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Full text of "Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science"

S ( /^ 



REPORT 



OF THE 



FORTY-FIRST MEETING 



OV THE \ 






^X^^iT^^'- 



. BRITISH ASSOCIATION 



FOE THE 



ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE ; 



HELD AT 



EDINBURGH IN AUGUST 1871. 



LONDON: 
JOHN MURRAY, ALBEMARLE STREET. 

1873. 



PKINTED BY 
TAYLOR AND FRANCIS, RKD LION COURT, FLEKT STREET. 







v:ti^f 






CONTENTS. 



'X'VW'V/x^ 



Page 

Objects and Eules of the Association xvii 

Places of Meeting and Officers from commencement xxiv 

Presidents and Secretaries of the Sections of the Association from 

commencement xsx 

Evening Lectures yyxiy 

Lectures to the Operative Classes xli 

Table showing the Attendance and Receipts at previous Meetings . . xlii 

Treasurer's Account xliv 

Officers and Council, 1871-72 xlv 

Officers of Sectional Committees xlvi 

Eeport of the Council to the General Committee slvii 

Eeport of the Kew Committee, 1870-71 1 

Recommendations of the General Committee for Additional Reports 

and Researches in Science .... * Ixix 

Synopsis of Money Grants . . . i . . * Ixxiv 

General Statement of Sums paid on account of Grants for Scientific 

Purposes Ixxvi 

Arrangement of the General Meetings Ixxxiii 

Address by the President, Sir "William Thomson, Knt., LL.D., F.R.S. Lsxxiv 

REPORTS OF RESEARCHES IN SCIENCE. 

Seventh Report of the Committee for Exploring Kent's Cavern, Devon- 
shire, — the Committee consisting of Sir Chaeles Ltell, Bart., E.R.S., 
Professor Pniiiips, F.R.S., Sir JoHjsr Lvjbbock, Bart., E.R.S., John 

a2 



11 CONTENTS. 

Page 

Evans, F.E.S., Edwaeb Vivian, George Busk, P.R.S., "Wilmam Boyd 
Dawkins, F.R.S., William Ayshfobd Sanford, F.G.S,, and William 
Pengellt, F.Il.S. (Reporter) 1 

Fourth Report of tlie Committee for the purpose of investigating the rate 
of Increase of Underground Temperature down-\yards in various Locali- 
ties of Dry Land and under Water. Drawn up by Professor Everett, 
at the request of the Committee, consisting of Sir William Thomson, 
F.R.S., Sir Charles Lyell, Bart., F.R.S., Professor J. Clerk Maxwell, 
F.R.S., Professor Phillips, F.R.S., G. J. Symons, F.M.S., Dr. Balfour 
Stewart, F.R.S., Professor Ramsay, F.R.S., Professor A. Geikie, 
F.R.S., James Glaisher, F.R.S., Rev. Dr. Graham, E. W. Binney, 
F.R.S., George Maw, F.G.S.,W. Pengelly, F.R.S., S. J. Mackie, F.G.S., 
Edward Hull, F.R.S., and Professor Everett, D.C.L. (Secretary) . . 14 

Report on Observations of Luminous Meteors, 1870-71. By a Com- 
mittee, consisting of James Glaisher, F.R.S., of the Royal Observa- 
tory, Greenwich, Robert P. Greg, F.G.S., F.R.A.S., Alexander S. 
Herschel, F.R.A.S., and Charles Brooke, F.R.S., Secretary to the 
Meteorological Society 26 

Fifth Report of the Committee, consisting of Henry Woodward, F.G.S., 
F.Z.S., Dr. Duncan, F.R.S., and R. Etiiepidge, F.R.S., on the Struc- 
ture and Classification of the Fossil Crustacea, drawn up by Henry 
Woodward, F.G.S., F.Z.S 53 

Report of the Committee appointed at the Meeting of the British Asso- 
ciation at Liverpool, 1870, consisting of Prof. Jevons, R. Dudley 
Baxter, J. T. Danson, James Heywood, F.R.S., Dr. W. B. Hodgson, 
and Prof. Waley, with Edmund Macrory as their Secretary, " for the 
purpose of urging upon Her Majesty's Government the expediency of 
arranging and tabulating the resiUts of the approaching Census in the 
three several parts of the United Kingdom in such a manner as to 
admit of ready and effective comparison " 57 

Report of the Committee appointed for the purpose of Superintending 
the Publication of Abstracts of Chemical Papers. The Committee con- 
sists of Prof. A. W. Williamson, F.R.S., Prof. H. E. Roscoe, F.R.S., 
Prof. E. Frankland, F.R.S 59 

Report of the Committee for discussing Observations of Lunar Objects 
suspected of Change. The Committee consists of the Rev. T. W. 
Webb and Edward Crossley, Secretary CO 

Second Provisional Report on the Thermal Conductivity of Metals. By 
Prof. Tait 97 

Report on the Rainfall of the British Isles, by a Committee, consisting of 
C. Brooke, F.R.S. (Chairman), J. Glaisher, F.R.S., Prof. Phillips, 
F.R.S., J. F. Bateman, C.E., F.R.S., R. W. Mylne, C.E., F.R.S., 
T. Hawksley, C.E., Prof. J. C. Adams, F.R.S., C. Tomlinson, F.R.S., 
Prof. Sylvester, F.R.S., Dr. Pole, F.R.S., Rogers Field, C.E., and 
G. J. Symons, Secretary 98 

Third Report on the British Fossil Corals. By P. Martin Duncan, 
F.R.S., F.G.S., Professor of Geology in King's College, London 116 



CONTENTS. Ill 

Page 

Eeport on the Heat generated m the Blood during the process of Arteria- 
lization. By Arthur Gamgee, M.D., F.E..S.E., Lecturer on Physiology 
in the Extra- Academical Medical School of Edinburgh 137 

Eeport of the Committee appointed to consider the subject of Physiolo- 
gical Experimentation 144 

Eeport on the Physiological Action of Organic Chemical Compounds. By 
Benjamin Ward Eichardson, M.A., M.D., P.E.S 145 

Eeport of the Committee appointed to get cut and prepared Sections 
of Mountain-Limestone Corals for the purpose of showing their Struc- 
ture by means of Photography. The Committee consists of James 
Thomson, P.G.S., and Prof. Hareness, F.E.S 165 

Second Eeport of the Committee appointed to consider and report on the 
various Plans proposed for Legislating on the subject of Steam-Boiler 
Explosions, with a view to their Prevention, — the Committee consisting 
of Sir William Fairbairn, Bart., C.E., LL.D., IF.E.S., John Penn, 
C.E., F.E.S., Frederick J. Beamwell, C.E., Hugh Mason, Samuel 
EiGBT, Thomas Schofield, Charles F. Beyer, C.E., Thomas Webster, 
Q.G., and Lavington E. Fletcher, C.E 166 

Eeport of the Committee on the " Treatment and Utilization of Sewage," 
consisting of Eichaed B. Geantham, C.E., F.Qr.S. (Chairman), Pro- 
fessor D. T. Ansted, F.E.S., Professor W. H. Corfield, M.A., M.B., J. 
Bailet Denton, C.E., F.G.S., Dr. W. H. Gilbert, F.E.S. , John Thorn- 
hell Harrison, C.E., Thomas Haavksley, C.E., F.G.S., W. Hope, Y.C, 
Lieut.-Col. Leach, E.E., Dr. W. Odling, F.E.S., Dr. A. Voelckee, 
F.E.S., Professor A. W. Wu-liamson, F.E.S., F.C.S., and Sir John 
Lubbock, Bart., M.P., F.E.S. (Treasurer) 166 

Letters from M. Lavoisier to Dr. Black 189 

Eeport of the Committee, consisting of Dr. Anton Dourn, Professor Eol- 
LESTON, and Mr. P. L. Sclater, appointed for the purpose of promoting 
the Foundation of Zoological Stations in differeat parts of the World : 
— Eeporter, Dr. Dohen 192 

Preliminary Eeport on the Thermal Equivalents of the Oxides of Chlo- 
rine. By James Dewae, F.E.S.E 193 

Eeport on the practicability of establishing " A Close Time " for the pro- 
tection of indigenous Animals. By a Committee, consisting of Prof. 
Newton, M.A., F.E.S., Eev. H. B. Tristram, F.E.S., J. E. Harting, 
F.L.S., F.Z.S., Eev. H. Barnes, and H. E. Dresser (Eeporter) 197 

Eeport of the Committee on Earthquakes in Scotland. The Committee 
consists of Dr. Beyce, F.G.S., Sir W. Thomson, F.E.S., D. Mxlne- 
HoME, F.E.S.E., P. Macfarlane, and J. Beough 197 

Eeport on the best means of providing for a uniformity of Weights and 
Measures, with reference to the Interests of Science. By a Committee, 
consisting of Sir John Boa^-ring, F.E.S., The Eight Hon. Sir C. B. Ad- 
derley, M.P., Samuel Brown, F.S.S., Dr. Fare, F.E.S., FEA^-K P. 
Fellowes, Professor Frankland, F.E.S., Professor Hennessy, F.E.S., 
James Heywood, r.E.S., Sir Eobeei Kane, F.E.S., Professor Leose 



IV CONTENTS. 



Page 



Lett, F.S.A., F.S.S., C. W. Siejtejts, F.E.S., Colonel Stkes, F.E.S., 
M.P., Professor A. W. Williamson, F.R.S., James Yates, F.R.S., Dr. 
George Gloyee, Sir Joseph Whitwoeth, Bart., F.R.S., J. E. Napier, 
H. DiECKS, J. V. N. Bazaigette, "W. Smith, Sir W. Fairbairk, Bart., 
F.E.S., and John Robhtson : — Professor Leoj^e Levi, Secretary .... 198 

Eeport of the Committee appointed for the purpose of promoting the 
extension, improvement, and harmonic analysis of Tidal Observations. 
Consisting of Sir William Thomson, LL.D., F.E.S., Prof. J. C. Adams, 
F.E.S., J. Oldham, William Paekes, M. Inst. C.E., Prof. Eanklse, 
LL.D., F.E.S., and Admiral Eichaeds, E.N"., F.E.S 201 



NOTICES AND ABSTRACTS 



OF 



MISCELLANEOUS COMMUNICATIONS TO THE SECTIONS. 



MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICS. 

Address by Professor P. G. Tait, M.A., F.R.S.E, President of the Section , . 1 

Mathematics. 

Mr. Robert Sta'well Ball's exhibition and description of a Model of a 
Conoidal Cubic Surface called the " Cylindroid," which is presented in the 

Theory of the Geometrical Freedom of a Rigid Body 8 

Professor Catley on the Number of Covariants of a Binaiy Quantic 9 

Mr. W. K. Cliffoed on a Canonical Fonn of Spherical Harmonics 10 

Mr. J. W. L. Glaishee on certain Definite Integrals 10 

— ■ — ~ on Lambert's Proof of the In-ationality of tt, and on 

the L-rationality of certain other Quantities 12 

Mr. C. W. Meeelfield on certain Families of Surfaces 18 

INIr. F. W. NEvraiAN on Doubly Diametral Quartan Ciu-ves 20 

Professor Purser's Remarks on Napier's original Method of Logarithms 23 

Mr. W. H. L. Russell on Linear Differential Equations 23 

on MacCuUagh's Theorem 23 

Mr. J. J. Stltesteh. on the Theory of a Point in Partitions 23 

Sir W. Thomson on the General Canonical Form of a Spherical Harmonic of 

the nth Order 25 



CONTENTS. y 

Gekehai, Physics, 

Mr. Robert Stawell Ball's Account of Experiments upon tlie Resistance 
of Air to the Motion of Vortex-rings 20 

Mr. H. Deacon's Experiments on Vortex-rings in Liquids 29 

Professor J. D. Everett on Units of Force and Energy 29 

Dr. J. H. Gladstone and Alfred Tribe on the Corrosion of Copper Plates 
by Nitrate of Silver 29 

M. Janssen's Remarks on Physics 29 

INIr. T. M. Lindsay and W. R. Smith on Democritus and Lucretius, a Ques- 
tion of Priority in the Kinetical Theory of Matter 30 

Professor James Thomson's Speculations on the Continuity of the Fluid State 
of Matter, and on Relations between the Gaseous, the Liquid, and the Solid 
States 30 

Observations on Water in Frost Rising against 

Gravity rather than Freezing in the Pores of Moist Earth 34 



Astronomy. 

Professor Cliffobd on the Secular Cooling and the Figure of tbe Earth .... 34 

Dr. Gill's Observations on the Parallax of a Planetary Nebula 34 

M. Janssen on the Coming Solar Eclipse 34 

Mr. J. Norman Lockyer on the Recent and Coming Solar Eclipses 34 

Mr. R. A. Proctor on the Construction of the Heavens 34 

Professor Osborne Reynolds on Artificial Coronas 34 

Mr. H. Fox Talbot on a Method of Estimating the Distances of some of the 

Fixed Stars 34 

Professor Charles V. Zenger on the Nutoscopo, an Apparatus for f^howing 

Graphically the Curve of Precession and Nutation 30 



Light. 

Mr. Philip Braham's description of a Set of Lenses for the Accurate Cor- 
rection of Visual Defect 37 

Mr. Thomas'Stevenson's description of a Paraboloidal Reflector for Light- 
houses, consisting of silvered facets of ground-glass ; and of a Diflereutial 
Holophote ■. "T 

Professor G. G. Stokes's Notice of the Researches of the late Rev. William 
Vernon Harcoui-t' on the Conditions of Transparency in Glass, and the Con- 
nexion between the Chemical Constitution and Optical Properties of dif- 
ferent Glasses 38 

Mr. G. Johnstone Stoney on one Cause of Transparency ........ r ....... . 41 

on the advantage of referring the positions of 

Lines in the Specti-um to a Scale of Wave-numbers 42 

Professor William Swan on the Wave-lengths of the Spectra of the Hydro- 
carbons - 43 

The Abbe Moigno on the Poste Photographique .■ 44 

Mr. R. Sutton's Accoimt of a New Photographic Dry Process 44 



VI CONTENTS. 

Page 

Heat, 

Mr. Donald MTablane's description of Experiments made in the Physical 
Laboratory of the University of Glasgow to determine the Surface Conduc- 
tivity for Ileat of a Copper Ball 44 

Mr. William Ladd on a Respirator for Use in Extinction of Fires 44 

Professor Balfoub Stewart on the Temperature-equilibrium of an Enclosure 
in which there is a Body in Visible Motion 45 

Professor Ch. V. Zexgee on a new Steam-gauge 45 

Electeicitt and Magnetism. 

Jlr. Thomas Bloxam on the Influence of Clean and Unclean Surfaces in Vol- 
taic Action 47 

Mr. Latimeb Clabk on a new Form of Constant Galvanic Battery 47 

Dr. J. P. Joule's Notice of and Observations with a New Dip-circle 48 

Professor Tait on Thermo-electricity 48 

INIr. C. F. Varley on a Metliod of Testing Submerged Electric Cables 48 

Professor Cn. V, Zengeb on a New Key for the Morse Printing Telegraph . . 48 

Meteokology. 

Dr. Buys Ballot on the Importance of the Azores as a Meteorological Sta- 
tion 49 

Dr. Alexander Brown on theMean Temperatm-e of Arbroath. Lat. 5(P33'35'' 
North, Long. 2= 35' 30" W. of Greenwich 60 

Dr. William B. Carpenter on the Thermo-Dynamics of the General Oceanic 
Circulation " 61 

Rev. Professor Challis on the Mathematical Theory of Atmospheric Tides . 51 

Professor Colding's Remarks on Aerial Currents 53 

Professor J. D. Everett on Wet- and Dry-bidb Formula 54 

on the General Circulation and Distribution of the 

Atmosphere 64 

M. Janssen's Observations Physiques en Ballon 65 

Mr. W. Pengelly on the Influence of the Moon on the Rainfall 65 

Mr. R. Russell on the Inferences drawn by Drs. !Rfagnxis and Tyndall from 
their Experiments on the Radiant Properties of Vapour 66 

Mr. William A, Traill on Parhelia, or Mock Suns, observed in L-eland . . 56 

The Peogbess of Science. 

Lieut.-Col. A. Strange on Government Action on Scientific Questions .... 56 
Kev. W. TuCKYTELL on the Obstacles to Science-Teaching in Schools 57 



CHEMISTRY. 

Address by Professor Andrews, F.R.S.L. & E., President of the Section. ... 59 
Mr. Thomas Ainsworth on the Facts developed by the Working of Hsema- 
tite Ores in the Ulverstone and Whitehaven Districts from 1844-71 66 



CONTENTS. VU 

Dr. AjfDiiEWS on tlie Dicliroism of the Vapour of Iodine "^ 

on the Action of Heat on Bromine qq 

Professor Apjohn's Remarks upon the Proximate Analysis of Saccharine 

Matters ' qq 

M. GusTAV BiscHOF on the Examination of Water for Sanitary purposes . . G7 

Mr. Philip Brahajx on the Crystallization of Metals by Electricity G7 

Mr. J. Y. Buchanan on the Rate of Action of Caustic Soda on a watery Solu- 
tion of Chloracetic Acid at 100° C (37 

Dr. F. Chace-Calyekt on the Estimation of Sulphur in Coal and Coke 68 

Mr. John Dalzell and Dr. T. E. Thoupe on the Existence of Sulphur Di- 

chloride go 

Mr. Henry Deacon on Deacon's Chlorine Process as applied to the Manufac- 
ture of Bleaching-powder on the larger Scale (59 

Professor Delffs on Sorbit qq 

on the Detection of Morphine by Iodic Acid 69 

Dr. J. H. Gladstone and Alfbed Teihe's Experiments on Chemical Dy- 
namics r-Q 

Dr. J. H. Gladstone on Crystals of Silver 7X 

Dr. John Goodman on Fibrin 7.9 

• * t ^ 

Mr. William Hareness's Preliminary Notice on a New Method of Testing- 
Samples of Wood-Naphtha ° 72 

The Rev. H. Highton on a Method of Preserving Food by Muriatic Acid . . 73 

Dr. J. Sinclair Holden on the Aluminous Iron-ores of Co. Antrim 74 

Professor N. Story Maskelyne on the Localities of Dioptase 74 

on Andrewsite 75 

Dr. T. Moffat on Ozonometry 7g 

The Abb:^ Moigno on the Photographic Post 76 

Mr. Pattison Mulr on an Antimony-ore from New Zealand 76 

Dr. T. L. Phipson on Regianic Acid 76 

Dr. J. Emerson Reynolds on the Action of Aldehyde on the two Primary 

Ureas 76 

on the Analysis of a singular Deposit from Well- 
water 7g 

Dr. Otto Richter on the Chemical Constitution of Glycolic Alcohol and its 

Ileterologues, as viewed in the new light of the Typo-nucleus Theory .... 78 

Mr. William Chandler Roberts on the Molecular aiTangement of the Alloy 

of Silver and Copper employed for the British Silver Coinage 80 

Mr. E. C. C. Stanford on the Retention of Organic Nitrogen by Charcoal . . 81 

Mr. John Smyth, Jun., on Improvements in Chlorimetry 81 

Dr. T. E. Thorpe's Contributions to the History of the Phosphorus Chlorides 81 

Mr. C. R. C. Tichbobne on the Dissociation of Molecules by Heat 81 

Mr. C. ToMLiNSON on the behaviom- of Supersatiu-ated Saline Solutions when 

exposed to the open air go 

Mr. J. A. Wanklyn on the Constitution of Salts 83 

Mr. C. Gilbert Wheeler on the Recent Progress in Chemistry in the United 

States , , I ^ go 



VIU CONTENTS. 

Page 
Mr, C. R. A. Wright and Chaeles H. Piesse on the Oxidation products 
of the Essential Oil of Orange-peel, known as " Essence do Portug-al " . . . . 83 

Sir. C. R. A. Wright on certain new Derivatives from Codeia 84 



GEOLOGY. 

Address by Archibald Geikie, F.R.S., President of the Section 87 

The Rev. J. F. Blake on the Yortshiro Lias and the Distribution of its 
Ammonites 90 

Mr. D. J. Brown on the Silurian Rocks of the South of Scotland 93 

on the Upper Silurian Rocks of the Pentland Hills and 

Lesmahago 93 

Dr. Robert Brown's Geological IVotes on the Noursoak Peninsida and Disco 
Island in North Greenland 94 

Dr. Bryce on certain Fossils from the Durine Limestone, N.W. Suther- 
land ■* 94 

Mr. W. Carruthers on the Vegetable Contents of Masses of Limestone 
occurring in Trappean Rocks in Fifeshire, and the conditions under which 
they are preserved 94 

Mr. John Curry on the General Conditions of the Glacial Epoch ; with Sug- 
gestions on the formation of Lake-basins 95 

Mr. R. Dainteee on the General Geology of Queensland 96 

Mr. W. Boyd Dawkins on the Relation of the Quaternary Mammalia to the 
Glacial Period 9o 

Prof. Geikie on the Progress of the Geological Survey in Scotland 9G 

Mr. D. Grieve on the Fossiliferous Strata at Lochend near Edinburgh .... 98 

]\Ir. G. J. Grieve on the position of Organic Remains near Burntisland .... 98 

Sir Richard Griffith, Bart., on "The Boulder Drift and Esker Hills of 
Ireland," and " Onthe position of Erratic Blocks in the Countiy " 98 

The Rev. J. Gtjnn on the Agency of the Alternate Elevation and Subsidence 
of the Land in the formation of Boulder-clays and Glaciers, and the Exca- 
vation of Valleys and Bays 100 

Mr. John Henderson on the Age of the Felstones and Conglomerates of the 
Pentland Hills 101 

Professor Edward Hull and Mr. William A. Traill on the relative ages 
of the Granitic, Plutonic, and 'N'olcanic Rocks of the Mourne Mountains and 
Slieve Croob, Co. Down, Ireland 101 

The Rev. Dr. Hume on the Coal-beds of Panama, in reference mainly to their 
Economic Importance 103 

Mr. Charles Lapworth and Jajies Wilson on the Silurian Rocks of the 
Coimties of Roxbm-gh and Selkirk 103 

Mr. Charles Lapworth on the Graptolites of the Gala Group 104 

Mr. P. W. Stuabt Menteath on the Origin of Volcanoes 104 

Mr. L. C. Miall's further Experiments and Remarks on Contortion of Rocks 106 

Mr. John Miller on the so-called Ilyoid plate of the Asteroleins of the Old 
Red Sandstone lOG 

Mr. D. Milne-Home on the Conservation of Boulders 107 

Mr. W. S. Mitchell's further Remarks on the Denudation of the Bath 
Oolite 107 



CONTEXTS. IX 

Page 

Dr. Moffat on Geological Systems and Endemic Disease 107 

Dr. James Murie on the Systematic Position of Sivatherium giganteum, Faulc. 
and Caiit 108 

Mr. C. W. Peach's Additions to the list of Fossils and Localities of the Car- 
boniferous Formation in and around Edinbm'gh 109 

L'Abb:e Richabd on Hydro-Geology 109 

The Rev. W. S. Symonds on the Contents of a Hyaena's Den on the Great 
Doward, Whitchurch, Ross 109 

on a New Fish-spine from the Lower Old Red 

Sandstone of Hay, Breconshire 110 

IMr. J. S. Tayxob on the later Crag-Deposits of Norfolk and Suffolk 110 

Mr. Jasies Thomson on the Stratified Rocks of Islay 110 

Prof. Traquair's Additions to the Fossil Vertebrate Fauna of Burdiehouse, 
near Edinburgh Ill 

Professor W. C. Williamson on the Structure of the Diciyoxyhns of the 
Coal-measures Ill 

on the Structure of Diploxylon, a Plant of the 

Carboniferous Rocks 112 

Mr. Henry Woodward on the Discovery of a new and very perfect Arachnide 
from the Ironstone of the Dudley Coal-field 112 

on the Relics of the Carboniferous and other old 

Land-surfaces 113 



BIOLOGY. 

Address by Dr. Axlen Thomson, F.R.SS. L. & R, President of the Section . . 114 

Dr. Charlton Bastian on some new Experiments relating to the Origin of 
Life 122 

Dr. F. Cbace-Oalvebt on the Action of Heat on Germ-life 122 

on Spontaneous Generation, or Protoplasmic Life . . 12.3 

Dr. John Dougal on the relative Powers of various Substances in preventing 
the Generation of Animalcules, or the Development of their Germs, with 
special reference to the Germ Theory of Putrefaction 124- 

Sir Walter Elliot on the advantage of Systematic Cooperation among Pro- 
vincial Natural-History Societies, so as to make their observations available 
to Naturalists generally 124 

Dr. Burdon Sanderson and Dr. Ferrier on the Origin and Distribution of 
Microzymes {Bacteria) in water, and the circumstances which determine 
their Existence in the Tissues and Liquids of the Living Body 125 

Mr. T. B. Grierson on the Establishment of Local Museums 126 



Botany. 

Professor Balfour on the Cultivation of Ipecacuanha in the Edinburgh Bo- 
tanic Garden for transmission to India 127 

Mr. Robert Bhot^tst on the Flora of Greenland 128 

on the Geographical Distribution of the Floras of North- 



west America 12 



X CONTENTS. 

Page 

The Rev. Thomas Bho'wn on Specimens of Fossil-wood from the Base of the 
Lower Carboniferous Rocks at Langton, Berwickshire 128 

Professor A. Dickson's Suggestions on Fruit Classification 128 

Mr. W. T. Thiselton Dyeb on the minute Anatomy of the Stem of the 
Screw-Pine, PandaniK utilis 128 

on the so-called ' Mimicry' in Plants 128 

Mr. A. G. More on Spiranthes Bomanzoviana, Cham 129 

on Eriophorum aljnnum, Linn., as a British Plant 129 

Dr. James Mueie on the Development of Fungi within the Thorax of Living 
Birds 129 

Dr. J. BuiKBECK Nevins on the Changes which occur in Plants during the 
ripening of the Seeds, in order to ensure the access of the Air and Light as 
well as Heat, which are generally reqmsite for this purpose, without the 
loss of the Seeds before the ripening is completed 130 

on the Nature of the Cruciferous fruit, with refer- 
ence to the Replum 130 

Mr. J. Sadler on the Species of Grimynia (including Schididiuni) as repre- 
sented in the neighboiu'hood of Edinburgh 131 

Mr. Neil Stewart's Observations on the intimate Structure of Spiral ducts 
in Plants and their relationship to the Flower 131 

Inquiry into the Fimctions of Colour in Plants during 

different Stages of their Development , 131 

Prof. W. C. Williamson on the Classification of the Vascular Cryptogamia, 
as affected by recent Discoveries amongst the Fossil Plants of the Coal- 
measures 131 

• Zoology. 

Professor J. Duns's Notice of two Specimens of Echinorhinus qmiosiis taken 
in the Firth of Forth 132 

— — on the Rarer Raptorial Birds of Scotland 132 

Dr. Grierson on the Carahm nitens of the Scottish Moors 132 

Ml". W. Saville Kent on the Zoological Results of the Dredging Expedition 
of the Yacht ' Norma ' off the Coast of Spain and Portugal in 1870 132 

Mr. A. W. Lewis's Proposal for a Modification of the strict Law of Priority 
in Zoological Nomenclature in certain cases 133 

Dr. Christian Lutken on some resent Additions to the Arctic Fauna (a new 
Antipathes and a new Apodal Lophioid) 133 

Mr. A. G. More on the occun-ence of Brown Trout in Salt Water 133 

on some Dredgings in Kenmare Bay 133 

Mr. C. W. Peach on the so-called Tailless Trout of Islay 1S3 

Colonel Playfair on the Hydrographical System of the Freshwater Fish of 
Algeria 134 

Dr. P. L. Sclater's Remarks on a favourable occasion for the establishment 
of Zoological Observatories 134 

Professor Wyville Thomson on the Structure of Crinoids 134 

on the Paleeontological Relations of the Fauna 

of the North Atlantic ' 134 



CONTENTS. XI 

Page 
Mr. Roland Thimen on a curious Soutli-Afiicau Grasshopper, Trachypetra 
bufo (White), which mimics with much precision the appearance of the 

stones among which it lives 13-4 

Professeur Van Beneden sur les Chauves-souris de I'^poque du Mammouth 
et de I'epoque actuelle 13*5 

The Rev. R. B. Watson's Notes on Dredging at Madeira 137 

Anatomy and Physiology. 

Professor A. Buchanan on the Pressure of the Atmosphere as an Auxiliary 
Force in carrying on the Circulation of the Blood 137 

Dr. John Chiene's Experimental Inquiry into some of the Resxilts of Inocu- 
lation in the lower Animals 138 

Professor W. H. Flower on the Composition of the Carpus of the Dog .... 138 

Dr. Arthitr Gamgee on the Magnetic and Diamagnetic Properties of the 
Blood 138 

Sir Duncan Gibb on the Uses of the Uvula 139 

on some Abnormalities of the Larynx 139 

Professor Humphry on the Caudal and Abdominal Muscles of the Crypto- 
branch 140 

Mr. E. Ray Lankesteh on the Existence of Haemoglobin in the Muscular 
Tissue, and its relation to Muscular Activity 140 

Mr. B. T. LowNE on the Ciliated Condition of the Inner Layer of the Blasto- 
derm in the Ova of Birds and in the Omphalo-mesenteric Vessels 140 

Professor A. Macalisteh on the Bearing of Muscular Anomalies on the Dar- 
winian Theory of the Origin of Species 140 

Dr. M'Kendbiok on a New Form of Tetanometer , 140 

Dr. William Mahcet on the Nutrition of Muscular and Pulmonary Tissue 
in Health and in Phthisis, with Remarks on the Colloid Condition of Mat- 
ter 140 

Dr. Edward Smith on Dietaries in the Workhouses of England and Wales . 141 

Professor Stbuthers on some Rudimentary Structures recently met with in 
the Dissection of a large Fin-Whale 142 

on the Cervical Vertebrte in Cetacea 142 

Professor R. H. Traquair on the Restoration of the Tail in Protopterus an- 
nectens 143 

Dr. J. Batty Tuke and Professor Rutherford on tlie Morbid Appearances 
noticed in the Brains of Insane People 144 

Professor Turner on the Placentation in the Cetacea 144 

's Notes on the Cervical Vertebrae of Steypirethyr {JBala- 

noptera Sihbaldii) 144 

Dr. M. Watson's Contributions to the Anatomy of the Thoracic Viscera of 
the Elephant 144 

Anthropology. 

Professor Turner's Address to the Department of Anthropology 144 

Dr. John Beddoe on the Anthropolygy of the Merse 147 

on Degeneration of Race in Britain 148 

Dr. Charnock on Le Sette Communi, a German Colony in the neighbourhood 
of Viceuza 148 



Xn CONTENTS. 

Pa 

Dr. Chaenock and Dr. Carter Blake on tlie Physical, Mental, and Philo- 
logical Characteristic of the Wallons , , 1-48 

Dr. Eugene A. Coxwell on an Inscribed Stone at Newhaggard, in the 
County of Meath 149 

Mr. W. Boyd Dawkins on the Origin of the Domestic Animals of Europe . . 149 

on the attempted Classification of the Palaeolithic 

Age by means of the Mammalia 119 

Mr. Walter Dendy on a Gleam of the Saxon in the Weald 150 

Mr. J. W. Flower on the Eelative Ages of the Flint- and Stone-Implement 
Periods in England 150 

Sir Duncan Gibb on Centenarian Longevity 151 

on the Fat Woman exhibiting in London 152 

Ml-. George Harris on the Hereditary Transmission of Endowments and 
Qualities of different kinds 152 

on the Comparative Longevity of Animals of difierent 

Species and of Man, and the probable Causes which mainly conduce to pro- 
mote this difierence 153 

Mr. J. W, Jackson on the Adantean Eace of Western Europe 153 

Mr. J. Kaines on the Anthropology of Auguste Comte 153 

Dr. E. King on the Lapps 153 

Lieut. -Col. Forbes Leslie on Megalithic Circles , 154 

on Ancient Hierogh'phic Sculptui'es 155 

Eev. J. M'^Cann on the Origin of the Moral Sense 155 

]SIr. W. D. MiCHELL, Is the Stone Age of LyeU and Lubbock as yet at all 
proven ? 155 

Mr. M. MoGGRiDGE on Bones and Flints foimd in the Caves at Mentone and in 
the adjacent Eailway Cutting 155 

Ml'. J. Wolfe Murray on a Cross traced upon a hill at Criugletie, near Peebles 156 

Mr. George Pethie on Ancient Modes of Sepultm-e in the Orkneys 15G 

Mr. John S. Phene on an Expedition for the Special Investigation of the 
Hebrides and West Highlands, in search of Evidences of Ancient Serpent- 
Worship 158 

on some indications of the Manners and Customs of the 

early Inhabitants of Britain, deduced from the Eemains of their towns and 
villages 159 

The Abbe Eichard on the Discoveiy of Flint Implements in Eg3pt, at Moimt 
Sinai, at Galgala, and in Joshua's Tomb ' 160 

Professor Struthers on Skulls presenting Sagittal Sj-nostosis 160 

The Eev. W. S. Symonds on Implements found in King Arthui-'s Cave, near 
Whitchm-ch 160 

Professor Turner on Human and Animal Bones and Flints from a Cave at 
Oban, Ai-gyleshire 160 

Mr. C. Staniland Wake on Man and the Ape 162 

The Eev. W. Webster on certain Points concerning the Origin and Eelations 
of the Basque Eace t 162 



CONTENTS. XIU 



GEOGRAPHY. 



Address by Colonel Henry Yule, C.B., President of the Section 162 

Major-General jLtbeamof on the Principality of Karategin 174 

Major Basevi on Minicoy Island 174 

Captain L. Bbine on the Euined Cities of Central America 175 

Dr. Eobekt BnowN on the Interior of Greenland 175 

Captain Chimmo on Cagayan Sulu Island 176 

Dr. CoPELAND on the Second German Arctic Expedition 176 

Captain F. Elton on the Limpopo Expedition 178 

JNIi-. Chhistopher George on a Self-replenishing Artificial Horizon 178 

Dr. Ginsburg's Further disclosxu-es of the Moabite Stone 179 

Dr. J. D. Hooker's Ascent of the Atlas Eauge 179 

Ibrahim Khan's Journey from Yassin to Yarkand . . . i .i...> 180 

Captain "B. Lovett on the Interior of Mekran 180 

Colonel E. Maclagan on the Geographical Distribution of Petroleum and 
allied products 180 

Dr. E. J. Mann on the Formation of Sand-bars 184 

Pandit Manphal's Eeport on Badakolan 184 

ISIx. C. E. Mahkham on the Eastern Cordillera, and the Navigation of the 
Eiver Madeira 184 

— on the Geographical Positions of the Tiibes which 

formed the Empire of the Yncas 185 

Captain JNIiles on the Somali Coast 186 

Eev. F. 0. Morris on the Encroachments of the Sea on the East Coast of 
Yorkshire 187 

Mr. S. Mossman on the Inundation and Subsidence of the Yang-tsze Eiver, 
in China 187 

Archimandrate Pallakius's Letters from Vladivostok and Nikolsk, South 
Ussuri District , 187 

]\Ii-. E. H. Palmer on the Geography of Moab 187 

Captain H. S. Palmer on an Acoustic Phenomenon at Jebel Nagiis, in the 
Peninsula of Sinai 188 

Capt. A. Pullan's Notes on British Gm-whal 189 

Dr. Eae on the Saskatchewan Valley 189 

Mr, W. B. Eichardson on the Volcan de Agua, near Guatemala 189 

Major E. C. Eoss, A Journey through Mekran 189 

Mr. George St. Clair on the Topography of Ancient Jerusalem 189 

Mr. Thela-svney Saunders on the Himalayas and Central Asia 189 

Major Sladen on Ti-ade Eoutes between Burmah and China 189 

Commander A. Dundas Taylor on the Proposed Ship-Canal between Ceylon 
and India 189 

Capt. Ward on the American Arctic Expedition 190 

M. Arthur Wertherman on the Exploration of the Headwaters of the 
Maranon 190 

Colonel Henry YuLEon Captain Garnier's Expedition up the Camboja , . , . 190 



^^^ CONTENTS. 

ECONOMIC SCIENCE and STATISTICS. 

Addi-ess by Lohd Neaves, one of the Lords of Session, President of the Sec- 
tion 191 

Colonel Sir J. E. Alexander on Sanitary Measures for Scottish Villages . . 200 
Lydia E. Becker on some Maxims of Political Economy as applied to the 
Employment of Women, and the Education of Girls 201 

Mr. William Botley on Land Tenure 202 

Mr. Thomas J. Boyd on Educational Hospital Reform : The Scheme of the 
Edinburgh Merchant Company 202 

Mr. Samuel Brown on the Measurement of Man and his Faculties 210 

Sheriff Cleghorn on the Wellington Reformatory 211 

Mr. F. P. Fellowes on a proposed Doomsday Book, giving the Value of the 
Governmental Property as a basis for a sound system of National Finance 
and Accounts 211 

Mr. William Hoyt:,e on Political Economy, Pauperism, the Labour Question, 
and the Liquor Traffic 212 

Mr. A. Jyram-Row on the present state of Education in India, and its bear- 
ings on the question of Social Science 212 

:Mr. Charles Lamport on Naval Efficiency and Dockyard Economy 212 

Mr. W. M'Bean on the Edinburgh Industrial Home for Fallen Women, Aln- 
wick Hill, near Liberton 212 

Mr. James Meikle on the Mode for Assessing for the Poor-Rates 213 

Mr. W. A. Peterkin on the Administration of the Poor Law 213 

Mr. George Seton on the Illegitimacy of Banffshire 214 

■ — on the Expediency of recording Still-Births 215 

• on certain Cases of Questioned Legitimacy under the 

Operation of the Scottish Registration Act (17 & 18 Vict. c. 80) 217 

Dr. George Smith on Indian Statistics and Official Reports 220 

Mr. William Stephenson on the Scientific Aspects of Children's Hospitals 221 

Mr. G. Johnstone Stoney on the Relation between British and Metrical 
Measures 222 

Mr. W. Taylor on the Manual Labour Classes of England, Wales, and 
Scotland 223 

Mr. James Valentine on Census Reform 223 

Mr. R. Bailey Walker on the Organization of Societies, nationally and locally 
considered 223 

Mr. William Westgabth on the Law of Capital 223 



MECHANICAL SCIENCE. 

Address by Professor Fleeming Jenkin, F.R.S., President of the Section . , 225 
Mr. Philip Braham on an Apparatus for working Torpedoes 229 

Mr. F. J. BRAMm-ELL's Account of some Experiments upon a " Carr's Disin- 
tegrator" at work at Messrs. Gibson and Walker's Flour-mills, Leith .... 229 



CONTENTS. XV 

Mr. A. B. Brom'N ou a direct-acting Combined Steam and Hydraulic Crauo . 231 

Mr. Alexakdeb Buchan on the Rainfall of Scotland 232 

— on the Rainfall of the Northern Hemisphere in July, 

as contrasted with that of January, with Remarks on Atmospheric Circula- 
tion 232 

on the Great Heat of August 2nd-4th, 18G8 232 

Mr. TuoMAS Carr on a new iNIill for Disintegrating Wheat 233 

Mr. R. Douglas on the Corliss Engine 234 

Mr. R. F. Fairlie on the Gauge of Railways 234 

Mr. A. E. Fletcher on the Rhysimeter, an Instrument for Measuring the 
Speed of Flowing Water or of Ships 234 

Mr. Lavington E. Fletcher on Steam-boiler Legislation 236 

Mr. Thomas Gillott on Designing Pointed Roofs 239 

Mr. jAiiES Leslie's Description of a Salmon-ladder meant to suit the vary- 
■ ing levels of a Lake or Reservoir 239 

J\Ir. J. D. Morrison on a new S3-stem of Warming and Ventilation 240 

Mr. R. A. Peacock on Chain-Cable Testing, and lu-oposed New Testing-Link 240 

Mr. E. C. C. Stanford on the Carbon Closet System 240 

Mr. C. William Siemens on the Steam Blast 240 

Mr. Thomas Ste-st<:nson, Automatic Gauge for the Discharge of Water over 
Weirs 241 

Thermometer of Translation for recording the Daily 

Changes of Temperatm-o 241 

Mr. MiCHAL Scott on improved Ships of War 241 

Mr. W. Thomson on a Road Steamer 241 



APPENDIX. 

The Rev. Robert Boog Watson's Notes on Dredgings at Madeira 242 

Mr. B. T. LowNE on the Ciliated Condition of the Inner Layer of the Blasto- 
derm and of the Omphalo -mesenteric Vessels in the Egg of the Coumion 
Fowl 242 



EREATA IN EEPOET FOE 1870. 

^^^"^ 

s, offer line 32, inseri Anatomy and rinsiOLOCY. 

si, ,, 37, ,, Etiixology and Akthropoi.ogy. 

XV, „ 25, „ Address by Mr. Jolm Evans lo the Department of Ethno- 
logy and Anthropology, 
xxxii, line 31, fur Glasgow read Edinburgli. 
129, Transactions of Sections, afier line 11, insert Anatomy and Puysiology. 
1^3, „ „ ,, „ 35, „ Ethnology and ANTimoroLOGY. 



EERATUM IN THE PEESENT VOLUME. 

Page 177, Traneaetious of the Sections, line 33, /yr 0'-58 read 0"-5S. 



OBJECTS AND RULES 



OP 



THE ASSOCIATION. 



OBJECTS. 

The Association contemplates no interference with the ground occupied by 
other institutions. Its objects are : — To give a stronger impulse and a more 
systematic direction to scientific inquiry,— to promote the intercourse of those 
who cultivate Science in different parts of the British Empire, with one an- 
other and with foreign philosophers, — to obtain a more general attention to 
the objects of Science, and a removal of any disadvantages of a public kind 
which impede its progress. 

RULE S. 

Admission of Members and Associates. 

All persons who have attended the first Meeting shall bo entitled to be- 
come Members of the Association, upon subscribing an obligation to con- 
form to its Rules. 

The Fellows and Members of Chartered Literary and Philosophical So- 
cieties publishing Transactions, in the British Empii-e, shall be entitled, in 
like manner, to become Members of the Association. 

The Officers and Members of the Councils, or Managing Committees, of 
Philosophical Institutions shall be entitled, in lilie manner, to become Mem- * 
bers of the Association. 

All Members of a Philosophical Institution recommended by its Council 
or Managing Committee shall be entitled, in Hke manner, to become Mem- 
bers of the Association. 

Persons not belonging to such Institutions shaU be elected by the General 
Committee or Coimcil, to become Life Members of the Association, Annual 
Subscribers, or Associates for the year, subject to the approval of a General 
Meeting. 



^£>- 



Compositions, Subscriptions, and Privileges. 

Life Mehbers shall pay, on admission, the sum of Ten Pounds. They 
shall receive gratuitously the Reports of the Association which may be pub- 
1871. 6 



Xviii RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

lished after the date of such payment. They arc eligible to all the offices 
of the Association. 

Annual Stibsceibers shall pay, on admission, the sum of Two Pounds, 
and in each following year the sum of One Pound. They shall receive 
(iratultoushj the Reports of the Association for the year of theii- admission 
and for the yeai-s in which they continue to pay tvithout intermission their 
Annual Subscription. By omitting to pay this Subscription in any particu- 
lar year, Members of this class (Annual Subscribers) Jose for that and all 
future years the pri\ilege of receiving the volumes of the Association r/ratis: 
but they may resume their Membership and other privileges at any sub- 
sequent Meeting of the Association, paying on each such occasion the sum of 
One Pound. They are eligible to all the Offices of the Association. 

Associates for the year shall pay on admission the sum of One Pound. 
They shall not receive (jratuitoushj the Reports of the Association, nor be 
eligible to serve on Committees, or to hold any office. 

The Association consists of the following classes : — 

1. Life Members admitted from 1831 to 1845 inclusive, who have paid 
on admission Five Pounds as a composition. 

2. Life Members who in 1846, or in subsequent years, have paid on ad- 
mission Ten Pounds as a composition. 

3. Annual Members admitted from 1S31 to 1839 inclusive, subject to the 
payment of One Pound annually. [May resume their Membership after in- 
termission of Annual Payment.] 

4. Annual Members admitted in any year since 1839, subject to the pay- 
ment of Two Pounds for the fii-st year, and One Pound in each following year. 
[May resume their Membership after intermission of Annual Payment.] 

5. Associates for the year, subject to the payment of One Pound. 

6. Corresponding Members nominated by the Coimcil. 

And the Members and Associates will be entitled to receive the annual 
volume of Reports, gratis, or to purchase it at reduced (or Members') price, 
according to the foUo-ning specification, viz. : — 

1. Gratis. — Old Life Members who have paid Pive Pounds as a compo- 

sition for Annual Payments, and previous to 1845 a further 
sum of Two Pounds as a Book Subscription, or, since 1845, a 
further sum of Five Pounds. 

New Life Members who have paid Ten Pounds as a composition. 

Annual Members who have not intermitted their Annual Sub- 
scription. 

2. At reduced or Memhers' Prices, viz. two-thirds of the Publication 

Price. — Old Life Members who have paid Five Pounds as a 

composition for Annual Payments, but no ftirther sum as a 

Book Subscription. 
Annual Members who have intermitted theii* Annual Subscription. 
Associates for the year. [Privilege confined to the volume for 

that year only.] 

3. M<nubcrs may purchase (for the purpose of completing theii' sets) any 

of the fii'st seventeen volumes of Transactions of the Associa- 
tion, and of wJiich more than 100 copies remain, at one-third of 
the Publication Price. Application to be made at the Office 
of the Association, 22 Albemarle Street, London, "W. 



RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. XIX 

Volumes not clp,imed -within two years of the date of publication can only 
be issued by directioji of the Coiincil. 

Subscriptions shall be received by the Treasurer or Secretaries. 

Meetinys. 

The Association shall meet annually, for one week, or longer. The plac6 
of each Meeting shall be appointed liy the General Committee two years in 
advance ; and the Arrangements for it shall be entrusted to the Officers of 
the Association. 

General Committee, 

The General Committee shall sit during the week of the Meeting, or 
longer, to transact the business of the Association. It shall consist of the 
following persons : — 

Class A. Peemanent Members. 

1. Members of the Council, Presidents of the Association, and Presidents 
of Sections for tlie present and preceding years, with Authors of Reports in 
the Transactions of the Association, 

2. Members who by the publication of AVorks or Papers have furthered 
the advancement of those subjects which are taken into consideration at the 
Sectional Meetings of the Association. With a vieiv of stihiniiilruj new claims 
under this Hide to the decision of the Council, thei/ must he sent to the Assistant 
Genercd Secretari/ at least one month before the Meeting of the Association. 
The decision of the Council on the claims of any Member of tli^e Association to 
he placed on the list of the General Committee to he final. 

Class B. Temposaey Mejibebs. 

1. Presidents for the time being of any Scientific Societies pubhshing Trans- 
actions or, in liis absence, a delegate representing him. Claims under this Rule 
to be sent to the Assistant General Secretary before the openiwj of the Meeting. 

2. Office-bearers for the time being, or delegates, altogether not exceeding 
tliree, from Scientific Institutions established in the place of Meeting. 
Claims tinder this Eide to be approved by the Loccd Secretaries before the 
openiny of the Meeting. 

3. Foreigners and other individuals whose assistance is desired, and who 
are specially nominated in writing, for the Meeting of the year, by the Pre- 
sident and General Secretaries. 

4. Yice-Presidents and Secretaries of Sections. 

Oi'gamzing Sectional Commiite^s^, 

The Presidents, Yice-Presidents, and Secretaries of the several Sections 
are nominated by the Council, and have power to act until their names are 
submitted to the General Committee for election. 

From the time of their nomination they constitute Organizing Committees 
for the purpose of obtaining information upon the Memoirs and Eeports 
Hkely to be submitted to the Sections f, and of preparing Eeports thereon, 

* Passed by the General Committee, Edinburgh, 1871. 

t l\oticc to Contributors of Memoirs.— kwihova are reminded that, nndpi" an arrange- 
ment dating from 1871, the acceptance of Memoirs, and the days on -which they are to be 



XX RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

and on the order in -which it is desirable that they should be read, to be pre- 
sented to the Committees of the Sections at their first Meeting. 

An Orgauiziug Committee may also hold snch preliminary Meetings as the 
President of the Committee thinks expedient, but shall, under any circum- 
stances, meet on the first Wednesday of the Annual Meeting, at 11 a.m., to 
settle the terms of their Report, after which their functions as an Organizing 
Committee shall cease. 



Constitution of the Sectional Committees''^. 

On the first day of the Annual Meeting, the President, Vice-Presidents, 
and Secretaries of each Section having been appointed by the General Com- 
mittee, these Officers, and those previous Presidents and Vice-Presidents of 
the Section who may desire to attend, are to meet, at 2 p.m., in their Com- 
mittee Eooms, and enlarge the Sectional Committees by selecting individuals 
from among the Members (not Associates) present at the Meeting whose as- 
sistance they may particularly desire. The Sectional Committees thus con- 
stituted shall have power to add to their number from day to day. 

The List thus formed is to be entered daily in the Sectional Minute-Book, 
and a copy forwarded without delay to the Printer, who is charged with 
publishing the same before 8 a.m. on the next day, in the Journal of the 
Sectional Proceedings. 

Business of the Sectional Committees. 

Committee Meetings are to be held on the Wednesday at 2 p.m., on the 
following Thursday, Friday, Saturday, Monday, and Tuesday, from 10 to 
11 A.M., punctually, for the objects stated in the Pules of the Association, 
and specified below. 

The business is to be conducted in the following manner : — 

At the first meeting, one of the Secretaries will read the Minutes of last 
year's proceedings, as recorded in the Minute-Book, and the Synopsis of 
Recommendations adopted at the last Meeting of the Association and printed 
in the last volume of the Transactions. He will next proceed to read the 
Report of the Organiziug Committee f. The List of Communications to be 
read on Thursday shall be then arranged, and the general distribution of 
business throughout the week shall be provisionally appointed. At the close 
of the Committee Meeting the Secretaries shall forward to the Printer a List 
of the Papers appointed to be read. The Printer is charged with publishing 
the same befoi-e 8 a.m. on Thursday in the Journal. 

On the second day of the Annual Meeting, and the following days, the 

read, are now as far as possible determined by Organizing Committees for the several 
Sections heforc the h'cginning of the Meeting. It has therefore bccorao necessary, in order 
to give an opportunity to tlie Committees of doing justice to the several Communications, 
that each Author should in-epare an Abstract of his Memoir, of a lengtli suitable for in- 
sertion in the published Transactions of the Association, and that he should send it, toge- 
ther with the original Memoir, by book-post, on or before ,, addressed 

thus — "General Secretaries, British Association, 22 Albemarle Street, London, W. For 

Section _.." If it should be inconvenient to the Author tliat his Paper should be read 

on any particular days, he is requested to send information thereof to the Secretaries in a 
se)5arate note. 

* Passed by the General Committee, Edinburgh, 187L 

t This and the following sentence were added by the General Committee, 1871. 



RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. XXI 

Secretaries are to correct, on a copy of the Journal, the list of papers which 
have been read on that day, to add to it a list of those appointed to be read 
on the next day, and to send this coi^y of the Journal as early in the day as 
possible to the Printers, who are charged with printing the same before 8 a.m. 
next morning in the Journal. It is necessary that one of the Secretaries of 
each Section should call at the Printing Office and revise the proof each 
evening. 

Minutes of the proceedings of every Committee are to be entered daily in 
the Minute-Book, which should be confirmed at the next meeting of the 
Committee. 

Lists of the Eeports and Memoirs read in the Sections are to be entered 
in the Minute-Book daily, which, with all Memoirs and Copies or Abstracts 
of Memoirs furnished by Authors, are to be forwarded, at the close of the Sec~ 
tional Meetings, to the Assistant General Secretary. 

The Vice-Presidents and Secretaries of Sections become ex officio temporary 
Members of the General Committee {vide p. xix), and will receive, on ap- 
phcation to the Treasurer in the Eeception Eoom, Tickets entitling them to 
attend its Meetings. 

The Committees will take into consideration any suggestions which may 
be offered by their Members for the advancement of Science. They are 
specially requested to review the recommendations adopted at preceding 
Meetings, as published in the volumes of the Association and the communi- 
cations made to the Sections at this Meeting, for the purposes of selecting 
definite points of research to which individual or combined exertion may be 
usefully directed, and branches of knowledge on the state and progress of 
which Eeports are wanted ; to name individuals or Committees for the exe- 
cution of such Eeports or researches ; and to state whether, and to what de- 
gree, these objects may be usefully advanced by the appropriation of the 
funds of the Association, by application to Government, Philosophical Insti- 
tutions, or Local Authorities. 

In case of appointment of Committees for special objects of Science, it is 
expedient that all Members of the Committee should be named, and one of 
them appointed to act as Secretary, for insurinr/ attention to business. 

Committees have power to add to their number persons whose assistance 
they may require. 

The recommendations adopted by the Committees of Sections are to be 
registered in the Forms furnished to their Secretaries, and one Copy of each 
is to be forwarded, without delay, to the Assistant-General Secretary for pre- 
sentation to the Committee of Eecommendations. Unless this be done, the 
Recommendations cannot receive the sanction of the Association. 

N.B. — Eecommendations which may originate in any one of the Sections 
must first be sanctioned by the Committee of that Section before they can be 
referred to the Committee of Eecommendations or confirmed by the General 
Committee. 

Notices Regarding Grants of Money. 

Committees and individuals, to whom grants of money have been entrusted 
by the Association for the prosecution of particular researches in Science, 
are reqiiired to present to each following Meeting of the Association a Eeport 
of the progress which has been made ; and the Individual or the Member first 
named of a Committee to whom a money grant has been made must (pre- 
viously to the next meeting of the Association) forward to the General 

1871. c 



XXII RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

Secretaries or Treasurer a statement of tiie sums which have been expended, 
and the balance which remains disposable on each grant. 

Grants of money sanctioned at any one meeting of the Association expire 
a iveelc before the opening of the ensuing Meeting ; nor is the Treasurer 
authorized, after that date, to allow any claims on account of such grants, 
unless they be renewed in the original or a modified form by the General 
Committee. 

No Committee shall raise money in the name or under the auspices of the 
British Association without special permission from the General Committee 
to do so ; and no money so raised shall be expended except in accordance 
with the rules of the Association. 

In each Committee, the Member fii-st named is the only person entitled to 
call on the Treasurer, W. Spottiswoode, Esq., 50 Grosvenor Place, London, 
S.W., for such portion of the sums granted as may from time to time be 
required. 

In grants of money to Committees, the Association does not contemplate 
the pajTnent of personal expenses to the members. 

In aU cases where additional grants of money are made for the continua- 
tion of Kesearches at the cost of the Association, the sum named is deemed 
to include, as a part of the amount, whatever balance may remain unpaid on 
the former grant for the same object. 

All Instruments, Papers, Drawings, and other property of the Association 
are to be deposited at the Office of the Association, 22 Albemarle Street, 
Piccadilly, London, W., when not employed in carrying on scientific inquiries 
for the Association. 

Business of the Sections. 

-The Meeting Eoom of each Section is opened for conversation from 10 to 
11 daily. The Section Booms and approaches thereto can he used for no notices, 
exliihitions, or other pxoposes than those of the Association. 

At 11 pi-ecisely the Chaii- wiU be taken, and the reading of communica- 
tions, in the order pre^•iousiy made public, be commenced. At 3 p.m. the 
Sections will close. 

Sections may, by the desire of the Committees, divide themselves into 
Departments, as often as the number and nature of the communications de- 
livered in may render such divisions desirable. 

A Eeport presented to the Association, and read to the Section which 
originally called for it, may be read in another Section, at the request of the 
Officers of that Section, with the consent of the Author. 

Duties of the Dooi'heepers. 

1. — To remain constantly at the Doors of the Rooms to -nhicli tht;y are ap- 
pointed during the whole time for which they are engaged. 
2. — To rcquii'c of every person desirous of entering the Piooms the exhibi- 
tion of a Member's, Associate's or Lady's Ticket, or Reporter's Ticket, 
signed by the Treasui-er, or a Special Ticket, signed by the Assistant- 
General Secretary. 
3. — Persons unprovided with any of these Tickets can only be admitted to 
any particular Eoom by order of the Secretary in that Room, 
No person is exempt from these Rules, except those Officers of the Asso- 
ciation whose names are printed in the Programme, p. 1 , 



RULES OV THE ASSOCIATION. XXIU 

Duties of the Messengers. 

To remain constantly at the Eooms to which they are appointed, during 
the whole time for which they are engaged, except when employed on mes- 
sages bj' one of the Officers directing these Eooms. 

Committee of Recommendations. 

The General Committee shall appoint at each Meeting a Committee, which 
shall receive and consider the Eecommendations of the Sectional Committees, 
and report to the General Committee the measures which they would advise 
to be adopted for the advancement of Science. 

All Eecommendations of Grants of Money, Eequests for Special Eesearches, 
and Eeports on Scientific Subjects shall be submitted to the Committee of 
Eecommendations, and not taken into consideration by the General Committee 
miless previously recommended by the Committee of Eecommendations. 

Local Committees. 

Local Committees shall be formed by the Officers of the Association to 
assist in making arrangements for the Meetings. 

Local Committees shall have the power of adding to their numbers those 
Members of the Association whose assistance they may desire. 

Officers. 

A President, two or more Vice-Presidents, one or more Secretaries, and a 
Treasurer shall be annually appointed by the General Committee. 

Council. 

In the intervals of the Meetings, the affairs of the Association shall be ma- 
naged by a Coimcil appointed by the General Committee. The Council may 
also assemble for the despatch of business duiing the week of the Meeting. 

Papers and Communications. 

The Author of any paper or communication shall be at liberty to reserve 
his light of property therein. 

Accounts. 

The Accounts of the Association shall be audited annually, by Auditors 
appointed by the General Committee. 



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XXX 



KEPORT 1871. 



Presidents and Secretaries of the Sections of the Association, 



Date and Place. 



Presidents. 



Secretaries. 



MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES. 



COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, I. MATHEMATICS AND GENERAl PHYSICS. 



1832. 

1833. 
1834. 



Oxford 

Cambridge 
Edinburgh 



Davies Gilbert, D.C.L., F.E.S....|Re7. H. Coddiugton. 

SirD. Brewster, RE.S Prof. Porbes. 

Kev. W. Wliewell, F.E.S |Prof. Forbes, Prof. Llnjd. 



SECTION A. ^MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICS. 



1835. 

1836. 
1837. 
1838. 
1839. 
1840. 

1841. 

1842. 

1843. 
1844. 
1845. 

1846. 

1847. 

1848. 
1849. 



Dublin... 

Bristol ... 

Liverpool . . , 

Newcastle.. 

Birmingham 

Glasgow . . . 

Plymouth. . . 
Manchester 

Cork 

York 

Cambridge. . 

Southampton 

Oxford... 



Swansea . 
Birmingham 



1850. Edinburgh.. 



1851. 
1852. 
1853. 
1854. 
1855. 
1856. 
1857. 



Ipswich 

Belfast 

Hull 

Liverpool . . . 
Glasgow . . . 
Cheltenham 
Dublin 



Eev. Dr. Eobinson 

Eev. William Wliewell, F.E.S,... 

Sir D. Brewster, F.E.S 

Sir J. F. W. Hersohel, Bart., 

Eev! Prof. Whewell, F.E.S 

Prof. Forbes, F.E.S 

Eev. Prof. Lloyd, F.E.S 

Very Eev. G. Peacock, D.D., 
FES 

Prof. MCulloch, M.E.I. A 

The Earl of Eosse, F.E.S 

The Very Eev. the Dean of Ely . 

Sir John F. W. Herschel, Bart., 

F.E.S. 
Eev. Prof. Powell, M.A., F.E.S. . 

Lord Wrottesley, F.E.S 

William Hopkins, F.E.S 

Prof. J. D. Forbes, F.E.S., Sec. 
E.S.E. 

Eev. W. ^Vliewell, D.D., F.E.S., 

&c. 
Prof. W. Thomson, M.A., F.E.S. 

L. &E. 
The Dean of Ely, F.E.S 

Prof. G. G. Stokes, M.A., Sec. 

E.S. 
Eev. Prof. Kelland, M.A., F.E.S. 

L.&E. 
Eev. E. Walker, M.A., F.E.S. ... 

Eev.T. E. Eobinson,D.D., F.E.S., 
M.E.I.A. 



Prof. Sh- W. E. Hamilton, Prof. 

Wheatstone. 
Prof. Forbes, W. S. Harris, F. W. 

Jerrard. 
W. S. Harris, Eev. Prof. PoweU, Prof. 

Stevelly. 
Eev. Prof. Chcvallier, Major Sabine, 

Prof. Stevelly. 
J. D. Chance, W. Snow Harris, Prof. 

Stevelly. 
Eev. Dr. Forbes, Prof. Stevelly, Arch. 

Smith. 
Prof. Stevelly. 
Prof. M'Cuilocb, Prof. Stevelly, Eev. 

W. Scoresby. 
J. Nott, Prof. Stevelly. 
Eev. Wm. Hey, Prof. Stevelly. 
Eev. H. Goodwin, Prof. Stevelly, G. 

G. Stokes. 
John Drew, Dr. SteveUy, G. G. 

Stokes. 
Eev. H. Price, Prof. Stevelly, G. G. 

Stokes. 
Dr. Stevellv, G. G. Stokes. 
Prof. Stevelly, G. G. Stokes, W. 

Eidout Wills. 
W. J. Macquorn Eankine, Prof. 

Smyth, Prof. Stevelly, Prof. G. G. 

Stokes. 
'S. Jackson, W. J. Macquorn Eankine, 

Prof. Stevelly, Prof. G. G. Stokes. 
Prof. Dixon, W. J. Macquorn Ean- 
kine, Prof. SteveUy, J. Tyndall. 

B. Blaydes Haworth, J. D. Sollitt, 
Prof. Stevellv, J. Welsh. 

J. Hartnup, H. G. Puckle, Prof. 

Stevelly, J. Tyndall, J. Welsh. 
Eev. Dr. Forbes, Prof. D. Gray, Prof. 

Tyndall. 

C. Brooke, Eev. T. A. Southwood, 
Prof. SteveUy, Eev. J. C. TurnbuU. 

Prof. Curtis, Prof. Hennessy, P. A. 
Ninnis, W. J. Macquorn Eankine, 
Prof. SteveUy. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



XXXI 



Date and Place. 



1858. Leeds 



1859. Aberdeen ... 

1860. Oxford 

1861. Manchester, 

1862. Cambridge. 

1863. Newcastle... 



Presidents. 



Secretaries. 



1864. Bath 

1865. Birmingham 

1866. Nottingham 

1867. Dundee 

1868. Norwich ... 

1869. Exeter 

1870. Liverpool . . . 

1871. Edinburgh. 



Eer. W.WheweU, D.D,, V.P.E.S. 



The Earl of Eosse, M.A,, K.P., 

Eev. B. Price, M.A., F.E.S 

G. B. Airy, M.A., D.C.L., F.E.S. 

Prof. G. G. Stokes, M.A., F.E.S 

Prof. W. J. Macquorn Eankine, 
C.E., F.E.S. 

Prof. Cayley, M.A., F.E.S., 

F.E.A.S. 
W. Spottiswoode, M.A., F.E.S., 

F.E.A.S. 

Prof. Wlieatstone, D.C.L., F.E.S 

Prof. Sir W. Thomson, D.C.L., 

F.E.S. 
Prof. J. Tyndall, LL.D., F.E.S... 

Prof. J. J. Sylvester, LL.D., 

J. Clerk Maxwell, M.A., LL.D., 
F.E.S. 

Prof. P. G. Tait, F.E.S.E 



Eev. S. Earnshaw, J. P. Hennessy, 
Prof Stevelly, H. J. S. Smith, Prof. 
Tyndall. 
J. P. Hennessy, Prof. Maxwell, H. J. S. 

Smith, Prof Stevelly. 
Eev. G. C. Bell, Eev. T. Eennison, 

Prof. Stevelly. 
Prof E. B. Clifton, Prof. H. J. S. 

Smith, Prof. Stevelly. 
Prof E. B. CUfton, Prof. H. J. S. 

Smith, Prof. Stevelly. 
Eev. N. Ferrers, Prof. Fuller, F. Jen- 
kin, Prof. Stevelly, Eev. C. T. 

Whitley. 
Prof. Fuller, F. Jenkin, Eev. G. 

Buckle, Prof SteveUy. 
Eev. T. N. Hutchinson, F. Jenkin, G. 

S. Mathews, Prof. H. J. S. Smith, 

J. M. Wilson. 
Fleeming Jenkin, Prof. H. J. S. Smith, 

Eev. S. N. Swann. 
Eev. G. Buckle, Prof. G. C. Foster, 

Prof. Fuller, Prof. Swan. 
Prof. G. 0. Foster, Eev. E. Harley, 

E: B. Hayward. 
Prof G. C. Foster, E. B. Hayward, 

W. K. Clifford. 
Prof. W. G. Adams, W. K. ChfTord, 

Prof. G. C. Foster, Eev. W. Allen 

Whitworth. 
Prof. W. G. Adam.s, J. T. Bottomlcv, 

Prof. W. K. Clifford, Prof. J. D. 

Everett, Eev. E. Harley. 



CHEMICAL SCIENCE. 

COMMITTEE or SCIENCES, II. — CHEMISTKT, JIINERALOGT. 
1832. Oxford [John Dalton, D.C.L., F.E.S 



1833. Cambridge..! John Dalton, D.C.L., F.E.S 

1834. Edinbiu'gh...]Dr. Hope 



James F. W. Johnston. 

Prof. Miller. 

Mr. Johnston, Dr. Christison. 



1835. Dublin . 

1836. Bristol . 



1837. Liverpool... 

1838. Newcastle... 

1839. Birmingham 

1840. Glasgow .. 

1841. Plymouth.. 

1842. Manchester 

1843. Cork 

1844. York 

1845. Cambridge.. 



SECTION B. — -CHEMISTRY AND MINEEALOGY. 

Dr. T. Thomson, F.E.S 

Eev. Prof. Cumming 



1846. Southampton 



Michael Faraday, F.E.S 

Eev. William Whewell, F.E.S., 

Prof. T. Graham, F.E.S 

Dr. Thomas Thomson, F.E.S. 

Dr.Daubeny, F.E.S 

John Dalton, D.C.L., F.E.S 

Prof. Apjohn, M.E.I. A 

Prof. T. Graham, F.E.S 

Eev. Prof, dimming 



Michael Faraday, D.C.L., F.E.S. 



1847. Oxford lEev.W.Y.Harcoiu-t, M.A., F.E.S 



Dr. Apjohn, Prof Jolmston. 

Dr. Apjohn, Dr. C. Henry, W. Hera» 

path. 
Prof. Johnston, Prof. Miller, Dr. 

Eeynolds. 
Prof, ililler, E. L. Pattinson, Thomas 

Eichardson. 
Gokling Bird, M.D., Dr. J.B. MeLson. 
Dr. E. D. Thomson, Dr. T. Clark, 

Dr. L. Playfair. 
J. Prideaux, Eobert Hunt, W. M. 

Tweedy. 

Dr. L. Playfair, E. Hunt, J. Graham. 
E. Hvmt, Dr. Sweeny. 
Dr. E. Playfair, E. Solly, T. H. Barker. 
E. Hunt, J. P. Joule, Prof. Miller, 

E. Solly. 
Dr. Miller, E. Hunt, W. Eandall. 
B. C. Brodie, E. Hunt, Prof. Solly. 



xxxu 



REPOKT 1871. 



Date and Place. 



Presidents. 



Secretaries. 



1848. Swansea ...Richard Phillips, F.R.S T. H. Henry, R. Hunt, T. William.s, 



1849. Birmingham .John Percy, M.D., F.R.S 

18.50. Edinburgh .ICr. Christison, V.P.R.S.E 

1851. Ipswich ...IProf. Thomas Graham, F.R.S. ... 

1852. Belfast Thomas Andrews, M.D., F.R.S. . 

1853. Hull 

1854. Lirerpool 



1855. Glasgow ... 

1856. Cheltenham 



1857. DubUn 

1858. Leeds 

1859. Aberdeen ... 

1860. Oxford 



1861. Manchester. 

1862. Cambridge . 

1863. Newcastle... 

1864. Bath 

1865. Birmingham 

1866. Nottingham 

1867. Dundee 

1868. Norwich 

1869. Exeter ... 

1870. Liverpool 



Prof. J. F. W. Johnston. M.A., 

Prof. W. A. Miller, M.D., F.R.S. 

Dr. Lyon Playfair, C.B., F.R.S. 
Prof. B. C. Brodie, F.R.S 

Prof. Apjohn, M.D., F.R.S., 

M.R.I.A. 
Sir J. F. W. Herschel, Bart., 

D.C.L. 
Dr. Lyon Playfair, C.B., F.R.S. . 

Prof. B. C. Brodie, F.E.S 

Prof. W. A. Miller, M.D., F.R.S 
Prof. W. A. Miller, M.D., F.R.S. 

Dr. Alex. W. WUliamson, F.R.S. 

W. Odling, M.B., F.R.S., F.C.S 

Prof. W. A. Miller, M.D., V.P.E.S. 

H. Bence Jones, M.D., F.R.S. ... 

Prof.T.Anderson,M.D.,r.R.S.E. 

Prof.E .Frankland, F.R.S., F.C.S. 

Dr. H. Debus, F.R.S., F.C.S. ... 



Prof. H. E. Eoscoe, B.A., F.R.S. 
F C S 
1871. Edinburgh iProf. T.' Andrews, M.D., F.R.S. 



R. Hunt, G-. Shaw. 

Dr. Anderson, R. Hunt, Dr. Wilson. 

T. J. Pearsall, W. S. Ward. 

Dr. Gladstone, Prof. Hodges, Prof. 

Ronalds. 
H. S. Bluudell, Prof R. Hunt, T. J. 

Pearsall. 
Dr. Edwards, Dr. Gladstone, Dr. 

Price. 
Prof. Frankland, Dr. H. E. Roscoe. 
J. Horsley, P. J. Worsley, Prof. 

Voelcker. 
Dr. Davy, Dr. Gladstone, Prof. Sul- 
livan. 
Dr. Gladstone, W. Odlmg, E. Rey- 
nolds. 
J. S. Brazier, Dr. Gladstone, G. D. 

Liveing, Dr. Odling. 
A. Vernon Harcom-t, G. D. Liveing, 

A. B. Northcote. 
A. Vernon Harcourt, G. D. Liveing. 
H. W. Elpliinstone, W. Odling, Prof. 

Eoscoe. 
Prof. Liveing, H. L. Pattinson, J. C. 

Stevenson. 
A. V. Harcourt, Prof. Liveing, E. 

Biggs. 
A. V. Harcourt, H. Adkins, Prof. 

Wanklyn, A. Winkler Wills. 
J. H. Atherton, Prof. Liveing, W. J. 

Eussell, J. White. 
A. Crum Brown, Prof. G. D. Liveing, 

W. J. Russsll. 
Dr. A. Crum Brown, Dr. W. J. Rus- 

9?11, F. Sutton. 
Prof. A. Crum Brown, M.D., Dr. W. 

J. Russell, Dr. Atkinson. 
Prof. A. Crum Brown, M.D., A. E. 

Fletcher, Dr. W. J. Russell. 
J. T. Buchanan, W. N. Hartley, T. E. 

Thorpe. 



GEOLOGICAL (akd, untii, 1851, GEOGRAPHICAL) SCIENCE. 

COMMITTEE OF SCrENCES, IH. — GEOLOGY AJfD GEOGEAPHT. 



1832. Oxford IE. I. Murchison, F.E.S. 

1833. Cambridge .'G. B. Greenough, F.E.S. 

1 834. Edinburgh . ' Prof. Jameson 



John Taylor. 

W. Lonsdale, John Phillips. 
Prof. Phillips, T. Jameson Torrie, 
Eev. J. Yates. 



1835. DubUn , 

1836. Bristol , 



1837. Liverpool.. 

1838. Newcastle.. 



1839. Birmingham 



SECTION c 

R. J. Griffith 

R«v. Dr. Buckland, F.E.S.— Gco- 

graphy. E.I. Murchison, F.R.S. 
Rev .Prof. Sedgwick,F.E.S.— Gco- 

qraphy. G.B.Greenough,F.R.S. 
C.'Lyell, F.R.S., V.P.G.S.— Gpo- 

graphy. Lord Prudliope. 
Rev. Dr. Buckland, F.R.S.— frfo- 

gmi)hy. G.B.Greenough,F.R.S. 



GEOLOGY AND GEOGEArHY. 

Captain Portlock, T. J. Torrie. 



William Sanders, S. Stutchbury, T. J. 

Torrie. 

Captain Portlock, R. Hunter. — Gio- 

graphy. Captain H. M. Denham,R.N. 

W. C. Trevelyan, Capt. Portlock.— 

Geography. Capt. Washington. 
George Lloyd, M.D.,H. E. Strickland, 

Charles Darwin. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



XXXIU 



Date and Place. 

1840. Glasgow ... 

1841. Plymouth.. 

1842. Manchester 

1843. Cork 

1844. York 

1845. Cambridge |. 

1846. Southampton 

1847. Oxford 

1848. Swansea ... 

1849. Birmingham 

1850. Edinburgh* 



Presidents. 



Charles Lyell, F.n.S.—Geogra- 
fhy. G. B. Greenough, F.R.S. 

H. T. DelaBeche,r.E.S. 

E. I. Murchison, F.R.S 

Richard E. Griffith, F.R.S., 

M.R.I.A. 
Henry Warburton, M.P., Pres. 

Geol. Soc. 
Rev. Prof. Sedgwick, M. A., F.R.S. 

LeonardHorner,F.R.S.— (rw^'ra- 
fhy. G. B. Greenough, F.R.S. 

Very Rev. Dr. Buckland, F.R.S. 

Sir H. T. De la Beche, C.B., 

Sir Charles Lyell, F.R.S., F.G.S.| 

Sir Roderick I. Murchison.F.R.S. 



Secretaries. 



W. J. Hamilton, D. Milne, Hugh 
Murray, H. E. Strickland, John 
Scoular, M.D. 

W. J. Hamilton, Edward Moore.M.D., 
R. Hutton. 

E. W. Binney, R. Hutton, Dr. R. 
Lloyd, H. E. Strickland. 

Francis M. Jennings, H. E. Strick- 
land. 

Prof.Ansted, E. H. Bunbury. 

Rev. J. C. Cumming, A. C. Ramsay, 

Rev. W. Thorp. 
Robert A. Austen, J. H. Norten, M.D., 

Prof. Oldham. — Geography. Dr. C. 

T. Beke. 
Prof. Ansted, Prof. Oldham, A. C. 

Ramsay, J. Ruskin. 
Starling JBenson, Prof. Oldham, Prof. 

Ramsay. 
J. Beete Jukes, Prof Oldliam, Prof. 

A. C. Ramsay. 
A. Keith Johnston, Hugh Miller, Pro- 
fessor Nicol. 



1851. Ipswich 

1852. Belfast .. 



1853. Hull 

1854. Liverpool . . 

1855. Glasgow ... 

1856. Cheltenham 

1857. Dublin 

1858. Leeds 

1859. Aberdeen ... 

1860. Oxford 

1861. Manchester 
1802. Cambridge 

1863. Newcastle ... 

1864. Bath 



SEcxiox c {continued). — geoiogy, 
WiUiam Hopkins, M.A., F.R.S... 

Lieut.-Col.Poraock,R.E., F.R.S. 



C. J. F. Bunbury, G. W. Ormerod, 
Searles Wood. 

James Bryce, James MacAdam, Prof. 
M'Coy, Prof Nicol. 

Prof. Harkness, William Lawton. 

John Cunningham, Prof. Harkness, 
G. W. Ormerod, J. W. Woodall. 

James Bryce, Prof. Harkness, Prof. 
Nicol. 

Rev. P. B. Brodie, Rev. R. Hepworth, 
Edward Hull, J. Scougall, T.Wright. 

Prof Harkness, Gilbert Sanders, Ro- 
bert H. Scott. 

Prof. Nicol, H. C. Sorby, E. W. 
Shaw. 

Prof Harkness, Rev. J. Longmuir, H. 
C. Sorby. 

Prof Harkness, Edward HuU, Capt. 
Woodall. 

Prof. Harkness, Edward Hull, T. Ru- 
pert Jones, G. W. Ormerod. 

Lucas Barrett, Prof T. Rupert Jones, 
H. C. Sorby. 

E. F. Boyd, John Daglish, H. C. Sor- 
by, Thomas Sopwith. 

W. B. Dawkins, J. Johnston, H. C. 
Sorby, W. Pengelly. 

Rev. P. B. Brodie, J. Jones, Rev. E. 
Myers, H. C. Sorby, W. Pengelly. 

* At the Meeting of the General Committee held in Edinburgh, it was agreed " That the 
subject of Geography be separated from Geology and combined with Ethnology, to consti- 
tute a separate Section, under the title of the " Geographical and Ethnological Section," 
for Presidents and Secretaries of vt'hioh see page ixxvi. 



1865. Birmingham 



Prof. Sedgwick, F.R.S 

Prof. Edward Forbes, F.R. S. ... 

Sir R. I. Murchison, F.R.S 

Prof A. C. Ramsay, F.R.S 

The Lord Talbot de Malahide ... 

WilUam Hopkins, M.A., LL.D., 

F R S 
Sir Charles Lyell, LL.D., D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
Rev. Prof. Sedgwick, LL.D., 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Sir R. I. Murchison, D.C.L., 

LL.D., P.R.S., &c. 
J. Beete Jukes, M.A., F.R.S 

Prof. Warington W. Smyth, 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Prof J. Phillips, LL.D., F.R.S., 

F.G.S. 
Sir R. I. Murchison, Bart.,K:.C.B. 



XXXIV 



REPORT — 1871. 



Date and Place. 



1866. Nottingham 

1867. Dundee 

1868. Norwich ... 

1869. Eseter 

1870. Liverpool... 



Presidents. 



Secretaries. 



Prof.A.C.Eamsay.LL.D., F.R.S.E. Etheridge, W. Pcngelly, T. Wil- 
son, G. H. Wright. 

Archibald Geikie, F.E.S., F.G.S. Edward Hull, W. PengeUy, Henry 

Woodward. 

R. A. C. Godwin-Austen, E.R.S.,lReT. O. Fisher, Rev. J. Gunn, W. 



F.G.S 
Prof. R. Harkness, F.E.S., F.G.S. 



Sir Philip de M. Grey Egerton, 
I Bart., M.P., F.R.S. 
1871. Edinburgh ..Prof. A. Geikie, F.R.S., F.G.S... 



Pengelly, Rev. H. H. Winwood. 
W. Pengelly, W. Boyd Dawkins, Rev. 

H. H. Winwood. 
W. Pengelly, Rev. H. H. Winwood, 

W. BoydDawkins, G. H. Morton. 
E. Etheridge, J. Geikie, J. McKeuny 

Hughes, L. C. Miall. 



BIOLOGICAL SCIEIs^CES. 

COMJIITTEE OF SCIEXCES, IT. ZOOLOGY, BOTANY, PHTSIOLOGT, ANATOMT. 

Rev. p. B. Duncan, F.G.S. 



1832. Oxford 

1833. Cambridge* 

1834. Edinburgh 



1835. DubHn , 

1836. Bristol 



1837. Liverpool.. 

1838. Newcastle... 

1839. Brimingham 

1840. Glasgow ... 

1841. Plymouth... 

1842. Manchester 

1843. Cork 

1844. York 



184.5. Cambridge 

1846. Southampton 

1847. Oxford 



Rev. Prof. Henslow 

W. S. MacLeay 

Sir W. Jardine, Bart. 



Rev. Prof. J. S. Henslow. 
Rev. W. L. P. Garnons, F.L.S....|C. C. Babingtou, D. Don. 
Prof. Graham [ W. Tarrell, Prof. Burnett. 

SECTION D. ZOOIOGT AND BOTAST. 

Dr. Allman IJ. Curtis, Dr. Litton. 

J.Curtis, Prof. Don, Dr. Eiley, S. 
Rootsey. 

0. C. Babingtou, Rev. L. Jenyns, W. 
Swainson. 

.J. E. Gray, Prof. Jones, E. Owen, Dr. 
Richardson. 

E. Forbes, W. Ick, R. Patterson. 

Prof. W. Couper, E. Forte, E. Pat- 
terson. 

J. Couch, Dr. Lankester, E. Patterson. 

Dr. Lankester, R. Patterson, J. A. 
Turner. 

G. J. Allman, Dr. Lankester, E. Pat- 
terson. 

Prof Allman, H. Goodsir, Dr. King, 
Dr. Lankester. 

Dr. Lankester, T. V. Wollaston. 

Dr. Lankester, T. V. WoUaston, H. 
Wooldridge. 

Dr. Lankester, Dr. M«lville, T. V. 
Wollaston. 



Prof. Owen, F.E.S 

Sir W. J. Hooker, LL.D , 



John Eichard.son, M.D., F.R.S. . 
Hon. and Very Rev. W. Herbert, 

LL.D., F.L.S. 
William Thompson, F.L.S 

VeryEev. The Dean of Manches- 
ter. 

Eev. Prof. Henslow, F.L.S 

Sir J. Eichardson, M.D., F.R.S. 

H. E. Strickland, M.A., F.E.S... . 



SECTION B (continued). — zoology anb BOXAinr, inclitbikg bhysiologt, 

• [For the Presidents and Secretaries of the Anatomical and Physiological Subsections 
and the temporary Section E of Anatomy and Medicine, see pp. ssxv, xxxvi.] 



1848. Swansea ... 

1849. Birmingham 

1850. Edinburgh.. 



1851. Ipswich. 

1852. Belfast . 



L. W. Dillwyn, F.R.S. 



William Spence, F.E.S 

Prof. Good.sir, F.E.S. L. & E. 



W. Ogilby 



Dr. E. Wilbraham Falconer, A. Hen- 
frey. Dr. Limkester. 

Dr. Lankester, Dr. Eussell. 

Prof. J. II. Bennett, M.D., Dr. Lan- 
kester, Dr. Douglas Ullaclagan. 
Rev. Prof. Henslow, M.A., F.E.S. Prof. Allman, F. W. Johnston, Dr. E. 

Lankester. 

Dr. Dickie, George C. Hyndman, Dr. 
Edwin Lankester. 

Robert Harrison, Dr. E. Lankester. 

Isaac Byerley, Dr. E. L.ankcster. 

WiUiam Keddie, Dr. Lankester. 



185.3. HuU 

1854. Liverpool 

1855. Glasgow 

* At this Meeting Physiology and Anatomy were made a separate Committee, for 
Presidents and Secretaries of wMch see p. xxsv. 



C. C.Babington, M.A., F.R.S.... 

Prof. Baliom-, M.D., F.R.S 

Eev. Dr. Fleeming, F.E.S.E. ... 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIKS OF THE SECTIONS. 



XXXV 



Date and Place. 



1856. 

1857. 

1858. 

1859. 

1860. 

1861. 

1862. 
1863. 

18G4. 

1865. 



Cheltenliam 

Dublin 

Leeds 

Aberdeen .. 

Oxford 

Manchester. 

Cambridge.. 
Newcastle . . 

Bath 

Birmingham 



Presidents. 



Secretaries. 



1808. Nottingham. 

1867. Dmidee 

1868. Norwich ... 

1809. Exeter 



1870. Liverpool . . 



1871. Edinburgh 



Thomas Bell, F.R.S., Pres.L.S.... 

Prof. W.H. Harvey, M.D., F.E.S. 

C. C.Babington, M.A., F.E.S.... 

Sir W. Jardine, Bart., F.R.S.E. , 

Rev. Prof. Henslow, F.L.S 

Prof. C. C. Babington, F.R.S. .. 

Prof. Huxley, F.R.S 

Prof. Balfour, M.D., F.R.S 

Dr. John E. Gray, F.R.S 

T. Thomson, M.D., F.R.S 

SECTION D (continued).- 
Prof. Husley, LL.D., F.R.S.— 

Phi/sioloqical Dq>. Prof. Hum- 

phvj,Mll>.,F.B,.S.—A}ifhropo- 

lofficalDi'p. Alfred R. Wallace, 

F R G- S 
Prof. Sharpey, M.D., Sec. R.S.— 

Bep. of Zool. and Bot. George 

Busk, M.D., F.R.S. 
Rev. M. J. Berkeley, F.L S.— 

Brp. of Physiology. W. H 

Flower, F.R.S. 

George Busk, F.R.S., F.L.S.— 
Bcp. of Bot. and Zool. C. Spencc 
Bate, F.R.S.— i)c^. of Eihno. 
E. B. Tvlor. 

Prof. G. Rolleston, M.A., M.D., 
P.R.S.,F.L.S.— Dfp. Anat. and 
Physio. Prof. M. Foster, M.D., 
F.L.S.— Df?^. of Ethno. J. 
Evans, F.R.S. 

Prof Allen Thomson,M.D.,F.R.S. 
— Bep. of Bot. and Zool. Prof 
Wyville Thomson, F.R.S.— 
Bep. of Anthropo. Prof. W. 
Turner, M.D. 



Dr. J. Abercronibie, Prof Buckman, 

Dr. Lankester. 
Prof J. R.Ejnahan,Dr. E. Lankeister, 

Robert Patterson, Dr. W. E. Steele. 
Henry Denny, Dr. Hcaton, Dr. E. 

Lankester, Dr. E. Perceval Wright. 
Prof. Dickie, M.D., Dr. E. Lankester, 

Dr. Ogilvy. 
W. S. Church, Dr. E. Lankester, P. 

L. Sclater, Dr. E. Percoval Wright. 
Dr. T. Alcock, Dr. E. Lankester, Dr. 

P. L. Sclater, Dr. E. P. Wright. 
Alfred Newton, Dr. E. P. Wright. 
Dr. E. Charlton, A. Newton, Rev. H. 

B. Tristram, Dr. E. P. Wright. 
H. B. Brady, C. E. Broom, H. T. 

Stainton, Dr. E. P. Wright. 
Dr. J. Anthony. Rev. C. Clarke, Rev. 

H. B. Tristram, Dr. E. P. Wright. 

-BIOLOGY*. 

Dr. J. Beddard, W. Felkin, Rev. H. 

B. Tristram, W. Turner, E. B. 

Tylor, Dr. E. P. Wright. 



C. Spence Bate, Dr. S. Cobbold, Dr. 
M. Foster, H. T. Stainton, Rev. H. 

B. Tristram, Prof. W. Turner. 

Dr. T. S. Cobbold, G. W. Firth, Dr. 

M. Foster, Prof. Lawson, H. T. 

Stainton, Rev. Dr. H. B. Tristram, 

Dr. E. P. Wright. 
Dr. T. S. Cobbold, Prof M. Foster, 

M.D., E. Ray Lankester, Professor 

Lawson, H. T. Stainton, Rev. H. B. 

Tristram. 
Dr. T. S. Cobbold, Sebastian Evans, 

Prof. Lawson, Thos. J. Moore, H. 

T. Stainton, Rev. H. B.Tristram, 

C. Staniland Wake, E. Ray Lan- 
kester. 

Dr. T. R. Fraser, Dr. Arthur Gamgee, 
E. Ray Lankester, Prof. Lawson, 
H. T. Stainton, C. Staniland Wake, 
Dr. W. Rutherford, Dr. Kelburne 
King. 



ANATOMICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL SCIENCES. 

COinilTTEE or SCIEXCES, T. ANAT03IT AND PHTSIOIOGT. 



J833. Cambridge... 
1834. Edinburgh... 



Dr. Haviland IDr. Bond, Mr. Paget. 

Dr. Abercrombie |Dr . Eoget, Dr. William Thomson. 



SECTION E. (until 1847.) — .VNAT05IY AND MEDICnfE. 

1835. Dublin IDr. Pritcbard Dr. Harrison, Dr. Hart. 

1836. Bristol Dr. Rogct, F.R.S Dr. Symonds. 

18.37. Liverpool ... Prof. W. Clark, M.D Dr. J. Carson, jun., James Long, Dr. 

I J. E. W. Vose. 

* At the Meeting of the General Committee at Birmingham, it was resolved :— " That the 
title of Section D be changed to Biology ; " and "That for the word ' Subsection,' in the 
rules for conducting the business of the Sections, the word ' Department' be substituted." 



XXXVl 



REPORT 1871. 



Date and Place. 



Presidents. 



Secretaries. 



1838. Newcastle . . . T. E. Headlam, M.D 

1839. Birmingbam'jolm Yelloly, M.D., F.E.S. 

1840. Glasgow . . . James Watson, M.D 



1841. Plymouth... 

1842. Manchester. 

1843. Cork 

1844. York 



P. M. Eoget, M.D., Sec.E.S. 

Edward Holme, M.D.; F.L.S. 

Sir James Pitcairn, M.D 

J. C. Pritchard, M.D 



...:T. M. Greenhow, Dr. J. R.W. Vose. 

...Dr. G. O. Eces, F. Eyland. 

. . . Dr. J. Brown, Prof. Couper, Prof. 

Eeid. 
...Dr. J. Butter, J. Fuge, Dr. E. S. 

Sargent. 
... Dr. Chaytor, Dr, E. S. Sargent. 
...JDr. John Popham, Dr. E. §. Sargent. 
...|l. Erichsen, Dr. E. S. Sargent. 



SECTION E. PHYSIOLOGY. 



1845. Cambridge .'Prof. J. Haviland, M.D. . 
1846.Southampton!Prof. Owen, M.D., F.E.S.. 
1847. Oxford* ...Prof. Ogle, M.D., F.E.S.'. 



Dr. E. S. Sargent, Dr. Webster. 
C. P. Keele, Dr. Laycock, Dr. Sargent. 
Dr. Thomas K. Chambers, W. P. 
Ormerod. 



1850. Edinburgh 
1855. Glasgow ... 

1857. Dublin 

1858. Leeds 

1859. Aberdeen ... 

1860. Oxford 

1861. Manchester. 

1862. Cambridge . 

1863. Newcastle... 

1864. Bath 

1865. Birminghmf. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL SUBSECTIONS OF SECTION D. 

Prof. Bennett, M.D., F.E.S.E. 
Prof. Allen Thomson, F.E.S. ... 

Prof. E. Harrison, M.D 

Sir Benjamin Brodie, Bart. .F.E.S. 
Prof. S'harpey, M.D., Sec.E.S. ... 
Prof. G. EoUeston, M.D., F.L.S. 
Dr. John Davy, F.E.S.L. & E. ... 

C.E.Paget, M.D 

Prof Eolleston, M.D., F.E.S. ... 
Dr. Edward Smith, LL.D., F.E.S. 
Prof Acland, M.D., LL.D., F.E.S. 



Prof J. H. Corbett, Dr. J. Struthers. 
|Dr. E. D. Lyons, Prof. Eedfern. 
C. G. Wheelliouse. 
Prof. Bennett, Prof. Eedfern. 
Dr. E. M'Donnell, Dr. Edward Smith. 
Dr. W. Eoberts, Dr. Edward Smith. 
G. F. Helm, Dr. Edward Smith. 
Dr. D. Embleton, Dr. W. Turner. 
J. S. Bartrum, Dr. W. Turner. 
Dr. A. Fleming, Dr. P. Heslop, Oliver 
Pemblcton, Dr. W. Turner. 



GEOGEAPHICAL AND ETHNOLOGICAL SCIENCES. 
[For Presidents and Secretaries for Geography preTious to 1851, see Section 0, p. xxxii.] 

ETHNOLOGICAL SUBSECTIONS OF SECTION D. 



1846. Southampton 

1847. Oxford 

1848. Swansea ... 

1849. Birmingham 

1850. Edinburgh.. 



Dr. Pritchard 

Prof. H. H. Wilson, M.A. 



Vice-Admiral Sir A. Malcolm ... 



Dr. King. 
Prof. Buckley. 
G. Grant Francis. 
Dr. E. G. Latham. 
Daniel Wilson. 



SECTION E. GEOGEAPHY AND ETHNOLOGY. 



1851. Ipswich .. 

1852. Belfast 

1853. Hull 

1854. Liverpool.. 

1855. Glasgow .. 

1856. Cheltenham 



. Sir E. L Murchison, F.E.S., Pres. E. Cull, Eev. J. W. Donaldson, Dr. 

E.G.S. I Norton Shaw. 

, Col. Chesney, E.A., D.C.L., E. Cull, E. MacAdam, Dr. Norton 

F.E.S. I Shaw. 

. E. G. Latham, M.D., F.E.S. ...U. Cull, Eev. H. W. Kemp, Dr. Nor- 

( ton Shaw. 
. Sir E. I. Murchison, D.C.L.,'Eichard Cull, Eev. H. Higgins, Dr. 

F.E.S. Ihne, Dr. Norton Shaw. 

, Sir J. Eichardson, M.D., F.E.S. Dr. W. G. Blackie, E. Cull, Dr. Nor- 

ton Shaw. 
Col. Sir H. C. Eawlinson, K.C.B. E. Cull, F. D. Hartland, W. H. Eum- 
) I sey, Dr. Norton Shaw. 

* By direction of the General Committee at Oxford, Sections D and E were incorporated 
under the name of " Section D — Zoology and Botany, including Physiology " (seep, xxxiv). 
The Section being then vacant was assigned in 1851 to Geography. 

t Vide note on preceding page. 



Presidents and gECRKTAftiEg op the sections. 



XXXVll 



Date and Place. 



18.57. 
1858. 

1859. 
1860. 
1861. 
1862. 
1863. 
18G4. 
1865. 
1866. 

1867. 
1868. 



Dublin ; 
Leeds , 



Presidents. 



Secretaries. 



Aberdeen .. 

Oxford 

Manchester 

Cambridge . 

Newcastle... 

Batli... 

Birmingliam 

Nottingbiim 

Dundee 

Norwich ... 



Eev. Dr. J. HenthawnTodd, Pres 

E.I.A. 
Sir E. I. Murchison, G.C.St.S., 

RR.S. 

Rear-Admir.al Sir James Clerk 

Ross, D.C.L., RR.S. 
Sir R. I. Murchison, D.C.L., 

RR.S. 
John Crawfurd, RR.S 

'Francis Galton, F.R.S 

Sir R. I. Murcliisou, K.C.B, 

RR.S. 
Sir R. I. Murchison, K.C.B., 

RR.S. 
Major-General Sir R, Rawliuson, 

M.P., K.C.B., F.R.S. 
Sir Charles Nicholson, Bart., 

LL.D. 

Sir Samuel Baker, F.R.G.S 

Capt. G. H. Richards, R.N., F.R.S. 



R. Cull, S. Ferguson, Dr. R. R. Mad- 
den, Dr. Norton Sliaw. 
R. Cull, Francis Galton, P. O'Cal- 

laghan. Dr. Norton Shaw, Tliomas 

Wriglit. 
Richard Cull, Professor Geddcs, Dr. 

Norton Shaw. 
Capt. Burrows, Dr. J. Hunt, Dr. C. 

Lempriere, Dr. Norton Shaw. 
Dr. J. Hunt, J. Kingsley, Dr. Norton 

Shaw, W. Spottiswoode. 
J. W. Clarke, Rev. J. Glover, Dr. 

Hunt, Dr. Norton Shaw, T. Wright. 
C. Carter Blake, Hume Greenfield, 

C. R. Markham, R. S. Watson. 
H. W. Bates, C. R. Markham, Capt. 

R. M. Murchison, T. Wright. 
H. W. Bates, S. Evans, G. Jabct, C. 

R. Markham, Tliomas Wright. 
H. W. Bates, Rev. E. T. Cusins, R. 

H. Major, Clements R. Markliam, 

D. W. Nash, T. Wright. 
H. W. Bates, Cyril Graham, C. R. 

Markham, S. J. Mackie, R. Sturrock. 
T. Baines, H. W. Bates, C. R. Mark- 
ham, T. Wright. 



1869. Exeter 



1870. Liverpool.. 

1871. Edinburgh, 



1833. Cambridge . 

1834. Edinburgh . 



SECTION E (continued). — geography. 

Sir Bartle Frere, KC.B., LL.D., 

F.R.G.S. 
Sir R, I. Murchison. Bt., K.C.B., 

LL.D., D.C.L., F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Colonel Yule, C.B., F.R.G.S. ... 



H. W. Bates, Clements E. Markliam, 

J. H. Thomas, 
H. W. Bates, David Buxton, Albert 

J. Mott, Clements R. Markham. 
Clements R. Markhain, A Buc'nnn, 

J. II. Thomas, A. Keith Jolmslon. 



STATISTICAL SCIENCE. 

COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, TI. STATISTICS, 



Prof. Babbage, RR.S. .., 
Sir Charles Lemon, Bart. 



J. E. Drinkwater. 

Dr. Cleland, C. Hope Maclean. 



SECTION F. STATISTICS. 



18.35. Dublin , 
1836. Bristol . 



1837. Liverpool... 

18.38. Newcastle... 

1839. Birmingham 

1840. Glasgow ... 

1841. Plymouth... 

1842. Manchester. 

1843. Cork 

1844. York 

1845. Cambridge . 
1840. Southampton 



Charles Babbage, F.R.S. ... 
Sir Charles Lemon, Bart., F.R.S. 

Rt. Hon. Lord Sandon 

Colonel Sykes, F.R.S '.... 

Henry ILillam, F.R.S 

Rt. Hon. Lord Sandon, F.R.S. 

M.P. 
Lieut. -Col. Sykes, F.R.S 

G. W. Wood, M.P., RL.S 

Sir C. Lemon, Bart., M.P 

Lieut.-Col. Sykes, RR.S., RL.S. 
Rt. Hon. The Earl Fitzwilliam. . . 
G. R. Porter, RR.S 



1871. 



W. Greg, Prof. Longfield. 

Rev. J. E. Bromby, C. B. Fripp, 

James Heywood. 
W. R. Greg, W. Langton, Dr. W. C. 

Tayler. 

W. Cargill, J. Heywood, W. R. Wood. 
F. Clarke, R. W. Raw.son, Dr. W. C. 

Tayler. 
C. R. Baird, Prof. Ramsay, E. W. 

Rawson. 
Rev. Dr. Byrth, Rev. R. Luney, R. 

W. Rawson. 
Rev. R. Luney, G. W. Ormerod, Dr. 

W. C. Tayler. 
Dr. D. Bullen, Dr. W. Cooke Tayler. 
J. Fletcher, J. Heywood, Dr. Lavco;k. 
J. Fletcher, W. Cooke Tayler, LL.D. 
J. Fletcher, F. G. P. Neison, Di-. W. 

C. Tavler, Rev. T. L. Shapcotr. 
d 



XXXVlll 



REPORT 1871. 



Date and Place. 



Presidents. 



Secretaries. 



1847. Oxford, 



1848. 
1849. 



Swansea . . . 
Birmingham 



Travers Twiss, D.C.L., F.E.S. .. 

J. H. Vivian, M.P., F.RS 

Et. Hon. Lord Lyttelton 



1850. Edinburgh ., 



1851. 
1852. 

1853. 
1854. 



Ipswich. 
Belfast . 



Rev. W. H. Cox, J. J. Danson, F. G. 

P. Neison. 
J. Fletcher, Capt. E. Shortrede 
Dr. Finch, Prof. Hancock, F. G. P. 

Neison. 
Prof. Hancock, J. Fletcher, Dr. 

Stark. 
J. Fletcher, Prof Hancock. 
His Grace the Archbishop of Prof. Hancock, Prof Ingram, James 



Very Eev. Dr. John Lee, 

V.P.E.S.E. 
Sir John P. Boileau, Bart. 



Hull 

Liverpool 



1855. Glasgow 



Dublin 

James Heywood, M.P., F.E.S. . . . 
Thomas Tooke, F.E.S 

E. Monckton Milnes, M.P 



Mac Adam, Jun. 

Edward Cheshii-e, WiUiam Newmarch. 

E. Cheshii-e, J. T. Danson, Dr. W. H, 
Duncan, W. Newmarch. 

J. A. CampbeU, E. Cheshire, W. New- 
march, Prof E. H. Walsh. 



SECTION r (continued), — economic science and statistics. 



1856. Cheltenham 



1857. 
1858. 
1859. 
1860. 
1861. 

1862. 
1863. 

1864. 

1865. 

1866. 

1867. 

1868. 

1869. 

1870. 

1871. 



Dublin 

Leeds 

Aberdeen .. 

Oxford 

Manchester 



Cambridge . 
Newcastle .. 



Bath. 



Et. Hon. Lord Stanley, M.P. 



His Grace the Archbishop of 

Dublin, M.E.I.A. 
Edward Bainea 



Col. Sjkes, M.P., F.E.S. . 
Nassau W. Senior, M.A. . 
William Newmarch, F.E.S 



Edwin Chadwick, C.B 

William Tite, M.P., F.E.S. 



William Farr, M.D., D.C.L., 

F.E.S. 
Birmingham Et. Hon. Lord Stanley, LL.D., 

M.P. 
Prof J. E. T. Sogers 



Eev. C. H. Bromby, E. Cheshire, Dr. 

W. N. Hancock Ne^vmarch, W. M. 

Tartt. 
Prof Cairns, Dr. H. D. Hutton, W. 

Newmarch. 
T. B. Baines, Prof Cairns, S. Brown, 

Capt. Fishbourne, Dr. J. Strang. 
Prof. Cairns, Edmund Macrory, A. M. 

Smith, Dr. John Strang. 
Edmmid Macrory, W. Newmarch, 

Eev. Prof J. E. T. Rogers. 
David Chadwick, Prof E. C. Clu-istie, 

E. Macrory, Rev. Prof J. E. T. 

Roger.?. 
H. D. Macleod, Edmund Macrory. 
.It. Doubleday, Edmund Macrory, 

Frederick Purdy, James Potts. 
E. Macroi7, E. T.' Payne, F. Purdy. 



Nottingham 
Dundee 



M. E. Grant Duff, M.P. 



Norwich ... Samuel Brown, Pres. Instit. Ac- 

I tuaries. 
Exeter Rt. Hon. Sir Stafford H. North- 

1 cote, Bart., C.B., M.P. 
Liverpool... [Prof. W. Stanley Jevons, M.A. .. 



Edinburgh |Rt. Hon. Lord Neaves., 



G. J. D. Goodman, G. J. Johnston, 

E. Macrory. 
R. Birkin, Jun., Prof Leone Levi, E. 

Macroiy. 
Prof. Leone Levi, E. Macrory, A. J. 

Warden. 
Rev. W. C. Davie, Prof Leone Levi. 

Edmund Macrory, Frederick Purdy, 

Charles T. D. Acland. 
Chas. R. Dudley Baxter, E. Macrory, 

J. Miles Moss. 
J. G. Fitch, James Meiklo. 



MECHANICAL SCIENCE. 



section G. MECHANICAl SCIENCE. 



1836. Bristol Davies Gilbert, D.C.L., F.R.S, 

1837. Liverpool . . . Rev. Dr. Eobinson 

1838. Newcastle ... Charles Babbage, F.E.S 

1839. Birmingham Prof WilUs, F.E.S., and Eobert 

Stephenson. 

1840. Gkisgow ... Sir John Robinson 



T. G. Bunt, G. T. Clark, W. West. 

Charles Vignoles, Thomas Webster. 

E. Hawthorn, C. Vignoles, T. Webster. 

W. Carpmael, WiUiam Hawkes, Tho- 
mas Webster. 

J. Scott Eussell, J. Thomson, J. Tod, 
C. Vignoles. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



XXXIX 



Date and Place. 



Presidents. 



Secretaries. 



1841. 
1842. 

1843. 
1844. 
1845. 
1846. 
1847. 
1848. 
1849. 
1S50. 
1S51. 
1852. 

1853. 

1854. 

1855. 

1856. 

1857. 

1858. 
1859. 

1860. 

1861. 

1862. 
1863. 

1864. 
1865. 

1866. 

1867. 

1868. 

1869. 
1870. 

1871. 



Plynioutli . . . 
Manchester . 

Cork 

York 

Cambridge .. 
Southampton 

Oxford 

Swansea 

Birmingham 
Edinburgh .. 

Ipswich 

Belfast 

Hull 

LiTerpool ... 

Glasgow . . . 

Cheltenham 

Dublin 

Leeds 

Aberdeen ... 

Oxford 

Manchester . 

Cambridge .. 
Newcastle . . . 

Bath 

Birmingham 

Nottingham 

Dundee 

Norwich ... 

Exeter 

Liverpool . . . 

Edinburgh 



Henry Chatfield, Thomas Webster. 
J. E. Bateman, J. Scott Eussell, J. 

Thomson, Charles Vignoles. 
James Thomson, Eobert Mallet. 
Charles Vignole.s, Thomas V/ebster. 
Eev. W. T. King,sley. 
William Betts, Jim., Charles Manbj. 
J. Glynn, R. A. Le Mesurier. 
R. A. Le Mesiu-ier, W. P. StruTi5. 
Charles Manby, W. P. Marshall. 
Dr. Lees, David Stephenson. 
John Head, Charles Manby. 



John Taylor, E.R.S 

Rev. Prof. Willis, E.R.S 

Prof J. Macneill, M.R.I.A 

John Taylor, F.R.S 

George Rennie, F.R.S 

Rev. Prof. WiUis, M.A., E.R.S. . 
Rev. Prof. Walker, M.A., F.R.S. 
Rev. Prof. Walker, M.A., E.R.S. 
Robert Stephenson, M.P., F.R.S. 

Rev. Dr. Robinson 

William Cubitt, F.R.S ' 

John Walker,C.E.,LL.D., F.R.S. John F. Bateman, C. B^ Hancock, 

Charles Manby, James Thomson. 
James Oldham, J.Thomson, W. Sykcs 

Ward. 
John Grantham, J. Oldham, J. Thom- 
son. 
L. Hill, Jan., William Ramsay, J. 

Thomson. 
C. Atherton, B. Jones, Juu., H. M. 

Jeffery. 
Prof. Dovming, W. T. Doyne, A. Tate, 

James Thomson, Henry Wright. 
J. C. Dennis, J. Dixon, H. Wright. 
R. Abernethy, P. Le Neve Foster, H. 

Wright. 
P. Le Neve Foster, Rev. E. Harrison, 

Henry Wright. 
P. Le Neve Foster, John Robinson, H. 

Wright. 
W. M. Fawcett, P. Le Neve Foster. 
P. Le Neve Foster, P. Wcstmacott, J. 

F. Spencer. 
P. Le Neve Foster, Robert Pitt. 
P. Le Neve Foster, Henry Lea, W. P. 

Marshall, Walter May. 
P. Le Neve Foster, J. 'E. Iselin, M. 

A. Tarbottoni. 
P. Le Neve Fo.-5ter, Jor.n P. Smith, 

W. W. TJrquhart. 
P. Le Neve Foster, J. E. Iselin, G. 

Manby, W. Smith. 
P. Le Neve Foster, H. Bauormau. 
H. Bauerman, P. Le Neve Foster, T. 

King, J. N. Shoolbred. 
H. Ba\iernian, Alexander Leslie, J. P, 
Smith. 



William Fairbairn, C.E., E.R.S.. 

John Scott Russell, F.R.S 

W. J. Macquorn Rankine, C.E., 

F.R.S. 
George Rennie, F.R.S 

The Right Hon. The Earl of 
Rosse, F.R.S. 

WilUam Fan-bairn, F.R.S 

Rev. Prof. Willis, M.A., F.R.S. . 

Prof. W. J. Macquorn Rankine, 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
J. F. Bateman, C.E., F.R.S 

William Pan-bairn, LL.D., F.R.S. 
Rev. Prof. Willis, M.A., F.R.S. . 



LL.D.. 



J. Hawkshaw, F.R.S. . 
Sir W. G. Armstrong. 

E.R.S. 
Thomas Hawksley, V.P.Inst, 

C.E., F.G.S. 
Prof. W. J. Macquorn Rankine 

LL.D., E.R.S. 
G. P. Bidder, C.E., P.R.G.S. .. 



C. W. Siemens, F.R.S. . 
Chas. B. Vignoles, C.E., 



F.R.S. 



Prof. Fleeming Jenkin, F.R.S.. 





List of Evening Lectures. 


Date and Place. 


Lecturer. 


Subject of Discourse. 


1842. Manchester . 


Charles Vignoles, E.R.S 

Sir M. I. Brunei 


The Principles and Construction of 

Atmospheric Railways. 
The Thames Tunnel. 




i?,i I. IVTurchison. .. . 


The Geology of Russia. 

The Dinornis of New Zealand. 

The Distribution of Animal Life in 

the .3igean Sea. 
The Earl of Rosse's Telescope. 
il2 


1843. Cork 


Prof. Owen, M.D., F.R.S 

trof. E. Forbes, F.R.S 

t) r . Robinson ...,.,.... 



xl 



REPORT 1871. 




1844. York . 



1845. Cambridge .. 

1846. Southampton 



1847. Oxford 



1848. Swansea ... 

1849. Birmingham 

1850. Edinburgh. 



1851. Ipswich. 

1852. Belfast . 

1853. Hull .... 



1854. Liverpool .. 

1855. Glasgow 

1856. Cheltenham 



1857. Dublin 

1858. Leeds 

1859. Aberdeen .. 



1860. Oxford 

1861. Manchester 
18G2, Cambridge 



Charles Lyell, F.E.S 

Dr. Falconer, RR.S 

a. B. Airy, P.R.S.,Astron. Royal 

R. L Murchison, RR.S 

Prof. Owen, M.D., RR.S 

Charles Lyell, F.R.S 

W. R. Grove, F.R.S 



Rev. Prof. B. Powell, F.R.S. .. 
Prof. M. Faraday, F.R. S 

Hugh E. Strickland, F.G.S. .. 
John Percy, M.D., F.R.S 

W. Carpenter, M.D., F.R.S. . . . 

Dr. Faraday, F.R.S 

Rev. Prof. WiUis, M.A., F.R.S. 

Prof. J. H. Bennett, M.D. 
F.R.S.E. 

Dr. Mantell, F.R.S 

Prof. R. Owen, M.D., F.R.S. 

G. B. Airy, F.R.S., Astron. Roy. 
Prof G.G. Stokes,D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Colonel Portlock, R.E., F.R.S. 



Prof. J. Phillips, LL.D., F.R.S., 
F.G.S. 

Robert Hunt, F.R.S 

Prof. R. Owen, M.D., F.R.S. .. 
Col. E. Sabine, V.P.R.S 

Dr. W. B. Carpenter, F.R.S. .. 
Lieut.-Col. H. Rawlinson 



Col. Sir H. Rawlinson , 



W. R. Grove, F.R.S 

Prof. W. Thomson, F.R.S 

Rev. Dr. Livingstone, D.C.L. ... 
Prof. J. Phillips, LL.D., F.R.S 
Prof. R. Owen, M.D., RR.S. .., 

Sir R.I. Murchison, D.C.L 

Rev. Dr. Robinson, F.R.S 

Rev. Prof. Vv^alker, F.R.S 

C:iptain Sherard Osborn, R.N. 
Prof. W. A. Miller, M.A., F.R.S 
G. B. Airv, F.R.S., Astron. Roy. . 
Prof. Tvndall, LL.D., F.R.S. ... 
Prof. Odling, RR.S 



Subject of Discourse. 



Geology of North America. 

The Gigantic Tortoise of the Siwalik 
Hills in India. 

Progress of Terrestrial Magnetism. 

Geology of Russia. 

Fossil Mammalia of the British Isles. 

Valley and Delta of the Mississippi. 

Properties of the Explosive substance 
discovered by Dr. Schonbein ; also 
some Researches of his own on the 
Decomposition of Water by Heat. 

Shooting-stars. 

Magnetic and Diamagnetic Pheno- 
mena. 

The Dodo (Bidus inepfus). 

Metallurgical operations of Swansea 
and its neighbourhood. 

Recent Microscopical Discoveries. 

Mr. Gassiot's Battery. 

Transit of diflerent Weights with 
varying velocities on Railways. 

Passage of the Blood through the 
minute vessels of Animals in con- 
nexion with Nutrition. 

Extinct Birds of New Zealand. 

Distinction between Plants and Ani- 
mals, and their changes of Form. 

Total Solar Eclipse of July 28, 1851. 

Recent discoveries in the properties 
of Light. 

Recent discovery of Rock-salt at 
Carrickfergus, and geological and 
practical considerations connected 
with it. 

Some peculiar phenomena in the Geo- 
logy and Physical Geography of 
Yorkshire. 

The present state of Photography. 

Anthropomorphous Apes. 

Progress of researches in Terrestrial 
Magnetism. 

Characters of Sjiecies. 

As.syrian and Babylonian Antiquities 
and Ethnology. 

Recent discoveries in Assyria and 
Babylonia, with the results of Cunei- 
form research up to the present 
time. 

Correlation of Physical Forces. 

The Atlantic Telegraph. 

Recent discoveries in Africa. 

The Ironstones of Yorkshire. 

The Fossil Mammalia of Australia. 

Geology of the Northern Highlands. 

Electrical Discharges in highly rare- 
fied Media. 

Physical Constitution of the Sun. 

Arctic Discovery. 

Spectrum Analysis. 

The late Eclipse of the Sun. 

The Forms and Action of Water, 

Organic Chemistry. 



LIST OF EVENING LECTUllES. 



ili 




1863. 

1864. 
1865. 

1866. 
1867. 

1868. 
1869. 
1870. 
1871. 



Newcastle- 
on-Tyne. 



Bath 

Birmingham 

Nottingham. 
Dundee 



Norwich .... 

Exeter 

Liverpool ... 
Edinburgh 



Prof. Williamson, F.E.S. 



James Glaisher, F.R.S. 

Prof. Eoscoe, RR.S 

Dr. Livingstone, F.R.S. 
J. Beete Jukes, F.R.S. ... 



William Huggins, F.R.S 

Dr. J. D. Hoolcer, F.R.S 

Archibald Geikie, F.R.S 

Alexander Herschel, F.R.A.S. . 

J. Fergusson, F.R.S 

Dr. W. Odling, F.R.S 

Prof. J. Phillips, LL.D., F.R.S 
J. Norman Lockyer, F.R.S... 

Prof. J. Tyndall, LL.D., F.R.S 
Prof. W. J. Macquorn Rankine, 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
F. A. Abel, F.R.S 

E. B. Tylor, F.R.S 



The chemistry of the Galvanic Bat- 
tery considered in relation to Dy- 
namics. 

The Balloon Ascents made for the 
British Association. 

The Chemical Action of Light. 

Recent Travels in Africa. 

Probabilities as to the position and 
extent of the Coal-measures beneath 
the red rocks of the Midland Coun- 
ties. 

The results of Spectrura_ Analysis 
applied to Heavenly Bodies. 

Insular Floras. 

The Geological origin of the present 
Scenery of Scotland. 

The present state of knowledge re- 
garding Meteors and IMeteorites. 

Archaeology of the early Buddhist 
Monuments. 

Reverse Chemical Actions. 

Vesuvius. 

The Physical Constitution of the 
Stars and Nebulaj. 

The Scientific Use of the Imagination . 

Stream-lines and Waves, in connexion 
with Naval Architecture. 

On some recent investigations and ap- 
plications of Explosive Agents. 

On the Relation of Primitive to Mo- 
dern Civilization. 



1867. Dundee.. 

1868. Norwich 

1869. Exeter .. 



1870. Liverpool , 



Lectures to the Ojjerative Classes. 



Prof J. Tyndall, LL.D., F.R.S, 
Prof Huxley, LL.D., F.R.S. ... 
Prof. MiUer, M.D., F.R.S 



Sir John Lubbock, Bart., M.P., 
F.R.S, 



Matter and Force. 

A piece of Chalk. 

Experimental illustrations of the 
modes of detecting the Composi- 
tion of the Sun and other Heavenly 
Bodies by the Spectrum. 

Savages. 



xlii 



EEPORT 1871. 



Table showing the Attendance and Receipts 



Date of Meeting. 


Where held. 


Presidents. 




Old Life New 
Members. Mem 


Life 

bers. 




1831, Sept. 27 ... 

1832, June 19 ... 

1833, June 25 ... 

1834, Sei^t. 8 ... 

1835, Aug. 10 ... 

1836, Aug. 22 ... 

1837, Sept. 11 ... 

1838, Aug. 10 ... 

1839, Aug. 26 ... 

1840, Sept. 17 ... 

1 841, July 20 ... 

1842, June 23 ... 

1843, Aug. 17 ... 

1844, Sept. 26 ... 

1845, June 19 ... 

1846, Sept. 10 ... 

1847, June 23 ... 

1848, Aug. 9 

1849, Sept. 12 ... 

1850, July 21 ... 

1851, July 2 

1852, Sept. I 

1853, Sept. 3 ... 

1854, Sept. 20 ... 

1855, Sept. 12 ... 

1856, Aug. 6 

1857, Aug. 26 ... 

1858, Sept. 22 ... 

1859, Sept. 14 ... 
i860, Juno 27 ... 

1861, Sept. 4 

1862, Oct. I 

1863, Aug. 26 ... 

1864, Sept. 13 ... 

1865, Sept. 6 ... 

1866, Aug. 22 ... 

1867, Sept. 4 ... 

1568, Aug. 19 ... 

1569, Aug. 18 ... 

1 8 70, Sept. 14 ... 

1871, Aug. 2 


York 


The Earl Fitzwilliam, D.C.L. ... 
The Eev. W. Buekland, F.R.S. .. 
The Rev. A. Sedgwick, F.R.S.... 

Sir T. M. Brisbane, D.C.L 

The Eev. Provost Lloyd, LL.D. 

The Marquis of Lansdovme 

The Earl of Burlington, F.E.S. . 
The Duke of Northumberland... 
The Eev. W. Vernon Harcourt . 
The Marquis of Breadalbane . . . 
The Eev. W. Whewell, F.E.S.... 

The Lord Francis Egerton 

The Earl of Eosse, F.E.S 

The Eev. G. Peacock, D.D 

Sir John F. W. Herschel, Bart. . 
Sir Eoderick I. Mui'chison, Bart. 

Sir Eobert H. Inglis, Bart 

The Marquis of Northampton . . . 
The Eev. T. R. Robinson, D.D. . 

Sir David Brewster, K.H 

G. B. Airy, Esq., Astron. Roval . 
Lieut.-General Sabine, F.R.S. ... 
William Hopkins, E.sq., F.E.S. . 
Tlie Earl of Harrowby, F.E.S. .. 

The Duke of Argyll, F.E.S 

Prof C. G. B.Daubenv, M.D.... 
The Rev. HumiDhrey Lloyd, D.D. 
Eicliard Owen, M.D., D.C.L. ... 
n.R.H. The Prince Consort ... 

The Lord Wrotteslev, M.A 

William Fairbairn, LL.D.,F.R.S. 
The Rev. Prof WiUis, M.A. ... 
Sir William G. Armstrong, C.B. 
Sir Charles Lyell, Bart., M.A.... 
Prof J. Phillips, M.A.,LL.D.... 
William E. Grove, Q.C., F.E.S. 
The Duke of Buccleuch, K.C.B. 
Dr. Joseph D. Hooker, F.E.S. . 

Prof. G. G. Stokes, D.C.L 

Prof. T. H. Huxley, LL.D 

Prof. Sir W. Thomson, LL.D.... 




^9 
18 

50 
J6 
to 
[8 

3 
12 

9 

g 

to 

'3 
^3 
33 
'4 
'5 

1.2 
ZI 

13 
«S 

56 
^0 

31 
25 
18 
11 

39 
i8 




Oxford 


169 < 
303 i( 
109 : 
226 I 

313 

241 

314 

149 

227 

23s 

172 

164 

141 

238 

194 

182 

236 

222 I 

184 

286 

321 I 

239 

203 

287 

292 - 

207 

167 

196 

204 

314 

2,J fi 




Cambridge 




Edinbureh 




Dublin 

Bristol 




Liverpool 




Newcastle-on-Tyne .. 
Birmingham 




Glasgow 




Plymouth 




Manchester 




Cork 




York 




C ambridgo 




Southampton 

Oxford 




Swansea 




Birmingham 




Edinburgh 




Ipswich 




Belfast 

HiiU 




Liver^jool 




Glasgow 




Cheltenham 




Dublin 




Leeds 




Aberdeen 




Oxford 




l\Ianchester 




Cambridge 




Newcastle-on-Tyne .. 
Bath 




Birmingham 




Nottingham 




Dundee 




Norwich 

Exeter 




Liverpool 




Edinburgh 













ATTENDANCE AND RECEIPTS AT ANNUAL MEETINGS. 



xliii 



at Annual . 


Meetings of the Association. 








Attended by 


Amount 
received 


Sums paid on 
Accoimt of 
Grants for 












Old 


New- 








during the 


Seientitle 


Annual 


Annual 


Asaociates. 


Ladies. Fore 


igners. Total. 


Meeting. 


Purposes. 


Members. 


Members. 




















£ .s. d. 


£ s. d. 








... 


353 

900 
129S 










































20 














. . . 




167 

434 14 
918 14 6 
















1350 
1840 
































1 1 00* 


2400 

34 1438 

40 1353 

891 




956 12 2 
1595 II 
1546 16 4 
1235 10 II 






•• 




























r. 










"60* 




4<j 


31/ 






376 


33t 


331* 


i8 1315 




1449 17 8 


75 






185 
190 




160 
260 






1565 10 2 
981 12 8 


71 


9t 






45 






22 


407 


172 


35 1079 




830 9 9 


94 




65 


39 


270 


196 


36 857 




685 16 






40 


495 


203 


53 1260 




208 5 4 

275 I 8 


197 




54 


25 


376 


197 


15 929 


707 


93 


33 


447 


237 


22 1071 


963 


159 19 6 


12S 


4- 


510 


273 


44 I 241 


1085 


345 iS ° 


61 


47 


244 


141 


37 710 


620 


391 9 7 


63 


60 


510 


292 


9 1108 


iog5 


304 6 7 


56 


57 


367 


236 


6 876 


903 


205 


121 


121 


765 


524 


10 i8o2 


1882 


330 19 7 


142 


loi 


1094 


543 


26 2133 


231 100 


480 16 4 


104 


48 


412 


346 


9 1H5 


1098 


734 13 9 


156 


lao 


900 


569 


26 2022 


2015 


507 IS 3 


I I I 


91 


710 


509 


13 1698 


1931 


618 18 2 


125 


179 


1206 


821 


22 2564 


2782 


684 II I 


177 


59 


636 


463 


47 1689 


1604 


124 1 7 


1S4 


125 


1589 


791 


15 3139 


3944 


iiii 5 10 


150 


57 


433 


242 


25 1161 


1089 


1293 16 6 


154 


209 


1704 


1004 


25 3335 


3640 


1608 3 10 


182 


103 


11 19 


1058 


13 2802 


2965 


1289 15 8 


215 


149 


766 


508 


23 1997 


2227 


1591 7 10 


218 


105 


960 


771 


II 2303 


2469 


1750 13 4 


193 


118 


1163 


771 


7 ' 2444 


2613 


1739 4 


226 


117 


720 


682 J 


45 2004 


2042 


1940 


229 


107 


678 


600 


17 1856 


1931 


1572 


3°3 


1^95 


1103 


910 


14 2878 


3096 


1472 2 6 


311 


127 


976 


754 


21 2463 


2575 





* Ladies were not admitted by purchased Tickets until 1843. 

t Tickets for admission to Sections only. % Including Ladies 



xliv 



JtEl'OKT— 1871. 



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LIST 01" OFFICliRS. 

OFFICERS AND COUNCIL, 1871-72. 



xlv 



TRUSTEES (PERMANENT). 
General Sir Edward Sabine, K.C.B., E.A., D.C.L., Tres.K.S. 
Sir PiilLir DE il. Gi!Ei- Egebtox, Bart., M.P., F.E.S. 



PRESIDENT. 
SIR WILLIAM THOMSON, M.A., LL.D., D.C.L., F.H.SS.L. & E., 

the UniTcrsity of Glasgow. 

VICE-PRESIDENTS. 



Professor of Katural Philosoiihy iu 



His Grace The DUKE OF BucCLEUCir, K.G., D.C.L., 

F.E.S. 
The Right Hon. The Lord Provost of Edinburgh. 
The Eight Hon. John Inglis, D.C.L., LL.D., Lord 

Justice General of Scotland. 
Sir Alexander Grant, Bart., M,A,, Principal of 

the UniTersity of Edinburgh. 



Sir EoDERiCK I. Mur.cnisox, Bart,, K.C.B., 

G.C.St.S., D.C.L., F.H.S. 
Sir Charles Lyell, Bart., D.C.L., P.E.S., F.G.S. 
Dr. Lyon Playfair, M.P., C.B., F.E.S. 
Professor Chkistison, M.D., D.C.L., Prcs. E.S.E. 
Professor Balfour, F.B.SS. L, & E. 



PRESIDENT ELECT. 
DR. W. B. CARPENTER, LL.D., F.E.S., F.L.S., r.G,S. 

VICE-PRESIDENTS ELECT. 



The Earl of Chichester, Lord Lieutenant of the 

County of Sussex. 
The Duke of Norfolk. 
The Right Hon. The DuKE of Eiciimoxd, K.G., 

P.C.D.C.L. 



The Eight Hon. The Duke OF Devonshiee, E.G., 

D.C.L., F.E.S. 
Sir John LuBBOCK,Bart.,M.P.,F.E.S.,P.L,S.,F.G.S. 
Dr. Shari'EY, LL.D., Sec. E.S., F.L.S. 
J. Prest-wich, Esq., F.E.S., Pres. G.S. 



LOCAL SECRETARIES FOR THE MEETING AT BRIGHTON. 

Charles Carpenter, Esq. 
The Eev. Dr. Griffith. 
Henry Willett, Esq, 

LOCAL TREASURER FOR THE MEETING AT BRIGHTON. 

William Hexry Hallett, Esq., F.L.S. 

ORDINARY MEMBERS OF THE COUNCIL. 



BatemAN, J. F., Esq., FE.S. 

Beddoe, John, M.D. 

Debus, Dr. H., F.R.S. 

Evans, John, Esq., F.E.S. 

Fitch, J. G., Esq., M.A. 

Foster, Prof. G. C, F.E.S. 

Foster, Prof. M., M.D. 

Galton, Francis, Esq., F.E.S. 

Gassiot, J. P., Esq., D.C.L., F.E.S, 

Godwin-Austen, R. A. C, Esq., F.R.S. 

Hirst, Dr. T. A., F.E.S. 

HuGGiNS, William, Esq., D.C.L., F.E.S. 

Jeffreys, J. G., Esq., F.H.S. 

Lockyee, J. N., Esq., F.R.S. 



Merrifield, C. W., Esq., F.E.S. 
KoRTncoTE,Et.Hon.SirSTAFFORDH.,Bt.,M.P. 
' Eamsay-, Professor, LL.D., F.R.S. 
Rankine, Professor W. J. M., LL.D., F.R.S. 
Siemens, C. W., Esq., D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Simon, Dr. John, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Straciiky-, Major-General, F.R.S. 
Strange, Lieut.-Colonel A., F.R.S. 
Sykes, Colonel, M.P., F.R.S. 
Tyndall, Professor, LL.D., F.R.S. 
Wallace, A. E., Esq., F.R.G.S. 
Wiieatstone, Professor Sir C, F.R.S. 
Williamson, Professor A. W., F.R.S. 



EX-OFFICIO MEMBERS OF THE COUNCIL. 

The President and President Elect, the Vice-Presidents and Vice-Presidents Elect, the General and 
Assistant General Secretaries, the General Treasurer, the Trustees, and the Presidents of former 
years, \ii.: — 



Rev. Professor Sedgwick. 

The Duke of Devonshire. 

The Rev. T. R. Robinson, D.D. 

G. B. Airy,Esq.,AstrononierRoyal 

General Sir E. Sabine, K.C.B. 

The Earl of Harrowby. 

The Duke of Argyll. 

Dr. Thomas Thomson, F.R.S. 



The Rev. H. Lloyd, D.D. 
Richard Owen, M.D., D.C.L. 
Sir W. Fairbairn, Bait., LL.D. 
The Rev. Professor Willis, F.R.S. 
Sir W. G. Armstrong, C.B., LL.D. 
Sir Chas. Lyell, Bart., M.A.,LL.D, 



Professor Phillips, M.A., D.C.I. 
William R. Gro^e, Esq., F.R.S. 
The Duke of Buceleueh, K.B. 
Dr. Joseph D. Hooker, D.C.L. 
Professor Stok.'s, C.B., D.C.L. 
Prof. Huxley, LL.D. 



GENERAL SECRETARIES. 

F.L.S., The Athen.TUm Club, Pall Mall, London, S.W. 



Capt. Douglas Galton, C.B., R.E., F.R.S., 12 Chef:tcr Street, Grosvenor Place, London, S.W. 

ASSISTANT GENERAL SECRETARY. 

George Griffith, Es^., M.A., Harrow. 

GENERAL TREASURER. 
William Spottievoode, Esq., M.A., LL.D., F.R.S., F.R.G.S., cO Grosvenor Place, London, S.W. 



G. Busk, Esq., F.E.S. 



AUDITORS. 

Warren De La Rue, Esq., D.C.L., F.R.S. 



John Evans, Esq., F.R.S. 



Xlvi REPORT 1871. 

OFEICEES OF SECTIONAL COMMITTEES PRESENT AT THE 
EDINBURGH MEETING.. 

SECTION A. MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICS. 

P/-esiVfe;«f.— Professor P. G. Tait, F.R.S.E. 

Vice-Presidents. — Professor J. C. Adams, F.R.S. ; Professor Cayley, F.R.S. ; Rev. 
Professor Challis, F.R.S. ; J. P. Gassiot, D.C.L., F.R.S. ; Professor R. Grant, 
LL.D., F.R.S. ; Dr. Joule, D.C.L., F.R.S. ; Professor J. Clerk Maxwell, LL.D., 
F.R.S. ; Professor W. J. M. Rankine, LL.D., F.R.S. L. and E. ; Dr. Spottiswoode, 
F.R.S. ; Rev. Professor Kelland, F.R.SS. L. and E. ; Professor Stokes, D.C.L., 
F.R.S. ; Professor Sylvester, LL.D., F.R.S. 

iS'ec/-e!;«/-je.s.— Professor W. G. Adams, F.G.S. ; J. T. Bottomlev, M.A., F.C.S. ; 
Professor W. K. Clifford, M.A. : Professor J. D. Everett, F.R.S.E. : Rev. R. 
Harley, F.R.S. 

SECTION B. CHEMISTEY AND MINERALOGY, INCLrDING THEIR APPLICATIONS TO 

AGRICULTURE AND THE ARTS. 

P/-esj(feM!!.— Professor T. .^jidrevs's, M.D., F.R.SS. L. and E. 

Vice-Presidmits. — Professor Abel, F.R.S.; Professor Apjohn, F.R.S.; Professor 

Criim Brown, M.D., F.R.S.E. ; Dr. Ronalds, F.R.S.E. ; Professor H. E. Roscoe, 

F.R.S. ; Dr. J. Stenhouse, F.R.S. ; James Young, F.R.S.E. 
Secretaries.— J. Y. Buchanan, F.R.S.E.; W. N. Hartley; T. E.Thorpe, F.R.S.E. 

SECTION C. GEOLOGY. 

President. — Professor Archibald Geikie, F.R.S., F.G.S. 

Vice-Presidents.— Dr. J. Bryce, F.R.S.E., F.G.S. ; Thomas Davidson, F.R.S. ; Su- 

Richard Griffith, Bart., F.R.S. ; Professor Harkuess, F.R.S. ; D. Milne Home, 

F.R.S.E. ; J. Can-ick Moore, F.R.S. ; WiUiam PengeUy, F.R.S. ; J. Prestwich, 

F.R.S., Pres. G.S. Loud. ; Professor J. Young, M.D. 
Secretaries.— B.. Etheridge, F.R.S., F.G.S.; J. Geikie, F.R.S.E.; T. M 'Kenny 

Hughes, M.A., F.G.S.; L. C. Miall. 

SECTION D. BIOLOGY. 

President. — Professor Allen Thomson, M.D., F.R.SS. L. and E. 

Vice-Presidents. — Professor WvviUe Thomson, F.R.S. ; Professor W. Tm-ner, 
M.B., F.R.S.E. ; Professor "Owen, M.D., LL.D., F.R.S. ; Professor Huxley, 
LL.D., F.R.S.; Dr. Beddoe; Dr. Hughes Bennett; Dr. Carpenter, LL.D., 
F.R.S. ; Dr. Shai-pey, F.R.S. 

Secretaries.— Dx. T. R. Eraser, F.R.S.E. ; Dr. Arthur Gamgee, F.R.S.E. ; E. Ray 
Lankester, B.A. ; Professor Lawson, M.A. ; H. T. Staintou, F.R.S. ; C. Staui- 
landAVake, Dir. A. I.; Dr. W. Rutherford, F.R.S.E.; Dr. Kelburne Eing. 

SECTION E. GEOGRAPHY AND ETHNOLOGY. 

JVesK7«fi;.— Colonel H. Yule, C.B., F.R.G.S. 

Vice-Presidents.— '&IV Walter Elliot, K.C.S.L ; Sir Arthur Phayre, K.C.S.L; 

Major-General Sir Andrew Waugh, F.R.S. ; Dr. Rae, M.D. ; Admiral Sir 

Edward Belcher, K.C.B. ; Sir James ^Uexander, K.C.M.G. 
Secretaries. — Clements R. Markham, C.B., Sec. R.G.S. ; A. Buchan. F.R.S.E. : 

J. H. Thomas, F.R.G.S.; A. Keith Johnston, F.R.G.S. 

SECTION F. ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 

President. — Lord Neaves. 

Vice-Presidents. — The Lord Advocate, Sir John Bowring, K.C.B., D.C.L., F.R.S. ; 
Samuel Brown, Baron Eotvos, of Pesth ; Edward S. Gordon, M.P. ; Sir Alex- 
ander Grant, Bart. ; Sir Willoughby Jones, Bart. ; James Heywood, M.A., 
F.R.S. ; Duncan M'Laren, [M.P. ; Sir William Stirling Maxwell, Bart. ; Lvon 
Playfair, M.P., LL.D. ; W. NeHson Hancock, LL.D. ; General Sir Andrew Scott 
Waugh, K.C.B., F.R.S. 

Secretaries. — J. G, Fitch, M.A. ; James Meikle, F.I.A., F.S.S. 



REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. xlvi 

SECTION G. MECHANICAL SCIENCE. 

President. — Professor Fleeiuing Jenkin, C.E., F.R.S. 

Vice-Presidents.— J. F. Bateman, F.R.S. ; Admiral Sir E. Belcher, K.C.B. ; F. J. 
Bramwell, O.E. ; Peter Le Neve Foster, M.A. ; Professor W. J. Rankine, 
LL.D., F.R.S. ; C. W. Siemens, D.C.L., F.R.S. ; Thomos Stevenson, F.R.S.E, ; 
Professor James Thomson, LL.I). 

Secretaries. — H. Bauerman, F.G.S. ; Alexander Leslie, C.E. ; J. P. Smith, C.E. 

Report of the Council for the Year 1870-71, presented to the General 
Committee at Edinburgh, on Wednesday, August 2nd, 1871. 

At each of their meetings during the past year the Council have as usual 
received a report froii the General Treasurer, as well as one from the Kew 
Committee. A resume of these Reports wiU be laid before the General 
Committee this day. 

The Council have had under their consideration the several resolutions, five 
in number, referred to them by the General Committee at Liverpool. They 
beg to report as follows upon the action they have taken in each case : — 

First Resolution — " That the discontinuance of the maintenance of Kew 
Observatory by the British Association having been determined on, the 
President and Council be authorized to communicate with the President and 
Council of the Royal Society, and with the Government, so that the future 
use of the buildings may in 1872 be placed at the disposal of the Royal 
Society, in case the Royal Society should desire it, under the same con- 
ditions as those buildings are at present held by the British Association." 

A copy of this resolution was forwarded by direction of your Council 
to the President and Council of the Royal Society. The following is the 
reply which one of your General Secretaries has received from Dr. Sharpey, 
Secretary of the Royal Society : — 

" The Eoyal Society, Burlington House, 
July 8, 1871. 

" Deab De. Hibst, — In reply to your letter of the 10th December, 1870, 
enclosing a copy of a resolution of the General Committee of the British 
Association relative to the future occupation of the buildings at Kew now 
held by the British Association, I am directed to acquaint you that the 
President and Council of the Royal Society are ready to take possession of 
the Observatory at Kew on the terms it is at present held from Her Majesty's 
Government, as stated in a letter dated 26th March 1842, addressed to the 
President of the British Association from the Office of Woods, &c., viz. : — 
' during the pleasure and upon the conditions usual on sach occasions, that 
no walls shall be broken through, and no alterations made that can afi'ect 
the stability of the building, and alter its external appearance, without the 
previous sanction of the Board of Works.' I have further to acquaint you 
that the President and Council have appointed a Standing Committee of 
Fellows of the Royal Society for the management of the Kew Observatory 
in accordance with the terms of the Gassiot Trust, consisting of the following 
gentlemen : — 



Mr. Warren De La Rue. 
Mr. Francis Galton. 
Mr. Gassiot. 
Admiral Richards. 



Sir Edward Sabine. 
Colonel Smythe. 
Mr. Spottiswoode. 
Sir Charles Wheatstone. 



and that .£600 from the income of the Gassiot Fund has been placed at the 
disposal of that Committee to meet the expenses of the establishment for the 
ensuing year. " I remain, yours very truly, 

(Signed) " W. Shaepey, M.D., Secretary B. S." 



xlviii REPOKT — 1871. 

Through, the munificence of Mr, Gassiot, tlicrefore, tho Association can, 
^yithout detriment to science, give up possession of the Kcw Observatory at 
once instead of in 1872, as -was originally contemplated. Your Council 
accordingly recommend that Government should be informed without 
further delay of the desire of the Association to see the direction and 
maintenance of the Kew Observatory transferred to the Roj-al Society. 

Second Resolution. — " That the Council be empowered to cooperate with 
the Eoyal and Eoyal Astronomical Societies, in the event of a new appli- 
cation being made to Government to aid in the observation of the Solar 
Eclipse of December 1870." 

On the 4tli November a Joint Committee of the Royal and Royal Astro- 
nomical Societies decided to make a second application; on the 5th of 
November your Council selected a few of their body to accompany the new 
deijutation to Government which the above two Societies had resolved to 
send. The necessity for any such deputation was subscqiiently obviated 
through the intervention of private individuals, and, as is well known, aid 
was promptly and liberally granted by Government to the Eclipse Ex- 
pedition. 

Third Resolution. — " That the Council be requested to take such steps as 
they deem wisest, in order to urge upon Government the importance of 
introducing scientific instruction into the elementary schools throughout the 
country." 

A Committee of your Council having considered the subject, recommended 
the appointment of a deputation to wait upon the Lord President of tho 
Council in order to i;rge upon him the desirability of including elementary 
natural science amongst the subjects for which payments are made by the 
authority of the Revised Code. The Council accordingly formed themselves 
into a deputation, and on the 13tli of December 1870 had an interview with 
the Right Hon. "W. E. Eorstcr, M.P., Vice-rresident of the Committee of 
Council on Education, who was pleased to express his concurrence with tho 
objects of the deputation and his willingness to carry out those objects so far 
as circumstances would permit. 

Fourth Resolution. — " That tho Council of the British. Association be 
authorized, if it should appear to be desirable, to urge upon Her Majesty's 
Government the expediency of jn-oposing to the legislature a measure to 
insure the introduction of the metric system of weights and measures for 
international purposes." 

The Council deemed it expedient to postpone the consideration of this 
resolution. 

Fifth Resolution. — " That it is inexpedient that new institutions, such as 
the proposed Engineering College for India, should be established by Govern- 
ment, until the Royal Commission now holding an inquiry into the relation 
of the State to scientific instriictiou shall have issued their report. That the 
Council of the British Association be requested to consider this opinion, and, 
should they see fit, to urge it upon the attention of Her Majesty's Govern- 
ment." 

The Committee appointed without loss of time to consider and report on 
this resolution were informed at their first meeting tliat the arrangements 
for the establishment of the College had been virtually completed. Your 
President, however, in accordance with the wishes of this Committee, entered 
into unofiicial communication with tlic authorities at the India Office, relative 
to the proposed examination for entrance into the new Engineering College, 
and succeeded thereby in gaining for natural science, as compared with 



REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. xlix 

classics, a recognition, in the form of allotted marks, which it prcviouslj- did 
not possess. 

Your Council has given considerable attention to the important question 
(raised at the last meeting) of a revision of the regulations relating to the 
proceedings of the several Sections at the annual meetings of the Association. 
Hitherto, it has been justly urged, these proceedings, from not having been 
sufficiently pre-arranged, have fi-equently been of too desultory and mixed 
a character. It is hoped that by a proper observance of the Revised Regu- 
lations which are this day to be submitted to the General Committee for 
approval, and by increased vigilance on the part of the Sectional Committees, 
much of this may bo obviated, and that greater prominence may be given to, 
and a fuller discussion secured for, the really important communications 
which are annually made to the several Sections. 

The Council has pleasure in informing the General Committee that the 
Association at length possesses a central office in London. The Asiatic 
Society has, in consideration of a yearly rent of £100, granted to the Asso- 
ciation entire possession of four of their rooms at 22 Albemarle Street, and 
the use of another room for meetings of the Council and Committees. Your 
Council, moreover, acting under the power given to thera by the General 
Committee at Liverpool, have engaged Mr. Askham as clerk at a salary of 
£120 a year. He is in attendance daily, and there transacts much of the 
business which was formerly done at the office of Messrs. Taylor and Francis, 
the printers to the Association. With the exception of certain works of 
reference, the whole of the books and MSS. formerly deposited at Kew have 
been transferred to 22 Albemarle Street, and are being catalogued and 
rendered available for reference by Members of the Association. One of the 
four rooms not at present in use has been sub-let to the London Mathe- 
matical Society. 

The Council having been informed by Dr. Hirst of his desire at the close 
of the present Meeting to resign his ofRce as Joint General Secretary of the 
Association, appointed a Committee, consisting of the General Officers and 
former General Secretaries, to select a successor. This Committee unani- 
mously recommended the appointment of Captain Douglas Galton, C.B., 
F.R.S. The Coimcil, entirely agreeing with the Committee as to the high 
qualifications of Captain Galton for the office, cordially recommend his 
election by the General Committee at their meeting on Monday next. 

The Council cannot allow this occasion to pass without expressing their 
sense of the great services rendered to the Association by Dr. Hirst; but 
they abstain from saying more, as they are unwilling to anticipate a more 
mature expression on the part of the General Committee. 

The Council have added the following names of gentlemen present at the 
last Meeting of the Association to the list of Corresponding Members : — 

Professor Van Beneden. 

Dr. Crafts. 

Dr. Anton Dohrn. 



H. H. the Rajah of Kolapore, 
M. Plateau. 
Professor Tchebichef. 



Governor Gilpin, Colorado. 

The General Committee will remember that Brighton has already been 
selected as the place of meeting next year. Livitations for subsequent 
meetings have been received by your Council from Bradford, Belfast, 
and Glasgow. 

The Coimcil, lastly, recommend that the name of Professor Balfour be 
added to the list of Vice-Presidents of the present Meeting. 



1 REPORT 1871. 

Report of the Kew Committee of the British Association for the 
Advancement of Science for 1870-71. 

The Committee of the Kew Observatory submit to the Council of the British 
Association the follomng statement of their proceedings during the past 
year : — 

(A) WOEK BONT! BY KeW ObSEEVATORT UNDER THE DIRECTION OF THE 

British Association. 

1. Magnetic ivorlc. — In their last Eeport the Committee stated the plan on 
■which they proposed to reduce their Magnetic observations ; they now report 
that with reference to the reduction of the Magnetic Disturbances from 
January 1865 to December 1869, the period foUowing that which has already 
been published, the discussion of Declination and Horizontal Force Disturb- 
ances is nearly ready for presentation to the Eoyal Society, and that of the 
Vertical Force is in progress ; when that is completed, the whole period, 1865 
to 1869 inclusive, will have been discussed at Kew. The tabular statement, 
which is herewith presented (see Appendix I.), exhibits the exact state of 
the reduction. 

Two Dipping-needles by Dover and one by Adie have been tested for Mr. 
Chambers, Superintendent of the Colaba Observatory ; and one needle has 
been procured from Dover and tested for Prof. JeUnek, of Vienna. 

A Dip-circle by Dover has been verified and forwarded to Prof. Jelinek, 
■who ordered it on behalf of the K. K. mUitiir-geograpliisches Institut. 

Major-General Lefroy, Governor of Bermuda, having applied for the loan 
of a Dip-circle, one has now been prepared for his use, and will be forwarded 
to Bermuda as soon as possible. A Dip-circle has been obtained from Dover, 
and, after verification, ^vill be forwarded to the Survey Department, Lisbon. 

At the request of Prof. Jelinek the Committee have undertaken to examine 
a Dip-circle by Eepsold. It is of a large size and has eight needles, but Prof. 
Jelinek reports that the results obtained by them are very discordant. 

Copies of certain specified maguetograph curves have been made and for- 
warded to the late Sir J. Herschel, M. DiamiUa Miiller, of Florence, and Senhor 
CapeUo, of Lisbon, at the request of those gentlemen. 

The usual monthly absolute determinations of the magnetic elements con- 
tinue to be made by Mr. "\Miipple, the Magnetic Assistant. 

The Self-recording Magnetographs are in constant operation as heretofore, 
also nuder his charge. 

2. Meteorological ivorh. — The meteorological work of the Observatory 
continues in the charge of Mr. Baker. 

Since the Liverpool Meeting, 113 Barometers (including 17 Aneroids) have 
been verified, and 2 rejected ; 1320 Thermometers and 215 Hydrometers have 
like^wise been verified. 

Two Standard Thermometers have been constructed for Owens College, 
Manchester, one for the Bugby School, one each for Profs. Harkness and 
Eastmanu, of the Washington Observatory, four for Dr. Draper, of the New 
York Central Park Observatory, one for Major Norton, of the Chief Signal 
Office, "Washington, one for Mr. G. J. Symons, and three for the Meteorolo- 
gical Committee. 

Three Thermograph Thermometers have been examined for Mr. Chambers, 
of the Colaba Observatory, and three for the Meteorological Committee. 



REPORT OF THE KEW COMMITTEE. li 

Two Standard Barometers have been purchased from Adie, and tested at 
Kew, one of which has becu forwarded to the Chief Signal Office, Washington, 
and the other to Prof. Jack, of Fredricton, New Brunswick. 

Tubes for the construction of a Welsh's Standard Barometer on the Kew 
pattern, together with the necessary metal mountings, and a Cathetometer, 
have been made under the superintendence of the Committee for the Chief 
Signal Office, Washington. 

The Committee have likewise superintended the purchase of meteorological 
instruments for Owens College, Manchester, and for the ObseiTatory attached 
to the University of Fredricton, New Brunswick. 

The Kew Standard Thermometer (M. S. A.), divided arbitrarily by the late 
Mr. Welsh, and employed for many years past as the standard of reference 
in the testing of thermometers, was accidentally broken on the 3rd of January. 
Since then a Kew Standard, of the ordinary construction, made in 1866, and 
which had been compared on several occasions with M. S. A., has been used 
to replace it. 

Copies of some of the meteorological observations made at Kew during the 
years 1869 and 1870 have been supplied to the ^Institution of Mining 
Engineers at Newcastle-upon-Tyne, and the Editor of Whitaker's Almanac, 
the cost of the extraction being paid by the applicants in both instances. 

A set of self-recording meteorological instruments, the property of the 
Meteorological Committee, have been erected in the Verification-house, and 
are now undergoing examination.';' 

The self-recording metereological instruments now in work at Kew will be 
again mentioned in the second division of this Eeport. These are in the 
charge of Mr. Baker. 

3. PhotoJieJiocjraph.—Thc Kew Heliograph, in charge of Mr. Warren De 
La Rue, continues to be worked in a satisfactory manner. During the past 
year 362 pictures have been taken on 205 days. The prints from the 
negatives alluded to in last Report have been taken to date, and the printing 
of these has become part of the current work of the estabHshment. A paper 
by Messrs. Warren De La Rue, Stewart, and Loewy, embodying the position 
and areas of sim-groups observed at Kew during the years 1864, 1865, and 
1866, as well as fortnightly values of the spotted solar area from 1832 to 
1868, has been published in the Philosophical Transactions, and distributed 
to those interested in solar research. A Table exhibiting the number of 
sun -spots recorded at Kew during the year 1870, after the manner of 
Hofrath Schwabe, has been communicated to the Astronomical Society, and 
published in their ' Monthly Notices.' 

An apparatiis is being constructed under the direction and at the expense 
of Mr. Warren De La Rue, and it will shortly be erected on the Pagoda in 
Kew Gardens, in order to be employed in obtaining corrections for optical 
distortion in the heliographical measurements. 

4. Miscellaneous ivorl: — Experiments are being made on the heat produced 
by the rotation of a disk in vacuo. 

A daily observation has been made with the Rigid Spectroscope, the 
property of Mr. J. P. Gassiot. 

Observations have been made with two of Hodgkinson's Actinometers, 
the property of the Royal Society, in order to compare them with the 
Actinometers deposited at the Observatory, for reference, before forwarding 
them to India. 

The Committee have siiperintended the purchase of optical apparatus, 
chemicals, &c. for the Observatories at Coimbra and Lisbon. 



lii REPORT — 1871. 

An invoiitory lias licoii iiiiule of the apparatus, instruments, &c. at present 
deposited in the Observator}', and forms Appendix III. of the present llepoi+. 

In Appendix II. a list is given of the books at present in the Obsei'va- 
tory, the property of the British Association. 

List B (Appendix II.) is a rough inventory of books, the property of the 
British Association, which have been transferred from the Observatory to the 
rooms of the Association in London for the purpose of being catalogued. 

(B) Work D02fE at Kew as the Centrai Obseevatoet op the 
Meteokological Committee. 

1. Work done at Keiv as one of the Observatories of the 2Ieteorolof/tcal Com- 
mittee. — The Barograph, Thermograph, Anemograph, and Rain-gauge arc 
kept in constant operation. Mr. Baker is in charge of these instruments. 

From the first two instruments traces in duplicate are obtained, one set being 
sent to the Meteorological Office and one retained at Kew. As regards the 
Anemograph and llain-gaugc, the original records are sent, while a copy by 
hand of tlicse on tracing-paper is retained. The tabulations from the curves 
of the Ivew instruments are made by Messrs. Page and lligby. 

2. Verification of Records. — The system of checks devised by the Kew 
Committee for testing the accuracy of the observations made at the different 
Observatories continues to be followed, as well as the ruling of zero lines in 
the Barograms and Thermograms suggested b}' the Meteorological Office. 
Messrs. Bigby and Page perform this work, 3Ir. Baker, Meteorological 
Assistant, having the general supei-intendence of the department. 

3. Occasional Assistance. — The Meteorological Committee have availed 
themselves of the permission to have the occasional services of Mr. Beckley, 
Mechanical Assistant at Xew ; and he has lately been visiting the various 
Observatories of the Meteorological Committee. 

The self-recording Eain-gauge, as mentioned in the last Heport, has been 
adopted by the ileteorological Committee, and instruments of this kind have 
been constructed for the various Observatories. 

A series of comparative observations was commenced in April 1870 of 
two Anemometers erected in the grounds attached to the Observatory, 
in order to compare the indications of a large and small instrument ; but as 
a discussion of the result showed them to have been greatly affected by the 
influence of the neighbouring buildings, the instruments were dismounted 
in January last and re-erected in an open part of the Park, at a distance 
from the Obscrvatorj-. Three months' observations were made in this posi- 
tion, and as these proved satisfactory, the instruments have been dismounted. 
The cost of this experiment has been defrayed by the Meteorological 
Committee. Owing to his duties in Manchester, and to a railway accident. 
Dr. Stewart has not been able during the last j'car to devote much time 
to the Observatory. During his absence his most pressing duties were dis- 
charged by Mr. "Whipple in an efficient manner. 

The Obsei-vatorj- was honoured on the 9th of July b}' a 'vnsit from the 
Emperor and Empi-ess of Brazil. Their Majesties were received, on behalf 
of the Committee, by Sir E. Sabine and Mr. W. De La Rue. 

In the unavoidable absence, through illness, of Dr. Balfour Stewart, the 
Emperor was conducted over the Observatory by the above-named gentlemen, 
and the various instruments &c. were explained by Mr. Whipple and the 
other members of the staff of the Observatory. 



REPORT OF THE KEW COMMITTEE. 



liii 



APPENDIX I. 

Tabular statement showing state of Magnetic Ecductions at the present date. 



Hourly Tabulations from 
Traces. 


Correct 
Monthly 


Disturb- 
ances ex- 
cluded and 


Lunar 
Diurnal 

Variation 


Tables of 

Secular and 

Annual 


Solar 

Diurnal 

Variation 






By Tabula- 
tor. 


By Subsidiary 
Scale. 


Means. 


aggregated.' 


Tables. 


Variation. 


Tables. 




('1865 


1865 


1865 


1865 


1865 


1865 


1865 


o 


1866 


1866 


1866 


1866 


1860 


. 1866 


1866 


•^ 


1867 


1867 


1867 


1867 


1867 


1867 


1867 


.2 "^ 


1868 


1868 


1868 


1868 


1868 


1868 


1868 


g 


1869 


1869 


1869 


18G9 


1869 


1869 


1869 


P 


[l870 


1870* 














n865 


1865 


1865 


1865 




18G5 




C3 


1866 


1866 


1866 


1866 




1866 




° P J 


1867 


1867 


1867 


1867 




1867 






1868 


1868 


1868 


1868 




1868 




1869 
^1870 


1869 


1869 


1869 




1869 




J-H 


1870* 














a865 


1865 









1865 




<-H 


1866 


1866 








1866 




o g 


1867 


1867 








1867 




^c£l 


1868 


1868 








1868 




t>f^ 


1869 
J870 


1869 
1870* 








1869 





* The reduction of the tabulations for the year 1870 is being performed in Sir E. Sabine's 
office. 

Arrears of Work. 



Hourly Tabulations from 
Traces. 


Correct 

Monthly 


Disturb- 
ances ex- 
cluded and 


Lunar 

Diurnal 

Variation 


Tables of 

Secular and 
Ajinual 


Solar 
Diurnal 
Variation 






By Tabula- 
tor. 


By Subsidiary 
Scale. 


Means. 


aggregated. 


Tables. 


Variation. 


Tables. 




n858 


1858 


1858 


1858 


185St 


1858t 


1858t 


fl 


1859 


1859 


1859 


1859 


18591 


18.59t 


18.59t 




1860 


1860 


1860 


1860 


1860t 


1860t 


1860t 


C -1 


1861 


1861 


1861 


1861 


lS61t 


1861t 


18011- 




1862 


1862 


1862 


1862 


1862t 


1862t 


1862t 




1863 


1863 


1863 


1863 










1,1864 


1864 


1864 


1864 










1^1858 


1858 


1858 






1858 




>-H 


1859 


18.59 








1859 




^.^ 


1860 


1860 








1860 




°s 


1861 


1801 


1861 






1861 




-?^ 


1862 


1862 


1862 






1862 




^ 


1863 


1863 


1863 


1863 




1863 






^1864 


1804 


1864 


1804 




1804 




o ^1858 










1858 




se 


1859 










1859 




^ 


1860 


1860 








1860 




^ ^ 


1861 


1861 








1861 




O 


1862 


1862 




•.••<• 




1862 




t, 


1863 


1863 








1863 




> 


1864 


1864 








1864 





1871. 



t These have been already published by Sir E. Sabine. 



liv REPORT 1871. 



APPENDIX II. 



BOOKS AT PRESENT IN THE KEW OBSERVATOEY, 



THE PEOPEBTT OF 



THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION. 



LIST A. 

Books to he retained at Kew for reference. 

Britisli Association Keports, 1 vol. for the following years : — 
1831-32, 1833, 1834, 1835, 1836, 1837, 1838, 1839, 
1840, 1841, 1842, 1843, 1844, 1845, 1846, 1847, 
1848, 1849, 1850, 1851, 1852, 1853, 1854, 1855, 
1856, 1857, 1858, 1859, 1860, 1861, 1862, 1863, 
1864, 1865, 1866, 1867, 1868, 1869.- 

Philosophical Transactions 88 vols. 

„ ,, (Abstracts) 6 „ 

Proceedings of the lloyal Society 12 „ 

Royal Society Catalogue of Scientific Papers 4 „ 

Philosophical Magazine (half-yearly) 21 „ 

» „ (unbound) 11 parts. 

Logarithmic Tables (various) 6 vols. 

Royal Astronomical Society's Proceedings 13 

Buchan's Meteorology 2 

Dalton's „ 1 

Kaemtz's ,, , 1 

Meteorological Papers 27 nos. 

Meteorology of England 18 nos. 

Papers relating to the Meteorological Department of the 

Board of Trade 39 „ 

Instructions for taking Meteorological Observations (Col, 

James) 1 vol. 

Quarterly "Wuatner Reports 3 vols. 

British Almanac 2 „ 

Deviations of the Compass (Evana) 2 „ 



» 
» 



REPORT OF THE KEW COMMITTEE. Iv 

Miller's Elements of Chemistry 2 vols. 

WiUiamson's Chemistry for Students 1 vol. 

Elements of Chemistry (Sir E. Kane) 1 ,, 

Mathematics (Royal Military Academy Course) 2 vols. 

Euler's Letters on Mathematics and Physics 4 ,, 

Barlow on Magnetic Attraction 1 vol. 

Treatise on Electricity (De La Eive) 3 vols. 

"Woodhouse's Astronomy 1 vol. 

The Heavens (Guillemin, edited by Norman Lockyer) . . 1 „ 

Art of Photography (Lake Price) 1 „ 

Meteorological Tables, Smithsonian (Guyot) 1 „ 

Treatise on Mathematical Instruments (Heather) 1 „ 

Sabine's Pendulum and other Experiments 2 vols. 

Chauvenet's Astronomy 2 „ 

Timbs's Year-Book of Facts, 1861-1871 11 „ 

Taylor's Scientific Memoirs 2 „ 

Manual of Surveying for India, by Capts. Smythe and 

ThmUier 1 vol. 

Nichol's Cyclopaedia of Physical Science 1 

Admiralty Manual of Scientific Enquiry 1 

Dictionary of Terms of Art (Weale) 1 

Magnetic and Meteorological Observations at : — 

St. Helena 3 vols 

Toronto 5 

Hobarton 5 „ 

Cape of Good Hope 1 vol 

Observations during Magnetic Disturbances, 1840-1841 . . 1 „ 
Magnetic and Meteorological Observations, Unusual Dis- 
turbances . , 1 



j> 



5> 



» 



Plates to Magnetic and Meteorological Observations .... 1 ,, 

Report of the Astronomer Royal to the Board of Visitors . . 40 nos. 

Theory of Errors of Observations, by Airy 1 vol. 

Todhimter's Conic Sections 1 „ 

Distribution of Heat (Dove) 1 „ 

Optics (Potter) 1 „ 

Camus on the Teeth of Wheels 1 „ 

Simmonds's Meteorological Tables 1 „ 

Observations of Sun-spots (Carrington) 1 

Newton's Principia 1 

Symons's British Rainfall and Meteorological Magazine . . 

Experiences sur les Machines a Vapeur (Regnault) .... 2 

Cours Elementaii'e de Chimie (Regnault) 4 



J5 

» 






e2 



J> 


J) 


» 


>) 


JJ 


J? 


5) 


J> 


?) 


)> 


3? 


>J 


>> 


JJ 


J5 


» 


5> 


>J 


J> 


J> 


» 


5> 


J? 


5> 


5> 


JJ 



Ivi KEFORT ]871. 



LIST B. 

Bools to he sent to tJte London Office, 22 Albemarle Street. 

British Association Report, 1831-32 20 vols. 

1833 20 

1834 20 

1835 20 

1836 20 

1837 20 

1838 20 

1839 20 

1840 20 

1841 20 

1842 20 

1843 20 

1844 20 

1845 20 

1846 20 

1847 39 

1848 19 

1849 19 

1850 18 

1851 19 

1852 20 

1853 21 

1854 21 

1855 22 

1856 23 

1857 22 

1858 22 

1859 22 

1860 22 

1861 22 

1862 22 

1863 22 

1864 23 

1865 22 

1866 22 

1867 92 

1868 22 

1869 ;; 22 

Lalande's Catalogue (MS. Calculations) 96 

" » (MS. copy) 3 ^^ 

La Place's Celestial Mechanics 1 yof, 

Armagh, Places of Stars ' ' ' , 1 

Eadcliffe Observatory Catalogue of Stars for 1845 '. '. ". ". '. '. 1 

Paramatta Catalogue of 7358 Stars 1 

Groombridge's Catalogue of Circumpolar Stars .......... 3 vo'L. 

Edinburgh Astronomical Observations 4 

Astronomical Observations at the Cape of Good Hope .. . . 1 






































>} 




» 




r. 




>> 




y> 




)> 




jj 



REPORT or THE KEW COMMITTEE. Ivil 

(MSS.) Apparent Places of Principal Stars 1 vol. 

iJi-itish. Association Catalogue (MS. copy) 1 ,, 

(MSS.) British Association Catalogue (Calculations) .... 24 vols. 

(MSS.) British Association Catalogues, Synonyms and Notes 23 „ 

(MSS.) Lacaille's Catalogue (Calculations) 2-4 „ 

LacaiUe's Catalogue (MS. copy) 1 ,, 

Proceedings of the Eoyal Institution of Great Britain .... 33 nos. 

Ordnance Survey, Comparisons of Standards of Length . . 2 vols. 

EadclifFe Observatory, Meteorological Observations .... 3 „ 

Makerstoun, Meteorological Observations and Tables .... 10 „ 

„ Abstracts of Meteorological Observations . . 3 ,, 

Cambridge Observations 8 „ 

Playfair's Natural Philosophy 2 „ 

Bland's Algebraical Problems 1 „ 

Lectures on Quaternions (Sir W. Hamilton) 1 „ 

Meteorological and Nautical Observations at Melbourne 

and Victoria 1 „ 

Mastery of Languages (Prendergast) 1 ,, 

La Place's Analytical Mechanics 1 ,, 

Levelling in England and Wales 1 „ 

„ „ (Abstract) 1 „ 

Levelling in Scotland 1 „ 

„ „ (Abstract) 1 ,, 

Pasley on Measures, Weights, and Money 1 ,, 

Cork Savings-bank Tables 1 ,, 

Weld's History of the Royal Society 2 „ 

Bombay Magnetical and Meteorological Observations, 

1845 3 „ 

Meteorological Results, Toronto 8 „ 

Greenwich Observations 52 ,, 

„ „ (Appendices &.c.) 125 „ 

Catalogue of Reference, Manchester Free Library 1 ,, 

Brisbane's Star Catalogue 2 ,, 

Johnson and Henderson's Star Catalogue 2 „ 

(MSS.) Hartnup Star Catalogue 1 ,, 

Mayer's Star Catalogue 1 „ 

Wrottesley's Star Catalogue 1 „ 

Taylor's „ „ 8 ,, 

Everest's Survey of India 2 ,, 

Ordnance Survey C ,, 

Extension of Triangulation into Belgium and France .... 2 ,, 

Yerification and Extension of Lacaille's Arc of Meridian . . 2 ,, 

Schlagintweit's India and Hi^li Asia 2 „ 

Proceedings of Institution of Mechanical Engineers .... 8 ,, 

„ „ „ 70 nos. 

Modern Geology Exposed 1 vol. 

Melbourne Magnetic and Meteorological Observations ... 3 vols. 

Extracts from the Great Trigonometrical Survey of India 5 „ 

Madras Meteorological Observations 2 „ 

Sydney „ „ 38 nos. 

Calcutta Hourly Meteorological Observations '/ ,, 

Bengal Meteorological Reports 5 ,, 



Iviii REPORT — 1871. 

Statistics of New Zealand 9 nos 

Tide Tables for English and Irish Ports •.••.•■•• "* 

Reports and Transactions of the Devonshire As ociation . . 3 vols 

Annual Reports of the Royal Polytechnic Society _ 17 

Transactions of the Historic Society of Lancashire and 

Cheshire 17 

Transactions of the Royal Scottish Society of Arts 10 

Results of Trials on H.M. Ships 5 

Trigonometrical Survey of England and Wales 3 

Determination of Longitudes of England and Wales .... 2 

La Place's Mathematical Works 6 

Lagrange's „ „ 6 

Euler's Mathematical Works 4 

Simpson's „ „ 2 

Dupin's „ „ 1 vol 

Carnot's „ „ 1 

Shipbuilding, by Rankine 1 

Dublin Mag-netical and Meteorological Observations .... 1 

Maxima and Minima (Ramchundi'a) 1 

Meteorological Results Toronto, 1862 1 

Army Meteorological Register 1 

Mathematical Tracts from Library of the late Mr. Christio 
Magnetical and Meteorological Observations at Lake 

Athabasca. 
Sundries (English Pamphlets). 

U, S. Coasts Survey, Report of Superintendent 25 vols. 

Annals of the Dudley Observatory 4 „ 

Transactions of the Albany Institute 5 „ 

Proceedings of the American Geological and Statistical 

Society 10 >, 

Reports of the National Academy of Sciences 5 „ 

Documents of the U. S. Sanitary Commission o „ 

State Transactions of the Historic Society of Wisconsin . . G „ 

Report of Geological Reconnaisance of Arkansas 2 ,, 

Proceedings of the Boston Society of Natural History .... 45 „ 
„ of the American Association for the Advance- 
ment of Science 12 „ 

Monthly Report of the Commissioners of the Revenue of 

U. S. A 5 „ 

Proceedings of the American Academy of Ai-ts and 

Sciences 20 ,, 

Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 50 „ 

Papers relating to Harvard College 60 „ 

Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Phila- 
delphia 71 „ 

Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections 20 „ 

„ Contributions to Knowledge 26 „ 

Memoirs of the American Academy 9 „ 

Washington Astronomical and Meteorological Obsei-va- 

tions 9 „ 

Maury's Sailing Directions 3 „ 

Transactions of the American Philosophical Society .... „ 



REPORT OF THE KEW COMMITTEE. lix 

Sundry Volumes (various subjects) 16 vols. 

Smithsoman Keports 22 ,, 

Explorations and Surveys, Senate, U. S. A 4 ,, 

Reports of the Department of Agriculture, U. S. A 8 „ 

Geology of Iowa 2 „ 

Catalogue, Army Medical Museum, U. S. A 1 „ 

Sundries. (American Pamphlets.) 

Bulletin de la Societe de Geographie 42 „ 

J, 34 nos. 

Memoires de I'Academie de Dijon 13 vols. 

Bulletin de la Federation de la Societe de Horticulture de 

Belgique 9 » 

Actes de la Societe Helvetique 7 „ 

Memoires de I'Academie Royale de Metz 3 ,, 

Resume Meteorologique pour Geneve and Le Grand St. 

Bernard 6 „ 

Extraits de I'Academie Royale de BruxeUes 10 nos. 

Bulletin de la Societe Vaudoise 4 „ 

Memoires de la Societe des Sciences 7 „ 

Revues des Cours Scientifiques 19 ,, 

PanheUenium 20 ,, 

Quetelet sur le Climat de la Belgique 7 „ 

Extraits de I'Academie de Belgique 54 „ 

Commission Hydrometrique de Lyon 16 „ 

Bulletin de I'Association Scientifique de France 140 „ 

Memoires de I'Academie des Sciences et Lettres de Mont- 

pellier 5 „ 

Atlas Meteorologiquo de I'Observatoire Imperial, 1866- 

1869 4 „ 

La Belgique Horticole 6 „ 

Compte Rendu Annuel 15 vols. 

Annales de I'Observatoire Physique Central (Russia) .... 35 „ 

Annuaire Magnetique et Mcteorologique (Russia) 4 „ 

Annuaire Mcteorologique de Franco 7 „ 

Cosmos 4 ,, 

Les Mondes, 1863-70 8 „ 

Tables de la Lune, par Hanseen 1 vol. 

Traite de Calcul Differential, par Lubbe 1 ,, 

Histoire Celeste, par Lalande 1 no. 

Sundries. (French Pamphlets.) 

Oversigt over det K. D. V. Sclskabs af Forchhammcr . ... 33 ,, 

Videnskabernes Selskabs Skriftcr 6 vols. 

Sundries. (Dutch Pamphlets.) 
Archives Neerlaudaises. 

Meteorologische Waarnerningen 30 „ 

Helsingfors Magnetical and Meteorological Observations . . 6 „ 

Acta Societatis Scientiarum Fennicae 8 „ 

„ „ Indo-Neerlandsch 7 „ 

Norsk if eteorologisk Aarbog _ 4 „ 

Meteorologische Jagttagelser paa Christiania Observa- 

torium 6 „ 



>5 



>} 



J> 



Ix EEPOKT — 1871. 

Meteorologisclie Eeobachtungen Aiifgezeiclmct auf Chris- 

tiaiiia Observatorium 3 vols. 

Beretning om en Botauisk Eeise af H. L. Lorensen 6 „ 

Judex Scholarum iu Uiiiversitate Christiaiiia IS „ 

Sundries. (Norwegian Pamphlets.) 

Sitzungsberichte der Mathematisch N'aturwissenschaftliche 

Classe der Akademie der AVisseuschaften 280 

Sitzungsberichte der K. B. Akademie der Wissenschaften 78 
Mittheilungen der Naturforschenden GeseUschaft iu Bern 11 „ 
Monatsberichte der K. P. Akademie der Wissenschaften zu 

BerHn 80 „ 

Annalen fiir Meteorologie und Erdmagnetismus 6 „ 

Beobachtungen Meteorologische an der Wiener Stem- 

warte 22 

Yerhandlungen der AUgemeinen Sehweizerischen GeseU- 
schaft der Naturwissenschaften 16 

Zeitschrift der Osterreichischen GeseUschaft fiir Mete- 
orologie 130 

Eeise der Osterreichischen Frigatte Novara, Magnetische 

Beobachtungen 3 „ 

Magnetische Beobachtungen in Wien 4 „ 

Tageblatt der 32 Yersammlung der N. "NY. A. in "VYien, 

1856 9 „ 

Jahrbucher der K.-K. Central Anstalt fiir Meteorologie und 
Erdmagnetismus in Wieu. 1856-1859, 1 of each, 

1:866-1869, 2 of each 10 nos, 

Det KongeUge Norske XJniversitets Aarberetunger, 1856 

to 1858 8 vols. 

Travaux de la Commission pour fixer les mesures ct les 

poids de I'Emptre de Russic 3 „ 

Abhandlungen der Math-Physikal Classe der K. B. Aka- 
demie dor Wissenschaften 4 „ 

Bulletin der Akademie der Wissenschaften der Miinchen. 47 „ 
Sundries. (German Pamphlets.) 

Annaes do Observatorio do Infante D. Luiz 46 „ 

Trabalhos „ „ 5 ,, 

Memoires de Academie Beale de Sciences de Lisboa .... 8 ,, 

Annaes da Academia das Sciencias Lisboa 12 „ 

Coimbra, Observacoes Metcorologicas 21 „ 

Sundries. (Portuguese Pamphlets.) 

Russian Nautical Magazine 63 „ 

Harmonia Mcnsuram. 

^l^ldes HartweUiauffi 1 vol. 

Speculum HartweUianum 1 

Diverse Machine (EameUi) 1 

Memorie dell' I. R. Istituto Lombardo .5 vols. 

Memorie deUa Societa Italiana dellc Scienzc 5 „ 

Momorie dell' Osservatorio del CoUegio Romano 10 ,, 



}} 



Memorie del Rcale Istituto Lombardo 41 

Atti dell' Accademia Pontificia de' Nuovi Lincei 90 

Atti del Reale Istituto Lombardo 29 



j> 



REPORT OF THE KEW COMMITTi E. 



Ixi 



A< ti della Reale Accaclemia delle Scienze di Napoli 7 vols. 

JJuUetino Meteorologico dell' Osservatorio del CoUegio 

Romano 9 „ 

Giornale dell' I. R. Istitiito Lombardo 44 „ 

Rendiconti del Reale Istituto Lombardo 112 „ 

Sundries. (Italian Pamphlets.) 



APPENDIX III. 



luventory of Apparatus and Instruments at present in the Kew 
Observatoiy, with the names of Owners O]- Funds by which 
they were purchased. May 1871. 

[Abbreviations adopted in col. 2 : — Brit. Assoc, for British Assciciation ; Don. Fund for 
Donation Fund ; Gov. Grant for Government Grant Fund ; Met. Com. for Meteoro- 
logical Committee ; Par. Ex. Fund for Paris Exhibition Fund ; Eoy. Ast. Soc. for 
Boyal Astronomical Society ; Eoyal Soc. for Eoyal Society.] 

Entrance Hall. Property of, or 

Purchased by, 

Bird's Mercurial Thermometer Royal Soc. 

Captain Kater's Hygrometer, by Robinson „ 

Dr. Lind's Portable Wind Gauge „ 

Huygens's Aerial Telescope (twelve parts) „ 

Huygens's Object-glass „ 

Huygens's Object-glass, with two Eye-glasses by] 

Scarlet J " 

Plamsteed's Object-glass (Venetian) „ 

Dollond's 42-inch Transit, with a cast-iron stand . . „ 

Short's 36-inch Reflecting Telescope, with an Object- 1 

glass Micrometer by DoUond (nine parts) j" " 

Kater's Convertible Pendulum, with the Agate Planes „ 

Captain Sabine's Cylindrical Pendulum, vibrating on ] 

Planes ; with the Knife-edges J" " 

Apparatus, with Leaden Balls, by Paull of Geneva] 

(ten parts) J" " 

Nairne and Bluut's 12-inch Dipping N^eedle (two 1 

parts) J " 

A 12-inch Yariation Needle ,, 

Dr. Godwin Knight's Battery of Magnets ,, 

Air-Pump, with Double Barrel ,, 

Nairne's Air Condenser (three parts) „ 

Ramsden's Great Theodolite, with other Instruments ' 

and Apparatus employed by Major-General Roy in 

the Trigonometrical Survey (sixty-six parts, in four 

cases), incomplete 



Ixii I REPORT — 1871. 

Gary's Large Levelliijig Instrument (twenty-one parts) Eoyal Soc. 
Troughton and Simmis's Large Levelling Instrument "1 

(twenty parts) J " 

Adams's 5-incli Tlieodolite (two parts) „ 

Bowles's Trigonometer (four parts) „ 

Trougbton's Repeating Circle, of 1 foot diameter . . „ 

Eamsden's 10-inch Protractor, with. Yeruier to 1' . . „ 

Bird's 12-inch. Astronomical Quadrant (fifteen parts) „ 

Fordyce's Hydrometer „ 

Cole's Orrery, explanatory of Eclipses „ 

Two Miner's Compasses „ 

Armed Loadstone „ 

Le Cerf's Brass Instrument „ 

Curious Steel Callipers for very accurate measure- "I 

ment, by Paull of Geneva : 1777 J 

Eowning's Universal Constructor of Equations .... „ 

Chronometer Stove, for ascertaining the Influence of "1 

Temperature on the Bate of Chronometers (six V „ 

parts) J 

Wedgewood's Pyrometer ; or Thermometer for mea- 1 

suring high degrees of heat (sixty-six parts) .... J " 

Two strong Brass PuUeys ,, 

Bird's 4-feet Eofracting Telescope „ 

Dicas's Hydrometer „ 

Hadley's Metal for a Newtonian Eeflcctor, with l 

several wooden Eyepieces, but without Tube or >■ „ 

Mounting J 

Troughton and Siinms's 6-inch Circular Protractor. . „ 

Baily's Pendulum, No. 2 Eoy. Ast. Soc. 

Standard "Wrought-iron bar used in Mallet's Expo- 1 -n -i. a 

riments, 1838-1842 | ^"'^- ^^'°''- 

Observing Telescope used by Schlagintweit. 

Experimental Tubes employed in the construction of ] p, p , 

"Welsh's Standard Barometers J 

Six 39-inch GlasB Slabs. 

Sixty Lamp Chimneys Brit. Assoc. 

Eight 14-inch Magnets. 

Sundry Lamps, Plate Boxes, Daguerotypes and Ap- I 

paratus employed with Eonalds's Self-recording v Donat. Fund. 

Barograph and Magnetograph J 

Sundry Chemical Apparatus used with Addams's Car- 1 p p , 

bonic acid Gas Generators J 

Three large Magnetometers with Marble Slabs, Pil- 
lars, Eeading Telescopes, &c. 
Two Thermometer Testing -jars (damaged). ....... Brit. Assoc. 

Two 6-uich Bull's-eye Lenses. 

Sir W. Thomson's Portable Atmospheric Electro- \ Prof. Sir W. 

meter j Thomson. 

Sir "W. Thomsonis Eecording Atmospheric Electro- 1 

meter J J " 

Various pieces of Electrical Apparatus SirF.Eonalds. 

Sundry Lenses, 



)} 



REPORT OV THE KEW COMMITTEE. Ixiii 

Galton's Dial Anemometer, with Battery, &c Met. Com. 

Artificial Horizon Sir E. Sabine. 

Heliostats and Reflectors used in Mr. Galton's Sex- ^ r< „ o 

tant Testing Apparatus : J ° ' 

Apparatus for Trisecting an Arc. 

Saussure's Hygrometer SirF.Eonalds. 

Seven-inch Protractor, by Jones. 

Marine Barometer. 

Two Patent Compensated Barometers, by Harris. 

One 30-inch Steel Bar. 

Two EJriel's SeLf-reeording Barometers, with Spare 1 -n ,-i. a 

Tubes J ^^ ■ ^^ ^' 

Tube of Ronalds's Photo-barograph Gov. Grant. 

Glass Receiver (damaged). 

Model of Sheerness Tide-gauge Royal Soc. 

Mallet's Model of the Descent of Glaciers. 
Several Models, not named. 

Appold's Automatic Hygrometer Royal Soc. 

Appold's Automatic Temperature Regidator „ 

Lindley's Patent Central Thermometer. 
Lindley's Model of Fire Escape. 

Perspective Instrument SirF.Eonalds. 

Barrow's Dip Circle, No Sir E. Sabine, 

Robinson's 6-inch Circle 

Two Unifilars and a Declinometer, by Gibson 

Seven Tripods „ 

Balance of Torsion. 
A "Watchman's Clock. 

Oertling's Balance Gov. Grant. 

Two Aspirators 

Wooden Wind-pressure Gauge 

Altazimuth, by Cary Sir E. Sabine. 

Ronalds's Atmospheric Electrical Apparatiis Gov. Grant. 

Model of Mr. De La Rue's Tower for supx)orting 

Huyghen's Aerial Telescope-lenses Par.Ex.Fuud. 

Model of a design for Photohehograph Mounting . . Brit. Assoc. 
Leyden Jars Mr. Gassiot. 

Testing Room. 

Six frames exhibiting Kew and Lisbon Magnetic 1 t. -i. * 
^ ° ? Brit. Assoc. 

Curves j 

Two Welsh's Standard Barometers Gov. Grant. 

Cathetometer „ 

Receiver for testing Barometers, with Air-Pump, (fee. ,, 

Apparatus for testing Thermometers „ 

Newman's Standard Barometer, No. 34 „ 

Brass Mural Quadrant Observatory. 

Spare Tubes for Standard Barometer construction . . Gov. Grant. 

Thomson's Galvanometer and Apparatus employed by 1 

Dr. Stewart in Rotating Disk experiments J 

Siemens's Air-Pump 

Sprengel's Air-Pump 



>j 



j> 



» 



>y 









Ixiv REPORT 18/1. 

Parts of Eonalds's ilagnetographs Gov. Grant. 

Air-Thermometer (incomplete) 

MSS., Books, Papers, Documents, and Correspondence 
referring to Meteorological work. 

Trcoisit Room. 

Thermometer-waxing Apparatus Brit. Assoc. 

Photographic Paper "Waxing Apparatus „ 

Thomson's Atmospheric Eecording Electrometer . . Met. Com. 

Thermograph ,, 

Chronometer, Arnold Gov. Grant. 

Invariable Pendulum Eoyal Soc. 

Pendulum, No. 8 „ 

Dip Circle, by Jordan Sir E. Sabine. 

Declinometer, by Eobinson and Barrow „ 

Eive Daniell's Hygrometers 

Four Declinometers (various makers) 

Artificial Horizon 

Eour Thermometers 

Three Herschel's Actinometers 

10-inch Azimuth Compass 

Vertical Force Magnetometer „ 

Standard Yard „ 

Three Dip Circles and one Fox's Circle „ 

Several old Observing Telescopes and incomplete ] 

Magnetic Apparatus J " 

Photograi)hic Paper, waxed and unwaxed Brit. Assoc. 

Sundry Bottles, Chemicals, and Apparatus employed 

in the ordinary work of the Observatory „ 

Computing Room. 

Dividing Engine by Perreaux, and Apparatus em- 1 

ployed in the construction of Standard Thermo- I Gov. Grant, 
meters J 

Standard Thermometers, divided and undivided .... Brit. Assoc. 

Evaporation Gauge (exhibited at Paris) Par.Ex.Fund, 

Portable Barometer, by Newman Sir E. Sabine. 

Gay-Lussac Barometer, by Bunter. 

Troughton and Simms's Mercurial Standard Ther- "I -^ , ^ 
mometer J ^ 

Newman's Spirit Thermometer for very low Tempe- 
ratures 

Jones's Hygrometer 

Set of Bar Magnets (six) „ 

Pair of Levelling Staves, by Jones „ 

Sundry old Thermometers. 

Thermometer, by Greiner Sir E. Sabine. 

Dry and Wet Thermometer, from Hobarton. 

Thermometer, No. 2, from Greenwich Observatory. 

Actinometer Tube P^,^' ^- ^""^S- 

kinson. 



{ 



>) 



}> 



REPORT OF THE KEW COMMITTEE. IxV 

Actinometer Tube Royal Soc. 

Two Actinometers j , ." ' °' 

Three Actinometers Eoyal Soc. 

Ten Hydrometers. 

Spirit-level used in Pendulum experiments Gov. Grant. 

Small Boiling-point Apparatus Par.Ex.Eund. 

Two Mountain Thermometers. 

One Regnault's Hygrometer Gov. Grant. 

One Daniell's Hygrometer. 

Several Declinometers, by various makers Sir E. Sabine. 

Several TJnifilars, by various makers 

Several Dip Circles, by various makers 

Two Altazimuth Instruments Admii'alty. 

Eepeating Circle, by Dollond Sir E. Sabine. 

Vertical Force Magnetometer 

Sundry Magnets, Dip Needles, Magnet Fittings, In- "1 

ertia Bars, Eiugs, &c., belonging to various instru- > „ 

ments J 

Magnets and Needles in use at the Observatory. ... ,, 

Standard Yard Gov. Grant. 

Standard Weights „ 

Jars and Standard Solutions used in Hydrometer- 
testing' Brit. Assoc. 

Chemicals and Chemical Apparatus used in the Ob- 1 

servatory J " 

Apparatus employed by Prof. Clerk Maxwell. 

Telescope support, by Goloz Koyal Soc. 

Several Tripods 

Surveying Rods 

6-inch Globe ,, 

Model of Hydraulic Anemometer Mr. Galton. 

Several Rules and Scales in use Brit. Assoc. 

Box of Ozonometer Papers. 

Magnetograph Curves Brit. Assoc. 

Magnetic Observation-books „ 

MS. Papers of Magnetic Reductions „ 

MS. Papers on various subjects „ 

Surplus copies of Publications issued by Observatory | '^^■-f ° ^ ^^^ 
"Wood Engravings of Magnetograph Drawings .... Brit. Assoc. 

SoutJi Hall. 

Cooke's Sextant Testing Apparatus Gov. Grant. 

Shelton's Astronomical Regulator, with Gridiron Pen- 1 -r, , „ 

dulum j ^oy^l S°<'- 

Gas Governors and Regulators Don. Fund. 






Magnetograph Room. 

Magnetographs Gov. Grant. 

Earthenware Stove Brit. Assoc. 



Ixvi REPORT — 1871. 

Deflecting Apparatus Brit. Assoc. 

Barograph Met. Com. 

Eigid Spectroscope Mr. Gassiot. 

Pendulum Room. 

Vacuum Chamber and Vibrating Apparatus Admiralty. 

Observing Telescope „ 

Shelton's Astronomical Eegulator Eoyal Soc. 

Transit House. 

Portable Transit Instrument Sir E. Sabine. 

Apparatus for determining Scale value of Levels . . Mr. Adie. 

Lower PliotograpMc Room. 

Baths, Dishes, Bottles, and Chemical Apparatus .... Gov. Grant. 

Chemicals and Paper Brit. Assoc. 

Printing Frames „ 

Meteorological Room. 

Globe Brit. Assoc. 

Barograph, Thermograph, and Anemograph Curves . . Met. Com. 

Ditto (duplicates) Brit. Assoc. 

Tabulations of ditto (duplicates). 

Scales, Eules, &c., employed in tabulating Curves . . Met. Com. 

Post Cases, MSS. and Documents in connexion with 1 

the Meteorological Committee's work J " 

Working Drawings of Instruments. 

Observatory Correspondence. 

Furniture and Fittings Met. Com. 

Sun Room, 

Sun Pictures (Negatives) Gov. Grant. 

Sun Pictures (Prints) „ 

Thirty-seven Vols. Schwabe's Observations (MSS.) . . Eoy. Ast. Soc. 

Sundry Papers connected with Solar Eesearch. 

Sundry Volumes of Kew Electrical and Meteoro- 
logical Observations (MSS.). 

Surplus Lithographed and Engraved copies of Kew 1 p p . 
Magnetic Curves / ^°^- ^^^^' 

Photo-galvanographed Plates of Curves, by Paul 1 

Pretsch J » 

Spare Magnets for Magnetographs Mr. Adie. 

One Magnetic Tabulator Brit. Assoc. 

Two Magnetic Tabulators j ^^'^Q^ggYo^t' 

Lofts. 
Old Observing Clock. 

Parts of old Electrical and Meteorological Apparatus Brit. Assoc. 
Parts of old Eoyal Society Apparatus Eoyal Soc. 

Solar Photographic Room. 

Anemograph with Blank sheets Met. Com. 

Baths, Dishes, Printing-frames, Bottles, Paper, Che- 



REPORT OF THE KEW COMMITTEE. Ixvii 

micals, Glass, &c., used in connexion with the Pho- 
toheliograph Gov. Grant. 

Dome. 

Photoheliograph Don, Fund. 

Eobinson's Registering Anemometer (dismounted) Brit. Assoc. 

Roof. 

Old Pressure Anemometer (incomplete) Brit. Assoc. 

Old Rain-gauge (incomplete) „ 

Magnetic Ohsei'vaiory. 

Declinometer! ci- -n ci i.- 

DipCircles / SirE.&abiue. 

Sundry Apparatus employed in Magnetic Determina- 1 

tions J " 

Stone Pillars „ 

Worlcshop (Sfo. 1). 

Whitworth Lathe 1 -r.^^ t?„„j 

T)i • T,r !-• > Don. fund. 

Planing Machine J 

Holtzapffel Lathe Sii'F.Ronalds. 

Forge Don. Fund. 

Forge Brit. Assoc. 

Surfaces and Straight Edges Gov. Grant. 

Grindstone Brit. Assoc. 

Yices , „ 

Castings and Tools „ 

Worlcshoj) (No. 2). 

Electro-magnet and Battery Sir E. Sabine. 

Carbonic-acid Gas Generators Gov. Grant. 

Ronalds's Barograph (incomplete) „ 

Gas-holder Mr. Atkinson. 

Glass-blowing Table . 

StiU 

Sundry Packing-cases. 



Glass-blowing Table Gov. Grant. 

StiU 



» 



Enclosure. 

Self-recording Rain-gauge Met. Com. 

Rain-gauge (ordinary) . . , Brit. Assoc. 

Two Dial Anemometers Met. Com. 

Mowing Machine and sundry other Garden Tools . . Brit. Assoc. 

Verification House. 
Stone Pillars for erecting Self-recording Magneto- "1 -p. p ^ 1 

graphs J 

Self-recording Barograph, Thermograph, and Ane- \-\t ^ p ^ 

mograph (undergoiug examination) J 

In the Custody of B. Loewy, Esq., 11 Leverton Street, N.W. 
Mr. De La Rue's Micrometer for measuring Astronomical Photo- 
graphs (in use for measuring the photographs obtained with 
the heliograph). 



Ixviii 



EEPORT — 1871. 



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03 



««•§ 



RCOMMENDATIONS OF THE GENERAL COMMITTEE. Ixix 

EBCOlIMEJfLATIONS ADOrXED BX THE GeNBRAL CoJIMIIIEE AT THE EDINBTJReH 

Meeting in Axtgust 1871. 

[When Committees are appointed, the Member first named is regarded as the Secretary, 
except there is a specific nomination.] 

That in future the division of the Section of Biology into the three Depart- 
ments of Anatomy and Physiology, Anthropology, and Zoology and Botany 
shall be recognized in the programme of the Association Meetings, and that 
the President, two Vice-Presidents, and at least three )Secretaries shall be 
nominated, and that the Yice-Presidents and Secretaries who shall take 
charge of the organization of the several Departments shall be designated 
respectively before the publication of such programme. 

Dr. R. King's motion, " that a Subsection for Ethnology be formed," -s^as 
rejected. 

That the Apparatus, Instruments, «S;c. mentioned in Appendix III. of the 
Eeport of the Kew Committee for the past year be transferred to the charge 
of the Royal Society. 

That the Electrical Apparatus belonging to the British Association, now in 
possession of the Committee of Electrical Standards, be placed in the Physical 
Laboratory of Cambridge, in charge of the Professor of Experimental Physics, 
the apparatus remaining the property of the Association and at the disposal 
of the Committee. 

[For Regulations relating to Organizing Sectional Proceedings, vide p. xix.] 

Recommendations Involving Grants of Money. 

That the sum of .£300 be placed at the disposal of the Council for main- 
taining the establishment of the Kew Observatory. 

That Professor Cayley, Professor H. J. S. Smith, Professor Stokes, Sir "W. 
Thomson, and Mr. J. W. L. Glaisher be a Committee for the purpose of re- 
porting on Mathematical Tables, which it may be desirable to compute or 
reprint ; that Mr. J. W. L. Glaisher be the Secretary, and that the sum of 
e£50 be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Mr. Edward Crossley, Rev. T. W. Webb, and Rev. R. Harley be a 
Committee for discussing Observations of Lunar Objects suspected of change ; 
that i^lr. Crossley be the Secretary, and that the sum of .£20 be placed at 
their disposal for the purpose. 

That Professor Tait, Professor Tyndall, and Dr. Balfour Stewart be a 
Committee for the purpose of investigating the Thermal Conductivity of 
Metals ; that Professor Tait be the Secretary, and that the sum of £25 be 
placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That the Committee on Tides, consisting of Sir "W. Thomson, Professor J. C. 
Adams, Professor J. W. M. Rankine, Mr. J. Oldham, Rear-Admiral Richards, 
and Mr.W. Parkes, be reappointed; that Colonel Walker, F.R.S., Superintendent 
of the Trigonometrical Survey of India, be added to the Committee ; and that 
the sum of £200 be placed at their disposal to defray the expenses of calcula- 
tion during the ensuing year. 

That the Committee for reporting on the Rainfall of the British Isles be 
reappointed, and that this Committee consist of Mr. Charles Brooke, Mr. 
Glaisher, Professor Phillips, Mr. G. J. Spnons, Mr. J. F. Bateman, Mr. R. 
W. Mylne, Mr. T. Hawksley, Professor J. C- Adams, Mr. C. Tomlinson, 

1871. / 



IXX REPORT — 1871. 

Professor Sylvester, Dr. Pole, Mr. Rogers Field, Professor Ansted, and Mr. 
Buchan ; that Mr. G. J. Symons be the Secretary, and that the sum of £100 
be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That a Committee on Underground Temperature, consisting of Sir William 
Thomson, Professor Everett, Sir Charles Lyell, Bart., Professor J. Clerk 
Maxwell, Professor Phillips, Mr. G. J. Symons, Professor Eamsay, Professor 
Geikie, Mr. Glaisher, Eev. Dr. Graham, Mr. George Maw, Mr. Pengelly, 
Mr. S. J. Mackie, Professor Edward Hull, and Professor Ansted, be apporuted ; 
that Professor J. D. Everett be the Secretary, and that the sum of £100 be 
placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That the Committee on Luminous Meteors, consisting of Mr. Glaisher, 
Mr. R. P. Greg, Mr. Alexander Herschel, and Mr. C. Brooke, be reappointed, 
and that the sum of =£20 be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Dr. Huggins, Mr. J. N. Lockyer, Dr. Reynolds, Professor Swan, and 
Mr. Stoney be a Committee for the purpose of constructing and printing tables 
of Inverse "Wave Lengths, Mr. Stoney to be reporter ; and that the sum of 
£20 be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Professor A. W. Wniiamson, Professor Roscoe, and Professor Frank- 
land be a Committee for the purpose of superintending the Monthly Reports 
of the progress of Chemistry ; and that the sum of £100 be placed at their 
disposal for the purpose. 

Professor A. W. Williamson, Sir W. Thomson, Professor Clerk Maxwell, 
Professor G. C. Foster, Mr. Abel, Professor Fleeming Jenkin, Mr. Siemens, 
and Mr. R. Sabine, with power to add to their number, be a Committee for 
the purpose of testing the N^ew Pyrometer of Mr. Siemens, by whom the 
chief instrument will be supplied ; and that the sum of £30 be placed at 
their disposal for the purpose. 

That Dr. Gladstone, Dr. C. R. A. Wright, and Mr. Chandler Roberts be a 
Committee for the purpose of investigating the chemical constitution and 
optical properties of essential oils, such as are used for perfumes ; that Mr. 
Chandler Roberts be the Secretary, and that the sum of £40 be placed at 
their disposal for the purpose. 

That the Committee, consisting of Professor Crum Brown, Professor Tait, 
and Mr. Dewar, be reappointed for the purpose of continuing experiments on 
the Thermal Equivalents of the Oxides of Chlorine ; and that the sum of £15 
be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Dr. Duncan, Mr. Heniy Woodward, and Mr. Robert Etheridge be a 
Committee for the purpose of continuing researches in Fossil Crustacea ; that 
Mr. Woodward be the Secretary, and that the sum of £25 be placed at their 
disposal for the purpose. 

That Sir C. LyeU, Bart., Professor Phillips, Sir J. Lubbock, Bart., Mr. J. 
Evans, Mr. E. Yivian, Mr. W. Pengelly, Mr. G. Busk, Mr. W. B. Dawkins, 
and Mr. W. A. Sandford be a Committee for the purpose of continuing the 
Exploration of Kent's Cavern, Torquay ; that Mr. Pengelly be the Secretary, 
and that the sum of £100 be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Professor Harkness and Mr. James Thomson be a Committee for the 
purpose of continuing the investigation of Carboniferous Corals with the view 
of reproducing them for pubhcation ; that Mr. Thomson be the Secretary, and 
that the sum of £25 be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Mr. G. Busk and Mr. Boyd Dawkins be a Committee for the purpose 
of assisting Dr. Leith Adams in the preparation of Plates illustrating an 
accouut of the Fossil Elephants of Malta ; that Mr. Busk be the Secretary, 
and that the sum of £25 be placed at their disposal fcr the purpose. 



RECOMMENDATIONS OF THE GENERAL COMMITTEE. Ixxi 

That Professor Harkness, Mr. William Jolly, aud Dr. J. Bryce bo a 
Committee for the purpose of coUectiug Fossils from localities of difficult 
access iu North -western Scotland, that the specimens be deposited in the 
Edinburgh Industrial Museum, aud that duplicates be deposited in such 
Museum as the Association may designate ; that Mr. William JoUy be the 
Secretary, and that the sum of £10 be placed at their disposal for the 
purpose. 

That Professor Eamsay, Professor Geikie, Professor J. Young, Professor 
Nicol, Dr. Bryce, Dr. Arthur Mitchell, Professor Hull, Sir E. Griffith, Bart., 
Dr. King, Professor Harkness, Mr. Prestwich, Mr. Hughes, and Mr. PengcRy 
be a Committee for the purpose of ascertaining the existence in different 
parts of the United Kingdom of any Erratic Blocks or Boulders, indicating on 
Maps their position and height above the sea, as also of ascertaining the 
nature of the rocks composing these blocks, their size, shape, and other par- 
ticulars of interest, and of endeavouring to prevent the destruction of such 
blocks as in the opinion of the Committee are worthy of being preserved ; 
that Mr. MiLne Holme be the Secretary, and that the sum of £10 be placed 
at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Mr. Stainton, Professor Kewton, and Sir John Lubbock be a Com- 
mittee for the purpose of continuing a Eecord of Zoological Literature ; that 
Mr. Stainton be the Secretary, and that the sum of £100 be placed at theii 
disposal for the purpose. 

That Professor Balfour, Dr. Cleghorn, Mr. Eobert Hutchinson, Mr. Alexander 
Buchau, and Mr. John Sadler be a Committee for the purpose of taking Ob- 
servations on the effect of the Denudation of Timber on the EainfaU in North 
Britain ; that Dr. Cleghorn be the Secretary, and that the sum of £20 be placed 
at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Dr. Sharpey, Dr. Eichardson, and Professor Humphry be a Com- 
mittee for the purpose of continuing investigations on the Physiological 
Action of Organic Chemical Compounds ; that Dr. Eichardson be the Secretary, 
and that the sum of £25 be jjlaced at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Professor Michael Foster, Mr. W. H. Flower, and Mr. Benjamin 
Lowne be a Committee for the purpose of making Terato-embryological 
inquiries ; that Mr. Lowne be the Secretary, and that the sum of £20 be 
placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Professor M. Foster, Dr. Arthur Gamgee, and Mr. E. Eay Lankester 
be a Committee for the purpose of investigating the amount of Heat gene- 
rated in the Blood in the Process of Arterialization ; that Dr. Gamgee be the 
Secretarj', and that the sum of £15 be placed at their disposal for the 
purpose. 

That Professor Christison, Dr. Laycock, and Dr. Frascr be a Committee for 
the purpose of investigating the Antagonism of Poisonous Substances ; that 
Dr. Fraser be the Secretary, and that the sum of £20 be placed at their disposal 
for the purpose. 

That Sir E. I. Murchison, Bart., the Eev. Dr. Giusburg, Mr. Hepworth 
Dixon, Eev. Dr. Tristram, General Chesney, Eev. Professor Eawlinson, and 
Mr. John A. Tinne be a Committee for the pui-pose of undertaking a Geogra- 
phical Exploration of the country of Moab ; and that the sum of £100 be. 
placed at their disposal for the purpose, in addition to the sum of £1 00 
granted last year, but not expended because it was found to be insufficient 
for the purpose. . ^ . 

That the Metric Committee be reappointed, such Committee to consist of 
Sir John Bowring. The Eight Hon. Sir Stafford H. Northeote, Bart., C.B., 

/2 



Ixxii REPORT IS71. 

M.P., The Right Hon. Sir C. B. Adderley, M.P., Mr. Samual Brown, Dr. Farr, 
Mr. Frank P. Fellowes, Professor Fraukland, Mr. James Heywood, Profes- 
sor Leone Levi, Mr. C. W. Siemens, Professor A. W. "Williamson, Dr. George 
Glover, Sir Joseph Whitworth, Bart., Mr. J. B. Napier, Mr. J. Y. N. 
Bazalgette, and Sir W. Fairbairn, Bart. ; that Professor Leone Levi be the 
Secretary, and that the sum of =£75 be placed at their disposal for the pur- 
pose of being applied solely to scientific purposes, printing, and corre- 
spondence. 

That Professor "W. J. Macquorn Rankine, Mr. Froude, Mr. C. "W. Merrifield, 
Mr. CM. Siemens, Mr. BramAvell, Mr. L. E. Fletcher, and Mr. James R. ]S"apier 
be a Committee for the purpose of making experiments on instruments for 
Measuring the Speed of Ships and Currents by means of the difference of 
height of two columns of liquids ; that Mr. Fletcher be the Secretary, and 
that the sum of .£30 be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Mr. R. B. Grantham, Professor Corfield, M.B., Mr. J. Bailey Denton, 
Dr. J. H. GUbcrt, Mr. J. Thornhill Harrison, Mr. William Hope, Lieut.- 
Col. Leach, Dr. A. Yoelcker, and Professor A. W, "Williamson be a 
Committee for the purpose of continuing the investigations on the " Treat- , 
ment and Utilization of Sewage ; " that the balance of the funds raised by 
the Committee appointed at Exeter, and now in the hands of the General 
Treasurer, be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

Applications for Reports and Researches not involving Grants of Money. 

That the Committee, consisting of Dr. Joule, Sir "W. Thomson, Professor Tait, 
Professor Balfour Stewart, and Professor J. C. Maxwell, be reappointed to 
effect the determination of the Mechanical Equivalent of Heat. 

That Sir "W. Thomson, Professor Everett, Professor G. C. Foster, Professor 
J. C. Maxwell, Mr. G. J. Stoney, Professor Fleeming Jenkin, Professor 
Rankine, Mr, Siemens, and Mr. Bramwell be a Committee for the purpose of 
framing a nomenclature of Units of Force and Energ}'. 

That Professor Sylvester, Professor Cayle}-, Professor Hirst, Rev. Professor 
Bartholomew Price, Professor H. J. S. Smith, Dr. Spottiswoode, Mr. R. B. 
Hayward, Dr. Salmon, Rev. R. Townsend, Professor Fuller, Professor Kel- 
land, Mr. J. M. AVilson, and Professor Clitibrd be reappointed a Committee 
(with power to add to their number) for the purpose of considering the pos- 
sibility of improving the methods of instruction in elementary geometry ; and 
that Professor Clifford be the Secretary. 

That Mr. "W. H. L. Russell be requested to continue his Report on recent 
progress in the theory of Elliptic and Hyperelliptic Functions. 

That Mr. Carruthers, Dr. Hooker, Professor Balfour, and Mr. Dyer be a 
Committee for the pui-pose of investigating the Fossil Flora of Britain. 

That Rev. Canon Tristram, Professor X ewton, Mr. H. E. Dresser, Mr. J. E. 
Harting, and Rev. H. F. Barnes be reappointed a Committee for the purpose 
of continuing the investigation on the desirability of establishing " a close 
time" for the preservation of indigenous animals; and that the Rev. Canon 
Tristram be the Secretary. 

That Dr. RoUeston, Dr. Sclater, Dr. Dohni, Professor Huxley, Professor 
Wyville Thomson, and Mr. E. Ray Lankcster be a Committee for the jrarpose 
of promoting the foundation of Zoological Stations; and that Dr. Anton 
Dohrn be the Secretary. 

That the Committee appointed last year " to consider and report on the 
various plans proposed for legislating on the subject of Steam-boiler Explosions 



RECOMJIENDATIONS OF THE GEXEKAL COMMITTiSE. Ixxiii 

witli a view to tLeir prevention" bo requested to eontinne their labours; 
such Committee to consist of Sir "W. Fairbairn, Bart., Mr. John Penn, Mr. 
P. J. Bramwell, Mr. Hugh Mason, Mr. Samuel Eigby, Mr. Thomas Schofield, 
Mr. C. F. Beyer, Mr. T. Webster, Q.C., Mr. Lavington E. Fletcher, and Mr. 
Ed^yard Easton, with power to add to their number. 

That Mr. Bateman, Mr. Le Neve Foster, Mr. Merrifield, Mr. Edward 
Easton, Mr. F. J. Bramwell, Mr. W. Hope, and Mr. H. Bauerman be a 
Committee to consider the mode in which new inventions, and claims for 
reward in respect of adopted inventions, are examined and dealt with by the 
different Departments of Government, and to report on the best means of 
removing any real causes of dissatisfaction, as well as of sUenciug unfounded 
complaints. 

That a Committee be appoiiited — • 

1°, to consider and report on the best means of advancing science by 

Lectures, with authority to act, subject to the approval of the 

Council, in the course of the present year, if judged desirable. 

2°, to consider and report whether any steps can be taken to render 

scientific organization more complete and effectual. 

That the Committee consist of the following Members, with power to add 

to their number : — Professor Eoscoe, Professor W. G. Adams, Professor 

Andrews, Professor Balfour, Mr. Bramwell, Professor A. Crum Brown, Mr. 

Dyer, Sir Walter Elliot, Professor Flower, Professor G. C. Foster, Professor 

Geikie, Rev. E. Harley, Professor Huxley, Professor Fleeming Jenkin, Dr. 

Joule, Colonel Lane Fox, Dr. Lankester, Mr. J. N. Lockyer, Dr. O'Callaghan, 

Professor Eamsay, Professor Balfour Stewart, Mr. Stainton, Professor Tait, 

Mr. J. A. Tinne, Dr. Allen Thomson, Sir William Thomson, Professor 

Wyville Thomson, Professor Turner, Professor A. W. WUliamson, Dr. Young ; 

and that Professor Eoscoe be the Secretary. 

Resolutions involving Apjylications to Government. 

That the President and Council of the British Association be authorized to 
cooperate with the President and Council of the Eoyal Society, in whatever 
way may seem to them best, for the promotion of a Circumnavigation Expe- 
dition, specially fitted out to carry the Physical and Biological Exploration of 
the Deep Sea into all the Great Oceanic areas. 

That the President and General Officers, with power to add to their 
number, be requested to take such steps as may seem to them desirable in 
order to promote observations on the forthcoming Total Solar Eclipse. 

Communications ordered to be printed in extenso in the Annual Rejjort 

of the Association. 

That the letter of Lavoisier to Black, referred to in the Address of the 
President of the Chemical Section, be printed in the Annual Eeport ; and 
that the letter dated 19th November, 1790, be published in facsimile. 

That Mr. Bramwell's paper " On Experiments made with Carr's Disinte- 
grating Flour-miU " be printed in extenso in the Transactions of the Associa- 
tion. 

Resolutions referred to the Council for consideration and action 

if it seem desirable. 

That it is desirable that the British Association apply to the Treasury for 
funds to enable the Tidal Committee to continue their calculations. 



Ixxiv REPORT 1871. 

That it is desirable that the British Association should urge upon the 
Government of India the importance for navigation and other practical pur- 
poses, and for science, of making accurate and continued observations on the 
Tides at several points on the coast of India. 

That the Council of the Association be requested to take such steps as to 
them may seem most expedient in support of a proposal, made by Dr. Buys 
Ballot, to establish a telegraphic meteorological station at the Azores. 

That the Council be requested to take into consideration the desirability of 
the publication of a periodic record of advances made in the various branches 
of science represented by the British Association. 

That the CouncU of this Association be requested to take such steps as may 
appear to them desirable "nith reference to the arrangement now in contem- 
plation to establish " leaving Examinations," and to report to the Association 
on the present position of science-teaching in the public and first-grade 
schools. 

That the Council be requested to take such steps as they deem wisest in 
order to promote the introduction of scientific instruction into the elementary 
schools throughout the countrj'-. 



Synopsis of Ch-ants of Money appropriated to Scientific Purposes by 
the General Committee at the Edinbm-yh Meeting in August 1871. 
The names of the Members who would be entitled to call on the 
General Treasurer for the respective Grants are prefixed. 

Kew Observatory. 
The Council. — Maintaining the Establishment of Kew Obser- 

servatory 300 

Mathematics and Physics. 

■ Cayley, Professor. — Mathematical Tables 50 

*Crossley, Mr. — Discussion of Observations of Lunar Objects . . 20 

*Tait, Professor. — Thermal Conductivity of Metals 25 

*Thomsou, Professor Sir W. — Tidal Observations 200 

*Brooke, Mr. — British Eainfall 100 

*Thomson, Sir W. — Underground Temperature 100 

*Glaisher, Mr.— Luminous Meteors 20 

Huggins, Di". — Tables of Inverse "Wave-lengths 20 

Chemistry. 

^Williamson, Prof. A. W. — Eeports of the Progress of Chemistry 100 

. Williamson, Prof. A. W. — Testing Siemens's new Pyrometer . 30 
. Gladstone, Dr. — Chemical Constitution and Optical Properties 

of Essential Oils 40 

*BrowD, Dr. Crum. — Thermal Equivalent of the Oxides of 

Chlorine 15 

Carried forward ^1020 

* Eeappointed. 



SYNOPSIS OF GRANTS OF MONEY. IxXV 

Geology. ' £ s. d. 

Brought forward ■ 1020 

*Duneaii, Dr. — Fossil Crustacea 25 

*Lyell, Sir C, Bart. — Kent's Cavern Exploration 100 

*Harkuess, Professor. — Investigation of Fossil Corals 25 

*Busk, Mr. — Fossil Elephants of Malta (renewed) 25 

Harkness, Professor. — Collection of Fossils in the North-west 

of Scotland 10 

Ramsay, Professor. — Mapping Positions of Erratic Blocks and 

Boulders 10 

Biology. 

*Stainton, Mr. — Eecord of the Progress of Zoology 100 

*Balfour, Professor. — Effect of the Denudation of Timber on 

the EaiufaU in North Britain (renewed) 20 

*Sharpey, Dr. — Physiological Action of Organic Compounds . . 25 

Foster, Professor M. — Terato-embryological Inquiries 20 

Foster, Professor M. — Heat Generated in the Arterialization 

of the Blood. (part renewed) 15 

Christison, Professor. — Antagonism of Poisonous Substances. . 20 

Geo(/raj)?iy. 

*Murchison, Sir R. Bart. — Exploration of the Country of Moab 100 

Economic Science and Statistics. 

*Bowring, Sir J. — Metric Committee 75 

MecJianics, 

Rankine, Professor. — Experiments on Instruments for Mea- 
suring the Speed of Ships and Currents 30 

Total.. . . il620~"0~~0 



* 



Eeappointed. 



Place of Electing in 1873. 

It was resolved that the Annual Meeting of the Association in 1873 be 
held at Bradford. 



Ixxvi 



REPOKT 1871. 



General Statement of Sums ivhich have been paid on Account of Grants 

for Scientific Purposes. 



1834. 



Tide Discussions 



£ g. d. 

20 



1S35. 



Tide Discussions G2 

Britisli Fossil Ichthyology 105 

JE167 



1836. 

Tide Discussions • 1C3 

Biitish Fossil Ichthyology 105 

Thermometric Observations, &c. 50 
Experiments on long-continued 

Heat 17 

Rain- Gauges 9 

Refraction Experiments 15 

Lunar Nutation 60 

Thermometers 15 





















1 





13 

















6 






1837. 

Tide Discussions 284 

Chemical Constants 24 

Lunar Nutation 70 

Observations on Waves 100 

Tides at Bristol 150 

Meteorology and Subterranean 

Temperature 89 

Vitrification Experiments 150 

Heart Experiments 8 

Barometric Observations 30 

Barometers 11 



5 

4 


18 



1838. 
Tide Discussions 

British Fossil Fishes 

Meteorological Observations and 

Anemometer (construction) ... 

Cast Iron (Strength of) 

Animal and Vegetable Substances 

(Preservation of) 

Railway Constants 

Bristol Tides... 

Grovfth of Plants 

Mud in Rivers 

Education Committee 

Heart Experiments 

Land and Sea Level 

Subterranean Temperature 

S team-vessels 

Meteorological Committee 

Thermometers 



£434 14 



1 





13 


e 








12 












£918 14 6 



29 








100 








100 








60 








19 


1 


10 


41 


12 


10 


50 








75 








3 


6 


6 


50 








5 


3 





267 


8 


7 


8 


6 





100 








31 


9 


5 


16 


4 






£956 12 2 



1839. 

Fossil Ichthyology 110 

Meteorological Observations at 

Plymouth G3 10 

Mechanism of Waves 141 2 

Bristol Tides , 35 18 



£ s. d. 



Meteorology and Subterranean 
Temperature 

Vitrification Experiments, 

Cast-iron Experiments 

Railway Constants 

Land and Sea Level 

Steam-vessels' Engines 

Stars in Histoire Celeste 

Stars in Lacaille 

Stars in R.A.S. Catalogue 

AnimalSecretions 

Steam-engines in Cornwall 

Atmospheric Air 

Cast and Wrought Iron 

Heat on Organic Bodies 

Gases on Solar Spectrum 

Hourly Meteorological Observa- 
tions, Inverness and Kingussie 

Fossil Reptiles 

Mining Statistics 

£ 



21 

9 

100 

28 

274 

100 

331 

11 

6 

10 

50 

16 

40 

3 

22 

49 

118 

50 



11 

4 7 


7 2 

1 4 


18 6 



16 6 

10 



1 




7 8 

2 9 




1595 11 



1840. 

Bristol Tides 100 

Subterranean Temperature 13 

Heart Experiments IS 

Lungs Experiments 8 

Tide Discussions 50 

Land and Sea Level 6 

Stars (Histoire Celeste) 242 

Stars (Lacaille) 4 

Stars (Catalogue) 264 

Atmospheric Air 15 

Water on Iron 10 

Heat on Organic Bodies 7 

Meteorological Observations 52 

Foreign Scientific Memoirs 112 

Working Population 100 

School Statistics 50 

Forms of Vessels 184 

Chemical and Electrical Pheno- 
mena 40 

Meteorological Observations at 

Plymouth SO 

Magnetical Observations 185 









13 


6 


19 





13 











11 


1 


10 





15 











15 

















17 


6 


1 


a 














7 












13 9 

£1546 16 A 



1841. 

Observations on Waves 

Meteorology and Subterranean 

Temperature 8 

Actinometers 10 

Earthquake Shocks 17 

Acrid Poisons 6 

Veins and Absorbents 3 

Mud in Rivers 5 

Marine Zoology 15 

j Skeleton Maps' 20 

I Mountain Barometers 6 

I S'ars (Histoire Celeste) 185 



30 



8 











7 























2 


8 








8 


6 


U 






GENEKAIi STATEMENT. 



Ixxvii 



£ s. d. 

Stars (Lacaille) 79 5 

Stars (Nomenclature ol") 17 19 C 

Stars (Catalogue of) 40 

Water on Iron 50 

Meteorological Observations at 

Inverness 20 

Meteorological Observations (re- 
duction of) 25 

Fossil Reptiles 50 

Foreign Memoirs 62 

Railway Sections 38 1 6 

Forms of Vessels 193 12 

Meteorological Observations at 

Plymouth 55 

Magnetical Observations Gl 18 8 

Fishes of the Old Red Sandstone 100 

Tides at Leith 50 

Anemometer at Edinburgh C9 1 10 

Tabulating Observations 9 6 3 

Races of Men 5 

Radiate Animals 2 

£1235 10 11 

1842. 

Dynamometric Instruments 113 11 2 

Anoplura Britanniae 52 12 

Tides at Bristol 59 8 

Gases on Light 30 14 7 

Chronometers , 20 17 6 

Marine Zoology 15 

British Fossil Mammalia 100 

Statistics of Education 20 

Marine Steam-vessels' Engines... 28 

Stars (Histoire Celeste) 59 

Stars (Brit. Assoc. Cat. of ) 110 

Railway Sections 161 10 

British Belemnites 50 

Fossil Reptiles (publication of 

Report) 210 

Forms of Vessels 180 

Galvanic Experiments on Rocks 5 8 6 
Meteorological Experiments at 

Plymouth 68 

Constant Indicator and Dynamo- 
metric Instruments 90 

ForceofWind 10 

Light on Growth of Seeds 8 

Vital Statistics 50 

Vegetative Power of Seeds 8 111 

Questions on Human Race 7 9 

£1449 17 8 



2 



1843. 

Revision of the Nomenclature of 
Stars 2 

Reduction of Stars, British Asso- 
ciation Catalogue 25 

Anomalous Tides, Frith of Forth 120 

Hourly Meteorological Observa- 

tionsat Kingussie andlnverness 77 12 8 

Meteorological Observations at 
Plymouth 55 

Whewell's Meteorological Ane- 
mometer at Plymouth 10 











£ 
Meteorological Observations, Os- 
ier's Anemometer at Plymouth 20 
Reduction of Meteorological Ob- 
servations 30 

Meteorological Instruments and 

Gratuities 39 

Construclion of Anemometer at 

Inverness 56 

Magnetic Cooperation 10 

Meteorological Recorder for Kew 

Observatory 50 

Action of Gases on Light 18 

Establishment at Kew Observa- 
tory, Wages, Repairs, Furni- 
ture and Sundries 133 

Experiments by Captive Balloons 81 
Oxidation of the Rails of Railways 20 
Publication of Report on Fossil 

Reptiles 40 

Coloured Drawings of Railway 

Sections 147 

Registration of Earthquake 

Shocks 30 

Report on Zoological Nomencla- 
ture 10 

Uncovering Lower Red Sand- 
stone near Manchester 4 

Vegetative Power of Seeds 5 

Marine Testacea (Habits of) ... 10 

Marine Zoology 10 

Marine Zoology 2 

Preparation of Report on British 

Fossil Mammalia 100 

Physiological Operations of Me- 
dicinal Agents 20 

Vital Statistics 36 

Additional Experiments on the 

Forms of Vessels 70 

Additional Experiments on the 

Forms of Vessels 100 

Reduction of Experiments on the 

Forms of Vessels 100 

Morin's Instrument and Constant 

Indicator 69 

Experiments on the Strength of 

Materials 60 

£1565 



s. 


d. 














6 





12 

8 


2 
10 



16 




1 


4 

8 



7 










18 


3 














4 
3 


14 


6 

8 





11 













5 


8 




















14 


10 









10 2 



1844. 

Meteorological Observations at 

Kingussie and Inverness 12 

Completing Observations at Ply- 
mouth 35 

Magnetic and Meteorological Co- 
operation 25 8 4 

Publication of the British Asso- 
ciation Catalogue of Stars 35 

Observations on Tides on the 

East coast of Scotland 100 

Revision of the Nomenclature of 

Stars 1842 2 9 6 

Maintaining the Establishmentin 

Kew Observatory 117 17 3 

Instruments for Kew Observatory 56 7 3 



Ixxviii 



REPORT — 1871. 



£ 

Influence of Light on Plants 10 

Subterraneous Temperature in 

Ireland 5 

Coloured Drawings of Railway 

Sections 15 

Investigation of Fossil Fislies of 

the Lower Tertiary Strata ... 100 
Registering the Shocks of Earth- 
quakes 1842 23 

Structure of Fossil Shells 20 

Radiata and Mollusca of the 

■ yEgean and Red Seas 1842 100 

Geographical Distributions of 

Marine Zoology 1842 10 

Marine Zoology of Devon and 

Cornwall 10 

Marine Zoology of Corfu 10 

Experiments on the Vitality of 

Seeds 9 

Experiments on the Vitality of 

Seeds 1842 8 

Exotic Anoplura 15 

Strength of Materials 100 

Completing Experiments on the 

Forms of Ships 100 

Inquiries into Asphyxia 10 

Investigations on the Internal 

Constitution of Metals 50 

Constant Indicator and Morin's 

Instrument 1842 10 

JE981 

1845, 
Publication of the British Associa- 
tion Catalogue of Stars 351 

Meteorological Observations at 

Inverness 30 

Magnetic and Meteorological Co- 
operation 16 

Meteorological Instruments at 

Edinburgh 18 

Reduction of Anemometrical Ob- 
servations at Plymouth 25 

Electrical Experiments at Kew 

Observatory 43 

Maintaining the Establishment in 

Kew Observatory 149 

For Kreil's Barometrograph 25 

Gases from Iron Furnaces 50 

The Actinograpli 15 

Microscopic Structure of Shells... 20 

Exotic Anoplura 1843 10 

Vitality of Seeds 1843 2 

Vitality of Seeds 1844 7 

Marine Zoology of Cornwall 10 

Physiological Action of Medicines 20 
Statistics of Sickness and Mor- 
tality in York 20 

Earthquake Shocks 1843 15 

£830 
1846. 
British Association Catalogue of 

Stars 1844 211 

Fossil Fishes of the London Clay 100 



s. 



d. 









17 


6 








11 



10 


























3 


7 




3 


















3 


6 



12 8 



14 6 
18 11 

16 8 
11 9 



17 8 



15 






































7 


























14 


8 



9 9 



15 




Computation of the Gaussian 

Constants for 1829 50 

Maintaining tlie Establishment at 

Kew Observatory 146 

Strength of Materials 60 

Researches in Asphyxia 6 

Examination of Fossil Shells 10 

Vitality of Seeds 1844 2 

Vitality of Seeds 1845 7 

Marine Zoology of Cornwall 10 

Marine Zoology of Britain 10 

Exotic Anoplura 1844 25 

Expenses attending Anemometers 11 

Anemometers' Repairs 2 

Atmospheric Waves 3 

Captive Balloons 1844 8 

Varieties of the Human Race 

1844 7 
Statistics of Sickness and Mor- 
tality in York 12 



£ s, d. 







16 


7 








IC 


2 








15 


10 


12 


3 




















7 


6 


3 


6 


3 


3 


19 


3 


6 


3 









£685 16 



1847. 
Computation of the Gaussian 

Constants for 1829 50 

Habits of Marine Animals 10 

Physiological Action of Medicines 20 

Marine Zoology of Cornwall ... 10 

Atmospheric Waves 6 

Vitality of Seeds 4 

Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory 107 



























9 


3 


7 


7 



£208 5 4 



1848. 
Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory 171 15 11 

Atmospheric Waves 3 10 9 

Vitality of Seeds 9 15 

Completion of Catalogues of Stars 70 

On Colouring Matters 5 

On Growth of Plants 15 

£275 i 8 



1849. 
Electrical Observations at Kew 

Observatory 50 

Maintaining Establishment at 

ditto 76 

Vitality of Seeds 5 

On Growth of Plants 5 

Registration of Periodical Phe- 
nomena 10 

Bill on account of Anemometrical 

Observations 13 9 







1850. 
Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatoi'y 255 

Transit of Earthquake Waves ... 50 

Periodical Phenomena 15 

Meteorological Instrument, 

Azores , 25 











£159 19 6 



18 






















£345 18 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



Ixxix 



£ 
1851. 
Maintaining the Establishment at 
Kew Observatory (includes part 

ofgrantin 1849) 309 

Theory of Heat 20 

Periodical Plienomena of Animals 

and Plants 5 

Vitality of Seeds 5 

Influence of Solar Radiation 30 

Ethnological Inquiries 12 

Researches on Annelida 10 

£391 

1852. ~ 
Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory (including 
balance of grant for 1850) ...233 
Experiments on the Conduction 

ofHeat 5 

Influence of Solar Radiations ... 20 

Geological Map of Ireland 15 

Researches on the British Anne- 
lida 10 

Vitality of Seeds „,„ 10 

Strengthof Boiler Plates 10 

£304 

1853. == 
Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory 165 

Experiments on the Influence of 
Solar Radiation 15 

Researches on the British Anne- 
lida 10 

Dredging on the East Coast of 
Scotland 10 

Ethnological Queries 5 

~£205" 

1854. 
Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory (including 

balance of former grant) 330 

Investigations on Flax 11 

Effects of Temperature on 

Wrought Iron 10 

Registration of Periodical Phe- 

nomena , 10 

British Annelida 10 

Vitality of Seeds 5 

Conduction of Heat 4 

£380 
1855. = 

Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory 425 

Earthquake Movements 10 

Physical Aspect of the Moon 1 1 

Vitality of Seeds 10 

Map of the World , 15 

Ethnological Queries 5 

Dredging near Belfast 4 

£480 

1856. 
Maintaining the Establishment at 
Kew Observatory: — 

1854 £75 01 ,,^ 

1855 £500 0/ ^'^ 



2 


2 


1 


1 








6 


4 





















9 7 



17 8 



2 


9 




















S 


2 









6 7 















15 












19 7 



16 4 









13 


9 














































































£ s. d. 
Strickland's Ornithological Syno- 
nyms 100 

Dredging and Dredging Porms... 9 

Chemical Action of Light 20 

Strength of Iron Plates 10 

Registration of Periodical Pheno- 
mena 10 

Propagation of Salmon 10 

£734 13 9 

1857. 

Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory 350 

Earthquake Wave Experiments. . 40 

Dredging near Belfast 10 

Dredging on the West Coast of 

Scotland 10 

Investigations into the MoUusca 

ofCalifornia , 10 

Experiments on Flax 5 

Natural History of Madagascar. , 20 

Researches on British Annelida 25 

Report on Natural Products im- 
ported into Liverpool 10 

Artificial Propagation of Salmon 10 

Temperature of Mines 7 8 

Thermometers for Subterranean 

Observations 5 7 4 

Life-Boats 5 

£507 15 4 

1858. """"■ "" 
Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory 500 

Earthquake Wave Experiments.. 25 
Dredging on the West Coast of 

Scotland 10 

Dredging near Dublin 5 

Vitality of Seeds 5 

Dredging near Belfast 18 

Report on the British Annelida.., 25 
Experiments on the production 

of Heat by Motion in Fluids ... 20 
Report on the Natural Products 

imported into Scotland 10 

£018 18 2 

1859. " 
Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory 500 

Dredging near Duijlin 15 

Osteology of Birds 50 

Irish Tunicata 5 

Manure Experiments 20 

British Medusida: 5 

Dredging Committee 5 

Steam-vessels' Performance 5 

Marine Fauna of South and West 

of Ireland , 10 

Photographic Chemistry 10 

Lanarkshire Fossils 20 

Balloon Ascents 39 

£684 11 I 

1860. " 
Maintaining the Establishment 

of Kew Observatory 500 

Dredging near Belfast 16 6 

Dredging in Dublin Bay 15 



























5 





13 


2 




















































































I 


1 






Ixxx 



IIEPOIIT 1871. 



Inquiry into the Performance of 
Steam- vessels 124 

Explorations iu the Yellow Sand- 
stone of Dura Den 20 

Chemico-mechanical Analysis of 
Rocks and Minerals 25 

Researches on the Growth of 
Plants 10 

Researches on the Solubility of 
Salts 30 

Researches on the Constituents 
of Manures 25 

Balance of Captive Balloon Ac- 
counts 1 



^1241 

1861. 
Maintaining the Establishment 

ofKew Observatory 500 

Earthquake Experiments 25 

Dredging North and East Coasts 

of Scotland 23 

Dredging Committee : — 

1S60 £50 0\ ^ 

1861 £22 J '-^ 

Excavations at Dura Den 20 

Solubility of Salts 20 

Steam-vessel Performance 150 

Fossils of Lesmahago 15 

Explorations at Uriconium 20 

Chemical Alloys 20 

Classified Index to the Transac- 
tions 100 

Dredging in the Mersey and Dee 5 

Dip Circle 30 

Photoheliographic Observations 50 

Prison Diet 20 

Gauging of Water 10 

Alpine Ascents C 

Constituents of Manures 25 



s. 


d. 






































13 


6 


7 





n 


A 





















































































5 


1 









£1111 5 10 



1862. 
Maintaining the Establishment 

ofKew Observatory 500 

Patent Laws 21 

Mollusca of N.-W. America 10 

Natural History by Mercantile 

Marine 5 

Tidal Observations 25 

Photoheliometer at Kew 40 

Photographic Pictures of the Sun 150 

Rocks of Donegal 25 

Dredging Durham and North- 
umberland 25 

Connexion of Storms 20 

Dredging North-east Coast of 

Scotland C 

Ravages of Teredo 3 1 

Standards of Electrical Resistance 50 

Railway Accidents 10 

Balloon Committee 200 

Dredging Dublin Bay 10 

Dredging the Mersey 5 

Prison Diet 20 

Gauging of Water 12 1 









6 
























































c 


1 
















































£ s. d. 

Steamships' Performance 150 

Thcrmo-Electric Currents 5 

£1293 16 6 

1863. ~ 
Maintaining the Establishment 

of Kew Observatory COO 

Balloon Committee deficiency... 70 

Balloon Ascents (other expenses) 25 

Entozoa 25 

Coal Fossils 20 

Herrings 20 

Granites of Donegal 5 

Prison Diet 20 

Vertical Atmospheric Movements 13 

Dredging Shetland 50 

Dredging North-east coast of 

Scotland 25 

Dredging Northumberland and 

Durham 17 3 10 

Dredging Committee superin- 
tendence 10 

Steamship Performance 100 

Balloon Committee 200 

Carbon under pressure 10 

Volcanic Temperature 100 

Bromide of Ammonium 8 

Electrical Standards 100 

Construction and distribu- 
tion ... 40 

Luminous Meteors 17 

Kew Additional Buildings for 

Photoheliograph 100 

Thermo-Electricity 15 

Analysis of Rocks 8 

Hydroida 10 

£1608 S^HJ 

1864. ■"" 

Maintaining the Establishment 

of Kew Observatory GOO 

Coal Fossils 20 

Vertical Atmosplieric Move- 
ments 20 

Dredging Shetland 75 

Dredging Northumberland 25 

Balloon Committee 200 

Carbon under pressure 10 

Standards of Electric Resistance 100 

Analysis of Rocks 10 

Hydroida 10 

Askham's Gift 50 

Nitrite of Aniyle 10 

Nomenclature Committee 5 

Rain-Gauges. 19 15 8 

Cast-Iron Investigation 20 

Tidal 01)servations in the llumber 50 

Spectral Kays 45 

Luminous Meteors 20 

£ 128'jT5 8 

18G5. """^ 

Maintaining the Establishment 

of Kew Observatory 600 

Balloon Committee 100 

Hydroida 13 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



Ixxxi 



£ s. d. 

Raiu-Gauges 30 

Tidal Observations in the number 6 8 

Hexylic Compounds 20 

Aravl Compounds 20 

Irish Flora 25 

American Mollusca 3 9 

Organic Acids 20 

Lingula Flags Excavation 10 

Eurypterus 50 

Electrical Standards 100 

Malta Caves Researches 30 

Oyster Breeding 25 

Gibraltar Caves Researches ... 150 

Kent's Hole Excavations 100 

Moon's Surface Observations ... 35 

Marine Fauna 25 

Dredging Aberdeenshire 25 

Dredging Channel Islands 50 

Zoological Nomenclature 5 

Resistance of Floating Bodies in 

Water 100 

Bath Waters Analysis 8 10 

Luminous Meteors 40 

£1591 7 10 

1866. ^ 
Maintaining the Establishment 

of Kew Observatory 600 

Lunar Committee 64 13 4 

Balloon Committee 50 

Metrical Committee 50 

British Rainfall 50 

Kilkenny Coal Fields 16 

Alum Bay Fossil Leaf-Bed 15 

Luminous Meteors 50 

Lingula Flags Excavation 20 

Chemical Constitution of Cast 

Iron 50 

Amyl Compounds 25 

Electrical Standards 100 

Malta Caves Exploration 30 

Kent's Hole Exploration 200 

Marine Fauna, &c., Devon and 

Cornwall 25 

Dredging .\berdeenshire Coast... 25 

Dredging Hebrides Coast 50 

Dredging the Mersey 5 

Resistance of Floating Bodies in 

Water 50 

Polycyanides of Organic Radi- 
cals 20 

Rigor Mortis 10 

Irish Annelida 15 

Catalogue of Crania 50 

DidineBirdsofMascarene Islands 50 

Typical Crania Researches 30 

Palestine Exploration Fund 100 

£1750 13 4 

1867. =^== 
Maintaining the Establishment 

of Kew Observatory 600 

Meteorological Instruments, Pa- 
lestine 50 

Lunar Committee 120 



£ s. cl. 

Metrical Committee 30 

Kent's Hole Explorations 100 

Palestine Explorations 50 

Insect Fauna, Palestine 30 

British Rainfall 50 

Kilkenny Coal Fields 25 

Alum Bay Fossil Leaf-Bed 25 

Luminous Meteors 50 

Bournemouth, &c. Leaf-Beds ... 30 

Dredging Shetland 75 

Steamship Reports Condensation 100 

Electrical Standards 100 

Ethyle and Methyle series 25 

Fossil Crustacea 25 

Sound under Water 24 4 

North Greenland Fauna 75 

Do. Plant Beds ... 100 

Iron and Steel Manufacture ... 25 

Patent Laws 30 

£1739 4 

1868. " 
Maintaining the Establishment 

of Kew Observatory 600 

Lunar Committee 120 

Metrical Committee 50 

Zoological Record 100 

Kent's Hole Explorations 150 

Steamship Performances 100 

British Rainfall 50 

Luminous Meteors 50 

Organic Acids 60 

Fossil Crustacea 25 

Methyl series 25 

Mercury and Bile 25 

Organic remains in Limestone 

Rocks 25 

Scottish Earthquakes 20 

Fauna, Devon and Cornwall ... 30 

British Fossil Corals 50 

Bagshot Leaf-beds 50 

Greenland Explorations 100 

Fossil Flora 25 

Tidal Observations 100 

Underground Temperature 50 

Spectroscopic investigations of 

Animal Substances 5 

Secondary Reptiles, &c 30 

British Marine Invertebrate 

Fauna 100 

i:i940 

1869. '~~ 
Maintaining the Establishment 

of Kew Observatory 600 

Lunar Committee 50 

Metrical Committee 25 

Zoological Record 100 

Committee on Gases in Deep- 
well Water 25 

British Rainfall 50 

Thermal Conductivity of Iron, 

&c 30 

Kent's Hole Explorations 150 

Steamship Performances 30 



Ixxxii 



REPORT 1871. 



£ s. d. 
Chemical Constitution of Cast 

Iron 80 

Iron and Steel Manufacture ... 100 

Methyl Series 30 

Organic remains in Limestone 

Rocks 10 

Earthquakes in Scotland 10 

British Fossil Corals 50 

Bagshot Leaf-Berls 30 

Fossil Flora 25 

Tidal Observations 100 

Underground Temperature 30 

Spectroscopic Investigations of 

Animal Substances 5 

Organic Acids 12 

Kiltorcan Fossils 20 

Chemical Constitution and Phy- 
siological Action Relations ... 15 
Mountain Limestone Fossils ..i... 25 

Utihzation of Sewage 10 

Products of Digestion 10 

£1622 

1870. 

Maintaining the Establishment of 

Kew Observatory 600 

Metrical Committee 25 

Zoological Record 100 

Committee on Marine Fauna ... 20 

Ears in Fishes 10 

Chemical nature of Cast Iron ... 80 

Luminous Meteors 30 

Heat in the Blood 15 

British Rainfall 100 

Thermal Conductivity of Iron &c. 20 

British Fossil Corals 50 

Kent's Hole Explorations 150 

Scottish Earthquakes 4 



£ s. d. 

Bagshot Leaf-Beds 15 

Fossil Flora 25 

Tidal Observations 100 

Underground Temperature 50 

Kiltorcan Quarries Fossils 20 

Mountain Limestone Fossils ... 25 

Utilization of Sewage 50 

Organic Chemical Compounds... 30 

Onny River Sediment 3 

Mechanical Equivalent of Heat 50 

JE1572 



1871. 

Maintaininglhe Establishment of 

Kew Observatory GOO 

Monthly Reports of Progress in 

Chemistry 100 

Metrical Committee 25 

Zoological Record 100 

Thermal Equivalents of the 

Oxides of Chlorine 10 

Tidal Observations 100 

Fossil Flora 25 

Luminous Meteors 30 

British Fossil Corals.... 25 

Heat in the Blood 7 2 6 

British Rainfall 50 

Kent's Hole Explorations 150 

Fossil Crustacea 25 

Methyl Compounds 25 

Lunar Objects 20 

Fossil Corals Sections, for Pho- 
tographing 20 

Bagshot Leaf-Beds 20 

Moab Explorations 100 

Gaussian Constants 40 

£1472 2 6 



GENERAL MEETINGS. Ixxxiii 



General Meetings. 

On "Wednesday Evening, August 2, at 8 p.m., in the Music Hall, Professor 
T. H. Huxley, LL.D., F.E.S., F.L.S., President, resigned the office of Pre- 
sident to Professor Sir William Thomson, LL.D., F.E.S., who took the C'haii", 
and delivered an Address, for which see page Ixxxiv. 

On Thursday Evening, August 3, at 8.30 p.m., in the Music Hall, F. A. 
Abel, Esq. F.E.S., Director of the Chemical Department, Eoyal Arsenal, 
Woolwich, delivered a Discourse on " Some Eecent Investigations and Ap- 
plications of Explosive Agents." 

On Friday Evening, August 4, at 8 p.m., a Soiree took place in the Uni- 
versity Library. 

On Monday Evening, August 7, at 8.30 p.m., in the Music Hall, E. B. 
Tylor, Esq., delivered a Discourse on " The llelation of Primitive to Modern 
Civilization." 

On Tuesday Evening, August 8, at 8 p.m., a Soiree took place in the Museum 
of Science and Art. 

On Wednesday, August 9, at 2.30 p.m., the concluding General Meeting 
took place, when the Proceedings of the General Committee, and the Grants 
of Money for Scientific purposes, were explained to the Members. 

The Meeting was then adjourned to Brighton*. 

* The Meeting is appointed to take place on Wednesday, August 14, 1872. 



ADDRESS 



OF 



Sir WILLIAM THOMSON, Knt., LL.D., F.R.S., 

PRESIDENT. 



For the third time of its forty years' history the British Association is 
assembled in the metropolis of Scotland. The origin of the Association is 
connected with Edinburgh in undying memory through the honoured names 
of Robisou, Brewster, Eorbes, and Johnston. 

In this place, from this Chair, twenty-one years ago, Sir David Brewster 
said : — " On the return of the British Association to the metropolis of Scot- 
" land I am naturally reminded of the smaU band of pilgrims who carried 
" the seeds of this Institution into the more genial soil of our sister land." 

" Sir John Robison, Professor Johnston, and Professor J. D. 

" Forbes were the earliest friends and promoters of the British Association. 
" They went to York to assist in its establishment, and they found there the 
" very men who were qualified to foster and organize it. The Rev. Mr. 
" Vernon Harcourt, whose name cannot be mentioned here without grati- 
" tude, had provided laws for its government, and, along with Mr. Phillips, 
" the oldest and most valuable of our office-bearers, had made aU those 
" arrangements by which its success was ensured. Headed by Sii' Roderick 
" Murchison, one of the very earliest and most active advocates of the 
" Association, there assembled at York about 200 of tlie friends of science." 

The statement I have read contains no allusion to the real origin of the 
British Association. This blank in my predecessor's historical sketch I am 
able to fill in from words written by himself twenty years earlier. Through 
the kindness of Professor PhiUips I am enabled to read to you part of a 
letter to him at York, written by David Brewster from AUerly by Melrose, 
on the 23rd of February, 1831 :— 

" Dear Sir, — I have taken the liberty of writing yon on a subject of con- 
" siderable importance. It is proposed to establish a British Association of 
" men of science similar to that which has existed for eight years in Gcr- 
" many, and which is now patronized by the most powerful Sovereigns of that 
" part of Europe. The arrangements for the first meeting are iu progress ; and 
" it is contemplated that it shall be held in York, as the most central city for 
" the three kingdoms. My object in writing yoir at present is to beg that you 
•' would ascertain if York will furnish the accommodation necessary for so 



ADDRESS. IXXXV 

" large a meeting (which may perhajis consist of above 100 individuals), if 
" the Philosopl^ical Society would enter zcalouslj' into the plan, and if the 
" Mayor and influential persons in the town and in the vicinity would be 
" likely to promote its objects. The principal object of the Society would 
" be to make the cultivators of science acquainted Avith each other, to stimu- 
" late one another to new exertions, and to bring the objects of science more 
" before the public eye, and to take measures for advancing its interests 
" and accelerating its progress." 

Of the little band of four pilgrims from Scotland to York, not one now 
survives. Of the seven first Associates one more has gone over to the 
majority since the Association last met. Yernon Harcourt is no longer witli 
us ; but his influence remains, a beneficent and, surely therefore, never dying 
influence. He was a Geologist and Chemist, a large-hearted lover of science, 
and an unwearied worker for its advancement. Brewster was the founder of 
the British Association ; Yernon Harcourt was its law-giver. His code re- 
mains to this day the law of the Association. 

On the eleventh of May last Sir John Herschel died, in the eightieth year of 
his age. The name of Herschel is a household word throughout Great Britain 
and Ireland — yes, and through the w^hole civilized world. We of this genera- 
tion have, from our lessons of childhood upwards, learned to see in Herschel, 
father and son, a ivcesidium et dulce deems of the precious treasure of British 
scientific fame. When geography, astronomy, and the i;se of the globes were 
still taught, even to poor children, as a pleasant and profitable sequel to "read- 
ing, writing, and arithmetic," which of us did not revere the great telescope 
of Sir William Herschel (one of the Hundred Wonders of the World), and 
learn with delight, directly or indirectly from the charming pages of Sir John 
Hersehel's book, about the sun and his spots, and the fiery tornadoes sweeping- 
over his surface, and about the planets, and Jupiter's belts, and Saturn's rings, 
and the fixed stars with their proper motions, and the double stars, and 
coloured stars, and the uebulaj discovered by the great telescope ? Of Sir 
John Herschel it may indeed be said, nil tetitjitqvod non ornavit. 

A monument to Faraday and a monument to Herschel, Britain must have. 
The nation will not be satisfied with any thing, however sjjlendid, done by 
private subscription. A national monument, the more humble in point of 
expense the better, is required to satisfy that honourable i^ride with which 
a high-spirited nation cherishes the memory of its great men. But for 
the glory of Faraday or the glory of Herschel, is a monument wanted ? 
No! 

What needs my Shakespere for his honoured bones 
The labour of an age in piled stones ? 
Or that his hallowed rcliques should be liid 
Under a star-ypointing pyramid ? 
Dear son of memory, great heir of fame, 
What need'st thou such weak witness of thy name ! 
Thou, in our wonder and astonishment, 
Hast built tliyself a live-long monument. 
* » * * 

And, so sepulchred, in such pomp dost lie, 
That kings for such a tomb would wish to die. 

With regard to Sir John Hersehel's scientific work, on the present occa- 
sion I can but refer briefly to a few points which seem to me salient in his 
physical and mathematical writings. First, I remark that he has put 
forward, most instructively and profitably to his readers, the general theory 
of periodicity iu dynamics, and has urged the practical utilizing of it, espe- 

1871. g 



Ixxxvi REPORT — 1871. 

cially in meteorology, by the harmonic analysis. It is purely by an appli- 
cation of this principle and practical method, that the British Association's 
Committee on Tides has for the last four years been, and sliU is, working 
towards the solution of the grand problem proposed forty-eight years ago by 
Thomas Young in the following words : — 

" There is, indeed, little doubt that if we were provided with a sufficiently 
" correct series of minutely accurate o'jservations on the Tides, made not merely 
" with a view to the times of low and high water only, but ratlicr to the heights 
" at the intermediate times, we might form, by degrees, with the assistance 
" of the theory contained in this article * only, almost as perfect a set of tables 
" for the motions of the ocean as we have already obtained for those of the 
" celestial Ijodies, which are the more immediate objects of the attention of 
" the practical astronomer." 

Sir John Herschel's discovery of a right or left-handed asymmetry in the 
outward form of crystals, such as quartz, which in their inner molecular 
structure possess the heli^oidal rotational property in reference to the plane 
of polarization of light, is one of the notable points of meeting between 
Natural History and Natural Philosophy. His observations on " epipoHc di- 
spersion ". gave Stokes the clue by which he was led to his great discovery of 
the change of periodic time experienced by light in fiiUiug on certain substances 
and beiug dispcrsively reflected from them. In respect to pure mathematics 
Sir John Herschel did more, I believe, than any other man to introduce into 
Britain the powerful methods and the valuable notation of modern analysis. 
A remarkable mode of symbolism had frcslily appeared, I believe, in the 
works of Laplace, and possibly of other French mathematicians ; it certainly 
appeared in Fourier, but whether before or after Herschel's work I cannot 
say. "With the French writers, however, this was rather a short method of 
writing formuhe than the analytical engine whicli it became in the hands 
of Herschel and British followers, especially Sylvester and Gregory (com- 
petitors with Green in the Cambridge Mathematical Tripos struggle of 1837) 
and Boole and Cayley. This method was greatly advanced by Gregory, who 
first gave to its working-power a secure and pliilosophical foundation, and so 
prepared the way for the marvellous extension it has received from Boole, 
Sylvester, and Cayley, according to which symbols of operation become the 
subjects not merely of algebraic combination, but of differentiations and in- 
tegrations, as if they were symbols expressing values of varying quantities. 
An even more marvellous development of this same idea of the separation of 
symbols (according to which Gregorj* separated the algebraic signs 4- and — 
from other symbols or quantities to be chai-acterized b}- them, aud dealt with 
them according to the laws of algebraic combination) received from Hamilton 
a most astonishing generalization, by the invention actually of new laws of 
combination, and led him to his famous " Quaternions," of which he gave 
his earliest exposition to the Mathematical and Physical Section of this As- 
sociation, at its meeting in Cambridge in the year 1845. Tait has taken up 
the subject of quaternions ably and zealously, and has carried it into phy- 
sical science with a faith, shared by some of the most thoughtful mathematical 
naturalists of the day, that it is destined to become an engine of perhaps 
hitherto uuimagined power for investigating and expressing results in 
Natural Philosophy. Of Herschel's gigantic work in astronomical observa- 
tion I need say nothing. Doubtless a careful account of it will be given 
in the ' Proceedings of the Eoyal Society of London ' for the next anniver- 
sary meeting. 

* Young's; written in 1823 for the Supplement to ti:e ' Encyclopjifdia Eritannica.' 



ADDRESS. IxXXvii 

In the past year another representative man of British science is gone. 
Mathematics has had no steadier supporter for hjlf a century than De 
Morgan. His great book on the differential calculus was, for the mathema- 
tical student of thirty years ago, a highly prized repository of all the best 
thiiags that could be brought together under that title. I do not believe 
it is less valuable now ; and if it is less valued, may this not be because it 
is too good for examination purposes, and because the modern student, 
labouring to win marks in the struggle for existence, must not suffer himself 
to be beguiled from the stern path of duty by any attractive beauties in the 
subject of his studj'^ ? 

One of the most valuable services to science which the British Association 
has performed has been the establishment, and the twenty-nine years' 
maintenance, of its Observatoiy. The Royal Meteorological Observatory of 
Kew was built originally for a Sovereign of England who was a zealous 
amateur of astronomy. George the Third iised continually to repair to it 
when any celestial i)henomenon of peculiar interest was to be seen ; and a 
manuscript book still exists filled with observations written into it by his 
own hand. After the building had been many years unused, it was 
granted, in the year 1842, by the Commissioners of Her Majesty's Woods 
and Forests, on application of Sir Edward Sabine, for the purpose of con- 
tinuing observations (from which he had already deduced important results) 
regarding the vibration of a pendulum in various gases, and for the purpose 
of promoting pendulum observations in all parts of the world. The 
Government granted only the building — no funds for carrying on the work 
to be done in it. The Boyal Society was unable to undertake the main- 
tenance of such an observatory; but, happily for science, the zeal of in- 
dividual Fellows of the Eoyal Society and Members of the British Asso- 
ciation gave the initial impulse, supplied the necessary initial funds, and 
recommended their new institution successfully to the fostering care of the 
British Association. The work of the Kew Observatory has, from the 
commencement, been conducted under the direction of a Committee of the 
British Association ; and annual grants from the funds of the Association have 
been made towards defraying its expenses up to the present time. To the 
initial object of pendulum research was added continuous observation of the 
phenomena of meteorology and terrestrial magnetism, and the construction 
and verification of thermometers, barometers, and magnetometers designed 
for accurate measurement. The magnificent services which it has rendered 
to science are so well known that any statement of them which I could at- 
tempt on the present occasion would be superfluous. Their value is due in a 
great measure to the indefatigable zeal and the great ability of two Scotchmen, 
both from Edinburgh, who successively held the office of Superintendent of 
the Observatory of the British Association — Mr. Welsh for nine years, until 
his death in 18-59, and Dr. Balfour Stewart from then until the present 
time. Fruits of their labours are to be found all through our volumes of 
Reports for these twenty-one years. 

The institution now enters on a new stage of its existence. The noble 
liberality of a private benefactor, one who has laboured for its welfare with 
self-sacrificing devotion unintermittingly from within a few years of its crea- 
tion, has given it a permanent independence, under the general management 
of a Committee of the Royal Society. Mr. Gassiot's gift of £10,000 secures 
the continuance at Kew of the regular operation of the self-recording instru- 
ments for observing the phenomena of terrestrial magnetism and meteorology, 
without the necessity for further support from the British Association. 

i/2 



ISLXXviii REPORT 1871. 

Tho success of the Kew Magnetic and Meteorological ObseiTatory affords 
ah example of the great gain to be earned for science by the founda- 
tion of physical observJitories and laboratories for experimental research, 
to be conducted by qualified persons, whose duties should be, not teach- 
ing, but experimenting. Whether we look to the honour of England, as a 
nation v>iiich ought always to be the foremost in promoting physical science, 
or to those vast economical advantages which must accrue from such esta- 
blishments, we cannot but feel that experimental research ought to be made 
with us an object of national concern, and not left, as hitherto, exclusively 
to the private enterprise of self-sacrificing amateurs, and the necessarily 
inconsecutive action of our present Governmental Departments and of casual 
Committees. The Council of the Royal Society of Edinburgh has moved for 
this object in a memorial presented by them to the Eoyal Commission on 
Scientific Education and the Advancement of Science. Tlie Continent of 
Europe is referred to for an example to be followed with advantage in this 
country, in the following words: — - 

" On the Continent there exist certain institutions, fitted with instruments, 
" apparatus, chemicals, and other appliances, which are meant to be, and 
" which are made, available to men of science, to enable them, at a moderate 
" cost, to pursue original researches." 

Tliis statement is fuUy corroborated by information, on good authority, 
Avhich T have received from Germany, to the effect that in Prussia " every 
" university, every polytechnical academy, every industrial school (Realschule 
" and Gewerbeschule), most of the grammar-schools, in a word, nearly all the 
" scliools superior in rank to the elementary schools of the common people, are 
" supplied with chemical laboratories and a collection of philosophical in- 
" struments and apparatus, access to which is most liberally granted by the 
" directors of those schools, or the teachers of the respective disciplines, to 
" any person qualified, for scientijic experiments. In consequence, though 
" there exist no particular institutions like those mentioned in the me- 
" morial, there wiU scarcely be found a town exceeding in number 5000 
" inhabitants but offers the possibility of scientific explorations at no other 
" cost than reimbursement of the expense for the materials wasted in the 
" experiments." 

Eurther, with reference to a remark in the Memorial to the effect that, in 
respect to the promotion of science, the British Government confines its 
action almost exclusively to scientific instruction, and fatally neglects the 
advancement of science, my informant tells me that, in Germany, " professors, 
"preceptors, and teachers of secondary schools are engaged on account of 
" their skilfulness in teacMng ; but professors of universities are never engaged 
"unless they have already jjroved, hy their oxvn investigations, that they are 
" to be relied upon for the advancement of science. Therefore every shilling 
'•'spent for instruction in iiniversities is at the same time profitable to the ad- 
" vaneement of science." 

The lAysical laboratories which have grown up in the Universities of 
Glasgow and Edinburgh, and in Owens College, Manchester, show the want 
felt of Colleges of Eesearch ; but they go but infinitesimally towards sup- 
plying it, being absolutely destitute of means, material or personal, for ad- 
vancing science except at the expense of volunteers, or securing that volunteers 
shall be found to continue even such little work as at present is carried on. 

The whole of Andrews' splendid work in Queen's College, Belfast, has 
been done under great difficulties and disadvantages, and at great personal 
sacrifices ; and up to the present time there is not a student's physical 



ADDRESS. IxXXix 

laboratory in any one of the Qneen's Colleges in Ireland — a want which 
surely ought not to remain unsupplied. Each of these institutions (the 
four Scotch Universities, the three Queen's Colleges, and Owens College, 
Manchester) requires two professors of Natural Philosophy — one who shall 
be responsible for the teaching, the other for the advancement of science by 
experiment. The University of Oxford has already established a physical 
laboratory. The munificence of its Chancellor is about to supply the Univer- 
sity of Cambridge with a splendid laboratory, to be constructed under the 
eye of Professor Clerk Maxwell. On this subject I shall say no more at 
present, but simply read a sentence which was spoken by Lord Milton in the 
first Presidential Address to the British Association, when it met at York in 
the year 1831 : — " In addition to other more direct benefits, these meetings 
" [of the British Association], I hope, will be the means of impressing on the 
" Government the conviction, that the love of scientific pursuits, and the 
" means of pursuing them, are not confined to the metropolis ; and I liopc 
" that when the Government is fuUy impressed with the knowledge of the 
" great desire entertained to promote science in every part of the empire, they 
" wiU see the necessity of affording it due encouragement, and of giving every 
" proper stimulus to its advancement." 

Besides abstracts of papers read, and discussions held, before the Sec- 
tions, the annual Reports of the British Association contain a large mass 
of valuable matter of another class. It was an early practice of the Associa- 
tion, a practice that might weU be further developed, to call occasionally for 
a special report on some particular branch of science from a man eminently 
(jualified for the task. The reports received in compliance with these invita- 
tions have all done good service in their time, and they remain permanently 
useful as landmarks in the history of science. Some of them have led to 
vast practical results ; others of a more abstract character are valuable to 
this day as powerful and instructive condensations and expositions of the 
branches of science to which they relate. I cannot better illustrate the two 
kinds of efiicieucy realized in this department of the Association's work than 
by referring to Cayley's Report on Abstract Dynamics * and Sabine's Report 
on Terrestrial Magnetism t (1838). 

To the great value of the former, personal experience of benefit received 
enables me, and gratitude impels me, to testify. In a few pages full of 
precious matter, the generalized dynamical equations of Lagrange, the 
great principle evolved from Maupertuis' " least action " by Hamilton, and 
the later developments and applications of the Hamiltonian principle by 
other authors are described by Cayley so suggestively that the reading of 
thousands of quarto pages of papers scattered through the Transactions of the 
various learned Societies of Europe is rendered superfluous for any one who 
desires only the essence of these investigations, with no more of detail than is 
necessary for a thorough and practical understanding of the subject. 

Sabine's Report of 1838 concludes with the following sentence : — " Yiewed 
" in itself and its various relations, the magnetism of the earth cannot 
" be counted less than one of the most important branches of the physical 
" history of the planet we inhabit ; and we may feel quite assured tliat the 
" completion of our knowledge of its distribution on the surface of the earth 

* Eeport on the Recent Progress of Theoretical Dj'naiuics, by A. Cayley (Report of tlie 
British Association 1857, p. 1). 

t Eeport on tlio Variations of the Magnetic Intensity observed at different points of (lie 
Earth's Surface, by Major Sabine, F.E.S. (forming part of the 7th Eeport of the Biitish 
Association). 



XC REPORT — 1871. 

" would bo regarded by our contemporaries and by posterity as a fitting 
" enterprise of a maritime people, and a worthy achievement of a nation 
" which has ever sought to rank foremost in every arduous and honourable 
" undertaking." An immediate result of this lleport was that the enterprise 
which it xjroposed was recommended to the Government by a joint Committee 
of the British Association and the lloyal Society with such success, that 
Capt. James Eoss was sent in command of the ' Erebus ' and '■ Terror ' to 
make a magnetic survey of the Antarctic regions, and to plant on his way 
three Magnetical and Meteorological Observatories, at St. Helena, the Cape, 
and Yan Diemen's Land. A vast mass of precious observations, made 
chiefly on board ship, were brought home from this expedition. To deduce 
the desired results from them, it was necessary to eliminate the disturbance 
produced by the ship's magnetism ; and Sabine asked his friend Archibald 
Smith to work out from Poisson's mathematical theory, then the only avail- 
able guide, the formulae required for the purpose. This voluntary task 
Smith executed skilfully and successfully. It was the beginning of a series 
of labours carried on with most remarkable practical tact, with thorough 
analytical skill, and with a rare extreme of disinterestedness, in the intervals 
of an arduous profession, for the purpose of perfecting and simplifying the 
correction of the mariner's compass — a problem which had become one of 
vital importance for navigation, on account of the introduction of iron ships. 
Edition after edition of the ' Admiralty Compass Manual ' has been pro- 
duced by the able superintendent of the Compass Department, Captain 
Evans, containing chapters of mathematical investigation and formulaj by 
Smith, on which depend wholly the jsractical analysis of compass-obser- 
vations, and rules for the safe use of the compass in navigation. I firmly 
believe that it is to the thoroughly scientific method thus adopted by the 
Admiralty, that no iron ship of Her Majesty's Navy has ever been lost 
through errors of the compass. The 'British Admiralty Compass Manual' 
is adopted as a guide by all the navies of the world. It has been translated 
into llussian, German, and Portuguese ; and it is at present being translated 
into French. The British Association may be gratified to know that the 
possibility of navigating ironclad war-ships with safety depends on applica- 
tion of scientific principles given to the world by three mathematicians, 
Poisson, Airy, and Archibald Smith. 

Eeturning to the science of terrestrial magnetism, we find in the Eeports 
of early years of the British Association ample evidence of its diligent culti- 
vation. Many of the chief scientific men of the day from England, Scotland, 
and Ireland found a strong attraction to the Association in the facilities which 
it afforded to thom for cooperating in their work on this subject. Lloyd,Phillips, 
Eox, Eoss, and Sabine made magnetic observations all over Great Britain ; 
and their results, collected by Sabine, gave for the first time an accurate and 
complete survey of terrestrial magnetism over the area of this island. I am 
informed by Professor Phillips that, in the beginning of the Association, Her- 
schel, though a '•' sincere well-wisher," felt doubts as to the general utility and 
probable success of the plan and purpose proposed ; but his zeal for terrestrial 
magnetism broiight him from being merely a sincere well-wisher to join actively 
and cordially in the work of the Association. " In 1838 he began to give efi"ec- 
" tual aid in the great question of magnetical Observatories, and was indeed 
" foremost among the supporters of that which is really Sabine's great work. 
" At intervals, until about 1858, Herschel continued to give effectual aid." 
Sabine has carried on his great work without intermission to the present 
day ; thirty years ago he gave to Gauss a large part of the data required 



ADDRESS. XCl 

for working out the spherical harmonic analysis of terrestrial magnetism over 
the whole earth. A recalculation of the harmonic analysis for the altered 
state of terrestrial magnetism of the present time has been undertaken by 
Adams. He writes to me that he has " already begun some of the iutroduc- 
" tory work, so as to be ready when Sir Edward Sabine's Tables of the values 
" of the Magnetic Elements deduced from obseryation are completed, at once 
" to make use of them," and that he intends to take into account terms of 
at least one order beyond those included by Gauss. The form in which 
the requisite data are to be presented to him is a magnetic Chart of the 
whole surface of the globe. Materials from scientific travellers of all 
nations, from our home magnetic observatories, from the magnetic obser- 
vatories of St. Helena, the Cape, Van Diemen's Land, and Toronto, and 
from the scientific observatories of other countries have been brought to- 
gether by Sabine. Silently, day after day, night after niglit, for a quarter 
of a century he has toiled with one constant assistant always by his side 
to reduce these observations and prepare for the great work. At this moment, 
while we are here assembled, I believe that, in their quiet summer retirement 
in Wales, Sir Edward and Lady Sabine are at work on the magnetic Chart 
of the world. If two years of life and health are granted to them, science 
will be provided with a' key which must powerfully conduce to the ultimate 
opening up of one of the most refractory enigmas of cosiuical physics, the 
cause of terrestrial magnetism. 

To give any sketch, however slight, of scientific investigation performed 
during the past year would, even if I were competent for the task,_far ex- 
ceed the limits within which I am confined on the present occasion. _A 
detailed account of work done and knowledge gained in science Britain 
ought to have every year. The Journal of the Chemical Society and the 
Zoological Eecord do excellent- service by giving abstracts of all papers 
published in their departments. The admirable example afforded by the 
German "Fortschritte" and "Jahresbericht" is before us; but hitherto, so far 
as I know, no attempt has been made to foUow it in Britain. It is true that 
several of the annual volumes of the Jahresbericht were translated ; but a 
translation, published necessarily at a considerable interval of time after the 
original, cannot supply the want. An independent British publication is for 
many obvious reasons desirable. The two publications, in German and 
English, would, both by their differences and by their agreements, illustrate 
the progress of science more correctly and usefuUy than any single work 
could do, even if appearing simultaneously in the two languages. It seems 
to me that to promote the establishment of a British Year Book of Science is 
an object to which the powerful action of the British Association would be 
thoroughly appropriate. 

In referrhig to recent advances in several branches of science, I simply 
choose some of those which have struck me as most notable. 

Accurate and minute measurement seems to the non-scientific imagination 
a less lofty and dignified work than looking for something nev/. But nearly 
all the grandest discoveries of science have been but the rewards of accurate 
measurement and patient long-continued labour in the minute sifting of 
numerical results. The popular idea of Newton's grandest discovery is that 
the theory of gravitation flashed into his mind, and so the discovery was 
made. It was by a long train of mathematical calculation, founded on 
results accumulated through prodigious toil of practical astronomers, that 
Newton first demonstrated the forces urging the planets towards the Sun, 
determined the magnitudes of those forces, and discovered that a force fol- 



Xcii REPORT — 1871. 

lowing the same law of variation with distance urges the Moon towards the 
Earth. Then first, we may suppose, came to him the idea of the universality of 
gravitation ; butwhen he attempted to compare the magnitude of the force on the 
Moon with the magnitude of the force of gravitation of a heavy body of equal 
mass at the earth's surface, he did not find the agreement which the law he 
was discovering required. Not for years after would he publish his discovery 
as made. It is recounted that, being present at a meeting of the Royal Society, 
he heard a paper read, describiug geodesic measurement by Picard which 
led to a serious correction of the previously accepted estimate of the Earth's 
radius. This was what Newton required. He went home with the result, 
and commenced liis calculations, but felt so much agitated that he handed 
over the arithmetical work to a friend : then (and not when, sitting in a 
garden, he saw an apple fall) did he ascertain that gravitation keeps the Moon 
in her orbit. 

Faraday's discovery of specific inductive capacity, which inaugurated the 
new philosophy, tending to discard action at a distance, was the result of 
minute and accurate measurement of electric forces. 

Joule's discovery of thermo-dynamic law through the regions of electro- 
chemistry, electro-magnetism, and elasticity of gases was based on a delicacy 
of thermometry which seemed simply impossible to some of the most dis- 
tinguished chemists of the day. 

Andrews' discovery of the continuity between the gaseous and liquid states 
was worked out by many years of laborious and minute measurement of phe- 
nomena scarcely sensible to the naked eye. 

Great service has been done to science by the British Association in pro- 
moting accurate measurement in various subjects. The origin of exact 
science in terrestrial magnetism is traceable to Gauss' invention of methods 
of finding the magnetic intensity in absolute measure. I have spoken of 
the great work done by the British Association in carrying out the ap- 
plication of this invention in all parts of the world. Gauss' colleague in 
the German Magnetic Union, AVebcr, extended the practice of absolute 
measurement to electric currents, the resistance of an electric conductor, 
and the electromotive force of a galvanic element. He showed the rela- 
tion between electrostatic and electromagnetic units for absolute mea- 
surement, and made the beautiful discovery that resistance, in absolute elec- 
tromagnetic measure, and the reciprocal of resistance, or, as we call it, " con- 
ducting power," in electrostatic measure, are each of them a velocity. He 
made an elaborate and difficult series of experiments to measure the velocity 
which is equal to the conducting power, in electrostatic measure, and at the 
same time to the resistance in electromagnetic measure, in one and the same 
conductor. Maxwell, in making the first advance along a road of which 
Faraday was the pioneer, discovered that this velocity is physically related to 
the velocity of light, and that, on a certain hypothesis regarding the elastic 
medium concerned, it may be exactly equal to the velocity of light. Weber's 
measurement verifies approximately this equality, and stands in science 
monumentmn cere perennius, celebrated as having suggested this most grand 
theory, and as having afforded the first quantitative test of the recondite 
properties of matter on which the relations between electricity and light 
depend. A remeasurcment of Weber's critical velocity on a new plan by Max- 
well himself, and the important correction of the velocity of light by Fou- 
cault's laboratory experiments, verified by astronomical observation, seem to 
show a still closer agreement. The most accurate possible determination of 
Weber's critical velocity is just now a primary object of the Association's 



ADDRESS. XCllI 

Committee on Electric Measurement ; and it is at present premature to specu- 
late as to the closeness of the agreement between that Telocity and the 
velocity of light. This leads me to remark how much science, even in its 
most lofty speculations, gains in return for benefits conferred by its applica- 
tion to promote the social and material welfare of man. Those who perilled 
and lost their money in the original Atlantic Telegraph were impelled and 
supported by a sense of the grandeur of their enterprise, and of the world- 
wide benefits whicli must flow from its success ; they were at the same time 
not unmoved by the beauty of the scientific problem directly, presented to 
them ; but they little thought that it was to be immediately, through their 
work, that the scientific world was to be instructed in a long-neglected and 
discredited fundamental electric discovery of Faraday's, or that, again, when 
the assistance of the British Association was invoked to supply their elec- 
tricians with methods for absolute measurement (which tliey found necessary 
to secure the best economical return for their expenditure, and to obviate 
and detect those faults in their electric material which had led to disaster), 
they were laying the foundation for accurate electric measurement in every 
scientific laboratory in the world, and initiating a train of investigation whicli 
now sends up branches into the loftiest regions and subtlest ether of natural 
philosophy. Long may the British Association continue a bond of union, 
and a medium for the interchange of good offices between science and the 
world ! 

The greatest achievement yet made in molecular theory of the proper- 
ties of matter is the Kinetic theory of Gases, shadowed forth by Lucretius, 
definitely stated by Daniel Bernoulli, largely developed by Herapath, made 
a reality by Joule, and worked out to its present advanced state by Clausius 
and Maxwell. Joule, from his dynamical equivalent of heat, and his expe- 
riments upon the heat produced by the condensation of gas, was able to 
estimate the average velocity of the ultimate molecules or atoms composing 
it. His estimate for hydrogen was 6225 feet per second at temperature 60° 
Fahr., and 6055 feet per second at the freezing-point. Clausius took fully 
into account the impacts of molecules on one another, and the kinetic energy 
of relative motions of the matter constituting an individual atom. He in- 
vesfigated the relation between their diameters, the number in a given 
space, and the mean length of path from impact to impact, and so gave the 
foundation for estimates of the absolute dimensions of atoms, to which I shall 
refer later. He explained the slowness of gaseous diffusion by the mutual 
impacts of the atoms, and laid a secure foundation for a complete theory of 
the diffusion of fluids, previously a most refractory enigma. The deeply 
penetrating genius of MaxweU brought in viscosity and thermal conductivity, 
and thus completed the dynamical explanation of aU the known properties 
of gases, except their electric resistance and brittleness to electric force. 

No such comprehensive molecular theory had ever been even imagined 
before the nineteenth century. Definite and complete in its area as it 
is, it is but a well-drawn part of a great chart, in which aU physical 
science wiU be represented with every property of matter shown in dyna- 
mical relation to the whole. The prospect we now have of an early 
completion of this chart is based on the assumption of atoms. But there 
can be no permanent satisfaction to the mind in explaining heat, light, elas- 
ticity, diffusion, electricity and magnetism, in gases, liquids, and solids, and 
describing precisely the relations of these different states of matter to one 
another by statistics of gxeat numbers of atoms, when the properties of the 
atom itself are simply assumed. When the theory, of which we have the first 



xciv REPOKT— 1871. 

instalment in Clausius and Maxwell's work, is complete, wo are but brought 
face to face with a superlatively grand question, what is the inner me- 
chanism of the atom ? 

In the answer to this question we must find the explanation not only 
of the atomic elasticity, by which the atom is a chronometi-ic vibrator ac- 
cording to Stokes's discovery, but of chemical affinity and of the differences 
of quality of different chemical elements, at present a mere mystery in 
science. Helmholtz's exquisite theory of vortex-motion in au incompressible 
frictionlcss liquid has been suggested as a finger-post, pointing a way 
which may possibly lead to a fall understanding of the properties of atoms, 
carrying out the grand conception of Lucretius, who " admits no subtle 
" ethers, no variety of elements with fiery, or watery, or light, or heavy 
" principles ; nor supposes light to be one thing, fire another, electricity a 
" fluid, magnetism a vital principle, but treats all phenomena as mere pro- 
" perties or accidents of simple matter." This statement I take from 
an admirable paper on the atomic theory of Lucretius, which appeared in 
the ' North British Eeview ' for March 1868, containing a most interesting 
and instructive summary of ancient and modern doctrine regarding atoms. 
Allow me to read from that article one other short passage finely describing 
the present aspect of atomic theory : — " The existence of the chemical 
" atom, already quite a complex little world, seems very probable ; and 
" the description of the Lucretian atom is wonderfully applicable to it. "VVe 
<' are not wholly without hope that the real weight of each such atom may 
" some day be known — not merely the relative weight of the several atoms, 
<' but the number in a given volume of any material ; that the form and 
" motion of the parts of each atom and the distances by which they are 
" separated may be calculated ; that the motions by which they produce heat, 
" electricity, and light may be illustrated by exact geometrical diagrams ; and 
" that the fundamental properties of the intermediate and possibly constituent 
" medium may be arrived at. Then the motion of planets and music of the 
" spheres will be neglected for a while in admiration of the maze in Avhich 
" the tiny atoms run." 

Even before this was written some of the anticipated results had been par- 
tially attained. Loschmidt in Vienna had sho^wn, and not much latter Stoncy 
independently in England showed, how to deduce from Clausius and Max- 
well's kinetic theory of gases a superior limit to the number of atoms in a 
given measurable space. I was unfortunately quite unaware of what Loschmidt 
and Stoney had done when I made a similar estimate on the same founda- 
tion, and communicated it to ' Nature ' in an article on " The Size of 
Atoms." But questions of personal priority, however interesting they may be 
to the persons concerned, sink into insignificance in the prospect of any gain 
of deeper insight into the secrets of nature. The triple coincidence of inde- 
pendent reasoning in this ease is valuable as confirmation of a conclusion 
violently contravening ideas and opinions which had been almost universally 
held reo-arding the dimensions of the molecular structure of matter. Che- 
mists and other naturalists had been in the habit of evading questions as to 
the hardness or indivisibility of atoms by virtually assuming them to bo in- 
finitely small and infinitely numerous. We must now no longer look upon 
the atom, with Boscovich, as a mystic point endowed with inertia and the 
attribute of attracting or repelhng other such centres with forces depending 
upon the intervening distances (a supposition only tolerated with the tacit 
assumption that the inertia and attraction of each atom is infinitely small and 
the number of atoms infinitely great), nor can wo agree with those who have 



ADDKESS. XCt 

attributed to the atom occupation of space with infinite hardness and strength 
(incredible in any finite body) ; but we must realize it as a piece of matter 
of measurable dimensions, with shape, motion, and laws of action, intelligible 
subjects of scientific investigation. 

The prismatic analysis of light discovered by Newton was estimated by 
himself as being " the oddest, if not the most considerable, detection which 
" hath hitherto been made in the operations of nature." 

Had he not been deflected from the subject, he could not have failed 
to obtain a pure spectrum ; but this, with the inevitably consequent 
discovery of the dark lines, was reserved for the nineteenth century. 
Our fundamental knowledge of the dark lines is due solely to Praun- 
hofer. Wollastou saw them, but did not discover them. Ijrewster laboured 
long and well to perfect the prismatic analysis of sunlight ; and his observa- 
tions on the dark bands produced by the absorption of interposed gases and 
vapours laid important foundatioiis for the grand superstructure which he 
scarcely lived to see. Piazzi Smyth, by spectroscopic observation performed 
on the Peak of Tenei-iffe, added greatly to our knowledge of the dark lines 
produced in the solar spectrum by the absorption of our own atmosphere. 
The prism became an instrirment for chemical qualitative analysis in the 
hands of Fox Talbot and Herschel, who first showed how, throirgh it, the 
old "blowpipe test" or generally the estimation of substances from the 
colours which they give to flames, can be prosecuted with an accuracy 
and a discriminating power not to be attained when the colour is judged 
by the unaided eye. But the application of this test to solar and stellar 
chemistry had never, I believe, been suggested, either directly or indirectly, 
by any other naturalist, when Stokes taught it to me in Cambridge at some 
time prior to the summer of 1S52. The observational and experimental 
foundations on which he built were : — 

(1 ) The discovery by Praunhofer of a coincidence between his double dark 
line D of the solar spectrum and a double bright line which he observed in 
the spectra of ordinary artificial flames. 

(2) A very rigorous experimental test of this coincidence by Prof. W. H, 
Miller, which showed it to be accurate to an astonishing degree of minuteness. 

(3) The fact that the yellow light given out when salt is thrown on burning 
spirit consists almost solely of the two nearly identical qualities which con- 
stitute that double bright line. 

(4) Observations made by Stokes himself, which showed the bright line D 
to be absent in a candle-flame when the wick was snuffed clean, so as not to 
project into the luminous envelope, and from an alcohol flame when the spirit 
was burned in a watch-glass. And 

(5) Poucault's admirable discovery (L'Institut, Peb. 7, 1849) that the 
voltaic arc between charcoal points is "a medium which emits the rays D 
" on its own account, and at the same time absorbs them when they come 
" from another quarter." 

The conclusions, theoretical and practical, which Stokes taught me, and 
which I gave regularly afterwards in my public lectures in the University of 
Glasgow, were : — 

(1) That the double line D, whether bright or dark, is due to vapour of 
sodium. 

(2) That the ultimate atom of sodium is susceptible of regular elastic vi- 
brations, like those of a tuning-fork or of stringed musical instruments ; that 
like an instrument with two strings tuned to approximate unison, or an ap- 
proximately circular clastic disk, it has two fundamental notes or vibrations 



XCvi KEPORT 1871. 

of approximately equal pitch ; and that the periods of these vibrations are 
precisely the periods of the t'wo slightly different yellow lights constituting 
the double bright line D. 

(3) That when vapour of sodium is at a high enough temperature to be- 
come itself a source of light, each atom executes these two fundamental 
vibrations simultaneously ; and that therefore the light proceeding from it is 
of the two qunlitics constituting the double bright line D. 

(4) That when vapour of sodium is present in space across which light 
from another source is propagated, its atoms, according to a weU-known 
general principle of dynamics, are set to vibrate in either or both of those 
fundamental modes, if some of the incident light is of one or other of their 
periods, or some of one and some of the other ; so that the energy of the 
waves of those particular qualities of light is converted into thermal vibra- 
tions of the medium and dispersed in all directions, while light of all other 
qualities, even though very nearly agreeing with them, is transmitted with 
comparatively no loss. 

(5) That Fraunhofers double dark line D of solar and stellar spectra is due 
to the presence of vapour of sodium in atmospheres surroiinding the sun 
and those stars in whose spectra it had been observed. 

(G) That other vapours than sodium are to be found in the atmospheres 
of sun and stars by searcliing for substances producing in the spectra of 
artificial flames bright lines coinciding with other dark lines of the solar 
and stellar spectra than the Fraunhofer line D. 

The last of these propositions I felt to be confirmed (it was perhaps 
partlj' suggested) by a striking and beautiful experiment admirably adapted 
for lecture illustrations, due to Foucault, which had been shown to me by 
M. Duboscque Soleil, and the Abbe Moigno, in Paris in the month of 
October 1850. A prism and lenses were arranged to throw upon a screen 
an approximately pure spectrum of a vertical electric are between charcoal 
poles of a powerful battery, the lower one of which was hollowed like a cup. 
When pieces of copper and pieces of zinc were separately thrown into the 
cup, the spectrum exhibited, in perfectly definite positions, magnificent well- 
marked bauds of difiercnt colours characteristic of the two metals. AVlien 
a piece of brass, compounded of copper and zinc, was put into the cup, 
the spectrum showed all the bands, each precisely in the place in which 
it had been seen when one metal or the other had been used separately. 

It is much to be regretted that this great generalization was not pub- 
lished to the world twenty years ago. I say this, not because it is to bo 

o 

regretted that Angstrom should have the credit of having in 1853 pub- 
lished independently the statement that " an incandescent gas emits lumi- 
" nous rays of the same refrangibility as those which it can absorb " ; or that 
Balfour Stewart should have been unassisted by it when, coming to the 
subject from a very different point of view, he made, in his extension of the 
"Theory of Exchanges"*, the still wider generalization that the radiating 
power of every kind of substanee is equal to its absorbing power for every 
kind of ray ; or that KirchhofF also should have in 1859 independently dis- 
covered the same proposition, and shown its application to solar and stellar 
chemistry ; but because we might now be in possession of the inconceivable 
riches of astronomical results which we expect fi-om the next ten years' 
investigation by spectrum analysis, had Stokes given his theory to the 
world when it first occurred to him. 

To Kirchhoff belongs, I believe, solely the great credit of having first 
* Edin. Transactions, 1858-59. 



ADDRESS. XCVll 

actually souglit for and found other metals than sodium in the sun by the 
method of spectrum analysis. His publication of October 1859 inaugurated 
the practice of solar and stellar chemistry, aud gave spectrum analysis an 
impulse to which in a great measure is due its splendidly successful cultivation 
by the labours of many able investigators within the last ten years. 

o 

To prodigious and wearing toil of Kirchhoff himself, and of Angstrom, wc 
owe large-scale maps of the solar spectrum, incomjjarably superior in minute- 
ness and accuracy of delineation to any thing ever attempted previously. These 
maps now constitute the standards of reference for all workers in the field. 
Pliickcr and Hittorf opened ground in advancing the physics of spectrum 
analysis and made the important discovery of changes in the spectra of 
ignited gases produced by changes in the physical condition of the gas. The 
scientific value of the meetings of the British Association is well illustrated 
by the fact that it was through conversation with Pliicker at the Newcastle 
meeting that Lockyer was first led into the investigation of the eftects of varied 
pressure on the quality of the light emitted by glowing gas which he and 
Frankland have prosecuted with such admirable success. Scientific wealth 
tends to accumulation according to the law of compound interest. Every addi- 
tion to knowledge of properties of matter supplies the naturalist with new 
instrumental means for discovering and interpreting phenomena of nature, 
which in their turn aff'ord foundations for fresh generahzatious, bringing 
gains of permanent value into the great storehouse of philosophy. Thus 
Frankland, led, from observing the want of brightness of a candle burning in 
a tent on the summit of Mont Blanc, to scrutinize Davy's theory of fiame, 
discovered tliat brightness Avithout incandescent solid particles is given to a 
purely gaseous flame by augmented pressure, and that a dense ignited gas 
gives a spectrum comparable with that of the light from an incandescent solid 
or liquid. Lockyer joined him; aud the two found that every incandescent 
substance gives a continuous spectrum — that an incandescent gas under 
varied pi'essure gives bright bars across the continuous spectrum, some of 
which, from the sharp, hard and fast hues observed where the gas is in a 
state of extreme attenuation, broaden out on each side into nebulous bands 
as the density is increased, and are ultimately lost in the continuous spec- 
trum when the condensation is pushed on till the gas becomes a fluid no 
longer to be called gaseous. Moi-c recently they have examined the influence 
of temperature, and have obtained results which seem to show that a highly 
attenuated gas, which at a high temperature gives several bright lines, gives 
a smaller and smaller number of lines, of sufiiciont brightness to be visible, 
when the temperature is lowered, the density being kept unchanged. I cannot 
refrain here from remarking how admirably this beaiitiful investigation har- 
monizes with Andrews' great discovery of continuity between the gaseous 
and liquid states. Such things make the life-blood of science. In contem- 
plating them we feel as if led out from narrow waters of scholastic dogma to 
a refreshing excursion on the broad and deep ocean of truth, where we learn 
from the wonders wc see that there are endlessly more and more glorious 
wonders still unseen. 

Stokes' dynamical theory supplies the key to the i^hilosophy of Frank- 
land and Lockyer's discovery. Any atom of gas when struck and left to 
itself vibrates with perfect purity its fundamental note or notes. In a 
highly attenuated gas each atom is very rarely in collision Avith other 
atoms, and therefore is nearly at all times in a state of true vibration. 
Hence the spectrum of a highly attenuated gas consists of one or more 
perfectly sharp bright lines, with a scarcely perceptible continuous gradation 



xcviii REPORT — 1871. 

of prismatic colour. In. denser gas each atom is frequently in collision, but 
still is for much more time free, iu intervals between collisions, than engaged 
in collision ; so that not only is the atom itself thrown sensibly out of tuue 
during a sensible proportion of its whole time, but the confused jangle of 
vibrations in every variety of period during the actual collision becomes more 
considerable in its influence. Hence bright lines in the spectrum broaden 
out somewhat, and the continuous spectrum becomes less faint. In still 
denser gas each atom may be almost as much time in collision as free, and 
the spectrum then consists of broad nebulous bauds crossing a continuous 
spectrum of considerable brightness, "\^^hen the medium is so dense that 
each atom is alwaj's in collision, that is to say never free from influence of 
its neighbours, the spectrum wiU. generally be continuous, and may present 
little or no ap])earance of bands, or even of maxima of brightness. In this 
condition the fluid can be no longer regarded as a gas, and we must judge 
of its relation to the vaporous or liquid states according to the critical 
conditions discovered by Andi'cws. 

While these great investigations of properties of matter were going on, 
naturalists were not idle with the newly recognized power of the spectro- 
scope at their service. Chemists soon followed the example of Bunsen 
in discovering new metals in terrestrial matter by the old blow-pipo and 
prism test of Fox Talbot and Herschel. Biologists applied spectrum analysis 
to animal and vegetable chemistry, and to sanitary investigations. But 
it is in astronomy that spectroscopic research has been carried on with 
the greatest activity, and been most richly rewarded with results. The 
chemist and the astronomer have joined their forces. An astronomical ob- 
servatory has now, appended to it, a stock of reagents such as hitherto was 
only to be found in the chemical laboratory, A devoted corps of volunteers 
of all nations, whose motto might well be ^ibique, have directed their artil- 
lery to every region of the universe. The sun, the spots on his surface, 
the corona and the red and yellow prominences seen round him during 
total eclipses, the moon, the planets, comets, auroras, nebulae, white 
stars, yellow stars, red stars, variable and temporary stars, each tested by the 
prism was compelled to show its distinguishing colours. Earely before in 
the history of science has enthusiastic perseverance directed by penetra- 
tive genius produced within ten years so brilliant a succession of dis- 
coveries. It is not merely the chemistry of sun and stars, as first sug- 
gested, that is subjected to analysis by the spectroscope. Their whole laws 
of being are now subjects of direct investigation ; and already we have 
glimpses of their evolutional history through the stuj)endous power of this 
most subtle and delicate test. We had only solar and stellar chemistry; 
we now have solar and stellar physiology. 

It is an old idea that the colour of a star may be influenced by its motion 
relatively to the eye of the spectator, so as to be tinged with red if it moves 
from the earth, or blue if it moves towards the earth. William Allen Miller, 
Huggins, and JIaxwell showed how, by aid of the spectroscope, this idea may 
be made the foundation of a method of measuring the relative velocity with 
which a star approaches to or recedes from the earth. The principle is, first to 
identify, if possible, one or more of the lines in the spectrum of the star, with a 
line or lines in the spectrum of sodium, or some other terrestrial substance, 
and then (by observing the star and the artificial light simultaneously by 
the same spectroscope) to find the difference, if any, between their refran- 
gibilities. From this difference of refrangibility the ratio of the periods of 
the two lights is calculated, according to data determined by Fraunhofer from 



ADDRESS. XCIX 

comparisons between the positions of the dark lines in the prismatic spectrum 
and in his own " interference spectrum " (produced by substituting for the 
prism a fine grating). A first comparatively rough application of the test by 
Miller and Huggins to a large number of the principal stars of our skies, 
including Aldcbaran, a Ononis, ft Pegasi, Sirius, n Lyras, CapeUa, Arcturus, 
Pollux, Castor (which they had observed rather for the chemical purpose than 
for this), proved that not one of them had so great a velocity as 315 kilometres 
per second to or from the earth, which is a most momentous result in respect 
to cosmical dynamics. Afterwards Huggins made special observations of 
the velocity test, and succeeded in making the measurement in one case, 
that of Sirius, which he then found to be receding from the earth at the rate 
of G(j kilometres per second. This, corrected for the velocity of the earth at 
the time of the observation, gave a velocity of Sirius, relatively to the Sun, 
amounting to 47 kilometres per second. The minuteness of the difference to 
be measured, and the smallness of the amount of light, even when the brightest 
star is observed, renders the observation extremely difficult. Still, with 
such great skill as Mr. Huggins has brought to bear on the investigation, 
it can scarcely be doubted that velocities of many other stars may be 
measured. "What is now wanted is, certainly not greater skill, perhaps not 
even more 2}owerful instruments, but more instruments and more ohservers. 
Lockyer's applications of the velocity test to the relative motions of different 
gases in the Sun's photosphere, spots, chromosjihere, and chromosphcric pro- 
minences, and his observations of the varying spectra presented by the same 
substance as it moves from one position to another in the Sun's atmosphere, 
and his interpretations of these observations, according to the laboratory 
results of Frankland and himself, go far towards confirming the conviction 
that in a few years all the marvels of tlie Sun will be dynamically explained 
according to known properties of matter. 

During six or eight precious minutes of time, spectroscopes have been ap- 
plied to the solar atmosphere and to the corona seen round the dark disk of 
the Moon eclipsing the Sun. Some of the wonderful results of such obser- 
vations, made in India on the occasion of the eclipse of August 1808, were 
described by Professor Stokes in a previous address. Yaluablo results have, 
through tlie liberal assistance given by the British and American Govern- 
ments, been obtained also from the total eclipse of last December, notwith- 
standing a generally unfavourable condition of weather. It seems to have 
been proved that at least some sensible part of the light of the "corona" is a 
terrestrial atmospheric halo or dispersive reflection of the light of the glow- 
ing hydrogen and " helium"* round the sun. I believe I may say, on the 
present occasion when preparation must again be made to iitilize a total 
eclipse of the Sun, that the British Association confidently trusts to our 
Government exercising the same wise liberality as heretofore in the interests 
of science. 

The old nebular hypothesis supposes the solar system, and other similar 
systems through the universe which we see at a distance as stars, to have 
originated in the condensation of fiery nebulous matter. This hypothesis 
was invented before the discovery of thermo-dynamics, or the nebulic v\'ould 
not have been supposed to be fiery ; and the idea seems never to have 
occurred to any of its inventors or early supporters that the matter, the con- 
densation of Avhich they supposed to constitute the Sun and stars, could have 

* Frankland and Loekyer find the yellow prominences to giire a very decided bright line 
not far from D, but liitherto not identified with any terrestrial flame. It seema to indicate 
a new substance, wliieh they propose to call Helium. 



C REPORT — 1871. 

been other than fiery in the beginning. Mayer first suggested that the heat 
of the Sun may be due to gravitation : but he supposed meteors falling in 
to keep always generating the heat which is radiated year by year from the 
Sun. Helmholtz, on the other hand, adopting the nebular hypothesis, showed 
in 1854 that it was not necessary to suppose the nebulous matter to have 
been originally fiery, but that mutual gravitation between its parts may 
have generated the heat to which the present high temperature of the Sun is 
due. Turther he made the important observations that the potential energy 
of gravitation in the Sun is even now far from exhausted ; but that with 
further and further shrinking more and more heat is to bo generated, and 
that thus we can conceive the Sun even now to possess a sufficient store of 
energy to produce heat and light, almost as at present, for several million 
years of time future. It ought, however, to be added that this condensation 
can only follow from cooling, and therefore that Helmholtz's gravitational 
explanation of future Sun-heat amounts really to showing that the Sun's 
thermal capacity is enormously greater, in virtue of the mutual gravitation 
between the parts of so enormous a mass, than the sum of the thermal capa- 
cities of separate and smaller bodies of the same material and same total 
mass. Eeasons for adopting this theory, and the consequences which follow 
from it, are discussed in an article " On the Age of the Sun's Heat," published 
in ' Macmillan's Magazine ' for March 1862. 

For a few years Mayer's theor}- of solar heat had seemed to me probable ; 
but I had been led to regard it as no longer tenable, because I had been in 
the first place driven, by consideration of the very approximate constancy of 
the Earth's period of revolution round the Sun for the last 2000 years, to 
conclude that " The principal source, perhaps the sole appreciably eftective 
" source of Sun-heat, is in bodies circulating round the Sun at present inside 
" the Earth's orbit"* ; and because Le Verricr's researches on the motion of 
the planet Mercury, though giving evidence of a sensible influence attributable 
to matter circulating as a great number of small planets within his orbit 
round the Sun, showed that the amoimt of matter that could possibly be as- 
sumed to circulate at any considerable distance from the Sun must be very 
small ; and therefore " if the meteoric influx taking place at present is 
" enough to pi-oduce any appreciable portion of the heat radiated away, it 
" must be supposed to be from matter circulating round the Sun, within very 
" short distances of his surface. The density of this meteoric cloud would 
" have to be siipposed so great that comets could scarcely have escaped as 
" comets actually have escaped, showing no discoverable effects of resistance, 
" after passing his surface within a distance equal to one-eighth of his radius. 
" All things considered, there seems little probability in the hypothesis that 
" solar radiation is compensated to any appreciable degree, by heat generated 
" by meteors falling in, at pi-esent ; and, as it can be shown that no chemical 
" theory is tenablef, it must be concluded as most probable that the Sun is 
" at present mere an incandescent liquid mass cooling "J. 

Thus on purelj- astronomical grounds was I long ago led to abandon as 
very improbable the hypothesis that the Sun's heat is supplied dynamically 
from year to year by the influx of meteors. Eut now spectrum analysis gives 
proof finally conclusive against it. 

Each meteor circulating round the Sun must fall in along a very gradual 

* "On the meclianical energies of the Solar System." Transactions of the Eoyal Society 
of Edinburgh, 1854 ; and Phil. Mag. 1854, second half year, 
•j- " Mechanical Energies " &c. 
X "Age of the Sun's Heat" (MacmilLan's Magazine, March 1862). 



ADDRESS. CI 

spiral path, mid beforo roacliing the Sim must liave been for a long time 
exposed to an cuorinoiis heating effect from liis radiatiou when very near, 
and must thus have been driven into vapour before aetuall}^ falling into the 
Sun. Thus, if Mayer's hypothesis is corroyt, friction between vortices of 
meteoric vapours and the Sun's atmosphere must be the immediate cause of 
solar heat ; and the velocity with which these vapours circulate round equa- 
torial parts of the Sun must amount to 435 kilometres per second. The 
spectrum test of velocity applied by Lockyci' sliowed but a twentieth part of 
this amount as the greatest observed relative velocity between different 
vapours in the Sun's atmosphere. 

At the first Liverpool Meeting of the British Association (1854), in ad- 
vancing a gravitational theory to account for all the heat, light, and motions 
of the universe, I urged that the immediately antecedent condition of the 
matter of which the Sun and Planets were formed, not being fiery, could not 
have been gaseous ; but that it probably was solid, and may have been like 
the meteoric stones which we still so frequently meet with through space. 
The discovery of Huggins, that the light of the nebute, so far as hitherto 
sensible to us, proceeds from incandescent hydrogen and nitrogen gases, and 
that the heads of comets also give us light of incandescent gas, seems at first 
sight literally to fulfil that part of the nebular hypothesis to which I had 
objected. But a solution, which seems to me in the highest degree probable, 
has been suggested by Tait. He supposes that it may be by ignited gaseous 
exhalations proceeding from the collision of meteoric stones that Nebnlte and 
the heads of comets show themselves to us ; and he suggested, at a former 
meeting of the Association, that experiments should be made for the purpose 
of applying spectrum analysis to the light which has been observed in 
gunnery trials, such as those at Shoeburyuess, when iron stiikes against iron 
at a great velocity, but varied by substituting for the iron various solid 
materials, metallic or stony. Hitherto this suggestion has not been acted 
upon ; but surely it is one the carrying out of which ought to be pi'omoted 
by the British Association. 

Most important steps have been recently made towards the discovery of the 
nature of comets, establishing with nothing short of certainty the truth of a 
h)'pothesis which had long appeared to me probable, that they consist of groups 
of meteoric stones, accounting satisfactorily for the light of the nucleus, 
and giving a simple and rational explanation of phenomena presented by 
the tails of comets which had been regarded by the greatest astronomers as 
almost preternaturally marvellous. The meteoric hypothesis to which I have 
referred remained a mere hypothesis (I do not know that it was ever even 
published) until, in 1866, Schiaparelli calculated, from observations on the 
August meteors, an orbit for these bodies which he found to agree almost 
perfectly with the orbit of the great comet of 1802 as calculated by Oppolzer ; 
and so discovered and demonstrated that a comet consists of a group of 
meteoric stones. Professor Xewton, of Yale College, United States, by examin- 
ing ancient records, ascertained that in periods of about thirty-three years, 
since the year 902, there have been exceptionally brilliant displays of the 
November meteors. It had long been believed that these interesting visi- 
tants came from a train of small detached planets circulating round the Sun 
all in nearly the same orbit, and constituting a belt analogous to Saturn's 
ring, and that the reason for the comparatively large number of meteors 
which we observe annually about the 14th of November is, that at that 
time the earth's orbit cuts through the supposed meteoric belt. Professor 
Newton concluded from his investigation that there is a denser part of 

1871. h 



p>' 



REPORT— 1871. 



the group of meteors which extends over a portion of the orbit so great 
as to occupy about one-tenth ,or one-fifteenth of the periodic time in 
passing any particular point, and gave a choice of five different periods for 
the revolution of this meteoric stream round the sun, any one of which would 
satisfy his statistical result. He further concluded that the line of nodes 
(that is to say, the line in which the plane of the meteoric belt cuts the plane 
of the Earth's orbit) has a progressive sidereal motion of about 52"-4 per 
annum. Here, then, was a splendid problem for the physical astronomer ; 
and, happily, one well qualified for the task, took it up. Adams, by the 
application of a beautiful method invented by Gauss, found that of the five 
periods allowed by Newton just one permitted the motion of the line of nodes 
to be explained by the disturbing influence of Jupiter, Saturn, and other 
planets. The period chosen on these grounds is 33| years. The inves- 
tigation showed further that the form of the orbit is a long ellipse, giving 
for shortest distance from the Sun 145 million kilometres, and for longest 
distance 2895 million kilometres. Adams also worked out the longitude 
of the perihelion and the inclination of the orbit's plane to the plane of the 
ecliptic. The orbit which he thus found agreed so closely with that of 
Temple's Comet I. 1866 that he was able to identify the comet and the 
meteoric belt *. The same conclusion had been pointed out a few weeks 
earlier by Schiaparelli, from calculations by himself on data supplied by 
direct observations on the meteors, and independently by Peters from calcu- 
lations by Lcverrier on the same foundation. It is therefore thoroughly 
established that Temple's Comet 1. 1806 consists of an eUiijtic train of minute 
planets, of which a few thousands or millions fall to the earth annually about 
the 14th of November, when we cross their track. We have probably not 
yet passed through the very nucleus or densest part ; but thirteen times, in 
Octobers and Novembers, from October 13, a.d. 902, to November 14, 1866 
inclusive (this last time having been correctly predicted by Prof Newton), 
Ave have passed through a part of the belt greatly denser than the average. 
The densest part of the train, when near enough to us, is visible as the head 
of the comet. This astounding result, taken along mth Huggins's spectro- 
scopic observations on the light of the heads and tails of comets, confirms 
most strikingly Tait's theory of comets, to which I have already referred ; 
according to which the comet, a group of meteoric stones, is self-luminous 
in its nucleus, on account of collisions among its constituents, while its " tail " 
is merely a portion of the less dense part of the train illuminated by sunlight, 
and visible or invisible to us according to circumstances, not only of density, 
degree of illumination, and nearness, but also of tactic arrangement, as of a 
flock of birds or the edge of a cloud of tobacco-smoke ! "Wliat prodigious diffi- 
culties are to be explained, you may judge from two or three sentences which 

* Signer Schiaparelli, Director of the Observatory of Milan, who, in a letter dated Slst 
December LS66, pointed out that the elements of the orbit of the Angust Meteors, calcu- 
lated from the observed position of their radiant point on tlic supposition of the orbit 
being a very elongated ellipse, agreed very closely veith those of the orbit of Comet II. 1862, 
calculated by Dr. Oppolzer. In the same letter Schiaparelli gives elements of the orbit 
of the November meteors, but these veere not suiTiciently accurate to enable him to identify 
the orbit vrith that of any knovfn comet. On the 21st January, 1867, M. Leverrier gave 
more accurate elements of the orbit of the November Meteors, and in the ' Astronomiscbo 
Nachricliten ' of January 9, Mr. C. F. W. Peters, of Altona, pointed out that these elements 
closely agreed with those of Temple's Comet (I 18G6), calculated by Dr. Oppolzer; and 
on February 2, Schiaparelli having recalculated the elements of the orbit of the meteors, 
himself noticed the same agreement. Adams arrived quite independently at the conclusion 
that the orbit of 33^ years period is the one which must be chosen out of the five indi- 
cated by Prof. Nevrton. His calculations were sufficiently advanced before the letters 



ADDRESS. cm 

I shall read from Herschd's Astronomy, and from the fact that even SchiapareUi 
seems still to believe in the repulsion. " There is, beyond question, some 
" pi-ofound secret and mystery of nature concerned in the phenomenon of 
" their tails. Perhaps it is not too much to hope that future observation, 
" borrowing every aid from rational speculation, grounded on the progress of 
" physical science generally (especially those branches of it which relate to 
" the ethereal or imponderable elements), may enable us ere long to penetrate 
'' this mystery, and to declare whether it is really matter in the ordinary 
" acceptation of the term which is projected from their heads with such 
" extraordinaiy velocity, and if not impelUcl, at least directed, in its course, 
" by reference to the Sun, as its point of avoidance " *. 

" In no respect is the question as to the materiality of the tail more for- 
" cibly pressed on us for consideration than in that of the enormous sweep 
" which it makes round the sun in perihelio in the manner of a straight and 
" rigid rod, in defiance of the laiu of gravitation, nay, even, of the receivedlaws 
"of motion"*. 

" The projection of this ray . . . to so enormous a length, in a single day, 
" conveys an impression of the intensity of the forces acting to produce such 
'•■ a velocity of material transfer through space, such as no other natural phe- 
" nomenon is capable of exciting. It is clear that if weJiave to deal here with 
" matter, such as we conceive it (viz. possessing inertia^, at all, it must be under 
" the dominion of forces incomparably more energetic than gravitation, and 
" quite of a different nature " t. 

Think, now, of the admirable simplicity with which Tait's beautiful " sea- 
bird analogy," as it has been caUed, can explain all these phenomena. 

The essence of science, as is weU illustrated by astronomy and 
cosmical physics, consists in inferring antecedent conditions, and an- 
ticipating future evolutions, from phenomena which have actually come 
under observation. In biology the difficulties of successfully acting up 
to this ideal are prodigious. The earnest naturalists of the present day 
are, however, not appalled or paralyzed by them, and are struggling boldly 
and laboriously to pass out of the mere " ISTatural History stage " of 
their study, and bring zoology within the range of Xatural Philosophy. 
A very ancient speculation, stiU clung to by many naturalists (so much so 
that I have a choice of modern terms to quote in expressing it), supposes that, 
under meteorological conditions very different from the present, dead matter 
may have run together or crystallized or fermented into "germs of life," 
or " organic cells," or " protoplasm." But science brings a vast mass of in- 
ductive evidence against this hypothesis of spontaneous generation, as you 
have heard from my predecessor in the Presidential chair. Careful enough 
scrutiny has, in every case up to the present day, discovered life as antecedent 
to life. Dead matter cannot become living without coming under the influ- 
ence of matter previously alive. This seems to me as sure a teaching of science 
as the law of gravitation. I utterly repudiate, as opposed to all philosophical 
uniformitarianism, the assumption of " different meteorological conditions " — 
that is to say, somewhat different vicissitudes of temperature, pressure, 

referred to appeared, to show that the other four orbits offered by Newton were inadmissible. 
But the calculations to be gone through to find the secular motion of the node in such an 
elongated orbit as that of the meteors were necessarily very long, so that they were not 
completed till about March 1867. They were communicated in that mouth to the 
Cambridge Philosophical Society, and in the month following to the Astronomical 
Society. 

* Herschel's Astronomy, § 599. 

t Herschel's Astronomy, 10th edition, § 589. 

7i2 



civ KEPOllT— 1871. 

moisture, gaseous atmosphere — to produce or to permit that to take place by 
force or motion of dead matter alone, which is a direct contravention of what 
seems to us biological law. I am prepared for the answer, " our code of 
" biological law is an expression of our ignorance as weU as of our know- 
" ledge." And I say yes : search for spontaneous generation out of inorganic 
materials ; let any one not satisfied with the purely negative testimony, of 
which we have now so much against it, throw himself into the inquiry. Such 
investigations as those of Pasteur, Pouchet, and Bastian are among the most 
interesting and momentous in the whole range of Natiu'al History, and their 
results, whether positive or negative, must richly reward the most careful 
and laborious experimenting. I confess to being deeply impressed by the 
evidence put before us by Professor Huxley, and I am ready to adopt, as an 
article of scientific faith, true through all space and through all time, that 
life proceeds from life, and from nothing but life. 

How, then, did life originate on the Earth ? Tracing the physical history 
of the Earth backwards, on strict dynamical principles, we are brought to a 
'red-hot melted globe on which no life could exist. Hence when the Earth 
was first fit for life, there was no living thing on it. There were rocks solid and 
disintegrated, water, air all round, warmed and illuminated bj^ a brilliant Sun, 
ready to become a garden. Did grass and trees and flowers sjiring into exist- 
ence, in all the fulness of ripe beauty, by a fiat of Creative Power? or did vege- 
tation, growing up from seed sown, spread and nniltii^ly over the whole Earth ? 
Science is bound, by the everlasting law of honour, to face fearlessly every pro- 
blem which can fairly be presented to it. If a probable solution, consistent 
with the ordinary course of nature, can be found, we must not invoke an abnor- 
mal act of Creative Power. "When a lava stream flows down the sides of Vesu- 
vius or Etna it quickly cools and becomes solid ; and after a few weeks or 
years it teems Avith vegetable and auimal life, which for it originated by the 
transport of seed and ova and by the migration of individual living creatures. 
When a volcanic island springs up from the sea, and after a few years is 
found clothed Avith vegetation, we do not hesitate to assume that seed has 
been wafted to it through the air, or floated to it on rafts. Is it not possible, 
and if possible, is it not probable, that the beginning of vegetable life on the 
Earth is to be similarly explained ? Every year thousands, probably mil- 
lions, of fragments of solid matter fall upon the Earth — Avhcnce came these 
fragments ? What is the jn-cA-ious history of any one of them ? Was it created 
in the beginning of time an amorphous mass ? This idea is so unacceptable 
that, tacitly or explicitly, all men discord it. It is often assumed that all, 
and it is certain that some, meteoric stones are fragments which had been 
broken off' from greater masses and laimched free into space. It is as sure 
that collisions must occur between great masses moving through space as it 
is that ships, steered without inteUigcnce directed to prevent colhsion, could 
not cross and recross the Atlantic for thousands of years Avith immunity from 
collisions. When tAvo great masses come into collision in space it is certain 
that a large part of each is melted ; but it seems also quite certain that in 
many cases a large quantity of debris must be shot forth in all directions, 
much of Avliich may have experienced no greater violence than individual 
pieces of rock experience in a land-slip or in blasting by gunpowder. Should 
the time Avhen this Earth comes into collision Avith another body, comparable 
in dimensions to itself, be Avhcn it is i-lill clolhed as at present with vege- 
tation, many great and small fragments carrying seed and living plants and 
animals would undoubtedly be scattered throueh space. Hence and lecanse 
Ave all confidently believe that there ore at pre.'^cnt, and have been frcm time 



ADDRESS. CV 

immemorial, many worlrls of life besides our own, wc must rcp,'ard it as pro- 
bable in the highest degree that there are countless seed-bearing meteoric 
stones moving about through space. If at the present instant no life existed 
upon this Earth, one such stone falling upon it might, by what we blindly 
call natural causes, lead to its becoming covered with vegetation. I am fully 
conscious of the manj'^ scientific objections which may be urged against this 
hypothesis ; but I believe them to be all answerable. I have already taxed 
your patience too severely to allow me to think of discussing any of them on 
the present occasion. The hypothesis that life originated on this Earth 
through moss-grown fragments from the ruins of another world may seem 
wild and visionarj^ ; all I maintain is that it is not unscientific. 

From the Earth stocked with such vegetation as it could receive meteorieally, 
to the Earth teeming with all the endless variety of plants and animals which 
now inhabit it, the step is prodigious ; yet, according to the doctrine of conti- 
nuity, most ably laid before the Association by a predecessor in this Chair 
(Mr. Grove), all creatures noAV living on earth have proceeded by orderly 
evolution from some such origin. Darwin concludes his great work on ' The 
Origin of Species ' with the following words : — " It is interesting to contem- 
" plate an entangled bank clothed with many plants of many kinds, with 
'' birds singing on the bushes, with various insects flitting about, and with 
" worms crawling through the damp earth, and to reflect that these elabo- 
" rately constructed forms, so different from each other, and dependent on 
*' each other in so complex a manner, have all been produced by laws acting 
" around us." . . . . " There is grandeur in this view of life with its 
" several powers, having been originally breathed by the Creator into a few 
" forms or into one ; and that, whilst this planet has gone cycling on accord- 
" ing to the fixed law of gravity, from so simple a beginning endless forms, 
" most beautiful and most wonderful, have been and are being evolved." 
With the feeling expressed in these two sentences I most cordially sympathize. 
I have omitted two sentences which come between them, describing briefly 
the hypothesis of " the origin «f species by natural selection," because I 
have always felt that this hypothesis does not contain the true theory of 
evolution, if evolution there has been, in biology. Sir John Herschcl, in 
expressing a favourable judgment on the hypothesis of zoological evolution 
(with, however, some reservation in respect to the origin of man), objected to 
the doctrine of natural selection, that it was too like the Laputan method of 
making books, and that it did not sufficiently take into account a continually 
guiding and controlling intelligence. This seems to me a most valuable and 
instructive criticism. I feel profoundly convinced that the argument of 
design has been greatly too much lost sight of in recent zoological specula- 
tions. Eeaction against the frivolities of teleology, such as are to be found, 
not rarelj% in the notes of the learned commentators on Paley's ' Natural 
Theology,' has I believe had a temporary eftcct in turning attention from the 
solid and irrefragable argument so well put forward in that excellent old book. 
But overpoweringly ■•■trong proofs of intelligent and benevolent design lie 
all round us ; and if ever perplexities, whether metaphysical or scientific, turn 
us away from them for a time, they come back upon us with irresistible 
force, showing to us through Kature the influence of a free will, and teaching 
us that all living beings depend en one ever-acting Creator and Euler. 



REPORTS 



ON 



THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



E E P R T S 



ON 



THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



Seventh Report of the Committee for Exploring Kent's Cavern, Devon- 
shire, — the Committee consisting of Sir Charles Lyell, Bart., 
F.R.S., Professor Phillips, F.R.S., Sir John Lubbock, Bart,, 
F.R.S., John Evans, F.R.S., Edward Vivian, George Busk, 
F.R.S., William Boyd Dawkins, F.R.S., William Ayshford 
Sanford, F.G.S., aracf William Pengelly, F.R.S. (Reporter). 

During the year which has elapsed since the Sixth Eeport was sent in 
(Liverpool, 1870), the Committee have without intermission carried on 
their researches, and have strictly followed the mode of working with which 
the exploration was commenced in 1865. The Superintendents have con- 
tinued to visit the Cavern, and to record the results daily ; they have, as 
from the beginning, sent Monthly Reports to the Chairman of the Com- 
mittee ; the work has been carried on by the same workmen, George Smerdon 
and John Farr, who have discharged their duties in a most efficient and 
satisfactory manner ; and the Cavern is as much resorted to as ever by visitors 
feeling an interest in the researches. 

In June 1871, Mr. Busk, a Member of the Committee, spent some time 
at Torquay, when he visited the Cavern accompanied by the Superintendents, 
who took him through all its branches, explored and vinexplored. Having 
carefuUy watched the progress of the work, and made himself familiar with 
all its details, he spent some time at the Secretary's residence, examining and 
identifying a portion of the mammalian remains which had been disinterred. 

In November 1870 the Superintendents had also the pleasure of going 
through the cavern with Mr. W. Morrison, M.P., who takes so active an 
interest in the exploration of the caves near Settle in Yorkshire. 

Besides the foregoing, and exclusive of the large number attended by the 
guide appointed by the proprietor, Sir L. Palk, Bart., M.P., the Cavern has 
been visited during the year by the Earl and Countess Russell, Sir R. Sin- 
clair, Bart., Sir C. Trevelyan, Mr. C. Gilpin, M.P., Governor Wayland, U.S., 
Colonel Ward, Major Bryce, U.S., Rev. Mr. Dickenson, Rev. E. N. Dumble- 
ton, Rev. J. P. Foster, Rev. T. R. R. Stebbing, Dr. Ashford, Dr. Tate, and 
Messrs. S. Bate, R. BeUasis, L. Bowring, W. R. A. Boyle, W. Bridges, 

1871. B 



2 REPORT 1871. 

C. Busk, A. Champernowne, Channing, Chaplin, F. A. Fellows, T. Fox, 
T. Glaisher, J. Harrison, Howard, W". Jones, C. Pannel, Eichie, W. Spriggs, 
E. B. Tawuey, G. H. Wollaston, and many others. 

Smerdons Passaije. — The Committee stated in their last Report that, in 
excavating the "North Sally-port," they had been led to a third External En- 
trance to the Cavern, in the same limestone cliff as the two Entrances known 
from time immemorial, but at a considerably lower level, where it was com- 
pletely buried in a great talus of debris. After adding that it had not been 
thought necessary, or desirable, or even safe to dig through the talus to the 
open day, they stated the facts which left no doubt of their having pene- 
trated to the outside of the Cavern. During the winter of 1870-71, the 
question of the existence of the third Entrance was put beyond all doubt ; 
for, after a considerable rainfall, that portion of the talus which the workmen 
had undermined fell in, and thereby laid open the Entrance. This cavity 
was at once filled up, in order to prevent any one from intruding into the 
Cavern. 

It was also stated last year that the new or low-level opening was the 
External Entrance not only of the North SaUy-port, but of another and 
unsuspected branch of the Cavern, to which had been given the name of 
" Smerdon's Passage," the exploration of which had been begun. 

This Passage was found to consist of two Reaches, the first, or outermost, 
being about 25 feet long, from 3 to 10 feet wide, and having a northerly 
direction. Near its entrance, or southern end, there are in the roof a few 
circular holes, from 6 to 12 inches in diameter, apparently the mouths of 
tortuous shafts extending for some distance into, or perhaps through, the 
limestone rock. The roof itself and the adjacent portions of the wall bear 
traces of the long- continued erosive action of running water, but below the 
uppermost 12 or 18 inches the walls have many sharp angular inequa- 
lities. Further in, the roof has an irregular fretted aspect, apparently the 
result of the corrosive action of acidulated water, whilst the walls retain the 
angular appearance just mentioned. 

The Second lleach runs nearly east and west, is about 32 feet long, some- 
what wider than the first, and its roof is several feet higher. At its outer or 
eastern end the roof and walls are much fretted ; further in, there are holes 
in the roof similar to those just mentioned, with the exception of being 
larger. Some of them contain a small quantity of soil, resembling 
Cave-earth, and firmly cemented to the wall ; whilst adjacent to others 
there is a considerable amount of stalactitic matter. Still further in, the 
roof, which has the aspect of a watercourse, is covered with a thin veneer 
of white stalactite ; and near the inner cud there is a considerable hole in 
the roof containing a large accumulation of the same material. 

At the western or inner end of this Second Ecach, the limestone roof gave 
place to one consisting of angular pieces of limestone cemented with carbo- 
nate of Ume into a very firm concrete. In breaking this up, the workman 
thrust his iron bar up through it, and found he had thereby opened a pas- 
sage into the easfern end of that branch of the Cavern known as the " Sloping 
Chamber," the concrete floor of which was at the same time the roof of the 
Passage, 

At the outer or eastern end of the Second Eeach there was found another 
Low-level Entrance, about 20 feet from that previously mentioned, and 
having no marks of the action of water. 

Narrow ramifications extend through the limestone rock from both Reaches 
of Smerdon's Passage (westward from the first, and southwards from the 



ON Kent's cavern^ Devonshire. 3 

second) and intersect one another ; their roofs are also perforated with holes, 
and exhibit traces of the action of running water. 

Throughout both Reaches there were in certain places strips of Stalag- 
mitic Floor extending continuously across from waU to waU, and varying 
from a quarter of an inch to 6 inches in thickness. The most important 
of these strips was about 8 feet long. Elsewhere the Cave-earth was either 
completely bare, or had on it here and there what may be called conical 
scales of stalagmite, from 3 to 12 inches in diameter at the base, and from 
1 to 4 inches in thickness at the centre. From them, and generally near 
the middle, there not unfrequently rose one or more rudely cylindi-ical 
masses of the same material, sometimes 9 inches high, 6 inches in circum- 
ference, and locally known as " Cow's Paps." In almost every instance of 
the kind there depended from the limestone roof, vertically over them, a 
long, slender, quill-like tube of stalactite, occasionally reaching and uniting 
with the " Paps." Such tubes occurred also in certain places where there 
were no " Paps," and in some spots there was quite a forest of them, ex- 
tending from the roof to the Stalagmitic Floor. Wherever it was possible 
to excavate the deposit beneath without breaking them, they were left 
intact. In some cases the Stalagmitic Floor, or the Cave- earth where the 
latter was bare, reached the roof ; and where this was not the case, the unoc- 
cupied space was rarely more than a foot in height. 

About midway in the Second Reach there was on each wall a remnant 
of an old floor of stalagmite, about 8 inches above the floor found intact, 
fuUy 6 iaches thick, about 6 feet in length, and within a few inches of the 
roof. 

The mechanical deposit in the Passage was the ordinary red Cave-earth, 
in some places sandy, but occasionally a very compact clay. It contained a 
considerable number of angular fragments of limestone, numerous blocks of 
old crystalline stalagmite, and a few well-rolled pebbles of quartz, red grit, 
and flint. The masses of limestone were not unfrequently of considerable 
size ; indeed one of them required to be blasted twice, and another three 
times, in order to effect their removal ; and some of the blocks of stalagmite 
measured fully 15 cubic feet. 

From the entrance of the First Reach to about 10 feet within it, the 
upper surface of the Cave-earth was almost perfectly horizontal ; but from 
the latter point it rose irregularly higher and higher, until, at the inner end 
of the Second Reach, the increased height amounted to about 9 feet. There 
were no tunnels or burrows in the deposit, such as occurred in both the 
Sally-ports, and were described in the Fifth and Sixth Reports (1869 and 
1870). Near the inner end of the Second Reach the Cave-earth adjacent to 
the walls was cemented into a concrete. 

The deposit in the lateral ramifications of the Passage was the same typi- 
cal Cave-earth, containing blocks of old crystalline stalagmite and angular 
pieces of limestone, but -without any Stalagmitic Floor. 

It was stated in the Sixth Report (1870), p. 26, that at the third External 
Entrance, i. e. the first of the low-level series, the deposits were of two 
kinds — the ordinary Cave-earth, with the usual osseous remains, below ; and 
small angular pieces of limestone, with but little earth and no fossils, above. 
Materials of precisely the same character, and in the same order, were found 
at the new low-level Entrance, at the eastern end of the Second Reach of 
Smerdon's Passage, as already stated. 

Besides a large number of bones, portions of bones, and fragments of 
antlers, a total of fully 2900 teeth were found in the Passage and its rami- 

b2 



4 REPORT 1871. 

fications, of which 700 were reported at Liverpool*. The remaining 2200, 
exhumed since the end of August 1870, belonged to different kinds of animals, 
in the ratios shown in the following list : — 



Hysena 335 per thousand. 

Horse 295 „ 

Hhinoceros .... 161 „ 

« Irish Elk ".. .. 55 

Ox 35 

Deer 27 „ 

Badger 22 „ 

Elephant 20 „ 



Bear 18 per thousand. 

Fox 12 „ 

Lion 6 „ 

Reindeer 5 „ 

Wolf 4 „ 

Bat 2 „ 

Rabbit 1 „ 

Dog (?) . . less than 1 „ 



On comparing the foregoing list with those given for the Sally-ports in 
the Sixth Report (pp. 19 and 24), it will be found to differ from them in 
containing neither Sheep nor Pig, and in the diminished prevalence of Rabbit 
and Badger. 

Many of the teeth are in fragments of jaws, which have, in most cases, 
lost their condyles and their inferior borders. They belong to individuals of 
all ages, from the baby Elephant, whose molar crown was no more than -8 
inch long, and the Hyaena, whose second set had made their appearance 
before the dislodgement of the first, to the wasted remnant of an adult tooth 
of the Mammoth, and the canine of the Bear worn quite to the fang. 

Many of the bones and teeth are discoloured, a large number are gnawed 
(generally, no doubt, by the Hysena, but occasionally by some smaller animal), 
and a considerable proportion of them, at all levels, are more or less covered 
with films of stalagmitic matter. On some of the specimens are peculiar 
markings, produced perhaps by fine rootlets of trees having grown round 
them. Some marked in this way were found with living rootlets surround- 
ing them. 

Coprolitic matter was by no means abundant, only one example of it 
having been met with in the entire Passage. 

In various parts of the Passage considerable heaps of small bones, some- 
times agglutinated, were found here and there on the surface, or but little 
below it. In one instance as many as 8400 were picked out of 120 cubic 
inches of material. 

At the junction of the two Reaches of the Passage, a large ledge or cur- 
tain of limestone projected downwards from the roof considerably below the 
TTSual level. On the inner or northern side of it there was found a wheel- 
barrow full of bones, fragments of bones, and teeth, of a considerable variety 
of animals, all huddled together. 

It was stated in the First Report (Birmingham, 1865 1) that the Cave- 
earth was excavated in " Parallels," the length of which was the same as 
the width of the Chamber &c., where this was not excessive, breadth in- 
variably 1 foot, and depth 4 feet, where this gave the men siifiicient height 
to work in comfort, or 5 feet where it did not ; that each parallel was 
divided into successive horizontal " Levels," a foot in depth ; and that each 
level was subdivided into lengths or " Yards," each 3 feet long and, from 
what has been stated, a foot square in the section, thus rendering it easy 
to define and record the position of every object discovered. 

Smerdon's Passage and its lateral branches contained 78 "Parallels " of 



* See Sixth Eeport, 1870, p. 27. 



+ See pp. 19, 20. 



ON KENT S CAVERNj DEVONSHIRE. 5 

Cave-earth, and, as it was necessary to excavate to the depth of 5 feet*, a 
total of 390 separate " foot-levels." The following Table shows the distri- 
bution of the teeth of the different kinds of animals in the various " Paral- 
lels" and " Levels." 





a 
W 
71 


£ 

O 

w 

68 


2 

a 
1 


1— 1 


o 


1 


be 


1 

t 




1 


a 
o 

3 




I 


pq 


■*s 

1 


ft 


Parallels 


60 


29 


43 


23 


14 


27 


29 


14 


11 


11 


9 


1 


2 


3 


1st Levels 

2nd 

3rd , 

4th „ 

5th „ 


44 
53 
43 
29 
19 


44 
51 
37 
28 
16 


32 
42 
33 
22 
10 


10 

11 

16 

9 

3 


16 
23 
13 
13 
6 


9 

7 
7 
7 
3 


11 
2 
2 


10 

11 

9 

5 

5 


6 
9 
10 
5 
4 


3 

5 
4 
4 
2 


4 
6 
2 

1 


1 

1 

4 
5 
3 


1 
2 

4 
3 


1 


2 


1 
2 


Total Levels ... 


188 


176 


139 


49 


71 


33 


15 


40 


34 


18 


13 


14 


10 


1 


2 


3 



By way of explanation, it may be stated that teeth of Hyaena, for exam- 
ple, were found in 71 of the 78 "parallels," at aU "levels," and in 188 
"foot-levels," or very nearly one half of the total number; and so on for the 
other kinds of animals. 

A glance at the Table shows that, in the case of the most prevalent 
animals — Hyaena, Horse, and Khinoceros — their teeth were most frequently 
met with (not necessarily met with in greatest numbers) in the second 
" foot- level," below which they were less and less frequent as the level was 
lower ; that the Badger was most frequently met with in the uppermost 
" foot-level," and never found below the third ; that teeth of Lion were not 
found in the uppermost " level," and occurred most frequently in the third; 
that those of Wolf did not present themselves in the lowest or fifth " foot- 
level ; " that Bat and Babbit were restricted to the uppermost " level," the 
former to one " parallel " and the latter to two ; and that the Hyaena had 
the widest distribution, both as regards " parallels" and "levels." 

Twelve Flint flakes and chips were found in the Second Beach of the 
Passage — 3 in the first or uppermost " foot-level," 3 in the second, 3 in the 
third, and 4 in the fourth ; there were none in the Pirst Beach, or in the 
lateral branches. Compared with the fine specimens met with in previous 
years in other parts of the Cavern, they are perhaps of but little value. 
Some of them are rather chert than flint, and with one exception (No. 3554) 
— a weU-designed but roughly finished lanceolate implement — they are all 
of the prevalent white colour. 

In the Second Beach there was also found a lance-shaped bone tool 
(No. 3428), 2-7 inches long, 1-1 inch broad at the butt end, flat on one face and 
uniformly convex on the other, reduced to a thin edge all round the margin 
except at the butt end, where it was cut off sharply but somewhat obliquely, 
tapering gradually to a rounded point, and '4 inch in greatest thickness. In 
short, it closely resembled in form and size many of the lanceolate flint im- 
plements of the Cavern series, with the single exception that it was not cari- 
nated on the convex face. It was found on October 5th, 1870, in the first 
"foot-level" of Cave- earth, lying with 6 teeth of Hyaena, 1 of Bhinoceros, 

* In two or three " Parallels " it was requisite to go to the depth of 6 feet, in order to 
pass under the " Curtain" of limestone mentioned above. 



6 . REPORT — 1871. 

1 of Bear, 1 of Horse, 1 of " Irisli Elk," 2 jaws of Badger containing four 
teeth, bones and fragments of bone, some of which were gnawed and some 
invested with films of stalagmite. 

It has been already stated that at its eastern extremity the Second Reach 
of Smerdon's Passage terminated in a " low-level " External Entrance, filled 
with true Cave-earth below, above which lay an accumulation of smaU an- 
gular stones with but little earth. In the lower deposit the ordinary mam- 
malian remains were found, including teeth and bones of Hyasna, Horse, 
Rhinoceros, " Irish Elk," Ox, Elephant, Bear, and Reindeer ; but the only 
thing met with in the materials above was an amber bead, ellipsoidal in form, 
but somewhat thicker on one side than the other, -9 inch in greatest dia- 
meter and -5 inch in least, and having at its centre a cylindrical perforation 
about -2 inch in diameter. 

The excavation of Smerdon's Passage was completed on December 31st, 
1870, after very nearly five months having been expended on it. From its 
prevalent narrowness, the labour in it had been attended with much dis- 
comfort ; but probably no branch of the Cavern had, on the whole, yielded 
a larger number of mammalian remains. 

Minor Ramifications of the North Salh/-port. — -It was stated in the Sixth 
Report (1870)*, that there were one or two ramifications of the North Sally- 
port which had not been excavated, having been passed intentionally in the 
progress of the work. To these attention was given on the completion of 
Smerdon's Passage, and they were taken in the order of their proximity to 
the " Third External Entrance," — the first discovered of the low-level series. 

The first was a small opening in the east wall of the last Reach of the 
North Sally-port, having its limestone floor veiy slightly above the top of 
the deposit in that Reach. It proved to be a tunnel in the limestone, having 
a rudely triangular transverse section, from 2-5 to 3 feet in height and 
breadth, and extending eastwards or outwards towards the hill-side for 
about 8 feet, where it terminated in material of the same character as that 
found above the Cave-earth in the first and second low-level External En- 
trances, from the first of which it was about 12 feet distant. There is no 
doubt that it is a third of these low-level Entrances, and, to use the time- 
honoured phraseology in descriptions of Kent's Hole, it may be termed the 
" Oven " Entrance. It contained but little deposit, and the only noteworthy 
objects found in it were one tooth of Horse, a few bones and bone fragments, 
and a grit pebble. 

The second of these small lateral branches was in the south wall of the 
immediately preceding or penultimate Reach of the Sally-port, and was 
too narrow to admit of being excavated in " Parallels " and " Levels." In 
it were found 7 teeth of Hyaena, 10 of Horse, 3 of Rhinoceros, 1 of Bear, 
1 of Lion, 1 of " Irish Elk," 1 of Ox, 16 of Badger in parts of 4 jaws, 10 of 
Rabbit in parts of 2 jaws, portion of an antler, a right femur of Beaver, 
bones and fragments of bone, a bit of charcoal, and a grit pebble. It is 
noteworthy, perhaps, that the fine specimen of Beaver's jaw mentioned last 
yearf was found about 4 or 5 feet from the femur just named, and in the 
fourth " foot-level." 

The third and last of these lateral ramifications was near that part of the 
SaUy-port termed the " Islands "+. It yielded 2 teeth of Hyaena, 1 of 
Horse, 3 of Rhinoceros, 1 of Bear, 3 of « Irish Elk," 4 of Deer, 2 of Badger, 
4 of Rabbit, an astragalus of Ox, bones and bone fragments, and, in the 
uppermost " foot-level," 2 land-sheUs. 

* See p. 25. f See Sixth Eeport, 1870, p. 24. f Ibid. p. 2L 



ON rent's cavern^ DEVONSHIRE. 7 

On January 17th, 1871, the workmen finally and gladly emerged from the 
labyrinth of low narrow passages in which they had been engaged from day 
to day from November 13th, 1869, or upwards of 14 months. In this time 
they had not only excavated and taken to the day the deposits, to the depth 
of 5 feet, in aU the extensive and ramifying branches known as the North 
Sally-port and Smerdon's Passage, and exhumed cartloads of the remains of 
various animals, including 5900 of their teeth, as well as 20 flint implements 
and flakes, but, beyond the first Reach of the SaUy-port (27 feet long), they 
had actually discovered the whole of these branches, including three new 
entrances to the Cavern itself, and had thus added greatly, not only to the 
extent of Kent's Hole, but to a knowledge of its structure. 

The completion of these branches concluded the excavation, to the depth 
of 4 feet generally, and 5 feet in some instances, below the Stalagmitic Floor, 
of the whole of the Eastern Division of the Cavern. 

The Cavern Entrances. — Before proceeding to a description of the branch 
which next engaged attention, it may be of service to devote a few words to 
the Entrances of the Cavern, of which there are now known to be five (two 
at a high and three at a low level), aU in the eastern side of the hill, and 
within a horizontal distance of 53 feet. Those at the high-level (known 
from time immemorial) are about 53 feet apart, almost exactly on the same 
level, and about 189 feet above mean tide. The most northerly of them is 
that invariably spoken of in all early descriptions of the Cavern as " The 
Entrance." Those of the lower series are also at very nearly the same level 
with one another, but from 18 to 20 feet below the former two. Being 
lower in the sloping hill-side, they are about 24 feet outside or east of the 
vertical plane passing through the higher entrances. The most southerly 
ones in the two series are nearly in the same east and west vertical plane^ 

In order to distingiiish them, they are respectively termed : — 

1. "The Entrance," = the more northerly of the upper series, and, from its 
form, sometimes termed the " Triangular Entrance." It opens into the 
" Vestibule." 

2. The " Arched Entrance," =the more southerly of the upper series. 
It opens into the " Great Chamber." 

3. The " First Low-level Entrance,"=the middle one of the lower series — 
the first discovered. It opens into the " North Sally-port " and the " First 
Reach of Smerdon's Passage." 

4. The " Second Low-level Entrance," =the most northerly of the lower 
series— the second discovered. It opens into the " Second Reach of Smerdon'9 
Passage," 

5. The "Oven Entrance," = the most southerly of the lower series — the 
last discovered. It opens into the " North Sally-port." 

The Sloping Chamber. — That branch of the Cavern termed the " Sloping 
Chamber " by Mr. M'Enery was, prior to the Committee's exploration of 
the " Great Chamber," the largest apartment in it, and is still, perhaps, more 
calculated than any other to impress visitors. It is the only connexion of 
the two great divisions of the Cavern, and measures 80 feet from east to 
west, 25 in greatest breadth, and, since the excavation of its deposits to the 
depth of 4 feet below the base of the Stalagmitic Floor, 25 in greatest 
height. Its name was derived from its floor, which, from 20 feet from its 
eastern side, sloped rapidly towards its western side, falling as much as 14 
feet in 60, or at an average angle of 13°-5. Its ceiling sloped more 
rapidly still, being, as already stated, 25 feet high near the eastern wall, but 
not more than 6 feet at the western. This ceiling, though representing the 



8 REPORT 1871. 

dip of the limestone strata in a general way, is extremely rugged, — here re- 
treating into deep cavities whence huge masses of limestone have fallen, and 
there ornamented with numerous and heavy masses of Stalactite. Indeed 
the finest Stalactites in the Cavern occur in it ; and one known as the " Chan- 
delier" has always been much admired. A very strong light is required, 
however, to bring out all the features of the ceiling. 

During the autumn of 1866, the upper, or eastern, or level portion of this 
Chamber was explored, and the results were described in the Third Eeport 
(Dundee, 1867). Mr. M'Enery, too, had made extensive, no doubt his most 
extensive, diggings near the foot of the incline, where he " succeeded in sink- 
ing a shaft to the depth of 30 feet at the bottom of the slope, with the view 
of reaching the original floor "*, which, however, was not realized. Having 
broken the floor for his shaft, and finding the work very laborious, he availed 
himself of the opening thus made to extend his diggings eastward, keeping 
just beneath the floor, which he left spanning his broken ground like an 
arch. 

As it was obvious that a very considerable amount of deposit still remained 
intact, it was decided, on the completion of Smerdon's Passage, to resume the 
excavation, not only in the hope of obtaining some of the palseontological 
treasures with which, according to Mr. M'Enery, the Chamber abounded, but 
also as a pre-requisite to the exploration of the " Wolf's Den " and the " Long 
Arcade," into which it opened on the north and south respectively. 

The uppermost deposit, as in the adjacent parts of the Cavern, was the 
Black Mould so frequently mentioned in all previous Reports ; and as the 
Chamber was the only capacious apartment near the Entrance, and the only 
road to the Western Division of the Cavern, which, from some cause, seems 
to have been more attractive than the Eastern to visitors in, at least, all 
recent times t, it might have been expected that many comparatively modern 
objects of interest would have been found in the Mould. In reality,how- 
ever, such objects were by no means abundant — a fact which may be ex- 
phcable, perhaps, on the hypothesis that they had been collected by Mr. 
M'Enery and other early explorers. The only things found in this deposit 
(which, it may be stated, was of inconsiderable depth) were shells of cockle, 
limpet, and pecten ; two potsherds — one black and of coarse clay, the other 
brown, in which the clay was finer ; a flint chip and a core of the same ma- 
terial; a spindle-whorl of fine-grained micaceous grit, 1'5 inch in diameter, 
•5 inch in thickness, and having its external edges rounded off'; and a bone 
awl, 3-7 inches long, -7 inch broad at the butt end, and partially covered 
with a film of stalagmite. 

Beneath the Black Mould came the ordinary floor of granular and lami- 
nated stalagmite, in which, as well as in the deposit beneath, the rugged 
character of the ceiling suggested that a considerable number of large masses 
of limestone would be found. Their presence in the floor, moreover, was 
indicated by the nature of its upper surface, which, though a continuous 
sheet, with one exception to be noticed hereafter, was so very uneven 
as to induce an early guide to the Cavern to confer on it the appellation of 
the " Frozen BiUows." Accordingly, the Floor proved to be, with an excep- 

* See Trans. Devon. Assoc, vol. iii. p. ^8 (1869). 

t The following fact seems to be confirmatory on this point : — There are in the various 
branches of the Western Division (sometimes in places of diiBciUt access) numerous 
initials and dates on the limestone walls and on bosses of stalagmite — some engraved, 
some smoked, and some merely chalked — while there are extremely few in the Eastern 
Division, 



ON Kent's cavern, Devonshire. 



9 



tion here and there, a brecciated mass composed of large and small pieces of 
limestone and blocks of the well-known old crystalline stalagmite, all ce- 
mented together and covered with a sheet of the cementing material. 

Near the upper part of the slope, and on its southern margin, a space about 
14 feet long and varying from 3 to 12 feet broad was without any trace of 
floor, but occupied with large loose pieces of limestone. Elsewhere the sheet 
was perfectly continuous until reaching the area in which Mr. M'Enery had 
dug his shaft. The Floor commonly measured from 12 to 30 inches in thick- 
ness, but adjacent to the southern wall it was fuUy 3 feet, and contained few 
or no stones. 

On being broken into small pieces and carefully examined, it was found 
to contain 2 teeth of Horse, a portion of a jaw, 2 bones, and half of a frac- 
tured flint nodule. About 30 feet down the slope, a series of dark parallel 
lines were observed in the Floor, the uppermost being about 2 inches below 
the upper surface. On the advance of the work, they proved to be continuous 
downward, and to have a greater and greater thickness of stalagmite over 
them. On careful examination, it was found that each represented what for 
a time had been the upper surface of the Stalagmitic Floor of the Chamber, 
and was due to the presence of comminuted charcoal and other dark-coloured 
extraneous matter. Such a " charcoal streak " also occurred, according to 
Mr. M'Enery, in the " Long Arcade," within a few feet of the same spot*. 
The workmen were directed to detach a specimen of the Floor where the 
streaks were well displayed, and in doing so were so fortunate as to make 
their fracture at a place where a large cockle-shell lay firmly imbedded in 
the lowest streak, at a depth of about 8 inches below the surface. Whilst 
splitting up the Stalagmite on May 16th, 1871, two specimens of well-marked 
iern-impressions were found in it, about 3 inches below the surface. Nothing 
of the kind had ever been noticed before. 

Below the Stalagmite, as iisual, lay the Cave-earth, in which, as was an- 
ticipated, pieces of limestone were unusually abundant. Some of them 
"leasured several feet in length and breadth, and were fully 2 feet thick. 
There were also numerous blocks of the old crystalline stalagmite, measuring 
in some instances upwards of 4 cubic yards, and not unfrequently projecting 
from the Cave-earth into the overlying granular floor. Though they were 
carefully broken up, nothing was found in them. 

In that portion of the Cave-earth which was found intact, there occurred, 
as usual, remains of the ordinary Cave-mammals, including about 550 teeth, 
which may be apportioned as in the following Ust : — 



Hyaena 39 per cent. 

Horse 28-5 „ 

Rhinoceros 14 „ 

Deer 4 „ 

"Irish Elk" 2-5 

Bear 2-5 „ 



Reindeer 2 per cent. 

Ox 2 

Elephant 1-5 „ 

Lion 1 „ 

Wolf 1 

Dog (?) only one tooth. 

It is, perhaps, worthy of remark that though wild animals still frequent 
Kent's Hole, and there is reason to believe that some of them have in recent 
times carried in the bones of others on which they preyed, though the Sloping 
Chamber is near and between the two high-level Entrances, though the 
Floor was broken up and thus gave the readiest access to the Cave-earth, and 
though Mr. M'Enery discontinued his labours upwards of 40 years ago, of 
which more than 30 were years of quietude in the Cavern, there is in the 

* See Trans. Devon. Assoc, vol. iii. pp. 236, 261, 262 (1869). 



10 RtePORT~187L 

foregoing list not only neither Sheep nor Pig, but neither Badger, Rabbit, 
Hare, nor Vole, all of which have been found in other branches, in deposits 
accessible to buiTowing animals. 

In the Cave-earth there wez-e also found 52 flint implements, flakes, and 
chips, — 3 of them in the fii'st or uppermost foot-level, 16 in the second, 15 in 
the third, and 18 in the fourth or lowest. Though none of them are equal 
to the best the Cavern has yielded in previous years, there are some good 
lanceolate implements amongst them. 

No. 3693 is of light broAvn translucent flint> 1'85 inch in length, '9 inch in 
greatest breadth, -175 inch in greatest thickness, nearly flat on one side, and 
carinated on the other. It vras found with a few bones in the first foot- 
level, amongst loose stones, where there was no Stalagmitic Floor over it ; 
hence it may be doubted whether it belongs to the Palffiohthic series — a doubt 
strengthened by the modern aspect of the implement. 

No. 3754, of the usual white flint, is 4-2 inches long, -9 inch in greatest 
j^ -N breadth, -3 inch in -greatest thickness, both longitudinally and transversely 
^ ■ ' concave on one side, has a medial ridge on the other, from which, at about 
an inch from one end, a second ridge proceeds, and has a thin but uneven 
edge. It was probably pointed at each end, but has unfortunately been 
broken at one of them. It was found on March the 6th, 1871, in the second 
foot-level, with splinters of bone, beneath a Stalagmitic Floor 18 inches 
thick. 

No. 5430, also of white flint, is Somewhat irregular in form, but may be 
termed rudely lanceolate; it is 2*7 inches in length, 1-5 inch in extreme 
breadth, -3 inch in greatest thickness, slightly concave on one face and ir- 
regularly convex on the other. It was found on March 30th, 1871, with 2 
teeth of Horse, 1 of Hyasna, and fragments of bone, in the second " foot- 
level," withont any Stalagmitic Floor over it. 
^ No. 3732, a whitish flint, is 2-3 inches long, 1-1 inch in breadth, which is 

N nearly uniform from end to end, slightly concave on one face, convex on the 
other, on which there are three slight, parallel, longitudinal ridges, sharply 
truncated at both ends, but primarily thin at the sides. It was found on 
February 27th, 1871, in the third " foot-level," with a tooth of Hyaena and 
fragments of bone, without any Stalagmitic Floor over it. 
.17 o,. j^Q 5435^ a slightly mottled white flint, is 2-1 inches long, 1-1 inch broad, 
•4 inch in greatest thickness, flat on one face, strongly ridged on the other, 
abruptly truncated at one end, but thin everywhere else, and retains its width 
almost to the opposite end, which is bluntly rounded. It was found on 31st 
March, 1871, with a portion of Deer's jaw and fragments of bone, in the 
third " foot-level," beneath a Stalagmitic Floor, 2 feet thick. 

No. 3687, a mottled flint with white prevailing, is 2-6 inches long, 1-2 
inch in greatest breadth, -3 inch in greatest thickness, broadest near the 
middle, whence it tapers in both directions, somewhat pointed at one end 
but not at the other, nearly flat on one face and convex on the other, on 
which there are two ridges — one subcentral and the other nearly marginal. 
It was found on February 7th, 1871, in the fourth or lowest foot-level, with 
1 tooth of Horse, 1 of Hyaena, and a fragment of bone, without any Stalag- 
mitic Floor over it. 

No. 5475 so closely resembles No. 3732, mentioned above, jis to need no 
further description. It was found February 27th, 1871, with 1 tooth of Hyaena 
and fragments of bone, in the fourth " foot-level," but had no Stalagmitic 
Floor over it. 

In this connexion may be mentioned a piece of calcareous spar, which 



ON Kent's cavern, Devonshire. 11 

appears to have been used as a polishing-stone. It was found March Bth, 
1871, with 2 teeth of Hyaena, 2 of Horse, 3 of Rhinoceros, gnawed bones, 
and a flint flake, in the fourth " foot-level," having over it a Stalagmitic Floor 
18 inches thick. No such specimen had been noticed before. 

A piece of burnt bone was found on the 22nd of the same month, with 
fragments of bone and faecal matter, in the second " foot-level," having a 
Stalagmitic Floor over it. 

Mr. M'Enery appears to have excavated beyond the limits of his shaft, not 
only in an easterly direction, as has been already stated, but also, at least, 
north and south of it. So far as can be determined, the shaft was first sunk, 
and the material taken out lodged between it and the western wall of the 
Chamber, after which he undertook what may be called the adjacent hori- 
zontal diggings, and fiUed up the shaft with a portion of the excavated matter, 
thereby rendering it impossible to determine the exact site of the shaft itself. 
He does not appear to have taken outside the Cavern any portion of the deposit 
in order to ensure its more complete examination ; hence it is not probable 
that all its contents were detected. Indeed, when speaking of his researches 
in this Chamber, he says, " It was feared that in the ardour of the first search, 
facts of importance might have been overlooked. The mass of mould thrown 
up on the former occasion was therefore a second time turned over and care- 
fully searched, but nothing new was brought to light "*. 

This mass the Superintendents decided on taking out of the Cavern, 
partly to facilitate the excavation of deposits certainly intact beyond, and 
also because it was thought likely to be lodged on unbroken ground. Though 
there seemed but httle prospect of finding any thing by subjecting it to a 
third search, such a search was nevertheless made, and did not go unre- 
warded. The heap, though mainly of Cave-earth, included fragments of the 
granular Stalagmitic Floor and portions of the Black Mould, and yielded 
hundreds of bones and portions of bones (one having an artificial hole lined 
with stalagmitic matter), fragments of antlers, the largest fragment of an Ele- 
phant's tusk that the Committee have met with, 143 teeth of Hysena, 153 of 
Horse, 45 of Rhinoceros, 27 of Deer, including " Irish Elk " and Reindeer, 6 
of Bear, 5 of Ox, 5 of Sheep, 3 of Elephant, 3 of Wolf, 3 of Dog (?), 2 of Fox, 
2 of Pig, and 1 of Lion, a few marine sheUs, several fragments of black pot- 
tery, 4 pieces of stalagmite with fern-impressions, and 13 flint implements 
and flakes, — aU, with one exception, of the prevalent white colour, and two 
of them decidedly good specimens of the strongly ridged lanceolate forms. 
In short, the virgin soil, in some parts of the Cavern, has been less pro- 
ductive than was this mass which had been twice carefully searched, but by 
candle-light only. 

As was thought probable, the mass of dislodged materials proved to be 
lying on ground which had never been broken. Between Mr. M'Enery's 
shaft and the west wall of the Chamber there was a space of at least 17 
feet ; and at 14 feet from the wall the Cave-earth was found to have not 
only the ordinary granular Stalagmitic Floor overlying it, but to be de- 
posited on another and necessarily an older Floor of the same material, but 
which, instead of being granular, was made up of prismatic crystals — posses- 
sing, in short, the characters both of position and structure of the Old Crys- 
talline Floor found in the " Lecture Hall" and " South-west Chamber," and 
described in the Fourth Report (Norwich, 1868), — a remnant, in situ, of the 
Floor which had furnished the large blocks of stalagmite found in the Cave- 

* See Trans. Devon. Assoc, vol. iii. p. 289 (1869). 



13 REPORT 1871. 

earth in the Sloping Chamber, as already stated. From the point where it was 
first seen, it was everywhere continuous up to the western wall. Its thickness 
has not been ascertained ; for though it was partially broken up in cutting 
the four-feet section, the bottom of it was not reached. No objects of any 
kind were found in it. Had Mr. M'Euery's excavations been carried but a 
yard further west he must have encountered it, and would have been enabled 
to solve the problem of the blocks which he so often found in the Cave- 
earth. 

The Committee are most anxious to guard against the impression that, in 
any of the foregoing remarks, they have been unmindful of the service which 
Mr. M'Enery rendered to science, or have the most remote wish to depre- 
ciate the value of his long-continued labours. Indeed, when they remember 
that the means at his disposal must have been very limited, and that he was 
amongst the pioneers in cavern searching, they cannot but feel that the 
extent and results of his investigations are richly entitled to the warmest 
praise. 

They venture, however, to take this opportunity of stating that, in order 
to a thorough and satisfactory investigation, cavern-deposits should be ex- 
cavated, not by sinking occasional shafts, but continuously in a horizontal direc- 
tion, to a uniform depth not exceeding 5 or at most 6 feet at first ; that 
the material should be carefully examined in situ, and then taken to day- 
light for re-examination. Through not following the first, Mr. M'Enery 
failed to understand the exact historical order of the Cavern-deposits ; and 
through not being able to accomplish the second, he passed over many speci- 
mens calculated to have modified his conclusions, and which he would have 
been delighted to have found. For example, when speaking of the Sloping 
Chamber, he says, " The [Stalagmitic] crust is thickest in the middle .... 
for opening the excavation, the same means were employed as to break up 
a mass of ancient masonry. Flint blades were detected in it at all depths, 
even so low as to come in contact with the fossil bones and their earthy 
matrix, but never below them" *. During the last six months, however, the ex- 
cavations made in the same Chamber, and in the immediate neighbourhood of 
his, have brought forth Flint implements from every level of the Cave-earth 
to which the work has been carried, and they were actually found in 
greatest numbers in the lowest levels. To this may be added the fact that 
in his heap of refuse-matter, which he had twice examined, there were, as 
has been already said, upwards of a dozen flint blades, such as he stated 
never occurred in the Cave-earth. Had the soil been examined in daylight, 
they could not have been overlooked ; for, instead of being specimens of 
little value, they are better far than some of those which he figured ; and it 
is but right to add that many of those found by the Committee were thus 
detected. 

Again, Mr. M'Enery was keenly watchful for extraneous objects in the 
Stalagmitic Floor ; and, from his silence on the question, it may be safely 
concluded that he never saw fern-impressions in it ; nevertheless his refuse- 
heap contained four small slabs of the floor, in each of which was a 
weU-marked impression, requiring not additional manipulation, but simple 
daylight for their detection. Indeed every specimen of this kind has been 
recognized outside the Cavern only. 

The four slabs just mentioned, as well as the two found by the Committee 
in the Floor they broke up, have been submitted to Mr. "W. Carruthers, 

* See Trans. Devon. Assoc, vol. iii. p. 247 (1869). 



I 



ON Kent's cavern, Devonshire. 1j> 

F.R.S., of the British Museum, who has kindly furnished the following note 
respecting them : — 

"British Museum, 10 July, 1871, 

" The ferns are specimens of Pteris aquilina, Linn., and have belonged to 
very luxuriant plants ; they do not diifer from those now growing in Eng- 
land. It is possible that the fragment -^^-f may be another species, but it 
is too imperfect to determine, and it may only be a barren portion of the 
Pteris, with shorter and broader pinnules than the other specimens. 

(Signed) " Wm. Cabbxjtheks." 

Returning for a moment to the Old Crystalline Stalagmitic Floor beneath 
the Cave-earth, it was observed that, like the modern and granular one, it 
had here and there on its upper surface conical bosses rising above its gene- 
ral level, and that there were corresponding protuberances vertically above 
them on the upper floor. The same fact had been noticed in the other 
branches of the Cavern where the two Floors occurred in the same vertical 
sections, — a fact apparently warranting the conclusion that the drainage 
through the Cavern-roof underwent no important change during the entire 
period represented by the two floors and the intervening Cave-earth. 
When to this it is added that such bosses are, at least in most cases, verti- 
cally beneath Stalactitic pendants on the ceiling, it may be further inferred 
that the ancient and modern lines of drainage are, in the main, identical. 

On the completion of the work in the Sloping Chamber, on July 11, 
1871, the excavation of the "Wolf's Den," which opens out of its northern 
side, was begun. It was in this Den that Mr. M'Enery found the canines 
of Machairodus latidens, which have excited so much attention. No such 
specimens have been met with during the present investigation up to this 
time. 

The Committee, believing it possible that the subject might prove to be 
connected with their researches, have from time to time mentioned the 
-occasional occurrence of living animals in the Cavern*. Indeed, Kent's 
Hole is not better known to the palaeontologist as a store-house of mamma- 
lian remains, than to the Devonshire naturalist as a home of the Great 
Horseshoe Bat {Ehinolophus ferrum-equinum, Leach) ; and every visitor, be- 
fore the present exploration, must have frequently seen them hanging from 
the walls of the more retired branches. The following facts have presented 
themselves during the last twelve months : — 

Whilst the excavation of one of the lateral branches of Smerdon's Passage 
was in progress, a considerable number of fresh spindle-shaped faeces, about 
•6 inch long and -2 inch thick, were observed lying on the surface of the 
Cave-earth, whUe between it and the roof there was an interspace just 
sufficient to allow an animal about the size of a Badger to pass. 

The workmen having observed that the candles were much nibbled during 
their absence, that the greasy wooden candlesticks were sometimes carried off 
and some of them, after a few days, found secreted in small holes, set a suit- 
ably baited gin for the suspected offender. Their efforts were rewarded the 
next morning by finding a rat dead in the trap. 

Old newspapers &c. are occasionally sent to the Cavern for the purpose of 
wrapping up small boxes of specimens, or such delicate objects as need more 
than ordinary care. On November 28th, 1871, the workmen, using in this way 
a part of a copy of the ' Saturday Review,' unintentionally left one complete 
.and sound sheet, i. e. two leaves, near the spot where they had been at work. 

* See Eeports Brit. Assoc. 1869, p. 204, and 1870, p. 27. 



14 REPORT 1871, 

The next morning they found the paper precisely where they had left it, 
but with about one-fifth of one of the leaves gone, and the broken margin 
of the remainder apparently nibbled. There was nothing to prevent the 
whole from being taken off, and it was noted that, though left in a preca- 
rious position, it had not fallen down. The broken leaf was then torn oif 
and preserved, whilst the unbroken one was allowed to remain as a further 
experiment. The next morning no trace of it was to be seen. That even- 
ing a rat-trap was set at the spot, and very near it another leaf of paper was 
placed, having on it a small stone, which it was supposed a rat, but not 
a smaller animal, might be capable of moving. The next morning the 
paper was found where it had been put, but very much nibbled, whilst the 
trap and the grease with which it was baited appeared to have not been 
touched. Before leaving work, the men baited the trap with a tempting end 
of candle, and placed it on a leaf of paper ; whilst another leaf, weighted 
with a lump of earth, was placed near. On the following morning both 
pieces of paper were found to be considerably eaten or torn ; and it was 
noted that the injury done to the former was within the margin of the trap 
placed on it, whilst the trap itself, as well as its bait, remained unaffected, 
further than that there were on it a few spindle-shaped fteces about a quar- 
ter of an inch long. There can be no doubt that some animal, probably 
smaller than a rat, carried off the missing leaf to a recess in the Cavern, 
where it may serve to make its nest comfortable, and perhaps hereafter to 
puzzle a cavern searcher who may discover it. 



Fourth Report of the Committee for the purpose of investigating the 
rate of Increase of Underground Temperature downwards in vari- 
ous Localities of Dry Land and under Water. Drawn up by Prof. 
Everett, at the request of the Committee, consisting of Sir Wm. 
Thojison, F.R.S., Sir Charles Lyell, Bart., F.R.S., Prof. J. Clerk 
Maxwell, F.R.S., Prof. Phillips, F.R.S., G. J. Symons, F.M.S., 
Dr. Balfour Stewart, F.R.S., Prof. Ramsay, F.R.S., Prof. A. 
Geikie, F.R.S., James Glaisher, F.R.S., Rev. Dr. Graham, 
E. W. BiNNEY, F.R.S., George Maw, F.G.S., W. Pengelly, 
F.R.S., S. J. Mackie, F.G.S., Edward Hull, F.R.S., and Prof. 
Everett, D.CL. (Secretary). 

In last year's Report, the intention was expressed of boring down at the 
bottom of Rosebridge Colliery, if the Association would provide the necessary 
funds. The circumstances were exceptionally inviting, and the Association 
very liberally granted the sum asked. The Secretary thereupon paid two 
visits to Eosebridge, descended and to some extent explored the coUiery, in 
company with Mr. Bryham, and, after a careful study of the plans and sec- 
tions, agreed upon a particular spot where the bore was to be sunk. Tra- 
cings of the plans and sections were kindly sent by Mr. Bryham, who in 
every way cooperated most cordially, and gave much valuable assistance in 
arranging the scheme of operations. Several weeks elapsed, which were 
occupied in making and testing a very large spirit thermometer, suitable for 
reading in the bad light of a mine, and capable of being read, by estimation. 



ON UNDERGROUND TEMPERATURE. 15 

to the hundredth of a degree, from 90° to 110° F. ; and on the 7th 
November the Secretary wrote to Mr. Bryham requesting him to commence 
operations. Unfortunately, during this brief interval, circumstances had 
changed. In a neighbouring pit, where the workings were in the same seam of 
coal as at Eosebridge, though less deep by 200 yards, a considerable quantity 
of water was found in sinking into the strata underlying this seam. This 
was a very unexpected circumstance ; and as any irruption of water at the 
bottom of Eosebridge pit, which is now quite dry, would be a most serious 
affair, Mr, Bryham was afraid to risk the experiment of boring do^vn. Sub- 
sequent reflection has only confirmed him in the opinion that such a step 
would bo hazardous, and the Committee have accordingly been most reluc- 
tantly compelled to renounce the plan. Mr. Bryham's final refusal was 
received on the 28th February. 

Professor Ansted read a paper last year, in the Geological Section of the 
Association, upon the Alpine tunnel, commonly called the Mont-Cenis tuii- 
nel, and in that paper some interesting statements were made regarding its 
temperature. Since that time, Professor Ansted has interchanged very 
numerous letters with the Secretary, and has furnished mxxch valuable in- 
formation, gathered from Prof. Sismonda, of Turin, and from M. Borelli, the 
resident engineer of the tunnel. Observations which appear to be reliable 
have been made in bore-holes in the sides of the tunnel, and the tempera- 
tures thus observed have been compared with the estimated mean tempera- 
ture at the surface overhead, which in the highest part is a mile above the tun- 
nel, or 2905 metres above sea-level. It is directly under this highest part that 
the highest temperature is foimd in the walls of the tunnel, namely 29°-5 C, 
or 85°"1 F., which is 9° F. lower than the temperature found at the bottom 
of the Eosebridge shaft at the depth of only 815 yards. But though the 
tunnel is at more than double this depth fi'om the crest of the mountain 
over it, we must bear in mind that the surface-temperatures are very dif- 
ferent. In a paper pubKshed by the engineer of the tunnel, M. F. Giordano, 
the mean temperature of the air at the crest of the mountain (Mont Frejus) 
is calculated to be — 2°-6 C, or 27°'3 F. Assuming this estimate to be 
correct, we have a difference of 57°-8 F. between the deepest part of the tun- 
nel and the air at the surface vertically over it ; assuming further, as we did 
in the case of Eosebridge in last year's Eeport, that the surface of the hill itself 
has a mean temperature 1° F. lower than that of the air above it, we have a 
difference of 56°-8 F., and the thickness of rock between is 1610 metres, or 
5280 feet (exactly a mile). This gives, by simple division, a rate of increase of 
1° F. for 93 feet ; but a very large correction must be applied for the con- 
vexity of the ground ; for it is evident that a point in the ground vertically 
under a steep crest is more exposed to the cooling influence of the air than 
a point at the same depth beneath an extensive level surface. No correction 
for convexity would be needed if the temperature of the air decreased up- 
wards as fast as the temperature of the internal rock ; but this is very far 
from being the case, the decrease being about 3| times more rapid in the 
rock than in the air. To form an approximate notion of the amount of this 
correction, we must determine, as well as we can, the forms of the succes- 
sive isothermal surfaces in the interior of the mountain. The tendency is 
for all corners and bends to be eased off as we descend, so that each suc- 
ceeding isothermal surface is flatter than the one above it. Accordingly, if 
we have a mountain rising out of a plain, without any change of material, the 
isothermals will be further apart in a vertical through the crest of the moun- 
.tain than under the plain on either side ; they will also be further apart 



16 REPORT — 1871. 

at the highest part of this vertical, that is close under the crest, than at a 
lower level in the same vertical. It would be absurd to pretend to fix the 
amount of the correction with accuracy ; but it seems not unreasonable to 
estimate that, in the present case, the numer of isothermals cut through by a 
vertical line descending from the crest of the ridge to the tunnel itself is 
about seven-eighths of the number which wovdd be cut through in sinking 
through an equal distance in level ground, other circumstances being the same. 
Instead of 1° in 93 feet, we should thus have 1° in ^ of 93, that is, in 81 feet. 

This is a slow rate of increase, and is about the same as Mr. Fairbaim 
found at Dukenfield. The rocks penetrated by the tunnel consist of highly 
metamorphosed material, and are described as belonging to the Jurassic 
series. No fossils have been found in them. For two-thirds of the length 
of the tunnel, beginning from the Italian end, they are remarkably uniform, 
and it is in this part that the observations have been taken. The following 
account of them has been given by Prof. Ansted (Pop. Sci. Review, Oct. 
1870, p. 351) : — " The rocks on which the observations have been made are 
absolutely the same, geologically and otherwise, from the eatrance to the 
tunnel, on the Italian side, for a distance of nearly 10,000 j'^ards. They 
are not faidted to any extent, though highly inclined, contorted, and sub- 
jected to slight slips and slides. They contain little water and no mineral 
veins. They consist, to a very large extent indeed, of silica, either as 
quartz or in the form of silicates, chiefly of alumina, and the small quantity 
of lime they contain is a crystalline carbonate." 

This uniformity of material is very favourable to conduction, and the high 
inclination of the strata (in which respect these rocks resemble those at 
Dukenfield) also appears to promote either conduction proper or aqueous con- 
vection, which resembles conduction in its effects. As regards Mons. Gior- 
dano's estimate of the mean air- temperature at the crest, it is obtained in 
the following way : — The hill of San Theodule is 430 metres higher, and 
the city of Turin is 2650 metres lower than the crest ; the temperature of 
the former has been determined by one year's observations to be — 5°'l C, 
and that of the latter is 12°-5 C. If a decrease of 1° C. for every 174 metres 
of elevation be assumed (1° F. for 317 feet), we obtain, either bj' com- 
parison with San Theodule or with Turin, the same determination — 2°-6 
for the air-temperature at the crest of the ridge over the tunnel. 

This mode of estimating the temperature appears very fair, though of 
course subject to much uncertainty ; and there is another element of uncer- 
tainty in the diff'erence which may exist between the air-temperature and 
the rock-temperature at the summit. 

These two elements of uncertainty would be eliminated if a boring of 
from 50 to 100 feet were sunk at the summit, and observations of tempera- 
ture taken in it. The uncertain correction for convexity would still remain 
to be applied. It would therefore be desirable also to sink a boring, of about 
the same depth, in the plateau which extends for about a quarter of the 
length of the tunnel, beginning near the Italian end, its height above the 
tunnel being about a third of a mile. 

In November last, when very little information had reached this country 
respecting the temperature-observations in the tunnel, an urgent appeal was 
addressed, jointly by your Committee and by the Geographical Society (of 
which Prof. Ansted is Foreign Secretary), to M. Sismonda, requesting him 
to use his influence with the Italian authorities to -secure a series of accu- 
rate observations of the temperature in the sides of the tunnel, before time had 
been allowed for this temperature to undergo sensible change from its original 



ON UNDERGROUND TEMPERATURE. 



17 



value. It was also suggested that the mean temperature of the surface 
overhead should be examined by boring. 

M. Sismonda speedily replied, stating that he fully recognized the impor- 
tance of such experiments, and had already made arrangements with the 
Government at Turin, and with the contractors for the railway works, to 
have them carried out as fully and fairly as possible. Had the communica- 
tion reached him at a time of year when he could have travelled without 
great inconvenience, he would have gone to the spot himself; but as that 
was now impossible, the Government Commissioner for the works, M. Salva- 
tori, had undertaken to see the experiments carried through by employes 
under his orders. M. Sismonda further stated that, from the commence- 
ment of the tunnel, the Academy of Sciences of Turin had instituted a series 
of scientific observations in it, in which observations of temperature were 
included. The results of these observations he promised to forward as soon 
as they were completed and tabulated. 

On the receipt of the final refusal to bore down at the bottom of Eosc- 
bridge Colliery, inquiries were instituted as to the feasibility of executing a 
similar operation in the deepest part of the Alpine tunnel. The contractors 
have, however, declined to grant permission, as the operation would involve 
additional encumbrance of the very narrow space in which their works are 
proceeding. It appears that a length of a mile or more in the deepest part 
of the tunnel has not yet been opened out to the full width, so that oppor- 
tunity niay yet be given to excavate a lateral heading and bore down, if the 
Association encourage the plan. 

Mr, G. J. Symons has repeated his observations in the Kentish Town 
weD, at every fiftieth foot of depth, from 350 to 1100 feet, which is the 
lowest point attainable. As the water begins at the depth of 210 feet, all 
these observations may be regarded as unaff'ected by the influence of the 
external air, and they have now been sufficiently numerous at each depth 
to render further verification needless. The following are the results finally 
adopted, and they do not diifer materially from those first published (Report 
for 18693. 



18^ 



Depth, in 


Tempera- 


Difference 


Difference 


Difference 


Peet per 


feet. 


ture. 


for 50 feet. 


from 69°-9. 


from 1100 ft. 


degree. 


ft. 


o 


ft. 




ft. 




350 


56-0 










400 


57-9 


1-9 


13-9 


750 


54-0 


450 


59-0 


1-1 


12-0 


700 


58-3 


500 


60-0 


1-0 


10-9 


650 


59-6 


550 


60-9 


•9 


9-9 


600 


60-6 


600 


61-2 


•3 


9-0 


550 


61-1 


650 


61-3 


•1 


8-7 


500 


57-5 


700 


62-8 


1-5 


8-6 


450 


52-3 


750 


63-4 


•6 


7-1 


400 


56-3 


800 


64-2 


•8 


6-5 


350 


53-8 


850 


65-0 


•8 


5-7 


300 


52-6 


900 


65-8 


•8 


4-9 


250 


51-0 


950 


66-8 


1-0 


4-1 


200 


48-8 


1000 


67-8 


1-0 


3-1 


150 


48-4 


1050 


69-0 


1-2 


2-1 


100 


47-6 


1100 


69-9 


•9 


•9 


50 


55-6 


1. 










r* 



18 REPORT 1871. 

The uumbers in the last column are the quotients of those in the two pre- 
ceding, and denote the average number of feet of descent for 1° F. of in- 
crease, as deduced from comparing the temperature at each depth of obser- 
vation with the temperature at the lowest depth. The earlier numbers in 
this column of course carry more weight than the later ones. The amount 
of steadiness in the increase of temperature of the water is best seen by 
inspecting the third column, which shows that the freest interchange of heat 
occurs at about the depth of 600 feet. This must be due to springs. The 
soil, from the depth of 569 to that of 702 feet, is described as " light-grey 
chalk, with a few thin beds of chalk-marl subordinate." The soil consists 
in general of chalk and marl, from 325 to 910 feet, and below this of sandy 
marl, sand, and clay (see list of strata in last year's Report, p. 41). The 
mean rate of increase in the former is a degree in 56 feet, and in the latter 
a degree in 49 feet. The mean rate of increase from the surface of the 
ground to the lowest depth reached is certainly very nearly 1° F. in 54 feet. 

Mr. David Burns, of H.M. Geological Survey, has furnished observations 
taken in the W. B. lead-mines, at and near AUenheads, Northumberland, by 
the kind permission of Thomas Sopwith, Esq., F.ll.S., and with the valuable 
assistance of Mr. Ridley, Underground Surveyor, who continued the obser- 
vations after Mr. Burns had Isft. 

The mineral for which these mines are worked is galena. There are very 
extensive old workings at a lower level than the present workings, and filled 
with water, which is kept down by pumping ; but the quantity daily pumped 
out is very small in comparison with the whole, so that the change of water 
is slow. 

From the offices of the lead-mines a small windlass with a supply of fine 
brass wire was obtained, which enabled the thermometer to be lowered 
steadily and quickly. 

The first observations were taken in Gin-Hill shaft, 3rd June, 1871. The 
observers proceeded as far down in the works as they were able, and took 
their station in a level leading from the shaft, 290 feet from the surface of 
the ground, and 38 feet above the surface of the water in the shaft. 

The following observations were then made : — 



Depth under Depth in Temperature, 

ground. water. Fahr. 

ft. ft. 

340 12 49-3 

340 12 49-2 

390 62 51- 

390 62 51- 

440 112 51-3' 

440 112 51- 



} 



The mean temperature at the shaft mouth for the year ending 31 st May 
1871, was 44°-3, as derived from daily obsei'vations of maximum and mini- 
mum thermometers, without applying a correction for diiirnal range. Add- 
ing 1° to this, to obtain the probable mean temperature of the surface of 
the ground, and taking the temperature at 400 feet of depth as 51''-3, Mr. 
Burns computes that the rate of increase downwards is 6° in 400 feet, or 1° 
in 66'6 feet. The data for this calculation are obviously in many respects 
very uncertain. 

On the 21st June Mr. Ridley took observations in another shaft in the 
same workings, called the High Underground Engine Shaft. It is sunk 



ON UNDERGROUND TEMPERATURE. 19 

from a level at the depth of 398 feet below ground, and the surface of the 
water in it is 399 feet down the shaft, or 797 feet below the surface of the 
ground. There are pumps in the shaft, but they had been stationary for more 
than 24 hours before the observations were made. Immediately after the 
observations they were started, and when they had been working for some 
time the temperature of the water lifted was found to be 65°-2. They draw 
their water at a depth of 957 feet below the surface of the ground. 
The following were the observations : — 

Depth under Depth in Temperature, 

ground. water. Fahr 
ft. ft. 

807 10 65-n 

807 10 64-9 f 

857 60 65-41 

857 60 65-7 f 

807 10 65-4 

The thermometer could not be lowered beyond 857 feet without risk of 
losing it, by getting fast in the wooden framework with which the pumps 
were secured. Mr. Burns thinks that some of the temperatures here re- 
corded are too low, from the index being shaken down by reason of the im- 
pediments presented by the upper portions of the framework. The surface 
of the ground over this shaft is about 300 feet higher than over Gin-Hill 
shaft. If we allow 1° for this increase of height, and call the temperature of 
the surface of the ground 44°-3, as against 45°-3 at Gin Hill, we have, by 
comparison with the observed temperature 65°-7 at the depth of 857 feet, 
an increase of 21°-4 in 857 feet, or 1° in 40 feet. 

On the 6th July Mr. Eidley took observations in another sump or under- 
ground shaft at Slitt mine, Weardale. This shaft is sunk from the lowest 
level in the working, and had been standing full of water during the five 
months which had elapsed since it was sunk. The only source of disturbance 
was a little water running along the level across the top of the shaft, so as 
to enter the shaft (so to speak) on one side and leave it on the other. This 
may affect the temperature at 3 feet, but could scarcely affect the tempera- 
ture at 53 feet, which may be regarded as veiy reliable. 

The following are the observations ; — 

Depth under Depth in Temperature, 

ground. water. Fahr. 

ft. ft. 

610 3 64-51 

610 3 64-5 f 

660 53 65-li 

660 53 64-9/ 

Mr. Burns says " the surface-temperature at Slitt mine will be nearly the 
same as that at Gin-Hill shaft, judging from their relative elevations, 
aspects, and [exposure to the winds." Assuming it then to be 45°-3, and 
reckoning the temperature at 660 feet as 65°, we have an increase down- 
wards of 19°-7 in 660 feet, or 1° in 33-5 feet. The only datum that seems 
doubtful here is the surface-temperature. If, instead of 45°'3, it be assumed 

f 44°-3 ) f ^1 Q 1 

as j 4go.3 y , it gives an increase of 1° in i g^'^ I feet. 

Mr. Eidley has also taken observations in Breckon-Hill shaft, which is 
near the river Allen, about 1^ mile from Gin-HiU shaft, and at an elevation 

c2 



} 



20 REPORT 1871. 

not much above the bottom of the valley, but 1174 feet above sea-level. It 
was sunk some years ago, and has since stood nearly fuU of water. At the 
time of the observations the surface of the water was 24 feet down the 
shaft. The following are the observations taken in this shaft on June 
13th :— 

Depth under Depth in Temperature, 

ground. water. Fahr. 

ft. ft. 

50 26 47-2 1 

50 26 47-2 1 

100 76 46-9" 

100 76 46-8 

150 126 46-8) 

150 126 46-7 J 

200 176 46-6 

250 226 46-8 

300 276 46-8 

350 326 46-9 

These observations were taken early in the morning, when the air and 
springs were so cold as to allow the maximum thermometer to be cooled below 
the temperature of the shaft. In order to test more thoroughly the apparent 
uniformity of temperature from 100 feet down to 350 feet, Mr. Ridley took 
a second series of observations, extending from the 22nd to the 27th June. 
In these observations the thermometer was lowered in a tin case fiUed with 
water colder than that of the shaft. The thermometer was supported within 
the case in a vertical position by a wooden frame, and prevented from shak- 
ing about. It was allowed to remain at each depth several hours, was then 
lifted, and read with all possible care. The following are the observations 
thus obtained : — 



Depth under 
ground, 
ft. 
42 


Length of 
immersion, 
h m 
... 10 40 . . 


Temperature before 
immersion. 

42-0 .... 


Temperature after 
immersion. 

. . . . 46 5 


92 


. .. 11 20 .. 


44-0 .... 


. . . . 46-5 


142 


... 11 40 . . 


42-4 .... 


. . . . 46-6 


192 


... 12 20 . . 


461 .... 


. . . . 46-6 


242 


... 34 . . 


44-0 .... 


. . . . 46-6 


292 


... 13 40 . . 


45-4 .... 


. . . . 46-6 


342 


... 10 25 . . 


45-4 .... 


. . . . 46-6 



Here the temperature is even more uniform than in the first series. As 
to the causes of this uniformity, Mr. Burns remarks that the shaft is not 
connected with any working, but is cut through solid strata. It is a 
few yards to the east of the Allen, while, in the bed of that stream, and 
making a great spread on the west side of the valley, is a bed of hmestone 
nearly 70 feet thick, and dipping at an angle of about 10^ to the east. The 
top of this limestone was cut in the shaft about 40 feet down, which occa- 
sioned a great influx of ivater into the shaft, and drained a strong spring on 
the other side of the river. 

It will be observed that the chief difference between the two sets of ob- 
servations is just at the place where this limestone was cut. The second set 
were taken after and during much rain, and the first set after a week of very 
little rain. It appears probable that the difference of temperature at this 



ON UNDERGROUND TEMPERATURE. 21 

depth was due to the difference of temperature of the surface-water which 
soaked in through the limestone in the two cases. As regards the tempera- 
tures at depths exceeding 200 feet, it would appear that, in times of compa- 
rative drought (as in the first set), the heat of the soil at the greater depths 
has time to produce a little augmentation in the temperature of the water 
before it soaks away. 

This shaft is obviously not adapted for giving any information as to the 
rate of increase downwards. Collecting the best determinations from the 
other shafts we have : — 

Depth of Temperature. Calculated 

thermometer. Fahr, increase, 

ft. „ „ ft. 

Gin-Hill Shaft 400 51-3 1 in 66-6 

High Underground Engine 857 65-7 1 in 40 

Slitt Mine 660 65-1 1 in 33-5 

Mr. Burns considers that little or no weight should be attached to the first 
of these determinations, as a pumping-engine was working in a neighbouring 
shaft communicating with it at the time when the observations were taken. 
The jump of 2° in descending from 340 to 390 feet also renders the inter- 
pretation of these observations difficult. 

The closeness of the temperatures in the other two shafts, at depths differ- 
ing by about 200 feet, suggests the idea that they are both fed by the same 
spring, and that the temperatures indicated are the temperature of the origin 
of the spring slightly modified by the different temperatures of the strata 
through which it has passed ; but their positions appear to render this im- 
possible. 

Mr. Burns's opinion from all the observations is that the mean rate of in- 
crease downwards at Allenheads is about 1° in 35 feet ; but this cannot at 
present be held as proved. 

The strata consist mainly of alternate beds of sandstone and shale, with a 
few beds of limestone intermixed. In Slitt mine there is also a bed of 
basalt 158 feet thick, overlying the vein of fluor-spar in which the workings 
are carried on, the workings being 55 feet down in this vein. 

Preparations are being made for taking observations in the dry part of the 
mines, by making shallow bores at different levels, inserting the thermometer, 
plugging up the hole for a few days, and then reading. 

Another gentleman connected with H.M. Geological Survey, Mr. R. L. 
lack, has taken observations in a bore at Crawriggs, Kirkintilloch, near 
Cilasgow. They were taken on the 29th November 1870, the temperature 
of the air being 34°. The surface of the water in the bore was 6 feet below 
the surface of the ground, the latter being 200 feet above sea-level. The 
Poilowing were the observations : — 

Depth from surface Time of lowering lime of withdrawing Temperature. 

of ground. thermometer. thermometer. Fahr. 

feet. h m h m o 

50 12 52P.M 1 7p.m 47 

100 1 10 „ 1 28 „ 48| 

150 1 33 „ 1 52 „ 49| 

200 1 58 „ 2 14 „ 50 

250 2 22 „ 2 43 „ 50 

300 3 15 „ 3 34 „ 50| 

350 3 40 „ 3 50 „ 51 

A few feet below 350 feet an obstruction in the bore prevented further 



22 REPORT— 1871. 

observations ; but tbe bore continues for aboiit 70 feet further. We have 
here a total increase of 4° in 300 feet, which is at the rate of 1° in 75 feet ; 
but the intermediate steps are so irregular that not much weight can be 
attached to this determination. 

The Secretary has corresponded with the Smithsonian Institution respect- 
ing the great bore at St. Louis, which was described in last year's Report, 
and also respecting the Hoosac Tunnel which passes under a mountain and 
will be 4| miles long, but the correspondence has not yet led to any definite 
result. 

It was stated in last Report that application had been made to General 
Helmersen, of the Mining College, St. Petersburg, for information regarding 
the temperature of a very deep bore in course of sinking at Moscow, as well 
as regarding underground temperatures in Russia generally. A long delay 
occurred, owing to the General being absent from home for seven months, 
and not receiving the communication till his return ; but shortly after his 
return he dispatched a very polite answer, from which the following passages 
are extracted: — " We have an artesian well in St. Petersburg, bored in the 
Lower Silurian strata. At the depth of 656 English feet this well stops at the 
granite, a granite which perfectly resembles that of Finland. The lowest 
portion of these Silurian strata is merely a degraded granite, a grit combined 
with debris of felspar. About 353,000 hectolitres of water flow from the 
well per diem, and this water issues with a constant temperature of 9°-8 

Reaumur You are doubtless aware of the existence of a series 

of observations on the temperature of the soil at the bottom of a well which 
was sunk in the town of Yakoutsk in Eastern Siberia. This well has shown 
us that the soil of Siberia, at least in this part of its great extent, is frozen 
to a depth of 540 English feet. The mean temperature of Yakoutsk is 
— 8°-2 R. At the depth of 100 feet the temperature of the soil was found to 
be — 5°-2. Prom this depth to the bottom the temperature increased at the 
rate of 1° R. for every 117 feet; whence it would follow that the soil at 
Yakoutsk is frozen to the depth of about 700 feet. 

" It appears to me a very interesting circumstance that, according to ac- 
counts just received by the Icademy of Sciences from Baron Maydel, traveller 
in the country of the Tchukchees [des Tschouktschi], there are found in 
those regions layers of ice, quite pure, alternating with sand and clay. The 
interesting letter of the Baron will shortly be printed in the publications of 
the Academy. It was in making excavations in search of mammoths that 
Maydel made this discovery." 

If we assume the temperature of the surface of the soil at St. Petersburg 
to be 39°- 17 F., which, according to ' Herschel's Meteorology,' is the mean 
temperature of the air at the Magnetic and Meteorological Observatory, and 
if we take the temperature of the water as that of the bottom of the well, 
we have an increase downwards of 14°-88 F. in 656 feet, which is at the rate 
of 1° F. in 44-1 feet. If, on the other hand, we suppose the surface of the 
ground to be 4° F. warmer than the air (and the difference at Yakoutsk ap- 
pears to be greater than this), we deduce an increase at the rate of 1° F. in 
60 feet. 

The rate of increase at Yakoutsk from the depth of 100 feet to the bottom 
of the frozen well at 540 feet is given above by General Helmersen as 1° R, 
in 117 feet. This is 1° F. in 52 feet. 

An account of the Yakoutsk well is given in ' Comptes Rendus,' tome vi. 
1838, p. 501, in an extract from a letter by Erman (fils), who visited Ya- 
koutsk when the well had attained a depth of 50 feet. He gives the tem- 



ON UNDERGROUND TEMPERATURE. 23 

perature at this depth from his own observations, and the temperatures at 
77, 119, and 382 feet from the subsequent observations of the merchant to 
whom the well belonged. His figures differ very materially from those given 
above ; but it may fairly be presumed that General Helmersen's account is 
the more accurate. 

Before the receipt of General Helmersen's letter, <;he following communi- 
cation respecting the Moscow boring had been received by the Secretary from 
Mons. N. Lubimoff, Professor of Natural Philosophy in the University of 
Moscow. 

" December ^^, 1870. 

" Dear Sir, — I beg your pardon for not having replied sooner to your letter. 
I am sorry to say that the information which I can now communicate is very 
deficient. The great bore of Moscow is not yet terminated, and the experi- 
ments on temperature which have been made hitherto are but of a preli- 
minary kind. It was in the hope of renewing the measurements under more 
satisfactory conditions that I delayed my answer ; but as certain circum- 
stances did not permit me to resume the observations, which are therefore 
deferred to the spring of 1871, 1 must restrict myself to describing the old ones. 

" These were made, on my commission, by M. Schiller, B.A., in April 1809. 
The bore was then about 994 feet deep, and, from 56 feet to the bottom, 
full of water. A mercury thermometer of a peculiar kind was constructed, 
on an idea of my own. It consisted of a capillary tube of thick glass, ter- 
minating below in a large reservoir ; at the upper end a funnel-like piece 
was adjusted, into which the mercury flowed off as soon as the temperature 
rose above a certain value [sketch annexed]. The whole was placed within 
a closed case, which was plunged to a chosen depth into the bore, and re- 
versed by means of a special arrangement. It was then brought again to the 
right position and drawn up to the surface, a poftion of mercury having 
flowed away. Here the thermometer was plunged into a water-bath, the 
temperature of which was so regulated that the mercury attained the end of 
the capillary tube ; this was then the temperature required. 

" The measurements were made at the depths of 175, 350, 525, 700, 875, 
and 994 feet. From 350 feet to the bottom the temperature throughout the 
bore was found to be nearly constant, namely 10°'l C, with deviations of 
+ 0°-l. The temperatures of the upper parts of the bore were not quite 
precisely ascertained, the chief attention being given, in these first experi- 
ments, to the deeper parts. The air-temperature at the surface for the time 



( 



11 April to ?^4^^ varied between -f-7°-5 and -l°-9 C. 
29 ^ 5 May / 



" As soon as the boring is completed, and the present impediments removed 
from the bore, the observations will be resumed, and perhaps some new 
methods will be applied for the sake of verification, though the above de- 
scribed apparatus, previously tried, seemed to give very exact results. 

" I shall be very glad to communicate to you, as soon as possible, the re- 
sults of the new experiments. As to underground temperatures for Russia 
in general, there is, so far as I know, no place where regular and trustworthy 
observations have been made {^should be made in original] except the Central 
Physical Observatory at St. Petersburg, the results of which are published by 
Dr. Wild, Director of the establishment, in his printed Annual Reports." 

From the sketch annexed to the description in Professor Lubimoff's letter, 
it appears that the enlargement at the open end of the capillary tube is quite 
sudden, and not likely to retain any mercury when inverted. The idea of 
error from this cause may therefore be dismissed ; but the instrument is en- 



24 REPORT 1871. 

tirely unprotected against the pressure of the water in which it is immersed, 
and it is important to consider what effect this pressure will have. 

In thermometers of the ordinary construction this pi'essure acts only ex- 
ternally, and produces much greater diminiition of the internal volume than 
when, as in Prof. Lubimoff's thermometer, it acts both externally and in- 
ternally, a mode of action with which we are familiar in the case of CErsted's 
piezometer. 

From Eegnault's experiments it appears that the apparent compression of 
mercury in glass, when the pressure is thus applied, is -000001234 per atmo- 
sphere, whereas the apparent expansion of mercury in glass for heat is -0000857 
per degree Fahi-enheit. The latter number is 69 times the former ; it there- 
fore appears that a pressure of 69 atmospheres would be required to falsify 
the indications of Prof. Lubimoff's thermometer to the extent of 1° F. The 
actual pressure at the bottom of the well is less than the half of this, and 
therefore should only produce an error of a few tenths of a degree. This, 
however, is on the assumption that the glass undergoes no change of figure, a 
condition which may easily fail of being fulfilled, owing to the want of perfect 
uniformity in the glass. 

Mr. Donaldson has written from Calcutta to the effect that the thermo- 
meter which was sent to him has been entrusted to a competent observer, 
who has taken numerous observations with it, which will be sent shortly. 

M. Erman's letter above referred to is immediately followed in the ' Comptes 
Rendus' by an account, by M. Walferdin, of some observations, which appear 
to be very reliable, taken in artesian weUs in the basin in which Paris is 
situated. They were taken with maximum thermometers of the kind in- 
vented by Walferdin himself, in which the mercur3' overflows into a reservoir 
when the temperature exceeds a certain limit, the thermometers being her- 
metically sealed in glas^ tubes to protect them from pressure. 

The observations which he first describes were taken in a well, newly 
sunk to the depth of 263 metres, at St. Andre, about 50 miles to the west of 
Paris, and which failed to yield a supply of water. The temperature was 
carefully observed at the depth of 253 metres by means of two thermometers, 
which were allowed to remain at that depth for ten hours. Their indications 
agreed to -03 of a degree Centigrade, and gave a mean of 17°-95 C. For the 
sake of comparison, M. Walferdin observed the temperature at the bottom of 
a well 75 metres deep, situated at a distance of only 13 metres from the other 
well, and found it 12°-2C., showing a difference of 5°-75C. in 178 metres, which 
is at the rate of 1° C. in 30-95 metres, or 1° F. in 56-4 feet. He mentions that 
he also employed two Six's thermometers (deux thermometrographes) enclosed 
in copper tubes to protect them from pressure, but both of these gave erroneous 
indications. The copper case of one was imperfect, and allowed a little water 
to enter. This one read l°-25 too high, owing probably to the effect of 
pressure ; the other read 2°-15 too low, owing probably to the index being 
shaken down. 

The temperature at the depth of 400 metres in the puits de Grenelle at 
Paris was observed on two difierent occasions. The indications were 23°-5 
on the first and 23°-75 on the second occasion; and these M. Walferdin com- 
pares with the constant temperature ll°-7 in the caves of the Observatory at 
the depth of 28 metres. Taking the mean of the two observations, 23°-6, we 
have a difference of ll°-9 in 372 metres, which is at the rate of 1° C. in 31-2 
metres, or 1° F. in 56-9 feet. 

Observations in the well of the Military School, at a distance of 600 metres 
from the puits de Grenelle, showed a temperature of 16°-4 C. at the depth of 



ON UNDERGROUND TEMPERATURE. 25 

173 metres. This gives, by comparison with the Observatory caves, au in- 
crease at the rate of 1° C. in 30-85 metres, or 1° F. in 56-25 feet. 

These three determinations are in wonderfully close agreement with each 
other. All three wells are sunk in the chalk of the Paris basin. In the 
case of the St. Andre well the thicknesses of the different strata were : — 

metres. 

Plastic clay 13-52 

White chalk 122-46 

Marly chalk 29-24 

Glauconie 13-64 

Greensand 84-36 

263-22 

The thermometer which the Committee have been employing for the last 
three years is a Phillips's maximum, having so fine a bore that the detached 
column of mercury which serves as the index is sustained in the vertical 
position by capillary action, and will bear a moderate amount of shaking 
without slipping down. Numerous instances, however, have occurred in 
which the index has slipped in consequence of jerks or concussions sustained 
by the thermometer in hauling it up from a depth. During the past six 
months the Secretary has been in correspondence with Messrs. Negretti and 
Zambra respecting a proposed modification of the maximum thermometer 
known by their name, which occurred to him more than a year ago, and was 
described by him privately to some meteorological friends at the last Meeting 
of the Association. It was then supposd to be new, but it now appears that 
Messrs. Negretti and Zambra have made something of the kind for the last 
fourteen or fifteen years. Several changes, however, were necessary before 
the thermometer was adapted to the uses of the Committee, and the first 
complete instruments were received in June last. They are enclosed, like the 
thermometers previously used, in hermetically sealed tubes, for protection 
against pressure, and they have the advantages (1) of being able to bear 
more severe jolts without derangement of their indications, and (2) of pre- 
senting to view a much broader column of mercury, so as to be more easily 
read in a dim light. 

The instrument is to be used in a vertical position, with the bulb uppermost. 
Between the bulb and the stem there is a contraction, through which the 
mercury will not pass except under pressure. It is set by holding it with 
the bulb end lowest, and tapping this end on the palm of the hand, tiU the 
part between the contraction and the bulb is fuU of mercury. It can then 
be held with the bulb up, and the mercury in the stem wiU run down to the 
lower end, from which the graduations begin. In this position, the top of 
the column indicates the temperature of setting, which must be lower than 
the temperature intended to be observed. 

The instrument is then to be lowered into the bore to any required depth, 
and allowed to remain there for about half an hour, to ensure its taking the 
temperature of the surrounding water. The expansion of the mercury in 
the bulb with heat will force a portion of the liquid through the contraction, 
and subsequent cooling in hauling up will not cause any of it to return. 
The portion which has thus escaped from the bulb into the stem will usually 
be found rem^iining close to the contraction, when the thermometer has been 
hauled up. The instrument must then be gently inclined, so as to make the 
bulb end slightly the lowest, when the mercury in the stem wiU all unite 
into one column, which will run down to its place on again raising the bulb. 
The head of the column will then indicate the required temperature. 



26 REPORT— 1871. 

Report on Observations of Luminous Meteors, 1870-71. By a Com- 
mittee consisting of James Glaisher, F.R.S., of the Royal 
Observatory, Greenwich, Robert P. Greg, F.R.S., Alexander 
S. Herschel, F.R.A.S., and Charles Brooke, F.R.S., Secre- 
tary to the Meteorological Society. 
The object of the Committee being, as in the previous year, to present a 
condensed Report of the observations which they have received, and to indi- 
cate the progress of Meteoric Astronomy during the interval vrhich has 
elapsed since their last Eeport, the reviews of recent publications relating to 
ileteoric Science which will be found in the sequel are preceded by a state- 
ment of the results obtained by the observers, who have during the past 
year contributed a valuable list of communications on the appearances of 
luminous meteors and regular observations of star-showers to the Com- 
mittee. The real heights and velocities of thirteen shooting-stars obtained 
by the cooperation of Mr. Glaisher's staff of observers at the Royal Obser- 
vatory, Greenwich, during the simultaneous watch for meteors on the nights 
of the 5th to 12th of August last, are sufficiently accordant with the real 
velocity of the Perseids (as already previously determined by similar means, 
in the year 1863) to afford a satisfactory conclusion that the results of direct 
observation are in very close agreement with those derived from the astro- 
nomical theory of the August meteor-stream. Shooting-stars were observed 
to be more than usually frequent on the nights of the 17th of August and 
24th of September last, accompanying on the latter night a rather brilliant 
display of the Aurora. On the nights of the 18th-20th of October last the 
sky was bo generally overcast as to conceal the view of any meteoric shower 
which may have taken place on that well-established meteoric date. But on the 
mornings of 13th-loth of November last a satisfactory series of observations of 
the November star-shower (so far as its return could be identified) recorded 
at the Royal Observatory, Greenwich, and at several other British stations, 
concurs with very similar descriptions of its appearance in the United States 
of America in showing the rapid decrease of intensity of this display since 
the period of greatest brightness, which it attained in the years 1866 and 
1867. Notices of the extreme brightness with which it was visible in the 
following year (1868) are extracted from astronomical and meteorological 
journals kept in Switzerland and Scotland. A short view of the sky on the 
night of the 12th of December last was obtained at Birmingham, where the 
accurate divergence of the meteors observed by Mr. Wood from the radiant 
point in Gemini of the December meteors sufficed to verify the periodical 
return of that meteoric current. The state of the sky was not favourable 
for observations of meteors on the first two nights of January ; but during 
two hours, when the sky was clear, on the night of the 20th of April last, 
the well-known group of April meteors was noted, on the periodical date, 
diverging in considerable numbers, and with the characteristic features of 
brightness, and leaving a persistent streak from the direction of a nearly fixed 
centre in the constellation Lyra. One meteor of the shower, simultaneously 
observed at Birmingham and Bury St. Edmunds, afforded sufficiently accu- 
rate materials for calculating its real distance from the observers, and the 
length and velocity of its visible flight relatively to the earth. The com- 
bined observations of the regularly recurring meteor-showers during the 
past j'ear having at present proved successful in contributing some valuable 
materials to their history, the Committee propose to resume during the 
coming year a systematic watch for their return, and to provide observers 



OBSEKVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 27 

of the regular star-showers of August and November, and those of smaller 
interest and abundance in January, April, October, and December, with 
suitable maps and instructions to enable them to obtain, without unnecessary 
pains bestowed in preparations or expense, the most careful and complete 
records of their extraordinary displays. In order that the operations of the 
Committee may thus continue to be systematically directed towards the 
objects which have acquired important interest from the discovery of the as- 
tronomical connexion of shooting- stars with the orbits of comets, introducing 
the strictest methods of inquiry into the laws of their appearance, the Com- 
mittee earnestly desire the r^ewal, in the coming year, of the support which, 
since its first formation, by their correspondence and cooperation, observers 
have hitherto freely contributed to the British Association. 

Notices of the appearance of twenty-two fireballs and smaU bolides have 
during the past year been received by the Committee, fourteen of which 
were compared to the apparent size and brightness of the moon, and the 
latter include three detonating meteors of the largest class. Descriptions of 
some of the largest of these meteors are contained in the accompanying list 
and in the following paragraphs of the Report. No notice of the fall of an 
aerolite during the past year has been received, although the occurrences of 
large meteors during the months of autumn and spring, preceding April last, 
were more than ordinarily frequent. Of one of these, which appeared with 
unusual brilliancy in Cornwall, Devonshire, and the south-western counties 
of England on the evening of the 13th of February, it is possible to estimate, 
at least approximately, the locality and the real elevation of its flight. 
Careful observations of such phenomena when they appear are, however, 
again recommended by the Committee to all observers who may have the 
necessary astronomical skill, and the rare opportunity to note their brilliant 
courses by the stars. 

In the discussion of some papers on Meteoric Astronomy which follow the 
foregoing observations, it will be seen that in the hands of its talented origi- 
nator. Prof. Schiaparelli, the cosmical theory of periodical shooting-stars has 
received fresh and valuable illustrations, and the apparently inexplicable 
grouping of radiant-points for several successive days in the neighbourhood 
of a general centreof divergence, if not explained, appears to depend upon effects 
of planetary disturbances of a single meteoric stream from which the parasitic 
radiant-points have been derived. The discussion of such examples is sim- 
plified, and their complete explanation is, perhaps, not beyond the reach of 
the persevering application with which skilled astronomers in every country 
are now bent on the solution of the complicated and intricate geometrical 
problems presented to them by the distribution and features of the known 
radiant-points of shooting-stars. To a brief description of this interesting 
memoir are added, at the close of the Eeport, some notices of works which 
have recently appeared on the more general branches of meteoric science. 

I. MeTEOES DOtTBLT OBSERVED. 

1. A Table of the real heights of sixteen shooting- stars doubly observed in 
England during the meteoric shower of August 1870, independently of the 
observations recorded at the Royal Observatory, Greenwich, was presented 
in the last volume of these Reports. A comparison of the observations made 
on that occasion at the Royal Observatory, (jreenwich, with those recorded 
at the other stations, enables the real paths of thirteen meteors (ten of 
which are new to the former list), seen by Mr. Glaisher's staff of observers, 
to be satisfactorily determined j and the real heights and velocities of the 



28 



REPORT 1871. 



meteors thus identified, together with the particulars of the ohservations 
from which they are concluded, are entered in the Table opposite. 

The accompanying diagram (drawn on the same scale as that in the last 
Eeport) readily exhibits to the eye the actual heights at appearance and dis- 
appearance (or the heights of the centres of the visible paths of the meteors 
Nos. 1, 4, 9) above the earth's surface. The last vertical line on the right 
represents (as in the last Report) the average height at first appearance and 
that at disappearance of all the meteors regarded as identified in the present 
list, of which the approximate heights of those points have been satisfactorily 
ascertained. The resulting average heights are : — 

At first appearance. At disappearance. 
74-1 B. S. miles. 47-6 



Of 16 meteors in the last Heport . . 

Of 10 meteors in the present list . . 71 "7 

Of 20 meteors observed in Aug. 1863 81-6 



54-4 
57-7 



1 2 



Fig. 1. 

Eeferenee nvimbera. 
3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 



120 



100 



I 



•43 






t 



W 



80 



60 



40 



20 



1 


































1 
















































1 










1 





120 



100 



80 



I 

CD 

'u 

m 






60 



40 



20 



Heights at appearance and disappearance of tliirteen shooting-stars simultaneously ob- 
served at the Royal Observatory, Greenwich, and at other stations in England, August 
6th-llth, 1870. (Nos. 1, 4, 9 are calculated heights at the centres of the real paths.) 

The present average heights are somewhat less than those observed in the 
year 1863 ; but they agree more closely with the general average height at 
first appearance, 70-05 miles, and that at disappearance, 54-22 miles (as given 
in the Report for 1863, footnote on p. 328), of nearly all the shooting-stars 



1 



[^To face pcu/e 28. 



-(B.) Birmingham ; (H.) Hawkhurst, Kent ; (L.) Eegent's Park, 
:ust, 1870. 



3 

|Zi 

o 
o 






Velocity 

inB. S. 

miles 

per 

second. 



Position of the radiant-point. 



E. A. 


N. 
Decl. 








195 


+64 


26 


+ 58 


50 


+ 54 


23 


+ 58 


27 


+ 62 


40 


+ 71 


45 


+ 62 


40 


+ 57 


54 


+67 



Ajjproximate by 
the stars. 



Obserrers, Eemarks, &c. 



3' 
4 

5i 
6, 

7 
8 

9 
10 
II 
12 
13 



IS 



123? 

73? 

123? 

92? 



27 

39 
52 



K Draconis 

e Cassiopei;B . . . 

a Persei 

e Cassiopeia; ... 
e Cassiopeia^ ... 

Gustos Messiuin 

B Camelopardi 

ij Persei 

B Camelopardi 



G. L. Schultz. 
W. il. Wood. 
W. C. Nash. 

E. P. Greg. 

W. Barber. f Course apparently 

F. Hewlett. \ ascending? 
W. C. Nash, r A rery doubtful 
T. Crumplen. \ accordance. 
W. Marriott, W. Barber. 

A. S. Herschel. 

W. C. Nash. 

A. S. Herschel. 

W. Marriott, W. Barber. 

T. Cruinplen. 

T. Wright, W. Marriott, W. Barber. 

A. S. Herschel. 

T. Wright, W. Marriott. 

A. S. Herschel. 

W. Barber. 

A. S. Herschel. 

T. V/right, W. Marriott, W. Barber. 

A. S. Herschel. 

T. Wright, W. Marriott. W. Barber. 

A. S. Herschel. 

W. Barber. 

A. S. Herschel. 



3.7 

miles 

per see. 



46 



-62 



I Average velocity and position of the 
/3 Camelopardi ... < radiant-point of the Perseids, 
[ Nos. 11, 12, 1.3. 



[Tofaci i><ujf as. 

JU-al Heights unci Velocities of Shooting- stars simultuueously observed at the Roynl Observatory, Greenwich ((Jr.), and at other stations in England — (B.) liirmingham ; (H.) Hawkhurst, Kent ; (L.) Itegent's Park, 

London ; (M.) Manchestci- ; (T.) East TiBted, HanU— on the nights of the Cth-llth August, 1870. 





















1 


(Approii- 


Apparent 
mngnitudo, 


Hour;) 
0. U. T. 


fixed stars. 


§ 






B. 








h m • 




Gr. 


II II :8 


2 


». 


(11 II ij) 




Or. 


10 10 6 


, 


U. 


(.0 10 ol 


Venn.. 




10 as IS 


3 




(10 »s «) 




(ir. 


10 19 X 
(10 .! 30) 


>i 


L. 


I) 




10 33 10 


1 




(10 3. 0) 


X 


Ur. 


10 49 4s 


Jupitur. 




(,0,9 0) 


>CBp«Ua. 




10 ss 19 


* 




(.<, s6 «! 


3 




II I 40 


X 


U. 


{11 0) 


3 


Or. 


10 37 so 






(10 36 o] 


X 




10 39 10 

(10 37 0) 




H. 


2 


Or. 


II i 18 




n. !(ii . oi 


■ Lvnr 


Or, M 38 >6 


1 


H. (11 36 30] 


3 


Oj.l 11 « 


a 


H. 


Cli +3 30) 


3 



Bluiah. 

YoUow. 
Bluish wJiitc. 
Dluiiil) nliiW. 

While. 



White. 

BliiiMi wliito. 

W^ito. 

Tclluwisli. 

Orftngo-rt'd. 

Blui»h wliilc. 



Wiiilo. 
Bluish white. 

Yellow. 
Yellowiah. 

Wliit*. 

Bluish. 

Ornnce-yellow. 

Yollowuh. 

Whit*. 

Bluuh. 



Streak, und 
ltd duration. 



Bright etrcalc. 

Btreuk. 

^ wcund. 

Fine alrciik. 

\ eccutid. 

Bright Btroab. 



Streak, 
1 seoood, 

Nono. 

Fine strcok, 

3 seconds. 

Pine streak. 

Bright, 3 woiinds, 

Fine strmk. 

Kono. 

Stroak. 

Nono. 



Obsoryed points of 



Disappear- 



R. A. 


N. 
Detil. 


a A. 








(,o 


+70 


centre 


a3 


+40 


16 


17s 


+ SI. 


170 


,08 


+4S 


,18 


X7 


+ SS 






+41 


6 


160 


+6! 




!« 


+80 


|«S 




+60 


3'S 


11 


+ k7 


X40 


60 


+67 


140 


88 


+6, 


'SS 




+ 59 




ao 


+ S8 


a 


7 


+st. 


344 


a7 


+7> 




18 


+ (9 




33a 


+68 


317 


X4.1 


+66 


'!7 


X15 


+ S8 


«3» 


347 


+4! 


333 


34S 


+71 


30s 


IS 


+6S 


3X5 


■H 


+8. 


'93 


llli 


+4S 




J»7 


+ 78 


•87 



path.) 



Average heights imd length of pitth (omitting doubtful vqIun, nmrked thiis?}, in British statute niilo^ 



"io" 




8 


06 






6 


0-6 


*o 


•S 


»S 


09 




0-8 


7 


07 






11 






OS 



Computjjd heights and places of 



Appearance. 



(10 
147! 
90 

'35* 
95 
(4+ 



Sa so 
S3 " 
S' 39 
5' 43 
Sx 17 
53 4 
sa 30 
sa a 
5' 33 



aoE. 

1 49 W. 



a 3E. 
I xsE. 



centre 

56 



SI sa 
51 z6 



o soE. 
o 23 £, 
o 41 E, 



centre 



of 
S3 8 
S6 

of 
SI 37 



51 S4 

S" 3+ 



S 

s' 37 



path.) 
\ 31 W. 
I 19 E. 
path?) 
3 20 E. 
3 7W. 
o 57 E. 
o 43 E. 
path ?) 
o 57 W. 
o 28 E. 
o 5E. 
o isE. 



Length 
of path 

n fe. S. 

miles. 



Velocity 



'35? 



(One centre of 
S** puth. 71 miles.) 



Position of the radiant' point. 



miles 
per sec. 



eCossiopeix' .... 

a Persei 

E CB£sio|>eiii' . . . 
eCaMiopeiit .... 
Gustos Messiuin . 



Observers, Remarks &c. 



B Camelupardi. 

II Persei 

B Camelupardi. 



( Course apparently 
( ascending? 
J A very doubtful 

aocordaiice. 



G. L. Schuliz. 

W. H. Wood. 
J W.C.Nash. 
1 R.P.Greg. 
' W. Barber 

F. Eowlott, 

W. C. Nash. 

T. Crumplen. 

W. Harriott. W. Barbt] 

A. S. Hersohel. 

W. C. Noah. 

A. S. Herschel. 

W. Marriott. W. Barber. 

T. Crumplen. 

T. Wright. W. Marriott. W. Barber. 

A. S. Herschel. 

T. Wright. W. Marriott, 

A. S. Hersehel. 

W. Barber. 

A. S. Herschel. 

T. Wright, W. Marriutt, W. Barber. 

A. S. Herschel. 

T. Wright. W. Marriott. W. Barber. 

A. S. Herschel. 

AV. Barber. 

. A. S. Herschol. 



Camelopnrdi . 



(Average Telocity and position of the 
radiant-poiot of the Per^eide, 
Nos. U, 12, 13. 




OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS, 



29 



simultaneously observed until the beginning of that year. The average 
velocity of the Perseids, relatively to the earth, observed in the year 1863 
was 34-4 miles per second, and that of the three Perseids satisfactorily well 
observed in the present list is 37 miles per second. In his original letters to 
Father Secchi on their connexion with Tattle's comet (Comet III., 1862), 
now universally accepted as a true basis of their cosmical theory, Prof. 
Schiaparelli calculated, from the known elements of the comet's orbit, that 
the velocity with which the Perseids enter the earth's atmosphere (allowing 
for a very minute influence of the earth's attraction) is 38 miles per second. 
That the direct determination of the velocities of the August shooting-stars 
which were made last year should, in this instance, so exactly agree with the 
value found by calculation (although from the small number of identifiable 
meteors the probable error of the determination is rather large), is, from the 
great scale and general excellence of the observations, at least provisionally, 
a successful confirmation of the astronomical theory of the August meteors, 
and a satisfactory conclusion from the simultaneous watch. 

2. During the corresponding observations of the meteor-shower of No- 
vember last, in which the observers of Mr. Glaisher's staff at the Eoyal 
Observatory, Greenwich, also took an important share, the coincidence of 
the times of appearance and of the other particulars of a single meteor only 
of the shower simultaneously observed at Greenwich and at Tooting, near 
London, could be established, the descriptions of which, as given by the 
observers at those stations, were as follows : — 



No. 

in 

Lists. 


Date. 


Approximate 

hour. 

G. M. T. 


Place of 
observation. 


Magnitude 
as per stars. 


Colour. 


Duration. 


Apparent course. 


Appearance, 
streak, &c. 


7 


1870 
Not. 15 


h m B 

1 5 56 

A.M. 


Eoyal 
Observatory, 
Greenwich. 


= Istmagni- 
tnde star. 


Bluish 
white. 


07 seconds. 


FromflUrssEMa- 
joris, passed a 
little belowPo- 
laris, in the di- 
rection of p 
Cephei. 


Left a streak. 


(8) 


„ 15 


1 5 
A.M. 


Tooting, 

London, 

S.W. 


= 8irius. 


White. 


Short 
duration. 


From between 
the 'Pointers' 
of the Great 
Bear, shot one- 
third of the 
way towards o 
Cygni. 


Left a long streak 
lasting a second 
or two. 


7 
(8) 


„ 15 
„, 15 


1 5 56 
15 


Greenwich... 
Tooting 


Length of path 15°. Observer, Wm. Maeriott. 
Meteor fairly well observed. Observer, H. W. Jacksox. 



The apparent paths of the meteor among the constellations present a con- 
siderable parallax in the right direction of displacement, as seen from the 
two observers' stations, to lead to a positive determination of its real altitude 
above the earth. The concluded path of the meteor is nearly horizontal at 
a height of about fifteen miles above the earth's surface. The small distance 
(only seven miles) between the two stations, greatly increasing the effect of 
the errors most difficult to avoid in the observation and description of such 
transitory phenomena, must, however, for the present be regarded as pre- 
cluding certainty from the conclusion, which would otherwise attach to this 
unusually low elevation of a meteor's real path. 



30 



REPORT 1871. 



3. Preparations for observing the meteors of the 20th of April last were 
also made at many stations in England and Scotland with only partial 
success. A meteor of the April shower was, however, observed simul- 
taneously at Birmingham and Bury St. Edmunds, of which the following 
descriptions were recorded : — 



No. 


Date. 


Approximate 

hour. 

G. M. T. 


Place of 
observation. 


Magnitude 
as per stars. 


Colour. 


Duration. 


Apparent course. 


Appearance, 
streak, &c. 


(6) 


1871. 
Apr. 20 


h m 

U 8 P.M. 


Birmingham 


= 1st magni- 
tude star. 


Blue. 


1'23 second. 


From Af Hercu- 
lis to y Draco- 
ni8-8°. 


The meteor in- 
creased in size. 


(9) 


„ 20 


h m s 

11 10 15 

P.M. 


Thurston, 
near 
Bury St. Ed- 
munds. 


= 1st mag- 
nitude 

star. 


White. 


3 seconds. 


Krom i a Draoo- 
nis.f UrsseMa- 
joris, crossing 
rUrsaeMajoris, 
to i (k 12) 
Lyncis. 


Small in the 
first, growing 
brighter in the 
last half of its 
course. Left a 
slender streab 
at first, which 
remained 2 se- 
conds on the 
last half of its 
course. 


f6) 
(9) 


„ 20 

„ 20 


11 8 Birmingham 

11 10 1.5... Thurston ... 


Length of path 11°. One-third of the sky overcast. Observer, W. H. Wood. 
Length of path 45». Sky very clear. Observer, A. S. HebSCHEL. 



Although the times at both the stations were uncertain to rather more 
than a minute from true Greenwich time, and the approximate times of the 
meteor's appearance recorded at the two stations differ from each other by 
rather more than two minutes, yet the very similar descriptions of its ap- 
pearance at the two stations, and the fact that no other meteor at either 
station preceded it or foUowed it within a quarter of an hour, during a very 
attentive watch, as well as the good agreement together of the apparent 
paths recorded by the two observers, render it scarcely possible to doubt that 
the same meteor was simultaneously observed. The apparent length of path 
and duration are, however, much longer at Bury St. Edmunds than at Bir- 
mingham, where the meteor was seen foreshortened near the radiant-point ; 
and on this peculiar circumstance Mr. Wood (in a letter to Mr. Herschel) 
makes some important remarks, which offer a veiy interesting field for fur- 
ther observations. " My view of the meteor's course was evidently very 
oblique, and yours, very direct (nearly at right angles), would obscure a faint 
tail to me. There is also another peculiarity which I have observed in 
oblique-visioned courses, that they appear to endure about half the time of 
that obtained by direct vision, which I fancy arises from its invisibility to 
one observer, whilst it is visible to the other in the earliest portion of its flight, 
and the amount of the invisible course to bear some proportion to the recorded 
differences in the durations." In perfect agreement with this explanation the 
point of disappearan ce of the meteor is well fixed (by combining the observations) 
at a height of about sixty-five miles above a place near Bourne, in Lincolnshire. 
The observations, on the other hand, do not agree in determining the point of 
first appearance. The first and faint half of the meteor's apparent path, as 
recorded at Bury St. Edmunds, is placed too far from the north pole of the 
heavens to be nearly comformable to the radiant-point near Z Lyrse (from 
some point near and below which the apparent course of the meteor, as seen 



OBSEKVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS, 31 

at Birmingham, was directed), while this portion of the meteor's flight 
appears to have entirely escaped observation at Birmingham. Prolonging 
the meteor's visible flight at Birmingham 7° backwards towards the radiant- 
point, and approaching the point of first appearance at Bury St. Edmunds 
about the same distance towards the north pole of the heavens, the agree- 
ment of the observations in fixing the point of first commencement at a 
height of about eighty miles over the neighbourhood of Norwich is nearly 
as exact as the determination of the place of the meteor's disappearance. 
The length of its visible path was about seventy-five miles, and its radiant- 
point in Taurus Poniatovii, on the same meridian, was about 40° south of 
the usual radiant-point (QHJ of the April meteors. Although its apparent 
course, as observed at Bury St. Edmunds, evidently denoted it as an erratic 
member of the group, its general resemblance to the other Lyraids observed 
on the same evening was a remarkable feature in its long and striking course. 
Adopting Mr. "Wood's suggestion of (provisionally) increasing the duration, 
as observed at Birmingham, from 1-25 to 2 seconds in the simple proportion 
of the increased length of the apparent course, prolonged towards the radiant- 
point, and adopting 2^ seconds (the average between this duration and that 
recorded at Bury St. Edmunds) as the time of flight, the resulting velocity, 
relative to the earth, of this single member of the April meteoric stream 
doubly observed on the night of the 20th of April last, was, within very few 
miles, about thirty miles per second. The theoretical velocity of the same 
meteors (see the Note on the last page of this Eeport) is not quite thirty miles 
per second. 

4, Several observations of the very brilliant firebaU observed in Devon- 
shire and in the south-western counties of England on the evening of the 
13th of February last were collected and compared together by Mr. Wood, 
the result of whose investigation will shortly be given, with descriptions of 
that meteor, as the most probable conjecture, from the materials at present 
at their disposal, arrived at by the Committee respecting its real height and 
the locality of its nearest approach to the British isles. 

II. Large Meteoes. 
In addition to the conspicuous meteors described in the accompanying list, 
the following descriptions of remarkable meteors have appeared, or were 
communicated to the Committee by the observers : — 

1. 1870, Nov. 1, 11^ 30"" P.M., London. "I saw a splendid meteor last 
night, at 1 1*" 30", through the blind of my bedroom windoiu. The whole room 
was illuminated, and the meteor must have been at least half as large as the 
moon. I went to the window quickly, but could see no trail. The path 
must have been, say, 5° to the right of a Aurigae, ending 10° to left of a, /3 
Geminorum. I only saw the end. 

" T. Ceumplen, London, N.W., Nov. 2nd, 1870." 

2. 1870, Nov. 4, shortly before S*" a.m. (local time), Agra, India :— 
Extraordinary Meteor. — " The following account of an extraordinary me- 
teor occurs in a letter I received from a brother who is a missionary stationed in 
Agra. He does not give the exact place where he was at the time, but it 
must have been very near to Agra. The letter is dated Agra, 24th November, 
1870. A missionary from Allahabad was with him when he saw it. 

" MUls Hill, Chadderston, near Manchester. Robert Getson. 

" Agra, Nov. 24, 1870. — I recently saw a marvellous meteor. I was in 
camp, and had risen for an early march a few minutes before 3 a.m. on 



32 



REPORT ISri. 



November 4th. I was standing under the shade of a cluster of trees, when 
a sudden flash of light fell around. Two or three camp fires were blazing 
near, and at first I thought it might be a sudden flare up from one of them ; 
but on casting my eyes up towards the heavens, I saw a large oval light, 
stationary. It appeared to be composed of a large number of irregularly 
shaped, differently sized stars, yet so closely packed as to form one light, yet 
giving the whole a sort of dappled appearance. At first I was struck dumb 
with amazement — thought it must be some mental illusion, or that my eyes 

were playing me false. But as I gazed it remained steadily fixed. , 

of Allahabad, was with me. I roused him ; he was soundly asleep, and some 
seconds passed in waking him up. In the interval it appeared to have been 
lengthened, nearly, though not quite, by a straight line, and as we gazed it 
assumed the shape of a large magnet, with the upper limb rather shorter than 
the other. It then gradually expanded, diminishing in brightness as it in- 
creased in size, assuming a wavy, serpentine form, though keeping much to 
a horseshoe shape, until it became so attenuated as to be no longer visible. 
It must have continued in sight five minutes. It was seen by all the ser- 
vants ; and one of them cried out, ' Bhagwauka seela hae,' by which he ap- 
peared to mean that in his opinion the Almighty was amusing Himself with 
fireworks ; literally, ' It is God's sport or amusement.' " — Nature, Jan. 12th, 
1871. 

3. 1870, Dec. 20, &" 40"" p.m., Hawkhurst. Kent.—" This evening at 
gh 4(jni J noticed the descent of a beautiful meteor. It appeared to start 
almost from the zenith towards the S.S.E., and it was visible for about three 
seconds. It had very much the appearance of a sky-rocket in its flight, but 
without any explosion, and it displayed vivid red and orange colours. The 
evening was very dark, but the stars were visible ; the meteor did not in- 
crease the amount of light in the place where I was walking. According 
to my ' star-map,' I should lay down its course as follows." [See the sketch 
of the meteor's course.]— T. HrurHKEY, Hawkhurst, Dec. 20th, 1870. 



o 

Andvo - 
medu 



o 
Cefus 




j-egasus 
04 " 



00! 



Pi sees 



4. 1871, Feb. 13, 9"^ 4™ p.m., Bristol.— "I saw a very briUiant meteor 
last evening, February 13th, at 9^ 4™. During the time that it continued 
visible the whole of the sky was illuminated by the light it emitted. The 
first appearance of the meteor was not witnessed, but the direction and 
situation of the latter portion of its path was approximately determined. It 
passed through the S. part of Orion, just under Eigel, so [see sketch] : — 



OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 33 

It disappeared near B, which is equal to about R.A. 4'' 10™, Decl. S. 15°. 
At A it left a train about 2° in length, -which endured for ten minutes. In 
that portion of the sky near which the meteor disappeared many stratus 
clouds were visible. 

" P.S. — I omitted to state that the brilliancy of the meteor excelled that 
of any of the planets. When at its brightest the light was about equal to that 
of a clear full moon. I only saw the disappearance." — William F. Denning, 
Bristol, February 14th, 1871. 



HeteX 
(fcuse ^ 




At Rugby the meteor was observed very bright at about %^ 10™ p.m., and 
it was described as " starting from near Orionis, and proceeding towards a 
point a little north of y Eridani, when it was lost behind a belt of cloud." 
(Communicated to 'Nature,' February 16th, 1871, by J. M. Wilson.) 

These two descriptions of its visible path (apparently from the relative 
positions of the stations) are so similar that little can be certainly concluded 
from them regarding the real distance of the meteor. 

At Exeter " a briUiant meteor traversed the constellation of Orion, ap- 
pearing near the Belt and passing from south to west. The direction was 
south-west, altitude 35°. Its light equalled or exceeded that of fuU moon, 
and it left a train of colours for some time." (' English Mechanic,' Feb. 24th.) 

At Torquay, " The meteor started near BeUatrix in Orion, altitude 35°, 
passing due west, leaving in its track a brilliant train of colours, green pre- 
dominating." (Ibid., March 3rd.) 

The meteor was also seen at Callington, in Cornwall, casting a brilliant dif- 
fused light, and occupjdng two seconds in its transit. (Ibid.) 

By comparing together the foregoing observations of its course, and obtain- 
ing an approximate estimation of its real height, Mr. Wood is led to adopt 
the following provisional positions of its visible track. The meteor first 
appeared at an elevation of fifty-five miles over the English Channel, seventy 
miles S.S.W. from Torquay. It thence descended, with an inclination of 
16°, to a height of thirty-five miles over a point sixty-four miles west of 
Torquay, thus describing, from S.E. by S. to N.W. by N., a path of eighty 
miles in two seconds, across the centre of the county of Cornwall, terminating 
at its western coast, near St. Columb Minor. The radiant of the meteor was 
near a Hydras. As the meteor was probably distinctly seen in Cornwall, the 
Scilly Isles, and in the south of Ireland, additional descriptions of its appa- 
rent course from those places, as seen from points considerably west of the 
place where it appears to have approached the earth, would afford the best 
materials for verifying the present approximate conjecture of its real path. 
As seen at Torquay, it was .notably described by an observer to Mr. Greg as 
lighting up the whole bay and presenting a magnificent appearance. 

1871. D 



34 



REPORT — 1871. 



5. 1871, July 31st, 9^ 27"^ p.m., Bristol.—" I observed a meteor of some 
briliiancy on Monday evening last, July 31st, at 91^ 27=^. It was first seen a 
little above /3 Pegasi, and passing downwards obliquely, it went about 3° east 
of a Pegasi, and disappeared when it reached a point somewhere near E. A. 13°, 
N. Declin. 29°. It left no train of light that was perceptible, and I suppose 
that the meteor was visible for about three seconds. As far as could be 



i\ 



Observations oi 



Date. 



1870. 
Sep. 12 



23 



Oct. 2 



Hour. 



h m 

10 25 p.m 



8 10 p.m, 



10 8 p.m 



Caraden Town, 
Loudon. 



Birmingham 



29 



Nov. 13 



12 15 a.m 
9 37 59 



» 21 
„ 20 



1871. 
Mar. 1 



Place of 
Observation. 



Ibid, 



Glasgow 



Royal Observa 
tory, Green- 
wich. 



9 35 p.m. 
9 p.m 

10 10 p.m. 



17 



About 10 40 

p.m. 
(local time). 



Apparent Size. 



3x I|, large disk... 



One-third diameter 
of the full moon, 
or 2 X $ . 

■V- 






Colour. 



Blue. 



Duration. 



Slow moving., 



Pale blue About 2 sees, 



Silvery-white. 



3 seconds . 



Red 

Yellowish . 



Glasgow 



Scarborough 



Charing Cross, 
London. 



Paris, Rochelle, 
&c., France. 



= V-- 



Apparent shape and 
size of the half- 
moon. 



Splendid meteor . 



White 3 seconds 



0-4 second 
3 seconds.. 



Apparent Course. 



Began near a Ursi 
Majoris, and en 
ed near Cor C; 
roll. 

Commenced at 
a=66, 5=-t-3& 

From 92° -1-44° 
to 116 +37 



Bluish 



Brilliant white 



Green 



About 3 sees. 



20 seconds 



' 



Commenced at Cd 
Caroli. 

Passed midway be; 
tween « and 
Draconis, ai 
continued iti 
path parallel to ^ 
and T] Ursae Mj 
joris. 

From i (/3, S) 
rigse to o Ural 
Majoris. 

Descended from aci 
point about 15 
above the S.WjJ 
horizon. il 

From near /3 Caini|| 
Minoris to aboni 
5° or 6° east of, 
and at the sami 
altitude as, « On\ 
onis. 



104 
Mm 



OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 



35 



judged it was of a red colour, and somewhat star-like in appearance. At the 
time of its appearance the sky was rather cloudy and misty, and the meteor 
was not, therefore, seen advantageously. It did not seem to explode at the 
time of its extinction. I have sent the ahove particulars thinking they may 
be useful for comparison with other results." — William F. Denning, Gotham 
Park, Bristol, August 2nd, 1871. 



irge Meteors, 1870-71. 



Appearance; Train or 
Sparks. 



very large globular nu- 
cleus. Seen through 
haze, -which dimmed its 
light. 

globular nucleus, with- 
out tail or streak. 

ucleus pear-shaped, with 
short adhering white 
tail, projecting dull-red 
fragments forwards on 
its course ; increasing 
and exploding at maxi- 
mum brightness. 



Length of Path and 
Direction. 



25° ; downwards to left.. 



»10° ; directed from Ca- 
pella, radiant Fj. 



Remarks. 



Observer and 
References &c. 



;ft a very fine streak 



ft no streak . 



e meteor only seen as it 
passed behind the edge 
of a cloud. 

icleus pear-shaped, fol- 
lowed by a short train 
"or a second. Point of 
irst appearance near 
louses, which concealed 
:he neighbouring star 
?rocyon. 
explosion ; but many 
parks projected from 
he nucleus. Left a lu- 
ninous track, which re- 
aained visible for more 
ban an hour. 



From radiant Fj 



5° while in sight ; directed 

from 6 Ursae Majoris. 
40° 



15° J from radiant in Taurus 



Fell perpendicularly 



The stars scarcely visible through 
haze, but recognized sufficiently 
near the meteor's path. 

View of the end of its course in- 
tercepted when at an altitude 
of 4° or 5°. 



From radiant a Tauri. End 
path hidden by houses. 



of 



T. Crumplen. 

W. H. Wood. 
Id. 



Robert Maclure. 
T.Wright. 



Pro- 
cyon 



a Ori- 
^ onis 



Appeared with two flashes, which 
lit up all the heavens. 



Sky clear. The meteor appeared 
extremely bright in the full 
moonlight. 



Seen also at Chichester, 10'» 30"" 
p.m., > ? , from near the ze- 
nith, with a remarkably long 
duration, to near the S.W'. hori- 
zon. Bright gold colour at 
last, leaving a brilhant train 
visible for 3 or 4 minutes (' The 
Times,' Mar. 21st). 



Robert Maclure. 



T. H. WaUer. 



F. H. Ward. 



Messrs. Prevost, 
Samberg, and 
other obser- 
vers (' Comp 
tes Rendus,' 
March 20th, 
1871). 



d2 



36 



REPORT 1871. 



Date. 



Hour. 



1871. 
Mar.18 



23 



m 

20 a.m 
(local time), 



24 



Apr. 11 



h 
12 



Place of 
Observation. 



6 35 p.m 



4 25 a.m. 
(local time). 



Turin and other 
places in Pied- 
mont. 



Broadstairs 
(Kent). 



Volpeglino, and 
other stations 
in Piedmont. 



Apparent Size. 



Colour. 



Apparent diameter 
of full moon. 



Disk of apparent 
size of Sirius, in- 
cluding his rays. 



Nucleus 25' diame 
ter. 



9 46 p.m. Ibid, Moncalieri 
(local time). Piedmont. 



„ 12 

„ 14 

„ 22 



15 p.m 
(local time) 



Lodi; Moncalieri, 
Piedmont. 



11 39 p.m.TheObservatory, 
(local time).] Naples 



10 37 30 

p.m. 
(local time). 



Moncalieri, 
Piedmont. 



Nucleus 10' diame. 
ter. 



Very large and bril- 
liant. 



Duration. 



Brilliant white 



Nucleus green, 
with red 
train. 



Brilliant white 



Apparent Course. 



About 2 mi- 
nutes. Very 
protracted 
course, and 
slow speed 



Bluish white. 



Slow and 
stately mo- 
tion. 



■n. 

■n. 



Reddish, then 
bright blue. 



White 



Passed directly over 
the townof Turin 
from the moun- 
tains near Susa, 
towards the op 
posite horizon. 

First appearance at. 
a point about 30° 
above the N. J E. 
horizon. 



From 


a Cygni, a- 


cross a 


Andro- 


medoe, tc 


) near ? 


Piscium, 


or 




a = 


8= 


From 309° 


+45° 


to 


10 


+ 7 




a = 


S= 


From 21 r 


-10° 


to 


223 


+ 28 


[From 


221 


-11 


to 


111 


+ 28 


From 


175 


+ 15 


to 


111 


+ 32] 


From 


HI 


+ 7 


to 


105 


+ 2 


From 


98 


+ 70 


to 


15 


+ 39 


From 233 


+23 


to 


18 + 88 




(Polaris) 


[From 


212 


+ 20 


to 


87 


+ 45] 



6. Meteors of the largest class, as described in the foregoing list of such 
occurrences, were more than ordinarily frequent during the months of March 
and April last, ajjpearing principally on the nights of the 17th-18th and 
23rd-24th of March, and on those of the 11th and 12th of April last. On 
the first of these dates two fireballs were observed in France and Italy, the 
former of which was also seen in the south of England, at Chichester. A 
large meteor was seen in Kent and Essex, on the second date, a few minutes 
after sunset ; and two detonating meteors were observed at Urbiuo, and were 
generally visible in Italy on the same night. The third detonating meteor 
of which accounts have reached the Committee, made its appearance in Pied- 
mont on the evening of the 12th of April last. Professor Serpieri and Mr. 
Denza, at the Observatories of Urbino and Moncalieri, near Turin, are collect- 
ing sufficient details of these large meteors to calculate their real course. 



OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 



37 



Appearance ; Train or 
Sparks. 



Length of Path and 
Direction. 



Remarks. 



Observer and 
References &c. 



Nucleus an elongated mass Horizontal, from W.N.W, 
of stars. Left an ini-j to E.S.E. 
mensely broad and 
bright streak, which re- 
mained visible for 10"' 
or 15™. 

Mucleus followed by a 15° 
train of red sparks. Ex- 
ploded, projecting many 
luminous fragments. 



lieft a few bright red sparks 
and a very persistent 
ruddy streak on its whole 
course. 



lucleus very brilliant. At 
TT Bootis it paused for 
an instant, and advanced 
with irregular motion 
towards its termination. 
Left a brilliant streak. 



descending towards 
the east, at an inclina- 
tion of about 45°. 



ieft a reddish streak for 
20 seconds. 

lucleus followed by a 
bright streak, which re- 
mained visible for 3^ 
minutes. 



The meteor was also seen at Ley 
ton, Essex, a few minutes after 
sunset, appearing in the E.N.E., 
and taking a southerly direction 
(J. F. Dutliie, 'Nature,' Mar. 
30th, 1871.) 

Burst with a violent detonation ; 
heard about J a minute after 
its disappearance. [Seen and 
heard at Urbino, where it was 
preceded at 2'' a.m. by a per 
fectly similar detonating meteor 
equally brilliant, and leaving a 
persistent streak. — A. Serpi 

ERI.] 

[The last two apparent positions 
are those at Alessandria, and 
Volpeglino, where the meteor 
was also observed.] 



Burst with a detonation, which 
was heard in houses with closed 
doors. 



Letter in Turin 
newspaper (by 
F. Denza) of 
Mar. 31st. 



Communicated 
by Jas. Chap. 



Letter in Turin 
newspaper of 
March 31st, 
1871, by F. 
Denza. 



Communicated 
by F. Denza. 



Id. 



Id. 



[The last apparent position is that Id. 
observed at Volpeglino (Tor- 
tona), where tlie meteor was 
also seen, and its bright streak 
remained visible for one minute.] 



III. Aerolites. 

The following dates of aeroKtic falls appear to have escaped notice in the 
Catalogue (Report for 1860) and in subsequent Reports : — 
Date. 

1804, November 24 San Luis Potosi, Mexico. 

1864, June 26 Yolynia, Russia. 

186-5, February or March . . Gorruckpore, India. 

1866, October 5 Ahmednuggur, Eombay. 

1867, January 19 Khetrie, Rajpootana, India. 

1868, May 22 Slavetic Croatia. 

1868, November Danville, Alabama, U.S. 

1868, December Frankfort, Alabama, U.S. 

Date unknown Goalpara, Assam. 



38 



REPORT 1871. 



The analysis of the last of these meteorites by Mr. Tschermak (Jahrbuch 
fiir Mineralogie, for 1871, p. 412) shows approximately the following com- 
position : — 

Iron. Ilydrocarbon. Olivine. Enstatite. Magnetic Pyrites. 

8-49 +0-85 +61-72 +30-01 +(traces) =101-07. 

The occurrence of carbonaceous matter in the meteorites of Hessle, Upsala 

(1st January, 1869), was recently also recognized by Nordenskjold, who 

found in them a black flocculent substance, containing 71 per cent, of 

carbon. (The ' Academy,' August loth, 1871.) 

IV. Meteoeic Showers. 
1. Meteor-sliowers in January and February 1837. — From the tracks of 
meteors recorded in the last annual Catalogue of the British Association, and 
in the ' Bulletin of the Moncalieri Observatory' for November 1869, observed 
during the months of January and February of that year, Mr. Greg has 
established the existence of the following old, and of one new radiant-point, 
which made their appearance in those months : — 



Duration of meteoric 
shower in 1869. 


Position of radiant- 
point. 


If umber of 
meteors 
mapped. 


Symbols, durations, and positions of the same 
meteor-showers in the British Association 
Report for 186?, p. 401. 




Sym- 
bol. 


Duration. 


Position. 


a. 


«. 


By the stars. 


a. 


S. 


By the stars. 


Jan. 9-19, and Jan. ■> 
30 to Feb. 6 / 

Jan. 29 to Feb. 6 

Feb. U-20 (chiefly) ... 

Feb. 11-16 (chiefly) ... 


72° 

223 
194 
103 


o 
+ 2 

+54 
+ 15 
-25 


«, z, Orionis... 

In Quadrans... 

eVirginis 

S Canis Majo- 
ris. 


14 (Italian).. 

7 (Italian)... 

8 (English).. 

10 (English 
and Italian). 


(AGi 

K3 

S4 


Dec. 20 to Feb. 6. 
Jan. 2-3 


63 

232 
190 

105 

105 


+20aTauri)? 

+49 c Quadrantis. 

+ l,yVirginis. 

— 27'* Canis Majoris. 


March 5-17 

January 








1 



A succession of radiant-points near the apex of the earth's way following 
the appearance of the November shower, of which the general meteor-shower 
LH (Report for 1868, p. 403) from the head of Hydra, lasting until the 
12th of December, presents a parallel instance, is remarkably described in the 
following MS. note, recorded by the late Sir J. Herschel during his residence 
at the Cape:—" Cape of Good Hope, 1837, January 2nd, I'' 30" M. T. [_i. e. 
from midnight]. A me teor= second-magnitude star crossed the zenith, leav- 
ing a train. Course right from the (qje.v in the east, whence they have all 
come since November 12th. N.B. This has been extremely remarkable and 
well-sustained ; really very few exceptions. 

" February 1-5. — The meteors now chiefly go from S.W. to N.E." 
The tendency of radiant-points to group themselves in families so as to 
make newly observed centres difficult to distinguish from older ones appear- 
ing nearly on the same date, is well seen by the examples of the new radiant- 
poiut in Orion, and of the extensions (apparently) of old radiant-points, pointed 
out by Mr. Greg. Some attempts to explain this singular peculiarity and 
the striking instances of groups of radiant-points in the months of January 
and February have recently been published by Professor SchiapareUi, a fur- 
ther account of whose speculations on their probable history wUl be found at 
the close of this Report. 



OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. -89 

2. The Meteor-shower of November 1868, which was seen in its greatest 
brilliancy in the United States of America, and which was also partially 
recorded at Glasgow, by Professor Grant, between 5 and 6 o'clock on the 
morning of the 14th of November, was observed at the same hours in the 
north of Scotland, and described in the ' Journal of the Scottish Meteorolo- 
gical Society' (for December 1868) : — ^^ Meteors and Falling-stars. — The star- 
shower of the 13th and 14th of November was observed at many of the 
stations. In the north it was very fine. Mr. Clark, the observer at North 
Unst, writes : — ' On the morning of the 14th there was a great falling of 
shootiug-stai's from all directions of the sky ; it was something like a shower 
of stars.' And the Rev. Dr. Hamilton observes that at Bressay ' There 
was an extraordinary meteoric shower, which continued from 3"" 30™ a.m. of 
the 13th [? 14th] till the sun rose, and the number of stars or meteors falling 
was innumerable.' " The following descriptions of its appearance in Swit- 
zerland are given by Dr. Rudolf Wolf in his 'Astronomical Contributions': — 
'« 1868, November 13th : from 12'' 5"> to 12'^ 15"" I saw four, from 12'^ IS" 
to 12" 30" nine, and from 12'^ 30" to 12'^ 40" two brilliant meteors radia- 
ting from the constellation Leo. The sky (up to the latter time quite clear) 
then clouded over from the east, and all further view of the meteors at 
Ziirich was prevented. Mr. Rieder, at Klosters, reports: — 'As an unusual 
phenomenon I have to state that at 4*^ 15" on the morning of the 14th of 
November, 1868, an extraordinary number of shooting- stars were visible in 
the western sky ; from five untU six o'clock a real rain of shooting-stars took 
place, diffusing such great brightness that one might easily have read by 
their light. Several of the meteors left streaks of bright light in the sky, 
which remained visible for two or three seconds.' At Eugelberg ' from five 
until after six o'clock a.m. on the morning of the 14th of November, repeated 
flashes of lightning were perceived, and shortly before five o'clock a swiftly 
passing flash, like a ball of light, was observed, whilst the sky was com- 
pletely overcast.' " An admirably compiled history of the November pheno- 
menon in the year 1868, comprising the exact details of observations at aU 
the places where it was well observed, and notices of its general description 
at places in all parts of Europe, the United States of America, and the 
Atlantic, where it was witnessed, is published in his Memoirs V. and VI., on 
' Shooting-stars of November 1868 and August 1869,' by Sig. F. Denza. The 
same volume contains (in the sixth memoir) an equally full collection of obser- 
vations and theoretical deductions of great value regarding the appearance of 
the August meteor-shower in the year 1869. Among the latter may be cited 
the suggestion of Professor Newton *, borne out by the observations of the 
shower made in America, and by those of Professor Serpieri at Urbino in 
that yearf, that the radiant-region of the Perseids is in reality a narrow, 
elongated space extending from near the cluster at ^ Persei to the star B 
(B. A. C. 1058) Camelopardi. The radiant-region of the Leonids in the pre- 
vious year was similarly observed by Professor Newton to be better repre- 
sented by a short line extending between the stars e, y Leonis, from about the 
star .r, in the centre of the Sickle (B. A. C. 3423), to the latter star, than by a 
single point. The direction of elongation of the radiant-region is towards the 
sun's apparent place, a conclusion which is regarded by Prof. Newton as throw- 
ing light of some importance upon the theory of the November meteor-stream. 

* Bulletins of the Eoyal Academy of Sciences of Belgium, ser. 2. vol. xxvi. 1868, 
pp. 450, 451. 

t Letter from Prof. Serpieri to Prof. Scliiaparelli, January 5th, 1870 ; communicated 
to the Royal Institute of Sciences of Lombardy. 



40 REPORT 1871. 

3. TJie August Shower in 1870. — In the 'Meteorological Bulletin' of the 
Moncalieri Observatory for October 1870, the first results of observations in 
Piedmont on the star-shower of the 10th and 11th of August last are com- 
municated. As already observed in the last Report, the frequency of the 
meteors did not exceed the ordinary average of the shower, and they were 
somewhat more frequent on the night of the 10th than on that of the 11th 
of August. They appeared to proceed from several radiant-points, besides 
the principal one of the shower, in Perseus. Among the contemjjoraneous 
radiant-points, T^, Pj (the former occurring in August in Pegasus, and the 
latter usually appearing in Auriga in the latter part of September) were 
observed to be conspicuous. 

4. The November Shower in 1870. — The preparations made for recording 
the return of the November meteors in 1870 were in a great measure disap- 
pointed by the cloudy state of the sky at several of the English stations. 

The following letter from Mr. Backhouse announced a more favourable 
condition of the sky at Sunderland on the morning of the 14th of November 
than that which prevailed at Manchester, Birmingham, York, and London, 
where no meteors of the shower could be observed : — 

" Between 2" 20"° and 3'' 42"^ a.m., on the 14th, I watched for meteors ; I 
only saw seven in fifty-six minutes, watching in a cloudless sky. Of these 
only four belonged to the shower. I enclose the particulars. I did not 
watch much on the morning of the 15th. It was mostly cloudy, and I saw 
no meteors." — Of the conformable meteors two left trains, one was station- 
ary close to, and the others radiating very nearly from, the small star x 
Leonis. The unconformable meteors appeared with short courses in and near 
the constellation Taurus, and of these one was as bright as Sirius. It was 
of a yellow colour, describing a path of 3°, near e Arietis, from the direction 
of the Pleiades, and it left no streak. 

Five meteors, from undetermined radiant-points, were seen through breaks 
in the clouds by Mr. J. E. Clark, at York, on the morning of the 14th, and 
two Leonids of some brightness, in a watch of one hour (interrupted by the 
clouds), on the morning of the 1.5th of November. 

On the morning of the 14th of November the sky was clear at Glasgow 
from 2^ lO™ until 5'' 15"" a.m., and twenty-six meteors were recorded by 
Mr. A. S. Herschel, of which twenty-one were conformable. Of the latter 
the paths of eleven, prolonged backwards, crossed, and of five passed close to 
the curve of Leo's sickle. Seven meteors left persistent streaks, which were 
faintly visible in the full moonlight. The proportion of magnitudes of the 
conformable meteors was :— 

Of meteors equal to or brighter than a ist-mag. » ; 2nd do. ; 3rd do. ; 4th do. 
Number of meteors seen 3 675 

Meteors of smaller magnitudes were rendered invisible by the moon's light ; 
and the most striking conformable meteor of the shower, recorded at 
4'' 25" A.M., was as bright as Sirius. It described a course of 25°, directed 
nearly from fi Leonis, in three-quarters of a second, and left a broad streak 
on its whole path for two seconds. The following numbers of conformable 
and unconformable meteors were recorded in the half-hours ending at 

hm hm hm hm hm hm 

1870, November 14th, a.m 2 40 3 10 3 40 4 10 440 5 10 

Conformable meteors 146253 

Unconformable meteors i o o 4 o o 

In the fii'st and last half-hours the sky was partially concealed by clouds ; 
at 3** 38" A.M. a group of three first-, second-, and third-magnitude meteors, 



OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 41 

leaving streaks directed from Leo, appeared almost together. In the next 
half-hour two meteors, directed apparentlj'' from Cor Caroli, appeared to be 
unconformable to the Leo radiant. The remaining unconformable meteors 
aU proceeded from the direction of a radiant-point in Taurus. At 5'' 15™ a.m. 
the sky became completely overcast ; but a shooting-star from the direction 
of Leo, of first magnitude, was observed by Mr. E,. Maclure, at 6'' 20™ a.m., 
through an opening of the clouds. On the morning of the 15th the sky at 
Glasgow was again completely overcast. 

On the evening of the 13th a bright meteor (described in the above List) 
was seen at the Eoyal Observatory, Greenwich, and three vivid flashes of 
light, between 12"^ 15™ and 12'' 30™ a.m., on the 14th, which must have pro- 
ceeded from large meteors, at an altitude of about 20°, due S. were seen 
through the clouds, which from this time overspread the sky during the 
remainder of the night. On the morning of the 15th a clear sky enabled 
Mr. Glaisher's staff of observers to make continuous observations of the 
meteors visible in the bright moonlight, from midnight until 5'' 33™ a.m., 
when the sky was again quite obscured bj" clouds. Fifty-three meteors were 
recorded, in this interval by the five observers, the apparent paths of forty- 
five of which were traced upon a map. Of the meteors so recorded, twenty- 
eight proceeded from the usual radiant-point in Leo, eight from a radiant- 
point situated apparently not far from Cor Caroli, seven from a radiaut-point 
between Taurus and Musca, and two meteors from uncertain radiant-points. 

The following were the numbers of the meteors observed in the successive 
half-hours ending at 

hm hhm h hm h hm h hm h hm 
1870, November 15th, A.M. ... 1230 i 130 a 230 3 3 30 4 4 30 5 530 Total 
Number of meteors seen 2 232217687 13 53 

A very beautiful meteor of bluish-white colour, and of the apparent size and 
brightness of Jupiter, proceeding apparently from the direction of the radiant- 
point in Musca, descended towards the east, at 4'' 45™ 25* a.m., through an 
arc of more than 25°, in about three seconds, leaving a streak of light upon 
its course. Most of the conformable meteors left a persistent train, but none 
of those observed rivalled this fine meteor in brightness or in length of 
course. The proportion of apparent magnitudes of the remaining meteors, 
seen during the watch is shown in the following list : — 

Brighter tban first-magnitude stars ; =i8tdo. ; =2nd do. ; = 3rd do. Total 
Number of meteors seen 6 24 17 5 52 

From these descriptions of the meteor-shower it appears that, on both the 
mornings of the 14th and 15th of November, the number of the conformable 
meteors considerably exceeded that of the unconformable meteors which 
appeared duiing the hours of the continued watch ; but that the scale of the 
shower, as it was observed iu England, was very far inferior to the brightness 
with which it was recorded in the preceding year. 

At Tooting, near London, Mr. H. W. Jackson observed on the mornings of 
the 14th, 15th, and 16th of November, and noted one shooting-star on the 
night of the 13th, but failed, on account of haze and clouds, followed by rain 
during the morning of the 14th, in securing another observation. Between 
midnight and 1^ 55™ a.m., on the morning of the 1.5th, eight meteors were 
carefully observed and mapped, and four or five smaller meteors were seen, 
all but two of which (of short course, near the radiant-point in Taurus) were 
conformable to the Leo radiant-point. Of these, the brightest, at l** 5™ a.m., 
which left a long streak, was simultaneously observed at Greenwich. Of the 
two unconformable meteors, that which appeared at 12'' 7™ a.m. was white 



42 REPORT 1871. 

and nearly as bright as Jupiter, moving for two seconds in a slightly curved 
course from r to \p Orionis, and leaving a short streak upon its track. 
Flashes of faint reddish lightning were perceived at 12'' 28" and 12'' SS" a.m. 
Between 12'' 30"" and 1" 30"" a.m. on the morning of the 16th some meteors 
were observed, but did not appear to present features worthy of special note. 
At Newhaven, in the United States, three observers noted, in three hours, 
thirty-one meteors, of which only six were conformable to the radiant-point 
in Leo. On the following morning (the 14th) Professor Newton, with five 
other observers, obtained the following enumeration of the meteors visible in 
the half-hours ending at 1870, November 14th, a.m. : — 

hm h hmhhmhhmhhmhm 

(1870, November 1 3tb, P.M.... 1 1 30 12) 1230 i 130 2 230 3 330 345* Totals 

Conformable meteors o i 5 10 12 9 15 8 12 7 79 

Unconformable meteors 6 8 4 7 810157 7 2 74 

After 3'' 45"" the sky was so nearly overcast that regular counting was 
abandoned, while in open spaces of the sky it was still apparent that up to 
six o'clock no marked increase in the number of the meteors had taken place. 
After half-past five, however, the clouds already began more nearly to cover 
the sky. (American Journal of Science and Arts, vol. i., January 1871.) 

5. Meteor-shower of December 12t7i, 1870. — The state of the sky was not 
generally favourable for observations, Mr. H. W. Jackson reporting from 
Louth that on the nights of the 12th and 13th the sky was overcast, with 
frequent rain from 8" 30"" p.m. on the night of the 12th. At Glasgow, York, 
and Manchester it was equally obscured. At Birmingham Mr. "W. H. Wood 
was more fortunate in securing a short view of the sky on one of the periodic 
nights, and the following is his description of the shower : — • 

"The overcast state of the skies from the 10th to the 13th permitted only 
of a partial view of the character of the shower, which occurred during a 
temporary clearance of the sky for one hour only, from 11'' 30"" p.m. on the 
12th to 12'' 30'" A.M. on the 13th. Five meteors were recorded in three- 
quarters of an hour, radiating accurately from radiant G (6 Geminorum). 
Meteors white or blue, and trainless (one observer)." A list of the recorded 
paths, and a description of the meteors seen, accompanies Mr. Wood's report. 
The position of the radiant-point from which the meteors approximately 
diverged was near the stars k- and g, in Gemini. 

No observations were recorded, owing to a cloudy state of the sky, on the 
shower-meteor nights of the 1st and 2nd of January, 1871. 

6. Meteor-shower of April 20th, 1871. — The last weU-marked appearance 
of the ApiH meteor-shower, to the annual occurrence of which attention 
was first drawn by Herrick, in the United States, took place on the morning 
of the 21st of April, 1863 1, when, for a few hours, meteors were observed 
by Mr. Wood, at Weston-super-Mare, to be as frequent as in a moderately 
bright August star-shower. Two Julian intervals of four years each having 
elapsed since that occurrence, the astronomical conditions of its reappearance 
suggested special preparations and a simultaneous watch, which were ac- 
cordingly made for its return. Besides the staflp of observers at the Eoyal 
Observatory, Greenwich, Mr. Glaisher's son, Mr. James Glaisher, volunteered 
to take part in the observations at Cambridge, where Professor Adams also 
offered his aid, to join in recording the shooting-stars which might be visible at 
the Obsei-vatory. The other observers who awaited the display were those 
who have most frequently assisted the Committee by their recorded observa- 
tions at Glasgow, York, Manchester, Birmingham, and London. Such, how- 

* In a quarter of an hour. t. Eeport for 1863, p. 325. 






OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 43 

ever, was the unfavourable state of the sky which prevailed during the 
forty-eight hours intended to have been devoted to the watch (and which 
continued to prevent further observations during the last remaining nights 
of the months of April), that with the exception of a few meteors of the 
shower observed by Mr. Wood at Birmingham, and of the corresponding 
group of meteors recorded by Mr. Herschel at Bury St. Edmunds, no un- 
broken series of observations were received. The sky first became quite clear 
at the latter place at 9*^ 30" p.m., and the following numbers of meteors were 
seen in the half-hours ending at — 

h m h h m h h m h h m 

1871, April 20 p.m. 9 30 10 1030 11 11 30 12 (12 30 a.m. April 21). Total. 

Number of meteors seen ...31 31 11 6 25 

All but eight of their apparent paths, projected upon a map, when prolonged 
backwards, pass across a circular area about 15° in width, of which the 
centre is at a point in R. A. 267°, N. Decl. 35°. Nine of these conformable 
meteors left bright trains. Of the eight unconformable meteors, four are 
widely erratic meteors of the same shower, and the remaining four moving 
in the opposite direction were directed from an unknown radiant-point in the 
south. The path of one of the latter was remarkably serpentine in the latter 
portion of the meteor's course. The following are the numbers of meteors of 
the different magnitudes observed : — 

As bright as Jupiter or Sirius. As 1st mag. star. 2nd. Srd. 4th. 5t.h. Total. 
3 4 S 5 4 4 25 

The last meteor was observed at 12'' 35™ a.m. on the 21st. The sky then 
rapidly clouding over did not permit the progress of the shower, at Bury St. 
Edmunds, to be further watched. On the previous and on the following 
night the sky was also cloudj\ 

At Birmingham Mr. W. H. "Wood recorded the appearance of nine 
shooting-stars between the hours of lO"" 20™ and 11''30™ p.m. on the night of 
the 20th of April, five of which were noted in the fii'st, and four in the latter 
half of the watch ; five meteors diverged from the constellation Lyra, three 
from that of Corona, and the remaining meteor moved transversely to the 
former ones from the neighbourhood of Polaris. The numbers of meteors 
seen of different magnitudes were, l = Sirius, 2 = lst mag.*, l = 3rd do., 
5 = 4th do. : total 9 meteors. The brightest meteor of the shower moved with a 
nucleus of briUiaut blue, flickering light, about the brightness of Sirius, from the 
direction of Corona. Soon after half-past 11 o'clock the sky became over- 
cast, and remained so at I'' and 2^ a.m. on the morning of the 21st, when 
regular watching was abandoned. The maximum, as far as could be ascer- 
tained from these observations, occurred after midnight on the morning of 
the 21st ; the rate of apparition for one observer, while the sk)'^ was clear, 
being seven or eight per hour between ten and eleven o'clock, and twelve or 
fifteen per hour during the half-hour immediately before and that imme- 
diately after midnight. Between ll** 15™ and 11'' 45™ p.m. on the night of 
the 2ist, Mr. Wood observed no meteors at Birmingham, although one-third 
of the sky was visible, quite clear, through the broken clouds. The appear- 
ance of the April shower in this year appears, therefore, to have taken place 
on the date and at about the hour expected for its return, from the time 
of its last conspicuous appearance. 

7. Meteor-shower of July 1871. — At sea, between Norway and England, 

Mr. A. S. Herschel watched for the periodical meteors (first pointed out by 

. Capocci, at Naples) on the night of the 16th of July. The sky was perfectly 

clear from ll** p.m. until 2'' a.m. on the morning of the 17th of July, and 



44 REPORT 1871. 

seventeen meteors were observed, six in the first, six in the' second, and 
five in the third hour of the watch. On the night of the 17th the sky was 
again clear ; but three meteors only were observed in three-quarters of an 
hour, between 10'' 55" and ll*" 40" p.m. The meteors observed on both 
nights were small, and appeared generally with short courses near a radiant- 
region around tt Herculis, from which they appeared to diverge. The num- 
ber of meteors seen of the different magnitudes were, 2 = 1st mag.*, 4=2nd, 
4= 3rd, 6= 4th, 4 = 5th : total 20 meteors seen in 3| hours by one observer, 
in a clear sky, with no moon. 

V. Papers relating to Meteoric AsTROifOMT. 

1. Under the title * Alcuni Resiiltati Preliminari tratti dalle osservazioni 
di SteUe Cadcnti publicate neUe Effemeride degli anni 1868, 1869, 1870;' 
Professor Schiaparelli communicates, in connexion with the three Catalogues 
of Shooting-Stars observed in Italy, published in the Ephemeris of the Milan 
Observatory for the years 1868, 1869, and 1870, a first report on the radiant- 
points obtained by mapping the meteor-tracks contained in them from Janu- 
ary to June. For a convenient nomenclature of the radiant-points, the year 
is divided into seventy-two pentads, of five days each, of which six are con- 
tained in every month. While the first five pentads in every month are 
complete, the sixth, and last, consists of three, four, five, or six days, ac- 
cording to the length of the month to which it belongs. Since, however, the 
observations for a single night of the year only (collected from all the years) 
are combined together to detect the radiant-points, of which several may 
occur in each pentad, the letters of the alphabet added to the Roman num- 
ber of a pentad (thus, XIX. a) designate the radiant-points in those pentads in 
the order in which they were successively discovered by Professor Schia- 
parelli. Besides a strict separation of meteors observed on one from those 
observed on the next following or on the next preceding night, to avoid the 
risk of confusing together meteors belonging to different radiant-points under 
a false assemblage of two radiant-points into a single meteoric-shower. Pro- 
fessor Schiaparelli distinguishes as different meteor-currents those whose 
radiant-points, as shown by laying down the recorded paths, are more than 
10° apart. The precision with which the radiant-points must be determined 
(from the shooting-star observations of a sinr/le night) is necessarily very 
great, in order that this rule may be rigorously appUed. Even omitting the 
errors of observation (which are frequently considerable), it is found that 
different meteoric showers present different characters of radiation. In some 
the radiant-region is small, and the meteor-tracks prolonged backwards meet 
nearly in a point, when it is caUed " exact "; in others it is larger, the meteor- 
tracks prolonged backwards crossing each other in a confused manner over a 
considerable apparent space, in which case it is called " diffuse." The 
shooting -stars which make their appearance witliin the radiant-region (when 
this is rather large) may appear to be moving in every variety of opposite direc- 
tions, and their paths are usually noticed to be extremely foreshortened by 
perspective in this position. Lastly, if they diverge from two or more points 
the character of the radiation is said to be double or multiple ; and it ap- 
pears probable, on certain theoretical grounds, which will be shortly stated, 
that a diffuse radiant-region in general arises from the close assemblage of 
many radiant-points togetherinto a multiple group. The November meteor- 
shower is an example of exact, and the August star-shower an instance 
either of multii^le or of diffuse radiation, according to the various descriptions 
of the observers who have examined the direction of its radiant-point most 



OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 45 

attentively. Meteoric showers composed principally of very smaU shooting- 
stars are confined to the parts of the heavens immediately surrounding the 
radiant-point ; while those consisting of large meteors spread far from the 
centre of divergence, the meteors (apparently from their brightness) being as 
plainly visible when they are seen by transverse as when they are seen fore- 
shortened by very oblique vision. Meteor- showers of the former kind are 
called "contracted"; and of the latter kind "extended" (stretta; larga). The 
foregoing are the principal terms employed by Professor Schiaparelli in de- 
scribing the meteor-showers of which the positions of the radiant-points have 
now been published. The explanation of the phenomena of " diffuse " and 
" multiple " radiant-points is ingeniously supplied by Professor Schiaparelli 
in the following manner. A very small nebular mass of meteoroids or of 
cometoids having been deflected from its original parabolic (or very excen- 
tric) into an orbit of moderate period round the sun by the attraction of some 
powerful planet in its path, the foremost and swiftest particles of the stream 
produced by this disturbance gradually gaining, and the slowest losing 
ground on the central particles of the mass, an elongated form of the mass is 
gradually assumed directed along the line of the meteoric orbit. The dif- 
ference of velocity, or of periodic time, between the foremost and hindmost 
particles of the row is sufficient to ensure the gradual lengthening of the line, 
until the foremost particle joins with the last in forming a continuous ring or 
wreath of meteoric substance closing the orbit of the original meteoric clond. 
Should the two ends, before meeting each other (as must usually be the case), 
have undergone different pertui'bations from the action of the planets, in- 
stead of exactly overtaking the retreating end, the foremost end of the wreath 
will overlap it, and the meteor-stream will begin to assume the form of a 
spiral curve of a single coil. When the foremost end has gained two revolu- 
tions upon the retreating one, a spiral of two coils wiU be produced ; and 
continuing this process during many revohitions gained by one end of the 
coil upon the other, the wreath of meteoroids, without losing its continuity, 
wiU at last form an endless hoop, or belt, of many strands overlying and 
interlacing with each other in as many convolutions as the fastest particles 
have gained revolutions in their course upon the slower ones. The direction 
and velocity of the particles in one of the strands wiU also differ as widely as 
their positions from those of particles in a neighbouring strand, and the whole 
wreath, without ever losing its perfect continuity from end to end, will cross 
and recross itself in constantly going and returning waves. In these stages 
of transformation a meteoric stream woiild si;ccessively exhibit the characters 
of double and multiple radiant-points. Supposing the same process to con- 
tinue,, and new perturbations of the stream to be constantly deflecting par- 
ticles fi'om the front or rear into different courses, these particles overtaking 
each other at the point where the earth passes through the stream would 
produce the mixed assemblage of radiant-points and of dii'ections of the 
meteors of the August shower, which give it the character of multiple or of 
diffuse radiation. In the following list of radiant-points those marked with 
an asterisk (*) were described in the last Eeport (1870, p. 98) ; those at the 
end of the list are not included by Prof. Schiapai'elli in his present list, which 
only represents the most important radiant-points observed, at present, in the 
first half of the year. In the cases where their identity with radiant-points 
in Heis's list, or in that of the British Association t, is suggested by Pro- 
fessor Schiaparelh, the position and duration of those radiant-points are 
added for comparison in the same columns of the Table. 

t Eeport for 1868, p. 401 et seq. 



46 



REPORT 1871. 



List of the Principal Meteoric showers occurring in the first half of the year whose radian 
points are derived from observations of shooting-stars in Italy, published in the Ephemerid 
of the Milan Observatory, for the years 18G8, 1869, and 1870. By G. V. SchiapareUi. 



Sign or 
Symbol. 


Date and 

duration of 

shower. 


Apparent 
Position. 


Cliaracter of 
radiation. 


Characters of the Meteors, 
General Remarks, &c. 


Authority. 


a,. 


h. 










[act. 






II «. 


.Jan. 6 


199 


+ 58 


Contracted and ex- 


Observed in 1868 and 1869 


SchiapareUi 


II A. 


Jan. 6 


7 7 

175 
J'i84 
I182 
(172 
I187 


+48 
+ 28 
+ 29 

+ 31I 
+40/ 






Ill a*. 


Jan. 11-12 




,, ,j ,, •• 

Jan. II, j869'1 






[MG,. 


Jan. 1-25... 




dan, 12, 1 6 09 J 

Maximum Jan. 24 


R. P. Greg. 






III^.. 


Jan. 12 ... 


197 


+ 59 


Contracted and ex- 
act. 


Jan. 12, 1869 (traces on Jan. 11, 
1869), possibly a continuation of 

TT n 


SchiapareUi 


lYa*. 


Jan. 18 ... 


232 


+ 36 


Most certain and 
exact. 


A splendidly well-defined meteor- 
shower. Jan. 18 (traces on Jan. 
19), 1869. 


ii 


IV A. 


.Jan. 19 ... 
Jan. 19 ... 


198 

220 


+28 
+40 




Jan. 19 (traces on the i8th), 1869 . 
Many small meteors Jan. 19 {no 
trace on the i8th), i86g. 




IV c. 




1) 








» 


IV d. 


Jan. 19 ... 


200 


+ 58 


Contracted and ex- 
act. 


Jan. 19 (no traces on i8th), 1869; 
apparently independent of II a, 
III A, and Yb from absence of 
intermediate meteors. 


>» 


Ya. 


Jan. 21 ... 


205 


4-49 




Jan. 2 1 (no trace on 1 9th and 20th), 
1869. Independent of the ra- 










)» 












diants IV fZ, Via. 




Yb. 


Jan. 24 ... 


200 


+ 56 


Uncertain to 5 ° ; 
diffuse, perhaps 
multiple. 


Jan. 24, 1868, many meteors. ?Con- 
nected with VI a, VI b: see 
the following Table (p. 48). 


»J 


Yla. 


Jan. 25-27 


205 


+47 


Uncertain to 5° ... 


Chiefly Jan. 27, 1868. (Perhaps 
identical with the last ?) 


»» 


VI 5. 


Jan. 29 ... 


198 


+ 54 


Extended ; diffuse, 
perhaps multiple. 


Jan. 29, 1868. No traces of this 
shower on Jan. 28. 


)t 


Vic*. 


Jan. 28 ... 


236 


+^5 


Extended ; confus- 
ed, but distinct. 


Jan. 28, 1868. ? If connected with 
VI d Jan. 30 ; no intermediate 
meteors. 


1 


Ylg*. 


Jan. 28 ... 


67 


+25 


Diffuse 


Jan. 28, 1868. [Probably identical 
with the next.] 


■ 


J 




/ 




" ■ 


[AGj. 


Dec.2o-Feb. 


68 


+20 


Elongated and dif- 
fuse. 
Extended, uncer- 


Maximum Dec. 24 


R. P. Greg.; 


Y\d. 


6. 
Jan. 30 ... 


225 


+ 34 


Jan. 30, 1868. ?Connected with 










tain to 10°. 


VI c, VI e ; but no intermediate 
meteors with IV a. 




Vie. 


Jan. 31 ... 


221 


+ 28 


Contracted ; well- 
defuied. 


Jan. 31, 1868. ?Connected in one 
group with IV a, IV c, VI c and 

VI d : see following Table (p. 48).' 


^H 


viy*. 


Jan. 31 ... 


134 


+40 


Few meteors 


Jan. 31, 1868. Traces on preced- 
ing evenings. 


^1 


[Ml, ,. 
Vila. 


Jan. a-Peb. 

9- 
Feb. 3 


128 

153 


+40 
+21 




Maximum Jan. 25—31 


R. P. GreJ 


Contracted and ex- 


Feb. 3, 1869 ; a few traces on pre- 


SchiapareB 










act. 


ceding nights. 


^M 


Xa*. 


Feb. 16 ... 


74 


+48 


Apparently double 


Feb. 16, 1868. Traces on the 15th. 


~^^H 






(71 


+41) 


and exact. 


A few meteors only from the se- 
cond radiant-point. Identical 
with the next. 




[A3, 4- 


Feb. 9-17 . 


73 


4-40 


Well-defined and 
limited. 




R. P. Grej 







OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 



47 



Date and 

duration of 

shower. 



Apparent 
Position. 



Cliaracter of 
radiation. 



Characters of the Meteors, 
General Remarks, &c. 



Authority. 



Feb. 15-28 
Mar. 20 ... 



Mar. 16-31 
Mar. 31- 
Apr. 2. 



Apr. 2-3 . 



nil a*. 



^Pr- 9 

Apr- 9 

Apr. 10 .. 

Apr. II .. 



Apr. 1-15 
Apr. 20 .. 
Apr. 20 .. 

Apr. 14 .. 



Apr. 45 ... 



Apr. 30- 
May I. 

Apr. 23- 
June 4. 
May I -3 1 . 
June 13-14 



May 6- 
June 20. 



76 

144 



150 
260 
262 



258 
260 

246 
163 



+40 
+48 



+47 
+ 46 

+49 



+ 36 

+40 
+ 36 

+46 
+47 



193 +11 



18s 
199 
160 

167 



142 



237 

237 
23s 

232 
280 



2S0 



+22 
+ '4 
+49 

+47 



+ 53 



+ 35 

+ 35 
+ 50 

+27 
+ 3S 



+ 39 



Centre of an elon- 
gated radiant-re 
gion. 



Mar. 20, 1868. From a = 130° 
5= +46° to a = 162° 5= -1-60°; 
evidently identical with the next. 



Extended; unexact 



Mar. 31, 1868 1 Endures three days. 

April 2, 1868 I Perhaps connected 
and 1 8 69... J as a twin-radiant 
■with the next. 

Apr. 2, 1868 1 Distinct from but 
and 1S69 I may belong to the 

Apr. 3, 1868 I same family as Greg's 

Apr. 9, 1869 J QHj with centre near 
TT Herculis. 

Apr. 9, 1869. Twin -radiant with 
the last. 

Apr. 10, 1869. Traces on Apr. 9 
?If connected with XXI b ; no in- 
termediate meteors. 

Apr. II, 1869; no traces on adja- 
cent nights : belongs to tlie same 
family as the two next. 



Well - determined 
and exact. 



Apparently belonging to the same 

family as XX c and XXI b. 
Apr. 14, 1868 and 1869. Connect 

ed by no meteors with XX c, 

among many observed on inter 

mediate nights. 
Apr. 25, 1868. Appears to have no 

connection with any other me 

teoric shower. 
Apr. 30, 1867 1 Apparently con 

and 1868... I nected or identical 
May I, 1868 J with the two next. 



Well-defined 



June 13, 1869. On this and pre- 
vious evening some meteors from 
direction of Vega (ZezioH). 

June 14, 1869. Perhaps identical 
or of the same system with the 
next. 



Heis.] 
Schiaparelli. 



Heis.] 
Schiaparelli 



Heis. 

Heis.] 
Schiaparelli. 



E. P. Greg.] 

Heis.] 
Schiaparelli. 



E. P. Greg.] 



adiant-points contained in the former and omitted in the present list (see Eeport for 1870, p. 98.) 



Feb. 6 .. 
Apr. 13 
May 22 
June 30 



183 


+56^ 


231 


+ ^7. 
+ 25 ^ 
+ 19J 


232 


240 



SchiaparelH. 



many of the foregoing radiant-points, although separated from each other in position, or 

•ghts in -which no intermediate meteors were observed, nevertheless possess in common 

features of very close resemblance, they are regarded by Professor SchiapareUi 



48 



REPOKT 1871. 



as forming, in some cases, distinct meteor-systems or families of radiant- 
points, of which the principal, occurring in the first half of the year, may be 
grouped as follows : — 

Families or groups of Radiant-points. 



Sym- 
bol. 


Date. 


Position. 


General ^ 
centre. . 


S 
^g 


Sym- 
bol. 


Date. 


Position. 


General 
centre. 


Eefer- 
ence. 


a. 


S. 


a. 


S. 


II a. 
III*. 
IV d. 

Ya. 

Yb. 
Via. 
VI 6. 


Jan. 6 ... 

„ 12... 

„ 19- 
„ 21 ... 

„ 24... 

,. 25-^7 
„ 29... 



199 

197 

200 

205 

200 

205 

198 




+ 58 

+ 59 
+ 58 
4-49 
+ 56 
+47 
+ 54 


Between 
jj and 5 

Ursae 
Majoris. 


• & 
u 


XIX «. 

XIX 6. 
XXa. 

XX*. 


Mar. 31- 
Apr. 2. 

Apr. 2-3 

Apr. 9 ... 

Apr. 9 ... 

Mar. 15- 
Apr. 23 



261 

259 

^55 
246 
268 




+48 

+ 38 

+ 36 
+46 

+25 


■ S 2 r 

In Cerbe- 
rus. 


Scliiapa- 
relli. j 
1 

R. P. 
Greg.] 


IV a. 
IV c. 
Vic. 
Yld. 
Vie. 


Jan. 18... 
„ 19... 

„ 28... 
„ 30... 
.. 31- 


232 +36 

220 +40 
236+25 


Between 
a Coronje 

and 
5 Bootis. 




XXI a. 

[84- 

[«5- 


Apr. 1 1 . 
Apr. 1-15 
Apr. 20 . 


193 
185 
199 


+22 
+ 14 


Between 

S and e 

Virginis 


Schiapn. 

Heis.] 

Heis.] 


225 
221 


+28 


XX c. 

XXI *. 


Apr. 10 . 
Apr. 14 . 
Apr. 20 . 


163 
167 
160 


+47 
+47 
+49 


1 


Schiapa- 

relli. 
Heis.] 


:::::::::) 







Should the effect of planetary perturbations, which retarded the retiirn of 
Halley's comet in the year 1859 nearly one month from the time of its perihelion 
passage, as calculated by D'Alembert and Clairault, also explain the wide differ- 
ence between the separate coils of spiral meteoric streams apparently encoun- 
tered by the earth in the meteor-systems of which the above groups or families 
of radiant-points appear to present unmistakable examples, a new field of 
investigation in meteoric astronomy, and of future observation and reseai'ch, 
is beginning to unfold itself in these new and interesting discoveries. 

2. On Comets and Meteors, by Professor Kirkwood, Indiana University, 
U.S. (read before the American Philosophical Society, November 19, 1869). 
In an able treatise on " Meteoric Astronomy," already noticed in these 
Eeports (for 1868, p. 418), a short Appendix (B) at the end of the volume 
on " Comets and Meteors " expresses the views on their connexion which 
Professor Kirkwood communicated, so long ago as Jidy 1861, to the ' Danville 
Quarterly Review' for December in that year. "Different views are enter- 
tained by astronomers in regard to the origin of comets, some believing them 
to enter the solar system ah extra, others supposing them to have originated 
■within its limits. The former is the hypothesis of Laplace, and is regarded 

with favour by many eminent astronomers Now, according to 

Laplace's hypothesis, patches of nebulous matter have been left nearly in 
equilibrium in the interstellar spaces. As the si;n in his progress ap- 
proaches such clusters, they must, by virtue of his attraction, move towards 
the centre of our system, the nearer portions with greater velocity than the 
more remote. The nebulous fragments thus drawn into our system would 
constitute comets ; those of the same cluster would enter the solar domain at 
periods not very distant from each other. ... If we adopt Laplace's hy- 
pothesis of the origin of comets, we may suppose an almost continuous fall of 
primitive nebular matter toward the centre of our system — the drops of 
which, penetrating the earth's atmosphere, produce sj)oradic meteors, the 
larger aggregations forming comets. The disturbing influence of the planets 



OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 49 

may have transformed the original orbits of many of the former as well as of 
the latter into ellipses. It is an interesting fact that the motions of some 
luminons meteors (or cometoids, as, perhaps, they might be called) have been 
decidedly indicative of an origin beyond the limits of the planetary system. 
But how are the phenomena of periodic meteors to be accounted for in ac- 
cordance with this theory? 

" The division of Biela's comet into two distinct parts suggests several 
interesting questions in cometary physics. The nature of the separating 
force remains to be discovered ; ' but it is impossible to doubt that it arose 
from the divellent action of the sun, whatever may have been the mode of 
operation. A signal manifestation of the influence of the sun is sometimes 
afforded by the breaking up of a comet into two or more separate parts, on 
the occasion of its approach to the perihelion ' *. No less than six such in- 
stances are found distinctly recorded in the Annals of Astronomy, viz. : — 1. 
Ancient bipartition of a comet. — Seneca. 2. Separation of a comet into a 
number of fragments, 11 B.C. — Dion Cassius. 3. Three comets seen simul- 
taneously pursuing the same orbit, a.d. 896. — Chinese Records. 4. Probable 
sejDaration of a comet into parts, a.b. IQIS.—Hevelius. 5. Indications of 
seimration, 1661. — HeveVms. 6. Bipartition of Biela's Comet, 1845-46. 

" In \dew of these facts it seems highly probable, if not absolutely certain, 
that the process of division has taken place in several instances besides that 
of Biela's Comet. May not the force, whatever it is, that has produced one 
separation again divide the parts ? And may not this action continue until 
the fragments become invisible ? According to the theory now generally 
received, the periodic phenomena of shooting-stars are produced by the inter- 
section of the orbits of such nebulous bodies with the earth's annual path. 
Now there is reason to believe that these meteoric rings are very elliptical, 
and in this respect wholly dissimilar to the rings of primitive vapour which, 
according to the nebular hypothesis, were successively abandoned at the solar 
equator ; in other words, that the matter of which they are composed moves 
in cometary rather than in planetary orbits. May not our periodic meteors 
be the debris of ancient but now disintegrated comets, whose matter has be- 
come distributed round their orbits ? " 

These views, announced in the year 1861, were afterwards completely 
established by the calculations of Professor Newton and Professor Schia- 
pareUi regarding the real orbital velocities of shooting-stars, proving them 
to move, generally, in parabolic, or cometic, rather than in planetary orbits ; 
and by the astonishing discovery in the year 1866, by Professor Schiaparelli, 
of the almost absolute identity of the orbit of Tuttle's Comet (III. 1862) with 
that of the August, and of the orbit of Temple's Comet (I. 1866) with that 
of the November meteor-stream, supposing (as the researches of Professor 
Newton and Professor Adams amply prove) that the latter, and presumably 
also the former of those meteor-clouds revolve in elliptic orbits of such 
considerable length, as not to differ much from the comets in their times 
of revolution. In his communication to the American Philosophical Society, 
Professor Kirkwood retraces the recent researches of Hoek, Leverrier, and 
SchiapareUi respecting the probable circumstances of the introduction of 
comets and periodical shooting-stars ab extra into the limits of the planetary 
system. The disturbing force by which their cosmical orbits were converted 
into elliptic ones of short periods (it is found in harmony with the preceding 
theory) was probably the overpowering attraction of one of the larger planets 
near to which the cosmical bodies first entered the limits of the solar system. 

* Grant's ' History of Physical Astronomy,' p. 302. 
1871. I 



50 



REPORT 1871. 



In the following Table Professor Kirkwood compares together the aphelion 
distances of the several known comets of short periods with the mean dis- 
tances of the several larger planets from the sun : — 



2 a 



Comets. 



Encke's . . . 
1S19, IV.... 
De Vice's. . . 
Pigott's "1 

(1783)/ 
1867,11.... 

1743. 1 

1766,11. ... 

8. :i8i9, III... 

9. Brorsen's . 

10. D'Arrest's , 

11. Faye's 

12. Biela's 






409 
4-81 

5'02 

5-28 

5-29 
5-32 

5 '47 
5-55 
5-64 

575 
5"93 
619, 



2. 

P-1 o 



-g 



^ a 

«.2 






1. 
2. 
3. 
4. 

5. 

6. 



Comets. 



Peter's (1846, VI.). 
Tattles (1858, I.) . 






9 '45 
10-42 



Saturns's mean 
distance 9' 54. 



1. 1867,1 

2. November Meteors. 



1866,1. 



i9'28 
1965 
19-92 



Westphal's (1852, IV.) 

Pons' (1812) 

Gibers' ('1815) 

|De Vice's (1846,1V.).. 
Brorsen's (1847, V.) .. 
Halley's 



31-97 
33-41 
34'o5 
34-35 
35-07 

35-37 



Uranus's mean 
distance 191 8. 



Neptune's mean 
distance 30-04. 



It is also evident that the passage of the solar system through a region of 
space comparatively destitute of cometie clusters would be indicated by a 
corresponding paucity of comets. Such variations of frequency are, indeed, 
found not only in the records of comets, but also of meteoric showers which 
have been accidentally recorded, the greater number of the latter having 
been observed during the five centuries between TOO a.d. and 1200 a.d., and 
again in those following a.d. 1700, suggesting that dm-ing the former and, 
perhaps, again during the present period the solar system is passing through 
a cosmical or meteoric cloud of very great extent, — not less, indeed, on the 
received speed of the sun's proper motion, than fourteen times the -width of 
Neptune's orbit. Professor Kirkwood adds, in particular reference to the 
August meteor-system, " The fact that the Aiigust meteors, which have been 
so often subsequently observed, were first noticed in 811 [see M. Quetelet's 
Catalogue of Star-showers] renders it probable that the cluster was intro- 
duced into the planetary system not long pre-viously to the year 800. It may 
be also worthy of remark that the elements of the comet of 770 a.d. are not 
very different from those of the August meteors and of the third comet of 
1682 " *. With regard to the sun's passage through 
a meteoric cloud of the above-considered dimen- 
sions and constitution it is noticed that the num- 
ber of coraetary perihelia found in the two qua- 
drants of longitude towards and from which the sun 
is moving is 159, or 62 per cent., and that of peri- 
helia in the two other quadrants is 98, or .38 per 
cent., shoAving their tendency to crowd together 
about the direction of the sun's proper motion in space. The large excess of 



260^ 




* The interval bet-ween tbe perihelion passage of 770 and that of 1862 is equal to 9 
periods of 121-36 years. Oppolzer's determination of the period of 1862, III., is 121-5 
years. Hind remarks that the elements of the Comet of 770 are " rather uncertain," but 
says " that the general character of the orbit is decided." It may be worthy of remari 
that a great meteoric sbo-wer, the exact date of which has not been preserved, occurred ir 
770. 



OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 51 

the number of the cometary perihelia closest to the sun in the forward qua- 
irants, relatively to the direction of his proper motion in space, is also re- 
garded as indicating the direction of the sun's motion through the meteor- 
;loud in a manner which the facts of observation evidently corroborate. 

3. On the Periods of certain Meteoric rings. By Professor Kirkwood (read 
;o the American Philosophical Society, March 4, 1870).— According to the 
iomputed elements of the Comet I. 1861 (by Oppolzer), first shown by Dr. 
Edmund Weiss (Astron. Kachr. no. 1632) to agree very closely with those of 
he April meteor-stream, its periodic time of revolution is 415-4 years. On 
he other hand, Professor Kirkwood points out that, without accepting a shorter 
)eriodic time of revolution, the former April displays recorded in ancient 
imes do not agree with the time of revolution of the comet. Adopting a 
)eriod of about 28^ years for the cycle of returns of the April shower, the 
vhole of the dates of its appearance selected by Professor ll^ewton as agre'eing 
veil with those of its most recent appearance in the present century are re- 
iresented with perfect accuracy by the following scheme : — 

Dates of former appearances. Interval in years. 

'>om B.C. 687 to B.C. 15 672-000=24 periods of 28-000 years each. 

B.C. IS to A.D. 582 597-000 = 21 „ 28-429 

A.D. 582 to A.D. 1093-714 (between] 

1093 and 1096) jSii7i4=i» „ 28-429 „ 

A.D. 1093-714 to 1222-143 28-429:^1 „ 28-429 

A.D. 1222-143 to 1803 680-857=24 „ 28-369 „ 

The periodical time of 28^ years corresponds to an ellipse whose major 
xis is 18-59, and whose aphelion distance is very nearly equal to the mean 
listance of the planet Uranus. A remark of Mr. Du Chaillu is here believed 
to be rightly recalled, that he observed the April meteors in the equatorial 
parts of Africa almost as brilliant, and leaving streaks more enduring than 
those of the great November meteor-shower (of which he was also an ob- 
server in England, in the year 1866). If the date of Mr. Du ChaiUu's obser- 
vation was about the year 1860, a corroboration of Professor Kirkwood'a 
cycle of 28^ years repeated twice since the great display of those meteors in 
the year 1803 would be thence derived. The April meteor-shower was also 
sufficiently bright in the year 1863 to make its approach to an epoch of 
maximum brilliancy in about that year a somewhat probable conjecture. 

Among the formerly recorded star-showers which appear to have certainly 
been connected with the December meteor-system. Professor Kirkwood points 
out a notice of such an occurrence in the year a.d. 901. Others are found 
to have taken place in the years 930, 1571, 1830, 1833, and 1836, with an 
apparent maximum in the year 1833, when as many as ten meteors were 
seen simultaneously. Finally, pretty abundant displavs of the shower were 
observed in the years 1861, 1862, and 1863, with a jprobable maximum in 
the year 1862. These dates indicate a period of about 29^ years, thus^ 

901 to 930 I period of 29000 years. 

930 to 1571 22 „ 29136 „ 

1571 to 1833 9 „ jg-iii ,, 

1833 to 1862 1 „ 29-000 „ 

A third meteoric shower, that of the 15th-21st of October, presents, again, 
a similar period of revolution. The recorded dates of apparitions which cor- 
respond m the times of their appearance with the present meteor-showers of 
the 15th-21st of October are the years a.d. 288, 1436 and 1439, 1743, and 
1798, on each of which occasions a great number of shooting-stars were 

e2 



52 REPORT 1871. 

seen. The periodic time of 27| years is well indicated by these dates, 
thus : — 

A.D. 288 to 1439 42 periods of 27-405 years each. 

1439 to 1743 II 1. 27-636 „ 

1743 to 1798 2 „ 27-500 „ 

" If these periods are correct, it is a remarkable coincidence that the 
aphelion distances of the meteoric rings of April 18th-20th, October 15th- 
21st, November 14th, and December llth-13th, as well as those of the 
comets 1866 I., and 1867 I. are all nearly equal to the mean distance of 
Uranus." 

4. Beitriige zur Kenntniss cler Sternschnuppen, von Dr. Edmund Weiss 
(Sitzungsberichte of the Imperial Academy of Vienna for January 16, 1868) 
presents a short summary of the mathematical problems required to be 
solved in the determination of the parabolic orbit, and the actual relative 
speed of the meteors' course in the atmosphere, from the known position of 
the radiant-point ; and shows how approximate calculations of the velocities 
of shooting-stars have led to discoveries, in proving certain periodical meteor- 
currents to be intimately connected with comets of which the orbits have 
recently been determined*. 

5, The Fuel of the Sun, by W. Mattieu WiUiams, F.C.S. (8vo, 222 pp. 
Simpkin and Marshall). — An attempt to explain convulsions of the sun's sur- 
face by planetary disturbances of a universal atmosphere collected in greatest 
density about the larger bodies of the solar system, and agitated by tides 
arising from their several attractions, is the theory for the establishment of 
which a collection of the greatest interest of recent observations of solar 
physics has been brought into a small compass by the author of the work, 
and is well directed to explain the chief phenomena of solar physics. The 
corona is regarded (Chapter XIII.) as originating in solar projectiles driven 
from its surface with eruptive violence. In the following chapter the source 
of meteorites is conjectured to be the solar projectiles which thus pass beyond 
the boundaries of the zodiacal light ; some of which being confined to revolve 
in two principal orbits outside of that luminary, and in several intermediate 
zones of irregularly and more thinly scattered projectiles, may be regarded 
as giving rise to the August and November, as well as to other minor and 
more or less regular meteoric displays. Somewhat more important specu- 
lations and descriptions of the meteorology of the moon and planets, as well 
as of the distribution of the nebulae, suggesting the stellar origin of some of 
those bodies, occupy the greater portion of the remainder of the work. 

* The velocity of the April meteors, or Lyraids, of the 20th of April meteoric shower, 
relatively' to the earth, is given in Dr. Weiss's list of radiant-points and relative velocities of | 
coraetary orbits, in the above paper, as 1-585, that of the earth in its orbit being unity. 
Adopting the value of 18-6 miles per second for the earth's mean orbital velocity, this gives 
the relative velocity of the Lyraids, or April shower-meteors, 29-5 miles per second ; very 
nearly that observed (30 miles per second) in the case of the only shooting-star of the shower 
doubly observed, as described in this Eeport, on the night of the 20th of April last. 



ON FOSSIL CRUSTACEA. 53 

Fifth Report of the Committee, consisting o/Henry Woodward, F.G.S., 
F.Z.S., Dr. Duncan, F.R.S., and R. Etheridge, F.R.S., on the 
Structure and Classification of the Fossil Crustacea, drawn up by 
Henry Woodward, F.G.S., F.Z.S. 

Since I had last the honour to present a Report on the Structure and Clas- 
sification of the Fossil Crustacea, I have published figures and descriptions of 
the following species, namely : — 

Decapoda Bbacittuka. 

1. liJuichiosoma hispinosa, H. Woodw. Lower Eocene, Portsmouth. 

2. echinata, H. W. Lower Eocene, Portsmouth. 

3. Palceocorystes glabra, H. "W. Lower Eocene, Portsmouth. All figured 
and described in Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. xxvii. p, 90, pi. 4. 

Decapoda Maceuea. 

4. Scyllaridia Belli, H. W. Loudon Clay, Sheppey. Geol. Mag. 1870, 
vol. vii. p. 493, pi. 22. fig. 1, 

Amphipoda. 

5. Necrogammarus Sahueyi, H. W. Lower Ludlow, Leintwardine. Figured 
and described Trans. Woolhope Club, 1870, p. 271, pi. 11. 

ISOPODA. 

6. Pcdcega Carteri, H. W. Lower Chalk, Dover, &c. Geol. Mag. 1870, 
vol. vii. p. 493, pi. 22. fig. 1. 

7. Prcearctun(s gigas, H. W. Old Red Sandstone, Rowlestone, Hereford- 
shire. Trans. Woolhope Club, 1870, p. 266. 

Merostomata. 

8. Eurgpterits Brodiei, H. W. Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. 1871, August. 
Trans. Woolhope Club, 1870, p. 276. 

Phyilopoda. 

*9. Dlihyrocaris tenuistriatus, M°Coy. Carboniferous Limestone, Settle, 
Yorkshire. 

10. Dithyrocaris Belli, H. W. Devonian, Gaspe, Canada. 

11. Ceratiocans Ludensis, H. W. Lower Ludlow, Leintwardine. 

12. Ceratiocaris Oretonensis, H. W. Carboniferous Limestone, Oreton, 
Worcestershii-e. 

13. Ceratiocaris truncatus, H. W. Carboniferous Limestone, Oreton, Worces- 
tershire. 

Figured and described in the Geol. Mag. 1871, vol. viii. p. 104, pi. 3. 

14. Cyclus bilobatus, H. W. Carboniferous Limestone, Settle, Yorkshire. 

15. torosus, H. W. Carboniferous Limestone, Little Island, Cork. 

16. Wrightii, H. W. Carboniferous Limestone, Little Island, Cork. 

17. ■ Harhnessi, H. W. Carboniferous Limestone, Little Island, Cork. 

*18. radialis, Phillips. Carboniferous Limestone, Settle, Yorkshire, 

Vise, Belgium. 
*19. Cyclus Rankini, H. W. Carboniferous Limestone, Carluke, Lanarkshire. 
[*20. " Brongniartianus," De Kon. Carboniferous Limestone, York- 
shire, Belgium.] 

21. Cyclus Jonesiamis, H. W. Carboniferous Limestone, Little Island, 
Cork. (These latter figured and described in the Geol. Mag. 1870, vol. vii. 
pi. 23. figs. 1-9.) 

[Those marked with an asterisk have been already figured, but have been 
redrawn and redescribed in order to add to or correct previous descriptions. 



54 REPORT 1871. 

Thus, for example, " Cydus Brongniartianus " proves upon careful examina- 
tion to be only the hypostome of a Trilobite belonging to the genus Phillijjsia. 
Ditliyrocaris tenuistratus is identical with Avicula pco-adoxides of De Koninck, 

&c.]' 

Since noticing the occurrence of an Isopod, Palcega Carteri, from the 
Kentish, Cambridge, and Bedford Chalk, Dr. Ferd. Eoemer, of Breslau, has 
forwarded me the cast of a specimen of the same crustacean from the Chalk 
of Upper Silesia. This, together with the example from the Miocene of 
Turin, gives a very wide geographical as weU as chronological range to this 
genus. 

A still more remarkable extension of the Isopoda in time is caused by the 
discovery of the form which I have named Prceardurus in the Devonian of 
Herefordshire, apparently the remains of a gigantic Isopod resembling the 
modern Arcturus Bcrffinsii. 

I have also described from the Lower Ludlow a form which I have referred 
with some doubts to the Amphipoda, under the generic name of Necrogam- 
marus. 

Bepresentatives both of the Isopoda and Amphipoda vrill doubtless be 
found in numbers in our Palaeozoic rocks, seeing that Macruran Decapods 
are found as far back as the Coal-measures*, and Brachyurous forms in the 

Oolites f. 

Indeed the suggestion made by Mr. Billings as to the Trilobita being fur- 
nished with legs (see Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. xxvi. pi. 31. fig. 1), if 
established upon further evidence, so as to be applied to the whole class, 
would carry the Isopodous type back in time to our earliest Cambrian rocks. 

I propose to carry out an investigation of this group for the purpose of 
confirming Mr. Billings's and my own observations, by the examination of a 
longer series of specimens than have hitherto been dealt with. In the mean 
time the authenticity of the conclusions arnved at by Mr. Billings having 
been called in question by Drs. Dana, Verrill, and Smith (see the American 
Joum. of Science for May last, p. 320 ; Annals & Mag. Nat. Hist, for May, 
p. 366), I have carefully considered their objections, and have replied to 
the same in the Geological Magazine for July last, p. 289, pi. 8 ; and I may 
be permitted here to briefly state the arguments p>-o and con, seeing they are 
of the greatest importance in settling the systematic position of the Trilo- 
bita among the Crustacea. 

Until the discovery of the remains of ambulatory appendages by Mr. Bil- 
lings in an Asaphus from the Trenton Limestone (in 1870), the only appen- 
dage heretofore detected associated with any Trilobite was the hypostome or 
lip-plate. 

From its close agreement with the lip-plate in the recent Apus, and also 
from the fact of the number of body-rings exceeding that attained in any 
other group save in the Entomostraca, nearly all naturahsts who have paid 
attention to the Tiilobita in the past thirty years have concluded that they 
possessed only soft membranaceoiis giU-feet, similar to those of BrancMpus, 
Apiis, and other Phyllopods. 

The large compound sessile eyes, and the hard, shelly, many-segmented 
body, with its compound caudal and head-shield, diifer from any known 
PhyUopod, but offer many points of analogy with the modem Isopods J ; and 

* Anfkrapalamon Grossartii, Salter, Coal-measures, Glasgow, 
t Palminachus longipes, H. Woodw., Forest Marble, Wilts. 

J It should always, howerer, be borne in mind that as the Trilobita offer, as a group, no 
fixed number of body-rings and frequently possess more than twenty-one segments, they 



I 



ON FOSSIL CRUSTACEA. 55 

one would be led to presuppose the Trilobites possessed of organs of loco- 
motion of a stronger texture than mere branchial frills. 

The objection raised by Drs. Dana and VerriU to the special case of ap- 
pendages in the AsapJius assumed by Mr. Billings to possess ambulatory legs, 
is that the said appendages were merely the semicalcified arches in the inte- 
gument of the sternum to which the true appendages were attached. 

A comparison, which these gentlemen have themselves suggested, between 
the abdomen of a Macruran Decapod and the TrUobite in question is the 
best refutation of their own argument. 

The sternal arches in question are firmly united to each tergal piece at the 
margin, not along the median ventral line. If, then, the supposed legs of the 
Trilobite correspond to these semicalcified arches in the Macruran Decapod, 
they might be expected to lie irregularly along the median line, but to unite 
with the tergal pieces at the lateral border of each somite. In the fossil we 
find just the contrary is the case ; for the organs in question occupy a definite 
position on either side of a median line along the ventral surface, but diverge 
widely from their corresponding tergal pieces at each lateral border, being 
directed forward and outwards in a very similar position to that in which we 
should expect legs {not sternal arches) to lie beneath the body-rings of a fos- 
sil crustacean. The presence, however, of semicalcified sternal arches pre- 
supposes the possession of stronger organs than mere foliaceous giU-feet ; 
whilst the broad shield-shaped caudal lA&te suggests most strongly the posi- 
tion of the branchiae. In the case of the Trenton Asaphus I shall be satis- 
fied if it appears, from the arguments I have put forward, that they are most 
prohahly legs — 'feeling assured that more evidence ought to be demanded be- 
fore deciding on the systematic position of so large a group as the Trilobita 
from only two specimens*. 

With regard to the embryology and development of the modern King- 
Crab (Limulus polyphaimus), we must await the conclusions of Dr. Anton 
Dohrn before deciding as to the affinities presented by its larval stages to 
certain of the Trilobita, such relations being only in general external form. 
Dr. Packard (Reports of the American Association for the Advancement of 
Science, August 1870) remarks, " The whole embryo bears a very near resem- 
blance to certain genera of Trilobites, as TrinucJeus, Asaphus, and others ;" 
and he adds, " Previous to hatching it strikingly resembles Trinucleus and 
other TrQobites, suggesting that the two groups, should, on embryonic and 
structural grounds, be included in the same order, especially now that Mr. E. 
Billings has demonstrated that Asaphus possessed eight pairs of 5-jointed 
legs of uniform si^e." 

Such statements are apt to mislead unless we carefully compare the cha- 
racters of each group. And first let me express a caiition against the too 
hasty construction of a classification based upon larval characters alone. 

Larval characters are useful guide-posts in defining great groups, and also in 
indicating affinities between great groups ; but the more we become acquainted 
with larval forms the greater will be our tendency (if we attempt to base our 
classification on their study) to merge groups together which we had before 
held as distinct. 



have, as a matter of course, been considered as belonging to a much lower group than the 
Isopoda, in which the normal number of somites is seven. Wliilst admitting the justice of 
this conclusion, we do not think it affords any good ground for rejecting the proposition 
that the Isopoda may be the direct lineal descendants of the Trilobita. 

* One in Canada and one in the British Museum, both of the same species. 



56 



REPORT 1871. 



To take a familiar iustance : if w^'compare the larval stages of the Com- 
mon Shore-Crab {Carcinus 7noenas) with. Ptert/r/otus, we should be obliged 
(according to the arguments of Dr. Packard) to place them near to or in the 
same group. 

The eyes in both are sessile, the functions of locomotion, prehension, and 
mastication are all performed by one set of appendages, which are attached 
to the mouth ; the abdominal segments are natatory, but destitute of any 
appendages. 

Such characters, however, are common to the larvae of many crustaceans 
widely separated when adult, the fact being that in the larval stage we find 
in this group what has been so often observed by naturahsts in other groups 
of the animal kingdom, namely, a shadowing forth in the larval stages of 
the road along which its ancestors travelled ere they arrived from the remote 
past at the living present. 

If we place the characters of Limulus and Pterygotus side by side, and 
also those of TrUobita and Isopoda, we shall find they may be, in the present 
state of our knowledge, so retained in classification. 



1. 
2. 
3. 

4. 



5. 

6. 

7. 

8, 



Pterygotus (Fossil, extinct). 

Eyes sessile, compound. 

Ocelli distinctly seen. 

All the limbs serving as mouth- 
organs. 

Anterior thoracic segments bear- 
ing branchiae or reproductive 
organs. 

Other segments destitute of any 
appendages. 

Thoracic segments unanchylosed. 

Abdominal segments /reeancZ well 
developed. 

Metastoma large. 



1. 

2. 
3. 

4. 



6. 



Limidus (Fossil, and living). 

1. Eyes sessile, compound. 

2. Two ocelli distinctly seen. 

3. All the limbs serving as mouth- 

organs. 

4. All the thoracic segments bear- 

ing branchiae or reproductive 
organs. 

5. Other segments destitute of any 

appendages. 

6. Thoracic segments anchylosed. 

7. Abdominal segments anchylosed 

and rudimentary. 

8. Metastoma rudimentary. 



II. 



Trilohita (Fossil, extinct). 

Eyes sessile, compound. 

No ocelli visible. 

Appendages partly oral, partly 
ambulatory, arranged in pairs. 

Thoracic segments variable in 
number, from 8 even to 28, free 
and movable (animal sometimes 
rolling into a ball). 

Abdominal series coalesced to 
form a broad caudal shield, 
bearing the branchiae beneath. 

Lip-plate tuell developed. 



Isopoda (Fossil, and living). 

Eyes sessile, compound. 

No ocelli visible. 

Appendages partly oral, partly 
ambulatory, arranged in pairs. 

Thoracic segments usually seven, 
free and movable (animal 
sometimes rolling into a ball). 



5. 



Abdominal somites coalesced, and 
forming a broad caudal shield, 
bearing the branchiae beneath. 
G. Lip-plate small. 



Should our further researches confirm Mr. Billings's discovery fully, we may 
propose for the second pair of these groups a common designation, meantime 
we give the above as representing the present state of our knowledge. 



ON THE CENSUS. 57 



Rej}0)'t of the Committee appointed at the Meeting of the British 
Association at Liverpool, 1870, consisting of Prof. Jevons, R. 
Dudley Baxter, J. T. Danson, James Heywood, F.R.S., Dr. 
W. B. Hodgson, and Prof. Waley, with Edmund Macrory as 
their Secretary, "for the purpose of urging upon Her Majesty's 
Government the expediency of arranging and tabulating the results 
of the approaching Census in the three several parts of the United 
Kingdom in such a manner as to admit of ready and effective 
comparison." 

Your Committee after their appointment held meetings in London, and 
agreed upon the following Memorial : — 

" TJnifoemitt of Plan for the Census of the United Kingdom. 

"To the Right Honourable Henry Austin Bruce, M.P., &c. &c., Her Ma- 
jesty's Princi]3al Secretary of State for the Home Department. 

" Memorial of the Committee of the British Association, appointed in Liver- 
pool, September 1870, for the purpose of urging upon Her Majesty's 
Government the expediency of arranging and tabulating the results 
of the approaching Census in the three several parts of the United 
Kingdom in such a manner as to admit of ready and effectual com- 
parison. 

" Your memorialists beg respectfully to represent that the value of statistical 
information depends mainly upon the accuracy and expedition with which 
comparisons can be made between facts relating to different districts. 

"They also consider that the ease and rapidity with which researches in the 
census tables can be made is one principal object to be held in view in de- 
termining the form of their publication. They therefore desire that not 
only should the enumeration of the jjeople be conducted in all places in an 
exactly uniform manner, so far as is compatible with the terms of the 
several Census Acts, biit that there should be no divergence in the modes of 
tabulating and printing the results. They wish that the tables for England, 
Scotland, and Ireland should form as nearly as possible one uniform and 
consistent whole. 

" Your memorialists could specify a great many points in which there was 
divergence between the tables for 1861, but they will mention only a few 
of the more important cases. 

" 1. The detailed population tables of England, Scotland, and Ireland differ 
as regards the periods of age specified. The Scotch report gives twenty-one 
intervals of age, the Irish report generally twenty-two, and the English 
only thirteen. Either one-third of the printed matter in the Scotch and 
Irish tables is superfluous, or that in the English tables deficient. 

" 2. The classification of occupations is apparently identical in the three 
reports, but there is much real discrepancy between the Irish and English 
reports, rendering exact comparison difficult. 

"3. In the Irish report there is no comparison and classification of occupa- 
tions according to age, classification according to religions being substituted, 
although such a classification could not be made in England or Scotland. 

" 4. In the appendix to the English report appears a table (No. 56), giving 



58 REPORT 1871. 

most important information as regards the numbers of the population at 
each year of age. Inconvenience has been felt from the want of similar in- 
formation concerning the populations of Scotland and Ireland. 

" 5. In the appendix to the Irish report they find some interesting Tables 
(II., III., and IV.), to which there is nothing exactly corresponding in the 
other reports, so far as they have been able to discover. 

" 6. The tables, even when containing the same information, are often 
stated in different forms and arrangements, seriously increasing the labour 
of research. 

" Your memorialists therefore beg to suggest : — 

" I. That the principal body of tables relating to the numbers, age, sex, 
birthplace, civil condition, and occupation of the people should be 
drawn up and printed in an exactly identical form for the three 
parts of the United Kingdom. 
" II. That while the Commissioners may with great advantage continue 
to exercise their free discretion in drawing up such minor tables 
as appear to have si)ecial interest for distinct localities, they should 
agree to prepare in a uniform manner such minor or summary 
tables as may be of importance as regards aU the parts of the 
United Kingdom. 
" III. That a general Index of Subjects should be prepared for the whole 
of the reports, appendices, and tables, so that an inquirer can readily 
ascertain where the corresponding information for different parts 
of the United Kingdom is to be found, without making, as hitherto, 
three independent searches through a mass of comjjlex and 
almost unindexed information. 
" It would appear that the officers engaged in superintending the Census of 
1861 acted to a certain extent in concert and agreement. 

" Your memorialists beg respectfully to request that those officers be in- 
structed, on the present occasion, to confer with each other prior to drawing 
up the tables for 1871, with a view of preserving perfect uniformity in their 
operations, and avoiding all such divergencies in the three reports as are not 
required by the Census Acts or the essential differences of the three 
Kingdoms. 

" Signed on behalf of the Committee, 8th December, 1870. 

"W. Stanlet Jevons, F.S.S., 

President of the Statistical Section of the British Association for 
the Advancement of Science, Liverpool, 1870. 
"James Hexwood, M.A., F.R.S., 

Vice-President of the Statistical Society. 
" Jacob Walet, F.S.S., 

One of the Secretaries of the Statistical Society. 
"■ Edmd. Mackoet, M.A., 

Secretary of the Committee of the British Association for a Uni- 
formity of Plan in the Census Tables of the United 
Kingdom." 

The above memorial was immediately presented to the Eight Hon. H. A. 
Bruce, M.P., Her Majesty's Principal Secretary of State for the Home De- 
partment, and has been by him referred to the Registrars General for their 
report thereon. 



ON ABSTRACTS OF CHEMICAL PAPERS. 59 

The returns of the Census having only recently been collected, too little 
time has as yet elapsed for the perfect arrangements of the tables to be 
completed, but your Committee have reason to believe that the recommenda- 
tions contained in the above memorial wUl ultimately be, to a considerable 
extent, adopted by Her Majesty's Government. 

Postscript. — Since the above Report was drawn up, the Committee have 
received a formal reply from the Home Office (dated 26th September, 1871), 
informing them that the Home Secretary " has desired the Registrar General 
for Scotland, and has requested the Lord Lieutenant to desire the Census 
Commissioners in Ireland, to frame their tables in conformity with those 
submitted by the Registrar General for England and Wales, and approved 
by Mr. Bruce, as far as circumstances will admit ; and that with this view 
he has instructed the above-mentioned officers to place themselves in com- 
munication with the Registrar General for England and Wales." 



Report of the Committee appointed for the purpose of Superintending 
the Publication of Abstracts of Chemical Papers. The Committee 
consists o/Prof. A. W. Williamson, F.R.S., Prof. H. E. Roscoe, 
F.R.S., Prof. E. Fkankland, F.R.S. 

The Committee are glad to be able to announce that regular monthly re- 
ports of the progress of Chemistry have been published since April 1st, 1871, 
by the Chemical Society. These Repoits have been rendered, as far as pos- 
sible, complete by abstracts, more or less full, of all papers of scientific in- 
terest, and of the more important papers relating to applied chemistry. The 
abstracts have been made by chemists, most of whom are members of the 
Societj% whose zeal for the science has induced them to undertake the work 
for the small honorarium which the Council has been able to offer. A 
numerous Committee of Publication has been formed, whose Members gra- 
tuitously undertake the revision of the proofs and a comparison of the ab- 
stracts with the original papers. 

The Reports are edited by Mr. Watts, each monthly part being bound up 
with the corresponding number of the Chemical Society's Journal. Each 
volume wiU be furnished with a full index, and will give a complete view of 
the progress of Chemistry during the year. 

The Committee feel that their thanks are due to aU those gentlemen en- 
gaged in the work for having already so far succeeded in accomplishing a 
task of such difficulty and importance, and they confidently hope that their 
continued exertions wiU still further perfect the details of the scheme so as 
gradually to increase the usefulness of the Reports. 

It is right to state that the funds of the Chemical Society available for 
the purpose of the Reports, although so opportunely aided by a grant of 
£100 from the British Association, were insufficient to defray the necessary 
expenses, and that voluntary contributions to the amount of upwards of 



60 REPORT 1871. 

^200 have been received towards the cost of publication for the first year, 
up to April 1872. 

There is good reason to believe that the expectations entertained of the 
usefulness of these Reports will be fully realized by their continuance on the 
present system, and that they wiU be found largely to conduce to the pro- 
gress of the science wherever the English language is spoken. 



Report of the Committee for discussing Observations of Lunar Objects 
suspected of Change. The Committee consists of the Rev. T. W. 
Webb and Edward Crossley, Seci'etary. 

The Committee have much pleasure in presenting their first Eeport on the 
above subject. Though much attention has been given of late years to a 
large number of lunar objects, your Committee felt that they could not 
accomplish their purpose better than by confining their Report to the discus- 
sion of a limited and weU-observed portion of the lunar surface. No person 
seeking to discover evidence of geologic change would be constantly travel- 
ling over the whole surface of our globe, but would of necessity confine his 
attention to a small area for a considerable period of time. This has been 
the course adopted on the moon. Plato, a vast crater, containing 2700 
square miles, in 51° N. lat. and 10° E. long., has presented a most interest- 
ing and important variety of features, which we have endeavoured to photo- 
graph, so to speak, with pen and pencil, with a view, if not at once to obtain 
our iiltimate object, at least to lay out the groundwork for future observers. 

The Report has been carefully drawn up by Mr. "W. R. Birt on behalf of 
the Committee. Time has only permitted the discussion of the observations 
of the bright spots and craterlets seen on the floor of Plato ; whereas your 
Committee consider that it is equally important that the observations of the 
Humerous streaks, with the faults and other peculiar features noticed on the 
floor and walls of this fine formation, should be likevdse discussed, in order 
that something like a complete description of this object as observed at the 
present time may be presented to the Association for the use of future sele- 
nographers. 

Your Committee would therefore request that a further grant of £20 may 
be placed at their disposal for this purpose during the ensuing year. 

Report on the Discussion of Observations of SjJOts on the Surface of the 
Lunar Crater Plato. By W. R. Birt. 

In executing the task confided to me of discussing certain observations of 
the spots on the lunar crater Plato, one of the first points which I deemed 
it important to ascertain was the eifect which the intensity of the sun's 
light as a function of his altitude might produce on the visibility of the spots. 
The number of spots actually observed between April 18G9 and April 1871 
inclusive, amounted to 37, the greater portion (21) having been discovered in 
this interval. In order to become acquainted with phenomena possibly con- 
nected with an increase of light on the floor of the crater, the observations 
have been arranged under intervals of twelve hours, from suni-ise to sunset 
on Plato, and a ledger formed for each interval, the number of which 
is 31. Erom these ledgers the restdts in Table II. have been deduced, 
viz. the mean number of spots visible during each interval, and the actual 
number of spots observed during each interval. For illustrating the results 



OBSERVATIONS OF LUNAR OBJECTS. 



61 



the curves in fig. 1 have been projected. The first curve is that of solar 
altitudes at the moon, epoch the equinoxes, locality 50° north or south lati- 
tude. The second curve is that of the mean number of spots visible during 
each interval. 

Fig. 1. 

1 3 .5 7 9 11 13 l.=i 17 19 21 23 2.5 27 29 31 



No. 1 0' 



No. 2 0' 




3 5 7 a ii Id io ii ly 21 iij 2o zi zy 
Curve No. 1. Solar altitudes. Latitude 50° at equinoxes. 
Curve No. 2. Curve of mean number of spots visible each interval. 



0° No. 1 



0" No. 2. 













Table I. 


Solar Altitudes 


at Moon. 












Latitude 50°. 




Latitude 55°. 


Inter- 
val. 


Winter. 


Equinoxes. 


Summer. 


Winter. 


Equinoxes. 


Summer. 


Inter- 
val. 


h 



O 1 </ 


o 


1 H 


o 
1 


id So 


O ( i< 


O 1 II 


o 
1 


15 
45 


28 
6 


h 


12 


12 


2 


44 


4 


3 


64 60 


5 


5 35 


2 13 


52 


3 29 


32 


4 


24 


6 


.?6 


48 


7 


48 6 


8 


59 17 


5 41 


19 


6 57 


29 


8 


13 


24 


24 


36 


10 


26 





11 


38 10 


12 


£0 6 


9 6 


19 


10 22 


6 


11 


33 


48 


36 


48 


14 


10 





15 


23 20 


16 


36 30 


12 24 


10 


13 42 





14 


59 


30 


48 


60 


17 


46 


50 


19 


2 


20 


16 20 


15 35 


50 


16 55 





13 


13 


40 


60 


72 


21 


14 


40 


22 


31 20 


23 


47 SO 


18 38 


40 


19 69 





21 


19 


20 


72 


84 


24 


31 





25 


49 30 


27 


7 50 


21 30 


30 


22 52 


30 


24 


14 


20 


84 


96 


27 


33 


30 


28 


54 20 


30 


14 £0 


23 4 


50 


25 33 





26 


56 


40 


96 


108 


30 


19 


30 


31 


42 40 


33 


5 30 


26 32 


40 


27 58 


20 


29 


23 


40 


103 


120 


32 


46 





34 


11 30 


35 


36 40 


28 38 


30 


SO 5 


40 


31 


32 





120 


132 


34 


.50 





36 


17 30 


37 


45 


30 24 





31 .53 





33 


21 


50 


132 


144 


36 


23 


20 


37 


57 50 


39 


27 20 


31 47 


10 


33 17 


40 


34 


47 


50 


144 


1.56 


37 


38 


30 


39 


9 10 


40 


40 40 


32 46 


30 


34 17 


50 


35 


49 


20 


156 


168 


38 


18 


30 


39 


50 30 


41 


22 20 


.33 20 





34 52 





36 


24 





163 


Mcr. 


88 


27 


51 


40 





41 


32 9 


33 27 


51 


35 





36 


32 


9 


Mer. 



62 



REPORT 187] . 



Table II, Ordinates of Curve of Spot frequency. 



No. 


Interval. 


Altitude. 


Mean. 


Number. 


Observa- 
tions. 


h h 


O 








1. 


to 12 


— to 5 


10 


1 


1 


2. 


12 „ 24 


— « 5 


4-6 


15 


7 


3. 


24 „ 36 


3 ;, 9 


5-9 


14 


6 


4. 


36 „ 48 


7 „ 13 


5-9 


14 


8 


5. 


48 „ 60 


11 „ 17 


6-4 


15 


9 


6. 


60 „ 72 


15 „ 21 


7-1 


13 


7 


7. 


73 „ 84 


18 „ 24 


120 


27 


7 


8. 


84 „ 96 


22 „ 28 


101 


27 


7 


9. 


96 „ 108 


25 „ 31 


11-6 


27 


9 


10. 


108 „ 120 


28 „ 34 


10-7 


21 


6 


11. 


120 „ 132 


31 „ 36 


7-5 


13 


4 


12. 


132 „ 144 


33 „ 38 


12-4 


33 


8 


13. 


144 „ 156 


35 „ 40 


7-4 


17 


5 


14. 


156 „ 168 


37 „ 41 


9-2 


19 


6 


15. 


168 „ Mer. 


38 „ 42 


8-5 


19 


8 


16. 


Mer. „ 168 


42 „ 38 


50 


9 


4 


17. 


168 „ 156 


41 „ 37 


9-3 


21 


9 


18. 


156 „ 144 


40 „ 35 


12-2 


23 


5 


19. 


144 „ 132 


38 „ 33 


91 


25 


8 


20. 


132 „ 120 


36 „ 31 


6-3 


9 


3 


21. 


120 „ 108 


34 „ 28 


60 


8 


3 


22. 


108 „ 96 


31 „ 25 


9-0 


20 


6 


23. 


96 „ 84 


28 „ 22 


5-2 


12 


5 


24. 


84 „ 72 


24 „ 18 


13-0 


23 


3 


25. 


72 „ 60 


21 „ 15 


11-0 


21 


4 


26. 


60 „ 48 


17 „ 11 


10-0 


15 


2 


27. 


48 „ 36 


13 „ 7 


6-3 


11 


3 


28. 


36 „ 24 


9 „ 3 


5-8 


13 


6 


29. 


24 „ 12 


5 „ — 


8-0 


13 


2 


30. 


12 „ 


5 „ — 


50 


7 


2 


31. 


- „ 12 




30 


3 


1 



We may regard the various maxima of the spot-curve as indicative :— First, 
of a greater number of observations during the intervals which furnish the 
maxima. It is true the column of observations may countenance this view ; 
but it does not hold in all cases, neither are the greater number of observa- 
tions so pronounced as the maxima of the curve. Second, of a clearer state 
of the earth's atmosphere than usual, enabling us to see more spots than 
when it is ordinarily translucent. This may to some extent explain the 
occurrence of maxima separated by several intervals, and probably those in- 
stances where we have a larger number of spots with a smaller number of 
observations. Third, of an actual increase of visibility of the spots them- 
selves at different and widely separated epochs, the observations of such 
increased visibility falling at those intervals at which the maxima were re- 
corded. The following are the epochs at which the greatest number of spots 
were observed corresponding with the maxima of the curve :— 

First maximum. Interval 2. 1870, Jan. 10, 12 spots, 15 for the whole 
interval, from 7 observations. 



To/ 


seepage li3.] 


















[Tl 


spoto mnrkod 


« we 


Tablk III. 










_ 


















1 


1 




No. 


Tiiicrvnl. 


AlUtudo. 


o- 


!■ 


2' 


( 
6 
7 


4* 

8 
8 


5' 


8* 


7- 


8' 


9' 


10 


11* 


12 


13 


14 


15' 


16 


17' 


18 


19 


20 


21 22' 

I 


23 


24 


25 


26 1 27 

1 


28 


29 


30- 


31' 


32 


33 




34 


3d 


36 


3uin*,jMettn9. 


Spots. 


1" 
I 3- 
, 4- 

! 5- 

! 6. 
7- 
8- 
9- 

10. 
13. 

>3- 
14- 


h ll 

O to 13 

(3 „ H 

^ .. JS 
56 .. +8 
48 .. 60 

Sums 

Visibilitj-,.. 

60 to 7> 

ll :: It 
dl : III 

Sums 

Tisibiiity... 

130 to 131 
13a .. 144 

:-1J :: '.ll 

■ 68 ,.Mer. 

Bma 

Tiiibilitj.., 

Sums before 


^Jndor"! 
.. 5 
3 to 9 
7 .. 13 
11 .. 17 

■ S .. " 
i« .. "4 
i> ., >8 

:i::U 




"1 
8 




I 
a 


I 
I 


a 




a 
1 

X 

a 


I 


I 
a 


::: 

... 


".'.: 




-111 


1 
•07 


3 

1 
8 

aa 

■79 


S- 


•07 


■04 

1 

a 
1 




t 


I 




I 




I 


::: 


1 


a 
I 

3 


■.'.■.' 


..." 


I 
3a 
3S 
47 
S8 


I'O 

4-6 
S'9 


I 
'S 

14 
'4 
IS 


1 


aS 





39 


■91 


■41 


; 


•07 


— 


8 
■99 


■04 


6 




•04 


10 

■j6 




■04 


■o5 


Z 


1 
•07 




■04 




•04 


8 

•39 


"4 


■07 




1 
■04 






173 




as 1 


I 


7 
7 

7 

I 


1 
a 


7 
7 
7 

I 


7 
7 
7 

1 


i 

7 
4 
I 
6 


3 

1 

a 
7 
1 


I 


".'.: 


4 

3 
5 

a 


a 
I 


3 

4 

a 




2 

3 

a 
I 




'"; 


3 
4 

7 
4 


7 

7 
7 

1 


1 

X 

I 


I 
3 

z 


I 
I 

3 


a 
a 


1 


a 


3 

I 
a 
a 




'.'.'. 


... 


1 
a 
a 
1 


4 

t 

a 


;;; 

... 


3 
1 
a 
3 




« 




... 


1: 

7> 


7'1 
la-o 

■ 1-6 

107 


•3 

a? 

17 
a? 

29 

>3 

33 

• 7 
19 
■9 


~l 


36 

100 




3' 
roo 


3' 
i-oo 


T: 


17 
■47 


4 


■03 


13 
■36 


4 


10 
•a8 




9 
■as 


■7] 


■06 


■56 


36 
100 


■i 


8 


S 
■14 


S 
■14 


8 
• -as 


I 
■03 


4 
■11 


8 

S 

1 
3 
3 

13 

•37 








6 
-17 


'7 
■47 




9 
■»5 




4 
•11 






373 




i;::iS 

3S " 40 
37 .. 4> 
3« .. 4" 

Ueridian 




4 
9 

1 


3 


1 

S 

4 


~4 
1 


1 

s 


■ 

3 


5 

a 
a 


J 


1 
5 

I 


3 


a 

1 
I 


a 


3 
a 
I 
I 






3 

4 
3 

t 


4 
) 
s 

s 

7 




t 
1 
I 


a 


J 


4 

3 

a 


3 

t 

< 


' 3 

1 

4 
'1* 


... 






I 


1 
S 

a 
a 


1 


I 




I 


I 


' 


30 
tia 

37 

U 


7-5 
u-4 

74 

r; 


■06 


3« 


■06 


'il 


3" 
■97 


.;i 


■3' 


~l 


■ol 


8 
■*5 


-.1 


6 
■19 


'06 


8 

■»s 


■66 


-- 


■63 

4> 


»9 
■9' 

~8^ 


•o( 
9 


7 


3 
•09 


I 
■03 






■03 


'34 


4 


7 
-aa 


I 
■03 


■03 -03 


■03 


3« 1 


33 


8 


96 


7 


9. 


93 


«s 


"7 


■' 


~ 


39 


10 


IS 


'■ 


18 


58 


_.7^ 


6 


I) 


7 


8 


aa 


" 







8 


36| si 18 


I 


t 


1 





848 





1:1" 





Mvr.to 168 
168 .. .56 
156 .. >44 
"44 .■ »3a 
131 .. 120 


4a 10 3I 
41 .. 37 
45 ,. 3S 
38 .. 33 
3« ., 3. 


I 




1 




i 


7 
J 

a 


... 

4 
a 
3 


... 




1 
a 

4 


I 


1 
a 


a 


3 

a 


5 
S 

5 

2 




1 

7 

4 

4 
1 


3 
9 
S 

7 
3 


I 
a 


a 
a 


".'.: 




3 

1 

1 


""3 

1 
I 


i 


3 

a 
a 


" 




I 


... 


a 
3 
3 


a 


I 


a 




::' 




ao 
84 
61 
73 
19 


50 
9"3 

123 


2? 
23 

as 
9 




g 




2 
•07 


28 

I-oo 


■04 


27 
■96 


a6 
■93 


■7S 


9 
•32 


4 

■>4 




9 
■32 


■04 


4 
*I4 


. fi 


18 
■64 




>7 
■61 


■;! 


4 
-.4 


S 
■18 


I 
■04 




10 

■36 


5 
-i8 


3 
■11 


9 
•32 


I 
■04 




1 
•04 




8 
■ag 


3 
■II 


3 
•II 


a 
•07 


!!! 






aS7 




29 




Visibility... 

no to 108 
108 „ 96 
96 ,. 8, 
84 .. 7» 
7" ., 60 

Sums 

Vidbait;.. 

60 to4« 
48 .. 3« 
36 .. =4 
H .. " 
la „ 

Sim. 

Tulbilitr... 

Sum. after 


34 ..as 
31 .. as 

28 .. aa 
a4 .. -8 
ai .. 15 


■07 


■a I 




2 


I 

S 
3 
4 


-. 




1 
S 
S 
3 
4 


4 

a 

4 


I 

3 

1 


a 


... 


a 
4 

a 
a 


I 


a 
3 

I 

2 


t 


1 
I 
3 


a 
I 
3 
3 


1 
I 


I 
z 
I 

a 


3 

s 

3 
3 
3 


I 


3 






3 

a 
a 
3 


I 


I 


a 










3 

3 

1 
I 


■■■; 


1 

I 
1 


"■ 




... 




18 

S4 
26 
39 
44 


6-0 
90 
S"a 
130 

II^O 


8 

23 
31 




31 a' 
■I4| roo 


•OS 


17 
■8. 


iS 

•86 


57 


S 

■14 


4 
■19 




It 
Sa 


■OS 


9 
■43 


1 6 
■osl '29 


9 
•43 


■09 


7 
•33 


17 
-81 


5 

■24 


S 
'^4 






9 
•43 


■05 


■OS 


2 
■09 










8 
■38 


■09 


4 


1 
■05 








181 




37 




17 .. n 
■3 .. 7 

•' s 

Meridian 




::: 


1 

1 

a 
3 






I 
3 

a 
I 


I 

2 
2 


a 


I 
a 




I 
I 




1 


I 


a 
1 


1 
a 
I 




a 


a 
3 

S 
2 
3 


I 
1 


I 






"■i 






::: 


1 


t 






I 
3 

1 


2 


::: 








'.'.'. 


ao 
"9 

?l 
J3 


lo'o 

H 
43 


'S 
11 

'3 

■3 

7 




;;; 


16 
I-oo 


■06 


■87 


7 
•41 


6 

■37 


4 
■as 


3 




S 
■31 




a 

■12 


I 
•06 


4 
■as 


. 4 

■?s 


•ol 


3 
■'9 


'5 

■94 


3 
•'9 


■12 






a 

■12 






-- 


I 

■q6 


-06 


-06 




S 
3' 


a 
•la 












103 




23 




s 


-«! 


3 


r s8 


"JL 


39 


.8j .^ 




as 


2 


'S 


4 


16 


31 


3 


27 


59 


12 


12 


' 




ai 


6 


4 


2 


I 


- 




at 


7 


6 


3 








54* 







OBSERVATIONS OF LUNAR OBJECTS. 63 

Second maximum. Interval 7. 1870, March 13, 17 spots, 27 for the 
whole interval, from 7 observations. 

Third maximum. Interval 12. 1870, May 13, 27 spots, 33 for the whole 
interval, from 8 observations. 

Third maximum. Interval 12. 1870, Jan. 15, 22 spots, 33 for the whole 
interval, from 8 observations. 

Fouith maximum. Interval 19. 1869, Dec. 20, 19 spots, 25 for the 
whole interval, from 8 observations. 

Fifth maximum. Interval 22. 1870, Nov. 11, 13 spots, 20 for the whole 
interval, from 6 observations. 

Sixth maximum. Interval 24. 1870, Sept. 14, 16 spots, 23 for the whole 
interval, from 3 observations. 

When we take the mean numbers of spots seen at each intcn^al, the curve 
is comparatively flat, rising but little above the mean line of 7-9 spots 
visible at any interval, and this is about the mean number visible on any 
evening. The flatness of the curve is not accordant with an increase of 
spots dependent on an increase of solar altitude or greater angle of illu- 
mination, otherwise the apex would be much more decided. We may, how- 
ever, trace from the number of spots actually seen and contributing to 
the maxima of the spot-curve, as weU as from the observations adduced 
above, that the change of iUuminating angle does exercise an influence on 
the appearance of spots, inasmuch as on a few occasions the largest number 
of spots have been seen with higher illuminations. The actual curve, how- 
ever, derived from two years' obsei-vations is not sufficiently decided to refer 
the appearances of the spots to this agency. 

By dividing the whole of the twelve hourly intervals into six series or 
groups, and taking spot No. 1 as the standard of comparison, we have the 
data for computing Tables III. and IV. containing the visibilities of each 
spot for each group of intervals : sunrise, or to 60 hours, altitudes 0° to 17° ; 
60 to 120 hours, altitudes 15° to 34° ; 120 hours to meridian passage, alti- 
tudes 31° to 42°; meridian passage to 120 hours, altitudes 42° to 31°; 120 to 
60 hours, altitudes 34° to 15°; and 60 to hours, or sunset, altitudes 17° to 0°. 
From the results in these Tables, Table V. has been formed, in which we 
have a bird's-eye view of the visibilities during the luni-solar day. Gene- 
rally the visibilities are low during the first 60 hours, i. e. compared with 
spot No. 1, the smaller spots are but seldom seen ; and this is so far indica- 
tive of solar light in some way developing or bringing the spots into visi- 
bility. During the next 60 hours some spots have risen considerably in 
visibUity, while others have been seen more frequently during the afternoon 
hours of the luni-solar day. The numbers are, however, too irregular to 
allow us to conclude that the smaller and less frequently seen spots are in- 
fluenced in their visibility by further changes of illuminating angle beyond 
theii- first development ; and this is very strikingly manifested by the curves 
which these numbers furnish ; for example, the diurnal curves of spots 
Nos. 5, 14, and 16 in fig. 2 generally agree in exhibiting greater visibilities 
from 60 hours to meridian passage, while spots Nos. 9 and 11 are more 
frequently seen from 120 to 60 hours before sunset. These, as well as the 
peciiliarities of the other curves, strongly suggest that the variations of visi- 
bility of certain spots are not to any great extent dependent upon an increase 
of intensity of solar light, but rather upon some agency more particularly 
connected with the spots themselves. It is important to remark that another 
series of observations 7nay furnish totally diflferent diurnal curves, should 
the variations in visibility depend upon local lunar action. 



64 



REPORT 1871. 



In nearly every case the spots seen during the first 60 hours of the luni- 
solar day have increased durmg the day in visibility, i. e. they were seen less 

frequently during this group of 
intervals than during the succeed- 
ing sixty hours. This increase, 
however, has not been regular, 
which it would have been from 
changes of illuminating angle 
alone, some spots having been 
seen, as before stated, more fre- 
quently during the second group 
of intervals, while others have de- 
clined in visibility and not at- 
tained their maxima until the 
period 120 to 60 hours before sun- 
set. The diurnal curves of spots 
Nos. 14, 5, and 16 in the first 
category, and those of Nos. 9 and 
11 in the second, have already 
been refeiTed to ; that of spot No. 
22 (fig. 3) diff'ers from the others 
by its showing an increase of visi- 
bihty from sunrise to 120 hours 
before sunset. The visibilities of 
many spots are lower during the 
last 60 hours of the luni-solar 
day. 
The 




curves of visibility 
are 



durinj 



Diurnal Curves of Visibility. 
Plato. 



Spots on 



the luni-solar day are essentially 
difl^erent from the curves of visi- 
bility as deduced from the obser- 
vations of twenty-four lunations, 
although both lead to the same 
result ; and from both a very im- 
portant conclusion may be drawn, 
viz. that upon assuming other agen- 
cies to be in operation than changes 
of illuminating angle, such as present activity, the epochs at which such 
activity was manifested varied to such an extent, and were so far separated 
from each other in time, as to coincide, in the case of spots Nos. 14, 5, and 16, 
with the period in the luni-solar day of 60 to 120 hours after sunrise, while 
the activity manifested by spots Nos. 9, 11, and 22 occurred at a later period 
of the luni-solar day, 120 to 60 hours before sunset. So far as the varia- 
tions of visibility of spots Nos. 14, 5, 16, 9, 11, and 22 are concerned, 
they do not appear to depend exclusively on changes of illuminating angle, 
even if a certain intensity of solar light contributes generally to render the 
spots visible. 

While the four craterlets Nos. 1, 3, 30, and 17 are visible during the whole 
of the luni-solar day, the spots on their sites are seldom seen until the sun 
attains an altitude of about 30°, and then they appear as " bright round 
disks ;" and this characteristic attaches as well to the craterlets as to other 
spots when the sun attains this altitude. With altitudes between 30° and 
40° a different class of phenomena is manifested ; the sharp and distinct cha- 



OBSERVATIONS OF LUNAR OBJECTS. 



65 









Table V. 






Visibility. 


No. 


h h 


h h 


h 


h 


h h 


h h 


0to60 


GO to 120 


120 to Mer. 


Mer. to 120 


120 to 60 


60to0 


0. 


•04 


•14 


•00 


•07 


•14 




1. 


100 


1^00 


1^00 


1-00 


1^00 


100 


2. 




•14 


•06 


•04 


•05 


■06 


3. 


104 


1^00 


•84 


•96 


•81 


•87 


4. 


•93 


100 


•97 


•93 


•86 


•44 


6. 


•43 


•83 


•72 


•75 


•57 


•37 


6. 


•11 


•47 


•22 


•32 


•24 


•25 


7. 


•07 


■11 


■28 


•14 


•19 


•19 


8. 




•03 


•03 






, , 


9. 


•29 


•36 


•25 


•32 


•52 


•31 


10. 


•04 


•11 


•16 


•04 


•05 




11. 


•21 


■2S 


•19 


•14 


•43 


•12 


12. 


, , 


, , 


•06 


•07 


•05 


•06 


13. 


•04 


•2.5 


•25 


•21 


•29 


•25 


14. 


•36 


•75 


•66 


•64 


•43 


■25 


15. 


, , 


•06 


, , 




•09 


•06 


16. 


•07 


■m 


•63 


•ei 


•33 


•19 


17. 


■79 


I'OO 


•91 


•96 


•81 


•94 


18. 




•19 


•06 


•14 


•24 


•19 


19. 


•07 


•22 


•22 


•18 




•12 


20. 


•04 


•14 


•09 


•04 






21. 




•14 


•03 








22. 


•04 


•22 


•28 


••36 


•43 


•i2 


23. 


•07 


•03 


•12 


•18 


•05 




24. 




•11 


•12 


•11 


•05 




25. 


•07 


•22 


•37 


•32 


•09 


, 


26. 




, , 


, , 


•04 




•00 


27. 


•04 










'06 


28. 








•04 




■06 


29. 


•04 


•17 


•6.3 








30. 


•29 


•47 


•34 


•29 


•38 


•31 


31. 


•04 


, , 


•12 


•11 


•09 


•12 


32. 


•07 


•25 


•22 


•11 


•14 




33. 




, , 


•03 


•07 


•05 




34. 


•04 


•11 


■03 








35. 






■03 








36. 






■03 









racter of the craterlets is no longer observed. Some put on a hazy appearance, 
and they all assume the same aspect as those spots which have not been 
observed as craterlets. This state of things continues until the declining 
latitudes approach the limit at which the crater form was lost in the advan- 
cing day, then it once more appears accompanied by a disappearance of most 
of those spots which came into visibility as the sun rose higher. We have 
an analogous phenomenon to this in the well-known crater Aristarchus. 
Shortly after sunrise its outline is sharp and distinct, while its interior is 
partly covered •with a well-marked shadow and partly glowing in strong 
sunlight. As the sun rises above its horizon these characteristics are lost ; 
the ridge extending from it to Herodotus becomes brighter, and to some eyes, 
and with some instruments, it is confounded with the interior, the whole ap- 
pearing as a very vivid brush of light. The exact solar altitude at which the 
1871. r 



66 



REPORT 1871. 



cliangc takes place is as yet undetermined ; but there can be no question 
tliat it is of the same nature as that of the appearance of the spots on Plato 
greatly intensified. 

The result of the discussion may be briefly stated as being very strongly 
suggestive of the existence of present lunar activity, the exact nature of 
which requires further aud more extensive observations to determine. In- 
timately connected with the spot-changes are the variations of appearance 
and intensity of reflective power of the streaks and markings on the floor of 
Plato. In the obsei-vers' and other notes which form the Appendix to this 
Report will be found allusions to the connexion between the spots and streaks ; 
but it manifestly requires a similar discussion of the streaks and markings to 
arrive at a definite conclusion on the subject. Most of the observers have 
furnished observations of these interesting phenomena, so that a discussion 
of them could at once be proceeded with if it should be the pleasure of the 
Association to carry on the inquiry. The principal results of the discussion 
of the spot-observations relative to visibility, irrespective of solar altitudes, 
and treated in pairs of lunations from April 1869 to November 1870, based 
on 1594 observations during 20 lunations, are contained in Lunar Map Cir- 
cular VIII. ; and some further remarks occur in a paper on the subject, 
published in the Philosophical Magazine, March 1871. This discussion, on 
an entirely difl'erent principle to that employed in the preparation of the 
present Report, and leading to a similar result, tends to confer on both a 
character in which confidence may be placed, for either without the other is 
incomplete ; together they point to present lunar action as the originating 
agency producing the phenomena. 




Although measurements for position of such delicate objects as the spots 
on Plato are difiicult to execute, Mr. Gledhill has succeeded in obtaining 
three sets of micrometrical measures, on September 13 and December 9, 
1870, and on May 1, 1871, a combination of which has enabled me to draw 
the outline of the crater, and to insert from these measurements four streaks 
and the sector as seen generally by Mr. Gledhill. The streaks are ^, e, a, 
and /3. The streaks ^ and e are rather westward of their places as given on 



OBSERVATIONS OF LUNAR OBJECTS. 67 

the tinted plate in the 'Student' of April 1870,. p. 161. The spots whose 
positions have been determined by measures are Nos, 1, 4, 3, and 17. The 
effect of the measures is to bring them eloser together and more towards the 
centre of the crater than in the printed plans. On each occasion that the 
measures were made, a diameter of the crater passing through spots Nos. 1 
and 4, from A to B, was measured, also one at right angles to this from C 
to D, passing through N"o. 1. All the remaining measures of spots and 
streaks were referred to these diamet6;rs, spot No. 1 being the origin of 
the coordinates, and the longest diameter being considered as unity. The 
ratios of the means of the measvu'es were determined to be as follows : — 

Spot or Streak. 

Longest diameter A to B = 1000 No. 3 

„ 17 

Spofr No. 1 . Sector east end 

To east border B = -SIO „ west end 

„ west border A = -481 Both on border. 



southborder C ... = -309 Streak? -055 

north border D ... = -309 „ e 

spot No. 4 = -182 „ base on A B . . 

Streak a W. end . . 



Parallel 


Parallel 


to AB. 


to CD. 


•060 


•126 


•179 


•130 


•409 


•168 


•181 


•247 


•055 




•317 


•158 


•123 


... 


•412 


•158 


•119 


•306 


•337 





„ a E. end ... 
„ /3 on border 

In order to plot the spots that have been laid down by alignment and 
estimation, it is necessary to aUgn \vith the measured spots, and particularly 
with objects on the border, a process that will be adopted in the preparation 
or a monogram of Plato. 

APPENDIX. 

Obseetees' Notes. 

These are arranged in each interval of 12 hours according to season, so as 
to give increasing altitudes of the sun from ©—53 =270°. Winter in the 
northern hemisphere. 

Interval to 12 hours. 

1869, Oct. 13, 7'> (O- S =76°24'-8, Oct. 12^ 21*^).— Ten hours after the 
epoch of sunrise at the equator in E. long. 4° ©'•6, the first streak of sun- 
light was seen by Mr. Gledhill to faU on the floor of Plato through the gap 
in the west wall between B. & M.'s peaks S and e, the W. extremity lying 
on or near the fault from N.W. to S.E., and bringing into visibility the cra- 
terlet No. 3, which is seen earliest of all the spots. Mr. Gledhill gives the 
sun's azimuth equal to 87° 31', the altitude being equal to the angle formed 
by the height of the depression in the wall between the peaks above the 
point of the floor on which the sun's rays first impinge. 

Interval 12 to 24 hours. 

1870, July 6, 8''. — Twelve hours and a half after epoch of sunrise at the 
equator, E. long. 4° ll'^o, 0- Q , July 5, 19, 30 = 354° 54'^4. Mr. Gledhill 
again witnessed the first streak of sunlight fall on the floor of Plato, and 
observed spot No. 3 just within it, and remarked that the streak lay parallel 
with the longest diameter, and did not incline from No. 3 as it did in January. 
[On the 13th of October, 1869, at 7", Mr. Gledhill remarked that the streak 
was a little inclined to the N., and not quite parallel with the rim.] At 9*^ 
of July 6, 1870, Mr. Gledhill remarked that a line through the two gaps or 

f2 



68 REPORT 1871. 

breaks in the S. and N. borders passed throngh the western ends of the 
earliest streaks of light thrown on the floor. This line appears to be coinci- 
dent with the great fanlt crossing Plato. With reference to this I have the 
following note : — " This phenomenon, the western extremities of the streaks 
falling in a line with the breaks in the N. and S. borders, was well observed 
in January 1870. An elevation of the gronnd in the direction of this fault 
has been seen. It would, however, appear that diiferences in the lengths of 
the streaks would depend not on any unevenness of the ground, but on the 
relative depths of the gaps in the W. border." 

1870, January 10, 2'' to 8''. — From ten to sixteen hours after epoch of sun- 
rise at the equator, E. long. 4° 6'-l , — £3 , Jan. 9, 16'', equal to l70°27'-8. 
This was by far the finest observation of sunrise on Plato by no less than 
seven observers, viz. Messrs. Gledhill, Pratt, Elger, Neison, Birmingham, 
Joynson, and liirt. Mr. GledhiU's rccoi'd is so full and so interesting that 
a reproduction of it will convey a vivid impression of the progress of iUu- 
minatiou of a lunar formation as the sun rises upon it. 

Jan. 10, 2\ Cloudless. Terminator just on the E. border of Plato; can 
just see the outline of the crater, which now lies in deep shadow. On the 
E. side the lofty steep wall just jS". of a triangular formation marked II E'/'^ 
glowed intensely in the solar rays. 

'3^. The E. waU from the great breaks in the S. and N. borders appeared 
as a bright narrow band. The curved outline of the N.E. border was bright, 
sharp, and narrow, but the lower slope within could not be seen. I could 
fancy that the W. part of the floor is, if possible, deeper in shadow than the 
E. half. [This phenomenon has often been witnessed, and has been attri- 
buted to the reflection of the strong light of the eastern interior from the 
dark floor. Upon attentively contemplating this degradation of shadow near 
its eastern boundary, it will often be seen that it is not simply a reflection 
from the floor, but apparently the illumination of a something above the 
floor.— W. E. B.] 

gh ^5m_ ^ bright narrow broken line was seen between the two breaks on 
the £. and N.E. The outline of II &^ is not yet visible. 

4" 18". At this moment (12 hours 18 minutes after epoch) the first streak 
of light fell upon the floor. Within it and near its western extremity was 
seen No. 3 as two elevated objects, very near each other, but quite distinct. 
I could not detect shadow between them after hard gazing, although it was 
easily seen to the N.E. of the lower object. The sti-eak was three times the 
breadth of the two objects together where it enclosed them, and it became 
broader near the N.E. border of Plato ; it was brightest about and to the 
west of No. 3, and inclined a little downwards at the E. end. * * * The 
two components of No. 3 are of the same size apparently, are equally but 
not very bright ; they lie nearly E. and W. of each other, but the E. com- 
ponent is a very little to the N. of the other. 

^h gQm_ rpj^g streak widens. I could not detect motion in it. I now care- 
fully placed the wire on the great gap in the west border ; the line passed 
along the axis of the streak. The west angle of the streak is not sharp, but 
rounded, and lies a little beyond No. 3. The lower of the cones of No. 3 
touches the lower edge of the streak. It now assumed a fan shape, being 
broadest at the E. end, which is now more than halfway to the E. border. 

411 4Qni_ rpj^g streak is now much wider. I think I see a minute elevation 
a little to the E. of No. 3 and in the streak. The two components of No. 3 
are now bright and sharp, with shadow on the east. Another streak has 
been barely visible or suspected for a few minutes; it lies to the S. of the 



OBSERVATIONS OF LUNAR OBJECTS. 69 

former and near the S. border. It runs parallel with the noi-thern streak, 
is about lialf its length, and has its western extremity over a point a httle 
E. of ]SI"o. 3. It is narrow, and extremely faint and difficult. A minute or 
two later it was seen better, also a still fainter and narrower line to the 
north of it, which is parallel with it and the northern streak. The most 
southern streak produced to the E. would graze the southern edge of II E-As. 

4" 50"". Now the shadows from the W. wall take shape. The south sha- 
dow, which extends up to the S. border, goes directly into the gap at the S. 
edge of II &'\ The next pointed shadow to the N. of this goes direct to 
the middle of II E'/'2 ; it is extremely pointed at its E. end for more than 
half its length, and is suddenly wider at the W. end. [This appears to indi- 
cate that the peak which throws the shadow is very needle-like.] I cannot 
be quite sure that this shadow for the next lO" or 15™ really extended up 
to the E. border. It became so faint and narrow and line-like that it could 
not be well seen near the border. Then, again, the floor for some distance 
(say a distance equal to the width of II &-) lay in rather dark shadow. 
The floor between the shadows was not bright up to the E. border of Plato ; 
all along the foot of the E. slope a dark shadow lay, and this interfered with 
an exact determination of extremities of shorter shadows from the W. wall. 
The next shadow to the north was a broad paraUel-sided belt, which pro- 
ceeded to the E. border as such. Its upper or S. edge extended to the N. 
end of II E'A2^ and its lower or N. edge cut the border of Plato just below, or 
to the north of II E'/'2. A line through No. 3 to the gap in the S.E. border 
cuts the W. angles of the two southern bright spaces between the shadows. 

5^. No. 3 lies on the lower edge of the lowest bright space or upper edge 
of the lowest shadow. The shadow still clings to or is in contact with No. 3, 
and either extends to the E. of it, or No. 3 throws a shadow to the E. The 
floor along the E. border is stiU dusky ; it is brightest at that part in Une 
with No. 3, 

5" 5™. A very fine narrow shadow is now seen to stand off from the sha- 
dow below and in contact with No. 3 ; it is this which touches No. 3. 

5" IS". The upper shadow is now clearly pointed, and falls short of the 
border. [This is probably the shadow of the peak between B. & M.'s y and 
^.] I still see a minute elevation just to the N.E. of No. 3. It is now just 
on the tip of the lowest pointed shadow, and about halfway from 3 to the 
N.E. border. [This spot is No. 32 ; it was discovered in streak B by Mr 
Elger on December 15, 1869.— W. E. P.] 

5" 45™. Floor at the foot of the E. border is still dark, except at the ex- 
treme N. The long broad shadow is now retiring from the E. border, and is 
seen faintly bifui'cated ; the lowest or northern fork is the longer, but this 
broad shadow stUl seems to have its N. and S. edges parallel. 

6". Now the dark shadow on the S. border breaks up, and a fine pointed 
shadow separates from its northern side, which if produced goes quite into 
the gap at the southern edge of II &K The bright W. angle above this 
shadow goes back towards the W. until under the great gap in the S. border. 
The great central shadow is now easily seen bifurcated ; the lower peak is 
the longest, and reaches nearly up to the east border. The tip of the shorter 
shadow to the N. reaches just to No. 3 ; the next to the N. is rather lono-er 

0" 20™. The object to the N.E. of 3 (32) is easy, elevated, and bright. Now 
4 is seen, also a large elevated object (7) about halfway from it to the N. 
extremity of II E'A^, and on this hne. 

6" 30™. The great S. band of shadow goes straight into the gap at the S. 
end of II E'/'2. The E. portion of the floor for some distance from the foot 



70 REPORT— 1871. 

of the slope is still dusky. The shadow of the N.E. component of No. 3 is 
easy, and lies to the N^.E. A line from the lower edge of the shadow in the 
great gap of the west border along the lower edge of the central shadow 
goes into the gap at the N. end of II E'l'^. This shadow is now finely bifur- 
cated ; the lower or northern peak is the longer. 

8'\ Spot No. 1 is now seen as a large striking object. It seems to be in 
the path of the upper fork of the central shadow, and looks like the shadow 
of one of Jupiter's satellites on the disk. [In Mr. Birmingham's sketch of 
May 19, 1869, ©— S8 =286° 37'-3, the upper or southern fork of the central 
shadow is longest, while in the present series of observations the northern is 
the longest. This is not a solitary instance of variation in the shadow of this 
peak. Mr. Birmingham is in agreement with Mr. GledhiU in referring spot 
No. 1 to the upper or southern fork. In my paper on the spots and shadows 
of Plato (Transactions of Sections, p. 17, ' Report of British Association for 
the Advancement of Science,' 1869), I remark that Rosse and Birmingham 
have drawn No. 1 with the shadow of Z just receding from it. ChaUis's 
shadow of h terminates by a straight line ; neither fork was visible, for he 
carefully measured the two angular points. Rosse di'ew the termination of 
the shadow as from two pinnacles upon the summit, with No. 1 between 
them. These variations are doubtless azimuthal ; nevertheless they are of 
great importance, as we hoi^e presently to show.] 

8*^ 5'". Spot No. 1 is a large, lofty, very prominent cone. Close to the N.E. 
component of No. 3, and to the N.E. of it, is seen a black shadow curved to 
the N.E., with a bright elevated object close to the curve. I see the two 
components of No. 3 as bright distinct objects ; then, close to the N.E. foot 
of the N.E. component, comes a large circular shadow quite black, embracing 
a bright object to the N.E. 

8*^ 15™. Spot No 4 is already getting rather difficult and hazy, although it 
lies far away in the bright eastern floor. Spot No. 17 is now seen just ou 
the lower edge of the uppermost pointed shadow. No. 1 is bright aud large, 
free from the long shadow. Shadow still lies on the eastern floor at the foot 
of the slope. Mr. Pratt, the same evening, Jan. 10, noticed a peculiar feature 
of the eastern part of the floor corroborative of Mr. Gledhill's observation of 
the dip to the foot of the east border. He says, " A peculiar feature of the 
eastern part of the floor in sunhght observed. Between what was probably 
the eastern margin of the sector h and the foot of the interior slope of the 
E. rim was a decidedly darker tint, as if that part of the floor was lower 
than the rest, and perhaps falling towards the border ; the western margin 
followed very closely the form it would have if the whole space between the 
sector b and the border were depressed." In my own record, Jan. 10, 4*^ 48"', 
the Crossley equatorial 7"3-in. aperture, eye-piece No. 4, power 122, with 
slot, I say : — " The S. spire of sunlight apparent ; it is directed towards the 
middle of II E'''^. Neither of the spires of light reach the border, indicating 
the floor to dip near the border." 

Mr. GledhiU summarizes his observations, under the head of " points de- 
termined," as follows : — 

First. The position, size, alignment, and order of development of tlic 
streaks [of sunlight, as distinguished from those that make their aj^pear- 
ance afterwards] which first fall on the floor. They are evidently the solar 
rays passing through the gaps on the border. 

Second. The floor on the E. at the foot of the inner slope lies in shadow 
more or less deep until the giant shadows from the W. border have retreated 
westward beyond the centre of the crater. 



OBSERVATIONS OF LUNAR OBJECTS. 71 

Third. That spots I^os. 1, 3, 17, the object halfway between No. 4 and 
the E. border (7), the object halfway + between No. 3 and the E. border 
(32), the object (if any) just to the E. of No. 3 (31), and the object S.W. of 
No. 1 at a considerable distance away are all elevated objects. 

[Some time subsequently to these observations I received from Mr. Gled- 
hill a drawing of nine crater cones seen on Jan. 10, 1870. They were Nos. 
1, 3, 30, 4, 7, 9, 11, 17, and 32. I have not received any conhrmation of 
the object a considerable distance S.W. of No. 1.— W. E. B.] 

Fourth. The order in time of the apjiearance of the shadows. 

Fifth. The time to a minute when light first falls on the floor. 

[The discussion of the observations by intervals shows that the sun's light 
first falls upon the floor of Plato from ten to thirteen hours after the sun has 
risen at 4° &-1 of E. long, on the equator according to season ; a simple 
computation of the epoch of sunrise at this longitude and © — S3 will be a 
guide to ascertain the illumination of Plato within twenty-four hours of the 
epoch.— W. E. B.] 

Sixth. The interval between the appearance of light on the floor and the 
distinct perception of the shadows from the W. border is about twenty-five 
or thirty minutes. 

Seventh. The great northern streak of sunlight is seen some fifteen minutes 
before the southern streaks are detected. This may be caused either by dif- 
ference in elevation of the gaps in the W. border, or diff'ercnce in level of the 
floor, or both may unite to produce the effect. 

AVhat can cause the duskiness of the eastern floor except depression of the floor ? 

1870, Jan. 10, 9" 0°. Mr. Elger saw spot No. 1 close to the shadow of the 
peak situated on the S. of the great gorge or opening in the W. wall. At 
9'' 10"' the N. peak of this shadow was about clearing it ; at the same time 
spot No. 4 could just be seen. Mr. Elger remarked that the shading round 
spot No. 1 was much darker than the central portion of the floor, and that 
this dark shading could be traced in an easterly direction to about one fourth 
of the distance between the spots 1 and 4: " this," says Mr. Elger, " would 
appear to indicate a fall in the surface of the floor from No. 1 towards 
the E. in section" (fig. 5). Schroter, if I re- p- g 

member rightly, alludes to some observations indi- 
cating similar irregularities in the floor. Erom 
Mr. Elger's observation, combined with one of Mr. 
Gledhm's to be noticed under Feb. 9, 1870, it would 

appear that spot No. 1 is situated on the ridge marking the great fault. (See 
interval 24" to 36\) 

1870, May 8, 8" to lO*". Close of first interval of twelve hours. Epoch 
7d 21" 20"", Mr. Elger writes, " On the evening of the 8th, between 8" and 
10", I had a fine view of sunrise ; the air was remarkably steady ; shadows 
and minute details seen to perfection." 

1870, May 18. Mr. Elger writes : — " Re your statement as to the dip of 
the floor. Is there reliable evidence that the N.E. and S.E. areas of the 
floor are lower near their respective borders than towards the spotless central 
area ? In January last I saw spot No. 1 in contiguity with the shadow of 
No. 2 peak (western wall) ; the surface of the floor east of No. 1 was then, 
of course, seen under very oblique light. Judging from the shading and 
general aspect of the surface in the neighbourhood of No. 1, there appeared 
to be a veri/ rapid fall from spot No. 1 to spot No. 4 ; if this bo so, the 
stem of the ' trident ' would be a depression in the surface." 

1870, April 9. Twenty-three hours after epoch of sunrise at 4° 4'-7 on 



72 REPORT 1871. 

equator, E. loug., Mr. Elger records spots Nos. 1 and 17 in contiguity with 
shadows of high peaks on west wall [y and ^] : Nos. 1, 3, 4 very plain [seen 
also by Mr. Pratt], 17 faint, 25 only glimpsed, 7 suspected; no markings 
seen. Mr. Pratt records on same day shadows of y, ?, and e on floor nearly 
similar to 1809, Nov. 12, excepting that S showed a second point south of 
chief one, and that of e did not exhibit a cleft. 

The importance of such careful observations as those which have furnished 
the data for this interval cannot admit of question. The determination of 
the epoch at which the floor first becomes illuminated, as compared with the 
epoch of an easily computed phenomenon (sunrise at a given longitude on 
the equator), places at once within our reach the means of ascertaining when 
the appearances witnessed during the interval 10 to 24 hours after sunrise, 
at 4° E. long, on the equator, 'rtU be repeated*. This is, however, a small 
result compared with the forms and progressions of the shadows ; for by their 
aid, especially if well sketched, and their lengths carefully measured, or even 
estimated in parts of those of the three measured peaks y, I, and c, the dis- 
tance of the west wall from the terminator being at the same time ascer- 
tained, the irregularities of the west wall at sunrise, and by a similar process 
those of the cast wall at sunset, may be obtained with tolerable precision by 
13. & M.'s method described in ' Der Mond,' § 65, p. 98, and in the Keport 
of the Lunar Committee of the British Association, ' Eeport,' 1867, p. 15. 
We have thus the power, by multiplying such observations, of becoming inti- 
mately acquainted with the breaks and gaps, the elevations and towering 
pinnacles of the wall, and are in a position for handing down to our suc- 
cessors details that may enable them to detect changes, if such should occur, 
of sufficient magnitude to become perceptible. The shadows which I enu- 
merated on Jan. 10, 1870, were six, — the longest y, one between y and ?, 
I with its two peaks or saddle form, one south of e, and e. Mr. Joynson, of 
Liverpool, gives in his drawing of the same date two peaks to ^. The irre- 
gularities both of the floor and border have come out by these observations 
with marked distinctness, and tend greatly to settle for the present epoch 
the main features. If, however, changes are in progress, they may be, as on 
the earth, extremely slow. 

The appearances recorded on January 10, 1870, being so different to that 
witnessed by Bianchini, August 16, 1725, the following translation, by my 
friend Mr. Kuott, from Bianchini's work ' Hesperi et Phosphori Nova Phe- 
nomena' (Eomae, 1728), wUl doubtless be read with interest: — 

" Under the auspices of the Cardinal de Polignac, two large telescopes, 94 
and 150 Boman palms long, by Campini, were prepared and erected, and on 
the 16th of xlugust, 1725, the following observations of Plato were made. 

" Although on that night we were only able to turn the telescope 150 
palms long, on the moon we detected, in the lunar spot named Plato, a 
phenomenon not previously observed. The moon was at the time a little 
past its first quadrature with the sun, which it had attained on the previous 
day, and the spot Plato fell on the periphery of solar illumination, where is 
the boundary of light and darkness in the lunar hemisphere exposed to the 
sun. The whole of the very elevated margin, which on all sides surrounds 
the spot like a deep pit, appeared bathed in the white rays of the sun. The 
bottom of the spot, on the other hand, was stUl in darkness, the solar light 
not yet reaching it ; but a track of ruddy light, like a beam, crossed the 

* Tlie longitudes of the terminator at 60° N. latitude on the equator, and at 60° S. lati- 
tude, G reemi-ich, midnight, during the lunation, are given monthly in the ' Astronomical 
Register.' 



OBSERVATIONS OF LUNAR OBJECTS. 73 

middle of the obscure area, stretching straight across it from one extremity 
to the other, with much the same appearance as in winter in a closed cham- 
ber the sun's rays admitted through a window are wont to present, or as 
they are seen in the distance when cast through openings in the clouds, or 
like comets' tails at night in a clear sky stretched out at length in space, as 
we remember to have seen in the one which in the years 1680 and 1681 was 
80 conspicuous to all Europe. This appearance, never before seen by me in 
this or any other lunar spot, is represented in the figure which I give below. 




" 1, 2. The lunar spot named Plato, and the ruddy ray of the sun thrown 
across its dark floor from the margin of the spot 1, white aiid turned towards 
the sun. It was thus observed at Rome on the Palatine Mount, Aug. 16, 
1725, at 1| hour after sunset, with the 150-palm telescope of J. Campini. 

" It is proposed to astronomers and physicists, for their consideration and 
judgment, whether this is to be taken as an indication of an aperture piercing 
the border of the spot which is turned towards the sun, through which opening 
the rays are cast and appear as through a window ; or whether it is rather to be 
thought that they are refracted rays, which are bent from the top of the border 
towards the bottom, and appear of a ruddy tint as they are wont to do in our 
own atmosphere at sunrise and sunset, and so give reason for admitting the ex- 
istence of some denser fluid like an atmosphere surrounding the lunar globe." 

I have the following remarks on the above, dated June 4, 1867 : — 

" Bianchini appears to have been one of the earliest observers who noticed 
' detail ' more jiarticularly. Hevel, lliccioli, Cassini, and others aimed more 
at delineating the entire surface, which of course included much detail that 
is becoming more and more valuable every day ; still such observations as 
Bianchini's, recorded in his ' Hesperi et Phosphori,' are of great value, espe- 
cially as the appearances described and delineated could not find place in a 
more general work." 

Sclirciter, in his ' Selenotopographische Fragmente,' vol. i. p. 334, §§ 256, 
257, refers to the observation of Bianchini, and also to one of Short's in 1751, 
April 22. It would appear that Bianchini's suggestion of an aperture or hole 
in the W. rim of Plato was not verified by Short, who seems to have observed 



75) REPORT 1871. 

the shadows of the three peaks y, I, and e of 13. & M., which are represented 
by Schroter in t. xxi. The. shadows of these and other peaks on the W. waU 
have been very frequently observed of late years. 

I am not aware that liianchini's observation has been verified. The pecu- 
liar ap2)earance which he has delineated depends not only on libration, but 
also on the angle which the terminator makes with the meridian ; for it is 
clear that the direction of the terminator must form a tangent to a line pass- 
ing equally through the depression in the wall to produce the appearance 
seen by Biauchini ; and it is highly probable that it is of very rare occur- 
rence, as seen from the earth, the variation in the angle of terminator with 
meridian being as much as 3°. 

While transcribing the above (April 22, 1871) I have considered the Bian- 
chini phenomenon more closely. During the year 1870 the opportimities 
for observing sunrise on Plato were comparatively numerous, and certainly 
not the slightest appearance of Bianchini's streak was detected ; on the other 
hand, the positions of the earliest rays of sunlight on the floor have been 
determined, with some degree of precision, for the portion of the luni-solar 
year during the period of the observations. If the configiu'ation of the W. 
wall is different now from what it was in Bianchini's time, the phenomenon 
may be explained by the supposition that the gap or pass iS". of the peak h 
was lower than at present, and has been raised \>y " landslips " on one or 
both sides, which are of extensive occuiTence on the moon as recognized by 
Nasmyth ; the absence of fui-ther observations by Biauchini on the same 
evening, however, leaves the matter in doubt. 

Short records, in the Phil. Trans, for 1751, p. 175, that on April 22, 
1751, he saw a streak projected along the flat bottom of Plato. Soon after 
he saw another streak parallel to the first, but somewhat lower [or northerly], 
which in a very short time divided into two. He found a gap in the wall 
opposite the first streak, and also one in the direction of the lower one. 

Not only is Bianchini's observation at variance with modern observations, 
but Short's also. The order of appearance of the streaks of sunlight on the 
floor on Jan. 10, 1870, is, first, the broad streak through the wide gap ; 
second, the southern streak north of the peak y. The appearances of Short's 
streaks were in the reverse order. 

The following record of observations by Schroter on July 30, 1789, at 
O*" 48'", kindly translated by Mr. Gledhill, will illustrate Mr. Elger's obser- 
vation on January 10, 1870 : — 

' Selenotopographische Fragmeute,' § 250, vol. i. p. 329. " A difl^erent, 
more beautiful, and more magnificent view of Plato is obtained when, with 
the rising sun, the first traces of an extremely faint twilight are seen on the 
grey fioor of the crater, and when the first beams of light are thrown over 
the mountains into the plain below. This view of Plato, which lasts only 
for a few minutes during the slow monthly rotation, and for which one may 
wait for a year and yet not see it, I saw on the 30th of July, 1789, 9'' 48'". 
As in the 8th figure of t. xxi., the terminator had advanced from W. to E. as 
far as a, /3. To the W. of this the greatest part of the border lay in the 
light of day [or on the day side], and only the small portion to the E. of a, 
/3 was illuminated on the night side. The whole inner grey sin-face, on the 
contrary, was still hidden by the shadows of the lofty mountains on the 
border, and on the S. border there was also a low spot filled with shadow. 
"Wliile I was observing the shadows of the inner surface with power 161, I 
became aware of something to the E. of the middle of the floor, as if the dark 
surface were in a kind of fermentation. A few seconds later I saw here in 



OBSERVATIONS OF LUNAR OBJECTS. 75 

two places an extremely distinct unveiling or brightening which closely re- 
semhled a very faint tivilight. Both places appeared dark, blackish, and con-' 
trasted so slightly with the other night-shadows, that at first I was uncertain 
whether or not I perceived a real difference in the obscurity. Meanwhile, 
after a few seconds both the liglit-spots became somewhat brighter, changed 
their form continually, until they soon became larger and notably brighter, 
and assumed the appearance given in fig. 8 ; and as no very marked change 
occurred while the obsei'vation was being made, I was by this time able to 
sketch them in their present clearer colour and increased size ; but even yet 
they appeared a dark grey, so that, according to my arbitrary scale and a 
very approximate estimation, they were placed at only ^°, or at most |°. 

" Doubtless these present but always very dark colours were half-shadows, 
and were found there because in these two places only a part of the rising- 
sun was visible over the irregular elevations on the western border; and 
these half-shadows I have often seen in the course of my observations when 
the terminator passes across grey surfaces. Soon after, the surface threw off 
the mask of night, and in a few minutes I could distinguish the line-like 
shadows lying across the whole floor thrown by the peaks on the western 
wall. If one, however, compares the shape of these two somewhat bright 
spots on the map with the position and shadows of the west border, and re- 
flects that these bright spots, as I saw them, were surrounded by the shadows 
of night on the east, there can no longer be any doubt (if a different reflec- 
tion of the light has no share in the matter) that the floor is not perfectly 
flat, but that these two places are somewhat more elevated ; and with this 
sujjposition the observations given before quite agree." 

The following notes have been kindly furnished by Mr. Pratt, relative to 
the foregoing description of sunrise : — 

" Jan. 10, 3^. On 1870, March 10, 1 have notes of the same phenomenon, 
which I believe I forwarded at the time, recording the inability I experienced 
to rid myself of the idea that I was witnessing a true twilir/ht. My observa- 
tion of it extended over twenty-five minutes, at the end of which time I 
perceived the faintest trace of the formation of the spires." 

"Jan. 10, 4"^ 18"*, spot No. 3. Query. Is the brightest spot of the streak, 
here mentioned as seen inclined to the north of No. 3, and I presume in close 
proximity to it, my spot No. 30 ? As far as I can understand the localities 
are identical." 

" Jan. 10, 4'' 50™, shadow of peak y. On a similar occasion I have ob- 
served the thin thread of the shadow lying across II EV'S, and have watched 
it slowly shortening and travelling down the interior slope of the rim, and had 
a good view of it lying on the floor just in contact with the foot of the slope." 

" Jan. 10, 8*", shadow of peak h. I do not remember to have ever seen 
the shadow of d otherwise than with the northern fork the longest." 

On Bianchini's light-streak Mr. Pratt remarks : — " Bianchini's ruddy spire 
of light, which he observed at Rome, 1725, Aug. 16, and thought to be sun- 
light shining through an aperture in the west wall, would the want of 
achromaticity in his 150-palm telescope account for the colour ? Still his 
unique view may prove valuable some day ; and it is stimulating to perse- 
verance on our part to multiply observations with our comparativelj^ luxu- 
rious instruments to find such unwieldy telescopes capable of so much in the 
hands of a careful observer. I wonder if the crater G on the west exterior 
slope was recorded so long since, as its clean-ciit form, as I have sometimes 
seen it, is suggestive of recent formation, and its localitj' such as to easily 
account for the fiUing-up of the aperture Bianchini supposed." 



76 REPORT 1871. 

[The crater G is not seen in Bianchini's drawing of 1725, August 16, nor 
in that illustrating his observations of 1727, August 23 and September 22. — 
W. 11. B.] 

Mr. Pratt remarks, that in Short's observation of 1751, April 22, the first 
streak of sunlight was on the upper part of the floor, followed soon after by 
a parallel streak somewhat lower. " It is important," says Mr. Pratt, " to 
learn what khid of telescope Short used during the observation ; for as he 
was chiefly a maker of the Gregorian form, and as that construction does not 
invert the image, it may be possible his term hwei- may mean southerly in- 
stead of northerly, thus being in accord with modem observations." 

" The very interesting translation of Schroter's notes of 17b9, July 30, and 
his discovery of something on the eastern half of floor, as if a kind of fer- 
mentation was going on, and his discovery a few seconds later of an unveil- 
ing or brightening, closely resembUng twihght, remind me," says Mr. Pratt, 
" very forcibly of my own observations before mentioned. The half-shadows 
of Schroter also remind me of what 1 have very often seen, as he describes ; 
but 1 cannot understand his explanation of them. As far as I can see, half- 
shadows presuppose an atmosphere ; and a well-authenticated course of ob- 
servations of them would be good proof of the latter's presence." 

[If by the term " half-shadow" be meant the penumbral fringe of every 
true shadow, the rays of light emerging from opposite limbs of the sun, 
crossing beyond the object casting the shadow and then diverging, will fully 
explain such a fringe. In the case of the sun rising above the mountains, 
the reverse phenomenon occurs, viz. a gradual darkening fiinge skirting the 
illuminated surface arising from less and less Hght arriving from the sun's 
disk ; a true twilight is occasioned by the particles of an atmos^jheric medium 
being illuminated by the sun's rays whUe the luminary is below the horizon, 
and such I believe I have on several occasions witnessed. — W. E. B.] 

Interval 24 to 36 hours. 

1870, May 9. Mr. Gledhill describes spot Xo. 1 as easy ; a fine sharp 
crater, with raised walls, much black shadow within, the east inner slope 
bright : he also records 3 and 1 7 as presenting the same appearance as 
No. 1. On October 3, at about IS"" earlier illumination, Mr. Gledhill did not 
observe the crater character of these objects, but describes them as elevated 
objects. This is remarkable, as on Oct. 3 the moon's latitude was 1° to 2° S., 
whUe on May 9 it was 3° N., libration carrying Plato further from the eye, 
yet the crater character was more distinct. Mr. Elger records No. 17 as seen 
by ghmpses. 

As regards spots 13 and 19, the following remarks of Mr. Elger are inter- 
esting : — '• The northern portion of the floor, including streak a, was noted 
as equally hght ; the streak could not be traced." Mr. Gledhill writes, a not 
to be distinguished from the bright floor all along the north border. Mr. 
Elger found the same locahty " all light on the 10th." 

1870', February 9. Mr. Gledhill first saw spot No. 4, its bright W. Avail 
only. He says, "This object seems to have loiver walls than 1, 17, or 3." 
Mr. Gledhill writes : " For a few minutes I saw what appeared to be a very 
low ridge running from N. to S. across the floor of Plato. It runs from the 
N. border to spot 3, then curves to N^o. 1 , and again bends back to the E. 
and reaches No. 17, and thence goes on to the S. border." [The low ridge 
mentioned by Mr. Gledhill is, so far as I know, new. It is not coincident 
with the great fault from N.W. to S.E. From a drawing subsequently sent 
to me by Mr. Gledhill, it would indicate a fracture, having its origin at spot 



OBSERVATIONS OF LUNAR OBJECTS. " Tt 

No. 1, diverging N.E. and S.E. to spots Nos. 3 and 17, and extending from 
them in opposite directions to the N. and S. horders.] At 5.30 Mr. Gledhill 
recorded that spot No. 4 is already indistinct ; there is a dull yellow patch 
about it. No. 3 at this early stage of illumination Mr. Gledhill found to be 
single ; he looked in vain for the other two adjacent spots, Nos. 30 and 31. 

1870, Oct. 3. Mr. Gledhill records Nos. 1, 3, 17, and 30 as elevated ob- 
jects. Mr. Elger found no trace of 3. 

1870, March 11, Mr, Gledhill describes spots Nos, 1 and 3 as bright, cir- 
cular. 

Interval 36 to 48 hours. 

1870, April 10. Mr. Gledhill records spot No. 1 as a large, sharp, cir- 
cular crater, with internal shadow on W. side ; also Nos. 3 and 17 as circular 
craters. Mr. Elger records Nos. 16 and 25 as frequently glimpsed. 

1870, July 7. Mr. Whitley observed Nos. 1, 3, and 17 as craterlets, 4 a 
white spot, and glimpsed No. 11 very faint. On the same evening Mr. Neison 
recorded the floor as very dark, the spots indistinct, not visible continuously ; 
and Mr. Elger could just trace the " sector." 

1870, Jan. 11, 7.20. Mr. Gledhill describes spot No. 1 as a large round 
crater, larger than Linne, quite bright and circular, a very fine easy object. 
At 7.30 the same evening, he says " Linne also is now seen as a crater, with 
some shadow within on the west." At 7.45 Mr. Gledhill writes : " Now the 
N.E. inner slopes of craters Nos. 1 and 3 glow in the bright sun, whUe the 
S.W. inner slopes are in shadow. It is the N.E. inner slope which so often, 
in bad definition, comes out as a bright disk or semidisk." 

1869, August 16. Mr. Pratt thus >vrites : — "Of these difficult objects 
[the spots], seven were seen many times during the hour; No. 1 often well 
defined as a crater, Nos. 3 and 4 as well-defined craters as No. 1, but accom- 
panied with a nebulous light, perhaps caused by the companion spots to each, 
which, however, were never clearly defined owing to the minuteness of the 
objects and the short periods of definition clear enough. They both had a 
similar appearance." 

1870, September 4. Mr, Neison records No. 4 as just observable, and 14 
very faint. 

Interval 48 to 60 hours. 

1870, May 10. Mr. Gledhill records spots Nos. 1, 3, and 17 as elevated 
craters with little internal shadows. Mr. Elger records No. 5 as seen only 
by glimpses much fainter than 17; 16 and 14 easy. 

1871, March 1. Mr. Gledhill records spot No. 1 as a crater brightest on 
the inner E. wall. 

1870, August 6. Mr. Elger noticed the west portion of the floor of an 
even light colour. It is on this portion that the spots Nos. 13, 19, and 22, 
which have decreased of late in visibility, are situated. On the 24th of 
March, 1870, Mr. Gledhill observed the reverse, viz. the west part of the 
floor exhibited the darkest tint. It was, however, less in extent than the 
light portion given by Mr. Elger, and was seen under the opposite illumina- 
tion. See intervals 108"^ to 96", and 12" to 0" *. 

1870, October 4. Mr. Gledhill records No. 1 as an elevated object. Mr. 
Elger found No. 14 more easy than 5 and 17 ; it was not seen by Gledhill. 
Nos. 3, 30, and 17 were seen as bright disks by GledhUl. 

* These reversed tints are quite in accordance with the surface of the floor dipping on 
each side from the line of " fault" crossing Plato from N.W. to S.E. 



78 REPORT — 1871. 

Interval GO to 72 hours.' 

1870, July 8. Mr. Gledhill records Nos. 1 and 17 as brioht spots badly seen. 
Mr. Elgcr records No. 5 as seen only by glimpses, but brighter than No. 1. 

18G9, August 17. Mr. Pratt inserted the positions of the spots observed 
b}- him " by independent estimation," also " their relative positions with re- 
spect to lif/Jit streahs " were very carefully determined as follows : — 

No. 
1. On the dark surface near the junction of two streaks. 

3. In the middle of a light streak. 

4. In the middle of a light streak (sector) *. 

17. On the dark surface close to a light streak (W. edge of sector). 
13 and 19. In the middle of a light streak. 
14. Near the margin of a light streak. 

Interval 72 to 84 hours. 

1870, April 11. Mr. Elger records No. 5 nearly as bright as 17, which 
he regarded as fainter than at last lunation ; 14 and IG were easy, 24 and 
25 seen by glimpses. Mr. Gledhill records Nos. 1, 3, 30, and 17 as bright 
circular disks. Mr. Pratt detected the six spots which he observed with 
difficulty. 

1870, March 13. Mr. Gledhill writes : " Unless I am very much mistaken 
indeed, 34 was an easy object, i. e. No. 1 came out easUy ' double ; ' also, as 
the E end of the floor slopes to the east, spots Nos. G and 7 may be seldom 
seen on this account (?)." To this I add : "This may be the case while the moon 
is passing from perigee to apogee." Mr. Gledhill says further : " No 3 (and 
30) very easy, wide, double ; 3 is the larger, both equally bright : 30 is not 
seen nearly so often as 3 ; when only one is seen it is 3." 

1870, June 9. Mr. Elgcr recorded 5 as brighter than 17. 

1870, February 11, 6.30. Mr. Gledhill found spots Nos. 1 and 17 as very 
sharp bright disks, but could not detect interior shadows ; he describes Nos. 
1, 17, and 3 as sparkling. Of No. 1, he says, it often comes out double; 
last year I often saw it thus. I am now almost sure I see a minute object 
close to the west of it (34). 

Interval 84 to 96 hours. 

1870, December 4. Mr. Elger writes : — " The marking connecting the 
middle and east arm of trident, which was, I believe, first seen by Mr. 
Pratt last spring, I found a very easy object, fully as bright as the brightest 
portions of the ' trident ; ' it follows the curvature of the south border, and 
crossing the last arm of the trident, terminates about halfway between the 
latter and the west limit of the ' sector.' During the May and June luna- 
tions, I had faint glimpses of it ; but it was then a very much more difficult 
object than it is now." 

The apparition of this streak appears in some way to be connected with 
spot No. 5, the variations in -v-isibility of which are considerable. As, from 
the discussion of visibility, the connexion of these variations with illumi- 
nating, visual or atmospheric (terrestrial), changes appears to be untenable, 
it maybe suggested that, if the first maximum, Aug.-Sept. 1869, resulted 
from increased activity, ejecta may have been thrown out and jiroduced the 
faint streak which was seen on the west of No. 5 by ttuo observers. At or 
about the second epoch of increased activity, a larger quantity of ejecta 

: * Mr. Gledhill has frequently observed spot No. 4 at the angle formed by the eon- 
verging sides of the " sector." 



OBSERVATIONS OF LUNAK OBJECTS. 79 

may have boon thrown out, producing a brighter streak, extending eastward 
as well as westward. The most interesting circumstance connected mth 
this streak is its conformity in direction to that of the south border, as if 
some peciiliarity of the surfece existed in the neighbourhood of No. 5, of a 
depressed character, which received the outflow or outthrow of the ejecta. 
Another noteworthy circumstance is, that this streak was not recorded 
caiiier than May 13, 1870. 

1870, September 6. Mr. Gledhill records Nos. 1, 3, 17, and 30 as bright 
disks, also that definition was good, and that the streaks and spots seemed to 
stand out in rehef. 

18G9, November 15. Mr. Gledhill writes : — "The spots Nos. 1, 17, and 3 do 
not appear as a mere white s^jof on the floor of Plato would do. There is a 
sharpness and clearness of contour and a brightness (uniform) of surface 
which could only belong to a crater or peak. I have often been struck with 
this. This remark appHes to them whenever they are well seen. I can 
only liken them to the small round disks of bright stars seen in the transit- 
instrument. Spot No. 4 never looks like Nos. 1, 17, or 3." To this I append 
the following query : — Do the clearness and sharpness of the contour of spots 
Nos. 1, 17, and 3 result from seeing the shadowless interiors of the craterlets? 
If so, on what agency does the appearance of the mere white spots depend ? 
Do Nos. 1,17, and 3 vary in this respect with good states of our atmosphere ? 
Mr. Pratt records a spot new to him on the N.W. of 3, about half as far from 
3 as is 4 on the opposite side, and aligning with 3 and 4 ; he speaks of it as 
exceedingly small. I have numbered it 29. He also observed spot No. 8, 
which he describes as fainter than 29, and situated about one third the dis- 
tance from 3 towards 4. On this evening Mr. Pratt very carefully scru- 
tinized No. 3 and its immediate neighbourhood ; the following are his notes 
transmitted to rac : — " First. The second spot, which I have always ob- 
served with 3 (and which I learn from Mr. Birt I have always placed in the 
same relative position as has Mr. Dawes, who discovered it, and of whose 
alignment I was before quite unaware), is exceedingly close to 3 on the 
N.E. I estimate the distance at 2", and its position with respect to 1 was 
very carefully judged to be 145" to 150°, reckoning from S. round by E., 
which I afterwards found by comparison to be about the angle represented 
in my former sketches. Second. A third spot, S.E. of 3, and twice as far 
from it as Mr. Dawes's, was observed. Its relative size was judged to be 
one fourth, while that of the second spot was one third of 3. The direction 
was from 3 towards 4." [This spot I take to be 8.— W. E. B.]. "Another 
lieculiarity in 3. was, that it was just included by the light streak, but still 
(piite on its edge, as was also its smallest companion. I now determined 
very carefully the colour of the immediate localities of cdJ spots visible. After 
independently noting it for each spot, I found on summing up that the 
whole were upon the light streaks, with the exception of No. 1, around and 
towards which the light streak was softly shaded off." 

1870, July 9. Mr. Whitley glimpsed spot No. 17 with difllculty. 

Interval 9G to 108 liours. 

1870, April 12. Mr. Gledhill records Nos. 1, 3, and 30 as bright circular 
disks, 1 7 as a bright disk, also 6, but seen only once or twice. Mr. Pratt records 
No. 1 as very dense and bright, 3 and 4 as hazy, and 16 and 22 difficult. 

1870, May 12. Mr. Gledhill records Nos. 1, 3, and 17 as fine bright disks, 
No. 4 a spot, but seldom seen. Marking a, Mr. Gledhill records as the 
brightest, and Mr. Elger mentions the part east of No. 16 as veiy bright 



80 REPORT— 1871. 

and well defined ; this, as well as the remarks of Mr. Elger on May 9, may 
tend to throw some light on the decreased visibility of Nos. 13 and 19 (see 
Interval 24 to 36 hours). On this evening Mr. Whitley observed and described 
the markings, giving a sketch of the same. Mr. Elger's sketch of the north 
part of Plato and Mr. Whitley's are not in accordance. The time at which Mr. 
Whitley made his observations is not mentioned; Mr. Elger's 8.45 to 11. 

1870, March 14. Mr. Elger writes : "The markings were not well seen; 
the eastern arm of the ' trident' was the brightest, and could be traced from 
the south rim to Jfo. 1, passing to the west of No. 5 : the marking y was 
very plain, the rest of the markings were faint and difficult to make out." In 
contrast with this indistinctness on Plato, Mr. Elger says, " [In spite of the hazi- 
ness of the sky, the markings and minute details of the Mare Tnibnuni were seen 
with unusual distinctness]." In the 'English Mechanic,' No. 312, March 17, 
1871, p. 602, article "Mars," by E.R.A.S., the author speaks of the indi- 
stinctness and partial dimming on the surface of the planet, accompanied by 
the presence of dark lines in its spectrum, coincident with those referable 
by Father Secchi to the vapour of water. The indistinctness and dimming 
of detail are alike distinguishable on Mars and the Moon ; and in addition we 
have on the Moon a number of spots becoming vividly bright with a high 
sun. From Dr. Huggins's observations, the spectral lines of the vapour of 
water are absent in the lunar spectrum. 

1870, June 10. Mr. Elger recorded No. 17 decidedly brighter than No. 5 and 
equal to No. 3; 14 only glimpsed once or twice ; 16 and 25 frequently seen. 

1869, December 15. This evening Mr. Elger discovered spot No. 32. He 
described it as N.E. of spot No. 3, nearly aligning with 17 and 4, and situ- 
ated on a brush of light (GledhiU's streak /3), extending from No. 3 to the 
N.E. rim of Plato. 

1871, March 3. Mr. Pratt observed 16 spots, viz. 1, 3, 4, 5, 14, 17, 21, 
20, 23, 29, 0, 18, 13, 19, 7, 6, arranged according to relative brightness. 
Of these Mr. Pratt speaks of Nos. 20 and 21 as being far above their usual 
brightness. Situated as they are near the north border, the Moon going 
north in latitude, they were not in the most favourable position for observa- 
tion ; their great brightness is therefore remarkable, and connected with this 
is an increase of brightness in the streak a. The new streak between Nos. 5 
and 17 Mr. Pratt saw with ease, joining the east arm of the "trident" with 
the " sector" from closely south of 17 to opposite 5. 

1870, October 6. Mr. Gledhill records Nos. 1, 17, and 30 as fine bright 
disks ; Nos. 5 and 6 equal. Mr. Elger observed Nos. 14 and 16, not seen by 
Mr. Gledhill ; 14 was equal to 5. 

Interval 108 to 120 hours, 

1870, September 7. Mr. GledhiU records Nos. 1 and 3 as fine sparkling 
disks, and 4 as a hazy spot. Mr. Neison records Nos. 1, 3, 4, and 5 pretty 
distinctly visible; 17 brilliant but not well defined; 14 and 16 faint and 
very faint respectively. 

1869, November 16. Mr. GledhUl says, " I never saw the floor so bright. 
The spots 1, 17, 9, 3, and 30 appeared just like small stars in the transit- 
instrument on a windy night." At 10, 11, and 12 hours Mr. Gledhill 
remarked that spots Nos. 3, 1, 9, and 17 formed a sparkling curve, and were 
fine easy objects, seen at a glance at any moment ; he says they were very 
striking. On the contrary, he speaks of spots 23, 16, 19, 13, and 14 as very 
difficult objects ; none were ever easy objects. Of 9 and 11 he says, " I 
never saw them so easily and well as to-night." The following notes are 



OBSERVATIONS OF LUNAR OBJECTS. 



81 



important : — " Nos. 1, 3, and especially 17 (which sni-passes all in sharpness, 
and perhaps in brightness sometimes) are fine easy objects, "vvith moderate 
altitudes. Now Linno never a2)pears like these except when near the even- 
ing terminator. As to y Posidonius 1 never see it sharp and crater-Hke 
(white and bright) when the sun is up. I could not see it at all the other 
day when the morning terminator was a degree or two from it." Of ivhite 
spots Mr. Gledhill remarks : " I called some spots mere white spots, because 1 
have never seen them otherwise ; by-aud-by 1 may catch them near the 
terminator, and have reason to change the term. I fancy that when the 
terminator is a morning one the effect on objects diflfers from that given by 



the evening terminator.'' 



Interval 120 to 132 hours. 



1871, March 4. Mr. K'eison saw spot No. 14 very indistinct, and barely 
brighter than a longitudinal steak running in a direction from No. 13 to past 
No. 14, which was then situated upon it. It appeared to have its origin eX 
the point of convergence of Gledhill's d and L On the same evening, Mr. 
Gledhill recorded d but not c. On March 4, Mr. Neison saw No. 16 (once 
only) as a pecuhar light-marked spot on a patch of broken light trending 
westward. Mr. Neison also recorded parts of the N.W. and S.E. portions 
of the floor indistinct from broken light and light streaks. 

1870, June 11. Mr. Elger recorded spots Nos. 5 and 16 as seen only by 
glimpses. 

Intei-val 132 to 144 hours. 

1870, April 14. Mr. Gledhill records Nos. 1, 3, 4, 17, 9, 11, and 30 as 
bright round disks. Mr. Elger writes, under date of April 26, 1870, relative 
to his observations of April 14, as follows : — " That the visibility of the spots 
is connected with the position and brightness of the markings (as you sug- 
gest) is, I think, most probable : it is clear that the spots at present known are 
mainly confined to the districts occupied by the markings, and that the floor 



Eic 



of Plata is divided by the latter 
into three nearly equal areas. A, 
B, C, as on sketch. Areas A and C 
are covered with markings, but 
area B is devoid of them. If 
we compare the number of spots 
in area B with the number of 
spots in areas A and C, we shall 
find that there are only two spots 
(23 and 11) in area B, while in 
area A there are ten, and in area 
C no less than twenty-three. It 
is true that small portions of the 
areas A and C ai'e without 
markings ; but the spots within those areas are, without an exception, situ- 
ated either tqmi the light streaks or close to their borders. These facts 
seem to me very suggestive, and point to an intimate relation between the 
spots and markings. As observations accumulate, your present behef in a 
connexion between the phenomena will, I think, be placed beyond doubt." 
In connexion with the above, the following quotation from a letter by Mr. 
Pratt, dated 1870, April 22, is interesting: — "Very curious the difficulty 
there is in observing such delicate detail ; possibly instruments and eyes will 
show differently, independently of the mental bias and accumulation of pre- 
1871. o 




83 REPORT 1S71. 

yious impressions ; and I rather fear that telescopes much larger than my 
own cannot help us out of the difficulty." 

The difficulty to which Mr. Pratt alludes is particularly felt with regard 
to that indispensable method of determining positions " measirrement." Mr. 
GledhUl has executed some measures of the positions of the principal spots 
and the extremities of the light markings, and Mr. Pratt has aligned several 
of the spots with objects on the border ; but so exceedingly delicate are the 
details, and so seldom is the state of the atmosphere siifficiently translucent 
and free from agitation, that to obtain an approximate plan of the spots and 
markings from measurement is necessarily a work of time. Pending this, 
in the above sketch both spots and markings have been inserted, partly on 
alignment and partly bj' estimation. The two light regions are well sprink- 
led with spots, as pointed out by Mr. Elger ; and it is not a Kttle interesting 
to notice that the nearly spotless area coincides with the region between- 
the "trident" and the " sector," with its prolongation to " Webb's Elbow" 
near the X.W. border. In the absence of more accurate detail, which is likely 
to be obtained from Mr. GledhiU's measurements, the sketch (fig. 7) will serve 
as a guide for ascertaining if the spots and markings preserve their relative 
positions ; and in this connexion the remarkable change of locality, if it be so, 
of spot Xo. 5 may be mentioned, Mr. Elger having seen and recorded on three 
occasions (1870, March 14, May 13, and October 10) its position on the eastern 
edge of the eastern arm of the " trident." It is possible there may be two 
neighbouring spots in this locality which have not yet been seen together. The 
importance of recording with eveiy obsei'vation of spot Xo. 5 its position with 
regard to the eastern ann of the "trident" is obvious. The light streak 
supposed to be connected with No. 5 is too far south, or the sjjot is too far north,' 
on the sketch. 

1870, May 13. Vide " Indications of intermittent visibility" (p. 88). 

1870, January 15. Mr. Gledhill observed as many as 22 spots, the second 
greater number seen on any one occasion. Vide " Indications of inter- 
mittent visibility." Spots Xos. 1, 3, and 17 are described as very easy, large, 
bright, sharp objects ; Xo. 4 as jumping into view and not steadily seen. 
Xo. 34 was discovered this evening ; it has not been observed since 
March 13, 1870, when it was recorded as an easy object. 

1869, August 20, 21, and 23. Mr. Gledhill gives thi-ee spots close to the 
X.W. border, which he has marked 13, 19, and 16. No. 16 being too far 
east for that spot, I have regarded it as 20 ; if, however, Mr. Gledhill really 
saw 16, its degree of visibility would be shghtly increased. On August 23 
Mr. Pratt gives 16 in its proper position, and he observed the same number of 
spots as Mr. GledhiU ; but Mr. Gledhill saw No. 12 and 31, which Mr. Pratt 
did not see, Mr. Pratt recording Nos. 7 and 30, not seen by Mr. Gledhill. 

1870, September 8. Mr. Neison records spot No. 4 as a flat indistinct 
spot; 17 sharp but bright, darkening on one side, and showing traces of a 
crater-formation. 

Interval 144 to 156 hours. 

1870, August 10. Mr. Neison records spot No. 3 as apparently oval ; the 
longer axis of the ellipse is in the direction of No. 31 . 

1870, October 8. Mr. Elger mentions No. 14 as very easy, 16 easy, and 
17 seen only occasionally. 

Interval 156 to 168 hours. 
1870, May 14. Mr. Elger recorded No. 16 easy; 5, 14, and 17 faint; 25 
and 32 seen by glimpses. Mr. GledhiU records 1, 17, 3, and 6 as bright 
disks. 4 not well seen, and 5 as a bright spot. 



OBSERVATIONS OF LUNAR OBJECTS. ^^ 

1870, September 9. Mr. Elger recorded No. 5 faint, 17 especiially faint^ 
14 and 22 glimpsed, and 14 difficult. 

Interval 168 hours to ileridiau Passage. 
1870, June 13. Mr. Gledhill has this remark: "For some time I have 
thought that when power 115 was used, spot No. 4 was almost at any time 
to be seen, or at any rate a condensation of the ' sector' at its apex was 
seen. On ajiplyiug 240, however, the appearance vanishes, and no con- 
densation or spot is seen, or perhaps only sometimes and at intervals." 

Interval Meridian Passage to 168 hours. 

1870, July 13. Mr. Gledhill records No. 1 as very bright. 

1870, September 10. Mr. Elger records Nos. 2-5 and 16 as easy, No. 14 
as seen by glimpses. 

Interval 168 to 156 hours. 

1870, August 12. Mr. Neison records "a spot seen on the border of No. 
3, very small and hardly visible except at intervals, but pretty bright on 
edge only of the light marking." Mr. Neison suspected it to be No. 31, 
which it undoubtedly is according to the position which he has accorded to 
it on the diagram. Mr. Neison was the only observer who detected No. 31 
during this lunation, on the 10th and 11th of August, as an elongation of 
No. 3. Mr. Elger, Mr. Gledhill, and ili-. Pratt appear to have missed it. Query, 
was the groixp Nos. 3, 30, and 31 in greater activity about this time ? 
Mr. Neison has this note, " 3. Faint indications of its being a crater very 
distinct." Mr. Pratt records: "During the long period since I last saw 
the light streaks I have had little opportunity to study former sketches, and so 
was free in a measure of the bias of them. Yet on sketching those seen, 
the forms, positions, and directions coincide with former drawings, notably 
the trident a, /S, rj, I." Mr. Pratt also notices a remarkable increase in 
brightness of spot No. 22, so as to attract especial attention. Neither 
Messrs. Elger, Neison, Ormesher, nor Gledhill noticed this spot, although 
they were observing on the same evening as Mr. Pratt, who further re- 
marks " that in moments of best definition the area comprised between 
Nos. 19, 1, and 4 was not nearly so well displayed as the rest of the floor, 
giving a strong impression of an obscuring medium located there." [This 
observation of the streak 1, the existence of which has been questioned, is 
perfectly independent of any suspicion of its non-existence, as it occurred 
some months before the question was raised.] 

1870, October 10. Mr. Elger found spot No. 5 on the E. edge of the E. 
arm of the "trident;" its position, as given by Mr. Pratt, is on the W. 
edge of the E. arm. He also found that Nos. 5 and 14 were far inferior 
to 17. Spot No. 25 was easy. Mr. Elger did not see spots Nos. 9, 11, 18, 
23, nor 30 recorded by Mr. Gledhill, nor did Mr. Gledhill see No. 14. For a 
special note on the position of spot No. 5, which Mr. Elger also saw on the 
E. edge of the " trident" on May 13, 1870, see Interval 132 to 144 hours. 

1870. On the 12th of August, and on September 7, 11, and 12, Mr. 
Neison made a series of observations with apertures varying from 4 to Sc- 
inches, with differences of 5 of an inch. 

Inches 4 4| 4^ 4| 5 5;^ 

Spots 4 4 5 5 6 7 

The spots seen were Nos. 1, 3, 4, and 17 with 4 and 4| inch apertures, the 
game and No. 6 with 4| and 4f ; with 5 inches aperture spot No. 14 was 
detected and marked as faint, and with 5| inches No. 16 was discerned: 

g2 



84 REPORT 1871. 

the last two, Nos. 14 and 16, were in all cases marked as " faint," some- 
times extremely so. 

These seven spots are precisely those which have the highest degrees of 
visibility for 18 lunations, as under : — 

Spots 1 3 4 17 5 14 16 

YisibiHty .. 1-000 -897 -887 -830 -510 -433 -294 

From these observations, it appears that spots Nos. 1, 3, 4, and 17 may 
be detected with instruments between 4 and 41 inches of aperture, that spot 
No. 5 requires an extra half inch, or 4| to 5, and that 5 and 5| will bring 
out spots No. 14 (5 inches) and 16 (5| inches). 

Aperture, of course, is an important element of visibility; and as these 
spots are seen with apertures under six inches, as the observations increase, 
and the normal degrees of visibility become well determined, variations in 
the visibility of these spots may be detected with instruments of 6 inches 
aperture, provided the observations extend over a sufficiently long period. 

Elements of Visibilify. 

Lunar. — Brightness and size of spots. 
Terrestrial. — Clearness and steadiness of atmosphere. 
Instrumental. — Goodness of figure of object-glass or mirror, and extent 
of aperture. 

Physiological. — Keenness of eyesight. 

Interval 156 to 144 hours. 

1870, July 14. Mr. Gledhill records No. 1 as a fine, large, bright spot, 
No. 17 as a small bright spot, Nos. 3 and 30 as bright spots, and No. 5 a 
bright spot, seen now and then. Mr. lugall records No. 1 as very plain 
and sharp. No. 4 as steadily seen, and Nos. 3, 31, 30 a misty spot, piobably 
consisting of these three. 

1869, August 23. Mr. Pratt records that "spots Nos. 1, 3, 4, 17, 6, and 14 
were very bright compared with their usual appearance, and aU easily seen. 
No. 4 was not well defined; there was a persistent oval light round it (N.W. 
and S.E), and I several times believed it to be double, but could not be positive 
it was so. So remarkably clear was the vision that several times as many as 
four or Jive spots were held in view at once, without looking directly for 
them, and two or three times as many as six were so seen, viz. Nos. 1, 3, 
4, 17, 5, and 14 ; again, Nos, 1, 3, 4, 17, 6, and 5. Nos. 4, 7, 6, 17 were 
a group seen together, and Nos. 5, 14, 22, and 1 were a similar one ; yet 
still so exceedingly delicate are the fainter spots and the fainter traces of 
light on the floor that it needs a most concentrated attention to see cither. 
In looking for the faint spots the faint traces of light will escape notice ; 
again, when looking for the latter, the former are most likely not to be 
seen. This exceeding delicacy too interposes a serious difficidty in cdigning 
them with objects on or near the border : the eye cannot hold so wide a 
view and at the same time retain a sufficiently correct impression of objects 
at once so faint and small. These remarks do not apply to the easier spots 
and light streaks. Once, for a few minutes, a narrow, dark, straight line, 
like a pencil-mark, was visible from m towards liamlleta [i. e. from N.W. 
to S.E.], probably the crack Mr. Birt has discovered. It was not seen 
again this evening." 

1870, September 11. Mr. Nelson records No. 1 as very distinct, No. 3 as 
distinct and brilliant, Nos. 5 and 14 as faint, 5 as rather so. 



OBSERVATIONS OF LUNAR OBJECTS. 85 

Interval 144 to 132 hours. 

1871, March 8. Mr. Ormesher records a spot near the S.W. border, 
■which he queries " 14, a long way off " from its position. Is it a spot not 
before recorded ? 

1870, August 13. Mr. Gledhill records spots Nos. 3 and 17 as fine bright 
disks. No. 1 as a fine, largo, bright disk, and No. 4 as a nebulous object. 
Mr. Pratt remarks that " on this evening, as ivell as in 1870, August 12, 
the tint of the dark portions of the floor was much intensified close to the 
rim. It was the case all round, but especially so between 6 and ^, between 
e and ^, and between /3 and rj." 

1869, December 20. Mr. Pratt places a spot nearly due north of No. 1 
on the diagram of this evening, wliich he queries as 23. I query it as un- 
certain. Spots Nos. 1, 0, 23, and 16 very nearly align. The line passing 
through Nos. 1, 0, and 23 passes slightly west of No. 16. Mr. Pratt's spot 
is very decidedly east of this line. [1871, March 31. The spot registered 
by Mr. Pratt on Dec. 20, 1869, not having been reobserved, it is probable 
that it may have been, as Mr. Pratt queried, No. 23. I have now entered 
it as such.— W. R. B.J 

Interval 132 to 120 hours. 

1870, September 12. Mr. Neison records of No. 22, " a spot very faint, 
and difficult to make out in the midst of a patch of light." 

Interval 108 to 96 hours. 

1870, July 16. Mr. Gledhill records spot No. 1 as "a fine, large, bright disk; 
looks like an elevation ;" also Nos. 3 and 17 as bright disks. I have made 
the following note on the Form : — " 9 and 0. These do not appear in their 
precise localities, especially 0. It may be that the spot thus marked by 
Mr. Gledhill is a new one." 

1870, December 12. Mr. Pratt writes : " A faint crepusciilar kind of 
shade has crept over the western part of the floor, and is deepest near the 
western border ; but the gradation is very delicate, 12 hours to 12 hours 40 
minutes." [1870, March 24. Mr. Gledhill noticed a darker tint at the west 
part of the floor, and furnished a tinted sketch : see remarks under this 
date (p. 87) ; also Mr. Elger's observations of the same portion of the floor 
being light, under date 1870, August 6, interval 48 to 60 hours.] 

1870, November 11. Mr. Gledhill records spots Nos. 1, 3, 30, and 17 as 
brk/ht S2)ots. On the 13 of September (same interval) he recorded them as 
"bright or fine craters;" with the exception of Mr. Nelson's record on 
August 12 of No. 3 as a suspected crater (interval 168 to 156 hours), this in- 
terval (108 to 96 hours) is the earliest in the declining day that the four have 
been seen as craters. The terminator is recorded as west of Fracastorius. 

1870, September 13. Mr. Gledhill records spots Nos. 1, 17, and 30 as 
bright or fine craters, and says of 17, " fine crater as 1 and 3; " but of 3 
he says, " fine disk." I have marked 3 as a crater. 

Interval 96 to 84 hours. 
1870, August 15. Mr. Pratt records that the darker margins of the 
sbiided parts of the floor are still visible as on the 12th and 13th August, 
but not in such striking contrast. 

1870, October 13. Mr. Pratt records spot No. 1 as brilliant, the others 
dimmer than usual. 

Interval 84 to 72 hours. 
1869, August 26. Mr. Pratt remarked a decided difference in definition 



ga REPORT — 1871. 

in different parts of the floor, even in so contracted an area, the whole 
northern half being less well defined, the south-east part the best so by 
far. Traces of the line from m to Eambleta were caught, and the floor 
appeared unlevel, the central and south parts appearing highest, and the 
south-west part next so. This, Mr. Pratt says, requires confirmation. 

1870, September 14. Mr. GledhiU records No. 3 as a fine wide double spot 
(i.e. 3 and 30). Mr. Ncison (same day) remarks as follows of Nos. 1, 
3, and 17, seen by Mr. Gledhill as craters : No. 1 not very distinct ; No. 3 
sharp and shaded, not very bright ; No. 17 very distinct. 

Interval 72 to 60 hours. 

1870, August 16. Mr. Pratt observed 3 spots only this evening. On 
October 14 (same interval) 16 were observed, 9 by Mr. Gledhill and 7 by 
Mr. Pratt, in addition. They both record the definition of the border as 
"good;" Mr. Pratt says, "with interruptions." On August 16, Mr. Pratt 
records the definition of the border as "bad." The following remark of Mr. 
Pratt is interesting in connexion with this paucity of spots : — " The darker 
parts or shaded portions of the floor were just perceptible with attention. 
' Tint of floor' medium, much paler than on the 13th inst." 

Interval 48 to 36 hours. 

1870, August 17. Mr. Gledhill records No. 1 as a fine, large, open crater, 
3 and 30 as craters, 17 as a small crater, and 4 as a bright but not de- 
finite spot. 

Interval 36 to 24 hours. 

1870, March 23. Mr. Gledhill writes : " The shadow of the elevated ob- 
ject on the east border (the rock !!,), close to the N. of "W. II YJ''^, was on 
the floor, and the adjacent floor to the N.W. was very bright, much brighter 
than a or the ' sector,' and it extended one third of the distance from the 
border to spot No. 4, as in sketch." Mr. Gledhill could not determine its 
form, but considered that it was the streak tj intensified. 

1870, July 19. Mr. Gledhill observed the four craters 1, 17, 3, 30 only; 
he described No. 1 as a large circular crater with raised walls, but not 
much brighter than the floor. 

1869, August 28. Mr. Pratt writes : " The level of the floor was con- 
spicuously divided by the line from m to c, the ground sloping east and 
'west of this lino, the eastern part being brighter than the part on its west, 
while the locality of spot No. 4 was judged to be the highest of the whole 
floor." In connexion with this remark of Mr. Pratt it may be well to 
"notice that, combined with Mr. Elger's observations on 1870, Jan. 10, of 
■a depression in the floor east of No. 1 (see Interval 12 to 24 hours), the two 
suggest that this depression does not extend so far as No. 4. Again, com- 
paring this observation of the western part of the floor being darker than 
the eastern, which is in accordance with Mr. GledhiU's on March 24, 1870 
(see Interval 12 to hours), it would appear that Mr. Elger's observa- 
tion of the bright western area on 1870, May 9 and 10 and August 6, was 
an intensified brightness of the ordinary brilliancy of the floor, sloping to the 
west. The Intervals 24 to 36 and 48 to 60 hours, the season spring, with 
the sun's altitude about 14°, seem to indicate that the increased brightness 
was quite independent of illuminating angle. 

Speaking of the ajiparent changes observed, not only on Plato, but over 
a -wider range, between August 16 and 28, 1869, Mr. Pratt says : " Thus, 
among apparent changes of a particular characterj and restricted to certain 



OBSERVATIONS OF LUNAR OBJECTS. 87 

small localities, there does appear to have been a wider and more gene- 
ral disturbance in the brightness and definition of objects, all which dis- 
turbance appears to be confined to the loiu-lying lands of that part of the 
moon observed. Not that changes were not visible in high regions ; but 
those are more easily referred to changes of illuminating and visual angle, 
while the disturbances above mentioned are not so easily accounted for, 
especially those changes in the visibUity of the light-streaks on the floor 
and the striking differences of brightness of the spots." 

1809, October 26. In connexion with Mr. Gledhill's return of this date 
I remark, " 'Crater Eow' being so well seen, and the border of Plato so sharp 
and distinct, it is remarkable that spots Nos. 5, 6, 7, 13, 14, and 16 should 
not have been well and easily seen, although it appears they were seen, also 
that spot No. 3 should have been seen single, and that only sometimes, when ifc 
was seen double the previous night." 

1870, November 14. Mr. Gledhill observed Nos. 1, 3, 30, and 17 as 
craters, and says, " they look like bright elevated rings." 

Interval 24 to 12 hours. 
1870, March 23. See ante. Interval 36 to 24 hours. 

1869, September 27. Mr. Gledhill recorded a broad band of brightness 
parallel to the north border, enclosing spots Nos. 13, 19, and 16 ; he does 
not say they were seen as well as the bright baud. I have, however, re- 
corded them as having been seen. 

Interval 12 to hours or sunset. 

1870, November 15. The four craterlets Nos. 1, 3, 30, and 17 are de- 
scribed by Mr. Gledhill as elevated crater-cones. 

1870, March 24. Mr. GledhiU writes :—" Terminator on N.E. end of 
Apennines ; the eastern shadows lie on the floor. A line drawn along 
the west edge of the ' sector,' and produced to the north border, separates 
the bright east part of the floor from the darker west part ; the inner slope 
of the west wall glows in sunlight, while the floor near it is the darkest 
portion of the crater [Plato]." See ]}. 95, line 9. 

Additional Notes. 
Differences of Visibility of neighbouring Objects. 

1869, August 26, 11 hours 30 minutes. Definition frequently exceed- 
ingly good but disturbed, with much boiling at times. Mr. Pratt has fur- 
nished the following record : — 

" There was a marked difference between the M. Imbnum, the M. 
Serenitatis, and the M. Frigoris, in respect of the visibility of minute objects 
on their surfaces. The Mare Imbrium was literally covered with small white 
sjwts and streaks. The three streaks from Aristillus to the south border of 
Plato were again traced. Archimedes had roughly four light streaks E. and 
W., and about nine or ten easily discerned white spots. Beer and Mddler 
and neighbourhood looked invitingly for a close study. 

" The Mare Serenitatis was of a dull grey, with few white spots and 
comparatively few features visible. Gf those visible all were very indistinct, 
EXCEPT THE MORE ELEVATED ONES ; thus, of the Small objects rouud Linne, 
most were invisible, a few indistinct, even I E«i, I E^^, I Ev^ [the three small 
craters N.W. of Linne] were almost obscured. Linne itself a cloudy white 
spot, with knot of light in centre, but not nearly so bright as when seen 
on the 23rd inst. Posidonius y was brighter and half the size of Linne. 
Vessel was tolerably clear. About half the number of white spots S.E. of 



88 REPORT — 1871. 

Bessel were very indistinctly seen, the renifiinder invisible. Posidonius, 
just -within the terminator, "was fairly defined. SuJpicius Gallus and one 
or two near it on the pleateau were clear ; so that the moke an object was 
RAISED above the general level of the Mare the clearer was its deiinition, 
while those on the level of it were more or less obscured. 

" The 3Iare Frigoris was very hazy indeed ; even close to the foot of the 
north slope of Pluto objects could not be defined, while those raised a little 
above the Mare were remarkably well defined indeed. The whole northern 
slope of Plato appeared everywhere rugged and iineven." 

Indications of intermittent Visibility and of possible volcanic Activity. 

On the evening of the 13th of May, 1870, no less than tiventy-seven spots 
were seen on the floor of Plato, 26 by Mr. Pratt, and an extra one by Mr. 
Elger. This extraordinary display occurred between 132 and 144 hours 
after the terminator had passed 4° E. long. It is, however, not a little 
remarkable that, on the same evening, Mr. Gledhil!, at Halifax, observed 
four spots only. The great number seen by Mr. Pratt, as compared with 
the small niimber seen by Mr. GledhiU, is doubtless due to a fine state of 
the earth's atmosphere at Brighton. 

With regard to the streaks seen by Mr. Pratt on the same evening he 
remarks — " I could not see the small streaks on the western part of the floor, 
and sometimes even my old 'trident'. and the streak c were so indistinct as to 
be difficult. What was the cause ? Surely not the earth's atmosphere ; 
for at the same time spots could be seen. Perhaps we shall discover that 
spots are raised at a higher level than light streaks, and thus visible when 
streaks are obscured." 

This remark of Mr. Pratt's is important : certainly the state of the earth's 
atmosphere could not have affected the two classes of objects in different 
ways. If the intensity of the spots depended upon the purity of our atmo- 
sphere, one would think that the brightness of the streaks would also have 
been increased ; but in Mr. Pratt's experience it was not so. Mr. Elger 
speaks of some as bright and others faint. Mr. Gledhill, with a bad atmo- 
sphere, speaks of them as bright ; but he saw only four spots. Are the spots 
really brighter than the streaks ? But, then, why do both vary in brightness ? 

Mr. Pratt having perused [carefully] the MS. has furnished me with the 
following remarks : — 

" May it not be well to mention that, on the occasion referred to, 1870, 
May 13, I observed fifteen st reals, one of which was a new one. [This 
was the streak from spot jS^o. 5 towards No. 14.] This number was much 
above the average, the cm-ious fact being that although so many were per- 
ceptible with attention, yet the increase in their brightness was in a lower 
ratio than that of the spots. There are two possibilities which may aflfect the 
discrepancy[diflerence]betw'een the notes of Mr. Gledhill and myself in relation 
to thestreaks: — Eirst, the times at which ive observed, may have been different. As 
for myself, I tested the chance of working with any thing like satisfaction once 
at least every half hour during the whole of the evening, and before I tried for 
the last time, at 1 1 hours, had been unable to perceive either one spot or streak. 
Secondly, jjriority of observation bestowed on objects of one class may detract 
from the estimated brilliancy of the other class. In my own case, immediately 
I went to the telescope, at 11 hours, I saw several spots conspicuously, and in 
consequence searched for spots alone for nearly an hour. A search for so long a 
time for one class possibly may, in a slight measure, reduce the sensibility of 
the eye for objects of the other class, whether spots or streaks." 

The following extracts from Mr. Pratt's letter, dated 1870, May 19, are 



OBSERVATIONS OP LUNAR OBJECTS. 89 

interesting : — " Some spots having at different times been observed as cra- 
terlets, their character as volcanic is settled in my own mind. Whether 
all spots are analogous I should be glad to know ; but on the supposition of 
such similarity existing, the suggestion naturally arises whether the light 
streaks be not scoriae or lava, or a mixture of both, resulting from the action 
of the craterlets with which they seem to be connected." 

A comparison of the curves for the 20 lunations, April 1869 to November 
1870, is suggestive of the craterlets being a distinct class of objects. The 
phenomena characterizing the cratelets, as indicated by the curves, differ 
very materially from the phenomena manifested by the spots ; for example, 
in the correspondence of the maxima at the time of the supposed outbreak 
of Aug.-Sept. 1869, we have an increase of visibility in spots, the behaviour 
of the craterlets being altogether different. Certain neighbouring spots, to 
which allusion has been made, declined greatly in visibility, and were very 
seldom seen during a period in which the craterlets were almost always 
visible ; and in connexion with this it may be remembered that craterlets 
are characterized by high degrees of visibility, while of many spots which 
have large ranges the normal degrees of visibility are low. 

That a connexion exists between the streaks and spots is, as Mr. Pratt 
remarks, "self-evident ;" and Mr. Elger has shown that most of the spots 
occur on the streaks. Now as both spots and streaks vary in brilliancy and 
visibility, may not the steaks consist, as Mr. Pratt suggests, of ejecta from 
the volcanic orifices of the craterlets? The increased brightness of the 
streaks in the neighbourhood of the border has been frequently noticed, as 
well as the unevenness of the floor. It may be possible that newly ejected 
matter (especially if it be of the character of "broken glass," suggested, I 
believe, by Dr. Huggins as explanatory of the appearance of Linne) may 
reflect light more strongly, and thus contribute to the brighter appearance 
of the streaks about the time at which the craterlets manifest increased 
activity, and this may become so great as even to conceal the craterlets 
themselves. On the other hand, although we are perfectly ignorant of any 
meteorological or chemical action occurring at the surface of the moon, it 
may be permissible to suggest that, if such action be possible, the reflective 
power of the ejecta may become impaired, and the streaks in consequence 
rendered less bright. 

It is exceedingly difficult to conceive that volcanic action can be in existence 
on the moon's surface without "vapour" of some kind escaping from the 
orifices. If this be the case, condensation must follow, and the orifice may be 
covered by the condensed vapour, the upper surface of which may strongly 
reflect the light and produce the appearance of a spot when not in a state of 
actual eruption ; and this spot may be seen on a surface covered with ejecta, 
the reflective power of which has been impaired since it left the orifice. 

One of the brightest portions of the floor of Plato is the S.E., which is 
characterized by the "sector" or "fan." On the 10th of January, 1870, 
!l[r. Gledhill observed as many as nine crater-cones on the eastern part of 
the floor, viz. Nos. 1, 9, 11, 17, 4, 3, 30, 7, and 32. It is easily con- 
ceivable that ejecta from some of these may be the perennial source of the 
reflective power of the " sector." 

" It is, as far as I can see," says Mr. Pratt, " not at all proven that it is 
impossible that they, the spots, may not be small acting volcanos at this 
present moment ; and you will please credit me with having noted that, on 
the 13th of May, although the spots were very greatly in excess of their 
usual brightness, the relative brilliancy of the light streaks was not nearly 



90 . REPORT — 1871. 

in the 8ame proportion, indeed not so high as on some nights when fewer 
spots have heen visible. The supposition of Schroter of an exceedingly low 
atmosphere, confined to the lower regions, seems to me especially consonant 
with the above observations, for the following among other reasons : — 

" A thin atmosphere, the only possible detection of which is confined to the 
lower parts of the floor [that is within the mountainous enclosure of Plato], 
may obscure the streaks partially [to effect this there must be condensed 
material of some kind] without affecting the spots, which, if craterlets, are 
raised more or less above the level of the streaks [the low fogs, the upper sur- 
faces of which are at a less elevation than ordinary buildings are high, may be 
cited as examples] ; for such an atmosphere would probably be rendered more 
dense by and during the supposed activity in the spots, which on that night 
were unusually bright and, according to the hypothesis, in action. [It must 
not be forgotten that on comparing the observations of Mr. Pratt with those 
of Mr. Gledhill, the presumption is that the iinusual number and brilliancy 
of the spots was simply the effect of a finer atmosphere at Brighton as 
compared with that at Halifax. The phenomenon which is at variance with 
this is the less brihiancy of the streaks as recorded by Mr. Pratt ; still we 
have the bright streaks of Mr. Gledhill supporting the hypothesis of the effects 
of the earth's atmosphere.] Hence after a subsidence of the brightness of the 
spots and the restoration of the normal state of the atmosphere, we might 
expect to see the streaks come out more distinctly." 

It wiU be remarked that, in my suggestions above, the increased bright- 
ness of the streaks is supposed to depend upon the craterlets actually 
ejecting material, while the increased brightness of the spots depends upon 
the escape of vapour. I have not quoted Mr. Pratt's remarks for the 
purpose of controverting them ; they appear to me to be exceedingly 
valuable, and in the present state of selenological inquiry it is important 
to canvass every view that may be put forward. It is quite consonant with 
both our views that increased activity in a spot may, and doubtless does, 
manifest itself by increased brilliancy ; and it is not unlikely that the forma- 
tion of a spot in the way suggested over a volcanic orifice otherwise invisible 
may precede an actual eruption, contributing to an increased brilliancy of 
the streaks if they really result from volcanic ejecta. 

On the agencies capable of affecting the visibility of objects on the moon 
Mr. Pratt remarks : — " To my own mind the only likely agencies that can 
exist in the moon capable of affecting the visibility of objects are the every- 
where-denied lunar atmosphere and real volcanic activity ; as far as I can 
learn, the observations of some favour the one agency, while other observations 
do the same for the other, at the same time that different observei-s 
alternately deny the possible existence of either. Surely they are very 
closely related. If volcanic activity be established, can it exist without 
an atmosijhere ? AVhile if a low atmosphere be established, would not the 
stronger objection to present volcanic activity be removed? The hope that 
persistent and minute observation of a suitable region might produce a 
result sufficient either to weaken or strengthen the supposition has been at 
once the impetus and bond which has induced me to give a large share of 
attention to Plato. "We may not have attained such a result even yet ; but 
possibly continued application may be rewarded. I hope so. The close 
study of typical species is generally the best method of acquiring a good 
knowledge of genera." 

Mr. Pratt further adds: — " The reverse of what I have here stated I have 
several times observed, viz. that the light streaks on those occasions were 



OBSERVATIONS Or LUNAR OBJECTS. 91 

much hrigTiter relativehj to their best state thaa were the spots, of •which 
generally at those times lew have been discernible." 

1870, May 13. Mr. Pratt has not only specified the order of brightness as 
follows : — 



Spots No. : 

Visibility : 


1. 
1-000 


4. 

-892 


3. 

•897 


5. 
•510 


17. 

•830 


14. 
•433 


22. 

•175 


6. 

•222 


13. 

•156 


16. 
-294 


Spots No. : 
Visibility : 


20. 
•046 


2.3. 
■046 


18. 
•072 


19. 
■150 


29. 
•036 


0. 
•046 


24. 

•057 


21. 
•026 


9. 

•222 


10. 
•062 


Spots No. : 
Visibility : 


2. 
-046 


25. 
•144 


30. 
•139 


31. 
•031 


12. 

•031 


7. 
•113 











which we can compare with the degree of visibility for the 18 lunations as 
given immediately under the number of each spot (trom this comparison we 
see that the brightness ou May 13 was not strictly accordant with the 
visibility), but he has described the character of visibility by the words easy, 
conspicuous, &c., thus forming with the spots 7iot seen eight classes of objectSj 
au analysis of which may be interesting. 

Class I. contains one spot only, Jfo. 1, deg. of -ds. = 1-000. 

Pratt. Exceedingly bright and dense. 

Elgcr. Unusually bright. 

Gledhill. Bright spot. 
Class II. contains one spot only, No. 4, deg. of vis. = •892. 

Pratt. Bright but hazy. 

Elger. No remark. 

Gledhill. S^Dot. 
Class III. contains one sjjot only, No. 3, deg. of vis. = •897. 

Pratt. Distinct ; he inserts 5 between 3 and 17. 

Elger. 3 and 17 nearly equal. 

Gledhill. Bright spot. 





Class IV. contains 


four spots, viz. Nos. 17, 


5 14 22 




No. 


Pratt. 


Elger. 


Gledhill. 


Vis. 


17. 


Con.spicuous. 


Nearly equal to 3. 
' Yery faint on east 1 


Bright spot. 


•830 


5. 


5> 


- border of eastern - 
arm of " trident." 


Not seen. 


•510 


14. 


» 


Seen by glimpses. 


)? 


•433 


22. 


3) 


Not seen. 


)» 


•175 



Mr. Pratt observed the three components of the group 3, 30, 31 : he 
described 30 and 31 as steadily seen ; they occur in Class VI. Mr. Pratt 
accorded to spot No. 22 a high degree of brightness on this evening, and 
described it as " conspicuous : " neither Mr. Elger nor Mr. Gledhill detected 
it ; this doubtless depended upon the state of our own atmosphere. It may, 
however, be remarked that the spot was less visible on May 13, 1870, as 
compared with its visibility in August 1869, when it was seen by every 
observer. 

The position of spot No. 5, as observed by Mr. Pratt on August 26, 1869, 
was on the ivest border of the eastern arm of the " trident." The spot No 5, 
discovered by Challis, and possessing a normal visibility of -510, has been so 
frequently observed as almost to warrant its stability of position ; and should 
its relative position, as regards the eastern arm of the trident, be found to 
vary, it will afford evidence of a probable variation in the position of the 
arm. Schroter's drawings of the Mare Crisium indicate similar movements 
of the streaks from Proclus over the Mare, 



92 







REPORT — 


1871 


• 






ass V. 


contains 


eight spots, viz 


. Nos. 


16, 6, 13, 


19, 


18,20, 


No. 


Pratt. 


Elger, 




Glcdhill. 




Yis. 


16. 


Easy. 


Easy. 




Not seen. 




•294 


6. 




Not seen. 






•222 


13. 












•156 


19. 












•150 


18. 












•072 


20. 












•046 


23. 












•046 


29. 












•036 



Of tlie spots in this class, and which Mr. Pratt describes as easy, one 
only. No. 16, was seen by Mr. Elger. This spot has a higher degree of 
visibility than 22 in Class IV., " conspicnous ; " and this is perhaps another 
indication that the \-isibility of No. 22 on May 13 did not wholly depend 
upon the state of the earth's atmosphere. 

The normal degrees of visibility in this class range from ^294 to -036, 
furnishing a strong indication that they were seen in consequence of a fine 
state of the earth's atmosphere. 

Class VI. contains five spots, viz. Nos. 9, 30, 24, 31, 21. 

Vis. 
•222 
•139 
•057 
•031 
•026 

The same remark may be applied to this class as to Class V., viz. that the 
spots were seen in consequence of a fine state of the earth's atmosphere. 
The two spots Nos. 9 and 30, with comparative high degrees of visibility, 
are xeij frequently seen by Mr. Glcdhill, and doubtless were not seen by 
him in consequence of the bad state of the atmosphere at Halifax. 

Class VII. contains six spots, viz. Nos. 25, 7, 10, 2, 0, 12. 



No. 


Pratt. 


Elger. Gledhill. 


9. 


Minute. 


Not seen. Not seen. 


30. 


SteadUy. 


99 99 


24. 


99 


Seen 3 or 4 times. ,, 


31. 


99 


Not seen. ,, 


21. 


99 


99 99 



No. 


Pratt. 


Elger. 




Gledhill. 


Vis. 


25. 




Frequently glimpsed. 




Not seen. 


•144 


7. 


, , 


Not seen. 






•113 


10. 


, , 


99 






•062 


2. 


Hazy. 


99 






•046 


0. 


, , 


99 






•046 


12. 


, . 


99 






•031 


Spot No. 


25, vis. 


•144, is frequently seen 


ty 


Mr. Elger. 





In addition to the above, Mr. Elger frequently glimpsed No. 32. The 
WHOLE of the above sj^ots, as well as the strcciJcs recorded by Mr. Pratt, were 
observed three separate times at intervals of about twenty minutes. The 
majority was seen much oftcner. 

The following spots were not seen on the evening of May 13 : — 
Spot: 11. 34. 8. 15. 33. 27. 26. 28. 35. 
Vis.: ^144 ^026 -015 ^015 -010 -010 ^005 ^005 •OOo 

"With the exception of spot No. 11, which is frequently seen by Mr. 
Gledhill, these spots were doubtless concealed by or, rather, required a still 
finer state of the atmosphere to bring them out. It is difficult to say why 
^r. Pratt did not detect spot No. 11 when he saw thirteen sjiots with lower 
degrees of visibility. It is one of those spots to which special attention 



OBSERVATIONS OF LUNAR OBJECTS. 93 

should be directed. Of the remainder, three have been observed orn^e only 
by Mr. Gledhill, viz. Wos. 26, 28, and 3-5 ; two have been observed twice, 
viz. Nos. 27 and 33 ; two thrice, both old spots, viz. 8 (Gruithuisen) and 15 
(Dawes); and one, 1^0.34, six times between January 15 and March 13, 1870*. 
In his letter dated 1870, May 19, Mr. Pratt says that " spot No. 8 could 
not be recovered even with the most minute attention." Of spot No. 1 he 
says, " it was brighter than I have seen it before, quite round and dense, 
much hke the image of a star on a good night surrounded by the very least 
trace of a ring of light. [Neither] internal nor external shadows could be 
seen, although I constantly expected a slight glimpse." 

Spot No. 22. 

In reference to this spot Mr. Pratt writes, under date 1870 August 2Q, as 
follows : — 

" Spot No. 22, according to my observations, has manifested a remarkable 
increase of brightness, and those parts of the shaded portions of the floor of 
Plato which are nearest to the rim have come out more conspicuously darker 
than the rest than I remember to have previously noted. The tint of the 
floor, too, has progressively paled. These three phenomena [the increased 
brightness of spot 22, the intensification of the darker parts of the floor near 
the rim, and the progressive paling of the floor] may possibly be connected 
by a common cause ; for certainly in this lunation there is somewhat of a 
coincidence amongst them ; for instance, spot 22 is intensely bright at the 
time the marginal portions of the shaded parts are most conspicuously dark, 
and these two, again, coincide with the time when the general tint of the 
floor is at its darkest. Again, after August 12 and 13, spot 22 decreased in 
relative intensity, although I am not ready to hazard the assertion that it 
had on August 16 positively declined to its \isual intensity, as it was not 
seen. [It was on this evening that Mr. Pratt observed three spots only.] 
Two similar instances, I believe, I have noted before, when 22 manifested a 
singular brightness at sunrise. But the connexion between the visibility of 
the deeper-tinted margin and the general deepening of colour is perhaps more 
close still, as both certainly paled after August 13. The perplexity seems to 
be that the variation in intensity of the margin is relative in respect of the 
general colour ; and if difiorences of angles of illumination and vision do affect 
the general tint, it might be supposed that they would in the same manner 
afi'ect the margin and so produce no relative variation of intensity." 

In connexion with the relative intensity of which Mr. Pratt speaks, the 
state of the border is somewhat important. August 12 and 13, when the 
marginal portions of the floor were intensified in colour, Mr. Pratt recorded 
of the border : — " Definition fair at times, with much tremor, wind N.E." 
This was on the 12th. On the 13th the record is : " Border, definition bad, 

* The history of spot No. 34 is curious ; the following are the only records which exist 
of it. The observations were all made by Mr. Gledhill with the Halifax 9 J-inch equatorial 
in the Observatory of Edward Crossley, Esq. 

1870, January 15, 10 to 13 hours. " I am continually thinking I see an object close to 
No. 1 and to the west of it." 

February 11, 6.45. " No. 1 often comes out double ; last year I often saw it thus. I am 
now almost quite sure I see a minute object close to the west of it." 

February 12, 6.0. " Saw 9, 11, 30, and object close west of No. 1." 

March 12, 6 to 8 hours. No. 34 mentioned as having been seen. 

March 13, G to 12 hours. "Unless I am very much mistaken indeed 34 is an easy 
object, i. e. No. 1 comes out easily double." 

There are no records after this date. Instruments less than 9-inches aperture are not 
likely to redetect it. 



94 REPORT 1871. 

much boiling, wind N.E." On the 12th, definition fair, the floor was recorded 
as " very dark." On the 13th it was dark, but not so much so as on the 
12th. On the 16th, as well as on the 15th, the definition of the border was 
" bad." These records clearly throw a doubt upon the supposition of the 
" paling " having resulted from some lunar action, inasmiich as when, the 
deeper tint was observed the definition was "good," the "tremor" and 
" boiling " having a tendency to confuse the portions of the floor. On the 
other hand, spots have been much more numerous with bad definition than 
3 as observed by Mr. Pratt on the l(3th ; and this would lead to the supposition 
that the (qrparent extinction of the spots with a pale floor was in some 
way differently connected than by a deteriorated state of the earth's atmo- 
sphere. I have often observed that the passage of a thin cloud over the 
moon has greatly contributed to intensify the tints of the darker portions of 
the surface ; but in this case the intensification has been general and not 
partial, as it would be if dependent upon local lunar action. 

Mr. Pratt records a case of parfial obscuration which was well seen oil 
August 13. " It appeared," says Mr. Pratt, " on this wise. A general view 
of the floor showed it much speckled and streaked in other pai'ts ; but over 
the area specified [Mr. Pratt has not mentioned the particidar part of the 
floor ; but from what follows I apprehend it must be in the neighbourhood of 
No. 3] there seemed an absence of markings ; close attention, however, 
enabled some to be seen, but not nearly so richly as the remainder of the 
floor, and we know well enough that that particular area is not wanting in 
markings. The evening's view has just occurred to memory when I first 
discovered that spot 3 was a triple one, and had a remarkalile view of its 
neighbourhood [Qy. "Was this on May 13 ?], therefore exactly the reverse 
being the case. August 13 seems as conclusive a proof as one observer is 
likely to obtain in a year's work." 

Of four observers on the same evening, two record No. 3, and the other 
two appear not to have seen it. Taking them in chronological order, Neison, 
9.5 to 9.15, records it as distinct ; Pratt, 10.30 to 12.30, did not observe 
it; Ormesher, 11.0 to 11.30, does not show it in his drawing; Gledhill, 
14'', records it as a bright disk : he also records 30. As these observations 
are not contemporaneous, with the exception of Ormcsher's, having been 
made while Pratt was observing, it appears, from its absence in both their 
records, that from 10.30 to 12.30 it was really not visible ; and this tends to 
support Mr. Pratt's idea that for the time it was hidden by something like 
an obscuring medium. "What this could have been it is difficult to surmise. 
The remark, however, of Neison that 30 Avas not to be seen between 9.5 
and 9.15 is interesting in connexion with Gledhill recording both spots at a 
later epoch, 14'', and also detecting five not seen by Pratt, viz. 3, 30, 9, 11, 
18. Neison suspected he saw 14, not recorded by Gledhill nor Pratt, but 
seen by Ormesher. Pratt saw 22, not seen by either of the others. The 
case of 14 is a little perplexing ; it might, however, have been missed by 
Pratt on account of the bad definition. "With regard to the greater number 
of spots seen by GledhiU, two circumstances may have contributed to this 
result, the larger aperture of Mr. Crossley's instrument and the epoch at 
which Mr. Gledhill observed. It may possibly be found that the greater 
number of spots recorded after the sun's meridian passage at Plato depend 
upon the. steadiness and purity of the air mostly experienced after midnight. 

Suiisei and Sunrise on Plato, 
Extracts from Mr. Pratt's notebook, 1870, Oct. 17, 11'' to \2\ Definl- 



OBSERVATIONS OF LUNAR OBJECTS. 95 

tion fair, -with boiling. * * Plato is a grand and striking sight. Tint of 
floor medium. More than half the floor in shadow. Terminator just in- 
cluding the W. rim. The rim of the crater on the N. exterior slope finely 
seen. In three parts the rim appeared hrolcen down to Uvd of floor — close 
to m, opposite to c, and nearly so at W. II E"/'^ [the hreaks at m and op- 
posite c are in the line of the well-known fault crossing Plato from N.W. 
to S.E.]. ^ was throwing a long spire of shadow the full length of the 
floor at 11" 40°'. That part of the floor contiguous to the W. and S.W. 
rim was deeply shaded, with streaks of shade running towards the centre of 
the floor. Between the break near c and the shadow of '( a straight shading 
as of a narrow valley was weU seen. [These shadings appear to be roughly 
coincident with the dark spaces on the floor as seen under high illumination, 
the straight shading being, as Mr. Pratt suggests, between the "sector" and 
the E. arm of the " trident." Is there really a valley here running inta 
the central depression between 1 and 4, seen by Mr. Elger in January, 1870, 
and observed much earlier by Schrbter?] Between these shadings and the 
shadow of the E. rim were three roundish lighter regions, the higher parts of 
the floor giving the appearance of a strongly marked convexity." 

" A strong suspicion arises that the apparently higher portions of the 
floor are the light streaJcs usually seen, and the highest parts are spots 1, 17 
and 5." Mr. Pratt further suggests that the light streaks are coincident 
with formations analogous to " spurs "' from the chief centres of the residual 
activity on the floor. 

It is not a little remarkable that on the occasion of such a very favoiirable 
oblique illumination the craterlets 1 and 17 should not have been detected 
by Mr. Pratt ; both have raised rims of the nature of true volcanic cones, 
and 1 has been seen, and I believe 17 also, with interior shadows and bright 
interiors facing the sun. Mr. Pratt does not appear to have seen even the 
remotest semblance of a shadow. The spots properlg so called do not appear 
generally iintil the sun has attained an altitude of 20°. If craterlets are 
recorded as spots earlier, it is probably in consequence of bad definition 
confusing the crater-form appearance. Is it possible that on the two 
occasions mentioned by Mr. Pratt, Oct. 17 and Nov. 1, the craterlets 1, 17, 
3, and 4 were by some means concecded? As regards Nov. 1, the observation 
of the crater-cones as the shadows gradually recede from E. to W. is very 
frequent ; indeed the surface of Plato as it just emerges out of night ajjpears 
to be in a very different state to what it is about mid-day ; objects are much 
sharper, and it is difficult to conceive of any agency so affecting such visible 
objects as to render them invisible at a time when they are generally most 
conspicuous. So far as contemporaneous observations are capable of throwing 
light on this phenomenon, three spots only were recorded on the same even- 
ing ; No. 1 by Mr. Elger, who noticed it from 9'' to 9** S", near the shadow 
of the summit of the middle peak of the W. wall, three hours later than 
Mr. Pratt's observation. Mr. Gledhill at 6"*, same as Mr. Pratt, says, " Moon 
so low and air so thick that very little light from moon can reach us ;" he 
says also, " I sec 3 as double elevated cones [i.e. 3 and 30]. No other objects 
can be seen." Mr. Neison, 5.10 to 8.15 [probably 8.10 to 8.15] succeeded 
in seeing 3 only, which he records as very faint. He does not give the state 
of the atmosphere as to definition ; but from his remarking that " a deep cleft 
in west edge of wall was very distinctly seen," I should suppose that it was 
pretty good. Taking the four sets of observations it would appear that at 
sunrise on Plato Nov. 1, 1870, some ageney was in operation capable of 
concealing the craterlets ; and combining these observations with those of 



96 REPORT 1871. 

Oct. X7, it would also appear that the same agency was in operation at the 
time of the previous sunset. 

1870, Nov. 1, 6'' to 6*" 40™. "A grand view again. Definition fair at 
times. The margin of the eastern end of the floor very distinctly shaded, 
showing that end to he convex as well as the western. This shading did not 
conform to the general form of rim, but ran inwards (as shown in the 
sketch) ; and three places on the floor were much brighter than the rest, 
which was free from shading (their localities I have no doubt are those of 
spots 3, 4, and 17), while the next bright parts of the floor are suggestive 
of the light streaks; and the shading or lower part coinciding with the 
narrowing of the streak between 4 and 3 as seen under higher illumination 
in a measure supports the impression." 

The dip of the floor towards the border, as mentioned by Mr. Pratt, is 
now well established by numerous observations, also the comparatively 
greater elevation in the neighbourhood of the fault crossing Plato from 
N.W. to S.E. These characteristics will probably afford some clue towards 
framing a theory of the formation of the plain and rampart. Starting with 
the now acknowledged principle that the moon manifests on a large scale the 
operation of volcanic forces, we may first inquire as to their modus operandi 
in the forms we observe. So far as we know, volcanos and earthquakes are 
closely connected, and there is great reason to believe that both are the 
results of expansion occasioned by the intumescence of material beneath the 

Pig. 8. 




crust or surface. It was, I believe, Scropc who first called attention to the 
effect of the expansion of an iutumescent mass elevating the superincumbent 
material ; and Hopkins, twenty-two years later, clearly showed that when 
the surface was elevated to the point at which the tension and cohesion just 
balanced each other, the slightest increase of tension ruptured the surface 
and produced fissures, which might be considerably augmented by earthquake- 
waves accompanied by the sudden subsidence of the tract between two 
principal lines of fissures. In applying this reasoning to the explanation of 
the formation of " Plato," the remarks of Scrope are so much to_ the point 
that a transcription of them is essential to the due apprehension of the 
forces concerned. 

In chapter x. of his ' Considerations of Yolcanos,' p. 205 (1825), Scrope, 
speaking of M. de Buch's opinion that the intumescence and rise of the 
basalt elevated the superincumbent strata, says : " 1 differ from him, inas- 
much as I conceive the intumescence and rise of the basalt to be not 
the cause but the result of the elevation of the overlying strata. 

"A general fact, noticed by M. de Buch himself, proves this most 
thoroughly, viz. that wherever the basalt appears, the strata are invariably 
found dipping toivards it, which is wholly inexplicable under the idea that 
the basalt elevated them. ... If, however, we suppose the expansion of 
the subterranean bed of crystalHne rock to have taken place at a great depth, 
elevating the overlying strata irregularly along the line of various fissures, 



THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF METALS. 97 

as for example at A and B (fig. 8), it is clear such fissures will open outwardly ; 
but in the interval of two such fissures, as at C, another must be found opening, 
on the contrary, downivards, that is, towards the confined and heated lava, 
which in consequence must intumesce and fill the space afforded to it, and 
perhaps force its way through some minor cleft upon the external surface of 
the elevated rocks." 

Plato we know to be a large cavity in an elevated region, between the 
Mare Imbrium and the Mare Frigoris, connected with the mountain-studded 
region of the Alps on the west, and descending with a precipitous slope 
towards the east. The whole of the surface around Plato is exceedingly 
rugged, containing at least the remains of three craters of more ancient date. 
It is the floor of Plato only that presents any appearance of a recent character ; 
and even this when Aaewed by very obhque light is far from being level. 
The sketch (fig. 8) to which reference has already been made is intended to con- 
vey some idea of the successive steps by which it is probable that Plato has 
arrived at its present form. It is roughly drawn to scale, which is somewhat 
too small, and, consequently, the height of the rim rather exaggerated ; the 
extent being 316,800 English feet, the height, under 4000 feet (i. e. of the 
rim exclusive of the four pinnacles), will be nearly -j^jth part. The letters 
A and B are placed over the supposed foci of expansion, the arrows indi- 
cating the direction of the elevating movements, the dotted line showing the 
extreme height to which the surface could be raised without fracture. Over 
A and B, and above C, are placed the three main fissures resulting from the in- 
creased tension and the general breaking up of the elevated mass, and which 
might have been accompanied with an almost immediate subsidence, as sug- 
gested by Hopkins, Eeport Brit. Assoc. 1847, p. 64, in the following passage : — 
" If the intumescence of the subjacent fluid, and consequently its supporting 
power, were immediately afterwards diminished by the escape of elastic 
vapours, there would be an immediate subsidence." Such a subsidence, or 
rather a succession of subsidences, would fuUy account for the formation of 
the floors of most craters ; and the upwelling of lava from numerous small 
orifices would tend to produce such a floor as we observe on Plato. The 
section presents all the characteristics of the walled plain under considera- 
tion, the dip towards the border being strongly indicative of the main line of 
fissiire opening outwardly at the foot of the rampart. It may be well to 
mention that no new principle is introduced in this explanation, which is 
based upon the views of two leading geologists, after comparing them with 
phenomena that have been assiduously and repeatedly observed. 



Second Provisional Report on the Thermal Conductivity of Metals. 

By Prof. Tait. 

Since the date of the former Report the Committee have obtained a splendid 
set of Kew standard thermometers. "With these, complete sets of observa- 
tions, at very diiferent temperatures, have been made on iron, two specimens 
of copper, lead, german silver, and gas-coke. As great difficulty was found 
in keeping the source of heat at a constant high temperature in the statical 
experiments, they were repeated from day to day tiU satisfactory results 
were obtained. But a simple and ingenious device of Dr. Crum Brown (con- 
sisting in making the descending counterpoise of a small gas-holder nip an 
india-rubber tube) supplied so very great an improvement in steadiness of 
temperature that it was considered advisable to repeat all the statical expe- 
1871. H 



98 REPORT 1871. 

riments with thia modification. This has accordingly been done, during the 
present summer, but it has not yet been possible to perform the large amount 
of calculation necessarj- to obtain final results. It may be stated, however, 
that the results as a whole will not differ very considerably from those for- 
merly obtained, so far, at least, as can be judged from a comparison of the 
graphic representations of the experiments. 



Report on the Rainfall of the British Isles, by a Committee, consisting 
of C. Brooke, F.R.S. [Chairman), J. Glaisher, F.R.S., Prof. 
Phillips, F.R.S., J. F. Batemax, C.E., F.R.S., R. W. Mylne, 
C.E., F.R.S. , T. Hawksley, C.E., Prof. J. C. Adams, F.R.S. , C. 
ToMLixsox, F.R.S., Prof. Sylvester, F.R.S., Dr. Pole, F.R.S., 
Rogers Field, C.E., and G. J. Symoxs, Secretary. 

YorB Committee have much pleasure in reporting that the organization 
under their supervision is believed to be in a generally efficient state. With 
a stafi" of observers, numbering nearly two thousand, spread over the whole 
extent of the British Isles, there can, however, be no question that, to ensure 
perfect efficiency and uniformity of observation, a systematic inspection of 
stations is absolutely necessary. In a paper read before the Society of Arts 
in 185S, M!r. BaUey Denton appears to have considered that there should be 
one inspector to about each 200 stations ; at that rate we ought to have ten. 
The ;Meteorological Committee of the Royal Society have made it a rule to 
have all their stations inspected each year. On the most moderate com- 
putation it is indisputable that at least one inspector of stations is required 
for our large body of observers, the whole of whose time should be devoted 
to travelling. 

Ever since their appointment yoiir Committee have felt and acted upon 
this conviction ; but want of funds has prevented them from employing a 
regular iuspector, and obliged them to rely solely upon the unpaid services of 
their Secretary. Even under these adverse conditions considerable progress 
has been made with the work, and upwards of 400 gauges had been visited 
and examined previous to the Liverpool Meeting. At that Meeting, how- 
ever, the Association only granted half the sum for which we asked, and we 
have consequently (most reluctantly) been obliged to stop this important 
and useful work. 

As an interim meastire, and with a view to ascertaining ia what districts 
inspection is most requisite, it has been suggested that a schedule of ques- 
tions as to the positions of their rain-gauges should be sent to every observer. 
The Committee unanimously approved of the suggestion, and annex a copy of 
the Circular and Schedule they are about to issue. 

British Association Rainfall Committee, 

62 Camden Square, London, ^N.W. 

Sis, — The above Committee feel that it is most important that precise in- 
formation as to the position of aU the rain-gauges in. the British Isles should 
be promptly obtained. They are aware that under present circumstances it 
is impossible that each gauge should be personally inspected, and have there- 
fore instructed me to ask you to fill up the accompanying form, which I 
shall be obliged by your returning as soon as possible. 

As an indication of the kind of information which the Committee desire 
to collect, I have filled up one form for my own gauge ; but there are of 
course many subjects not touched upon in the specimen which will be ac- 



ON THE RAINFALL OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 99 

ceptable in others, such as distance from the sea and from lofty hills, as 
well as their direction, <kc. 

The Committee wiU also be glad of any suggestions as to the conduct of 
rainfall work, and of information resjjecting any stations or old observations 
not included in the list published by them in 1866, and of which I shall be 
happy to send you a copy if you have not already received one. 

Yours veiy truly, 

G. J. Stmoks, Secretary, 

[Illustration of mode of filling up return.] 

POSITION AND PARTICULARS OF THE RAIN-GAUGE 

At [Camden Square, London,] 
In the County of [Middlesex.] 



Distance. 


Height. 


. . 17 ft. . 


6 ft.] 


. . 92 ft. . 


. 40 ft.^ 


. . 15 ft. . 


5 ft. 


. . 12 ft. . 


5 ft.^ 


. . 16 ft. . 


5ft.^ 


. . 24 ft. . 


7ft.^ 


. . 6 ft. . 


3ft.^ 


. . 12 ft. . 


5 ft; 


]. rises 30 ft. 


in 1 mile.] 



Year in which observations were first made [1858.] 

Hour of observation [9 a.m.] If entered against the day of observation, or 

the one preceding [Preceding]. 
Position [In garden, 120 ft. by 24 ft.] 
Surrounding objects, their distances and heights : 

N. [WaU 

N.E. [House 

E. [WaU 

S.E. [Wall 

S. [WaU 

S.W. [Summer House 

W. [Raspberry-bushes 

N.W.[WaU 

Inclination of ground [Quite level, but in 

Height of Ground above sea-level [111] ft. as determined by [Levelling from 
Ordnance Bench-mark]. 

Height of top of gauge above ground [0] ft. [6] in. 

Pattern of gauge. (If similar to any on plate, quote the number ; if not, 
give sketch.) [Sinular to No. X., but the bent tube is made straight, 
and a jar inserted for the purpose of ensuring more accurate mea- 
surement.] 

Have the same gauge and measuring-glass been used throughout ? [No.] 

Has the gauge always been in the same position ? [No.] 

[ the previous position [300 yards further west.] 

If not, state briefly ■< the reason for the alteration [Growth of trees.] 
[ the supposed effect [None perceptible.] 

Remarks. 
[Measuring- glass broken in 1861, and a new tested one obtained, the 
rainfaU of each day until its arrival being bottled separately, and mea- 
sured by the new glass.] Signed, [G. J. SYMONS.] 

Another branch of investigation which has been arrested by the same 
cause is the relative amount of rain falling in different months, or, as we have 
usually termed it, the " monthly percentage of mean annual rainfaU." Several 
articles upon the subject have appeared in our previous Reports ; and last 
year we pointed out that the observations for the decade 1860-69 offered 
data of completeness unparalleled, either in this or any other country, tho 

h2 



100 



REPORT 1871. 



result of wbicb we had hoped to have submitted to the present Meeting. 
Excepting in our own Reports, we are not aware that the seasonal distribu- 
tion of rain in this country has received any attention, while on the Con- 
tinent it has at all times been looked upon as almost equally important with 
the gross amount. 

Although several short and interrupted sets of observations have been 
made in Northern Derbyshire, the rainfall of that hilly district has not 
hitherto been examined with the thoroughness which its importance deserves. 
"VVe have in previous Eeports urged the desii'ability of several additional 
stations being established ; and as no one else undertook the work our Secre- 
tary did so, and by the assistance of the observer at Buxton, and Mr. 
Hazlewood, of Castleton, was enabled to commence several sets of rain- 
gauge observations in the district. Some others are still required, which, if 
our funds permit, we intend to add. 

Pit-gauges. — In our last Eeport we drew attention to the fact that a gauge 
of which the orifice was horizontal, level with the ground, but in a small pit 
or excavation, had at Calne collected about 5 per cent, more than one of which 
the receiving surface was one foot above the ground ; whence it followed 
that as a great many rain-gauges (the majority in fact) are placed with their 
apertures a foot above the surface, the records of all these gauges were 
below what they would have been if placed in pits as just described. "We 
gave some reasons which appeared to us to prevent the general use of pit- 
gauges, and added the following concluding remark on page 176 : — 

" This result appears so startling that further experiments will be con- 
ducted on the subject." 

The funds at our disposal have not allowed us to do so ; but fortunately the 
Eev. F. W. Stow, M.A., has tried one pair of gauges mounted in this manner 
at Hawsker, on the Yorkshire coast, a few miles south of Whitby. The 
following are the results during 1870 : — 

Table I. — Experiments with Pit-gauges. 



Hawsker, 1870. 


Brit.Assoc.Eeport, 1869-70. 


Months. 


5-in. gauge 
at 1 foot. 


5-in. gauge 
in pit. 


Eatio. 


Calne, 1866-7, 
mean ratio. 


Difference. 


January . 
February . 
March . . . 




1-610 
1-995 
1-052 
0-370 

2-650 
0-920 
1-887 
0-845 
5-000 
3-043 
5-230 


1-770 
2-300 
1-293 
0-390 

2-705 
0-977 
1-908 
0-934 
5-053 
3-234 
6-420 


110 
115 
123 
105 

102 
106 
101 
110 
101 
106 
123 


113 
109 
107 
105 

102 
103 
103 
103 
102 
106 
108 


- 3 

+ 6 

+ 16 


""o 

+ 3 

- 2 
+ 7 

- 1 


+ 15 


April . . . 




May 




June . . . 




July 




August . 
September 
October . 
November 
December 




Totals 


24-602 


26-984 




.... 







Means , . , 






109-3 


105-5 


+ 3-8 





ON THE RAINFALL OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 101 

Of course it was not to be expected that the resxilts of a single year should 
agree exactly with the mean of two other years, still less when the size of 
gauge used was different, and the locality so opposite as the inland district 
of Calne and the rock-bound Yorkshire coast. We therefore look upon it as 
satisfactory that in only four months out of eleven do the ratios at Calne and 
Hawsker differ more than 3 per cent. In April, June, and IS^ovemher they 
are identical. The Calne results are thus strongly confirmed ; and it may be 
considered as certain that pit-gauges always exceed those at one foot, 
although the precise amount of excess remains to be determined. 

In our last Eeport we expressed the hope that we should this year be able 
to state the residt of the discussion of all the rainfall registers which were 
absolutely continuous from January 1, 1860, to December 31, 18G9. We 
have the pleasure of doing so in two respects, viz. (1) with reference to their 
bearing on the question of the existence or otherwise of secular variation of 
rainfall in the British Isles, and (2) as data indicative of the distribution of 
rain over the country. 

The secular variation of rainfall, or the relative dryness and wetness of 
different years and groups of years, is one of the most important and difficult 
branches of rainfall work. It has been treated in our Reports for 1865, and 
very fully in that lor 1866. In the latter we gave the calculations in detail, 
from which the values shown on the accompanying diagram were obtained. 
Referring to that Report for full explanation, we have onljr now t-o mention 
that the subsequent years 1866 to 1869 have been computed in the same 
manner and added to the diagram (fig. 1). We may also remark that various 
observations collected since its publication have confirmed the general accuracy 
of the curve quite as much as could have been anticipated. On the present 
occasion we do not intend to discuss the relative rainfall of different years, but 
the relation of the fall during the ten years 1860-69 to previous decades. 
For this purpose we have grouped the yearly values in decennial periods, 
similar to those adopted in our 1867 Report, whence we obtain the following 
result : — 

Table II. — Ratio of Rainfall in each ten years since 1730 to the Mean of 

sixty Years, 1810-69. 



Period. 


Ratio. 


Period. 


Ratio. 


1730-39 


89-9 


1800-09 


SS-2 


1740-49 


70-6 


1810-19 


98-6 


1750-59 


85-5 


1820-29 


103-2 


1760-69 


91-1 


1830-39 


101-4 


1770-79 


103-5 


1840-49 


102-6 


1780-89 


93-5 


1850-59 


95-2 


1790-99 


96-5 


1860-69 


101-5 



Having previously pointed out the peculiarities of the earlier portion of 
the curve, it is only necessary on the present occasion to caU attention to the 
last forty years, whence it will be seen that, according to this mode of inves- 
tigation (which is principally based on Enghsh returns), three out of the four 
decades had a rainfall nearly identical, and the other (1850-59) considerably 
below them, the deficiency being nearly 7 per cent. 

This result is based on a combination of records, as fully explained in our 
1866 Report. We proceed to examine how far it is corroborated by individual 
stations, but are at once confronted by the paucity of stations of which per- 
fectly continuous records for even half a century exist. We therefore con- 
fine ourselves to the forty years, from 1830 to 1869, for which period we 



102 



REPORT ISrl. 



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ON THE RAINFALL OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 



103 



have twelve perfect records at widely separated stations. The mean fall in 
each decade and in the whole period, and the ratio of each decade to the 
whole period at each station, is given ia Table III. 













Kg. 2. 














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On OS CT\ 


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From careful examination of Table III., it appears that the amount of 
rain which fell in the ten years 1830-39 was very similar to that which 
fell in the ten following years, the difference being a decrease, but scarcely 
one per cent. The investigation in our 1866 Report shows an increase of 
1-2 per cent. ; and examination of returns ceasing in 1850, and therefore not 
quoted in either Report, show several cases of absolute identity. 

With one investigation leading to a decrease of 1 per cent., another to an 
increase of the same amount, and a third to identity, we are led to the con- 
clusion that the two decades may be considered to show similar results. 
This is a much more important fact than it at first appears ; and for this 

Table III. — Comparison of the Rainfall in each Decade since 1829 with 
the Mean Rainfall of forty years, ending with 1869. 



Station. 


Mean Rainfall in each 10 years. 


Mean 


1830-39. 


1840-49. 


1850-59. 


1860-69. 


Rainfall, 
1830-69. 


Epping 

Exeter Institution 

Tavistock 

Halifax 

Kendal 

Point of Ayre .... 
Rhinns of Islay . . 

Isle of May 

Buchanness 

Kinnairdhead .... 
Island Glass .... 
Start Point 


in. 

25-84 

28-92 

52-81 

34-51 

56-22 

28-26 

34-07 

21-96 

26-40 

19-66 

33-23 

27-39 


in. 

26-99 

29-35 

54-27 

31-88 

51-18 

28-20 

33-79 

20-94 

26-84 

22-01 

34-98 

25-05 


in. 

2318 

26-91 

49-18 

30-71 

44-91 

29-01 

30-58 

15-21 

23-40 

22-05 

31-92 

23-77 


in. 

24-13 

31-76 

53-17 

33-31 

53-32 

30-61 

33-43 

20-48 

25-59 

24-17 

31-13 

31-37 


in. 

25-04 

29-24 

52-30 

32-60 

51-41 

29-02 

32-97 

19-65 

25-56 

21-97 

32-81 

26-89 


Means 


32-44 


3212 


29-24 


32-71 


31-63 


Ratio of Means . . 


102-6 


101-6 


92-5 


103-4 





104 



REPORT — 1871. 



Table III. (continued). 



SUition. 


Ratio of Rainfall in each 10 years' to 40 
years' Mean. 


18.30-39. 


1840-49. 


1850-59. 


1860-69. 


Epping 

Exeter Institution 

Tavistock 

Halifax 

Kendal 

Point of Ayre .... 
Hhinus of Islay . . 
Isle of May .... 

Buchanuess 

Kinnairdhcad .... 
Island Glass .... 
Start Point 


103 

99 

101 

106 

109 

97 

103 

112 

103 

90 

101 

102 


108 
100 
104 

98 
100 

97 
102 
107 
105 
100 
107 

93 


93 
92 
94 
94 

87 
100 
93 
78 
92 
100 
97 
88 


96 
109 j 
101 1 
102 
104 
106 
102 
103 
100 
110 

95 
117 


Mean Eatios .... 


102-2 


101-8 


92-3 


103-7 



reason : while there are only about a dozen registers complete for the four 
decades, there are thirty-eight which are complete for the last three decades. 
'Now that we have found the relation between the first two decades, the re- 
turns for the thirty years are rendered almost as instructive as those for 
forty years. 



Fig. 3. 



1866 Report. 



1871 Report. 
All stations. 




90 



We have therefore compiled Table IV., which differs from Table III. only 
in its being for thirty years instead of forty, and in giving observations from 
thirty-eight stations instead of twelve. 



J 



ON THE RAINFALL OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 



105 



Table IV. — Comparison of the Rainfall in each. Decade since 1839 with the mean 
Eainfall of thirty years ending 1869. 



County. 



II. 


Sussex 






III. 

IV. 
V. 

»J 
)} 

»» 

VI. 

VII. 

VIII. 

IX. 

» 

»» 

X. 

f) 

XI. 
XII. 
XIII. 

XV. 

« 
>» 

XVI. 

x\^I. 

»» 

XIX. 

>) 

XXI. 
XXIII. 


Herts 


Essex 


Norfolk 

Wilts 


Devon 




" 


Worcester . . . 
Nottingham... 
Lancashire ... 
Yorkshire . . . 

II 

II ■ • • 

II 

Durham 

Westmoreland 
Isle of Man . . . 

Wigtown 

Haddington... 
Edinburgh ... 
Bute 


Arsvll 




Fife 


Perth 


Kincardine ... 
Aberdeen 

JI 

Ross 




Sutherland ... 

Caithness 

Orkney 


Shetland 

Dublin 

Antrim 



Station. 



Chichester Infirmary .. 
,, (Chilgrove).. 

Hemel Hempstead 

Eppmg 

Diss (Dickleburgh) 

Salisbury (Baverstock) 
Tavistock (West St.) .. 

Exeter Institution 

lIoniton(Broadhembury) 

Tenbury (Orleton) 

Welbeck 

Bolton (The Folds).... 

Redmires 

HaUfax (Well Head) .. 

Settle 

York 

Bishopwearmouth 

Kendal 

Point of Ayre 

Mull of Galloway, L.H 

Haddington 

Inveresk 

PladdaL.H 

Mull of Cantire, L.H. 
Rhinns of Islay, L.H. 

Isle of May, L.H 

Deanston 

Girdleness, L.H 

Buchanness, L.H 

Kinnairdhead, L.H. .. 

Island Glass, L.H._ 

Barrahead, L.H. 

Cape Wrath, L.H 

Dunnethead, L.H 

Start Point, L.H 

Sumburghhead, L.H. . . 

Black Rock 

Belfast Linen Hall 



Mean Rainfall in each 
10 years. 



1840-49. 1850-.59. 1860-69. 



in. 
29-10 

33'4i 
25-86 
26-99 
25-05 
31 09 
S4"2'7 
^9'35 
35'i4 
28-41 
25-44 
4646 

407 s 
31-88 

43 '41 
25-42 
19-94 
51-18 
28-20 
20-67 
23-77 
25-81 
40-02 
4576 

3379 
20-94 

3574 
2314 
26-84 
22-01 
34-98 
31-60 
38-86 
27-39 
25-05 

i5'43 
23-20 
29-44 



m. 
26-67 
32-23 
26-43 
23-18 
22-31 
2869 
49-18 
26-91 
32-75 
2882 
2329 
44-01 
37-86 
30-71 

35-51 
22-02 
16-91 
44-91 
29-01 
22-52 

24-35 
24-72 

35'23 
41-19 

30-58 
15-21 
39-21 
19-71 
23-40 
22-05 
31-92 
32-67 
36-94 
22-09 
23-77 
25-22 
21-78 
3001 



29-03 
33-22 
26-39 
24-13 

22-22 
30-25 

53'>7 

31-76 

34-56 
30-90 

24-64 

48-98 

39-68 
33-31 

41-35 

24-48 
20-25 

53-32 

30-61 
27 66 
25-63 
2902 

40-14 
44-17 

3 3 "43 
20-48 

43-99 
22-72 
25-59 
24-17 
31-13 
31-73 
39"37 
25-40 

31-37 
26-45 
27-10 
36-77 



Mean 
Rain- 
fall. 



18i0-69. 



28-27 
32-95 
26-23 

24-77 
2319 

30-01 
52-21 

29-34 

34-15 
29-38 
24-46 
46-48 

39'43 
31-97 
40-09 
23-97 

19-03 
4980 
29-27 
23-62 
24-58 
2652 
38-46 

43-71 
32-60 
18-88 

39-65 
21-86 
25-28 
22-74 
32-68 
32-00 

38-39 
24-96 
26-73 
25-70 
24-03 
32-07 



Ratio of Rainfall in 

each decade to '60 

years Mean. 



1840-49. 1850-59. 1860-69. 



103 
iqi 

99 

109 
108 
104 
104 
100 
103 

97 

104 

100 

103 

100 

108 

106 

105 

103 

96 

88 

97 

97 

104 

105 
104 

III 

90 
106 
106 

97 
107 

99 
101 

110 
94 

99 
96 
92 



Abstract of Table IV. 



94 

98 

101 

94 
96 
96 

94 
92 
96 
98 
95 
95 
96 
96 
89 

92 
89 

90 

99 
95 
99 
93 
92 
94 
94 
81 

99 
90 

93 
97 
98 
102 
96 
88 
89 
98 
91 
94 



England and Wales, 19 stations 

iScotland, 17 stations 

'Ireland, 2 stations 

Mean of the above 

, Mean of 38 stations 



33-23 
29-52 
26-32 



2969 
31-21 



30-60 
2769 
25-90 



28-06 
29-05 



33-28 

30-73 
31-93 



31-98 
32-07 



32-37 
29-31 
28-05 



29-91 
30-78 



102-8 

100-9 

94-0 



99-2 
1QI-5 



94-7 
94-0 
92-5 



93-7 
94-3 



From the above Table the remarkable similarity of the results obtained 
by the two dissimilar modes of investigation is rendered so obvious that it 



106 



REPORT 1871. 



is unnecessary to dwell further upon it. We now proceed to the second 
part of our investigation, namely, to consider the distribution of the rain- 
fall of the last decade, during which we have nearly four hundred perfect 
sets of observations. As each set of observations comprises more than a 
thousand entries, and the following Table contains the result of nearly half a 
million observations, it is probable that it contains some slight percentage of 
error, but we have no suspicdon of the existence of any which appreciably 
affect the results. 

The head-lines of the following Table sufficiently explain its contents. 



Table Y. — Mean Rainfall at 325 Stations during the ten years 1860-69. 



County. 



Station. 



Height of Rain-gauge. 



Above 
ground. 



Above sea. 



Mean 
Annual 
Eainfall, 
1860-69. 



Division I. 
Middlesex . . . 

Division II. 

Surrey 

>) 

jj 

J) 

>> 

Kent 

>> 

>) 

J) 

Sussex 

> 

>> 

J) 

J! 

•7 

>> 

>> 

J> 

Hampshire . . . 

>» • • • 

>j . . . 

„ . . , 

„ . . . 

Berkshire . . . 

» . . . 

Division III. 
Herts 



Camden Town 

Weybridge Heath 

Croydon (Tanfield Lodge) 
„ (Waldi-onhurst). . 

Wimbledon 

Kew Observatory 

Hythe (Horton Park) .... 

Tunbridge 

Maidstone (Linton Park) 

,, (Hunton Court) 
West Thorney [Emsworth] 
Chichester Museum .... 

„ (Shopwyke) . . 

„ (West Dean) . . 

(Chilgrove) 

Arundel ('Dale Park) .... 
Hastings (High Wickham) 
Maresfield Rectory 

„ (Forest Lodge) 
Isle of Wight (Osborne) 
Fareham (North Brook). . 

Peter sfield (Liss) 

Selbome (The Wakes) . . 

Aldershot 

Reading (Englefield) .... 
Long Wittenham 

Bayfordbury 

St. Albans (Gorhambury) 



ft. in. 



6 



6 

8 
35 

3 

1 3 
1 4 
1 
6 
6 
8 

6 

1 2 

1 6 

6 
3 5 

2 

1 3 
1 2 
8 
2 



4 
2 9 



feet. 



100 



150 
155 
237 
160 

19 
350 

71 
296 

80 

10? 

50 

61 
250 
284 
316 
212 
250 
259 
172 

26? 






7 


.... 


4 





400 


3 





325 


1 





190 


1 





170 



250 



inches. 



25-681 



25-051 
26-333 
24-388 
23-476 
23-282 
32-677 
28-258 
27-559 
25-998 
26-875 
29-026 
29-194 
37-082 
33-224 
33-732 
26-373 
32-199 
31-479 
30-725 
33-906 
38-033 
34-427 
27-036 
25-726 
27-379 



25011 

27-849 



ON THE RAINFALL OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 



107 



Table V. (continued). 



Countv. 



Division III. 

{continued). 

Herts 



Bucks 
Oxford 



Northampton 



Station. 



HemelHempstead(NashMills) 



Tring (Cowroast) 

Hitchin 

Royston 

High Wycomb 

RadcliiFe Observatory . . 
Banbury (High Street) 

Althorp House 

Wellingborough 

Hunts I Kimbolton (Haraerton) 



Bedford ' Cardington 



Cambridge . . 
>> ■ • 

Division IV. 
Essex 



Suffolk 



Norfolk 
>> 



. Ely (Stretham) 

. ' Wisbeach (Harecroft House) 



Epping 

Witham (Dorward Hall) . . 

Dunmow 

Braintree (Booking) 

Saffron Walden (Ashdon) . . 

Hadleigh (Aldham) 

Bury St. Ed. (Abbeygate) . . 

„ (Westley) . . ." 

„ (Barton Hall) 

„ (Culford) 

Diss (Dickleburgh) 

Downham Market (Outwell) 
„ ,, (Fincham) . . 

Norwich Institution 

„ (Cossey) 

,, (Honingham Hall) 

Fakenham (Egmere) 

Holkham 



Division V. 
Wiltshire . . . . 



Hunstanton 



Baverstock 

Salisbury Plain (Chiltern Ho.) 
Swindon (Penhill) 



Height of Rain-gauge. 



Above 
ground. 



ft. 

3 

4 
1 



7 
3 

5 

3 
36 
4 




6 
1 

3 
1 
2 

35 
1 
1 
1 
3 
4 
4 

30 
1 

4 

4 
3 




2 
4 
6 
9 
8 

4 
3 
4 

6 

9 
8 




6 

6 

6 



2 
6 




6 
8 


8 



3 

4 
10 



Above sea. 



Mean 
Annual 
Rainfall, 
1860-69. 



feet. 

250 
395 
238 
266 
225 
207 
350 
310 

170 
106 
109 
142 

11 



360 

20? 
234 
200 

300 

240? 
216? 
145? 

84? 
120 

16 
100 

53 

"ss 

150 
39 
43 
60 



300 
380? 



inches. 

26-388 
27-594 
23-922 
23-569 
25-705 
26-129 
26-222 
23-349 
24-092 
23-132 
22-487 
21-760 
18170 
20-609 
24-037 



24-132 
20-466 
22-750 
23-984 
23-056 
25-469 
23-962 
23-522 
23-680 
24-835 
22-223 
22-637 
23-139 
22-169 
24-035 
23-975 
25-097 
23-875 
23-232 
19-559 



30-247 
29-279 
28-592 



108 



REPORT— 1871. 



Table V. (continued). 







Height of Kain-gauge. 


Mean 


County. 


Station. 


Above 
ground. 


Above sea. 


Annual 
Rainfall, 
1860-69. 


Division T 


r 


ft. 


in. 


feet. 


inches. 


(conti} 


med^^ 


. 










Dorset . 




, . . Bridport 





8 


60 


32-248 


Devon . 




. . . Plymouth (Saltram) 





3 


96 


44-813 








„ (Ham) 


3 





94 


42-888 








. . . Plympton StMary(Ridgeway) 





6 


116 


48-646 








. . . Tavistock (Library) 


20 





283 


43-356 








(West Street) 


4 


6 


286 


53-170 








. . . Bovey Tracey 





6 


92 


43-126 








. . . Coryton Lew Down 


6 





445 


45-941 








. . . Exeter Institution 


13 


7 


155 


31-757 1 








. . . CuUompton (Clyst Hydon) . . 


1 





200 


32-694 : 








... ,, (Bradninch) 


1 


6 


234 


38-060 








. . . Houiton (Broadhemburj) . . 


1 


6 


400 


34-562 








. . . South Molton (Castle Hill) . . 


3 


5 


200 


47-118 








. . . Barnstaple 





6 


43 


39-905 


)7 ■ ■ • - 

Cornwall . . 


. . . Helstone 


5 

3 






6 


116 

94 

160 


37-872 
41-507 
41-229 


. . . Penzance 


. . . Redruth (Tehidy Park) 


5) • • 


. . . Truro (Royal Institution) . . 


40 





56 


42-877 




... ,, (Penarth) 


1 





190 


42-556 


5? • • 


. . . Bodmin (Castle Street) .... 


2 


6 


338 


47-708 


)J • • 


(Warleggan) 


2 


6 


550 


54-557 


9f • ' 


. . . Wadebridge(TreharrockHo.) 


2 


9 


303 


39-301 


Somerset . . 


. . . Langport (Long Sutton) .... 





10 


50 


28-574 


?> ■ • 


. . . E. Harptree (Sherborne Res.) 


1 





338 


42-097 


Division "V 


^I. 










Gloucester 


. . . Bristol (Small Street) 


25 





40 


30-549 


)) 


(Phil. Inst.) 


56 





• • • • 


32-955 


)> 


Clifton (South Parade) 





6 


192 


34-085 


)) 


. . . . Gloucester (Quedgeley) . . . . 





10 


50 


27-421 


9? 


. . . . Cirencester (Further Barton) 


1 


2 


420 


32-612 


Hereford . . 


. . . . Ross (Archenfield) 


1 





250? 


28-211 


5> • • 


. . . . ,, (Rocklands) 


1 


10 


150 


33-591 


" . - ' 


. . . . Leominster (West Lodge) . . 


1 





250 


27-105 


Shropshire 


. . . . Burford [Tenbury] 





11 


100? 


26-744 


5> 


. . . . Ludlow (Knowbury) 





4 


1000? 


28-530 


» 


Shiifnal (Haughtou Hall) . . 


3 


5 


355 


24-870 




. . . . Shrewsbury 


4 


4 


192 


19-499 


?5 

?1 


K ii* W If ^^^1*1. J 

. . . . Oswestry (Hengoed) 


6 





470 


35-647 


Worcester 
J) 


. . . . Northwick Park 


1 
1 


6 



'l37 


28-017 
28-039 


. . . . W^orcester (Lark Hill) . . . . 


»> 


. . . . Tenbury (Orleton) 





9 


200? 


30-900 


Warwick . . 


. . . . Birmingham (Edgbaston) . . 


1 


3 


510 


30-562 ! 



ON THE RAINFALL OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 



109 



Table V. (continued). 



County. 



Division VII. 
Leicestershire . 



Lincoln 



Nottingham 



Derby 



DrvisioN VIII. 
Cheshire 



» 

» 



Lancashire 



Station. 



Height of Eain-gauge. 



Above 
ground. 



Wigston 

Thornton Reservoir . . . . 

Waltham Rectory 

Belvoir Castle 

Grantham 

Lincoln 

Market Rasen 

Gainsborough 

Stockwith 

Brigg 

Grimsby 

Barnetby 

Brigg (Appleby Vic.) . . . . 

New Holland 

Southwell 

Welbeck Abbey 

Worksop 

Retford 

Derby 

Chesterfield 

Kilnarsh (Norwood) . . . . 

Combs Moss 

„ Reservoir 

Chapel-en-le-Frith . . . , 
Woodhead 

Bosley Minns , 

„ Reservoir 

Macclesfield 

„ (Park Green) 
Bollington (Spond's Hill) 

Whaley 

Marple Aqueduct 

„ Top Lock 

Godley Reservoir 

Mottram (Matley's Field) 

Newton , 

Arnfield Reservoir , 

Rhodes Wood Reservoir . , 
Woodhead „ 

Denton „ 

Gorton ,, 



ft. in. 

6 

2 8 

1 
1 
6 

3 6 



3 
3 
3 
3 



3 
3 
3 
3 
3 



6 
6 
6 
6 



15 

3 6 

9 

3 6 





6 



1 
4 
3 
3 6 
6 
3 6 



6 
6 
6 
6 
6 



6 
6 
6 
1 
6 
6 



3 
3 
3 
2 
3 
3 
3 6 
3 6 

3 6 
3 6 

i 

10 



AboTe sea. 



feet. 

220 

420 

560 

237 

179 

26 

100 

76 

21 

16 

42 

51 

60 

18 

200? 

80 
127 
52 
180 
248 
238 
1669 
710 
965 
878 



1210 
590 
539 
450 

1279 
602 
321 
543 
500 
399 
396 
575 
520 
680 
324 
263 



Mean 
Annual 
Eainfall, 
1860-69. 



inches. 

25-165 
25-611 
24-319 
24-476 
22-407 
20-870 
23-429 
21-659 
21-347 
24-118 
21-391 
22-163 
24-097 
22-665 
20-844 
24-636 
22-469 
22-743 
26-807 
26-930 
24-591 
49-620 
50-008 
41-947 
52-188 



32-849 
32-043 
34-536 
36-746 
37-464 
43-894 
34-810 
35-254 
33-979 
37-732 
31-633 
37-232 
46-323 
51-828 
32-974 
33-712 



no 



REPORT 18rl. 



Table V. {continued). 



County, 



DiTisioN VIII 
(^continued) 

Lancashire 



» 
» 

» 
l> 
>9 
J» 
>» 
»> 

» 

» 
» 



Division IX. 
Yorkshire, W. R. 



>» 
>» 

>9 
» 

M 
It 
» 



E. R, 

N. R, 



Station, 



Manchester (Old Trafford) , 
„ (Ardwick) . . , 
„ (Piccadilly) . . , 

Fairfield 

Oldham (Waterhouses) . , , 

„ (Gas-works) 

„ (Strines Dale) . . , 
Bolton (The Folds) 

„ (Belmont) , 

„ (Heaton) 

Rochdale (Nagden Dane) , 

Ormskirk (Rufford) 

Preston (Howick) 

Blackpool (South shore) . , , 

Stonyhurst 

Clitheroe (Downham Hall) . 

Lancaster (Caton) 

Cartmel (Holker) 



Sheffield (Broomhall Park) 

Redmires 

Sheffield Station 

TickhiU 

Dunford Bridge 

Saddleworth Station , . . . 

Standedge 

Huddersfield (Longwood) 
„ (Rastrick) . , 

Halifax (Warley Moor) . , 
„ (WeU Head) . , 
„ (Midgeley Moor) 
,, (Ovenden Moor) 

Leeds (Leventhorpe Hall) 
„ (Holbeck) 

York (Bootham) 

Settle 

AmcKffe 

Hull (Beverley Road) . , . . 

Malton 

Richmond (Aske) ...,., 



Height of Eain-gauge. 



Above 
ground. 



ft, in. 



2 7 

3 
40 

6 

3 6 

6 

6 

3 6 




1 6 
8 

6 

1 8 

8 

1 6 
1 6 

4 8 



2 
4 
3 
2 
3 
5 
2 
4 
1 





6 

6 


6 
3 



11 



2 

32 

6 
40 

2 9 

3 10 

1 

2 8 



Above sea. 



feet. 



106 
154' 
194 
312 
345 
600 
800 
283 
800 
500 
900 
38 
73 
29 
376 
464 
120 
155 



340 

1100 

188 

61 

954 

640 

1150 

650 

410 

1425 

487 

1350 

1375 

90 

127 

50 

498 

750 

11 

75 

550 



Mean 
Annual 
RainftU, 
1860-69. 



inches. 



34-727 
32-597 
36-775 
40-898 
36-133 
37-123 
36007 
48-981 
56-610 
44-210 
44-132 
34-999 
38-303 
32-994 
48-560 
44-786 
43-944 
45-625 



31-276 
39-684 
28-159 
23-990 
56-177 
41-968 
53-700 
34-008 
32-121 
46-330 
33-313 
50-000 
46-090 
23-261 
22-853 
24-479 
41-349 
60-075 
25-024 
27-455 
31-105 



ON THE RAINFALL OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 



Ill 



Table V. (continued). 



Countj. 



Division X. 

Durham 

Northumberland 



Station. 






Cumberland 



Westmoreland . 



Division XI. 

Glamorgan . . 
Cardigan .... 
Brecknock . . 
Radnor .... 
Flint 



Denbigh . . . 
Isle of Man . 
Guernsey . 
Alderney. . . 



Division XII. 
"Wigton 



Kirkcudbright . 
Dumfries 



Height of Kain-gauge. 



Above 
ground. 



Above sea. 



ft. 







1 



9 
3 
6 
4 
6 




Bishopwearmouth 

Allenheads 

Shotley HaU 

By well 

Wylam Hall 

North Shields (Wallsend) 

„ (Rosella Place) 

Stamfordham 

Hexham (Parkend) 

Lilburn Tower 

Seathwaite 

Ullswater (Watermillock) . 
Bassenthwaite (Mirehouse) . 
Cockermouth (Whinfell HaU) 
Carlisle (Bunker's Hill) . 
Kendal (Kent Terrace) . 
Windermere (The Howe) 
Appleby 



WALES AND THE ISLANDS. 



Cardiff (Ely) 

Lampeter 

Hay (Pen-y-maes) 

Rhayader (Cefnfaes) . . . 
Hawarden [Chester] . . . 
Holywell (Maes-y-dre) . 
Llandudno (Warwick House) 
Point of Ayre 



1 








4 


6 





1 





3 


6 





7 


2 





6 





4 


6 


1 


2 


1 






Mean 
Annual 
Rainfall, 
1860-69. 



Harbour Works 



Roxburgh 



SCOTLAND. 

Mull of Galloway 

Stranraer (South Cairn) . . , 

CorsewaU 

Little Ross 

Cargen [Dumfries] , 

Dumfries (March Hill Cott.) 
Westerkirk (Carlesgill) . . 

Wanlockhead 

Kelso (Springwood Park) 



1 4 



feet. 

1369 
312 
87 
96 
100 
124 
400 
276 
300 
422 
720 
310 
265 
184 
146 
470 
442 



209 



3 


45 


4 6 


420 


1 


317 


2 


880 


7 


270 


5 


400 


6 


99 


3 4 


27? 


12 


204 


10 


48 



3 


3 


130? 





4 


80 





5 


70 


6' 


4 


1330 


1 





130 



inches. 

20-247 
51-160 
28-494 
28-874 
26-900 
26-640 
26-065 
27-637 
33-550 
28-657 
154-046 
59-910 
53-756 
57-366 
27-616 
53-322 
87-923 
35-994 



42-016 
45-183 
31-680 
44-980 
26-443 
24-430 
31-004 
30-609 
37-177 
28-624 



27-656 
49-603 
37-027 
26-981 
44-372 
37045 
60-092 
66-628 
24-663 



112 



REPORT 1871. 



Table V. (continued). 



County. 



Division XIII. 

Selkirk . . 
Peebles . . 
Berwick . . 

j> • • 

Haddington 



Edinburgh 



Division XIV. 
Lanark 



Ayr 

3, . . . . 

Renfrew 






Division XV 

Dumbarton . . 
Stirling .... 

Bute 

Argyll 

>) 

)> 

» 

» 

j> 

)> 

>f 

»> 

j> 



Station. 



Bowhill 

Penicuick (jST. Esk Reservoir) 
Lauder (Thirlestane Castle). 
Dunse (Mungo's Walls) . . . 
Prestonkirk (Smeaton) . . . 
Haddington (Millfield) . . . 

East Linton 

Cobbinshaw Reservoir . . . 
Inveresk 



Hamilton (Auchinraith) . . . 

„ (BotbweU Castle), 
Glasgow (Ccssuock Park) . 

,, (Observatory) . . . 

Baillieston 

Shotts (Hillend House) . . . 
Ayr (Auchendrane House) . 

Largs (Mansfield) 

Gorbals, W. W. (Ryat Lynn) 

(Waulk Glen) 

„ (Middleton)... 

Meams (Nether Place) .... 

Greenock (Hamilton Street) 



Loch Long (Arddaroch) . . . . 

Falkirk (Kerse) 

Stirling (Polmaise Gardens) 

Pladda 

Castle Toward 

Lochgili^head (Callton Mor). 

Inverary Castle 

Appin (Airds) 

Ardnamurchan 

Cantire, Mull of 

Campbeltown (Devaar) . . . , 

Rhinns of Islay 

Lismore (Mousedale) 

Mull, Sound of 

Tyree (Hynish) , 



Height of Eain-gauge. 



Above 
ground. 



ft. in. 

11 

6 

3 

6 

13 

4 

3 

7 

2 



4 9 

18 

4 4 

1 

3 

7 

2 3 

6 

5 

5 

5 

6 

6 



10 



1 

3 
4 
4 


3 




2 
3 

6 
1 
3 
6 



3 4 

3 

3 4 

6 



Above sea. 



feet. 

537 

1150 
558 
267 
100 
140 

90 
863 

90 



150 
146 

29 
180 
230 
620 

96 

30 
310 
280 
550 
360 

50 



80 

"12 

55 

65 

65 

30 

15 

82? 
279? 

75? 

74? 

37? 

12? 



Mean 
Annual 
Rainfall, 
1860-69. 



inches. 

33-033 

38-014 
29-977 
28-494 
23-263 
25-630 
23-767 
37-450 
29-016 



31-951 

28-885 
37-958 
44-411 
46-471 
33-445 
44-825 
48-920 
47-801 
49-845 
56-682 
50143 
66-156 



78-321 
32-960 
41-300 
40-141 
54-554 
54-253 
67-370 
63-640 
45-594 
44-166 
47-312 
33-434 
46-215 
72-159 
79-992 



ON THE RAINFALL OP THE BRITISH ISLES. 



lis 



Table V. (continued). 



County. 



Division XVI. 

Kinross 

Fife 

)> ... 

Perth ....."..'. 

j> 

J) 

jj 

j» 

5) 

if 

5) 

>> 

>) 

Forfar 

>> 

>> 

>> 

Division XVII. 
Kincardine . . . . 



Aberdeen 



Banff 



Station. 



Height of Eain-gauge. 



Above 
ground. 



Division XVIII 

Ross & Cromarty 
>> }> 

Inverness . . 



5> 



Lochlcven Sluice 

Balfour 

Leven (Nookton) 

Isle of May 

Aberfoyle 

Dunblane (Kippenross) . . . . 

Deanston House 

Lanrick Castle 

Bridge of Tiu-k 

Auclitcrarder House 

„ (Trinity Gask) 

Loch Earnhead (Stronvar) . . 

Perth Academy . 

Scone Palace 

Barry 

Craigton 

Kettins 

Hill Head 

Arbroath 

Brechin (The Burn) 

Girdlcness 

Braemar 

Aberdeen (Rose Street) ... 

Alford (Castle Newe) 

Kiunaird Head 

Buchanness 

Gordon Castle 



Isle of Lewis (Stornoway) . 
„ (Beruera) . . . 

Cromarty 

Isle of Skye (Oronsay) . . . 

„ (Kylcakin) . . . 

„ (Raasay) 

„ (Portree) 

Barrahead 

S. Uist (Ushenish) 

Harris (Island Glass) 

Rona 

CuUoden House 



ft. in. 

10 

6 

6 

2 2 

6 

4 

4 



6 

2 3 

1 



64 
2 


1 

2 



1 





1 
3 

3 



5 
6 
3 
3 

3 




6 

4 7 




4 



3 4 



1 6 



3 4 

G 

3 4 

6 

2 

1 4 



8 

4 
4 



6 
3 



Above sea. 



Mean 
Annual 
Kainfall, 
1800-09. 



feet. 

"l27 

80 
182 

GO 
100 
130 

"276 
162 
133 

"83 

80 
3.5 

481 

218 

570 

60 



235 

86 

1114 

95 

"64 

"(30 



31? 
15 

28 
15? 
3? 

80 

80 
G40? 
157? 

50? 
. 20 
104 



inches. 

35-780 
28-589 
28-988 
20-482 
61-820 
36-165 
43-991 
48-805 
61-890 
34-315 
35-324 
82-434 
23-584 
29-182 
29-729 
34-876 
33-172 
35-187 
29-050 



34-910 
22-718 
33-404 
29-433 
33-500 
24-168 
25-588 
29-192 



31-792 
68-027 
25-941 
72-359 
82-087 
77-120 
104-261 
31-72G 
43-905 
31-129 
39-470 
27-084 



1871. 



114 



REPORT 1871. 

Table V. (continued). 



County. 



Station. 



Division XIX. 

Sutherland . . . 

If • • • 
Caithness 

5> 

>J 

Orkney 

J) 

>> 

» 

» 

?j 

Shetland 

» 



Division XX. 
Cork 



Golspie (Dunrobin Castle) . 

Cape Wrath 

Wick (Nosshead) 

Dunnethead 

Pentland Skerries 

Hoy (Graemsay East) . . . 

„ .( „ West) . . . 

j Shapinsay (Balfour Castle) . 

j Pomona (Sandwick) 

Sauda (Start Point) 

liorth Eonaldshay 

Sumburghead 

Bressay Lighthouse 



Height of Eain-gauge. 



Waterford 
Clare . . . 



Division XXI. 



Queen's County- 
King's County 



lEELAND. 

Cork (Royal Institution) 

Fermoy , 

Waterford (Newtown) . . , 
KiUaloe 



Portarlington 

Tullamore 

Wicklow Bray (Fassaroe) 

Dublin Black Eock (Eockville) 



Division XXII. 
Fermanagrh . . . . 



EnniskOIen (Florence Court) 



Armagh i Armagh Observatory 



Antrim 



Belfast (Queen's College) 
(Linen Hall) . . . . 



Above 
ground. 



ft. in. 




3 
3 
3 
3 
3 



3 
6 
4 
6 
3 
4 



6 

2 
6 

3 4 
3 4 
4 



Above sea. 



.50 





4" 


6 


5 





1 


2 


3 





5 





29 





11 





1 


5 


/ 


4 


4 






feet. 

6 
355? 
127? 
300? 

72? 

27? 

37? 

50 

78 

29? 

21? 
265? 

60 



70 

60 
123 



240 

235 

250 

90 



300 

208 

68 

12 



Mean 
Annual 
Eainfall, 
1860-69. 



inches. 

27-692 
39-371 
24-699 
25-401 
28-763 
39-007 
32-693 
32-408 
38-853 
31-371 
31-015 
26-454 
36-488 



34-771 
37-207 
40-669 
47-654 



36-8.57 
27-938 
41-822 
27-090 



44-368 
32-014 
34-225 
36-767 



Before accepting these decennial averages (1860-69) as data indicative of 
the distribution of rain over the country, we have to offer a few prefatory 
remarks. The difference between the amount collected by any two rain- 
gauges depends on at least four separate and distinct conditions, three of 
which must be ascertained and corrected for before the fourth can be accu- 
rately determined. 

The conditions are : — (1) length of series of observations ; (2) correction for 
secular change ; (3) height of gauges above ground. 

(1) Even if there were no other evidence in existence than the accompany- 



ON THE KAINFALL OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 115 

ing diagram (fig. 1) of the fluctuations of rainfall, we feel that it would suffi- 
ciently prove the impossibility of determining accurately the rainfall at any 
place except by observations continued over a long series of years at that 
place, or by difterentiation from some proximate long-continued series. 

(2) It does not follow that simultaneous observations, even for ten years, 
giving for example a mean difference between two stations of five inches, 
prove that the rainfall at the one station is greater than the other by that 
amount, although if they are not very distant the one from the other it 
would probably be a safe assumption. 

(3) Before mean results can be given with any pretensions to accuracy and 
finality, they must be corrected for the elevation of the rain-gauge above the 
ground. 

The above remarks sufaciently show that the mere average of the fall of 
rain measured during ten or more years does not necessarily give the true 
mean rainfall at that place. 

Let us take as an example the highest amount recorded in the Table 
(Seathwaite), which had during the ten years (1860-69) an average of 
154 inches ; many persons would say at once that tliat was therefore the 
mean rainfall at that station. It is, however, nothing like it. From 
Table II. and fig. 2 we see that the rainfall over England, generally, 
during those ten yeaz's was 1-5 per cent, above the average, upon which 
evidence we are bound to reduce the observed mean in that proportion, 
and then the average becomes 152 inches instead of 154. Even this, how- 
ever, is not correct ; for we pointed out in condition (2) that the same 
years, or groups of years, are not similarly wet in aU parts of the country. 
Referring, therefore, to Table lY. we find that at the nearest station to 
Seathwaite, Kendal, the decade in question was 7 per cent, above the thirty- 
year mean ; hence, on the supposition that the Kendal values are applicable 
to this station, we have to reduce 154 inches by 7 per cent, instead of by 
1-5 per cent., and hence the probable mean comes out 141-8 inches. 

Now most fortunately we can test the accuracy of this calculation in three 
ways. 

(1) The mean fall at Seathwaite in the previous decade was 126-98 ; from 
the Kendal observations the fall in that decade was 10 per cent, less than 

(126-98 \ 

— ^—=141-09 \ we find the probable 

out 141-1 from this decade, and 141-8 from that of 1860-69. They thus 
agree within less than an inch, or one half per cent. 

(2) The fall at Seathwaite has now been continuously observed for twenty-six 
years, viz. from 1845 to 1870 inclusive ; the mean of the whole twenty-six 
years' observations is 140-03. 

(3) This value, corrected according to the Table in ourl866Eeport, becomes 
141-44, agreeing exactly with that indicated by the decades 1850-59 and 
1860-69. 

This example proves three points :- — (1) the great degree of accuracy which 
is attainable by proper methods ; (2) the care requisite to secure it ; (3) the 
serious errors inseparable from the use of mere arithmetical averages without 
reference to secular changes. 

These observations, however, must of course be taken as general results, 
and not be construed as having any bearing on the relative rainfall even of 
proximate stations, the rainfall of which will vary considerably according to 
local circumstances. 

Hence it will be seen that thepi-obable average at Seathwaite is 141 inches 

i2 



mean comes 



116 REPORT 1871. 

instead of 154, or 7 per cent. less. A similar, but generally less correction, 
may be required for other stations. The figures in Table V. must not there- 
fore be considered as showing the mean fall at the several stations, but only 
as approximations generally pretty close. The data in our possession, if cor- 
rected in accordance with the method explained, would afford more accurate 
results, but the investigation is altogether beyond our present resources. 

Large tracts of Ireland, and even of Scotland, are still without observers ; 
much has recently been done to remedy these deficiencies, but there are still 
many localities where observations are very much wanted ; we shall gladly 
receive any off'ers of assistance from those who have residences or property in 
those parts, and our Secretary wUl readUy advise them as to instruments. 



Third Report on the British Fossil Corals. By P. Martin Duncan^ 
F.R.S.f F.G.S., Professor of Geology in King's College, London. 

Introduction. — There can be no doubt that the palaeontology of the Madrc- 
poraria of the Palaeozoic strata is in a condition of profound confusion. 
When these Reports were commenced, the veiy excellent descriptions and 
classification of the Palaeozoic Corals by MM. Milne-Edwards and Jules Haime, 
strengthened by those of M. de Eromentel, appeared to have satisfied pa- 
heontologists, and they were received and adopted without much demur. 
But during the last three or four years a series of more or less important 
attacks has been made upon the views of those distinguished authors ; 
consequently opinions respecting many important matters in the palaeontology 
of the Palaeozoic corals are in a very unsatisfactory state. 

L. Agassiz, A. Agassiz, and now Count Pourtales would remove the Ta- 
bulata from the list of Madreporaria. Mr. Kent and I doubt the propriety 
of establishing the Tabulata as a group. Count Keyserling demurred years 
since at receiving the long se])taless Tubulata amongst the Madreporaria, 
and, after due examination, I agree with him in relegating them to the Al- 
cyonaria. 

Working amongst the Rugosa, I have shown that they do not invariably 
characterize Palaeozoic strata, for some of the types have persisted, and no 
reasonable doubt cau be entertained concerning the descent of the Jurassic 
Coral-fauna fro'n the Palaeozoic. 

The genus Palceocyclns has been shown not to belong to the Fungidac, 
but to the Cyathophyllidae. Genera with the hexameral arrangement of 
septa have been found in Carboniferous and Devonian strata. 

Lindstrom's interesting researches respecting the operculated condition of 
some Palajozoic corals require most careful study and much following up, 
and the assertion of L. Agassiz respecting the hydroid relationship of those 
Eugosa which have tabulae demands further inquiry *. 

Ludwig, of Darmstadt, has added to the confusion by not acknowledging 
the received classification in the least ; and in his able enthusiasm (anti- 

* G-. Lindstrcim, pamphlet translated by M. Lindstrcim from the original Swedish, 
' Geological Magazine,' 1866, p. 356. He notices tliat Guettard first described an oper- 
culum in a rugose coral, and that then Steenstrup saw one in a Cyathophyllum mUratum. 
Lindstrom produces evidence respecting the genera Gonlophylhim, Calceola, Zaphrcntis, 
Hallia, and Favosites (see also p. 406 et seq.). 



ON THE BKITISH FOSSIL COKALS. 117 

Gallican enougli) he alters generic and specific names, employing sesqui- 
pedalian Greek, and even absorbing the original authors (' Pateontogra- 
phica,' H. von Meyer, 1866). 

Thus he confuses Stromatopora concentrica, Goldfuss, Avith the Madre- 
poraria, and calls it Lioplacocyathus concentricus. Fortunately Ludwig gives 
a plate of it (tab. Ixxii. fig. 1), and thus proves the total absence of all 
structures which differentiate the Madreporaria. After thus dignifying a 
rhizopod, we may be prepared for any thing. 

The same author figures a form which is clearly that of Heliolites porosa, 
and calls it by the extraordinary name of Astroplucocyatlms solidus, Ldwg. 
It appears that this naturalist studied this eminently cellular type from a 
cast, hence the term solidus. Again, in tab. Ixxi. fig. 2, Liidwig delineates a 
good specimen of Cyatlwphyllum hexagonum, Goldfuss, 1826, and with sur- 
passing coolness names it Astroplilceothylacus vulyaris, Ldwg. He then con- 
founds a species oi Lithostrotion and Smithia Ifennali, E, & H., in one genus, 
Astrophloeocyclus, Ldwg. 

The student of the Silurian corals will be surprised perhaps to find that, 
according to Ludwig, Hah/sites catenularia, Ed. & H., the Catenipora esclia- 
roides of Lonsdale, is transformed into PiycJiophJcvohpas catenidaria, Ludwig, 
doubtless on the principle that having found such a very distinguished generic 
title, the compiler of it has the right to eclipse the discoverers of the form. 
Chatetes, which some of us consider to belong to the Alcyonarian group, as 
it has DO septa, Ludwig decorates with the title " LiopTdoeocyathus." 

In his sixty-ninth plate, fig. 5, there is a very good representation of a 
coral ordinarily known as Accrvidana Troscheli, Ed. & H. This form was 
inaccurately described by Goldfuss, who called it CyathopjhyUum ananas. Now 
the authorship is settled by this Alexander, who cuts the knot by claimiug 
the species as his own, under the title of AstrocJiarfodiscus ananas, Ludwig ! 

Then Pleurodictyum prohUmaticum, Goldfuss, is altered into Tceniocharto- 
cychis planus, Ldwg. 

To render matters easier to the student, Ludwig associates Acervidarla 
liLvurians and Cyathophylhan helianfhoides in one genus, Astroblascodiscus, 
and of course places his name after the species. Then CyathophyUum ccespi- 
tosum becomes, under the same lexicographic hands, Astrocalanocyathiis 
co'spitosiis, Ludwig I In another place CyatliophyJlum helianthoides, Gold- 
fuss, just mentioned under the term Astrohlascodiscus, appears as Astro- 
discus. Lonsdale's CystipTiylhim cylindriciim is turned into Liocyathus ca- 
tinifer, Ldwg. 

This author, moreover, appears to hold a brief against the belief in the 
quadrate arrangement of the septa in the Rugosa, and, in a manner which is 
excessively arbitrary and artificial, terms such and such septa primaries, so 
as to reduce the cycles to sixes. In spite of the evidence of great industry 
given by Ludwig, I cannot accept his classification, nor do I find his hypo- 
thetical septal readings consistent with facts. Nevertheless, Ludwig has 
contributed to our knowledge of Permian corals, and has discovered some 
species of genera hitherto supposed to characterize the Carboniferous forma- 
tion in tlie Upper Devonian of German}'. 

The nature of this Ueport must therefore be very different to those already 
presented to the Association. Those reports relating to the Corals of the 
Mesozoic strata were essentiallj' founded upon observed facts, and upon data 
which had been more or less before the geological world for years; the 
generalizations embodied in them were established i;pon very satisfactory- 
details. But in the present instance there is much uncertainty ; there are 



118 REPORT 1871. 

vast accumulations of details to be worked out without the existence of a 
satisfactory classification, and, in fact, the whole subject of the Palaeozoic 
Madreporaria is in too transitional a state for an exhaustive report to be made 
upon them. 

In presenting this Report, therefore, I hope the Association will consider 
that I have not yet completed my task, and that it will allow me to continue 
my work and to present other reports when occasion offers. No fxirther 
grant will be required, as the future reports will deal more with the results 
of other labourers than with my own. 

The present Report is divided into four parts, 

I. The consideration of the alliances of the Neozoic and the Palaeozoic 
Coral-faunas. 

II. The classification of the Perforata. 

III. The classification of the Tabulata. 

IV. The Eugosa. 

In order to avoid useless repetition of well-known facts, I have referred 
to them by giving their bibliography, except when they are contained in 
inaccessible works. 

I. The Palaeozoic corals of Great Britain have been the subject of many 
admirable works ; they have been largely treated of in the ' Monograph of 
the British Fossil Corals' (Palaeontographical Society) by MM. Milne-Edwards 
and Jules Haime, and by M'Coy in Sedgwick's great work. Phillips, 
Lonsdale, King, Sam. "Woodward, Parkinson, Martin, Fleming, Portlock, 
Sowerby, and Pennant have described species in their well-known works, 
and Kent, James Thomson, and I have contributed some information on 
the subject of the Scottish corals. But, with the exception of the labours of 
the last three persons, the literature of the Palaeozoic Corals will be found very 
accessible in the monograph already noticed ; any omissions, and a con- 
siderable number of new species will be published in my Supplement to that 
monograph, which I trust will appear year after year, especially as the 
Supplement to the Mesozoic Corals is now complete (Palasoutographical 
Society). 

The vertical range and the horizontal distribution of the species of corals 
have been worked out by llobert Etheridge, F.E.S., in a work which is now 
in course of publication (Cat. of Brit. Fossils). 

MM. Milne-Edwards and Jules Haime classified the British Palaeozoic 
Corals amougst the sections Aporosa, Tabulata, Tubulosa, and Rugosa. The 
great section Perforata is not represented in the British strata, but it is in 
the equivalent American beds. 

The only representative of the Aporosa in their classification was one of 
the Fungidoe, Palceocyclus being the genus. It is a SUurian form, and no 
others of the family have been discovered in the other Palaeozoic rocks. The 
genus has been the subject of a memoir in the Philosophical Transactions, 
1867, where its rugose affinities are pointed out, and its cyathophyUoid na- 
ture also. But the Aporosa are nevertheless represented in the Devonian and 
Carboniferous rocks by the genera Battersby'm and Heterophyllia (Phil. 
Trans. 1867). 

The alliances of these forms and of some of the Rugosa with the Jurassic 
Coral-fauna have been noticed in my Supplement to the Brit. Foss. Corals 
(Pal. Soc), part "Liassic," and in the Essay in the Phil. Trans, of 1867*. 

* The PALASTRiEACE^. Genera, £aiiershi/ia and Heterophyllia (Phil. Trans. 1867, p. 643 
et seq., P. M. Duncan). — The so-called coenenchyma of Batter&hyia incsgualis, Ed. & H., 
is like that of Baiter &hyia grandis, nobis, and B. gemmans, nobi?, It is really nothing 



ON THE BRITISH FOSSIL CORALS. 119 

I do not consider that the Tubulosa belonged to the Madreporaria, but 
that they were Mcyonarians. 

It is very certain that some Aporose, Perforate, and Rugose corals have 
tabulag, and that their existence cannot remove the forms from their re- 
ceived zoological position into the separate section of Tabulata. 

Thus the well-known Aporose coral of the deep sea, Lopliohelia pro- 



move, than portions of Stromatojiora which enclose the corallites and grow simultaneously 
with them. 

I have altered the generic characters of Battershyia, in consequence of a careful exami- 
nation of the old and the two new species. It is as follows : — Corallum fasciculate and 
branching ; corallites tall, cylindrical, unequal in size and distance ; septa numerous and 
following no apparent cyclical order. 

Endotheca very abundant : it is vesicular, and there are no tabulre. Epitheca, costa?, 
and coenenchyma wanting. The wall is stout, and the septa spring from wedge-shaped 
processes. The columellary space is occupied by vesicular endotheca. Gemmation extra- 
calicular and calicular from buds having only five septa. 

There are three species : — 

Battersbyia inrequalis, I>uncan. I Devonian Limestone ; 

grandis, Duncan. \ found in pebbles, 

gemmans, Duncan. J and not in situ. 

In Battershyia gemmans the buds which develop more than five septa grow into coral- 
lites, which are destined to bud again from the external wall, and the buds which de- 
velop five septa produce other buds from their interseptal loculi ; the buds thus developed 
resemble the corallites with more than thi-ee septa. This curious alternation of gemma- 
tion has not been noticed in any other genus. 

The genera Battershyia and Heterophyllia (Phil. Trans, he. cit.) have much in common. 
They have a stout wall, a vesicular and dissepimental endotheca, delicate septa, very irre- 
gular in their number, and neither tabular epitheca nor a quaternary septal arrangement. 

The genus Batfcrsbyia has nothing to ally it to the Eugosa or the Tabulata. Hetero- 
fhyllia lias in some of its species the solitary septum or vacancy whicli is so often observed 
in the Cyathophyllida^. Its costal wall and endotheca connect it with the Mesozoic and 
recent Astrseidoe. 

The singular septal development of Battershyia is witnessed in the fasciculate Liassic 
Astrajidse. The pentameral arrangement of the Battersbyian septa is not unique, for 
Acanthoeoenia Bathieri, D'Orb., of the Neocomian has only five septa, and so have the 
species of Pentaccenia, all of which are from the same great formation. The proper Liassic 
and some of the Lower Oolitic Thecosmiliaj and CalamophylUiB represent and are allied 
by structure to Battershyia. The highly specialized characters of the Heterophyllise, espe- 
cially of H. mirabilis, could hardly be perpetuated during great and prolonged emigra- 
tions, so that the genus appears to be without representatives in the secondary rocks. Its 
alliance to Battershyia, however, is evident enough. 

The genus HeterophylUa, MCoy, was examined by me in 1867, and the study of several 
new species of it rendered a fresh diagnosis requisite. 

The following description of the diagnosis appeared in my essay on the genera Hetero- 
phyUia, &c., already noticed: — 

"The corallum is simple, long, and slender. The gemmation takes place around the 
calicular margin, and is extracalicular. The septa are either irregular in number and 
arrangement, or else are six in number and regular. The cost« are well developed, and 
may be trabecular, spined, and flexuous. The wall is thick ; there is no epitheca, and the 
endotheca is dissepimental." 

The genus may be subdivided into a group with numerous septa, and a group with six 
septa. 

In the first the rugose type is faintly, and in the last the hexameral arrangement is well 
observed. 

The dense wall and the dissepimental endotheca prove that the type of the Mesozoic 
Coral-fauna was foreshown. 

The endotheca varies in quantity in the different species, and it resembles the tabular 
arrangement ; but even when this is the ease and the cross structures are well developed 
and numerous, they do not stretch over the axial space, so as to shut out cavities 
as if they were floors ; they do not close in the whole of the visceral and interlocular 



120 REPOKT— 1871. 

I'tfera, Pallas, sp., may have some of its corallites subdivided by perfect 
tabula) ; the species of Cijathopliora of the Oolites also ; yet it would be a most 
objectionable and improper proceeding to remove these genera from their 
recognized alliances. I found an Astrcvopora in the Museum at Liver- 
pool with tabula; ; and Mr. Kent has pointed out the perforate affinities of 
Koninclcia and of the form he has published. Some Eugosse have perfect 
tabula;, others have them not ; and in Ci/clojjJiyllum and Glisiophyllum dis- 
sepiments exist in some parts of a corallum and not in others, where they 
are replaced by tabulae. This interesting fact may be gleaned from James 
Thomson's sections taken from the Scottish corals. 

JSTevertheless there are forms which are essentially tabulate, and not rugose, 
but which, so far as their hard and septal structures are concerned, may 
be aporose in one instance and perforate in another ; for instance, Cohwmaria 
and Favosites. These forms may still p»'ovisionalhj be considered Tabulata. 

Alliances. — The Lower Cretaceous and Neocomiau corals appear to connect 
the oldest and the newest faunas, and to form an excellent starting-point 
both for the study of the Tertiary as well as for the Palasozoic forms. It 
will be readily observed that the succession of genera and species from the 
lower Cretaceous horizon to the present day is gradual ; and that although 
many forms died out, still the general appearance of the consecutive faunas, 
such as those of the Middle and Upper Cretaceous, the Nummulitic, the Oii- 
gocene, the Miocene, the Pliocene, and of the two great faunas of the present 
day, presents a remarkable similarity of Avhat is usually called " facies." 
The similarity between the Lower Cretaceous fauna and that of the Miocene 
has been treated of elsewhere *, and the analogies of the mid-tertiary corals 
and those of the Pacific also. Moreover since the last Eeport was read the 
distinction between reef, deep-sea, and littoral corals has been more satisfac- 
torily established, and the reason why consecutive faunas upon the same 
areas could not possibly be identical, even as regards the genera, has been 
explained f. 

As the Coral-faunas are studied from those of recent date backwards in 
time, extinct forms are met with which gradually fill up the spaces in the 
very natural received classification, and it is perfectly evident that the existing 
species were foreshadowed in the past. A great number of existing species 
lived in the so-called Pliocene, and not a few in the Miocene %. Eeuss's 
admirable researches amongst the vast reefs which are of an intermediate age 
between the Flysch and the typical coral districts of the Miocene age, have 
carried back the homotaxis of the existing coral areas to a time which has 
hardly been recognized by British geologists, but whose fossils are clearly 

cavities in a horizontal plane. In some species the dissepiments are curved, and are as 
incomplete as ■when they are more or less horizontal in others, and vesicular endotheca 
exists, more or less, in nearly all the forms. 

There are no true tabula^ and the dissepiments do not interfere in any way with the 
jiassage of the septa from the lowest part of the corallum to the calice. 
There are eight species of HdcrophyUia : — 

Heteropbyllia grandis, M'Coy. Heterophyllia M'Coyi, Duncan. 

— — ornata, M'Coy. Lyelli, Duncan. 

■ granulata, Duncan. mirabilis, Duncan. 

angulata, Duncan. Sedgwicki, Duncan. 

The first two are found in the Carboniferous limestone of Derbyshire, and the otliers in 
the Scottish Carboniferous strata (see Phil. Trans. 1867, p. 043 et seq.). 

* West-Indian Foss. Corals (P. M. Duncan, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. sxiv. p. 28). 

t Coral Faunas of Europe (Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. xxvi. p. 51 ct seq.). 

I Corals of Porcupine Expedition (Proc. Eoyal Society, xviii. p. 289). 



ON THE BRITISH FOSSIL CORALS. 121 

represented at Brockenhurst. In tlie great reefs of the Custcl-Gomberto 
district there are the remains of a larger coral-fauna than that which now 
exists in the Caribbean Sea ; and although a profound Plysch exists between 
them and the reefs in the Oberburg distiict, indicating great oscillations of 
the area and vast changes in the life of the time, still the genera which con- 
tribute so largely to the formation of modern reefs are found represented in 
abundance in the lowest reefs, which clearly belong to the Nummulitic period. 

Our Eocene corals and those found at Brockenhurst are the stunted off- 
shoots of the faunas which flourished at Oberburg and in the Vicentine, but 
nevertheless some of their species are closely allied to those of much later 
geological date. 

Withoiit the assistance of the labours of Reuss and D'Achiardi zoophytolo- 
gists could not have imagined that the well-known coral-faunas of the Hala 
Mountains of Sindh, of the Nummulitic deposits of the Maritime Alps and 
Switzerland, and of the London and Paris basins were but fractions of a 
fauna which was probably richer in species than any modern coral tract ; and 
this welcome aid proves the impropriety of neglecting foreign palaeontology, 
even when writing reports like the present, and which treat of the produc- 
tions of the rocks of a small area. The impossibility of comparing with any 
satisfaction the Nummulitic coral-fauna and that of the Upper Chalk is 
obvious ; because the NummuHtic fauna, so far as it is known to us, was 
either a reef or a comparatively shallow-water one, whilst the corals of the 
Upper Chalk were dwellers in a deep sea, where reef species cannot and 
could not exist. We must seek to compare the Upper Cretaceous corals with 
the deep-sea forms of the Nummulitic, but unfortunately they are not yet 
found*. 

The Lower Cretaceous corals of Great Britain were the contemporaries of 
the reef-builders of the Gosau and equivalent formations, and thus deep-sea 
and reef species were contemporaneous, as they are at the present time, but they 
were separated by wide distances. The comparison of the reef-fauna and that 
of the deep sea is in this instance as futile as it would be at the present time ; 
but we may compare the reef-fauna of Gosau with that of the Nummulitic, 
Oligocene, Miocene, and existing reefs, and not without benefit and good 
results, for there are persistent species which unite the whole together. 

A comparison may also be instituted between the deep-sea coral-faunas of 
the Chalk and those which flourished at corresponding depths in the succeed- 
ing geological epochs. Thus, thanks to Messrs. Wyville Thomson, Carpenter, 
and Jeffreys, I have been able to assert the extraordinary homologies between 
the deep-sea Cretaceous corals and those which now exist to the west of these 
islands. These results are being published by the Zoological Society. The 
present arrangement of coral genera in and about reefs was foreshadowed as 
early as the Eocene, and such assemblages of genera existed in those old reefs as 
would characterize the coral life of atoUs in the Caribbean Sea and in the raised 
reefs of the Pacific Ocean. The genera Madrepora, Alveopora, Porites, Helias- 
traa, and Millepora were represented in the Oberburg, and their species con- 
stitute the bulk of existing reefs. It is important to be thus able, from the 
labours of MM. Milne-Edwards, J. Haime, and Reuss, to determine the 
existence of Perforate and Tabulate corals in the earliest tertiaries, for inter- 
esting links are thus offered to the paleeontologist by which the older and 
the newer faunas are connected. Such researches diminish the importance 
of the break between the early Tertiary fauna and the present, and also, to a 

* See P. M. Duncan on a new Coral from the Crag, and on the persistence of Cretaceous 
types in the deep sea (Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. sxvii. pp. 369 & 434). 



122 KEPORT— ]871. 

certain extent, that between the Palaeozoic and recent faunas. Thus the find- 
ing of species of the great Perforate genus Madrepora in the Oberburg 
carries the genus a step further back than their discovery in the OHgocene 
of Brockenhurst, and when taken into consideration with the presence of 
the StephanophylUa, a perforate simple coral, in the Crag, Eocene, and Lower 
Cretaceous deposits, and with Actinads, a highly developed compound form, 
in the Lower Cretaceous strata of Gosau, the immense break between the 
next form of the family and the existing is materially diminished. The next 
form is not met with until the Carboniferous deposits of Indiana are reached 
in a downward course ; and we owe to the late Jules Haime the knowledge 
of the structures of PaJceacis cimeiformis, Haime, MS., from Spurgeon Hill, 
Indiana. It is indeed remarkable that the vast eoralliferous strata which 
intervene between the Carboniferous and the Lower Chalk should not present 
a satisfactory proof of the existence of those members of the existing great 
reef -building family. There is a curious fact which may be taken for what 
it is worth in considering the absence of genera which have been represented 
in some ancient deposits and which have not been found in intermediate 
strata. Thus the existing West-India reefs contain abundance of the species 
of the genus Madrepora and Millepora ; indeed they, with the forms of 
Porites, constitute the bulk of the formations. Now, although Porites is 
common in the Miocene reefs of the area, the others are very rare, for the 
coral structures were principally composed of tabulate forms and Heliastra?ans. 
Yet we know that before the Miocene reefs flourished, Madreporae and MUle- 
pora) were common enough ; they were living all the while in other coral 
tracts. But the break between the Palaeozoic and the Lower Cretaceous forms 
cannot be bridged over without investigating the value of the classification 
which separates the most closely allied subfamily of the Perforata, although 
the Perforata are found in the Great Oolite. 

II. The Perforata characterized by a porous ccenenchyma and other tissues 
present many modifications of their hard parts. Some approach the Aporosa, 
and others would hardly be considered corals by the uninitiated on account of 
the sponge-like reticulations of the skeleton. The genus Madrepora is defined 
as follows by MM. Milne-Edwards and Jules Haime : — 

The coraUum is compound and increases by budding. The cojnenehj'ma 
is abundant, spongy, reticulate, slightly or not at aU distinguishable from 
the walls, which are very porous. The visceral chambers are subdivided by two 
principal septa, which meet by their inner margins, and are more developed 
than the others. 

The septa, especially the two largest, although perforated, are continuous, 
and very often lamellar. 

MM. Milne-Edwards and Jules Haime distinguish the Poritidae in the fol- 
lowing manner : — 

The coraUum is compound, and entirely formed of a reticulate ccenenchyma, 
which is formed of trabeculae and is porous. The corallites are fused 
together by their walls, or by an intermediate ccenenchyma, and they multiply 
by budding, which is usually extracalicular and submarginal. 
^ The septal apparatus is always more or less distinct, but never completely 
lamellar, and is formed by a series of trabeculae, which constitute by their 
union a sort of lattice-work. The walls present the same structure as the 
septa. The visceral chambers sometimes have rudimentary dissepiments, 
but are never divided by tabulae. 

This family is divided into two subfamilies — 

1. The Poritinae, with a rudimentary or absent ccenenchyma. 

2. The Montiporinae, with a well-developed ccenenchyma. 



ON THE BRITISH FOSSIL CORALS. 123 

It will be noticed, when specimens of Montiporinse and Madreporse are 
compared, that the distinction is in the absence of the two large and not 
very perforate septa in the case of the first-mentioned group, and it is clear 
that the excessively trabecular character of its septa, coenenchjma, and walls 
is characteristic. Moreover the Montiporinae are recent forms. 

The genus Litharcea amongst the Poritinae approaches Madrepora, however, 
and its septa are often so lamellar that they resemble those of some Helias- 
traeans amongst the Aporosa. Here the distinction between the forms 
becomes limited. The two great septa are not extended to the median line in 
Litharcea, and there is scanty ccenenchyma, but still there is some. The colu- 
mella of Litharcea is simply formed by the union of trabeculse from the septal 
ends. 

Now Protarcea vetusta, Hall, and Protarcea VerneuiU, Ed. & H., Lower Silu- 
rian corals from Ohio, only differ from the species of Litharcea by having more 
aporosesepta and some coenenchymal protuberances*. It is necessary, however, 
on account of the comparatively late appearance (so far as our investigations 
has as yet gone) of Madrepora and Litharcea, whilst admitting the extraor- 
dinary relation of the last-named genus to Protarcea, to examine another of 
the Jurassic Perforata. 

The genus Microsolena of the Poritinao carries the excessively trabecular 
type of the Poritinae as far back as the Great Oolite ; it is of course one of 
the extreme forms, and most remote from Madrepora. It has more or 
less confluent septa, and nothing like the styliform columella of Protarcea. 
Thus Pcdceacis, a form of the Madreporinfe, and Protarcea, a typo of the 
Poritinfe, are still unsatisfactorily disconnected by intermediate species vidth 
their allies in the secondary rocks. Eut, on the other hand, it is something 
to be able to show an anatomical connexion between the Protarcece of the 
Lower Silurian and the Mierosolence of the Jurassic and of the Lithara'ce of the 
Nummulitic rocks, and between Palceacis and the Turbinarians of the group 
Madrepora, of which Actinacis is the oldest (Lower Chalk)t. It shows that 
the reticulate or perforate corals existed amongst the first known eoralliferous 
rocks, that the scheme of their organization has been perpetuated to the 
present day through many kinds of variations, but with a great break, which 
is owing to the imperfection of the geological record. 

III. The Tabulata, which form such large portions of many modern reefs, 
were, as has been already noticed, in existence during the Miocene+, the 
01igocene§, and the Eocene ||. They were, of course, not found amongst 
the deep-sea deposits of the Cretaceous period, such, for instance, as our 
White Chalk ; but Eeuss found the genera in the reefs of Gosau. Eeliopora 
Partschi, Eeuss, sp. ; If. raacrostoma, Eeuss, sp. ; Polytremacis Blainvilleana'; 
P. hulhosa, d'Orb. : these are not uncommon in the reefs which were in 
relation with the Hippurites, and the last coral genus lived during the 
Eocene. Eeuss estabUshed a genus in 1854 for some compound, massive 
corals, with prismatic corallites with thick imperforate walls. The calicos 
are without radiating septa and have no columeUae. The tabulae are very 
irregular, some being complete and others uniting obliquely with their neigh- 
bours. The septa are represented by trabeculae. This Lower Cretaceous 
genus he named StyJophyllum, and will be considered further on. 

* See Hist. Nat. des Corall. vol. iii. p. 185. 

t M. Lindstrom has lately described a Caloci/stis, a perforated coral from the Silm-ian. 

J See Duncan, West-Indian Fossil Corals (Q. J. Geol. Soc.) ; Eeuss, Corals of Java, &c. 

I Reuss, op. cit., and Duncan (Pal. Soc. Tertiary Corals of Brockenhurst). 

II MM. Milne- Edwards and Haimej Hist. Nat. des Corall. &o. 



124 REPORT — 1871. 

Pocillopora, so common a genus amongst the Indo-Pacific reefs, was found 
in the West-India Miocene, the Javan deposits, and at Turin and Dax. It 
is considered to be allied to Ccenites by Milne-Edwards, but Jules Haime 
doubted the Zoantharian characters of the last-named genus, which is Palae- 
ozoic. Seriatopora, a modern genus, does not appear to have been found 
fossil ; but it is closclj' allied, according to the received opinion, with Rhab- 
dopora, Dendrop>ora, and Traclinpora, all Palfeozoic genera, the first being 
Carboniferous and the others Devonian. Millepora, the great reef-building 
genus of the West Indies, can be traced into the Lower Tertiaries, and is 
closely allied to the Heliopora already mentioned, and by structure to the 
Heliolites of the Palaeozoic period. 

Between the Lower Cretaceous reefs and the Palaeozoic there were the 
Devonian, the Oolitic, the Lower Liassic, the Rhaetic, and the St. Cassian and 
the Muschelkalk reef's, but not a trace of a tabulate coral has been recorded 
from them, in spite of the affinities of the modern and most ancient genera 
of the Devonian. Cyathopliora has tabulae, but its alliances are with the 
Astraeidfe. On examining the lists published in my last Eeport, the absence 
of tabulate corals in the whole of the Mesozoic strata of Great Britain will be 
apparent, and I have not been able to distinguish any foreign forms belonging 
to that vast age (except our HoJocystis eJeguns, Ed. and H.), of which notice 
wiU be taken in treating of the Rugosa and the species of Columnastnea. 

Just as the Thecidae, Favositidas, and Halysitinac formed the reef-builders of 
the tabulate fauna of the Palaeozoic times, so MiUeporidas and Seriatoporidae 
contribute to the recent reef-fauna ; but these last genera had species in the 
Palaeozoic fauna, so the break of the end of the Permian or Carboniferous 
periods was not complete so far as the Tabulata were concerned. The ab- 
sence of them from the successive secondary reefs that have been examined 
by palaeontologists has probably been produced by the destructive fossilization 
which is so common in existing reefs, and by the real absence of the forms 
from certain reef-areas of which there is an example (see ' West-Indian Fossil 
Corals,' Duncan). 

The Tabulata were as abundant in the Palajozoic periods as during the 
Tertiary epochs, and the ancient and modern genera and species have certain 
characters which differentiate them more or less from all other coral forms. 

MM. Milne-Edwards and Jules Haime characterize the Tabulata as fol- 
lows (Hist. Nat. des Corall. iii. p. 223) : — • 

The coraUum is essentially composed of a well-developed mural system, and 
the visceral chambers are divided into a series of stages by transverse floors, 
which act as complete diaphragms. 

The septal apparatus is rudimentary, and is cither completely deficient or 
only represented by trabeculae which do not extend far into the intertabular 

spaces. 

The lamellar diaphragms, floors, or tabulae, which close the visceral 
chamber of the coraUite at difl'erent heights, diff"er from the dissepiments of 
the Astrffiidse by not depending in any manner upon the septa, by closing 
completely the space below, for they stretch uninterniptedly from side to 
side, instead of simply occupying the interseptal loculi. 

The septal apparatus does not affect the Rugose type, but that character- 
istic of the Perforata and Aporosa. The forms classified under the section of 
the Tabulata are very numerous, and hence the importance of determining 
whether they can be undoubtedly allied with the rest of the Actinozoa. 

Many years have elapsed since Agassiz expressed his opinion, founded upon 
direct observation, that the Milhporce, an important genus of the Tabulata, 



ON THE BRITISH FOSSIL CORALS. 125 

were not Actiuozoa, but Hydrozoa, aud lately he has reasserted this state- 
ment. If MUlepora is one of the Hydrozoa, those tabulate forms which 
resemble it in structure, such as Heliolites, must reasonably be asso- 
ciated with it in classification. The importance, then, of determining this 
point is very great, and unfortunately it is accompanied by many difficulties. 
Before proceeding to criticise Agassiz's remarks, it is necessary to examine 
the nature of the structures of the genera associated with MUlepora, or, in 
fact, to review the classification of the Tabulata, and to note their affinities 
with the other sections. Milne-Edwards and Jules Haime divide the Tabulata 
into four families : — MiUeporidEe, Seriatoporidae, Favositidae, Thecidas. 

The principle upon which this classification is founded is philosophical and 
natural to a certain degree. The first two families have more or less coenen- 
chyma between the coraUites, and the last two have little or none, the co- 
raUites being soldered together by their walls. 

The genus Pocillopora unites the two divisions, for it belongs to the Favo- 
sitidae, and yet has a compact coenenchyma on the surface of the corallum. 

The classificatory value of the presence of coenenchyma in the whole of the 
Madreporaria may be estimated by examining the scheme of MM. MUne- 
Edwards aud Jules Haime. 

When treating of the Madreporidae (Hist. Nat. des Corall. vol. iii. p. 91), 
they subdivide them into Eupsamminae without an independent coenenchyma, 
Madreporince and Turbinarinae with a very abundant coenenchyma. 

The Poritidae they subdivide into the Poritinae without coenenchyma, and 
the Montiporinae with an abundance of that structure in the spongy or 
alveolar form. 

The EiiphyUiaceae (Ed. & H. op. cit. pp. 184 & 197) have such genera 
as BarysmiUa and Dichocosnia, associated with Dendrogyra, Gyrosmilia, Pa- 
chyr/yra, Rhipidogyra, which have or have not much cosnenchyma. 

The StylinaceaD are divided into independent, " empatees," aud agglomerate. 
The independent genera have no coenenchyma; the " empatees" possess it in 
the extreme so as to merit the term peritheca. 

The agglomerate have an excess of exotheca, but some genera are admitted 
which are united by their walls, and are therefore without exotheca or coe- 
nenchyma. Thiis PhyJIocosnia has an exotheca quite ccenenchymatous, and 
Astroca'iiia has none. The corallites of Elasmoccenia have large mural ex- 
pansions, and those of Aphccenia are soldered by their walls. Heteroccenia 
and Pentaccenia present the same anomalies. 

The Astraeinae present such genera as ApJirastrcea and Septastrcea, the one 
with and the other without extramural tissue, and Heliastrcea and Solenastrcea 
with and Isastrcea without the same structure. 

It is then evident that the presence or absence of coenenchyma had difierent 
significations in the estimation of the distinguished French zoophytologists. 

It is e%'ident that the structure of the corallites of Isastraeae and their defi- 
ciency in coenenchyma in comparison with the Heliastraeae and Solenastraeae 
cannot be of any very great organic significance ; for the coraUites of Heli- 
astraeae occasionally grow so close together as to produce absorption of the 
exotheca and costas, and the same occurs in the Astroccenife. The presence 
of exotheca, peritheca, aud coenenchyma (for they are grades of a particular 
structure) depends very much upon the habits of the corallum, and the notion 
of teleology can hardly be separated from the consideration of this presence 
a7id absence. Certainly to separate great groups by the presence or absence 
of coenenchyma is not natural. It may be very useful to the classificatory 
student, because the limitation qf forms is the prevaUing want; but it is not 



126 REPORT 1871. 

so to the biologist, for these mixed and unnatural limitations and separations 
only form gaps in his argument, which require bridging over. 

The Favositidae and Thecidae, Palaeozoic forms, may then be separated, for 
the pui'poses of classification, from the Milleporidae and Seriatoporidae, which 
are almost aU post-Palaeozoic ; but this hmitation is not to impede the plain 
course of the palaeontologist, who studies from a biological point of view ; 
nor is it to stand in the way of the assertion, that the break between the 
Palaeozoic and younger Tabulata is almost nil. 

The genus Millepora belongs to the Milleporidae, and the ccenenchyma of its 
species is very abundant. It is of " a very irregular and spongy structure, 
rather than tubular " (Ed. & H.), The cahces are of very different dimen- 
sions on the same coraUum. There are no distinct septa, nor is there a 
columella. The tabulae are horizontal. These are the diagnostics of the 
genus according to Milne-Edwards and Jules Hame. A careful examination 
of the calices of good specimens determines that the trabeciilae, of which the 
ccenenchyma is composed, often projects into them, in the position of septa; 
but there is nothing like the regular arrangement as seen in Heliopora, or 
in the Poritidae of the Perforata. The cells of the ccenenchyma may occa- 
sionally be seen to open into the space above the last tabula. 

The absence of septa and this relation of the ccenenchyma to the gastric 
space are most important. The tubular nature of much of the ccenenchyma 
is evident, and longitudinal sections of some size prove that the spongy nature 
of it is by no means constant nor uniform. 

In Heliopora, belonging also to the Milleporidae, the ccenenchyma is very 
abundant, and covered here and there with rounded pores arranged more or 
less regularly and separated by papillose granules. These grains are the 
extremities of cylindrical "tigelles" which circumscribe the tubules, the 
calice of which is open at the surface. The calices are circular. The septa 
are slightly developed, and there are twelve of them. The tabulae are well 
developed and horizontal (Ed. & H.). The nature of the ccenenchyma and 
the distinct septa distinguish this genus from the last. Both of the extinct 
species have a papillose or striated structure running over the coenenchymal 
surface. In all the species the septa do not project far into the calice ; but 
the amount of projection is not sufficient, as a structural peculiarity, in any 
case to determine more than a specific distinction. Hence MM. Milne- 
Edwards and Jules Haime when they separate, in their scheme of the Millepo- 
ii^yd* , Millepora and Heliopora and other genera ivova. Hcliolites, Propora, 
and Lyellia, the particular Palaeozoic genera, they can only be permitted to do 
so on the plea that the plan renders the genera readily distinguishable. The 
projection or non-projection is not sufficient to determine a generic difference. 

Now Heliolites has a beautiful ccenenchyma, very geometric, and not irre- 
gular and spongy ; its cellules are placed regularly and symmetrically. In 
most of the species the septa are distinct, and project far inwards, but in 
Heliolites Orayi they are almost rudimentary, 
' The genus Pohjiremacis hnks Heliolites and Heliopora together, for its 
ccenenchyma is that of the second, and the septa resemble those of the first- 
named genus. Polytremacis is not older than Heliopora in the secondary 
ages, and the septal distinction which cannot expel Heliolites Grayi from 
its genus, and which is improperly allowed to distinguish Polytremacis and 
Heliopora, and these and Heliolites, may well have been produced by varia- 
tions in a succession of early secondary forms. 

» Op. cii. p. 225. 



ON THE BRITISH FOSSIL CORALS. 127 

The septal development of Heliolites is exaggerated in Propora, a genus 
from the Upper Silurian, and which perhaps lasted into the Carboniferous. 
The costaj in this genus are well developed, but the ccenenchymal cells are 
less geometric than in Heliolites. The structural relations are of the closest, 
and the generic distinction is not of the usual generic value. Another 
Upper Silurian genus, Lyellia, represents these symmetrical Milleporidse 
in America. The corallite walls are subcostulate and not so costulate as in 
Propora. The septa (12) are well developed, as in Heliolites and Propora and 
Heliopora, and the coenenchyma is perfectly vesicular — spongy, in fact, like 
Heliopora. Here, then, in the distant and British and Northern European 
Silurians, there were closely allied forms varying amongst themselves, but 
more than the secondary types, the variation having some sort of likeness in 
both instances. It is impossible not to acknowledge the genetic affinities of 
all these genera except Millepora, of which more will be said, or to hesitate 
to assert that there has never been a break in the Tabulata, and that the Ee- 1 
cent and Palaeozoic Heliopora and Heliolites are very closely allied, the one 
being the descendant of the other*. Axopora is a tertiary genus, and its 
immense columella, which fills up the corallite inferiorly and leaves but little 
room in the calice around it, of course prevents the tabiilae from reaching 
across the axial space. The tabulae come in contact with but do not perfo- 
rate the columella, so that this structure grows progressively without any 
reference to them ; they do not form floors upon which a columella is deve- 
loped f. There are no septa, and the coenenchyma is reticulate in the ex- 
treme. No living analogue of this genus exists, and exception may be taken 
whether it be a true coral. It has no Palasozoic representatives. 

Battershyia is a very remarkable Palaeozoic genus, and has been examined 
by me+. MM. Milne-Edwards and Jules Haime§ classify it with the Mil- 
leporidaj, but apparently only provisionally ; but it will be noticed elsewhere. 
I have associated Battershyia and Heterophyllia together as a new division 
of the Aporosa of the Astraeidae, under the name of the Palastraeaceae, which 
are noticed in the first part of this Eeport. 

The Eavositidae are divided by MM. Milne-Edwards and Jules Haime into 
the following subfamilies : Eavositinae, Chaetetinae, Halysitinae, PociUoporinae. 
All are presumed to present the following family characteristics : — " The 
corallum is formed essentially of the lamellar walls of the coraUites, and 
possesses hardly any or no coenenchyma. The visceral chambers are divided 
by tabulfe, which are numerous and well developed." 

The subfamilies without any coenenchyma, and those whose coralHt€s fonn a 
massive corallum, are the Eavositinae and the Chastetiase, and the genera whose 
corallites are not united on all sides the Halysitinae. The Pocilloporinfe 
constitute the ccenenchymal subfamily. One of the great difliculties of the 
zoophytologist appears strongly enough whilst investigating these Tabulata, for 
the question constantly arises, and can only be answered very unsatisfactorily, 
are such and such forms really Actinozoa? are they not Polyzoa, Hydrozoa, 
or of some class which has become extinct, and which has no modern repre- 
sentatives ? 

Some genera are characterized by the absence of septa. Thus Chcetetes 
has long basaltiform coralKtes, numerous tabulae which do not correspond in 
their- plane throughout the coraUum,. no septa, and the reproduction is fissi- 
parous. I 

* See Huxley's Address, Geol. Soc. 1870. 

t Pal. Soc. Tertiary Corals, 3rd*Series, P. M. Buncan, pi. vii. figs. 11-15, 

t Phil, Trans, 1867. § Op. cit, p, 244. 



128 REPORT 1871. 

Keyserling considered the genus to belong to the Alcyonaria amongst the 
Actiuozoa ; but MM. Milne-Edwards and Jules Haime, considering the great 
analogj- between Chcetetes aud Favosites, and particularly with. Beaumontia, 
" ou la presence de cloisons n'est pas contestable"*, determined its position 
to be amongst the true Tabulata. 

The same authors now recognize the necessity of separating Chcetetes from 
Monticulipora, and assert that the members of the last-named genus increase 
by gemmation. 

The genus Dania differs from Chcetetes in having the tabulae on regular 
planes which traverse the whole coraHum. This peculiarity is hardly of 
generic value. 

Stellijjora (Hall) is not generically different from Monticulipora, and the 
truth of this assertion can be estimated by comparing the diagnosis of the 
genera given by MM. Mibie-Edwards and Jules Haime f. 

The differentiation of Delcayia (Ed. & H.) J and of Lahechia is also unsatis- 
factory, aud their more or less mamraillated ccBnenchyma ranges them together 
\ by the side of Stellipora as subgenera of Monticulipora. 

Now Jiiles Haime, when investigating the Oolitic Polyzoa, classified forms 
without septa and with tabulae, hke Chcetetes or Monticulipora, as Polyzoa, 
and the beautiful Stelliporce were especially included. 

Now the question arises, are there any recent Polyzoa whose soft parts 
have been examined that have tabulaj ? From our knowledge of the recent 
Polyzoa, it is unsafe to answer this in the affirmative. There is a freshwater 
species which is said to have tabulas, but the assertion requires confirmation. 
The classification, then, of these forms amongst the Polyzoa must be deferred, 
and I propose to decide against it now. 

Beaumontia, the genus noticed above, is distinguished by MM. Milne- 
Edwards and Jules Haime § as follows : — " This genus is distinguished from 
all other Chaetetiuffi by the formation of its tabuliie, which are irregular or 
vesicular, and it thus resembles Michelenia, belonging to Favositinae." The 
presence of septa belonging to three cycles is asserted by the same authors, 
and this fact must remove the genus quite out of the neighbourhood of septa- 
less forms. 

The genera of the Cheetetiuce were formerly Chcetetes, Monticulipora, Dania, 
Stellip)ora, Dekayia, Beaumontia, and Lahechia. It has been shown that 
Stellipora, Delcayia, and Lahechia are subgenera of Monticulipora, that Dania 
cannot be separated from Chcetetes, and that Beaumontia has no correct affinity 
with the others, and that it belongs to another family. 

The genera should stand thus : — 

Chcetetes. Subgenus Dania, 
Monticulipora. Subgenus Stellipora. 

,, Delcayia. 

„ Lahechia, 

But the subgeneric names should be dropped. 

This result is interesting because it eliminates Beaumontia and makes a 
compact sei'ies, the affinities of which are not Polyzoan, but which may be 
Alcyonarian or Hydrozoan. 

The long tab\ilar or basaltiform corallites of Chcetetes and its allied forms, 

« Op. cit. pp. 271. f Op. cit. vol. iii. pp. 272, 281. 

X Ibid. p. 283. § Op. cit. vol. iii. p. 282. 



ON THK BEITISH FOSSIL CORALS. 129 

and their more or less horizontal and perfect tabulae, recall the Tubiporiuoc 
amongst the order of the Alcyonaria. 

The Alcyonaria are Actinozoa which are separated by MM. Milne-Edwards 
and Jules Haime from the Zoantharia on account of the pinnate structure of 
the tentacles, and from these important organs being invariably eight in 
number. 

The zoantharian tentacles, on the contrary, are simple or irregularly rami- 
fied, and increase in number with age. 

The Alcyonaria are divided into the families of the Alcyonidee, the Gorge- 
nidae, and the Pennatulidae. 

The first two families have an adherent corallum, and the last consists of 
free forms. 

The Alcyonidae have no hard central axis, but this characterizes the 
Gorgonidffi. 

Now the Cornularinse, Telestingg, and Alcyoninas, subfamilies of the Alcy- 
nidae, are clearly allied to the Tubiporina; by their soft structures ; but the 
hard external structures of this subfamily are only faintly shown in the spi- 
culate scoi'iaceous conditions of the external tegument of NejjJithy a, Spoggodes, 
and Paralcyonium. The polypes oi JSfejjMii/a and Paralcyonium enter their 
spiculate and dense external covering when they contract; but the hard 
structures of S^oggodes celosia, Lesson, are very slightly developed. 

TuBiPOEA (pars), Linnaeus. 

Tuhipora, Lamarck. 

The genus has been examined by MM. Milne-Edwards and Jules Haime 
with their usual care and acumen. 

The specimens of Tuhipora are so common that the descriptions of these 
authors concerning the hard parts of the corallum can readily be followed. 

The coraUitcs are formed principally by a tabular waU, the tissue of which 
is calcareous and readily fractured. There are no septa, but there are ru- 
dimentary tabulas, which cut off the visceral cavity into more or less perfect 
stages. The corallites arc cylindrical, and usually attain an equal height ; 
but they do not touch each other, for they are united by a peritheca, which 
is only seen here and there in distinct floors. The budding takes place 
from the connecting peritheca, which is therefore a true coenenchyma, and 
not like that of Solenastrcea. Were the corallites in contact the appearance 
of Chcetefes would be presented ; so that the presence of the coenenchyma is 
the differentiating structure. It is only of generic value, and thus there is ' 
a very strong reason for associating the Chsetetinee and all the other fossils 
with long tubular structures, no septa, and tabulae with the Alcyonidae in the 
subfamily Tubiporinse and near the genus Tubijjora. These retaarks are ■ 
subject, of course, to the consideration whether the views of Agassiz already 
noticed are correct. 

Keuss's genus Styhphyllum (Gosau Chalk) cannot be associated with the 
Alcyonidee, for the species has septa. The corallites are united by their 
walls without there being a coenenchyma, and tlie walls are imperforate. The 
junction of the corallites takes place by means of an epitheca. 

The junction may occur at any part of the corallito. 

The resemblance of StyhphyUum to some of the Halysitinte (Ed. & H.)* 
necessitates an examination of their structural peculiarities. 

* Op. cit, vol. iii. p. 286. 
1871. K 



130 REPORT 1871. 

MM. Milne-Edwards and Jules Haime differentiate the Halysitinse as 
follows : — 

"The corallum is compound, but its corallites unite imperfectly, and 
constitute lamellar expansions or long fasciculi ; they are either free on two 
sides, or arc united together by ' ea-pansions murales.' " 

The septa are small, but usually very distinct ; finally the walls are well 
developed and aporose. 

The genera are : — Hah/sites, Fischer ; Syringopora, Goldfuss ; Tliecostegites, 
Ed. & H. (Ilarmodites, Michelin) ; Conostefjitcs, Ed. & H. ; Fletcheria, Ed. 
&H. 

Hall/sites. The species are invariably formed by corallites which are joined 
on two sides, and which in transverse outline resemble links of a chain. 
The epitheca is very strong, and unites the corallites perfectly where 
they are in contact from the base to the calice. Septa 12. Tabulas 
horizontal and well developed. (Silurian.) 
Thecostegites. The corallites have septa, horizontal tabulae, and an exotheca 
unites them, and it is more or less tabular in structure, and exists in 
stages like the Tuhipora. In 'T, pm-mda the ccenenchyma is nearly 
compact. (Devonian.) 
C'onostegites. There are numerous septal s-trise, which mark also the smooth 
and convex surfaces of the tabula). The tabulte are more or less infun- 
dibuliform, and the epitheca unites the corallites hero and there. 
Byringopora. The coraUum is fasciculate ; the corallites are cylindrical and 
very long, parallel, and free laterally, except where horizontal tubes 
connect them. The walls are well developed, and clothed with a strong 
epitheca ; septa exist. The tabula) are infundibuliform. 
Fletcheria. The corallum is fasciculate ; the corallites are cylindrical, close, 
and long. The epitheca is complete ; septa exist. Tabulae horizontal 
and well developed. No intcrcorallite tubes or expansions of epitheca. 
Gemmation calicular. 
It is evident that some of these genera are very slightly allied ; for in- 
stance, Syringopora and Fletcheria, and both of them and Halysites. 

Halysites, with its stout epitheca and simple tabulae with non-tubular 
joints, is a very definite form. 

Thecostegites should belong to the Milleporidae. 

Conostegites, with infundibialiform tabulae, is related to Halysites as Miche- 
linia is to Favosites. 

Fletcheria is altogether aberrant. 

The Halysitince comprehend, according to this analysis, Halysites, Fischer ; 
Btylophyllmn, Eeuss ; Conostegites, Ed. & H. 

The genera Syringopora and Fletcheria will be considered further on. 
The subfamily of the Pocilloporinae contains the genera Pocillopora and 
Ccenites. 

Pocillopora has septa (and my specimens show 12), which, even in fossil 
specimens, mark the top of the tabulae. There is a columellary swelling on 
its tabula). The ccenenchyma is very stout and thick in old portions of the 
corallum, less so where growth has just ceased, and the ccenenchyma barely 
exists where the corallites or calicos are developing. It is cellular at first, 
and then fills up with calcite and other coral salts. 

Fossil forms have been described by Eeuss and myself from the Cainozoic 
formations. 

Ccenites resembles Pocillopora in a certain density of its ccenenchyma, but 
differs in only having three tooth-liko septa, like the genus Alveolites. 



ON THE BRITISH FOSSIL CORALS. 131 

The number of septa and the habit of growth of the two genera separate 
them very widely ; and the propriety of connecting the last-named one with 
the MUleporidse must be considered. 

There are four genera in the family of the Seriatoporidte : — Seriatopora, 
Dendropora, JRhahdopora, Trachypora. 

The family is characterized by the continual growth of the lower parts of 
the corallites and the rarity of tabulte. 

Seriatopora is a recent genus, and therefore those associated with it must 
be carefully examined. 

Dendropora, Michelin, is clearly too closely allied to Bhahdopora to be 
separated generically. 

Rhahdopora, formed for the Dendropora megastoma, M'Coy, by MM. MUne- 
Edwards and Jules Haime, has only one species, the diagnosis of which is as 
follows : — 

Rhahdopora megastoma, M'Coy, sp. — The corallum is branching. Branches 
four-sided, starting from the stem at an angle of 70°, and very equal. Coe- 
nenchyma granulated or subechinulated and obscurely striated. Calicos in 
vertical series on each face of the branches. Septa (teeth) 12 in number and 
subequal. 

It is impossible to separate this from Seriatopora, for the four-sided suture 
of the branches is only a specific (if that) distinction. 

Trachypora appears to be an Alcyonarian. 

The distinction between PociUopora and Seriatopora is not generic, and 
therefore these genera and Dendropora (for Dendropora and Rhahdopora 
are equal, and the first name is the oldest) are absorbed in one. Oken'a 
name Acropora (1815) may be used as the generic term : — Acropoea 
{Seriatopora, Lamarck ; PociUopora, Lamarck ; Dendropora, Michelin ; Rhah~ 
dopora, Ed. & Haime). 

All the species of the absorbed genera should take the generic name of 
Acropora, and the family becomes that of the Acroporinaa. Thus the sharp 
distinction between the recent and Palaeozoic forms is partly smoothed down, 
and the old Dendroporre and Rhabdoporge were doubtless the ancestral 
forms of the recent Acroporse. Ccenites cannot be associated with the 
family. 

The family of the Thecidese is characterized by well-formed septa, which 
are prolonged throughout the visceral chamber, well-developed tabulae, which 
grow like dissepiments upon the sides of the septa, and these last do not 
spring from the upper surface of the tabiilse, as in some Tabulata. The walls 
are solid, compact, and united. 

The corals contained in the family are all Silurian forms, so far as is 
known at present. 

Thecia, Ed. & Haime. It is a most remarkable fact that this genus, the 
species of which have no true wall, but a dense ccenenchyma between septal 
prolongations or costa?, should here give the family name. Tliecia Siuinder- 
niana, Goldfuss, sp., has been called ^(7«nc?'a, Porites, Astreopora, and PaJceo- 
pora by different authors, so that its classificatory position may well be a 
matter of doubt. It is not in the least allied to Columnarife, which has soHd 
walls, and which fulfils all the characteristics of the Thecidaj. 

In Thecia, Ed. & H., there is a long visceral cavity surrounded by a dense 
tissue, as in Mtllepora, through which the septa, or rather the costa, run. 

What is the structure of Plasmopora and Propora but that of Thecia 
slightly modified. The genus clearly must be associated with them amongst 
the Milleporidip. 

k2 



132 REPORT— 1871. 

Columnaria is a fine form ; the great septa (12 to 18) and tabulae, with 
the compact walls, distinguish it at once. Col. alveolata is a Lower SHuriau 
form, C GotMandka is Upper Silurian. It is a most important genus, and 
its affinities will be noticed. 

The Favositidse have a massive corallum without ccenenchyma, septa, and 
perforate walls ; that is, there are openings which permit the visceral cavity 
of one coraUite to communicate with that of another in several places. The 
foUovsdng genera are included by MM. Milne-Edwards and Jules Haime : — 
Favosites, Emmonsia, MicJielinia, Roemeria, Koninchia, Alveolites. 

Favosites is the typical genus. In some species the mural foramina are 
scanty in number, in others numerous ; and they are even in relation with 
the angles of the wall, especially in F. alveolar is. 

The earliest species of the genus are Lower Silurian, for instance : — F. Qoth- 
landica, F. multipora, F. aspera, F. Forbesi (which ranges through to the 
Upper Silurian), and F. fibrosa (having the same vertical range, and is found 
as a Devonian fossil). 

F. Hisingeri has the same range as F. fibrosa. F. cristata and F. cervi^ 
cornis are the same, and the range is from the Upi^er Silurian of England 
to the Devonian of Russia. 

The species which are Devonian, and do not range above or below, are : — 
F. Goldfussi, F. basaltica, F. polymorp'ha, F, alveolaris, F. pedicidata, F. Tclii- 
TiatcheJJi, and F. niammillaris. The only known Carboniferous Favosites is 
F. parasitica, and it is a degenerate form. 

F. Oothlandica has rounded processes encircling the mural pores, and the 
projections formed upon one fit against those of the neighbouring corallite. 
F. multipara has three vertical series of pores, and its walls are almost as per- 
forate as some Alveoporte. 

The tabulae are almost universally horizontal in the lavosites, but some are 
wavy in their course ; and the septa are a series of vertical spines which vary 
in size according to the cycle, and are often referable to three cycles in six 
systems. In some there is a faint columellary swelling on the tabula?. 

A careful examination of the species proves that the earliest known forms 
are as highly developed as the Devonian, but that the sj^eciea parasitica is 
dwarfed. 

Emmonsia has imperfect tabula;. The tabulae are vesicular at the sides, 
or dissepimental, and they communicate more or less with each other. 
Roemeria has infundibuhform tabulas, and the species is Devonian. 
Koninckia is an Upper Cretaceous form ; it has thin and nearly horizontal 
tabulae, thiu walls very much perforated, and six series of large spiny septa. 
Michelinia has irregular and vesicidar (dissepimental) tabulae, and simple 
striae for septa (Devonian and Carboniferous). The alliance of Michelinia, 
Roemeria, and Emmonsia is very evident. Mr. Kent has written a most 
interesting description of Favositipora (Kent), Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. 1870, 
vol. vi. p. 384, which unites the Favositiuae and the Favositidae. 

Alveolites ofi'ers the same objection to being united to i^rtvosjV^s that Cten? to 
does to PociJlopora ; in fact Alveolites is a Coenites with perforated walls, 
and it is proposed to deal with both genera by disassociating them from their 
recognized families. 

Biiringopora I propose uniting with the Favositida?, as it has tubular 
connexions between the visceral centres of the corallites, which are fore- 
shadowed in F. Gotldandica. 

After this analysis of the TabiJata, it is necessary to state the opinions of 
Prof. Agassiz respecting their Hydrozoau characteristics. 



ON THE BRITISH FOSSIL CORALS. 133 

Prof. Agassiz (senior) writes as follows in the ' American Journal of Science 
and Arts,' 2nd series, vol. xxvi. p. 140, N'ovember 1858 : — 

" The animals of Millepora are Hydroid Acalephs and not polyps ;" that 
is to say, they are Hydrozoa and not Aetinozoa. The resume of several letters 
to Dana is given at the same place. ''I have seen," writes Agassiz, "in 
the Tortugas something very unexpected. Millepora is not an actinoid polyp 
biit a genuine Hydroid, closely allied to Hydractinia. This seems to carry 
the whole group of Favositidte over to the Acalephs, and displays a beautiful 
array of this class from the Silurian to this day." 

Dana adds a note to this statement. " The drawings of Professor Agassiz 
which have been sent us for examination are so obviously Hydractiuian in 
most of their characters that no one can question the relation. With re- 
gard to the reference of all the FavositidtB (a group including Favosiies, 
Fenestella, PociUopora, &c., as well as the minuter MiUejJora, Chcetetes, &c.) 
to the Acaleph class, direct evidence is not yet complete, as the animal of the 
Pocilhpom has not been figured by any author on zoophytes. Prom the 
specimens of the species of this genus which I procured in the Pacific, I never 
obtained a clear view of the polyps, and hence made no figure. The brief 
description on page 523 of my Report may be reasonably doubted until con- 
firmed by new researches. The much larger cells in Pocillopora, FavosiUs, 
and Fenestella than in Millepora, and the frequently distinct rays in these 
cells, are the characters I had mentioned to Prof. Agassiz as suggesting a 
doubt as to their being Acalephs, and to this what follows above relates." 

Agassiz observes, in a subsequent letter, after observing that the Sidero- 
porffi obviously are polyps, " There are two types of radiating lamelte which 
are no£ homologous. In true polyps (excluding Favositidas as Hydroids) the 
lamella} extend from the outer body-waU inward along the whole height of that 
wall, and the transverse partitions reach only from one lamella to the other, 
so that there is no continuity between them, while the radiating lameUte 
are continuous from top to bottom in each cell. In Milleporidse the partitions 
are transverse and continuous across the cells ; so are they in Pocillopora and 
in all Tabulata and Eugosa ; while the radiating lamella?, where they exist, 
as in Pocillopora and many other Favositida), rise from these horizontal 
floors, and do not extend through the transverse partitions ; indeed they are 
limited within the spaces of two successive- floors, or to the ujiper surface of 
tlie last. A careful comparison of the corallum of Millepora and Pocillopora 
with that of Hydractinia has satisfied me that these radiating partitions of 
the Favositida?, far from being productions of the body-wall, are foot-secre- 
tions, to be compared to the axis of the Gordonia corallum &:c., and their 
seeming radiating lamellae to the vertical groove or keel upon the surface of 
the latter, which, reduced to a horizontal ijrojeetion, would also make the 
impression of radiating lamellas in the foot of the polyp. If this be so, you 
see at once that apparent radiating lamellae of the Favositidte do no longer 
indicate an affinity with the true polyps, but simply a peculiar mode of 
growth of the corallum ; and of these we have already several types, that of 
Actinoids, that of Alcyonoids, that of Bryozoa, that of Millepora, and other 
corallines, to which we now add that of Hydroids. Considering the subject 
in this light, is there any further objection to uniting all the Favositida? with 
the Hydroids ? Sideropora and Alveopora being of course removed from the 
Favositida;. It is a point of great importance in a geological point of vicAv, 
and for years I have been anticipating some such result, as you may sec by 
comparing my remarks in the ' American Journal,' May 1854, p. 315. If all 
the Tabulata and Eugosa are Hydroids, as I believe them to be, the class of 



134 KEPORT — 1871. 

Aealephs is no longer an exception to the simultaneous appearance of all the 
types of Radiata in the lowest fossiliferous formations, and the peculiar cha- 
racters which these old Hydi-oid corals present appears in a new and very 
instructive aspect." 

A. Agassiz includes the Tabulata amongst the Hydrozoa. He notices 
" that the absence of radiating partitions in the Tabulata seems to show 
without much doubt that their true place is among the Hydroids." It is 
true that Prof. Agassiz has not observed the Medusa-buds on the specimens 
he has figured, yet the Hydroid character of the animal and their similarity to 
I[aIochcens-]ike Hydroids is very striking (Havard Catalogue, 1865, p. 219). 

Prof . Alexander Agassiz informs me that his father still holds these opinions, 
and that new researches have satisfied him about the correctness of the 
di'aAvings which have been lately reproduced. '•' MiUeiJora is not an actinoid 
polyp, but a genuine Hydroid, closely allied to H)jdractinia." 

This very strong expression of opinion is founded iipon the appearance 
presented by the polyps of Millepora cdcicornis, the drawing of which has 
been reproduced by A. Agassiz. Now the distinction between the Actinozoa 
and the Hydrozoa is well marked ; in the first the generative apparatus is 
included in the gastric and perigastric cavities, and in the last the digestive 
and generative organs are perfectly apart. Every variety of tentacular and 
disk apparatus may exist in either, but the external development of the gem- 
mules, ova, and embryonic forms must be recognized before any Coelenterate 
animal can be associated with the Hydi'ozoa. 

Here is the point at which Agassiz faUs. His researches are only sug- 
gestive, until the generative organs are recognized on the protruded polypes 
of Millepora, and until the mesenterico-ovarian layers are proved not to exist 
■within the cahces. The external resemblance of the Milleporc polypes to the 
sterile Hydractinia is evident. 

The remarks upon Pavositidse, Sideropora}, and other genera, made by 
Agassiz in consequence of the assumption that Mdlepora is Hydrozoan, are of 
doubtful value ; and I must refer back to my analysis of the Tabulata to show 
how a confused classification between both classes imperils research. Sidero- 
2)ora is not a tabulate form even. A careful examination of Columnarla satis- 
fies me that Agassiz's description of the lamellae fails in that genus ; and inas- 
much as the wavy lines of Gorgonia and CoraUium are connected with the water 
system of the species, they can have no possible relation with the radiate 
amellfe or groovings of the MiUeporan calices. The homologucs of the grooves 
are the depressions and irregular interstriatcd portions on top of the ccenen- 
chyma between the calices in the Tabulata. 

The perforate walls and the septa of the true Favositidae seem to remove 
them from the range of the remarks of Agassiz, which may well deserve 
attention, so far as Millepora is concerned, for it is a genus with^ marked 
distinctions from all other corals. 

It is not reasonable to include the Rugosa, because some of them have no 
tabulic, and others have them so much like dissepiments, or associated with 
dissepiments, that we are impressed with the unimportance of the differen- 
tiations established by the presence of horizontal tabukic!. 

It is most important that the minute structure of the MiUeporidae should 
be thoroughly investigated, and any report on the Palaeozoic corals must be 
very incomplete -ndthout a detailed description of its study. 



ON THE BRITISH FOSSIL CORALS. 



135 



With ccenenchyma . . 
Without coenenchyma 



Section TABULATA. 

Families. 

J MiUeporidce, Coenenchyma cellular. 

[ Acroporklce. Ccenenchj^ma compact. 

(Favositidce. Walls perforated. 

Halysitidce. Walls imperforate. 

Alveolitidce. Septa trideutate. 

Genera. 
CMillepora*. 
j Heliolites, Hellopora-f, Pohjtremacis. 

MiLLEPOEiD^ J P'-^^^r''^ P^asmopora, Thecia. 

I Lyelha. 
I Thecostegites, 
'^Axopora. 
1 i -^cro2Jom, Seiiatopora, PocillojJOra, DendrojJora, Bhah- 

\ dopora. 

( Favosites, Koninchia, Favosltipora, genus nov. (Kent). 
I Mklielinia, Scemeria, Emmonsia. 
■^1 Syringopora. 
\^ Aulop)ora. 
'' Halysites. 
Stylopliyllum. 
Conostegites. 
Columnaria. 
Beaumontia. 
j Alveolites. 
\ Ccenites. 

T . J- f Fistidipora. 

Incerttc sedis \ m ^ i • 

\ Fletchena. 



Fayositid^ 



Halysitid^ ■( 



AxTBOlIXIDiE 



Alcyoxakta. 
Chcetetes. Montladipora. Dania. 



ora. 



Lahechia. 



TV. The Eugosa. — Mil. Miliic-Edwards and Jules Haime observe (op>. cit. 
vol. iii. p. 323), "'that this division comprehends simple and compound 
corals, and that the septal apparatus never forms six distinct systems, and 
appears to be derived from four primitive elements. Sometimes this dispo- 
sition is shown by the great development of four principal septa, or by the 
existence of four depressions which occupy the bottom of the calice and 
take on a cross-like look. In other instances there is observed only one of 
these depressions or excavations, or one large septum interferes Avith the 
regularly radiate and star-shape of the septal arrangement. Finally, there 
arc instances where no traces of distinct groups or systems of sejita can be 
recognized, and where the septa are represented by numerous stria; arising 
on the upper surface of the tabulaj or dissepiments near the calicular mar- 
gin." They continue as follows : — " The corallites are always perfectly di- 
stinct amongst themselves, and are never united by independent coenenchyma. 
The walls are in general very slightly developed. The visceral chamber is 

* MiUcpora is a most aberrant genus if it is one of the Madreporaria Tabulata. I have 
not yet satisfied myseK about the Hydroidean characteristics of its soft parts ; but an 
examination of the coenenchyma of a series of species throws great doubt upon the Ma- 
dreporarian affinities. 

t The relation of ReU<ypora to Heliolites is of the closest. 



136 EBPOiiT — 1871. 

ordinarily occupied by a series of tabulra or vesicular endotheca, and tbc 
eudotheca often occupies the greater part of the corallum. The septal 
laminfc, although generally very incomplete, arc never perforated or ' pou- 
trellaire ; ' finally, their lateral faces are not furnished with synapticulse, and 
are only rarely granular. 

" The individual corallites increase by gemmation, and never by fissiparity. 
The buds are generally calicular, and this form of gemmation may continue 
in the same individual. In some cases the gemmation is lateral." 

The originators of the " Rugosa" divide them into four families : — 

1. Stauridffi. 3. Cyathophyllidas. 

2. Cyathosonidge. 4. Cystiphyllidse, 

In criticising this classification some definite plan must be adopted, which 
should refer to the philosophy of the classification of the Aporosa and Per- 
forata. In fact the scheme of generic subdivision and differentiation adopted 
in the Neozoic corals can be made to apply to those of the Palceozoic age. 
Thus an essential distinction is made amongst the Neozoic corals by the 
simple or compound nature of the corallum. Simple Caryophyllinse constitute 
a series of genera, and the compound forms are separated as Ccenocyathi. 
Now in the Paltcozoic genus CijafJiojjJu/Ihun, MM. Milne-Edwards and Jules 
Haime admit, in direct opposition to the Neozoic scheme, both simple and 
compound forms. This, I think, is an error, but only an error of classifica- 
tion, for there can be no reasonable doubt of the intimate genealogical 
relation of the simple and compound genera of Ct/athophyllum, 

Families *. 

1. SiATJEiDiE. — Genera: Siauria, Hohcystis, Polyccelia, Metrio][jliyllum, 
Conosmilia. 

Of these Ilolocystis is a Lower Greensand form, and Conosmilia is Austra- 
lian and Tertiary. 

MM. Milne-Edwards and Jules Haime place the Stauridse first in their 
list of families ; but it would have made the classification more simple if the 
second family took their place ; and I propose to change the order of arrange- 
ment, but proceed at present in the recognized method. 

There is a well-developed wall in the Stauridaj ; the septa are continuous 
from the top to the bottom of the calico, and are eminently quaternary in 
their arrangement. The endotheca assumes the vesicular structure between 
the septa, and then crosses over in the form of horizontal tabulps. The 
Staiiridaj approach the CyathophyUidaj more than the Cjathoxonidae ; and, 
indeed, the only essential distinction between the first two families is in the 
truly lamellar state of the septa in the first instance, and in the incomplete 
condition of them in the second. Nevertheless it should constitute a family 
distinction. 

Two of the Stauridian genera are compound, and three arc simple forms. 

Stauria, which as yet has not been found in British strata, has neither colu- 
mella nor costa?, whilst Hohcystis has both of these structures. There is no 
reason why the last-named genus should not be the lineal descendant of the 
former. Both were probably shallow-water forms in the neighbourhood of 
reefs. 

The simple forms Conosmilia and Poh/ccelia are closely allied, and the 
presence of the first in the Australian Tertiaries, and of the other in the Euro- 

* See Hist. Nat. cles Coralliaires, vol. iii. p. 325 c( scq. (Milne-Edwards aud Jules 
Haime). 



ON HEAT GENERATED IN THE BLOOD. 137 

pean Pcrmiau, is highly suggestive. The remaining form, lletriojjhT/Uum, 
offers a great difficulty, for if the received classification be adopted, the genus 
is very aberrant. Thus 3Iefr{o2)hi/Uum has not four principal septa, but the 
septa are arranged in four groups, a gap or kind of septal fossula being be- 
tween each gToup. The British Devonian species (M. Battershiji, Ed. & H.) 
was founded upon a transverse section of a slab, and therefore the entire 
nature of the septa could hardly he determined. The question arises at once, 
what do those septal fossute mean? And another follows very naturally, are 
they in relation with the primary septa ? 

I think that they denote a difference in the physiology of the polype, for 
they would permit of a deeper development of the visceral cavity and an 
enlarged condition of the ovarian apparatus. Moreover, these fossulaj may 
have much to do with the growth of the coral in calibre and in septal num- 
ber ; and, furthermore, Lindstrom's admirably suggestive paper on the oper- 
culated structures, necessitates much attention being paid to them. Can 
there be any genealogical classification which will connect in one family 
such different forms as MetriojpliyUum and Pohjcxelia ? I think not. 

Eliminating, then, MetriophyUam from the Stauridaj, I propose to permit 
the genus to remain per se for the present. 

2. Ctathoxonidje. — Genera: Cyathoxonia, Palaeozoic; HaplopliylUa^Som- 
tales) and Guynia (Duncan), recent. 

This group has no endotheca, and resembles the TurbinolidoB amongst the 
Neozoic corals, but it has the quaternary arrangement of the septa. 

All the forms are simple. Cyathoxonia preceded the others, and all are 
closely allied. The foreshadowing of the Neozoic forms in the Palteozoic 
Cyathoxonidse is evident enough. 



Re]}ort on the Heat generated in the Blood during the process of 
Arterialization. By Arthur Gamgee^ M.D., F.R.S.E., Lecturer on 
Physiology in the Extra-Academical Medical School of Edinburgh. 

In a Report which was submitted to the British Association in Liverpool 
last year*, I very shortly alluded to the objects which I had in view in com- 
mencing an investigation on the very obscure subject of the heat generated 
during the arterialization of blood. 

I pointed out that two methods of research suggested themselves as likely 
to elicit facts which would lead to a solutioii of the problem, and I stated 
that both these methods had been employed by previous observers. 

The first method, which would at first sight appear likely to furnish us 
with most important data, consists in ascertaining the temperature of the 
blood in the right and left ventricles of the heart of living animals. If our 
methods of experimenting were free from the great fallacies which are in- 
troduced when we are compelled to interfere, in a serious manner, with the 
central organ of the circulation, and if it resulted that the left side of the 
heart contained blood warmer than that of the right side, we should be driven 
to the conclusion either that during the process of absorption and combina- 
tion of the oxygen of the air a very perceptible evolution of heat had oc- 

* Eeport of the Liyerpool Meeting, p. 228. 



138 KEPOHT — 1871. 

curred, or that within the pulmonary vessels considerable oxidation processes 
of the blood contained in them had taken place. If, on the other hand, the 
temperature of the left side were the same as that of the right side, or lower, 
the question would still remain an open one ; for heat might be evolved in 
the lungs, and yet the quantity might be insufficient to counterbalance the 
loss of heat due to the evolution of large quantities of watery vapour, of car- 
bonic acid, and to the heating of the air which we daily inspire. 

The first method, or that which consists in ascertaining the temperature 
of the two sides of the heart, need scarcely be touched upon at present ; and 
I shall merely confine myself to the statement that, in the hands of the most 
experienced and reliable physiologists, and specially in those of Professor 
Claude Bernard, it has led to the curious resxilt that the blood which 
reaches the left ventricle is colder than that which leaves the right. This 
result would, at first sight, appear to prove that if any heat be evolved in 
the lungs, its amount is not sufficient to compensate the losses to which I 
have already alluded, and rendered it absolutely essential that fresh experi- 
ments should be conducted by a second method, which consists in ascer- 
taining whether, when venous blood removed from the body is agitated with 
oxygen or atmospheric aii', any changes occur in its temperature. 

The first step in the inquiry consisted in ascertaining the specific heat of 
blood, for none of the experiments previously made had led to trustworthy 
results. Dr. Crawford had, in the last century, advanced a theory of animal 
heat which was based upon an assumed diff'erence in the specific heat of 
arterial and venous blood : he supposed that the former possessed a very high, 
and the latter a comparatively low specific heat ; so that in becoming arte- 
rialized in the lungs, the heat resulting from the condensation, solution, and 
probable chemical combination of oxygen with the blood became latent, 
being, however, evolved as the blood circulated through the body, when, 
becoming venous, it acquired a continually diminishing specific heat. Dr. 
John Davy, in his ' Researches, Physiological and Anatomical,' vol. i. p. 141, 
in a chapter entitled " On the Capacities of Venous and Arterial Blood for 
Heat," described experiments which contradicted the hypothesis of Crawford 
as to the difl^crence in the specific heat of the two varieties of blood, although 
the extraordinary discrepancies between difi'erent experiments rendered it 
impossible that any calculations could be based upon Dr. Davy's results. In 
his experiments. Dr. DslXJ made use of defibrinated blood, employing for the 
determination of specific heat the methods of mixture and rate of cooling. 

In the experiments which I performed last year, and wliich are published 
in the last volume of the Eeports of the British Association, I made use 
of the method of mixture, taking care to adopt aU the precautions which 
modern experience has suggested. Making use of the perfectly fresh blood 
of the ox, which was sometimes venous, sometimes arterial, I obtained re- 
markably concordant results, the mean of which gave 1-02 as the coefficient 
of the specific heat of blood. Having made this determination, I could pass 
to the experiments intended to determine whether, in being arteriahzed, 
blood which is perfectly venous becomes hotter. 

As a preface to my own researches on this subject, it is incumbent upon me 
to allude to all the observations which have been made on this subject. In 
the second volume of Dr. Davy's ' Eesearchcs, Physiological and Anatomical,' 
at p. 168 a section is devoted to the following question: — " WJien oxygen is _ 
absorbed by the blood, is there any production of heat ? " 

" To endeavour to determine this point," sa3^s Dr. Davy, " of so much in- 
terest in connexion with the theory of animal heat, a very tliju vial, of the 



ON HEAT GENEKATEl) IN THE BLOOU. 139 

capacity of eight liquid ounces, was selected and earefuUy enveloped in bad 
conducting substances, viz. several folds of flannel, of fine oiled paper, and 
of oiled cloth. Thus prepared, and a perforated cork being provided holding 
a delicate thermometer, 2 cubic inches of mercury were introduced, and im- 
mediately after it was fiUed with venous blood kept liquid as before described. 
The vial was now corked and shaken ; the thermometer included was sta- 
■iiouary at 45°. After five minutes that it was so stationary the thermometer 
■was withdrawn ; the vial, closed by another cork, was transferred to a mercu- 
rial bath, and Ig cubic inch of oxygen was introduced. The common cork 
was retui-ned, and the vial was well agitated for about a minute : the ther- 
mometer was now introduced ; it rose immediately to 4G°, and, continuing 
the agitation, it rose further to 46°-5, very nearly to 47°. This experiment 
was made on the 12th of February, 1838, on the blood of the sheep. On the 
following day a similar experiment was made on the venous blood of man. 
The -sial was filled with 11 cubic inches of this blood, its fibrine broken up in 
the usual manner, and with 3 cubic inches of mercury; the temperature of 
the blood and mercury was 42°-o, and the temperature was the same after 
the introduction of 3 cubic inches of oxygen. The temperatui-e of the room 
being 47°, a fire having shortly before been lit, the vial was taken to an ad- 
joining passage, where the temperature of the air was 39°. Here the vial 
was well agitated, held in the hand with thick gloves on as an additional 
protection ; after about three quarters of a minute the thermometer in the 
vial had risen a degree, viz. to 43°'5." Dr. Davy relates two other experi- 
ments, of which the first Avas performed on the venous blood taken from the 
jugular vein of a sheep, the second on arterial blood. The three experiments 
with venous blood showed that when agitated with mercury and air for the 
space of a minute, venous blood was heated to the extent of 1° Pahr., whilst 
the arterial blood was heated only half a degree. 

Dr. Davy quotes Sir Charles Scudamore, who, in his ' Essay on the Blood,' 
at p. 59, states that venous blood cools much more slowly in oxygen gas than 
in atmospheric air ; that the same blood divided into two cupping-glasses, 
" after an interval of eight minutes from the beginning of the experiment," 
exhibited a diff'erence of 8°, — that exposed to oxygen being 85°, that to atmo- 
spheric air 77°. 

H. Nasse, in his article on Animal Heat in the fourth volume of Wagner's 
* Handwiirterbuch der Physiologic' (1842), quotes Marchand to the effect 
that when oxygen is shaken with blood the latter is heated. 

In a paper entitled " On the lielative Temperature of Arterial and Yenous 
Blood," Mr. "W. B. Savory, having described at considerable length observa- 
tions on the temperature of the two sides of the heart, describes others 
performed with a view to check the accuracy of the experiments of Dr. 
John Davy, and states the conclusions to which he was led by his own 
experiments, viz. : — 1st, that when venous blood is treated, as was done by 
Dr. Davy in his experiments, with oxygen, its temperature was usuaU}- raised 
from 1° to 1|° or 2°; 2ndly, that when venous blood was treated in a similar 
manner with hydrogen or carbonic acid, its temperature was as frequently 
raised, and generally to the same extent ; 3rdly, that similar experiments 
upon arterial blood usually jdelded the same results ; 4thly, that in all cases 
the increase of temperature seemed to be the result of the agitation. In 
concluding his paper, Mr. Savory remarked, " At present there is no evi- 
dence upon which we can safely venture further into this inquiry. If, as I 
conclude from my experiments, arterial blood is warmer than venous, the 
increase of temjierature must occur in the lungs as a resvilt of those changes 



140 REroRT — 1871. 

which tho hlood there undergoes. Of the nature of those changes, little or 
nothing is known," 

In my early researches, conducted during the months of May and June 
1869, I had attempted to determine, by means of comparatively simple con- 
trivances, whether any heat was evolved during arteriahzation, making use of 
delicate thermometers. At first I used a glass bottle furnished with a tubu- 
lature, near the bottom in which a cork, perforated and furnished with a glass^ 
tube closed by india-rubber tubing and a clip, was inserted. The neck of the 
bottle was furnished with a cork perforated in two places ; through one of 
the perforations a delicate Centigrade thermometer passed into the centre of 
the flask, whilst into the other was inserted a bent glass tube through which 
gas might be introduced into the apparatus. The bottle which I have de- 
scribed was filled with venous blood, both the tubes communicating with its 
interior being closed. It was then maintained at a temperature varying be- 
tween 30° and 35° C. for many hours, until it had assumed the characteristic 
cherry-red coloration which indicates the complete removal of the loosely 
combined oxygen of the blood. The apparatus having been allowed to cool, 
it was invested with a jacket of felt. An india-rubber tube was made to 
connect the upper glass tube with a hydrogen gasometer, whilst the lower 
tube being opened, the hydrogen expelled any required quantity of blood. 
The apparatus was then shaken and the temperature determined. Then by 
a repetition of the process (followed in the introduction of hydrogen) pure 
oxygen gas was made to displace more of the blood, and the process of shaking 
repeated as before. The results of such experiments were eminently unsatis- 
factory, varying obviously with the amount of mechanical work which was 
formed by the experiments, and which yet did not admit of exact deter- 
mination. 

In some experiments I observed a heating which amounted to 0°-3 C. ; in 
other cases the difference in the readings, before the introduction of oxj^geu 
and after it, seemed to point to a cooling instead of to a heating. To 
give an idea of the indefinite and perplexing results which I obtained, I 
shall cite the details of an experiment performed on the 23rd of June, 1870, 
by Professor Tait and myself, the apparatus used being a tin vessel resem- 
bling in principle the one of glass which I have already described. This 
vessel was covered with felt, and, when shaken, it was held by means of a 
very strong iron clamp. Having been filled with sheep's blood, it was placed 
in an air-oven and maintained for a period of twelve hours at a temperature 
which oscillated between 100^ and 110° Pahr. It was afterwards placed in 
the room in which my experiments were carried on ; but in order to make 
it cool more rapidly, its felt covering was taken off, and it was placed in 
water at a temperature of 15° C. It was dried, again covered with felt, 
and fixed in its clamp. Hydrogen was then made to expel 4-5 cubic 
inches of blood, which was found by spectroscopic examination to exhibit the 
single band of reduced haemoglobin ; after shaking the blood and hydrogen 
in the apparatus, its temperature was found to be 17°'S 0., then 18° C, the 
temperature of the air being 20°-4 C. 10 cubic inches of blood were then 
drawn off and replaced by oxygen, which was brought in contact with the 
blood by shaking ; the temperature rose to 18°-1 C. : more oxygen was intro- 
duced and the shakinc; repeated, the temperature rising to 18°-25, 18°-4, 18°-5, 
18°-6, 18°-6, 18°-55,l8°-7, 18°- 75, 18°-77. At the conclusion of the experi- 
ment the quantity of blood which had been arterialized was found to be 3G0 
cubic centims. This experiment merely gave one of many results ; for as long 
as I followed this method I was quite unable twice to determine the same 



ON HEAT GENERATED IN THE HLOOD. 141 

amount of heat as the result of oxygenation of the blood. The amount of 
heating in a given time depended upon several important factors, as the dif- 
ference bet-sveen the temperature of the blood in the experimental vessel and 
that of the surrounding air, upon the amount of blood contained in the appa- 
ratus, and the space through which the vessel was moved during its agitation, 
no less than upon the number of the agitations. 

To describe, or even to give the results of a series of experiments so emi- 
nently unsatisfactory, woiild be a mere waste of time ; it will be sufficient 
for me to state, however, that I clearly came to the conclusion that, like those 
who had preceded me, I had obtained no positive proof of the heating of 
blood when it absorbs oxygen, there having been as great a heating when 
water as when blood was experimented upon. 

In commencing new experiments this year, I did so with the conviction 
that, in order to obtain results of any value, my apparatus shoiild be so con- 
structed and my experiments so conducted as to preclude the possibility of 
any appreciable rise in temperature resulting from the mechanical work of 
shaking. Then I decided upon discarding thermometers, and making use of 
thermo-electric junctions of great delicacy. 

The galvanometer employed in the research was one resembling one of 
Sir Wm. Thomson's older forms, constructed especially for Professor Tait, 
every possible precaution having been taken to avoid a trace of iron in 
the coils and framework. The wire was drawn through agate plates 
from electrolytic copper, covered with white silk and formed into four coils, 
each adjusted to produce the maximum effect with the least resistance, 
those parts of the coils nearest the magnets being made of finer wire. 
The astatic system vibrated under the earth's force once in eight seconds ; 
but as this was much too delicate for my purpose, I placed near the in- 
Btriiment a bar-magnet, which reduced the period of vibration to 3^-4. 

The thermo-electric junctions which I employed were made by twisting 
very thin iron and copper wire together, the free ends of the copper wires 
being immersed into the mercury pools of a very simple form of commu- 
tator placed in the circuit, which enabled me, with the greatest ease, to 
reverse the current flowing along the wires. 

The apparatus actually employed in my experiments consisted of an 
upper glass vessel, which I may call the blood reservoir, to which was con- 
nected a lower vessel, also of glass, and in which the blood, wliich was the 
subject of experiment, could be brought in contact Avith the gases which 
were intended to act upon it. 

The iipper vessel was a glass bulb of a pyriform shape, and had a capacity 
of about 150 cubic centimetres. Above and below it was drawn out, so as to 
present two tubes, the upper of which was bent at right angles and furnished 
with a piece of india-rubber tubing, which admitted of being closed by a clamp, 
whilst the lower was furnished with a very accurately ground stopcock. In 
the side of the bulb was a round tubulature, which could be closed with a cork, 
through which passed a thermo-electric junction. The lower, or mixing- 
vessel, was cylindrical in shape, and possessed four apertures. The upper one 
was closed by a cork, bored so as to allow of the passage of a glass tube, 
attached above by means of an elastic tube to the stopcock of upper vessel or 
reservoir, and made of such a length as to reach to the bottom of the mixing- 
vessel. N^ear the upper aperture was a second lateral one, into which a 
glass tube had been fused. This glass tube could be connected, by means of 
a metallic tube and stopcocks, eitlier with a Sprengel mercurial aspirator or 
with an oxygen or hydrogen gasometer. A third lateral aperture waa 



142 REPORT— 1871. 

closed with a cork, perforated (like the one which closed the upper vessel) 
by a second thermal junction. A fourth aperture in the mixing-vessel, 
closed by a stopcock, enabled it to be emptied. 

In determining with such an apparatus whether heat is generated when 
venous blood becomes arterial, the upper vessel is disconnected from the 
lower at a point below the glass stopcock previously described ; it is com- 
pletely filled with water, and then the water is displaced by a stream of 
pure hydrogen gas admitted through the upper tube. 

The lower glass tube is then connected with the vessel which contains the 
blood to be experimented upon. The upper tube, through which hydrogen had 
been admitted, is now connected to the Sprengel pump, which rapidly sucks 
the blood into the vessel, Avithout the slightest j)ossibility of its coming in 
contact with oxygen. The upper vessel is either partially or completely filled 
with blood, but it always is ultimately left in connexion with a hydrogen 
gasometer. 

The mixing-vessel (the lowest aperture of which has been closed by india- 
rubber tubing and clip) is now connected to the Sprengel pump, and a va- 
cuum is formed into which hydrogen is allowed freely to flow. The vacuum 
is renewed three or four times consecutively, hydrogen being allowed to flow 
into the apparatus each time. The object of this is to exclude traces from 
the lower vessel of atmospheric oxygen. 

The stopcock which connects the upper and lower vessels is opened, and 
venous blood is allowed to flow into the lower vessel. In actual work both 
the upper and lower vessels are thickly covered with wadding. The upper 
one is firmly fixed in a clamp, and constitutes a reservoir, which, except 
when the atmospheric changes in temperature are abnormally sudden, main- 
tains during limited periods of time a constant temperature. The lower .tube 
being connected to the stopcock of the upper by means of a flexible india- 
rubber tube, admits of being comj^letcly tilted, or, if necessary, shaken. 

As soon as the lower vessel contains the blood to be experimented upon, 
the thermal junctions are bi'ought in connexion with the galvanometer. 
The amount of deviation on the graduated scale, and the direction of the 
deviation, at once tells the experimenter whether the upper or the lower 
junction be the hotter. The lower vessel is thoroughly shaken, then, after 
some time, the temperature of its contents is determined by reading on the 
scale placed in front of the galvanometer. The tube and its contents are 
then repeatedly tilted, a reading of the galvanometer being taken after each 
set of five tilts. After a certain time the lower vessel has assumed a constant 
temperature, and readings, at the interval of two or three minutes, show no 
perceptible change. I may remark that the galvanometer which, through 
the kindness of Prof. Tait, was placed at my disposal was so set tbat in my 
various experiments one division of the divided scale corresponded to the 
100th or the 120th of a degree Cent. The first observations made with my 
apparatus were intended to determine whether such an amount of agitation 
as would be required to communicate a thoroughly arterial colour to perfectly 
venous blood would heat the fluid to a perceptible extent, in consequence of 
the mechanical work expended in the agitation. 

In preliminary experiments I foimd that venous blood assumed a beauti- 
ful arterial hue, when it was mixed with oxygen contained in the mixing- 
vessel, by successively tilting the tube twenty times. In each tilt the tube 
containing blood and oxygen was completely reversed. In other preli- 
minary experiments I found that when the tulje contained thoroughly arte- 
riaUzed blood or water, the process of tilting had no influence on the 



ON HEAT GENERATED IN THE BLOOD. 143 

temperature of the contained fluid. It was, therefore, obvious that any heat- 
ing which might occur in the process of tilting or shaking in subsequent 
experiments could not be referred to the mechanical work expended in the 
tube and its contents. 

My next experiments consisted in determining whether, when agitated 
with a neutral gas, as, for example, hydrogen, any material change in the 
temperature of the blood occurred ; they led to the result that when agi- 
tated with hydrogen gas no heating of the blood results, it being always 
remembered that the mechanical agitation to which the blood and the 
neutral gas were subjected was the same as in my experiments with blood 
and oxygen. 

In ray systematic experiments on the heat generated during the process 
of arterialization, the following observations were always made : — 

1. The temperature of the lower as contrasted with the upper vessel was 
determined after the latter had been exhausted. 

2. The temperature- observations were repeated after shaking with hy- 
drogen. 

3. After the renewal of a vacuum. 

4. After admission of oxygen in the mixing-vessel. 

5. After oxygen had been thoroughly shaken with the blood. 

The results of my experiments on veiy numerous samples of venous blood 
have led to the conclusion that whilst, as I have previously mentioned, no 
heat is evolved on agitating blood with hydrogen, there is, on agitation with 
oxygen, always a slight evolution of heat. 

To determine the exact heating, when venous blood of varying gaseous 
composition is arterialized, appears to be most desirable. We should espe- 
cially attempt to determine the heating observed when the average venous 
blood contained in the right ventricle and directly drawn from it is ar- 
terialized. The first and most important datum to be ascertained appeared 
to me, however, to be the heating which takes place when blood which has 
been thoroughly reduced, i. e. which contains no loosely combined oxygen 
and exhibits Stokes's spectrum, is completely arterialized. 

From five sets of experiments on the heat developed during the arteriali- 
zation of perfectly reduced blood, I arrived at the conclusion that the mean 
rise of temperatiire during the absorption of oxygen amounted to 0°-0976 C. 
The maximum heating found was 0°'lll C, and the minimum 0°-083C. 

The research, of which the above are the results, was conducted in the 
Physical Laboratory of the University of Edinburgh ; and I have to express 
my thanks to Professor Tait for the uniform kindness with which he helped 
me by advice, assistance, and apparatus in ascertaining the facts which are 
recorded in this Report. I intend to extend these researches very greatly. 
It is most desirable that in future experiments venous blood of known com- 
position be employed, and that the amount of oxygen absorbed and CO^ 
evolved be ascertained after each experiment. I propose likewise to increase 
the period during which the blood is agitated, making use of an arrangement 
whereby the mechanical work performed in the agitation may be precisely 
determined. 



144- REPORT — 1871. 

Report of the Committee appointed to consider the subject of 
Physiological Experimentation. 

A CouoiiTTEE, consisting of ten individuals, having been appointed at the last 
Meeting of the British Association, held at Liverpool, to consider the subject 
of Physiological Experimentation, in accordance -with a Resolution of the 
General Committee hereto annexed, the following Report was drawn up and 
signed by seven members of the Committee. 

Report. 

i. No experiment which can be performed under the influence of an anaes- 
thetic ought to be done without it. 

ii. No painful experiment is justifiable for the mere purpose of illustrating a 
law or fact already demonstrated ; in other words, experimentation with- 
out the employment of ansesthetics is not a fitting exhibition for teaching 
purposes. 

iii. Wliencvcr, for the investigation of new truth, it is necessary to make a 
painful experiment, every effort should l)e made to ensure success, in 
order that the suffering inflicted may not be wasted. For this reason, 
no painful experiment ought to be performed by an unskilled person 
with insufficient instruments and assistance, or in places not suitable to 
the purpose, that is to say, anywhere except in physiological and patho- 
logical laboratories, under proper regulations. 

iv. In the scientific preparation for veterinary practice, operations ought not 
to be performed upon living animals for the mere purpose of obtaining 
greater operative dexterity. 

Signed by : — M. A. Lawson, Oxford. G. M. HtriirnRT, Cambridge. 
WH.BALEorK,! j,^^^^^^^_ 
Arthur Gamoee, J ° 

William Flower, Royal College of Surgeons, London. 
J. BuRDOiq^ Sanderson, London. 
George Rolleston, Secretary, Oxford. 

Hesohdions referred to in the Report. 

That the Committee of Section D (Biology) be requested to draw up a 
statement of their views upon Physiological Experiments in their various 
bearings, and that this document be circulated among the Members of the 
Association. 

That the said Committee be further requested to consider from time to time 
■whether any steps can be taken by them, or by the Association, which will 
tend to reduce to its minimum the suffering entailed by legitimate physiolo- 
gical inquiries ; or any which will have the effect of employing the influence 
of this Association in the discouragement of experiments which are not clearly 
legitimate on live animals. 

The following resolution, subsequently passed by the Committee of Section 
D (Biology), was adopted by the General Committee : — 

" That the following gentlemen be appointed a Committee for the pur- 
pose of carrying out the suggestion on the question of Physiological Expe- 
riments made by the General Committee, — Professor Rolleston, Professor 
Lawson, Professor Balfour, Dr. Gamgee, Professor M. Foster, Professor 
Humphry, Professor W. H. Flower, Professor Sanderson, Professor Mac- 
alister, and Professor Redfern ; that Professor Rolleston be the Secretary, 
and that they be requested to report to the General Committee." 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION OF ORGANIC CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS. 145 

Report on the Physiological Action of Organic Chemical Compounds. 
By Benjamin Ward Richardson, M.A., M.D., F.R.S. 

The plan I have heretofore followed, of passing under review the practical 
results of the labours chronicled in previous Reports, cannot be carried out 
this year. The review itself would now become so comprehensive that it 
would occupy all the time allowed for the reading of the Report to the ex- 
clusion of the new matter to be brought forward. I shall therefore proceed 
at once to the description of new research. 

Chloeal Hydrate. 

It is two years since the substance called chloral hydrate (the physio- 
logical properties of which had been previously discovered by Liebreich) was 
introduced into this country at the jN'orwich Meeting of this Association. 
During the first year of tlie employment of chloral hydrate the enthusiasm 
connected with the learning of its value prevented, in some degree, all fair 
criticism as to its real values and dangers. The year immediately past 
has afforded time for calmer and more judicial observation, greatty, as I think, 
to the advantage of the public, since it has given to the professors of medical 
art the opportunity of learning that the new agent placed in their hands, 
blessing as it is to humanity, is not an unalloyed blessing, but one that haS 
engendered a new and injurious habit of narcotic luxury, and has added 
another cause to the preventible causes of the mortality of the nation. 

Recognizing these truths, I have felt it a duty to devote some part of the 
labours of this Report to the elucidation of questions which have become of 
public, not less than of scientific importance, and to these I would now ask 
attention. 

1. I have endeavoured to ascertain what is a dangerous and what a fatal 
dose of chloral hydrate. The conclusion at which I have been able first to 
anive on this point is, that the maximum quantity of the hydrate that can 
be borne, at one dose, bears some proportion to the weight of the animal 
subjected to its influence. The rule, however, does not extend equally to 
animals of any and every class. The proportion is practically the same in 
the sam'e classes, but there is no actual universality of rule. A mouse weigh- 
ing from three-quarters of an ounce to an ounce .will be put to sleep by one 
quarter of a grain of the hydrate, and will be killed by a grain. A pigeon 
weighing twelve ounces will be put to sleep by two grains of the hydrate, and 
will be killed by five grains. A guineapig weighing sixteen ounces will be 
put by two grains into deep sleep, and by five grains into fatal sleep. A 
rabbit weighing eighty-eight ounces will be thrown by thirty grains into 
deep sleep, and by sixty grains into fatal sleep. 

The human subject, weighing from one hundred and twenty to one hundred 
and forty pounds, will be made by ninety grains to pass-into deep sleep, and 
by one hundred and forty grains into a sleep that will be dangerous. 

Prom the eflfects produced on a man who had of his own accord taken a 
hundred and twenty grains of the hydrate, and who seemed at one period to 
be passing into death, I was led to infer that in the human subject one 
hundred and forty grains should be accepted as dangerous, and one hundred 
and eighty as a fatal dose. Evidence has, however, recently been brought 
before me which leads me to think that, although eighty grains would 
in most instances prove fatal, it could, under very favourable circumstances, 
be recovered from. 

1871. 1 



146 REPORT — 1871. 

Dr. Hills, of the Thorpe Asylum, Norwich, has, for example, favoured me 
with the facts of an instance in which a suicidal woman took no less than 
four hundred ami seventy-hvo grains of the hydrate dissolved in sixteen ounces 
of water, and actually did not die for thirty-three hours. Such a fact, ably 
observed as it was, is startling ; but it does not, I think, militate against the 
rule that one hundred and forty grains is the maximum quantity that 
should, under any circumstances, be administered to the human subject. 

2. A second point to which my attention has been directed is, what quan- 
tity of hydrate of chloral can be taken with safety at given intervals for a 
given period of time, say of twenty-four hours. To arrive at some fair con- 
clusion on this subject, I calculated from a series of experiments the 
time required for the development of symptoms from different doses of the 
hydrate, the full period of the symptoms, and the time when they had entii-ely 
passed away. Great difficulties attend this line of investigation ; but I may 
state, as a near approximation to the truth, that an adult person who has 
taken chloral in sufficient quantity to be influenced by it, disposes of it at the 
rate of about seven grains per hour. In repeated doses, the hydrate of chloral 
might therefore be given at the rate of twelve grains every two hours for 
twenty-four hours, with less danger than would occur from giving twelve 
times twelve (14-i) grains at once ; but I do not think that amount ought, 
except in the extremest emergencies, to be exceeded even in divided 
quantities. 

3. A third point to which I have paid attention is, the means to be adopted 
in any case when, from accident or other cause, a large and fatal dose of 
chloral hydrate has been administered. I can speak here with precision. It 
should be remembered that this hydrate, from its great solubility, is rapidly 
diffused through all the organism. It is in vain, consequently, to attempt its 
removal by any extreme measures after it has fairly taken effect. In other 
words, the animal or person under chloral, like an animal or person in a 
fever, must go through a distinct series of stages on the way to recovery or 
death ; and these stages will be long or short, slightly dangerous or intensely 
dangerous, all but fatal or actually fatal, according to the conditions by which 
the animal is suiTounded, One of the first and marked effects of the chloral is 
reduction of the animal temperature ; and when an animal is deeply under the 
influence of the agent, in the fourth degree of narcotism of Dr. Snow, the tem- 
perature of its body, unless the external warmth be carefully sustained, will 
quickly descend seven and even eight degrees below the natural standard. 
Such reduction of temperature is itself a source of danger ; it allows conden- 
sation of fluid on the bronchial pulmonary surface, and so induces apncea, 
and it indicates a period when the convulsion of cold (a convulsion which 
sharply precedes death) is at hand. 

I offer these explanations in order to indicate the first favourable condition 
for the recovery of an animal or man from the effects of an extreme dose of 
chloral hydi'ate. It is essential that the body of the animal be kept warm, 
and not merely so, but that the air inspired by the animal be of high tempe- 
rature. The first effort to recovery, in short, should consist in placing the 
animal in a warm air. This fact is perfectly illustrated by experiment on 
the inferior animals. In the pigeon an air of 95° Fahr. is most favourable, 
in the rabbit an air at 105° to 110°, in the dog the same. In man the 
air to be breathed should be raised and sustained at 90° Fahr. at least*. 

* I have no doubt it -n-ill be found, as tbo chronicle of deaths from chloral hydrate in- 
creases, that the mortality from the agent wUl be greatest when the thermometrical 
readings are the lowest, and vice versa. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION OF ORGANIC CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS. 147 

The nest thing to be remembered in the recovery of persons under the 
fatal influence of chloral hydrate is to sustain the body by food. I find that 
under even deep sleep from the narcotic, although the process of waste is less 
than is common under natural conditions of rest, there is still a very con- 
siderable waste in progress, which, if not made up, is against recovery. I 
find also that the digestive and assimilating powers, thoiigh impaired diuing 
sleep from chloral, are not arrested, but may be called into fair action with so 
much advantage, that if two animals be cast into deep sleep by an excessive 
quantity of the narcotic, and one be left without food and the other be artifi- 
cially fed on warm food, one fourth of the chance of recovery is given to the 
animal that is supplied with food. In the human subject wai-m milk, to 
which a little lime-water has been added, is the best food. Milk is very easily 
administered mechanically, and it should be administered in the proportion 
of half a pint every two hours*. 

4. The fourth point to remember is to sustain the breathing ; in the 
inferior animals the question of life or death can be made to turn on this 
pivot. But the artificial respiration must be carried out with great gentle- 
ness ; it must not be done by vehement movements of the body or compres- 
sions of the chest, but by the simple process of inflating the luugs by means 
of small bellows, through the nostrils. I have devised, in the course of the 
researches conducted chiefly for the Association, various instruments for 
artificial respiration, viz. a small double-acting bellows, a small syringe, and 
a double-acting india-rubber pocket-bellows ; but I have lately made an ob- 
servation which leads to a simpler method still, i. e. I merely attach to a 
single hand-bellows a nostril-tube, and gently inflate the lungs, letting the 
elasticity of the chest-wall do the work of expiration. A little valve near 
to the nostril-tube effectually stops aR back currents from the lungs into 
the bellows. For the human subject, five charges of air from the bellows 
should be given at intervals of five seconds apartt. 

There is another subject of public interest connected with the employ- 
ment of chloral hydrate. I refer to the increasing habitual use of it as a 
narcotic. As there are alcoholic intemperants and opium-eaters, so now 
there are those who, beginning to take chloral hydrate to relieve pain or to 
procure sleep, get into the fixed habit of taking it several times daily and in 
full doses. I would state from this public place, as earnestly and as forcibly 
as I can, that this growing practice is alike injurious to the mental, the 
moral, and the purely physical organization, and that the confirmed habit 
of taking chloral hydrate leads inevitably to confirmed disease. The diges- 
tion gets impaired ; natural tendency to sleep and natural sleep are impaired ; 
the blood is changed in quality, its plastic properties and its capacity for 
oxidation being reduced; the secretions are depraved; and, the nervous system 
losing its regulating, controlling power, the muscles become unsteady, the 
heart irregular and intermittent, and the mind uncertain and irritable. To 
crown the mischief, in not a few cases already the habitual dose has been the 
last, involuntary or rather unintentional suicide closing the scene. 

I press these facts on public notice not a moment too soon, and I add to 
them the facts, that hydrate of chloral is purely and absolutely a medicine, 
and that whenever its administration is not guided by medical science and 
experience, it ceases to be a boon, and becomes a curse to mankind. 

* This question of feeding is applicable to all foi-ras of accidental narcotic poisoning. 
In every such case the poisoning is a distinct process, and the recovery turns largely on the 
sustainnient of tlie animal force by supply of food and of external -warmth. 

t Dr. Richardson exhibited the different instruments described. 

1.2 



148 REPORT ISri. 



Anhtdrotts Chloral. 



The hydrate of chloral, of which I have treated above, is made from 
another substance, called anhydrous chloral, by the addition to the latter of a 
certain proportion of simple water. Anhydrous chloral was discovered 
by Liebig in 1832, and is formed by the process of passing chlorine through 
absoMe alcohol. It is a colourless oily fluid, of specific gravity 1502, at 
64° Pahr. It boils at 93° Cent. (199° Fahr.); its composition is C.HClj 0, and 
its vapour-density, taking hydrogen as unity, is 73. It dissolves in ether, 
alcohol, and hydride of amyl. 

The vapour of anhydrous chloral is irritating and painful to an extreme 
degree when it is inhaled, and the substance has consequently not attracted 
attention as a subject for physiological study. Having, however, a pure 
specimen of it prepared by Dr. Versmann, I thought it was worth while to 
make a research with it. The results have proved worthy of the trouble ; in 
fact I have rarely derived from so simple an investigation so rich a practical 
result. It would be inferred a priori that anhydrous chloral in the liquid 
state would be, like its vapour, a powerful irritant to the skin and mucous 
membrane. I soon found, however, that this was not the fact, that I could 
apply the fluid freely to my ovm. skin and to the tongue without injury, and 
that the caustic action is extremely mild, even when the substance is applied 
to a moist surface. If a quarter grain of it (anhydrous chloral) be placed 
upon the skin of the frog in a dry atmosphere, there is a rather quick ab- 
sorption, followed by the formation of a white film of the hydrate of chloral 
beneath the skin, which film soon disappears by absorption, the symptoms 
following the absorption being the specific narcotic symptoms of chloral 
hydrate. The animal soon falls into a deep sleep with complete muscular 
exhaustion. 

If in higher animals, birds and rabbits, anhydrous chloral be injected sub- 
cutaneously, the same phenomena are indicated, the quantities for producing 
the specific effects being the same as are required for the hydrate. 

It is clear from these observations that anhydrous chloral, when brought 
into contact with the exposed surfaces of the^body, abstracts water from the 
part with which it is in contact, becomes converted into the hydrate, and is 
directly absorbed into the body, producing tlie same symptoms as the pre- 
pared hydrate produces when it is introduced into the organism. 

As anhydrous chloral is soluble in amyl hydride, ether, and many other 
volatile fluids, I tried whether any of it coiild be carried over with the vapour 
of amyl hydride, and whether, if it were administered in this way, it would 
produce prolonged narcotism by being transformed into the hydrate in the 
lungs and taken up into the blood. 

The result of the experiment was to show that in frogs, guineapigs, and 
pigeons general narcotism can be so induced, and that the narcotism is pro- 
longed far beyond what follows from the simple inhalation of amyl hydride. 
But I observed that when the solution used contained so little as twenty 
minims of anhydrous chloral to an ounce of the hydride, the vapour given ofl:" 
was irritating to breathe ; and when I breathed it myself I found it caused dry- 
ness of the throat and a sense of constriction, which lasted several minutes. A 
weaker solution than that named is too slow in its action, and I therefore can 
hardly at this moment recommend that anhydrous chloral should be ad- 
ministered by inhalation. It is possible, nevertheless, that in course of time 
the agent may be found serviceable when administered in the manner de- 
scribed. It is probable that much smaller quantities, administered for a much 



PHVSIOLOGICAL ACTIOiil OF OKGANIC CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS. 149 

longer time, would be serviceable in sustaining a slight narcotism. It is pro- 
bable that in some chronic diseases of the throat or bronchial passages, where 
the effect of a local narcotic would be desirable, this mode of practice may- 
find favour from its success. Again, it may be that in disease of the lungs 
themselves, where there is loss of structure (cavity), anhydrous chloral may be 
inhaled in minute quantities with advantage. I name these points in order 
to caU the attention of fellow physicians to the mode of administration I 
have ventured to suggest. 

Connected also with anhydrous chloral is another reasonable suggestion ; 
I mean the plan of applying the agent as a narcotic caustic to unnatural 
growths and ulcerating fungoid surfaces. I find that by applying the fluid 
to my arm freely there is destruction of the epidermis (scarf skin), so that 
without any pain the epidermis peels off, almost dry, at the point where the 
fluid has been placed ; and that when on this exposed surface some of the 
fluid is applied, the true skin is in turn affected, so that in a day or two 
what the ancients called an issue may be developed, the tissiies destroyed 
coming away in the form of scales. The surgeon wiU at once see the prac- 
tical utility of an agent possessing these properties, and he may in. some 
instances subcutaneously inject the fluid if the outward employment of it be 
too slow. 

It is a very curious experiment to subject freshly drawn blood to anhj'- 
drous chloral, and to observe microscopically the changes that ensue. The 
action of the chloral is to extract water both from the liquor sanguinis and 
the corpuscles, and to form crystalline chloral hydrate. Into this formation 
the shrinking corpuscles sink, ■rt'hile the fibrine remains free from precipi- 
tation ; but if water be added, so as to dissolve and remove the hydrate that 
has been formed, the corpuscles are to some extent restored, and the fibrino 
coagulates and separates in the usual way. 

Metachiokal. 

Under favouring conditions anhydrous chloral is converted into an in- 
soluble substance, to which the name of " metachloral " has been applied. 
The change sometimes occurs spontaneously, as it has done in a specimen 
now on the table ; but it is always effected when chloral is brought into 
contact with sulphuric acid. Dr. Versmann has made for me some beautiful 
specimens of metachloral by this last-named process. 

Metachloral is a white substance, easily reducible into a fine powder, but 
insoluble in water and in alcohol. It is isomeric with chloral itself, being 
merely different in respect to physical condition. When it is treated with 
an alkali it yields, as chloral does, an alkaline formate and chloroform. 
These facts led me to ask whether, in the animal body, metachloral would 
undergo decomposition and produce specific narcotic effects : and here, again, 
a series of results were obtained of great interest. Administered to birds in 
the form of pilule, and to other animals either in the same form or in sus- 
pension in glim emulsion, the metachloral, so insoluble in water, is found to 
undergo solution in the animal secretions, and to produce the same narcotic 
effects as the chloral hydrate, viz. narcotism, muscular prostration, and de- 
crease of animal temperature. 

In the pigeon from ten to fifteen grains are sufficient to' take fuU effect. 
The animal in the course of an hour becomes drowsy, and in an hour and a 
half is in a perfect sleep, from which, nevertheless, it may be roused, to fall 
back again into sleep with great rapidity : the sleep lasts from three to four 



150 REPORT 1871. 

hours. The temperature of the body undergoes considerable change, falling, 
in the pigeon, full five degrees Fahi-euheit, and remaining so reduced that a 
period of eight and even nine hours is required for its complete restoration 
to the natural standard. On frogs the effect of metachloral is equally marked. 
A frog -weighing ten drachms is fairly narcotized in thirty minutes by a dose 
of a quarter of a grain, the insensibility continuing manj' hours and closely 
simulating death. During the period of deep insensibility the muscles re- 
main in the most extreme state of flaccidity, but do not fail to respond to 
the galvanic stimulus. 

To rabbits comparatively larger doses of metachloral may be administered 
by the mouth -n-ithoat exciting any eflect whatever. To a large rabbit weighing 
eight pounds, ten grains may be given with absolute freedom from symptoms 
of narcotism ; but when the dose is increased to twenty grains a very distinct 
effect is produced. About one hour following upon the administration the 
animal sinks into sleep precisely as if he had taken chloral hydi-atc, and 
passes through all the stages of narcotism and recovery in the same way. 

The action of metachloral is fidl of interest in a physiological point of 
view, and goes far, I think, to sustain Liebreich's original view of the action 
of chloral hydrate, \'iz. that the narcotism produced by it is due to the action of 
chloroform liberated within the body. On this view metachloral is first 
changed in the body, under the influence of alkali, into the soluble condi- 
tion, after which it passes into the hydrate, and then into alkaline formate 
and chloroform. It is thus slower tliau the hydrate and slower than the 
anhydrous chloral in its action, but in the end the effects from it are the same. 
Metachloral admits of being employed mcdicinaUy ; it may be combined 
with morphia, quinine, and other alkaloids, and wUl, I think, be foimd to 
possess many useful medicinal qualities. 

Beomal Hyde ate. 

"WTien bromine is made to act upon chlorine, a substance called brom-al is 
the product. It is an oily substance like chloral, and when acted upon by 
alkalies is decomposed into formiate of the alkali employed, and into bromo- 
form, the analogue in the bromine of chloroform in the chlorine series. The 
composition of bromal is C, HBrjO. When it is treated with water a crys- 
talline substance, bromal hydrate, is produced. The composition of bromal 
hydrate is C^ H lii\ 2H, ; it is the analogue in the bromine of the chloral 
hydrate in the chlorine series. Eromal hydrate has an odour somewhat like 
chloral liydi'ate ; its crystals are verj- soluble in water, and it may be ad- 
ministered in solution by the mouth or by hypodermic injection. 

Verj' soon after the discovery of the action of chloral hydi-ate I commenced 
a research on the physiological properties of the bromal hydrate. Two other 
observers also moved in the same path, and have preceded me in recording 
what they had observed. One of these is Dr. Steinann, of Berlin, the other 
Dr. John DougaU, of Glasgow. In theu" researches nearly the same class of 
inquiries were instituted as in my own, the same animals were subjected to 
observation, and practically the same results were obtained. 

In order to i:)roduce marked cflects from bromal hydrate, much smaller 
doses are required than of the corresponding chloral compound ; five grains 
of the former are equivalent to ten of the latter. After an ctncient dose the 
symptoms produced resemble in many respects the symptoms that foUow 
chloral; i. e. there is great muscular prostration and a kind of narcotism, at- 
tended, however, with very slight insensibility, except in cases in which the 
dose has been dangerously large. In extreme cases only is there really deep 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION OF OKGANIC CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS, 151 

anffisthesia ; in all cases there is sudden and extreme decrease of the animal 
temperature. In birds, rabbits, guineapigs, as well as in the human subject, 
tlieso phenomena are observable. But there are other symptoms belonging 
to bromal hydrate which are peculiar to it, and Avhich render its practical 
ntihty, according to our present knowledge of it at any rate, doubtful. It is 
intensely irritating ; it causes great difficulty of respiration ; it so suddenly 
and effectually reduces the animal temperature that the accumulation of fluid 
in the bronchial canals, from condensation, is a source of positive danger, 
and altogether its internal employment would be unwise. I agree with 
Drs. Steinann and DougaU as to the mode of its action, and, with them, 
attribute the phenomena to the effects of the bromoform that is liberated in 
the body after the dose has been administered ; I agree also with Dougall 
that the cause of death, when the dose is fatal and slow, is due to asphyxia. 
I attribute the asphyxia primarily to the fall of temperature of the body, and 
secondarily to condensation of water in the bronchial passages. 

One condition I have noticed which seems not to have fallen under the 
attention of the learned observers I have named, viz. that in bii'ds a large 
dose of the bromal hydrate may destroy life almost instantaneously by 
an intense convulsion, amounting, in fact, to suddenly developed tetanus. 

The chief interest at this moment attaching to bromal hydrate is the dif- 
ference that is seen in its action, in comparison with the action of chloral 
hydrate. It illustrates how a difference of chemical elementary constitution 
and of weight modifies physiological action ; how the heavier bromine in 
combination with carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and water differs in action 
from chlorine in similar combination. The science of therapeutics will ulti- 
mately rest on these distinctions. 

NlTEITE OF AmTL. 

At the Meeting of the Association held at Newcastle-on-Tyne in 1863, I 
introduced this curious and potent substance to the notice of the Association, 
and explained, as best I could, its history and its physiological properties. 
Every year since then some new fact of interest has attached to the sub- 
stance, and the immediate past year is not different in this respect from 
those that have preceded it. The first observer of the action of nitrite of 
amyl on the animal functions was Professor Guthrie, P.E.S., then of Edin- 
burgh, and now of the School of Mines, London. Professor Guthrie observed, 
while working in the laboratory with nitrite of amyl, that the inhalation of 
its vapour produced flttshing of the face, rapid action of the heart, a peculiar 
breathlessness, such as occurs after fast running, and disturbance of cerebral 
action. These facts, most ably described by the^ Pi'ofessor, became known 
to Mr. Morison, a dentist in Edinbttrgh, who thought from them that the 
substance might be made of service for the treatment of persons who were 
suffering from faintness. He therefore brought some of the compound to 
the College of Dentists, a Society then existing in London, and the Council 
of that institution referred the whole subject to mo, with a request that I 
would report to them. The task was readily undertaken, and the study con- 
nected with it has not been completed at this hour. 

I take the liberty of mentioning these details for the sake of historical 
accuracy. From the circumstance that I have introduced nitrite of amyl 
greatly into medical practice, and have been year after year treating of its 
action, it has been all but universally believed that I made the earliest 
observations upon it; I would correct this error : I have worked industriously 
with nitrite of amyl, have studied careftilly its mode of action, and have sug- 



J 53 KEPOKT — 1871. 

gested many new applications of it ; but the credit of tlie earliest observa- 
tions, as I stated at Newcastle, belongs strictly to Professor Guthrie. 

It will be remembered by some that in one of my early papers on nitrite 
of amyl I pointed out that the effects observed were clearly due to an in- 
duced paralysis of the vascular system, of the terminal part of that system, 
and that the heart passed into vehement motion, not, as I at first had thought, 
because it was excited by the agent, but because the resistance to its action 
being removed, it ran down like a clock in which the resistance to the 
spring is broken by the removing of the pendulum or the pallets. I 
further explained that the seeming over-action produced by the nitrite was 
in truth no evidence of power or tension of muscle, but that in truth, under 
the influence of the nitrite, the muscular system is brought into extreme 
relaxation, so that the substance might be used as a remedy for the relief 
even of tetanic spasm. These views have been sustained by later observa- 
tion. It remained, however, still to discover how far the relaxation of ves- 
sels from nitrite of amyl extended to the fimctious of special oi-gans of the 
body ; and during the present year I have followed up this line of research 
in respect to the changes producible by it in the pulmonary organs, the lungs. 
The study has been most fruitful, and will, I think, as it is foUowed up, open 
qtiite a new field of accurate and sound observation as to the mode in which 
many diseases of the lungs take their origin. 

As there may be many here who are not conversant with the nature and 
properties of nitrite of amyl, I may say briefl}^ in respect to it, that it is an 
amber- coloured fluid, having the odour of ripe pears, and, although requiring 
a high temperature for ebullition, volatilizing very readily on exposure to 
the air. 

When taken into the body nitrite of amyl produces intense flushing of the 
face, throbbing and sensation of fulness in the head, rapid action of the heart, 
and in time a sense of breathless exhaustion. In my previous Reports I 
have entered at length into details of its action, of which the following is a 
summary. 

The nitrite, though insoluble in water, will enter the body and produce 
its specific action by any channel of the body, by the cellular tissue, stomach, 
blood. It produces general muscular paralysis, aff'ecting directly or indirectly 
all the motor centres. 

It exerts no primary action on the sensory centres, and therefore does not 
produce anassthesia. 

Its paralyzing action seems first to be directed to the organic nervous 
centres, by which the vascular tension is reduced. It acts, in fact, after tho 
manner of an emotional sjiock, leading quickly to paralysis of the minute 
vessels. 

It prevents oxidation by its presence, and possesses distinct antiseptic 
powers. It produces a peculiar tarry condition of the blood, but docs not 
materially impede coagulation. 

It neutralizes the tetanic action of strychnia, and removes tetanic spasm. 

On reviewing these inferences of former years, as thus detailed, I see no 
occasion to change one of them ; indeed I believe they have, on the whole, 
all been confirmed by other observers. The admirable experiments of Dr. 
Brunton on the action of the nitrite on vascular tension call for special re- 
cognition. There is, however, one observation in my Ileport of 1864 I would 
like to correct. f?pcaking at that time of the action of the nitrite on the 
muscles, I remarked that it first excites the muscular system, and then para- 
lyzes it. I am in doubt now whether the muscular excitement of which I 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION OF ORGANIC CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS. 153 

spoke in 1864 is a true excitement due to the influence excited by the agent 
on the motor centres. I think, from my own sensations, it is rather due to an 
indirect or mental impression, that it indicates a vehement desire to escape 
from the influence of the agent, like the excitement of fear or frenzy. 

Let me from these points turn to the observations of the past year. I 
observed long ago, in making dissections of the bodies of animals that had 
died from amyl nitrite, that the condition of the lungs varied much, that 
sometimes the lungs were of milky whiteness, sometimes of leaden hue, 
and again of deep dark red hue. It occurred to me at last that these differ- 
ences were not accidental, but that they depended upon the mode in which 
the agent destroyed the life of the animal. Thereupon 1 made direct inquiry 
into this subject, and was led to discover that I could, practically, modify the 
circulation of the blood, passing over the lung from the right to the left 
heart, as I pleased ; in other words, I learned that the vessels of the luugs 
are influenced by the nitrite in the same manner as the vessels of the skin. 

The observation thus stated led me naturally a step further. I inquired 
as to results of different temporary lesions that might be inflicted on the 
pulmonary organs by the nitrite, and what extremity of lesion could be 
recovered from under conditions favourable to recover3\ I commenced this 
research in February last, and have carried it on without intermission from 
that time : the results of the labour have been most instructive. 

There are four distinct conditions of lung producible by nitrite of amyl ; 
there may be more, but I know of these : — 

1. If the animal be destroyed by an overwhelming dose of the agent, so 
that it dies instantly, as it might die from sjoicope, the lungs are left 
absolutely bloodless and of pure whiteness. The right side of the 
heart is in this case paralyzed ; but exposed to the air immediately after 
death it often recovers its power of contraction. In this instance the 
death is reallj^ by syncope ; the nervous paralysis is extended immediately to 
the heart, probably from paralysis of the sympathetic supply, and the right 
ventricle failing to pour out its blood to the lung, the death is so instan- 
taneous that there is no time left for the production of any organic change. 

2. If the death be comparatively slow, if it be preceded by a short interval 
of muscular prostration, and if it occur from paralysis of the muscles 
of respiration, then the lungs are left charged with dark tarry blood, 
but they contain air and are free of congestion. Here the lungs and heart 
have failed together, and the balance of the pulmonary circulation has been 
fairly maintained. 

3. If the effect of the nitrite be more definitely prolonged, there is pro- 
duced intense general congestion of the pulmonary vascular system, a con- 
gestion so intense that the lungs, full of blood, clark and heavy, will not 
float in water. The cause of death in this instance is progressive neural 
paralysis of the pulmonary vessels ; it is the equivalent of congestion of the 
lungs from long expose to extreme cold. 

4. The above may all be considered as acute changes in the pulmonary 
structures, and the two first-named changes are immediately fatal. The 
last need not be ; as it occurs from prolonged and siistained action of the 
nitrite, in quantities insufficient to kill directly, the effects of sustained con- 
gestion may be traced out from day to day for many weeks. 

To be accurate in the observations made on this subject, I constructed a 
glass house or chamber of a capacity of three cubic feet, and so ventilated it 
that the air could be kept charged with the vapour of the nitrite. In this 
chamber rabbits and guineapigs were housed. They were carefully fed, 



154: KEPOKT — 1871. 

supplied -with abundance of air, and well protected from cold. The intro- 
duction of the vapour was so moderated that the same quantity was made 
to undergo diifusion each day. 

The first fact that became well established was, that cold and a low baro- 
metric pressure greatly assisted the action of the vapour, and frequently led 
to sudden death from congestion of lung and accumulation of fluid in the 
bronchial tubes. 

A second fact, of singular interest, was the degree to which recovery from 
extreme congestion of lung would take place, on simply withdrawing the 
animal from the influence of the agent. A\Tien the lungs were so obstructed . 
that what is called rale fi'om accumulation of mucous fluid in the bronchial 
surface was most marked, there was invariably a rapid recovery on removal 
to fi-esh and warm air. 

A third fact relating to the lesions induced, beyond mere congestive lesions, 
is also of deep interest. The lesions were primarily all of one kind ; they 
were hjemorrhagic, and consisted of red spots and patches, in which blood 
was effused and coagulated in the connective tissue. The position of the 
hsemorrhage was singular. In three cases it was only in the extreme point 
of the apices of the lungs ; in four other cases lower portions of lung were 
involved, but in these the apices were the seats also of haemorrhagic disease. 
It would appear, in fact, as if these points of lung were least resistant to the 
force of the circulation. 

In the animals observed these distinct haemorrhagic changes were usually 
fatal, so that the further result of the local neural paralysis could not be 
carried out as could be wished. In two cases, nevertheless, we had other 
results worth recording. 

In one instance there was clearly an oedema of the lung structure : in 
another the pleural membrane was raised in four or five granulated points, 
round each of which there was efi'used blood. Dr. Sedgwick, who took the 
lungs of this animal for careful microscopic inspection, reported to me that 
there were plastic exudations in various parts of both lungs, and that the 
granulations of which I have spoken consisted of effused plasma beneath 
the pleura. 

I am well content to leave these observations as I have written them 
above, with but two observations more. It has been suggested by an 
accomplished and acute English physician. Dr. Eado, of Norwich, that 
pulmonary consumption may be primarily due to pulmonary vascular para- 
lysis. My experiments do not enable me at this stage to endorse Dr. 
Eade's hypothesis as to the primary origin of consumption, but certainly 
they indicate to what extent nervous deficiency wiU go in favouring the 
hemorrhages, congestions, and exudations which attend tubercular disease. 

The concluding observation this year with nitrite of amyl relates to the 
fact that the nitrite atmosphere, when it is not too much charged Avitli 
the vapour, exerts a certain curative efiect. Three rabbits were brought to 
me with a skin disease resembling lepra in man. They were emaciated and 
feeble, the fur on the back along the whole length of the spine had been cast 
oil, and the skin was covered over this part with white asliy scales. 

Placing these animals in an atmosphere of nitrite of amyl, I noticed that, as 
the agent took effect, the scaly white skin on the back became red and 
flushed. In a day or two the scales disappeared, the fur began to extend, 
and the general health to improve. In a month all the animals had entirely 
recovered. 

There are many local conditions of disease in man and other animals in 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION OF ORGANIC CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS. 155 

•which the essence of cure lies in reestablishing a good capillary circulation. 
It may be, therefore, that by administering the nitrite of amyl, or the other 
organic nitrites, secundum artem, we may make them further agents in the 
cure of disease, and thereby add another progress to physiological as distin- 
guished from empirical mcchcine. 

Nitrate of Ethtl. 

^ In one of my previous Eeports I touched incidentally on certain of the 
nitrates of the organic scries of compounds. These substances diflcr from 
the nitrites simply in that they contain an additional equivalent of oxygen. 
It is a very interesting study to follow the difference of physiological action 
upon so simple a change of chemical constitution ; and this year I studied 
once more this difference from two of the representatives of the nitrate 
series, viz. from nitrate of ethyl and nitrate of amyl. 

_ Nitrate of ethyl, to which I first refer, is a fluid, almost colourless, and 
yielding an agreeable odorous vapour. It has a specific gravity of 1-112, a 
boiling-point of 85° C. (185° F.), and a vapoui-- density of 45. Its composi- 
tion is C^ H. NO3. It is made by dropping 10 grms, of absolute alcohol into 
20 grms. of colourless concentrate nitric acid in a platinum vessel surrounded 
by a freezing-mixture. Mr. Ernest Chapman was kind enough to make me 
a fine specimen of this nitrate, with which my experiments have been con- 
ducted. 

Nitrate of ethyl was used in experiment, physiologically, in 1848, by the late 
distinguished Professor of Midwifery in the University of Edinburgh, Sir 
James Simpson. Sir James considered that it possessed some anaDsthetic 
properties.^ It has for many years, I may say centuries, also been used in 
medicine, in combination with alcohol, under the name of nitric ether, and 
so employed- has been considered valuable for its diuretic properties. 

I find, on using it in the undiluted form, that it may be introduced into the 
system either by inhalation, by hypodermic injection, or by the stomach, and 
that the effects which follow its administration in large doses are closely analo- 
gous to those induced by nitrite of amyl, i. e. it produces rapid action of the 
heart, some pulsation of the vessels of the head, fliishing of the face, and 
muscular prostration. In the strict sense of the word, it is not an anesthetic; 
when administered in an extreme dose, there is no evidence of insensibility', 
imtil death is imminent. In all cases the motor force is overcome com- 
pletely long before the sensory organs are influenced. The paralysis of tho 
vessels is slower than from nitrite of amyl; the danger of using the ao-ent is 
consequently much less ; and as the eff'ects are more prolonged, the substance 
becomes very manageable in medical practice. 

_ When the adniinistration of the nitrate is carried up to death, the con- 
dition induced in all the vascular organs is an intense congestion. In 
this congestion the lungs and the kidneys specially share ; and I think'there 
is no doubt that the well known diuretic action of the substance is due 
altogether to the paralysis of the renal vessels it produces. It alters much 
less than the nitrites the colour of the blood, interferes in no way with the 
process of coagulation, and is eliminated rapidly from the body both by the 
lungs and the kidneys. Administered to tho production of complete prostra- 
tion, it reduces the animal temperature in a definite degree. In pigeons the 
temperature goes down five and even six degi-ees, in rabbits three degrees, 
and in gnincapigs from two to three degrees. Like the nitrites, nitrate of 
ethyl reduces the tetanic spasm of stiychnia ; and I would suggest that in 
tetanus, and other acute diseases of spasmodic character, it might be used 



156 REPORT— 1871. 

with great advantage; but it must be given for this purpose in very different 
proportions to those in which it is now commonly i^rescribed. The best 
plan would be to administer it by inhalation until a decided influence over 
the motor action is manifested. In pharmacy it would be convenient to 
keep the nitrite in the pure and simple state, leaving the dilution of it, in 
alcohol, to the judgment of the physician. 

NlTEATE OF AmTL. 

Nitrate of amy!, C, H^^ NO3, is a pale amber-coloured fluid, of not very 
agreeable odour. It has a specific gravity of 0-992, a boiling-point of 138° C. 
(280° r.), and a vapour- density of 66°. It is made by acting with strong 
nitric acid, 30 grms., on urea nitrate, 10 grms., adding afterwards 40 grms. 
of pure amylic alcohol. I am again indebted to Mr. Ernest Chapman for 
a specim.en of nitrate of amyl, freed as far as possible from nitrate of butyl, 
from all trace of which it can with difficulty be separated. 

In the nitrate of amyl we have a substance differing chemically from 
nitrite of amyl in ha\'ing an additional equivalent of oxygen, and differing 
physically in that it is heavier and of higher boiling-point. It enters the 
body readily by aU channels, and in its general effects it agrees with the 
nitrite, except that a longer time is required for the development of sym- 
ptoms from it, and a longer time is demanded for the process of recovery from 
its influence. The quantity necessary to produce decisive results is the same 
as with the nitrite ; but the nitrate is not so pleasant a substance to admi- 
nister, and when administered by inhalation is not so conveniently applied. 
"Whether the nitrate of amyl has any real advantages over the nitrite is a 
question on which I would prefer not to speak at length, until larger oppor- 
tunities than I have yet had of proving it have been afforded me. 

SULPHO-TTREA. 

In my last Eeport I treated on the physiological properties of certain of 
the organic sulphur compounds, viz. sulphur alcohol, mercaptan, and sulphide 
of ethyl. Recently a very curious and interesting sulphur compound has 
come before me for experiment ; I mean a crystalline substance known by 
the name of sulpho-urea. Sulpho-urea was first made, I believe, by Prof. 
Ueynolds, and it has since been produced in London, in Dr. Thudichum's 
laboratory, by Mr. Charles Stewart, to whom I am indebted for the speci- 
mens with which I have conducted my researches. Unfortunately the 
manufacture is difficult, owing to the necessity for many recystallizations, so 
that I have only been able to work with six drachms ; but the results, as 
far as they go, deserve notice. Mr. Stewart has kindly given me the fol- 
lowing note in regard to the preparation of sulpho-urea : — 

" About a kilogram of pure ammonium sulphocyanate is dried at 100° C, 
powdered, and dried again. Slight loss by sublimation occurs. AVhen per- 
fectly dry, it is heated gradually by a paraffin bath to 170° C, and maintained 
at that temperature for two hours. The mass is then allowed to cool to 
110° C, treated with one and a half times its bulk of boiling water, decanted 
from a small quantity of black matter (it is impossible to filter it, as it de- 
stroys paper filters), and set aside to crystallize. The crystals arc long, fibrous, 
satiny needles ; they are drained, pressed strongly in Hessian cloth, and 
purified by recrystallization from water. The product is then dissolved in 
boiling alcohol, filtered from a little canmonmm sit?^^/i«^e which remains undis- 
solved, and set aside to crystallize. Two more crystallizations from alcohol 



PHYSIOLOOICAL ACTION OF ORGANIC CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS. 157 

rentier it practically free from sulphocyauato. The crystals from alcohol are 
hard, opaque, white prisms : from -water they are long, fibrous, silky needles. 
Both forms are anhydrous." I present specimens of both varieties. 

" Erom the mother liquors more of the urea may be recovered by the same 
process. The last mother liquors, containing mainly sulphur urea, but also 
much sulphocyanide, may be evaporated down, and heated again to 170°, as 
above, with fresh sulphocyanide of ammonium, to furnish more urea." 

Sulpho-urea is much less soluble in water than ordinary urea, requiring 
twice its own weight, at 60° F., for solution. It has a saline bitter taste, 
compared by some to the taste of magnesian sulphate. It differs simply from 
ordinary urea in that in it sulphur replaces oxygen. 



Urea. Sulpho-urea. 



1 CO'* UU1L/U.U-UL ^4 



In order to determine the difference of action of the two ureas, a series of 
comparative experiments were carried out. The results may be thus epito- 
mized : — 

On frogs and rabbits sulpho-urea differs materially from common urea in 
its action, i. e. when used in the same quantities. The first produces definite 
convulsive action, with coma and convulsion ; the second produces, in frogs, 
coma without convulsion, and in rabbits nothing more than a slight and gentle 
soporific condition, which lasts for a very short time, and can be broken at 
any moment by the simple act of moving or calling out to the animal. 

In frogs sulpho-urea induces the saline cataract, common urea does not. 

To produce any decided physiological effect with sulpho-urea, the proportion 
used must not be less than thirty grains to the pound weight of the animal. 
In three experiments in which it was administered to young rabbits, to the 
extent of producing slight soporific effects, it reduced the animal tempera- 
ture two degrees Fahrenheit within the interval of an hour. 

The impression I have gathered in respect of sulpho-urea is, that it is a 
saline narcotic, and as such it may prove of use in medicine ; but the great 
point of physiological interest in connexion with it lies in the difference 
indicated, by its means, between the action of oxygen and sulphur in com- 
bination with the same elements, C, N, H, in the same form. The difference 
may be due to the difference of weight, or it maybe due to difference of solu- 
bility ; the elements, oxygen and sulphur, producing the distinction by virtue 
of their physical qualities of weight or solubility ; or it may be due to the 
special qualities of the elements. I offer these thoughts as again bearing upon 
the general question of chemical composition in relation to the physiological 
action of chemical substances. 

CmOK-ETHTIIDENE MoNOCHLOETTRETTED CnLOEIBE OP ElHYLE. 

In the year 1852 Dr. John Snow introduced as an anaesthetic the mono- 
chloruretted chloride of ethyle. He administered the vapour of this substance 
many times to the inferior animals and to the human subject, and he came 
to the conclusion that the vapour was equivalent in value to chloroform, and 
had an advantage over chloroform, viz. that it rarely if ever produced vomit- 
ing ; it did not usually excite the stomach, he observed, even if it were ad- 
ministered after food. In 1870 the distinguished Liebreich, who evidently 
was not aware of Snow's research, reintroduced this anaesthetic under tho 
name of chlor-ethylidene. Chlor-ethylidene yields a sweet etherial vapour, 



158 REPORT 1871. 

less pungent than vapour of chloroform, but still pungent ; the vapour burns 
in air. The specific gravity of the fluid is 1-174, the vapour-density 49, the 
boiling-point 64= C. (149° F.). The composition is C, H, Cl^. It differs 
from Dutch liquid, which in other respects it resembles, in not being de- 
composed by an alcoholic solution of potassa (Snow). 

I had already seen chlor-ethylidene in use in 18.52, and had added Snow'a 
memoir upon it (during the writing of which, by the way, he was taken with 
his fatal seizure) in my edition of his works on anoesthesia, published in 
1858 ; but since the subject has come up again I have travelled once more 
over the same ground. I obtained a specimen of chlor-ethylidene, adminis- 
teredlt several times for the production of antesthesia, and am bound to say 
of it that it is a very good autcsthetic. It resembles bichloiide of methylene 
very much in its action, produces vomiting as rarely, but is less rapid than 
the bichloride, being of higher boiling-point and yielding a heavier vapour. 

On inferior animals I find that when carried to extremity it arrests the 
respiration before it arrests the action of the heart ; and I also find that 
recovery from its cxtremest effects is comparatively easy. In one of my 
lectures during the past winter session I restored life in a rabbit, by careful 
artificial respiration, seven minutes and a half after all signs of natural re- 
spiration had been abolished by the vapour of chlor-ethylidene. 

I would give to chlor-ethylidene a prominent place amongst anaesthetics. 
It would take the place of either chloroform or bichloride of methyleno 
efiiciently ; it is safer than chloroform, and excites vomiting less frequently ; 
it is less rapid in action than methylene bichloride, not more effective, and 
possesses, I think, about the same value in matter of safety. 

Htdeamtle. 

At the Meeting of the Association at Exeter I placed before this Section a 
fluid called hydride of amyl. The fluid had a specific gTa^dtv of -G^.^, and it 
boiled at 30° C. (86° F.). Its composition was stated to be C, H^^ H. I de- 
scribed then that this vapour was a quickly acting autesthetic. 

During the present year I have experimented largely again with this 
hydride, vdth the view of rendering it applicable for the production of rapid 
autesthetic sleep, for short operations, such as extraction of teeth. In 
this research I found one or two difiiculties in the way. The fluid was 
too light to be manageable on every occasion ; that is to say, it escaped 
from the inhaler, as a gas, by the mere warmth of the breath, and the vapour 
had also an odour which to the majority of persons was objectionable. 

I set to work to obviate these difficulties, first by slightly weighting the 
fluid, and secondly by making an inhaler that should more effectually restrain 
the liquid as it was undergoing evaporation. In both attempts I have suc- 
ceeded well. 

In making good bichloride of methylene we put finely pulverized zinc into 
a retort and pour upon it absolute alcohol and chloroform, using afterwards 
a heat not exceeding 120° F., in order to distil over the product. I modified 
this process by diluting the mixture of chloroform and alcohol with eight times 
the volume of hydride of amyl. This mixture is poured upon the zinc, 
■with the result of an instant vehement action Avithout any application of 
heat; after a free evolution of gas, which lasts some minutes, there dis- 
tils by this method a fluid which contains pure hydride of amyl and pure 
bichloride of methylene. If the distillation be carried on at 98° F., the fluid 
that comes over has the specific gravity of ordinary ether (-720), a most 
agreeable odour, and rapid anaesthetic action. I have now administered this 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION OF ORGANIC CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS. 159 

fluid, in vapour, forty-six times for short operations on the liuman subject, 
and in tlie average of cases have produced the required insensibility within 
fifty seconds. In one instance insensibility was produced, a firm tooth was 
extracted, and perfect recovery occurred in forty seconds. As yet there has 
neither been vomiting nor other untoward symptom during the adminis- 
tration. 

There is, however, a peculiarity in the action of this vapour to which I 
ought carefully to refer, viz. that insensibility from it intensifies after the 
inhalation of it is withdrawn. Thus in administering, whenever there is the 
least indication of its effects, such as winking of the eyelids or drop of the 
hand, the sigu is given to stop the administration. The operator may now 
wait a few seconds and then proceed. The inhaler I have constructed for 
the administration of this new anesthetic is before the Meeting. It is a simple 
hollow cone made of leather, and is furnished with two light silken valves 
for entrance of air and exit of vapour and breath. It is lined with domctte 
set on a light frame or ring of metal. "When the inhaler is not in use it 
forms a ease for holdiug safely, in a bottle, four fluid-ounces of the anaesthetic 
liquid. This quantity is sufiicient for twenty operations, of from one and a 
half to three minutes' duration, two drachms being the amount necessary 
for an operation not exceeding three minutes' duration. 

The vapour described above will become, I believe, should experience 
confirm its safety, of general apphcation as an anaesthetic for short opera- 
tions; for long operations it will probably not replace the heavier anajsthetics. 

1 am indebted to Mr. Ernest Chapman for the suggestion of the abbreviated 
name hydramyle. 

PHYSIOLOGICAL NOTES. 

In the course of the researches detailed in the preceding pages I have again, 
as in iirevious researches, been led to notice certain simple facts which lie in 
the path of inquiry, and which, though not necessarily belonging to it, are 
too prominent to be passed by without notice. I shall therefore offer a few 
notes bearing on three topics ;] and this the more readily, because it is rarely 
the case that so many eminent physiologists as are now present, each one 
interested in the subjects to be named, meet together to take part in dis- 
cussion. 

Effect of some Karcotic Vapotjes on tee mintjte cieculation of the Biood, 

I have taken occasion several times to observe the effect of narcotic vapours 
on the minute circulation of the blood. I prefer to use the term " minute 
circulation " because it embraces the minute arterial and venous, as well as 
the capillary circulation. 

In these researches the web of the foot of the frog was selected for obser- 
vation, and I think on the whole with advantage. The following particulars 
were carried out in every case : — 

. (a) A large healthy frog was chosen, and one in which the web was very 
clear. (6) The same microscopic power, and that low — the inch or half-inch 
object-glass and A e}'e-piece (Ross) — was always employed, (c) The tempera- 
ture of the air was kept the same during periods of observation, and the work 
was conducted during the same hours each day, viz. between the hours of 

2 and 5 p.m. (d) The observations were never hurried ; they occupied an 
average of three hours each, and every change of scene in the vessels through 
the various stages of narcotism and of recovery were carefully and systema- 



160 REPORT 1871. 

tically noted, (e) The animals were placed for narcotism iu the small gLiss 
chamber now before the Members. The chamber as it is was finally con- 
structed, after many essays, by my friend Dr. Sedgwick, and it answered 
admirably. The animal was placed, without any restraint, iu the chamber ; 
one foot was then gently drawn out on to the stage attached to the 
chamber, and the web was extended over the small glass plate. The 
animal being thus prepared, the web was brought under the microscope and 
the circulation examined. (/) The part of the circulation to be observed 
was so selected as to include a good view of an artery, a vein, and the 
smaller intermediate capillary vessels, (ff) "When the natural condition 
of the circulation was well observed the chamber was closed by the sliding 
cover, and through it the narcotic vapour, the effect of which upon the 
circulation was to be investigated, was gently passed. The vapour was driven 
over with hand-beUows from a small Junker's apparatus, manufactured by 
Messrs. Krohne and Sesemann*. By counting the strokes of the bellows it 
was possible to maintain the same current of vapour at all times. (7i) And 
lastly, the web was sustained in the same condition of moisture, so as to pre- 
vent errors of observation due to evaporation from the tissues. 

Such were the precautions taken ; and I am inclined to think they were 
sufficient, although it will be a great satisfaction to me and an aid in my future 
labours to hear of any amendments or additions that may be suggested. 
The narcotic vapours used in the research were hydramyle, chloroform, bi- 
chloride of methylene, and absolute ether. In some particulars these acted 
precisely in a similar way, in other particulars they acted in a way more or 
less peculiar to themselves. 

The first fact I would notice as common to the action of all the vapours 
used is, that no obvious change in the physical characters of the blood-cor- 
puscles, red or white, was ever observable ; neither was there any noticeable 
difference in tlie relationships of the red and white corpuscles to each other. 
The red corpuscles held their ways so long as there was motion in the centre 
of the blood-streams, while the white ones rolled along by the sides of vessels 
in the same manner as they did before the narcotism. 

Another fact common to the action of all the vapours used was, that the 
first sign of arrested movement of the circulation commenced in every case 
on the venous side of the circulation, and consisted of a sort of pulsation or 
to-and-fro movement of the current through the vein ; soon upon this the 
venous current became obviously slower and the vein dilated, while the 
arterial current remained, often for a long time, unchanged. 

In every case the minute circulation remained long iu force after the 
respiration had entirely ceased, and after all evidence of the continuance of 
life had entirely ceased. On the average the animals ceased to breathe for 
one hour and thirty minutes after the deep narcotism had set in ; yet all the 
while the minute circulation was still playing with more or less of efficiency, 
and so long as it continued the chances of recovery were nearly certain. The 
cessation of the minute circulation was, on the other hand, the sign and proof 
of irrevocable death. 

There was still another effect common to all the narcotics used. The cir- 
culation through the capillaries often stopped altogether, and for considerable 
intervals of time, when the reduction of the circulatory power was greatest. 
Under this condition the circulation, such as it was, was maintained by the 
arteries, in which the blood moved to and fro with occasional slow steady 

* Dr. Ricbardson here fitted up the apparatus, including small chamber, hand-bellows, 
and Junker'8 bottle, and showed the method by which it was worked. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION OF ORGANIC CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS. IGl 

onward movements. In tlie veins, too, there were now and then short move- 
ments, fii-st as of impulse towards the heart, and then of retreat backwards ; 
these movements in the veins were succeeded invariably by an increased and 
more perfect action of the arteries. During this state the capillaries may bo 
said to have become almost indistinct, that is to say, no movement of cor- 
puscles through them, into tho veins, indicated their course ; as channels they 
were left empty and transparent, and the return of the corpuscular current 
through them was at all times proof of the speedy return of the activity 
of life. 

The changes named above were common to the action of all the narcotics 
named ; but there were some striking changes peculiar to the substances 
themselves to which I must refer. The peculiarities were traceable, as it 
seems to me, to the weight, the solubility, and the chemical composition of 
the substance that was employed to produce the narcotic state. 

When the substance was very light, of low boiling-point, and insoluble, 
the effect of arrest of the circulation was most rapidly developed, and at the 
same time was most rapidly removed. Thus hydramyle, the lightest, the first 
to boil on elevation of temperature, and the most insoluble, produced tho 
quickest arrest of the venous current ; but from its influence the animal was 
equally quick to recover, the general signs of recovery being secondary to 
the local return of the circulation. 

When the substance was light and of low boiling-point, but comparatively 
soluble in blood, the time required to produce the slowing of the venous cir- 
culation was prolonged after the insensibility of the animal was complete ; 
after even respiration had stopped, the extreme changes in the circulation 
were slowly developed ; and although the insensibility might be deep and 
continuous, like to death itself, the actual temporary arrest of the arterial 
current was imperfectly pronounced. Absolute ether, which has a very low 
specific weight (720) and a very low boiling-point (94° F.), but which is solu- 
ble in blood to the extent of not less than eleven parts in the hundred, pro- 
duced perfectly all the effects immediately named above. When the substance 
inhaled was comparatively heavier, of a higher boUing-point, insoluble, and 
contained as one of its elements an irritant, there was introduced a new 
phase, that is to say, the arterial vessels, as the animal came under the in- 
fluence of the narcotic, were reduced in calibre. The changes of the circula- 
tion in this case were first marked in the retardation of the blood through 
the veins, then the vein increased in diameter, and there were signs of 
regurgitation of its blood; these indications were followed by what may 
be called irregular movements in the capillaries, and by reduction of calibre 
of the arteries. It was observed, nevertheless, that the narrowing of tho 
arterial vessels, though well marked, was never so extreme as to prevent mo- 
tion of blood in them ; that is to say, the degree of arterial contraction was 
limited. I consider this to be due to the circumstance that the animal had 
always ceased to breathe, and the further absorption of the narcotic vapour 
had consequently also ceased, by the time that the action of the vapour upon 
the arterial vessels was developed. 

During the period when the size of the arterial vessel was reduced, the 
motion of the blood in the capillary vessels fed by the arterial supply was 
modified; the blood flowing through the capillaiy channels moved less 
steadily, and was forced, if I may so express the fact, in pushes, as if there 
were intervals of relaxation of the arterial vessels during which the resis- 
tance to the impelling power of the heart slightly and slowly yielded. 
After a time the circulation of the blood through the artery became slo^ver, 

JL871. M 



162 . - REPORT— 1871. 

the capillaries were left empty, the venous current ceased, and the condition 
of temporary suspension of all circulation, except slo-wly, in the arterial 
supervened. The effects here named were well marked firom the action of 
the chlorides ; they were seen under the influence of bichloride of methy- 
lene, they were still more definite under chloroform. 

To sum up, if my observations be correct, the action on the systemic circula- 
tion of the narcotic vapours named was seen to be primarily on the venous cur- 
rent or, I should more correctly say, was primarily manifested in the retar- 
dation of the venous current, secondly in the capillary, and finally in the 
arterial current. During recovery, moreover, the return of a steady onward 
current was manifested in the veins before it was restored in the capillary- 
channels. This order of events coincides purely with the order of pheno- 
mena of death under the influence of narcotic vapours, as observed both in 
man and the lower animals. It is, I think, the invariable fact that the right 
side of the heart in such fatal cases is the first to cease its action, and in 
animals, when the heart is exposed to the air soon after the death, the right 
side is the first to recommence action. From these facts the inference, I 
think, is clear that the arrest of the circulation begins, during the narcotism, 
in the retardation of the venous current, secondly in the capUlary, and 
lastly in the arterial current. 

The course of recovery, when recovery takes place, appears to be preceded 
by some act of relief to the venous column of blood. The motion that re- 
mains in the arteries is not the fu-st to increase, the circulation through the 
capillary is not first manifested ; that which happens, as a distinct sign of 
recovery, is a movement onward by the veins ; as this movement improves 
the movement through the arteries improves, the capillary vessels refill, and 
the circuit of the minute circulation is steadily and perfectly restored. 

Prom these observations on the minute systemic circulation when the 
body is under the influence of a narcotic vapour of the irritant class, I infer 
that the changes of circulation observed do not proceed immediately from an 
action exerted by the narcotic vapour upon the extreme systemic vessels, but 
form an obstruction commencing on the venous side, and in the lesser or 
pulmonary circulation. When a warm-blooded animal is suddenly killed by 
a large dose of the vapour of chloroform, the lungs are invariably found 
blanched, the light side of the heart engorged with blood, and the left side 
empty of blood. We see in these conditions that of necessity, in the extreme 
parts of the systemic circulation of the animal, there has been retardation of 
the blood through the veins ; and we may iofer on the fairest, nay completest, 
evidence that the return of motion, which is seen commencing in the veins in 
the systemic circuit, is due to a returning current in the breathing-organs ; 
in other words, the renewal of the active life of the animal recommences in 
passive breathing. The same order of phenomena happens, precisely, during 
the recovery of a warm-blooded animal, after apparent death from chloro- 
form, under the influence of artificial respiration ; for so soon as the animal 
recommences to breathe, however faintly, its return to life is seciu'ed. 

The position then assumed, that the primary arrest of the column of blood 
during fatal narcotism is in the lesser circulation, we have to ask whether the 
arrest commences in the heart or in the lungs. The commonly accepted 
view has been that it commences in failure of the right side of the heart ; 
but I incline to think that this view is incorrect, and that the positive source 
of failure is in the peripheral circulation of the lung. The vapour inhaled 
impresses, I think, immediaiehj the minute circulation, and acts not by 
absorption into the blood, but by simple and instant contact with the minute 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION OF ORGANIC CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS. 168 

pulmonaiy vessels, so that there is immediate resistauco to the passage of 
blood through them. Three well-observed facts support this opinion : — 1st, 
the fact already dwelt upon, that in cases of rapid death the lungs are emptied 
of blood ; 2nd, that the arrest of the systemic circulation commences on the 
venous side of the circulation, and is attended with filling of the veins ; 
3rd, that immediately after the death of the animal, if the chest be opened 
and the heart exposed, the right side of the heart, relieved of pressure, will 
immediately recommence to contract vigorously, showing that it is not itself 
paralyzed, but is restrained from action by mechanical resistance to its column 
of blood. 

If the theory of the action of narcotic vapours thus propounded be cor- 
rect, we ought to draw from it this practical lesson, that in introducing 
new narcotic vapours into practice, the utmost care should be taken to select 
those only that are negative in respect to their action upon the vessels of the 
minute circulation. A gas or vapour that asphyxiates but docs not irritate 
may be safer than a gas or vapour that does not asphyxiate and does 
irritate ; for the former, when it kills, kUls by a secondary process that is 
preceded by a series of symptoms foreteUing the danger ; while the latter, 
Avhen it kills, kUls often by instantly shutting off the column of blood that 
is making its way to the air, and by so oppressing the heart that every 
attempt at action, under the condition produced, increases the injury. 

Ojt CoirroxsiVE Movements ditring Narcoiism. 
I have endeavoured to show in the last section that under narcotism from 
certain narcotic vapours, the vapours of the chlorine series specially, there 
are two orders of cessation of the circulation, — the one primary, beginning in 
the lesser or pulmonary, the other secondary, beginning in the larger or 
systemic circulation. Coineidently with these changes I have, I think, 
observed, when there has been time for the development of the phenomena, 
two distinct series of convulsive movements or paroxysms of convulsion. 
I have noticed the same fact in drowning, and also in fatal sudden haemor- 
rhage, as in the process of killing animals, such as sheep. The phenomena 
may at any time be observed at the abattoir ; they arc in fact perhaps best 
seen in cases of rapid fatal haemorrhage ; and I am led to the conclusion that 
they have one common interpretation as to cause, the hsemorrhagic convul- 
sions being the purest tj'pe of all. The convulsive actions, primary and 
secondary, are due, as it seems to me, to disturbance of the balance of supply 
of blood to the -nervous and muscular centres. As a mechanism, the mass of 
nervous matter is the centre of reserved force, while the mass of muscle is 
the moving centre, the two centres being connected by an intervening nervous 
cord, and each supplied with the same blood. The two centres are held in 
counterpoise, as it were, by the blood. If there be, then, any disturbance of 
support in either centre, it wiU be indicated in change of function in the 
moving centre, in change of motion. 

When we draw blood from the systemic circuit, or when through the 
lesser circulation we arrest the free current of blood through the systemic 
circuit, we destroy the balance previously existing between the musciilar and 
nervous centres. If we could so exhaust the body that both centres should 
be exhausted together evenly, it is possible that there would be no change of 
motion in the moving centre ; and, indeed, in some cases of disease we see the 
gradual and equal exhaustion without manifestation of the convulsive pheno- 
mena. But in cases of extreme and sudden break of balance, it follows neces- 
sarily that the balance shall be broken unevenly. It is in the muscular system 

m2 



104 UEPORT — 18ri. 

that the failure of blood is first felt. The nervous centres, protected from the 
etfects of sudden pressure by tlieir envelopment of bony structure, feel the 
shock of the exhaustion secondarily. Thus the nauscle suiferiug a reduced 
resistance of blood to the nervous stimulus, contracts as if it had received an 
excess of stimulus, and the phenomenon of primary convulsion is developed ; 
in haemorrhage this convulsion immediately precedes deliquium or syncope. 
In brief time, the nervous centres themselves becoming exhausted, the con- 
vulsions cease, and none but the muscular movements of the organic life, 
respiration and circulation, remain. These while they last feed still in a 
passive state the nervous centres and muscular centres ; and if the cause of 
exhaustion at this stage be stopped and the body be resupplied with means 
of life, recovery takes place without the necessary return of convulsive ac- 
tion ; but if the exhaustion proceed, then follows the secondary phase, the 
failure of the organic system, and with that a repetition of the phenomenon 
of pi-imary failure, viz. a second general convulsion, terminating in death. 

The convulsion of haemorrhage is, I repeat, the typical form of the condi- 
tions I have portrayed ; but in death from chloroform and similar narco- 
tics, the phenomena are sometimes equally striking. The convulsion and 
rigidity which mark the second degree of narcotism indicate the first 
break of balance between the nervous and the muscular centres ; the 
period of the third and fourth degrees of narcotism, during which there is 
complete paralysis of voluntary and of conscious power, marks the interval 
when all life is suspended on the organic or vegetative nervous system ; the 
final convulsion that precedes death marks and proclaims the moment when 
the organic force itself breaks down, leaving the whole organism motiouless 
and, as wc say, dead. 

On Condensation of Wateb on the Bkonchlu, Subpace DtrEiNG Narcotism. 

It has occurred to mc often to observe that the physiological action of nar- 
cotic vapours during inhalation is greatly modified by the condition of the 
atmospheric air in respect to its dryness and its moisture. When the atmo- 
sphere is extremely diy, the action of a narcotic vapour is greatly increased, 
and recovery from its etfects is remarkably easy ; on the contrarj^ when the air 
is saturated with water vapour the action is impeded; and if the air be at the 
same time cold and moist, tlie process of narcotism is often greatly impeded, 
while recovery after it has been established is prolonged in proportion. 
But the fact I wish particularly to bring forward is, that when the body of 
an animal becomes profoundly narcotized, and the insensibility is long main- 
tained, during conditions in which the air is cold and moist, there occurs not 
unfrequcntly an actual condensation of water in the minute bronchial pas- 
sages, which condensation leads to as low asphyxia, and, if it be continued, to 
actual death. This accident is best seen in cases of narcotic poisoning from 
hydrate of chloral ; it may also be observed after poisoning from opium and 
other narcotics, as well as after long exposure to extreme cold. 

There are two causes at work to produce the condensation : the one is the 
obstacle to evaporation of watery matter from the surface of the animal 
membrane into the air ; the other the deficiency of force, in an animal whose 
general temperature is reduced, to raise the vapour of water from the blood, 
and to expel it from the pulmonary organs in the state of vapom-. 

Whenever in any case condensation of water, from the causes named, is 
set up, the danger continues in an increasing ratio ; for the condensation 
tends to shut off the air from contact with the blood, the temperature of the 



ON SECTIONS OF MOUNTAIN-LIMESTONE CORALS. 1G5 

body (dependent always on the perfection of the respiratory process) decreases, 
and at last the respiratory change is prohibited altogether. 

It is imj)ortant in the extrcmest degree to remember the fact thus named in 
the treatment of cases of poisoning during which the animal heat is reduced. It 
will often turn the scale, in such instances, in favour of return to life, simply 
to place the body in a warm and dry air. 

The fact is also of great interest, in a practical and physiological point of 
view, in relation to the phenomena of some exhaustive diseases. The cold 
sweats that are seen on the surface of the body in syncope, in the later stages 
of phthisis pulmonalis, and on the approach of death in many diseases, as 
also the chest-rattles, are due to the cause I have named'above — condensation. 
They are evidences that the body has not sufficient power or force to produce 
a rapid natural evaporation of water from the exhaling surfaces. 



Report of the Committee appointed to get cut and prepared Sections of 
Mountain-Limestone Corals for the purpose of shoiving their struc- 
ture by means of Photography. The Committee consists of James 
ThomsoNj F.G.S., ««(/ Professor Harkness, i^.ii./S'. 

In our Report of last year we gave in detail the probable additions to our 
present list of fossil corals from the Mountain Limestone. 

During the past year we have had several hundred specimens cut. 
Although many of these have been more or less spoiled, and their internal 
structure crushed and broken to such an extent that their specific characters 
cannot with any degree of certainty be made out, yet many of them reveal 
important structural characters which will enable us to add both genera and 
species to those before indicated. Many of the specimens cut have well- 
preserved calicos, which will enable us to figure and describe both their 
internal structure and external aspect, with a degree of certainty hitherto 
unknown. 

Although much progi'css has been made, we are convinced that many othei 
facts will be revealed by further investigation ; and we hope the Committee 
will be reappointed in order that we may continue this important inquiry. 

We have not added any additional photographic plates to those exhibited 
last year at Liverpool. "We were desirous of getting as large a number of 
specimens cut as the sum at our disposal would permit, in order that we 
might select the most characteristic generic forms for further plates. 

At Liverpool we indicated that we were in the hopes of reproducing the 
most delicate structures by another process, which would be more serviceable 
for the purpose of publication. In this we are glad to state that we have 
been successful. By a simple process we are enabled to transfer the details 
of both genera and species to copper plates, from which any number of 
copies can be reproduced, of which we will avail ourselves when we are ready 
to publish in extenso. (Two plates so prepared were exhibited.) 

We have placed in the British Museum and the Hunterian Museum of 
Glasgow duplicates of a number of the cut specimens which have already 
been described ; other duplicates will be sent when they have been described 
and named. 



166 , EEPORT— 1871. 

Second Report of the Committee appointed to consider and report on 
the various Plans proposed for Legislating on the subject of Steam- 
Boiler Explosions, ivith a view to their Prevention, — the Committee 
consisting of Sir William Fairbairn, Bai't., C.E., LL.D., F.R.S., 
John Penn, C.E., F.R.S., Frederick J. Bramwell, C.E., Hugh 
Mason, Samuel Rigby, Thomas Schofield, Charles F. Beyer, 
C.-E.j Thomas Webster, Q.C, and Lavington E. Fletcher, C.E. 

Since the first llcport on the subject of " Steam-Boiler Legislation " was pre- 
sented to the Meeting of the British Association, held last year at Liverpool, 
the Parlianientarj- Committee " appointed to inquire into the cause of Steam- 
Boiler Explosions and the best means of preventing them " have presented 
their Eeport. 

The consideration of the result of the Parliamentary Committee's inquiry 
clearly becomes one of the most important duties in reporting to the British 
Association on " the various plans proposed for legislating on Steam-Boiler 
Explosions, with a view to their Prevention." Unfortunately, liowever, the 
Parliamentary Eeport has been so recently published that there has not been 
time for its due consideration, or for the Committee appointed to treat on 
this subject to meet and confer thereon. Under these circumstances it has 
been thought best not to attempt to enter upon the subject on the present 
occasion, but to postpone doing so until next year, after having an opportu- 
nity of watching the development of the measure, and its working when 
carried into actual practice ; . and therefore, in order that they might be in a 
position to report thereon to the next Meeting of the British Association, the 
Committee would beg to suggest their reappointment. 



Report of the Committee on the " Treatment and Utilization of Sewage." 
Consisting of Richard B. Grantham, C.E., F.G.S. {Chairman), 
Professor D. T. Ansted, F.R.S., Professor W. H. Corfield, M.A., 
M.B., J. Bailey Denton, C.E., F.G.S. , Dr.W. H. Gilbert, F.R.S., 
J&HN Thornhill Harrison, C.^., Thomas Hawksley, C.E. , F.G.S., 
W. Hope, V.C, Lieut.-Col. Leach, R.E., Dr.W. Odling, F.R.S., 
Dr. A. Voelcker, i^.JR.>S., Professor A. W. AVilliamson, F.R.S., 
F.C.S., and Sir John Lubbock, Bart., M.P., F.R.S. (Treasurer). 

The Committee, upon its reappointment at Liverpool last September (1870), 
proceeded at once to consider the subjects which seemed to demand imme- 
diate attention in furtherance of the investigation which had been again 
entrusted to it. 

The first steps taken were to endeavour to procure information from the 
towns where works have been constructed for the application of sewage to 
land by irrigation, and from the places where the dry earth or Moule's system 
is in operation. 

In order to commence the inquiry, a list of towns was prepared, to each of 
which a printed form of queries was sent ; but only eight places have answered 
the circular on irrigation, and only one that relating to the diy-earth process. 
The answers from the towns have been tabulated, and the Table will be found 
at the end of this Report (Appendix A). 

During the construction of the present tanks at Breton's Earm in the winter, 
very accurate observations could not at all times be made ; but nevertheless, 
during the extreme fi'ost, samples were taken of the sewage and of the 
effluent water. The "temperature of both, and also the temperature of the 



ON THE TREATMENT AND UTILIZATION OF SEWAGE. 



167 



atmosphere, was observed. Similar observations -vvere madie at Croydon and 
Norwood (see Section I.). 

The observations as to the quantity and quality of the sewage and effluent 
water have been continued at Breton's Parm, with slight interruptions, as 
stated above, from the Meeting of the British Association at Liverpool down 
to the present time. The results of the gaugings are recorded in the Tables 
which will be found in Section II. of this Eeport. 

The Committee has visited several sewage-farms, and examined the various 
methods that are pursued at them with a view to determining the practical 
conditions upon which the success of sewage-farming depends. They have 
had samples of sewage and of effluent water collected, and have had analyses 
made of them, which latter, with the remarks of the Committee, wiU be found 
in Section III. 

The phosphate process of Messrs. Forbes and Price has been also examined 
by a Member of the Committee, and a description of the process, with an 
analysis of the effluent water from this process, is given in Section IV. 

Analyses of the soil which has passed once and twice through earth-closets 
have been furnished by another Member ; and the manner in which this 
process is carried out at Lancaster, with the results attained there, is de- 
scribed in Section V. 

An ox which had been fed for the previous 22 months entirely on sewage- 
grown produce was slaughtered on July 15th at Breton's Farm, and the carcass 
examined by Dr. Cobbold and Professors Marshall and Corfield, in the presence 
of several Members of the Committee, with a view to ascertain the presence or 
absence of Entozoa in any stage of their existence. The results of this exami- 
nation, and Dr. Cobbold's report, will be found appended (Appendix B). 

The attention of the Conimittee has been drawn to certain anomalies in 
the figures given in the list of rainfalls in the " Tabulation compiled from 
returns furnished by 200 towns .selected for classification," at the end of last 
year's Report. - • • 

On referring to the original returns, it has been found that the figures 
given in the Table are correctly taken from them. 

Section I. — A Comparison of Results obtained in the purification of Sewage at 
three Irrigation Farms during the severe frost of last winter. 

1. Breton's Farm, near Romford. 
The following analyses show the composition of average samples of sewage 
and effluent water collected on the farm on January 2nd ; each sample was 
made by collecting five portions at different times, and mixing them in pro- 
portion to the flow at the time. 





Solid matter. 


Chlorine. 


Ammonia. 


Nitrogen 

as 
nitrates 

and 
nitrites. 


In solution. 


In suspension. 


Actual. 


Albu- 
minoid. 


Dried at 
100° c. 


After 
ignition. 


Dried at 
120* C. 


After 
ignition. 


Town sewage, temp. "1 
46°F. ( = 7°-7C.)/ 

Sewage from trough, ' 
temp. 46° P. (= • 
7°-7 C.) 


87-60 
98-20 

66-60 


47-60 
50-80 

47-40 


27-66 

8-05 


6-52 
1-60 


11-50 
11-999 

8-15 


5-084 
5-628 

0-143 


0-294 
0-524 

0-059 


1-208 


Effluent water from' 
drains B and C, 
temp.40°-5F.( = 

4°-7C.) 



168 



REPOKT — IS71. 



Tho sewage, after passing through the tank and pump, contains more sohd 
matters in solution hut much less in suspension than the sewage as it comes 
from the town ; the agitation causes some of the suspended matter to pass 
into solution ; and it will be noticed that the amoimt of albuminoid ammonia 
in solution is nearly doubled, showing that a considerable amount of nitro- 
genous organic matter formerly in a state of suspension has been dissolved. 

This sewage is very much stronger than the average summer sewage, 
which only contains from 2-5 to 4 parts of actual ammonia in 100,000 ; and 
so one would hardly expect it to be so satisfactorily purified (especially, con- 
sidering the extreme frost and the want of growth) as the sewage was 
during the summer. 

Nevertheless the purification was very satisfactory indeed ; for the effluent 
water only contained 0-143 of actual ammonia, instead of 5-628, while the 
albuminoid ammonia was reduced from 0-524 to 0-059. 

Prom this we see that very little nitrogen passes away in the form of 
ammonia or of organic nitrogen, even in winter, when vegetation has least 
to do with the purification. 

Some of it passes away, however, in the form of nitrates and nitrites ; but 
the amount which is thus lost is very little greater in the winter than in the 
summer, being 1-208 part in winter and about 1-106 part in summer in 
100,000 parts. 

Thus it appears that, with an underdrained soil, the sewage being obliged 
to pass through several feet of soil before it escapes, (1) oxidation goes on in 
■winter as well as in summer, and almost all nitrogen lost is lost in an oxidized 
and inoffensive form, and (2) this loss is very slightly greater in winter with 
a very strong sewage than in summer with a weaker one ; so that sewagiug 
in the winter would appear to entail no extra loss of manure. 

2. Beddington Farm, Croydon. 

Three samples of Croydon sewage, taken from Beddington Fields, 3rd Jan- 
uary, 1871. 

The analyses show that the sewage applied to this farm contained on 
January 3rd, 1871, just about the same quantity of ammonia as that applied 
to Breton's Farm on tho da}^ before. 





Solid matter. 


chlorine. 


Amm 


onia. 


Nitrogen 

as nitratL*9 

and 

nitrites. 


In 
suspension. 


In 

solution. 


Actual. 


Albu- 
minoid. 


Prom open drain near gas-"^ 
works, direct from filters, 
before being applied to 
land 

Taken at crossing of the "1 
road near farm buildings J 

From the confluence of two l 
outfalls J 


48-70 

42-70 
45-30 


15-70 


5-360 

3-69 
3-82 


5-440 

2-384 
0-744 


0-188 

0-0G4 
0015 


None. 

0-242 
0-305 



The effluent water contained 0-744 part of ammonia, or between five and 
six times as much as that at Breton's Farm ; the albuminoid ammonia was 
less in actual amount in the effluent Avater; but the reduction -was from 0-188 
to 0-045, or to one fourth of the original amount ; while in the last case it 
was_ from 0-524 to 0-059, or to betM-een one eighth and one ninth of the 
original amount contained in the scAvage as pumped on to the land. The 
nitrates and nitrites in the effluent Avatcr were in insignificant amount, thus 



ON THE TREATMENT AND UTILIZATION OF SEWAGE. 



169 



sho-wing that the nitrogen that is lost on this farm is lost for the most pcart 
in the form in which it came on to the land, and that mere surface-action 
(which is relied upon here) is not sufficient to cause the oxidization of the 
ammonia and organic matters contained in the sewage. At the same time 
the amount of purification effected was certainly very considerable. 

3. N'orwood Parm. 

Samples of sewage and effluent water collected from N'orwood Fields on 
January 5th, 1871. 

The sewage employed on this farm was very strong, containing as much 
as 7*42 parts of ammonia in the 100,000. 





Solid matter. 


chlorine. 


Ammonia. 


Nitrogen 

as 
nitrates 

and 
nitrites. 


In solution. 


In suspension. 


Actual. 


Albu- 
minoid. 


Dried at 
100° c. 


After 
ignition. 


Dried at 
120° C. 


After 
ignition. 


Sewage, collected at "1 
1.15 P.M., temp. • 
42°F.(=5°-5C.). 

Effluent water, col- 
lected' at 12.45 
P.M., temp. 34° F. ' 
( = 1°-1C.) J 


71-70 
92-30 


28-40 
29-40 


37-20 
0-82 


14-84 
0-G2 


Not 
deter- 
mined, 

17-38 


7-42 
2-056 


0-264 
0-060 


0-961 



It will be seen that more than two parts of actual ammonia escaped as 
such in the effluent water, while nearly one fourth of the albuminoid am- 
monia also escaped unaltered. At the same time a considerable amount of 
nitrogen was lost as nitrates and nitrites, showing that a certain amount of 
oxidizing action was going on. 

Thus there was a considerable loss of nitrogen, both in its original forms 
and also as nitrates and nitrites. 

It must be remembered that this sewage was very strong, and that in this, 
as in the other two cases, the samples were taken under the most disadvanta- 
geous conditions during a very severe frost, when growth was at its minimum. 

The purification is in every case very considerable ; but these comparative 
results speak volumes in favour of underdraining sewage-farms, and of so 
obliging aU the sewage to pass through the soil. 

Some interesting results were observed as regards the temperature of the 
sewage and effluent water. 

At Breton's Farm in the winter the temperature of the sewage was 46° F., 
that of the effluent water 40° F. = 4°-4 C, a reduction of 5° or 6° only ; while 
at Beddington Farm the temperature of the sewage was 42° F., and that of 
the effluent water 34° F.=l°-1 C, a reduction of 8°. 

Thus with percolation through the soil the reduction is during the winter 
much less than with surface-flow. 

On the other hand, we have observed that sewage is always cooled (sco 
Table, Section II.) during the hottest weeks in summer by percolation 
through the soil, and almost always heated (sometimes considerably so) by a 
surface-flow during the summer. 

These results are favourable to percolation through the soil as opposed to 
mere surface-flow, both in summer and winter. 

Percolation causes a considerable cooling in the summer, while in winter 
it does not cool the effluent water so much as suiface-flow does. 



170 



REPORT^^1871. 



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ON THE TREATMENT AND UTILIZATION OF SEWAGE. 



171 



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ON THE TREATMENT AND UTILIZATION OF SEWAGE. 



173 



























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171 



REPORT — -1871. 



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ON THE TREATMENT AN© UTILIZATION OF SEWAGE. 175 

Eemarlcs oh Remits, of Oaugings, — ^The whole of tHe g'augings taken from 
the 12th of June 1870 to the ISth of July 1871 (a period of 399 days) havQ 
heen calculated and tabulated, with the following results : — 

Toivn Seivage. — The sewage received on the farm from the town of Rom- 
ford during the aboye period has been _ ...■'■■'„ ■; v - ; :. ". A 

85,999,445 gallons = 383,'926 tons, 

and the number of days on which it has been delivered is 373, giving an 
average quantity of 

230,562 gallons^ 1029 tons per day. 

This quantity does not, however, represent the total discharge from the 
town of Romford, because, from the middle of Ifovember 1870 to the middle 
of April 1871, the day-sewage only was delivered on to the farm, the night- 
sewage being allowed to run on to the meadows at Wybridge between the 
farm and the town ; and for sixteen days in February and March the whole 
of the sewage was so disposed of, and there are no means of estimating the 
quantity during this period. _ - 

Ilespective flow of Day- and Night-setvage. — Since the 15th of April last, 
the new tanks being completed, and the sewage, with a few exceptions, being 
received continuously on the farm, it has been possible to calculate the re-, 
spective flow of sewage during the working hours of the day and during the 
remaining period, and the following are the figures : — 

gallons. tons. 

Day-sewage (average time 10 hours) ... . 139,153 = 621| 
Night-sewage (average time 14 hours) . . 143,645 = 641 5 



Total 282,798 = 1262^ 

The day-sewage is calculated on the basis of gaugings in the sewer during 
the working hours of the day ; the night-sewage is obtained by calculating 
the difference of quantities in the tanks between the times of stopping the 
pump one day and starting the next, allowing for the effluent water entering 
the tanks in the meantime. 

By equalizing the time of day- and night-sewage (12 hours each) and 
computing the quantities on the basis of the above figures, the following is 
the result : — 

gallons. tons. 

Day-sewage, 12 hours 163,329 = 729 

Night-sewage, 12 hours 119,469 = 533| 



282,798 = 1262| 

According to these latter figures the night-sewage would be to the day as 
79 to 100, or the day to the night as 137 to 100. 

It should be borne in mind that the night-sewagQ of Romford fluctuates 
very much, owing to the Brewery frequently sending down a large quantity 
of water after working hours ; this is especially the case on Saturday nights, 
as a reference to the detailed records will show. 

Diluted Sewage pu-niped. — The diluted sewage pumped includes, as was 
explained in the last Report, a certain amount of effluent water, which flows 
into the tanks, and is there mixed "with the sewage as it comes from the town. 
The engine has \yorkcd 366 days duiing the above period ; the average time 



176 REPORT— 1871. 

of -vrorking since April 15th was 10 hours per diem. The total quantity 
pumped has been 

gallons. tons. 

96,944,653 = 432,788 
Average per diem 264,876 = 1,182 

Effluent Water discJiarr/ed. — Owing to floods at the outlets of the pipes, 
the quantities of effluent water discharged could not always be gauged. On 
the 343 days during Avhich the observations could be taken, 

39,449,178 gaUon3 = 176,112 tons 

were discharged, being 

11.5,012 gallons=:513| tons per day. 

Assuming this to be the average quantity for the whole period, the total 
quantity intercepted from the lower subsoil and discharged through the pipes 
would be 

45,889,788 gallons =204,865 tons, 

or 47-3 per cent, of the sewage pumped. 

Sainfall. — The rainfall at Breton's during the total period of 399 days 
has been 22-64 inches, or on 121| acres about 62| million gallons, equal to 
277,900 tons, or 2287 tons per acre. 

Temperatures. — It will bo seen that tho temperatures of sewage and effluent 
water have been very uniform as compared with that of tho air, being lower 
during extreme heat and higher during extreme cold. This was very notice- 
able during the severe frost of last winter. In one week, when the mean 
noon-clay temperature of the air was 28°-5, that of the sewage received, 
sewage pumped, and effluent water was 43°. The ranges of variation over 
the total period have been : — ■ 

O o o 

Atmosphere 28-5 to 70 = 47"5 

Town-sewage 43 „ 66 = 23 

Sewage pumped 43 „ 07 = 24 

Effluent water 41 „ 64 = 23 

A remarkable feature in the record of temperatures is the extremely slow 
rate at which the temperature of the effluent water fell, and the length of 
time which elapsed before it recovered again. The first week that tho 
average temperature at noon fell below the freezing-point was the one ending 
31st December, when the average temperature of the air was 28°'5 T., and 
that of the effluent water was 43° ; and after this, although the former rose, 
the latter fell, so that in the week ending February 4th the average tempera- 
ture of the air was 36°, and that of the effluent water 41°. The next week 
the temperature of the air was 44'-^, the second week 47°, and the third week 
47°, yet it was not until the third week that the temperature of the effluent 
water recovered to 43°. 

Section III. — («) Observations on the Sewacie-Farm at Tunhrulye Wells. 

Before describing the results of the investigation by the Committee, it is 
desirable to state that, in the selection of the land to be irrigated at Tunbridgo 
Wells, it has been a sine qua non condition that it should be at such a level 
that the sewage should reach it by gravitation ; and to this end two farms 



ON THE TREATMENT AND UTILIZATION OF SEWAGE. 177 

have been laid out, one to the north and the other to the south of the town, 
and an outfall server made to each. 

Underdrainage has not been uniformly adopted on both farms ; but where 
it previously existed, a peculiar arrangement has been made for the reappli- 
cation of the drainage-water. 

The distribution of the sewage is chiefly effected by what is known as the 
catchwater system, which is necessarily, under ordinary conditions, accom- 
panied by an overflow, in preference to its appHcation in smallei; quantities, 
sufficient to satisfy the demands of vegetation and to wet the land thoroughly 
without any overfloAv ; while the absence of storage -reservoirs necessitates 
the continuous application of the sewage to some parts of the land by night 
as well as by day. 

The population of Tunbridge Wells is 19,410. 

The total quantity of sewage discharged is 1,000,000 gallons per 24 hours, 
of which about 400,000 gallons are supplied to the northern farm, and about 
600,000 gallons to the southern one. 

The northern sewage is applied to 123 acres of land, which have cost 
^21,000, and the southern to 167 acres, which have cost £27,000. 

To deliver the sewage from the two main outlets of the town to the land, 
culverts or conduits, with precipitating-tanks for the separation of the 
larger portions of the solid matter from the liquid, have been constructed in 
a very substantial manner. The delivering-conduits on the north, extending 
for a length of two miles with the precipitating-tanks, have costi<£258713s. Id., 
while those on the south (of which the length is three miles) have cost 
.£5809 17s. 8d. The tanks on the north farm have cost ,£833 3s. 9d., those 
on the south £1188 5s. Id. 

Thus the total cost of external delivering works amounts to £10,418 19s. 7d., 
which, added to the cost of the land, will be £58,418 lds.7d., or £201 8s. lid. 
per acre. 

The solid matter collected in the tanks is removed from time to time, and 
used on the farms as additional manure. The tanks are not covered ; and 
there is consequently a strong smell in their proximity, which is not dis- 
coverable in any other part of the farms. 

The sewage having been delivered on to the land, is conveyed from one part 
to anotlier by open main carriers and iron pipes, the former following contour- 
lines, and the latter partaking of the nature of inverted siphons in order to 
cross existing valleys or hollows. 

The cost of these internal works per acre has been — 

For Carriers £18 13 

Drain 3 12 

Iron pipes 4 6 

Grubbing and trenching . . 3 16 

Eoads 6 7 6 

Wire fence 1 5 6 

Or in all £38 per acre. 

Or a total of £239 8 11 per acre. 

The soil of nearly the whole of the northern farm is of a stiff clayey cha- 
1-acter, manifestly requiring underdrainage. It had for the most part been 
drained by the late owners before the Commissioners of Tuiibridge Wells 
purchased it j but owing to the work being done as ordinary farm-drainage 

1871. N 



178 KEPORT — 1871. 

independently of surface preparation, it was soon found that the sewage 
descended to the drains so rapidly as to prevent its profitable distribution on 
the surface. It was stated to the Committee that when this effect was dis- 
covered it was determined that the drains should be stopped by digging down 
to them and plugging them, the result of which then was to keep the soil in 
a state of saturation, and to allow the unpurified sewage to pass over the 
surface into the stream. The engineer employed by the Commissioners has 
since superseded this state of things by adopting the special mode of treat- 
ment referred to, which consists of intercepting the existing drains at the 
depths at which they were originally laid, and bringing the i;nderdrainage 
water to the surface by outlet drains discharging into lower carriers for re- 
distribution. 

At the time of the inspection by the Committee the lowest carriers were 
receiving effluent liquid of an impure character from the surface, at the same 
time that the underdrainage water was being discharged into them in the 
way described. 

The land of the southern farm is not generally of so heavy a description 
as that of the northern, though portions of it contain clay. Other parts are 
peaty,, and are naturally very poor. Wherever the engineer has considered 
it necessary to drain the subsoil, this has been effected in a mannei" similar 
to that adopted on the northern farm. 

The striking features in the case of Tunbridge "Wells are : — 

1. Instead of concentrating the sewage at one farm under one manage- 
ment, it has been divided, in accordance Avith the watersheds, into two parts, 
involving two separate systems of works and management. 

2 . The main conduits and carriers are more than ordinarily substantial, 
and are therefore expensively constructed ; and, following contour-lines on 
the surface, have a tortuous course, and so must interfere with approved cul- 
tivation. 

3. The character of the underdrainage, being designed for the redelivery 
of the sewage on to a lower surface by drains gradually getting nearer and 
nearer to it, must necessarily prevent alike a frequent and deep woi'kiug of 
the surface-soil. 

4. The sewage being run over the surface of the land on the catch- 
water system (by night as well as day), with the intention of reapplying the 
overflow, its distribution is necessarily unequal both in quantity and qualitj', 
the first land sewaged receiving more than it requires, while the last must 
suffer from a deficiency imless there is a positive waste of sewage, as the 
analyses really show that there is. 

These several features illustrate the advantage of combining with the 
services of the civil engineer and the chemist those of the practical agricul- 
turist when laying out a sewage-farm. If they were not pointed out by the 
Committee thus early in the progress of sewage-irrigation, they might be a 
source of disappointment and surprise to those who contemplate the utilization 
of the sewage of their own towns by this the most profitable mode of treat- 
ment at present known, when properly conducted. While saying this, it 
is desirable to point out the siiperior character of the works carried out at 
Tunbridge Wells, and at the same time to express approval of the enterprising 
manner in which they have been undertaken by the Local Authority. 



ON THE TREATMENT AND UTILIZATION OP SEWAGE, 



179 



Eemarlcs on the Analyses of the Sewage and Effluent Water from the 
Irrigation Farms at Tunhridge Wells. 

North Farm. — In 100,000 parts. Samples taken in the proportion of -j-irW 
part of the flow per minute, by a measure graduated to yi^ of a gallon. 





Solid matter. 


Chlo- 
rine. 


Ammonia. 


Nitro- 
gen as 

nitrates 
and 

nitrites. 


In solution. 


In suspension. 


In solution. 


In suspended 
matter. 


Dried at 

100°C. 


After 
igni- 
tion. 


Dried at 
120° C. 


After 
igni- 
tion. 


Actual. 


Albu- 
minoid. 


Actual. 


Albu- 
minoid. 


Sewage from main " 
sewer, eollected 
July 4th & 5 th, 
1871 (average 
temp. 58°-5 ¥).) 

Effluent water ' 
taken from 7 
drains of Italian 
Eye-grass, and 
mixed 4th and 
5th Jul V (average 
temp. 57° F)...., 

Water from stream ' 
above the effluent 
drains on 6th 
July. (No sew- 
age water had en- 
tered the stream 
for two days 
above the point 
where the sam- 
ples were taken ; 
average temp. 
02° F) ) 


53-6 

41-8 

241 


27-7 
29-7 

16-7 


23-62 


19-68 


10-79 
0-96 

2-70 


8-90 
1-34 

0-008 


0-45 

0-09 

002 


0-25 


0'65 


trace. 
0-42 



(Total nitrogen in effluent water 1-99.) 

The se-wage from the main, -while containing a comparatively small amount 
of total solid matter in solution, contains a very large proportion of 
"actual" ammonia, and also of " albi«pinoid" ammonia, when both the sus- 
pended and dissolved matters are taken into account ; it is a rich sewage 
whether the proportion of nitrogenous matters to the total solids or to the 
bulk of the sewage itself be considered. The chlorine is in fair average 
amount, 

Tlie analysis of the average effluent water shows that while the total solida 
arc diminished in amount, the diminution is due to the retention by the soil 
and vegetation of the more volatile constituents, as the weight of ash left 
after ignition of the solid matters was greater in the case of the effluent 
water than in that of the sewage. This may be due to (1) concentration by 
the evaporation which takes place from the sewage of the soil and from the 
plants, or (2) to solution of salts already in the soil : that the latter cause is 
more probably the true one, we see from the diminished amount of chlorine, 
which, although it may not necessarily indicate dilution with ordinary sub- 
soil water to a great extent, stUl would certainly not lead us to conclude that 
any concentration had taken place. That dilution -with underdrainage water 
actually docs take place has been already pointed out. 

it2 



180 



REPORT 1871. 



The amount of ammonia in the effluent water is too high, amounting to 
more than one seventh of that in the same volume of sewage, while albu- 
minoid ammonia still remains to the extent of one fifth of the original amount ; 
and the almost total absence of nitrates and nitrites in the effluent water 
shows the want of conditions favourable to oxidation ; so that the jjurification 
of the sewage here, although considerable, is not so satisfactory as could be 
wished, or as might be effected by making filtration through the soil an essen- 
tial feature in the process. 

South Farm. — In 100,000 parts. Samples taken in the proportion of -^^^ 
part of the flow per minute, by a measure graduated to yiy of a gallon. 





Solid matter. 


Chlo- 
rine. 


Ammonia. 


Nitro- 
gen as 

nitrates 
and 

nitrites. 


In solution. 


In suspension. 


In solution. 


In suspended 
matter. 


Dried at 
100° C. 


After 
igni- 
tion. 


Dried at 
120= C. 


After 
igni- 
tion. 


Actual. 


Albu- 
minoid. 


Actual. 


Albu- 
minoid. 


Sewage from main ' 
sewer at high 
rocks before en- 
tering tlie tanks . 
on the Gth and 
7th July, 1871 
(temp. 62° R), ; 
Effluent water from ' 
field of man- 
golds and two 
fields of mea- 
dow-land, all . 
mixed, 7th and 
8th July (ave- 
rage tempera- 
ture 62°-5R)...^ 

Water from the^ 
stream outside 
the farm-boun- 
dary above all 
the effluent 
drains, takenSth 
July (tempera- 
ture 63° F.) ...^ 


44--10 

38-20 
18-60 


2G-90 
24-60 
12-40 


19-54 


7-30 


9-48 
8-OG 
2-G2 


7-20 
3-20 
0008 


0-75 
0-2G 
0-OlG 


000 


0-40 


01.5 
trace 



The results attained on the southern farm are, as shown by the above ana- 
lyses, very unsatisfactory, and at the same time very reliable, as the slight 
diminution of the chlorine in the effluent water would lead us to believe that 
the loss of water due to evaporation had been about balanced by the influx 
of underdrainage water, so that no great amount, at any rate, of concentra- 
tion had taken place. 

We notice at once the large amount of " actual " and of " albuminoid " 
ammonia Avhich escapes unoxidized in the effluent water. jVo less than four 
ninths of the " actual " ammonia and more than one third of the " albu- 
minoid " ammonia, in the same volume of sewage, escapes in the effluent 
water, while the amount of nitrates and nitrites is very small ; the effluent 
water is very impure indeed. 

The analyses show distinctly that at these two farms, as at present man- 



ON THE TREATMENT AND UTIIIZATION OF SEWAGE. 181 

aged, more sewage is applied tiian can be purified by the surface-flow, even 
when tbat takes place through thick vegetation (as in the case of the samples 
from the fields of Italian rye-grass on the northern farm), and miich more 
than can be purified under less advantageous conditions (as in the case of 
the samples from the field of mangolds on the southern farm, although the 
water from this field was mixed with that from two of meadow-land) ; and 
they show, too, that the valuable matters that are not utilized are not only 
thrown away, but are thrown away in their crude condition, not having been 
subjected to the oxidizing action necessary to convert them into innocuous 
nitrates and nitrites. 

Lastly, we must notice the fact that the temperature of the effluent water 
of the northern farm is only slightly (less than one degree Fahr.) below 
that of the sewage, while the effluent water of the southern farm is actually 
half a degree Fahr. warmer than the sewage. This clearly shows that the 
sewage has not been subjected to the cooling which percolation through soil 
entails. 

(h) Ohservatmxs on ilie Sewage-Fann at Earlswood designed for the 
Utilization of the Sewage of lied Hill and Eeigate. 

This sewage-farm consists of about 70 acres of Earlswood Common, of 
which, it was stated, about 50 acres abutting on a tributary of the river 
Mole have been laid out for irrigation. It is intended very shortly to add 
more land to that already prepared from properties adjacent. 

The soil is for the most part a clayey loam. The higher ground next the 
Common is rather freer in character, while the lower part appears to increase 
in density as it nears the outfall. 

The surface, which has rather a steep fall in its higher part, gradually be- 
comes more level as it descends, and has a very slight fall indeed as it ap- 
proaches the outfall. 

Before the sewage is delivered to the land for irrigation it passes through 
one of Latham's patent extractors, an ingenious invention for the separation 
of the solid from the liquid parts. The liquid sewage is delivered from the 
extractor by covered conduits, from which it is directed right and left into 
the highest carrier. The land laid out for irrigation is divided into three 
series of beds or slopes separated by roadways, on the upper side of each of 
which is a surface-drain to receive the effluent liquid as it passes off the beds 
above, and on the lower a main carrier to deliver the sewage for distribution 
to the series of beds below. The three series are divided rectangularly into 
nearly equal-sized blocks, to be again subdivided by minor or inner carriers, 
laid out partly on the catchwater and partly on the ridge-and-furrow form. 
The surface of the highest land of the uppermost series of beds is about 2-1 
feet above the surface of the lowest land in proximity to the outfall-stream. 

None of the land is underdrained, and the lowermost beds appear to be in- 
capable of uuderdrainage at a sufficient depth unless the stream receiving the 
water to be discharged is appropriately deepened at very considerable cost. 

In answer to inquiries, it was stated that after heavy rains the lowest 
portions of the irrigated lands are swamped by the backing of the water 
Avhich collects on their surface when the soil itself is in a state of complete 
saturation. At the time of the inspection by the Committee (July 11th), the 
sewage had collected in pools on the surface of the irrigated beds in a man- 
ner injurious to the crop under treatment. The work of irrigation is designed 
so that the sewage applied to the higher land may be reapplied on the sur- 



182 REPORT 1871. 

face of lower lands with a view to its further purification. The sewage as it 
passed off the fii'st surface was observed to be far from clear to the eye, and 
it was not perfectly so when leaving the second surface. When it was ulti- 
mately discharged at the outfall it was still cloudy, but this was partly 
accounted for by the heavy rains of the previous day. The analyses of sam- 
ples of efiluent water taken at different points, hereafter referred to, will show 
the extent of purification effected. 

Though the land had not been drained, it gave indications of a natural 
capabihty of drainage in the escape of the sewage from the sides of the car- 
riers or drains, which are from 10 to 14 inches deep. The line of saturation 
was clearly shown in those shallow cuts to be nearly identical with their 
depth, and the liquid was seen oozing out of the land at some parts in a 
clarified condition, and at others accompanied by a slimy matter, some spe- 
cimens of which have been microscopically examined by Mr. M. C. Cooke, 
M.A., whose report is here given. 

Microscoiiical Examination of Slime and Mud from Bottom and Sides of 
Carriers at Earhwood Farm. 

The fluid specimen of deposit sent to me for microscopical examination was the 
only one in a fit condition to report upon as to " the insects and animalcule to be 
found therein." Obviously dried mud would give no satisfactory result as to living 
animals, since the majority of them wovddbe dead and shrivelled beyond all power 
of determination. 

I have examined the wet deposit by the aid of the microscope, and find it to 
contain a few Diatoms belonging to several genera and species, but in a compara- 
tively small proportion to the volmne of material. The Desmidiaceaj were also 
represented by a species of Closterimn, of which I detected but a few individuals. 
Confervoid threads were also but sparingly scattered through the mass. Altogether 
there was_ a smaller percentage of unicellular Algse than I expected to have 
found. Living vegetable matter was comparatively rare. 

The animal inhabitants of the mud were numerous, especially of certain Muds. 
There were _ a few examples of that common Thysanurous insect, Achorutes aqva- 
ticus, sometimes so plentifid in the liquid draining from heaps of manm-e. The 
larvfe and pupaj of small Diptera I am unable to name in those stages, hut their 
proportion was not large. OiEuglena viridis there was no lack ; and any stagnant 
puddle, especially in the neighbourhood of farmyards, would have yielded an equal 
proportion. Infusorians were scarce ; a few solitary individuals of Vorticella mi- 
crostoma, and one or two specimens of Paramecitim, were about all that I observed. 
But there was one gi-onp of animal organisms most abundantly represented, and 
these were the Annelids. When the mud was exposed to the light and sun, the 
surface became active with these creatm-es ; about the diameter of a piece of 
cotton-thread, and from half an inch or less to nearly 2 inches in length, they 
wa-iggled over the_ whole surface. Some white, others pink, and a few of a deep 
blood-red were mingled together like eels, wriggling and scriggling in every drop 
that coidd be taken up and placed on a slide for examination. Skins without in- 
habitants were almost as plentiful ; and it seemed to be impossible to get a drop of 
the material in the field of the microscope without either the worms themselves or 
empty sk-ins. (Signed) M. 0. Cooke, M.A. 

It appears to the Committee that the existence of the exuded matter de- 
scribed by Mr Cooke is mainly, if not whoUy, due to the fact that the subsoil 
is kept in a saturated condition by the want of underdraining ; and they desii'e 
to add their behef that with land thus saturated with sewage certain atmo- 
spheric conditions exist which may be attended by malaria more or less in- 
jurious to health. It need hardly be said that if the efiluent liquid passing 
from a sewage-farm at a time when vegetation is in a luxuriant state, and 
waen evaporation is more than ordinarily active (which was the case when 



ON THE TREATMENT AND UTILIZATION OF SEWAGE. 



183 



the Committee viewed the land), is not clear to the eye nor sufficiently- 
pure to be admitted into rivers, there must be times when it may become 
exceedingly objectionable. 

It is to be remarked in this case, moreover, that there was (on July 
loth, 1871) more liquid passing off the land at the outfall than there 
was sewage delivered to it for apphcation, due possibly to the passage of 
the recent rainfall through the porous soil of the higher part of the farm. 
This fact would, in the absence of the analyses of Dr. liusseU, have led 
to the conclusion that the effluent liquid was purer than usual. 



Observations on the Analyses of Sewage and Effluent Wafer from the ■ 
Red Hill and Reigate Sewage-Farm. 

In 100,000 parts. Samples taken 14th and 15th July, 1871, in the pro- 
portion of YuTj-f, part of the flow. 



Solid matter. 



In solution. 



Dried at] 
100° C. 



Sewage at the 
point where 
it enters the 
extractor. 
Average ilow 
130 gallons 
per minute 
(tempera- 
ture 5S° F.)!/ 

Sewage after 
passing 
through the 
extractor 
and before 
application 
to land 
(temi>era- 
ture 58° F.) 

Effluent water 
taken in 
twelve por- 
tions every 
tw<^ hours, 
after it had 
passed over 
one field of 
rye-grass 
(tempera- 
ture ba°-5 F. 

Effluent water 
taken in ten 
portions at 
the outfall, 
after it had 
passed over 
two fields of 
rye-grass 
Average flow 
V52 gallons 
per minute 
(tempera- 
ture 63' F.) 



.34-60 



1-33-00 



!- 29-40 



!- 35-80 



After 
igni- 
tion. 



1800 



17-50 



17-80 



In suspension. 



Dried at 
120° C. 



After 
igni- 
tion. 



Chlo- 
rine. 



6-40 



4-lG 



24-20 



I-92 



204 



6-18 



6-04 



4-40 



4-8G 



Ammonia. 



In solution. 



Actual. 



■76 



1-32 



0-02 



Albu- 
minoid. 



012 



0-14 



0-06 



010 



In suspended 
matter. 



Actual. 



000 



000 



Albu- 
minoid. 



0-12 



009 



Nitro- 
gen as 
nitrates 

and 
nitrites. 



0-08 



007 



Total nitrogen. 



In solu- 
tion 



i-91 



1-55 



1-2S 



In sus- 
pended 
mattery 



003 



This is decidedly a weak sewage, as it does not contain one third of the 
quantity of " actual " ammonia, nor one fourth of that of " albuminoid " 
ammonia that the samples of Tunbridge WeUs (North Farm) contain ; the 



184 REPOKT — 1871. 

smaller amount of chlorine also shows this. The fact is, that a very largo 
quantity of subsoil -water is admitted into the sewers. 

The effect of the " extractor " is to reduce the total suspended matters 
by shghtly more than one third of their amount, the amount of solid 
matter in solution is slightly lessened, and a quarter of the nitrogenous 
organic matters in suspension pass into solution ; these arc effects not in any 
■way due to the action of the machine except as an agitator. 

The effect on this sewage of a flow over one field of rye-grass, as shown 
by the analysis of an average sami^le made by mixing twelve samples 
in the proportions indicated by the amount of flow at the time of collecting, 
was as follows : — 

The suspended matters, being very small in amount, were not determined. 
The solid matters in solution were reduced in total amount, the reduction 
being chiefly due, as in the case of the Tunbridge -Wells farms, to the re- 
tention by the soil and plants of the more volatile substances, as the amount 
of solid matters left after ignition is practically the same in the effluent 
Avater as in the sewage. The lessening of the chlorine by more than one 
fourth of its original amount would point to the fact, already referred to, 
that a considerable amount of subsoil water dilutes the effluent water ; but 
notwithstanding this dilution, the effluent water contains more than half as 
much " actual " ammonia as the same bulk of sewage (after passing thi-ough 
the extractor), and a quarter as much "albuminoid" ammonia, while the 
amount of nitrogen escaping as nitrates and nitrites is insignificant. 

This effluent water is therefore not purified in a satisfactory way at all. 

But the most interesting point about these analyses is the comparison of 
the effluent water which had passed over two fields of rye-grass with that 
which had only passed over one. 

On a prima facie view, it would have been expected that the former 
would have been much purer than the latter ; but in this case, on the con- 
trary, we find that the effluent water which has passed over two fields 
contains, in the same bulk, — 

1. More than one fifth more solid matter in solution, 

2. More than one third more fixed solids, 

H. More " albuminoid" ammonia, viz. 0-10 instead of 0*06, 

4. Hather more chlorine, 

5. Very slightly less nitrogen as nitrates &c., 

6. More than one fourth less " actual" ammonia, than the effluent water 
which had passed over one field of rye-grass. 

This shows us : — 

1. That bypassing over an additional field, the sewngc has been strength- 
ened instead of Aveakened, except as regards '■' actual " ammonia. 

(That this strengthening is probably due chiefly to evaporation through 
the agency of the plants, is shown by the increase in albuminoid ammonia, 
and by the fact that the actual ammonia is the only constituent lessened in 
amount to any extent.) 

2. That the nitrogenous organic matters, as shown by the amoimt of al- 
buminoid ammonia, are increased. 

3. That no additional oxidizing action took place. These results are what 
might have been anticipated from the description of the farm already given. 

The soil, not being underdraincd, is saturated with sewage, and the 
effluent water flowing off one field on to another, already saturated with 
sewage, can only concentrate itself by evaporation or by solution of matters 
in the upper layer of the soil. 



ON THE TREATMENT AND UTILIZATION OF SEAVAGE. 185 

There is this, then, against the catchwater-system, that if the fields are 
not underdrained the laud will become saturated with sewage, and the 
effluent water wlU then pass off in an impure condition ; and not only so, 
but the present example shows that after a second application the water 
may (except as regards actual ammonia) contain a greater amount of solu- 
ble impurities than it did before ; and, above all, the nitrogenous organic 
matter (as indicated by the albumenoid ammonia) is not diminished, but 
rather increased, in spite of the active growth going on in the month of July. 

The temperature of the effluent water from the first field was considerably 
(41° Fahr.) hirjher than that of the sewage, and that from the second field 
half a degree higher than that from the first, a sufficient proof that percola- 
tion through the soil does not take place. 

It may seem almost sujierfluous for the Committee, after so many years 
of general experience throughout the country, to argue in favour of the sub- 
soil drainage of naturally heavy or naturallj^ wet land with impervious sub- 
soil for the purposes of ordinary agriculture ; but some persons have strongly 
and repeatedly called in question the necessity of draining land when ir- 
rigated with, sewage ; and the two farms at Tunbridge Wells, to a great ex- 
tent, and more especially the E-eigate Farm at Earlswood, have been ac- 
tually laid out for sewage-irrigation on what may be called the " satura- 
tion " principle ; so that it appears to the Committee desirable to call atten- 
tion to the fact, that if drainage is necessary where no water is artificially 
supplied to the soil, it cannot be less necessary after an addition to the rain- 
fall of 100 or 200 per cent. But a comparison of the analyses of different 
samples of effluent waters which have been taken by the Committee from 
open ditches into which effluent water was overflowing off saturated land, 
and from subsoil-drains into which effluent water was intermittently perco- 
lating through several feet of soil, suggests grave doubts whether effluent 
water ought ever to be permitted to escape before it has percolated through 
the soil. 

Section 1Y. — The Phosplmte Process. 

A Member of the Committee was present at an experiment which was 
performed with the phosiihate process of Messrs. Forbes and Price at 
Tottenham on March 25th, 1871. His description of the experiment is as 
follows : — 

The Tottenham sewage, after passing through some depositing tanks which 
had been constriicted for the lime-process, was pumped up, at the rate of 
about 800 or 1000 gallons per minute (as stated), along a carrier into a tank 
100 yards long and of gradually increasing breadth. This tank took three 
hours to fill. 

As the sewage passed along the above mentioned carrier, the chemicals 
were mixed with it in the following way : — 

Two boxes were placed over the carrier, one a few yards further along it 
than the other; the first contained the phosphate mixture, and the second 
milk of lime. Men were continually stirring the contents of each box, 
w'hich were allowed to run continuously into the sewage as it passed xmder- 
ncath the boxes. 

The phosphate mixture was stated to be made by powdering the native 
phosphate of alumina, mixing it with sulphuric acid in the proportion of a 
ton of phosphate to from 12 to 13 cwt. of the acid, and dissolving the mass 
in water. 



186 



REPORT 1871. 



The amount of the preparation added to the sewage -was not ascertained, 
but it was stated to be certainly much less than the proportion indicated by 
previous experimeuts (1 ton of crude phosphate to 500,000 gallons of sewage). 

The result of this addition was to deodorize the sewage to a very consider- 
able extent indeed ; and when some of it was placed in a precipitating glass, 
and allowed to stand, a speedy separation of the suspended matters took 
place. 

The milk of lime is added to precipitate the excess of phosphate added, 
and just sufficient milk of lime is allowed to flow in to neutralize the sewage, 
the reaction of which to test-paper is observed from time to time after the 
addition of the milk of lime. 

During the passage of the sewage thus treated through the large tank, 
the suspended matters were verj- completely deposited, and the supernatant 
water ran over the sloping edge of the tank at its extreme end bright and 
clear, and almost odourless. 

Some of this water was collected, and was kept sealed up in a stone jar 
tin til July 24th, when it was analyzed by Dr. llussell, with the following 
result : — 

Sample of Effluent Water taken from Tottenham Sewage, treated March 
25th, 1871. Parts per 100,000. 



Solid matter in solution. 


Ammonia. 




Nitrogen 

and 
nitrates, 


Phosphoric 
acid. 


Sulphu- 
retted 
hydrogen. 


Dried at 
100° c. 


After 
ignition. 


Actual. 


Albuminoid. 


Chlorine. 


9900 


76-30 


517 


016 


8-45 


None. 


a trace None. 



It was found, after the lapse of four m-onths, quite sweet and without 
smell. The suspended matter was in very small quantity, and consisted 
merely of a little whitish flocculent matter, doubtless lime due to the slight 
excess used on the day when the sample was collected. The water was quite 
clear, and only on looking through a considerable depth could a brownish 
tint be detected. 

The analysis of it shows that it contains as much actual ammonia as 
ordinary dilute London sewage, and also a certain amount of albumenoid 
ammonia. 

It contains the merest trace of phosphoric acid, as indicated by the molyb- 
date-of-ammonia test, and no sulphuretted hydrogen, nor any nitrates or 

nitrites. 

Some of the deposit had been taken out of the tank, and was drying in a 
shed, the water which separated from it forming little pools on the surface of 
the mass ; both this water and the precipitate itself were free from aU offen- 
sive smell. 

It appears, then, that the suspended matters are entirely removed by this 
process, but the actual ammonia and, to a certain extent, the soluble organic 
matters are neither removed from the sewage nor oxidized ; but an odourless 
precipitate is produced, which contains all the phosphate added, and contains 
it doubtless in the form of flocculent phosphate of alumina, the value of 
which, as a manure, is somewhat doubtful, being certainly not so great as 
the value of corresponding quantities of flocculent phosphate of lime. 

The valuable constituents of sewage, with the exception of the suspended 
matter and the phosphoric acid, are not precipitated by this process, and 
cannot be utilized unless the effluent water be afterwards used for irrigation. 



ON THE TREATMENT AND UTILIZATION OF SEWAGE. 



187 



in -whicli case the milk of lime -would not be added, and the clarified sewage 
would still contain a quantity of phosphoric acid. 

The advantage of this use of it, if it were found to answer from an econo- 
mical point of view, would be the deodorization of the deposit in the tanks 
and of the sewage itself, which is certainly at present a great desideratum, 
especially as regards the tanks. 

Section Y.—The Dry Earth System. 

The Committee did not consider that it was its duty to undertake the 
examination of every plan that might be proposed for the treatment or i\ti- 
lization of exeretal matters, but only those which were already well before 
the public, and known, or supposed, to be affording something like satisfactory 
results. It had sent out forms of questions with a view of procuring in- 
formation respecting the results obtained in the use of Moule's earth- 
closets, and there was every desire on the part of the Committee not to 
neglect the examination of any system which promised results satisfactory to 
the community. 

Of eight forms of questions sent out relating to Moule's system, only one 
had been filled up and returned, and that one was from Lancaster. It ap- 
peared that about 2| lbs. of soil were used per head per day. The manure 
obtained is afterwards mixed with other town refuse, and the mixture is sold 
at 5s. a ton. The analysis of the manure published by the Rivers Pollution 
Commission showed, however, that it did not contain more nitrogen than 
good garden-mould. It was stated to have been applied at the rate of about 
6 tons per acre to grass land ; but the produce of hay was by no means large. 
It should be added, however, that even at Lancaster, the only place where an 
attempt has been made to carry out the system on a large scale, some of the 
conditions prescribed by Mr. Moule, and essential to its success as a means of 
avoiding nuisance and injury to health, are entirely neglected. • Thus there 
is an average of twenty-four persons using each closet ; and instead of any 
arrangement for the deposit of earth on the fsecal matters after every use of 
the closet, a quantity of soil is thrown once a day over the matters collected ; 
and the result is, that the product is removed in a very offensive condition. 

On behalf of the Committee, Dr. Gilbert has himself made some trials "with 
Moule's earth system: 14 cwt. of air-dried and sifted clayey soil were set 
apart for the experiment. Prom one third to one half of the whole was used 
before it was necessary to empty the pit. When removed the mass appeared 
uniformly moist throughout, and (excepting in the case of the most recent 
portions near the surface) neither fascal matter nor paper was observable in it ; 
nor was the process of emptying accompanied by any offensive smeU. After 
exposure and occasional turning over on the floor of a shed, the once-used 
soil was resitted, and again passed through the closet. 

Below are given the percentages of moisture and of nitrogen in the soil 
under the various circumstances of the trial : — 





Before use. 


After using 
once. 


After using 
twice. 


Percentage of moisture (at 100° C.) in air-dried 
and sifted soil 


8-440 
0-067 
0-073 


9-070 
0-216 
0-240 


7-710 
0-353 
0-383 


Percentage of nitrogen in air-di'ied and sifted soil 
Percentage of nitrogen in soil dried at 100° C. ... 



Calculated upon the air-dried condition, the increase in the percentage of 



188 KEroiiT— 1871. 

nitrogen was only about 0-15 each, time the soil was used ; and, even after 
using twice, the soil was not richer than good garden-monld. It is obvious, 
therefore, that such a manure, even if disposed of free of charge, would bear 
carriage to a verj' short distance only. It may be added that the percentage 
of nitrogen in the soil after using once, as given above, agrees very closely 
with that recorded in the report of tlio Eivers Pollution Commissioners, as 
found by them in the manure obtained, under professedly the same system, 
at Lancaster. 

In conclusion, when it is borne in mind how small is the proportion of the 
nitrogen voided in the 2-1 hours that is contained in the faeces, how small is 
the proportion of the total uriue that is passed at the same time, and how great 
is the dilution of the manurial matters bj'^ the amount of soil required, it is by 
no means surprising that the manure produced is of such small value as the 
results would show. It is obvious, too, that our domestic habits and practices 
would have to be cntii'ely revolutionized to secure the coUeetion and absorp- 
tion of the whole of the urine, which contains by far the larger proportion of 
the valuable mani;rial matters voided. Moreover, assuming 2 or 2| lbs. of 
soil to be required for each use of the closet, if the whole of the liquid, as 
well as the solid excretal matters, were to be absorbed, there would pro- 
bably be required from 9 to 10 lbs. of soil per head per day, or about 1| ton 
per head per annum. This, for London, taking the population at three and 
a quarter millions, would represent a requirement of about five million tons 
of soil per annum, or nearly 14,000 tons per day ; and the quantity to bo 
removed would, of course, be considerablj^ greater. This illustration is 
sufficient to show the impracticability of any such system for large popula- 
tions. Nevertheless it may readily be admitted that it would be of great 
advantage, in a sanitary point of view, in the cases of sick rooms, detached 
houses, or even villages, and that it might be even economical where the earth 
for preparation and absorption, and the laud for utilization, are in close 
proximity. 

APPENDIX B. 

Iiej)ort on tJie Post-mortem Examination of an Ox. 
By Dr. T. Spencer Cobbold, F.E.S. 

Tour Committee having invited me to examine the carcass of an ox fed 
for two j-ears past on sewage-grown grass at Mr. Hope's farm near llomford, 
I have to report the perfect freedom of that animal from internal parasites 
of any kind. 

I attribute this marked negative result to the following circumstances : — 
First, the animal did not graze on the farm, but was fed exclusively upou 
vegetable products cut and carried from the land. Secondly, the porous na- 
ture of the soil and subsoil alike would rapidly carry off the sewage, and thus 
ensure the passage of parasitic germs into the soil itself. Thirdly, I noticed 
on the irrigated portions of the farm a remarkable absence of those-molluscan 
and insect forms of life which frequently play the pai't of intermediary 
bearers. Fourthly, the only moUusks I detected were examples of Lijmncus 
pereger ; these were obtained from a small pit of water to which the sewage 
had no access, and when examined after death were not found to contain 
any cercarian larvaj. Fifthly, the flaky vegetable tufts collected by me 
from the sides of the furrows occupied by sewage-currents consisted chiefly 
of Batracliospermiim moniliforme, in the filaments of which were numerous 
active free nematodes, but no ova of any true cutozoou. Sixthly, the sewage 
had a strong smell of beer, suggesting the presence of sufficient alcohol to 



Tabulai' Statement of 



ppi faena, 



Cbuncteror QuRlit] 



Application to Land. 



APPEXDIX A. 

Information received relatiug to Sewage-irrigatioa i 



" I or 'Cnntribuliivg 
cUittiet •limttj >0 
■cvcmL (lie •evaec- 






Airngc dwij ' 
from loim 



On nhnl (ermi 



I* diichug«d 
into lenn. 



If tl mined 
or olhcrwin 



I» anj other 



I. all WWBBC. 
»altr nupplifd 

land, in winter 

tumnwr. night 



nritble. n 



ISO.OOO 



Sinusbteibouie 



le By gravitalioi 

EBrHienwu; 



. Strained, the 

ter ilenoai- 
tcd In n »[■ 
tllng tank. 



Cortfd 
the land 
when dry. 



. Farm - yard T. 
Supcipboi- 



The icwagc 
monWnini 
over deeply 

Cd?n« 



BEDFORD I6.*37 16.137 



CA&LISLE.... 



Cotton and iroal- 
len tndej, dye- 
woika, &c. All 
diiehargc 



ly Slaughtcrhaiiu 
There bk I 
few atBDuTuto- 



renl ol £!.. t 
all cipeuK Bi 



. Both winter and 
F in the day. 



CROTDON ...I U.OM I »,«M 
(Bed^noo'' 1 

ontbll) 1 



CKOmON,... MOO 

(Narvoodl 
I ostlallx 



num. and pre 
pare land tbem- 



LcBH nf 7 ynn,Oec*>ional]y 1 do 
to Compy.. nhuj ipccial Urmi. 
pay taper oerr. 



One »e' 

mile*, the c 



LEAMWGTON W.9I7 



Slaugh tahoiuea. 



To Lord War- . , 

of £410 per an- 
num for 30 



. Pumped up 
Ihmugh IS- 
1d. Itonpipa. 



1 



veal her. 



. (Work! not yet c 



Applied 
(■How a 



)s-z 



uiuol. Land 
hoi good 



completely 

purified. 



iordiiigtofon 
ind fall of lUJ 



Loam, lubaail 



o B feet of line 



loil aniTiuhioil, 



On nbal tenure 






"'SXi. 



caichH'nter 
ricra are fomied 

other* ridges 

Light land, oi . 
' ing gravel and 



7U at present, Loam, overlying 

' 300 beiad giavel. Part 

acquired. level, part hilly. 



Uiual iTltem of 






By deep carrier*. 
No (lib toll 



Not drained. It 



•ewage puied 

purified. 
completed.] 



30 acrea, free- 
bold. About 
300 ocm be- 
long to 3dj(' 



Ut I 



[To /ace page 188. 



EFFLUENT WATER. 



Relative Icti;] 
of tbc *ewn» 
ouifiJl ftnd (ho 
lioiiil wher« 



CeEflo, ,hr notoulfJIISfMl 

HA-j,,!,, |,. aboTeUnd, the 
L- JF..1 otbcrSOfcet. 



I 



;s3 



Ediiniled al £a lu. 



Nett profit 
ToUlcpLul 2'ad"flhe 



I- Nol record- I 
<l. Sold 

n RCDund. 



feekB, T 

mint, awcdu, 
end tumipi. 



Rjre-^rniH 



Cannot he I 



UB^, btoccoli. 

French beam, 
ulichokes, &r. 

. Rjt-gnt*. man- A 
gut, potKloea, 
cabbDKa. Ike. 



. The Local Boaid hai DOtbing i 



: ^^OSoIdnnil 
acre all ,„nied 



< do Itlth lb « Fanning, b ut hu contra clid tr 



robablj 
two ihjtdi 

of (he 



About£2,500 Total 



I What Uai Hui my di 
imcll pci-|lwcnihc<i«Uf been prod i 

cppttbleot lufbcalth of '■>- 

dUagrccablt? the cattle fed 



□rdinarj 



Imnercoi 
tiblc when 

growing. 



plainl) hwe 
reached the 



'It the bcslth 

..™ui..u of the inha- 

lahouicnbitanttofthe 

Incalitf in 



ciueoficwage? f„„d. 



General adraatagei. 



Scared)'. ei-iF.ilwmelj' 
ccptmvcr; — --' 



Sanitarr ilate nfeamp nnd 
barraciu vnstljr 

Sro«cd. The land 
itta fair cropi i 
•cwage, nhich before 
produced nothing wliat- 



None nbalcrer. 



None vhsterer. 



Health 

b^ ii 



The application of the 
— age hai enabled the 



It nctt coil ii much 

incrcajcdwitb yery 
aliiFoetory roulta. 
Greater certainty in the 



Greater cerlaintf in t] 

Iiroduction of cropi ar 
ugei yield of crop*, 



• 



LETTERS FROM M. LAVOISIER TO DR. BLACK. 189 

destroy the vitality of ordinary parasitic germs, though it was abundantly 
manifest that the free nematodes had suffered nothing in consequence. 

As some guarantee for the efficient manner in which the carcass of the ox 
■was examined, I may mention that the superficial muscles, with their asso- 
ciated areolar and aponeurotic coverings, were particularly investigated, 
portions of certain muscles, such as the scaleni and sterno-maxillaris, being 
dissected through and through. All the viscera were likewise scrutinized, 
especially the brain, lungs, liver, bladder, kidneys, paunch, reed, caecum, and 
other natural divisions of the intestinal canal. The animal was not exces- 
sively fat, whilst its muscles were well developed and of a deep carneous lustre. 
84 Wimpole Street, London, T. Spencek Cobbold, M.D., F.E.S. 

July 18, 1871. 

Remarlcs hy the Committee. 

With regard to the examination of the carcass of the ox, which had been 
fed for twenty-two months on sewaged produce at Breton's Farm, those mem- 
bers of the Committee who were present and examined it with Dr. Cobbold 
concur in his statement as to its perfect freedom from internal parasites of 
all kinds; and they can also subscribe to most of his observations with regard 
to the possible reasons for this immunity. They wish especially to draw at- 
tention (1) to the fact, that on this farm there is " a remarkable absence of 
those molluscan and insect forms of life wliich frequently play the part 
of intermediary bearers " to entozoal lax-viE : it would appear that the sewage 
drives these creatures away or kills them ; and (2) to the composition of the 
" flaky vegetable tufts " collected from the sides of the carriers ; these contained 
" numerous active free nematodes, but no ova of any true entozoon." 

But the Committee cannot support the opinion expressed by Dr. Cobbold^ 
that the strong smell of beer which the sewage had (caused of course merely 
by hop waste) would suggest " the presence of sufficient alcohol to destroy 
the vitality of ordinary parasitic germs," as the quantity of alcohol which 
would be necessary for this purpose in so large a bulk of sewage would be 
enormous, and especially as, as Dr. Cobbold says, " it was abundantly mani- 
fest that the free nematodes had suffered nothing in consequence." 

It appears, then, that, as far as this one case goes (and it is certainly as con- 
clusive as a single case could possibly be), there is no evidence that entozoal 
forms of life are to be found on the farm at all in any stage of their existence, 
or in the flesh of an animal fed exclusively for twenty-two months on sewaged 
produce grown on the farm. 



Letters from M. Laa'oisier to Dr. Black. 

[Ordered by tlic General Committee to be printed in the Annual Report.] 

Paris le 19 S'eptembre, 1789. 
MoxsiEUR, — C'est un membre de I'acadc'mie Royale des Sciences de Paris 
qui vous c'crit a titre de Confrere : c'est un des plus zeles admirateurs de la 
profondeur de votre genie et des importantes revolutions que vos decouvertea 
out occasionnces dans les Sciences, qui profite, pour avoir I'honneur de vous 
ocrire, de I'occasion de M. de Boullogne qui va fuiir son education a Edim- 
bourg. Permettez-moi de vous le recommander. II joint a d'heureuses dis- 
positions un grand desir de s'instruire et il regarde comme un grand bonheur 
pour lui d'avoir une occasion pour se presenter a vous. II a bien voulu, 
Monsieur, se charger de vous remettre un exemplaire d'uu ouvrage que je 
yiens de publier ; vous y trouvercz une partie des idees dont vous avez jette 



190 



REPORT — 1871. 



le premier gcrme : si vous avez la bonte de dormer quelques instants a sa 
lecture, vous y trouverez le devcloppement d'une Doctrine nouvelle que je 
crois plus simple et plus d'accord avec les faits que' celle du Phlogistique. Ce 
n'est au surplus qu'en trcmblant que je le soumets au premier de mes juges 
et a celui dont j'ambitionnerais le phis le suffrage. 

J'ai I'honneur d'etre tres-respectueusement, 

Monsieur, 
Voire tres-liumblc et trcs-obeissant Scrviteur, 




Paris, 24 Juillet, 1790. 

MoNsiETJE, — J'apprends avec une joj-e inesprimablc que tous youlez bieil 
attacher quelque nicrite aux idecs que j'ai professc le premier centre la doc- 
trine du phlogistique. Plus confiant dans tos idees que dans les miennes 
propres, accoutume a vous regarder comme mon maitre, j'etois en defiance 
contro moi-memo tant que je me suis ecarte sans votrc aveu de la route que 
vous avez si glorieusement suivie. Votre approbation. Monsieur, dissipe mes 
inquietudes et me donne un nouveau courage. 

Cette Lcttre, Monsieur, vous sera remise par M. Tcrray iutcndaut de Lyon 
neveu du Ministre des finances de ce memo nom et mon parent ; il conduit a 
Edimbourg son fiJs, jeune homme d'esperance et destine a posseder une grande 
fortune, pour y finir son education et suivre les lemons des profcsseurs celebres 
de I'universite d'Edimbourg. Permettcz-moi, Monsieur, de vous le recom- 
mander. L'interct que vous voudrez Hen prendre a lui sera un premier titre 
qui I'annonccra d'une maniere avantageuse et j'ai lieu de croire qu'il ne se 
rendra pas indigne de vos bontes. 

Je ne serai pas content jusqu'a ce que les circonstanccs me permettent de 
vous aller porter moi-meme le temoignage de mon admiration et de me ranger 
au nombre dc vos disciples. La revolution qui s'opere en France devant na- 
turellement rondrc inutile une partie de ceux attaches a I'ancienne adminis- 
tration, U est possible que je jouisse de plus de liberte ; et le premier usage 
que j'en ferai sera de voyager et de voyager surtout en Angleterre et a Edim- 
bourg pour vous y voir, pour vous y entendre et profiter de vos lumieres et 
de vos conseils. 

J'ai commence un grand nombre d'ouvrages et de travaux et j'asjiire a un 
Etat de tranquillite qui mo permctto d'y mettre la derniore main. 

J'ai I'honneur d'etre trt'S-respcctueuscmeut, 

Monsieur, 
Votrc tres-humblc ot trcs-obeissaut Scrviteur, 



M. Blad: 




^^^^m^i__^ 



de I'acQdemie des Bciences. 



LETTERS FROM M. LAVOISIER TO DR. BLACK. 191 

Paris, le 19 Novcmbre, 1790. 

M. Teeeay, Monsieur, m'a remis, eu arrivant a Paris la lettre que vous 
m'avez fait I'honneur de m'ecrire le 2-1: Octobre ; il ne pouvait me faire un 
present qui me fiit plus agreable. J'ai era que vous ne desapprouveriez pas 
que je la commuui(iuasse a 1' Academic des Sciences ; elle n'a pas moins admire 
I'elegance du style que la profondeur de philosophie et la candeur qui regne 
daus voire lettre, et elle a meme desire qu'elle fiit dcposee dans ses registres ; 
mais je n'y ai consenti, qu'a condition qu'il m'en serait remis une copie cer- 
tifiee du secretaire. J'ai une autre grace a vous demander, mais sui" laqueUe 
je dois attendi-e votre aveu ; c'est de vouloir bieu me pei'mettre d'en publier 
la traduction dans les Annales de Cbimie. 

M. Gillan a etc temoin, depuis son sejour a Paris, de quelqucs experiences 
que j'ai faites sur la respiration et il a bien voulu y concourir. Nous nous 
sommes assures des faits suivans : 

1°. La quautite d'air vital ou gaz oxigene qu'un homtne en repos et a 
jeun consomme, ou plutot convertit en air fixe ou acide carbonique, pendant 
une hcure est de 1200 ponces cubiques de France environ, quand il est place 
dans une temperature de 26 degres. 

2°. Cette quantite s'eleve a 1400 pouces, dans les memes circonstances, si 
la personne est placee dans une temperature de 12 degres seulement. 

3°. La quantite de gaz oxigone consommee, on convertie on acido carbo- 
nique, augmente pendant le tems de la digestion et s'eleve a 1800 ou 1900 
pouces. 

4°. Par le mouvement et I'exercice ou la porte jusqu'a 4000 pouces par 
heure et meme davantage. 

5". La cbaleur animale est constamment la meme, dans tons ces cas. 
0°. Les animaux peuvent vivre dans de I'air vital ou gaz oxigene, qui ne 
se renouvelle pas, aussi longtems que Ton le juge a propos, pourvu qu'on ait 
soin d' absorber, par de I'alcali caustique en liqueur, le gaz acide carbonique, 
a mesure qu'il se forme ; en sorte que ce gaz n'a pas besoiu, eomme on le 
croyait, pour etre salubre et propre a la resj)iration d'etre melange avec une 
certain e portion de gaz azote ou Mopbcte. 

7°. Les animaux ne paroissent pas souffrir dans un melange de 15 parties 
de gaz azote et d'une partie de gaz oxigene, pourvu qu'on ait de meme la 
precaution d'absorber le gaz acide cai-bonique, par le moycn de I'alcali 
caustique, a mesure qu'il est forme. 

8". La consommation du gaz oxigene et sa conversion on acide carbonique 
est la meme dans le gaz oxigene pur et dans le gaz oxigene mele de gaz 
azote, en sorte que la respiration n'est nullement acceleree en raison de la 
purete de I'air. 

9". Les animaux viveut assez longtems dans un melange de deux parties de 
gaz inflammable et d'une de gaz oxigene. 

10°. Le gaz azote ne sort absolument a rien dans I'acte do la respiration 
et il ressorf du poumon en meme quantite et qualite qu'il y est entre. 

11°. Lorsque par I'exercice et le mouvement on augmente la consommation 
de gaz oxigene dans le poumon, la circulation s'accelere ; ce dont il est facile 
de s'assurer par le battement du poulx : et en genc'ral lorsque la personne 
respire sans se gener, la quantite de gaz oxigene consommee est proportion- 
nelle a. I'augmentatiou du uombre des pulsations multiplie par le nombre des 
inspirations. 

II est bien juste, Monsieur, que vous soyez un des premiers infonne's des 
progres (jui se font dans une carricre que vous avez ouverte, et dans laquelle 



192 REPORT— 1871. 

nous nous regardons tous comme vos disciples. Nous suivons les memes cx- 

])erieuccs, ot j'aurai I'honncur de vous fairo part dc mcs dccoiivertes ulterieurcs. 

J'ai I'honneur d'etre avec im respectueux attachement, Monsieur, 

Votrc tres-humble et tres-obcissant Serviteur, 




Report of the Committee, consisting of Dr. Anton Dohrn^ Professor 
RoLLESTONj a7id Mr. P. L. Sclater, appointed for the purpose of 
promoting the Foundation of Zoological Stations in different parts 
of the World: — Reporter, Dr. Dohrn. 

The Committee beg to report that since the last Meeting of the British 
AssociatioQ at Liverpool steps have been taken by Dr. Dohrn to secure the 
moral assistance of some other scientific bodies, and that the Academy of 
Belgium has passed a vote acknowledging the great value of the j^roposed 
Observatories. Besides this, the Government at Berlin has given instruction 
to the German Embassy at Florence and to the General Consul at Naples to 
do everything to secure success to Dr. Dohrn's enterprise. Next October 
the building at Naples will be commenced under the personal superintendence 
of Dr. Dohrn, who will be accompanied by the assistant architect of the 
Berlin Aquarium. The contractors agree to finish the building in one year, 
so that in January 1873 the Aquarium in Naples may be expected to be in 
working order. 

The Naples Observatory being thus arranged for, the Committee beg leave 
to draw the attention of the British Association to the importance of esta- 
blishing a Zoological Station in the British Islands, and to the opportunity 
which is now offered for such a proposition in consequence of the cessation 
of the grant to the Kew Observatory. In the same way as the Association 
took the initiative in the foundation of the Meteorological Observatories, so 
may they legitimately and with every prospect of success take in hand the 
foundation of Zoological Observatories. Until a recent date the Association 
has given considerable sums of money to dredging-explorations ; but, in con- 
sequence of the advance of Zoological Science, some of the problems to be 
solved are so much changed and their nature is of such a character as to 
demand the assistance of the Association in other directions. The careful 
study of the development and the habits of marine animals can only bo 
carried on by aid of large aquariums and cumbrous apparatus, which an 
individual could hardly provide for himself. This, and the copious supply 
of animals for observation, can be pro^ided by such a cooperative institution. 
There can be little doubt of the convenience to naturalists, and of the per- 
manent benefit to science, which would result from the foundation of a 
Zoological Station in the British Isles. 



THERMAL EQUIVALENTS OF THE OXIDES OF CHLORINE, 193 

Preliminary Report on the Thermal Equivalents of the Oxides of 
Chlorine. By James Dewar, F.R.S.E. 

During tlic course of the last Meeting of the British. Association, I took 
occasion to lay before the Chemical Section two short notes bearing directly 
on the subject of Thermal Equivalents ; they were respectively entitled 
" Thermal Equivalents and Fermentation/' and " Observations on the Oxides 
of Chlorine." In the first-mentioned communication it was proved that the 
decomposition of sugar into carbonic acid and alcohol was a reaction taking- 
place without any great evolution of heat, if we accepted the thermal equi- 
valent of sugar as determined by Frankland, along with the similar value 
of alcohol obtained from Eavre and Silbermann's researches ; and con- 
sequently the heat of fermentation must be derived from some other source 
than the sugar molecule itself, — the continued hydration of the alcohol pro- 
duced, the secondary decompositions taking place, and the transformations 
of the ferment itself being the three available sources of supply. 

The note on the oxides of chlorine had special reference to the heat 
evolved during the decomposition of these oxides. The researches of Eavre 
and Silbermann having shown that the formation of hypochlorous acid and 
of chloric acid is attended with a large absorption of heat, it became in- 
teresting to ascertain if in this series of oxides we had a regular increment 
of absorption in passing from the lowest member of the series to the highest 
member, just as Andrews had found a similar relation to hold for certain 
oxides of the same metal, whoso successive formation was attended with an 
evolution of heat. I suggested it would be interesting to make a complete 
examination of the thermal relations of these bodies aloag with the similar 
derivatives of bromine and iodine, and with this object in view I ac- 
cepted a grant in order to prosecute these researches ; and although my 
spare time has been variously occupied during the past year, I have found 
opportunity to make a considerable number of prehminary observations in 
connexion with this subject. 

Heat absoried during the Solution of Salts belonging to this Series per 

equivalent. 
Units. Heat units. 

KCl . . . . : 4320 KCIO3 10,100 

KBr 4900 KBr03 9>680 

KI 4800 KIO3 5,300 

Comparing the solution-values of chloride of potassium and bromide of 
potassium vdth the corresponding values obtained for the chlorate and 
bromate, the latter salts are observed to have a very much higher solution 
thermal equivalent ; whereas, comparing iodide of potassium with iodate, we 
have only a slight increase in the latter salt. The highest absorption- 
values are therefore connected with the acids whose formation is attended 
with an absorption of heat. It will be interesting to find how these sub- 
stances act with regard to the absorption of radiant heat, and if a similar 
relation is maintained. 

The method I proposed to adopt in examining the thermal relation of the 
oxides of clilorine was based on the easy and rapid decomposition of dilute h)^- 
driodic acid, whoso thermal equivalent in aqueous solution has been carefully 
determined. I soon found, however, chloric acid did not appreciably decom- 
pose dilute hydriodic acid when the strength of the respective acids in 
aqueous solution amounted to a half gramme equivalent per litre, nor did I 

1871. o 



194 KEPORT 1871. 

succeed better when I substituted hydrochloric acid for the hydriodic. A 
few experiments were made on the action of magnesium on chloric acid, 
with the view of ascertaining its thermal value from the oxidation of the 
nascent hydrogen ; but, so far as my experiments extended, the results did 
not agree satisfactorily. 

I had recourse then to the direct action of iodine on chloric acid, which 
I found acted easily on a solution of tvnce the normal strength, at a tempe- 
rature of SO'' C, although it did not act on a dilute aqueous solution in the 
cold. The reaction only taking place readily at a temperature of 80° C, 
complicates very much the mode of procedure, necessitating, as it does, a 
very constant temperature. 

A series of observations gave as a mean 35,500 heat units evolved per 
equivalent of iodine acting on excess of chloric acid. This number repre- 
sents the heat evolved in the transformation of chloric acid into iodic acid ; 
and by subtracting from it the thermal value of the latter acid, we obtain 
the heat evolved from the decomposition of the chloric acid. The thermal 
value of iodic acid is very readily obtained through the reaction of dilute 
hydriodic acid, thus — 

IOg + 5HI=5HO + 6I, 

which takes place with extreme rapidity in dilute solution, evolving 10,000 
units per equivalent of hydriodic acid dccom2:)Osed. 

Assuming, then, the thermal value of hydrogen to be 34,000 units, and that 
of hydriodic acid to be 15,000, we obtain on calculation 15,000 units evolved 
during the formation of a molecule of iodic acid in aqueous solution. This 
number agrees vciy closely with that of A. Ditto's for the formation of iodic 
acid as found through the oxidation of phosphorus. Subtracting the number 
found for the formation of dilute iodic acid from the former number ex- 
pressing the action of iodine on dilute chloric acid, we have the number 
20,500 left for the thermal value of dilute chloric acid. Favre estimated 
the thermal value of dilute chloric acid as high as —65,234 per equivalent — 
this result being based^'ion the action of chlorine on concentrated caustic 
potash, thus, 

6E:0 + 6€1=5KC1+KC103, 

and inserting in the equation the known values of oxide of potassium and 
chloride of potassium, and further correcting for dilution. It is obvious, 
however, where we have one atom of a compound formed for five atoms of 
another whose thermal value is not very accurately known, we multiply 
any error enormously. 

In looking over Favre's original paper, in the * Journal de Pharmacie ' for 
1853, on this subject, I observed that he mentioned a very ciuious observa- 
tion with reference to the heat evolved during the saturation of hypochlorous 
acid with dilute oxide of potassium. He shows that an equivalent of 
caustic potash, when neutralized with an equivalent of hypochlorous, gives 
rise to an evolution of 10,768 heat imits ; but if two molecules of hypo- 
chlorous acid were employed per equivalent of caustic potash, he found an 
evolution of 22,114 heat units. The additional heat evolved is not due to the 
formation of an acid salt, because, on adding another atom of caustic potash^ 
we obtain the normal amount of heat due to the saturation of the acid. It 
is reasonable to suppose, tlierefore, that the additional atom of hypo- 
chlorous acid induces the following reaction : — 



-^o 



3K0 C10=2KC1+K0 C10„ 



THERMAL EQUIVALENTS OF THE OXIDES OF CHLORINE. 195 

•a decomposition that is well known to occur in certain conditions. As- 
suming this equation to be correct, and employing the following thermal 
numbers admitted by Pavrc— 



Formation of KO 


= 76,238 per equivalent. 


KO with CIO 


= 10,678 


KCl 


= 97,091 


„ EO with CIO, 


= 15,187 „ 


CI with 


= - 7,370 



„ KO CIO condensing= 11,436 „ 

we obtain for the formation of an equivalent of aqueous chloric acid 
— 12,661 heat units. This number is only about one-fifth part of the former 
number admitted by Favrc. 

There is yet another mode of arriving at the thermal value of cliloric 
acid. Frankland recently made a series of observations on the heat evolved 
during the ^oxidation of many organic substances through the action of 
chlorate of potash, and had necessarily to deduce from the total heat evolved 
the heat due to the decomposition of the chlorate of potash employed ; his 
highest result amounts to 5500 heat units evolved per equivalent of chlo- 
rate of potash decomposed. Now it is easy, from the admitted decomposition 
and with tlie aid of this result, to calculate the thermal value of chloric 
acid. 

K0C10.=KCl+0,. 

Formation of KCl ~ . =101,000 



KO = 76,238 

KO with CIO. == 15,187 
KO CIO, solution = 10,100 



X=-6009. 



101,525 + X + 5.500=101,016. 



The various determinations of the thermal value of chloric acid are inserted 
in the following Table, along with a reference to the reaction on which the 
determination is based : — 

Action of chlorine on concentrated caustic potash = — 65,234 (Favre). 
Condensation of hj'pochlorous acid = — 12,661 (Favre). ^< 

Decomposition of chlorate of potash = — 6,000 (Frankland). 

Action of iodine on chloric acid =—20,500 (Dewar). 

The great difference in these results shows that even with the greatest 
care experimenters are apt to differ on the intricate subject of thermal values, 
and that before a satisfactory conclusion can be arrived at-with reference to 
the true thermal value of chloric acid further experiments ought to be made. 

A series of observations have beeu made on chlorous acid and on the per- 
oxide of chlorine. 

Chlorous acid was obtained by the action of benzol sulphuric acid on 
chlorate of potash, and. after washing it was passed directly into water, in 
order to obtain a dilute solution. . 

The analysis of the solution has invariably differed from that of a 'solution 
of pure chlorous acid ; and it seems absolutely necessary,' in order to ensure 

02 



196 



REPORT — 1871. 



the purity of the aqueous solution, that the acid be previously lique- 
fied, and its vapoiir pasfsed slowly into water, as has been recommended 
by Brandeau. As the cold weather had all vanished before I could secure 
time to enter on this investigation, I saw it was hopeless to prepare the 
liquid acid readily and thus ensure a pure product, but made a few observa- 
tions on the purest product I could obtain — the highest number I have 
obtained per equivalent of chlorous acid, ClO^, acting on hydriodic acid 
amounting to 111,000 units, the following reaction taking place, thus, 

C103-f-4HI=HCH-3H0 + I,. 

It is easy to calculate the heat absorbed during the formation of dilute 
chlorous acid, and it is found to amount to —27,800 heat units. 

Similar observations have been made on peroxide of chlorine obtained 
from the action of oxalic acid on chlorate of potash. The aqueous solution 
of the gas has always contained appreciable quantities of free chlorine, and 
the value obtained will necessarily require some correction. One equivalent 
of ClOj acting on hydriodic acid evolves 120,000 heat units ; the following 
reaction takes place : — 

C10,-1-5HI=HC1 + 4H0+L. 

When the requisite numbers are inserted in the above equation, the result 
is found to be 19,800 heat units absorbed for the formation of an equivalent 
of peroxide of chlorine. 

The thermal values of chlorous acid and of peroxide of chlorine are likely 
to require considerable correction, because I have not found that strict uni- 
formity in the results I should have liked. This is owing in great part to the 
difficulty of procuring a pure product, and the great tendency to secondary 
decomposition. The mode of conducting the experiments may also have con- 
siderable influence on the results. The above experiments wei'c made with 
the relative proportions of the oxides of chlorine and of hydriodic acid that 
would completely neutralize each other, so as to precipitate the iodine in the 
free state. A sei'ies of experiments made in presence of excess of hydriodic 
acid, the requisite correction being made for the solution of the iodine, 
would be important, and these I intend to execute along with farther ob- 
servations on this subject. 

The following observations have been made in connexion with this re- 
port : — 

Action of dilute HCl on dilute HCIO, nothing 



I 

10. 

KHO 

I 

HI 

HI 

CIO3 

CIO, 



HCIO3 nothing 

H,0 — 730 

10, 15,000 

HCIO^ 36,500 

HCIO3 nothing 

HIO- (per eq. of HI). . . . 10,000 

HI (per cq. of CIO3) 111,000 

HI (per eq. of ClOJ .... 120,000 



EARTHQUAKES IN SCOTLAND. 197 

Report on the practicability of establishing "A Close Time " for the 

protection of indigenous Animals. By a Committee, consisting of 

Prof. Newton, M.A., F.R.S., Eev. H. B. Tristram, F.R.S., J. E. 

Harting, F.L.S., F.Z.S., Rev. H. Barnes, and H. E. Dresser 

(Reporter). 

YoTJE Committee has great pleasure in reporting that the object for which it 
was appointed has continued to excite attention in the public prints during 
the past year, and that in the direction indicated by its last lieport — the 
piwtcction, namely, of those birds generally coming under the term " Wild 
Fowl." There appears to be a widespread disposition among all classes to 
extend in their favour the provisions of the ' Sea-Birds' Preservation Act,' in 
proof of which your Committee may cite two facts : — 1, the establishment in 
the county of Sussex (chiefly through the instrumentality of Mr. T. J. Monk, 
of Lewes) of an Association whose members pledge themselves to abstain 
from destroying Woodcocks in the breeding-season, which Association has 
met with great encouragement from the principal landed proprietors in the 
county ; and 2, the rapid growth of a well-founded belief that some steps are 
absolutely necessary to stop the netting or shooting of Plovers during the 
same season to ensure a continuance of the supply of theii- eggs, which 
form, as is well known, a valuable commodity. 

Your Committee is fuUy aware of the danger of attempting to legislate on 
this subject before the proper time; but from the assistance which has been 
promised in various influential quarters, it entertains a sanguine hope that 
some decided step may be taken next year; and belie-^-ing that the wai'mest 
supporters of the principle of establishing a Close Time for indigenous 
animals will readily listen to the recommendations of your Committee, it 
respectfully prays that your Committee may be reappointed. 



Repo7-t of the Committee on Earthquakes in Scotland. The Committee 
consists of Dr. Bryce, F.G.S., Sir W. Thomson, F.R.S., D. Milne- 
Home, F.R.S.E., P. Macfarlane, and J. Brough. 

Veey little worthy of record has occurred during the past year. There 
has been no earthquake or other disturbance in the Comrie district similar 
to those noticed in last Eeport. Prom other districts, however, slight shocks 
of earthquake have been reported — from Lochabcr in the end of November 
and from the upper part of the Prith of Clyde in April. The latter occurred 
during the night, was noticed by few, and doubt has been expressed by some 
in regard to it. But as the same region was certainly agitated on more 
than one occasion during the conduct of the previous inquiry instituted by 
the Association, of which Dr. Buckland and Mr. Milne-Home had the 
charge, there is no improbability in such an occurrence ; very little informa- 
tion, however, that could be depended upon was obtained. In regard to 
the other earthquake- shock there is less doubt. The district in which it 
was felt comprises the Spean Valley and the lower lart of the Great Glen, a 
region in which some of the most severe of our earthcjuakcs have been from 
time to time experienced. In the present case, however, no change was 
produced on the surface, or in the position of objects (see Eep. by Mr. D. 
Milne-Home, Brit. Assoc. Hep. IS-iO) ; and without recording inBtrumonts 



198 REPORT— 1871. 

it has beeu found impossible to state, ■with, any approach to certainty, whence 
the undulations emanated, or to estimate the intensity of the shocks. It is 
much to be desired that the additional duty of taking observations of this 
kind should be undertaken at such stations of the Scottish Meteorological 
Society as are situated in the districts where earthquakes have been so often 
experienced. Such a measure, however, would necessitate the adoption of a 
seismometer of a much simpler construction than that at Comrie, belonging ■ 
to the Association — one which should occupy a small space, and be little 
liable to derangement, while capable of recording feeble shocks. Your Com- 
mittee regrets that the hope expressed in last Eeport, in regard to the con- 
structing of such an instrument, has not been reahzed ; but they confidently 
hope that this important object will be accomplished in the course of the 
coming year. By permission of the Association, communications might then 
be opened with the Council of the Meteorological Society in regard to their 
placing such a seismometer at a number of their stations within the areas liable 
to disturbance, and establishing new stations with this express object where 
such do not now exist. Such a combined system of observations would bring 
the various areas ihto close relations with one another, and would possess 
every advantage over an inquiry limited to a single locality. 

(Signed) James Bktce, M.A., LL.D. 



Report on the best means of providing for a uniformity of Weights and 
Measures, loith reference to the Interests of Science. By a Com- 
mittee, consisting of Sir John Bowring, F.R.S., The Right Hon. Sir 
C. B. Adderley, M.P., Samuel Brown, F.S.S., Dr. Farr, F.R.S., 
Frank P. Fellowes, Professor Frankland, F.R.S., Professor Hen- 
NEssY^ F.R.S., James Heywood, F.R.S., Sir Robert Kane, F.R.S., 
Professor Leone Levi, F.S.A., F.S.S., C. W. Siemens, F.R.S., 
Colonel Sykes, F.R.S., M.P., Professor A. W. Williamson, F.R.S., 
James Yai^SjF.R.S., Dr. George Glover, Sir Joseph Whitworth, 
Bart., F.R.S., J. R. Napier, H. Dircks, J. V. N. Bazalgette, 
W.Smith, Sir W. Fairbairn, Bart., F.R.S., and John Robinson : — 
Professor Leone Levi, Secretary. 

YoTJK Committee have much pleasure in reporting that the fifth and last 
Eeport of the Eoyal Commissioners to inquire into the condition of the 
Exchequer, now Board of Trade, Standards has now been published, and 
the general question of uniformity of weights and measures in this and other 
countries has thus been placed before Her Majesty's Government in all its 
bearings. Your Committee are much gratified at the large amount of infor- 
mation the Commissioners have collected on the progress of the Metric System 
in different countries, and only regret that they did not recommend a bolder 
course than the 'permissive legislation of its use. The Commissioners, it 
should be remembered, were not expressly instructed to inquire into the 
Metric System; but one of the points referred to them being to inquire and 
report whether amj and ^vhat additions to the existing ofiicial Standards of 
Weights and Measures are now required, they understood that that involved 
cexprcssion of their opinion as to the establishment or continued prohi- 



UNIFORMITY OF WEIGHTS AND MEASURES. 



199 



bition of the Metric System into this country, and they reported accordingly 
on the subject. 

The Commissioners assumed that " there is no immediate cause requiring 
a general change in the existing system of legal weights and measures of 
the country for the i)urposes of internal trade," and regarded the question 
of introducing the Metric System only in the aspect of facilitating inter- 
national trade and scientific researches ; but your Committee are of opinion 
that in so doing the Commissioners have not sufficiently taken into account 
the bearings of the general question on education, on scientific workmanship, 
and on the general economics of the nation. The Royal Commissioners have 
recommended the legalization of the Metric System, and that, in order to 
facilitate the use of the same. Metric Standards accurately verified, in relation 
to the primary Metric Standards at Paris, should be deposited in the Standard 
Department of the Board of Trade. But although your Committee consider 
the carrying out of such recommendation a decided advance over the present 
anomalous state of the law, past experience leads them to fear that no general 
uniformity will ever be arrived at by mcvelj 2^ermissive legislation, and that 
unless the use of Metric Weights and Measures is to become general at no 
distant period, the reform will have no fair chance of success. As the late 
Master of the Mint properly said, in the Standard Commission (Fifth Ecport, 
p. xsx), "Although the general introduction of Metric Weights and Measures for 
trade purposes might in the first instance be made permissive only, yet their 
use should, to some extent, be made compuhory, else the mere permission to 
use them in the home trade of this country woidd be practically a dead 
letter." Your Committee have already reported on the decided advantages 
of the Metric and Decimal system in economizing time and facilitating the 
teaching of arithmetic in the schools, in effecting mechanical valuations, 
and in Chemistry and Pharmacy. But neither of these advantages can be 
realized to the full extent until the new system of Weights and Measures, 
\nih. its divisors and multiples, become identified with our ideas of dimen- 
sions and quantities. Your Committee admit that this must be the work 
of time ; but all the more necessary is it to make provisions for the same, 
by inserting in any measure on the subject clauses fixing a time when the 
use of the new system will become binding. Your Committee therefore 
greatly regret that the Bill introduced in the House of Commons by Mr. 
J. B. Smith to establish the Metric System of Weights and Measures, and 
fijting a time when the use of the same shall become compulsory, has not re- 
ceived the cordial support it deserved. But a majority of five only against 
the Second Eeading, in a small House, so late in the Session, must not be 
accepted as conclusive evidence of the deliberate opinion of the Legislature 
on the subject. 

Pending the final settlement of this important question, your Committee 
are gratified in finding that, in consequence of representations made by them 
to the Right Hon. Mr. W. E. Forster, Yice-President of the Committee of 
Council on Education, the Educational Code of this year for the first time 
prescribes " that in all schools the children in Standards Y. and YI. in Arith- 
metic should know the principles of the Metric System, and be able to ex- 
plain the advantages to be gained from uniformity in the method of forming 
multiples and submultiples of the Unit." Your Committee are convinced 
that the School is the proper lilace for^initiating this useful reform ; and in 
view of the immense economy of time which would be gained in the teach- 
ing of arithmetic, your Committee would urge that teachers should at once 
commence introducing the subject in the Schools. To advance this desirable 



300 KEPORT— 1871. 

oliject, your Committee have had a Conference at the Lecture Theatre of the 
Kensington Museum in June last, when valaable testimony was given of the 
. progress made in instructing children on the subject in the United States 
by Prof. Nathaniel Allen, and in Bombay by Mr. T. B. Kirkham, both 
gentlemen connected with the Education Departments of the respective 
countries. Your Committee have forwarded copies of the resolutions passed 
at the Conference, with copy of a little treatise on the Theory and Practice 
of the Metric System, to the Head Master of every Public and Endowed 
School, and they are preparing to do the same to all the principal Elemen- 
tary Schools in the Kingdom. It is much to be desired that all the works 
on arithmetic, and especially those which have acquired much reputation, 
should contain the necessary information on the Metric System, and j'our 
Committee are glad to report that this has already been done to a large ex- 
tent. Your Committee have also represented to tlie London School Board 
the desii-ableness of introducing the Metric System in the Schools established 
or supported by the Board, and they have been informed that the subject 
Avill shortly be considered by Prof. Huxley's Committee. Your Committee 
will correspond in a similar manner with the other School Boards, and they 
trust that % these means they will seciire the general teaching of the system. 
Your Committee have forwarded a cop)' of the Mural Standard con- 
structed bj- Casella to the Industrial Museum in Edinburgh, and they have 
also sent one to Newcastle. Your Committee have not yet been able to 
obtain the set of Metric Standards which they ordered, and they are glad to 
find from the following communication that the same will prove most useful 
for scientific researches : — 

Pilton, Barnstaple, 

July 27, 1871. 

Dear Sie, — I have been for some time conducting a series of observa- 
tions on the specific gravity of minerals and rocks. As the greatest possible 
accuracy is indispensable, it is of course a matter of some importance that I 
shoiild employ the weights which afford the most exact results. I find that 
calculations of this nature can be done Avith far more accuracy, and in about 
a quarter of the time, by using the Metric System ; but although I have 
made numerous inquiries, I have hitherto failed in my endeavour to XH'ocure 
a verified set of Metric Weights. May I venture to suggest that it would 
very much tend to promote the object which the Committee of the British 
Association have in \iew if they would procure one or two sets of verified 
weights for the purpose to such Members as may require the use of such 
standards for scientific investigation, and thus afford them the means of 
comparing and verifying theii' own weights with the recognized standards of 
the Association. 

I remain, dear Sir, yours faithfully, 

Frof. Leone Levi. Toavnshexd M. Hall. 

Your Committee are convinced of the' great utility of the suggestion ; but 
they will require a larger grant, since, as will be seen in the Fifth Eeport 
of the Standard Commissioners, .£50 was paid by that Commission for a set 
of Metric Standards made of brass by Deleuil, of" Paris. 

Your Committee regret that the war in France has suspended the opera- 
tion of the International Standard Commission at Paris for the construction 
and verification of primary international Metric Standards. That movement 
arose from resolutions, expressing such a want, passed by the International 
Gcodesical Conference held at Berlin in 1867, the Academy of Sciences of 



TIDAL OBSERVATIONS. 201 

St. Petersburg, and the Academy of Sciences in Paris ; and we trust that 
by that means each country will possess a prototype copy of the Metre, 
made in relation to the Metre of the Archives in Paris, all the copies being 
made of the same material, compared by the same method and instru- 
ments, at the same temperature, and preserved in the same manner. Her 
Majesty's Government had deputed Prof. Airy, the lamented Prof. Miller, 
and Mr. Chisholm, the Wardens of the Standards, to attend the Inter- 
national Commission. Your Committee have reason to believe that it is of 
the utmost importance to continue to give to this question unremitting at- 
tention, and they are connnced that their action has been eminently useful 
in guiding the Legislature, both of this country, of the Colonies, and even 
of other countries, to the great question of uniformity of Weights and Mea- 
sures aud Coins in the interest of Science. In pursuance of this object, j^our 
Committee are anxious of diffusing as much information as possible. Especially 
they are desirous of supplying those who conduct scientiiic researches with 
the means of cariying them on in Metric Weights and Measures, as the most 
universally known, the most exact, and the most economical as regards time ; 
for which purpose they would be glad to purchase one or two sets of Metric 
Standards. And for these, and other jxirposes, they suggest the reappoint- 
ment of the Committee, with a grant of at least £75. The advantage of 
introducing a universal system of Weights and Measures is well admitted. 
Men of Science of all countries, to a large extent, use already a universal 
vocabulary in this respect ; and your Committee trust that the British Empire 
will ere long throw on the side of such a reform the immense weight of her 
example and influence. 



Report of the Committee appointed for the purpose of promoting the 
extension, improvement, and harmonic analysis of Tidal Observa- 
tions. Consisting of Sjr William Thomson, LL.D., F.R.S., Prof. 
J. C. Adams, F.R.S., J. Oldham, William Pakkes, M. List. C.E., 
Prof. EankinEj LL.D., F.R.S., and Admii-al Richards, R.N., 
F.R.S. 

Jteport drawn up hy Mr, E, Roberts. 

82. The work performed for the Tide Committee since the last Meeting 
of the liritish Association has consisted chiefly in the evaluation of tide- 
components in a similar manner to that described in the previous Eeports. 

S;3. Mr. Parkes having again placed the tracings of the curves of the 
Kurrachee (Manora) self-registering tide-gauge at the disposal of the Com- 
mittee, a second year's observations have been read off and completclj^ re- 
duced. In addition to the tide-components evaluated for Liverpool and 
llamsgatc, others (named for brevity J and Q) have been introduced to 
correct the lunar diurnal (declinational) tides for parallax. These com- 
ponents have been found to have sensible values for Kurrachee, where the 
diurnal tides are comparatively l^rgc. The solar elliptic semidiurnal (E. and 
T) components have also been included, now that two complete years' ob- 
servations were available. The whole of the values of these tide-components 
is contained in the previous Report (§ 07), the work having been completed 
before the Report was printed. The correcting of the calculated heights 
(§ 7U) for these additional components will doubtless bring them stUl nearer 



202 , REPORT— 1871. 

to the recorded high and low waters. It is contemplated correcting them 
before the printing of the Report, and if this is done, the results will be con- 
tained in it. 

84. The comparison between the calculated and recorded heights for Liver- 
pool (§ 68) not being considered as good as might have been expected from 
the labour bestowed on them, it was determined to continue the analysis of 
the Liverpool Tides, with the view, if possible, of detecting the cause of the 
largeness of some of the differences. Accordingly three years' observations 
in continuation of the year 1806-67 were read off and completely analyzed. 
The results are as foUow, and the results of the previous years are also 
given for the sake of comparison : — 



Year 1857-68 


1858-59. 


1859-60. 


1866-67. 


1867-68. 


1868-69. 


1869-70. 




ft.' 


ft. 


ft. 


ft. 


ft. 


ft. 


ft. 


I» 


= 167192 

= z8-5 


16-8208 

27°-9 


16-8289 

27°-o 


16-8998 
18-4 

Series S. 

A 


17-0862 
18-4 


17-4877 
19-3 


17-1350 
20-6 




1857-58. 


1858-59. 


1859-60. 


1866-67. 


1867-68. 


1868-69. 


1869-70. 




0-0453 
69°-93 


0-0696 
59=78 


0-0844 
56°-5S 


0-0470 
39-04 


0-0349 
66-18 


0-0399 

IOI°-28 


0-0276 
124-38 


E, 

^2 


3-2149 
ii°78 


3-3124 

H°-I2 


3' '9 3 8 
io°-o8 


3'i304 
11-63 


3-0990 
n°-3i 


3-1217 
11-88 


3-0516 
,3-63 




0'o6l2 
322°-23 


o'o6oo 
330-18 


0-0476 
294°73 


0-0475 
3i4"-3i 

Series M. 


0-0678 
327-11 


0-0640 
298-49 


0-050S 
> 3i2°-6i 




1857-58. 


1858-59. 


1859-60. 


1866-67. 


1867-68. 


1868-69. 


1869-7a! 




0'0I92 


0-0626 
266°-69 


0-0092 
77°-i7 


00396 
358°-c2 


0-0194 
259°-28 


0-0603 
322^-82 


0-0841 
317-1S 


^2 

^2 


9-6745 
326°-io 


9-8124 

3^5°'45 


9-8930 
323°'99 


10-2713 
325°-55 


10-264S 
•326-Ss 


10-1210 

328-38 


10-1443 
3 29° -40 


R3 

^3 


0-1053 
330°-6o 


0-0984 
3i5°-°4 


0-1525 

321-71 


0-0862 
335°-^7 


0-1022 
3^7°'43 


0-1158 

324-76 


0-1014 
313-23 


E, 


0-6847 

220°-34 


0-6573 
2i7°-68 


0-6371 

22I°-30 


0-7648 
224-19 


0-7238 

222°-50 


0-7018 
223-68 


0-7196 

227-87 




0-1812 

342-76 


0-1887 
348°-2i 


0-2093 

343°'i7 


0-2057 
343-80 


0-1936 

348-52 


o-iSSS 
353°'9i 


0-2200 
3° -47 


^8 


0-0582 
262<^-38 


0-0808 
278°-i7 


0-0658 
259°-39 


0-0667 

282°-09 

Series MS. 

* 


0-0670 

28o°-89 


0-0665 
295^-60 


0-0770 
293-50 




1857-58. 


1858-59. 


1859-60. 


1866-i7. 


1867-68. 


1868-69. 


1869-70 


K4 

<^4 


o'4-379 
27o°-68 


0-3488 
265-86 


0-3879 
270-49 


0-4635 
269-45 


0-4153 
271-86 


0-40S0 
269-15 


0-3957 
272°-96 



* I is the average inclination of the Moon's orbit to the Earth's equator, or the mean 
maximum declination, for the period. 



TIDAL OBSERVATIONS. 
Series K. 



1857-58. 1858-59. 1859-60. 186G-67. 1867-68.- 1868-69. 1869-70. 

Ej o'39)0 o'3978 °"i^S'i 0-3278 0-2939 0-3116 0=3404 

61 283'''9S 283°-o8 273°-i8 28i°-6o 285°77 282^71 285°-i3 

Bj 1-1850 i'274z i'099S 0-6336 ,0-7701 0-7346 0-7882 

e., 5°-98 o°-4o 349°-6i 9°-o3 6^-63 359°-i6 4°-25 



Series O. 



1857-58. 1858-59. 1859-00. 1860-67. 1867-08. 1868-69. 1869-70. 

Ri 0-4410 o'4i36 o'45i9 0-3058 0-2694 0-3374 0-3214 

6i 3i6°-69 3i6°-28 3iS°-8i 3i2°74 3i2°-63 3io'^-88 307=^-96 



Series P. 



1857-58. 1858-59. 1859-60. 1866-67. 1867-68. 1868-69. 1869-70. 

Ej 0-1250 o'i339 0-1306 0-1409 0-1357 0-1333 O'o935 

ioi°-96 io5°-75 98°-6i 88°-43 I09°i7 84°-2i 77°-o8 



e 



Series L. 



1857-58. 1858-59. 1859-60. 1866-67. 1867-68. 1868-69. 1869-70. 
II3 0-5069 0-7849 o*3459 0-6015 0-5842 0-5x29 0-4671 

fi i57°'93 i68°-9i i44°-5i i24°-o8 i5i°-5i i59°39 i5i°'9i 



Series N. 



1857-58. 1858-59. 1859-60. 1866-67. 1867-68. 1868-69. .1809-70.' 

E.._, i-86o8 1-7607 1-9716 21608 1-9124 1-8307 i"89i7 

^2 303°'52 ' 3o8°72 3°3°-98 3°i°-S9 3o8°-i4 3=7°-39 3oS°'o6 

Series E. Series T. 



'1857-58 & 1858-59. 1858-59 & 1859-60. 1857-58 & 1858-59. 1858-59 & 1859-60. 

E., o-ioo6 0-0818 0-3490 o-i2o8 

e' i46°-45 i46°-6o 67°-97 36°78 

Series X. 

1857-58. 1858-59. 1859-60. 1866-67. 1867-68. 1868-69. 1869-70. 

E.2 0-4091 02262 0-1165 0-2369 o-2i66 0-1977 0-1913 

62 i4i°-68 i34°'46 i9i°-o8 i75°-9S i8o°-68 i38°-54 i32°-i6 

Series v. 



1857-58. 1858-59. 1859-60. 1866-67. 1867-08. 1868-69. 1869-7'a 

R.J 0-7423 0-6303 0-2841 07182 o'505i 0-1423 0-6912 

63 3°7°'9i 284°-oi 26i°-o9 278°-43 267°-42 3ii°-5i 332°-4i 

Series /x. 



1857-58. 1858-59. 1859-00. 1866-67. 1867-68. 1868-69. 1869-70. 

E,, 0-2860 0-2259 0-3076 0-2561 0-2278 0-2576 0-2303 
el 3i°-72 42°-04 32°-5s 32°-42 3i°-94 64°-2o 39°-64 



REPORT — 1871. 

85. It vaU. be seen, on comparing the results contained in the previous 
lleport with the above, that the chief tides (the lunar and solar semidiurnal) 
are now more retarded by about 4° than during the j-^ears previously analyzed. 
The calculated heights in the comparison should therefore more nearly repre- 
sent the heights about eight minutes after the hours assigned to them. An 
examination of the differences will show this to be the case. A fresh calcu- 
lation and due aUowauce made for atmospheric pressure would doubtless very 
considerably reduce the discrepancies. 

86. The gradual increase in the height of the mean level of the water (A„), 
probably arising from the filling in of the bed of the river and consequent 
increase of friction, will account for some portion of this increased retarda- 
tion. There was a very violent rise in the mean level for the year 1868-69, 
amounting to four tenths of a foot ; it, however, in the following year had 
again subsided to about its anticipated height. The uncertainty in the mean 
level of the water is an element which must at times seriously affect the 
differences between calciilated and recorded heights in any method of com- 
putation of heights from ajixed datum. With respect to these changes now 
taking place in Liverpool Bay, the following extract contains the substance 
of the Marine Surveyor's report, dated October 2nd, 1S71, and confirms the 
results determined by the i)receding reductions : — 

" The result of the survey of the channels of the river for the current year 
shows that the changes rendered necessary in the arrangements of the light- 
ing and buoyage are more important in their immediate effect on the course 
of navigation than any which have occurred .for some years. The present 
Queen Channel was opened in 1854, but was not buoyed for navigation pur- 
poses until two years afterwards. Since that time the process of advance 
from southward to northward of the Great Burbo Bank had been very 
gradual for the first ten years, but more rapid recently, so that the advance 
had extended to about half a mile. At the same time the North Channel 
had widened in the same proportion, and there was no appreciable narrowing 
of the channel in that direction. On the north side, however, during the 
last four years, the changes had been more rapid, and the buoys had been 
altered twice within that period. It was now necessary that the Bell Beacon 
should be removed northward one third of a mile, and also that the Formby 
light-ship should be removed one third of a mile westward. Thus the Bell 
Beacon buoy would be brought into a direct line with the Crosby light-ship. 
The bar was in a satisfactory state, and the whole of the channels were in 
as safe a condition as they had been for many years, being deeper as well as 
more straight and not narrower than formerly." 

87. It is very much to be regretted that the authorities at Liverpool 
have chosen the George's landing-stage for a tide-float, affected as it must 
be (sometimes to a considerable extent) by the ever-varying weight it has to 
bear. This will affect the whole of the tide-components evaluated, but more 
especially the solar components, and will account for the different values of 
the solar semidiurnal tide, which, judging from the corresponding lunar 
component, should agree within much narrower limits. It is therefore 
thought that, should it be determined to again discuss the Liverpool tides, 
it will be better to take the tide-curves as self-registered at Helbre Island 
at the mouth of the Dee, in preference to those of George's Pier. The Helbre 
Island tide-curves it is considered will give much superior results. 

88. Through the kindness of the United States' Coast Survey Office, two 
years' tide observations, taken at Fort Point, San Francisco Bay, California, 
being a continuation of the observations already analyzed (§ 66), have been 



TIDAL OBSERVATIONS. 



205 



received. The results of the analysis of these observations (those contained 
in § 66 being also included for the sake of comparison) are as follow : — 





Year 1858-59. 
ft. 
Ao = 87io3 
I = z8°-o 


1859-60. 1860-61. 
ft. ft. 
8-2651 8-1608 
26°-9 25% 








Series S, 




Series M. 






1858-59. 


1859-60. 


1860-01. 


18.58-59, 1859-00. 


1800-01 


K3 


o'oi46 
2ii°-96 

04067 
334°-24 


very small. 

0-3802 
335°-8o 


very small 

0-3824 
335°-45 


0-0539 o-oSoS 

46°-3o 189^-37 

1-6694 16215 

33o°-8i 33i°'3o 

very small. very small. 


0-0863 

32°-7i 

1-6645 

328"-72 

very sma! 


E, 


very small, very small. 


very small 


0-0616 0-0712 
23^-32 ■ 26°-73 


0-0698 
11^-15 










Series MS, 






1858-59. 


1859-00. 1800-61. 








E, o'o: 


148 
■33 


0-0325 0*0315 

12"-25 22°-8l 

Series K. 






1858 


-59. 


1859-60. 1860-01. 








B, 1-3370 
El i96'=-45 


1-3036 1-2925 
i97''-43 i96°-86 








E, o-r 

^2 335° 


759 
-21 


0*1716 o'i35i 
327-63 3i5°'37 








Series 0. 




Series P, 






1858-59. 


1859-00. 


1860-61. 


1858-59. 1859-60. 


1800-01. 




o'89i7 

3S7°'68 


0-8511 

357°-52 

Series L. 


0-8784 

352°-93 


0-3672 0-3659 
16^-52 i5°-90 

Series N. 


0-3869 

13°-S2 




1858-59. 


18.59-00. 


1860-01. 


185S-59. 1859-60. 


1800-61 


E, 

e.. 


0-0591 
io2°-63 


0-0370 
iS3''-oo 

Series E. 


0-0506 
i7o°-i6 


0-3931 0-3494 
303°*46 3°5°-S3 

Series T. 


o'3545 
302'^-5i 




1858- 


-59 and 1859-60. 


1858-59 and 1859-00. 




E 

6 


;._, 0-0076 

■0 1 64° -00 

Series X. 




E, 0*0x42 

6: 277=-9o 

Series v. 






1858-59. 


1859-60. 


1860-01, 


1858-59. 1859-60. 


1860-61, 


E, 

^2 


o-o37a 
i88''-3o 


0-0275 
i56°-39 


0-0121 
144° -1 8 


0-1044 0-0387 
a87°-23 272°-46 


0-0437 
349"-59 



206. REPORT— 1871. 

Series fi. 







1858-59. 


. 1859-60. 


1860-61, 








^2 


0-0257 

254°*34 
Series J. 


0-0311 

20^°-I4 


0-0252 
209°-53 


Series Q. 


• 


1858-69. 




1859-60. 


1860-61. 


- 1858-59. 


1859-60. 


1860-6] 


o'oSig 
2i3°-98 




0-0376 

208°-29 


o-o5&i; 
iS3=-40 


0-1706 
353°-°3 


0-1056 
33i°-34 


0-1332 
8°-93 



89. Here again we have an abrupt diminution in the height of mean level 
for the first two years, which the following extract from a letter received 
'from I. E. Hilgard, Esq., fully explains: — 

" The change in the mean-level reading ^t Fort Point is a matter of much 
" annoj'ance to ns. The tide-gauge was put up in a small building near the 
" end of a wharf, and the tide-stafi' used for comparison was close to it. I^ow 
" it Vas observed after the observations had continued some time-that the 
" wharf was settling,— ^t least the part where the gauge stood. Then the 
" gauge was moved to a point a little nearer to the shore believed to be firm, 
" but we think the whole wharf settled and continued to do so for years. 
" There seems to be a bog formation uuderlpng the surface deposit at that 
"place. There is probably- no way of ascertaining the amount of settling 
" except from the observations themselves. We are now having frequent 
" levellings made, referring the tide-staff to a rocky ledge further inland." 

It is contemplated including the new tide-components now evaluated 
in the calculation of the tide-heights shown in § (J9, doubtless to their 
improvement. 

90. It having come to the knowledge of the Tide.Committee that the United 
States' Coast Survey Office was in possession of a series of hourly tide observa- 
tions, taken at Cat Island in the Gulf of Mexico, and which were of a very 
remarkable and interesting character, it was thought a favourable opportunity 
of testing the value of the harmonic analysis for the evaluation of the com- 
ponents of the tides of this place, which appeared very complicated ajid pe- 

'euliar. Application having been made, a series of about thirteen months 
were received through the kindness of J. E. Hilgard, Esq. These are now 
in course of reduction. 

The following results represent the tide-components as far as they have at 
present been evaluated. Datum 10 feet beJoiu datum of United States' Coast 
Survey : — 

Year 1848. 10=4-8574 ft. I = i8°-45 

Series S. Series M. Series L. Series N. 

Rj 0-0442 o-oioi 

61 io°-o4 95°'ii 

~" R., 0-0677 0-1195 0-0118 0-0269 

e', 23^-80 io°-75 222°-40 33°'57 

Series K. Series O. Series P. Series J. Series Q. 
Rj 0-4627 o"3855 0-1559 0-0292 0-0733 

55°-20 224°-29 230°-65 28°-22 2I5°-32 



e 



R., 0-0205 
el 288°-73 



Retardation of phase of Spring-tides o<> izi- 5 1'-M ,, ^. j^qo^'s svivgies 

Coincidence of phase of Declinational tides o" 6'' 1 5™ J •' •' ° 



TIDAL OBSERVATIONS. 207 

91. It is extremely interesting to find that, althougli the lunar and 
solar semidiurnal tides are very small in value, the series of means from 
which they were obtained were extremely regular and good, and the conse- 
quent determination of the phase of spriag-tides from their respective epochs 
is pi'obably correct within a few minutes. The proportion between the am- 
plitudes of the lunar and solar semidiurnal tides is the nearest to equality 
j'et obtained, being in the ratio of 11 to 6. The comparatively large value 
of Rj of Series S is undoubtedly a genuine tide, but the smallness of the cor- 
responding value of Scries M must forbid the conclusion of its beiug purely 
astronomical. It is perhaps produced by temperature or wind, its time of 
maximum being about 40 minutes after noon. There are also indications of 
a similar and large annual tide of 0-3 foot amplitude, and maximum about 
July, which is also pi'obably meteorological in its origin. The proportion 
between the lunar and solar diurnal (Declinational) tides (E, of Series 
and P) will be, on the assumption of the variation of E^ of Series being as 
the square of the sine of the declination, about 4 to 1. 

92. The following are the values of the long-period tides which have been 
obtained since the Edinburgh Meeting : — . ' 

R e 

ft- o 

Solar annual tide (elliptic and meteorological) ... o'274 i44'5o - 

Solar semiannual tide (declinational and meteoro- 
logical) o'i28 3S'o- 

Lunar niontlily tide (elliptic) o'io6 304*17 

Lunar fortnightly tide (declinational) ©•043 i36'69 

Luni-solar fortnightly tide (synodic) 0*099 336-26 

The above epoch for the solar annual tide would place tlie maximum about 
August 16. 



NOTICES AND ABSTEACTS 



OF 



MISCELLANEOrS COMMUNICATIONS TO THE SECTIONS. 



MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICS. 

Address by Professor P. G. Tait, M.A., F.E.S.E., President of the Section. 

In opening the proceedings of this Section my immediate predecessors have ex- 
ercised their ingenuity in presenting its widely diifering component subjects from 
their several points of view, and in endeavouring to coordinate them. What 
they were obliged to leave unfinished, it would be absurd in me to attempt to com- 
plete. It would be impossible, also, in the limits of a brief address to give a de- 
tailed account of the recent progress of physical and mathematical knowledge. 
Such a work can only be produced by separate instalments, each written by a spe- 
cialist, such as the admiraole " Heports which form from time to time the most 
valuable portions of our annual volume. 

I shall therefore confine my remarks in the main to those two subjects, one in 
the mathematical, the other in the purely physical division of our work, which are 
comparatively familiar to myself I wish, if possible, to induce, ere it be too late, 
native mathematicians to pay much more attention than they have yet paid to 
Hamilton's magnificent Calculus of Quaternions, and to call the particular notice 
of physicists to our President's grand Principle of Dissipation of Energy. I think 
that these are, at this moment, the most important because the most promising 
parts of our field. 

If nothing more could be said for Quaternions than that they enable us to exhibit 
in a singulai'ly compact and elegant form, whose meaning is obvious at a glance 
on accoimt of the utter inartificiality of the method, results which in the ordinary 
Cartesian coordinates are of the utmost complexity, a very powerful argument for 
their use would be furnished. But it would be unjust to Quaternions to be con- 
tent with such a statement ; for we are fuUy entitled to say that in all cases, even 
in those to which the Cartesian methods seem specially adapted, they give as sim- 
ple an expression as any other method ; while in the great majority of cases they 
give a vastly simpler one. In the common methods a judicious choice of coor- 
dinates is often of immense importance in simplifying an investigation ; in Qua- 
ternions there is usually «o choice, for (except when they degrade to mere scalars) 
they are in general utterly independent of any particular directions in space, and 
select of themselves the most natural reference lines for each particvdar problem. 
This is easily illustrated by the most elementary instances, such as the following : — 
The general equation of Cones involves merely the direction of the vector of a point, 
while that of Surfaces of Revolution is a relation between the lengths of that vector 
and of its resolved part parallel to the axis ; and Quaternions enable us by a mere 

1871. 1 



2 REPORT 1871. 

mark to separate the ideas of length and direction without introducing the cumbrous 
and clumsy square roots of sums of squares -which are otherwise necessary. 

But, as it seems to me that mathematical methods should be specially valued in 
this Section as regards their fitness for physical applications, -what can possibly 
from that point of vieyv be more important than Hamilton's v? Physical ana- 
logies have often been invoked to make intelligible va,rious mathematical processes. 
Witness the case of Statical Electricity, -wherein Thomson has, by the analogy of 
Heat-conduction, explained the meaning of various important theorems due to 
Green, Gauss, and others ; and wherein Clerk-Maxwell has employed the proper- 
ties of an imaginary incompressible liquid (devoid of inertia) to illustrate not 
merely these theorems, but even Thomson's Electrical Images. [In fact he has 
gone much further, having applied his analogy to the puzzHug combinations pre- 
sented by Electrodynamics.] There can be little doubt that these comparisons 
o-we their birth to the smaU intelligibility, per se, of -what has been called La- 

d^ d^ cP 
place's Operator, t^ + "7-2 + X2) which appears alike in all theories of attraction at 

a distance, in the steady flow of heat in a conductor, and in the steady motion of in- 
compressible fluids. But when we are taught to imderstand the operator itself we are 
able to dispense -with these analogies, which, however valuable and beautiful, 
have certainly to be used with extreme caution, as tending very often to confuse 
and mislead. Now Laplace's operator is merely the negative of the square of Hamil- 
ton's V, which is perfectly intelligible in itself and in all its combinations ; and 
can be defined as gi-ring the vector-rate of most rapid increase of any scalar func- 
tion to which it is applied — giving, for instance, the vector-force from a potential, 
the heat-flux from a distribution of temperature, &c. Very simple functions of 
the same operator give the rate of increase of a quantity in any assigned direction, 
the condensation and elementary rotation produced by given displacements of the 
parts of a system, &c. For instance, a very elementary application of v to the theory 
of attraction enables us to put one of its fundamental principles in the foUo-wing 
extremely suggestive form : — If the displacement or velocity of each particle of a 
medium represent in magnitude and direction the electric force at that particle, 
the con-esponding statical distribution of electricity is proportional evei-ywhere to 
the condensation thus produced. Again, Green's celebrated theorem is at once 
seen to be merely the well-kno\\-n equation of continuity expressed for a hetero- 
geneous fluid, whose density at every point is propoi-tional to one electric potential, 
and its displacement or velocity proportional to and in the direction of the electric 
force due to another potential. But this is not the time to pm-sue such an inquiry, 
for it would lead me at once to discussions as to the possible nature of electric 
phenomena and of gravitation. I believe myself to be fully justified in saying 
that, were the theoi-y of this operator thoroughly developed and generally known, the 
whole mathematical treatment of such physical questions as those just mentioned 
would undergo an immediate and enormous simplification ; and this, in its turn, 
would be at once followed by a proportionately large extension of our knowledge*. 

* The following extracts from letters of Sir W. E. Hamilton have a perfectly general 
application, so that I do not hesitate to publish them: — " De Morgan was the yery first 
" person to notice the Quaternions in print ; namely in a Paper on Triple Algebra, in the 
" Camb. Pliil. Trans, of 1844. It was. I think, about that time, or not very long after- 
" wards, that he wrote to me, nearly as follows : — ' I suspect, Hamilton, that you have 
" caught the right sow hy the ear ! ' JBetween us, dear Mr. Tait, I think that we shall begin 
" the SHEADING of it ! ! " " You might without offence to me, consider that I abused the 
" license of hope, which may be indulged to an inventor, if I were to confe.ss that I expect 
"the Quaternions to supply, hereafter, not sneTelj mathematical methods, \>nt also phy- 
" sical suggestions. And, in particular, you are quite welcome to smile if I say that it 
" does not seem extravagant to me to suppose that a fiiU possession of those a priori prin- 
" cipfes of mine, about the nviltiplication of vectors (including the Law of the Four Scales 
" and the conception of the Extra-spatial Unit), which have as yet been not much more 
" than hinted to the public, jiigut have led (I do not at all mean that in mi/ hands they 
" ever woidd have done .so) to an Anticipation of the great discovery of Oersted." 

" It appears to me that one, and not the least, of the services which quaternions may be 
" expected to do to mathematical analysis generally, is that their introduction -will compel 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. ^ 

And this is but one of the claims of Quaternions to the attention of physicists. 
When we come to the important questions of stress and strain in an elastic solid, 
we find again that all the elaborate and puzzling machinery of coordinates com- 
monly employed can be at once comprehended and kept out of sight in a mere 
single symbol — a linear and vector function, which is self-conjugate if the strain 
be pure. This is simply, it appears to me, a proof either that the elaborate machinery 
ought never to have been introduced, or that its use was an indication of a com- 
paratively savage state of mathematical civilization. In the motion of a rigid solid 
about a fixed point, a quaternion, represented hy a single symbol which is a func- 
tion of the time, gives us the operator which could bring the body by a single 
rotation from its initial position to its position at any assigned instant. In short, 
whenever with our usual means a result can be obtained in, or after much labour 
reduced to, a simple form. Quaternions -ndll give it at once in that fomi ; so 
that nothing is ever lost in point of simplicity. On the other hand, in numberless 
cases the Quaternion result is immeasurably simpler and more intelligible than 
any which can be obtained or even expressed by the usual methods. And it is not 
to be supposed that the modern Higher Algebra, which has done so much to sim- 
plify and extend the ordinary Cartesian methods, would be ignored by the general 
employment of Quaternions ; on the contrary. Determinants, Invariants, &c. 
present themselves in almost everj' Quaternion solution, and in forms which 
have received the full benefit of that simplification which Quaternions generally 
produce. Comparing a Quaternion investigation, no matter in what department, 
with the equivalent Cartesian one, even when the latter has availed itself to the 
utmost of the improvements suggested by Higher Algebra, one can hardly help 
making the remark that they contrast even more stronglj^ than the decimal 
notation with the binary scale or with the old Greek Arithmetic, or than the 
well-ordered subdivisions of the metrical system with the preposterous no-systems 
of Great Britain, a mere fragment of which (in the form of Tables of Weights and 
Measures) forms perhaps the most effective, if not the most ingenious, of the many 
instruments of torture employed in our elementary teaching. 

It is true that, in the eyes of the pure mathematician, Quaternions have one 
grand and fatal defect. They cannot be applied to space of n dimensions, they are 
contented to deal with those poor three dimensions in which mere mortals are 
doomed to dwell, but which cannot bound the limitless aspirations of a Cayley or a 
Sylvester. From the physical point of view this, instead of a defect, is to be re- 
garded as the greatest possible recommendation. It shows, in fact, Quaternions 
to be a special instrument so constructed for application to the Actual as to have 
thrown overboard everything which is not absolutely necessary, without the 
slightest consideration whether or no it was thereby being rendered useless for 
applications to the Ineonceivahle. 

The late Sir John Herschel was one of the first to perceive the value of Qua- 
ternions ; and there may be present some who remember him, at a British Asso- 
ciation Meeting not long after their invention, characterizing them as a " Cornu- 
copia from which, turn it how you will, something valuable is sure to fall." Is it not 
strange, to use no harsher word, that such a harvest has hitherto been left almost 
entirely to Hamilton himself? If but half a dozen tolerably good mathematicians, 
such as exist in scores in this country, were seriously to work at it, instead of 
spending (or rather wasting) their time, as so many who have the requisite leisure 
now do, in going over again what has been already done, or in working out mere 
details where a grand theory has been sketched, a very great immediate advance 
would be certain. From the majority of the papers in our few mathematical 
journals one would almost be led to fancy that IBritish mathematicians have too 
much pride to use a simple method while an unnecessarily complex one can be 

" those who adopt them (or even who admit that they may be reasonably adopted by other 
" persons) to consider, or to admit that others may usefully inquire, what common grounds 
" can be established for conclusions common to quaternions and to older branches of ma- 
" thematics." 

" Could any thing be simpler or more satisfactory? Don't jonfeel, as well as think, 
" that we are on a right track, and shall be thanked hereafter ? Never mind when." 

1* 



4r REFOKT 1871. 

had. No more telling example of this could be wished for than the insane delusion 
under which they permit Euclid to be employed in our elementary teaching. They 
seem voluntarily to weight alike themselves and their pupils for the race ; and a 
cynic might, perhaps without much injustice, say they do so that they may have mere 
self-imposed and avoidable difficulties to face instead of the new, real, and dreaded 
ones (belonging to regions hitherto unpenetrated) with which Quaternions would too 
soon enable them to come into contact. But this game will certainly end in disaster. 
As surely as Mathematics came to a relative stand-still in this country for nearly a 
century after Newton, so surely will it do so again if we leave our eager and 
watchful rivals abroad to take the initiative in developing the grand method of 
Hamilton. And it is not alone French and Germans whom we have now to 
dread, Russia, America, regenerated Italy, and other nations are all fairly entered 
for the contest. 

The flights of the imagination which occur to the pure mathematician are in general 
so much better described in his formulae than in words, that it is not remarkable to 
find the subject treated by outsiders as something essentially cold and uninteresting, 
while even the most abstruse branches of physics, as yet totally incapable of 
being popularized, attract the attention of the uninitiated. The reason may 
perhaps be sought in the fact that, while perhaps the only successful attempt to 
invest mathematical reasoning with a halo of glory — that made in this Section by 
Prof. Sylvester — is known to a comparative few, several of the highest problems 
of physics are connected with those simple observations which are possible to the 
many. The smell of lightning has been observed for thousands of years, it required 
the sagacity of Schonbein to trace it to the formation of Ozone. Not to speak of 
the (probably fabulous) apple of Newton, what enormous consequences did he 
obtain by passing light through a mere wedge of glass, and by simply laying a lens 
on a flat plate ! The patching of a trumpery model led Watt to his magnificent 
inventions. As children at the sea-shore plajing with a "roaring buckie," or in 
later life lazily puffing out rings of tobacco-smoke, we are illustrating two of the 
splendid researches of Helmholtz. And our President, by the bold, because simple, 
use of reaction instead of action, has eclipsed even his former services to the Sub- 
marine TelegTaph, and given it powers which but a few years ago woidd have been 
deemed unattainable. 

In experimental Physics our case is not hopeless, perhaps not as yet even alarm- 
ing. Still something of the same kind may be said in this as in pure Mathematics. 
If Thomson's Theory of Dissipation, for instance, be not speedily developed in this 
country, we shall soon learn its consequences from abroad. The grand test of our 
science, the proof of its being a reality and not a mere inventing of new terms and 
squabbling as to what they shall mean, is that it is ever advancing. There is no 
standing still ; there is no running round and round as in a beaten donkey-track, 
coming back at the end of a century or so into the old positions, and fighting the 
self-same battles under slightly different banners, which is merely another fonn of 
stagnation (Kinetic Stability' in fact). " A little folding of the hands to sleep," 
in chuckling satisfaction at what has been achieved of late years by our great 
experimenters, and we shall be left hopelessly behind. The sad fate of Newton's 
successors ought ever to be a warning to us. Trusting to what he had done, they 
allowed mathematical science almost to die out in this country, at least as com- 
pared with its immense progress in Germany and France. It required the united 
exertions of the late Sir J. Herschel and many others to render possible in these 
islands a Boole and a Hamilton. If the successors of Davy and Faraday pause to 
ponder even on their achievements, we shall soon be again in the same state of 
Ignominious inferiority. Who will then step in to save us ? 

Even as it is, though we have among us many names quite as justly great as any 
that our rivals can produce, we have also (even in our educated classes) such an 
immense amount of ignorance and consequent credulity, that it seems matter for 
surprise that true science is able to exist. Spiritualists, Circle-squarers, Perpetual- 
motionists, Believers that the earth is flat and that the moon has no rotation, 
swarm about us. They certainly multiply much faster than do genuine men of 
science. This is characteristic of all inferior races, but it is consolatory to re- 
member that in spite of it these soon become extinct. Your quack has his little 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. 5 

day, and disappears except to the antiquary. But in science nothing of value can 
ever be lost ; it is certain to become a stepping-stone on the way to further truth. 
Still, when our stepping-stones are laid, we should not wait till others employ 
them. *' Gentlemen of the Guard be kind enough to fire first " is a courtesy 
entirely out of date ; with the weapons of the present day it woidd be simply 
suicide. 

There is another point which should not be omitted in an address like this. For 
obvious reasons I must speak of the general question only, not venturing on ex- 
amples, though I coidd give many telling ones. Even among our greatest men of 
science in this country there is comparatively little knowledge of what has been 
already achieved, except of course in the one or more special departments culti- 
vated by each individual. There can be little doubt that one cause at least of this 
is to be sought in the extremely meagre interest which our statesmen, as a rule, 
take in scientific progress. While abroad we find half a dozen professore teaching 
parts of the same subject in one University (each having therefore reasonable leisure), 
with u.s one man has to do the whole, and to endeavour as he best can to make some- 
thing out of his very few spare moments. Along with this, and in great part due 
to it, there is often found a proneness to believe that what seems evident to the 
thinker cannot but have been long known to others. Thus the credit of many 
valuable discoveries is lost to Britain because her pliilosophers, having no time to 
spare, do not know that they are discoveries. The scientific men of other nations 
are, as a rule, better informed [certainly far better encouraged and less over- worked], 
and perhaps likewise are not so much given to self-depreciation. Until something 
resembling the 'Fortschritte der Physik,' but in an improved form, and published 
at smaller intervals and with much less delay, is established in this country, there 
is little hope of improvement in this respect. Why should science be imperfectly 
summarized in little haphazard scraps here and there, when mere property has its 
elaborate series of Money-articles and exact Broker's Share-lists ? Such a work 
would be very easy of accomplishment : we have only to begin boldly ; we do 
not need to go back, for in every year good work is being done at almost every part 
of the boundary between, as it were, the cultivated land and the still unpenetrated 
forest — enough at all events to show with all necessary accuracy whereaoouts that 
boundary Ues. 

There is no need of entering here on the question of Conservation of Energy ; 
it is thoroughly accepted by scientific men, and has revolutionized the greater part 
of Physics. The facts as to its history also are generally agreed upon, but differ- 
ences of a formidable kind exist as to the deductions to be drawn from them. 
These are matters, however, which will be more easily disposed of thirty years 
hence than now. The Transformation of Energy is also generally accepted, and, 
in fact, under various unsatisfactoiy names was almost popularly known before the 
Conservation of Energy was known in its entirety to more than a very few. But 
the Dissipation of Energy is by no means well known, and many of the results of 
its legitimate application have been received with doubt, sometimes even with 
attempted ridicule. Yet it appears to be at the present moment by far the most 
promising and fertile portion ot Natural Philosophy, having obvious applications 
of which as yet only a small percentage appear to have been made. Some, indeed, 
were made before the enunciation of the Principle, and have since been recognized 
as instances of it. Of such we have good examples in Fourier's great work on 
Heat-conduction, in