges of 
the beds of limestone being everywhere sharp and angular. Beyond this 
they assumed a corroded or fretted aspect ; and still further in, the roof had 
the appeai-ance of a fissure, in wbich the walls gradually approach at higher 
and higher levels, and a large mass of limestone threatens to fall at no very 
distant future ; indeed a block of great size, which had fallen over the en- 
trance in what may be called comparatively very recent times, gave the work- 
men a great amount of labour in blasting and removing it. It is probable 
that the sharp, angular character of the roof and walls at this part, already 
mentioned, is due to the recent severance of this mass. It may be doiibted 
whether the fissure-like character of the roof just spoken of is any thing more 
than one of the "joints " so common in all the palaeozoic rocks of Devonshire 
and Cornwall, which has been slowly widened by the action of acidulated 
water percolating through it. At and near this part the walls are much cor- 
roded, and not unfrequently fretted into holes rudely resembling the so-called 
lithodomous perforations met with in limestone rocks in various localities, 
and which have been recently much discussed. Beyond the " fissure" there 
are several conical holes in the roof, which, as they ascend, rapidly diminish 
in size. Most of them are more or less tortuous, thereby rendering it impos- 
sible to say whether they pass upwards to the surface of the hill in the form 
of " swaUets " or Swallow-holes. Some of them are lined with stalagmitic 
matter, whilst others, showing the naked limestone, have a very decided 
water- worn aspect. A few of both kinds have faint traces of reddish soil or 
loam, whilst others are perfectly clean. Near the inner end of this branch 
of the cavern the walls in several places indicate the long- continued erosive 
action of water. 

A floor of granular stalagmite, varying from 21 inches to 1 inch in thick- 
ness, extended from the entrance to about 15 feet within it. Beyond this 

1870. C 



18 REPORT — 1870. 

there was no trace of any tiling of the kind until reaching 27 feet, where small 
patches presented themselves at considerable intervals. At length they be- 
came more numerous and decided ; and at 50 feet there was a continuous 
floor from wall to wall, varying from 1 inch to upwards of 2 feet in 
thickness, and extending, without interruption, to the end. It is perhaps 
worthy of remark that, from its entrance to upwards of 40 feet within it, the 
South Sally-port is remarkably diy at all seasons, but that beyond this area 
it is greatly exposed to drip. There is no doubt that the stalagmitic floor 
at its entrance was formed of calcareous matter which had not been fur- 
nished by or through the surrounding roof or walls, but had flowed in from 
the adjacent Lecture Hall. In short, here, as everywhere else in the cavern, 
the presence or absence of a deposit of stalagmite is a trustworthy indication 
that the locality is at present wet or dry respectively. 

On the stalagmite at the entrance there was a layer of black mould, differ- 
ing from that found in the same position in other branches of the cavern in 
containing an admixture of the typical red cave-earth, which became more 
and more abundant further and further in, until, at about 30 feet from the en- 
trance, the deposit was exclusively cave-earth from top to bottom of each 
section. At 50 feet from the entrance, where the inner stalagmitic floor 
began, the following was the succession of deposits in descending order : — 

First. Red cave-earth, from 12 to 21 inches thick. 

Second. Granular stalagmitic floor, from 1 to 24 inches. 

Third, or lowest kno-mi. Cave-earth of unknown depth, but exceeding 
5 feet. 

The cave-earth was commonly of the ordinary character — a mixture of 
red loam and angular pieces of limestone in about equal quantities. Occa- 
sionally subangular and well-rounded pieces of red grit were found in it ; and 
it everywhere contained blocks of stalagmite, sometimes of considerable 
size, which cannot but be regarded as remnants of a floor older than that 
overlying the deposit in which they were incorporated, and which had been 
destroyed by some natural agency. From the entrance to 45 feet from it, 
there were also in the cave-earth numerous large masses of limestone, 
several of which required to be blasted in order to their removal. In some 
instances they projected upwards through the deposit and the overljang sta- 
lagmite ; and in one case a block so interrupted the continuity of the latter 
as to leave a passage, under the block itself, into the deposit beneath, of 
which it was obvious that some burrowing animal had availed itself. No 
such masses were found beyond the 45 feet just mentioned. 

From the entrance to 60 feet within it, the cave-earth was traversed by a 
tunnel or tunnels, running, on the whole, longitudinally and horizontally, 
with an occasional bifurcation. In most cases they were adjacent to one of 
the walls of the cavern or to one of the large fallen masses of limestone just 
mentioned ; but occasionally they passed entirely thi-ough the earthy deposit, 
when their vertical transverse sections were either circular or elliptical, and 
varied from 6 inches to 2 feet in diameter. Their sides and roof were tole- 
rably smooth, but less so than their floors, which were firmly compacted and 
somewhat blackened, as if by frequent passing. Careful attention was given 
to the subject ; but very few objects were found in them, the most important, 
besides those mentioned in the Fifth Eeport, being a canine of Felis speJcea, 
and an accumulation of dry moss, probably the nest of some animal. There 
were no tunnels in the innermost 20 feet of this Sally-port. 

At 34 feet from the entrance and for some distance beyond, the deposit, 
below the third foot-level, adjacent to the south wall of the cavern consisted 



ON Kent's cavern, Devonshire. 19 

of materials closely resembling those which composed the rock-like breccia 
below the old crystalline stalagmitic floor iu the South-west Chamber and 
the Water Gallery, described in the Fourth and Fifth Eeports (Norwich and 
Exeter, 1868 and 1869), but differing from it in being quite incoherent and 
destitute of fossils, whilst the typical cave-earth, at the same level and adja- 
cent to the opposite waU (a distance of a very few feet at most), yielded the 
usual complement and variety of specimens. 

From 57 to 60 feet fi-om the entrance, the deposit below the second foot- 
level contained no stones of any kind, and consisted of very fine firmly com- 
pacted earth, having very few fossils. 

At 38 feet from the entrance, where there was no stalagmitic floor, there 
was a thin band of charcoal about 3 feet long and 2 feet broad, 10 inches 
below the surface, and midway in the section, so as to leave interspaces 
of lip wards of 3 feet between its ends and the walls of the cavern. 

The upper sui-face of the deposits was an iucUned plane dipping towards 
the inner end, where it was lO'o feet lower than at the entrance, wliilst the 
latter was 13 feet lower than the surface of the cave-earth at the Arched or 
Southern Entrance of the cavern, at which the Committee commenced theii* 
investigations. Indeed the extremity of the South Sally-port is at once the 
most southerly and the lowest point of the cavern which has at present been 
reached. 

Besides a large number of bones (includiag several of birds and a few of 
fish) and portions of antlers, the South SaUy-port yielded about 1400 teeth 
and identifiable fragments of teeth, some of which were in jaws or portions 
of jaws. The entire series may be thus distributed : — 

per cent. per cent. 

Horse 2^ Deer, including Reindeer 

Hyfena 27 and " Irish Elk " . . 2 

Rhinoceros 11 Lion 2 

Bear 8 Ox 1 

Sheep 7 Wolf "j 

T, ^ o -T. /ON >■ each less than 1 

Fox 3 Dog (?) I 

Rabbit 3 Pig J 

Elephant 2 

In the Table the arrangement is throughout that of descending order. Thus 
the teeth of Badger, Fox, and Rabbit formed about 3 per cent, each of the 
entire series ; but the first were rather more, and the third rather less, abun- 
dant than the second, and so on in other cases. The same arrangement wiU 
be observed when describing the other Sally-port and the passages con- 
nected with it. 

From the disturbed state of the deposits in this branch of the cavern, the 
Committee were prepared for the commingling of bones and teeth having a 
modern aspect with those bearing all the indications of antiquity. Accord- 
ingly some remains of the principal extinct Cave-mammals were found in 
the deposit above the stalagmitic floor where this existed, and on the sur- 
face where it did not ; and, in like manner, though very few remaias were 
found in the tunnels, a tooth of Hog was found 2 feet deep in the cave- 
earth, and skulls, jaws, and teeth of Sheep were met with somewhat fre- 
quently at all depths. As has been ah'cady stated, the tiumels ceased at 
about 60 feet from the entrance ; and there also ceased the inosculation of 
ancient and modern relics ; the latest recorded case of Sheep below the sta- 

c2 



20 REPORT— 1870. 

lagmite was one tooth, in the first foot-level, at 62 feet from the entrance ; 
and beyond this point there was no instance of any part of an extinct mam- 
mal above the floor. Agglutinated lumps of Beetles' wings and wing-cases 
were met with at all levels within the disturbed area. 

The specimens found in the stalagmitic floor, though but few, were of 
considerable interest. Amongst them were teeth of Bear, Elephant, Hysena, 
and Rhinoceros, and a portion of the internal shell of a Cuttlefish {Sepia 
officinalis), thus confirming the statements made by the Committee in pre- 
vious Reports, that at least some of the extinct Cave-mammals outlived the 
period represented by the cave-earth *. 

As elsewhere in the cavern, some of the bones of the extinct mammals 
were gnawed, some were greatly discoloured, and some, irrespective of the 
level they occupied, were invested with films of stalagmite. 

Some localities were rich, whilst others were poor in specimens. Occa- 
sionally they were found almost exclusively against one waU of the cavern, 
whilst in other instances their distribution was tolerably uniform. They 
continued to present themselves in the higher levels after they had ceased to 
do so in the lower ones ; thus in the fifth or lowest foot-level there were 
none beyond 51 feet from the entrance ; in the fourth they continued up to 
59 feet, and a solitary Hycena's tooth was found 17 feet beyond this ; in the 
third level they were met with in tolerable abundance as far as 60 feet, and 
a tooth of Rhinoceros with a fragment of bone appeared at 65 feet ; the last 
specimen in the second level occurred at 73 feet, and in the first at 76 feet. 
jN"othing was found in the last 4 feet. 

In this branch of the cavern twenty-one flint implements and flakes were 
found, of which ten were mentioned and four briefly described in the Fifth 
Report (Exeter, 1869). Of those which have recently been discovered, four 
only require special notice. No. 4561 was found on September 11, 1869, at 
55 feet from the entrance, with a tooth of Horse, a tooth of Rhinoceros, and 
a coprolite, in the fourth foot-level of cave-earth, over which was a sta- 
lagmitic floor 14 inches thick. It is of white flint, lanceolate in form, 
strongly carinated on one side, and slightly concave longitudinally on the 
other, which is crowded with facets, indicating the dislodgment of smaU 
flakes in great numbers. It measures 4-4 inches long, 1-1 inch wide, and 
•3 inch thick at its broader end, and tapers gradually towards its point, 
which it has unfortunately lost. It is the best implement of its type which 
the cavern has yielded. No. 4521 is of the same kind, and also of white 
flint, but less delicate in its proportions, being 3-1 inches long, 1-1 inch 
broad, and -4 inch thick at the butt end. It was found with a jaw of 
Rabbit, a tooth of Horse, a tooth of Rhinoceros, and fragments of bone, on 
September 6th, 1869, at 53 feet from the entrance, in the third foot-level of 
undisturbed cave-earth, over which was a stalagmitic floor 2 feet thick. 
^■^^ TbY6 ^s probably a rude core, and is noteworthy only on account of its 
colour. It is a portion of a nodule, the outer surface being of a very dull 
pink which extends to the depth of stout wrapping-paper ; beneath this is a 
bluish inky band about twice this thickness, Avithiu which the colour is a 
creamy white with drab patches. It was found on the same day and in the 
same " parallel " as the specimen last described, and in the foot-level next 
below. There were Ijdng with it a tooth of Elephant, three teeth of Horse, 
four of Hysena, and a wedge-shaped flake of white flint (No. 7^1,5-) . No. 4626 
is a well-formed flake of apparently the same kind of flint as"^2^ ; but its 
iBPQ^^^ especially Eeport of the Thirty-ninth Meeting of the British Association, Exeter, 



ON Kent's cavern, Devonshire. 21 

inky band is from -2 to -3 inch broad. It was found, with a tooth of 
Horse, bones, and a coprolite, on October 2nd, 1869, at 63 feet from the en- 
trance, above the stalagmitic floor. 

The two specimens hist described are in their colours unlike any other 
flint implements, or flakes, or cores found in the cavern. Specimens white 
on the surface and dark in the interior are very common ; but in those under 
notice the succession is reversed. 

Amongst the remains of animals there is part of an antler of the Eeindeer 
(No. jhVt)' ■"'liich has been gnawed. One of the grooves or scores on it, 
however, is unusually deep and extends almost completely round it, being 
interrupted at two opposite points only. It is so utterly without a parallel 
amongst the multitude of gnawed bones which have been found in the 
cavern, that it seems less unreasonable to ascribe it to human agency than to 
the teeth of any animal. It was found, with a tooth of Horse, bones and bone- 
fragments, and a coproUte^ on September 23rd, 1869, at 59 feet from the 
entrance, in the third foot-level of cave-earth, and beneath a floor of sta- 
lagmite 16 inches thick. 

The exploration of the South Sally-port absorbed nearly six months, and 
was completed on November 12, 1869. 

The North Sally-port. — The entrance of the North Sally-port is in the 
east waU of the Great Chamber, 28 feet south and 42 feet west of the 
Arched Entrance of the cavern. All that was known about it when the 
Committee commenced its exploration was, that it was a rude tunnel about 
27 feet long, and at its entrance 8 feet high and 6 feet wide, having a rugged 
floor of stalagmite more or less interrupted by large and small masses of 
limestone, and rapidly descending from the mouth to the inner end, where 
it was about 3 feet wide, having the floor and roof in contact, with the ex- 
ception of a small aperture on the ' right, and a slightly larger one on the 
left, which suggested that on being excavated it might prove to be of greater 
length and to bifurcate. It is now known to be a low labyrinthine passage, 
varying from 1'5 to 9 feet in breadth, but rarely exceeding 3 or, at most, 
4 feet, ramifying very tortuously, and with sundry bifurcations and transverse 
passages, through an area measuring about SG feet from north to south, and 
84 feet from east to west, and terminating in an external opening in the eastern 
slope of the hill, in the same vertical plane as the well and long-known 
Arched or Southern Entrance of the cavern, but about 18 feet below it, 
and 10 feet further eastward. 

The North Sally-port, then, has an external as well as an internal mouth 
or entrance. The former, that just discovered, is nearly due east from the 
latter, and by the least circuitous route is upwards of 140 feet from it. Ex- 
cursions, however, may be made in various other directions ; and, indeed, one 
or two of what are supposed to be minor branches remain to be excavated. 
In one part, nearer to its internal than to its external mouth, the labyrinthine 
passages have cut the limetitone rock into thi'ee insular masses, known as the 
« Islands." 

Up to 20 feet from the internal entrance the excavation was limited to a 
depth of 4 feet below the base of the stalagmitic floor, as in the other 
branches of the cavern generally ; but beyond this point it was found neces- 
sary to sink to 5, and in some places 6 feet, on account of the lowness of the 
I'oof ; and even now those who traverse the various passages have to be 
careful in their movements, so as to avoid collision with the various projec- 
tions and pendants. 

In what may be termed the first " reach " of the SaUy-port, that which 



23 REPORT — 1870. 

has always been accessible, the roof and walls are much fretted, except certain 
portions of the southern side, which are clothed with heavy masses of stalag- 
mitic matter. The passage on the north-west of the " Islands " has the 
aspect of a water-course whose roof and walls have subsequently been much 
fretted, and in some places corroded into holes, perhaps less rudely resembling 
" lithodomous perforations " than those in the South Sally-port, which have 
been already mentioned. Between the " Islands" aud the external entrance, 
indications that the passages are deserted water-courses fi'equently present 
themselves, and " swallets " occur in the roof at various places — some lined 
with stalagmite, some naked, some slightly stained with soil, and some per- 
fectly clean. 

A floor of stalagmite of granular structure, which in many cases was so 
charged with fragments of limestone as to be a concrete extremely dLHicult to 
break up, extended continuously from the internal entrance to 1 4 feet within 
it, and in some instances attained the thickness of 33 inches. Thence to 
16 feet it thinned out before quite reaching the north-eastern or left wall, 
after which it was again continuous to the end of the first " reach," where it 
was in contact with the roof and was 12 inches thick. Beyond this the sta- 
lagmite was very partial, rarely extended quite across the passages, and more 
frequently than otherwise there was no trace of it. In the passage on the 
soiith- western side of the two principal " islands," as well as in the narrow 
" strait" which divides them, there were two more or less continuous floors, 
one over the other, with an interspace of from 5 to 20 inches. In various 
places there were, adhering sometimes to one wall only and sometimes to 
both, rude moiilding-like fragments of a floor which had been destroyed. 

From the Internal Entrance, through the entire length of the first " reach " 
and 8 feet inwards in the second, but in no instance beyond, a black deposit 
(the true " black-mould " of previous Reports), varying from 1 to 20 inches in 
depth, lay everywhere on the stalagmitic floor, where the latter existed, and 
on the cave-earth (next to be described) where it did not, its junction with 
the latter being sharply defined. Beyond the end of the first " reach " the 
upper surface of the " black mould " approached the roof to within at most 
10 or 14 inches. 

The deposit next below the stalagmitic floor was the red cave-earth, 
being of the typical character to the depth of at least 2 feet, below which it 
frequently consisted of loam of darker red and subangular pieces of grit of 
the same colour — the materials of the breccia rather than of the cave-earth. 
In every passage and at all levels there were incorporated in the cave-earth 
fragments of stalagmite, varying in volume from a cubic inch to 10 cubic feet. 
There were also, but in less abundance, well-rolled fragments of rock not de- 
rivable from the cavern-hill. Amongst the latter was a portion of a yellowish 
drab pebble of fine-grained grit or quartzite, which had obviously been broken 
and subsequently rolled. This specimen was met with about 5 feet within 
the new or External Entrance. 

At 19 feet from the Internal Entrance, a tunnel was found in the fourth 
foot-level of the cave-earth, adjacent to the north-east wall ; and at 22 feet 
another was broken into on the opposite side. A transverse vertical section 
of the latter was a semieUipse, measuring 18 inches in breadth at the floor, 
and the same in height, whilst another section of it, a few feet further in, 
measured 33 and 24 inches respectively. That on the opposite side was not 
quite so large. They were both continued through the remainder of the first 
" reach " and to about 6 feet in the second, where they ended. Their depth 
below the surface was tolerably uniform throughout j but they were not 



DEVONSHIRE. 23 

always adjacent to the walls of the cavern. Nothing of the kind was found 
again, except at about 30 feet beyond the point just specified, where a small 
one, about 2 feet long, was laid open. In this branch of the cavern the 
tunnels had the aspect of water-coui'ses rather than of burrows. Occasionally 
bones and pieces of limestone projected from their sides ; and it was observed 
that the exposed portions of the latter had always the blanched appearance 
of such stones when found in shallow soil on limestone and beneath a thin 
covering of turf, whilst their remaining portions were of the same colour as 
the deposit in which they were lodged. No modern bones or other objects 
were found in the tunnels. 

The upper surface of the cave-earth at the internal mouth of the North 
Sally-port was 5'5 feet below that at the Arched Entrance of the cavern ; 
thence to the external entrance, by the most direct route, it formed three 
inclined planes, — of which the first fell 16 feet, towards the exterior of the hiU 
(i. e. eastward), in a length of 67 feet — the fall, however, being by no means 
uniform in amount. In the second plane the dip was reversed, and the 
workmen in their excavations ascended 8-5 feet in a length of about 45 feet; 
after which the dip towards the exterior was resumed, and continued to the 
new mouth, giving a fall of 5 feet on reaching it. Hence the surface of the 
deposit at the external entrance was 12-5 feet lower than at the internal, 
and 18 feet lower than at the Arched Entrance of the cavern. 

The branch of the cavern now under notice contained very large quantities 
of bones and other remains of animals. 

So long as it presented itself, the overlying black mould yielded potsherds, 
marine shells (including CarcUum, Pecten, and the internal shell of Cuttle- 
fish), and bones (chiefly modern, but a few of extinct animals — the astragalus 
of Rhinoceros being the most important of the latter). 

In one instance only, about 26 feet before reaching the external entrance, 
did any bones occur in the stalagmitic floor ; and these were few and, in 
themselves, unimportant. 

The distribution of the fossils in the cave-earth was very irregular. The 
first four " foot-paraUels " contained no specimens of any kind. Nothing was 
found in the second foot-level until reaching 7 feet from the entrance, and 
nothing in the first until the excavation had reached 1 1 feet ; after which 
fossils were met with in tolerable abundance in every parallel, and almost in 
every level, as far as 33 feet, even where local peculiarities made it necessary 
to excavate to the depth of 6 feet. 

Perhaps their irregular distribution was nowhere more strongly marked than 
in the various passages connected with the " islands," commencing at the 
point just specified — 33 feet from the entrance. Along the entire north- 
western passage fossils were very abundant, culminating probably on January 
19th, 1870, when two " yards " of cave-earth lying one on another (in other 
words, a paraUelopiped of the deposit measuring 3 feet long, 2 feet deep, and 
1 broad, and therefore containing 6 cubic feet of matter) yielded 51 teeth of 
Hyfena, 45 of Horse, 27 of Rhinoceros, 8 of Deer, 3 of Elephant, and 1 of 
Wolf, 4 astragali of Rhinoceros, 3 portions of antlers, and a huge assemblage 
of bones and fragments of bones. Along the northern and north-eastern 
sides of the " islands " they became less numerous, especially in the third 
foot-level. On the east there were none in the lowest two foot-levels. On 
the south 320 cubic feet of deposit was found to contain no more than four 
specimens. The low passage terminating at the south-west angle of the 
" islands," and in which the deposits very nearly reached the roof, opened 
into one of much greater height, in which the cave-earth was covered with 



34 REPORT — 1870. 

a stalagmitic floor 4 iiiclies thick. In this floor, almost at the commence- 
ment of the passage, there was a rudely circular hole, about 18 inches in 
diameter. One of the Superintendents, who was present when this was dis- 
closed, drew himself up through the opening so as to command a view of the 
space above, when he found, mixed with a small amount of cave-earth, a vast 
accumulation of bones and teeth, some of which were partially imbedded in 
the stalagmite. Above this mass of remains was, as has been already stated, 
another floor of stalagmite, the space between the two being at that point 
about 20 inches in height. The workmen proceeded to break up both floors ; 
and the labour was rewarded by the immediate exhumation of 29 teeth of 
Hysena, 21 of Elephant, 21 of Horse, 18 of Rhinoceros, 7 of Deer, including 
the " Irish Elk," 2 of Dog (?), 1 of Bear, and such a heap of bones and bone- 
fragments as to render it necessary to send for a cart for the removal of the 
" find." The upper floor was about 6 inches thick, and had a considerable 
space al)ove it, in which there were neither fossils nor deposit. The two 
floors (the upper one being partially destroyed), with their rich intermediate 
layer of bones and cave-earth, extended along the entire passage on the 
south-western side of the "islands," and through the " strait " separating 
the two largest of them. In short, the fossil treasures there were a con- 
tinuation of those which had previously been met with on the north-west. 
Nothing was found in the deposit beneath the lower floor. 

In a considerable recess on the south-east of the " islands," out of which 
not less than 280 cubic feet of matter was dug, the only things found were 
a verj'' few bones of birds. In the passages leading from the north-eastern 
angle of the " islands," fossUs were, with a few exceptions, tolerably abundant, 
but were most prevalent in the upper levels. 

Of teeth alone, the North Sally-port yielded at least 2600, belonging to the 
animals and in the proportions stated below : — 

per cent. per cent. 

Hycena 31 Lion 2 

Horse 31 Bear 1 

Ehinoceros 16 Eox ^ 

Deer, including " Irish Beaver j 

Elk"andEeindeer. . 6 Wolf I , , ^, 

Badger 4 Dog (?) ^^^""^ ^^^' ^^^"^ ^ 

Eabbit 2 Cat ! 

Elephant 2 Sheep J 

Ox 2 



Amongst the peciiliarities of this branch of the cavern are the compara- 
tively large numbers of remains of Badger, Elephant, and Beaver — and, when 
compared with those in the other Sally-port, the small number of Sheep, of 
which the only remnant was one tooth. 

The teeth of Elephant are not only relatively more numerous, but some of 
them exceed in size any that have been found elsewhere in the cavern ; and 
the plates of a few of them are remarkably thick. 

The number of Beavers' teeth is eight : — three molars in part of a jaw 
(No. 4789) found December 20, 1869, with two teeth of Horse, in the first 
foot-level of cave-earth ; a loose molar (No. j-^), foimd the next day, in 
the same level and the adjoining foot-paraUel ; and an almost perfect left 
lower jaw (No. t^-^-jj) with three molars and the fang of the incisor in 
sitti, found on May 3, 1870, in the fourth foot-level, upwards of 50 feet from 
the former specimens. 



ON RENTES CAVERN; DEVONSHIRE. 25 

Many of the bones are gnawed, some are more or less covered with films 
of stalagmite, some are greatly discoloured, and a few have the aspect 
of the remains found in the breccia beneath the old crystalline floor of sta- 
higmite described in previous Reports. 

Taken as a whole, the osseous remains found since the Fifth Report (1869) 
was presented are probably superior to those found in any former year. 

Instances of the commingling of ancient and recent remains occurred in the 
North as well as iu the South Sally-port, but they were by no means so abun- 
dant in the former as in the latter. 

In the branch of the cavern now under notice there were found seven flint 
implements and flakes, of which one was in the black moul^i overlying the 
stalagmite, one was in the first foot-level of cave-earth, two were in the se- 
cond, two in the third, and one in the fourth foot-level. Three appear to 
have been struck from common flint nodules, and are comparatively unim- 
portant. The remainiijg four are good specimens, but one of them only 
(No. 5124) needs description. It is ovate, worked to an edge aU round its 
perimeter, 2*7 inches long, 1"6 inch in greatest breadth, and "3 inch in greatest 
thickness. The bulb of percussion is weU displayed on the inner surface, 
which is concave in every direction, but especially in that of its greatest axis. 
The outer surface is convex, or, rather, is formed of a series of distinct ap- 
proximately plane surfaces, which concur to give it a considerable convexity. 
There are indications of a great amount of work along the entire margin on 
its outer face. Its colour is a veiy light grey, inclining to white ; but there are 
indications of a dark interior. It was found with a tooth of Hyaena, a tooth 
of Rhinoceros, bones, and balls of fsecal matter. May 24, 1870, in the 
first foot-level of cave-earth, about 40 feet from the external entrance. 

Of the seven specimens, five were foimd nearer to the external than to the 
internal entrance, and one (No. 5165), a small but good specimen, was no 
more than 15 feet from it. 

Two of the bones found in this branch of the cavern appear to have been 
cut artificially. The first (No. ^ ^^ ^ ) was found December 22nd, 1869, with 
remains of Badger, Fox, Horse, Hyaena, Ox, and Rhinoceros, 24 feet from the 
internal entrance, in the fourth foot-level of cave-earth, over which was a 
continuous floor of stalagmite 12 inches thick. 

The second (No. -^-^j^) was found about 47 feet from the same entrance, 
on January 24th, 1870, with remains of Elephant, Horse, Hyaena, and 
Rhinoceros, in the second foot-level of cave-earth, over which there was no 
stalagmite. 

Of the fish-bones which have been found, one (No. 5036) appears to have 
been pointed and used as a pin or awl. It was met with on ApiTil 21st, 1870, 
in the second foot-level of cave-earth, which was not covered with stalag- 
mite, rather nearer to the internal than the external entrance. 

The exploration of the North SaUy-port was begun on November 12th, 
1869 ; and in something more than eight months the workmen had dug their 
way through it. The new entrance was reached on July 19th, 1870. There 
are, however, one or two of its ramifications which are not yet excavated, 
having been passed intentionally in the progress of the work. Hoav far they 
extend is at present unknown. 

The Extn-nal 3Iout7i of the North SaTly-po7-t. — -Though the Superintendents 
have no doubt that the North SaUy-port really has an external entrance, 
the workmen have not dug their way to the day at the so-called new mouth. 
The following is the evidence on the question : — During eight months the 
direction of excavation had on the whole been outwards, i. e. towards the 



26 REPORT— 1870. 

hill-side, which, from the ground-plan of the work and the contour of the 
hill itself, was obviously nearly reached. This was confirmed by the appear- 
ance of very fine rootlets, not through the roof, but horizontally in the de- 
posit, which, as the work advanced, grew larger and larger until they became 
roots two inches in diameter. The deposit had always been bounded by 
limestone walls on each side, and by a roof of the same material, between 
which and the cave-earth the interspace, where any existed, never exceeded 
a few inches in height. On July the 19th, 1870, the workmen suddenly ceased 
to be able to find a wall on the right or outside, or a limestone roof above 
them ; and at the same time, and as suddenly, they were imable to reach the 
upper surface of the deposit, which had also undergone a change of characters. 
The materials through which they had uow to drive were, first, or lowest, a 
variety of the cave-earth, with remains of the ordinary Cave-mammals, above 
which was an accumulation of small angular pieces of limestone, with but 
little earth and no fossils, and more or less cemented into a very loose con- 
crete with stalagmitic matter ; and the roof, or that which supplied its place, 
was of the same character — materials, in short, which are found everywhere 
in the upper portions of the numerous limestone fissures of the district. At 
that moment they were, according to their measurements, in the same vertical 
plane as the Arched Entrance of the cavern, at a level of about 18 feet below 
it, and 10 feet outside. In other words, they had dug their way through the 
cavern into a talus of earth and stones lining the hill-side, and which, from 
its upper surface to that on which they stood, was 18 feet deep. 

Two reasons prevented their attempting to break through this mass to the 
open day : — first, it would probably destroy the only road to the cavern ; and 
second, the attempt seemed somewhat hazardous, as the material showed a 
great tendency to " cave in." It being necessary, however, to confirm or 
disprove the conclusion that they had found a new entrance, a tunnel was dug 
through the talus 12 feet long, varying from 4 to 8 feet wide, and having the 
limestone rock for its inner or left boundary. The result was the same 
throughout : the floor and lower portion of the right or outer wall was a 
variety of the cave-earth with the common Cavern specimens ; and the upper 
portions of this waU, as well as the ceiling, consisted of the loose concrete 
ah-eady described, and which contained no fossils. 

As there was nothing further to be gained, and the work seemed unsafe, 
the tunnel was discontinued, and no doubt remained that the workmen had 
emerged from the cavern, and, in cutting the tunnel, had been lajdng bare a 
portion of the limestone hill on the left. It may be of interest to remark that 
this limestone overhung about 2 feet, so as to aff'ord a " shelter " to that extent. 
_ The lower portion of the external talus has been spoken of above as a va- 
riety of the cave-eartli. It was in fact a fine silt with scarcely a trace of the 
common red colour, and closely resembled material which, from time to time, 
had been found within the cavern. Amongst the remains found in it were 
11 teeth of Bear, 7 of Horse, 5 of Hyaena, and 4 of Rhinoceros. The bones, 
of which there was a considerable number, were frequently broken, decayed, 
and discoloured. 

"With the animal-remains two implements and one flake of flint were found. 
Both of the former are of the usual white colour. One of them (No. .5236) is 
little more than the point of what was probably once a good implement ; the 
other (No. 5222) is a good lanceolate implement, 2-5 inches long, 1 inch broad 
at the butt end, and -2 inch in greatest thickness. It is strongly cariuated 
on the outside, and has three longitudinal facets. It was found July 28, 1870. 
The flake (No. 5226) is yellowish, and apparently discoloured. 



ON KENT S CAVERN, DEVONSHIRE. 27 

Smerdo7i's Passage. — The new mouth is the external entrance, not only 
of the North Sally-port, but also of a previously unsuspected passage or under- 
vaulting, which, so far as is at present known, varies from 4 to 10 feet in 
width, and extends in a north-westerly direction. It has received the name 
of " Smerdon's Passage." On abandoning the tunnel just spoken of, the 
workmen were directed to commence the exploration of this Passage ; and at 
the end of last month (August 1870) they had advanced about 20 feet into 
it. The deposit it contains is the common typical cave-earth, having, here 
and there, a thin patch of stalagmite, but nothing like a continuous floor, and 
everywhere reaching the roof, or within a few inches of it. It contains a 
considerable number of pieces of limestone, none of which exceed 10 lbs. in 
weight, a few subangiilar and rounded pieces of red grit, and blocks of Old 
Stalagmite in abundance, some of which measure from 5 to 6 cubic feet. 

Numerous bones and upwards of 700 teeth were found, the latter of which 
may be thus apportioned : — 

per cent. per cent. 

Hyisna 57 Deer, including " Irish 

Horse 19 Elk " and Reindeer. . 2 

Ehinoceros 12 Elephant 1 

Badger 3 Wolf ] 

Bear 2 Lion I each less than 1 

Fox 2 Dog (?) J 

Ox 2 

As in other parts of the cavern, some of the bones were gnawed, some 
discoloured, and some more or less covered with films of stalagmite. With 
them were found several agglutinated lumps of boaes of very small animals*, 
coproHtes, three limpet-shells, a bit of charcoal, and four good flint flakes. 

Amongst the foregoing facts there are some on which it is difiicult to abs- 
tain from speculation. 

As has been already stated, the late Mr. M'Enery named the Sally-ports 
from a settled conviction that they led to external entrances in the hill-side. 
The facts on which he relied were, first, the direction in which they extended, 
and, second and chiefly, the tunnels, which he ascribed to burrowing animals. 
The first was obviously not very conclusive ; for he could not but be aware 
that unless the so-called Sally-ports extended considerably beyond the 
point to which he could penetrate, and without much tortuosity — points on 
wluch no opinion could be formed — they must fall far short of the exterior. 

With reference to the tunnels, even if ascribable to burrowing animals, it 
by no means followed that they were commenced at, or connected with, the 
exterior of the cavern ; for as there were well-known spots in each of the 
branches in question where there was no stalagmitic floor, there was no dif- 
ficidty in supposing the animals to have commenced their burrows in these 
unprotected localities, to have sunk more or less vertically in the deposit, and 
at a suitable depth to have proceeded horizontally. In the Erfth Eeport, 
mention was made of vertical shafts of this kindf; and that this was the 
actual mode of operation is now rendered still more probable by the fact that 
no tunnels occur at or near the inner end of either of the two branches J. 

* One of tliese lumps was found to contain upwards of 1200 bones. 

t See Report Brit. Assoc. 1869, p. 203. 

I The Committee are well aware that the cavern is still occasionally frequented by ani- 
mals. In the Fifth Report they mentioned the annoyance which the visits of a rat had 
occasioned ; bats are often seen flitting to and fro or suspended from the walls, and they 
sometimes make a meal on the candles ; and in the summer considerable numbers of the 



28 REPORT— 1870. 

As has been stated iu previous Reports, the Committee have long been fa- 
miliar with the presence of blocks of stalagmite in the eave-earth, and 
have inferred from them that an ancient floor of the cavern had been broken 
up by natural agency before or during the introduction of the cave-earth. 
There seemed no difficulty in conceiving of a machinery by which such a floor 
might have been destroyed in the comparatively lofty chambers. For example, 
it was known that the deposit which the old floor had covered, and on which 
it had been formed, had been, in some parts of the cavern, partially dis- 
lodged, or had subsided so as to leave the floor unsupported ; it was also 
known that blocks of limestone, some of them scores of tons in weight, had 
from time to time fallen from the roof ; and it was not difficult to see that 
such blocks would break into fragments any such unsupported floor on which 
they might faU. 

This, however, utterly fails to account for the destruction of the floor 
which once existed in at least some of the narrow passages of the North Sally- 
port. That such floors have been destroyed admits of no question, since, as 
has been already stated, remnants of them stiU adhere to the walls, to say 
nothing of their abundant fragments in the deposit below. That they were not 
destroyed by the fall of blocks of limestone is obxious from the facts that their 
remnants on the walls show that they were almost in contact with the roof 
even as it now exists, and that the roof itself presents no indications that sach 
masses have been detached from them. This problem still awaits solution. 

Many of the potsherds in the North SaUy-port were found in the overlying 
black mould considerably beyond the point where man could have actually 
placed or lost them, though not perhaps bej'ond the point where he might 
have thrown them, if he could be supposed to have had a motive for doing 
80. It seems not improbable, however, that, being, as they were, on a highly 
inclined plane of very contracted width, their presence in the spots where 
they were found was due to a participation in a slow and gradual movement 
of the black mould downwards and inwards, in consequence of the frequent 
passage of small recent animals. 

There is greater difficulty in accounting for the occurrence of keen-edged 
flint implements and flakes at and near the external mouth of the North 
Sally-port. There is every reason to believe that the cave-earth found in the 
successive chambers at the highest level of the cavern was introduced 
through the long-known North and South (or Triangular and Arched) En- 
trances ; whence it seems to follow inevitably that at that time the bottom 
of the valley was but little below these entrances, and was therefore nearly 
20 feet above the level of the opening just discovered. That the " implements" 
are of human origin there is every reason to believe ; but it cannot be sup- 
Common Shrew are occasionally observed near the door and in the adjacent thictet. On 
December 8th, 1869, one of the Superintendents found the workmen in a state of excite- 
ment, caused, no doubt, by an unwelcome visit of some infra-human marauder. They had 
that morning taken to the cavern a pound of candles, of sixteen to the pound, and hun" 
them in the accustomed place. On going to cut one of them, at 3 o'clock, it was found 
that twelve of the pound were missing, and tlie condition of the remnants of the wicks was 
such as to indicate cutting rather than gnawing. Hence it would have been concluded 
that the loss was due to a human thief, had it been possible for one to have entered the 
cavern without the knowledge of the workmen. On examination, one of tlie missing can- 
dles was found between some large loo.se stones beneath the nail on which they were hung, 
but no trace of teeth-marks could be found on it. Before the men left work the remnant 
of the pound had been taken, so that not a candle was left ; but by what agency, remains 
unknown ; for tliough a gin temptingly baited was set at the spot, it failed to'aid in the 
solution of the problem. 



ON UNDERGROUND TEMPERATURE. 29 

posed that man placed them -where they were found under the foregohig con- 
ditions ; for the bottom of the valley being then far above the low-level 
entrance, the passages into which it immediately opens were probably inac- 
cessible, and certainly not available for human resort. On the other hand, 
the hypothesis that the flints were washed there from the upper chambers 
appears to be entirely negatived by the fact that, though lodged in a deposit 
largely charged with stones, they are entirely unrolled and retain their keen 
edges. It may be added that very few, if any, of the bones found with them 
show any marks of abrasion, that the implements are more numerous at and 
near its external entrance than elsewhere in the Sally-port, and that no such 
phenomenon presented itselt at or near the end of the other Sally-port, which 
has no external moiith. 

May not the following be the solution of the problem ? The implements 
and animal-remains found at the new entrance and in the passages connected 
with it were deposited after it had been laid bare, and are chronologically 
separated from those in the high-level chambers by an amount of time suffi- 
cient to deepen the valley to the extent of 20 feet, but not sufficient to make 
any change in the fauna of the district, or in the character of the implements 
which its human dwellers employed. 

Mr. Ayshford Sanford has continued his identification of the fossils during 
the past twelve months, and has examined a large number of them. Tlie 
present state of his health has unfortunately prevented his sending in a 
Keport. 



Third Report of the Cmnmittee for the purpose of investigating the rate 
of Increase of Underground Temperature downwards in various 
Localities of Dry Land and under Water. Drawn up by Professor 
Everett, at the request of the Committee, consisting of ^\v William 
Thomson, F.ii.S^., Sir Charles Lyell, F.R.S., J. Clerk Maxwell, 
F.R.S., Prof. Phillips, F.R.S., G. J. Symons, F.M.S., Dr. Balfour 
Stewart, F.R.S., Prof. Ramsay, F.R.S., A. Gteikie, F.R.S, James 
Glaisher, F.R.S. , Rev. Dr. Graham, E. W, Binney, F.R.S. , 
George Maw, F.G.S., W. Pengelly, F.R.S., S. J. Mackie, F.G.S., 
and Professor Everett, D.C.L. (Secretary). 

Me. G. J. Stmons, whose observations, extending to a depth of 1100 feet 
in a weU at Kentish Town, were reported at last Meeting, has since repeated 
his observations at several depths. 

The first 210 feet of the well (which is 8 feet in diameter to the depth of 
540 feet) are occupied by air ; and in this portion of the well the second series 
of observations give temperatures exceeding those observed in the first series 
by from 2° to 5° F., the excess diminishing as the depth increases. The second 
series were taken in July and August, whereas the first series were taken in 
January. It is evident that in this portion of the well, in spite of the pre- 
cautions taken to exclude atmospheric influences, by boarding over the well 
and erecting a hut over it, the temperature varies with the seasons, the 
variations being in the same direction as in the external air, but smaller, and 
diminishing as the depth increases, but still amounting to 2°-2 at the depth 
of 200 feet. 



30 REPORT— 1870. 

"We can feel no certainty that even the mean annual temperature in this 
portion of the weU represents the temperature in the solid ground. On the 
contrary, the mean temperature in the weU at any depth is probably inter- 
mediate between the temperature of the solid ground at that depth and the 
mean temperature of the external air. 

It is well that such observations should have been carefully made and re- 
corded in this one instance, if only for the sake of warning ; and they show 
that we cannot expect to attain the object for which the Committee has been 
appointed by observations in large shafts filled with air. 

Mr. Symons has also repeated the observations at 250 feet (which is 40 feet 
under water), and at the depths of 600 feet, 750 feet, and every 50th foot 
from this to 1100 feet, the lowest point attainable, on account of the mud, 
which extends 200 feet lower. The differences from the results obtained last 
year are +-2, --3, —-4, —-2, —-2,0, -•!, — -1, 0; which upon the whole 
strongly coufia-m the correctness of the observations. 

The temperature at 1100 feet is 69°-8, which, if we assume the mean tem- 

f 50° 
perature of the surface of the ground to be < ,go, gives a mean increase 

t 'Ol 5^0 r 55*5 

downwards of < .n-ioq of a degree Fahrenheit per foot, or 1° for j ^2-9 ^^®^- 

The curve in which temperature is the ordinate and depth the abscissa, ex- 
hibits considerable irregularities tUl we reach the depth of 650 feet, beyond 
which it is nearly a straight line, and represents an increase of -0187 of a de- 
gree per foot. 

The strata penetrated by the weU to the depth to which our observations 
extend consist of clay, sand, chalk, and marl, besides flints. (See tabular 
list appended.) 

Mr. Symons in his Eeport calls attention to the anomalous position of a 
column of water increasing in temperature and consequently diminishing in 
specific gravity downwards, and suggests the inquiry why the warmer and 
lighter portions do not ascend to the top. The proper reply seems to be that 
the diminution of specific gravity, amounting to less than 1 part in 50,000 
per vertical foot, does not furnish sufiicient force to overcome liquid adhesion, 
and the water is thus able to remain in unstable equilibrium. 

Mr. Symons intends, during the remainder of the present year, verifying 
those of his observations which have not yet been repeated, and concludes 
his Report by remarking that it appears desirable to ascertain, by observa- 
tions from year to year, whether the temperature at a given depth (say, 
1000 feet) remains constant or is subject to minute changes periodical or 
otherwise — a suggestion which appears fully worthy of being carried out. 

Mr. Wm. Bryham, Manager of Eose Bridge Colliery, Ince, near Wigan, 
has taken very valuable observations during the sinking of that CoUiery, 
which is now the deepest excavation in Great Britain. The pricipal results 
have already been given, in a paper to the Royal Society, by Mr. Edward Hull, 
Director of the Geological Survey of Ireland, who had previously published 
some important contributions to our knowledge of underground temperature, 
and has now consented to become a member of this Committee. Some of 
the depths, however, have been remeasured since Mr. Hull's paper was read, 
and I am now enabled, through the kindness of Mr. Bryham, to furnish a 
rather more accurate report. 

The temperatures observed and the depths at which they were taken are 
as follows : — 



ON UNDERGROUND TEMPERATURE. 



31 



Depth in yards. 


Temperature Fahrenheit. 


161 
200 
558 


(66) 

78 


605 


80 


630 


83 


663 


85 


671 


86 


679 


87 



1 in yard.s. 


Temperature Fahrenheit 


734 


8°8i 


745 


89 


761 


90| 


775 


911 


783 


92 


800 


93 


806 


93^ 


815 


94 



AU these temperatures, except tlie first two, were observed during the sink- 
ing of the shaft, by drilling a hole with water to the depth of a yard in the 
solid strata at the bottom. A thermometer was then inserted, the hole was 
tightly plugged with clay so as to be air-tight, and was left undisturbed for 
half an hour, at the end of which time the thermometer was withdrawn and 
read — a mode of obsei-vation which appears well adapted to give reliable 
results. With respect to the temperatures at 161 and 200 yards* (which I 
have enclosed in brackets to indicate uncertainty), Mr.Bryham informs me that 
he has some doubt as to the correctness of the thermometer with which they 
were taken, and that they were not taken in the shaft at the time it was 
sunk, but in the seams at the depths named. 

Assuming the surface-temperature to be 49°, we have, on the whole depth 
of 815 yards or 2445 feet, an increase of 45°, which is at the rate of -0184 
of a degree per foot, or a degree for every 54-3 feet. 

On plotting the temperature curve, including the two observations marked 
as doubtful, we find that it naturally divides itself into four portions, which 
are approximately straight lines. 

The most remarkable of these portions is the second from the top, extend- 
ing from the depth of 161 yards to that of 605 yards. It embraces 1332 feet, 
and shows an increase of only 1° for every 86 feet. 

The third portion, extending from the depth of 605 yards to that of 671 
yards, covers only 198 feet, and shows an increase of 1° for every 33 feet. 

The lowest portion extends from the depth of 671 yards to 815 yards. It 
covers 432 feet, and shows an increase of 1° in 54 feet. 

The topmost portion will be affected by the assumption we make as to 
surface-temperature. Assuming this as 49°, it shows an increase of 1° in 
31 feet. 

It is interesting to compare the Eose Bridge observations with those pre- 
viously made by Mr. Fairbairn at Astley Pit, Dukenfield, Cheshire, which 
have been described by Mr. Hull in 'The Coalfields of Great Britain,' 
and by Mr. Fairbaim himself in the British Association Report for 1861. 
The results have been thus summed up by Mr. Hull : — 

" 1. The first observation gives 51° as the invariable temperature through- 
out the year at the depth of 17 feet. Between 231 yards and 270 yards, the 
temperature was nearly uniform at 58-0. And the increase from the surface 
would be at the rate of 1° F. for 88 feet. 

" 2. Between 270 and 309 yards, the increase was at the rate of l°for 
62-4 feet. 

* Further inquiry has shown that these two temperatures must he rejected, as the 
thermometer with which they were taken was afterwards found (by comparison with other 
thermometers) to be in error by some degrees. No note was taken of the amount of the 
error, and the thermometer itself is destroyed. 

Assuming the surface-temperature as 49°, we have an average increase downwards of 
1° in 57-7 feet for the first 558 yards, and of 1° in 48-2 feet for the remaining 257 yards. 



32 REPORT— 1870. 

" 3. Between 309 and 419 yards, the increase was at the rate of 1° for 
60 feet. 

" 4. Between 419 and 613 yards, the increase was at the rate of 1° for 
86-91 feet. 

" 5. Between 613 and 685 yards, the increase was at the rate of 1° for 
65-6 feet 

" . . . . The result of the whole series of observations gives an increase 
of 1° for every 8:'.-2 feet " 

Mr. Fairbairn's own summary is as follows : — " The amount of increase 
indicated in these experiments is from 51° to 57|° as the depth increases 
from 5| yards to 231 yards, or an increase of 1° in 99 feet. But if we take 
the results which are more rehable, namely those between the depths of 231 
and 685 yards, we have an increase of temperature from 57|° to 75 j°, or 17|° 
Fahrenheit — that is, a mean increase of 1" in 76-8 feet." 

Mr. Fairbaii-n here by implication throws doubt on the alleged invariable 
temperature of 51° at the depth of 17 feet, a determination which iu itself 
appears highly improbable, seeing that, at Greenwich, the thermometer whose 
bulb is buried at a depth of 25-6 feet, exhibits an annual range' of 3°"2, 
while that at the depth of 12-8 feet exhibits a range of 9°. But even if we 
assume the mean surface-temperatui'e to be 49°, we have still upou the whole 
depth an increase at the rate of 1° in 80 feet, as against 1° in 54*3 feet at 
Eose Bridge. 

Mr. Fairbairn's paper gives also the results obtained at a second pit at 
Dukenfield, which agree with those in the first in showing an exceptionally 
slow rate of increase downwards. The temperatures at the depths of 167^ 
yards and 467 yards were respectively 58° and 66^°, showing a difference of 
81° in 2991 yards, which is at the rate of 1° in 106 feet. The increase from 
the surface down to 167^ yards, assuming the surface-temperature as 49°, 
would be 9°, or 1° in 56 feet ; and the mean rate of increase from the surface 
to the bottom would be 1° iu 80 feet, the same as iu the first pit. 

A tabular list of the strata at Eose Bridge is appended to this Report. A 
full account of the strata at Dukenfield is given in Mr. Fairbairn's paper 
(British Association Report, 1861). 

With strata so nearly similar, and in two neighbouring counties, we should 
scarcely have expected so much difference in the mean rates of increase 
downwards. In this respect Rose Bridge agrees well -svith the average of 
results obtained elsewhere. Dukenfield far surpasses all other deep mines or 
wells, so far as our present records extend, in slowness of increase. 

This implies one of two things — either that the strata at Dukenfield afford 
unusual facilities for the transmission of heat, or that the isothermal surfaces 
at still greater depths dip down iu the vicinity of Dukenfield. 

Mr. HuU has called attention to a circumstance which favours the first of 
these explanations — the steepness of inclination of the Dukenfield strata. He 
argues, with much appearance of probability, that beds of very various cha- 
racter (sandstones, shales, clays, and coal), alternating with each other, must 
offer more resistance to the transmission of heat across than parallel to their 
plaues of bedding, as Mr. Hopkins has shown that every sudden change of 
material is equivalent to au increase of resistance ; and it is obvious that 
highly inchued strata furnish a path by which heat can travel obhquely up- 
wards without being interrupted by these breaches of continuity. 

To this suggestion of Mr. HuU's it may be added that inclined strata 
furnish great facilities for the convection of heat by the flow of water along 
the planes of junction. It appears likely that surface-water, by soaking 



ON UNDERGROUND TEMPERATURE. 33 

downwards in this direction, may exercise an important influence in assimi- 
lating the temperature at great depths to that which prevails near the surface. 
Mr. Hull's own statement of his views is given in the footnote below*. 

Mr. M'Farlane has been prevented from continuing his observations near 
Glasgow during the past year by the press of business incident to the removal 
from the old to the new College. 

Mr. F. Amery, Druid House, Asliburton, Devon, has taken some observa- 
tions with one of the Committee's thermometers in the shaft of a mine which 
had been unused for a year and was nearly full of water. The shaft is 12 feet 
X 7 feet, and descends vertically for 350 feet, after which it slopes to the 
south at an angle of 50°, continuing to the depth of 620 feet. The water stood 
at 50 feet from the surface. Mr. Amery observed the temperature at every 
50th foot of depth in the vertical portion, and found it to be 53° at all depths, 
except at 250 feet and 200 feet, where it was 53-4 and 53*2 respectively. A 
copper lode crosses the shaft at the depth of 250 feet ; and it appears to be 
generally the case, in the Cornwall and Devonshire mines, that copper lodes 
exhibit high temperature — a circumstance which Prof. Phillips explains by 
the conformation of the strata, which is such as to cause water from greater 
depths to make its way obliquely ujjwards by following the course of the 
copper lodes. 

The nearly constant temperature observed from the surface to the bottom 
of the shaft seems to indicate a large amount of convective circulation. In 
this respect small bores have a decided advantage. 

Mr. Gr. A. Lebour has taken observations with our thermometers in seve- 
ral shafts and bores near Eidsdale, Northumberland, made for working coal 
and ironstone. Mr. Lebour does not report the temperatures observed, which 
he characterizes as discrepant and utterly valueless, owing, he believes, to the 
numerous water-bearing beds which they cut through, and the very varying 
temperature of these waters. Having now, however, found a dry bore, he 
hopes to make a useful series of observations next winter. 

One of the Committee's thermometers has recently been sent to Mr. John 
Donaldson, C.E., Calcutta, who has expressed his desire to aid in scientific 
observation, and, being now engaged in examining for coal and iron under 
Government, is likely to render us effective service. 

Shortly after the last Meeting of the Association, the Secretary of this Com- 

* " Rose-Bridge Colliery oceupies a position in the centre of a gently sloping trough, 
where the beds are nearly horizontal ; they are terminated both on the west and east by 
large parallel faults which throw up the strata on either side. The Colliery is placed in 
what is known as ' the deep belt.' 

" Dukenfield Colliery, on the other hand, is planted upon strata which are highly in- 
clined. The beds of sandstone, shale, and coal rise and crop out to the eastward at 
angles varying from 30^ to 33°. Now I think we may assume that strata consisting of 
sandstones, shales, clays, and coal alternating with each other are capable of conducting 
heat more rapidly along the planes of bedding tlian across them, different kinds of rock 
having, as Mr. Hopkins's experiments show, different eonducting-powers. If this be so, 
we have an evident reason for the dissimilar results in the two cases before us. Assuming 
a constant supply of heat from the interior of the earth, it could only escape, in the case of 
Rose Bridge, across the planes of bedding, meeting in its progress upwards the resistance 
offered by strata of, in each case, varying eonducting-powers. On the other hand, in the 
case of Dukenfield, the internal heat could travel along the steeply inclined strata them- 
selves, and ultimately escape along the outcrop of the beds. 

" I merely offer this as a suggestion explanatory of the results before us, and may be 
allowed to add tliat the strata at Monkwearmouth Colliery, the thermometrical observa- 
tions at which correspond so closely with those obtained at Rose Bridge, are also in a 
position not much removed from the horizontal, which is some evidence in corroboration 
of the views here oflPered." — Proc. Boy. Soc. 1870, vol. xviii. p. 175. 

1870. jD 



34 REPORT — 1870. 

mittee addressed a letter to Professor Henry, Secretary of the Smithsonian 
Institution, United States, requesting his cooperation in furthering the ob- 
ject which the Committee have in view, at the same time forwarding one of 
our protected thermometers. 

In June of the present year, an answer was received from Professor Baird, 
Assistant Secretary in charge, to the effect that Professor Henry's iU health 
during the present season had prevented his communicating to us the result 
of his labours in response to this request. 

The letter addi'essed to Prof. Henry made special reference to an artesian 
well of extraordinary depth, which was understood to be in course of sinking 
at St. Louis ; and at the same time a letter was addressed and a special ther- 
mometer sent to Mr. C. W. Atkeson, the Superintendent of the work of boring 
at St. Louis. 'No reply has been received from Mr. Atkeson, who appears to 
have left St. Louis before the letter arrived ; but letters have been received, 
through the Smithsonian Institution, from Dr. Chas. W. Stevens, Superin- 
tendent of the County Insane Asylum at St. Louis, this being the institution 
for whose uses the weU was sunk, together with a very interesting news- 
paper cutting, consisting of Mr. Atkeson's report on the works. The boring 
of the well was commenced (at the bottom of a dug well 71 1 feet deep) on 
the 31st of March, 1866, and was continued till the 9th of August, 1869, 
when the work was stopped at the enormous depth of 3843| feet, exceeding 
by more than one half the depth of Dukenfield Collier}'. The strata pene- 
trated consisted in the aggregate of 63 feet of clay, 6 feet of coal, 360 feet of 
shales, 2725 feet of limestone, and 680 feet of sandstone. 

A cast-iron tube of 11 j inches bore was first put down, reaching from the 
top and secured on the limestone at the bottom. This tube was then lined 
inside with a wooden tube, reducing the bore to 4| inches. A 4|-inch drill 
was put down through this tube on the above-mentioned date. The bore was 
afterwards enlarged to 6 inches, and subsequently to 11| inches to a depth 
of 131 1 feet. A sheet-iron tube was then put down, extending from the top 
to this depth, and the bore below was enlarged, first to 6 and afterwards to 10 
inches diameter, to the depth of 953 feet. A sheet-iron tube 79 feet long 
Avas then put down, which rests on the offset at the bottom of the 10-inch 
bore. The 4|-inch bore was then enlarged to 6 inches to the depth of 1022 
feet, and a wrought-iron tube of 5 inches bore, weighing more than 6 tons, 
was put down, reaching from the top to and resting on the offset at the 
bottom of the 6-inch bore, thus securing the work to this depth, and reducing 
the bore to a convenient size to work in. The 4|-inch bore has been con- 
tinued to the depth of 3843 feet 6 inches without further tubing. 

At the depth of 3029 feet the first observation of temperature was taken, 
and the reading of the thermometer was 107° Fahr. This first observation 
is stated by Dr. Stevens to be specially worthy of confidence, as having been 
confirmed by several repetitions, or, rather, to use Dr. Stevens's own words, 
" this was the maximum of several trials." It was taken, as well as those 
that followed it, by means of a registering thermometer (kind not mentioned) ; 
but in answer to our inquiries Dr. Stevens states, upon the authority of the 
carpenter who attached the thermometer to the pole by which it was lowered, 
" that no means were taken to defend the bulb from pressure," In the ab- 
sence of further information (and Mr. Atkeson himself has not yet spoken), 
we can place no reliance upon the temperature recorded, as the thermometer 
had to bear a pressure of three-fifths of a mile of water. 

The temperatures registered at lower depths, the deepest being 800 feet 
lower, were aU (strange to say) somewhat lower than this, a circumstance 



ON tJNDERGROTTND TEMPERATURE. 35 

•which is all the more remarkable because the pressure (which tends to make 
the reading higher) must have increased with the depth. At the bottom, or 
rather at 3837 feet, being 6i feet from the bottom, the temperature indicated 
was 105°. Either of these results, taken apart from the other and compared 
with the surface-temperature, would give a result not improbable in itself. 
The mean temperature of the air at St. Louis appears to be about 53°. But 
it seems desirable to avoid publishing calculations till the data are better 
established. 

Unfortunately the apparatus which was emploj-ed in boring has all been 
removed, after the insertion of two wooden plugs, with an iron screw at the 
upper end of each, one at the offset at a depth of 1022 feet, and the other at 
the offset at the depth of 953 feet, for the purpose of separating the fresh 
from the salt waters. These plugs were driven in with great force, and can 
onlj' be withdrawn with the aid of a series of poles and other appliances, 
such as were used in the boring, w^hich will be rather costly. The poles alono 
are estimated to cost ^1152, or about ^200. If the plugs were withdrawn 
(and according to Dr. Stevens there is nothing but the expense to prevent 
it), the whole well would be available for observation. The Committee will 
make every effort to prevent so rare an opportunity from being lost. 

The Secretary has also been in correspondence with Messrs. Mather and 
Piatt of Salford Iron-works, respecting a boring at Moscow, for which they 
have furnished machinery, and which is to be carried to the depth of 3000 
feet. They refer to General Helmersen, of the Mining College, St. Peters- 
burg, as the best authority to whom application can be made for particulars of 
the Moscow boring as to temperature &e. The Secretary has accordingly 
written to General Helmersen, endeavouring to interest him in the objects 
of the Committee, and offering to forward thermometers. No reply has yet 
been received. 

An element which it is necessary to know with a view to the correct re- 
duction of our obseiTations, but which in many instances it is difficult to 
obtain by direct observation, is the mean annual temperature of the ground 
at or near the surface. Instances frequently occur in which the temperature 
at the depth of 200, 300, or it may be 500 feet is accurately known, while 
the temperature in the superincumbent strata can only be guessed at. This 
is the case at the Kentish-Town Well, and partially at Eose Bridge and 
Dukenfield Collieries. 

It is very desirable that, in connexion with temperatures at great depths, 
there should in each locality be an accurate observation at a depth of from 
50 to 100 feet. At such depths in the solid groimd, before it has been dis- 
turbed by mining-operations, one observation suffices to give a good approxi- 
mation to the mean temperature of many years. At depths of 2 or 3 feet it is 
necessary to observe once a week or so throughout a year in order to get the 
mean temperature at that depth for that year ; and this may differ by a con- 
siderable amount from the mean of a series of years. 

In the Eeport of the Scottish Meteorological Society for the quarter end- 
ing December 1862, there is a comparison of the mean temperature of the 
air with that of the soil at the depths of 3, 12, and 22 inches at four stations, 
from observations extending over five years ; and in the Journal of the same 
Society for the quai-ter ending December 1865, there is a comparison of the 
temperature of drained and undrained land from one year's observations un- 
dertaken for this purpose at two stations, and including also a comparison 
with the temperature of the air. The mean temperature of the air for each 
day is in these comparisons assumed to be the simple arithmetical mean of 

d2 



36 REPORT — 1870. 

the maximum and minimum, as indicated by self-registering thermometers 
4 feet from the ground. From these observations it appears that the mean 
annual temperature of the soil was in every case rather above that of the air, 
and that the excess was greater for sand than for undrained clay, and was 
greater for drained land than for the same land undrained. 

The greatest excess occurred in the case of the 22-inch thermometer at 
Nookton (Vale of Leven), where both surface and suhsoU are sandy and dry. 
The five-yearly means at this station were : — 

Air 46-1 ; soil at 3 inches 46-3, at 12 inches 47-3, at 22 inches 48-0, 
giving an excess of 1-9 for the temperature at the depth of 22 inches as 
compared with air. 

The smallest excess, in the case of the 22-inch thermometers observed for 
five years, was at Linton (East Lothian), where it amounted to 0-7 ; but the 
observations on the effect of drainage gave for the j'^ear of observation an 
excess of only 0-2 at the depth of 30 inches in light sandy but undrained 
soil, under a rye-grass crop, at Otter House, near Loch Fyne the corre- 
sponding excess for drained land of the same kind and in the immediate 
vicinity being 0-9. 

The mean temperature, at the depth of 3 feet, at Professor Forbes's three 
stations at Edinburgh, from five years' observations, gave an excess of 0-5.5 
above the mean temperature of the air at Edinburgh as determined by 
Mr. Adie's observations. 

Observations on soil temperature in England are much needed ; but the 
Greenwich observations give an excess of soil above air temperature falling 
within the limits above quoted, the excess at 3 French feet being 1"7, while 
at 24 French feet it is reduced to 1°. The soil of which the Observatory 
Hill is composed, and in which the thermometers are sunk, is dry gravel, 
and the unusual circumstance of decrease of temperature downward observed 
in the comparison of the 3-feet and 24-feet thermometers, seems to indicate 
that the surface of the hill is warmer than the surrounding land. 

In the present state of our knowledge, then, it appears that when the 
temperature of the earth has been observed at a depth of some hundreds of 
feet in any locality in Great Britain, and has not been accurately determined 
at a less deptli, some knowledge of the rate of increase downwards may be 
obtained by assuming provisionally that the mean temperature of the surface 
is about a degree higher than the mean temperature of the air, supposing the 
latter to be known. 

It is to be wished that the "Meteorological Society would, from the ample 
materials in their possession, publish a map of annual isothermals for Great 
Britain ; and the objects of this Committee would be greatly furthered by 
an extensive scries of soil-temperature observations at the depth of about 
3 feet. 

The Committee are anxious to carry into effect Mr, Hull's proposal (quoted 
in their last Report) to bore down from the bottom of a deep mine ; and as 
Hose-Bridge Colliery appears to be an eminently suitable locality for such an 
operation, the Secretary has consulted Mr. Bryham respecting its practicability 
and probable cost. Mr. Brj'ham's reply is that there would be no difficulty 
in carrying out the proposal at Rose Bridge, that to make preparations and 
bore 300 feet would, on a rough estimate, cost £150, and that the second 
300 feet would probably cost about the same sum. 

The Committee would earnestly appeal to the liberality of the Association 
to enable them to put this design in execution ; and they would remark that 
the sooner it is carried out, the more valuable the results obtained will be, as 



ON UNDERGROUND TEMPERATURE. 



37 



the mine has been but recentlj' opened to its present depth, and the in- 
fluence of atmospheric temperature •v\ill every year become more sensible 
in the strata below. 



The annexed figure represents the protected 
maximum thermometer, designed by Sir "W. 
Thomson for the purposes of the Committee. 

A is the protecting case of glass hermetically sealed, 
B the Phillips's thermometer enclosed in it and 
supported by three pieces of cork, c, c, c. A small 
quantity of spirit, 5, occupies the lower part of the 
case, the remainder of the space being filled with 
air, and d is the air-bubble characteristic of Pldl- 
lips's thermometer. The detached column of mer- 
cury above d remains suspended by adhesion in 
- spite of moderate shaking. The instriunent has 
been found to register correctly even imder a 
pressure of 2^ tons to tho square inch. 



B 



Section of Strata sunk through (with shaft IG feet diameter) at Eose-Bridge 

Collieries, Ince, near Wigan. 



No. on 
Sect. 



3. 
4. 
5. 
6. 
7. 
8. 



10. 
11. 
12. 



Description of Strata. 



Outset 

Soil 

Clay 

Strong marl and boulders... 

Dark-blue shale 

Grey rock and ironstone . . . 

Strong dark-blue shale 

Grey rock 

Very strong light-blue shale 

(with fossil ferns) 

Grey freestone rock, very 

open, with water 

Light-blue shale 

Coal, inferior 

Coal and soft shale 

Warrant earth, very soft ... 

Carry forward 



Thick- 
ness. 



yds. 
9 

1 
10 
12 

4 




ft. in. 



1 
0, 

2 

2 8 
6 
2 



4 1 



1 11 



53 11 



No. on 
Sect. 



13. 
14. 
15. 
16. 
17. 

18. 

19. 

20. 
21. 
22. 

23. 
24. 



Description of Strata. 



Brought forward 
Strong linn and wool 

Dark blue shale 

Inferior coal and shale 

Warrant earth 

Strong blue shale 

Coal 

Soft warrant earth 

Dogtooth shale and bands 

of rock 

Dark -brown shale 

Strong grey rock 

Strong grey shale and bands 

of rock , 

Burr-stone 

Strong blue shale 

Carryforward .... 



Thick- 
ness. 



yds. 

53 

2 

7 
1 
1 
4 





ft. in. 

11 

1 

2 5 
3 



1 10 
1 11 
1 6 



2 2 





3 2 


10 


2 


6 


1 2 





1 1 


3 


3 1 


6 


85 


11 



m 



REPORT 1870. 



No. on 

Sect. 



25. 
26. 
27. 
28. 
29. 
30. 
31. 
32. 
33. 
34. 
35. 
36. 

37.1 

38. 

39. 1 

40. 
41. 

42. 
43. 

44. 
45. 

46. 
47. 
48. 

r 

49. ■! 

60. 
51. 

..{ 

53. 1 

-{ 

55. 

56.1 



58. 
59. 



60.-^ 



Description of Strata. 



Tlrick- 
ness. 



Brought forward 

Soft blue shale 

Coal, good 

Strong warrant earth 

Rock burr-stone 

Blue shale, strong 

Blue shale, soft 

Coal, inferior 

Warrant earth, strong 

Grey shale, very strong 

Brown shale, soft 

Coal, inferior 

Strong grey shale and bands 
of rock 

Soft blue shalo 

Black bass 

Soft brown shalo 

Coal, inferior 

Warrant earth 

Strong grey shale 

Soft dai'k shale (with vege 
table fossils) 

Coal, good 

Soft warrant earth, mixed 
with black slialey beds ... 

Black shale 

Strong blue shale and rook 
bands 

Strong linn and wool 

Soft blue shale 

Black bass 

Coal, inferior 

Warrant earth 

Coal, fair quality 

Warrant earth 

Dark-brown shale 

Coal 

Warrant eartli 

Strong grey shale 

Burr-stone 

Strong dark shale 

Hoo cannel 

Strong linn and wool 

Strong blue shale , 

Dark shale 

Black bass 

Coal, inferior 

Warrant earth 

Coal, inferior 

Warrant earth 

Blue shale 

Dark shale, Jan. 16th, stop- 
ped raising headgear, &c. 

Warrant earth, with seams 
of coal, Peb. 8th, com 
menced with large en 
gines 

Carry forward 



yds. ft. 

'85 

2 




1 
4 
3 
1 

2 

1 



7 1 
1 
1 
1 
1 




11 

2 

1 

10 2 
1 



4 1 

3 2 
1 1 
1 



1 1 
1 2 

1 2 



2 2 
1 

4 
1 
2 
6 
2 
1 
2 

1 

5 1 
4 

2 



3 
2 

6 
6 



7 
9 




8 

10 

5 
6 
8 

9 
2 
6 
6 
2 

8 



9 
8 

6 
8 

10 
5 

4 



No. on 

Sect. 



4 



199 10 



61. 
62. 
63. 
64. 
65. 
66. 
67. 
68. 
09. 
70. 
71. 
72. 
73. 
74. 

75. 

76. 

77. 

78. 
79. 
80. 
81. 
8-2. 
83. 
84. 
85. 
86. 
87. 

88. 

89. 
90. 
91. 

92. 

93. 
94. 



Description of Strata. 



■{ 



95, 

96. 
97. 

98. 

99. 
100. 
101. 
102. 

103. 
104. 

105. 

106. 
107. 



yds. ft. in. 
Brought forward 199 10 

Black bass and warrant earth 3 1 

Light-bhie shale 2 

Bass and warrant 4 2 

Strong grey shale 2 2 

Flaggy rock 8 

Strong grey rock 6 

Flaggy rock 2 

Strong grey rock, no joints 13 

Strong grey shale 4 1 

Strong linn and wool 

Strong blue shale 

Soft blue shale 

Bass and coal 

AVarrant earth, soft 

Coal and bass, 9 in., war- 
rant earth, 9 in 

Coal, inferior 

Warrant earth, soft 

Dark dunn shale 

Coal, fair quality 

Warrant earth 

Grey shale 

Black bass 

Grey shale 

Coal, fair quality 

Warrant earth 

Strong grey shale 

Strong grey rock 

Flaggy rock, very strong ... 

Linn and wool 

Dark bass 

Coal, good 

Warrant earth, strong .. 

White rock, very strong 

Grey shale 

Coal, inferior 

Warrant earth, soft 

Linn and wool 

Coal and bass 

W^arrant earth 

Linn and wool 

Strong grey shale 

Coal and bass 

Warrant earth 

Blue shale (with fossil ferns) 

Coal and bass 

Soft warrant earth 

Dark-brown shale (with fos 
sil ferns) 

Grey rock 

Blue shale 

Brown shale 

Coal 

Warrant earth 

White rock 

Linn and wool 



Carry forward 349 



ON UNDERGROUND TEMPERATURE. 



39 



Description of Strata. 



Brought forward 

Burr-stone 

Flaggy rock 

Linn and wool 

Dark dunn shale 

Strong grey rock 

Linn and wool 

Light-blue shale and iron- 
stone bands 

Dark shale (with freshwater 

ferns) 

Blue shale 

Dark shale 

Warrant earth 

Blue shale (with ironstone 

bands) 

Coal 

Warrant earth 

White rock 

Blue shale 

Bass, with seams of coal ... 

Blue shale 

Grey rock 

Dark shale 

Coal and bass 

Warrant earth 

Coal and bass 

Warrant earth 

Blue shale 

Dark shale 

Blue shale 

Rock, with layers of shale. . . 

Dunn shale 

Rock, with thin layers of 

shalo 

Strong rock, with vegetable 

matter mixed 

Strong white rock 

Blue shale 

Black bas3 

Coal 5 in., shale 2 in., coal 

1 yard ft. 6 in 

Warrant earth 

Bass and coal 

Warrant earth and bass and 

coal mixed , 

Linn and wool 

Brown sliide 

Blue shale 

Strong dunn and wool 
Blue shale, with layers of 

dark shale 

Black bass and ironstone 

bands 

Coal, good 

Warrant earth 

Coal 



yds. ft. in. 

349 9 

10 



Carryforward 468 3 



Thick- 
ness. 



1 1 
2 
2 
2 

2 2 



a 



4 

2 

1 1 

2 2 

7 



1 2 
2. 

2 

1 

1 1 



1 2 
2 

2 1 



2 1 

3 1 

4 
12 

7 

1 1 



6 2 

9 

3 1 
1 1 

1 1 

1 

1 

4 2 

1 1 
4 1 
1 
4 1 



2 

1 
2 
1 



5 10 



2 1 3 



No. on 
Sect. 



145, 



•{ 



146. 

147. 
148. 



149. < 



150. 

151 

152. 
153. 

154.- 

155. 
156. 

157 



{ 



"■{ 



158. 
159. 



160 
161 



{ 



162. 

16.3. 
164. 
165. 

166. 1 

167.1 

168. 
169. 
170. 
171. 
172. 
173. 



Description of Strata. 



yds, 

Brought forward 468 

Warrant earth 3 

Coal and bass 

Strong blue shale, with fos- 
sil ferns 7 

Dark shale 

Strong grey shale 10 

Blue shale 1 

Bass 

Coal 

Bass 

Coal 

Warrant earth 

Coal and warrant earth 

mixed 

Coal and bass 

Coal, inferior 

Coal and bass 

Coal, inferior 

Warrant earth 

Blue shale 7 

Coal and bass 

Warrant earth, mixed with 

coal 4 

Strong grey shale 4 

Warrant earth 1 

Strong grey shale, with beds 

of linn and wool 
Strong blue shale, with 

layers of rock 

Strong freestone rock 

Black bass 

Blue shale 

Coal 

Warrant earth 

Strong blue shale .... 

Dark shale 

Strong grey shale, with 

layers of linn 

Dark-brown shale, with 

layers of bass 

Dark warrant earth and 

shale 

Coal 

Dark warrant earth 

Dark shale 

Dark layers of shale 
Coal, fair quality .. 

Warrant earth 

Coal shale 

Warrant earth 

White rock 

Flaggy rock 

Light -brown rock .. 
Strong grey shale . . 

Blue shale 

Dark bass 



Carry forward 



Thick- 
ness. 



ft. in. 

3 

1 10 

1 



2 
2 8 

1 6 
1 
6 
5 
3 
1 



3 
16 
1 


1 
6 





2 




13 1 7 





2 


2 8 

1 

2 G 
2 4 
1 



13 
2 



4 
7 


2 2 
2 10 

1 2 
1 
2 





588 



40 



REPORT — 1870. 



No. on 
Sect. 


Description of Strata. 


Tliick- 

ness. 


No. on 

Sect. 


Description of Strata. 


Thick- 
ness. 




Brought forward 

Hoo cannol 


yds. ft. in. 

.588 2 3 
2 7 
3 

5 

1 
1 2 
2 2 
3 

2 

1 11 

1 6 

1 

6 

1 
1 1 4 
5 2 
1 1 

4 2 4 
1 1 2 
1 4 

10 2 4 

5 2 11 
11 
3 
11 
10 
1 3 
8 
7 
6 
1 10 
6 
1 9 
4 6 
4 3 

3 2 6 
1 6 
2 
1 

6 2 

6 1 6 
6 
9 

1 3 

1 6 

2 2 5 

1 2 

3 1 31 
9 
10 


203.- 
204. 

205. 1 

206. 

207. 

208.1 

209. 
210. 

211. 
212. • 
213. 

214. 1 

215. 
216. 
217. 

218. 1 

219. ' 

220. 

221. 

222. 

223.' 

224. 

225. 

226. 

227. 

228. 

229. 

230. 

231. 

232. 

233. 

234. 

235. 

236. 

237. 

238. 

239.1 

240. 
241. 
242. 
243. 


Brought forward 

Dark dunn metal and iron 
bands 


yds. ft. in. 
663 2 1 


174.] 




6 19 




IToo rannel 


Coal and bass 


6 


175. 




Soft metal 


6 






Coal 


2 8 


176.] 


Shale, with seams of coal . . . 
Bass 


Warrant earth 


8 




Strong grey rock 


2 10 


177. 




Flaffffv rock 


3 2 3 


178. 




Linn and wool 


10 


179; 




Blue metal 


2 


180. 


W^arrant earth . 


Coal 


1 


181.- 

182. 


Coal 


Linn and wool 


5 


Soft warrant earth 


Strong blue metal and iron 
bands 




Light shales 


12 


183. 


Strong blue shale 


Dark dunn shale 


4 


184. 


Wliite rock 


Coal 


4 


185. 


strong blue metal 


Warrant earth 


2 


186. 


Soft metal 


Strong linn and wool 

Dimn bass 


11 


187. 


Ijinn and wool 


2 


188.- 


Eock 


Coal 


16 


Metal with brown iron bands 
Coal 


Warrant earth 


2 


Dark rock 


2 




Earth 


Linn and wool 


6 2 6 




Coal 


Coal and bass 


9 




Earth 


Warrant earth 


2 




Coal 


Bass and coal 

Dogtooth shale 


6 


189. •{ 




2 




Metal 


Strong blue metal 


3 13 




Coal and bass 


Strong grey rock with burrs 
Strong metal 


3 19 




Coal 


3 1 9 




Metal 


Coal, inferior 


12 




Coal 


W^arrant 


10 


190 


Dogtooth shale or warrant 

Strong linn and wool 

Strong metal, with iron 
bands 


Eock 


10 


191. 


Blue metal 


9 7 


192. 


Cockle-shell bed 


2 




Black bass 


10 


t 


Bass 


Blue metal 


2 


193 ] 


Coal 


Eock 


2 




W^arrant earth 


Blue metal 


2 


194. 


IJinn and wool 


Linn and wool 


12 5 


195. 


Strong metal, with iron 
bands 


Grey rock 


2 




Linn and wool 


10 


196." 


Black bass 


Blue metal 

Black bass 


8 


Infprior cannel 


10 


197. ■ 






10 






15 1 


198, 


Linn and wool 


Blue metal • • 


4 2 G 


199. 


Strong grey metal and iron 


Black bass 


6 




Coal 


1 8 


200. 


Linn and wool 




110 


201. 


Coal 


Rock 


5 


Black base 


Stronc shale 


2 10 


Carry foi'ward 


Total 






063 2 


^1 


S15 6 




1 





ON SECTIONS or MOUNTAIN-LIMESTONE CORALS. 



41 



Section of the Boring at Kentish Town. 



.0 
CO 



CO 
CI 

g 

r 



^ 



London clay 
(236 ft.) 



Woolwich 
and Heading 

series 
(61 ft. 6 in.) 



Thanot sands 
(27 ft.) 



CD 
OO 



S 



O 



I 



Lower chalk 

without flints 

(294 ft.) 

Chalk-Hiarl 
(47 ft. 6 in.) 

tapper 

Greensaud 

(72 ft. 6 in.) 

Gault 
(ISO ft. 6 in.) ■ 



Depth. 



ft. in. 
273 6 



Middle chalk 

with flints 
(244 ft. 6 in.) 



307 
324 



ft. in. 

1. Yellow clay 30 6 

2. Blue clay, with Scjttaria 205 6 

3. Mottled (red, yellow, and blue) clay 37 6 

4. White sand, with flint-pebbles 6 

5. Black sands ; passi7ig into 2 

6. Mottled gi-een and red clay 1 

7. Clayey sands 3 

8. Dark grey sands with seams of clay 9 6 

9. Quicksands, ash-coloured 6 6 

0. Flint pebbles 1 6 

1. Ash-coloured sands 10 

3. Argillaceous sands 4 

3. Dark-grey clayey sands 11 

1. Bed of angular green -coated flints 2 

' 15. Chalk with flints 119 6 

16. Hard chalk without flints 8 

17. Chalk, less hard, with few flinfs 31 6 

IS. Nodular chalk, with three beds of ta- 
bular flints 13 6 

19. Chalk, with seams of tabular flint and 

a few nodular flints 32 6 

20. Chalk, with a few flints and some 

patches of sand 9 

,21. Very light-grey chalk, with a few flints 30 

22. Light-grey chalk, with a few thin beds 

of chalk-marl subordinate 133 

23. Grey chalk-marl, with compact and 

marly beds and occasional pyrites ... IGl 

24. Grey marl 20 

25. Harder grey marl, rather sandy, and 

■with occasional iron-pyrites 27 

26. Hard rocky marl Q 6 

27. Bluish-grey marl, rather sandy; the 

lower part more argillaceous ' 58 9 

28. Dark-green sand, mixed with grey clay.. 13 9 

29. Bluish-grey micaceous clay, slightly 

.sandy .' SQ q 

30. Ditto, with two seams of argillaceous 

greensand (j 7 

31. Micaceous blue clay 84 11 1113 C 



483 6 



529 6 



569 





702 





863 





910 


6 


983 






Second Report of the Committee appointed to get cut and prepared 
Sections of Mo-untain-Limestone Corals for Photographing. The 
Committee consists of Henry Woodward, F.G.S., Prof. Duncan 
F.n.S., Prof. Harkness, F.R.S., and James Thomson, F.G.S. ' 

In presenting to the Association the second Report on the slicing of corals 
from the Mountain Limestone, for the purpose of showing their structural 
characteristics by means of photography, we have to state that considerable 
progress has been made during the year, but much still remains to be done 



42 REPORT— 1870. 

before wo can prepare a final Eeport. The Plates exhibited to the Section 
and described below show some valuable results, 

Milne-Edwards and Jules Haime, in their paper on the Corals from the 
Mountain Limestone, published in the Transactions of the Palaeontographi- 
cal Society for 1852, state that this period is one of the richest in true Polyps, 
and that 76 species up to that date have been found ; of these, they record 

43 as found in British strata. In the progress of our investigations we so 
greatly add to this number that, from Scottish strata alone, we have obtained 
64 species belonging to the following families : — 

Known. Doubtful. 

MiUeporidaB , . 8 

Favositida) 4 

Chsetidida) 5 3 

Halysitina 3 1 

Seriatopcridce 1 

Auloporida) 1 1 

CyathaxenidoQ 1 5 

Cyathophyllidffi 41 82 

*64 92 

Although some of these forms have been determined from somewhat im- 
perfect data, we have no doubt that the continued investigation of these 
remains wUl yet greatly increase their number, and cause considerable alter- 
ations in their classification ; we consequently feel the necessity of being 
more severe in our labours, not only with the view of adding to the knowledge 
of species, but of getting rid of the numerous synonyms whicli encumber 
the study of this interesting group of animal remains, 

Plate I, contains the genera Amplexus, Zcplirentis, Cyathophyllum, and 
CamjMphylliim. Fig. 1 represents Amplexus coralloides (Sow.) ; fig. 7, A. 
Menslowii (Edwards & Haime). This genus is characterized by broad tabula 
and sparsely developed endotheca. These species are much restricted in 
their vertical range : we are not aware of their being found in any other 
position than in the lower members of the series, A. coralloides has been 
found at Beith, Ayrshire, aud at Brockley, near Lesmahagow, Lanarkshire ; A, 
Hensloivii at Brockley, Lesmahagow. Pigs. 3, 6, <fc 9 represent the genus 
Zephrentis ; fig. 3, Z. cylindriea (Secular), This form is restricted to the 
lower beds. Fig. 6, Z. Griffitlu. This species is found in all the members 
of the Mountain Limestone. It has a vertical range of 3000 feet. Fig. 1 1 , 
Z. Gxieranyeri ; it is restricted to the lower beds, and is found at Auchenskeigli, 
Ayrshire. Fig. 2 is closely allied to fig. 3, and is probably a young form. 
Figs, 5 & 9 difi'er in the arrangement of the tabulaj. Figs. 8 & 10 repre- 
sent the genus CyathopliyUum ; fig. 8, 0. Murchisomi. This species is 
very rare in Scotland, and found only in the lower beds at Bathgate, Lin- 
lithgowshii-e. Figs, 10 & 10 a, G. paricida. This species is also restricted 
to the lower beds. It is found at Beith, Ayrshire, and is not rare. Fig. 4, 
Gampopliylhmn Murchisonii. This and the preceding forms are developed 
by caUcular gemmation. In the longitudinal section of fig. 4, we have a 
young coral attached to the calice of the parent. In comparing the genus 

* The 04 species referred to have been named from the works of Mihie-Edwards and 
Haime aud M'Coy. Those referred to as doubtful seem to us to have structural charac- 
teristics sufficient to warrant specific distinction ; but as our investigations are not suffi- 
ciently advanced to warrant their determination, we r^s^ry^ their cl^sifloation for a future 
contribution. 



ON SECTIONS OF MOUNTAIN-LIMESTONE CORALS. 43 

Campojjhyllum -with Cijathophyllum and Zephrentls cylindr'ica, we cannot 
see any good grounds for these forms being placed in separate genera. Tho 
tabula and endotheca are very similar in all the three forms. 

Plate II. presents important structural confirmations. Fig. 1, Cijatho^ 
XyhijUum Wrirjhtl. Eigs. 3, 10, & 13 are closely allied to Cijathophyllum, 
and probably may form a subgenus. They are all restricted to the 'lower 
beds, and are found at Brockley, Lesmahagow, and at Howret, Ayrshire 
Figs. 2, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9, 11, 12, 14, 15, & 16 have close affinities to tho 
genus Clisiophyllum (Dana), but there is a distinctly marked difference in 
the structural characteristics from those of any known species. AU are 
restricted to the lower members of the period, and are found at Brockley 
Lesmahagow. ' 

Plate III. contains seven varieties of the genus (JlislophiiUum (Dana). This 
genus is characterized by the conical boss in the centre of the calice, and by 
the central line which passes down from the apex of the cone to the inferior 
extremity. Pigs. 1, 3, & 4 have close affinities to fig. 6, which represents 
C. hpartitum (M'Coy), while there is a distinctly marked difference in 
structural characteristics. Figs. 2, 5, & 7 differ very materially from tho 
others, and cannot be referred to any named species. They are all found in 
the lower members of the period at Beith, Ayrshire. 

Plate IV. contains five varieties. Fig. 5, CUsiophyllum coniseptum (Key- 
serling). This is the only named species represented on this Plate. Figs. 
1, 2, 3, & 4 differ very materially from any existing genus ; they are not 
only restricted to tho lower members of the period, but also to a very 
limited area of the period. They have only been found at Treahorn, near 
Beith, Ayrshire. 

Plate V. fig. 4 has close affinities to ClisiophyUum coniseptum. Fig. 1 
has a clear generic distinction from all the others found that have passed 
through our hands. This coral we have found 10 inches in height, and fi-e- 
quently 2 inches in diameter. It is the largest form of this class we have 
yet seen. Figs, 4 & 5 are closely allied to figs. 1 & 4 of Plate IV. These, 
like the former, are aU restricted both in vertical range and in area. Thev 
have only been found at Treahorn, near Beith, Ayrshire. 

Plate VI. figs. 1, 2, & 5 are three varieties of the genus ClisiophyUum 
(Dana), but they cannot be referred to any existing species with which we 
met. They are restricted both in vertical range and area. They are only 
found at the base of the rocks of this period, and are met with at thirdpart 
near Beith, Ayrshire. Figs. 3 & 4 show a distinctly marked difference in 
the essential characteristics from any known genus. They are found in the 
lower beds at Brockley, near Lesmahagow, and at Treahorn, Beith Ayr- 
shire. •' 

__ Plate VII. contains varieties of Cychpliyllum (Duncan & Thomson). 
Fig. 6 represents a section of the original fwujitus of the Eev. David Ure • 
It IS figured in his 'History of Eutherglen 'and Fast Kilbride,' in 1793* 
The original specimen is in the collection of the Eoyal Society of Edinbui-gh 
By permission of the Council, we sliced that specimen with a view to ascer- 
tain to what genus it could be referred. The history of this specimen is 
perhaps one of the best iUustrations on record showing the necessity of 
carefuUy working out the details of fossil corals before they receive either 
generic or specific names. It was named fum/itus by Ure in 1793 Turbi- 
noha fmigitus by Fleming in 1828, Cyatliophyllmn fmigitus bv Ge'initz in 
1845, ClisiophyUum prolapsum by M'Coy in 1849, Aulophylium funnitus 
by the aamc authors in 1851 who named ii AulophyUum prolapsum in 1845 



44 KEPORT — 1870. 

viz. Milne-Edwards and Haime. Ttis great diversity of nomenclature we can 
only attribute to the fact that non-essential and external characteristics 
have been too implicitly trusted in drawing generic distinctions ; when we 
examine their internal structures, genera named exhibit essential dif- 
ferences of conformation. This genus is found all over Scotland, but is 
restricted to the base of the Mountain Limestone. 

Plate VIII. figs. 4, 5, & 14 represent varieties of Cyclo])liylhim fungitus ; 
fig. 13, G. BoiverhanUi. Pigs. 1, 2, 3, 6, 7, 8, 11, & 12 represent species 
which have a distinctly marked difference from the two species named. Fig. 9 
is Auloijhyllum Edwardsi (Duncan & Thomson). This is a section of the 
typical specimen, the only one, so far as we are aware, that has been dis- 
covered in British strata. These forms are aU restricted to the lower members 
of the period ; they are found at Bathgate, Brockley, and Beith, Ayrshire. 

Plate IX, contains three varieties of the genus Lonsdalia, Fig. 4 repre- 
sents L. foriformis. This species is restricted to the lower members of the 
period, as found at Bathgate, Linlithgowshire. Figs. 1 & 2 are L. flori- 
formis, var. major. This species is restricted to the position of the Main 
Limestone, about 33 feet from the base of the Mountain-Limestone series, 
and found at Bragliead, Lesmahagow, and Braidwood, Carluke, Lanarkshire. 
Fig. 4 represents L. duplimia (Fleming). This is a section of the only speci- 
men we have seen in Scotland. It is restricted to the lower member of the 
period, and found at Glenmuirshaw, near Muirkirk, Ayrshire. 



Second Repoi-t of the Committee, consisting of C. W. MerrifielDj 
F.R.S., G. P. Bidder, C.E., F.R.G.S., Capt. Douglas Galton, 
F.R.S., F. Galton, F.R.S., Prof. Rankine, F.R.S., and W. Froude, 
appointed to report on the state of existing knoivledge on the Sta- 
bility, Propulsion, and Sea-going Qualities of Ships, and as to the 
application which it may be desirable to make to Her Majesty's 
Govei'nment on these subjects. Prepared for the Committee by 
C. W. Merrifield, F.R.S. 

We have to report that we have availed ourselves of your permission to 
apply to the Admiralty to carry out the experiments recommended in our 
first Eeport, presented to the British Association at Exeter last year, and 
that the Admiralty have declined to carry out these experiments, but they 
have sanctioned certain experiments upon models to be conducted by Mr. 
Froude, one of our number. 

The following is a copy of the correspondence on the subject. 

Institution of Naval Arcbit^cts, 
9 Adelphi Terrace, London, W.C. 
28th September, 1869. 

To the Secretary of the Admiralty. 

Sir, — At a Meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of 
Science, held at Norwich in 1868, the attention of the Association was 
drawn to the deficiency of existing knowledge on the stability, propulsion, 



STABILITY, PROPULSION, AND SEA-GOING QUALITIES OP SHIPS. 45 

and sea-going qualities of ships, and to the need of further experiments on 
those subjects as a basis for the extension of theoretical investigation. 

A Committee, consisting of Mr. Bidder, Capt. Galtoit, Mr. F. Gaston, 
Prof. E.ANKINE, Mr. Frotjde, and myself, was appointed for the purpose of 
reporting on the state of existing knowledge on these subjects. At the re- 
cent Meeting at Exeter this Committee presented a first Report, in which 
they recommended certain experiments involving trials on too large a scale 
to be undertaken by private individuals ; and the Association thereupon re- 
appointed the Committee, and instructed them to apply to the Admiralty to 
carry out the experiments suggested. 

I enclose six copies of the Report, and also an extract showing the expe- 
riments actually recommended. 

"With regard to the general question, it is submitted that there is a great 
want of exact experiments on vessels of which every particular is duly 
known and recorded. The experiments will undoubtedly require that a 
certain outlay should be incurred, and provided for in the estimates ; but it 
is believed that even a considerable sum invested in this way would probably 
economize much larger amounts, which would otherwise have to be spent in 
the tentative design of ships and propellers. 

The Committee have indicated in their Report the class of experiments 
which they consider to be immediately required. They have purposely ab- 
stained from giving detailed proposals, both because they desire to avail 
themselves of the immense experience of the naval advisers of the Admiralty 
and of the unrivalled technical knowledge of the constructor's department, 
and because the details must after all be settled with reference to the vessels 
selected for, and the staff entrusted with, the experiments decided upon. 

If My Lords should be pleased to give a general assent to the proposal, it 
appears to the Committee that the simplest plan would be for their Lordships 
to appoint some of their officers to confer with the Committee of the Asso- 
ciation, both as to the detail of the experiments and the best means of 
carrying them out, and with regard to the pro\-ision which wiU be needed 
for them in the estimates. 

The Committee wish it to be understood that they do not by any means 
discourage experiments made by means of models, which can evidently bo 
had in greater number and in larger variety at much less expense than on full 
scale ; but they have (with the exception of Mr. Froude, whose reasons for 
dissent are appended to the Report), on the whole, come to the conclusion 
that the experiments which they have recommended tqion full-sized vessels 
are those which at the present moment are most itrgently needed for the 
advancement of the theory of the design of ships and the possibility of pre- 
dicating their sea-going qualities, 

I have, &c., 

C. W. Meurifield. 

Admiralty, S.W. 
Pth February, 1870, 

Sir, — With reference to your letter of the 2Sth September, 1869, I am 
commanded by My Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty to inform you 
that, after full consideration, they are unable to give a general assent to the 
proposals of your Committee to conduct experiments upon Her Majesty's 
ships in the fiords of Norway, or on the inland waters of the west coast of 
Scotland ; but My Lords have been pleased to sanction certain experiments 
upon models, to be conducted by Mr. Froude, a member of the Committee, 



46 REPORT — 1870. 

an3 will cause the results of those experiments to be communicated, when 
complete, to the Institution of Naval Architects, the British Association, and 
such other Professional bodies as to My Lords may seem desirable. 

I am, Sir, your obedient Servant, 
(Signed) Yebnon Litshington. 

O. W, MemfieU, Esq., F.E.S., 
Secretary to the Committee on Stability 6fc. of British Association, 

We are of opinion that it is advisable to await the result of Mr. Froude's 
experiments before taking any further action in the matter. 

Francis Galton. 
Gr. P. Bidder. 
. . . Douglas Galto]?. 

W. J. MAcatroKN Rankine. 
"NVm. Froude. 
Charles W. Meerifieid. 
London, May 1870. 

APPENDIX. 

Communication received from the Institution of Engineers in Scotland, with 
which is incorporated the Scottish Shipbuilders' Association. 

Report of the Committee on a Communication received from the British 
Association respecting the Qualities of Ships. 

Your Committee having considered the printed Report of a Committee of 
the British Association which has been submitted to them by the Council 
and other information on the same subject, beg leave to report as follows : — 

1. Your Committee approve of the said Report generally, and especially of 
the parts headed "Proposed Experiments," pages 29 to 81 , and " Recom^ 
mendatioii of Experiments on Rolling," pages 59 to 63 ; for they consider 
that such experiments as those therein proposed are required for the practical 
advancement of the arts of Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering, as 
well as for scientific purposes. 

2. Tour Committee agree with the Committee of the British Association 
that the experiments required are beyond the means either of individuals or 
of firms, or of Scientific Societies ; and that it is therefore desirable that they 
should be undertaken by the Government. 

3. Tour Committee therefore recommend that the Council of the Institu- 
tion of Engineers in Scotland should appoint a deputation, for the purpose of 
cooperating with the deputation of the Council of the British Association in 
the application to the Admiralty proposed in the last paragraph of page 31, 
and in the last paragraph but one of page 62, of the printed Report before 
mentioned, which paragraphs are as follows : — 

Page 31. — "We therefore recommend that the Council of the British As- 
sociation should authorize a deputation to apply to the Admiralty to provide 
for such a set of experiments in the course of the Summer of 1870 ; also, 
that the Council should appoint a Committee, consisting of three members of 
the Association, to confer with officers of the Admiralty respecting the detail 
of the experiments, and that the Admiralty should be requested to give an 
opportunity to the members of that Committee of taking a share in the ob- 
servations, in order that they may be enabled to make an independent Re- 
port upon results." 

Page 62. — " We therefore recommend that the deputation previously 
mentioned with reference to the experiments on Resistance, be also instructed 



STABILITY, PKOPULSION, AND SEA-GOING QUALITIES OF SHIPS. 47 

to urge upon the Admiralty the importance, both practical and theoretical, 
of instituting such a set of experiments, of providing suitable instruments 
for recording exact observations, and of publishing the results. We also 
recommend the appointment by the Council of the Association of a Com- 
mittee of three members to confer with the officers of the Admiralty as to 
the drawing up of detailed instructions for conducting these experiments ; 
and that the Lords of the Admiralty, in the event of their assenting to the 
proposals, be requested to nominate a committee to confer with the Committee 
named by the Association." 

4. As regards the proposal in the printed Report, that the Council of the 
British Association should appoint a committee of three members of the 
Association to confer with the officers of the Admiralty, your Committee re- 
commend that the Council of the Institution of Engineers in Scotland should 
also appoint a Committee of three members of this Institution for the same 
purpose ; and that, in appointing that Committee, in order to avoid making 
the combined committees inconveniently numerous, they should endeavour, 
by communication with the Councils of the British Association and of the 
other Scientific Societies concurring in the application to Government, to fix 
upon members of committee who maj'^ represent two or more societies 
jointly. 

5. Your Committee recommend to the consideration of those who may 
arrange the experiments a method of experimenting on the resistance of the 
water to the motion of ships lately practised by the French Government, 
viz. to set a ship in motion at a considerable speed, and then allow her to 
be gradually retarded and brought to rest by the resistance of the water, 
making observations of the rates at which the retardation goes on, and de?» 
ducing the resistance from the results of those observations. 

Your Committee recommend this method not as a substitute for, but as au 
addition to, the methods mentioned in the printed Report ; for they consider 
that important conclusions may be deduced from a comparison of the values 
of the resistance of a ship as ascertained by towing and by retardation 
respectively. 

Extract of Minutes relating to -Communication from British Association 
respecting the Qualities of Ships. 

Council Meeting of 15th October, 1869. 

" A letter from C. W. Merrifield, in reference to a Eeport of the British 
Association on the Stability, Propulsion, and Sea-going qualities of Ships, 
was read, and Report laid before the Meeting. 

" The following Committee was appointed to consider this Report, and 
report to a future Meeting : — Professor Rankine, Messrs. M. R. CosteUoe, 
R. Duncan, John Ferguson, J. G. Lavrrie, and David Rowan." 

Council Meeting of 18th January, 1870. 
" The Report of the Committee appointed to consider communication from 
the British Association respecting the Qualities of Ships was read and 
agreed to." 

General Meeting of 18th January, 1870. See Special General Meeting. 
Special General Meeting of 25th January, 1870. 

'•' The Secretary read the Report of the Council on communication from 
British Association in reference to experiments on the Stability, Propulsion, 
and Sea-going Qualities of Ships. The Report was unanimously adopted," 



48 REPORT — 1870. 

Council Meeting of 4th February, 1870, 

" Communication from British Association. — It was agreed that the fol- 
lowing gentlemen be appointed a Committee to act with the Committee of 
the British Association with a view to the carrying out the recommendations 
contained in the Report of the Committee on a communication from the 
British Association respecting the qualities of Ships : — ^Professor Rankine, 
Jas. R. Napier, and J. G. Lawrie." 

(Extracted.) J. R. Smith, Secretary. 

W. H. Millar. 



Report of the Committee on Earthquakes in Scotland. The Committee 
consists of Sir W. Thomson, M.A., LL.D., F.R.S., D. Milne- 
Home, F.R.S.E., P. Macfarlane, and J. Bryce, M.A., LL.D., 
F.G.S. (Reporter). 

The instruments belonging to the Association, set up at Comrie, are in a 
satisfactory condition, and the records are duly kept. It has, however, been 
of late forced upon the attention of the Committee that most probably the 
Seismometer is not sufficiently delicate to indicate the very slight shocks 
which are now of frequent occurrence, while the concave disk, on which the 
pencil-point traces the direction of the shock, is inconveniently high for fre- 
quent observation. Under these circumstances some simpler contrivance, and 
one which shall give less trouble to the observer, is much to be desired. 
The Committee is jiow considering how this can be best accomplished, with 
special reference to the registration of slight shocks by some method of 
magnifying the effect. Care will be taken that the instrument be thoroughly 
tested before being set up at Comrie, and that the cost be as small as pos- 
sible. In the autumn of last year there were several slight shocks, and, 
apparently in connexion with them (though it would be rash to speak posi- 
tively on this point), a remarkable movement of the waters of Loch Earn, 
though the shocks were not felt at that distance from Comrie. The matter 
being reported to me, I went into the district soon after, and collected the 
most satisfactory evidence of the movement in question. It occurred on 
several occasions in the months of August and September last ; but the most 
remarkable and most completely attested case was that of the 15th day of 
September, between the hours of 10 a.m. and noon. The day was calm and 
misty, with a slight air up the lake from the east, and the water conse- 
quently quite unruffled. At the east end chiefly the movement was observed. 
The water rose slowly, in successive low, broad undulations, to the height of 
from 2 to 6 feet, along the shelving beach, and as slowly subsided, the undu- 
lations continuing through the two hours of the forenoon above mentioned. 
There was nothing sudden or disturbed in the movement ; in so far it was 
unlike the effect of earth-waves passing into water ; it resembled more the 
movements which are at rare intervals noted in the lakes of Switzerland, and 
may be the effect of subterranean movements at great distances. Instruction 
had been given for the careful observation of any such occurrences in future. — • 
On the 29th of April last, about 11 p.m., a pretty smart shock of earthquake 
was felt over the district, to the extent of 10 miles along the valley of the 
Earn, and about half that distance in a transverse direction. There were 



ON THE TREATMENT AND UTILIZATION OF SEWAGE. 49 

two shocks, with an interval of about half a minute. The direction whence 
the undulation seemed to all the observers to proceed in different parts 
agreed pretty closely with that indicated by the Seismometer, There was 
nothing unusual, or in any way remarkable, in the indications of the instru- 
ments by which the atmospheric phenomena are recorded. The movements, 
indeed, are more probably connected with the geological relations of the 
district, and may have no dependence on its meteorology. It is, however, 
premature to enter on this question in the present state of the inquiry. 
The Committee is most desirous to be enabled to put up two or three Seis- 
mometers in other adjacent localities, if any instrument of manageable size 
can be constructed, and thoroughly capable and trustworthy observers secured. 



Report of the Committee on the " Treatment and Utilization of Setvage," 
reappointed at Exeter, 1869^ atid cmisistiiig of Richard B. Gran- 
THAMj M. Inst. C.E., F.G.S., Chairman,M. C. Cooke, M.A., Prof. 
CoRFiELD, M.A., M.B., J. Bailey Denton, M.I?ist. C.E., F.G.S., 
John Thornhill Harrison, M. Inst. C.E., William Hope, V.C, 
Prof. Marshall, F.R.C.S., F.R.S., Benjamin H. Paul, Ph.D., 
F.C.S., Prof. Wanklyn, Prof. Williamson, Ph.D., F.R.S., and Sir 
John Lubbock, Bart., M.P., F.R.S., Treasurer. 

[Plates I., II., III.] 

Before describing its operations during the past year, your Committee desires 
to recall the attention of the Association to the circumstances which led to 
its reappointment at Exeter last year. 

Your Committee was first constituted at N'orwich in 1868, with a grant of 
^10 " to report on the treatment and utilization of Sewage." The resiilts of 
its inquiries were detailed in the Eeport made to the Exeter Meeting in 
1869, and the Committee was reappointed with a grant of .£50, being then 
constituted as follows : — 

Mr. Grantham, Mr. Denton, Mr. Harrison, Mr. Hope, Dr. Paul, and Pro- 
fessor Wanklyn. 

The Committee as soon as possible made arrangements to proceed with the 
inquiry entrusted to it ; and one of the first steps taken upon resuming its 
operations was, in virtue of the power vested in all Committees, to add to 
its number several gentlemen whose assistance was considered desirable, 
namely, Mr. Cooke, Professors Corfield, Marshall, and "Williamson, and Sir 
John Lubbock as Treasurer with respect to the Fund raised by the Committee 
as hereafter described. 

The Committee proceeded to collect existing information upon the subject 
of sewage &c. with a view to summarizing it. 

It soon became evident to the Committee that the grant of .£50 from tho 
British Association would be whoUy insufficient for carrying on the investi- 
gations in a broad and comprehensive manner. A circular was thereupon 
prepared and addressed to the authorities of the towns principally inter- 
ested in the solution of the difficulties in connexion with the disposal of 
sewage, who it was thought would, if requested, subscribe towards a fund 
for carrying on the investigations. The draft of this circular was submitted 

1870. E 



50 REPORT 1870. 

to the Council of the Association. The circular was then issued, at various 
times, to upwards of 700 towns in the United Kingdom. The result of these 
applications has been that the authorities of about 150 towns and districts, 
in addition to other public bodies and some private individuals, have sub- 
scribed the sum of ^1530. There was a general expression of satisfaction _ 
from the towns at the appointment of the Committee, who received nu- ' 
merous offers of assistance in the prosecution of its inquiries. 

The various applications to the towns occupied some time, during which 
the Committee was unable to take active steps in the prosecution of the in- 
quiry, the scope and character of which would necessarily be governed by 
the amount of support rendered by the towns ; and it was not until the end 
of February that the Committee found itself in a position to proceed with 
the full inquiry proposed by its circular. The Committee then considered 
that the funds received justified the commencement of systematic work, 
and a circular was at once addressed to the authorities of all the towns re- 
questing them to state the nature of their difficulties with respect to the 
sewage question, and the points upon which they would specially desire in- 
formation. In reply to this many communications were received detailing 
the particular circumstances of the various towns, and the difficulties com- 
plained of. The information required may be briefly summarized as follows : — 

The towns complaining of difficulties may be classed under two heads — 
those having efficient arrangements for the removal of their sewage, and 
those where, for want of systematic sewerage, the refuse is a source of 
nuisance and injury to health. The latter class of towns seems to require 
information upon all points, and some of the municipal authorities, against 
whom injunctions had been obtained or threatened, even wished for advice 
in their particular cases. "Where irrigation was considered from local cir- 
cumstances impracticable, inquiry was particularly made as to whether the 
Committee could safely recommend any simple and efficient method of deo- 
dorization. Several towns which had adopted methods of filtration com- 
plained of their failure. Some towns had no present trouble to complain of, 
but wished to know how far the systems adopted by them would meet the 
requirements of a more stringent legislation on the question. Only one town 
(Carlisle) where irrigation is being practised had no difficulty, present or 
prospective, and required no information. 

The Committee being desirous of restricting its labours to the proper sub- 
ject of the inquiry entrusted to it, viz. the " treatment and utilization of 
sewage," and assuming as proved the deleterious effects upon the health of 
towns of substances which escape from stagnant sewage into the surround- 
ing soil, water, and atmosphere, resolved " that it was unnecessary to enter 
upon any special medical or other hygienic investigation for the purpose of 
establishing that general conclusion, but that it would direct its special at- 
tention to the extent to which the soil, water, and atmosphere are polluted by 
the several systems adopted for removing sewage from towns." It decided 
also to take into consideration the probable sanitary advantages or disadvan- 
tages of different methods of treating sewage after removal, and the effects 
upon the public health of the various methods proposed for its utilization. 

The Committee considered it desirable that all persons having processes for 
the purification or utilization of sewage should be applied to, to submit them 
for examination, and to furnish details of the principle and working of their] 
respective plans ; advertisements were accordingly issued. Descriptions of 1 
several methods and some suggestions have been received ; these, howeverj 
have not yet been examined. 



ON THE TREATMENT AND UTILIZATION OF SEWAGE. 51 

The Committee continued its investigation of last year into the modes of 
treatment and utilization now practised, and a form was prepared and sent 
to the principal towns for the purpose of obtaining further information on 
the subject. The replies received from 200 of these towns have been tabu- 
lated. The Table and a statement describing the results of this part of the 
inquiry wiU be found further on in this Eeport. 

The Committee decided upon making local investigations in towns typi- 
cally representing various methods for the disposal of refuse matters, and for 
this purpose appointed two engineers to make the inquiries. Cambridge and 
Bury were first selected for examination, as being good examples of water- 
closet and privy and ashpit towns respectively. 

The Committee considered it desirable that the existing information bear- 
ing upon the subject of the present inquiry should be collected in the form 
of a " Digest," which Professor Corfield undertook to prepare ; he has 
done so, and it will be distributed with this Eeport to the towns which have 
subscribed to the Committee's fund. 

The Committee availing itself of the proximity to London of the town of 
Romford, a lease of the sewage of which for irrigation iipon " Breton's Farm" 
happened to have been taken by one of its members, appointed a person to 
reside on the farm to make observations as the cropping progressed, to take 
gaugings, and to coUect samples for analysis, both of the sewage and of the 
effluent water. He has proceeded with the work, and the observations &c. 
have been tabulated and a plan has been made of the farm as laid out for 
sewage irrigation, with the engines, tank, distributing-troughs, carriers, beds, 
and underdrains, all of which are explained in the special description of this 
farm, which will be found in an appendix to this Report. 

The Committee appointed Dr. Russell, of St. Mary's Hospital, London, to 
make such analyses as they might requii'e, and those referred to and given 
in the description of Breton's Farm and other portions of this Report have 
been furnished by him. 

As some apprehensions have arisen to the effect that the distribution of 
sewage over the land might possibly favour the spread of entozoic diseases in 
various ways, and might even propagate some that have not yet been known 
to spread in our country, the Committee has thought it desirable to insti- 
tute a series of experiments with a view to deciding this point, or at any rate 
throwing some light upon it. To this end three families of guinea-pigs have 
been purchased, each family consisting of four members : one member of each 
family has been examined by Professor Corfield, who reports that no sign of 
entozoic disease of any description was to be found with the help of a powerful 
pocket-lens, either in the viscera or muscles of either specimen examined. 

The three surviving members of one family are now being fed on sewaged 
produce only, and those of the other two families on unsewaged produce 
only : it is proj>osed to feed the members of one of these last-mentioned 
families with an occasional meal containing entozoic larvae or ova, found 
either upon the sewaged vegetables (it having been stated that some have 
been so found on the Craigentinny meadows), or, failing that, in the sewage 
itself. 

Thus there will be three families of three members each ; of which one 
family will have been fed upon sewaged produce alone, one on unsewaged 
produce alone, and one on unsewaged produce known to contain entozoic 
larvae or ova. 

The animals will then be killed and carefully examined ; and it is hoped 
that some result may be obtained even from this preliminary experiment, 

e2 



53 REPOET — 1870. 

although, conducted on so small a scale. The Committee, however, fully in- 
tends to prosecute the inquiry further, and to institute experiments of this 
nature on a larger scale. 

It may be added here that some specimens of sewage-grown rye-grass, 
carrots, turnips, onions, beet, and lettuce, from Breton's farm, were sent to 
Mr. M. C. Cooke, M.A., for examination, with a view to the possible disco- 
very of entozoic eggs or larvte. He states that " the rye-grass was mouldy, 
but only from such moulds as are the result of decay from the damp grass 
having been kept several days enclosed ;" and he siimmarizes the results of 
his examination of the vegetables as follows : — " I find nothing whatever to 
report against any of them. They all seem to me in excellent order and 
free from parasitic insects, or from fungi of any kind." 

The foregoing Eeport is a brief account of the work done by the Committee 
since the last Meeting of the Association at Exeter. Further details wiU be 
found in the appendices ; but in the present immature stage of so important 
and difficult an inquiry the Committee can only report progress, reserving 
for a future, and it is hoped early Eeport, the practical conclusions and sug- 
gestions resulting from its labours. 

APPENDIX. 

A. — Abstract of Returns from 200 Towns. 

Returns have been received from a large number of towns, recording 
the existing arrangements of water-supply, sewerage, scavenging, and dis- 
posal of refuse ; and the returns from 200 of these have been tabulated by 
the Committee with a view to the selection therefrom of tyincal towns 
for examination. They are arranged consecutively, from 1 to 200, under 
the headings " Registration Divisions," " Counties," and " Watersheds." 
Under the first heading all the Registration Divisions recognized by the 
Registrar- General in England and Wales arc included, with the exception 
of that of London. Under the second heading all the counties of England 
appear, except Rutland, Huntingdon, and Westmoreland, while Wales is repre- 
sented by seven towns. Scotland and Ireland contribute eight and four towns 
respectively. Out of the 220 watersheds into which England and Wales are 
divided, 39 appear in the schedule, and these comprise the principal rivers. 
The 200 towns and districts enumerated contain a population of 7,159,240. 
The whole of the towns in Great Britain and Ireland may be divided into 
the three classes stated below, and the number of the tabulated towns in 
each class is duly stated. 

No. Population. 

I. Towns having a complete system of underground 
sewerage, a general water-supply, and a general 
adoption of water-closets discharging into the 

sewers 44 1,154,600 

II.* Towns having a system of underground sewerage 
with water-supply, and only a partial adoption 

of water-closets \ 145 6,785,840 

III. Towns without any system of underground sewer- 
age 11 218,800 

7,159,240 

* In this class there are some towns with as few as six water-closets only. 



ON THE TREATMENT AND UTILIZATION OF SEWAGE. 53 

Considerable difficulty has been experienced in classifying the tabulated 
towns, owing to the fact that sanitary arrangements have not, except in 
a few instances, reached the point where complete systems may be said 
to exist. This will be apparent on an analysis of the following details of 
returns. 

Water. — In the supply of water, the greatest irregularity prevails. There 
are few towns in which the whole of the inhabitants derive their supply 
from public sources, these being largely supplemented by water from wells 
and roofs. The quantity of water, too, supplied for public or general uses 
and for special trades and purposes, varies very considerably, while the waste 
is much greater in some towns than in others. In the 200 scheduled towns 
there are 90 whoUy dependent on a public or general supply, 22 on private 
sources only, and 88 partly on private sources, in addition to a public 
supply. The returns show that there are in the 200 scheduled towns and 
districts 7 towns with a public daily supply of water amounting to or ex- 
ceeding 50 gallons per head, 6 between 40 and 50, 18 between 30 and 40, 
46 between 20 and 30, 38 between 10 and 20, and 4 under 10 gallons. 
The remainder, consisting of 81 towns, have made no return as to the 
quantities supplied. 

Beceptaeles of Exxretal Matter, — With respect to this subject, there is 
quite as much diversity of treatment and want of precise knowledge as with 
respect to water-supply. In the 200 scheduled towns there are 44 in which 
water-closets are general, 75 in which water-closets exist in considerable' 
number, though privies are still much used, and 70 where privies very 
greatly exceed water-closets in number. Only 446 earth-closets are re- 
turned as existing in the whole of the 200 scheduled towns. 

Removal of Refuse. — It appears that only in 11 cases is there a total ab- 
sence of sewers to discharge liquid refuse. In those 11 cases the slops 
of the houses, the refuse of slaughter-houses &c., and the overflow from 
cesspools find their way into surface-streams, or are absorbed by the subsoil. 
At Paisley slops are thrown on the ashes to be removed by the public 
scavenger, and at Frome they appear, by the returns, to be purchased largely 
by cloth manufacturers. In these two instances only does there appear 
to be any profitable use made of the slops before they are finally discharged. 
AU the remainder appear to have sewers for the removal of liquid refuse into 
which the excreta! matter of 44 water-closeted towns is whoUy discharged, 
while from 119 towns in which privies exist the excretal matter is partly 
discharged by the same means and partly by scavenging. In 3 cases the 
excretal matter is wholly removed by public scavenging, in 8 by private 
scavenging, and in 1 by both ; and in 2 cases it is partly thrown into the 
surface-drains or ditches. In 25 toAvns the returns do not give any in- 
formation as to the removal of excretal matter. The ashes are nearly 
universally removed by the public scavenger, though in a few towns the 
work is left to private action. 

Storm and Surface-waters. — In the case of 149 towns out of the 200 
these waters are admitted into the sewers ; in nine instances, where new sys- 
tems of sewerage have been adopted, the old sewers are entirely devoted to 
the discharge of surface-waters ; in one instance special sewers are appro- 
priated to the same purpose, while in 11 other instances the old surface- 
channels are used. In 25 cases more than one of the above systems are 
practised, and in the remaining 5 instances no return has been made. It 
will be seen, by a close examination of the tabular statement, that in 
, many instances the sewers have to receive an immense body of water in 



54 KEPORT — 1870. 

times of heavy rainfall. It occasionally happens that an inch of rain falls 
in twenty-four hours, and in certain seasons and under certain conditions half 
that quantity makes its way to the sewers in the same period. Two in- 
stances recorded in the schedule will serve to show the extent to which a 
sewerage system may be tried by such influx. In the Nottingham district, 
where it appears from the return there is a surface of 1870 acres tributary 
to the sewers, and where the annual rainfall is 25 inches, there fell on the 
18th of September last (since the Committee has been sitting) 2-14 inches of 
rain. If at this time half the quantity reached the sewers, about 45 millions 
of gallons of surface-water would have had to be discharged by the sewers or 
storm overflows ; and this would be more than eleven times the ordinary flow of 
the sewage, and thirteen times the water-supply. At Dundee, where the surface 
contributing to the sewered area appears to be 2120 acres, and the average 
annual rainfall the same as at Nottingham, viz. 25 inches, there fell in the 
same month (on the 12th of September, 1869) 1-70 inch of rain. If half 
of this quantity reached the sewers they had to discharge iqiwards of 
40 millions of gallons from this source alone, equal to more than thirteen 
times the water-supply of the town. It is more than probable, however, 
that, although the returns show the contribiiting surfaces to be as much as 
stated, the actual quantity is less ; but the figures serve to illustrate the dif- 
ficulty to be contended with by the sudden admission into the sewers of such 
large bodies of water, and which only serve a good purpose when the sewers 
require flushing. 

Subsoil Waters. — ^The removal of subsoil water from beneath and about 
dwellings having been shown by Dr. Buchanan in the 9th Eeport of the 
Medical Ofiicer of the Privy Council to be of the highest sanitary importance, 
it has been deemed desirable to trace as far as possible the means by which 
local authorities have effected this object. The returns, which are very im- 
perfect upon this point, show, as far as they go, that about 100 out of the 
200 towns drain the subsoil by the sewers, which carry away the liquid 
refuse of their districts. The importance of this branch of the inquiry wiU 
appear when it is remembered that, having become mixed with the sewage, 
the subsoil water must be treated in the same way as the sewage itself. 
This consideration becomes greater in those cases where the discharged 
quantity has to be lifted by mechanical power at a never-ceasing cost. 
One or two instances given in the schedule will illustrate this. Torquay, 
a seaboard town with (according to the returns) about 20,000 inhabitants 
and a water-supply of 30 gallons per head, amounting on the whole to 
610,000 gallons per diem, discharges 1,600,000 gallons of sewage a day, 
the addition of subsoil water being apparently in the proportion of 1*62 to 1, 
and the sewage discharged being equal to 80 gallons per head of the con- 
tributing population. In this instance, therefore, if the Local Board of Tor- 
quay should determine to raise and utilize their sewage instead of dis- 
charging it into the sea, they will have to pay .£1 12s. 5d. for the raising of 
subsoil water for every £1 expended in raising the sewage. The river-side 
town of Leamington affords another example. This town has, according to 
the returns, a population the same as Torquay (20,000), and a water-supply 
of 400,000 gallons a day. The quantity of sewage discharged into the river j 
is 1,000,000 gallons, the difference between the water supplied and th( 
sewage discharged being 600,000 gallons, or 150 per cent. In the casfe oi 
Hertford, where the water-supply is returned at 61| gallons per head daily, 
amounting to 184,500 gallons per diem, the discharge from the sewers if 
returned at 1,750,000 gallons. This quantity is conducted, after lim« 



I 



ON THE TREATMENT AND UTILIZATION OF SEWAGE. 



55 



treatment, into the river Lee, above the intake of the East-London "Water- 
works Company, In this case the discharge from the sewers is, according 
to these figures, 9^ times the quantity of water delivered to the houses of 
the town. 

Ventilation. — The information afforded by the returns upon this point is 
very deficient, owing to the fact that very few instances exist in which any 
thing has been systematically done. 

Disposal of Sewage. — The largest quantity of water discharged per head 
is that of Hertford, just mentioned, which amounts to 257 gallons. In 
many other cases a very much larger quantity is discharged from the sewers 
than can be accounted for by the water-supply, as will be seen from the fol- 
lowing collected instances : — 



Name of town. 



Watei'-suiDply per person. 



Discharge per person. 



Hertford 

Eurton-on-Trent . 

Blackpool ....■< 

Dover 

Enfield 

Torquay 

Batlcy 



gallons. 
61| 



with private supply 

in addition. 

50 

33 

30 

20 



gallons. 
257 
175 

154 

143 
89 
80 
70 



Of the 189 towns and districts having systems of sewerage, 143 discharge 
their sewage without any treatment whatever; in 17 instances the sewage 
is simply filtered before discharge, in 7 instances it is chemically treated, 
and in 17 cases recourse is had to irrigation, whilst in 5 instances the 
system of disposal includes more than one of these methods. 

Scaven(fing. — Much interesting information has been given in the returns 
with regard to the cost of scavenging and the returns obtained from the 
sale of ashes and excretal and other solid refuse. In only two cases among 
the returns from English towns is any profit realized, and these are Fare- 
ham and Stockton-on-Tees. At Stockton-on-Tees, with a population of 
23,000, the retiu-n gives a profit of £100 a year. At Fareham, where 
there is a population of 6200, the refuse is sold to a contractor, who agrees 
to collect both house and street refuse, and to remove the sewage from the 
privy and closet cesspools when necessary, paying the Board £7 a year 
only. In Scotland, one instance only is recorded in which a profit is ob- 
tained, viz. Dundee, where <£630 a year is made. In all other recorded 
cases the scavenger receives a payment in money as well as the refuse for 
doing the required duties. The greatest losses are experienced at Liverpool, 
where the scavenging costs £41,866 a year, or 19-7d. per head, and at 
Scarborough, where it costs =£2050, or 22-4fZ. per head. At Malvern the 
cost amounts to 18-Oc?. per head ; at Oldham, 13-ld. ; at Bradford, 19-3d. ; 
at Rochdale, ll-2d. ; at Bridgenorth, 10-2(Z. ; at Torquay, 10-2d. ; at New- 
castle 11-5d. ; at Cardiff, ll-3d. • at Llanelly, 15-3f?. ; at Aberdeen, ll-2d. ; 
and at Edinburgh, ll-7d. per head per annum. 

The schedule is stiU very incomplete. If perfected iu all its details, much 
valuable information would be collected, which would be found useful to the 
sewer authorities of towns throughout the kingdom. 



56 REPORT — 1870. 

B. 

The district of Bury, with the township of Elton, in the county of Lan- 
caster, is governed by a local Act, dated 27 July, 1846, 9 and 10 Victoria, 
Cap. CCXCIII., and embraces an area of 2692 acres, the number of inhabi- 
tants being about 40,000, and the annual rateable value of the district 

£123,467. 

The town has a general system of scavenging for the removal of solid 
excreta, solid house-refuse, and street-sweepings, and a system of under- 
ground sewerage for the removal of liquid house-refuse and surface-water. 
There are 6500 houses in the district, 3859 privies, 1922 ash-pits, and only 
153 water-closets. 

The provisions for the collection and disposal of the solid excreta and 
house-refuse are evidently deficient. In the better class of houses each 
house has at least one privy ; but the lower classes are very badly provided 
with them, and in one instance no more than 2 privies had been provided 
for the use of 20 cottages, a state of things worthy of the attention of the 
local Inspector of Nuisances. 

No special treatment is practised previous to the removal of the contents 
of the privies, beyond the addition of ashes. This accession of ashes, 
together with the necessity of conducting its removal at night, materially 
reduces the value of such mixture as a manure, and the whole quantity only 
yields an annual return to the Commissioners of £100. 

From the' inconvenient positions of many of the ash-pits, together with 
their defective construction, the removal of the night-soil is rendered some- 
what difficult and expensive. The ashes when not used for privies are 
generally sifted and employed in filling and levelling in the formation of new 
streets and footpaths ; and it is even alleged that they are also so used in 
many cases after mixture with night-soil, which, no doubt, from a contrac- 
tor's point of view, is good binding stufi". 

The street-sweepings are also removed by scavenging, and cost the Com- 
missioners not less than £629 lis. Scl, while, from the want of some yard 
or other storage ground, they have to be disposed of to farmers at their own 
price, and only yield the insignificant return of £25 to £30 per annum. 

The sewers are all of ample capacity to provide both for the usual daily 
flow of sewage and for surface-water due to the average rate of rainfall, 
which is 40 inches ; and further, for the exceptional contingencies of storms, 
which produce as much as 1 inch per hour. 

The sewers are built in hydraulic hme, and the pipe-drains laid with 
puddled joints, so as to prevent percolation of subsoil-wat€r into the sewage, 
or leakage of sewage into the soil. No instance of deposit has taken place 
in any of the sewers, and flushing for the removal of deposit is consequently 
unnecessary. 

The water-supply is constant, and is derived from catch-water reservoirs 
of the Bury and B.adcUfi'e Waterworks Company, situated at Holden Wood, 
about eight miles above Bury. The Water Company supplies by meter to the 
Railway Company and to general^ trade consumers about a quarter of a million 
gallons per diem, and the same quantity to the town for domestic consump- 
tion. It is in both cases supplied unfiltered, and is at times perceptibly dis- 
coloured and disagreeable to the palate. 



I 



ON THE TREATMENT AND UTILIZATION OF SEWAGE. 

Analysis of Water supplied to the To-vra of Bury for domestic use. 



57 





In 100,000 parts. 






Solid matter in 

solution, dried 

at 100° C. 


m 


i 

o 

3 


s 

'a 
o 

a 

g 


li 


Nitrogen, as 

nitrates and 

nitrites. 


Total hardness 

7-98. 


Perma- 
nent. 


Tempo- 
rary. 


Water supplied "1 
for domestic use... J 


7-40 


Trace. 


110 


0-0005 


0014 


0046 


6-66 


1-32 



The principal outfalls from which the bulk of the sewage is discharged are 
three in number ; there is also a minor outfall near Bury Bridge. The re- 
spective discharges from these outfalls are shown in the following Tabic : ■ 

Little Bridge discharging into the Eiver Eoch : — 

galls, per 
gallons. 24 hours. 

per day of 15 hours 249,480 

per night of 9 hours 88,452 

337,932 

Bury Bridge, discharging into the Eiver Irwell : — 

per day of 15 hours 48,575 

per night of 9 hours 29,185 

77,760 

Hinds Outfall, discharging into the Eiver Irwell : — 

per day of 15 hours 40,500 

per night of 9 hours 18,144 

58,644 

Bury Bridge Abutment, discharging into the Eiver Irwell : — • 

Discharge for the 24 hours , 20,160 



Total gallons per 24 hours 



494,496 



BcmarTcs by a Sub-Committee, consisting of Messrs. Geantham (^Chairman), 
CoRFiELD, Hope, and Willi amsoi^. 

Burj' was selected as one of the towns to be investigated, because it is a 
town where it may be said there are no water-closets ; and the Committee 
having heard a good deal of the efficiency and even economy of the Lanca- 
shire ash-pit system for the removal of faecal matter and other solid refuse, 
desired to possess themselves as soon as possible of the facts in connexion 
with this system as regards some one typical town. Another reason for the 
selection of Bury was that the almost total absence of water-closets would 
enable the Committee, by examining the liquid escaping into and discharged 
from the sewers, to judge whether any of the proposed methods of intercept- 
ing faecal matter from the sewers (such, for instance, as the earth-closet) 
would in themselves be either a solution of the great " sewage question," or 
even one considerable step towards it. 

The figures obtained in Bury of the ash-pit system, as carried out there 
prove that, financially, it is, so far as Bury is concerned, a total and complete 
failure, as the gross return is only a little over one halfpenny per head of the 



58 



REPORT 1870, 



population annually. Of course it is not fair to judge of a general system 
from a particular instance, and the subject should be further investigated. 

The fact that the ashes of Cambridge, with a population of 27,000 as 
against 40,000 at Bury, seU, together with the street-sweepings, but without 
any faecal matter, for J200 annually, while the ashes of Bury mixed with 
almost the entire faecal matter of the town produce annually only £100, and 
the street-sweepings only another £25, is worthy of remark. 

The subjoined analyses of Bury sewage show that although the sewage 
from a town managed on the Bury system is weaker and therefore less valu- 
able and proportionately more difficult to deal with than the sewage from a 
water-closeted town, yet that its purification is just as imperatively necessary. 

Bury Sewage. — Collected August 11. 





In 100,000 parts. 


Solid matter in 

solution dried 

at 100° C. 


% - 


1 


.9 
'S 
o 

a 

a 


r3 

'o c8 

11 

|2 


its 


Bury Bridge outfall 
Little Bridge outfall 
Hinds outfall .... 


56-00 
72-20 
42-50 


64-84 
3-74 


10-79 
13-63 

4-83 


2-554 
3-834 

0-884 


0-100 
0-198 
0-052 


None 
None 
None 


Collected August 15 and 16. — Night. 


Bury Bridge 

Little Bridge .... 
Hinds outfall .... 


44-80 
38-60 
38-00 


Very small amount 
Very small amount 
Very small amount 


5-18 
4-69 
3-76 


0-459 
0-760 
0-099 


0-034 
0-040 
0-030 


None 
None 
None 



With respect to the character of the sewage, it was found to run very clear 
and almost colourless from 3 a.m. to 6 a.m., after which hour it began to 
alter its character perceptibly ; and at 8 a.m. it assumed a thick and soapy 
consistency, and from that hour to 12 noon it was invariably " very thick, 
black, and greasy," and " smelt very bad ;" and on the Friday morning it was 
" red, as if with blood." On the 11th of August the samples were taken 
between the hours of 9 and 11 a.m., and on the 16th at 5 a.m. 

Cambridge. 

This is a town having a complete system of underground sewerage for the 
removal of sewage with a general water-supply, and, with the exception of 
the colleges, a general adoption of water-closets. 

The Borough of Cambridge is governed by Improvement Commissioners 
under the Acts 28 Geo. III. C. 64 and 34 Geo. III. C. 104. 

The area of the district under the jurisdiction of the Commissioners is about 
3470 acres : the number of inhabitants at the present time is about 27,000, 
occupying about 6000 houses. The annual rateable value of the district is 
£125,226, and the colleges contribute one-fourth of the expenditure of the 
Commissioners. 

There is a constant supply of water to the town pumped up by a water 



ON THE TREATMENT AND UTILIZATION OF SEWAGE. 59 

company from springs at Cherry Hinton into a covered reservoir of a storage 
capacity of 1,000,000 gallons, situated about three miles from Cambridge. 

The average daily supply to Cambridge by the company is 427,000 gallons, — 
that is to say, 280,000 gallons for the domestic consumption of 21,500 persons, 
or 13 gallons per head, and 147,000 gallons for trade consumption, of which 
the railway company takes 68,500, general trade 60,500, and watering streets 
18,000 gallons. 

There is also a supply from private sources, including Artesian wells sunk 
to the Gault, estimated at 50,000 gallons per day ; and " Hobson's Brook " 
supplies during the dry weather season about 789,000 gallons per day to the 
town. It rises at a spot called Nine Wells, about three miles from Cambridge, 
and terminates in a head near the Botanic Gardens, from which point it is 
distributed^to different parts of the town, namely, — first to the public conduit 
or drinking-fountain in the market-place ; secondly, by two open channels or 
" runs," one on each side of Trumpington Street; thirdly, by pipes and open 
course to the Hospital andjPembroke College ; and, fourthly, along Lensfield 
Road to Hyde Park Corner, thence in two open street-channels along St. 
Andrew's Street, and also to Emanuel and Christ Colleges. The water from 
the two channels is discharged constantly into the sewers at Trumpington 
Street and St. Andrew's Street, and can, when desired, be diverted into the 
sewers at a higher level for the purposes of flushing. These open channels 
are each provided with a silt-pit just previously to their entering the sewers. 
There is also an ingenious arrangement for flushing by means of the water 
supplied to the public drinking-fountain in the market-place. It consists of 
a large octagonal chamber surmounted by a central fountain, from which the 
water overflows by eight drinking- spouts into a basin that discharges itself 
into the chamber beneath ; and the arrangement permits of the periodical dis- 
charge of the contents of this chamber to flush the sewers leading from the 
market-place. The sewers of ninety streets and lanes are flushed quarterly 
from the water company's works. The street-guUeys are also periodically 
flushed or washed by means of water-carts in dry weather ; and provisions of 
minor importance are also made to carry on the flushing. A tank in Trinity 
Place fiUed from an Artesian well, another tank in St. Andrew's Court, 
opposite Emanuel College, and a smaller cast-iron tank in King's Arms Court, 
King Street, are all used for flushing once a week. The contents of these 
sinks are discharged into the sewers by penstocks. 

All houses are provided with water-closets without any system of venti- 
lation, the pipes being trapped by earthenware or lead D-traps. It was 
stated that some closets were ventilated by means of the water-pipes, and 
these, which were supposed to act, were found to be totally inefiicient ; but an 
attempt is being made to improve the system in new biiildings. The only 
instance in which earth-closets have been adopted is at Queen's College, where 
there are two. 

Most, if not all, of the colleges on the banks of the river preserve arrange- 
ments of the most primitive possible description overhanging the classic 
waters of the Cam, identical in construction with those that were in existence 
when the great author of the ' Principia' discovered the laws of gravity. Those 
of the privies which do not overhang the river are provided with cesspools 
which overflow directly into the river ; and many of these are in a most offen- 
sive condition. Pinally, the accommodation of this nature, such as it is, 
which is provided in this great University exists only in the proportion of 
7-4 per cent, of the residents, or less than one for every thirteen persons. 
Nearly the whole area is provided with a general system of underground 



60 REPORT— 1870. 

sewerage for the removal of water-closet and liquicl house-slops, of rain-water 
from roofs of houses, yards, and streets, there being about twenty-one miles 
of sewers, which are calculated to meet the demands of the average annual 
rainfall, but not of storms nor of periods of exceptionally heavy rains. 

The greater portion of the ashes is collected by the Commissioners daily, 
and, together with the street-sweepings, is sold for the sum of <£200 annually. 
A small portion only is collected by private individuals. The cost of collec- 
tion coTild not be ascertained. 

The area contributing surface-water is approximately the area of the district, 
3470 acres, and the average annual rainfall is 22 inches. The roadways of 
the streets are macadamized ; they incline from the centre* to the curbs at a 
rate of about 1 in 100, and are provided with guUeys connected with the 
sewers. 

The subsoil is mostly gravel from 3 to 10 feet deep, overlying a bed 
of gault from 120 to 135 feet thick. It was formerly saturated, but the 
sewerage has di-ained the upper subsoil and dried many of the weUs that pre- 
viously existed. Inquiries were made into the state of some of the wells be- 
longing to private houses, and it was found that they were all contaminated 
by sewage, owing to their proximity to the sewers in the streets and to the 
drains on the premises, so much so, that the water cannot be used for drink- 
ing but only for washing. 

The old sewers are of irregular forms, but the recent sewers are egg-shaped 
or circiilar. They discharge at twelve separate outlets into the river Cam. 
The inclination of these sewers varies from 1 in 120 to 1 in 2000. Deposit 
has taken place to a considerable extent in the HiUs Eoad sewer, with an in- 
clination of 1 in 2000, the deposit being, at the date of the examination, 7i 
inches thick, and the sewage running over it 6 inches deep. The outlets of 
the public and private sewers are all under the level of the surface of the 
water in the Cam, consequently the sewage is backed up in the sewers for a 
considerable distance, and the subsoil is constantly saturated with both water 
and sewage in the lowest parts of the town. The authorities obligingly 
offered to draw off the water of the Cam to enable the engineers to gauge and 
collect samples of the sewage flowing from the sewers ; but as the bed of the 
river could only be kept dry for a short time, the results would have been 
unsatisfactory. Moreover, as the water which is backed up in the soil 
would be discharged by degrees through the sewers, no correct result could 
have been attained. 

There are two gaols (county and borough), a workhouse, a hospital, and 
an asylum, aU of which are connected with the sewers. There are no fac- 
tories nor special trades, but the slaughter-houses send their liquid refuse 
into the sewers, and this on killing days is highly charged with blood ; the 
solids from this source are mixed with ashes and carted away, 

BemarJcs hy a Sub-Committee, consisting of Messrs. Gkantham (CJiairman), 
CoEFiELD, Hope, and Williamson. 

It is not the province of the Committee to prepare schemes for the sewerage, 
or for the drainage of particular towns, and as the inquiries of the Committee 
are stiU far from complete, it would be premature to make any suggestions 
either in this or any other case as to the best means of utilizing the sewage 
when collected ; but it is manifest from the foregoing Report that the sanitary 
conditions of Cambridge, as regards its sewerage and drainage, are exceed- 
ingly bad, and the low level of the greater portion of the town must make 



ON THE TREATMENT AND UTILIZATION OF SEWAGE. 61 

improvement both difficult and expensive. The chief general importance of 
the inquiry into the conditions of Cambridge is the proof thus obtained of 
the pollution of weUs, and therefore of subsoil, by the agency of pervious 
street- or house-sewers constructed in their vicinity ; and the Sub-Committee 
desires to give expression to the conviction forced upon it in the course of 
its inquiries, that all sewers properly so called (that is to say, drains into 
which refuse from human habitations is admitted) ought to be constructed of 
materials which are altogether impervious, and that a separate system of 
pervious drains, similar to agricultural drains, should be constructed where 
necessary to dry the subsoil. The Sub-Committee is of opinion that the 
further construction of pervious sewers should be prohibited by Parliamen- 
tary enactment. 

C. — Breton's Farm near Romford. 

The town of Eomford, in the county of Essex, is about twelve miles 
east of London, and is situated on the so-caUed " Eiver " Eom, which is 
now, however, only a brook. The Rom rises in the high grounds of 
Hainault Forest and Havering-atte-Bower, and, after passing through the 
town, flows into the River Thames to the east of Dagenham. 

The soil upon which the town rests is chiefly light loam, in places ap- 
proaching brick-earth in character, and underlain by flint-gravel, which 
yields water freely. 

The population is about 8000, but the refuse of only about 7000 is dis- 
charged entirely into the sewers, although the whole population is within the 
area provided with underground sewers. The refuse of the remainder is dis- 
charged partly into cesspools, the contents of which are removed by farmers. 

The ordinary dry weather sewage discharge from all sources is 247,000 
gallons daily. 

The number of houses within the district is about 1200, and the rateable 
value is assessed at ^23,341, the present annual rate being £840. 

The workhouse, which is separated from the town by the railway, and 
lies to the south; has from 300 to 400 inmates, the solid refuse from whom 
is treated in privies with lime and ashes, the liquid passing to the sewers. 

The town is supplied with water by the South-Essex Water Company ; 
but there are many weUs in it, and the great " Romford Brewery " is supplied 
by its own wells. 

The surface-water is, for the most part, conveyed into the town sewers, 
but a part of it is discharged into the River Rom by the old drains. 
Through defective work, it is probable that a large amount of subsoil water 
finds its way, at times, into the sewers, and in dry weather a converse leak- 
age of sewage into the subsoil is also probable. The sewers having little 
fall, are flushed by the Rom occasionally, but they are blocked at times by 
the sewage-deposit in some particularly flat places, which are flushed and 
cleansed by hand twice a year at a cost of £12 annually. There is a storm 
overflow which discharges into the Rom. The sewers are ordinary egg- 
shaped brick and glazed stoneware pipes. There are ventilators in the 
streets and roads. 

The " sewer authority " is the Romford Local Board of Health, consti- 
tuted under the Public-Health Act of 1848. 

The discharge of the sewage into the Rom immediately below the town 
polluted it to such an extent, and it became so great a nuisance, that the 
Court of Chancery granted an injunction restraining the further discharge of 
the sewage in that manner. 



63 



REPORT 1870. 



The following is an analysis of an average sample of the sewage as flow- 
ing from the town : — 





In 100,000 parts. 


Solid 

matter in 

solution 

dried at 

100° C. 


Suspended 
matter. 


Chlorine. 


Ammonia. 


Albumenoid 
ammonia. 


Average of eight samples of 
sewage taken at Eomford, 
September 3 and 4 


. 98-5 


19-75 


14-5 


1-2 


10 



The Board of Health at first resorted to temporary means of disposing of 
the sewage by pumping it on to lands adjacent to the outfall, but eventually 
prolonged their outfall sewer to a farm in the parish of Hornchurch, named 
" Breton's," containing ] 21 acres, which they purchased for the purification 
and utilization of the sewage by irrigation. 

This farm is situated at a distance of two miles from the town, and 
the sewage flows to the lower portion of the farm by gravitation. At 
the farm the Board have constructed a tank, into which the sewage is dis- 
charged by the main sewer. They have also erected two steam-engines of 
eight horse-power, by which the sewage is pumped up to a height of about 
25 feet into iron troughs supported on wooden tressels, which convey the 
sewage to all parts of the farm, by discharging it either directly into 
gutters or grips formed on the ridges of the " lands," and out of which the 
sewage is distributed right and left down the slightly inclined slopes of 
the " lands," or, in the fii'st instance, into concrete " carriers," raised by 
earth banks to a height intermediate between the height of the iron troughs 
and the level of the ground. 

The whole farm has been systematically laid out by the tenant in 30-feet 
" lands " or " beds," the carriers being placed so as to take advantage of the 
natural fall in the ground. 

The soil of the farm is very light and sandy, containing many stones ; and 
gravel, which forms the subsoil, is found at a depth of from 8 to 20 inches. 
The gravel is ordinary yeUow flint-gravel, but it is interspersed with 
patches of yellow and white sand, and even contains in places a slight ad- 
mixture of clay. An analysis of the soO. is subjoined (see p. 70). 

About 85 acres of the farm, which are above the level of the tank, have 
been underdrained by pipe-drains 50 yards apart, and from 5 to 6 feet in 
depth, in such a manner that the water from the drains can be discharged 
into the sewage tank if required in dry weather, or at pleasure into the river 
Eom. There are roads communicating with difl'erent parts of the farm laid 
out so as not to interfere with the complete distribution of the sewage by 
the iron troughs and carriers. 

The constri;ction of the sewer and tank, and erection of the engines, 
pumps, and iron troughs, have coast the Local Board the sum of £4300. 

The Board has let the sewage upon lease for <£600 a year, the arrange- 
ment being that the tenant pays this sum in addition to the rent of the 
farm for the sewage pumped vip and delivered into the troughs, from which 
point the tenant is responsible for its proper disposal, and is bound to hold 
the Board harmless from any actions for nuisance. 



ON THE TREATMENT AND UTILIZATION OF SEWAGE. 63 

The accompanying plan and sections show the manner in which the 
farm is laid out and the sewage distributed. 

The entire farm was fallow all the winter, and was only gradually brought 
under cultivation in spring and summer. 

Of Plot A (Plate I.), the beds from 1 to 10, both inclusive, were sown with 
Italian rye-grass on March 19th, and beds 11 to 20, both inclusive, were sown 
a week later. From these together, equal to 6"68 acres, five crops have already 
been cut, and the sixth is now growing. The average weight of the crops has 
been, however, small, not exceeding 6| tons each per acre, owing to the dense 
growth of weeds (especially " chickweed "), which abnost smothered the grass, 
the farm having been long neglected, and the ground being full of the seeds 
of weeds. Bed 21, containing '39 of an acre, was sown on April 27th with 
"Savoy" cabbages for planting out. Beds 22 to 28, with the lower half of 
29, which were chiefly old meadow-land broken up, and included two lines 
of old hedge-row, could only be imperfectly cultivated; they were, how- 
ever, sown on the 27th of April with seedii of a small kind of cabbage, 
known as bunching-greens, or rosette cabbage, more properly coleworts. 
These beds comprised 3-5 acres, and besides furnishing plants enough for 
7-25 acres in plots C, E, N, and P, produced 470,000 plants for sale, which 
realized £35 5s., and further supplied 3240 full-grown plants for market, 
which realized an additional sum of £4 10s. 

The whole of Plot A wiU shortly be filled with winter crops. 

In Plot B, beds 1 and 2, equal to 0-972 of an acre, were sown with early 
" horn " carrots, which were sold for £19 10s. in the ground. The carrots 
were sown on March 25th, and were taken out of the ground in the first 
week in August ; these beds are now sown with Italian rye-grass for cutting 
next year. Bed No. 3, 0*486 of an acre, was planted with potatoes on 
April 2nd ; the potatoes were of three kinds — the Bovinia, a large cattle po- 
tato, the early llose, a new American variety, and the ordinary Dalmahoy, 
The potatoes are not yet all off the ground, but they appear particularly 
fine. Bed No. 4, equal to 0'486 of an acre, was sown on the 2nd of April 
with " broad Windsor " beans, which were sold for £4 10s., the buyer pick- 
ing them and leaving the straw. 

Beds No. 5 to 8 inclusive, equal to 1'96 acre, were sown in the first week in 
April with " Champion " peas for eating green, which were sold in July for 
£30, the buyer picking them and leaving the straw. 

Beds 4 to 8 inclusive are now sown with Italian rye-grass, Beds 9 to 
17 inclusive were sown on April 19th with Italian rye-grass, and the fifth 
crop is now being cut. It should here be mentioned that the rye-grass not 
required for the horses on the farm has obtained a ready sale at £1 per ton 
on the ground, partly to the neighbouring farmers for their horses, and 
partly to London cowkeepers. 

In Plot C, beds 1 to 8 inclusive, 2-75 acres were planted on July 2nd 
with greens transplanted from Plot A, which are now being sold at about 
£25 per acre. Beds 9 to 23 inclusive, about 4 acres, were sown with 
white turnips on May 6th ; but Plot C, being exceedingly stony, little better 
than a bed of shingle, the slope below the contour line exceedingly rapid 
and steep, and comparatively few of the seeds surviving the excessive 
drought and frosty nights, the result was that only £25 could be obtained 
for this crop in the ground. 

The major part of Plot D, equal to 10-7 acres, was drilled with mangold 
wurzel as late as May the 14th, and the crop nevertheless promises to yield 
from 40 to 45 tons per acre. The lower part of plot D (2 acres) was 



64 REPOKT — 1870. 

planted with drumhead cabbages, interspersed with bunching-greens, in the 
first week in August. 

Plot E was a difficult piece of ground to lay out, involving much labour, 
and was worked at only from time to time, as the labour and horses were 
available, Beds 1 to 10 inclusive (2-961 acres) have just been sown with 
winter onions. Beds 11 to 14 inclusive (1-026 acre) were sown on August 
19th with early York cabbage-seed for planting out. Beds 15 to 21 in- 
clusive (1-712 acre), on July 16th were planted with greens from Plot A, 
and bed 22 (0-165 acre) is still vacant. 

Plot F is not yet properly laid out, and a great part of it is not yet under 
cultivation ; the remainder, about 2| acres, was sown with onions on March 
19th, and some have been sold at the rate of £36 per measui-ed acre in the 
ground. 

In Plot G, bed No. 1 (0-2385 of an acre) was sown with parsley on June 
24th ; beds 2 and 3 (0-477 of an acre) with sugar beet-root on June 4th ; 
beds 4 and 5 (0-477 of an acre) with crimson beet-root for table in June ; 
bed 6 (0-2385 of an acre) -with white brocoh-seed for planting out ; bed 7 
(0-2385 of an acre) was sown with " Savoy " cabbage-seed on July 16th ; 
bed 8 (0-2385 of an acre), on April 23rd, with four kinds of carrot-seed ; 
beds 9 and 10 (0-477 of an acre) were sown on April 25th with four kinds 
of mangold-wurzel seed. These last three beds promise to yield some mag- 
nificent specimen roots for exhibition. Beds 11 to 15 inclusive (1-1925 
acre) were sown with parsnips on April 28th, and, the seed being bad, 
failed in many places ; there are, nevertheless, many fine roots. Bed 1 6 
(0-2385 of an acre) was sown on May 7th with spinach. It was cut on the 
5th of June, and realized at the rate of £22 per acre. It was broken up 
and again sown with spinach on the 16th of June ; the price having fallen, 
this crop was given to cattle. The bed was then ploughed and sown on 
the 23rd of August with Tripoli onions for planting out in spring. Bed 17 
(0-2385 of an acre) was sovra on the 17th of June with spinach, some of 
which was sold, and the rest given to cattle. The bed was then ploughed and 
sown on the 9th of July with maize for cutting green as fodder. Bed 18 
(0-2385 of an acre) was planted on the 26th of May with East Ham cabbage 
and cauliflowers. They have been sold at the rate of £27 and £25 per acre 
respectively. Bed 19 (0-2385 of an acre) was planted on the 21st of May with 
•white cos lettuces,' which were, for a particular purpose, kept in the ground 
rather too long, but still produced at the rate of £24 per acre, after which 
the bulk of them were given to cattle. This bed was ploughed and sown 
on 23rd of August with Tripoli onions. Bed 20 (0-2385 of an acre) was 
planted with brown cos lettuces on the 21st of May, which, being too late, 
were given to cattle. It was then ploughed and sown on the 23rd of July, 
when the rye harvest of the district was entirely over, one half with oats 
and the other half with barley, with a view to ascertain whether it would 
be possible to ripen two crops of cereals on the same ground in one season. 
They were expected not to ripen before October, therefore the result is as 
yet unascertained. Bed 21 (0-2385 of an acre), also brown lettuces given to 
cattle, followed by white cos lettuces, which realized at the rate of upwards 
of £30 per acre, followed again by winter spinach. Bed 22 (0-2385 of an 
acre) contains some patches of red clover, Jersey cabbages, yams (Dioscorea 
batata), and turnips, aU of which are vigorous and healthy. 

In Plot H, beds 1 to 5 inclusive (1-3162 acre) were planted on July 
20th with sprouting winter brocoli. Beds 6 to 9 inclusive (1-458 acre) 
were planted on July 20th with Brussels sprouts. Beds 10 to 17 inclusive 



ON THE TREATMENT AND UTILIZATION OF SEWAGE. 65 

(3-G acres) were sown on August 24th with East Ham cabbage-seed for 
planting out. Bed 18 (0*55 of an acre) was planted with celery in the first 
fortnight in August, and beds 19-2.5 inclusive (3-332 acres) were filled gra- 
dually with mangold wurzel transplanted from D and C, commencing on June 
13th, and continuing for more than a month. 

Only the upper part of Plot I (1-166 acre) has been as yet laid out ; this 
was sown on May 6th with broccoli and Savoy cabbage-seed for planting out. 
Upwards of ,£30 worth have been sold from these beds, and they are now 
thick on the ground. The rest of Plot I (5-184 acres) was sown with onions 
on the same day as Plot F, namely, March 19th. These two plots of onions 
comprise the greater part of one of the old fields which was surrounded 
with a huge ditch and hedge, full of great trees ; it had been roughly but 
heavily sewaged in winter, and it was the intention not to apply any more 
sewage to it until the onions were off the ground ; but the drought was so 
severe and the ground became so dry, that it was necessary to give them 
moisture to save them, and they received one dressing of sewage in May and 
another in July. Part of Plot I has also been sold at the same rate of .£36 
per acre in the ground as obtained for F. 

In Plot K, beds 1 to 5 inclusive (2-397 acres) were sown on May 28th 
with white runner beans, which have borne well, and are not yet over. 
Beds 6 to 10 (2-047 acres) were planted on July 14th with Walchercn 
cauliflower. 

Plot L was an old meadow, which was heavily sewaged last summer, and 
was broken up in winter and sown with white Poland oats on April 9th. 
In many places the seed never came up, owing to the severe drought, but 
the crop nevertheless gave a return over all of five quarters one bushel 
to the acre. 

In Plot M, bed 1 (0-387 of an acre) was partially planted with drumhead 
cabbages on June 2nd, and filled up with kohl rabi ; bed 2 (0-387 of an 
acre) was planted with "Walcheren broccoli ; the rest of Plot M (2-935 acres) 
was planted on June 25th with Savoy cabbages from bed 21, Plot A. 

In Plot N, bed 1 (0-252 of an acre) was sown on April 27th with a new 
kind of American oats, which were cut on August 22nd, and yielded twenty- 
eight bushels, equal to fourteen quarters, per acre. At the beginning of 
June this crop was seriously damaged and in danger of being destroyed by 
the ravages of the Oscinis vastator, one of the smallest but most destructive 
of those " grubs " and " wireworms " which at times cause such injury to 
cereal crops in this country. The remedial effects of sewage inigation 
under similar circumstances having been previously observed elsewhere, two 
heavy dressings of sewage were applied to this bed during two successive 
days, the result being that the grubs were entirely destroyed and the greater 
part of the crop was saved. It is proposed to conduct some experiments to 
ascertain whether this result could be accomplished by the use of pure 
water, or whether with the physical effects of immersion sewage applied in 
this way, combines the action of some agent or agents which act as a 
specific poison to organisms of that type. Beds 2 to 4 inclusive (0-756 of 
an acre) were sown on June 1st and 2nd with six kinds of maize specially 
imported from the United States, as likely to suit the climate of England ; 
the maize is now from 5 to 9 feet high, appears to be ripening, and pro- 
mises a very heavy yield. Bed 5 (0-252 of an acre) was sown on June 4th 
with a new kind of Brome-grass, introduced from Australia by Messrs. 
Sutton and Sons, and named by them Bromvs odoratus. It has already been 
cut three times, and has yielded at the rate of seven to eight tons per acre. 

1870. F 



66 REPORT — 1870. 

This grass being a perennial, it will be interesting to observe for how long 
it wiU retain its present extraordinary rapidity of growth, and whether, 
under such forcing treatment as sewage irrigation, it will not cease to be 
perennial. Bed 6 (0-252 of an acre) was first sown with tobacco ; but for 
some unascertained reason the seed failed, and it was broken up and resown 
on July 9th with maize for cutting green. Beds 7 and 8 (0-504 of an 
acre) were sown with sea-kale on June 10th, and broccoli plants were put in 
between the rows of sea-kale in. August. Beds 9 and 10 (0-522 of an acre) 
were planted with East Ham cabbages on June 16th from seed raised in 
the garden ; these two beds have been sold at the rate of .£25 per acre in 
the ground. Beds 11 to 16 inclusive (1-566 acre) were planted on June 
20th with bunching-greens from Plot A ; these have been sold at ^21 per 
acre in the ground. 

In Plot 0, beds 1 to 11 inclusive (4-12 acres) were sown on April 4th 
with " intermediate " carrots, part of which have been sold for .£20 and £21 
per acre in the ground, and part (washed and bunched and sent to market) 
realized .£41 per acre. Beds 12 to 17 inclusive (2-223 acres) were sown 
on April the 5th with onions, which were bunched and sent to market, 
where they realized .£46 per acre. 

Plot P, which is a gravel-pit, not yet wholly obliterated, has been par- 
tially planted with greens from Plot A, 

Plot Q, has as yet had nothing in it. 

Plot E, an old meadow heavily sewaged last summer, and broken up last 
winter, was planted with Dalmahoy potatoes on March 25th ; the crop was 
very fine for the season, and realized £25 per acre. 

Plots S and T are still waste and uncultivated. 

Plot U is an old meadow, which has been irrigated by means of moveable 
troughs ; it contains 6-14 acres, and has akeady yielded two crops of hay, 
and a third is now ready to cut. 

Plot V is also an old meadow of 3-5 acres, and is used as a playground 
for the horses. 

Agricultural experiments necessarily require a very long time to be carried 
out, and a period of twelve consecutive months is the shortest possible space 
of time in which any thing Uke a fair result can be looked for. It is not 
possible, therefore, to compile from the past observations of the Committee, 
during so short a period, auy thing that would not be very misleading in 
the shape of a debtor and creditor account, whether as to the pecuniary ex- 
penditure and returns of the farm, or as to the expenditure of manure dis- 
tributed by means of the sewage and the returns in the crops estimated 
chemically. Nevertheless, from the foregoing figures, it will be seen that 
sewage in its liquid state can be practically applied to apparently every kind 
of crop. This was no doubt pretty well ascertained by previous experiments 
elsewhere ; but in no case have these experiments been so systematically and 
carefuUy observed, and so little liable to be affected by disturbing causes. 
It is therefore already one step gained towards the solution of the sewage 
question that these experiments have been conducted under the eyes of the 
agent of the Committee, as well as under the occasional observation of some 
of the members of the Committee. 

The Committee hope to obtain data of greater value and importance from 
the accurate record of the experiments and practice on the farm during a 
future complete year, and some appliances have recently been, or will 
shortly be, brought into use on the farm which will very greatly facilitate 
such observations. The soil of by far the major part of the farm (Plots A, 



ON THE TREATMENT AND UTILIZATION OF SEWAGE. 67 

B, C, D, E, G, H, K, M, N, 0, P, and Q) is composed of a very loose open 
sand and gravel overlying coarser sand and gravel in every case ; and in 
many places it has been impossible, in the laying out of the land, to prevent 
the yellow subsoil from being exposed. The accompanying analyses of the 
soil taken from a part which had not been sewaged will show its extra- 
ordinary poverty in organic matter ; and if this is taken into account, and if 
it is also recollected that aU the crops were got into the ground during 
the late almost unprecedented drought, and that from repeated workings and 
shiftings the soil was in an abnormally dry condition, it will be seen at 
once that it was necessary in every case to apply a much larger quantity per 
acre of moisture and manure in the form of sewage for starting the first crops 
than would ever be necessary under ordinary conditions of farming. More- 
over, the tenant, while bound so to utilize the whole of the sewage of the 
town of Eomford as to prevent the pollution of the river, has only a limited 
area of land on which to apply it, and therefore he cannot avoid putting on 
in many cases more sewage (that is, manure) than would otherwise be ne- 
cessary ; but as such unusual conveniences exist on the farm for measuring, 
not merely the sewage going on to the farm, but also the effluent water es- 
caping, it wiU be quite possible to ascertain during the ensuing twelve months 
exactly how much manure is placed upon the land, and very nearly with the 
same exactness, how much is utilized, and how much wasted. However, as 
absolute accuracy cannot be attained on so large a scale, and as the tenant 
is bound, as before explained, to apply a certain quantity of sewage over the 
whole area of the farm, whether his crops actually require it or not, he has 
constructed some large wooden boxes of 2|-inch deal carefull}^ tongued and 
grooved at the joints and strongly bolted together with iron bolts. These 
boxes are 6 feet deep ; they are filled with earth carefully taken so as to 
represent an average section of the farm, and the superficies of the earth in 
each box (in other words, the inside measurement of each box) is equal to 
•001 of an acre. The boxes are sunk in a huge ditch on the farm, which has 
not yet been obliterated ; and they are so packed round as to reduce to a 
minimum, quite inappreciable, the difference between their evaporation and 
internal temperature and those on or below the natural surface of the ground. 
The bottoms of the boxes have also been so constructed as to give a slight 
drainage towards the centre, and also towards one end. In the centre of 
each a small drain-pipe has been laid, and at the end of it a hole has been 
bored in the end of the boxes so as to admit of the free exit of the effluent 
water. These boxes, then, aff'ord the means of carrying out experiments with 
accuracy, whUe they are yet upon a scale and under conditions which 
make them accord strictly with actual practice. Such experiments have 
never yet been conducted, and their value cannot be overrated, more espe- 
cially as explanatory of the observations conducted as to the actual practice 
on the farm itself ; for instance, it will be found that of the total amount of 
the manurial constituents of the sewage applied to the farm a certain quan- 
tity is wasted and escapes in the effluent water. The experiments in these 
boxes wiU at once prove whether such escape is due to the application of a 
quantity of manure in excess of the requirements of the plants and their 
power of assimilating it, or whether the waste of a certain percentage of 
maniire applied when in a state of solution by irrigation is a necessary defect 
of the system ; that is to say, whether, when quantities of manure are applied 
only sufficient for the chemical wants of the plants, it is nevertheless not in 
the power of the plants and the soil and the other agents at work to isolate 
that manure from the water in which it is dissolved, and to retain the whole 

r2 



68 REPORT— 1870. 

of it for profitable consumption. These box-experiments will, it is hoped, 
also aiford data for ascertaining the amount of water evaporated from the 
surface of the ground under different conditions. They will, it is hoped, 
show whether or not sewage can be applied to fallow land, and so stored up 
in the winter for use in the growing season as to enable the farmer to pur- 
chase at all seasons. 

It is hoped that they will further test the efficiency of intermittent down- 
ward filtration in purifying sewage. 

The tenant entered into the occupation of Breton's Farm on the 29th of 
September of last year, but there were no appliances for distributing the 
sewage. There existed merely the main sewer from the town to the farm, 
the pumping-engines, and a small but quite insufficient underground iron pipe 
from the engine to a point in plot G, from which point there was further, 
running along the top of plot G, an earthenware pipe raised up on the top 
of an earthen bank some 3 or 4 feet in height. These appliances were, 
however, ludicrously insufficient, whether as to level or capacity, for distri- 
buting the sewage ; and during the greater part of the time, from September 
29 to May 18, the sewage was either not put upon the farm at all, being 
applied to other ground elsewhere, or it was simply allowed to stand in pools 
anyhow on plot F, I, and U, with the occasional formation of similar pud- 
dles in G and E. 

Since the 18th day of May, however, the whole of the sewage has been 
applied to the farm ; and during a great part of that time the whole of the 
effluent water escaping from the land above the contour-Une of drainage has 
also been pumped back over the farm, while during the preceding thirty 
days, namely, from the ISth April to the 17th Ma)% both inclusive, the 
night-sewage only was pumped on to the farm during the day, and, though 
very much weaker, was j^et valuable as moisture. 

But it is not possible to apportion this quantity with absolute exactness to 
the difi'erent crops grown. There are always four men superintending the 
distribution of the sewage, and it would not be possible to check the quanti- 
ties distributed by them with absolute exactness unless by the emplojinent 
of an assistant engineer to supervise each man ; and this was an expense 
which the Committee did not feel warranted in incurring. However, several 
very accurate experiments were conducted to ascertain the capacity of earth 
laid out in beds of 30 feet wide for the absorption of liquid ; and on the 19th 
March, a period when the land was in what may be considered an average 
state of moisture, the quantities of sewage which land broken up and stirred 
on the previous day to a depth of 9 inches, and also land consolidated by 
rolling, could respectively absorb. 

The experiments were conducted in three different ways, so that the cal- 
culations may be relied on as being correct. The methods adopted were : 
first, the ordinary weir or notched board ; secondly, a box wdth a sluice at 
each end which held an ascertained quanrity, by which means the sewage 
flowing upon the land was subjected to actual measurement ; thirdly, a weir 
was placed in one of the main carriers resembling in form an ordinary notch- 
board, but the square notch or opening in the centre was grooved, and a 
series of little sluices was fitted in, so that the opening could be filled up 
from the bottom and the water behind maintained at any required depth so 
as to give any desired head a pressure behind it. Then in one of the lateral 
openings in the carrier behind the weir was placed a smaller, but similar 
weir, also with a rectangular opening in the centre, the edges of which open- 
ing were likewise grooved ; and into this groove fitted iron slides having 



ON THE TREATMENT AND UTILIZATION OF SEWAGE. 69 

square holes cut out in their centre of different sizes. It will thus be seen 
that the methods in which the experiments were conducted gave three di- 
stinct and separate sets of data on which to base calculations ; and it resulted 
that land in the state of moisture which existed on the 19th March and laid 
out in beds of 30 feet wide wovdd only absorb, when consolidated, on the 
surface about 40 tons of liquid per acre, and when stirred to a depth of 9 
inches on the previous day, about 90 to 110 tons per acre. By the word 
absorb is meant that no more than the above quantities could be applied 
without the formation of puddles at the sides of the beds. Of course, to lay 
down dogmatically that land under any given condition wiU absorb any exact 
number of gallons, or even tons, to the acre would be mere pedantry, and 
therefore it was sought in these experiments to ascertain what might be con- 
sidered, after several different trials, to be the average figures. The ques- 
tions what are the minimum and maximum quantities that can be absorbed 
by land abnormally saturated by heavy rains in winter when there is little 
evaporation, or abnormally dried by repeated agricultural operations per- 
formed in a period of drought, when there is a maximum of evaporation, have 
not been yet ascertained; but the state of the land on the 19th March may 
fairly be taken as an average condition : and this, after aU, is more important 
than the observation of occasional extremes ; and the box-experiments about 
to be conducted wiU afford an opportunity of making these further observa- 
tions with far greater accuracy than could be attained on a larger scale. 

If we divide the average daily quantity of sewage and effluent water (namely, 
about 1400 tons) pumped on to the farm during the period observed, and 
during which period the land was, as a rule, well stii'red, by the figure of 
100 tons, arrived at by the experiments conducted on the 19th March, we 
get 14 acres as the quantity irrigated every day; but this would not be cor- 
rect, because there were at work the disturbing causes of the excessive 
drought and the artificial amount of evaporation induced by the great number 
of manipulations which the larger part of the farm had received in the process 
of laying out the ground ; and, as a matter of fact, the average area irrigated 
daily from the 18th May to the Ist September has been a little over 5^ 
acres. Then 0-34 being the point of saturation of those samples of the soil 
chemically examined and analyzed, it would foUow that if we assume that 
the liquid would not penetrate during the few minutes employed ia dressing 
the surface at any one part of the bed to a depth of more than 10 inches 
(although the land was cultivated to a depth of 20 inches), the maximum 
quantity of sewage that could be applied, supposing the soil to be not only 
abnormally, but even chemically dxy, would be 384 tons per acre. In all 
probability, therefore, 400 tons per acre is the largest quantity that has ever 
been applied in any one dressing ; and if we assume that the first dressing 
all over was at the rate of 400 tons per acre, that the second dressing was at 
the rate of 200, and that the subsequent dressings were at the rate of 100, 
we shall not be far from the truth. 

Although, as has been explained, nothing in the way of a complete result, 
whether financial or chemical, can be obtained from the incomplete observa- 
tions on the farm, it is not without interest to compare the results of some 
of the crops with others of the same kind grown in precisely the same soU., 
on the same tableland, and within a few hundred yards. 

A small field of between 3 and 4 acres in the adjoining farm was sown with 
peas for picking green. These the farmer tried to sell on the ground for ^8 
an acre ; but he was unable to sell them at aU, and at last left them to ripen. 
They still remain unsold, and are estimated to be worth from ^£5 to £6 an 



70 REPORT ] 870. 

acre, while the straw was so stunted that there were not two loads from the 
whole area. 

In the next field heyond the peas (farmed by one of the best agrienltu- 
rists in the county, a man of superior education and agricultural knowledge, 
who has farmed the same land for years past with immense care, having 
planted small hedges here and there to give shelter and break the wind, and 
ha\ang grubbed iip the old hedges, and having further collected the stones off 
the surface of the land, and who applies fannyard manure, guano, bones, ifec. 
with both liberality and judgment) were sown onions, and these onions the 
farmer said that he would gladly seU for one-fifth of their cost. 

Again, upon the small meadow at Breton's marked U, comprising altoge- 
ther, after deducting ponds &c., only 5| acres that can actually be mowed, 
the two crops of hay already got in amount to 9 loads (3| and 5| respectively) ; 
and a third is growing, which, with care and energy and the assistance of 
a large barn may easily be got in in the present month, is estimated as equal 
to the first, making a total of 12| loads in one season from 5| acres. The 
tenant of Breton's has a large meadow, about three miles nearer London, 
sloping down to a brook shaded by trees, and which ought to suffer less than 
most from drought ; yet off an available area for mowing of 27 acres, he was 
only able to get 4 loads of hay, and there is scarcely any aftermath at all. 
In potatoes and carrots the figures run in about the same proportion between 
the sewaged and the unsewaged ground, while of green crops without sewage 
there were simply none. The following preliminary analyses of the sewage 
of Romford as it enters on the farm, and of the same when diluted with a 
certain portion of efiiuent water as it goes over the land, and of the effluent 
water as it runs out of the drains, have been made for the Committee by 
Dr. Eussell. From these it wiU be seen that the percentage of ammonia in 
the sewage is low, and that it is poor as compared with that of most other 
towns ; that is to say, the sewage is highly diluted, a condition which many 
people beheve to be the most difficult to deal with by irrigation. Neverthe- 
less the analyses of the effluent water show in every case that the ammonia 
almost entirely disappears ; and if we take into account the difference in vo- 
lume between the effluent water and the sewage, we may regard the ammonia 
as practically non-existent in the former. On the other hand, it will bo 
seen that there is a rather high percentage of nitrogen in the form of nitrates 
and nitrites. The origin of the bulk of this, it is only reasonable to presume, 
is ammonia in the sewage ; but it is so far very satisfactory to find that the 
effect of irrigation, or, in other words, of " intermittent downward filtration," 
should be such a complete transformation of the ammonia. But still, even 
taking into account the greatly diminished volume of the effluent water as 
compared with the original sewage (see Table, p. 72), there is no doubt a con- 
siderable waste of fertilizing matter escaping in the effluent water. How far 
this is to be attributed to the newly formed drains not being yet consolidated, 
time alone can show. 

Soil from Plot Q,, Breton's Farm, not been sewaged. Specimen taken 15th 

July, 1870. 

Soil exposed to air of a warm summer : — per cent. 

Stones too large to pass through holes of a 1 o-i .cc 

sieve 3'8S millims. diameter J 

Soil passing through sieve 66'43 

Roots, seeds, straw, &c. picked out of soil . . "03 

Moisture lost at 100° C 1-89 



ON THE TREATMENT AND UTILIZATION OF SEWAGE. 



71 



'» [ 60-70 



Many of the stones of large size, -weighing about 10 grammes. 

Composition of the 66-43 per cent, of soil : — 

per cent. 

Amount insoluble in strong "I 
hydrochloric acid J 

Perric oxide 1-56 

Alumina 1-04 

Lime 0-42 

Magnesia 0-04 

Potash and soda 0-10 

Potash 0-07, soda 0-03 

The carbonate of lime is not uniformly distributed throughout the soil, but 
apparently almost the whole of it exists as small white pieces, and can 
easUy be picked out. Three determinations of the carbonic acid in the 
soil gave 0-155, 0-258, and 0-433 per cent, of CO^. 

A small portion of the iron exists as the ferrous salt. 

The air-dried soil (without the stones) is capable of holding when satu- 
rated 34-6 per cent, of water. 

Analyses of Sewage and Effluent Water — in 100,000 parts. 



per cent. 

Silica trace 

Sulphuric acid (SO3) 0-03 

Phosphoric acid (P^ 0,) 0-01 

Carbonic acid (COj 0-19 

Chlorine about 0-003 

Nitric acid a trace 

Loss on ignition 1-69 



Sewage from town, daytime . 
„ „ nighttime. 
, , pumped on to land 



Date, 
1870. 



Effluent water, pipe A . 
„ „ pipe B . 

„ „ pipe C , 



Sewage from town, temp. 66° F 

„ „ temp. 64° 

„ pumped on to land, temp. 64°, 

Effluent water, pipe A, temp. 58° ... 
,, „ pipe B, temp. 62° ... 
,, „ pipe C, temp. 62° ... 



July 

20 
20, 21 

20 
July 

20 

20 

20 
Aug. 

IS 

17 

IS 
Aug. 

IS 
IS 
IS 



SoUd 
matter 

in 
solution 
dried at 
100° C. 



109-20 
6o-20 
95-80 

70-60 f 
69-90 \ 
92-80 

84-30 
4910 
65-30 

69-00 
73-50 
87-50 



Suspended 
matter. 



5470 
15-80 
30-60 

Small 
amount 
1-30 

54" 70 
13-60 
22-50 



Chlo- 
rine. 



8-8o 
9-85 

6-85 

777 
966 

14-63 

8-09 

11-36 

7-46 
8-8o 
9-87 



Ammo- 
nia. 



5-266 
1-164 
4-629 

0-003 
0-041 
0-046 

4-270 
0-744 
3-054 

trace 
0-031 

o-ooo 



Albumenoid 
ammonia, 



0-376 
o'o6o 
0-204 

0-037 
0-035 
0-036 

0-260 
0-040 
0-140 

0-031 
0-056 

0-043 



Nitrogen 
as nitrates 

and 
nitrites. 



0-000 a 
O'OOC a 
O-OOO a 



1-7181' 
1-663 ' 
2-301 



O-OOO c 

o-ooo 
0-000 * 

1-633 i 

1-490 g 

2-081 •> 



Total hardness of effluent water 5'"35° 

Temporary ditto. 33'6i° 

Permanent ditto. 1774° 

5i"35o 



a Samples taken every two hom-s from 10 A.M.to 6 p.m. Average flow 256 gallons per minute. 

b Samples taken every two hours, from 10 a.m. to 6 p.m. Average flow 20 gallons per 

minute from each of the pipes A, B, C. c Average flow 250 gallons per minute. One- 
eighth of this sample was taken at eight times in the day. d Average flow 200 gallons 

per minute. One-third of this sample was taken at three times in the day. ^e Average 

flow 680 gallons per minute. One-eighth of this sample was taken at eight times in ^he day. 

■ f Average flow 20 gallons per minute. One-sixth of this .sample was taken at six times 

in the day. e Average flow 25 gallons per minute. One-sixth of this sample -was taken 

at six times in the day. h Average flow 26 gallons per minute. One-sixth of this sample 

was taken at six times in the day. 



72 



REPORT 1870. 



liretou's Sewage Farm. — Statenjent of Average daily quantity of Sewage 
pumped on to Land, and of Effluent Water received therefrom. 



Weekly 
return. 



Date 

(inclusive) 
18/0. 



No 



'3 



June 12 to 

June i8 
June 19 to 

June 25... 
June 26 to 

July 2 ... 
July 3 to 

July 9 ... 
July 10 to 

July 16... 
July 17 to 

July 23... 
July 24 to 

July 30... 
July 31 to 

Aug. 6 ... 
Aug. 7 to 

Aug. 13... 
Aug. 14 to 

Aug. 20... 
Aug. 21 to 

Aug. 27... 
Aug. 28 to 

Sept. 3 .. 
Sept. 4 to 

Sept. 10.. 



Average 
tempe- 
rature. 


Rainfall 
during 
week. 


Average 
daily quan- 
tity of 
sewage 
delivered to 

the tank 
from town. 


°K. 


in. 


galls. 




231,400 




... 


225.343 




... 


228,714 


1 ■■■ 




219,900 


J73 


0-29 


239,386 


J 76 


O'OO 


235,800 


I70 


o-8i 


279,270 


jyi 


071 


365,000 


Uo 


0-29 


265,214 


jes 


0"02 


280,000 


J64 


o'5o 


287,750 


|62 


0-51 


321,328 


}H 


IIS 


334.357 



Average 

tempe- 
rature 
thereof. 



63 
62 
63 

65 
65 

66 
67 
66 
66 
64 
63 
62 



Average 
daily quan- 
tity i)f 
etfiiient 
water 
returned. 


Average 
tempe- 
rature 

thereof. 


galls. 


°F. 


109,871 


55 


93.543 


56 


87,157 


57 


106, 8co 




108,643 


59 


101,914 


60 


>°4.343 


61 


'33.714 


64 


128,857 


61 


109,371 


61 


109,671 


58 


104,506 


58 


118,800 


58 



Average 
daily quan 

tity of 
sewage dis 

tributed 
over land. 



galls. 

343,886 

324.143 
317,600 
326,357 

334.457 
313.114 
352,929 

379.471 
303.371 
314.857 
342,086 
360,800 
360,500 



Average 
tempe- 
rature 
thereot. 



° F. 
55 
63 

60 

66 
67 
66 
67 
67 
65 
64 

63 
62 



Proportion 

of c69uent 

water to 

sewajre 

distributed. 



•319 
•289 

■274 

•327'' 

b 
■325 

•326 <= 
'296 d 

■353* 

f 

423 

•347 » 
•321 
•289' 
•329J 



"■ Tank overflowed July 9, 2250 gallons. 

^ Effluent water turned into river July 16, 17,200 gallons. 

'^ Effluent water turned into river July 21 and 23, 160,300 gallons. 

d July 26, storm tank overflowed, 170,000 gallons; on 27th, 13,500 gallons: portion 
of effluent water run into river during week 84,100 gallons. 

e August 1, storm tank overflowed, 300,000 gallons; portion of effluent water run into 
river, 512,700 gallons. 

f Portion of effluent water turned into river during week, 622,500 gallons. 

^ Portion of effluent water turned into river during week, 501,300 gallons. 

h Portion of effluent water turned into river August 21 and 23 to 27, 504,300 gallons. 

' Portion of effluent water tiu-ned into river every day, 418,340 gallons. 

J Portion of effluent water run into river every day, 624,100 gallons. 

D. — Kvperiments on the Air in Sewers and Drains. By Dr. W. J. Ettssell, 

Sejjt. 5, 1870. 

On the 16th of August I visited the sewer in Cambridge Place, Paddington, 
and I passed from it into the large sewer in Praed Street. The atmosphere 
iu both was warm and damp, but there was very little smell. As the only 
direct entrance into the sewers is by the ventilating-holes in the streets, to 
obtaiu the air of the sewer for examination some lengths of glass tubing were 
fastened together and lowered into the sewer in Cambridge Place at the opening 
nearest to St. Mary's Hospital, so that the end was about 2 feet above the water 
iu the sewer. A pair of bellows was used for pumping up the air, each open- 



ON THE TREATMENT AND UTILIZATION OF SEWAGE, 73 

ing of the bellows drawing in about 50 cubic inches of air. A quantity of 
this air was passed through plugs of clean cotton-wool which had been heated 
from 110° to 120° C, and these were sent to Mr. Cooke for examination. One 
specimen of the wool, through which about 5000 cubic inches of the sewer air 
had been transmitted, was put into distilled water with a little white sugar 
to see if any germs similar to those lately described by Professor Heisch 
would become visible. The liquid was examined in a week's time, but none 
of the germs found. The experiments were made about 11 o'clock a.m. 

The next experiment was made on the same day, about 2 hours later, on 
the air in the Ranelagh sewer, the largest in the Paddington district. The air 
was taken from an opening in Gloucester Terrace, and was drawn out by 
means of an air-pump. Some of the air was passed through cotton-wool, and 
some collected for analysis gave the following results : — 

cub. centims. 

Volume of gas taken 14-86 

Volume after absorption of carbonic acid . . 14-80 

Volume after absorption of oxygen 11-71 

per cent. 

Carbonic acid 0-40 

Oxygen 20-79 

Nitrogen 78-81 

100-00 

The air was also allowed to pass over acetat«-of-Iead paper for 5 minutes 
but no blackening took place. 

Another experiment was made at the drain in the back kitchen of 34 
Upper Hamilton Terrace, St. John's Wood. The beU-trap was taken up and 
a glass tube was put down the drain. The air was blowing up the drain at 
the time, and had a disagreeable smell. A specimen of this air gave the fol- 
lowing results ; it will be seen that it was quite free from any combustible 
gases : — 

vols. 

Volume of air taken 229-65 

After addition of explosive gas 346-43 

After explosion 229-65 

After absorption of carbonic acid 229-37 

After addition of hydrogen 348-44 

After explosion 204-40 

per cent. 

Combustible gases 0-00 

Carbonic acid 0-12 

Oxygen 20-91 

Nitrogen 78-97 

100-00 

The following experiments were made on the air in a drain from a sink 
in a room iu St. Mary's Hospital. This drain was selected as being the 
nearest to the main drain passing from the hospital into the Cambrid"'e 
Place sewer. The bell-trap of this drain was taken up ; a glass tube passing 
about a foot down it was firmly corked into it, and by means of the air-pump 
the air drawn out of it. First, a specimen of the air was passed throuo-h 
cotton-wool, one specimen sent to Mr. Cooke, another treated with distilled 
water and sugar ; the result of this experiment, as in the former case, was 



74 REPORT — 1870. 

negative. A specimen of the air from this drain was also analyzed, and gave 

the following results: — 

cub. centims. 

Volume of air taken 11'69 

After absorption of carhonic acid 11-63 

After absorption of oxygen 9-21 

per cent. 

Carbonic acid 0-51 

Oxygen 20-70 

Nitrogen 78-79 

100-00 

A large quantity of this air was now drawn through water, and the water 
tested for ammonia and albumenoid ammonia. The experiment was made as 
follows : — a measured quantity of water (in this case four gallons) was allowed 
to run out of a gas-holder ; the air thus drawn out of the drain first passed over 
acetate-of-lead paper, then through three small flasks, each containing 80 cub. 
centims. of pure distilled water ; the tubes passing into the water were sur- 
rounded with platinum gauze, so as to break up the bubbles in the water. 
The experiment lasted 3^ hours. The 240 cub. centims. of water in the flasks 
was put into a retort and distilled with a little carbonate of soda ; it gave a 
trace of ammonia, about yos ^^ ^ milligramme. 

These experiments must be looked upon as simply tentative, but certainly 
indicate a purer air in these sewers than might have been anticipated. 

Eejjort hy Mr. M. C. Cooke, M.A., Aug. 27, 1870, 

I have examined microscopically the contents of the tubes sent to me, 
viz. — 

No. 1. Air from Cambridge Place sewer, about 5000 cubic inches of which 
passed through the cotton-wool. 

No. 2. Air from the same sewer, of which about 7000 cubic inches passed 
through the cotton-wool. 

No. 4. Air from large sewer in Gloucester Place, about 2950 cubic inches 
of which passed through the wool. 

No. 5. Air from sink-drain in Hospital, about 2950 cubic inches of which 
passed through the wool. 

These were all examined separately and without any contact. All utensils, 
slips of glass, ttc. were quite clean. 

The method adopted in all instances was uniform. 

The plug of cotton-wool was immersed in distilled water (freshly distilled) 
and well shaken in the water in a clean tube. The water with the organisms 
in suspension was then examined, drop by drop, till nearly exhausted. 
Whether this was the best method to adopt I am not certain, but the process 
was the same for the four samples. 

The results generally indicate comparative freedom from organic bodies; in 
Nos. 4 and 5 perhaps an insufficient quantity of air was passed through the 
wool, as compared with Nos. 1 and 2. 

No. 5 contained a very few starch-granules (PL III. fig. 17), a little granular 
matter, and two or three brownish spores, almost identical with fungi-spores 
of the genus Macrosporivm. They are club-shaped, -0015 x -0005 inch in 
size, with three or four septa ; the upper portion coloured, the lower or nar- 
rower portion (the base) colourless. Species of this genus are common on 



BRITISH ASSOCIATION. COMMITTEE ON THE TRE 

TABULATION COMPILED FROM UETURNS FURNISHED I!Y 200 TOWNS 



NAME OP 

AND 
DISTRICT. 



WATEllSHED. 



EPSOM 

GUILDFORD 

KIKGSTOK 

RBIOATB 

RICHMOND 

SURaiTON (St. MabkI . 

ASHFORD 

BROllLEV 

CAKTERDUBY 

DOVER 

HYTHB 

MAIDSTOKB 

RAMSGATE „ 

rONBIllDCB..... 

rUKBRlDGB WELLS.... 

BRIGHTON 

HASTINGS 

WEST HOVE 

ALTO.N 

ANDOVER 

PAREHAU 

NEWPORT 

SOUTHAMPTON 

WINCHESTER 

ABINGDON 



CHAEACTER OF 
AUTHOUITY 

EXISTING FOR 
BANITAllY 
PURPOSES. 



Local Doird 

Loot Dovrt 

Corporation .... ., 

Local Boud 

Vertiy 

Local Beard 

Local Baud 

Local Board 

Corporalion at L. D. , 
CorponlioB >i I.. B. . 

TawnCoancU 

Local Boaid 

Local Boaid 



lAT The Sfwtr Authority .. 

Ill CoRimiMiontn 

, 'Corpora (ioD u L. D 

Local Uoafd 

ImtiTovfinoit ComiDii- 

Thahh Local Board 

Tmt akd iToaaK Potto Council 

Local Beaid 

UapiMji I.oca] Boui 

'Corponlion aj I.. B 

iTOBiM Corporatiod u L. D 

TiiAWU PaTlDg CoDmiiiionan ,. 



S!^" 



5.000 
0.S00 

n.ooo 



)3,noo 
s.sao 

16,000 
90,000 



12.000 

e.ooo 



20,000 
21.000 



I&.OOO 

4,000 

e.i»90 

13,000 
&G,O0D 



WATER SUPPLY. 



NUMBEB OF 

RECEPTACLES 

OF BXCHBTAL MATTEH. 



HOW REFUSE IS REMOVED; 

WIIETIIEIt By A SYSTKM OF US DLIIG BOUND SEWEllS, PUBLIC 

SCAVENGING, OR BOTH, OR OTIIEHWISE. 





Iatment . 

1 SELFXTED FOR ( 


\ND UTILIZATION 

CLASSIFICATION. Septembek 1870. 


OF SEWAGE. 


■■• 


STORy- 
^IRFACE- WATERS. 


WATEU ; 

Itow 

DISPOSED OP. 

21. 


MODfi OF 
VEXT1L.VT10N. 

22 


DISCHARGE FROM SKWERS, 
INDEPENDENT OF SCAVENGING. 


SCAVENGING 
(PUBLIC). 


E DBTH-EES 
RETFiU,- 


No, 




«i't»iiri )c»<Jo- 




HOW DISPOSED OP. 


d^/^eI. 


HOW EFFECTED. 
31. 


J 

32. 


33. 


DIFreHEKC 
cost AKD 


|| 


^|i HOW riirotED or. 
19. 20. 


i^ = t; 


DKCIIAnOK. 

26. 


TiaMi*roHB 
26. 


TKK^TUKNT 

27. 


20. 


5 .^5 


I'UOKIT 


UIS3. 


23. 




29. 


'I 

30. 


34. 


afi 


roTu. 








8>«ii(fi 





B( manbote* 


1«.01KI 


"S 





Wholly, bffofe 


WT.0I1. 






By coDliaclor 


£ 
Nil 


£ 


£ 
None 


pence. 
None 


£ 
None 


=■ 


2. 
3, 
4. 

s. 

6. 

7. 

B. 

9. 
10. 
11. 
12. 
13. 

14. 

15. 
IS. 
17. 
18, 
19. 
20. 
21. 
22. 
23. 
24. 
25. 






Bj»««m 

Bfuwtn 


By ipMiil pipci ni'i 

fluCT. 


lOO.OOO 


33 


m.«"5 

Wholly 

wi-*. 

m..!!, 

whoiir 

Wholly 






By conlnctOT. 

Ily conlnccor; alrect. 

twecpiiip only. 


110 


m 


' ' 




8r«««» 










BjMircn 


Bj ipwi»lpip€« 






































2S ajtt^tn 




















30 


BTKwm 


^mij ^^^ 


154.000 


21 























25 
20 










&c. only. 
bo.rd. 





















i.is2,aaQ 

4,438.740 




58 
H3 


450 
310 

Nil 
UO 


125 
Nil 
NU 
45 







310 

None 
205 


3-5 
31 


31 
2n 


Bj old Mirm, roof-nUr to 

nnt icacrv 
Bi^wtn 

BTtewm 


BjKwm 

BroUKnen 


ajbOMy^imnejt .. 


wkoiir 

Wholly 








1 




By contractor 

By conlnctor; ilrtet 


None 


None 


8j Kwcn, recf-wiKT ool 

iMUd. 


wtoiiy- 

Wholly. 


::::: 








Uy djimntji and put 
inp. 

a, gntiop, .pMial 
Doei. 4c. 












1 





















W01.1OO 

cocooa 







Wholly 






















23 


31 
S4 


W"iiy. 












GOO 
130 














8TK.m 


Bftewtn 









ll.»»~«» 

Bj old w«en diltflj 


Wholly 






By local boinl 


220 
44 






90 
37 


4-3 
2-2 


M 

U 

31 
32 

21 


■ 


















Wholly. .fWr 












Bj *pMul <<nia. thicflr, 




Br*bafttaiiilKrallns«- 


IBO.O00 


SO 




1 






Nil 


' 


1 


■3 






BX«w» 






















Tsi"^;s^" 




1 


By contractor and loea 
loard. 


3?n 

245 
187 




























Nil 
10 







245 
171 


3-6 


8; mm anil *arfM«- 


















' 




1 






W. ». 


21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 


26. 27. ZB. 29, 30, 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. S7. 


3B. 

i 



/ 



Berkshire ( (in rniinl ) 



Hertfordshire . 



, Q I BTir ) [•■ " gh '"'w hirf 



C^in^^'^g^fthirp 



I ^ Northamptonshire 



READING 

WINDSOR 

EAUNG 

BSPIELD 

HORNSBY , 

twickesiiam , 

uxskidge 

chesiiunt 

hertford 

waltham abbey 

aylesbury 

BANBURY 

BICESTER 

OXFORD 

DAVESTRT 

SORTIIAMPTON 

fETESBOROUCH 

^VELU.NG BOROUGH .. 

BEDFORD 

LUTO.N 

CAMBRIDGE 

ELY 

WISBECH 

BRAISIREE 

dlELMSFOKD 

COLCKESTER 

EPPINC 

lULSTBAD 

BURY ST. EDMUNDS... 

IPSWICH 

DISS 

KINGS LTN.N 

XORWICH 

SWAFFHAM 

YARMOUTH 



OoaE 



Nenb .. 
Bbajib.. 



IxKol Board 

Local Boanl 

Locil Boaril 

Local Dotrd 

Laul Board 

Local Board 

Local Buard ... 

t«csl BowJ 

Local BoarU 

Local Board 

Local Board 

Local Board 

Local Board 

tmproipment Cominii 
iTcnieol Comniii 

Local Board 

Local Board 

Local Board 

iproTcmeot Commis 

Local Board 

Corporatioo ai h. B 

Local Board ,,. 

Local Board 

Commiuiooen 

■pedal drainage dialri 

Local Uolrd 

Corporalioo 

Loco) Board ..,., 

Local Board 

leasing CoDimimoiier* . 

Local Board 

Local Board 

Corporallon ai L. B 



s.aoo 

M,000 

n.oDo 

10.000 
7.50D 



6,2S0 
10,800 

2.iU0 
33,anD 

I.IDO 



3,SI)0 
ICDOO 

eo,ooa 



PuliUc .. 
Public .. 
Public .. 

Bolb 

Both 

Public .. 



nritate 

Bolh 

Ilolh 

Privwe 
Both 



Koil, . . 
Uoih 

Both 



100,000 

ns.soo 



EO.ODO 
1.10,11011 



l,UUO 



By icixen aad icavcnging ... 

Oy aeners and private ica, 

tcnging. 
Dy teircn aiiil frurn ccii. 



Uy ae\rcn and lurTace-drainB 
BySBiver. 



Hj lurFacc-draint noil ice 

Tcnging. 
8; icwcre (a imall portion b 

private icavcnqing). 
swcri and pritate leaver 

ging. 
By privale tcavenging 

ncra and icavcpging-. 

inrrs anil private >ce 

By seiven and icavenjjing 

By |>ulilic and private sc[ 
vcnglng. 
r icwen and tcavenging. 



tnrface-draini 
lurfacB-draini 



By Bcavenging by occupicri. 
Byieavcnging 



By fcavcngins 

private scavenging . 

By scaveagiiig. 

Byp 



By scavenging., . 



Uy scavenging.,.. 
By icavenging... 
By icavcnging,.. 



Byiurracc-drainiandlliru 



By aewers on J to cosspool*.. 
wers and lurTace-draLii 



' icavangipg, aibci only , 



cnging , 



private scavenging (aihi 

By icavengiug-... — 

By (cavengiDg 



By icavenging 

By scavenging 

By »c«vc"gins by occupiei 
lly private icavengiug ... 
By ptivatc icovcaglng .. 
By priv.ite icavenging ... 

By icaven^png. 

By icavenging 

icaveDging 

By scnvenging 

w. 



By old drain) and ii 



Qolh by I 
By «urrai:c-B 



..B,.=,..n 

.. By sewers 

»?«"•» 

,. By Ecneri, but part r 

vrnlcr used. 
,.By«wer» 

.,Uy«c,a 

Byaewen 

By old ecvvcra 

-, B,«em„ 

By Mmcn 

By old leivcn (except » 

of llie roof-ivii icr. Sic] 

By gurfaec-dmint; roof-w 

retained fur use. 

..ChicBy byoldieivert.... 

Chlclly by old icncra..,. 

, By lewcra 

iy lurface-draint 

ly old icnera 



. i!r»™> 

Ol-ewen 

,, By acwen and liirTace. 



.. By Bpecial ibnfU 

mliolea and vi 



.. lly down 

lb alts, 
. By ibadi 



.. By manbalci 

., By manbul^ 

,. By down tpouti ,. 
,. By ipccial piiFCi .. 






1 






























^^ 


- ^ ^ 36- Z3. M 


29 







S9 


«^rfir 

\T1ioJIt 


-Whdl, .fte. Wholly Wor 
deodonntion. Sllniion. 





60' 


18 


TtTmt QDly) 


m 











.1 


26, 
27. 


>.ooa 




28. 
29. 


1.000 


6 


whonj. — 














By contnctor (uhe 
only) md board. 


250 
ISO 


Nil 
30 







!fiO 
120 


8- 
38 


30. 




iwhoUr 


WfcoUy. 















31. 


l.«»0 


1 














1 

1 

Wtollj 


Wbolljr .ftermolly brfon 













S3. 

























Wholly tfte. 
ptwipiiMiMi 





























>.000 


ffliollj bdbn 
imsatioiL 




Wholly ttla 

Glmiion, 
Wholly 




























ff»«ny 












1.100 
30 


ISO 
Nil 







980 
30 
440 

1,000 
42 

leo 


71 
18 

2-6 

i 

i 

83 4 
1-3 4 
4'9 4 


8. 




wiwlly 




















0.000 






Wholly 








B 






















.... 








'■ 








i. 










Wh-Uj 


i. 




37 


WhoUj. 




By board 


I.2C0 

B4 
189 


200 

Nil 




0.OOO 




EIITuion. 






.... 


J. 


































f>fiW 


P«n»II, 

Putiill} 







PtriUUy 

Pirtiilly 













9. 




Mliallf 






occupies p*y co.1. 














S 

S 






1? 




































Wholly 


..., 


















s 


















..... 


niollj 


























ft 

s 


, 






































400 
13 
200 


Nil 
Nil 

Nil 






100 
13 
200 


1-2 i 

■a 5 
l-a E 


, 










1 




























1 






i 1 










23. 


?A 








2S. 


29. 


30. 


31. 


32. 


33. 


34. 


35. 


36. 





1. 



H) 
H 



Eh 
O 





21. 


31. 


32. 


33. 


34. 


35. 


36. 


37. 


38. 


al 


ifeewers .... ' 


ird 


630* 
40 
530 
1,000 


20 

Nil 
Nil 
600 






610 

40 

530 

400 


11-3 
1-2 
2-5 

2-8 


61. 

62. 

63. 

64. 

65. 

66. 

67. 

68. 

69. 

70, 

71. 

72. 

73. 

74. 

75. 

76. 

77. 

78. 

79. 

80. 

81. 

82. 

83. 

84. 

85. 

86. 

87. 

88. 

89. 
1 
90. 

91. 

92. i 
. 93. 
. 94. 

95. 


itractor 






al 


TJ 


tractor 






T 


id 






[) 
) 
) 

[al 
) 
) 
al 

al 

al 


liewers .... 

I sewers .... 

1 








rd and contractor 
rd 


1,860 

99 

1,000 

195 

28 

596 

1,500 

NU 


Nil 
27 
150 
Nil 
Nil 
390 
Nil 
Nil 






1,860 

72 

850 

195 

28 

206 

1,500 

None 


6-4 
5-1 

10-2 
3-9 
1-5 
5-2 
6-5 

None 






] 

isewers .... 


rd 






tractor 






> 


tractor 






■N 


ird 








itractor 








ird 


None 


None 






r 


1 tractors 


303 
45 


Nil 
Nil 






303 
45 


4-8 
2-3 


TV 


Itractor 






Hewers .... 
..kewers .... 


itraotor ... 






nmi&sioners 




























> 

> 

) 


Tiewers .... 


ntractor 


422 
143 


100 






322 
143 


4-5 
4-6 








lewers . . . . 

...iewers .... 

Isewers .... 


ard (street-sweep- 

i only). 

^d 


100 














280 


38 






242 


10-2 








) 
> 

> 

» 




ard 


1,700 


250 






1,450 


15-1 


Isewers (pa 








oard, streets; bj 
tract, ashes &c. 
ard 


1,150 
182 












■s 


10 






172 

1 


4-1 












ard (street-sweep 

s only). 

tard 


1 


40 
205- 






t 




sewers ... 


. &12 






. 407 


51 








1 


1 sewers (p 



















274 








. 274 


1-3 












i 


• 


21. 


31. 


32. 


33. 


34. 


35. 


36. 


37. 


38. 



-^K • 








=■ 




6. 


7. 


8. 


9. 


10 


U. 


13. 


13. 


14. 


K. 


16. 


17. 


IB. 


19. 


ZO, 


2: 




az. 


23. 


24. 


25. 


26. 


27. 


2S. 


29. 


30. 


31. 


32. 


33. 


34. 


35. 


36. 


37. 38. 


DessetSha* _. 


- Si 

~ a. 

64. 

sc 

«r. 

6S- 
69. 

Jl. 


BRIDPOBT 


Bot 

K» — 

Iteunict 


ODtpontiou u U B 

CwpcntioD u L. D 

[:Mponlion u L. B 

OaipMiU-on t> L. B 

LocalBovd 


13,000 

a.ooo 
.10,000 
35,000 

<,000 

ro.ooo 

3.400 

20,000 
12,000 
4,S0O 
9,500 
S5.000 
10.000 
2.000 
1S.00O 

4.:oo 


t3.0U0 


Public 

Prir.I« 

Bolh 


4a 

30 

u 


685,000 


Gcnenl 

Ccocral 
6.000 
lOS 
14.000 
1.000 
Gcoenil 
1.000 
100 
Ctntn\ 


None 

None 
None 
None 

None 

NODB 

2 

40 

None 
50 
10 

None 
None 
Hone 

None 

None 

2 


35 
None 

None 
20 
12 
400 
GOO 
None 


Byicmti 

Br.e»er.nna.e.«nBm5.. 

Br«w". 

Byiewcn 

BriBwen»nrlie««nBing... 

BjKvcan 

By«"e« 

Ijic'^en 

Bf ten-en and iiatcnging . 
By.e«en 

Br«"« 

Bj tewen and public Ka- 

wngirg. 
Dj lewen and pmut im- 
B waging. 


Oyienen , 


Dyicavenging..., 

Byicavengins 


709 

720 
4,190 

1,1 GO 

eso 

1,818 

500 

1,000 

400 

299.000 




35 

34 

50 
29 
35 

18 
46 

40 
20 




ytewen ■ 

y lewei* . ..-- - 


yievcn ., 


Nona 







iVbolly 








"Il"^ 


630- 
40 
530 

.000 


20 

Nil 
Nil 

GOO 








610 
40 
530 

400 


113 61. 
1-2 fiZ. 
25 63, 
2'B 64. 


I>!tTSlshiT« 


iDEVONPOKT 
XSETER 


< 9,000 

as.fioo 

3,000 
69,000 

2,500 

zMoo 
11,000 

4,000 
9.500 
.^2.000 
10.000 
2.000 
15.000 

4,;oo 


J 


' 


















Bolh 


857,000 


' 




' 














SOSTHAM 
H.TUOIJTH 




a'^wTO. 






Sy tenert 
By wwcrt 

By««er. 




Vb ^ 


























50 
22 
30 


8,250,000 


B7«"'" 


Uy teaMnging 






Uy high ihafti 


3,000,000 
1.600.000 


43 
80 


Vtolly 

Wholly..., 










ybo.Hl 


.»60 

99 
.000 
195 
28 
596 
,500 
NU 


Nil 
27 
150 

Nil 

Nil 

390 

Nit 

Nil 






1,860 

n 

830 
195 
28 
206 
1.600 
Nona 


6'4 G6. 
5-1 67. 
10^ GB. 
3-S 69. 

IS ro. 

5-2 71. 
6-5 72. 
Nona 73. 

74. 


s 


SIDUOCTB „ 

rORQtJ.VT . 




UKrfBoirt 


Both 


Jyiccr. 

Jye-^" 

iy««'" 

3f lurTace-draini and col 
By icwcrs 






1 






610.000 


^ 


















5 


WETMOLTH _ 
BODUIS 




OorponKoiD » L. B 




"''" '" 






















:; Cera**!! , 


Caul 


ronConodl 




20 
25 
14 








Vholly 













yco«"«'" 






3 


PE.VZU(CE 




[:arponlion u L B 




250,000 
641,640 






1 






SzEwseislur* — 


BiTH 


iTCW 






^ 


DytcavcDgiug 


Byicnm 

By««f" 

ay old icKcn 

By««e« 

By.c«e„ 






800,000 


IS 


Wholly 

Wholly ... 
Wholly 


! 










»«.. 


Nod. 




73. 
7*. 


nouB 




LcoaBoud 


Pri»«ie ., 

Qolh 


GcDCnl 










lUilKSTBB^ „.. 
























TAOTOS ..:. . 




LoalBoud 




BJ«"«« 

Byiewera 


Byicarenging 

BjtMvenging 

By icflvcuging 

By icavcnging 

Dyecavtnging 


S.D0O 

1,400 

I.50O 

110 

2.000 

200 

1,160 

116 

1,000 

soo 

2.000 

900 
250 


2G 

28 
27 


By""*" 

flr""'" 


















303 
45 


NU 
NU 






303 
45 


4-a 75. 

2-3 76. 
77. 

79. 




rt 


WELLS _ 


Sara 


Corpontiaa u L. B 

CorpontioD u L. B 

-ST™ "—- 










" 












Qycontridor 

Dyconniiuioner. 






Sln^ssiersliire .. 


SBISTOL „ 




Pubhc 

Bolh 

Prinle .. . 


16 

; 

3D 
10 
36 


420.000 
45.000 

500,000 
60,000 

216,000 


2.600 
216 
2.000 


None 


Djteirera 






WhoUy 



















rs CHELTESHAM .„ 

79- CIBE.VCESTER 

»L :GLOCCESTEE ._ 

81- STBOCO 

S2. aEBETORD 

83 LEOMDiSTEB „ 






°;:z 


By lewen and larftee- 
■trcanii. 




1.0*6,000 


26 











21.000 
17,000 

r.soo 


None 
2S,000 
6.500 


Geocnl 
30 












s™. 


By ttven 






Syienen 

Byc^ver. 

By"«"' 

Qyiewen 




890.000 

100,000 
DDO,000 


36 
IS 

56 














Byualractor 


422 
143 


100 







322 
143 


4S 80. 
4-6 Bl. 




Oolh 

Public 
























Vn _ 


Cgrponwin 






°''*^"* 




22 
27 
30 
2G 

24 

27 








Whll 














100 
38 








Cnpwitiaa u 1. B 


5,100 4,500 

5./oa 5.;oo 

G,0OQ : 2,000 
23,000 None 
20,000 ZB,ODO 
20.000 20.0no 




Bf lewen and pritile ica. 
TCnging. 




By loavenging (private fo[ 

aihei. puWicforilreel.), 


^ 




Wliollj 












^ingKnly). 
Byboard 


280 






242 


83. 

10'2 S4. 
B5, 




Simx 


bli 


1.400 


Noun 






Byicwcra 
















: 


cnTFVx 






B; leven and private >ea- 

Tenging. 
Cy private .eavcnging 

Br lenen lod prinic im- 

venging. 
By leneci and public tea- 

tenging. 
Bj icnen and pulille ica 

tenging. 


^ 


Dyicavenging 

By priTile icavenging 

Byicavensing 

Oy icavcnging 

nypriiMetciiengiiig 


B MVfcr. 


By rating* 


3,500,000 
32,000 


i;s 

6 


Wholly 



























20 
20 






1 
Kane 
20 
None 


4.000 
3,... 
2,000 
2,000 
8,500 

4,000 


Brdrainiandiurface-ilieinii 


Bydrains nod (urface-iircanu 

9y"«f» 

Oy"S" 


By .c<.en 

IJy .e«cr. 
By «ner 


(partly 








PirtiiUv 






Bybcaid 


i.m 


2S0 






1,450 


15-1 86- 

s; 


' ,..^_^.„^ 


»r. BUBSLEM.- „ 

B8. BCBTON-OX-TBEM 

w re-nojf 




Pnblit 


560.000 


2,000 
60 
60 
3O0 
240 
It 














y 


Wholly eSu 

precipilaiio 
Wholly.,.. 










Br board, itredii by 

Gonlrael. aibt* &e. 
By bend 


1.150 
183 












68. 


? 


" 






10 
20 


30,000 











1 


10 






1 172 


4-1 89. 
90. 






15,000 






ByiCBcrs 








91 




" 






'"'''''" 




2 










ing) ni.ly). 
Dybeird 





40 
205 




91 

6-1 92 
93. 




-„ _„ 1 


" 


CorpoiUiini u U B 

(bun. 


19,000 ,' 3.000 
16,000 [ None 


*' 


IS 


<S,000 


Br lewen and pnblic ica 
tenging. 

By private (wcnging 

By lewn and private ica 

venging. 
By itwerj and private ica- 
«nging. 












l... 




612 





i: 




W. STAFFOED 


n ..-^ 




Dyicavenging 

fly private icavcnging ,. .. 


nytewcn 


(partly 






























20 


200,000 


200 


Kone 


2,400 
Gencftl 


















I 


1 


94 




9i. 1 




- 






10,000 
40.000 


PubUe 




' 














. 274 .... 




. 274 


1-3 95 






" *"■■ 


















1 









1 




J 
































VI. 


IB. 


19. 


20. 


i 


,. 


23. 


23. 


2/ 


2&. 

























T 



' 



14 




23. 


24. 




I 32. 


33. 


34. 


35. 


36. 


37. 


38 








50,000 


10 


Whol 

Partia 
prec 


450 


1 






450 


18-0 


96. 

97. 

98. 

99. 
100. 
101. 
102. 
103. 
104. 
105. 
106. 
107. 
103. 
109. 
110. 
111. 
112. 
113. 
114. 
115. 
116. 
117. 
118. 
119. 
120. 
121. 
122. 
123. 
124. 
125. 
126. 
127. 
128. 
129. 
30. 


1 






1 








i 


Gen 

1,1 


iprs., 






11,500 
575 


5,500 






6,000 


40 




) .... 
















1,000,000 
300,000 
500,000 

3,000,000 


50 
34 
50 
34 


































4.... 






















Wholl 

WhoU 

Wholl 

the 

Wholl 

Wholl 

Wholl 

No syi 

Wholl 

Wholl 

Wholl 

Wholl 

Wholl 

Wholl. 

whoin 

preci 
Wholl. 

Wholl. 

Wholl. 

Wholl. 




















474 


167 






307 


5-1 




i 


».... 


160,000 


21 










853 








853 


8-2 




hi 
















2 






















4 








100 


20 






80 


2-7 




Gen 














8,C 





4,000,000 

637,800 

1,250,000 


30 
53 


6,100 


4,050 







2,050 


3-6 




1,6 








8,( 


2,728 


633 






2,095 


101 




1,5 




























2,1 




300,000 
800,000 


30 
50 
















2,( 


300 


Nil 






300 


4-5 




2.( 








2,: 






















2,( 








400 
400 


Nil 
Nil 






400 
400 
350 

1,550 

70 

400 

2,620 
100 

1,604 


6-4 
71 
3-4 
9-5 
2-4 
5-5 
7-8 
3-4 
4-8 




1,; 














Gen 














6,; 








Wholl. 
Wholl- 

rt^hoU. 
NhoW . 


1,646 
70 

400 
3,100 

100 
3,172 


95 

Nil 
Nil 
480 
Nil . 
1,568 . 








1,; 














( 


wn 

wn . 


108,000 
2,000,000 
1,000,000 
1,725,780 


8 

29 . 

154 "< 

35 ^ 








13,! 








i 








6,f 








3,( 








3,: 




^ 


NhoW . 


700 


100 . 






600 


4-8 


















1 




23. 


24. 




32. 


33. 


34. 


35. 


36. 


37. 


38. 





lULTBVl .. 






3 'WArnck^ii« 



Leicertersiiiro .. 



9r- VQKCESTER « 

9S. BIRUINCaiU Tmkt 

«■ CMTKSTRT StVMW .. 

100- LEAMIXCTON ■, 

lOI. BrCBT « 

ICli. WARWICK 

lOX LEICESTER .„ T«,VT .. 

. IM. aOSTOX Vmut^ 

105. GUySBOKOCGK TmMxr 

IK. LDiCOLS ^..WiTMAM.. 

lOr. LOCTB 

IK. SL£1P0U> . 

in. SPALDINC . 

]10i STAMPOKD ..,_ 

ill. >OTTINGHAil T»x»i 

Hi cHEsraaruLD ._ oci« 

llj, DZRBT 

114, .u.-nuxcHui ., 

Ili CHESTER 

lit COKGtETDS 

117. CEBWE ._,...,..„., 

I JI8, OtTEISnELD ...., 



:£l:"' 



- Dm 



! 119. MAOCtESnELD „ 

UB. TKA^niEBE 

121. WALLASET „ 

__ 122. iCCEl.VGTOX Riuu . 

12X ASHTOX nsu LT>'E ... Uussr . 

I2t. ATHEBTOX ._ „ 

I2S. BACUP „ 

12S. BlACKBUKX .~ BiBmu .. 

127. BLACEFOOL. „ 

123. BOLTOK UtMstt .. 

123. BCMLET Busu ,. 

130 Btnr _ MzuET .. 



.'Local BMid 

I 
. Local Boin) 

.Coipantbu 

.LocdBoird 

I 
.ILocalBowd 

.LoolBotrd 

. jCorpiirtEioD IS L. B 

. LocUBoud 

.Lool Board 

.Local Board 

. Local Boatd 

. Town Cotuidl .... 

Local Board 

ImproTeoMal Commis- 

Corpocuias 

CorpoiatiaD ai L. B. 

Local Board 

CaqRnatioii ai L. B. 



.... CorpoiatioD 

...CoiponiloD 

..., Local Bovd 

...LocdBoard 

...CoiponKoii ai I. B. . 

...Local Board 

...: Local Board 

...Local Board 

CorpoiatioD ., 

..Local Board 

... Local Board 

...Corpocaiioo- 

,.. Loeil Bond 

.i.fCorpcntMA aa L^ B. .. 
..iCorporatioD 



6.000 
35,000 
160,000 



;.aDo 

U.0O0 
ll.OOO 

3,B00 
7,000 



5.000 
31,000 



Boih .. 

Public. 
Both .. 
Both .. 

Public .. 
Botti .. 
Bolh .. 
Bolb .. 



3.800 
SJOO 

NODC 

13},000 ||U,000 



12,000 
S0,000 
9.O0O 
31,100 
12,000 
16,000 
10,000 
37,000 



12.000 



15.000 
13^00 
25,000 j 20. 
39,000 ' 39, 
:.ooo 6. 



9,000 
£6,000 
10.000 
16,000 
H.OOO 
25.000 
15.000 
lUOO 



17,CD0 


13,000 


81.000 


ee,oao 


7.000 


6.500 


eo.ooo 


50.000 


35,000 


35,000 


30,fO0 


29,000 



Balb .... 
Bolh .... 
Prime.... 
Doib .... 



Bolh ., 

Pablie .. 
Dalh .. 

PgbUc .. 
Public :.. 
Both .., 
Public ... 
Public ... 
Public ... 
Public .. 
Public ... 

Public ... 

Public ... 

Bolb . .. 

Bolb 
Public . . 

Both 

Poblic ... 
Public ... 
Public ... 



3.300.000 
240,000 



16S,000 
412.500 



468,000 
43.000 



240,000 
1,000,000 
52^.000 

SSO,ODO 



3,810 
General 
l.^OD 



Geoeral 

i,sao 



'"■■"•" 


aod 


caveuging... 








B]- *ewcn 
BycBcn 






.ndaMvcngiDg., 








"',.•3-.; 


and 


priraie tea- 



By public »c»vtnging 

By icwcn and priiatc ica- 



vengmg. 
tenging. 
lenging. 



and public li 
■nd private ii 



By ifwcn and public ics- 

vcnging. 
By icHcri and public aca- 

venging. 
By icHcn and icarcnging... 

By icHtn and public tca- 

ttiiging. 
By iCRcn and prirale ica- 

iingirig. 
Dy icwcn and poblic ICa- 

vengiog. 
By icwen and public tea- 

tenging. 
By te«cn aad privalc ica- 

Ttnging. 
By >c»cn and icavcnging ... 

nen and privile ica- 

TcDging. 
By lemri and public ica- 
venging. 



By tcaicnging (pri?a[c Tor 

aihei, public for itrccti). 

By icavcnging (privale fo: 

■ a, public for ilrcili). 



n and in dryndli.. 
in ccupooli 



By icivenging 

By icavcnging — 

By public tcaienging . 

By icavcaging (private 

aibu. public ronimi 

By priiBle icatenging . 

•CMcnging 

By icaicDgiag 

By leavcngiog 

By iCB»eoging. 

By icavcnging 

By private icavcnging . 

By priiatc icavcnging . 

By privnic icavcnging , 

By icavcnging 



By icavcnging (private foi 

ubu. public fur itrcctt). 

By public and private icl 

vcnging. 
By icBveogiDg. 



Oy icaveoging...... 

public icavcnging 
By icavtnpng 



r icaicnging (pnvale fo 

uhcii (lublie lor itrceit). 

By icaveuging. 



By icaveugiog... 

By icavcnging foraihei Di 



Dy icavcnging... 
By icavcnging.,. 



Bydrainiand lUrTace-ilreaml 
wen (partly) 



By old icRcri (roaf-'natcr 

colleclcri for uic). 
Dy lurface 'drain! 



By ihafu I.... 

By iliafti and grBtiegi., 

By dDwnipouti 

gralingi ......... , 

By chamben 

By down ipouti ....,.,, 

By ipeclal pipci 

Byibarti 



niDnholea and dam 
Dy tbartt and doni 

• pDUll. 



34. 35. 36, 37. 38. 



108,000 
2,000,000 



Wholly 

Wholly 

Wholly (frt 

WhoUy 

Wholly. 

VYholly. 



WboUy By contractor 



Intended .. 

Wholly 

Wholly 



No lyilem . 

Wholly 

Wholly 

Wholly , 

Wholly 

Wholly 

Wholly 

Wholly, after 

Wbolly.... 

Wholly... 

Wholly... 

Wholly... 



Wholly... 
Wholly... 



Wholly... 
WhoUy... 

WhoUy... 
Wholly... 



By bond 

Dy coDtiactot . 



By board 

Dy coolraclor ... 

Urn 



corporation ... 
Dy board (itreet-iKccp- 



Uy corporation - 

Dyl>oard(aihe*on1y]... 



Dycorporalion — 
Dy commiuioDcr* .. 



400 G-4 
400 M 



35. 3fl. 37. 38. 



14 




23. 


24. 


25. 


32, 


33, 


34. 


35. 


36. 


37. 


38. 


1,0 


300,000 

250,000 

57,000 

864,000 

25,000,000 


28 
50 
8 
45 
49 




290 


100 






. 190 


2-3 


131. 

132. 

1.33. 

134. 

135. 

136. 

137. 

138. 

139. 

140. 

141. 

142. 

143. 

144. 

145. 

146. 

117. 

148. 

149. 

150. 

151. 

152. 

153. 

154. 

155. 

156. 

157. 

158. 

159. 

160. 

161. 

162. 

163. 

164. 

165. 


4l 


Wholly 






7 


IUt3, & 


Wholly 

Wholly 


j 50 








50 


1-5 


9 








15,0 


Wholly 

Wholly 

Wholly 


2,385 

0,000 

2S7 


10,519 
8,300 






41,866 

11,700 

237 

300 


19-7 
70 

14-2 
5 1 


lators 
49,01 






1,0 


















Wholly \ 300 

Partially i 4.5* 








6 
















Jown 


2,660,000 


31 


Wholly 










4,678 

50 

455 

70 

3,450 

2,200 

300 

2,998 

400 


131 
1-8 
4-5 
2-8 
8-9 

11-2 
1-8 
5-9 
5-3 






j 50 

550 

70 

3,450 

2,200 

300 

6,871 

1,000 


Nil 

95 
Nil 






4,0 




420,000 


30 








1,0 

8,5 


Wholly 








1,500,000 


16 


Wholly 

Wholly 

Wholly 

Wholly 






3,4 








fi,fl 








Nil 
3,873 
600 






16,4 












3,1 




650,000 


37 


Wholly 






1,' 


Wholly 






: 




318,000 


53 


Wholly 

Partially ^ 


126 


Nil 






126 


4-7 


I 






4,! 




1,000,000 
237,000 


38 
36 


Wholly J 


1,045 








1,045 


8-4 


1 


Wholly 








1 


Wholly 














2, 




500,000 


20 


WhoUy 

Wholly 

Wholly 


500* 

30 

800 


Nil 






500+ 

30 

800 


4-4 
1-2 
4-7 








1, 




























1, 


own 


700,000 
6,000,000 


70 


Wholly 














16, 
1, 

7, 

2, 

15, 


Wholly 

Wholly 


1,490 








11,490 


19-3 










1,000,000 
2,500,000 


50 
56 


Wholly 














Wholly 














Wholly 




















Wholly 


































■ 




23. 


24. 


25. 


32. 


33. 


34. 


35. 


36. 


37. 


38. 



33. 34. 35. 36. 




1. X 


_ a-_ 


4. 


s. 


6. 


7. 


e. 


9. 


10. 


u. 


13. 


13. 


14. 


15. 


16. 






19. 


20. 


21. 


22. 


23. 


M 














31. 


32, 


33. 










IB 


WsstSidiBs t-/-v ie«. SSUTOX 


Ovmm 


LociUkard 


6.000 
11.000 

26.000 
3.S00 
23,000 
J.2(tO 
3i,O0i) 
IS,0{IO 
S.50O 
23.000 
2»,0i 
IJS.OOO 

36.flno 

3.000 
31.0110 
ID.OOO 

5.0O0 

1,700 


6.000 


'ubiic 






150 
50 

616 
1^ 


Hone 


sso 

EDO 
2.122 
200 


Uy lewen and private ica 

venging. 
Uy tewcr. and private tea 

Uy lenen and public an. 

private «ea.enging. 
Oy pruaieicaveoginB 

tly tciver, and public .ca 

veiiging, 
Uy »ewcr» and priralc tea 

Oy tenen and public lea 

venging. 
Oy wwera and private ica 

vcuging. 
Uy icwcr* and public an< 

prime iCBvetTgiiig. 
Uy tr«cr» aud puUlic ici 

vcnging. 
Ily .even and publie aea 

TCIlgllig. 

Uy ic«cni and public lea 

vcnging. 
Oy lencra and private ica 

«nging. 




Uy tcivengrns (pritale for 

ulie>, public for ilreel.}. 
Uy private .caveiiging 

ODd,.firtlo..i,«l.pabbi). 












200.000 

1.300.000 
17,000 


33 

SO 
7 




























56. 
67. 
68. 
09. 

70, 

71, 

72. 

73. 

71. 

75. 

70. 

77. 

78. 

73. 
180, 
IMl. 
133. 
183, 
184. 

IHO. 
187. 
188. 
|S9, 
190. 
191. 
192. 
193. 
194. 
lO^i. 
136. 
197. 
198. 
199. 
•00. 




167- TODUORDSS 


'«"»" 


LowlBwni 


Pritalc 


27 


700.000 




1,164 
240 


27 

17 






ly choiuben and duoi 




























16& WAKEFIELD 

. le. COTTINCHAU - 


^^ 

HflMW 


CtopoiuioD aj U D 

Locti Boutl 


25,840 
2,S0O 

22,000 

4, son 
a.'i,floo 
15,000 

«.80O 
23.000 
2I.0DO 
I.1S.0DO 
32.000 

9.000 
31.000 
19,000 

5,000 
700 

1,600 
34,000 

C.00I1 


Public 




.ewer. 




Vb.dly 

Vholly after 
Wholly 













1 i,.na 


724 

2,2UU 
20 
12(1 
30ii 

Nil 

11,017 
1,000 


300 

ISO 
13 

HO 
60 

100 

1,182 
363 






524 

3,050 
14 
280 
240 

110 
9,835 
737 


4'3 

234 

O'B 
2-7 

3'8 

1-1 
175 
4-9 


Private 


Mfn= 


llyicwetiandunioeimlen. 














ty1lo.ril(ulicionlr}.- 






- 1,-11 


SCARBOROUCn „. 




Local B<«rd 


" 


By«"=" 

Byotdwwer. 

By ""an 

Qr«""» 

Oj- lewcn 
Oy .evren 

By.e«er. 
Oylc^er. 
Oy.e«e™ 




iBARS-tRO CASTLE.„ 


Frs 


Public 


IG 


67,200 
1,500,000 
210.000 
66.000 
460,000 


253 
D50 
GOO 
6 
200 
110 


NCHJ 


100 


HyaCHcn 




176 


20 
3S 


Qy neiv aud Did u»cra 


irS. DARUXGTON 


W«A« 


OMpoiuioD ai L. B 

LoalBoud 


Bolh 


Uy.cwcn 


/ "/ 




" 














II 


IJi OmiHJLM „ „ 

IJt IIOUCBTOV.LE-SPitlXG. 

lis. STOCKTOS-OS-TEES 

176. TTXST BARIUPOOI 


Uoth _ 


" 


None 
None 


GSO 
il23 
5,500 
2.S0O 




Uy lenicnging (private foi 
MlicM, public fur ureeu). 

By public and pritaie tea 
vcnging. 

Br •"vcuging 






^ 













Mly), 
Bybwd 

.ndnFghl.oilD.Iy. 
Uy bn.rJ, uhe. Ac 
unly. 


Ikes _... 

r™ 




«y«"*n 

Ily .enen ^.... 


43 

1,5U0 
5.325 


20 
21 
21 

!C 

20 


Uy lurrgce-tlrtiiini, roof. 
B^Awm''"'""' 

Uy .ewcn, mof.ivater col. 

Icelcd fi,r u.e. 
Uy ■e»er.. muf-«al(r partlj 

CDllccicil for u>e. 
Uy mwcn. roof.naier cul 

led id for u>c. 




Wildly 




100 


I'O 


LmsI Board _ 


Public 


20 












Boih 


432,000 


18 














178. 

ITS. 

l9tL 


XEWCASTLE 


a„p^„^ 


Public 


30 
19 


4.050,000 




By icLcnging 

iw icavengiug (private To 
athe., public lor .IreeU). 


^ 












.TTNUIOCTH 




Local Board 




406 


Nona 




Ily .oven 
By .enm 

By""'" 


Partially 

(nearly all] 
Wholly........ 

Partially 




E: 


Pwliallj" ... 





.... 


y rp 






WUKFR ..„ 













1,930 


''™'""" 








Itabiisie 


Bncx 


I«n1 Boan] 


Both 


28 
53 
IB 


850.000 

1.000.000 

00.000 


General 






Byie»en 


Uytcwcra 


Oy Cbimnici .ml down 

•pouu. 
"nsr«llng» 

Uy ahnfta and dowi 

apoul.. 
By •pccial boiu and 

pipe*. 

None 

None 


13Q.D0O 
2.500.000 

3,000,000 


26 
Jl 

4B 

78 








' 


902 
567 

as 

15 


180 

317 

20 

Nil 






733 
360 
65 
15 


5-6 
3-3 
31 
1'2 


iSl. yurTEHAVEV . 


D«_ _.. 


Loo] Board 


Public 








B .caveu .i 




' 






11 UnuU 







Westnneland | 

3C=snHoaisfaiTe _ 18t iABEICaVesxi 

ISl i^AXTEC 




Both 


300 
60 


6 
None 




By aencn and public *a 
venging. 


B .ewer* 


Byiea.enging 

Oyieavenglng 




26 


Qyw"*" -- 


"yx"*" - 

Oy.e»«f. 


^ 














Priv»w 






Wb 11 


^ 
















CMGUTOK _ 














ByieBTcraaadicavenging.. 

Oy lencn and icavengmg.. 

Uy ttnen and public ica 
venging. 

Oy icnera and privale «cii- 
vcngiug. 






Wh II 


















? V— h Wali-l IRT. 


CiKDirr 










1,000.000 
120.000 


4.000 

120 

220 

4,000 

2,000 

2.200 

250 

Geneial 

23.334 


None 
NnitE 


300 


By leiter. ,, ,.., 




7GB 
900 


42 
39 

30 
34 
2S 
32 
25 
35 
Gl 
49 
35 
35 




By,c«e.. ,. 
By«"Cr, 
















l,G50 

900 


Nil 
70 






l.fiS0 
830 


11-3 

15-3 


i 
i 


la. 


IXAXELLT 


T*TW ... 




13,000 
8,000 

SO.OOO 
62.500 

IIS.OOO 
15.000 

190.000 

4SO.oon 
52.000 
49,000 
27,000 

170.000 
11.000 

2S&,000 
18,000 


Pdblic 


20 


Qj'«vengiug 

By public lesvenging 


Uy old and new icwcra 

By old and new icwcn 


WhoUy 

Wholly 















187. iuOLSTAlS ASH. 






eoD 


u'.e«et. 








188. 

189. 
»•. 
ML 
IK. 
>». 

I»L 
US. 
IK. 
I»7. 

'" 


Wansea 




20.000 
62.500 
05.000 

ir.,000 

90,000 
50,000 
51,000 

27,000 




40 
33 
26 
IS 
40 
48 
BO 
21 
13 


600,000 
3,500,000 
3.COO,O0O 
225.000 
7,000.000 
21,600,000 
14,017,000 




»BERDEES 




BoBd or Police 


Public „. 

Boa».._ 


Koae 
Ko»e 
Son. 
None 

Nuoe 
Nons 


500 
1.380 
2H0 


By *e»en aud public .ca. 
vcrgiDg. 

Uy Mvvrr. and public .ca- 
vtnging. 

By «»rr, and public .«- 
vcuging. 

Oy tc«(n aod public lea- 
ve ngi'ng. 

Oy M«er. aud public ica- 
vcnging. 

Oy .ewer, uid public .ca. 

ly .ewer, wd public .ca- 


B .CH 




1,000 
2,120 
700 
4,191 
10.713 
1.125 




By«w«~ 

Oy«"" 

"?«»■«" 

Qyie"ef 

Oyicwer. 


Partisllj 






Partially 








6,119 
9.001 

0B3 
8.205 
J3,eo5 
1,000 
l.OSO 
2,000 


3,308 
9,631 
65S 
8.935 
23,9:3 
Nil 
400 
1,700 






2,911 


11-2 


DUSDEB 

DL-xrZULLNE 

EDIKBUKcn 


- ■■■■■ 


U 


y s e 




Wholly 






630 


1'3 




s B e 


By.cwer.(p»rtly) 




325 
9,370 
10,613 
1.000 
050 
300 


52 
11-7 
56 
46 
32 
27 












Partially 






'.niaUy 








ly council 

ByboanI 












3.200 






CKEE.SOCS 








a 




' 














" 








2,0U0 

170 

Grne-al 

GeiiEnI 


^ 




' 














Oyboard 




Uoar 




320,000 






DOO 


' 




Oy.peeialpipe, 

Ily gully grating. 

Uygrelinp 


1,100,000 


41 














Oy hoard 
















" 


* K,/ 1 ■ 


" 




Wholly 
























11,000 
.55.000 












pritale .CBvenging. 


njtntn 


vengiiig- 

By private acatogiog fm 

atbct. 
By ptivute tcavenging fur 

■ibca. 




Uycwm 




























OUBU-f 




noMia. 




45 

20 


11,475,000 






Of ttvrtn and priviile tc*' 

Oy aevrrn and ptivale tea- 

vcuging. 




























1 too. 





















It**"*" 






Wholly 




























.'««r.. 




















1 


!. Z. 


3. 


4. 


S. 


6. 


■7. 


8. 


9. 


JO, 


11. 


12, 


13. 


14. 


15. 


16. 


17 


13, 


19. 


20 


21. 


33. 


23. 


24 


25. 


26. 


27. 


























1" 



FTntd 1. 



K 



\ 



lit Tnacmaiea ■ii:it' HbLameta-s. 



t Mrtt^xH:- la7f 



,#^^- 



or THE KKITISH^s, 







-s 



K, m-jQ 






FlcUe.2. 



iiaxrv Carrier 




h 



SECTION N°2 









au, -majrunea .isu Oixumftei-^ 



o^VCj.^ Vfr« J..V Asrr 



:ilECl'10nS AT B}filB;T©n^ ]mEME0MFG)l.:i;),]]2'^SlK. IS^O. 





SECTION N? I. 



SECTION N?Z. 



SECTION NO 3 







5 ECTION N° 4. 



» ». 
i a 



nr>irjini0i'IIVi-t /n-iv 



SECTION N? 5. 



^ 51 ; 



SECTION N9 6. 



• 



40'^Rq)art3rvLAssoc. iSlO. 



rlcUe.3 . 






Ob o 










IZ 







13 




15 



16 



n 



da mcurrafied 320 abuunveteyj-. 



ON THE TREATMENT AND UTILIZATION OF SEWAGE. 75 

decaying leaves of cabbages and other plants (fig. 16), often accompanied by 
other moulds, especially Gladosporium. 

No. 4. I could detect nothing but one or two starch-granules, a few 
minute inorganic particles like very fine sand, and a little granular matter. 

No. 2. This was richest in organisms of all the samples, contaiaing quite 
a variety of subjects. The starch-granules were variable in form and size 
(fig. 5) ; in most the hilum was quite distinct, in some the parallel lines : for 
better security against error in observation they were tested with iodine. 
Fragments of cellular tissue were also present (fig. 6), and granular matter 
slightly discoloured, which resembled vegetable tissue in a state of decay and 
disintegration (fig. 4) . Several fragments of delicate branched filaments were 
also present (fig. 7), greatly like the mycelium of some minute fungus ; also 
the branched upper portion of a thread very similar to those of Penicillium 
(fig. 8). Minute ovate spores were also present (fig. 9), reminding one very 
much of the spores of one of the white moulds, such as Aspergillus or Peni- 
cillium, Larger spores were also present, of an elliptical form, variable in 
size and proportions from -00035 in. to "0005 in. in length by "00025 in. 
in width, of a yellowish tint, and rather granular within (fig. 12), In size 
and character these resembled the spores of Claclosporium in the early 
stage, before the septa are formed. StiU larger spores were found, but 
rarely, that were coloured brownish, -00075 in. in length, and -0005 in. 
in breadth, divided transversely by three or four septa slightly constricted at 
each septum ; and again with each cell divided in the opposite direction, so 
that the spores were multilocular, or fenestrate (fig. 13). Fragments of 
woody fibre (fig. 11) were also present, and a vegetable hair, rather bulbous 
at the base, consisting of but a single cell (fig. 10). 

The animal kingdom was represented by portions of the fibrils of feathers 
(fig. 15) and the scale of a Lepidopterous insect (fig. 14). Fragments of 
inorganic matter were also present in very minute rather angular pieces of 
what might have been glass or sand ; but tJiis is only a guess. 

No. 1 was largely charged with minute cubic and rhombic crystals, which 
polarized well (fig. 2), some starch-granules (fig. 1), and the scale of a Lepi- 
dopterous insect (fig. 3). Besides these was a quantity of vegetable granular 
matter, broken up cells, and a small quantity of minute quartz-like frag- 
ments. 

As No. 1 and No. 2 were derived from the same locality, differing only in 
the quantity of air passed through the wool, and, it is presumed, in the pre- 
cise time at which it was passed, one cannot help thinking that the same 
sewer would at different periods of the same day give a diff'erent result in the 
organisms with which the air is charged. No fungi-spores were detected in 
No. 1, and none of the curious little crystals so plentiful in No. 1 were visi- 
ble in No. 2. 

A more extended series of examinations, which would of course occupy 
considerable time and attention, would be of value in furnishing data for 
determining problems which are sure to suggest themselves during inefficient 
or iiicomplete examinations. 



76 REPORT— 1870. 

Report on Observations of Luminous Meteors, 1869-70. By a Com- 
mittee, consisting o/ James Glaisher, F.R.S., of the Royal Observa- 
tory, Greenwich, Robert P. Greg, F.G.S., F.R.A.S., Alexander 
S. HerscheLj F.R.A.S., and Charles Brooke, F.R.S., Secretary 
to the Meteorological Society. 

In resuming the subject of their Eeport to the British Association for the 
past year, the Committee have to regret the loss which they have sustained, . 
since the preparation of the last Eeport, by the death, on the 1st of February 
last, of a late member of this Committee, Prof. E. W. Brayley, to whose ap- 
pointment by the British Association, in the year 1862, to assist in their 
especial objects, the Committee have been indebted for constant and invalu- 
able aid. 

In reviewing for the past year the progress of inquiry, and the results of 
observations relating to meteors, continued attention towards the establish- 
ment of star-shower dates, and their radiant-points, has rewarded Prof. 
Schiaparelli with the determination of a considerable number of radiant- 
points, indicating, on certain nights of the year, the earth's passage through 
weU-defined streams of meteoric matter, of which the visual directions of 
motion, and the concluded parabolic orbits round the sun, are described by 
Prof. Schiaparelli in a recent memoir, as derived from the observations of 
Mr. Zezioli at Bergamo, the Table of which is reproduced in the third Ap- 
pendix of this Report. The meteor-currents thus already indicated will 
shortly be supplemented or confirmed by the observations recorded at six- 
teen of the principal Italian observatories*, of which Mr. F. Denza has 
obtained the cooperation since April last. More than 2000 shooting-stars 
having been observed during the months of April, May, and June 1870; and 
the observations, as they continue to accumulate, being communicated for 
this purpose to Prof. Schiaparelli, the number and distinctive characters of 
other meteoric showers, besides those of the principal meteor dates in August 
and November, will thus be ascertained, to which the attention of observers 
has hitherto been only partially directed. 

The Committee are indebted to observers during the past year for the 
contribution of a large number of observations of bright meteors, and of 
shooting-stars, recorded during the two chief displays of November 1869 
and August 1870, statements regarding the principal results of which are 
contained in the following Appendices of this Report. 

In the catalogue t of the past year the observations of luminous meteors 
include, as in previous years, aU those descriptions of large meteors which 
have come to the knowledge of the Committee, with the exception of a large 
number of foreign observations of the great fireball seen in the south-west 
parts of Europe, on the 8th of September, 1869, of which it is expected that 
a condensed account will be published before the preparation of another 
Report, embodying aU the principal features of its course. An extraordinary 
length of path and area of visibility has been assigned to this large meteor, 
as will hereafter be described. 

* Alessandria, Aosta, Bergamo, Florence, Genoa, Girgenti (Sicily), Milan, Moncalieri 
(Turin), Naples, Padua, Palermo (Sicily), Perugia, Piacenza, Thiene (Vicenza), Urbino, 
Volpegliuo (Tortona). 

t The Catalogue, in accordance with a resolution of the General Committee, will not 
be printed in future Keports ; it will be preserved for reference, and the Committee hope 
to exhibit its principal results in a connected form. 



OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 77 

A large number of observations of shooting-stars during the August 
period (in 1870) are also collected in the Catalogue, while the general 
appearances of the meteors, and observations of their heights, are described 
in this Report. It will be seen that while only six fireballs were so well 
observed in England and Scotland during the past year as to enable their 
heights to be determiued (on the 1st and 11th of October, 6th and 14th of 
November, and 12th of December, 1869, and on the 20th of August, 1870), 
the heights of sixteen shooting-stars were obtained during the meteoric 
shower of the 5th to 11th of August, 1870 ; and twenty shooting-stars 
recorded at Greenwich, during the same meteoric shower, were so well 
recorded at other places that their real heights are at present undergoing 
calculation. 

During the meteoric shower of the 14th of November, 1869, the sky, at 
places in the south of England, was generally overcast ; but at the lloyal 
Observatory, Greenwich, at Stonyhurst in Yorkshire, and at Edinburgh, 
Glasgow, and Culloden (Inverness-shire) in Scotland, a clear view of the sky 
was obtained during a portion of the time in which the shower appeared 
to be at its height ; and a large fireball was doubly recorded by the ob- 
servers at the last two stations, of which the height, obtained by calcu- 
lation, is recorded with other double meteor-observations in the Appendix. 
The advantage of maintaining a watch for the phenomenon at such widely 
distant stations was the more apparent at the last return of the November star- 
shower, since in America, on the morning of the 14th of November, 1869, 
the sky was, throughout the United States, so overcast by a fall of snow 
that no other announcement of the meteoric shower having been seen west 
of the European continent, with the exception of the brilliant phenomena 
observed in Florida and California, has hitherto been received by the Com- 
mittee. The observations of the same shower in Italy, at Port Said in 
Egypt, and at the Mauritius are described in the last Appendix of the 
Report. Although the state of the sky was both favourable for its observa- 
tion in Italy, and partially so at the other stations, it does not appear that a 
distinct maximum of the shower was observed at any of those points of view; 
but the number of the shooting-stars observed during the progress of the shower 
rose and feU, sometimes very rapidly, through a great range of frequency and 
of the average apparent brightness of the meteors. It maj' be inferred from 
these results that the phenomenon of the November star-showeis is now 
rapidly declining in its intensity, and that the stream of the Leonids, if it 
should be crossed by the earth on the morning of the 14th of November in 
the present year, will be found to have grown difiiise, and to have scattered 
itself into groups of less frequent falling stars, with intervening " lulls " or 
barren intervals, in which observers will be rewarded by the sight of very 
few meteors, or in which it may happen that, for the space of many minutes, 
no shooting-stars will be observed. 

Following the example set by Prof. Schiaparelli at MUan, and by the 
Italian astronomers at Turin, Urbino, Rome, Palermo, and at other observa- 
tories in Italy, whose collective catalogue of shooting- stars recorded since the 
beginning of this year now numbers many thousands of observations, to con- 
duct observations of shooting-stars as far as possible on stated nights, at such 
widely separated stations as to increase the visibility of any meteoric shower 
which might be traced, the Committee have decided, with a view to contri- 
bute to the objects of the same well-devised scheme of observations, to confine 
their immediate attention for the present to those nights of the year on 
which long-known and well-established meteoric showers are annually 



78 REPOET— 1870. 

expected to occur; and for this purpose they have provided star-charts, 
suitable forms of registry, and directions to observers of the meteors 
which annually make their appearance, with more or less regularity, ou 
the 1st and 2nd of January, the 19th to the 21st of April, the 5th to the 12th 
(especially the 10th) of August, the 18th to the 21st of October, the 12th 
to the 15th of November, and the 11th to the 13th of December. On each 
of these meteoric dates in the coming year (as their endeavours during the 
August shower of this year were rewarded with very valuable results) the 
Committee appeal to observers in distant parts of England to use their ability 
in mapping aud counting the numbers of the meteors seen on the predicted 
nights, and thus aid in making our hitherto imperfect knowledge of their 
appearances wider and more certain. 



APPENDIX. 
I. Meteoks Doubly Observed. 

1869, October 1st, 8" 12"' 30' p.m., G. M. T., Kent and Brussels. The 
meteor was weU observed by Mr. J. B. Keade at Bishopsbourne, near Canter- 
bury, in England, and at Brussels. The prolongation of the lines of sight at 
the moment of the meteor's disappearance intersected each other at about 
ten miles over the neighbourhood of Mons, near the confines of Belgium and 
Prance ; and the meteor passed almost vertically, at a height of thii-ty-five 
miles, over Brussels. If the observed point of disappearance at Bishoj^sbourne 
(60° east from south, altitude about 5°) is moved 10° southwards, without 
any other alterations being substituted for the original observations, the 
place of the meteor's disappearance is about fifteen mUes above the earth, 
between Valenciennes aud Douay, near Lille in the north of Erance, where 
M. Le Verrier reports that the meteor was very generally observed). The 
meteor's height over Brussels was in this case fifty miles ; aud a more southerly 
point of disappearance at Bishopsbourne would make the meteor's height 
greater, and its point of disappearance further south over the provinces of 
France. The meteor, however, approached very near to the earth, without, 
as it would appear from the descriptions, producing any audible report. The 
point of first appearance, " near a Persei," at Bishopsbourne, appears to be 
situated too far back upon its apparent course to be reconciled with the de- 
scription of the meteor's course by the stars, as it was observed at Brussels. 
As the two apparent paths among the constellations intersect each other, 
when prolonged backwards between Perseus and Aries, on the actual line of 
flight described at Bishopsbourne, about the constellation Musea (R. A. 40°, 
N. Decl. 30°), this large meteor's path was probably directed from the 
radiant-point R^ (R. A. 41°, N. Decl. 24°) in the latter constellation, which 
is a conspicuous region of divergence of shooting-stars about the middle of 
October. 

1869, October 11th, 5^ 4" 40' p.m., G. M. T., York and Lancashire. 
The appearance of this fireball in twilight prevented its course from being 
noted by the stars ; and the uncertainties of estimated altitudes must be ex- 
pected to introduce corresponding uncertainties in the real path derived from 
such general observations. The best average height and course which can 
be elicited from the combined observations at York, Heighiugton, near 
Darlington, and Llandudno, nearest to the meteor's flight, is from eighty-four 
miles over a jjoint between Ashton aud Peniston (N. lat. 53° 30', W.loug. 1°50') 
to twenty-eight miles over the neighbourhood of Skipton in Lancashire (N. 



OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 79 

lat. 53° 57', W. long. 2° 6'). The point of disappearance agrees within two 
or three degrees with the place of disappearance observed by Miss Reade, 
and measured by Mr. J. B. Reade, at Bishopsboiirne in Kent ; and the entire 
course equally, exactly represents the apparent elevation (at altitude 30°, due 
north) as seen at Calne, in Wilts. At these latter places its motion would 
appear almost vertically downwards, as it was observed at Llandudno and in 
London. The radiant-point of its approximate course is at E. A. 300°, N. 
Decl. 14°, near a Aquilas, where no well-established radiant-point of ordinary 
shooting-stars has hitherto been detected at that season of the year. 

The writer of an extremely interesting article in the ' Daily News,' on the 
probable real path of the fireball, cites the description of its course by an 
observer at Sheffield as " apparently from north to south, radiating from the 
zenith." The place of first appearance was found to be (very nearly as above 
described) at a height of seventy-six miles over the neighbom-hood of 
Sheffield. At the latter place, very near to the meteor's real course, the 
observer describes the meteor as having an irregular contour, and compares 
the apparent size of its surface to one-sixth of that of the moon. As both of 
the observations at York and Heighington differ from the Sheffield description 
in showing that the meteor moved towards the west and north, while the 
real course, concluded from the above observations, would appear at Sheffield 
radiating from the zenith towards the north-north-west, it is not impossible 
that the Sheffield observer, by a not uncommon inversion of the points of the 
compass, misrepresented the actual direction of the meteor's flight, which 
should have been described as apparently from south to north. 

The meteor seen at Leeds, in twilight on some evening about the 25th of 
October last, was probably identical with this one, as it was so extremely 
brUhant as to attract the observer's attention while it was stiU overhead ; 
and it " shot across the zenith towards the sun's place at the time," dis- 
appearing, "when a Kttlepast the zenith, in sparks and tails." This note of 
its appearance agrees perfectly well with the description of its apparent 
shape and magnitude at Sheffield, and it corroborates the observations at 
York and Heighington, that the meteor moved towards the west. The 
altitude of 52° in the west-north-west from Leeds, at which the point of 
extinction, as above determined, probably occurred, might very aptly be de- 
scribed by an observer, who first caught sight of the meteor when it was 
nearly overhead, as " going out when a httle past the zenith." 

1869, November 6th, about 6" SO"" p.m., G. M. T., CornwaU, England, 
Wales, and Scotland. The great brightness of the fireball and of its 
persistent streak, which is described by Mr. Pengelly, of Torquay, as having 
remained in sight fuUy fifty minutes, rendered it a conspicuous object even 
beyond the vicinity of places where its luminous course was nearly through 
the zenith. A comparison of several pubhshed descriptions of the meteor, 
communicated to the British Meteorological Society by Mr. A. S. Herschel, 
places the point of first appearance of the nucleus ninety miles over Erome, 
in Somersetshire, the first point of the luminous streak at a height of forty- 
seven miles over Launceston, and its termination, at the extinction of the 
meteor, twenty-seven miles over the sea very near St. Ives in Cornwall. The 
whole length of its luminous course was 170 miles, performed in about five 
seconds, with a velocity of about thirty-four miles per second. The length 
of the bright streak, which gradually diffused itself in width and assumed a 
serpentine form, was fifty-four miles, and its greatest width, when it was 
first seen by Mr. Pengelly at Torquay, was about four miles (Proceedings 
of the Brit. Meteor. Soc. for June 1870, p. 144). In that paper the meteor's 



80 



REPORT 1870. 



course is stated to have descended at Broadstairs from 2° north of the 
zenith ; the real direction of its line of flight was from about 2° south of 









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ENGLAND 


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Pnth of the large fireball of November 6tb, 1S69. Height and position 
of the bright streak, and of the meteor's track. 

the zenith, as it was there observed by Mr. James Chapman. The track 
prolonged backwards across the south of England must thcrefoie have passed 
somewhat more" perpendicularly over Kent, or about 10° more nearly from 
east to west than its real course is shown in the accompanj-ing Map. The 
radiant-point, which Mr. Hersehel states was at K. A. (i2°, N. Decl. 37°, 
would on this account be at a point in smaller right ascension and in lower 
north declination than that given in the paper. It would thus be nearer to a 
point in K. A. 54°, N. Decl. 16° (near Aldebaran), from which twelve meteors 
out of twcniy-one shooting-stars observed by Mr. Backhouse, at Sundcrliind, 
on the same evening diverged with remarkable uniformity ; and four meteors 



OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 



81 



jut of ten, observed on the night of the 4th of November, also appeared to 
radiate from the same point. The large fireball was accordingly an individual 

Fig. 2. 



r.yii\ 

i- 
<■■• .• 

l/ti <t.r Plan ft 
ol HartUnt* . . \tiii 
P„i„l _ r^ ■ . ^ 

(■ . f ''h'^^ J* e<i-xtt 
fl.,„,l,s I'lr.s.,,^ . , ^-^A. ,, 


M„for i. ^ 7J.;«I,., ' 

■ * . . 

•ir ' ■ . ll,i,i„li\ 

■■" r ■'/ '■' r '. . 

■ : Drnro ' . „ 


2^»- ,, 


c,,,..us i.pr^ . .,, 




. • Aniirottittfa 
Ants ' ' . 

Ptynxus 
• • ■ I'lsrts' "■ 


Ihlphrnii:, • . , , 
V, . fiphtuitnt.\ 

'^* . /f Tniifit \ . 

" U/ttt/tf * t*onttrh»iiykf . 


9 


r. In\ 


riu S ^\„^ ly 

■ • ■ 6^ 

f'fif/f fi or fiu.\ 

\ "^ 





Apparent places of the streak of light left by the large meteor of November 6th, 1809, 

referred to the stars at: — 



1. Penzance, 

2. Redruth, Cornwall. 

3. St. Helier's, Jersey. 

4. Eothbury, Northumberland. 



5. Scilly Isles. 

6. Bristol. 

7. Stokesay, Shropshire. 

8. Hawkhurst, Kent. 



9. Broadstairs. 

10. Eamsgate. 

11. Torquay. 



)f the conspicuons meteor-shower from Taurus, Avhich attracted the attention 
)f observers during the recent returns of the November star-shower, as ap- 
pearing, although with greatly inferior brilliancy, simultaneously with the 
ncteors of that great display. (See Appendix III., Meteor-showers in 
N'ovember, 1869.) 

1869, November 14th, 4" 47" a.m., G. M. T., Glasgow and CuUoden (In- 
^•erness-shire). A considerable fireball during the progress of the November 
ihower attracted the attention of both of the observers, as being opposite in 
ts motion to the general direction of the " Leonids." The meteor was seen 
hie north from Glasgow, in the direction of CuUoden (110 miles north from 
ilasgow), where the meteor passed across the zenith. The apparent parallax 
8 60°, and the meteor moved horizontally from the north-north-west at a 
eight of sixty miles over the north coast of Inverness -shire, approaching 

1870. Q 



82 KE PORT— 1870. 

from the sea at Lossiemouth, and crossing over Inverness towards Kintail. 
The length of the part of the path observed at Glasgow was seventy-four 
miles, performed in four seconds of time, with a velocity of eighteen and a 
half miles per second. The direction of the meteor was from R. A. 12°, N. 
Decl. 14° in Pisces, very near the position (R. A. 12°, S. Decl. 2°) of a 
radiant- point T * of shooting-stars observed on the 27th of September, 1864 1. 
Another meteor of the same group was doubly observed on the 24th of 
September, 1866 ; and its velocity was found to be, like that of the present 
fireball, less than the average velocity of shooting-stars, or about twenty-three 
miles per second. (Report for 1866, p. 124.) 

1869, December 12th, e"" IS"" 30' p.m., G. M. T., Glasgow, Hawick, and 
Oundle (Northamptonshire). Although the description of the meteor's course 
at the northern stations of Glasgow and Hawick are incomplete, yet on 
account of their great distance, about 270 miles from Oundle, near Peter- 
borough, where the meteor's path was well recorded by the stars, a good 
approximation of the meteor's real path is obtained by assuming the well- 
known position (about R. A. 100°, N. Decl. 35°) of the radiant-point in 
Gemini of the December meteors to be represented very nearly by the ob- 
servations of the present meteor intersecting each other, when prolonged 
backwards at a point about R. A. 125°, N. Decl. 35°. The lowest stars of 
Ursa Major being less than 20° above the horizon at Oundle, the height of 
18° or 20° at which the meteor there was estimated to have passed "below 
Ursa Major," is evidently overrated ; and an altitude of 12° wUl, with the 
usual interpretation of estimated altitudes near the horizon, fairly represent 
the apparent altitude of the meteor's course. After making these preliminary 
assumptions with respect to the apparent directions of the meteor's flight, it 
appears, from their comparison together, that the fireball commenced its visible 
path at a height of 100 mUes above Bergen in Norway, and shot with a 
straight course of about 400 miles, to about fifty miles over Edinburgh, where 
it disappeared. An observer of its luminous progress at Dundee states that 
it proceeded with a slow shooting motion, apparently as if forcing its way 
through the air for about thirty seconds ; and the statement indicates the un- 
usually long time occupied by the meteor in its transit across the North Sea. 
The description of its time of flight at Oundle, by Mr. William Rickett, was 
that the meteor continued its motion, with an apparent speed by no means 
rapid, for 15 or 20 seconds. Adopting Mr. Rickett's account as probably the 
most accurate, and employing his approximate value, or seventeen and a half 
seconds, for the meteor's time of flight, it follows that the course of about 
400 mUes was described with a velocity of twenty-three miles per second. 

1869, December 29th, 10'^ 58°' p.m., G. M. T., London and Sandhurst (Kent). 
The vertical descent of the meteor in the west at Sandhurst, near Hawkhurst 
in Kent, and its motion from north-north-west to south-south-east, a few 
degrees below Jupiter, at Notting Hill, London, indicate the direction of its 
motion as apparently from the radiant Aj^, near S Cassiopeiae, for the end of 
December and beginning of January. Adopting this radiant-point for the 
real direction of its path, the place where the meteor passed near Jupiter, at 
London, was about forty-five mUes high over Winchester ; and the meteor 
passed in the direction of a line from Bath to Chichester, from seventy miles 
above Amesbury (Wilts) to thirty-five miles above the neighbourhood of 
Bishops Waltham (Hants). Supposing the meteor's apparent path to have 

* U in the list of the Eeport for 1868, p. 403, at E. A. 17°, S. Decl. 10", enduring from 
September 6th to November 23rd. 

t Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society for December 9th, 1864. 



OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 



83 



ended near Jupiter at Netting Hill, this is probably not far from a correct 
estimate of its real course. The length of the path is forty-seven miles, 
descending at an incKnation of 45°, from the north-west by west towards 
south-east by east. 

1870, August 5th-llth, shooting-stars doubly observed in England. Ob- 
servations of the August meteors were begun on the 5th, and continued 
until the 12th of August, 1870, at the request of the Committee, at several 
stations in England and Scotland, with a view to determine, if possible, the 

Fig. 3. 




Ileights and positions of sixteen shooting-stars donbly observed in England, August 
5th-llth, 1870, at (B.) Birmingham, (H.) Hawkhurst, (Ha.) Hay, South Wales, (L.) 
London, (M.) Manchester, (T.) East Tisted, Hants, (Y.) York*. 

real heights and velocities of the August meteors. Independently of the ob- 
servations made at Greenwich for this purpose, the heights of sixteen shooting- 
stars were ascertained, the description of whose appearance, and apparent 
paths, by the several observers are contained at length in the Catalogue. 

» Corrections of the Figure. — The heights of the Meteors Nos. 15 and IH are transposed 
For the beginning and end heights of the Meteor No. 2, read fifty miles and thirty-three 
miles. 

g2 



81 



REPORT 1870. 



In the Table of the results, the times of the observations are those 
stated by the observers from the best approximations to Greenwich time 
within their reach, differing from each other occasionally by one or two 
minutes. The number of the meteors visible, chiefly of the brighter class, in 
the fuU-moonlight of the 10th of August last having been small, and regard 
being paid to the condition that the parallax (fig. 4) of the observed meteor- 
tracks should be as nearly as possible in the same direction as the base-line 
joining two corresponding stations upon the map (fig. 3 represents the relative 
situations of the observers), the errors of time from true Greenwich time at 
the different stations were very easily detected, and were found to be nearly 

Fig. 4. 






Adopted apparent patbs of sixteen shooting-stars doubly observed in England, August 
oth-llth 1870 at (B.) Birmingham, (H.) Hawkhurst, (Hy.) Hay, South Wales, (L.) 
London, (M.) Manchester, (T.) East Tisted, Hants, (Y.) York. 

constant throughout the observations. The names of the stations are given, 
for shortness, in figs. 3 and 4, by their initials ; and in the latter figure the 
observations have been so far adjusted to each other as to satisfy, by very 
slight changes in the majority of the observations, the condition of a parallel 
displacement of the meteor-tracks in the direction of a base-line joining the 
observers' stations. 

The_ observed length of the path being, in general, most affected by this 
preliminary adjustment, a corresponding alteration of the observed duration 
of the meteor's flight was cakulated, and entered in a Table as the " adopted 
duration," from the average of which, at the two stations, the velocities of 
twelve of the shooting-stars have been obtained. The time of visibility of 



urst ; (Ha.) Hay, BrecknocksW (Y.) York 



[To face page 84.] 



of 



Disappearance. 



irved. Adopted. 



Length 

4rent 
t-point. 



Observed 



Alt. 


Azth. 
W. fr. S. 


Alt. 


O 








■>■■=, 


200 


22 


29 


288 


34 


12 


166 


20 


68 


126 


73 


14 


25 


14 


10 


67 


13 


46 


133 


49 


+2 


180 


42 


54 


126 


56 


46 


195 


43 


31 






30 






70 


316 


73 


S*> 


145 


55 


26 


270 


25 


^5 


241 


31 


44 


81 


44 


71 


325 


73 


3« 


204 


43 


24 


169 


26 


57 


176 


6? 


43 


122 


44 


22 


152 


28 


38 


67 


29 


23 


222 


26 


52 


290 


49 


24 






49 


292 


49 


75 


211 


f5 


29 


225 


30 


52 


295 


'' 



Deg. 



Se S. 



10 
8 
25 
15 
8 
10 
22 

31 

30 

19 

15 

8 

34 

43 

12 

8 

27 
46 
16 

25 
12 

29 

17 

17 

6 

9 

25 

24 

9 
6 



Slci 
o 



Approximate place 

of radiant-point. 

Remarks. 



1 

o 

o 
I 
o 
I 
I 

o 
o 
I 



+53 
65 
61 
36 
46 

58 

44 
58 
38 

45 

5° 
17 

58 
+58 



7 Persei 

(radiant Aj^,). 

c Camelojaardi 

(radiant Am). 

(T Cephei 

(radiant N^,, ,3), 

p Persei 

(radiant Aj,,). 

9 Persei 
(radiant Aj„). 



Observer. 



X Persei 

(radiant Aj,,). 

V Persei 
(radiant Aj^). 
S Cassiopeiie 
(radiant Aj„). 

y\j Persei 
(radiant Aj,). 

K Persei 
(radiant Ajq). 

Persei 
(radiant Ajg). 

g Pegasi 
(radiant Tj). 



d Camelopardi 
(radiant A;„). 

»/ Persei 
(radiant Aj,,). 



W. H. Wood. 
R. P. Greg. 
W. H. Wood. 
R. P. Greg. 
W. H. Wood. 
A. S. Herschel. 
T. Crumplen. 
F. Hewlett. 
T. Crumplen. 
F. Howlett. 
T. Crumplen. 
A. S. Herschel. 
T. Crumplen. 
A. S. Herschel. 
T. Crumplen. 
A. S. Herschel. 
A. S. Herschel. 
P. Howlett. 
T. Crumplen. 
A. S. Herschel. 
A. S. Herschel. 
F. Howlett. 
W. H. Wood. 
J. E. Clark. 
W. H. Wood. 
J. E. Clark. 
A. S. Herschel. 
T. W. Webb. 
T. Crumplen. 
A. S. Herschel. 
W. H. Wood. 
J. E. Clark. 



Av( 

and 
of pa 



50-7 



Average velocity, and R. A. and N. 
decl. of the radiant-point of the 
" Perseids" (omitting Nos. 3, 1 3). 




TiiblcofHoighteniid VolooitieaofShooting-Btnrein AiiguBt 1S70; obsem-d in England, nt (U.) Dimingham : (H.) HnwlihlUBt ; (Ha.) Hay, Brecknockahiro ; (L.) Rcgonfa Pork, London; (M.) Manchester ; (T.) Ewt Ttatcd, Alton (Hants) : Bnd (Y.) York. 



Cdpdia. 



Jupiter. 

>VM.ttM. 



Dull. 
Ruddy'. 
WhiW. 



Orange 

TtUow. 
Orange. 



Yftlow. 
Yo)lo<r. 
Wliite. 



Fine, with >park> 
WiLh ipu-Ici. 



tl\ 



'"I 



*1 



■ In tliobri£bl«*t|>Hrtoritsn>iinothiMn(MMiriuidit»itrcnkn(ir>>*ivn tlirough thindouda. 

t Obliquo TiBW of the end of rhc mclMr's eoune ? Path fliighllj ciiPTPd. 

I Tho meteor incttand in liic. and collapsed luddcnlj at ita gnntal brightncsa. 

i Adcpt<^ centre*. ) Ccntn obtrired at Haj. 



Hvight in B. S. milM at 



) 7E, 



LiL HilM. Long. N. laL 



if pith.) 



6W. 

. 4SW. 



jf path.) . 



(mJiantll,). 
r 0^ml^lo[M^di 
(radiant A,,}. 
irCophoi 
(radiant H,,. |,) 

(nidinnt ii,a). 

(radiant A„). 



(raSiaiilA^,!, 

(nulinnt Jl^„)■ 
I CiiMiop«in] 
(radiant A,„}. 

^ Pprsei 
(rndiniit A.,,). 

(rndinni A„). 

(radiant A,,). 

g Fognsl 
(mdiantT,). 



d Cami'lapardi 
(radiant Ajg). 

[radiant A|g). 



W. U. Wood. 
K. P. Oreg. 
W. II. Wood. 
R. P. Grog. 

W. II. Wood. 
A. S. Hsrwhal. 
T. Cmniplopi, 
F. Hofflott. 
T. Cnimuliin. 
P, Howlflt- 
T, Cnimplon 
A. S. HcrMhol. 
T- Ctiimplon. 
A, 9. HorKliel. 
T. Cnimplon 
A. S. IIiTwIiul. 
A. S UoTwM. 
F. Howlutt. 
T. C rum n Ion. 
A. S. narsDhal. 
A. S. IIorMbol. 
, F. nowlrtl. 

w. n. Wood. 

.1. E. CInrk. 
' W. II Wood. 
I J, E. Cliirk. 

A S ItEncliol. 

T, W, Wflhb, 

T. Cnunplcn. 

A. S. Horwliol. 

W. H. Wood. 

J. K. CInrk 



I Avcroao Talod^, and R. A. and N. 
dccT ot thu nidianl-point or tho 
"pHteida"[DniiltingNoa.3,13). 



OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS, 



85 



the August meteors in the present year was rendered ahnost momentary, 
apparently by the great brightness of the moonlight ; whUc the absence of 



Fig. 5. 

Reference Numbers. 
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. Ifi. 




Heights at first appearance and disappearance of sixteen shooting-stars observed in 
England, August 5th-lltb, 1870. (Nos. 6 and 14 are heights at centres of the real paths.) 

smaU stars of reference near the meteor's course, necessitating distant align- 
ments of the apparent paths with the larger stars, prevented the average 
length of path of the observed meteor-tracks from being at the same time 
much diminished. Both the length of path and the velocity * are on this 
account rather larger than those of twenty shooting-stars which were 
similarly observed in August 1863 (forty-seven miles, and thirty-four mUes 
per second. See Report for 1863, pp. 327-330). Among the meteors in- 
cluded in the Hst, Nos. 3 and 13 belong to different meteoric showers (N,^, ^^, 
and Tj) from that of the regular Perseids ; and the latter meteor presents a 
velocity considerably below the average of all the remaining velocities of the 
list. Although the disturbing influence of the moon's hght appears to have 
exaggerated and to have rendered somewhat uncertain the velocities obtained 
on this occasion, the velocities of these two meteors are omitted from the 
average velocity of the Perseids or meteors of the August shower, of which 

* Forty-eight miles, and forty-six miles per second (average of the Perseids). Velo- 
oities of the meteors Nos. 3 13, thirty -nine, and seventeen miles per second. 



86 REPORT— 1870. 

the average position of the radiant-point was found to be very near the star d 
Persei. The heights of the first and last points of the meteors' tracks 
and the average of those heights are shown in fig. 5, by a graphic projection 
readily exhibiting to the eye the height in the atmosphere at which the 
shooting-stars of the August meteoric shower became ignited, and were 
extinguished, during the appearance of the phenomenon in the present year. 

The additional correspondences of the Greenwich observations with those 
meteor-tracks whose heights have already been determined, and with other 
shooting-stars recorded at the diiferent stations (of which a summary will be 
given in the next Report), are at present undergoing calculation ; and they 
may be expected, on concluding the results of their investigation, to afford 
interesting materials for comparison with the observed paths of the shooting- 
stars recorded in the present list. 

1870, August 15th, 9" p.m., G. M. T., Scotland and Ireland. The position 
of the very luminous streak which this meteor left was over the southern 
part of the Hebrides, and the Atlantic Ocean north of Ireland ; but at what 
distance from the land, and at what height in the atmosphere, it would 
require a comparison of other descriptions of its course to ascertain. As the 
sun was fully 12° or 13° below the north-west horizon of the region indicated, 
it would stni be half that depth, or about 6°, below the horizon of the meteor- 
streak, if its elevation was only as great as the height at which the largest 
August meteors commonly develoj)e a very long enduring, phosphorescent 
streak, about fifty-five miles above the level of the sea. 

1870, August 20th, 9" 24"" p.m., G. M. T., London, Cambridge, and Oxford. 
The apparent courses of the meteor, as described at Clapham Park, London, 
and at Linton, Cambridge, are almost identical, so as to afford no definite 
conclusion of the meteor's height. At Wandsworth, near Clapham, Mr. H. 
W. Jackson saw the meteor commence about the trapezium (/3, y) of the 
Little Bear, and disappear halfway between Capella and Algol, while at 
Linton it disappeared almost over a Cassiopeiae. With the distance of forty- 
five mUes between the latter places, and a parallax of 32° for the last point 
of its visible course, these observations give the place of disappearance at a 
point about twenty-one mUes over Bury St. Edmunds. As this place is within a 
few degrees of the altitude and direction at which its disappearance was 
observed at Combe, near Woodstock, in Oxfordshire, it may be accepted, 
probably, as very near to the true position of the point at which the meteor 
disappeared. 

The exact place of the meteor's first appearance cannot be absolutely 
ascertained. But supposing its apparent course at Linton to have passed 
about 20° north of tho zenith, and to have descended " almost perpen- 
dicularly " (with an inclination of about 20° from the north of vertical), as 
it was perceived to fall towards the eastern horizon at Woodstock by Mr. J. 
Abrahall, its real course, preserving tho apparent path which it appeared to 
have at Wandsworth, began from the direction of a radiant-point between the 
head of Bootes and Corona BoreaUs, at about R. A. 230°, N. Decl. 35°. At 
its passage due north of London the height of the meteor, on this assumption 
of its initial direction, was about fifty-three miles above a point between 
Huntingdon and Cambridge, descending towards its point of extinction from 
an inclination of 45° above the due west horizon. A more complete knowledge 
of this extremely brilliant meteor's real course can only be obtained, to 
coiToborate, or correct, the present provisional determation, if notices of its 
appearance were obtained by observers at other places, who would com- 
municate to the Committee a description of their observations for this purpose. 



OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 



87 



II. Large Meteors. 

1822, October 16tli, evening, London. The following extract of a note in 
Sir John Herschel's MS. Journal refers apparently to a large fireball of which 
no mention is found in Mr. Greg's and other Catalogues of the appearances 
of unusually brilliant meteors. — " 1822, October 16th, Wednesday. This 
evening, walking home from the Haymarket to Downing-street, being at the 
Horse Guards at 8^ 37"" p.m., saw a great light, Uke the moon breaking out 
among the clouds, and a fiery appearance like the bursting of a rocket, not 
globiilar, but in ill-defined masses. Direction exactly before me, as I walked 
towards Westminster from Charing Cross. Altitude about 15° or 1G°; sky 
overcast ; a mizzling rain and fog. No explosion heard ; ? its nature, if 
meteoric?— (J- F. W. H.)" 

1860, July 20th, 9" 34'° 33' to 9" SG" 24' p.m. (Washington mean time), 
United States, America. An exhaustive investigation of the path of this 
large meteor, from a comparison of observations at more than 200 places in 
the United States and the adjacent parts of Canada, by Dr. J. H. Coffin, is 
contained in the ' Smithsonian Contributions to Knowledge,' vol. xvi. for 1870. 
The meteor was first reported to have been seen moving eastward from a 
point nearly over the western shore of Lake Michigan, westward from which 
it might perhaps have been observed had not a cloudy state of the sky 
prevailed at the time throughout that region. Along the entire remaining 
portion of its visible track of nearly, or quite, 1300 miles, it was watched by 
numerous observers until it disappeared quite out at sea in a south-easterly 
direction from the island of Nantucket. It was first well observed at Flint, 
Michigan, between the great Lake of that State and Lake Huron, pursuing 
from that place and from the remaining points of view along its line of flight 
an apparently undulating or ricochet motion until it faded from sight, with- 
out breaking into fragments, towards the eastern horizon. It was accompanied 
throughout the greater portion of its path by a brilliant train, and followed 
at a distance of about 1° or 2° by a smaller fireball of the same dazzling 
white colour as the head ; while near the end of its course sparks or flakes 
of red and pink colour were cast off by the nucleus in considerable numbers. 
The length of time that it was visible at one station, depending upon the 
length of the arc which was observed, varied from half (or rather less than 
half) a minute to about two minutes ; and the whole time occupied by the 

Fig. 6. 




meteor in its visible track was about three minutes. At the points B, C 
(see fig. 6), in long, west from Greenwich about 77° and 74°, and espe- 
cially at the latter point, distinct ruptures of the meteor were observed, 
corresponding to which the real height and direction of its coiirse underwent 
a sensible alteration. The actual height of the meteor when it was first 
well observed in long. 85i° west from Greenwich (at a, fig. 6), at Flint, 



88 REPORT— 1870. 

Michigan, was ninety-eight miles above the earth, and the first inflection of its 
conrse, nearly over Dansville, New York, took place at a height of fifty-six 
miles, and the second, nearly over New York, at thirty-nine miles above the 
sea. The last place where the meteor was well observed was at Germanstown, 
Pennsylvania, and the meteor was then fifty-three miles above the level of the 
sea, in long, about G8|° west from Greenwich (at b, fig. 6). Finally, at 
Harrisburgh, Pennsylvania, it was still visible in the east, in longitude about 
00° west from Greenwich ; and its height was then rapidly increasing, and 
was again upwards of sixty miles above the sea-level. 

The meteor pursued its course with a velocity, relative to the earth, of about 
nine and three-quarter miles per second, experiencing throughout its aerial 
track a small but scarcely appreciable resistance from the atmosphere. With 
a relative velocity somewhat less than this it entered the sphere of the 
earth's dominant attraction from the direction of a point in E. A. 147° 41', 
N. Decl. 3° 8', and it was deflected before escaping from the disturbing 
influence of gravity towards the earth fully 35° from its original direction. 
The circumstance of its slow velocity relatively to the earth introduces com- 
plexities in determining the real orbit of the meteor round the sun, which it 
would yet be interesting, from the elaborate calculations to which the ob- 
servations were submitted, and from the unusual accuracy with which the 
elements of this great meteor's path have accordingly become known, to ascer- 
tain with every possible degree of approximation to the most probable result. 

The long course and duration of the flight of the large meteor doubly 
observed on the 12th of December, 1869 (see the First Appendix), furnishes 
a good example during the past year of a shooting-star belonging to a 
periodical meteor-stream grazing for a long distance, without being consumed, 
the summit of the earth's atmosphere, and suggests as a favourable means of 
ascertaining their velocity, the propriety of observing their parallax when the 
radiant-point of a meteoric shower is scarcely risen, or presents itself, as in 
the case of the great meteor of July 1860, at only a few degrees of altitude 
above the observer's visible horizon. 

1869, May 20th, a few minutes after 11" p.m. (local time), United States. 
The meteor, which appeared brighter than the full moon, was seen at many 
places in the United States (vide Amer. Journal of Science, July 1869) re- 
maining visible for about five seconds, drawing behind it a very brilliant tail 
of sparks, and finally exploding and bursting into fragments, apparently with 
a loud report. From observations at New York, Poughkeepsie, Newhaven, 
and Hartford, U.S., of its apparent path. Prof. E. Loomis has determined with 
considerable precision the length of the meteor's real path and its real eleva- 
tion. The meteor moved nearly horizontally at a height of fifty miles above 
the earth's surface, disappearing, after a visible course of about 200 miles, 
vertically over a point on the Atlantic Ocean somewhat north and east of 
Eoston. The real velocity of its motion, assuming its time of flight to have 
been five seconds, was about forty miles per second. About three minutes 
after the passage of the meteor a terrific noise was heard in the neighbour- 
hood of New York, which shook windows and the doors of houses like an 
earthquake. As Prof. Loomis shows that the meteor was at the time of its 
explosion 170 miles distant from places where the unusual sounds were heard 
so soon after its disappearance, it is supposed that they must accordingly be 
ascribed to some other cause than this large meteor, the sound of whose re- 
port, would occupy ten minutes in reaching them, with the ordinary velocity 
of sound in common air. 

1869, August 7th and 24th, evening. United States. The following de- 



OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 89 

scription of bright meteors seen in the United States on the 7th and 24th of 
August, 1869, was communicated by Mr. B. V. Marsh to the Secretary of the 
Committee, Mr. Herschel, soon after the time of their appearance. The 
occurrence in the present year of a very brilliant meteor-streak observed in 
Scotland at sunset on the 6th of August, 1870, appears to corroborate the 
opinion of Mr. Marsh, that a meteor-shower from some western radiant-point 
has prevailed on the 6th and 7th of August of the two last years, of which the 
meteors were chiefly visible soon after sunset. A second brilliant meteor- 
streak was observed in Scotland soon after sunset of the evening of the 15th 
of August last (see Appendix I. ; 1869, August 15th), which appeared to one 
observer to be self-luminous, and to others to be illuminated by the sun's rays 
in the manner in which Mr. Marsh observes that the streak seen in America 
on the 24th of August, 1869, was evidently rendered more than ordinarily 
brilliant. 

"On the 7th of August, a little while after sunset, several were seen descend- 
ing almost vertically in the west and north-west, being very conspicuous even 
in the strong light of the western twilight. 

" One which I saw at 7'' 49™ started about 18° high and disappeared at 
about 6° ; fell almost vertically, but inclined a little to the right. 

" ' The Press ' noticed one at 7^ 55", the cloud from which remained visible 
ten minutes. 

" August 24th, Mr. J. S. Hilles, of the Reading Eailroad, saw one in the 
north-west, just as the upper limb of the sun disappeared : a very brilliant 
fireball inclining considerably to the right [see the figure] as it descended, and 
leaving behind it a perfectly straight streak of brilliant white light slightly 
enlarged at its lower end, and having at that part a nebulous undefined 
appearance ; whole length say 15° or 20°. This assumed successively the 
following forms : — 




During this time it had floated westward until it was nearly over the setting 
sun, and was beautifully lighted ' with the rose hues of sunset, while its upper 
part assumed a strikingly silvery appearance.' 

" Mr. Hilles did not look at his watch, but his impression at the time was 
that it remained visible half an hour ; but he thinks that this may be an over- 
estimate. 

" At 7** 20" the same evening (August 24th) another appeared which 
attracted very general attention. 

" One of my neighbours, after watching it about five minutes, called me out. 
The luminous cloud was then very conspicuous, its base about 15° north of 
west, altitude about 13°. The meteor had fallen almost vertically, and at 
that point had appeared to explode. It vanished so quickly that most persons 
saw only the flash, but several say they saw the meteor itself before the 
exijlosion. 

" Its path was marked by a brilliant line of light, which soon widened so as 
to appear as a narrow strip of cloud, say 3° or 4° long and |° wide, having 
at its lower extremity a much brighter part resembling the nucleus of a 



90 REPORT— 1870. 

comet. This luminous cloud was visible fully ten minutes ; the changes it 
underwent are roughly sketched below. Both the top and bottom of the 




column seemed to remain almost stationary, whilst a considerable portion of 
the upper half drifted westward, as if carried by an east wind. 

" From the ' nucleus ' there was also a bright line extending horizontally 
to the right, 2° or 3° long, as indicated by the red line. This seems to have 
been almost as bright as the principal column, but much narrower, and there- 
fore not so generally noticed. 

" My friend Jos. Walton watched it some minutes with an opera-glass, 
and says it was as distinct as the other, 

" This must have been thrown off instantaneously by the explosion. 

" The luminous cloud, and especially the ' nucleus,' was so bright that at 
Atlantic City, sixty miles east of this place, it was by some mistaken at first 
for a ' fire balloon.' 

" The explosion was more than 200 mUes west of Philadelphia, at a height 
of forty-five or fifty miles. 

" The meteor and cloud (or more generally a flash of light and the cloud 
only) were observed at Yonkers and Harlem, near New York ; at Atlantic 
City, and Trenton, in New Jersey; Wilmington, Delaware ; and at Phila- 
delphia, Lancaster, Columbia, in Pennsylvania. 

" At Clarion, 250 miles west of Philadelphia (or north of west, rather), it 
appeared in the south-east, and disappeared in the north-west ; and it was 
followed by a sound resembling thunder, or the rolling of a heavy body 
over a floor, I do not find that it was seen at all at any point further west. 
Here it appeared at forty minutes after sunset. At Clarion the sun had set 
only about twenty-five minutes before ; the general twilight was therefore 
much stronger. This circumstance, coupled with the fact that the meteor 
itself lasted only a second or two, not long enough for persons to look over- 
head and see it, probably explains the fact that it does not seem to have been 
seen generally in the region where it was vertical. 

" At places in Ohio bo far west that the meteor would appear in the east 
so low as to be within the view of persons walking with the head in its 
ordinary position it might be expected to be seen, but in this case the interval 
from sunset is further reduced to about ten minutes, which is probably 
more than sufficient to counterbalance the eff'ect of the darker background 
in looking towards the east. 

" But a stiU stronger reason probably is that the light from this cloud was 
principally sunlight, and that therefore the cloud would, like any other cloud, 
be more brilliant when in the west than in the east, the effects of refraction 
exceeding those of reflection. 

" This circumstance probably has something to do with the fact that all of 
the above-mentioned meteors were seen in the western sky, and no corre- 
sponding ones in the east. 

" As none have been observed later in the evening, when twilight was 
gone, it would seem as if these meteors belonged to a group that were 
essentially daylight meteors. 



OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 91 

" When this meteor appeared, the sun was just setting 10° west of our 
longitude, and an object only fifteen miles high over Clarion County would 
be in the sunshine. This meteoric cloud was not less than forty miles high, 
and must therefore have been illuminated in this way ; as no other instance 
has come to my notice I was much interested in it, but when I commenced 
this letter I had no idea of troubling you with so long a story. 

" Tours respectfully, 
" To A. S. Herschel, Esq." " Benj. V. Mabsh." 

1869, September 8th, 7" p.m. (local time), Germany, France, Switzerland, 
and Italy. A magnificent fireball was seen in the south-west of Europe, 
over an extent of fully 20° in latitude and longitude, on the evening of the 
8th of September. The descriptions of its appearance at Strasbourg, Pisa, 
Arezzo, and Genoa are contained in the ' Meteorological Bulletin ' of the 
Urbino Observatory for August 1869 ; and at the Piedmontese stations, and 
at Milan, where it was seen by Prof. SchiapareUi, at Ancona, Bologna, 
Civita Vecchia, and numerous other places in Italy, in the ' Meteorological 
Bulletins ' of the Moncalieri, and Eoyal CoUege of Kome Observatories for 
September, 1869. According to Mr. C. A. Kesselmeyer the meteor approached 
the southern part of Europe from Prussia, and after crossing the Ehenish 
provinces between Bohemia, Bavaria, and France, it crossed the Alps of 
Switzerland and Savoy, being seen near the Lake of Constance, at Lucerne 
and Geneva, and thence pursued its course to Italy, where it was seen at 
Marseilles, Civita Vecchia, and Naples, proceeding from north-east towards 
south-west across the Mediterranean sea. The numerous observations of its 
course obtained in different countries of Europe will afibrd ample materials for 
a very rigorous calculation of its path, not less instructive than the passage 
of the great meteor over America on the 20th of July, 1860, and may at some 
future time be expected, like the path of that meteor, to furnish tolerably 
exact elements of a meteoric orbit round the sun. In the length of its path, 
the date and hour, and the brilliancy of its appearance it closely resembles 
the large fireball seen in Italy, Switzerland, and France on the evening of the 
5th of September 1868 (Report for 1869, p. 272). 

1870, August 6th and 15th, about 10" 6" and 9'' p.m., Scotland and 
Ireland. A description and drawing of the streaks of these large meteors 
were received from Mr, T. W. Backhouse ; and others are contained in the 
'Astronomical Register,' and in 'Nature' of September 1st, 1869. The 
relative abundance of shooting-stars on the night of the 6th of August, 1870, 
described in the next Appendix, and the occurrence of similar meteors in 
America last year on the evenings of the 7th and 24th of August, appear to 
indicate that each of these large meteors was connected with a periodical 
shower of shooting-stars in August, differing to some extent in the time of 
maximum from the annual epoch of the 10th, and of which the position of 
the radiant-point, perhaps more westerly, has not yet been exactly ascer- 
tained. 

III. Aerolites. 

Motta dei Conti, Casale, Piedmont, 1868, February 29th, ll" a.h. 
(Report 1868, p. 390.) 

The stone is exceedingly crystalline, light-coloured, fine-grained, and 
rough in fracture, having a density 3*43. Possessing these characters 
in common with the meteorites of Luce, Manerkirchen, Politz, Sanguis, 
St. Etienne, and several others, M. Meunier designates this species of 



93 



REPORT 1870. 



meteoric rock by the name of Luceite. Like a similar distinct mincra 
Montrejite, of which the meteorite of Moutrejeau is eutirely composed, it i 
sometimes found imbedded in small portions in the darker mass of othe 
aerolites. It it so found in the meteorites of St. Mesmin, of the Asturiat 
and of Assam ; while its analogue, Montrejite, is found similarly distribute 
in the meteorites of Canellas, Guttersloh, and Baflfe. The recognition of sue 
a structure materially assists the classification of meteorites under commo 
types, and suggests considerations regarding the process and sources fror 
which they are derived. (" On the Meteorite of Motta dei Comti," b 
Stanislas Meunier, ' Bulletin of the Moncalieri Observatory ' for March 1870." 
From a collection of thirteen examples of the oolitic class of aerolites i 
the Mineralogical Museum at Paris, M. Meunier obtains the foUowin 
numbers of aerolitic falls of this peculiar class in the several months of th 
year, showing that meteorites of the same tj^o are not confined to singl 
orbits or to single rings of meteoric materials encompassing the sun, but ar 
found in the same regions of space with meteorites of other types. (Lette 
from M. Meunier to Mr. 11. P. Greg.) 



Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


April. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


Total 
number of 
aerolites. 


2 


I 





I 


2 


I 


o 


I 


I 


I 


I 


2 


13 



Lodran, Moultan, India, 1868, October 1st. 

Specimens of this aerolite in the Mineralogical Museum of Vienna wer 
analyzed by Dr. G. Tschermak, the results of whose chemical investigations 
together with a notice of a specimen of meteoric iron from the desert o 
Atacama, presented to the Museum, is contained in the ' Proceedings of th' 
Vienna Imperial Academy of Sciences ' for 1870, April 7th. 



Krahenberg, near Zweibriicken, Bavaria, 1869, May 5th, 6'' 30" p.m. 
(Keport 1869, p. 278.) 

In the ' Proceedings of the Vienna Imperial Academy ' for 1870, April 28th 
M. von Haidinger produces fresh proofs of the rotation of meteorites on thei: 
axes, and of their orientation, or presenting front and rear faces to thi 
atmosphere during the luminous portions of their descent to the earth, an( 
some remarks on the original formation of siderites in veins of meteori' 
rocks, as illustrated by the meteorite of Krahenberg, and by the large ring- 
shaped siderite of Ainsa-Tucson preserved in the collection of the Smithsoniai 
Institute in America. M. von Haidinger in the same paper explains thi 
appearance of meteoric iron-masses in pairs, first pointed out by Professo: 
W. H. Miller of Cambridge, in the siderites of Agram, Braunau, and Cran- 
bourne, Australia, and in the description of the historical iron-masses whicl 
fell at Troy, by supposing that the fusion of their surface by the fireball 
which might first perforate and produce a ring-shaped meteorite, might i 
continued further divide the ring at one point and cause it to break &• 
another by the resistance of the air. Attention is also drawn to th< 
occurrence and apparent frequency of veins in the geology of meteoric rocks 
first pointed out in his note of 1868, October 8th (see these Keports for 1869, 



OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 93 

p. 300), and again more prominently regarded by M. Meunicr, in a series of 
able articles, as explaining the condition of their primitive existence in and 
original separation from a parent planet*. 

Parvatypore, Vizagapatam, Madi-as, India, 1869 (?), December 23rd. 

The following account of the fall of a meteoric iron in India is copied from 
the ' Homeward Mail ' of 1870, March 14th. — " A phenomenon of the 
meteoric kind is reported by the ' Madras Athenaeum ' as follows : — ' An 
aerolite weighing about ten pounds fell in the neighbourhood of Parvatypore 
in the Vizagapatam district, on Sunday, December 23 [so in the ' Homeward 
Mail;' ? if Sunday, Dec. 26th, 1869]. We have been favoured with some 
particulars regarding this occurrence. The substance of which this aerolite 
consists is apparently iron in a very pure state, without any mixture of 
other mineral substances or impurities. The mass is shaped and marked, 
and even on one side (that evidently which came in contact with the earth) 
polished in a manner naturally to be expected under the circumstances, 
namely a mass of iron in the malleable condition which that metal takes 
when in a state of fusion coming into contact with earth softened by moisture, 
and with a force sufficient to penetrate to a depth of 2 feet. We are told 
that the noise caused by the aerolite in passing through the air in its faU was 
very startling, and to the people in the immediate neighbourhood alarming. 
Its luminous splendour is described as equal to that of the moon, and it is 
said to have culminated with an explosion of great brilliancy. It was seen 
and heard for many miles, as it fell in a direction from north to south.' " 

Mourzouk, Fczzan, 1869, December 25th, evening. 

A large globe of fire fell to the earth with an explosive sound, in sight of 
a group of Arabs, near the capital of Fezzan, and imbedded itself in the 
ground. The meteorite, which weighs 6000 lbs., is destined to be preserved 
in the public Museum of Constantinople. M. von Haidinger, of Vienna, and 
Mr. R. H. Scott, in London, have presented to the geological societies of their 
respective countries a description of the circumstances which attended its fall. 

Periodicity of Detonating and Non-detonating Fireballs, arul of Aerolites. — 
From a collection of the most recent Catalogues of large meteors and aerolites, 
Mr. Greg has revised the Tables appended to his first Catalogue of such ap- 
pearances printed in the volume of these Reports for 1860. The following 
more complete and carefully reconstructed Tables exhibit at a glance the 
particular days of the year on which large meteors have thus appeared in 
greatest numbers, the months or seasons of the year in which aerolites are 
most common, and in which they have been especially observed in each year 
for the last period of more than half a century. The question of the 
periodicity or non-periodicity of those rare occurrences cannot fail to arrive 
at an ultimate solution by systematic arrangement and classification, of 
which the Tables now reproduced, and brought up to the latest dates of his 
extended Catalogue by Mr. Greg, are a valuable and well-timed contribution. 

* ' Cosmos ' for 1869, November 20th, 27th, and December 4th; and 1870, January Ist, 
"On the Siderite of Deesa [or of Copiapo (M. von Haidinger, ibid.)], the existence of 
eruptive meteoric rocks, and ifie relative affcs of meteorites," by Stanislas Mcvmier. — On 
Mr. Meunier's views regarding the relative ages of a supposed iron-period and stone- 
period in tlie history of meteoric falls, see a lucid article by Professor N. S. Maskelyne, 
in 'Nature' for 1870, June 2nd. 



94 



REPORT 1870. 



Table showing Number of Large Bodies, or Meteors (non-detonating), 
recorded a.d. 1500-1870 for each day of the month. 



Day of 
month. 


Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


April. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


I. 


5 


4 


7 


3 


I 


6 


I 


5 


4 


6 


9 


3 


2. 


9 


7 


4 


3 


5 


5 


3 


7 


9 


3 


9 


7 


3- 


4 


7 




4 


2 


I 


2 


13 


3 


8 


5 


6 


4- 


6 


3 




5 


7 


2 


4 


5 


8 


7 


7 


4 


5- 





2 




I 


I 


I 


6 


8 


S 


4 


4 


5 


6. 


5 


7 




S 


3 


8 


2 


6 


8 


6 


10 


3 


• 7- 


5 


II 







4 


3 





8 


10 


6 


5 


6 


8. 


4 


4 




4 


2 


3 


3 


9 


4 


t 


10 


13 


9- 


6 


3 




I 


2 


4 


3 


16 


2 


4 


12 


10 


lO. 


6 


7 


4 


3 


4 


3 


2 


23 


8 


8 


4 


6 


II. 


7 


4 


I 


8 


4 


3 


9 


8 


S 


3 


13 


19 


12. 


5 


2 


4 


8 


4 


7 


8 


15 


3 


4 


II 


13 


13- 


5 


3 


4 


4 


2 


5 


7 


8 


5 


7 


a3 


8 


14. 


I 


2 


2 


7 


I 


3 


3 


6 


I 


5 


JS 


5 


15- 


6 


4 


S 


2 


9 


2 


5 


8 


4 


10 


10 


4 


16. 


4 


I 





2 


S 


5 


S 


9 


5 


6 


10 


5 


17- 


I 


6 


4 


5 


S 


4 


7 


3 


1 


7 


6 


5 


18. 


3 


6 


3 


6 


6 


4 


3 


6 


3 


6 


6 


7 


19. 


6 


S 


5 


7 


4 


5 


3 


7 


6 


S 


15 


3 


20. 


8 


4 


4 


2 


3 


2 


7 


8 


8 


8 


6 


2 


21. 


9 


S 


I 


2 


3 


a 


4 


2 


2 


4 


2 


»3 


22. 


5 


6 


2 





4 


4 


2 


8 


8 


6 


4 


4 


23. 


6 


5 


4 





2 


4 


5 


7 


I 


8 


7 


2 


24. 


6 


2 


4 


S 


3 


* 


5 


2 


4 


10 


2 


2 


25- 


3 


I 


3 


2 


2 


I 


3 


S 


6 


5 


I 


6 


26. 


8 


3 


3 


I 


3 


I 


3 


8 





6 


5 





27. 


5 


2 


4 


4 


2 


4 


4 


I 


6 


6 


7 


5 


28. 


S 


2 


5 


4 


2 


4 


3 


4 


6 


S 


9 


5 


29. 


4 


I 


4 


5 


4 


4 


12 


6 


2 


6 


8 


5 


30. 


6 





5 


4 


2 


5 


7 


6 


7 


4 


5 


7 


3'- 


S 





4 





7 





4 


3 





4 



240 


4 

187 


Totals 


.58 


"9 


114 


107 


108 


107 


135 


230 


144 


179 



Table showing number of StonefaUs and Detonating Meteors for each month, 

from A.D. 1800 to 1870. 



Year 

A.D. 


►? 


1 


1 






1 




3 


-1^ 

02 


4 



> 




1 


Month 

un- 
known. 


Yearly 
totals. 


1869. 
1868. 
1867. 
1866. 
1865. 
1864. 
1863. 
1862. 
1861. 
i860. 

1859. 
1858. 
1857. 
1856. 
1855. 


2 
I 








2 




3 


I 


I 


I 
2 


2 


I 


I 


10 

9 

2 

loi 
15 

9 
13 

6^ 

4* 

10 

6 
loi 

7 

5 


I 


I 








2 
2 
I 
I 

I 

I 
I 






I 


I 
I 


I 




2 
I 
I 










I 

1 
2 

I 

3 

I 
I 

3 


3 

2 
I 
S 

"2'i' 

I 

2 


t 
...... 

i 

3 


4 

I 
2 

I 


2 
2 


I 
I 




I 


I 




3 






I 
I 

I 


I 
I 


I 
2 

I 





2 
I 


2 

2 

I 






2 
I 


i 




I 




2 
2* 


I 


2 






2 

I 


1 
I 




. 


I 





3 


I 



















OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 



95 



Table (contimied). 



Year 

A.D. 


t-3 


1 




1 


1^ 






ho 

3 
<1 


1 








P 


Month 

un- 
known. 


II 


1854. 
1853. 
1852. 
1851. 
1850. 

1849. 

1848. 

1847. 

■ 1846. 

1845. 
1844, 

1843. 
1842. 
1841. 

1840. 

1839. 
1838. 

1837. 
1836. 
1835. 
1834. 
1833. 
1832. 
1831, 
1830. 

1829. 
1828. 
1827. 
1826. 
1825. 
1824. 
1823. 
1822. 
1821. 
1820. 

1819. 
1818. 
1817. 
1816. 
1815. 
1 8 14. 
1813. 
1812. 
1811. 
1810. 

1809. 
1808. 
1807. 
1806. 
1805. 
1804. 
1803. 
1802. 
1801. 
1800. 






I 








14 




I 




1 




2 

I 
I 


"if 


44 
44 
8 

s4 
II 

8 

34 

3 

7 

34 

8 

9 

84 
8 
6 

3 

4 

54 

7 

6 

5 

54 

I 

4 

2 

5i 

2 

64 
5 

44 
34 

I 

84 

^4 
5 

7 

I 

4 
6 

34 

^4 
54 

I 

4 

2 

24 

4 
2 

5 

^4 

I 
2 


I 


I 


















I 


3 


"'j' 

I 

3 


I 
I 


I 


I 






I 

I 
I 




I 


4 

I 


2 


i 


I 




I 

I 




I 


X 














I 


I 




I 

I 
I 


I 


I 


I 
1 

I 
I 

I 


i 


I 








i 


I 


I 






I 
I 
I 

1 
I 


I 


2j 

2 
I 


I 

I 
2 
2 

2 




I 
2 
I 
I 






I 








3 


I 

I 
2 
2 






2 






I 


I 













I 


I 


I 









I 






I 


I 
I 
I 




I 








I 

3 


I 

% 
I 


...„. 


i 

I 
I 
I 








2 










t 














i 
























I 










li 


i 


I 










I 






I 

I 

I 
2 
I 

I 
















I 


i 


I 


li 


I 


4 














""i 
I 


I 
I 
I 
I 








1 

"i 

I 


I 
I 
1 


I 






1 
7 




i 








I 












I 






















I 






I 

I 

I 




ai 




X 


I 
I 
















I 
I 


I 

I 


I 
I 


I 

I 
I 






I 










I 

X 




2 








I 








4 


H 












I 


I 
I 




I 






I 







4 

"i' 








I 


...... 

I 


I 


1 


I 


2 








2 
















I 






I 
I 






i 

2 




I 




4 






I 












I 












I 


I 






I 








I 






I 
I 

I 
I 












I 








I 








i 








I 


I 








I 




I 
I 
















I 




I 






I 
I 




I 


I 
I 










4 




























2 










































Monthly \ 
totals... ' 


26i 


27 


314 


19 


3* 


33 


33 


35i 


28 


29 


464 


394 


84 


389 



96 



REPORT 1870. 



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OBSERVATIONS OP LUMINOUS METEORS, 



97 



III, Meteoric Showers. 
1. The August Meteors in 1869. — The following Tables of observations 
in Piedmont are contained ia tbe * Meteorological Bulletin ' of the Moncalieri 
Observatory, near Turin. The numbers of shooting-stars observed at different 
stations were, in the hours ending on the nights of — 



Number of 

meteors seen 

at 


August lotb, P.M. 


Total 
numbers. 


lo''. 


Il'>. 


I2h. 


i^\- 


14". 


1 5-. 


Turin 


6 

42 

49 
43 
(3) 


20 

55 
83 
63 
16 


16 

17 
104 

65 
29 


55 

19 

no 

74 
23 


70 
64 

145 

(20) 

20 


43 
(30) 

225 

24 


210 

227 

716 
(265) 
(IIS)* 


Bra 


Piaconza 

Padua 


Urbino 


August iitb, P.M. 


Turin 


i8 

20 

(6) 


19 
34 
35 
49 


30 

33 
41 
42 


29 
32 
81 
(9) 


3J 

66 


37 


164 

(248) 
(,06) 


Bra 


Piacenza 

Padua 





It will be seen by an inspection of this Table that the maximum was not 
yet attained at the time when observations were suspended on the morning 
of the 11th, and that the horary numbers on the night of tho 11th were not 
so great as on the preceding night. The numbers of shooting-stars observed 
on the night of the 9th was inconsiderable at aU the stations. 

2. Meteor-shower in August 1869. — Notes on shooting-stars and bolides 
in Professor Tachiui's ' Meteorological Bulletin of the Koyal Observatory of 
Palermo.' — "1869, August 1st, evening. On this night a considerable 
number of very fine shooting-stars was observed, leaving streaks, some of which 
remained visible for ten seconds. The radiant-point was between a Scorpii 
and ,; Serpentis, at K, A. 252°, S. Decl. 22°." 

3, Meteo7--sho%ver in November 1869. — On the night of November 6th, 
1869, Mr. T. W. Backhouse observed twenty-one shooting-stars at West 
Hendon, Sunderland, twelve of which had a well-defined radiant-point at 
R. A. 3'' 37", N. Decl. 16°, Of ten meteors seen by Mr. Backhouse on the 
night of the 4th of November, four agreed with this radiant-point. None 
of the meteors seen at Sunderland on tho nights of the 4th and 6th of 
November, 1869, belonged to the great November shower. (Eeport of the 
Observing Astronomical Society on observations in November and December, 
1869, ' Astronomical Register ' for March 1870). 

The position of this radiant-point is scarcely one degree from that assigned 
by Heis to the radiant-point R^, appearing, at about the same time of tho 
year, at R. A, 55°, N. Decl. 16° ; while it is ten degrees from tho position of 
Greg's radiant-point R G, for the end of October and beginning of November, 
at R. A, 64°, N. Decl, 18°, not far from a Tauri. Professor SchiapareUi has 
recently constructed from M. Zezioli's observations, at Bergamo, of about 
9000 shooting-stars during the years 1867-69, a table of the positions of 
radiant-points of forty-four meteoric showers, concluded principally from ob- 
servations recorded on single nights of the year. Amongst the radiant-points 
of the Table, M. Zezioli's observations on the 10th of November indicate 
* Meteorological Bulletin of the Urbino Observatory for August 1869, 

1870. H 



98 



REPORT 1870. 



the position of a radiaut-point (N'o. 39 of the follo^ying list) at 11. A. 70°, 
]Sr. Decl. 20°, snfficieutly near the place of the radiant-point R G to lead 
Professor SchiaparcUi to regard its identity with the latter radiaut-point as 
fully established, while its considerable distance from Heis's radiant-point E.^ 
appears to separate it from that meteoric shower as a distinct region of 
radiation. 



Table of Radiant-points of Meteor- showers obtained by Professor Schiaparelli 
from observations of Shooting-stars at Bergamo by G. Zezioli, 1867-69. 






M 



I. 

2. 

3- 
4- 
5- 
6. 

7- 
8. 

9- 
lo. 
loa. 
II. 

12. 

13- 
H- 
IS- 
1 6. 

17- 
i8. 
19. 

20. 
21. 
22. 
23. 
24. 
25. 
26. 
27. 
28. 
29. 
30. 

3'- 
32. 

33- 
34- 
35- 
36. 

37- 
38. 

39- 

40. 

41- 
42. 

43- 

44- 



Dates of 
meteoric 
showers. 



Jan. II -1 2 

„ 18 

„ 28 

„ 28 

.. 31 

Feb. 6 

,. 16 

March 20.. 

April 2-3.. 

„ 10 .. 

„ 14 .. 

„ 11 .. 

„ 13 •• 

„ 25 .. 
„ 25 .. 

,, 30 •• 

May 22 

June 14 .. 

„ 30 .. 
July 18 

,. 18 

„ 21 

„ 28 

.. 30-3 J 
Aug. 4 

„ ID 

„ 10 

.. II 

Sept. 5 

„ 6 

„ 18 

. „ 28 

Oct. 12 

.. 13 

» 21 

» 21 

.. 21 

„ 21-25 

1, 24 

Nov. 10 .. 

„ 10 .. 

>. 23 .. 

„ 26 .. 

,, 30 •• 
Dec. 9 



Positions 

of the 

radiant-point, 



E. A. Decl. 



183 

232 

67 

236 

134 
183 

74 
144 

259 

163 

168 

193 

231 

142 

260 

237 

232 

280 

240 

342 

324 

313 

174 

275 

342 

43 

47 

Pole 

321 

60 

51 

83 

53 

80 

75 
130 

96 
III 

77 
70 

87 
100 
107 

17 
135 



+28 
+ 36 
+25 
+ 25 
-1-40 

+ 56 
+48 
+48 
+ 38 
+47 
+47 
+ 20 

+ 27 
+ 53 
+ 24 

+ 35 
+ 25 
+ 35 
+ 19 
+23 
+ 69 

+40 
+ 55 
+ 37 
+29 
+57 
+ 18 
North 
+ 60 
+ 32 
+ 39 
+ 54 
+ 27 

+ 19 

+ 25 
+48 
+ 13 
+29 

+45 

4-20 

+47 
+ 30 
+ 33 
+48 

+ 37 



Elongation 
from apex 

of the 
earth's way. 



Longi- 
tude of 
perihe- 
lion. 



38 

54 
150 

44 
97 
81 

104 
131 
64 
133 
131 
105 

79 

143 

6i 

88 

103 

79 
123 

39 
69 

72 

104 

104 

55 

40 

2 

73 
81 

15 
33 
33 
52 
30 
42 
29 
24 
13 
46 
67 
54 
52 
51 
115 
44 



33 
146 

147 
145 
202 
200 
152 
202 
22 ^ 
219 
222 
258 
276 
2:6 
285 
272 
286 

313 

306 
206 
292 

355 
262 

334 
48 

343 
318 
289 

15 

3°9 
273 

337 
217 
2S0 
248 
30 
313 

35° 
277 
192 
2S6 
259 
273 
103 

122 



Longi- 
tude of 
the node, 



292 
298 

3°9 
309 

312 

318 

328 

o 

13 
21 

25 
22 
24 

35 
35 
40 
61 

83 

99 
116 
116 
119 
125 
127 
132 
138 
318 
139 
163 
164 
176 
185 
199 

20 
208 
208 

28 
210 
211 

48 
228 
241 

244 
24S 
257 



IncUuation 
(D, direct 
E, retro- 
grade). 



o 

56 E 
89- 



89 R 



I D 


74 R 


18 D 


49 D 


33 D 


13D 


77 D 


13D 


14 D 


16 D 


48 D 


12 D 


79 D 


40 D 


25 D 


54 D 


17D 


53 E 


70 D 


62 D 


27 D 


30 D 


90 D,E 


66 E 


3D 


63 D 


54 D 


19 E 


41 E 


55 E 


60 E 


10 E 


7E 


49 R 


19E 


9E 


65 E 


5D 


87 E 


60 R 


62 E 


15D 


57 E 



Perilie- 

lion 
distance. 



0-59S 
0-941 
0-976 
0-981 
0-671 
0-735 
0-999 
0-964 
0-933 
0-976 
0-978 
0-780 
0-655 
1-000 
0-671 
o-8o8 
0-854 
0-821 
0-946 
0-500 
0-999 
0-780 
0-866 
0-946 
0-448 

o"953 
0997 
0-933 
0-924 
0-910 
0-561 
0-941 
0-024 
0-413 
0-117 
i-ooo 
0629 

0-883 
0-297 
0-095 
0-235 

0-024 
0-063 
0-918 
0-289 



OBSEllVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 99 

4. The November Meteoric Shoiver in 1869. — In addition to the observations 
of the November meteors in 1869, which were received by the Committee, the 
following are some of the results obtained at the Italian Observatories, where 
the sky was in general in a more favourable state for .observation than the 
condition of the atmosphere '\\hich prevailed in England on the morning of 
the 14th of November. 

The number of meteors seen at the Moncalieri and Perugia Observatories, 
on the momiQg of the 14th of November, 1869, were in the half hours (in 
Perugia in the hours) ending at November 14, 1869, a.m. ; — 

li li m h h m h h m h h m h h m h Total 
iz 12 30 13 13 30 14 14 30 15 15 30 16 16 30 17 numbers. 

Moncalieri 3 46 57 64 79 70 62 80 80 92 77 710 

Perugia 2 39 ... 190 ... 246 ... 71 548 

Four maxima of frequency were observed at Moncalieri during the quarters 
of an hour ending at 1" 4-5", 3" lo"", 4" 15", and 4" 45'" a.m. At Perugia 
the sky was overcast untQ 1'' a.m., and frequent cumuli crossed the sky during 
the remainder of the night. The principal maximum frequency of the meteors 
appeared to occur between 3'' and 4'' a.m. ; and the agreement of these ob- 
servations with the time of maximum at Port Said, Alexandria, where the 
November shower was observed by Captain Tupman, U.M.A., will be gathered 
from the following Table, which is extracted from the ' Monthly Notices of 
the Eoyal Astronomical Society ' for December 1869. 

1869, November 13th, Alexandria Mean Time. 



From 


h 


m 


lO 


40 


H 


30 


14 S* 

15 8 




24 
38-5 


16 


59 

12 




26 


16 


40 
54 



Number of Elevation of 

meteors seen. radiant-point. 



To 
h m 

13 15 o • *S 

14 40 16 35 

15 2'5 16 40 

197 16 43 

33-6 16 46 

525 16 50 

16 7-4 16 54 

24 16 57 

38 (6) 60 

52 (7) 63 

17 14 (4) 67 



During the observations included in brackets the sky was cloudy ; but in the 
last two clearer than in the earlier part of the watch. The maximum took 
place either before or about 14'' 30°', when the sky was first clear enough to 
permit a systematic watch, and the number of meteors seen after this began 
very rapidly to decline until the watch was finally abandoned. 

At the Mauritius a letter from the Secretary of the Meteorological Society, 
Mr. Meldrum, to Mr. Glaisher announced that the November meteors were 
seen on the morning of the 14th : from midnight until 4'' 40'" a.m. 439 meteors 
were counted; and of these, 427 were seen between 3'' 20"° a.m. and 4" 40"" a.m., 
showing the occurrence of a maximum towards the latter time. 

At Pensacola, in Plorida, the meteors were very numerous throughout the 
morning of the 14th, appearing occasionally as frequently as from two or three 
to twenty in a single minute, but no distinct time of the maximum could be 
definitely fixed. 

At Santa Barbara, California, the number of meteors seen by Mr. George 

h2 



100 UEPORT — 1870. 

Davidson aud Mrs. E. Davidson in 2^ 25'", between I'' 15'" and 3'' 40'" a.m., 
was 556 meteors, the rate of frequency gradually increasing until 2'' 20"" a.m., 
when it was five or six meteors in a minute, and again decreasing with 
frequent minor maxima of abiindancc until the close of the observations, 
when the rate of their appearance returned to nearly the same average, of 
about three per miuute, as at the beginning of the observations. 

Although the star-shower returned in diminished brilliancy on the morning 
of the 14th of November, 1869, it is evident, from the examples of these ob- 
servations, that no well-marked moment of greatest abundance (like those 
which were observed in 1866 and 1867) was again perceived in the last 
November star-shower. The meteors seen on the mornings of the 13th and 
15th of November were comparatively insignificant in their numbers at all 
the points of observation. 

5. The Aiigiist Meteors in 1870. — The cooperation of observers in England 
and Scotland having been solicited by the Committee, between the 5th and 
the 12th of August, 1870, a considerable number of observations were made 
at the stations, of which the following list furnishes the duration of the 
watch and the number of the meteors seen by each observer. 

A considerable abmidance of meteors was observed at Hawkhurst on the 
night of the 6th, and the second maximum of frequency took place on the 
night of the 10th of August. On account of full moonlight aud occasional 
clouds on the 10th, with a hazy sky, the hour of maximum was not definitely 
fixed ; but six meteors were mapped in six mimites at Hawkhurst between 
12" 12"" and 12" 18'" a.m. on the night of the lOth-llth. An almost total 
absence of meteors was observed at Birmingham, the Eoyal Observatory, 
Greenwich, East Tisted (Hants), and at Hawkhurst during the half -hour 
between 11" 15'" and 11" 45"' p.m. on the night of the 10th ; a similar lull 
in the meteoric shower was observed at Hawkhurst between 11" 10"" and 
11" 40" p.m. on the following night. The hourly number of meteors seen 
by two observers at Hawkhurst, between 10" 30'" p.m. and 12" SO*" a.m., was 
eleven on the night of the 10th, aud nine on the night of the 11th, the sky 
being equally favourable on both nights. 

The following is Mr. Wood's report on the meteoric shower observed at 
Birmingham : — 

" Number of meteors seen per hour by one observer from 11" till midnight 
on the nights of August 

Ratios of brightness of the meteors 
from August 5th to 12tli. 

5th. 6th. 7th. 8th. 9th. 10th. 11th. 12th. J >lstmag.* 41 per cent. 

9 11 C 5 2 G 3 2 1 =lst-3rdmag.*28 „ 

L <ora mag.* ... dl „ 

"On the night of the 9th, from 10" to 11" p.m., one meteor only. 
" On the night of the 10th, from 11" 14"' to 11" 48"' p.m., none. 
" Weather favourable for observation throughout, except hazy on the 10th, 
and fuU moonlight. v. 

Centres of emanation and rates per cent, from each 
radiant-point. 

Numbers of 
meteors per cent. 

T) Persei 30 ' 

y Persei 24. 36 per cent, were -red or 

e Cassiopeia; 12 I oraiipe-coloured meteors, 

Tj, 3, n and Tj (in Pegasus) . . 12 [ and the rest were blue, 

Njj, J3 (near jPolaris) 10 white, or green. 

^1' X. Oi (Neumayer) 12 ) 



OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 



101 









2M d^ 
























^3 ^ 












m'Ti S 






















b: C X 

g s-c 












|s^; 1 


















Observe 


^3 

§ 


1 
1 


Ok/2 P , 


J3 

1 


13 
ft 

g 
3 

O 


60 

p4 


o 


O 

w 

IZ3 


h^ H 1-5 






CD 

31 


C'O 


ly^ 


vo r-^ 


lo 


ti 


^ 


o 




oo oo cl 




o 


o a 










« 


CO 


CO 




CO C4 CO 




^H 


H g 






















tJ- 


c 


























6 


« 


, 


M : 








U-1 




W M 




w 




12; 




• 






• 


* 














a o 


o 


O O 1 . 








o 





O O o . 








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d 
2^ 








o 


ON*" 


o 


o "^ o "^ : 






6 


m 


, 


CO ON 


. 


o 




M 




C\ O M 




U3 




1< 






rl >-« 


• 


>^ 


• 












. 






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o . 


o 


o 


o 


o 


cj O O O O 


o 






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o ^O 


CO • 


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"d 


o 


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f3 O 

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r, 2^ « 

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102 REPORT—lSrO. 

" There was a marked paucity of meteors on and about the 10th ; and the 
August meteoric shower appears to be approaching its minimum, which, as 
observed in these Reports for 1867 and 1869, might be expected [dating an 
eight-year period, observed in previous minima, from the minimum of 1862] 
to take place about the present year. On the present occasion the greatest 
number occurred on and after midnight of the 6th, preceded by a fii-eball at 
gh gym p_-j[._ observed at the Isle of Skye, and a more than ordinarily bright 
meteor at 11"* 16™ p.m., at Birmingham. There was no change of position of 
the radiant-points on successive nights, but a continuation of the Perseids, 
and other centres, with a simple variation in activity." 

The radiant-point on the night of the 10th appeared at London (Mr. T. 
Crumplen) to be near -q Persei, at East Tisted (Mr. F. Howlett) near 
er Persei, and at Hawkhurst (Mr. A. S. Herschel) near a, y Persei ; on the 
night of the 11th it appeared to be, at London nearer to ^ Persei, and at 
Hawkhurst between tj Persei and e Cassiopeiae. At Manchester the radiant 
region on the nights of the 6th-9th of August appeared to Mr. Greg to 
occupy an elongated space between I- Persei and e Cassiopeiae. 



Report 011 Recent Progress in Elliptic and HypereUiptic Functions. 
By W.B.. L. Russell, F.R.S. 

Part III. 

Section 1. — In this division I propose to consider modular equations, and 
some subjects connected with elHptic functions, omitted in the Second Part. 
The higher portions of the theory of modular cqiiations, which are inti- 
mately connected with the theory of numbers, have been already treated by 
Professor Smith in his valuable report on that branch of mathematics. On 
the other hand. Professor Sohnke's important paper on modular equations 
was very slightly noticed by Mr. E. L. Ellis, and therefore, although much 
earlier in date than the other papers which form the subject of this Report, 
may well be considered here as an assistance to the reader who is disposed 
to enter on the researches of Messrs. Kronecker, Hcrmite, and Joubert, which 
are closely connected with these investigations of Sohnke. 

I shall employ in the following pages fi and v instead of u and v, as used 
in the ' Fundamenta Nova,' to prevent (m) occurring in two different senses 
in the same investigation. 

Jacobi has given the following theorem for the transformation of the 5th 
order : — 

d)f v — p.^ dx 

Vl^y-VI^^7p~Kl-w>'')* Vl— a-Vl-uV 
if 



y v^(l-^.'-^) + ;uvV + »'0 ("-yu'K + A''»''(''-A*'>'' 



waere 



This last equation is called the modular equation of the 5th order. 



ON ELLIPTIC AND HYPERELLIPTIC FUNCTIONS. 103 

Putting >'= Wx, /i=* VX-, the general problem of modular equations, which 
wo have to solve, is the following : — 

To determine the relation between \ and I; or fi and >', so that 

M being a constant miiltij)lier, and ?/ and x connected by the relation 
a.v+l3x'' + yx'+ +a>a;2'»+' 

We easily derive the following theorem from the ' Fundamenta Nova : ' — 
1 — I- sin am nu= 

u ^ . /u 4iA'\ ^ ^ . (u , 4(n-l>-A' \ 
l-Xsinam^ . 1-Xsinmn(^^+ —). . ■ . 1-Xsin«m(^.^+ ^^^ j _ 

4^A' , 8/ A' . 2(n-l)/A' 
A=«m-^. A^fl)H-jj- . . . . A=flm 

and substituting in this the values of the factors in the numerator derived 
from the equation, 

4mK + 4m'?'K' 



1— Xsin«m( 



/».4>n'/A'\ n„.|l-X-sinrn.(^n+ ^^ -J j 

AM"^ 7i / f Ik ttK^ ^ 2(n-l)K1 "'■ 

^ J Aflm- — A am . . . . A am— ^ ^ 

)i n n J 



transforming by the formulas of page 37 of the ' Fundamenta Nova,' and 
determining the constant multiplier by putting n=o in both sides of the 
equation, we have 

\ — Tc sin am (nu) = 

-^ ^ j 1— 7c Bin a in u sin am ^l Y 

(l-Jc sin am ti) n,„' n,„ 4„iK + 4wi'?K' — ' 



-•Lzl ° l_Fsin^r( 



TT- J. — "• "^"^ ..Hi ttsm"a»i 

2 n 

2 



where, however, when »i=0, n,„' must be substituted for D 



n -l 
2 



From this Sohnke deduces that symmetrical functions of the quantities 

4wK + AmUK! 

— - — '■ , when m and m' have the values just assigned, are 



sm coam 

n 



rational and entire functions of Jc. 
Section 2. — We know that 

j/=^"{sin coam 4w sin coam 8o> sin coam 2(n — l)w} ; 

and it appears, from the ' Fundamenta Nova,' that if we put in this equation 
successively the (h+1) values, 

_K iK' K + iK' K + 0^-l>^K' 

7i' 71 ' n ' ' n 



104 REPORT 1870. 

we shall have all the possible values of this expression. The values of y may 
therefore be represented by the following expression : — 



>=fi'' \ sii 



4^n'K + 4m'iK' . SmK + Swi'i'K' 



v=n^ \ sm coam z sin coam 

sin coam 



n n 

2(n-l)m'K+2(n-l)m'iK' \ 



n 



1- 



where m' signifies one of the quantities 0, 1, 2, 3 . . . . (n—1), and m is 
unity, except when m' = l, when it is both unity and zero. 

Wo immediately deduce from the ' Fundamenta Nova ' the equation 

2K.^' 2 J T- l + 2o2rcos2a;+a4'- 

■ Bin coam-^=-, '^q cos ^.-n^ _^_2^,,_, ^^^ 2x+q^r-r 

From this Sohnke proves that the (n + 1) values of (r) may be derived from 

.o ./-r a+r)(l + g^)(l + r/) 1 

(l + 2)(l + f/)(l+'z') J 

by substituting for j successively in this equation the (n+1) quantities 



,= s/2^7i[^ 



111 1 

2", 2"j "S'^j *°2" a" -^2", 



1 is an expression representing all even numbers, the sign being ncg- 



a, being any of the n roots of unity. 

The proof, although long, presents no particular difficulty, and depends on 
transforming the factors in the continued products by means of the theorem 
that 2nr+4:in'p (when n is a prime number, wi' one of the numbers 1, 2, 3 

n — 1, r all numbers from zero to infinity, p all numbers from to 

n—l 

~2~J 

looted. 

Section 3. — It appears from this investigation : 

A. That the modular equation is of the (n+l)th degree. 

B. That the coefficients of the equation, when arranged in powers of v, 
are rational and entire functions of fx. 

C. That the last term of the modular equation is of the form +^"+' if 
(n) is of the form Sr + l, — /x"+i if n is of the form 8r + 3. 

This is deduced by Sohnke from the observation that it is a consequence 
of the multiplication of elliptic fimctions that all the roots should have the 
same sign as the quantity 



ii" i 



4K . 8K . 2(n-l)Kl 

sm coam — sm coam — . . . . sm coam ■ — > . 

n n n ) 



D. The modular equation is unchanged when Ic and \ are interchanged, 
therefore the highest power of (/i) cannot exceed (n+1). 

E. We have already seen that n is of the form \/2^qf{q). One value 
of {y) must therefore be of the form \/2'{/q^'f(q"). If we substitute this in 
the modular equation, the irrationality must disappear. Hence in any term 
of the modular equation aj.i'")'^, we must have ^q'"' . ^ q™ = 2' \/(l*> where 
t is constant for every term. Hence m+rnz=Ss+t, and therefore the mo- 
dular equation must be made up of terms of the form 

j''-(a/xP + /3/xP+8 + y;uP+lH ). 



ON ELLIPTIC AND HYPERELLIPTIC FUNCTIONS. 105 

F. Since /i^+i is of the form ^yq"+^'R^{q), aud /xr of the form \/q^^'R,(q), 
we see the irrationality to be the same in each case. Hence, as the equation 
necessarily admits of a term c^"+^, it must also admit of a term of the form 
c'/x»'. 

G. Since the modular equation remains unaltered when k and I are inter- 
changed, it follows that it must also remain unaltered when ^t and + v arc 
interchanged. The modular equation is of the form 

v"+i+ . . . +anv+i.i"+^ = 

if n is of the form 8rHhl. Here we must manifestly interchange fi and v, 
as the equation cannot be rei^roduced if fi is placed instead of r, and — v in- 
stead of fi. On the other hand, the modular equation is of the form 

y^+l-H . . . +OJUJ/ — ^"+1 = 

if (n) is of the form 8r + 3. Here we must place jj. instead of >', — i- instead 
of /y, as the equation cannot be reproduced if we interchange fx and r. 

H. Hence Sohnke shows that the coefficients of fx'"yP and v^fiP are equal 
always in magnitude, although differing in sign when n=8r + '3, and ^ is 
even. Also that the coefficients of it'^t'P and m"+i-'»v"+^-1' are always equal 
in magnitude, although differing in sign, when n=8r + 3. 

J. Lastly, Sohnke proves that when ^=1, the equation necessarily takes 
the form (»/ + l)«(>'— 1)=0 when n is of the form 8r + 3, and (v — l)"+i 
when (n) is of the form 8)' + l. 

Section 4. — The method of ascertaining the form of the modular equation 
now becomes manifest. 

"We determine the indices of fx and v by E. Then H, J give us relations 
between the coefficients, which greatly diminish their number considered as 
independent quantities. Finally, we determine the remaining coefficients by 
substituting the values of p. and v expanded in terms of q in the equation, 
and then equating the coefficients of the powers of q thus obtained to zero. 

This method is fully illustrated by Sohnke by an example. He has also 
added a modification of the process, which will bo found useful in practice. 

Section 5. — The discriminant of the modular equation is of the form 

TC(l-K^)'''(Ao + A^nHAjt'°+ +kpu'p). 

For a proof of this the reader is referred to the concluding section of Pro- 
fessor Betti's Mouografia on Elliptic Functions, contained in the third and 
fourth volumes of the ' Annali di Matematica,' which I am now going to 
bring under the notice of the reader. Professor Betti has founded his 
theory on the geometrical basis adopted by Riemann and his followers, and 
which it is not my object to consider in the present Report. I shall there- 
fore explain at once the connexion between the notation in the Monografia 
with that we have already employed, and so lead the way to some new 
aspects of elliptic functions. 

Putting w=2K, w' = 2iK', and therefore q=e " , we have, according to 
Professor Betti's notation, 

0i..(^)= ^^ -, e,„(.o=0(-j .... (2) 



106 REPORT 1870. 

^-^(^')=^V^^^'' ^-(■^■)=''^(?') • . • . (3) 

'-(•^■)= a;^ • «3 ^'. eo,oi-)=e('^) .... (4) 

This notaliou allows us to make use of the following definition, which is 
of fundamental imiwrtanco throughout Professor Betti's memoir : — 

0U^') = ^^--1^y^^ \ ^ \-±ll, ... (5) 



when 



K,(^.+-^'.') 



~ — (2.r:-\-fMi-\-io') 

also 

e„.(.)=e"^" ~V,»(.+9^+f) , . (7) 

Section 6. — Having thus explained the notation, we come to the following 
theorem given by Professor Betti (A. D. M. 3. 123) : — 

Po.o(z) + (-irPoa(^) + Pi.o(--) + (-irPM(^), .... (1) 
where 

P», e (-) = 0/x + r,, v + e (~) ©m' + I, c'+eC-) 6,^_^'+„, ^ (?(') 0„, ^_^' + , (m/). 

The roots of the entire functions Q^^^{z+tv) e^>.(;:— ty) are respectively 
of the form 

_^, + (2.+^_l)^+(2s+,_l)|, 

and the theorem is shown to depend on the proposition that these are also * 
roots of the expression 

F(.)=p„,,(.)+(-irp„.,(.)+p^.x~-)+(-irp.,« . . (2) 

which it appears wiU be true if 

Q^-f.'+hv-p'+ii'M) ©I, i(w) G^_^> («') eo,„-^' (iv), 

+ er,-^',p-r,' + l(tv) 00,1 iy 0^-i^' + i,o(w) 01,^-;,. (iv), 1 

— e^_^'+,, y _„<!(') 0,,on' 0^-^i',i («') eo,i,-„'+i('U') m 

— 0,x-^.', r-..' Of) 00, «(*'') Q^-^' + i,i(u') 0i,^_^' + i 10 = 0. 

The reader will find no difficulty in proving this by means of the formula 
of last section, and the expressions for the periods given by Sehellbach, p. 34. 



i 



ON ELLIPTIC AND HYPERELLIPTIC FUNCTIONS. 107 

From this theorem Betti deduces the equations ; 

Oi. i(2+M') e^, ,(z-tv)=e\ ,z d\o(tu)-d\„(z) e\ ,(w), 
0o,i(~+"') eoM-u')=e\oz 0\i(«o-0\i - (i\oV', 

and a multitude of other formulae which it will bo unnecessary to consider 
further here, as they occur in Part II. of this Eeport in a slightly different 
form. 

Section 7. — Two of these equations are as foUows : — 

Gi,i{z-\-w) di,o(z-w) = ei_-,Z 01,0= do,iW eo,o''(' + Oo,iZ do,o^ 6>i,i7y 0i,o^y, 

Oi,o(^ + iv) 6i_i{z-iv)=di,iZ 01, oS Oo,itu Oo,oW-do,iZ Oo,o~ 0,_iW di,o^v; 

putting z+iv for z in these equations, adding them together, then dividing 
by 2w and putting iu = o, we have 

" ~~d^ ' ~~d — ' ' 

Betti deduces a large number of equations in a similar way, and especiallv 
these (A. D. M. 3. 128) :— J i J 

criog^ei.i(r) 6\oZ _ cP\og,d, ,oZ 6\,z 

dz' '^e\,Z~ dz' '^ 0\oZ 

_ dUog^e„,-^z ^ e\oZ_ d-\og,Go,oZ , j.6\iz 

~ dz' ^o\iz- dp +"e^—^=^' • • • («) 



0, 0~ 



where C is an arbitrary constant. To determine its value put 



Cz2 



2x' 2 

The value of C is found without much difficulty to be = i^^, and the 

(j^ ill 



Xo^ 



preceding equations become ; 



cZ=log,Y z 6^ z dnog.x - 6' z 

&^ ~ d\,z dz" ~ e\oz 

° -^0, 1 0.0 "^■^O.O 7 2 0.1 



dz-" e\,is' dz^ d-. 



0, 0^ 



It is then shown (A. D. M. 3. 130) that these equations lead to the fol- 
lowing:— s,:ariW6:. ■ 



108 REPORT— 1870. 



fPv Z dy Z dy Z 

^|^V2p/-^ + 2^<l-P)%: + (^-H/.V)x„_„z=0. 

From these equations we may expand ^ (~) &c. in powers of (r), from 
which 0j '^^^ ™^y ^^ course bo deduced. 

This beautiful process was first given by Dr. Weierstrass, in the fifty- 
second volume of CreUe's Journal, with a different notation, which I hope to 
explain to the reader when I treat of the hyperelliptic functions. The pro- 
cess of Betti, however, does not essentially difter from that of Weierstrass. 
The actual calculation of the coefficients in the expansion of y z has been 
given by Weierstrass at considerable length in the memoir here mentioned. 

2x'_ ^2 
Section 8. — Let >;= , ' " , then one of tlic equations (a) of section 7 
X w 

will give us °'^-^^ = —-—?c'^ ^^-^ ; whence, remembering the values of 

dz' u> a 1,0^ 

a ^3 

0], i", Oi,o(~)> also that r|—=/i.'^ (ScheUbach, p. 73), and integrating, wo have 



r]Z d loge di, oZ 
d^ 



Jc'^ \dz sin^ ara z= "L ''"^ + 0* ; and taking the integral from z=o 



Ic'^ I dz sii 

w r^ y'd)/ 

to z= ;^, wo have 7j= — 2A" 1 , - — ) , — 
2' ' Jo s/l-y' Vl— Z:y 

Again, from equations (a) we may deduce 

<^'log Qo,oZ_ T] ^ e'o. ,;r _ 

dz^ (o Qo,oZ 

we also have 

cPOo^oZ _ i ■^'^ dOo^ 

dz' ^;?" dq ' 

whence Betti deduces (A. D. M. 3. 136) 

dot (r) + Jc^ut)to 

* It will be easily seen that i\o%^ Oj {/) vanishes if j • ^ C^y Tanishes, whicli takes 
place when c=o, Q-iz=-. 



ON ELLIPTIC AND HYPERELLIPTIC FUNCTIONS. 109 

Section 9. — The roots of d^,v(.nz) are all included in the expression 
(2.+^-lV4-(2« + .-l).' ^^^ ^ ^ 3 ^3^^_ 

Hence we find 

\ n / 

(j>{z) being an entire function, which has no finite roots. 
Putting z+w, z + b)' successively for z, we find 

Substituting this expression it is easy to determine the constant, and we 
obtain 

»-in-i / aio + ftw'> 



, , n(n— 1)— 



O "fl,v\ ^^ / . 



n -nV-C^^) 



This expression may be transformed, and we obtain the four following ex- 
pressions : — 

/ecu)+ftco'\ 



0,,X*i2)=«0,,<,(2)n,n^ 



6\ o~ 



e 



'• 1 V n J 



~ 6 1, 1^ 



71+1 



When a. extends to all positive values of a less than — g- , and to all values 
of /3 less than n, which are positive, except when a^=o, and then /3 is to 
have all positive values less than ^ , exclusive of zero. Similarly : — 



[ 02 / iZtO + /3U> '\ 

L 



2 /aco-h/iw'X 



0- Z i. 



^'fl-. .z l 



f*,,, o(wz) = 00, o^IIa Up . 



1, o~ — "- — ^— 









This transformation (A. D. M. 3. 138) presents no difficulty if wc remember 
that it is easily deduced from Section 5, 6 : — 






M. l- 



H,V^ 



110 REPORT — 1870. 

whence 






Section 10. — The expression for 0i_ i (z) may be written as follows : — 

2 ~ 
^1—222" cos— +2^" 



^ W 1 (1 — 2"")'^ 



l_2r/« + lcOS— +2^«4-2 

"...(--)= "^ ^^:~^ 

2TrZ 
o3 1 + 2o'2« COS h f/ '" 

O,,(.) = cos-, ^^^^--^^ . 

27rr 
„ 1 + 22271 + 1 cos + q^» + 2 

^o,o{~)-^ (l + 22„+l)2 

As we are going to enter on investigations in which the values of w and 
fc»' are transformed, wc shall write d^^y(z,w\ w) instead of 0|^_y(z). 

Then if ^=-, we shaU find :— 



■A. 



0^, V (z, (o\b)j)~6^^J — , w', w I, where jur =o 
01, 1 (^, to\u),)=^e^, ,{^-^, 0,', w)j 
Professor Ectti then shows (A. D. M. 3. 148) that if 

where p is a prime, 

ra + sy^O, 9'/3+s5^0 mod. p, 
where r and s are less than p, we shall have 

when 

fx'=Sfx+ry + y(i "1 , 9* 

v'^m + ^/S + a/Sj"'^^- ' 

when ^(r) is a function which has no finite roots. 

* To understand these congruences, see A. D. M. 3. 140. The congruences ml—ny=fr, 
na—m^=t's (A. D. M. 149) are easily obtained from the preceding by multiplying them 
by n and m, and subtracting. 



ON ELLIPTIC AND HYPERELLIPTIC FUNCTIONS, 111 

By putting z + w,z + ui' for (z), and making use of equations (6), section 5, 
we have 

C is easily determined from this, and we have 
It, men,———, ^=ir, \ro have from A, 



n, 01,1 1 






fjtv^fji'v'^o, mod. 2. 

Betti then shows that vr^ = ^Uil^ -^yrith the same « + l values which 

are used in the ' Fundamenta I^ova,' will give us aU the generality we re- 
quire ; and consequently if we transform om- expressions in a manner similar 
to that we employed last section, and remember that 



and multiply the conjugate factors by means of the last four equations of 
section 6, we shall have the following four ei^uations : — 

/, r~ ^'<^'\-. ^''"'''fl -n/'fl^ - 7..«'i,i(!<>«2 ,.^ 

v^i^o- A / 1 V 0'j, o(^'cr<^) y 

- 1 

p-i 



112 REPORT— 1870. 

From these expressions it is easUy seen that the ordinary formulae rela- 
tive to the transformation of elliptic functions may be deduced. This has 
been done by Betti (A. D. M. 4. 26 & 57). Many of the results are, of 
course, as must be the case in a systematic treatise, among those exceedingly 
well known. 

Section 11. — "Wo have already given in section 11, Part II. of the present 

report, the expressions deduced by Meyer for -j- and -j-, also in section 8 

of our present division, y-. To these may be added the following (A. D. M. 
4. p. 64), in which Y„ is what tj becomes when 7c is transformed into Ag.: — 



rnog.VV,/ 



A<r Yo-Afl 



dq 42^q-!r'-' 



eV K^ 



d\os,\/ X^A, (Y^+A,)A„ 



rZlog^V A, 



dq 4pqw'' ' 

(Y^+XvA^)A^ 

dq ^pqit"- 

Section 12. — In the papers contributed by Jacobi to the earlier numbers 
of CrcUc's Journal, several propositions may be found which are not con- 
tained in the ' Fundamenta Nova.' One of the most celebrated of those 
has been the subject of a special memoir by Professor Cayley*. It is this. 
If u= s/lc sin am z, and 

._ ?LrJ ?t«=-i+AiM"'-3 + Aw»^-5H (— 1) - u 

\hBinam2iz=(—l) li u. — . , 



1 + A^u + A.^u'+ ...(-])- 



-mt- 



also a=Jc+j^, then the denominator of this expression will satisfy the dif- 
ferential equation : 

(l-mr+M0^-|-(n^-l)(aM-2«3/^ + n20i^-lKU=2«=(a=-4/^. 

A demonstration of this proposition has also been given by Betti (A. D. M. 
4. 32), and another proposition given by Jacobi will be found at p. 13 of the 
same volume. 

Section 13. — Since the publication of the ' Fundamenta Nova ' the third 
elliptic integral has been discussed by Jacobi in his memoir " Sur la Eotation 
d'un Corps," in the 39th volume of Crellc's Journal, by Betti, ' Annali di 
Matematica,' iii. 309, and by Schellbach, ' Lehre von den Elliptischcn Inte- 
gralen,' p. 217. 



* See also another paper by Professor Cayley, in wliich this subject is i 
la multiplication des fonctions elliptiques," Crello, xxnx. p. 16. 



introduced, "Sur 



ON ELLIPTIC AND IIYPERELLIPTIC FUNCTIONS. 113 

The following formulae may be regarded as fundamental ; they may be seen 
proved in Schellbach, Section 130 : — ■ 

J Jta- /«;-— 1 ^ / - 0,(« + -"^O 

There ii^alao a paper on the third elliptic integral by Professor Somoff in 
the 47th volume of Crelle's Journal, written to facilitate the numerical cal- 
culation of its value. There are a few papers on elliptic functions, connected 
with Abel's theorem, and the multiplication of functions 9, which I hope 
to consider hereafter, when treating on hyperelliptic functions, with which 
they are closely related. 

Section 14. — 1 have long wished to see a treatise on elliptic functions 
written on the following plan. First, I have wished the subject to be con- 
sidered as if consisting of three parts — evolution, division, and transforma- 
tion. This, indeed, has been in great part effected in Abel's great memoir 
on the subject ; but this memoir, it wiU be observed, contains no indication 
of the existence of the functions 0*. The evolution of elliptic functions 
should be effected in the following way: — They should be expressed by 
doubly infinite products, and this should be done by a method closely re- 
sembling that employed by Abel. These doubly infinite products should 
then be transformed into the singly infinite products used by Jacobi ; and 
lastly, these singly infinite products should be multiplied together, so as to 
form the functions d. The division and transformation should be effected 
separately, and the evolution deduced as effected by Abel, and not in an 
elementary treatise, derived from transformation, as we see in the ' Funda- 
menta jS'ova.' 

An excellent treatise on elliptic functions, which forms a part of Ber- 
trand's ' Traite de Calcul Differentiel et de Calcul Integral,' now publishing 
in France, keeps these objects steadily in view, and 1 have great pleasure in 
recommending it to the reader. If I do not dwell longer on this work, it 
is not assuredly because I am insensible to its merit, but because it is not 
only written in the highest style of mathematical elegance, but is also so 
perspicuous that any commentary from me would be superfluous. 

Pakt IV. 

Section 1. — It will be well to commence this part of our work with show- 
ing how elliptic functions may be applied to finding the area of the surface 
of an ellipsoid. 

Let ax^ + hi/^+cz''-=l be the equation to the surface of an ellipsoid, y the 
angle which the normal makes with the axis of (z), ^ the angle which the 

* He alludes, however, to these functions in his subsequent writings, after the discoveries 
of Jacobi. 
1870. . t 



114 REPORT 1870. 

line joining the projection of any point on the plane xy to the intersection 
of the normal with the same plane makes with the axis of (x), then ScheU- 
bach shows (p. 300) that if S be the surface of the ellipsoid, 

S=8a6c f ^ P sin y dy d<j> 

J o J (be cos'^ sin*y+ ca sin-^ sin^y + «6 cos^y)^' 

If we put a/ - = cos T, a/ - = cos p, the expression for the surface becom os 

2x /bC^__ sinycZy 

c V a J (1— sinVcos'^y)2 (1— sin^pcos^y)! 

2rr /« Tf fiUly(?y 

c ' V 6j o (1— sinVco3Y)2 (1— sin^pcos^y)i' 

r 

If we put sinr oo?,y=<\f, siup cosy= i^lcf(x), lc= ~'^~i_ , and therefore 

Va: s c—a 

>i/ J) (I 

^■'= , , the expression for the surface may be written thus : — 

Vc — a 

^ahc I Q^^o >^b{c-a) \c-a eoQ^^o ) I 

_ Section 2. — A most interesting application of the theory of elliptic func- 
tions to mechanics wiU be found in the 39th volume of CreUe's Journal. In 
■that volume is published Jacobi's memoir on the motion of a rigid body, 
which has been already mentioned in Part II. of this Report in relation to 
the many important discoveries it contains in pure mathematical science. 
I now enter upon the consideration of this paper regarded as a physical 
memoir, Jacobi makes use of the following notation. Instead of 

2K^• 2Kx 2K / 7r\ 2K/ ,r\ 

he writes 

2Xx 2Ka; 2Xx 2Kx 
, II , e, , H, . 

TT IT TT TT 

The object of the paper is to calculate the motion of a rigid body, acted on 
by no forces, round a fixed point. 

Let X, y, z be the fixed axes passing through the fixed point to which the 
motion of the body is referred, the plane of x y being the invariable j)lane. 

^i' Vi' ^1 the principal axes, j>, q, r the velocities of rotation round the axes 
otx^,y^,z,. 

the incHnation of the plane a\, y^ to the plane of x y. 

^ the angular distance of the line of intersection of these planes from the 
axis of {x), 

<p the angular distance of the axis of a-'^ from the same line of intersection. 

ce=& x^+(3 y,+y z^. 
y=a'x^+fi'y, + y'z^. 

z=oi'\ + B'% + y\. 



ON ELLIPTIC AND HYPERELLIPTIC FUNCTIONS. 1-15 

To calculate these nine direction cosines in terms of function 6 may be 
regarded as the leading physical object of this memoir. They are connected 
with the angles 6, f, \p by the well-known equations : 

a =cos sin <p Bini^+ cos cos i^, 
a' =cos sin cos »//— cos cp sin \p, 
a"=— sin0sin0, 
/3 = cos cos ^ sin 1^ — sin cos »//, 
/3' = cos cos cos il^ + sin sin ^, 
/3"=— sine cos ^, 
^ y =sin0sinv/', 

y =sin0cos;//, 
y"=cos0. 

Then if A, B, C be the moments of inertia round the principal axes, wo 
have 

Ap«+B2HCr^=7i 1 

Ay+BY+cv=^^/ ^ ^ 

dt A^^j^ + By ^ 

— =— sinflsin^, - =— sin0cos0, — = cos0 . . . . (3) 

i t t 

It follows from this that we arc able to write : 



P^-S/ JT^^^''''^^' 



P-Ch 
A(A-C)" 



/P-Ch . ^ 
?= VB(B=Cr^^' 

V C(A-C) VC(A-C) 

\/(A-B)(E;t-P) 



where $ is a subsidiary angle, and ^= 



V(B-C)(A7t-Z^) 



Substituting these values of ^, 2,r in B-r^ +(A— C) rp=o, and [putting 

V(B-C)(A/i— Z^) 
tt= nowhere n= -===: ■ , we have 

Vabc 



^ '^^ X. 7 \/(A-B)(B;t-r) 

aM= , where k=. — : so that 

Vl-Psin^^ V(B-C)(A;i-Z'-) 



1^1- -{Ml 

M = ; cos am M, 

^ VA(A-C) 

l2 



na . REPORT— 1870. 



Vli(B-C) 
s/AJi—V 



sin am u. 



A am M, 



which express the velocities about the principal axes ia elliptic functions. 

Now, substituting these values of ^j and g- in equation (2) and integrating, 
we have 

? ^^ r„. I (A-B)(A-C) C dn^&mudu 

VAXF-C)(A/i 

where 



{^ (A-B)(A-C) C sin"amt(c7« ^ 

'i_^^j| A(B — C) J 1— /."siu^amiasin^am uj' 



which gives 
whore 



7. • a • « C(A-B) 

1, Q(u + ici) 

^= -nn't + - log, ; \ ; > 

• 2i • e(if — 2a) 

, _ VBC d loge etrt 

*^~ VA(B^C)(A7i-Z^)~ dn 



Now let iL'=J/4-nn'<, then »//'=—. log, — ; r- . 

Hence if we cause the axis of (.v), instead of remaining fixed, to revolve 
with a velocity nn' round the axis of (z), we may substitute for a, a, a" the 
following values in place of those before obtained : — 

a =cos sin (jt sin xli' -\- cos (j> cos ;p', 
a' =cos 6 sin f cos ;p' — cos <p sin \p', 
a"= — sin 6 sin 0, 
/3 =cos cos (j, sin ;^' — sin <p cos ;//', 
fi' =co9 cos ip cos )//' + sin f sin »p', 
• /3" = — sin cos 0, 
y =sin0sin »|/', 
■y' =sin cos \p', 
y" = cos 0, 



where 



^ \Q{i(, + ia)Q{ii—ia)}y 

Q(u + ia) — 0(t( — ia) 
{e(u + ia) 0(u— m)}^' 



2i" sin ^L'= 



* It must be remembered that since A, B, C are in order of magnitude, —A- sin- am id 
must bo positive. 



ON ELLIPTIC AND HYPERELLIPTIC FUNCTIONS. 117 

COS * I 



U(ia) e^u 



ilijia Hti ' 



cos <t> = 

and so substituting and reducing, we obtain the following expressions for 
the nine cosines : — 

_ 0,(0){n(u + ia) + ll(u — ia)} 
" ~ 2U^{ia)e{u) ' 

Q^{0){l\{u-iria)-\l{u—ia)} 
2i Hi(m) e(w) ' 

e(m) H^rt 



a = 



a =• 



/3' = 
/?" = 

r = 

7 = 

tt 

7 = 



H,{ia) e(M)' 

e(0){n^(u-hia)+llXu—i(t)} 
2Hj(«0 0tt ' 

2iHi(i«) Git * 

II,(za) Gm' 

H^(Q){9(M+m) — 9(^—1(0} 
2JHjnf On ' 

Hi(0){ e(it + ?«) + e (u—{a) } 

2Hj(ta) ew ' 

II(<'a ) BiH 
i'H^ia 9m 



These functions can, of course, be expanded in scries by the formulae given 
in section 10, Part II. of this Iteport. Jacobi in his memoir enters into a 
discussion of the ambiguities occasioned by the use of the symbol t= V — 1, 
which I omit here, my object being to give a clear insight into the principle 
of the method by which the problem of the motion of a rigid body round 
a fixed point is solved. 

Section 3. — In the 50th volume of Crelle's Journal there is a memoir by 
Lottner on the motion of a rigid soHd of revolution round a fixed point 
which is not its centre of gravity, but which is situated in the axis of revo- 
lution. This memoir is very similar in its character to Jacobi's. I shall 
content myself therefore with giving results. 

The equations of motion are given by Poisson in the following form : — ■ 

dd/ 
Cncos0 — A8in^0-- = Z, 
at 

(Id) d\L 

~=n + co8d~, 
at at 

* Tbeee ralues of ccs and cos ^ are of course derived from equationB (3). 

f 



H8 KEPORT— 1870. 

where A and C are the moments round the x^ and z^ axes, z^ being the axis 

of revohition, 
y the distance of the centre of gravity from the plane of x^ y^, 
(ii) the constant angular velocity round the axis of revolution, 
(I) the moment of the quantity of motion of all the points of the body rela- 
tive to the vertical axis of z, 
(Ji) a quantity introduced by the integration. 

Then if Kp a„ a^ are the three roots of the cubic equation, 

when — O3 is greater than unity, and a^, a., lie between —1 and +1, h the 

modulus of the elliptic functions employed in the solution = ' ^ , so that 
'^"i-S 

k = , , z^, sin''a}n la = , sm^ am (M^-\-K)=siTr coamia„ = -^ ^, 

Vai — a3 «, — "1 " l + cti 

where 

J 0^1— /.-sin- ^ 

V-(l + n,i 



Voj— O3 



H(i(«i+«,) +K) H(K«,-«,)-K)=D, 
e(M— iaj)=Ai, e(M-f iai)=B', 
0(H-{a3-K)=A", eOe+w,+K)=B". 
Then a, a', a ', /3, &,g. being the same nine direction cosines as before, 
_J^ HX(B"' + A"^)-H^(m,+K)(E"+A'') 

,_ 1 W ia^jB" ^ - A" ^)— H^m, + K) (B'"- A' ^) 
" ~2(D ' e'M ' 

„_ H/«,HOX+^) B'A"-A'B" 

1_ HVa^(B"^-A"'=) + ffOVt,+K)(B'^-A") 

'^~ 2/D' e^t 

1 HX(B"^-A"-) + H-(m,+K)(E"+A'-) 



ON ELLIPTIC AND HYPERELLIPTIC FUNCTIONS. 119 

_ H^H(w,+K) E'E"-A'A" 

,_ Hm,H(/rt, + K) B'B" + A'A" 
^'^~~ iB ■ ehc 

,, 1 H\XB"A"+HXia2+K:)B'A' 

y-B' -^ ' 

where the axis of {x) revolves about the azis of z with au angular velocity 



=:m \ 



d loge Hiaj cnogeH(w^+E) "1 



I 



and the axis of .^\ round the axis of z^ with an angular velocity 

_ ?i(A-C) f (? log, Wia^ d log, H(z«, + K) j 
~ A 1 cZttj da^ J 

There is also, in the 50th volume of Crelle's Journal, an elaborate memoir 
on the application of the functions Q to the solution of the problem of ascer- 
taining the motion of the spherical pendulum, by Dumas. 

Section 4. — It will be interesting, in writing on elliptic functions in a 
country so dependent for its greatness, under Providence, upon its manu- 
facturing skill as this, to show that these integrals are capable of a direct 
application to machinery. A remarkable example of this is given by Canon 
Moseley in his ' Mechanics.' 

The quantity of work done by a pressure P acting through a space S, 
where P and S are constant, is taken to be equal to PS. Hence if P is 

variable, the work done is equal to 1 Pf?S, or half the vis viva accumulated 

while the work is being done. Canon Moseley then shows that in any 
machine, if Uj is the work done at its moving point through the space S, 
Uj the work yielded at the working points, Uj and U^ are connected together 
by an equation of the form Uj=AU2 4-BS, where A and B are constants 
dependent for their value upon the construction of the machine, — -that is to 
say, upon the dimensions and combination of its parts, theii* weights, and 
the coefficients of friction at the various rubbing-sm-faces. Upon this prin- 
ciple Canon Moseley works out his theory, and the above equation is applied 
to the wheel and axle, to pulleys combined in different ways, to toothed 
wheels, and to aU the component parts of machinery, affording in many cases, 
and especially with regard to toothed wheels, results of great interest and 
beauty. 

In the case of the capstan, the above equation leads to an elliptic function. 

Let a^ be the length of the lever turning the capstan measured from the 
axis; 

a^ the length of the perpendicular upon the rope supposed to act in a con- 
stant direction ; 

T the tension of the rope ; 

Uj the work done by the pressure applied to the extremity of the lever 
always perpendicular to its direction ; 



120 • REPORT— 1870. 

Uj the work actually performed by the capstan ; 

p the radius of the axle, and (p the limiting angle of resistance. For a 
full explanation of this latter quantity I must refer the reader to the original 
treatise. 

Then if T be supposed constant, 

Uj=U,+-^-^^ I do V a^^+2a^a.^ COS d + a^'. 

This integral is, of course, the elliptic function E ; and the result is strongly 
suggestive of the importance of the higher integrals in a calculation of work 
done in machines, when the point of application of the motive power is vari- 
able. It is hardly necessary to observe that the radical in the above integral 
gives the distance between the points of application of the forces. 



Committee for the purpose of promoting the extension, improvement, 
and harmonic analysis of Tidal Observations, Consisting of Sir 
William Thomson, LL.D., F.R.S., Prof. J. C. Adams, F.R.S., 
The Astronomer Royal, F.R.S., J. P. Bateman, F.R.S., Admiral 
Sir Edward Belcher, K.C.B., T. G. Bunt, Staff-Commandcr 
BuRDwooD, R.N., Warren De La Eue, F.R.S., Prof. Fischer, 
F.R.S., J. P. Gassiot, F.R.S., Prof. Haughton, F.R.S., J. 11. 
Hind, F.R.S., Prof. Kelland, F.R.S., Staff-Captain Mori arty, 
C.B., J. Oldham, C.E., W. Parkes, M. Inst. C.E., Prof. B. Price, 
F.R.S., Bev. C.Pritchard, LL.D., F.R.S., Prof. Eankine, LX.D., 
F.R.S., Captain Richards, R.N., F.R.S., Dr. Robinson, F.R.S., 
General Sabine, President of the Royal Bocieiij, W. Sissons, Prof. 
Stokes, B.C.L., F.R.S., T. Webster, M.A., FR.S., and Prof. Ful- 
ler, M.A., and J. F. Iselin, M.A., Secretaries. 

41. The Committee have to report that the superintendence of the work 
for the past year has been wholly iiiulertakcn by Sir "William Thomson. 
That work has consisted in the reduction of observations and determination 
of constants by Mr. Eobcrts and assistants, according to the method which 
has been fuUy described in the lleport of 1868. For the details of tlie results 
obtained, the Committee beg leave to refer to the statements by Sir William 
Thomson which are appended hereto. 

W. Parkes. 

George Henry Eichards. 

W. J. MAcaroiiN IIankine. 

J. C. Adams. 
Exeter, August 18G9. 

Report for 1869 hy Sir W. Thomson. 

42, From the Meeting of the British Association at Norwich (Aug. 18GS) 
up to the present time the harmonic reduction of observations recorded by 
self-registering tide-gauges in several diflcrent localities, namely Eamsgnte, 
Bombay, Liverpool, and Fort Point, California, has been continued. The 



TIDAL OBSERVATIONS. 121 

work has been performed by Mr. E. Eoberts and assistant calculators in the 
Nautical Almanac Office, ■vrorking under his immediate direction, according 
to the plans described in the Eeport presented by the Committee of 1867-68 
to the Association at Norwich a year ago, with modifications suggested by 
experience, and extensions to include parts of the investigation not reached 
ia the first year's work. The results obtained up to January 1869 are de- 
scribed in a supplement to that.'report, which has been printed, and is pub- 
lished in the yearly volume of the Association. 

43. The long-period tides, shown in §§ 28, 29 of this supplement, that 
is to say, the lunar monthly (elliptic), the lunar fortnightly (declinational), 
the solar annual, and the solar semiannual, were calculated in consequence 
of the astronomical anticipation of the existence of such tides indicated in 
the general schedule of § 2 of the first Keport. There is a mistake in the 
argument printed for the lunar monthly, which has been pointed out to me 
by Mr. Eoberts. It ought to be (ff— or) t, instead of a t. The error produces 
scarcely a sensible influence on the calculations which have been made, and 
it is easily allowed for. 

44. The " luni-solar fortnightly shaUow-water (synodic) tide " is a tide 
the existence of which was suggested by Helmholtz's theory |of compound 
sounds (§§ 24, 25 of first Report). The harmonic analysis consequently 
applied to discover it has proved it to be very sensible both at Eamsgate 
and Liverpool ; and has shown that in each station it gives highest average 
level at the times of neap-tides, and lowest average at the times of spring- 
tides. Its amount for Eamsgate (§ 28) is a tenth of a foot above and below 
the mean level. Its amount at Liverpool is rather less, being only seven- 
hundi'edths of a foot above and below mean level, as will be seen later. 

45. It will be seen that the lunar declinational fortnightly and the solar 
(declinational or meteorological) semiannual present no agreement with 
astronomical theory. The solar is of more than twice the amount of the 
lunar. The lunar is so small that it may be merely a result of errors of the 
tide-gauge. The solar semiannual (seven-hundredths of a foot above and 
below mean level) giving highest average level Feb. 14 and Aug. 15, seems 
too large to be not genuine ; but it cannot be astronomical, or there would 
be a corresponding lunar tide. 

46. The solar annual (referred to in § 10), as shown by the calculations, 
(Eamsgate, year 1864, being '13 of a foot above and below mean), is cer- 
tainly much too large to be attributable to the eccentricity of the earth's 
orbit, and the time of its maximum (Sept. 21) does not at all siiit the astro- 
nomical theory. Its origin (as well as that of the semiannual?) is in all 
probability meteorological. The Liverpool observations for 1857-58 show a 
greater difference (-36 of a foot above and below mean level) ; and time of 
maximum average height, Oct. 20. 

Progress after date of Mr. Roberts's Svjjplementary Report. 

47. The deduction of the hinar and solar semidiurnal and diurnal tides 
from the Fiji observations (§§ 26, 38), which is no doubt practicable, is a 
mathematical problem of considerable interest. A good deal of work towards 

. it has been performed by Mr. Eoberts since the date of the conclusion of his 
Supplementary Eeport. The plan followed has been simply a direct applica- 
tion of the method of least squares, as in § 28, and it has been carried out 
so far as the formation of eleven simple equations for the determination of 
eleven unknown quantities, viz. : — 



133 REPORT— 1870. 

1 height of mean level. 

4 coefficients for lunar diurnal tides. 

2 „ „ solar diurnal tides, corresponding to the time of year 
when the observations were made. 

2 coefficients for lunar semidiurnal tides, 
2 „ „ solar semidiurnal tides. 

11 

48. The labour of solving these equations by directly calculating the de- 
terminants would be very great ; and the obvious method of successive ap- 
proximations which renders the solution of the equations of § 28 very easy 
is not obviously applicable in this case, because iu this case the equations 
have not the characteristic property* exhibited in the equations of § 28, that 
the coefficient of one of the unknown quantities is comparatively large, and 
the coefficients of all the others small in each equation, so that each of the 
unknown quantities is approximately determined by one alone of the equa- 
tions. It is probable that some algebraic artifice wiU be found to reduce 
within moderate compass the labour of solving the Fiji and other similar 
sets of equations, and so give a useful practical character to the harmonic 
analysis for short series of tidal observations, continued through broken 
periods. But the most for the N atiu-al History of the Pacific tides that could 
be expected from the results of so limited a series of observations as that 
which we have from the Fiji islands is much less than can be had with ease 
by the method already worked out for Eamsgato, Liverpool, and Bombay, 
when observations made continuously through long periods are available. 
Accordingly, on learning from volumes of the United States' Coast Survey, 
which I received last November, that self-registering tide-gauges had been 
established by the Government of the United States at various stations both 
on their East and on their West coasts, I immediately applied, on the part 
of the Committee, by letter, of date Nov. 19, 1868, to Professor Pierce, 
Superintendent of the Survey, for a series of trustworthy observations of Pa- 
cific Tides. Through his kind compliance with my request a year's tide- 
heights, taken from the diagrams, executed by a tide-gauge at Fort Point, 
California, reached mo last April, and were immediately put into Mr. lioberts's 
hands to be reduced on the same plan as that which we have followed for the 
other stations. 

49. Besides the work on these observations, we have had on hand the 
calculation of additional terms from the Ramsgate 1864, the Bombay, and 
the Liverpool 1857-58 observations, and the complete harmonic reduction 
ah initio of Liverpool observations for the two foUowiug years — all of which 
is now nearly finished. The ability, industry, and intelligence A\ath which 
Mr. Eoberts has performed the work, and directed assistants, when practi- 
cable, have been highly satisfactory ; and I trust that the large amount of 
results obtained in consequence will justify amply the expenditure of labour 
which it has cost. As some of the most important results have only reached 
me from Mr. Roberts within the last few days, I have not found it prac- 
ticable to attempt to put them into a form in which the details could be fully 
explained to this Meeting. The resultsf themselves are given complete in 
the file of letters and tables which accompanies this Report. 

_ * Depending on the condition that the time through which the obserrations are con- 
tinued either is approximately one complete period or an integral number of complete 
periods, or is very great in comparison with the period of each constituent tide, 
t They are comprehended jji tho " statement" by Mr. Eoberts which forms part (§§ 54- 



TIDAL OBSERVATIONS. 123 

The Exeter Report coueludes with remarks on : — 

I. Eetardation of times of spring-tides after new or full moon, and 
deductions as to retardation of earth's rotation. 
II. Diurnal tides (or constituents having approximately 24:^ for period). 

I. Times of Spring-tides after Full Moon ami New Moon. 

50. Dr. Thomas Young gave earlier than Airy, and probably first of all, 
the dynamical theory that retardation of times of spring-tides after the times 
of full and change implies friction. The results now presented by the Com- 
mittee verify the anticipation that there is much retardation in every sea. 
A few more years of patient work at harmonic rediiction, and some sets of 
good observations from places in the China seas, Antarctic sea, and Pacific, 
will afford means of directly estimating the loss of energy from the earth's 
rotation, and will confirm the evidence which Professor Huxley and the 
geologists, for whom ho speaks, find so hard to accept, that energy is being 
dissipated too rapidly to leave credible any thing approaching to so great 
drafts on time as they have been accustomed to make. 

II. Diurnal Tides. 

51. A not hitherto explained characteristic of North-Atlantic stations is 
absence of diurnal tides large enough to be discovered except by scientific 
analysis. The diurnal components are very conspicuous in the Bombay and 
Fort-Point tides, especially the Fort Point. That one of the components of 
lunar and solar diurnal tides whose argument is yt, is very large for Fort 
Point. Hence, considering that that component, being partly due to moon 
and partly to sun, gives a thoroiujlily true theoretical method for comparing the 
sun's and moon's masses, by using a series of nine years' observations, it wiU 
in all probability give a somewhat accurate practical result. As to the mag- 
nitudes of the diurnal tides in different localities, it is to be remarked that 
their smallness on the North- Atlantic coasts is irregular, and has not yet been 
explained dynamically. Their largeness in the Indian Ocean, the China 
seas, and the Pacific is regular, but makes the tidal phenomena much more 
complicated than those we know best. The tides in those seas are commonly 
designated as " irregular." That designation results from a confusion of 
terms, " irregular" being used as if synonymous with complicated. The 
truth is that the tides on the European coasts of the Atlantic are irregularly 
simple ; those in aU other seas are comparatively complicated, but regular 
and explicable. 

[Conclusion of Exeter Report, dated from Largs, Ayrshire, Aug. 21, 1869.] 

Jlejiort by Sir William Thomson, ivith detailed Statement 6?/Mr. E. Roberts, 
of the work performed by him for the Committee since the Meeting at 
Exeter. 

The College, Glasgow, Sept. 10, 1870. 

52. The work performed since the Meeting at Exeter has been mainly 
directed towards a full scientific analysis of the tides of Liverpool ; but it has 
included also as much as could be reached in the way of analyzing observa- 
tions on the tides of Kurrachee supplied by Mr. Parkes, and on the tides of 
Fort Point, California, supplied by the United States' Survey. With reference 
to the latter, I have just received the follovdng interesting letter from Mr. 

70) of the Eeport presented to the Liverpool Meeting and now printed in continuation of 
the Exeter Beport. - 



124 REPORT — 1870. 

Eoberts, with prefixed letter to him from 3Ir, J. E. Hilgard, of the United 
States' Survey: — 

Mr, J. E. HixGAED to Mr. E. Roberts. 

" United States' Coast-Survey Office, 
Washington, Aug. 12, 1870. 

" I take occasion to inform you that the reading off of another year's tidal 
" observations at Port Point, by hourly ordinates, is in progress, in pursuance 
" of your request under date of May 27, and will be sent in a few weeks. 

" For our own purposes we have as yet only read off from the traces the 
" high and low waters, and prefer to use for the general discussion the results 
" of nineteen years. 

" Prof. Thomson at first asked for only one year ; the first year proving 
*' fragmentary, we read and sent an additional year. The observations now 
" in preparation wiU bo pretty complete. 

" I shall bo much surprised if you can get reliable constants out of even 
" two complete years. We will endeavour to pro\'ido for the reading of the 
" hourly ordinates for the whole scries, and will furnish you copies, if you 
" find it necessary to have more than the additional year, which we shall 
" send you soon. 

"J. E. HltGARD, 

Assistant U. S. Coast Survey" 

Mr. E. Roberts to Sir William Thomson. 

" 3 Veridam Bidldings, Gray's Inn, W.C., 
September 9, 1870. 

" I have received the enclosed [preceding] letter from the U. S. Coast 
" Survey. I have completed the computation of the hourly heights for 
" fourteen days for Fort Point, and have compared them with the actual 
" observations. The agreement is remarkably good, the maximum discre- 
" pancy not being more than three inches, if the actual mean level for each 
" day is used, instead of the mean level of the year. The larger differences 
" shown sometimes, when the annual mean level is reckoned from, are clearly 
" owing to the abnormal state of the atmosphere at those times. Some of the 
" elliptic diurnal tides are probably sensible for Fort Point and Kurrachce. 
" In the computation of the heights for Fort Point the following tides were 
" omitted, — the whole of the long-period tides, and also the semidiurnal X 
" [cvection] and y. [variation] and quarter-diurnal M S [Hclmholtz luni-solar 
" quarter-diurnal]. The maximum effect of the latter three does not exceed 
" 0-06 ft. I consider the agreement very satisfactory. I expect to have the 
" heights for Kurrachee for 29 days completed by Monday, and which I 
" think wiU be satisfactory to Mr. Parkes. I have completed those series of 
" Ramsgate not included in our first Report ; the M S (Hclmholtz quarter- 
" diurnal luni-solar) tide is 0-33 ft., which is a Httle larger than what I 
" should have expected from the corresponding Liverpool component. At 
" Fort Point and Kurrachee it is scarcely, if at aU, sensible, the analyzed 
" values for each place not exceeding 0-02 ft. I have made no comparison 
" for Ramsgate, as the differences will in aU probability resemble those of 
*' Liverpool already compared, although not differing to quite so great an 
" extent. 

" Edward Roberts." 

The value of the harmonic analysis is illustrated by the doubt which Mr. 
Hilgard expresses as to the possibility of obtaining trustworthy constants 



I 



TIDAL OBSERVATIONS. 125 

for Fort Point out of " even two complete years " observations, and the un- 
doubtedly approximate attainment of that result by Mr. Roberts, from one 
year only, which his letter indicates. 

53. The funds at the disposal of the Committee have not sufficed to 
emploj' calculators to push forward the work as energetically as the Report 
to the Exeter Meeting recommended. What has been actually done has been 
done entirely by Mr. Roberts, with only some slight assistance of a compa- 
ratively mechanical kind in the way of preparing tables and forms for 
calculation. 

The following is his own statement of the work done for the Committee ; — • 



§§ 54-70. Statement hj Mr. E. Roberts of work performed by him for the 
Tides Committee, from the Exeter Meeting till August 6, 1870 (including 
also the results of the analysis of the second yearns obsei'vatioTis at Kur- 
rachee, obtained since tJie Liverpool Meeting). 

54. The diagram sheets of the Liverpool tide-gauge promising to give as 
good results as can most probably be obtained from any system of self- 
registration at present in use, were selected for further reduction and ana- 
lysis. Two years' observations following the year whose results arc con- 
tained in the Report for 1868, §§ 31-34, have been reduced and analyzed in 
a similar manner. The results agree very satisfactorily with those of the 
preceding year. The mean height of the water for the last two years is 
slightly in excess of that found for the first year. In addition to the six 
scries, S, M, L, N, K & 0, already defined, three others, representing the 
solar diurual (declinational) tide, whose argument is (y— 2»/), called hereafter 
for brevity P, and the two components of the solar elliptic semidiurnal 
tides (R and T), whose arguments are 2 (y—^ii) and 2 (y — |jj)» were also 
included. The solar elliptic semidiurnal tides require a period of two years 
for their evaluation, by the method we have hitherto followed. The hour- 
angle for the commencement of the second year was taken as twelve hours 
in advance of the hour-angle assumed for the first year. As the two years 
commenced on the same day of the year, the error involved in this assump- 
tion is only 0°'25, a quantity which may be reasonably neglected in the 
analysis of these tides. A Table extending through one year has therefore 
been used in the composition of the series, and the years 1857-58 and 
1858-59 combined for the determination of one value, and 1858-59 and 
1859-60 for another determination. 

55. Referring the fictitious stars to their true positions at the commence- 
ment of each year, by correcting the assumed hour-angles (the same table of 
hour-angles having been used for the three years) by the difference between 
the true and assumed places, and neglecting all terms which are very small 
and not theoretical tides, we have the following sets of values : — 

1857-58. 1858-59. 1859-60. 

Ag 167192 i6*8ao8 168289 



Average inclination of 
Moon's orbit to 
Earth's equator. 



28° 28' 27° 56' 26° 58' 



126 



KEPORT — 1870. 







Series S 








Scries M. 






1857-58. 


1858-52 


K 1859-60. 




1857-58. 


1858-59. 


1859-60. 


^1 


O-0453 
69°-93 


0-0696 
S9°78 


0-0844 




0-0192 
332°-i9 


0-0626 
266°-69 


0-0092 
77°-27 


^2 


3-2149 
ii°78 


3-3124 
n°-i2 


3-1938 

io°-o8 




9"6745 
326°-io 


9-8124 

32S°-4S 


9-8930 
323°-99 


«3 




...... 


...... 




0-1053 
33o°-6o 


0-0984 
3i5°-o4 


0-1525 
321-71 


"4 


o*o6ia 
3a2°-23 


o-o6oo 
33o°-i8 


0-0476 
294°-73 




0-6847 

220°-34 


0-6573 
2i7°-68 


0-6371 

221°-30 


^0 






:::;:; 




0'l8l2 

342°-76 


0-1887 
348°-2i 


0-2093 

343°-i7 






Series L. 






0-0582 
262°-38 


o-o8o8 
278°-,7 

Series N. 


0-0658 
aS9°-39 




1857-58. 


18.58-59. 


1859-60. 


1857-58. 


1858-59. 


1859-60. 


E, 

«-2 


©•5069 
i57°-93 


0-7849 
i68°-9i 


0-3459 

i44°-5i 




1-8608 

303°-52 


r76o7 
308^-72 


1-9716 
303-98 






1 


Series K. 


). 






857-58. 1858-59 


1. 1859-6( 








e, 2 


0*3930 
83°-95 28 


•3978 
3° -08 


0-3853 
273'^-i8 










E, 

63 


i*i8so 1 
5°-98 


-2742 
o°-4o 


1-0995 
349-6, 










Series O. 








Series P. 






1857-58. 


18.58-59. 


1859-60. 


1857-58. 


1858-59. 


1859-60. 




o'44io 
3i6°-69 


0-4136 
316^-28 


0-4519 
3i8"-8i 




0-1250 
ioi°-96 


0-1339 
io5°-7S 


0-1306 
98°-6i 






Series E. 

4 






Series T. 




1857-58 & 1858-59. 1858-59 & 1859-60. 


1857-58 & 1858-59. 1858-59 & 1859-60. 


E, 

^2 


■o-ioo6 
H6°-45 




0-0818 
1 46° -60 




0-3490 
67-97 


0-1208 
36-78 



There were very sensible values of A^, B^ of series L for all years, and also 
of A^, Bj of series ; biit the resulting amplitudes and corrected epochs did 
not agree, showing (as theory gives) no tides of these periods. The cause of 
the apparent irregularities of series L is probably satisfactorily explained 
hereafter. 

56. Shortly before the Meeting of the British Association at Exeter in 
1869, application -was made to Graham H. Hills, Esq., for a Liverpool Tide 
Diagram-sheet containing curves influenced by a minimum amount of ir- 
regularity due to wind, atmospheric pressure, temperature,, tfec, and which 
might be taken as practically representing the astronomical tide-curve. 
Through his kindness a sheet containing a period of thirteen days (1869, 
April 24th to May 6th) was received, and has proved of great value as a 
practical test of results and (§§ 61-63) demonstration of new tide-compo- 



TIDAL OBSERVATIONS. 127 

nents. Meteorological indications were also forwarded by J. Hartnup, Esq., 
P.R.A.S., of the Observatory, Birkenhead, for the same period. 

57. Tables of the foregoing nine series of analyzed tide-components were 
made, giving the heights due to each, and •were computed for every few 
degrees of hour-angle. On account of the magnitude and quick variation of 
its tide-components, the M series was computed for every degree of hour- 
angle, which allowed the interpolation for the fraction of the degree of hour- 
angle to be done with very little labour. All terms involving multiples of 
the same hour-angle were included in each Table ; thus the M Table con- 
tained the heights due to R,, K^, Eg, R^, R^, and R^, and the S Table those 
due to Rj, R^, and R^. The K Table contained the heights due to Rj and R^. 
The tide-components affected by the variation of the inclination of the moon's 
orbit were corrected according to the equilibrium theory. The tide-com- 
ponents so affected are the lunar semidiurnal (R^ of M series), the lunar 
diurnal declinational (R, of series), and the lunar and solar diurnal and 
semidiurnal (Rj and R^ of K series). The first was thus presumed to vary 
as the square of the cosine of the inclination of the moon's orbit to the earth's 
equator, and the other three as the square of the sine, assuming in the case 
of the combined lunar and solar tides (K) that the ratio of the tide-generating 
forces of the moon and sun were as 2 to 1. It was supposed that these as- 
sumptions would represent these tides very fairly. The zero of reckoning of 
the lunar diurnal (declinational) tide was also corrected for, on account of 
the retrogression of the moon's node causing an oscUlation on the earth's 
equator, of the intersection of this plane with the plane of the moon's orbit. 
The zero of the K tides is similarly affected ; but as these are combined tides, 
the zero was assumed to be nearer the intersection of the lunar orbit than 
that of the solar in the ratio of the analyzed semidiurnal lunar and solar tides 
(3 to 1). This inequality can be included in the regular analysis by intro- 
ducing terms involving the period of the revolution of the moon's nodes, and 
requiring a series of observations extending through a period (about eighteen 
years) of their revolution for the evaluation of the tide-components, 

58. Tn order to eliminate signs in the Tables (which greatly facilitates the 
summation of the different tide-values in the computation of the tide-height 
at any moment), the amplitude of each tide has been added, throughout each 
Table, to the calculated heights for the stated hour-angles. An example of 
each kind of Table is here given, from which wUl be more readily understood 
what has been done. The following represent the values of the height (h) 
of the tide, being the smaller component (L) of the elliptic semidiurnal tide, 
due to the revolution of the moon's perigee. The heights are computed for 
every ten degrees of hour-angle (H.A.). The first Table gives the height as 
computed from the formula 7i=R2 cos (2Mi—e2)=0-56ft.x cos (2n<—14S°-85). 
In the second the value of R^ has been added to each value of h. The limits 
of the first Table are H-R^ and — R^, and in the second 2R2 and 0. 



ni or H.A. h 

'T-^. s ft. 

o 180 —0-48 + 
10 190 e'35 

20 ■ 200 — C)'i8 + 

30 210 +o'oi — 

40 220 0'20 

50 230 o'37 
60 240 o"49 
70 250 0-55 
80 260 o'55 

90 270 +o'48 — 



nt or 


H.A. 


nt or 


H.A. 


h 


A 




,j 




ft. 
o-o8 


t 

90 


270 





180 


ibo 


280 


10 


190 


0'21 


110 


290 


20 


200 


0-38 


120 


300 


30 ■ 


210 


0-57 


130 


310 


40 


220 


076 


140 


320 


50 


230 


°'93 


150 


330 


60 


240 


1-05 


160 


340 


70 


250 


I'll 


170 


350 


80 


260 


i"ii 


180 


360 


90 


270 


1-04 



nt or H.A. h 

, • s ft. 

90 270 i'04 

100 ■ 280 o'9i 

110 290 o'74 

120 300 o'55 

130 310 o'36 

140 320 o'i9 

150 330 0-07 

J 60 340 o*oi 

170 350 o-oi 

180 360 o"o8 



128 REPORT— 1870. 

In the first Table the values of h represent the height of the tide due to 
this component, referred to mean sea-level (A^, of analyzed series) ; in the 
second Table they are referred to a fictitious level, R^ feet (0-56), below the 
mean level. Supposing the value of aU the amplitudes of the tide-factors to 
be so added throughout the whole of the Tables, the resulting correction to 
the summation of tide-heights found for any time will be A^ — SE,. This 
method gets rid of all signs and renders the work of the calculator much 
lighter. 

59. The true hour-angle of each of the fictitious stars was then found for the 
commencement of the series of tide-heights proposed to be computed (1869, 
April 24** O"" Greenwich mean time). Lcven-ier's places of the sun and 
Hansen's places of the moon have been used throughout these reductions. 
Each hour-angle was then found in its proper column in the Table of hour- 
angles formed at the commencement of these reductions, and which can be 
found within a small fraction of a degree in a Table extending through 369 
days. The consecutive hour-angles in the Table will be the correct argu- 
ments for the heights for 1869, April 24^ 1^, 2^, &c. The height (/i) was 
then taken from each Table in succession, using the true hour-augle as found 
above for argument. The sum of the nine values of h thus found, together 
with the correction A^— SE., will represent the height of the water above the 
datum-line at first chosen, neglecting the long-period tides, wliich for Liver- 
pool (§ 63) were found to be very small. A series of heights for every hour 
of the day for 13 days was thus formed and compared with the heights taken 
from the diagram-sheet (§ 56), and the difi'erences taken. The average dis- 
crepancy was about -j^ foot and the maximum 2 feet. The difi'erences 
showed considerable regularity of disagreement ; and it appeared probable 
that the tide-components, varying with the inclination of the moon's orbit, 
did not vary strictly according to the law of the equilibrium theory. It was 
thought advisable to reduce another year for the determination of the law of 
change, and a period of 369'' S^, commencing 1866, January 23<* 0'', was 
chosen for this purpose. This period gave very nearly a minimum inclination 
of moon's orbit to earth's equator, whilst the first year (1857-58) gave nearly 
a maximum value. The results of the dcclinatioual tide-factors obtained from 
the analysis of this year were not very diff'erent from what would have been 
obtained from the values for the previous years according to the equilibrium 
theory, but nevertheless indicated that these tides varied to a less extent than 
what that theory gave. 

60. The results for Liverpool for 1866-67 are as foUows ; — • 

Ao = i6'8998. Average inclination of Moon's orbit to Earth's equator =: i8° 21'. 

L N 





s 


M 




0*0470 
39°'04 


0-0396 
358°-oa 




3-1304 
ii°-63 


10-2713 
3i5°-5S 


R, 




0-0862 


^3 




335°-27 


R4 
64 


0-0475 
3i4°-32 


0-7648 

224°-I9 


Re 

^6 




0-2057 
343°-8o 






0-0667 
a82°-o9 



0-6015 2-1608 
i24°-o8 3oi°-59 



K 





P 


0-3478 


0-3058 


0-1409 


28i°-6o 


3i2°-74 


88°-43 


0-6336 






9°-o3 







TIDAL OBSERVATIONS. 129 

This year's results were incorporated with the previous three years and 
new tables, using average values, formed, and the heights recomputed and 
again compared with a similar although somewhat improved result to what 
had before been obtained. 

61. It appearing probable that a closer approximation to the movement of 
the moon than what is given by a moan motion, including the motion of her 
perigee, would give a closer agreement between the actual and the calculated 
heights, it was thought advisable to extend the schedule of arguments (§ 2). 
Accordingly the terms depending on the two next largest perturbations of the 
moon (the evectlon and variation corrections) have been included. The argu- 
ments of the components for the evection semidiurnal tide are2(y — g<r-t- 4nr— jj) 
and 2(y — fi— |ra- + ;j), and for the variation semidiurnal tides 2(y— ry) and 
2(y—2ir + r]). One of the components of the variation tide, having the 
same period as the solar semidiurnal, is necessarily included in the results of 
the analysis which we have performed for the latter. Our new terms are 
therefore reduced to three. Series of hour-angles of these arguments (named 
for brevity \, y, and n) have been formed and added to our Table. The 
period chosen for the \ and f series was 349"* 22'', and for the /j. series 
369'^ S"", each period eliminating in the summation of each the effect of the 
lunar semidiurnal tide. The results of the four years' analyses of these tides 
are : — 







X (evection). 






1857-58. 


1858-59. 1859-60. 


1866-67. 


^2 


0-4091 
141^-68 


0-2262 0-1165 
i34°-46 igi°-o8 

V (evection). 


0-2369 

I75°-9S 




0-7423 
307°-9i 


0-6303 0-2841 
284°-oi 261^-09 


0-7182 
278°-43 






fi (variation). 




R. 


0-2860 

3i-°72 


0-2259 0-3076 
42°-04 32°-55 


0-2561 

32°-42 



62. Tables of these components have been formed, and the heights due to 
eash added to the height of the sum of the original nine tide-factors, A^— SR 
having been corrected, and the differences again taken. These differences 
showed clearly four distinct maxima and minima for each day ; and it ap- 
peared highly probable that the (Helmholtz) compound luni-solar tide of 
period 2(2y— o- — rj) mentioned in § 24 was of considerable value for Liver- 
pool. The differences having been grouped according to hours of this length 
(hereafter termed M S), its existence was placed beyond doubt. The four 
years' observations have been analyzed for its estimation with the following 
results : — 

MS. 



1857-58. 1858-59. 1859-60. 1866-67. 

Ej 0-4379 0-3488 0-3879 o"4fi35 

6^ 270°-68 265°-86 270^-49 269°-45 

There was a sensible value for A^, B, in each of the above series. The 
comparative largeness of A^, B^ of Series L for Ramsgate, § 23, and for Liver- 
pool, § 37, is probably due to this luni-solar quarter-diurnal tide, the period 

1870. K 



130 REPORT— 1870. 

of each being nearly of the same value. This eomponcnt has been included 
in the calculations of the actual heights. 

63. The above four years' observations have been analyzed for the long- 
period tides, but tlie resulting amplitudes ■were very small ; and there was so 
little agreement between the epochs as deduced from the several years, that 
they were deemed not satisfactorily evaluated. The solar annual tide, how- 
ever, gave a moderate agreement, the mean value for the four years being 
0*36 foot, and the epoch 238°*5, which places its maximum about Novem- 
ber 19 ; but this is i)robably due in the main to meteorological causes. The 
differences between the calculated and actual heights, after being corrected 
for the quarter-diurnal luni-solar tide, also showed that the synodic fort- 
niglitly tide of i)eriod 2(0* — tj) is of sensible value; and the present non- 
agreement between the analyzed values of the four years may be owing to 
the influence of wind, barometric disturbance, and also of instrumental errors 
extending over considerable periods, and seriously affecting the daily means 
which are the basis of reduction for the long-period tides. If the pimfied 
daily means had been corrected for barometer «&c., as in the discussion of the 
Port-Leopold tide observations by Capt. Sir J. C. Ross (Phil. Trans. 1854), it 
is very probable that more satisfactory results would have been obtained. 
The following are the results for the Long-period Tides : — 





(ff--cr) 


2a 


2(<T-,,) 


V 


2,, 


1857-58. j ^ 
L ^ 


0*046 
289°-4 


0*093 

i7o"7 


0*068 
iii°*8 


0-359 
209"*6 


0*090 
144°* I 


1858-59. 1 f 


0*198 
31^-6 


0*037 
i48°-8 


0*020 

325°-S 


0*284 
25S°*7 


0*104 
269°-6 


1859-GO. 1 -^ 


0*152 
I72°*8 


0*024 
72-9 


0-079 
303°-4 


0-353 
2i3°*4 


0*190 

1I2'^*3 


1866-67. { ^ 

6 


0^072 
259°*8 


0*036 

340°-6 


0*053 
67^-9 


0*452 

272°*3 


0*185 

228°*7 



64. The retardation of the phase of spring-tides is determined by dividing 
the difference between the epochs of the mean solar and mean lunar semi- 
diurnal tides (e^ of series S and M respectively) by twice the daily difference 
between the mean motions of the moon and sun. Taking the average of 
epochs for the four years, we have 

11°*15~ 3^5°*27 45°"88 

2xl2°-191 ~ " 24°-382 "'^'''^^^ = ^'' ^^'' ^^'" <^^^*^^ ^^"""'^ syzygies) ; 

similarly the coincidence of phase of the declinational diurnal tides (P and 0) 
is (applying the proper correction to e^ of series 0) 

Qso.oq Qi 10.07 T4.(\°-79 

2xl2°-191 '"^i^==^''Q^^ = ^' 0" 26- (after moon's syzygies). 

Taking the mean of the epochs of each of the tide-components as deter- 
mined by the analysis of the four years' observations, and expressing each 
mean value thus obtained in mean solar iime, we have the following Table 
of values for Liverpool : — 



I 





h m 


"l 


3 45'3 


e.^ 


O 22'3 


e-, 





TIDAL OBSERVATIONS. 131 

R T ML N MS 

h m li m h m h m h m h m 



T 


M 


li m 


h m 


I 44-9 


II 13-3 




7 29-4 




3 48-6 




3 577 




2 20-0 



4 5^7 I 44"9 II i3"3 5 ^'5 10 42'3 

7 29"4 

5 15-4 3 48-6 4 33-8 





K 





P 




h m 


li ra 


h m 


«. 


18 38-7 


22 40-4 


6 35-8 


f-i 


2-5 







\ V n 

li m h m h m 



5 27'5 9 S5'2 I i4'4 

A comparison between the calculated and recorded heights for Liverpool 
is appended (§ 68). 

65. The Eanisgate observations for 1864 have again been taken np, and 
the value of the tide-components for the series not included in the lleport 
for 1868 have been calculated. The whole is here given, and the epochs 
have been corrected and are reckoned from the true hour-angles of each. 

Yr. 1864. A=io-i9S8ft. Averageinclinationof moon'sorbit to earth'sequator=io°-3o. 

S K L ^ US 





E, 


0-0 


373 




, 




, 


• t ••• 




fi 


313" 


•48 








• 






E, 


1-8772 


6-3078 


0' 


3856 


1-1126 


(•< • > 




^■2 


32° 


■70 


339°-43 


i86°-28 


3io°-3i 


t •• •• 




K, 


.... 


,.. 


0-0448 






•• •■ • t f 






fa 


.... 




53°'39 






...... 






E, 


O'O' 


31S 


0-5771 




.!* .. 


,.-;.. 0' 


■3332 




^1 


4" 


•19 


240°-27 






...... 12 


5°-3S 




Rn 


0"o; 


168 


0-1771 






, , 






•^6 


^7" 


•04 


122°-GO 













R. 






0-0599 






, 






^8 


.... 


•• 


48°-34 




.... 


...... 


••••f 




K 









P 


X 


V 


A* 


E, 


0-2C 


)7o 





•3008 


•0730 


.•.. 


,, , 




ci 


100°' 


75 


99°-34 26 


2-58 


— 






R> 


0-42 


79 


. 







0-1785 0-3526 


0-2639 


"2 


io°- 


■55 


• 







169° 


-97 328°-o5 


83°79 










Long-] 


period Tides. 








(<r- 


.^) 




2<T 


2(<7. 


-r,) 


n 


2r, 


R 


O'C 


5.6 




0-0331 


o-c 


i960 


0-1270 


0-0748 


e 


45" 


•09 




268°-29 


207' 


-85 


i8o°-97 


288° -02 



Eetardation of i)base of Spring-tides 2'' 4'' 24" ] n. i 

Coincidence of phase of Declinational tides 6^ 16" 40- j "^^'i' '"°°'^ « syzygies. 

66. Through the kindness of Prof. Peirce of the U. S. Coast Survey a series 
of tide observations, taken at Fort Point, San Francisco Bay, California, from 
1858, October 1, to 1859, September 30, has been received and thoroughly 
analyzed. The epochs are referred to tn(s hour-angles. 

k2 



132 REPORT — 1870, 

Yr. 1858-59. Aj = 8-7io3ft. Avcragoinclinalion of moon's orbit to earth's equator =:i8°'o 

S M K O P MS 

Ej 0-0146 o'o539 i"337o o'89i7 0-3672 



211^96 4^"'3o I92°-I7 3'''39 i6°-52 

Er, 0-4067 1-6694 o"i759 

r: 334°-i4- 33o°-8i 326°-65 

E3 very 

e„ small. 



Ej very o"o6i6 0-0248 

c. small. 23°-32 22°-33 



L 'N \ V fi 

E.> 0-0591 o'393i 0-0372 0-1044 0-0257 

el 102--63 303°-46 i88''-3o 287°-23 254°'34 

Long-period Tides. 

((T— or) 2<r 2((T-j,) )j 2,1 

R 0-0093 0-0586 o"oi83 0-2119 0-2244 

6 i69°-9 i45^"3 2ii°-o 37^'o 2oi°-4 

Eetardation of phase of Spring-tides o^ 3); ^3™ 1 ^fte, „,oon's .syzygies. 

Coincidence of phase of Declmational tides 0° 12" 55" J •' •'° 

A comparison between the calculated and recorded heights for Fort Point 
is appended (§ 69). 

67. A series of tide observations extending through two years, commencing 
1868, May 1, taken by the Manora self-registering tide-gauge at Kurrachee, 
has been received from W. Parkes, Esq., M. Inst. C.E. ; and the following 
scries have been analyzed for each year separately, with the exception of the 
solar elliptic semidiurnal tides (Series R and T), for which the tide-com- 
ponents have been evaluated from the two years combined. The epochs are 
referred to true hour-angles. The datum-line is 2 feet beloiu the datum-line 
of the diagram-sheets. 

Yr. 1868-69. A(,=:7*i488ft. Average inclination of moon's orbit to earth's equator =19° 63. 







s 


M 




L 


N MS 




E, 


0-0718 












fi 


,76=-57 













E, 

''2 


0-9323 

322-72 


2-5859 
295°-7S 



10 


'•0804 
.8°-67 28 


•6221 

o°-3i 




R3 

^3 




0-0439 
335°-'8 










E, 
^.1 


very 
small. 


0-0169 

47° -04 






o'oi73 

2i6°-79 




R„ 




0*0444 










fa 




225°-9I 










K 


P 




X 


V n 




11 

142 


669 0" 
^•87 30: 


5688 0-3755 
3^-87 3i6°-35 






E, 


0"2 
340" 


.3S9 

'•25 





■; 


0-0613 
»S6°-46 


0-1955 0-0703 
255-63 269°-99 



TIDAL OBSERVATIONS. 133 

Loiig-iDeriocl Tides. 





((T— or) 


2(T 


2(<T-,;) 


'/ 


2„ 


K 


0-076 


0-038 


0-009 


0-115 


0-198 


£ 


247"73 


335°'4o 


326^-19 


43°-96 


8i°-98 



Yr. 1 869-70. Ao = 7-290S ft. Average inclination of moon's orbit to earth's equator = 21 °- 1 8. 
S 11 L N MS 





K, 


0-0712 














fi 


i87°-5o 














62 


0-9425 
323°-68 




2-4974 
297°-24 


o-o 
140' 


'365 0-5987 

'•69 282°-83 




R3 

^3 






0-0382 
336^-09 










^4 


very 
small. 




0-0284 
30° -4 1 






0-0236 

i8i°-3o 




Kb 

^'0 






0-0494 
215^^-16 








K, 


I' 


K 

'1907 O' 




•59 


05 O' 


p 

3850 


\ 


V ft 


fi 


144"73 309"' 


94 32o°-27 








0-2355 
33o''-57 








0-0381 
91-56 


0-0832 o'0333 

224°-40 227°-72 



Years 1S68-G9 and 1S69-70 combined. 

E T 

E2 °'°353 0-1108 

e., i2°-04 38°-96 

The following arc the results of two of the ellii^tic dinmol ticlc-comi^oiients, 
whose arguments (§ 2) are (y + a— n;) and (y—Scr + za), termed hereafter J 
and Q. The period chosen for their evaluation was STO** 5''. These results 
have been obtained since the Liverpool Meeting. 

Series J. Series Q, 



1868-69. 1869-70. 1808-69. 1869-70. 
E, 0-0800 0-C434 0-1 1 10 o-iioo 

i78°-58 i65°-88 3o8°-23 32o°-34 



f. 



fter moon's 
syzygies. 



Ectardation of phase of Spring-tides =i'>-095 = i<' 2'> 17™"! a 

Coincidence of phase of Declinational tides =o''-365 = o'' S"" 46"/ 

A comparison between the calculated and recorded heights for Kurrachee 
is appended (§ 70). A graphic representation of the heights of high and low 
water, as calculated bj- the system of harmonic analysis and the method pur- 
sued by Mr. Parkes, together with the actual recorded heights for Nov, 1869 
also accompanies this Eeport. 

68. The series of hourly tide-heights (1869, April 24 to May 6), calcu- 
lated for St. George's Pier, Liverpool, referred to above, are here given, and 
will give a moderately accurate idea of the amount of precision at present 
arrived at. It must not, however, be forgotten that the recorded heights are 
not corrected in any respect, and include all instrumental errors &c. The value 
of the Helmholtz shallow-Avater quarter-diurnal tide (MS) is given in a 
separate column, and its effect shown in improving generally the precedin"- 
differences. 



134 



REPORT — 1870. 



April 24. 



April 25. 





"So 


-%» 


o7 



■5". 


Sm 




lo 


T^ Cd 


S 


^a 


g"p4 


o 


gfc 




fcu 

5 




g 1 


i 


§"3: 
"a 2 


8-S. 

k1 


fe 1 
S 


^ 






ft. 


ft. 


ft. 


ft. 


ft. 




ft. 


ft. 


ft. 


ft. 


ft. 


o 


21-46 


21-0 


+0-46 


—0-29 


+0-17 





26-52 


26-1 


4-0-42 


— 0-14 


4-0-28 


1 


i6'23 


15-6 


+0-63 


—0-40 


+0-23 


1 


21-07 


19-8 


4-1-27 


—0-40 


4-0-87 


a 


1070 


10-7 


0-00 


— o-ii 


— oil 


2 


14-85 


14-2 


-1-0-65 


—0-26 


4-0-39 


3 


6-27 


6-5 


-0-23 


+ 0-28 


+0-05 


3 


8-74 


9"5 


— 0-46 


4-0-14 


-0-32 


4 


3-8i 


3-8 


+ 0-01 


+ 0-40 


+0-41 


4 


4-33 


4-8 


-0-47 


4-0-41 


—0-06 


5 


4-83 


3-9 


+ 0-93 


+ 0-11 


+ 1-04 


5 


2-43 


2-3 


-1-0-13 


4-0-26 


4-0-39 


6 


9'S4 


8-3 


+ I-24 


— 0-27 


+0-97 


6 


4-41 


2-4 


-t-20I 


— 0-12 


4-1-89 


7 


J6-32 


16-5 


-o-iS 


—0-40 


—0-58 


7 


10-30 


8-7 


4-1-60 


— 0-40 


-I- 1 -20 


S 


2273 


23-7 


-0-97 


-0-13 


— I'lO 


8 


17-86 


18-1 


— 0-24 


-0-28 


-0-52 


9 


27-59 


28-3 


-0-71 


+0-25 


— 0-46 


9 


24-90 


25-0 


— o-io 


4-0-09 


—0-0 1 


lo 


29-70 


30-5 


— o-8o 


+0-40 


— 0-40 


10 


29-61 


296 


4-0-01 


4-0-39 


4-0-40 


1 1 


28-22 


29-0 


-0-78 


4-0-16 


— 0-62 


II 


31-12 


3i'4 


—0-28 


4-0-30 


-f 0-02 


12 


23-93 


23-8 


+ 0-13 


-0-25 


— 0-I2 


12 


"-S-57 


28-6 


— 0-03 


—0-06 


— 0-09 


13 


18-53 


17-7 


+ 0-83 


— 0-41 


4-0-42 


13 


23-36 


22-1 


4-1-26 


—0-38 


4-0-88 


H 


12-81 


12-7 


4-0-II 


-0-18 


— 0-07 


14 


17-07 


161 


4-0-97 


-0-31 


4-0-66 


JS 


7-72 


8-2 


—0-48 


+0-23 


-0-25 


15 


IO-86 


10-7 


4-016 


4-0-06 


-I-0-22 


i6 


4'43 


4-8 


-0-37 


+0-41 


4-0-04 


16 


S7I 


6-2 


-0-49 


4-0-38 


— o-ii 


17 


4-22 


3-6 


+ 0-62 


+0-18 


4-0-80 


17 


278 


31 


-0-32 


4-0-32 


0-00 


i8 


7-83 


61 


+ 1-73 


—0-20 


+ 1-53 


18 


3-58 


2-1 


-1-1-48 


— 003 


■+-1-4S 


'9 


14-44 


12-8 


+ 1-64 


—0-41 


+ 1-23 


19 


8-41 


57 


+2-71 


-0-37 


-l-2'34 


20 


21-38 


211 


+0-28 


— 0-21 


4-0-07 


20 


15-90 


14-5 


4-1-40 


-0-33 


4-1-07 


21 


27-12 


26-9 


+0-22 


+ 0-17 


4-0-39 


21 


2336 


231 


4-0-26 


4-0-01 


4-0-27 


22 


30'4i 


30-6 


— 0-19 


+ 0-41 


4-0-22 


22 


2903 


28-6 


4-0-43 


4-0-36 


4-0-79 


a3 


30-20 


30*6 


—0-40 


+ 0-23 


-0-17 


*3 


31-76 


31-7 


-ho-06 


4-036 


4-0-42 









April 26 










April 27. 









30-74 


30-6 


+0-I4 


4-0-02 


4-o-i6 





32-00 


31-9 


-)-o-io 


4-0-18 


4-0-28 


I 


25-84 


24-9 


4-0-94 


-0-34 


4-0-60 


I 


29-50 


29-1 


4-0-40 


—0-22 


4-0-18 


2 


19-52 


l8-2 


+ 1-32 


— 0-36 


4-0-96 


2 


24-12 


22-3 


-f-l-82 


—0-41 


4-1-41 


3 


12-94 


12-3 


+0-64 


— 0-C2 


4-0-62 


3 


17-54 


16-5 


-i-i-04 


— 0-2I 


4-0-83 


4 


7-04 


7-6 


— 0-56 


+o'34 


— 0-22 


4 


10-99 


HI 


— O-II 


4-0-20 


-I-0-09 


5 


293 


3-8 


-0-87 


4-0-37 


— 0-50 


5 


55^ 


6-2 


— 0-64 


-1-0-41 


-0-23 


6 


1-88 


1-6 


4-0-28 


4-005 


-1-0-33 


6 


2-26 


2-9 


— 064 


4-0-21 


-0-43 


7 


5'i5 


2-9 


4-2-25 


-0-33 


4-1-92 


7 


2-45 


11 


+ 1-35 


— 0-20 


4-I-I5 


8 


12-03 


10-5 


+ 1-53 


-0-38 


4-1-15 


8 


6-86 


4-0 


-f2-86 


—0-41 


-I-2-4S 


9 


20-13 


20-1 


4-0-03 


-0-08 


— 0-05 


9 


14-48 


13-1 


-fi-38 


— 0-24 


4-1-14 


10 


2668 


266 


-l-o-o8 


+0-31 


-t-0-39 


10 


2251 


22-2 


4-0-31 


4-0-17 


4-0-48 


11 


31-19 


30-6 


4-0-59 


-I-0-39 


4-0-98 


11 


28-68 


27-9 


4-0-78 


4-0-41 


4-1-19 


12 


31-54 


31-4 


4-0-14 


4-0-1 1 


-)-o-25 


12 


31-86 


31-2 


-fo-66 


4-0-26 


4-0-92 


13 


27-85 


27-0 


4-0-85 


— 0-29 


4-0-56 


13 


30-90 


30-4 


4-0-50 


-0-15 


4-0-35 


14 


21 73 


20-4 


+ 1-33 


— 0-40 


4-0-93 


14 


26-05 


25-0 


4-1-05 


— 0-40 


4-0-65 


15 


15-09 


14-2 


4-0-89 


— o-io 


+ 0-79 


15 


19-57 


i8-6 


4-0-97 


-0-28 


4-0-69 


16 


S-S3 


9'3 


-0-47 


4-0-27 


— 0-20 


16 


12-92 


12-9 


4-0-02 


4-0-11 


4-0-13 


17 


414 


5-0 


-0-86 


+0-40 


— 0-46 


17 


7-18 


8-0 


— 0-82 


4-0-40 


— 0-42 


18 


2-13 


25 


-0-37 


4-0-14 


-023 


18 


3-29 


4-2 


— 0-91 


4-0-28 


— 0-63 


-9 


4-01 


2-3 


+ 1-71 


-0-27 


4-1-44 


19 


2-43 


2-2 


4-0-23 


— 0-12 


-f-0-1 1 


20 


997 


7-6 


4-2-37 


— 0-40 


-M-97 


20 


5-49 


3-0 


4-2-49 


— 0-40 


4-2-09 


21 


18-03 


17-2 


4-0-83 


— o-]6 


4-0-67 


21 


12-23 


9-3 


4-2-43 


— 0-29 


+2-14 


21 


25-39 


24-9 


-fo-49 


4-0-25 


-I-0-74 


22 


20-32 


190 


4-1-32. 


-1-0-09 


4-1-41 


23 


30-52 


296 


+0-92 


+040 


-I-1-32 


23 


2706 


26-0 


4-1-06 


+ 0-39 


+ 1-45 



TIDAL OBSERVATIONS. 



135 



April 28. 



April 29. 





|d 


'gM 




- 


i« 




|d 


tM 




i, 1 


■s« 


|ff 


3 

o 

a 








§3 


g 1 


i 

w 


■is 


tD 




g 1 




31 


Kx 


S 


''a 


ftO 




0^ 


«j= 


Pi 


fi« 




ft. 


ft. 


ft. 


ft. 


ft. 




ft. 


ft. 


ft. 


ft. 


ft. 


o 


3i"io 


30- 1 


4- 1 '00 


4-0-32 


4-1-32 





27-91 


26-7 


4-I-2I 


4-0-39 


4- 1 -60 


I 


31-52 


30-9 


+0-62 


— 0-06 


+0-56 


I 


30-68 


29-7 


4-0-98 


4-0-11 


4-1-09 


2 


27-89 


26-3 


+ 1-C9 


-0-38 


4-0-71 


2 


29-80 


29-1 


4-0-70 


-0-29 


4-0-41 


3 


21-92 


20-5 


+ 1-42 


-0-33 


4-1-09 


3 


25'S3 


24-4 


+ I-I3 


—0-40 


+0-73 


4 


I5'37 


14-6 


+ 0-77 


4-o'03 


-i-o-8o 


4 


19-50 


1 8-6 


4-0-90 


-0-13 


4-0-77 


5 


9-41 


9'5 


— 0-09 


4-0-37 


-1-0-28 


5 


1358 


i3'4 


4-o-i8 


-f-o-27 


-I-0-45 


6 


4-80 


S'l 


— 0-30 


-l-o'34 


4-0-04 


6 


8-46 


8-6 


-0-14 


4-0-40 


4-0-26 


7 


265 


2-4 


+ 0-25 


— o'04 


+ 0-21 


7 


5-00 


5'i 


— O'lO 


4-o-i6 


4-0-06 


8 


4-04 


19 


+ 2-14 


— 0-36 


4-178 


8 


4-01 


3'i 


4-0-91 


-0-25 


4-0-66 


9 


938 


7-0 


+ 2-38 


-0-35 


4-2-03 


9 


636 


47 


4-1-66 


-0-41 


+ 1-25 


lO 


1718 


161 


4-1-08 


-l-o-oi 


4-1-09 


10 


12-17 


no 


-fi-17 


— 0-16 


4-I-OI 


II 


24-56 


23-6 


+o'96 


-1-0-36 


4-1-32 


II 


19-58 


18-9 


4-0-68 


4-0-25 


4-0-93 


IZ 


29-63 


181 


4-1-53 


4-0'37 


-f-i-90 


12 


25-84 


24-9 


4-0-94 


-+-0-41 


4-1-35 


n 


31-41 


30-2 


+ 1-21 


-|-0'C2 


4-1-23 


13 


2959 


28-6 


4-0-99 


-i-o-i8 


4-1-17 


'4 


29-17 


28-1 


+ 1-07 


-0-34 


4-0-73 


14 


2999 


29-1 


4-0-S9 


—0-22 


4-0-67 


IS 


23-71 


22-5 


4-I-2I 


— 0-30 


4-0-83 


15 


26-78 


26-1 


4-0-6S 


— 0-41 


+0-27 


i6 


17-21 


i6-5 


4-0-71 


— G'05 


4-0-66 


16 


21-25 


20-3 


4-0-95 


— 0-2I 


4-0-74 


17 


iri7 


11-4 


-0-23 


4-0-32 


4-0-09 


17 


i5'26 


151 


-|-o-i6 


4-0-22 


-Fo-38 


iS 


6-22 


6-9 


-0-68 


4-0-38 


—0-30 


i8 


998 


10-5 


-0-52 


4-0-41 


—on 


'9 


3-46 


3-8 


-0-34 


4-0-08 


— 0-26 


19 


6-12 


6-7 


-0-58 


4-0-2I 


-0-37 


20 


391 


2-2 


-1-I-7I 


-0-31 


4-1-40 


20 


4 '45 


43 


-1-0-15 


— 0-19 


— 0-04 


ZI 


7-71 


5-0 


4-2-71 


-0-39 


-f2-3^ 


21 


5-62 


4-0 


-fr62 


— 0-41 


4-1-21 


42 


14-76 


12-6 


4-2-:6 


— o-oS 


4-2-08 


22 


10-09 


8-4 


4-1-69 


— 0-24 


4-1-45 


*3 


22-29 


2I-0 


4-1*29 


4-0-31 


4-1-60 


23 


16-94 


15-6 


-1-1-34 


4-0-17 


4-1-51 









AprQ 30. 










S 


lay 1. 









23-42 


22-8 


4-0-62 


4-0-41 


4-1-03 





iS-4i 


17-1 


4-1-31 


4-0-34 


4-1-65 


I 


27-77 


26-9 


4-0-87 


-|-c-26 


4-I-I3 


1 


23-70 


23-0 


4-0-70 


4-0-37 


4-1-07 


2 


29-26 


28-8 


4-0-46 


— 0-14 


4-0-32 


2 


26-75 


262 


4-0-55 


-|-O-02 


4-0-57 


3 


27-57 


27-2 


4-0-37 


-0-40 


— 0-03 


3 


27-43 


27-2 


-1-0-23 


-0-33 


— O'lO 


4 


23-01 


22-1 


4-0-91 


-0-28 


4-0-63 


4- 


25-20 


25-2 


coo 


-0-38 


—0-38 


5 


17-46 


17-1 


4-0-36 


-|-0'II 


-fo-47 


5 


20-84 


20-4 


4-0-44 


— 0-05 


4-0-39 


6 


12-44 


12-4 


-1-0-04 


4-0-39 


4-0-43 


6 


16-09 


16-3 


— 0-2I 


-1-0-32 


4-0-11 


7 


861 


8-6 


-j-O'OI 


4-0-30 


4-0-31 


7 


1211 


12-3 


— 0-19 


4-0-39 


-)-0'20 


8 


6-03 


5-7 


4-0-33 


— &-09 


4-0-24 


8 


9-20 


92 


0-00 


4-o-oS 


4-0-08 


9 


5-97 


5-0 


4-0-97 


-0-39 


-fo-58 


9 


7-70 


7-1 


-)-o-6o 


-0-31 


4-0-29 


10 


8-88 


8-2 


-i-o-6S 


-0-29 


4-0-39 


10 


S16 


7-4 


-1-0-76 


— 0-40 


-(-0-36 


11 


14-66 


14-0 


-fo-66 


4-0-09 


4-0-75 


11 


11-17 


10-4 


4-0-77 


— O'lO 


4-0-67 


12 


2122 


20-8 


-fo-62 


4-0-38 


-j-i-co 


12 


16-43 


15-7 


4-0-73 


4-0-29 


4-1-02 


13 


26-iS 


25-5 


4-0-68 


4-0-32 


-j-I-QO 


13 


21-87 


21-3 


4-0-57 


-I-0-39 


4-0-96 


14 


28-24 


28-2 


4-0-04 


— 0-06 


— 0-02 


14 


25-56 


251 


4-0-46 


4-0-11 


4-0-57 


15 


28-08 


27-8 


4-0-2S 


-0-38 


— o-io 


15 


27-14 


S7-I 


4- 0-04 


— 0-27 


— 0-23 


16 


24-50 


24-0 


4-0-50 


-0-33 


-4-0-I7 


16 


26-05 


26-4 


-0-35 


— 0-40 


-075 


17 


1911 


i8-6 


4-0-51 


4-0-03 


4-0-54 


17 


22-39 


22-6 


— 0'21 


—0-13 


-0-34 


18 


13-89 


14-4 


-0-51 


+0-36 


-0-15 


18 


17-85 


i8-z 


-0-35 


4-0-25 


— O-IO 


19 


969 


10-3 


— o-6i 


4-0-36 


-0-25 


19 


13-42 


14-3 


-0-88 


4-0-40 


-0-48 


20 


689 


7-1 


— 0-2I 


— O'OI 


— 0-22 


20 


I0-2O 


IO-8 


— o-6o 


-fo-i6 


-0-44 


21 


6-05 


5-3 


4-0-75 


— 0-36 


4-0-39 


21 


8-13 


8-2 


— 0-07 


-0-25 


— 0-32 


22 


7-75 


6-6 


+ VIS 


— 0-36 


4-0-79 


22 


7-8i 


7-3 


4-0-51 


— 0-41 


4-0-10 


23 


1229 


112 


4-1-09 


— 0-02 


4-1-07 


23 


9-61 


8-9 


4-0-71 


-o-i8 


4-0-53 



136 



KEPOKT — 1870. 



May: 



Mcy 3. 



9 

o 


£0 

31 


k2 







11 





50 

c ^ 

— 


(Si 




ft 


•. 


i 




ft. 


ft. 


ft. 


ft. 


ft. 




ft. 


ft. 


ft. 


ft. 


ft. 


o 


1372 


12-6 


+ 1-12 


+ 0-22 


+1-34 





10-74 


10-4 


+C.-34 


4-0-06 


4-0-40 


X 


18-95 


17-8 


+ 1-15 


4-0-41 


+1-56 


I 


14-32 


13-9 


-fo-42 


4-0-38 


4-o-8o 


2 


23-07 


22'2 


+ 0-S7 


-fo-18 


4-1-05 


2 


18-72 


18-3 


4-0-42 


4-0-32 


+°-74 


3 


25-32 


24-7 


+ 0-62 


— 0-20 


4-0-42 


3 


22-07 


21-4 


+0-67 


—0-04 


+0-63 


4 


25-51 


25-1 


+ 0-41 


— 0-41 


0-00 


4 


23-89 


23-2 


4-0-69 


-0-37 


4-0-32 


5 


23-25 


23-1 


+0-I5 


— 0-21 


—0-06 


5 


23-97 


23-3 


4-0-67 


-0-33 


+0-34 


6 


i9'3S 


191 


+0-25 


-fo-17 


4-0-42 


6 


21-91 


21-5 


4-0-41 


4-0-01 


4-0-42 


7 


15-58 


15-6 


— 0-02 


+ 0-41 


4-0-39 


7 


18-76 


18-4 


+0-36 


4-0-36 


4-0-72 


8 


12-61 


12-4 


-|-0-2I 


-I-0-23 


+0-44 


8 


15-90 


15-5 


4-0-40 


+0-35 


+0-75 


9 


10-48 


99 


+ 0-58 


— 0-14 


4-0-44 


9 


13-63 


129 


4-0-73 


4-0-02 


■fo-75 


lO 


9'45 


8-9 


+ 0-55 


— 0-40 


4-0-15 


10 


1I-S6 


110 


4-0-86 


-0-34 


4-0-52 


ji 


g-96 


9-6 


+ 0-56 


—0-26 


-|-o-io 


11 


10-S3 


lo-i 


+0-73 


—0-36 


4-0-37 


12 


12-69 


]2-l 


+ 0-59 


+0-14 


+0-73 


12 


1 1-07 


106 


+0-47 


— 0-02 


-fo"45 


13 


17-23 


16-3 


+ 0-93 


4-0-40 


-+I-33 


13 


13-30 


12-8 


4-0-50 


4-0-32 


4-0-82 


14 


21-64 


20-7 


+0-94 


+C-28 


4-1-22 


14 


17-18 


16-5 


4-0-68 


+ 0-38 


4-1-06 


15 


24-54 


23-7 


+ 0-84 


— 0'12 


4-0-72 


15 


20-96 


20-1 


4-0-S6 


4-C-O5 


4-0-91 


16 


25-59 


25-3 


+ 0-29 


— C-40 


— O'll 


16 


23--:4 


22-6 


+ 0-84 


-0-33 


4-0-51 


17 


24-26 


24-6 


-0-34 


-O-2S 


— 0-62 


17 


24-37 


23-8 


-fo-57 


-038 


4-0-19 


18 


20-94 


21-6 


-0-66 


4-0-09 


-0-57 


18 


23-28 


23-1 


4-0-18 


-0-08 


-f o-io 


'9 


17-04 


,7-6 


— 0-56 


+ C-39 


-0-17 


19 


20-38 


203 


4-0-08 


4-0-31 


4-0-39 


20 


14-00 


14-1 


— o-io 


4-0-30 


4-0-20 


20 


17-17 


170 


4-0-17 


4-0-39 


+0-56 


21 


11-22 


11-3 


-o-cS 


— C-C9 


-0-17 


21 


14-55 


14-0 


•fo-55 


4-0-11 


4-066 


22 


964 


9-2 


+ 0-44 


— 0-38 


-l-C-06 


22 


12-34 


11-4 


-fo-94 


— 029 


+0-65 


23 


9-26 


8-6 


-i-o-66 


-0-31 


+ ^■35 


23 


10-71 


9-6 


-hi-ii 


— 0-40 


4-0-71 









May 4. 










May 5. 









9-95 


9-1 


4-0-85 


— 0-11 


-fc-74 





11-21 


IO-6 


4-0-61 


-0-27 


-fO-34 


I 


11-03 


10-4 


4-0-63 


+ 0-27 


4-0-90 


I 


9-54 


9-6 


-fo-34 


4-012 


4-0-46 


2 


14-10 


13-2 


4-090 


4-0-40 


4-1-30 


2 


10-54 


10-2 


4-0-34 


4-0-40 


+ 0-74 


3 


17-99 


17-0 


4-0-99 


4-0-14 


+1-13 


3 


13-56 


12-5 


4-1-06 


4-0-29 


+ 1-35 


4 


2102 


20-1 


4-0-92 


— 0-24 


4-0-68 


4 


17-29 


]6-i 


4-1-19 


— 0-09 


4- 1-10 


5 


2284 


21-9 


4-0-94 


— 0-41 


-40-53 


5 


20-41 


20-0 


-1-0-41 


-0-39 


4-0-02 


6 


23-07 


22-6 


+047 


— 0-14 


-fo-33 


6 


22-47 


22-4 


4-0-07 


— 029 


— 0-22 


7 


21-35 


21-5 


-0-15 


4-0-25 


4-0-10 


7 


23-14 


23-6 


— 0-46 


4-0-C9 


-0-37 


8 


,8-93 


19-2 


— 0-27 


-1-0-40 


4-0-13 


8 


2 J 74 


23-1 


-1-36 


+ 0-39 


-0-97 


9 


16-72 


16-5 


4-C-22 


4-0-ls 


4-0-40 


9 


19-70 


20-8 


— no 


4-0-32 


—0-78 


10 


14-72 


14-0 


4-0-72 


— 0-22 


4-0-50 


10 


17-63 


178 


-0-17 


— o-c6 


-0-23 


11 


12-87 


11-7 


-fi-17 


— 0-41 


4-0-76 


11 


15-42 


15-1 


4-0-32 


-0-38 


— o-c6 


12 


11-43 


10-4 


4-1-03 


— 0-21 


40-82 


12 


12-99 


12-6 


4-0-39 


-0-33 


4-o-c6 


'3 


11-17 


10-5 


+ 0-67 


4-0-20 


4-C-87 


J3 


1 106 


10-9 


4-C-16 


4-0-03 


4-0-19 


14 


13-09 


122 


4-0-S9 


4-0-41 


4-1-50 


H 


10-51 


ic-6 


— c-tg 


4-0-37 


4-0-28 


15 


16-73 


15-7 


4-1-03 


4-0-21 


4-1-24 


15 


12-53 


11-9 


4-0-63 


-fc-34 


4-0-97 


16 


20-27 


19-3 


4-0-97 


— 019 


+ 0-78 


]6 


16-20 


15-1 


4-110 


— 0-01 


4-1-C9 


17 


22-73 


21-9 


■40-83 


-c-41 


4-0-42 


17 


19S8 


19-3 


+0-58 


— 0-56 


4-0-22 


18 


23-81 


23-4 


4-0-41 


— 0-24 


4-C-17 


18 


22-6o 


22-6 


c-co 


-0-35 


-0-35 


'9 


23-00 


23-2 


— 0-20 


4-C-17 


-0-C3 


19 


24-07 


24-6 


-''--53 


4-001 


-0-52 


20 


20-59 


211 


-0-51 


4-C-4I 


-c-jo 


20 


23-47 


246 


-1-13 


4-0-36 


-0-77 


21 


17-90 


17-9 


o-co 


4-0-26 


40-26 


21 


21-29 


22-6 


— 1-31 


4-C-37 


-0-94 


22 


15-46 


15-0 


4-0-46 


-C-I4 


-fo-32 


22 


18-70 


190 


-o-;o 


4-0-C2 


— 0-28 


23 


1316 


12-6 


+C-56 


-0-40 


40-16 


23 


16-03 


15-9 


4-0-13 


— 0-34 


— 0-21 



TIDAL OBSERVATIONS. 



137 



MayG. 



3 

a 


Is 

§|cJo 
OJ3 


Is 
o.tl 


Sao 
P 


? € 


a 


B 


M 


Cj to 





SbO 




;_a 






ft. 


ft. 


ft. 


ft. 


ft. 




ft. 


ft. 


ft. 


ft. 


ft. 


o 


I3II 


J2-7 


+ 0-41 


— 0-3S 


+ 003 


12 


15-31 


i5'4 


— 0-09 


— 0-40 


-0-49 


I 


10-46 


10-4 


+ 0-06 


— 005 


+ 0-0I 


13 


12-28 


12-5 


— 0'22 


-013 


-0-35 


2 


8-93 


9-2 


-0-27 


+ 0-32 


+0-05 


14 


986 


IO-6 


-0-74 


+0-27 


— 0-47 


3 


979 


97 


+ 0-09 


+ 0-38 


+o'47 


IS 


9-52 


IO-2 


-0-68 


+0-40 


-0-28 


4 


13-05 


12-3 


+ 075 


+ o-c8 


+0-83 


16 


11-93 


I2-I 


— G-17 


+ o-i6 


— o-oi 


5 


17-07 


164 


+ 0-67 


-0-31 


+ 0-36 


17 


1608 


159 


+o'i8 


— 0-22 


— 0-04 


6 


20-45 


20-6 


-o-i? 


-0-39 


-0-54 


18 


20-09 


20-2 


— o-ii 


— 0-41 


-0-52 


7 


22-98 


238 


-0-S2 


-0-08 


— 0-90 


19 


23-11 


24-0 


-0-89 


— o-il 


— I -00 


8 


23-72 


25-4 


-1-68 


+0-31 


-1-37 


20 


24-98 


261 


— 1-12 


+ 0-25 


-087 


9 


22-6o 


24-8 


— 2-20 


+ 039 


-i-8i 


21 


24-35 


26-1 


-175 


+ 0-41 


-1-34 


lO 


21-47 


221 


— 0-63 


+ 0-11 


-0-52 


22 


22-04 


23-6 


-1-56 


+ o-i8 


-1-38 


II 


18-15 


i8-6 


-0-45 


— 0-29 


-0-74 


23 


19-14 


19-6 


— 0-46 


— 0-22 


-0-68 



G9. The following is a comparison for fourteen days, commencing 1859, 
March 1 6, of the recorded heights at Fort Point, San Francisco Bay, Cali- 
fornia, with the heights calculated from the analyzed tide-components (§ 66). 
In the calculation of the heights, the mean level of the water as determined 
by the observations for the whole year was used. The difference between 
this mean level and the me;m of the twenty-four hoiirly heights (corrected 
for all sensible lunar influence) for each day is also given. The effect of this 
is to greatly improve the differences (C— R). The following tide-components 
were omitted in the calculations : — the whole of the long-period tides, the 
luni-solar semidiurnal tides X and /j, and the Helmholtz shallow-water quarter- 
diurnal tide MS. The computations are for heal time. 







1859 


March 16. 








1859, March 17 






Q 




TSqJ 
J5 


a: 

1^ 




£4= 


g 


3-e 




11 




i 






K 


5 « 


Kj3 


SCO 






w 


60 

o-c 


tc 


&6 
s 





■3 






ft. 


ft. 


ft. 


ft. 


ft. 




ft. 


ft. 


ft. 




ft. 


ft. 





903 


8-8 


-I-0-23 


—0-24 


—0-01 





10-20 


10-2 


0-00 


— 


O-I I 


— oil 


t 


7-56 


7-0 


4-0-56 




4-0-32 


I 


8-82 


8-6 


4-0-Z2 






4-0-I1 


2 


626 


57 


+ 0-56 




4-0-32 


2 


7-34 


7-1 


4-0-24 






4-0-13 


3 


5'44 


5-0 


+ 044 




4-0-20 


3 


6,5 


59 


4-0-25 






4-0-14 


4 


526 


S'o 


-fo-26 




4-0-02 


4 


S'52 


5 '4 


4-0-12 






4-0-01 


5 


572 


5-5 


-)-0-22 




— 0-C2 


5 


5-57 


5'S 


4-0-07 






-0-04 


6 


667 


6-5 


-f 0-17 




— 0-07 


6 


6-24 


6-3 


— o-c6 






-0-17 


7 


7-93 


7-6 


4-0-33 




4-0-09 


7 


7-34 


7-4 


— o-o6 






-0-17 


8 


9-27 


90 


-l-G-27 




4-0-03 


8 


8-68 


8-5 


-ho-i8 






4-0-07 


9 


10-36 


99 


-1-0-46 




4-0-22 


9 


9-95 


9-8 


4-0-15 






4-0-04 


10 


10-95- 


ic-4 


+ 0-55 




4-0-31 


10 


1088 


10-6 


4-0-28 






4-0-17 


II 


ic-92 


ic-4 


-1-0-52 




4-0-28 


11 


11-21 


no 


4-0-21 






4-0-10 


12 


10-28 


lO'O 


4-0-28 




4-0-04 


12 


10-87 


loS 


4-0-07 






— 0-04 


"3 


9-28 


92 


-f-o-o8 




— 0-16 


13 


996 


10-0 


— 0-C4 






-0-15 


14 


825 


7'9 


-fo-35 




-f o-i I 


14 


8-77 


87 


4-0-07 






—0-04 


'5 


7-47 


7'2 


-J-c-27 




4-O-C3 


15 


7-62 


7-5 


4-0-I2 






-f o-oi 


16 


7-23 


7'i 


4-0-13 




— O-II 


16 


689 


6-8 


4-0-09 






— 0-C2 


17 


7'49 


7'5 


— c-oi 




-0-25 


17 


673 


6-8 


— 0-07 






-C-18 


18 


8-22 


8-3 


— o-c8 




— c-32 


18 


7-i8 


7'2 


— 0-C2 






-0-13 


'9 


9-21 


93 


— 0-C9 




-0-33 


'9 


S-05 


8-2 


-0-15 






— 0-26 


20 


10-23 


10-2 


4-0-03 




— 0-2I 


20 


919 


92 


— O-OI 






— 0-12 


21 


11-08 


111 


— 0-C2 




— 0-26 


21 


10-26 


lO'I 


4-0-16 






4-0-05 


22 


1 1 -41 


11-3 


4-0-11 




-0-13 


22 


11-05 


I 1-0 


4-0-05 






— o-o6 


23 


11-13 


II-2 


-c-07 




-0-31 


23 


ii'34 


"■3 


4-0-04 






— 0-07 



138 



REPORT — 1870. 



1859, March 18. 



1859, March 19, 



u 


0.0 




11 




i4 


S 




n3 . 
oiO 




t" 1 





5 


|5 


w 


g M 

3^ 




ft 






K 


3- 


w 


EOO 

s 




H 

w 


'3 






ft. 


ft. 


ft. 


ft. 


ft. 




ft. 


ft. 


ft. 




ft. 


ft. 


o 


10-94 


10-9 


+0-04 


o-oo 


4-0-04 





11-12 


10-7 


4-0-42 




0-16 


4-0-26 


I 


996 


lo-o 


— 0-04 




— 0-04 


I 


10-63 


10-3 


4-0-33 






4-0-17 


2 


8-59 


8-5 


+0-09 




4-0-09 


2 


9-63 


9-5 


4-0-13 






— 0-03 


3 


7-22 


7-1 


+0-12 




4-0-I2 


3 


8-35 


8-2 


4-0-15 






— O'OI 


4 


620 


6-2 


o-oo 




0-00 


4 


7-18 


7-0 


4-0-18 






4-0-02 


5 


5-82 


5-9 


—0-08 




-0-08 


S 


6-42 


6-4 


4-0-02 






— 0-14 


6 


6ii 


6-3 


—0-19 




— 0-19 


6 


6-34 


6-4 


— o-o6 






— 0-22 


7 


693 


7-1 


-0-17 




-0-17 


7 


6-82 


7-0 


-0-18 






-0-34 


8 


815 


8-3 


-0-15 




-0-15 


8 


779 


7-9 


— oil 






-0-27 


9 


9-46 


9 '4 


+0-06 




4-0-06 


9 


8-98 


9-0 


—0-02 






-o-i8 


10 


10-57 


10-5 


4-0-07 




4-0-07 


10 


10-13 


10-2 


— 0-07 






-0-23 


11 


1124 


II -0 


4-0-24 




4-0-24 


11 


11-01 


10-8 


4-0-21 






4-0-05 


12 


11-27 


HI 


4-0-17 




4-0-17 


12 


11-38 


11-2 


4-0-18 






-I-0-02 


13 


10-61 


10-5 


4-0-II 




4-0-II 


13 


11-09 


ii-i 


—0-01 






-0-17 


14 


9-48 


94 


4-0-08 




4-0-08 


14 


10-21 


10-2 


4-0-01 






-0-15 


IS 


8-14 


7'9 


4-0-24 




4-0-24 


15 


8-92 


8-9 


4-0-02 






— 0-14 


i6 


6-99 


6-8 


4-0-19 




4-0-19 


16 


7-55 


7 '4 


4-0-15 






— o-oi 


17 


6'39 


6-2 


4-0-19 




4-0-19 


17 


6-52 


6-4 


-}-0-12 






—0-04 


i8 


6-40 


6-2 


4-0-20 




4-0-20 


18 


6-04 


S'9 


4-0-14 






— 0-02 


19 


6-99 


6-8 


4-0-19 




4-0-19 


'9 


6-22 


6-1 


4-0-12 






— 0-04 


20 


7-98 


77 


4-0-28 




4-0-28 


20 


6-90 


6-7 


4-0-20 






4-0-04 


21 


9'i3 


8-7 


4-0-43 




+o'43 


21 


7-93 


77 


4-0-23 






4-0-07 


22 


1021 


9-8 


4-0-41 




4-0-41 


22 


9-07 


87 


4-0-37 






-f-0-2I 


^3 


10-95 


10-4 


+0-55 




+0-55 


23 


10-07 


9-8 


4-0-27 






4-0-H 







1859, 


March 20. 








1859 


, March 21. 







10-67 


10-4 


4-0-27 4-0-05 


4-0-32 





9-78 


97 


4-0-08 4-°'37 


+°-45 


1 


10-76 


10-6 


-I-0-16 


4-0-2I 


I 


10-32 


10-3 


4-0-02 


4-0-39 


2 


10-26 


10-3 


—0-04 


4-0-01 


2 


10-35 


10-5 


-0-15 


4-0-22 


3 


9 3^ 


9'5 


-0-18 


-0-13 


3 


9-91 


10-2 


—0-29 


4-0-08 


4 


8-23 


8-4 


-0-17 


—0-12 


4 


9-10 


95 


— 0-40 


— 0-03 


5 


7-34 


7-5 


—0-16 


— oil 


5 


8-27 


8-8 


-0-53 


— o-i6 


6 


6-88 


7-1 


— 0-22 


-0-17 


6 


7-65 


S-i 


-0-45 


-o-o8 


7 


7-01 


7-4 


-0-39 


-0-34 


7 


745 


S-o 


-0-55 


-0-18 


8 


7-63 


8-2 


-0-57 


-0-52 


8 


775 


8-3 


-0-55 


— o-i8 


9 


8-62 


91 


-0-48 


-0-43 


9 


8-48 


9' 


—0-62 


-0-25 


10 


9-70 


lo-i 


— 0-40 


-0-35 


10 


9'33 


9-8 


-0-47 


— o-io 


II 


10-64 


HI 


— 0-46 


—0-41 


II 


10-23 


10-8 


-0-57 


— 0-20 


12 


11-24 


11-8 


— 0-56 


-0-51 


12 


10-95 


11-5 


-0-55 


-o-i8 


13 


11-30 


12-0 


— 0-70 


— 0-65 


13 


11-25 


11-9 


—0-65 


— 0-28 


H 


10-78 


H-5 


— 0-72 


— 0-67 


14 


11 -06 


11-7 


—0-64 


— 0-27 


15 


9-71 


10-3 


-0-59 


-0-54 


15 


10-38 


10-8 


—0-42 


— 0-05 


16 


8-37 


8-7 


-0-33 


-0-28 


16 


9-21 


9-6 


-0-39 


— 0-02 


17 


7-10 


7'3 


— 0-20 


-0-15 


17 


7-91 


8-1 


— 0-19 


4-0-18 


18 


6-18 


6-5 


— 0-32 


-0-27 


18 


6-75 


6-9 


-0-15 


4-0-22 


19 


5-89 


6-2 


-0-31 


— 0-26 


19 


6-03 


6-1 


—0-07 


4-0-30 


20 


6-14 


6-4 


— 0-26 


— 0-2I 


20 


5-81 


59 


— 0-09 


4-0-28 


ZI 


6-86 


7-0 


— 0-14 


—0-09 


21 


6-14 


61 


4-0-04 


4-0-41 


22 


7-87 


7-9 


— 0-03 


4-0-02 


22 


6-83 


6-7 


4-0-13 


4-0-50 


23 


8-92 


8-8 


4-0-is 


40-17 


23 


7-76 


7-5 


4-0-26 


4-0-63 



TIDAL OBSERVATIONS. 



139 



1859, March 22. 



1859, March 23. 





|d 


tl^ 





"S 


a 


i^ 




1^ 


■^M 


g 




£^" 


o 


•3 -" 

6^ 




lei 











3:3 


60 


S 1 


tD d <? 

»4 


fid, 




ft. 


ft. 


ft. 




ft. 


ft. 




ft. 


ft. 


ft. 


ft. 


ft. 


o 


8-66 


8-4 


+0-26 


■+- 


0-13 


4-0-39 





7-56 


7 "4 


4-0-16 


—0-05 


4-o-n 


I 


9'44 


9-2 


-I-0-24 






+0-37 


I 


8-37 


8-2 


4-0-17 




4-0-12 


2 


990 


97 


4-0-20 






+0-33 


2 


9-05 


9-0 


4-0-05 




O'OO 


3 


996 


99 


+o-o6 






+0-19 


3 


9-52 


9-4 


4-0-12 




4-0-07 


4 


964 


9-6 


+0-04 






+0-17 


4 


9-67 


95 


4-0-17 




4-0-12 


5 


9-05 


9-2 


-0-15 






— 0-02 


S 


9'5i 


94 


4-0-1I 




4-0-06 


6 


8-45 


87 


—0-25 






—0-12 


6 


9-14 


9' 


4-0-04 




— o-oi 


7 


812 


8-2 


-o-o8 






-fo-05 


7 


8-78 


8-8 


—0-02 




— 0-07 


8 


811 


8-3 


—019 






—0-06 


8 


8-59 


8-7 


—on 




—0-16 


9 


8-49 


8-7 


— 0-2I 






—0-08 


9 


8-74 


8-7 


4-0-04 




— O'Ol 


lO 


914 


93 


— o-i6 






—0-03 


10 


9-10 


9-1 


0-00 




— 0-05 


II 


9-88 


10-0 


— 0-12 






-f-o-oi 


11 


9-64 


95 


4-0-14 




4-0-09 


12 


10-55 


IO-6 


—0-05 






+0-08 


12 


10-19 


lO'O 


4-0-19 




4-0-14 


13 


n-oo 


11-2 


— 0"20 






— 0-07 


13 


10-64 


10-5 


4-0-14 




4-0-09 


H 


11-07 


11-3 


-0-23 






— o-io 


14 


10-87 


10-9 


—0-03 




—0-08 


IS 


10-75 


10-9 


-0-15 






—0-02 


15 


10-84 


10-9 


—0-06 




— on 


i6 


9-96 


lo-o 


— 0-04 






+0-09 


16 


10-39 


10-5 


— o-ii 




— 0-16 


17 


8-83 


8-7 


+ 0-13 






-I-0-26 


17 


9-62 


9-5 


4-0-12 




4-0-07 


i8 


7-6i 


7-+ 


+0-2I 






+0-34 


18 


8-57 


8-3 


4-0-27 




4-0-Z2 


'9 


6-6o 


6-4 


+ 0-20 






+0-33 


19 


7-50 


7'2 


4-0-30 




4-0-25 


20 


6-00 


5'9 


+0'IO 






+0-23 


20 


6-54 


6-3 


4-0-24 




4-0-19 


21 


582 


57 


+ 0-12 






+0-25 


21 


6-07 


5-8 


4-0-27 




-f 0-22 


22 


6-15 


6-0 


+ 0-15 






4-0-28 


22 


5-90 


5-8 


4-0-10 




4-0-05 


»3 


677 


6-6 


+0-17 






+0-30 


23 


6-13 


6-1 


4-0-03 




— 0-02 







1859, 


March 24. 








1859, March 25. 







6-65 


6-6 


-ho-o5 — o-u 


— 0-06 





6-10 


6-2 


—0-10 —0-06 


—0-16 


I 


7-34 


7-3 


4-0-04 


—0-07 


1 


6-53 


6-6 


—0-07 


-0-13 


2 


8-08 


8-0 


4-0-08 


—0-03 


2 


7-15 


7-3 


-0-15 


— 0-21 


3 


8-76 


8-6 


4-0-16 


4-0-05 


3 


7-88 


8-0 


—012 


—0-18 


4 


928 


91 


4-0-18 


4-0-07 


4 


8-60 


8-7 


—0-10 


—0-16 


5 


9'55 


9'3 


4-0-25 


4-0-14 


5 


9-21 


9-2 


-}-o-oi 


— 0-05 


6 


9'54 


94 


4-0-14 


4-0-03 


6 


9-58 


9-5 


4-0-08 


4-0-02 


7 


933 


93 


4-0-03 


— o-o8 


7 


9-67 


97 


—0-03 


—0-09 


8 


9-12 


91 


4-0-02 


—0-09 


8 


9-58 


9-6 


— o-oa 


—0-08 


9 


9-07 


9-0 


4-0-07 


—0-04 


9 


9 '44 


95 


— 0-06 


— 0-12 


10 


9-17 


91 


4-0-07 


—0-04 


10 


9-36 


93 


4-0-06 


o-oo 


11 


9'47 


93 


4-0-17 


4-0-06 


11 


9 '47 


9-4 


4-0-07 


4-0-01 


12 


989 


9-6 


4-0-29 


4-0-18 


12 


9-64 


9'5 


4-0-14 


4-0-08 


13 


10-26 


lo-o 


-1-0-26 


4-0-15 


13 


9-89 


9-8 


4-0-09 


4-0-03 


14 


10-56 


10-3 


4-0-26 


4-0-15 


14 


10-15 


lo-o 


4-0-15 


4-0-09 


15 


10-68 


10-5 


4-o-iS 


4-0-07 


15 


10-34 


10-3 


4-0-04 


—0-02 


16 


10-57 


10-5 


4-0-07 


—0-04 


16 


10-45 


10-5 


— 0-05 


— O-II 


17 


10-17 


10-1 


4-0-07 


— 0-04 


17 


10-39 


10-4 


— o-oi 


—0-07 


18 


943 


93 


4-0-13 


-f 0-02 


18 


10-01 


101 


— 0-09 


-0-15 


19 


8-48 


8-2 


4-0-28 


4-0-17 


"9 


936 


95 


— 0-14 


— 0-20 


20 


7-47 


7'i 


4-0-37 


4-0-26 


20 


8-48 


8-5 


—0-02 


— 0-08 


21 


6-63 


6-4 


4-0-23 


4-0-12 


21 


7-50 


7-6 


— o-io 


— 0-16 


22 


6-09 


6-0 


4-0-09 


— 0-02 


22 


6-68 


G-S 


— 0-12 


— 018 


23 


S"93 


6-0 


-0-07 


-o-i8 


23 


614 


6-4 


—0-26 


— 0-32 



140 



KEPORT — 1870. 



1859, March 26. 



1809, March 27*. 





l<^ 


|« 





•0 


S 


J-.* 




1" 


"?«" 


U 


"S 




c-1 






Is" 


l« 











a -^ 




11 


1 




1 + 


w 


M 


(§1 




8 


'5 




M 


3-i 


to 
P5^ 






w 


■a 






ft. 


ft. 


ft. 




ft. 


ft. 




ft. 


ft. 


ft. 




ft. 


ft. 





5-95 


6-4 


-0-45 


4- 


016 


—0-29 





6-14 


6-5 


— 0-36 


+ 


0-13 


-0-23 


I 


6-04 


6-5 


— 0-46 






—0-30 


I 


5-97 


6-4 


-0-43 






—0-30 


2 


6-45 


6-9 


-0-45 






—0-29 


2 


6-02 


6-6 


-0-58 






-045 


3 


7-06 


7-5 


-0-44 






—0-28 


3 


6-47 


6-9 


-0-43 






— o'30 


4 


7-83 


8-2 


-0-37 






— 0-2I 


4 


7-15 


7-6 


-0-45 






-0-32 


5 


864 


8-9 


— 0-26 






— O'lO 


5 


8-02 


8-2 


— 0-18 






—005 


6 


930 


94 


— o-io 






+0-06 


6 


8-90 


8-9 


0-00 






4-0-13 


7 


976 


9-8 


—0-04 






+0-12 


7 


9-58 


94 


4-0-18 






4-0-31 


g 


9-87 


lo-o 


-0-13 






+ 0-03 


8 


lo-oo 


97 


+0-30 






-I-0-43 


9 


978 


lo-o 


— 0-22 






— 0-06 


9 


10-02 


9-8 


+0-22 






+o'3S 


lO 


956 


9-8 


— 0-24 






— o-o8 


10 


9-82 


9-6 


4-0-22 






-1-0-35 


II 


9 44 


95 


— 006 






4-0-I0 


II 


9-50 


93 


4-o-ao 






4-0-33 


12 


942 


9 4 


+ 0-02 






+o-i8 


12 


9-26 


8-9 


+0-36 






4-0-49 


'3 


954 


9 4 


+ 0-14 






+0-30 


13 


9-16 


8-6 


4-0-56 






4-0-69 


1+ 


971 


97 


4-0-OI 






+0-17 


14 


9-23 


8-6 


+0-63 






4-0-76 


15 


992 


lo-o 


—0-08 






4-0-08 


15 


939 


8-8 


+o"59 






4-0-72 


i6 


10-13 


IO-2 


—0-07 






+0-09 


16 


968 


91 


4-0-58 






4-0-71 


17 


10-31 


10-4 


— 0-09 






+0-07 


17 


lo-oo 


94 


-f-0-60 






4-073 


i8 


10-32 


10-4 


— o-o8 






+0-08 


18 


10-27 


9-6 


4-0-67 






4-0-80 


19 


10-03 


10-2 


-0-17 






— o-oi 


19 


10-34 


97 


4-0-64 






+0-77 


20 


9-40 


95 


— o-io 






4-o"o6 


20 


10-07 


95 


4-0-57 






4-0-70 


21 


848 


8-8 


-0-32 






— 016 


21 


9-42 


8-9 


4-0-52 






4-0-65 


22 


7-55 


79 


-0-3S 






—019 


22 


8-52 


8-1 


4-0-42 






+0-55 


*3 


6-70 


7-0 


— 0-30 






— 014 


*3 


7-52 


7'i 


4-0-42 






+°'55 







1859 


March 28. 








1859, March 29. 







6-67 


6-1 


4-0-57 -0-54 


4-0-03 





7-43 


6-9 


4-0-53 —060 


— 0-07 


I 


614 


57 


4-0-44 


— o-io 


I 


6-62 


5'9 


4-0-72 


4-0-I2 


2 


5-96 


57 


4-0-26 


-0-28 


2 


6-15 


5-6 


+0-55 


— 0-05 


3 


614 


58 


-^o-34 


— 0-20 


3 


6 -08 


57 


4-0-38 


— 0-22 


4 


6-68 


6-3 


4-0-38 


— 0-16 


4 


6-43 


6-1 


4-0-33 


—0-27 


5 


749 


7-0 


4-0-49 


— 0-05 


5 


7-11 


6-8 


4-0-31 


—0-29 


6 


8-43 


79 


+0-53 


— O-OI 


6 


8-02 


7-6 


4-0-42 


-0-18 


7 


9-30 


8-6 


4-0-70 


4-0-16 


7 


8-98 


8-4 


4-0-58 


— 0-02 


8 


993 


91 


4-0-83 


4-0-29 


8 


9-78 


91 


4-0-68 


4-0-08 


9 


1018 


93 


4-0-88 


+0-34 


9 


10-23 


95 


+0-73 


4-0-13 


10 


10-04 


93 


4-0-74 


4-0-20 


10 


10-25 


97 


+0-55 


—0-05 


1 1 


9-66 


9-0 


4-0-66 


4-0-12 


II 


9-88 


9-4 


4-0-48 


— 0-12 


12 


9-21 


8-6 


4-0-61 


4-0-07 


12 


9-28 


8-9 


4-0-38 


— 0-22 


'3 


8-87 


s-i 


4-0-77 


4-0-23 


'3 


8-68 


8-2 


4-0-48 


—0-12 


14 


8-72 


7'9 


4-0-82 


4-0-28 


14 


8-30 


7-6 


4-0-70 


4-0-1O 


15 


8-85 


8-0 


4-0-85 


4-0-31 


15 


8-22 


7-5 


4-0-72 


4-0-12 


16 


9-07 


8-3 


4-0-77 


4-0-23 


16 


8-39 


7-9 


4-0-49 


—oil 


•7 


9-50 


8-8 


4-0-70 


4-0-16 


17 


8-S5 


8-3 


4-0-55 


— 0-05 


18 


9-96 


9-2 


4-0-76 


4-0-22 


18 


943 


9-0 


4-0-43 


-0-17 


19 


10-33 


9-6 


+0-73 


4-0-19 


'9 


10-02 


9'4 


4-0-62 


4-0-02 


20 


10-44 


97 


4-0-74 


4-0-20 


20 


10-42 


9-8 


4-0-62 


4-0-02 


21 


10-12 


95 


4-0-62 


4-0-08 


21 


10-50 


lo-o 


4-0-50 


— O-IO 


22 


9-42 


8-8 


4-0-62 


4-0-08 


22 


10-13 


97 


4-0-43 


-0-17 


23 


8-43 


79 


-fo-53 


— O-OI 


23 


9"34 


8-9 


4-0-44 


— 016 


» 


There 


^vas a very yiolcnt change from m 


can level on this day, which accounts for the 



largeness of the differences. 



TIDAL OBSERVATIONS. 



141 



70. Tho following is a comparison for twenty-nine days, commencing 18G8, 
November 1, of the recorded heights as registered by the Manora self-regis- 
tering tide-gauge, with the heights calculated from the tide-components de- 
termined from the analysis of the first year's observations (§ 67). In the 
calculation of the heights the mean level of the water as determined by the 
observations of the whole year was used. The difference between this mean 
level and the mean of the twenty-four houi-ly heights (corrected for all sen- 
sible lunar influence) for each day is also given. The effect of this is to 
greatly improve the differences (C — R). The following tide-components were 
omitted in the calculations : — the whole of the long-period tides, and the 
Helmholtz shallow- water quarter-diurnal tide MS ; likewdse the solar semi- 
diurnal elliptic (R and T) and the lunar diurnal elliptic tides (J and Q), tlie 
values of which have been obtained since the heights were computed. The 
computations are for load time. 



1868, November 1. 



1868, November 2. 



o 


Id 

§■511 

3^ 




5 


■0 


M 

3 

-a 




3 


w 




8 be 


fao 




m 


i 


1> * 

t-. -4- 




ft. 


ft. 


ft. 




ft. 


ft. 




ft. 


ft. 


ft. 




ft. 


ft. 


o 


8-8o 


8-8 


O'OO 


+ 


0-09 


+0-09 





9-61 


97 


— 0-09 


+ 


0-15 


+0-06 


I 


6-86 


6-8 


+0-06 






+0-15 


I 


7-97 


7-9 


+0-07 






-I-0-22 


a 


4-85 


4-8 


+0-05 






+0-14 


2 


5-90 


5-8 


+ 0-10 






+0-25 


3 


3-22 


33 


-0-08 






-f-O'OI 


3 


3-96 


4-0 


— 0-04 






■4-0-II 


4 


2'25 


2-4 


-o-is 






— o-o6 


4 


2-6o 


2-7 


— Q-IO 






+0-05 


5 


221 


2-4 


—019 






— O'lO 


5 


2-05 


23 


-0-25 






— O-IO 


6 


321 


3-6 


-0-39 






— 0-30 


6 


2-40 


27 


— 0-30 






-O-IS 


7 


5'oo 


S'4 


—0-40 






-0-31 


7 


377 


4-2 


-0-43 






-0-28 


8 


7-10 


7'2 


— o-io 






— o-oi 


8 


574 


60 


— 0-26 






—oil 


9 


9'oo 


9-0 


0-00 






+0-09 


9 


7-84 


80 


— o-i6 






— o-oi 


10 


10-42 


10-4 


+ 0-02 






+ 0-II 


10 


9-61 


9-8 


— 0-19 






—0-04 


II 


1 1 '05 


10-9 


+ 0-15 






+0-24 


II 


10-71 


10-8 


— 0-09 






+o-o6 


12 


1075 


10-7 


+ 0-05 






+0-14 


12 


11-06 


li-o 


+o-o6 






+0-21 


"3 


9SS 


95 


+ 0-08 






+0-17 


13 


10-45 


10-4 


+0-05 






+0-20 


H 


8-01 


80 


+ 0-0I 






+0-10 


14 


9-17 


9-1 


+0-07 






+0-22 


»5 


6-54 


6-7 


— 0"i6 






— 0-07 


15 


7-60 


77 


— o-io 






+0-05 


i6 


5 '49 


5-6 


— O'll 






— 0-02 


16 


6-28 


6-4 


—0-12 






+0-03 


J7 


5-09 


5-1 


— O'OI 






+0-08 


17 


5-50 


5-6 


— o-io 






+0-05 


i8 


5-55 


57 


-0-15 






—0-06 


18 


5-38 


55 


—0-12 






+0-03 


19 


679 


7-1 


-0-31 






— 0-22 


19 


6-06 


6-4 


-0-34 






-0-19 


20 


8-37 


8-4 


— 0-03 






+o-o6 


20 


7-41 


7-6 


—0-19 






— 0-04 


21 


971 


97 


+ 0-0I 






4-0-I0 


21 


8-88 


9-1 


— 0-22 






— 0-07 


22 


10-45 


10-5 


—0-05 






+0-04 


22 


993 


101 


-0-17 






— 0-02 


23 


10-45 


10-6 


-0-15 






— o-o6 


23 


10-34 


10-5 


— 0-16 






— O-OI 



142 



REPORT 1870. 



1868, November 3. 



1S68, November 4. 







-^K 













So 


tM 




■Si 




o 






Sao 




a 4= 


+ 

fs« 




'73 


1i 

tJO 






1 + 




=5 5i 


kM 


fi 


w 




5 1 




6-^ 


kM 


fi 


^'^ 


Q 1 

Wo 




ft. 


ft. 


ft. 




ft. 


ft. 




ft. 


ft. 


ft. 


ft. 


ft. 


o 


lo-oi 


10-3 


— 0-29 


-f 


0-25 


— 0-04 





994 


10-4 


— 0-46 


+0-25 


—0-21 


I 


8-87 


8-9 


— 0-03 






4-0-22 


I 


9-40 


9-6 


—0-20 




+0-05 


z 


7'io 


7-0 


+o'lo 






+0'35 


2 


8-17 


7-9 


+0-27 




+0-52 


3 


5-09 


5-0 


+0-09 






+0-34 


3 


6-41 


6-1 


4-0-31 




+0-56 


4 


3-43 


3-5 


— 0-07 






+0-18 


4 


4-64 


4-5 


+0-14 




4-0-39 


5 


2-40 


2-4 


o-oo 






+0-25 


5 


3'3=> 


33 


O'OO 




+0-25 


6 


2*22 


2-4 


— o-i8 






+0-07 


6 


2-62 


27 


-0-08 




+0-17 


7 


2-92 


33 


— 0-38 






-0-13 


7 


2-68 


2-8 


— 0-I2 




-fo-i3 


8 


4-45 


4-9 


-0-45 






— 0-20 


8 


3-55 


3-S 


-0-25 




o-co 


9 


6-47 


6-9 


-0-43 






— o-i8 


9 


5'iS 


5-6 


-0-45 




— 0-20 


lO 


8-43 


8-8 


-0-37 






— 0-12 


10 


7-07 


7'5 


-0-43 




-0-18 


11 


992 


10-2 


-0-28 






— 0-03 


11 


8-94 


9- 


— 0-26 




— Q-OI 


IZ 


1075 


10-g 


-0-15 






+ 0-10 


12 


995 


10-3 


-0-35 




— O'lO 


13 


10-82 


10-9 


— 0-08 






+ 0-17 


13 


10-57 


10-8 


— 0-23 




4-0-02 


14 


10-05 


lo-o 


+ 0-05 






+ 0-50 


14 


10-47 


10-7 


-0-23 




-I-0-02 


15 


8-71 


8-6 


+0-1 1 






+ 0-36 


15 


9-69 


97 


— o-oi 




4-0-24 


i6 


7-28 


7 '4 


— 0-I2 






+ 0-13 


16 


8-41 


8-5 


— 0-09 




+o-i6 


17 


6-22 


6-4 


-o-i8 






+ 0-07 


17 


7-21 


7-4 


—0-19 




-)-o-o6 


i8 


5-69 


S-8 


— O'll 






+ 0-14 


18 


6-34 


6-4 


— 0-06 




4-0-19 


19 


5-78 


6-2 


— 0-42 






-0-17 


19 


5-93 


6-1 


-0-I7 




-fo-08 


20 


6-56 


7'i 


-0-54 






— 0-29 


20 


6-10 


6-6 


— 0-50 




— 0-25 


21 


7-81 


8-s 


— 0-69 






-0-44 


21 


6-87 


7-5 


—0-63 




— 0-38 


22 


9-05 


95 


-0-45 






— 0-20 


22 


7-97 


8-5 


-0-53 




— 0-28 


23 


9-83 


10-2 


-0-37 






— 0-12 


23 


8-96 


95 


-0-54 




— 0-29 







1868, 


November 5. 








1868, 


November G. 







9-42 


9-9 


-0-48 4-0-33 


-0-15 





8-52 


93 


-0-78 4-0-37 


—0-41 


I 


9-42 


9-8 


-0-38 


— 0-05 


I 


8-87 


9-5 


— 0-63 


— 0-26 


2 


8-77 


8-8 


— 0-03 


4-0-30 


2 


8-81 


9 4 


-0-59 


—0-22 


3 


7-56 


7-4 


4-o-i6 


4-0-49 


3 


8-25 


8-5 


-0-25 


4-0-I2 


4 


6 -02 


5-8 


4-0-22 


4-0-55 


4 


7-26 


7-4 


— 0-14 


4-0-23 


5 


4-57 


4-5 


4-0-07 


4-0-40 


5 


6-02 


6-1 


— 0-08 


4-0-29 


6 


3'55 


3-6 


— 0-05 


4-0-28 


6 


4-85 


5'i 


-0-25 


4-0-12 


7 


3-10 


3-2 


— o-io 


4-0-23 


7 


4-10 


4-3 


— 0-20 


4-0-17 


8 


3'3° 


3-4 


— O'lO 


4-0-23 


8 


3-76 


3 "9 


— 0-14 


4-0-23 


9 


4-25 


47 


-0-45 


— 0-12 


9 


398 


4-2 


—0-22 


4-0-15 


10 


572 


6-2 


—0-48 


-0-15 


10 


475 


51 


-0-35 


-f-O-02 


II 


7"39 


7-9 


-0-51 


— o-i8 


11 


606 


6-5 


-0-44 


—0-07 


12 


8-83 


93 


-0-47 


— 0-14 


12 


7 '49 


7-9 


— 0-41 


—0-04 


13 


979 


10-2 


— 0-41 


— 0-08 


13 


8-71 


91 


-0-39 


—0-02 


14 


10-28 


10-7 


— 0-42 


— 0-09 


14 


9-58 


10-0 


— 0-42 


—0-05 


15 


10-14 


10-4 


— 0-26 


4-0-07 


15 


10-04 


10-4 


— 0-36 


4-0-0I 


16 


9"37 


9-6 


-0-23 


4-0-10 


16 


9-93 


10-3 


-0-37 


o-oo 


17 


8-29 


8-6 


— 0-31 


4-0-02 


17 


9-30 


9 4 


— o-io 


4-0-27 


18 


7-27 


7-6 


-0-33 


0-00 


18 


8-33 


8-5 


-0-17 


4-0-20 


19 


6-49 


6-7 


—0-21 


-f 0-12 


19 


7-42 


7-6 


-0-18 


4-0-19 


20 


6-11 


65 


-0-39 


— 0-06 


20 


6-63 


6-9 


-0-27 


-t-o-io 


21 


6-21 


6-9 


— 0-69 


— 0-36 


21 


6-18 


6-5 


-0-32 


4-0-05 


22 


6-88 


77 


-0-82 


-o'-19 


22 


614 


67 


—0-56 


—0-19 


23 


779 


8-6 


-o-Si 


-0-48 


23 


6-57 


7-5 


-0-93 


—0-56 



TIDAL OBSERVATIONS. 



143 



1868, November 7. 



1868, November 8. 





_20 


•o^" 








3 


0*^ 




|ci 


■?« 










n 


o 




li 


11 


to 

ZJ 


14 


1^^ 







0.? 


S 1 


7: 


2 




w 


g.tu 




Sao 




^-1 

':3 




w 


E.sc 

3^ 




Sno 




13 






ft. 


ft. 


ft. 




ft. 


ft. 




ft. 


ft. 


ft. 




ft. 


ft. 





7-3J 


8-2 


-0-89 


+ 


0-27 


— 0-62 





6-04 


65 


— 0-46 


+ 


0-22 


—0-24 


I 


7-93 


8-7 


-077 






—0-50 


I 


6-66 


7-2 


-0-54 






—0-32 


2 


828 


8-9 


— 0-62 






-0-35 


2 


7-31 


7-8 


-0-49 






—0-27 


3 


8-33 


8-9 


-0-57 






—0-30 


3 


7-82 


8-3 


— 0-48 






— 0'26 


4 


8-03 


8-3 


-0-27 






o-oo 


4 


8-,3 


8-5 


-0-37 






-0-is 


S 


7-32 


7'4 


— o-oS 






+0-19 


s 


813 


8-4 


-0-27 






—0-05 


6 


6-33 


6-4 


— 0-07 






+ 0'20 


6 


7-69 


7'9 


— 0-2I 






+0-0I 


7 


5"4i 


5-6 


— 0-19 






+o-o8 


7 


6-93 


6-9 


+ 0-03 






+0-25 


8 


475 


49 


-0-15 






+0-I2 


8 


6'09 


61 


— O'OI 






+ 0-2I 


9 


4-40 


4'4 


O'OO 






+ 0-27 


9 


5-38 


5-3 


+0-08 






+0-30 


10 


4"47 


4-6 


-0-I3 






+0-I4 


10 


4-88 


4-8 


+o-o8 






4-0-30 


II 


5-10 


S'3 


— 0-20 






+0-07 


II 


479 


47 


+0-09 






+ 0-31 


12 


61S 


6-3 


-0-15 






+ 0-I2 


12 


523 


5'2 


+0-03 






+ 0-25 


J3 


7-38 


7-8 


— 0'42 






-0-15 


13 


6'20 


6-3 


— O'lO 






-f-0-I2 


14 


8-55 


8-9 


-0-35 






-o-o8 


14 


7-32 


7-5 


-o-i8 






4-0-04 


IS 


9'39 


9-8 


— o'4i 






— o'i4 


15 


8-^4 


8-6 


— o'i6 






4-0-06 


i6 


991 


IO-2 


— 0-29 






— 0-02 


16 


939 


9-5 


— on 






+ 0-II 


17 


9-88 


101 


— 0-22 






+0-05 


17 


lO'OO 


IO-2 


— 0'20 






4-0-02 


ig 


932 


9 4 


— o-o8 






4-0-19 


18 


1006 


10-2 


— 0-14 






+ 0-08 


19 


8-44 


8-4 


+0-04 






+0-31 


19 


9 '49 


9-4 


+o-og 






4-0-31 


20 


7'44 


7-5 


— o'o6 






+ 0-21 


20 


8-50 


8-4 


+ 0-IO 






4-0-32 


21 


6-6i 


67 


— 0'O9 






+o-i8 


21 


7-35 


7 '4 


— 0-05 






4-0-17 


22 


5-93 


6-2 


— 0-27 






O'OO 


22 


6-25 


6-3 


— 0-05 






+•0-17 


23 


569 


61 


— o'4i 






— 0-14 


23 


5-40 


5'4 


O'OO 






-f 0-22 







1868, 


November 9. 








1868, 1 


November 10. 







5-04 


5-2 


—0-16 -I-0-23 


4-0-07 





4-59 


4"9 


-0-31 4-0 


-40 4-o"09 


I 


5'33 


57 


-0-37 


—0-14 


I 


4-25 


4'4 


-0-15 


4-0-25 


2 


5-98 


6-4 


— 0-42 


— 0-19 


2 


4-61 


49 


— 0-29 


4-0-11 


3 


683 


7-2 


-0-37 


— 0-14 


3 


5 '49 


6-0 


-0-51 


—on 


4 


7-64 


8-1 


— 0-46 


— 0-23 


4 


6-62 


7-1 


-0-48 


-0-08 


5 


8-27 


8-8 


-0-53 


— 0-30 


5 


7-78 


8-4 


— 0-62 


—0-22 


6 


8-56 


8-9 


-o'34 


— O'll 


6 


8-75 


9-4 


—0-65 


— 0-25 


7 


8-32 


8-5 


-0-18 


4-0-05 


7 


9-22 


9-9 


-0-68 


-0-28 


8 


7-66 


7-9 


— 0-24 


— o-oi 


8 


9-00 


9-8 


—0-80 


—0-40 


9 


6-8i 


6-2 


4-0-01 


4-0-24 


9 


8-27 


8-9 


—0-63 


— 0-23 


10 


5-95 


5-S 


4-0-15 


4-0-38 


10 


7-26 


7-6 


-0-34 


4-0-06 


11 


5-24 


51 


4-0-14 


4-0-37 


II 


6-17 


6-4 


—0-23 


4-0-17 


12 


4-90 


4-8 


4-0-10 


4-0-33 


12 


5-29 


5-5 


— 0'2I 


4-0-19 


13 


5-22 


51 


4-0-12 


4-0-35 


13 


4-85 


S'° 


-0-15 


4-0-25 


14 


6-08 


61 


—0-02 


4-0-2I 


14 


5-17 


53 


-0-13 


4-0-27 


IS 


7-20 


r^ 


—0-30 


— 0-07 


IS 


6-09 


6-3 


— 0-21 


4-0-19 


16 


8-40 


87 


— 0-30 


—0-07 


16 


7-35 


77 


-o'35 


4-0-05 


17 


9-49 


9-8 


—0-31 


-0-08 


17 


8-68 


91 


—0-42 


—0-02 


iS 


10-20 


10-5 


— 0-30 


—0-07 


18 


9-85 


101 


-0-25 


4-0-15 


19 


10-23 


10-5 


—0-27 


— 0-04 


19 


10-52 


10-8 


—0-28 


4-0-12 


20 


9-56 


lo-o 


-0-44 


— 0-21 


20 


10-40 


10-9 


— 0-50 


— o-io 


21 


8-32 


8-8 


-0-48 


-0-25 


21 


9-46 


lo-o 


-0-54 


— 0-14 


22 


7-07 


7-4 


-0-33 


— o-io 


22 


8-01 


8-5 


-0-49 


— 0-09 


23 


S-67 


6-0 


-0-33 


— o-io 


23 


6-37 


67 


-0-33 


4-0-07 



144 



REPORT 1870. 



1868, November 11. 



1808, November 12. 



o 




Is' 


H 


M 


u tt 








ft. 


ft. 





478 


s-i 


I 


372 


37 


2 


3-46 


3-3 


3 


4-05 


4-0 


4 


526 


5-5 


5 


676 


7'i 


6 


824 


8-6 


7 


9'43 


9-9 


8 


9-95 


10-4 


9 


9'62 


10-4 


lo 


874 


93 


II 


7-53 


7-9 


12 


626 


67 


13 


518 


5-6 


H 


476 


5-0 


'5 


516 


5-2 


i6 


6'23 


6-3 


17 


7-64 


7-8 


i8 


9-07 


9-3 


19 


10-23 


10-3 


20 


1077 


II-Q 


21 


10-34 


ii-o 


22 


9-08 


97 


23 


7'34 


7-8 



feu 
5 

ft. 

— 0-32 
+0-02 

4-0-16 

4-0-05 

— 0-24 

-0-34 

— 0-36 

-0-47 
-0-45 
-0-78 

— 0-56 

-0-37 
-0-44 

— 0"42 

— 0-24 

— 0-04 

— 0-07 

— 0-16 

— 0-23 

— 0-07 

— 0-23 

-0-66 

— 0-62 

— 0-46 



"•5 
ft. 
4-0-32 



ft. 

0-00 
4-0-34 
4-0-48 
4-0-37 
4-0-08 
—0-02 
— 0-04 
-0-15 
— 0-13 
—0-46 
—0-24 
—0-05 

— 0-12 

— o-io 

4-0-08 
4-0-28 
4-0-25 
4-0-16 
4-0-09 
4-0-25 
4-0-09 
-0-34 

— 0-30 

— 0-14 



a -^• 



o 
I 

2 

3 
4 
5 
6 

7 
8 

9 
10 

It 

12 

13 

14 

IS 
16 

17 
18 

19 

20 

21 

22 
23 



ft. 

5 '4+ 

379 

2-82 

2-82 

379 

539 

7-16 

8-90 

10-15 

10-59 

lo'og 

8-95 

7'Si 
6-11 
5-06 
473 
5'33 

6-55 
8-10 

9-72 
10-57 
io-8i 
10-06 

8-48 



ft. 

57 
3'9 

27 

2'5 

3-4 

5'2 

7-2 

8-9 

lo-i 

10-8 

IO-6 

9-6 

8-0 

67 

5'S 

4'9 

5-2 

6-S 

81 

9'S 
10-4 
10-8 

10-4 






ft. 

— 0-26 

— oil 

-t-0-I2 
4-0-32 
4-0-39 
+ 0-19 

— 0-04 
0-00 

4-0-05 

— 0-2I 
-0-51 

— 0-65 
-0-49 
-0-59 
-0-44 

— 0-17 
4-0-13 
4-0-05 

0-00 
-f 0-22 
4-0-17 
-f o-oi 
-0-34 

— 0-32 



ft. 
-I-O-I3 



i't. 

— 0-13 
-I-0-02 
4-0-25 

4-0-45 
4-0-52 
4-0-32 
4-0-09 
4-0-13 
4-018 
—0-08 
—0-38 
—0-52 

— 0-36 
—0-46 
— 0-31 
— 0-04 
4-0-26 
4-0-18 
4-0-13 

+°-3S 
4-0-30 

4-0-14 

— 0-2I 

— 0-19 







1868, 


November 13. 








1868, 


!^ovember 14. 







6-45 


6-6 


—0-15 —0-09 


—0-24 





7-59 


7-2 


4-0-39 —0-26 


-fo-13 


I 


4-46 


4-3 


4-o-i6 


4-0-07 


I 


546 


4'9 


4-0-56 


4-0-30 


2 


2-87 


2-8 


4-0-07 


— 0-02 


2 


349 


3-0 


4-0-49 


4-0-23 


3 


211 


1-8 


4-0-31 


-fo-22 


3 


216 


17 


-fo-46 


4-0-20 


4 


2-50 


19 


-fo-6o 


4-0-si 


4 


178 


I '2 


-1-0-58 


4-0-32 


S 


3-87 


3 '4 


-1-0 '47 


4-0-38 


5 


259 


1-8 


4-0-79 


+0-53 


6 


579 


5-6 


4-0-19 


4-0-I0 


6 


4-35 


3 9 


+0-45 


4-0-19 


7 


7-83 


77 


4-0-13 


4-0-04 


7 


646 


61 


-fo-36 


-fo-io 


8 


963 


92 


-t-o-43 


4-0-34 


8 


8-59 


7-9 


4-0-69 


-|-o'43 


9 


10-80 


106 


4-0-20 


4-0-II 


9 


1029 


97 


4-0-59 


4-0-33 


10 


11-00 


III 


— O-IO 


—0-19 


10 


11-24 


10-8 


4-0-44 


4-0-18 


11 


10-26 


IO-6 


-0-34 


-0-43 


II 


11-13 


III 


4-0-03 


-0-23 


12 


8-90 


9-2 


—0-30 


-0-39 


12 


10-13 


10-2 


— 0-07 


-0-33 


13 


7-33 


7-6 


-0-27 


—0-36 


13 


8-66 


8-7 


— 0-04 


—0-30 


14 


5 '94 


6-2 


— 0-26 


-0-35 


14 


7-06 


7-2 


—0-14 


— 0-40 


15 


4-98 


5o 


— 0-12 


— 0-2I 


IS 


S7S 


6-0 


-0-25 


-0-51 


16 


477 


4-8 


-0-03 


— 0-12 


16 


S-oi 


S'l 


— 0-09 


-0-35 


17 


5-69 


5'S 


4-0-19 


-t-o-io 


17 


5-20 


5-0 


4-0-20 


—0-06 


18 


7-08 


7-0 


4-0-08 


— O-OI 


18 


6-22 


60 


4-0-22 


—0-04. 


19 


8-6o 


8-6 


0-00 


—0-09 


19 


7-64 


7-6 


4-0-04 


— 0-22 


20 


996 


9-6 


4-0-36 


4-0-27 


20 


9-09 


8-9 


4-0-19 


— 0-07 


21 


10-74 


10-4 


+0-34 


4-0-25 


21 


10-21 


9'9 


-fo-31 


4-0-05 


22 


io-6i 


10-4 


4-0-21 


4-0-I2 


22 


10-65 


10-4 


-fo-25 


— O-QI 


23 


9-46 


9'2 


4-0-26 


4-0-I7 


23 


10-10 


1 0-0 


4-0-10 


— 0-16 



TIDAL OBSERVATIONS. 



U5 



1SG8, November 15. 



1868, November 16. 





1« 


"Sm 


a? 


•zi 


S-f 




1« 


■Sm 





C3 


|4 


g 


" 


^ 1 


ii-i 


s:? 




C3 i^ 

■3-= 


15- 


t? 1 




n 


w 


Is 3) 


|-r 


ego 




!aM 


w 






Q 1 

>go 


SaM 




d-^ 


K.S 


(=1 




fici 




u — 


Wj3 


fl 


«^ 


'^S 




ft. 


ft. 


ft. 


ft. 


ft. 




ft. 


ft. 


ft. 


ft. 


ft. 


o 


8-66 


8-5 


+0-16 


—016 


0-00 





935 


9-2 


4-0-15 


—018 


— 0-03 


I 


660 


6-4 


+ 0-20 




+0-04 


I 


7-70 


7-5 


+0-20 




+ 0-02 


2 


452 


43 


+ 0-22 




+0-06 


2 


565 


S'S 


+0-15 




— 0-03 


3 


279 


25 


+ 0-29 




+0-13 


3 


375 


3-5 


+0-25 




+0-07 


4 


178 


17 


+ 0-08 




— o-o8 


4 


236 


2'3 


-I-0-06 




— 012 


5 


1-84 


i"4 


+ 0-44 




+0-28 


5 


1-80 


17 


-l-o-io 




— o-o8 


6 


3-08 


27 


+ 0-38 




4-0-22 


6 


2-30 


2-1 


-I-0-20 




+ 0-02 


7- 


5-04 


4-8 


+ 0-24 




+o-o8 


7 


3-81 


3 "4 


+ 0-41 




+0-23 


g 


7-23 


6-7 


+ 0-53 




+0-37 


8 


5-87 


5 '2 


+ 0-67 




-fo-49 


9 


924 


87 


+o"54 




+0-38 


9 


7-97 


73 


+0-67 




+0-49 


lO 


10-64 


10-2 


+0-44 




+0-28 


10 


9-76 


9'3 


+ 0-46 




40-28 


II 


11-34 


ii-i 


+ 0-24 




+0-08 


II 


10-95 


10-6 


+°-35 




+017 


12 


10-98 


no 


—0-02 




—0-18 


12 


11-24 


HI 


+0-14 




—0-04 


13 


9-81 


99 


— 009 




-0-25 


13 


10-58 


10-7 


— 0-12 




—0-30 


14 


829 


8-4 


— Q-II 




— 0-27 


14 


9-36 


94 


— 0-04 




— 0-22 


'S 


6-86 


7-0 


— 0-14 




— 0-30 


IS 


7-91 


8-0 


— 0-09 




-0-27 


16 


574 


59 


— o-i6 




— 0-32 


16 


6-69 


6-8 


— oil 




— 0-29 


17 


S'i7 


51 


+0-17 




+ 0-0I 


17 


5-82 


5-8 


-I-0-02 




— o-i6 


18 


570 


5-5 


+0-20 




+0-04 


18 


5-67 


5 '4 


+0-27 




-t-o-o9 


»9 


6-84 


6-7 


+0-14 




— 0-02 


19 


6-24 


6-1 


+0-14 




—0-04 


20 


8-20 


79 


+0-30 




+0-14 


20 


739 


7'2 


4-0-19 




4-0-0I 


21 


9-41 


9-2 


+ 0-2I 




+0-05 


21 


8-57 


8-3 


4-0-27 




4-0-09 


22 


1019 


lo-o 


+ 0-19 




4-0-03 


22 


9-46 


93 


-|-o-i6 




—0-02 


23 


10-23 


lOI 


+ 0-13 




—0-03 


23 


9-87 


9-8 


+0-07 




—oil 







1868, 


November 17. 








1868, 


November 18. 







957 


9-6 


-0-03 — O'lO 


-0-13 





9'34 


93 


4-0-04 —0-04 


0-00 


I 


8-50 


8-4 


-l-o-io 


0-00 


I 


8-8i 


87 


4-0-II 


4-0-07 


2 


6-77 


6-7 


-1-0-07 


— 0-03 


2 


7-62 


7-4 


4-0-22 


4-0-18 


3 


4-89 


4-8 


4-0-09 


— o-oi 


3 


5-99 


5-8 


4-0-19 


4-0-15 


4 


333 


3-4 


-0-07 


-0-17 


4 


4-42 


45 


-0-08 


— 0-12 


5 


2-35 


25 


-0-15 


-0-25 


5 


3-26 


3-5 


—0-24 


—0-28 


6 


2-24 


22 


4-0-04 


— o'o6 


6 


2-67 


3'o 


-o'33 


-o-3Z 


7 


301 


3-0 


-l-o-oi 


— o-og 


7 


2-88 


31 


—0-22 


—0-26 


8 


4-67 


4-4 


4-0-27 


4-0-I7 


8 


3-92 


4' I 


—0-18 


— 0-22 


9 


6-69 


6-4 


4-0-29 


4-0-19 


9 


5-57 


57 


-013 


-0-17 


10 


8-56 


8-2 


4-0-36 


-f-o-26 


10 


7-37 


7-3 


4-0-07 


4-0-03 


II 


lo-oo 


97 


4-0-30 


-fo-20 


11 


8-91 


89 


4-0-0I 


— o"o3 


12 


10-84 


10-7 


-I-0-I4 


4-0-04 


12 


9'99 


lo-o 


—0-0 1 


-0-05 


13 


1084 


10-9 


— 0-06 


—016 


13 


10-50 


10-5 


0-00 


—0-04 


14 


10-05 


101 


-0-05 


-0-15 


14 


10-34 


10-3 


-1-0-04 


o-oo 


»5 


8-89 


8-8 


4-0-09 


— Q-OI 


IS 


9-55 


94 


4-0-15 


4-0-II 


16 


7-66 


7-8 


-0-14 


— 0-24 


16 


8-46 


8-4 


4-0-06 


4-0-02 


17 


6-66 


6-6 


-1-0-06 


-0-04 


17 


7-47 


7 '4 


4-0-07 


4-0-03 


18 


6-11 


5-8 


-)-o-3i 


-I-0-2I 


18 


6-74 


6-5 


4-0-24 


4-0-2O 


19 


6-16 


5-8 


4-0-36 


4-0-26 


19 


6-38 


6-1 


4-0-28 


4-0-24 


20 


6-82 


6-6 


4-0-22 


-I-0-I2 


20 


6-54 


6-3 


4-0-24 


4-0 "20 


21 


7-80 


7-6 


-I-0-20 


4-0-10 


21 


7-18 


7'i 


4-0-08 


4-0-04 


22 


871 


8-6 


-l-o-ii 


4-0-01 


22 


7'99 


7-8 


4-0-19 


4-o-is 


23 


9-26 


92 


-I-O-06 


— 0-04 


23 


8-60 


8-5 


4-0-I0 


4-0-06 



1870. 



146 



REPORT — 1870. 



1868, November 19. 



1868, November 20. 





T3 • 


'gp^ 


8 





a 


S| 




(LQ 


"Sk 








13 
c3 


^"1 


o 




H 


ir 1 


4) 


U 


' 


i 


'«*? 

"3-^ 


1i 


1^ 


0* 


0) . 

24> 


C<1 

£4 


m 


6^ 


to 

Pi XI 






^0 
4 


1^ 


w 




g 60 


s 











ft. 


ft. 


ft. 




ft. 


ft. 




ft. 


ft. 


ft. 




ft. 


ft. 


o 


8-85 


8-9 


— 0*05 


4- 


0-09 


4-0-04 





8-24 


S-3 


— 0-06 


-f 


019 


4-0-13 


I 


867 


8-8 


-0-13 






— 0-04 


I 


8-31 


8-5 


— 0-19 






0-00 


2. 


8-o6 


81 


— 0-04 






4-0-05 


2 


8-07 


8-3 


— 0-23 






— 0-04 


3 


687 


6-9 


— 0-03 






4-o-o6 


3 


7-42 


7-6 


-0-18 






4-0-0I 


4 


5-51 


5-6 


—0-09 






000 


4 


6-45 


6-6 


-0-15 






4-0-04 


S 


4-32 


4-6 


-0-28 






— 0-19 


5 


5-39 


57 


-0-31 






—0-12 


6 


3-54 


4-1 


— 0-56 






-0-47 


6 


4-53 


S"i 


-0-57 






0-38 


7 


3-31 


3-8 


-0-49 






— 0-40 


7 


4-08 


47 


— 0-62 


• 




-0-43 


8 


372 


4' I 


-0-38 






— 0-29 


8 


4-05 


4-5 


-0-45 






—026 


9 


4-81 


5-0 


— 0-19 






— o-io 


9 


4'59 


49 


-0-31 






— 0-I2 


JO 


6-36 


6-6 


—0*24 






-0-15 


10 


563 


5-9- 


-0-27 






— 0-08 


II 


7-84 


8-0 


— o'i6 






— 0-07 


n 


6-S9 


7-1 


— 0-2I 






— 0-02 


12 


9-07 


90 


+0-07 






4-0-16 


12 


8.3 


8-2. 


— 0-07 






4-0-I2 


13 


9-83 


99 


— 0-07 






-f 0-02 


13 


9-02 


9-1 


— o-o8 






4-0-11 


H 


10-12 


10-3 


-o-i8 






— 009 


14 


9-58 


97 


— 012 






4-0-07 


»5 


981 


99 


— 0*09 






o-oo 


IS 


9-71 


9-9 


— 0-19 






0-00 


i6 


9-05 


90 


+0-05 






4-0-14 


16 


9'35 


9-5 


-0-15 






4-0-04 


17 


818 


8-1 


+0-08 






4-0-17 


17 


8-70 


87 


0-00 






4-0-19 


i8 


7-42 


7-3 


+0-12 






4-0-21 


18 


8-00 


7-9 


4-0-10 






4-0-29 


19 


690 


67 


+ 0-20 






4-0-29 


19 


7-40 


7-2 


-I-0-20 






4-0-39 


ao 


6-66 


6-5 


4-0-16 






4-0-25 


20 


6-93 


6-8 


4-0-13 






4-0-32 


21 


684 


6-8 


+ 0-04 






4-0-13 


21 


6-73 


6-6 


4-0-13 






4-0-32 


22 


7-31 


7-3 


+0-01 






4-0-10 


22 


6-83 


6-9 


— 0-07 






4-0-I2 


23 


789 


79 


— o-oi 






-fO-08 


23 


7-23 


7-3 


— 0-07 






-I-0-I2 



1868, November 21. 
4-0-13 



1868, November 22. 






7-57 


77 


-0-13 


I 


775 


7-8 


—0-05 


2 


778 


7-9 


— 0-12 


3 


7-60 


77 


— o-io 


4 


7-08 


7-2 


— 0-I2 


5 


6-35 


6-6 


-0-25 


6 


5-6, 


5-9 


— 0-29 


'7 


5-00 


5-5 


—0-50 


8 


4-72 


51 


-0-38 


9 


4-80 


51 


— 0-30 


10 


5-29 


5-6 


-0-31 


II 


6-23 


6-3 


— 0-07 


12 


7-32 


7-3 


4-0-O2 


13 


8-23 


8-3 


— 0-07 


14 


8-92 


9-0 


— 008 


»S 


9-35 


95 


-0-15 


16 


9'44 


9-6 


— 0-16 


17 


9-07 


9-2 


-0-13 


18 


8-48 


8-4 


-fO-08 


19 


7-87 


77 


4-0-17 


20 


7-30 


7-2 


4-0-10 


21 


6-85 


6-8 


4-0-05 


22 


6-55 


6-5 


4-0-05 


23 


6-57 


6-6 


— 0-03 



0-00 





6-85 


6-8 


4-0-05 


4-0-08 


I 


7-14 


7-0 


4-0-14 


4-0-01 


2 


7-36 


7-3 


4-0-06 


4-0-03 


3 


745 


7-5 


—0-05 


-l-o-oi 


4 


7-38 


7-5 


— 0-12 


— 0-12 


5 


7-09 


7-3 


— 0-21 


— 0-16 


6 


6-56 


f9 


-°'34 


-0-37 


7 


5-98 


6-4 


— 0-42 


-0-25 


8 


5-57 


6-0 


-0-43 


—0-17 


9 


536 


5-5 


—0-14 


-0-18 


10 


5-40 


5-6 


— 0-20 


4-0-06 


11 


5-82 


6-0 


— 0-18 


4-0-15 


12 


6-62 


67 


—0-08 


4-0-06 


13 


7-55 


7-6 


— 0-05 


-fo-05 


14 


8-29 


8-4 


— 0-11 


—0-02 


15 


8-88 


91 


— 0-22 


—0-03 


16 


9-25 


9-6 


-0-35 


0-00 


17 


9-26 


9-6 


-0-34 


-I-0-2I 


18 


8-92 


9-2 


— 0-28 


-1-0-30 


19 


8-28 


8-4 


— 0-12 


-1-0-23 


20 


7-62 


77 


—0-08 


4-0-18 


21 


7-00 


7-0 


0-00 


4-0-18 


22 


645 


6-5 


— 0-05 


4-0-10 


23 


610 


6-1 


0-00 



4-o-i6 



4-0-21 

4-0-30 

4-0-22 
4-0-11 

4-0-04 

— 0-05 

-0-18 

— 0-26 

— 0-27 

4-0-02 

— o 04 

— 0-02 

4-0-08 

4-0-11 

4-0-05 

— o"o6 

— 0-19 

-0-18 

— 0'12 

4-0-04 
4-0-08 
4-0-16 
4-0-11 
-|-o-i6 



*MUAL OBSERVATIONS. 



147 



1868, November 23. 



1868, November 24. 





^3 . 


11 






00 


h 




i 


13 . 




i 

11 




93 


t + 


M 




bo 


sSo 


H 


i:>< 


?9^ 


w 






Say 




>^< 


?sf 




«•« 


Kj= 


fi 


w 


'S 

•73 


fie!) 




O-B 


M^ 


fi 


H 


4 


fici 




ft. 


ft. 


ft. 




ft. 


ft. 




ft. 


ft. 


ft. 




ft. 


ft. 


o 


606 


60 


+ o-o6 


4- 


019 


+0-25 





5-43 


5-6 


-017 


4- 


0-15 


— 0-02 


I 


637 


6-2 


+0-17 






+0-36 


I 


5 49 


55 


— O-QI 






+0-14 


2 


672 


6-6 


+ 0-I2 






+0-31 


2 


5-95 


5-8 


+ 0-15 






+ 0-30 


3 


7-06 


7-0 


+o-o6 






+0-25 


3 


6-44 


6-3 


4-0-14 






4-0-29 


4 


735 


7-4 


— o'o5 






+0-14 


4 


7-03 


7-0 


+ 0-03 






+0-18 


5 


7-51 


7"7 


— 0-19 






O'OO 


5 


759 


77 


— Oil 






4-0-04 


6 


738 


7-8 


— 0-42 






—0-23 


6 


7'94 


8-2 


— 0-26 






— O-II 


7 


7-01 


7 '4 


-039 






— 0"20 


7 


7-92 


84 


-0-48 






-°-33 


8 


6-53 


6-9 


-0-37 






—018 


8 


756 


81 


-0-54 






-039 


9 


611 


6-4 


— 029 






— O'lO 


9 


7-01 


7 "4 


-0-39 






—0-24 


lo 


5-82 


61 


-028 






— o"09 


10 


650 


6-8 


— 0-30 






-0-15 


11 


5-79 


59 


— o-ii 






+o-o8 


II 


612 


6-3 


— 0-18 






-0-03 


12 


613 


6-2 


— 0-07 






+0-I2 


12 


599 


61 


— o-ii 






-1-0-04 


'3 


685 


6-8 


+0-05 






4-0-24 


13 


6'29 


61 


+0-19 






-I-0-34 


14 


7-67 


7"7 


— 0-03 






+o-i6 


14 


7'oo 


6-8 


+0-20 






4-0-35 


15 


8-41 


8s 


— o'09 






4-o'io 


IS 


7-86 


77 


+o-i6 






4-0-31 


i6 


898 


91 


— 0-12 






+0-07 


16 


862 


8-5 


+ 0-12 






+0-27 


'7 


929 


9-5 


— 0-21 






— 0-02 


17 


9-16 


91 


+o-o6 






-I-0-2I 


ig 


926 


9-6 


-0-34 






-0-15 


18 


946 


95 


-0-04 






+011 


'9 


880 


91 


— o'3o 






— oil 


19 


930 


95 


— 0-20 






—0-05 


zo 


8-05 


8-3 


-0-25 






— o-o6 


20 


864 


89 


-0-26 






— on 


ZI 


7-23 


77 


-0-47 






-0-28 


21 


7-67 


8-0 


-o'33 






-0-18 


Z2 


6-48 


6-9 


— 0-42 






—0-23 


22 


664 


7-0 


—0-36 






—0-21 


23 


589 


61 


— 021 






— 0-02 


23 


5-66 


60 


-0-34 






—019 







1868, 


November 25. 








1868, November 26. 







4-91 


5-1 


— 0-19 -1-0-02 


-0-17 





471 


S'l 


— 0-39 4-0-13 


— 0-26 


I 


4-62 


47 


-o-o8 


—0-06 


I 


399 


4-2 


— 0-21 


—0-08 


2 


4-88 


4-6 


4-0-28 


4-0-30 


2 


3-90 


3 9 


0-00 


4-0-13 


3 


559 


52 


4-0-39 


4-0-41 


3 


4-46 


4-3 


4-0-16 


4-0-29 


4 


6-46 


6-1 


4-0-36 


4-0-38 


4 


5-51 


5-2 


4-0-31 


4-0-44 


5 


7-32 


7-1 


-I-0-22 


4-0-24 


5 


6-72 


6-5 


4-0-22 


4-0-35 


6 


8-13 


8-0 


4-0-13 


4-0-15 


6 


7-92 


7-8 


4-0-12 


4-0-25 


7 


8-6o 


8-6 


0-00 


4-0-02 


7 


8-89 


8-9 


— o-oi 


4-0-12 


8 


8-53 


8-8 


-0-27 


-0-25 


8 


936 


9S 


—0-14 


— O-OI 


9 


805 


8-3 


-0-25 


— 0-23 


9 


9-14 


?"5 


—0-36 


-0-23 


10 


7-40 


76 


—0-20 


—0-18 


10 


8-41 


8-9 


-0-49 


—0-36 


11 


6-71 


6-8 


—0-09 


—0-07 


II 


7-52 


80 


—0-48 


-0-35 


12 


616 


6-2 


—0-04 


— 0-02 


12 


6-65 


7-0 


-o'3S 


—0-22 


13 


599 


5"9 


-I-0-09 


4-o-ir 


13 


6-O0 


6-2 


—0-20 


—0-07 


14 


6-33 


6-2 


4-0-13 


4-0-15 


14 


5'9i 


6-1 


— 019 


—0-06 


IS 


7'i7 


6-9 


4-0-27 


4-0-29 


15 


6-43 


6-4 


4-0-03 


4-0-16 


16 


813 


7-8 


4-0-33 


+o'35 


16 


7-37 


7-2 


4-0-17 


4-0-30 


17 


8-92 


87 


-t-O-22 


4-0-24 


17 


8-48 


8-2 


4-0-28 


4-0-41 


ig 


9-52 


9-4 


4-0-12 


4-0-14 


18 


934 


9-2 


4-0-14 


4-0-27 


19 


9-71 


97 


-l-o-oi 


4-0-03 


19 


989 


9-8 


4-0-09 


4-0-22 


20 


9-30 


95 


—0-20 


-o-i8 


20 


9-89 


99 


— o-oi 


-fO-12 


21 


8-35 


8-8 


-0-45 


-0-43 


21 


9-19 


9-6 


—0-41 


— 0-28 


22 


7-11 


7-5 


-0-39 


-0-37 


22 


7-87 


8-4 


-0-53 


— 0-40 


23 


S-83 


6-2 


-0-37 


-0-35 


23 


6-30 


6-9 


—0-60 


— 0-47 



12 



148 



REPORT — 1870. 



1868, November 27. 



1868, November 28. 







"Sk 


§ 


■s 


i 


a 

1 + 




Id 


"Sm" 


1 . 





§ 


i^ 


1 




g5 


fc 1 




1^ 


i 


0!^- 

"s-^ 


Sj3 


11 


1 


s4' 


n 


» 


'3 5 


to 


a; ' 




>><i 


f§M 


w 


5 tn 






s 


•a 


^» 




d^ 


«J 


5 


H 


■3 

-a 


Oo 




31 


K.S 


S 


w 


SJ, 




ft. 


ft. 


ft. 




ft. 


ft. 




ft. 


ft. 


ft. 




ft. 


ft. 


o 


4-87 


5-4 


-0-53 


4- 


0-15 


-0-38 





5-45 


59 


-0-45 


4- 


0-26 


—019 


I 


370 


42 


— 0-50 






-0-35 


I 


3-88 


44 


-0-52 






—0-26 


2 


309 


3 4 


-0-31 






— o-i6 


2 


2-75 


32 


-0-45 






—0-19 


3 


3-30 


3 '4 


— O'lO 






+0-05 


3 


2-40 


^7 


— 0-30 






— 0-04 


4 


4-28 


42 


+o-o8 






4-0-23 


4 


301 


31 


— 0-09 






4-0-17 


5 


573 


55 


+0-23 






4-0-38 


5 


4-42 


4-6 


— 0-18 






4-0-08 


6 


7'3i 


7"i 


+0"2I 






4-0-36 


6 


624 


6-2 


4-0-04 






4-0-30 


7 


869 


8-5 


+ 0-19 






+°-34 


7 


8-04 


7-9 


4-0-14 






4-0-40 


8 


970 


97 


O'OO 






4-0-15 


8 


954 


9"3 


4-0-24 






4-0-50 


9 


lO'OI 


IO-2 


— o"i9 






—0-04 


9 


10-48 


10-3 


4-0-18 






4-0-44 


lO 


9-55 


lo-o 


-0-45 






—0-30 


10 


10-50 


10-8 


— 0-30 






— 0-04 


II 


858 


91 


-0-52 






-0-37 


11 


975 


10-2 


-0-45 






—0-19 


12 


7-46 


80 


-0-54 






-0-39 


12 


8-53 


91 


-0-57 






-0-31 


13 


643 


7-0 


-0-57 






—0-42 


13 


7-19 


8-0 


-0-81 






-0-55 


•4 


S-8i 


6-2 


-039 






—0-24 


14 


6-13 


6-8 


— 0-67 






—0-41 


'5 


5-82 


60 


— o-i8 






—0-03 


15 


5-60 


6-1 


— 0-50 






—0-24 


i6 


658 


6-4 


+o-i8 






4-0-33 


16 


5-83 


6-1 


-0-27 






— O'OI 


17 


775 


7-4 


+°-35 






4-0-50 


17 


682 


6-9 


— 0-08 






4-0-18 


i8 


8-94 


8-6 


+°-34 






4-0-49 


18 


8-15 


81 


4-0-05 






4-0-31 


'9 


985 


95 


+0-35 






4-0-50 


19 


939 


93 


4-0-09 






4-°-3S 


20 


10-27 


lOI 


4-0-17 






4-0-32 


20 


10-23 


10-2 


4-0-03 






4-029 


21 


9-98 


lOI 


— 0-I2 






4-0-03 


21 


10-45 


IO-6 


-0-15 






4-0-11 


22 


892 


93 


—0-38 






-0-23 


22 


985 


10-3 


-0-45 






— 0-19 


23 


7-25 


77 


-0-45 






—0-30 


23 


8-38 


8-9 


-0-52 






—026 



1868, November 29. 






6-47 


7-1 


—0-63 4-0 


•38 -0-25 


12 


9-71 


10-3 


I 


452 


51 


-0-58 


— 0-20 


13 


8-26 


91 


2 


2-94 


3-6 


-0-66 


-0-28 


14 


6-88 


7-8 


3 


2-00 


2-8 


—0-80 


— 0-42 


15 


5-84 


6-6 


4 


2-01 


25 


-0-49 


— o-ii 


16 


5-48 


6-0 


5 


3-07 


33 


— 0-23 


4-0-15 


17 


593 


6-2 


6 


4-87 


51 


-023 


4-0-15 


18 


7-14 


7-4 


7 


6-94 


7'i 


— 016 


4-0-22 


19 


8-58 


8-7 


8 


8-85 


8-8 


4-0-05 


4-0-43 


20 


979 


9-8 


9 


1033 


103 


4-0-03 


4-0-41 


21 


10-49 


10-4 


10 


1103 


11 "a 


-0-17 


4-0-21 


22 


10-43 


10-7 


II 


10-77 


112 


-0-43 


—0-05 


23 


9-48 


9-8 



-0-59 
-0-84 

— 0-92 

— 0-76 
—0-52 
—0-27 

— 0-26 
— 012 

— 0-01 

4-0-09 

— 0-27 

— 0-32 



— 0-21 

— 0-46 
-0-54 

— 0-38 

— 0-14 

4-0-11 

4-0-I2 

4-0-26 

4-0-37 
4-0-47 

4-011 
4-0-06 



Coiichision of Mr. Roberts's Statement. 



71. What may be regarded as the most interesting features of the ■wrork 
described in the preceding statement are the introduction of four new purely- 
astronomical tides (the t-^vo evection-tides and the two variation-tides) and 
the new luui-solar Helmholtz compound shallow-water tide. Further 
investigation of the evection-tides is necessary and must lead to interesting 
results, on account of the great discrepancies between the results shown in 
§ 61 above for the four years for which they have been calculated. 



TIDAL OBSERVATIONS, 149 

72. The fact noticed, that one of the variation-tides has the same period 
as the solar semidiurnal tide, would be of great importance for tidal theory 
were it not that its magnitude must be so small as to be scarcely sensible. 
According to the values of the perturbations in longitude and radius vector, 
due to variation shown in Hansen's Tables, the equilibrium value of the solar 
semidiurnal variation-tide would be only about -^ of the equihbrium value 
of the 2(y—2a + r]) variation-tide. The dynamical value of the latter tide, 
shown in § 61 above, is only about a quarter of a foot above and below the 
mean level. Hence it cannot be expected that the smaller component should 
sensibly influence the observed results obtained by the analysis which had 
been undertaken for the solar semidiurnal tide. The close agreement between 
the results, both for amplitude and for epoch, of the chief component varia- 
tion-tide, 2(y — 2(7 -f- J?), for the four years, is so satisfactory that the evalua- 
tion is undoubtedly genuine in this case. 

73. The same may be said also of the Helmholtz luni-solar tide. The 
effect of this tide is of great practical importance, especially in respect to 
navigation. It is well known that, generally in harbours, estuaries, and 
channels, the tide rises faster than it falls. The harmonic analysis of this 
phenomenon was given first, I believe, by Airy: see for example, his formula 
for Deptford in his article " Tides and Waves," Encyclopaedia Metropolitan a, 
Helmholtz's admii-able explanation of the grave and acute notes heard ac- 
companying two loud musical notes sounding simultaneously, referred to in 
§ 24 of the Committee's First Eeport, contains a perfectly general statement 
of an extremely simple character, which, mutatis ynutandis, is applicable to 
the tides in every case in which the range of rise and fall is sensible in com- 
parison with the mean depth through any considerable area of sea or channel 
influencing them. The application of this theory, for example, to a tide of 
10 feet whole range from mean level, considered as the resultant of two 
simultaneous tides of 5-feet range, suggests immediately the harmonic terms 
(such as those calculated by Aiiy for Deptford) which express the phenomenon 
of the rise being more rapid than the fall. The same theory applied to the 
spring-tides (which are the resultant of the lunar and solar semidiurnal tides 
M'hen they agree in phase) and to the neap-tides (which are the resultant of 
the same components when they are opposite in phase), shows that the terms 
expressing deviation from the simple sum of the two chief harmonic terms must 
be greater than the sum of the deviations about the time of spring-tides, and 
less than the algebraic sum of the contrary deviations about the time of the 
neap-tides. Helmholtz's general statement again suggests instantly the 
harmonic terms proper to express the anticipated result. In this case it is 
the second of the two " shaUow-water tides " indicated in § 24. The deter- 
mination of this term from observation, promised at Norwich, 1868, as an 
early undertaking of the Committee, has now been accomplished, both for 
Liverpool and Eamsgate, by Mr. Roberts, in consequence of his having for 
some time been baifled by discrepancies in his investigation of the Liverpool 
tides showing an approximately quarter-diurnal period when all the com- 
ponents previoiisly evaluated were properly put together to express the tides 
on the days selected for the comparison between theory and observation 
described above. The period of this new component is a quarter of the har- 
monic mean of the mean solar and mean lunar days. Its amplitude (that is, 
half the range from lowest to highest) is about f of a foot at Liverpool and 
g of a foot at Eamsgate. Both it and the previously found shallow-water 
components are greater in proportion to the chief tides at Eamsgate than at 
Liverpool ; this no doubt is due to the great extent and shallowness of the 



150 



REPORT — 1870. 



British Channel and German Sea, as compared with channels tkrough which 
the ocean affects Liverpool. 

74. The search for astronomical long-period tides has up to this time given 
only negative results. In each case a genuine annual tide seems to be indi- 
cated, but the negative results as to the lunar fortnightly (declinational) tide 
and monthly (elliptic) tide forbid us to regard either the semiannual or the 
annual as a truly astronomical tide. Both are probably due to meteorological 
causes. The cause which I have previously suggested (§ 1 0), that is, " water 
received into the sea by drainage and the melting of ice, and from the di- 
rect fall of rain into it," would tend to raise or lower the mean level almost 
simultaneously over the whole sea. There are two other meteorological 
causes which probably have very sensible effects, — difference in distribution 
of atmospheric pressure over the earth, and difference of temperature in dif- 
ferent oceans. These three causes may be sufScieut to explain the results of 
observation collected in the following Table : — 





Year. 


Maximum 

of 

Annual Tide. 


Range aboTe 
and below- 
mean level. 


Maxima 

of 

Semiannual Tide. 


Range above 
and below- 
mean level. 


Eamsgate 

Liverpool 

Fort Point 

Kurrachee 


1864 

fi857-58] 
1S58-59 
1859-60 

[1866-67] 
1858-59 
1868-69 


Sept. 21 

Nov. 19' 

April 29 
May 6 


ft. 
0'127 

0362 

0-212 
O-II5 


Feb. 14, Aug. 15 
No agreement 
between the re- 
sults for the dif- 
ferent years. 
Jan. 1, July 2 
May 3, Nov. 2 


ft. 

0-075 

0-224 
0-198 



75. In conclusion, it may be remarked that sailors find nearly all they 
want about the tides in British and Irish ports in the Admiralt)"- Tide-tables, 
and the plan upon which they are constructed is available to give practical 
results of similar value for most of the Atlantic Coasts. But this plan being 
adopted solely for lunar and solar semidiurnal tides, is absolutely unavailable 
to give any approach to good practical results for any ocean other than 
the Atlantic, as in all other oceans the diurnal tides arc very considerable, 
and in many localities are greater than the semidiurnal tides. 

7G. There exist but few records of tidal observations on coasts where the 
diurnal tide is of this importance. Among those which do exist, however, 
are some made at Bombay and Kurrachee, which have been treated by Mr. 
Boberts and referred to in the foregoing Report. 

77. Former observations at these two ports had previously been analyzed 
by Mr. Parkes, a member of this Committee, by a process described by him in a 
paper presented to the Boyal Society, and published in the Philosophical Trans- 
actions for 1868, and which he has since amended in some of its details. Mr. 
Parkes has established formulae based on astronomical data, which represent 
with considerable accuracy the movements of the diurnal tide ; and Tables 
of the time and height of high and low water for the ports of Bombay and 
Xurrachee have been computed under his direction, and issued under the 
authority of the Secretary of State for India, for 1867 and each succeeding 
year. This constitutes undoubtedly the first successful comparison of theory 
and observation leading to sufiiciont tide-tables for any other than North- 
Atlantic ports. If observations were made at other points on the coast of 
India, and treated in a similar manner, further tables misjht be computedj, 



*r"^™n-t -ff-TI Jl.ittf^ 1870. 



KURRACHEE 1 

DIAGRAM PREPARED BYAePARlvES •§«: 

as observed* as couipated ty Sir 1 







«. _ 


• 


V 


• 




• 

2. 


-•- 




TT 
V 


.M. 




• 


• 


X 






1 

3E tE 


-* 
f EL 


• 


K 


T 






■T- 


JC 




i'- 




X 


.• 


• 


T 


• 


H . 




• 


X 


• 




• 


m 


• 


• 


r-^-- 










• 




-• 




• 







y 



IDES. XOYEAIEER 18G8. 

' TO SHOW Tim COMPARATI\-E HEIGHTS OF HIGH AND LOW WATKR. 
" Thomsons system _ as computed by JE' Parkes- system .. 



-~-?i^^i »■ 






''^~.f.r. 



ILF TIDE 1. E V Ell 



Va^tf.t 



■f *'i 



u_4?i 



a}!i 



3 t* 



ii- 



ct,r0^-' 






-^ A'^i'ii'^"-'^---^-"''"----*- — * 



E L 



E V ■ L 



• Malbyt St™ Jjih 




ON A NEW STEAM-POWER METER. 151 

and those coasts placed generally in the same position with regard to know- 
ledge of the tides as those of England. The same may be said of the ports of 
Australia, China, &c., as well as of western America. 

78. But while admitting the practical sufficiency of Mr. Parkes's analysis 
for the purpose of establishing processes for the computation of tide-tables, the 
Committee believe the further application of the harmonic system to be very 
desirable, from its more searching character and the facility with which it 
exhibits the smaller variations of level independently of theory. 

79. Whether it will, for practical purposes, supersede existing methods of 
prediction, wiU probably depend upon the relative amoimt of labour re- 
quired for the calculations ; but there is little doubt that it will at any rate 
facilitate the correction of existing formulae. 

SO. For more strictly scientific purposes its superiority to any existing 
method of analysis is indisputable, and, considering the relation of tidal 
variations to many physical questions at present unsolved, its importance 
from this point of view is great. 

81. It may fairly be expected that the Admiralty will cooperate in carry- 
ing on a work which, whether in its scientific or practical bearings, is of 
such fundamental importance for navigation. 



On a new Steam-power Meier. By Messrs. Ashton a7id Storey. 

[A communication ordered to be printed in extenso in the Transactions.] 

Tee extent to which the employment of steam-power in our varied in- 
dustries, and as furnishing means of locomotion, has become a necessity, 
and the desirability of attaining the utmost economy in the consumption 
of fuel, render it a matter of the first importance to be able readUy to ascer- 
tain the exact amount of power developed by steam machinery in a given 
time. Hitherto approximate estimates, founded upon the results of iso- 
lated tests and experiments, or calculations based upon the diagrams pro- 
duced by ordinary indicators, have furnished the sole means for the ascer- 
tainment of the duty of (or, in other words, the power developed by) steam- 
engines in all cases where the said power has been subject to variations. 

These indications have been taken at intervals of at least one day, and 
in most cases of a much longer period, and have simply been registrations 
of the amount of power developed during the one stroke or the two or 
three strokes performed by the engine during the time of indication, the 
great variations in the load upon or the speed of the engine, and in the 
pressure of the steam, occurring in the intervals between the indications 
being practically disregarded ; and even when a correct diagram has been 
obtained, the power developed during the indication has and can only be 
ascertained with any degree of exactness by a tedious process of mea- 
surement and calculation. The patent power-meter and continuous indi- 
cator, on the contrary, not only measures the power developed during a 
single stroke of the engine with as great a degree of exactness as the best 
indicator hitherto in use, but also registers the result of the said measure- 
ment with as great a degree of exactness as it is measured, thus avoiding 
the errors arising in the operation of measuring and calculating the area 
of the ordinary diagram ; and, what is of more consequence, this measure- 



153 . REPORT — 1870. 

ment and registration are effected with reference to each and every stroke 
of the engine, and furnish a means whereby a correct judgment may be 
formed as to whether there has at any time been a want of due observance 
of economy in the use of fuel, or whereby the comparative merits of dif- 
ferent kinds of fuel or of lubricants may be tested. In cases where power is 
supplied to tenants, this instrument furnishes the only means whereby the 
power so sujjplied may be accurately measured. And in the case of marine 
engines, in a rough sea it is the only instrument that can give any reliable 
information as to the power exerted by the steam-engines, inasmuch as it is 
frequently impossible to obtain consistent diagrams by the ordinary indicator 
during a whole voyage across the Atlantic. The steam-power meter and 
continuous indicator, as its name implies, shows at all times the measure 
of the power developed by the steam-engine to which it is applied, and 
registers the aggregate of that power during any required period of time. 
The instrument consists of a small double-acting indicator-cylinder l^in. 
in diameter, each end of which is connected by means of a pij^e with the 
corresponding end of the steam-engine cylinder. These connexions are 
made as short and direct as possible. The piston-rod of the indicator 
carries a long toothed pinion, c, which revolves loosely on the rod, but is 
held endwise between two screw-collars. This gears into a toothed wheel, 
d, which is connected with and drives the indices. At the lower end of 
the long pinion, and fixed to it, is a hght wheel, b, called the integrating 
wheel, having a smooth rim with a rounded face. To the upper end of 
the piston-rod is attached a spiral spring, which offers a resistance to 
the free movement of the piston in its course from the middle to either 
end of the indicator-cylinder; on a short horizontal shaft is mounted a 
circular disk, e, whose face is constantly, but not forcibly, pressed against 
the rim of the integrating wheel. This is effected by means of a light flat 
spring bearing against the end of the shaft on which the disk-wheel is 
mounted. A small cog-wheel,/, is keyed on the disk-shaft, and is con- 
nected by a rack, or any other suitable means, to the cross-head or other 
convenient reciprocating part of the steam-engine, or a small pulley, /, may 
be keyed on the disk-shaft, round which is wound a cord, whose two ends 
are attached to the cross-head or other convenient reciprocating part of the 
steam-engine, being carried thence round loose pulleys above and below. 
By either of these means the reciprocating motion of the steam-engine is 
converted into a rotary motion of the disk acting in alternately opposite 
directions. When there is no pressure on the piston of the steam-engine, 
and accordingly none on the piston of the indicator, the integrating wheel 
is so adjusted that the point of contact of its rim with the disk shall be at 
the centre of the disk, that being the zero-point of the instrument. When 
the pressure of the steam is admitted, so as to act on the piston of the in- 
dicator, the integi-ating wheel traverses in consequence from, the centre 
towards the circumference of the disk, the distance traversed being pro- 
portionate to the pressure of the steam on the piston. tSuppose, now, the 
cross-head of the steam-engine, and with it the disk of the instrum'ent, is 
moving, such motion will be communicated by the disk to the integrating 
wheel, and through it to the indices. The motion so given to the indices 
during this stroke of the steam-engine is proportionate to the pressure of 
the steam on the indicator-piston during that stroke. Let it now be sup- 
posed that the stroke is finished and a return movement is commenced, 
the disk will now rotate in the opposite direction ; and if the steam acting 
upon the piston were pressing in the same direction as before, the inte- 




153 



154 REPORT — 1870. 

grating wheel and indices would necessarily go backward. If, however, 
the steam, as is usual, acts on the opposite side of the piston when the 
piston's motion is reversed, the integrating wheel will be moved to the 
opposite side of the centre of the disk, so that the integrating wheel and 
indices wiU be moved in the same direction as before, and the quantity 
of motion through the receding stroke of the engine will again be propor- 
tionate to the pressure of the steam on the piston during that return 
stroke. Here, therefore, is provided a means of moving the indices during 
each stroke of the engine through a space proportionate to the sum of tlie 
moments of pressure exerted during that stroke, or, in other words, a 
means of indicating the amount of jiower developed during that stroke. 
The relative proportions adopted for the several working parts in the pre- 
sent instrument are such that each division on the dial represents one 
thousand foot-pounds of duty for each circular inch of the piston of the 
steam-engine. These proportions may be varied. Thus the parts of the 
indicator may be so arranged that the readings on the dial shall represent 
the number of horse-powers given out during any required period of time. 
By closing the tap connecting one end of the indicator-cylinder with the 
corresponding end of the steam-engine cylinder and opening the small 
drij)-tap to admit air freely to the disconnected end of the indicator-cylin- 
der, the indicator is rendered single-acting, and will show the manner 
of working and the amount of work done by one end of the steam-engine 
cylinder alone. By opening the closed taps and closing the open ones the 
indicator is reversed, and the manner of M'orking and the amount of work 
done by the other end of the steam-engine cylinder ascertained. In the 
case of a non-condensing engine, the integrating wheel would not return to 
the centre of the rotating disk during the back or return stroke of the en- 
gine, by a distance proportionate to the back pressure opposing the motion 
of the steam-engine piston, the effect being that, during the return stroke, 
the integrating wheel and indices would be wound back by an amount of 
motion proportionate to the loss of power by back pressure. Also, if the 
valves of the engine are opened or closed too early or too late, the integrating 
wheel will be seen to move backward at the beginning or end of each stroke, 
thereby showing work undone by an amount of motion proportionate to the 
loss of power by such " cushioning " or too late admission of the steam or 
too late exhausting of it. The instrument can be so constructed that paper 
diagrams may be taken indicating the action of the steam in each end of the 
steam-engine cylinder, or in both ends conjointly. 

FoEMirLA POR SHOWING THE EeLATIVE CoITNEXION OE THE DIMENSIONS OF THE 
VARIOUS PARTS OE THE PoWER-MeTER. 

Let w == the weight in lbs. required to distend or compress the spring one inch, d = dia- 
meter of indicator-cylinder in inches, D = diairieter of integi-ating wheel in inches, 
I = number of teeth in the long pinion, w, = number of teeth in wheel geared in long 
pinion, n — number of teeth in worm-wheel or first index-wheel, x = diameter of driving- 

pulley on disk-shaft ; then d'^ = the area of the cylinder in circular inches, and -35 = the 

pressure in pounds of steam per circular inch on the piston, to distend or compress the 

spring one inch. 

One revolution of the disk with the integrating wheel one inch from the centre will 

2 
drive the integrating wheel =- revolutions. Then 

of - of - 
D m n 



ON THE ACTION OP THE METHYL AND ALLIED SERIES. 155 

= the parts of one i-evolutioii of the index for one revolution of the disk — that is, 

_ 11 
Dmn 

And because ^j- X — to— = foot-pounds represented by one revolution of the disk 

, . , . , . 31416w.r ., „ 

per one cu'cular inch of the piston, = — roj2 — > thereiore 

3-l4lCnrx Dmn Z-UlGDmnwx 



X 



12d' ^ 21 ~ 2-ild^ 

= foot-pounds per one revolution of index. Or, assume one revolution of index 
= 10,000, then 

3-14mi)mnwx .^_„ , _ lAO^OOOld'^ 76.394-194^(Z^ 

Mld^ = ^"'"*^ " ~ WhmDin^' - Bmnw ' 

Therefore each unit on the dial of the power-meter represents 1000 foot-pounds per 
circular inch. 

To find the Worlc done hy an Engine in any given time. 

When d = the diameter of the engine-cylinder in inches, n = the number of the meter- 
index at commencement of time, ii = the number of the meter-index at the end of that 
time, therefore 

\GQQiny — n)d = foot-pounds. 

To find the worlc done in Horse effect. 

Where m = number of minutes elapsed between the time of reading the meter, and 
33,000 foot-pounds represents the duty of one horse per minute, then 

— — ^-J ~ . —^\ = load m horse-powers. 

33,000»i S6m ^ 

To find the quantity of Coal consumed per Horse per hour. 
Let n — horse effect of the engine, h = hours during consumption of the coal^ 
w = the vreight of coal in lbs., and r — the number of lbs. of coal consumed per 

hour ; also 

1000(^;i -«)<?3 ^ K^'y- 
33,000 xOOA -^~ 1980A " • 

And J- — lbs. of coal consumed per horse per hour, therefore 
H 

«' X 1 w 1980/2 lOSOiti 



h H li {n^ — n)d {i\^ — ii)d 
— consumption of coal per horse per hour. 



Report on the Action of the Methyl and Allied Series. 
By Benjamin W. Richardson, M.D., F.R.S. 

In my last Report to the Associatiou I classified uuder five heads the vari- 
ous substances the action of which I had studied in a phj^siological point of 
view, viz. the Hydrides, Nitrites, vUcohols, Chlorides, and Iodides of Methyl, 
Ethyl, Butyl, and Amyl. In my present report I have retained the same 
order of classification of organic substances, so as to ensure a systematic and 



156 REPORT— 1870. 

steady progression, adding in due place what has been attempted in research 
with other organic bodies. 

The matter I have to communicate in the present Report I shall place 
under three heads, which shall indicate the lines of inquiry I have aimed to 
carry out. I propose, first, to bring under review some of the work of tlie 
past, with such improvements upon it as have been since elicited by experience 
and experiment; secondly, to narrate the results of new researches with 
certain substances which have not before been tried by the physiologist, in 
respect to their action on the body ; and, thirdly, to submit some conclusions 
deduced from experiments relative to the general physiological action of 
certain of the more active agents that have come before me for study. 



PART L— REYIEW. 

Out of the list of compounds reported upon in previous years, I select for 
review nitrite of amyl, bichloride of methylene, methylic ether, and 
hydrate of chloral. 

This selection is made because all the substances named have been found 
to have, in their application, a practical not less than a scientific value. 

Nitrate of Amyl. — In 1863 I first reported to the Association on this che- 
mical substance, the nitrite of amyl, treating then purely on its physiolo- 
gical properties, and venturing nothing in respect to its employment for the 
relief or cure of disease. In the following year, however, I made a further 
advance, and at the Meeting in Bath in 1864 I was able to state to the As- 
sociation the true place of this nitrite as a physiological agent and as a remedy 
for disease. Ishowed then that its great virtue lay in its power of removing 
muscular spasm ; for I had detected that beneath the action which it promi- 
nently calls forth, the excessive action of the heart and apparent excitement, 
there is another and more permanent condition produced, viz. a temporary 
paralysis of muscle and a suspension of all the outward manifestations of life 
■which, in Batrachians, could be sustained without actually destroying life. 
These observations led me to point out the importance of employing the 
nitiite in order to control spasms, and especially to meet the spasmodic disease 
tetanus, commonly called locked jaw, over which I inferred it would have 
a direct controlling power. 

In course of time this suggestion for the application of the nitrite for 
the relief of acute spasm came into practice, Dr. Brunton, of Edinburgh, 
leading the way by administering the remedy, with marked success, for the 
reUcf of what is called atlgina pectoris. Further experience has fully 
supported the introduction of the remedy, and in the past year there has 
been signal advance. In December last Dr. Anstie had recourse to the 
nitrite for the relief of angina, with the result that the sufi'crer passed (I use 
the author's own words) " from agony into a state of perfect repose." Dr. 
Earquhar has also reported that in an instance of terrible pain from spasm 
of the bowels, where the nitrite was administered, the patient expressed that 
he " was transformed from agony to heaven in a moment." Dr. Leischman, 
Dr. Hadden, and Dr. H. Thompson have borne similar testimony to the value 
of the agent. But the most striking example of the action of this potent 
remedy has been recorded in the ' Lancet,' in April of the present )'oar, by 
a most experienced and learned practitioner, Mr. Foster, of Huntington. 
Mr. Foster had the opportunity of applying the nitrite in the disease 
tetanus, for which I recommended it in 1864, to a man who suffered from 



ON THE ACTION OF THE METHYL AND ALLIED SERIES. 157 

this extreme maladj, following upon the infliction of a wound. The spasms 
were so severe that the man is described as having " been rolled up hke a 
rigid ball." Five drops of the nitrite were put on a pocket handkerchief 
and inhaled, with the immediate effect of lessening the spasms. On each 
return of the spasms the agent was assiduously administered, and by this 
means the spasms were held in check until the ninth day, when the patient 
had inhaled an ounce of the fluid. In this example there was complete 
recovery ; and Mr. Foster reports that of seven similar cases of tetanus which 
he had previously treated in thirty-four years' practice all had died. Ho 
had met with no success until he had recourse to the nitrite of amyl. 

You will excuse me of any charge of pride when I express the gratification 
I feel at these singular results, and you will allow me, 1 hope, to explain 
how obliged I am to this Association for the sup])ort it afibrded me when I 
was first engaged on this subject of research. The satisfaction rests, first, 
on the practical facts I have named ; but a second satisfaction is that the facts 
have shown the worth of scientific experimental inquii'y, as preliminary to 
practical application, for the certain and systematic relief and cure of human 
sufi^eiing. 

Nitrite of amyl was not introduced into use as a remedy against spasmodic 
diseases, including tetanus, by any mere accident. It was introduced on 
method of pure scientific investigation ; its properties as a remedy were 
discerned and estimated, stated before it was applied for the cure of disease, 
and the results obtained were the simple expositions of the predictions made 
concerning its value. 

In the course of the year I have studied the best means of keeping and 
administering this active nitrite. At the Meeting at Norwich I proposed 
that it should be kept in absolute alcohol, but I find that when it is exposed 
long in this way it undergoes change, by which its efiiciency is to some 
extent impaired. I find also that diluted with alcohol the vapour of the 
nitrite does not pass off with sufficient rapidity to secure good action. At 
the same it is not well to use it undiluted, as that implies the measurement 
of it by drops or minims, a plan which is neither safe nor convenient. 
To meet these difficulties I have made for inhalation an etherial solution, or 
tincture, in which five grains of the nitrite of amyl are contained in one 
drachm of absolute ether. 

I have seen no occasion to modify the view expressed at the Meeting at 
Bath, and again at the Meeting at Exeter last year, that the nitrite of amyl 
produces its effect by its paralyzing-action upon the nerves which govern 
the contraction of the blood-vessels ; and I take it that this explanation of 
its action explains, by the reverse, the mode of action of those agents which 
it neutralizes, such as strychnia, and of the influence which excites the disease 
known as tetanus. It seems to me that these agencies either excite extreme 
action of the nerves which keep up the contraction, or paralyze the counter 
nervous supply which causes dilatation of vessels, and that the conviiLsive 
movements induced by siich agents as strychnine are due to removal of 
blood by contraction of vessels in a manner analogous to that convulsion 
which follows free abstraction of blood. 

Bichloride of Methylene. — Bichloride of methylene during the past year 
has grown much in favour, and in some of our large medical institutions has 
replaced chloroform altogether. I regret, nevertheless, to have to report 
that two deaths have been recorded as following upon its use. Both cases 
wei-e pecidiar. In one the subject was, in truth, so near to death at the 
time of administration that he was apprised by the surgeons and the able 



158 REPORT— 1870. 

administrator of the bichloride, Mr. Marshall, of the risk he incurred. In 
the other case the fatal event did not happen at the time of administration, 
but five minutes afterwards, and even after return of consciousness, a 
result entirely new, as far as I know, in the history of anaBsthetic practice. 
I am unable altogether to account for this result ; and the less able because 
the patient was never brought fairly under the influence of the narcotic, and 
received less of it than I have often inhaled in experiment. 

On the whole, the rate of death, taking these two cases as hondfide examples 
of death, has been, relatively, very small, certainly not more than one in 
ten thousand administrations ; and I am assured by those who administer 
the bichloride most frequently that continued practice only increases their 
confidence in it. 

Dr. Junker, who has now administered bichloride of methylene over two 
hundred times for the most formidable operation in surgery (ovariotomy), 
expresses to me his belief that the agent is ijractically free of danger when it 
is obtained pure, and when ordinary care is taken in administering it ; and 
other administrators have sent me reports equally favourable. Tor my own 
part I have simply allowed it to be adjudged upon by independent observers, 
retaining the opinion I first advanced in respect to it, that it is safer than 
chloroform, but not absolutely safe ; that, like chloroform, it belongs to a 
dangerous family of chemical bodies, and that it is still the business of the 
experimentalist to search for an anaesthetic which shall be equally practical 
in application and, at the same, better in action. 

Methi/Uc ether. — In two previous Eeports I have noticed methylic ether, 
and have explained that as a safe anaesthetic agent it has no superior. I have 
endeavoured consequently to utilize it during the past months, and have ad- 
ministered it twenty-seven times with success, in cases of surgical operation, 
in the human subject. Mr. Coles, Mr. Spencer Watson, Mr. Gregson, and 
others have also administered the anaesthetic with successful results. The 
object of these applications of methylic ether has been to supply a perfectly 
safe anaesthetic that would narcotize very rapidly, but with sufficient effect to 
allow the surgeon to perform short and painful operations. For this purpose 
the ether acted remarkably well ; in seventeen instances sufficient insensibility 
was induced to enable the operation of tooth extraction to be performed with- 
out pain, and in all these instances recovery to perfect consciousness occurred 
within a minnte. There was also observed another fact, of which more 
anon, that while the persons who were subjected to the narcotic expressed 
and felt no suffering from the operation they underwent, they retained so 
much consciousness as to respond to requests made of them, and to converse 
during the whole period they were under the anaesthetic influence. 

I have not pressed forward this method of annulling pain, because methylic 
ether cannot be rendered sufficiently stable for practical daily use. Being a 
gas, it is necessary either to condense it by pressure, or to saturate ethylic 
ether with it under the influence of cold. The first of these methods is 
distrusted as unpleasant to the operator, and the second is uncertain, because 
with elevation of temperature the light methylic vapour is diffused and lost, 
so that common ether alone remains. 

The physiological action of methyHc ether deserves nevertheless to be kept 
in mind : first, becaiise of the power it possesses of destroying sensibility 
before it destroys the consciousness ; and, secondly, because of its safety. So 
safe is it that an animal made to sleep with it into unconsciousness may 
remain breathing it for twelve minutes without dying; and if allowed, 
apparently, to die, may be recovered by artificial respii-ation so long as seven 



ON THE ACTION OF THE METHYL AND ALLIED SERIES. 159 

minutes after tlie cessation of the respiration, i, e. after what appears to be 
actual death. 

Chloral Hydrate.— It will be remembered by many that at Exeter 
last year the substance called hydrate of chloral was first discussed in 
this country. The news had recently arrived that the distinguished Lieb- 
reich, of Berlin, had cUscovered in this hydrate a powerful narcotic ; and 
our associate, Mr. Daniel Hanbury, F.E.S., having fortunately brought 
a specimen of it to Exeter, the Physiological Department of the Biological 
Section deputed me to test the substance (with which Mr. Hanbury kindly 
supplied me) by direct experiment, and to report upon it during the 
sittings of the Section. Eesponding to the wishes of the Section, and ably 
aided by Dr. Kilburne King, of Hull, Dr. and Mr. Shapter, of Exeter, and 
other friends, I was enabled to draw up a report that has been published in 
the ' Transactions,' and which gave a fair and impartial estimate of the values 
of the new remedy. The notice of this Beport, and of the discussion upon 
it in the general and scientific papers, created the intensest interest in the 
medical world. After my return to town, 1 had frequently from fifteen to 
twenty communications a day respecting chloral hydrate. At the request of 
members of the medical profession, I visited Birmingham, Bradford, York, 
Norwich, and other large towns in the kingdom, to demonstrate the action 
and application of the remedy, while in London I gave series of similar 
demonstrations. These efforts made the hydrate widely known in this 
country ; but the inherent good qualities of the compound itself were its 
best and surest recommendation. Hence it settled in favour as it increased 
in popularity, and it has now become an instrument for the cure of disease 
scarcely second to any in the hands of the physician. If I were to say that 
a million of persons' in sleepless pain had been made to rest quietly and 
painlessly under its benign influence, I should certainly not overrate the 
extent of its usefulness. 

It is satisfactory to feel that the conclusions we arrived at last year have 
been, on the -whole, thoroughly sustained by the practice that has ensued. 
I deduced, from the experiments which we performed, that the hydrate was 
not an anaesthetic in the common sense of the term, but that it sometimes 
induced a stage of hyperassthesia ; this has been confirmed by many who 
have foUowed in the same method of inquiry. I inferred that the hydrate 
could not be expected (as had been expected of it) to supersede the volatile 
ansesthetics as a means of relieving the pain of surgical operations ; and this 
view has been fuUy confirmed by the results of several attempts to make it 
replace the ordinary anajsthetics. I inferred that the compound reduced the 
animal temperature in a signal degree ; and this view, fully confirmed by the 
after experiments of Demarquay, has met with the general acceptance of 
observers. I was led to conjecture, from what I had seen of the influence of 
the hydrate in controlling strychnine tetanus, that it would probably not be 
a cure for acute tetanic spasm ; and this view has been supported by the 
results of practice in many cases of tetanic disease. Lastly, I was led to 
maintain that the hydrate, if it took position, would do so as the rival only 
of the old and time-honoured organic compound, opium ; and this view has 
been once more fully confirmed. 

It may be accepted, I think, on the whole, that chloral hydrate, which to 
us thirteen months ago was an absolute novelty, is now a fixed and proved 
instrument for the cure of disease. It is readily and cheaply manufac- 
tured, and its administration is easy. That it wiU not be found to possess 
all the virtues which have been attributed to it in its early days is certain ; 



160 REPORT 1870. 

that, when calmly and impartially compared with opium and the deri- 
vatives of opium, it will rank as subordinate to its ancient and trusted 
rival is probable ; and that it will be found less potent in relieving acute 
physical pain than in calming the senses and in producing deep, but not 
insensible sleep, is also probable. -But whatever modification of thought may 
occur in regard to it, it is an established messenger between science and 
disease, and must henceforth find a place in the pharmacopoeias of all civilized 
peoples. 

PART II.— RESEAECH WITH NEW AGENTS. 

Passing from the review of the past I come to the work of the present, 
adding it to the classified list of my last Report in the order in which its 
parts naturally come. 

Hydrides. 

Two additional hydrides have been studied, viz. the hydride of caproyl or 
hexyl, and the hydride of oenanthyl or heptyl. 

Hydride of Caproyl or Ile.vyl. — Of this hydride, known commonly as light 
petroleum spirit, C,, H,3 H, a pure specimen is before us ; it has a fluid 
density of -669, a vapour-density of 43, taking hydrogen as unity, and a 
boiling-point of 154° F. It is insoluble in water. It is not an unpleasant 
vapour to inhale, and it produces sleep when it is inhaled very much as 
chloroform does. The second degree or stage of narcotism, stage of excite- 
ment, is prolonged, and vomiting is not uncommon during this stage ; when 
the third degree of narcotism is reached there is perfect insensibility. The 
fourth degree is attended with great muscular prostration, but recovery 
from the narcotism begins in from three to four minutes, and is usually 
rapid, no injurious effects being left behind. The temperature of animals 
(pigeons and rabbits) during the full influence of this ana3sthetic falls from 
two and a half to three degrees Fahrenheit. When a warm-blooded animal, 
narcotized with the hydride of hexyl, is allowed to sleep to death in the 
vapour, the death, as from chloroform, is almost imperceptible, it is so 
gentle ; the respiration ceases first, but the heart soon follows in cessation 
of action. After death the lungs are found to be slightly blanched, but the 
heart contains blood on both sides. The vapour in no way modifies the 
coagulation of blood, but the colour of the venous blood is rendered darker 
than is natural, and the arterial blood is also darkened. The corpuscles are 
not visibly changed. 

I should consider the hydride of caprojd in the light of a narcotic which 
acts by reducing the respiratory process of change of blood rather than by 
direct influence of its own on the nervous centres. In the absence of chloro- 
form it might be used as a substitute for it ; and had it been tried pUre in the 
early days of anaesthetic research, it would possibly have obtained position 
over ether. We ncfcd not, however, consider it at the present time any 
further, as we have better agents at our command. 

Hydride of (Enanthyl or Hepiyl. — This hydride, which may be obtained 
in a pure form by careful fractional distillation from some petroleum oils, is 
composed of C^ H^, H. It has a specific gravity of -709 at 60° E., a vapour- 
density of 50°, and a boUing-point of 201° E. It has a rather agreeable 
odour, and is easily inhaled. Administered by inlialation, it produces a stupor 
with some insensibility, much muscular tremor, and a reduction of tempera- 
tiire, which in birds may be brought down to not less than five degrees. It also 
reduces the action of the heart, while it quickens the respiration. It darkens 
arterial blood, but does not interfere with the process of coagulation of blood. 



ON THE ACTION OF THE METHYL AND ALLIED SERIES. 161 

It is distinctly negative in its narcotic effects, and, from what we now know 
of it, is not a practical narcotic. 

In order to render more complete the research with the hydrides, they 
were administered by subcutaneous injection in several experiments. Intro- 
duced into the body in this manner, they were found to be practically negative 
in their action, a dose, amply sufficient to produce stupor and death by 
inhalation, being inactive when the agent was carried into the organism 
by the hypodermic method. Moreover the local effects were so exceedingly 
slight, that they are unworthy of mention. The insolubility of the fluids in 
the blood and their negative chemical action can only account for these results. 

Alcohol Series. 
In previous Reports I have dealt with the physiological action of the 
alcohol series from mcthylic alcohol up to amylic alcohol. In the present 
Ecport I bave dealt with certain alcohols in which a new element is in- 
troduced, viz. sodium alcohol, or sodium ethylato, potassium alcohol, or po- 
tassium ethylate, and sulphur alcohol, mercaptan. Regarding these sub- 
stances, the sodium and potassium alcohols, are instances in which the 
metals sodium or potassium replace one atom of the hydrogen of the 
radical of the alcohol, while, in respect to the sulphur alcohol, the sulphur 
replaces the oxygen of the alcohol. 

Alcohol. Sodium alcohol. Potassium alcohol. Sulphur alcohol. 



^•'^^^0 \?Ao G^54o ^^Sns. 



H/" Ka7" -X/^ ''h} 

The object of this research was to ascertain what would be the effect of 
introducing a new element, by substitution, into a substance, alcohol, the phy- 
siological action of which was understood. 

Sodium Alcohol, or Ethylate Sodium. — This ethylate is prepared by 
treating absolute alcohol with pure metallic sodium. So soon as the 
sodium comes in contact with the alcohol there is free escape of hydrogen, 
and the addition of sodium has to be continued until action ceases. I find 
it good to increase the temperature gradually as the action declines. At 
last there is obtained a thick, nearly white product, which is a saturated 
solution of sodium alcohol. From the solution ethylate of sodium crystallizes 
out in beautiful crystals. 

The composition of sodium ethylate is ^-nt ^ 0. When it is brought 

into contact with water it is decomposed, the sodium becoming oxidized by 
the oxygen of the water to form sodium hydrate, and the hydrogen of the 
water going to reconstitute the common or ethylie alcohol. 

The change of ethylie alcohol into sodium alcohol transforms it from an 
irritant to a caustic. Laid on dry parts of the body the sodium ethylate 
is comparatively inert, creating no more change than the redness and tingling 
caused by common alcohol ; but so soon as the part to which the substance 
is api^lied gives up a little -\^'ater, the transformation I have described above 
occurs ; caustic soda is produced in contact with the skin in proportion as 
water is eliminated by the skin, and there proceeds a gradual destruction 
of tissue, which may be so moderated as hardly to be perceptible, or may be 
so intensified as to act almost Uke a cutting instrument. 

Potassium Alcohol, or Potassium Etliylate. — Potassium ethylate is made 
in a similar manner as sodium ethylate, viz. by bringing pure potassium 
into contact with absolute alcohol. The action of the potassium is much 

1870. M 



162 REPORT — 1870. 

more energetic than sodium. I prefer to immerse the potassium under the 
alcohol in a small glass bell, from which there is a tube to allow of the escape 
of the liberated hydrogen. When saturation is complete, a thick and almost 
colourless fluid is formed, from which the ethylate may be obtained in solid 
crystalline state. Exposed to water the potassium ethylate is transformed, 
as is the sodium ethylate, into ethylic alcohol and bydi-ate of potassium. 

The composition of the potassium alcohol is - ^^ \ 0- 

The action of this compound on animal tissues, living and dead, is the 
same as that of the sodium compound, but is more energetic. 

Practical Uses of Sodium and Potassium Alcohols. — -I do not as yet see the 
means of applying readily these two active alcohols for internal administra- 
tion, but I can predict for them a very extensive application for external 
purposes. They are most potent caustics. In some cases they may be 
employed to destroy, rapidly, such morbid growths as are not favoui'able for 
excision by the knife. In many cases of cancer they will prove invaluable, 
and will, I believe, exert a direct local curative influence. Injected subcuta- 
neously into morbid growths, they would so quickly destroy them that the 
action might have to be conducted while the body was under the influence of 
an ansDsthetic. 

In being applied direct to the sensitive unbroken skin, I find that their 
destructive action is less painful than would be expected. I have made with 
both compounds a superficial eschar on my arm, with no more pain than a 
slight tingling warmth. What is more, when pain is felt, it may be checked 
quickly by dropping npon the part a little chloroform, which decomposes the 
alcohol, converting it into a chloride salt, and an ether of which I have yet 
to speak. 

Again, I find that these alcohols dissolve some of the vegetable alkaloids. 
Thus opium may be dissolved in them, and a solution of opium in caustic 
alcohol is made directly by mere addition of the narcotic to the caustic spirit. 
Practical men will see the advantages of combinations of these alcohols with 
narcotics. The practice opens the way to one of the greatest needs in medi- 
cine, a sure, rapid, and painless caustic. 

The caustic alcoliols may be used in combination Avith local anaesthesia 
from cold. A part rendered quite dead to pain, by freezing witli ether 
spray, could be directly destroyed by the subcutaneous injection of caustic 
alcohol, a practice very important in the treatment of poisoned wounds, 
siich as the wound from the bite of a snnke or a rabid dog. It is by no 
means improbable that some cystic tumours may be cured by the simple 
subcutaneous injection of a little of these fluids, after destruction of sensi- 
bility by cold. 

Potassium and sodium alcohol, added to the volatile hydride of amyl, 
dissolve in the hj'dride and produce a caustic solution. When this solu- 
tion is applied to the skin, the evaporation of the hydride takes place, 
and a layer of the caustic substance is left behind. This application would 
prove very useful to the surgeon in many cases of disease. 

The action of the cthylates on the blood is extremely rapid and marked. 
The red corpuscles are brought into solution, and there forms (quickly in 
some cases) an almost instant crystallization of blood ; the crj-stals are 
acicular, and spread out in arborescent filaments. The arborescent appearance 
is identical with the crystallization of the cthylates themselves in a thick fluid, 
but the smaller radiant crystals are due, I believe, to the crj'stallization of 
the crystaUoidal matter of the blood-cells. They are singularly like the 



ON THE ACTION OF THE METHYL AND ALLIED SERIES. 163 

crystalline forms whicli have been described, since the time of Dr. Pdchard 
Mead, as occurring in the blood after infection by the poison of the viper. 
One other peculiarity in the action of the ethylates on blood is worthy of 
notice : while they seem to attack and dissolve the red corpuscles vigorously, 
they act with comparative slowness on tlio white corj)usclos, so that wo may 
often see a white corpuscle iloating uninjured in a sea of red colouring- 
fluid previous to crystallization, and even adhering to the crystalline points 
after crystallization. 

The ethylates jwssess also powerful antiseptic properties, so that even 
nervous matter, which of all animal substance is most jjrone to decomposition, 
can be long kept in good preservation in the presence of them. I have by 
me, in bottles, specimens of the brain of sheep which illustrate this point. 
Specimen 1 is inclosed in common air, and is a decomposed fluid mass. 
Specimen 2 is inclosed in the same volume of air, with twenty grains of 
absolute alcohol : this specimen is decomiioscd. Specimen 3 is inclosed in 
the same volume of air, with twenty grains of the ethylate of sodium ; it 
remains firm, of perfectly natural colour, and free of decomposition. The 
specimens have been now under observation for fifteen weeks. 

Sulphur Alcohol, Mevcaptan. — The sulph-hydrate of ethyl, sulphur alcohol, 
or, as it was originally called by its discoverer, Zeise, " mercaptan,"' is made 
by saturating an alcoholic solution of potassa with sulphuretted hydrogen, 
and then treating the solution with iodide of ethyl. In its jjure state it is a 
whitish fluid, and of so ofli'ensive and penetrating an odour that it cannot, 
until it is diluted with common alcohol or ether, in both of which it is freely 
soluble, be comfortably employed in experiment. It is insoluble in water. 
Its specific gravity is -832 at 70° F. ; its boiling-point is 135° F., and its 
vapour-density, by side of hydrogen, is 31. It is nearly insoluble in water, 
but imparts to water its peculiar odour, and can be distributed freely through 
it if combined with alcohol. 

In order to experiment with mercaptan, it is necessary to dilute it either 
with absolute ether or alcohol ; a solution containing one per cent, is sufli- 
ciently active. 

When blood is acted upon by mercaptan no change of colour is produced, 
neither is the action of peroxide hydrogen on blood influenced by its pre- 
sence. The corpuscles are made slirunken by it, but are not destroyed, their 
form changing into ovoid, with the same production of truncated cor- 
puscles which I described in my last Eepoit as belonging to the action of 
ordinary alcohol. 

When mercaptan is cautiously inhaled the physiological eff'ects are most 
peculiar. I found, by a direct experiment made on myself, that the vapour is 
nowise irritating, but that systemic eftects are very speedily pronounced. There 
is desire for sleep, and a strange unhappy dreamy sensation, as if from some 
actual or impending trouble. This is succeeded by an easy but extreme 
sensation of muscular fatigue ; the limbs feel too heavy to be lifted, and rest 
is absolutely demanded. There is at the same time no anaesthesia and no 
sign of intoxication. The pulse is rendered feeble and slow, and remains in 
that condition for one or two hours. In time all the effects pass off", and no 
unpleasant symptom remains. Active motion in the air very quickly gives 
entire liberation from the efl^ects of the agent. 

The same effects are produced on the inferior animals. Frogs exposed to 
the vapour pass slowly into sleep, and if the inhalation be sustained, there 
is complete arrest of the acts of respiration and circulation, followed by 
arrest of movements of the limbs. In this condition the animals lie to all. 

m2 



164 REPORT — 1870. 

intents dead, except that there is no contraction of the pupil ; indeed the 
pvipil is dilated, and the lens stands out perfectly clear and bright. They 
may be left in tliis apparently lifeless state for half an hour in the vapour 
■without danger. Taken out, gently washed with water, and left in the oi^en 
air at 60° to G5° F., they invariably show signs of muscular movement in an 
hour and a half or two hours ; then they recommence to breathe, next the 
heart begins to beat, and in a short time they recover perfectly, precisely as 
if they were awakening from the torpor of cold. 

Respecting this recovery there is observed a phenomenon which to me is 
entirely new. It is the case with all narcotic and paralyzing agents which 
I have tested, that they produce paralysis of the voluntary muscles before 
they cause paralysis of the muscles of respiration and the heart. Also in 
rccoverj' from the narcotic state, the heart first lights up, then the respira- 
tion, and finally the muscles of voluntary power. But under mercaptan 
the reverse obtains, the voluntary muscles lose their irritability last and 
regain it first during recovery. 

The pai-alyzing action of mercaptan on muscle suggested to me that it 
might be useful for the arrest of tetanic convulsion, but experiment gave a 
negative to this hypothesis. It is true that the action of strychnine can be 
modified by this agent, but nothing more can be done with it. The passive 
muscles, so soon as the respiration is paralyzed, pass into slow but firm 
cadaveric rigidity. 

A point of great physiological interest attaches to the mode of elimination 
of siilphur alcohol from tlie living body. Insoluble in the blood, and at the 
same time volatile, it makes its way out of the economy mainly by respira- 
tion, conveying an odour which is identical with the odour of the breath in 
some forms of disease. It would be out of place for me to enter on the ques- 
tion of disease here at any length; but I must not refrain from suggesting to 
physicians that a new field of inquiry is open to them in investigating the 
(]uestion of the presence of sulphur compounds in the air expired by their pa- 
tients. In disease the breaking up of the albuminoid textures is attended 
within the body by the formation of volatile sulphuretted organic compounds, 
and the circumstance of the detection of such compounds in expired air 
would, I think, prove a most useful stiidy in the art of diagnosis. When we 
know how minute a proportion of sulphur alcohol will produce muscular de- 
pression and feebleness of the heart, we may fairly infer that the forma- 
tion of sulphur compounds spontaneously within the body would account for 
many examples of excessive temporary prostration, for the cause of which 
we have as yet no satisfactory explanation. 

The mode of action of sulphur alcohol appeared to me at first to be 
through direct interference with the oxidation of the blood. I believed it to 
be an agent which arrested the natural oxidation of the blood by contact, 
but I am now not decided on this point. The substauce inflicts no im- 
portant structural lesion on the blood or tissues so long as it can find exit 
from the body ; but Avhile it is present it sustains a peculiar action on the 
nervous organism, not leading, I think, to any modification of structure, 
but causing exhaustion or arrest of motor power and disordered cerebral 
manifestation. 

I have spoken thus far only of the action of sulphur alcohol, but it has 
some practical value to which, in a line or two, I may refer. It is an anti- 
septic, but gives to the matter it preserves an objectionable odour, wliich is 
not altogether removed even bj^ boiling water. It is an excellent i)reparation 
for making a sulphur-bath, and would prove, in cases where sulphur has to 



ON THE ACTION OF THE METHYL AND ALLIED SERIES. 165 

be applied externally, a useful agent. If it be true that sulphur compounds 
are of service in the treatment of so-called zymotic diseases, this alcohol 
would be a ready remedy of the sulphur class. 

New Eeseaech on the Exhtls. 

Prom studying the action of sulphur alcohol, I thought it well to pass to 

the ether of the sulphur series, p'^ -rr^ \ S, sulphide of ethyl. This ether, 

which is the analogue of the common rectified ether of the oxygen series, is 
made by bringing sulphide of potassium into contact with chloride of ethyl. 
It is a whitish fluid of offensive odour. It boils at 19-1:° P., and its vapour- 
density is 45. It is slightly soluble in water and in blood. Although 
disagreeable to breathe, it can be administered by inhalation like common 
ether, and it produces, in like manner, sleep ; the action of it is slow in com- 
parison with that of common ether, but the recovery from its effects is 
quick, much quicker than from mercaptan. A very minute dose is sufficient 
to narcotize ; a quarter of a grain, diffused in fifty cubic inches of air at 60°, 
will narcotize frogs ; and when these animals are thus rendered insensible 
they may be left in the narcotic vapour, with all evidences of life lost, for 
periods of twenty-five minutes to half an hour without risk. Placed in the 
open au', the animals begin to move again in one or two minutes, the muscles 
of the Hmbs regaining their irritability sooner than the heart and the muscles 
of respiration. 

On rabbits, guineapigs, and pigeons sulphide of ethyl acts directly as a 
narcotic and anaesthetic. In pigeons it reduces the animal temperature four 
degrees at the fourth stage of narcotism, and the muscular prostration is 
intense; at the same time the danger of death, if due care be taken, is 
slight. 

If four-fifths of a grain of the sulphide of ethyl be ejected subcutaneously 
into the rabbit, the odour of the substance is detectable within a few seconds 
in the expired breath, but no general effect is produced. Narcotism can 
nevertheless be caused by the subcutaneous method. 

A number of experiments were carried out in order to determine whether 
the sidphide of ethyl could be successfully employed to counteract the action 
of strychnia, but the results were not of a character to lead to the idea that 
the sidphide is an antidote for strychnia. 

The vapour of sulphide of ethyl inhaled from a solution of one part in 
twenty of alcohol is less diagreeable than might be assumed. It causes, if 
the inhalation be cautiously carried out, but little irritation, and the influence 
of it as a narcotic is very much like that of sulphuric ether. It induces 
much less muscular exhaustion than mercaptan, and it gives to the breath an 
odour which lasts some hom-s after the inhalation has ceased. 

Bromide of Ethyl. 

Bromide of ethyl, or hydrobromic ether, C^ K. B^, was introduced as an 
anaesthetic by the late Mr. Nunneley of Leeds in 1849. The ether is made by 
distilling four parts of powdered potassium bromide with five parts of a 
mixture containing an alcoholic solution of strong sulphuric acid, one part of 
the acid in 96 of alcohol. The ether is a rather pleasant fluid to inhale. It 
boils at 104° P. ; it has a specific gravity of 1-400 ; its vapour-density is 54. 

Mr. Nunneley up to the time of his death held this fluid to be the best 
and safest of anaesthetics ; and in an interview I had with him shortly before 



166 REPORT— 1870. 

his death, he begged me to study it and notice it in this Report. 

I therefore undertook the task, and with a very excellent specimen of the 
ether prepared by Messrs. Eobbins, chemists, I subjected it to a fair test by 
the side of other anaesthetic vapours, and found it to be a rapidly acting 
and safe agent. In doses of fifteen minims, diffused in 300 cubic inches of 
atmospheric air, at a temperature of G0° to 66° F., it induced profound 
narcotism in one minute and thirty seconds, both in pigeons and rabbits ; and 
in the human subject one fluid drachm administered by Junker's inhaler was 
effective in entirely removing consciousness of pain after two minutes' in- 
itiation. The effect of the ether is singular in that, under its use, very little 
muscular or nervous excitement precedes the narcotism ; indeed there may 
be said to be no second degree of auassthesia from the bromide, but a direct 
transition from the first to the third degree. The third degree is, moreover, 
free of spasmodic effort, and quickly passes, if the inhalation be continued, 
into the fourth degree of general muscular prostration. The temperature 
of the body is reduced in the fourth stage full .3° F. Eecoverj' from the 
deepest narcotism produced by it is perfect in from four to five minutes, 
and in no experiment did I observe any symptom of danger. 

I am thus able to state that Mr. Nunncley's opinion respecting hydrobromic 
ether was sound ; and could the ether be obtained as reachly as chloroform, 
and were it as stable a body, I should say that it would be a real improve- 
ment on chloroform. Its physical qualities, its low boiling-point especiallj', are 
good recommendations ; and the facts that it causes no convulsion, and that 
recovery from its influence is very rapid, are equally in its favour. The 
objections to it, irrespective of cost of its production, which is great, are that 
its vapour provokes during its inhalation a local dryness and irritation of 
throat, easily bearable but not pleasant, and that on being kept for a 
time and exposed to air it undergoes change, so that its vapour becomes 
actually irritating to the mucous membrane. These faults, minor though 
they' be, would, I think, prevent hydrobromic ether from coming into 
general use as an anaesthetic ; its good qualities deserve nevertheless to be 
remembered, and the scientific world is much indebted to our late Associate 
for the labour he introduced into his research and the results he obtained. 

Triethtltc and Teimethtlic Ethers. 

"When chloroform is made to act on sodium or potassium ethj-late, or on 
sodium or potassium methylate, a chloride of the metals, whichever be 
used, is formed and an ether. If an etbjdate be acted upon an ethyl ether is 
obtained ; if a methylate be acted upon a methyl ether. The first of these 
ethers is supposed to be homologous with an ether of a triatomic alcohol 
caUed triethylic, C, 11,^ O3, and I have therefore called it triethylic ether ; the 
second is homologous with trimethylic ether, C^ H^^ O3 : specimens of both 
these ethers are on the table. 

Triethylic ether is a heavy aromatic fluid, boiling at 174° F., and having a 
vapour-density of 71. It passes into vapour very slowlj', unless the tempera- 
ture of the air be considerably raised, and hence at ordinary temperatures 
the action of the ether is very faint when it is administered by inhalation. 
But in making the ether I observed that the first distillation yielded as a pro- 
duct a volatile cMoride, of very delicate aromatic odour, and without excep- 
tion the most perfect general aua;sthctic I have ever employed or seen. This 
compound, of which there is a specimen on the table, is so quick in action that 
it may be dUutcd with half its volume of absolute ether, and still yield a vapour 
of sufficient narcotic power to be available for long or short operations. Exposed 



ON THE ACTION OF THE METHYL AND ALLIED SERIES. 167 

to the vapour, pigeons aud rabbits glide into the deepest sleep of unconscious- 
ness without a movement, and in a state more strikingly resembling natural 
sleep than any other condition ; the insensibility may be sustained for two 
hours without the least apparent danger. Within the last ten da3'S, after 
first inhaling the vapour myself, I administered it to the human subject, 
while Mr. Brudenell Carter performed an operation on the eyeball for the cure 
of strabismus. The action in this instance was simply perfect ; the patient 
subsided into what seemed a natural sleep, without a convulsive or disturbed 
movement; the operation was performed without the faintest manifestation 
of sensation, and recovery was perfect in one minute after the vapour was 
withdi-awn*. The experience of the action of the narcotic I have here 
described is so good that I could not let it pass silently ; but I am not yet sure 
whether the application can be brought into general use. The production of 
the fluid is troublesome and costly, and after a time, if exposed to the air, 
it loses its efficacy. Tn brief, it is not a homogeneous substance, and is 
therefore open to the objections against compound fluids mentioned in my 
Report at the Norwich Meeting. The part played by the heavy ether is 
excellent, in that it equalizes diff'usion and prevents pungency of vapour ; 
aud I may be able, by further research, to improve the method, or to be guided 
by what I know of it to some new and better advance ; but this I must leave 
for future research. 

The tnmeilijjUc ether of which I have spoken is a much lighter fluid than 
the triethyhc ; it boils at 140° F., and has a vapour-density of 53 ; but the 
odour of its vapour is not agreeable, and although it produces safe auajsthesia, 
it is not perfect in its action. 



PAET III.— PHYSIOLOGICAL CONSIDERATIONS. 

In conducting a lengthened series of experiments such as I have been 
engaged in carrying out during the past year, many observations, incidental 
to the work in hand, naturally come before the mind, and to one or two 
observations of this character I would, for a moment, direct attention in 
closing the Report. 

Consciousness and common sensation. — The metaphysicians, in treating of 
conscious and unconscious states of mind, have long taught that there may 
be periods of consciousness with an absence of common sensibility. The 
truth of this inference is sustained by physical inquiries. In a previous 
Report on Amylene I pointed out that the vapour of amylene, while it 
destroys sensation, does not destroy all conscious acts; and in my later obser- 
vations on the action of methylic ether the same fact has been more perfectly 
elicited. In several cases where I administered the ether for removing pain 
in surgical operations, the patients, when quite insensible to pain, were so 
conscious that they were able to obey every request asked of them ; and in some 
instances were even anxious to reason, stating that they knew what was going 
on, and arguing that they were not ready for the operation because they were 
sure they should feel pain. Nevertheless in this state of mental activity they 
were operated on, and afterwards, while remembering every incident, were 
firm in their assertion that they felt no pain whatever during the operation. 
One patient who sat for the extraction of two teeth selected the tooth to be 

* During the Meeting of the Association at Liverpool I administered the same vapour 
to a woman over seventy years of age, while my friend Mr. Walker operated for cataract. 
The results were as perfect as in Mr. Carter's case. 



168 REPORT— 18/0. 

first extracted, putting her finger to it, and afterwards rearranging her 
position for the second removal. To the looker on it seemed in fact as 
though no change in her life had occurred, yet she affirmed that she was 
sensible of no pain whatever ; and several other less striking hut hardly less 
singular examples came before me. We may then, I think, faiiiy assume 
that in course of time wo shall discover manageable and certain auffisthetic 
substances which will paralyze sensation only, leaving the muscular power 
unaltered and the mental httle disturbed ; and we gather from this either that 
in the cerebral hemisphere there is some distinct and simple centre of 
common sensation which may be acted upon by certain agents without 
involving all the cerebral mass, or that the peripheral nervous matter may be 
influenced without involving the other portions of the nervous system. 
On the whole, I incline to the view that the action of those agents which 
destroy pain before they remove consciousness is primarily on the peripheral 
system ; for we know, from the process of local anajsthesia, that it is easy 
to destroy sensation at the extremities without destroying or even interfering 
with consciousness, while those who have inhaled the vapours which destroy 
common sensation before interfering with the mental condition, invariably 
describe the experience of a numbness and insensibility in the extreme parts, 
of the body. 

That which we medical men most require is an agent that shall ho easily 
applied, and shall admit of being so applied generally as to induce 
insensibility to pain with or without destruction of consciousness, as the case 
before us may demand. There are many minor surgical operations for which 
consciousness need not be destroyed, although pain ought to be ; there are 
other operations in which the consciousness of the person operated upon is of 
great service to the operator ; and there is a third class of cases in which it is 
essential to suspend both sensation and consciousness. 

Now those agents which first destroy common sensation can always be 
pushed to the extent of destroying consciousness, so that if we could get a 
perfect agent of the kind we should have the full requii-emeuts in our hand. 
Up to the present moment wo have been content with two classes of agents, 
one which destroys consciousness and sensation at the same time, the other 
which locally destroys sensation, and has no influence on the consciousness. 
I look hopefully for a method in which, by means of a single agent, we 
shall be able at will to suspend common sensation alone, or to exalt the 
process into suspension of consciousness. When this object is attained, 
with safety and facUity, the science of ansesthesia may be considered as 
perfected. 

Modification of action from physical constitution and construction. — The 
present series of researches have been sijccially interesting as showing more 
clearly in detail the influeuce of physical constitution and construction of 
different substances in relation to physiological action. We take, for example, 
the base ethyl, C., H., and trace out physiological action through its many modi- 
fications of compounds. We begin with the hydride of etkyl, C^ H^ H, and 
find it an insoluble gas which will produce insensibility if it be made to 
exclude air from the lungs, but which is, in other respects, negative in action. 
We pass to the hydrated oxide of etliyl, C., H,. (alcohol), and find a fluid 
very soluble in blood, readily ditfusible through the body, and producing, when 
given, in sufficient quantity, a prolonged narcotism,, with suspension first of 
common sensation and afterwards of consciousness. . We turn to ethjd-ether, 
C, H,„ 0, and discover a volatile fluid, soluble to a certain extent in the blood, 
capable of being absorbed by the lungs, and having the power of producing 



ON THE ACTION OF THE METHYL AND ALLIED SERIES. 1G9 

quick suspeasion both of sensation and consciousness. "We move to the 
chloride of ethyl, C^ H^ CI, and learn that we have in it still a narcotic 
capable of producing suspension of sensation and consciousness, like ether, 
but with this diiference, owing to the introduction of the new element 
chlorine, that active convulsive movements are superinduced. We turn 
to the iodide of ethyl, C.^ H. I, to observe again a narcotic action, as with 
ether, together with irritation and overaction of secreting glands, owing in 
this instance to the introduction of the element iodine. "We take up the 
bromide of ethyl, C^ H. Er, to discover an excellent narcotic, but one which, 
owing to the introduction of bromine, causes dryness of mucous membrane. 
Lastly, we turn to nitrite of ethyl, C^ H, jS'O^, and experimenting with it 
learn that with the introduction of the element nitrogen we lose much of 
narcotic action and gain an agent which, being introduced into the body, re- 
duces the sympathetic nervous power, lets loose the heart so that it can deliver 
its blood into enfeebled vessels, allows excreting organs, such as the kidneys, 
to pour forth an abundant secretion, and which, carried far enough, paralyzes 
muscular action so efiectually as to overcome even tetanic spasm. 

I point out these simple truths in order to indicate once again the correct 
line of research in reference to all substances used as medicines. To commence 
with a base and to follow the modifications of its action through the varied 
compounds formed upon it, that, as it seems to me, is the only method by 
which the physiologist can arrive at positive truth in his classification and 
selection of remedies for the diseases that afflict mankind. 

Direct action of wjents on nervous centres. — The teachings of the last half 
century have led us to the theory, now generally accepted, that all chemical 
agents, in order to produce an effect on the body, must enter the blood and 
be carried by it through the organism. It is ti ue that Dr. Wilson Philip 
demurred to this, and showed that alcohol would infiuencc the heart imme- 
diately when brought into contact witli the cerebrum ; and it is also true that 
Dr. John Jones observed, in his experiments on young alligators, that the act 
of respiration could be instantly suspended by applying hydrocyanic acid 
directly to the medulla oblongata. Still the theory remained in force, the 
argument being that the substances applied to the nervous matter were 
ra2udly absorbed into the circulation. My own observations on nitrite of 
amyl have, however, assured me that one agent, at all events, may act directly 
on nervous matter. To prove this, an animal was allowed to sleep into death 
in the vapour of bicMoride of methylene, and all the blood-vessels leading to 
and from the heart were firmly tied, so as to cut off every possibility of 
circulation of blood into or out of the heart ; then with a subcutaneous 
injecting syringe, through the o])tic foramen, five grains of nitrite of amyl were 
introduced into the cavity of the skull, so as to bring the agent in contact with 
the cerebral mass. Instantly the heart, which had continued pulsating, 
ceased for a moment, and then recommenced action with the same ex- 
treme rapidity as is observed in the living animal subjected to the influence 
of the vapour of the nitrite. I repeated the experiment twice with the same 
result, the rapid cardiac action continuing from two to three minutes in 
each case. These experiments lead me to suggest that we have accepted 
too readily the idea of the necessity of absorption of all chemical substances 
for the production of physiological effects, and that we ought to go back to an old 
subject of inquiry, the direct action of chemical and physical agents upon 
nervous matter. When we irritate the extremities of a nerve, as, for instance, 
when we inhale strong ammonia or particles of snuff, and excite muscular 
action, or when we call forth sensation, as when we take in the odour of 



170 REPOKT— isro. 

flowers or musk, we never consider the question of absorption bj the blood, 
but attribute the phenomena that follow to a superficial influence exerted upon 
the periphery of nerve. The question is, whether with certain other agents 
a more extended influence may not be exerted through the nervous struc- 
tures so that the nervous centres themselves may be impressed and systematic 
derangements be excited by the disturbance. If this be proved to be 
the fact in respect to known organic bodies, such as nitrite of amyl, it may 
be worth while to carry out the same line of inquiry in the investigation of 
those obscure diseases which we attribute to minute particles of organic 
poisons, and which are invariably heralded by symptoms indicating changes, 
of function, at least, in the nervous centres that govern those organs by the 
action of which the natural life of the body is sustained. 

In concluding this Report, I have once more to claim your indulgence for 
all its shortcomings. I claim to be, as it were, a mere gardener in the field 
of physiological medicine. The physicist and the chemist give seeds which 
I and a few others plant in our domain. "We take the offering, try its value, 
and then there follow accompHshed scholars and practitiouei's who join with 
us in proving and establishing the practical results and benefits that are to 
succeed upon the primary research. The labourers in the primary research 
are not uufrequently forgotten for a time, as their followers gather their 
produce and weave it into forms that attract and please the world. But our 
satisfaction is none the less complete as we witness the develojjment of our 
efforts, since the solid satisfaction lies, not in the promise of the sowing, but 
in the proof of the reaping. I have thanked this Association many times for 
having recognized the imjjortance of the primary exertion to which I refer, and 
in thanking it once more I hold myself at its disposition to continue at my 
tasks under its sympathetic and powerful influence. It is true that by what 
is called private industry one may do much to advance any profession, if to 
the advancement the mind be simply and sincerely devoted ; but when one 
expends industry, as I have been allowed to expend it, by the direction of 
this convocation of men of all sciences, the effect is tenfold in weight and 
measure. The effort is accepted away from these meetings because it has 
been accepted in them, and the science of medicine is strengthened because 
she marches with the other sciences in mutual understanding and for mutual 
progress. 



Report of the Rainfall Committee for the Year 1869-70, consisting of 
C. Brooke, F.R.S. {Chairman), J. Glaishek, F.R.S., Prof. Phillips, 
F.R.S., J. F. Bateman, C.E., F.R.S. , R. W. Mylne, C.E., F.R.S., 
T. Hawksley, C.E., Prof. Adams, F.R.S., C. Tomlinson, F.R.S., 
Prof. Sylvester, F.R.S., Dr. Pole, F.R.S., Rogers Field^ C.E., 
and G. J. Symons, Secretary. 

In our last Report we reprinted the rules which had been issiied for the 
guidance of observers, and we also exjiressed the opinion that a considerable 
addition to the staff in several districts was desirable. This proposal was 
approved by the General Committee at Exeter, and a small sum granted 
towards the expenses which would be incurred. 

One of the districts very destitute of observers was Dartmoor, and thither 



ON THE RAINFALL IN THE BRITISH ISLES. 



171 



accordingly our Secretary proceeded, in order to obtain such further observers 
as seemed requisite. In this he was on the whole very successful, as the 
accompanying diagram shows more clearly than any explanation. 

Bain-gaucje Stations in Devonshire (j)art of). 
1869. 1870. 






@ 






« 


• 






9 


• 


• 


9 




O 


c^ 


9 S 


f ^ 




* * 

9 


9 * 


© 






© 


9 


m 


oa 


g 


e 





Old Stations. 



Old and new Stations. 



Great, however, as was the improvement then effected, it cannot be said 
that the rainfall of Dartmoor is properly observed until gauges have been 
started, one near Cranmere Pool and one between Meavy and Holne, two 
districts extremely difficult of access and quite uninhabited. 

Subsequently circulars were sent to (and courteously inserted in) 'The 
Times,' ' Nature,' ' Scientific Opinion,' and various local journals in districts 
where observers were most required. About 100 volunteers were thus 
obtained, many of whom also undertook to pay for their own instruments, 
thus mateiially increasing the number of stations obtained by our special 
grant. Gauges, the property of this Association, have been supplied to the 
following stations during the past year, and, with hardly an exception, the 
returns sent in have been most satisfactory : — 

Country. County. Station. Observer. 

England Devon Tavistock Reservoir Mr. Merrifield. 

Clawton, Holsworthy W. W. Melhuish, Esq. 

Prison Garden, Dartmoor Mr. Watts. 

Bundles Cross, „ „ 

Powder-Mills, „ Mr. Hen wood. 

Holne Vicarage, „ Rev. J. Gill. 

Oaklands, Oakhampton W. H. Holley, Esq. 

N. Lew, Ilatherleigh Rev. T. England. 



172 REPORT— 1870. 

Country. County. Station. Observer. 

England Nottingliam ... Grove Ho., Mansfield E. Tjrer, Esq. 

Torksliire Malham Tarn, Bell Bu.sk W. Bissett, Esq. 

,, „ Askrigg Mr. A. Kuaggs. 

„ ,, Pateley Bridge E. Warburton, Esq. 

Wales .^ Carmarthen ... Llangadock F. Layard, Esq. 

Isle of Man Isle of Man ... Kii-kniichael Rev. W. C. Ingram. 

Scotland Aberdeen Cairnbanno, New Deer Mr. W. Adie. 

„ ,, Forgue, Huntley Rev. J. Abel. 

„ Argyll Ballachulish Rev. D. Mackenzie. 

,, Ayr Holehouse, Patna Mr. P. Murdoch. 

„ Banff Inchrory, Tomintoul Mr. A. MaoRae. 

„ Fife Auchtermuchty F. Troup, E.sq., M.D. 

,, Inverness Sligachan, Portree Mr. McDonald. 

„ „ Budgate, Cawdor J. Jo.ss, Esq. 

„ Lanark Iron-works' School, Muirkirk ... Mr. J. Wilson. 

„ Nairn Auldearn Mr. Laidlaw. 

„ Ross Strathcouan C. J. Smith, Esq. 

„ ,, Gairloch Mr. A. David.son. 

Ireland Antrim Carrickfergus A. Sutherland, Esq. 

„ Galway Ballinasloe J. Kempster, Esq. 

„ Kerry Cara Lake, Killarney J. B. Kennedj, Esq. 

„ , Darrynane, Cahirciveen D. O'Connell, Esq. 

Wliile upon this subject, your Committee may point out that if a corps of 
amateur observers, sufficient for rainfall purposes, say, 1500 to 2000 in 
number, is to be kept together, a regular and considerable number of new 
ones must annually be obtained, to supplj^ vacancies produced by death aud 
removals. Your Committee, being fully convinced of the great and increas- 
ing importance of accurate registration of the fall of rain, will at all times 
be glad to receive, through their Secretarj- (G. J. Symons, Esq., 02 Camden 
Square, London), offers of as.sistance from residents in the less densely 
peopled parts of the British Isles. The instrument now used is extremely 
simple and inexpensive. 

Your Committee have always regarded the examination of the gauges in 
use, of their positions, and the personal communication between their 
Secretary and the various observers as a matter of the highest importance. 
They have, therefore, much pleasure in announcing that upwards of one 
hundred stations have been visited during the past year. The various sug- 
gestions offered by the Secretary have been most cheerfullj' adopted by the 
observers, who ofteu warmly express their approval of this inspection, both 
for its own sake aud as tending to secure uniformity of practice, and to in- 
creased esprit de corps among the observers. 

Pull details of the results of the examinations in 18(59-70 are given in 
the Appendix. The number of stations examined in the respective counties 
was as follows : — 

Berkshire 2 

Cornwall (including SciUy) 43 

Devon 32 

Hampshire 1 

Kent 7 

Norfolk 2 

Suffolk G 

Surrey 2 

Montgomery 7 

Eadnor 2 

We regret having been unable to take any steps during the past year to- 



ON THE RAINFALL IN THE BRITISH ISLES. 



173 



■wards the collection of old observations. It is a most desirable object, and 
without it our other work will not be complete ; but our Secretary has not 
time for it, and we have not funds to provide a regular copyist. 

In our last Report^ we gave an analysis of the results of the experimental 
gauges employed at Calne to determine the relative indications of gauges of 
various sizes. 

We now give a similar discussion of the series erected to test the influence 
of elevation above the ground on the amount collected. It had long been known 
that gauges on buUdinr/s collected considerably less than those on the ground, 
this branch of the inquiry having many years ago been examined with great 
care by Prof. Phillips. As his experiments and results are printed in the 
3rd, 4th, and 5th Reports of this Association, it is unnecessary here to give 
more than a brief resume of the whole. Prof. Phillips had three similar 
gauges, one placed in the gardens of the York Museum, one on its roof, and 
one on a pole 9 feet above the battlements of the great tower of York 
Minster. The heights of these gauges, the total amounts collected, and their 
ratios are given in the following Table : — 



Heiglit 



Above ground 

„ bigb water 

Total of 12 montlis, 1832-33 

1833-34 

1834-35 

„ for 3 years 

1832-33 

"833-34 

1834-35 

3 years 



Ground. 



ft. in. 

o 2 
29 o 



Museum. 



ft. in. 
43 8 

72 8 



Minster. 



ft. 

212 

241 



m. 
10 
10 



Amount of 



Ratio. 



m. 

2379 

25-71 

1 5 94 

65-44 



1 00-0 
loo-o 
loo-o 
loo-o 



in. 

20-18 

19-85 

12-14 

52-17 



853 

77-2 
76-1 
797 



m. 

15-72 

14-96 

8-29 

38-97 



66-1 
58-2 
52-0 
59-6 



Wc need hardly remark that, owing to the labour of ascending to the 
top of the Minster, the observations were not taken daily, but about once a 
month. The result of a series of calculations was to indicate that the nor- 
mal rate of decrease was not very far from 3 \/ h, but that both the actual 
amount and the ratios were dependent on temperature. 

The Calne experiments, of which we are now going to give a brief account, 
differed from those of Prof. Phillips, both in their object and their details. 
At York the object seems to have been to determine the causes of the dif- 
ferent amounts collected ; at Calne it has been to ascertain the precise dif- 
ferences, and the possibility, or otherwise, of deducing corrections whereby 
observations made at various small heights above the ground may be reduced 
to one common standard. Hence the gauges were mounted on posts, not on 
roofs ; the greatest height was 20 feet instead of 210 feet, and the readings 
were taken daily instead of monthlj^. It may be expedient, before proceed- 
ing further, to illustrate by an example the necessity for this correction — 
(1) on account of its extent, (2) on -account of the very various heights at 
which gauges are placed. Taking haphazard a single page of British Hain- 
fall, which contains returns from 44 stations, we find just 22 different 
heights, viz. : — 



174 



Stations. 

2 
3 
1 
1 
3 
1 
9 
3 



• 


REPORT 


—1870. 


Height. 


Stations. 


Height. 


ft. in. 




ft. in. 


4 




. 1 3 


6 




. 1 10 


7 




. 2 


8 




. 2 6 


10 


3 ... 


. 3 


11 




. 3 2 


1 




. 3 G 


1 1 




. 4 2 



Stations. 

1 
3 
1 
3 
1 
2 



Height. 


ft. 


in 


4 


4 


4 


6 


5 


8 


6 





6 


6 


16 


6 



We could hardly have stronger evidence of the necessity for uniformity in 
placing now gauges. Old gauges, however, must not be moved ; therefore it 
is necessary to ascertain the correction for these various heights, and hence 
the following Tables. But we have not yet hinted at the amount of the cor- 
rection ; it will be presently shown that, within the above-quoted limits, viz. 
from 4 inches above the ground to 16 feet 6 inches, the amount collected 
will differ by 10 per cent. 

The gauges employed in the Calne elevation experiments were in num- 
ber ten, in shape that known as " Glaisher's," 8 inches in diameter, and in 
general features identical ; they were all constructed by Messrs. N^egretti 
and Zambra, and remarkably accurate. They were placed at the following 
heights : — Level with turf, 2 inches, 6 inches, 1 foot, 2 feet, 3 feet above 
it: these were all exactly like fig. 1, the last two standing on dwarf 



Fig. 1. 



Fig. 2. 




■•'#?# 




|\ 



posts. Then there were gauges, like fig. 2, at 5 feet, 10 feet, and 20 feet 
above the ground, supported on posts, into which a piece of gas tubing was 
inserted (as lead in a cedar pencil), down which the water passed into 
bottles at a conveniently accessible height. As objection may possibly be 
taken to this aiTangement, on the ground of loss by evaporation, we may state 
that it was not adopted imtil repeated experiments had proved that the loss 
was almost inappreciable, even with delicate instruments. At 20 feet two 
gauges were placed, one 8 inches and one 5 inches in diameter ; as it appears 
that the diminution is not the same for 5-inch as for 8-inch gauges, we shall 
not for the present discuss specially the observations with this gauge. During 
the first four years the whole of the gauges were read daUy ; during 1867 




ON THE RAINFALL IN THE BRITISH ISLES. 175 

they were purposely read only once a month, in order to ascertain if any 
material difference would be detected. 

Gauges -whose mouths are level with, or near to, the surface of the ground 
are always found to collect more or less of the soil surrounding them, which 
is splashed up by heavy rain and coUeetcd in the gauge. Rain-gauges 
are usually so constructed that very little, if any, rain which falls within 
their receiving area shall splash out and escape. Hence it seems probable 
that gauges nearly level with the surrounding soil will always collect the 
true rainfall, jj?«s insplashing. As a means of eliminating this source 
of error, another gauge, of the same pat- 
tern as the others, was added to the series 
in April 1865; it was sunk in a pit, the " ' 
depth of which was equal to the height of 
the gauge, and with sloping sides, as in fig. 3. 
By this means the receiving surface was 
exactly level with the ground, and insplashing was impossible. This gauge 
will be called the pit-gauge. 

These, then, are the instruments wherewith, and the conditions under 
which, the observations at Calne were taken. We may now introduce some 
of the results, some only, for the observations are so voluminous and com- 
plete as to be almost inexhaustible. 

Table I. contains the total amount collected in each gauge in each month, 
from August 1863 to December 1867, both inclusive. 

Table II. contains those monthly totals converted into ratios, the amount 
measured in the gauge wjiose receiving surface is one foot above the surface 
being taken as unity. 

Table III. is exactly similar, except that the " pit-gauge" (fig. 3) is taken 
as unity. 

Table IV. contains the total fall in each year and in the whole period ; 
also these values reduced to the ratios of the 1-foot gauge. 

Table V. contains the 1-foot ratios, grouped according to months. 

Table YI. contains the mean monthly values deduced from Table V. 

Table VII. contains the mean monthly values deduced from Table III. 

Table VIII. contains the monthly (1-foot) ratios for 1864 and 1865, 
grouped according to the mean temperature of the days in each month on 
which rain fell. 

Table IX. is similar, but grouped according to the Jiygrometric condition 
of the atmosphere on those days. 

Table X. is similar, but grouped according to the mean velocity of the 
ivind*. 

It is hoped that this series of Tables is so complete as to render lengthened 
remarks unnecessary. 

"We have already referred to the pit-gauge, we may now point out its 
result, viz. that in the winter it catches very much less than the one sur- 
rounded by grass ; and that though in summer both catch alike, on the 
average of the year the pit-gauge is 3 per cent, less than the " level," and 
agrees almost exactly with the one whose orifice is 2 inches abo^■e the 
ground. This agreement of the "pit-gauge" and the "2-inch" seems 
to show that the amount collected by gauges thus placed is correct. The 
accompanying diagrams (Plate V.) show the mean monthly and annual 
deficiencies therefrom of gauges at various heights above the ground. 

* In the formation of the last three Tables some calculations by Dr. Barter of Bath 
have been very useful. 



176 REPORT— 1870. 

In order that tlie proportion which the altitudinal deficiency bears to the 
total rainfall may be readily seen, the annual diagram represents, by light 
shading, the actual fall at various heights above the ground ; the amount col- 
lected by the "pit-gauge" is shown by the horizontal line of 1-000, and the 
deficiency in the iipper gauges by the breadth of darker shading. 

In the monthly diagrams, the variable breadth of this darker shading shows 
the variation of this altitude correction with the seasons. 

Probably the most I'emarkable features in the annual curve are : — (1) its 
rapid curvature, ?'. e. rapid increase in the amount of rain collected within 
1 foot of the surface of the ground ; (2) the very shght alteration from about 
7 feet to 20 feet. 

This would seem to show that the rainfall actually reaching the ground is 
greater than what has hitherto been supposed, inasmuch as the majority of 
gauges hitherto erected have their orifice about 1 foot above the ground, and 
therefore collect, according to the results now before lis, about 5 per cent. 
Zsss than the real rainfall reaching the ground. This result ajjpears so start- 
ling that further experiments will be conducted on the subject. 

The difference between the curves of decrease in the various months is 
very considerable, and sufficiently proves that the annual mean values are 
not at all applicable to single months. 

Tables A'lII., IX., and X. seem to show that the variation is in no way 
dependent on the humidity of the air, but either on temperature or wind- 
force, or possibly on radiation ; the present investigation does not reveal 
which, inasmuch as the cold days, with rain, are usually windy ones. 

Our duty in connexion with this subject is discharged by Tables VI. and 
VII., which give (for 8-inch gauges) the means of deducing the fall, either 
at the surface of the ground or at 1 foot above it, from observations of 
gauges on pedestals or i)illars at any height less than 20 feet. 

Perhaps it may be well to give an example. At Cockcrmouth there arc 
two gauges, one G inches and the other 6 feet G inches above the ground ; in 
the year 1SG9 they collected 4G-31 and 44-48 respectively: the corrections 
from Table VII. are -9 GO and -920 ; then we have : — 

Gauge inches above ground=4G-31-^-9G9 = 47-79=ground fall. 
„ 6 feet inches „ =44-48 -=--920 =48-34 = 

Or if we require the 1-foot fall, then the corrections from Table VI. arc 
1014 and -900 ; then we have : — 

Gauge 6 inches above ground = 4G-31-^l-014=45-07=faU at 1 foot. 
„ 6 feet 6 inches „ =44-48-r- -900 = 40-33= „ 

This example was taken quite by chance, and the agreement being in both 
cases within 1 h per cent., seems to sliow that the corrections are generally 
applicable. But on this point we have at present no evidence. 

The inquiry we have just been pursuing naturally leads to the considera- 
tion of the best height ibr rain-gauges ; and, althougli a novel plan, we are 
inclined to consider that, theoretically, the " pit-gango" is the best. Eut 
there are several strong grounds of objection to it and to all gauges whose 
orifices are nearly level with the soil. We may mention a few : — 

1. They become more or less filled with leaves during the autumn months, 
and their accuracy is thereljy vitiated. 

2. They become buried under snow, and the melting snow runs unfairly 
into them. 



ScpOf^ Bllt:JsSOC:lS'lO. 



:^laie TV. 




llaifv (Taiures m use in J8o~ 



^■'kl 





A^ 




VXE 





xn 






vm 





IncheJ IZ 



2 .^ Feet 

_l I : I 



J'.W.Xt^wry /<. 



'lO'^Repoit.BntJss.'^c-lSlO. 

K J . -^^^ cfdecnnse m na/ifaU cvU&ted at raj-wus k/'w7/.fy. 



FlaUT. 



I II 4 I I 




^} ff>a 



Chxd.Jn^a.7ri, /o. 



ON THE RAINFALL IN THE BRITISH ISLES. 177 

3. la cases of exiremehj heavy rain they collect water running along 
the surface of the ground, and sometimes become filled, at others float away 
on the water. 

4. They are more liable to accidental injury, and to collect all kinds of 
rubbish than if slightly elevated. 

5. It is evident, from the Tables, that an error of 1 inch in the heiglit of 
a gauge near the surface is of as much importance as an error of 1 foot at a 
slight distance above it. 

Moreover, it must be remembered that up to the present time not half 
a dozen pit-gauges liavc been used, and that therefore their adoption would 
involve the correction of all observations hitherto made. 

And that though it appears probable that the rainfall actually reaching the 
ground is nearly 5 per cent, greater than what has hitherto been supposed, it 
would be precipitate to accept it without further examination. 

As nearly half the gauges in the country are now fixed, with their receiv- 
ing surfaces, 1 foot above the ground, it would appear desirable that this 
height sliould be generally adopted. 

In several previous Reports we have given the results of elaborate inves- 
tigations of the percentage of rain falling in the various months in diff'erent 
parts of the Eritish Isles ; these Tables uniformly referred to decennial periods, 
such as 1810-19, 1820-29, 1830-39, 1840-49, 1850-59. We ha%-e there- 
fore recently completed another decade, and one of which the returns are 
much more complete than for any of its preciirsors. The computations of the 
mean montlily and annual rainfall during this period are in progress, but 
they are so heavy that they cannot be ready for this Report, and may per- 
haps not be completed for the next. 

\Ve give in the Appendix the usual detailed Tables of monthly fall at 
about 300 stations during the two years 1808-69, but we defer any remarks 
iipon them until the averages are ready next year. 

Your Committee cannot close their Report without drawing attention to 
the remarkable illustration of widespread interest in scientific pursuits 
afforded by the fact that there are now nearly 2000 persons in the British 
Isles regularly recording the fall of raiii, and carefully watching any depar- 
ture from its normal distribution. Of the utility of this work, in a populous 
and manufacturing country like ours, it is needless to speak ; but we may 
mention that other nations and our own colonies are copying our system, 
and that for water- works, canal, mill, and agricultural purposes rainfall 
information is yearly more and more required. 

The services rendered by the observers are (with but a very few excep- 
tions) entirely gratuitous, nay more, the observers themselves have to defray 
the cost of printing the results of their labours. 

Considering that it is demonstrablj- a matter of national interest that this 
organization should be made as permanent as possible, we cannot help thinking 
tliat it would be a graceful and economical act were Government to ofter to 
relieve the observers from the cost of reducing and printing their returns. 
A few hundreds annually would probably suffice to hold together a body of 
practised observers which Jias no equal in the world, and which, once broken 
lip, could not be replaced ; since, irrespective of tlie difileulty of training 
new observers, the continuity of the old observations would be destroyed. 



1870. K 



178 



REPORT 1870. 

TABLES 01<^ MONTHLY RAIN- 
ENGLAND. 



Division I. — Middlesex. 


Div. II.-S.E. Counties. 




Middlesex. 


Surrey. 




Height of 

Bain-gaugo 

above 

Ground 

Sea-level 


Camden 
Town. 


Upper 
Clapton. 


Hampstead. 


Eittacy 

House, Mill 

Hill, Hendou. 


Dunsfold, 
Godalming. 


Weybridge 
Heath. 




ft. 4 iu. 
Ill ft. 


2 ft. 6 in. 
90 ft. 


1 ft. in. 
385 ft. 


1 ft. in. 
420 ft. 


2 ft. 6 in. 
16G ft. 


Oft. 6 in. 
150 ft. 




1868. 


1869. 


1868. 


1809. 


1868. 18G9. 


1868. 


1869. 


1868. 1869. 


1868. 


1869. 




Janxiary 

February . . . 

March 

April 


in. 
3-89 

I-2I 
1-28 

1-50 

i-SS 

78 

■45 

2-28 

174 
2-54 

ro3 

5-12 


in. 
276 
2-48 
197 
1-28 
3-27 
1-03 
■62 
1-26 
3-56 
1-87 
2-38 
2-94 


in. 
3-61 

-So 
1-66 
1-58 
1-26 

•60 

•41 
2-64 
I 46 
2-87 

■91 
479 


in. 
2-48 
2-36 

'•59 
122 
3'oo 
1-02 
•64 
1-43 
3-27 
1-89 
2-37 
277 


in. 
3-84 
1-40 

1-45 
167 

■93 

-67 

•44 
2-93 
2-27 
2-76 

■97 
5-63 


iu. 
2-72 
. 2-64 

i'9S 
1-41 
2-99 
ri4 
•90 
1-50 
3-38 
1-89 
2-28 
3-08 


in. 

3-17 

1-50 

1-62 

1-62 

•89 

■48 

•60 

3'56 
2-56 
2-66 

1-41 

577 


in. 
295 
2-52 
1-94 
1-57 
3-62 
i-oc 
•93 
r35 
4-02 

177 
2-35 
3-72 


in. 

3'93 
1-24 
1-25 

2-23 

-72 

•50 

2-42 

4-12 

2-32 

2-56 

1-31 

7-C2 


in. 

3-43 
2-84 
1-40 
1-13 
5-11 
1-19 
•87 
1-43 
4-55 
1-77 

1-84 
3-42 


iu. 
4-04 
1-08 
1-49 
1-65 

. '9° 
■65 

2-59 
2-58 
1-92 
2-35 
1-32 

5-39 


in. 

3-34 
2-54 
1-05 
1-49 

3-S3 
1-28 
•90 
1-37 
4-3S 
1-76 
2-37 
2-74 




May 




June 




July 




August 

September... 

October 

November ... 
December ... 




Totals 


23-40 


25-42 


22-59 i 24-04 


24-96 


25-88 


25-84 


27-74 


29-62 


28-98 


25-96 


27-05 







Division II.- 


-South-Easteen Counxies (continued) 








Ke.nt {continued). 


SVSSEX. 


Height of 

Eain-gauge 

above 

Ground 

Sea-level 


Biver Head, 

Sevenoaks. 


Acol, 
Margate. 


Sidcup, 
Foots Cray. 


Brighton 
Water Works. 


West 
Thoniey. 


Chichester 
Museum. 


1 ft. in. 

620 ft. 


1 ft. in. 
60 ft. 


ft. 7 in. 


1 ft. in. 
, 90 ft. 


1 ft. in. 
10 ft. 


ft. 6 in. 
60 ft. 




1868. 


1869. 


1868. 


1869. 


1868. 


1869. 


1868. 


1S69. 


1868. 


1869. 


1868. 


1869. 


January 

February . . . 

Marcli 

April 


in. 

6-37 
1-S5 

179 
2-83 

•So 
-50 
1-44 
3-42 
2-52 
2-97 

2'o6 

8-27 


in. 

4-05 

365 
2-80 
1-S9 
4-26 
1-53 

■58 
1-42 

579 
2-92 

3 '45 
5-00 


in. 
2-S5 
1-17 
i-io 
1-51 
1-12 
•89 
-72 
2-34 
iSi 
1-69 
2-05 
4-26 


in. 
1-79 
2-97 
2-12 

1-74 

2-24 

75 

•29 

I -07 

175 
2-22 
1-64 
2-02 


in. 
3-68 

1-37 

1-60 

1-54 

•57 

•33 

•58 

2-47 

2-50 

2-03 

I-IO 

4-42 


in. 
2-92 
2-40 
1-66 


in. 

3-53 

2-42 
1-32 


in. 
2-74 
2-83 

2-25 
1-31 

4' 34 

1-30 

•16 

1-70 

379 

2-90 
2-6i 
3-81 


in. 

3 '40 
1-25 
1-60 
2-22 

I-C2 
•48 
= •82 
4-64 
2-95 
3-16 
I -41 
7-93 


in. 

2-18 
2-30 
1-22 

3-63 
2-11 
1-52 
•54 
2-53 
176 

1-53 
2-28 


in. 
3-05 
1-03 
1-41 
2-25 

-69 
-81 

3'57 
2-8o 

3-41 
1-38 
7-30 


in. 
2-91 
I -84 

1-72 
1-C.6 

4'3i 
1-64 
109 

■59 
4-83 
2-29 
1-86 
3-21 


May 


3-90! 1-67 
1-36! -76 


June 


July 


August 

September . . . 
October 

November ... 
December ... 


•96 

3 '47 
1-43 

273 
277 


374 
-85 

4"53 
1-24 


Totals 


34-82 


37'34 


21-51 


20-60 


22-19 


25-40 


3178 


2974 


30-88 


24-78 


28-61 


27-35 



ON THE RAINFxlLL IN THE BRITISH ISLES. 



179 



FALL IN THE BRITISH ISLES. 

ENGLAND. 







Division II.- 


— Souxk-Easterx C 


orNTiES {continued) 








Bag 
Pa 


SuKEEY {continued). 




Kent. 


shot 
i-k. 


Observatory. 


S. Fields, 
Wandsworth. 


Dover. 


Horton Park, 

Ilythe. 


Linton Park, 
Stapleburst. 


Tunbridge. 


1ft. 


lin. 


1 ft. 3 in. 


1 ft. 


Oin. 


2 ft 2 in. 


1 ft. 4 in. 


Oft. 


6 iu. 


1ft. 


Oin. 


130 ft. 


19 ft. 






16 ft. 


350 ft. 


290 ft. 


71 ft. 


... 
1 


LSG8 


1869. 


1868. 


1869. 


18G8. 


1869. 


1868. 


1869. 


1868. 


1869. 


1868. 


1869. 


1863. 


1869. 


ill. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


m. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


4-30 


1-94 


3*35 


2*30 


4-00 


2-75 


4-58 


2-8o 


3-84 


279 


3-65 


3-04 


3-70 


3-27 


■69 


1-98 


1-08 


1-94 


1-20 


2-40 


1-37 


295 


1-37 


2-38 


1-35 


3-15 


i-oo 


3-25 


a-19 


•66 


•95 


I -06 


1-15 


I '45 


'■45 


3'52 


1-49 


3-50 


1-29 


2-91 


1-91 


2-46 


Z-og 


i"34 


1-48 


1-26 


i"S5 


1-25 


1-97 


2-.5« 


1-92 


1-91 


1-21 


1-33 


2-04 


1-82 


•68 


2-86 


•77 


3-06 


1-40 


293 


177 


3-95 


1-29 


3-86 


1-92 


37S 


76 


4-04 


•57 


■70 


■43 i'o4 


•45 


1-30 


73 


•90 


71 


1-25 


•51 


-87 


•43 


-98 


2'C2 


•62 


1-62 


-88 


J-55 


•77 


-85 


•34 


i-iS 


-32 


-63 


-32 


1-71 


•15 


2-51 


1-43 


2-52 


1-17 


2-6 5 


i-8cy 


4-32 


1-78 


4-48 


279 


2-30 


1-16 


3-50 


1-21 


1-96 


37« 


2-24 


375 


i'55 


3-70 


1-67 


3-21 


2-52 


332 


2-70 


3-81 


1-91 


373 


2-35 


1-26 


2-27 


1-44 


2-50 


1-83 


3-55 


1-93 


2-83 


2-04 


2-07 


2-79 


2-02 


2-78 


i'07 


2'19 


-92 


2-27 


1-18 


2-0O 


2-41 


2-09 


2-81 


2-62 


178 


2-14 


1-89 


2-79 


4-85 


277 


5-20 


2-46 


5-25 


2-15 


b-3i 


445 


6-74 


4-1 1 


57« 


379 


6-10 


3-6, 


25-28 


21-53 


22-83 


22-63 


24-43 


24-33 


30-98 


30-50 


31-18 


30-89 


25-19 


29*09 


26-97 


30-09 



Division II. — Souxh-Easxekn Couniie3 {continued). 



Sussex {continued). 



Bleak House, 

Hastings. 



1 ft. 3 in. 

80 ft. 



1868. 1869. 



in. 

3 '44 
1-05 

1-20 

1-72 

•76 

•51 

2-54 

4'i5 

1-02 
2-So 
1-67 
5-36 

26-22 



m. 
2-42 
2-27 
1-90 
1-30 

4-59 
•69 
•26 
1-70 
3-20 
1-79 
2-17 
3-31 

25-60 



Dale Park, 

Ai'undel. 



4 ft. in. 
316 ft. 



1868. 1869, 



m. 

4'2 3 
1-28 
1-88 
2-11 
1-21 
-S6 
1-04 
3-87 

3'94 
4-06 
1-43 
8-86 

3477 



in. 

3-22 
3-27 

'•35 
1-13 

475 

1-52 

•80 

1-05 

5*35 
4-11 

•84 
3-25 

30-64 



Battle. 



1 ft. 3 in. 



1868. 1869 



in. 
4-56 
1-17 
1-56 

2-14 
1-07 

■57 
2-01 

3-83 
2'33 
3-61 
i-8o 
6-79 

31*44 



m. 

3"23 
2-24 
2-25 
1-49 
4-61 

79 
•31 

2-03 

4"5i 
2-07 

2-55 
4"i7 

30-25 



Chilgrove, 
Chichester. 



BalcombPlace, 
Cuckfield. 



ft. 6 iu. 

284 ft. 



1868. 1869, 



in. 
4'34 
1-53 
2-c6 
2-61 

I-20 
-61 

■93 
4-81 

3'43 
4-01 
1-64 
8-96 

36-13 



m. 

3-51 
2-91 
:-8o 
i-io 
4-42 
1-95 
1-15 

1-55 
6-00 
2-31 

2-47 

4-21 

33-38 



1 ft. 3 in. 
340 It. 



1868. 1869, 



in. 
5-09 
1-39 
1-39 
2-39 
1-08 

•54 
2-46 
2-78 
2-72 
2-74 
1-50 
8-38 

32-46 



m. 

3-94 
3-80 
1-72 
1-71 
3-56 
1-67 

•36 
1-3S 

5-45 
2-98 
2-85 
4-46 

33-88 



Petworth 
Eectory. 



1 ft. 10 in. 

190 ft. 



1868. 1869. 



4-92 

1-74 

1-91 

3-08 

-98 

-41 
1-64 
4-22 

4-44 
3-31 
1-72 
9-00 

37-37 



m. 

4-13 
3-50 
1-43 
1-24 
4-91 
178 
77 

-99 
5-61 

2-o6 

2-14 

4-55 
33-11 

ir2~ 



Hampsuiee. 



St. Lawrence, 
IsleofWisht. 



1 ft. in. 
75 ft. 



1868. 1869 



4-00 
i-oS 
1-27 

3-14 

1-30 

•54 
•68 

4-36 
2-56 
3-72 
1-37 
7-31 

31-33 



m. 

3-46 
2-58 
2-60 
i-ii 
4-72 
2-15 
1-17 
-98 
4-19 
2-27 
2-00 

3-71 
30-94 



ISO 



UEPORT — 1870. 

ENGLAND. 



Division II. — South-Easteun Coitxties (continued). 


Hampsiiiee {continued). 


Height of 

Rain-gauge 

above 

Ground 

Sea -level 


R.v>lc, 
Isle of Wight. 


Osborne, 
Isle of Wight. 


Fareham. 


Shirley 

Warren, 

Southampton. 

4 ft. in. 
106 ft. 


Selbora?. 


Li.ss, 
Petersfield. 


7 ft. in. 
15 ft. 


ft. 6 in. 
172 ft. 


ft. 2 in. 
20 ft. 


4 ft. in. 
400 ft. 


ft. 8 in. 




1SG8. 


18G9. 


1868. 


1SG9. 


18G8. 


ISGO. 


18GS. 


1863. 


1868. 


18G'J. 


1868. 


1869. 


January 

February ... 

March 

April 


in. 
4-52 
I '40 
1-48 
3-02 
116 
•40 
77 

5-21 

2-98 
3-26 
1*46 
7-45 


in. 

4'oo 
2-52 

270 

■99 
4-84 

2'27 
2-15 

•61 
6-26 

2-40 

1-58 

4-33 


in. 
3-68 

1-50 
1-68 

27s 

1-25 

•54 

■52 
4-6S 

382 

3-00 

1-50 

7-8z 


in. 
3-32 
279 

2-lS 
•98 

4-38 

278 

1-14 

•60 

5-82 
2-25 
i'64 

4-03 


in. 

377 
2-09 
1-97 
3-02 
1-S4 
•59 
•57 
5-43 
1-19 

5'54 
1-59 
8-70 


in. 
3-67 
273 

2-00 
1-41 
5-48 
2-oS 

i-iS 

•83 

4-68 
3-42 
1-39 
3-65 


in. 
4-14 
1-62 

i'59 

3-24 

171 
73 
•65 

4-61 

^4' 50 
'273 

175 

8-22 


in. 
3-90 
2-g6 

1-72 

i-io 

4*33 

1-66 

•91 

•86 

5-54 
2-14 
1-46 
4-36 


in. 

573 
2-19 
2-21 

-35 

1-59 

■46 

174 
3-89 

448 

3 4 1 
2-44 
8-54 


in. 
4-53 

3-33 
1-93 
1-26 
4-68 
rSi 

•97 
1-49 
6-39 
2-21 

2'55 
4-72 


in. 

7-45 
2-48 

3'04 
3-89 
2-09 
•27 
l-io 
4-88 
3-23 
3-72 
2-94 
10-69 


in. 
6-2S 
3-60 
1-89 
.-36 
4-88 
1-76 
1-20 
1-63 

7-12 

2-50 

2-61 
5-82 


May 


June 


July 


August 

September ... 

October 

November ... 
December ... 


Totals 


33-11 


34-65 


3^74 


32-41 


36-00 


32-52 


3 5 '49 


30-04 


39'53 


35-S7 


4578 


40-62 



Division III. — Sotjth Midl.vnd CoL'K"Tno.5 (conthiueil). 


BUCKIN-GIIAMSIIIRE. 


' NonTIIAMl'TOIf. 

j 


Beufokd. 


CAMnnincE. 


Height of 

Rain-gauge 

above 

Ground 

Sea-level 


HighWycomb. 


Althorpc 
House. 


Welling- 
borougli. 


i 
Cardington. 


1 Wisboch. 
1 


]\ri(l-]cvcl 

iShiice, 

Outwcll. 


ft. 9 in. 
22 j ft. 


3 ft. 4 in. 
310 ft. 


ft. 8 in. 


ft. in. 
U)0 ft 


] 8 ft. in. 
1 S tt 


4 ft. in. 
• 16 ft. 






1868. 


1869. 


1868. 


1869. 


1868. 


1869. 


1868. 


1860. 


; 186S. 


1869. 


186S. 


1869. 


January 

February . . . 

March 

April 


in. 
3-66 
1-58 
1-82 
1-72 
•69 

■55 
1-50 

3'55 
3-21 
2-87 
1-16 

5-00 


in. 

3-24 
2-00 

i'39 
1-86 

3-i6 

'•57 1 

1-52 
1-63 1 

3-94 
1-34 
2-52 

377 


in. 
2-30 
162 
1-78 
1-65 
-72 

•45 

•26 

3-23 

3-31 

2-02 
1-90 
4-46 


in. 
3-22 
2-16 
1-20 
1-46 
4-29 
1-S5 
■29 
•96 
378 
1-25 
2-21 
3'5i 


in. 
2-63 
1-05 
1-67 
1-14 

•44 
71 

•14 
2-64 
2-30 
2-41 
1-34 
4-28 


in. 
2-64 
2-07 
1-56 
1-95 

4'05 
1-29 

•30 

•96 

3-01 

■94 

2-C2 
3-4S 


in. 
2-8o 
1-50 
1-64 
1-13 
-60 

I OO 

•15 

3-20 

3-20 

2-40 

1-20 
3-12 


in. 
2-50 
r8o 
1-30 
175 

3-5° 
1-15 
-30 
-82 
2-25 
1-00 
2-00 
2-88 


in. 
1-62 
1-39 
1-54 
1-45 
' •3« 

2-89 
2-4! 
2-86 
1-19 

4" 94 


in. 
1-85 

2-20 
1-90 
1-63 

3-51 
1-60 

■44 
2-08 
3-16 
1-27 
1-94 
3-91 


in. 

i-oi 

-92 

1-31 

I-I3 

•I I 

•53 

■33 

1-98 

2-40 

2-45 

1-07 

3-40 


in. 

1-35 
2-23 
2-25 
1-79 
2-68 
1-22 
-63 
176 
3-34 
1-19 

175 
2-97 

23-16 


May 


June 


July 


August 

September . . . 
October 

November ... 
December ... 


Totals 


27-31 


27-94 


23-70 


26-19 


20-75 


24-27 


21-94 


2.-25 


21-68 






25 49 


"""* 



ON THE RAINFALL IN THE BRITISH ISLES. 

ENGLAND. 



181 



Division 11.— S^ouxn- 












■ 




Eastern Counties 






Division ill. 


— South Midland Counties. 




(continued). 
















HaMPSIIIEE ! BERKSIIlnE. 

(continued). , 


IlEllTFORDSIIinE. 


Oxford. 


AldcrsLot. ,: wiUeXm. 


Bcrkhemp- 
stead. 


Eoyston. 


Hitchin. 


Eadcliffe 

Observatory, 


Banbury. 
















Oxford. 






ft. in. 


1 ft. in. 


1ft. 


6 iu. 


ft. 6 in. 


2 ft 


Oin. 


ft. 8 in. 


7 ft. 


Oin. 


331 ft. 


170 ft. 


370 ft. 


206 ft. 


240 ft. 


210 ft. 


34 


5 ft. 


1808. ! 1809. { 


1868. 


1809. 


1868. 


1869. 


1868. 


1869. 


1868. 


1869. 


1868. 


1869. 


1868. 


1869. 


in. in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


iu. 


ii!. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


4'39! 3'23 


374 


ybi 


4'o5 


3-95 


2-6o 


2-63 


2-9S 


2-58 


3-12 


3^77 


2-75 


4^3 1 


•So 


2-96 -95 


2-69 


r83 


2-59 


1-30 


2-11 


1-49 


2-02 


1-65 


2-17 


2-13 


2-20 


2-33 


1-15 


2-05 


1-22 


1-98 


1-76 


1-77 


179 


1-52 


1-46 


1-50 


1-30 


I -go 


i'54 


2-42 


1-30 


1-65 


1-66 


2-36 


1-94 


1-42 


2-20 


1-65 


'•74 


'•54 


1-16 


158 


i"33 


■93 


4'3 5 


•68 


3-32 


•82 


2-86 


■54 


3-60 


•57 


3^3i 1 


•59 


2-95 


-88 


4'47 


•48 


128 


79 


178 


71 


1-33 


■52 


1-12 


-42 


Z-19 


•93 


1-40 


•46 


1-64 


2-34 


•99 


175 


■6S 


■5b 


•S3 


-20 


•59 


-24 


-60 


1-87 


1-06 


•49 


"35 


309 


i-io 


3-61 


rbs 


5-02 


1-68 


4-89 


•95 


4-81 


•87 


3^34 


1-31 


3-64 


-91 


2-58 


3-36 


4"') 4 


3'3o 


4'So 


4-56 


2-47 


2-76 


2-77 


3^12 [ 


3'99 


4-41 


3^05 


T^7 


2-52 


2-20 274 


2-57 


yo2 


i'33 


2-23 


•95 


2-89 


1-07 


2-24 


I-IO 


2-36 


1-24 


'74 


206 


1-27 


2^89 


1-52 


2-74 


i-iy 


2-17 


i-io 


2-32 i 


1-18 


2-41 


2-07 


2-34 


6-29 


3-24 


4-12 


3-47 


5-72 


3-84 


3-S' 


3-69 


3*97 


3-27 


4-12 


3-43 


5^34 


4-29 


29-91 


27-22 ! 2779 


28-84 


32-09 


29-11 


22-62 


24-56 


24-41 


23-55 


26-07 


26-47 


26-65 


28-49 



Division IV. — Eastern Counties. 











Es.SEX. 






Suffolk. 


Epping. 


Dorward's 
Hall, \^•itllaul. 


Dunmow. 


Boclsing, 
Braintree. 


Aslidon 
Eeetory, 


Grundisburgb. 


Cidford, 
Bury St. 














Linton. 




Edmund's. 


6 ft. 


Oin. 


1ft. 


in. 


ft. 3 in. 


3 ft. in. 


1 ft. in. 


4 ft. 1 in. 


1ft. 


a- i 
m. ; 


370 ft. ? 


.' 20 ft. 


234 I't. 


2(X) ft. 


300 ft. 










II 


1868. 
ill. 


1869. 


1868. 


1809. 


1868. 


1869. 


1868. 


1869. 


1808. 


1869. 


1868. 1809. 


1868. 


1869. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


l-'4 


1-85 


2-34 


'•95 


1-09 


2-91 


2-CO 


2-40 


2-19 


2-41 


2-31 


1-66 


2-69 


2-08 1 


-9b 


1-93 


•57 


2-45 


1-33 


2-So 


1-27 


3-03 


,-36 


2-08 


1-41 


2-85 


i-6s 


2-49 


•91 


■97 


1-38 


1-44 


'•34 


1-80 


1-34 


2-05 


1-69 


1-31 


1-48 


2-40 


2-05 


1-87 


•*5 


1-30 


-96 


1-28 


1-25 


1-49 


1-36 


1-18 


1-35 


1-77 


1-48 


•66 


1-68 


'•=^3 1 


1-04 


2-55 


1-18 


2-78 


1-85 


3-20 


i-6i 


3-17 


1-25 


3-21 


lOI 


2-58 


•56 


^•23| 


•15 


1-15 


■49 


-91 


•74 


1-07 


■54 


i-o6 


•28 


-90 


•44 


1-14 


1-12 


1-71 1 


•40 


-85 


-12 


•16 


-26 


79 


■73 


•54 


•33 


-69 


•31 


•37 


•22 


. •46I 


2-39 


1-27 


1-07 


■97 


3-31 


1-83 


2-49 


1-58 


2-02 


1-85 


1-60 


I "20 


1-98 


2^25 


1-89 


3-S0 


1-22 


2-90 


1-90 


2-34 


1-64 


4-68 


1-S3 


3^85 


I -41 


2^93 


I '74 


T5^\ 


2-40 


1-05 


1-70 


1-90 


2-14 


1-88 


2-01 


2-18 


2-28 


1-62 


1-90 


2-08 


2-62 


2-78 


i-c8 


2-20 


•54 


2-40 


i-c8 


2-49 


1-14 


2-36 


1-08 


2-70 


i'3i 


2-50 


1-37 


2-48 


4- J 6 
18-67 


2^45 


3-S0 


2-7b 


4-50 


3-2b 


3^54 


3-49 


3'74 


3-62 


3 '49 


3^74 


4-04 


4-84 


21-37 


J5^37 


21-90 


20-79 


25-86 


19-67 


27-72 


19-40 


26-01 


1S-15 ' 24-11 

1 


21-72 


29-00 1 































18.2 



llEPORT 1870. 

ENGLAND. 



Dhisiou IV. — Easteex Cotjn-ties (contimied). 


Division V. — 

South-Westeen 

cotjnties. 


Norfolk. 


Wiltshire. 


Height of 

Rain-gauge 

above 

G-round 

Sea-level 


Geldeston, 
Beccles. 


Cossey, 
Norwich. 


Egmere, 
Fakenham. 


Holkham. 


Eaverstock. 


Marlborough. 


1 ft. 4 in. 
34 ft. 


1 ft. in. 


4 ft. in. 
1.50 ft. 


ft. in. 
39 ft. 


3 ft. iu. 
229 ft. 


4 ft. in. 

500 ft. 


1868. 


1869. 


1868. 


1869. 


1868. 


1869. 


1868. 


1869. 


1868. 


1869. 


1868. 


1869. 


January 

February . . . 

March 

April 


in. 
1-83 

1-28 
1-62 

170 

•86 
•55 
■25 
l-6g 
1-65 
1-88 
1-98 
3-91 


in. 

1-51 
2-47 

3-38 

-62 

2-16 

1-19 

2-II 

1-63 

2'42 
3-36 
2-37 
4-36 


in. 

2"I2 

i'49 

2^o6 

1-90 

79 

•70 

■55 
2-82 

2-27 
2-61 
2-24. 
4-48 


in. 
1-63 
2-33 
3-10 
1-26 
2-81 
1-69 

•58 
1-66 
3-07 
2-90 
2-62 
4-48 


in. 
1-92 
1-36 
2-53 

3-12 

■33 

•41 

■14 

3-37 

3-16 

2-29 

2-IO 

5-40 


in. 

1-57 
2-03 

i"54 
1-03 
2-49 
1-32 

■54 
1-92 
3-50 
2-58 

2-OI 
4-59 


in. 
2-00 
i-6o 

i"92 
2-45 

•25 

•25 
•17 
3-36 
2-38 
2-67 
1-65 
472 


in. 
1-93 
1-92 

2-35 
i-o8 
3-00 
I-I7 
ri8 

1-55 
3-17 
2-33 
1-90 
4-00 


in. 

3-45 
1-13 
1-85 

275 

1-30 

•40 

•65 
5-60 

5-15 
2-63 
2-05 
6-35 


in. 
4-40 
2-70 
115 

75 
3-80 
1-15 
•45 
75 
4-85 
2-05 
2-00 
323 


in. 

4'43 
2-15 

175 
2-50 
1-38 
1-46 
i-oi 
4-88 

5-27 
2-66 
1-58 

5-51 


in. 

3-50 
2-59 
1-68 
1-41 

4-17 
1-31 
-56 
1-79 
5-27 
1-93 

2-55 
3-67 


May 




July 


August 

September ... 

October 

November ... 
December ... 


Totals 


19-20 27-63 


24-03 


28-23 


27-63 


25-12 


23-42 


25-63 


33-31 


27-28 


33-58 30-43 



Division V- — South Western Counties (continued). 


Devon {continued). 


Height of 

Rain-gauge 

above 

Ground 

Sea-level 


Landscoro, 
Teign mouth. 


Broadhem- 

bury, 
Honiton. 


Cove, 
Tiverton. 


Castle HUl, 
S. Molton. 


Great 

Torringtou. 


Barnstaple. 


ft. 6 in. 
120 ft. 


1 ft. 6 in. 
400 ft. 


Oft. 10 in. 
4.50 ft. 


3 ft. in. 
200 ft. 


1 ft. 1 in. 
321 ft. 


it. 6 in. 
31ft. 


18G8. 


1869. 


1868. 


1869. 


1868. 


1869. 


1868. 


1869. 


1868. 


1869. 


1868. 1860.1 


January 

February . . . 

March 

April 


in. 
4-16 

•89 
1-67 
2-32 
,-56 

•42 

•43 

3-57 

4-04 

1-55 

3-46 
7-38 


in. 
2-78 
2-19 

2-45 

74 
6-57 

•73 
•31 
•28 
2-37 
1-92 
i-iS 
4-04 


in. 
3-19 
1-85 

2-OI 
2-08 

I-I5 

1-22 

I'OO 
5-50 
5-23 
3-24 
3-14 
6-27 


in. 

3-76 

2-72 

2-22 

i-ii 

536 

•53 

•84 

•66 

4-25 
173 
2-39 
4-41 


in. 

5-51 
3-50 

3"35 

3*54 

1-31 

•85 

•59 
5-42 

3-38 
3-95 
2-37 
972 


in. 
5-07 

396 
2-54 
1-86 
5-48 
■41 
■77 
1-03 

5"94 
2-60 
4-91 
5-72 


in. 
6-50 
2-31 
3-91 
2-98 
1-86 

•3» 

73 

5'5i 
3-80 
6-43 
2-77 
8-85 


in. 
5-48 
5'57 
2-99 
2-71 
6-17 
•50 

•93 
2-28 
7-09 

4-85 
4-62 

5-24 


in. 
6-8o 
2-89 

4-00 


in. 
5-60 
5-12 
1-95 


in. 
6-10 
223 

3-23 
2-50 
1-91 
•52 
•38 
468 

373 

5-59 
2-29 

678 


in. 
4-69 

4-35 
I -06 

1S9 
4-90 

•54 
-90 

1*43 
6-00 
4-76 
4*oi 
5-19 


May 


1-98, 4-56 

•34 i -32 

-42 -86 

5-24 -75 

3-27 \ 7-27 

5-49; 3-31 
3-181 4-54 

805 ; 6-43 


June 


July .... 


August 

September . . . 

October 

November ... 
December ... 


Totals 


31-45 


25-56 


35-88 


29-98 


43-49 


40-29 


46-01 


4843 


I 
44-66 j 42-39 


39"94 


39-72 



ON THE RAINFALL IN THE BRITISH ISLES. 

. ENGLAND. 



183 









Division V.- 


-Soutu-Westeen Counties (conthwed) 








Wiltshire 






Dorset. 






- 


Dei 


'OX. 






{continmd). 
Chippenliatn, 




































Saltram 






Dartmoor 




West ] 


Blandford. 


Dorchester. 


Bridport. 


Gardens, 


Ivybridge. 


Prison 




Tytberton. ( 

1 














Plymouth. 






Reservoir. 




1 ft. 2 in. 


1ft. 


Oin. 


Oft. 


Gin. 


Oft. ] 


11 in. 


ft. 6 in. 


3 ft. 


Oin. 


ft. 2 in. 




150 ft. 


•• 


... 


250 ft. 


85 


ft. 


£6 ft. 


175 


ft. 


1400 ft. 




1868. 


1SG9. 


1808. 


18G9. 


1888. 


1SG9. 


1SG8. 


1869. 


186S. 


18G9. 


18G8. 


1869. 


1868. 


18G9. 




in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 




3-38 


3-46 


5-57 


5-01 


4-15 


471 


3-76 


4-59 


.S-i8 


5-97 


5-57 


6-94 


9-01 


9-74 




I -41 


2-58 


2-i6 


3-33 


2-15 


3-48 


1-91 


3-07 


2-50 


3-21 


2-34 


5-67 


5-08 


979 




1-42 


1-22 ' 


2-56 


2-56 


1-69 


2-21 


1-39 


2-25 


2-34 


2-29 


378 


3-41 


6-68 


4-51 




2-51 


i-o8 


2-s8 


1-27 


3-41 


1-21 


2'00 


i-ii 


4-24 


1-45 


4-54 


3-06 


7'o4 


3-25 




1-J3 


4-15 


1-67 


5-61 


2-o6 


5-I9 


i-6i 


4-74 


2-15 


7-20 


3-43 


6-36 


371 


9'6i 




•31 


1-34 


-5o 


1-25 


•93 


1-21 


-40 


1-14 


•76 


•40 


•76 


•37 


2-02 


•82 




•80 


■79 


•51 


•39 


•86 


•68 


•48 


•41 


•72 


ri3 


•41 


•88 


1-24 


3-48 




4-22 


1-12 


4-80 


-92 


6-15 


•86 


4'6i 


•25 


5"oo 


■51 


5-60 


-76 


6-86 


2-35 




374 


3-85 


5-39 


S'3° 


5-69 


5-45 


3-40 


3-92 


5-63 


3-23 


4-69 


6-76 


7-52 


10-53 




2-28 


1-69 


378 


1-77 


3-60 


2-45 


3-32 


2-03 


5-3« 


2-99 


5-;o 


2-6i 


8-83 


5-30 




1-42 


2-37 


2-91 


1-98 


3-47 


2-53 


2-ii3 


2-09 


4-70 


3-21 


5-22 


4'oo 


6-19 


8-13 




4-31 


3-3^ 


7-1 1 


4-67 


«-i5 


4-40 


6-88 


4-37 


9-9° 


4-71 


9-22 


5-26 


13-47 


7-49 




2693 


26-97 ^ 


39-64 


34-06 


42-31 


34-38 


32-59 


29-97 


1 48'S° 


36-30 


51-26 


46-58 


77-65 


75-00 









Division V.— 


-South -Westerx Couxiies (coni 


tnned. 


) 






ConXWALTi. 


Helston. 


Penzance. 


Tchidr Park, 
Eedrulh. 


Truro. 


Bodmin. 


Treharrock 

House, 
Wadebridge. 


Altarnum. 


5 ft. 


1in. 


2 ft. 


Gin. 


ft. 6 in. 


40 ft. 


Oin. 


2 ft. 


6 in. 


S ft. 6 in. 


Oft. ] 


LOin. j 


115 


ft. 


94 ft. 


100 ft. 


56 ft. 


338 ft. 


300 ft. 


570 ft. 1 


1868. 


1869. 


1868. 


1869. 


18G8. 


1SG9. 


1868. 


1SG9. 


1868. 


1869. 


1868. 


1869. 


1868. 


1869. ! 


iu. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


iu. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


4-07 


3-56 


6-92 


6-93 


7-25 


6-85 


7-15 


6-Si 


6-48 


7^02 


4^oi 


4-67 


9-18 


923 


2-25 


3*33 


2-62 


3-98 


2-70 


4-40 


2-42 


3-88 


2-37 


4-56 


1-96 


4-26 


4-48 


6'93 


2-05 


:i-33 


2-25 


2-82 


2-55 


2-30 


2-48 


2-46 


3-3« 


2-76 


2-34 


2-13 


4^8o 


2-65 


2-77 


1-22 


2-97 


1-42 


2-50 


1-50 


rb. 


■97 


3-85 


1-49 


2-27 


1*04 


5-13 


2-12 


1-40 


4-09 


I-6S 


4-15 


1-70 


2^40 


1-69 


5-42 


2-75 


6-28 


i-io 


5-12 


3-29 


7-45! 


■94 


■55 


•66 


•5° 


-90 


•70 


-54 


•26 


•82 


•54 


-48 


•96 


I -45 


i-o6 


•89 


•43 


•86 


•^5 


i-co 


•80 


1-04 


-35 


•81 


•95 


•9S 


•71 


1-21 


■60 


3-32 


•77 


3-83 


-80 


3-50 


•60 


2-99 


•48 


4-00 


•76 


4-02 


78 


575 


2-28 


3-51 


472 


2-55 


4-83 


4*io 


4-40 


4-03 


4-46 


6-19 


5-76 


2-59 


5-12 


6-57 


8-89 


471 


2^65 


5-40 


2-35 


4-70 


2-75 


5'oo 


2-27 


6-00 


3-61 


5-36 


3-17 


8^67 


4-731 


3-9° 


464 


3'99 


4-90 


5-30 


4-Ji 


5-8. 


4-81 


7-80 


4-19 


4-16 


4-04 


7-37 


6-6ij 


675 


4-31 


6-48 


5-69 


7-05 


6^05 


826 


5-62 


9-4° 


5-52 


6-86 


4-29 


13-23 


7-97 j 


36-56 


32'6o 


40-21 


39-02 


1 43-25 


36-86 


45^02 


37-82 


S3-S5 


43-44 


36-13 


36-29 


71-13 


60-52 



184 



REPORT 1870. 



Diviision V. — South- WisxiiEN C'orxiiES (contimud). 


Di^•ision YI.— "West 

MlDL.iND C'0UI«-TIliS. 




SOMEUSET. 


Gloucester. 




Height of 

Eain-gauge 

above 

Ground 

Sea-level 


Fulland's 

Scliool, 

Taunton. 


Long Sutton, 
Langport. 


Sherborne 

Reservoir, 

East Harptree. 


Bathcaslon 
Reservoir. 


Clifton. 


Cirencester. 

1 




1 ft. 4 in. 


ft. 7 in. 

60 ft. 


1 ft. in. 
336 ft. 


2 ft. in. 
226 ft. 


ft. 6 in. 
192 ft. 


1 ft. 2 in. 
446 f t. 








18(38. 


1869. 


1868. 


1869. 


1868. 


1869. 


1868. 


1869. 


1868. 


1869. 


1868. 


1869. 




January 

February .. 

March 

April 


in, 

378 

■82 

277 

177 

•95 

•61 

1-26 

5-65 
3-58 
272 

1-34 
5-23 


in. 
3-20 
2-94 
128 

■51 
4-63 

■91 

■44 
•24 
3-27 
2 '90 
1-56 
313 


in. 
3-30 

1-34 

1-72 

1-32 

■93 

1-01 
I-2I 
4-96 

3-48 
2-38 

1-57 
5x1 


in. 

3-98 

2-38 

1-62 

■88 

5-41 

■95 

-46 

•78 

3-94 
214 
1-58 
3-34 


in. 

7-53 
1-78 
4-04 

3-59 
1-47 
1-73 
1-62 
6-51 
3-8, 
6-25 
2-74 
io-o6 


in. 

7-44 

573 
1-85 
1-78 
7-14 

1-28 

174 
1-98 
6-72 
3-co 
4-20 
6-55 


in. 
4-46 
158 
1-50 

2-12 

i-io 

-92 

•86 

3-90 

364 

2-72 
175 

5-62 


in. 

4-38 
2-86 
I -46 

1-00 

4-55 
1-35 
I -00 

74 
4'45 
1-50 
2-04 

3'93 


in. 
5-90 
1-97 

179 
2-31 

177 
-64 
■88 

576 

2'99 
2^76 
1-67 
567 


in. 

5-37 
3-88 
I -20 

• I-I3 

6-30 

1-03 

-96 

1-40 

577 
2-44 

2-40 

429 


in. 
4-6S 
2x3 
2^56 

2'20 

171 

■31 

71 

4^02 

289 

2^64 

2-23 

6^70 


in. 
5'6o 

3-37 
r6o 
1^42 

4C9 

1-52 

•72 

1-51 

6-55 

2-00 
2-85 
5-30 




May 




June 




July 




August 

September ... 

October 

November ... 
December ... 




Totals 


30-48 


25-01 


28-23 


27-46 


5113 


49-41 


30-17 


29-26 


34-11 


36-17 


32^68 


36-53 


\ 



Division YI. — ^YESI Midland Counties (cond.). 


Division YII. — JSTomn Midland 
Counties. 


■\VoncESTEn {continued). 


V^'auwick. 


Leicester. 


Height of 

Rain gauge 

al?ove 

Ground 

Sea-level 


Orlcton, 
Tenbury. 


Ardcn Hou.se, 

Heliley-in- 

Ardcn. 


Biruiingham. 

ft. 10 in. 
340 ft. 


Wigston, 
Leicester. 


Tliornton. 


Belvoir Castle.- 


ft. 9 in. 
200 ft. 


2 ft. in. 
! 400 ft. 


ft. in. 
220 ft. 


2 ft. S in. 
? 420 It. 


1 ft. in. 
2S7 ft. 


1868. 


1869. 

in. 

4-53 
2-90 
1-79 
i'47 
5-51 

J-C2 
1-CO 

1-20 
5-51 

2-o6 

2-37 
4-45 

33-81 


1868. 


1869. 


1SG8. 


lt()9. 


1868. 

in. 
J-71 
1-64 

2-56 

1-27 

-53 

-33 

-00 

4-co 

2-6i 

2-28 
1-36 
4-95 

23-2< 


1869. 


1868. 


1869. 


1868. 


18C9. 


January 

P'ebruary ... 

March 

April 


in. 
3x7 
2-21 
1-76 
i-So 
2-38 

-45 
-90 
4-60 
2-99 
2-24 
I -90 
0-65 


in. 
2-28 
1-83 
• J-9S 
1-67 
jx6 

-jc 

•20 

4-87 
2-51 
1-95 
1-72 
5-66 

26-C3 


in. 

3-49 
1-87 

2-14 

i-c6 

4-63 

•73 

-87 

3-18 

1-24 
2-12 
3-45 

■25-67 


in. 
2-29 
i-8g 
292 

1-94 
1-67 

-J9 
-39 
5-5- 
2-47 
1-92 
1-82 
6^6c 


ill. 
3-46 
3x8 

2^50 

I -Si 
5-75 

1-2I 

•58 

r26 

4-10 
1-66 

2-C4 

4^cc. 
31-46 


in. 

2-82 
,■91 

i^96 

2^65 

4'7i 
1. 71 
113 

I'21 
2-43 

75 
r83 

3-58 


in. 
I-7S 
I 96 
209 
i^36 
i-cS 
■27 
■05 

3'73 
2j8 
2^52 

5-'9 


in. 
2-41 
2-i8 

1-87 

6-15 

1-17 

•59 
1-90 

3-52 

-98 

2-04 

3-81 


in. 
i-SS 

1-54 
1-90 
1-69 

-5' 
■49 

-IC 

2-54 
2-K2 
2-9C 

1-33 
6x7 


in. 
2-93 

1-55; 
2-75 

2-47 

4'74 
1-50 

•78 
1-52 
2-95 
j-10 

1-95 w 

3-77!; 


May .... 


T • 

June 


July 


August 

ISeptenibcr ... 

October 

Koveniber ... 
December ... 


Totals 


30-95 


2962 


26-70 


23-50 


28-07 


24-17 


29-01 [| 



ON THE llAINFALL IN THE BRITISH ISLES. 

ENGLAND. 



18: 









Division TI.- 


—"West Midland Cottnxies (contimicd) 






Gloucester 
(continued). 


Hereeokd. 


SiiROPSiimE. 


Woitc 


ESTER. 




Qucdgeley. 


Strctton 
Rectory, 
Hereford. 


Haugliton 

Hall, 
Shifnall. 


Hengocd, 
Oswestry. 


IS'orthwick 
Park. 


1 
1 
West Malvern. 


Lark Hill, 
Worcester. 


ft. 10 in. 


I ft. in. 


4 ft. 6 in. 


6 ft. in. 


! 1 ft. 6 in. 


1ft. 


3 in. 


1 ft. in. 


50 ft. 


lUO ft. 


3i0ft. 


471 ft. 


1 


900 ft. 


157 ft. 




1868. 


1869. 


1868. 
in. 


1869. 


1868. 


1869. 


1808. 


1809. 

1 


' 1808. 


1869. 


1808. 


1809. 


1808. 


1869. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. i 


in. 


in. 


in. 


ill. 


in. 


in. 


3-46 


5-50 


2-85 


4-99 


1-84 


2-91 


4-56 


4-86 i 


2-88 


S-24 


2-60 


5-39 


2-54 


4-65 


177 


3-67 


151 


3-04 


2-17 


2-CO 


2-13 


3'oo 


2-i8 


2-22 


I-S6 


328 


1-52 


2-70 


1-82 
1-56 


1-58 


165 


1-53 


1-36 


3-59 


289 


1-69 


i-S8 


1-89 


1-27 


1-5C 


'•59 


1-37 


1-C5 


i-SS 


•91 


1-51 


1-78 


2-30 


1-44 


1-68 


1-93 


2-21 


182 


2-2S 


1-26 


229 
•26 


3-J2 


170 


4-46 


1-52 


473 


2-27 


6-45 ! 


1-16 


3-64 


2-15 


5-51 


1-79 


S'li 


1-42 


•34 


•59' 


•14 


-9b 


•38 


■94' 


-co 


1-42 


•36 


i-i6 


-41 


1-23 


■5S 


•94 


1-30 


•46 


•45 


•72 


•66 


1-28 


1-C4 


-cS 


1-07 


■53 


1-C9 


-30 


3" 


I '09 


4-85 


•85 


3- J 8 


I -41 


2-71 


1-40 


i'55 


•30 


5-47 


1-14 


4-26 


1-34 


2-51 
.•85 


6-20 


3b5 


4-28 1 


2-62 


4-76 


2-78 


5-92 


1-96 


3-17 


2-50 


3-21 


2-67 


5"33 


1 92 


163 


3-J9 


1-50 


.1-59 


3-22 


2-63 


3-39 


3-37 


2-68 


3-96 


1-93 


i--!i 


'■4/4 


2-05 


1-28 


2-47 


1-14 


2-21 


2-52 


3-22 


2-30 


2-47 


2-07 


1-83 


1-94 


2-21 


i'"7 


5-15 


634 


371 


5-52 


3-31 


10-69 


5M« 


4-24 


4'99 1 6-11 


4-55 


578 


374 
30-55 


'•7" J 3 


3369 


28-98 


30-48 j 


22-95 


27-97 


37-11 


3801 


23-96 


30-72 


30-05 


33-68 


27-80 



Division VII. — NoKin Midland Counties (continued). 



Liu 










Lincoln. 












1 

1 NoTTlXCnAM. 

1 


coin. 


Market Easen. 


Gainsborough. 


Brigg. 


Grimsby. 


New Holland. 


Wclbcck. 1 

! 


3 ft. 


Oin. 


3 ft. 


6 in. 


3 ft. 6 in. 


3 ft. 


Oin. 


15 ft. 


Oin. 


3 ft. in. 


3 ft. in. 


2611, 


100 ft. 


76 It. 


10 ft. 


42 


ft. 


18 ft. 


80 ft. 


368. 


1869. 


18C8. 


1869. 


1868. 


1800. 


1SC8. 


1869. 


1868. 


1869. 


18C8. 


1869. 


1868. 


1809. 


1. 


in. 


in. 


m. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. in. 


in. 1 in. 


''•39 


2'34 


2-37 


2-89 


I 01 


I '84 


1-34 


2-20 


1-34 


2-49 


I -60 2-42 


1-54 


2-32 


1 59 


1-65 


1-73 


2-CI 


1-12 


-91 


1-45 


-94 


1-53 


1-5:. 


1-66 


1-40 


i 1-92 


3-51 


1 30 
-96 


2-6i 


■94 


2-91 


•65 


1-12 


I -02 


1-33 


1-97 


2-10 


1-75 


1-64 


i-ii 


223 


2-J5 


1-68 


1-57 


■94 


2-C2 


1-76 


1-44 


2-29 


1-66 


2-27 


1-70 


1-31 


1-25 


-i 


4-36 


-20 


3-76 


•94 


4-3S 


-69 


3-55 


-2: 


4-73 


-47 


4-48 


1-20 


6-28 


49 


1-25 


■30 


1-76 


•55 


1-86 


■46 


1-45 


■79 


i-]8 


•89 


-95 


■23 


-38 


4' 


•49 


-24 


-b3 


-21 


-22 


■44 


-60 


-72 


•34 


•84 


■17 


■19 


-03 


"■'i'/ 


1-24 


2-52 


2-15 


5-23 


2-68 


3-44 


2-21 


3-56 


1-91 


3-o8 


1-83 


3-40 


1-90 


,•9^ 


3'3o 


2-22 


2-35 


2-83 


3-12 


2-27 


3-57 


1-86 


3-'5 


J-74 


2-55 


2-22 


4-36 


>.-2I 


-68 


1-So 


1-42 


1-78 


1-31 


2-32 


1-65 


2-59 


1-92 


2-55 


1-39 1 


2-49 


1-26 1 


;-83 


1-13 


2-09 


1-65 


75 


j-30 


i-85 


1-13 


l-io 


1-70 


1-78 


1-51 


-92 


1-6,' 


290 


5-2b 


278 


5-10 


4-49 


5-03 


4-70 


5-56 


3-30 


5-99 


3-27 


6-13 


3-37 


V64 


24-10 


21-35 


25-88 


21-11 


25-25 


22-07 


24-77 


23-53 


26"CO 


24-62 


23-31 


22-66 


2650 


1 





























188 



KEPORT 1870. 

ENGLAND. 



Division YII.— North Midland Cottwties (continued). 


Div. VIII.— NoExn- 

Westeen Coui^-ties. 


Derby, 


Cheshire. i 


Height of 

Eain-gauge 

above 

Ground 

Sea-level 


Derby. 


Chesterfield. 


Comb's Mos3. 


Chapel-cn-le- 
Frith. 


Macclesfield. 


Cholmondelly 

Castle, 

Nantwich. 


5 ft. in. 
180 ft. 


3 ft. 6 in. 

248 ft. 


3 ft. 6 in. 
16G9 ft. 


3 ft. 6 in. 
963 ft. 


3 ft. 6 in. 
539 ft. 


1 ft. 6 in. i 

42 ft. i 

1 


18G8. 


1869. 


1868. 


1869. 


1868. 


18G9. 


1868. 


1869. 


186.^. 


1869. 


1868. 


1869. ■ 

in. j 
2-S9I 
1-89 i 

1-57' 

1-54 
5-84 

l^OI 

1-67 
2-33 
6-36 

2-70 
3-30 

3-'3l 


January 

February . . . 

March .'. 

A]:)ril 


in. 
i-8i 

2-58 

2^32 

1-55 

1-35 

•27 

•33 
3T4 
1-72 
3-01 

6-88 


in. 
2'96 
1-89 
1-64 
1-48 

3"97 

1-41 

•65 

■99 
5-31 

I^IO 

2'04 

3"9i 


in. 
i'69 
1-72 
2^48 
1-93 
1-05 

•55 
•00 
2^28 
2-46 
2-8o 
1^04 

7-47 


m. 

3-36 

2-OI 
2-24 
1-83 
5-36 

75 
■05 
•88 

4'02 

1-41 

r72 
3-90 


in. 
4-90 
3-30 
6-35 
5-93 
I 46 
•68 
•22 

3-49 
3'45 
5-53 
2-92 
890 


in. 
7-68 
3-6i 
71 
3'i4 
5-IO 

2-12 
•81 

3-i8 

7'55 

379 
6^3i 

S'5c 


in. 
2-36 
3-65 

565 
5-17 
i'54 


in. 
4-19 

4'45 

■92 

2-37 

3-47 


in. 
1-94 
2-02 

3-83 
2-74 
193 
•17 
•39 
3-42 
1-94 
4-60 
i-6a 
7-89 


in. 
2-70 

4-12 

1-27 

2-34 

4-79 

•97 

I-I7 

3-22 
8-20 

2-54 

3-63 

4' 74 


in. 
2-37 
2-03 
2-12 
1-95 
1-49 
•55 
-58 
3-53 
2-66 
2-68 

2^6l 

6-93 


Mav 




•50 1-8 1 

•34 74 


July 


August 

September . . . 

October 

November ... 
December ... 


3-95 
2-63 
5-6i 
2-53 
9-20 


3-06 
7-15 
3-53 
4'94 
6-19 


Totals 


26^02 


27-35 


25-47 


27-53 


47' 1 3 


49-50 


41-14 


42-82 


32-51 


39-69 


29-50 


34-23 



Division VIII. — Noeth-Wesiekn 
CotTNTiE.? (continued). 


Division IX. — YoEKsniUE. 


Lancashire {continvccT). 


York. — West Eidixg. 


Height of 

Rain-gauge 

above 

Ground 

Sea-level 


Caton, 
Lancaster. 


Holker, 
Cartmel. 


Broomhall 

Park, 
Sheffield. 


Ecdmires, 

Sheffield, 


Tickhill. 


Pcnistone. 


1 ft. 9 in. 
120 ft. 


4 ft. 8 in. 
15.J ft. 


2 ft. in. 
337 ft. 


4 ft. in. 
1100 ft. 


2 ft. in. 
61 ft. 


3 ft. 6 in. 
717 ft. 


1868. 


1869. 


1868. 


1S69. 


1868. 


I860'. 


1868. 


1869. 


1868. 


1869. 


1868. 


1869. 


January 

February . . . 

March 

April 


in. 
3-38 
3-12 
5-02 
2-6i 
2-31 
•45 
•64 

4-98 
2-19 

5-46 

2-6o 

9"54 


in. 
4-49 
5-99 
1-28 

2-93 
3-03 
2-65 
-96 
2-53 

8-21 

3-51 
4-63 
4-69 


in. 
291 

3-65 
5-11 

2-74 

2-17 

-67 

-53 
603 
2-94 
5-04 

10-28 


in. 
5-06 
6-13 

1-22 

2-64 

3-40 
2-01 
1-31 
2-38 

8-S6 

3-57 
6-25 
5-40 


in. 

2-47 

1-S8 

2-64 

2-17 

■94 

-47 

-09 

2-67 

3-32 

3-37 

199 

9-03 


in. 

3-15 
2-67 
1-98 

1-82 

5-76 
-87 
•24 

1-08 

4'95 
1-45 

2-17 

4-65 


in. 

I -78 
3-9S 

4-74 
2-70 
1-48 

•59 

-17 

3-15 

390 

3-87 
3-18 

9-49 


in. 
3-62 
4-26 

2-53 
2-64 
6-6S 
1-29 
-67 
2-07 
6-14 
2-76 

4-93 
6-31 


in. 

2'24 

J '45 
1-14 
1-40 
1-03 
•36 
•41 
1-88 
2-46 
2-62 
1-05 
6-60 


in. 

2-49 
1-78 
2-01 
1-71 
5-07 
•97 

-27 
1-39 

3-12 

175 
1-59 
3-23 


in. 
3-11 
1-97 
3-36 
1-94 
•63 
•24 

-45 
2-18 
"•6- 

3-30 
2-32 
8-22 


in. 
296 

348 
1-76 

1-92 
5-6a 

1-07 

•S3 

I-S4 

S-34 


May 


June 


July 


August 

September . . . 

October 

November ... 
December ... 


Totals 


42-30 


44-90 


45-58 


48-23 


31-04 


3° 79 


39-07 


43-90 


22-64 


25-38 


31-35 


»1 



ON THE RAINFALL IN THE BRITISH ISLES. 

ENGLAND. 



187 







DiTision VIII, 


NORTH-WESTERiS- 


CotTNTiES (continued). 






Lancashire. 


Manchester. 


Waterhouses. 


Bolton-lc- 
Moors. 


Eufford, 
Ormskirk. 


Howick 

House, 

Preston. 


South Shore, 
Blackpool. 


Stonyhurst*. 


2 ft. 7 in. 


3 ft. 


in. 


3 ft. 


6 in. 


ft. 8 in. 


ft. 6 in. 


1 ft. 8 in. 


1 ft. 3 in. 


106 ft. 


u: 


>ft. 


286 ft. 


38 ft. 


72 ft. 


29 ft. 


381 ft. 


1868. 


1869. 


18G8. 


1869. 


1868. 


1869. 


1868. 


1869. 


1868. 


1869. 


1868. 


1869. 


1868. 


1869. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


275 


2'69 


2-82 


2-57 


3-38 


3-26 


2-43 


3-55 


2-8o 


4-00 


2-60 


3-40 


4-45 


3-80 


211 


4'4-!- 


2-5b 


4-36 


2-89 


5-51 


2-06 


393 


2-25 


4-75 


2-05 


4-40 


4-35 


4-40 


4'oo 


1-27 


5-30 


1-24 


6-34 


1-68 


3-50 


1-13 


3-70 


1-20 


3-57 


1-12 


1-45 


6-40 


1-68 


2-IO 


170 


1-QI 


2-33 


3-12 


1-66 


2-84 


I -90 


2'8o 


1-8, 


1-90 


5-93 


2-30 


•87 


273 


I-I4 


2-99 


1-15 


2-98 


1-68 


3-40 


1-6S 


3-90 


2-05 


2-78 


2-1 


1-60 


•37 


1-12 


•47 


1-25 


•33 


1-74 


■41 


1-43 


•55 


1-70 


•30 


i-oo 


2-14 


-70 


•45 


113 


•29 


I -02 


•60 


1-24 


•31 


•98 


■35 


1-20 


-22 


•50 


5'43 


•70 


2*50 


2-63 


274 


279 


5-29 


4-21 


3-24 


1-97 


3-40 


1-95 


3-45 


1-42 


3-51 


4-50 


17b 


b-32 


1-54 


6-66 


2-34 


9-21 


1-58 


671 


1-20 


7-20 


1-35 


5-90 


4-94 


2-50 


45' 


3-12 


5-00 


2-43 


8-00 


5-07 


5-56 


3-30 


6-30 


3-10 


4-50 


3-20 


5-36 


6-8o 


311 


4-28 


2-8i 


4-63 


3-87 


6-70 


2-88 


3-87 


2-70 


4-10 


3-00 


3-80 


2-16 


4-00 


812 


3-02 


7'94 


5-01 


982 


4-28 


6-88 


2-82 


8-42 


5-IO 


8-16 


2-87 


5-22 


9-50 


32-23 


35-45 


34-31 


36-86 


46-34 


49-00 


32-19 


35-93 


35-22 


41-00 


33-10 


32-29 


47-04 


47-20 









Division IX. 


— Yorkshire (continued). 












York. — We.5t Eidixg {cooitinucd). 


m 




Saddleworth. 


Longwood, 
Huddersficld. 


Ackworth, 
Pontefract. 


Well Head, 
Halifax. 


Ovenden 

Moor, 
Halifax. 


Eccup, 
Leeds. 


York. 


5 ft. 


Oin. 


4 ft. 


6 in. 


ft. 3 in. 


Oft. 11 in. 


ft. 10 in. 


ft. in. 


ft. 6 in. 


640 ft. 


COO ft. 


135 ft. 


487 ft. 


1375 ft. 


340 ft. 


50 ft. 


1868. 


1869. 


1868. 


1869. 


1868. 


1869. 


1868. 


1869. 


1868. 


1869. 


' 1868. 


1869. 


1868. 


1869. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


366 


2-59 


4-14 


2-90 


2-45 


2-40 


2-57 


2-81 


4-40 


4-00 


2-94 


2-94 


I "45 


2-81 


4-35 


636 


2-99 


6-co 


77 


1-15 


4-34 


5-72 


3-30 


6-IO 


1-70 


2-69 


1-33 


1-78 


4-09 


1-09 


3-98 


1-23 


1-27 


1-40 


4-30 


2-50 


4-20 


2-10 


2-78 


I-S6 


j-52 


1-89 


1-20 


1-93 


i-6i 


189 


1-77 


1-90 


1-20 


1-65 


2-00 


2-20 


1-70 


1-90 


1-82 


2-18 


a-S5 


57« 


■84 


5-64 


-77 


5 '47 


-77 


5-64 


1-30 


5-50 


1-21 


5-69 


1-28 


4'49 


-63 


1-21 


-28 


-66 


1-40 


•99 


•07 


76 


-10 


i-io 


-22 


-73 


1-26 


■ 1-05 


•86 


1-53 


-36 


-80 


-24 


-86 


•40 


-55 


•20 


-30 


-30 


■57 


-40 


'■31 


3-64 


3-47 


2-29 


1-90 


2-13 


1-20 


2-70 


2-00 


4-10 


1-70 


2-12 


1-57 


2-56 


1-70 


2-40 


7-b5 


3-(^3 


5-40 


3-98 


3-45 


3-32 


5-60 


5-00 


7-50 


3-65 


4-70 


3-24 


3-83 


1 -T 


3-46 


3-67 


2-19 


2-13 


1-07 


3-bi 


1-88 


5-00 


2-70 


2-8S 


1-32 


2-89 


1-58 


1 1-84 


5-02 


2-91 


3-8i 


i-oi 


1-94 


2-62 


3-92 


2-80 


4-50 


2-34 


2-o6 


2-00 


1-65 


i 9'77 


5-06 


8-20 


4-46 


5-78 


2-85 


8-67 


4-83 


9-90 


7-00 


6-99 


4-39 


5-95 


3-65 


;4i-2i 


45-08 


34-90 


36-88 


23-70 


24-68 


34-57 


37-86 


42-30 


44-70 


28-80 


30-12 


25-70 


27-92 










* ( 


^orrentp 


d for I'r 


striiiY»<> 


nfnl pri* 


r\r* 











188 



REPORT — 1870. 

ENGLAND. 



Dmsion IX. — ^Yokkshiee (continued). 


YouK. — West Eidixg {continued). 


York — East Riding. 


YoUK NoKTil 

Riding. 


Height of 

Eain-gauge 

above 

Ground 

Sea-lerel 


Harrogate. 


Settle. 


Arncliffe, 
Skipton. 


Beverley Road. 
Hull. 


Holme, on 

Spalding 
Moor. 


Malton. 


ft. 6 in. 
420 ft. 


40 ft. in. 
498 ft. 


3 ft. in. 
750 ft. 


3 ft. 10 in. 
lift. 


3 ft. in. 
30 ft. 


1 ft. in. 
73 ft. 


1868. 


1869. 


1868. 


1869. 


1868. 1869. 


1868. 


1869. 


1868. 


1869. 


1868. 


1869. 


January 

February ... 

March 

April 


in. 
3-28 
1-49 
2-79 
2-iS 
1-93 

•36 

•62 

3-11 

3-39 
3'3i 
2-59 

77S 


in. 
2-50 

3-21 

1-94 

1-62 

513 

I -21 

•28 
1-24 
3-64 
1-73 
2-28 
4-67 


in. 
4'37 
4'45 

4-21 

3-10 
x-56 

•20 

•35 

474 

2-82 

4-37 
3-05 
8-70 


in. 
5-03 
772 
1-85 
2-62 

3-44 
0-00 

•97 
2-05 
6-92 

•52 
4-65 
577 


in. 
8-03 
4-82 
8-19 
3-83 
2-63 
1-40 
•81 
6-52 
4-28 

7-53 

6-42 

12-24 


in. 
7-89 
9-08 
2-17 
3"9S 
4-11 
1-96 
1-59 
2-48 

11-64 
3-31 
871 
8-12 


in. 
2-24 

'■S3 
1-97 
2-10 

•70 
1-07 

-85 

3-47 
1-72 
2-69 
1-66 
6-54 


in. 
2-66 
1-40 
2-29 
1-94 
4-69 
1-25 

■25 
2-24 
2-90 
1-99 
2-24 
4'44 


in. 

'■57 
1-14 
1-28 

'73 
1-17 
•63 
■63 
1-78 
2-41 
2-62 
1-36 
5-02 


in. 
1-99 

1-23 

1-66 
1-78 
4-29 
1-38 

•59 

2-17 

2-48 

1-96 

178 

3-42 


in. 
2-21 

1-12 

1-84 

1-66 

1-59 

-88 

2-16 
2-81 
2-94 
1-58 
6-24 


in. 
3'03 
'■99, 
2-25 

177 ! 

3-97 

1-51 

1-07 

1-23 

3-26. 

^•351 
2-27 

3-99, 




July 


August 

September ... 

October 

November ... 
December .. 


Totals 

i 


32-83 


29-45 


41-9= 


41*54 


66-70 , 6501 


26-54 


28-29 


21-34 


24-73 


^5-95 


2869 



Divifsion X. — Noethern Cotjkties (contimied). 


Northumberland {continitcd). 

m 


Cl-.MBERLAND. 


Height of 

Rain-gauge 

above 

Ground 

Sea-level 


Park End, 
Hexham. 


Lilburn 
Tower, Aln- 
wick. 


Stonethwaite, 
Borrowdale. 


Seathvraite, 
Borrowdale. 


Whinfell Hall, 
Cocker mouth. 


Post Office, 
Keswick. 


ft. 4 in. 
277 ft. 


6 ft. 9 in. 
290 ft. 


Oft. 6 in. 
330 ft. 


1ft. Oin. 
422 ft. 


2 ft. in. 
260 ft. 


6 ft. 4 in. 
270 ft. 


1868. 


1869. 


1868. 


1869. 


1868. 

in. 

9-42 
17-52 
18-29 

6-19 

5-°3 

2-o6 

i-io 

■ 11-72 

1 

4-47 

14-37 

! 7-64 

21-68 


1869. 


1868. 


1869. 


1868. 


1869. 


1868. 


1869. 


January 

February . . . 

March 

April 


in. 
4-08 
602 
3-40 

275 
1-29 

79 
■47 
2-52 
360 
2-43 
2-29 
469 


in. 

2-80 
5-60 
1-15 

2-12 
2-36 
177 

■93 
1-27 
4-85 
1-91 

4-34 

4'33 


in. 

3*02 
1-20 

1-13 

2-85 

1-35 
-51 

•58 

3-61 

376 
1-56 

3-33 
4-54 


in. 
2-13 
1-23 
1-81 
•89 
2-6i 
2-25 

77 
1-43 

3-72 
2-03 
2-11 
2-99 


in. 

14-57 

19-81 

1-56 

5-49 

2-96 

4-04 

6-04 

3-29 

20-03 

6'04 

18-03 

12-86 


in. in. 

13-54 17-43 
19-90 23-13 

27-24 3-ii 


in. 
5-90 
6-42 
879 


in. 

7-15 
8-46 
-61 
3-10 
2-45 
2-16 
2-14 
2-2S 
ic-60 

4-75 
771 
7-40 


in. 

9-95 
7-46 

7-59 
3-88 
2-82 
1-C9 
■35 
7-14 
3-21 

5--13 

2-72 

14-08 


in. 

8-95 

12-73 

-58 

2-37 
224 
2-71 
2-48 
2-24 

13-23 
3-94 

11-26 
9-27 


May 


698 3'i6 292 
347 5-13 '-89 


dune 


July 


August 

September ... 

October 

November ... 

! December ... 

1 


13-701 4-51 
5-77 j 24-C9 

18-30 9-95 
943 23-19 

27-51 17-75 


6-C2 

2-39 
776 
3-24 
9-83 


Totals 


34-33 


33-43 


27-44 


23-97 


|i 19-49 


114-72 


157-11 150-11 


59-63 


58-81 


65-72 


72-00 



ox THE RAINFALL IN THE BRITISH ISLES. 

ENGLAND. 



189 



I)i vision IX. — Yokkshiri 




{continued). 


Division X. — Northern Counties. 


York — North Eidisg 


Durham. 




(cont/'nued). 


NoRTnUMBERLAND. 


Bcadlam 
Grnnge. 


Scarborough. 


Darlington. 


Sunderland. 


Allenheads. 


Bywell. 


North Shields. 


ft. in. 


1 ft. in. 


4 ft. Gin. 


1 ft. 6 in. 


ft. 5 in. 


ft. 6 in. 


1 ft. in. 


l'J2 ft. 


100 ft. 


140 ft. 


83 it. 


1360 ft. 


87 ft. 


124 ft. 


18(38. 


1869. 


1868. 


18G9. 


18GS. 


18C9. 


1868 


18G9. 


1868. 


1869. 


1868. 


1869. 


1868. 


1869. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. in. 


1 in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


Z-26 


3-24 


175 


2-3.1 


4-58 


2-46 


1-77 1-98 


8-63 


6-o6 


4-18 


2-38 


2-04 


2-28 


•4^ 


2-28 


1-30 


1-44 


1-33 


78 


•70 


i-ii 


4-68 


9-26 


1-59 


iSo 


1-82 


1-32 


2-32 


2-42 


i-i6 


2-33 


1-44 


1-71 


1-12 


1-97 


5-85 


2-09 


2-08 


1-65 


1-14 


1-30 


1-76 


1-66 


2-OI 


1-84 


2-19 


1-16 


2-23 


i'47 


3-93 


2-43 


3-24 


1-74 


3-04 


1-76 


' yj 


315 


I'lO 


3-21 


1-62 


3-28 


1-23 


2-86 


1-66 


4-66 


■94 


3-6i 


1-04 


2-57 


■55 

■61 

260 


i-Sy 


-40 


1-09 


•46 


1-32 1 -46 


1-27 


•42 


,■67 


•19 


1-42 


•43 


1-27 


106 


78 


•91 


2*00 


1-0 1 


i-oi 


1-09 


-6. 


■87 


•91 


•25 


'■i9 


77 


116 2'50 


l'S7 


3'i3 


1-43 


2-02 


1-58 


5-72 


1-77 


2-07 


1-23 


1-38 


1-29 


2-04 

3-28 


3-26 272 


3-76 


5'47 


376 


4'20 


3-6S 


5-59 


8-97 


3-90 


3-49 


3-58 


2-8 1 


3-27 3-10 


3-81 


2-61 


2-45 


2-1 I 


3-01 


4-05 


3-08 


I-S6 


i-8i 


2-07 


a-8i 


•90 


2-07 214 


2-84 


2-11 


2-26 


2-52 


2-18 


5-03 


7-64 


2-72 


2-53 


2-23 


2"95 


7-02 


377 4-94 


4-59 


10-31 


2-41 


4-13 


3-i6 


10-25 


5-94 


4-33 


3-06 


3-59 


2-8l 


25-71 


29-21 23-90 


29-73 


37-25 


24-03 


23-50 


25-36 


56-42 


54"44 


27-71 


24-97 


23-35 


23-94 




Division X. — Northern Cotjxties (continued). 




C'u.MBERLAXD (contmiied.) 


Westmoreland. 


!ockermouth. 


Mire House, 
Bas-senthwaite. 


Edeiihall, 
Penrith. 


Scaleby, 
Carlisle. 


Kendal. 


The Ho^v, 

Troutbeck. 


iipplobr. 


ft. G in. 


ft. 7 in. 


1 ft. in. 


ft. 8 in. 


4 ft. 6 in. 


1 ft. 2 in. 


1 ft. in. 


158 ft. 


310 ft. 


32 ft.. •? 


120 ft. 


149 ft. 


470 ft. 


442 ft. 


18G8. 
in. 


18G9. 
in. 


18GS. 


18G9. 1 


1SG8. 

1 


1SG9. 


1868. 


1869. 

in. 


18G8. 


1869. 


1868. 


1SG9. 


18G8. 


18G9. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. in. 


in. 


in. 


in. j in. 


652 
6-92 


5'35 


5'32 


fa-53 


4-20 


4-80 


1-56 


3-28 


4-09 


5-34 


6-91 


9-83 


601 j 5-51 


663 
•85 


6-S5 


8-12 


3-C0 


4-10 


3-35 


5-04 


6-67 


8-40 


11-79 


14-14 


3-571 5-34 


8-19 


74 


4-C0 


-50 


3-04 


-79 ; 


7-06 


1-42 


12-20 


2-l6 


4-23 -66 


3'07 


a-69 


3-10 


^■53i 


2-9C 


1-20 


2-57 


2-34 


3-08 


3-98 


4-17 


4-63 


2-36 1-18 


322 
1-28 


2-05 


3-15 


3-26! 


1-50 


2-00 


2-30 


2-08 


2-o6 


2-73 


2-41 


3-08 


1-41 ]-^A 


1-66 


i-iS 


2-cg 


1-00 


1-50 


-84 


1-40 [ 


-81 


1-75 


1-09 


2-52 


-68 


1-2S 


■80 


i-Si 


•61 


,-38 


-85 


1-50 


■71 


2-j6 


•56 


1-61 


■75 


2-66 


•58 


-96 


4.-II 


i-8o 


5-31 


2-20 


3-60 


1-00 


4-17 


113 


6-16 


1-88 


7-49 


2-79 


2-47 


1-93 


i' 93 


7-55 


3-13 


9'S5 


2-95 


6-20 


2-6o 


5-95 


2-69 


10-97 


3-51 


>4-45 


2-74 


7-54 


5"99 


3-97 
6-17 


6-50 


3-94 


3-00 


3-90 


2-87 


1-85 


6-00 


3-59 


10-64 


4-41 


3-02 


2-48 


,2-91 

,8-22 

1 


4-10 


7-94 2-15 


1-50 


I-4I 


4-86 


3-14 


6-99 


6,5 


10-45 


3-07 


3-41 


578 


10-97 


7-33 j 6-03 


2-30 


4-35 1 


4-32 1 


10-43 


6-S4 


15-66 


10-95 


8-90 


5-66 


0-12 


46-31 


58-38 


55-61 


35-18 


30-50 29-77' 


35-20 1 


5275 


55-50 


82-77 


82-07 


39-04 


37-49 



190 



REPOKT 1870. 

WALES. 



Division XI. — Monsiouth, "Wales, and the Islaxbs. 


Monmouth. 


Glamoegan. 


CARMARTnEN. 

1 


Pembroke. 1 


Height of 

Rain-gauge 

above 

Ground 

Sea-level 


Llanfrechfa, 
Newport 


Abergavenny. 


Swansea. 


i 

! Carmarthen. 


Haverford- 
west. 


Kilgcrran. 


1 ft. in. 
360 ft. 


1 ft 3 in. 
220 ft. 


16 ft. in. 
30 ft. 


ft. 5 in. 
78 ft. 


2 ft. 5 in. 
60 ft. 


1 ft. 2 in. ' 
80 ft. 


1868. 


1869. 


1868. 


1869. 


1868. 


1869. 


j 1868. 


1869. 


1868. 


1869. 


1868. 


.1869. 


January . . . 
February ... 

March 

April 


in. 

7-45 
2-6i 

g-i7 
3-41 
2-16 
-62 
•23 
S-22 
5-00 

3-15 
478 
973 


in. 
789 

5"47 
1-94 
.1-50 

570 
-84 

1-33 
1-64 
7-38 
171 
2-57 
8-52 


in. 

3'SS 
1-70 
2-60 
2-87 
2-09 

■35 
•41 
4-91 
5-64 
2-24 
3-07 
9-58 


in. 
8-72 

3-89 

2-18 

1-31 

5-23 

75 

•43 

70 

5-80 

2-25 

1-90 

5-35 


in. 
2-66 
1-56 
2-29 
1-47 
2-58 
-08 

■35 
4-1 1 
2-42 
3-64 
1-50 
6-86 


in. 
4-62 

5-21 

i'53 
2-03 
3-20 

•49 
1-06 

1-24 

5-85 

273 

2-24 

399 


m. 

3-53 
2-i6 
3-05 
1-89 
1 2-22 
' -80 

! l-IO 
1 2-08 

1 4'07 
5-19 

3 "40 
io-6o 


in. 
6-83 
4-72 
2-88' 
3-03 

3-99 
•94 

2-CO 
I-9I 
7-80 
3-52 
4-28 
696 


in. 

572 

2-22 
3-03 
2-C2 

2-35 

1-16 

1-09 

3-48 
4-04 

5-50 

474 
10-48 


in. 
9-05 
6-11 
3-14 
2-99 

5-65 

•58 

2-38 

2-20 
8-52 

373 
4-40 

5-94 


in. 

4-22 
2-54 
3-86 
2-09 

1-82 

•96 
1-81 

3-50 
3-01 

3 '47 

1-04 

14-89 


in. 

778 
5-84 
1-33 
2-72 
368 

•42 
-88 

•97 
7-44 
3-5° 
4-06 

549 


May 


June 


July 


August 

September . . . 

October 

November ... 
December ... 


Totals 


47-53 


46-49 


39-01 


38-51 


29-52 


1 
34-19 |i 40-09 


4886 


45-83 


54-69 


43-21 


44-11 



Division XI. — Monmouih, Wales, and the Islands (continued). 


Merioneth. 


C'AUN'.iRTON. 


Isle of Max. 


Channel 
Islands. 


Height of 

Rain-gauge 

above 

Ground 

Sea-level 


Brithdin, 
Dolgelly. 


Plas Brereton, 
Carnarvon. 


Llanfairfc- 
chan. 

1 


Douglas. 


Point of Ayr. 


Guernsey. 


2 ft. in. : 1 ft. in. 
500 ft. j 25 ft. 


ft. 8 in. 
150 ft. 


Oft. 6 in. 


3 ft. 4 in. 
27 ft.? 


12 ft. in. 
204 ft. 




1868. 


1809. ! 

1 


1868. 


1869. 


1868. 


1809. 


1868. 


1809. 


1868. 


1869. 


1868. 


1809 


January 
February . . . 

March 

April 


in. 

9-13 
6-81 

7-48 

4-44 

3-54 

•65 
1-39 

5-87 
4-23 

7*49 

5-52 

15-71 


in. 

9-37 
10-77 
3-09 
6-45 
3-12 

1-47 

1-92 

4-05 

13-62 

5-27 
8-68 

9-43 


m. 

4-15 
3-60 

3-79 

2-10 

1-47 
-28 
1-13 
2-51 
1-93 
4-19 

3-75 
8-76 


in. 
6-54 
2-91 

■1-57 
2-36 
3-18 
1-34 
•83 
1-99 

10-17 
4-58 
3-79 
4-29 


in. 
3-67 
3-15 
3-3° 
2-32 
1-30 
-40 
•83 
2-61 
2-24 
3-31 
3-51 
8-43 


in. 
5-01 
4-19 
1-78 
2-34 

3-07 
1-09 
•40 
1-98 
7-74 
3-87 
3-55 
348 


in. 
4-80 
3-80 
5 -co 
1-90 

2-00 

•10 

•00 

3-80 

1-50 

; 2-30 
1-87 
7-43 


in. 

5-40 

4-61 

1-60 

2-32 

2-43 

•96 

-36 

•99 

-76 
3-42 
4-65 


in. 
2-60 

2-70 

3-55 

1-69 

2-66 

•48 

•10 

4-30 
i-SS 
1-65 
2-15 
7-29 


in. 

4-34 

3-30 

77 

1-78 

2-13 

•63 

•91 

1-38 

4-11 

1-45 
4-21 
2-64 


in. 
4-09 

1-33 
i-Si 

2-92 
2-48 
■43 
•39 
3-84 
2-04 
4-28 

1 2-49 
1 8-66 


in. 
3-8< 

2-» 

4-6 

■11 
•6 

3-0 

27 

3-» 
5-3 


May 


June 


July 


August 

September ... 

October 

November ... 
December ... 


Totals 


72-26 77-24 


37-66 


43-55 


35-07 


38-50 


34-5° 


31-65 


31-05 


27-65 


34-76 


3*'9 



ON THE RAINFALL IN THE BRITISH ISLES. 
WALES. 



191 



(Div. XI.— 


Monmouth, 










SCOTLAND. 








^AXES, &C. 


(continued). 






Division XII. — ^Soutiteen Coitnties. 




.tAKXEL ISLAiN 


Bs (continued). 


Wigtown. 




EiRECUDBRIGHT 






I Dumfries. 


Millbrook, 
Jersey. 


Alderney. 


S. Cairn, 
Stranraer. 


Little Eoss. 


Carsphairn. 


Cargen. 


Drumlanrig. 


! 1 ft. in. 


10ft. Gin. 

48 ft. 


ft. 4 in. 
209 ft. 


3 ft. 
125 


3 in. 

ft.? 


3 ft. 10 in. 

574 ft. 


ft. 4 in. 
80 ft. 




i 50 ft. 


191 ft. 


I8G8. 


18G9. 


18G8. 


18G9. 


18G8. 


1869. 


1868. 


1869. 


1868. 


1869. 


1868. 


1869. 


1868. 


1869. 


n. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


1 in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


r/5 

11-28 

I -64 


1-97 


3-12 


3-06 


4-35 


9-00 


2-29 


4-36 


9-31 


10-07 


4-50 


7-c8 


6-20 


6-90 


2-21 


1-13 


2-48 


4-40 


5-25 


1 ^'97 


3-09 


6-93 


6-95 


7-38 


8-01 


S-00 


6-30 


263 


1-22 


2-92 


625 


2-20 


3-39 


•74 


9-38 


•78 


8-14 


-86 


7-70 


•80 


."^iV 


299 


2-C2 


1-75 


4'i5 


5-70 


1-96 


1-56 


4-01 


2-38 


3 '44 


i"9S 


4-00 


2-30 


'My 


3-34 


2-52 


4"3S 


3-iiS 


2-50 


2-42 


2-12 


4"i5 


1-52 


3-00 


1-97 


3 "4° 


■60 


64 


•77 


•75 


riS 


1-20 


2'00 


■35 


•51 


1-07 


i"4S 


•46 


I'lS i 


1-00 


1-20 


34 
3-88 


•42 


•32 


•27 


■Us 


3-20 


-38 


•64 


■49 


2-15 


•S6 


1-96 1 


•70 


l*IO 


•88 


4'47 


-32 


4'co 


a-6c 


4-26 


1-03 


7-S« 


1-50 


5 '49 


■94 i 


4-10 


i'6o 


J-68 


3-21 


2-34 


3-59 


2-50 


8-20 


1-93 


4-03 


3-62 


9-18 


2-76 


8-20! 


2-50 


7-70 


3-i6 
3-46 


4-38 


2-90 


6-20 


4-60 1 


2-27 


1-4S 


7-93 


3-04 


5-24 


2-46 


5'3o 


1-90 


J 'J 


1-52 


3-04 


4-05 


9-05 


i'S5 


2-90 


7-93 


8-72 


2-90 


6-04 1 


i-io 


5-30 


u-.i 


5-50 


S-^5 


5-93 


8-50 


5-90 


6-68 


2-49 


14-10 


10-27 


10-48 


9-78 


6-00 


7-80 


^87 


30-54 


29-64 


31-59 


50-30 


6o-2o 


30-45 


24-92 


76-50 


58-01 


54'35 


50-40 


50-C0 43-50 



































Division XI 


. — Monmouth, "Waxes, ani 


THE Islands 


(conti 


nuecT). 






CAEDIG-iN. 


Brecknock. 


Eadsor. 


FUKT. 


1 

Denbigh. 


Lampeter. 


Aberystwith. 


Peu-y-Maes, 
Hay. 


Cefnfaes, 
Rhayader. 


Hawarden. 


Maes 
Holj 


y-dre, 

well. 


1 
Llandudno. 


5 ft. 


Oin. 


1 ft. in. 


1 ft. in. 


2 ft. in. 


1ft. Oin. 


5 ft. 


Oin. 


Oft. 


6 in. 1 


420 ft. 


42 ft. 


317 ft. 


880 ft. 


268 ft. 


4C0 ft. 


99 ft. 


.868. 


1869. 


1868. 


1869. 


1868. 


1869. 


1868. 


1869. 


1868. 1869. 


1868. 


1869. 


1868. 


1869. 


in. 


in. 


m. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


m. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


6-36 


7-23 


5-57 


5-45 


3-55 


5-2K 


5-55 


5-56 


2*09 


3-26 


1-69 


2-85 


3-81 


4-12 


i'J 


477 


2-95 


4-25 


1-50 


3-46 


3-10 


5-49 


2-05 


2-75 


1-20 


3-S8 


301 


3'43 ' 


422 


2-47 


4-29 


1-93 


2-44 


1-67 


4-21 


1-78 


2-32 


2-04 


i-S^ 


i-j6 


3-26 


1-37 


2-70 


2-10 


2-S4 


3-32 


1-59 


1-31 


2-79 


2-77 


1-66 


1-80 


■54 


rs3 


1-46 


2-17 


2-o8 


3-90 


1-5O 


2-64 


2-12 


5-30 


2-58 


4'S9 


1-78 


5-56 


-67 


4-88 


71 


3-90 


3« 


•55 


•52 


•91 


•39 


•89 


•24 


-70 


•15 


■93 


•04 


1-03 


■15 


•82 


iH 


•97 


2-47 


1-16 


1-19 


•78 


1-19 


-82 


•43 


73 


■22 


-42 


•29 


-50 


83 


2-23 


3'33 


3 '47 


5-43 


•95 


4-38 


1-49 


2-8o 


1-31 


1-18 


1-78 


1-73 


1-66 


386 


8-21 


2-26 


7-56 


3'99 


6-47 


3-86 


7-52 


2-20 


5-15 


2-03 


4*47 


1-77 


6-50 


440 


3-91 


4-71 


4-06 


2-61 


2-31 


3-95 


2-70 


2-22 


3-i6 


2-82 


3-07 


2-56 


277 


4^3 


4"44 


2-77 


5-30 


1-3S 


2-61 


2-91 


5-17 


3-24 


3-56 


2-17 


3-31 


2-78 


3-92 


099 




6-45 


9'i3 


3-01 


7-18 


4'44 


777 


7'39 


6-67 


2-66 


6-32 


2-30 


8-22 


3-07 


8-26 


47-23 


42-40 


43-06 


33-37 


3 5 •47 


42-53 


45-98 


27-61 


32-91 


20-73 


30-38 


29-75 


34-23 



192 



REPORT — 1870. 

* SCOTLAND. 



Div. XII.— SouTnKRX 
CoTJNTiES (continued). 


Division XIII. — Soutu-E.vstern Counties. 




Dumfries (continued). 


RoxBURcn. 


Selkirk. 


Peebles. 


Berwick. 


Haddington. 


Height of 

Rain-gauge 

above 

Ground 

Sea-level 


Wanlockhead. 


SilverbutHall,' 
Hawick. j 


Bowhill 
Gardens. 


N. 

Esk Rcse-.-voir, 

Penicuick. 


Thirlestane. 


Eaet Linton 


ft. 4 in. 
1330 ft. 


4 ft. in. 
512 ft. 


lift. Oin. 
537 ft. 


• ft. 6 in. 
1150 ft. 


ft. 3 in. 

558 ft. 


ft. 3 in. 
90 ft. 


186S. 


18G9. 


18G8. 


18G9. 


1868. 


1869. 


1868. 


18G9. 


1868. 


1869. 


1863. 


1869 


January 
February . . . 

JMarch 

April 


in. 
8-45 
10-29 
13*00 

5'37 
5-84 

1-02 
2-83 
6-74 

2-s6 

819 

4-63 

16-77 


in. 

10-54 
815 

1-39 
2-57 
■92 
2-40 
4-17 
1-50 
8-88 
3-09 
8-78 
10-08 


in. 
4-00 
3-48 
3-67 

3"39 
174 
1-25 
-68 
4-19 
4-06 
213 
a-o8 
5-68 


in. 

379 
3-54 
1-15 
1-32 
2-51 
1-17 
•58 

I'Ol 

5-28 
1-94 
2-39 
3-62 


in. 
4-10 

4'97 
4-04 
2-30 

2-22 

i-io 

•33 
375 
3-60 
2-98 
3-00 
4-52 


in. 

4-30 
2-99 

I'OO 

1-43 
2-93 
1-40 

•54 

1-04 

5-12 

1-07 
2-43 

375 


in. 

5'95 
4-90 
3-40 
4-30 

2-00 
-80 

•65 

6-70 

3-85 
2-95 

3'3o 
4-55 


in. 
2-45 
5-00 
1-05 
1-65 
2-15 

3'3o 

1-25 

-80 

5-55 
2-25 
3-20 
2-85 


in. 

4-30 
2-00 

2-20 
2-90 
1-50 
■60 
-30 
3-40 
3-20 
1-95 
2-30 
4-60 


in. 

3-10 

2-20 
1-20 
2-00 
1-60 

i-8o 
-40 

•95 

4-30 
1-90 
i-6o 
3-20 


in. 

2-IO 

i-io 
i-oi 
2-86 
1-68 

1 --9 

! •41 

2-1 1 

2-72 

; -ss 

1 -80 
1 2-45 


1 

I'O 
I-Q 
17 

1-8 
•2 

•4 


May 




July 


August 

September ... 

October 

November ... 
December ... 


Totals 


85-69 


62-47 


36-35 


28-30 


36-91 


28-00 


43'35 


31-50 


29-25 


24-25 18-12 


157 



Division XIV. — South-Westeen Counties (continued). 






La>'.\rk (continued). 


Ayr. 


Renfrew. 1 


Height of 

Rain-gauge 
above 

Ground 

Sea-level 


Hill End 
House, Shotts. 


Girvan. 


Auchendrane, 
Ayr. 


Mansfield, 

Largs. 


Nltlicr Place, 
Meai'ns. 


Greenock. 


7 ft. in. 
620 ft. 


it. 6 in. 
15 ft. 


2 ft. 3 in. 
93 ft. 


Oft. Gin. 
30 ft. 


ft. 6 in. 
350 ft. 


ft. 6 in. 
50 ft. 


1868. 


1869. 


1868. 


1869. 


1868. 


1869. 


1868. 


1SG9. 

in. 
5-60 

5-40 
1-40 
2-60 

7° 
1-90 
3-00 
1-20 
8-40 

2-00 
6-80 
720 


1868. 


1869. 


18G8. 


18G5 


January 

February . . . 

March 

A))nl 


in. 
3-98 
4-66 
4-00 
3-17 

2'45 
1-58 

•58 
4'45 
2-47 

3-55 
2-86 
4-70 


in. 
371 

475 

75' 

-72 

109 

a-14 

i'53 
I -.54 
5-58 
2-01 
3-83 
3-20 


in. 

6-40 
6-IO 
8-45 

3 5° 

3-00 

-90 

•85 

; 470 

175 

5-70 

5-50 

10-65 

57-50 


in. 
8-25 
4-60 
i-io 
2-50 
•90 
195 

2-10 
1-20 
6-50 
3-66 

fio 

6-95 


in. 
5-63 
5-99 
6-49 

3-52 
2-19 

•95 
-80 
6-16 
1-70 
5-86 
2-54 
7-09 


in. 
4-60 
5-48 
-67 

2-CO 
I-02 
1-87 
2-39 

I '47 
6-38 
2-95 

7-22 

6-So 


in. 
6-10 
5-90 
6-40 
3-50 
2-30 
1-70 
1-30 
6-00 
2-30 
5-60 
4-20 

7'20 


in. 
8-38 

775 
8-12 

1 3-^5 
■ 3-5° 
175 
- -5° 
5-88 
3-00 
7-12 

I 8-75 


in. 
6-00 

575 
I -00 
2-00 
1-50 

2-CO 
2-50 

75 
S-co 
2-13 
575 
9'37 


in. 
12-02 

1 1 74 
921 
4-52 
378 

2-11 

1-05 
8-42 
232 
652 
5-00 
10-62 


in. 

9-5 

1 1-4 

i-o 

a-5 
•8 
1-8 
2-9 
I -a 
107 

2-4 

8-5 
1 1-4 

64-4 


Mav 


June 


July 


August 

September.. 

October 

November ... 
December ... 


Totals 


38-45 


3085 


46-81 


48-92 


42-85 


S^'S° 


46-20 


1 63-00 


4675 


77-31 



ox Till; RAINFALL IN TIIK BUITISII ISLES. 

SCOTLAND. 



103 





Di 


i'isiou XIII. SoTJTir-EASTEEX 

Counties (cotitinued). 


D 


L vision 


XIV.- 


— South-Westerx Couxtiks. 






Edinburgh. 










L.\XARK. 










Glen 


sorae. 


Inveresk. 


Charlotte-.sq., 
Edinburgh. 


Newmains, 
CastleDouglas. 


Aucliinraith, 
Hamilton. 


Gla 
Obser 


?gow 
vatory. 


Bailliesto-svn. 




Oft. 


6 in. 


2 ft. in. 


Oft. 


6 in. 


Oft. 


4 in. 


4 ft. 


9 in. 


Oft. 


lin. 


Oft. 


3 in. 




78 


-ft. 


60 ft. 


230 ft. 


783 ft. 


1.50 ft. 


180 ft. 


230 ft. 




1808. 


1869. 


1863. 

ill. 


1869. 


1868. 


1869. 


1868. 


1869. 


1868. 


1869. 


1868. 


1869. 


1868. 


1869. 




in. 


ill. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


111. 


in. 


in. 


in. 




5-90 


3-50 


3-20 


2-42 


3-61 


2-84 


7-89 


4-25 


4-48 


2-93 


6-55 


4-52 


7-85 


4'35 




6co 


4-80 


2-47 


2-32 


208 


2-O7 


6-13 


665 


4-05 


4-05 


579 


6-32 


6-88 


6*20 




3-90 


1-50 


2-04 


•86 


'•95 


-79 


5-9 2 


•51 


3-55 


-48 


419 


•94 


5T3 


-98 




4-65 


2'0O 


2-90 


i-o8 


3-28 


lOI 


4-89 


17b 


2-65 


-8, 


3-90 


1-48 


473 


1-48 




2-6o 


295 


1-96 


1-64 


i-8i 


2-64 


3-26 


1-45 


1-98 


74 


293 


■99 


3-26 


1-54 




I-20 


IIS 


•50 


1-26 


-48 


1-74 


i-o6 


1-40 


•84 


2-28 


1-51 


2-14 


135 


2-38 




•55 


•95 


■37 


•49 


•34 


•73 


•4b 


■99 


•20 


I-2S 


•59 


2-66 


■45 


2-09 




5-80 


1-25 


5-06 


■97 


4-30 


•76 


5-26 


1-27 


3-6S 


•90 


4-60 


103 


639 


1-42 




4-60 


570 


3-92 


4-54 


3-27 


433 


2-82 


5-39 


2-47 


493 


3-10 


6-25 


3-63 


7-08 




a'9o 


2-35 


1-73 


182 


2-13 


1-48 


5'75 


i-o6 


369 


I-2I 


4-64 


173 


479 


2-24 




3-05 


270 


216 


1-34 1-45 


1-4Z 


373 


7-67 


3-02 


3-64 


4-10 


5-22 


4-11 


5-32 




5-30 


3-55 


381 


•94 1 3-S7 


1-82 


7-8i 


6-65 


4-53 


4-52 


6-IO 


5 79 


6-54 


7-02 




4645 


32-40 


30-12 


19-68 


28-57 


22-23 


54-98 


39-05 


3514 


27-81 


48-00 


39-07 


55-11 


42'IO 







Division XV.- 


-West iliDLAXD Counties 


. 






Dumbarton. 


Stir 


I.I.\G. 


Bute. 


j Argyll. 


B.-illoch 
Castle. 


Arddarock, 
Loch Long. 


Polmaise. 


Pladda. 


Devaar, 

Campbell- 

town. 


Rhinns of 

Islay. 


M'Arthnr'.s 
Head. 


ft. 4 in. 


ft. 10 in. 


Oft. 


2 in. 


3 ft. 3 in. 


I 3 ft. 4 in. 


3 ft. in. 


Oft. 


4 in. 


91 ft. 


80 ft. 


12 


ft. 


55 ft. ? 


j 75 it. 


74 ft. V 


106 ft. 


1868. 


1869. 


1868. 


1869. 


1868. 


1869. 


1868. 


1869. 


1868. 


1869. 


1868. 


1869. 


1868. 


1869. 


in. 


in. 


in. in. 


in. 


in. 


in. in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


892 


7-96 


i2"68 10-89 


8-OG 


5-30 


4-70; 4-19 


5-08 


5-73 


3-6, 


2-49 


8-20 


6*40 


7-01 


620 


13-92: 10-34 


5-10 


5-20 


5-87 : 4-27 


5'°3 


5-89 


3-67 


3-33 


ii-oc 


6'9o 


6-09 


1-42 


II -09 1 2-74 1 


4-20 


1-10 


7-25 


1-62 


7-21 


2-38 


4-26 


110 


lo-oo 


a-io 


4-35 


1-81 


6-03 j 2-14 


4-10 


1-25 


3-07 


2-10 


2-28 


3-33 


,•56 


2-20 


4-20 


3-30 


2-74 


75 


579! -57 


3-30 


•80 


3-10 


•78 


3-80 


-47 


2-59 


-71 


5-60 


i-co 


2-50 


2-73 


3-53 1 2-40 


1-50 


2-30 


•90 


1-46 


•76 


1-26 


1-22 


1-58 


2-50 


i"6o 


1-31 


2-7] 


r3S 2-6o 


•60 


2-00 


1-28 


1-29 


•93 


2-50 


-51 


2-27 


1-50 


3-20 


5-56 


."'-''• 


8-27 ! '97 


5-00 


I 00 I 


7-15 


1-20 


5-50 


1-42 


4-62 


i-i6 


8-IO 


1-80 


3-06 


851 


4-55 1179 1 


2-50 


5-70 


1-52 7-00 


2-13 


6-47 


2-40 


4-74 


2-50 


11-60 


575 


2-37 


9-87 


3-491 


4-.-0 


2'IC 


5-9- V-,o 


83, 


3-26 


3-90 


2-19 


9-20 


4-20 


1 4-OI 


685 


801 


9-70 


3-cc 


3-10^ 


279 , 6-37 


4-02 


8-IO 


4-05 


5-20 


6-20 


9-80 


1 7-48 


605 


13-91 


11-72 
69-35 


7-O0 


600 


5-65: 4-3°; 


5-25 


636 


419 


4-27 


8-00 


9-70 


5878 


48-30 


99-03 


48-30 


35-85' 


49-20 38-74 


50-31 


47-17 


3666 


31-24 


77-00 


6 1 -60 


1 

1 


1^70. 




























194 



REPORT 1870. 

SCOTLAND. 



Division XV. — "West Midland Coitnties (continued). 


Argyll {contimied). 


Height of 

Eain-gauge 

above 

Ground 

Sea-level 


Castle Toward. 


Airds, 
Appin. 


Callton Mor. 


Inverary 

Ca.stle. 


Lismore. 


Hyni.sh. 


4 ft. in. 

G5 ft. 


ft. 2 in. 
12 ft. 


4 ft. 6 in. 
65 ft. 


ft. 1 in. 
35 ft. 


3 ft. 4 in. 
37 ft. 


ft. in. 




18G8. 


18G9. 


1868. 


1869. 


186.8. 


1869. 


1868. 


1869. 


1868. 


1869. 


1868. 


1S69. 


January 

February ... 

March 

April 


in. 
9-31 
603 

6-57 
3-52 

3-99 
1-55 
1-35 
6-69 

2-34 

5-37 
4-08 

7-47 


in. 
6-24 
5-66 

1-28 

2-03 

•49 
2-71 
4-01 
i-i8 

7-73 
2-03 
6-o8 
6-16 


in. 
8-50 

10-20 
6-50 
3-60 
6-80 
4-00 
1-70 
7-40 
1-30 
5-90 
3-20 
8-20 


in. 

6-20 

6-70 
1-90 
3-40 
-40 
2-50 
3-30 
1-90 
9-00 
4-40 
8-00 
9-10 


in. 
8-01 
787 
7-50 
3-28 
4-16 
2-40 
1-58 
7-16 
1-86 
7-29 
4-80 
7-85 


in. 
7-06 

6-73 
1-91 
280 


in. 

lo-oo 

14-00 

8 -co 

A-OO 


in. 

7-00 
9-00 
3-00 

2-CO 
1-00 
4-00 
4-00 
1-50 
I2-CO 

6-CO 
6-50 
8-00 


in. 
4-82 
7-63 
3-39 
2-72 
5-16 
2-C9 
•99 
5-60 
1-88 
4-n 

2-33 
5-26 


in. 

2-78 

4-51 
1-19 
1-94 

-20 
1-61 

2-53 
1-03 

3-34 
2-89 
5-03 
7-22 


in. 

7-49 
13-29 

I2-6l 

3-69 
6-54 

3-94 
I -08 
5-70 
226 
8-56 
7-81 
10-45 


in. 
9-52 

10-09 
4-46 
369 

■25 
1-83 

3-10 
1-62 
8-58 
1-80 
11-94 
975 


May 


•6q 1 6"co 


June 


2-56 

3-45 
1-90 

8-74 

3-93 
8-48 

7-59 


4-00 

l-oo 
8-co 

2-CO 
9-00 
6-00 
9-00 


July 


August 

September . . . 

October 

November . . . 
December ... 


Totals 


58-27 


45-60 


67-30 


56-80 


63-76 


55-93 


81 -GO 


64-00 


45-98 


34-27 


83-42 


6663 





























Division XYI. — East Midland Couis'iies (continued). 


Perth (continued). 


Heiglit of 

Eain-gauge 

above 

Ground 

Sea -level 


Loch Katrine. 


Auchlerarder Slronvar, Loch 
House. Earn Head. 


Trinity Gask. 


Scone Palace. 


Strath-tay, 
Logierait. 


ft. G in. 
830 ft. 


2 ft. 3 in. 
162 ft. 


ft. 4 in. 
460 ft. 


ft. 1 in. 
133 ft. 


2 ft. 6 in. 
80 ft. 


1 ft. in. 
313 ft. 


1868. 


1869. 


1868. 


1869. 


18G8. 


1869. 


1868. 


1869. 


1868. 


1869. 


1868. 


1869.1 


January 
February . . . 

March 

April 


in. 

ii-So 

13S0 

10-10 

5-10 

5-90 

2-90 

i-i;o 

8-60 

3-00 

10-20 

6-IO 

15-90 


in. 

12-90 
9-70 
2-20 
1-90 
1-20 
3-00 
4-00 
1-20 

11-80 
4-20 
9-50 

1 1 80 


in. 

7-70 

4-71 
3-85 

3-85 
2-50 

•75 
•40 
5-10 
2-90 
2-65 
2-20 
7-35 


in. 
5-55 
4-15 
-60 

IIO 

i-io 
2-60 

1-20 
-80 
4-30 
2-15 
1-50 

5-°5 


in. 

15-40 

13-55 

11-47 
6-30 
5-80 
2-52 
1-C5 
850 
3-90 

9-2C 

6-6o 
17-30 


in. 

10-37 

10-27 

7-15 
3-30 
1-25 

3-45 
4-20 
1-05 

11-85 
4-67 
4-67 

13-95 


in. 
6-15 

3-08 

330 
3-i6 
2-88 
1-12 

-55 
5-40 

2-82 
2-12 
1-56 
626 


in. 
578 
3-20 
I -00 
lao 
I 02 
2-68 
1-58 
•68 
4-92 
2-60 

1-55 

5-10 


in. 

4-63 

2-6S 

2-So 
2-54 
1-99 

■45 
•61 
4-85 
3-33 
1-35 
1-92 
4-81 


in. 

4-17 
1-95 

•94 
1-59 

■60 
1-92 
115 
1-05 
4-60 
3-00 

-95 
2-80 


in. 
5-35 
4-C3 
3*67 
4-02 
2-44 
l-oo 

-58 
4-81 

3-03 

2-77 

3-14 
6-27 


in 1 

5-48| 

'4 
1-3C 

•73 

2-1 1 
1-48 

-88 

4-12 

3-2< 

2-5. 
3-4' 


May 


June 


July 


August 

September ... 

October 

November ... 
December ... 


Totals 


94-90 


73-40 


43-96 


30-10 


101-59 


76-18 


38-40 


31-31 


31-96 


24- 7 z 


4111 


29-4; 





























ON THE RAINFALL IN THE BRITISH ISLES. 

SCOTLAND. 



195 



Div. XV.- 


(continued). 




Division XYI. 


— East ^Ftdlani) Counties 


• 




Argyll {continued). 


Clackjiaxxa>-. 


Kinross. 


Fife. 


Perth. 


Corran, 


Arclnamur- 






IjocIi Leveii 












Loch Eil. 


chan. 


Do 


liar. 


Sluice. 


Nookton. 


Kippenross. 


Deanston. 


4 in. 


ft. G in. 


Oft. 


G in. 


ft. 10 in. 


Oft. Gin. 


Oft. 


4 in. 


Oft. 


4 in. 


14 ft. ? 


82 ft. 


170 ft. 




• 80 ft. 

1 


100 ft. 


130 ft. 




1868. 


18G9. 


1868. 


1869. 


18G8. 


1869. 1 


18G8. 


1869. 


1 1868. 


18G9. 


1868. 


1869. 


1868. 


1869. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


m. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


15-00 


8-90 


4-60 


4-76 


6-57 


6-05 


5-40 


4-90 


3-68 


3-61 


6-40 


',•85 


8-37 


6-51 


21-50 


9-98 


7-1S 


Vl^ 


5-00 


4-02 


3"3o 


4'20 


2-28 


2-46 


3-10 


3-80 


5'37 


5-87 


J1-S3 


2-20 


5'57 


i-5b 


4-14 


•43 


3-00 


-80 


1-90 


•94 


3-50 


■55 


4-88 


I -00 


3-83 


3-80 


2-16 


2-42 


4-46 


2-04 


3-20 


i*6o 


2-89 


164 


3-00 


•70 


3"9i 


1-42 


6-50 


•20 


3-92 


11 


2-94 


2-12' 


2-60 


1-20 


1-98 


1-56 


2-30 


•60 


2-90 


1-04 


575 


3'35 


2-50 


•60 


-84 


2-96 


•50 


2-8o 


•50 


2-53 


■25 


2-30 


1-29 


2-74 


2-40 


4-80 


1-15 


i'35 


i-b4 


2-43 


-30 


-60 


■25 


1-31 


•25 


1-40 


•84 


2-19 


10-50 


1-70 


4-17 


1-08 


4"93 


1-07 


5-40 


1-10 


3-92 


■86 


4-40 


•55 


6-46 


•76 


1-80 


12-15 


i-ci 


4-95 


2-89 


4-65 


3-60 


6-10 


3-04 


5-09 


2-30 


5-65 


2-64 


6-90 


9-05 4-bo 


4"43 


5-60 


2-8i 


3-42 ; 


2-50 


2-60 


1-89 


2-26 


4-20 


2-50 


4-82 


2-72 


5-65 


i4"5S 


2-66 


5-19 


3-28 


2-62 


1-60 


2-CO 


1-25 


1-14 


3-00 


2-70 


3'ii 


4-14 


10-75 


1215 


4-66 


4-46 


6-22 


4'05 


6-50 


3-20 


471 


1-58 


6-60 


5-20 


6-8i 


5"25 


104-26 


78-38 


44-01 


3586 


4572 


35-86 


37'90 


31-10 


28-29 


24-98 


39-30 


31-80 


51-40 


40-54 



Division XYI. — East 


Mtt)T,anti 










Counties (continued). 




Division XYII. 


— Noeth-Easteen Counties. 




F0RF.\R. 






Kincardine. 


Aberdeen. 


Dundee, 
Necropolis. 


Arbroath. 


Montrose. 


The Burn, 
Brechui. 


Braemar. 


Aberdeen. 


Castle Newe. 


Oft. 5 in. 


2 ft. in. 


2 ft. 


Oin. 


ft. 6 in. 


Oft. 


9 in. 


Oft. 4 in. 


1 ft. in. 


167 ft. 


61 ft. 


200 ft. 


237 ft. 


1114 ft. 


95 it. 


915 ft. 


1868. 1869. 


1868. 


1869. 


1868. 


1869. 


1868. 


1869. 


i 1868. 


1869. 


1868. 


1869. 


1868. 


1869. 


in. in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


■ 
m. 


in. 


3-60 4*00 


3-63 


4-05 


2-66 


7-15 


4-90 


5-10 


4-65 


471 


2-75 


3-55 


3-27 


3-10 


i'35; i'25 


1-85 


J -06 


1-97 


1-31 


2-IO 


2-30 


3-19 


2^28 


1-63 


1-17 


1-98 


»"35 


••45 


•»o 


1-92 


1-04 


2-27 


•83 


2-00 


1-50 


2-64 


1-13 


1-72 


1-89 


1-36 


2'23 


3'4o 


1-55 


2-69 


1-57 


378 


2-30 


3-30 


1-50 


2-80 


2-41 


2-40 


2-23 


4-16 


2-98 


i'55 


•85 


1-97 


1-76 


2-24 


1-67 


1-90 


•7° I 


1-81 


70 


1-49 


I '47 


77 


1-50 


•25 


2'6o 


•44 


2-53 


-58 


2-28 


•70 


2-90 1 


■93 


2-17 


-60 


1-79 


■51 


2-21 


•20 


•95 


■30 


•81 


-21 


1-56 


•30 


1-20 ' 


•29 


•94 


72 


■85 


•44 


■50 


545 


/^^ 


5-2b 


•95 


5-89 


2-58 


4-20 


1-20 


S-58 


1-31 


6-43 


1-32 


6-02 


i-6o 


4-40 


6-05 


4-68 


5-»3 


6-50 


5-52 


4-90 


5-00 


4-14 


4"77 


3-56 


4-60 


4-94 


3-90 


'■35 


2-95 


2-33 


2-87 


3-35 


5-07 


2-70 


4-60 i 


2-52 


4'59 


1-86 


574 


212 


5-00 


1-50 


•80 


1-34 


•55 


■49 


211 


1-40 


•Jo 


a-24 


2-90 


•40 


i'54 


1-84 


275 


1 


1-90 


7-22 


1-41 


7-85 


2-49 


7-10 


3-3° 


6-44 


375 


4-96 


2-92 


3-06 


2-69 


, 29-50 
"t 


24-65 


33-63 


23-73 


3779 


34-87 


35'5o 


30-10 


37-23 


31-66 


28-52 


29-07 


30-47 


29-81 


1 
i 






















o2 







I'jC) 



IIKPORT — 1870. 

SCOTLAND. 



Division XVII. — Noetii-Easterx 
Counties (continued). 


Div. XVIII. — Noeth-Westebn Coitnties. 


1 
Aberdeen {continued). i 


B.VNFF. 


Ros.s ASD Crojiaktv. 


Height of 

Rain-gauge 

above 

Ground 

Sea-level 


Tillydeslc, ' 
Eilou. 

1 


Gordon 

Castle. 


Inverinato 

House, 
Loch ALsh. 


Lochbroom. 


Cromarly. 


Ardross 
Castle, 

Alness. 


ft. 4 in. 
349 ft. 


1 ft. 6 in. 

70 ft. . 


3 ft. in. 
150 ft. 


ft. 8 in. 
47 ft. 


3 ft. 4 in. 
28 ft. 


1 ft. in. 
450 ft. 


18(18. 


1869. 


18fi8. 1809. 


1868. 


1869. 


1868. 


1869. 


1868. 


1869. 


1868. 


1869. 


January 

February . . . 

March 

April 


in. 
3-12 

2-08 
1-S7 
2-63 

?:. 

■59 
4-30 

5-06 

2-56 

2-43 

4-16 


in. 
3'36' 
2-22 

277 i 

2-1 I 1 
1-91 

1-84 
•66 
1-56 
6-34 
662 
3-60, 
^•43: 


in. 

3-47 
3-85 
i-io 
2^86 

-72 
1-06 

74 
470 
5-05 
2-14 
2-o8 
I '46 


in. 
1-87 

2-76 

177 
2-09 
2-86 
1-65 

■95 
2^34 
4' 10 
4' 9° 
3'3i 
2-53 


in. 

I I-I2 

19-72 
9-38 
2-25 
5-35 
475 
3-00 
9-80 

•83 
10-52 

5'55 
9'47 


in. 
7-80 
9-05 
3-10 
3-20 
-6s 
i-8o 

475 
2-43 

IC-44 

5-65 

10-50 

975 


in. 
10-02 

12-72 

2-48 
2-26 

3-88 

•5S 

8-25 

2-07 
8-51 
4-52 
4-63 


in. 

5"^5 
6-89 
2-63 
2-41 
1-74 
1-67 


in. 
3-68 
3-81 
.-65 
1-76 
•94 

•7C 


in. 

-90 
2-46 

•59 

1-27 

1-02 
•87 
•35 

i-j8 

3-37 
3-6c 

2-12 
2-32 


in. 
7-25 
479 
3"35 
2-70 

•179 
209 

•25 
7-64 
5-40 
3-68 

2-6o 

3-45 


in. 
2-83 
5-6, 
2-46 

2-13 

2-12 
1-49 
I -41 
1-28 
5-24 
536 
4'94 
3 94 


May 


June 


July 


2-46! -78 


August 

September ... 

Octobor 

November ... 
December ... 


174 
6-17 

5-65 

10-59 

563 

5^-83 


4-3S 
3-16 
1-42 
I 09 
1-96 


Totals 


31-23 


35-4-- 


29^23 


30-84 


91-74 


69-12 


65-49 


25-38 


20-05 


44"99 


3881 



Div. XVIII. {continued). 


Division XIX. — XoExnEHN Counxies. 1 


■ Inverness {continued). 


Sutherland, 


Caithness. 


Ileiglit of 

Rain-gauge 

above 

Groimd 

Sea-level 


Granlown. 


Laggan. 


Dunrobin. 


House of 
Tongue. 


! 

Capo Wrath. 


Nosshead. 


1 ft.LMn. 
712 it. 


ft. 9 in. 
S21 ft. 


Oft. .3 in. 
6 ft. 


Oft. lin. 
33 ff. 


3 ft. 6 in. 
355 ft. 


3 ft. 4 in. 

127 ft. ? 


1368. 


1869. 


1868. 


1869. 


1808. 


1869. 


1868. 


1869. 


1868. 


1869. 


1808. 


1869. 


January 

February ... 

March 

April . 


in. 

4-82 

3-06 

1-50 

2-49 

■93 

75 

-80 

4-16 

3'34 
1-97 
2-6i 
2-19 


in. 
1-88 
2-62 
1-94 
3-30 
1-99 
2-44 
■70 
2-86 
4-10 

5"i3 
3-61 
2-97 


in. 

10-63 

10-62 

7-01 

377 

2-27 

2-75 

71 
669 
,-65 
6-29 
4-25 
6-4S 


in. 

7'3" 
907 

5-08 
2-68 
-90 
1-92 
183 
1-34 
6-56 
5-29 
9-48 
7-80 


in. 
4-81 

4-80 
2-10 

1-22 
1-40 
1-58 

•25 
5-20 

2-85 
3-10 
1-70 
2-IO 


in. 
1-60 
4-35 

2-00 

1-90 

•20 

-60 

•70 

1-30 

4-20 

4-IC 

4-60 
3-00 


in. 

2-40 
6-50 
2-80 
2-70 
1-80 


in. 
3-00 
6-50 
2-30 

.4-00 
i-co 


in. 

4-72 
8 14 

4-3° 
2-54 
2-32 
293 
1-33 
8-58 
2-25 
5-11 
1-93 
4-55 


in. 
3-11 
4-S9 

1-48 
2-30 

1-24 

1-90 

304 

5-66 

6-17 

3-11 i 

6-11 

3-57 


in. 
2-39 

3-53 
2-34 
1-61 

1-3! 

i-if 

•89 
4-08 

1-21 
2-38 
1-52 
3-88 


in. 
1-67 
3-37 
1-77 
1-85 
1-37 
1-48 
-60 
2-26 
4-88 
2-49 
516 
'■45 


May 


June . ... 


1-20 1 -70 
1 iU 


July 


•30 
8-00 
1-50 
4-50 
3-50 
3-50 


2-OD 
1-30 
6-00 
4-90 
8-40 
320 


August 

September . . . 

October 

November . . . 
December ... 


Totals 


28-62 


33-54 


63-12 


59-26 3111 


2S-55 


38-70 


43-80 


4S-70 


40-58 


26-29 


28-35 



ON TUB RAINFxlLL IN TilE BRITISH ISLES. 

SCOTLAND. 



19/ 





Division XVIII 


. — jSI'oeth-Wester> 


COUN 


riES {continued). 
















ISVERXESS. 














Oronsav. 


Eaa 


say. 


Barrahead. 


Ushenisli, 
South rist. 


C'uUoden. 


Island Glass. 


Corriinony, 
Urquhart. 


Oft. in. 


1ft. 


4 in. 


?> ft. 


Oin. 


ft. 4 in. 


3 ft. 


Oin. 


3 it. 


4 in. 


Oft. 


6 in. 


1.^ ft. -i 


80 ft. 


(•)40 It. ? 


K>7 ft. 


104 ft. 


50 ft. 


530 ft. 


1808.' 1809. 


1808. 


1809. 


1868. 


1809. 


1808. 


1869. 


1868. 


1869. 


1868. 


1809. 


1868. 


1869. 


in. ' ill. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


lo'yo' 6-co 


I2'30 


9-20 


4-14 


5-39 


5-29 


1-60 


5-S!! 


2-21 


5-8? 


4-79 


9-30 


4-70 


ip-io, II-50 


]6-6o 


11-65 


4-15 


4-01 


9'97 


4-40 


3-SS 


2-76 


9-36 


8-35 


8-20 


4-60 


lo-io 


j-oo 


1 170 


3-60 


3-«3 


1-29 


5-47 


1-47 


2-05 


■94 


5'95 


2-02 


4*co 


•60 


2-70 


3-90 


3-70 


3-10 


■«5 


-91 


2-30 


I-S6 


2-26 


1-48 


2-8o 


1-72 


1-70 


I -20 


680 


2-20 


5-10 


1-55 


173 


•39 


3-35 


•26 


1-14 


2-01 


3-bi 


V 


1-20 


roo 


6-90 


270 


6-IO 


1-55 


1-14 


i-6o 


179 


i-«3 


■1% 


1-69 


4-3' 


i-Si 


•50 


1-20 


5'6o 


7-30 


6-5? 


5-20 


•79 


2-2 1 


1-07 


3-24 


-40 


■44 


1-90 


368 


O-QO 


1-10 


10-30 


5 'GO 


7-05 


1-95 


4-10 


•14 


4-"9 


1-85 


6-62 


1-48 


5-36 


262 


5-80 


•30 


I "20 


I I"20 


2-8o 


11-95 


-90 


4'37 


1-50 


5-8. 


3-55 


3-76 


2-19 


6-05 


2-10 


7-90 


n-20 


5-00 


ii-oo 


8-30 


4-02 


2-44 


4-14 


5-39 


1-90 


3-31 


5-,b 


3-24 


4-90 


6-60 


5'oo 


8-00 


7-«S 


10-45 


2-55 


2-45 


2-64 


10-39 


1-31 


2-91 


3-71 


6-55 


2-40 


8-00 


8-20 


4-9° 


12'50 


14-05 


376 


1-99 


4-56 


3-98 


2-15 
31-62 


2-67 


5-31 


5-05 


4-90 


9-30 


97-80 


7070 


103-25 


82-55 


31-96 


27-19 


46-97 


42-08 


25-66 


5S-5I 


46-37 


45-00 


46-50 









Division XIX. — Noetherx Coitnties 


{continued). 








Caii 


"IIMESS 


[confhmrd). 




Ork.ney. 




Shetland. 


llolburnhead. 


Pentland 

Skerrie.s. 


Balfoui 


Castle 


Sand 


wick. 


Siimbu 


•gliead. 


Bre 


v-^ay. 


East Yell. 


Oft. 


4 in. 


3 ft. 


3 in. 


Oft. 


3 in. 


2 ft. 


in. 1 


3 ft. 


4 in. 


Oft. 


4 in. 


1ft. 


in. 


60 ft. 


72 


ft. 


50 ft. 


78 


ft. 


265 ft. 


60 ft. 


170 ft. j 


1868. 


1869. 


1868. 


1869. 


1868. 


1809. 
in. 


18C8. 
in. 


1809. 


1868. 


1869. 


1868. 


1869. 


1808. 


1869. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 1 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


3-41 


1-08 


2-67 


2-22 


4-20 


3-40 


4-50 


3-83 


4-20 


4-31 


4^28 


3-73 


4-46 


4-93 


4-32 


4-14 


378 


3-95 


4-40 


4-30 


5-81 


4-04 


3-70 


1-82 


607 


2-58 


7-74 


4-88 


4-15 


3'45 


2-56 


2-47 


3-80 


2-30 


4-27 


2-85 


2-5b 


1-14 


3-60 


1-99 


4'39 


5-17 


2-52 


2-47 


2-17 


161 1 


2-50 


3-50 


3-31 


3-75 


2-23 


1-35 


2-85 


2-10 


4-09 


2-64 


1-03 


•90 


i-i8 


1-39 


i-oo 


•bo 


1-5, 


1-03 


2-21 


I -41 


2-27 


1-78 


3"5i 


2-77 


1-11 


1-15 


I -60 


1-09 


i-8o 


i-io 


2-80 


1-97 


1-86 


1-43 


2-12 


1-22 


3-82 


1-25 


•68 


i'75 


1-07 


1-23 


1-30 


1-80 


1-35 


3-20: 


-67 


1-67 


-85 


223 


1-80 


3-66 


6-50 


2-70 


534 


J-57 


660 


i-8o 


5-3^ 


2-37 


7-19 


1-46 


8-74 


2-40 


5-96 


3-8. 


J-S5 


5-70 


■99 


5-00 


1-30 


7-50 


I -41 


6-6o 


1-43 


4-37 


1-28 


4-78 


-86 


3-90 


2-41 


2-90 


3'i7 


2-24 


5'5o 


2-6o 


5'34 


3-33 


2-32 


2-53 


4-02 


1-12 


6-51 


4-05 


a-ii 


6-20 


1-42 


4-64, 


2-20 


6-co 


2-66 


6-70 


1-42 


4-01 


167 


3-8, 


2-89 


7-57 


2-68 


1-90 


2-48 


2'34| 
29-75 


4-30 


3-50 
38-20 


5-15 


3761 


4-90 


2-14 


6-77 


3-12 


5-32 


5-14 


30-47 


34-34 


28-43 


38-90 


43-43 


43-43 


34-49 


27-64 


4K5i 


30-86 


51-35 


49'77 































198 



REPORT 1870. 

IRELAND. 



Division XX. — Munsxek. 


Div.XXI.— 

Leinster. 


Cork. 


Kerry. 


Watekford. 


Tn>l>ERAUY. 


Clare. 


Carlow. 


Height of 

Eain-gaugo 

above 

Ground 

Sea-level 


Cork, 
Queen's 
College. 


Valentia. 


Waterford. 


Ballykisteen. 


Killaloe. 


Fenagh, 
Bagnalstown. 


(i ft. in. 
G5 ft. 


1 ft. 2 in. 

j 10 ft. 


4 ft. in. 
60 ft. ? 


1 ft. 1 in. 
350 ft. 


5 ft. in. 
123 it. 


1 ft. in. 
340 ft. 


1868. 


1869. 


1868. 


1869. 


1868. 


1869. 


1868. 


1869. 


1868. 


1869. 


1868. 


1869. 


January 

February ... 

March 

April 


in. 
6-82 

2l6 

3-28 

2-97 

2'35 

'95 

I-20 

5-92 
5-98 
2-87 

5-83 
9-99 


in. 
8-59 
2'96 

2-85 
2-58 

5-48 
•18 

2-07 
•87 

•67 

2 '44 

7-12 


in. 
6-59 
478 
5-91 
3-34 
3-53 
1-66 


in. 
9'56 

4-53 
3-54 
4-12 
279 
I -06 


in. 
5-52 
2-82 

3-63 
3-°4 

2'6l 

•93 
1-64 
6-39 
6'9o 

3-72 
4-58 
9-81 


in. 
8-42 
2-34 
2-55 

2'00 
4-87 

-3^ 
1-22 
I'22 
5-98 

-84 
2-23 

5-41 


in. 

3-79 
2*29 

3-83 
277 
1-29 
i-8i 
1-36 
7'io 

! 3-36 
' 3-'2 

2-63 

626 


in. 
5-04 

3-11 
273 
2-9, 
3-96 

1-49 
1-55 
1-87 

5-25 
113 

3-85 
6-87 


in. 

3-93 
4-41 

5-12 

3'22 
3-08 

1-97 
I -41 
5-80 
2-98 

6'20 

235 
667 


in. 
vol 
5-96 
3-86 
3-89 
4-20 

1-45 
2-So 

I "02 
8-87 
152 

5-49 
6-50 


in. 
2-92 
1-36 
2-31 

2-35 
2-19 

3-3^ 
1-26 

4-43 
4-87 
2-36 
2-90 
6-86 


in. 
6-52 
229 
2-09 
2-40 
276 
I '09 

1-55 
1-03 

5-79 
72 

2-56 

3-60 


May 






•I-5C i-8i 


August 

September . . . 

October 

November ... 
December ... 


3-46 
2-83 
5-89 
672 
loii 


I 89 
8-05 
2-64 
4-19 
8-37 


Totals' 


50-32 


4096 


58-17 


54-55 


51-59 


37-40 


39-61 


39-76 


47-14 


5°-57 


37-13 


32-4° 



Divi.sion XXII. — ComsTAUGHT (continued). 


Division XXIII. — Ulster. 1 


Eo.SCOMMON. 


Sligo. 


Cavan. 


Enniskillen. 


Antrim. 


Height of 

Rain-gauge 

above 

Ground 

Sea-level 


Holywell. 


Doo Castle. 


Hazlewoo d, 
Sligo. 


Red Hills, 
Belturbet. 


Florence 
Court. 


Antrim. 


y ft. 6 in. 


1 ft. in. 


2 ft. 4 in. 

47 ft. 


ft. 9 in. 


lift. 4 in. 
300 ft. 


1 ft. in. 
150 ft. 








1868. 


1869. 


1868. 


1869. 


1868. 


18G9. 


1868. 


1869. 


1868. 


1869. 


1868. 


1869. 


January 

February ... 

March 

April 


in. 
3 '06 
2'99 
3-^8 
i'90 
2-28 
2-32 
ro7 
4-23 

3-32 
3-52 
2-50 
5-30 


in. 
3-30 
3-23 
2-35 
2-56 
2-48 
I'Og 

1-54 
J-50 

6'9i 

1-03 
278 
4-96 


in. 
511 
3-69 

4-24 
1-49 

3-23 
i-8i 

1-55 
3-80 

3-05 
4-11 

4-58 
7-8i 


in. 
4-68 
5-21 
3-43 
3-34 
272 
11 1 

2-23 

1-34 

4-07 

2-34 
6-i8 
619 


in. 
4'8o 

3-45 
4-69 
1-41 
2-14 
1-57 
1-93 
4-05 
1-52 

4-79 
4-16 
5-64 


in. 
3-85 
4-99 
3-i8 
2-69 
2-1 1 
-98 
1-67 
2-41 

3-03 
2-36 
6-48 
656 


in. 
4-1 1 
3-19 

3-58 
2-38 
2-52 
3-01 
-96 
4-26 
1-88 
2-79 
2-94 
5-10 


in. 

3-01 
4-23 
2-88 
2-67 
2-88 
1-06 
1-65 
1-46 

3-32 
1-38 
3-78 

3-60; 


in, 
7-30 

3-47 
5-27 

1-78 
2-69 

2-37 

-49 
3-62 

178 
5-82 

5-77 
8-81 


in. 
5-66 
6-26 

275 
2-8o 
2-97 
-68 
2-58 
1-29 

4-35 
1-95 
6-1 1 

7-08 


in. 
2-56 
2-25 

3-5° 
1-62 

1-73 
■59 
-57 
4-10 
1-12 
1-92 
2-66 
3-89 


in. 

2-50 
336 
1-33 
2-55 
1-85 

-36 
1-97 
1-62 
3-02 

1-33 
4-13 
264 


May 


June 


Jidy 


August 

Sei^tember... 

October 

November ... 
December ... 


Totals 


35-77 


3373 


44-47 


42-84 


40-15 


40-31 


36-72 


1 
31-92 1 


49-17 


44-48 


26-51 


26-66 





























ON THE RAINFALL IN THE BRITISH ISLES, 

IRELAND. 



199 





Di-vision XXI. — Lein-steii 


(continued). 






Division XXII. — 

CONNAUGHT. 


Queen's Co. 


KixG's Co. 


WiCKLOW. 


Dublin. 


Galway. 


Portarlington. 


Birr Castle, 
Parsonstown. 


Tullamore. 


Fassaroe, 
Bray. 


Black Eock. 


Cregg Park, 
Gort. 


Galway, 
Queen's 
College. 


1 ft. 2 in. 


ft. 3 in. 


3 ft. 


Gin. 


5 ft. in. 


29 ft 


Oin. 


3 ft. 


Oin. 


6 ft. in. 


736 ft. 


200 ft. 


235 ft. 


250 ft. 


90 ft. 


* 120 ft. 


25 ft. 


1868. 


1869. 


1868. 


1869. 


1868. 


1869. 


1868. 


1869. 


1868. 


1869. 


18GS. 


1869. 


1868. 


1869. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


2-25 


4-53 


3'i7 


4-06 


2-29 


3-53 


4-09 


6-53 


399 


5-24 


3-27 


4-09 


5-29 


4-27 


2-27 


2-24 


2-45 


2-57 


1-96 


2-00 ! 


1-90 


2-19 


1-82 


1-09 


3-46 


3'99 


5-25 


6^12 


271 


2'09 


3-12 


178 


2-^3 


1-92 


3-13 


3-69 


2-19 


1-83 


4-oy 


2^84 


5-38 


3*44 


2-14 


1-82 


2-20 


2-SS 


i-o6 


2-24 


2-62 


1-75 i 


2-o8 


i-io 


2-45 


2-87 


2-28 


3'4i 


178 


3-14 


2-17 


3-72 


2-3+ 


2-21 


1-42 


8-22 


1-19 


7-03 


2-25 


3'97 


374 


4^8o 


2-32 


■83 


1-55 


1-51 


1-96 


•68 


1-43 


1-25 


1-02 


I -08 


■So 


1-43 


1-74 


r6o 


i-io 


1-57 


2-44 


2-15 


1-13 


1-50 


i-oo 


-72 


■77 


•43 


1-27 


i-8o 


2-51 


3-87 


4-09 


122 


4-90 


2-07 


4'34 


1-26 


6-S5 


-76 


5'i7 


•86 


5-37 


1-29 


3'93 


1-47 


289 


3-88 


2-82 


6-15 


2-4b' 


375 


4-98 


4-76 


3-52 


4-08 


2-82 


8-24 


2-41 


8-46 


2-o8 


2-68 


2-29 


•62 


1-96 


=•491 


1-85 


2-44 


i-oo 


i-iS 


5-10 


i-i8 


6-i6 


1-67 


1-67 


2-66; 


2-31 


2-92 


2-33 


2-84 


3-65 


2-49 


3-19 


2-21 


3-16 


3'9° 


2-63 


501 


5-IO 


3-39} 


4-21 


5-13 


3-88 


4-04 


9-09 


4-16 


673 


3-56 


6-45 


6-45 


6-49 


8-07 


30-40 

1 


30-05 


33"63 


35-56 


28-56 


28-46 


41-71 


38-96 


32-67 


29^69 


40-48 


42-05 


47-8 1 


52-19 



Division XXIII. — Ulster (continued). 








AxTRiM {contimicd). 


Donegal. 




j 




Belfast, 














Queen's 


Ballymoney. 


Letterkenny. 










College. 














7 ft. 4 in. 


7 ft. in. 


1 ft. 8 in. 










68 ft. 


170 ft. 


108 ft. 











1868. 


1869. 


1868. 


1869. 


1868. 


1869. 













in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 












2-86 


3-86 


4-25 


3 '-4 


8-14 


5-56 














2-96 


4'45 


2-58 


4'39 


4-58 


6-13 














3-85 


2-o8 


4-35 


2^IO 


661 


3-bi 














2-56 


1-93 


2-03 


2^09 


2-66 


2-50 














2-131 1-85 


2-8o 


i'54 


3-44 


3 '46 














335 


1-29 


-69 


2-01 


3-3» 


2-50 














■57 


2'02 


•67 


1-85 


71 


3'i5 














4-58 


i-8i 


479 


2-36 


6-31 


1-30 














i"86 : 4-96 


1-25 


4-20 


2-79 


573 
















2-31 


i'35 


265 


i'97| 


4-63 


4'3o 
















2-69 


4-30 


4-45 


6-S6I 


7-02 


8-6i 
















4-86 


2-67 


4-73 


403 


636 


6-00 
















31-58 


32'57 


3 5 '24 


36-64 


56-56 


52-85 1 1 






i 

i 





200 



REPORT — 1870. 



Abstract, and elstjlts, of experiments on the dect.e.\se of rainfall corre- 
sponding TO SJIALL elevations OF THE RAIN-OAVtiE AI50YE THE GROUND. 

Table I. — Total dejitli of I'ain collected in each month. Castle House, Calno, 
Wilts ; lat. 51° 27' N., long. 1° 59' W. 





Elovatii.n Seric.5. 8 inches diameter. 


Date. 


Iso- 
lated 
level. 


Level. 


ft. in. 
2 


ft. in. 
6 


ft. in. 
1 


ft. in. 
2 


ft. in. 
3 


ft. in. 
5 


ft. in. 
.10 


ft. in. 
20 

in. 

2-833 

2-848 
3-460 

2-IoS 

1-048 


ft. in. 
20 
5-inch 
gauge. 


1863. 

August 

September . . . 

October 

November («) 
December ... 

1864. 

January 

February . . . 

March 

April ... . 


in. 


in. 

2-989 
3-018 
3-698 
2-379 
1-250 


in. 
2-989 

3-038 

2362 
1-249 


in. 
2-940 

3-024 
3-624 
2-252 
1-225 


in. 
2-940 

3-024 

3-585 
2-186 
1-156 


in. 

2-941 

3-01 J 

3-554 
2-154 
1-124 


in. 
2-919 
2-968 
3-528 
2-122 
1-C98 


in. 

2-883 
2-956 

3-492 
2096 
1-082 


in. 

2-S60 
2-919 

3-457 
2-050 
1-057 


in. 

2-731 
2-791 

3-341 
1-960 

-975 




13-334 


13-291 


13-055 


12-891 


12-784 


12-635 


12-509 


12-343, 12-297 


11-798 




1-808 
1-216 
2-711 
1-920 
1-152 
1-726 
-686 
-678 
2-797 
2-226 
1-990 
2-735 


1-814 
1-1S7 
2-687 
1-891 
1-149 
1-695 
-691 
-670 
2-692 
2-193 
1-968 
2-701 


1-729 
1-J79 
2-6ic 

1-859 

1-162 
1-692 


1-676 
1-097 
2-546 
r86c 
1-116 
1-666 


1-629 

1-081 
2-506 

1-834 
1-107 
1-630 
-676 
-647 
2-647 
2-140 
1-836 
2-583 


1-603 
1-060 
2-474 
i-SiS 
1-095 
1-620 

-675 
-638 
2-617 
2-130 
1-818 
2-538 


1-574 

1-044 

2-406 

1-797 

1-0S3 

1-606 

-656 

•626 

2-576 

2-117 

1-800 

2-553 

19-838 


1-543 
i-oio 

2414 

1-782 

1-076 
i-<;S2 


1-531 

1-003 

2-425 
1-759 

1-061 


1-50C 

-957 
2-348 
1-732 
1-025 
1-472 

-591 
-568 
2-328 
1-986 
1-668 
2-373 


May(A) 

June 




•6 CI -6->-i 


August 

September ... 
October(f) ... 
November ... 
December (d) 

1865. 
January 

February (f) . 

March 

April 


-651' -658 

2-741J 2-687 
2-I82I 2-178 

1-899' 1-882 
2-657 2-631 


-622 
2-525 
2-082 

1-747 
2-508 

19-544 


-607 

2-452 

1-993 
1-711 

2-458 


21-645 


21-338 


21-040 20687 


20-316 


20-086 


19-166 


18-54!^ 


•745 
2-338 
1-583 
3-002 

4'29S 

■126 

5-603 

3-389 

2-517 


3-893 

3-482 

1-0C7 
-782 


3863 

3-528 

-973 


3-581 

3-019 

-912 

-736 
2-272 
1-563 
2-921 
4-2 1 1 

-120 
5-536 
3-327 
2-557 


3-517 
2933 

-897 
-729 
2-277 
1-563 
2-897 
4-203 
-128 

5-525 
3-275 

2-478 

30-426 


3-163 

2-849 
-868 

-720 

2-275 

1-565 

2-901 

4-203 

•138 

5-503 
3-207 
2-413 

29-805 

3-604 

4-07S 
2028 

2-145 
1-132 
2-984 

1-454 

2-380 
6684 
2-132 
2-289 
2-880 


3-225 
2-826 

-873 
-723 
2-271 
1-560 
2-904 
4-223 
-152 
5-495 

3-221 
2-404 


3-203 

2-806 

■851 

•706 


3-062 

2-634 
-830 
-706 


3-159 
2679 

-842 

-693 

2-178 

1-5.9 

2-722 
4-081 
-144 
5-416 
3-094 
2-351 


3-134 

2-546 

-S08 

-65S 

2-095 

1-458 
2-7SC 

3-974 
-icC 

5-249 

3-026 

2-257 

28-091 


Muv 


2"'387' i-19 C 


June 


1-577 
2993 
4-28C 
•I2S 
5-601 

3-454 
2-705 


1-569 

2-977 

4-240 

-12S 

5-577 
3-402 
2-626 




July(/) 

August 

September ... 
October(y)... 
November ... 
December ... 

1866. 

January 

February ... 

JFarch 

April 


2-879 

4-176 

-143 

5-420 

3139 
2-364 


2-8-J7 

4-147 
-151 

5-425 
3-097 
2-301 




32-289 


31-97] 


30-755 


29-877 

3-646 
4-019 

1-959 


29-449 


2S-<J()5 


28-879 


4-240 
4-340 
2-]67 
2282 
1-185 
3-056 
1-488 
a-476 
6866 
2-198 
2-482 
3'i4'1 


4-582 
4-509 
2-183 
2-^18 


4-297 3-914 

4-395 4-257 
2-151 2-100 


3-625 

4-138 
2-05-: 
2-14? 
1-131 

2-997 
1-451 
2-40S 
6-683 
2-137 
2-351 

2Q2I 


3-429 
3-863 
1-884 


3-341 
3-831 
1-951 

i-090 
1-081 
2-903 

1-394 
2-350 
6-515 
2-098 
2-070 
2-662 


3-413 
3-822 

1-995 

2-090 

1-085 

2-912 

1-436 
2-368 

5-560 
2-c86 
2-003 
2-587 


1 
3-342 

3-707 
I 1564 
1-991 
l-coo 

2-853 

1-39: 
2-28:, 

O-.-jC!) 

1992 
2-035. 
2-6,9: 


Mav 




1*129 I'icS 

1'CiC2 1 -^-'n/i S 


June 


'J-084' ^-o-jfi 


2-969 

1-434 
2-379 
6-716 
2-130 

2-345 
2-945 


July 


1-504 

2-495 
6-910 

2-202 

2-537 

3-270 


1-477 
2-459 
6-790 
2159 
2-435 
3-'33 


1-448 
2-385 
6-663 
2-122 
2-250 
2-820 


- 7T- 

1-444 

2-384 

6-575 
2-107 
2-173 
2-750 


August 

Septembcr(A) 

October 

November ... 
December .. 


35-924 36-804^ 35-745 


34-501 


34'C43 


33-790 


33-556 32735 


32-266 


32-357 


31-597 



ON THE RAINFALL IN THE BRITISH ISLES. 
Table I. (continued). 

Elevation Series. 8 inches diameter. 



201 



Date. 



1807. 
January (/) 
February 
March . . . 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August . . . 
September 
October ... 
November 
December 



Iso- 
lated 
level. 



Level. 



ft. in. 
2 



in. in. in. in. 

3-671 3-88O 3-626 3-514 3'359 

2-210 2-27S 2-182 2-052 1-952 

3-526 4-315 3930 3-502 3-268 

3'343 3'354 3'328 3-228 3-225 

1-832 i-8i2 1-817 1-793 1-789 

2-245 -'2.13 2-235 2-197 2-187 

3-78S 3-691 3-736 3-686 3-684 

3-07S 3-056 3-054 2-994 3-019 

1-843 i'8i3 i"84« 1799 1793 

2-S99J 2-913 2-89S 2-871 2-862 

1-324 1-317 i'275! 1-264 i'266 

1-810' 1-84C 1-843' 1-730I 1-67C 

31-569! 32-512' 31-764! 30-630I 30-074 



ft. in. 
C 



ft. in. 
1 



ft. in. 


ft. in. 


ft. in. 


2 


3 


5 


in. 


in. 


in. 


3-292 
1-966 


3-207 
1-918 


3-166 

1-837 


3-208 


3-191 


3191 


3'i94 
1-777 
2-186 
3-680 


3'i45 
1-771 
2-169 
3-678 


3-059 
1-764 
2183 
3-654 


2-993 

1-7S2 
2-832 


3-003 
1-7S1 
2-815 


2-995 

1'774 
2786 


1-261 


1-247 


1-218 


1-62C 


1-578 


1-56C 


29-79] 


29-503 


29-187 



ft. in. 
10 



ft. in. 
20 



in. 


m. 


3063 

1-757 
3-104 
2968 


3-003 
1-696 
2-785 
2-935 


1-750 


1 742 


2-125 


2-115 


3-615 


3-601 


2-967 
1-748 


2-955 
1-715 


2-755 


2-717 


1-209 


1-192 


I-5TS 


1-530 



28-596 27-986 



ft. in. 
20 
5-inch 
gauge. 



in. 

2-868 
1-710 
3-300 
2-866 
1-640 

2-COO 
3-404 
2-883 
1-631 
2-657 
1-130 
I-5IC 



27-599 



EEMAEKS. 

(a) 186.3, November. 20 ft. 8 in. -gauge, ^ in. out of level till 14th. 

{/)) 1864, May. Level, 2 in. and 6 in. Collected a large quantity of dew between 12th and 21st, 

(c) 1864, October. Level, 2 in. and 6 in. Yeiy troublesome with leaves. 

(d) 1865, January. Intense frost on 29th, min. 6°. Burst all the elevation-gauges from " 2 ft." 
upwards ; they were all frozen up from 24th to 29th, and melted on the latter day. The " level '' 
and " 2 in." were buried in the snow. 

(c) 1865, February 17th. Impossible to measure the three lowest gauges accurately, they being 
buried in the snov>-. 

(/) 1865, July 7th and 8th. Couducting-pipe of 10-ft. gauge leaked: the total measured was 
2-577 in. ; and it is calculated that the loss was -140 and -110, which has been added to prevent a 
break in the series. 

(_</) 186.5, October. " Level " and " 2 in." Very troublesome with leaves. 

(k) 1866, October. Pipe of 20ft. 5-in. gauge found to leak slightly and repaired; 0-45 added 
to September fall, being the computed loss. 

(() 1867. Level and 2-in. gauges buried under snow; the amounts mea.sured were 7'880 and 
7'6'-'i, from each of which 4 inches has been deducted. 



Table II. — Eatio of Eain collected at various heights to that at 1 foot. 



Elevation Series. 8 inches diameter. 


Date. 

1 


1 
_ i 
Iso- ! 

lated \t , 

level, i^^'^l- 


ft. in. ft. in. 
2 6 


ft. in. 
1 


■ 

1 

ft. in. ft. in. 
2 3 


1 

ft. in. ft. in. 
5 |10 

1 


ft. in. 
20 


ft. in. 

20 

5-inch 

gauge. 


1P153. 
August 


... 1-02 
... 1-co 
... !i-o3 
... i 1-09 
... 1 i-o8 




00000 
p p u p 


1 
I -co ' -99 
1-co i -98 

-99 -98 

•98 -97 
■97 i -95 


•98 ! -97 
■98 1 -97 
-97 1 -96 
-96 -94 
■94 -92 


-06 




September 

October 


1-00 
1-02 
1-08 
1-08 


I-oo 

1-01 

1-03 

1-06 


90 y^ 

■94 1 -92 
-96 ■ -93 

-96 -90 

•91 1 -84 


November 

December 

Mean 


... 1-044 

1 




I -000 


-9881 -974 


•966| -952 


/- , 








94" 


yvy^l 

1 



203 



REPORT — 1870, 

Table II. {continiied). 



Elevation Series. 8 inches diameter. 



Date. 



Iso- 
lated 
level. 



Level, 



18G4. 
January . . . 
February 
March ... 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August ... 
September 
October . . . 
November 
December 

Mean ... 

1865. 

January . . . 

February 

March . . . 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August . . . 
September 
October ... 
November 
December 

Mean ... 

1866. 

January . . . 

February 

March ... 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August ... 
September 
October ... 
November 
December 

Mean ... 

1867. 

January... 

February , 

March ... 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August ... 
September 
October . . . 
November 
December 

Mean ... 



I "02 

i'o3 

I'Ol 

I '04 

I '02 

•98 

I'OI 

I '03 



I-I7 

1-05 
i'o6 
i'o6 
1-05 

I '02 
1-03 

i'o3 
I '03 
I -03 
I -06 
ro8 



I -08 
I'll 
I -06 
1*03 
1-03 
I "04 

■99 

1-03 
I '04 

1'02 
I -06 

i'04 



1-044 



ft. in. 
2 



ro8 
i-o8 
i'o6 

I'OZ 

I '03 

1"02 
I'OO 
I "02 
I'OO 
I'OI 

I 'OS 
i'03 



ft. in. 
6 



I'll 
119 

I'12 

I "07 

i'05 
I'd 
i'03 

1'02 
I'OO 
I'OI 

1-05 

I '09 



1-063 



I'26 

I '09 
I '06 

I '08 

I'oy 
i'03 
I '04 
I '04 
i'o3 
i"o3 
i'o8 

1'12 



i'056 

I '09 
i'i3 
I '08 
I '04 

1'02 
1-03 

i'o3 
I'oa 
i'03 

I'OI 

i'05 
i'o8 
I '05 1 



1-078 



1'16 
i'i7 
1-32 
1-04 

I'OI 

i'o3 

I'OO 
I'OI 
I-OI 
I -02 
I '04 
I'lO 

i'o76 



1-033 
i-io 

I'20 
I '08 

i'05 
I '02 

I'OO 

1-03 

I'OI 

1-00 

I'OI 

I '04 
I 06 



I'OjO 



I'i9 
i'o6 

I'os 
i'o5 
1-04 

I'OI 

I'oa 
I '02 

1'02 
I'OI 

1-04 
i'07 



i'048 



I'OB 

l'I2 
I'20 
1'03 
I 02 
I '02 
I'OI 
I-OI 

103 

I'OI 
I'OI 

no 

1-053 



1-03 

I '07 

I'02 

I'OO 

1-04 
I '02 

■99 
■99 

1-02 
I'OO 
I'OI 
I'OI 



ft. in, 
1 



I'OO 
I'OO 
I'OO 
I'OO 
I'OO 
I'OO 
I'OO 
I'OO 
I'OO 
I'OO 
I'OO 
I'OO 



ft. in, 
2 



ft. in 
3 



■97 
•99 

'98 

'99 
■99 
'9S 

■98 
'98 

■99 
'98 

•98 
'98 



i'oi7j I '000 



1-02 
1-03 

l'02 
I'OI 
I'OO 
I'OO 
I'OI 
I'OO 

•94 

I'OO 
I-OI 

i-o? 



I'OO 
I'OO 
I'OO 
I'OO 
I'OO 
I'OO 
I'OO 
I'OO 
I'CO 
I'OO 
I'OO 
I'OO 



1-006; i-ooo 



I '08 

I '03 

I '02 
1'02 
I'OO 

■99 

'99 

■99 

I'OO 
I'OO 
I'OO 
I'OI 



I'OO 
I'OO 
I'OO 
I'OO 
I'OO 
I'OO 
I'CO 
I'OO 
I'OO 
I'OO 
I'OO 
I'OO 



•983 



■9° 
■97 
■97 
■99 

I'OO 
I'OO 
I'OO 
I'OO 

i'07 

I'OO 

'98 

•97 



'96 

■97 
•97 

•98 
•98 

■97 

•98 

■97 

■97 

-98 

•97 
■96 



ft. in. 
5 



■9+ 

■95 

■94 
■97 
■97 

•96 

-OS 

■95 

•96 

■97 

■96 

■97 



ft. in, 
10 



ft. in 
20 



972 '958 



-988 



■99 
■99 
■99 

I'OO 
I'OO 
I'OO 
I'OO 

■99 

I'OO 
I'OO 

•97 

'99 



I'OI 1 1 I'ooo '993 



I '05 
I '05 
i'07 

I'OO 

i-oo 

I'OI 

I '00 
■99 

I'OO 
I'OO 
I'OO 

I '04 
i'oi8 



I'CO 
I'OO 
I'OO 
I'OO 
I'OO 
I'OO 
I'OO 
I'OO 
I'OO 
I'OO 
I'OO 
I'CO 



•98 

I'OI 

'98 

■99 
■99 

I'OO 
I'OO 

■99 

I'OO 

■99 

I'CO 

•97 
'992 



'92 

•96 

■97 
■99 

I'OO 
I'OO 
I'OO 
I'OO 

i'i8 

■99 

•98 

■97 



■997 



I'OI 

•97 
•95 
■99 

I'OO 
I'OO 
I'OO 

•99 

I -CO 

'99 

•96 

■97 



■986 



'91 

-96 

■95 

■97 

•98 

■99 
•99 

'99 
III 

•98 

•96 

■95 



•978 

■95 
•93 
'92 

'96 
■98 
•98 

['00 

■99 

•98 

■99 
•92 

•94 

■962 



•94 
■94 

•98 

•95 

•99 

I'OO 

•99 

■99 
-99 

•97 

-96 

•93 
-969 



•92 
•92 
■95 

'96 
•96 

■95 
•95 

'94 
■94 
•96 
■93 
•95 



•944 



•87 
'90 

■93 
■97 
-96 

•98 

'98 

■99 
i'i8 

•58 
■94 
■93 



■91 
■91 
"95 
■95 
•95 
■93 

■90 
•92 

■91 
'92 

■91 
■93 



ft. in. 

20 
5-inch 
gauge. 



'924 



•968 



•92 
■93 
•94 
■97 
-96 

■97 
'96 
•98 

•98 
•98 
'88 
-91 



•948 



'91 
•90 

•95 
-92 
-98 

■97 
-98 
-98 

•98 
-96 
•96 
•9^ 
•951 



'90 
-91 
■94 
■95 
'96 

■97 
■94 
"97 

I'I2 
'98 
•94 
•95 



•961 



■94 
'92 

■97 
■97 
-96 

■97 
■99 
•98 
■98 
'98 

•85 



■949 



•89 
'87 

•85 
-91 

■97 
•97 
•98 
•98 
•96 

•95 
•94 

■933 



-90 

•87 
•92 

•93 
•92 

'88 
'86 
'86 
■87 
■91 
'89 

•90 
■893 

•89 
-87 

•90 

•90 

'92 

■93 
•96 

•95 
•83 
•95 
•92 
•91 



•911 



'92 
■90 
■91 
■93 
•88 

■95 
■96 
•95 
•97 
■93 
•87 
•90 



'923 



.'85 
'88 

lOI 

■89 
'92 

•91 

'92 

■95 
•91 

■93 

'89 

_'90 

■913! 



ON THE RAINFALL IN THE BRITISH ISLES, 



203 



Tablk III. — ruitio of Eain collected at various heights to that in " pit gauge." 



Elevation Series. 8 inches diameter. 



Date. 



1865. 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August . . . 
September 
October ... 
November 
December 

1866. 
January ... 
February 
March ... 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August ... 
September 
October ... 
November 
December 

1867. 
January... 
February 
March . . . 
April ...... 

May ..*.... 

June 

July 

August ... 
September 
October ... 
November 
December 



Iso- 
lated 
level. 



foo 

I'OO 
I'OO 
I'OO 
I'OO 
I'OO 
I'OO 
I'OO 
I'OO 



I'OO 
I'OO 
I'OO 
I'OO 
I'OO 
I'OO 
I "CO 
I'OO 
I'OO 
I'OO 
I 'CO 
I'OO 



I'OO 
I'OO 
I'OO 
I'OO 
I'OO 
I'OO 
I'OO 
I'OO 
I'OO 
I'OO 
I'OO 
I'OO 



Level 



I -05 

I'02 
I'OO 
I'OO 
I'OO 
I '02 
I'OO 
I"02 

I 07 



I '020 



I 08 

1*04 
I '01 
I '02 
I '02 

I'OI 

I '01 

I'OI 
I'OI 
I'OO 
I'C2 

I '04 



1*023 



i"o6 

I'OJ 
1-22 
I'OO 

■99 

I'OO 

•98 

■99 

•98 

I'OO 

■99 

1'02 



I 'coo I '022 



ft. in 
2 



I '02 

•99 

•99 
■99 
■99 

I "02 
I'OO 
I'OO 

1*04 



1*004 



I'OI 
I'OI 

■95 
■99 
•99 

■99 
•99 

■99 
■99 

•98 
•98 

I'OO 



•989 



■99 
■99 

I'll 

I'OO 

■99 

100 

■99 

'99 

I'OO 
I'OO 

•96 

I "02 



I '004 



ft. in. 
6 



■99 
■97 
■99 

■97 

■98 

•95 

•99 

•98 



ft. in. 
1 



•98 

■97 
■99 

•96 
•98 

I '02 

■99 
•97 
•98 



•982 



'92 

•98 

•97 

•96 

•95 

•97 

•96 
•96 
•98 

■97 
■95 
•94 



■959 

'96 

•93 
■99 

'97 

■98 
■98 

•97 
•97 

•98 

•99 

•95 

•96 



'982 



'86 

•95 
■95 
•94- 
■95 

•98 

•97 
•97 
•97 
•97 
•95 

'91 



ft. in. 
2 



•97 
■97 
■99 
•97 
•98 

I'lO 

'98 

•95 
•96 



ft. in. 
3 



•97 

■97 
•99 
•97 
•98 

I'2I 
•98 
•95 
■95 



•986 '997 



■949 



•91 
•88 
■93 
•96 
•98 
■97 
•97 
•98 
■97 
■99 
•96 
•92 



969 -952 



■8s 
■94 
•94 
•9+ 
•95 
•98 

•98 
•96 
•97 
•97 
'92 
•92 



•943 



•90 

•89 
•91 

•95 
•97 
■97 
•97 
•97 
•97 
•98 

•95 

•90 



•86 

•93 
■90 

■93 
•95 
•98 
•97 
•96 

•97 
■97 
•91 
•90 



'936 



•87 
•87 
•91 

•94 
•97 

■97 
■97 
'97 

■97 
•97 
■94 
■87 



944 '935 



ft. in. 
5 



•95 
•95 
'97 

•96 

■97 
i'i4 

•97 
•93 
•94 
•976 



•81 

•89 

•87 

•91 
•93 
•96 
•97 
•96 
■96 

■96 
•88 

•87 



•914 



'86 
•83 

■91 
'92 
•96 

•97 
'96 

•97 
•96 
■96 
•92 
'86 



•923 



ft. in. 
10 



•95 

•94 
■97 
•94 
•96 

l^20 

•97 
•91 
•91 



•972 



•79 

•88 
•89 
•92 
•91 
•95 
•94 
•95 
•95 
■95 
•83 
•85 



•901 



•83 
•80 

•88 
■89 
•96 
•95 
•95 
'96 

•95 
•95 
■91 
•85 



•907 



ft. in. 
20 



■93 
•93 
•96 
'91 

•95 
ri4 

•97 
•91 

•93 



■959 



•80 
•88 
■92 
'92 
•91 
•95 
•96 
•96 
•96 

■95 
'81 
■82 



'904 



•82 
■77 
•79 
•88 

•95 

■94 
■95 
•96 

■93 
■94 
•90 

;85_ 
'890 



ft. in. 
20 
5-inch 
gauge. 



•88 
•90 
•92 
■93 
•93 
'84 

■94 
•89 
•90 



903 



•79 
•85 
•86 
•87 
•84 

•93 
•88 
•92 

•95 
•91 
•82 
•83 



•871 



•78 
■77 
•94 
'86 
•90 
•89 
•90 

■94 
•89 
•92 
•85 
•83 



'873 



20i 



REPORT 1870. 



Table IV. — Amount collected in each gcatige yearly, 1863-67, Castle House, 

Calne, Wilts. 



Elevation Series. 8 inches diameter 



Iso- 
lated 
level. 



Part of 1863.. I 
1864.. 
1863.. 
1866.. 
180?.. 



Total 1863-6/ 



3S'9H 
31-569 



Level. 


ft. in. 
2 


ft. in. 
6 


ft. in. 
1 


ft. in. 
2 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


'5'354 


13-291 


13-065 


11-891 


11-784 


11-645 


21-338 


11-040 


10-687 


10-316 


31-289 


31-971 


30-755 


30-416 


19-805 


36-804 


3574S 


34-501 


34'o43 


3 3 "79° 


•■f-'-.512 
136-584 


:31-76i 


30-630 


30-074 


29-791 


134-109 


119-991 


118-I1I 


126-486 



ft. 


in. 


ft. 


in. 


3 





5 





in. 




in. 





11-635 11-509 
10-086 19-838 
19-S77, 29-449 



33*556 
19-503 



115-657 



32735 
29-187 



123-718 



ft. in. ! ft. in. 
!U I 20 



ft. in. 
20 
S-inch 
gauge. 



! 

in. in. ' in. 

11-343 12-197 , irygS 

19-544 19-166 18-548 

2S-905 28-879 18091 

31-166 31-357 31-597 

18-5961 17-986 27-599 



121-654 1 110-685 "7'633 



Eatio of the values in Table IV. to that at 1 foot. 



Date. 


Iso- 
lated ' , 
level. ^^^'• 


ft. in. 
2 


ft. in. 
6 


ft. in. ft. in. 
10 2 


ft. in. 
3 


ft. in. 
5 

•97' 
■96c 
-96S 
-962 

•970 


rt. in. 
10 

-95S 
•946 
•951 

■947 
■951 


ft. in. 
•20 

■955 
•926 

•949 
•950 
•930 


ft. in. 
20 
j-inch 
gauge. 


1 

Part of 1863... 
1864... 
1865... 
1866 .. 
1867... 


1-050 


1-035 

1-046 
i-o6i 
ro82 
roSi 


1-031 
1-032 
1-051 
1-050 
1-056 


1-014 
1-017 

1-OI2 
1-013 

I -01 8 


I -coo 
I -000 
1-coc 
I-oco 
I-oco 


! 

-992 -9S0 

■983 -971 

•9S0 -9if2 

-993 -986 

•990 -981 


•916 
-897 
•923 
■928 
-918 1 


Total 




1 
1-067 1-047 


1-015J i-oco 


-988^ -982 


-966 


-950 


•943 


■9'9 1 




Katio of the values in Table IV. to the pit gauge. 






18()6 

1807 


I'OOO 
I -000 


1-025 
1-03 J 

1-028 


■995 

1-007 


•961 -948' -941 -935 
•970 -952 -944; -935 


-912 
-924 


-898 

•906 


•901 
-887 


-S80 
•S75 




Mean 


I "000 


i-ooi 


-966| -950 


•943! -935 


•918 


-902 


-894 


■878 ' 

1 



ON THE UAINFALL IN THK URITLSH ISLES. 



205 



Table V. — One-foot Eatios, grouped according to mouths. 



Elevation Series. 8 inches diameter. 


Date. 

1 


Iso- 
lated Leyel 
level. 


ft. in. ft. in 
2 6 


ft. in 

1 

I 
1 
1 


ft. in. ft. in 
2 3 


ft. in.'ft. in 
5 10 


1 

.ft. in 
20 


ft. in. 
20 
5-in. 

gauge 


18G4, January ... 
1865, „ • ... 
1866, 

1867, „ 
Mean 


... i-o8 

I'll 

i-ij vzd 

I-C9 ii6 


H-08 ji-03 

I-IO ■I-C2 
1-19 1-08 
1-08 1-05 


I'oo 
I-oo 
roo 
i-co 


•97 -96 
-90 92 
-99 I'd 
•98 -95 


■94 
■91 
•95 
■9+ 


-92 
-87 
•92 
■91 


■91 
•90 
•94 
•89 


•90 
•89 
-92 
•85 


... 


1*1 ^2 ll'I 11. ll'Od.^ ! XT.rrt ■ 'Cidrt \ 'c\ftr, 


•935 1 •9°5 1 -91° 


•890 


1864, February... 

1865, „ 

1 1806, „ ... 

\ 1867 

Mean 




1 


1 y-~ 1 y — 


I -OS 
113 


I'll i"o8 I'oy 

'l'I9 :I'20 i"o3 

i"09 'i-o6 i'03 
I'ly VIZ i"o5 


1-00 
I -co 
I-oo 
roo 


i-99 
■97 

•99 

roi 


•97 
•96 

•97 
•98 


•95 
-96 

•93 
■94 


■92 : '91 
•90 j -91 
•93 , -92 
-90 I -87 


•87 
•87 
■90 
-88 


1-140 !i-ii5 [ro45 'i-oco 


•990 


-970 






•880 






ytJ 1 y-\ -j~3 


1864, March 

1805, „ 

1800, , 

1807, „ 

Mefln 


... 

r'c6 

io8 


I "06 

I'I2 
I -06 
1-32 


1-06 

rc8 
1-05 

1-20 


I -02 
1-02 
I -02 

1-07 


I-oo 
i-cc 

I'CO 

roo 


•98 

•97 

•99 
-98 


•97 
■97 

■95 
-98 


■94 
■95 
■91 
-98 


■95 95 

•93 "94 
•94 '97 
•95 ^85 


-92 
-90 

•91 
I 01 


... ;i"i4o 


I-C98 


1-033 ii'ooo 


•980 


-968 

-98 

■99 
■99 
-98 


-oa8 I "QA? ' •«■»•» SI 


•935 


1804, April 

1805, , 

1866, , 

1867, , 

Mean ... 




1 ' 


i'o6 
i'04 


1-03 

1-07 

ro8 
I '04 


I -02 

1-05 

I-C5 
1-03 


roo 

ICI 

102 
I -00 


I-oo 
I-oo 
I-oo 
roo 


■99 

■99 

I-oo 

■99 


■97 
•97 
-96 

■95 


-96 
•97 
■97 
•92 


■95 
•95 
•97 
■91 


•93 

•90 

•93 
•89 


ro55 1-038 


1-008 


i-oco 


•993 


•98s 


-963 


•955 ^945 


■913 


18()4, May 


I-03 
I-05 

1'02 


1-03 1-03 

IOC [I-Ol 


1*04 
i-oo 
I -00 


roo 
1-00 
I-oo 


■99 

I-oo 

I-oo 

•99 


-98 

1-00 
I-oo 


•97 
-98 
-98 
■99 


•96 i '95 
-96 ; -96 
•96 1 -96 
■98 1 ^97 


•92 
-92 
-88 
-92 


1865, , 


1860, , 


1-07 

I'OI 


I -04 
1-02 


1867, 


roo 


I-oo 


■99 


Mean 




1-040 


1028 


roio 


rooo 


■99s '993 


-980 


•965 


•960 


-910 


1«64, June 




1-OA. 


I-C2 


I -02 


1*00 


-98 
I-oo 
I-oo 
I-oo 


■97 
1-00 
I-oo 

■99 


-96 

■99 
-98 

i-co 


•95 
-98 

•97 
•97 


•93 

■97 
•97 
•57 


-88 
•93 
•95 
•91 


18(i5, ., 


loi vol 


I-QO I -00 


i-oo 
I-oo 
roo 


18C,6, „ 


1'02 

ro3 


1-03 
1-03 


I-OI 
1-02 


•99 

I"OI 


1867 


Mean 


... 


I-C28 


I-Ol'J 


I'OOC Ifooo 


■995 


-990 


-983 


-968 1 -960 


-918 


1864, July.'. 

1865, „ ' 




^ •': 1 


... 1 '99 foo 1 '99 ii'co [ 'gS 

I'0<). I '03 I '03 I'OI fCO I '00 

i'03 ro4 'i-oi j '99 I'co roo 
1-03 I'co I'OI I'oo jroo J I -co 


-98 

I -00 
I-oo 
I-oo 


■95 
■99 

roo 
•99 


•95 ! ^90 

*q2 'c\a 


•86 

•96 
-96 
-92 


1866, „ 


-96 
•98 


•97 
-98 


1807, „ ! 


Mean ; 

1863, August 

ISH „ 

l'^<'-'>, „ 

1866, „ 

1867, ., 


... jroic'i-oic 


-998 


I -000 ! 


■99s 1 '995 


-983 1 -968 


-948 


-925 


... 'l'02 1 

... i'o3 

I -02 'l-C2 
103 1-04. 

102 roT 


I-02 
1-OZ 
I-OI 
I -02 
I-OI 


I'OO 

•99 

I-oo 

•99 
•99 


I-oo 

I'OO 

I-oo 
I-oo 
I'oo 


1-00 -99 

•98 ! -97 

roo I-oo 

•99 -99 

■99 '99 


•98 -97 
•95 -94 
■99 '99 
•99 1 -98 
-99 -98 


-96 
-92 

■97 
•98 
-98 


•93 
-86 

■95 
•95 
•95 


Mean 






1-oco 


-QQ2 1 -q88 I 




-962 


•928 






^1 








' 1 




" 1 



206 



REPORT 1870. 

Table V. (^continued). 



























Elevation Series. 8 inches diameter. 


Date. 


Iso- 
lated 
level. 


Level. 


ft. in. 
2 


ft. in. 
6 


ft. in. 
1 


ft. in. 
2 


ft. in. 
3 


ft. in. ft. in. 
5 10 


ft. in. 
20 


ft. in. 
20 
5-in. 

gauge 


1863, September 

1864, 

1865, 

1866, 

1867, 

Mean 


■•98 
ro3 
1-03 


I'OO 

I '04 

I'OO 

I '03 

lOI 


I'OO 

rco 

fOO 

ro2 
ro3 


rco 

1-02 

I -00 
I'OO 


i-oo 

I'OO 
I'OO 

roo 
I -00 


I-oo 

-99 

1-07 

roo 
1-00 


'98 

•97 
i-i8 

i-oo 
•99 


-98 
•96 
i-ii 
-98 
■99 


•97 
■94 
1-18 
'98 
■98 


•94 
'91 

1'12 
-96 


'92 
-87 
'83 
■97 
•9' 




i'0]6 


foio 


•992 


I -000 


1-012 


1-024 


1-004 I'OIO 


-982 


-900 


1863, October ... 

1864, „ ... 

1865, „ ... 
1866, 

1867 

Mean 


i-oi 
1-03 
roi 


ro3 
I 02 
roi 
1-03 
I -02 


I 02 
I 01 
I'd 

lOI 

lOI 


i-oi 

I'OO 
I'OO 
I -00 

I'OO 


I'OO 
I'OO 
I'OO 

i-oo 
I-oo 


■99 
•98 

I'OO 

1-00 

•99 


•98 
-98 

■99 
•99 

-98 


■97 
•97 
■98 

■99 

•97 


-96 
•96 
•98 
-98 
-96 


'96 
'92 
•98 
'98 
•95 


•93 

■9» 

■95 

•93 
'93 




I -022 


I'OI2 


I -002 


I -coo 


•992 


-984 


•976 


'968 


'958 


-930 


1863, November 

1864, „ 

1865, „ 
1866, 
1867, 

Mean 


1-03 
I '06 
1-05 


rog 
ro6 

1-05 
ro8 
I -04 


I -08 
1-05 
1-04 
1-04 
I'OI 


1-03 

i-oi 

I-OI 
I'OO 
I'OO 


roo 
I-oo 

I'OO 
I'OO 

roo 


•98 
-98 
-98 

•97 

1-00 


•97 
•97 
-98 
-96 
•99 


•96 
-96 
-96 
■92 
-96 


■94 
•93 
•94 
'88 
'96 


•96 
'91 

■94 
■85 

•94 


•9° 
•89 
'92 
'87 
-89 




i'o64 


I 044 


foio 


I -COO 


'982 


•974 


-952 


-930 


-920 


-894 


1863, December... 

1864 

1865, 

1866, „ ... 

1867, „ ... 
Mean 


I -02 
I -08 
108 


fo8 
i'04 
I 09 

1-12 
I'lO 


ro8 
1-03 
I -06 

1-07 

I'lO 


i-o6 
roi 
1-03 

I-OI 

I '04 


I'OO 
I-OO 

I-OO 
I'OO 

1-00 


•97 

-98 

■97 
■99 

■97 


•95 
•96 

•97 
■97 
■95 


■94 

•97 

•95 

•94 
•93 


'92 

■95 

'93 

■91 
-92 


•91 

■93 

"95 
-88 
•92 


•84 
■90 

■91 

-90 
-90 




i-o86 


ro68 


1-030 


i-ooo 


•97s 


•960 


'946 


'926 


-918 


-890 





Table VI. — Mean Monthly Values deduced from Table V. 

(Abstract.) 



Date. 


Level. 


ft. in. 
2 


ft. in. 
6 


ft. in. 
1 


ft. in. 
2 


ft. in. 
3 


ft. in. 
5 


ft. in. 
10 


ft. in. 
20 


ft. in. 
20 
5-in. 
gauge. 

•89a 
'880 

•935 
'913 
'910 
'918 
•925 
'928 
•900 
•930 

•894 
•890 


January 

February . . . 
March 


1-152 
1-140 
i'i4C 
1-055 
I '040 

I'028 

i'oi5 
1-024 
i'oi6 

1-02 2 
1-064 
1-086 


i'ii3 
i'ii5 
i'098 
1-038 
1-028 
i'oi3 
1-015 
i'oi6 
1-010 

l'OI2 

i'044 
i-o68 


1-045 
1-045 
1-033 
1-008 

I'OIO 

1-005 
■99S 

•994 
'992 

I '002 

I'OIO 

i'030 


1-000 
1-000 

I'OOO 
I'OOO 

1-oco 
1-000 
i-ooo 

I'OOO 
1-OOC 
I -COO 
lOCO 
I-OOO 


•960 
•990 
'980 

•993 
■995 
■995 

■99s 

•992 

1-012 

'992 

•982 
■976 


-960 
•970 
'968 
•985 
■993 
•990 

■995 
-98S 

1-024 
-984 

■974 
•960 


•935 

■945 
•948 
•q6'2 


'905 
'912 
■943 

•occ 


'910 
•903 
•928 

■945 
'960 
'960 
•948 
'962 
•982 

•958 
'920 
•910 


April 


May 


•q8oI 'qSc 


June 


■983 
-9S3 
•9S0 

i'oo4 
'976 
'952 
•935 


'968 
'968 
•972 

I'OIO 

'968 

•930 
•905 


July 


August 

September ... 

October 

November ... 
December . . . 


1-065 


1-048 


1-014 


I'OOO 


•989 


•983 


'965 


•950 


■941: •9°9 



ON THE RAINFALL IN THE BRITISH ISLES. 207 

TAT5T.E YTI.— Mean Monthly Eatios (from Table III.), pit gauge = 1-000. 



Elevation Series. 8 inches diameter. 


Date. 


Iso- 
lated 
level. 


Level. 


ft. in. 
2 


ft. in. 
6 


ft. in. 
1 


ft. in. 
2 


ft. in. 
3 


ft. in. 
5 


ft. in. 
10 


ft. in. 
20 


ft. in. 
20 
5-in. 

gauge. 


January 

February . . . 
March 


i-ooo 
i-ooo 
I-ooo 
I-ooo 
I-ooo 

I'OOO 

rooo 
i-ooo 
i-ooo 

I -000 

I-ooo 
I-ooo 


1*070 
1-035 
1-115 
1-023 
i-oio 
1-003 

•997 

I'COO 

■995 

I-OOO 
I-OIO 

1-043 


I -000 
1-000 
1-030 
1-003 
•990 

■993 
-990 
•990 

■995 
•993 

•98c 

1-020 


•940 

■955 
-980 

•973 
•967 
-980 
-967 
-970 
-9S0 

•9S3 
-960 
■973 


-S85 

■91S 

•940 
-960 
•967 
-980 
•967 

■977 
-970 
-9S3 
-960 
•943 


•875 

■915 
■925 

•953 
-963 
-98c 

•973 
•970 
•970 

•977 
-940 
-927 


•865 
■900 
-905 

■947 

•963 

•980 
•970 
•970 
•970 

•973 
•933 

-907 


•835 
•860 
-890 
-927 

•947 
-967 
-963 
■967 
-960 
-963 
•910 
-890 


810 
•840 
•885 
-920 
■937 
•957 
■943 
•957 
•950 

•957 
•883 
-870 


•810 
-825 
-855 
•910 
•930 
-950 
•940 
"957 
•945 
•953 
•873 
-867 


•785 
-810 
•900 
-870 
-880 
-913 
-903 
-930 
-920 
•923 

•853 
-853 


April 


Mav 


June 


Juir 


August 

September ... 

October 

Norember ... 
December ... 


I-ooo 


1-025 


■999 


•969 


•954 


"947 


-940 


-923 9-09 


•901 


•878 



T-OleYIII. — MonthlyEatio.s,1864-65, gronped according iomeantem'perahire. 



Elevation Series. 8 inclie.s diameter. 


1 1 "■'? 


















ft. in. 


1%-%^ 


Date. 




ft, in. ft. in. 


ft. in. 


ft. in. 


ft. in. 


ft. in. 


ft. in. 


ft. m.'20 


2 «3 S3 


Level. 


2 


6 


1 


2 


3 


5 


10 


20 Oio-inch 


^^og 






















gauge 



38-5 


Jan. 18G5 ... 


i-ii 


I'lO 


1-02 


I-oo 


-90 


-92 


-91 


•87 


-90 


•89 


39-6 


Mar. „ ... 


1-12 


I -08 


r'o2 


I-OO 


•97 


•97 


•95 


•93 


•94 


-90 


41-1 


Feb. „ ... 


1-19 


I-20 


1-03 


1-co 


•97 


-96 


-9b 


-90 


91 


-87 


4i'7 


Mar. 18G4 ... 


1-06 


i-o6 


1-02 


1-CO 


•98 


•97 


"94 


•95 


"95 


•92 


43"3 


Feb. „ ... 


III 


1-08 


1-07 


I-oo 


■99 


•97 


"95 


-92 


•91 


•87 


439 
41-3 


Jan. „ ... 
Nov. 1805 ... 


ro8 


I -08 


1-03 


I-oo 


•97 


-9b 


•94 


-92 


-91 


•90 


1112 


i-ioo 


I 032 


I'OOO 


-963 


-958 


•942 


•9^5 


•920 


-892 


44"7 


res 


1-04 


I'OI 


I -CO 


•98 


-98 


-96 


•94 


•94 


.92 


44-7 


Dec. 1804 ... 


1-04 


1-03 


i-oi 


I-oo 


-98 


■9^ 


■97 


•95 


"93 


-90 


45-4 


Apr. „ ... 


1-03 


I -02 


I-oo 


I-oo 


■99 


•98 


•97 


-9b 


•95 


•93 


463 


Nov. „ ... 


1-06 


1-05 


101 


I-OO 


-98 


"97 


-96 


■93 


•91 


-89 


50-6 


Oct. 1805 ... 


i-oi 


l-oi 


I-oo 


I-oo 


I-oo 


■99 


-98 


-98 


-98 


"95 


52-2 


„ 1804... 
Apr. 1805 ... 


1-02 


I'OI 


I-oo 


I -co 


-98 


•98 


•97 


•96 


-92 


91 


47-3 


I -03 3 


1-027 


1-005 


i-ccc 


•985 


"977 


-968 


•953 


-938 


-916 


52-3 


1-07 


1-05 


i-oi 


1-co 


•99 


■99 


"97 


"97 


•95 


-90 


S2-8 


May 


1-05 


1*02 


I-oo 


i-co 


roo 


I-oo 


-98 


-96 


■96 


•92 


55-0 


„ 1804 ... 


I 03 


1-03 


1-04 


I-oo 


-99 


-98 


"97 


-9b 


•95 


-92 


57-J 


June 1805 ... 


1-CI 


i-oo 


I -co 


I-oo 


I-oo 


1-00 


•99 


-98 


•97 


"93 


574 


„ 1804 ... 


1-04 


1-02 


1-02 


I-oo 


-98 


■97 


■9b 


■95 


"93 


-88 


57"7 


Sept. „ ... 
Aug. 1804 ... 


1-04 


1-00 


1-02 


1-co 


■99 


■97 


•96 


"94 


-91 


-87 


55"4 


1-040 


1-02C 


1-015 


1-coc 


'992 


-985 


-972 


-960 


"945 


-903 


58-4 


1-03 


]-02 


■99 


I 00 


-98 


"97 


■95 


•94 


-92 


-86 


58-4 


„ 1865 ... 


1-02 


I-OI 


I -co 


I-oo 


I'OO 


I-oo 


•99 


■99 


"97 


"95 


6l-2 


July 1864 ... 


■99 


I'OO 


•99 


I-oo 


-98 


-98 


"95 


•95 


-90 


-86 


6l-2 


„ 1865 ... 


1-03 


1-03 


I-OI 


I-co 


1-00 


1-co 


■99 


■98 


•94 


•96 


62-8 


Sept 


I -00 


I-oo 


■94 


1-00 


I -07 


118 


i-ii 


1-18 


1-12 


-83 


60-4 


1014 


I -01 2 


-986 


I-ooo 


1-006! 1-026 

1 


-998 


I -008 


-970 


•892 



208 



REPORT — 1870. 



Tablij IX. — Monthly Ratios, 1SG4-G5, grouped according to 
Mean Humidity. 



Elevation Series. 8 inches diameter. 


Mean 

Humidity 

on days 

with rain. 


Date. 


i 1 

ft. in. ft. in. 
Level.' 2 6 

! 


ft. in. ft. in. 
10 2 


ft. in.'rt. in. 
3 5 


! 

1 

ft. in. ft. in. 
10 20 

i 


ft. in. 

20 

5-in. 

gauge 


(Sat. = 100) 
63-6 


Aug. 180-1 


1-03 
■99 


1 
l'02 -qq I'OO -qS 'q? 


■95 
■95 

•96 

■99 

'96 

•97 


•94 

•95 

•95 
•99 

■94 
•96 


'92 


'86 


67-9 


July „ 


roo 


'99 I'CO [ '98 '98 
i'c2 roo ! -98 '97 

I'OO I'OO I'OO I'OO 


•90 '86 

■93 i -88 


69J 


June ,, 


1*04 II '02 
I'02 I'OI 


7''5 


Aug. 1865 


■97 


■95 


71-8 


Sept. 18G4 


1X4 |l-00 I -02 ,I'00 

I'oj iro3 I-C4 [I'co 


•99 '97 
'99 '98 


•91 

■95 


•87 
'92 


72-5 


'^lay „ 


694 


July 18G5 


i"025 i'oi3 I'oio 

i 


I'ooo 1 '987 i '978 


'963 


•95s 


■93° 


'890 


73*2 


1-03 I -03 

I'05 ll*02 

1 -oo 1 1 -oo 
ri2 i-o8 
ro6 I '06 

vo-j i'o5 


rci 


I'OO I'co I'OO 


•99 

•98 

I'll 

•95 

■94 
■97 


•98 

•96 

118 

•93 
•95 
■97 


■94 1 '96 
•96 , -92 

I'I2 1 '83 
•94 1 90 

■95 j -r- 
•95 \ -90 


73'9 


Mav 


I'OO 


I'OO ii'co !roo 


74-2 


Sept. , , 


•94 ji'oo |i'07 ■i'i8 


77'S 


Mar. ,', 


I'02 lI'OO 1 '07 


•97 
■97 
■99 


799 
8^-5 


„ 1864 

Apr. 186.') 


I '02 
I'OI 


I'OO '98 
I'OO '99 


76-5 


Oct. 1865 


1-055 1-040 ji-ooo i-ooo 1x02 


i'oi8 


'990 -995 


•977 -905 


807 


I'OI i-oi I'OO I'OO I'OO 


•QQ 


•98 

■95 
■97 
•96 

•97 
■96 


•98 
•92 
•96 

■94 
'96 

■90 


'98 
•91 
■95 
•94 
'92 
'91 


•95 

'87 

•93 
•92 

•9' 

•87 


817 
819 


Feb. 1864 

April , 


rii i-o8 1-07 roo -99 -97 

1-03 fC2 I'OO ICO .Q9 -98 


837 
84-1 

85-5 


Nov. 1865 

Oct. 1864 

Feb. 1865 


I'OJ 1-04 I'd I'OO 

i"02 roi I'OO I'OO 
i'i9 |i'2o !i'03 I'OO 


•9!i 1 '98 
'98 1 -98 
•97 1 -96 


829 


Nov. 1864 

Jan. 1865 

„ 1864 

June 18G5 


i'o75 'i'o6o I'oiS 


I'OOO 


■985 '977 1 -965 j "943 


■935 

•91 
•90 
•91 
•97 
•93 


'908 

19 
•89 

■90 

•93 

•90 


856 
891 
896 
90-6 


106 rc5 I'oi 

I'll I'lO IC2 

I'oS I'oS ,i'03 
I'OI ll'OO '|i-oo 


I'OO '98 
I'OO I '90 
I'OO '97 

I'OO I'OO 
I'CO '98 


■97 
'92 

•96 
I'CO 

•96 


■96 '93 

•91 -87 
•94 92 
•99 98 
•97 '95 


936 


Dec. 1864 


t'04 i'03 |i'oi 


897 


i'o6o ji'052 


i'oi4|i'oooj '966' '9621 "9541 '930 '924 


•902 



ON THE RAINFALL IN THE BRITISH ISLES. 



209 



Table X. — iloiithly Ratios, 1864-G5, grouped according to 
Velocity of Wind. 



Elevation Series. 8 inches diameter. 


Mean daily 
Horizontal 
motion of 
air on days 
with rain. 


Date. 


Level. 


ft. in 
2 


ft. in. 
6 

1-02 
i-oi 
1-03 
1-02 
1-07 
1-02 


ft. in. 
1 


ft. in 
2 


ft. in. 
3 


ft. in. 
5 


ft. in. 
10 


ft. in. ft. in. 
20 20 

; 5-in. 

'gauge. 


miles. 
167-4 
151-0 
149-6 

147-0 

135-5 
128-6 


January 1865' 

November 1864 ... 
December 1865 ... 

March 1865 

February 1864 ... 
March 1864 

November 1865 ... 
February 1805 ... 

January 1S64 

December 1864 ... 
April 1864 


rii 

1-06 
rc9 
1-12 
111 
1-06 


i-io 
1-05 
1-06 
1-08 
i-c8 
1-06 


I'CO 

I'CO 

I-oo 
1-00 
1. 00 
I-oo 


-90 
-98 
■97 
•97 
•99 

•98 


-92 
■97 
■97 
■97 
•97 
•97 


-91 
-96 
•95 
•95 
•95 
•94 


•87 
•93 
■93 
■93 
•92 

•95 


•90 
-91 

■95 
•94 
■91 
•95 


-89 
-89 

■91 
•90 

•87 
-92 


146-5 


1-092 


1-072 


1-028 


I -000 


-965 


-962 


■943 


•922 


-927 1 -897 


126-0 

121 
118-0 
117-8 
109-6 
100-9 


1-05 
1-19 
1-08 
1-04 
1-03 
1-02 


1-04 

1-20 

i-c8 
1-03 
I -02 
i-oi 


1-01 

1-03 
1-03 

i-oi 
1-00 
1-co 


i-co 
I-oo 
i-oo 
I-oo 
I-oo 
I-oo 


-98 
•97 
•97 
•98 

■99 
•98 


•96 
•96 
•96 

■98 


-96 
-96 

•94 
■97 
•97 
■97 


■9+ 
•90 

■92 

•56 
-96 


■94 
•91 
■9' 
■93 
•95 
-92 


-92 

•87 
-90 
•90 
•93 
•9' 


October 1864 

August 1865 

July 1865 


1156 


1068 


I -063 


i"oi3 


I -000 


-978 


-970 


-962 


-938 


-927 


-905 


100-0 

97-0 
95-8 
95-0 

9+3 
88-8 


1-02 
1-03 
1-04 
1-03 

1-07 
I -01 


lOl 

1-03 

1-02 
I-C3 
1-05 
1-00 


1-00 

1"C1 
1-02 

1-04 

I-OI 

I -co 


I-co 
I-oo 
1-00 
1-00 
I-co 
I-oo 


roo 

1-00 

-98 

■99 

•99 

I-oo 


i-oo 

I-CO 

■97 

•98 

•99 

I-OO 


■99 
-99 
-96 
•97 
•97 
■99 


•99 
-98 

•95 
•96 

•97 
•98 


■97 
■94 
■93 
■95 
•95 
•97 


•95 
•96 

-88 
-92 
•90 
•93 


June 1864 


May 1864 


April 1865 


June 1865 




95-2 


1-033 


1-023 


1-013 


I -000 


■993 


•990 


•97S 


•972 


-952 


-923 


857 
83-4 
826 
81-7 
76-5 
58-0 
78-0 


May 1865 


1-05 
101 
1-04 

•99 
1-03 

1-00 


rc2 
I -01 
I -00 
I -00 

I "02 

rco 


I-oo 
I -co 

1-02 

•99 

■99 

1-94 


1-00 
1-00 
I-co 

I-oo 
I-oo 

I'CO 


1-00 
I-oo 

•99 

-98 
-98 

1-07 


I-OO 

■99 
•97 

-98 

i-iS 


•98 

-96 
•95 

■95 
III 


•98 

•94 

■95 

■9+ 
1-18 


-96 
■98 

■91 
-90 

-92 

1-12 


-92 
■95 
•87 
-86 
-86 
•S3 


October 1865 

September 1864 ... 
July 1864 


Augu.st 1864 

September 1865 . . . 


I-C20 I'OO'i 


-990 [i-ooo J1-C03 1-015 ] '9'^'^ 


•992 


•965 -882 



1870. 



210 



KEPOllT — 1870. 



EXAMINATION OF 



=1^ 

53 S 



321 



322. 



3*3 



324, 



325 



ft 2 



COUKTY. 

Station. 
OWNEB. 
Observer. 



1869. 
July 8. 



July 8. 



Aug. 26 



Aug. 26. 



Aug. 26 



326.1 Aug. 27. 



327, 



328. 



329 



330. 



331 



Aug. 27, 



Aug. 28 



Aug. 28 



Aug. 28. 



Aug. 28. 



BEEESHIRE. 
Englefield House, Reading 
B. BEjS'YON, ESQ., M.P. 

Mr. E. Eobinson. 

EEEKSHIRE. 

Englefield House. Reading. 

B. BENYON, ESQ., M.l\ 

Mr. E. Eobinson. 

DEVON. 

Manston Terrace, Exeter. 

MISS DYMONB. 

3Iiss Bymond. 



DEVON. 

The Field, Parker's Well, Eseter. 

THE. BEV. H. A. BOX. 

The Eev. H. A. Box. 

DEVON, 

Parker's Well. The Garden. 

THEEEV.H.A.BOX. 

The Eev. H. A. Box. 

DETON. 

Clyst St. George, Topsliam. 

THE BEV. H. T. ELLACOMBE. 

Tlui Eev. H. T. Ellacombc. 

DEVON. 

Ash Villa, Budleigh Salterton. 

B. WALKEB, ESQ., M.B. 

B. Walker, Esq., M.B. 

' DEVON. 

Brampford Speke, Exeter. 

W. H. GAMLEN, ESQ. 

W. H. Gamkn, Esq. 

DEVON. 

Brampford Speke, Exeter. 

IV. H. GAMLEN, ESQ. 

W. H. Gamlcn, Esq. 

DEVON. 
High Street, Exeter. 
W. H. ELLIS, ESQ. 



DEVON. 
High Street, Exeter. 
W. H. ELLIS, ESQ. 



o . 

o to 

3 P 

p ^^ 

o o 
O 



Maker's name. 



XI. 



X. 



Ncgretti & Zambra 



"o WD 



Height of 
gauge. 



Above 
ground. 



ft. in. 
9 a.m. I o 



.\non 9"-™' 



in. Anon 



X. 



X. 



III. 



xn. 



XII. 



Negretti & Zambra 



NegretU & Zambra 



Casella 



Casella 



Apps 



Local 



9 a.m. 



9 a.m. 



9 a.m. 



9 a.m. 



9 a.m. 



9 a.m. 



month- 



O I 



Aliove 
sca- 
Icvel. 



feet. 
190' 



190 



165 



I 3 



III. 
But the 

funnel 
alone is 
outside. 

A&330 
but not 
on post. 



Negretti & Zambra 



9 a.m. 



47 II 



44 3 



90 






14 



18 



18 



ON THE RAINFALL IN THE BRITISH ISLES. 
RAII^-GAUGES (coniimted from last Report). 



211 





Equivalents of 


Error at 


Azimuth and an- 








water. 


scale-poin' 


gular elevation of 




H 


£ ^ ^ 3 
5 "^ ^ 11 






- specified in objects above 


Eemarks on position &c. 


£-§ 


s^^'a 


Scale- 
point 


Grains. 


previous 
column. 


mouth of rain- 
gauge. 






in. 


in. 




in. 








5 '00 


-I 


500 


— •001 


S. Apple 42°. 


On part of lawn ; very fair position 


. 321. 


5-02 


-2 


990 


+ -OOI 


N. Vinery 20^. 






501 


•3 


1500 


— -001 








5'oo 


■4 


2000 


— -002 








M 5008 


•5 


2490 


— •001 








8-05 


.2 


2650 


— -oo5 




Close to No. 321 . Eather a rough 
gauge, mounted on a post. 


322. 


8-03 


•3 


3700 


-■013 




8-05 


•4 


5090 


— •005 








8-12 














M 8063 
4-98 














-I 


500 


— ■001 


W. House 48°. 


This gauge was formerly at Albert Ter- 
race, iiieter (see No. 8S for parti- 


323- 


5-02 


-2 


990 


+ ■001 


E. Shrubs 18°. 


culars). It is now on a lawn, and 




5-02 


•3 


1460 


4- -005 
+ •005 




nearly level therewith. Istobemoved 




5-00 
M 5*005 


•5 


2460 




a few feet so as to lessen the angular 
elevation of the house. Eather round 
rim. 




U 800 


•I 


I2I0 


4- -004 
+ •003 




Quite clear in an open field, slo- 
ping slightly to S.E. 




t 800 


-2 


2500 




324. 


^K 8-00 


'3 


3800 


correct. 








■ 7-98 


•4 


4980 


+ •007 








M 7-995 


•5 


6300 


+ -C03 








7-93 


•I 


1250 


+ -00 1 


W.S.W. Ehns38° 


In garden near edge of lawn, and much 


325- 


8-02 


•2 


2540 


correct. 


N.W. House 31°. 


nearer the house than No. 32J. This 


Sti'J 






1 .^_ . 




gauge was formerly at Albert Ter- 




3 


■3 


375° 


-f- C04 




race (see No. Hi), but the funnel has 




8-00 


•4 


5000 


+ -00 6 




been knocked about, and a new glass 




M 7-995 


•5 


6250 


+ •007 




jn-ovided. 




5'oo 


•I 


495 


correct. 


S.W. Trees 32°. 


Gauge enclosed in a square box. 


326. 


4'99 


-2 


990 


correct. 




placed in a level garden N. of 




5'oo 


•3' 


1470 


+ •003 




the church. 




5-01 


■4 


i960 


4- -005 








M 5'ooo 


•5 


24S0 


correct. 








4-98 


-I 


500 


— ■001 


N. House 60°. 


Very bad position, but no better 


327. 


501 


-2 


990 


correct. 


S. Trees 30°. 


obtainable. Gauge mounted in 




5-OI 


•3 


1480 


+ ■001 


S.W. „ 30°. 


an ornamental vase in small 




5 "CO 


•4 


2000 


— •003 




front garden. 




M 5"cco 


•5 


2480 


correct. 








5-06 


.1 


500 


-f -ooi 


W. House 25°. 


On lawn in front of house; very 


328. 


5-04 


.2 


1000 


-J--002 




good position. 




5-05 


•3 


1490 


+ •005 








5'02 


•4 


2000 


+ -C04 








M 5"043 


•5 


2510 


+ -002 








8-00 
S-io 


-1 

-2 


1280 
2545 


— 'OOI 

+■002 




Close to No. 328. 


329. 




8-00 

8-12 


•32 


39S0 


+ 'OII 








M 8-055 














5 -02 
5-02 


-I 

•2 


500 
980 


correct. 
4- -004 




On post on roof of observatory 
above all surrounding objects. 


530. 




5-01 


•3 


1500 


cor cct. 




About C ft. of piping leads the 




,r ^'°^ 


•4 


1985 


+-003 




water into a receptacle inside 




M 5-020 


■5 


2525 


— ■005 




the observatory. 




lo-oo 


•I 


1900 


-f--oo4 




Near No. 330, but not affected - 


31- 


10 -oo 


•2 


3850 


-j--co6 




thereby ; about 1 ft. of tubing is 


10 -02 


■3 


5940 ■ 


+ -001 




used with this gauge. (See fire- 




lo-oo 


■4 


7940 


correct. 




vioiis examination, No. 87.) 




Mio-005 


•5 


9780 


+ -OC7 









p2 



21.2 



REPORT 1870. 



EXAMINATION OF 



a 5 
^« 

331- 
333- 
334- 

335- 
336. 

337- 
338. 

339- 

340. 

34'- 


c„ S 

'z 
g 


COUNTY 

STATION. 

OIVNEF. 

Observer. 


Construction 
of gauge. 


Makers name. 




Height of 1 

gauge. 1 


Above 
ground. 


Above 
sea- 
level. 


1869. 
Aug. 28. 

Aug. 30. 

Aug. 31. 

Aug. 31. 
Sept. I. 
Sept. I. 
Sept. 2. 
Sept. 2. 
Sept. 2. 
Sept. 3. 


DEVON. 

Exfter Institution. 

THE INSTITUTION. 

Mr. Parfitt. 

DEVON. 

Landscore, Teignmouth. 

MRS. CLARKE. 

Mrj. Clarke. 

DEVON. 

Chagford, Moreton Hampstead. 

R. L. BERRY, ESQ. 

R. L. Bcrri/, Esq. 

DEVON. 

Eisliopstei;,Titon. 

THE REV. S. m: SCROGGS. 

The Rev. S. M. Scroggs. 

DEVON. 

Druid House, Asliburton. 
F. AMKRY, ESQ. 
F. Amcrt/, Esq. ■ 

DEVON. 

Middlecofc House, Ilsington. 

A. LYON, ESQ. 

A. hijon, Esq. 

DEVON. 

Rose Hill Cottage. Newton Bu.shell. 

MRS. HARRIS. 

Mrs. Harris. 

DEVON. 

Lamorna, Torquay. 

BRITISH ASSOCIATION. 

W. Tengelli/, Esq., F.R.S. 

DEVON. 

Lupton, Brixliam. 

Mr. G. Erslcine. 

DEVON. 

Fore Street, Kingsbridge. 

G. FOX. 

G. Fox. 


II. 

III. 

III. 

III. 




9 a.m. 
9 a.m. 

month- 

ly- 

9 a.m. 
9 a.m. 


ft. in. 
13 7 

3 

7 

6 
Level. 

3 6 

1 
9 
3 c 
6 


feet. 
IS5 

12s 

57S 

120 

570 
63 

m 

2C 

6g 


Xjocal 


Private 


Elliot 

Private ... 


VIII. 
III. 
Ill 
IV 

III 


Casartelli 


Funnel, Anon. 
Class, Pastorclli. 

Casella 


9 a.m. 
9 a.m. 




Glass, Ca.sella. 
Funnel, Private. 







ON THE RAINFALL IN THE lilUTIS'I ISLES. 



313 



E. UN-GAUGES (continued). 



rn ^ 


Equivalents of 


Error at 


Azimuth and an- 






meter 

tliat 

mean 


water. 


scale-point gular elevation 


• 








specified in objects above 


Kemarks on position &c. 


u £ 


.3 - g il 


& ale- 
point. 


Grains. 


previous 
column. 


mouth of rain- 
gauge. 




■-2 5 


in. 


in. 




in. 








6i8 










Previously examined in 186-3 (see 
No. 88). This gauge is getting 


332. 


613 










612 










past work, and if tha record is 




M 6143 










to be continued, a new one is 
reqiiired. 




5-05 
5'o3 


• I 


500 
9S0 


correct. 




On lawn, in tbe best position the 
grounds afford. 


333- 


•2 


+ -004 




5-02 


•3 


1500 


correct. 


• 






5-00 


■4 


2000 


-f -001 








M 5'o25 


■5 


2500 


-f -001 








4-93 


•I 


400 


+ ■019 


N.W. Tree 52°. 


Observer said he knew his gauge was 


334- 


4-98 


■2 


780 


+ ■042 




wrong, and divided by I'lH, which 
brought it right, but it "does not; e. q. 




S-oi 


■3 


1135 


-f-070 




-.5^ 1-16 = -431 = 212s grs.; but the 




4"99 


•4 


1500 


4- -096 




glass holds only 19d0, therefore there 




M 4990 


■5 
•6 

7 


i960 
2380 
2750 


4--103 
+ 118 

+ •143 




13 still an error of -Ool. A new and 
correct glass has been substituted. 




5-03 
5-05 


•I 


500 
1020 


^-'OOI 




On a post in kitchen garden ; if 
nearer ground it would be shel- 


335- 


-2 


— -002 




5'o3 


•3 


1500 


+ -002 




tered by trees and shrubs ; a few 




,, 5-°5 


•4 


2000 


-I--00 3 




hundred yards W. of the church. 




M 5^040 


■5 


2500 


4- -004 








2"6o 


•2 


234 
580 


+ -018 




A privately constructed gauge 
placed close to a shelving bank. 


336- 


2-50 


•5 


+ -048 






-■55 


1-0 


1200 


+ •066 




A new gauge lias since been 




, ^'55 


I '5 


1800 


+ -098 




placed on level ground. 




M 2-550 














8-40 


•10 


1445 


— •001 


N. House 28°. 


Near a hedge which was about 10° 


337- 


8-55 


■18 


2600 


— -002 




above the gauge ; observer said 




8-50 


■39 


5600 


— -002 




he had intended to have it 




8-50 










clipped, and it should be done 




M 8-488 










at once. 




5-05 
5-05 


'I 


500 
970 


+ -03I 
+ -O09 




In garden but not at work ; obser- 
vations to be resumed forthwith. 


338. 


■2 






5-08 


•3 


1480 


-|--oc8 








, 5-05 


•4 


2000 


-f--oo6 








M 5-058 


•5 


2480 


-f-oii 








5-00 


•I 


500 


— 'COl 


S. Trees 48°. 


On lawn, in best position possible. 


339- 


5 00 


■2 


99° 


correct. 


S.E. Trees 45°. 






5-01 


•3 


1490 


correct. 








,, 4-99 


•4 


lySo 


-)--oci 








M 5-000 


•5 


24S0 


correct. 








12-05 


•I 


2S70 


correct. 


8.E. Tear 32°. 


In gardens very well placed. 


340. 


11-98 


•3 


8580 


correct. 








I2"OI 


■5 


14780 


-•017 








12-00 














Ml20l0 














5-30 


•I 


too 


— •001 


S.W. Laburn. 70°. 


Yery flat rim ; position obviously '. 


!4i. 


5'oo 


•2 


970 


4- -004 


N. House 52°. 


very bad. Eecommended that 




5-00 


•3 


1480 


4'ooi 




this gauge should remain in its 




5-00 


■4 


1970 


4- '003 




position till the end of the year. 




M 5-coo 


■5 


2460 


4-004 























314 



RE POUT — 1870. 



EXAMINATION OF 



.S 3 



l<1 



342. 



1869. 

Sept. 3. 



343. Sept. 



344' 



3+5- 



346. 



3+7- 



348 



349' 



350 



Sept. 3. 



Sopt. 6 



Sept. 6. 



Sept. 7, 



Sept. 8 



Sept. 8. 



Sept. 8. 



COUNTY. 

Station. 
OWNER. 
Observer, 



351- 



352' 



Sept. 9, 



Sept. 10 






£3 = 
O 



DEVON. 

Fore Strest, Kingsbridge. 

G. FOX. 

G. Fox. 

DEVON. 

Burton, Kingsbridge. 

W. BALKWILL, ESQ. 

W. Balkivill, Esq. 

DEVON. 

Bolt Tail, Kingsbridge. 

JV. B^iLKWILL, ESQ. 

W. Balkwill, Esq. 

DEVON. 

Prison Reservoir, Dartmoor. 

MR. WATTS. 

Mr. Watts. 

DEVON. 

North Hessarv Tor, Dartmoor. 

MR. WATTS. 

Mr. Watts. 

DEVON. 

Powder Mills, Dartmoor. 

BRITISH ASSOCIATION. 

Mr, Hcniuood. 

DEVON. 
Mount Tavy, Tavistock. 
MISS CARPENTER. 



DEVON. 

'Vest Street, Tavistock. 

T. WIND E ATT, ESQ. 

T. Windcatt, Esq. 

DEVON. 

Old Town Street, Plymouth. 

A. P. BALKWILL, ESQ. 

A. P. Balkwill, Esq. 



CORNWALL. 

Port Eliot, St. Germans. 

liT. HON. EARL ST. GERMANS. 

Mr. Lynch. 

CORNWALL. 

Regent's Parade, Penzance. 

W. H. RICHARBS, ESQ. 

W. H. Richards, Esq. 



Ill 



XII 



III 



III 



VIII 



XII 



III 



Maker's name. 



Barrow 



CascUa . . . 



Casella 



III 

Funnel 

outside 

roof, 

bottle 

inside 

IV 



IV 



Anon 



Anon 



Dixey . 






Height 
of gauge. 



Above 
ground. 



ft. in. 
o 6 



weekly 5 6 
& 1st of 
month. 



9 a.m. 



Abive 
sea- 
level. 



1 o 



month- 4 6 



Negretti & Zambra 



weekly. 



9 a.m 



irregu- 
lar & 
1st of 

month, 



feet. 
68 



297 



o 6 1596 



Casella 9 a.m. i o i2co 



35 ° 



40 Si 



3 o 



ON THE RAINFALL IN THE BRITISH ISLES. 



315 



RAIN-GAUGES (continued). 



Diameters 

(that 

marked 

M=mean). 


Equivalents of 
•water. 


Error at 

scale-point 

specified in 

Ijrevious 

column. 


Azimuth and an- 
gular elevation of 
objects above 
moutli of rain- 
gauge. 


Eemarks on position &c. 


1^ 


Scale- 
point. 


Grains. 


in. 
4-96 
5-01 
4-98 
5-03 

M 4-995 
5-00 
5-°3 
4'99 
4-98 

M 5-000 

5-03 
5-02 

5-05 

M 5-042 
5-00 
S'oi 
5-01 

M 5-002 

497 
5-01 
4-98 

5-02 
M 4-995 


i». 




.„. 


Close to 342, but not in use. Ee- 
commended that it be moved to 
another and more open part of 
the garden and compared with 
No. 341. 

Gauge stands about 1 foot above a 
bank running S. to N., and is 
fully exposed. 

Gauge in open moorland quite ex- 
posed, but concealed from view 
3y loose stones, among which it 
is placed. 

Trees have grown considerably 
round this gauge since my for- 
mer visit in 1SG3 (see No. 70). 
Mr. Watts promised to speak to 
the Governor on the subject. 

New gauge in the same position 
as No. 71. Quite open. 

Gauge not erected at time of -visit, 
but site was selected, where it 
will be very well situated and 
daily observations are promised. 


342. 
343- 
344- 
345- 
346. 

347- 


•I 

■3 

■4 
■5 

-I 

•2 

■3 

•4 
•s 

-I 

-2 

•3 

•47 

-I 

-2 

■3 

■47 


500 
1000 
1480 
2000 
2490 

490 

980 
1460 
1970 
2440 

500 
1000 
1480 
2300 

500 
1000 
1480 
2300 


— •001 

— •002 
-f--ooi 

— -004 
— -002 
4- -003 
-f -004 
4--OIO 
-f -oio 
-|--oi6 
— -ooi 

— •002 
+ •002 
-f 006 

— •001 
— -002 

-I--COI 

-f-005 






N. Trees 20°. 
E.N.E. Trees 70°. 
S. Trees 72°. 














5-00 
5-00 
5-00 
5-00 


•I 

■3 
•4 


500 

99° 
1490 
1980 


— -OOI 

correct, 
correct. 
-)--ooi 


N.N.E. Beeeli5S°. 
E. Trees 50°. 


In small garden S. of a small cot- 
tage by tlie side of the road to 
Dartmoor, about A of a mile 
from Mount Tavy. 


34S. 


M 5-000 
I'oo sq. 
I -00 
101 


■5 

•I 

i-o 

5-0 


2470 

250 
1250 


-f-C02 
+ •002 

-f--I20 




A unique gauge 1 square inch in 
area, moiuited on a post in a 
rather sheltered, garden. 


349- 




1-02 
M i-oo8 
5-00 
5-06 

5'02 
,r 5'°3 

M 5-C28 

12-23 


lo-o 
-I 

•2 

■3 

•4 
•5 

-I 


2510 

500 
990 
1495 
1975 
HSS 
3000 


-f -200 

correct. 
+ -003 
+ •002 
-|--oo6 
+ -010 
— -005 




Gauge passes through, and its orifice is 
about 6 inches above the flat lead roof 
of a large warehouse ; the bottle is 
suxiiiorted by a small shelf beneath. 
Position very exposed. 

Good position in the gardens. 


350. 
351- 


N. Trees 55°. 


11-72 

12-10 


•2 

•3 


5630 
8610 


-r-002 
— •003 








„ "'^^ 


■4 


11370 


correct. 








M 11-973 

• I2-0O 

11-93 

12-00 


•5 

'I 

"2 


14280 
32i;o 
5S10 


— •002 
-•014 
— -004 


S.E.Workshop25°. 
S. Flagstaff 80°. 


In small grass enclosure, rather 
shut in by walls ; however, no- 
thing but the flagstaff rises 30°. 


352. 


12-0O 

M 11-983 
























■ 





210 



KEPOUT — 18rO. 



EXAMINATION OF 



.a £ 





COUNTY. 

Station. 
OWNER. 
Observer. 


li 




Maker's name. 


to - 


Height 1 
of gauge. 1 


Above 
ground. 


Aboxe 
sea- 
level. 


353- 

354- 

355- 

35f- 

357- 

358- 

359- 

360. 

!36. 

i 

361 
363 


1869. 

Sept. 10. 
Sept. II. 
Sept. 11. 
Sept. 13. 

Sept. 13. 

Sept. 13. 

Sept. 13. 

Sept. 14. 

Sopt. 14 

Sept. 17 

Sept. 1 3 


CORNWALL. 

Penalyerne, Penzance. 

T. S. BOLITHO, ESQ. 

CORNWALL. 

Sawali, Penzance. 

MR. J. SAUNDRY. 

Mr. J. Saundri/. 

CORNWALL. 

St. Scnnen, Land's End. 

IIEV. G. L. WOOLLCOMBE. 

Bev. G. L. WooUcombe, 

CORNWALL. 

St. Ruan Rectory, Ilelstone. 

THE REV. F. C. JACKSON. 

The Rev. F. C. Jackson. 

CORNWALL. 

Helstone. 

M. P. MOYLE, ESQ. 

M. P. Moyle, Esq. 

CORNWALL. 

Antron Lodge, Helstone. 

THE REV. H. J. A. FOTIIERGILL. 

The Rev. H. J. A. Fothcrtjlll. 

CORNWALL. 

Antron Lodge (Orchard). 

THE REV. H. J. A. F OTHER GILL. 

The Rev. H. J. A. Futhcrgill. 

CORNWALL. 

Penzance. 

THE REV. PREBENDARY 

HEDG ELAND. 

CORNWALL. 

Penzance. 

THE REV PREBEND.UIY 

HEDG ELAND. 

CORNWALL. 

Tre.sco Abbey, Scilly I.sland:^. 

AUGUSTUS SMITH, ESQ. 

Mr. Hawkins. 

CORNWALL. 

Parade, St. Mary's, Scilly Islands. 

J. G. MOYLE, ESQ. 

J. G. Moyle, Esq. 


VII 
X 

III 
II 
III 
III 
III 

lY 

III 

X 

X 


Casclla 


- 


ft. in. 
6 

4 0? 

4 

2 8 

5 

6 
I I 

3 6 
I 
a 8 

I 0? 


feet. 

150 

320? 

290V 
1 10 

"S 
23s 
234 
,85 
I So 

5° 
20 


Whitley 




Casella 


weekly 
&, 1st of 
month. 

9 a.m. 


LiddcU 




Anou 


9 a.m. 


Auon 


Negretti&Zanibra 
Whitley 


9 a.m. 
pre- 
ceding. 

not in 
use. 

9 a.m. 


Whitley 


Whitley 









ox THE EAINFALL IN THE BRITISH ISLES. 



217 



RAIN-GAUGES (conthmcd). 



2 ^« 


Equivalents of 


Error at 


Azimuth and an- 






ft "§ 


water. 


scale-point 
specified in 


gular elevation of 
objects above 


Kemarks on position &c. 


C a; 






2-^ 


Scale- 


Grains. 


previous 


mouth of rain- 






point. 




column. 


gauge. 






in. 


in. 




in. 








lo'oo so 










On lawn, very good position, glass 
not accessible. 


353- 


lo-oo „ 










lo-oo „ 














lo-oo „ 














JI lo-ooo 














M 1 1-3? 


*IO 


2510 
35S0 


— '001 




Altitudf^ uncertain harometpr fjill- 


354- 


•145 


— •002 




ing rapidly, and great gale blow- 












ing. Funneljostand gauge dis- 














mantled. 




5-00 
4-y8 


'I 


500 
ICCO 


-I--OOI 

-f -004 




Altitude uncertain ; see above. 
Gauge partly sunk in a bi!nk E. 


355- 


■2 




502 


•4 


I9S0 


-I--C07 




of the house, within a short 




5'oo 


•5 


2460 






distance of the Land's End. 




M 5 -coo 


i-o 


4920 










S-20 


•I--2 


1300 


correct. 


S. Trees 43°. 


In garden, rather sheltered and be- 


356. 


8-05 


-2--3 


1270 


-I--00 3 


W. House 30°. 


low tlie level of the surrounding 




8-13 


■3--4 


13 10 


— -001 




country. 




807 


■4-- 5 


1250 


-|--co6 








M 8-113 
477 


-S--6 

'2 


1270 
970 


+ "o°3 
-I--005 




In a garden eloping to 8.E. so rapidly 
that though the gaxige is on the ridge 


357- 






5"27 


•3 


1450 


-|--oc8 




of an outhouse, it is only .5 ft. above 




485 


■4 


1940 


-f-oc9 
+ •017 




the garden close to it. "The funnel 
was loose, and much knocked aljout 




S'3 


■5 


2400 




Iiy (I suppose) having been often 




M 5 'CO 5 


■6 


2910 


-I--CI4 




blown away. 




5 "DO 

5-08 


"1 


450 
8S0 


4-'oi I 
+ •025 




Gauc-e in orchard attached to a 


358. 


•^ 




dwarf post. 


5-07 


•3 


1320 


-f--o38 








5-00 


■4 


1750 


+ -CS3 








M 5-038 














5 CO 

5-CO 


•I 


440 
850 


-I--011 
-f -028 




In field, near 358, clear of all objects. 
[Note. — I believe Mr. Fothcrgill makes 


359- 


"2 








some mental correction to the read- 




4.'97 


■3 


I3C0 


-I--036 




ings of his gauges, the nature f >f which 




500 


•4 


I7I0 


+'C54 




I could not understand. Recom- 




M 4-993 
1204 










mended to procure gauges of the ordi- 




•I 


2970 


— -CC4 


E. House 28°. '\ 


nary construction.] 


36c. 


11-98 


•45- 


13460 


4--C22 


S. Trees 35°. 






11-90 








W. „ 32°, 


This and No. 361 had not been 




12-04 










regularly observed for some 




1111-990 








► 


time ; fresh positions were se- 




5-08 


•0--S 


2650 


— •021 


lected for them, and observa- 


361. 


S-io 


•5-10 


2 5CO 


-I--OO9 




tions will be recommenced 




50J 


ro-i-i; 


2550 


— -oci 




forthwith. 




,_ 505 


i-S-2-r 


2J40 


+•021 








M 506 5 








; 






1 1 "42 


■I 


2550 


— •CO I 


>'.E. Bank 15°. 


In gardens, very good position, 


362, 


II-2I 


•a; 


6000 


-f-013 




but very flimsy and indiflferent 




I rjo 


•3 


Sooo 


-•015 




gauge. 




1 1-30 
Mir3c8 
















•I 

2 '0 


230 

2*100 




S. Gable end SG°. 


Observations discontinued. Funnel lost. 
A new gauge has since been purchased 


363- 




Mi I 3? 










by Mr. Moyle, and erected on the site 




i'3 


3220 






of the old one in small garden in rear 














of house. No obstruction except as 




[ 










noted. 



















218 



RJSFORT — 1870, 



EXAMINATION OF 



si 

■-2 § 



=* 2 



364, 



365- 



366. 



367. 



368. 



369, 



370, 



371 



372 



373 



374' 



1869. 
Sept. 20, 



Sept. 21 



Sept. 2 1 . 



Sept. 22 



Sept. 23. 



Sept. 23 



Sept. 23. 



Sept. 23 



Sept. 24 



Sept. 24, 



Sept. 24 



COUNTY. 

Station. 
OWNER. 

Observer, 



COENWALL. 

The Battery, Penzance. 

METEOROLOG. COMMITTEE. 

Mr. Senior. 

COENWALL. 

Teliidy Grardens, Eedrutb. 
. CAPT. BASSET. 
Mr. Mills. 

COENWALL. 

Kimberlpy Place, Falmouth. 

LOVEL SQUIRE, ESQ. 

Lovel Squire, Esq. 

COENWALL. 

Coast-Guard House. New Quay. 

3IR. TREGIDGO. 

Mr. Trcgidgo. 

COENWALL . 

Penarth, Truro. 

N. WHITLEY, ESQ. 

K Whitley, Esq. 

COENWALL. 

Eoyal Institution, Truro. 

THE INSTITUTION. 

Mr. W. Ncwcoinbe. 

COENWALL. 

St. Agnes. 

MR. J. OPIE. 

Mr. J. Opie. 

COENWALL. 

Strangeway's Terrace, Truro, 

C. BARHAM, ESQ., M.D. 

C. Barham, Esq., M.D. 

COENWALL. 

Trevarna, St. Austell. 

W. CO ODE, ESQ. 

W. Coode, Esq. 

COENWALL. 

Castle Stret, Bodmin. 

CAPT. LIDDELL, R.N. 

Capt. Liddcll, R.N. 

COENWALL. 

Castle Street, Bodmin. 

CAPT. LIDDELL, R.N. 

Caft. Liddell, R.N. 



a 
o 

o bo 

? == 

u a 

CI =s 

o o 

o 



III 



III 



VII 



X 



Maker's name. 



Ill 



II 



XII 



Negretti & Zambra 



Anon 






Ileigbt of 
gauge. 



Anon 



II Liddell 



Above 
ground. 



ft. in. 
I 2 



o 4 



9 a.m. 

1st of 

month 



10 a.m. 40 o 223 



9 a.m. 



Whitley 9 a.m. 



Whitley . 



9a.m. 



I 9 



40 o 



II Liddell '98.111 



Ca sella 



LiddeU 



9 a.m. 



2 6 



o 6 



feet. 
60 



160 



90 



190 



56 



71 



2 6 338 



ON THE RAINFALL IN THE BRITISH ISLES. 



219 



K.UN-GAUGES (continued). 



neters 

arked 
mean). 


Equivalents of 


Error at 


Azimutli and an- 






water. 


scale-point 
specified in 


gidar elevation of 
objects above 


Remarks on position &c. 


<D . 






is 


5i>a II 


Scale- 


Grains. 


previous 


mouth of rain- 




« ^ 


point. 




column. 


gauge. 






in. 


in. 




in. 








7-98 
7-95 


•1 


1300 


— -C03 
— •008 




Standing on gravel in the bat- 
tery of the Penzance Artillery- 


364 


•5 


63S0 




7-92 










Corps ; an open position, but the 




7-98 










gauge has to be moved when- 




M 7-958 










ever drill is going on. 




5-04 


•1 


520 


— •002 


S.E. Beans 58°. 


G-auge standing loosely on funnel, not 


365- 


5-03 
510 


■42 


2040 


+ ■020 


S.W. „ 54°. 


levpl, and shut in on the south by rows 




113 

i"6o 


5630 
8080 


+ -024 




of beans ; the old observer had left, 
and the new gardener \ya3 not aware 




5-09 


+ -012 




of the importanee of accuracy. 




M 5'o65 
io'2osq. 








- 


This gauge is a very old one inserted in 




•05 


1210 
2160 


4--003 


the masonry of the new observatory 
tower built by the Meteorological 


366. 




io-o6 


•09 


+ -006 




Committee. It will not give even the 




lo-oo 


•I 


2510 


4--003 




rainfall on the tower correctly, aa its 




JO'20 

M10115 










rim is only an inch or tivo above the 










„ I 


masonry, and therefore insplashing is 
inevitable. 




6-00 


•1--0 


690 


— -003 


W. House 20°. 


Very good position in the large 


367. 


6'oo 


•2--1 


6S0 


— •005 




garden of the station. 




6'02 


•3 --2 


700 


— -002 








6-00 


•4-'3 


730 


+ -002 








M 6'oo5 


•S--4 


700 


— '002 








11-30 


•1 


2550 


correct. 


S.W. Tree 52°. 


Funnel fits loosely on can, and is 


368. 


II-27 


•2 


5150 


— -003 


N. House 48°. 


prevented from being blown 




11-30 


■3 


7530 


4--O04 




away by a large stone placed 




11-41 










in it. Position not good, but 




Ml 1-320 










no better available. 




10-10 sqr. 
10-12 


•1 


2500 


4- -004 
4- "006 




Funnel very old, had been previonaly 
repaired many t