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Full text of "Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science"

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REPORT 



OF THE 



FORTY-SECOND MEETING 



01? THE _ 



BRITISH ASSOCIATION 



rOB THE 



ADVANCEMENT OE SCIENCE; 



HELD AT 



BRIGHTON IN AUGUST 1872. 



LONPON: 
JOHN MURKAY, ALBEMAKLE STREET. 

1873. 



PRINTED EV 
TAYLOR AND FHANC'IS, EED LION COURT, FLEET STEEKT. 











CONTENT S. 



'^J>/v^y\/v^r^^/■v•^/ 



Page 

Objects and llulos of the Association xvii 

Places of Meeting and Officers from conimencement xxiv 

Presidents and Secretaries of the Sections of the Association from 

commencement xxs 

Evening Lectures xl 

Lectures to the Operative Classes xlii 

Treasurer's Account xliii 

Table showing the Attendance and Ecceipts at previous Meetings . , xliv 

Officers of Sectional Committees slvi 

Officers and Council, 1872-73 xlvii 

Report of the Council to the General Committee xlviii 

Recommendations of the General Committee for Additional Reports 

and Researches in Science '. liii 

Synopsis of Money Grants lix 

Place of Meeting in 1874 Ix 

General Statement of Sums paid on accoiuit of Grants for Scientific 

Purposes l^i 

Arrangement of the General Meetings Ixviii 

Address by the President, Dr. ^Y. B. Carpenter, LL.D., F.R.S Ixix 

REPORTS OP RESEARCHES IN SCIENCE. 

Report on the Gaussian Constants for the year 1829, or a Theory of 

Terrestrial Magndism founded on all available ob.'.crvations. Ry H. 

Petersen and A. Erman ■*■ 

a2 



IV COXl'KNT.^. 



Page 



Second Supplementary Keport on the Extinct Birds of the Mascarone 
Islands, By Alfred Newton, M.A., P.R.S 23 

Beport of the Committee for Superintending the Monthly Reports of the 
Progress of Chemistry, consisting of Professor A. W. WiLLiAiisoN, 
F.R.S., Professor Euankland, F.liS., and Professor Roscoe, F.R.S. . . 2^ 

Report on the best means of providing for a Uniformity of Weights and 
Measures, with reference to the Interests of Science, by a Committee, 
consisting of Sir John Bowring, F.R.S., The Right Hon. Sir Stafford 
H. NoRTHCOTE, C.B., M.P., The Riglit Hon. Sir C. B. Adderley, M.P., 
Samuel Brown, F.S.S., Dr. Fare, F.R.S., Frank P. Felloaves, 
Professor Frankland, F.R.S. , James Heywood, F.R.S., Professor 
Leone Levi, F.S.A., F.S.S., C. W. Siemens, F.R.S., Professor A. W. 
"Williamson, F.R.S., Dr. George Glover, Sir Joseph Wditwortu, 
Bart., F.R.S., J. R. Napier, J. V. N. Bazalgette, and Sir W. Fair- 
BAiKN, Bart., F.R.S 25 

Eighth Report of the Committee for Exploring Kent's Cavern, Devon- 
shire, the Committee consisting of Sir Charles Lyell, Bart., F.R.S., 
Professor Phillips, F.R.S., Sir John LxruiiocK, Bart., F.R.S., John 
Evans, F.R.S., Edward Vivian, M.A., George Busk, F.R.S., William 
Boyd Dawkins, F.R.S., William Ayshfoed Sanford, F.G.S., and 
William Pengelly, F.R.S. (Reporter) ' 28 

Report of the Committee appointed for the purpose of promoting the 
Foundation of Zoological Stations in different parts of the World . . 47 

Fourth Report on the Fauna of South Devon. By C. Spenck Bate, F.R.S. 48 

Preliminary Report of the Committee appointed to construct and print 
Catalogues of Spectral Rays arranged upon a scale of Wave-numbers, 
— the Committee consisting of Dr. Huggins, Mr. Lockyer, Professor 
Reynolds, Professor Swan, and Mr, Stone y (Reporter) 5:5 

Third Report of the Committee appointed to consider and leport on the 
various Plans proposed for Legislating on the subject of Steam-Boiler 
Explosions with a view to their Prevention, — the Committee consist- 
ing of Sir William Fairijairn, Bart., C.E., F.R.S., &c., John Penn, 
C.E., F.R.S., Frederick J. Bramwell, C.E., Hugh Mason, Samuel 
RiGBY, Thomas Schofield, Charles F. Beyer, C.E., Thomas Webster, 
Q.C., Edward Easion, C.E., and Lavington E, Fletcher, C.E 57 

Report of the Committee, consisting of James Glaisher, F.R.S., of the 
Royal Observatory, Greenwich, Robert P, Greg, F.R.S., Alexander 
S. Herschel, F.R.A.S., and Charles Brooke, F.R.S., Secretary to the 
Meteorological Society, on Observations of Luminous Meteors, 1871— 
72 ; drawn up by Alexander S, Herschel, F.R,A,S 57 

Experiments on the Surface-friction experienced by a Plane moving 
through water. By W. Froude, F.R.S 118 

Report on the Antagonism between the Action of Active Substances, 
By Thomas R. FRiSER, M.D., Secretary to the Committee, consisting 
of Sir R. Christison, Bart,, Dr, Laycock, and Dr. Eraser 124 

Fifth Report of the Committee, consisting of Sir W. Thomson, F.R.S., 
Professor Eyerett, Sir Charles Ltell, Bart,, F.R,S., Professor J. 



CONTENTS. V 

F.ge 

Clerk Maxwell, P.ll.S., Professor Phillips, F.E.S., G. J. Symons, 
P.M.S., Professor IIamsay, F.R.S., Professor Geieie, P.E.S., J. 
Glaisher, F.P.S., Rev. Dr. Graham, G. Maw, P.G.S., W. Pengelly, 
F.R.S., S. J. Maceie, F.G.S., Professor Hitll, F.R.S., and Professor 
Ansted, F.R.S., appointed for the juirpose of investigating the Rate of 
Increase of Underground Temperature downwards in various locali- 
ties of Dry Land and under Water. By Professor Everett, D.C.L., 
Secretary 128 

Preliminary Report of the Committee on Siemens's Electrical-Resistance 
Pyrometer, consisting of Professor A. W. Williamson, F.R.S., Sir 
W. Thomson, D.C.L., F.R.S., and Professor J. Clerk Maxwell, 
LL.D., F.R.S 134 

Fourth Report of the Committee on the Treatment and Utilization of 
Sewage, consisting of Richard B. Grantham, C.E., F.G.S. (Chair- 
man), Professor W. H. Corfield, M.A., M.D., J. Bailey Denton, 
C.E., F.G.S., Dr. J. H. Gilbert, F.R.S., John Thornhill Harrison, 
C.E., W. Hope, V.C, Lieut.-Col. Leach, R.E., Dr. A. Voelcker, 
F.R.S., and Professor A. W. Williamson, F.R.S 135 

Interim Report of the Committee appointed for the purpose of making 
experiments on instruments for Measuring the Speed of Ships and 
Currents by means of the difference of height of two columns of liquid, 
— the Committee consisting of Prof. W. J. Macquoen Rankine, C. 
W. Merrieield, F.R.S., Mr. F. J. Beauwell, and Mr. Alfred E. 
Fletcher (Secretary) 176 

Report on the Rainfall of the British Isles, by a Committee, consisting of 
Charles Brooke, F.R.S. (Chairman), J. F. Bateman, C.E., F.R.S., J. 
Glaishee, F.R.S., R. W. Mylne, C.E., F.R.S., Prof. J. Phillips, 
F.R.S., T. Hawksley, C.E., Prof. J. C. Adams, F.E.S., Prof. J. .J. 
Sylvester, F.R.S., C. Tomlinson, F.R.S., R. Field, C.E., Dr. Pole, 
C.E., F.R.S., Prof. D. T. Ansied, F.R.S., A. Buchan, F.R.S.E., and 
G. J. Symons, Secretary 176 

Report of the Committee, consisting of the Rev. Dr. Ginsrueg, W. Hep- 
avorth Dixon, Rev. Dr. Tristram, F.R.S., General Chesney, Rev. 
Professor Rawlinson, and John A. Tikn£, appointed for the purpose 
of undertakiiig a Geographical Exploration of the Country of Moab . . 210 

Sur I'climination des Fonctions Arbitraircs. By Ch. Hermite, Coit. 
Member of the Mathematical Society, London 233 

Report on the Discovery of Fossils in certain remote parts of the ITorth- 
western Highlands. By William Jolly 238 

Report of the Committee on Earthquakes in Scotland. The Committee 
consists of Dr. Bryce, F.G.S., Sir W. Thomson, F.R.S., D. Milne- 
Home, F.R.S.E., and J. Brottgh 240 

Fourth Report of the Committee appointed to investigate the Structure 
of Carboniferous-Limestone Corals. The Committee consists of James 
Thomson, F.G.S., and Professor Harkness, F.R.S 241 

Report of the Committee, consisting of J. F. Bateman, C.E., F.R.S., 
P. Le Is^'eve Foster, M.A., C. W. Merrifield, F.R.S., E. Easton, 



VI CONTENTS. 

F.G.S,, F. J. Bramwell, C.E., W. Hope, V.C, awl 11. Bauerman, "^' 
F.G.H., appointed to consider the mode in whicli nc^v Inventions and 
Claims for Howard in respect of adopted Inventions arc examined and 
dealt with by the different Departments of Government, and to report 
on the best moans of removing any real causes of dissatisfaction, as 
well as of silencing unfounded complaints 243 

Report of the Committee for discussing Observations of Lunar Objects 
suspected of Change. The Committee consists of the Ilev. T. W. 
Webb, the Rev. Robkkt Harley, F.R.S., and Edward CROssLEr, 
Secretary 245 

Report on the MoUusca of Europe compared with those of Eastern North 
America. By J. GwrN jEFPBErs, F.R.S 392 

Report of the Committee for the purpose of investigating the Chemical 
Constitution and Optical Properties of Essential Oils 311 

Report of the Committee, consisting of the Rev. Canon Tkistram, Pro- 
fessor jSTewxox, II. E. Dresser, J. S. Hahtixg, and the Rev. A. F. 
Barnes, appointed for the purpose of continuing the investigation on 

, the desirability of establishing a " Close Time " for the preservation of 
indigenous animals 320 

8ixth Report of the Committee appointed for the purpose of continuing 
Researches in Fossil Crustacea, consisting of Professor P. ilAnrrx 
Duncan, F.R.S., Henry "Woodward, F.G.S., and Robert Etheridge, 
F.R.S. Drawn up by Henry Woodward, F.G.S 321 

Report of the Coramitteo appointed to organize an Expedition for ob- 
serving the Solar Eclipse of Dec. 12, 1871 327 

Preliminaiy Report of a Committee, consisting of Professor ^Michael 
Foster, F.R.8., Professor W. H. Feower, F.R.S., and Benjajijn 
LowNE, M.R.C.S., appointed for the purpose of making Tcrato-em- 
bryological Inquiries 3:M 

Report on Recent Progress in Elliptic and Hyperclliptic Functions. By 
W. U. L. Russell, F.R.S '. 33.5 

Report of the Committee appointed fur the purpose of promoting the 
extension, improvement, and harmonic analysis of Tidal Observations. 
Consisting of Sir William TnojisoN, LL.D., F.R.S., Prof. J. C. Adams, 
F.R.S., J. Oldham, William Parkes, if.Inst.C.E., Prof. Raxkine, 
LL.D., F.R.S., and Admiral Richards, R.N., F.R.S 3.5o 

On the Brighton Waterworks. By Edward Easton, C.E., F.G.S SO^ 

On Amsler's Planimcter. By F. J. Beamwell, C.E 401 



CONTENTS. Vll 



NOTICES AND ABSTRACTS 



OF 



MISCELLANEOUS COMMUNICATIONS TO THE SECTIONS. 



matiie:\iatics and physics. 

Pfige 
Adtliess by Warrex De La Eue, Esq., D.C.L., Ph.D., F.R.S., V.P.C.S., 
V.r.U.A.S., President of the Section 1 

Mathematics. 

Professor Clifford on the Contact of Surfaces of the Second Order ^-ith 
other Surfaces 13 

Mr. Matthew Collins on new Improvements in Approximating more rapidly 
than usual to Square, Cube, and other Koots of a given Number X 13 

Mr. J. W. L. Glaisher on. the Evaluation in Series of certain Definite Integrals 15 

.. on the Function that stands in the same Relation to 

Bernoulli's Numbers that the Gamma-function does to Factorials 17 

on the Law of Distribution of Prime Numbers 10 



Mr. J. E. IIilgard on a ^'erification of the Probability Function 21 

Mr. F. W. Ne-wt-ian on Tridiametral Quartan Curves 22 

on Quartan Curves with 3 or 4 Diameters 23 

on ]\ronodiametral Quartan Curves 23 

Professor II. J. Stepiif.n Smith on the Circular Transformation of Mubius . . 24 



Gekeral Physics. 

Sir. P. G. Tait on Sympathy of Pendulums 24 

I'rofessor James Thomson- on Relations between the Gascou.s, the Liquid, 
and the Solid States of Matter -1 



ASTROKOMT. 

Mr. Howard GnLnss on some new Points in the ^Mounting of Astronomical 
Telescopes '^" 

Dr. Janssen sur le Resultat de ses Observations dans I'lnde sur TEclipse du 12 
Dec. 1871 ^^ 



VUl CONTENTS. 

Light. 

Ppge 

Mr. J. H. Brown on Refraction and Solar Spots 30 

Professor Cnot'LLEBOis on tlie Action of Quartz on Ultra- Violet Rays SO 

on Tubes Phosphorescent by Friction oG 

Professor J. D. E\Ti:BETT on Focal Lines 30 

on a Difficulty in the Theory of Aberration 80 

on Mirage 30 

Mr. George Forbes on Astronomical Refi'action 30 

Mr. Thomas Gaffikld on the Action of Sunlight on Colourless and Coloured 
Glass 37 

Mr. Arthur Schuster on the Spectrum of Hydrogen 38 

The Plon. J. W. Strutt on the Application of Photography to copy Diffrac- 
tion-gratings 39 

Professor James Thomso^^ on Atmospheric Refraction of Inclined Rays, and 
on the Path of a Level Ray 41 

Dr. T. Ogier Ward on a Phenomenon connected with Diffraction 45 

Colonel Stuart "V^^ortley on the Importance of the Salts of L^ranium in 
Photography 45 

Professor Ch. V. Zenger on the Velocity of Light in the Chemical Elements, 
and on their Crystalline Form 40 

Heat. 

Mr. W. F. Barrett on a Condition affecting the Spheroidal State of Liquids, 
and its probable effect on certain Boiler-Explosions 48 

Dr. William B. Carpenter on the General Oceanic Thermal Circulation . . 48 

Mr. James Dewar on Recent Estimates of Solar Temperature 50 

on the Temperature of the Electric Spark 51 

Dr. J. HoPKiNSON on the Stresses produced in an Elastic Solid by Inequali- 
ties of Temperature 61 

ElECTBICITT AND MAGNETISM. 

Professor P. G. Tait on Double Neutral Points in Thermoelectric Cun-ents . 52 

Mr. G. K. Winter on the LTse of Electromagnetic instead of Electrostatic 
Induction in Cable-Signalling 52 

Meteorology. 

Rer. H. A. Boys on Greek Meteorology 53 

M. W. DE FoNViELLE on the Ad-\antages of keeping Records of Physical 
Phenomena connected with Thunder-storms 55 

Mr. Charles Meldruji on a Periodicity in the Frequency of Cyclones in the 
■ Indian Ocean south of the Equator 50 

Mr. Frederick Ernest Sawyer on the Rainfall of Sussex 58 

ACOTTSTICS. 

M. Rudolf Konig on Musical Beats and Resultant Tones 58 

Mr. G. A'^andeleur Lee on the Human Voice as a Musical Instrument .... 58 



CONTENTS. IX 

I^STEUMENTS. 

Page 

I^Fr. W. Maesham Adams on the Meusuratoiv a new Instrument for the Solu- 
tion of Triangles 59 

Mr. George Dines on a new Ilj^grometer .59 

Dr. J. HoPKiNSON on a Nautical Photometer 69 

Dr. .Tanssen sur un Nouveau Thermometre destine a prendre les Temperatures 

de la Surface des Eaux Marines ou Fluviales 59 

Professor John Phillips on the Temperature-correction of an Aneroid .... (31 

Mr. Macneil Telfoed on the new Marriotti Barometer G2 

Professor Ch. V. Zengeb on the Spiral Top 62 

on the Tangential Balance and a new Saccharometer 63 

Peogress of SciEIirCE. 

Lieut.-Col. A. Strange on the Duty of the British Association with respect 

to the Distribution of its Funds 63 



CHEMISTRY. 

Address by J. II. Gladstone, Ph.D., F.R.S., President of the Section 64 

Dr. A. Crum Brown on Chemical Nomenclature 69 

Dr. F. Crace-Calyert on the Relative Power of Various Substances in pre- 
venting Putrefaction and the Development of Protoplasmic and Fungus Life 69 

Mr. "WiLLiAii Lant Carpenter on the Presence of Albumen in Neutral 
Fats, and on a New Process for the Manufacture of Stearic and Palmitic 
Acids, &c 71 



on the Mode of Collection of Samples of 



Deep-sea Water, and of their Analysis for dissolved Gaseous Constituents, 
employed on board II.M.S. ' Porcupine ' during the Summers of 1869 and 
1870 72 

Mr. W. J. Cooper on a proposed Method of preventing the Fermentation of 
Sewage 73 

Mr. John Galletly on Ignition of Cotton by Saturation with Fatty Oils . . 73 

Mr. George Gladstone on the Dust thrown up by Vesuvius during the late 
Eruption 74 

Dr. J. II. Gladstone on filiform Native Silver 75 

and Mr. Alfred Tribe on the mutual helpfulness of 

Chemical Affinity, Heat, and Electricity in producing the Decomposition of 
Water 75 

The Rev. II. Highton on a Powerful Galvanic Battery 77 

Professor J. W. Mallet on the effect upon Meteoric Iron, as regards the cnpa- 
bility of being forged, of previous heating to redness or whiteness in vacuo . 77 

on the Fusion of Metallic Arsenic 77 



on the occurrence of Native Sulphuric Acid in 

Eastern Texas 78 

on the occurrence in recent Pine timber of Fich- 



telite, a Hydrocarbon hitherto only known in a fossil state 79 

Dr. T. Moffat on Dr. Moffat's Tube Ozonometer 79 

Dr. Oppenheim on the Action of Phosphorus on Alkaline Solutions of Metals 79 



X CONTENTS. 

Page 

Ur. Oni) ou tlie Crystallizatiou of Salts in Colloid Soliitious 7"J 

Ilerr G-. tom Eath — The Crystallograpliic System of Leucite, hitherto sup- 
posed to be regular, is quadratic 79 

Mr. W. Chandler Roberts on a Curve Illustrating the British Gold Ooiuage 82 

Dr. E. ScHENK on the Amount of Heat required to raise Elementary Bodies 

from the absolute zero to their state of Fusion 82 

Mr. T. E. Thorpe on an improved form of Filter Pump 83 

I\Ir. Alfred Tribe on the Precipitation of Silver by Copper 84 

Mr. Gr. Un-win, Specimens of Agate and other Natural Colloid Silica ex- 
hibited b)\ 85 

Mr. J. F. Walker on Dinitrobrombenzene 85 

Mr. J, Alfred Waniclyn on the Continuous Production of Oxygen 85 

on some New Methods of Analyzing the Ethers. . 85 

Mr. Walter Weldox on the Manufacture of Chlorine by means of Manga- 

nite of Magnesium 86 

Mr. John Williams on the Preparation of Guarauine 80 

Dr. T. Wood on Teaching Elementary Chemistry to Boys under 14 years of Age 87 

Mr. C. J. Woodward on a Modification of Ilofmaun's Apparatus for Electro- 
lysis of Water 87 

Dr. C. R. A. Weight on New Derivatives from Morphine- and Codeine 87 



GEOLOGY. 

Address by Robert A. C. Godwin-Austen, F.R.S., F.G.S., Szc, President 
of the Section 90 

Dr. William B. Carpenter on the Temperature and other Physical Condi- 
tions of Inland Seas, in their relation to Geological Inquiry 9G 

Mr. W. Carrtjthers on the Tree Ferns of the Coal-measures, and their Affi- 
nities with existing Forms 98 

Mr. Thomas Davidson on the present state of our hnowledge in connexion 
with the Brachiopoda 99 

• and Dr. WiLLiAjf King on the Genera Trimerella, 

Dinoholus, and Monomcrella 100 

Mr. W. Boyd Dawkins on the Physical Geography of the Mediterranean 
during the Pleistocene Age 100 

Professor Albert Gaudry on the Fossil Animals of Mount Leberon (Vancluse) 1C2 

The Rev. J. Gunn ou the Prospect of finding Productive Coal-measures in 
Norfolk and Suflbllv:, with Suggestions as to the place v.'here an experi- 
mental Boring should be made 102 

Professor James ITall on the occun-ence of Trunks of Psaronius in an erect 
position, resting on their original bed, in Rocks of Devonian age in the State 
of New York ; with some Inferences regarding the Condition of the Sea- 
bottom and Shore-line during the Deposition of the Strata 103 

on the Relations of the Middle and Upper Silurian 

(Clinton, Niagara, and Lower Helderlierg) Rocks of the United States .... 103 

Professor Hhbert on the Challc of the Paris Basin 104 

Mr. Henry Hicks on the Cambrian and Silurian Rocks of Ramsey Island, 
St. David's 107 

Mr. John Hopkinson on the Graptolites of the Arenig Rocks of St. David's . 107 



CONTENTS. XI 

Pago 
Mr. James Howell on the Miucrtals lately found in tlio Draiuage-works at 

Brighton lOS 

on Super-Cretaceous Formations in the Neighbourhood 

of Brighton 100 

Professor Edward Hull on the Trachyte Porphjiies of Antrim and Down, 
in the North of Ireland Ill 

on the Raised Beach of the North-east of Ireland . . 113 

Mr. J. GrWYN Jeffreys on Submarine Explorations, with reference to 
M. Delesse's work entitled " Lithologie du fond des Mers " llo 

Mr. J. W. JuDD on the Discovery of Cretaceous Hocks in the Islands of Mull 
and Inch Kenneth 115 

Mr. G. A. Lebour on the Geological Distribution of Goitre in England .... llo 

Mr. J. E. Lee on Veins or Fissures in the Keuper, filled with Rhretic bone-bed, 
at Goldcliffe in Monmouthshire , 110 

Mr. "William Molyneux on the Occurrence of Copper- and Lead-ores in the 
Bunter Conglomerates of Cannock Chase 116 

Mr. C. Moore on the Presence of Naked Echinodermata (Holofhitria) in the 
Inferior Oolite and Lias 117 

Dr. H. Alleyne Nicholson on the Geology of the Thunder Bay and Sha- 
bendowan Mining-Districts, on the North Shore of Lake Superior 118 

on Orionia, a new Genus of Fossil Tubicolar 

Anuelides, with Notes on the Genus TcntacuUtes 118 

Mr. W. Pengelly on Machairodus laticlens found by the Rev. J. MacEuery 
in Kent's Cavern, Torquay 119 

Herr G. voii Rath on a remarkable Block of Lava ejected by Vesuvius at 
the Great Eruption, April 1872, which proves the formation of Silicates 
through Sublimation 120 

Mr. T. A. Readwin on the Coal- and Iron-Mines of the Arigna District of 
the Counaught Coal-measm-es, Ireland 122 

Mr. H. G. Seeley on the Occurrence of a British Fossil Zeuc/lochn at Barton, 
Hants 122 

Dr. Robert Sur on certain Quartz-Nodules occiuTing in the Crj'stallino 
Schists near Killin, Perthshire 122 

Mr. W. Topley on the Sub-Wealden Exploration 122 

The Rev. Canon Tristram on the Geology of Moab 123 

Dr. T. Ogier AVard on the Formation and Stratification of Sedimentary Rocks 123 

on pSlickensides, or Rubbed, Polished, or Striated Roclis 123 



BIOLOGY. 

Address by Sir John Lubbock, Bart., M.P., F.R.S., Vice-Chancellor of the 
University of London, President of the Section 123 

Botany. 

Mr. W. Carruthers on Traquairia, a Radiolarian Rhizopod from the Coal- 
measures 12G 

Mr. C. F. Dennet on Ramie, a new Textile Plant ; with Description of its 
Uses, Mode of Propagation, Cultivation, as practised in the Southern United 
States of America 12G 



XU CONTENTS. 

Page 

Professor Dickson on the Cones of Pinus pinaster 127 

on Stigmari(c from the Fossiliferous Strata at Auchentorlie 127 

Professor Thiselton-Dyer on Phylloxera vastatrix 127 

Mr. A. W. Hayne on the Flora of Moab 128 

Mr. W. B. Hemsley's Summary Analysis of the Flora of Sussex (Phrenogams 
and Ferns) 128 

Professor Laavson on some Specimens of Tortula incUnata 1 20 

3Ir. M. Moggridge on a curious Elm 129 



Zoology. 

Professor ^Vllman on the Structure and Development oi Mitraria 129 

on some points in the Development of Vorticellidce 130 

, on the Structure of Noctiluca 131 

on the Structure of Edicardsia 132 

on the Structure of Cijplwiimites 133 

Prof. P. J. Van Beneden sur les Baleines du Crag; d'Anvers 134 

Mr. HiCHARD Gail on Gail's Lock Salmon-pass or Swimming-stair 135 

Mr. H. E. Dresser, British Specimens of ILjpohis idcrina exhibited by ... . 13G 

M. Paul Gervais sur les Dents du Blacrauchenia et leur Mode de Remplace- 
ment 13G 

The Rev. John T. Gulick on Diversity of Evolution under one set of Extenial 
Gonditions , 13G 

Capt. Marshall Hall on the employment of Yachts in Deep-sea Researches 130 

Mr. J. GwYN Jeffreys on the Mollusca of Em-ope compared with those of 
Eastern North America . . . , 137 

Mr. F. T. MoTT on the Theory of the Scientific Value of Beauty in relation to 
the doctrines of Mr. Darwin and Mr. Galton 137 

Dr. H. Alleyne Nicholson's Preliminary Report onDredgings in Lake Ontario 137 

Mr. R. A. Peacock, How a National Natural-History Museum might be 
built and arranged with advantage 138 

Mr. John Robertson on the Perforating Instruments of Pholas Candida .... 140 

Mr. P. L. ScLATER on a new Rhinoceros, with Remarks on the Recent Species 
of this Genus and their Distribution 140 

on an apparently new Marine Animal from the Northern 

Pacific 140 

Mr. D. A. Spalding on Instinct, with original Observations on Young Animals 141 

Mr. J. F. Whiteaves on a Deep-sea Dredging-Expedition round the Island of 
Anticosti, in the Gulf of St. Lawrence 143 



Anatomt and Physiology. 

Professor Burdon Sanderson's Address to the Department of Anatomy and 
Physiology ' . . . . 14-5 

Prof. W. H. Flower on the Arrangement and Nomenclature of the Lobes of 
the Liver in Mammalia 1,50 

Mr. A. H. Garrod on Puke-Rate and the Forces which vary it 151 



CON'TENTS. Xlll 

Page 

Mr. Geohge Harris ou the Coucun-ent Contemporaneous Progress of lleno- 
vation and Waste in Animated Frames, and the extent to which such Opera- 
tions are controUable by Artificial Means 1'52 

M. G. PoucHET on the Mechanism of the Change of Colour in Fishes and 

Crustacea 1^2 

Dr. Eadcliffe on the Mechanism of Muscular Contraction 152 

Dr. James Ross on the Graft Theory of Disease 153 

Dr. BuRDON Sanderson on the Cause of the Respiratory Variations of Arte- 
rial Pressure 154 

Mr. E. A. Sch.\fer's Experiments relating to the Coagulation of the Blood. . 155 

Professor Carl Semper on the Normal and Abnormal Growth of Limnceus . 156 

Professor Struthers ou the Occurrence of the Supracondyloid Process in 
Man 150 

on the Sternum and Pelvic Bone in the Right Whale 

and in Great Fin-Whales 156 

on the Occurrence of Finger-muscles in the Bottle- 
nose Whale {Hypei'oodon lidens) 150 

Anthropology. 

Colonel A. Lane Fox's Address to the Department of Anthropology 157 

The Rev. J. C. Atkinson on the Predominating Danish Aspect of the Local 
Nomenclature of Cleveland, Yorkshire 175 

Mr. C. Spence Bate on the Exploration of some Tumuli on Dartmoor 175 

Mr. J. F. Campbell on a Visit to the Hypogeum 175 

Mr. Arcuibald Campbell on the Looshais 170 

Mr. A. A. Carmichael on a Hypogeum at Valaquie, North Uist 170 

Dr. Charnock on Sussex River-Names 170 

on certain Geographical Names in the County of Sussex .... 177 

. on Roumanian Gipsies 177 

on the Gipsy Dialect called " Sim " 177 

Mr. Hyde Clarke on the Ethnological and Philological Relations of the 
Caucasus 17/ 

. on the Mangnema or Manyema of Dr. Livingstone 178 

Mr. Charles T. Croger on Tumuli at Ascheraden in Livonia 178 

Mr. W. Boyd Dawkins and R. H. Tiddeman's Report on the Victoria Cave, 
explored by the Settle-Cave-Exploration Committee 178 

Sir Walter Elliot on the Primitive Weapons of Ancient India 180 

Mr. John Ev.vns on the Alphabet and its Origin 181 

Sir Duncan Gibb on a Pata-patoo from New Zealand 185 

on Stone Implements and Fragments of Potterj"- from Canada 180 

Major II. H. Godwin-Austen on the Garo Hill Tribes of Bengal 186 

The Rev. W. Greenwell on the BaiTows of the Yorkshire AVolds 187 

Mr. George Harris on Theories regarding Intellect and Instinct, with an 
attempt to deduce a satisfactory conclusion therefrom 188 

9 



XIV CONTENTS. 

Pag-- 

Mr. T. M^K. IIlghics oh a series of iragments of Cbeit collected below a 
chert-beaiing limestone in Yorkshire 189 

Prof. T. RupEET JoiSTES on some Bone and other Implements from the Caves 
of Perigord, France, hearing uiarka ir;dicati^-e of Ownership, Tallying, or 
Gambling "l^ . . . ISO 

Mr. Joseph Kaines on Western Anthropologists and extra-Western Commu- 
nities 189 

Lieut. C. CooPEE. King on the Discorery of a Flint-Implement Station in 
Wishmoor Bottom, near Sandhurst 193 

3Ir. A. L. Lewis on the Pretended Identification of the English Nation with 
the "Lost House of Israel " 190 

Mr. M. MoGGRiDGE on the Skeleton of the Red Rocks 190 

Dr. T. Nicholas on the Ethnological Affinities of the French and English 
Peoples 191 

Dr. H. Alleyne Nicholson's Notice of a Silicified Forest in the Rocky 
Mountains, with an account of a supposed Fossil Chip ", 102 

Mr. John S. Phene on some Evidences suggestive of a Common Migration 
from the East, shown by Archaic Remains in America and Britain 192 

Professor Rolleston on the Skulls obtained in Canon Greenwell's Excavations 193 

on the Yv'eddo of Ceylon 194 

Mr. R. B. Sha-w' on the Religious Cairns of the Himalayan Region 194 

Mr. R. S. Symes on Rubbings from St. Patrick's Chair, Go. Mayo, Ireland . . 197 

Mr. W. TopLEY on the Relation of the Parish Boundaries in the South-east of 
England to great Physical Features, particularly to the Chalk Escarpment. 197 

Mr. C. Staniland Wake on the Origin of Serpent-Worship 198 

The Rev. H. H. WrNWOOD, Flint Implements from South Africa exhibited by 198 



GEOGRAPHY. 

Address hy Feancis Galton, F.R.S., President of the Section 108 

Mr. W. P. Andeew on the Euphrates- Valley Route to India 20-3 

Mr. JoiTN Ball on the Orography of the Chain of the Great Atlas 203 

Dr. Beandis on the Geographical Distribution of Forests in India 205 

Dr. J. C. Beown on the Desiccation of South Africa 207 

Mr. Ai.EXANDEE BucHAN on the Deep-water Temperature of Lochs Lomond, 
Katrine, and Tay 207 

Mr. E. Button on Explorations in the Gold Region of the Limpopo 208 

Mr. Geyf Jaxa de Bykowski on a Through Railway Route to India, via 
Russia and the Oxus Valley 200 

Lieut.-Colonel J. A. Geakt on Dr. Livingstone's Recent Discoveries 2(9 

The Rev. Edwaed Hale on the Place of Geography, Political and Physical, 
in Education \ " 200 

Mr. H. II. HowoETii on Recent Changes of Level in Land and Sea 210 

Capt. Felix Jones on the Direct Highvv^ay to India considered 210 

Mr. G. Lejioine on the Relation of Forests to Hydrology 210 

Extracts from the Ofllcial Despatches of Dr. Livingstone 211 



CONTENTS. XV 

l':ige 

Mr. W. F. Mayers on the Pautliays of Yunnan . , 211 

Mr. A. MossMAN on the Topography of Yeddo 211 

Capt. SiiERARD OsBOiiN on Polar Exploration 211 

Mr. 11. B. Shaw on the Physical Features of the Pamir and its Aryan In- 
habitants 213 

Mr. H. M. Stanley on Discoveries at the Northern End of Lake Tanganyika 213 

General R. Steachey on the Scope of Scientific Geography, illustrated by 
Remarks on the Climate of British India 214 

Sir G. Young on the Question " Is the Asiatic EmigTation to the West 
Indies likely to be a Permanent Fact in IVIodern Geography ? " 215 



ECONOMIC SCIENCE and STATISTICS. 

Address by Professor II. Fawcett, M.P., President of the Section 217 

Major-Geueral Sir James E. Alexandeh on the Pollution of Rivers 220 

Miss Lydia E, Becker on Statistics regarding the Attendance and Education 
of Girls in the Elementary Schools of Manchester 220 

Mr. C. G. Bunting on the importance of providing additional facilities for the 
Instruction of School-Board Pupils in the Higher Branches of Knowledge . 222 

Mr. Herbert Burgess on International Decimal Coinage 222 

Mr. Hyde Clarke on Polygamy as affecting Population 224 

Mr. Frank P. Fellowes's Suggestions for improving and extending our 
National Accounts ; being a continuation of Mr. Fellowes's Paper read at 
the Edinburgh Meeting, " On a proposed Doomsday Book, &c.'' 224 

Professor Hull on a Proposal for supplyiuo- Pure Water to Villages and 
Country Parishes in Central and Eastern Divisions of England 226 

Miss Shirrbef on the National Union for Improving the Education of Women 226 

Dr. Edv\'ard Ssuxn on the Economic and Nutritive Value of the three prin- 
cipal Preserved Foods, viz. Preserved Milk, Preserved Meat, and Liebig's 
Extract of Meat 227' 



MECHANICAL SCIENCE. 

Address by Frederick J. Bramwell, C.E., President of the Section 227 

^.Ir. C. Bergeron on the Rapid and Economical Transport of I\Ierchandise . . 241 

Mr. D. T. Bostel on a Modificatiou of the Earth-Clo&et 241 

INIr. C. A. BowDLER on Aerial Navigation 241 

Mr. D. Carter on a Modification of tlie Earth-Closet 212 

Mr. Hyde Clarke on the Progress of the Through Railway to India 242 

Mr. J. P. CoLBRON on the Drainage of Shoreliam 2^2 

Mr. T. CuRLEY on the Sewage Difficulty 242 

Mr. C. F. Dennet on Breach-Loading Firearms 242 

Mr. Richard Eaton on certain Economical Improvements in the Construction 
of Locomotive Engines, by the addition of Mechanical x'^ppliances for the 
use of Heated Air in combination with Steam, on the principle invented bj' 
George Warsop 243 

Mr. W. R. F.ckart on Marine Propulsion , 243 



XVI CONTENTS. 

Page 
Mr. W. Fleming on the Steering of Ships, in special relation to a new form 
of Rudder 243 

Mr. P. Le Neve Foster, Jan., Description of the New Branch Canal leading 
from the Canal Cavour for Irrigating the Province of Lomellina 243 

Mr. W. Froude's Description of an Apparatus for automatically recording 
the Rolling of a Ship in a Seaway 243 

Mr. John G. Gamble on the Brighton Intercepting and Outfall Sewers .... 245 

Mr. Alexander M'^Callum Gordon on the Distribution of Pure Water to 

Dwellings 246 

Mr. E. J. Hill on Boat-lowering Apparatus 246 

Mr. C. Hodgson on Wire Tramwaj's 246 

Mr. W. Hope on the Estimation of the Error in the Flight of Pleavy Projec- 
tiles due to the Woolwich System of Rifling 246 

Mr. C. W. Merrifield on the Measurement of Waves 246 

Mr. William Paul on the relative Value of Clarified and Unclarified Sewage 
as a Manure 247 

Mr. Frederick Ransome on some Recent Improvements in the Manufacture 
of xVrtiiicial Stone, and tlie Application of such Stone to Constructive and 
other Purposes 248 

Maj.-Gen. H. Y. D. Scott on Defecating Sewage iind Utilizing the Deposit 
for the preparation of Lime and Cement 250 

on tlie Agricultural Value of the Lime Compounds 

obtained by Defecating Sewage 250 

. — ■ on the Selenitic Method of making Mortar 250 

Mr. John Smyth, Jun., on an Apparatus for testing the AVater-stopping cfli- 
ciency of Clay Soils and other Substances under various pressures 250 

Mr. W. SvMONS on a Plan for Railway Amalgamation with Government 

Control ' 251 

Prof. Sir W. Thomson on the use of Steel Wire for Deep-sea Soundings .... 251 

on the Identification of Lights at Sea 251 

' Mr. A. Upward on Drilling-Apparatus for Gas- and Water-Mains 252 

Mr. Thomas Webster on the advancement of Science due to Patented In- 
ventions 252 

Mr. A. Wylie on the Progress of Invention in Breech-loading Small Arms 
during the past Twenty Years 252 



EKEATA IN EEPORT FOR 1871- 

In Mr. Peacock's paper, p. 240 (Trans, of Sections) :— 
In second paragraph, line 2, cMc and. 
In line 5 of same paragraph, for 8 read 2. 



ERRATA IN THE PRESENT VOLUME. 
Page 352 (Reports), lino 8 from bottom, /or J<.(i',~ .'.w^tt + JcV . . . ) rend J.(«'i-M,7r 

„ 108 (Trans, of Sections), line 27, for radiatua read radicans. 



OBJECTS AND RULES 



OP 



THE ASSOCIATION. 



OBJECTS. 

The Association- contemplates no interference with tlie ground occupied by 
other institutions. Its objects are : — To give a stronger impulse and a more 
systematic direction to scientific inquiry, — to promote the intercourse of those 
who cultivate Science in different parts of the British Empire, with one an- 
other and with foreign philosophers, — to obtain a more general attention to 
the objects of Science, and a removal of any disadvantages of a public kind 
which impede its progress. 

RULES. 

Admission of Members and Associates. 

All persons who have attended the first Meeting shall be entitled to be- 
come Members of the Association, upon subscribing an obligation to con- 
form to its Rules. 

The Fellows and Members of Chartered Literary and Philosophical So- 
cieties publishing Transactions, in the British Empii-e, shall be entitled, in 
like manner, to become Members of the Association. 

The Officers and Members of the Councils, or Managing Committees, of 
Philosophical Institutions shall be entitled, in like manner, to become Mem- 
bers of the Association. 

All Members of a Philosophical Institution recommended by its Council 
or Managing Committee shall be entitled, iu hko manner, to become Mem- 
bers of the Association. 

Persons not belonging to such Institutions shall bo elected by the General 
Committee or Council, to become Life Members of the Association, Annual 
Subscribers, or Associates for the year, subject to the approval of a General 
Meeting. 

Compositions, Subscriptions, and Privileges. 

Life Members shall pay, on admission, the sum of Ten Pounds. They 
shall receive (jratmtoushj the Reports of the Association which may be pub- 
1872. >- * 



XVm RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

lished after the date of such payment. They are eligible to all the offices 
of the Association. 

Annual Stjbsceibees shall pay, on admission, the sum of T-wo Pounds, 
and in each following year the sum of One Pound. They shall receive 
(/raiuiioushj the Ecports of the Association for the year of their^ admission 
and for the years in which they continue to pay wifJioid intermission their 
Annual Subscription. By omitting to pay this Subscription in any particu- 
lar year, Members of this class (Annual Subscribers) lose for tliat and all 
future years the privilege of receiving the volumes of the Association gratis : 
but they may resume theii- Membership and other privileges at any sub- 
sequent Meeting of the Association, paying on each such occasion the sum of 
One Pound. They are eligible to all the Offices of the Association. 

Associates for the year shall pay on admission the sum of One Pound. 
They shall not receive gratuitoushj the Reports of the Association, nor be 
eligible to serve on Committees, or to hold any office. 

The Association consists of the following classes : — 

1. Life Members admitted from 1831 to 1845 inclusive, who have paid 
on admission Five Poimds as a composition. 

2. Life Members who in 1846, or in subsequent years, have paid on ad- 
mission Ten Pounds as a composition. 

3. Annual Members admitted from 1831 to 1839 inclusive, subject to the 
payment of One Pound annually. [May resume their Membership after in- 
termission of Annual Payment.] 

4. Annual Members admitted in any year since 1839, subject to the pay- 
ment of Two Pounds for the first year, and One Pound in each following year. 
[May resume their Membership after intermission of Annual Payment.] 

5. Associates for the year, subject to the payment of One Pound. 

6. Corresponding Members nominated by the Council. 

And the Members and Associates will be entitled to receive the annual 
volume of Peports, gratis, or to purcliase it at reduced (or Members') price, 
according to the following specification, viz. : — 

1. Gratis. — Old Life Members who have paid Five Pounds as a compo- 

sition for Annual Payments, and jircvious to 1845 a further 
sum of Two Pounds as a Book Subscription, or, since 1845, a 
further sum of Five Pounds. 

New Life Members who have paid Ten Pounds as a composition. 

Annual Members who have not intermitted their Annual Sub- 
scription. 

2. At reduced or Mcmhers' Prices, viz. two thirds of the Publication 

Price. — Old Life Members who have paid Five Pounds as a 

composition for Annual Payments, but no further sum as a 

Book Subscription. 
Annual Members who have intermitted their Annual Subscription. 
Associates for the year, [Privilege confined to the volume for 

that year only.] 

3. Members may purchase (for the purpose of completing their sets) any 

of the first seventeen volumes of Transactions of the Associa- 
tion, and of ivhicli more than 100 cojpies remain, atone third of 
the Publication Piice. Api^lication to be made at the Office 
of the Association, 22 Albemarle Street, London, "W. 



RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. XIX 

Volumes not claimed -within two years of the date of publication can only 
bo issued by direction of the Council. 

Subscriptions shall be received by the Treasurer or Secretaries. 

Meetings. 

The Association shall meet annually, for one week, or longer. The place 
of each Meeting shall be appointed by the General Committee two years in 
advance ; and the Arrangements for it shall be entrusted to the Officers of 
the Association. 

Ge7ieral Committee. 

The General Committee shall sit during the week of the Meeting, or 
longer, to transact the business of the Association. It shall consist of the 
following persons : — 

Class A. Permanent Members. 

1. Members of the Council, Presidents of the Association, and Presidents 
of Sections for the present and preceding years, with Authors of Eeports in 
the Transactions of the Association. 

2. Members who by the publication of Works or Papers have furthered 
the advancement of those subjects which arc taken into consideration at the 
Sectional Meetings of the Association. With a view of submitiioig new claims 
under this Eule to the decision of the Council, theij must be sent to tJie Assistant 
General Secretary at least one month before the Meeting of the Association. 
The decision of the Council on the claims of any Member of the Association to 
be placed on the list of the General Committee to be final. 

Class B. Temporary Members. 

1 . Presidents for the time being of any Scientific Societies publishing Trans- 
actions or, in his absence, a delegate representing him. Claims under this Ride 
to be sent to the Assistant General Secretary before the opening of the Meeting. 

2. Office-bearers for the time being, or delegates, altogether not exceeding 
three, from Scientific Institutions established in the place _ of Meeting. 
Claims under this Bide to be approved by the Loccd Secretaries before the 
opening of the Meeting. 

3. Foreigners and' other individuals whose assistance is desired, and who 
are specially nominated in writing, for the Meeting of the year, by the Pre- 
sident and General Secretaries. 

4. Yice-Prcsidents and Secretaries of Sections. 

Organizing Sectional Committees'^. 

The Presidents, Vice-Presidents, and Secretaries of the several Sections 
are nominated by the Council, and have power to act iintil their names are 
submitted to the General Committee for election. 

Prom the time of their nomination they constitute Organizing Committees 
for the purpose of obtaining information upon the Memoirs and Reports 
likely to be submitted to the Sections f, and of preparing Reports thereon, 

* Passed by the General Committee, Edinburgh, 1871. 

t Koti cc Conirilntors of Memoirs.— Kwihovs, are reminded that, under an arrange- 
ment dating from 1871, the acceptance of Memoirs, and the dnj-s on -nhicli tluy are to be 

b 2 



XX RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

and oil the order in wliicli it is desirable tliat they should he read, to be pre- 
sented to the Committees of the Sections at their first Meeting. 

An Organizing Committee may also hold such jireliminary Meetings as the 
President of the Committee thinks expedient, but shall, nndcr any circum- 
stances, meet on the first "Wednesday of the Annual Mooting, at 11 a.m., to 
settle the terms of their Report, after which their functions as an Organizing 
Committee shall cease. 

Constitution of the Sectional Committees^'. 

On the first day of tlie Annual Meeting, the President, Vice-Presidents, 
and Secretaries of each Section having been appointed by the General Com- 
mittee, these Officers, and those previous Presidents and Vice-Presidents of 
the Section vrho may desire to attend, are to meet, at 2 p.m., in their Com- 
mittee Rooms, and enlarge the Sectional Committees by selecting individuals 
from among the Members (not Associates) present at the Meeting whose as- 
sistance they may particularly desire. The Sectional Committees thus con- 
stituted shall have power to add to their number from day to day. 

The List thus formed is to be entered dailj' in the Sectional Minute-Book, 
and a copy forwarded without delay to tlie Printer, who is charged with 
publishing the same before 8 a.m. on the next day, in the Journal of the 
Sectional Proceedings. 

Business of the Sectional Committees. 

Committee Meetings are to be held on the Wednesday at 2 p.m., on the 
following Thursday, Friday, Saturday, Monday, and Tuesday, from 10 to 
11 A.M., punctually, for the objects stated in the Rules of the Association, 
and specified below. 

The business is to be conducted in the following manner: — 

At the first meeting, one of the Secretaries will read the Minutes of last 
year's proceedings, as recorded in the Minute-Book, and the Synopsis of 
Recommendations adopted at the last Meeting of the Association and printed 
in the last volume of the Transactions. He will next proceed to read the 
Report of the Organizing Committee f. The List of Communications to be 
read on Tliursday shall be then arranged, and the general distribution of 
business throughout the Aveek shall be provisionally appointed. At the close 
of the Committee Meeting tlie Secretaries shall forward to the Printer a List 
of the Papers appointed to be read. The Printer is charged with publishing 
the same before 8 a.m. on Thursday in the Journal. 

On the second day of the Annual Meeting, and the following days, the 

read, are now as far as possible determined by Organizing Committees for the several 
Sections before the hcc/iimmg of the Meeting. It has therefore become necessary, in order 
to give an opportunity to tlie Committees of doing justice to the several Communications, 
that each Author should prepare an Abstract of his Memoir, of a length suitable for in- 
sertion in the published Transactions of the Assjoiation, and that he should send it, toge- 
ther with the original Memoir, by boot-post, on or before , addressed 

thus — "General Secretaries, British Association, 22 Albemarle Street, London, W. For 

Section " If it should be inconvenient to the Author that his Paper should be read 

on any particular days, he is requested to send information thereof to the Secretaries in a 
separate note. 

* Passed by the General Committee, Edinburgh, 1871. 

t This and the following sentence were added by the General Committee, 1871, 



KULES 01' THE ASSOCIATION. XXI 

Secretaries are to correct, ou a copy of the Joiu-nal, the list of papers which 
have been read ou that day, to add to it a list of those appointed to be read 
on the next day, and to send this copy of the Journal as early in the day as 
possible to the Printers, who are charged with xuinting the same before 8 a.m. 
next morning in the Journal. It is necessary that one of the Secretaries of 
each Section should call at the Printing Office and revise the proof each 
evening. 

Minutes of the proceedings of every Committee are to be entered daily in 
the Minute-Book, which should be confirmed at the next meeting of the 
Committee. 

Lists of the Eeports and Memoirs read in the Sections are to be entered 
in the Minute-Book daily, which, with all Memoirs and Copies or Abstracts 
of Memoirs furnished hy AutJiors, are to be forwarded, at tlie close of the Sec- 
tional Meetings, to the Assistant (leneral Secretary. 

The Vice-Presidents and Secretaries of Sections become ex officio temporary 
Members of the General Committee {vide p. xix), and will receive, on ap- 
plication to the Treasurer in the lleception Koom, Tickets entitling them to 
attend its Meetings. 

The Committees will take into consideration any suggestions wliich may 
be offered by their Members for the advancement of Science. They are 
specially requested to review the recommendations adopted at preceding 
Meetings, as published in the volumes of the Association and the communi- 
cations made to the Sections at this Meeting, for the purposes of selecting 
definite points of research to which individual or combined exertion may be 
usefully directed, and branches of knowledge on the state and progress of 
which Eeports are wanted ; to name individuals or Committees for the exe- 
cution of such Eeports or researches ; and to state Avhcther, and to what de- 
gree, these objects may be usefully advanced by the appropriation of the 
funds of the Association, by application to Government, Philosophical Insti- 
tutions, or Local Authorities. 

In case of appointment of Committees for special objects of Science, it is 
expedient that all Members of the Committee shoidd be named, and one of 
them appointed to act as Secretary, for insuring attention to h(si7iess. 

Committees have power to add to their number persons whose assistance 
they may require. 

The recommendations adopted by the Committees of Sections are to be 
registered in the Forms furnished to their Secretaries, and one Copy of each 
is to be forwarded, without delay, to the Assistant-General Secretary for pre- 
sentation to the Committee of Eecommendations. Unless this be done, the 
liecommendations cannot receive the sanction of the Association. 

N.B. — Eecommendations which may originate in any one of the Sections 
must first be sanctioned by the Committee of that Section before they can be 
referred to the Committee" of Eecommendations or confirmed by the General 
Committee. 

Notices Regardiiifj Grants of Money. 

Committees and individuals, to whom grants of money have been entrusted 
by the Association for the prosecution of particular researches in Science, 
are required to present to each following Meeting of the Association a Eeport 
of the progress which has been made ; and the Individual or the Member first 
named of a Committee to whom a money grant has been made must (pre- 
viously to the next meeting of the Association) forward to the General 



XXU RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

Secretaries or Treasurer a statement of the sums which have been expended, 
and the balance which remains disposable on each grant. 

Grants of money sanctioned at any one meeting of the Association expire 
a weeh before the opening of the ensuing Meeting; nor is the Treasurer 
authorized, after that date, to allow any claims on account of such grants, 
unless they be renewed in the original or a modified form by the General 
Committee. 

No Committee shall raise money in the name or under the auspices of the 
British Association without special permission from the General Committee 
to do so ; and no money so raised shall be expended except in accordance 
with the rules of the Association. 

In each Committee, the Member first named is the only person entitled to 
call on the Treasurer, W. Spottiswoode, Esq., 50 Grosvenor Place, Loudon, 
S.W., for such portion of the sums granted as may from time to time be 
required. 

In grants of money to Committees, the Association does not contemplate 
the payment of personal expenses to the members. 

In all cases where additional grants of money are made for the continua- 
tion of Researches at the cost of the Association, the sum named is deemed 
to include, as a part of the amount, whatever balance may remain unpaid ou 
the former grant for the same object. 

All Instruments, Papers, Drawings, and other property of the Association 
are to be deposited at the Ofiice of the Association, 22 Albemarle Street, 
Piccadilly, London, W., when not employed in carrying on scientific inquiries 
for the Association. 

Business of the Sections. 

The Meeting Boom of each Section is opened for conversation from 10 to 
11 daily. T/ie Section liooms and approaches thereto can he used for no notices, 
exhibitions, or other pwposes than those of the Association. 

At 11 precisely the Chair will be taken, and the reading of communica- 
tions, in the order previously made public, be commenced. At 3 p.m. the 
Sections will close. 

Sections may, by the desire of the Committees, divide themselves into 
Departments, as often as the number and nature of the communications de- 
livered in may render such divisions desirable. 

A Iloport presented to the Association, and read to the Section which 
originally called for it, may be read in another Section, at the request of the 
Oificers of that Section, with the consent of the Author. 

Duties of the Doorkeepers. 

1. — To remain constantly at the Doors of the Rooms to which they are ap- 
pointed during the whole time for which they are engaged. 
2. — To requii-e of every person desirous of entering the Rooms the exhibi- 
tion of a Member's, Associate's or Lady's Ticket, or Reporter's Ticket, 
signed by the Treasui'er, or a Special Ticket, signed by the Assistant- 
General Secretary. 
3. — Persons unprovided with any of these Tickets can only be admitted to 
any particular Room by order of the Secretary in that Room. 
No person is exempt from these Rules, except those Officers of the Asso- 
ciation whose names are printed in the Programme, p. 1. 



RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. XXUI 



Duties of the Messengers. 

To I'omaia constantly at tlio llooms to -which they are appointed, during 
the whole time for which they arc engaged, except when employed on mes- 
sages by one of the Officers directing these Rooms. 

Committee of Recommendations. 

The General Committee shall appoint at each Meeting a Committee, which 
shall receive and consider the Recommendations of the Sectional Committees, 
and report to the General Committee the measures which they would advise 
to be adopted for the advancement of Science. 

All Recommendations of Grants of Money, Requests for Special Researches, 
and Reports on Scientific Subjects shall be submitted to the Committee of 
Recommendations, and not taken into consideration by the General Committee 
unless previously recommended by the Committee of Recommendations. 

Local Committees. 

Local Committees shall be formed by the Officers of the Association to 
assist in making arrangements for the Meetings. 

Local Committees shall have the power of adding to their numbers those 
Members of the Association whose assistance they may desire. 

Officers. 

A President, two or more Yice-Presidents, one or more Secretaries, and a 
Treasurer shall be annually appointed by the General Committee. 

Council. 

In the. intervals of the Meetings, the affairs of the Association shall be ma- 
naged by a Council appointed by the General Committee. The Council may 
also assemble for the despatch of business during the week of the Meeting. 

Papers and Communications, 

The Author of any paper or communication shall be at liberty to reserve 
his right of property therein. 

Accounts. 

The Accounts of the Association shall be audited annually, by Auditors 
appointed by the General Committee. 






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XXX 



REPORT 1872. 



Presidents and Secretaries of the Sections of the Association. 



Date and Place. 



Presidents. 



Sccretavie.s. 



MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES. 



COM.MITTEE OF SCIENCES, I. MATHEMATICS AND GENEEAL PHYSICS. 



1832. Oxford 

1833. Cambridge 

1834. Edinburgh 



Daries Gilbert, D.C.L., T'.E.S....|Rev. H. Coddington. 

SirD. Brewster, F.R.S Prof. Forbe.s. 

Eer. W. WheweU, F.R.S |Prof. Forbes, Prof. Lloyd. 



1835. Dublin 

1836. Bristol 

1837. Liverpool ... 
1833. Newcnstle... 
1839. Birmingliaui 
1810. Glasgow ... 

1841. Plymouth... 

1842. Manchester 



SECTION A. MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICS. 

Rev. Dr. Robinson 

Rev. William WheweU, F.R.S... . 
Sir D. Brewster, F.R.S 



1843. Cork 

1844. York 

1845. Cambridge. 

1846. Southampton 

1847. Oxford... 



1848. Swansea . 

1849. Birmingham 

1850. Edinburgh.. 



1851. Ipswich 

1852. Belfast 

ia53. Hull 

1854. Liverpool... 

1855. Glasgow ... 

1856. Cheltenham 

1857. Dublin 



Sir J. F. W. Herschel. Bart., 

F.R.S. 
Rev. Prof. WheweU, F.R.S 

Prof. Forbes, F.R.S 

Rev. Prof. Lloyd, F.R.S 

Very Rev. G. Peacock, D.D. 
F T? S 

Prof. M'CuUoeh, M.R.I.A 

The Earl of Eos.^e, F.R.S 

The Very Rev. the Dean of Ely . 

Sir John F. W. Herschel, Bart 

F.R.S. 
Rev. Prof. PoweU, M.A., F.R.S. . 

Lord Wrottesley, F.R.S 

William Hopkins, F.R.S 

Prof. J. D. Forbes, F.R.S., Sec. 
R.S.E. 

Rev. W. WliewcU, D.D., F.R.S., 

Prof. W. Thomson, M.A., F.R.S 

T A' T^ 
The Dean of Ely, F.R.S 

Prof G. G. Stokes, M.A., Sec. 

R.S. 
Rev. Prof. Kelland, M.A., F.R.S. 

L. &E. 
Rev. R. Walker, M. A., F.R.S. ... 

Rcv.T. R. Robinson,D.D., F.R.S., 
M.R.I.A. 



Prof. Sir W. R. Hamilton, Prof. 

Wheatstoue. 
Prof. Forbes, W. S. Harris, F. W. 

Jerrard. 
W. S. Harris, Rev. Prof. PoweU, Prof. 

Stevelly. 
Rev. Prof. Chevallier, Major Sabine, 

Prof. StevcUy. 
J. D. Chance, W. Snow Harris, Prof. 

Stevelly. 
Rev. Dr. Forbes, Prof. Stevelly, Arch. 

Smith. 
Prof. Stevelly. 
Prof. M'Cuiloch, Prof. SteveUy, Rev. 

W. Seoresby. 
J. Nott, Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. Wni. Hev, Prof. Stevellv. 
Rev. H. Goodwin, Prof. SteveUy, G. 

G. Stokes. 
•John Drew, Dr. Stevellv, O. G. 

Stokes. 
Rev. H. Price, Prof. Stevelly, G. G. 

Stokes. 
Dr. SlevcUv, G. G. Stokes. 
Prof. Stevellv, G. G. Stokes, W. 

Ridout Wills. 
W. J. Maequorn Rankine, Prof. 

Smyth, Prof. Stevelly, Prof. G. G. 

Stokes. 
S. Jackson, W. J. Maequorn Rankine, 

Prof. Stevelly, Prof. G. G. Stokes. 
Prof. Dixon, W. J. Maequorn Ran- 
kine, Prof SteveUy, J. Tyndall. 

B. Blaydes Haworth, J. D. SoUilt, 
Prof. Stevelly, J. Welsh. 

J. Hartnup, H. G. Puckle, Prof. 

Stevellv, J. Tpidall, J. Welsh. 
Rev. Dr. Forbes, Prof. D. Gray, Prof. 

Tyndall. 

C. Brooke, Rev. T. A. Southwocd, 
Prof. Stevelly, Rev. J. C. TurnbuU. 

Prof. Curtis, Prof. Hennessy, P. A. 
Ninnis, W. J. Maequorn Rankine, 
Prof Stevellv. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



XXXI 



Date and Place. 



1858. Leeds 



Rev. W.Wliewell, D.D,, V.P.E.S 



1859. 
1860. 
1861. 
1862. 
1863, 

1864. 
1865. 

1866. 
1867. 
1868. 
1869. 
1870. 

1871. 

1872, 



Presidents. 



Secretaries. 



Aberdeen ...The Earl of Eosse, M.A., K.P., 

Oxford Rev! B. Price, M.A., F.R.S.... 

Manchester . Q. B. Airy, M.A., D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Cambridge .. Prof. G. G. Stokes, M. A., F.R.S. 

Newcastle... Prof. W. J. Macquorn Rankine, 
C.E., F.R.S. 

Bath Prof. Cayley, M.A., F.E.S., 

F.R.A.S. 
Birmingham W. Spottiswoode, M.A., F.R.S., 

F.R.A.S. 

Prof. VVlieatstone,D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Dundee Prof. Sir W. Thomson, D.C.L., 

F R S 
Norwich ... Prof. J. Tyndall, LL.D., F.R.S... 

Exeter Prof. J. J. Sylvester, LL.D., 

F.R.S. 
Liverpool... J. Clerk Maxwell, M.A., LL.D., 

F.R.S. 



Nottingham 



Edinburgh . 
Brighton ... 



Rev. S. Earnshaw, J. P. Hennessy, 

Prof. Stevelly, H. J. S. Smith, Prof. 

Tyndall. 
J. P. Henne.ssy, Prof, Maxwell, H. J. S. 

Smith, Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. G. C. Bell, Rev. T. Rennison, 

Prof. Stevelly. 
Prof. R. B. Clifton, Prof. H. J. S. 

Smith, Prof. Stevelly. 
Prof. R. B. Clifton, Prof. H. J. S. 

Smith, Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. N. Ferrers, Prof. Fuller, F. Jen- 
kin, Prof. Stevelly, Rev. C. T. 

Whitley. 
Prof. Fuller, F. Jenkin, Rev. G. 

Buckle, Prof Stevelly. 
Rev. T. N. Hutchinson, F. Jenkin, G. 

S. Mathews, Prof. H. J. S. Smith, 

J. M. Wilson. 
Fleeming Jenkin, Prof. H. J. S. Smith, 

Rev. S. N. Swann. 
Rev. G. Buckle, Prof. G. C. Foster, 

Prof. Fuller, Prof. Swan. 
Prof. G. C. Foster, Rev. R. Ilarley, 

E. B. Hayward. 
Prof. G. C. Foster, R. B. Hayward, 

W. K. Clifford. 
Prof W. G. Adams, W. K. Clifford, 

Prof. G. C. Foster, Rev. W. Allen 

Whitworth. 



Prof. P. G. Tait, F.R.S.E 

W. De La Rue, D.C.L., F.R.S... 



Prof. W. G. Adams, J. T. Bottomley, 
Prof. W. K. Clifford, Prof J. D. 
Everett, Rev. R. Harley. 

Prof. W. K.Clifford, J. W.'L. Glai,sher, 
Prof. A. S. Herschel, G. P. Rodwell. 



1832. 
1833, 
1834. 



CHEMICAL SCIENCE. 

COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, II. — CHEMISTRY, MINERALOGY, 
Oxford iJohn Dalton.D.C.L., F.R.S James F. W. Johnston 



Cambridge.. John Dalton.D.C.L., F.R.S 

Edinbiu'gh... Dr. Hope 



Prof Miller. 

Mr. Johnston, Dr. Christison. 



SECTION B. CHEMISTRY AND MINERALOGY. 



I 



18.35, 
1836. 

1837. 

1838. 

18.30. 
1840. 

1841. 

1842. 
1843. 
1S44. 
1845. 



Dublin 
Bristol 



Dr. T. Thomson, F.R.S. 
Rev. Prof. Cumming.... 



Liverpool . . . 

Newcastle. . . 

Birmingham 
Glasgow . . . 

Plymouth... 

Manchester. 

Cork 

York 

Cambridge.. 



Michael Faraday, F.R.S 

Rev. William Whewell, F.R.S.. 

Prof. T. Graham, F.R.S 

Dr. Thomas Thomson, F.R.S. , 



Dr. Daubeny, F.R.S. 



John Dalton,D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Prof Apjohn, M.R.I. A. ... 
Prof. T. Graham, F.R.S. ... 
Rev. Prof. Cumming 



Dr. Apjohn, Prof Johnston. 

Dr. Apjohn, Dr. C. Henry, W. Hera- 
path. 

Prof. Johnston, Prof. Miller, Dr. 
Reynolds. 

Prof 'Miller, R. L. Pattinson, Thomas' 
Richardson. 

Golding Bird, M.D., Dr. J. B. Melson. 

Dr. R. D. Thomson, Dr. T. Clark, 
Dr. L. Playfair. 

J. Prideaux, Robert Hunt, W. M. 
Tweedy. 

Dr. L. Playfair, R. Hunt, J. Graham. 

R. Hunt, Dr. Sweeny. 

Dr. R. Playfair, E. Solly, T. H. Barker. 

R. Hunt, J. P. Joule, Prof. Miller, 

, E. Solly. 



xxxu 



REPORT — 1872. 



Date and Place. 



Presidents. 



Secretaries. 



1853. Hull 

185i. Liverpool ... 



Prof. J. P. W. Johnston, M.A., 

3? R S 
Prof. W. A. Miller, M.D., F.R.S 



1855. Glasgow ...'Dr. Lyon Playfair, C.B., F.R.S. . 

1856. Cheltenham |Prof. B. C. Brodie, F.E.S. 



1858. Leeds .., 

1859. Aberdeen 

1860. Oxford 



Prof B. C. Brodie, F.R.S. 



1846. Southampton Michael Faraday, D.C.L., F.R.S. Dr. Miller, R. Hunt, W. Randall. 

1847. Oxford JRey.W.V.Harcourt, M.A., F.R.S. B. C. Brodie, R. Hunt, Prof Solly. 

1848. Swansea ...jRichard Phillips, F.R.S iT. H. Henry, R. Hunt, T. Williams. 

1849. Birmingham 'John Percy, M.D., F.R.S 'R. Hunt, G. Shaw. 

18.50. Edinburgh .|Dr. Ciiristison, V.P.R.S.E Dr. Anderson, R. Hunt, Dr. Wilson. 

1851. Ipswich ...'Prof. Thomas Graham, F.R.S. ... T. J. Pearsall, W. S. Ward. 

1853. Belfast Thomas Andrews, M.D., F.R.S. . Dr. Gladstone, Prof. Hodges, Prof. 

Ron.alds. 
, H. S. Blundell, Prof R. Hunt, T. J. 

Pearsall. 
Dr. Edwards, Dr. Gladstone, Dr. 

Price. 
Prof Frankland, Dr. H. E. Roscoe. 
, J. Horsley, P. J. Worsley, Prof. 
Voelcker. 

18.57. Dublin Prof. Apjohn, M.D., F.R.S., Dr. Dayy, Dr. Gladstone, Prof. Sul- 

M.R.I.A. livan. 

Sir J. F. W. Herschel, Bart., Dr. Gladstone, W. Odling, E. Rev- 

D.C.L. nolds. 

Dr. Lyon Playfair, C.B., F.R.S. . J. S. Brazier, Dr. Gladstone, G. D. 

Liveing, Dr. Odling. 
A. A^ernon Harcourt, G. D. Liveing, 

A. B. Nortlicote. 
A. Vernon Harcourt, G. D. Liveing. 
H. W. Elpliinstone, W. Odling, Prof. 

Roscoe. 
. Prof Liveing, H. L. Pattinson, J. C. 

Stevenson. 
A. V. Harcoiu't, Prof Liveing, R, 

Biggs. 
.A. V. Harcourt, H. Adkins, Prof. 

Wanklyn, A. Winkler Wilis. 
. J. H. Atherton, Prof Liveing, W. J. 

Russell, J. White. 
. A. Crum Brown, Prof. G. D. Liveing, 

W. J. Russell. 
Dr. A. Crum Brown, Dr. W. J. Rus- 
] I s?ll, F. Sutton. 

1869. Exeter Dr. H. Debus, F.R.S., F.C.S. ... Prof. A. Crum Brown, M.D., Dr. W. 

J. Rus.sell, Dr. Atkinson. 
Prof H. E. Roscoe, B.A.,F.R.S.,!Prof. A. Crum Brown, M.D., A. E. 

F.C.S. I Fletcher, Dr. W. J. Russell. 

Prof T. Andrews, M.D., F.R.S. 'j. T. Buchanan, W. N. Hartley, T E 

I Thorpe. 

Dr. J. H. Gladstone, F.R.S 'Dr. Mills, W. Chandler Roberts, Dr. 

i 1 W. J. RusseU, Dr. T. Wood. 



1861. Manchester. Prof W. A. Miller, M.D., F.R.S. 

1862. Cambridge .'Prof W. A. Miller, M.D., F.R.S. 

1863. Newcastle... br. Alex. W. Williamson, F.R.S 



1864. Bath 

1865. Birmingham 

1866. Nottinghauft 



W, Odling, M.B., F.R.S., F.C.S. 
Prof W. A. Miller, M.D.,V.P.R.S. 
H. Pence Jones, M.D., F.R.S. .. 

1867. Dundee ... Prof.T.Anderson,M.D.,F.R.S.E 

1868. Norwich ... Prof E. Frankland, P.R.S., F.C.S. 



1870. Liverpool... 

1871. Edinburgh 

1872. Brighton .. 



GEOLOGICAL (.^nd, until 1851, GEOGRAPHICAL) SCIEIsX'E. 



COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, III. GEOLOGY AND GEOGEAPHY. 

looo' ^''^"'■'^ ^- ^- M"rchison, F.R.S |John Taylor. 

TcqT ^T^^'^^? ■ ^'- ^- C^reenough, F.R.S VV. Lonsdale, John Phillips. 

18.J4. Edmbm-gh .Prof Jameson Prof. Phillips, T. Jameson Torrie, 

' ' R?v. J. Yates. 



SECTION C. — GEOLOGY AND GEGGEAPnY. 



1835. Dublin JR. J. Griffith 

1836. Bristol ! Rev. Dr. Buckland, F.R.S.— G^fo- 

(p-aphi/. R. I.Murchison,F.R.S. 

Rev.Prof Sedgwick,F.R.S. — Gco- 
(/wijj^y. G.B.Greenough,F.R.S. 



1837. Liverpool,, 



Captain Portlock, T. J. Torrie. 
William Sanders, S. Stutchbury, T. J. 

Torrie. 
Captain Portlock, R. Hunter. — Geo- 
graphy. Captain H- M. Denham, R.N. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF TUB SECTIONS. 



xxxm 



Date and Place. 



1838. Newcastle... 

1839. Birmingliam 

1840. Glasgow ... 

18il. Plymouth.. 

1842. Manchester 

1843. Cork 

1844. York 

1845. Cambridge;. 
184G. Southampton 



1847. Oxford... 

1848. Swansea 

1849. Birmhigham 

1850. Edinburgh* 



Presidents. 



C. Lyell, F.R.S., Y.T.G.S.— Geo- 
gra'phy. Lord Prudhope. 

Rev. Dr. Buckland, P.R.S.— <?eo- 
graphi/. Gr.B.Greeuough.F.R.S. 

Charles ' Lyell, F.E.S. — Geogra- 
phy. Q.B. Greenough, F.R.S. 

H. T. De la Beche, F.R.S. 

R. L Murcbison, F.R.S 

Richard E. Griffith, F.R.S., 

M.R.I.A. 
Henry Warbarton, M.P., Pres. 

Geol. Soc. 
Esv. Prof. Sedgwick, M. A., F.R.S. 

LeonardHorner,F.R.S.— ffco^-rrt- 
phy. G. B. Greenough, F.R.S. 

Very Rev. Dr. Buckland, F.R.S. 

Sir H. T. De la Beche, C.B., 

Sh- Charles Lyell, F.R.S., F.G.S.' 

Su- Roderick I. Murchison.F.R.S. 



Secretaries. 



W. C. Trevelyan, Capt. Portlock.— 
Geography. Capt. Washington. 

George Lloyd, M.D., H. E. Strickland, 
Charles Darwin. 

W. J. Hamilton, D. Milne, Hugh 
Murray, H. E. Strickland, John 
Scoidar, M.D. 

W. J. Hamilton, Edward Moore.M.D., 
R. Hutton. 

E. W. Binney, R. Hutton, Dr. R. 
Lloyd, H. E. Strickland. 

Francis M. Jennings, H. E. Strick- 
land. 

Prof. Ansted, E. H. Bunbury. 

Rev. J. C. Camming, A. C. Ramsay, 

Rev. W. Thorp. 
Robert A. Austen, J. H. Norton, M.D., 

Prof. Oldham. — Geography. Dr. C. 

T. Beke. 
Prof. Ansted, Prof. Oldliam, A. C. 

Ramsay, J. Ruskin. 
StarUng Benson, Prof. Oldham, Prof. 

Ramsay. 
J. Beete Jukes, Prof. Oldham, Prof. 

A. C. Ramsay. 
A. Keith Johnston, Hugh Miller, Pro- 
fessor Nicol. 



1851. Ipswich 

1852. Belfast . 



SECTION c (continued). — geology. 
WiUiam Hopkins, M.A., F.R.S... 

Lieut.-Col. Portlock, R.E., F.R.S. 



18.53. Hull 

1854. Liverpool . . 

1855. Glasgow ... 

1856. Cheltenham 

1857. Dublin 



Prof. Sedgwick, F.R.S 

Prof. Edward Forbes, F.R.S. 

Sir R. I. Murchison, F.R.S. . . . 

Prof. A. C. Ramsay, F.R.S. ... 

The Lord Talbot de Malahide 



1858. Leeds' Wilham Hopkins, M.A., LL.D 

Sir Charles Lyell, LL.D., D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
Rev. Prof. Sedgwick, LL.D., 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Sir R. I. Murchison, D.C.L., 

LL.D., F.R.S., &c. 
J. Beete Jukes, M.A., F.R.S.... 



1859. Aberdeen ... 

1860. Oxford 

1861. Manchester 

1862. Cambridge 

1863. Newcastle ... 



Prof. Warington W. Smyth, 
F.R.S., F.G.S. 



C. J. F. Bunbury, G. \V. Ormerod, 
Searles Wood. 

James Bryoe, James MacAdam, Prof. 
M'Coy, Prof. Nicol. 

Prof. Harkness, William Lawton. 

John Cunningham, Prof. Harkness, 
G. W. Ormerod, J. W. Woodall. 

James Bryce, Prof. Harkness, Prof. 
Nicol. 

Rev. P. B. Brodie, Rev. R. Hepworth, 
Edward Hull, J. Scougall, T.Wright. 

Prof. Harkness, Gilbert Sanders, Ro- 
bert H. Scott. 

Prof. Nicol, H. C. Sorby, E. W. 
Shaw. 

Prof. Harkness, Rev. J. Longmuir, H. 
C. Sorby. 

Prof. Harkness, Edward Hull, Capt. 
Woodall. 

Prof. Harkness, Edward Hull, T. Ru- 
pert Jones, G. A\'. Ormerod. 

Lucas Barrett, Prof. T. Rupert Jones, 
H. C. Sorby. 

E. P. Boyd, John Daglisb, H. C. Sor- 
by, Thomas Sopwith. 



* At the Meeting of the General Committee held in Edinburgh, it was agreed That the 
subject of Geography be separated from Geology and combined with Ethnology to consti- 
tute a separate Section, under the title of the ■' Geographical and Etbnological Section, 
for Presidents and Secretaries of which see page xxxvi. 

1872. ^ 



XXXIV 



REPORT — 1872. 



Date and Place. 



1864. Bath ... 

1865. Birmingham 

1866. Nottingham 

1867. Dundee 

1868. Norwich ... 

1869. Exeter 

1870. Liverpool... 

1871. Edinburgh.. 

1872. Brighton ... 



Presidents. 



Prof. J. PbiHips, LL.D., F.E.S., 

Su- E. i. Murchison, Bart.,K.C.B. 

Prof. A.C. Eamsay, LL.D., F.E.S. 

Archibald Geikie, E.E.S., E.G.S. 

E. A. C. Godwin-Austen, E.E.S., 

RG.S. 
Prof. E. Harkness, RE.S., F.G.S. 

Sir Pliilip de M. Grey Bgerton, 

Bart., M.P., RE.S. 
Prof. A. Geikie, E.E.S., RG.S... 

E. A. C. Godwin- Austen, F.E.S. 



Secretaries. 



W. B. Dawkins, J. Johnston, H. C. 

Sorby, W. Pengelly. 
Eev. P. B. Brodie, J. Jones, Eer. E. 

Myers, H. C. Sorby, W. Pengelly. 
E. Etheridge, W. Pengelly, T. Wil- 
son, G. H. Wright. 
Edward Hull, W. Pengelly, Henry 

Woodward. 
Eev. O. Eisher, Eev. J. Gunn, W. 

Pengelly, Eev. H. H. Win wood. 
W. Pengelly, W. Boyd Dawkins, Eev. 

H. H. Winwood. ' 
W. Pengellv, Eev. H. H. Winwood, 

W. Boyd'Dawkins, G. H. Morton. 
E. Etheridge, J. Geikie, J. McKenny 

Hughes, L. C. Miall. 
L. C. Miall, George Scott, William 

Topley, Henry Woodward. 



BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES. 

COmriTTEE OF SCIENCES, IT. ZOOLOGY, BOTANT, PnTSIOLOGT, AlfATOMT. 



1832. Oxford 

1833. Cambridge* 

1834. Edinburgh 



Eev. P. B. Duncan, F.G.S 

Rev. W. L. P. Garnons, RL.S.... 
Prof. Graham 



Eev. Prof. J. S. Henslow. 
C. C. Babington, D. Don. 
W. YarreU, Prof. Bui-nett. 



1835. Dublin , 

1836. Bristol 



SECTION D.- 

Dr. Allman 

Eev. Prof. Henslow 



1837. Liverpool.. 

1838. Newcastle... 

1839. Brimingham 

1840. Glasgow 

1841. Plymouth... 

1842. Manchester 

1843. Cork 

1844. York 



W. S. MacLcay 

Sir W. Jardine, Bart 

Prof. Owen, F.E.S 

Sir W. J. Hooker, LL.D 



1845. Cambridge 

1846. Southampton 

1847. Oxford.... 



John Eichardson, M.D.,RE.S.. 
Hon. and Very Eev. W. Herbert 

LL.D., F.L.S. 
William Thompson, RL.S 

Very Eev. The Dean of Manches- 
ter. 

Eev. Prof Hen.slow, F.L.S 

Sir J. Eichardson, M.D., F.E.S. 

H. E. Strickland, M.A., F.E.S.... 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY. 

J. Curtis, Dr. Litton. 

J.Curtis, Prof Don, Dr. Eiley, S. 
Eootsey. 

C. C. Babington, Eev. L. Jenyns, W. 
Swainson. 

J. E. Gray, Prof. Jones, E. Owen, Dr. 
Eichardson. 

E. Forbes, W. Ick, E. Patterson. 

Prof. W. Couper, E. Forbes, E. Pat- 
terson. 

J. Couch, Dr. Lankester, R. Patterson. 

Dr. Lankester, E. Patterson, J. A. 
Turner. 

G. J. Allman, Dr. Lankester, E. Pat- 
terson. 

Prof Allman, H. Goodsir, Dr. King, 
Dr. Lankester. 

Dr. Lankester, T. V. WoUaston. 

Dr. Lankester, T. Y. Wollaston, II. 
Wooldridge. 

Dr. Lankester, Dr. Melville, T. Y. 
Wollaston. 



SECTION D (contimiecT). — zoology and botany, including thtsiology. 
[For the Presidents and Secretaries of the Anatomical and Physiological Subsections 
and the temporary Section E of Anatomy and Medicine, see pp. xxxvi.] 



1848. Swansea 

1849. Birmingham 

1850. Edinburgh. 



L. W. Dillwyn, F.E.S 

William Spence. F.E.S 

Prof Goodsir, F.E.S. L. &,E. 



Dr. E. Wilbraham Falconer, A. Hen" 
frey, Dr. Lankester. 

Dr. Lankester, Dr. Eussell. 

Prof J. H. Bennett, M.D., Dr. Lan- 
kester, Dr. Douglas Maclagan. 



* At this Meeting Physiology and Anatomy were made a separate Committee, for 
Presidents and Secretaries of which see p. xsxv. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



XXXV 



Date and Place. 



Presidents. 



Secretaries. 



1851. 

1852. 

185.3. 
1854. 
18.55. 
1856. 

1857. 

1858. 

1859. 

1860. 

1861. 

1862. 
1863. 

1864. 

1865. 



Ipswich. 
Belfast . 



Eer. Prof. Henslow, M.A., RE.S. 
W. Ogilby 



Hull 

Liverpool .. 
Glasgow . . 
Cheltenham . 



Dublin ... 

Leeds 

Aberdeen ,. 

Oxford 

Manchester. 



C. C. Babington, M.A., P.R.S.... 

Prof. Balfour, M.D., E.R.S 

Eev. Dr. Fleeming, RR.S.E. ... 
Thomas Bell, F.E.S., Pres.L.S.... 

Prof.W.H. Harvey, M.D.,F.E.S, 

C. C. Babington, M.A., F.E.S.... 

Sir W. Jardine, Bart., F.E.S.E. 

Rev. Prof. Henslow, F.L.S 

Prof. C. C. Babington, F.R.S. .. 



Cambridge... Prof. Huxley, F.E.S 

Newcastle ...Prof. Balfour, M.D.,F.E.S 

Bath Dr. John E. Gray, F.E.S. ..... 

Birmingham T. Thomson, M.D., F.E.S 



Prof. Allman, F. W". Johnston, Dr. E. 

Lankestcr. 
Dr. Dickie, George C. Hyndman, Dr 

Edwin Lankester. 
Eobert Harrison, Dr. E. Lankester, 
Isaac Byerley, Dr. E. Lankester. 
William Keddie, Dr. Lankester. 
Dr. J. Abercrombie, Prof. Buckman, 

Dr. Lankester. 
Prof. J. E.Kinahan,Dr.E. Lankester, 

Eobert Patterson, Dr. W. E. Steele. 
Henry Denny, Dr. Heaton, Dr. E. 

Lankester, Dr. E. Perceval Wright. 
Prof. Dickie, M.D., Dr. E. Lankester, 

Dr. Ogilvy. 
W. S. Church, Dr. E. Lankester, P. 

L. Sclater, Dr. E. Perceval Wright. 
Dr. T. Alcock, Dr. E. Lankester, Dr. 

P. L. Sclater, Dr. E. P. Wright. 
Alfred Newton, Dr. E. P. Wright. 
Dr. E. Charlton, A. Newton, Eev. H. 

B. Tristram, Dr. E. P. Wright. 
H. B. Brady, C. E. Broom, H. T. 

Stainton, Dr. E. P. Wright. 
Dr. J. Anthony. Eev. C. Clarke, Eev. 

H. B. Tristram, Dr. E. P. Wright. 



SECTION I) {continued). — biology*. 



1866. Nottingham. 



1867. Dundee . 



1868. Norwich 



1869. Exeter 



1870. Liverpool. 



1871. Edinburgh 



1872. Brighton 



Prof. Huxley, LL.D., F.E.S.— 
Fhysiological Bep. Prof. Hum- 
phry, M!D., F.E.S. — Anthropo- 
logical Dcf. Alfred E. Wallace, 
F* R G S 

Prof. Sharpey, M.D., Sec. R.S.— 
Dcp. of Zool. a7id Bot. George 
Busk, M.D., F.E.S. 

Eev. M. J. Berkeley, F.L.S.— 
Bfp. of Fhjsiology. W. H, 
Flower, F.E.S. 

George Busk, F.E.S., F.L.S.— 
Bcp. of Bot. and Zool. C. Spence 
Bate, Y.'R.^.—Bcp. of Ethno 
E. B. Tylor. 

Prof. G. Eolleaton, M.A., M.D., 
F.E.S.,F.L.S.— i)?;;. Aoiat. and 
Physio. Prof. M. Fester, M.D., 
F.L.S.— i)fi). of Ethno. J. 
Evans, F.R.S. 

Prof. Allen Thomson,M.D.,F.E.S. 
—Bcp. ofBot.and7.ool. Prof. 
Wyville Thomson, F.E.S.— 
Bep. of Anthropo. Prof. W. 
Turner, M.D. 

Sir John Lubbock, Bart., F.E.S. 
■^Bep. of Anat. and Bhysio. 
Dr. Burdon Sanderson, F.R.S 
— Bc^) of Anthropo. Col. A, 
Lane Fox, F.G.S 



Dr. J. Beddard, W. Pelkin, Rev. H. 
B. Tri.stram, W. Turner, E. B. 
Tylor, Dr. E. P. Wright. 



C. Spence Bate, Dr. S. Cobbold, Dr. 
M. Foster, H. T. Stainton, Eev. H. 

B. Tristram, Prof. W. Turner. 
Dr. T. S. Cobbold, G. W. Firth, Dr. 

M. Foster, Prof. Lawson, H. T. 

Stainton, Eev. Dr. H. B. Tristram, 

Dr. E. P. Wright. 
Dr. T. S. Cobbold, Prof. M. Foster, 

M.D., E. Eay Lankester, Professor 

Lawson, H. T. Stainton, Eot. H. B. 

Tristram. 
Dr. T. S. Cobbold, Sebastian Evans, 

Prof Lawson, Tlios. J. Moore, H. 

T. Stainton, Eev. H. B.Tristram, 

C. Stanilaud Wake, E. Eay Lan- 
kester. 

Dr. T. R. Fraser, Dr. Arthur Gamgee, 
E. Ray Lankester, Prof. Lawson, 
H. T. Stainton, C. Staniland Wake, 
Dr. W. Rutherford, Dr. Kelburne 
King. 

Prof. Thiselton-Dyer, H. T. Stainton, 
Prof. Lawson, F. W. Eudler, J. H. 
Lamprey, Dr. Gamgee, E. Eay Lan- 
kester, Dr. Pye Smith. 



* At the Meeting of the General Committee at Birmingham, it was resolved :—" That the 
title of Section D be changed to Biology ; " and "That for the word ' Sxibscction,' in the 
rules for conducting the business of the Sections, the word 'Depr.rtmcnt' be substituted. 

c 2 



XX XVI 



llEPORT — 1872. 



Date and Place. 



Presidents. 



Secretaries. 



AN"ATOMICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL SCIENCES. 



COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, V. AXAXOilT AND PHYSIOLOGY. 



1833. Cambi-idgo... 
1831. Jidinburgli... 



Dr. Haviland IDr. Bond, Mr. Pagot. 

Dr. Abercrombio Dr. Eoo:et, Dr. William Thomson. 



SECTION E. (ttNTIL 1847.) ANATOMY AND MEDICINE, 

1835. Dublin Dr. Pritobard 

1836. Bristol Dr. Eoget, F.E.S. 

1837. Liverpool ... Prof. W. Clark, M.D 



1838. Newcastle... 

1839. Birmingham 

1840. Glasgow ... 

1841. Plymouth... 

1842. Manchester. 

184.3. Cork 

1844. York 



T. E. Headlam, M.D 

John Yelloly, M.D., P.E.S. 
James Watson, M.D 



P. M. Eoget, M.D., Sec.R.S. 

Edward Holme, M.D.; P.L.S. 

Sir James Pitcairn, M.D 

J. C. Pritcbard, M.D. , 



Dr. Harrison, Dr. Hart. 

Dr. Symonds. 

Dr. J. Carson, jun., James Long, Dr. 

J. E. W. Vose. 
T. M. Grecnhow, Dr. J. E. W. Vose. 
Dr. G. O. Eees, P. Eyland. 
Dr. J. Brown, Prof. Couper, Prof. 

Eeid. 
Dr. J. Butter, J. Fuge, Dr. E. S. 

Sargent. 
Dr. Chaytor, Dr. E. S. Sargent. 
Dr. John Popham, Dr. E. S. Sargent. 
...|I. Erichsen, Dr. E. S. Sargent. 



SECTION E. PHYSIOLOGY. 



1845. Cambridge . 
184fi. Southam pton 
1847. Oxford* ... 



1850. Edinburgh 
1855. Glasgow .., 

1857. Dublin 

1858. Leeds 

1859. Aberdeen ... 

18G0. Oxford 

18(il. Manchester. 
1802. Cambridge . 
186.3. Newcastle... 

1864. Bath 

ISOS.Birminghmf. 



Prof. J. Haviland, M.D. ... 
Prof. Owen, M.D., F.R.S.... 
Prof. Ogle, M.D., F.E.S.... 



Dr. E. S. Sargent, Dr. Webster. 
C. P. Keele, Dr. Laycock, Dr. Sargent. 
Dr. Thomas K. Chambers, W. P. 
Ormerod. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL SUBSECTIONS OP SECTION D. 

Prof. Bennett, M.D., F.E.S.E. 
Prof. Allen Thomson, F.R.S. ... 

Prof. E. Harrison, M.D 

Sir Benjamin Brodie,Bart..F.E.S. 
Prof. S'harpey, M.D., Sec.E.S. ... 
Prof. G.Rolleston, M.D., F.L.S. 
Dr. John Daw, F.R.S.L. & E. ... 

C.E.Paget, M.D 

Prof. Rolleston, M.D., F.E.S. ... 
Dr. Edward Smith, LL.D., F.E.S. 
Prof. Acland, M.D., LL.D., F.E.S. 



Prof J. H. Corbett, Dr. J. Struthers. 
Dr. E. D. Lyons, Prof. Eedfern. 
C. G. Wheelhouse. 
Prof. Bennett, Prof. Eodfern. 
Dr. E. M'Donnell, Dr. Edward Smith. 
Dr. W. Eoberts, Dr. Edward Smith. 
G. F. Helm, Dr. Edward Smith. 
Dr. D. Embleton, Dr. W. Turner. 
J. S. i3artram, Dr. W. Turner. 
Dr. A. Fleming, Dr. P. Heslop, Oliver 
Pembleton, Dr. W. Turnei-. 



GEOGRAPHICAL AND ETHNOLOGICAL SCIENCES. 
[For Presidents and Secretaries for Geograijhy previous to 1851, see Section C, p. xxsii.] 

ETHNOLOGICAL SXTDSECTIONS OF SECTION D. 

Dr.Pritchard 

Prof. II. H. Wilson, M.A. . 



1810. Southampton 

1847. Oxford 

1848. Swansea ... 

1849. Birmingham 

1850. Edinburgh.. 



Vice-Admiral Sir A. Malcolm 



Dr. King. 
Prof. Buckley. 
G. Grant Francis. 
Dr. R. G. Latham. 
Daniel Wilson. 



* By direction of the General Committee at Oxford, Sections D and E were incorporated 
under the name of "Section D— Zoology and Botany, including Physiology" (see-p. sxxiv). 
The Section being then vacant was assigned in 1851 to Geography. 

t Vide note on preceding page. 



PEESIDENTS AND SECRETAUIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



XXXVU 



Date and Place. 



Presidents. 



Secretaries. 



SECTION E. 



1851. 
1852, 
1853. 
1854. 
1855. 
1856. 
1857. 
1858. 

1859. 
1860. 
1861. 
1862. 
1863. 
1864. 
1865. 
1866. 

1867. 
1858. 

1869. 

1870. 

, 1871. 

1872. 



Ipswich . . . 

Belfast 

Hull 

9 

Liverpool . . . 
Glasgow ... 
Cheltenham 

Dublin 

Leeds 



Aberdeen ... 

Oxford 

Manchester . 
Cambridge . 
Newcastle... 

Bath 

Birmingham 
Nottingham 

Dundee 

Norwich ... 



Exeter 

Liverpool . . 
Edinbm'gh. 
Brighton .. 



GEOGRAPnY AND ETHNOLOGY. 

E. Cull, Eer. J. W. Donaldson, Dr. 
Norton Shaw. 

E. Cull, E. MacAdam, Dr. Norton 
Shaw. 

E. Cull, Eev. H. W. Kemp, Dr. Nor- 
ton Shaw. 

Eichard Cull, Eev. II. Higgins, Dr. 
Ihne, Dr. Norton Shaw. 

Dr. W. G. Blackie, E. Cull, Dr. Nor- 
ton Shaw. 

E. Cull, R D. Hartland, W. H. Eum- 
sey. Dr. Norton Shaw. 

E. Cull, S. Ferguson, Dr. E. E. Mad- 
den, Dr. Norton Shaw. 

E. Cull, Francis Galton, P. O'Cal- 
laghan. Dr. Norton Shaw, Thomas 
Wright. 

Eichard Cull, Professor Geddes, Dr. 
Norton Shaw. 

Capt. Burrows, Dr. J. Hunt, Dr. C. 
Lempriere, Dr. Norton Shaw. 

Dr. J. Hunt, J. liingsley, Dr. Norton 
Shaw, W. Spottiswoode. 

J. W. Clarke, Eev. J. Glover, Dr. 
Hunt, Dr. Norton Shaw, T. Wright. 

C. Carter Blake, Hume Greenfield, 

C. E. Markbam, E. S. Watson. 
H. W. Bates, C. E. Markbam, Capt. 

E. M. Murchison, T. Wright. 
H. W. Bates, S. Evans, G. Jabet, C. 

E. Markbam, Thomas Wright. 
H. W. Bates, Eev. E. T. Cusins, E. 

H. Major, Clements E. Markbam, 

D. W. Nash, T. Wright. 
H. W. Bates, Cyril Graham, C. E. 

Markbam, S. J. Mackie, E. Sturrock. 
Capt.G.H.Eichards,E.N.,F.E.S.|T. Baincs, H. W. Bates, C. E. Mark- 
'■ I ham, T. Wright. 

SECTION E (continued). — geogkaphy. 
Sir Bartle Frere, E.C.B., LL.D., H. W. Bates, Clements E. Markliam, 



Sir E. I. Murchison, F.E.S., Pres. 

E.G.S. 
Col. Chesney, E.A., D.C.L., 

E. G. Latham, M.D., F.E.S. ... 

Sir E. I. Murchison, D.C.L., 

FES 
Sir J. Ei'chardson, M.D., F.E.S. 

Col. Sir H. C. Eawlinson, K.C.B. 

Eev. Dr. J.HcnthawnTodd,Pres. 

E.I.A. 
Sir E. I. Murchison, G.C.St.S., 

F.E.S. 

Eear-Admiral Sir James Clerk 

Eoss, D.C.L., F.E.S. 
Sir E. I. Murchison, D.C.L., 

F.E.S. 
John Crawfurd, F.E.S 

Francis Galton, F.E.S 

Sir E. I. Murchison, K.C.B., 

F.E.S. 
Sir E. I. Murchison,. K.C.B., 

F.E.S. 
Major-General Sir E. Eawlinson, 

M.P., K.C.B., F.E.S. 
Sir Charles Nicholson, Bart., 

LL.D. 

Sir Samuel Baker, F.E.G.S 



F. E.G.S 
SirE, I. Murchison, Bt, K.C.B., 

LL.D., D.C.L., F.E.S., F.G.S. 
Colonel Yule, C.B., F.E.G.S. ... 

Francis Galton, F.E.S 



J. H. Thomas. 
H. W. Bates, David Buxton, Albert 

J. Mott, Clements E. Markbam. 
Clements E. Markliam, A Bucban, 

J. H. Thomas, A. Keith Johnston. 
H. W. Bates, A. Keith Johnston, Eev. 

J. Newton, J. H. Thomas. 



1833. 
1834. 



1835. 
1836. 



Cambridge 
Edinburgh 



Dublin , 
Bristol . 



STATISTICAL SCIENCE. 

COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, TI. STATISTICS, 

Prof. Babbage, F.E.S IJ. E. Driukwater. 

Sir Charles Lemon, Bart |Dr. Cleland, C. Hope Maclean. 

SECTION F.; STATISTICS. 

Charles Babbage, F.E.S |W. Greg, Prof. Longfield. 

Sir Charles Lemon, Bart., F.E.S. Eev. J. E. Bromby, C. B. Fripp, 

James Heywo<?d. 



XXXVUl 



REPORT 1872. 



Date and Place. 



Presidents. 



Secretaries. 



1837. Liverpool... 

.1838. Newcastle... 

1839. Birmingham 

1840. Glasgow ... 

1841. Plymouth... 

1842. Manchester. 



1843. Cork 

1844. York 

1845. Cambridge . 

1846. Southampton 



1847. Oxford , 



1848. Swansea ... 

1849. Birmingham 

1850. Edinburgh .. 



Et. Hon. Lord Sandon 

Colonel Sykes, RR.S 

Henry Hallam, F.R.S 

Et. Hon, Lord Sandon, F.E.S. 

M.P. 
Lieut.-Col. Sykes, F.E.S 

G. W. Wood, M.P., F.L.S 

Sir C. Lemon, Bart., M.P 

Lieut.-Col. Sykes, F.E.S., F.L.S. 
Et. Hon. The Earl Fitzwilliam... 
G. E. Porter, F.E.S 

Trarers Twiss, D.C.L., F.R.S. ... 

J. IL Vivian, M.P., F.E.S 

Et. Hon. Lord Lyttelton 



1851. Ipswich. 

1852. Belfast . 



1853. Hull 

1854. Liverpool 



1855. Glasgow 



W. E. Greg, W. Langton, Dr. W. C. 

Tayler. 
W. Cargill, J. Heywood, W. E. Wood. 
F. Clarke, R. W. Eawson, Dr. W. C. 

Tayler. 
C. R. Baird, Prof. Ramsay, R. W. 

Eawson. 
Eev. Dr. Byrth, Rev. R. Luney, R. 

W. Rawson. 
Rev. E. Lunev, G. W. Ormerod, Dr. 

W. C. Tayler. 
Dr. D. BuUen, Dr. W. Cooke Tayler. 
J. Fletcher, J. Heywood, Dr. Laycoyk. 
J. Fletcher, W. Cooke Tayler, LL.D. 
J. Fletcher, F. G. P. Neison, Dr. W. 

C. Tayler, Eev. T. L. Shapcott. 
Eev. W. H. Cox, J. J. Danson, F. G. 

P. Neison. 
J. Fletcher, Capt. E. Shortrede 
Dr. Finch, Prof. Hancock, F. G. P. 

Neison. 
Prof. Hancock, J. Fletcher, Dr. 

Stark. 
J. Fletcher, Prof. Hancock. 
Prof Hancock, Prof. Ingram, James 

MacAdam, Jun. 
Edward Chesliire, William Newmarch. 
E. Cheshire, J. T. Danson, Dr. W. H. 

Duncan, W. Newmarch. 
R. Monckton Milnes, M.P J. A. Campbell, E. Cheshire, W. New- 
march, Prof. R. H. Walsh. 



Very Rev. Dr. John Lee, 

V.P.R.S.E. 
Sir John P. Boileau, Bart. 



His Grace the Archbishop of 

Dublin. 
James Heywood, M.P., F.R.S. 
Thomas Tooke, F.E.S 



SECTION F (continued). — ecokomic sctence ahd statistics. 



1856. Cheltenham 



1857. Dublin 

1858. Leeds ; 

1859. Aberdeen .. 

1860. Oxford 

1861. Manchester 



1862. Cambridge.. 

1863. Newcastle 



Rt. Hon. Lord Stanley, M.P. ... Rev. C. H. Bromby, E. Cheshire, Dr. 

W. N, Hancock Newmarch, W. M. 

Tartt. 
His Grace the Archbishop of Prof Cairns, Dr. H. D. Hutton, W. 

Dublin, M.E.I. A. 
Edward Baines 



1864. Bath.... 

1865. Birmingham 

1866. Nottingham 

1867. Dundee 

1868. Norwich ... 



Col. Sykes, M.P., F.R.S. ... 
Nassau W. Senior, M. A. ' . . . 
William Newmarch, F.R.S. 



Edwin Chadwick, C.B 

William Tite, M.P., F.E.S 

William Farr, M.D., D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
Et. Hon. Lord Stanley, LL.D., 

M.P. 
Prof. J. E. T. Rogers , 



M. E. Grant DufP, M.P 

Samuel Brown, Pres. Instit. Ac- 
tuaries. 



Newmarch. 
T. B. Baines, Prof. Cairns, S. Brown, 

Capt. Fishbom-ne, Dr. J. Strang. 
Prof. Cairns, Edmund Macrory, A. M. 

Smith, Dr. John Strang. 
Edmund Macrory, W. Newmarch, 

Rev. Prof J. E. T. Rogers. 
David Chadwick, Prof R. C. Christie, 

E. Macrory, Rev. Prof T. E. T. 

Rogers. 
H. D. Macleod, Edmund Macrory. 
T. Doubleday, 'Edmund Macrory, 

Frederick Piu-dy, James Potts. 
E. Macrory, E. T. Payne, F. Purdy. 

G. J. D. Goodman, G. J. Johnston, 

E. Macrory. 
E. Birkin, Jun., Prof. Leono Levi, E. 

Macrory. 
Prof Leone Levi, E. Macrory, A. J. 

Warden. 
Eev. W. C. Davie, Prof. Leone Levi. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



XXXIX 



Date and Place. 



1869. Exeter 

1870. Liverpool.. 

1871. Edinburgh 

1872. Brightoa .. 



Presidents. 



Kt. Hon. Sir Stafford H. North- 
cote. Bart, C.B., M.P. 
Prof. W. Stanley Jevons, M.A. . . 

Rt. Hon. Lord Neaves 

jProf. Henry Fawcett, M.P 



Secretaries. 



Edmund Macrory, Frederick Purdy, 

Charles T. D. Acland. 
Chas. R. Dudley Baxter, E. Macrory, 

J. Miles Moss. 
J. Q. Fitch, James Meikle. 
J. Gr. Fitch, Barclay PhiUips. 



MECHANICAL SCIENCE. 



SECTIOK G. MECHANICAI. SCIENCE. 



1836. 

1837. 
1838. 
1839. 



Bristol .. 
Liverpool 
Nevrcastle 
Birmingham 



1840. Grlasgow 



Davies GUbert, D.C.L., F.R.S, 

Rev. Dr. Robinson 

Charles Babbage, F.R.S. 

Prof. Willis, F.R.S., and Robert 

Stephenson. 
Sir John Robinson 



1841. 
1842. 

1843. 
1844. 
1845. 
1846. 
1847. 
1848. 
1849. 
1850. 
1851. 
1852. 



Plymouth . . 

Manchester 



Cork 

York 

Cambridge . 
Southampton 

Oxford 

Sveansea 

Birmingham 
Edinburgh .. 

Ipsvfich 

Belfast 



, Hull 



1853. 
1854. 
1855. 

1856. Cheltenham 

1857. Dublin 



, Liverpool 
, Glasgow 



1858. 
1859. 



Leeds 

Aberdeen 



1860. Oxford 

1861. Manchester 



1862. 
1863. 

1864. 
1865. 



Cambridge . 
Newcastle . . . 



John Taylor, F.R.S 

Rev. Prof. Willis, F.R.S 

Prof. J. Macneill, M.R.I.A. 

John Taylor, F.R.S 

George Rennie, F.R.S 

Rev. Prof. WiUis, M.A., F.R.S. . 
Rev. Prof. Walker, M.A., F.R.S. 
Rev. Prof. Walker, M.A., F.R.S. 
Robert Stephenson, M.P., F.R.S. 

Rev. Dr. Robinson 

WiUiam Cubitt, F.R.S 

John Warter,C.E., LL.D., F.R.S. 

WiUiam Fairbaim, C.E., F.R.S.. 

John Scott Russell, F.R.S 

W. J. Macquorn Rankme, C.E., 

F.R.S. 
George Rennie, F.R.S 

The Right Hon. The Earl of 
Rosse, F.R.S. 

William Fairbaim, F.R.S 

Rev. Prof. Willis, M.A., F.R.S 

Prof. W. J. Macquorn Rankine, 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
J. F. Bateman, C.E., F.R.S 

William Fairbairn, LL.D., F.R.S 
Rev. Prof. Willis, M.A., F.R.S. . 



Bath 

Birmingham 



Nottingham 



1866. 

1867. Dundee . 

1868. Norwich 



J. Hawkshaw, F.R.S 

Sir W. G. Armstrong, LL.D. 

F.R.S. 
Thomas Hawksley, V.P.Inst. 

C.B., F.G.S. 
Prof. W. J. Macquorn Rankine, 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
G. P. Bidder, C.E., F.R.G.S. 



T. G. Bunt, G. T. Clark, W. West. 
Charles Vignoles, Thomas Webster. 
R. Hawthorn, C. Vignoles, T. Webster. 
W. Carpmael, WiUiam Hawkes, Tho- 
mas Webster. 
J. Scott RusseU, J. Thomson, J. Tod, 

C. Vignoles. 
Henry Chatfield, Thomas Webster. 
J. F. Bateman. J. Scott Russell, J. 

Thomson, Charles Vignoles. 
James Thomson, Robert Mallet. 
Charles Vignoles, Thomas Webster. 
Rev. W. T. Eingsley. 
WiUiam Betts, Jun., Charles Manby. 
J. Glynn, R. A. Le Mesurier. 
R. A. Le Mesurier, W. P. Struve. 
Charles Manby, W. P. MarshaU. 
Dr. Lees, David Stephenson. 
John Head, Charles Manby. 
John F. Bateman, C. B. Hancock, 

Charles Manby, James Thomson. 
James Oldham, J.Thomson, W. Sykes 

Ward. 
John Grantham, J. Oldham, J. Thom- 
son. 
L. Hill, Jun., WiUiam Ramsay, J. 

Thomson. 
C Atherton, B. Jones, Jun., H. M. 

Jeffery. 
Prof. Downing, W. T. Doyne, A. Tate, 

James Thomson, Henry Wright. 
J. C. Dennis, J. Dixon, H. Wright. 
R. Abernethy, P. Le Neve Foster, H. 

Wright. 
P. Le Neve Foster, Rev. F. Harrison, 

Henry Wright. 
P. Le Neve Foster, John Eobinson, H. 

Wright. 
W. M. Fawcett, P. Le Neve Foster. 
P. Le Neve Foster, P. Wcstmacott, J. 

F. Spencer. 
P. Le Neve Fester, Robert Pitt. 
P. Le Neve Foster, Henry Lea, W. P. 

MarshaU, Walter May. 
P. Le Neve Foster, J. F. Iselin, M. 

A. Tarbottom. 
P. Le Neve Foster, John P. Smith, 

W. W. Urquhart. 
P. Le Neve Foster, J. F. Iseliu, C. 

Manby, W. Smith. 



xl 



REPORT 18/3. 



Date of Place. 



Presidents. 



Secretaries. 



1869. Exeter 

1870. Liverpool . . . 

1871. Edinburgh 

1872. Brighton ... 



C. W. Siemens, F.E.S 

Chas. B. Vignoles, C.E., F.E.S. 

Prof. Fleeming Jenkin, F.E.S... . 

P. J. Bramwell, C.E 



P. Le Neve Foster, H. Bauerman. 
H. Bauerman, P. Le Neve Foster, T. 

King, J. N. Shoolbred. 
H. Bauerman, Alexander Leslie, J. P. 

Smith. 
H. M. Brunei, P. Le Neve Foster, 

J. CI. Gamble, J. N. Shoolbred. 



List of Evening Lectures. 



Date and Place. 



Lecturer. 



Subject of Discourse. 



18i2. Manchester 



1843. Cork , 



Charles Vignoles, F.E.S, . 



1844. York , 



1845. Cambridge.. 

1846. Southampton 



1847. Oxford 



1848. Swansea 

1849. Birmingham 

1850. Edinburgh. 

1851. Ipswich 

1852. Belfast 

1853. Hull 

1854. Liverpool .., 



SirM. L Brunei 

R. I. Murchi-son 

Prof. Owen, M.D., F.E.S. 
Prof. E. Forbes, F.E.S. .. 



Dr. Eobinson .' 

Charles Lyell, F.E.S 

Dr. Falconer, F.E.S 

G. B. Airy, F.E.S., A.stron.Eoyal 

E. L Murchison, F.E.S 

Prof. Owen, M.D., F.E.S. ... 

Charles Lyell, F.E.S 

W. E. Grove, F.E.S 



Eev. Prof B. Powell, F.E.S. 
Prof. M. Faraday, F.E.S. ... 

Hugh E. Strickland, F.G.S. 
John Percy, M.D., F.E.S. ... 

W. Carpenter, M.D., F.E.S. 

Dr. Faraday, F.E.S 

Eev. Prof. Willis, M.A., F.E.S. 



Prof. J. H. Bennett, M.D., 
F.E.S.E. 

Dr. Mautell, F.E.S 

Prof. E. Owen, M.D., F.E.S. 

G. B. Airy, F.E.S., Astron. Eoy 
Prof G.G. Stokes, D.C.L., F.E.S 

Colonel Portlock, E.E., F.E.S. 



Prof. J. Phillips, LL.D., F.E.S., 
F.G.S. 

Eobert Hunt, F.E.S 

Prof. E. Owen, M.D., F.E.S. .. 
Col. E. Sabine, V.P.E.S 



The Principles and Construction of 
Atmospheric Eailways. 

The Thames Tunnel. 

The G eology of Eussia. 

The Dinornis of New Zealand. 

The Distribution of Animal Life in 
the iEgean Sea. 

The Earl of Eosse's Telescope. 

Geology of North America. 

The Gigantic Tortoise of the Siwalik 
Hills in India. 

Progress of Terrestrial Magnetism. 

Geology of Eussia. 

Fossil Mammalia of the British Isles. 

Valley and Delta of the Mississippi. 

Properties of the Explosive substance 
discovered by Dr. Schonbein ; also 
some Eesearches of his own on the 
Decomposition of Water by Heat. 

Shooting- star.<!. 

Magnetic and Diamagnetic Pheno- 
mena. 

The Dodo (Didtis inepf.us).'^ 

Metallurgical operations of Swansea 
and its neighbourhood. 

Eecent Microscopical Discoveries. 

Mr. Gassiot's Battery. 

Transit of different Weights with 
varying velocities on Eailways. 

Passage of the Blood througli the 
minute vessels of Animals in con- 
nexion with Nutrition. 

Extinct Birds of New Zealand. 

Distinction between Plants and Ani- 
mals, and their changes of Form. 

Total Sol.ir Eclipse of July 28, 1851. 

Eecent discoveries in the properties 
of Light. 

Eecent discovery of Eock-salt at Car- 
rickfergus, and geological and prac- 
tical considerations connected with it. 
Some peculiar phenomena in the Geo- 
logy and Physical Geography of 
Yorkshire. 

The present state of Photography. 

Anthropomorphous Apes. 

Progress of researches in Terrestrial 
Magnetism. 



LIST OF EVENING LECTURES. 



Xli 



Pate and Place. 



1855. Glasgow , 

1856. Clieltenbam 

1857. Dublin 

1858. Leeds 

1859. Aberdeen .. 



Lecturer. 



Subject of Discourse. 



Dr. W. B. Carpenter, F.R.S. 
Lieut.-Col. H. Eawlinson .. 



Col. Sir H. Eawlinson , 



18C0. Oxford 

1861. Mancbester 

1862. Cambridge 

1863. Newcastle- 

on-Tyne. 

1864. Batb 

1865. Birmingham 

1866. Nottingham. 

1867. Dundee.. 



1868. Norwich ..., 

1869. Exeter 

1870. LiTerpool .. 

1871. Edinburgh 

1872. Brighton .. 



W. E. Grove, E.R.S 

Prof. W. Thomson, E.E.S 

Eev. Di-. Livingstone, D.C.L. ... 
Prof. J. Phillips, LL.D., F.E.S, 
Prof. R. Owen, M.D., F.E.S. ... 

SirE.I.Murcbison, D.C.L 

Eev. Dr. Eobinson, F.E.S 

Eev. Prof. Walker, F.E.S 

C.Tptain Sherard Osborn, E.N. 
Prof. W. A. Miller, M.A., F.E.S 
G. B. Airy, F.R.S., ^stron.Eoy. 
Prof. TvndaU, LL.D., F.E.S. ... 

Prof. O'dling, F.E.S 

Prof. WilUamson, F.E.S 



James Glaisher, F.E.S. 

Prof. Eoscoe, F.E.S 

Dr. Livingstone, F.E.S. 
J. Beete Jukes, F.E.S. .< 



William Huggins, F.E.S 

Dr. J. D. Hooker, F.E.S 

Archibald Geikie, F.E.S 

Alexander Herschel, F.E.A.S 

J. Fergiisson, F.E.S 

Dr. W. Odling, F.E.S 

Prof. J. Phillips, LL.D., F.E.S, 
J. Norman Lockyer, F.E.S 

Prof J. Tyndall, LL.D., F.E.S 
Prof. W. J. Macquorn Eankine 

LL.D., F.E.S. 
P. A. Abel, F.E.S 

E. B. Tylor, F.E.S 

Prof. P. Martin Duncan, M.p. 

FES 
Prof. W. K. Clifford 



Characters of Species. 

Assyrian and Babylonian Antiquities 

and Ethnology. 
Eecent discoveries in Assyria and 
Babylonia, with the resultsof Cunei- 
form research up to the present 
time. 
Correlation of Physical Forces. 
The Atlantic Telegraph. 
Recent discoveries in Africa. 
The Ironstones of Yorkshire. 
The Fossil Mammalia of Austraha. 
Geology of the Northern Highlands. 
Electrical Discharges in highly rare- 
fied Media. 
Physical Constitution of the Sun. 
Arctic Discovery. 
Spectrum Analysis. 
The late Eclipse of the Sun. 
The Forms and Action of Water. 
Organic Chemistry. 
The chemistry of the Galvanic Bat- 
tery considered in relation to Dy- 
namics. 
The Balloon Ascents made for the 

British Association. 
The Chemical Action of Light. 
Eecent Travels in Africa. 
Probabilities as to the position and 
extent of the Coal-measures beneath 
the red rocks of the Midland Coun- 
ties. 
The results of Spectrum Analysis 

applied to Heavenly Bodies. 
Insular Floras. 
The Geological origin of the present 

Scenery of Scotland. 
The pi-esent state of knowledge re- 
garding Meteors and Meteorites. 
Archteology of the early Buddhist 

Monuments. 
Eeverse Chemical Actions. 
Vesuvius. 
The Physical Constitution of the 

Stars and Nebulaj. 
The Scientific Use of the Imagination. 
Stream-lines and ^'S^aves, in connexion 

with Naval Architecture. 
On some recent investigations and ap- 
plications of Explosive Agents. 
On the Eelation of Primitive to Mo- 
dern Civilization. 
Insect Metamorphosis. 
The Aims and Instruments of Scien- 
tific Thought. 



xlii 



EEPOET 1872. 



Date and Place. 



Lecturer. 



Subject of Discourse. 



1867. Dundee.. 

1868. Norwich 
1809. Exeter .. 



1870. Liverpool . 
1873. Brighton . 



Lectures to the Operative Classes. 



Prof. J. Tyndall, LL.D., P.E.S 
Prof. Huxley. LL.D., P.R.S. ... 
Prof. MiUer, M.D., F.E.S 



Sir John Lubbock, Bart., M.P. 

RE.S. 
William Sr)ottiswoode, LL.D., 

F.K.S. 



Matter and Force. 

A piece of Chalk. 

Experimental illustrations of tlio 
modes of detecting the Composi- 
tion of the Sun and other Heavenly 
Bodies by the Spectrum. 

Savages. 

Sunshine, Sea, and Sky. 



xllv 



KEPOKT 1872. 



Table shoiving the Attendance and Receipts 



Date of Meeting. 



1831, Sept. 27 . 

1832, June 19 . 

1833, June 25 . 

1834, Sept. 8 . 
183s, Aug. 10 ., 

1836, Aug. 22 ., 

1837, Sept. II ., 

1838, Aug. 10 ., 

1839, Aug. 26 .. 

1840, Sept. 17 .. 

1841, July 20 .. 

1842, June 23 .. 

1843, Aug. 17 •• 

1844, Sept. 26 .. 

1845, June 19 .. 

1846, Sept. 10 .. 

1847, June 23 .. 

1848, Aug. 9 

1849, Sept. 12 .. 

1850, July 21 .. 
1S51, July 2 

1852, Sept. I .. 

1853, Sept. 3 .. 
1S54, Sept. 20 .. 

1855, Sept. 12 ,. 

1856, Aug. 6 

1857, Aug. 26 .. 

1858, Sept. 22 .. 

1859, Sept. 14 .. 
i860, June 27 .. 
1S61, Sept. 4 

1862, Oct. 1 

1863, Aug. 26 .. 

1864, Sept. 13 .. 

1865, Sept. 6 .. 

1866, Aug. 22 .. 

1867, Sept. 4 .. 

1868, Aug. 19 .. 

1869, Aug. 18 .. 

1870, Sept. 14 .. 

1871, Aug. 2 

1872, Aug. 14 .. 

1873, Sept. 17 .. 



Where held. 



York 

Oxford 

Cambridge 

Edinburgh 

Dubhn ..: 

Bristol 

Liverpool 

Newcastle-on-Tyne . 

Birmingham 

Glasgow 

Plymouth 

Manchester 

Cork 

York 

Cambridge 



Presidents. 



Old Life 
Members. 



The Earl Fitzwilliam, D.C.L. .. 

The Eev. W. Buckland, F.E.S. . 

The Eev. A. Sedgwick, F.E.S... 

Sir T. M. Brisbane, D.C.L 

The Eev. Provost Lloyd, LL.D. 

The Marquis of Lansdowne 

The Earl of Burlington, F.E.S. 

The Duke of Northumberland.. 

The Eev. W. Vernon Hareourt 

The Marquis of Breadalbanc . . 

The Eev. W. Whewell, F.E.S... 

The Lord Francis Egcrton 

The Earl of Eosse, F.E.S. ..... 

The Eev. G. Peacock, D.D 

Sir John F. W. Herschel, Bart. 

Southampton | Sir Eoderick I. Murchison, Bart 

Oxford SirEobertH. Inglis, Bart 



Swansea 

Birmingham 

Edinburgh 

Ipswich 

Belfast 

HuU 

Liverpool 

Glasgow 

Cheltenham 

Dublin 

Leeds 

Aberdeen 

Oxford 

Manchester 

Cambridge 

Newcastle-on-Tyne , 

Bath 

Birmingham 

Nottingham 

Dundee 

Norwich 

Exeter 

Liverpool 

Edinburgh 

Brighton 

Bradford 



The Marquis of Northampton . . . 
The Eev. T. E. Eobinson, D.D. . 

Sir David Brewster, K.H 

G. B. Airy, Esq., Astron. Eoyal . 
Lieut.-General Sabine, F.E.S. ... 
William Hopkins, Esq., F.E.S. . 
The Earl of Harrowby, F.E.S. .. 

The Duke of Argyll, F.E.S 

Prof C. G. B. Daubeny, M.D.... 
The Eev. Humplirey Llovd, D.D. 
Eichard Owen, M.D., D!C.L. ... 
H.E.II. The Prince Consort . . . 

The Lord Wrotteslev, M.A 

William Fairbairn, LL.D.,F.E.S. 
The Eev. Prof. Willis, M.A. ... 
Sir William G. Armstrong, C.B. 
Sir Charles Lyell, Bart., M.A.... 
Prof J. Philhps, M.A.,LL.D.... 
William E. Grove, Q.C., F.E.S. 
The Duke of Buccleuch, K.C.B. 
Dr. Joseph D. Hooker, F.E.S. . 

Prof. G. G. Stokes, D.C.L 

Prof. T. H. Huxley, LL.D 

Prof Sir W. Thomson, LL.D.... 
Dr. W. B. Carpenter, F.E.S ... 
J. P. Joule, D.C.L., F.E.S 



169 
303 
109 
226 
313 
241 

314 
149 
227 
235 
172 
164 
141 
238 
194 
182 
236 
222 
184 
286 
321 
239 
203 
287 
292 
207 
167 
196 
204 

314 
246 
24s 



New Life 
Members. 



65 
169 

28 

150 

36 
10 
18 

3 
12 

9 
8 

lo 

13 
23 
33 
14 
15 
42 
27 
21 
113 

IS 

36 
40 

44 
31 
25 
18 
21 

39 
28 
36 



ATTENDANCE AND KECEIPTS AT ANNUAL MEETINGS. 



xlv 



at Annual Meetings of the Association. 





Attended by 








Amount 

receired 

durinff the 


Sums paid on 
Account of 
Grants for 


Old 


New- 








Annual 


Annual Assoc 


iates. 


Ladies. Fore 


ignera. Total. 


Meeting. 


Scientific 


Members. 


Members. 








Purposes. 












£ s. d. 


£, s. d. 


... 


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... 


353 
900 






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956 12 2 

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830 9 9 

685 16 

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275 I 8 


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172 

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36 857 
53 1260 
15 929 




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707 


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22 1071 


963 


159 19 6 


128 


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44 1241 


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37 710 


620 


391 9 7 


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156 


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507 15 3 


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125 


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2782 


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1604 


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125 15 


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791 


15 3139 


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242 


25 1161 


1089 


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154 


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25 3335 


3640 


1608 3 10 


182 


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13 2802 


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215 


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218 


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771 


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311 


127 t 


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21 2463 


2575 


1285 


280 


80 c 


)37 


912 


43 2533 


2649 





* Ladies were not admitted by purchased Tickets until 1843. 

t Tickets for admission to Sections only. \ .Including Ladies. 



xlvi REPoiiT — 1872. 

OFFICERS OF SECTIONAL COMMITTEES PRESENT AT THE 
BRIGHTON MEETING. 

SECTION A. MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICS. 

Prnj^wl— Warren De La Rue, D.C.L., Ph.D., F.R.S., V.P.E.A.S., V.P.C.S. 
Vice-Presidents. — Professor G. C. Foster, F.R.S. ; Professor F. Fuller ; James 

Glaisher, F.R.S. ; Lord Lindsay, J. N. Lockyer, F.R.S. ; Professor Phillips, 

F.R.S. ; Professor H. J. S. Smith, F.R.S. ; W. Spottiswoode, LL.D., F.R.S. ; 

Sir W. Thomson, LL.D., F.R.S. ; Sir Charles Wheatstone, F.R.S. 
*&cretenes.— Professor W. K. Clifford, M.A. ; J. W. L. Glaisher, B.A,, F.R. A.S. ; 

Professor A. S. Herschel, B.A., F.R.A.S. ; G. F. Rodwell, F.R.A.S. 

SECTION B. CHEMISTRY AND MINERALOGY, INCLUDING THEIR APPLICATIONS TO 

AGRICTTLTTIEE AND THE ARTS. 

Presidefit.—Dr. J. Hall Gladstone, F.R.S., F.C.S. 

Vice-Presidents.— F. A. Abel, F.R.S., F.C.S. ; Professor A. Crmn Brown, M.D., 
F.R.S.E. ; Professor Williamson, F.R.S. ; J. II. Gilbert, Ph.D., F.R.S. ; Sir 
Benjamin Brodie, Bart., F.R.S. ; Professor G. C. Foster, F.R.S. 

Secretaries.— T)r. Mills: W. Chandler Roberts, F.C.S.; Dr. W. J. Russell, F.R.S.;' 
T. Wood, Ph.D. 

SECTION C. GEOLOGY. 

President.— n. A. C. Godwin-Austen, F.R.S., F.G.S. 

Vice-Presidents.— Thomns Davidson, F.R.S., F.G.S. ; Professor P. Martin Duncan, 

M.D., F.R.S. F.G.S. ; Rev. Thomas Wiltshire, M.A., F.G.S., F.L.S.; Professor J. 

Phillips, M.A., LL.D., F.R.S. ; J. Prestvrich, F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Secretaries. — Henry Woodward, F.G.S. ; Louis C. Miall; George Scott: William 

Topley, F.G.S. 

SECTION D. BIOLOGY. 

P)-esident.—Sir John Lubbock, Bart., M.P., V.P.R.S. 

Vice-Presidents.— Vrofeasor Balfour, M.D., F.R.S.; John Ball, F.R.S.; John 
Beddoe M.D. ; George Bentham, F.R.S. ; J. Cordy Burrows, M.D. ; T. Spencer 
Cobbold, M.D., F.R.S.; Professor Flower, F.R.S.; Col. A. Lane Fox, F.G.S; 
Joseph D. Hooker, C.B., M.D., F.R.S.; J. Gwvn Jeffrevs, F.R.S.; J. Burdon 
Sanderson, M.D., F.R.S. ; Professor Wyville Thomson, M^D., F.R.S. 

Secretaries. — Professor Thiselton-Dyer, B.A., H. T. Stainton, F.R.S. ; Professor 
Lawson, F.L.S.; F. W. Rudler F.G.S.; J. H. Lamprey; Dr. Gamgee, F.R.S.; 
E. Ray Lankester, M.A. ; Dr. Pye-Smith. 

SECTION E. — GEOGRAPHY AND ETHNOLOGY. 
President— Fvmcis Galton, F.R.S., F.G.S., F.R.G.S. 
Vice-Presidents.— Clements R. Markham, C.B., F.L.S., F.R.G.S. ; Ma-jor-General 

Sir Henry Rawlinson, K.C.B., Pres. R.G.S. ; Major-General Strachey, R.E., 

F.R.S., F.R.G.S.; Vice-Admiral Ommanney, C.B., F.R.S.. F.R.G.S.; John 

Arrowsmith, F.R.G.S. ; A. G. Findlay, F.R.G.S. 
Secretaries.— W. H. Bates, F.R.G.S. ;' A. Keith Johnston, F.R.G.S.; Rev. J. 

Newton, M.A. ; J. H. Thomas, F.R.G.S. 

SECTION P. ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 

President. — Professor Henry Fawcett, M.A., M.P. 
Vice-Presidents. — Sir John Bowi-ing; M. E. Grant Duff, M.P. ; Su' James K. 

Alexander; Right Hon. J. G. Dodson, M.P. ; James White, M.P.; R. Dudley 

Baxter, M.A. ; William Newmarch, F.R.S. 
Secretaries. — J. G. Fitch, M.A. ; Barclay Phillips. 

Secttom G. — Mechanical Science, 
Pi-esident.—I'. J. Bramwell, C.E. 
Vice-Preside))ts.~3o\m Ilawkshaw, F.R.S. ; C. W. Merrifield, F.R.S. ; Charles B. 

Vignoles, F.R.S.; Prof. W^ J. Macquorn Eankine, LL.D., F.R.S.; James 

Nasmyth, C.E. ; W. Froude, F.R.S. 
Secretaries.— Ji. M. Brunei; P. Le Neve Foster, M.A. ; John G. Gamble, B.A. ; 

James N, Shoolbred, 



OFFICERS AND COUNCIL, 1872-73. 



TffUSTEES (PERMANENT). 

General SirEDWAED Sabike, K.C.B., E.A., D.C.L., F.B.8. 
Sir Philip de M. Grey-Egerton, Bart, M.P., F.K.S., F.G.S 
Sir John Lubbock, Bart., M.P., F.E.8., F.L.S. 

PRESIDENT. 
DE. W. B. CAEPENTEE, LL.D., F.E.S., P.L.S., F.G.S. 



VICE-PRESIDENTS. 



The Eight Hon. the Eael of Chichester, Lord 

Lieutenant of the County of Sussex. 
Hia Grace The Duke of Norfolk. 
His Grace The Duke of Eichmond, K.G., P.O., 

D.C.L. 



His Grace The DUKE OF DetonshIEE, E.G., 

D.C.L., F.E.S. 
Sir John LuBBOCK,Bart.,M:.P.,F.E.S.,F.L.S.,F.G.S. 
Dr. Sharpey, LL.D., Sec. E.S., F.L.S. 
J. Prestwich, Esq., F.E.S. , Pres. G.S. 



PRESIDENT ELECT. 

JAMES PEESCOTT JOULE., Esq., D.C.L., LL.D., F.E.S. 

VICE-PRESIDENTS ELECT. 
The Eight Hon. theEARL OF EossE,F.E.S.,F.E.A.S. l J. P. Gassiot, Esq., D.C.L., LL.D., F.E.S. 
The Eight Hon. Lord Houghton, D.C.L., F.E.S. Professor Phillips, D.C.L., LL.D., F.E.S. 

The Right Hon. W. E. Poestee, M.P. John Hawkshaw, Esq., F.E.S., F.G.S. 

The Mayor of Be,U)FOHD. I 

LOCAL SECRETARIES FOR THE MEETING AT BRADFORD. 

The Eev. J. E. Campbell, D.D. 
Eichard Goddard, Esq. 
Peile Thompson, Esq. 

LOCAL TREASURER FOR THE MEETING AT BRADFORD. 

Alfred Harris, Jun., Esq. 



ORDINARY MEMBERS 

Bateman, J. F., Esq., F.E.S. 
Beddoe, John, M.D. 
Debus, Dr. H., F.E.S. 
De La Eue, Waeeen, Esq., F.E.S. 
Evans, John, Esq., F.E.S. 
Fitch, J. G., Esq., M.A. 
Flower, Professor W. H., F.E.S. 
Foster, Prof. G. C, F.E.S. 
G.VLTON, Francis, Esq., F.E.S. 
Godwin-Austen, E. A. C, Esq., F.E.S. 
Hirst. Dr. T. Archee, F.E.S. 
HUGGINS, William, Esq., D.C.L., F.E.S. 
Jeffreys, J. Gwyn, Esq., F.E.S. 



OF THE COUNCIL, 

Lockter, J. N., Esq., F.E.S. 
Meeeifield, C. W., Esq., F.E.S. 
N0RTHC0TE,Et.Hon.SirSTAFF0EDH.,Bt.,M,P. 
Eamsay, Professor, LL.D., F.E.S. 
Eawlinson, Sir H., K.C.B., F.E.S. 
Sclateb, Dr. P. L., F.E.S. 
Siemens, C. W., Esq., D.C.L., F.E.S. 
Bteachey', Major-General, F.E.S. 
Strange, Lieut.-Colonel A., F.E.S. 
Tyndall, Professor, LL.D., F.E.S. 
Wheatstone, Professor Sir C, F.E.S. 
Williamson, Professor A. W., F.E.S. 



EX-OFFICIO MEMBERS OF THE COUNCIL. 

The President and President Elect, the Vice-Presidents and Vice-PresidentB Elect, the General and 
Assistant General Secretaries, the General Treasurer, the Trustees, and the Presidents of former 
years, viz. : — 

Eichard Owen, M.D., D.C.L. 

Sir W. Fairbiiirn, Bart., LL.D. 

The Eev. Professor Willis, F.E.S. 

Sir W. G. Armstrong, C.B., LL.D. 

Sir Chas. Lyell, Bart., M.A.,LL.D. 

Professor Phillips, Jtl.A., D.C.L. 



The Duke of Devonshire. 
The Eov. T. R. Eobinson, D.D. 
Sir G. B. Airy, Astronomer Eoyal. 
General Sir E. Sabine, K.C.B. 
The Earl of Harrowby. 
The Duke of Argyll. 
The Eev. H. Lloyd, D.D. 



Sir William E. Grove, F.E.S. 
The Duke of Buccleuch, K.B. 
Dr. Joseph D. Hooker, D.C.L. 
Professor Stokes, C.B., D.C.L. 
Prof. Huxley, LL.D. 
Prof. Sir W. Thomson, D.C.L. 



GENERAL SECRETARIES. 
Capt. Douglas Galton, C.B., E.E., F.E.S., F.G.S., 12 Chester Street, Groavenor Place, London, S.W. 
Prof. Michael Foster, M.D. , F.E.S., Trinity College, CambrMlge. 

ASSISTANT GENERAL SECRETARY. 

GeoegE Griffith, Esq., M.A., Harrow-on-the-hill, Middlesex. . 

GENERAL TREASURER. 
William Spottistvoodf, Esq., M.A., LL.D., F.E.S., F.E.G.S., 50 GrosTenor Place, London, S.W. 

AUDITORS. 
John Ball, Esq., F.R.S. J. Gwyn Jeffreys, Esq., F.E.S. Colonel Lane Pox F.G.S. 



xlviii . REPORT — 1872. 



Report of the Council for the Year 1871-72 p^'esented to the General 
Committee at Brighton, on Wednesday, August 14th, 1872. 

At eaeli of their Meetings during the present year, the Council have 
received a Report from the General Treasurer, and his Report for the year 
will be laid before the General Committee this day. 

The Council have to announce that a vacancy has occurred in the number 
of the Trustees in consequence of the death of Sir Roderick Murchison. 

The Council take this opportunity of expressing their regret at the great 
loss which Science has sustained by his death. Ho worked long, eai-uestly, 
and with eminent success in the Sciences of Geology and Geography, and was 
at all times a steady patron of rising Scientific Men in all branches of Science. 
He was a Member and strenuous supporter of this Association at its first 
formation in 1831, and continued until the close of his life a very constant 
attendant at its Meetings and a firm promoter of its interests. 

The Council recommend that Sir John Lubbock, Bart., be selected to fill 
the vacancy. 

The list of Sectional Officers, which the Council will submit to the General 
Committee, has been arranged in accordance with the resolution of the 
General Committee at the Meeting at Edinburgh in 1871, viz. the Section 
of Biology has been divided into the three Departments of Anatomy and 
Physiology, Anthropology, and Zoology and Botany, and the Council have 
designated the Chairmen and Secretaries to take charge of the several 
Departments. 

In accordance with the following resolution of the General Committee at 
Edinburgh, viz. : — 

That the President and General Ofticers, with power to add to their 
number, be requested to take such steps as may seem to them desi- 
rable in order to promote observations on the forthcoming Total Solar 
Eclipse, 

a Committee was formed, consisting of the President, and General Officers of 
the Association, Professor J. C. Adams, Sir G. B. Airy, Astronomer Royal, 
Professor Clifton, Mr. De La Rue, Dr. Frankland, Mr. Hind, Mr. Lassell, 
President R.A.S., Lord Lindsay, Mr. Lockyer, General Sabine, General Stra- 
chey, Colonel Strange, and Professor Stokes ; and a Letter was addressed by 
the President to the First Lord of the Treasury, requesting the Government 
to contribute £2000 towards the expenses of the Expedition, to aflford to the 
Expedition the assistance of a Government Steamer to convey the parties 
composing it to the Stations for observation selected on the Coasts of Ceylon 
and India, and to obtain for the Expedition the cooperation of the Governor- 
General of India and of the Governor of Ceylon. 

Her Majesty's Government acceded to the request contained in this letter. 
The Expedition was formed by the Committee, and proceeded to Ceylon and 
India in the charge of Mr. Lockyer and Dr. Thomson. The Governor-General 
of India and the Governor of Ceylon forwarded the objects of the Expedition 
by all means in their power. 



REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. xlix 

The report of the proceedings and results of the Expedition will be pre- 
sented to the Association by the Eclipse Committee in the usual course. 

The Council have received a communication from the Royal Astronomical 
Society, informing them that that body contemplated printing, in a separate 
volume of their Transactions, the results of the observations of the Solar 
Eclipses of 1860 and 1370; and that, under these circumstances, they con- 
sidered it would be advantageous to Science to publish, in the same manner, 
the results of the Observations made in 1871, under the auspices of the 
British Association; thus presenting a llecord of aU these Observations in 
one uniform Series. 

The Council resolved to accept the proposal of the Council of the Royal 
Astronomical Society, and they appointed a Committee, consisting of Mr. 
"Warren De La Rue, Colonel Strange, Dr. Huggins, and Mr. Lockyer, to 
arrange the necessary details with the Council of the Royal Astronomical 
Socictj-. 

Thei-e were five other resolutions referred to the Council for consideration 
or action, upon which the proceedings of the Council have been as follows : — - 

First Hesolution.—" That the President and Council of the British Asso- 
ciation be authorized to cooperate with the President and Council of the 
Royal Society, in whatever way may seem to them best, for the promotion of 
a Circumnavigation Expedition, specially fitted out to carry the Physical and 
Biological Exploration of the Deep Sea into aU, the Great Oceanic areas." 

A copy of this Resolution was forwarded to the Royal Society, and a Com- 
mittee was appointed, consisting of the President and Officers of the Asso- 
ciation, Dr. Carpenter, Professor Huxley, Mr. Gwyn Jeffreys, Mr. C. W. 
Siemens, and Professor "Williamson, and authorized to cooperate with the 
Committee of the Royal Society in carrying out the objects referred to in the 
Resolution. The Expedition has been organized, the ship ' Challenger ' is 
being fitted out at Sheerness, Captain Nares has been appointed to the com- 
mand, and Professor Wyville Thomson (who has obtained three years' leave 
of absence from the University of Edinburgh) is appointed to the Scientific 
charge, with an adequate Staff under him. It is hoped that the Expedition 
will sail about the end of November. 

Second Besolution. — " 1. That it is desirable that the British Association 
apply to the Treasury for Funds to enable the Tidal Committee to make 
observations and to continue their calculations. 

" 2. That it is desirable that the British Association should urge upon 
the Government of India the importance, for navigation and other practical 
purposes, and for science, of making accurate and continued observations on 
the Tides at several points on the coast of India." 

The Coimcil added General Strachey to the Committee on Tides. The 
Government of India, iipou their application, have agreed to defray the 
expense of making Tidal observations in India, and of causing the experi- 
ments to be reduced according to the methods devised by the Committee on 
Tides. 

In pursuance of the first part of this Resolution, the Cnnmittce on Tides 
being authorized by the Council to make an application to the Government, 
presented the following Memorial to the Lords Commissioners of II. M. 
Treasury : — 



1872. 



1 REPORT 1872. 

" To the H'lglit Honourable the Lords Commissioners of Her Majesty's Treasury, 
The Memorial of the British Association for the Advancement of Science. 

" Humbly Sheweth, 

" 1. That in the year 1867 the British Association appointed a Com- 
mittee 'for the purpose of promoting the extension, improvement, and 
harmonic analysis of tidal observations.' From that time until the present, 
under Committees reappointed from year to year, the proposed work has been 
carried on. The mode of procedure adopted, and the results obtained up 
to the mouth of August 1871, are fully stated in the accompanying series of 
printed reports. 

" 2. The primary object of the investigation is the advance of tidal science ; 
but the Committee have uniformly kept in view the practical application 
of their results to Physical Geography, Meteorology, Coast and Harbour 
Engineering, and ITavigation, 

" 3. A large mass of valuable observations recorded by self- registering 
tide-gauges during the last twenty years having been found available, the 
Committee have applied themselves in the first place to the reduction of 
these observations, and have deferred the object of promoting observations 
in other localities until the observations already made have been utilized to 
the utmost. 

" 4. The work thus undertaken has proved, as was anticipated, most 
laborious. The calculations have been performed, under the superintend- 
ence of Sir William Thomson, by skilled calculators recommended by the 
Nautical Almanac Office. The funds required to pay the calculators, and fo 
print and prepare Tables, forms for calciilation, &c., to the amount of =£600, 
have been granted by the British Association in four successive annual 
allowances of .£100 each, and a sum of .£200 voted at the last Meeting. 
The last grant barely sufficed for the work actually in hand, and to secure 
the continuance of the investigation additional funds are necessary. The 
Council of the British Association therefore directed the Tidal Committee to 
make an application to the Government for assistance, the amount at present 
asked for being limited to .£150. 

" 5. It seemed to the Council that after the Association had done so much 
in the way of actual expenditure of time by the Members of its Committee, 
and had given such a large contribution from its very limited funds, enough 
had been done to show the object to be one for which assistance may 
reasonabljr be expected from Government. On representations made by 
Colonel Walker, Director of the Trigonometrical Survey of India, the Indian 
Government has already granted the means of defraying the expense of 
making Tidal Observations in India, and applying to them the methods of 
reduction devised by the Committee of the British Association. The Council 
hope, therefore, that the Government of this country may be similarly dis- 
posed to assist in a matter of national importance. 

(Signed) " AVilliam THOirso:N-, 

President of the British Association." 

" May 21, 1872." 

The Council regret to state that the application was rejected upon the 
grounds explained in the following letter : — 

" TreaBui'v Cbambers, "* 

3rcl June, 1872. 

" SiE, — The Chancellor of the Exchequer has referred to tlie Lords Com- 
missioners of Her Majesty's Treasury the Memorial of the British Association 



REPORT or THE COUNCIL. ;K 

for the Advancement of Science, forwarded to him with your letter of 21st 
ultimo, praying for Government assistance in connexion with Tidal Obser- 
vations. 

" I am to state that their Lordships have given their anxious attention to 
the Memorial, and they are fullj^ sensible of the interesting nature of such 
investigations, but that they feel that if they acceded to this request, it 
would be impossible to refuse to contribute towards the numerous other ob- 
jects which men of eminence may desire to treat scientifically. 

" Their Lordships must, therefore, though with regret, decline to make a 
promise of assistance towards the present object out of the public funds. 

" I am. Sir, 

" Your obedient Servant, 

(Signed) " William Law." 

" Sir W. Thomson, Atlienceum Chtb." 

Tliird Hesolufion. — "That the Council of the Association be requested to 
take such steps as to them may seem most expedient in support of a proposal, 
made by Dr. Buys Ballot, to establish a telegraphic meteorological station at 
the Azores." 

The Council appointed a Committee of their own body to report upon this 
proposal. ■ The Committee after due deliberation reported that, while sympa- 
thizing with the proposal made by Dr. Buys Ballot, they cannot recommend 
a grant of money to be made by the Association for carrying it out. In this 
recommendation the Council concur. 

Fourth Hesolufion. — " That the Council be requested to take into con- 
sideration the desirability of the publication of a periodic record of advances 
made in the various branches of science represented by the British Associa- 
tion." 

The Council, after a careful consideration of this proposal, are not prepared 
to recommend the Association to undertake the publication of a periodic 
record of advances made in the various branches of science represented by 
the Sections of the British Association. They are of opinion that in so vast 
an undertaking special Societies should be invited to pi-epare such records, 
the action of the Association being limited to occasional grants in aid. They 
are of opinion, however, that the Association would do well to promote the 
more frequent publication in their Proceedings of critical reports on vai-ious 
branches of science, of the same nature as those which have alreadj' rendered 
previous volumes so valuable to investigators. 

Fifth liesohition. — "1. That the Council of this Association be requested 
to take such steps as may appear to them desirable with reference to the 
arrangement now in contemplation to establish 'Leaving Examinations,' and 
to report to the Association on the present position of science-teaching in 
the public and first-grade schools. 

" 2. That the Coimcil be requested to take such steps as they deem wisest 
in order to promote the introduction of scientific instruction into the ele- 
mentary schools throughoitt the country." 

A Committee, consisting of the President and the General Officers, Mr. G. 
Busk, Dr. Debus, Dr. Duncan, Mr. Fitch, Professor M. Foster, Mr. F. Galton, 
Dr. Hirst, Professor Huxley, Sir John Lubbock, Bart., Sir J. Paget, Bart., 
Ecv. Professor Price, Professor Henry J. S, Smith, Professor Stokes, Professor 
Tyndall, and Professor "VVilHamson, was appointed to consider the first of 
these resolutions, and to report on them to the Council. 

d2 



Hi iiEPOiiT — 1872. 

la accovdauce with the rocommendatiou of this Committee the Coaucil 
adopted the following Resolution : — 

That, having had under consideration the requests which the Committee 
of Masters of Schools have made to the Universities of Oxford and 
Cambridge upon points in which the Education of the Universities 
and Schools came into contact, the Council of the British Association 
recommend that Arithmetic, and cither Elementary Physics or Che- 
mistry experimentally treated, be introduced into the Leaving Exa- 
minations as compulsory subjects. 

That the Head-Masters of Public Schools be requested to furnish 
the Council with information about the present position of Science- 
teaching in their Schools. 

and the Council have communicated thereon with the Universities of Oxford 
and Cambridge, but at present no decision respecting " Leaving Examinations " 
has been arrived at in these Universities. 

In accordance with the terms of the resolution passed by the General 
Committee last year, appointing a Committee on Science Lectures and Orga- 
nization, the action proposed to be taken by this Committee in the following 
resolutions, was referred to the Council and sanctioned. 

1. That a Subcommittee, consisting of Dr. Carpenter, Prof. Williamson, 
Prof. W. G. Adams, Dr. Hirst, Mr. Geo. Griffith, Di. Michael Foster, and 
Prof. E.oscoe be appointed for one year for the purpose of preparing a list 
of Lecturers for the consideration of this Committee, and of communicating 
with the various towns with the view of establishing a system of Science 
Lectures throughout the countiy. 

2. That the names of the proposed Lecturers be selected (with their 
consent) from amongst the Members of the General Committee of the 
Association, or from amongst the Graduates of any University in the 
United Kingdom ; and that the subjects ixpon which the Lectures be de- 
livered shall be such as are included in one or other of the Sections of the 
Association. 

The Committee have drawn up a Report, dealing generally with the sub- 
ject of their inquiry, which the Council recommend should be referred to tho 
Committee of Recommendations. 

The Council have had under consideration tlie question of enabling 
Members, who are unable to be present at tho Meetings, to obtain the 
Journal and other Printed Papers, and they have adopted a Regulation as 
follows : — ■ 

The Journal, President's Address, and other Printed Papers issued by the 
Association during the Annual Meeting will be forwarded daily to Members 
and others, on application and prepayment of 2s. Gd. to the Clerk of the 
Association, on or before the first day of the Meeting. 

The Council regret to have to announce that the state of health of 
Dr. Thomas Thomson renders him unable to continue to act as one of the 
General Secretaries of tlie Association after the present Meeting. They 
cannot refrain from expressing their great regret at the loss of his valuable 
services. 

The Council have agreed to recommend that Professor Michael Foster, 
F.R.S., be appointed one of the Genei-al Secretaries in his place, and his 
name will be proposed to the General Committee at the Meeting for the 
Election of the Council aud Officers on Monday next. 

The Council have added the following names of gentlemen," present 



BECOMMKNDATIONS or THE GENEKAL COMMITTEE. liii 

at. tlic last Meciiiig of the Association, to the list of Corresponding Members, 
viz. : — 

His Imiicrial Majesty the Emperor of the Brazils. 

Professor Dr. Coldiiig. 

Dr. Giissfeldt. 

Dr. Liiroth. 

Dr. Liitkeu. 

Dr. Joseph Szabo. 

The General Committee are reminded that Bradford has heen selected as 
the place of meeting for next year. Invitations for subsequent Meetings 
have been received from Belfast and Glasgow. 



Becommendations adopted by the GENErvAL Committee at xue BwenioN 
Meeting in August 1872. 

[When Committees are appointed, the Member first named is regarded as the Secretary, 
except there is a specific nomination.] 

Involving Grants of Money. 

That the Committee, consisting of Professor Caylcy, Professor Stokes, 
Professor H. J. S. Smith, Sir W. Thomson, and Mr.' J. W. L. Glaisher (Se- 
cretary), on Mathematical Tables be reappointed, with a grant of .£100 for 
the calculation and printing of numerical tables. 

That the Committee on Tides, consisting of Sir W. Thomson, Professor J. 
C. Adams, Professor W. J. M. Kanldne, Mr. J. Oldham, Bear-Admiral 
Eiehards, General Strachey, Mr. W. Parkes, and Colonel Walker, be reap- 
pointed, with a grant of £400 to complete the reduction of Tidal Observations 
from existing data, and that an urgent recommendation be made to the 
Government to undertake Tidal Observations and their reduction. 

That the Committee for reporting on the Bainfall of the British Isles bo 
reappointed, and that this Committee consist of Mr. Charles Brooke, Mr. 
Glaisher, Professor Phillips, Mr. G. J. Symons, Mr. J. F. Bateman, Mr. B. 
W. Mylne, Mr. T. Hawksley, Professor J. C. Adams, Mr. C. Tomlinson, 
Professor Sylvester, Dr. Pole, Mr. Bogers Field, Professor Ansted, and Mr. 
Buchan ; that Mr, G. J. Symons be the Secretary, and that the sum of £100 
be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That the Committee on Underground Temperature, consisting of Professor 
Everett (Secretary), Sir W. Thomson, Sir Charles Lycll, Bart., Professor 
J. Clerk Maxwell, Professor Phillips, Mr. G. J. Symons, Professor Bamsay, 
Professor Geikie, Mr. Glaisher, Bev. Dr. Graham, Mr. George Maw, Mr. 
Pengelly, Mr. S. J. Mackie, Professor Edward Hull, and Professor Ansted, 
be reappointed ; that Mr. Joseph Prestwich be added to the Committee, and 
that the sum of £150 (£100 being a grant already made which has lapsed) 
be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That a grant of £50 having been made for the Calculation of the Gaussian 
Constants, and only £40 having been drawn by the late Chairman Sir J. 
Hcrschel, the remaining £10 be regranted to Mr. G. Griffith and Professor 
Erman for expenses already incurred. 

That the Committee on Luminous Meteors, consisting of Mr. Glaisher, 
;i[r. 11. P. Greg, Professor A. S. Herschel, be reappointed, with a grant of £30 
for projecting and reducing upon suitable maps the observations of meteors 



liv REPORT — 1873. 

collected during the last few years by the Committee, so as to show their 
radiant points. 

That Mr. Glaisher, Col. Strange, Sir W. Thomson, Mr. Brooke, Mr. 
Walker, Dr. Mann, and M. de ronvielle be a Committee for the jjurpose of 
investigating the efficacy of Lightning-conductors, giving suggestions for 
their improvement, and reporting upon any case in which a^buildiug has been 
injured by lightning, especially where such buUding was professedly protected 
by a lightning-conductor, and that the sum of .£50 be placed at their dis- 
posal for the purpose. 

That Professor A. W. Williamson, Sir W. Thomson, Professor Clerk Max- 
well, Professor G. C. Foster, Mr. Abel, Professor F. Jenkin, Mr. Siemens, 
and Mr. E. Sabine be reappointed a Committee for the purpose of testing 
the New Pyrometer of Mr. Siemens, and that the sum of £30 be placed at 
their disposal for the purpose. 

That the Committee, consisting of Dr. Huggius, Mr. J. N. Lockyer, Dr. 
Ecynolds, Professor Swan, and Mr. Stoney, on Inverse Wave-lengths be 
reappointed, and that the sum of ^150 be placed at their disposal. 

That the Committee on the Thermal Conductivity of Metals, consisting of 
Professor Tait, Professor Tj'^ndaU, and Professor Palfour Stewart, be reap- 
pointed, and that the sum of £50 be placed at their disposal for the 
purpose. 

That Pi'ofessor Williamson, Professor Eoscoe, and Professor Frankland 
be a Committee for the purpose of superintending the Monthly Eecords of the 
Progress of Chemistry published in the Journal of the Chemical Society, and 
that the sum of £200 (last year's grant of £100 was not drawn) bo placed at 
their disposal for the purpose. 
. That Dr. Gladstone, Dr. C. E. A. Wright, and Mr. Chandler Eoberts be 
reappointed a Committee for the purpose of investigating the chemical consti- 
tution and optical proporties of essential oils ; that Mr. Chandler Eoberts be 
the Secretary, and that the sum of £30 be placed at their disposal for the 
purpose. 

That Dr. Crum Erown, Mr. Dewar, Dr. Gladstone, Dr. Williamson, Sir 
W. Thomson, and Professor Tait be a Committee for the purpose of deter- 
mining the temperatures of incandescent bodies by the refrangibility of the 
light they emit, and that the sum of £50 be placed at their disposal for the 
purpose. 

That Dr. Crum Brown, Professor Tait, and Mr. Dewar be a Committee for 
the purpose of investigating the Electric Tensions of galvanic cells in which 
the oxides or acids of chlorine or iodine form tlie liquid elements, and tliat 
the sum of £25 be placed at tlicir disposal for the purpose. 

That Professor Eamsay, Professor Geikie, Professor J. Young, Professor 
Nicol, Dr. Bryce, Dr. Arthur Mitchell, Professor Hull, Sir E. Griffith, 
Bart., Dr. King, Professor Harkness, Mr. Prestwich, Mr. Hughes, Eev. 
H. W. Crosskey, Mr. W. Jolly, Mr. D. Milne Home, and Mr. Pengelly 
be reappointed a Committee for the purpose of ascertaining the existence in 
diifcrcnt parts of the United Kingdom of any Erratic Blocks or Boulders, 
indicating on Maps their position and height above tlie sea, as also of ascer- 
taining the nature of the rocks composing these blocks, their size, shape, 
and other particulars of interest, and of endeavouring to prevent the destruc- 
tion of such blocks as in the opinion of the Committee are worthy of being 
preserved ; that the Eev. H. W. Crosskey be the Secretary, and that the sum of 
£10 be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Sir C, Lyell, Bart., Professor Phillips, Sir J. Lubbock, Bart., Mr. 



RECOMMENDATIONS OF THE GENERAL COMMITTEE. Iv 

J. Evans, Mr. E. Vivian, Mr. W. Pengelly, Mr. G. Busk, Mr. ^V. B. Dawkins, 
and Mr. W. A. Sandford be a Committee for the purpose of continuing the 
Exploration of Kent's Cavern, Torquay ; that Mr. Pengelly be the Secretary, 
and that the sum of £150 be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Sir J. Lubbock, Bart., Professor Phillips, Messrs. W. Boyd Dawkins, 
and T. McKenny Hughes, be a Committee for the purpose of carrying out 
the exploration of the Settle Cave ; that Mr. W. Boyd Dawlcins be the Se- 
cretary, and that the sum of £50 be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Mr. G. Busk, Dr. Leith Adams, and Mr. Boyd Dawkins be reap- 
pointed a Committee for the purpose of illustrating by plates an account of 
the Fossil Elephants of Malta ; that Dr. Leith Adams be the Secretary, 
and that the sum of £25 be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Professor Harkness, Mr. James Thomson, Dr. Duncan, and Mr. Thomas 
Davidson be reappointed a Committee for the purpose of continuing the 
investigation of Carboniferous Corals with the view of reproducing them 
for publication ; that Mr. Thomson be the Secretary, and that the sum of 
.£25 be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Mr. Carruthers, Mr. W. H. Baily, Professor Harkness, and Professor 
Hull be a Committee for the purpose of investigating the Fossil Flora of 
Ireland ; that Mr. W. H. Baily be the Secretary, and that the sum of £20 
be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Professor Harkness, Mr. W. Jolly, and Dr. J. Bryce be a Committee 
for the purpose of collecting Fossils from localities of difficult access in North- 
western Scotland, that the specimens be deposited in the Edinburgh In- 
dustrial Museum, and that duplicates be deposited in such Museums as the 
authorities of the Association may designate ; that Mr. William JoUy be the 
Secretary, and that the sum of £10 be placed at their disposal for the 
purpose. 

That Dr. Bryce, Sir W. Thomson, Mr. J. Brough, Mr. G. Forbes, Mr. D. 
Milne Home, and Mr. James Thomson be a Committee for the purpose of 
continuing the observations and records of Earthquakes in Scotland ; that 
Dr. Bryce be the Secretary, and that the sum of £20 be placed at their 
disposal for the purpose. 

That Messrs. H. WiUett, Godwin-Austen, W. Topley, T. Davidson, J, 
Prcstwich, W. Boyd Dawkins, and H.Woodward be a Committee for the pur- 
pose of promoting the " Sub-Wealden exploration ; " that Mr. Henry Willett 
be the Secretary, and that the sum of £25 be placed at their disposal for the 
purpose. 

That Colonel Lane Fox, Dr. Bcddoe, Mr. Franks, Mr. Francis Galton, 
Mr. E. W. Brabrook, Sir J. Lubbock, Bart., Sir Walter Elhot, Mr. Clements 
R. Markham, and Mr. E. B. Tylor be a Committee for the purpose of pre- 
paring and publishing brief forms of instruction for travellers, ethnologists, 
and other anthropological observers ; that Colonel Lane Fox be the Secre- 
tary, and that the sum of £25 be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Mr. Stainton, Professor Newton, and Sir John Lubbock, Bart., be 
reappointed a Committee for the purpose of continuing a Eecord of Zoolo- 
gical Literature ; that Mr. Stainton be the Secretary, and that the sum of 
£100 be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Professor Sir Robert Chiistison, Bart., Dr. Laycock, and Dr. Eraser 
be a Committee for the purpose of investigating the antagonism of the action 
of poisonous substances ; that Dr. Eraser be the Secretary, and that the sum 
of £20 be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Professor Balfour, Dr. Cleghorn, Mr, Robert Hutchinson, Mr. Buchan, 



Ivi REPORT — 1872. 

aud Mr. SudJcr be reappointed a Committee for tlie purpose of taking obser- 
vations on the effect of tlie denudation of timber on the rainfall of North 
Britain ; that Mr. Hutchinson be the Secretary, and that the sum of .£20 be 
placed at their disposal for the purpose, the grant made last year not having 
been drawn. 

That the Committee for the purpose of continuing the investigations on 
the Treatment and Utilization of Sewage be renewed, and that such Com- 
mittee consist of Mr, 11. B. Grantham, Professor Corfield, Mr. J. Bailey 
Denton, Mr. Bramwell, Dr. J. H. Gilbert, Mr. W. Hope, Dr. A. Voeleker, 
Professor "Williamson, and Professor AVay, aud that the sum of £100 be 
placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That the Committee, consisting of Mr. Froude, Professor "W. J. Macquorn 
Eankine, Mr. C. W. Merrifield, Mr. C. W. Siemens, Mr. Bramwell, Mr. A. E. 
Fletcher, the Rev J. Berthon, Mr. Shoolbred, Mr. James R. Napier, and Mr. 
W. Smith previonsl}' appointed for measuring the speed of ships by means of 
the difference of the height of two columns of liquid, be requested to report 
generally on the subject of instruments for testing the speed of shij^s, and that 
they be requested to present a separate report on the special class of instru- 
ments therein referred to them ; that the sum of <£50 be placed at their dis- 
posal for the purpose, aud that Mi\ J. Shoolbred bo the Secretary. 

Ajjj^lications for Reports and Researches not involving Grants of Moneij. 

That the Committee, consisting of Dr. Joule, Sir W. Thomson, Professor 
Tait, Professor Balfour Stewart, and Professor J. C. Maxwell, be reappointed 
to effect the determination of the Mechanical Equivalent of Heat. 

That the Eclipse Committee, consisting of the President and General Offi- 
cers (with power to add to their number), be reappointed. 

That Sir W. Thomson, Professor Everett, Professor G. C. Poster, Professor 
J. C. Maxwell, Mr. G. J. Stoney, Professor Eleeming Jcnkin, Professor Ran- 
kine, Dr. Siemens, and Mr. Bramwell be a Committee for reporting on the 
Nomenclature of Dynamical and Electrical Units, and that Professor Everett 
be the Secrctarj". 

That Professor Sylvester, Professor Cayley, Professor Hirst, Rev. Professor 
Bartholomew Price, Professor H. J. S. Smith, Dr. Spottiswoode, Mr. R. B. 
Hayward, Dr. Salmon, Rev. R. Townsend, Professor EuUer, Professor Kel- 
land, Mr. J. M. "Wilson, and Professor Clifford be reappointed a Committee 
(with power to add to their number) for the purpose of considering the pos- 
sibility of improving the methods of instruction in elementary geometry ; and 
that Professor Clifford be the Secretary. 

That Mr. "W. H. L. Russell be requested to continue his Report on recent 
progress in the theory of Elliptic and Hyperelliptic Functions. 

That Professor Tait be requested to prepare a Report on Quaternions. 

That the Committee, consisting of the following Members, with power to 
add to their number, — Professor Roscoe, Professor "W. G. Adams, Professor 
Andrews, Professor Balfour, Mr. Baxendell, Mr. Bramwell, Professor A. Crum 
Brown, Mr. Buchan, Dr. Carpenter, Professor Core, Dr. De La Rue, Professor 
Thiselton Dyer, Sir SValter Elliot, Professor M. Foster, Professor Flower, Pro- 
fessor G. C. Foster, Professor Geikie, Dr. J. H. Gladstone, Mr. Griffith, Rev. 
R. Harley, Dr. Hirst, Dr. Hooker, Dr. Huggins, Professor Huxley, Professor 
Fleeming Jeukin, Dr. Joule, Colonel Lane Fox, Dr. Lankestcr, Mr. J. N, 
Lockyer, Professor Clerk Maxwell, Mr. D. Milne-Home, Dr. O'Callaghan, 
Dr. Odling, Professor Ramsay, Dr. Spottiswoode, Professor Balfour Stewart, 



RECOMMENDATIONS OF THE GENERAL COMMITTEE. Ivil 

Mr. Staiutou, Professor Tait, 'Mr. J. A. Tinnc, Dr. Allen Thomson, Sir William 
Thomson, Professor AVvville Thomson, Professor Turner, Colonel Strange, 
Professor A. W. AVilliamson, Mr. G. V. Yernon, Dr. Young; and that Pro- 
fessor lloscoe be the Secretary, — be reappointed — 

1°, to consider and report on the best means of advancing science by 
Lectures, with authority to act, subject to the approval of the 
Council, in the course of the present year, if judged desirable. 

2°, to consider and report whether any steps can be taken to render 
scientific organization more complete and effectual. 

That Mr. Roberts, Dr. Mills, Dr. Stenhouse, Dr. Boycott, and Mr. Gades- 
den be a Committee for the purpose of inquiring into the method of making 
gold assays, and stating the results thereof ; that Mr. W. C. Roberts be the 
Secretary. 

That Professor Phillips, Professor Harkness, Mr. Henry "Woodward, Mr. 
James Thomson, and Mr. L. C. Miall be a Committee for the purpose of 
investigating and reporting upon the Labyrinthodonts of the Coal-measures ; 
and that Mr. L. C. Miall be the Secretary. 

That the Eev. Canon Tristram, Professor Newton, Mr. H. E. Dresser, Mr. 
J. E. Harting, and the Eev. H. F. Barnes, with the addition of Mr. Harland 
of Bridliugton, and Mr. Monk of Lewes, be appointed a Committee for the 
purj^ose of continuing the investigation on the desirability of establishing 
"a close time " for the preservation of indigenous animals ; that Mr. H. E. 
Dresser be the Secretary. 

That Dr. Eolleston, Dr. Sclater, Dr. Anton Dohrn, Professor Huxley, Pro- 
fessor "NYyville Thomson, and Mr. E. Eay Lankcster be reappointed a Com- 
mittee for the purpose of promoting the foundation of Zoological Stations ; 
that Dr. Anton Dohrn be the Secretary. 

That Dr. Arthur Gamgee, Mr. E. Eay Lankestcr, and Professor M. Foster 
be a Committee for the purpose of investigating the amount of Heat gene- 
rated in the Blood in the process of Arterializatiou ; that Dr. Gamgee be the 
Secretary. 

That Mr. Carruthers, Dr. Hooker, Professor Balfour, and Professor Thisel- 
ton Dyer be reappointed a Committee for the purpose of investigating the 
Fossil Flora of Britain ; that Mr. Carruthers be the Secretary. 

That the Metric Committee be reappointed, such Committee to consist of 
Sir John Bowring, The Eight Hon. Sir Stafford H. Northcote, Bart., C.B., 
M.P., The Eight Hon. C. B. Adderley, M.P., Mr. Samuel Brown, Dr. Farr, 
Mr. Frank P. Fellcwes, Professor Frankland, Mr. James Heywood, Pro- 
fessor Leone Levi, Mr. C. W. Siemens, Professor A. "VV. Williamson, Dr. 
George Glover, Sir Joseph Whitworth, Bart., Mr. J. E. Napier, Mr. J. V. 
N. Bazalgette, and Sir W. Fairbairn, Bart. ; that Professor Leone Levi be 
the Secretary. 

That Professor Cayley, Mr. J. W. L. Glaisher, Dr. W. Pole, Mr. Mcrrifield, 
Professor Fuller, Mr. H. M. Brunei, and Professor W. E. Clifford be a Com- 
mittee to estimate the cost of constructing Mr. Babbage's Analytical Engine, 
and to consider the advisability of printing tables by its means. 

That a Committee, consisting of Mr. Francis Galton, Mr. W. Froude, Mr. 
C. W. Merrifield, and Professor Eankine, be appointed to consider and report 
on Machinery for obtaining a record of the roughness of the Sea and Mea- 
surement of Waves near shore. 



Iviii REPORT — 1872. 

That Sir Henry Ilawliuson, Mr. Francis Galton, Admiral Ommanuey, Mr. 
Hawkshaw, Mr. Bramwell, Mr. De La Eue, and Mr. Godwin-Austen be a 
Committee (with power to add to their number) for the purpose of represent- 
ing to the Government the advisability of an issue of the one-inch Ordnance 
Maps, printed on strong thin paper, each sheet having a portion of an index 
map impressed on the outside, to show its contents and those of the adjacent 
sheets and their numbers. Also that these maps should be sold in all im- 
portant towns and, if possible, at the several Post-offices ; that Mr. Francis 
Galton be the Secretary. 

Resolutions referred to the Council for consideration and action if it 

seem desirable. 

That the Council be requested to take such steps as they deem desirable to 
induce the Colonial Office to afford sufficient aid to the Observatory at Mau- 
ritius to enable an investigation of the Cyclones of the Pacific Ocean to be 
carried on there. 

That, in the event of the Council having reason to believe that any changes 
affecting the acknowledged efficiency and scientific character of the Botanical 
Establishment at Kew are contemplated by the Government, the Council be 
requested to take such steps as in their judgment will be conducive to the 
interests of Botanical science in this country. 

That the Council be requested to take such steps as they may deem desi- 
rable " to urge upon the Indian Government the preparation of a Photohclio- 
graph and other instruments for solar observation, with the view of assisting 
in the observation of the Transit of Yenus in 1874, and for the continuation 
of solar observations in India." 

Communications ordered to be printed in extenso in the Annual Report of 

the Association. 

That M. Hermite's paper, " Sur I'elimination des fonctions arbitraires," bo 
printed in e.rtenso among the Eeports. 

That the Tabulated List of species given in Mr. J. Gwj'u Jeffreys's paper on 
the correlation of the European and North-American MoUusca be printed in 
the Reports of the Association. 

That Mr. Froude's paper " On the Frictional Resistance of Surfaces immersed 
in Fluids " be printed in extenso in the Transactions, with the illustrations. 

That Mr. Easton's paper on the Brighton AVaterworks be printed in 
extenso in the Transactions. 

That Mr. BramweU's paper on Amsler's Planimeter be printed in extenso 
in the Transactions. 



SYNOPSIS OF GllANTS 01' MONEY. lix 

Stjnopsis of Grants of Money appropriated to Scientific Purposes by 

the Geiieral Committee at the Brighton Meeting in August 1873. 

The names of the Members who would be entitled to call on the 
General Treasurer for the respective Grants are prefixed. 

Mathematics and Physics. 

*Cayley, Professor. — Mathematical Tables 100 

*Thomson, Professor Sir y(. — Tidal Observations 400 

*Brookc, Mr. — British Rainfall 100 

*Ererett, Prof. — Underground Temperature (£100 renewed) . . 150 

*GriiS.th, Mr. G. — Gaussian Constants (renewed) 10 

*Glaisher, Mr. J.— Luminous Meteors 30 

Glaisher, Mr. J.— Efficacy of Lightning Conductors 50 

*Williamson, Prof. A. W. — Testing Siemens's New Pyrometer 

(renewed) 30 

*IIuggins, Dr. "W. — Tables of Inverse Wave-lengths 150 

*Tait, Professor. — Thermal Conductivity of Metals 50 

Chemistry. 

*Williamsou, Prof. A. W. — Eccords of the Progress of Chemistry 

(£100 renewed) , 200 

*Gladstone, Dr. — Chemical Constitution and Optical Properties 

of Essential Oils 30 

Brown, Professor Crum.-^Temperature of Incandescent Bodies 50 

Brown, Professor Crum. — Electric Tensions of Batteries .... 25 

Geology. 

*llanisay. Professor. — Mapping Positions of Erratic Blocks and 

Boulders (renewed) 10 

*Lye]l, Sir C, Bart.— Kent's Cavern Exploration 150 

Lubbock, Sir J. — Exploration of Settle Cave 50 

*Busk, Mr.— Fossil Elephants of Malta 2b 

*Harkness, Professor. — Investigation of Eossil Corals 25 

Carruthers, Mr. — Eossil Elora of Ireland 20 

*IIarkness, Professor. — Collection of Fossils in the North-West 

of Scotland 10 

*Bryce, Dr. — Earthquakes in Scotland 20 

Willett, Mr. H.— The Sub-Wealden Exploration . . 25 

Carried forward £1710 oH) 



* 



Eeappointed. 



Ix REPORT — 1873 



<*. 



Bioloriy, 

Brought forM'ard i!1710 

Lane Fox, Col. A. — Forms of Instruction for Travellers .... 25 

*Staintou, Mr. — Record of the Progress of Zoology 100 

*Christison, Sir E. — Antagonism of the Action of Poisons .... 20 

*Balfour, Professor.— Effect of the Demulation of Timber ou 

the Eainfall in I\"orth Britain (renewed) 20 

Mechanics. 
*Grantham, Mr. P. B.— Treatment and Utilization of Sewage 100 

*Froude, Mr. W. — Exijeriments on Instruments for Measuring 

the Speed of Ships and Currents (£30 renewed) 50 

Total.. ...£2025 0^0 
* Beappointed. 



Place of Meeting in 1874. 

It was resoh-ed that the Annual Meeting of the Association in 1874 le 
held at Belfast. 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



Ixi 



Gdiieral Statement of Sums tvhich have been paid on Account of Grants 

for Scientific Purposes. 



£ s. d. 
1831. 

Tide Discussions 20 

1835. 

Tide Discussions C2 

Uritish Fossil Iclitliyology 105 

J61C7 



183G. 

Tide Discussions 163 

Biicish Fossil Ichthyology 105 

Tiiermonuetric Observations, &c. 50 
Experinaents on long-continued 

Heat 17 

Rain- Gauges 9 

Refraction Experiments 15 

Lunar Nutation 60 

Tltermometers 15 





















1 





3 

















6 






1837. 

Tide Discussions 284 

Clieinical Constants 24 

Lunar Nutation 70 

Observations on Waves 100 12 

Tides at Bristol 150 

Meteorology and Subterranean 

Temperature 89 

Vitrification Expt-'iinients 150 

Heart Experiments 8 

Barometric Observations 30 

Barometers 11 



1 

13 

U 



£918 14 



1838. 

Tide Discussions 39 

British Fossil Fishes 100 

Meteorological Observations and 

Anemometer (construction) ... 100 

Cast Iron (Strength of) 60 

Animal and Vegetable Substances 

(Preservation of) 19 

Railway Constants 41 

Bristol Tides 50 

Growth of Plants 75 

Mud in Rivers 3 

ICducation Committee 50 

Heart Experiments 5 

Land and Sea Level 267 

Subterranean Temperature 8 

Steam -vessels 100 

Meteorological Conjmittee 31 

Tliermometers 16 



£434 14 











1 10 
12 10 





6 G 



3 



£ s. it. 



Meteorology and Subterranean 
Temperature 

Vitrification Experiments 

Cast-Iron Experiments 

Railway Constants 

Land and Sea Level 

Steam-vessels' Engines 

Stars in Histoire Celeste 

Stars in Lacaille 

Stars in R.A.S. Catalogue 

Animal Secretions 

Steam-engines in Cornwall 

Atmospheric Air 

Cast and Wrought Iron 

Heat on Organic Bodies 

Gases on Solar Spectrum 

Hourly Meteorological Observa- 
tions, Inverness and Kingussie 

Fossil Reptiles 

Mining Statistics 




9 5 
4 



£956 12 2 



1839. 

Fossil Ichthyology 110 

Meteorological Observations at 

Plymouili 63 10 

Mechanism of Waves 144 2 

Bristol Tides 35 18 6 



21 

9 

100 

28 

274 

100 

331 

11 

6 

10 

50 

16 

40 

3 

22 

49 

118 

50 



11 

4 7 


7 2 

1 4 


13 6 



16 G 

10 



1 




7 8 

2 9 




£I5!>5 11 



1840. 

Bristol Tides 100 

Subterranean Temperature 13 

Heart Experiments 18 

Lungs Experiments 8 

Tide Discussions 50 

Land and Sea Level 6 

Stars (Histoire Celeste) 242 

Stars (Lncaille) 4 

Stars (Catalogue) 2G4 

Atmospheric Air 15 

Water on Iron 10 

Heat on Organic Bodies 7 

Meteorological Observations 52 

Foreign Scientific Memoirs 112 

Working Population 100 

School Statistics 50 

Forms of Vessels 184 

Chemical and Electrical Pheno- 
mena 40 

Meteorological Observations at 

Plymouth 80 

Magnelical Observations 185 









13 


6 


19 





13 











11 


1 


10 





15 











15 

















17 


6 


1 


6 











n 


7 









13 9 



£1546 16 4 







1841. 

Observations on Waves 80 

Meteorology and Subterranean 

Temperature 8 8 

Actinometers 10 

Earthquake Shocks 17 

Acrid Poisons 6 

Veins and Absorbents 3 

Mud in Rivers 5 

Marine Zoology 15 12 

Skeleton Maps 20 

Mountain Barometers 6 18 6 

Stars (Histoire Celeste) 185 



8 











7 























2 


8 



Ixii 



REPORT — 1873. 



£ 

Stars (Lacaille)..; 79 

Stars (Nomenclature of) 17 

Stars (Catalogue of) 40 

Water on Iron 50 

Meteorological Observations at 

Inverness 20 

Meteorological Observations (re- 
duction of) 25 

Fossil Reptiles 50 

Foreign Memoirs 02 

Railway Sections 38 

Forms of Vessels 193 

Meteorological Observations at 

Plymouth 55 

Magnelical Observations CI 

Fishes of the Old Red Sandstone 100 

Tides at Leith 50 

Anemometer at Edinburgh C9 

Tabulating Observations 9 

Races of Men 5 

Radiate Animals , 2 

JE1235 

1842. 

Dynamometric Instruments 113 

Anoplura Brifanniae 52 

Tides at Bristol 59 

Gases on Light 30 

Chronometers 2G 

Marine Zoology 1 

British Fossil Mammalia 100 

Statistics of Education 20 

Marine Steam-vessels' Engines... 28 

Stars (Hisloire Celeste) 59 

Stars (Brit. Assoc. Cat. of ) 110 

Railway Sections 161 

British Belemnites 50 

Fossil Reptiles (publication of 

Report) 210 

Forms of Vessels 180 

Galvanic Experiments on Rocks 5 
Meteorological Experiments at 

Plymouth C8 

Constant Indicator and Dynamo- 
metric Instruments 

Force of Wind 

Vight on Growtli of Seeds 

Lital Statistics 

Vegetative Power of Seeds 
Questions on Human Race 

1843. 

Revision of the Nomenclature of 

Stars 2 

Reduction of Stars, British Asso- 
ciation Catalogue 25 

Anomalous Tides, Frith of Forth 120 

Hourly Meteorological Observa- 
tions at Kingussie and Inverness 77 

Meteorological Observations at 

Plymouth 55 

Whewell's Meteorological Ane- 
mometer at Plymouth 10 



s, d. 

5 

19 G 













1 6 
12 





18 8 





1 10 
6 3 





10 II 



11 2 

12 



17 6 

5 











10 







8 C 





... 90 





... 10 





... 8 

50 







8 
... 7 


1 11 

9 


£14-19 


17 8 







12 8 











£ s. d. 

Meteorological Observations, Os- 
ier's Anemometer at Plymouth 20 

Reduction of Meteorological Ob- 
servations 30 

Meteorological Instruments and 

Gratuiti'es 39 G 

Construction of Anemometer at 

Inverness 5C 12 2 

Magnetic Cooperation 10 8 10 

Meteorological Recorder for Kew 

Observatory 50 

Action of Gases on Light 18 16 1 

Establishment at Kew Observa- 
tory, Wages, Repairs, Furni- 
ture and Sundries 133 4 7 

Experiments by Captive Balloons 81 8 

Oxidation ofthe Rails of Railways 20 

Publication of Report on Fossil 

Reptiles... 40 

Coloured Drawings of Railway 

Sections 147 IS 3 

Registration of Earthquake 

Shocks 30 

Report on Zoological Nomencla- 
ture 10 

Uncovering Lower Red Sand- 
stone near Manchester 4 4 6 

Vegetative Power of Seeds 5 3 8 

Marine Testacea (Habits of) ... 10 

Marine Zoology 10 

Marine Zoology 2 14 11 

Preparation of Report on British 

Fossil Mammalia 100 

Physiological Operations of Me- 
dicinal Agents 20 

Vital Statistics 3G 

Additional Experiments on the 
Forms of Vessels 70 

Additional Experiments on the 
Forms of Vessels 100 

Reduction of Experiments on the 
Forms of Vessels 100 

Morin's Instrument and Constant 
Indicator 69 

Experiments on the Strength cf 

Materials 60 

'dt;i565 10 2 









5 


8 




















14 


10 









1844. 

Meteorological Observations at 
Kingussie and Inverness 12 

Completing Observations at Ply- 
mouth 35 

Magnetic and Meteorological Co- 
operation , 25 

Publication of the British Asso- 
ciation Catalogue of Stars 35 

Observations on Tides on the 
East coast of Scotland ICO 

Revision of the Nomenclature of 
Stars 1842 2 

Maintaining the Establishment in 
Kew Observatory 117 

Instruments for Kew Observafosy .1 6 











8 


4 














9 


6 


17 


3 


7 


3 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



Ixiii 



£ 

Influence of Liglit on Plants 1 

Subterraneous Temperature in 

Ireland 5 

Coloured Drawings of Railway 

Sections Ij 

Investigation of Fossil Fishes of 

the Lower Tertiary Strata ... 100 
Registering the Shocks of Farth- 

quakes Iti4'2 23 

Structure of Fossil Shells 20 

lladiata and Mollusca of the 

yEgean and Red Seas 1842 100 

Geographical Distributions of 

Marine Zoology 1842 10 

Marine Zoology of Devon and 

Cornwall 10 

Marine Zoology of Corfu 10 

Experiments on the Vitality of 

.Seeds " 

Experiments on the Vitality of 

Seeds 1842 8 

Exotic Anoplura 15 

Strength of Materials 100 

Completing Experiments on the 

Forms of Ships 100 

Inquiries into Asphyxia 10 

Investigations on the Internal 

Constitution of Metals 50 

Constant Indicator and Morin's 
Instrument 1842 10 






d. 









17 


G 








11 



10 

























3 

7 3 











3 6 



1845. 
Publication of the British Associa- 
tion Catalogue of Stars 351 

Meteorological Observations at 

Inverness 30 

Magnetic and Meteorological Co- 
operation 16 

Meteorological Instruments at 

Edinburgh 18 

Reduction of Anemometrical Ob- 
servations at Plymouth 25 

Electrical Experiments at Kew 

Observatory 43 

Maintaining tlie Establishment in 

Kew Observatory 149 

For Kreil's Barometrograph 25 

Gases from Iron Furnaces 50 

The Actinograph 15 

Microscopic Structure of Shells 20 

Exotic Anoplura 1843 10 

Vitality of Seeds 1843 

Vitality of Seeds 1844 

l^Iarine Zoology of Cornwall ... 
Physiological Action of Medicines 
Statistics of Sickness and Mor- 
tality in York 

Earthquake Shocks 1843. 



2 
7 

10 
20 

20 
15 



£981 12 8 



Computation of the Gaussian 

Constants for 1829 50 

Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory 14G 

Strength of Materials CO 

Researches in Asphyxia 6 

Examination of Fossil Shells 10 

Vitality of Seeds 1844 2 

Vitality of Seeds 1845 7 

Marine Zoology of Cornwall 10 

Marine Zoology of Britain 10 

Exotic Anoplura 1844 25 

Expenses attending Anemometers 1 1 

Anemometers' Repairs 2 

Atmospheric Waves 3 3 3 

Captive Balloons 1844 8 19 3 

Varieties of the Human Race 

1S44 7 3 
Statistics of Sickness and Mor- 
tality in York 12 



14 6 
18 11 

16 8 
11 9 



17 8 

15 











7 









14 8 



1846. 
British Association Catalogue of 

Stars 1844 211 15 

Fo.sil Fishes of the London Cicy ICO 



■ 


7 








16 


2 








15 


10 


12 


3 




















7 


e 


3 


6 



£s:iO y 9 



£685 16 



1847. 
Computation of the Gaussian 

Constants for 1829 50 

Habits of Marine Animals 10 

Physiological Action of Medicsnes 20 

Marine Zoology of Cornwall 10 

Atmospheric Waves 6 

Vitality of Seeds 4 

Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory 107 



























9 


3 


7 


7 



8 6 



£208 5 4 



1S48. 
Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory .. 171 

Atmospheric Waves 3 

Vitality of Seeds ^9 15 

Completion of Catalogues of Stars 70 

On Colouring Matters 5 

On Growth of Plants 15 



15 11 
10 9 







£275 I 8 



1849. 

Electrical Observations at Kew 
Observatory 50 

Maintaining Establishment at 
ditto 

Vitality of Seeds 

On Growth of Plants 

Regiatration of Periodical Phe- 
nomena 

Bill on account of Anemometrical 
Observations 13 







70 


2 


5 


5 


8 


1 


5 








10 








13 


9 






£159 19 6 



1850. 
Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory 255 IS 

Transit of Earthquake Waves ... 50 

Periodical Phenomena 15 

Meteorological Instrument, 

Azores _ 25 0^ 

^£345 18 



Ixiv 



REPORT 1872. 



£ 

1851. 
Maintaining the Establishment at 
Kew Observatory (includes part 

ofgrantin 1849) 309 

Theory of Heat 20 

Periodical Phenomena of Animals 

and Plants 5 

Vitality of Seeds 5 

Influence of Solar Radiation 30 

Ethnological Inquiries 12 

Researches on Annelida 10 

£391 

1852. 
Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory (including 

balance of grant for 1850) ...233 
Experiments on the Conduction 

of Heat 5 

Influence of Solar Radiations ... 20 

Geological Map of Ireland 15 

Researches on the British Anne- 

lida 10 

Vitality of Seeds 10 

Strength of Doiler Plates 10 

£304 

1853. 

Maintaining the Establishment at 
Kew Observatory 165 

Experiments on tiie Influence of 
Solar Radiation 15 

Researches on the British Anne- 
lida 10 

Dredging on the East Coast of 
Scotland 10 

Ethnological Queries 5 

£2U5 
1854. -^^ 

Maintaining the Establishment at 
Kew Observatory (including 
balance of former grant) 330 

Investigations on Flax 11 

Effects of Temperature on 
Wrought Iron 10 

Registration of Periodical Phe- 
nomena 10 

British Annelida 10 

Vitality of Seeds 5 

Conduction of Heat 4 

"£380 

1855. 
Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory 425 

Earthquake Movements 10 

Physical Aspect of the Moon 1 1 

Vitality of Seeds ]0 

Map of the World 15 

Ethnological Queries 5 

Dredging near Belfast 4 

£480 

1S50. 
Maintaining the Establishment at 
Kew Observatory : — 

1854 £ 75 01 ^,. 

1855 £500 0/ ^'^ 



d. 



2 


2 


1 


1 








6 


4 





















17 S 



2 


9 




















G 


2 









C 7 















15 




19 



















2 


3 


2 






16 4 







£ 

Strickland's Ornitiiological Syno- 
nyms 100 

Dredging and Dredging Forms... 9 

Chemical Action of Light 20 

Strength of Iron Plates 10 

Registration of Periodical Pheno- 
mena 10 

Propagation of Salmon 10 

£734 

1857. 
Maintaining the Establisliment at 

Kew Observatory 350 

Earthquake Wave Experiments. . 40 

Dredging near Belfast 10 

Dredging on the West Coast of 

Scotland 10 

Investigations into the MoUusca 

ofCalifornia 10 

Experiments on Flax 5 

Natural History of Madagascar. . 20 
Researches on British Annelida 25 
Report on Natural Products im- 
ported into Liverpool 10 

Artificial Propagation of Salmon 10 

Temperature of Mines 7 

Thermometers for Subterranean 

Observations 5 

Life-Boats 5 

l elbT 

1858. 
Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory 500 

Earthquake Wave Experiments.. 25 
Dredging on the West Coast of 

Scotland 10 

Dredging near Dublin 5 

Vitality of Seeds 5 

Dredging near Belfast 18 

Report on the British .Annelida... 25 
Experiments on the production 

of Heat by Motion in Fluids ... 20 
Report on the Natural Products 

imported into Scotland 10 

£(nF 

1859. 
Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory 500 

Dredging near Dublin 15 

Osteology of Birds 50 

Irish Tunicata 5 

Manure Experiments 20 

British Medusidae 5 

Dredging Committee 5 

Steam-vessels' Performance 5 

Marine Fauna of South and West 

oflreland 10 

Photographic Chemistry 10 

Lanarkshire Fossils 20 

Balloon Ascents 39 

'£osr 

1860. = 

Maintaining; the Establisliment 

of Kew Observatory 500 

Dredging near Belfast 10 

Dredging in Dublin Bay ,.., 15 









13 


9 



























13 9 

















































8 





7 


4 









15 4 



























5 





13 


2 















18 2 


































































1 


1 






11 1 




6 




GENERAL STATEMENT. 



Ixv 



£ s. d. 

Inquiry into the Performance of 

Steam-vessels 124 

Explorations in the Yellow Sand- 
stone of Dura Den 20 

Chemico-mechanical Analysis of 

Rocks and Minerals 25 

Researches on the Growth of 

Plants 10 

Researches on the Solubility of 

Salts 30 

Researches on the Constituents 

of Manures 25 

Balance of Captive Balloon Ac- 
counts , I 13 C 

d61241 7 



1861. 
Maintaining the Establishment 

ofKew Observatory 500 

Earthquake Experiments 25 

Dredging North and East Coasts 

of Scotland 23 

Dredging Committee : — 

1860 £50 0\ 

1861 £22 0/ 

Excavations at Dura Den......... 20 

Solubility of Salts 20 

Steam-vessel Performance 150 

Fossils of Lesmahago 15 

Explorations at Uriconium 20 

Chemical Alloys 20 

Classified Index to the Transac- 
tions 100 

Dredging in the Mersey and Dee 5 

Dip Circle 30 

Photoheliographic Observations 50 

Prison Diet 20 

Gauging of Water 10 

Alpine Ascents G 

Constituents of Manures 25 










72 












































5 1 




dCllll 5 10 



1862. 
Maintaining the Establishment 

of Kew Observatory .% 500 

Patent Laws 21 

Mollusca of N.-W. America 10 

Natural History by Mercantile 

Marine 5 

Tidal Observations 25 



Photoheliometer at Kew 40 

Photographic Pictures of the Sun 150 

Rocks of Donegal 25 

Dredging Durham and North- 
umberland., 25 

Connexion of Storms 20 

Dredging North-east Coast of 

Scotland 6 

Ravages of Teredo 3 

Standards of Electrical Resistance 50 

Riilway Accidents 10 

Balloon Committee 200 

Dredging Dublin Bay 10 

Dredging the Mersey 5 

Prison Diet 20 

Gauging of Water 12 

1872. 





C 

















C 6 

11 













10 



£ s. d. 

Steamships' Performance 150 

Thermo-Electric Currents 5 

£1293 16 6 

1863. 
Maintaining the Establishment 

of Kew Observatory 600 

Balloon Committee deficiency... 70 

Balloon Ascents (other expenses) 25 

Entozoa 25 

Coal Fossils 20 

Herrings 20 

Granites of Donegal 5 

Prison Diet 20 

Vertical Atmospheric Movements 13 

Dredging Slietland 50 

Dredging North-east coast of 

Scotland 25 

Dredging Northumberland and 

Dmliam 17 3 10 

Dredging Committee superin- 
tendence 10 

Steamship Performance 100 

Balloon Committee 200 

Carbon under pressure 10 

Volcanic Temperature 100 

Bromide of Ammonium 8 

Electrical Standards 100 

Constructiou and distribu- 
tion ... 40 

Luminous Meteors 17 

Kew Additional Buildings for 

Photoheliograph 100 

Therrao-Electricity 15 

Analysis of Rocks 8 

Hydroida 10 

£1608 3 10 

1864. 
Maintaining the Establishment 

of Kew Observatory 600 

Coal Fossils 20 

Vertical Atmospheric Move- 
ments 20 

Dredging Shetland 75 

Dredging Northumberland 25 

Balloon Committee 200 

Carbon under pressure 10 

Standards of Electric Resistance 100 

Analysis of Rocks 10 

rivdroida 10 

Askham'sGift 50 

Nitrite of Amyle 10 

Nomenclature Committee 5 

Rain-Gauges.. 19 15 8 

Cast-Iron Investigation 20 

Tidal Observations in the II umber 50 

Spectral Rays 45 

Luminous Meteors 20 

£ 1289 15 8 

1865, ' "^ 
Maintaining the Establishment 

of Kew Observatory 600 

Balloon Committee 100 o 

Hydroida 13 

e 



Ixvi 



RETORT 1872. 



£ s. d. 

Rain-Gauges 30 

Tidal Observations in the Humber 6 8 

Hexylic Compounds 20 

Amyl Compounds 20 

Irish Flora 25 

American Mollusca 3 9 

Organic Acids 20 

Lingula Flags Excavation 10 

Eurypterus 50 

Electrical Standards 100 

Malta Caves Researches 30 

Oyster Breeding 25 

Gibraltar Caves Researches ... 150 

Kent's Hole Excavations 100 

Moon's Surface Observations ... 35 

Marine Fauna 25 

Dredging Aberdeenshire 25 

Dredging Channel Islands 50 

Zoological Nomenclature 5 

Resistance of Floating Bodies iu 

Water 100 

Bath Waters Analysis 8 10 

Luminous Meteors 40 

£1591 TlO 

1866. ^^^^^^^^^^^^^ 
Maintaining the Establishment 

of Kew Observatory 600 

Lunar Committee 64 13 4 

Balloon Committee 50 

Metrical Committee 50 

British Rainfall 50 

Kilkenny Coal Fields 16 

Alum Bay Fossil Leaf-Bed 15 

Luminous Meteors 50 

Lingula Flags Excavation 20 

Chemical Constitution of Cast 

Iron 50 

Amyl Compounds 25 

Electrical Standards 100 

Malta Caves Exploration 30 

Kent's Hole Exploration 200 

Marine Fauna, &c., Devon and 

Cornwall 25 

Dredging Aberdeenshire Coast... 25 

Dredging Hebrides Coast 50 

Dredging the Mersey 5 

Resistance of Floating Bodies in 

Water 50 

Polycyanides of Organic Radi- 
cals 20 

Rigor Mortis 10 

Irish Annelida 15 

Catalogue of Crania 50 

Didine Birds of Mascarene Islands 50 

Typical Crania Researches 30 * 

Palestine Exploration Fund 100 "6 

£1750 13 4 

1867. ' 
Maintaining the Establishment 

of Kew Observatory 600 

Sleteorological Instruments, Pa- 
lestine 50 

Lunar Committee.. , 120 



£ s. d- 

Metrical Committee 30 

Kent's Hole Explorations 100 

Palestine Explorations 50 

Insect Fauna, Palestine 30 

British Rainfall 50 

Kilkenny Coal Fields 25 

Alum Bay Fossil Leaf-Bed 25 

Luminous Meteors 50 

Bournemouth, &c. Leaf-Beds ... 30 

Dredging Shetland 75 

Steamship Reports Condensation 100 

Electrical Standards 100 

Ethyle and Metbyle series 25 

Fossil Crustacea 25 

Sound under Water 24 4 

North Greenland Fauna 75 

Do. Plant Beds ... 100 

Iron and Steel Manufacture ... 25 

Patent Laws 30 

.£1739 4 

1868. 
Maintaining the Establishment 

of Kew Observatory 600 

Lunar Committee 120 

Metrical Committee 50 

Zoological Record 100 

Kent's Hole Explorations 150 

Steamship Performances 100 

British Rainfall 50 

Luminous Meteors 50 

Organic Acids 60 

Fossil Crustacea 25 

Methyl series 25 

Mercury and Bile 25 

Organic remains in Limestone 

Rocks 25 

Scottish Earthquakes 20 

Fauna, Devon and Cornwall ... 30 

British Fossil Corals ' 50 

Bagshot Leaf-beds 50 

Greenland Explorations 100 

Fossil Flora 25 

Tidal Observations 100 

Underground Temperature 50 

Spectroscopic investigations of 

Animal Substances 5 

Secondary Reptiles, &c 30 

British Marine Invertebrate 

Fauna .100 

i:i940 

1869, "" 

Maintaining the Establishment 

of Kew Observatory 600 

Lunar Committee 50 

Metrical Committee 25 

Zoological Record 100 

Committee on Gases in Deep- 
well Water 25 

British Rainfall 50 

Thermal Conductivity of Iron, 

&c 30 

Kent's Hole Explorations ...... 150 

Steamship Performances,.., 30 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



Ixvii 



£ s. d. 
Chemical Constitution of Cast 

Iron 80 

Iron and Steel Manufacture ... 100 

Methyl Series 30 

Organic remains in Limestone 

Uocljs 10 

Earthquakes in Scotland 10 

British Fossil Corals 50 

liagshot Leaf-Beds 30 

Fossil Flora 25 

Tidal Observations 100 

Underground Temperature 30 

Spectroscopic Investigations of 

Animal Suhstances 5 

Organic Acids 12 

Kiltorcan Fossils 20 

Chemical Constitution and Fh}'- 

siological Action Relations ... 15 

Mountain Limestone Fossils 25 

Utilization of Sevrage 10 

Products of Digestion 10 

£1622 



1870, 

Maintaining theEstablishment of 

Kew Observatory 600 

Metrical Committee 25 

Zoological Record 100 

Committee on Marine Fauna ... 20 

Ears in Fishes 10 

Chemical nature of Cast Iron ... 80 

Luminous Meteors 30 

Heat in the Blood 15 

British Rainfall 100 

Thermal Conductivityof Iron &c. 20 

British Fossil Corals 50 

Kent's Hole Explorations 150 

Scottish Earthqualics 4 

Bagshot Leaf-Beds 15 

Fossil Flora 25 

Tidal Observations 100 

Underground Temperature 50 

Kiltorcan Quarries Fossils 20 

Mountain Limestone Fossils ... 25 

Utilization of Scviage 50 

Organic Chemical Compounds... 30 

Onny River Sediment 3 

Mechanical Equivalent of Heat 50 

£1572 






























































































































































1871. £ 

Maintaining the Establishment of 

Kew Observatory 600 

Monthly Reports of Progress in 

Chemistry 100 

Metrical Committee 25 

Zoological Record 100 

Thermal Equivalents of the 

Oxides of Chlorine 10 

Tidal Observations 100 

Fossil Flora 25 

Luminous Meteors 30 

British Fossil Corals 25 

Heat in the Blood 7 

British Rainfall 50 

Kent's Hole Explorations 150 

Fossil Crustacea 25 

Metliyl Compounds 25 

Lunar Objects 20 

Fossil Corals Sections, for Pho- 
tographing 20 

Bagshot Leaf-Beds 20 

Moab Explorations 100 

Gaussian Constants ■■ 40 

£1472 
1872. 
Maintaining theEstablishment of 

Kew Observatory 300 

Metrical Committee 75 

Zoological Record 100 

Tidal Committee 200 

Carboniferous Corals 25 

Organic Chemical Compounds 25 

Exploration of Moab 100 

Terato-Embryological Inquiries 10 

Kent's Cavern Exploration 100 

Luminous Meteors 20 

Heat in the Blood 15 

Fossil Crustacea 25 

Fossil Elephants of Malta 25 

Lunar Objects 20 

Inverse Wave-Lenglhs 20 

British Rainfall 100 

Poisonous Substances Antago- 
nism 10 

Essential Oils, Chemical Consti- 
tution, &c 40 

Mathematical Tables 50 

Thermal Conductivity of Meta ls 25 

£1285 



s. d. 























































2 


6 

























































2 6 
































































































































Ixviii REPORT — 1872. 



General Meetings. 

On Wednesday Evening, August 14, at 8 p.m., in the Dome, Professor Sir 
William Thomson, LL.D., F.R.S., President, resigned the office of President 
to Dr. W. B. Carpenter, LL.D., P.R.S., who took the Chair, and delivered an 
Address, for which see page Ixix. 

On Thursday Evening, August 15, at 8 p.m., a Soire'e took place in the 
Dome, Corn Exchange, and Museum. 

On Eriday Evening, August 16, at 8.30 p.m., in the Dome, Professor P. 
Martin Duncan, M.D., F.R.S., delivered a Discourse on " Insect Metamor- 
phosis." 

On Saturday Evening, at 8 p.m., in the Dome, William Spottiswoode, LL.D., 
E.R.S., delivered a Discourse entitled " Sunshine, Sea, and Sky," to the 
Operative Classes of Brighton. 

On Monday Evening, August 19, at 8.30 p.m., in the Dome, Prof. W. X. 
Clifford delivered a Discourse on " The Aims and Instruments of Scientific 
Thought." 

On Tuesday Evening, August 20, at 8 p.m., a Soiree took place in the 
Dome, Corn Exchange, and Museum. 

On Wednesday, August 21, at 2.30 p.m., the concluding General Meeting 
took place, when the Proceedings of the General Committee, and the Grants 
pf Money for Scientific purposes, were explained to the Members. 

The Meeting was. then adjourned to Bradford*. 

* The Meeting is appointed to take place on Wednesday, September 17, 1873. 



A D D E E S S 



OF 



WILLIAM B. CARPENTER, M.D., LL.D., F.R.S., 

PRESIDED. 



My Loeds, Labies, and Gentlemen, 

Thiett-sii years have now elapsed since at the first and (I regret to say) 
the only Meeting of this Association held in Bristol, — which Ancient City 
followed immediately upon our National Universities in giving it a welcome, 
— I enjoyed the privilege which I hold it one of the most valuahle functions 
of these Annual assemblages to bestow ; that of coming into personal relation 
with those distinguished Men whose names are to every cultivator of Science 
as " household words," and the light of whose brilliant example, and the 
warmth of whose cordial encouragement are the most precious influences by 
which his own aspirations can be fostered and directed. Under the Presi- 
dency of the Marquis of Lansdowne, with Conybeare and Prichard as Yice- 
Presidents, with Vernon Harcourt as General Secretary, and John Phillips 
as Assistant Secretary, were gathered together Whewell and Peacock, James 
Forbes and Sir W. Rowan Hamilton, Murchison and Sedgwick, Buckland and 
De la Beche, Henslow and Daubeny, Roget, Richardson, and Edward Eorbes, 
with many others, perhaps not less distinguished, of whom my own recollec- 
tion is less vivid. 

In his honoured old age, Sedgwick stiU retains, in the Academic home of 
his life, all his pristine interest in whatever hears on the advance of the 
Science he has adoraed as well as enriched ; and Phillips still cultivates 
~vvith all his old enthusiasm the congenial soil to which he has been trans- 
planted. But the rest, — our fathers and elder brothers, — "Where are 
they ? " It is for us of the present generation to show that they live in our 
lives ; to carry forward the work which they commenced ; and to transmit 
the influence of their example to our own successors. 

There is one of these great men, whose departure from among us since last 
we met claims a special notice, and whose life — full as it was of years and 
honours — we should have all desired to see prolonged for a few months, could 
its feebleness have been unattended with suifering. For we should all then 
have sympathized with Murchison, in the delight with which he would have 
received the intelligence of the safety of the friend in whose scientific labours 
and personal welfare he felt to the last the keenest interest. That this in- 
telligence, which our own Expedition for the relief of Livingstone would have 



kx KEPORT — 1873. 

obtained (we will hope) a few months later, should have been brought 
to us through the generosity of one, and the enterprising ability — may I not 
use our peculiarly English word, the " pluck " — of another of our American 
brethren, cannot but be a matter of national regret to us. But let us bury 
that regret in the common joy which both Nations feel in the result; and 
while we give a cordial welcome to Mr. Stanley, let us glory in the prospect 
now opening, that England and America wiU co-operate in that noble object 
which — far more than the discovery of the Sources of the Nile — our great 
Traveller has set before himself as his true mission, the Extinction of the 
Slave Trade. 

At the last Meeting of this Association, I had the pleasure of being able 
to announce, that T had received from the First Lord of the Admiralty a 
favourable reply to a representation I had ventured to make to him, as to the 
importance of prosecuting on a more extended scale the course of inquiry 
into the Physical and Biological conditions of the Deep Sea, on which, with 
my coUeagaes Prof. Wyvillc Thomson and Mr. J. Gwyn Jeffreys, I had been 
engaged for the three preceding years. That for which I had asked was a 
Circumna\'igating Expedition of at least three years' duration, provided with 
an adequate Scientific Staff, and with tlie most complete Equipment that our 
experience could devise. The Council of the Eoyal Society having been 
led by the encouraging tenor of the answer I had received, to make 
a formal Application to this effect, the liberal arrangements of the Go- 
vernment have been carried out under the advice of a Scientific Com- 
mittee which included Bepresentatives of this Association. H. M. ship 
' Challenger,' a vessel in every way suitable for the purpose, is now being 
fitted out at Sheerness ; the Command of the Expedition is intrusted to 
Captain Nares, an Officer of whose high qualifications I have myself the 
fullest assurance ; while the Scientific charge of it will be taken by my 
excellent friend Prof. Wyville Thomson, at whose suggestion it was that 
these investigations were originally commenced, and whose zeal for the 
efficient prosecution of them is shown by his relinquishment for a time of the 
important Academic position he at present fills. It is anticipated that the 
Expedition will sail in November next; and I feel sure that the good wishes 
of all of you will go along with it. 

The confident anticipation expressed by my predecessor, that for the utili- 
zation of the total Eclipse of the Sun then impending, -our Government would 
" exercise the same wise liberality as heretofore in the interests of Science," 
has been amply fulfilled. An Eclipse-Expedition to India was organized at 
the charge of the Home Government, and placed under the direction of Mr. 
Lockyer ; the Indian Government contributed its quota to the work ; and a 
most valuable body of results was obtained, of which, with those of the pre- 
vious year, a Beport is now being prepared under the direction of the Council 
of the Astronomical Society. 

It has been customary with successive occupants of this Chair, distin- 
guished as Leaders in their several divisions of the noble Army of Science, to 
open the proceedings of the Meetings over which they respectively presided, 
with a Discourse on some aspect of Nature in her Belation to Man. But 
I am not aware that any one of them has taken up the other side of the 
inquiry, — that which concerns Man as the "Interpreter of Nature;" 
and I have therefore thought it not inappropriate to lead you to the con- 
sideratiou of the Mental processes, by which are formed those fundamental 
conceptions of Matter and Eorce, of Cause and Effect, of Law and Order, 
which furnish the basis of all scientific reasoning, and constitute the Phi- 



. ADDRESS. Ixxi 

losojMa prima of Bacon. There is a great deal of what I cannot but 
regard as fallacious and misleading Philosophy — "oppositions of Science falsely 
so called " — abroad in the world at the present time. And I hope to satisfy 
you, that those who sot up their oivn conceptions of the Orderly Sequence 
which they discern in the Phenomena of Nature, as fixed and determinate 
Laius, by which those phenomena not only are within all Human expe- 
rience, but always have been, and always must he, invariably governed, are 
really guilty of the Intellectual arrogance they condemn in the Systems of 
the Ancients, and place themselves in diametrical antagonism to those real 
Philosophers, by whose comprehensive grasp and penetrating insight that 
Order has been so far disclosed. For what love of the Truth as it is in 
Nature was ever more conspicuous, than that which Kepler displayed, in his 
abandonment of each of the ingenious conceptions of the Planetary System 
which his fertile Imagination bad successively devised, so soon as it proved 
to be inconsistent with the facts disclosed by observation ? In that almost 
admiring description of the way in which his enemy Mars, " whom he had 
left at home a despised Captive," had " burst aU the chains of the equations, 
and broke forth from the prisons of the tables," who does not recognize the 
justice of Schiller's definition of the real Philosopher, as one who always 
loves Truth better than his System ? And when at last he had gained the 
full assurance of a success so complete that (as be says) he thought bo must 
be dreaming, or that he had been reasoning in a circle, who does not feel the 
almost sublimity of the self-abnegation, with which, after attaining what 
was in his own estimation such a glorious reward of his Hfe of toil, dis- 
appointment, and self-sacrifice, be abstains from claiming the applause of 
his contemporaries, but leaves his fame to after ages in these noble words : 
" The book is written ; to be read, either now or by posterity, I care not 
" which. It may well wait a century for a reader, as God has waited six 
" thousand years for an observer." 

And when a yet greater than Kepler was bringing to its final issue 
that grandest of all Scientific Conceptions, long pondered over by his 
almost superhuman intellect, — which linked together the Heavens and the 
Earth, the Planets and the Sun, the Primaries and their Satellites, and 
included even the vagrant Comets, in the nexus of a Universal Attraction — 
establishing for all time the truth for whose iitterance GaHleo had been con- 
demned, and giving to Kepler's Laws a significance of which their author had 
never dreamed, — what was the meaning of that agitation which prevented the 
Philosopher from completing his computation, and compelled him to band it 
over to his friend ? That it was not the thought of his own greatness, but 
the glimpse of the grand Universal Order thus revealed to his mental 
vision, which shook the serene and massive soul of Newton to its founda- 
tions, we have the proof in that beautiful comparison in which he likened 
himself to a Child picking up shells on the shore of the vast Ocean of Truth ; 
a comparison which will be evidence to all time at once of his true Phi- 
losophy and of his profound Humility. 

Though it is with the Intellectual Eepresentation of Nature which we call 
Science,th.dAwe are primarily concerned, it will not be without its use to cast 
a glance in the first instance at the other two principal charactei's under 
which Man acts as her Interpreter,— those, namely, of the Artist and of the 
Poet. 

The Artist serves as the Interpreter of Nature, not when he works as the 
mere copyist, delineating that which he sees with his bodily eyes, and which 
we could see as well for ourselves ; but when he endeavours to awaken within 



Ixxii REPORT — 1872. 

US the perception of tliose beauties and harmonies which his own trained" 
sense has recognized, and thus impart to us the pleasure ho has himself derived 
from their contemplation. As no two Artists agree in the original constitu- 
tion and acquii'ed habits of their Minds, all look at Nature with different 
(mental) eyes ; so that to each, Nature is tvliat he individually sees in her. 

The Poet, again, serves as the Interpreter of Nature, not so much when 
by sliilfiil word-painting (whether in prose or verse) he calls up before our 
mental vision the picture of some actual or ideal scene, however beautiful ; 
as when, by rendering into appropriate forms those deeper impressions made 
by the Nature around him on the Moral and Emotional part of his own 
Nature, he transfers these impressions to the corresponding part of ours. 
For it is the attribute of the true Poet to penetrate the secret of those mys- 
terious influences which we all unknowingly experience ; and having dis- 
covered this to himself, to bring others, by the power he thus wields, 
into the like sympathetic relation with Nature, — evoking with sliilful touch 
the varied response of the Soul's finest chords, heightening its joj's, assuaging 
its griefs, and elevating its aspirations. Whilst, then, the Artist aims to 
picture what he sees in Nature, it is the object of the Poet to represent what 
he feels in Nature ; and to each true Poet, Nature is ivhat he individually 
finds in her. 

The Philosopher's interpretation of Nature seems less individual than that of 
the Artist or the Poet, because it is based on facts which anj' one may verify, 
and is elaborated by reasoning processes of whicli all admit the validity. 
He looks at the Universe as a vast Book lying open before him, of which he 
has in the first place to learn the characters, then to master the language, 
and finally to apiu'ehend the ideas which that language conveys. In that 
Book there are many Chapters, treating of different subjects ; and as Life is 
too short for any one man to grasp the whole, the Scientific interpretation of 
this Book comes to be the work of many Intellects, differing not merely in- 
the range but also in the character of their powers. But whilst there are 
" diversities of gifts," there is " the same spii'it." While each takes his 
special direction, the general Method of study is the same for all. And it is 
a testimony alike to the truth of that Ifethod and to the Unity of Nature, that 
there is an ever-increasing tendency towards agreement among those who rise 
it aright ; — temporary differences of interpretation being removed, sometimes 
by a more complete mastery of her language, sometimes by a better appre- 
hension of her ideas ; — and lines of pursuit which had seemed entirely distinct 
or even widely divergent, being found to lead at last to one common goal. 
And it is this agreement which gives rise to the general belief— in many, to 
the confident assurance — that the Scientific interpretation of Nature represents 
her not merely as she seems, but as she really is. 

But when we carefully examine the foundation of that assurance, we 
find reason to distrust its secinity ; for it can be shown to be no less 
true of the Scientific conception of Nature, than it is of the Artistic or the 
Poetic, that it is a representation framed by the Mind itself out of the 
materials supplied by the impressions which external objects make upon the 
Senses ; so that to each Man of Science, Nature is what lie individucdly believes 
her to be. And that belief M'ill rest on very different bases, and will have 
very unequal values, in different departments of Science. — Thus in what are 
commonly known as the " exact " Sciences, of which Astronomy may be taken 
as the type, the data afi'orded by precise methods of observation can be made 
the basis of reasoning, in every step of which the Mathematician feels the 
fullest assurance of certainty ; and the final deduction is justified either by 



ADDRESS. Ixxiii 

its conformity to known or ascertainable facts, — as when Kepler determined 
the elliptic orbit of Mars; or by the fulfilment of the predictions it has 
sanctioned, — as in the occurrence of an Eclipse or an Occultation at the 
precise moment specified many years previonsly ; or, still more emphatically, 
by the actual discovery of phenomena till then unrecognized, — as when the ' 
Perturbations of the planets, shown by Newton to be the necessary results of 
their mutual attraction, were proved by observation to have a real existence ; 
or as when the unknown disturber of Uranus was found in the place assigned 
to him bj^ the computations of Adams and Le Verrier. 

We are accustomed, and I think most rightly, to speak of these achieve- 
ments as triiimphs of the Human Intellect. But the very phrase implies that 
the work is done by Mental Agency. And even in the very first stage of the 
process — the interpretation of observations — there is often a liability to serious 
error. Of this we have a most noteworthy example in the fact that the esti- 
mated distance of the Earth from the Sun, deduced from observations of the 
last Transit of Yenus, is now pretty certainly known to be about three 
millions of miles too great ; the strong indications of such an excess afi'orded 
by the nearly coincident results of other modes of inquiry having led to a 
reexamination of the record, which was found, when fairly interpreted, 
fully to justify — if not even to require — the reduction. Even the veri- 
fication of the prediction is far from proving the Intellectual process by 
which it was made to have been correct. For we learn from the honest 
confessions of Kepler, that he was led to the discovery of the Elliptic orbit of 
Mars by a series of happy accidents, which turned his erroneous guesses into 
the right direction ; and to that of the passage of the Eadius Vector over equal 
areas in equal times, by the notion of a whirling force emanating from the Sun, 
which we now regard as an entirely wrong conception of the cause of orbital 
revolution *. It should always be remembered, moreover, that the Ptolemaic 
system of Astronomy, Avith all its cumbrous ideal mechanism of " Centric and 
Excentric, Cycle and Epicycle, Orb in Orb," did intellectually represent all that 
the Astronomer, prior to the invention of the Telescope, could see from his actual 
standpoint, the Earth, with an accuracy which was proved by the fulfilment 
of his predictions. And in that last and most memorable anticipation which 
has given an imperishable fame to our two illustrious contemporaries, the 
inadequacy of the basis afforded by actual observation of the perturbations 
of Uranus, required that it should be supplemented by an assumption of the 
probable distance of the disturbing Planet beyond, which has been shown by 
subsequent observation to have been only an approximation to the truth. 

Even in this most exact of Sciences, therefore, wo cannot proceed a step, 
without translating the actual Phenomena of Natiire into Intellectual Eepre- 
scntations of those phenomena ; and it is because the Newtonian conception 
is not only the most simple, but is also, up to the extent of our present 
knowledge, universal in its conformity to the facts of observation, that we 
accept it as the only Scheme of the Universe yet promulgated, which satisfies 
our Intellectual requirements. 

When, under the reign of the Ptolemaic System, any new inequality was 
discovered in the motion of a Planet, a new wheel had to be added to the 
ideal Mechanism, — as Ptolemy said, " to save appearances." If it should 
prove, a century hence, that the motion of Neptune himself is disturbed 
liy some other attraction than that exerted by the interior Planets, we 
should confidently expect that not an ideal but a real cause for that dis- 
turbance will be found in the existence of another Planet beyond. But 
* See Drinkwater's ' Life of Kepler,' in the Library of Useful Knowledge, pp. 26-35. 



IxxiV RKPORT — 1873. 

I trust that I have now made it evident to you, that this confident expectation 
is not justified by any absolute necessity of Nature, but arises entirely out 
of our belief in her TJinformity ; and into the grounds of this and other 
Primary Beliefs, Avhich serve as the foundation of all Scientific reasoning, wo 
shall presently inquire. 

There is another class of cases, in which an equal certainty is generally 
claimed for conclusions that seem to flow immediately from observed facts, 
though really evolved by Intellectual processes ; the apparent simplicity and 
directness of those processes either causing them to be entirely overlooked, 
or veiling the assumptions on which they are based. — Thus Mr. Lockyer 
speaks as confidently of the Sun's Chromosphere of incandescent Hydro- 
gen, and of the local outbursts which cause it to send forth projections tens 
of thousands of miles high, as if he had been able to capture a flask of this 
gas, and had generated water by causing it to unite with oxygen. Yet this 
confidence is entirely based on the assumption, that a certain line which is seen 
in the Spectrum of a hydrogen flame, means hydrogen also when seen in the 
spectrum of the Sun's chromosphere ; and higb as is the probability of that 
assumption, it cannot be regarded as a demonstrated certainty, since it is by 
no means inconceivable that the same line might bo produced by some other 
substance at present unknown. — And so when Dr. Huggins deduces from 
the different relative positions of certain lines in the spectra of different Stars, 
that these Stars are moving from or towards us in space, his admirable train of 
reasoning is based on the assumption that these lines have the same meaninr/ 
— that is, that they represent the same elements — in every luminary. That 
assumption, like the preceding, may be regarded as possessing a sufficiently 
high probability to justify the reasoning based upon it ; more especially 
since, by the other researches of that excellent observer, the same Chemical 
elements have been detected as vapours in those filmy cloudlets which seem 
to be stars in an eai4y stage of consolidation. But when Frankland and 
Lockyer, seeing in the spectrum of the yellow Solar prominences a certain 
bright line not identifiable with that of any known Terrestrial flame, attri- 
bute this to a hypothetical new substance which they propose to call Helium, 
it is obvious that their assumption rests on a far less secure foundation ; 
until it shall have received that verification, which, in the case of Mr. 
Crookes's researches on Thallium, was afforded by the actual discovery of the 
new metal, whose presence had been indicated to him by a line in the 
Spectrum not attributable to any substance then known. 

In a large number of other cases, moreover, our Scientific interpretations 
are clearly matters oi judr/ment ; and this is eminently a personal act, the 
value of its results depending in each case upon the qualifications of the 
individual for arriving at a correct decision. The surest of such judgments 
are those dictated by what we term " Common Sense," as to matters on 
which there seems no room for difference of opinion, because every sane 
person comes to the same conclusion, although he may be able to give no 
other reason for it than that it appears to him " self-evident." Thus while 
Philosophers have raised a thick cloud of dust in the discussion of the basis 
of our belief in the existence of a World external to ourselves, — of the Non 
Ego, as distinct from the Ego, — and while every Logician claims to have 
found some flaw in the jDroof advanced by every other, — -the Common Sense of 
Mankind has arrived at a decision that is practically worth all the arguments 
of all the Philosophers who have fought again and again over this battle- 
ground. And I think it can be shown that the trustworthiness of this 
Common Sense decision arises from its dependence, not on any one set of 



ADDRESS. IXXV 

Experiences, but upon oui' -unconscious co-ordination of the luhole ac/grerjate 
of oitr Experiences, — not on the conclusiveness of any one train of Keasoning, 
but on the convergence of all our lines of thought towards this one centre. 

Now this " Common Sense," disciphned and enlarged by appropriate culture, 
becomes one of our most valuable instruments of Scientific inquiiy ; affording 
in many instances the best, and sometimes the only, basis for a rational con- 
clusion. Let us take as a typical case, in which no special knowledge is 
required, what we are accustomed to call the " flint implements " of the 
Abbeville and Amiens gravel-beds. No logical proof can be adduced that 
the peculiar shapes of these flints were given to them by Human hands ; but 
does any unprejudiced person now doubt it ? The evidence of design, to 
which, after an examination of one or two such specimens, we should only 
be justified in attaching a probable value, derives an irresistible cogency 
from accumulation. On the other hand, the rwiprobability that these flints 
acquired their peculiar shape by accident, becomes to our minds greater 
and greater as more and more such specimens are found ; until at last this 
hypothesis, although it cannot be directly disproved, is felt to be almost in- 
conceivable, except by minds previously " possessed " by the " dominant idea " 
of the modern origin of Man. And thus what was in the first instance a 
matter of discussion, has now become one of those " self-evident " propositions, 
which claim the unhesitating assent of all whose opinion on the subject is 
entitled to the least weight. 

We proceed upwards, however, from such questions as the Common Sense 
of Mankind generally is competent to decide, to those in which special know- 
ledge is required to give value to the judgment ; and thus the interpretation 
of Nature by the use of that faculty comes to be more and more individual ; 
things being perfectly " self-evident " to men of special culture, which ordi- 
nary men, or men whose training has lain in a different direction, do not 
apprehend as such. Of all departments of Science, Geology seems to me to 
be the one that most depends on this specially-trained "Common Sense;" 
which brings as it were into one focus the light afforded by a great 
variety of studies, — Physical and Chemical, Geographical and Biological; 
and throws it on the pages of that Great Stone Book, on which the past 
history of our Globe is recorded. And whilst Astronomy is of all Sciences 
that which may be considered as most nearly representing Nature as she 
really is. Geology is that which most completely represents her as seen 
through the medium of the interpreting mind ; the meaning of the phenomena 
that constitute its data being in almost every instance open to question, 
and the judgments passed upon the same facts being often different according 
to the qualifications of the several judges. No one who has even a general 
acquaintance with the history of this department of Science, can fail to see 
that the Geology of each epoch has been the reflection of the Minds by which 
its study was then directed ; and that its true progress dates from the time 
when that " Common Sense " method of interpretation came to be generally 
adopted, which consists in seeking the explanation of past changes in the 
Forces at present in operation, instead of invoking the aid of extraordinary 
and mysterious agencies, as the older Geologists were wont to do, whenever 
they wanted — like the Ptolemaic Astronomers — " to save appearances." The 
whole tendency of the ever-widening range of modern Geological inquiry 
has been to show how little reliance can be placed upon the so-called 
" Laws " of Stratigraphical and Palseontological Succession, and how much 
allowance has to be made for local conditions. So that while the Astro- 
nomer is constantly enabled to point to the fulfilment of his predictions as an. 



Ixxvi REPOET — 1873. 

evidence of the correctness of his. method, the Geologist is abnost entirely 
destitute of any such means of verification. For the value of any prediction 
that he may hazard — as in regard to the existence or non-existence of Coal 
in any given area,— depends not only upon the truth of the general doctrines 
of Geology in regard to the succession of Stratified Deposits, but still more 
upon the detailed knowledge which he may have acquired of the distribution 
of those Deposits in the particular locality. Hence no reasonably -judging 
man would discredit either the general doctrines or the methods of Geology, 
because the prediction proves untrue in such a case as that now about to 
be brought in this neighbourhood to the trial of experience. 

AVe have thus considered Man's function as the Scientific Interpreter of 
Nature in two departments of ISTatural Knowledge ; one of which affords an 
example of the strictest, and the other of the freest method, which Man can 
employ in constructing his Intellectual representation of the Universe. And as 
it woiild be found that in the study of all other departments the same methods 
are used, either separately or in combination, we may pass at once to an- 
other part of our inquiry. 

The whole fabric of Geometry rests upon certain Axioms which every one 
accepts as true, but of which it is necessary that the truth should be assumed, 
because they are incapable of demonstration. So, too, the deliverances of our 
" Common Sense " derive their trustworthiness from what we consider the 
" self-evidence " of the propositions affirmed. There are, then, certain 
Primary Beliefs, which constitute the groundwork of all Scientific reasoning ; 
and we have next to inquire into their origin. 

This inquiry brings us face to face with one of the great Philosophical 
problems of our day, which has been discussed by Logicians and Meta- 
physicians of the very highest ability as Leaders of opposing Schools, with 
the one result of showing how much can be said on each side. Ey the 
Intuitionalists it is asserted that the tendency to form these Primary Beliefs 
is inborn in Man, an original part of his mental organization ; so that they 
grow up spontaneously in his Mind as its faculties are gradually unfolded 
and developed, requiring no other Experience for their genesis, than that 
which sufiices to call these faculties into exercise. But by the advocates of 
the doctrine which regards Experience as the basis of all our knowledge, 
it is maintained that the Primary Beliefs of each individual are nothing else 
than generalizations which he forms of such experiences as he has either 
himself acquired or has consciously learned from others ; and they deny 
that there is any original or intuitive tendency to the formation of such 
beliefs, beyond that which consists in the power of retaining and generalizing 
experiences. 

I have not introduced this subject with any idea of placing before you 
even a summary of the ingenious arguments by which these opposing 
doctrines have been respectively suj^ported ; nor should I have touched on 
the question at all, if I did not believe that a means of reconcilement between 
them can be found in the idea, that the Intellectual Intuitions of any one 
Generation are the cmhoclied Eiyerienccs of the previous Bace. For, as it 
appears to me, there has been a progressive improvement in the Thinling 
Power of Man ; every product of the culture which has preceded serving to 
prepare the soil for yet more abundant harvests in the future. 

Now, as there can be no doubt of the Hereditary transmission in Man of 
acquired constitutional peculiarities, which manifest themselves alike in 
tendencies to Bodily and to Mental disease, so it seems equally certain that 
acquired mental habitudes often impress themselves on his organization, with 



ADDRESS, Ixxvii 

sufficient force and permanence to occasion their transmission to the offspring 
as tendencies to similar modes of thourjld. And thus, while all admit that 
Knowleclje cannot thus descend from one generation to another, an increased 
aptitude for the acquirement, either of knowledge generally, or of some par- 
ticular kind of it, may be thus inherited. These tendencies and aptitudes 
will acquire additional strength, expansion, and permanence, in each new 
generation, from their habitual exercise upon the materials supplied by a con- 
tinually enlarged experience ; and thus the acquired habitudes produced by 
the Intellectual culture of ages, wiU become " a second nature " to every one 
who inherits them *. 

We have an illustration of this progress in the fact of continual occurrence, 
that conceptions which prove inadmissible to the minds of one generation, in 
consequence either of their want of intellectual power to apprehend them, or 
of their preoccupation by older habits of thought, subsequently find a uni- 
versal acceptance, and even come to be approved as " self-evident." Thus the 
First Law of Motion, divined by the genius of Newton, though opposed by 
many Philosophers of his time as contrary to all experience, is now accepted 
by common consent, not merely as a legitimate inference from Experiment, 
but as the expression of a necessary and universal truth; and the same 
Axiomatic value is extended to the still more general doctrine, that Energy 
of any kind, whether manifested in the " molar " motion of masses, or con- 
sisting in the " molecular " motion of atoms, must continue under some 
form or other without abatement or decay; what aU admit in regard to 
the indestructibility of Matter, being accepted as no less true of Force, namely, 
that as ex nihilo nil Jit, so nil Jit ad nihilumf. 

But, it may be urged, the very conception of these and similar great truths 
is in itself a typical example of Intuition. The men who divined and enun- 
ciated them stand out above their fellows, as possessed of a Genius which 
could not only combine but create, of an Insight which could clearly discern 
what Eeason could but dimly shadow forth. Granting this freely, I think 
it may be shown that the Intuitions of individual Genius are but specially 
exalted forms of endowments which are the general property of the Race at 
the time, and which have come to be so in virtue of its whole previous culture. — 
"Who, for example, could refuse to the marvellous aptitude for perceiving the 
relations of Numbers, which displayed itself in the untutored boyhood of 
George Bidder and Zerah Colburn, the title of an Intuitive gift? But who, 
on the other hand, can believe that a Bidder or a Colburn could suddenly 

* This doctrine was first explicitly put fortli by Mr. Herbert Spencer; in whose 
Philosophical Treatises it will be found most ably developed. I am glad to be able to 
append the following extract from a letter which Mr. Jolni Mill, the great Master of the 
Experiential School, was good enough to write to me a few months since, with reference 
to the attempt I had made to place "Common Sense" upon this basis (Contemporary 
Review, Feb. 1872) : — " When states of mind in no respect innate or instinctive have been 
* frequently repeated, the mind acquires, as is proved by tlie power of Habit, a greatly 
" increased facility of passing into those states ; and this increased facility must be owing 
" to some change of a physical character in the organic action of the Brain. There is also 
" considerable evidence that such acquired facilities of passing into certain modes of 
" cerebral action can in many cases be transmitted, more or less completely, by inheritance, 
" The limits of this power of transmission, and the conditions on which it depends, are a 
" subject now fairly before the scientific world ; and we shall doubtless in time know much 
" more about them than we do now. But so far as my imperfect knowledge of the subject 
" qualifies me to have an opinion, I take much the same view of it that you do, at least 
" in principle." 

+ This is the form in which the doctrine now known as that of the " Conservation of 
Energy " was enunciated by Dr. Mayer, in the very remarkable Essay published by liim in 
1845, entitled " Die organische Bewegung in ihrem Zusammenhange mit dem Stoffwechsel." 



Ixxviii , RESORT — 1872. 

arise in a race of Savages wlio cannot count beyond five ? Or, again, in the 
history of the very earliest years of Mozart, who can fail to recognize the 
dawji of that glorious Genius, whose brilliant but brief career left its im- 
perishable impress on the Art it enriched ? But who would be bold enough 
to affirm that an infant Mozart could be born amongst a tribe, whose only 
musical instrument is a tom-tom, whose only song is a monotonous chant ? 

Again, by tracing the gradual genesis of some of those Ideas which we now 
accept as "self-evident," — such, for example, as that of the " Uniformity of 
Nature " — we are able to recognize them as the expressions of certain Intel- 
lectual tendencies, which have progressively augmented in force in successive 
generations, and now manifest themselves as acquired Mental Instincts that 
penetrate and direct our ordinary course of Thought. Such Instincts constitute 
a precious heritage, which has been transmitted to us with ever-increasing 
value through the long succession of preceding generations ; and which it is 
for us to transmit to those who shall come after i;s, with all that further in- 
crease which our higher Culture and wider range of Knowledge can impart. 

And now, having studied the working action of the Human Intellect in 
the Scientific Interpretation of Nature, we shall examine the general character 
of its products ; and the first of these with which we shall deal is our con- 
ception of Hatter and of its relation to Force. 

The Psychologist of the present day views Matter entirely through the 
light of his own Consciousness : his idea of Matter in the abstract being that 
it is a " something " which has a permanent power of exciting Sensations ; 
his idea of any " property " of Matter being the mental representation of 
some kind of sensory impression he has received from it; and his idea 
of any particular kind of Matter being the representation of the whole 
aggregate of the Sense-perceptions which its presence has called up in his 
Mind. Thus when I press my hand against this table, I recognize its 
unyieldingness through the conjoint medium of my sense of Touch, my 
Muscidar sense, and my Mental sense of EiFort, to which it wiU be convenient 
to give the general designation of the Tactile Sense ; and I attribute to that 
table a hardness which resists the efi'ort I make to press my hand into its 
substance, whilst I also recognize the fact that the force I have employed ia 
not sufficient to move its mass. But I press my hand against a lump of 
dough ; and finding that its substance yields under my pressure, I call it 
soft. Or again, I press my hand against this desk ; and I find that although 
I do not thereby change its form, I change its pZace ; and so I get the Tactile 
idea of Motion. Again, by the impressions received through the same 
Sensorial apparatus, when I lift this book in my hand, I am led to attach to 
it the notion of weight or ponderosity ; and by lifting diflerent solids of about 
the same size, I am enabled, by the different degrees of exertion I find 
myself obliged to make in order to sustain them, to distinguish some of them 
as ligJif, and others as heavy. Through the medium of another set of Sense- 
perceptions which some regard as belonging to a different category, we dis- 
tinguish between bodies that feel " hot " and those that feel " cold ; " and in 
this manner we arrive at the notion of differences of Temperature. And 
it is through the medium of our Tactile Sense, without any aid from Visionj 
that we first gain the idea of solid form, or the Three Dimensions of Space. 

Again, by the extension of our Tactile experiences, we acquire the notion 
of liquids, as forms of matter yielding readily to pressure, but possessing a, 
Bensible weight which may equal that of solids : and of air, whose resisting 
power is much slighter, and whose weight is so small that it can only be 
made sensible by artificial means. Thus, then, we arrive at the notions of 



ADDRESS. Ixxix 

resistance and of weight as properties common to all forms of Matter ; and 
now that we have got rid of that idea of Light and Heat, Electricity and 
Magnetism, as " imponderable fluids," which used to vex our souls in our 
Scientific Childhood, and of which the popular term " Electric fluid " is a 
" survival," we accept these properties as affording the practical distinction 
between the "material" and the "immaterial." 

Turning, now, to that other great portal of Sensation, the Sight, through 
which we receive most of the messages sent to us from the Universe around, 
we recognize the same truth. Thus it is agreed alike by Physicists and 
Physiologists, that Colour docs not exist as such in the object itself; which 
has merely the power of reflecting or transmitting a certain number of 
millions of undulations in a second; and these only produce that affection 
of our consciousness which we call Colour, when they fall upon the retina of 
the living Percipient. And if there be that defect either in the retina or in 
the apparatus behind it, which we call " colour-blindness " or Daltonism, 
some particular hues cannot be distinguished, or there may even be no power 
of distinguishing any colour whatever. If we were all like Dalton, we should 
see no difference, except in form, between ripe cherries hanging on a tree, 
and the green leaves around them : if we were all affected with the severest 
form of colour-blindness, the fair face of Nature would be seen by us as in 
the chiaroscuro of an Engraving of one of Turner's Landscapes, not as in the 
glowing hues of the wondrous Picture itself. And in regard to our Visual 
conceptions it may be stated with perfect certainty, as the result of very 
numerous observations made upon persons who have acquired sight for the 
first time, that these do not serve for the recognition even of those objects 
with which the individual had become most familiar through the Touch, 
until the two sets of Sense-perceptions have been co-ordinated by expeiience*. 

When once this co-ordination has been effected, however, the composite 
perception of Form which we derive from the Yisnal sense alone is so 
complete, that we seldom require to fall back xipon the Touch for any further 
information respecting that quality of the object. — So, again, while it is 
from the co-ordination of the two dissimilar pictui'es formed by any solid 
or projecting object upon our two retinae, that (as Sir Charles Wheat- 
stone's admirable investigations have shown) we ordinarily derive through 
the Sight alone a correct notion of its solid form, there is adequate evidence 
that this notion, also, is a mental judgment based on the experience we have 
acquired in early infancy by the consentaneous exercise of the Visual and 
Tactile senses. 

Take, again, the case of those wonderful instruments by which our Visual 
range is extended almost into the infinity of Space, or into the infinity of 
Minuteness. It is the mental not the bodily eye, that takes cognizance of 
what the Telescope and the Microscope reveal to us. For we should have 
no well-grounded confidence in their revelations as to the %ml:nou'n, if we 
had not first acquired experience in distinguishing the true from the false 
by applying them to Icnown objects ; and every interpretation of what we see 
through theii* instrumentality is a mental judgment as to the probable form, 

* Thu3, in a recently recorded case in which sight -was imparted by operation to a young 
■woman who Lad been blind from birth, but who had ncTevtheless leai-ned to work well 
with her needle, when the pair of scissors she had been accustomed to use was placed 
before her, though she described their shape, colour, and glistening metallic character, she 
was utterly unable to recognize them as scissors until she put her finger on them, when 
she at once named them, laughing at her own stupidity (as she called it) in not having 
made them out before. 



IXXX REPORT — 1872. 

size, and^ movement of bodies removed by either their distance or their mi- 
nuteness from being cognosced by our Tactile Sense. 

The case is still stronger in regard to that last addition to our Scientific 
armamentum, ■vvhich promises to be not inferior in value either to the Telescope 
or the Microscope ; for it may be truly said of the Spectroscope, that it has 
not merely extended the range of our Vision, but has almost given us a new 
sense, by enabling us to recognize distinctive properties in the Chemical 
Elements which were previously quite unknown. And who shall now say 
that we know all that is to be known as to any form of Matter ; or that the 
Science of the fourth quarter of this century may not furnish us with as 
great an enlargement of our knowledge of its Properties, and of our power of 
recognizing them, as that of its third has done ? 

But, it may be said, is not this view of the Material Universe open to the 
imputation that it is " evolved out of the depths of our own consciousness" — a 
projection of our own Intellect into what surrounds us — an ideal rather than 
a real World ? If all we know of Matter be an " Intellectual Conception," how 
are we to distinguish this from such as we form in our Dreams ? — for these, 
as our Laureate no less happily than philosophically expresses it, are " true 
while they last." Here our "Common Sense" comes to the rescue. We 
" awake, and behold it was a dream." Every healthy mind is conscious of the 
difference between its waking and its dreaming experiences ; or, if it is now 
and then puzzled to answer the question " Did this really happen, or did I 
dream it? " the perplexity arises from the consciousness that it might have 
happened. And every healthy mind, finding its own experiences of its waking 
state not only self-consistent, but consistent with the experiences of others, 
accepts them as the basis of its beliefs, in preference to even the most vivid 
recollections of its dreams. 

The Lunatic Pauper who regards himself as a King, the Asylum in which he 
is confined as a Palace of regal splendour, and his Keepers as obsequious at- 
tendants, is so " possessed " by the conception framed by his disordered in- 
tellect, that he does project it out of himself into his surroundings ; his refusal 
to admit the corrective teaching of Common Sense being the very essence of his 
malady. And there are not a few persons abroad in the world, who equally 
resist the teachings of Educated Common Sense, whenever they run counter to 
their own preconceptions ; and who may be regarded as — in so far^affected 
with what I once heard Mr. Carlyle pithily characterize as a " diluted In- 
eanity." 

It has been asserted, over and over again, of late years, by a class of men 
who claim to be the only true Interpreters of Nature, that we know nothing 
but Matter and the Laws of Matter, and that Force is a mere fiction of the 
Imagination. May it not be affirmed, on the other hand, that while our 
notion of Matter is a Conception of the Intellect, Force is that of which we 
have the most direct — perhaps even the onhj dh-ect — cognizance? As I have 
already shown you, the knowledge of Ilesistauce and of Weight which we gain 
through our Tactile Sense is derived from our own perception of exertion ; and 
in Vision, as in Hearing, it is the Force with which the undulations strike 
the sensitive surface, that affects our consciousness with Sights or Sounds. 
True it is that in our Visual and Auditory Sensations, we do not, as in oi;r 
Tactile, directly cognosce the Force which produces them ; but the Physicist 
has no difficulty in making sensible to us indirectly the undulations by Avhich 
Sound is propagated, and in proving to our Intellect that the Force conaemed 
in the transmission of Light is really enormous*. 

* See Sir John Herscliel's Familiar Lectures on Scientific Subjects. 



ADDRESS. Ixxxi 

It seems strange that those who make the loudest appeal to Experience as 
the basis of all knowledge, should thus disregard the most constant, the most 
fundamental, the most direct of all experiences ; as to which the Common 
Sense of Mankind affords a guiding light much clearer than any that can be 
seen through the dust of Philosopliical discussion. For, as Sir John Herschel 
most truly remarked, the universal Consciousness of mankind is as much in 
accord in regard to the existence of a real and intimate connexion between 
Cause and Effect, as it is in regard to the existence of an External World ; and 
tha,t consciousness arises to every one out of his own sense of personal ex- 
ertion in the origination of changes by his individual agency. 

Now while fully accepting tlie Logical definition of Cause as the " an- 
tecedent or concurrence of antecedents on which the Effect is invariably and 
unconditionally consequent," we can always single out one dynamical 
antecedent — the Power which does the work — from the aggregate of 
material conditions under which that Power may be distributed and 
applied. No doubt the term Cause is very loosely employed in popular 
phraseology; often (as Mr. Mill has shown) to designate the occurrence that 
immediately preceded the effect ; — as when it is said that the spark which 
falls into a barrel of gunpowder is the cause of its explosion, or that the 
slipping of a man's foot off the rung of a ladder is the cause of his fall. 
But even a very slightly trained Intelligence can distinguish the Power 
which acts in each case, fi-om the Conditions under which it acts. The 
Eorce which produces the explosion is locked up (as it were) in the powder ; 
and ignition merely liberates it, by bringing about new Chemical combina- 
tions. The faU of the man from the ladder is due to the Gravity which was 
equally piilling him down while he rested on it ; and the loss of support, 
either by the slipping of his foot, or by the breaking of the rung, is merely 
that change in the material conditions which gives the Power a new action. 

Many of you have doubtless viewed with admiring interest that truly won- 
derful work of Human Design, the Walter Printing Machine. You first 
examine it at rest ; presently comes a man who simply puUs a handle towards 
him ; and the whole inert mechanism becomes instinct with life, — the con- 
tinuous sheet of four miles of blank paper which rolls off the cylinder at one 
end, being delivered at the other, without any intermediate human agency, as 
separate " Times " Newspapers, at the rate of 15,000 an hour. Now what is 
the Cause of this most marvellous effect ? Siu-ely it lies essentially in the 
Power or Eorce which the pulling of the handle brought to bear on the machine 
from some extraneous source of Power, — which we in this instance know to 
be a_ Steam-engine on the other side of the wall. This Eorce it is, which, 
distributed through the various parts of the Mechanism, really performs the 
action of which each is the instrument ; they only supply the vehicle for its 
transmission and application. The man comes again, pushes the handle in the 
opposite direction, detaches the Machine from the Steam-engine, and the 
whole comes to a stand ; and so it remains, like an inanimate corpse, until 
recalled to activity by the renewal of its Moving Power. 

But, say the Reasoners who deny that Force is any thing else than a fiction 
of the imagination, the revolving shaft of the Steam-engine is " Matter in 
Motion;" and when the connexion is established between that shaft and the 
one that drives the Machine, the Motion is communicated from the former to 
the latter, and thence distributed to the several parts of the Mechanism. 
This account of the operation is just what an observer might give, who had 
lookcd-on with entire ignorance of every thing but what his eijes could see ; 
the moment he puts his hand upon any part of the machinery, and tries to 

1872. ^ f 



Ixxxii REPORT — 1872. 

stop its motion, he takes as direct cognizance, through hia feeling of the Effort 
required to resist it, of the force which produces that motion, as he does 
through his eye of the motion itself. 

Now since it is universally admitted that our notion of the External World 
would be not only incomplete, but erroneous, if our Visual perceptions were 
not supplemejited by our Tactile, so, as it seems to me, our interpretation of 
the Phenomena of the Universe must be very inadequate, if we do not 
mentally co-ordinate the idea of Force with that of Motion, and recognize it 
as the " efficient cause " of those phenomena, — the " material conditions " 
constituting (to use the old Scholastic term) only " their formal cause." 
And I lay the greater stress on this point, because the Mechanical Phi- 
losophy of the present day tends more and more to express itself in terms 
of Motion rather than in terms of Force ; — to become Kinetics instead of Dy- 
namics. 

Thus from whatever side we look at this question, — whether the Common 
Sense of Mankind, the Logical Analysis of the relation between Cause and 
Effect, or the Study of the working of our own Intellects in the interpreta- 
tion of Nature, — we seem led to the same conclusion ; that the notion of Force 
is one of those elementary Forms of Thought with which we can no more 
dispense, than we can with the notion of Space or of Succession. And I 
shaU now, in the last place, endeavour to show you that it is the siibsti- 
tution of the Dynamical for the mere Phenomenal idea, which gives their 
highest value to our conceptions of that Order of Nature, which is wor- 
shipped as itself a God by the class of Interpreters whose doctrine I call 
in question. 

The most illustrative as well as the most illustrious example of the differ- 
ence between the mere Generalization of Phenomena and the Dynamical 
conception that applies to them, is furnished by the contrast between the 
so-called Laws of Planetary Motion discovered by the persevering ingenuity 
of Kepler, and the interpretation of that Motion given us by the profound in- 
sight of Newton. Kepler's three Laws were nothing more than comprehen- 
sive statements of certain groups of Phenomena determined by observation. 
Thejirst, that of the revolution of the Planets in EUiptical orbits, was based 
on the study of the observed places of Mars alone ; it might or might not be 
true of the other Planets ; for, so far as Kepler knew, there was no reason 
why the orbits of some of them might not be the excentric circles which he had 
first supposed that of Mars to be. So Kepler's second law of the passage of 
the Eadius Vector over equal areas in equal times, so long as it was simply 
a generalization of facts in the case of that one Planet, carried with it no 
reason for its applicability to other cases, except that which it might derive 
from his erroneous conception of a whirling force. And his third law was 
in like manner simply an expression of a certain Harmonic relation which 
he had discovered between the times and the distances of the Planets, having 
no more rational value than any other of his numerous hypotheses. 

Now the Newtonian " Laws " are often spoken of as if they were merely 
higher gewralizations in which Kepler's are included ; to me they seem to 
possess an altogether different character. For starting with the Conception 
of two Forces, one of them tending to produce continiious uniform motion in 
a straight line, the other tending to produce a uniformly accelerated motion 
towards a fixed point, Newton's wonderful mastery of Geometrical reasoning 
enabled him to show that, if these Dynamical assumptions be granted, 
Kepler's p/ienomena^ "Laws," being necessary consequences of them, must 
be universally true. And while that demonstration would have been alone 



ADDRESS. Ixxxiii 

Bufflcient to give him an imperishable renown, it was his still greater glory 
to divine that the fall of the Moon towards the Earth — that is, the deflection 
of her path from a tangential line to an ellipse — is a phenomenon of the same 
order as the fall of a stone to the ground ; and thus to show the applicability 
to the entire Universe, of those simple Dynamical conceptions which consti- 
tute the basis of the Geometry of the Principia. 

Thus, then, whilst no " Law " which is simply a generalization of 
Phenomena can be considered as having any coercive action, we may assign 
that value to Laws which express the universal conditions of the action of a 
i^orce whose existence we learn from the testimony of our own consciousness. 
The assurance we feel that the Attraction of Gravitation miist act under all 
circumstances according to those simple Laws which arise immediately out of 
our Dynamical conception of it, is of a veiy diiferent order from that which 
we have in regard (for example) to the Laws of Chemical Attraction, which 
are as yet only generalizations of phenomena. And yet even in that strong 
assurance, we are required by our examination of the basis on which it rests, 
to admit a reserve of the possibility of something different ; a reserve which we 
may well believe that Newton himself must have entertained. 

A most valuable lesson as to the allowance we ought always to make for 
the unknown " possibilities of Nature," is taught us by an exceptional phe- 
nomenon so familiar that it does not attract the notice it has a right to 
claim. Next to the Law of the Universal Attraction of Masses of Matter, 
there is none that seems to have a wider range than that of the Expansion of 
Bodies hj Heat and their Contraction by Cold. Excluding Water and one or 
two other substances, the fact of such expansion might be said to be invariable ; 
and, as regards bodies whose Gaseous condition is known, the Law of Ex- 
pansion can be stated in a form no less simple and definite than the Law of 
Gravitation. Supposing those exceptions, then, to be unknown, the Law 
would be universal in its range. But it comes to be discovered that Water, 
whilst conforming to it in its expansion from 39|° xipivards to its boiling- 
point, as also, when it passes into Steam, to the special law of Expansion of 
Vapours, is exceptional in expanding also from 39|° doivnwards to its Freez- 
ing-point ; and of this failure in the Universality of the Law, no rationale can 
be given. StiU more strange is it, that by dissolving a little scdt in water, 
we should remove this exceptional peculiarity ; for sea-water continues to con- 
tract from 39|° downwards to its Freezing-point 12° or 14° lower, just as it 
does with reduction of temperature at higher ranges. 

Thus from our study of the mode in which we arrive at those conceptions 
of the Orderly Sequence observable in the Phenomena of Nature which we 
call " Laws," we are led to the conclusion that they are Human conceptions, 
subject to Human fallibility; and that they may or may not express the 
Ideas of the Great Author of Nature. To set up these Laws as self-acting, 
and as either excluding or rendering unnecessary the Power which alone 
can give them effect, appears to me as arrogant as it is unphilosophical. To 
speak of any Law as "regulating" or "governing" phenomena, is only per- 
missible on the assumption that the Law is the expression of the modus 
operandi of a Governing Power. — I was once in a great City which for two 
days was in the hands of a lawless mob. Magisterial authority was sus- 
pended by timidity and doubt : the force at its command was paralyzed by 
want of resolute direction. The " Laws " were on the Statute book, but there 
was no Power to enforce them. And so the Powers of evil did their terrible 
work; and fire and rapine continued to destroy life and property without 
check, until uew Power came in, when the Ileigu of Law was restored. 



Ixxxiv REPORT — 1872. 

And thus we are led to the culminating point of Man's Intellectual Inter- 
pretation of Nature, — his recognition of the Unity of the Power, of which her 
Phenomena are the diversified manifestations. Towards this point all Scien- 
tific inquiry now tends. The Convertibility of the Physical Porces, the Cor- 
relation of these with the Vital, and the intimacy of that nexus between 
Mental and Bodily activity, which, explain it as we may, cannot be denied, 
all lead upward towards one and the same conclusion ; and the pyramid of 
which that Philosophical conclusion is the apex, has its foundation in the 
Primitive Instincts of Humanity. 

By our own remote Progenitors, as by the untutored Savage of the present 
day, every change in which Human agency is not apparent was referred to 
a particular Animating Intelligence. And thus they attributed not only the 
movements of the Heavenly bodies, but all the phenomena of Nature, each 
to its own Deity. These Deities were invested with more than Human power ; 
but they were also supposed capable of Human passions, and subject to 
Human capriciousness. As the Uniformities of Nature came to be more 
distinctly recognized, some of these Deities were invested with a domi- 
nant control, while others were supposed to be tlieir subordinate ministers. 
A serene Majesty was attributed to the greater Gods who sit above the 
clouds ; whilst their inferiors might " come down to Earth in the likeness of 
Men." With the growth of the Scientific Study of Nature, the conception 
of its Harmony and Unity gained ever-increasing strength. And so among 
the most enlightened of the Greek and Eoman Philosophers, we find a 
distinct recognition of the idea of the Unity of the Directing Mind from 
which the Order of Nature proceeds ; for they obviously believed that, as our 
modern Poet has expressed it, — 

" All are but parts of one stupendous whole, 
" Whose body Nature is, and God the Soul." 

The Science of Modern times, however, has taken a more special direction. 
Pixing its attention exclusively on the Order of Nature, it has separated itself 
wholly from Theology, whose function it is to seek after its Cause. In this. 
Science is fuUy justified, alike by the entire independence of its objects, and by 
the historical fact that it has been continually hampered and impeded in its 
search for the Truth as it is in Nature, by the restraints which Theologians 
have attempted to impose upon its inquiries. But when Science, passing 
beyond its own limits, assumes to take the place of Theology, and sets up its 
own conception of the Order of Nature as a sufficient account of its Cause, 
it is invading a province of Thought to which it has no claim, and not un- 
reasonably provokes the hostility of those who ought to be its best friends. 

For whilst the deep-seated instincts of Humanity, and the profoundcst re- 
searches of Philosophy, alike point to Mind as the one and only source of 
Power, it is the high prerogative of Science to demonstrate the Unifi/ of the 
Power which is operating through the limitless extent and variety of the 
Universe, and to trace its Continuity through the vast series of Ages that 
have been occupied in its Evolution. 



REPORTS 



ON 



THE STATE OE SCIENCE. 



Ueport OH the Gaussian Constants for the year 1829, or a Theory of 
Terrestrial Magnetism founded on all available observations. By 
H, Petersen and A. Erman. 

It was in 1838 that the illustrious C. F. Gauss published the principles of 
a method which made all the phenomena of terrestrial magnetism as fully 
calculable as are astronomical phenomena by Newton's theory of gravita- 
tion. This beautiful accession to natural philosoi^hy may be summed tip as 
follows: — 

For every point of space, the position of which is given by its distance r from 
the earth's centre, and by the angles u and X denoting respectively its angular 
distance from the geographical north pole and its longitude east from Green- 
wich, there exists a mathematical expression relating to the terrestrial magnetic 
qualities of this point, and containing only r and trigonometrical functions 
of u and X, together with numerical values that are the same for the whole 
extent of space. This expression is called the magnetic potential of the 
point ; and as to the said numerical values, we give them here, as we did in 
the Eeport on our computation made during the years 1846 to 1848, the 
name of the Gaussian Constants. This must be iinderstood as relating to 
their invariability as to space, but by no means to independence of time. 

For every point on the earth's surface, or above it, up to infinite distance, 
the magnetic potential has a finite value, and in consequence thereof must be 
calculable as soon as the Gaussian constants are known. There exists no 
visible or measurable phenomenon which for every given point agrees with 
the value of the magnetic potential ; but this remarkable quantity is 
for every place in explicit connexion with the intensity and the direction 
of the magnetic force which is exerted there by the causes considered. These 
two measurable phenomena are therefore given as soon as the potential can 
be ascertained; and the same is the case with every one of the components 
which we are wont to form of terrestrial magnetism for the sake of easier 
observations — as, for instance, with the three rectangular components, which 
in their turn are equivalent to the horizontal and vertical intensities and to 

1872. B 



2 KEPORT— 18r2. 

■what we call the augles of declination and inclination. Indeed at any place 
a component in any direction whatever of the magnetic force is merely pro- 
portional to the increment which the potential there takes by a small 
displacement in the same direction. But now the determination of 
that potential which outside a sphere results from any magnetic actions 
of its interior, and therefore, according to the last remark, the foretelling of 
all magnetic phenomena produced by the same causes, become possible and 
are facilitated by the following circumstances. In every case of the descrip- 
tion just mentioned the mag-netic potential can be expanded into an infinite 

but converging series, proceeding by integer powers of -, the exponent of the 

r 

first one being -|-1. Among the terms of this series, that which is divided 

by r contains 3 of the Gaussian constants, 
r^ 5 



» 



I 



2n+l „ 

In the formula for the potential, each of these constants is mtdtiplied by a 
theoretically given trigonometrical function of u and X, and therefore, for any 
given point, by the numerical equivalent of this function. The algebraic 
developments which Gauss's classical work contains far the magnetic potential, 
as well as for the observable magnetic components, relate also to the actions 
of a sphere enclosing a finite or infinite number of any magnetic centres 
whatsoever. Therefore these expressions can represent our terrestrial pheno- 
mena only after the substitution, for every symbol denoting a Gaussian con- 
stant, of that number which the individual magnetic qualities of the earth 
require, according to observations. But then, specially, this transformation of 
the abstract theory of the magnetic actions of a sphere into the practical 
theory of terrestrial magnetism will amount to the determination, from a 
sufiicient number of observed values, of 15, 24, 35, or generally n'^ + 2n 
Gaussian constants, according as it appears that the third, the fourth, the 
fifth, or generally the nth term in the algebraical expressions of these em- 
pirical data is the first that is surpassed by the probable amount of their 
inevitable errors. 

A first attempt towards the completion of the theory of terrestrial magnetism 
was made by its illustrious author with material of which the gaps for the 
greater part of the Antarctic Ocean, and for other vast regions, could only be 
filled up by graphical guesswork. It led to the conclusion that a restriction 
to four terms of the potential, and therefore the determination of 24 Gaussian 
constants, did more than respond to the mean exactitude of the empirical data. 
To the same effect was the computation that H. Petersen executed from 
1846 to 1848, when commissioned for the purpose by the British Association. 
Indeed, it being exclusively founded on 610 results of careful magnetic 
measurements made by A. Erman on a line round the earth between 
67° north latitude and 60° south latitude, the resulting new constants re- 
presented these observed values fully twice as well as did the old ones, 
and thereby, as must be avowed, up to the amount of their own probable 
errors. But it having been shown by later experience that, just as was 
expected, miich larger disagreement between reality and both the theoretical 
deductions, did still exist in those parts of the earth where the one or the 



ON THE GAUSSIAX CONSTANTS FOR THE YEAR 1829. 3 

other had wanted empirical supplemeuting *; and we, in consequence thereof 
undertaking the recomputation now iinished with all available observations, 
resolved once more to confine ourselves to the determination of the same 
24 constants solely. Indeed the material on which we have founded this new 
and definitive calculation is by its geographical completeness far superior 
to that of both the former ones; but many of its modern accessions do not 
exceed, nor even attain the exactitude of the observations mentioned above. 

According to what we have stated in the beginning, the Gaussian constants 
must to the same extent be either dependent on or indexiendent of time as are 
the phenomena of terrestrial magnetism. Now very old and indubitable 
experience has proved that each of these phenomena undergoes not only 
the various short-period changes, from which the observer can easily, 
and is always supposed to free them, but also the so-called secular 
variations of by far a larger amount. The Gaussian constants being then 
likewise variable as to time, it appears that they can be determined each 
time but for one given epoch, and then out of observations which either have 
been all made at this epoch, or reduced to what they would have given if 
made at the same. 

The aim of our present calculations was to determine with all attainable 
exactitude the Gaussian constants for the year 1829, in order that the results 
of the newly founded theory might be directly comparable as well with those 
of their first evaluation, relating nearly to the same epoch, as with the most 
careful measurements made by Hansteen and Erman between 1828 and 
1830. liut, as for carrying this out we had to make an equal use of all ob- 
servations to be relied upon, and originating whether in the selected epoch 
or at any interval whatsoever before or after this time, our work was 
divided into two independent parts : — 

1. Formulse were to be constructed and employed for reducing each of the 

magnetic results which, at widely differing times, had been ob- 
tained by observations all over the earth's surface, to what they 
would have been in 1829 ; and 

2. Out of these reduced values, twenty-four numbers were to be com- 

puted which, when taken for our twenty-four Gaussian constants, 
responded as nearly as possible to all empirical data observed in, 
or reduced to, the e])och 1829. 

I. Reduction of Ohserved Values to the Year 1829. 

Without the existence of the Gaussian theory, the only means to execute 
such reductions would have been, for every kind of magnetic phenomena 
at any place, to gaess what changes they had undergone, according to 
the changes which had been observed for the same phenomena at certain 
other places. Such rude attempts have indeed been made for the purpose of 
ascertaining the changes of declination at places where they had never been 
observed. They could perhaps have been extended, though with much less 
foundation on experience, to inclination-changes ; whereas for the secular 
variations of intensity not even this appearance of a means existed, owing 
to an almost total want of data. But the problem of our reductions has now 

* As, for instance, according to tlie comparison made by A. Erman, between (be results 
of both systems of constants and the magnetic observations at some places in India, by 
Mr. K. Koppe, who was commissioned to do so in the Total-Eclipse Expedition of 18C8, 
as published in the ' Astrouomischo Nachricliten,' vol. Ixxv, p. 242 ct sen. 

b2 



4 REPORT 1872. 

been stated in proper form and has been greatly simplified, since theory has 
shown tliat, and how, all kinds of magnetic secular changes, for any arbitrary 
time and place, depend on one common cause, viz. on the synchronous changes 
of the Gaussian constants. Indeed these quantities only can give to the alge- 
braic expressions of magnetic elements different numerical values at various 
epochs, because the quantities r, u, and \ are by their nature once and for 
ever invariable ; and then, as only the first power of every Gaussian constant, 
and no products of them, occurs in the potential, the following general rule can 
evidently be laid down : — The amount of change for any element of terrestrial 
magnetism (as, for instance, for the declination, the inclination, one of the 
three rectangular components, and so forth) during a given period must be 
calculated by that same formula which expresses its absolute value, if only 
instead of each Gaussian constant there is placed the increment which its 
value has received during the same period. This plain corollary of the magnetic 
theory has been of twofold use for the reductions we had to make, and will 
serve in the same way for all future ones. Indeed its inverse application 
gives, from observed changes of magnetic phenomena, the synchronous 
changes of the Gaussian constants; and by substituting these latter results in 
the direct formulfe, the changes of every phenomenon may be computed for 
places where they have never been observed. The first part of this pro- 
ceeding is immensely preferable to empirical guessings ; for it makes an almost 
equal use of the variations in any kind of magnetic phenomena, and therel)y 
leads to the knowledge of these variations in those kinds for which experience 
is wanting. The secular changes of intensity may therefore bo ascertained 
for periods in which we know only changes of inclination and declination, 
or even for those in which the latter only have been observed, ^tloreover it 
is only by these means that the consequences of experience on secular changes 
in certain parts of the earth can very confidently be extended to the re- 
motest parts. 

Nevertheless, before we could make the application of this memorable 
method, a decision was wanted concerning two points, according to the result 
of which our proposed reductions might prove to be either easy or difficult, or 
even wholly impracticable ; to wit : — 

1. What kind of connexion exists between llic lapse of time and 

the variations which are undergone by magnetic phenomena and 
consequently by the Gaussian constants ? and 

2. In how many and in Avliich of the Gaussian constants will the varia- 

tions be of most influence, and in which others may they be 
neglected for practical approximation ? 

As to the first question, it has been proved by the changes of the three 
magnetic components at Berlin, observed fuUy during the last forty-five 
years by Erman, and partially at intervals during almost a hundred years 
by others, and besides by a great number of partial series of observations 
at other places, that during the last century the variations of magnetic 
phenomena, and consequently those of the Gaussian constants, have never 
happened by a leap, but have always progressed according to the law of 
continuity, and especially so that their amount has been merely proportional 
to the lapse of time and to its square. If, therefore, the increment of one of 
these constants from a year denoted by T' to another denoted by T has been 

ascertained, the (;pp-^,Jth* of this quantity will be equal to the annual 

rp . rp: 

increase of the same constant for the 3*ear denoted by — ^f— . More- 



ON THE GAUSSIAN CONSTANTS FOE THE YEAR 1829. 5 

orer it foUo'ws that, bj^ the knowledge of such anniial increase at two 
moments separated from one another by a sufficiently hmg space of time, 
we can calcnlate not only its value for any moment, but also that of the 
corresponding total increase dnring any period. Therefore the materials we 
possessed (as is to be shown hereafter) for computing the annual increments 
of the constants for the year 1811 and for the year 1843-5, must suffice for 
our reductions ; but before emplojdng them we had to consider the second of 
the above-mentioned questions. An indubitable answer to it was, of course, 
that we had to take into account and to determine the variation with time 
for all those twenty-four constants the values of which were to be deter- 
mined afterwards by the reduced observations. The solution of the problem 
up to this highest degree of exactitude will at some future time be a beautiful 
result of our present work, combined with a similar one for a later date ; but 
had we undertaken it now, the preparatory task would not only have become 
more extensive than the essential one, but would even have been impeded 
by a most sensible want of means. Wc had therefore to content ourselves with 
making our reductions for secular changes an approximation to reality, in 
the same way as astronomers do when, in computing secular planetary 
perturbations, they disregard the terms of less influence. So in this particular 
case it was resolved to take into consideration only the changes of the first 
two terms of the potential — that is to say, to ascertain for two epochs tho 
annual increments of the first eight of the Gaussian constants. 

A. On the Equations for annual Increments of Constants durhir/ the year 1811. 

In order to ascertain the amount of the annual changes of the Gaussian 
constants marked by 

ff''", r/\ h^\ ff\ f\ ^^'\ f\ and h'' 
for our first epoch of 1811, we have founded the computation on : — ■ 

1. The increments of declination which appear as having happened 

from the year 1784 to the year 1840, from a comparison of the 
maps of isogonic lines constructed for the said years by C. Hansteeu 
and E. Sabine ; and 

2. The increments which inclination has undergone from 1780 to 1840 

and which appear as differences between the isoclinal maps of the 
same authors. 

The increments of these two phenomena were taken by comparing the said 
maps for forty-two points of intersection between the meridians of 

X = 0°, 60°, 120°, 180°, 240°, and 300° 

and the parallels of 

M=30°, 50°, 70°, 90°, 110°, 130- and 150°; 

and then, if t and t respectively designate the fifty-six years' increment of 
declination and the sixty years' increment of inclination, and 

«!, a^' "^3) «4> l^i' "^G' «7 ^'^^ «8 

respectively the sought-for annual increments of the Gaussian constants 



REPORT 1873. 



there were formed forty-two conditional or primary equations to schedule 
(1), and then just as many to schedule (2). 

With (jj for the horizontal intensity, d for the declination, 

56 

and K= : — —, there had to be calculated for the a measured 

to . sin 1° 

by degrees of are : — 
a = — siuK . sine?, 

6= +cos?t . cos \ . sincZ-f-sinX . cosd, 
c— -\-cosii, . sin X . sin d — cos \ . cos d, 
d= — sin2({ . sind, 

c= -f cos 2u . cos X . sin d-\- cos u . sin X . cos d, 
f= + cos 2u . sin X . sin d — cos u . cos X . cos d, 
[I— -fsin 2if . cos 2\ . sin d-\-2 . sin u . sin 2\ . cos d, 
h=.-\- sin 2u . sin 2X . sin d — 2 . sin u . cos 2X . cos d, 

and then formed as primary equations, to which the sough t- 
for a, .... a^ had to answer as nearly as possible, 

n— - =a.)x^ + h.a, + c.ac.^ + d.a.^ + e.oc-+f.cc^+[/.c(.J + h.a^. 



(1) 



(2) 



< 



r 



The t or sixty years' inclination-increments being measured 

by degrees of arc, with i for the inclination, <>• = , there 

w.sinl° 

had to be evaluated : — 

a = — sin u . sin i . cos i . cos fi!-|-2 cos ^(, . cos^ i, 

6=(cos %(■ . cos d . cos X — sin . d . sin X) . sin i . cos i 
-\-2 .sinu . cos X . cos° i, 

c=(cos it . cos d . sin X + sin d . cos X) sin i . cos i 
-{■ 2 . sin 11 . sin X . cos'^ i, 

d= — sin . 2m . cosfZ . sini . cosi-f-(3 . cos^it— 1) . cos'^i', 

f =(cos 2m . cos X . cos d — cos u . sinX . sin d) sin i . cos i 
'^ -1-|- . sin 2m . cos X . eos^ /, 

y"=(cos 2m . sin X . cos c?-|-cos m . cos X . sin X) . sin i . cos i 
-\- ^ . sin 2u , sin X . cos'^ i, 

g={sm2u . cos2X . coscZ — 2sinit . sin2X . sinr?) . sin?' . cos* 
-|- 3 . sin' It . cos 2X . cos' i, 

7i = (sin2M . sin2X . cos(?-(-2sin w . cos2X . sind) . sin i . eosi 
+ 3 . sin' M . sin 2X . cos' i, 

and then to be formed as primaiy equations, to which the 
«;.... a^ had to answer as nearly as possible, 

n= - =a.tx.^ + h.a, + c.a^ + d.a^ + e.a.+f.a^+g.a. + h.ag. 



The forty-two numerical values of a and i which we have used in the 
primary equations to the preceding schedules (1) and (2) are shown in the 



ON THE GAUSSIAN CONSTANTS FOR THE YEAR 1829. 7 

following Tables. They form the first horizontal line for every value of u, 
and are marked Ma. -when directly made out by the aforesaid maps. We 
sulgoiu to them, in the second line for every u, and marked by Ca., the 
corresponding- calculated values, which, according to the solution of our final 
equations, as has to be shown hereafter, are at once conformable to theory 
and the closest to the results obtained from the maps. 

Values of a or increments of Declination from 1784 to 1840. 



-^ ( Ma. 
3° 1 Ca. 

o/Ma. 
5° (ca. 

o / Ma. 
o f Ma, 
o J Ma. 
o / Ma, 

'5° |Ca. 



+2-3 
-4-1 1 

4-0-2 
— O-02 

+ 1-3 

-0-74 

+4-4 
+ 3-49 

4-6-3 

+ 5-14 

+9'4 
+ 3-49 

4-8-6 
4-6-13 



60° 



-5-4 
-8-83 

-3-9 
-4-70 

-3-8 
-4-31 

-4-5 
-2-08 

-0-4 
4-1-08 

--2-4 
4-1-82 

+ 6-9 
-i-6-oo 



120". 



-i'3 

-2-37 

+ 1-7 
-0-75 

+0-5 
4-1-04 

-0-9 
+0-38 

4-0-2 
4-0-51 

-4'3 
4-2-26 

-5-0 
+4-37 



+ 2-2 

+ I -00 

+ i-o 

+ 0-27 

+ i-o 

+ 2-17 

+ 1-2 

- 1-56 

4- 0-8 

- 2-52 

- 0-7 

- 2'02 

- 3"9 

— 10-04 



240" 



- 8-7 
+ 1-35 

- 2-7 
4- 0-60 

- 3-i 
+ 0-19 

- 3'o 

- 1-92 

- 4-0 

- 2-41 

- 7-1 

- 2-8o 

-13-3 

- 4-24 



300" 



+ 7-S 

+ 14-95 

+ 4-S 

+ 9-40 

4- 2-2 

+ 2-9S 

+ 0-9 

+ 3'oi 

+ 3-1 

+ 3-^1 

+ rs 

4- 1-22 

+ 2-1 

+ 2-93 



Values of I or increments of Inclination from 1780 to 1840 


• 


X = 


o"^. 


60°. 


120°. 


180°. 


240°. 


300°. 


~^/Ma 

3o°|ca 

5«° {£■:::::: 
'»"{£■::::;: 

„„o/Ma 

9° |ca 

/Ma 

"° jca 

'3oiS-:::::: 




- 2-0 

- 2-49 

- 2-8 

- 5-37 

-10-8 

- 2-37 

-13-6 

- 4-18 

-13-0 

- 1-37 

- 4-6 

- 6-28 

4-12-0 
4- 2-0 



4-0-9 

— 003 

4-0-8 
4-0-41 

+2-7 

— I -00 

4-o-a 
-4-85 

-2-8 

-3-76 

O-Q 
-3-86 

+0-S 
-0-39 




+ 3-5 
+2-15 

-h2-0 
4-2-36 

+ 1-9 

+2-27 

0-0 
+ 1-37 

-3-7 
-2-43 

-3-5 
-4-31 

-I'S 
-1-98 




+ 1-4 
-I-1-88 

+ 2-4 
+ 1-38 

4-4-6 
-|-i'oo 

+4-1 
-0-15 

-0-5 

— 0-24 

-0-9 
4-2-96 

-4-0 

— 0-40 




+2-1 
+ 1-71 

+ 3-3 
4-4-04 

-fS-6 
+4-18 

+7-S 
+ 6-43 

+ 7-8I 

+4-9 
-1-0-80 

4-6-0 
4-3-07 


-0-6 
-1-74 

-hi-6 
4-0-89 

4-0-6 
4-3-04 

4-3-0 
+ 3-61 

+ 3-2 
+9-73 

+ 6-9 

+ 1-51 

+ 7-1 
-+4-41 



8 



REPORT 1872. 



The coefficients a,h. . . Ji ot the primary equations have been calculated 
with d and i as nearly given for 1811 by a mean between the indications of 
both isogenic and of both isoclinal maps, and with w as sufficiently known 
since 1829. 



B. On the Equations for annual Increments of Constants durhifj the 

yearlMZ-5. 

"We have already mentioned that our second determination of a set of 
annual increments a,^, a.^. . . .a^ of the first eight Gaussian constants M\as 
intended to give these quantities for the date 1843-5. This date follows 
indeed from being the middle of the period 1829-58, during which 
had happened those changes of phenomena on which we first founded our 
conditional or primary equations. These were the values of a or increments 
of declination that we obtained by a comparison between the normal or 
theoretically interpolated declinations for 1829, as given in the 'Magnetischo 
Atlas' by Gauss and Weber, and the corresponding ones for 1858, as re- 
presented by the isogonic lines in Berghaus's Chart of the World. 

These increments result as follows for thirty-six of the before-mentioned 
points : — 



Values of a or increments of Dedination from 1829-58. 



x= 


0°. 


60°. 


120°. 


180°. 


240°. 


300°. 


u 

■70° 



— 2-2 

-57 
-5'i 

+ 0-1 

+4'4 
+ 3-9 



-4-1 

+0-5 

+ 1-3 

— o-i 

-37 
-IS 



+ 3-5 

4-i-S 

+ 0-2 
+ 0-2 

+ i'3 
o-o 




-1-6 
-1-8 
-0-3 

+ 2-0 ■ 

-07 
-27 




-4-3 
+0-3 

+ 2-1 

+ 2-4 

— O'l 
+ 2-8 




+17 

+ S-0 
+ 0-6 

— 0-2 

— 0'2 

-0-4 


s°° 

70° 


qo° 


110° 


130° 





As no sufficient data exist for a similar collection of the changes which 
inclination has undergone during the same period, we have completed our 
material by the following results of researches on secular variation of 
magnetic elements. If I generally denotes the annual increment of any 
element /or the date 1843-5, and/ the total magnetic intensity, there were 
put X=/ . cos i . cos d, Y=/ . cos i . sin d, Z=/ . sin i, as well as p for the 
so-called tveight or measure of jirohahiUty ; and then the following numbers 
were ascertained, in order to be afterwards combined into conditional equa- 
tions with the sought-for a^, a^. . . .a^, or annual increments of constants. 



ON THE GAUSSIAN CONSTANTS FOR THE YEAR 1829, 



Annual Increments of Magnetic Elements for the date 1843-u— f7ie variations 
ofX, Y, and Z being measured by units of intensity, the variations of d. 
and of i by minutes of arc. 



Number 

of 
station. 



I. 

2. 



4- 

5- 
6. 

7- 



37 aS-oS 
48 45 



123 55'05 

46 ao'4 
76 56 
132 52-5 
24 46-47 



133 21-4 



X. 



9- 

10. 

II. 
12. 

13- 



132 
141 
143 
147 



6-8 

32'I 

1-6 



105 55"43 



13 23'20 
352 30-0 



18 28-50 

280 38-5 

80 17 

147 27-5 

64 39-50 



225 30*7 



308 18-9 

254 31-0 

302 10-7 

283 56-3 

354 i6-oi 



^X. 



+ 0-570 
+ 2-996 



SY. 



—0-672 
—0-469 



— 1-184 j +0-039 



— 0-265 
+0-856 
—0-090 
— 0116 



+ I'O02 



+ 8-069 
+ 3-105 

+ 7'4i5 

+4-140 

Sd 

( + i'-347) 



-0-243 
-0-310 
-0-261 
-o-68i 



-3'i49 



+0-693 

— 6-630 

— 0-065 

— 7-212 
Si 

(-4'-ii8) 



SZ. 



— 2-710 
+ 1-087 



-1-277 

+0-165 
+0-856 
— 0-014 
+ 1-436 



-6-604 



-5-796 
-5'994 

— 5763 

— 6649 



p. 



The results 
oriainatinsr : — 



At Berlin. 

Out of Erraan's ob- 
servations in Spain 
and France for 
1853-7. and on the 
Atlantic for 1830. 

At Cape Town. En- 
glish observatory. 

At Toronto. Ibid. 

At Madras. Ibid. 

AtHobarton. Ibid. 

At Obdorsk and Be- 
resowsk. Observa- 
tions for 1828 and 
for 1849. 

On the Pacific. Out 
of observations in 
1830 by Erman, 
and in 1843 on 
English ships. 

Ibidem. 

Ibidem, 

Ibidem. 

Ibidem. 

At St. Helena. En- 
glish observatory. 
Intensity-changes 
not observed. 



The quantity p being supposed to expres.s the number of direct obser- 
vations -which might have given a result of equal accuracy to that in 
question, it ought to be inversely proportional to the square of the probable 
error of this result, -which latter, in its turn, is luikuowu. Therefore our 
suppositions on these values of j> could pretend to no more than an approxi- 
mation to reality, and -n-ere then founded partly on regard to the exactitude 
and completeness of the absolute measurements at different places, partly as 
follo-ws from some regard to the dates of these performances. Out of the 
preceding values of annual increments, only those under 1 and 3 have 
been derived immediately and exclusively from observations at the places 
named in the same lines; and then, especially if the date is generally 
marked by 1800 + 1, the numerical absolute values of magnetic elements are 
expressed for Berlin, or with u and X as under 1, according to Ermau's ob- 
servations, by 

d = 18 7-55-6-0700362 . (t-l-9Uy, 
i=66 37-20 -f 0-02125. (<-102-2)-, 
w =502-04 + 0-0068043 . (<— 16-108f ; 



10 KEPORT— 1873. 

aud for Cape Town, or the position as under 3, according to what we have 
derived from all local English observatory journals, by 

d= 29 33-85-6-11273 (<-58-04)=, 
i=_58 51-07 + 0-02242 («-165-58)S 
w=588-9o + 0-02813 ((-61-806f. 

Now by developing out of each of these expressions, with ^=435, their 
absolute values as well as the annual increments cd, H, and lu) of the same, 
and then introducing these quantities into the easily proved expressions, 

2X=cos d . (jw — (0 . sin 1' . sin d . Id, 

SY=sin d! . 2w + w . sin 1' . cos d . hd, 

2Z=tan i, hu) + w . sin 1' . see' i . hi, 

these increments of rectangular components for 1843-5 are obtained as above 
under 1 and 3. 

But for all the other above-named places, the existing observations, when 
treated as the last mentioned, did not give complete expressions for d, i, and w, 
but only their expressions for limited periods. The annual increments of the 
components X, Y, Z, which were determined from such observations, in 
general did not exactly pertain to 1843-5, but to a value of t somewhat 
different from 43-5. Now, as our computation for the first epoch, or 1811, 
had already furnished the increments of the constants a,, a^. . . .a^ for the 
same, we have, first, calculated (by the help of the following formulae (3), 
(4), and (5)) the annual increments of X, Y, Z at the same places for 1811, 
and then, having denoted the value of any one of these increments for 

1843-5 by S, 

1811 by \^, 
1800 + < by St, 

we have determined the results, as given above under number 2 and 
numbers 4 to 13, by the relation 

^=S. + |^. (43-5-0. 

There were, in particular, to bo used for the increments under numbers 

2, t=41-4, 
4, « = 35, 
5 and 6, t=48-5, 
7, t=38-o, 

12, t=3G, 

13, «=45; 

whereby it appears that the empirical elements of our equations were in- 
fluenced, to an always slight but not wholly equal extent, by a former calcula- 



ON THE GAUSSIAN CONSTANTS I'OK THE YEAR 1829. 



11 



tiou. The values attributed to p had therefore to be assumed with at least 

an additional regard to this circumstance. 

Now, as for the conditional equations themselves, between a^ a, . . . . a, for 

1843-5, and the empiric data hitherto recorded for the same year or for the 

period 1829-58, it appears, first, that these equations for the " ff or increments 

of declination from 1829-58" had once more to be formed according to 

schedule (1) (of A, or "equations for 1811"). In this schedule we had again 

a • 29 

to make 51= -, but this time with k= -. — — . 

K u) . sm 1 

As for the two values of? and U that are recorded under number 13, we have 
employed for M the said schedule (1), and in it have taken «= — with 

..= 1 and for li the schedule (2) (of A, or "equations for 1811"), 

0) . sin 1'' 

%' 1 

after substitution of n=— with k= ^-^', and then, finally, all the 

K ID . sm i 

recorded values of gX, ^Y, and cZ were set in equations, according to the 

following schedules (3), (4), and (5), which we had derived for the purpose. 

With 

rt= +siu u, f?= +sin 2u, _ry= —sin 2u . cos 2X, 

6==— cos«. cosX, <?=— cos2j6. cosX, 7i=— sin2t{ . sin2X, 

c= — cosrt . sinX, /= — cos2« . sin X, 

there is 
«=gX=« .a^ + i. a.., + c . a,^ + d . a^ + e. a,+f. a,,+g . a^ + h . ^c^; 

r with 

a=0, d=0, ^= + 2sinM.sin2X, 

6= + sinX, f= + COSH, sin X, ^=— 2 sin it . cos 2 X, 

c= — cosX, /=— COSit. cosX, 

is 
n=2Y=rt . a^ + h. cc.^ + c . cc, + d . a^ + e . cc,+f . a^+ff ■ a, + h . a,; 



(3) ..{ 



(4) 



V 



(5) 



.^ 



and then 

rwith 
a= + 2 cos II, d= + (3 . cos= u—1), i/= + 3 sin' u . cos 2X, 

j= + 2sintt. cosX, c= + | . sin2it . cos X, 7i= + 3 .sin'w. sin2X, 
c==+2sin?tsinX, /= +| . sin 2m . sinX, 

there is again 

C. Evaluation of the annual Increments a„ a, a, of the Gaussian constants 

Q^'\ g^'\ ^"' /"' -9^ '' ^^ '' 5'^^' ^""^ ^^^^ •^*"' ^'^^^^ ^Ipochs, and Re- 
ductions made, by the help of these increments, of magnetic Observations 
from different dates to 1829. 
The heretofore described means had now supplied us for 1811 with eighty- 



13 



REPORT — 1873. 



four, and for 1843-5 with seventy-four numerically different equations of 
the form 

n = a . cc^ + h . (x,, + c . a,^ + d. a,^ + e . ec.+f . a^-\-(j . a,.-\-h . a^, 

whicli directly to satisfy was of course in both cases impossible. But in 
order to determine those two sets of the eight unknown aj, a, . . . . a^, wliich 
according to the rules of iirobabilitj had to be assumed for the first and for the 
second of the said years, it was necessary to supply the just mentioned 
theoretical form of the conditional equations by the practically possible 
assumption of 

«=(— n+« . ct^ + h . a.., + c. . oi^-\-d . a^ + e . cc.-[-f . a.^-\-fj . a-,+h . aj . Vj), 

p and V in this expression being meant to stand for the so-called iveic/ht of 
every value of n, and for the error to be supposed in it. 

If, then, [ ] indicate generally a sum of algebraically similar terms, and 
if the assumed values of the error v be regarded as functions of the un- 
known, we shall obtain the most probable values of a^, a, . . . . a^ by the 
solution of the following eight final equations under (G), which in their turn 
are but evident consequences of the general principle under (©) 

(O) [v^] = minimum. 

w . -^ =o——[anp'] + lacqj']a^ + [abp']a^ + lac2)']a^ + ladp']a^ 

+ [««P]«5 + C«fp]«6 + lm'']»7 + [('h'l^s' 

-1- [ bep-ja, + [ hfp-]a^ + \]>cjp-]a, + [67ip]o,. 

\v • ^1 =0= - [ cnp-] -f [ capy^ -\- [ chpyi.^ + [ ccp']a^ + [cdp ]a, 
+ [ cep']a, -h [ cfp-]u, + [ qip-]a, + [ cl,p-]a^. 

\v.~\ =o=—ldnp\ + \d(ip]a^^ldhpyi.^-\-[dcp~\a^-\-[ddp']a^ 

.1 = = - [ enp-] + [ ra/>]ai + [ cl>p']<i., -|- [ ecp']a^ + [ edp^t^ 

+ [ <^fi^>5 + [ C^i^Jac + [ m^l^i + [ clipl^^i- 

1 =o=-ifnp'\ -\- U('F\«-i + [/^P]"2 + [/'P]«3 + L/'^]"* 

+ [hep]^, + [7*^>a + U^gp^^-, + \]dip'\a^. 

"We have here retained the general form of this prescription for calculating 
Oj, Oj. . . .Og, though when employed for the year 1811 it became simplified 



(6) 



< 






dv' 
da, 

dv_ 
dtt.^ 

dv 
da. 



ON THE GAUSSIAN CONSTANTS FOR THE YEAR 1829. 13 

1)}' the occurrence of ^)=1 in every one of the eighty-four termed sums [ ]; 
•whereas in the computations for 1843--5 we had to substitute in the sums 
[ ], no^y unity, now another number for the p's of the seventy-four terms, 
according to the empirical values for that year, as above mentioned under "B. 

On the Equations for 1843-5." 

'Now the numerical values for the final equations (6) have been found to 
be : — 

For the year 1811. 

[«,/]= + 3-970, [ab]= -4-900, [«c]= + 10-685, [w?]= + 0-235, 
[rtc]= -1-3-200, [«/]= -1-0-109, [a^]= -0-353, [«/;]= +4-971, 

[«,*]= -8-541. 

[&6]= + 68-229, [6c]= + 3-758, [bd]= +2-881, [Je]= -0-408, 
[6/]= + l-90G, [6^]= -3-264, [67i]= + 5-044, [6n]= -15-069. 

[fc]= + 62-186, [cf?]=-2-742, [ce]=+2-290, [cf]= + l-95i, 
[er/]= -6-771, [c7i]=- 11-994, [crt]= -32-370. 

[fW]= +23-994, [c?e]= -0-455, [f?/]= -2-493, [f7r/]= -3-006, 
[f?A]= -3-110, [f7)i]= -8-427. 

[ee]= +16-280, [?/]= +0-699, [«i/]= -0-414, [eA]= + 7-918, 
[«i]= -15-486. 

[//]= + 13-402, [/i/]=-6-608, [/A]=-l-268, [>]= + 13-745. 

[f/5f]= + 138-801, [r/7i]= + 5-350, [(/)i]= -44-715. 

[hh]= + 134-080, [hn']= - 6-073. 

For the year 1843-5. 

[«f<p]= + 67-883, [«6p]= +12-989, [ac2;]= + 9-091, [rt(^j>]= + 8-784, 
[fff^]= + 20-978, [r/^9]= +2-959, [«(7i3]= +0-407, [rt7t2j]= + 8-036, 
[«n23]= + 64-265. 

[%]= + 75-782, [6cp]= +2-961, [6r7j>]= -3-325, [6ep]= + 0-198, 
[6/>]=-l-578, [652.>]= + 31-818, [%9]= + 5-062, [7»«^]= -23-362. 

[cc:2J]= + 71-859, [cf7p]=- 3-574, [cfw]=+3-691, [r/)>]= +3-067, 
[cr/_^j]= -3-337, [c7(j.7]= +23-278, [«i2:>]= + 25-870. 

[f7f7^]= + 42-260, \dcp]^ + 7-160, [dfp']= + 8-076, [%ij]= + 2-040, 
[J7i2j]= -1-781, [(%:.]= -29-599. 

[<?f^]= + 43-335, [c/p]=- 0-359, [er/^j]= + 10-268, [J//>]= + 6-543, 
[g„p]=_ 7-862. 

[//p]= + 37-446, [%]=-5-698, r/;tp]= + 8-145, [/«^]= -12-456. 

[^r/i']= + 154-637, [r/7*j9]=- 5-424, [r/njj]^: -59-602. 

[/J(p]= + 122-981, [/iHij]= - 18'439. 



14 



REPORJ." — 1872. 



The solution of the equations (6), when these groups of numbers were 
successively substituted, gave then the two sought-for sets of results as 
follows : — 



called 



The increment 

pertains to 
the constants. 



"2 

"3 

"4 
a. 

a- 



,1'0 



.2-0 



-.2 1 



'J 
o 



2-2 

9 



Column of ?n, 

or values of 

annual increments 

for 1811. 



—0-916 
—0-303 
-0-388 
-0-301 
-0-795 
+ 0-966 
-0-314 
4-0-027 



Column of §,„.., or 

values of annual 

increments 

for 1843-5. 



+ 1-.339 
-0-465 
+ 0-280 
-0-829 
-0-621 
-0-290 
— 0-255 
-0-242 



Now, with the help of this Table, the rule for the reduction of any magnetic 
element that had been observed in the year 1829 + 7 (with r for any positive 
or negative number) to what it must be stated to have been in 1829, proved 
to be : — 

1. That to the observed value must be added the number which hereto- 

fore has been uniformly designated by n ; 

2. That this n has to be calculated 

by the schedule (1) (under "I when a d or a declination is to 
" A. On the equations" &c.) J bo reduced ; 

by the schedule (2) (under "I when an i or an inclination is 
the same) J to be reduced ; 



by the schedule (3) (under 
" B. On the equations" &c.) 



by the schedule (4) (under 
the same) 



when X or the northern hori- 
zontal component is to be 
reduced ; 

when Y or the western hori- 
zontal component is to be 
reduced ; 



by the schedule (5) (under! wli en Z or the vertical com- 
the same). J ponent is to be reduced ; and 



3. That, independently of the nature of the observed element, when 
calculating its reduction n, there must be substituted, in the 
formula employed, for a^ (with ^ for the integers successively from 
1 to 8), a 5^ which corresponds to the following expression, when 



ON THE GAITSSIAN CONSTANTS FOR THE YEAH 1829. 



15 



assuming tlie numbers marked ?jj and 6^.^.^, under the same super- 
scription out of the ^'th horizontal line of the Table : — 

,=r . ( -29 -an -36.^,3.. -)+,, . (±^3.^^, . M + .. . N*. 

To facilitate this evaluation, we used the form ^.'=r . M + rr . N", and the 

following logarithms according to the superscriptions under which they 
stand : 



When g^ is 
substituted for 


It must be formed 

with log M, 

as follows 


It must be formed 

with log jN^, 

as follows 


«i 

«2 

«3 

"4 

"5 

"6 

"7 

"a 


9-5237 H 

9-5942 

8-2504 

9-7735 

9-8442 

9-4315 n 

9-4488 

9-0871 


8-5403 n 
7-3963 
8-0121 n 
7-9094 
7-4279 n 
8-2864 
6-9509 n 
7-6174 



As a further illustration of these rules,, we give the following example of 
our reductions. In 1818-5 or for r= — 10-5 were observed 

u X X Y Z 

21° 38', 306° 10', 73-96, 171-92, 1609-74 ; 

hence for S^=M . r+N . rr is obtained 

log Sj,, when standing for 

log a^, 9-5036 n ; log a,, 0-5854 n ; log a^, 0-1365 n ; log a^, 0-7271 n ; 
log a,, 0-9794 n ; log a,, 0-S963 ; log a., 0-4843 n ; log a,, 9-7474 n. 

log a, 9-5667 ; log h, 9-7393 n ■ log c, 9-8753 ; log d, 9-8359 ; 
lege, 90332 «; log/, 9-7694 ; log (7, 9-3180 ; log 7i, 9-8149, 
in BX, according to schedule (3). 



And for 



ax, «a.= -0-12, &a,= +2-12, fa3=-l-03, f?a,= -3-05, 
f«,= + 4-10, /a„= +2-92, r/a,= -0-63, 7,a,= -0-30; 



-/;fl:J= + 3-35 ; X + gX=77-31=the reduced X. 



therefore 

SX=[rta, + /'a^. . 

* It scarcely needs to be observed that tlie above rule applies verbally to reductions 
from a year ISOO+^'i to a year 1800+i' (?■, and t standing for any positive or negative 
numbers whatsoever), if only into d^=T . M+rr . N are introduced 



r^t,-i, M. 



-(87-20. g„-C2^- 22).^,3.3 +S,, 
> and jS = 



"ws 



65 



65 



16 REPORT — 1872. 

logrt, — go; log &, 9-9070 h; log c, 9-77JL0 ji; logcZ, — qo; log e, 9-8753 n; 
log/, 9-7393 n ; log g, 9-8467 n ; log h, 9-3498, in ^Y, according 
to schedule (4). 
And for 

lY, «ai=0-00, 5a = + 3-13, ca3= + 0-81, cZa^=0-00, ea,= -\-1-lG, 
fa,= -2-72,}a,= +2-U, ha,= -0-13; 
therefore 

2y=[rtaj + 5a„+ .... +/'. «s]= + 10-39; Y + aY=182-31=the re- 
duced Y. 

log a, 0-2693 ; log b, 9-G387 ; log c, 0-7747 n ; log d, 0-1932 ; 
log e, 9-7830 ; log/, 9-9190 n • log g, 8-9926 n ; log /;, 9-5895 », 
in ^Z, according to schedule (5). 

And for SZ, 

«a,=— 0-59, 5a,= -l-02, on3= + 8-15, (?a^=-S-32, ec,.= -5-79, 
/a„=-4-12, gu,= + 0-30, 7ia,= + 0-22; 

therefore 
SZ=[aa^ + ha^+ .... +/(f,J= -11-83 ; Z + ?Z=1597-91=the reduced Z. 

.II. Compviatlon of the fwenti/-fonr Gaussian Constants from values 
ohserved in or reduced to 1829. 

The numerous applications which we made of these means of reduction, 
not only have added considerably to the number of empirical data for our 
intended research, but they have also increased the intrinsic value of the 
■whole stock of such data. Indeed many observed elements Avhich by their 
reduction to the epoch 1829 became api)licable to our purpose, related to 
points of extensive regions where all knowledge of magnetic i^henomena had 
been hitherto wanting. Such were, for instance, the beautiful series of 
magnetic measurements which English navigators have executed in the 
antarctic and North-American glacial oceans, and also many magnetic 
determinations in the interior of the United States. Therefore the materials 
now collected must amply suffice for our purpose ; but it seemed at first sight 
as if for its attainment two cntirelj' different ways were left to our option. 
Further consideration, however, has convinced us that of these ways or modes 
of operating only the one which we have adopted was admissible ; but this 
consideration, together with the doubt which it settled, merits to be shortly 
explained here. 

According to a first plan of operation, we had to begin by calculating for 
everj' newly added magnetic element its excess n over the theoretic value 
assigned to it by the old approximations for the Gaussian constants — then, 
having formed for each of these results (with a^, rf„. . . . w.,^ for given functions 
of u and \, and Ar/''' '*, A/t"' ", every v and /i respectively varying from 1 to 4 
and from to 4, for the corrections of constants) the expression 

to derive from each of these primary equations its correspondhig contributions 
to the twenty-four final equations for A(/'", Ac/'' A/i'*''*; and lastly, 



ON THE GAUSSIAN CONSTANTS FOR THE YEAR 1829. 17 

having added each of these contributions to the similar one among those 
equations which H. Petersen has stated to represent all the magnetic elements 
measured by Erman in 1829*, we had to solve the so completed expressions 
according to the sought-for corrections, A^'", A(/''', AA'"'. . . . AA*'*. 

On the other hand, instead of such indifferent aggregation of all new 
material to all the old, we had, according to the second method, to make 
a proper abstract of each of the two classes of data, and then to derive the 
sought-for values of constants from equations founded only on these abridged 
materials. 

But as the most probable determination of the Gaussian constants is 
evidently only obtained by observations at points symmetrically situated all 
over the earth's surface and being all of equal weight (that is to say, reliable to 
an equal extent), the beforementioned method jjroved to be doubly imperfect. 
Indeed the material for the said former calculation of H. Petersen consisted in 
GlOmagnetic elements, which corresponded to 650 direct observations executed 
along a line round the earth of 8100 German miles. The three data for the 
magnetic determination of a point, therefore, were to be found all over this 
line at an average distance of 37'4 German miles, or of very nearly 2°-5 of 
the equator, whereas when those points for which magnetic elements had 
now to be added were counted in their succession on parallels of latitude or 
on any other lines round the earth, there appeared everywhere a much 
scantier distribution, which on an average did not exceed a sixth or a seventh 
of what it was for the former calculation. On immediate addition of the 
former suras of final equations to the corresponding new sums, the resulting 
new values of Gaussian constants would therefore have been influenced to an 
exceedingly larger extent by the magnetic character of one almost linear 
tract of the earth's surface, than by all its remaining parts. To compensate 
such vicious preponderance, we might, before adding the two sums, have 
multiplied each of them by a number inversely proportional to the frequency 
of its elements. But this proceeding supposed, in order to be right, that all 
constituent observations were of equal weight, while in our case we must 
own, on the contrary, that the probable errors of the newly added elements 
surpassed those of the formerly observed ones in a considerable though rather 
indefinite proportion. Indeed by separate comparisons of some of the new 
and of the old observations with others of their respective classes, the new 
seemed upon the whole in less accordance, partly of course in direct con- 
sequence of the manner in which they were made, partly because of their 
having been reduced to 1829 by a method which, for all our care, was but 
an approximation to reality. 

We have avoided these difficulties by choosing the second of the above- 
mentioned modes of operation and by prosecuting it as follows : — 

Out of all stations for which the three rectangular magnetic components, 
as in 1829, had become known, either by direct observation or by our 
reductions for secular changes, we selected those which are nearest to ten 
parallels of latitude between i6=23° and zf=165°, and at the same time to 
the one or the other of nine equidistant points of every one of these circles. 
Having then concluded out of the results for these stations the 270 elements 
that belong to the 90 predetermined points, these latter values were ex- 
clusively introduced into the like number of our primary equations, which in 

* As published in the Eeport of the Eighteenth Meeting of tlie British Association, held 
in IS4S, tables facing p. 08, under "Final Equations i'or the corrections of the Gaussian 
constants from 610 magnetic elements.'' 

1.S72. c 



18 REPORT 1872. 

their turn gave the final equations for the most probable twenty-four values 
of Gaussian constants. 

It appears that by so doing we have given to the data of observation, 
first, the requisite symmetrical repartition over the earth, and then, secondly, 
to all its parts the nearest possible equality of weight. Indeed, when selected 
as just said, there followed one another quite casually, on each parallel, 
observations that were instituted in 1829 and those which had been 
reduced to this year, now from the earlier date of their direct validity, 
now from the later one. These data became therefore affected by the stiU 
remaining defects of reduction to a different extent and in alternate directions, 
just as by those inevitable errors of observation which the usual formation of 
final equations supposes to exist in their numerical material. 

But then, lastly, as to the reduction of elements from the spots of direct 
observation to the neighbouring predetermined points, we have avoided its pre- 
judicial influence by alwaj's using a merely mechanical interpolation, relating 
to points which in latitude as well as in longitude differed in alternate 
directions from those points to which we were to reduce them. 

The following Table contains, according to the hitherto used notation 
of X:=/cosi cosd, Y=/costsinrf, and Z=/ sin?', those values of 270 magnetic 
elements for 1829 on which our new values of the Gaussian constants have 
exclusively been foimded. To these fundamental numbers are added under 
AX, AY, and AZ, their respective excesses on the values which a computa- 
tion with the old assumed constants assigned to them. These latter numbers 
show thus to what extent the hitherto existing theory of terrestrial magnetism 
still wanted correction in different paits of the earth's surface. 

It is still worth mentioning that, for the determination of our following 
normal values of X, T, and Z, we have employed out of the vicinity of the 
parallels 

to M= 23°, 39 observed elements. 



u= 23°, 


39 


u= 30°, 


63 


u= 40°, 


63 


u= 50°, 


42 


xi= 75°, 


27 


w= 90°, 


39 


M=105°, 


30 



or altogether 303 direct measurements for 7 parallels with 189 normal 
values. 

As for the remaining three parallels, to m = 130°, m=150°, and « = 165°, we 
have directly (though always after reduction to 1829) assumed the 81 elements 
which General E. Sabine, in his ' Report on Magnetic Observations in the 
Antarctic Ocean,' assigns to the intersections of these circles with the 
meridians to X = 40°r, where v denotes the integers from to 8. He has of 
course deduced these values from a larger number of observations at neigh- 
bouring points ; and by assuming this number to be 97 or from 32 to 33 for 
each parallel, we finally obtain 400 for the number of direct measurements 
that have been used for the estimation of the following 270 normal values. 



ON THB GAUSSIAN CONSTANTS FOR THE YEAR 1829. 



19 






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20 



REPORT 1872. 












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ON THE GAUSSIAN CONSTANTS FOR THE YEAR 1829. 



21 





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32 



REPORT 1872. 



We give now the result of our investigation, viz. the Gaussian constants for 
1829, as resulting from all observations that we have found or made avail- 
able for the purpose, and thereby forming the best theoretical representation 
of terrestrial magnetism which we think can up to the present be effected. The 
probable error that is subjoined to each of these numbers shows to what 
exteat it may be relied upon; but as these valuations are only founded on 
the differences between the values that were assumed for our 270 normal 
elements and those which the new constants assign to the same, the mean of 
their amount may perhaps be still altered by the more numerous comparisons 
of directly observed and newly calculated elements that will soon be instituted 
and published. 



The Gaussian constants for 1829, and their probable errors. 



Names. 


Values of the constants, 

in conventional units, 

of the Gaussian theory*. 


Probable 
errors. 


ff'-' 


+916-041 


±1-79 


9'-' 


+ 81-144 


2-97 


A'' 


— 172-030 


2-32 


/•« 


•+ 3-463 


2-04 


9'-' 


-127-463 
+ 2060 


3-92 
3-08 


^2-2 
A2-2 


+ 3'S75 
— 36-167 


2-61 
roj 


^30 


- 53-699 
+ 85-466 
+ 47-069 


5-41 
4-24 
4-60 


^3-2 

A3-2 


- 87-942 

- 17-776 


7-44 
1-82 


^S-3 


- 3-640 


0-73 


A3-3 


- 20-744 


0-58 


g.O 


- 78353 


4-83 


9*-' 


— 109-919 

- 9*iSo 


8-63 
6-97 


C 


- 44-624 

+ 31-054 
+ 19-198 


7-44 
2-95 

1-67 


h*^ 


+ 8-627 


1-31 


h*-* . 


+ 2-561 
+ 3-173 


0-54 
+0-68 



The derivation of the most interesting consequences of these numerical 
results and a complete comparison of observed magiietic elements with both 
their representations by the old and by the newly founded theory being deferred 
for the moment, in the mean time the following shows the effect of our 
performance for those parallels that were especially considered. 

* Each =0-00349412 German unit of absolute intensity 
=0-0075781 English 



ON THE EXTINCT BIRDS OP THE MASCARENE ISLANDS. 



23 







Means 


of probable 


! errors. 






On the 

parallel 

to u. 


Of the old 
theoretic 

evaluation 
of the X. 


Of the new 
theoretic 

evaluation 
of the X. 


Of the old 
theoretic 

evaluation 
of the Y. 


Of the new 
theoretic 

evaluation 
of the Y. 


Of the old 
theoretic 

evaluation 
of the Z. 


Of the new 
theoretic 

evaluation 
of the Z. 


o 

23 


+ 11-58 


+ 14-42 


+ 17-28 


+ 12-98 


+ 29-52 


±30-34 


30 


i2-o6 


18-04 


5-67 


8-71 


35-46 


28-32 


40 


I97I 


23-77 


16-25 


13-93 


28-42 


2895 


5° 


29-43 


22-56 


18-97 


15-29 


36-77 


32-44 


75 


I9I4 


21-55 


22-02 


17-82 


40-07 


29-00 


90 


32'43 


22-70 


18-76 


10-12 


39-56 


34-16 


105 


26-05 


19-06 


12-90 


1632 


31-61 


33-25 


130 


53-48 


25-67 


16-46 


10-43 


34-02 


29-06 


150 


53-88 


22-98 


44-86 


23-05 


84-96 


30-60 


165 


±4^-38 


+21-29 


+ 60-51 


+21-49 


+ 105-51 


±1636 


On average 


±33-45 


+21-41 


+ 28-43 


+ 15-98 


± 5^-54 


±29-10 



The new elements 
errors 



of theory have therefore lessened the probable 





Of the X. 


Of the Y. 


Of the Z. 


On average... 

And on the f 
parallel to 
M=i65° 


to 

0-6412 

of their former value. 

to 

0-5012 

of their former value. 


to 

0-5612 

of their former value. 

to 

0-3552 

of their former value. 


to 

°-5539 
of their former value. 

to 

0-1552 
of their former value. 



Berlin, February 29th, 1872. 



Second Supplementary Report on the Extinct Birds of the Mascarene 
Islands. By Alfred Newton, M.A., F.R.S. 

The small portion of the grant so liberally voted by the Association at the 
Birmingham Meeting in 1865, to aid my brother Mr. Edward Newton in his 
researches into the extinct birds of the Mascarene Islands, -which remained 
unexpended at the time of my last reporting his progress, has during the last 
vcar or so been employed by him in a renewed examination of the caves in 
the island of Rodriguez, which had already produced so much of interest. 



24 REPORT 'm7ll. 

This examination has been conducted, as before, by Mr. George Jenner, lately 
the chief executive officer of the island ; and though I am not in a position to 
give any thing like a detailed account of the results, I am happy to say that 1 
believe they will be found in time to be fully as instructive as those of the 
former examination have been. We are now in possession of several parts 
of the skeleton of Pezophaps which have hitherto been wanting, and of more 
perfect specimens of some of those bones which we before obtained. We 
have also additional remains of the large Psittacine bii'd, described from a 
single fragmentary maxilla by Prof. Alphonse Milne-Edwards as Psittacus (?) 
rodericanm ; and this, I hope, will enable that accomplished palaeontologist 
to determine more particularly the affinities of the species, which have 
hitherto been doubtful ; and I may add that thus some further light may be 
thrown upon the position of the P. mauritiamis of Prof. Owen. In the course 
of last year my brother had the pleasure of receiving from Mr. Jenner proof 
of the continued existence of one of the species described by Leguat as in- 
habiting Rodriguez, but thought to have become extinct. This jjroof con- 
sisted of a specimen procured in spirit of an undescribed and very distinct 
Palceornis, which T have since described (Ibis, 1872, p. 33) as P. e.vsul. 
Among the bones sent by Mr. Jenner are, I believe, some which belonged to 
this bird. But more remarkable and interesting still are some remains which 
are obviously those of a llalline bird, unquestionably allied to Ocydromus; 
and these M. Alphonse Milne-Edwards informs me he is inclined to refer to 
the " Gelinotte " mentioned by Leguat, the nature of which has hitherto been 
only open to guess. There are also bones of other species of birds, perhaps 
only inferior to this in interest. Most of these specimens have been intrusted 
to the care of M. Alphonse Milne-Edwards ; for my brother and I believe 
that the distinguished author of the ' Oiseaux Fossiles de la France' has 
established a claim upon the assistance of all who are interested in extinct 
ornithology by that admirable work of his ; and I learn from him that he will 
shortly make public the results of these recent discoveries. 



Report of the Committee for Superintending the Monthly Reports of 
the Prof/ress of Chemistry , consisting of Professor A. W. William- 
son, F.R.S., Professor Frankland, F.R.S., and Professor Roscoe, 
F.R.S. 

During the current year the Chemical Society has continued the publication 
of the monthly reports of the progress of Chemistry, which had been com- 
menced last year with the aid of the British Association. The labour of 
preparing these Beports is considei'able ; and it is due to the chemists who 
perform that arduous duty to acknowledge the great care which is bestowed 
ujion it by them for a remuneration scarcely more than nominal. 

It has been found necessary, in view of the very great number of chemical 
papers, to render the reports very brief, so as to convey a knowledge of the 
general results of each paper without giving the details of evidence. 

The Members of the Committee have had the pleasure of noticing that the 
reports are considerably valued by English chemists ; and there is reason to 
believe that the anticipations which were formed of their usefulness in pro- 
moting the advancement of chemistry wiU be fully realized. 



UNIFORMITY OF WEIGHTS AND MEASURES. 25 

Report on the best means of providing for a Uniformity of Weights and 
Measures, with reference to the Interests of Science, by a Com- 
mittee consisting of Sir John Bowring^ F.R.S., The Right Hon. 
Sir Stafford H. Northcote, C.B., M.P., The Right Hon. Sir 
C. B. AdderleYj M.P., Samuel Brown, F.S.S., Dr. Farr, F.R.S., 
Frank P. Fellowes, Professor Frankland, F.R.S., James Hey- 
wood, F.R.S., Professor Leone Levi,F.-S.^., F.S.S., C. W. Siemens, 
F.R.S., Professor A. W. Williamson, F.R.S., Dr. George Glover, 
Sir Joseph Whitworth, Bart., F.R.S., J. R. Napier, J. V. N. 
Bazalgette, and Sir W. Fairbairn, Bart., F.R.S. 

The Metric Committee of the British Association have much pleasure in 
reporting that another great stride has been made towards the attainment 
of uniformity in the Weights, Measures, and Coins of all countries by the 
passing of a law in Austria, in June 1871, rendering the use of Metric Weights 
and Measures permissive from the 1st of January, 1873, and compulsory from 
the 1st of January, 1876. The Metric System is gradually diffusing itself all 
over Europe. At this moment fully two thirds of that Continent, measured by 
population, have adopted the Metric Sj'stem of Weights and Measures, and 
the other third has manifested sufficient interest in the question to justify the 
expectation of its early adhesion to the general agreement : but in this third 
there are comprised Russia and England, two countries which, by their popu- 
lation and commerce, exercise an enormous influence in the whole world. 

The state of the question in Russia appears to be as follows : — In 1859 a 
Committee of the Imperial Academy of Russia, consisting of the Academicians 
Ostrogradski, Jacobi, and Kupffer, issued a report on the subject, which 
approved of the decimal division ah-eady incorporated in the Russian System, 
the rouble being divided into 100 kopecks, the vedro into 10 krouchki, and 
the inch into 10 lines, and expressed an opinion in favour of extending such 
decimal divisions to Weights and Measures. In discussing, however, the 
possibility of even this moderate reform, the Academicians saw that a very 
considerable change would be required. Supposing the foot were retained 
as a unit, how could it be decimalized without abandoning altogether such 
divisions as the archine, which is 2^, and the sagene, which is 7 feet ? Yet 
these are really more in use than the foot itself. And what multiples could 
be adopted? The foot of Russia, which is identical with that of England, 
is too small to measure cloth by, and 10 feet would be too large a unit. 
With such difficulties attending the decimahzation of the existing Weights 
and Measures, the Academicians felt that it would be far better for Russia 
at once to introduce the Metric System ; and this was the conclusion of 
their recommendations. Since the publication of this Report, the Imperial 
Academy of Russia has taken an active part in the advance of the system all 
over the world. In 18(i7 M. Jacobi was a Member of the International 
Committee on Weights, Measures, and Coins in connexion with the Paris 
International Exhibition, and wrote the report which was agreed to by 
the representatives of all the nations who took part in the Conference on 
the subject. And later still, in 1870, on the representation of the Imperial 
Academy of Russia to the French Government and to the scientific bodies of 
other nations of the need of preparing more accurate and uniform Metric 
Standards for the use of countries which might adopt the Metric System, an 
International Commission was appointed to prepare such Standards. This 
Commission met in Paris in June 1870, and is about to resume its labours 

1872. D 



26 REPORT — 1872. 

in September next. These steps on the part of the Imperial Academy of 
Russia have not been followed by legislative action ; yet, when we consider 
the just influence which the Academy exercises in a subject of this nature, 
it is reasonable to anticipate that their recommendations will be duly heeded, 
and that as soon as the Standards are completed the Russian Government 
will take into consideration the necessary steps for introducing the Metric 
System, whereby the Weights and Measures of Russia may be rendered iden- 
tical with those of the greater number of European nations. 

In the Uuited Kingdom considerable progress has been made towards the 
introduction of the Metric System, though much certainly remains to be 
done. In 1862 a Committee of the House of Commons was appointed to 
consider the practicability of adopting a simple and uniform system of 
"Weights and Measures, with a view not only to the benefit of our internal 
trade, but to facilitate our trade and intercourse with foreign countries. In 
discussing the question of the possible decimalization of the existing system, 
the Committee of the British House of Commons, in tlie same manner as the 
Committee of the Imperial Academy of Russia, reported that it would involve 
almost as much difficulty to create a special decimal system of our own as 
simply to adopt the Metric Decimal System in common with other nations ; 
and under these circumstances the Committee came to a unanimous recom- 
mendation in favour of the introduction of the Metric System. 

Accordingly in 1864 an Act was passed to render permissive the use of 
such Weights and Measures so far as to legalize contracts made in terms of 
Metric Weights and Measures, which were heretofore prohibited ; but no pro- 
vision having been made for obtaining correct Standards whereby to verify 
the same, the use of the System in shops was not thereby pennitted. A 
Royal Commission has, however, inquired into the question on the Metric 
Weights and Measures of the United Kingdom ; and after considerable in- 
quiry it issued a report recommending the preparation of such Standards 
and the removal of every difficulty which may yet exist in the way of the 
permissive use of Metric Weights and Measures. We may therefore hope 
that Her Majesty's Government wiR speedily bring forward a measure for 
carrying the recommendation of the Commissioners into effect. 

The appended map of Europe (Plate I.) shows how extensively the Metric 
System is already used. If once Russia and England should finally place their 
legislation on the same footing, other States will certainly follow, and in Europe, 
at least, we shall have attained perfect unity as regards T^eights and Measures. 
But in other parts of the world also considerable progress has been made. In 
Asia the whole of India maj' be said to have adopted the Weights and Mea- 
sures of capacity of the Metric System, though some time may elapse before 
the Act passed by the Indian Government can be carried into operation. In 
America the United States have introduced it permissively, whilst Brazil, Chili, 
Mexico, New Granada, and other American republics have adopted the Metric 
System absolutely. Throughout the world as many as 213,000,000 of people 
have adopted it absoliitely, 160,000,000 more partially, and 70,000,000 per- 
missively, giving a total of 443,000,000. 

Nor has there been less done as regards the coinage. If we compare the 
coins now in use all over the world with those in use some twenty years ago, 
it will be seen what advance we have already made everywhere towards unity. 
Some countries, such as Erance, Italy, Switzerland, Belgium, Greece, and 
Roumania, have already an identical system of coinage secured to them by 
the Coinage Convention of the 23rd of December, 1865. The Austro-Hun- 
garian Empire issues gold pieces marked 20 florins and 8 florins, equal to 



f-? Report 3r~yti-sh Associavloru 



Tlnrr 1, 




ftfert Bntijh A. 




I 



UNIFORMITY OF WEIGHTS AND MEASURES. 27 

25 francs and 1 francs respectively. Spain issues gold pieces of 25 pecetas, 
equal to the 25-franc pieces ; and Sweden the Caroline, equal to 10 francs. 

The Committee much regret that the German Empire, which had recently 
a most favourable opportunity for extending the desired uniformity (an object 
to which she has shown her adherence by the recent adoption of the Metric 
System), has issued a new gold coinage having nothing in common either 
with the money of the Convention of France, Switzerland, Italy, Belgium, or 
with the monetary systems of England or the United States. It is much to 
be desired that we should clearly understand the points on which a common 
accord exists in matters of international coinage. There is a general agree- 
ment on the advantage of a complete decimal system, on the adoption of the 
fineness at nine tenths fine and one tenth alloy; and the greatest number 
of States agree also on the adoption of gold as the only standard of value. 
Between the three leading systems of the world, founded respectively on the 
Franc, the Dollar, and the Pound Sterling, a point of contact has been found 
in the 5-franc piece and its multiples, the 5, 10, 20, and 25-franc pieces ; and 
considerable agreement has already been obtained in this method of approach- 
ing the question. Your Committee would look forward to a much greater 
identity of coinage being ultimately realized than would be obtained by this 
method ; but it should be remembei-ed that even the universal acceptance of 
this plan would immensely simplify the relations of coinage between the 
diff'erent nations, and of necessity lead to a more identical system. 

During lasfyear your Committee have had communications with the Indian 
Government on the question of introducing the Metric System of Weights and 
Measures in India, the original Act by which all the Weights and Measures 
of the System were introduced having been vetoed by the Home Government, 
and another, limited to Weights and Measures of capacity, having been passed 
in its stead. In England the action of the Committee has been most influ- 
ential, especially in connexion with education. It was at the instance of this 
Committee that the Committee of Her Majesty's Privy Council on Education 
have inserted in the Code a clause requii'ing that instruction on the Metric 
Weights and Measures shall be given in the Elementary Schools in the King- 
dom. And in order to stimulate education on the subject, to explain the 
general character of the Metric System and its relation to the Imperial, and 
to indicate the advantages which would result from an International System 
of Weights and Measures, yoiir Committee have granted to the British and 
Foreign Schools, the National Schools, the Wesleyan Schools, and the Con- 
gregational Schools in England, as well as to the National Schools in Ireland, 
copies of Books and Diagrams on the Metric System, which have been grate- 
fully received. The Committee were anxious to purchase a set of Metric 
Standards, as stated in their last Report, for the purpose of illustrating 
lectures and papers on the subject; but they found that while their cost would 
have absorbed nearly the whole vote, it would have been impossible to lend 
out such standards without endangering their preservation. 

In January 1872 a public meeting was held at the Mansion House, under 
the presidency of Sir John Bennett, Sherifi' of London, when resolutions were 
passed in favour of the early introduction of the Metric System of Weights 
and Measures and the Decimal Division generally. At this meeting Sir John 
Lubbock, F.R.S., General Strachey. of the India House, the Rev. William 
Jowitt, Dr. Farr, F.R.S., the Hon. N. G. Northope, Superintendent of Public 
Instruction in the United States, the Hon. Mr. Ryan, of the Canadian Senate, 
and other persons of distinction took part. 

The tmification of the Weights, Measures, and Coins all over the world is 

d2 



38 REPORT— 1873. 

fraught with immense benefit to science, commerce, and civilization, and philo- 
sophical and scientific bodies of all nations have given their adhesion to it ; the 
commercial classes look to such unification as an essential element in the eco- 
nomy of time and the performance of international works, and travellers all over 
the world regard it as the greatest boon that could be conferred. Towards 
the attainment of this important object, the Metric Committee of the British 
Association for the Advancement of Science have exercised an important in- 
fluence ; and they trust that if they are allowed to continue their action for a 
few years longer, they will be able 'to report the recognition all over the world 
of the princijjle for the promotion of which they were appointed. 
In conclusion, your Committee recommend their reappointment. 



Eighth Report of the Committee for Exploring Kent's Cavern, Devon- 
shire, the Committee consisting of Sir Charles Lyell, Bart., 
F.R.S., Professor Phillips, F.R.S., Sir John Lubbock^ Bart., 
F.R.S., John Evans, F.R.S., Edward Vivian, M.A., George 
Busk, F.R.S., William Boyd Dawkins, F.R.S., William Aysh- 
FORD Sanford, F.G.S., a?i6? William Pengelly, F.R.S. {Reporter). 

In commencing this, their Eighth Report, the Committee have to state that 
since their last Report was sent in (Edinburgh, 1871) the excavations have 
been carried on by the same workmen, without interruption, and in all 
respects in the same manner as in former years. 

The visitors to the Cavern have continued to be very numerous. Amongst 
those accompanied by the Superintendents, the following may be mentioned : — 
The Emperor Napoleon III., the Prince Murat, the Prince and Princess of 
Oldenberg, Sir W. Jardine, Bart., Sir W. Topham, Rev. M. Brown, Rev. G. 
Buckle, Rev. Mr. Drewe, Rev. Dr. MacGrcgor, Rev. F. A. Saville, Rev. W. 
Thompson, Rev. H. H. Winwood, A. D. W. R. B. Cochrane, M.P.,W. H. Smith, 
M.P., General Freeze, C.B., R.A., Colonel Naylor, Colonel W. Pinuey, Captain 
S. P. Oliver, R.A., Professor F. Roemer, of Breslau, Professor A. Newton, 
Dr. Bond, Dr. Hounsell, Dr. Schmidt, of Essen, Rhenish Prussia, and Messrs. 
Bosanquet, H. H. Bothamley, W. R. A. Boylo, — Chaplin, B. J. M. Donne, 
W. Fenner, R. Gwatkin, J. Holdsworth, J. H. Parsons, E. C. Robson, 
— Stewart, J. StUweU, G. C. Swayne, E. B. Tawney, B. Tower, — "Waldegrave, 
W. Vicary, I. Whitwell, and A. "W. Wills. The Cavern has also been visited 
bj^ the Exeter Naturalists' Club, and by a large party of Members of the 
British Medical Association, at the close of the Annual Meeting at Plymouth 
in August 1871, including Rev. Professor Haughton, Professor Lister, Dr. 
Crossby, of Nice, Dr. A. Godson, Dr. Lang, Dr. Macnamara, Dr. Murphy, 
Dr. W. Roberts, and Mr. Wilde. 

Visitors of a much less welcome character have also been numerous during 
the year. In February last the workmen somewhat frequently observed 
several large rats running about the Cavern, but for some time failed in all 
their efforts to capture them. One morning one of the men, on commencing 
his work, wrapped his dinner-bag in the coat he had just taken off, and put 
the whole carefully aside. At dinner-time the coat was found to be eaten 
through, and the bag with its contents was gone. A few days after, the other 
man, having taken his dinner, placed his bag, containing a piece of bread, in a 
basket, and fastened the cover. On leaving work, he found a hole had been 



ON Kent's cavern^ Devonshire, 29 

eaten through the basket, the bag was torn iuto the merest shreds, and the bread 
was gone. Thus stimulated, the men baited their traps with great care, and 
had the pleasure of catching seven or eight rats. No further annoyance was 
experienced until July, when a large rat was seen to enter the Cavern about 
midday. The poor wretch was found dead in the trap in a day or two. 

During the last twelve months the Committee have explored the branches 
of the " Western Division " of the Cavern known as " The "Wolf's Cave," 
" The Cave of Rodentia," and " The Charcoal Cave," and have commenced 
" The Long Arcade." 

The Wolfs Cave. — That branch of the Cavern which extends in a northerly 
direction from "The Sloping Chamber" was, by Mr. MacEnery, termed "The 
Wolfs Cave," and occasionally "The Idol Cave"*. It received the latter 
name from " a column of spar " which, " near its entrance, joined the ceiling 
and floor and obstructed the way," and " had a singular resemblance to a 
Hindoo Idol " f ; and the former, because, on the removal of this " column," it 
was found to have " covered the head of a wolf, perhaps the largest and 
finest skuU, whether fossil or modern, of that animal in the world "J. 

Mr. MacEnery seems to have been eminently successful in collecting speci- 
mens in this branch of the Cavern ; for he states that " of the quantity and 
condition of the remains here it is scarcely possible to give a just idea with- 
out appearing to exaggerate. They were so thickly packed together that, 
to avoid injuring them, we were obliged to lay aside the picks and to grub 
them out with our fingers. They were found driven into the interstices of 
the opposite wall, or piled in the greatest confusion against its sides, with but 
a scanty covering of soil, and that of the finest and softest sand intermixed 
with greasy earth. To enumerate the amount of fossils collected from this 
spot would be to give the inventory of half my collection, comprising all the 
genera and their species, including the cuUridens. There were hoards." 
Here, too, he appears to have found all the remains of Machairodus latidens 
(known then as Ursiis cultrklcns) the Cavern yielded him, which he states 
were five canines and one incisor§. 

When completely excavated to the depth of 4 feet below the base of the 
Stalagmitic Floor, this Cave was found to extend nearly 70 feet in a north- 
westerly direction, and at its entrance, or junction with the Sloping Chamber, 
to be about 40 feet wide. At 3 yards inside the entrance it narrows to about 
20 feet, at 7 yards to 10 feet, and beyond this its general width is from 7 to 
8 feet II . Its present height is about 7 feet throughout; but before the com- 
mencement of Mr. MacEnery's diggings, the space between the Limestone Roof 
and the Stalagmitic Floor could nowhere have exceeded 2 feet, even if the latter 
had been entirely free from rubbish. Indeed he states that when they first 
entered this branch, he and his companions " crawled like tortoises "^. 

At the entrance the Ptoof is commonly fretted as if by the action of acidu- 
lated water ; but here and there, and especially on the eastern side, its com- 
paratively fresh and smooth aspect indicates what may be termed the recent 
fall of masses of limestone from it,— an indication confirmed by the presence 
of such masses, some of them of great dimensions, immediately below. At 
intervals throughout the entire length of the Cave transverse lines of frac- 
ture, or divisional planes, appear in the Roof : some of them are close-fitting, 

* He also spoke of it sometimes as " The Wolfs Passage " and " The Wolfs Grave." 
+ SeeTr.Devon.Assoc.vol.iii.pp.243,293(1869). | Ib.p.243. § lb. pp. 369, 370. 
II The breadth is always measured at the level of the surface of the Cave-earth. In thi.s 
Cave it was invariably narrower at the bottom of the excavation. 
^ See Trans. Devon. Assoc, vol. iii. p. 292. 



8 



30 REPORT — 1872. 

but occasionally they have been corroded or fretted into cavities of rudely 
elliptical outline, fi'om a foot to 2 feet in height. The largest of them 
measures 5 feet long and something less than 1 foot wide ; its walls are 
much fretted, and numerous pipe-like stalactites depend from its roof. Some 
of the holes are completely lined with stalactite, whilst others are quite bare. 
There are no traces of Cave-earth in any of them. 

The north-eastern waU of the Cave, from the entrance to nearly 30 feet within 
it, is a confused mass of large fallen blocks of limestone. With this excep- 
tion, the walls, as in the other branches of the Cavern, consist of beds of 
hraestone in situ. They are not much fretted, their edges are all more or' 
less angular, and they are here and there traversed by fissures corresponding 
with the lines of fracture in the Eoof. 

From the considerable remnants left undisturbed by Mr. MacEneiy, there 
was, no doubt, a continuous " Granular Stalagmitic Floor " from end to end. 
It seems to have varied from 3 to 12 inches in thickness, and to have possessed 
the granular and laminated structure characteristic of the Floor covering the 
" Cave-earth." In a large area at the south-eastern angle of the Cave the 
Floor had been left untouched, and was found to be in some cases fully 2 feet 
thick. Like that in a great part of the adjacent Sloping Chamber, of which 
it is a prolongation, it contained numerous large masses of limestone and of 
the " Old Crystalline Stalagmitic Floor " so frequently mentioned in former 
Keports. 

Similar masses, of both kinds, were abundant in the Cave-earth below the 
Floor in the area just mentioned ; and in some instances the blocks of hme- 
stone lay across one another with but little deposit between them, as if they 
had fallen after the accumulation of Cave-earth had ceased. In a few in- 
stances the cavities or interspaces were not covered with the Stalagmite, 
and some of them contained a few recent bones and other objects. 

Omitting this south-eastern area, Mr. MacEnery extended his researches 
quite to the innermost point of the Cave, and, with few exceptions, up to 
13 feet from the entrance, had broken up and searched the entire deposit to 
a depth exceeding the Committee's four-feet sections. Within the point just 
specified, he contented himself with cutting a comparatively narrow trench, 
leaving the ground quite intact adjacent to, and a few feet from, the south- 
western wall, but, as before, carrying his excavations to a depth exceeding 4 
feet. At 24 feet from the entrance, however, he dug to no greater depth than 
2 feet, and very rarely exceeded this in the inner part of the Cave, — thus leaving 
the Committee's third and fourth foot-levels everywhere intact, besides the belt 
adjacent to the south-western wall, of which, as already mentioned, no portion 
was touched. This margin, it may be presumed, was left intact in consequence 
of all the excavated material being lodged on it. No portion of the latter 
appears to have been taken out of the Cave. 

The deposit the Committee found in the Wolfs Cave, whether disturbed or 
undisturbed, was well-marked typical Cave-earth, consisting of red loam with 
about 50 per cent, of angular fragments of limestone. There were no traces 
of the older deposit termed " Breccia " in previous Eeports, either in situ or 
redeposited, and, excepting the area in the south-eastern corner, already 
mentioned, no fragments of the Old Crystalline Stalagmitic Floor. 

In proceeding to the objects found in the Wolf's Cave, it is obvious that 
nothing can be said about such as may have been on or in the Stalagmitic 
Floor ; they, if such there were, had no doubt been secured by the earher 
explorers. 

it has already been stated that there were occasional interspaces among 



ON Kent's cavern, Devonshire, 



31 



the blocks of limestone lying confusedly in the south-eastern portion of the 
Cave. In some of these, all of them being sealed up with Stalagmite, shells 
of the common Pecten (Pecten maximus, Linn.) were found, amounting to a 
total of twenty-five. Most of them were large shells, and some were thickly 
incrusted with calcareous matter containing, in one or two cases, traces of 
charred wood. In one instance two, and in another five, shells were found 
fitted neatly into one another, and cemented together with carbonate of lime, 
thus leaving no doubt that man had not only packed them, but placed them 
where they were found. The fact that some of them were '« dead shells," 
having Serpute attached to their inner surfaces, indicates, of course, that they 
were not in all cases taken to the Cavern because they contained an article of 
food, but probably sometimes, at least, as domestic vessels. 

The undisturbed Cave-earth in this branch of the Cavern yielded a con- 
siderable number of the remains of the ordinary Cave-mammals, including 
nearly sixty shells, which may be distributed as in the following Table : — 

Table I. — Showing how many per cent, of the Teeth found in Cave-earth 
in the Wolf's Cave belonged to the different kinds of Mammals. 

Elephant 2-5 per cent. 



Hyaena 44-5 per cent. 

Horse 25 „ 

Rhinoceros 15 „ 

Megaceros 3 „ 



Bear . 
Deer. 



3 

2-5 



Lion 1 

Wolf 1 

Ox 1 

Rabbit "5 „ 

Fox only 1 tooth. 



It wiU be remembered that the Cave-earth is excavated in vertical shoes 
or " Parallels " extending generally from wall to wall of the branch of the 
Cavern under exploration, to a depth of 4 feet and a horizontal thickness of 
1 foot ; that each Parallel is taken out in 4 successive " Levels," each a foot 
in vertical depth ; and each Level in " Yards," or masses 3 feet in length. 

From what has been already stated, it is obvious that in the Wolf's Cave 
there were no continuous first or second Foot-levels intact, and that even the 
third and fourth were not everywhere met with. Confining attention to the 
twenty-one instances of each of the two latter which did occur in the same 
Parallels, the following Table will show the distribution of the teeth of the 
various kinds of Mammals in them : — 

Table II.— Showing the distribution of the Teeth of the different kinds of 
Mammals in the third and fourth Foot-levels of twenty-one Parallels of 
Cave-earth in the Wolf's Cave. 





i 

M 

16 
16 

19 

63 
68 


i 

12 
14 

18 

24 
29 


% 

i 
'i 


OS 

o 
u 


U 

« 


a 
-a 


^ 
^ 


o 




O 


No. of Parallels containing teeth in 3rd Level... 

4th 

both Levels 


9 
15 

18 


2 

2 

3 


4 
2 

6 


4 
2 

6 



1 

1 


2 
2 

4 




1 
1 





Total No of teeth in 3rd Level 


11 
21 


13 
3 


4 
2 


4 

2 



5 


2 

2 


2 





4th 




131 


53 


32 


16 


6 


6 


5 


4 


2 


2 







32 



REPORT 1872. 



The following examples will serve to explain Table II. : — Teeth of hyaena 
occurred in the third Foot-level in 16 distinct Parallels, and in the same 
number in the fourth ; but as they were met with in a total number of 19 
Parallels only, it is obvious that in 13 instances (=16 + 16 — 19) they 
occurred in both levels in the same Parallel. 

Again, as the Table comprehends 21 Parallels, and teeth of hyaena were 
found in 19 only, it follows that there were 2 Parallels (=21 — 19) in which 
no teeth of this genus presented themselves. 

Further, a total of 131 teeth of hytena were exhumed in the 19 Parallels, 
and of these 63 were in the third Foot-level, and 68 in the fourth or lowest ; 
hence the different Levels were almost equally rich, and on the average 
several teeth occurred in one and the same Level and Parallel. 

To take another example : — Teeth of bear were found in the third 
Foot-level in 4 Parallels, and in the fourth Foot-level in 2 ; but as they 
occurred in a total number of 6 Parallels, it is obvious that in no in- 
stance were they met with in both Levels in one and the same Parallel 
(44-2-6 = 0). 

Again, as the Table comprehends 21 Parallels, and teeth of bear were 
found in 6 only, it follows that there were 15 Parallels (21 — 6=15) in which 
no teeth of this genus presented themselves. 

Further, a total of 6 teeth of bear were exhumed in the 6 Parallels, and of 
these 4 were in the third Level and 2 in the fourth or lowest ; hence the 
third was the richest Level, if the slender evidence may be trusted ; and the 
teeth occurred singly, no more than one having in any instance been found 
in the same Parallel. 

It is perhaps noteworthy that whilst teeth of rabbit and fox occuiTed in 
the Wolf's Cave, as is shown in Table I., they did not, according to Table II., 
present themselves in either the third or fourth Level. 

As in previous years, the Committee have removed and examined the 
deposits dug up and thrown aside by Mr. MacEnery. In the Wolf's Cave, 
as elsewhere, this material yielded a large number of the remains of the 
ordinary Cave-mammals, including about 350 teeth, which may be thus 
apportioned : — 

Table III. — Showing how many per cent, of the Teeth found in the disturbed 
material in the Wolfs Cave belonged to the different kinds of Mammals. 



Hysena 36 per cent. 

Horse 33-5 „ 

Ehinoceros 19 „ 

Megaceros 3 „ 

Sheep 2 „ 



Bear 1-5 per cent. 

Deer 1-5 „ 

Badger .... 1-5 „ 

Ox less than 1 per cent. 

Lion 



Though it would be utterly useless to compare Tables I. and III., since 
the latter includes teeth not only from all Levels, but possibly such as were 
lying on the Stalagmitic Floor, as well, perhaps, as more recent introductions, 
it is not without interest to observe that even amongst the rejected or neglected 
specimens, as the case may be, as well as in the undisturbed Cave-earth in 
every branch of the Cavern, the most prevalent forms are hysena, horse, and 
rhinoceros, and that their relative prevalence is indicated by the order in 
which they have been named. 

The bones and teeth present much the same characters as those found in 
previous years. Thus, many of the latter are in jaws or fragments of jaws, 
destitute, as usual, of their condyles, and, in most cases, of the lower borders 



ON Kent's cavern, Devonshire. 33 

also. Most of the specimens have an almost white colour, but some are of a 
dark hue ; some are more or less coated with stalagmite, some are broken, 
some split, and very few have escaped the teeth of the hyaena. Amongst the 
finer and more remarkable specimens may be mentioned jaws of hyaena, 
canines of lion and bear, a left lower molar of Elephas primigenius, part of 
left lower jaw of rhinoceros, and a portion of a palate and both upper jaws of 
megaceros. 

One of the canines of bear (No. 5537) is so peculiarly worn or cut, both 
on the crown and on the fang, and especially the latter, as to suggest the 
probabihty of human agency. On account of its strange aspect it was for- 
warded to Mr. 6. Busk, President of the Royal College of Surgeons, F.R.S., 
V.P.L.S.5 &c., a member of the Committee, who thus remarks on it : — " The 
bear's canine (5537) is certainly very curiously worn if it be naturally so. 
The wearing of the crown part is possible enough, perhaps ; but I cannot 
account for the apparently worn portion of the fang, which, of course, during 
life must have been protected from wear. But what could be the object 
of such an implement if it were manufactured ? Perhaps a kind of gouge 
or chisel." — (Signed) Geokge Busk. 

The mammoth's grinder (No. 5575) is almost perfect. Its crown measures 
6 inches in length and 2*5 inches in greatest breadth. It was found Sep- 
tember 13, 1871, in the third Foot-level, with 22 teeth of hyaena in parts of 
5 jaws, 2 of rhinoceros, 1 of bear, with several large bones and fragments of 
bone. The bear's tooth just mentioned was a canine worn almost to the 
fang, which measures 1-7 inch in width. 

The rhinoceros jaw (No. 5562), which has lost its condyles, but not its 
lower border, contains 4 consecutive molars, and is quite the finest specimen 
of the kind met with by the Committee. It was found September 2, 1871, 
in the third Level, with a tooth of bear, bones, and fragments of bone. 

The jaws and palate of megaceros (No. 5646) contain 6 consecutive molars 
on the left side, and 5 on the right. This specimen was found October 10, 
1871, in the third Level, with 1 tooth of rhinoceros, 1 of megaceros, 5 of 
horse, 6 of hynaea in parts of 2 jaws, bones, and splinters of bone. 

Though Mr. MacEnery was not so fortunate as to find any flint implements 
in the Wolfs Cave, the Committee met with 5 ; and 4 of them are amongst 
the best specimens the Cavern has yielded. 

No. 5563 is a white lanceolate implement, 2-8 inches long, -85 inch broad, 
and '2 inch thick. It has a strong subcentral longitudinal ridge on one 
surface, is slightly concave longitudinally and convex transversely on the 
other, reduced to an edge on both margins, rounded and rather blunt at one 
end, abruptly truncated at the other, and has apparently seen some service. 
It was found September 2, 1871, in the fourth Level, with 1 tooth of bear, 
1 of rhinoceros, 3 of hyaena, 3 of horse, and 1 of ox. 

No. 5571 is a pale grey flint implement of delicate proportions. It is 3-7 
inches long, •65 inch in greatest breadth, and •! inch in greatest thickness. 
It is longitudinally and transversely convex on one side, somewhat strongly 
concave lengthways, but slightly convex in the direction of its breadth on 
the other, has a long narrow oval form, three ridges ou its convex side, a thin 
edge all round its perimeter except at one end which is rather blunt, and does 
not appear to have been used. It was found September 9, 1871, in the third 
Level, with 4 teeth of hyaena, 1 of rhinoceros, 1 of horse, 1 of ox, and frag- 
ments of bone scored with teeth-marks. 

No. 5592 is a chert implement, rudely quadrilateral in foi-m, 2-5 inches 
long, 2-2 inches broad, '6 inch thick, and has apparently been used. It was 



34 REPORT— 1872. 

found September 20, 1871, in the first Level, with 2 teeth of horse and 1 of 
rhinoceros. 

No. 5602 is a strongly proportioned chert lanceolate implement, 3'9 inches 
long, 1-1 inch broad, and -4 inch thick. It is concave on one face, very 
strongly carinated on the other, truncated at one end, pointed but blunt at 
the other, and worked to an edge along its two margins. It was found Sep- 
tember 22, 1871, in the fourth Level, with 4 teeth of hyaena, 2 of horse, and 
several fragments of bone. 

No. 5656 is a somewhat irregular ovate chert tool, unequally convex on its 
two faces, 4-2 inches long, 3'3 inches in greatest breadth, and -85 inch in 
greatest thickness. It has been wrought to an edge around its entire cir- 
cumference, but not elaborately finished ; at one small jjart near its broader 
end a portion of the original surface of the nodule from which it was formed 
remains, and it has apparently been much used. It was found October 13, 
1871, in the third Level, but without any bones or teeth in the same Yard. 
Three implements of the same type have been mentioned in previous 
Ileports *. 

The Cave of Rodentla. — From the north-eastern corner of the Wolf s Cave, 
a passage, scarcely 5 feet long, about 5-5 high, and where narrowest not more 
than 5 feet wide, leads into a chamber measuring about 25 feet from east to 
west, and 20 from north to south. It was termed the " Cave of Rodentia " by 
Mr. MacEnery, who thus describes his researches in it : — " We now found our- 
selves in the midst of hundreds of Eodentia. Of their remains and dust the 
deposit was constituted, agglutinated together by calcareous matter into a bony 
breccia. It should have been premised that the stalagmite above them was 
about a foot and a half deep, regularly laminated and free from all adventi- 
tious matter It suffered no disturbance or interruption from its first 

commencement The remains of llodentia were wanting in no part of 

the Cavern that we had yet examined, .... but here, in this grotto, they 
swarmed in countless multitudes. Not only had their tiny remains penetra- 
ted into every cleft and crevice of the rock, but they insinuated themselves 
even into the chambers of the large bones. The wolf's skull, in the passage, 
had its cavities charged and its surface incrusted over with a concretion of 

their bones It was an interesting spectacle to behold myriads of 

minute animal remains congregated by the side of elephants, rhinoceroses, 
and hyaenas in a common sepulchre. Heads generally crushed ; lower 
jaws preserved. When a handful of this dust was thrown into water, 
hundreds of teeth rose to the surface, and it was by this means they were 
collected " f. 

It will be seen from the foregoing quotation that here, too, the Committee 
were foUowiug Mr. MacEnery's steps. His labours, however, were on a 
less extended scale than in the Wolfs Cave. In the narrow trench to 
which he restricted himself, and which was not continuous, his excavations 
never extended more than 2 feet, and frequently not more than 18 inches, 
below the base of the Stalagmitic Floor. Connected with this Cave, more- 
over, there proved to be two recesses, which he did not enter ; indeed he did 
not suspect their existence. 

The Roof of the Cave of Rodentia slopes gently towards the north. Its 
general height above the bottom of the Committee's excavation is about 8 feet ; 

* See also ' The Ancient Stone Implements, &c. of Great Britain,' by John Evans, 
F.R.S., F.S.A., 1872, figs. 386, 387, p. 447. 
t Trans. Devon. Assoc, vol. iii. pp. 244, 245. 



ON Kent's cavern, Devonshire. 



35 



and from this it varies but little, except in one or two places, whence masses 
of limestone have recently fallen. The Roof is fretted, and has occasional 
flues, extending tortuously upwards, and from 9 to 12 inches in diameter at 
the bottom, where they are largest. None of them contain any stalactitic or 
earthy matter. 

The walls of the Cave are but little fretted, and their edges but slightly 
rouuded. 

Almost immediately on entering the Cave the workmen had to blast a large 
mass of limestone lying on the Stalagmitic Floor, and which in all probability 
deterred Mr. MacEnery from breaking ground there. A few yards further 
in, a portion of the south wall, certainly in situ, and without obvious in- 
dication of severance from the limestone stratum of which it was a part, 
was found to project a few feet beyond the general direction, and to 
have Cave-earth beneath it. This underlying deposit had been regularly 
removed as the successive Parallels were excavated. At length the entire 
mass, estimated at a ton in weight, fell and very nearly crushed the principal 
workman. 

The Stalagmitic Floor, originally continuous across the entire length and 
breadth of the Cave, had in great part been broken up by the earlier explo- 
rers. Judging from the remnants of it still remaining, it was of the ordinary 
granular and laminated character, and from 3 to 12 inches in thickness. 

Beneath this Floor the deposit was the common Cave-earth from top to 
bottom of the 4-feet sections, except in the northern corner of the Cave, 
where the Old Crystalline Stalagmitic Floor, in situ, formed its basis, and 
rose like a boss from beneath. 

In the excavated deposits thrown aside in this Cave by Mr. MacEnery, the 
Committee found bones and teeth as usual, and a bronze gouge 3-2 inches 
long, and -75 inch in diameter at the end intended for the reception of the 
haft. There can be little or no doubt that it lay on the Stalagmitic Floor 
before Mr. MacEnery entered the Cave, and that he failed to observe it. 

The only object found in the Granular Stalagmitic Floor (that overlying 
the Cave-earth) was a fine os innominatum of a rhinoceros. No. 5743. 

In the intact Cave-earth about 1000 teeth of various kinds of mammals 
were met with, and in the ratios shown in the following Table : — 



Table IV. — Showing how many per cent, of the teeth found in Cave-earth 
in the Cave of Eodentia belonged to the different kinds of Mammals. 



Hyaena 44 per cent. 

Horse 28 „ 

Rhinoceros 9-5 „ 

Megaceros 4 „ 



Deer. 
Bear. 
Ox . 



4 
3 

9 



Reindeer 1*5 per cent. 

Elephant 1 „ 

Lion 1 „ 

Sheep -5 „ 

Fox 1 tooth only. 

Wolf 1 tooth only. 



In certain parts of the Cave the Cave-earth was found intact in every 
Level ; in others the uppermost Foot-level only had been broken up, leaving 
the second, third, and fourth undisturbed ; whilst in a third area the two 
lower Levels alone had not been touched. The second group occupied an 
area of but limited extent, and needs no further notice, but the distribution 
of the teeth in the first and third are shown in the following Tables : — 



36 



REPORT- 



-1872. 



Table V. — Showing the distribution of the Teeth of the different kinds of 
Mammals in each of the four Foot-levels of thii-teen Parallels of Cave- 
earth in the Cave of Rodentia. 











S 


00 

O 




■*^ 


























a 








V 








■A 










U 








rn 










o 


o 


2 




^ 


, 






ts 


&I 






3 


o 

w 

3 


2 


2 


& 

2 





§ 



ft 



O 

1 


1 




-a 



No. of Parallels containing teeth 


in 1st Level 




2nd „ 


8 


9 


5 





5 


1 


1 


4 





1 


1 


" 


3rd „ 


11 


9 


5 


2 


1 


2 


1 


3 











JJ SJ )» 


4th „ 


2 


5 


3 


1 


1 


1 





1 


1 








1) )I »» 


all Levels 


13 


11 


8 


5 


7 


3 


2 


6 


2 


1 


1 


Total No. of teeth in 1st Level . 
2nd „ . 
» » 3rd „ 




13 
44 

38 


7 

26 
24 


3 

7 
6 


2 


2 


2 

10 

1 




1 
3 




1 
1 



6 

8 


2 






1 






1 








„ „ 4th „ 




fi 


17 


4 


1 


1 


1 





2 


1 








„ „ all Levels . 




101 


74 


20 


5 


14 


5 


2 


16 


3 


1 


1 





Table VI. — Showing the distribution of the Teeth of the different kinds of 
Mammals in the third and fourth Foot-levels of fourteen Parallels of 
Cave-earth in the Cave of Eodentia. 





03 

i 


o 


g 

§ 
1 


i 


i 


§ 

Hi 



1 




$ 
p 

1 




o 

4 

2 


2 
1 


No. of Parallels containing teeth in 3rd Level .... 
if ,, )) 'Itii ,, .... 

„ „ „ hoth Levels . . 


13 
11 


11 

9 


9 
5 


5 
1 


1 



14 


13 


10 


5 


1 


1 


1 


6 


2 


Total No. of Teeth in 3rd Level 


64 

68 


39 

25 


18 

7 


11 
2 


1 



1 




1 




7 
2 


3 
1 


4th 


,, J, both Levels 


132 


64 


25 


13 


1 


1 


1 


9 


4 





In the material which Mr. MacEnery had excavated, examined, and thrown 
aside in this Cave, about 130 teeth were found, which may be apportioned as 
in the following Table : — 

Table YII. — Showing how many per cent, of the Teeth found in the dis- 
turbed material in the Cave of Rodentia belonged to the different kinds 
of Mammals. 



Hyaena 37 per cent. 

Horse 31 „ 

Deer 12-5 „ 

Rhinoceros 8 „ 

Bear 3 



Ox 3 

Rabbit 3 

Reindeer 1 

Wolf 1 

Fox 1 



per cent. 

» 
tooth. 



It has already been mentioned that there were two recesses in this Cave 
into which Mr. MacEnery did not enter. One, in the north-east corner, 



ON Kent's cavern, Devonshire. 37 

measuring 4 feet long by 4 feet broad, yielded 36 teeth of hyaena, 5 of deer, 
4 of horse, 4 of rhinoceros, 2 of ox, a portion of an elephant's tusk, numerous 
bones, and 1 flint flake. The other, in the opposite corner of the Cave, 
measured 9 feet by 8 feet, and was found to contain 161 teeth of hyaena 
(many of them in parts of jaws, all having lost their condyles), 107 of horse, 
40 of rhinoceros, 16 of deer, 10 of bear, 8 of megaceros (of which 5 were in 
part of a lower jaw), 5 of elephant, 5 of ox, 5 of sheep, 4 of lion, 1 of fox, a 
great number of bones, balls of coprolite, 1 flake of flint and 2 of chert. 

The following are among the noteworthy specimens found in the Cave of 
Eodentia : — ^ < . 

Part of the left upper jaw of a bear (No. 5740), containing the last three 
molars, which are not much worn. This specimen is in a good state of pre- 
servation, and was found November 18, 1871, in the third Level of Cave- 
earth, with 2 teeth of hyaena, 1 of lion, and 1 of elephant. 

Part of the right upper jaw of a bear (No. 5745), containing the last three 
molars, which are somewhat worn. This specimen, which is not well pre- 
served, was lying with a portion of probably the same head in a corresponding 
condition, and containing 1 canine of great size. They were found November 
20, 1871, in the second Level of Cave-earth, with 1 tooth of hyaena. 

A canine of a bear (No. 5749), much worn, and having a fang 5-1 inches in 
girth. It was found November 22, 1871, in the second Level of Cave-earth, 
with 1 tooth of horse. 

Portion of an elephant's tusk (No. 5764), measuring 10 inches long and 6*5 
inches in girth — the largest specimen of the kind the Committee have met 
with in the Cavern. It is partially invested with stalagmite, to which a few 
small angular stones adhere, and on its surface there are teeth-marks of 
hyaena. It was found November 27, 1871, in the first Level of Cave-earth, 
with 2 teeth of hyaena, and gnawed fragments of bone. 

A very small tooth of an elephant (No. 5774) with two diverging fangs. It 
was found December 2, 1871, in the fourth Level of Cave-earth. On account 
of its very small size and unusual fang it was forwarded to Mr. Busk, who 
has furnished the following remarks on it :— " -^-f-^-, milk-molar of Elephas 
primigenius. As this tooth is only one half the size of the tooth usually, 
but erroneously, regarded as the m.-m. 1, I consider that it represents the 
very rare occurrence of a true m.-m. 1. If not, it is the smallest tooth of 
the kind I am acquainted with, except in the Maltese dwarf elephants {vide 
my paper in Zool. Trans, vol. vi. pi. 53. fig. 2). The proper dimensions of 
m.-m. 2 in Elephas primigenius are about -8 inch X '7 inch, and the smallest 
I have seen of El. indicus is -6 x -48 ; whilst a tooth in the Zebbug collection 
is -4 X -32, and the present one -45 x '3, or nearly the same. One objection, 
however, and that a strong one, to the present tooth being really m.-m. 1, 
arises from its having two divergent fangs, while the Zebbug tooth has only 
one, or two connate into one. This is a very curious specimen, and, as re- 
gards the elephant, of remarkable interest." — (Signed) George Busk. 

Several good specimens of coprolite were met with both in the Cave of 
Rodentia and the Wolfs Cave. 

Five implements and flakes of flint and chert were found in the former 
Cave, but none of them rank amongst the best of the Cavern series ; indeed 
one only (No. 5741) requires special description. It is a light grey flint, 
rudely oval in form, irregularly convex on both faces, 2-8 inches long, 2-4 
inches broad, and -95 inch in greatest thickness. Though it has undergone / 

a considerable amount of chipping, and is reduced to an edge all round, it is 
by no means a well-finished, but was probably a very efficient, " scraper." 



38 REPORT— 1872. 

It was found November 18, 1871, with 5 teeth of hyaena, 2 of raegaceros, 
1 of horse, and 1 of rhinoceros, in the third Level of Cave-earth. 

Besides the implements, there is a jiiece of chert having the form of a rude 
triangular pyramid, 3-2 inches high, its scalene base being 3'3 inches long 
and 1*2 inch broad. It was found November 30, 1871, with 2 teeth of 
hyaena, 3 of horse, and 1 of ox, in the third Level of Cave-earth. Its form 
is scarcely indicative of an artificial origin ; and though its edges are some- 
what rounded, it does not seem possible for it to have been transported by 
natural agency from the nearest locality in which such material is now found 
in situ, without being much more rounded than it is. 

Before proceeding to another branch of the Cavern, the Committee would 
remark that they commenced their investigation of the Wolfs Cave on July 
12, 1871, and from that time until they had reached its termination, as well 
as that of its offshoot, the Cave of Rodentia (a period of nearly six months), 
they cherished the hope that, like Mr. MacEnery, they might find some remains 
of Macliairodiis latidens. During their progress they were daily face to face 
with their energetic predecessor's labours, and from time to time met with 
the tools with which they were performed * ; but they had finally to leave 
the two Caves on December 30, 1871, with a feeling of great disappointment 
that neither amongst the many hundreds of specimens which Mr. MacEnery 
had left in his broken ground, nor in the Cave-earth remaining intact beside 
and beneath his diggings, had they met with any trace of the great object 
and hope of their search. 

MacEnery states that he found the famous canines "in diluvial mud mixed 
with teeth and gnawed bones of rhinoceros, elephant, horse, ox, elk, and deer, 
with teeth and bones of hyaenas, bears, wolves, foxes, &c.'"t, and that he 
subsequently discovered an incisor of the same species in the same bed J. It 
will be seen from Table III., given above, that, with scarcely any other 
exception than that of Machairodits, such an assemblage of remains as he 
enumerates was actually found by the Committee in the very soil which he 
had examined and cast aside ; and from Table I., that of the animals in his 
list, just quoted, the great sabre-toothed Felis was the only one which failed 
to present itself when the Committee broke up the undisturbed Cave-earth 
lying below that which yielded the canines and incisor. When to this it is 
added that the most careful search by the Committee failed to detect in the 
Cave-earth which they excavated any remnant of the older Cavern deposit, 
and that MacEnery was struck with the fact that, though " dehcately edged," 
the canines were found quite uninjured in the midst of the shattered bones §, 
a strong case seems to be made out in favour of the propositions that Machair- 
odus belonged to the Devonshire Cave-earth fauna, and that his remains 
found in Kent's Cavern were not redeposited fossils. 

The Charcoal Cave. — Two passages open out of the south-west comer of 
the Sloping Chamber, opposite the entrance of the Wolfs Cave. The more 
important is of considerable length, and leads in a south-westerly direction 
to a series of large chambers, in which the Committee have not yet under- 
taken any researches. Mr. MacEnery designated this the " Long Arcade." 

Very near its mouth is the entrance of the second passage, to which, for a 

* The tools were two hammers, a small chisel, a trowel, and an iron scraper. It cannot 
be necessary to state that these mementos of him who first made the Cavern famous liave 
been carefully preserved. 

t See " Plate F," ' Cavern Researches,' edited by E. Vivian, Esq., 18.59. 

X See Trans. Devon. Assoc, vol. iii. p. 370. § Ibid. p. 294. 



ON rent's cavern, DEVONSHIRE. 39 

reason which will shortly appear, the Superintendents have given the name 
of the " Charcoal Cave." This passage the Committee proceeded to explore 
before undertaking the Arcade. 

It extends on the whole in a southerly direction for a distance of upwards 
of 50 feet, varying from 5 to 13 feet in breadth, and throughout the 
first half of its length maintaining a tolerably uniform height of from 9 to 
10 feet. At 16 feet from the entrance it sends off a branch in an easterly 
direction, and at 26 feet a second branch towards the south-west; re- 
solving itself, in short, into three passages, which ultimately reiinite, and 
may conveniently be termed the " Northern," " Central," and " Southern " 
branches. They have all, but especially the northern, the aspect of long- 
coutinued watercourses fretted by the subsequent and unequal action of 
acidulated water. Mouths of " flues " present themselves in the roofs and 
walls ; but none of them have any traces of earthy matter, and few are lined 
with stalactite. The branches are subject to a very copious drip very soon 
after rains, but no portion of it enters through the flues just mentioned. 

At 18 feet from the entrance of the Cave a thin layer of black matter, 
among which charcoal was conspicuous, was observed lying on the surface of 
the Stalagmitic Floor, where it covered an area of about 2 square feet. It 
was thought to be probably the remains of a fire kindled by some recent 
visitors to the Cavern, though the place seemed an unlikely one for such a 
purpose, the roof being no more than 4 feet above the floor before the exca- 
vation, and the narrow passage being very seldom entered by visitors. The 
whole of the material was carefully collected, and, on being washed and 
examined, yielded the foUomng assemblage of objects : — Small rough pieces 
of stalagmitic matter ; bits of charcoal, some of them incorporated in the 
stalagmitic matter just mentioned ; upwards of a dozen small pieces of very 
coarse friable pottery, of a reddish colour, without any trace of ornamenta- 
tion, and in all probability parts of one and the same vessel ; two unworn 
lower "wisdom teeth" of a human subject; a few entire phalangeal bones, 
apparently of an individual barely mature ; part of an ulna, of a pelvis, of a 
vertebra, of ribs, and numerous small fragments of bone ; an almost perfect 
left lower jaw of a fox, containing the canine tooth and five molars ; a few 
incisors and bones of small rodents. 

In accordance with the practice invariably followed since the commence- 
ment of the exploration, the water in which the objects just mentioned were 
washed was passed through a fine sieve for the purpose of detecting minute 
objects of interest. This water was almost black from the fine matter held 
in suspension, and which, on being deposited and dried, proved to be fine 
silt coloured with charcoal. 

As earlier explorers of the Cavern had in one place in this Cave attempted 
to break through the Stalagmitic Floor at a point further in than the spot 
occupied by the black material, and must have frequently trampled on it, 
there is no difficulty in accounting for the broken condition of the pottery, 
the charcoal, and most of the bones. It is scarcely necessary to observe that 
the Charcoal Cave takes its name from the patch of black matter just 
described. 

Mr. Charles Rodway, a distinguished dentist of Torquay, to whom the 
human teeth mentioned above were submitted, was so good as to furnish the 
following note respecting them : — 

"Torquay, June 11, 1872. 
"Mt dear Sie, — I have examined the two teeth you brought me, and 
they are right and left inferior * detites sapientice ' of a human being. They 



40 REPORT— 1872. 

are the teeth of a subject between the age of 15 and 20 years, judging from 
the undeveloped state of the roots, which later in life would be longer, with 
the pnlp-cavity at the apices considerably smaller. I notice upon the lingual 
surface of the left tooth what I take to be a deposit of salivary calculus, which 
leads me to suppose that they were already erupted from the gum, although 
not sufficiently risen to have been used in mastication, as the enamel on the 
masticating-surface does not appear to have been subjected to friction. It would 
be impossible to say whether they are the teeth of a male or female ; but from 
their strong likeness they are unquestionably the teeth of the same person. 

" Yours truly, 
(Signed) " Charles Rodway, S.D., Li. R.C.S." 

With the exception of the jaw of a fox, and the incisors and bones of 
rodents, all the osseous remains were believed by the Superintendents of the 
Exploration to be those of a human subject of about the age indicated by the 
wisdom teeth, and were all forwarded to Mr. G. Busk, who has furnished the 
following Eeport on them, confirming, with a few exceptions, their human 
character. The specimens were twenty in aU, and were numbered gyVx' 
■g-^ijy, and so on. 

Mr. Bus1c''s Report. 

" No. 5-gTT' Fragment of left ilium ; probably female ; age unascertainable. 

" 2. Not human. 

" 3. The sternal end of a human clavicle. 

"4. First phalanx of third finger, right hand; entire, but with the 
epiphysial line of junction quite distinct ; age 18 to 20. 

" 5. Portion of body of lumbar vertebra, showing that the epiphyses were 
ununited ; age the same. 

" 6. A fragment of the sacrum. 

" 7. First phalanx of fourth finger, right hand, with the epiphyses detached, 

" 8. Second phalanx of right thumb. 

" 9. Upper end of right ulna, of rather peculiar form ; the peculiarity con- 
sisting in the straightness of the posterior angle and the breadth of the 
square anterior face. Epiphyses quite united ; but as this union takes 
place at 16 years, the bone probably belonged to the same individual as the 
above. 

" 10. Shaft of humerus (?) of (?). Not human. 

" 11. Fragment of second right metacarpal. 

" 12. Distal portion of first metacarpal, or phalanx of thumb. 

" 13. Fragment of the shaft of a clavicle, of slender make. 

" 14. Fragment of tlie left ischium of a young ruminant of the size of the 
ibex, or a large goat ; but may be by chance a young red-deer — not reindeer, 
nor fallow-deer, nor roebuck. 

" 15. Right cuneiforme bone. 

" 16. Right pisiform bone. 

" 17. First phalanx of fourth toe. 

" 18. Second phalanx of fifth toe. 

"19. Third phalanx of third finger. 

" 20. Second phalanx of toe. 



"32 Harley Street, July 29, 1872." 



(Signed) " Gkorge Busk." 



The Superintendents incline to the opinion that, since the age of the sub- 
ject to whom Mr. Busk ascribes the bones harmonizes with that of the person 



ON Kent's cavern^ Devonshire. 41 

to whom Mr. Rodway says the teeth belonged, all the remains are portions 
of the same skeleton, and that they had been preserved in a cinerary urn of 
which the potsherds found with them were fragments. 

There was a continuous Stalagmitic Floor from the entrance of the Char- 
coal Cave to 19 feet mthin it, except at one place, where it did not quite ex- 
tend from wall to wall. In the next 5 feet the Cave-earth was without any 
covering, but at 25 feet from the entrance a floor again presented itself. It 
was of the usual character, varied from 2 to 12 inches thick, and near the 
entrance there was in it, about 2 inches below the surface, a thin layer of 
carbonaceous matter. 

In the northern branch the floor was everywhere continuous, and varied 
from 18 inches thick at the entrance to 1 inch at the inner end. In the 
central branch the floor was but partial, never exceeded 9 inches thick, and 
was occasionally no more than a mere film. In one or two instances pieces 
of Old Crystalline Floor were incorporated in it. There was very little floor 
in the southern branch. 

Remnants of an old floor hi situ, extending from waU to wall, presented 
themselves in each of the branches, always at some height above the Cave- 
earth. They were indications, of course, of the former existence, and at 
least partial dislodgement, of a deposit older than the Cave-earth, and which 
there attained a higher level. The most considerable of them was in the 
central branch : it was from 9 to 10 feet long, 3 inches thick ; its upper 
surface was 1-5 foot below the limestone roof, and its lower surface 4 feet 
above the granular Stalagmitic Floor, the spaces between it and the ruof 
above, and the ordinary floor below, being quite unoccupied. The remnants 
in the other branches differ from this in their measurements only. 

With exceptions in portions of the central and southern branches, to be 
noticed immediately, the mechanical deposit in the Charcoal Cave was true 
Cave-earth. At the entrance, and for about 11 feet within, it contained an 
unusually great number of fragments of limestone from top to bottom of the 
section. Beyond the point just specified, up to 18 feet from the entrance, 
such fragments were rare, except in the uppermost Foot-level, where they 
still abounded ; their place below being taken by a few pieces of red grit, 
some of which were fossiliferous, whilst the Cave-earth became very sandy. 

From the first to the second Isifurcation of the Cave, as well as for a few 
feet within each branch, the Cave-earth was no more than from 1 to 3-5 feet 
deep, and rested on a continuous, but very uneven, limestone floor — an 
instance, and probably the only one yet known in the Cavern, of this floor 
being reached. 

In the northern branch the deposit was true Cave-earth throughout. In 
the central one the Cave-earth contained a few pieces of Old Crystalline 
Floor, and throughout the innermost 10 feet rested immediately on the old 
dark red Breccia, found elsewhere in the Cavern beneath the Crystalline 
Stalagmitic Floor. In the southern branch nothing but true Cave-earth was 
found from the entrance to 8 feet within it ; but beyond that to the end, a 
distance of 17 feet, from the base of the section to 2-5 and even 3 feet above 
it, the entire accumulation was the old dark red Breccia, rock-like in its 
cohesion, continuous from wall to wall, and clearly i?i situ. 

It may be well at this point to give a brief recapitulation of the facts as 
they presented themselves in ascending, but not necessarily chronological, 
order, in the same vertical section, in the central and southern branches : — 

First, or Lowest. Dark red rock -like Breccia, at least largely composed of 
angular, subangular, and rounded fragments of Devonian grit, derivable 

1872. B 



42 REPORT— 1872. 

from the adjacent loftier hills, but not from the comparatively low one in 
which the Cavern occurs. Its depth is unknown, as its base has not been 
reached. 

Second. Cave-earth, consisting of a somewhat light red loam and generally 
about 50 per cent, of angular fragments of limestone, with an occasional 
pebble not derivable from the Cavern-hill. Its depth was variable, but never 
less than 1 foot. 

Third. A floor of granular Stalagmite, from 1 to 18 inches thick. 

Fourth. An unoccupied space from 1 to 4 feet high. 

Fifth. A floor of Crystalline Stalagmite from 3 to 4 inches thick. 

Sixth. An unoccupied space from 1 to 3'5 feet high. 

Seventh. The limestone roof of the Cave. 

Were we to speculate on the history of the Charcoal Cave as indicated in 
the facts just described, we should find ourselves taken back to the time when 
it was formed, not by any convulsion, but by the actual and probably gradual 
removal of the limestone which once filled the entire space between the walls, 
as is shown by the unfissured roof and the continuous limestone floor. 

Secondly, so far as can be ascertained, the introduction of angular, sub- 
angular, and rounded pebbles of dark red grit, with sandy mud derived from 
their attrition, until the Cave and its branches were filled almost to the roof. 

Thirdly, the introduction of materials from without having ceased, the 
Breccia which had accumulated was hermetically sealed up with a cake of 
Crystalline Stalagmite, from 3 to 4 inches thick — the result of the slow solu- 
tion and precipitation of calcareous matter. 

Fourthly, the Crystalline Stalagmite was partially broken up, and a portion 
of the Breccia was dislodged, the removal being more complete in some parts 
than in others. 

Fifthly, again there was introduced a mechanical deposit, but instead of 
dark red grit and sandy mud, it consisted of a light red loam and angular 
fragments of limestone of various sizes. It did not attain to so great a height 
as the previous deposit of dark red material. 

Sixthly, a floor of Stalagmite, differing from the former in being granular 
instead of crystalline, was formed on the red loam or Cave-earth, at a lower 
level than that which sealed up the Breccia. 

Seventhly and lastly, this latter floor being completed, there was placed on 
it a small cinerary urn, containing human bones and bits of charcoal. 

But to return. The deposits in the Charcoal Cave were by no means rich 
in osseous remains. The granular stalagmite jaelded a few unimportant 
bones only, and in the Cave-earth there was but a comparatively small 
number of bones, and no more than 85 teeth. The latter belonged to diff'erent 
kinds of mammals in the ratios shown in the following Table : — 

Table VIII. — Showing how many per cent, of the Teeth found in Cave-earth 
in the Charcoal Cave belonged to the different kinds of Mammals. 



Horse 33 per cent. 

Hysena 29-5 „ 

Fox 12 

Rhinoceros 10-5 „ 

Badger 6 ,, 



Bear 3*5 per cent. 

Wolf 2-5 „ 

Elephant 1 ,, 

Ox 1 

Sheep 1 „ 

There were but thirteen of the Parallels consisting of Cave-earth from top 
to bottom of the 4-feet sections which contained teeth, andj these amounted 
to no more than 31 in number. Their distribution is shown in the following 
Table :— 



ON KENT S CAVERN, DEVONSHIRE. 



43 



Tab 



F. IX. — Showing the distribution of the Teeth of the different kinds of 
Mammals in each of the four Foot-levels of thirteen Parallels of Cave- 



earth in the Charcoal Cave. 





o 




8 
o 

c 

'i 




1 

-a 


6 


1 

05 


No. of Parallels containing teeth 
)» j» )» 
)) )» j» 
It »» ij 

») j» )) 


in 1st Level .. .. 
2nd „ .... 
;]rd „ .... 
4th „ .... 

all Levels .... 


4 
2 
1 
2 


2 
2 
3 
2 


1 




1 


1 









1 








1 


1 






7 


7 


2 


1 


1 


1 


1 


Total No. of teeth in 1st Level 
I. ji 2nd „ 
„ „ 3rd „ 
4th „ 

„ „ all Levels 




7 
4 
3 
2 


2 
2 
3 
2 


1 



1 


1 









1 








1 


1 














16 


9 


2 


1 


1 


1 


1 





The following may be mentioned amongst noteworthy bones found in the 
Charcoal Cave : — The distal end of a tibia (No. 5906), an astragalus, and the 
proximal end of an os calcis of horse, all inosculated in true anatomical posi- 
tion as when clothed with flesh, thus intimating that they were so clothed 
when lodged where they were found. The fractured end of the tibia affords 
decided evidence of the powerful jaws of the hyaena. With the specimens 
were found another distal end of a tibia of horse, a metatarsus of horse, a 
metatarsus of reindeer, part of an antler, a rather small astragalus, and a 
gnawed bone. They were lying but little below the surface of the Cave-earth, 
where it was not more than 1-5 foot deep, almost in contact with the roof of 
the southern branch, and deposited on the old dark red Breccia ; and they were 
extracted June 6, 1872, in the presence of one of the Superintendents. 

In a precisely similar situation, and but one foot from the objects just 
named, a metacarpus of horse and a large atlas were found two days after. 

On April 22, 1872, there were found on the surface of the Cave-earth 
upwards of 600 bones of rodents all lying together; and on the 11th of the 
same month nearly 800 small stalagmitic bodies, which may be likened to 
rather large, ill-shapen, rugose marbles, were found in a heap on the Cave- 
earth, in a small recess in the wall of the southern branch, with two hazel- 
nut-shells and a piece of bone. On May 17 a similar but smaller heap, con- 
taining about 100 such " marbles," with a toothless fragment of jaw, was 
met with in a position precisely like the former. Several coprolites were 
found in the Charcoal Cave. 

One small flake of white flint (No. 5899) was found in the southern branch 
on May 22, 1872. It may be dismissed with the remark that it lay in the first 
Level of Cave-earth with 2 teeth of hyaena. 

Bones and teeth were found in the old dark red Breccia in the central and 
southern branches. The bones were much broken in digging them out, on ac- 
count of the rock-like character of the Breccia. The teeth, like those found in 
the same deposit in other parts of the Cavern, were all of them those of bear. 

In their Fifth Report (Exeter, 1869) the Committee called attention to a 
flake of flint found in the Breccia in the " Water Gallery," and pronounced 
by Mr. John Evans, F.R.S., a Member of the Committee, to be not only of 

e2 



44 REPOKT — 1872, 

artificial origin, but to have been used by man * ; and they ventured on the 
opinion that, from its being coeval with the Breccia (which must have been 
laid down long before the deposit in which, so far as the Cavern evidence 
goes, the first traces of the Cave-hyaena, Cave-lion, mammoth, and their con- 
temporaries were met with), it was anthropologically by far the most impor- 
tant object the Cavern had yielded. From that time the Committee have had 
no opportunity of investigating this old Breccia, and hence no announcement of 
further discoveries of the kind were looked for in their Sixth or Seventh Reports 
(1870 and 1871). They are now, however, enabled to return to the subject, 
and to state that the Breccia has yielded two additional flint implements. 

The first of these (No. 5900) was found May 22, 1872, in the southern 
branch, from 1 to 2 feet deep in the Breccia, in which it was firmly im- 
bedded ; and over this was an accumulation of typical Cave-earth, having no 
Stalagmitic Floor either above or below it. There were no bones found near 
the implement ; but vertically above it, in the Cave-earth, were the small 
flake of white flint and the 2 teeth of hycena just mentioned. It is rude in 
form, rather over 5 inches in greatest length, scarcely 3 inches wide, and 
about 1-5 inch in greatest thickness. It exhibits a small portion of the sur- 
face of the nodule from which it was made, is of a dull cream colour, and its 
weight is less than that of ordinary flints of the same size ; in these respects 
resembling some of the tools found in the Windmill-Hill Cavern at Brixham. 

All the dimensions of the second implement (No. 5903) slightly exceed 
those of that just described. Its colour is a pinkish cream ; one of its surfaces 
is nearly flat, whilst the other is very convex, and retains much of the sur- 
face of the original nodule. One of the Superintendents, who assisted to 
extract it, had the opportunity of studying it before any attempt was made 
to move it. The Breccia was compactly cemented together, and the imple- 
ment was firmly imbedded in it, at 1 foot below its surface, above which was 
Cave-earth to the depth of 27 inches, and, without being covered with sta- 
lagmite, reaching within 3 inches of the roof; in other words, the united 
thickness of the two deposits overlying the tool was 39 inches. It was di- 
stinctly observed to be fractured ; and as the severed portions were in such 
close contact as to render the line of junction almost microscopic, it had obvi- 
ously been broken where it lay. Every care was taken in its removal ; but on 
being extracted it fell into three pieces, one of which remained firmly attached 
to and incorporated in a lump of the Breccia. The fractured surfaces showed 
that its colour was whitish throughout, and that its texture was granular. It 
was found May 27, 1872, in the southern branch of the Cave, about 2 feet from 
the specimen just described (No. 5900), and, like that, had no bones near it. 

The excavation of the Charcoal Cave and its branches was completed July 7, 
1872, the labour of 4-5 months having been expended on it. 

The Long Arcade. — The principal passage opening out of the south-west 
corner of the Sloping Chamber, as already mentioned, was termed the Long 
Arcade by Mr. MacEnery f, and the " Hysena Cloaca Maxima " by Dr. Buck- 
land t. It has a direction towards south-west, and is the great thoroughfare 
to the " Labyrinth," " Bear's Den," and " Cave of Inscriptions." Its explora- 
tion is at present in progress. Up to the end of July about ten weeks' work 
had been expended on it ; but a very large amount remains to be done there. 
Mr. MacEnery had commenced the exploration of the Arcade, but meeting 
with fewer fossils than he hoped, soon abandoned it §. 

* See Eeport Brit. Assoc. 1869, pp. 202, 203. 

t See Trans. Devon. Assoc, vol.lii. p. 303 (1869). | Ibid. p. 237. § Ibid. p. 290. 



ON Kent's cavern, Devonshire. 45 

At its entrance this branch of the Cavern is about 17 feet in width and 13 
in height. The roof is the naked limestone, much fretted or honeycombed. 
The Granular Stalagmitic Floor was continuous in every direction and of very 
great thickness. Its surface, for some distance, was occupied by a series of 
natui-al basins, bounded by stalagmitic walls rising above the general level of 
the floor. They varied in depth from an inch to fvdly a foot, and in wet 
seasons were constantly fuU of water. Similar basins occur in other parts of 
the Cavern, but those at the mouth of the Arcade (the great thoroughfare) 
have attracted a large amount of attention. Mr. MacEnery described them as 
" encircled with wavy walls, rivalling the most exquisite works in pastry"*. 
When breaking up the floor it was observed that the bottoms of the basins 
were formed of a softer looser stalagmite than that composing the walls, and 
that these dissimilar characters extended vertically downwards through the 
entire "Floor." Charcoal has been found in a few of them, and one con- 
tained two or three bones. 

At the western wall of the Arcade, and sevei'al feet from it, the Stalagmitic 
Floor was never less than 4, and not unfrequently upwards of 5 feet thick ; 
but at the eastern wall it rarely measured more than 2 feet. The upper- 
most 6 inches were frequently of a dirty reddish colour, as if soil-stained ; 
but at greater depths it was very pure, often granular, occasionally flaky, and 
everywhere distinctly laminated. 

At something more than a foot from the bottom of the Floor, there was 
found in every section a roughly horizontal, continuous, black line, extending 
from the western wall of the Arcade to a distance, in one instance, of 7 feet, 
generally about a quarter of an inch thick, but never exceeding half an inch. 
It was due to the presence of charcoal, and, of course, represented a thin sheet 
of that material. It was very carefully watched as the Floor was broken up, 
but yielded no trace of bone or of any substance besides the charred wood. 

This " Charcoal Streak" was observed and studied by Mr. MacEnery, who, 
attaching great chronological importance to it, described it no less than four 
times f. The portion of the Floor in which he found it was not more, at 
most, than half the thickness of that recently broken up by the Committee. 
From his description it appears to have been horizontal, midway from the 
surface to the bottom of the stalagmite, from 1 to 2 inches thick, about 5 feet 
in greatest length in any section, composed of charred wood and straw, and to 
have contained the following objects imbedded in it : — Small polished pebbles 
of white flint, shells, two portions of the jaw, a tusk, and some phalanges of 
boar, the under jaw of a badger, bones of rabbits and rats, and cylindrical bones 
which Dr. Buckland, who extracted them, assigned to deer. The latter were 
half-roasted, and, with the exception of the jaws of the boar, all the bones had 
been more or less exposed to the action of fire. No extraneous objects of any 
kind were found in the Floor above or below the " Charcoal Streak." 

The Committee have been more fortunate, having met with bones in other 
parts of the stalagmite, but all of them below the black line. The most note- 
worthy of these are a tooth of deer (No. 5818), a large vertebra (No. 5951), 
and a well-worn tooth of hysena (No. 5969). In the same deposit a piece 
of black flint (No. 5938) was found July 18, 1872. 

Mr. MacEnery's diggings in the Cave-earth at the entrance of the Arcade 
had in some places been carried to a depth of 3 feet below the Stalagmitic Floor, 
thus leaving the fourth Foot-level intact. They gradually became less and less 
deep, until at 12 feet from the entrance they ceased entirely. This excavated 
material has been carefully reexamined, but contained very few specimens. 

* Trans. Devon. Assoc, vol. iii. p. 236. t Ibid. pp. 235, 236, 261, 291, and 335. 



46 REPORT — 1873. 

The deposit underlying the Stalagmitic Floor was typical Cave-earth, 
having no peculiar characteristics. Up to the end of July no trace of the 
Breccia (the older deposit) had presented itself, either in situ or in incorpo- 
rated fragments. It has not proved to be very rich, nor has it been remark- 
ably poor, in bones and teeth ; and it has yielded two flint implements. It 
is believed, however, that the lack of abundance will be found to be fully 
compensated by the character and value of at least one of the specimens. 

One of the implements (No. 5S19) is a somewhat mottled white flint, rather 
irregular in form, flat on one face, doubly carinated on the other, 3-3 inches 
long, 1*1 inch in greatest breadth, and -4 inch where thickest. It was found 
in the first Foot-level of Cave-earth with a portion of a grey flint nodule, 
apparently fractured artificially. 

The second implement (No. 5829) is a bluish-grey flint, semilunar iu out- 
line, 2-5 inches long, 1-5 inch broad, and fuUy -5 inch in greatest thickness. 
It was found, with a tooth of hyaena and a tooth of horse, in the third Foot- 
level of Cave-earth. 

Up to the end of July 120 teeth and a considerable number of bones, be- 
longing to various kinds of mammals, had been met with. As the exploration 
of the Arcade is not completed, it is perhaps undesirable at present to exhibit 
the distribution of the teeth in a tabular form. The hyaena, us usual, takes the 
lead, and is followed by the horse and the rhinoceros in tlicir usual places. 

Though, amongst the animal remains, several good specimens have been 
met with in the branch of the Cavei'n at present under notice, only two of 
them require special mention. One of these (No. 5968) is the right lower 
jaw of a young bear, and, what is very unusual in the Cavern, perfect in all 
its parts. Such, however, was its fragility that it was broken in taking it 
out of the deposit. It was found July 30, 1872, with an additional canine 
of a young bear (in all probability belonging to the same individual) and a 
tooth of elephant, in the third Foot-level of Cave-earth, over which the 
Stalagmitic Floor was 5 feet thick. 

The other specimen (No. 5962) is a well-marked incisor of Maehairodvs 
laUdens, found July 29, 1872, with the left lower jaw of bear containing one 
molar, in the first or uppermost Foot-level of Cave-earth, having over it the 
Granular Stalagmitic Floor 2*5 feet thick. It answers admirably to the 
following description given by MacEnery of the incisor he found : — " The 
internal face of the enamel is fringed with a serrated border. This tooth is 
distinguished further by two tubercles or protuberances at the base of the 
enamel from which the serration springs, and describes a pointed arch on the 
internal surface The body of the tooth in this specimen is not com- 
pressed but rounded " *. He adds, " Whether this belongs to an inferior 
species of (J. cultridois, or [is] simply the incisor anterior to the canine of the 
larger species of U. cuUndens, I am not able to pronounce with certainty. If 
merely the incisor, it is stiU interesting, as it serves to show that the serrated 
character is not confined to the canines, and that the rest of the teeth, and 
consequently the frame, are marked by a peculiar conformation." 

A glance at the new specimen sufiices to explain why Mr. MacEnery was 
uncertain respecting the canine or incisive character. Indeed the workmen 
eent it to the Secretary of the Committee under the belief that it was the 
canine of a wolf, it being partially covered with Cave-earth ; and its true 
character was detected whilst it was being washed, August 5, 1872. 

MacEnery states that his incisor, which unfortunately cannot be traced, 
was " about an inch long"* — the expression, in aU probability, of a rough 
* Trans. Devon. Assoc, vol. iii. p. 370. 



FOUNDATION OF ZOOLOGICAL STATIONS. 47 

guess, and not of actual measurement. The incisor from the Cavern (doubt- 
less that discovered and described by MacEnery) figured by Professor Owen 
in his ' History of Eritish Fossil Slammals, &c. ' * very nearly corresponds 
in size with its homologue just found. The new specimen is slightly longer 
in the crown, and somewhat thicker in the fang. 

The Committee cannot but feel that their thanks, as well as those of all 
palaeontologists, are due to the Committee of the Geological Section for having, 
year after year from 1864 inclusive, cordially applied for a grant from the 
funds of the Association for the exploration of the Cavern, to the Committee 
of Recommendations for having recommended the successive applications, and 
to the General Committee for having annually voted the sums applied for. 
One of the hopes of the Cavern Committee, in commencing their researches, 
was that they might find some traces of Machairodus. This they have never 
abandoned, though year after year passed away without success ; and they 
cannot but express their gratitude to the body whose patience and liberality 
has enabled them to continue their labours until this \\o-^e was realized. The 
greater part of this Report vras written before the discovery was made ; and 
had the work ceased on July 28, 1872, those who always declined to believe 
that Machairodus had ever been found in Kent's Cavern, would have been 
enabled to urge, as an additional argument, the fact that the consecutive, 
systematic, and careful daily labours of 7 years and 4 months had failed to 
show that their scepticism was unreasonable. This great accumulation of 
negative evidence has been for ever set aside, and all doubt of Mr. MacEnery's 
accuracy for ever removed, by the discovery the Committee have now had the 
pleasure to announce. 

They can now announce also that Machairodus latidens and man were con- 
temporaries in Britain ; for even if, notwithstanding the great array of facts 
to the contrary, the former should prove to have belonged to the era of the 
Breccia, and not to that later time represented by the Cave-earth, the two 
flint implements found in the Breccia, to which attention was called in a 
previous part of this Report, as well as that produced and described at Exeter 
in 1869, take man back to that earlier period also. 



Report of the Committee appointed for the purpose of promoting the 
Foundation of Zoological Stations in different parts of the World. 

The Committee beg leave to report that, as stated in the Report of last year, 
the Zoological Station of Naples will be ready and in working order in the 
beginning of January 1873, the progress of the construction being such as to 
enable Dr. Dohrn to make this assertion. 

This undertaking has received much official and private assistance, not only 
from public authorities, but in a very high degree from private persons. The 
Committee have much pleasure in acknowledging especially the extraordinary 
services rendered by Mr. W. A. Lloyd, of the Crystal-Palace Aquarium, in giving 
every assistance to Dr. Dohrn, as far as technical difficulties are concerned. 

Special care has been taken to secure donations to the future library of the 
Station. The eminent firm of Engelmann, in Leipzig, has presented all its works 
on Biology not previously possessed by Dr. Dohrn. Vieweg, in Brunswick, has 
also sent all his publications on Biology. Theodore Fischer, in Cassel, has done 

* A History of British Fossil Mammals and Birds. By Eichard Owen, F.R.S., F.G.S., 
(1846), p. 182, fig. 70. 



48 REPORT— 1872. 

the same. Important donations are promised from Dr. Alexander Agassiz, Cam- 
bridge, Mass., comprehending the publications of both his father and himself. 

To secure the development of the libraiy on a greater scale, it will be 
necessary to inake general applications. For this purpose, Dr. Dohrn, 
assisted by several of the greatest German publishing firms, is preparing an 
appeal to all German publishers, and hopes also to succeed with a like 
demand in Italy. The Committee hope that the British Association will 
lend its moral assistance to a similar demand in this country, not only by 
granting a complete set of its own publications, but by recommending a 
similar act to other scientific' bodies and private persons. 

The Committee are further glad to announce that some Steam Navigation 
Companies are prepared to grant a free passage to the Naturalists, and free 
transport for the goods sent to or from the Zoological Station. 

Dr. Dohrn contemplates a new step for the purpose of securing a larger 
income for the Naples Station. He is about to offer to several Governments, 
Universities, and Scientific Bodies working-tables in the Laboratory of the 
Station for a certain annual sum. The payment of this sum would confer 
upon the subscribing Government, University, or Society the riglit of appoint- 
ing naturalists, who, on presenting a certificate to the administration of the 
Station, would be furnished with a working-table and admitted to a partici- 
pation in all the other very extensive advantages of the Station. 

The Committee think it well earnestly to advocate this new step of the 
administration of the Naples Station, the more so as it lessens the burden 
of the single naturalist, enabling even such as are destitute of means to 
profit by the manifold advantages of the Station, while it guarantees a fixed 
annual income to the latter, which would be employed in improving the 
technical and other means of investigation. 



Fourth Report on the Fauna of South Devon. By C. Spence Bate^ F.R.S. 

In presenting to this Association the Fourth Report of the Marine Fauna of 
the South Coast of Devon and Cornwall, it cannot be supposed that any great 
increase of novelties, either in species or genera, can be added to the forms 
known ; and to recapitulate those already reported is unnecessary. My 
attention therefore has been directed more especially towards the develop- 
ment and habits of animals that have fallen within my range of observation. 
Facility has been given in this direction by the establishment at Plymouth, 
under my suggestion and plan, of a marine pond for the purpose of keeping 
and storing animals for the aquarium at the Crystal Palace. Already it 
has given us opportunities of observing the habits of animals that could 
scarcely be obtained under any less favourable circumstances. These oppor- 
tunities win become still more numerous and valuable as the conditions of 
the pond become more adapted to deep-sea species. 

The pond is formed out of a deep gully in the limestone shore, and much 
of it extends far into a cave beneath the cliff'. The pond is irregular in 
shape and depth, and affords many crannies, nooks, and corners for animals 
to live or take refuge in. At the entrance, where the water is deepest, the 
width of the pond is about eleven feet, but at other places it is more than 
double that extent ; and when the sea rises to the higher spring-tides the length 
of the pond extends upwards of eighty feet from the wall that separates it 
from the waters of the Sound. The rocks, which were formerly covered with 



ON THE FAUNA OF SOUTH DEVON. 



49 



Fucus, are now matted with grass-greeu Algae ; and with the change the water 
has lost its foul and stagnant appearance, and become pellucid and clean. 

The following fish have been taken on the coast since the last Keport, and 
with those already mentioned form a tolerably perfect list of the fish of the 
southern coast of Devon and Cornwall : — 

List of Fishes taken off Plymouth, 
(The English names are from Couch.) 



Frequency. 

Common. 
Common. 

Common 

Common 

Common 

Not common ; com- 
mon in some parts. 

Not common 

Common 

Common 

Abundant 

Abundant 

Abundant 

Abundant 

Abundant 

Common 

Occasionally 

Occasionally 

Common 

Once only 

Abundant 

Not common 

Abundant 

Abundant 

Abundant 

only in Mid Channel, 

le plentiful 

Abundant 

Abundant , 

Abundant 

Uncommon 

Not plentiful 

Abundant 

Abundant 

Abundant 

Abundant 

Not common 

Common 

Common 

Common 

Common 

Common 

Common 

Common 

Common 

Common 

Not common 

Common 

Not common 

Not common 

Common 



Locality. 



Eaia marginata (Bordered Kay) 

Baia spinosa 

Squatina congelus (Monk-fish) 

Syngnathus (several species) 

Anguilla conger (Conger) 

Lepidogaster cornubiensis (Cornish Sucker) 

Lepidogaster bimaculatus (Doubly-spotted Sucker) 

Solea vulgaris (Sole) 

Ehombus punctatus, young (Miiller's Topknot) . . . 

Platessa 

Motella vulgaris (Tliree-bearded Eockling) 

Merlangus pollachius (Pollack) 

Morrhua lusca (Bib, or Wliiting Pout) 

Morrhua minuta (Bower) 

Morrhua vulgaris (Whiting) 

Clupea harengus (Herring) 

Alosa finta (Shad, Maid) 

Belone vulgaris (Garfish) 

Scomberesox saurus (Skipper) 

Labrus maculatus (Ballan Wrasse) 

Labrus mixtus, (J & ? (Cuckoo Wrasse) 

Crinilabrus melops (Corkwing) 

Crinilabrus rupestris (Goldsinny ) 

Acantholabrus exoletus (Rock Cook) 

Callionymus lyra, <J & ? (Yellow Skulpin) -j |^^^ 

Gobius niger (Rock Goby) 

Gobius ruthinsparri (Two-spotted Goby) 

Gobius unipunctatus (One-spotted Goby) 

Blennius montagui (Montagu's Blenny) 

Blennius gattorugine (Gattorugine) 

Blennius pholis (Sbanny) 

Muraenoides guttata 

Mugil capito (Grey Mullet) 

Atherina presbyter (Smelt) 

Zeus faber (Doree) 

Capros aper (Boar-fish) 

Scomber scombrus (Mackerel) 

Pagellus centrodontus ( Bream) 

Gasterosteus spinachia (15-spined Stickleback)... 

Cottus bubalis (Lucky Proach) 

Aspidaphorus cataphractus (Armed BuUhead) . . . 

Trigla cuculis (Red Gurnard) 

Trigla hirundo (Tub-fish) 

Trigla gurnard us (Grey Gurnard ) 

Mulus surmuletus (Surmullet) 

Trachinus draco (Greater Weever) 

Trachinus vipera (Viper Weever) 

Serranus cabrilla (Coruber) 

Labrax lupus (Bass) 



Sound. 

Estuaries. 

Sound. 



Estuaries. 



Sound. 



Estuaries. 

»» 
Soimd. [Hoe. 
Under the 
Sound. 



Estuaries. 
Sound. 

j» 
Estuaries. 

»t 
Sound. 

» 
Estuaries. 



Offing. 
Sound. 



Estuaries. 

Offing. 
Estuaries. 



Offing. 
Estuaries. 

Sound. 



50 REPORT— 1872. 

Most of these have been confined in the pond, where they generally appear 
to acclimatize themselves readily. The exceptions appear to be among those 
species whose habits are of an erratic character, as the Mackerel {Scomber 
scombrus). Several specimens of this species have been placed in the 
pond, where the imprisonment alone seemed to operate prejudicially upon 
them. They appeared to roam from point to point, seeking an outlet ; but 
finding none, they one after another succumbed to their altered conditions 
and died, iiut other fish not only live but thrive well, apparently having no 
consciousness of any altered circumstances in their existence. These, from a 
constant and close inspection, will, I hope, furnish us with opportunities of 
recording notes of their habits and ways that cannot be obtained under less 
favourable conditions. 

The beautiful Blue Wrasse (Labrus mixtus) has already given us an 
instance that is important in the history of its life, in the decided preference 
it exhibits in sexual selection. It was not until it had been observed in 
confinement that the Blue Wrasse and the Spotted Wrasse were known to be 
one and the same species. The male is very much more rare than the female, 
and is probably supposed to be more rare than it is, from the fact that those 
that have been confined in the pond at Plymouth appear to be losing the 
distinguishing colours and assuming that of the female as the summer time 
is passing on, so that there is much reason to believe that the beautiful deep- 
blue colour only exists, or at least is much more intense, during the pairing 
or breeding time. 

During this period the male has been seen to select its special favourite 
out of a considerable number of females congregated in the pond, and faith- 
fullj'^ accompany her as she swam about from place to place. In accordance 
M'ith this same observation, Mr. Alford Lloyd, of the Cr3'stal-Palace Aquarium, 
informed me that when at Hamburg he had noticed this peculiarity, and first 
drew my attention to it. He said that having a veiy handsome specimen of 
the Blue Wrasse, he placed him into a tank of water alone : instead of 
conducting himself like an orderly fish and swimming quietly, he for some 
time swam eagerly about in search of change ; but not finding it, he took the 
unusual freak of jumping out of the tank ; this he did two or three times. 
Fearing to lose him, it was determined to put another in with him ; and a 
female specimen was selected. This appeared to have no very favourable suc- 
cess, for the Blue Wrasse most ungallantly chased her about, and tried to drive 
her from his presence. Another female was selected, with the same result. 
It was then determined to place the original specimen into a tank in which 
there were several swimming peacefully about, among which were many un- 
selected females. Immediately the transfer was made, the animal swam 
amongst the forlorn group and fixed on one, by no means the handsomest of 
her sex, and selected her as his mate. With this one he was returned to his 
own tank ; and here he conducted himself in a peaceful manner, never 
attempting again to jump out of the tank in which he was confined. 

I have also to record the capture of a specimen of the Bogue (S])arus hoops, 
L.), llg inches long ; when it was brought to me it was in a very beautiful 
state of preservation. Of this species there have been but two or three speci- 
mens taken, and these scarcely so fine as the specimen now recorded. It 
was taken in a trawling-net, and brought in alive, but did not survive its 
capture. The specimen is preserved in the collection of the Museum of the 
Plymouth Institution. 

Mr. Brooking Rowe informs me that in July last a specimen of the German 
or Long-finned Tunny (Orcynus alcdonja) was taken in the Laira estuary. 



ON THE FAUNA OF SOUTH DEVON. 51 

near Plymouth. It was 9 feet long ; the tail, from tip to tip, was 2 feet 
11 inches wide; the girth 5 feet 11 inches: it weighed 800 lbs. This is, 
I believe, only the fourth example mentioned as having occurred in Great 
Britain. 

On the 6th of September last I had brought to me a small fish (living) 
about three quarters of an inch long, of a purple-black colour, with the 
exception of the caudal, posterior dorsal, and postanal fins ; these were so 
transparent as not to be visible without extreme care while the animal was 
in the water. The head was large, with the upper jaw slightly protruding 
over the lower. The head was elevated between the eyes, and three sharp 
spines were present on the postero-lateral margin, just above the gUl-cdvers ; 
a row of small spines were visible on each side of the posterior half of 
the body, and three large spines are implanted at the lower base of each 
lateral fin ; but the most striking peculiaritj- of the animal exists in the large 
size of the fins themselves, particularly the laterals. There are four, two 
upon each side ; they are narrow at the base, where they are connected 
with the animal, from which point they gradually, but rapidly, increase in 
width and length, until the latter is about one third of the length of the 
animal, and the former more than equal to its depth. 

An examination of its details with that of known species has led me to 
the conclusion that it is a young specimen of the Grey Gurnard {Tricjla 
gumardus). 

Cbitstacea. 

Among the Crustacea I have as yet but little to report, some observations 
on the earlier development of the Homarus having been interfered with by 
the loss or robbery of some specimens that 1 had retained in special crab- 
pots some fathoms under water. This has deferred the opportunity until 
another season. 

There are, however, two subjects of interest that might be here alluded to. 
The first is the decrease that is perceptible in the numbers of the edible 
species of Crustacea. This is the more apparent in the Httoral than in the 
deep-sea forms, and is likely to be more felt with the rapidly increasing 
prices of articles of consumption. The circumstance no doubt arises fi-om 
the custom of destroying the females as well as the males at all seasons of 
the year, and of the preference given for culinary purposes to the female 
lobster {Homarus marinus) when heavy with spawn. The increased value 
of the animal makes it eagerly sought after by fishermen. 

But there is not even this excuse for the capture of the female crah (Cancer 
pagurus). The marketable value, as compared with the male, is at least one 
fifth ; this arises from the smaller size of the animal as a whole, and of their 
claws in particular. But they are captured in greater numbers, and are con- 
sequently wantonly destroyed, being frequently hawked about the streets for 
a very few pence apiece. It appears to me that there could scarcely be any 
hardship inflicted, even temporarily, upon " shell-fishermen " if they were in- 
terdicted from taking the female lobster during the spawning-season, that is, 
from February until May, and that of the common crab at all. 

I am aware that this suggestion is open to the remark that the lobster and 
the crab are so prolific that the number of ova that each hatch in a season 
is in the former several hundred thousand, and in the latter more than a 
million at a time, and that these very large numbers would within a short 
period soon stock all the bays of our coast. To this I would reply, that in 
all those forms of life where the ova are most abundant, the development of 



52 REPORT— 1872. 

that species is least in proportional quantity. This is true of crustacean 
life as well as that of other forms ; and I think it worthy of consideration, 
particularly by those who, as a crucial test in the theory of evolution, demand 
the exposition of a series of successional forms of life ; they should remember 
that of the lobster, common as it is around our coasts and in our markets, 
there is not a fisherman or observant naturalist who has yet seen that 
stage in its life which unites the animal as we know it with that which we 
have seen it when it quits the egg ; that is, no one has seen or knows any 
thing about the animal between the time when it is half an inch and the time 
when it is four inches in length. That which is true of the lobster, is like- 
wise true of all .the higher forms of Crustacea, excepting only that of the 
common littoral or shore-crab ( Carcimts mcenas). 

The second circumstance that I wish to notice is one that has been eluci- 
dated by obseiTation in the aquarium. I have several times observed that a 
specimen of Pagurus, or soldier crab, will seize hold of the shell in which 
another, generally smaller, specimen of the same species is dwelling. I 
supposed that the larger animal was covetous of the shell in which the 
smaller dwelt. I have seen them, as I thought, endeavour to take posses- 
sion of such occupied shell, until their soft and tender body received such a 
pinch from the previous possessor as compelled them hastily to retrace their 
steps. 

Mr. Alford Lloyd has written in my note-book the following sentence : — 
" In the spring of the year, in the Hamburg Aquarium, I have seen the male 
of this crab take hold of the shell in which a female is contained, and carry 
her about for weeks together, grasping the thin edge of her shell (as of a 
Buccinum) ; and when the female is led the male does not take awaj' the 
food, as he would if a male were so fed in his vicinity." 

I would here like to state that the preservation of Crustacea by keeping 
them in glycerine for a few days, and then drying them, will be found to be 
a very superior plan to that of spreading them out without any preparation. 
I have specimens that have been treated two or three years with glycerine 
that are as flexible as a fresh crab. It will be better of course that as much 
of the soft parts should be removed as possible. I have also been trying, 
and I think with success, to preserve fish in the same way. A specimen of the 
Bogue (Spants hoops, L.), taken more than two months ago, is as fresh in colour 
and as flexible as when captured, excepting the eye, which was in a partially 
decomposed state when jjlaced in the glycerine. I think, when further experi- 
ments have confirmed the fact, that with or without admixture with another 
medium, glycerine may afford a very valuable addition to the preservative 
agents of our museums. 

Among the MoUusca we have to record the capture of many specimens of 

Eledone . This has generally been supposed to be a rare species ou 

our coast ; but we find that Octopus vulgaris, the supposed common species, 
is the more difficult to obtain. Both these appear to live well and happily 
in captivity ; so also does Sepia officinalis. 

Mr. Rogers, who has charge of the pond at Plymouth, and is a most active 
and zealous collector of marine animals, tells me that two specimens of this 
last-named cuttlefish were placed in the pond on the 8th of June, 1871 . 
They continued doing well until the 24th, when they were seen to be in 
copuM, head to head, arms interlaced, and remaining stationarj-, resting on 
the bottom for about twelve minutes, then separating. On the 26th the 
male was killed by a dog, which seized it when in shallow water. These 
creatures were rarely seen far apart, usually following each other in every 



ON CATALOGUES OF SPECTRAL RAYS. 53 

direction, swimming with equal ease either backward or forward ; they were 
never seen to feed, but always appeared to be in search of food, after the manner 
of the Wrasses, moving slowly round the sides of the pond and rocks, thrust- 
ing their heads into holes and crevices : when disturbed, they darted through 
the water with great swiftness. 

The female died on the 6th of July, and on being opened was found to be 
in very good condition, and to contain a large quantity of ova. 

I have been taking steps to have within the cave behind the pond a case 
with a glass front so constructed as to enable us to watch the habits of 
animals with the greatest care. The water in this pond is several degrees 
lower in temperature than that in the tanks of the Crystal-Palace Aquarium, 
a circumstance that wUl enable us to study marine life under still more 
natural conditions. I believe that students of marine life wiU find this pond 
to be a valuable instrument for the carrying out of prolonged researches 
in the examination of structure or the development of animals ; and they will 
find in the keeper an ever willing and obliging assistant and cooperator. 

I cannot close this Report without expressing great regret at the loss 
of our old friend and fellow naturalist, Jonathan Couch, of Polpcrro. He 
was a close observer and zealous lover of nature, and only wanted the advan- 
tages of a less secluded life to have placed him among the foremost of our 
naturalists. He died at a ripe old age, and, 1 am sorry to say, has left a 
widow and three children in the greatest straits of poverty, to assist whom 
would be a kind and generous testimony to a long and well-spent life. 



Preliminary Report of the Committee appointed to construct and print 
Catalogues of Spectral Rays arranged upon a scale of Wave-numbers* , 
— the Committee consisting of Dr. Huggins, Mr. Lockyer, Professor 
Reynolds, Professor Swan, and Mr. Stoney (Reporter). 

The reference of spectral lines to a standard scale of wave-numbers, instead 
of to a scale of the wave-lengths in air of a given pressure and temperature, 
or to any of the other scales in use, has very marked advantages. The scale 
of wave-numbers furnishes to the theoretical inquirer the ratios between wave- 
lengths, which are what he chiefly wants, in the simplest and most conspi- 
cuous form, since a series of rays of which the wave-lengths are in geome- 
trical proportion will be represented by equidistant lines upon the map. No 
person who has not encountered the task can conceive how tedious it is to 
carry on a theoretical investigation with any other scale. And to the observer 
the scale of wave-numbers offers the advantages which have been well stated 
by Professor C. A. Young in the following words : — " An accurate chart of 
the solar spectrum on which the lines should be mapped according to ' inverse 
wave-length,' proposed by Captain Herschel himself, I believe, as well as by 
Mr. Stoney and others, would sufficiently resemble the spectrum seen in a 
spectroscope to be equally convenient in the observatory with that of Kireh- 
hoff, and would be free from the reproach of arbitrariness and irregularity 
in its sciile. Such a chart would be most gladly welcomed by aUgSpectrosco- 
pists, and would immediately supersede those of Kirchhoff and Angstrom." 
(See a letter from Professor Young in ' Nature' of the 6th June, 1872.) 

* The term wave-numbers appears preferable to the equivalent term " inverse wave- 
lengths " which has been hitherto used. 



54 REPORT — 1872. 

Accordingly, your Committee decided on reducing to wave-numbers all the 
wave-lengths, whether of solar lines or of the rays of incandescent vapours, 
which have been determined with sufficient precision. Mr. Charles E. Burton 
has offered his services gratuitously for making the necessary reductions, and 
has made considerable progress with the solar spectrum, the greater part of 
which is now nearly ready for the press. 

A specimen of the catalogue of solar lines is appended to this Eeport, 
containing the lines from E to b. It is intended that this catalogue shall 
contain in a compact form all the most useful information that is ^ available, 
viz. : — References to the position of each line on Eirchhoff's and Angstrom's 
maps, details of the process by which the standard wave-numbers have been 
deduced, and indications of the intensitj', width, and origin of each ray 
wherever these have been determined*. The rays will, moreover, be 
bracketed into the groups which strike the eye in looking at the spectrum, 
and a number will be assigned to each group which wUl sufficiently indicate 
its position on the standard scale. 

Your Committee have as yet only incurred an expenditure of £4 for books, 
maps, and preliminary printing. This leaves a balance of .£16 in their hands 
out of the grant of £20 placed at their disposal last year. 

It is estimated that the two catalogues which the Committee propose to 
publish (the Catalogue of the Principal Lines of the Solar Spectrum, and the 
Catalogue of Rays of Incandescent Vapours) wUl cost about =£60. This does 
not include the cost of the charts, which ought to accompany the catalogues 
in order to render them complete. The charts would increase the entire sum 
to be expended, including the grant already made, to about £120 ; but a 
portion of this sum would return to the Association in the form of the pro- 
ceeds from the sale of the catalogues and charts. 

Your Committee think that they could render the second catalogue more 
perfect if they were in a position to employ a competent person to revise and 
extend the determinations of the rays of incandescent vapours ; and they 
therefore suggest that this revision be made a part of their functions, and 
that an addition of £50 be made to the grant for this purpose. This woiild 
increase the sum to be granted this year to £150. 

The Committee accordingly recommend that they be reappointed, and that 
this sum be placed at their disposal, in addition to the balance at present in 
their hands. 

Appendix. 

Sjjecimen of a Catalogue of the Principal BarJc Hays of the visible imrt of the 

Solar Spectrum, containing all the Rays registered by Kirchhoff and 

o 

Angstrom, arranged on a scale of Standard Wave-Numbers. (The Spe- 
cimen contains the Rays from E to b). 

Column 1 gives the position on the Arbitrary Scale attached to KirchhoflTs 
maps. 

Q Column 2 reproduces the wave-lengths in ^tenth metres as determined by 
Angstrom, after applying to the numbers of Angstrom's list the small cor- 
rections which he indicates at p. 29 of his memoir, " Le Spectre Normal du 
Soleil." The wave-lengths of this list are wave-lengths in air of 760 millims. 
pressure at Upsala, and 16° C. temperature. 

Column 3 contains the reciprocals of the numbers of Column 2, each mul- 

* Mr. Burton intends to revi.se the more refrangible part of the spectrum, and to supply 
the intensities and widths of the lines of this portion, which was not included in KirchhoiTs 
investigation. 



ON CATALOGITES OF SPECTRAL RAYS. 



55 



tiplied by 10^. Each number iu this column is accordingly the number of 
times that the corresponding wave-length in air goes into one millimetre. 

Column 4 contains the correction for the dispersion of air of 760 millims. 
pressure and 16° temperature, deduced from Ketteler's observations (see Phil. 
Mag. for 1866, vol. xxxii. p. 336). 

Column 5 contains the Standard Wave-numbers, i. e. the number of waves 
per millimetre in vacuo. 

Column 6 indicates the intensity and width of each ray as determined by 
KirchhofF, 6 being the most intense, and g very wide, viz. about 0-15 of one 
degree on the Scale of Standard "Wave-numbers. 

Column 7 enumerates the substances which have been found to emit bright 
rays coincide at with solar lines, and contains some other remarks. 

Column 8. In the last column the rays are bracketed into the groups 
which strike the eye in looking at the spectrum, and to each group is assigned 
a number which sufficiently indicates its position upon the Standard Scale. 



1 

I'osition on 

' Kirchhoff's^ 
Arbitrary 


o 

Angstrom's 
wave- 
lengths 


Number of 
waves per 
millimetre 


Correction 

for the 
dispersion 


Standard 
Wave- 

NUMBERS. 


Intensity 

and 

Width. 


Origin &c. 


Groups of 
Eays. 


Scale. 


in air. 


in air. 


of the air. 










151.5-5 


527519 


1895-67 


0-53 


189514 


4d 




Group 1898 


16-5 


5274-42 


95-94 




189541 


4c 




(Group K). 


190 


6272-67 


96-57 




1896 04 


4d 


Fe. 


Very strong. 


22-7 


5269-59 


97-68 




1897-15 


6e 


E, Fe and Ca. 




23-7 


5268-67 


98-01 




1897-48 


6c 


EjFe. 




250 


5267-39 


98-47 




1897 94 


1 b 


Co. 




27-7 
28-7 


6265-94 
5264-68 


99-00 
99-45 




1898-47 
1898 92 


5c 
5c 


_, r Between these 
„^< two rays, a ray 
^*[ of cobalt. 




30-2 


5263-51 


99-87 




1899-34 


4c 


Ca. 




31-2 


5262-60 


1900-20 




189967 


4c 


Fe. 




32-5 \ 
33-1 / 


5261-11 


00-74 




1900-21 


r4b 

.4b 


Q^ double. 






5259-78 


01-22 




190069 


— 






41-4 \ 
41 -9 J 


6254-21 


03-23 




190270 


Jlgl 
1 3b/ 


Fe and Mn. A 
winged ray. 
Fe. 


Group 1904- 
Faint. 


43-7 


5252-60 


03-82 




190329 


2a 




45-5 


5251 15 


04-34 


0-53 


190381 


2a 


Fe. 




47-2 


5249-81 


04-83 


0-635 


1904-30 


3a 


Fe. 




47-7 


6248-60 


05-72 


0-54 


1904-73 


2a 






51 01 
.51-6/ 


5246-43 


06-06 




190552 


/2a\ 
l2a ■ 


Fe double. 




556 


5242-86 


07-36 




190682 


2a 


Fe. 




i 57-3 


5241-67 


07-79 




1907 25 


3 a JFe. 




! 61-0 


52.3916 


08-70 




1908-16 


1 a Fe. 




64-2 


5236-44 


09-69 




190915 


1 a 




66-5 


52.34-52 


10-39 




1909 85 


2 b iCo. 


Group 1912. 


67-5 


52.33-72 


10-69 




191015 


2b 


Mn. 


Strong. 


69-6 


5232-24 


11-23 




191069 


5c 


Fe. 




73-5 


5229-14 


12-36 




191182 


5a 


Fe. 




75-4 


5227-63 


12-91 




1912-37 


lb 


FeandTi. Accord- 




77-2 1 
77-6 


5226-38 


13-37 




1912 83 


f5o 
13c 


cording to Ang- 
strom a triple ray, 












• 


[^ 1 very strong. 




79-4 1 
801 


5224-42 


1409 




1913-55 


{It S}^»-«- 





















56 



REPORT 1872. 



Position on 
Kirehhoffs 
Arbitrary 


o 

Angstrom's 
wave- 
lengths 


Number of 
waves per 
millimetre 


Correction 

for the 
dispersion 


Standard 
Wave- 
numbers. 


Intensity 

and 

Width. 


Origin &c. 


Groups of 
Bays. 


Scale. 


in air. 


in air. 


of the air. 










1588-3 


5217-28 


1916-71 




1916-17 


1 g Cu. Group 1917 1 


89-1 


5216-64 


16-94 




1916-40 


3 b [Fa. 


Faint. i 


90-7 


5215-64 


17-31 




191677 


3 b jFe. 




92-3 


5214-50 


17-73 




1917-19 


3 b [Fe. 




98-9 


5209-59 


19-54 




191900 


2b 


Ti. 'Group 1921] 


1601-4 "1 
01-7 J 


5207-78 


20-20 




191966 


r6b-i 

I3d/ 


Fe and Cr. Winged (The Cbrol 
ray. mium Group | 


04-4 


5205-37 


21-09 




1920 65 


6b 


Cr. 


Strong. 


06-4 


5203-88 


21-64 




1921-10 


5 b jFe and Cr. 




09-2 


5201-69 


22-45 




192191 


6b 


Fe. 




11-3 


5199-89 


23-12 




1922 58 


1 c 




Group 1924 


13-9 


5198-08 


23-79 




192325 


3b 


Fe. 


15-6 


5197-19 


24-12 




1923-58 


2b 




Faint. 


16-61 

17-4 / 


5195-33 


24-81 




192427 


ribi 

t2b ■ 


jj^} double. 




18-2^ 
18-9/ 


6194-24 


25-21 




1924 67 


/3b^ 

l4b." 


■p double. 




21-5 








1925-36 


1 b 


Ti. 


Group 1926 






22-3 


5191-80 


26-11 




1925-67 


6c 


Fe. 


Strong. 


23-4 


5190 68 


26-33 




1925-99 


6b 


Fe. 




27-2 


5188-33 


27-40 




192686 


6b 


Ca. 




28-2 


5187-49 


27-71 




192717 


1 b 


Ti. 




31-5 


6185-24 


28-56 




1928-01 


1 b 


Fe. 


Group 1932 


33-6 1 
34-1 I 


5183-10 


29-35 




1928-81 


r4g] 

6g . 


bi- Mg. Winged 


(The Great 
Magnesium 


34-7 J 










Ugj 


ray. 


Group). 




5182-75 


29-48 




1928-94 








38-7 


517966 


30-63 




193009 


1 b 


Fe. 






5178-27 


31-15 




193061 


— 






42-1 


6176-52 


31-80 




193126 


1 b 






43-0 


5175-73 


3209 




193155 


I b 


Ni. 




47-3 

48-4 
48-8 I 








193263 
193289 


6 a 






517216 


33 43 




r4e] 
6f I 


b;i- Mg. Winged 




49-2 J 










UeJ 


ray. 




50-3 


5171-20 


33-79 




1933 25 


6b 


Fe. 




53-71 
540/ 


5168-48 


34-80 




1934 26 


/6bl 
4c/ 


hy Fe. Ni. Wing- 
ed ray. 




55-6 1 

55-9/ 


5166-88 


35-40 




1934-86 


/6e ] 
I4d] 


b4. Fe. Mg. Wing- 
ed ray. 




57-1 


6165-88 


35-78 




193524 


5b 


Fe. 




From 
















58-3 1 
to 59-4/ 


5164-73 


36-21 




1935 67 


{V} 


Fe. Wing very 
broad. 





OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 57 

Third Report of the Committee ap^minted to consider and report on the 
various Plans jjroposed for Legislating on the subject of Steam-Boiler 
Explosions with a vieiv to their Prevention^ — the Committee con- 
sisting of Sir William Fairbairn, Bart., C.E., F.R.S., &^c., John 
Penn, C.£.,F./?.>S'., Frederick J. ]3ramwell, C.E., Hugh Mason, 
Samuel Rigby, Thomas Schofield, Charles F. Beyer, C.E., 
Thomas Webster, Q.C, Edward Easton, C.E., and Lavington 
E. Fletcher, C.E. 

"SVuEN the Committee presented their last Heport oa the subject nf " Steam- 
Boilcr Legislation" to the Meeting of the Eritish Association held at Edin- 
burgh, it was fully expected that the measure, having for its object the pre- 
vention of Steam-Boiler Explosions, which Avas tlieu before Parliament, 
having been introduced by John Hick, Esq., Member for Bolton, as the 
result of the inquiry bj' the Parliamentary Committee which sat upon this 
subject during tlie Sessions of 1S70-71 — it was fully expected that this 
measure would by this time not only have passed througli Parliament, but 
also have been in active operation, so that some practical results might have 
been arrived at. Such, however, has not proved to be the case. The Bill, 
though read a first time in the House of Commons late in the Session of 1871, 
and reintroduced this year as early as the 7th of March, has not yet passed 
a second reading, having been postponed from time to time. It was thought 
better to wait the maturity of Mr. Hick's Bill before assembling the Com- 
mittee for consultation ; but this course, though considered advisable, has, 
owing to the delay just referred to in the progress of the Bill, prevented the 
Committee completing their report for presentation at this Meeting of the 
British Association. Under these circumstances they request an extension of 
time, and suggest their reappointment for another year, when they hope to 
complete the task assigned them. 



Report of the Committee, consisting of James Glaisher, F.R.S., of the 
Royal Observatory , Greenwich, Uobert P. Greg, F.R.S., Alex- 
ander S. IIerschel, F.R.A.S., and Charles Brooke, F.R.S., 
Secretary to the Meteorological Society, on Observations of Lumi- 
nous Meteors, 1871-72; drawn up % Alexander S, Herschel, 
F.R.A.S. 

AMO^'■G the objects whose special promotion it was suggested in the last Report 
that the Committee would undertake by combined observations during the past 
year, the attention of observers at several stations in Scotland and England 
well used to accurate and systematic registry of shooting-stars was, as in 
former years, frequently not unsuccessfully directed, at the request of the Com- 
mittee, towards recording the appearances of shooting-stars visible ou the 
annually recurring meteoric dates in Augnst, October, November, December, 
January, and April. 

The August meteors were somewhat more brightly visible last year than 
commonly, on the two successive nights of the 10th and 11th of August, and 
the clearness and darkness of the sky enabled a more than ordinarily largo 
number of meteors to be carefully observed. From a long list of meteor-paths 

1872. 1- 



58 REPORT — 1872. 

recorded both at the Eoyal Observatory, Greenwich, and by the observers for 
the British Association, the heights of twenty meteors of the shower visible 
on the different nights of its reappearance were calculated, and several other 
meteors were identified as having been doubly observed whose real paths have 
not yet been computed. The position of the radiant-point of the shower * was 
found to be, as recently pointed out by Mr. Hind in a letter in ' The Times ' of 
August 8th, more northerly tban hitherto, at a point in R. A. 35°, N. Decl. 59°, 
three or four degrees north-westwards from ^ Persei towards i Cassiopeios. 

A few meteors of the October shower were visible on the 19th of October 
last ; but the sky being overcast, with stormy weather, on other nights of the 
shower, the time and rate of frequency of their fall at the maximum intensity 
of the shower could not be ascertained; and from the few recorded meteor- 
tracks only a roughly approximate position of its radiant-point was obtained. 

The condition of the sky was generally little more favourable for observa- 
tions in November and December than in October ; but on the morning of 
the 13th of November a clear view of the Leonids was obtained both at 
Stonyhurst College and at the Eoyal Observatory, Greenwich, while on another 
following morning, that of the 15th of November, they were also well seen 
by Professor Herschel at Newcastle-upon-Tyne ; and their abundance on the 
latter date was considerably greater than that of the unconformable meteors 
from all parts Avhich appeared at the same time with them. The distribution of 
the November meteor-group along the ring which forms its orbit being at pre- 
sent unknown, the watch for the return of the Leonids this year will be renewed 
for the purpose of comparative observations of their greatest rate of frequency 
in successive years. No accordant observations of single meteors appear to have 
been recorded either during the October or November star-showers. 

At most of the corresponding places a clear view of the December sliooting- 
stars was obtained on the night of the 12th, while the sky was everywhere 
completely overcast on the 13th. Meteors appeared at the rate of ten or 
twelve per hour for one observer from the direction of Gemini ; and the posi- 
tion of the radiant-point in this constellation could be pretty correctly ascer- 
tained by the meteor-tracks recorded on the night when they were principally 
observed. This appears, as in former years, to have been near 6 Geminorum, 

On the night of the 2ud of January a favourable state of the sky permitted 
a considerable display of the January meteors to be seen at several of the 
corresponding stations, and to be simultaneously recorded at the Eoyal 
Observatory, Greenwich. The star-shower continued with about equal 
brightness until daybreak on the morning of the 3rd of January ; but a cloudy 
sky on the night of the 3rd everywhere prevented the close or a continuation 
of the shower from being seen. In this and the December meteor observations 
several cxami:)les of doubly observed shooting-stars were found, of which, with 
those of some other similar observations contained in these descriptions of the 
meteor- showers of the past year, the heights wiU be immediately calculated. 
The radiant-point of the January star-shower appears not to have altered its 
place sensibly in the interval since its last principal appearance in England 
on the 2nd of January, lS64t. 

The last meteoric shower of the past year which was successfully watched 
for by the observers was that of April 19th, 1872, when a few conspicuous 
meteors, radiating from the direction of Lyra, were recorded at nearly all the 
stations, and also at the Eoyal Observatory at Greenwich, and, under the direc- 

* Which appears, from the few observations of the shower on the 9th and 10th inst. 
(August 1S72), to have very nearly maintained the same position in the present year, 
t See the Tolimie of these Eeports for 1864, p. 98. 



OBSEKVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 59 

tion of tlie Rev. E,. Main, by Mr. Lucas at the EadcliiFe Observatory at 
Oxford. The watch at the latter place was contiuucd during the night of the 
] 9-20th of April until the morning hours, and the Lyraids continued to be 
more and more abundant until daybreak. The position of the radiant-point 
was close to that found in the former observations of 1864*. The prevalence of 
some other radiant-points of shooting-stars chiefly producing, it appears, bright 
meteors during the months of March, April, and May was discernible ; and the 
heights of two bright meteors from different radiant-points that appeared on 
the night of the 19th of April will be approximately obtained from double and 
triple observations of their apparent paths which were then recorded. 

The heights of some large meteors seen on other nights of the year have 
also been determined with some certainty from corresponding observations of 
them at distant places, of which a short description is given, with that of the 
principal observations from which they are derived. Large meteors have been 
seen in more than ordinary numbers during the past year ; and the informa- 
tion respecting several of these meteors which has been received by the Com- 
mittee is included in a general list in continuation of some former notes of 
meteors of the largest class. But two aerolites appear to have fallen during 
the years 1871-72 ; the first at Searsmont, in the United States, on the 21st 
of May, 1871, and the second in November, 1871, at Montereau, in France. 

At the conclusion of the lleport the contribution of some recent valuable 
additions to meteoric literature by the ItaHan astronomers and observers of 
shooting-stars, Prof. Schiaparelli and Signer Denza, in combination with a 
weU-known representative of meteoric science in Germany, Dr. G. von 
Boguslawski, is briefly noticed and described ; and in the last place a long 
list of radiant-points placed in comparison with each other in a single Table 
by Mr. Greg at the close of this Eeport, forms a complete comparative index f 
of the epochs and positions of all the meteoric showers included in the 
general lists hitherto published for the northern hemisphere. 

Great improvements of this Table wiU, it cannot be doubted, be made by 
reducing the many meteor-tracks, of which, since the appearance of the last 
printed meteor- catalogue in these Eeports, a large number of descriptions have 
been received. To enable them to accomplish this undertaking, the continu- 
ation of the Committee's operations, and of a grant to support them in execu- 
ting charts and tracings, is earnestly recommended to the British Association. 
The watchfulness of observers on every fine night when favourable opportu- 
nities present themselves for recording the occasional appearances of shooting- 
stars, in order to contribute fresh materials for the same purpose, is once more 
appealed to, in addition to the nights of annual recurrence of meteor-showers, 
of which, as before, due notice will be regularly communicated to them by the 
Committee, and suitable means will be furnished to them to enable them to assist 
these objects by their observations, to which their attention will again be in- 
vited at the returns of the several meteoric epochs, as in former years. 

I. Meteoks doublt obseeved. 

Among the meteors observed during the simultaneous watch for the annual 
meteor-shower of August, December, Januarj^, and April, in 1871 and 1872, 
several accordant observations of individual meteors were found, enabling 
their real heights to be satisfactorily ascertained. A list of such accordances 

* See the volume of these Seports for 1SG4, p. 98, 

t An'equally extensive list by Dr. J. F. Schmidt, of Athens (Astronomisehe Nachrichtf n, 
No. 1756, 18G9), unknown to the Committee -wlicn the accomp.anying Tabic was com- 
piled, is, for the present, omitted from its comparisons. 

1-2 



60 



tlEPoaT — 1872, 



on the nights of the 10th and 11th of .ingust, 1871, with the results ohtained 
from them as computed by Professor Ilerschel, appears in the ' Quarterly 
Journal of the Meteorological Society ' for November 1871, from which the 
annexed figure is copied, showing the real heights of first apx^earance and of 



Eeference imnibcrB. 
3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 U 15 16 17 13 19 20 



Are- 
rase. 



120 



100 



80 



60 



a 



W 



40 



20 



-- 


-- 


— 


— 


— 


— 




— 


— 


— 


-- 


— 


— 


-- 


-- 


-- 


-- 


-- 


._. 


~ 


— 




— 



120 



100 



a 

60 ^ 



40 



« 



20 



Sea-leTel. 

Eeal Heights of twenty Shooting-stars, doubly observed in England on the nights of ti.e 
0th to 12th of August, 1871, above the surface of the earth. 

disappearance of twenty shooting-stars of last year's August shower, together 
witk their average real height. On comparing together the actual hori- 
zontal distances from the observers at which their apparent points of dis- 
appearance had been accurately recorded, it appears that a circle 160 miles 
in diameter represented a field of view within which four fifths of all the 
terminations of the meteors' visible paths were seen and recorded by the 
observers, mnppiug their apparent courses at its centre ; and that, on the 
average, three or four times as many accordances of observations are likely 
to be obtained by observers at stations separated from each other by distances 
of between fortj^ and eighty miles, as at places either nearer to or more distant 
from each other than about these limits. 

The average heights of the meteors thus observed above the earth's surface 
was 8G miles at first appearance, and 52-5 miles at disappearance ; the average 
length of path 46 miles, and the average velocity of nine PerseVds contained 
in the list 51 miles per second. The difficulty of estimatiug exactly the small 
duration of their rapid flights, and a tendency, by aligning their apparent 



OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. Gl 

courses with the brightest ncighbouriug fixed stars, to overstate rather than 
to underrate the apparent length of their visible flights, will perhaps account 
for the excessive real velocity of the Perseids obtained in these results of the 
simultaneous observations. The velocity of a single meteor of the shower, 
as bright as Sirius (the first meteor shown in the diagram), unconformable 
to Perseus, and directed from the radiant-point in Pegasus, was somewhat 
more exactly obtained, both its apparent path and its duration being very 
carefully observed by 'Mr. Wood at Eirmingham and Mr. Clark at York, 
whose observations were in excellent agreement. The real length of the path 
of this meteor was 38 miles, and its resulting real velocity was 19 miles 
per second. 

On comparing together the observations of the shooting- stars recorded at 
Greenwich with those seen at the British-Associatiou stations during the 
same August shower, several perfcctlj- accordant observations were found on 
the night of the 11th; and but few satisfactory identifications of meteors 
doubly observed on the night of the 10th of August, excepting that of the 
brightest (at 10'' 51" p.m., as noticed in the following descriptions of the 
shower), could be detected. The following list contains a general description 
of the various shooting-stars which appear to have been doubly observed at 
the Eojal Observatory, Greenwich (and by the observers at other stations), on 
the night of the 11th of August, and on the other nights of simultaneous watch 
kept for the reappearance of the annual meteor-showers which have been 
visible during the past year. 

A few double observations of shooting-stars are also contained in the accom- 
panying list of bright meteors, and in the detailed accounts which will shortly 
be given of the observations of the meteoric showers. The meteor No. 7, 
whose real height is figured in the above diagram from observations at York, 
at Hawkhurst, and in London, was also seen at the Eoyal Observatorj', 
Greenwich, and its apparent path was there recorded at ll*" 14™ 59" r.Ji. 
on the 11th of August. The redetermination of the real height of this 
meteor by comparison of the new observation with the former ones, and the 
computation of the several meteor-heights to be derived from the additional 
observations contained, in this Eeport, will afibrd interesting materials for 
future consideration. 

The last meteor in the accompanying list, on the 19th of April last, wiU be 
seen to have been triply observed at York, Wisbeach, and Hawkhurst. The 
heights determined from the observations at the first two places are 66 miles 
at first appearance, and 41 miles at disappearance. But if the observation at 
Hawkhurst is correct, the meteor probably moved at an elevation of not more 
than 50 or 55 miles at first appearance and 30 or 35 miles at disappearance. 
From the former observations the length of its visible path was 90 miles ; but 
in the latter case it woiild not exceed 70 miles ; and if the observations at York 
and Hawkhurst only are employed, as affording the widest parallax, it would 
be somewhat less. The duration of its flight was probably underestimated at 
York at half a second, and overestimated at Wisbeach at 3 seconds. The ave- 
rage duration is 1| second, giving the probable velocity of the meteor not more 
than 40 miles per second ; while the actual velocity of the LyraVds, calculated 
from the astronomical theory of the great April meteor-group, is 30 miles per 
second. The recorded paths of this member of the shower diverged very ex- 
actly from a common radiant-point between it and 6 Herculis, aboiit 20° from 
the usually observed centre of divergence of the meteor-group in Lyra. 

The estimated height of a bright meteor seen on the 31st of August last 
was also obtained from accordant observations of its apparent path at Boss 



62 



REPORT 1873. 



in Herefordshire and at Hawkhurst, as will shortly be noticed in its particular 
description. The confirmations of the astronomical theory of large meteors 
and shooting-stars, and the advance of our existing knowledge of the laws 
that regulate their com'ses, characteristic rates of motion and appearance, and 

i| 
Sheoting-stars doubly observed during the Annual" 



Date. 



Hour. 



1871. 
Aug. 11 



11 

11 
11 
11 

11 

11 



Place of 
Observation. 



Apparent 
Magnitude, 
as per Stars. 



Colour. 



Duration. 



h m s i 
10 6 iHawkhurst 



3rd raag. 



10 6 53 Royal Observa- 
tory, Greenwich, 



10 11 

10 12 1 
10 14 30 

10 15 9 

11 30 



Hawkhurst 



Royal Observa- 
tory, Greenwich 



York. 



Royal Observa- 
tory, Greenwich 



Bolton, Cheshire 



11 U 48 Royal Observa- 1st mag. 
tory, Greenwich. 



11 

11 

11 
11 
11 



11 14 59 

11 16 

11 16 
11 26 
11 26 23 



11; 11 34 



11 11 35 15 



1st mag. 



1st mag. 



2nd mag. 



Very swift 



Bluish white . 



0-7 second 



DInish white 



From 1st mag. to' Red 
size of 2|: . 



Brighter than %.. 



Ibid 



Regent's Park, 
London. 



Birmingham 



Ibid, 



Royal Observa- 
tory, Greenwich 

Hawkhurst 



Royal Observa- 
torv, Greenwich 



Brighter tlian 1st- 
mag. » 



Bluish white 



1*0 second 
r5 second 

1"3 second 



Position. 



From 345° -t-80° 
to 246 +65 

From the direction 
of 6 Cassiopeiae 
passed in direc- 
tion of Cygni, 
«= c = 

From 265°+62° 
to 247 +45 

From direction ol 
y Cygni shot a. 
cross S Sagittse. j 

From 326°+ 8° 
to 314-5-12 



Bluish white . 0-7 second 



1st mag. 



Bluish white 



Blue. 



Brighter than 1st- Green .... 

mag. * I 
Brighter tlian 1st-' 

mag. * 
1st mag Yellowish. 



More than 
second. 



o 

c;i^ 
ad 



= n 



1'5 second 
I'O second 
1 second .. 



IJrighter tlian 1st- Bluish white 
mag. * 



I'o second 



Passed about 3' 
above b Lyncii 
from the direi 
tion of c Camfi 
•lopardi. 

a— 5i= 

From 29^°+33« 

to 28 +25 

From direction o 

6 Cassiopeias pas 

sed across 5 Per 

sei. 

1 Across S Ursse Ma 
joristol2Canun 
Venaticorum. 

From 180° + 76° 
to 191 +51 

From 8° +56° 
to 240 +58 

From350° + 77° 
to 265 +71-J 

From 6 Ursae Ma- 
joris. Fell to- 
wards horizon. 

I'rora 350° + 76" 
to 27 +60 

From direction o( 
K Andromeda 
passed about 1"^ 
to tlie right of 
!i Andromeda;. 



OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 



63 



the dates of their greatest frequency, may be greatly assisted by the accounts 
of those ■who are favourably situated to observe them, even without the special 
accuracy which should yet always be aimed at in descriptions of these hitherto 
but partially investigated phenomena. 

Meteoric Showers recorded in the years 1871 and 1872. 



Length of 
Path. 



Direction. 



Appearance ; Remarks. 



Left a slender streak 



Left a streak 

Left a streak 
No streak ... 



Miss IlerscheL 
T. Wright. 

Train not bright, but lasted S-J J. E. Clark, 
seconds. [Identical with me- 
teors .it Hawkhurst, 10" U"', 
and London (Regent's Park), 
10'' 15'".] 

Left a fine streak, which remained T. "Wright & Wm. Mar. 
visible for 3 seconds. riott. 



N'o particulars of appearance re- R. P. Gre.o;. 
corded. 



Observer. 



Miss Herschel. 



Wm. Marriott. 



lladiant-poiut e Ca;siopcia; ... 

'ell towards the left at an in- 
clination of 45°. 

[From direction of Cygnns] ... 
[From direction of Cygnus] ... 



Left a streak 



.eft a fine streak 



Path imperfectly seen 



Left a long train on its conisc. 

(From (1) Ccphei to Dracnnis.) 

(From y Cephei to ;|/Draconis)... 



Left a fine streak 



Wm. Marriott. 

W. C. Nash. 

T. Crumplen. 

W. II. Wood. 

Id. 

Wm, Marriott. 



Left a broad fine streak. (From Miss F. Herschel, 
y Cephei to just below e Cassi- 
opeia:.) 

Left a magnificent streak. Wai. Mr.rriott. 



64 



REPORT 1872. 



Date. 



1871. 
Aug.ll 

11 



Hour. 



11 
11 
11 
11 
11 
11 

11 

11 
Dec. 12 

12 



h m s 
11 43 30 



11 4G 55 

11 50 30 

11 51 10 

11 54 35 

11 5!) 

12 3 
12 4 4 

12 29 

12 29 25 
10 13 



1872. 
Jan. 2 



10 17 
(time by 

watch, 
uncertain) 

11 4 30 



Place of 
Observation. 



Apparent 
Magnitude, 
as i>cr Stars. 



Colour. 



Ilawkhurst 



Royal Observa- 



Briglitcr tlian 1/. . 



Brijrbter than 1st- Greenish 



tory, Greenwich, mag. if 



Plawkhurst 



= 3rJ mapr. 



Royal Observa- = 1st mag 

tory, Greenwich.! 



Duration. 



Position. 



Slow speed 
1'3 second 



Bluish white .1 second 



Ibid '2nd raa?;.. 



Birmingham 



Ibid. 



Royal Observa- 
tory, Greenwich, 



Ilawkhurst 1st ma?. 



3rd mag. 



Bluish white . 0-7 second 



3rd mag 0-3 second 



2nd mag. 



Bluish white . 



O'S second 



Royal Observa- 1st mag. 
tory, Greenwich. 



Tooting (near 
London). 



Faint 



Ilawkhurst 2nd mag, 



2 11 4 30 



11 5 30 



Royal Observa- 
tory, Greenwich. 



Eaton Square, 
London. 



Tooting, near 
London. 



Bluish white 



Slow. 



1'2 second 



Asbrigbt as Jupiter: Bluish white .1 second 



Brighter than 1st- 
mas. * 



Large 



White 



White 



1-5 second 



«= S = 
From 23° + 60° 
to 8 +62 
From direction of 
Persei pass- 
ed between // 
and j3 Andro- 
meda; to c An- 
dromedae. 
a= S = 
From340°+30° 

to 355 +42 
iFrom a Pegasi in 
direction of y 
Pegasi. 
From « Draconis 
passed across 9 
Bocitis. 

a= 3 = 

From 332° +57° 

to 310 +36 

From 286° + 20° 

to 278 4- 6 

Passed between j8 
and y llercuhs 
from the direc- 
tion of K Hercu- 
lis. 

From 323° + 51° 
to 288 +20 

From 6 Cygni to y 
Aquila:. 

From 80° + 9-5° 
to 74 +4-5 

From 75° +28° 
to 60 +23 



From a point be 
tween a. and ^ 
Ursae Majori 
passed in the di 
rection of 9 Au 
riga;. 

Disappeared at ^ 
{n, It) Lyncis. 
Course from y 
UrsjeMajoris, be- 
ginning 6° short 
of that star. 

a= S = 
From 160°+55° 
to 135 +44 



I 



OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 



65 



Length of 
Path. 



Direction. 



[From Pegasus] 



[Radiant in Pegasus] 



Appearance; Remarks. 



Observer. 



Brilliant nucleus and broad trainJMiss F. Ilerschel. 

(From the left of S Cassiopei;c 

to beyond y Cassiopeia).) 
Left a splendid train 



Wm. Marriott. 



Left no streak. (From jj Pegasi Miss F. Herschel. 
to below I, K Andromedse.) 



Left a streak 



Left a streak 



(From head stars of Cepheus to k 
Andromeda;.) 

From ^ (/3 Cygni, e Aquilfe) to e 
Aquila;, and 10° beyond that 
star. 

Left a stieak 



Left a streak for ^ second. 
(Along the axis of Cygnus 
and just south of it, as 
mapped.) 

Left a very fine streak 



Position probably correct within 
^° each way. 

Left no streak. (From ^ (j3, »;) 
Tauri shot (o a little below 
the Pleiades, disappearing 
some degrees before reaching 
them.) 

Left a streak 



Left no streak. 



Left a streak. Position, as 
mapped, fairly well observed 
(From a little south of j8 to a 
little south of k Ursaj Majoris). 



Wm. Marriott. 



W. C. Nash. 



W. H. Wood. 



Id. 



W. C. Nash. 



Miss Herschel. 



W. C. Nash. 
II. W. Jackson. 



Miss J. Herschel. 



Wra. Marriott. 



A. S. Herschel. 



H. W. Jackson. 



66 



EEPORT 1873. 



Date. 



1872. 
Jan. 2 



Hour. 



Place of 
Observation. 



Apparent 
Magnitude, 
as per Stars. 



h m s 
11 29 



Hawkhurst 



11 31 Eaton Sciuarc, 
London. 



11 33 



11 33 



Ibid, 



Hawkhurst 



3rd maa;. 



=: Castor , 



11 54 Ibid 



11 54 30 



Eaton Square, 
London. 



Apr. 19 11 26 Wisbeach, Cam- 
bridgeshire. 



19 11 27 30 



19, 11 28 



Ha\Ykhurst 



York. 



= Sirius 



Brigbter than 1st- 
ma.a;. * 



1st ma?. 



= Sirius 



1st mag. 



1st mag. 



:Siriiis 



Colour. 



Duration. 



Position. 



White ;2 seconds 



From about y Cas- 
siopeise towards 
a, /3 Arietis. 

From J (a, (3) Au- 
riga; to \ Tauri. 



Wliitc 1-4 second ... From 130°+6-5° 

to 114 -6 



White, then 2 seconds, 
oranjre. 



From 115° +29° 
to 91 + 4 



From B Camelo-i 
pardi past a Per- 
sei, and past the 
Pleiades. 

«= S^ 
From 9G°+44° 
to 80 +10 



Vellow 3 seconds «= S- 

From 232° + 73"= 
to 107 +63 



White 



0'5 second 



.From 450+50° 
j to 50 +50 



'From228-5°+29' 
I to 203 +12 



II. Laege Meteoks. 

In addition to the occurrences of this kind of whose appearance accounts 
were received by tlic Committee since their last E-eport, the following list 
describes some conspicuous meteors of which no particulars were contained 
in previous Eeports : — 

1. 1851, July 30, S'^ lO'^' p.m. (local time).— Two days after the total 
eclipse of the sun in the north of Europe in that year, a large fireball was 
seen in Denmark and on the coasts of the Baltic, in bright evening light ; 
and it was described in many of the contemporary local newspapers. The 



OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEOllS. 



67 



Length of 
Path. 



18° 



About 25° 



Direction. 



Appearance ; Remarks. 



Brilliant ; left a slight streak. 



Brightest in the last half of its 
course. 



Observer. 



Miss II. R. Herschcl. 



A. S. Ilerschel. 



Left no streak. (From middle Id. 
of Hydra's head to 3° above 
n Monocerotis.) 

Left no streak. (Commenced Miss F. Ilerschel. 
near j3 Geminorum. Course 
three fourths of the way to a 
point 2° or 3° under Orion's 
belt.) 



Turned sharply in its course at Brightest in first half of its 



40° 



22° 



Brilliant, and pear-shaped at last ; 
left a long streak. 



a point 1° E. of Z Tauri, with 
a very slight deflection 



Miss J. Ilerschel and 
Miss M. R. Herschel. 



A. S. Herschel. 



Lvraid . 



Lyra'id . 
Lyraid . 



S. II. Miller. 



course, then fainter and red 
der to disappearance. Left a 
streak on its whole course for 
half a second. 

Left a streak on its course for 
5 seconds. Ajipearance of the 
meteor at the third second of 
its flight (there appeared to 
be a sort of vibratory motion 
in the train). 



Parallel to and just above y, « Miss M. II. Herschel. 
Persei nearly from e Cassio- 
peia;. 



Motion noticeably rapid. 



J. E. Clark. 



following distinct account, and accurate drawing of the phenomenon, from 
the 'Transactions of the Eoyal Danish Academy of Sciences,' for 1869, show- 
it to have heen cue of large size, perhaps aerolitic ; and may afiford a useful 
comparison with the descriptions of other equally remarkable meteors which 
wiU, perhaps, be known to have occurred on the same date of the year. 
Observation of the meteor: — Soon after sunset, in an almost cloudless blue 
sky, the first of four smoke-like triangles (at the point a in the figure) was 
observed to be formed, and the other cloud triangles were developed in 
in about five seconds. In the place of the fifth, and in a con- 



succession. 



tinuatiou of the same line, an irregular column of smoke began to extend 



68 



REPOKT — 1873. 



itself, with much apjiareiit commotion in the direction of the meteor's flight. 
In the first quarter of its length no light appeared in it; but in the second 



Alt. 30 




ji paces 



■^— V 



1 15 paces 



V Ground tine of mid\i bf houses- ^ ^ is ptTCe:x 



■f 'opt pa th 



High ran A *- 



NEfalSW 




Commony or jrorreJieCd 



Observer's JPlace 
c 

Apparent course and appearance of a largo Meteor seen at Copenhagen 1851, July 30, 

evening, by P. J. Winstnip. 

and third it seemed to be mixed ^Yilh flame of rapidlj' increasing brightness ; 
and in the last third part of this portion of the meteor's flight, its nucleus 
■was plainly yisible, of intense ■whiteness and brilliancy at the centre, and 
surrounded ■with duller red light to-«-ards the border, ■which -was of the same 
•v\adth as the smoke-^wreath. It became extinguished at h, and from this 
point to c three more small cloud triangles, like those first formed, ■VN'ere 
added in quick succession to its length. The earlier portions of the smoke- 
•wreath had by this time entirely disappeared, the meteor taking not more 
than three or four seconds to produce the cloud column, which was also the 
time taken by this part of the smoke-wreath and by each of the cloud 
triangles to disappear ; so that the whole diu'ation of visibility of the pheno- 
menon was about fifteen seconds. Immediately after its disappearance, the 
blue sky at that place remained as clear and as bright as it had been before 
the meteor's passage. The cloud-substance of the triangles first formed was 
bluish white, like the smoke of gunpowder, while that in the upper part of 
the smoke-column became quite dark as it disappeared. By marking the 
first and last points of the meteor's course (a, c) with reference to the 
houses of a neighbouring street, and pacing their distance from his point of 
view, the apparent path of the meteor, as it was thus observed by JSIr. 
"Winstrup, appears to have been ascertained as follows : — • 

Point of commencement, a, altitude 7°, 52° east from south. 
Point of disappearance, c, altitude 30°, 19° east from south. 
Apparent length of the meteor's course, a c, about 42°. 
Inclination of its apparent course to the horizon, about 38°. 



OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. G9 

2. In the ' Standard' of September 15, 18G9, Mr. F. P. Bullock describes 
a remarkably bright meteor, which he saw at Cheltenham, at 10'' 8™ p.m., on 
the 12th of that month, passing rapidly, and with an extraordinary long 
course, over a complete quarter of the sky. 

3. The following observations of rather bright meteors were communi- 
cated, with some of lesser magnitude noted during previous years, by Mr. 
J. E. Clark :— 

1869, September 20, 6^ 46"" p.m. — A meteor about }r of the apparent size 
of the moon was seen by Mr. A. K. Brown, Mr. S. P. Thomson, and by other 
observers, at Dcnbydale, near Huddersfield, of pale yellow light, apparently 
not much stronger than that of Saturn, and changing to red. It fell about 
15° in 2| seconds, nearly vertically, to a point about 15° above the east 
horizon, followed by a streak or tail of sparks, which became redder, like the 
nucleus, towards the end of its coui'se. 

1869, December 21, &" 15"' p.m.— Near Leominster, Mr, J. E. Southall 
observed a meteor of j-ellow colour, and of about the greatest brilliancy of 
the planet Yenus, descending vertically 12^^° in half a second from a point in 
B. A. 97°, S. Decl. 7°, to 11. A. 80°, S. Decl. 18°. The meteor was visible 
through light clouds, which obscured the view of any streak or sparks which 
may have accompanied it in its course. 

4. At a meeting of the Natural History and Philosophical Society of 
Derry, in Ireland, on March 4, 1870, Mr. William Harte described some 
observations of a remarkable meteor which passed over Donegal on the night 
of the 27th of December 1809. 

5. 1870, July 25, evening. — Soon after dark, a brilliant meteor was 
observed in Kent and at other places near the English Channel. At Dover 
it was seen to rise almost perpendicularly from the sea horizon in the east, 
increasing in splendour until it disappeared overhead. The fii'st effect of its 
very striking and unusual upward course was to produce an irresistible 
impression that it was a signal rocket or other artificial light fired from some 
distant vessel on the sea. Some current descriptions of this fireball, which 
appeared in the daily journals at the time, have unfortunately escaped the 
notice of the Committee. 

0. On the 16th of October, 1870, descriptions of two bright meteors 
received by the Committee appear to indicate some close connexion from 
their resemblance, although, from their recorded positions and from a slight 
interval between their times of appearance, they appear to be distinct. The 
first, which appeared to Mr. J. E. Clark and Mr. S. Giles, at York, at 
8'' 25™ P.M., of red colour, increasing from the apparent brightness of a 
foiirth-magnitiide star to that of Venus, described a short course of 8° or 9° 
in three or four seconds, from a point in B. A. 22°, 'N. Decl. 20°, to B. A. 34°, 
N. Decl. 16°, leaving a few sparks, but no visible streak upon its course. 
At 8*" 28'" P.M., on the same evening, a meteor bi'igbter than a first-magni- 
tude star, and in every other respect of perfectly similar description with 
that observed at York, was seen by Mr. William Marriott, at Greenwich, 
describing, in the same time, an apparent course of the same length, in the 
northern sky, from the star 4" towards the star a in Draco. The meteor seen 
at York appeared in the south-east, at such a considerable distance from the 
direction indicated by the Greenwich observations as to admit of no possible 
consideration of their identity by the supposition of ordinary errors of obser- 
vation. But the remarkable resemblance of their descriptions and their 
nearly simultaneous appearance, if not attributable to the earth's passage at 
the time through a common meteor-system, is yet a very similar occurrence 



70 REPORT— 1872. 

to the pairs and groups of meteors which are sometimes observed to appear 
in very brief succession in ordinary star-showers. The radiant-point of the 
pair, if these meteors might be so regarded, is between the constellations 
Cygnns and Vulpccula. But from their close vicinity, respectively, to the 
radiants E3 and J3G-„, in Musca, and in the neighbourhood of Draco, which 
first present themselves about the middle of October, it appears more probable 
that their remarkably foreshortened courses may be clearly individualized as 
distinct, and that they were evidently members, respectively, of those well- 
marked, and widely separated showers. A similar instance of coincidence, 
but apparently without real connexion, will shortly be noticed in a future 
page. 

7. Another bright meteor, from one of the latter radiant-points, II3, was 
recorded by Mr. Wood, at Birmingham, at 10'* 7" p.m. on the 1st of Novem- 
ber 1870; brighter than Sirius, white, and moving for two seconds in a 
short course close to the apparent place of the last meteor seen at York, 
from E. A. 27°, N. Decl. 21°, to y Arictis. At 10" 27'" a second-magnitude 
meteor, with a vcrj' short coi;rse, passed, leaving a streak across the Pleiades, 
proceeding from the same radiant-point, from which a few other meteors, 
noticed by Mr. Wood on that night, were also directed. In a note to th'e 
latter appearance, he observes that " a writer in the * Times,' of about that 
date, describes an ' Astronomical Phenomenon,' which was ' a sudden light- 
ing of the Pleiades of momentary duration,' and which took place twice on 
the same night. I observed the same effect produced by this meteor ; and it 
is evidently owing to the proximity of the radiant E^ to the Pleiades, 
causing the meteors to be seen foreshortened when they happen to present 
themselves in the position named." 

Large Meteors ohserved since the presentation of tlie last Report. 

1871, August 13, 8" SO"- r.ii.— In a letter to Mr. Glaisher, Mr. W. J. 
Miller communicates the following observation of a fireball seen by him in 
August last at Glasgow : — " On the 13th inst., about 8** 30™ p.m., I observed, 
about due north from the western part of this city, a meteor making a nearly 
vertical descent ; it tended sHghtly westwards. The elevation might be about 
25° or 30° ; and the twilight was still strong. The effect on the eye was 
more of a flash of lightning, or the sudden appearance of the new moon, than 
any thing I can compare it to. The sky being clear, there could be no 
lightning of this description." 

1871, August 21, about 9'' p.m. — The following description of a large 
meteor seen at Knocklong, Limerick, was communicated to the Committee by 
Mr. W. F. Denning in a letter from the observer, Mr. Jeremiah Henly, who 
writes : — " The meteor was visible a few minutes after 9 o'clock. It seemed 
to issue from about Polaris, and travelled across the heavens for a space of 
at least 7° or 8° [? 70° or 80°] in the direction of the constellation Hercules. 
As it passed through the atmosphere, it seemed to leave a brilliant track of 
fire across the heavens, which continued visible for about ten seconds." 

1871, August 31, about 9'' 45"' p.m. — A meteor of very remarkable ap- 
pearance was simultaneously observed at Hawkhurst (Kent) aiid at Eoss 
(Herefordshire) under very favourable circumstances for determining its real 
height. The attention of a lady. Miss Strong, who observed the meteor near 
Eoss, being directed, when it appeared, to the unclouded appearance of the full 
moon, which had then risen some 15° above the E.S.E. horizon ; of a suddeu 
the meteor came into view, with leisurely speed and with surprising lumi- 




OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 71 

nosity, issuing, apparently, from close behind and from the centre of the moon's 
side. From this point of first appearance it glided 

slowly eastward, leaving on its track a train of Meteor. Thej^on. 

gold-coloured sparks as broad and bright and 
compact, apparently, as the nucleus which it pur- 
sued. After advancing for a considerable space 
the nucleus disappeared instantaneously, as if it 
were suddenly extinguished ; and the sweeping portion of the train nearest 
to the moon broke into separate sparks, while the train, along its whole 
length, lay scattered along the sky like sparkling dust, which quickly faded 
away. In the absence of any neighbouring stars, which were then only 
beginning to glimmer faintly in the evening light, no more exact description 
of its apparent course, after leaving the moon's side, could be successfully 
attempted. 

A complete view of the meteor from its point of commencement, in a 
cloudless sky, was also obtained by Professor Herschel at Hawkhurst, in 
Kent, where it passed across the sky, at a considerable elevation, and with a 
long and brilliant course, at about 9'' 44"" p.m. In the first portion of its 
flight, which commenced close to the stars q, r Yulpeculaj, it increased from 
the brightness of a first-magnitude star to that of Sirius ; and thence, while 
passing near the star i^ Cygni, it was accompanied on its course as far as the 
star ju Pegasi by a uniform and compact train of yellow sparks, of nearly the 
same brightness, and of twice the apparent diameter of the nucleus. The 
brightness of the meteor, in this part of its course, was but little less, and it 
at length exceeded that of the planet Venus at its greatest brilliancy, while 
its head was of the same yellow colour as the wide track of light which 
formed its train. At the latter point the bright nucleus disappeared, and 

Cyqnas 




VwTjte. 
Cwla- 



the luminoiis train of sparks ceased, while a small spark, about as bright as 
a fourth-magnitude star, with intermittent light, could be traced pursuing its 
course about 8° or 9° further, to a point about 2° below the star v Pegasi, 
where it finally disappeared. The meteor moved over its whole apparent 
course of 40° in six seconds ; and the bright belt of light, about 6' in 
apparent width and 20° in length, which remained on its track, was visible 
for three or four seconds afterwards, resolving itself into small sparks, which 
appeared to move forwards along the streak in the direction in which the 
meteor had advanced. The perfect continuity of the long train of sparks, its 
little inferior brightness, similar golden-yellow colour, and general resem- 
blance to the head, which it enclosed so completely on both sides as to 
exceed it considerably in width, and the steady forward motion of the meteor, 
caused it to strikingly resemble the sudden and horizontal discharge of a 
distant rocket. Such features of special interest in its appearance will, it may 
be hoped, from its brightness, and from the clearness of the sky on that even- 
ing, have attracted the attention of observers at other places, besides the two 
widely distant points of observation here recorded, at which its appearance 



72 REPORT— 1872. 

and the position of its apparent path in the heavens were noted under the 
most favourable conditions. 

The point of commencement of the meteor's course is found with consider- 
able certainty, from the two foregoing observations, to have been situated at 
a height of 44 miles above the sea, over a point in Pevensey Bay, about 6 
miles from the Sussex coast. The real course of the meteor from this point 
was, nearly, from due Avest to due east, with a very slight inclination to the 
horizon ; or that direction of its real flight is most nearly accordant with the 
observations. The point of disapi^earanee of the small spark which advanced 
furthest along its flight was, hence, at a little lower elevation, of about 40 
miles above the sea, close to the French coast, near Boulogne. Assuming 
that the moon's apparent place at Ross was exactly upon the apparent course 
of the meteor, which appears to be really signified b}'^ the remarkable obser- 
vation that, as seen from that locality, the meteor appeared to issue from 
close behind the moon, the agreement of this point with that of the meteor's 
first appearance, as observed at Hawkhurst, in a gi-aphical point of view, is so 
accurate and precise, that the real position of this point of the meteor's 
course, as above determined, may be satisfactorily assumed, without any 
material corrections, as being substantially correct. On the other hand, 
admitting that, for the purpose of calculation, the description of the remaining 
portion of the meteor's apparent course, as observed at Ross, is obviously 
incomplete, the narrow limits between which (conformably to the rough notes 
and sketches of its appearance there, and to the remaining portion of its 
apparent track as mapped at Hawkhurst) the meteor can be supposed to have 
moved, allows a very important conclusion to be drawn from a complete 
examination of the remaining materials which were recorded concerning its 
appai'ent course. If not exactly in the true west point of the horizon, the 
apparent radiant-point from which the meteor was directed can yet not have 
been far removed (not exceeding about 20°) southwards from this point, nor 
at any great elevation (not exceeding about 30°) above the western horizon, 
and it proceeded appai'cntly from the radiant Q^, near j3 Herculis, chiefly con- 
spicuous in August ; so that the direction of its real course relatively to 
the earth did not differ greatly (not more than 45) from that of the earth's 
real motion in its orbit at the time when the meteor appeared, which was 
nearly from the S.W. point of the horizon. The greatest length which can 
be assigned to the meteor's real path is rather less than 42 miles, derived 
from the supposition, as above assumed, that the meteor's real course was 
almost horizontal and almost exactly directed from the west. But if the 
meteor's real path was more inclined than this, it must also have been 
shorter (and with the above extreme inclination, which it might be possible 
to assign to it from the observations, its length would not exceed 33 miles*). 
As the whole duration of the meteor's flight, observed at Hawkhurst, was 
six seconds well counted while the meteor was in sight, the real velocity of 
its motion cannot have much exceeded seven miles per second ; and under 
certain possible assumptions of its apparent course at Ross, it may even have 
been less than this, or the meteor may have travelled with a real speed of 
only 5| miles per second. While the average real velocity of shooting-stars 

* By supposing the meteor, as seen at Eoss, after issuing from near the moon's jilace, 
to have descended obliquely at an angle of 45° with the horizon, towards the left. The 
drawings represent the meteor as slightly ascending, rather than descending ; and it is 
described as advancing a considerable space, and producing a luminous train of some 
length, after leaving the moon's side. This representation of the meteor's appnreiit 
course at Eoss, when compared with the Ilawldiurst observation, agrees exactly with a 
perfectly horizontal real course, directed from about 4^ south from west. 



OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 73 

relatively to the earth is fully 30 miles per second, it follows that in this 
case, where the meteor was evidently overtaking the earth, moving nearly in 
the same direction with it, its real velocity in space must have exceeded that 
of the earth's motion in its orbit by not much more than 7 miles per second. 
The excess of the velocity of a meteor overtaking the earth directly in a para- 
bolic orbit, above that of the earth's mean motion in its own nearly circular 
orbit, is found by Dr. Weiss to be about 9| miles per second*. 

The following letter in ' Nature,' May 16, 1872, from Mr. G. C. Thomson, 
at Cardiff, affords another instance of bright meteors noted during the past 
year, the real course of which appears to have not differed greatly in their 
direction from that of the earth's motion in its orbit, at the time of their 
appearance: — "I observed a meteor at about half-past eleven on the night 
of the 8th inst., in the constellation Scorpio, which passed very close to the 
star Antares, travelling from right to left. It appears to me worth remark- 
ing, from the fact of its course lying very near and roughly parallel to that 
part of the ecliptic which corresponded to the earth's position in her orbit. 
It traversed some 8° or 10° of arc, and was visible for three or four seconds, 
gradually increasing in brightness until it was nearly on a par with Antares, 
which star it also resembled in colour. Its slow apparent motion imme- 
diately suggested the idea that it was moving in the same plane and direction 
as the earth, in fact that it was overtaking us in an orbit just outside our 
own. The course of another meteor seen about half an hour earlier from a 
westerly window, and described to me as not inferior to Jupiter in brightness, 
appears also to have lain in the direction of the ecliptic, but from left to 
right, in the neighbourhood of the constellations Gemini, Cancer, or Leo. 
It is rash to generalize from insufficient data ; but I conceive these meteors 
may both have belonged to a system whose orbit lies nearly in the j^lane of 
the earth's orbit, the apparent retrograde motion of the last named being 
caused by the direction of its path crossing our orbit at a point behind the 
earth's then place, instead of in advance of it." The two meteors here noticed 
appear to have belonged to the meteor-system denoted by the radiant-point 
Y, presenting itself during the first half of May, near the centre of the con- 
stellation Leo, and scarcely more than 20° distant from the point in the 
ecliptic from which the earth's motion is directed during the early portion of 
that month. The apparent motion of the two meteors in opposite directions 
(in the former case moving eastwards towards Scorpius, and in the latter 
case westwards towards the constellations Gemini and Cancer) is most 
readily explained by the effect of perspective upon their, probably, not far 
from really parallel courses, joined with the circumstance that in their 
appearance above the observer's horizon, at Cardiff, the meteors successively 
presented themselves upon opposite sides of their common radiant-point. 
In relation to the probable positions of their apparent radiant-centres, both 

* As a convenient means of exactly estimating the vei-y short intervals of time occupied 
by meteors in their flight, it may be suggested to observers to repeat the English alpha- 
bet (or as many letters of it as are required, rapidly and distinctly) immediately after the 
meteor's appearance. With ordinary fluency of pronunciation one alphabet occupies 
about four seconds, and fifteen alphabets can usually be repeated in one minute, the time 
occupied by a single syllable, or by one letter of the alphabet, wlien thus repeated, being 
about one-sixth part of a second. By beginning the repetition during or immediately after 
the meteor's passage, and continuing it during an equal period of time to that in which it 
appeared to move, a pretty exact estimate of the interval may thus be obtained from 
memory. In ordinary oases (where the time of the meteor's passage does not allow more 
than five or six letters of the alphabet to be repeated) the observation may be repeated 
once or twice, and by counting the number of letters, in each case, a more exact average 
determination, amounting generally to a very close approximation, may be obtained. 

1872. ' ' G 



74 REPORT — 1872, 

the bright or reddish colour and the apparent speed of motion of meteors in 
their flight present a very important and interesting subject of study and 
of further observation. 

1871, September 2, about 8'' 15*" p.m. — On this and the following dates 
some bright meteors, proceeding apparently from different radiant-points 
from that in Hercules of the meteor last described, were noticed, and the 
following was recorded by Mr. J. M. Wilson*, as it appeared to him on the 
above evening, in the fading twilight, and Avith a slightly clouded sky, and 
to other persons at Croakbourne, in the Isle of Man. The meteor appeared 
in the west, and presented a visible disk of about the apparent size of an 
eighth of the moon's surface. As it increased in size, the nucleus broke into 
three following and connected portions, the foremost and brightest of which 
was white ; and a luminous streak remained for about one second upon the 
meteor's course. It moved for two or three seconds, with a slow and uniform 
motion, over a space of about 45°, descending nearly vertically in the west, 
from between the stars y, tt Herculis, crossing Corona to a little below 
^ Bootis, where it finally disappeared, about 15° above the horizon. 

1871, September 4, 9'' 30" p.m. — At Brancepeth, near Durham, Mr. 
Joseph Lawson communicated the following description of a very brilliant 
meteor which he observed at the above hour ; his shadow cast before him as 
strongly as during bright full moonlight, causing him to turn in time to sec 
the meteor in its descent. It was first seen passing Polaris and descending 
towards Ursa Major (see the accompanying sketch) ; intensely white, like the 



1 



Folaris « / 



/ 



/ 

/ 
/ 



/ 
/ 
/ 

/ 

/ 
/ 



Ma for ' 11 ! ' 

•^ . ," • 

Point of the meteor's 
explosion and subsequent appearance. 

Meteor seen at Brancepeth, Durham, 9h 30m p.m., September 4, 1871. 

magnesium light, and bursting into seven fragments as it approached that 
constellation. The two larger fragments appeared each to be not less than 
the head of the meteor before its disruption, and all were white, fringed 
with blue, and died out as sparks falling towards the earth, but apparently 
not reaching the horizon. The meteor burst with a momentary increase of 
light, and the fragments remained visible for about three seconds. No 
sound of an explosion was hcpid after the meteor's disajipearance. 

The following account of some bright meteors visible on the same evening 

* ' Nature,' September 14, 1R71. 



OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 75 

at Bristol wns received from Mr. William F. Denning : — " On September 4 
I noticed several shooting- stars that were quite conspicuous. At 9^ 40™ one 
passed slowly down from the N.E. to the north horizon. It was of globular 
form, and seemed to leave sparks in its flight. No train of light marked its 
path. This was the most brilliant one that I saw, and was equal, I imngine, 
to a star of the first magnitude." On the 10th of September, 1871, at 
V 4™ P.M., a very brilliant meteor was also seen, while the daylight was yet 
too strong for any stars to be visible, by Mr. S. J. Johnson, at Upton Helions, 
near Crediton, in Devonshire, and by several other persons in that vicinity. 
It described, in about five seconds, a course of 15°, from an altitude of 
about 25° to an altitude of about 10° above the south horizon. 

A large meteor is stated, in the ' Madras Times,' to have been observed at 
Trevandrum, in India, on the night of the 21st of October, 1871, which 
crossed the sky from the north, with rapid speed, in about four seconds, 
moving at an altitude of 35° or 40°*. 

Some accounts of other bright meteors, noticed towards the end of last year, 
will be found described in the accompanying general list of such observations. 

1872, Feb. 7, about 9^ 40" p.m. — A second meteor of great brilliancy was 
seen by Mr. Joseph Lawson, near Brancepeth, Durham, on this evening, of 
which he communicated the following description : — 

The meteor first appeared above and to the right of y Cassiopeiaj, whence 
it described in about two seconds a downward course of about 30° towards 
the west, directed nearly from Polaris. It appeared small at first, but in- 
creased steadily until the apparent width of the head was about 30' of arc, 
its uniform expansion strongly conveying the impression of a gradual approach 



Vrsa- 
or 



CassioveitL 



Majt 



opeitt n J 

J loLafis 

£• 






" '' ^'' ' 



\ 



Position of a meteor's path among the stars, and its apparent perspective approach 
towards the observer, near Brancepeth, Durham.— Feb. 7th, 1872. 

towards the observer's place. As it advanced the head became pear-shaped, 
intensely white, with a border of purple light, and it finally burst into several 
fragments, which appeared as very white sparks, advancing further upon the 
meteor's course, and speedily becoming red. The fragments disappeared from 
view behind the smoke of a neighbouring colliery, the noise of whose engines, 
close at hand, prevented the sound of a report, if any followed the meteor's 
explosion, from being heard. 
1872, March 4, 7'' 45™ p.m. — A bright meteor seen at many places in 

» ' Nature,' December 28, 1871. *% 

o2 



76 REPORT — 1872. 

England was thus described by Mr. T. Perkins, who observed it at Durham. 
The Durham Cathedral clock had just finished chiming the hour of a quarter 
to eight when the meteor appeared. The apparent size of the nucleus was 
much larger and its light was much brighter than that of the planet Yenus, 
und it appeared of a brilliant greenish-blue colour. It described a course of 

Helades 

Aide- •, 

baran " . _ 




about 20°, with slow motion downwards, in about 2h seconds, and vanished 
suddenly (if it was not hidden by the branches of some neighbouring trees) 
at an apparent altitude of about 12° or 15° (as measured afterwards by the 
elevation of the trees) from the horizon. Its point of disappearance was 
about 8° or 10° below a point between the stars p and c Ononis. Its path 
was slightly curved, as shown in the figure, and directed, in the latter portion 
of its flight, very nearly from the Pleiades. 

Mr. S. H. Miller observed the appearance of the meteor near Wisbeach in 
Cambridgeshire, its light causing him to turn round and to note it in the last 
portion of its flight. In apparent size it appeared to be about one-third of 
the apparent diameter of the moon, perfectly white, like a drop of liquid 
silver, falling in the west, where it descended "to the horizon. 

At Northwich, in Cheshire, it appeared to cast as much light as the moon 
shining brightly in its first quarter. It shot from the direction of the 
Hyades, near Aldcbaran, and disappeared close to Orion's belt (Manchester 
' Examiner and Times '). It also attracted attention at Bowdon near Man- 
chester, where it was observed in the south-west, descending towards the 
S.S.E. horizon. It was at first accompanied by a reddish train, which changed 
to blue and left some sparks, when the meteor, with a dip southwards, sud- 
denly disappeared. As seen at Bolton, near this point, by Mr. A. Greg, it 
appeared facing him (and to another observer, " low down in the sky " before 
him) as he looked towards the south ; and it disappeared in a large and bril- 
liant flash while passing over the belt of Orion. 

1872, March 8, 9" 5'". — The most brilliant meteor recorded during the 
year, and one of great interest from the southern character and much further 
westerly situation of its radiant-point than that of any meteor-system hitherto 
recognized during the period of that month, was observed by the assistant at 
Lord Eosse's Observatory at Birr Castle, in Ireland, and was thus described 



OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEOIIS. 11 

in his note of its appearance communicated to ' Nature ' of the 14tli of March 
last by Lord llossc : — 

"Observed an intensely brilliant meteor. It was first seen in the region 
of Lepus, whence it moved with a slow and steady motion across the heavens 
to the S.E. horizon, where it gradually disappeared in a bank of cloud at 
about 9'' 5"' 19^ Greenwich mean time, having occupied 7 or 8 seconds in 
moving over 50° of a great circle. The time given may be a few seconds 
wrong, as it was noted by an ordinary watch. The head was intensely bril- 
liant, of a bluish-white colour, and lighted up the whole sk}'. 

" Its brightness was maintained during its entire visibility, and may have 
been as great as the moon at quadrature. Apparent diameter of the head 42'. 
It was followed by a very narrow tail about 3° in length, and of a reddish 
hue. It did not leave any phosphorescent train behind it ; but at the latter 
part of its course it threw out some reddish luminous masses that gradually 
faded away. Its apparent course was in a great circle through /3 Cauis Ma- 
joris to a point near the S.E. horizon in azimuth S. 28|°E., and altitude Sg". 
For /3 Canis Majoris the azimuth was S. 20° 52'-4 W., and altitude 16° 43'-3. 
—Observatory, Birr Castle, March 8th, 1872." 

It is to be regretted that a meteor of such unusual splendour and magni- 
tude, which must (if clouds permitted) have been widely visible over the 
south of Ireland, and .in the west and soiith-west parts of England, has not 
received any public or private notice which has hitherto come to the know- 
ledge of the Committee, nor any apparent recognition from observers ; while, 
if the important astronomical interest chat attaches to its appearance is rightly 
understood, the great advantage of their investigation, if such have been pre- 
served, it may yet be hoped, will prevail upon observers to communicate them 
to the Committee. 

1872, April 12, 4'' 36" p.m. — A fireball, not less brilliant, but, on account 
of its appearing in the daytime, probably less conspicuous than the preceding 
meteor, was seen on the afternoon of the above day by Mr. "Whipple, at the 
Kew Observatory, by whom the following observations of its appearance were 
recorded* : — 

" Yesterday afternoon, whilst standing on the lawn of the observatory, with 
mj^back to the sun, which was brightly shining, I saw a splendid meteor fall 
in the south-east. The sky at the time was of an intense blue, and cloudless, 
with the exception of a few cirri in the north and north-west, and the meteor, 
as seen against it, presented the appearance of polished silver. The flight of 
the meteor was almost vertical, at an altitude of about 30°; its extent was 
about 1 0°, and the tail, which seemed to hang in the air and fade away like 
the tail of a rocket, was, at the instant of exi^losion, probably 3° in length. 
There was no report accompanying its disruption, or it would certainly have 
been heard, the neighbourhood being very still at the time. Immediately on 
its disappearance I looked at my watch ; it was ^ 36" p.m., Greenwich mean 
time. Had the fall occurred after dai'k, I have no doubt but that the meteor 
"would have exhibited a magnificent spectacle ; for its brilliancy far exceeded 
that of the moon as seen by daylight." 

1871, December 6th, ^^ 14" p.m., or 8'> 15" p.m. — A meteor of great bril- 
liancy was recorded at the former hour at Birmingham by Mr. Wood, and at 
the latter hour at Beeston Observatory, near Nottingham, by Mr. Lowe. The 
descriptions of these meteors, which ai'e included in the following general 
list, differ in some important physical respects, which might almost lead to an 
independent conclusion that two different meteors were observed. The meteor 

* 'iS'atiu-e,' Aprilia 1872. . 



78 REPORT— 1873. 

seen by Mr. Wood at Birmingham was deep blue ; its nucleus disappeared 
without apparent expansion or explosion, and left a very slight, evanescent 
streak upon its course. The meteor observed by Mr. Lowe at Beestou was 
distinctly red ; it burst with a flash, and left a very enduring streak of red 
points upon its course. With these essential differences of character (and 
even with the short interval of only one minute between the times of their 
observations), the identity of the meteor seen at Beeston with that observed 
by himself is regarded by Mr. Wood as not sufficiently established, or as 
being at least open to question, in the absence of further observation. The 
recorded positions of the meteors' paths are, moreover, so close to each other, 
that although they present a small displacement in the right direction to be 
produced by the great distance (about 45 miles) between the observers' places 
at Beeston and Birmingham, yet the unusual height of 360 miles above the 
earth at first appearance, and of 240 miles at disappearance, which their 
comparison together would suppose, must be regarded as requiring a proof 
from further observations, of which none have hitherto been received by the 
Committee. 

III. Aerolites. 

The following accounts of two aerolites which feU last year are extracted 
from the scientific journals in which their descriptions have recently ap- 
peared. 

1. Searsmont, Maine, U.S., 1871, May 21, S** a.m. (local time). — Professor 
Shephard, of Amherst CoUege, Massachusetts, has published some particulars 
respecting the meteoric stone which fell at Searsmont, Maine, U.S., on May 
21st. About 8 A.M. there was heard an explosion, like the report of a heavy 
gun, followed by a rushing sou^nd resembling the escape of steam from a 
boiler. The stone fell in a field, and a lady who was in a house close by 
saw the earth scattered in all directions as it entered the ground. The hole 
which it made was soon found, and on digging down the fragments were 
found stiU quite hot, the outside surfaces showing plainly the effects of 
melting heat. The largest piece weighed two pounds, and the fragments 
altogether twelve pounds. They emitted an odour like that of flints when 
rubbed violently together. The hole made by the falling body was two feet 
in depth, the soil being a hard coarse gravel ; but the fracture of the stone 
was obviously occasioned by its striking against three large pebbles, each 
about four pounds in weight. Professor Shephard obtained and examined 
the largest fragTuent of the aerolite. FnUy one half of its surface was coated 
with the original crust, and the shape would seem to denote that the perfect 
mass had been of an oval, subconical figure with a flattish base, so as on the 
whole to have approached the shape of the famous DuraUa stone now in the 
British Museum. Among the constituent elements were found meteoric iron, 
peroxide of iron, chladnite, troilite, together with a single blackish mass 
which Professor Shephard considered was in all probability a plumbaginous 
aggregate. The following notice of its composition has also recently ap- 
peared : — 

. . " This meteoric stone has been examined by Dr. Lawrence Smith (SiUiman's 
/American Journal of Science,' September 1871, p. 200). He finds it resemble 
very closely the Mauerkirchen stone that feU in 1768, the crusts correspond- 
ing quite closely both in thickness and appearance; the Mauerkirchen stone, 
■however, has not well-marked globules like that of Searsmont, and in this 
respect it corresponds more nearly to the Aussun aerolite. Its specific gravity 
was 3-701, and its composition is— 



OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 79 

Nickeliferous iroa 14'63 

Magnetic pyrites 3-OG 

Olivine 43-Oi 

Bronzite, a hornblende with a little albitc or ortho- 

clase, and chrome irou 39-27 

100-00 

With the bronzite there may also be some enstatite, which would bo con- 
founded with the former if existing in the stone." 

2. Moutereau (Seine et Marne), France, November 1871. — " It is stated 
that an aeroUte weighing 127 lbs. fell lately near Montereau (Seine et Marne), 
in Trance. It appears to have come from the east, and burst with a loud 
explosion, giving a bright blue light. It is of an irregular spheroid shape, 
and black, and is to be sent to the Academy of Sciences," — ' Nature,' Novem- 
ber 30th, 1871. 

IV. Meteokic Showehs. 

In the prosecution of a system of observations on the annual meteor- 
showers of the past year, proposed to engage the constant attention of the 
Committee since their last Report, a more than usually abundant series of 
successful observations were made, exhibiting with greater completeness than 
in previous years the general character of the displays, which have presented 
themselves with more than ordinary prominency on each of the annual 
shower-meteor dates. 

A first description of the observations collected at the several British Asso- 
ciation Stations <^ the nights of the 9 th to the 12th of August last is con- 
tained in the Quarterly Journal of the Meteorological Society for the 15th 
of November, 1871, where the numbers of meteors mapped at the different 
stations, and their rate of frequency at certain places where their numbers 
were counted in successive hours and half-hours, were for the most part fully 
stated. The following are some additional observations relating especially to 
this latter point, and to the general characters of the August shower in 1871, 
as they were recorded by the different observers. 

The numbers seen per hour by Mr. Wood at Birmingham were, on the night 
of the 9th twelve, on the 10th twenty-four, and on the 11th sixteen. The 
meteors came in groups, with lulls ; they were mostly small, and with a much 
larger proportion than usual of orange-coloured and train-bearing meteors. 

In the watch kept by Captain Maclear at the Royal Naval College at 
Portsmouth on the night of the 10th, the sky was throughout clear or over- 
spread with such a slight haze as only occasionally to dim the faintest stars ; 
and all the brightest meteors visible were noted between 11 o'clock p.m. and 
2 o'clock A.M. from a favourable point of view upon the College roof, where 
a number of the brightest meteors visible between ll*" 45™ and 12'' 45°* 
was also added to the list by Lieutenant Mathias, whose attention was di- 
rected towards a different quarter of the sky ; and the number of meteors 
visible in a somewhat less favourable position between lO"" and ll** p.m. was 
also counted alone by Captain Maclear. Deducting one quarter of the 
meteors seen between 11'' 45'" and 12'' 45"" as having been observed by 
Lieut. Mathias, the remaining numbers of bright meteors seen by Captain 
Maclear alone in the successive half-hours ending, during the night of 

Aug. 10th, at 10" SO" 11", 11" 30"", 12", 12" 30'", 13", 13" 30"', 14", Total 
were 5 10 10 12 21 22 14 23 117, 

showing an increase in the rate of frequency until the end of the Avatch. 



80 KEPORT— 1872. 

Besides those noted, many smaller meteors passed unrecorded, about tAvo 
thirds of the meteors counted being as bright as first, and some of the rest as 
bright as second-magnitude stars. But few meteors were visible on the night 
of the 9th ; and twelve were seen between 9" and 10" p.m. on the 11th. 
Between 10" and 11" p.m. on the 11th no shooting-star was visible, although 
the sky was then as olear as it had been during the previous hour, or on 
the night of the 10th. A bright meteor shot downwards through Corona soon 
after 10" 30"', and a remarkably large one close to Saturn soon after 10" 45'" 
P.M. on the 10th. The latter meteor was pear-shaped; it lighted up the 
objects round the observer, and burst at the end of its course like a shell. 

This meteor was also seen at Cardiff, and was described, in a communi- 
cation to Mr. Glaisher on the meteors of that evening by Mr. G. C. Thompson, 
as foUows : — " Aug. 10th, 10" 51'" p.m. Meteor equal to or larger than 
Venus ; from direction of a^, o, Capricorni, downwards towards the west (right 
hand), inclined about 60° to the horizon. Beautiful light-green hue. Near 
the end of its course it seemed to divide into several fragments, or a small 
cloud of sparks." It was also visible at Greenwich, where the following 
notes of its appearance were recorded by Mr. Glaisher's staff of observers at 
the Royal Observatory :—" Aug. 10th, 10" 51'" 15' p.m. Brighter than 
Jupiter; pale green; duration of flight 0-7 second; length of course 5° : left 
a fine train. Meteor pear-shaped; from 12° below, and to right of Antares, 
fell perpendicularly." At Hawkhurst a broad red flash, like that of lightning, 
was visible in the sky at 10" 50"" p.m. ; but the meteor itself was not seen. 
It was, however, well seen in the neighbourhood of Hawkhurst, and a pretty 
accurate measurement of its apparent path by objects near which it appeared 
to pass was there obtained. It fell nearly vertically from about 20° to about 
3" or 4° above the horizon, 60° W. from magnetic south, with no great speed ; 
and it appeared to burst, with sparks, when at its brightest. At 11" 2"', Paris 
time, corresponding within a few minutes with the time of this observation, a 
meteor of twice the briUiancy of Venus, of strong whitish light, like an electric 
spark, was also seen in the south by the observers of M. Le Vcrrier's staff at St. 
Lo, on the French coast of the English Channel, and at Angers on the Loire. 

Of the other bright meteors seen at Portsmouth on the night of the 10th, 
one descended towards the east, and burst at disappearance, at about 
12" 45""; and one jjassed across Polaris at 12" 55°'. At about 1" 30"" a 
bright green meteor appeared in the S.S.E., at an altitude of about 10°, 
moving towards the S.S.W. Shortly afterwards a very bright one passed 
across Pegasus towards the S.W., with an explosion at disappearance. One 
of the last two meteors may not impossibly be identical with a fireball ob- 
served by the observers of M. Le Verrier's staff at Trcmont at 1" 32'" 49" (Paris 
time) on the same night, which passed from E.A. 235°, N.P.D. 29°, to B.A. 
233°, N.P.D. 39°, and burst at disappearance with a strong red light, leaving 
a luminous streak \ipon its course that was visible for 33 seconds. 

On each evening of the shower the numbers of the meteors were also noted, 
under favourable conditions of the sky, by Mr. W. F. Denning, at Bristol, 
with the following results : — 

Meteors. 

Aug, 









Meteors. 


Aug. 9 . 


.11" 30"^ 


to 12" 


7 


„ 9. 


.12" 


to 13" 


27 


„ 9. 


.13" 


to 14" 


8 


„ 9. 


.14" 


to 1.5" 


21 


„ 10. 


.10" 


to 11" 


17 


„ 10. 


.11" 


to 12" 


27 


„ 10. 


.12" 


to 12" 30" 


' 27 





Meteors 


11. 


. 10" SS" to 10" 50™ 18 


11. 


. 11" to 12" 29 


11. 


.12" to 12" IS"" 16 


11. 


.12" 15'" to 12" 30'" 15 


11. 


. 12" 30"' to 13" 23 


11. 


.13" tol3"1.5'" 11 


11. 


. 13" 15'" to 13" 30'" 14 



OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 



81 



Attention was principally directed to the northern sky, and many meteors 
doubtless escaped observation. Most of those observed were especially 
small ones ; those seen on the 9th were nearly all minute and scarcely dis- 
cernible. Several brilliant ones were seen, however. At 12'' 23"* on 
August 10, a meteor of great lustre, and star-like in appearance, diverged 
from Perseus towards the horizon. It was of a blue colour, and left a lumi- 
nous streak which was visible for about four seconds. 

At 10'' 4-1'" on August 11, another brilliant one, about as bright as Venus, 
was visible in Ursa Minor, and the train of light which it left was visible 
for a few seconds. It was, however, at 12'' 50™ on the latter date that the 
most brilliant meteor was seen. It passed between the fourth-magnitude 
stars e and ^ Cygni, and soon afterwards disappeared, leaving a train of light 
which endured for about seven seconds. This one, like the great majority 
of those observed, radiated from or nearly from the small star B Camelopardi. 

The first of these bright meteors corresponds with an observation at 
Cardiff, contained in the description of the star-shower on the 10th of 
August communicated to Mr. Glaisher by Mr. G. C. Thompson : — " August 
11, 12'' 22"' A.M. — A meteor, as bright as Venus, passing downwards between 
u and /3 Aurigfe, from the direction of the sword-handle in Perseus. Fine 
purple colour ; leaving a portion of phosphorescent train visible for about 
half a minute, which had, I think, a lateral drifting motion in the direction 
of /) Aurigaj." 

No sound followed the explosion of any of these meteors. Mr. Denning 
adds the following list of observations of the same shower by Mr. Edmund 
Neison in London, who was assisted in his watch for the meteors by two 
friends, and who recorded the numbers visible on successive nights. 







Meteors observed 


in August 1871. 








Bright 


Total 


No. 




Date. 




Time. 


me- 
teors. 


num- 
ber. 


per 
hour. 


Kemarka. 




h 


m h m 










August 6 


9 


58 to 10 47 
(49'") 


6 


15 


18 


Two extremely brilliant. 


„ 7 


8 


58 to 10 35 
(P 37") 


17 


43 


27 


Four extremely brilliant. 


„ 8 


y 


45 to 10 18 
(33"') 
5 to 10 31 


11 


29 


53 


Two extremely brilliant. 


9 


9 


21 


62 


43 


Five very brilliant. 






(1" 26"') 










„ 10 


10 


7 to 10 58 
(ol-) 


31 


90 


106 


Four very brilliant. 


„ 11 


Cloudy ; clear but 


1 


2 


* . . 


One very bright. 






for 5™ 










„ 12 


9 


55 to 10 26 
(31'") 


10 


20 


39 


Three very bright. 


„ 13 


9 


to 9 56 

(se™) 


10 


25 


27 


Two very brilliant. 


Totals 


6M8" 


107 


286 





The total number of meteors observable was, without doubt, over 500, as 
only about one half of the sky was kept under view. The following par- 
ticulars were recorded of some of the most brilliant meteors which came 
under observation. 



83 



EEPORT — 1873. 



Date. 


Time. 


Remarks. 






h 


m 


g 




August 6 


9 


58 





From a Cassiopeire to a Andromedae. • Very brilliant 












blue meteor, leaving a long streak. 


ft 


6 


10 


40 





A very bright meteor traversed the centre of Ursa 
Major. 


» 


7 


10 


15 





From near a Herculis to Libra. Left a bright yellow 
train. 




7 


10 


27 





From /? Ophiuchi to Saturn. 




7 


10 


35 


30 


From (3 Pegasi to a Aquarii. 




8 


9 


45 





From Cassiopeia to Cygnus. Left a bright streak. 




8 


10 


7 





From a Lyrte (Vega) to Sagittarius. Left a long train. 




9 


9 


50 


.0 


From Cassiopeia to a Lyra;. 




9 


9 


52 





From Cassiopeia to Cygnus. 




9 


10 


12 





From Lyra to Pegasus. 




9 


10 


17 





From Cassiopeia to Delphinus, leaving a long train. 




9 


10 


30 





From Cassiopeia to y Pegasi. Left a long train. 




10 


10 


5 





From /3 Cvgni to a Aqnilx. Yellow. 




10 


10 


40 





From Draco to Serpens. Left a long train. 




10 


10 


45 





From Lyra to Ophiuchus. Left a long yellow train. ' 




10 


10 


50 





From Cassiopeia to Lyra. Left a long, pale-blue train. 




10 


10 


55 





From Cassiopeia to Ceplieus. Left a long train. 




11 


10 


10 





From Aquila to Sagittarius. 




12 


10 


3 





Along the Milky Way to Saturn. 




12 


10 


7 





Towards the south, near Saturn. 




12 


10 


16 





From 7] Pegasi to Andromeda. Left a streak. 




13 


9 


33 





From Cepheus to Perseus. Left a brilliant train. 




13 


9 


56 





From Capricornus to Sagittarius. Fast and brilliant. 



At Hawkhurst the appearance of the last meteor but oue of this list, on 
the 13th, was recorded at Q^ 32'", slowly and steadily increasing to a 
bolide of about the brightness of Venus, of nearly white or pale yellow 
colour, tapering behind to a narrow train, which marked its track for a 
few seconds. It first appeared close to h Ursae Majoris, and fell perpen- 
dicularly, about 12° along a line drawn from f Draconis, or from between 
the stars e and i; TJrsfc Minoris, towards the horizon. The meteor ap- 
peared in full view, and the point of first appearance and the length and 
direction of its flight (apparently from Draco) were very exactly noted. 

A detailed description of the various meteors of the shower recorded at the 
RadclifFe Observatory, at Oxford, was also obligingly communicated to the 
Committee by Mr. Main. The meteors were chiefly observed by Mr. Lucas, 
who was occasionally assisted by Mr. Keating ; and the following Table shows 
the number of the meteors which were noted on the successive nights. 



Date. 


Time. 


No. of 
uieteors. 


No. re- 
corded 

per 
hour. 


Remarks. 


Aug. 7... 
» 8... 

„ 9... 
„ 10... 

" „ 11... 


h m h m 
9 40 to 13 

(3h 20") 
9 30 to 14 49 

(5" 19»>) 

9 11 to 14 57 
(5h 46™) 

9 8 to 14 44 
(oi- 36"') 

9 1 to 15 9 
(6" 8-') 


10 
47 

57 
100 

102 


3 
9 

10 

18 

17 


Watch kept until 13'> 30™ ; no meteors as 
bright as Ist-mag. stars observed. 

Watch until 15'>. Motion of the meteors 
mostly very rapid. Eleven meteors = 
Ist-mag. stars. 

Watched from 8'' to 15'' 30™. Seven me- 
teors = Ist-mag. stars. 

Watched from 8" 30™ to IS"-. Four me- 
teors brighter than the fixed stars. Seven- 
teen meteors = Ist-mag. stars. 

Watched from 8'" 30™ to 15'' 10™. Three 
meteors brighter than the fixed stars. 
Nineteen meteors = Ist-mag. stars. 


Totals ... 


26"^ 2"" 


316 



OBSERVATIONS OV LUMINOUS METEORS. 



83 



The following particulars of some of the most remarkable meteors are con- 
taiucd in the list of observations, of which a full description will be included 
in the forthcoming printed volume of the Radcliffe Observations. 



Date. 



Time. 



Remarks. 







h 


m 


Augus 


t 8... 


12 


30 


»» 


8... 


13 


40 


»i 


9... 


9 


14 


»» 


9... 


10 


55 


}i 


9... 


12 


18 


ti 


9... 


13 


26 


if 


9... 


14 


45 


J» 


10... 


10 


22 


t» 


10... 


10 


51 


»» 


10... 


11 


17 


n 


10... 


12 


30 



„ 10.. 

„■ 11... 

„ 11 ... 

„ 11... 

„ 11... 

„ n... 

„ 11... 



14 10 

10 14 

10 55 

12 6 

12 36 

12 54 

14 4 



Meteor =lst-mag. » ; white; duration one second. Shot from 
\ Draconis to a Coronae. Curved path and long train. 

Meteor = lst-mag. #; white; duration two or three seconds. 
Shot past a Lyrse northwards, leaving a streak. 

Mr. Keating saw a meteor pass through the field of the Transit- 
circle while looking for a star near the south horizon. 

Meteor =:2nd-mag. *; duration one and a half second. From 
Q Cassiopeia} to S Cygni. Meteor with a long course and 
streak. 

Meteor= Ist-mag. * ; duration one and a half second. Shot from 
a Delphini past /3 Aquilae, leaving a streak. 

Two meteors = 2nd-mag. »8 appeared in quick succession, with 
an interval of about one second between them, passing on 
nearly the same course from a point near a Piscium towards 
»j Ceti. 

Meteor =2nd-mag. *; white; duration two seconds. Passed 
from X Draconis, just under Polaris, — ^-. This meteor 
had the slowest motion of any observed in this night's watch. 

Brighter than a Ist-mag. *; red. Shot from /3 Pegasi to a 
point near /3 Aquarii. This meteor rapidly followed two 
other meteors equal to 2nd and Ist-mag. «s in Bootes, and 
directed from /3 Andromedaj to y Pegasi. 

A flash of red light from the south was visible in the sky, re- 
sembling lightning. [Meteoric. See above.] 

As bright as Jupiter ; duration two seconds. From a point 
under y Ursae Majoris to the north horizon. 

Brighter than a Ist-mag. * ; yellow. Passed from y Ca- 
melopardit to a Ursai Majoris, leaving a brilliant train, 
about 15' in width, visible for about fifteen seconds, just 
under Polaris, after the meteor had disappeared. Certainly 
the most brilliant train I have ever seen. A streamer-look- 
ing appearance was visible in the place for half an hour, and 
was recognized by Mr. Keating at 13'^ 0'". [The meteor was 
also seen at Leamington, and, as will shortly be described, by 
Mr. Greg, at Manchester.] 

Meteors Ist-mag. *t; white; duration one second. Passed from 
a point near y Cjgni to rj Pegasi. [From radiant in 
Cygnus.] At H*" 13" two meteor.s=4th-mag. *s, appeared 
at the same instant moving in parallel paths between ^ and rj, 
and between a and y, across the constellation Pegasus. 

Brighter than a Ist-mag. # ; duration one and a half second. 
Shot from t; Persei, increasing in brightness, and changing 
from red to blue, and leaving a streak, until it burst over 
y Andromeda. 

Meteor = Ist-mag. *; duration one second. Passed from 
a Cygni to a point south of a Lyra;, leaving a bright train. 
This train was in two parallel lines, which slowly joined 
together sideways, and then disappeared (Mr. Keating). 

Two fourth-magnitude meteors, with an interval of two seconds 
between them, shot from I Aquarii to 5 Caprieorni, and from 
a Aquarii to /3 Aquarii. 

As bright as Jupiter. From a point between /3 and ^ Draconis 
to halfway between a Coronai and a Ophiuchi. Left a train 
visible for five or sis seconds. (The beginning of the meteor's 
course not well seen.) 

As bright as Jupiter ; yellow. Prom i Tauri to a little below 
Aldebaran. Left a streak. 

Two second and fourth-magnitude meteors appeared imme- 
diately following each other from y Ursie Minoris to between 
1) and 9 Draconis, and from a point just over h Ursoe Majoris, 
descending vertically. 



t Known in maps of Bode's Constellations as the star m Custodis. 



84; REPOllT— 1873. 

The following observations of the shower by Mr. E. P. Greg, at Man- 
chester, on the night of the 10th, and at Bolton on the nights of the 11th 
and 12th, describe the unusual appearance of one of the most remarkable 
meteors recorded in the above list : — " The number of the meteors was 
larger than usual, thougli not remarkably so. On the 10th and 11th, 
between lO*" 30" and 12'', I did not perceive much difference in the horary 
numbers : perhaps four or five in a minute for two observers ; coming 
sometimes four or five nearly together, and then several minutes passing 
without any being visible. On the evening of the 12th there was a great 
falling off, not only in the numbers, but also in the size and flashing train 
peculiar to the Perseids. At about 9'' 30" p.m. on the 10th, before I looked 
out, I heard that a splendid meteor was seen here. 

" At 12" 31", on the night of the 10-llth of August, a very remarkable 
meteor appeared in the S.E., which I hope may have been doubly observed, 
although it was visible after the time appointed for the simultaneous watch. 
It commenced close to /3 Andromedse, moving nearly on a line from t] Persei 
to a point a little beyond the star y Pegasi, which it almost crossed, 
describing a course of 10° or 12° in about two seconds. The nucleus had a 
sensible disk of about 2' in diameter, and, together with the train, showed 
prismatic colours. The train lasted twenty or thirty seconds, and soon 
assumed a serpentine appearance. It was one of the most beautiful meteors 
I have seen. About four or five seconds after it had disappeared, it broke out 
again five or six degrees further on, near X Piscium, moving exactly in the same 
direction, apparently the same meteor over again, about half its former size, 
but with the same colours, and leaving a bright streak on this part of its 
course for about three seconds. What appears most unaccountable was that 
it broke out again three or four seconds, at least, after it should have done, 
had it been the same meteor continuing onwards at the same velocity. It 
seemed, instead, to be another meteor, although it must have been the same ; 
but how its speed could be so checked after it first ceased to be visible, and 
it could then go on at the same speed as before, I do not know." 

The results of the regular observations made at the Royal Observatory at 
Greenwich, by Mr. Glaisher's staff of observers, are, in point of numbers and 
of the brightness of the meteors seen, very similar to those obtained at 
Oxford, the watch on the nights of the 10th and 11th being kept for about 
six hours and four and a half hours, and during from two to three hours on 
each of the remaining nights. The total number of meteors mapped, by the 
parties of from one to four observers who watched during a space of about 
25" 50" on the different nights was 470 ; and the average number per hour, 
with that of the meteors equal to or brighter than first-magnitude stars 
alone, recorded on each night is shown in the following Table : — 

Date, 1871, August 6 

Average hourly ] Bright meteors . . 4 

numbers of J Total mapped . . 8 

No. of observers 1 

The first meteor, equal to or exceeding the brightness of Jupiter, seen 
during the display was that already noticed, which was recorded at 10" 51" 
P.M. on the night of the 10th. At 9" 30" p.m. on the 11th a bluish-white 
meteor, brighter than Venus, appeared low down near the eastern horizon, 
immediately below y Andromeda?. At 10" 15" p.m. on the same evening a 
similar meteor, brighter than Jupiter, appeared near b Ljncis, and moved 
about 15° in 1| second in a direction from c Camelopardi, leaving a bright 
gtrcfik for three seconds. A meteor of the same magnitude, which appeared 



7 


8 


9 


10 


11 12 


13 


5 


5 


9 


14 


9 4 


3 


10 


14 


20 


28 


201 14 


9 


2 


2 


3 


4 


2 2 


2 



OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 85 

at lO*" 23"' 30' P.M. ou the evening of the 12th, and which left a flue streak, 
moved from a different radiant-point, for about 1| second, in a course 
of 10° between /3 and ?j Pegasi, from the direction of d Piscium. At 
10'' 46™ and ll"" 7"" p.m., on the same evening, meteors of greenish colour 
were seen, leaving long and bright streaks ; that of the first was visible for 
fourteen seconds ; and the meteor (as will shortly be described) was also seen 
at Hawkhurst. The last brilliant meteor of the shower was visible at 
lO*" 35'" P.M. on the 13th, of greenish colour, like the last two, and leaving 
an exceedingly bright streak, which was visible for six seconds after the 
meteor had disappeared. It passed from the direction of t] Persei, about 1° 
below Polaris and /3 XJrsce Minoris. At about the same time, or shortly 
before 11 o'clock on the evening of the 13th, a brilliant meteor appears to 
have been seen at Regent's Park, London, among other meteors of the 
shower which there still continued to be plentiful. A notable example 
of the meteors occasionally appearing in groups occurred at lO** 49"' p.m. 
on the 10th, when three meteors, about as bright as second-magnitude 
stars, appeared within an interval of about ten seconds, and all passed in a 
nearly identical path in continuation of a line joining y Andromedse and 
a Triangulfe. Two meteors, brighter than first-magnitude stars, also ap- 
peared within four seconds of each other, moving in parallel and closely 
neighbouring courses, inclined about 45° towards the horizon, in the con- 
stellation Capricornus, at 11'' 4"' 20' p.m. on the 10th. This brilliant pair 
was simultaneously observed at Hawkhurst, each meteor about the bright- 
ness of Sirius, leaving a long, bright, and slender streak. The first com- 
mencing about 2° above /3 Aqiiarii, moved on a course exactly parallel to 
that of the second, which passed, with the same steady speed as the first, 
from half a degree below ^ Aquarii to half a degree below h Capricorni. 
Mr. Wood, at Birmingham, also noted the appearance, at the same minute, 
and within about two seconds of each other, of this ijerfectly matched and 
closely adjacent pair. Each meteor was about as bright as Sirius, of orange 
colour, lasted one second, and left a reddish streak upon its course. The path 
of the first, as seen at Birmingham, was from 6 Aquarii to S Capricorni ; and 
that of the second was parallel and closely adjoining to it from a point in 
R. A. 325°, S. Decl. 22°, to R. A. 321°, S. Decl. 26°. Closely as all these de- 
scriptions of them correspond together, the unfavourable position of their 
apparent paths near the horizon prevents the real heights and the distances 
of the component meteors of the pair from each other and from the 
observers fi-om being calculated with the accuracy and certainty that would 
otherwise have been attainable from such excellent observations. 

Almost all the meteors observed at Greenwich during the display left 
more or less brilliant and enduring streaks. With the exception of one 
reddish, four white, eight pale green or greenish, and twenty-six yellowish 
meteors (in all about 8 per cent.), all the meteors mapped at Greenwich were 
uniformly of a bluish or bluish-white colour. 

As seen on the nights of the 10th and 11th in Loudon, the following is 
Mr. Crumplen's description of the August meteors : — " The sky was quite 
clear, but there was an auroral glare in the north, and a white streamer 
flickering for a few minutes on the evening of the 10th*. Eighty-two 

* The auroral streamer was also seen by Mr. W. H. Jackson at Tooting near 
London, who writes : — " On the 10th there was a tolerably distinct aurora borealis, one 
streamer of which extended from the north to a spot apparently a considerable distance 
beyond Arcturus." At York a distinct auroral arch was seen by Mr. J. E. Clark on the 
€th, lasting from after twilight, when it first appeared, until 11'' 30", when it was 
obscured by the rising moon. A similar faint appearance was observed by Professor 
Herschel, at Glasgow, on the evening of the 7tb. 



8G REroRT— 1873. 

meteors were counted between 9^ 30™ and midnight, of which forty-six 
fell during the last hour. The courses of fifty-six bright meteors were 
mapped during a watch of about eight hours on the nights of the 9th, 
10th, and 11th, with an average hourly rate of appearance, for one observer, 
of three bright meteors on the 9th, nine on the 10th, and ten on the 11th, 
all of them directed from Perseus. The Perseids were of all magnitudes, 
but the greater number of bright ones (in proportion to the number visible) 
made their appearance on the 11th. They presented the appearances com- 
mon to the meteors of this radiant ; and some of them left 
brilliant streaks of blue light, which expanded after the o -< r- ~r :=>- 
disappearance of the nucleus, fading gradually from the ends 
towards the centre. In several instances I noticed that the nucleus was 
apparently separate from the train, the brighter ones reminding me very 
much of the corresponding shower of 1863." 

On the nights of the 10th and 11th the sky was overcast at Edinburgh 
and Glasgow ; but several bright meteors were seen at Glasgow on the nights 
of the 7th, 8th, and 9th by Professor Herschcl, one of which shot with a 
flash overhead at about 12'' 48™ a.m. on the 9th, resembling faint lightning. 
At Edinburgh on the 9th, and at Sunderland on the 11th and 12th, the 
paths of fifteen Perseids were also mapped by Mr. T. W. Backhouse, 
although the sky was obscured at Sunderland by thick fog and haze. At 
Knocklong in Ireland a good view of the shower was obtained by Mr. 
Jeremiah Henly, whose description of its appearance was communicated to 
the Committee by Mr. "W. F. Denning : — " Although I did not reckon the 
actual number visible, I considered that more meteors appeared on the 11th 
than on the 10th. On the 11th, in about three hours, I witnessed thirty- 
three of remarkable brilliancy, whUe on the 10th, in the same space of time, 
only twenty-seven of a similar character were visible ; but the smaller 
meteors I did not reckon on either night." Mr. Denning also regarded the 
shower at Bristol as at least as intense on the second as on the first night 
of its appearance, and thus describes the principal characters of the meteors 
seen : — " The majority of the meteors were accompanied with trains, 
which, however, disappeared immediately on the extinction of the head. 
Most of those seen were white, but several appeared blue, and some 
of a yellow colour. No sound was heard after the explosion of any of 
them. The meteors were most numerous on the night of the llth-12th; 
and the same was the case in the year 1869, according to my own 
observations." 

At Hawkhurst the paths of 107 bright meteors were recorded with more 
or less detail by one observer, during a watch of about ten hours, on the 
nights of the 9th-13th of August, lasting about three hours (until shortly 
after midnight) on each of the first three nights, and for a shorter time on 
the other two. The average hourly numbers noted on the former nights 
were six bright meteors on the 9th, sixteen on the 10th, and eleven of 
similar character on the 11th. Three brilliant meteors appeared on the 
night of the 12th, and one on the night of the 13th, among ten bright ones 
recorded in an hour on the former, and seven in the same time on the latter 
night. Of these, the first (already stated to have been seen at the Royal 
Observatory, Greenwich) appeared at lO'' 46" 30' p.m., with a sensible disk 
and apparently fully as bright as Yenus, of dazzling bluish-white light, 
crossing ft UrsEe Minoris from a point about half a degree below Polaris, be- 
ginning at R. A. 40°, N. Decl. 891°, and ending at R. A. 225°, N. Dccl. 75°. 
It left a bright streak which remained visible, on its whole course for about 



OBSERA'ATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 



87 



three seconds. At the Royal Observatory, Greenwich, the meteor, of pale- 
green colour, leaving a bnght streak visible for fourteen seconds, moved 
in about two seconds from i Cassiopeice across /3 Cephei, almost to o Lyree. 
The other two bright meteors seen at Hawkhurst on the 12th were scarcely 
inferior in brightness to this one. That which appeared at 11'' 16'" passed 
from r Pegasi to a point midway between y Piscium and H Aquarii, changing 
from blue to yellow colour as it increased, and leaving a bright streak for a 
few seconds on its course. The second was observed at ll"* 34"", passing in 
fully one and a half second over 30° or 40° of arc from the star /3 Andromedoe, 
along a line directed from ^ Cassiopeias and inclined about 50° to the horizon. 
It left a bright streak for some seconds on its course, which was broken into 
two, or had two maxima of brightness at two different points of its length. 
The apparent paths of these two meteors were : — 

R. A. N. Decl. R. A. N. Decl. 

August 12..1P16"> 2 . Began at 348° + 22°. Ended at 343°+ 6° 



ll" 34"= 2 • 



15 +35 



13 



+ 161 



Cassio-^i 



eia 



The trains of most of the meteors seen at Hawkhurst were bluish and 
rather faint, except when seen foreshortened. They sometimes distinctly 
spread out after the star had disappeared, and grew gauze-like. They 
rarely resembled the golden-yellow dotted lines which have sometimes been 
seen to mark the track of bright meteors in former August showers. 

Position of the Badiant-point. 

At Bristol, on the evening of the 10th, Mr. W. F. Denning " saw several 
small meteors which, from their various paths, must have been in close 
proximity to a radiant-point which is 
undoubtedly situated at R. A. 2^ 30" « 

(37^°), N. Decl. 58° 30'. This is /3 

about 31° S.W. of the sword-handle of 
Perseus," and between ^ Persei and B 
Camelopardi. I saw several small 
meteors whose paths were extremely 
short, that came exactly from the 
place I have indicated. The annexed 
is a rough delineation of a few of the 
meteors' paths that were observed in 
the neighbourhood of this radiant- 
point in Camelopardalus. There were 
many other meteors whose paths were 
conformable to B Camelopardi ; and 
there appears no doubt as to this being 
the radiant-point, or rather the prin- 
cipal one." 

. London, August 10th. — On this 
evening the radiant-point appeared to 
Mr. Crumplcn to be for most of the 
meteors near y Persei; but another 
radiant-point higher up in the sky 
was quite apparent for some of them. 
" In the case of every meteor, whether H, 

mapped or counted, I ran my eye 
back along the track to determine, if possible, the true radiant-point. It 






Came 1 0- 
pardttlxis 




to 



*tf 



88 BEPORT— 1872. 

appeared clear enough to me that there was more than one radiant, or that 
a somewhat extensive space of the sky would be required if the tracks of all 
the meteors were to be included in it. I believe, however, that the great 
majority of the meteors will be found to have diverged from a spot rather 
higher than the famous cluster in Perseus (33 ^vi), say about 1° above. 
Meteors from this point have been plentiful each evening, and three quarters 
of those observed between 11'' and 12'' on the 10th came from there. I 
noticed that these followed each other rapidly, and that after a lull for a few 
minutes, a radiant still higher would manifest itself, as will be indicated by 
the map. The radiants in Ursa Major, Cygnus, and Pegasus were also 
active, especially the latter ; but with one or two exceptions these meteors 
were not particularly noted." 

From a very full projection of more than 300 meteors seen at York between 
the 5th and the 12th of August, Mr. J. E. Clark obtained the proportions of 
the meteors directed from each of the principal radiant-points of the shower 
in 1871. "The proportion of the Persei'ds observed was about 85 per cent., 
from Cygnus 7 per cent., from the radiant below e Pegasi about 4| per 
cent., from Polaris about 2 per cent., and from an apparent radiant-point 
in Aquarius about 1 per cent. One meteor was observed in Auriga, appa- 
rently from a radiant-point near /3 Aurigse. 

" The main radiant on the 10th, as shown by the mapped courses, lay close 
to 7] Persei ; but very many were directed from a Persei, or even lower still, 
whilst a large number extended the radiant to x- Besides the central radiant, 
there seemed to be one or two outlying points from which the tracks appear 
to diverge. One of these seems to be between j3 and y Andromeda;, and 
another by c Camelopardi. 

" Of meteors almost stationary, the best was one seen by Mr. Waller 
and Mr. Brown just by rj Persei on the 8th. I observed some nearly 
so, near y Persei on the 8th, below r/ on the 10th, and at ^ on the 11th, also 
by V Draconis on the 10 th; and Mr. Brown saw one by p Cephei on 
the 8th." 

In a letter in 'Nature' of August 17, 1871, Mr. Clark communicates the 
numbers of the meteors seen on each night, together with some further par- 
ticulars regarding the above radiant-points, which are here appended. 

" Having been engaged during the past Aveek in observations on the August 
meteors, I thought a few of the results might be interesting to some of your 
numerous subscribers. My regular observations extended fi'om Sunday night 
to Friday night ; and, as the following Table will show, the weather was, with 
the exception of one night, as favourable as could reasonably be desired. 
From over 120 meteors mapped down (out of about 330 seen) it is evident 
that, the principal radiant-point, or rather line, is a line drawn from a Persei 
to y Persei, and onwards towards jj. One bright meteor was seen on the 8th, 
just below T) Persei, which did not move more than i° in a second of time, 
and left a cloud behind it lasting about two seconds. A remarkable feature 
was the outlying radiants, as they appeared to be, one of which was situated 
at or near 6 Cassiopeise, another near the star c of Camelopardalus. The 
radiant situated between o Cygni and y Draconis is very well marked ; also a 
radiant near y Cephei (where another almost stationary meteor was 
observed), and one just below e Pegasi, towards a Aquarii; associated 
apparently with the last is a radiant near the small lozenge in Delphinus, 
above a Aquila. 

" In the following list of 312 meteors observed here, 242, or about 77 per 
cent., were from the Perseus radiant or radiants : — 



OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 

" Meteors seen August 1871, at Yorlc. 



89 



Dat«. 


Hours. 


State of sky. 


Number Number observed 
observed.l from Perseus. 


Proportion. 


August 5 . . . 
„ 6... 

„ 7... 
„ 8... 

., 9... 
„ 10... 


h m b m 

lO O-IO lO 
lO 20-12 O 
lO 0-I2 O 
lO 0-I2 O 

lo 30-11 30 
955-12 5 

9 55-12 s 


Fine 


6 

34 
49 

50 
6 

120 
47 


28 
30 

3' 
4 

106 
38 


•83 
•82 
•61 

•62 
•6 

•88 
•80 


Fine 


Fine 


Fine, till 11 '45, 
then cloudy ... 

Cloudy and hazy . 

Few clouds at 
times, and very 
slight haze 

Ditto 





<' Generally two watching, sometimes three, and once or twice hut one. 
For the 10th I had a list of twenty-six others handed me, observed by a 
friend close at hand, of which nineteen were from Perseus. 

"J. Edmitnd Clark." 
"20 Bootbam, York, August 14." 

At Birmingham the position of the radiant-point appeared to Mr. Wood to 
have undergone no change from its apparent place as described in former years. 

At Manchester on the 10th, and at Bolton on the 11th and 12th, Mr. Greg 
noted especially the short meteors near the radiant-point in order to deter- 
mine, if possible, its real place. On the night of the 10th it appeared to be 
situated about halfway between r; and x Persei, on the 11th exactly at »j, 
and on the 1 2th about halfway between jj and y Persei. In relation to these 
results Mr. Greg observes : — " There can, I think, be little doubt, judging from 
my own observations, that this year the radiant-point was lengthened out on 
a line between ^ and y Persei, with the centre precisely at ij (or Ic), that 
there was a tendency to move with the time from x towards y, and that on 
the night of the 11th the tendency to accurate radiation was unusually pre- 
cise. Probably accuracy of radiation is a symptom of a particular shower 
being at its maximum intensity, with the individual meteors less scattered 
than at periods of its minimum display. I saw so very few meteors move 
near the radiant, either up or down, that I cannot so precisely state the 
position of tlie radiant-point in right ascension as in declination." 

Among the list of meteors received by the Committee from the observers 
of the August shower in 1871, the paths of 316 meteors noted on the nights 
of the 9th, 10th, and 11th of August were sufficiently well indicated to be 
correctly delineated on suitable star-maps. Of the whole number nine were 
directed from a radiant-point near the north pole of the heavens, at about 
R. A. 10°, N. Decl. 82°; fourteen proceeded from a radiant-point in Cygnus, 
apparently close to I Cygni, at about R. A. 293°, N. Decl. 42° ; and thirty-three 
meteors diverged from radiant-points in or near the constellations Pegasus 
and Aquarius. Of the remaining number a few meteors appeared to be very 
erratic or sporadic, and about 250 were distinctly members of the shower 
diverging from the radiant-point in Perseus. The long duration of the 
shower appearing to offer a favourable opportunity for ascertaining if the 
position of the radiant-point underwent a sensible change during the time of 
its continuance, the recorded apparent patlis of all the Perseids noted during 
successive intervals of ten minutes on each of the nights of observation were 

1872. H 



90 REPORT— 1872. * 

projected upon separate maps. A similar projection of the paths of the 
meteors recorded at the Royal Observatory at Greenwich on the night of the 
10th of August was also made upon a separate map for each interval of ten 
minutes during the hours of observation. With the exception of the period 
between 9^ and 10" p.m. on the 10th among the Greenwich observations, and 
between 9'' 45" and 10'' 45" p.m. on the same evening among those of the 
British-Association observers, when 40 per cent, of all the meteors mapped 
diverged very accurately from a centre of radiation at about E. A. 34°, N. 
Decl. 61° nearly midway between ^ Persei and t Cassiopeise, and a very 
marked activity of this radiant-point during the following hours of both those 
scries of observations until midnight on the 10th, no tendency to accurate 
divergence from a single radiant-point during any sustained jieriodwas obser- 
vable during the continuance of the shower. A radiant-point near rj Persei, 
which was also discernible among the British-Association observations on each 
evening of the shower, presented itself most conspicuously in those made at 
Greenwich on the evening of the 10th, towards midnight, and by the inter- 
section of its meteor-tracks with otliers from the more northern radiant, 
appeared to give rise to a prominent centre of divergence after midnight 
between y and e Cassiopeiaj, which may have owed its apparent activity to 
the simultaneous existence of the former pair. The general radiant-point of 
the meteoric shower at Greenwich on the night of the 10 th was very nearly 
the principal one already indicated, with a tendency, especially after midnight, 
of some meteors to come from directions nearer to n and to y Persei. All 
the meteor-tracks noted by the British-Association observers between 9^ 30"" 
and 12'M4" on the 10th having been projected upon a single map with the 
radiant-point in Perseus near the centre of the projection, a densely crowded 
region of intersection of the tracks prolonged backwards was found to occupy 
a roughly triangular space of about 10° in length along each side, having its 
centre very nearly at the above indicated spot in li. A. 36°, N". Decl. 58°, and 
its angles in nearly symmetrical positions at points in E. A. 31°, N. Decl. 61°, 
R. A. 36°, N. Decl. 53°, and R. A. 45°, N. Decl. 50°, as shown by the small 
circles marked (lo) in the accompanying figure. The first of these points cor- 
responds very closely with the definite radiant-point, which was most conspi- 
cuous during the early portion of the shower. 

On the night of the 11th the principal intersection of meteor- tracks recorded 
at the Royal Observatory, Greenwich, was still close to the latter point, at 
R. A. 31°, N. Decl. 62°, during the hours of observation from 9" until 13" 30'", 
with subordinate points of intersection at B and D Camclopardi, and between 
»j and P Persei. A projection of all the tracks recorded by the British-Asso- 
ciation observers between 9" 45™ and 13" on this night having been made on 
a similar map to that prepared for the observations of the 1 0th, the principal 
centre of divergence was found to be placed not far from its position on the 
previous night, a few degrees northward from j^ Persei, at R. A. 31°, N. 
Decl. 58°. A meteor with very short course appealing close to this point 
marked its position very nearly. The tracks of the remaining meteors were 
almost evenly distributed round it, within distances which included nearly all 
the courses of 12° or 15° from its centre. But other apparent centres of radia- 
tion also presented themselves somewhat definitely near the north and south 
borders of the radiant-region, in the neighbourhood of e Cassiopeiae and r) Persei, 
at points in R. A. 25°, N. Decl. 63°, and R. A. 42°, N. Decl. 55°, as shown 
in the figure by the small circles marked (u), forming apparent outliers of the 
central point. 



OBSERVATIONS OP LUMINOUS METEORS. 



91 



On the night of the 9th of August the apparent paths of 38 rerseVcls re- 
corded by the British-Associiition observers between 9'' and 12'' 50'" appear 
to have diverged from two definite radiant-points of nearly equal intensity at 
the extremities of an oval space, extending from ?/ Persei to near e Cassiopeise, 
through which nearly all the recorded paths prolonged backwards passed. 
These points were situated in li. A. 29°, N.DccL60°, and R. A. 39°, +55°. 




The general centre of divergence of the Perseids during the whole period of 
greatest intensity of the shower on the nights of the 9th-12th of August, 1871, 
was shown by the combined results of these observations to be a few degrees 
northwards from the star ^ Persei, and not far from a point in R. A. 35°, 
N. Decl. 59°, which is the average place obtained by giving equal weight to 
all the separate radiant-centres shown iu the figure, of which tlic positions 

h2 



92 KEPORT— 1872. 

were determined from the observations of the shower communicated to the 
Committee by the observers for the British Association. The figure represents 
in plane perspective the apparent paths of all the Perseids noted on the nights 
of the 9th, 10th, and 11th of August, 1871, whose visible tracks were in the 
immediate vicinity of the general radian-tregion of the shower. 

Meteor-showers in October, 1871 . — On the night of October 14th, between 
ll*" and 12'' p.m., six meteors, as bright or brighter than Ist-magnitude 
stars, were observed at Hawkhurst in one hour, radiating -with considerable 
accuracy from a point near the head of Aries, and close to the point of first, 
appearance on this date of the radiant R^ in Musca, which appears to contri- 
bute bright meteors from the direction of this constellation during the prin- 
cipal meteor-showers of October, November, and December, but from which 
so many bright meteors in one hour as those seen at Hawkhurst on the above 
date form an exceptional display. Another meteor, like one noted on this 
date, as bright as Sirius, proceeded from the same radiant-point, passing over- 
head at Hawkhurst, and leaving a faint streak, at 11'' 45'" p.m. on the 19th ; 
and two scarcely less brilliant members of the same meteor-shower appeared, 
with short courses and slow motion, near the radiant-point on the 21st of 
October. Three or four bright meteors with swift motion and leaving bright 
streaks on their tracks, proceeding apparently from circuinpolar radiants near 
Aj^, ,5 and Fj, ^ in Cassiopeia and Auriga, were noted during the same short 
watch at Hawkhurst which was kept on each of those dates. The sky was 
overcast with rain and wind on the nights of the 18th and 19th at Hawk- 
hurst, and at all the other places from which communications were received ; 
and although occasional openings of the clouds allowed a few stars to be seen at 
Hawkhurst, where the single bright meteor last noticed was observed, and at 
Tooting, where Mr. H. W. Jackson kept a watch for them whenever the state 
of the sky permitted, no other shooting-stars were recorded. But in a mode- 
rately clear sky, from 7'' 45"" until 11'' p.m. on the 18th, six meteors of some 
brightness were mapped at the Boyal Observatory, Greenwich, two of which 
were directed from E.3, one from the north pole, and the rest from a radiant- 
point near A^^ ^j in Cassiopeia, or F^ ^ in Auriga. 

On the night of the 20th the sky remained overcast at the southern 
stations ; but at Birmingham, Sunderland, and Glasgow a few meteors were 
visible through fog and haze, which generally obscured all stars less bright 
than the third magnitude, until nearly midnight, when the sky gradually 
became more clear. Three small shooting-stars were observed at Glasgow 
by Mr. R. M'Clure between 1 1'' and 12'' p.m., and two by Mr. Wood at Bir- 
mingham, as described in his observations on the shower. 

Between 9 o'clock and midnight on the same evening, four meteors, three 
of which were directed nearly from R^, and one apparently from the north 
pole, were observed by Mr. T. W. Backhouse at Sunderland ; they were 
unconformable to the radiant (Schiaparelli, No. 30, B. A. Report for 1870, 
p. 98), or to any of the other radiant-points noted by Mr. Backhouse in the 
morning hours of this and the two following nights. Another bright and 
unconformable meteor, seen on the same night, was also directed from the 
north pole ; while the twenty-one remaining meteors, seen in the course of 
about two hours of observation on the mornings of the 21st, 22nd, and 23rd 
(and all but three on the earlier dates), indicated the return of the October 
meteors, and presented some contemporaneous radiant-points, of which Mr. 
Backhouse gives the following description in his remarks on these results of 
his observations : — 

" The meteors marked A [twelve meteors noted in about an hour and a 



OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 93 

half on the mornings of the 21st and 22nd, and another on the morning of 
the 23rd] in the list belong to SchiaparcUi's liadiant No. 36 *, and those 
marked C [two meteors noted on the last morning of the watch] to his 
No. 37 f. Those marked B [five meteors seen on the mornings of the first 
two nights] have a radiant-point in R. A. 113°, N. Decl. -58° J ; but, owing 
to the remarkable swiftness of these meteors, this point can be only approxi- 
mate. I make the radiant-point of A at R. A. 97°, N. Decl. 15°, taking the 
observations of all three nights. The meteors marked U were unconform- 
able to all these showers. It will be seen that only one of these appeared in 
any of the mornings, and no unconformable ones in the evenings. 

"The hourly rate of frequency of meteors of all- kinds, at that time of 
morning at which thej were most numerous, was on the 20th [morning of 
the 21st] 19, on the 21st 12, on the 22nd 8." 

None of the shooting-stars observed at Hawkhurst, or at the Royal Obser- 
vatory, Greenwich, on the evenings of the 14th and 18th of October were 
directed from the radiant-point in Orion ; but on the night of the 21st the 
tracks of eleven meteors from this radiant-point were mapped at Hawkhurst 
between the hours of 11*" 30"" and 13'' 30"', and an approximate position of 
the radiant-point was obtained. This appeared to be between the stars ■}, v 
Geminorum and v Orionis. A 
small meteor, almost instanta- 
neous, near this point described ^ 

a short path, which appeared ^ 

curved towards Castor and Pol- /? a * Gemini 

lux, and which lay in the sky ' 
like a bent whip (see the sketch) • 

between y Geminorum and X • 

Tauri, at about R. A. 90°, N. © 1:=—-^ & « 

Decl. 20°. The last meteor of % T ^V^ ^ . 

the shower seen at Hawkhurst v 

on this night was directed from 

the point C, between Castor (ir'ion 

and Pollux, regarded by Mr. ^ 

Backhouse as having furnished ^•v 

a few meteors on the morning A 

ofthe23rdof October, at Sun- • 

derland, during his observations of this shower. 

With regard to the appearance of the October meteors at Birmingham, 
Mr. Wood communicated to the Committee the following results of his obser- 
vations of the shower in the past and in previous years : — 

Luminous Meteors. 
Birmingham. Epoch 19th October. W. H. Wood. 

The meteoric shower of the above epoch has not been visible from this 
station since 1868; and the following are the unpublished results of those 

» Brit. Assoc. Eeport for 1870, p. 98.— Oct. 21. Near y Geminorum, at E. A. 96°, 
N. Decl. 13°. Apparently identical with the radiant O, near v Orionis, described in 
previous Eeports, of the meteor-shower on October 18-21. 

t Ibid. Between Castor and Pollux, on October 21-25. About 17° or 18° from 
SchiaparcUi's position of the former radiant-point. 

X Connected, apparently, wtli the radiants Fj,^ [Report for 1868, p. 403], from the 
middle of September to the latter end of November^ at R. A. 83°, N. Decl. 50°, near a, /3, 
and h Aurigae. 



94 



REPORT 1872. 



Probable time of maximum, 
18th-lyth, 



Percentage of colours. 



observations, together with those of the succeeding years, to the present date 
(1871):- 

Meteoric Shower, October 19, 1868. 

Centres of radiation and the number 
per cent, from each. 

Eadiant. per cent. 

= 57 

K..S = 7 

K = 1^ 

r, = 10 

e; ..+R3 = 10 

U + G + T.,,3,, = 6 



Orange or yellow. 

Blue 

White 



= 40 
= 40 

= 20 



Percentage of magnitudes . 

Equal to Sirius = 13 

„ 1st mag = 20 

„ 2nd mag =23 

„ 3rd mag. and under = 44 



43 per cent, left reddish trains. 
Eate of Apparition. 



Date. 


Hour (G. M. T.). 


Number of 

meteors 

registered. 


Hourly 
average. 


State of the sky. 


18. 
18. 
19. 
19. 
20. 
21. 


12.0 to 12.30 a.m. 

9.45 P.M. to 10 p.m. 

10.30 P.M. to 11.30 p.m. 

11.30 p.m. to 1,2.30 a.m. 

P.M. 

10.45 P.M. to 11.45 P.M. 


6 

1 

4 

10 

6 


12 
4 
4 

10 

6 


Clear. 

Hazy ; overcast at 10.45. 

Foggy ; stars dim. 

Clear. 

Overcast. 

Clear. 



As far as the weather permitted observations, it would seem probable that 
this shower was above the average of its kind in hourly numbers seen, and 
presented its distinctive features of ruddy meteors leaving trains, of which 
57 per cent, emanated from the radiant in Orion ; the remainder issued 
from seven other radiants. Few meteors were seen before 11.30. 

1869, October 19, p.m. — The brightness of the full moon obscxired the 
meteors (if any). 

October 19, 1870. — From the 18th to the 20th stormy weather (p.m.). 

October 19, 1871. — 18th, overcast. 19th, overcast; heavy rains (p.m.). 
20th, foggy; from 10.2Q to 11.20 p.m. 2 meteors: 11.10 p.m., 2ud mag., 
blue, 0-5 sec; from 86,4-53, to 74, + 50; radiant F^ ; left a streak (the 
other meteor was not observed accurately enough for mapping : 10.35 p.m., 
ruddy, 2nd mag., in head of Cetus, rad. ?). 

Meteor-showers of November 1871. — At Brancepeth, Durham, Mr. Joseph 
Lawson noticed some conspicuous shooting-stars on the evening of the 8th of 
November, of which he gives the following description : — " On Wednesday, 
the 8th, at about 6 p.m., I saw four meteors in five minutes ; the brightest 
about the 2ud magnitude. One passed through Corona, the other three were 
all through Aquila ; but their directions were such that I could see no radiant- 
point. One described a course of fully 60° (see the accompanying sketch, 
p. 95)." 

From a report of observations at Sunderland received from Mr. Back- 
house, it appears that one or two meteors from Leo were visible on the 



OBSERVATIONS OP LUMINOUS METEORS. ^S 

eveniug of tho 8l.U of November, between half-past 10 and half-past 11 

o'clock, one of which, at 10" ;37'", was 

perfectly similar to the Leonids in all / AjuiLcc 

respects, and was as bright as Siriiis. -^^ ^ ^^ • __,- 

A 2ud-raaffnitnde meteor, leaving a ^-^i^-^" 

long streak, also shot betweeen Ancs ^^ / ^\ 

and Cetns from the direction of the / "^^^ 

Pleiades and of the head of Leo as / "^\ 

late as the evening of the 18th of J, ^x 

November, qnite resembling in its ap- n 

pearance, and being perfectly conform- ^^ 

able to the radiant-point of that well- ^s 

known group. The following notice of 

a contemporaneous radiant-point accompanies Mr. Backhouse's description of 

his observations of the shower : — 

" I enclose a Table of the most important meteors that I saw last month. 
Those marked L are Leonids, and those marked 11^ are conformable to Heis's 
radiant-point H*. I was surpiised to see two Leonids so early as November 
8 ; although the path of that at 10'' 37'" was not quite in the right direction 
for the great shower of the 13th, I have not the least doubt that it was one 
of them, for it was exactly like them. I watched for the Leonids for 25 
minutes on the 12th [morning of the 13th], between 16'' 17'" and 17" 25"', 
and saw two. The next night was throughout cloudy, whenever I looked 
out, with very small gaps in the clouds, so I saw no meteors." Besides the 
Leonids here noticed five meteors directed from the radiant-point E.^ were 
seen on the nights of the 8th and 9th of November. 

At the Royal Observatory, Greenwich, the sky was overcast on the nights 
of the 11th and 13th, and only clear at intervals on that of the 12th. A 
watch was, however, kept on the last two of these nights until after 3 o'clock 
on the morning of the 13th, and until daybreak on the morning of the 14th 
of November, and the apparent courses of about thirty shooting-stars were 
mapped. Of these, four on each night proceeded, roughly, from the direction 
of Leo, the remaining meteor-courses being chiefly directed from Taurus and 
from other contemporaneous radiant-points in other parts of the sky. On 
the night of the 14-15th the sky was again quite overcast ; and as far as 
could be gathered from the observations under such unfavourable conditions, 
the number of the Leonids observed was two or three times less than that of 
the meteors visible from other radiant-points, or of the sporadic meteors visible 
on an ordinary November night ; and no distinct return of the November 
meteor-shower at the Royal Observatory, Greenwich, covxld be recorded as 
having been visible on the annual dates in the year 1871. 

Although cloudy on the previous and the following nights, the sky was 
remarkably clear at Hawkhnrst on the night of the 13th-14th of November; 
and a watch for the November meteors was kept from half-past eleven until 
half-past one, and again for about half an hour soon after two o'clock. The 
first Leonid was visible at 11'' 33"', as bright as Jupiter, passing in a long 
course and leaving a long streak from under Ursa Minor to the N.W. horizon. 
In the following two hours twelve Leonids and twenty-six other meteors, 
none of very great brilliancy, were noted, and their courses were mapped by 
one observer. The unconformable shooting-stars all proceeded from a radiant- 
region in or near the space contained between the heads of Taurus and Orion 

* Also noticed by Mr. Backhouse on the -Ith and 6th of November, 1869 ; see these 
Kcports for 1870, p. 97. 



96 REPORT — 1872. 

and the feet of Gemini and Auriga, while the Leonids were directed from a 
better-defined radiant-region in the head of Leo. Two more Leonids, and 
two other meteors belonging to the group from Taurus, were recorded during 
the short watch between 2'' and 2'' 30™ a.m. on the 14th. One accordant 
observation of a meteor from Taurus, simultaneously observed at the Royal 
Observatory, Greenwich, at 12'' 3'" 12% was obtained ; and the comparative rate 
of frequency of the Leonids and of the unconformable or sporadic meteors 
visible during the same watch nearly confirmed the results of the watch kept 
by Mr. Glaisher's staff of observers at the latter place. 

At the observatory of Stonyhurst CoUege the Ilev. S. J. Perry obtained an 
uninterrupted view of the November meteors during several hours of their 
appearance on the morning of the 13th of November ; and the following 
results are obtained from the list of meteors which he observed. The sky 
was overcast until lO*" 15'" p.m. on the 12th (when a regular watch was com- 
menced), and was clear, with the exception of a few stratus clouds, until 
3^ 15"", when it became quite clear, and remained so until the end of the 
watch at 6" 30™ a.m. on the morning of the 13th. The times and other par- 
ticulars of the^appearance of fifty-five meteors were recorded, with the posi- 
tions of their apparent paths among the stars. Of these about twenty were 
Leonids, and fifteen, seven of which were Leonids, were as bright as first- 
magnitude stars. The following numbers of shooting-stars, and of the 
meteors which appeared to radiate from Leo, were observed in the successive 
hours ending at — 

1871, Nov. 13th, A.M... 12'' 13'^ 14" 3'' 4" 5" G'' 6" 30™ Totals 
Nos. of meteors seen .. 4 9 6 12 3 7 10 4 55 

Nos. of Leonids 2 1 71 1 6 2 20 

The majority of the unconformable meteors noted during the watch pro- 
ceeded from the directions of those parts of Gemini, Orion, Taurus, and 
Auriga near the head stars of Orion, or between the Hyades, the Pleiades, 
and the Twins. 

" In the watch for meteors kept under the direction of M. Le Verrier in 
France, on the nights of the 12th, 13th, and 14th of November, those ob- 
served on the 12th and 13th issued from a point in the neighbourhood of the 
constellation Auriga ; the ' Leonides,' or meteors issuing from Leo, were most 
numerous on the night of the 14th" (Notes from the ' Comptes Rendus' of 
Nov. 20, 1871, in ' Nature' of Nov. 30, 1871). 

The following description of the November meteors, as they appeared at 
Newcastle-on-Tyne on the morning of the 15th of November, 1871, was 
communicated in a letter from Professor Herschel, in ' Nature ' of the 30th 
of November : — 

" Shortly before four o'clock on the morning of the 15th the clouds cleared 
ofi", and the appearance of several meteors, one of which was as bright as 
Jupiter, gave evident signs of the progress of the November star-shower. 
The perfect clearness and darkness of the sky, in the absence of the moon, at 
the same time gave especial brightness to the meteors and to their phospho- 
rescent streaks. Between four o'clock and the first approach of daylight, at 
six o'clock, thirty-two meteors were counted, or at the rate of sixteen per 
hour, of which three were as bright, or brighter, than first-magnitude stars, 
nine as bright as second, six as bright as third, and eight no brighter than 
stars of the fom-th or lesser magnitudes. Twenty-six of these meteors were 
directed from the usual radiant-point in Leo, which on this occasion, although 
not very well defined, appeared to be approximately close to the star Zeta, in 



OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS, 97 

Leo's sickle. About one half of their number left persistent streaks, which 
sometimes appeared to grow brighter after the meteors had disappeared; and 
I vainly endeavoured to bring them into the field of view of the direct-vision 
prisms of a small spectroscope, the duration of the brightest streaks noted 
scarcely ever exceeding one or two seconds. A very brilliant meteor, casting 
around a flash like that of lightning, was seen here shortly after nine o'clock 
on the evening of the 1 3th (and its appearance was also noted at Woodburn), 
traversing the north-west sky. These particulars, imperfect as they were, 
uufortunately, rendered by the cloudy weather, are the only descriptions of 
the November star-shower which its appearance here has hitherto enabled 

me to supply. 

" A. S. Herschel." 
" Newcastle-on-Tyne, Nov. 17." 

Meteor-shower of December 12th, 1871. — Arrangements similar to those 
made for observing the other meteor- showers of the past year were prepared 
by the Committee in expectation of the return of the December meteors in 
1871. On the evenings of the 5th and 9th, and on the night of the 12th and 
13th, Mr. T. W. Backhouse recorded eighteen shooting-stars seen at Ilkley 
in Yorkshire and at Sunderland, one of which on the 1st, and most of those 
seen on the latter dates, were directed very nearly from the usual radiant- 
point in Gemini. Three of those noted on the 5th proceeded from the Radiants 
A ,._ ,g near Cassiopeia, the appearance of which in November and Decem- 
ber has been supposed to be connected, not improbably, with the periodical re- 
turns of Biela's comet. Although the clouded state of the sky prevented any 
meteors from being seen at Sunderland during the hours appointed for obser- 
vations on the evenings of the 11th, 12th, and 13th, three meteors from 
Gemini were seen on the evening of the 11th, and two others during a short 
watch on the morning of the 13th, when the sky was clear ; while only three 
meteors unconformable to the same radiant-point were recorded by Mr. Back- 
house during the time in which these five meteors of the December star- 
shower were observed. On the nights following the pej-iodic dates, it will be 
seen from his report that very few meteors directed from the well-known 
radiant-point of this annual star-shower were observed. " On the 13th 
[morning of the 14th] I watched for 25 minutes, about IB*" and 17'' (it was 
equal to about 9 mirrutes' watch in a cloudless sky), and I only saw one 
meteor ; it was not a ' Geminid.' On the 14th [morning of the 15th] I 
watched for 45 minutes in a cloudless sky between 17"^ 15™ and 18" 21°\ and 
saw nine meteors, all in the first 26 minutes. No radiant-point was, how- 
ever, discernible ; one was a ' Geminid,' appearing at 17'' 36™. It was of the 
fifth magnitude, and disappeared at | (tt Leonis, 15 Sextantis)." A bright 
meteor, described in the foregoing accounts of large meteors, directed appa- 
rently from the radiant-point Aj^, was seen by Mr. Backhouse on the 
evening of the last-named date. 

At the Royal Observatory, Greenwich, the sky was generally overcast on 
the periodic nights, and only one small meteor, on the evening of the 12th, 
unconformable to Gemini, was observed. 

At Hawkhurst the sky was occasionally cloudy on the evening of the 12th 
until 11'', when it became quite clear, and a constant watch for shooting-stars 
was kept between 10" 15™ p.m. and midnight. Thirty shooting-stars were 
observed, of which fourteen were visible before 11 o'clock. The apparent 
courses of twenty-six of these meteors projected iipon a map showed that 
eight were unconformable to, and of the remaining number four appeared to 



98 REPORT— 1872. 

be very erratic members of, the group directed from the radiaut-poiut in 
Gemini. Tiie tracks of fourteen (or 5-i per cent, of those mapped) jjrolouged 
backwards passed through a small circle about 12° in diameter, having its 
centre about 3° from Castor, towards d Gemioorum, at 11. A. 108°, N. Decl. 
33°, which was the apparent centre of divergence of the shower. About 
one-half of the " Geminids " were brighter than second-magnitude stars, and 
two of the brightest left a persistent streak of light on their course. They 
appeared white, and their apparent motion was, in general, not swift. On 
the evening of the 13th the sky at Hawkhurst was completely overcast. 

At Tooting, near London, a watch for their a])pearance was kept for 
1" 20"', between 9" 40'" and 11'' 20'", by Mr. H. W. Jackson ; the sky was 
quite clear, and the ajjparent paths of seven meteors directed from Gcmiui 
were recorded on a map. Prolonged backwards the tracks of these " Gemi- 
nids " aU crossed a small circle not more than 8° or 10° in diameter, whose 
centre was nearly midway between Castor and Pollux (slightly towards the 
neighbouring star i Geminorum), at R. A. 112°, N. Decl. 30°. In his remarks 
on this night's observations Mr. Jackson observes that his attention was 
wholly given to recording the apparent courses of the meteors with exact- 
ness, so that their a2)parent places of appearance and disappearance, as drawn 
upon the map, were probably not more than half a degree in error either way ; 
and all the meteors whose apparent paths were drawn upon the map were 
satisfactorily well observed. No particular attention was according^ given 
to the appearances of meteors from other radiant-points, nor to the various 
characters of brightness, duration, and of leaving persistent streaks which 
were presented by the Geminids that were observed. On the evening of the 
13th the sky at Tooting was completely overcast. 

A definite radiant-point of the shower very near to the latter position 
appears also to be indicated by the appearance of one of the meteors of the 
December group, with a very short course, on the same evening, as observed 
by Mr. W. F. Denning at Bristol. The sky was generally unfavourable for 
observations on both evenings of the 12th and 13th of December ; but the 
descent of a large meteor (as described in the foregoing list) was noted near 
the western horizon at 9'' 42"", and three other meteors were seen during a 
short interval of a quarter of an hour on the night of the 12th, when the 
sky was clear, and a watch was kept by Mr. Denning for the return of the 
December meteors. " At 10'' 3'" p.m. a small meteOr was seen. It was 
evidently in close proximity to the radiant-point, its path being very short, 
and not extending over more than one or two degrees. It diverged from 
t Geminorum (about 4° S. of Castor), and was of momentary duration. 
The direction of its extremely short path seemed to be towards the zenith. 

" At 10'' 18"" I saw a much brighter meteor. It emanated from Gemini, 
and passed to the horizon in the south. One part of the path occupied a 
place about 8° south of Bigel in Orion ; there was no tx'ain. Other meteors 
were seen, but the exceedingly clouded state of the sky rendered it impossible 
to note their paths." 

The following observation of a single meteor at Birmingham on the night 
of the 13th, together with a notice of the appearance of the shower as 
recently recorded there in previous years, was received from Mr. Wood : — 

"December 12th, Meteoric Epoch. — Birmingham Observations. 

" In 1866. — See the British Association Reports for that year. 
" In 1867. — No observations ; probably from bad weather, or impeded by 
moonlight. 



OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 



99 



" In 1808. — See the British Association Reports for that year. 

" In ISOi). — December 12th, a fine night ; one meteor in half an hour, 
from radiant G. 

" In 1870.— Overcast on the 10th, 11th, 12th, and 13th, excepting a 
clearance of an hour's duration from 11" 30'" p.m. on the 12th to 12" 30" a.m. 
on the 13th. Five meteors in three quarters of an hour from radiant G, 
and traces of radiant K. 

" In 1871. — December 12th and 13th, overcast, excepting half an hour 
from 11" P.M. to 11" 30'" p.m. on the 13th. Amount of clear sky = |. One 
meteor in this time from radiant M^. 

" December 13th, 11" 12"' p.m. ; third magnitude ; blue ; duration 0-5 sec. 
From K Orionis; path 6°; directed from p Geminorum. liachant Mj*. 

At Buntingford, Herts, the only period clear enough for observations was 
obtained by Mr. Greg between 9" 45'" and 11" 30'" p.m. on the night of the 
12th, the sky on the night of the 13th of December being completely over- 
cast. Fourteen meteors were seen, of which thirteen radiated from the direc- 
tion of Gemini. They were mostly small, with short paths and moderate 
velocities ; scarcely more than two or three sufficiently bright to have attracted 
the attention of other observers at distant stations. The December star- 
shower appears to be no longer so striking, either in size or in number of the 
meteors, as it was eight or ten years since. The apparent velocities of the 
meteors were also scarcely greater than half, or perhaps about 40 per cent, 
less than those of the meteors of the August shower. The meteors noted by 
Mr. Greg were principally those which moved with short courses near the 
radiant-point. The backward prolongation of their tracks, projected upon a 
map, are closely clustered round the star d Geminorum, which was the prin- 
cipal radiant-point, with a tendency also to be concentrated along a line of 
the meridian extending 5° or 6° north and south of that star, and principally 
southwards from it towards, and apparently nearly as far as, the stars e and 
V Geminorum, giving the radiant- region an oblong form, with its greatest 
elongation in the direction of an arc of the mei-idian. 

At York the condition of the sky was so unfavourable that scarcely one 
meteor was visible during the whole of the December period. At Newcastle- 
on-Tyne the sky was also completely overcast. At Glasgow rain continued 
on the night of the 12th until ten o'clock, when the sky became clear, and 
remained so for an hour until about 11" 30™ p.m., when it was again obscured. 
During this interval seven meteors from Gemini, nearly equal to first-magni- 
tude stars in brightness, were recorded, and their apparent paths were mapped 
by Mr. R. M'^Clure. The first (described in the above list of large meteors), 
which diverged like the rest from Gemini, was as bright as Jupiter ; and but 
one meteor of the shower left a persistent streak. A Geminid was also 
observed at 12" 20" on the same night, aud its apparent course was mapped. 
The tracks of all these shooting-stars prolonged backwards passed through a 
small circle about 12° in diameter, Avhose centre was close to the star c Gemi- 
norum at a point in R. A. 97°, N. Deck 28°. Twenty meteors were counted 
by two observers during the hour of the watch ; but the paths of only the most 
conspicuous, which diverged from the direction of a radiant-point in Gemini, 
were recorded upon the map. On the night of the 13th, rain, and a com- 
pletely overcast state of the sky, prevented any further observations. 

By projecting all the recorded paths of the Geminids upon a single map, a 

* This meteor may also possibly have been a " Geminid," the direction of its apparent 
path being very nearly conformable to the position of the radiant-point of the shovrer 
in Gemini as observed at its return last year. 



100 REPORT— 1872. 

radiant-region of oval form contained between the meridians of 11. A. 96° and 
1 12°, and between the parallels of north declination 20° and 40°, would 
include the directions of 37 of the 45 tracks which are thus drawn. In this 
area the intersections of the tracks, prolonged backwards, are slightly more 
concentrated than elsewhere within the radiant-space, at a point in R. A. 
104°, N. Decl, 34°, about 4° from towards a Geminorum, while the general 
character of the radiation was diffuse ; and the apparent paths of but few 
meteors were recorded near the radiant-point. 

Meteor-sJiower of Januarij 2nd~3rd, 1872. — On these dates a watch was 
arranged to be kept by observers in different places in England, and at 
Glasgow from half-past 10 o'clock until midnight ; and a favourable view 
of the shower was obtained at most of them on the night of the 2nd of 
January. 

Towards 11 o'clock a few detached clouds, which had partially' obscured 
the sky in London during the earlier part of the evening of the 2nd of 
January, disappeared, and the view of the shooting-stars during the re- 
mainder of the watch until midnight was uninterrupted. In the neighbour- 
hood of llegent's Park, Mr. T. Crumplen noted the appearance of nine 
meteors in this interval, beginning his watch at lO"^ 45"\ and recorded the 
apparent paths of six conformable meteors upon a map. Three of these were 
as bright as first-magnitude stars. All but one, which appeared ruddy, 
were white or bluish, not swift in their motion, and two of the brightest 
left a short streak of light upon their course. The courses of all, prolonged 
backwards, intersected each other within the space of a small circle 5° or 0° 
in diameter, having its centre at R. A. 228°, N. Decl. 52°. So quickly did 
bright meteors succeed each other, that it appeared probable that the shower 
would continue to be of some brilliancy after midnight. An aurora was 
visible at the same time in the north. 

In the south-west part of London, near Eaton Square, the meteors were 
also watched by Prof. Herschel, between lO** 30"' and midnight, the Hght 
of the rising moon, which first appeared at about 11'' 30'° p.m., being the only 
obstruction to their view. The paths of 16 shooting-stars were mapped, of 
which only one appears to have been unconformable to the usual radiant- 
point of the shower. It shot on a very short course close to Polaris from 
the direction of the zenith at 11'' 7"', and was not perfectly observed. Four 
or five smaller meteors may also have passed unrecorded. Six of the meteors 
mapped were as bright or brighter than Ist-magnitude stars, the brightest ap- 
pearing white and those of lesser magnitudes o£ yellow colour. The brightest 
only of the meteors seen appeared to leave a faint streak of light, visible for 
less than a second, on its course. This meteor described a path of 35° in two 
seconds : it was as bright as Sirius during the last half of its course ; it 
appeared at 11'' 56'", and its appearance was simultaneously observed at 
Hawkhurst. Of the fifteen conformable meteors, five were erratic members of 
the shower, their apparent paths, prolonged backwards, passing about 20" on 
each side of a very definite radiant-point, from which the remaining ten 
meteors all diverged. A circle of about 6° in diameter, round a central 
point in E. A. 227°, N. Decl. 49°, would include the intersecting prolonga- 
tions backwards of the tracks of all the latter meteors. This apparent place 
of the radiant-point, which was close to that observed by Mr. Crumplen, is 
also not more than 5° from the position of the radiant-point of the same 
shower, at R. A. 234°, N. Decl. 51°, as observed in 1864 *. A slight 
increase in the rate of frequency during the watch appears to indicate a 
* See these Reports for 1864, p. 98. 



OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 101 

growing intensity in the progress of the shower, the numbers of the meteors 
recoi'ded in the successive half-hours until midnight being 3, 5, and 8. 

At Tooting, near London, the sky was also very clear on the evening of 
the 2nd ; and Mr. H. W. Jackson noted the appearances of nineteen meteors 
between 10'' and 11'' p.m., the tracks of six of which were very accurately 
laid down upon a map. Eight meteors were observed ; and the paths of two 
of them were mapped between 11" and 11'' 15"", and only two meteors were 
visible in the following 15'" until 11" 30"° v.u. The whole number of meteors 
seen by one observer in 1" 30"' was 29. A bright meteor (described 
in the above list), whose course was exactly conformable to the usual radiant- 
point of 2nd of January shooting-stars, was also recorded by Mr. Jackson on 
the night of the 31st of December. Although proceeding generally from 
the direction of the radiant-region between Bootes and Draco, no definite 
centre of divergence was distinguishable among the meteor-tracks recorded 
at Tooting, which appear to have belonged to outlying members of the 
group; and one of the eight meteors mapped was unconformable to the 
general radiant-point of the shower. These meteors appeared for the most part 
white ; they were generally bright, and left faint streaks upon their course, 
which remained visible upon the track of one of the brightest 'for about one 
second. A flash like lightning was observed at 10" 16'" p.m., and two 
similar flashes were noticed between lO*" 16™ and 11" p.m. 

At the Royal Observatory, Greenwich, the apparent paths and appear- 
ances of fifteen meteors were registered between 10" 12'" and 11" 17"^, of 
which four only were less bright than stars of the first magnitude, in a watch 
partly kept by one and partly by two observers. They were mostly bluish, 
but some yellowish white, and described apparent courses of from 10° to 40° 
in length, in one or two seconds of time. Ten of the meteors recorded in the 
list left more or less faint persistent streaks of light upon their course. Two 
or three of the meteors whose apparent paths were tlius registered appear to 
have been unconformable to the general radiant-point, and the tracks of the 
remainder prolonged backwards present a sj^ace of somewhat diffuse radiation 
in the region about Quadrans and the tail-stars of Ursa Major. 

The sky was also free from clouds at Hawkhurst on the night of the 2nd, 
and a watch for the January shower was kept from 11" 20'" until midnight. 
Fourteen meteors were noted in this interval, and the paths of ten were satis- 
factorily observed, and were drawn upon a map. All were directed from the 
neighbourhood of the radiant-point in Quadrans ; and the backward pro- 
longation of their tracks presents a region of somewhat diff'use radiation, 
extending over an area about 25° in diameter, having an apparent principal 
centre of intersections at a point in about E,. A. 220°, N. Dec!. 47°. The 
meteors seen were principally of the first and second magnitudes, white, 
shooting across the sky in long courses, with moderately slow speed ; and 
about half of their number left a slight persistent streak of light on the whole 
or on a part of their course. Several smaller meteors passed unrecorded, 
and the hourly numbers of the meteors seen was not less than twenty for 
two observers. 

At Birmingham the sky was very clear on the night of the 2nd ; the 
courses of fifteen or sixteen meteors were mapped ; and the appearances of 
many more were noted by Mr. Wood during the hour between 10'' 15™ and 
11" 15"" P.M. At 10" 17'" a flash like that of distant lightning (apparently 
the same as that recorded by Mr. Jackson near London, and if so, probably 
meteoric) was seen upon the south horizon during an interval of twenty 
minutes after 10 o'clock, in which no shooting-stars were visible. At 



102 REPORT— 1872. 

lO*" 20™ a meteor of fourth magnitude was seen, and at 10'' 21"" a sudden out- 
burst of several bright varicoloured meteors made its appearance in all parts, 
four or five shooting-stars being visible in the space of an eye-grasp, so that 
it was impossible to I'ecord the particulars of more than one or two members 
of this group. Two of them noted by Mr. Wood were brighter than first- 
magnitude stars, leaving streaks, apparently not conformable to the usual 
radiant-point of the January meteor-shower, but rather diverging in 
nearly parallel courses from the radiant A, ^ in Cassiopeia, or one of them 
possibly from the radiant NG in that neighbourhood. This burst of shooting- 
stars gradually subsided, and meteors as bright as first- and second-magnitude 
stars continued to succeed each other at short intervals until 10'' 49"", when 
intervals of meteoric quiescence, unbroken by the ajjpearance of any shooting- 
star for 10'", Hr"", and 20'", succeeded each other ; and the last meteors seen 
during the watch were recorded at 10'' 59'" and 11'' 13'" p.m. Among twelve 
meteors registered by Mr. Wood during the half hour between 10'' 20'" and 
10'' 50'", two were as bright as, and five brighter than, first-magnitude stars, 
and five left luminous streaks that remained visible for two or three seconds 
on their course. In colour they were mostly blue, white, or yellow ; and the 
duration of th'eir flight was generally from one second to about one second and 
a half. Projected upon a map, the ajiparent courses appear to diverge from a 
centre between the last stars in the tail of Ursa Major and a Draconis, several 
of their visible tracks having been noted in or near the constellation Ursa 
Major ; but many scattered meteors were observed ; and in the following 
remarks on the shower Mr. Wood assigns various radiant-points to the prin- 
cipal meteors, whose directions he had projected and compared together upon 
the maps. 

" Meteoric shoiver of Jannarif 2nd, 1872. — A fine shower of bright meteors, 
at the rate of twenty per hour for one observer, radiating in the proportion 
of 42 per cent, from K, [radiant of the annual shower], 

22 „ from MG, 

36 ,, distributed over the radiants A, ^, A,g, NG, DG.^, KG. 

" Meteors of slow apparent speed, train-bearing, and varicoloured. The 
time of maximum, the duration, and intensity of the shower could not be 
ascertained in consequence of clouds supervening on the succeeding night. 
The foregoing meteors were probablj- only a fragment of the shower." 

A description of the shower by Mr. .J. Morton, at Eccles, near Manchester, 
was communicated to the Committee by Mr. W. F. Denning. It was first 
noticed at 8'' 40"' p.m. on the 2nd, the sky being then very clear, but after- 
wards becoming partially obscured by clouds. One bright meteor, leaving a 
train of sparks, and five smaller ones were seen before 9 o'clock ; and eight 
meteors of some brightness from that time until 10*" 23"' p.m. Six of the 
fourteen meteors noted were as bright as second, and one was as bright as a 
first-magnitude star. 

At Glasgow the sky was so hazy on the night of the 2nd, between 
10'' 55'" and ll*" 20™ p.m., that Jupiter and the brightest fixed stars only 
were visible ; but during the remainder of a watch from 10^ to 12'' p.m. the 
sk}' was generaUy clear, and fourteen meteors were observed in this interval 
by Mr. U. M''Clure. The apparent paths of nine of them were drawn upon a 
map ; and of fhese meteors four were as bright as first-magnitude stars, 
two were as bright, and the rest fainter than staT's of the second-magni- 
tude. All but one, of reddish colour, which passed in a short course from 
Ursa Major across the star Pollux, appeared Avhite ; and they described area 
of from 5° to 20^ in lengtli, in times which varied from a half to a full 



OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 103 

second in duration. Their tracks projected upon a map, altliougli proceeding, 
as in the foregoing observations, from a general radiant-region near and 
around the star Bootis, presented within that space no well-marked centre 
of divergence. 

On the same night, and during the morning of January 3rd, as appears 
from the following observations at York and Sunderland, the shower con- 
tinued to be very bright, with occasional luUs and apparently outbreaks of 
its intensity, imtil near the approach of daylight. At Sunderland Mr. 
Backhouse reported that " though the night of the 2nd was for the most part 
very fine, yet at the appointed time the sky was so cloudy that I only 
watched for a short time, especially as meteors were so scarce. I only saw 
one at that time ; but in the morning I watched for at least twelve minutes 
in a cloudless but moonlit sky, the radiant-point in Draco being high in the 
sky, yet I saw no meteor belonging to that sj'stem, and only one altogether. 
The evening of the 3rd was fine till about 10'' p.m., when it clouded over. 
I did not see a single meteor, though I watched for about ten minutes at 
6"' 30", and equally long about 9" 15"." 

Another considerable outburst of the shower must, however, have occurred 
shortly before daybreak on the morning of the 3rd, as the brilliancy and rapid 
succession of the meteors at that time at Street, Somersetsliire, attracted a 
child's attention, who, as related by Mr. Clark, informed him of some of the 
particulars of their appearance. " The nights, both of the 2nd and 3rd, were 
so unfavourable as to prevent me from sending you any observations. On 
the morning of the 3rd, however, I had an account from my nephew, who 
though but eight years old is intelligent enough to take a good deal of 
interest in simple scientific things, of several meteors which he had seen, 
coming rapidly after one another, and evidently somewhat bright." 

On the following evening, and night of the 3rd to the 4th of Januarj"-, the 
sky was so completely overcast at all the British- Association stations that 
no shooting-stars could be observed ; but on that evening a single meteor, as 
brilliant as Jupiter (as described in the above list), was observed at Green- 
wich, the direction of whose apparent course was almost exactly directed 
from the radiant-point K3 in Quadrans (Bode, or in the region of Draco 
between Hercules and Bootes), which distinguishes the annually recurring 
meteor-shower of the lst-3rd of January. 

Meteoric showers of April, 1S72. — Some observations of the April star- 
shower in 1871, not included in last year's Report, were obtained by Mr. 
Clark, at York, with a clear view of the sky, from shortly before ten 
o'clock until midnight on the night of the 19th of April in that year. Six 
rather bright meteors, with very short courses of only a few degrees in 
length near the constellation Ursa Major, were mapped, belonging apparently 
to the meteoric system or group of radiant-points M^ in that constellation. 
One meteor from the direction of Lyra was also seen before eleven o'clock, and 
six between eleven o'clock and midnight, the .sky being equally clear, — the 
numbers of meteors of all kinds seen in the former hour being six, and in the 
latter nine. The sky was overcast on the other nights of the shower. 

The radiant-point M^ of Heis's and Greg's former list* was marked in 

* Eeport for 1^+, p. 00. Radiant at R. A. IGO", N. Decl. .51°, enduring from April 
16th-.30lli, apparently identical witli M^ of Heis's list for April, at R, A. 1 5;i°, N. Deel. 47°, 
near X Ursa- Majoris : now subdivided by Mr. Greg into separate radiant-points, MZ 
and MGZ, near Urs.a' Majoris and Cor Caroli, in March and April ; M.Z near y Leonis 
on tlip I0tb-2(lfh of Ajjril ; and MG, in the Lynx, near the fore feet of Trsa Major, from 
the end of April to the beginning of June. (See the Table at the end of this Eeport.) 



104 REPORT — 1872. 

April last by the appearance of some conspicuously blight meteors, to whose 
characteristic brilliancy Mr. J. E. Clark drew particular attention in the 
following communication to ' Nature ' of May 2nd, 1872 (the meteors 
alluded to by Mr. Clark are described in the foregoing list): — 

" I noticed in your Number of last week the account of a brilliant meteor 
observed in Cumberland on April 19th. Now 1 had reported to me a very 
similar meteor at nearly the same time (about 8^ 40" p.m.), an account of 
which I forwarded, with the other results of my night's watch, to Mr. A. S. 
Herschel, who would gladly receive any further report of the same ; un- 
fortunately I have not the Number of 'Nature' at hand, and therefore 
cannot make a personal application to your correspondent. On the same 
evening, about 11'' 7."\ I myself saw an exceedingly brilliant meteor, which 
fell to a point just south of Vega. It is curious that both of these came 
from the radiant situated at about R. A. 155°, N. Uecl. 47°, or rather from 
one of the group of radiants there situated, M^ of Heis, 56 and 52 of Schia- 
parelli. It would be an interesting point of investigation whether the 
meteors from that radiant-point are of peculiar brightness." — J. E. Clark, 
April 30th, 1872. 

The meteor seen by Mr. Clark at York was seen at the same time at 
Hawkhurst ; and the direction of its apparent i>ath there, prolonged back- 
wards, meets its similarly prolonged track, as observed at York, near ^ UrsiB 
Majoris, very near the position of the radiant-point M^. The bright meteors 
described in the above list on April 5lh and 19th, and May 3rd, appear all 
to have diverged from the same group of meteor-radiants in Ursa Major. 
Those recorded on March 26th, April 12th and 22nd, radiated from centres 
of a group of apparently equally bright meteor-showers, S^_ g_ ^, in the neigh- 
bourhood of Virgo and Comae Berenices. 

On the evenings of the 12th, 13th, and 14th of April, 1872, Mr. Greg 
watched at Buntingford, Herts, for an early appearance of the April meteor- ' 
showers from the direction of Cerberus or Lyra (QHj, QH.,), connected to- 
gether apparently in one meteor-system making its appearances on the 13th 
and 19th-20th of April. The former radiant-point was noted from the paths 
of nine small shooting-stars, seen in about two hours on the morning of the 
13th of April, 1864, by Prof. A. S. Herschel at Hawkhurst* ; and no appear- 
ance of this shower appears to have been again visible in subsequent years. 
Its radiant position at E. A. 270°, N. Decl. 25°, was yet distinctly marked, 
the meteors resembling each other even more closely than those of the group 
from Lyra in their appearance, and moving in swift courses over all parts of 
the sky from a region of somewhat diffuse radiation, extending to but not 
exceeding the limits of the small constellation Cerberus (Bode), with an 
average centre at about the position named. By its close neighbourhood to 
the well-established radiant-point of the LyraVds at about R. A. 278°, N. Decl. 
34°-5 1, it appears to have been an early commencement of that shower, and 
an integral part of the meteor-system which was first shown by Drs. Weiss and 
D' Arrest to be apparently connected with the periodic orbit of the Comet I, 
1861. Mr. Greg's watch for the early reappearance of the group on the 
above date was unsuccessful, two small meteors only being observed from the 
radiant DG (in the head of Draco), and two meteors radiating from the 
direction of /j Hcrculis, during a very careful watch on each of the above- 
named nights. 

Shortly after the end of April last, a communication from Mr. AV. F. Den- 

* Eeport for 1864, pp. 40 and 98. 

t See these Reports for 1864, p. 98, and 1868, p. 399. 



OBSERVATIOXS OF LUillXOU^J METEORS. 105 

uing informed the Committee that 'Sir. Kiiobel, at Burton-on-Treut, had 
observed " many meteors in April, particularly on April 14th, 1872. They 
appeared to radiate from a point in ]3ootcs east of ^ Eootcs." This point, 
which is very near to /j Herculis, was nearly in the direction of the last two 
meteors seen by Mr. Greg, and in the position of the general radiant Q, „ * 
of meteors first beginning to be seen about the 23rd of April, but which 
appears from these observations to present itself close to the same position at 
least ten days earlier, on about April 12th. (See the Table at the end of 
this llcport. Eadiant, No. 51.) 

The night of tire 19th of April, 1872, was generally not iinfavourable for 
observations at most of the British-Association stations. At York, until 
nearly 11** r.ir., the sk'y was nearly overcast ; but at that hour the clouds 
began to disperse, and soon after the beginning of the watch they had finallj- 
disappeared. During the succeeding interval between 10'' 45'" and 11'' 45"^ 
r.M. nine meteors, two of tliem as bright and two brighter than fii'st-mag- 
nitude stars, were observed, six being visible in the first and only three 
meteors, Avith two or three faint flashes near a Lyra?, in the last 45'" of the 
watch. From 11'' to 11'' 15'" there seemed to be quite a brisk shower, but 
after that time their rate of fall diminished considerably. The Ly raids were 
all noticeably rapid in their flight, their courses varying from 5° to 2-5° in 
length, and the duration, even of the longest, scarcely exceeding half a 
second. They were colourless or white, and there was a noticeable absence 
of streaks upon their course. Two or three meteors diverged from a radiant, 
No. 53 of Schiaparelli, in Comte Berenices, apparently connected with the 
radiant S^ ., near the same constellation, in Virgo, of Heis ; others from M^ ; 
and five of the nine shooting-stars whose courses were mapped were Lyraids. 
The brightest of these appeared at 11'' 28°^, and its apparent course was also 
noted at Wisbeach and at Hawkhurst. The radiation of the Lyraids was 
not very exact ; but the courses of three, prolonged backwards, intersected 
each other very nearly at a point in II. A. 280°, N. Decl. 43°, near tt Lyra?. 
Some further observations on the progress of the shower will shortly be given 
from Mr. Clark's report of its appearance. 

At Buntingford a clear sky prevailed on tlie 19th, between 11'' 15"' and 
12"' 45'", and the apparent paths of seven meteors of first and second mag- 
nitudes, all of them meteors of the April shower, were drawn upon a map 
by Mr. Greg. The backward prolongation of their tracks, which were 
generally not far from the radiant-point, presented a very definite area of 
intersections 3° or 4° in width, at about B. A. 268°, N. Decl. 25°, in Cerberus. 
Their courses were generally short ; and the following is Mr. Greg's description 
of their appearance : — " Owing to the moon being so bright the tracks were 
rendered rather shorter and the trains less visible than they woidd otherwise 
have been, besides causing me, no doubt, to miss seeing a number of others. 
Certainly there was distinctly a sliower going on which was not visible on 
the evenings of the 12th, 13th, and 14th. Five only of the seven were very 
white ; their average brightness was that of a first- or second-magnitude star, 
and owing to the shortness of their apparent paths their duration was under, 
if any thing, half a second. The radiants QHj [of meteors on the 12th-13th, 
in Cerberus] and QH, [of the Lyraids on the 19th-20th of April] appear to 
me to be simply one and the same shower, with a slight difterence in the 
dates and in the positions of the radiant-points." The sky was quite over- 
cast at Buntingford on the night of April 20th. 

At Mr. Crumplen's station in London the sky was remarkably clear, but 

» Ectioi't for L~^GS. p. 402. 

1872. 1 



106 REPORT— 1872. 

only three meteors radiating from near a Lyrte, and iu the neighbourhood of 
that constellation, were observed in a watch of three quarters of an hour, at 
about 11 o'clock on the evening of the 19th. The first of these was as bright 
as a first-magnitude star, leaving a streak of light iipon its course which re- 
mained visible for nearly a second. On the night of the 20th, soon after 
10 o'clock, the sky was entirely overcast. 

At Bristol, on the 19th, few stars were visible between lO** and 11'', the 
sky being very cloudy, excepting for a few minutes in the north-east, at about 
eleven o'clock, when one conspicuous meteor and one small one only were 
seen by Mr. Denning. The former rather bright meteor is described in the 
above list. 

At Birmingham a hazy state of the sky also prevailed on the 19th, and 
strong fuU-moon light on this and the following evenings only permitted a 
single meteor to be seen. The scarcity of meteors on the latter night during 
an hour's attentive watch was, however, fully confirmed by the other obser- 
vations which will shortly be described. 

"Meteor shower of April 1872. 

"April 19th, from lO"" p.m. till ll"* p.m. Sky hazy; moonhght; no 
meteors. 
„ 20th; from 10" 20"" toll'' 20-" P.M. Sky clear; moonlight; one 

meteor. 
„ 20th, 10" 59" P.M.; brighter than a Ist-mag. star; white; dura- 
tion O'o second. From a Aurigae; path 10°, directed from 
a Lyra;. Left no streak (a part only of the meteor's coui'se 
seen, askance)." — W. H. Wood. 

On account of the overcast state of the sky no observations on these dates 
were obtained at either Glasgow, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, or Sunderland. 

A list of six meteors seen at Wisbeach between 10" 45'" and 11" 30"' p.m. on 
the 19th, with a tracing of their apparent courses on a map, was received 
from Mr. S. H. Miller, with the following remarks on their appearance : — 
" There was a remarkable accordance in their direction, and No. 6 seemed to 
take the same path as No. 5. The brightness of the moon interfered with 
the observations of their colour, and also of the length of their path, especially 
as they were small, and their trains of light a thin streak. I did not see one 
on the 20th, although I kept a persistent watch." In reply to a later in- 
quiry on the latter point, Mr. Miller adds, " The sky was clear on the night 
of the 20th, during the hour I watched, and had there been any meteors 
then, I think I must have seen them; but after 11" 30"' it became cloudy, 
and there was rain on the next morning early." 

On the night of the 19th, at Hawkhurst, the sky M'as very clear, the moon- 
light bright, and a faint aurora was visible in the north. Between 11 o'clock 
and 12" 15'", four observers counted 16 meteors, whose apparent courses were 
more or less exactly recorded. Ten of these meteors were seen in the first, 
and six in the last half of the watch, and nine were as bright as, or brighter 
than, Ist-magnitude stars. Two of the brightest meteors mapped were also 
simultaneously observed at York, and one of them diverging from Lyra was 
at the same time recorded at Wisbeach. Nine of the sixteen meteor-tracks 
were directed with no distinct centre of radiation from a space between 
a Lyrse and Z Herculis, and the remaining meteor-tracks were nearly equally 
distributed in their directions from the radiant-points AVG(?) in Cygnns, 
Sj,5 iu Yirgo and Comse Berenices, Qj,, in Corona, and M, in Ursa Major. 



OBSERVATIONS OP LUMINOUS METEORS. 107 

The ouly meteor from the latter radiant-point (near the zenith) was the very 
brilliant one seen to fall vertically elsewhere, and described as proceeding 
from the same radiant-point by Mr. Clark, at York. The Lyraids appeared 
white and swift, and generally left no streak ; but when seen foreshortened 
near the radiant-point they sometimes appeared bluish or yellowish, and left 
persistent streaks. The sky was overcast on the night of the 20th, and no 
meteors were observed. 

At the Eoyal Observatory, Greenwich, during an interval of clear sky on 
the 19th, between half-past ten and half-past eleven o'clock, six meteors 
were registered by one observer of Mr. Glaisher's staff, of which three -vyere 
as bright as first-magnitude stars, and four diverged from the neigh- 
bourhood of o Lyrae. The Lyraids were all bluish white, with short appa- 
rent paths, leaving streaks. On the night of the 20th, the sky at the Eoyal 
Observatory, Greenwich, was too cloudy for further observations of the April 
shower. 

During the night of the 19th of April, it appears, from observations which 
wore continued at the lladcliffe Observatory at Oxford, by Mr. Lucas, until 
the appearance of daybreak, that the activity of the April meteor-shoAver was 
very brightly maintained until the morning of April 20th. During a strict 
watch kept for shooting-stars on that morning from I'' a.m. until 4'' a.m., the 
sky was quite clear during the. first hour, and only crossed occasionally by 
clouds from the south-west dm-iug the last two hours of the watch. Towards 
4 o'clock a.m., the brightness of the full-modn light gave way to that of the 
approaching dawn ; and a thick haze beginning at this time to overspread the 
sky, at length obscured aU but a few stars of the first and second magnitudes. 
The appearances of twenty-six meteors were recorded ; five in the first, five 
in the second, and sixteen during the last hour of the watch ; the numbers 
of Ist-magnitude shooting-stars visible in the same times being two, one, and 
six. Seventeen of all the meteors noted were Lyraids, of which the numbers 
recorded during the same times were four, three, and ten. Six of the Lyraids 
were as bright as first, and six as bright as second-magnitude stars, and they 
appeared white even in the strong moonlight. Their courses were generally 
very rapid, sometimes 20° or 30° in length, and occasionally leaving a per- 
sistent streak. Of the nine remaining meteors, all but two proceeded appa- 
rently from a radiant-point in Cygnus eastward from that in Lyra, not far 
from the position in May and June of a radiant-point WG in that constel- 
lation ; four courses prolonged backwards intersect each other close to e Cygni, 
near which one of these unconformable meteors also moved with a short ap- 
parent path. The brightest meteor seen during the watch moved from_ the 
direction of e Cygni, bursting when it had reached the brightness of Jupiter, 
on a long course from y Cassiopeia; nearly to Capella ; its duration was two 
seconds, and it was followed by the next meteor, which appeared as bright 
as a 2nd-magnitude star, moving upon exactly the same course. Two other 
unconformable meteors were directed from the radiant-points S^j in Yirgo 
and Comae Berenices. 

The tracks of the seventeen Lyraids, prolonged backwards, all passed 
through a region of radiation including the chief stars of Lyra and the stars 
$, o Herculis, where a circular area, about 15° in diameter, with its centre at 
E. A. 275°, ]Sr. Decl. 32°, would include all the directions of the LyraVds that 
were observed, and was probably very near the central point of divergence of 
the group. The radiant-point being near the zenith when the Lyraids were 
most numerous in the last hour of the watch, and their courses extending 
round it towards all parts of the sky, this apparent place of the radiant-point, 

I 2 



108 RKPOKT IHT'i. 

although not definitely marked bj' exact intersections of their apparent paths, 
yet appears to be the best average position of the somewhat diffuse centre of 
divergence which they appear to have presented that was obtained during 
the last annnal reappearance of the April meteors. 

The notable absence of meteors on the evening of April 20th, after the 
somewhat considerable star-shower that was seen at most of the stations on 
the preceding night, was especially remarked by Mr. Clark, who described the 
following particulars of the watch which he kept at York for the appearance 
of any continuation of the meteor-shower which might be visible on the 
second night : — " Tlie watch on Saturday the 20th was altogether unsuccessful. 
I commenced a few minutes before 10'', and was joined at IC' 25'" by Mr. 
Brown, when for about ten minutes a cirrus cloud from the cast obscured 
two thirds of the sky, and we were driven in by a snow-storm from the north 
at 11'' 10"' ; after which I did not watch, as it remained more or less cloudy. 
However, during that period of nearly an hour and a quarter, for half the 
time tivo tvatching, we did not see with certainty a single meteor. Such a 
remarkable absence of them I have never noticed before. To be sure the 
moon was brilliant, but not so brilliant as to obscure 4th-magnitude stars." 

Meteoric SJioivcr of May 1872. — Some preparations which were made by 
the Committee to watch for the appearance of any star-shower or conspicuous 
meteors on the nights of the 17th, 18th, and 19th of May, when such have 
been occasionally observed, wore entirely frustrated by a constant succession of 
wet and cloudy weather. During the hour appointed for observation on the 
evening of the 20th of May, Mr. Miller watched, with a tolerably clear view 
of the sky, at Wisbeach, Avithout seeing any meteors. 

A single bright meteor of the shower was seen at Newcastle-on-Tyne, in 
an interval of clear sky for about twenty minutes, on the night of Maj^ 17th- 
18th, at 12*' 10'" (midnight) by Professor Herschel. It resembled a Lyra) in 
brightness and colour, and passed in two seconds from between ^, ?; Draconis 
to between 'C, t} Ursa) Majoris, beginning its course 5° before, and ending it 
5° beyond those stars, and leaving a bright streak upon its whole track, 
which remained visible, even in the bright moonlight, for one or two seconds. 
The meteor's motion was apparently from the radiant DG^ in Draco, and was 
not conformable to the principal radiant-group in Corona and Hercules (Q,,^ 
of this meteoric epoch. 

PaPKHS RELATIXCi TO Meteoeic Astronomv. 

A pamphlet of printed instructions to observers of shooting-stars for tlie 
year 1 872-73 has been circulated among astronomers and the associated ob- 
servers of shooting- stars in Italy by Professor Schiaparelli «nd Signor F. 
Denza, appointing five or six nights in each month for combined observations, 
together with a list of nights in the whole year for which not more than 
twenty meteor-tracks were recorded by Zezioli. Observers at fourteen 
Italian stations are engaged in these observations ; and the Italian Luminous 
Meteor Association have already recorded the apparent paths of 6151 meteors 
in 1870, and of 10,257 meteors in 1871, which have been projected upon 
suitable maps for exhibiting the radiant-points which they present. It is 
intended to print these maps so as to exhibit the positions and characters of 
the different radiant-points, with their dates of appearance, as clearly and 
conveniently as possible to the eye. The star-maps employed by the Asso- 
ciation of Italian observers are constructed upon the same projection as the 
well-known Celestial Atlas of Professor Dorna of Turin. The observations 



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o«o-ILi, j-lo.i'X. D-l. 


iVatl-irnDHl nJoKt u, 


o(YT Eton(U»l»d.anir 



vali.irtartpd thaavr- RaduuilKaDiro al i3v*+=i*. afld probabtj uiulliplfl 
thinlinn nina wnU. () Denrulu In Apnl, pirbapi iiMma. tnm oai 

Piutablji 



CViront In Juno, 
Bad last nil drfliwL 
(-UiZ)7 Radluiatonjalad. i6a*loit7*R. 



il of Nu. 



■,!■„ 



-.-.^-"HT (Vi>l»,l,jo*+j,*l[Ja61 
Dultipla rwUiiL. 



lUdi.Dl nlhrr unnrUii 



ibiblj-.Vu. «j 

liniiedJl. Pouhlful. 

- ■ - RaduDt 

-CuiDfll 



?1] dtfliud at .94' 4- 7*- X^ Fui 
ISbHW™)..Iji.'4+So>( 



Jun*M- 

Ikdianl oiulbplit C«nti*(l i7S*4-tt*r 

PwlM; nnsarted wilh Nn* 7t and tl^ nquim furtber imntinUon. 
Juna I B lo Au( ) i ; protobl; an •imaira dunUniL Poailiaa bf J. E, Clark, 

Yorl. )IJ'+4»' 

K*^li«r,t UllTw, alDhratfl^l? 

sq.i'.i, ri Julj, ilu«iea*+}}*, Canlfs ii6*+57*? CoaQnoad bj Zo- 

l(.,..|..,i,„r,d„„bifuL 

1U.IUM miliar <liir<wid anil aloDfalHl. 

('..nflroiMl tl» bj Zciiali'a obaendiDna. rrduwt b/ Mr Ortj. 

Ohaarirdb^Praf A-S-lltncbel, ■» J»It, il7i- Pocbana-Q 3. 

lUdliDI aall daflnid, cloat lu Polaria^ al is-+l3< u if?!. .ComMllI. 

iln'fSabupanlli). 
BadtaoL muliipl*; nntn at group ooar q Pacui; al fi P^gaai in il;.. 

-y 1 Ifor Aiigiul) o(!(«i>iua^r and lloii. Southrm hamiapbunmdiaalacar 
l^imaUugjL. obacnid bj A S. lletKbot, il Juli. ills; aud in I^IiikI. 
V-ll Auiiul. 1)71. ai 34i*-)|-(A.S. H.V S>a>V 11a. 

Pnoi Zwoli'a oWnaLoni (A 9], Fowbl; lunnortol with R 1, 1 vtO aod H 

A aall-dcBnnl nilianl and luttHiHa ahuirtr. tlCB-7i. Uai. abuui <ub ici'i 
.C0Ri(i«II.. i7)7f (Wti-andSckiipanUi). 

Pialblf fODBarlvIallh Xo. «l. 

Ilaii'i ponUDD not ouiOnanl tij O and U. 9m He. ij. 



tU IbapTi-idtb 



onfall^ , parbapa di 






BnomblanM lu Oaaitl II- il«>. for Auiiut it (Scbiaparal 
Obvrrad i<70fb/l'»r. Taeblol al PaWmo. Poanbl/ a 

.X,*ulV)»D>a7arai>dlIau.. 
K^laDl pmnm. VuMum u. 
Woll-markiil ahniiar; ndiaiil mil dsSnad. 
I>, Porbafc Canibridgr. Ami lo, i<tl = )i*4-I9* 

PmbabljWBUuutlaiiurX ii. i) 



I ab^rrttl, .7Stfp(,, ilCf, bj A 



CViinaetnl oilh U ] f, 8 and Z. No. 171 probaUrapHudo.ndiant. Itaqum 

lUill.nlpnihahlralonnMl. SuppaanlbTWaiii.l>'Arral.OalkaiidS()>lapa[<lli 
lobaniniiivlnl iilllillloli'i ninial. A ig urilfiU-ii*'|-}4*. 

Olaariwl at Oiwinilrfi, it]a ; ridlant niat Cor Oiroll ; InillalJueL ' 

llailLanI iJolifalad ifn'-l-To'ta I70*+71*. Btwirtf mOl iiiirbd. 

Aiiliii|iur1antnialiMrlo.liiii>ar. Mailmum ii.it Dm ILidlniit.MnlnBOtmi. 
noruin Ilailiaiital loi'-l-is'. 1. I)m> iKj. IL P.Ons and AS llarKhal. 
Ur.WoMlal ioo*.<-j4*iii iltt. Pruhibt; alunpinl, ifa'-l-fs'lo las'+D*. 

I'oHJbl] mniimaimnwul uf Nn. 7 (Jmi. 4). 

A •uuthorn ndlani In lb» liX uf lldi and Ngumt'tr. Ifhiia obaar'aUKiia In 

Kn|laiid.;-ii Auguil, 1171, 
I lUduoRl I17 IL 1'. an« rtum Ui* lladoliir« ob.Traiioii. nl Uifunl, ilro-ji 



OBSEllA'ATIOXiS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 109 

of shooting-stars made at the observatory of Moncalieri contiiuie to be pub- 
lished in the Meteorological Bulletin of that observatory, in which nearly 
1000 meteor-paths observed before the end of April 1869 have been already 
published. All the observers' notes are also transmitted to Milan for final 
reduction and arrangement in a collective Catalogue by Professor Schiaparelli. 
In connexion with this extensive research, an enlarged edition of his ori- 
ginal Memoir on the Astronomical Theory of Shooting-stars* has recently 
been compiled by Professor Schiaparelli, and was published last year under 
his directions, as a separate volume, in the German language by Dr. vou 
Boguslawski, of Stettin f. The materials of the original Treatise have been 
much increased, so as to present a full account of the recent investigations in 
meteoric science whose results have most contributed to advance this modern 
branch of astronomj^ since the publication of his former work. A complete 
Table of all the 189 radiant-points obtained from Zezioli's observatiousj, 
the full particulars of Avhich have not been previously published, is also em- 
bodied in the work, with a supplementary Table showing the position of each 
radiant-point with regard to the apex of the earth's way, and the principal 
elements of its parabolic or cometary orbit. In a list of notes on the several 
radiant-points, a comparison of their positions with those obtained by other 
observers, showing them in many cases to corroborate or to correct former 
observations, is made to connect the new list of radiant-points in every im- 
portant point of agreement with the older lists of Heis, Greg, and Schmidt, 
and with the separate determinations of special radiant-points by individual 
observers. A useful summary of these results is given by Mr. Greg in the 
accompanying comparative Table of radiant-points, presenting in one view aU 
the points of difference and resemblance between the several general cata- 
logues of radiant-points which have hitherto been published, with the excep- 
tion of the extensive Catalogue recently printed by Dr. Schmidt in the second 
volume of the publications of the Observatory of Athens, to which the Com- 
mittee have not yet been able to refer §. With the aid of observations received 
since the appearance of the last printed Meteor-Catalogue in these Reports, 
the Committee propose to consider more closely the epochs and positions of 
the general radiant-points exhibited in this Table, and to enter in a future 
Report into a complete discussion of the identity and of the comparative im- 
portance of the difi:erent families or groups of meteoric showers which, in 
many instances, it appears most properly to represent. 

* "Note e Reflessioni intorno allaTeoria Astronomica delle Stelle Cadenti." (See these 
Eeports for 1868, p. 407.) 

t Eiitwiirf einer astronomisehen Theorie der Sternschnuppen, von. J. V. Schiaparelli. 
Aus dem Italienischen iibersetzt und herausgegeben ron Georg von Boguslawski (8vo, with, 
four Plate.s, 268 pp.). Stettin, 1871, Verlag von Th. von der Nahmer. 

I A Table of the principal meteor-showers only of this later list was formerly pub- 
lished by Professor Schiaparelli (v/dc Eeport for 1870, p. 1)8), with sliglit subsequent alte- 
rations in two Memoirs in the Ephemerides of the Milan Observatory, containing annota- 
tions on the history and characteristics of each meteor-shower of the List, one memoir in- 
cluding the meteor-showers observed in each half year. That for the first half year was 
noticed in the last Report (1871, pp. 44-48), and the concluding Memoir has since been 
received by the Committee from Prof. Schiaparelli. To this complete cycle of meteor- 
showers, and to the descriptive notes wliich it contains, fiu-ther consideration will be devoted 
in the next Report. 

§ The same Table is also presented by Dr. Schmidt in the ' Astronomiscbe Nach rich ten,' 
Ko. 1756. 



110 



REPORT — 1872. 

GEIs^EEAL LIST OF BOLIDES AND 



Date. 



1783 
Jan. 8 



Sept.26 



Nov. 2. 

1794. 

June 28 



1871. 
Sept. 1 

10 



Hour. 



h m s 
Evening .. 



8 55 p.m. 
3 55 a.m. 



Place of 
Observation. 



Slough, Bucks... 



[hid , 

Ibid, 
Ibid, 



10 45 p.m. Knocklong, Co, 
Limerick. 



10 43 p.m. 



Knocklong, Co. 
Limerick. 



Apparent Size. 



Very bright . 



Brilliant 



Large and bright. 
Rocket-like 



Very brilliant 

Verv bright.,. 



Colour. 



Very white 



17 10 7 p.m. Between Alder- 
shot and Farn- 
ham. 



Oct. 8 



11 



11 



10 28 51 
p.m. 



Regent's Park, 
London. 



About iBrompton, Lou- 



12 7 or 
12 10 a.m. 



don. 



9 5 50 Royal Observa- 
p.m. tory, Greenwich 



Fully as bright 
Venus. 



Nearly as bright 
Venus. 



as 



Very large 



Nov. 9 11 56 10 
p.m. 



11 



8 17 30 
p.m. 



121 7 45 p.m. 
(Possible 
error 2™.) 



ibid. 



Brighter than J 
piter. 



Showed most 
beautiful CO 
lours. 



White 



Intensely vivid 
green. 



11- Bluish ; the 
fragments 
crimson. 



Brighter than Ju- 
piter. 



Bluish 



(bid. 



Twice as bright nb Bluish-white 
Jupiter. 



Tenby, Soutli Brighter than the 
Wales. fixed stars. 



Orange-yellow 



Duration. 



Position. 



Passed along close 
under a Lvrae. 



Dropped from S 
Cygni. 
Meteor-streak. 



Ursa Major. 

In the southern sky 
at an elevation of 
about 20°. 
First visible near 
Pegasus and passed 
across the sky to 
Capella. 

«= = 

From 328°+ 17° 
to 300- 2^, 
ending its flight 
a little beyond i 
Aquila;. 
From altitude 45°, 
15° W. from S., 
to altitude 30° or 
35°, 20' W. from 
S. 
By the side and to 
the north of Ju- 
piter; about as far 
from him as Cas- 
torisfromPollux. 
Moved from Polaris 
inanearlystraigi 
line between e am 
K Ursa; Majoris 

6 seconds. ... Passed between 
and e Leonis. 



Slowand state- 
ly motion. 



Slow motion. 



Two or three 
seconds. 



6 seconds. 






1 second From near the PleJ 

j iades, passed closd 
i to y Tauri aboul 
i halfway between 
and X Tauri. 

2 or 3 seconds. Course as in sketch.! 



Slow motion. 



'S a.* 

Ursa Major 



f 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 

IIIGET METEORS OBSERVED IX 1871 A^-D 1872. 



Ill 



Length of 
Path. 



20' 



Long course. 



Direction. 



Fell perpendicularly to the ho- 
rizon. 



Appearance ; Remarks, &c. 



Observer. 



Course parallel to « and y Cygni 



Globular nucleus. Left a streak 
visible 40'' after the meteor had 
disappeared. 

Gave a very bright light. Left a 
luminous streak visilile for 1'" 
20- or 30" to the eye, and for 
about 3"' in the telescope finder. 



Horizontal from east to west. 



Directed from Andromeda. 



35"= 



25" 



20° 



Path 
curved. 



Dropped straight doven . 



Directed from /t Ursa; Majoris 



About lO'' 01 
12°. 



Sir W. Herschel's MS. 
Journal. 

Id. 



Id. 



Resembled a faint sky-rocket. A 
portion of the train in the posi- 
tion shown in the sketch re- 
mained visible for 3™ at least. 



Several other meteors were seen 
on the same night, but none so 
conspicuously brilliant as this 
one. 

Disappeared gradually; left along, 
broad, bhie streak for 4 or 5 se- 
conds. A clear night ; and a 
few lesser meteors were occa- 
sionally visible. 

The sky was too cloudy to verify 
these positions by the stars. 



Increased in size gradually, j 
and at length became club- I 
shaped, as in the sketch. A | 
magnificent meteor. The I 
green colour most brilliant, v. 

Increased gradually ; burst into six 
or seven fragments, the last two 
of vvhich were of a fine crimson 
red colour ; left a bright, very 
enduring streak. 

Nucleus increased as it advanced ; 
and at last burst into several 
fragments, some of which were 
crimson. 

Left a slight streak 



At first a faint streak ; increased 
gradually, and disappeared sud 
denly, with the appearance of 
sparks. Left no conspicuous 
streak. 



Id. 



Jerem. Ilenly. 



Id. 



T. Crumplen. 



G. J. Svmonds. 



H. W. Jackson. 



William Marriott. 



Id. 



V/. Bishop. 



T. W. Webb. 



112 



REPORT— 1872. 



Date. 



Hour. 



• Place of 
Observation. 



1871. ; li m j 

i\ov.l3 9 5 p.tn.'N^ewcastlc-on- 
Tyne. 



13 11 25 p.m. 



15 5 45 p.m. 



151 8 34 p.m. 



19 



Dec. G 



Reclicnliaro, 
Kent. 



Regent's Park, 
London. 



West Ilcndon, 
Sunderland. 



41 p.m. I Royal Observa- 
tory, Crccnwicb 



10 
8 11 p.m 



Apparent Size. 



Colour. 



Duration. 



Position. 



Much brigbter than White ; no 



Venus. 



Large Reddish 



8 15 p.m. 



Birmingham .. 



Beeston, near 
Nottingham. 



12 10 39 p.m. Glasgow 



20 10 28 p.m. 



31 



About 10 25 
p.m. 



Nancy, France ... 



Tooting, near 
London. 



Brighter than the 
fixed stars. 



Brighter than Ve 
nus. 



Brighter than Jii 
pitcr. 



other colours, 



Ruddv colour. 




White 



As bright as Venus Blue, 
at its ma.ximum. 



Very large Red 



As bright as Jupiter White 



Large Green 



Brighter than Jupi- 
ter. 



Apparent path 
aliout 10' S. from 
West, reaching to 
the horizon. 



\cross the lower! 
part of Ursa Ma- 
jor. 



From 2 40° + 66° 
to 197 + 74 



Shot from Algol' 
towards v Tauri, 
disappearing a 
few degrees be- 
fore reaching X- 
Tauri. 

Course near and 
parallel to Orion's! 
belt. 

a.— S^ 
From 97°+50° 
to 76 +17 

Shot from /3 Auriga; 
towards « Tauri 
disappearing at a 
point in 11. A. 
5" 10"-, N. Decl 
31° 30'. 






0-75 second . 



From Cassiopeia 
through Perseus, 
towards the Plei 
ades, near to 
which star it dis- 
appeared. 



1 or 2 seconds Shot across q and| 
TT Orionis. 



a= ( = 
From 73°+ 13° 
to 09 + 4 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 



113 



Length of 
Path. 



Direction, 



About 25° ... Obliquely down, as in this 
bketch. 



West horizon. 

Shot liorizoutally from east to 
west. 



'Directed from a Ceti 



From radiant K G 



[From radiant M^ (or K G ?)] 



Appearance ; Remarks, &c. 



Observer. 



Left a very bright, enduring streaki II. Page, 
on a part of the latter portion 
of its course. [Seen also at 
York, where it appeared not 
to be directed from Leo, but 
from a radiant-point distant 
from it by a few degrees. — E. 
Clark.] 

Left a long train. [Seen also at The ' Standard.' 

Norwood, Kent, moving from 

E.N.E. toW.S.W. In a watch 

of two hours on the same night 

meteors appeared to be un- 
usually scarce. — /rf.] 
Nucleus appearing to rotate in its T. Crumplen. 

flight, leaving some streaks and 

a long train upon its course. 

Disappeared gradually, without 

explosion. 
As bright as Venus during most T. W, Backhouse. 

of its course, growing suddenly 

brighter just before disappear- 
ance. Left a short streak for 

2'' at the middle of its course, 

atN. Decl. 21°. 
Left a fine streak. End of the|\V. C. Nash. 

meteor's course not seen. j 

Meteor increased in size, and col- W. H. Vl'ood. 
lapsed at maximum ; leaving aj 
transient train on its course. 



Short course. 



Exploded with a bright flash. E. J. Lowe: 
Left some luminous red sparks Dec. 8th. 
on its track, and a bright train 
of red points, which remained 
visible for about three minutes. 

Left no streak. [At Bristol Mr. |R. M'Clure. 
Wm. F. Denning observed aj 
large meteor at O"" 42'" pass 
downwards in the west. No 
stars were there visible to re- 
cord its path.] 



The Times,' 



Almost vertically down , 



At disappearance the meteor burst, 
with a bright green flash, 
[The radiants observed in France 
during this month appear to 
confirm very closely Dr. lleis's 
previous results. — M. Faye.] 



Increased in size, and 
disappeared with a 
slight explosion. The 
course may have ex- 
tended onwards a few 
degrees beyond the 
stars named. 



P. Guyot: ' Comples 
Kendus,' Jan. 15, 

1872. 



II. W. Jackson. 



114 



BEPOKT — 1873. 



Date. 


Hour. 


Place of 
Observation. 


Apparent Size. 


Colour. 


Duration, 


Position. 1 


1872. 
Jan. 3 


h m 

8 13 ± 


Royal Observa- 
tory, Green- 
wich. 


— Jupiter 


Bluish white . 


More than 1 
second. 


From centre of Au- 
riga, passed half 
way between ji 
Tauri and i Au- ' 
riga, across Alde- 
baran, and about 
10° beyond. 




8 


About 11 
p.m. 


Sutton 


Larr^e 






First appeared in 
the N.W. and 
passed across the 
western sky about 
halfway between 
the horizon and 
the zenith. 










Feb. 19 


10 20 p.m. 


Brompton, Lon- 
don, 


Brighter than Jupi- 
ter. 






.\ppeared near Re- 
gulus, and passed 
across a point 
about ^ of the 
way from a. lly- 
drse to Sirius. 






19 


10 21 p.m. 


Royal Observa- 
tory, Green- 
wich. 




Bright light 
blu?. 


3 seconds 


From a point nearly 
midway between 
Procyon and Si- ■ 

. rius moved nearly | 
parallel to Procy- l| 
on and a Orionis. 1 




Mar.26 
April 1 


7 55 p.m. 
12 9 a.m 


Bedford 


= Jupiter 


Orange 




From ^ (jj Urs!e Ma- 
joris, y Bootis) to 
very near /3 Ce- 
phei. 

From R. A. 6'' 40", 
N. Decl. 33°, to 
R.A.9'', N.Decl. 
0° (point of dis- 
appearance). 


Barnsbury.[Seen 
also at Ray- 
Lodge Obser- 
vatory, Maid- 
enhead, by Mr. 
Lasselland Dr. 
Huggins.] 


At first small, then 
large and bright. 

■ 


First white, 
then red, 
then intense 
purple. 


Not more than 
1 second. 


1 


8 30 p.m. 


Radcliflfe Obser- 
vatorVjOxford. 


Three times as 
bright as Jupiter. 


Green ,. 




Appeared at an alt i- . 
tudeof about 30° 1 
under Cassiopeia, 
and disappeared 
behind tall 
houses. 

Descended from 
aboutl5°toabout 
5° above the N.W. 
horizon. 

Passed between ji 
andrLyncisfrora 
the direction of f 
(near o) Leonis, 
disappearing 6° 
or 8* beyond 
those stars. 






5 
12 


7 37 p.m. 
10 45 p.m. 


Upton Helions, 
Crediton, De- 
von. 

Somerset House, 
London. 


As bright as Jupiter 
or Venus, 

= Jupiter 


White, with a 
tinge of 
green. 

White, with 
red sparks. 


About 5 sees. . 
2| seconds ... 





A CATALOGUE O? OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 115 



Length of 
Path. 



35° 



15° 



Direction. 



[From Jan, 2nd radiant-point 

K3.] 



10° 



30° 



Fell vertically 



From radiant S4, -, near 5 Vir- 
ginis. 



Appearance; Remarks, &c. 



Observer. 



Left a fine streak 



Its whole course seen through 
thin clouds, which partly ob 
scured ■ Jupiter and Regulus. 
The point of disappearance is 
perhaps in error 5° or 6°. A 
very bright meteor. 



Left a streak, 
halo. 



Sky hazy, lunar 



Left a long, persistent streak on 
its course. 



Presented no extraordinary ap- 
pearance at first, but increased 
in size and brilliancy to disap- 
pearance, illuminating all that 
part of the sky. End of its 
course hidden by a house. Only 
two other small meteors 
(moving from the same radiant, 
point towards a Tauri) seen be. 
tween lli^ 40"' and 13^. 

[On the previous evening, March 
31st, a very brilliant meteor was 
seen at Ray-Lodge Observatory, 
Maidenhead, by Mr. Lassell and 
Dr. Huggins, which lit up the 
whole sky.] 

Seen against the bright back- 
ground of the sunset sky, while 
looking for the planet Mercury. 

Nucleus followed by a short tail 
of red sparks, which remained 
visible when the meteor disap- 
peared. Left no streak. 



W. C. Nash. 



The Surrey Advertiser.' 



H. W. Jackson. 



W. C. Nash. 



T. E. Elger: 'Astrono- 
mical Register," May 
1872. 

F. W. Levander : Ibid. 



Mr. Keating. 



S. J. Johnson. 



A. S. Ilerschel. 



116 



REPORT 1873. 



Date. 


Hour. 


Place of 
Observation. 

• 


Apparent Size. 


Colour. 


Duration. 


Position. 


1872. 


h m s 












Apr. 19 


8 30 p.m. 


Greystoke, Cum- 


Large apparent disk 


Nucleus white. 


Slow and re- 


Descended in the 






berland. 




surrounded 
with bluish 
light. 


gular speed. 


S.E., and disap. 
peared before 
reaching the 
ground. 


19 


About 8 40 


York 


Brighter than Ve- 
nus. 




About 4 sees.. 


First appeared 
slightly above the 
moon ; disap- 




p.m. 






appearing to 












move faster 












at last. 


peared behind 
somehousesatan 
altitude of about 
20°. 


19 


11 7 p.m. 


York 


Twice as bright as 
Venus. 


Red and pur- 2i sernnds - 


From 2-15° -f 41° 




pie. At last 












white with 




to 265-5 +30 










red sparks. 






19 


11 7 30 


Hawkhurst 


Brighter than 1st- 


Yellow 


0'5 sec. while 


«= a= 




p.m. 




mag. » 




in sight. 


From 330°-|-55° 
to 335 +45 

1 


22 


10 13 p.m. 


VVisbeach, Cam- 
bridgeshire. 


Brighter than a 
first- magnitude 


Yellow 


3 or 4 seconds 


From 168° + 62° | 










star. 






to 22 +76 
From Ursa Major 
to Cassiopeia. 


30 


7 52 p.m. 


RadcliflFe Obser- 
vatory, Oxford. 


Three times as 
bright as Jupiter. 


Yellow 




Began 15°or 20° E., 
and in a line with 


















the pole. Disap- 














peared at an alti- 














tude of about 15° 














above the hori- 














zon. 


May 3 


9 25 p.m. 


Gateshead, Dur- 


As bright as Jupiter 


White, then 


5 sees. ; slow 


From 2° north of v 






ham. 




orange-red. 


motion. 


Comae Berenicis 
to 5° beyond a 












point 1° S. of r 












Virginis. 


28 


12 mid- 


Regent's Park, 


Larger, but not 


Orange colour Very swift . . . 


From a point 15° 




night. 


London. 


brighter than Ve- 


1 


south of the ze- 








nus. 






nith to 7° or 8° 
below Arcturus. 


July 22 


Between 


Near Chelms- 


Like the moon ... 


White, with 


About 2 sees. . 


From alt. about 40°1 




8 30 p.m. 


ford, Essex. 




other colours 




S.W.toalt.aboutl 




and 






in its train. 




30° W.N.W. 1 




9'' p.m. 










(rough estimaJ 
tion of position 
more than half 
way from the ho- 
rizon to the ze- 
nith). 


22 


8 55 p.m. 


Dunmow,E?sex. 


Brilliant 


Front globe 
white ; the 




Shot across the sky, 
about 5° to N. of 














rear one 




Arcturus. 










bluish. 







A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 



117 



Length of 
Path. 



Direction. 



Appearance ; Remarks, &c. 



Observer. 



Fell vertically 



Descending with a 
sUglitly eastward 
slope. 



Nucleus gloljular, surrounded at 

last by flickering radiations. 

Disappeared without explosion. 

Left no sparks nor luminous 

streak. Sky hazy, with a lunar 

halo. 
Increased from a first-magnitude 

star to beyond the brightness 
. of Venus. Left a transient train. 
a= d = 

Estimated /From 172° +10° 
path...l to 188-5- 19-5. 



T. Fawcett : ' Nature,' 
April 25th, 1872. 



Communicated by 
J. E. Clark. 



Directed like the last meteor, Disappeared with some quickly 



from radiant M^ near n 
Majoris. 



Ursse 



Fell vertically , 



I 



[From radiant M^ 
in Ursa Major.] 



Descended at an angle of about 
45' towards the N.W. hori- 




extinguished sparks. The sparks 
left upon its course appeared to 
follow the meteor. Very bril 
liant even in the moon's light. 

Left a short sparkling streak, 
which advanced along the me- 
teor's course, and appeared 
more conspicuous than the 
head. Last 5° of the meteor's 
flight only seen. 

A beautiful meteor, even in bright 
moonlight. The streak ap- 
peared to brighten up after 
the disappearance of the nu- 
cleus. 



zon. 



/ 



Fell vertically from the direc- 
tion of Ursa Major. 



J. E. Clark. 



Miss M. R. Ilerscheland 
Miss J. Herschel. 



S. n. Miller. 



Mr. Keating. 



ut40'^ 



Descending with a slight slope. 



S.E. to N.W. 



White in the first, and red in the|A. S. Herschel. 

last half of its course ; broke at 

last into two or three red sparks, 

which immediately disappeared. 

Left no streak. 
Nucleus kite-shaped ; disappeared T. Crumplen. 

gradually, left no streak. Seen 

among clouds which partially 

covered the sky. 
Pear-shaped, leaving some sparksiT. Usborne. 

in its course. Disappeared with- 
out bursting. 



The meteor displayed two globes 
of light, and appeared to burst 
at a great elevation. 



H. E. Cockayne. 



118 



REPORT 1872. 



Date. 



1872. 
July 22 



22 



22 



Hour. 



h m 

8 55 p.m. 



.\bout9p.rn 



About 9 p. ru 



Place of 
Observation. 



Bridgewater 



[Seen also at 
Chelmsford.] 
CoDkham, Berks. 
[Seen also at 
Sittingbourne, 
Kent.] 



Apparent Size. 



= Sirius 

Large ., 
Large ., 



Colour. 



Duration. 



Position, 



Oran.a;e-red ... 1-25 second , 



Bluisb 



Intense white. 

. afterwards 

dull red. 



G sees.; slow 
speed. 



Street, Somerset- Large and veryiBright bluish 



shire. 



briprlit. 



green. 



1 seconds, or 
perhaps a 
little less. 



From 2° above Al- 
tair to about 
5° N. of east, 12'- 
above the hori- 
zon. 

.^bout halfway up 
in the sky. 

Passed within 20°| 
of the zenith.! 
[Seen also in the 
east at Ponty- 
pool ; a comet- 
like star with a 
following star.] 

From 45° above the 
E.S.E. horizon to 
25° above the 
E.N.E. horizon. 



Experiments on the Surface-friction experienced by a Plane moving 
through water. By W. Eroude^ F.R.S. 

[A communication ordered by the General Committee to be i^rinted in exfcnso.] 

(Plates II.- VII.) 

The object of these experimeuts is to discover the couditions of the resistance 
to passage through the water caused to models or ships by the friction of the 
water against the sides. 

This has been investigated by towing, with the dynamometric apparatus, 
planes formed of thin boards ; these being bodies of such a form as to possess 
the least possible displacement, and present to the line of motion the least 
possible sectional area, compared to the amount of wetted skin, and at the 
same time, owing to their flotation, capable of being made stable and self- 
supporting in the water, though entirely submerged. 

The dynamometric arrangement is as follows :— 

The water space is a parallel-sided tank 278 feet long, 36 broad at the top, 
and 10 feet deep ; but for the surface-friction experiments it was necessary 
to lower the water-level about 15 inches. 

The tank is roofed from end to end, and a light railway, carried by the 
framing of the roof, traverses its entire length at about 20 inches above the 
normal water-level, there being a clear space between the rails, the gauge 
of which is independent of sleepers or transomes. 

A stout framed truck, suspended from the axles of two pairs of wheels, runs 
on the railway, and is moved by an endless wire rope, coiled in a spiral 
groove on an accurately turned barrel, which is driven by a small double- 
cylinder engine, hanng a heavy and highly speeded fly-wheel, and a ehro- 



EXPERIMENTS ON SURFACE-FRICTION. 



119 



1 Length of 
1 I'ath. 


Direction. 


Appearance ; Remarks; &c. 


Observer. 


20° 


Slope about 35^ 


OhsPTVPfl tlip flisnnnparaiirp 1)V 


I V. r.lnrlr 




>/ 


turning round from west, seeing. 




probably only the " spark " at 








the end; beginning seen by 








others in the town. /3 Fegasi 






From E. to W.— H. J. Impey. 
(J. E, C.) * 


only just visible in the strong 
twilight. 








About 40° 


From a little W. of S. to a little 


Left no streak visible in the bright 


R. W. Rogers. 


wbile in 


E. of N. 


twilight. Disappeared without 




sight. 




bursting, dying out to a red 
cinder, which went on some 
distance on the same course. 




'About 50° ... 


> 


Left some sparks behind it at last, 


W. S. Clark, n. P. 






and some on its track, but no 


Bright Clark, and 




y 


persistent streak. Disappearedj others. 




£ 


like the hall of a rocket, one 






spark proceeding onwards some 








way. 





f 



nometric governor of very exact action, and of sucli arrangements that any 
required steady speed between 100 and 1000 feet per minute can be assigned 
by it to the truck. 

The truck carries the dynamometric apparatus. A skeleton diagram in 
Plate 11. shows this in full detail, with the special fittings by which it was 
adapted to the surface-friction experiments ; and as the diagram is fully 
referenced, the apparatus will be better understood by inspection than by a 
verbal description here. Its general character is, however, as follows : — 

The plane of which the resistance is to be tested is driven through the 
water by a suitable frictionless attachment, so arranged that the horizontal 
force driving it is wholly delivered by a spiral spring, like that of a spring 
balance, the fixed end of which is held by a strong bracket descending from 
the frame of the truck. The extensions of this spring under the various 
forces applied form in each case a measure of the force. The extensions, 
brought to an enlarged scale by a lengthened index-arm, are self-recorded by 
a pen which follows the motions of the arm, and traces a line on a sheet of 
paper carried by a cylinder which receives its motion by a band from a pulley 
on the hinder axle of the truck, so that the circumferential travel of the 
paper represents on a small scale the forward motion of the truck. A second 
pen, actuated by clockwork, marked time on the cylinder as it revolved ; so 
that in each experiment two lines were marked on the paper, one showing 
the resistance experienced at each point in the run, the other showing the 
speed at which each portion of the run was performed. 

The planes were about y\ inch thick, of various lengths, and as finished 
were uniformly 19 inches broad, .and when under experiment were placed on 
edge in the water, the upper edge being about 1-^ inch below the surface. 



120 REPORT — 1H72. 

The lower edge consisted of a quasi keel of lead of the same thickness as the 
plane, and made heavy enough to nearly neutralize the flotation of the light 
Avood of which the planes were made. But though thus made stahle, and 
approximately neutralized as to flotation, the jjlane under experiment required 
control to keep it resolutely vertical, and the line of its length correctly 
horizontal, while, nevertheless, it required perfect liberty in the line of motion, 
in order that the whole towing-strain might be accurately delivered to the 
dynamometer. 

For this purpose a light but stiffened wooden bar (Plate II. c c) Avas hung 
longitudinally beneath the dynamometer truck, just clear of the surface of the 
water. To this the planes were rigidly attached. This bar was carried at 
each end by a light swing or rocking-frame (e e and e e) , thus forming a 
parallel motion perfectlj* free longitudinally, and perfect^ unyielding trans- 
versely. It was of course necessary to extend one of the swings above the 
point of suspension to carry a weight adjusted so as to counterbalance the 
weight of the bar, together with any sinking or floating force that the plane 
might exert ; otherwise the frame would not have been in equilibriimi in the 
line of motion except in one position, and in any other position would have 
exerted a positive or negative force on the dynamometer. 

The rigid connexion between the planes (which were of course imder 
water) and the swinging bar or parallel motion (which was above water) 
consisted of a kind of sheath or cutwater (n d), which received the forward 
edge of the plane, and had a long upper end, extending out of the water, and 
fastened to an upright on the swinging bar with three strong pins or bolts. 
The plane was rebated to receive tlie sides of the sheath, so that the outside 
surface at the juncture was flush as far as possible. 

Tlie investigation of surface-friction may be separated into three primary 
divisions : — (1) the law of the variation of resistance witli the velocity ; (2) 
the differences in resistance due to differences in the quality of surface ; (3) 
the differences in the resistance per unit of surface due to differences in the 
length of surface. 

The necessity of investigating the latter of these conditions may not be at 
once apparent, it having been generallj' held that surface-friction varies 
directly with the area of surface, and will be the same for a given area, 
wliether the surface be long and narrow or short and broad. It has always 
seemed to me to be impossible that this should be the case, because the por- 
tion of surface that goes fii'st in the line of motion, in experiencing resistance 
from the water, must in turn communicate to the water motion in the direc- 
tion in which it is itself travelling ; and consequently the portion of siirface 
which succeeds the first will be rubbing, not against stationary water, but 
against water partially moving in its own direction, and cannot therefore 
experience as much resistance from it. If this reasoning holds good, it is 
certain that doubling, for instance, the length of a surface, though it doubles 
the area, would not double the resistance, for the resistance of the second 
half would not be as great as that of the first. 

In order to reduce the results obtained to the most serviceable form for 
determining the three separate conditions of resistance enumerated above, 
it was convenient to represent them graphicallj^, by diagram, in two methods ; 
in both methods the ordinates represent resistance, whUe the abscissfc repre- 
sent in the one case velocities, and in the other lengths of surface. Plates VI. and 
VII. are instances^of the two kinds. In the former, if the friction proved to 
vary as the square of the velocity, the diagrams would be ordinarj^ parabola; 
originating at the zero-point of resistance and velocity; in the latter, if the 



42 "^Jiepot / nrilifih Assoc : 18 7k 



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EXPERIMENTS ON SURFACE-FRICTION. 121 

friction per iiuit of surface were uniform, as is common] j' supiwscd, through- 
out the length of the surface, and consequently the total resistance of a plane 
of given Avidth varied simply as the length, the diagrams M'ould be straight 
lines, originating at the zero-point of both horizontal and vertical scale. If, 
again, these lines were straight, but apparently originated at a point above 
the zero, this would indicate that there was a constant clement of resistance 
throughout (such as head-resistance might be), in addition to the element 
varying as the length. If, however, the lines were concave towards the base, 
this would indicate that the friction per unit of surface decreased with in- 
creasing length of surface. 

Since each plane, when once mounted, was, for convenience, tried through- 
out the intended series of velocities, the results primarily shaped themselves 
in the first-mentioned form. Some transcripts of the resuUs as originally so 
'^lotted are shown on Plate IV., the lines on which represent the actual resist- 
ances for any veloci'y of certain planes under certain differences of condition 
as specified in the margin of the sheet. The cross mprks upon the lines show 
the actual spots decided by the individual experimei cs made, and from which. 
the curves drawn were deduced. It may be remarked that, wi.h the excep- 
tions which will be subsequently noticed (the lines marked b' b', c' c') , there 
is scarcely any difference between any of the lines in respect to the law of 
variation of resistance in terms of velocity, the resistance varying throughout 
nearly as the power 1-8 of the velocity. 

From the great multiplicity of the experiments tried, it would have been 
confusing to show even a tolerable large proportion of the origiual reductions. 
Those given are selected, partly as exhibiting the results of certain sligl tly 
varied conditions which will be presently referred to, and partly as fairly 
averaged specimens which instructively attest the accuracy of the experiments. 
This is shown, not only by the fairness of the curves passing strictly through. 
all the spots, but also by the consistency of the contiguous lines. 

The results which had been thus reduced to diagram according to the first 
of the two methods supplied the data for constructing a general diagram 
according to the second method, as shown in Plate VII. The black Hues on 
this figure express the finally analyzed and complete results, for one quality 
of surface only, up to a length of 50 feet, that beijig the greatest length that 
the apparatus can command. It appeared desirable to ascertain the effect of 
length of surface (at any rate provisionally) before proceeding to try various 
qualities of surface ; and the process by which these results, as given in the 
diagram, were finally arrived at requires some explanation. 

I commenced by a series of experiments on planes of various lengths, from 
one foot to fifty feet, having all a similar surface. 

The results of this first series of experiments, when analyzed, gave lines 
similar to the dotted line (« a) on Plate VII. This, it will be seen, is con- 
cave towards the base, thus indicating that the friction per unit of surface 
does actually diminish as the length of surface increases. At the same time 
its form, as it approached the zero of speed, seemed to show, either that this 
effect was very much more marked in the first two feet of surface, or that 
there was considerable body-resistance involved. Moreover, the line obtained, 
if drawn strictly through all the spots determined by experiment, did not 
give a fair curve. 

This might have been thought to be owing to inaccuracy in the apparatu.?, 
were it not that experiments, when repeated, always gave identical results, 
and that, as has been already mentioned, the results for each individual plane 
were perfectly harmonious, thus indicating that the discrepancy in question 

1872. K 



122 REPORT— 1872. 

arose from small differences between the individual planes, probably differences 
in the thickness or nature of edge at their ends, diminishing or increasing the 
body-resistance. 

The initial edge of the planes tried was formed by the sheath or cutwater 
befoi-e mentioned, which held the plane in its place; and this was tapered in 
horizontal section, fron? tbe thickness of the plane to about jL inch, the 
extreme edge being rounded, as shown full size in Plate III. (marked a a). 
At the tail edge there was no sheath, and the board was simply cut off square, 
as shown in the same figure. Clearly, if there was any great body-resistance 
due to these blunt ends, as the line a a on Plate VII. seemed to imply, then 
the slight differences in thickness which existed between the different planes 
might be sufficient to account for the discrepancies between their results. 
Accordingly experiments were tried with certain of the planes, of various 
lengths, already tried, but substituting a cutwater having a very thin edge, 
tapering to the thickness of the plane in 6 inches, as shown in horizontal 
section on Plate III. (marked b). This alteration produced a slight diminu- 
tion in the amount of the resistance of all the planes, but rather a greater 
reduction in the short planes than in the long ones. The difference, though 
almost too small to show, is indicated by the line a! a', Plate VII. Experiments 
were then tried with the tail edges of the planes, tapered in the same manner 
as the initial edge (c, Plate III). This was tried with the result (indicated by 
the plain line a, Plate VII.) of a ver}- much larger reduction in the resistance ; 
and this reduction was likewise relatively greater in the shorter lengths. 

In order still more correctly to obtain a value by which the results of all 
the planes already tried might be corrected for the varying thicknesses of 
their after edges, an experiment was tried with one of the thickest planes 
(2 feet 6 inches long) by reducing the thickness of its square-edged tail to 
that of the thinnest of the planes (a reduction of perhaps -^^ inch). The 
results of this are shown on Plate V., where the resistance of the plane with 
the thick after edge is shown by the line marked a'", and the resistance of 
the same plane with the tail thinned by the line marked a", and that with 
the tail tapered to a perfectly sharp edge by the line a. 

It is worth notice on this point that the difference between the reduction 
of resistance found throughout these experiments on sharpening the tail edge, 
and that foiuid on sharpening the initial edge, seems to be entirely owing to 
the difference between the original foi-ms of the blunt cutwater and the blunt 
tail (the former being partly tapered and rounded, while the latter was cut 
quite square). This was proved by trying the above-mentioned 2-feet 6-inch 
plane, with its after edge sharpened like the original blunt cutwater. These 
results are shown on Plate V. by the dotted lines a' a', a a, from which it 
may be seen that the difference between the rounded edge and the perfectly 
sharp edge is comparatively small. 

The application of the corrections obtained as I have here described to the 
results of the experiments previously made gave diagrams of resistance in 
terms of length similar to the line marked a" a", Plate VII., the discrepancies 
between the jolanes disappearing when thus corrected. But these experi- 
ments did not include any made with shorter planes than 1 foot 6 inches, 
that being the shortest length that could be constructed with the existing 
cutwater ; and in order to make it complete, it was most desirable to extend 
the lines as far as possible towards the zero-point of length and of resistance, 
by trying very short and thin planes, so as to test the nature of the curve 
close to the origin, and discover whether any body-resistance remained owing 
to the thickness of the plane hitherto tried. 



EXPEIUMENTS ON SURFACE-FRICTION. 123 

It was also necessary to eliminate certain other constant resistances known 
to exist, namely, that due to the air-resistance on the swinging bar, that duo 
to the excess of surface of the cutwater, owing to its projecting up through 
the water above the upper edge of the planes, and that due to the projections 
and irregularities on its surface, caused by the fastenings of the planes. Of 
tliese, the air-resistance was obtained by direct experiment; that due to 
excess of surface was calcidable on the data already possessed ; and the 
resistance due to the projections <fec. was determined by trying the 1-foot 
G-inch plane, with its surface smoothed up Avith paraffine and varnished as 
before. The deduction of these constants brought down the line to the plain 
lines shown on Plate VII.* 

But the first-mentioned object, that of deciding the friction of very short 
lengths, I have so far been unable to treat quite satisfactorily, owing to the 
difficulty of guiding very thin blades. I have, however, obtained good 
results with a 12-inch blade and a 6-iucli blade (see Plate III. d, e) sharp on 
both edges, both about similar in longitudinal section to the 1-foot 6-inch 
plane ; and the experiments with these gave spots through which the curves 
on Plate VII. were drawn for the first 1-foot 6-inch length of surface. 

And though, in the absence of any successful experiment with blades of 
different thicknesses but the same length, we can scarcely regard as disproved 
the existence of possible body-resistance due to the thickness, slight as it was, 
of the planes tried, it is obvious that it would be difficult to deduct further 
from the diagram of resistance any considerable constant represer iing this, 
without making the friction per unit of surface decrease with increasing 
length less in the first 6 inches than it would be uacurally expected to do ; 
in other words, without making the curvature of the lines on Plate VII. less 
sharp at their origin than would be expected, seeing that in the rest of the 
diagram the curvature becomes rapidly flatter as the lengths of plane become 
greater ; but indeed the thinness of the planes and the smallness of the : e- 
duction of resistance which followed the substitution of knife-like for rounded 
edges render it almost impossible to credit body-resistance with any appre- 
ciable item in the account. It is also most desirable to extend these experi- 
ments to greater lengths of surface than I have been able to try with this 
apparatus. But it would indeed be almost impossible to do so in the experi- 
ment tank ; and I shall endeavour to organize some arrangement by which 
greater lengths may be successfully tried in open water. 

I have thus far confined myself, in the description of the result, to the 
question of the eff'ect of lengths of surface upon resistance. I have now to 
deal with the question of quality of surface. 

The diiferent surfaces tested may be enumerated as follows :— 

Shellac varnish. 

Hay's composition. 

Peacock's composition. 

Tallow. 

Glue. 

A smooth metal surface obtained by a coating of tinfoil. 

The comparison between the first three named was made with planes 5 feet, 
16 feet, and 50 feet long, which were each coated first with Hay's and sub- 
sequently with Peacock's composition, all the planes having been previously 

* It should be noticed, however, that the scale of resistance shown on Plate VII. gives, 
not the actual resistances due to the planes tried, but the reduced resistance due to a, 
surface one foot wide and of the lengths shown, 

k2 



12'1 REFOST — 1872. 

tried as coated -vritli shellac varnish. The comparison between the shellac and 
the Hay's composition is exhibited in Plate IV., in Avliich the plain lines 
marked a, c, and n represent the result with the shellac, and the dotted lines 
marked a', c', and n' that with the Hay's composition. These two results I 
consider practically identical, since such small difference as is observable 
might possibly arise from some other difference in the condition of the plane ; 
and it is observable that with the 5-foot plane n, d' the scarcely perceptible 
difference is opposite in character to that shown by a', a and b', b. 

The results with Peacock's composition are not shown in Plate V., being 
practically identical with the other two. 

The tallow surface was tried on the 10-foot plane onlj-, and gave no diffe- 
rence, the diagrams falling between that of the shellac and that of Hay's 
composition. 

The glued surface was tried as a specimen of a slimy, fish-like surface, 
which should partly wash off in the water. The glue was allowed to harden 
before being put in the water ; and to test its change of condition consequent 
on immersion, three experiments were tried successivelj' at the same velocity. 
The resistance was thus found to be throughout on the increase, the first 
experiment being about two per cent., and the third about four per cent, 
greater than that of the shellac surface, apparently implying that the resis- 
tance was increased by the softening of the surface. 

The tinfoU surface is the only surface I have yet tried which I have 
found to have a resistance greatly different from that of varnish ; and hei'e it 
is remarkable that the difference tends to be much less in the greater lengths 
of surface. It is consequently most unfortunate that, owing to the delay I 
experienced in getting the tinfoil for the purpose, it became impossible to 
try it on a greater length than the IG-foot plane in time for this Eeport. 
The comparison of the tinfoil surface with that of the varnish was made on 
lengths of 16 feet, 1 foot (5 inches, and 1 foot. The results with the 16-foot 
plane tinfoiled are shown by the dotted Hne marked c" in Plate IV. ; those 
with the 1-foot and l-foot-6-inch tinfoiled are shown in Plate V. by the 
dotted lines marked b' and c" respectively. For comparison with these, 
Plate V. also shows the results of the same lengths varnished, by the plain 
lines marked b and c respcctivelj'. 

It will be seen by these diagrams that not only is the difference of resistance 
between tinfoil and varnish proportionately less in greater lengths of surface, 
but is also proportionately less at greater speeds ; consequently the law of the 
increase of resistance in terms of velocity is obviously different in the case of 
the tinfoil from what it is in the case of the varnish and the otlier surfaces 
■which were tried. 



Report on the Antagonism betioeen the Action of Active Substances. 
By Thomas R. Fraser, M.D., Secretary to the Committee, consisting 
of Sir R. CiiRiSTisoN, Bart., Dr. Laycock^ and Dr. Fraser. 

The subject of the antagonism between the actions of active substances 
has engaged considerable attention from an early period of medical history. 
Many examples of its occurrence have been brought forward, whicli may 
be conveniently classified into those that treat of the antagonism of lethal 
actions, and those that treat of the antagonism oinon-hthal actions. 



ox TIIK ANTAGONISM BETWEEN ACTIVE SUDSTANCES. 125 

111 llic latter class there are several well-autheuticated examples, among 
which may he instanced the antagonism between the actions on the iris 
and minute blood-vessels of opium or morphia on the one hand, and bella- 
donna, hyoseyamus, and stramonium on the other ; between the actions ou 
the capillary circulation of morphia and quinia ; between the actions on 
the vagi nerves of physostigma and atropia, hydrocyanic acid and atropia, 
and muscaria and ati'opia ; and between the actions on the iris and on visual 
accommodation of physostigma and atropia. 

In the /o)-)He;' class the examples are likewise numerous; but a careful 
examination of the evidence in their support cannot fail to lead to the con- 
clusion that, with very few exceptions, it is of an unsatisfactory nature. 
In the majority of cases where an active substance has acquired the 
reputation of counteracting the fatal etFect of some other substance or 
substances, this reputation has mainly been founded ou the results of 
clinical experience. In such experience there are difhcultics in dis- 
covering not onlj'^ what dose of poison has been introduced into the sj'stem, 
but even when this dose has been ascertained it is generally impossible 
to feel assured that it is a sufficient one to produce death ; and, further, 
the effects of the substance introduced as a physiological antidote can 
rarely be accurately observed. The exigencies of treatment demand that 
every likely method of alleviating the symptoms should be applied ; and 
among these it is difficult, if not impossible, to discover accurately the 
effects of any single antidote. It is not therefore to be wondered at that 
the accumulated clinical observations of more than two centuries should 
have failed in itroving that opium is able to prevent the fatal effect of 
belladonna, and that this evidence has equally failed in establishing the 
existence of any one of the examples of lethal antagonism to which atten- 
tion has more recently been drawn. 

A method whereby the existence of a lethal antagonism can satisfactorily 
be tested is by experiment on the lower animals. In such experiments 
the most important of the causes of fallacy that have been alluded to can 
readily be avoided. It is a simple matter to determine, in any given species 
of animal, the minimum dose of an active substance that can produce 
death, and then to test the antidotal influence of its supposed antagonist 
when a lethal dose of the poison has been administered. The most con- 
vincing proof may be thus obtained of an antidotal influence ; and trusting 
to this proof, the practitioner may with confidence employ the antidote in 
cases of poisoning in man. It is unnecessary to show that the fallacies 
asserted to exist in such experiments have been greatly exaggerated, or 
that the supposed differences between the results in man and in the lower 
animals do not possess the importance that has been claimed for them, as 
fortunately nothing remains to be done in this direction since the con^dncing 
arguments of Claude Bernard have been advanced and generally accepted. 

In this Iteport it is proposed to bring before the Association the results of 
an investigation in which the influence of atropia upon the lethal action of 
physostigma was examined, by experiments on the lower animals. The 
nature of this influence may be shown by a brief account of two of the ex- 
periments that were made. 

A rabbit received by subcutaneous injection a dose of extract of physo- 
stigma considerably greater than the minimum lethal ; and one minute and a 
half afterwards it received, also by subcutaneous injection, half a grain of 
sulphate of atropia. In seven minutes after the injection of atropia the 
pupils measured i-| X ^§ of an inch, the size immediately before the ex- 



126 REPORT — 1872. 

periment having been -^-q- X ify- of an inch ; the rate of the heart's contractions 
■was considerably accelerated ; fibrillary twitches were occurring, and a little 
restlessness was present. Soon afterwards the pupils became still further 
dilated, and the animal had some difficulty in moving about. In fifty-two 
minutes the pupils measured -g-^- X ^^^ of an inch, and the difficulty in moving 
about had become greater. In one hour and ten minutes, however, evidences 
of recovery wej'e manifested; the animal went about with but little difficulty, 
and frequently a perfectly normal sitting posture was assumed. Indeed the 
only symptom of an abnormal character that was now apparent consisted 
of frequently occurring and well-marked fibrillary twitches. From this 
time the condition of the animal steadily improved, until perfect recovery 
occurred. As the minimum lethal dose of this preparation of physostigma, 
for any given weight of rabbit, had been determined by a preliminary series 
of experiments, it was known that the dose given in this experiment was 
rather more than twice as large as the minimum lethal. Yet the fatal eff'ect 
of this large dose was prevented in a remarkable manner by the dose of 
atropia given in conjunction with it. To add to the proof that was thereby 
obtained, of an antagonism between these two substances, there was ad- 
ministered to this rabbit, nine days afterwards, a dose of extract of physo- 
stigma, only half as large as that from which it had thus recovered. Symptoms 
of poisoning very quickly appeared, and death occurred in about fourteen 
minutes. 

In the second experiment, a dog, Aveighing ten pounds and three ounces, re- 
ceived by subcutaneous injection three fifths of a grain of sulphate of ph3'-so- 
stigmia, dissolved in a few drops of distilled water. Before the injection the rate 
per ten se onds of the cardiac impulses was 32, and that of the respirations 4, 
and the size of the pupils was 4-2_ ^ ^a of an inch. In four minutes after the 
administration of physostigma slight tremors occui'red, and fibrillary twitches 
were present. In five minutes a solution containing three tenths of a grain 
of sulphate of atropia was injected under the skin. In two minutes there- 
after the tremors had become more prominent and strong, the hmbs were un- 
able properly to support the body, saliva escaped from the mouth, and the eye- 
balls were unnaturally moist. In five minutes the pupils were greatly 
dilated ; but now the secretions of the salivary and lachrymal glands were 
diminished. In seven minutes the dog lay quietly on the abdomen and chest, 
but in thirteen minutes it fell over on the side. This general condition re- 
mained until forty-eight minutes, when the symptoms improved ; and after 
some efforts the dog rose, and then lay down in a normal crouching posture. 
Soon afterwards it again got up and walked about the room with only a Httle 
unsteadiness. In one hour and fifty-five minutes the animal seemed to be 
perfectly well. 

Nineteen days after the performance of this experiment, the same dog 
received by subcutaneous injection a dose of suljihate of physostigmia only 
one half as large as that from which it had recovered when atropia was 
also given, and the result was that death was produced in twcntj'-two minutes. 

-It; is manifest that in these two experiments atropia acted as a physio- 
logical counteragent to the toxic action of physostigma. In other 195 ex- 
periments the fatal cifect of undoubtedly lethal doses of physostigma was 
likewise -prevented by atropia.- This investigation has therefore proved that 
atropiar is a eounterageut to the lethal action of physostigma. 

As both of these substances possess a number of separate actions, it was not 
unreasonable to anticipate that several of them are not mutually antagonistic, 
and therefore that combinations of certain doses of the tM'o substances mav 



0\ THE ANTAGONISM BETWEEN ACTIVE SUBSTANCES. 127 

he administered whereby the uon-antagouized actions will be produced in 
Bufflcient degrees of energy to be able to cause death. It was probable, 
therefore, that successful antagonism would not be exerted throughout an un- 
limited range of doses, but only within a definite range. 

In order to define the limits of the counteracting influence of atropia upon 
the lethal action of physostigma, three series of experiments were made. 

It was found necessary to make all the experiments of these three series 
on rabbits, as it was impossible to obtain a sufficient number of any other 
suitable animal. The rabbits used were generally about three pounds in 
weight ; but when they were lighter or heavier than three pounds a correction 
was made, so that each dose represented three pounds weight of animal. 

In the first and second series a constant interval of time was maintained 
between the administration of the two substances ; but in the first atropia 
was administered five minutes before physostigma, while in the second atropia 
was administered five minutes after physostigma. In both of these series 
experiments were made, in the first place, with the minimum lethal dose of 
physostigma, and in combination with it various doses of atropia were given, 
ranging from one that was too small to prevent death, through a number that 
were able to do so, until a dose was found whose administration resulted in 
death. Similar experiments were made with a dose of physostigma once and 
a half as large as the minimum lethal ; then with one twice as large as the 
minimum lethal, and so on, at the same rate of progression, until a dose was 
reached that was too large to be successfully counteracted by any dose of 
atropia. 

The results obtained by the first of these two series of experiments were, 
that with the minimum lethal dose of physostigma 0-005 gr. of sulphate of 
atropia is too small a dose to prevent death, but that 0015 gr. is sufficient 
to do so; and that with any dose ranging from 0-015 gr. to 5-2 grs., the 
fatal effect of this dose of physostigma may be prevented ; while if the dose 
of sulphate of atropia be 5-3 grs. or more, the region of successful antagonism 
is left, and death occurs. With once and a half the minimum lethal dose 
of physostigma, successful antagonism was produced by doses of sulphate 
of atropia ranging from 0-02 to 4-1 grs. ; with twice the minimum lethal 
dose of physostigma, with doses of sulphate of atropia ranging from 0-021 to 
3-2 grs. ; with two and a half times the minimum lethal dose of physostigma, 
with doses of sulphate of atropia ranging from 0-025 to 2-2 grs. ; with thrice 
the minimum lethal dose of physostigma, with doses of sulphate of atropia 
ranging from 0-06 to 1-2 gr. ; and with three and a Jialf times the minimum 
lethal dose of physostigma, with doses of sulphate of atropia ranging from 
0-1 to 2 gr. Successful antagonism could not be obtained above this dose, 
and accordingly three and a half times the minimum lethal dose of physo- 
stigma is the largest quantity wtose lethal action can be prevented by 
atropia administered five minutes previously. 

The results obtained by the second series of experiments (in which atropia 
was administered five minutes after physostigma) were essentially the same as 
those obtfined by the first series, excepting that the region of successful 
antagonism was found to be a more limited one. In both series the general 
result was obtained, that the range of doses of atropia capable of preventing 
the lethal action of physostigma diminishes according as the dose of physo- 
stigma is increased. 

In the third series of experiments, a constant dose of physostigma (once 
and a half the minimum lethal) was given along with various doses of 
atropia ; and with each of the doses of atropia several experiments were 



123 EEPORT— 1872. 

made, which differed from each other by a difference in the interval of time 
between the administration of the two substances. On this plan two sets of 
.experiments were made, in one of which atropia was given before physo- 
stigma, and in the other after it ; and subsequently these two sets of ex- 
periments were connected together by a third, in which atropia, in various 
doses, was given simultaneoushj with the same dose of physostigma as was 
given in the two other sets of experiments. The general result of this series 
of experiments is that successful antagonism occurs with a greater range of 
doses of atropia, and a greater range of intervals of time between the two 
administrations, when atropia is given before physostigma than when it is 
given after it. 

An eminent authoritj' in pharmacology has recently published the state- 
ment that the onlj' method whereby the injuiious action of a poison, absorbed 
into the blood, can be made to terminate is by the employment of such 
means as will cause or hasten the elimination of the poison. This statement, 
fortunately, does not accurately describe our remedial resources. The exist- 
ence of so undoubted an example of i)hysiological antagonism as that between 
atropia and physostigma shows that the toxic influence of a morbific agent 
may be directly opposed bj^ a physiological antidote, and that recovery may 
be produced by influencing the abnormal conditions themselveSj in such a 
manner as to cause their return to a normal state. 



\ 



Fifth Report of the Committee, consisting o/Sir W. Thomson, F.R.S., 
Professor Everett, Sir Charles Lyell, Bart., F.R.S., Professor 
J. Clerk Maxwell, F.R.S., Professor Phillips, F.R^S., G. J. 
Symons, F.M.S., Professor Ramsay, F.R.S., Professor Geikie, 
F.R.S., James Glaisher, F.R.S., Rev. Dr. Graham, G. Maav, 
F.G.S., W. Pengelly, F.R.S., S. J. Mackie, F.G.S., Professor 
Hull, F.R.S., and Professor Ansted, F.R.S., appointed for the 
purpose of invesiirjating the Rate of Increase of Underground Tem- 
perature downwards in various localities of Dry Land and under 
Water. By Professor Everett, D.C.L., Secretary. 

In December last intelligence was received from Prof. Sismonda that the 
administration of the railway owning the Alpine tunnel had given per- 
mission to Father Secchi to carry on a series of observations in the tunnel 
concerning terrestrial magnetism, and that this distinguished observer was 
willing at the same time to conduct observations of temperature in accord- 
ance with the plans of your Committee. Two maximum and two minimum 
thermometers were accordingly placed in Father Secchi's hands ; but it 
appears that the arrangements for commencing the magnetic observations 
are not yet completed, and that accordingly no observations of tempera- 
ture have as yet been taken. 

Prof. Lubimoff, of Moscow, on receiving a copy of last year's Report, 
wrote to the Secretary, correcting a mistake in the description of the 
thermometer used in taking observations in the Moscow well. The ther- 
mometer was enclosed in an hermetically sealed case containing air, and 
was therefore completely protected against any possible effect of pressure. 
Prof. Lubimoff at the same time asked to be furnished with a thermometer 



ON UNDERGROUND TEMPERATURE. 129 

of the new pattern iloscribed in the Report (the upright I^egrctti pattern), 
und one of these instruments was accordingly sent. 

Dr. Wild, of the Central Observatory, St. Petersburg, wrote in January, 
requesting that two thermometers for observations in bores might be ordered 
in his name. At this time the Secretary was in correspondence with Sir 
Wm. Thomson, who entertained doubts as to the successful working of the 
new thermometer, and expressed a preference for the Phillips pattern 
(which has been described in preceding Eeports) and the Casella-Miller 
pattern (a modified Six), which has been extensively used for deep-sea 
temperatures. Thermometers of these two patterns were accordingly ordered 
and despatched to Dr. Wild. 

A letter was received from Prof. Henry, of the Smithsonian Institution, 
Washington, in April, stating that the Chief Engineer of the Hoosac Tunnel 
had promised to have observations of temperature taken in the tunnel, if 
thermometers were sent. Its total length will be 4| miles, about two 
thirds of which has been penetrated, by working from both ends and from 
a central shaft 1028 feet deep. The mountain has two ridges, under 
which the tunnel passes, and their heights above it are respectively 1720 
and 1420 feet. Four thermometers have been sent, viz. two large mini- 
mum Rutherfords, for observations in the tunnel, and two upright Negrettis, 
for observations in the shaft. 

The Council of the School of Mines at Ballar-at, Australia, have, in com- 
pliance with a request addressed to one of their number by our observer, 
Mr. David Burns, C.E., consented to take charge of some thermometers, and to 
furnish observations from the bores and shafts iu that important gold-mining 
district. Most of the principal mining manager's are connected with the 
school. Four thermometers have accordingly been sent, viz. two upright 
Ifegrettis for observptions in bores, and two simple mercurial thermometers, 
of large size, for obLcrvations during the sinking of shafts. 

Some exceedingly deep Artesian borings have been undertaken in Franco 
in recent years ; and the President of the Geological Society, Mr. Prest- 
"wich (who has allowed his name to be added to your Committee), has fur- 
nished your Secretary with introductions which wiU probably lead to the 
obtaining of very numerous and valuable observations from these wells. 

The largest of them all is one which is now sinking for the municipality 
of Paris, at La Cbapelle, St. Denis, a northern suburb of Paris, and has 
ali-eady obtained a depth considerably exceeding that of the Puits de Gre- 
neUe. It is expected that its final depth will be about 2300 feet. Appli- 
cation was made by the Secretary to the eminent firm of well-borers, Messrs. 
Mauget, Lippmann, anu Co., who are sinking the well, and these gentlemen 
at once, in the most obliging manner, consented to take observations of tem- 
perature in i*-. An upri jht Negretti thermometer was accordingly furnished ; 
and about the 20th of June your Secietary had the pleasure of receiving from 
them two complete sets of observations taken on the 14th, 15th, 17th, and 
18th of that month with their own hands, at every 100th metre of depth, 
and also at the bottom of the well, 660 metres deep. 

The observations are given in the subjoined Table, iu which the third 
column shows the time that the thei'mometer was allowed to remain at the 
depth specified before hauling up and reading. The temperature at which 
the thermometer was set before letting jt down is also given in Messrs. 
Mauget and Lippmanu's report, but is not here inserted. 



130 



REPORT — 1872. 





First series, June 14, 15. 


Second series, June 17, 18. 


Deptl), in 

metres. 


Temperature, 

Fahrenheit. 


Time down. 


Temperatiu'e, 
Fahrenheit. 


Time down. 


100 
200 
300 
400 
500 
600 
660 


58-0 
61-1 
65-0 
69-0 
72-6 
75-8 
83'25 


h m 
35 
30 
30 
3 10 
30 
30 
15 45 


58°0 
61-0 
65-0 
69-0 
72-6 
75-4 
83-25 


h m 
3 25 
2 
2 
11 20 
2 
2 
2 



The agreement between the first and second set of observations is remark- 
ably close ; and as the time of leaving the thermometer in the water was 
about half an hour in most of the observations of the first set, and two 
hours or more in all the observations of the second set, it is obvious that 
half an hour is a sufficient time to give a correct observation. This conclu- 
sion is satisfactory both as regards the reliability of the observations them- 
selves, and also as establishing the fact that this pattern of thermometer is 
not unreasonably slow in its working. The exactness of the agreement also 
serves to show that the thermometer can be depended on to the tenth of a 
degree, and that we may henceforth use it with confidence. 

Before proceeding to discuss the observations, it wUl be convenient to give 
a few particulars respecting the well, which have been kindly furnished by 
Messrs. Mauget and Lippmann. 

It was commenced by the municipal authorities as a masonry well, by the 
ordinary method of digging, until it had reached a depth of 34-5 metres. 
The intention was to carry it in this way to the depth of about 135 metres, 
the estimated depth of the tertiary strata covering the chalk ; but the diffi- 
culties and dangers which were encountered, from the want of tenacity in 
the soil (la nature essentleJlement ehouleuse des terrains), and latterly from 
the insufficiency of the pumps, rendered it necessary to abandon this inten- 
tion ; and in May 1865 the task of completing the well by boring was 
assigned to Messrs. Degousee and Laurent, the predecessors in business of the 
gentlemen to whom we arc indebted for these observations. A small trial 
bore (0-2 metre in diameter) was commenced, and continued till January 1866, 
by which time the machinery for the heavier work was ready. In order 
to sujjport the masonry, which showed signs of giving way, it was tubed 
through its whole length with a tube 1-8 metre in diameter and 0-02 
metre thick, cemented externally. Erom the bottom of this tube, at the 
depth of 34-5 metres, a bore 1*7 metre in diameter was carried to the 
depth of 68'7 metres from the surface of the ground. A second tube 
1'58 metre in internal diameter was inserted to the depth of 121-6 metres, 
and a third tube of internal diameter 1'39 metre was carried down into 
the chalky marls and the upper portion of the chalk at the depth of 
139-15 metres from the surface. From this point downwards, the bore 
has been driven through the chalk, and tubing has been unnecessary, its 
diameter at the depth of 662 metres being still 1-35 metre. 

The thickness of the tertiary sLrata is 137 metres, and the elevation of 
the surface of the ground above sea-level is 48 metres, or 157 feet. 



ON UNDERGROUND TEMPERATURE. 



131 



The springs which -wore met ■with in the tertiary strata correspond to 
those found in other parts of the basin in which Paris is situated, and 
have not sufficient strength to spout above the surface of the ground at 
this elevation. They were encountered at the depths of 19"2 metres, 
34-5 metres, 86 metres, and 97 metres, and the water now stands in 
equilibrium in the central tube at 16-5 metres below the surface of the 
ground. 

It was not practicable to take observations of temperature during the 
regular progress of the boring ; but an interruption occurred on the 12th 
of June, and the tool was not at work from this date till after both sets 
of observations were finished. In reference to this point, Messrs. Mauget 
and Lippmanu say, under date April 29, " To obtain the natural temperature, 
it will be necessarj' to select a time when the work has been interrupted for 
several days ; for the boring being executed by the full of a heavy tool upon 
the bottom of the well, the percussion developes a considerable amount of 
heat, as we perceive by the mud (Jes boues) which we extract, and which 
in coming to the surface is found to have still a temperature of from 48° 
to 90° C. (118° to 194° F.)." In their letter of June 19, containing the 
report of the observations, they remark : — 

" You will observe that though the water at the bottom of the well is 
still some degrees above its natural temperature owing to the action of 
the drill {trepan), the latter has not been in operation since the 12th of 
the month. At a convenient time, we intend to observe the temperature 
of the mud as it lies at the bottom of the well, immediately after the 
withdrawal of the drill, wfien the latter has been working constantly, a 
temperature which will probably be found to depend upon the hardness of 
the rock." 

The following Table exhibits the successive increments of temperature 
shown in the second series, which purports to be the more accurate : — 



Depth, in metres. 


Increase in cleg. 


Metres per deg. 


Feet per deg. 


Fahrenheit. 


Fahrenheit. 


Fahrenheit. 


100 to 200 


3-00 


33-3 


109 


200 to 300 


4-00 


25-0 


82 


300 to 400 


4-00 


25-0 


82 


400 to 500 


3-60 


27-8 


91 


500 to 600 


2-80 


35-7 


117 


600 to 660 


7-85 


7-6 


25 



The last two columns of this Table show that the rate of increase is about 
four times as rapid in the last 60 metres as in the rest of the well, a circum- 
stance which naturally suggests the explanation given by Messrs. Mauget 
and Lippmann. There are, however, some difficulties in the way of accepting 
this view. Comparing the two sets of observations, one taken on the second 
and third day after the withdrawal of the tool, and the other on the fifth and 
sixth day, we have precisely the same temperature at the bottom of the well 
on both occasions, although the olaservatious were sufficiently precise to 
detect a difference of a tenth of a degree where such ditference existed. It 
seems difficult to believe that a temperature 2g degrees above the normal 



133 KEPORT — 1872. 

temperature could have remained for two daj'S without sensible diminution. 
In connexion -with this question, the apparent cooling to the extent of 
0°*4 at the depth of 6U0 metres between the first and second observation 
demands attention, and is not very easily explained. 

If the observed temperature at 660 metres is to be talien as the normal 
temperature, the average increase from 100 metres to that depth is at the 
rate of 1° F. in 22-2 metres, or in 72-8 feet. If the observed tempera- 
ture at 600 metres in the second scries is adopted, the increase from 
100 metres to that depth is at the rate of 1° F. in 28-7 metres, or in 
9-1-3 feet. 

The observations proposed by Messrs. Mauget and Lippmann in the para- 
graph above quoted Avill be eminently calculated to assist in showing the 
correct interpretation. 

Mr. G. A. Lebour, F.G.S., of II.M. Geological Survey, has furnished obser- 
vations taken in a bore-hole executed at the bottom of South Iletton Colliery, 
Durham. The observations were taken by Mr. J. E. Atkinson, a student at 
the Newcastle College of Physical Science, and appear to have been carefully 
made. Thanks are also due to the viewer of the colliery, Mr. Matthews, for 
granting the requisite facilities. 

The hole is 2^ inches in diameter, and was bored out of the pumping 
side of the South Hettou shaft, in order that the bore-rods might be the more 
readily altered. The depth of the shaft is 1066 feet, that of the bore-hole 
863 feet from the bottom of the shaft, or 1929 feet from the surface of 
the ground. The section of the boring (not including the shaft) consists 
of 123 alternating beds of shale and sandstone*, with occasional thin seams 
of coal and some fire-clays. The bottom of the boring has reached a very 
coarse white grit, which is supposed to be the topmost bed of the Millstone- 
grit series. 

The bore was dry at the time of its execution, but has since become 
filled with water, probably derived from the shaft above it. Streams, in 
fact, pour down the shaft and play about the hole. 

Two thennometers, one of them an unprotected Phillips, and the other a 
protected Negretti, were supplied by the Secretary to Mr. Lebour, as it was 
not certainly known at that time whether the bore was dry or wet. Mr. 
Lebour indeed believed it to be dry, but nevertheless selected the Negretti 
thermometer, as it was thought that the Phillips could not be read off accu- 
rately with the poor light which in the position of this bore-hole was alone 
available. 

The following Table exhibits the results of all the observations which 
have been taken in the bore, including three which were taken in 1869, 
while the boring Avas going on. The boring was stopped, in the case of each 
of these three observations, only about 20 minutes before the observations 
were made ; and the heat due to friction appears to have produced abnormal 
elevation of temperature, amounting to about 2° at the depth of 288 feet, to 
about 6° at the depth of 582 feet, and to considerably more than this at 
858 feet. The other observations in the Table are Mr. Atkinson's, taken 
with the Negretti thermometer. 

* A complete list of the strata Las been furnished, and will be preserved by the Secre- 
tary, with a view to future reference if required. 



ON UNDERGROUND TEMPERATURE. 



133 



Deptli from bottom 


Depth from surface of 


Temperatures ob- 
served diirinn' 


Temperatures ob- 


of shalt, in ieet. 


ground, in feet. 


boring, April 1860. 


served April 1872. 


100 


1166 


o 

• » 


o 

66 


200 


1266 


, , 


68| 


288 


1354 


72 




300 


1366 


• • 


70 


400 


1466 


^ ^ 


72 


500 


1566 




74 A 


582 


1648 


82 




600 


1666 


^ 


761 


644 


1710 


• * 


75" 


670 


1736 


^ , 


77i 


858 


1924 


96 





The temperature 75° at tlie depth of 644 feet, a temperature lower than 
either of the two between which it stands, was taken on the first day of Mr. 
Atkinson's observations, and was confirmed by repeated trials at that time. 
This was the lowest depth that could then be reached, the remainder of the 
boring being apparently plugged up with " sludge." A spike was subse- 
qtiently attached to the thermometer case, which enabled it to pierce deeper 
into the sludge ; but the lowest deptli which could be reached (670 feet) 
is still far from the bottom of the bore. 

It is intended to take a fresh series of observations at every 50th foot of 
depth, and especially to reexamine the temperatures at about 650 feet, 
where the reversal of temperature was observed. 

The following are the rates of increase deduced from Mr. Atkinson's 
observations, omitting the temperature 75° at the depth of 644 feet : — ■ 



Depth, in feet. 


Increase in degrees, 
Fahrenheit. 


Feet per degree. 


100 to 200 
200 to 300 
300 to 400 
400 to 500 
500 to 600 
600 to 670 


2|- 

^2 
If 
1 


36 

80 
50 
40 
62 
70 


100 to 670 


lli 


51-2 



The average increase between the depths of 100 and 670 feet is 1° in 
51*2 feet. These depths are reckoned from the top of the bore-hole, which 
is 1066 feet below the surface of the ground. Mr. Lebour assumes that the 
temperature at the depth of 60 feet from the surface of the ground is 
48°. Accepting tliis estimate, we have a difference of 29|-° in 1676 feet 
(1066 + 670-60 = 1676), which is at the rate of 1° in 57-5 feet. 

Mr. David Eurns, F.G.S., reports that, from changes in the management 
of the mines and other causes, it has not been possible as j^et to carry out 
the dry observations at Allenheads mentioned in last year's Eenort. 

Only one other shaft has been met with at all suitable for observation,. 



134 REPORT — 1873. 

It is called Brandon "Walls shaft, and belongs to the Eookhope Valley Mining 
Company, to the courtesy of whose agent we are indebted for liberty to take 
observations. This shaft is some G miles cast of those reported on last 
year, and is situated in the very bottom- of llookhope Yalloy. - The mouth 
is covered over with a wooden shed, the shaft itself is free from all obstruc- 
tion, and the water in it has not been disturbed for some years. The shaft 
is 333 feet deep, and is full of water to within 25 feet of the surface of the 
ground. Observations (by ]Mr. Burns and Mr. Curry, of Bolkburn) were 
taken in it on five diftererit days in July of the present year ; but though 
agreeing well with one another from day to day, they are so irregular that 
they throw little light on the rate of increase of underground temperature. 
At the depths of 83 and 133 feet from the ground the temperature was 
4S°-5. In the next 50 feet there was an increase of about 3°, the tempera- 
ture at 183 feet being about 51°-4, and from this depth to the bottom (an 
interval of 150 feet) the temperature was nearly constant. The best deter- 
mination of the temperature at the bottom was 51°- 7. 

It may be remarked that all observations in shafts thus far have exliibitcd 
irregularities of this kind. The water in such large openings seems to have 
its temperature governed by springs and other extraneous causes, rather than 
by the temperature of the surrounding soil. 

The observations at every 50th foot of depth in the Kentish Town well, as 
given in previous Reports, are so complete that it has not been thought 
necessary to continue them. A very delicate thermometer, reading by esti- 
mation to the -j-Lj- of a degree, has, however, been procured, for taking obser- 
vations from year to year at one constant depth (1000 feet). It was con- 
structed ten months ago, and being enclosed in a partially exhausted glass 
tube, wiU probably not undergo much change of zero. It has been four times 
tested by comparison Avith standards, and has been foiind to have no error 
amounting to nearly so much as 0°*1. In consequence of Mr. Symons's 
illness, no observation has yet been taken with it in the well. 

A Six's thermometer, which, through tlie breaking of a rope, had fallen 
into the mud at the depth of 1090 feet from the surface of the ground, was 
extracted by Mr. Symous last November, more than a year after its fall. It 
had sustained no damage, and its indication when hauled up was 69°-4, 
nearly agreeing with the temperature previously observed at that depth. 

In addition to the large number of thermometers above mentioned as 
having been issued during the past year, one has been furnished for obser- 
vations which are to be made in the projected boring through the Wealden 
and underlying strata. With the exception of Mr. Symons's observations at 
Kentish Town (London, N.), we have as yet no observations of temperature 
from the southern parts of England, 



Preliminary Report of the Committee on Siemens' s Electrical-Resistance 
Pyrometer, consisting o/ Professor A. W. Williamsox, F.R.S., Sir 
W. Thomson, D.C.L., F.R.S., and Professor J. Clerk Maxwell. 
LL.D., F.R.S. 

The experiments of the Committee have hitherto been confined to testing the 
electrical permanence of the coil of wire used in the pyrometer. For this 
purpose the resistance of the coil has been repeatedly taken at known 



ox THE TREATMENT AND UTILIZATION OF SEWAGE. 135 

temperatures, and also at a red heat, at which latter temperature the resist- 
ance Avas about three and a half times as great as at atmospheric tem- 
peratures. After being heated, it was found that the resistance of the 
pyrometer was slightly greater at a low temperature than it liad been at the 
same temperature previously ; but the permanent change which thus took 
place became smaller and smaller after successive heatings, so that the 
instrument may be expected to reach a condition in which no further im- 
portant alteration will be produced in it by exposure to a red heat. 

The Committee are, however, informed by Mr. Siemens that he believes 
that the small amount of variation to which the pyrometer, as hitherto con- 
structed, was thus found to be subject, may be considerably lessened, or 
altogether prevented, by an easy alteration in the mode of enclosing the coil. 
Under these circumstances it is considered desirable to postpone further trials 
until the more perfect form of the instrument can be experimented with ; the 
Committee, therefore, suggest that they should be reappointed, and that the 
grant of =£30, made at the last Meeting, none of which has been expended, 
should be renewed. ... 



Fourth Report of the Committee on the Treatment and Utilization of 
Sewage, consisting 0/ Richard B. Grantham, C.E.,F.G.S. (Chair- 
man), Professor W. H. Corfield, 31. A., M.D., *J. Bailey Denton, 
C.E., F.G.S., Dr. J. H. Gilbert, FR.S., * John Thornhill Har- 
rison, C.E., W. Hope, V.C, *Lieut.-Col. Leach, R.E., Dr. A. 
Yoelcker, F.R.S., and Professor A. W. Williamson, F.R.S. 

N.B. — Those members whose names have an asterisk prefixed have not attended any 
meeting of the Committee during the year. 

The Committee, since its reappointment at the last Meeting of the Associa- 
tion at Edinburgh, has pursued the inquiry intrusted to it, and, as heretofore, 
its investigations have been limited to such matters as have afforded the 
promise of practical utility. Among the various methods of treatment or 
utilization of sewage brought to the notice of the Committee, that of treating 
sewage by Messrs. Weare's process at Stoke Union AVorkhouse, the precipi- 
tation and conversion of the deposited matters into cement at Ealing, and 
the system of intermittent downward filtration at Merthyr Tydfil have 
appeared most important ; and they have accordingly been investigated, the 
results appearing in Sections I., II., & VI. of this Report. A process known 
as Whitthread's patent has been also examined by experiment on a suffi- 
ciently large scale, and the result is given in Section III, 

The Committee having reported upon the sewage-farms at Tunbridge WelU 
and Earlswood at the last Meeting of the Association, it was thought 
advisable to iuspect them again, as the works were incomplete when the 
Committee last visited them. 

The observations at Breton's Parm have been proceeded with uninter- 
ruptedly, and are described in Section VII. of this Report. It is only neces- 
sary to add here that these investigations have now extended over a period 
of more than two years ; and the experience thus gained from the continuous 
records of the flow, and sampling for analysis, of the sewage and effluent water, 
of the application of the sewage to the various crops, of the results of such 



136 REPORT— 1872. 

application upon the produce grown, and the degree of purification effected 
n the sewage, will, it is hoped, prove valuable to sewer authorities and 
others interested in the question of sewage-farming. Being fullj' impressed 
■with the importance of these investigations, the Committee has paid special 
attention to render them as complete as possible ; but it is felt that to perfect 
them, especially as regards the important branch relating to the effect of 
the application of the sewage upon the crops grown, it will be necessary to 
continue them for, at least, some months longer. This cannot, however, be 
done unless further funds are placed at the disposal of the Committee. The 
large number of analyses already made for the Committee, together with the 
great expense of an assistant constantly at Breton's Farm, and the various 
other investigations undertaken, have now nearly exhausted the Special 
Tund contributed by the towns. In requesting its reappointment, the Com- 
mittee begs to submit to the Council of the Association the desirability of placing 
it in a position to complete the long and anxious inquiry intrusted to it. 

Section I. — DeoJorlzafion of Sewage and preapkatlon of Solid Matters, as 
carried on loider the Patent of Messrs. Weare and Co. at Stol-e Union 
Worhho^tse. 

The attention of the Committee was specially directed to this process by the 
authorities of towns where the process had been discussed as a possible 
means of dealing satisfactorily with sewage ; and although only in operation 
on a small scale, the Committee felt it desirable to investigate the results, such 
as they were, and accordingly an inspector was sent in September 1871 to 
the Workhouse at Stoke-upon-Trent. Every facility was afforded by the 
manager for the examination of the process, which was fairly conducted, and 
the Governor of the Union kindjy gave the requisite particulars of the 
administration of the establishment. 

The workhouse contains on an average 750 persons of all ages, whose 
diet comprises meat and vegetables, puddings, rice, and soup, each on certain 
days of the week. The supply of water tit for drinking and culinary pur- 
poses is very small, and is obtained principally from a well pumped by a 
steam-engine, and that for washing and scouring is taken from a pond, 
which is chiefly supplied by rain-water from roofs. Every department of the 
establishment is provided with water-closets, on the trough system, and they 
are emptied every 24 hours, and closely attended to in order to prevent 
interference by the inmates. 

The process of purification of the sewage is protected by a patent. It con- 
sists, in the first instance, of simple filtration through coarse ashes and char- 
coal, performed in a large tank called the Foecal Tank, which is divided into 
two compartments, so that one may be at work while the other is being 
cleared. These compartments are again subdivided into two chambers, one 
large and one small. The raw sewage is brought to a small receiver and 
from it turned, by means of sluices, into either compartment. The samples 
of sewage taken by the Committee's inspector were obtained fi'om this 
receiver ; the flow was ascertained to be about .5000 gallons in the 24 
hours, being much below the capacity of the filters, which were constructed 
for 20,000 gallons per day. Erom the large chambers of the faecal tank the 
sewage is passed through wooden screens, containing 2 feet of charcoal, into 
the small chambers, which contain about 5 feet 6 inches of rough charcoal, 
through which the sewage passes to a smaller tank or well, thus completing 
the first stage of filtration. The suspended matters are partly arrested by 



ON THE TREATMENT AND UTILIZATION OF SEWAGE. 



1 



O/ 



tlic wooden and charcoal screens between tlie large and amall chambers, and 
a further deposit takes place in the small chamber, which is cleared once iu 
six months ; but at the time of the Committee's inspection it had not been 
cleared for nine months, owing to the constant visits of persons anxious to 
inspect the process. Samples of the sewage at this stage of the process were 
duly taken. From the tank or well before described, the sewage (after again 
passing through a perforated screen containing 6 inches of rough charcoal) 
is conveyed by a 12-inch pipe to the "Deodorizers," Avhich are, in tliis case, 
at some distance from the fiecal tank. 

The " Deodorizers " are three in number, — the first and largest having a 
surface area of nearly 200 square feet, and containing 5 feet G inches depth 
of rough charcoal ; the second, with an area of about 70 square feet, contains 
2 feet 6 inches of charcoal of smaller size ; the last is a small box containing 
4 feet of fine charcoal, Avhich is in this instance supplemented by layers of 
flannel and filter-cloth. It was stated, however, that cloth is not a neces- 
sary addition if the tanks are specially constructed, in which case the last 
deodorizer is arranged for upward filtration. This completes the process, the 
effluent water being discharged into a small well, from which the samples 
were taken for analysis. 

Tlie charcoal used at the time of the Committee's inspection was wood- 
charcoal ; but it was stated that it was proposed to use peat-charcoal. The 
practice is to remove the "spent" charcoal from the last deodorizer to the 
second one, from the second to the first, and from the first deodorizer to the 
ftecal tank. Samples were taken of charcoal from each deodorizer after various 
periods of service, and analyses of them and of unused charcoal are appended. 

The flow of eflluent water for the period of twenty-four hours, during 
which continuous gaugings were taken, amounted to about 2000 gallons 
only, as against 5000 gallons of sewage received into the fiecal tank during 
the same period. The deposit removed from the tanks with tlie refuse of 
the establishment is utilized upon the farm belonging to the Union, -which is 
cultivated entirely by the inmates. 

The following are the results of the analyses of the different samples of 
sewage, eflluent water, and charcoal : — 

Stoke-upon-Trent Union Workhouse Sewage, Messrs. AVeare's Process, 
Samples taken September 1871. 

N.B.— Samples taken every two hours during the day, in the proportion of -j-uVo °^' ^^"^ 
flow per minute. Eesults given in parts per 100,000. 



Deserijitlon of 
Bamplea. 


Solid Matter. 




Kitrogen. 


Eemarks 
(by Dr. Russell). 


In solution. 


In suspen- 
sion. 


In solution. 


a 
o 
"S 

1 

i 

9-5 
1-27 


-l.i 

.s 1 

o a 




il 


to 

ft" 

171-40 
8-05 


oj O 


4 

a 


"B 
tJD 

u 

o 


As ni- 
trates and 
nitrites. 


1 
in 


Sewage from re- 
ceiver before treat- 


16.3-80 
85-70 
6S-E0 


87-50 
56-50 
54-iO 


59-45 
1-50 


28-12 
14-91 
14-20 


24-01 

-9-76 

2-15 


4-94 
0-63 
0-63 


None 


23-95 
10-S9 
2-78 


38-45 

11-66 

2-78 


[of sewage. 
Had strong smell 


Sewage after pass- 
ing through " fajcal 
tank "filters 

£flliient water after 
passing through 
deodorizing tanks 



1^72, 



138 REPORT— 1872. 

Analyses of Samples of Charcoal from Stoke Uuion Workhouse. 





In 100 parts. 


Water &c. dried 
at 100° C. 


Ammonia. 


Charcoal before use 


24-20 
50-42 
55-Gl 
5412 


0-0014 

0-0018 

0045 

0-082 


Charcoal after fivo weeks' use in 'No. 3 deodorizing 
tank, to bo applied to No. 2 

Ciiarcoal after two months' use in No. 2 deodorizing 
tank, to be ap ilied to No. 1 

Charcoal after five months' use in No. 1, to be applied 
1,0 fiecal tank 





"With regard to the analyses, the Committee -would observe, iu the first 
place, that the se-wage treated -vfas excessively strong, coutaining no less 
than 38-45 parts of nitrogen (iu solution and suspension) in 100,000 parts of 
sewage ; this is accounted for by the very scanty water-supply, from which 
it results that the amount of sewage is only 6| gallons per head in the 
twenty-four hours, 

Tlio general result of the process is that the suspended matters are 
removed and the ammonia and organic nitrogen much reduced in quantity ; 
no oxidation takes place, as no nitrates were found in the effluent water, 
which was to all rutents and purposes a dilute sewage and " had a strong 
smell of sewage." 

It is remarkable that the chlorine is reduced to just about half its original 
amount ; and it is stiU more remarkable that this should take place almost 
entirely in the first or foecal tank : this reduction would seem to imply that 
a very considerable dilution must in some way take place ; and notwith- 
sta nding this we find that there were only 2000 gallons of effluent water to 
,50 00 gallons of sewage in the twenty-four hours, indicating an unexplained 
escape of three fifths of the total amount, even supposing that there was 
no dilution. 

The amourit of water absorbed by the charcoal, although, as indicated by 
the analyses, considerable, does not of course in any appreciable degree 
account for such a loss. 



Section il, — Deodorlzaiion of Sewage and precipitation of Solid Matter, and 
conversion of Solids into Cement, at Ealing, 

The district of the Local Board of Health of Eahng contains 1222 acres, 
and is situated near the river Thames, into vdiich it drains, the sewer out- 
let being into a small watercourse about a mile from that river. The Eoard 
has executed a complete system of sewerage, and water-closets are general 
in the district. The population is about 8000, and the ordinary' or dry- 
weather quantity of sewage discharged 400,000 gallons daily. The first 
system for the deodorization of the sewage was that proposed by the Sur- 
■y-eyor to the Board (Mr. Jones), and consisted in bringing the sewage to two 
ingeniously constructed depositing-tanks, where it subsided, and the super- 
■liatant water was then passed upwards through 7 feet of filtering media, the 
solid deposit being mixed with ashes, dust, &c., and sold for manure. 

In 1868 and 1869 the Rivers Pollution Commissioners made an exami- 
nation of tbis process, and they very carefully inquired into the various 



0\ THE TREATMENT AXD UTILIZATIOX OF SEWAGE. 



139 



operations, and especially as to the constniction, size, and action of the 
tanks. They had analyses made of the sewage and effluent water, and com- 
pared the quantity of the sewage with the capacity of the filtering media, 
and in all respects fully investigated the matter ; and they came to the con- 
clusion, which the analj'ses proved, that the process did not fulfil the condi- 
tions of purifying sewage, so as to render it fit to bo discharged into running 
streams. They particularly remarked upon the amount of filtering media 
not being of sufficient bulk for the purpose. 

The following are the results of the analyses as contained in the Report of 
the llivers Pollution Commissioners : — 



Treatment of Ealing sewage by upward filtration. 

EeauUs of analyses espressccl in parts per 100,000, and including both suspended and 

dissolved matteris. 



Deaeription, 


— t V 
■g « 
E^ a 


u 

o g 


2 - 
O s 


Ammonia. 


Nitrogen 
aa nitrites 
and iii- 
tratcg. 


Total com- 
bined ni- 
trogen. 


Sewage as delivered at works April 24tb, 
1808 


115-5 

78-5 


27-848 
6093 


2-930 

2-785 


7-000 
4-250 


•OGO 
-076 


8-695 
6361 


Sewage flowing from last filter April 24th. 
1868 









Since this inquiry a series of experiments has been conducted by Gener a 
iScott with the sewage of the same place, which the Committee has consi- 
dered of sufficient promise to justify an inquiry into the results as far as they 
have hitherto gone. 

The pi-inciple of General Scott's process is to arrest the flow of the sewage 
by tanks, the suspended matters being preciiutated bj'^ means of lime and 
clay, which are added to the sewage in the sewer previous to its ari'ival at 
the tanks, the proportion of lime so added being about 10 cwt., and of clay 
5 cwt. to 400,000 gallons of sewage. After the sludge has sufficiently accu- 
mulated in the tanks it is drawn ofi^, placed in a Idln and burnt by intense 
heat, and then ground into cement. 

The effluent water passes off very much clarified, and without any ofl'en- 
sive smell at the time of discharge. 

The burning of the deposited matter, with the mixture of the lime and clay, 
renders the cement perfectly inodorous, and is one of the means by which 
the difficult question of the disposal of the precipitated sludge from sewage 
may be solved ; and the method is one which may be adopted in cases where 
sewage cannot be used for irrigation in its crude state. 

The chief points which are insisted upon in this case are : — 

" 1st. The more intimate mixture which can be brought out in the 
" sewage--s\'ater, owing to the impali)ible nature of the precipitate of 
" carbonate of lime which takes place on the addition of the lime. 
" 2ud. The more rapid settlement of the sewage-precipitate than the 

" mixture of ch;',lk and clay. 
" 3rd. The amount of organic matters which is carried down from the 
" sewage with the carbonate of lime and clay, and which serves fcr 
" the fuel to burn the mixture into lime or cement." 
The amount of fuel which sludge will yield is stated to be so large that, in 



1 10 REPORT 1875. 

the absence of any better mode of getting rid of it, and in consequence of the 
loss whicli results from attempting to deal with it as a manure, it has even 
been proposed to destroy it by burning. 

The Committee inspected the works at Ealing in September 1871. On 
that occasion it was found that General Scott's process was not in operation, 
although he was treating the sewage experimentally with deodorizers. It 
was decided therefore to test the existing system of treating sewage by up- 
ward filtration ; and for this purpose it was arranged that General Scott 
should not apply deodorizers to the sewage during the sampling &c. by 
the Committee. It appeared, however, that the Local Board kept a man at 
the upper end of the town mixing deodorizers with the sewage every day 
(except Sunday). The deodorizing-mixture was being added to the sewage 
at the rate of 20 gallons an hour, but its composition was not stated. 
Samples were taken on behalf of the Committee : — 1st, of the sewage as it 
entered the works ; 2nd, of the sewage after leaving the precipitating-tank ; 
3rd, after passing through tlie first filter ; 4th, after passing through the 
second filter. The samples were taken six times during the day, the quan- 
tity taken being proportioned to the flow at the time. It was further deemed 
advisable to ascertain the effect of the deodorizing-mixture added by the 
Local Board; and for this purpose arrangements were made that nothing 
should be added on a certain day, when samples of the sewage and of the 
effluent water at the outfall were obtained. The analyses of the six samples 
will be found below; and it will be seen that the results confirm the investi- 
gations of the Eivers Pollution Commissioners, and that the process does not 
render the sewage fit to be discharged into running streams. 

The next investigation by the Committee took place in March 1872, when 
the sewage works were wholly under General Scott's control. On this occa- 
sion gaugings were taken which confirmed the previous statements of the 
daily discharge of sewage being about 400,000 gallons. The samples were 
taken every two hours, in the proportion of jyVu ^^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^^ ^°'"'* '-^'^^ 
gaugings and samplings extended over five days, and the analyses made for 
the Committee by Dr. llussell are given below. 

A further inspection of the Avorks was made last month (July) during 
very hot weather, when it was found that the process was proceeding with- 
out any nuisance whatever, although the depositing-tanks are clearly not of 
sufficient capacity, a defect which it is intended to remedy. The effluent 
water, after leaving the depositing-tanks, contains some suspended matter, 
and has a scum on its surface which can only be got rid of by filtration. It 
is proposed to filter it with this view; but the liquid will still contain the 
soluble organic impurities (see remarks on analyses), which can only be re- 
duced in quantity by filtration through soil by means of irrigation, for which 
the effluent water of Ealing is well adapted. 

The open ditch, before referred to, which conveys the deodorized sewage 
from tbe outfall to the Thames, was carefully examined on this occasion, but 
not the slightest smeU was detected ; the water has, however, a yellow tinge, 
from a slight precipitate which it deposits along the line of the ditch. This 
15 no doubt due to the insufficient capacity of the depositing-tanks, the 
increase of which will probably effect an improvement. 

One of the difficulties attending the process as now conducted, is the dry- 
ing of the precipitated sludge with sufficient rapidity. If this is done by 
heat, it is liable to cause a nuisance, being by far too slow in action even at 
Eahng, with only about 2 tons of sludge daily. It is proposed in this case to 
force the water out of the sludge by means of Needham and Kite's hydraulic 



I 



ON THE TKEATlIJiNT AND ITflLlZATlOX OV SICWAOE. 



Ill 



press, which will at once render the solid matter nearly dry enough to hum 
into cement. 

On the whole this process, when perfected, promises well as a means of 
treating one of the difficulties of the sewage question — the dispofral of the 
sludge precipitated from sewage. It appears not only possible to des'roy 
the solid matters by fire, but also to secure some return from their use in 
the manufacture of cement. 



Bemarl-s on the Analyses of Sewage and Effluent Water from Ealing. 

Ealing sewage, upward-filtration process. Samples taken 5th and Cth Sep- 
tember, 1871. 

]>f.B.— Samples taken every two hours during the day, in the proportion of t.Vt of the 
flow per minute. Eesults given in parts per 100,000. 



Description of 
samples. 



1 IJ c 



Sewage as it entered 

works 

Sewage as leaving 

preeipitating-tank . 
Sewage after passing 

througli No. 1 filter 
Sewage after passing 

through No. 2 alter 
Sewage as it entered 

works 

Sewage from outfall 

after passing thro' 

filter 



< 



°F. 
62-0 
60-0 
60-0 
60'0 



Solid mattL-r. 



In solu- 
tion. 



70-50 
72-40 
71-00 
70-30 
7i-60 

65-80 






lO-JO 

a-90 

16-70 
lO-SO 
39-60 

41-40 



In suspen- 
sion. 



65-50 
16-50 
15-20 
9-80 
97-45 

20-70 



39-30 
3-90 



12-28 
U-86 



3-35 10-79 



3-10 
35-50 

8-60 



9-73 
10-37 

10-44 



Nitrogen. 



In solution. 



5-40 
6-48 
5-64 
5-60 
7-41 

6-76 



0-54- 
0-76 
1-16 

1-31 
0-60 



5-94 

7-24 
6-80 
5-60 
S-72 

7-35 



2-19 
1-37 
0-89 
trace 
4-42 

0-97 



a . 
,2 o 



6-1 c3 



8-13 
S-81 
7-69 
5-60 
13-14 



Bemarkj, 



Taken Sept. 5, when 

.deodorizing - mixture 

hid been added b' 

Local Board as usual 



Taken Sept. 6, when 
no deodorizing-mix- 
ture had been added 
8-32 j J to sewage. 



Ealing sewage, General Scott's process. Samples taken March 26th to 

April 5th, 1872. 

N.B.— Samples taken every two hours during the day, in the proportion of -[uVd of Uie 
flow per minute. Eesults given in parts per 100,000. 



De cription of 
samples. 


o 

o 

o . 

^& 
< 


■A 


Solid matter. 


C 
c 
■E 
o 

2 
o 

6-31 

4-62 


Nitrogen. 


Kemiris. 


In solu- 
tion. 


In suspen- 
sion. 


In solution. 


i 

m 

C 

2-93 


6-59 
2-73 


i . 

n 

2-86 
■79 


6 

1 
O 

0-75 
1-41 


11 

-53 


"3 
o 
H 

3-61 
2-73 






-So 

-Co 


H 

< 


Sewage collected ) 
from main sewer J- 
i'i t )wn ) 

ElUv-.entwater from *i 
outfall / 


gals. 
290 


47-5 
45-0 


61-60 
51-40 


45-00 
43-40 


90-38 


62-18 


i There had been rain 
J for some days previ- 
( ou;j to the sampling. 
I A small amount of 
) suspendedmatterpre- 
\ sent. Sample not fil- 
(_tered. 



From these analyses it will be seen that the upward-fi-ltration process, 
whether accompanied or not by the previous addition of the deodorizing- 



142 



HKPOKT 1872. 



mixture, effected only a very slight purification of the sewage, which left in the 
filters stiU a sewage of average strength ; it was not even clarified. AVith 
regard to General Scott's i^rocess, it would appear that by it the suspended 
matters are precipitated very completely : as to tlie more important consti- 
tuents of the sewage, it is seen from the analyses that the effluent water 
contained rather more than two thirds of the chlorine, and three fourths of 
the dissolved nitrogen of the sewage ; but it must be remarked that the 
dissolved nitrogen appears in a different way in the effluent water and in 
the sewage ; the actual ammonia is reduced to one quarter of its amount, 
while the organic nitrogen, doubtless from solution of some of the nitrogenous 
suspended matters, is nearly doubled in amount in the effluent water. Some 
oxidation, too, has taken place by which nitrates appear in the solution. Such 
water would be much too impure to be sent into a river, and too valuable to 
bo wasted ; indeed it is not pretended that the process is capable oi purifijinjj 
the liquid sewage, its object is merely the separation and deodorization of 
the sludge (which, in the majority of cases, must necessarily be removed before 
the sewage can be utilized), and its ultimate use as fuel in the manufacture 
of cement. 



Sectiox III. 

A process known as " Whitthread's Patent " having been brought under 
the notice of the Committee, has been investigated by a preliminary experi- 
ment on a sufflcicntly large scale, although it is not at present in operation 
anywhere, the supporters agreeing to pay the expense of the necessary 
analyses. 

The process consists in the addition of a mixture of dicalcic and mono- 
calcic phosphate containing, it was stated, two equivalents of dicalcic to one of 
monocalcic phosphate (the latter being added as commercial superphosphate), 
and then afterwards a little milk of lime. In the experiment referred to 100 
gallons of sewage, taken from the Eomford sewer before it joins the tanks 
on Ereton's Farm, were operated on, one pound of the mixture being stirred 
up in a little water, and added after the addition of a little milk of lime. 
The precipitation was very rapid, and the supernatant water remained very 
nearly clear and quite inoffensive. 

The accompanying Table shows the result of the analyses of the raw 
sewage, the supernatant water, and the precipitate : — 

Ecsults giYc;i in parts per 100,000. 



Description of 

eamiiles. 


Solid matter. 


i 

■E 
o 


Nitrogen. 


Eemai-Vs 
(by Dr. Kussell). 


In solution. 


In suspen- 
sion. 


In solution. 


fl 

3 

a 


■S.2 
o g 


so- 
lo 
C o 




%6 


II 


d 

^'^ 

1 


i 

o 

0-90 
0-02 


As ni- 
trates and 
nitrites. 


3 

"o 


Sewage sample 
from 100 gal- 
lons as it en- 
tered the tanks 

Supernatant li- 
quid filtered ... 


71-20 
83-S 


41-40 
56-2 


24-14 


9-68 


11-57 
11-21 


2-23 
2-50 


none. 


3-18 
2-52 


1-93 


5-11 


P:i05=.5-o3. 



ON TUB THEATJIENT AND UTILIZATION OF SEWAGE. 

Examination of the precipitate after drying it at 100° C. 



l-iS 



Eesults in 100 parts. 

Ammonia 

Phosphoric acid (? 0O5) 

Limo (CaO) 

Phosphate of ahimiua and iron 

Loss on ignition • • 

Eesiduum, insoluble in hydrochloric acid 



3-03 

8-18 
23 -5 1 

32-sa 

14-5J: 



We have said that the suspended matters Avere in very small amount in 
the supernatant A\-ater ; this is evidently merely a question of time allowed for 
settling. It will be seen that the amount of ammonia in solution is some- 
what greater in the cfflneiit water than in the sewage, doubtless from the 
decomposition of some of the soluble organic matter in solution ; but the 
most remarkable thing is that the organic matter in solution was almost 
entirely removed in this experiment, so that while the sewage contained 0-90 
part of organic nitrogen in solution in 100,000 parts, the supernatant water 
only contained 0-02 part. It must, however, be distinctly understood that; 
this is only a preliminary experiment, from which general conclusions must 
not be too hastily drawn. The supernatant water contained a considerable 
quantity of phosphoric acid, viz. 5-53 parts in 100,000. 

The analysis of the precipitate shows it to contain a largo proportion of 
phosphate of lime ; and its value is much enhanced by the three per cent, of 
ammonia which it also contains. 

The ijresence of phosphoric acid in the supernatant water would be of con- 
siderable advantage if this were afterwards used for irrigation, but, unless 
means are devised for separating it, would constitute a serious loss if the 
water were thrown away. 

On the whole, then, this preliminary experiment shows that the process in 
question well deserves further and careful investigation. 

Sectiok IV. — Additional Note on tJie Dry Earth system. 

In the last Eeport'the Committee gave the results which Dr. Gilbert had 
obtained from the analysis of soil which had been used in an earth-closet 
either once or twice. 

It appeared that, " calculated upon the air-dried condition, the increase in 
the percentage of nitrogen was only about 0-15 each time the soil was used ; 
and, even after using twice, the soil was not richer than good garden-mould." 

Prom two agreeing determinations Dr. Gilbert now finds that soil which 
has been used three times in the closet contains, when dried at 100° C, only 
0-446 per cent, of nitrogen; and dupHcate determinations entirely confirmed 
this result, so that we have the following series : — 





Ecfora 
used . 


After using 
ones. 


After using 
t.vicc. 


After using 
■hree times. 


Percentage of nitrogen in soil dried 
at 100^ 


C-073 


0-240 


0-383 


0-446 











So that the remark made by the Committee last year with regard to soil 
which had been used twice, " that such a manure, even if disposed of free of 
charge, would bear carriage to a very short distance only," is applicable also 
to soil which has been used three times in the earth-closet. 



144 REPORT — 1872. 

Section Y. — Seiucir/e-Fanns. 

(I. E.VELSAVOOD SkAVAGE-FaEM. 

It will be remembered that the Committee investigated the utilization of 
the selvage of Rcdhill, Surrey, at Earlswood Common, and reported the result 
at the last Meeting of the British Association at Edinburgh. In this Eeport 
the extent and mode of laying out the land and applying the sewage were 
described, and analyses were given of samples of the sewage and eflBuent 
water taken by the Committee. The results of these analyses showed that 
the sewage, although very weak, was but very imperfectly purified by the 
process ; and that this was so, was attributed by the Committee chiefly to 
the absence of underdrainage in the irrigated land, the analyses and various 
observations as to the temperatures of the samples pointing to the conclusion 
that the land had become saturated, and that the sewage simply flowed over 
it instead of percolating through it. 

The Committee has again examined this farm, considering it desirable to 
ascertain and report any change of circumstances connected with it. No 
sampling of the sewage or effluent water was made on this occasion, as it 
was found that the farm remained very much in the same condition as when 
last visited. 

The outfall ditch, which receives the effluent sewage from the lowest beds, 
has been lowered 2 feet, so as to admit of subsoil-drainage over the whole 
farm ; but none has been executed, although the idea was at one time enter- 
tained. 

The sewage is still passed through " Latham's patent extractor ;" but the 
result is only to disengage a veiy small amount of solid matter, and it re- 
quires the attendance of one man daily. 

The land has been taken as a sewage-farm for the sewage of lleigate as 
well as that of Redhill ; but the sewage from the former place is not j'ct 
conveyed to the farm, the sewer, which was in course of construction last 
year, being still incomplete. 

The flow of sewage and effluent water was found to be aboiit equal in 
quantity, viz. 250 gallons per minute. Looking at the results of the pre- 
sent system, with the sewage of lledhill only, the effect of adding that from 
lleigate cannot be expected to be satisfactory, unless improvements arc made 
in the mode of laying out the land, and unless it is properly underdrained. 

The croi)s on the farm consist principally of rye-grass and oats, with a 
few mangolds. The rye-grass, of which three crops have been cut this year, 
is for the most part made into hay, there not being sufficient demand for it in 
the green state. It should be stated that on the occasion of this inspection 
the efiiuent water was running apparently clear and free from smeU. 

I. TrxBEiDGE "Wells Sewage-Farms. 

The Committee also deemed it desirable to inquire what had been done at 
these farms since the investigation last year. 

It will be remembered that the sewage of Tunbridge Wells, which is tole- 
rably concentrated, is conveyed by gravitation to two farms, one situated on 
the north, and the other on the south of the town. The farms were not 
unifoi-miy underdrained, but some previously existing drainage was employed 
under a peculiar system to redistribute the eflluent sewage -water. The dis- 
tribution was effected by the catchwater system, the sewage-sludge being 
previously allowed, to subside in tanks constructed for the purpose. 



J 



ON THE TREATMENT AND UTILIZATION OF SEWAGE. 145 

Analyses of the samples taken on the first inspection of the Coramittco 
sliowed that the purification effected Mas, on the whole, unsatisfactory, espe- 
cially on the south farm. 

]S"o samples were taken at the recent inspection of the farms, it being 
desired principally to ascertain their present working condition. On visit- 
ing the north farm it was found that the sewage was running into the tanks 
at the rate of 280 gallons per minute. It was muddy, and smelt very 
strongly. The cfllueut water appeared to be running clear and free from 
smell, and the stream into which it is discharged was clearer than it was at 
the last inspection. Some additional catchwater-drains had been put in, 
and some defective subsoil-drains repaired ; but, as far as could be learned, no 
regular system of subsoil-drainage had been commenced. The crops on this 
farm consisted of meadow-grass, Italian rj^e-grass, mangolds, oats, beans, and 
wheat, and were generally in excellent condition ; but the rye-grass is not so 
strong as it was last year, probably owing to this being the third year after 
sowing. There is plenty of demand for it at Is. per rod green ; and about 
1 000 cubic yards of hay, of very good quality, had been made from it this year. 
The other crops are described as very heavy. It was stated that a large field 
of turnips, being infested with the fly, was flooded with sewage, which drowned 
the fly and saved the crop, which is expected to turn out well, but rather 
late. The wheat was sewaged twice during the spring, and was a very fine 
crop, the Committee's Inspector computing the probable average yield at 
about seven quarters per acre. The whole farm was described as looking 
better and in a healthier state than last year. 

On the south farm the sewage was running into the tanks at the rate of 
440 gallons per minute, and it smelt very ofi'ensively. The efilueut water 
was very clear and free from smell. The crops on this farm were also look- 
ing very well, but not generally so fine as those on the north farm. The 
ryegrass here, as at the other farm, was not so strong as last year, from 
which it would appear that three years is too long to grow and cut from the 
same roots. There were about ten acres of wheat, four being on sewaged 
ground, and six manured with the sediment from the tanks, both looking 
equally well. Some hops which received sewage in the winter compared 
very favourably with others which are too high above the carriers to be 
sewaged, being stronger in the bine and of a darker green colour. A field 
of beans was noticed, one portion of the crop being very heavy and healthy- 
looking, and the other very poor and stunted. On inquiry it was ascertained 
that the whole field had been equally sewaged, but that the portion where 
the crop was so good had been drained 4 feet deep during last winter, the 
other portion being left undrained. It seems desirable to call attention to 
this circumstance, as aff'ording further proof of the necessity (already insisted 
upon by the Committee in a previous Ileport) of subsoil-drainage in con- 
nexion with sewage irrigation. It was stated that there was a ready sale for 
the green crops produced on this farm. The rye-grass is appreciated by the 
locai cow-feeders, who say that their cattle thrive well on it. Judging from 
the experience of these farms, it would also appear that sewage irrigation is, 
when properly managed, as well adapted for grain crops as for green crops ; 
but the quantity which can be applied to them being comparatively very 
small, the area for the distribution and application of the sewage must be 
greatly increased in proportion as corn crops are grown by its aid. 



146 KEPOUT — 187^. 

Section YI. — Merthi/r Tycljil Scwar/e-Farm at Troechjrhlw. 

In January last the attention of the Committee was directed to a system 
of purifying sewage by intermittent downward filtration which was then 
completed at Troedyrhiw, near Merthyr Tydfil, for dealing with the sewage 
of the latter place. 

In 1870 the present Eivers Pollution Commissioners, in their first Eeport, 
described some most important experiments which had been conducted in 
their laboratory by Dr. Edward Fraukland, F.R.S., which satisfactorily proved 
that intermittent downward filtration (which is, in fact, irrigation confined to 
a small area), " properly conducted, is a most efficient means of piuifying 
sewage." The various trials with different soils showed conclusively that 
town sewage might in this manner be cleansed and rendered sufficiently 
innocuous for discharge into streams. The Commissioners stated that an 
acre of filtering material G feet deep would so cleanse the sewage of 3300 
jicople ; but they expressed an opinion that, whilst successful from a remedial 
point of view, the system would be very wasteful, as not utilizing the valuable 
manurial properties of sewage : and for this reason it was only to be recom- 
mended for employment on a small scale, or where circumstances rendered 
other processes difficult and expensive. 

In 1868, and again in 1869, injunctions were granted by the Court of 
Chancery to prevent the Local Board of Merthyr Tydfil from discharging the 
sewage of that town into the river Taff. 

Merthyr Tydfil contains a population of 50,000; but, according to informa- 
tion supplied to the Committee, the excretal refuse of not more than two fifths 
of this number is discharged into the sewers, although the slops and other 
liquid refuse from a further like number (20,000) is stated to be admitted. 
It is not surprising, therefore, that the sewage is, as afterwards appears,, 
exceedingly weak. 

In 1870 the Local Board gave notice for the purchase of 393 acres of land 
in the valley of the Taff, upon which to dispose of the sewage. Of this 
quantity 70 to 80 acres were purchased below the village of Troedyrhiw, 
which is about three miles from Merthyr Tydfil ; and it is here that an area 
of about 20 acres has, under the supervision of a member of the Committee, 
been converted into a filter-bed for the practice of the system of downward fil- 
tration originated by the Rivers Pollution Commissioners, as above described. 

The soil of this area consists of a deep bed of gravel (probably the former 
bed of the river TafP, which is embanked upon the east side, and is raised 
above the valley), composed of rounded pebbles of the Old Ilcd Sandstone and 
Coal-measure formations, interspersed with some loam and beds of sand, 
forming an extremely porous deposit, and having a vegetable mould on the 
surface. 

The land has been pipe-drained at a depth of less than 7 feet, and the 
pipes are concentrated at the lowest corner, where the effluent water is dis- 
eiiarged into an open drain, which leads to the river Taff at some distance 
down the valley. 

The area is laid out in square beds, intersected with roads and paths, along 
which are constructed the main carriers which receive the sewage from the 
outfall sewer and distribute it over the beds. 

The sewage before entering the farm is screened through a bed of " slag," 
which arrests the coarser matters. It is applied to the land intermittently ; 
for the area being divided into four plots or beds, it is turned on each one 



ON THE TREATMDNT AND UTILIZATION Oi' SEWAGE. 



117 



for six hoiir3 at a time, leaving an interval of eigliteen hours for rest and 
aeration of the soil. . 

The surface of the land was cultivated to a depth of from 16 to lb inches, 
and laid up in ridges in order that the sewage might run down the furrows, 
while the ridges were ijlantod with cabbages and other vegetables. 

The Committee lias adopted the same mode of investigation in this as in 
other cases, and the following is a description of their operations. 

It was thought addsablc in this, as in other examinations of se\yage-farms, 
that inspections should be made at two seasons of the year,— in winter, when 
the laud is saturated with rain or frozen, and again in summer during dry 
weather, when there is the greatest activity in vegetable life. 

The first examination of the farm was made in January last, in very wet 
weather, when the system was in operation as above described. Samples, 
extending over a period of seven days, were collected of the sewage as it 
entered the farm, and of the effluent water from the outfall drain before de- 
scribed. Gaugings were taken of the flow of both the sewage and efliuent 
water for eight days, with the following results : — 



Date. 


Tcmi^erature. 


Average Bow per 
ininute. 


Ecmarks. 


At noon. 


Averace 
during day. 


Air. 


Ground. 


Sewage. 


Effluent 
water. 


1 
Sewage. 


Efflueut 
water. 


Jan. 9 
10 
11 
12 

13 
14 
15 
10 


p_ 

50 
49 

48 

49 
50 
40 
37 

i 


49 

48 
46 

47 
49 
38 
39 


°F. 

49 

49 

50 

48J- 

47 

48 
43 
45 


°F. 
46 

46 
47 
45 

45J- 
46 
45 .J 
46 


gals. 

757 

784 

i 844 

j 875 

1119 

1 6.30 

720 

; 730 


gals. 
1424 
1687 
1875 
1940 

2538 
1.'60 
1424 
1150 


Showery. 

Continuous rain. 

Shovrery. 

Light rain clay ; heavy at 

night. 
Continuous heavy rain. 
.Fine. 
Misty. 
(Only two gaugings taken.) 


Aver: 


'S« 


807 


1699 



It will be seen that the quantity of effluent water discharged was more 
than double the quantity of .sewage ; and as the rainfall, though considerable, 
could not possibly account for such an increase, it was felt necessary to look 
elsewhere for its cause. It Avas ascertained from the Surveyor to the Local 
Board that the bed of the river Taft' is 4 feet 7 inches above the bottom of the 
effluent drain ; and observation proved that when the water in the river rose 
that of the drain rose also, and on the river-water subsiding the same thing 
occurred in the drain. 'From this it became evident that a filtering eommu- 
nicatiou exists between the river and the drains, the natiu'e of the soil 
rendering this very probable. To further test the matter, trial holes were dug 
in a field adjoining, and to the north of the filtering-beds, when it was found 
that the same thing occurred, the water collected in them rising and falling 
•with that in the river. 

It should be stated that some gaugings of the flow of the sewage were taken 
in November 1871, by Mr. Harper, the Surveyor to the Local Board, which, 
as will be seen, agree closely with those taken for the Committee. 



148 



REPORT 1872. 



1871. Nov. 14 and 15. Eain part of the time. 

Greatest flow 1075 gallons per minute. 

Least „ 7G8 „ „ „ 

Average flow for the two days . 925 ,, ,, ,, 

1871. Nov. 30 and Dec. 1. Dry weather. 
Greatest flow 768 gallons per minute. 



Least 



631 



Average flow for the two days 



•28 



824,796 gallons per day is the summer dry-weather flow of the sewage from 
the Avhole of the district. 

The second examination was made by the Committee in the early part of 
July last, when samples and gaugings were taken for a period extending over 
eight days. The samples were taken, as in the previous ease, at the rate 
of y77,^y y part of the flow at the time of taking. The following arc the 
results of the gaugings on this occasion : — 



I 




Tunipcratiire. 
















Averafje (low per | 
nunuto. 










Date. 


At noon. 


Avpragc 
during day. 




1 


Kemarke. 


Air. 


Ground. 


a„„.™ Effluent 
Sewage. ^^^^^ 

1 


Seivnge. 


Effluent 
water. 


July ! 


p 


o p 


°F. 


°r. 


gals. 


gals. I 




2. 


70 


63 


60 


56 


925 


icm '■ 


Rain early in morning. 


3. 


70 


64 


60 


55 


740 


1450 


Dry. 


4. 


7.T 


73 


60 


55 


030 


1425 


Dry. 


5. 


69 


70 


.60 


56 


0.30 


1425 


Dry. 


G A.M. 


1 68 


70 


55 


68 1 


630 


1425 


Dr'y till 1 1 A.M. 


fi P.M. 1 


2600 


2004 


Thunderstorm at 11 a.m. 


7. j 


68 


6i 


60 


55 


4000 


4000 


Eain in morning and all 
previous night. 


8. 1 


68 


44 


60 


55 


925 


1800 


Slight rain in morning. 


9. 


68 


50 


60 


55 


780 


1700 


Dry after 7 a.m. Slight 








1 


1 




rain previous night. 


Averr 


'ge 


1318 


1936 



The samples of sewage and efiiucnt water taken were collected only during 
the dry portion of the above period, namely, the afternoon of the 2nd July, 
all the 3rd, 4th, and 5th, the morning of the 6th, and the afternoons of the 
8th and 9th, when the rains could not be said to have had any effect on them, 
and they may be considered fair samples of the dry-weather sewage and 
effluent water. Selecting the entirely dry days from the above, it would 
appear that the ordinary flow of dry-weather sewage may be stated as 650 
gallons per minute, and that of the effluent water at 1425 gallons per minute. 
Allowing one fourth of the sewage to be evaporated during dry weather, it 
■would appear that the effluent sewage is diluted during dry weather with 
about twice its bulk of comparatively pure water from the river and other 
sources. 



ox THE TREATMENT VXD UTILIZATION OK SEWAGE. 149 

The tliuuderstorm which occurred on the Gth July afforded further proof 
of the connexion between the river-water and that of the effluent dram. 
On the morning following the storm the Avater in the river had risen 7 feet 
6 inches perpendicular, and on walking along the bank the Inspector found 
the river-water percolating through and flooding the ground 18 inches deep. 
The water in the effluent drain was 3 feet 6 inches deep, and was estimated 
to be running at the rate of 3500 to 4000 gallons per minute. 

The surface of the filtering areas was prepared for cultivation in the spring 
of 1871, and in June of that year cabbages were planted and mangolds sown ; 
and the crops were sold in the autumn, yiekUng very good prices. As soon 
as cleared they were replaced by others, some of which are now in the ground, 
and some have been sold at high prices. 

The adjoining land at Troedyrhiw, belonging to the Local Board, has been 
cultivated as a sewage-farm proper with complete success, the croj^s grown 
being of a high class. The Eoard also intends to apply the sewage to the 
land before i-eferred to in the valley of the Taff, but has reduced the quantity 
previously intended to be taken by 112 acres, since the success of the downi- 
ward-filtration system has been demonstrated. It will of course be under- 
stood that this latter system is in this case only intended to be used in 
conjunction with the ordinary sewage-irrigation ; and, considered as a means 
for the disposal of the sewage, and especially of the night-sewage, there 
can be little doubt of the success of this method. But whether it would be 
equally favourable in other cases, when solely relied on for the disposal and 
purification of the sewage of other towns, and under all the difterent con- 
ditions as to soil, water, strength of sewage, &c., is a subject upon which 
there may be considerable doubt, but which is, nevertheless, a proper one 
for further investigation. 

The Rivers Pollution Commissioners have recently presented another Report 
to Parliament, in which they describe the operations at Troedyrhiw ; and they 
therein admit that the fears expressed in their first Report, that the manurial 
properties of sewage would be entirely lost in this process, and that the 
treatment of the sewage of a large town by it would probably result in a 
nuisance, have not been borne out in this case. 

The Commissioners state : — •" Our analyses show that the effluent water 
entering the Taff from the Mcrthyr intermittent fdters was of even a more 
highly satisfactory degree of purity than the samples which we examined 
resulting from the process carried out on a small scale in our laboratory ; but 
a comparison of the proportions of chlorine in the sewage and effluent 
water shows that the whole of the latter is not derived from the former. 
AVe find, in fact, that each gallon of the sewage, on June 19, 1871, had 
become mixed with 2-2 gallons of subsoil-water, and that on October 20, 
1871, each gallon of sewage had become mixed with 1-9 gallon of subsoil- 
water. This result involves the assumption that the subsoil-water contained 
the same proportion of chlorine as that present in the water of the neigh- 
bouring Taff, which, according to our analyses, has 1-2 part of chlorine in 
100,000 parts." 

It will be seen that this opinion of the C!omraissioners, founded upon 
chemical analysis, more than confirms the conclusion of this Committee, 
based upon the results of the gaugings taken, that the effluent sewage is 
diluted with twice its bulk of comparatively pure water. 

The Commissioners consider, nevertheless, that the net result of the action 
of the soil of the intermittent filters upon the sewage was highly satisfactory, 



150 



REPORT 1872, 



attention being drawn at the same time to tlic exceptionally -weak character 
of the sewage ; and bearing this in mind, they snggest that " it may be neces- 
sary, in order to secure efficient pnrification, to lay out as intermittent filters 
even double the area of land per 10,000 of population that is employed at 
Merthyr Tydfil, where only from two to five acres per 10,000 people were 
being employed." 

The following are the analyses of the samples taken by the Committee : — 



Sewage-Farm at Merthyr Tydfil. Analyses taken 10th to loth January, 1 872. 

N.B. — Samples taken every two hours during the day, in the proportion of js^ns of 
the iiovf per minute. Results given in parts per 100,U00. 































Description of 


A, . 


Solid matter. 


C 
a 


Nitrogen. 






Remarks 


In solution. 


In suopen- 


In solution. 


. 

c 
o 


O B 
3 'x 


samples. 


C3 ca 






o 
O 




c 

^ 

& 


1| 


(by Dr. Russell). 


HO 


B 


4^ • 
ao 




.3 


CJ 




_. 




< 


■130 

■=2 


^1 


'Co 

o o 








o 


Ah d 

trates 

nitrit 


o 


U3 

1— t 


11 






°v. 


























Sewage from main 




























sewer 


48 


45-60 


40-CO 


12-CS 


6-77 


4'i;6 


0-84 


O-of, 




i-40 


O-oO 


1-90 




Effluentwater from' 










* 














outfall : '16 


32-40 


L'U-2.5 






a-4s 


0-04 


O-Ol' 


0-59 ;0'65 




0-0.5 




Subsoil-water from' 


























adjoining field,] 
























/Hardness: — 


where sewage is! 
























Temporary 3-7S 


not applied 1 '13 


18-S.J 


113-Si 






0-1I2 


0-OUi' 


O-OI 


trace 


0-05 




0-05 


■< Permanent 5-93 
9-71 



Sewagc-Farm at Merthyr Tydfil. Analyses taken 2nd to 8th July, 1872. 

N.B.— Samples taken every two hours duririg the day, in tlie proporlion of tdJcu of 
the flow per minute. Results given in parts per 100,Ut)t). 



Ceseription of 
.san)ple8. 



Sewage as entering 
farm 

Effluentwater from 
outfall 






Solid matter. 



Insolation I--P- 



■Co 



\ 
CO j 44-SO 

65 35'cO 



■s.\ 7°. 



< ?, 



.'S\ P' 



31-80 IC-Ii 

I 

co-so ... 



4-08 



6-53 
"•SO 



Nitrogen. 






a . 






c 


In solution. 


^ 


•^ 












11 


00 


c3 

'3 

03 


t3 

1 P 05 


1 


5 


o 


^|-E 


^ Hi 


c 


1-S2S 


0-29 




I 

2-12' 0-48 


2-60 


0-077 


0-0.39 


0-402 






0-518 



With regard to the winter sewage, we see, from the decrease in the amount 
of chlorine in the effluent water, that in this case each gallon of the sewage 
had become mixed with 1-39 gallon of subsoil-water, containing -92 of 
chlorine in 100,000 parts; this .shows a smaller amount of dilution than 
that stated by the Elvers Pollution Commissioners, and so far agrees better 
with our gaugings as above recorded. It will be noticed that the Coramis- 



ox THE TKEATHENT AND TTILIZATIOX Or fsEWAGE. 151 

sioners cousidercd the subsoil-water to contain as much chloriue as the 
•water of the river TafF, whereas actual analysis of it shows it to contain only 
0-92 against 1*2 of chlorine in the river-water. Had we taken the composi- 
tion of the river-water as given by the Commissioners, the dilution would 
have appeared in this case to be 1-7 gallon of subsoil-Avater to 1 of sewage, 
instead of 1-39 to 1. 

Now the total nitrogen in solution in 100,000 parts of sewage was 1*40, 
in the effluent water 0-G5, and in the subsoil-water 0-05 (see Table). 
Again, one volume of this sewage, mixed with 1-39 volume of this subsoil- 
water, would give 2-39 volumes of water, containing exactly 0-07 part of 
nitrogen in solution in the 100,000 parts — that is to say, that the apparent 
diminution of the nitrogen in solution is, within a small fraction, entirely due 
to dilution with subsoil-water ; and the nitrogen retained in the soil is eipial 
to the amount in the suspended matters of the sewage, that is to say, rather 
more than a quarter of the total nitrogen. 

What is most important, however, is that, although all the nitrogen 
originally in solution is lost, it is almost all oxidized; for about \\ of the 
nitrogen in the effluent water is in the form of innocuous nitrates and 
nitrites. 

In the summer the dilution with subsoil-water was, according to the 
gaugings, equal to about twice the volume of the sewage. As the chlorine 
in the subsoil-water was not determined in the summer, we can only say that 
the smaller proportion of total nitrogen in solution in the effluent water 
seems to confirm the results of the gaugings. 

The effluent water this summer was not quite so pure as last winter, but 
still four fifths of its nitrogen was in the form of nitrates and nitrites. 

It is to be noted that the sewage was cooled by its percolation through the 
soil, and especially so in summer. 

The general results seem to be that by the process the suspended matters 
are removed, and the ammonia and nitrogenous organic matters in solution 
are almost completely oxidized, and escape in the effxuent water as nitrates 
and nitrites ; so that the sewage is satisfactorily purified, though the process 
cannot be looked upon as one of utilization. 

Section VII. — Breton's Farm, near Bomforcl. 

It will be in the remembrance of the members of the British Association 
that the Committee has been conducting a series of observations on the appli- 
cation of the sewage of the town of Romford to this farm, both as to the 
purification of the sewage and its utilization as a manure ; accordingly the 
observations and analyses recorded in previous years have been continued 
during the past year, and the results will be found in the accompanying 
Tables. 

The Committee have, however, extended their observations still further 
during the past year, and have supplemented them by the particulars of the 
crops which have been grown on the farm during the twelve months from 
March 25th, 1871, to ]\Iareh 24th, 1872, both days inclusive. But to make 
this inquiry more complete, and of greater practical utility, the Committee 
made an alteration in the form of the analysis of the sewage and effluent 
•water, so as to determine the total nitrogen. 

The observations Avhich were made in rolalion to the crops gave the fol- 
lowing results ; — ■ 



152 REPORT — 1872. 

tons. 

The quantity of sewage from the town received on tlie farm from 
March 25th, 1871, to March 24th, 1872, inclusive, is, according 
to the gaugings 410,787 

The quantity of efliuent water returned from the land to the 

tanks and rejnimped, during the same period, is 52,406 

The quantity of sewage, dilute or otherwise, which we have to 

account for is therefore 469,253 

According to the cropping table the quantity of 
sewage applied to the cropped land (chiefly by 
jiumping, hut also to a small amount by gravita- 
tion) during the aforesaid period is 380,227 tons. 

Mr. Gooch (the adjoining farmer) was supplied with 4,131 

There was applied to the garden (wliich is not 

reckoned as part of the farm proper) 933 

Total quantity 385,291 tons utU'ized. 

Leaving 83,902 tons, ■which quantity was run upon a plot of land at the 
lower part of the farm by gravitation and simply filtered, during periods 
when it could not be put on the farm, owing to further drainage-works 
being in progress. 

Prom Table III. it appears tliat the 380,227 tons of sewage so used con- 
tained 21'0245 tons of nitrogen, and that the total amount of effluent water 
l"unning from the subsoil-drains during the twelve months, viz. 195,536 tons 
(of which 52,460 tons were returned to the tank, and repumped with the 
sewage on to the land, and the remainder discharged into the river Rom), 
contained 2-2430 tons of nitrogen, or approximately one tenth part of that 
applied in the sewage. 

It must, however, be remarked that the figures in the columns marked * are 
calculated from the results of the analyses of the sewage and effluent water 
during the corresponding period of the present year (1872), as the method 
of analysis employed before July 1871 did not give results in the same 
denomination as that now used. 

The total amounts of nitrogen in the sewage and effluent water respec- 
tively were calculated from the results of the analyses during the various 
l^eriods ; and the absolute averages were, for the sewage 5-529 parts, and for 
the effluent water 1-147 part in the 100,000. 

In Table IV. "will be found a detailed description of the crops, arranged 
according to the plots into which the farm is divided. The figures in columns 
III., VII., X., and XI. are as exact as possible, but those in columns VIII., 
IX., and XII. are at the best only approximations. The figures in column 
VIIL, from which those in columns IX. and XII. are deduced, profess to 
represent the quantities of sewage applied during the twelve months to the 
several crops and plots ; but it is obvious that with the means at the disposal 
of the Committee no precise measurements of these quantities could be ob- 
tained ; for to gauge the quantities of sewage applied at various times to 
twenty-four plots with separate subdivisions, each having its own conduit, 
would require a preliminary outlay in plant estimated at £500, and the con- 
stant services of four additional educated assistants at probably not less than 
£250 a year each. The only way, therefore, that even approximate figures 
could be obtained for this column was by recording the number of acres to 
which the measured daily total quantity of sewage was applied, and assuming 



ON THE TREATMENT AND UTILIZATION OF SEWAGE. 153 

that it -was equally distributed over those acres— an assumption which, 
although giving a fair average approximation in the totals, necessarily 
often gives fallacious results in the particular instances, because, while 
some portions of the land had been consolidated by previous dressings of 
sewage, other portions sewaged at the same time were loose and hollow from 
recent cultivation, and therefore absorbed very much greater quantities of 
sewage. 

Table V. gives a summary of the totals of Table IV., and in addition the 
approximate estimates of nitrogen corresponding to the approximate estimates 
of sewage, and also the amounts of nitrogen contained in the various crops, 
as calculated from proportions given by the best authorities. In all cases, 
however, the grand totals may be relied upon, as where they were not 
obtained by actual measurement they are (as, for instance,'in the case of the 
weights of crops) the ultimate results of a very large number of carefully 
obtained averages. 

Table VI. is also a summary of Table IV., but arranged according to the 
crops instead of according to the plots. It will be at once seen, from the 
remarks already made, that the separate total amounts of sewage, and there- 
fore of nitrogen, assigned to each crop are much less reliable than the cor- 
responding numbers for the plots ; but, as in the last case, the grand totals 
(which are, of course, identical with those in the corresponding columns of 
the previous Table) are either absolutely correct or very reliable. 

The important result to be deduced from the grand totals in these Tables 
is, that of every 100 parts of nitrogen distributed over the farm during the 
twelve months, 10-67 parts, or about one tenth, were found in the effluent 
water; 41-76, or approximately four tenths, were recovered in the crops, 
making together about half; and 47-57 parts, or in round numbers the 
other half, were unaccounted for. Of this half a portion must have remained 
in the soil; and as the average composition of the soil previously to the 
application of the sewage was determined by the Committee (see Second 
Report, to the Meeting at Liverpool), it is intended to determine the pro- 
portion of this unaccounted-for nitrogen which actually does remain in the 
soil at various depths. 

The Committee thinks it right to call attention prominently to the fact that 
the above proportions (representing the manner in which the nitrogen of the 
sewage was ultimately disposed of in the case of Breton's Farm, during the 
twelve months to which the Tables refer) are, for the sewage and effluent 
water, as absolute and exact as accurate gauging and careful analysis can 
make them, and are, for the crops, calculated by means of the most reliable 
published data ; they are, moreover, the final results obtained from a much 
greater number of continuously applied observations over a greater area, and 
with a much greater variety of crops, than have ever hitherto been scien- 
tifically made. 

The two main results of practical importance which, from the evidence of 
the observations, may be accepted as generally attainable are : — first, that less 
than eleven per cent, of the total nitrogen applied to the land escaped in the 
effluent water, and of that only a fractional percentage in an organic form ; 
and, secondly, that upwards of forty per cent, was actually recovered in the 
crops grown upon the land — a proportion which must be considered highly 
satisfactory (especially when the extreme porosity of the soil and limited area 
of the land are taken into account), as in the experiments of Messrs. Lawes 
and Gilbert only from forty to sixty per cent, of the nitrogen applied in 
solid manures was recovered in the crops within the season of application. 

1872. M 



154 



KEPORT 1872. 



Table I. — Breton's 

Statement of Weekly Quantities of Sewage received on the Farm, of Sewage or 

Effluent Water escap- 

[Continued from 



3 



o , 
h a 
^ 3 



Date (inclvsiTe). 



c « 

bDP< 



em 
.9 



3 ^ 



|o, 



0'« H 









■*5 43 

«g.g a 

'■E _gJ3 



58. 

59- 
60. 
61. 
62. 
63. 
64. 
65. 
66. 
67. 
68. 

69. 

70. 
71- 

7^- 

73- 

74- 

75- 
76. 

77- 

78. 

79- 
80. 
81. 

82. 
83. 



1871. 
July 16 to July 22 

July 23 to July 29 

July 30 to August 5 , 

August 6 to August 12 

August 13 to August 19 

August 20 to August 26 

August 27 to Sept. 2 ... 

Sept. 3 to Sept. 9 

Sept. 10 to Sept. 16 

Sept. 17 to Sept. 23 

Sept. 24 to Sept. 30 

Oct. 1 to Oct. 7 

Oct. 8 to Oct. 14 

Oct. 15 to Oct. 21 

Oct. 22 to Oct. 28 

Oct. 29 to Not. 4 

Nov. 5 to Nov. 11 

Nov. 12 to Nov. 18 

Nov. 19 to Nov. 25 

Nov. 26 to Dec. 2 

Dec. 3 to Dec. 9 

Dec. 10 to Dec. 16 

Dec. 17 to Dec. 23 

Deo. 24 to Dec. 30 

1871. 1872. 
Dec. 31 to January 6 . . 

Jan. 7 to Jan. 13 



o p 

71 
66 
60 

77 

75 
695 

72-5 

68 

67-5 

59 

S3 

57 

54-5 
58 

S3 

49 

4J 

39'S 
36 

39 

32-5 
40 
43 
45 

44 
40-5 



o'56 
©•40 

0-85 

0-07 

0-92 



3"5o 
0-86 

O'OI 

0-47 

o-i8 

0'02 

0-05 
0*23 
©■04 

O'lO 

0'02 
O'OI 
0-48 
0-46 

0-8 1 

0-57 



galls. 
1,409,400 

1,760,000 

1,549,600 

1,462,500 

1,708,900 

1,560,400 

1,610,400 

1,752,400 

1,514,500 

1,696,700 

2,620,500 

2,134,100 

1,657,300 
1,870,200 

1,792,300 

1,738,700 

1,556,800 
1,488,400 
1,492,100 

1,575,000 
(computed) 

i,3°5.300 
1,570,500 
1,643,600 
1,846,600 

2,069,200 
2,380,400 



64 ■ 

63 

63-5 

66-5 

67 

67 

66 

66-5 

67 
64 
60 

60 

60 
60 

595 

59 

57 

55-5 

53 

SI'S 

50 
49 
5° 
49 

49 
49 



galls. 
824,700 

896,900 

634,600 

670,200 

652,300 

617,500 

495,700 

631,100 

801,100 

715,400 

818,200 
(partly computed) 

1,178,000 
(partly computed) 

1,275,900 

1,334,900 

1,272,900 

1,172,700 

915,900 
651,700 
716,100 

519,500 

569,500 
709,200 
833,300 
845,300 

963,400 

1,027,500 
(partly computed) 



ON THE TKEATMENT AND UTILIZATION OF SEWAGE. 



155 



Sewage-Farm. 

Diluted Sewage pumped or flowing by gravitation on to the Land, and of 
ing from the Drains. 

last Eeport.] 



a £ 



a"^ ^-^ |.| S 






Sewage only. 



3 
P4 



•°i3 2 

-ts ^ at 

all 

3 *j Si) 



Effluent water. 



Ah 



S 

3 



-A >»> 



°ai 

3 -.J 00 



°F. 
59 
59 
59 
6o 
62 
61 
61 
60-5 
61 
60 
58 

57 

55-5 
55 

54-5 

53 

51 
48 
46 

44 

44 
44 
44 
44 

44 



galls. 
1,791,400 

2,050,900 

1,983,100 

1,926,300 

2,1 15,000 

1,756,100 

1,481,500 

1,705,700 

1,665,900 

1,872,000 

1,025,900 
(5 days only) 

669,700 
(4 days only) 

2,003,800 

1,940,000 
(7 days) 

2,220,200 
(7 days) 

2,011,100 
(7 days) 

1,794,100 

1,545,000 

1,221,400 
(5 days only) 

nil 



1,239,900 
1,608,500 

1.947.300 
1,682,700 
(7 days) 

1,898,500 
1,550,700 



O Jl 

63 
63 

63*5 

65 

66 

65-5 

66 

66 

66 

63 

S8 

59 

58 
59 

58 

57 

56 
54 
52 



48 

47-5 
48 

48 

47 
47 



■460 

■437 
•320 

•348 
•308 

•351 

•335 
•370 
■481 
•382 
■797 

1-759 

•636 
•688 

•573 
■583 

•510 
•422 
•586 



•419 
•441 
•428 

•502 

•507 
•663 



galls. 
1,409,400 

1,760,000 

1,549,600 

1,351,800 

1,620,900 

1,560,400 

1,034,200 

1,284,600 

1,209,900 

1,432,900 

504,200 

871,100 

1,657,300 
1,804,500 

1,792,300 

1,688,500 

1,556,800 

1 ,408,400 

893,800 

nil 

1,257,500 
1.534.500 
1,643,600 
1,496,600 

1,604,300 
1,418,100 



■galls, 
nil 

nil 

nil 
110,700 

88,000 

nil 
576,200 
467,800 
304,600 
263,800 
2,116,300 

1,263,000 

nil 

65,700 

nil 

50,200 

nil 

80,000 
598,300 

1,575,000 

47,800 
36,000 
nil 
350,000 

464,900 
962,300 



galls. 
348,100 

389,900 

313,800 

601,900 

474,200 

195,700 

435.300 

445,200 

508,900 

643,100 

52,800 

114,800 

312,300 
318,000 

267,200 

252,200 

207,800 
1 50,000 
110,300 

nil 

168,500 
113,400 
251,200 
242,600 

262,800 
56,100 



galls. 
476,600 

507,000 

320,800 

68,300 
178,100 
421,800 

60,400 

92,400 
238,400 

53,200 
541,500 

838,200 

963,600 
990,900 

1,005,700 

916,300 

708,100 
494,900 
544,700 

344,500 

364,200 
595,800 
582,100 
551.400 

634,600 
818,900 

k2 



galls, 
nil 

nil 

nil 

nil 

nil 

nil 

nil 

93,500 

53,800 

19,100 

223,900 

225,000 

nil 
26,000 

nil 

4,200 

nU 

6,800 

61,100 

175,000 

36,800 
nU 
nil 

51.300 

66,000 
152,500 



156 



REPORT 1873. 



Table I. 



3 

o . 


Date (inclusive). 


11 

MO. 


a 
1 


Quantity of sewage 
delivered to the 
farm from the 
town. 


Average tempera- 
ture thereof. 


Quantity of effluent 
water flowing out 
of the drains. 


84. 


1872. 
.Tan 14 to Jan. 20 


°F. 

40 


in. 
o"6i 


galls. 
2,368,5,0 


°F. 
49 


galls. 
837,600 
(partly computed) 




8S- 


Jan 21 to Jan. 27 


44 


0-94 


2,341,900 


48-5 


989,200 
(partly computed) 




K6 


Jan. 28 to Feb. 3 


48 


0-03 


2,341,600 


49'5 








(partly computed) 


87. 


Feb 4 to Feb 10 


50 


o'ai 


2,229,800 


5I-5 


725,900 
(partly computed) 




88. 


Feb 11 to Feb. 17 


465 


0-07 




51-5 


857,900 
(partly computed) 








89. 
90. 


Feb 18 to Feb 24 


49 

5° 


0-23 
o-o8 


1,907,600 
1,875.000 


52-5 
52 


1,107,000 


Feb 25 to March 2 






(partly computed) 


91. 


March 3 to March 9 


54 


021 


1,992,100 


55 


821,100 


92. 


March 10 to March 16 


49 


0'02 


1,900,000 
(computed) 


5^ 


697,000 
(partly computed) 


93- 


March 17 to March 23 


42 


0-55 


2,113,800 


53 


726,200 


94- 


March 24 to March 30 


48 


r22 


2,500,000 
(computed) 


50'5 


700,000 
(computed) 


95- 


March 31 to April 6 


51 


0-83 


2,350,000 
(partly computed) 


5^ 


700,000 
(computed) 


96. 


April 7 to April 13 


58-5 


o'o4 


2,019,500 
(partly computed) 


54-5 


687,400 




97- 


April 14 to April 20 


51-5 


O'OI 


2,029,500 


54 


1,013,900 


98. 


April 21 to April 27 


56 


0-48 


2,041,700 


55 


1,429,600 


99. 


April 28 to May 4 


60 


o'o7 


1,878,200 


565 


1,773,200 


100. 


May 5 to May 11 


53 


o'68 


2,026,200 


57-5 


1,621,800 


101. 


May 12 to May 18 


52 


177 


2,762,700 


55"5 


1,429,400 


102. 


May 19 to May 25 


58 


004 


2,025,400 


56 


1,284,330 


103. 

104. 


May26 to June 1 


64 
58 


O'lO 


1,990,000 

1,875,100 


58 

58 




June 2 to June 8 


059 


1,408,400 


105. 


June 9 to June 15 


65-5 


0-29 


1,785,100 


59 


880,700 


106. 


June 16 to June 22 


74 
67 


0'27 


1,475,000 
2,003,500 


62-5 
63 


1,231,300 
914,800 


107. 


June 23 to June 29 


108. 


June 30 to July 6 


73 


009 


1,479,900 


64 


949,800 


109. 


July 7 to July 13 


72 


i-o8 


1,618,300 


65-5 


1,242,900 



ON THE TREATMENT AND UTILIZATION OF SEWAGE. 



157 



[continued). 



r 


L 


Quantity of sewage, 
or diluted sew- 
age, pumped on 
to tableland (six 
days per week 
where not other- 
vrise stated). 


a ° 


Proportion of ef- 
fluent water to 
sewage pumped. 


Sewage 


only. 


Efil lent water. 




1 

3 

P4 


Eun on to bot- 
tom land by 
gravitation. 


"3 

s 

a 
Ph ■ 


Eun into river. 

1 


Eun on to bot- 
tom land by 
gravitation. 




°F. 


galls. 


p 




galls. 


galls. 


galls. 


galls. 


galls. 




44 


1,115,100 
(5 days only) 


46 ■ 


•75' 


1,052,400 


1,316,100 


nil 


837,600 


nil 






452,900 
(2 days only) 


46-5 


2-184 


504,400 


1,837,500 


nil 


100,000 


889,200 




45 


1.353.5°° 


49 


•464 


1,346,000 


995,600 


nil 


472,700 


155,300 






1,596,000 


5°'5 


■454 


1,505,400 


724,400 


nil 


675,900 


50,000 






1,930,000 


5° 


■445 


2,008,000 


nil 


161,100 


696,800 


nil 




45 


2, 126,500 


50-5 


•521 


1,725,600 


182,000 


172,500 


915,100 


19,400 




45 


23,000 
(1 day only) 







nil 


1,875,000 


592,800 


nil 


210,000 




47 


1,790,900 


53-5 


•458 


1,642,100 


350,000 


173,700 


597,200 


50,200 




46 


nil 






nil 


1,900,000 


nil 


447,000 


250,000 




46 


1,990,100 


51 


•365 


1,803,800 


310,000 


220,300 


478,700 


27,200 






44,700 
(i day only) 






95,000 


2,405,000 


10,500 


450,000 


239,500 






119,700 
( I day only) 







nil 


2,350,000 


nil 


450,000 


250,000 




48 


793,900 
(4 days only) 


54 


•866 


1,029,500 


990,000 


71,300 


495,000 


121,100 




49 


2,258,700 


53 


■449 


2,029,500 


nil 


229,200 


784,700 


nil 




49 


2,281,500 


54 


•627 


2,041,700 


nil 


207,300 


1,222,300 


nil 




5°-S 


2,247,000 


56 


■789 


1,878,200 


nil 


328,900 


1,444,300 


nil 




51 


2,185,400 


56 


•742 


2,026,200 


nil 


215,300 


1,406,500 


nU 




S« 


2,778,200 


54 


■515 


2,485,900 


276,800 


272,100 


1,132,300 


25,000 




5^ 


1,748,600 


56 


•734 


1,553.700 


471,700 


159,000 


1,055,300 


70,000 




53 


2,052,400 


59 


•546 


1,990,000 


nil 


198,300 


922,800 


nil 




54 


2,253,200 


57-5 


•625 


1,875,100 


nil 


326,400 


1,082,000 


nil 




54-5 


1,789,200 


59 


•492 


1,515,700 


269,400 


222,900 


626,700 


31,100 




56 


2,399,100 


61-5 


•5'3 


1,475,000 


nU 


974,700 


185,200 


71,400 




58 


2,088,300 


62 


•438 


1,911,100 


92,400 


175,900 


738,900 


nil 




59 


1,400,000 
(5 days only) 


63 


•678 


1,118,000 


361,900 


295,100 


612,900 


41,800 




59 


2,394,100 


64 


•519 


1,441,700 


176,600 


752,900 


473,000 


17,000 



158 



REPORT 1872. 



Table II. — Breton's 
Statement showing results of analyses for Nitrogen in Sewage as 

Results given in 



9- 



II. 



13- 



14. 

15- 
16. 

17- 
18. 

19- 
20. 
21. 

22. 
23. 



Bates. 



1871. 
July 10 to July 15 

July 24 to July 29 

August 7 to August 12 

August 21 to August 26 

September 4 to September 9 . . . 
September 18 to September 23. . . 



October 2 to October 7 

October 16 to October 21 , 

October 30 to November 4 . . . 

November 13 to November 18 

1872. 
January 1 to January 8 

January 22 to January 27 . . . 

January 29 to February 3 ... 

March 18 to March 23 

April 9 to April 13 

May 13 to May 18 

June 10 to June 15 



Sewage as pumped. 



Nitrogen. 



In solution. 



As am- 
monia. 



2-93 



2-58 



2*70 



184 



243 

1-66 
2-98 

2'17 

3'S 
2-51 

4-54 
3-426 
1-96 
1-88 



Organic. 



I 64 



0-65 



°'53 



1-41 



0-50 



I '06 

2-15 

2-28 
124 

1-27 

067 
0-88 
0-30 
1-50 
0-87 



As 
nitrates 

and 
nitrites. 



Total. 



4*33 



3-80 



4"57 



3-23 



m 



3-25 



2-62 



3*49 

381 
5-26 

3'4i 
442 
318 

S"4i 
372 

3-12 

27S 



In sus- 
pension. 



115 



o'4S 



0-87 



0-99 



2-53 



IIO 



295 



1-50 

2-47 
1*46 

2-64 

2*20 

336 
114 

2-67 
0-91 
127 



ON THE TREATMENT AND UTILIZATION OF SEWAGE. 

Seivage-Farm. 

pumped and Effluent Drainage-water from July 1871 to June 1872. 

parts per 100,000. 



159 



Drains. 



A 

B 

C 

D 

B 

c 

D 

B 

C 

D 

B 

C 

D 

B 

C 

D 

{?:=;=: 

Id 

U^ 

ID 

I?:::::;::: 

Id 

Average three drains. 
Average three drains. 

Average three drains. 
No samples taken. 
Average three drains. 
Average three drains. 
Average three drains. 
Average five drains . 
Average five drains , 



Effluent drainage-water. 



Nitrogen. 



In solution. 



As am- 
monia. 



Organic. 



O-OI 

©•026 

0"004 

0"027 

o'o83 
o'ooy 
o"oi9 

O'lOO* 

0-013 

O'lOO 
0'020 

O'oog 

0'032 

0-04.9 
0-019 
0-046 

0-0I2 

o-oii 
0-103 
0-109 
0-013 

0-045 

o-iii 
0-165 

0-023 

0-138 

0-055 

0-044 

0-054 



A3 nitrates 

and 

nitrites 



0-19 
0-31 
o-i8 
0-34 
o-i8 
0-17 
0-28 
0-29 
0-24 
0-31 
0-17 
0-15 
0-25 

0-21 
0-20 

o-zo 

083 
0-90 
0-24 
0-23 

o-ii 
0-236 

0-15 

0-22 

0-147 

0-I2 

0-03 
0-30 
0-09 



2-00 
0-84 
049 

trace 

174 

1-12 
0-24 
1-22 
0-63 

i'53 
1-86 
nil 
0-73 
0-76 

1"20 
1-12 

1-04 
0-47 
0-60 
303 
1-72 
1-27 

i-io 

0-53 
0-52 
0-38 
0-27 

0-05 

1-61 
1-46 

0-26 
077 



Total. 



lu sus- 
pension. 




0-87 
0-13 
1-95 

145 

0-42 

158 
0-88 

171 
216 
0-37 
0-97 

128 J 

1-32 
0-72 
0-82 

3'i7 
2 56 
2-i8 
1-36 
0-85 
0-64 
0-65 
0-51 

0-266 

1-78 
1-70 
1-83 
0-60 
0-91 



Total in 
solution 
and sus- 
pension. 



Average 



1-12 



1-27 



1-39 



1-17 



1-27 



0-95 



2-67 



0-95 

0-65 
0-51 

0-266 

1-78 
1-70 
1-83 
0-60 
0-91 



* Strong smell of sewage. 



160 



KEPORT 1873. 



Table III. — Breton's Sewage-Farm. 

Statement showing the Monthly Quantities of Sewage distributed and Nitro- 
gen contained therein, and of Effluent Water discharged and Nitrogen 
contained therein, for the period from March 25, 1871, to March 24, 1872. 



Dates (inclusire). 


Sewage (or diluted 
pumped. 


sewage) 


Effluent water. 


Quantity. 


Nitrogen 

per 100,000 

tons. 


Total 
Nitrogen. 


Quantity. 


Nitrogen 

per 100,000 

tons. 


Total 
Nitro- 
gen. 


1871. 


tons. 


tons. 


tons. 


tons. 


tons. 


tons. 


March 25 to April 24 ... 


24,059 


6-48 


1-5590 


1 5.4^4 


1-76 


•2711 


April 25 to May 24 


37.'54 


5'2I 


1-9357 


18,092 


1-2I 


-2189 


May 25 to June 24 


39.°»7 


403 


1-5724 


'6,335 


•76 


■1241 


June 25 to July 24 


31,809 


535 


1-7018 


16,319 


»-33 


-2170 


July 25 to August 24 .. 


39,862 


463 


1-8456 


13,604 


1-28 


•1741 


August 25 to Sept. 24 ... 


37.424 


478 


1-7889 


12,931 


1-13 


-1461 


Sept. 25 to Oct. 24 


37.684 

34.985 
ii.954 


5-30 
6'5o 


1-9973 

2-2740 

1-4007 


22,578 

(partly 

computed) 

18,194 

12,649 


1-30 

0-58 
0-39 


•2935 

-1055 
•0493 


Oct. 25 to Nov. 24 


Nov. 2 5 to Dec. 24 


6-38 


Dec. 25 to Jan. 24 (1872) 


18,231 


6-35 


1-7926 


(partly 

computed) 

18,444 


0-56 


•1033 


1872. 
Jan. 25 to Feb. 24 


31,168 
16,880 


658 
6-55 


2-0509 
11056 


(partly 

computed) 

16,732 


1-78 


-2978 
-2423 


Feb. 25 to March 24 


14.254 


1-70 


380,227 


average 
55*9 


21-0245 


195.536 


average 
1-147 


2-2430 



The proportion of nitrogen escaping in the effluent water to the total 
quantity applied is therefore -1067, or about y^. 



ox THE TRKATMENT AND UTILIZATION OF SEWAGE. 161 



The succeeding Tables, Nos. IV. to VI., show the relations between the 
ajiount and composition of the Sewage applied to the land during the twelve 
mouths under review (the amount given as applied to each plot being neces- 
sarily, at the best, only an approximation) — the amount of the various Crops, 
as estimated from the weight of average samples, and their composition as far 
as it could be ascertained from the most reliable data, viz. tables furnished 
by Messrs. Lawes and Gilbert, and those published in the Second Report of 
the Sewage of Towns' Commission — and the amount and composition of the 
effluent water. 

Tables V. and VI. also show the amount of nitrogen unaccounted for, 
which either remains in the soil or has partly drained away into deep subsoil- 
waters. 



1S72. K 



162 



REPORT — 1872, 



Table IV. — Breton's 
Statement showing Sewage applied and Crops grown 



Description. 


I. 


II. 


III. 


IV. 


V. 


VI. 


Plot. 


No. of beds 
(inclusive). 


Con- 
tents. 


Crop. 


Date when sown or 
planted. 


Date when cut or 
gathered. 


A 

it 


I to 29 
1 to 18 

19 „ 20 

21 „ 26 
1 „ 29 


acres. 
9-8 

57 

0-8 
2-3 
i-o 

9-8 


Cabbages and greens 
Cauliflower and broc- 
coli-plants.- 

Savoys 


Oct. 1870 


May to Aug. 1871 1 
July 1871 J 

Feb.andMarchi872 
Oct. 1871 


April 1871 


Aug. ,, 


Cabbage-plants 

Cabbages 

Cauliflowers and vege- 
table marrows 

Fallow 




June „ 




>j »» 


Aug. to Oct. 1 871 .. 






Total A 


All. 


9-8 














B 


1 to 20 

21 „ 26 
9 „ 26 

I „ 8 


9'5 

2-6 
8-25 

3-87 


Italian rye-grass 

Potatoes 


fpart April 1870 ' 
\ part Sept. „ 
1 part March 1871^ 

March 1871 

Oct. , 


April to Oct.1871... 
Oct. 1871 


Cabbages 

Italian rye-grass 




fpart Sept. 1870 1 
\part Mar. 1871 J 






Total B 




121 














1 


C 


All. 
ti 


2-0 
2-0 


Cabbages 


June 1871 . . Opt. i8-7i 1 


Fallow 




"... 1 




1 


Total C 


All. 


2'0 












1 


D 


All. 

It 


6-9 
6-9 


Potatoes 


Anril 1871 


July to Sept. 1871 .. 
Dec. to March 1872 


Hardy greens 


Sept. „ 


Total D 


All. 


69 

















The figures in, columns Inarmed thus (#) are to be considered 



OV THE TRE.iTMEXT A\D UTILIZATION- OF SEWAGE. 



1G3 



Sewage-Farm. 

from March 25, 1871, to March 24, 1872. 



Approximate estimate of 
sewage applied. 


Produce. 




Eemarks. 


VII. 


VIII. 


IX. 


X. 


XI. 


XII. 


No. of 
dress- 
ings. 


Total. 

* 


Per acre. 

* 


Total. 


Per acre. 


Sewage 

applied 

per ton of 

produce. 

* 


4 

■ 7 

6 

7 


tons. 
6.433 

13,720 

356 
4,212 

1,942 
9.563 


tons. 
656 

2,407 

444 
1. 831 

1,942 


tons. 

[354-66 
I 336 

93-48 

15-48 
52-21 

6-53 


tons. 

} 36-53 

- 

16-39 

19-35 
22-70 

6-53 


tons. 
17-9 

146-7 

23-0 
80-7 

297-4 


/'One quarter only of this crop was 
sold. It received four dressings of 
J sewage previous to Mardi 1371, be- 
' ing about the same quantity as 
here stated. The small plants 
1, computed to weigh -\ oz. each. 
This crop, with the exception of 1-7 
ton, was consumed by cattle on the 
farm. 
Plants computed to weigh ^ oz. each. 

This sewage was applied to the fallow, 
Dec. 1871 to Feb. 1872. 


... 


36,226 


3.697 


525-72 


53-60 


68-9 




2 
2 

I 


39,012 

1,033 
8>577 

1,108 


4,106 

397 
1,050 

286 


451-20 
5'i5 


47'5 
1-98 


864 
200-0 


I" This grass received a large quantity 

of sewage (nearly as much as is here 

[ stated) previous to March 2 5th, 1 8 7 1 . 

This crop received no more sewage, and 

was cropped May and June 1872. 
[There was no cutting of this grass 
previous to March 25th, 1872. 


• •• 


49.730 


4,110 


45635 


37-7 


108-9 


There was a standing crop of cabbage 
at the end of the year. 


... 


5,062 
20,328 


2,531 
10,164 


68-31 


34'i5 


74' I 


Applied Nov. 1871 to March 5th, 1872. 


••• 


25,390 


12,695 


68-31 


34"i5 


371-7 


It will be aeen that the greater part of 
this sewage went on the fallow. Only 
cultivated four months. 


4 
4 


7.703 
11,502 


1,116 ■ 

1,667 


23-40 3-40 
61-24 8-88 


329-2 
187-8 




. 


19,205. ) 2,783 . 
* * 


84-64 


12-27 


226-9 

* 


■ ■• ; 



mly as approximations, for reasons stated in the Keport. 



n2 



164 



REPORT — 187'2. 



Table IV. 



Description. 


I. 11. 


III. 


lY. 


V. 


TI. 


Plot. 


No. of beds 
(inclusive). 


Con- 
tents. 


Crop. 


Date when sown or 
planted. 


Date when cut or 
gathered. 


E 

)) 


1 to 6 

7 

8 to II 

1 2 and 1 3 
14 to 22 

I ,> 13 


acres. 

17 

0-3 
i-i 

°-s 

2-2 

3-6 


Onions 


April 1 87 1 

Sept- „ 

I Sept. „ 


Oct 1 87 1 


Saroy.s 




r Hardy greens 




(^ Savoy-plants 

f Cabbages 


. Julv 


Oct. to Dec. 1871 ... 
July 1871 


\ Cabbage-plants ... 
Strawberries 


Autumn 1870 


Fallow 


1 

t 
. • •* t 








Total E 




5-8 














P 
»» 


I to 3 
4 ., 14 

15 „ 18 

I „ 3 

4 .. 14 


o'64 
2-33 

0-85 
o'64 

^•33 


Potatoes 

Cabbages 

Carrots 


March 1871 

Oct. 1870 

March 1871 

Sept. , 


Sept. 1871 


May to Aug. 1871 .. 

Aug. to Oct. „ .. 
March 1872 


Cabbages 

Hardy greens find 
cauliflowers. 

Fallow 


July and Aug. 1871 


Sept. 1871 to Feb.l 
1872. 










Total F 




3-82 















'' T!ie figures in columns marked thus (Jf) arc to be considered 



ON THE TREATMENT AND UTILIZATION OF SEWAGE. 



1G5 



(contimied). 



Approximate estimate of 
sewage applied. 



VII. 

No. of 
dress- 
ings. 



VIII. 



Total. 
* 



9 
9 

lo 



tons. 
5,690 

985 



4,110 

1.643 

742 

6,670 



IX. 



Produce. 



Per acre. 



tons. 
3347 

3283 
3736 

32S6 

337 

1853 



Total. 



tons. 
26-83 



XI. 



Per acre, 



tons. 
1578 



4-53 15-10 



n 



29 
24 



1I-25 

520 



19,840 



397 



3.304 



34^> 



76-34 



25-94 



I 3i'9o 



XII. 



Sewage 

applied 

per ton of 

produce. 

* 



13-if 



4 to 5 1,318 
* 559 



1 to 4 



3.531 



2,218 



620 
1418 

1551 

873 

1087 



10,328 
* 



2704 
* 



1-71 
98-64 

10-45 
6-75 

24-20 



14175 



2-67 

42.-33 

12-29 
10-54 

10-39 



37-11 



tons. 
212-1 

217-4 



144-0 



Remarks. 



f About one tenth only of the greens 
I was bunched for market. The re 
] maining nine tenths were consumed 
y by cattle on the farm. 

fOne half only of the cabbages was 
I sold ; the remainder ploughed in. 

The strawberries received 279 tons of 
sewage previous to March 1871. The 
plants remain in the ground. The 
yield was thirty punnets only. 

Applied Deo. 1871 to March 1872. 



259-9 



232-0 
33'5 

126-1 
82-8 

64-6 



Three quarters of this crop was ploughed 
in, th^re being no sale for it. 



One half of this crop was ploughed in, 
there being no sale for it. 



Applied Nor. 1871 to Feb. 1872. 



72-8 

* 



only as approximations, for reasons stated in the Keport. 



166 



REPORT — 1873. 



Table IV. 



Description. 




I. 


II. 


III. 


IV. 


V. 


VI. 


Plot, 


No. of beds 
(inclusive). 


Con- 
tents. 


Crop. 


Date when sown or 
planted. 


Date when cut or 
gathered. 


G 

J) 

JJ 

)» 
)) 
Ji 
»> 

)» 

)» 

J> 
»i 

») 

J» 
J} 

»» 
») 


2 and 3 

17 

i8 

I 
10 and II 

4 to 9 

12 to 13 

14 
15 and 16 

19 

20 to 22 

3- 17. 20. 

21 and 22 
I and 2 

4 to 9 

10 and II 
12 

13 and 14 

15 „ 16 

3 & 17 to 20 


acres. 
0-47 
0-23 

0-23 
0'23 

0-47 
1-41 
0-47 

0-24 

0-47 

024 
071 

ji-i8 

0-47 
141 

0-47 
023 

0-47 

0-47 
I 64 


Cabbages 


Oct. 1870 


May to July 1871 .. 


Parsley 


April 1871 ••• 




Brussels sprouts 

Beans 








March 1871 


Sept. 1871 




Onions 










Au£r 




Clover 


Mav 






Cauliflowers 




July to Sept. 1871 . 
Aug. 1871 

Oct. „ 




Lettuce 

Cauliflowers 


" !> 

July 




Spinach 


April and May 1871 
July 1 87 1 ••. 


May and June 1871 

Aug. to Oct. 1871 .. 
March 1872 




Cauliflowers 


A 


Hardv erreens 


Sept. „ 




Onions 


Aue 






Cabbages 


Sept 


March 1872 




Savoys 






Hardv creens 


Oct 






Spinach 

Fallow 


Auff 


Jan. 1872 
















Total G 




5-17 




















II 

It 


I to 24 
I „ 24 


6-4 
6-4 


Onions ^. 

Cabbages 


March 1871 

Sept 


July to Oct. 1 87 1... 












Total H 




6-4 
















I 

)) 

)» 
)» 

)» 


I to 3 
4 >. 9 

10 „ 18 
I .. 3 

4 ,. 9 
10 „ iS 


III 

2-27 

3-29 
I'll 

2-27 

3-^9 


Potatoes 


March 1 8 7 1 


Sept. 1871 

May to Aug. 1871 .. 

Sept. 1871 




Cabbage 


Oct. 1870 




Carrots 


March 1871 

SeT)t. 




Hardy greens 

Ditto and cauliflowers 
Cabbages 






July and Aug. 1871 
Sept. and Oct. „ 


Sept. 1 871 to Feb. 
1872. 






Total I 




667 


- 



















The figures in columns marked thus (») are to be considered 



ON THE TREATMENT AND UTILIZATION OF SEWAGE. 



167 



(continued). 



r 


Approximate estimate of 
sewage applied. 


Produce. 




Eemarks. 




VII. 


VIII. 


IX. 


X. 


XI. 


XII. 




No. of 
dress- 


Total. 


Per acre. 


Total. 


Per acre. 


Sewage 

applied 

per ton of 




ings. 


* 


* 






produce. 
* 








tons. 


tons. 


tons. 


tons. 


tons. 






S 

I 

2 


759 
109 

163 


1615 

474 

709 


4-29 
6'oo 


9'i3 
26-10 


176-9 

27-2 


This crop was ploughed in. Quantity 

not ascertained. 
Part of the plants was transplanted; 

the remainder was pulled for cattle. 




3 

S 

I 


211 

928 

4,050 
162 


917 

1974 
2872 

345 


0-27 

10-65 

6-22 

4"23 


1-19 

22-67 
4-41 
9-00 


781-0 
87-1 

651-1 
38-3 


This crop was cut only once, and then 
ploughed in. 




6 

S 


526 
983 


2192 
2092 


0-56 
0-30 


2-34 
064 


939-3 

3277-0 


Only one quarter of this crop was sold ; 
the remainder consumed by cattle. 




5 
5 


443 
1,263 


1845 

1779 


o'56 
1-23 


2-34 
173 


791-0 
1318-0 


One third of this crop was sold ; the 
remainder consumed by cattle on 
farm. 




4 


a.477 


2099 


2-24 


i'9o 


1 104-0 






S 
I 

5 
6 
6 


926 

802 

1,126 

590 

1,109 


1970 
569 

2396 
2565 
2360 


2-13 

4-30 
369 


4-53 

9-17 
16-05 


434-1 

261-6 
159-9 



This crop remained in the ground till 
May 1872. 

This crop received no more sewage, and 
was gathered May 1872. 




I 
I 


247 
5,198 


525 
3170 


1-02 


i-6o 


329-3 


Applied from October to February. 




... 


22,072 


4269 


4769 


9-17 


4628 






6 to 7 
about 2 


14,015 
6,387 


2190 
998 


136-47 


21-32 


102-7 


This crop received no more sewage, and 
commenced cutting April 1872. 




... 


20,402 


3188 


136-47 


21-32 


149-4 


Standing crop at the end of the year. 




2 
10 


708 
S.724 


638' 
2521 


3-41 

iio-io 


3-°7 
48-50 


207-6 
52-0 


Only one quarter of this crop was sold ; 
the remainder ploughed in. 




8 
4 


7-044 
1.758 


2141 
1584 


47-03 


14-30 


149-8 


This crop received no more sewage, and 
was gathered in the summer of 1872. 




7 


4,612 


2032 


27-31 


12-04 


168-9 






2 


2,691 


818 








This crop received no more sewage, and 
-was gathered Ajiril 1872. 




... 


"-537 

* 


3379 


187-85 


28-16 


120-0 

* 


Standing crop at the end of the year. 



only as approximations, for reasons stated in tlie Keport, 



168 






REPORT — 1873. 


Table IV. 




Description. 




I. 


11. 


III. 


IV. 


V, 


VI. 


Plot. 


No. of beds 
(inclusive.) 


Con- 
tents. 


Crop. 


Date wben sown or 
planted. 


Date when cut or 
gathered. 




K 

1) 


All. 


acres. 
4'4° 

3-66 


Cabbaires 


Nov. 1870 


June to Aug. 1871 .. 
March 1872 




Hardy greens 


Sept. 1871 










Total K 




average 
4-03 




















M 


All. 
1) 


356 
3-17 




March 1871 

Oct 


Aug. to Oct. 1871... 




Cabbages 






' 


Total M 




average 

3-36 




















N 

J) 
1J 


1 to 4 and J ^•y?- i r'abbae'e 


Oct. 1870 


May to July i87i_. . 
Nov. and Dec. 1871 




9 to i6 

I to 6 and 
9 to 1 6 
7 and 8 


^•63 

0-52 


Hardy greens and 

cauliflowers. 
Broccoli 


May to July 1871 .. 
July 1 87 1 




















Total N 




415 





















1) 


All. 


5-92 
5-92 


Italian rye-grass 

Cabbages 


Sept. 1870 


Anril to Julv 1871.. 




July 1871 


Feb. 1872 










Total 




5-92 




















P 

if 


Part. 

All. 


1-45 
1-6 

0-45 

3'S 


Potatoes 

Beans (scarlet) 


April 1871 


Sept. 1871 

Aug. to Oct. 1871... 
Oct. 1871 




May „ 

June 1871.... 


Savoys 


Fallow 












Total P 




3'5 

















* The figures in columns marked thus («) are to be considered 





ON THE 

(continued). 


TREATMENT AND UTILIZATION OF. SEWAGE. 169 




Approximate estimate of 
sewage applied. 


Produce. 




Remarks. 




VII. 


Till. 


IX. 


X. 


XI. 


XII. 




No. of 
dress- 
ings. 


Total. 
* 


Per acre. 
* 


Total. 


Per acre. 


Sewage 

applied 

per ton of 

produce. 




10 

6 


tons. 
10,300 

8,876 


tons. 
2341 

2425 


tons. 

192-37 

45-00 


tons. 
43-72 

12-30 


tons. 
53-2 

197-2 


Only one quarter of this crop was 
sold ; the remainder ploughed in. It 
received 2636 tons of sewage between 
iVov. 1S70 and March 1871. 

Only one tenth of this crop was sold; 
the remainder ploughed in. 






19,176 


4758 


237-37 


5S-90 


80-8 


The acreage of this plot has been altered. 




5 to 6 
3 


7,559 
4.394 


2123 
1386 


57-18 


16-05 


132-2 


This crop received more sewage, and was 
gathered May and June 1872. 




... 


11.953 


3557 


57-18 


17-01 


209-0 


Standing crop at the end of the year. 
Tlie acreage of this plot has been 
altered. 




about 8 
about 6 


6,798 

9.683 
2,194 

13.543 


2179 

2738 
4219 


166-81 

55-53 


5 3 '46 
15-30 


407 
174-3 


One quarter only of this crop was sold ; 
the remainder ploughed in. The 
crop received 3718 tons of sewage 
previous to March 25, 1S71. 

This crop received no more sewage, and 

was gathered April 1S72. 
Applied Dec. 1871 to March 1872. 




... 


32,218 


7763 


222-34 


53-57 


144-9 






5 


9.936 
9.599 


1678 
1621 


117-18 
141-03 


19-80 
23-82 


84-8 
681 


This crop received nearly 10,000 tons of 
.sewage previous to March 25, 1871. 

Only half this crop was sold ; the re- 
mainder consumed by cattle on the 
farm. 




... 


19.535 


3299 


258-21 


43-62 


75-6 






4 
8 

5 


1.235 
4,096 

1.074 
9,249 


852 
2560 
2387 

2643 


1-875 

1-45 
20-34 


1-29 

0-90 

45-21 


660-4 

2824-9 

52-8 


One third of this crop was sold; two 
thirds consumed by cattle on the 
farm. 

Applied Oct. 1871 to Feb. 1872. 






15.654 

* 


4473 
* 


23-665 


676 


661-5 

* 





only as approximations, for reasons stated in the Eeport. 



170 



REPORT — 1872. 













Table IV. 




Desciption. 




I. 


II. 


III. 


IV. . 


V. VI. 




Plot. 


No. of beds 
(inclusive). 


Con- 
tents. 


Crop. 


Date when sown or 
planted. 


Date when cut or 
gathered. 




Q 

I) 


Part. 
tt 
It 
»» 


acres. 
0-43 
02 1 

075 

0'2I 


Mangold 

Beet-root 

Hardy greens 

Carrots 


April 1871 

May „ 

Aug. „ 

May „ 


Nov. 1871 




Oct. to Nov. 1871... 
Dec. 1871 




Nov. „ 








Total Q 




i-6o 




















R 

tJ 


I to 7 

8 „ 20 

I .. 7 


o'9o 

1'62 

•90 


Oats 

Parsnips 


April 1 87 1 


Aug. 1871 

Dec. ,. 




Sept 




Hardy greens 


Dec. 1871 and Jan. 
1872. 




Total E 




2-52 




















S 


Part. 


°-33 


Cabbages 




Oct, 1871 










T 


All. 

tt 


o"34 
0-34 


Potatoes 

Cabbages 


April 1871 


Sept. 1871 




Sept. „ 


March 1872 


Total T 




0-34 
















U 


Part. 

All. 


2-03 

0-50 
2-53 


Hardy green plants... 

Peas 

Sprouting broccoli ... 


April 1871 


Aug. and Sept. 1871 
Sept. 1871 




Oct 




Total U 




2-53 




















V 

I) 

a 


Part. 
tt 

)t 

It 

tr 


1-36 
o'36 

o'5o 
0-26 

2-00 


Mangold 

Cauliflowers 

White broccoli 

Cabbages 

Cabbages 

Fallow 


May 1871 

June , 


Nov. 1871 

Aug. 1871 to Jan. 
1872. 




May 


Nov. and Dec. 1871 




Oct. ,, 








i 






1 


Total V 




4-48 






1 








1 


W 


Part. 
All 


i-o 


Hardy green plants. . . 
Fallow 


April 1S71 ' Aug. and Sept. 1871 


1 






1 


Total W 




3-0 








1 








1 


X 


All. ! 3-86 ' Savoys Aug. 187 1 Jan. to March 1872 




y 


All. 


56 jHay 


Permanent grass ... 


Permanent grass ... 





* The figures in columns marked thus (#) are to be considered 



ON THE TREATMENT AND UTILIZATION OF SEWAGE. 



171 



(continued). 





Approximate estimate of 
sewage applied. 


Produce. 




Remarks. 




VII. 


VIII. 


IX. 


X. 


XI. 


XII. 




No. of 
dress- 
ings. 


Total. 
* 


Per acre. 


Total. 


Per acre. 


Sewage 

applied 

per ton of 

produce. 




7 
5 
5 
3 


tons. 

1,595 
1,207 

1,871 
881 


tons. 
3709 
5748 
249 5 
4195 


tons. 
7-45 

2-10 

3-03 
075 


tons. 
17-33 

10-00 
4-04 
3-57 


tons. 
214-1 

574-8 
616-9 

1174-7 






... 


5.554 


3471 


13-33 


8-33 


416-7 






I 
4 
3 


450 
2,328 
2,o66 


500 

1437 
2296 


13-00 
12-50 

3-74 


3-33 

7-71 
4-25 


150-0 
186-2 
497-2 


fThis weight includes straw 2-25 tons. 




... 


4,844 


1922 


1924 


7-63 


2517 






I 


70 


211 


-65 


8-05 


26-4 






nil 


nil 




2-10 
0-96 


6-18 
2-82 




These crops received no sewage. 




... 


nil 




306 


900 




No sewage applied. 




nil 

3 

17 


nil 

655 

5.797 


1310 
229a 


17-86 
0-87 


8-80 
1-74 


7529 


These plants received no sewage, and 
were replanted on the farm. 

This crop received no more sewage, and 
was gathered April 1872, yielding 
13-40 tons. 






6,452 


2550 


1873 


7-40 


344-4 




4 
8 

8 

7 
I 

2 


1,873 
1,812 

2,126 

832 
2,053 
1,850 


1429 
5°33 

4252 

3200 
1027 


22-8o 
090 



3-73 


16-76 
2-50 

14-37 


82-1 
2013-5 

2227 


This crop received no more sewage, and 
was gathered April 1872, yielding 
2-91 tons. 

This crop commenced cutting May 1872. 
AppHed Jan. 1872. 




... 


10,546 


2354 


27-43 


6-12 


384-4 






3 


552 
8.345 


552 
2782 


892 


892 


619 


These plants transplanted to other parts 
of the farm. 




... 


8,897 


2966 


8-92 


2-98 


997-5 






7 


2,773 


718 


759 


19-66 


36-5 


Only one tentli of this crop was sold ; 
the remainder carted to cattle. 




abt. 12 


16,825 


3004 

* 


21-3 


3-8 


789-9 
* 


The grass remains. 



only as approximations, for reasons stated in the Eeport. 



172 REPORT— 1872. 

Table V. — Breton's 
Summary for the Year ending March 2J:, 1872, showing the Nitrogen applied 



DescriiJtion. 



Plot. Contents. 



A 


acres. 
9-80 


B 


I2'IO 


C 


a'oo 


D 


6*90 


E 


5-80 


F 


3-82 



G 

II 

I 

K 
M 

N 

O 
P 

Q 

R 

S 

T 

U 

V 

w 

X 



5'i7 

6-40 

6-67 

4-03 
3-36 

4"iS 

5-92 

3-50 
i'6o 

2'52 



Crop. 



Cabbage, cauliflower.s, and savoys. 
Italian rye-grass and potatoes .... 

Cabbage 

Potatoes and hardy greens 



f Onions, savoys, hardy greens, cabbage, and [ 
[ strawberries J 

Potatoes, carrots, cabbage, and hardy greens 

Cabbage, brussels spront.s, beans, onions, 1 

carrots, clover, cauliflowers, lettuce, !• 

[ spinach, and hardy greens J 

Onions 



I 



f Potatoes, cabbage, carrots, hardy greens, 
\ and cauliflowers 

Cabbage and hardy greens 

Onions 



Produce. 



Total. 



•33 


•34 


a-53 


4-48 


3 '00 


386 


5'6o 


103-88 



f Cabbage, hardy greens, cauliflowers, and \ 
\ broccoli J 

Italian rye-grass and cabbage 

Potatoes, scarlet beans, and savoys 

Mangold, beet-root, hardy greens, and carrots 

Oats, parsnips, and hardy greens 

Cabbage 

Potatoes and cabbage 

Hardy green plants and peas 

Mangold, cauliflowers, and cabbage 

Hardy green plants 

Savoys 



f Hay (equal to four and a half times this " 
\ quantity when green) 



tons. 
52572 

456-35 
68-31 
8464 

76'34 
141-75 

47-69 

136-47 

187-85 

237-37 
57-18 

222-34 

258-21 
23-665 

13-33 

19-24 

2-65 

3-06 

18-73 

27-43 

892 

75-90 

21-30 



Per acre. 



2714-445 



tons. 
53-64 

37-71 

34-15 
12-27 

13-16 

37-11 

9-23 

21-32 

28-16 

58-90 
17-01 

53-57 

43-62 
6-76 
8-33 
7-63 
805 
9-00 
7-40 
6-12 
2-98 
19-66 

3-80 



26-13 



Approximate estimate of 
sewage apjilied. 



Total. 



Per 

acre. 



tons. 
36,226 

49.730 
25.390 
19,205 

19,840 

10,328 

22,072 

20,402 

22,537 
19,176 
11.953 
32,218 

19.535 

15.654 
S.554 
4.844 
70 
nil 
6,452 

10,546 
8,897 
2.773 

16,825 



380,227 



tons. 
3.697 
4,110 
12,695 
2,783 

3,421 

2,704 

4,269 

3,188 

3.379 

4.758 
3-557 

7.763 

3.299 
4.473 
3.471 
1,922 
211 
nil 
2,550 

2.354 

2,966 

718 

3,004 



3,660 



* The figures in columns marked thus (*) are to be considered only as ajiproximations 



ox THE TREATMENT AND UTILIZATIOX OF SEWAGE, 



173 



Seiuage-Farm. 

to the Land during that period, and its relation to the Produce of the Farm, 



1 Ax^proximate estimate of nitrogen. 


Quantity applied. 


i 

II 


DiiTerence (in soil, 
crops, &c.). 


Calculated to be in 
crops. 


Not accounted for (in soil, 
and drained away). 


Per cent. 


•i 

o 




il 


1 


i 

u 
a; 


11 


3 



9 

u 




3 



i 

u 
Ph 




t 

M 


s 


c 

8.S 


# 


* 


# 


O" « 


# 


■* 


# 


H 


Ph 


^ " 


# 


* 


* 


* 


# 


•^ * 


lbs. 


lbs. Iba. 


lbs. 


lbs. 


lbs. 


lbs. 


lbs. 


lbs. 


lbs. 


lbs. 


lbs. 


lbs. 








4,486 


458 


8-5 


479 


4,007 


409 


7-6 


2.944 


300 


5-6 


1,063 


108 


2-0 


66 




23 


6,159 


5°9 


13-5 


657 


5.502 


455 


I2-I 


5.487 


453 


I2*0 


IS 


1 




89 




... 


3.145 


1572 


46-1 


335 


2,810 


1405 


4I-I 


383 


192 


5-6 


2,427 


I2I3 


35-5 


12 




77 


2.379 


345 


28-2 


254 


2,125 


308 


25-1 


474 


69 


5-6 


1,651 


239 


19-5 


20 




69 


2.457 


424 


32-2 


262 


2.195 


378 


28-8 


410 


71 


5 '4 


1.785 


308 


23-4 


17 




72 


' 1,279 


335 


9-0 


136 


1.143 


299 


80 


782 


205 


5"5 


361 


95 


2-5 


61 




28 


2.734 


529 


57-4 


292 


2,442 


472 


51-2 


294 


57 


6-2 


2,148 


416 


45-0 


11 




78 


2.527 


395 


i8-6 


270 


2,257 


353 


i6-s 


672 


105 


4'9 


1,585 


248 


11-6 


26 




63 


2.792 


419 


14-9 


298 


2,494 


374 


133 


999 


150 


5-3 


1. 495 


224 


8-0 


36 




53 


2.375 


590 


lO'O 


253 


2,122 


526 


8-9 


1.330 


331 


5-6 


792 


196 


3-3 


S^ 




33 


1,480 


440 


25-9 


158 


1,322 


394 


23-1 


282 


84 


4-9 


1,040 


310 


l8-2 


19 




70 


3.990 


961 


17-9 


426 


3,564 


859 


i6'o 


1,245 


300 


5-6 


2,319 


559 


10-4 


31 




58 


2,420 


409 


9'4 


258 


2,162 


365 


8-4 


2,206 


373 


8-5 


.., 


... 


... 


91 




... 


1.939 


554 


81-9 


207 


1.732 


495 


73-2 


157 


45 


6-6 


1. 575 


450 


66-6 


8 




81 


689 


431 


517 


73 


6i6 


385 


46-2 


74 


46 


5-6 


542 


339 


40-7 


11 




78 


600 


238 


31-2 


64 


536 


213 


27-9 


147 


58 


77 


389 


154 


20-2 


24 




65 


9 


27 


3-5 


I 


8 


24 


3"o 


J5' 45 

17 50 


5-6 
5-6 


... 




... 


167 




... 


800 


316 


427 


85 


715 


282 


38-2 


166 65 


8-9 


549 


217 


29-3 


21 




68 


1,306 


291 


47-5 


139 


1,167 


260 


42'6 


154 34 


5-6 


1,013 


226 


37-0 


11 




78 


1 1,102 


367 


123-5 


iiS 


984 


328 


1 103 


50 17 


5-6 


934 


311 


1047 


4 




85 


. ^"^^ 


89 


4-5 


37 


306 


80 


4-0 


425 ,110 


5-6 


... 


.,. 


... 


124 






2,084 


372 


97-8 


222 


1,862 


332 


87-6 


9541170 

1 


44-8 


908 


162 


42-6 


46 




-13 


'47.095 


453 


i7'35 


5024 


42,071 


405 


15-50 


19,667 189 


7-2 


22,404 


216 


8-3 


42 11 


47 



(_for reasons stated in the Report), with the escL-ption of the grand totals. 



174 



REPORT — 1872. 



Summary of Crops gathered during the 
[N.B. — The Sewage here stated is only that 



Table YI. — BretorCs 

period from March 25, 1871, to 

Sewage applied 

applied during the above period. In 



Crop. 



Italian rye-grass 

Hay (meadow) 

Clover 

Cabbage 

Hardy greens 

Savoys 

Brussels sprouts 

Broccoli (crop in ground at end I 
of year) ] 

Spinach 

Lettuce 

Cauliflowers 

Parsley (crop ploughed in. "1 
Quantity not ascertained ...J 

Beans 

Peas 

Carrots 

Parsnips 

Beet-root 

Mangold 

Onions 

Potatoes 

Oats 

Strawberries (yield of straw-"] 
berries very small, quantity V 
not stated) ) 

Mixed crops — cauliflowers and"[ 
vegetable marrows J 

Hardy greens and cauliflowers ... 

Fallow land 

Total 



Total 
acreage of 

each 
description 

of crop. 



acres. 
15-42 

560 

•47 
59-06 

18-39 

10-54 
•23 

3"S5 

118 

•47 
2-02 

•23 

1-83 

•5° 
5-76 
1-62 

•21 
1-79 

13-54 
13-04 

•90 

2-20 

1-00 
8-23 



Produce of each crop. 



Total. 



tons. 
568-38 

21-30 

4-23 

1242-10 

i66-2i 

202-18 

6-00 



2-25 

■3° 
4-26 



1-72 

•87 

64-45 

12-50 

2-IO 

30-25 

23113 

3y64S 



3-00 



6-53 

107-04 



2714-445 



Per acre. 



tons. 

36-97 
3-80 
9-00 

21-03 
9-04 

19-18 

26-09 



1-91 
•64 

2-10 



■94 

174 

11*19 

7-71 

lo-oo 
16-90 

17-07 

2-88 
3'33 



6-53 
13-01 



Sewage ap- 
the 



Total. 



tons. 
50,056 

16,825 

162 

80,879 

32,770 

19,142 

163 

10,117 

1,510 
983 

5.258 

109 

4.307 

655 

'3.^93 

2,328 

1,207 

3,468 

28,994 

11,076 

450 
742 

1,942 

16,827 
76,964 



380,227 



* The figures in columns marked thus (♦) are to be considered only as 



ON THE TREATMENT AND UTILIZATION OP SEWAGE. 



175 



Sewage-Farm. 

March 24, 18^ 

thereto. 

some cases, therefore, it does not represent the total quantity applied to the Crops.] 



March 24, 1872, showing the quantity of each kind of Produce and the 
thereto. 



plied to 
crops. 



Per acre. 



tons. 
3246 

3004 

345 
1369 
1782 
1816 

709 

2850 

1280 
2092 
2603 

474 

2353 
1310 
2308 
1437 
5748 
1937 
Z141 
849 

500 

337 

194a 
2045 



Sewage 
applied 
per ton 
of pro- 
duce. 



tons. 
811 

789-9 

38-3 

6s-i 

197-2 

964-2 

27-2 

671-1 
3277-0 
1234-2 



2504-1 
752-9 
206-2 
i86-2 
574-8 
114-5 
125-4 
294-2 

150-0 



297-4 
157-2 



Nitrogen. 



Quantity 

applied in 

sewage. 



140-1 



Per cent. 



lbs. 
6,200 

2,084 

20 

10,017 

4,059 

2,371 
20 

1.253 

187 
122 
652 

13 

533 
81 

1,646 

288 

149 

431 

3,591 
1,372 

57 
92 

241 

2,084 
9,532 



47,095 



Quantity 

escaping 

in eflfluent 

water. 

* 



100 



lbs. 
661 

222 

2 

1069 

433 

253 

2 

134 

20 

13 
69 



57 

9 

176 

31 

16 

46 

383 

346 

6 

10 

26 

222 
1017 



5024 



1067 



Quantity estimated in 
crops. 



Per cent. 



0-54 
2-00 
0-65 
0-25 
0-25 
0-25 
0-25 

0-25 
0-25 
0-25 

I -00 
3-40 
0-20 
0-22 
0-25 
0-25 
0-22 



f Oats 2-00, "1 
\ straw o-6o J 



0-25 
025 



Total. 



Not ac- 
counted 
for (in soil, 

&c.). 



lbs. 
6,875 

954 
62 

6,955 

930 

1,132 

34 



12 

2 
24 

39 
66 

289 
62 
12 

169 

1,139 
211 



64 



36 
600 



19,667 



41-76 



lbs. 
908 

1,993 

2,696 

986 

1,119 

155 

107 

559 
12 

437 

6 

i,i8i 

195 
121 

216 
2,069 
1,015 



8a 

179 

1,262 
8,515 



22,404 



47'57 



Rpprosimations (for reasons stated in the Report), with the exception of the grand totals, 



176 REPORT— 1872. 

Interim Report of the Committee appointed for the purpose of making 
experiments on instruments for Measuring the Speed of Ships and 
Currents by means of the difference of height of two columns of liquid, 
— the Committee consisting of Prof. W. J. Macquorn RankinEj 
C. W. Merrifield, F.R.S., Mr. F. J. Bramwell, and Mr. Alfred 
E. Fletcher (Secretary). 

Your Committee have to report that, owing to the business-eugagements of 
the Members, it has been found imjjossible to hold a meeting at a sufficiently 
early date to enable a systematic plan of operations to be agreed to and acted 
upon, and also that a proposed experimental trip in a yacht has been un- 
avoidably postponed. No expense has been incurred, and no part of the 
grant of =£30 has been drawn. 

Your Committee recommend that they should be reappointed, and that the 
sum of ^30 should again be placed at their disposal. 



Rejyort on the Rainfall of the British Isles, by a Committee, consisting 
of Charles Brooke, F.R.S. {Chairman), J. F. Bateman, C.E., 
F.R.S., J. Glaisher, F.R.S. , R, W. Mvlne, C.E., F.R.S., Prof. 
J. Phillips, F.R.S., T. Hawrsley, C.E., Prof. J. C. Adams, 
F.R.S., Prof. J. J. Sylvester, F.R.S., C. Tomlinson, F.R.S., 
R. Field, C.E., Dr. Pole, C.E., F.R.S., Prof. D. T. Ansted, 
F.R.S., A. Buchan, F.R.S.E., and G. J. Symons, Secretary. 

YoTTR Committee have the pleasure of reporting that every branch of rainfall 
work continues in efhcient working order, and that, notwithstanding the very 
limited funds at our disposal and the long illness of our Secretary during the 
winter, all arrears have been overtaken, and, owing to the completeness of 
the orgp.uization, no hitch or interruption occurred. 

At the Meeting of the British Association in Edinburgh, very strong repre- 
sentations were made to your Committee respecting the desirability of es- 
tablishing additional rain-gauge stations in different parts of the Highlands ; 
and as your Committee had long been aware of the necessity which existed 
for these stations, and, moreover, as somewhat larger funds than usual were 
at their disposal, they resolved on taking every means in their power to secure 
the efficient establishment of these stations. In addition to ordinary cor- 
respondence, oi;r Secretary took two special steps to secure the most promis- 
ing possible distribution of the new gauges. In the first place he wrote to 
iEr. Euclian, the Secretary to the Scottish Meteorological Society, acquaint- 
ing him with the assent of the Committee, and requesting him to state what 
number of gauges he coiild provide good observers for. On receipt of his 
reply ten gauges were sent to him, which he was kind enough to distribute 
as follows : — 

1. Springfield, Tain, lloss. G. Sannox, Arran. 

2. Kilmalcolm, Port Glasgow. 7. Kilchoman, Islay. 

3. Arrochar, Loch Long. 8. Port Charlotte, Islay. 

4. Strahane, Brodick, Arran. 9. Port Ellen, Islay. 

5. Strathfillan, Perthshire. 10. Clcnbaru Abbey, Mull of Cantiro. 



ON THE RAINFALL OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 177 

The other step was to send the following letter to the Secretary of the High- 
land liailway Company, whose line, as is probably generally known, traverses 
much of the most thinly inhabited part of Scotland : — 

" 62 Caniden Square, 
December 7th, 1871. 
" British Rainfall. 

"Dear Sir, — At the Meeting of the British Association held at Edinburgh 
last August, it was resolved that steps be taken to obtain observations of the 
fall of raiu in those parts of Scotland in which they have not hitherto been 
made ; a grant of money was voted for the construction of the instruments, 
and I was directed to take such steps as might seem best calculated to secure 
regular and trustworthy observations. As an indication that this application 
is for no mere crotchet, I may mention that the Board of N'orthern Light- 
houses are already assisting all round the coast, and the Scottish Meteorolo- 
gical Society, the Marquis of Breadalbanc, and others inland. After all our 
efforts, however, the route traversed by your line is very poorly supplied with 
observers ; and I have therefore to ask whether 5'ou would cooperate in the 
matter by instructing certain of your station-masters to make the necessary 
observations and forward the results monthly. The gauges are similar to 
(but smaller than) those used by the station-masters on the Manchester, 
Sheffield, and Lincolnshire Railway ; they are extremely simjjle, and the ob- 
servations (which may be made any time between 8.30 and 9.30 a.m.) only 
occupy about two minutes : I should, of course, provide printed instructions 
and blank forms. The preliminary arrangements to ascertain exactly where 
additional observations are required have taken so long that there is now 
necessity for somewhat prompt action to secure that the instruments shall aU 
be at their destination a few days before the end of the year. I shall there- 
fore be glad of a prompt reply, especially as, after receiving it, either I or my 
colleague Mr. Buchan, of the Scottish Meteorological Society, mil have to 
send communications to the ' Scotsman ' and other papers. I have only to 
add that if the Dingwall and Skye line is not under your control, I should be 
much obliged by a line or telegram stating to whom I should apply, unless, 
indeed, you could submit the tenour of my views to the authorities of that 
line, which would be the most rapid course. I enclose sketch of the gauge 
and instructions, which can be further simplified for the special purpose, and 
have only to add that, should any further explanation be required, I shall 

inost cheerfully supply it. 

" Yours very truly, 

" A. Dougall, Esq., Inverness:^ " G. J- SrsiONS." 

To this letter the following reply was received : — 

" Highland Railway Company, Inverness, 
I'ith December, 1871. 

" British Rainfall. 

" Dear Sir, — I have your favour of the 7th instant on the above subject, 
and beg in reply to state that the Directors of tliis Company will be happy 
to cooperate in the matter by instructing several of their station-masters to 
make the necessary observations and to forward the results monthly. This 
will apply to the Dingwall and Skye line also. 

" I am, yours faithfully, 

" A, Dougall." 

1872. 



178 REPORT— 1872. 

The result of subsequent correspondence was the establishment of a chain 
of stations over the entire system of the Highland and Dingwall and Skye 
railways. Fifty gauges, with pegs for fixing, instructions, and blank obser- 
vation forms were sent to Inverness, and distributed and erected by the offi- 
cials of the Company at various selected stations, with the exception of a few 
•which are retained in store until the northern extension of the line will en- 
able them to be placed in Sutherland and Caithness. It only remains to add 
that the station-agents, with scarcely an exception, understand their work 
and do it punctually and well. Another district in which additional stations 
are urgently required is that traversed by the Caledonian Canal ; and there- 
fore a letter similar to the one abeady quoted was addressed to the gentleman 
who, our Secretary was informed, was iu charge of the Canal. As, however, 
the letter has not been acknowledged, our efforts in that direction have been 
futile. 

It is generally the case that expenditure on the part of this Association 
leads to equal or greater expenditure for similar objects by other persons. 
This has been specially the case with rainfall work, and an illustration may 
be quoted from the events of 1 ist year. Simultaneouslj' with the above action 
of the Committee, the Earl of Breadalbane (through his agent Mr. J. P. Smith, 
C.E.) has undertaken to supply returns from a scries of stations between 
Aberfeldy and Tyndrum and other important localities in the Avatershed of 
the Tay and Rannoch. Several of the gauges were fixed by our Seeretar}'-, 
and the sites for others selected by him ; and if the observations are regularly 
taken they will be of great utility. 

A very limited number of gauges have also been supplied to I'emote districts 
of England and Wales; but the price of rain-gauges is now so low, that there can 
be but few persons, who are able and willing to take charge of a gauge, to whom 
the cost can be prohibitory. Your Committee are fully aware that in many 
parts of the country additional observations are desirable ; but there are so 
many expenses incidental to the collection of the observations and their dis- 
cussion, that they do not feel justified, considering the very limited means 
at their disposal, in lending gauges except to very isolated stations. Their 
Secretary will, however, be happy to render any information or assistance in 
his power to persons who may be willing to set up gauges ; and it is hoped 
that by tKe maintenance and development of the present organization, these 
vacant spaces may gradually be occupied. 

Owing to the illness of our Secretary, the forms of inquiry respecting the 
positions &c. of aU the rain-gauges in the country (not only of those belonging 
to this Association, but also of the much more numerous private ones) were not 
issued as soon as was originally intended. About 1000 arc, however, now cir- 
culated, and the rest will foUow in less than a month. Those which have been 
returned have nearly all been filled up in a very complete and satisfactory 
manner, auguring well for the success of the proposal. 

Another step taken with the same object, viz. the attainment of precise 
knowledge respecting the gauges in use, their eTrors and position, has been 
taken during the past year. Our Secretary has long possessed a travelling- 
case containing the standard measures necessary for verifying any rain-gauge 
without removing it from its position ; and in previous reports we have given 
the results of several hundred examinations of rain-gauges in situ made with 
this apparatus. Owing, however, to oui' limited funds, this examination has 
been obliged to be curtailed ; and as a partial counterpoise to this curtailment, 
we have caused to be constructed a precisely similar testing-case, and pre- 
senlcd it to the Scottish Meteorological Society, whose Secretary will in futiu'e 



ox THE RAINFALL OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 



179 



-iisc it in his inspections of the stations of that Societ)', and will communicate 
the results to us. We shall thus obtain a large amount of very valuable in- 
formation at the mere original cost of the apparatus. 



Eatio of RainfaU in the British Isles in 1870 to Mean (1860-69 = 100). 

1870. 




"We regret that, owing to the cause already referred to, the discussion of the 
monthly percentages during 18G0-69 is not quite ready for publication ; the 
means are all taken, and the whole of the percentages (some 4000) are worked 



180 



REP0RT 1872. 



out ; the subsequent discussion will, we hope, be completed long before it is 
required for our next lleport. 

_ The onlj' remaining subjects to which we have to direct attention are the 
biennial tables for 1870-71, which are given in the Appendix, and the re- 



Eatio of Rainfall in the British Isles in 1871 to Mean (1800-69 = 100). 

1871. 




suits of a comparison of the fall in each of those years with the averages at 
the same stations and with the same instruments during the ten years 1860- 
69, given in our last Report. This is given in Table I., and an abstract of 
the same in Table 11. 



ON THE RAINFALL OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 



181 



Among the many points of interest brought out by this mode of treatment, 
pcrliaps the only one to which we need call special attention is the general 
distribution of rain during 1870 and 1S71. And lirst respecting 1S70 : the 
accompanying sketch map (p. 179) shows that there were two areas in which 
great deficiency of rain occurred, and that there was no division in which the 
fall reached the average. The areas of deficieucy were the south-west of Eng- 
land and the Avest of Scotland ; and on reference to Table I. it will be found 
that several stations in those divisions had less than two thirds of their average 
fall. The divisions in which the fall most nearly approached the average 
were the north-east of Scotland and Yorkshire, the latter owing to a very 
heavy local fall in North Lincolnshire, in October 1870, having partially ex- 
tended into the former county. 

In 1871 the fall was not very much below the average (only 5 per cent.), 
and the chart docs not reveal such prominent features as in 1870. The 
greatest differences are found in the two sides of the north of Scotland, no 
other division differing more than 6 per cent, from the mean of the whole ; 
and even this is mainly due to a belt of excess running north-eastward across 
the centre of England. This belt, moreover, is due to a single rain, that of 
September 6th, which in South-east Yorkshire amounted to nearly four inches, 
and to between one and two inches at nearly all stations thence south-west- 
ward to Devonshire. The area of that rain, it may be as well to state (in- 
cluding only those parts at wliich upwards of an inch fell), was about 14,000 
square miles ; and taking the fall at the low average of one and a half inch, 
not less than 1,357,000,000 (thirteen hundred and fifty-seven million) tons 
of water fell during the twenty-four hours. 

Table I.*- — Comparison of Eainfall, 1870 and 1871, with Average, 1860-69. 



Division. 



I. 
II. 



Station. 



Camden Square 

Weybridge Heath 

Tan field Lodge 

AValdronhurst 

Wimbledon 

Kew Observatory 

Linton Park 

Himton Court 

West Thorn ey 

Chichester Museum . . . 
,, Shopwjke.. 

,, West Dean 

,, Chilgrove, 

Dale Park 

High Wiekham 

Forest Lodge 

Osborne 

Fai'eham 

Petersfleld 

Selborne 

Aldersbot 



Mean, 
1860-69, 



in. 

25-68 

25-05 

26-33 

24-39 

23-48 

23-28 

27-56 

26-00 

26-88 

29-03 

29-19 

37-08 

33-22 

3373 
26-37 
31-48 
30-73 

33-9' 

38-03 

34'43 
27-04 



Total Fall in 



1870. 



in. 
21-32 

i9"5S 
21-69 

19-80 
18-22 
16-64 
21-69 
20-49 
20-58 
21-37 
2489 
28-35 
27-57 
27-40 
24-61 
24-02 
21-96 
24-52 
28-05 
26-89 
22-94 



1871. 



in. 

25-02 

2322 

24-18 

20-24 

22-50 

21-44 

25-12 

2294 

26-19 

25-86 

26-19 

34-39 
33-19 
29-87 
26-74 

30'45 
29*26 
29-07 
347* 
33'43 
2559 



Eatio of Fall. 
(1860-69=160.) 



1870. 1871. 



83 
78 
82 
81 

78 
72 
79 
79 
77 
74 
85 
76 

83 
81 

93 
76 
72 
72 
74 
78 
85 



97 
93 
92 

83 
96 
92 

9J 

88 

97 

89 
90 

93 

100 

89 

lOI 

97 
95 
86 

91 
97 
95 



Mean 
Divi- 
sional 
Katio. 



83 97 



* Full particulars respecting the counties in which these stations are, and the heights of 
the r.iin-gauges above the ground and aliove sea-level, will be found on p. 106 of our last 
Report. 



183 



JREPORT 1872, 

Table I, (continued). 



Division. 



Station, 



Mean, 
1860-69. 



II. 
III. 



IV. 



Keadiiig 

Long Wittenham 

Bayfordbury 

St. Albans 

Hemelhempstead 

Tring 

Hitehin 

Eoyston 

High Wycomb 

Eadcliff Observatory. . 

Banbury 

Althorp House 

Wellingborough. 

Ivimbolton 

Cardington, ft. in. 

oft. Bin. 

36 ft. in. 

Ely 

Wisbeach 

Witham 

Dunuiow 

Braintree 

SaflVou Walden 

Hadleigh 

Abbeygate St 

Westley 

Barton Hall 

Ciilfiird 

Diclileburgb 

Outwell 

Fincliam 

Norwich Institution .. 

Cossey 

Iloningham Hall 

Egniere 

Hoikham, Oft. Oin. .. 
4 ft. in. „ 

Hunstanton , 

Salisbury Plain 

Swindon 

Bridport 

Saltram . 

Ham 

Eidgeway 

Tavistock Library 

,, West-street. 

Bovey Tracey 

Cory ton Lew Down . . 

Exeter Institution 

Clyst Hydou 

BradnJnch 

Brondhembury 

South Molton 

Barnstaple 

Helstone 

Penzance 



^573 
27-38 
25-01 
27-Ss 
26-39 
27-59 
23-92 
23-57 
25-71 
26"i3 
26-22 

23'35 
24-09 
23-13 
22-49 
21-76 
18-17 
20-61 
24-04 
20-47 
22-75 
23-98 
23-06 

2 5 '47 
23-96 
23-52 
23-68 
24-83 
22-22 
22-64 
23-14 
22-17 
24*04 
23-98 
25-10 
23-88 
23-23 
19-56 
29-2S 
28-59 

32"25 
44-81 
42-S9 
4S-65 
43-36 
53'i7 
43'i3 
45'94 
31-76 
32-69 
38-06 

34-56 
47-12 

39-91 
37-87 
41-51 



Total FaU in 



1870. 



m. 

16-85 

16-88 

1812 

23-56 

2164 

24-40 

17-76 

17-16 

18-81 

17-56 

19-93 
17-21 
17-21 
16-47 
15-87 
14-87 
12-86 
1740 
20-71 
18-77 
17-11 
18-99 
17-27 
18-14 
1578 

17-43 
17-58 
18-94 

19-35 
16-61 

20-50 
1887 
21-29 
21-44 
24-41 
20-74 
20-20 
18-36 
22-59 
20-10 
20-32 

31-31 
30-27 
32-17 
36-89 
37-40 
30-32 
3826 
21-74 
22-98 
22-20 
22-48 
33-12 
28-79 
27-66 
31-65 



1871. 



in. 

22-14 

21-52 

23-42 
24-43 

i3'49 
23-69 

20-84 

19-07 

20-94 

21-14 

24-80 

22-43 

20-17 

21-73 

21-20 

19-69 

16-53 

20-33 

24-77 

20-77 

21-66 

22-73 

21-46 

21-83 

19-55 

22-So 
22-6l 
24-78 
21-85 
18-37 
23-14 
23-13 
24-02 
24-56 
24-47 
22-28 
21-01 
21-45 
28-06 
28-14 
30-84 
46-88 

45-75 
47-72 
51-88 

5 3 '4° 
40-97 
46-93 
32-50 
3221 
33-10 

34-38 
36-80 
38-00 
41-60 

44-71 



Ratio of Fall. 


Mean 


(1860-69=100.) 


Divi- 




sional 






1870. 


1871. 


Eatio. 


6s 


86 




62 


79 


77 9^ 


72 


94 




85 


88 




82 


89 




88 


86 




74 


87 




73 


81 




73 


81 




67 


81 




76 


95 




74 


96 




71 


84 




71 


94 




70 


94 




. 69 


91 




71 


91 




84 


99 




86 


103 


76 90 


92 


lOI 




75 


95 




79 


95 




75 


93 




71 


86 




66 


82 




74 


97 




74 


95 




76 


100 




87 


98 




P 


81 




89 


100 




5 


104 




89 


100 




89 


102 




97 


97 




^7 


93 




87 


90 




94 


110 


8z 96 


77 


96 




70 


98 




63 


96 




70 


105 




71 


107 




66 


98 




85 


120 




70 


100 




1° 


95 




83 


102 




68 


102 




70 


99 




58 


87 




65 


99 




70 


78 




72 


95 




73 


no 




76 


108 





ON THE RAINFALL OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 



183 



Table I. (cGntimted). 



Division. 



VI. 



VII. 



Station. 



Mean, 
1860-69. 



VIII. 



Eedruth 

Truro R. Institution.. 

„ Peuarth 

Bodmin 

Warleggan 

Wadebridge 

E. Harptree 

Small Street 

Clifton 

Quedgeley 

Archenfield 

Rocklands 

Leominster 

Burford 

Ludlow 

Shiffnall 

Shrewsbury 

O-swestry 

Northwick Park 

Orleton 

Wigston 

Thornton 

Belvoir Castle 

Grantham 

Lincoln 

Market Easen 

Gainsborough 

Stockwith 

Brigg 

Grimsby 

Barnetby 

Appleby Vicarage 

New Holland 

Soutliwell 

Wei beck Abbey 

AVorksop 

Retford 

Derby 

Chesterfield 

Kilnarsh 

Combs Moss 

Combs Reservoir 

Chapel-en-le-Frith . 

Woodhead 

Bosley Minns 

„ Rehcrvoir .... 

Macclesfield 

„ ParkGreen 

BoUington 

Whaley 

Marple Aqueduct . . 

„ Top Lock . . 

Godley Reservoir . . 

Mottram 

Newton 

Arnfield 



m. 

42-88 
42-56 
4771 
54-56 

42-10 

3o'55 
34-09 

27-42 

28-21 

33'59 
27-11 
26-74 

28-53 
24-87 
19-50 
35-65 
28-02 
30-90 
25-17 
25-61 
24-48 
22-41 
20-87 

23"43 
21-66 
21-35 
24-12 
21-39 
22-16 
24-10 
22-67 
20-84 
24-64 
22-47 

22-74 

26-81 

26-93 

24-59 

49-62 
50-01 

41-95 
52-19 

32-85 
32-04 

34-54 
36-75 
37-46 
43-89 

34-81 

35-25 

33-98 

37-73 
31-63 

37-23 



Total Fall in 



1870. 



m. 

37-00 
29-43 
28-54 

39-73 
44-21 
23-16 

35-35 
21-41 

23-43 
19-15 
20-18 
26-20 
18-87 
20-23 
21-91 
21-48 
16-80 
31-26 
21-76 
24-17 
18-27 

19-33 
19-28 
17-12 
16-29 
25-26 
16-44 
18-42 
24-06 
20-10 
26-90 
2320 
23-67 
16-33 
21-58 
18-08 
17-02 
18-73 

2I-00 
19-07 
40-24 
47-58 
37-9° 
42-21 
26-49 

24-33 
23-83 
29-01 
26-80 
39-90 
30-01 
32-98 
30-04 
32-28 
30-30 
34-45 



1871. 



39-92 
39-85 
40-96 
49-12 

48-75 
30-16 
40-52 
26-31 
29-10 
27-96 
29-41 

33-77 
27-76 
31-25 
30-02 
26-06 
21-45 
36-00 
27-63 
30-99 
24-28 
26-10 

23-54 
22-19 

19-12 

23-15 

22-37 
23-05 
24-17 
22-68 
27-65 
25-66 
24-56 
19-02 
25-48 
25-31 
23-49 
28-70 
26-56 
27-15 
46-12 
45-14 
41-55 
40-93 
32-86 
29-82 
36-34 
32-82 
32-40 

38-54 
25-70 
27-74 

31-45 

34-20 
31-18 

33-88 



Ratio of Fall. 

(1860-69 = 100.) 



1870. 



90 
69 
67 

83 
81 

59 
84 

70 
69 
70 
72 

78 
70 
76 

77 
86 
86 
88 
78 
78 

73 
76 

79 
76 

78 

108 

76 

86 

100 

94 

121 

96 

104 
78 
87 
81 

75 
70 

78 
77 
81 

95 
90 
81 
81 
76 
69 

79 

72 

91 
86 

94 
88 
86 
96 
93 



1871. 



97 

93 

96 

103 

89 

77 
96 
86 

85 

102 
104 
100 
102 
117 
105 
105 
110 
101 

99 

100 

97 

102 

96 

99 
92 

99 
103 
108 
100 
106 
125 
107 
109 

91 

103 

113 
103 
107 

99 
110 

93 
90 

99 

78 
100 

93 
105 
89 
86 
88 
74 
79 
93 
91 
99 
91 



Mean 
Divi- 
sional 
Ratio. 



72 98 



77 loi 



86 101 



184 



REPORT — 1872. 
Table I. (continued'). 



DiTision. 



Station. 



VIII. 



IX. 



Mean, 
1860-69. 



XI. 



Ehodes Wood 

Woodhead 

Denton 

Gorton 

OldTrafford 

Ardwick 

Piccadilly 

Fairfield 

Waterhoiises 

Oldham Gas-Works... 

Strines Dale 

Bolton (The Folds) 

Belmont 

Heaton 

Eoohdale 

Ormskirk 

Preston 

Blackpool 

Stony liur.st 

Clitheroe 

Lancaster 

Cartmel 

Broomliall Park . . . 

Eedmires 

Tickhill 

Dunford Bridge . . . 

Saddleworth 

Standedge 

Longwood 

Warley Moor 

Well Head 

Midgeky Moor ... 

Overden Moor 

Leventhorpe 

Holbeck 

York 

Arncliffe 

Hull 

Malton 

Richmond 

Shotley Hall 

Bywell 

Wylam 

Wallsend 

Eosella Place 

Stamfordham 

Lilburn Tower 

Seathwaite 

Ullswater 

Bast^enthwaite ...[Hall 
Cockermoutb,Wliinfell 

Carlisle 

Kendal 

Appleby 

Cardifl' 

Rhayader 



in. 

46-32 
5183 
32-97 
33-71 

34'73 
32-60 
36-78 
40-90 
36-13 
37-12 
36-01 
48-98 
56-61 
44-21 
44-13 
35-co 
3830 
3299 
48-56 

4479 
43'94 
45-63 
31-28 

39-68 
23-99 
56-18 

41-97 
53-70 

34-01 
46-33 
33-31 
50-00 
46-09 
2326 
22-85 
24-48 
60-08 
25-C2 
27-46 
31-11 
28-49 
28-87 
26-90 
26-64 
26-07 
27-64 
28-66 
154-05 

59-91 

53-76 

57-37 
27-62 

53-32 

35-99 
42-02 
44-98 



Total Fall in 


Ratio of Fall. 


Mean 






(1860-69 = 100.) 


Divi- 
sional 










1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


Ratio. 


in. 


in. 








39-88 


38-99 


86 


84 




46-62 


43-73 


90 


84 




28-08 


29-16 


85 


89 




28-93 


29-58 


86 


88 




2955 


33-23 ■ 


85 


96 




3°*54 


33-64 


94 


103 




27-67 


29-18 


75 


79 




33-44 


36-30 


82 


89 




33-64 


36-91 


93 


102 




3^-49 


32-11 


87 


86 




31-35 


33-86 


87 


94 




43-47 


40-93 


89 


84 




52-80 


46-80 


93 


83 




41-10 


40-40 


93 


91 




35-18 


34-65 


80 


78 




29-84 


31-95 


85 


89 




34-17 


34-25 


89 


89 




31-41 


29-94 


95 


9' 




45-56 


43-91 


94 


91 




38-05 


38-25 


85 


86 




3967 


3959 


90 


90 




39-24 


42-41 


86 


93 


86 90 


26-01 


30-63 


83 


98 




33-46 


34-82 


84 


88 




20-68 


2644 


86 


110 




54-44 


46-93 


97 


84 




38-11 


37-73 


91 


90 




47-75 


42-25 


89 


79 




24-14, 


1 9-04 V 


71 9 


56? 




36-10 


3580 


' 78 


77 




29-59 


27-90 


89 


84 




42-30 


39-60 


85 


79 




35-30 


36-70 


77 


79 




21-99 


25-36 


94 


109 




20-50 


22-80 


90 


100 




24-37 


28-68 


100 


117 




50-14 


52-73 


83 


88 




25-81 


25-68 


103 


102 




26-32 


27-76 


96 


lOI 




25-95 


29-05 


83 


93 


88 91 


25-38 


26-96 


89 


94 




25-84 


33-53 


89 


116 




24-43 


26-69 


91 


99 




23-90 


25-87 


90 


97 




25-22 


26-18 


97 


100 


^ 


26-15 


26-51 


95 


96 




23-27 


25-44 


81 


89 




11960 


115-15 


78 


75 




50-70 


45-80 


85 


76 




48-97 


40-12 


91 


75 




48-86 


41-70 


85 


73 




20-50 


23-58 


74 


85 




43-09 


50-25 


81 


94 




27-31 


31-80 


76 


88 


86 90 


35-60 


41-16 


85 


98 




41-35 


43-93 


92 


98 





ON THE RAINFALL OF THE BRITISH ISLES, 



185 



Table I. (continued). 



Division. 



XI. 



XII. 



XIII. 



XIV. 



XV, 



station. 



Ha warden . . 
Holywell .. 
Llandudno 
Isle of Man 

Guernsey . . 
Alderney . . 



Mean, 
18GU-G9. 



XVI. 



Scotland. 
Mull of Galloway... 

Stranraer 

Corsewall 

Little Koss 

Cargen 

Dumfries 

Westerkirk 

Wanlockhead 

Kelso 

Bowhili 

Penicuick 

Lauder 

Dunse 

Haddington 

East Linton 

Cobbinshaw 

Inveresk 

Auchinraith 

Bothwell Castle 

Cessnock Park 

Glasgow Observatory.. 

Baillieston 

Shotts 

Ayr 

Largs 

Eyatt Lynn 

Waulk Glen 

Middleton 

Mearns 

Greenock 

Arddarocli 

Falkirk 

Stirling 

Pladda 

Castle Toward 

Lochgilphead 

Inverary 

Appiu 

Ardnamurcban 

Mull of Cantire 

Campbeltown 

Khinns of Islay 

Lismore 

Sound of Mull 

Hynish , 

Loch Leven 

Balfour 

Leven 



m. 

16-44 

24-43 

31-00 

30-61 

37-i8 

28-62 



27-66 
4960 
37-03 
26-98 

44-37 
37-05 
6009 
66-63 
24-66 

33'o3 
38-01 
29-98 
28-49 
25-63 
23-77 

37"4S 
29-02 

3''95 
28-89 
37-96 

44-41 
46-47 

33-45 
44-83 
48-92 
47-80 
49-S5 
5668 
50-14 
66-16 
78-32 
32-96 
41-30 
40-14 

54-55 
54-25 
67-37 

63-64 
45-59 
44" '7 
47-31 
33-43 
46-22 
72-16 

79'99 
35-78 
28-59 
28-99 



Total Fall in 



1870. 



m. 

23-29 

22-91 

27-43 

23-89 

2505 

21-05 



21-58 
62-25 
32-05 
22-95 

39-97 
28-32 
47-68 

49-31 
19-27 
25-06 
23-65 
22-40 
23-85 
19-33 
19-30 

23-50 
16-50 
21-76 
21-19 
26-62 

35-25 
36-17 

24-13 

33-22 
40-80 

33-75 

33-35 
40-25 
36-69 
47-00 

59-15 
21*50 
26-65 
27-63 
41-06 
50-26 
42-00 

53-30 
30-98 
3316 

38-32 
25-42 
31-67 
24-43 

59-53 
21-40 
23-41 
21-69 



1871. 



u\. 

28-22 

24-63 

30-56 

24-21 

36-26 

27-18 



24-22 
56-15 
34-88 
27-60 

44-54 
35-32 
52-20 
(59-74) 
25-47 
31-23 

34-3° 
31-60 
29-28 

25-42 
25-62 
36-40 
30-42 
32-02 
28-22 
34-00 
40-54 
45-69 

26-53 
40-17 
42-80 
46-60 
46-15 
50-70 
47-88 
62-31 
71-40 
32-20 
3S-10 
37-18 
48-10 
52-28 
41-50 
50-70 
37-61 

45-77 
45-00 
34-76 
35-78 
89-20 

57-38 
34-10 

34' 14 
30-94 



Ratio of Fall. 
(1860-69 = 100.) 



1870. 1871. 



88 

94 
89 

78 
68 

74 



78 
126 

87 

85 
90 

77 
79 
74 
78 
76 
62 

75 
84 
76 
81 
63 

57 
68 

73 
70 
80 
78 
72 
74 
83 
71 
67 

71 
73 
71 
75 
65 
65 
69 

75 
92 
62 

84 
68 

75 
81 
76 
68 
34 

75 
60 

82 

75 



107 
101 

99 
79 
98 

95 



113 

94 

102 

100 

95 

87 

(9°) 
103 

95 

90 

105 

103 

99 

108 

97 

105 

100 

98 

90 

91 
98 
79 
89 
88 

97 
93 
89 
95 
94 
91 
98 
92 

93 
88 
96 
62 
80 

83 
104 

95 

104 

77 
121 

72 

95 
119 
107 



Mean 
Divi- 
sional 
Eatio. 



84 97 



86 97 



72 100 



73 93 



71 90 



186 



REPOKT — 1872, 

Table I. (continued). 



Division. 



XVI. 



XVII. 



XVIII. 



XIX. 



Statioa. 



Mean, 
1860-69, 



XX. 



XXI. 



xxni. 



Aberfoyle 

Dunblane •• 

Dean^ton House ...•• 

Lanrick Castle ■• 

Bridge of Turk 

Auchtcrarder House- • 

Trinity Gask • 

Stronvar ■■ 

Perth Academy • • 

Scone Palace • • 

Barry • • 

Craigton •• 

Kettins ■ ■ 

Hill Head •• 

Arbroath • • 

Brechin 

Girdleness •■ 

Braemar ■• 

Aberdeen ■• 

Kinnairdhead • ■ 

Gordon Castle ■■ 

Stornoway 

Bemera •• 

Cromarty ■• 

Oronsay •• 

Kyleakin • • 

Kaasiiy 

Barraiiead 

S. Uist I 

Harris •••' 

Culloden House j 

Dunrobin Castle ' 

Cape Wrath 

Wick 

Pentland Skerries... 

Hoy. East 

Hoy, West 

Balfour Castle 

Sandwick 

fe'anda 

North Eonaldsay . . . 

Sumburghead 

Bressay, L. H 



Ireland. 



Cork 

Fermoy 

W^aterlord 

KiUaloe 

Portarlington 

TuUamore 

Bray 

Black Eock 

Enniskillen 

Armagh 

Belfast, Queen's Coll. . 



m. 

61-82 

36-17 

4399 
4S-i;i 

61-89 

34'3i 
35-32 

82-43 
23-58 
29-18 
29-73 
34-88 
33-17 

35-19 
29-05 

34-91 

22*72 
33-40 
29-43 
24-17 
2919 
31-79 
68-03 

25-94 
72-36 
82-07 
77-12 
31-73 
43-9' 
31-13 
27-08 
27-69 

3'/37 
24-70 
28-76 
39-01 
32-69 
32-41 
3!i-85 
31-37 
31-02 
26-45 
36-49 



34-77 



Total Fall in 



1870. 



m. 

40-60 

23-70 

30-22 

28-90 

46-10 

24-05 

24-59 

61-33 

i5'94 
21-39 
24-22 
29-65 
27-11 
29-48 
22-40 
28-70 
19-49 
30-38 
24-00 
30-28 
23-56 
24-22 
37-90 
16-28 

34-95 
49-07 

55-4" 
2562 
42-78 

33-51 
17-91 
26-76 
29-26 

22'c6 
19-64 
27-34 
17-63 
29-60 
30-72 
29-76 
14-40 
21-19 
24-48 



28-46 



1871. 



37-21 


2909 


40-67 


33-55 


47-65 


40-78 


36-86 


26-04 


27-94 


24-86 


41-82 


33-14 


27-10 


25-02 


44-37 


42-97 


32-01 


22-29 


34-23 


30-14 



m. 

60-60 

32-40 

41-81 

40-90 

64-10 

31-85 

34-69 

75-57 
21-35 
29-67 

33-64 
40-41 
33-62 

3915 
26-69 
33-20 
20-61 

30-35 
25-18 

34-65 
28-83 
27-81 
52-10 
20-87 
49-48 
61-70 
70-10 
3089 
37-86 
42-57 
20-76 

24-75 
33-12 
18-91 
21-36 
33-22 
18-53 
26-40 
32-17 
38-64 

17-04 
23-69 

33-84 



35-66 
35-56 
44-67 
40-70 
2S-51 
29-09 
33-25 
28-11 
46-29 
28-40 

31-91 



Ratio of Fall. 


Mean 


(1860-69=100.) 


Divi- 






sional 






1870. 


1871. 


Eatio. 


66 


98 




66 


90 




69 


95 




59 


84 




74 


104 




70 


93 




70 


98 




74 


92 




68 


91 




73 


102 




82 


113 




85 


116 




82 


101 




84 


111 




77 


92 


73 100 


82 


95 




86 


91 




91 


91 




82 


86 




125 


143 




81 


99 


91 lOI 


76 


87 




S6 


77 




63 


81 




48 


69 




60 


75 




71 


91 




81 


97 




97 


86 




107 


137 




66 


77 


73 88 


97 


89 




74 


84 




89 


77 




68 


74 




70 


85 




54 


57 




91 


81 




79 


83 




95 


123 




46 


55 




80 


90 




67 


93 


76 83 


82 


102 




78 


96 




83 


110 




85 


85 


82 98 


71 


77 




89 


104 




79 


79 




92 


104 


83 91 


97 


104 




70 


89 




88 


93 


85 95 



ON THE UAINFALL 01' TIIE BHITiSU ISLES. 



187 



Table II. — Mean and Extreme Eatios in each Division. 



Division. 


Description. 


It 

1- 


Eatio for 1870. 

1 


Eatio for 1871. 


Mean. : 


Highest. 


Lowest. 


Mean. 


Sighest. 


Lowest. 




England and Wales. 
















I. 
11. 


Middlesex 


I 

22 


83 

77 


83 
93 


83 
62 


97 
92 


97 
101 


97 
79 


South-Eastem Counties ... 


III. 


South Midland Counties ... 


17 


76 


88 


67 


90 


103 


81 


IV. 


Eastern Counties 


19 


82 


97 


66 


96 


no 


81 


V. 


South- Western Counties ... 


25 


72 


90 


58 


98 


120 


78 


VI. 


West Midland Counties ... 


13 


77 


88 


69 


lOI 


117 


85 


VII. 


North Midland Counties . . . 


24 


86 


121 


70 


lOI 


125 


78 


VIII. 


North- Western Counties ... 


34 


86 


96 


69 


90 


105 


74 


IX. 
X. 


Yorkshire 


18 
14 


88 
86 


103 
97 


71 
74 


91 

90 


117 
116 


56 

73 


Northern Counties 


XI. 


Monmouthshire, Wales, &c. 


8 


84 


94 


68 


97 


107 


79 


XTT 


Scotland. 
Southern Counties 


9 
8 


86 


126 


74 


97 


113 


87 


XIII. 


South-Eastern Counties ... 


72 


84 


57 


100 


108 


90 


XIV. 


South -Western Counties ... 


13 


73 


83 


67 


92 


100 


88 


XV. 


West Midland Counties . . . 


IS 


71 


92 


34 


90 


121 


62 


XVI. 


East Midland Counties ... 


18 


73 


85 


59 


100 


119 


84 


XVII. 


North-Eastern Counties . . . 


6 


91 


125 


81 


lOI 


143 


86 


XVIII. 


North-Western Counties ... 


10 


73 


107 


56 


1 88 

1 


137 


69 


XIX 


Northern Counties 


12 


76 

82 
83 
§5 


97 

85 
103 


46 


83 


123 


57 


XX. 
XXI 


Ireland. 


4 
3 


78 
71 


98 
91 


no 
104 


85 
77 




XXIII. 


Ulster 


97 


70 


95 


104 


89 






Mean 


t-H 


80 


97 


66 


95 


114 


79 




TVTflximinn 


3 



91 

71 


126 


83 

34 


lOI 


143 


97 






83 


83 


97 


56 





188 



BEPORT 1872. 



TABLES OF MONTHLY EAIN- 
ENGLAND. 



Division I. — Middlesex. 


Div. II.-S.E. Counties. 


Middlesex. 


Surrey. 


Height of 

Kain-gauge 

above 

Ground 

Sea-level 


Camden 
Square. 


Upper 
C'lajiton. 


Hampstead, 

Squire's 
Mount. 


Winchmore 
Hill. 


Dunsfold, 
Godalniing. 


Weybridge 
Heath. 


ft. 4 in. 
Ill ft. 


1 ft. 1 in. 
91ft. 


1 ft. in. 

385 ft. 


1 ft. in. 
350 ft. 


2 ft. 6 in. 
166 ft. 


ft. 6 in. 
150 ft. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


January 

February ... 

March 

April 


in. 
1-38 

1^2I 
2-31 

•47 
•70 

■S3 

1-22 
2-69 
2'00 
3-68 
176 

3'°7 


in. 
199 
r27 
I-I9 
2-84 
•92 

3-49 

4^12 

•8s 
5-28 

1^34 

•60 

1-13 


in. 
I '46 

1^02 

i'96 
•42 
•62 
•56 
•98 
2'63 
r98 

3 ■48 
1-52 
2-98 


in. 
r89 
1-32 
1-32 
2-79 

•65 
3^6o 
3-67 

•73 

5-22 
126 

■56 
I -06 


in. 
1-40 
i-i8 

209 

•53 

•85 

■77 

r52 

1-97 

2-15 

3'5o 
1-36 
2^8o 


in. 
1-79 

'■33 
ri2 
3-12 
1-09 

2-48 

3^9° 
•89 

483 

1-25 

•52 
i^i5 


in. 
i'46 
i'47 
1-76 

■43 

i^o6 

•86 

•63 

2-l8 

2^04 
4-00 

1-20 
299 


in. 
1-69 

'■S5 
^■53 
2-69 

■85 
2^50 

3-54 

•72 

4-98 

1-02 

•66 
1-44 


in. 
1-71 
2-70 
182 

•20 
r36 

•61 
3-01 
2-o8 
2^84 
3-66 

'■83 

2^82 


in. 

2-74 
1-43 
i'43 

3-39 
•29 

2-28 

3^73 
r36 

5'49 

1'20 
•43 

1-43 


in. 

1-54 

1-87 

2^23 

•32 

■75 

•59 

ro3 

2'19 

i^7i 
312 
124 
2^96 


in. 

2^22 

■97 
1-31 

3^78 

•36 

2^99 

3^66 

•97 
4-27 
III 

•37 

1-21 


May 


June 


Julv 


August 

September ... 

October 

November ... 
December ... 


Totals 


21-32 


25'02 


19-61 


24-07 


20'12 23-47 


20-08 


23^17 


24^64 


25'20 


i9^S5 


23-22 







Division II.- 


—South-Eastern Counties {continued) 


• 






Kent {continued). 


Sussex. 


Height of 

Eain-gauge 

above 

Ground 

Sea-level 


River Head, 
Sevenoalis. 


Acol, 
Margate. 


Sidcup, 
Foots Cray. 


Brighton, 
Lewes Road. 


West 
Thorney. 


Chichester 
Museum. 


1 ft. in. 


Ift.Oin. 
60 ft. 


ft. 8 in. 
231 ft. 


3 ft. 9 in. 
90 ft. 


ft. 8 in. 
10 ft. 


ft. 6 in. 
50 ft. 




1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


January 

February . . . 

March 

April 


in. 
2-43 
1-99 

2-II 
■39 

1-37 

■63 
1-39 
191 

2-21 
6-05 
2^09 
3-75 


iu. 
4' 10 
1-93 
1-76 
3-71 
-66 
2-8i 

3^37 
2^49 

4^7« 

r92 

•89 

2-17 


in. 

•92 

-32 

1-24 

-30 

i-ii 

1-31 

1-19 

116 

216 

3^i3 
r25 
2^29 


in. 
2-85 
•61 

I^OI 
2'06 

•69 
2-63 

2^05 
•93 

3-28 

ri4 

•68 

1-82 


in. 
1^09 
•86 
2-i6 

■33 

•67 

•46 

1-41 

1-67 

2^2 1 
3-07 
1-42 

3^28 


in. 

276 

I'OO 

i-ii 

2-86 

•79 
2-76 

3-3S 

I'OO 

5-02 
■99 
■49 

1^22 


in. 
1-79 
r87 
178 

■SI 
•90 
-29 
•76 

2-50 
3-02 

5^21 

2-70 
4-09 


in. 
2-98 
176 
I -02 

4^55 

-19 

4-03 

3^76 

1^55 
3-46 
1-69 

•77 
r56 


in. 

3^42 

2-57 

•30 

•00 

176 

■CO 

-98 

1-51 
1-51 
3-95 

2-14 

264 


in. 
4-05 
109 
•57 

2-20 

•57 
3-55 
4-48 

i'6o 

4^47 
1-76 

•35 
'■5° 


ill. 
169 
2^48 
1-43 

•17 
•90 

■24 
1-94 
213 
r6i 

4-38 

1-79 
2^6l 


in.. \ 
3-09 

■S3 

4^12 

•'5 
311 

3-98 
r4i ' 

4-51 
r32 

■94 
i^c6 


May 


June 


\July 


August 

September . . . 

October 

November ... 
December ... 


Totals 


26-32 


30-52 


16-38 


I9'7S 


18-63 


23-35 


25-42 


27-32 


20-58 


26-19 


21-37 


25-86 



ON THE RAINFALL OF THE BllITISH ISLES. 

FALL IN THE BRITISH ISLES. 

ENGLAND. 



189 







Division II.— 


-SotrXH-E.4.STERN CoUNTIES 


(conti 


nued). 






SuuREY {continued). 


Kent. 


Chobham. 


Kew 

Obserratorv. 


Kennington 
Eoad. 


Dover, 

Castle St. 


Hytlie. 


Linton, 
Maidstone. 


Falconhurst, 
Edenbridge. 


1ft. 


Sin. 


1 ft. 3 in. 


5 ft. 


Oin. 


2 ft. 2 in. 


Oft. 


6 in. 


ft. 6 in. 


1ft. 


Oin. 


93 ft. 


19 ft. 


19 ft. 


30 ft. 


12 


ft. 


296 ft. 


400 ft. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


\z6 


219 


1-23 


1-76 


I'OI 


1-54 


2-44 


3-32 


2-41 


3-13 


1-66 


3-50 


1-90 


3-73 


2"00 


■95 


1-27 


•99 


-50 


1-02 


45 


1-83 


•84 


223 


1-14 


1-07 


249 


I -80 


175 


116 


178 


•98 


1-84 


•89 


1-93 


1-42 


1-57 


1-84 


1-64 


1-44 


2-48 


1-80 


•4b 


3-39 


•40 


2^69 


•3« 


2-41 


■34 


4-59 


•43 


4-03 


•43 


2^8o 


•43 


360 


•90 


•29 


•82 


79 


■47 


i-io 


1-27 


•«3 


1-82 


1-03 


1-14 


1'20 


i-ji 


1-14 


•51 


3-51 


•56 


2-98 


j-oo 


3-76 


•32 


2-67 


•7' 


3''5 


-32 


2^92 


•49 


3'i5 


•55 


2-84 


•65 


3'i3 


i-S« 


4-05 


•72 


2-42 


1-31 


2-92 


1-95 


2^84 


2-59 


3-24 


177 


100 


2-02 


•95 


2'00 


-68 


1-31 


•88 


1-23 


-84 


2-c6 


1*09 


1-72 


1-63 


1-37 


373 


i'37 


4-42 


2^0O 


4-84 


1-71 


4-67 


2'39 


4-66 


2-08 


4-44 


2-8o 


4-07 


294 


1-19 


2-57 


10% 


3-16 


•82 


4-60 


1-40 


490 


1-77 


3-89 


1-44 


4-64 


.•58 


1-58 


*33 


i'36 


•51 


175 


•35 


3-96 


3-04 


3-53 


2-01 


1-70 


-76 


2-44 


-69 


248 


1-24 


2-6i 


I'I2 


2'17 


•86 


4-19 


3-20 


4-36 


2-83 


3-68 


1-62 


4-1 1 


1-99 


i7-57 


21-82 


16-64 


21-44 


17-86 


22-32 


23-24 


30-27 


25-50 


30-44 


21-69 


25-12 


27-20 


28-42 









Division II.- 


-South-Eastern Counties (continued) 








Sussex (continued). 


Hampshire. 


Bleak House, 

Hastings. 


Dale Park, 
Arundel. 


Bat 


tie. 


C'bilgrove, 
Cbicliester. 


Balcomb 

Place, 
Cuckfield. 


Petworth 
Eectory. 


St. Lawrence, 
Isle of Wight. 


1 ft. 


3 in. 


3 ft. 5 in. 


1ft. 


Sin. 


ft. 6 in. 


1 ft. 3 in. 


2 ft. in. 


1 ft. in. 


77 ft. 


316 ft. 






284 ft. 


300 ft. 


190 ft. 


75 ft. 





1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


2-S2 


2-07 


2-52 


2-85 


2-55 


2-62 


2-40 


3'53 


2-17 


4-33 


1-85 


3-21 


183 


3^.8 


I 02 


1-48 


2-40 


1-84 


1-39 


1-46 


3-38 


1-94 


2-44 


2-31 


3-66 


1-8, 


2-20 


1-35 


i'97 


1-32 


1-88 


1-28 


1-96 


1-62 


2-o8 


1-47 


2-o6 


1-74 


2-21 


1-92 


1-79 


•96 


•32 


3'96 


■10 


5-02 


■41 


4-76 


•21 


4-78 


•30 


4-10 


•23 


3-60 


•33 


3-53 


1-20 


-90 


1^30 


-82 


1-98 


1-12 


1-44 


•61 


I'lO 


79 


1-88 


-28 


1-23 


•06 


•43 


151 


■32 


4-37 


-66 


2^45 


•44 


3-84 


•28 


2-64 


•56 


2-39 


•-'•r 


2-C2 


•89 


2-68 


3-44 


4-50 


1-39 


3-09 


r62 


5-31 


2^23 


315 


2-34 


4'34 


i-6o 


4-14 


>75 


-9b 


2-63 


1-50 


2-c8 


I -20 


[5-66 


.76 


2-70 


1-93 


i-So 


1-36 


1-24 


1-46 


2-39 


3-66 


2-21 


3-70 


3-55 


3-96 


5-08 


2-87 


4-18 


2-36 


4-82 


1-59 


5-70 


4-96 


1-42 


5-77 


1-84 


5-24 


143 


4-81 


,-76 


5-06 


1-25 


5-64 


1-53 


4-59 


2-09 


273 


•5b 


2-53 


•85 


2-81 


•5« 


1-96 


•85 


2-32 


-81 


2-IO 


-48 


228 


■47 


2-85 


1^57 


2-30 


1-30 


4-43 


1-87 


3-57 


2-26 


4-02 


2-o6 


3-iS 


1-82 


3-06 


1-17 


23-03 


22-09 


27-40 


29-87 


28-45 


26-16 


27-57 


33-19 


27-55 


29-29 


27-81 


27-60 


21-99 2613 



190 



REPORT 1872. 

EA^GLAND. 





■V 


Division II. 


Sou 


EH-EASTEfiN Counties (continued). 






Hampshire {continued). 1 


Height of 

Rain-gauge 

above 

Ground 

Sea-level 


Eyde, 
Isle of Wight. 


Osborne, 

Isle of Wight. 


Fareham. 


Shirley 

Warren, 

Southampton. 


Selborne. 


Liss, 
Petersfleld. 


7 ft. in. 
20 ft. 


ft. 8 in. 
172 ft. 


10 ft. in. 
36 ft. 


4 ft. in, 
106 ft. 


4 ft. Oin. 
400 ft. 


ft. 7 in. 
250 ft. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


Janixary 

February . . . 

Marcli 

April 


in. 
i^8i 

2-94 

1-23 

•21 

1-42 

•19 

1-27 

1-94 

r68 
4^46 
2^83 
3'>5 


in. 

325 
r46 
1-30 
4.-C9 

•19 
2^6S 

4-13 
r8o 
631 
r89 
■49 
1-55 


in. 

1-81 

2-32 

1-58 

■28 

1-42 

•j8 

•72 

2-09 

1-93 
4-46 

J-95 
3-22 


in. 

3-30 

1-53 

1-24 

4-12 

•35 
2-48 
4-07 
1-44 
6-12 
1-92 

•49 

2-20 


in. 
2-73 

2-43 

r8o 

•19 

177 

■17 

•66 

2-42 

r^^ 

4-37 
2^24 

4-02 


in. 
260 

i-iS 
r23 

3-98 

•50 
3-05 
4-53 

4"93 
1-79 

I^32 

1-84 


in. 
263 
2-38 
,•84 

■44 
1-39 

•38 
1-37 
1-82 

2-45 
3-88 

2^04 
^•S5 


in. 

2-12 
1-28 

1-48 

4-04 

•27 

2^98 

4-53 
1-44 

6-i6 

2'00 

•82 

2-13 


in. 

2-00 

3-95 
2'67 

•35 
1-95 

•5^ 

■49 
r66 

2-39 
4-8 5 

2'77 
3-29 


in. 

3-12 

177 
2^04 

4-55 
•20 

377 
4'43 
2^30 
6-43 
1-85 

•57 
2-40 


in. 
2-58 
4-08 
2^86 
•36 

177 
•40 

•35 
2-49 
1-31 
S'72 
2-66 

3 '47 


in. 
2^41 
2-o8 
3^24 
4-87 

"22 

2-86 

S"4i 
1-89 
6-56 
2-02 

■55 
2-61 


May 




July 


August 

September ... 

October 

November ... 
December ... 


Totals 


23-13 


29-14 


21-96 


29'26 


24-52 29^07 


23-47 


29-25 


26-89 


33-43 


28^05 


34-72 



Division III. — South Midl.\nc Counties {continued). 


BUCKIXGIIA.MSIIIRE. 


Northampton. 


Bedford. 


Cambridge. 

1 


Height of 

Rain-gauge 

above 

Grovuid 

Sea-level 


HighWycomb. 


Althorpe 
House. 


Welling- 
borough. 


' Cardington. 


1 

Wisbech. 


Outwell 

Sluice. 


ft, 9 in. 
22o ft. 


3 ft. 4 in. 
310 ft. 


ft, 3 in. 


ft. in. 
106 ft. 


ft. 6 in. 
10 ft. 


4 ft. in. 
16 ft. 




1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 

in. 
•97 

l^OI 

I-C9 

75 
•69 

2'47 
2^04 
1"46 
i'96 
3^28 
1-38 
3'39 


1871. 


1870. 


1871; 


January 

February . . . 

March 

April 


in. 
1-50 

2-22 

1-71 

•29 

■93 

■43 

•86 
1-87 
2-17 

3-°3 
1-23 

2-57 


in. 
1-50 
i-io 
IT3 
2^94 

•28 
2^50 
2-72 

-81 
5-IO 
1-03 

•62 

I^2I 


in. 
r24 
1-84 
•96 

•S3 
•63 
■81 
.■65 
2-17 
i-io 
3-14 

I-2T 

1 1-87 


in. 
1-14 
1-09 

1-19 
2^44 
•64 
3-94 
4-17 

79 
4-04 

I^2S 

•82 
•89 


in. 
112 

1-27 

I'OO 

•63 

•65 
•90 

2-17 
2-16 
•S3 
3-07 
1-09 
2-32 


in. 
101 
I-.5 
i'3i 

2-45 

■54 
3-17 
3^8o 

•51 

3^47 
•97 
•Si 
•88 


ill. 

•70 

1-05 

vdo 

•50 

•65 

I'OO 

i'6o 

; 1-50 

•80 

2-62 

1 I'CO 

1 .-85 


in. 
•90 
110 

J-3I 

2 -co 

1'20 
3-25 
3-25 

•60 
4-90 

-84 
I'OO 

•85 


in. 

•87 
2^07 
ri5 
3-07 

•74 
4-1 1 
3-52 
5-35 
3-92 
1-35 
1-59 
1-28 


in. 

1-27 

•47 
•69 
•54 
•43 
1^90 

3-29 
I -41 
115 

2-37 
•86 

2-23 


in. 
•46 
1-39 

•52 
2-86 

■73 
4-00 
1-89 

■47 
3-21 

1-C4 

1-13 

-67 


May 


June 


July 


August 

September . . . 
October 

November ... 
December ... 


Totals 


18-81 


20^94 


lyai 


22-43 


17-21 


20" 1 7 


15'87 


21*20 


20^49 


24-82 1 i6^6i 


18-37! 








^'1 



0\ THE RAINFALT, OF THE nUlTlSH ISLES. 

EA'GLAIsD. 



191 



Division II. — Souxn- 












Eastern Cofnties 




Division III. — South Midland Cottnties. 






{continued). 












■.IPSIIIRE 


Berkshire. 




Hertfordshire. 


Oxfordshire. 




ifinucd). 














Aldershot. 


Long 

Wittenliam. 

• 


Berkhamp- 

stead. 


Eoyston. 


Hitcliin. 


Ptadcliffe 

Observatory, 

Oxford. 


Banbury. 




6 ft. in. 


1 ft. in. 


1 ft. 6 in. 


ft. 6 in. 


1 ft. 4 in. 


ft. 8 in. 


7 ft. in. 




316 ft. 


170 ft. 


370 ft. 


266 ft. 


238 ft. 


207 ft. 


350 ft. 




1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 




in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 




175 


2-17 


1-30 


1-47 


i'6o 


i^8o 


■82 


■67 


1-17 


rij 


1-16 


i-ii 


1-33 


1-13 




2-5« 


1-33 


1-82 


ri6 


2-82 


i'55 


I ■CO 


1-30 


1-36 


I'ZO 


i'9i 


■97 


2-44 


1-20 




3-« 


1-38 


1-47 


r26 


■2.-00 


i^6i 


2^00 


1-32 


1-S2 


1-40 


rb, 


-95 


1-49 


i"33 




•;+ 


3-i8 


■63 


2-05 


•47 


2-89 


•38 


2-i8 


•43 


2-14 


-53 


2'6l 


•66 


2^65 




i-s 


•5^ 


■95 


■76 


rij 


I'12 


•74 


-97 


•«5 


-92 


1^03 


-43 


1-17 


-98 




•55 


3-66 


■50 


2^6l 


•8X 


3-45 


1-17 


2^92 


79 


2-43 


•66 


3-17 


•75 


3-99 




•53 


3-51 


•73 


4^i8 


r66 


3-32 


1-48 


2'IO 


I '20 


3-b7 


■89 


3-78 


1^09 


4-07 




1-58 


1-67 


3'oo 


•50 


3'°' 


■84 


1-58 


-43 


K23 


•62 


2-35 


•50 


173 


75 




2'IZ 


4' 14 


•77 


4^26 


2'2I 


5-28 


1-50 


4-90 


1-55 


4-40 


1-32 


4-66 


1-33 


5-41 




3-68 


1-74 


2-95 


r36 


4-5« 


ri4 


2-73 


•52 


3-47 


•81 


2^91 


1-19 


3-84 


1-20 




rS!o 


■49! 


I-I4 


•48 


rSb 


-76 


i-°5 


•88 


1-29 


-93 


1-15 


•70 


1^90 


-So 




3-i8 


i-8ol 


1-62 


1-43 


3'o6 


i-6o 


2-71 


•88 


2^6o 


1-15 


2-00 


1-07 


2-20 


1-29 




Z2-94 


25-59 


16-88 


21'52 


25-02 


25-36 


I7^i6 


19-07 


17-76 


20-84 


17-56 


21-14 


19-93 


24-80 






Division I 


V. — Eastern Counties. 








Essex. 


Suffolk. 




he Hemnalls, 


Dorwarcl's 


Dunmow. 


Booking, 


Ashdou 




Culford, 




Epping. 


Hall, Witham. 


Braintree. 


Eectory. 


Grundisburgh. 


Bury St. 
Edmund's. 




fi ft 8 in. 


1 ft. 6 in. 


ft. in. 


3 ft. 6 in. 


1 ft. in. 


3 ft. 6 in. 


1 ft. 2 in. 




■Mo ft. 


.>20ft. 


234 ft. 


200 ft. 


300 ft. 














1871). 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 




in. 


in. 


in. 


■ in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 




rbs 


1-78 


rS2 


'•59 


-98 


1-40 


1-07 


1^72 


■85 


•74 


i-oi 


1-22 


•8q 


i-o8 




1-24 


170 


•97 


r29 


■75 


'•53 


•83 


1-76 


1-87 


1-77 


•76 


2-II 


•78 


2*07 




'•59 


i-6i 


1-83 


1^40 


1-68 


I -20 


2-13 


ITI 


1-78 


I'lO 


1-96 


•97 


1-87 


1-47 




•30 


2-75 


•48 


2'94 


-40 


2-6o 


■33 


2^65 


-52 


2-37 


-61 


3-6i 


78 


3-70; 




I"22 


•72 


■5b 


I'H 


■ii3 


ro7 


■90 


-47 


■49 


-68 


75 


-59 


-36 


r63l 




•63 


3-50 


■28 


2-26 


•49 


2'34 


-61 


2-54 


■90 


2-89 { 


-42 


2-5' 


•98 


3-301 




•88 


267 


ri5 


2-68 


■99 


2^90 


133 


3-15 


1-22 


3-53 


1-36 


2-77 


2-00 


2-93 i 




1-66 


•83 


2-75 


■99 


1-68 


•h5 


2^17 


■92 


1-70 


•53 


1-76 


-65 


1-77 


•29 




2-54 


4-60 


1-93 


3-6. 


2-3I 


4^42 


1-55 


4-53 


1-39 


4-47 


1-49 


3-74 


1-58 


4-40 1 




s-^s 


116 


2-94 


•9R 


2^8o 


r26 


3-47 


1-28 


2-75 


1-24 


3-16 


■63 


3-°3 


1-40 




'■34 


•bj 


r3o 


•25 


l^CO 


76 


•83 


•89 


-90 


•81 


•63 


1-85 


-89 


1-52 




3-12 


1-82 


2-7b 


1^64 


3^20 


i'53 


377 


1-71 


2-90 


1*33 


3-71 


i-o6 


4^oi 


•99 




9-82 


2379 


1877 


20-77 


I7-II 


21-66 


18-99 


■22-73 


17-27 


2 1 -46 


17-62 


21^7I 


18-94 


24-78 





192 



REPORT 1872. 

EJs^GLAND. 



Division IV. — Eastern Counties {continued). 


Division V. — 
Sottth-Westeen 

Counties. 


Norfolk. 


Wilts. 


Height of 

Rain-gauge 

above 

Ground 

Sea-level 


Geldeston, 
Beccles. 


Cossey, 
Norwich. 


Egmere, 
Fakenham. 


Holkham. 


Wilton, 

Salisbury. 

• 


Marlborough 
College. 


1 ft. in. 
40 ft. 


1 ft. in. 


4 ft. 8 in. 
l.JOft. 


ft. in. 
39 ft. 


ft. 5 in. 
100 ft. 


ft. in. 1 
456 ft. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


January 

February . . . 

March 

April 


in. 

ro8 

•6i 

1-48 

•61 

75 
I -08 
2-35 

2-l6 

1-35 

3-08 

77 
3-95 


in. 

•95 
159 
i'09 
3"i3 
J '47 
2-55 
r8o 

•91 
4-04 

I'I2 

2-50 

1-03 


in. 

1-21 

•80 

1-54 
•88 
•61 

I-I2 
1-91 
218 
161 
3-85 

I "43 
4"i5 


in. 

73 
1-88 

-96 
3-12 
1-03 
3-50 
2-79 

•62 
3-9J 
1-65 

2-55 
1-28 


in. 

1-26 

■84 

1-96 

•91 

•66 

I -90 

2-03 

273 

i'33 

4^1 

1-90 

479 


in. 

■43 
1-63 

•91 
2-99 
1-36 
3-30 
3-13 

4-56 
171 
2-26 
1-68 


•80 

l^OO 

1-63 

■95 
1-65 

1-36 

2^20 
1-05 
3-60 

1-95 

4-10 


in. 

"5° 
i-So 

•68 
3-05 

2-^3 

3-IO 

•60 

4'4S 
1-70 

1-95 

I-I2 


in. 
2-35 
3-40 
1-89 

■44 
1-21 

-40 
1-32 
1-98 

r?9 

5-62 
2-70 
2'S5 


in. 
2-89 
1-81 
i-6i 
4-58 
-72 
1-98 

4-93 
2-04 

474 

2-77 

•67 

2-92 


in. 
1-87 
2-48 
2-o6 

■54 

2-14 

•35 
1-73 

1-26 

4-54 

2-02 
2-51 


in. 
2-92 
1-50 
1-35 
3-83 
1-17 
2-9S 

4'33 
1-16 
6-22 
1-86 
•66 
248 


May 


June 


July 


August 

September ... 

October 

November ... 
December ... 


Totals 


19-27 


22-l8 


21-29 


24-02 


24-41 


24'47 


20-74 


22-28 


25-25 


31-66 


23-41 


30-46 , 







Division 


7. — South- Western Counties ( 


continued). 






Devonshire {conibuicd). 


Height of 

Rain-gauge 

above 

Ground 

Sea-level 


Landscore, 
Teignmouth. 


Broadliem- 

bury, 
Honiton. 


Cove, 
Tiverton. 


Castle Hill, 
S. Molton. 


Great 
Torrington. 


Barnstaple. 


ft. 6 in. 
200 ft. 


1 ft. 6 in. 
400 ft. 


ft. 4 in. 
? 400 ft. 


3 ft. .5 in. 
? 200 ft. 


1 ft. 1 in. 
323 ft. 


ft. G in. 
31ft. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


January 

February . . . 

March 

iV-pril 


in. 

2-06 

3"i2 

2-53 

•35 

I '43 

•10 

•84 

•65 

1-39 

3-25 

2-48 

3-42 


in. 
2-69 
2-39 
2-88 
4-71 
•31 
1-87 
379 
i"4i 
7-07 
3-32 

3 '44 
2*69 


in. 
2-08 
2-74 

•56 

1-27 

•18 
•64 
1-05 
i-8o 
5-08 
2-71 
2-46 


in. 
296 
1-96 
I 06 
5"09 
•55 
2-93 
4-98 

i'53 
5-32 
3-69 
1-50 

2^8l 


in. 
2-92 

3'29 

2-47 

•21 

2'39 
-28 

■47 
1-62 
2-05 
8-60 
3-28 
2-31 


in. 
4-40 
2-53 
1-76 
4-36 

•34 
2-64 

477 
113 
6-49 

485 
2-14 

4'3« 


in. 
2-99 

2-4.8 

1-62 

■49 
2-36 
1-49 

2-00 

2*44 
2-59 
9-71 
2-43 
2-52 


in. 
4-20 
308 

2'20 
3-60 

■33 
2-II 

6-31 

I -00 

4*55 
4-14 
2-42 
2-86 


in. 
2-96 
1-85 

'•95 
-22 

2-16 
•64 

III 

1-59 

2-23 
903 
4-30 
1-96 


in. 
2-93 
2-85 
2-20 
3-66 

•73 
295 
485 
1-42 
5-09 
626 
1-51 
3-34 


in. 
3-19 
1-89 
1*74 

•58 
1-63 

•92 
ri7 

1-35 

2-04 
8^50 
3"36 
2-42 


in. 

3-78 
2-68 

174 
3-83 
•96 
243 
6-OI 
175 
4-37 

6-12 

1791 

2-54 1 


May 


June 


July 


August 

September . . . 

October 

November ... 
December ... 


Totals 


21-62 


36-57 


22-48 


34-38 


29-89 


3972 


33-12 


36-80 


30-00 


3779 


28-79 


38-00 



ON THE RAINFALL OF THE BRITISH ISLES, 

■ ENGLAND. 



193 







Division V. — Souin-WESTEKN Counties (continued). 








Wilts 

( contimicd). 




Dorset. 


1 


Devonshire. 












I 








' 


Chippenham, 

Tyt lerton. 


Blandford. 


Dorchester. 


Bridport. 

1 


Saltrani 
Gardens. 


Totness. 


Dartmoor 

Eeserroir. 




1 ft. 2 in. 


1 ft. in. 


ft. (i in. 


ft. 8 in. 


ft. 3 in. 


1 ft. in. 


Oft. . 


2 in. 1 




150 ft. 




250 ft. 


60 ft. 


95 ft. 


120 ft. 


1400 ft. 








1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


_1871. 


1870. 


1871. 




in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 1 in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 




1-8S 


1-84 


1-75 


3-07 


2-41 


3-99 


174 


2*99 i 


3-9° 


4-10 j 390 


4-63 


5-47 


5-37 




1-57 


i'o6 


4-05 2-02 


2-90 


2-04 


2-23 


2-26 


3-90 


278 


4-57 


3-35 


5-67 


623 




1-31 


1-17 


177 2-90 


2'o6 


2-58 


1-93 


177 > 


3-00 


2-20 


3-31 


2-46 


5-09 


3-04 




•45 


3'23 


•29 


4-81 


■5« 


5-86 


•53 


4'96, 


•50 


6-35 


•34 


5-56 


■77 


9-99 




I "44 


141 


1'2I 


•84 


1-67 


1-15 


1-44 


•99, 


184 


-i8 


2-40 


■27 


3-76 


-54 




■50 


3-26 


•35 


296 


•40 


3-17 


76 


2-04 , 


■25 


2-1 1 


•25 


2-6S 


1-07 


4-43 




•92 


4-06 


129 


4'37 


•85 


4-11 


•66 


3-96 


i'35 


6-86 


1-20 


6-07 


2-77 


11-47 




172 


1-26 


2-13 


1-69 


i-6o 


1-91 


•82 


-80' 


3-05 


2-50 


1-44 


1-64 


2-s8 


3-i6 




ri7 


5-68 


1-33 


4-63 


i'96 


5-60 


•99 


4-50 


2-00 


4-44 


2-10 


8-62 


2-79 


8-i8 




3-52 


1-37 


5'3i 


2-89 


4-55 


5-09 


3-52 


2-75 


4-15 


911 


636 


5-50 


9-27 


8-o8 




1-62 


■59 


2'6o 


1-46 


2'42 


2-02 


1-86 


1-29 


4-20 


1-55 


339 


2-39 


3-94 


193 




2-OI 


2-00 


3'03 


2'59 


4-26 


2-97 


3-84 


2-53 


3-17 


4-70 


3-71 


5-27 


3-77 


696 


— 


18-14 


2693 


25'I1 


34'23 


25-66 


40-49 


20-32 


30-84 


31-31 


46-88 


32-97 


48-41 


46-95 


69-38 


• 




Divisio 


u V. — South 


-Western Counties {continued). 








Cornwall. 




Helstone. 


Penzance. 


Tehidy Park, 
Eedruth. 


Truro, Royal 
Institution. 


Bodmin, 

Castle Street. 


Treharrock 

House, 
Wadebridge. 


Altamum 




5 ft. in. 


3 ft. in. 


ft. 6 in. 


40 ft. in. 


2 ft. 6 in. 


2 ft. 9 in. 


Oft. 


10 in. 




116 ft, 


94 ft. 


100 ft. 


C6 ft. 


338 ft. 


303 ft. 


670 ft. 




1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 




in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


1 


2-46 


4-95 


277 


5-96 


4-85 


3-30 


3-19 


4-29 


4-16 


4-82 


3-i8 


2-08 


5-19 


5-64 


1 


277 


1-67 


3-53 


2-24 


4-50 


310 


3-6i 


2-19 


5-37 


3-66 


2-73 


1-53 


644 


4-13 




276 


1-14 


3-31 


1-53 


3-50 


1-00 


2-45 


i'57 


2-79 


1-80 


2-02 


i-i 1 


3-8. 


2-99 




•20 


4-87 


•10 


4'47 


J -45 


3-80 


•18 


4-14 


-301 5-64 


-22 


3-56 


•33 


6 42 




1-44 


•90 


172 


•37 


•32 


1-60 


1-72 


•55 


2-67 


-40 


1-66 


■51 


377 


•71 




•66 


1-25 


•43 


1-20 


■50 


1-90 


-32 


119 


•89 


2-67 1 -20 


-81 


•53 


3-17 




191 


5-25 


176 


5'34 


i-oo 


5«5 


1-49 


5-24 


2-10 


5-671 I-2S 


4-77 


2-o8 


7-07 




212 


1-35 


2-00 


1-94 


4-30 


2-37 


2-25 


1-8, 


3'94 


2-50 1 1-41 


1-20 


3-47 


2-64 




123 


8-27 


1-69 


7-96 


2-00 


6-00 


1-49 


8-50 


2-14 


8-25, r68 


5-94 


2-57 


7-84 




478 


5-38 


602 


636 


6-II 


4-90 


579 


5-19 


7-56 


7-39 4-11 


524 


10-55 


8-56 




469 


3-41 


5-II 


315 


4-87 


3-30 


4'i3 


2-28 


4-23 


1-77; 2"S^ 


1-16 


5-21 


1-94 




2-64 


316 


3-21 


4-19 


3-6o 


3-50 


2-81 


2-86 


3-5S 


4-49; 2-' 5 


2-25 


3-84 


5-13 


1 


2766 


4i'6o 


3165 4471 


37-00 


39-92 


29-43 


39-85 


39-73 


49-12 


23-16 30-16 


47'79 


56-24 


187 


2. 




















P 







194^ 



REPORT — 1872. 



England; 



Division Y. — Sotjth-Westerjt Cotjuties {continued). 


Di^-ision YI. — West 
Midland Coxtnties. 


Somerset. 


Gloucester. 


Height of 

Eain-gauge 

above 

Ground 

Sea-level 


Fulland's 

School, 

Taunton. 


Ilchester. 


Sherborne 

Reservoir, 

East Harptree. 


Batheaston 
Reservoir. 


Clifton. 


Cirencester. 


ft. 5 in. 

1 ft. G in. 


2 ft. in. 
40 ft. 


1 ft. in. 
338 ft. 


2 ft. in. 
226 ft. 


ft. 6 in. 
192 ft. 


1 ft. 2 in. 
420 ft. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. j 


January 

February . . . 

March 

A]3ril 


in. 
1-44 
1-95 
1-41 

•45 
i-o8 

•78 

■19 
2-42 
1-17 
3-90 
3-02 
162 


in. 
279 

I '22 

1-55 
3-24 

■75 
1-93 

2-99 

1-33 
2-65 
2-95 
1-35 

2-15 


in. 
1-85 

2'09 

106 

•41 

70 

I 06 

276 

1-67 

1-37 
4'oi 
2-68 
2-09 


in. 

3-19 

1-45 
I -40 

4-34 
■80 

'■34 
452 

2-12 

4-94 

2-68 
■98 

2-54 


in. 

4'39 
2-88 
2-6o 

•87 

277 

•87 

2-21 
1-98 
1-52 
964 

2-95 

2-67 


in. 
296 
2-58 
259 

5-59 
I -02 

2-48 

6-21 

2-15 

5-67 

3-54 
1-48 

4-25 


in. 
1-85 
1-65 
1-13 

•50 

1-70 

■70 

-87 

•95 
-80 

4'45 
1-75 
1-50 


in. 
1-90 

1-20 

1-20 
2-65 

l-lo 

2-40 

4-70 

-80 

4-65 

1-65 

-62 

2-20 


in. 
2-48 
1-40 
1-58 

•57 
i'54 

-62 

1-47 

2'00 
1-77 

5-33 
2-74 
1-93 


in. 

2-12 
1-56 
1-49 
3-76 
1-21 

1-45 
5-11 
1-86 
5-24 
2-43 
-63 
2-24 


in. 
2-45 
1-80 
176 
•68 
1-80 

•75 
1-81 

2-74 

1-22 

4-54 
2-26 
2-20 


in. 
1-86 
1-72 
1-65 
3-65 
1-70 
3-00 

4-31 
278 
6-70 
2-30 
•40 
2-33 


May 


June 


July 


August 

September ... 

October 

November ... 
December ... 


Totals 


i9'43 ! 24'90 


2175 


33-30 


35-35 


40-52 17-85 


25-07 


23-43 


29-10 


24'0I 


32-40 ^ 



Division YI. — West jMidl.\nd Couxties 
{continued). 


Division YII. — North Midland 
Counties. 


Worcester {coyitmued). 


Warwick. 


Leicester. 


Height of 

Rain gauge 

above 

Ground 

Sea-level 


Orleton, 
Tenbury. 


'Arden Hou.se, 

Henley-iu- 

Arden. 


Birmingham. 


Wigs ton. 


Thornton 
Reservoir. 


Belvoir Castle. 


ft. 9 in. 
200 ft. ? 


2 ft. in. 
; 400 ft. ? 


ft. 10 in. 
340 ft. 


ft. 9 in. 
220 ft. 


2 ft. 8 in. 
420 ft. 


1 ft. in. 
237 ft. 


1870. 


1871. 

in. 
2-82 
1-93 
1-76 
2-84 
■97 
3-45 
3-48 

i-29 

7-25 

2-93 

•80 

I '47 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


January 

February ... 

March 

April 


in. 
2-33 

2-50 
1-S6 

•79 
1-40 

-61 
1-68 
2-09 

t-25 

4-87 
2-78 

2-01 


in. 
1-27 

1-53 

I '47 

•71 

•97 

•88 

1-18 

1-86 

1-33 
3-66 

2-12 
2-16 


in. 
1-40 

1-43 

•98 

3-17 

261 

4-30 
5-i8 

•97 
575 
1-17 

-89 
1-49 


in. 
2-29 
2-30 
1-66 

■9> 

1-30 

•78 
1-27 
1-72 

•80 

6-22 

2-20 
2-2C 


in. 
1-49 

1-73 
1-24 

3-85 
216 

3-00 

4-55 
2-18 
6-OI 
i-g6 

•S3 
1-62 

30-62 


in. 

1-63 
1-64 

i-io 

•55 
•71 
-60 

i-co 

1-89 

i-6o 

3^45 
1-38 
2-72 


in. 
■96 
1-29 

•94 
276 
1-34 
3-87 
4-28 

•88 
4^57 

1-12 
I -04 
1-23 


in. 
1-67 
'•47 
'•55 
•49 
•80 
l-c6 
]-i6 
r6i 
I-I7 

4^37 
1-65 
2-33 


in. 
1^07 

1-28 

•87 
2-86 
2^07 
3-7S 

A-22 
•69 

5-47 

i-6i 

I^IO 

I -08 


in. 
1-62 
2-13 
1-51 

-89 
•62 

•97 
1-03 
1-14 

■54 
3-84 
158 
3^4i 


in. 
1-27 
115 
1-04 
2-93 
1-14 

2-87 ; 

4-29 ! 

-56 1 

4^67 1 
1-24 I 
1-50 1 

-88 1 


May 

June 


July 


August 

September . . . 

October 

November ... 
December ... 


Totals 


24-17 


30-99 


19-14 


29-34 


23-65 


18-27 


24-28 


19^33 


26^10 


19-28 


^3-54 



ON THE RAINFALL OF THE BRITISH ISLE.S, 

ENGLAND. 



19: 





Drasion VI. — Wesx Midland CotrNxrES 


{continued). 






Gl.OCCESTER 


Hereford. 


Shropshire. 






Worcester. 




(continued). 


















Quedgeley. 


Stretton 
Rectory, 
Hereford. 


Hauglitou 
Hall, 

Shifnall. 


Hengoed, 
Oswestry. 


Northwick 
Park. 


West Malvern. 


Bromsgrove. 


ft. 10 in. 


1 ft. in. 


3 ft. .5 in. 


6 ft. in. 


1ft. 


6 in. 


1ft. 


6 in. 


4 ft. 4 in. 


50 ft. 


198 ft. 


355 ft. 


470 ft. 






850 ft. 


273 ft. 





1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


173 


1-44 


i-6o 


2-53 


1-50 


1-78 


3-33 


2-71 


1-67 


2-05 


1-65 


2-51 


^•3« 


1-27 


1-28 


170 


206 


1-35 


1-76 


1-62 


2-63 


3-60 


-81 


1-18 


2-48 


i-o6 


1-98 


1-77 


'•57 


1-50 


I-S7 


1-28 


1-54 


-84 


3-28 


2-14 


1-77 


1-31 


1-69 


1-51 


1-49 


i-oi 


•75 


2-8o 


•56 


2-12 


1-09 


2-92 


1-05 


2-75 


•95 


3-33 


-66 


3-70 


•88 


2-12 


1-44 


1-30 


I 08 


■95 


-76 


i-i8 


2-31 


i-8o 


1-31 


•74 


-92 


i-ii 


-90 


1-95 


•68 


273 


■21 


372 


■54 


2-31 


•54 


3-201 


■74 


3-34 


I-07 


b-33 


•99 


2-88 


1-30 


4-34 


I -02 


3-14 


1-04 


3-46 


-52 


4-67 


1-24 


3-41 


1-13 


3-50 


1-58 


4' 30 


I-I3 


142 


■40 


177 


2-92 


1-49 


1-70 


1-94 


3-00 


1-64 


1-74 


1-66 


2-40 


•68 


I 62 


S-5^ 


•86 


6-43 


-70 


5-27 


1-93 


5-09 


i 1-82 


6-87 


1-19 


7-53 


-84 


6^o8 


2-88 


2-25 


3-96 


3-40 


4'47 


2-98 


7-26 


5-09 


3-3« 


1-04 


3-99 


1-64 


4'43 


r89 


275 


•^6 


17S 


■95 


275 


•89 


4-00 


i-i I 


i ^•54 


-86 


3-00 


1-24 


1-78 


•42 


2'02 


2-40 


1-67 


1-53 


2-41 


1-32 


2-71 


1-90 


1 2-53 

1 


1-86 


1-88 


1-92 


1-96 


'■24 


19- 1 5 


2796 


1677 


29-17 


21-48 


26-06 


31-26 


36-00 


21-76 


27-63 


21*40 


3371 


20-61 


25-61 





Division VII. — North Midland Cottnties (continued). 




Lincoln. 


NoTTINCnAM. 




Lincoln. 


Market Easen. 


Gainsborough. 


Brigg. 


Grimsby. 


New Holland. 


Welbeck. 




3 ft. 


6 in. 


3 ft. 6 in. 


3 ft. 6 in. 


3 ft. 6 in. 


15 ft. 


Oin. 


3 ft. 6 in. 


4 ft. in. 




26 ft. 


100 ft. 


76 ft. 


16 ft. 


42 


ft. 


18 ft. 


80 ft. 




1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


1 


•94 


•42 


135 


-70 


.•30 


■37 


i-io 


-66 


79 


1-23 


1-12 


-78 


1-45 


•98 


' 


■39 


1-23 


I^72 


'"95 


ro2 


1^04 


2-41 


1-79 


1-23 


1-44 


1-63 


1-89 


1-62 


1-41 




I^20 


-50 


»'54 


-88 


•61 


•31 


2-17 


-65 


1-53 


77 


1-99 


•81 


2-20 


•93 




•48 


2-90 


•68 


306 


•55 


477 


•44 


2-91 


73 


2-74 


•43 


3-07 


•66 


3-05 




•82 


•63 


-63 


1-25 


•76 


■44 


•59 


175 


"59 


i'55 


■94 


1-03 


•95 


1-73 




175 


2-21 


1-88 


3-40 


.•38 


3-35 


2-4S 


2-57 


1-80 


2-11 


3-33 


3-61 


1-89 


37> 




•90 


2-98 


-90 


3-00 


K05 


2^94 


-68 


2-73 


-30 


3-26 


7b 


3-05 


i -60 


321 




'•■9 


•55 


1-87 


1-03 


.-56 


J^c4 


174 


1-76 


1-68 


i'37 


1-64 


1-07 


■ ri3 


•98 




I -co 


483 


I-2I 


4-06 


1-22 


4-68 


1-46 


5-«7 


ro3 


4-06 


1-13 


5-07 


; I-2I 


5-3« 




3-92 


•70 


9-sS 


•43 


5-15 


1-16 


6-73 


1-03 


5-37 


1-35 


b-.5 


I-C2 


5-58 


.•78 




.-5b 


1-20 


1-91 


1-77 


•53 


1-09 


1-42 


1-16 


2-15 


1-39 


1-12 


1-85 


1-81 


•82 




2-14 


•97 


1-99 


1-62 


1-31 


1-18 


2-84 


1-29 


2-90 


1-41 


3"43 


1-31 


2-48 


i'57 




16-29 


19-12 


25-26 


23-15 


16-44 


22-37 


24-06 


24-17 


20-10 


22-68 


2367 


24-56 


: 2i'58 


25-48 


























X'2 







196 



REPORT — 1872. 

ENGLAND. 



Division VII. — Nokth Midland Counties (continued). 


Div. YIII. — NoETH- 
'Westeen Counties. 


'i 

i 


Derby. 


ClIESIIIUE. 


Height of 

Kain-gauge 

above 

Ground 

Sea-level 


Derby. 


Chesterfield. 


Comb's Moss. 


Chapel-en-le- 
Frith. 


Macclesfield. 


Cholmondelly 

Castle, 

Nantwich. 


6 ft. in. 
180 ft. 


3 ft. 6 in. 

248 ft. 


3 ft. 6 in. 
1669 ft. 


3 ft. 6 in. 
965 ft. 


3 ft. 6 in. 
539 ft. 


1 ft. 6 in. 
42 ft. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 

in. i 

'•55^ 
2-54 
r58 
2-68 

1-52 
3-i8: 

5 '49 
129 

4-90, 
3-97 
1-34, 
i'69 


January 

February ... 

March 

April 


in. 

1-43 
1-09 
1-47 
75 
7^ 
1-23 

79 
115 
1-13 
4-91 
199 
2-07 


in. 
•82 
1-51 
1-15 

372 
1-68 
4-16 
4-68 

i"35 
4-92 

2-37 

1-05 
I 29 


in. 
1-99 
1-84 
2-25 

■^5 

122 

•98 


in. 

1-12 

1-94 
118 
2-25 
I '40 

A-2'? 


in. 
3-92 
3-08 

3-95 
i-Ss 
1-97 
r8i 
283 
i-8i 
3-26 

9"9- 
276 
3-08 


in. 
1-59 
3-23 

175 
629 
4-40 
4'oo 
4-86 
294 
667 
4-93 
193 
3'53 


in. 

3-94 
2-42 
3-24 

1-57 
203 
i6g 
178 
1-57 
311 
nil 
2-82 

2'62 


in. 

i'55 
3-84 
1-46 
4-30 
3-23 
4-85 
4-53 
i-45 

475 
6-03 

173 

2-83 


in. 

1-64 

•89 

1-85 

178 

73 
1-93 

2-02 

2-o6 

2'62 

5-67 
•84 

i-8o 


in. 

77 

1-95 
•76 

2-84 
2-86 
3-97 
578 
1-93 
4-58 
5-92 
2-47 
2-51 


in. 
173 

1-22 

2-52 
172 
1-31 
170 
1-50 

i'54 

2-2 1 

5 '44 
246 
2-86 


May 


June 


July 


•S3 -?-^q 


August 

September . . . 

October 

November ... 
December ... 


•66 

1-04 

5-58 

1-95 
2-41 


119 

4-80 
2'9I 

•85 

1-30 


Totals 


1873 


2870 


2i'oo 26'56 


40-24 


46- 12 


37'90j 4i'55 


23-83 


36-34 


26-21 


3173 



Division YIII. — Noeth-Westeen 
Counties {continued). 


Division IX. — Yorkshire. 


■ 
1 

1 


L.i.NCASiiiRE (confinued). 


York. — West Ridi.nq. 


Height of 
Eain-gauge 

above 
Ground 

Sea -level 


Caton, 
Lancaster. 


Holker, 
Cartmel. 


Broomhall 

Park, 
Sheffield. 


Eedmires, 
Slieffield. 


TickhiU. 


Penistone. 


1 ft. 6 in. 
120 ft. 


4 ft. 8 in. 
155 ft. 


2 ft. in. 
340 ft. 


4 ft. in. 
1100 ft. 


2 ft. in. 
61ft. 


3 ft. G in. 
717 ft. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


January 

February . . . 

March 

April 


in. 

3-96 
2-64 
2-56 
176 
251 

2-12 

2-02 
2-27 

3-39 
9-86 

3-02 

3'56 


in. 
195 
4-45 
1-89 
2-97 
178 
2-44 

5-97 
1-95 
3-96 
614 
i-8i 
4-28 


in. 

4'34 
216 
2-28 
i-6o 
279 
1-88 
1-56 
1-97 
365 
ii'30 
3-07 
2'64 


in. 
2-13 

4-37 
2-23 

379 
r8i 

2-25 

4-93 
319 

378 
6-36 

2-36 
5-21 


in. 

2-S2 

1-85 

2-19 

-66 

•94 

1-27 
•97 
•86 
163 
7-87 
1-92 
3-°3 


in. 

I-2I 

2-10 

1-26 
3-12 

1-42 
4-63 
3-08 
165 
6-40 
2-74 
1-52 
1-50 


in. 
363 
2-87 
2-71 
1-19 
1-29 
1-69 
i-i8 
1-47 
238 
9-67 

2-22 

3-i6 


in. 
1-25 
3-11 
1-38 

474 
177 
3-81 
3-42 
2-06 
609 
3-30 
1-86 
2-03 


in. 

I-2I 

1-37 

2-13 

•47 

•58 

2-o8 

78 

■97 

■68 

571 
173 
2-97 


in. 
•96 

154 
-83 

2-77 
1-85 
4-23 
3-63 

159 
5-23 
1-51 
-89 
1-41 


in. 

3-52 

2-15 

2-21 

■88 

1-62 

'■93 

•55 

•98 

2-66 
8-66 
2*26 
2-14 


in. 

174 
2-76 
1-42 
3-07 
1-31 
4-42 
2-63 
1-83 
634 

3'i3 
1-5, 
1-39 


May 


June 


July 


August 

September ... 

October 

November ... 
December ... 


Totals 


3967 


3959 


39-24 


42"4i 26-01 


30-63 


33-46 


34-82 


20-68 


26-44 


29-56 


3«-55 



ON THE R.VIXFALL OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 

EN'GLAND. 



197 







Division 


VIII. 


— ]S"obth-Westeen 


CoTJUTiES {continued). 
















Lancashire. 










Manchester. 


Waterhouses. 


Bofton-le- 
Moors. 


Eufford, 
Ormskirk. 


Howick 
House, 
Preston. 


South Shore, 
Blackjjool. 


Stonyhurst. 


2 ft. 


7 in. 


3 ft. 6 in. 


3 ft. 


6 in. 


ft. 8 in. 


ft. 6 in. 


1 ft. 8 in. 


ft. 


8 in. 


106 ft. 


345 ft. 


283 ft. 


38 ft. 


73 ft. 


29 ft. 


376 ft. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


187L 


1870. 


1871. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


3-M 




3-25 


I'22 


3-95 


170 


2-45 


1-32 


3-30 


1-50 


3-30 


I'ao 


4-1 1 


173 


•8? 


273 


■95 


3-31 


1-41 


4-59 


1-02 


282 


1'20 


3-20 


172 


2-88 


r6i 


4-55 


2-38 


rs6 


2'02 


1-26 


3-31 


2'09 


209 


1-12 


2-30 


2-00 


2-40 


1-45 


2-92 


1-97 


2'22 


3-52 


r8o 


4-39 


2^46 


378 


1-44 


2-56 


I '60 


2-40 


I'lO 


2-20 


2-64 


3-60 


75 


2-07 


ri3 


213 


1-91 


1-86 


1-62 


1-62 


1-50 


1-70 


1-45 


1-45 


1-95 


i-8o 


1-79 


2-66 


1-47 


472 


4-01 


3-57 


1-58 


2-05 


l-6o 


2-25 


1-15 


1-75 


2-23 


3-36 


•8i 


3-55 


2'00 


4-32 


113 


4-82 


•55 


4-94 


•bS 


4-80 


i-io 


4-43 


2-27 


8-o8 


1-65 


i'6o 


2-24 


171 


^■5' 


1-71 


2-12 


1-09 


3-10 


2-0O 


1-23 


.■38 


2-87 


2-07 


;-66 


3-82 


2-26 


4*93 


378 


5-30 


2-72 


362 


2-90 


2-90 


3-00 


2-90 


3*99 


4-20 


836 


4-51 


11-33 


475 


11-54 


611 


8-8o 


6-90 


10-62 


6-90 


9-60 


6-I5 


13-36 


6-58. 


2-42 


1-41 


3-05 


1-57 


3-89 


176 


3-14 


1-40 


3-00 


1-40 


2-70 


1-50 


3-52 


2-o3 


a-53 


2'50 


2-14 


2'6o 


3-57 


3-64 


2-31 


2-51 


2-40 


3-20 


2-66 


2-65 


4-09 


3-89 


*9"55 


33-23 


33-64 


36-91 


43-47 


40-93 


29-84 


31-95 


34-17 


34-25 


3i'4i 


29-94 


45-56 


43-9" 







Division IX.- 


— ^YOEKSHIEE 


{continued). 








York. — West Riding {continued). 


Saddleworth. 


Longwood, 
Huddersfield. 


Ackworth, 
Pontefract. 


■WVU Head, 
HaUfax. 


Orenden 

Moor, 

HaHfax. 


Eccup, 
Leeds. 


York. 


.3 ft. 


Oin. 


4 ft. 6 in. 


ft. 3 in. 


Oft. 11 in. 


ft. 10 in. 


ft. 9 in. 


Oft. 


6 in. 


640 ft. 


650 ft. 


135 ft. 


487 ft. 


1375 ft. 


340 ft. 


50 ft. 


1>70. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


3-28 


2'07 


3-33 


-92 


1-42 


-66 


3-36 


I -00 


3-80 


1-50 


a-26 


•77 


1-68 


-70 


1-86 


2-35 


156 


2-34 


1-47 


164 


1-77 


2-60 


2-IO 


370 


1-07 


2-84 


1-88 


2-51 


2-59 


2-14 


2-54 


-96 


1-89 


•56 


2-20 


i-iS 


2-40 


i-io 


1-71 


I -09 


1-80 


1-21 


*-97 


3-59 


•96 


2-89 


-42 


2-75 


•80 


3-88 


1-70 


5-20 


•83 


3-25 


-66 


2-76 


1-65 


2-12 


1-17 


1-39 


75 


1-50 


1-43 


1-90 


2-00 


2-20 


1-36 


•97 


1-08 


I-3I 


2-39 


4-03 


118 


296 


173 


5->3 


1-78 


3-28 


i-8o 


3-50 


1-54 


3-70 


2-81 


3-72 


1-13 


4-67 


•47 


,-56 


-68 


2-71 


-55 


2-77 


I -00 


5-30 


•80 


3-58 


•51 


2-80 


2-21 


1-97 


■99 


-90 


1-33 


i-8i 


1-30 


1-28 


1-50 


1-70 


1-93 


1-19 


1-58 


1-03 


4-13 


5-24 


1-94 


2-73 


•93 


5-80 


176 


4-73 


2-00 


4-80 


1-05 


6-70 


1-18 


6-60 


9-97 


5-07 


5-47 


'-43 


5-53 


1-69 


896 


2-98 


io-8o 


3-90 


7-26 


3-25 


6-10 


267 


2-88 


-86 


2-78 


•31 


1-75 


•96 


2-74 


-87 


3-20 


1-00 


2-19 


1-04 


1-93 


1-25 


3-05 


3-62 


175 


•65 


2-93 


■99 


2-94 


1-43 


3 -co 


2-80 


3-39 


1-44 


3-16 


2-12 


38-11 


3773 


24-14 


19-04 


20-83 


26-20 


29-59 


27-90 


35-30 


36-70 


26-29 


29-82 


24-37 


2868 



198 




■ 




Rjspottx — 1873. 
ENGLAND. 












Division IX. — Yorkshire (continued). 


Yoke.— M^EST Riding {continued). 


York. — East Riding. 


York, — North Riding. 


Height of 

Rain-gauge 

above 

Ground 

Sea-leyel 


Harrogate. 


Arncliffe. 


Beverley Road, 
Hull. 


Wartcr, 
Pocklington. 


Malton. 


Beadlam 
Grange. 


ft. 6 in. 
380 ft. 


2 ft. 9 in. 
750 ft. 


3 ft. 10 in. 
lift. 


1 ft. 10 in. 
230 ft. 


1 ft. in. 
75 ft. 


ft. 6 in. 
192 ft. 


1^70. 


1871 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


January 

February ... 

March 

April 

Mav 


in. 
2-59 
2-72 
2-16 

79 
i'33 
1-48 

■69 

135 
•88 
7-56 
2-85 
374 


in. 

79 
2-98 

i'55 
3-14 
1-04 
4-24 

a-38 
1-86 
6-63 
3-24 
1-29 
2-o8 


in. 
6-24 
5-10 
3-06 
2-46 
2-48 
3-52 

•59 
2-24 
2-90 
13-38 
3'94 
4-^3 


in. 
2-65 
664 
4-67 

3-95 
2-03 

^77 
922 
2-86 
6-04 

5-'3 
2-13 
4-64 


in. 
1-19 
2-09 

2-28 

•52 
•81 

3-17 

71 
1-76 
1-52 

579 
1-62 

4-35 


in. 
1-04 

179 
-90 

3'i4 

I-2I 
2-99 

374 
■95 
477 
121 
2-23 
1-71 


in. 
1-43 
1-99 
1-62 
•62 
I 40 
2-83 
-36 
2-04 
1-80 
571 
232 
4-41 


in. 

•80 
2-44 
I -20 
3-52 
1-69 
2-95 
4-17 

•94 
7-8. 
1-80 
1-95 
2-26 


in. 
1-88 

a'33 
1-60 

■67 
1-13 
2*6o 

•27 

1-93 

1-10 

5-98 

2-82 
4-01 


in. 
1-00 
2-34 

75 
2-8o 

179 
2-98 
3-82 
•87 
5-9« 
2-13 

177 
I "60 


in. 

2-13 

249 

■94 
■57 
1-64 
2-40 
•32 
2-23 
1-31 
6-01 
4-20 

4-21 


in. 
i'o6 
2-48 

•93 
3-52 

1-34 
4-05 
3-98 
1-24 

5-15 
2-63 

1-78 

2-l6 




July 


August 

September ... 

October 

November ... 
December .. 


Totals 


28-14 


31-22 


50-14 


5^73 


25-81 


25-68 


26-53 


3i'53 


26-32 


27-76 


28-45 


30-32 



Division X. — Northern Counties {continued). 




KORTUUMBERLAND {continucd). 


CUMBEULAND. 




Height of 

Rain-gauge 

above 

Ground 

ujea-level 


Haltwhistle. 


Lilburn 
Tower. 


Rootle. 


Seathwaite. 


Whinfell Hall, 
Cockermouth. 


Post Office, 
Keswick. 




ft. 9 in. 
380 ft. 


6 ft. in. 
300 ft. 


1 ft. in. 
87 ft. 


1ft. Oin. 
422 ft. 


2 ft. in. 
265 ft. 


1 ft. in. 
270 ft. 




1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 




January 

February . . . 

March 

April 


in. 
3-22 
2-38 
1-29 
■83 
1-50 
2-49 
1-46 

1-35 
2-32 

5-14 
rSo 

3-12 


in. 
2-33 
2-17 
1-63 

3 '45 
1-27 
2-27 
4-63 
2-34 
4-40 
278 
1-81 
3-93 


in. 
1-87 
2-76 
1-19 

-62 
I 62 
I 26 

-63 

1-92 

1-05 

3-43 
2-44 
4-48 


in. 

•31 

2-43 

-85 

3-62 

T 
2-84 

2-54 
1-24 

3-67 
2-73 
2-71 
i-6o 


in. 

3-87 
2-88 

2-67 

i'95 
2-73 
1-64 
1-46 
,-63 
3-26 

8-33 

3-42 

1 3-42 


in. 
2-53 
5-90 
2-52 
3-62 
1-36 
1-65 
3-12 
2-15 
2-43 
6-83 

4'44 
4-36 


in. 

13-48 

13-67 

9-51 

6-50 

13-49 
6-41 

I-7S 
2-68 
12-70 
24-17 
8-03 
7-21 


in. 
11-95 

15-99 
10-26 
6-36 
2-63 
2-82 
12-57 
9-10 

5-53 
624 

9-91 

2179 


in. 
5-82 

5-°7 
2-56 

2-85 

5-55 
1-52 

-95 

2-03 

5-22 

11-27 

3-58 

2-44 


in. 

4-37 
4-71 
3-33 
2-43 
1-24 

1-75 
3-38 
3-82 
2-60 
4-18 
278 
7-11 


in. 

3-35 
5-96 
2-36 
2-71 
5-56 
4-10 
-98 

3-33 

6-82 

12-44 

4-20 

2-62 


in. 
4-93 
4-7° 
4-50 

2-57 
•67 
1-73 
4-49 
3-67 

2-20 
4-48 

8-13 




May 




June 




July 




August 

SepLember ... 

October 

November ... 
December ... 




Totals 


26-90 33-01 


23-27 


25-44 


i 37-26 


40-91 


ii9'6o 


115-15 


48-86 


41-70 


54-43 


43-91 





ox THE lUINFAIiL OF THE DRITISH ISLES. 

ENGLAND. 



199 



Rvision IX. — Yorkshire 
(continued). 




Division X. — Northern Counties. 


< 


i oBK. — North Riding 
(contmued). 


Durham. 


NOKTHU-MBEELAND. 


Thirsk. 


Scarborough. 


Darlington, 
Southend 
Gardens. 


Usliaw, 
Durham. 


Stanhope 
Castle. 


Bywell. 


North Shields. 


2 ft. 6 in. 


1 ft. in. 


1 ft. in. 


ft. 10 in. 


4 ft. in. 


ft. 6 in. 


1ft. 


Oin. 


114 ft. 


102 ft. 


140 ft. 


600 ft. 


G70 ft. 


87 ft. 


124 ft. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


171 


■59 


i'6o 


1-07 


1-38 


-67 


2-05 


117 


4-59 


2-60 


i"53 


1-50 


1-60 


1-13 


'■94 


2'50 


2'20 


171 


1-09 


1-29 


1-69 


1-78 


1-41 


1-51 


1-89 


2-46 


1-95 


1-97 


1-37 


•97 


I '40 


•62 


1-20 


7b 


1-40 


•93 


2-50 


1-05 


1-16 


1-20 


1-21 


-69 


•55 


1-92 


•8s 


3-24 


•47 


2-02 


•62 


3-12 


1-50 


3-05 


•64 


3-40 


78 


379 


■34 


ri6 


I'lO 


1-44 


70 


1-32 


1-35 


1-89 


•10 


1-50 


•80 


-90 


1-40 


1-59 


yzo 


4-'5 


2-84 


2-4.9 


i-6o 


3-21 


I '54 


3-41 


1-17 


3'oo 


1-61 


3-60 


2-44 


2-54 


•42 


3-57 


•5b 


375 


■44 


2-89 


79 


3'35 


•60 


377 


71 


4-40 


•55 


379 


2 iS 


•69 


231 


79 


179 


i-o8 


2-29 


1-49 


3-OI 


i-os 


2-17 


77 


2-12 


-96 


104 


4"20 


•81 


577 


■55 


3-30 


-80 


503 


1-09 


6*40 


1-52 


648 


■99 


4-01 


5-3 


2'48 


5-5" 


1-99 


4' 54 


1-95 


5-08 


2-35 


8-08 


3-39 


S-iS 


3-30 


3 '47 


1-97 


3- '5 


I'2I 


3-17 


3-04 


i-b7 


1-64 


2-46 


1-56 


2-70 


2-00 


2-44 


328 


3'5o 


1-84 


3-40 


170 


6'oo 


2-02 


2-54 


■97 


479 


i-8o 


477 


3-5° 


6-19 


2-24 


5-22 


1-90 


H-53 


25-14 


28 '40 


27-93 


17-97 


21-10 


24-86 


27-88 


3i"52 


32-82 


25-84 


33-53 


25-22 


26-18 









Division X. — Northern Cofnties (continued). 








Cumberland (continued). 


Westmoreland. 


Dockcrmouth. 


Mire House, 
Basseuthwaite. 


ScalebyHall. 


Kendal. 


Ifirkby 

Stejjhen. 


Appleby. 


Great 

Strickland, 

Penrith. 


ft. 


6 in. 


ft. 7 in. 


1 ft. 1 in. 


1ft. 


6 in. 


1 ft. in. 


1ft. 


Om. 


1 ft. 6 in. 


l.>8 ft. 


310 ft. 


112 ft.? 


146 ft. 


574 ft. 


442 ft. 


6.50 ft. 


1 --70. 


1871. 
in. 


1870. 1871. 


1870. 


1871. 
in. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


rin. 


in. in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


4-41 


3-98 


S-68 


4-56 


3-81 


1-72 


5-67 


2-85 


4-09 


2-34 


3-28 


2-07 


4-14 


3-46 


3-5*' 


3-52 


5-i8 


3-89 


2-27 


2-54 


3'29 


5-04 


3-00 


3-26 


3-07 


2-88 


4-19 


3-65 


i-3 5 


2-94 


3-44 


3-57 


i-o6 


1-33 


2-85 


2-66 


165 


2-34 


1-18 


2-30 


1-29 


6-16 


2-1 1 


2-50 


2-34 


2-29 


1-30 


3-23 


2-06 


3-26 


1-18 


2-68 


75 


174 


1-49 


2-26 


4-02 


•97 


4-30 


]-21 


2-6i 


i-i6 


4-87 


,■83 


2-24 


1-00 


2-35 


123 


2-70 


J-35 


>97 


175 


1-40 


1-63 


2-35 


2-94 


1-58 


1-98 


1-52 


3-57 


I 33 


2-79 


1-56 


2-73 


1-05 


2-92 


I -08 


2-82 


i-o6 


3-92 


J-2S 


7-67 


2-46 


6-50 


-76 


477 


71 


3-35 


2-85 


3-31 


3-39 


4-81 


1-49 


2-27 


174 


699 


1-81 


2-56 


2-31 


2-72 


2-15 


2-59 


4-32 


2-23 


471 


2-81 


2-28 


2-07 


3-09 


3'94 


2-33 


3-64 


2-48 


3-20 


3'44 


3-29 


9-56 


3S1 


11-13 


3-65 


5'oo 


3-«3 


10-25 


665 


7-36 


4-30 


5-18 


3-72 


8-12 


4"35 


3-52 


2-64 


3-53 


2-22 


2-25 


1-61 


4-05 


i-5«' 


3-20 


1-19 


2-39 


■93 


2-62 


1-24 


2 00 


6-32 


2-79 


6-66 


I -41 


375 


a-39 


5-82 


2-87 


3-58 


2-23 


3-45 


2-90 


3-69 


41-72 


3689 


48-97 


40-12 


26-89 


30-37 


43-09 


50-25 


3377 


36-96 


27-31 


31-80 


35-31 


38-12 



200 



REPORT— 1873. 

WALES. 



Division XI. — Mo:kmouth, Wales, axd the Islands. 


Monmouth. 


Gl.\moegan. 


CAEM.iRTHEN. 


Pembkoke. 


Brecknock. 


Height of 

Rain-gauge 

above 

Ground 

Sea-level 


Llanfrechfa, 
Newport. 


Abergavenny. 


Swansea. 


1 Carmarthen 
Gaol. 


Haverford- 
west. 


Brecliiioek. 


4 ft. in. 
360 ft. 


1 ft. in. 
220 It. 


14 ft. 9 in. 
40 ft. 


! ft. 6 in. 
92 ft. 


1 ft. in. 
95 ft. 


2 ft. in. 
4.37 ft. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 

m. 

7-14 

3-42 . 

375 i 
4761 

•9> 

2-28 1 

3-3° 
4-8i! 

5-25 I! 

5-99 II 

1-05 j 

4"o5| 


January 
February . . . 

March 

A pr il 


in. 

4-07 
4-27 
i'9o 

•33 
262 

■22 

3-31 
3-85 
279 
8-25 
4-64 
2-54 


in. 

2-39 
3-37 

^•53 
6-15 
I -co 
1-91 
5-20 
4'6o 
8-32 
376 

I-2I 
4-67 


in. 
2-96 
4-24 
1-96 

•35 

2-oS 

■17 

1-92 

i'39 

1-50 

6-22 
4-68 

2-43 


in. 

3-05 
263 
1-96 

374 
•87 
2-43 i 
4-54 
2-46 
662 
4-93 
•85, 
272 


in. 

2-44 
2-49 

2-28 
-23 

177 
•33 

1-83 
1-87 
1-91 
6-26 

3-5^ 
i-oi 


in. 

3-65 
2-40 

173 

4-10 

-86 

78 

5-34 
1-70 
2-99 
5-20 
1-28 
2-66 


in. 

4" 1 7 

5-55 

3-99 
•81 

3-24 

-80 

174 
2-68 
2-80 
9-36 
564 
1-S5 


in. 
4-80 
4-02 
3-06 
4-69 
-89 
2-99 
7-17 
3-28 
6-66 
7-38 
2-09 
5-09 


in. 
4-28 

39^ 

3-88 

71 
3-26 
118 
2-21 
2-70 
2-75 
8-52 
3-98 
2-62 


in. 
6-05 

331 

2-24 

4"44 

•53 

1-50 

4-97 
218 

7-48 
7-64 
1-81 
4-58 


in. 
5-22 
8-38 

■33 
•50 
3-C3 
-22 
1-73 
2-75 
2-89 

I0-20 
618 
2-14 


Mnv 


Jmie 


July 


August 

September . . . 

October 

November ... 
December ... 


Totals 


3879 


45-11 


29*90 


36-80 


25-94 


32-69 


42-63 


52-12 


40-01 


46-73 


43'57 


46-71 



Division XI. — Monmottth, "Wales, and the Islands {continued). 


Carnarvon {continued). 


Isle op Man. 


Guernsey. ' 


Height of 

Rain-gauge 

above 

Ground 

Sea -lev el 


Plas Brereton. 


Llanfeirfe- 
chan. 


Llandudno. 


Douglas 
Head. 


Point of Ayr. 


Guernsey. | 


1 ft. in. 

25 ft. 


ft. 8 in. 
150 ft. 


ft. 6 in. 
99 ft. 


Oft. Gin. 


3 ft. 4 in. 

27 ft? 


12 ft. in. , 
204 ft. ! 




1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. ' 

1 


January 
February . . . 

March 

April 


in. 

374 
1-93 
2-61 
2-03 
1-49 
1-30 

■83 
1-95 

2-57 
8-27 
6-52 

3-35 


in. 

374 
3-03 
2-24 
2-19 

75 
1-84 
4-65 
1-84 

3-14 
571 
1-38 
3-91 


in. 

3-85 
2-38 

3-15 
2-21 
1-72 
1-16 

■89 
1-61 

a-55 
9'34 
4-48 

3'39 


in. 
3-96 

3-05 
1-85 
3-09 
-83 
i-6i 
3-29 
1-37 
4-41 
6-19 
185 
2-25 


in. 
2-80 

1-53 
1-88 

2-o8 

73 
1-06 

•54 
1-44 
2-18 
7-04 
2-94 
3-21 


in. 

1-87 

2-02 

77 
2-57 
1-19 

2-27 

3'33 
1-24 

3-59 
6-17 

3-24 
2-30 


in. 

3 '43 
2-89 
2-i8 

•33 

1-08 

•63 

•55 
1-65 
1-42 
5-65 

2-20 
1-63 


in. 

3-37 
3-28 
1-25 
4-25 

•45 
1-12 

170 
3-72 

I -2 I 

6-51 

4-55 
5-00 


in. 

2-30 

2"55 
l-6o 

•49 

I '47 

-90 

75 
1-28 
2-51 
5-82 
2-47 
'■95 


in. 
2-05 
2-94 
1-15 
2-58 

-61 
1-18 
173 
2-17 

•88 

3'5J 
2-27 
3-14 


in. 

3-45 
1-88 

2'55 
•76 

1-65 
•21 

1-26 

lOI 

-66 

5-35 
370 
257 


in. j 

5-9'' 
2-05. 

113 

3'45 

3'97| 
i'43| 

5-3>l 

1-6^^ 1 
2-60 1 


^lav 


T •' 

J une 


July 


August 

September ... 

October 

November ... 
December ... 


Totals 


36-59 


34-42 


36-73 


3375 


27"43 1 3°'56 

i 


23-64 


36-41 


23-89 


24-21 


25-05 


36-26! 



ON THE R.VINFALL OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 
WALES. 



201 



Division XI. — Monmouth, AYales, and the Islands (continued). 



lONTGOMERY. 



Carno. 



1 ft. in. 

550 ft. 



1870. 



in. 

37° 

2'6o 
2'90 

230 

210 

2'O0 
2'40 
2' 10 
3-50 
1 I '20 
6-30 
3'20 



44" 30 



1871. 



in. 
3"6o 
2*40 
2*90 
4-30 

I'20 

2-8o 

5-50 

2'90 

570 
4-80 

r8o 
2 '40 



40-30 



Cardigan. 



Aberystwitli. 



1 ft. in. 
42 ft. 



1870. 1871 



44-56 



in. 


m. 


2-67 


3"95 


2-48 


2-47 


2-36 


2-13 


2-27 


3-12 


1-87 


•75 


1-52 


2-74 


329 


5-50 


3-42 


2-g6 


3-32 


2-76 


11-53 


5-11 


6-40 


3-01 


3 '43 


2-26 



36-76 



Eadnou. 



Rliayacler. 



2 ft. in. 

880 ft. 



1870. 1871. 



m. 

4'49 
3-92 
2-79 

-89 
2-73 

•90 

1-98 

2-00 

3-II 

12-23 

3-85 
2-46 



41-35 



3-19 
4-88 
1-48 
615 
-98 

373 
6-04 
2-97 

4-15 
6-89 

1-24 

2-23 



43'93 



Merioneth. 



Dolgelly, 
Brithdin. 



1 ft. 6 in. 
500 ft. 



1870. 1871. 



474 
7-62 
5-6S 
3-88 
4-66 
2-65 
2-05 
3-67 

4'45 

16-72 

882 

6-78 

71-72 



in. 
6-43 

7-90 
4-60 
5-76 
1-17 
2-01 
7 '47 
3'S3 
4'3S 
8-82 
2-30 
6-33 

60-67 



Flint. 



Maes-y-dre. 



5 ft. in. 
400 ft. 



1870. 1871. 



m. 
1-88 

-90 

2-03 

-61 

i'34 
1-31 

•37 
1-41 
176 
5-48 
3-56 

2-IO 



22-85 



m. 
•86 

173 
1-14 
2-o8 
i-io 
2-67 

3'54 
1-05 
2-97 
4-53 
I '43 
1-53 



24-63 



Hawarden. 



Oft. 4 in. 
270 ft. 



1870. 1871 



in. 

2-32 
1-33 
1-85 
1-30 
1-02 
-78 
•58 
2-32 
1-90 
4-41 
2-60 
2-88 



23-29 



m. 
2-29 

2-07 

1-25 

2-13 
1-56 

2-8o 

3-23 

1-02 

4-29 

4-38 

i-6i 
i'59 



2S-22 



Carnarvon. 



Beddgelert. 



3 ft. in. 
264 ft. 



1870. 1871 



m. 

12-30 
474 

779 
6-o8 

8-00 
4-82 
2-58 
4-67 
8-40 
22-92 
10-58 
8-70 



101-58 



in. 
8-17 

17-38 
8-So 
9-11 
2-70 

4-35 
16-33 

5'fi9 
5-96 

iA-09 
5-38 

12-93 



11089 



Div. XL- 


Monmouth, 










SCOTLAND. 






Wales, &c. 


{continued). 






Division XII. — Southeen CorrNTiES. 




Sark. 


Alderney. 


Wigtown. 


Kirkcudbright. 


Dumfries. 


Sark. 


Alderney. 


South Cairn. 


Little Eoss. 


Carsphairn. 


! 
Cargen. 


Drumlani-ig. 


1 ft. in. 


10 ft. in. 


1ft. 


4 in. 


3 ft. 


3 in. 


3 ft. 10 in. 


Oft. 4 in. 


Oft. 6 in. 


:i40ft. 


48 ft. 


209 ft. j 


130 ft. 


574 ft. 


80 ft. 


191 ft. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


2-88 


4-46 


i-,6 


3-38 


8-35 


5-05 


2-40 


1-46 


6-02 


4-67 


5-29 


3-92 


4-40 


5-00 


r6s 


I-S7 


1-41 


2-75 


8-85 


8-95 


2-13 


4-30 


7-30 


571 


5-20 


5-90 


6-20 


5-00 


2-15 


•98 


1-72 


-69 


3'oo 


2-85 


1-14 


l-QI 


2-20 


5-18 


J-29 


3-47 


1-60 


•90 


•66 


3-20 


•48 


2-42 


5-65 


8-20 


•60 


3-30 


2-71 


5-ib 


r6i 


4-33 


2-20 


■3-20 


I "43 


-63 


1-15 


•42 


485 


2-05 


1-67 


-50 


4'iS 


1-29 


4-68 


I -co 


3-90 


-90 


•18 


2-6, 


-06 


196 


3 '9 5 


2-40 


177 


1-16 


1-84 


5-19 


1-40 


2-18 


1-70 


3-20 


1-12 


3-83 


1-30 


2-70 


4-05 


5-^5 


77 


1-85 


i'3i 


4-58 


1-16 


4-83 


2-CO 


4S0 


1-51 


1-02 


I '45 


2-10 


2-90 


3-10 


I 31 


3-37 


»75 


439 


2-14 


3'02j 


-II 


5S0 


1-69 


4'97 


•99 


4-35 


6-30 


2-80 


2-12 


1-26 


5'3i 


2-24 


4-06 


2-60 


4-40 


I"2C 


5-20 


4-12 


4-20 


3-52 


810 


4-80 


4-41 


3-53 


12-19 


5-50 


8-<;6 


4-00 


7-50 


4-70 


2^62 


1-32 


,-78 


1-47 


4-05 


7-15 


2-58 


2-83 


3-35 


4-83 


2-32 


3 •40. 


2-80 


2-90 


3^24 


2-57 


4-95 


1-42 


2-20 


3"5S 


2-05 


3'°3 


3-20 


8-67 


2-26 


5-89 


2-00 


6-30 


24"33 


3>-32 


21-05 


27-18 


62-25 


56-15 


22-95 


27-60 


51-33 


57-41 


39-97 


44-54 


38-81 


41-90 



203 








REPORT 1872, 

SCOTLAXD. 












Div. XII. — Southern 
Counties (continued). 


Division XIII. — SoDTn-EASTEKN Cou>'tie.s, 


Dumfries {continued). 


RO.XBURGII. 


Selkirk. 


Peebles. 


Be u WICK. 


Haddington. 


Height of 

Kain-gauge 

above 

Ground 

Sea-level 


Wanlockhead. 


SilverbutHall, 
Hawick. 


Bowhill. 


N. Esk 
, Eeservoir, 
Penicuick. 


Thirlestane. 


! 

: East Linton. 

i 


ft. 4 in. 
1330 ft. 


■1ft. Gin. 
512 ft. 


lift. Oin. 
537 ft. 


ft. G in. 
! 1150 ft. 


ft. 3 in. 
558 ft. 


ft. 3 in. 
yo ft. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 

in. 

2-03 
3-50 

2-13 

389 
1-05 

3-37 
3-i6 
2-74 

1-73 

2-83 
1-92 

2-8 ■- 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870-1 1871. 


January 
February . . . 

March 

^pril 


in. 
5-66 

6"94 
2-66 
3-07 
5-36 

2*02 
189 
I "90 

4-59 

7-95 

. 4-50 

277 


in. 
6'io 
8-84 
6-26 
4-28 
1-05 

2-02 
5-84 

5-59 
3-35 
467 
2-53 

9-21 


in. 
2-58 
2-38 
1-03 
■96 
1-93 
1-86 
2 '04 

i'54 
1-97 

3-35 
171 
1-64 


in. 
1-8; 
I 91 

2-00 
4-08 

i-o6 
2-87 

3-02 
2-IO 

1-95 
2-45 
2-cg 
3-, 6 


in. 

3-34 
2-89 

1-I2 

•80 
2-63 
2-IO 
1-25 

1-43 

2'10 

379 
ro8 

^'53 


in. 

2-40 
2-95 

1-40 
•70 

I'OO 

2-90 

1*20 
1-00 

2-45 

3-65 
1-15 
2-25 


in. 

^■55 
3-05 
1-90 
4-50 

I-JO 

2 -20 
3-15 
3-55 

2-2 5 
2-15 
4-60 
3-30 


in. 

2-40 
i-6o 
I -00 

'°J 
i-8o 

2-35 

•90 

i-8o 

i-6o 

3-50 

1-50 

3-90 


in. 
i-6o 
4-10 
1-50 
3-80 
-90 
3-10 
3-50 
I 50 
3-00 
2-70 

370 
2-20 


in. 

79 
294 

XI 3 

•22 

■57 
1-68 

•93 
1-69 
2-26 

2-45 

•80 

3-84 


in. 
1-13 
2-26 

•38 
4-69 

■ -35 
3-22 
2-27 

1-27 

2-43 

2-55 
3-i6j 

'•4« I 


May 


J une 


July 


August 

September ... 

October 

November ... 
December ... 


Totals 


49-31 


5974 


22-99 


28-50 


25-06 


31-23 


23-65 


34-30 


22-40 


31-60 


19-30 


256*: 



Division XIV. — South- Western Counties {continued). 1 


L.iNARK {contimied). 


Ayr. 


Eenprew. 1 


Height of 

Rain-gauge 

above 

Ground 

Sea-level 


Hill End 
House, Shotts. 


Girvan. 


Auchendrane. 


Mansfield, 
Largs. 


Nither Place, 
Mearns. 


Greenock. 


7 ft. in. 
620 ft. 


1 it. in. 
187 ft. 


2 ft. 3 in. 
9(5 ft. 


ft. 6 in. 
30 ft. 


i ft. 6 in. 
360 ft. 


ft. 6 in. 
64 ft. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 

in. 
3-30 
7-50 
4-50 
3-30 
-70 
1-90 
3-40 
3-40 
2-60 
3-8o 
4-C0 
4-40 


i 1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


January 

February . . . 

March 

April 


in. 

2-52 

i'55 
-88 
1-24 
2-35 
2-49 

2'53 
7') 
2-66 
3-31 
1-89 
1-92 


in. 

2-54 
3-S3 

2-22 

2-12 

•32 

•46 

4-98 

3-24 
1-76 
2-16 
1 23 
1-67 


in. 

4-15 
5-M 
2-o6 
2-29 
2-30 
3^88 
1-81 
2-o6 

370 

12-29 
3-28 
2-85 


in. 
4-36 

7'i4 
4-14 
2-97 
1-02 
2-57 
2-84 

4'45 
2-52 
4-03 
6-03 
576 


in. 

3-54 
2 '45 

1-43 
21 I 

4-15 
2-40 
2-02 
2-06 
3-87 
4-99 

2-J5 

2-05 


in. 

3-99 

4-53 
4-04 

3-34 
-85 
2-13 
3-55 
S-'5 
2-08 
2-65 
2-80 
5-06 


in. 
5-80 
4-90 
i-oo 
1-90 
5-00 
1-90 
2-6o 

2-30 
3-90 

5-60 
2-8o 

3-10 


in. 

2-00 

375 
1-50 
2-25 

5-13 

1 2-06 

2-12 

2-25 

4-37 
S-38 
2-50 
3-38 


in. 

5-00 

5'75 
4-50 
4-25 
1-25 

2-00 
4-50 

}6-5o 

3-50 
4-25 
6-38 


in. 
7-13 

5-64 
1-30 
2-55 
5-64 
1-91 
2-51 
1-77 
4'45 
7-15 
2-33 
4-62 


in. 
5-90 
8-65 
611 

5-14 
i-6o 

373 

3-51 
4-40 
2-32 
6-62 
4-82 
9-5. 


May 


June 


July 


August 

Sejiteniber. . 

October 

November ... 
December ... 


Totals 


24-13 


26-53 


45-81 


47-83 


33-22 


40-17 


40-80 


42-80 


36-69 


47-88 


47-00 


62-31 


























1 



OS THE RAINFALL 01' THE BRITISH ISLES. 

SCOTLAND. 



203 



I tivision XIII. — South 


-Eastern 


Di\ision. XIV.— 


-South-Western Countii. 


s. 




Counties {contmued). 
















Edinburgh. 




Lanaek. 








Charlotte-sq., 


Newmains, 


Aucbinraitb, 


Glasgow 




Glencorse. 


Inveresk . 


Edinburgh. 


Douglas. 


Hamilton. 


Observatory. 






Oft. I 


1 in. 


2 ft. in. 


ft. 6 in. 


ft. 4 in. 


4 ft. 


Din. 


ft. 1 in. 


Oft. 


3 in. 


787 ft. 


(jO ft. 


2.30 it. 


783 ft. 


160 ft. 


180 ft. 


230 ft. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. • 


in. 


in. 


in. 


2-40 


270 


1-67 


1-26 


1-68 


1-25 


3-48 


4'49 


2-S9 


2-65 


4-18 


m 


5 '44 


377 


4-05 


290 


205 


179 


570 


2-41 


5-66 


3-27 


2-05 


275 


6-33 


4-86 


2-31 


4-63 
3-26 


2-25 


i-8s 


I'OO 


■94 


i-ii 


1-07 


ro8 


4-54 


-63 


I 94 


-93 


3-°5 


I 09 


■75 


4'6o 


•27 


S-ii 


•43 


4'55 


I '47 


3-04 


•80 


3-02 


J -46 


4-42 


1-29 


5-52 


I -60 


70 


■77 


-71 


1-31 


•83 


3-17 


•61 


2-18 


78 


3-20 


1-12 


3-72 


I 43 


3'2S 


2-35 


i-8o 


2-98 


2-25 


1-90 


2-75 


329 


1-45 


175 


1-84 


2-72 


2-49 


3-16 
5-82 


195 


3-10 


1-26 


3-90 


i-6s 


2-8o 


175 


499 


1-67 


4-05 


2-52 


4"5i 


371 


165 


2-6s 


■93 


2-14 


1-29 


2-56 


2-48 


4-29 


1-03 


6-55 


1-76 


3-66 


125 


4-82 


2-50 


3'05 


177 


3-23 


1-84 


^■55 


4-09 


i-8o 


2-32 


I "43 


371 


i-6o 


4-37 


2-12 


3'5° 


2-55 


173 


2-42 


176 


2-45 


475 


4-28 


2-95 


1-97 


4-61 


3-10 


477 


3-00 


I '40 


470 


•85 


4-21 


•69 


2-87 


2-7b 


21 1 


1-95 


2-40 


1-84 


3-27 


2-53 


3-57 


a'4o 


3"ao 


2 '40 


1-73 


2-40 


163 


178 


5-38 


1-84 


i73 


2-87 


4-85 


3-20 


4-59 


2770 


3+-35 


16-50 


3042 


22-11 


26-87 


35-" 


42-09 


2176 


32-02 


35'2S 


40-54 


36-17 


45-69 



Division XV.— -West Midlaitd Counties. 


Dumbarton. 


Stirling. 


Bute. 


Argyll. 


Balloch 

Ca.stle. 


! 

Arddarock, 
Loch Long. 


Polniaise 
Garden. 


Pladda. 


Devaar, 

Campbell- 
town. 


Bhinns of 
Islay. 


Eallabus, 
Islay. 


ft. 4 in. 
01 ft. 


ft. 10 in. 

soft. 


Oft. 2 in. 
12 ft. 


3 ft. 3 in. 

5.5 ft. 


3 ft. 4 in. 

75 ft. 


3 ft. in. 
74 ft. 


1 ft. in. 
67 ft. 


1-70. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


iii. 
5-40 
5'oo 

I-20 
2-51 

3-95 
177 
1-78 
1-78 

375 
6-86 
1-97 
4-03 


in. 
4-23 
6-8i 
3-90 
5-11 

1-25 

2-03 
398 
5-21 
1-89 

5-33 
3-19 
5-60 


in. 
7-19 

7-51 
2-30 
3-06 
6-13 
3-07 
3-14 
I 32 
6-c6 
10-38 
3 16 

5-83 


in. 
7-52 

7-93 
667 
656 
2x2 
1-86 
6-23 
5-86 
2-38 
8-50 
6-45 
9-42 


3-80 

1 3"3o 

•60 

-60 

2-70 

1-60 

1-30 

I"00 

3-10 

3-50 

1-55 
3-60 


in. 
3-60 
4-60 
280 
4-30 
1-30 
2-00 
4-10 
3-20 
2-50 
3-10 
260 
4-00 


in. 
2-89 
1 ^-38 

1 75 
1-3' 
2-75 
2-o8 
3-OI 
1-33 

2-21 
4"25 
177 
2-90 


in. 
4-1 1 
6-76 

1-92 

3-76 

•37 
2-48 

3-35 
3"34 
2-71 

2-10 
2-46 

3-82 
37-i8 


in. 

370 
508 
i-Si 
1-79 
4-28 

2-45 
2-i6 
1-24 
3-91 
8-52 
1-31 
~'°7 


in. 

6-45 
7-i6 
3-41 

4-47 
-80 
-89 
3-12 
2-71 
219 
4-05 
5-05 
470 


in. 
1-94 
1-76 

1-22 

1-68 

1-84 

2'C9 

2-37 

77 
4-05 
5-28 
1-32 
1-10 


in. 
2-78 

370 
2-58 

3-37 

•87 

1-80 

5-25 

2-27 
1-72 

3'57 
3-03 
3-S2 


in. 
3"39 
330 
1-25 

2-58 
3-09 
2-81 
2-6i 
1-39 
5-00 
S-13 
2-62 

' 3-63 


in. 
4-i6 
516 
379 
3'95 
113 
1-53 

494 
279 
391 

5-13 
467 
436 

45'5^ 


1 40-00 


4853 


S9'i5 


71-40 


2665 


38-10 


i 27-63 


\ 38'3» 


45-oc 


25-42 


34-76 


39-80 



^04 








REPORT 1872, 

SCOTLAND. 












Division XY. — West Midlaxd CottiYties (continued). 


Argyll {continued). 


Height of 

Eain-gauge 

above 

Ground 

Sea-level 


Castle Toward. 


Airds, 
Appin. 


Callton Mor. 


Inverary 
Castle. 


Lismore. 


Hynish. 


4 ft. in. 
65 ft. 


ft. 3 in. 
15 ft. 


4 ft. in. 
05 ft. 


ft. 1 in. 
30 ft. 


3 ft. 4 in. 
37 ii.? 








1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


January 

February . . . 

March 

April 


in. 

3-99 
5'53 
1-33 
2-48 
3-98 
2-32 
2-68 
2-03 
3-80 

6-21 

2-52 
4-19 


- in. 

3*39 
6-5, 

4-04 

5-43 
2-44 
2-65 

3*94 
4'oo 
i-6i 
4-69 
3-72 
5-68 


in. 

3-20 

11-50 
I -40 

4-40 

5'3o 
2-80 
5-10 
2-20 
5-90 
6-60 
1-90 
3-00 


in. 
3-60 
5 '4° 
5 '4° 
2-70 
I -20 
1-90 
5-00 
4-00 
rSo 
5-00 

57° 
9-00 


in. 
4-01 
6-30 
1-32 
2-39 

4'59 
3-09 

671 
1*40 
4-70 
9-19 
2-61 
395 


in. 

4-45 
6-45 
4-23 
3-69 
2-17 
2-70 
5-81 
3-29 
1-97 
4-85 
5-i6 
7-51 


in. 

3-00 
3-50 
•50 
3-00 
7-00 
2-50 
2-00 
2-00 
5-00 
9-00 
2-50 
2-00 


in. 

3-00 

2-O0 
1-50 
•50 
I-OO 
2-00 
5-00 

6-0O 
I -00 
1-50 
6-00 

12-00 


in. 
169 

2-47 

•64 

2-41 

3-34 
2-36 

3-13 
'•39 
4-36 
6-48 
1-64 
176 


in. 
4-24 
4-38 
S-io 
1-84 

■93 
1-64 
3-64 
1-48 
1-38 
2-35 

3'94 
486 


in. 
7-61 
4'oi 
2-85 
4-45 

6'27 

2-78 
4-16 
76 
8-07 
8-17 
463 
577 


in. 

8-04 
6-53, 

7-S7 
374 
1-65 
2-23 
4-5S 

1-25 

374 , 
5-90 

8-12 

375 


May 


June 


July 


August 

September . . . 

October 

November . . . 
December ... 


Totals 


4fo6 


48'io 


53-30 


50-70 


50-26 


5228 


42-00 


41-50 


31-67 


3578 


59'53 


57-3? 



Division XVI. — East Midland Cottnties (eontumed). 


Perth {continued). 


Height of 

Rain-gauge 

above 

Ground 

Sea-level 


Loch Katrine. 


Aucliterarder 
House. 


Stronvar, Loch 
Earn Head. 


Trinity Gaslc. 


Scone Palace. 


■■ 

Strath-tay, 
Logierait. 


ft. 6 in. 
830 ft. 


2 ft. 3 in. 
162 ft. 


ft. 4 in. 
460 ft. 


ft. 1 in. 
133 ft. 


2 ft. 6 in. 
86 ft. 


1 ft. in. 
313 ft. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


January 
February . . . 

March 

April 

May . . 


in. 

5-00 
9-80 
1-30 
3-60 
7-30 
1-80 
2-90 
1-20 
660 
11-30 
2-90 
370 


in. 
6-10 

9-40 
6-20 
4-80 
1-80 
2-60 
6-00 
6-40 
2-40 
8-70 
6-40 
9-20 


in. 

2-15 

3-70 

-70 

-70 

2-20 

-90 
1-30 
1-30 
2-10 

4-30 

70 
4-00 


in. 

2-75 

3-20 
2-30 
5-20 

-85 
1-25 

3-50 
2-80 
1-40 

3-75 
2-00 
2-85 


in. 

5-03 
14-10 
2-43 
3-10 
6-]o 

2-55 
2-6o 

-70 
7-32 

10-25 

3-25 
3-90 


in. 

8-05 
7-82 
7-90 
4-70 
2-10 
2-gi 
8-05 

5-75 
2-28 

7-95 

5-75 

12-30 


in. 

278 

3-16 

■30 
•28 

2-CO 
I-OO 

1-65 

1-40 
3-00 
3-76 

-90 
4-36 


in. 
2-26 
3-68 
2-30 
5-30 
-60 
1-85 
4-30 
3-30 
2-10 
4-10 
2-20 
2-70 


in. 

2-05 

a-8o 

-56 
-24 

1-45 
-96 

I-20 
1-04 
2-12 
3-30 
1-42 
4-25 


in. 
2-31 

3-95 
1-50 
4-28 
-83 
2-22 
4-10 
2-07 
1-85 
3-56 

2-1 6 

•84 


in. 

2-40 
5-68 

-49 

•79 

1-90 

•75 

•86 

2-12 

3-54 
4-C8 
1-82 
2-70 


in. 
1-67 
4-c8 
2-03 

a-55 
•69 
2-18 
4'o6l 
3-28I 
riql 

3-25 1 
116 1 

3-12 ;| 


June 


July 


August 

September . . . 

October 

November ... 
December ... 


Totals 


57-40 


70-00 


24-05 


31-85 


61-33 


75-57 


24-59 


34-69 


21-39 


29-67 


^7-13 


29-26 j 



ON THE RAINFALL OF THE BRITISH ISLES, 

SCOTLAND. 



205 



J)iv. XV.— 

1 


(^continued). 




Division XVI. 


— East Midland Counties 






1 Argyll (continued). 


Clackmannan. 


1 
Kinross. 


Fife. 


Perth. 


f Gorran, 
' Loch Eil. 


Ardnamur- 
chan. 


Dollar. 


Loch Leven 
Sluice. 


I 
1 

Nookton. 


Kippe 


nross. 


Deanston. 


Oft. 4 in. 


3 ft. 6 in. 


Oft. 


G in. 


ft. 10 in. 


ft. 6 in. 


Oft. 


4 in. 


Oft. 


4 in. 


14 ft. •? 


82 ft. 


174 ft. 




! SO ft. 


100 ft. 


130 ft. 






1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


4-65 


665 


2-37 


3-64 


3-60 


2-94 


2-20 


2-30 


2-21 


1-31 


4-30 


2-50 


394 


2-93 


4-30 


9-40 


1-49 


2-71 


3-80 


6-23 


I -00 


4-40 


2-00 


3-89 


260 


4-10 


4-23 


5-70 


275 


795 


•97 


2-74 


•27 


373 


•50 


1-80 


■77 


1-06 


•10 


^'45 


•<;i 


3-48 


6'io 


i«5 


1-82 


1-17 


i-3b 


6-43 


•50 


5-30 


-50 


5'i7 


•20 


4-20 


1-21 


4-40 


S'4i 


1-6.5 


2-C9 


1-30 


3-53 


1-04 


1-70 


-80 


1-72 


-90 


2-20 


•45 


2-96 


i-io 


5-<'S 


1-05 


1-91 


-81 


1-98 


2-32 


1-80 


2-30 


1 i'9i 


2-32 


I -GO 


2-30 


1-71 


1-87 


5-80 


595 


3-20 


3-30 


1-88 


3-93 


•80 


4-40 


1 '97 


3-90 


1-80 


4-20 


2-05 


5-35 


2-50 


770 


1-84 


2-93 


1-42 


2-64 


•70 


2-40 


i '95 


2-32 


1 '5° 


3-10 


•95 


4-11 


8S5 


2-25 


4'95 


2-32 


4-1 1 


2-74 


260 


2-20 


2-47 


1-44 


; 2-20 


1-60 


3-15 


1-90 


8-40 


5-00 


S'lo 


5-19 


4-24 


2-94 


4-20 


4-20 


3-24 


3-24 


4-50 


2-30 


5-31 


3-54 


170 


3-«.5 


2-94 


4-28 


2-35 


3-56 


1-50 


2-70 


1-55 


3'43 


1-20 


2-20 


1-33 


3-13 


4-20 


11-95 


2-30 


7-22 


3-07 


3'49 


3-90 


1-30 


3 '4° 


1-98 


3-10 


3-10 


2-87 


4-30 


603 1 


65-25 


30-98 


37-61 


31-61 


41-99 


21-40 


34-10 


21-69 


30-94 


23-70 


32-40 


30-22 


41 81 



Division . 


XVI.— East 


Midland 


Division XVII.- 


— Noeth-Easteen Counties. 


Counties (conunue((). 












Forfar. 


KlNCARDINE. 


Aberseeit. 


Dundee. 
Necropolis. 


Arbroath. 


Montrose 
Asylum. 


The Burn, 
Brechin. 


Braemar. 


Aberdeen. 


Leocliel, 
Cushnie. 


n ft. 5 in. 


2 ft. in. 




ft. 4 in. 


1ft. 


Oin. 


ft. 4 in. 


3 ft. in. 


167 ft. 


60 ft. 


200 ft. 


235 ft. 


1114 ft. 


95 ft. 


882 ft. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 
in. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


ill. 1 in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


170 


-90 


1-60 


i-io 


1-50 1-00 


2-20 


1-80 


-80 


-6i 


1-38 


1-30 


1-36 


1-01 


: ■ 1 


4-20 


2-36 


3-00 


2-40 


4-35 


4-00 


4-70 


4-40 


3-62 


2-52 


3-42 


4-°3 


3-03 


, So 


•75 


-68 


-69 


■47 


-5b 


-70 


-70 


•37 


2-73 


-83 


•38 


'■43 


-70 


•30 


610 


•39 


5-51 


•65 


5-11 


-60 


4-40 


2-03 


2-65 


1-50 


4-16 


i-o8 


4-09 


1-15 


•«? 


1-20 


-72 


1-47 


2-12 


2-40 


-70 


2-66 


I -06 


1-36 


•63 


2-38 


•91 


1 »-ss 


1-80 


1-83 


1-42 


2-98 


162 


-90 


i-8o 


t 1-28 


1-90 


•«3 


i-o6 


1-30 


2-50 


t f'^S 


3-C0 


I-II 


3-21 


4' 34 


4-34 


1-70 


5-20 


'"97 


374 


3-03 


2-85 


2-72 


4-42 


1-40 


175 


1-70 


1-48 


-72 


2-3b 


-30 


2-50 


479 


2-49 


-80 


2-21 


i-8i 


2-63 


1 «-65 


1-95 


2-14 


249 


2-54 


3-10 


3-10 


2-00 


3-6S 


3-72 


1-91 


1-76 


3-05 


3-30 


3'5 


3-50 


3-59 


278 


4-92 


3-5^ 


4-20 


5-40 


' 4-00 


4-5' 


2-55 


3-57 


3-76 


4-08 


I -85 


2-6o 


2-i8 


2-90 


328 


4-'7 


3-90 


2-6o 


2-45 


1-70 


2-39 


2-42 


3 '44 


175 


4-25 


1-25 


3-62 


1-39 


574 


I 49 


47° 


1-40 


1-95 


1-62 


490 


1-42 


5-95 


•95 


22-15 


28-65 


22-40 


2669 


3101 


3374 


28-70 


33-20 


; 30-38 


30-35 


24-00 


25-18 


32-31 


29-37 



206 



REPORT — 1872. 

SCOTLAND. 



Di^^[sion XVII. — Noeth-Eastern 
Counties (continued). 


Division XVIII. — North-Western Coitnties. 

1 


Aberdeen {coniimied). 


Banff. 


Eo.ss AND Cromarty. 1 


Ileight of 

Bain-gauge 

above 

Ground 

Sea-level 


Tillydesk, 
Eilon. 


Gordon 

Ca,stle. 


Inverinate 

House, 
Loch Alsh. 


Lochbroom. 


Cromarty. 


Ardross 

Castle, 

Alness. 


ft. 4 in. 
34'J ft. 


1 ft. C^ in. 

70 ft. 


3 ft. in. 
150 ft. 


ft. 8 in. 
48 ft. 


3 ft. 4 in. 

28 ft. 


1 ft. in. 
450 ft. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


January 

February . . . 

March 

April 


in. 
1-63 

3'02 

1-73 

2'01 

173 

76 

1-25 

■94 
2-22 

3-15 
4-19 

6-S6 


in. 

1-53 

4 '44 

■59 

4-30 

•73 

1-25 

2-98 
2-i8 

2-22 
4'12 

2-6o 

1-90 


in. 

-86 
2-28 

•98 

i'34 
1-19 

I-S7 
1-22 
2-19 
2-53 

2-22 
312 
406 


in. 

■66 
i'54 

■44 
3-07 

•78 
i-8o 
5-42 
3-50 
5-61 

175 

3-3° 

•96 


in. 
269 

i'95 
'■57 
7-78 
4-52 
475 
357 
1-27 
3-80 
5-80 
2-30 
3-95 


in. 
4-25 
6-53 
6-80 
1-28 

2-00 
2-00 
9-42 
4-29 
1-72 

985 
2-65 

8-. 5 


in. 
4-42 
1-16 
i-io 
6-44 
.•58 
2-36 
3-62 
2-21 
4-68 
5-20 

4-I7 
4-88 


in. 

4' 1. 1 
4-67 

3-95 
1-41 
i-ii 

-72 
3-55 
3 '44 
1-76 
5-04 
2-69 
5 '04 


in. 
1-52 
-86 

■47 
1-12 

i-oo 
1-37 
1-40 

■51 
1-86 
1-74 
1-92 
2-51 


ill. 

-70 

178 

•54 

77 

•12 

2-02 

599 

2-IO 

395 

73 

,•63 

■54 


in. 
2-87 
2-o6 

-70 
2-34 

1-96 

-84 
1-99 

2-12 

3'37 
3-6, 
4-12 
4-82 


in. 
2-51 

3-00 

1-71 

4'°9| 
-42: 
2-00 
47^ 
1-95 
4-45, 
378 
2-80 
2-37 


IViay 




July 


August 

Sejitpmber . . . 

October 

November ... 
December ... 


Totals 


29-49 


28-84 


23-56 


28-83 


43-95 


58-94 


41-82 37-49 


16-28 


20-87 


30-80 


33-80 































Division XVIII. (continued). 


Division XIX. — Northern Counties. 


~ 


Inverness (continued). 


Sutherland, 


Caitiines.s. 




Ileight of 

Rain-gauge 

above 

Ground 

Sea-level 


Grantown. 


Laggan. 


Dunrobin. 


House of 

Tongue. 


Cape Wrath. 


Nosshead. 




1 ft. 1 in. 
712 ft. 


ft. 9 in. 
821 ft. 


ft. 3 in. 
6 ft. 


1 ft. in. 
33 ft. 


3 ft. 6 in. 
355 ft. ? 


3 ft. 4 in. 
127 ft. 




1870. 


1871. 


1870. 1 1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 




January 

February . . . 

March 

April 

May 


in. 
1-57 
i'54 
i-ii 
1-44 
1-52 
189 
2-06 
2-81 
2-84 
2-71 
5-72 
3-05 


in. 
,•56 

1-88 

i'47 
1-83 
1-59 
1-69 
4-86 
2-65 

4-31 
1-15 

3-01 
1-27 


in. 
2-41 
3-13 
2-26 
4-48 
2-61 

'■34 

2-02 
1-82 
5-12 

539 

294 

4'i7 


in. 
1-94 
3-58 
3-91 

2-CO 
78 
1-37 
3-38 
3-25 
161 
2-15 
1-99 
6-34 


in. 
2-41 
2-13 

•58 

1-32 

-90 

-85 

•50 

-92 

1-95 

2-88 

312 

9-20 


in. 
1-63 
3-25 
1-30 
3-63 
-42 
•80 
3-50 
1-50 
2-77 

2-55 

2-50 

-90 


in. 

3-00 
2-8o 
I 90 

2-50 

1-40 
1-20 

2-OD 
•90 
8-10 
3-50 
3-80 
4-00 


in. 

(1-90) 
2-00 
1-80 
1-70 
-60 
-20 
3-40 
2-10 
260 
1-60 
2-50 
2-50 


in. 
,-83 
I -2 1 
1-46 

3-43 
1-98 
1-69 
2-41 

i"34 
4-68 
2-59 
3-76 
2-88 


in. 
2-85 

3-35 
1-84 
1-91 
•84 
•58 
5-"5 
3 20 
3-16 
5-06 
1-38 
3-80 


in. 
1-73 
1-14 
1-03 
1-64 
1-66 

•83 
I-II 

•40 
2-48 
2-30 
2-72 
5-02 


in. 
-60 

1-04 

•53 
2-01 

1-33 

-67 

2-12 

3-19 

1-74 
1-58 
2-65 

'•45 




Jiuie 




Jul 




August 

September ... 

October 

November ... 
December ... 




Totals 


28-26 : 27-27 


37-69 


32-30 


26-76 


24-75 


35-10 


(22-90) 


29-26 


33-12 


22-06 


18-91 





I 



ON THE RAINFALL Or THE URITISH ISLKS. 

SCOTLAND. 



207 



Division XVIII. — iS'oRTH-'WESTBEif CoTTNTiES (continued). 










IiN'VEUNESS. 






Oronsay. 


Eaasay. 


Barraliead. 


Usbenish, 

South Uist. 


Culloden 
House. 


Island Glass, 
Harris. 


Corrimony 

Glen, 
TJrquliart. 


Oft. 


fi in. 


1ft. 4 in. 


3 ft. in. 


ft. 4 in. 


3 ft. Oin. 


3 ft. 4 in. 


ft. 6 in. 


15 ft. 


80 ft, 


640 ft. 


157 ft. 


82 ft. 


50 ft. 


537 ft. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


I'JO 


682 


4'45 


8-85 


1-31 


4-03 


3-02 


3-69 


1-56 


i'74 


2-68 


3-34 


3-20 


3-S0 


i-6o 


4-91 


570 


7-55 


1-72 


I 90 


3-03 : 2-29 


-78 


•99 


1-57 


360 


2-70 


3-20 


a-20 


5 55 


i-So 


7-35 


I -00 


2-14 


199 


3-30 


•28 


1-72 


2- 1 I 


5-27 


1-50 


5-70 


5-10 


175 


675 


2'00 


1-90 


2-09 


b-53 


1-85 


•93 


1-96 


3-80 


2-47 


3-50 


1-80 


4-00 


2-34 


575 


2-15 


2-00 


•90 


3-00 


1-14 


•74 


■45 


2-16 


I'lO 


-80 


•40 


3-80 


III 


3-10 


I'20 


1-94 


•68 


2-82 


-95 


1-69 


•92 


1-47 


•b5 


•70 


1-90 


2-17 


5'93 


2-65 


8-20 


2-30 


3-29 


2-30 


4-2.7 


1-33 


4-02 


3-47 


6-34 


1-50 


3'3° 


•72 


2^96 


2-IO 4-45 


i-6o 


2-98 


1-81 


3-64 


•97 


1-82 


1-64 


3-58 


1-90 


2-20 


5-76 


1-51 


6-O0 


1-75 


4-49 


2-65 


5-47 


2-39 


2-IO 


2-90 


4-95 


2-84 


3-50 


1-80 


47° 


8-44 


6-95 


8-8o 


3-96 


3-54 


4-65 


5-19 


2-32 


i-oi 


3-83 


5-21 


2-40 


3-00 


1-30 


2-90 


4'io 


800 


200 


3-12 


3-84 


3-28 


2-23 


2-35 


3-46 


3-^5 


1-80 


i-io 


2-10 


5-26 


6-05 


9-80 


1-40 


3-57 


4-32 


5-87 


2-98 


-88 


2-37 


4-92 


3-10 6-60 


34-95 


49-48 


55-40 


70-10 


25-62 


30-89 


42-78 


37-86 


17-91 


20-76 


33-51 


42-57 


26-60 


34-80 



Division XIX. — Northern Counties (continued). 


Caithness (contimted). 


Orknet. 


Shetlaxd. 


Holburnhead. 


Pentland 
Skerrie.s, 


Balfoiir Castle. 


Sandwick, 
Manse. 


Sumburghead. 


Bressay. 


East Yell. 


Oft. 4 in. 


3 ft. 3 in. 


ft. 6 in. 


2 ft. in. 


3 ft. 4 in. 


ft. 4 in. 


Ift. 


Oin. 1 


CO ft. 


72 ft. 


50 ft. 


78 ft. 


265 ft. 


GO ft. 


178 ft. 1 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 

• 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


1-50 


2-10 


1-65 


1-65 


2-30 


3-30 


2-31 


1-65 


1-62 


2-66 


2-17 


2-41 


3-15 


590 


■45 


2-6o 


I'OO 


2-57 


2-10 


3-30 


2'92 


4-40 


2-98 


3-39 


2-07 


S-93 


3-83 


8-00 


-50 


i-8o 


-b5 


I -2 I 


1-00 


1-50 


1-25 


2-30 


i-oi 


2-45 


1-52 


1-26 


2-17 


3-57 


2-50 


I 60 


1-86 


1-25 


3-C0 


1-30 


2-77 


1-74 


1-14 


2-35 


2-71 


2-57 


3-37 


2-97 


i-6o 


i-io 


1-52 


•87 


1-70 


•60 


i-b7 


I-I2 


1-27 


•86 


1-51 


•70 


1-41 


2-09 


-80 


•20 


•69 


•47 


1-00 


•30 


1-70 


•33 


75 


2-03 


1-13 


1-12 


1-83 


1-98 


1-20 


3-90 


•56 


2-i8 


•40 


2-30 


1-33 


2-85 


•93 


-52 


-3fe 


1-66 


1-17 


2-34 


1-30 


2-90 


-73 


2-73 


•70 


3-30 


I'l I 


2-93 


-9b 


3-04 


1-30 


4-25 


1-88 


i-23 


3"35 


1-70 


2-86 


2-59 


3-80 


2-70 


3-30 


2-85 


1 1-14 


2-23 


1-5.1 


4-04 


1-75 


2-,6 


1-90 


1-50 


1-97 


1-57 


2-50 


2-30 


317 


3-9b 


! 2-96 


i-i6 


3-16 


4-33 


2-43 


6-47 


3-03 


2-CO 


2-c8 2-71 


3-80' 1-90 


3-^7 


4-04 


3-43 


1-25 


3-58 


2-40 


4-49 


5-83 


4-04] 1-90 


407 1-56 


7-30 3-60 


5-5^ 


3-9S 


300 
21-19 


1-75 


3-46 


3-17 


4-94 


6-94 


21-97 


23-30 


19-64 


21-36 


29-60 


26-40 


30-72 


32-17 


23-69 


24-48 


33-84 


32-42 


50-88 



208 



REPORT 1872. 

IKELAND. 



Division XX, — Mttnstee. 


Div.XXI.- 
Leinsxer. 


Cork. 


Kerry. 


Watekford, 


Clare. 


Carlow. 


Height of 

Eaiii-gauge 

above 

Ground 

Sea-level 


Cork, 

Queen's 
College. 


Fermoy. 


Kenmare, 
Killarney. 


Waterford. 


Killaloe. 


Fenagh 

House, 

Bagnalstown. 


G ft. in. 

65 ft. 


4 ft. in. 
114 ft. 


4 ft. in. 
: 100 ft. 


4 ft. in. 
60 ft. 


5 ft. in. 
123 ft. 


1 ft. 5 in. 
340 it. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


January 

February ... 

March 

April 


in. 
4-76 

4'39 
2-24 
I-I4 
2-38 
-64 
l-oi 
1-60 

3 "44 
6-70 

3-33 

3-98 


in. 
4-92 

4'47 
264 
4-48 

•65 

4-22 
4-67 
2-05 

459 
3-43 
5-06 

4-20 


in. 
3-50 
3-07 

2-55 

•91 

2-i6 

1-16 

2-75 
6-18 
2-23 
2-89 


in. 
4-32 
4-55 

2-28 

3'i9 

-66 

3-10 

3-80 

1-53 
2-87 
3-82 
1-92 
3-52 


in. 

3-37 
4-67 
496 
5-63 

495 
-26 

•28 

5-51 
12-68 
16-51 

8-66 
1-53 


in. 
7-50 
6-78 

378' 
2-48 
-06 
570; 
7-53 
5'H 
3-98 

7-05 

4'43 
8-29 


in. 

475 

3-26 

2-99 

-82 

3'5° 
1-29 

■47 

2-17 

2-36 

574 
378 
2-42 


in. 
4-81 

3-93 
2-1 8 

4-51 

71 

374 

5-02 

3-57 
2-6o 

5'3i 
4'39 
3-90 


in. 

575 
3-02 
2-74 
2-07 

3'93 
•71 
1-30 
2-49 
3-66 
99' 

2-2C 
3 'CO 


in. 
4-96 
3-70 
2-52 
4-92 

•99 

275 

5'99 
2S1 

2-02 

4-5° 

2'00 
3-54 


in. 

4-12 

2-83 

2-34 

i-oi 

1 96 

i'o6 

1-53 
2-88 
2-63 
3-86 
2-34 
2-51 


in. 
3-48 
3-31 

2-C4 

3'57 

•24 

2-25 

4'45 
2-72 
3-00 

385 

2-37 
2-6o 


May 


June 


July 


August 

September . . . 

October 

November ... 
December ... 


Totals 


35-61 


45-38 


29-09 


35-56 


69-01 


62-72 


33'55 


44-67 


40-78 


40-70 


29-07 


33-88 j 



Division XXII. — Connattght (continued). 


Division XXIII. — Ulster. 


KOSCOMMON. 


Sligo. 


Cavax. 


En.niskillen. 


Antklm. 


Height of 

Rain-gauge 

above 

Ground 

Sea-level 


Holywell. 


Doo Castle. 


Mount 

Shannon, 

Sligo. 


Red Hills, 
Belturbet. 


Florence 
Court. 


Aghalee, 
Liirgan. 


5 ft. 6 in. 


1 ft. in. 


4 ft. 5 in. 
70 ft. 


ft. 9 in. 

208 ft. 


11 ft. Oin. 
300 ft. 


1 ft. in. 
105 ft. 






1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


January 

February ... 

March 

April 


in. 
3-^8 
2-74 
1-58 
1-46 
1-68 
1-81 

2-12 
2-48 

3-32 
592 

1-93 
2-90 


in. 
2-98 
3-62 
2-15 

3*22 

1-34 

4-27 

5-49 
2-48 

1-95 

2-21 

1-92 

1-99 


in. 

3-31 
4-12 
2-23 
1-72 
3-30 
1-53 
1-66 
•86 

3-59 
9-92 
2-56 
3-41 


in. 

4-57 
3-86 
3-06 
4-18 
1-42 
3-65 
5 64 
2-41 
2-21 
3-67 
2-57 
3-60 


in. 
3-32 

2'26 
3-30 

1-75 
2-86 

2-22 
1-86 
3-05 
4-07 
10-12 
3-25 

4-«5 


in. 
4-II 

3'34 

3-21 

3-51 
1-06 
2-71 

6'53 
2-66 

«-55 
321 
3-26 

3-35 


in. 
4-19 
2-51 

1-54 
1-16 
2-91 
1-22 
,-65 
1-24 

3-35 
7-60 
1-86 
3-22 


in. 

4-33 
3-36 

2-83 

3-3" 
-92 

2-09 

7-82 

2-46 

2-03 

2-59 ( 

1-78 

2-52 


in, 
4-86 

5-38 
I -.14 

2-01 
3-62 

1-13 

-27 
1-38 

3-74 
12-I5 

2-64 

4-35 


in. 
4-49 
4-75 
3-93 
4-56 
I-I7 
1-91 
8-22 

3-37 
2-19 

3'57 
4-24 
3-89 


in. 
2-95 
1-91 
1-46 

I-20 

2-i8 

1-06 
2-25 

1-45 
229 

7-57 
1-57 
2-97 


in. 

3-33 

2-84 

1-35 

2-86 

-55' 
2-02 

5-°9| 

2-4I 
2-02I 

2-I5I 


May 


June . 


July 


August 

September . . . 

October 

November ... 
December ... 


Totals 


31-22 


33-62 


38-21 


40-84 


42-21 


38-50 


32-45 


3604 


42-97 


46-29 


28-86 


3o-i8| 









OA 


r THE 


RAINFALL OF Tilt: 


BRITISH ISLES. 




209 










IRELAND. 
















Division XXTT. — 






Division XXI. — Leinstee {continued). 






CONNAUGHT. 


( '\RLOW 


Queen's Co. 


King's Co. 


WiCKLOW. 


Dublin. 


Galway. 


•I'l'wnes Hill, 
Carlow. 


Portarlington. 


Tullamore. 


ra.ssaroe, 
Bray. 


1 
Black Eock. 


Gregg 


Park. 


Galway, 
Queen's 
College. 


1ft. 


Oin. 


1 ft. 2 in. 


3 ft. in. 


5 ft. in. 


29 ft. in. 


3 ft. 


Oin. 


8 ft. 2 in. 


291 ft. 


240 ft. 


235 ft. 


250 ft. 


90 ft. 


130 ft. 


30 ft. 


870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


n. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


:1 

m. 1' ni. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


3'i4 


3-59 


2-83 


3'43 


281 


3 '43 


4'20 


3-79 


2-59 


3-i6 


3-82 


3-60 


4-1 1 


6-44 


2*42 


278 


'75 


2"00 


1-82 


2-14 


3-36 


3-98 


2-68 


2-63 


2-97 


a-8i 


2-72 


4-78 


2-4 I 


175 


2-28 


1-46 


2-67 


175 


3'i5 


1-72 


2-12 


-68 


1-22 


3-02 


1-45 


2-21 


i-oS 


461 


■93 


3-17 


•98 


4-00 


•65 


3-47 


-65 


2-86 


1-81 


4-98 


2-6l 


3-44 


275 


■41 


2-15 


•63 


2M2 


•45 


2-27 


■32 


1-20 


-16 


3-79 


-86 


4-36 


1-28 


I-o6 


2-37 


■86 


2-33 


-69 


2-71 


•48 


3-08 


70 


2-54 


■98 


3-97 


1-45 


3-50 


•74 


S-20 


1-17 


S-b2 


1-07 


629 


-46 


4-1 1 


•68 


5-94 


1-33 


4-95 


3-43 


6-20 


1-99 


2-62 


i-6i 


197 


1-49 


1-70 


2-20 


1-24 


1-96 


i-io 


1-99 


2-14 


3-29 


3-S4 


2-05 


2-19 


2-95 


i-6o 


2-66 


1-19 


2-64 


4-46 


1-32 


4-10 


3-02 


1-39 


3-51 


2-lS 


5'6o 


313 


6-54 


2-83 


5-54 


2-29 


8-64 


3-48 


664 


284 


6-09 


3-48 


9-69 


220 


22 1 


1-82 


l'04 


i-bs 


•6,S 


1-44 


2-19 


r8i 


1-54 


111 


-89 


1-46 


4-57 


1-38 


2ln 


2-b3 


1-93 


1-82 


2-36 


1-70 


2-90 


1-79 


2-94 


-99 


2-10 


4-18 


3-65 


2-44 


S-24 


33-IO 


26-04 


28-51 


24-86 


29*09 


33-14 


33-25 


25-02 


28-11 


30-01 


36-84 


44-84 


39-69 








Division XXIII. — TJlstei 


I (continued). 






A> 


fTRiM {continiict 


0- 


Londonderry. 


Tyrone. 


Donegal. 






Belfast, 














Ant 


rim. 


Queen's 
College. 


Carrickfergus. 


Londonderry. 


Omagh. 


Letter! 


kenny. 


Dungloe. 


1 It. 


Oin. 


7 ft. 4 in. 


1 ft. in. 


ft. 6 in. 


1 ft. in. 


1 ft. 


Sin. 


ft. G in. 


i:.o 


ft. 


68 ft. 


18 ft. 


80 ft. 


280 ft. 


108 


ft. 


10 ft. 


-iTii. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


1870. 


1871. 


11. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


i 
in. I 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


i-;.2 


318 


2-44 


4-38 


3-37 


3-41 


3-00 


4'44i 


2-87 


411 


3-93 


5-70 


2-73 


4-37 


1 74 


2-64 


2-6, 


3-24 


2-81 


3-67 


2-55 


2 -jO 1 


2-6i 


2-42 


4-11 


3-50 


3-3° 


2-70 


9' 


1-63 


I '40 


178 


I-2I 


2-01 


1-05 


3-05! 


•89 


2'OA 


1-77 


4-48 


1-68 


4-37 


•!!6 


3-90 


i'35 


3-22 


1-83 


4-12 


2-20 


4-12 1 


1-76 


3-75 


3-26 


4-42 


2-35 


3-22 


.-,8 


1-03 


2-64 


-58 


2-5S 


•87 


2-04 


-16 1 


284 


-67 


3-16 


1-29 


2-IO 


1-23 


1-69 


'■94j 


1-2 1 


1-97 


I-20 


1-58 


1-70 


2-40 ' 


i"55 


2-33 


270 


3-82 


2-02 


2-84 


i6o 


6-29 1 


r6i 


3-86 


2-27 


5'oo 


>-95 


6-20 


2-o6 


5-79 


1-82 


9-43 


2-14 


S-77 


z-S/ 


rySi 


2C9 


2-83 


•57 


3-97 


2-40 


2-8o; 


2-15 


219 


233 


3-50 


2-78 


2-29 


1-36 


3-'4! 


1-43 


3-39 


2-23 


2'54 


4-53 


378 


3-15 


1-67 


590 


2-78 4-70 


3-63 


7-60 


2-57; 


990 


3-08 


8-31 


2-44 


9-80 


1-63: 


7-70 


2-49 


11-05 


4-74! 8-50 


4-12 


•7.5 


2-52: 


1-03 


174 


j-36 


299 


2-50 


3-4°'! 


2-15 


1-47 


4-49 


4-50 4-02 


3-58 


l-S'o 


2'II ^ 


2-39 


1-84 


2-96 


2-45 


3-55 


270 i 


2-33 


2-5 = 


4-90 


4-47 2-86 


5-53 
43-65 


h 


3273 


30-14 


31-91 


30-70 


35-05 


37-27 


37-18 


32-06 


31-43 


49-42 

1 


52-63! 39-18 



[S72 



210 heport— 1872. 

Jleport of the Committee, consisting of the Rev. Dr. Ginseurg^ W. 
Hepworth Dixon, Rev. Dr. Tristram, F.R.S., General Chesney, 
Rev. Professor Rawlinsox, and John A. Tinnk, appointed for 
the purpose of undertaking a Geographical 'Exploration of the 
Country of Moab. 

Report on tlie Exploration of Southern Moab. 
By Cheistian D. Ginsbtteg, LL.D. 

The expedition left London on Wednesday, Jauuaiy 10th, 1872, and 
arrived at Jaifa on Monday, January 22nd, about eleven o'clock in the 
morning. The party consisted of Dr. Ginsburg, Dr. Tristram, and Mr. 
Johnson. Mr. Klein, the original discoverer of the Moabito Stone, arranged 
to join them at Jerusalem. The object of the expedition was to get to Moab 
as soon as possible ; it was determined not to tarry in the Holy Land, how- 
ever much some of us felt tempted to explore the country. We therefore 
proceeded, at 3..30 p.m. on the same day, to Ramlch, taking Lydda on our 
Tvay to Jerusalem. Early in the morning of the following day (January 
23rd) we started for Jerusalem over Beth-Horon, and reached the sacred city 
in the dark. 

After waiting six days at Jerusalem for an escort, and making the neces- 
sary preparations, we left for Hebron January 30th, at 10 a.m., where we 
arrived about six o'clock in the evening of the same day. Here we engaged 
Abou Dachouk, the 8heikh of the Jehalin tribe, to conduct us safely to 
Kerak. He entrusted his old uncle, Abou Salama, to head the escort ; and 
we left Hebron at 1.30 p.m. on Thursday, February 1st. As it had been 
determined to enter Moab by the south, we now made our way to Engedi, 
and arrived at Um Ghazelat at 5.30 p.m. 

Though this place is halfway between Hebron and Engedi almost in a 
straight line, and though the old Abou Salama, our guide (who, like his an- 
cestors, was born and brought up in this neighbourhood), has acted as a guide 
to former explorers, yet he does not seem to have mentioned Um Ghazelat 
to those few travellers who have come this way before to explore the basin 
of the Dead Sea, nor can it be found in the most recent maps of Syria. 

We pitched our tents for the night at this supposed new place, near the 
encampment of the llaabneh tribe. At 10.5 a.m. on Friday (February 2nd) 
we left for Engedi, where we arrived at 4.30 p.m. Here we encamped near 
the beach of the Dead Sea, and opposite the Moab shore and mountains, to 
which we were maldng our way. We left Engedi in the afternoon of 
the following day, which was Saturday, and determined to pitch our tents 
for Sunday at Sebbch. 

Between Engedi and Sebbeh we passed on the shore of the Dead Sea the 
following four Wadys : — Wadj- Ghar, which is close to Engedi, and which we 
crossed at 12.37 p.m. ; this Wady, which our old Sheikh solemnly assured 
us was Ghar, is marked both in Van de Yelde's and in Lynch's maps as 
Areyeh. The next is Wady Chobrah, which, according to Mr. Klein's most 
painstaking cross-questioning, we found to be the proper spelling, and not 
Khuberah, as it is spelled in Yan de Velde's map ; this AVady, which we 
reached at 2 p.m., is an hour and twenty-three minutes from the former one. 
The third Wady, which is an hour's distance from the second, and which is 
marked in Van de Velde as Wady Halil, we were jjositively assured is Wady 
Mochrath ; whilst the fourth Wady, which is about forty mimites' distance 
from the third, and which has no name at all in Van de Velde, we were tol^ 



GEOGRAPHICAL £XPL011ATI0\ OF MOAB. 211 

is Ncmriyeh. The distance between this Wady and Wady Seyal, where wo 
camped, we did in a little less than an hour. 

Having spent Sunday, February 4th, at Sebbeh, and explored the ruins of 
the famous fort, we started on Monday, at 7.45 a.m., for the AYady Zuweirah, 
where we arrived at 3.30 p.m., and encamped for the night. In the seven 
hours and three quarters which it took us to get from Wady Seyal to the 
AVady Zuweirah, we passed no less than ten Wadys, respectively called 
(1) Wady Sebbeh, (2) Wady el Kattar, (3) Wady Havhav, (4) AVady Senin, 
(5) Eabbat el Jumuz, (6) Wady el Kitter, (7) AYady Mersed, (8) AVady 
Chasrurah, (9) AYady um Berrek, and (10) AYady JSTejd. 

Of these ten AVadys, which are almost equidistant, only sis are laid down 
in A^an de Velde's map ; and even of these six the names of three only cor- 
respond, the names of two out of the three being reversed (viz. Nos. 4 and 
5 in this Report), whilst the names of the other three (viz. Um el Bedun, 
AYady Hatrura, and Um Baghek) arc not to be found. It may be here 
remarked that AYady Ncmriyeh, which, according to our guide, is on the 
south of Sebbeh, is in Yan de Yelde's map on the north, that the cliffs come 
up quite close to the sea between AA''adys 8 and 9, leaving no beach whatever, 
and that we had here to make our way over the rocks. This fact is not 
pointed out in A'an de A^elde's map. 

Being determined to cross the dangerous Valley of Salt early in the day, 
we left the Zuweirah at 6 a.m. on Tuesday, February Gth. Before leaving 
this remarkable spot we were determined to explore it, as well as the range 
of salt mountains which is known by the name of Khafhm or Jebel Usdum. 
It will be remembered that this is the spot marked in De Saulcy's map, as 
well as in the map of Palestine used in our British schools, as the site of 
Sodom ; indeed De Saulcy declares that he saw here " the ruins of a build- 
ing which was anciently a part of Sodom." Anxious as some of our party 
were to see the relics of the doomed city, a careful inspection of the heap of 
stones referred to left no doubt upon the mind that they are the remains of 
a mediaeval square tower, which was erected here to protect the labourers in 
the salt mountains who carried on traffic with Hebron and other towns. 

Between the Zuweirah and our entering the VaUey of Salt we passed the 
marvellously torn and rent salt mountain, as well as three Wadys. Our 
Sheikh, Abou Salama (the brother of the very man who was De Saulcy's 
guide, and who gave him such minute information about the ruins of Sodom), 
could not even tell us the name of any of the AA^adys. One of these had 
actually bored a tunnel through the salt mountain, and thus made a remark- 
able hole through the cave in Jebel Usdum. The beach now was nothing 
less than a soft slimy mud. The distance between the AYady Zuweirah and 
the extreme point of the Es Sabkah, where we began crossing it, is an hour 
and a half. At 7.30 we entered upon the margin of the barren flats of back- 
water. After marching for about three hours knee-deep in slush, and cross- 
ing seven drains, some of which were dry and some still draining, we arrived 
in the front of the Saphia at 10.3 a.m. 

Here our troubles began. Seeing our cavalcade crossing the Salt valley, 
the Moabites must have thought that we were fair game for plunder, or that 
we were come to invade their homesteads. On approaching the Saphia, we 
found three tribes arrayed against us in front of the wood, beyond a narrow 
intervening stream. The grotesque mob, as we nearcd them, uttered shrieks, 
yells, and war cries, firing off their few guns, and refusing to let us enter 
their territory. Abou Salama, our old Sheikh, and Daud, our dragoman, 
with a few of our Bedouins, bravely jumped over the stream. The horses of 

q2 



212 REPORT— 1872. 

the old Sheikh and the young dragoman fell into the water, and the riders 
■were soon seen rolling on the ground and struggling with their enemies. 
One of our Bedouins was Ij'ing prostrate on the ground, and bleeding pro- 
fusely. After a few minutes the Sheikh and the dragoman were again on 
their legs and parleying with their assailants, assuring them with solemn 
oaths that we had not come to invade the country. "VVe were at last allowed 
to cross, and were led by these bands of robbers into the Saphia, where a 
place of encampment was assigned to us about three miles towards the north. 

After pitching our tents Ave clearly saw that our safety consisted in keep- 
ing together, and not straying singly into tlio wood, since these robbers were 
lurldng behind the trees and bushes for prey. The three tribes who occupied 
the Saphia, and who now considered us fair game, are the Bene Attia, the 
Maaz, and the Warroney. We were, in fact, virtually prisoners, inasmuch 
as we did not venture to go beyond our tents ; and we therefore deemed it 
more prudent to remain within our encampment the rest of the da}% which 
was Tuesday, February 6th. In the mean time the robbers secretly des- 
patched messengers to the Mugelly of Kerak to inform him that a batch of 
European magnates were in the Saphia, and that they too should come and 
have their share out of us. The son of the Mugelly Sheikh of Kerak, as it 
might be supposed, immediately came over and declai'cd tliat we were in the 
hands of cut-throats and robbers, and that he came to save us from them. 
From the respect and deference which the Saphia tribes paid him we believed 
his declarations, and indeed began to feel ourselves more secure and at 
liberty. 

We now determined to explore the Saphia and the extensive ruins in the 
neighbourhood. To do this we had to negotiate with the Sapbia robbers, 
not only for permission but for escort. Their demands were exorbitant. As 
we decided to see what could be seen here Ave made the best bargain Ave 
could; and about 11 a.m., February 7th, we started on our explorations, ac- 
companied by eight of the Saphia princes on horseback. Our direction Avas 
south-Avest of the Saphia, and we rode through a forest of acacia, thickets of 
tamarisk, and dwarf palms, till we came to very extensive ruins. These 
ruins, according to our guides, are divided into three parts ; one is called 
Sheikh Isa (Jesus), the other Kasur el Bashaira, and the third the Mashnaka 
(hanging-place). In the second of these ruins A^■e saw corpses of women 
lying about. 

After carefully inspecting the ruins, which cover between one and two 
miles of the ground, it may be inferred that though the bulk of those which 
still rise to a considerable height above the ground are decidedly remains of 
mediaeval sugar-mills and other buildings of that period, the foundations, and 
indeed the larger portion of the hcAvn stones strewn aboiit, are as decidedly 
partly rehcs of buildings of the lloman period and partly the remains of edi- 
fices of a much older date than the lloman occupation of this district. They 
most probably exhibit the Moabite fortified frontier, both against the Jews 
on the west of the Dead Sea and against the Edomites on the east and south-. 
east. 

The fact that this is the southern frontier of Moab suggested another con- 
clusion, which elucidates a geographical remarlc in the Pentateuch on the 
limits of Moab that is greatly obsciu'cd, and is perfectly without meaning in 
the authorized version. In Numbers xxi. 12, 13, we are told that the 
Israelites removed from Zared, "and pitched on the other side of Arnon, 
which is in the Avilderncss that cometh out of the coasts of the Amorites."' 
This verse therefore gives the Arnon as the northern limit of Moab, thus 



GEOGRAPHICAL EXPLOKATION OF MOAB. 213 

assuring the Israelites that all north of the Arnon up to Ileshbon is to be 
theirs. In confirmation of this statement, the sacred writer qiiotes in the 
verse immediatel}' following the declaration made respecting the frontiers of 
Moah from " The Book of the AVars of Jehovah/' wherein the M'hole extent 
of Moab from south to north is most minutely fixed, and the two boundaries 
are distinctly specifi^ed, viz. the southern boundary is Vahab in Suphah 
[Saphia], and the brooks of Arnon the northern boundary. 

Completely surrounded by the escort of these savages, we left our encamp- 
ment at 8 A.M. As our tents were pitched almost in the centre of this oasis, 
we passed through, for about two miles, a forest of acacia, tamarisk, dwarf 
palms, and reeds on the shores of the Dead Sea, bearing north-north-east. 
At about 8.20 we reached the ruins of Um el Hashib, and about 8.40 we 
crossed the Wady Korcha. 

The name of this Wady disclosed a remarkable fact, which Dr. Giusburg 
believes will henceforth definitely settle a geographical point mentioned in 
the famous inscription on the Moabite Stone. On this triumphal pillar King 
Mesha tells us, in line 3, that he erected the monument in question at Korcha. 
In lines 21, 24, 25 we are told that this king built and greatly fortified 
Korcha after the expulsion of the Jews from Northern Moab ; and though 
the word is treated as a proper name, and hence is without the article, yet 
epigraphists of great distinction maintain that the word, according to its 
form, cannot be a proper name, and therefore is the Flat-land or Market, 
Now the existence of a Wady named Korcha, spelled in exactly the same 
way as on the inscription, leaves, it beyond the shadow of a doubt that Korcha 
on the Moabite Stone is the proper name of a town. When, in the sequel, 
we come to Dibon, we may be able to show the position of this town. 

Going on still due north we came (circa 9.2 a.m.) in about twenty-two 
minutes from Wady Korcha to Wady Mirwacha, and in an hour and a quarter 
more reached the ruins of Numeira (i. e. circa 10.15). These ruins are in 
extent more than half a mile, and cover a surface of imeven ground. The 
stones of ancient buildings, which are strewn about in all directions, are 
mostly very large, about a foot and a half in diameter, but roughly cut. 
Some foundations of buildings, as well as the remains of a quadrangular wall, 
ai'c distinctly discernible. The great geographical interest of this place arises 
from the fact that it figures on the maps of the few eminent travellers who 
have explored this region as the site of two remarkable places mentioned in 
the Bible. Thus Irby and Mangles (p. 448), as well as Lynch (p. 345), 
identify it with the ancient Zoar, to which Lot and his daughters fled for 
shelter at the destruction of Sodom ; whilst De Saulcy marks it as the site 
of Zeboim, which Avas destroyed at the same time as Sodom. The locality, 
however, as well as the name, correspond far more with the ancient Nimrim 
mentioned in Isaiah xv. 6, and Jeremiah xlviii. 34, than with either of these 
hypotheses. 

Marching due north for about three quarters of an hour, we entered a 
thicket of thorny trees and bushes, and then crossed Wady Azzal at 11.30 a.m., 
leaving a fringe of reeds near the beach of the Dead Sea to our left. We 
co-ntinued our march north-east, ascending a hill and leaving the promontory 
or peninsula of Lissan somewhat to our left. We now ascended the southern 
portion of the ravine through which the Wady Drah flows into the Dead Sea, 
and crossed the Wady at about 2 p.m. Our journey was now almost due 
east, ascending all along by the side of the ravine : and at 3.30 we reached 
the top of the hill Drah, about 600 feet aoovc the Dead Sea. The scene of 
our encampment here was most charming. To our left was the deep ravine 



214) KKroKT — 1872. 

through which the Wady Kerak flows, with a perfect oasis on its slopes and 
with a Bedouin encampment. To our right there was a perpendicular moun- 
tain rising above us, on the summit of which are the ruins of an ancient 
tower, which was evidently designed to guard the pass to Kerak. At our 
back was the peninsula of El Lissan, and in front of us wore the steep moun- 
tains of Moab, through the defiles and over the giddy heights of which Ave 
had to wind our way to Kerak. By the lurid light of our bivouac fires this 
remarkable spot looked sublimely lonely. The Mugelly with great cunning 
selected this place as best serving his purpose. 

We retired to rest, little dreaming what we should have to wake to. In 
order to show how secure we were under his protection, and to luU us to 
sleep pleasantly, the Mugelly got up a sham fight with the Saphia robbers, 
charging them with mean behaviour towards us, and threatening to stab 
them, for which purpose he actually drew out his dagger. As it was an aifair 
between themselves, quarrelling about the money we gave them to buy them- 
selves a lamb for supper, we did not interfere, but went to sleep as soon as 
the deafening noise of these villains subsided, and rose early to resume our 
journey to Kerak, which was only four hours and a half distant. 

It was here that the true character of the young Mugelly showed itself, 
and that we learned to our bitter cost why he urged us to dismiss our Jehalin 
escort, and why he adroitly selected this lonely spot for our encampment. 
No sooner did he perceive that we had begun to strike our tents than he 
demanded £70, and declared that he would not allow us to proceed unless 
the money was forthcoming. He at last consented to take 25 napoleons ; and 
at about 8 a.m. we started on our journey. What might happen to us at 
Kerak when lodged in the clutches of this vagabond was more than any of us 
dared to think of. We tried to comfort ourselves with the fact that one of 
the gang was a Christian, and that he might be of help to us when the worst 
came to the worst. We proceeded on our journey not in a very good humour 
for exploring. We continued ascending a ridge of wild mountains, called 
Akabat Charaza, crossed the Wady Charaza, and came to the ruins called 
El Kabo {i. e. the cave), about 1000 feet above the Dead Sea (circa 9 a.m.). 
Here we were told a Christian Sheikh lived in olden days, who exacted tri- 
bute from all travellers to or from Kerak. The hill on the right of El Kabo 
is called Botheneh, whilst the hill more to the north still is called Elmanzar 
(i. e. watch-tower). Ascending still higher we climbed a ferruginous hill, 
called Jebel el Hadid, passed Wady Umeshanan at 9..30, Wady Ruseis, with 
the spring called Ayin Iluseis, at 11.15, reached the plateau of Omsidre at 
12, and descended to the bottom of Wady Kerak at 12.40. Wc now began 
climbing an almost perpendicular zigzag, leading to the summit on which 
the ruins of this famous fortification, with its enclosed huts, are planted. 

On our way to Kerak, the Mugelly was very anxious that we should camp 
outside this vulture's nest in the deep valley below, which is exceedingly 
fertUe, and where there are ruins of ancient buildings and a sugar-mill. To 
this we decidedly objected, as we should have been cut off from all communi- 
cation with the inhabitants, and in that case the vagabond could make any 
demand upon us without the possibility of our appealing to any one. He had 
therefore to lead us up to Kerak. The road consists of a very steep terrace 
on a charming ravine, strewn all over with stones of different shapes and 
various sizes. These stones being imbedded in the precipitous ascent, form, 
in fact, crooked steps. So steep is the ascent, that we had to dismount and 
lead our horses. We reached the top at 1.30 p.m. 

It was fortunate that wc went to examine the place immediately after our 



[ 






GEOGRAPHICAL EXPLORATION OF MOAB 215 

arrival ; for soon after we returned to our tents the son of tlie Mugelly, who 
brought us from the Saphia, came aud demanded no less than 600 napoleois, 
as the remainder of the money for bringing us here and for allowing us to 
encamp at Kerak. We of course refused to pay any thing, aud told him that, 
although he had extorted 25 napoleons from us, he had no right to act in this 
hostile manner. Seeing that we were determined not to be bullied out of 
any more money, he forbade us to leave our tents, and we thus became pri- 
soners. In this plight we were visited by the Greek catechist, whom Mr. 
Klein knew. He procured us a messenger, whom we secretly despatched to 
Jerusalem with a letter to Mr. Moore, the British Consul, informing him that 
we were prisoners and that 600 napoleons were demanded of us. 

As it was Saturday we made up our minds to a quiet rest in our tents for 
two days, which we did not grudge, as we were tired and wearied out with 
annoyance from the Kerak vagabonds. In the midst of our gloom, however, 
a ray of hght appeared. We heard that Zadam, son of the Sheikh of the 
Bene Sachar, with whom Mr. Moore the consul had made a contract at Jeru- 
salem to take us from Kerak to the north of the Arnon, had arrived here, and 
was the guest of the Mugelly. 

The old Sheikh, the father of the Mugelly who had plundered us on our 
way from the Saphia, we had not seen as yet. We were told that he camped 
three hours from Kerak, that he was a better man than his rascally offspring, 
and that though " his belly, too, was as large as our tent, his mind was as 
wide as the ocean." We therefore sent a messenger to our future protector 
and guide Zadam, requesting him to come to our tents. At about 12 a.m. 
the old Sheikh of the Mugelly, with Zadam of the Bene Sachar, and a hosj 
of Moal)ite grandees came to pay us a visit. To this old Mugelly Sheikh 
in conclave we recited our troubles. He at once set us at liberty, and 
told us we were perfectly free to go where we liked, that his country 
was our country, and no man should dare to touch us or make any demand 
of us. 

Our joy was now beyond bounds. We were not only set at liberty without 
money and without price, but we were told we might go wherever and do 
whatever we Uked. To our further satisfaction we saw the old Sheikh taking 
his seat on the ground among his magnates, fifty yards from our tents, with 
his son opposite him in the ring, and heard him rating the scoundrel as hard 
and as loud as possible, telling him that he had brought shame and confusion 
of face upon his old father in the sight of these Consuls (which is the name 
they give to distinguished foreigners), aud dei landing that the 25 napoleons 
taken from us should at once be restored. We even heard that the money 
which had been divided between the chief robber and about a dozen minor 
scoundrels was actually being collected. Being thus set at liberty, we devoted 
the rest -of Saturday and the following day to the exploration of this stupen- 
dous ruin and the town. The following is a summary of the results : — 

The very entrance into this ext aordinary ruin of Kerak, or the " Bock of 
the Desert " (Petra Descrti), as it was called in the middle ages, is remark- 
able. It consists of a long and winding passage of about 100 feet through a 
high ridge of the natural rock, Avhich forms a cavern gate. It is in such a 
zigzag that we could not see those of our party who were fifteen yards before 
lis. It is surmounted by an illegible Arabic inscription. Looking at it from 
the summit of the neighbouring mountains which overtop it, Kerak exhibits 
the form of a rude triangle ; whilst from the bottom of the ravine it appears 
like a vulture's nest, constructed on a peak more than 4000 fcQt above tho 
Dead Sea. 



216 REPORT — 1873. 

To understand the plan * of this fortification, it is necessary to bear in 
mind tliat the hill, the summit of which contains Iverak, rises on three sides 
from a deep valley, thus yielding natural buttresses, which, from their im- 
mense height and perpendicular form, defy any attempt at scaling them. It 
is only the north-west and south sides which are joined to the neighbouring 
mountains by crests of rocks ; these, therefore, require artificial protection, 
and it is for this reason that the fortification consists of two distinct parts, 
viz. the tower on the north-west and the castle on the south. 

The tower is a large oblong building of immense height, constructed of 
very huge and neatly cut sandstone. Yiewing it from the town, it looks like 
three out of four skeleton walls of an unfinished edifice, being open towards 
the defile. It is furnished with galleries and staircases inside the thickness of 
its walls, putting the different stories of which it consists in communication 
with each other. It presents its three faces (the circumference of which 
measures about 131 yards) to the defence of the exterior, and is joined by 
its two extremities to the town which it was designed to defend. The stones 
of which it is built have been cut from the side of the rock on which it is 
erected. By this process the north-western side has not only been separated 
from its adjoining mountains, but the tower has obtained a very steep but- 
tress. From the Arabic inscription El Melelc — Dalier — Byhars in the central 
wall, it is called " The Tower of Daher,"' or " The Tower of Bybars." It was 
within this three-walled toAver that we camped, and were imprisoned in our 
tents. We saw Jerusalem most distinctly from the top of this tower. The 
castle or fortress on the south, which was designed to defend this side, left 
by nature unprotected, is in form a long square, widening towards the north, 
the north face being about 153 yards, the south 87, the cast 218, and the 
west 240, thus making a cii-cumference of about 698 yards. It is separated 
from the city on the north by a wide ditch, and is defended on the south by 
an immense reservoir, which is flanked by an enormous ditch, more than 
98 feet wide, cut in the rock. A rampart, with galleries stretching across 
the length of the enclosure of the castle, divides it into two courts, viz. a 
lower court towards the east, and a higher court towards the west. 

In the eastern or lower court is a chapel, with nave of 82 feet long, four 
windows, tw.o in each side, and ending in a semicircular arch. There is a 
staircase in the thickness of the north wall, which leads to the platform on 
the top of the edifice. Irby and Mangles have noticed remains of large fresco- 
paintings, one apparently representing a king in armour, another the mar- 
tyrdom of a saint who has his bowels twisted out, as well as an imperfect 
inscription in Gothic letters (p. 364). But with the exception of the inscrip- 
tion nothing is now to be seen. This court also contains the dungeon. 

In the angle of the Avestern extremity of the higher court is the gate of 
the castle, which leads, through a long and narrow passage, to two other 
doors furnished with portcullis and complicated defences. These had to be 
passed before entrance could be obtained into the enclosure. The court con- 
tains numerous cisterns and immense magazines of five or six stories high, 
which are now partly dilapidated. This castle was built about a.d. 1143 
by Payen, Avho was cup-bearer to the King of Jerusalem, and who received 
Kerak as a fief after the execution of Knight Romanus. 

* Por a sketch of the plan of Kerak, as well as for an able treatise and some verbal com- 
munications on the same subject, according to wliicli I have been enabled to correct and 
supplement my rough notes, I tender my best thanks to M. Maiiss, the learned architect 
of the Due de Luyne's expedition to the east of the Dead Sea. For the working out of the 
plan which was exhibited I am indebted to my wife. — C. D. Gi.nsburq. 



GEOGRAPHICAL EXPLORATION OF MOAB. 217 

Between the Tower of Bybars on the north end and the castle on the south, 
there arc ruins of numerous buildings as well as an immense reservoir. 

The plateau on which the town is built measures in its greatest length 
from north to south 852 yards, and in width from east to west 77G yards. 
Taking it as a rude triangle, the north-east face of the rampart measures 
about 1028 yards, the south face 8G8 yards, and the west face 732, making 
a total of 2G28 yards. In other words, the plateau of the rock on which 
Kcrak is built is not only more than 4000 feet above the Dead Sea, but is 
surrounded by a rampart more than a mile and a half in circumference, ex- 
clusive of the tower on the north and the castle on the south. 

But though the fortifications are of the crusading period, some of the ruins 
in the town, and of the materials used in the construction of the modern 
dwellings, are decidedly relics of the lloman occupation of this place. These 
houses, which are some distance from the fortifications, are, as a rule, under 
the ground. They exhibit a very extraordinary appearance at a distance, 
since little more than the outlines of squares are visible above the ground. 
Dr. Ginsburg rode over several of them without perceiving that he M'as on 
the top of human residences. On going or descending into one of them, he 
found it consisted of one large room only, and had a few arches thrown across 
it, on which were the rafters. In this house, which was occupied by a rela- 
tive of the Sheikh of Kerak, were the bases of four ancient columns, with a 
Mosaic pavement in the centre, of which the occupant made a circular hearth, 
with a raised rim around it. A fire was burning on it ; and as there was no 
hole in the roof to serve as a vent, the whole room was full of smoke, so much 
so that he could not remain there more than a few minutes, much as he 
wished to examine the place. There wore also raised recesses in the room, 
serving as a bed and as receptacles for corn. Part of the room also was set 
apart for the horse, and the goats too were admitted. There is not a single 
dwelling-place among the hundreds of houses with a window. 

The population of Kerak is about 8000, about 6000 Mussulmans and 1600 
Greek Christians. The former eomit about 2000 muskets, and the latter 
from about 500 to 600. After a minute inspection and examination of the 
ruins of the place. Dr. Ginsburg could discover no trace whatever to justify 
us in marking Kerak on our maps as the Kir Moab or the Kir Haraseth of 
the Bible. 

We were now determined to make the best of our time ; and having heard 
that the Sheikh of the Mugelly, who appeared as our second deliverer, was 
likely to disappoint us, we endeavoured to see as much as possible. We 
therefore started early on the following day accompanied by two horsemen, 
nephews of the Sheikh, to survey the neighbourhood of Kerak. We rode to 
the south of the town over magnificent ridges, down rugged and steep ravines, 
and across beautiful highland country from 8 a.m. to 5.30 p.m. 

We first came to the place called Gelameh el Sapcla, from which Ibrahim 
Pasha bombarded the town. 

At 9.15, still travelling S.S.E., we reached the first ruin of Kirjathaim, 
which is on a hiU. The stones which mark the basis of the walls are now 
in a different position from what they originally were, and distinctly show 
that the traces of the buildings which they indicate are of a much later date, 
probably of the crusading period. As the summit of the hill is only about 
1000 yards in circumference, and as the ruins on the slope around do not 
extend very far down, the town must originally have been small. Still the 
immense stones which are strewn about in all directions, and the extensive 
caves on the ridges, show that it was in olden days a very strong and im- 



218. . REPORx — 1873. 

portant place. There are terraces running down at regular intervals to the 
bottom of the hill. 

At 9.20 wc reached the sister hill, on which the second pait of Kirjathaim 
stood. Its ruins are almost exactly like those on the other liill. And as the 
terraces here like those there descend all around, the rings of which they 
consist, as a matter of course, becoming wider and wider as they 
near the bottom, the last terraces of the two hills meet at the foot, and so 
connect the two parts of the town. For this reason the place was called 
Kirjathaim = " the duuhk-towned." In each part we saw a deep well, with 
thoroughly cemented walls, capable of holding a very large quantity of water. 
As the crow flies, Kirjathaim docs not seem more than ten minutes from 
Kerak. 

At 9.30 ■we left Kirjathaim, and in less than ten minutes we reached a 
place called lui-bach Xulet, and in about a quarter of an hour after (9.45) we 
came to Kirbath Aziza. Here we found an old wine-jiress cut in the rock, 
and on the other side of the rum we saw an enormous well. A very little 
further on we came to Kirbath Nukad, and at 10.10 to Chorba Chaviya. We 
then reached (at 10.40) a tremendous natural cavern, called Gava, and got to 
Mochra at 10.53. This is a very extensive ruin, and has some remarkable 
cisterns, caverns, and other remains of former glory rarely seen in other 
places. The most interesting part of this place, however, is in its bearing on 
the history or geography of Moab as recently disclosed on the Moabite Stone, 
inasmuch as it supplies one of the two missing places mentioned on this 
Triumphal Pillar. In lines 13 and 14 of the inscription, Mesha, king of 
Moab, teUs us that after capturing Atarotli and slaying its inhabitants, " the 
men of Gad who dwelled in it from time of yore," he repeopled the place 
Avith "the men of Mochrath." The context plainly shoAvs that these men 
must have been faithful subjects upon whom Ihe king could rely, and that 
hence their dwelling-place was south of the Arnon ; but as far as our knoAV- 
ledge goes, no such place has hitherto been identified. There can therefore 
be hardly any doubt that this is the place. 

Within live minutes of the aboA^e ruin (10.57) we came to a place in ruins 
called Gel-gul. After an hour and a quarter (12.7) we reached Mode, where 
Ave saw a Eoman mile-stone. The inscription was so defaced that we could 
not decipher in Avhich reign it Avas set up. At 1.25 Ave passed the Wady 
Medin. On our Avay back we examined the ruin Chorbath Theniah, which 
is close to Kerak. It is an extensive ruin, and it is rather remarkable that 
so large a fortification and town should have been erected so near the for- 
midable forts of Kerak. 

It was well that we had made use of our liberty thus to examine the 
neighbouring countiy ; for on our return Ave found the old Sheikh Avith his 
retinue of sons, cousins, nephews, brothers, and officials sitting in council 
around and Avithin our tent. He heard that Ave Avere to leave Kerak soon ; and 
as he wanted a pretext to plunder us, he told us lie had been infoi-med that we 
had sent a messenger to Jerusalem to report his son's conduct. The fact is 
that the Greek priest, Avho for some reason or other expected money from us, 
and of course was disappointed, got to know that his catechist had secretly i^ro- 
cured us a messenger, and reported to the Mugelly Sheikh that we had sent a 
letter to Jerusalem. What harm this could have done to the old Sheikh was 
a mystery, since he pretended to repudiate his son's robbery. The motive, 
however, Avas apparent. In spite of all his cunning devices to conceal it, we 
saw perfectly well that he wanted to extort money from us, and that he must 
do it at once. This pretended deliverer of pui's therefore suddenly chaiiged 



GEOGKAriUCAL EXPLORATION OF M0A13. 219 

into an insulted enemy. He declared in the midst of his people in our face, 
that he cared neither for the Governor of Nabulus nor for the Pashas of all 
the East, nor for the Consuls at Jerusalem, and that he was determined to 
send us back to the Saphia to the robbers, from whom he now said his son 
had delivered us. The young Mugelly had therefore no more made his face 
black by his conduct to us at the Drah as the old rascal declared before, but 
rendered us unspeakable service by saving our property and our lives. 

This was now the story of the old Mugelly Sheikh, and to this we had to 
address ourselves. Our feelings may easily be imagined when we found our 
professed friend suddenly changed into as great a robber as his son. The 
Bene Sachar chief Avho came to Kerak to fetch us told us that it all meant 
money, and that we must make up our minds to submit to another extortion. 
The question was therefore discussed what would satisfy the old vagabond. 
We decided to give him twenty napoleons and his brother five napoleons, and 
with this he was satisfied. 

With feelings of great relief we left the old ruined castle, congratulating 
ourselves that we had at last actually escaped from this fiery furnace. But 
we had not gone more than 300 yards when a very violent rain commenced, 
accompanied by a terrific hailstorm. The horses refused to proceed, and we 
had to return to take shelter behind the walls of the Greek church. In a 
few minntas we were wet to the skin, and it seemed that even the elements 
conspired against us to keep us at Kerak. 

After waiting for an hour and a half behind the waUs and among the 
tombs in this drenching flood, we made a fresh start at 12.30. The anxiety 
of the muleteers to get away was so great that they would not allow the 
storm to stop them, and had gone on without us. Our joy in leaving, which 
was now brightened by a little sunshine, made us forget that we had tre- 
mendous ravines to descend and precipitous heights to climb of thousands of 
feet. It was only when we were actually facing these giddy heights and 
depths that we began to think how their natural difliculties were now en- 
hanced by the heavy rain. However, we got through without any further 
accident than some of the mules falling down and upsetting the luggage, 
which created a Babel of swearing and such an incessant shouting and cla- 
mouring amongst the Arabs as only those can realize who have ever had the 
misfortune to hear it. 

On our way to Rabba, after ascending the next height, we passed along a 
beautiful highland, which might be made exceedingly fertile by a little cul- 
tivation ; but these Bedouins prefer plunder to work, and^ only sow that 
which they absolutely require for themselves and cattle. The whole journey 
from Kerak to liabba took us three hours and a half. We passed through 
Chorbath Rakin, a small ruin about an hour from Kerak, Bether, and Min- 
char. Whatever these places may have been in olden days, at present only 
large scattered stones and the bases of walls remain to show that at all events 
some of the buildings were strong and capable of defence. At four o'clock 
in the afternoon we reached Rabba. 

This is supposed to be Ar, the ancient capital of Moab (Dent. ii. 9, 29). 
We camped on the site of an ancient pool, about 50 by 60 yards, and about 
21 feet deep. There were three large caverns in the walls, which were a 
godsend to us ; for it was pouring rain on our arrival here, and these caves 
afforded shelter to us and our horses Avhilst the tents were being pitched. 

Between our camp and the ruins of Rabba there was about a quarter of a 
mile, and there were two more pools from Avhich the ancient city derived its 
chief water-supply. As the. rain continued we could not do more than inspect 



220 . REPORT— 1872. 

the ruins before nightfall ; but early in the morning Dr. Giusburg and IVIr. 
Klein went to examine them more closel)^ Unlike Kerak, Kirjathaim, and 
other ancient places, the ruins of Kabba, which are about a mile and a half 
or two miles in circumference, are situated almost on a level, Avith the ex- 
ception of one part, which is on a very low hill. On the northern side are 
the remains of an old temple, with several columns still standing. Qliere arc 
on all sides caverns, large and small, cisterns of various dimensions, and wells 
of all sorts, which show that the i^lace in its entirety must have been of great 
importance. There are, moreover, scattered among the ruins, large blocks 
of basalt, which are hewn into smooth stones for use, and which are evidently 
of much older date than the bulk of the ruins. 

It was here they saw a basalt slab, of almost exactly the same dimensions 
as the celebrated Moabite Stone, which had evidently been prepared for an 
inscription, but which, for some reason, had been left uninscribcd. Several 
others of smaller size were also seen, which, from their slabby appearance, 
Avere apparently intended for tablets. These ancient relics aiford every op- 
portunity to the dealers in Moab and Jerusalem, whose cupidity has been roused 
by the discovery of the Moabite Stone, to supply the demands of the market. 

The impression that was formed of the ruins of Eabba is, that though there 
are among them many vestiges of the Boman period, such as pillars, cisterns, 
extensive roads, &c., there are very few relics of an older date. To examine 
Habba thoroughly, as it ought to be done, one should remain on the spot, and 
work quietly for at least a week, turn up all the important stones, and in- 
vestigate and measure all the various pools, cisterns, and caverns. This, 
however, we could not do. But after a close examination of the place and 
its surroundings, they came to the conclusion that liabba is not the ancient 
Ai; the antiquated form of III, or AE Moab, as it is stated on the most 
recent maps. Eabba is almost in the centre of Southern Moab, whilst the 
Scripture Ar Moab was on the confines of the Arnon, and marked the ex- 
treme northern limit of the trans-Arnonic Moab, Vahab in the Saphia de- 
fining the southern frontier (comp. Dent. ii. 36; Joshua xiii. 16; Numb, 
xxii. 36, and ibid. xxi. 13 and 14). The Greek name Areopolis was first 
given to the ancient Ar Moab on the Arnon, and afterwards, when Ar Moab 
was destroyed by an earthquake (comp. St. Jerome on Isaiah xv.), it M'as 
transferred to the modern Rabba. 

We left Eabba at 8.2.5 (Feb. 15th) on Thursday. At 9.30, travelling 
N.N.E., wo came to a place called Kasr Eabba ({. e. the Palace of Eabba). 
The ruins here, though small, are exceedingly massive. The stones of which 
the palace was built are cnormousty large ; they are bevelled, and somewhat 
resemble those of the old wailing-place at Jerusalem. The bases and cor- 
nices of columns which lie about on the ground measure 4 feet 8 inches in 
diameter. The fact that in many parts of the shattered walls the bevelled 
part of the stones was turned the wrong way, shows that the buildings have 
been shaken by a violent earthquake. 

In leaving Kasr Eabba at 9.55 we saw, at a distance to the left, ruins on 
a hiU, which are called Shichan. On the greater part of the way to these 
ruins, the old Eoman road is still most distinctly traceable. Whilst some of 
our party were marching with the mules to the Arnon, we galloped to Shi- 
chan, which we reached at 11.20. It is 4700 feet above the Dead Sea, and 
has a very remarkable cistern on its summit. The distance between Kasr 
Eabba and Shichan is about 8 miles. In descending the summit we found 
ourselves for at least a mile and a half on regular terraces, M'hich had evi- 
dently been most carefully cultivated in olden days.^ 



GEOGRAPHICAL EXPLORATION OF MOAB. 221 

On leaving this place at 11.35, and marcliing to the Arnon, the change of 
the soil was extraordinarily sudden. From the fertile ground around these 
ruins we all at once came upon a most dreary wilderness, which was only 
relieved by tremendous holes in the ground, and by dricd-up and stunted 
bushes. It was not till we came close to the verge of the Arnon that signs 
of fertility began to show themselves. We reached this awful ravine at 
1.55 P.M. 

The southern side, though not as perpendicular and as grand as the descent 
at Engedi, is exceedingly steep, being 2150 feet deep. It took us fully an 
hour and a half before we reached the stream at the bottom at 3.30. All 
the way down the traces of the old Roman road and unfinished Homan mile- 
stones are to be noticed. The stream is narrow and rapid, and to the right 
of the descent are still to be seen the ruins of two arches of the bridge, which, 
however, in its present form, is not older than the time of the Crusades. 

The cliff at the northern ascent is 1900 feet high. As the road extends 
over a wider ground, it is on the whole not so steep. It took, however, quite 
as long a time to ascend it as the descent on the southern side occupied. 

Here, where the maps put the ancient Aroer, Dr. Ginsburg and Mr. Klein 
left Dr. Tristram and his friends, A messenger had arrived from Jerusalem 
with the sad tidings of the dangerous illness of Mr. Klein's eldest child. He 
at once decided to return to Jerusalem, which was perfectly natural. Mr. 
Klein was the only one who could talk with the Arabs, and we were almost 
entirely dependent upon him for the information from the Bedouins. The 
Arabs pronounce the same word differently ; and apart from a thorough 
knowledge of the language in all its various provincialisms, it requires great 
tact to obtain the necessary information from them. Mr. Klein, with his 
complete mastery of the language, and especially his intimate acquaintance 
■\nth the ways, manners, and customs of the Arabs, not onlj'- knows how to 
get information out of them (a tact which he acquired by twentj^ years' resi- 
dence among and intercourse with them), but, above all, he understands how 
to test the correctness of the information by a series of direct and indirect 
cross-questioning, which is quite an Eastern art. As it appeared to Dr. 
Ginsburg that Mr. Klein was thus an essential member of the expedition, he 
determined to return with him. 

Dr. Ginsburg coiitinues: — 

We left the Arnon at 7.30 a.m., February 16th ; travelling due north, 
almost all the way on the remains of the old Iloman road, and passing the 
imaginary site of the Biblical Aroer, we came to the ruins which go by the 
name Dibau at 8 a.m., i. e. in about half an hour. From the fact that the 
famous Moabite Stone was discovered here, I devoted some time to the ex- 
amination of the place. The whole of this once celebrated stronghold is in 
ruins ; there is not a single hut to be found on the spot. The circumference 
of the ground on which the ruins lie prostrate is at least a mile and a half. 
Like Kirjathaim in the south of the Arnon, this town was originally built on 
two hills, the sloping terraces of which joined at the bottom ; and by this 
means the place, which looked at a distance like two distinct cities at the 
top, was joined into one at the bottom. jSTotwitlistanding its undoubted age, 
few traces of antiquity are to be seen among the shattered ruins of the walls. 

The old stones have evidently been used up for later buildings ; and it 
would require a sojourn in the place fur at least a fortnight carefully to turn 
up the foundations and the heaps of ruins to ascertain whether some other 
valuable relics are to be discovered here. 

From a careful inspection of the place in connexion with the ruins not far 



222 iiEPORT— 1872. 

off, I am convinced that it is not the site of the ancient Dibon, but of Korcha. 
My reasons for this conclusion are as follows : — i. In all the eight passages 
of the Bible Avherein the name Dibon occurs (Numb. xxi. 30 ; xxxii. 3, 34 ; 
Josh. xiii. 9, 17 ; Isa. xv. 2 ; Jer. xlviii. 18, 22), no data are given to fix its 
exact site. The christening, therefore, of these ruins by the name Diban, on 
the part of the Arabs, like the naming of many other localities, has been 
suggested by Biblical explorers, ii. The Moabite triumphal pillar which was 
found here gives us the direct information that Mesha erected it at Korcha, 
a city which this monarch built. As no one who will examine the enor- 
mously heavy fragments of this huge block of basalt, with its delicate inscrip- 
tion, will suppose that it has been brought here intact from another place 
without the inscribed letters being injured, the spot where it was found must 
be the site of its original erection. And, iii., between this place and the 
stream Valeh, an hoiu-'s distance, there are several old ruins, the names of 
which our Bedouin guide could not tell. One of these is most probably 
Dibon, 

After a careful investigation of this ancient site, we left to cross the north- 
Arnonic portion of Moab. Our route was now to have been over the upland. 
Going in a north-westerly direction, we passed several ruins, and crossed the 
stream Valeh, about an hour from what is called Dibon. From this place, 
instead of pursuing the usual course, due north over the highland, our Bedouin 
took us westward, right over the range of mountains to Mayin, or what is sup- 
posed to be Callirrhoe. In this charming valley, to the hot springs of which 
Herod the Great resorted during his last illness, we pitched our tents close to 
the encampment of the Awazim tribe, to whose protection we were recom- 
mended by Abou Zadam of the Bene Sachar. 

Early in the morning, February 17th, we left for the Jordan, escorted by 
Abou Wardy, the Sheikh of the Awazim. lie, too, led us across the range 
of mountains instead of by the usual upland road. The most remarkable and 
significant part of my experience, bearing on the value of the information 
obtained from the Bedouins, I gained on this part of mj' journey. In looking 
at a map of Palestine, it will be seen that this range of mountains has played 
a most important part in the history of the Jews. From these heights Balak 
king of Moab, and Balaam the prophet of Baal, beheld the Israelites en- 
camped on the Plains of Moab. From here Moses the great lawgiver saw the 
promised land : here he died and was buried. Hero we passed across the 
very spot marked on the maps as Pisgah and Nebo. 

We had with us, from the Arnon to Mayin or Callirrhoe, a Bedouin who 
■w;a8 a native of Northern Moab, the tvhole extent of which is onlj- about 
twenty miles in length and as many in width. The fact that he was the 
only companion of Zadam, the magnate of the Bene Sachar, and that with 
this chief he was to be our guide for more than a month, sufficiently shows 
that he was no ordinary man of his tribe. From Mayin again to the 
Plains of Moab and the Jordan wc had with us the Sheikh of the Awazim 
himself, who was not only born and brought up in the neighbourhood, but 
is the chief of the whole district. Yet neither tlic second in command of the 
Bene Sachar nor even the chief himself of the Awazim could tell us a single 
name of gorge, valley, mountain, or ruin between Diban and the Jordan. 

The reason of it is simply this. In Palestine, which has been visited by 
pilgrims ever since the fourth century, who came in search of the places 
wherein the events connected with the life of our Saviour have transpired, 
the law of demand and supply has brought to the surface whole regions 
which would otherwise never have been named. Those who came thousands 



GEOGRAPHICAL irXPLORATION OP MOAB. 223 

of miles under the greatest privations to do homage in the birthrphice of the 
Saviour, on the various spots where the greatest of his miracles were per- 
formed, -where he suffered, died, and was buried, were determined to have 
the scenes. Hence the different sections of the Church, inspired by pious 
devotion, and aided by the cupidity of the natives, have not only been able 
to discover the place of every event, but to secure for themselves severally a 
different spot where the same event was enacted. 

The ease, however, is different in Moab. Here no events connected with 
the life of Christ have taken place. Here no pilgrims have come in search 
of sites. Very few even of explorers have traversed the country. Hence 
the natives, who can neither read nor write, and who are dependent for 
information upon hearsay, have never heard from outsiders what places are 
wanted, and therefore do not know them, and cannot supply them. 



GeograpMcal Exploration of Moah. By Rev. H. B. Tristram, F.B.S. 

The expedition for the exploration of the countiy of Moab, so liberally 
aided by the grant of the British Association, set out from Jerusalem on the 
30th of January. Our party was reinforced by Mr. E. C. Johnson, who proved 
himself invaluable both as a surveyor and a photographer ; Mr. Buxton, not 
less efficient as a photographer and observer ; Mr. Hayne, who devoted him- 
self with great success to the botany of the country ; Mr. Mowbray Trotter, 
to whose gun we were indebted for many a meal ; and the llev. F. A. Klein, 
of Jerusalem, the discoverer of the Moabite Stone, whose thorough knowledge 
of Arabic and of the people and the country rendered him an invaluable 
member of the party, till suddenly recalled home by a melancholy domestic 
affliction. 

"VVe determined to enter the country from the south, as being the most 
difficult and least known route, our course being by Hebron, Engedi, Masada, 
or Sebbeh, Jebel Usdum, and thence across the Stbkha, or barren sand-flat, 
which extends for several miles to the south of the Dead Sea. This we ac- 
complished with a guard of the Jehalin tribe of Arabs. At the edge of the 
Sebkha we were on the frontier-line of ancient Moab and Edom ; and here 
we met with some little difficulty from a robber tribe, the Beni Atiyeh, with 
whom, however, after a faint show of hostilities and a few random shots, we 
were able to make terms. Wo found the Ghor es Safieh, which we were able 
to examine at leisure, very much more extensive southward and eastward 
than it is marked in the maps. It is, in fact, a fertile belt scarcely raised 
above the level of the Dead Sea, IG miles from north to south, and fed by 
the numerous perennial streams and springs which gush from the lofty sand- 
stone range that forms the buttress of the Hants Plateau of Moab. On the 
heights above the southern extremity are the villages of Tufileh and Feifeh, 
on the banks of streams, which we were not aljle to visit. Our exploration 
of the Safieh was carried out under considerable difficulty, as the natives were 
lawless, and we could only move with an escort of horsemen. However, we 
were able to ascertain, in our rides with our guards and in several rambles 
on foot, that there are no remains of importance in the oasis itself. The 
principal ruins arc of some 'extent, indicating a well-built village, with 
several fragments of columns and Roman work, called Kasr el Bushireh ; and 
a little higher up is a tolerably perfect water-mill, and a Saracenic gateway 
of rather mde construction, belonging apparently to a ruined Khan ; it ia 



224 REPORT— ISrS. 

now called " Mushnekkr," or " the gallows." No other ruius could we find. 
We explored ou foot the widest part of the Safieh towards the Dead Sea, on 
the edge of which a rank vegetation of sedge and reed takes the place of the 
dense thickets of nuhk and dom tree which stud the cultivated plain, here 
ahout four miles wide. 

Leaving the Safieh we proceeded hy the route of Irby and Mangles to Dnia. 
The day's journey led us through every conceivable variety of vegetation and 
non-vegetation. Leaving tlie Nahr el Hassan, the great source of fertility to 
the Safieh, we passed through a scrubbj' plain, rushes, canebrakes, and finally 
a bare salt marsh, without a scrap of vegetation to the sea, and a gravelly 
shelving slope, with scattered gnarled acacias above it; near its commence- 
ment is a ruined village, Um el Hashib, not far from the Wady Grahhih. 
The barren plain is fringed by a fetid ditch, well named Mir'whar, or " stink- 
ing river," with salt and offensively smelling liquid. Having crossed the salt 
plain, we came to the Nahr Hanyir and Nahr Nimeirah, salt streams. At 
this latter are the mean and almost obliterated ruins of a large place, appa- 
rently iinfortilied, and usually marked in the maps as the ancient Nimrim of 
Scripture. This, however, we have reason to believe is incorrect, as the 
position is defenceless ; and we were told of ruins higher up near the sources 
of the stream in the mountains, which still bear the name of " the waters of 
Nimcirah." Near them is another Scripture locality, " the brook of the 
willows," which is given to the head of the next stream before it leaves the 
mountains. 

A little above this lower Nimrim we visited the ruins of a fort, Ivhirbet es 
Sheikh, which appears to have been nothing more than a watch-tower to 
guard the road. 

After crossing the Nahr es Asal, or Honey Eiver, we began to ascend the 
shoulder of the Lisan, a mass of barren salt marl, without a trace of life, past 
or present, and in a few hours reached Draa, generally said to be the an- 
cient Zoar, after crossing the Wady Weydah, in which the palm-tree is 
abundant. 

Draa, though the seat of a bishopric in the time of Euscbius, has left no 
traces beyond lines of foundations and heaps of sandstone, some of them 
squared and dressed. But the deep glen on the crest of which the city stood 
is richly wooded with palm, oleander, and other trees ; and its fertile belt can 
be traced by the eye as far as the Mezraah, a wide, scrubbj^, tree-dotted plain, 
opening on the bay to the north of the Lisan, and now covered with the 
tents of the Beni Atiyeh. This has been traversed by Messrs. Palmer and 
Drake. 

From Dr.ia we ascended to Kerak by the route so well described by Irby 
and Mangles. A fort, hitherto unnoticed, guards the pass about halfway 
up, called El Kubboh. The character of the architecture is crusading, and 
the local tradition makes it the stronghold of a Christian Sheikh. Just to 
the south of this, the " Wady of the Willows " was pointed out to us. AVe 
calculated the ascent from Draa to Kerak to be 3720 feet, — Dnia, thougli 
on the brow of a bold shoulder, being 570 feet below the sea-level, and 
Kerak 3180 feet above it (barometric). 

Without pretending to compare the country with Switzerland, and at the 
risk of incui'ring the sneers of those who, judging only by Ijigness, accuse 
any one who is enthusiastic on Palestine of " Holy Land on the brain," any 
one less prejudiced than these critics will admit the x^ass to be a magnifi- 
cent one, and the situation of Kerak to be majestic. 

It has already been described by Irby and Mangles, and is sufficiently 



GEOGRAPHICAL EXPLORATION Of MOAB. 223 

known to students. The entrance to Kerak is certainly unique, by an arclied 
natural tunnel in the side of a precipitous cliff, out of which the traveller 
emerges in the midst of the city. The photograph shows this gateway into 
Kerak. It is needless to describe the extraordinary position of the city and 
its natural and artificial strength against the resources of medioeval or modern 
Oriental assault. It was undoubtedly the strongest natural fortress in Syria 
before the introduction of modern artillery — a platform of a triangular shape, 
each side from | to | mile in extent, inacessible except by exposed mountain- 
paths on all sides, save where a neck of land connects it with the adjoining 
mountains, and this cut through by a wide fosse of 30 feet deep and touch- 
ing massive walls 18 feet thick above it. 

The fortifications, Phoenician or Jewish in their lower parts, then Roman, 
surmounted by the work of Crusaders, are of vast extent and cnoi-mous 
height. The photographs give some idea of the vast labour expended on 
these works. 

We found Kerak as little hospitable as have our predecessors in this land. 
The Mudjilli, though holding a Turkish commission, is practically indepen- 
dent, and is an unscriipulous, avaricious, and cunning chieftain. We were 
held as prisoners for some days to ransom, after entering under his son's 
safe conduct ; but our imprisonment was not severe, though rather costly. 

On one day, when our keeper relented, we were able to go out ■with a 
guard, and ride many miles to survey, while the rest of the party photo- 
graphed nearer home. 

Our survey proved very successful in fixing the sites of many ruined places, 
some of them hitherto unknown by name, and the others erroneously placed 
in all the existing maps. Our course lay chiefly south for twelve miles, and 
thence back by a detour to the eastward. Crossing the deep valley of Tziatin, 
where the soldiers of Ibrahim Pasha were slaughtered in 1844 in attempting 
to cut their way from the north, we marked the position of Jelam es Sebbha, 
where Ibrahim Pasha had his camp ; and then of Kureitin (evidently an 
ancient Kiriathain), the remains of twin ancient towns close together, each 
on a low knoll. This fashion of two adjacent towns with the same name 
seems to have been very prevalent throughout the whole of Moab. 

Here we foiind ourselves on the high tableland which forms the country of 
Moab, studded thickly in every direction with ruined villages and towns, 
always situated on gentle swellings — Kirbet Azizeh, Kirbet Nekad, M'hheileh, 
Howeiych, Jubah (on the old Roman road), Mahkhennah (mentioned by 
Irby), Modeh, Abou Taleb, Mesh'had, and several others. Modeh, like 
Kureitin, has been a twin city, and there is a Roman milestone, iinmutilated, 
close to it, of the date of Antonino. At none of these ruins did we find any 
water, but wells and cisterns innumerable, from fiftj' to one hundred in each 
place, generally one for each house, and oil-presses and wine-presses cut in 
the rocky slopes. We returned by Madin, more extensive ruins than the 
others. Here were sarcophagi and sculptured fragments, and house-walls 
quite perfect, but without a trace of mortar between the dressed stones. We 
saw, but did not visit, the ruins of Moureyah, Hamad, Suhl, and Nachal, 
mentioned by Ivhj. 

From the Kerak people wc obtained a long list of names of ruined sites 
known to them, upwards of sixty in number, some of which seem the Arabic 
representatives of Hebrew names. Dimnah (perhaps the Dimon of Isaiah, 
commonly held to be identical with Dibon), Lubcirali, Sumrah, Yaroud, 
Retir, Hadadah, Rahun, Zerar, Hhomoud, Azour, and others. 

In a few davs, by the aid of Sheikh Zadam of the Eeni Sakkr, we were 
1872. ' " R 



226 REPORT— 1872. 

able to leave Kerak without the payment of a very heavy ransom (^70 in 
all), and started for the north. 

It must be remembered that Kerak is the one inhabited place in the whole 
country, the only town or village in the vast and once densely peopled 
region between Es Salt in Gilead and Shobek, a little villnge in the ancient 
Edom. 

Passing the ruins of Suweiniyeh and Duweineh, after descending from 
Kerak, and ascending again more than 1000 feet, we rode through the ruins 
of llakim and Mikhersit, from which place we followed the liomau road 
to the ancient llabbath Moab, now Kabba. These are some of the most 
extensive and finest ruins in Moab ; but the incessant rain prevented our 
taking any successful photographs. We camped inside an immense Eoman 
tank, GO yards by 50, and, though filled to a considerable extent with the 
refuse of the goats which are herded there, still nearly 30 feet deep. 

The city seems to have been a square, more than a mile each way. One 
fine temple has some columns and two arches left ; but all else are only broken 
walls, with long lines of straight narrow streets and countless vaults arched 
over. The ruins are Eoman, but with many carved stones from earlier edifices 
built in, and many dressed blocks of basalt, telling of a still more ancient city. 
There are several greeu mounds covering extensive masses of masonry, which 
might probably repay excavation. 

Prom Rabba we followed the Roman road northward, passing a very perfect 
little Roman temple, one and a half mile from the city, and soon afterwards 
a ruined town (the remains of which seem anterior to the Roman occupation), 
Missdehh, and immediately afterwards Humcitah, the Hammat or "Animah" 
of Palmer, probably an ancient Ham. 

Kasr Rabbah, or Beit el Kurm (the house of the vineyards), four miles 
north of Rabbah, has possessed a magnificent Corinthian temple ; the diameter 
of the columns, many of which with the frieze are standing, is 4 feet 8 inches. 
Hence the Roman road divides, one line going towards 8hihau, the other, 
more easterly, to the passage of the Arnon. The former crosses the gentle 
depression which marks the commencement of the Wady Ghurweh. An 
easy slope reaches to the top of Jebel Shihan, on the southern side of which, 
lining the Roman road, are very singular remains, countless small enclosures, 
fields or gardens, all formed of blocks of basalt, undressed, and no limestone 
employed; they cover many acres. The road here has been only 15 feet 
wide. The city itself, on the top of the hiU, has been built chiefly of limestone, 
with very little basalt. The cisterns are numerous and of considerable depth ; 
but they, as well as the wells, are now all dry. 

Descending by N.E. we passed through the ruins of Balh'ua, and overtook 
the rest of our party, who had followed the other route. Near the edge of 
the ravine of the Arnon are the remains of an old fortress, Kirbet Sum'hra, 
and then Muhatet el Haj, conjectured to be the Jahaz of Scripture, shape- 
less ruins. 

The passage of the Arnon has been described by several of our predecessors, 
who have certainly not exaggerated its magnificence or their fatigues. By 
our barometers the depth is 2150 feet, and the southern plateau is 200 feet 
higher than that to the north. The Roman paved way may be frequently 
traced, as weU as the remains of the bridge below. From crest to crest, 
we computed by triangulation to be about three miles. The upper part of 
tbe southern side reveals a superficial basaltic stream, which is absent on the 
north. There are numerous ruined forts all along the Roman causeway. On 
the northern brow, a mile cast of the road, arc the ruins of Arar, the ancient 



GEOGRAPHICAL EXPLOHATIOX OF MOAB, 227 

Arocr ; and " the city that is in the midst of the river " (Josh. xiii. 16) is no 
doubt indicatorl ])}• the remains iu the luxuriant strip of scmitropical verdure 
that fringes the Arnou far below it. 

Here, from the news of a sad domestic affliction, brought to us at Eabbah 
by a messenger who had been beaten and robbed of the letters by the scouts of 
the Kerak ruffians, Mr. Klein, to whose aid we are really indebted for the 
success of our expedition, through his masterly knowledge of the language 
and his friendship with the Eeni tSakkr, was compelled to leave us and return 
hastily to Jerusalem. He was accompanied by Dr. Ginsburg. 

From the northern crest of the Arnon bank a good view could be obtained 
of the general lie of the Wadys which here furrow the high land. 

The Arnou, or Wady Mojib, is formed a little above where we crossed it 
by the junction of three ravines of nearly equal height, the northern one 
named by Zadam Wady Seideh, the name given iu all the maps to the central 
one, and the others Mdkhauas and Balhua. 

A ride of three miles across a dreary highland plain brought us to Dhibau, 
another double city on two knolls, whose caverns, cisterns, underground store- 
houses, and semicircular arches present no peculiar features. To the west of 
both knoUsis a little stream, near which the famed monolith was found, and 
in which water was running. All the surrounding hiUs are limestone, and 
there is no basalt excejit what has been brought here by man. It is need- 
less to say that no inscribed remains now exist above ground ; but we found 
a very finely dressed basaltic oil-press, with the upper stone lying close to 
the outer cylinder, by the bank of tlie stream. 

Prom Dibon we struck eastwai'd, by the route taken by Messrs. Palmer 
and Drake, towards Um Rasas. The road lay up a wide depression, wliich" 
could scarcely be called a valley, known as Kurm Dhibau (the vineyards of 
Dibon), and continuously for three miles were the traces of the vineyard- 
ridges across the slopes. These are " the plains of the vineyards " of Judges 
xi. 33, the route taken by the Amorites after their discomfiture by Jephthah. 
llujum JSclim, a shapeless inconspicuous heap, is the ouly ruin on the way 
from Dibon to Vm liasas. This latter seems placed too far east by Palmer, 
who has also erroneously marked the Hadj road as touching it, and placed 
it ten miles too far west — a mistake not to be wondered at when we con- 
sider the very great difficulties under which Mr. Palmer and Mr. Drake 
accomplished their visit. 

A Eoman road does, however, touch Um Easas from Heshbon to the south. 
Um Easas was of necessity very hastily examined by our only predecessors, 
and is of much greater extent than had been imagined. The outline of 
the city and its walls, appai-ently repaired at a later period, is perfect, — no 
grass-grown mounds, but simply fallen or falUng buildings, with streets 
encumbered bj' the masonry and countless arches ; no heathen temples 
within the city, but five Christian churches, one of them probably a cathedral, 
and all of the Basilica type. The apse was generally perfect, with the 
plinth and beading decorated by bosses carved with alternate heads and crosses. 
Some of them we photographed. Outside where we were camped was the 
amphitheatre, now grass-groM'n, and several very deep cisterns, not very 
large superficially. 

The most interesting ruin here is a Christian mortuary tower, which Mr. 
Palmer has sketched, close to the ruins of a Byzantine church, of which we 
took photographs. This tower is a landmark for miles round, and ludicrous 
traditions are locally attached to it. 

Um Easas appears to me to be probably the " Thamatha " of the ' Notitio,' 

b3 



328 SEFORT— 1872. 

the station of the first Valeutian " Ala ;" and the name is preserved in the Wady 
Thamcd close by. It certainly must have been one of the most important 
cities in these highlands in the Eoman times, and is on the Eoman military 
road. 

We made expeditions eastwards to the ruined fort M'scitbeh, where there 
was abundant water in a large cistern, and the Hadj road eleven miles east 
of it, cast of which is the ruined Khan Zebib, which places have never before 
been visited. Khan Zebib is e\ndently built on the ruins and with the 
debris of a former great city ; and to the east of it are the remains of an 
interesting Doric temple. Jemail (two and a half miles south of Um Easas) 
and Ghazal (Khazaleh of Palmer's map) were also visited. At both of them 
there was water, and traces of vineyards in the neighbourhood. Khan 
Zebib is above the rise of the Wady Shabelc, the head feeder of the Zerka 
Main or Callirrhoe, a wide shallow basin fed by the drainage from a lime- 
stone range to the east of it. 

The Hadj road is here closely marked by about fifty parallel furrows, 
formed by the tread of loug lines of camels pursuing the same tract for 
ages in succession. 

Near the great temple east of Khan Zebib are numerous natural caverns, 
which form subterranean labj'rinths, and have been cemented and used as 
reservoirs in past ages : now they seem occasionally employed as hiding- 
places and folds by the Bedouins. Beyond these are a number of artificial 
mounds and circles of stones, affording unquestionable evidence of the cairns 
of the primaeval inhabitants. 

We spent several days at Um Easas, in the hope of securing a stone which 
is buried there, but which the Bedouins would not reveal to us, I have 
seen a squeeze of this stone, which is now in the possession of Dr. Dodge, 
of Beirut, having been taken by a Bedouin before the stone was buried ; 
it is of basalt, and bilingual. The centre is occupied by a sei'pent biting 
a scorpion. On the serpent are inscribed numerous Phoenician characters, 
and on one side is a long inscription of many lines in the Phoenician cha- 
racter ; on the other, arranged in a similar semicircular fashion, one in 
apparently Nabathean letters. I hope ere loug to obtain a copy of this 
important inscription. 

From Um Easas we travelled N.AV., passing Beihar and the ruins called 
Draa, a Moabite city of the very oldest type, probably the Zoas of Eusebius, 
and the seat of a bishopric. This place has not been previously noticed, and 
solves some of the difficulties which have encumbered the topography of the 
Zoas of the Pentateuch, 

In two hours we crossed the Wady Thamed, overhanging which, on a 
peninsula formed by the river, is an immense heap of stones, apparently an 
old keep and enclosure. It is 300 feet above the Wady, and is known as 
Um E'mail. We made this our station for a few days. Three miles north 
of it is Zafaran, with a fort of large squared stones on the top of a till, and 
the remains of the town below it. There are no traces of arches here, and 
the place seems pre-Eoman. It may perhaps be the Naar Safari of the 
' Notitia,' the station of the second Ala miliarensis. Near it are the similar 
ruins of El Alaki, and two miles further El Herri, a fortress on a knoll and 
JV town below it, with the old Eoman road passing close by. 

The next ruin, N.E. from hence, is Um Weleed, one of the most important 
and extensive in the whole country. The ruins are of three distinct types, 
pre-Eoman, Eoman, and a Saracenic Khan. No previous traveller has visited it, 
and its local name gives no clue to its ancient name. The Eoman road passed 



GEOGRAPHICAL EXPLOKATION OF JIOAB. 229 

through it. Tlierc is an amphitlicatrc ; the pavement of a forum, surrounded 
by the bases of cohimus, is entire, 41 paces by 38, and just beyond it tlie 
eastern gate of the city, outside which is an interesting little Doric temple, 
12 yards by 10, facing east, the niches being still in sitti. 

The streets here have been arcaded ; and we found iu some places the flat 
slabs of stone which formed the flooring of the dwellings above the streets 
still entire. By the side of these old streets the ancient Khan looked but a 
work of yesterday. 

We followed the Eoman road from Um "Weleed to Um el Kuseir. There 
is no ruined bridge as marked iu the maps ; but there is a long massive wall 
across part of the plain, built for the purpose of guiding the ffoods into the 
cisterns. Um el Kuseir is of the same type as the last named city, but not 
so extensive. 

Hence we struck eastward to Ziza, where we spent a week. It is men- 
tioned in the ' N'otitia' as the headquartc}-s of the Dalmatian Illyrican cavalry. 
The remains of Ziza are very perfect. The tank is simply magnificent, 140 
yards by 110 (see Photograph); many of the stones are G feet in length. 
Much engineering ingenuity is shown in the mode by which the upper valley 
has been banked, and a system of sluice-gates arranged for filling the pool 
and letting off the superfluous rainfall. 

Above it is a strong Saracenic fort, still entire, and which was occupied by 
Ibrahim Pasha. Tiie upper story has been fitted for engines of war, and 
many stones taken from Christian chambers marked with plain symbols appear 
in the walls. The ancient city is on a long ridge further up, occupying 
several acres, and full of sculptured ruins. The whole hill is honeycombed 
Avith cisterns. The principal remains seem not earlier than the Christian 
period, comprising several churches. 

Sis miles east of Ziza we crossed the Hadj road, not far from the base of 
the limestone range which forms the eastern limit of the highlands of Moab. 

A little beyond this, at the very base of the hiUs, but without any trace 
of water, we discovered a palace which surpasses in interest any other of the 
niins which this expedition has brought to light. Prom the eminences near 
Ziza we had detected a pile of masonry in this direction ; the Beni Sakkr gave 
it the name of Mashita, and spoke of it as being like the other ruinous 
heaps which we were continually examining. 

A gazelle had beguiled our ride, and not a little were we startled when 
we reined iu our horses in front of a facade of which only the photographs 
can give the slightest idea. Two days were well spent in photographing and 
measuring (see Plan and Photographs). We were in utter perplexity as to 
the origin of these magnificent buildings ; nor was our difficulty lessened by 
the long lines of inscriptions in an unrecognized character on the lower coriieri 
outside the inner palace. One thing was plain, the palace had never been 
finished, at least in its decorations ; and we have to thank Mr. Fergusson for 
having given us the clue to the solution of the problem. Mr. Fergusson is 
decidedly of opinion that it is the work of Chosroes II., the Sassanian king 
of Persia, after his conquest of Syria, jS'orth Arabia, and Egypt in a.d. 611- 
622. The builders seem to have been interrupted, for it is evident that the 
decorations were never finished. This is explained by the advance of the 
Emperor Ileraclius, who so brilliantlj- swept the Persian out of the whole of 
his conquests, and recalled for a moment the glories of old Home. 

There are no more ancient remains of any kind in the neighbourhood, 
and no Saracenic additions whatever. Mashita stands forth in absolute 
solitude and isolation; unlike the cities of Moab, with their traces of many 



230 KEPORT— 1872. 

epochs. It probably was erected as a hunting-palace, to gratify the luxurious 
taste of Chosroes. Mr. Fergusson has pointed out the indications in this 
wonderful sculptured facade of Byzantine art, guided by Persian design 
(see Plan and Photograph). 

It is not a little strange that so perfect and unique a building has remained 
unnoticed and undiscovered by any European before us, and without any 
tradition attaching to it by the Bedouin. There is no trace here of any de- 
struction by the hand of man. The sculpture is of extraordinary depth and 
scarcely weathered, as may be seen by the photographs. 

Travelling north from Ziza, the ruins of Kustul, evidently some Eoman 
" castellum," possess, as may be seen from the photographs, a character distinct 
from any other Moabite cities. There are the several walls, cisterns, and 
arches, these latter unusually massive and well finished ; but besides them 
two castles, with many semicircular bastions, surmounted by a sculptured 
balustrade of the Corinthian order. The principal castle is 84 yards square. 
The smaller castle, isolated from the city, would seem to have been a temple 
fortified. We found a Greek altar of white marble, and several marble capi- 
tals, which must have been imported from the Greek islands or Asia Minor. 
Below the city is a tank like that of Ziza. 

Six miles north of Kustul I visited Thenib, a heap of cisterns, walls, and 
arches, and two miles further north Eujum Hamam, a ruined heap of shape- 
less stones. This was our extreme north-eastern point. 

Travelling west from Kustul, Um Zibarah presents only a large assembly 
of hummocks and hollowed cisterns. Crossing the commencement of Wady 
Jifar we reached the top of Jebel Jelul, a most remarkable hill, hitherto 
unnoticed, or placed close to Heshbou, rising 300 feet above the plain and 
covered with ruins. Pieces of Doric entablature were strewn about. The 
panorama from Jelul was uninterrupted for several miles in all directions. 

From Jelul, turning south, we passed Sufa, crossed Wady Habis, the ruina 
of Betan el Bareil, Habis city, and then leaving the highlands followed down 
the gorge of the Habis, the main feeder of the Zerka Main. Owing to the 
ruggedness of the road it was a two days' journey to the hot springs of Cal- 
Urrhoe. We had now left the country of the Beni Sakkr, and were in that 
of the Hamaydeh. These latter have been spoken of as an independent tribe, 
and the remains of the ancient Moabites. We never found them inhabiting 
huts, but only tents like other Bedouins ; physically they seemed decidedly 
inferior to the Beni Sakkr, who treat them as mere vassals, pasturing their 
cattle and camels where they please in Hamaydeh territory, and summoning 
them to their service. They obeyed the orders of Zadam implicitly, when 
he desired Ibn Tarif or any other of their Sheikhs to act as our guides in any 
part of their country. ISTor were we once asked for backshish from the time 
we left the Kerak men till we reached Jericho. Their chief men never pre- 
sumed to enter the tent with Zadam, but consorted with the servants. The 
gorge of the CaEirrhoe is one of the grandest I have seen. We had to ascend 
to a narrow secondary plateau and then descend 1300 feet to the hot baths. 
The north face of the ravine is red sandstone below and white limestone 
above; the south face is formed by a stream of basalt, in many places co- 
lumnar. 

Our camping-ground was delicious, by the side of a warm sulphur torrent, 
9G° Fahr. just where it dashes into the cooler stream of sweet water in front 
of us. The hot sul^jhurous springs aU issue from the north face of the gorge, 
at the jiinction of the red sandstone with the limestone. In a reach of three 
miles there are ten principal springs and many minor ones, dashing down 



GEOGRAPHICAL KXPLOHATION 01' MOAB. 231 

little nullah's or canons, all shaded -with date-palms and canebrake. The 
temperature of the upper spring was only 85°, that of the fifth and tenth, 
which are the largest, was 135° and 14U° at their exit from the rock. The 
heated stream of the Calhrrhoe retains a temperature of 70° at its mouth. 

There is not a trace of Roman baths or of building of any kind ; this ig 
not to be wondered at when wo observe the rapid deposit of sulphur uoW 
forming about all the lower springs. These sulphurous deposits form crum- 
bhng cliffs, under which the hot stream has in many places made itself a 
tunnel, to which the Arabs have pierced holes through the overlying crust, 
over which tlicy sit and enjoy a natural vapour-bath. 

We made this lovely glen our hcadcpiarters for eight days, and thoroughly 
examined the neighbourhood. The castle of lEachterus (M'Kaur), the place of 
the martj-rdom of St. John Baptist, does not seem to have been noted by any 
predecessor, and is wrongly placed in the maps. It stands to the S.E. of 
the head of the Wady Sgara, the next glen to the south of Callirrhoe. Its 
natural position is accurately described by Josephus ; but there is nothing left 
to give any idea of the great strength of its fortifications. The citadel, isolated, 
as Pliny observes, from the city below, has only foundations of the keep just 
level with the soil, circular, exactly 100 yards in diameter; within it is a weU 
of great depth, a large and deep oblong cemented cistern, and two dungeons, 
one of them very perfect. The town occupied the ridge of a long crest running 
east and west to the west of the fortress, and is marked by a stupendous heap of 
stones, beyond which are the foundations of several forts and of a smaU temple. 
The stone heap is 250 yards long and of great height, and the crest is 3800 
feet above the Dead Sea. The finest "saew on the east side is, I think, from 
the top of the ridge between M'Kaur and Callirrhoe. 

Attarus, the ancient Ataroth, and Kureiyat (Kiriathaim) were also visited. 
Attarus is certainly in extent among the most considerable of the Moabite 
ruins, but featureless ; Jebel Attarus is three miles distant from the site which 
bears the name of ancient Ataroth. It has been crowned by a massive square 
fortress. The feature most remarkable in this treeless country is a fine tere- 
binth, Avhich attracts the eye from far and is noticed by Eurkhardt. Eound 
this hill and in the undulating plain between it and the city the ground is 
sparsely covered with trees, the only wooded spot in the highlands. Tere- 
binths, oaks, and especially the almond-tree in abundance, present an aspect 
most refreshing in this bare and monotonous land. 

Kureiyat has nothing worthy of note, and from hence to the Anion there 
is scarcely a ruin on the eastern edge of the plateau. 

In the neighbourhood of the Calhrrhoe we observed several prehistoric 
stone circles, like those found at Beitin and elsewhere, and many cairns, which 
seem far anterior to the mounds of the cities. 

An expedition to Zara (the Zareth Shaphau of the Bible) was full of interest. 
The narrow ravine of the Callirrhoe it was impossible to follow ; and we were 
compelled to mount the heights, cross two more gorges, and follow the crests 
till we descended 2000 feet from a lower plateau upon the oasis of Zara. 
Tills is not, as marked on the maps, at the mouth of the Callirrhoe, but consi- 
derably to the south. It was a city of Eeuben, its frontier town on the 
shore, and shows few traces of later occupation. We may trace the features 
of the Jewish town, a central fort on a knoll and the houses clustering round 
it, as may be seen to-day at Gibeon and elsewhere. We were surprised to 
find a wide extent of rich land fringing the Dead Sea, abundantly watered 
by hot springs, some sulphurous and others sweet. This belt reaches to 
within a short distance of the mouth of the Arnou. Northwards some bold 



& 



233- REPORT — 1872. 

headlands intervene between it and the Callirrhoe, and a scramble ^ye had to' 
get ronnd to the fissnrc tbrong'h which the river emerges, forming a spit 
covered with tamarisk at its entrance. It is needless to say that we found 
the shore-line laid down by Lynch most accurate, but the sketching-in of the 
country, even close to the water's edge, most inaccurate, as his party in this 
district seem rarely to have left their boats. There is a striking contrast 
between the eastern and western shores ; on the latter there are only a few 
patches of verdure, scarcely breaking the desolate barrenness of the coast-line ; 
on the east all is exuberant verdure and continually running streamlets to 
the water's edge. The palm-tree is abundant, and clings to the sides of the 
little ravine from a height of over 1000 feet to the very edge of the sea (sec 
Photograph), while the varying shrubs and flowers overpower the botanist. 
This must be attributed to the sandstone formation, which, underlying the 
eocene deposits, nowhere appears on the west, while it is greatly elevated on 
the eastern side. 

Arrived at the mouth of the Callirrhoe, we ascended the gorge on foot with 
an ibex-hunter for our guide, and though the scrambling was severe, were 
richly rewarded. At the shore the cliffs are 600 feet high, and the opening 
only 100 yards across, sometimes^ as we ascend, only 30 yards. It winds and 
turns suddenly, and the glow of the red sandstone walls is gorgeous. Paths 
or tracts of course there are none ; and we were compelled to climb as best we 
could up the side, Avhen a waterfall, Jebel Moia, i. c. " waterhill," barred all 
progress. 

After having thoroughly investigated this district we turned northwards, 
visiting at leisure the sites on the western edge of the highlands where the 
cities of Moab were most crowded. 

In this region, as far as Heshbou, I must notice the great number of dol- 
mens which everywhere occur in these parts, which are too rocky to have 
been ever subjected to the plough ; I have counted more than twenty in one 
morning's ride. They are all of one pattern, three stones placed endwise 
forming three sides of a square, and a large stone forming the cover, generally 
about six feet in diameter. I never found four sui)porting stones. 

We followed a road, Jewish or Pv,oman, to Maon and then to Medeba. On 
every side are the foundations that mark the boundary-walls of fields or vine- 
yards, while the Belka Arabs here, for the first time, exemplify the natural 
fertility of the country by their cultivation of large tracts in wheat and 
barley. 

For the ruins of Main (Boal Meon), which occupy four adjacent hiUs, and 
of Medeba, which retains its Bible name unchanged^ I can but refer to our 
photographs. 

At the latter we camped for some days and visited the ruins to the east 
and north. Medeba contains more perfect lloman remains than any of the 
other western cities of the highlands. It is not in a hollow, but, like all 
other towns of Moab, on the top of a knoll. The forum, or whatever else it 
may have been, is the largest we have seen, 280 by 240 yards, with a colon- 
nade, and the bases of the columns still in situ, many temples and later 
christian churches. The most remarkable remaining work is the reservoir, 
built on the same principles as Solomon's pools, and 120 yards square, with 
its walls 30 feet thick at the base, tapering to 18 feet. It would be tedious to 
describe the temples and churches of Medeba, which at least prove the dense 
population of this part. The other northern cities of Moab call for no special 
mention ; they occur every half mile, and are alike in their main features. Man 
has had little or nothing to do with their decay. "We examined carefully the 



ON THE ELIMINATION OF ARBITRARY FUNCTIONS. 233 

heights ovcrhauging the Dead Sea with a view to Nebo. The modern Jfebbeh 
affords exactly the view described iu Deuteronomy, and I can find no other to 
rival it. The city of Nebbeli is lo-\ver down on a spur of the range, and with 
remains more perfect than ordinary. The whole country is here densely 
crowded wuth ruins ; but the names do not indicate their ancient equivalents 
— Maslubiych, Kuseir, Et Tein, &c. 

From Nebbeh w-e worked to Ayun, Mossa, Heshban, &c., which have been 
visited by many others. We made some sojourn in the Seisaban, and iden- 
tified Kamah, I3eth Jesimoth, and other scriptural sites, and thence worked 
down the shore of the Dead Sea towards Callirrhoe. We ascertained that 
the Seisaban, the ancient plains of Shittim, is of very much greater extent 
than the maps represent. The fertile Ghor extends from the Beit Nemeirah, 
or iipper fords, to within 3 miles of the mouth of the Callirrhoe, and is well 
watered throughout ; but in ancient warfare this region could never be 
defended, and the ruins are unimportant, though there is not a single mound 
without the stones which tell of some fort of the olden time. 

We trust w"c have by our expedition carried out the intentions of the 
British Association. We have carefully mapped . the whole country north of 
the Arnon, every previous map of which we found to be a mere work of the 
imagination. We have left no ruin in that tract unexplored ; and though we 
have brought home no Moabite stones, we never dreamt we should be able 
to do so. The grant was iov georirajjlikal exploration, and that we have endea- 
voure'd cbnscientio'usl'y tb chrr)^ out, and have brought to light some twenty 
ancient cities hitherto un visited and unknown, and others known only by name. 
The zeal of my companions enabled me to exhibit about 100 photographs. 



Sur I' elimination des Fonctions Arbitraires. 
By Ch. HermitEj Corr. Member of the Mathematical Society, London. 

[A communication ordered by the General Committee to be printed in extenso.'] 

C'est la definition geometrique d'une famille de surfaces par uu certain mode 
do generation qui a conduit ix definir analytiquement une fonction z de x et 
y par le systeme de deux equations 

^(^, y, z, n, A, B, . . . L)=0, 1 

,l.(.r,2/,r, a,A,B, ...L)=0,J '^ ^ 

ou entrent un parametre variable a et un nombre quelconque n de fonctions 
arbitraires de a, representees par A, B, . . . L. Obtenir une equation aux 
diflcrenccs partielles, a laquelle satisfait la fonction z quels que soicnt a et 
ces Ji fonctions, sera la question traitce dans cette note par une methode 
nouvelle. 

J 'observe en premier lieu que les relations donne'es permettcnt de conside'rer 
X ct y comme dcs fonctions de z, dont les derivees successives, 

, dx ,, cl-x ,„ (Px 

a; =_, X = -— , .r = . . . 

c(z uz' dz^ 

, dii „ cVy „, d'l/ 



(3) 



234 REPORT— 1873. 

s'obtiendront, soit diroctement si Ton peut avoir ce et y explicitemcnt cxprime's 
en z, soit par les regies relatives aux fonctions implicites. Dans ce dernier 
cas nous aurons d'abord, 

^a^'+'^y'+^ll=0, ^ii'^''+^2/'+^=0, ... (2) 
iLv ay dz ax ay dz 

puis: 

'Iix" + '%"+{'^,-ft/]Lijx',ty\ +i^a7'4--^ 2/'+— =0,1 
dx dy \dx^\lxdij dy'^-^ ' J^ dxdz' dydz dz'' ' I 

''^lx" + %" + C^, ^,'l±rx,y'\ +^ x'+^y' + '^=0, 
dx dy \dx' dxdy dy^-'^ J ^ dxdz dydz dz^ ^ 

et ainsi de suite. 

En second lieu je remarque que z=f(x, y) etant la fonction qui resulte de 
I'e'limiuation du parametre a, on reproduira identiquement la quantite z si 
Ton y remplace a'cty par les valours qu'on tire de la resolution des equations 
(1), car autrcment ce serait de deux relations conclure une troisiome qui en 
serait distincte. D'apres cela et en regardant x et y eomme fonctions de z, 
la premiere derivee de I'identite obtenue donnera I'egalite suivante : 

^x'V^y'-l = (4) 

dx dy 

la seconde et la troisieme celles-ci : 

d^, 
dx 



z ,, , dz It {d'z d'z d'z^^ , ,\ ^ zi--. 

/d'z d'z dh d'z^ , \ _ 
'^\Ix'' d^' d^'' fV-^''"' '^^3"" 



(6) 



les quantite's x', x", x" , y', y" , y'" devant etre remplacees par leurs valeurs 
.en fonction de s, ou eliminees au moyen des relations (2), (3), &e. En con- 
tinuant les memes calculs jusqu'a la derivee d'ordre n, on parviendra a un 
systeme de n equations, ou les derivees partielles de I'ordre le plus eleve 
seronjt eyidemipeijt : 

d"z d"z d"z 

dx"' dx"-hhj ' ' ' dy"' 

et, en y joignant les deux relations proposees, il sera possible d'effectuer 
relimination du parametre a et des n fonctions arbitraires A, B, . . . L. 
C'est le resultat cberche qui est ainsi une equation aux differences partielles 
d^ordre n. 

Dans le cas le plus simple de n—1, lorsqu'il n'existe qu'une seule fonction 
arbitraire, cette equation aux differences partielles s'obtient immediatement 
en resolvant par rapport a a et A les equations 

?>('^'; >/,~,a, A) = 0, ;/,(a-, y, z,a,A) = 0; 
ayant en effet 

(i=<t{x,y,z), A = ^ (x, y, z), 



ON THE ELIMINATION OF AKBITRAIIY FUNCTIONS. 



235 



il ne restera plus trace du parametre ni de la fouction arbitraire dans lea re- 
lations (2) qui deviennent : 



dx dy dz ax dij 



dz 



efc le resultat de relimination do x' ct y entre cos equations et 1' equation (4) 
est immediatement donne en egalant ii zero le determinant : 

( dz d^ d^ '^ 
dx' dx dx 

dz d<^ d^ 

^=< dy' dy' di' > 

_-. (Z* fZ^f 

dz ' dz 

Sans m'arreter a tirer de \a les e'quations aux diflferences partielles des cylin- 
dres, des cones etc., jc prcuds pour exemple les surfaces reylees dont la gene- 
ra trice est la droite : 

x=Az + 'B, y=az+C, 

ce qiu nous dounera un cas d'elimination do trois fouctions arbitraircs. Or 
ayant 

a:'=A.,x" = 0,x"' = 0; y'r^ct, y" = 0, y"' = 0, 

les equations (5) et (6) deviennent sini|jlenient 

/drz _c^_ d^YX a\ =0 
\dx'^' dxdy' dy'^-^ ' /i 

/<Fs d'z d'z d^YA a\ =0 
yLv'' dx'-dy' dxdy'-' dy''-^ ' /a 

et il ne reste plus qu'a effectuer Telimiuation de -, ce qui est bicn en effet 

le resultat connu. 

La consideration des surfaces enveloppes, ou s'offre un mode de generation 

entierement different des precedents, conduit a definir une fonction z de x et 

y par deux equations contenaut un parametre variable a, et dont I'une est la 

derivee de I'autre par rapport a ce parametre. En designant de nouveau 

par A, B, . . . L, n fonctions arbitraires de a, ces conditions s'expriment 

ainsi : 

f(x,y,z,a,A,'B,...L)=0, (7) 

d ,, 

j-^f(x,y,z,ci,A,B,...L) = 0, (8) 

et nous nous proposons encore de former entre la fonction et les variables 
indepeudantes, une equation aux differences partielles qui subsiste quelles 
que soient ces fonctions de a. 

A cet effet je congois que x et y soient determines par les e'quations (7) et 
(8) en fonction de z, de maniere a avoir toiijours les relations prccedemment 
obtenues : 

dz , clz , , ^ dz „ dz ,, . (d?-z dH d-z~^ , A „ , 
-7- -"^^ +1-2/ —1 = 0, X + — y -^i —r, -J—, -j-rJ^ > y ] =0> etc. 
dx dy dx dy \dx^ dxdy dy^'^ *^Ji 



236 REPORT— 1872. 

Mais je proeederai difFe'remment pour calculer les de'rivees : 

, d.v , (III , 
^ = ^-' y= ^^' etc., 

en mcltant a profit uno circonstancc importante qui s'offre lorsqu'on vcut 

7-* 7 

tirer de ces equations les de'rivees particlles -y^_, ~. Differentiant pour cela la 
premiere par rapport a .i-, en supposant a fonction de x, y, z, il vient 

dx dz dx du dx ' 
ou simplcmeut d'apres Te'^uation (8), 



et on obtieudrait de meme '• 



dx dz dx ' 



dy dz dy 

Or nous n'avons plus dans ccs relations les derivccs des fonctions arbitraircs 
par rapport au parametre, et nous en tirerous les quantites cherches x', y', 

.... exprimees au moyen seulement de A, B, . . . L, en observant que -^ 

dx, 

par exemplc, etant une fonction cntierement detcrminee de x et y, que 

j'appeUerai pour un moment (x, y), on aura 

(Id _dd ,, (Id , 
dz dx ^ dy'^ ' 

d'oii Ton voit qu'on devra ecrirc 

d^ nh\ _ d-z , d-z ,, 
dz \(h'J ~ dx^ '^' "^ (Ixdy ^ ' 

et pareillemcnt 

" " d'z ,, d'z , 

■j—r •'^" + -,- y 

dxdy dy 



dz \dy) 



D'api'cs cela en representant suivant I'usage, les de'rivc'es particlles du pre- 
mier ordre par p et (j ; ceUes du second ordre par r, s, t, nous aurons pour 
determiner .r'»et y' , ces deux equations : 

dx^ dxdy dxdz \dxdz dydz dz J dz 

erf , , (ly , , dy , f dy , . dy ..dy\^, dy, ,.. ,. ^ 

dxdy dy dydz \dxdz dydz dz- J dz 

et il est clair qu'en continuant de diifcrentier par rapport a z, on formera de 
proche en proche, les de'rivees de x et y jusqu'a un ordre quelconque n — 1, 
avec cette circonstancc que les derivees particlles de z jusqu'a I'ordre n seront 
introduites dans leurs expressions. II en resulte qu'en les substituant dans 
les relations (4), (5), (6), .etc.> on sei'a conduit a un systeme de n e'quations 



ON THE ELIMINATION OF ARBITRARY FUNCTIONS. 237 

entre ces derivees partielles et les quantites «, A, B, . . . L, Nous pouvons 
done en y joignant celles-ci, 

effectuer I'elimination dii paramotro et des n fonctions arbitraires ; c'est Ic 
rciultat cherchequi estainsiune equation aus differences partielles d'ordre n. 
Nous aliens en faire I'application a deux exemplcs tires de la gcometrie, apres 
avoir remarque que les equations ci-dessus, en .v' et y', jointes a la relation 
(4), 2xv'+qy'— 1=0, donnent par I'elimination de x' ety', la condition A=0, 
A etant le determinant du systeme suivant : 



r dp ^ d'f ^ df 

dx^ dxdz dz 


dxdy ^ dxdz^^ dz 


*' dxdy^ dydz^^ dz'' 


dy' ^ dydz^^ dz 


1 '^^f + '^'fp 
I ' dxdz ^ dz'^' 

V 


dv . dy 

dydz ^ dz' ^' 



s 



Mais si on ajoute aux termes de la premiere et de la seconde colonne hori- 
zontale ceux de la troisicme, multiplies d'abord par p et ensuite par q, on aura 
plus simplement A = B'-— c? en posant: 

' W' d^z' dz'^'^JJdz ' 
p fdj d'f d'f^. \ , df^ 

dxdy ^ dydz ^ ^ dxdz ^^ dz' ^^^ dz '• 

Ce resultat pent s'obtenir directement d'une maniore tres-facile ; je me bome- 
rai a en faire Tapplication d'abord aux surfaces developpables enveloppe des 
positions d'un plan mobile : z + av+ Ay + B=0, ce qui donne immediatement 
A = r, B = s, C = < d'ou par consequent I'equation si connue : s'^—rt=0. 
Soit en second lieu les surfaces canaux, enveloppe des positions d'une 
sphere de rayon constant, 

(x-Af + (y-Bf + (r-«) = a"; 

dont le centre decrit uue courbe quelconque. On obtient alorS 

|A = l+pH (=-«)'•. iTi=pq + (z-a)s, ^G=l + q^+(z-a)t, 
ct le parametre s'elimine au moyen des relations 

x-A + (z-a)2> = 0, y— B + (r-n)2 = 0, 
qui donnent en substituant dans I'equation de la sphere, 



De la rdsulte I'equation aux differences partielles du second ordre : 



238 REPORT— 1872. 

Nous ne nous sommos occiipes jusqu'ici de la formation des equations anx 
diflPerences partielles que dans le cas d'une fonction de deux variables. 

Considerons maintenant par exemple une fonction ?t de .r, y, z, en la 
definissant par ces trois equations, ou entrent detix parametres a, /3, et un 
nombre quelconque n de fonctions arbitraires A, B. . . . L, de ces para- 
metres, savoir : 

<i> {x, y, z, n, a, /3, A, B, . . . L)=0, 

^ (.r, y, z, u, a, /), A, B, . . . L) = 0, 

(a?, 1/, r, M, o, /3, A, B, . . . L) = 0. 

L' elimination des fonctions arbitraires s'effectuera par la meme methode que 
precedemment, et donnera pour rcsultat une equation aux differences parti- 
elles d'ordre n. La meme conclusion s'obtiendra aussi en considerant les 
relations : 

.•/(•^,2/,r,ii,a,/3,A,B,...L) = 0, 'J^ =0, [| =0. 

Mais elle n'a plus lieu, si Ton pose seulement deux equations avec un seul 
parametre variable, savoir : 

^(.r,2/,r,tt, t<,A,B, ...L) = 0, ^(.r,y,r,«, a, A, B, . . . L)=0; 

car alors on peut former une equation aux differences partielles d'ordre n, 
representant le resultat de rclimination d'un nombre de fonctions arbitraires 

tl ( 'iX 1 ^ 

de a supcricur a n, et egal a V) • Lorsque le nombre des quantites 

A, B, . . . L n'est point compris dans cette forraule, s'il est egal a 4 par ex- 
emple, de sorte qu'on ne puisse pas obtenir une equation aux derivees par- 
tielles du second ordre, on parvieudra en introduisant les derivees du troisieme 
ordre, a plusicurs relations distinctes au lieu d'une seule. Cette circonstance 
que presente souvent I'elimination des fonctions arbitraires, montre qu'on 
doit attacher une grande importance aux formes analytiques ou Telimination 
donne lieu a une conclusion precise, a une seule et unique equation aux 
differences partielles ; et tel a etc le motif qui m'a fait cntreprendre ces 
rechcrches dont jc prie I'Association Britannique de vouloir bien agreer 
Thommagc. 



Report on the Discovery of Fossils in certain remote parts of the 
North-western Highlands. By William Jolly. 

A LIMESTONE Tuus from Durness and Loch Eribol, in the north of Sutherland, 
with varying thickness but more or less continuity south by Loch More.Inchua- 
damph, Ullapool, and Loch Maree, to Kishorn near Loch Carron, Avhere it dies 
out on the mainland. This limestone rests on a thick deposit of quartzite, 
and this again on the red sandstone of the west coast. All of these rocks 
enter into some of the grandest scenery of the North-western Highlands. 

These rocks were considered unfossiHferous tiU 1855, when Mr. Peach 
made his great discovery of those fossils in the Durness limestone which 
were classed by Mr. Salter as Silurian, and the discovery of which enabled Sir 
Er. Murchisou to complete his classification of tlie rocks of the N.W. of Scot- 



O^ FOSSILS FROM THE NORTH-WESTERN HIGHLAXDS. 23^ 

land. These fossils were discovered ia the limestone of Durness, where they 
are numerous, and where more have since then been found. This Durness 
limestone forms, geographically, an isolated basin lying to the west of the 
great strike of limestone which runs from Eribol to 8kye. In this detached 
deposit only have fossils been found, with the rarest exceptions, to be named 
below. It is important, therefore, that organic remains should be found, if 
such exist, in the great line of strike, in order to determine whether this 
last limestone is fossiliferous or not, and also -whether the Durness lime was 
deposited under the same or under different conditions. It was for the 
purpose of making diligent search along this great line of deposit, that a 
grant was asked and obtained last year from the Association ; as also for the 
discovery of more perfect specimens, and, if possible, new species, from the 
Durness lime, in order to determine more precisely the relations these fossils 
bear to the Silurian and other systems, than could be made from the sped 
mens submitted to Mr. Salter in 1S58. 

Since the Edinburgh Meeting last year, search has been instituted along 
this great strike of limestone at Durness, Loch Eribol, Inchnadamph, 
Elphin, and Kinlochewe, and Avill be made at Ullapool and Loch Kishorn. 
At these points, certain clergymen, teachers, and other gentlemen have kindly 
consented to do what they can towards the discovery of fossils, so that more 
systematic search will now be made than heretofore. Good results may be 
anticipated, if not in the discovery of fossils, at least in greater certainty as 
to the presence or absence of organic remains in these remarkable rocks. 

At DuKNPiss, in July of last year, many fine fossils were obtained, through 
the efforts of some members of the Committee and their friends, from a re- 
markable island of limestone near Cape Wrath, called Elian Garve. These 
fossils were shown at the Meeting in Edinburgh, and were pronounced by 
Mr. Poach much finer than any he had seen from the same locality. They 
have been secured as the nucleus of a collection for the Association. A col- 
lection of fine specimens was also made by a student resident in the district, 
for Professor Nicol, of Aberdeen, who now has them in his possession. This 
island is so difficult of access, except in the very calmest weather, that we 
were unable to land both this year and last. In June of this year, along 
with some friends, I landed on a rocky headland of limestone, on the west side 
of the Kyle of Durness, where fossils are exposed on the weathered surfaces 
of the limestone in remarkable numbers, and I obtained some good speci- 
mens. Several gentlemen in the neighbourhood have kindly agreed to make 
diligent search in the Durness limestone at various points, and one of them 
has also kindly allowed the use of his boat for this purpose ; so that good 
work will be done at the least possible expense. 

Loch Eribol. — No fossils have yet been discovered in the extensive lime- 
stone rocks on Loch Eribol. An Orthoceratite was presented to the Jermyn- 
Street Museum by Sir II. Murchison, which he got from Mr. Clark, of Eribol 
House. This Orthoceratite is unique, as being the only organism found in 
the quartzite. It was not, however, found in situ, nor at the spot marked 
by Sir Iloderick in his paper in the 'Geological Journal' of August 1860, 
vol. xvi., but was picked up in a detached piece of rock between Eribol 
House and the loch to the west. Lime-works have been established on Loch 
Eribol on the limestone peninsiila of Heilim, and quarrying has been done 
in connexion with these, but as yet no fossils have been found. These ope- 
rations afford an unwonted opportunity for their discovery, and the strictest 
watch is to be kept by the lessee. 

iNCHNADAMPn, — In the immense development of limestone at the head of 



240 REPORT— 1872. 

Locli Assynt no fossil has yet been discovered, except two by Mr. Peach iu 
the stinking limestone above the manse near Inchnadamph. One of these 
was an Orthoceratite. I sjDcnt some time on this limestone this year, 
but was unsuccessful, except in finding a piece that may turn out to be 
organic. Mr. Peach's discovery shows that fossils may be found here ; and 
the parish teacher is to make search during next year. 

Elphin is situated, not far from the splendid limestone-cliff of Craig-an- 
Knockan, figured by both Murchison and Nicol ia their papers on these rocks. 
Here the limestone is largely developed, and has been quarried at various 
points. The teacher of the Society school is to look for fossils. 

Near Ullapool, on Loch Broom, there has been a good deal of quarrying 
for lime-burning, and the sections arc extensive. Something may be dis- 
covered there. Search will be made. 

At Ktnlocheave, at the head of Loch Maree, there is not so much lime- 
stone exposed as in other parts. The Free Church teacher there is to devote 
his spare time to a search ; but much cannot be looked for, as the limestone 
is in contact with igneous rocks, in Glen Logan, where it is found. 

At Locn KisuouN there is a large exposure of limestone along the loch 
near Courthill. This will be submitted to careful search. 

In this way the whole line of strike of this limestone from N. to S. will be 
examined by intelligent men, who have kindly and earnestly entered into the 
work, and we consider ourselves fortunate in having secured such cooperation. 
The Committee confidently hope that by next Meeting they will be en- 
abled to present to the Association a good collection of organic remains from 
these interesting rocks ; or, at least, to have done something that will contri- 
bute to greater certainty as to whether, and to what extent, these rocks are 
fossiliferous or not. 



Report of the Committee on Earthquakes in Scotland. The Committee 
consists of Br. Buyce, F.G.S., Sir W. Thomson, F.R.S., D. Milne- 
Home, F.R.S.E., and J. Bkough. 

As Convener of the Committee -on Earthquakes in Scotland, I have to report 
that the last year has passed without any incident coming within the scope 
of this inquiry ; there has not occurred any sensible disturbance in the 
Comrie district, or oscillation of the lakes in the neighbourhood, such as 
those recorded in former Reports. In other parts of Scotland the same 
freedom from earthquake-movements has prevailed. But this state of 
quiescence is not likely to continue ; and the attention of the Committee 
has been turned to the remedying of those defects which from time to 
time are apt to occur with instruments long in use, and to the extension 
of the means of observing to other localities suitably placed for the pur- 
pose. The accomplishment of this object renders necessary some more simple 
means of noting shocks than any which have hitherto been applied by the 
Committee. The seismometer belonging to the Association, which now 
occupies the tower of the parish church of Comrie, is of too complex con- 
struction, and takes up too much room, to be applicable except in a few 
peculiar localities. Some simple and cheap method of indicating earthquake- 
movements is thus much to be desired. Any apparatus for the purpose 



ON THE STRUCTURE OF CARBONIFEROUS-LIMESTONE CORALS. 241 

should occupy small space, be little liable to derangement, capable of being 
put up in any ordinary apartment not of special construction, and its indica- 
tions such as any intelligent person could easily interpret and readily note. 
The Committee are now anxiously considering what instrumental means 
will best combine these several requisites and advantages, and what stations 
would be most suitable to select in extending the area of the inquiry. Mean- 
while the seismometer of the Association, which is the invention of the late 
Principal Forbes, is kept in proper working order at Comrie, where also the first 
supplemental indicator will be set up. Principal Forbes's son, Mr. Geo. Forbes, 
Edinburgh, who has gained some practical acquaintance with earthquake in- 
struments at Naples, has been taken into their counsels by the Committee, and 
they have now to request that Mr. Forbes be added to their number. 

(Signed) James Brtce, M.A., LL.D., Convener. 

P.S. — During the Session of the Association at Brighton an earthquake of 
considerable severity occurred in the Comrie district, of which an account 
wlU. be given next year. — J. B. 



Fourth Rejjort of the Committee appointed to investigate the Structure 
of Carboniferous-Litnestone Corals. The Committee consists of 
James Thomson, F.G.S., and Professor Harkness, F.R.S. 

At the Liverpool Meeting of the British Association the Committee reported 
that they hoped, by means of a new process, to produce representations of 
the most delicate internal structures of corals of the Carboniferous series. 
The necessity of such a process forced itself on the Committee by the circum- 
stance that none of the existing methods of representing corals reproduced 
faithfully the details of their internal structure. 

The photographs of the Carboniferous corals exhibited at the Liverpool 
Meeting represented these details in some of their most delicate forms. 
This result had been obtained by the transmission of light through their 
sections ; and subsequent investigations have led us to infer that there are 
no better means than that of photography for reproducing generic details. 
Great expense, however, attends this process ; and as it is also a very slow 
one, experiments have been made in order that the same satisfactory result 
might be more readily and less expensively obtained. 

At the Edinburgh Meeting they were unable to lay before Section C the 
same number of results as at the previous Meeting ; but they had so far 
succeeded as to be able to produce two plates, although they were not so 
perfect as was desirable : they were, however, sufficiently successful to 
justify the Committee in asserting that a more simple and less expensive 
process was available. In the application of this process the Committee 
have been ably assisted by Mr. Keckie, the artist employed by them in 
engraving the copper-plates. 

During the past year the investigations of the Committee have been con- 
tinued with increasing interest. They have now made sections of upwards 
of 1300 specimens, and have been able to add considerably to this branch of 
Palaeontology. 

In their Eeport presented to the Liverpool Meeting ninety-two forms were 
alluded to ; and these presented characters sufficiently distinct to justify thy 

1872. • 8 



242 REPORT— 1872. 

Committee in adding them to those previously described by MM. Milne-Edwards 
and Jules Haime. By this addition, the number of British Carboniferous 
corals amounts to 156 species. 

From the forms which have been recently sliced, and also from those of 
former years, the Committee have ascertained that among these species from 
300 to 400 varieties occur, an increase which is so great, and the variations 
so minute, that it becomes difficult to determine specific characters among 
these corals. 

The gradations of the varieties are in some cases so constant, and pass 
so imperceptibly into each other, that they induce the inference that there 
has been an inherent tendency in the polyp to vary independent of, but to 
be modified by, the conditions of its surroimdiugs. 

The forms occurring in deposits which have resulted from deep water are 
not only more symmetrical in outline, but also more perfect in their internal 
structure than such as are met with in strata formed in shallow water, 
where they have been exposed to the constant shiftiiigs and abrading influence 
of shore deposits. 

In the case of such forms as occur in a matrix originally in the state of 
fine mud, these are small in size ; and they seem to have been gradually 
exterminated by the impurity of the water, arising from the increase of the 
fine sedimentary matter originally held in suspension. 

Many of the specimens which have been sliced are found to be perfectly 
useless from their imperfect state of fossilization. Some reveal structural 
characters not previously noticed by authors in this branch of Palseontology ; 
it is desirable that these should be studied further before a complete classi- 
fication of this group of animal life is attempted. 

The classification of corals has in some instances been based upon external 
aspects ; in others on the number and form of the septa. The number 
and arrangement of the lamellfe which pass from the inner margin of the 
primary septa and fill up the columeUarian space have also been adopted as 
bases of classification. 

Some writers regard the form and position of the dissepiments of the 
endotheca as of specific importance ; and some rest generic and specific 
distinctions upon the presence or absence of the columellarian line which 
passes from the inferior to the superior, and terminates in the centre of the 
calice. Observations, however, justify us in inferring that, although these 
several characters are of importance, they cannot be depended upon for 
specific determinations. 

During the last fifteen years no less than 10,000 specimens have been 
sliced, many of which show structural diff'erences" in character from such as 
have been accepted as of specific importance, which induce us to conclude 
that further examinations are necessary before determining even a variety. 

It has been stated that the columellarian line has been accepted as of 
generic value. In a new group of corals, which will form the subject of 
an extensive memoir, this line is developed, in some instances, near the 
inferior, and in others it occurs only in the superior portion of the coral. 

The dissepiments filling up the interseptal space are in some forms angular, 
in others subangular and. rectangular. We have, however, recognized these 
several outlines in the sa^e form, and cannot, therefore, accept the outline 
of the dissepiments as of specific importance. 

In the case of the number of lamelke also, some forms present the lamellae 
in one part, while in another part of the same coral the space is filled up 
by tubulsB. 



ON CLAIMS FOR REWARD FOR ADOPTED INVENTIONS ETC. 243 

Concerning the number of the septa, this can hardly be regarded as of 
value, since this number is dependent on age and surrounding conditions 
during the growth of the polyp. 

In order that some definite rule may be obtained as a guide in the classi- 
fication of corals, it is proposed to select generic types, and, after making 
sections of these through different jjarts, to exhibit their structure in plates, 
from the ova to their mature forms ; and it is only when this is faithfully 
done that we can hope to determine where a sjjecies begins and a variety ends. 

We have, in conclusion, to thank the British Association and many kind 
friends for the assistance rendered us, and hope for its continuance until this 
laborious but interesting investigation be completed, as we are satisfied that 
results will be obtained commensurate with the time and expense which the 
work has cost during the last fifteen years. 

A sum considerably in excess of the grant having been expended, the 
Committee have to ask that a further grant of £25 be placed at their disposal 
for continuing the investigation. 



Report of the Committee, consisting of J. F. Bateman, C.E., F.R.S., 
P. Le Neve Foster, M.A., C. W. Merripield, F.R.S., E. Easton, 
F.G.S., F. J. Bramwell, C.E., W. Hope, V.C, and H. Bauerman, 
F.G.S., appointed to consider' the mode in ivhich new Inventions and 
Claims for Reivard in respect of adopted Inventions are examined 
and dealt with by the different Departments of Government, and to 
report on the best means of removing any real causes of dissatisfac- 
tion, as tvell as of silencing unfounded complaints. 

Having regard to the evidence taken by the Committee of the House of 
Commons on the subject of the Patent Laws, in 1871 and 1872, on the rela- 
tions between inventors and the Government, as well as to complaints made 
in Parliament and elsewhere, your Committee were of opinion that they had 
before them sufiicient information " as to the mode in which new inventions, 
and claims for reward in respect of adopted inventions, are examined and 
dealt with by the difierent departments of Government." They therefore 
did not think it necessary or desirable to examine witnesses on the subject. 

The Committee considered it fully established that the present methodical 
mode of dealing with inventions submitted to the different departments of 
Government was uncertain and unsatisfactory in itself, frequently unjust to 
inventors, and generally detrimental to the public administration. They 
considered it established to their satisfaction, that real injustice was 
frequently done to inventors, not only by neglect and procrastination in 
dealing with their claims, but also by the undue preference of other con- 
flicting claims urged by officers of the different departments. Without enter- 
ing into the merits of any cases in point, it appeared beyond doubt that the 
practical judges of the inventions have been very often rival inventors within 
the departments. The Committee considered it obvious that this placed both 
the inventor and departmental officers in a false position, and that the con- 
sequent decisions could be satisfactory to nobody. As matter of evidence, 
they considered that these departmental decisions had failed to give satisfac- 
tion either to inventors or to the public. 

s2 



244 REPORT — 1873. 

It remained for the Committee to consider and report on the best means 
of removing " any real causes of dissatisfaction, as well as of silencing un- 
founded complaints." 

The Committee are of opinion that the primary means of effecting this 
object is to bring the adjudication of these claims within a jurisdiction inde- 
pendent of the administration of departments of the public service. As long 
as the Patent Law remains as at present, the Committee are of opinion that 
the only satisfactory method of determining what compensation should be 
given to inventors, in cases where the Government makes use of their inven- 
tions, is to have recourse to arbitration. Any inventor whose patented in- 
vention is used, or believed to be used, by any Government official, or agent 
under Government authority, should be at liberty to apply to the proper 
Government department, stating what is the invention used, and how and 
where, and requesting that the application be referred to the decision of two 
arbitrators, who shall be appointed, one by the applicant and one by the 
Government department, with power to appoint an umpire, and that the 
proceedings be assimilated to ordinary compensation cases. 

The Committee, hoping that the recommendations of the House of Commons 
Committee will, at an earl}^ period, be made the subject of legislation, 
recommend that steps be taken, by petition to Her Majesty or otherwise, to 
make the grant of Royal Letters Patent for inventions of effect as regards the 
servants and officers of the Crown in the same way, and to the same extent, 
as Letters Patent are of effect as regards all others of Her Majesty's siibjects. 

Your Committee feel that, if in evciy ease officials appointed to investigate 
new inventions were required to affix their signatures to their reports,, very 
beneficial results would follow, as the personal responsibility thiis attaching to 
them would ensure their full attention, and deter them from rejecting hastily, 
or on insufficient grounds, anj^ proposition or invention brought before them. 

The Committee consider that their Report would be incomplete if they did 
not call attention to an Act for preserving secrecy in the case of inventions 
connected with warfare. 

This Act is the 22nd Vic, cap. 13. Its principal provisions are : — 

Section 1. Improvements in instruments or munitions of war may be 
assigned by inventors to Secretary of State for War. 

Section 2. Foregoing enactment may extend to assignments already made. 

Section 3. Secretary of State for War may certify to Commissioners of 
Patents that the invention should be kept secret. 

Section 4. Where he so certifies, petition for letters patent to be left with 
Clerk of Patents, under seal of Secretary of State. 

Section 5. Such packet to be kept sealed. 

Section 6. To be delivered on demand to Secretary of State or Lord 
Chancellor. 

Section 7. At expiration of patent to be delivered to Secretary of State. 

Section 8. Where Secretary of State certifies after filing of petition, docu- 
ments already filed to be put into sealed packet. 

Section 9. Copy not to be sent to Scotland or Ireland, nor published, but 
otherwise provisions of Patent Acts to apply. 

Section 10. No scire facias to be brought. 

Section 11. Secretary of State may waive benefit of Act. 

Section 12. Communication of invention to Secretary of State not to pre- 
judice letters patent. 



OBSERVATIONS OF LUNAR OBJECTS. 245 

Report of the Committee for discussing Observations of Lunar Objects 
suspected of Change. The Committee consists of the Rev. T. W. 
Webb, the Rev. Robert Hakley, F.R.S., and Edward Crossley, 
Secretary. 

•The Committee have pleasure in presenting their Second Eeport on the above 
subject. It will be remembered that the Report of last year was confined 
principally to the discussion of the possible variations of visibility of the 
numerous spots and craterlets upon the floor of Plato under the same condi- 
tions of illumination. That now presented is directed chiefly to the discus- 
sion of the various streaks aud bright patches which interlace the spots and 
craterlets. 

One interesting and important change ha^ been fairly shown — the floor of 
Plato becomes darker with the increase of the sun's altitude. Mr. Birt has 
suggested an explanation of this phenomenon. Whatever be the true cause 
of this change, it is very dijBficult to account for it by the ordinary laws of 
reflection. ^Yhen we consider the varying aspect of the streaks at the same 
time of the luni-solar day, we cannot but think that, with careftil observations 
made with powerful instruments, such as the Newall Refractor and many 
others, we may be able to confirm or otherwise a physical explanation of 
these curious changes involving the existence of certain gases aud vapours 
upon the surface of the moon. 

The Committee can only look upon the study of Lunar Physics as in its 
infancy, and they trust that in future years the Association will not overlook 
this important branch of astronomical inquiry. 

Eeport on the Discussion of Observations of Streaks on the Surface of the 
Lunar Crater Plato. By "W. R. Birt. 

In completing the task assigned to me of discussing the observations of the 
streaks on the floor of Plato, I have been desirous of including every, eVen 
the most minute, circumstance bearing on the exhibition of phenomena that 
may possibly illustrate the condition of a small portion of the moon's surface 
at the epoch 1869 April to 1871 April. Drawing my conclusions from the 
experience of twelve years, I feel that I may confidently say it will be some 
years before another series of observations of a particular region will be 
undertaken with the view of so closely examining the spots and streaks cha- 
racterizing it, unless a staff of eflicieut observers be organized with the pro- 
vision of a fund sufficiently ample to defray all the necessary expenses. The 
work is a difficult one. The staff should consist of not less than six devoted 
observers, who would, independently and most probably, as in the present 
case, work with instruments of varying aperture and carefully record all 
their observations. The principal qualification is a keen eye for the apprecia- 
tion of delicate variations of tint, and the detection of minute spots of light 
with a readiness of referring them by estimation and ahgnment to the respec- 
tive localities of the region on which they are seen. The observations should 
not be allowed to accumulate, but should be forwarded at once to an experi- 
enced selenographer charged with the work of arranging and discussing them. 
Taking into consideration the results of the discussion of the present and 
previous years embodied in the two Reports, it appears that in order to con- 
firm these results, and to open up new investigations in other regions of the 
moon's surface, the requisite time cannot well be fixed at less than three 
years — five would most probably afford the best results. 



246 REPORT— 1872. 

The results of the present work may be briefly characterized as confirming, 
by a direct reference to the sun's altitude above the horizon of Plato, the sup- 
position that variations of tint in some measure depend on increasing and 
decreasing altitudes. The ascending and descending branches of the curve 
obtained from independent estimations of tint by the several observers are 
sufficiently near those of the sun's altitude to enable me to delineate a nor-^ 
mal curve representative of the sun's influence in darkening the floor of Plato, 
or else in overspreading it vrith something of the nature of a dark covering, as 
his rays strike the surface at the increased angle of about 40 degrees. While 
this darkening influence comes out most unmistakably, there are variations 
in the lighter and darker portions of the floor which seem quite irreconcHe- 
able with solar influence of a gradual character. The treatment of the obser- 
vations under intervals of the luni-solar day fails to bring out any regularity 
in these variations, and it is only by treating the observations clironologicaUy 
that the true sequence of the changes can be detected. To do this for every 
separate streak woiild not only swell this Report to an unseemly length, but 
woiild consume more time than can be devoted to the inquiry. I have, 
nevertheless, considered separatelj'' the changes which were observed in 
August 1869; and in order to assist in showing more distinctly these changes 
and their connexion inter se, I have introduced the hypothesis of a dark 
obscuring medium. Not that I lay any stress upon a mere hypothesis of this 
kind ; it serves to connect the observations, and that is all ; it may or it 
may not be true, and should therefore be held very lightly. In addition to 
this examination of the distribiition of the light and dark spaces on the floor, 
I have traced from day to day the appearances of a single streak, that desig- 
nated a, from its flrst detection in September 1869 to the close of the obser- 
vations; and to show more conclusively that the variations manifested by this 
and neighbouring streaks were not dependent upon the same solar influences 
which contributed to the darkening of the floor, I have arranged all the ob- 
servations bearing upon them in the order of intervals of the luni-solar day. 
The pri