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Full text of "Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science"

SI /^ 



REPOET 



OP THE 



FORTY-FOURTH MEETING 

\ 



/^ 



or THE "■} 

BRITISH ASSOCIATION 



FOB THE 



ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE; 



HELD AT 



BELFAST IN AUGUST 1874. 



LONDON: 
JOHN MURRAY, ALBEMARLE STREET. 

1875. 
\_Office oftlie Association-. 22 Albemarle J^^treet, Londo.v, W.] 



PRINTED BY 
TAYLOR AND FHANCIS, EED LION COFRT, FLEKT STREET. 

ALEBE T FLAMMAM. 





CONTENTS. 



'\y\y\/^ /\r\r\/\.rK/ 



Page 

Objects and Pailes of the Association xvii 

Places of Meeting and Officers from commencement xxiv 

Presidents and Secretaries of the Sections of the Association from 

commencement xxx 

Evening Lectures , xl 

Lectures to the Operative Classes xlii 

Treasurer's Account , xliii 

Table showing the Attendance and Receipts at previous Meetings. . xliv 

Officers of Sectional Committees xlvi 

Officers and Council, 1874-75 ,. . . . xlvii 

Report of the Council to the General Committee xlviii 

Recommendations of the General Committee for Additional Reports 

and Researches in Science "■ 

Synopsis of Money Grants 1'^ 

Place of Meeting in 1876 Ivii 

General Statement of Sums paid on account of Grants for Scientific 

Purposes l^^i 

Arrangement of the General Meetings Ixv 

Address by the President, Prof. John Tyndall, D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S. Ixvi 

REPORTS OP RESEARCHES IN SCIENCE. 

Tenth Report of the Committee for Exploring Kent's Cavern, Devon- 
shire, the Committee consisting of Sir Chaeles Ltell, Bart., E.R.S., 
Sir John Lxtbbock, Bart., F.R.S., John Evans, F.R.S., Edward 
Vivian, M.A., George Busk, F.R.S., William Boyd Dawkins, F.R.S., 
"William Ayshford Sanfoed, F.G.S., John Edward Lee, F.G.S., and 

WiLiiAM Pekgelly, F.R.S. (Reporter) 1 

a 2 



iv CONTENTS. 

Page 

Eeport of the Committee, coasisting of Dr. Gladstone, Dr. C. R. A. 
Weight, and W. Chandler Eoberts, appointed for the purpose of 
investigating the Chemical Constitution and Optical Properties of 
Essential Oils. Drawn up by Dr. Wkight 17 

Second Eeport of the Sub-Wealdcil Exploration Committee, the Committee 
consisting of Henry WiLLETT,E.G.S., E. A. C. Godwin- Austen, E.E.S., 
W. TopLEY, E.G.S., T. Davidson, E.E.S., Prof. J. Prestwich, E.E.S., 
Prof. Boyd Dawkins, F.E.S., and Henry Woodward, E.E.S. Drawn 
up by Henry Willett and W. Topley 21 

On the Eecent Progress and Present State of Systematic Botany. By 
George Bentham, F.E.S 27 

Eeport of the Committee, consisting of Dr. Pye-Smith, Dr. Brtjxton 
(Secretary), and Mr. West, appointed for the purpose of investigating 
the Nature of Intestinal Secretion 54 

Eeport of the Committee on the Teaching of Physics in Schools, the 
Committee consisting of Professor H. J. S. Sjiith, Professor Clitford, 
Professor W. G. Adams, Professor Balfour Stewart, Professor E. B. 
Clifton, Professor Everett, Mr. J. G. Fitch, Mr. G. Griffith, Mr. 
Marshall Watts, Professor W. F. Barrett, Mr. J. M. Wilson, Mr. 
LooKYER, and Professor G. C. Foster (Secretary) 71 

Preliminary Eeport of the Committee, consisting of Dr. Armstrong and 
Professor Thorpe, appointed for the purpose of investigating Isomeric 
Cresols and their Derivatives. Drawn up by Dr. Henry E. Armstrong 73 

Third Eeport of the Committee, consisting of Dr. James Brycb and 
William Jolly, appointed for the purpose of collecting Fossils from 
localities of difficult access in North- western Scotland: Drawn up 
by William Jolly, Secretary 74 

Eeport on the EainfaU of the British Isles for the years 1873-74, by a 
Committee, consisting of C. Brooke, F.E.S. , J. Glaisher, F.E.S., J. 
F. Bateman, C.E., F.E.S., T. Hawksley, C.E., C. Tomlinson, F.E.S., 
EoGERS Field, C.E., G. J. Symons, Secretary 75 

On the Belfast Harbour. By T. E. Salmond, C.E 118 

Eeport of the Committee, consisting of W. Chandler Egberts, Dr. 
Mills, Dr. Boycott, A. W. Gadesden, and J. S. Sbllon, appointed for 
the purpose of inquiring into the Method of making Gold-assays, and 
of stating the Eesults thereof. Drawn up by W. Chandler Eobeets, 
Secretary 127 

Eeport of a Committee, consisting of Prof. A. S. Herschel, B. A., F.E.A.S., 
and G. A. Lebour, F.G.S., on Experiments to determine the Thermal 
Conductivities of certain Eocks, sho-^-ing especially the Geological 
Aspects of the Investigation 128 

Second Eeport of the Committee, consisting of Sir John Lubbock, Bart., 
Prof. Hughes, Prof. W. Boyd Dawkins, Messrs. L. C. Miall and E. H. 
Tiddeman, appointed for the purpose of assisting in the Exploration 
of the Settle Caves (Victoria Cave). Drawn up by E. H. Tiddeman, 
Secretary 133 

On the Industrial Uses of the Upper Bann Elver, By John Smyth, 
Jun., M.A., C.E., F.C.S 139 



CONTENTS. V 

Page 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Huxley, LL.D., F.R.S., 
Professor Harkness, F.E.S., Henet Woodwaed, F.E.S., James Thom- 
son, John Brigg, and L. C. Miaix, on the Structure and Classifica- 
tion of the Labyrinthodonts. Drawn np by L. C. Miall, Secretary 
to the Committee 149 

Second Eeport of the Committee, consisting of Professor Harkness, Pro- 
fessor Peestwich, Professor Hughes, Eev. H. W. Ceosskey, Professor 
"W. Boyd Dawkins, Messrs. C. J. Woodward, Geoege Maw, L. C. 
MiAiL, G. H. Morton, and J. E. Lee, appointed for the purpose of 
recording the position, height above the sea, lithological characters, 
size, and origin of the more important of the Erratic Blocks of Eng- 
land and Wales, reporting other matters of interest connected with 
the same, and taking measures for their preservation. Drawn up 
by the Rev. H. W. Crossket, Secretary 192 

Sixth Report of the Committee on the Treatment and Utilization oi 
Sewage, consisting of Richard B. Grantham, C.E., F.G.S. (Chair- 
man), F. J. Bramwell, C.E., F.R.S., Professor W. H. Corfield, 
M.A., M.D. (Oxon.), J. H. Gilbert, Ph.D., F.R.S., F.C.S., W. Hope, 
V.C, and Professor A. W. Williamson, Ph.D., F.R.S., F.C.S 200 

Report on the Anthropological Notes and Queries for the use of 
Travellers published by the Committee, consisting of Colonel Lane 
Fox, Dr. Beddoe, Mr. Feanks, Mr. Feancis Galton, Mr. E. W. 
Brabrook, Sir John Lubbock, Sir Walter Elliot, Mr. Clements 
Markham, and Mr. E. B. Tylor. By Colonel A. Lane Fox, Secre- 
tary of the Committee 214 

On Cyclone and Rainfall Periodicities in connexion with the Sun-spot 
Periodicity. By Chaeles Meldeum 218 

Fifth Report on Earthquakes in Scotland, drawn up by Dr. Bryce, 
F.G.S. The Committee consists of Dr. Bryce, F.G.S., Sir W. Thom- 
son, F.R.S., J. Beough, G.Forbes, F.R.S.E.,D.Milne-Home, F.R.S.E., 
and J. Thomson 241 

Report of the Committee appointed to prepare and print Tables of 
Wave-numbers, the Committee consisting of Dr. Hug gins, F.R.S., J. 
N. Lockyer, F.R.S., Dr. Reynolds, F.R.S., G. J. Stokey, F.E.S., W. 
Spottiswoode, F.R.S., Dr. De La Rue, F.R.S., and Dr. W. M. Waits 241 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Prof. A. W. Williamson, F.R.S., 
Prof. Sir W. Thomson, F.R.S., Prof. Clerk Maxwell, F.R.S., Prof. 
G. C. Foster, F.R.S., F. A. Abel, F.R.S., Prof. Fleeming Jenkin, 
F.R.S., C. W. Siemens, F.R.S., and Mr. R. Sabine, appointed for the 
purpose of testing the new Pyrometer of Mr, Siemens 242 

Report to the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty on Experiments 
for the Determination of the Frictional Resistance of Water on a 
Surface, under various conditions, performed at Chelston Cross, under 
the Authority of their Lordships, By William Froude, F.R.S 249 

Second Report of the Committee for the Selection and Nomenclature of 
Dynamical and Electrical I'nits, the Committee consisting of Professor 
Sir AV. Thomson, F.R.S., Professor G. C. Foster, F.R.S., Professor J. 
Cleek Maxwell, F.R.S., G. J. Stoney, F.R.S., Professor Fleeming 
Jenkin, F.R.S., Dr. C. W, Siemens, F.R.S., F, J. Beamwell, F.R.S., 



yi CONTENTS. 

Page 

Professor W. G. Adams, P.K.S., Professor Balfottk Stewakt, P.R.8., 
and Professor Everett (Secretary) 255 

On Instruments for Measuring the Speed of Ships. Memorandum of 
Mr. Feoude's Experiments in relation to the Pressure -Log, with a 
Description of the Apparatus employed. The Committee consists of 
W. Ekoude, E.K.S., E. J. Bramwell, E.E.S., A. E. Fletcher, Rev. 
E. L. Berthon, James R. Napiee, F.R.S., C. W. Meerieield, F.R.S., 
Dr. C. "VV. Siemens, F.R.S., H. M. Bkunel, "W. Smith, Sir William 
Thomson, E.R.S., and J. N. Shoolbeed 255 

Report of the Committee, consisting of the Rev. H. F. Barnes, H. E. 
Dressee (Secretary), T. Harland, J. E. Haeting, Professor Newton, 
and the Rev. Canon Teisteam, appointed for tlie purpose of inquiring 
into the possibility of establishing a " Close Time " for the protec- 
tion of indigenous animals 264 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Lord Houghton, Prof. Thoeold 
RoGEEs, W. Newmaeoh, Prof. Fawcett, M.P., Jacob Beheens, F. P. 
Fellows, R. H. Inglis Palgeave, Archibald Hamilton, and Samuel 
Beown, Prof. Leone Levi (Secretary), appointed to iiKjuirc into the 
Economic Effects of Combinations of Labourers and Capitalists, and 
into the Laws of Economic Science bearing on the principles on 
which they are founded 266 

Preliminary Report of the Committee, consisting of J. Gwyn Jeefreys, 
F.R.S., G. S. Brady, D. Robertson, and H. B. Brady, F.R.S., on 
Dredging on the Coasts of Durham and jSTorth Yorkshire. Drawn up 
by David Robertson and George Stewaedson Beady 268 

Report on Observations of Luminous Meteors during the year 1873-74, 
by a Committee, consisting of James Glaishee, F.R.S., of the Royal 
Observatory, Greenwich, R. P. Geeg, F.G.S., F.R.A.S., C. Brooke, 
F.R.S., Prof. G. FoEBES, F.R.S.E., and Prof. A. S. Herschel, F.R.A.S. 269 

Report on the best means of providing for a Uniformity of "Weights and 
Measures, with reference to the Interests of Science, by a Committee 
consisting of The Right Hon. Sir Stafford H. Noethcote, Bart., C.B., 
M.P., The Right Hon. Sir C. B. Addeeley, M.P., Sir W. Armstrong, 
C.B., F.R.S., Samuel Brown, F.S.S., Dr. Fare, F.R.S., A. Hamilton, 
F.G.S., Prof. Frankland, F.R.S., Prof. Hennessy, F.R.S., Prof. 
Leone Levi, F.S.S. (Secretary), C. W. Siemens, F.R.S., Prof. A. W. 
Williamson, 'F.R.S., Major-Gen. Steachey, F.R.S., and Dr. Roberts 35'J 



CONTENTS. VU 



NOTICES AND ABSTRACTS 

OF 

MISCELLANEOUS COMMUNICATIONS TO THE SECTIONS. 



MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICS. 

Page 

Address by the Rev, Professor J. H. Jellett, M.A., M.R.I.A., President of 
the Section • • • * 

Mathematics. 

Professor W. K. Clifpobd on the General Equations of Oheniical Deconi- ^^ 

position 

on a Message from Professor Sylvester 10 

Professor Curtis on certain Applications of Newton's Construction for the 

Disturbing Force exerted by a distant Body 

Professor J. D. Everett on Statical and Kinematical Analogues 11 

on a New Application of Quaternions 11 

Mr. J. W. L. Glaisher on Partitions and Derivations H 

-. on some Elliptic-transcendent Relations 15 

Professor Bierens de Haan's Contributions to the Report on Mathematical 

Tables „ 

Mr. H. Hart on some Conversions of Motion 

Mr. W. IIayden on Approximate Parallel Motion 1^ 

Professor Clerk Max.vell on the Application of Kirchhoff's Rules for 

Electric Circuits to the Solution of a Geometrical Problem -lo 

Professor F. W. Newman on the Calculation of Exponential Functions .... 19 
Professor F. Purser on Bitangents to the Surface of Centres of a Quadric . . 19 
Mr. W. Spottiswoode on Multiple Contact of Quadrics and other Surfaces . 19 
Mr. T. B. Spragub's Explanations of Mr. M'Clintock's Method of iinding 

the Value of Life Annuities by means of the Gamma Function iJ 

ASTllONOMY. 

Captain Abney on Photographic Operations connected with the Transit of ^^ 

Venus 

Dr. W. HuGGiNS on the Spectrum of Coggia's Comet - 



Vlll CONTENTS. 

Page 

]\L.'. J. N. Lockyeb's Preliminary Note on Coggia's Comet 20 

on a New Map of the Solar Spectrum 20 

Colonel Stuabt Woetley on Photograpliy in connexion -with Astronomy . . 20 

Physics. 

Professor T. Andeews on Experiments at High Pressm-es 22 

Professor W. F. Baeeett on the Teaching of Practical Physics 22 

Dr. W. B. Caepentee on the Physical Theory of Undercm-rents 22 

Professor F. Gutheie on the Flight of Birds 22 

Mr. G. Johnstone Stoney on the Confirmation of the Nebulai' Origin of the 
Earth 22 

on the Physical Units of Nature 22 

Dr. Vaughan on Physics of the Internal Earth 22 

Heat. 

Mr. J. Dewae on the Latent Heat of Gases 22 

Professor F. Gutheie on a New Class of Hydrates 22 

Professor John Puesee on the Source from which the Ilinetic Energy is 
di'awn that passes into Heat in the Movement of the Tides 23 

Light. 

Mr. P. Beaham's further Experiments on Light with Circularly Ruled Plates 
of Glass 25 

Professor Cuetis on Extraordinary Reflection 25 

Mr. W. Ladd on the Construction of large Nicol's Prisms 20 

Professor G. G. Stokes on the Construction of a perfectly Achromatic Tele- 
scope 26 

Mr. S. C. TiSLEY on a Fomi of Spottiswoode's Triple Combination of Double- 
Image Prisms and Quartz Plates applied to the Table Polariscope 26 

on a New and Simple Form of adjustable Slit for the Spec- 
troscope 27 

Eleotkicity and Magnetism. 

Dr. W. Feddebsen on some Peculiarities in the Electric Discharge from a 
Leyden Jar 27 

Professor G. C. Fostee's Geometrical Illustrations of Ohm's Law 28 

Suggestions for a Redetermination of the Absolute 

Electromagnetic Units of Resistance and of Electromotive Force 30 

Dr. Aethtje Schustee on Ohm's Law 30 

on Unilateral Conductivity 31 

Mr. W. Symons on a New Method of Constructing Carbon-cells and Plates 
for Galvanic Batteries 31 

on a New Method for the Electrochemical Decomposition 

of Oils and other Non-conducting Liquids 81 

on a cheap and convenient GalvanicBattery adapted for weak 

but continuous Currents " 32 



CONTENTS. IX 

Pace 

Sir W. Thomson on tlie Effect on the Compass of the Rolling of Ships 32 

Professor Gustav Wiedemann on the Proportions in which Bases and Acids 

present in a Solution combine with each other 32 

Mons. Alf. Niaudet Beequet's Notes of Experiments on the Electric 

Currents produced by the Gramme Magneto-electric Machine 33 

Meteobology. 

Ml-. Isaac Ashe on the Cause of the Progressive Motion of Cyclones, and of 
the Seasonal Variations in their Paths 34 

INIr. E. B. Belcher on Disturbance of the Weather by Artificial Influences, 
especially Battles, Military Manoeuvres, great Explosions, and Conflagra- 
tions 3^ 

Mr. Henry F. Blanford on certain protracted Irregularities of Atmospheric 
Pressure in the Indian Monsoon Region, and their relation to Variations of 
the Local Rainfall 36 

Mr. T. Moffat on the apparent Connexion between Sun-spots and Atmo- 
spheric Ozone "' 

Mr. F, Pastorelli on a Gymbal-swung Rain-gauge 37 

3Ir. R. H. Scott on the Importance of Improved Methods of Registration of 
Wind on the Coast, with a notice of an Anemometer designed by Mr. W. 
De La Rue, F.R.S., to furnish Telegraphic Information of the Occm-rence 
of Strong Winds 37 

Mr. John Smyth, jun., on the Meteorology at Banbridge for ten Years, and 
RainfaU of Ulster 39 

Rev. Fenwick W. Stow on the Absoi-ption of the Sun's Heat-rays by the 
Vapour of the Atmosphere 39 

Lieut.-Col. A. Strange on the Necessity for placing Physical Meteorology 
on a Rational Basis 40 

Mr. G. J. Symons on the Relative Sensitiveness of Thermometers differing in 
Size, Shape, or Materials 41 

on a New Form of Rain-gauge 4l 

Instextments &c. 

Professor W. F. Baeeett on an Apparatus for showing the Interference of 
Sound 

Mr. HoAVAED Grubb on Improvements in Eq^uatoiial Clocks 41 

Mr. F. Herbert M^vrshall's description of a Trompe or Blowing-Engine for 
giving a supply of Coal-gas under Pressure for Sensitive Flames 42 

Mr. G. J. Morrison on the Adoption (for the general pm-poses of Navigation) 
of Charts on Guomonic Projection instead of on Mercator's Projection 42 

Mr. Henry Negretti on Negretti and Zambra's Patent Recording and Deep- 
sea Thermometer 4o 

Mr. S. C. Tisley on a Four-Pendulum Apparatus 44 

CHEMISTRY. 

Address by Professor A. Ceum Brown, M.D., F.R.S.E., F.C.S., President of 
the Section ^^ 

Dr. Andrews on the Composition of an Inflammable Gas issuing from below 
the Silt-bed in Belfast "•" 



X CONTKNTS. 

PaKc 

Dr. Andrews on au Aspirator 51 

Mr. I. LowTHiAN Bell on the Joint Action of Carbonic Acid and Cyanogen 

on Oxide of Iron and on Metallic Iron 51 

Mr. P. Braham and Mr. J. W. Gatehouse on the Dissociation of Nitric Acid 

by various means 55 

on a Mode of producing Spectra ou a Screen with the Oxy- 

hydrogen Flame 56 

Professor Crum Brown on the Mode of writing Chemical Equations 5(3 

and Dr. E. A. Letts on Methyl-thetine 50 

Dr. W. B. Carpenter on the Replacement of Organic Matter by Siliceous 

Deposits in the Process of Fossilization 56 

Mr. WiLLLAM Charley ou the Lijurious Eifects of Dew-rotting Flax in cer- 
tain cases 56 

Professor Clifford on the General Equations of Chemical Decomposition . . 57 

Mr. W, J. Cooper on the Composition of certain Kinds of Food 67 

Professor Debus on Spontaneous Generation from a Chemical Point of View. 57 

Professor Delffs on an Aspirator 57 

Dr. Dewar on the Latent Heat of Liquefied Gases 57 

Mr. Thomas Fairley on Chlorine, Ilj^ochloroua Acid, &c., and Peroxide of 

Hydrogen 57 

on Perchloric Acid 58 

Professor Gladstone and Mr. Alfred Tribe's Electrolytic Experiments on 

some Metallic Chlorides 58 

Professor Hodges on the Petrified Wood of Lough Neagh 58 

on the Composition of Tea and Tea-soils from Cachar. ... 60 

on the Composition of the Fibre of the Jute-plant, and its 

use as a Textile Material 63 

Mr. "W. Jesse Lovett on an Improved Vacuum Filter-pump 65 

Mr. T. R. Ogilvie on the Estimation of Phosphoric Acid as Pyrophos- 
phate of Magnesia 66 

Dr. T. L. Phipson on a Sesquisidphide of Iron 66 

on the Presence of Cyanogen in Commercial Bromine, and 

a means of detecting it 66 

Professor EiiERSON Reynolds on the Preparation of the Sulphm-iu-ea .... 66 

on the Action of the Sulphiu'-m-ea in Metallic 

Solutions 66 

Professor Roscoe on a Self-registering Apparatus for Measuring the Chemical 

Action of Light 66 

on certain Abnormal Chlorides 67 

Professor Maxwell Simpson ou the Chlor-Bromides and Brom- Iodides of the 

Olefiues 67 

Professor Thorpe on the Specific Volumes of certain Liquids 67 

Dr. C. R. Wright on some Opium Derivatives 67 



GEOLOGY. 

Address by Professor Edward Hull, M.A., F.R.S., F.G.S., President of the 
Section , C7 



CONTENTS. -M 

Pago 

Dr. W. B. Carpenteb's further Researches on Hozoon Canadense 73 

Rev. Dr. John Grainger ou the Fossils of the Posttertiary Deposits of Ire- 
land 73 

Mr. Edward T. Hardman on some new Localities for Upper Boiilder-clay in 

Ireland 7(J 

on the Geological Structure of the Tyrone Coal- 
fields "7 

on the Age and Mode of Formation of Lough 

Neagh, Ireland > '^ 

Professor Habkness on the Geology of the N.E. of Ii-eland 83 

Professor Hull ou the Progress of the Geological Siu'vey of Ii-eland 83 

Mr. J. Gwyn Jeffreys's Note on the so-called Crag of Bridlington 83 

Sir WiLLOUGHBY JoNEs's Notes on Cavern Exploration, hy M. Emiliou 
Frossard, in the VaUee de Campan, Hautes-PyreueeS; France 88 

Mr. G. H. KiNAHAN ou Geological Maps aud Sections of "West Galway and 

Soxith-west Mayo 88 

]\L-. G. Langtry on the Occurrence of the Middle Lias at Ballycastle 88 

Dr. H. Alleyne Nicholson and Mr. W. H. Ellis on a Remarkable Frag- 
ment of Silicified Wood from the Rocky Mountains 88 

on Favistella stellata and Favistella calicina, with 

Notes on the Affinities of Favistella and allied Genera 89 

Description of Species of Alecto and Hiiypotlwa 

from the Lower Silurian Rocks of Ohio, with a Description of Awlopora 
arachnoidea 00 

. . — . . Descriptions of New Species of Polyzoa from 

the Lower and Upper Silmian Rocks of North America 90 

Descriptions of New Species of Cystiphjllum 

from the Devonian Rocks of North America 01 

Mr. W. Chandler Roberts ou the Columnar Form of Basalt 91 

Mr. R. Russell on the Permian Breccias of the Country near AVhitehaven . . 92 

Professor James Thomson on the Jointed Prismatic Structure of the Giant's 

Causeway 93 

Mr. William A. Traill ou Geological Sections in the co. Down 93 

Dr. Vaughan on Physics of the Internal Earth 95 

Mr. Joseph W^bight on the Discovery of Microzoa in the Chalk-flints of the 

North of Ireland 95 



BIOLOGY. 

Address by Professor Peter Redfebn, M.D., President of the Section 90 

Botany. 

Dr. Hooker's Address to the Department of Botany and Zoology 102 

Dr. Hubert Airy's Note on Variation of Leaf- Arrangement 128 

Mr. William Archer's Notes on Apothecia occurring in some Scytonema- 
tous and Sirosiphonaceous Algal Species, in addition to those previously 
known « . 131 



XU CONTENTS. 

Page 
Mr. Ai-FBED W. Bennett on the Form of Pollen-grains in relation to the 

Fertilization of Flowers 133 

Professor Dickson on the Embryogeny of certain Species of Tropeeolum .... 133 

. ■ on an Abnormality in Claysantliemwn leucanthenmtn .... 133 

Professor Lawson on Structm-al Peculiarities of the Ampelidece 134 

Dr. MooEE on a Monstrous State of Megacarpcea 134 

on a Monstrous Flower of Sarracenia 134 

on Grafted Eoots of Mangold- Wurzel 134 

on the Growth of the Stems of Tree Ferns 134 

Mr. S. A. Stewabt on the Mosses of the North-east of Ireland 134 

Mr. Jambs Tobbitt on the Potato-Disease 134 

Dr. 0. J. B. Williams on Specimens of Marine Algae from Jersey 134 

Zoology. 

Dr. Hooker's Address to the Department of Botany and Zoology 102 

Professor Allman on some Points in the Histology of Myriothcla phrygin . . 135 

Mr. William Archeb on Chkumjdomyxa hihyrinthiloides (n. g. et sp.), a 

new Sarcodic Freshwater Organism 236 

Dr. W. B. Carpenter's further Eesearches on Eozoon Canadense 136 

Professor Cunningham on Atya spinipes, and on an undescribed Pontonia , . 137 

Mr. E. Ray Lankesteb on English Nomenclature in Systematic Biology . . 137 

on the Genealogical Import of the Internal Shell of 

Mollusca 137 

Mr. T. Lister on Spring Migratory Birds of the North of England 137 

Professor Macalister on two new Species of Pentasto7na 137 

Notes on the Specimen of Selachc maaimus lately 

caught at Innisboffin I37 

Mr. P. L. ScLATEB on the Distribution of the Species of Cassowaries 138 



Anatomy and Puysiolooy. 

Professor Peter Redfehn's Address qq 

Mr. F. M. Balfour on the Development of the Elasmobranch Fishes 138 

Professor Crum Brown on some Points in the Physiology of the Semi- 
circular Canals of the Ear 130 

Rev. James Byrne on the Development of-the Powers of Thought in Verte- 
brate Annuals in connexion with the Develoimient of their Brain 138 

Dr. Richard Caton on a new Form of Microscope for Physiological Puii^oscs 140 
Professor Cleland's Preliminary Notice of an Inquiry into the Morpholoo-y 
01 the Brain and the Function of Hearing 141 

Mr. W. Waterhouse Hawkins's Observations, with Graphic Illustrations, 
on a pair of Symmetrical Bones present with the Fossil Remains of 
Iguanodon 1^1 



CONTENTS. XIU 

Page 

Professor T. H. Huxley's Note on the Development of the Columella Auria 
in the Amphibia 141 

Mr. E. Ray Lankester on the Development of the Eye of the Cephalopoda 142 

Professor Macalister on the Tongue of the Great Anteater 143 

on some Anomalous Forms of the Human Periorbital 

Bones 143 

Professor Eedfern on the Influence of Food, and the Methods of supplying 
it to Plants and Animals 143 

on the Eifects of Ozone on the Animal Economy 143 

Mr. William Thomson on the Decomposition of Eggs 143 

Anthkopologt. 

Sir William R. Wilde's Address to the Department of Anthropologj' .... 116 

Dr. Beddoe on Modern Ethnological Migi-ations in the British Isles 145 

Sir George Campbell on the Peoples between India and China 145 

Mr. Hyde Clarke's Note on the River-Names and Populations of Hibernia, 
and their Relation to the Old World and America 146 

Note on the Phoenician Inscription of Brazil 146 

on the Agaw Race in Caucasia, Africa, and South America 146 

Note on Circassian and Etruscan 147 

■ Preliminary Note on the Classification of the Akka and 

Pygmy Languages of Africa 147 

Mr. Frederic Drew on the Distribution of the Races of Men inhabiting the 
Jummoo and Kashmir Territories 147 

Rev. Joseph Edkins on the Degeneracy of Man 150 

Sir G. Duncan Gibb on Longevity at Five score eleven Years 152 

Major H. H. Godwin- Austen's Note on the riide Stone Monuments of the 
Khasi Hill Tribes 153 

Mr. W. Gray on the Character and Distribution of rudely worked Flints in 
the Counties of Antrim and Down 153 

Rev. Canon Hume on the Origin and Characteristics of the People in the 
Counties of Down and Antrim ; an Ethnological Sketch 153 

Mr. T. J. Hutchinson on the Anthropology of Prehistoric Peru 154 

Mr, William James Knowles on Prehistoric Times in the North of 
Ireland , 155 

Rev. Dr. T. M'Cann on the Methods of a Complete Anthropology 156 

Mr. Joseph John Murphy on M'Lennan's Tlieory of ^Primitive Mamage " 156 

Mr. J. S. Phenje on "An Age of Colossi," with Examples, by Photogi-aphs 
and Drawings, of the various Colossi extant in Britain and Ireland 157 

■ ■ on "Natural Mythology," and some of the Incentives to its 

Adoption in Britain and Ireland 158 

Mr. C. Staniland Wake on the Origin of the Moral Idea 158 

Mr. W. F. Wakeman on Irish Crannogs and their Contents 159 

Mr. M, J. Walhouse on a Leaf-wearing Tribe on the Western Coast of India 159 



XIV CONTENTS. 

GEOGEAPHY. 

Page 

Address by Major Wilson, R.E., F.R.S., F.R.G.S,, Director of the Topogra- 
phical Department, Horse Guards, War Office, President of the Sectiou . . 160 

Rear- Admiral Shebard Osboen on the Routes to the North Polar Region.. 170 

Lieutenant Hehbert Chehmside on Mr. Leigh Smith's Voyages to Spitzbercen 171 

Dr. W. B. Carpenter on the Results of the 'Challenger' Researches into 
the Physical Conditions of the Deep Sea 172 

Captain S. Anderson on the Demarcation of the International Boundary 
between Canada and the United States (1872-73) ". 172 

Dr. G. ScH\VEiNFURTH on the Oases of the Lybian Desert I7.3 

Mr. E. G. Ra-^tjnstein on Dr. G. Nachtigall's Explorations in Africa, 18G9-74. 17.5 

Surgeon-Major S. Rowe on Sir John Glover's Expedition from the Volta to 
Coomassie 2 75 

Lieutenant Caiieron's Journal of the East-African Expedition, Extracts from 176 

Mr. T. J. Hutchinson on the Commercial, Industrial, and Natural Resources 
of Peru .* 277 

Mr. E. Delmar Morgan on Travels beyond three Seas, by Athana'^ius 
Nildtin, Merchant of Tver, 146G-1472 (from the Russian) I77 

Lieutenant R. Conder on the Survey of Palestine 178 

Rev. Dr. J. L. Porter on a recent Journey East of the Jordan 179 

Colonel BiDDtJLPH on the Yarkund Mission 181 

Lieutenant Gill on some Roads in Northern Persia and on the Russio- 
Persian Frontier 280 

Mr. J. A. MacGahan on the Russian Expedition to Khiva I83 

Captain Abney on the Reproduction of Maps and Plans in the Field 18.3 

Lieutenant Warren on Reconnaissance of a new or partially known Country 184 

On Surveys in Ireland. Communicated by the Ordnance Department 184 

Mens. Charles Maunoiii on the International Congress of Geoffi-aphical 
Sciences 284 



ECONOMIC SCIENCE and STATISTICS. 

Address by the Right Hon. Lord O'Hagan, President of the Sectiou 185 

Miss Lydia E. Becker on some Practical Difficulties in working the Elemen- 
tary Education Act, 1870 ° 292 

Miss Beedy on Reform in the Work of the Medical Profession 102 

Mr. W. BoTLY on Workmen's Dwellings from a Commercial Standpoint .... 192 

Rev. J. T. Bcnx on the Principles of Penal Legislation 192 

''m^ie''iZe:in: '""'"! .°'.'':':"';T" --^^_*_^;'_ W-kjng Class^;, ^^^ 
^'kSperty^..^!!'.'!'!^^'^ °" ^^'' Privileges over Land, wi-ongly"called ^ 



CONTENTS. XV 

Pago 

Dr. Richard Caton on the Teacliing of Hygiene in Government Schools . , 198 

Mr. George Roberts Crowe on the Compilation of Statistics, illustrated 
by the Irish Census Returns • 198 

Mr. W. H. DoDD on the Economic Law of Strikes 201 

Professor Donnell on the Ulster Tenant-Right ' 202 

Mr. Charles Elcock on a New Method for promoting the Sauification of 
our Cities 203 

Mr. Frank P. Fellows on Political Economy and the Laws affecting the 
Prices of Commodities and Labour, and on Strikes and Lock-outs 20-3 

on Governmental Accounts, with further Suggestions 

for establishing a Doomsday Book, giving the Value of Governmental 
Property 204 

Mrs. W. Grey on the Study of Education as a Science 204 

Dr. Thomas W. Grimshaw on Sanitaiy Legislation and Organization : its 
Present State and Future Prospects 200 

Mr. W. Hastings on Postal Reform 209 

Dr. Henry MacOormac on the Reclamation and Sanification of the Pontine 
Marshes 209 

Mr. Hans M'Mordie on the Reformatory and Industrial School System, its 
Evils and Dangers 210 

Mr. G. W. Norman on the Future of the United States 211 

Mr. T. B. Sprague on the Cause of Insolvency in Life-insurance Companies, 
and the best Means of detecting, exposing, and preventing it 211 

Rev. William Watson Wood's Scheme for the Technical Education of 
those interested in Land 211 



MECHANICAL SCIENCE. 

Address by Professor Jasies Thomson, C.E., F.R.S.E., President of the 
Section .' 212 

Mr. G. W. Beynon's Compensating Apparatus for Distant Signal-wires of 
Railways 220 

Mr. William Bottomley on the Eclipsing-Apparatus constructed for the 
Lighthouse on the Holywood Bank, in Belfast Lovigh 220 

Mr. George F. Deacon on the Differentiating Waste-water Meter' 221 

Mr. George Fawcus on a new Method of Isometrical Drawing 222 

Mr. P. LE Neve Foster, jun., on Coal Mining in Italy"" 222 

Mr. E. J. Harland on a New Form of Screw-Lowering Apparatus 222 

Mr. Jeremiah Head on a Higher Education for Engineers 223 

Mr. R. Luke on Luke's Patent Safety Facing-point Lock for Securing Rail- 
way Facing-points 224 

Mr. James Lynam on the River Shannon Drainage and Navigation 220 

Mr. C. W. Merrifield on the Determination of the Form of the Dome of 
Uniform Stress , , , . 227 



XVI CONTENTS. 

Page 

Mr. W. Morgan on an Improved Tuyere for Smith's Forges 228 

Mr. John Neville on the means adopted for the Improvement of the Outer 
Navigable Channel of Dundalk Harbom- 228 

on a new Construction for finding the Vertical Shearing- 
stress and the point of greatest Bending-nioment in a Beam loaded in any 
■way 229 

Mr. W. Seaton's Improved Patent Saddle-rail and Railway Permanent-way 
Construction 229 

Mr. W. Smith on the Prevention of Railway Accidents and Automatically 
Recording the Movements of the Points and Signals and other Apparatus 
of Railways 229 

Sir W. Thomson on Improvements in the Mariner's Compass 231 

Mr. F. H. Varley and Mr. Edw. Furness on Power-Couplings for RoUing- 
Mills and other Machinery 231 

Mr. Andrew Wyley on Recent Improvements in Breech-loading Firearms . . 232 



on the Breech-loading Firearms exhibited at Vienna in 



1873 232 



OBJECTS AND RULES 



OF 



THE ASSOCIATION. 



OBJECTS. 

The Association contemplates no interference with the ground occupied by 
other institutions. Its objects are : — To give a stronger impulse and a more 
systematic direction to scientific inquiry, — to promote the intercourse of those 
who cultivate Science in different parts of the British Empire, with one 
another and with foreign philosophers, — to obtain a more general attention 
to the objects of Science, and a removal of any disadvantages of a public kind 
which impede its progress. 

RULES. 

Admission of Members and Associates. 

All persons who have attended the first Meeting shall be entitled to be- , 
come Members of the Association, upon subscribing an obligation to con- 
form to its Eules. 

The Pellows and Members of Chartered Literary and Philosophical So- 
cieties pubhshing Transactions, in the British Empire, shall be entitled, in 
like manner, to become Members of the Association. 

The Officers and Members of the Councils, or Managing Committees, of 
Philosophical Institutions shall be entitled, in like manner, to become Mem- 
))ers of the Association. 

All Members of a Philosophical Institution recommended by its Council 
or Managing Committee shall be entitled, in like manner, to become Mem- 
bers of the Association. 

Persons not belonging to such Institutions shall be elected by the General 
Committee or Council, to become Life Members of the Association, Annual 
Siibsciibers, or Associates for the year, subject to the approval of a General 
Meeting. 

Compositions, Subscriptions, and Privileges. 

Life Members shall pay, on admission, the sum of Ten Pounds. They 
shall receive (iratuitously tlae Eeports of the Association which may be pub- 
1 874. f> 



XVIU RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

lished after the date of such payment. They are eligible to all the offices 
of the Association. 

AI^^^"I^AL Subsckibees shall pay, on admission, the sum of T-wo Pounds, 
and in each foUomng year the sum of One Pound. They shall receive 
gratuitously the RejDorts of the Association for the year of their admission 
and for the years in which they continue to pay without intermission their 
Annual Subscription. By omitting to pay this Subscription in any particu- 
lar year, Members of this class (Annual Subscribers) lose for that and all 
future years the privilege of receiving the volumes of the Association gratis : 
but they may resume theii' Membership and other privileges at any sub- 
sequent Meeting of the Association, paying on each such occasion the sum of 
One Pound. They are eligible to all the Offices of the Association. 

Associates for the year shall pay on admission the sum of One Pound. 
They shall not receive gratuitously the Reports of the Association, nor be 
eligible to serve on Committees, or to hold any office. 

The Association consists of the foUo-ndng classes : — 

1. Life Members admitted from 1831 to 1845 inclusive, who have paid 
on admission Pive Pounds as a composition. 

2. Life Members who in 1846, or in subsequent years, have paid on ad- 
mission Ten Pounds as a composition. 

3. Annual Members admitted from 1831 to 1839 inclusive, subject to the 
payment of One Pound annually. [May resume their Membership after in- 
termission of Annual Payment.] 

4. Aanual Members admitted in any year since 1839, subject to the pay- 
ment of Two Pounds for the &st year, and One Pound in each following year. 
[May resume their Membership after intermission of Annual Payment.] 

5. Associates for the year, subject to the payment of One Pound. 
G. Corresponding Members nominated by the Council. 

And the Members and Associates wiU be entitled to receive the annual 
volume of Reports, gratis, or to purcliase it at reduced (or Members') price, 
according to the follo-nang specification, viz. : — 

1. Oralis. —01^ Life Members who have paid Pive Pounds as a compo- 

sition for Annual Payments, and previous to 1845 a further 
sum of Two Pounds as a Book Subscription, or, since 1845, a 
further sum of Pive Pounds. 

New Life Members who have paid Ten Pounds as a composition. 

Annual Members who have not intermitted their Annual Sub- 
scription. 

2. At reduced or Members' Prices, viz. two thirds of the Publication 

Price.— -Old Life Members who have paid Pive Pounds as a 

composition for Annual Payments, but no further sum as a 

Book Subscription. 
Annual Members who have intermitted their Annual Subscription . 
Associates for the year. [Privilege confined to the volume for 

that year only.] 

3. Members may purchase (for the purpose of completing their sets) any 

of the first seventeen volumes of Transactions of the Associa- 
tion, and of luJiich more than 100 copies remain, atoiie third of 
the Publication Price. Application to be made at the Office 
of the Association, 22 Albemarle Street, Londoji, A^^ 



RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. XIX 

Volumes not claimed within two years of the date of publication can only 
be issued by direction of the Council. 

Subscriptions shall be received by the Treasurer or Secretaries. 

Meetings. 

The Association shall meet annually, for one week, or longer. The place 
of each Meeting shall be appointed by the General Committee two years iu 
advance ; and the Arrangements for it shall be entrusted to the Officers of 
the Association. ^. 

General Committee. 

The General Committee shaU sit dm-ing the week of the Meeting, or 
longer, to transact the business of the Association. It shall consist of the 
following persons : — 

Class A. Permanent Members. 

1. Members of the Council, Presidents of the Association, and Presidents 
of Sections for the present and preceding years, with Authors of Reports in 
the Transactions of the Association. 

2. Members who by the pubHcation of Works or Papers have furthered 
the advancement of those subjects which are taken into consideration at the 
Sectional Meetings of the Association. With a vieiv of suhmitting 7ieiv claims 
under this Rule to the decision of the Council, they must be sent to the Assistant 
General Secretary at least one month hefore the Meeting of the Association. 
The decision of the Council on the claims of any Member of the Association to 
he jplaced on the list of the General Committee to be final. 

Class B. Tempoeart Members. 

1 . The President for the time being of any Scientific Society publishing Trans- 
actions or, in his absence, a delegate representing him. Claims under this Bide 
to be sent to the Assistant General Secretary before the opening of the Meeting. 

2. Office-bearers for the time being, or delegates, altogether not exceeding 
three, from Scientific Institutions established in the place of Meeting. 
Claims under tJiis Rule to be approved by the Local Secretaries before the 
opening of the Meeting. 

3. Foreigners and other individuals whose assistance is desired, and who 
are specially nominated in writing, for the Meeting of the year, by the Pre- 
sident and General Secretaries. 

4. Vice-Presidents and Secretaries of Sections. 

Organizing Sectional Committees*. 

The Presidents, Vice-Presidents, and Secretaries of the several Sections 
are nominated by the Council, and have power to act until their names are 
submitted to the General Committee for election. 

Prom the time of their nomination they constitute Organizing Committees 
for the purpose of obtaining information upon the Memoirs and Ecports 
likely to be submitted to the Sections f, and of preparing Reports thereon, 

* Passed by the General Committee, Edinburgh, 1871. 

t Notice io Contributors of Memoirs.— KvA\\oyb are reminded that, under an Arrange- 
ment dating from 1871, the acceptance of Memoirs, and the days on which they are to be 

b 2 



XX RULES or THE ASSOCIATION. 

and on the order in which it is desirable that they should be read, to be pre- 
sented to the Committees of the Sections at their first Meeting. 

An Organizing Committee may also hold such preliminary Meetings as the 
President of the Committee thinks expedient, but shall, under any circum- 
stances, meet on the first Wednesday of the Annual Meeting, at 11 a.m., to 
settle the terms of their Report, after which their functions as an Organizing 
Committee shaU cease. 



Constitution of the Sectional Committees^. 

On the first day of the Annual Meeting, the President, Vice-Presidents, 
and Secretaries of each Section having been appointed by the General Com- 
mittee, these Officers, and those previous Presidents and Vice-Presidents of 
the Section who may desire to attend, are to meet, at 2 p.m., in their Com- 
mittee Rooms, and enlarge the Sectional Committees by selecting individuals 
from among the Members (not Associates) present at the Meeting whose as- 
sistance they may particularly desire. The Sectional Committees thus con- 
stituted shaU have power to add to their number from day to day. 

The List thus formed is to be entered daily in the Sectional Minute-Book, 
and a copy forwarded without delay to the Printer, who is charged with 
publishing the same before 8 a.m. on the next day, in the Journal of the 
Sectional Proceedings. 

Business of the Sectional Committees. 

Committee Meetings are to be held on the "Wednesday at 2 p.m., on the 
following Thursday, Friday, Saturday, Monday, and Tuesday, from 10 to 
11 A.M., punctually, for the objects stated in the Rules of the Association, 
and specified below. 

The business is to be conducted in the following manner : — 

At the fii'st meeting, one of the Secretaries wiU read the Minutes of last 
year's proceedings, as recorded in the Miunte-Eook, and the Synopsis of 
Recommendations adopted at the last Meeting of the Association and printed 
in the last volume of the Transactions. He will next proceed to read the 
Report of the Organizing Committee f. The List of Communications to be 
read on Thursday shall be then arranged, and the general distribution of 
business throughout the week shall be provisionally appointed. At the close 
of the Committee Meeting the Secretaries shall forward to the Printer a List 
of the Papers appointed to be read. The Printer is charged with publishing 
the same before 8 a.m. on Thursday in the Journal. 

On the second day of the Annual Meeting, and the following days, the 

read, are now as far as possible determined by Organizing Committees for the several 
Sections before the beginning of the Meeting. It has therefore become necessary, in order 
to give an opportunity to the Committees of doing justice to the several Communications, 
that each Author should prepare an Abstract of his Memoir, of a length suitable for in- 
sertion in the published Transactions of the Association, and that he should send it, toge- 
ther with the original Memoir, by book-post, on or before , addressed 

thus—" General Secretaries, British Association, 22 Albemarle Street, London, W. For 

Section .." If it should be inconvenient to the Author that his Paper should be read 

on any particular days, he is requested to send information thereof to the Secretaries in a 
separate note. 

* Passed by the General Committee, Edinburgh, 1871. 

t This and the following sentence were added by the General Committee, 1871. 



RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. XXI 

Secretaries are to correct, on a copy of tlie Journal, the list of papers which 
have been read on that day, to add to it a list of those appointed to be read 
on the next day, and to send this copy of the Journal as early in the day as 
possible to the Printers, who are charged with printing the same before 8 a.m. 
next morning in the Journal. It is necessary that one of the Secretaries of 
each Section should call at the Printing Office and revise the proof each 
evening. 

Minutes of the proceedings of every Committee are to be entered daily in 
the Minute-Book, which should be confirmed at the next meeting of the 
Committee. 

Lists of. the Reports and Memoirs read in the Sections are to be entered 
in the Minute-Book daily, which, with all Memoirs and Cojpies or Abstracts 
of Memoirs furnished by Authors, are to be forwarded, at the close of the Sec- 
tional Meetinc/s, to the Assistant General Secretary. 

The Vice-Presidents and Secretaries of Sections become ex officio temporary 
Members of the General Committee (vide p. xix), and wiU receive, on ap- 
plication to the Treasurer in the Reception Room, Tickets entitling them to 
attend its Meetings. 

The Committees will take into consideration any suggestions which may 
be offered by their Members for the advancement of Science. They are 
specially requested to review the recommendations adopted at preceding 
Meetings, as published in the volumes of the Association and the communi- 
cations made to the Sections at this Meeting, for the purposes of selecting 
definite points of research to which individual or combined exertion may be 
iTsefuUy directed, and branches of knowledge on the state and progress of 
which Reports are wanted ; to name individuals or Committees for the exe- 
cution of such Reports or researches ; and to state whether, and to what de- 
gree, these objects may be usefully advanced by the appropriation of the 
funds of the Association, by application to Government, Philosophical Insti- 
tutions, or Local Authorities. 

In case of appointment of Committees for special objects of Science, it is 
expedient that all Members of the Committee should be named, and one of 
them a])pointed to act as Secretary, for insuring attention to business. 

Committees have power to add to their number persons whose assistance 
they may require. 

The recommendations adopted by the Committees of Sections are to bo 
registered in the Forms furnished to their Secretaries, and one Copy of each 
is to be forwarded, without delay, to the Assistant General Secretary for pre- 
sentation to the Committee of Recommendations. Unless tliis be done, the 
Recommendations cannot receive the sanction of the Association. 

N.B. — Recommendations which may originate in any one of the Sections 
must first be sanctioned by the Committee of that Section before they can be 
referred to the Committee of Recommendations or confirmed by the General 
Committee. 

Notices Regarding Grants of Money. 

Committees and individuals, to whom grants of money have been entrusted 
by the Association for the prosecution of particular researches in Science, 
are required to present to each following Meeting of the Association a Report 
of the progress which has been made ; and the Individual or the Member first 
named of a Committee to whom a money grant has been made must (pre- 
Aiously to the next meeting of the A.^sociation) forward to the Gencrfd 



XXn RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

Secretaries or Treasurer a statement of the sums which have been oxpcuded, 
and the balance which remains disposable on each grant. 

Grants of money sanctioned at any one meeting of the Association expire 
a weeh before the opening of the ensuing Meeting; nor is the Treasurer 
authorized, after that date, to allow any claims on account of such grants, 
unless they be renewed in the original or a modified form by the General 
Committee. 

No Committee shall raise money in the name or under the auspices of the 
British Association without special permission from the General Committee 
to do so ; and no money so raised shall be expended except in accordance 
with the rules of the Association, 

In each Committee, the Member first named is the only person entitled to 
call on the Treasurer, Professor A. W. "Williamson, University CoUege, London, 
"W.C, for such portion of the sums granted as may from time to time be 
required. 

In grants of money to Committees, the Association does not contemplate 
the payment of personal expenses to the members. 

In all cases where additional grants of money are made for the continua- 
tion of Researches at the cost of the Association, the sum named is deemed 
to include, as a part of the amount, whatever balance may remain unpaid on 
the former grant for the same object. 

AU Instruments, Papers, Drawings, and other property of the Association 
are to be deposited at the Office of the Association, 22 Albemarle Street, 
Piccadilly, London, "W., when not employed in carrying on scientific inquiries 
for the Association. 

Business of the Sections. 

The Meeting Eoom of each Section is opened for conversation from 10 to 
11 daily. The Section Rooms and approaches thereto can he used for no notices, 
exhibitions, or other purposes than those of the Association. 

At 11 precisely the Chair wiU be taken, and the reading of communica- 
tions, in the order previously made public, be commenced. At 3 p.m. the 
Sections will close. 

Sections may, by the desire of the Committees, divide themselves into 
Departments, as often as the number and nature of the communications de- 
livered in may render such divisions desirable. 

A Eeport presented to the Association, and read to the Section which 
originally called for it, may be read in another Section, at the request of the 
Officers of that Section, with the consent of the Author. 

Duties of the Doorkeepers. 

1. — To remain constantly at the Doors of the Eooms to which they are ap- 
pointed during the whole time for which they are engaged. 
2. — To require of every person desirous of entering the Rooms the exhibi- 
tion of a Member's, Associate's or Lady's Ticket, or Reporter's Ticket, 
signed by the Treasurer, or a Special Ticket signed by the Assistant 
General Secretary. 
3.— Persons improvided with any of these Tickets can only be admitted to 
any particular Room by order of the Secretary in that Room. 
_ No person is exempt from these Rules, except those Officers of the Asso- 
ciation whose names are printed. 



RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. XXiii 

Duties of the Messengers. 

To remain constantly at the Rooms to wliicli they are appointed, during 
the whole time for which they are engaged, except when employed on mes- 
sages by one of the Officers directing these Rooms. 

Committee of Recommendations. 

The General Committee shall appoint at each Meeting a Committee, which 
shall receive and consider the Recommendations of the Sectional Committees, 
and report to the General Committee the measures which they would advise 
to be adopted for the advancement of Science. 

All Recommendations of Grants of Money, Requests for Special Researches, 
and Reports on Scientific Subjects shall be submitted to the Committee of 
Recommendations, and not taken into consideration by the General Committee 
unless previously recommended by the Committee of Recommendations. 

Local Committees. 

Local Committees shall be formed by the Officers of the Association to 
assist in making arrangements for the Meetings. 

Local Committees shall have the power of adding to their numbers those 
Members of the Association whose assistance they may desire. 

Officers. 

A President, two or more Vice-Presidents, one or more Secretaries, and a 
Treasiu-er shall be annually appointed by the General Committee. 

Council. 

In the intervals of the Meetings, the aifairs of the Association shall be ma- 
naged by a Council appointed by the General Committee. The Council may 
also assemble for the despatch of business during the week of the Meeting. 

Papers and Communications. 

The Author of any paper or communication shall be at liberty to reserve 
his right of property therein. 

Accounts. 

The Accounts of the Association shall be audited annually, by Auditors 
appointed by the General Committee. 



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XXX 



REPORT 1874. 



Presidents and Secretaries of the Sections of the Association. 



Date and Place. 



Presidents. 



Secretaries. 



MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES. 



COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, I, MATHEMATICS AND GENEEAL PHYSICS. 



1832. Oxford 

1833. Cambridge 

1834. Ediuburgh 



Davies Gilbert, D.C.L., F.E.S... 

Sir D. Brewster, F.E.S. 

Rev. W. Whewell, F.E.S 



Eev. H. Coddington. 

Prof. Forbes. 

Prof. Forbes, Prof. Lloyd. 



SECTION A. MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICS. 

1835. Dublin jRev. Dr. Eobinson jProf. Sii- W. R. Hamilton, Prof. 

Wheatstone. 



1836. Bristol Eev. WiUiam WheweU, F.E.S... 



1837. Liverpool . . 

1838. Newcastle... 

1839. Birmingham 

1840. Glasgow ... 

1841. Plymouth... 

1842. Manchester 

1843. Cork 

1844. York 

1845. Cambridge. . 

1846. Southampton 

1847. Oxford . 

1848. Swansea 

1849. Birmingham 

1850. Edinburgh.. 



1851. Ipswich 

1852. Belfast 

1853. Hull 

1854. Liverpool.. 
185.5. Glasgow .. 
1856. Cheltenham 
18.57. Dublin ... 



Sir D. Brewster, F.E.S 

Sir J. F. W. Herschel, Bart., 

Rev. Prof. WheweU, F.E.S 

Prof. Forbes, F.E.S 

Eev. Prof. Lloyd, F.E.S 

Very Rev. G. Peacock, D.D., 

Prof. M'CuUoeh, M.R.LA 

The Earl of Rosse, F.R.S 

The Very Rev. the Dean of Ely . 

Sir John F. W. Herschel, Bart., 

FES 
Rev! Prof. PoweU, M.A., F.E.S. . 

Lord Wrottesley, F.R.S. . . . 
William Hopkins, F.R.S 

Prof. J. D. Forbes, F.E.S., Sec. 
E.S.E. 

Eev. W. WheweU, D.D., F.E.S., 

&c 
Prof.'w. Thomson, M.A., F.E.S. 

L. &E. 
The Dean of Ely, F.E.S 

Prof. G. G. Stokes, M.A., Sec. 

•p Q 

Eev.' Prof. KeUand, M.A., F.R.S 

Rev! R. Walker, M.A., F.R.S. ... 

Rev.T. R. Robiuson,D.D.,F.R.S. 
M.E.T.A. 



Prof. Forbes, W. S. Harris, F. W. 

Jerrard. 
W. S. Harris, Rev. Prof. PoweU, Prof. 

Stevelly. 
Rev. Prof. ChevaUier, Major Sabine, 

Prof. Stevelly. 
J. D. Chance, W. Snow Harris, Prof. 

SteveUy. 
Rev. Dr. Forbes, Prof. SteveUy, Arch, 

Smith. 
Prof. Stevelly. 
Prof. M'CuUoch, Prof. SteveUy, Eev. 

W. Scoresby. 
J. Nol t, Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. Wm. Hey, Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. H. Goodwin, Prof. SteveUy, G. 

G. Stokes. 
John Drew, Dr. Stevelly, G. G. 

Stokes. 
Rev. H. Price, Prof. Stevelly, G. G. 

Stoke.s. 
Dr. Stevelly, G. G. Stokes. 
Prof. Stevelly, G. G. Stokes, W. 

Ridout WiUs. 
W. J. Macquorn Rankine, Prof. 

Smyth, Prof. Stevelly, Prof. G. G. 

Stokes. 
S. Jackson, W. J. Macquorn Eankine, 

Prof. Stevelly, Prof. G. G. Stokes. 
Prof. Dixon, W. J. Macquorn Ean- 
kine, Prof. SteveUy, J. Tyndall. 

B. Blaydes Haworth, J. D. SoUilt, 
Prof. SteveUy, J. Welsh. 

J. Hartnup, H. G. Puckle, Prof. 

Stevelly, J. Tyndall, J. Welsh. 
Eev. Dr. Forbes, Prof. D. Gray, Prof. 

Tyndall. 

C. Brooke, Eev. T. A. Southwood, 
Prof. Stevelly, Eev. J. C. TurnbuU. 

Prof. Curtis, Prof. Hennessy, P. A. 
Ninnis, W. J. Macquorn Rankine, 
Prof. StevcUv. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



XXXI 



Date and Place. 



Presidents. 



Secretaries. 



1858. Leeds ... 



1859. 


Aberdeen ... 


1860. 


Oxford 


1861. 


Manchester . 


1862. 


Cambridge .. 


1863. 


Newcastle... 


1864 


Bath 


1865. 


Birmingham 


1866. 


Nottingham 


1867. 


Dundee 


1868. 


Norwich . . . 


1869. 


Exeter 


1870. 


Liyerpool... 



1871. Edinburgh 



1872. 


Brighton ... 


1873. 


Bradford ... 


1874. 


Belfast 



E€v.W.Whewell,D.D,,V.P.R.S.iEev. S. Earnshaw, J. P. Hennessy, 

Prof. Stevelly, H. J. S. Smith, Prof. 

Tyndall. 
The Earl of Kosse, M.A,, K.P.JJ. P. Hennessy, Prof Maxwell, H. J. S. 

P.R.S. Smith, Prof. Stevelly. 

Rev, B. Price, M.A., P.E.S Rev. G. C. Bell, Rev. T. Rennison, 

Prof. Stevelly. 
Prof. R. B. Clifton, Prof. H. J. S. 

Smith, Prof. Stevelly. 
Prof R. B. Clifton, Prof. H. J. S. 

Smith, Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. N. Ferrers, Prof. Fuller, F. Jenkiu, 

Prof. Stevelly, Rev. C. T. Whitley. 
Prof. FuUer, F. Jenkin, Rev. G. 

Buckle, Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. T. N. Hutchinson, F. Jenkin, Gr. 

S. Mathews, Prof. H. J. S. Smith, 

J. M. Wilson. 
Fleeming Jenkin, Prof. H. J. S. Smith, 

Rev. S. N. Swann. 
Rev. G. Buckle, Prof. G. C. Foster, 

Prof. Fuller, Prof. Swan. 
Prof. G. C. Foster, Rev. R. Harley, 

R. B. Hayward. 
Prof G. C. Foster, R. B. Hayward, 

W. K. Clifford. 
Prof W. G. Adams, W. E. Clifford, 

Prof. G. C. Foster, Rev. W. Allen 

Whitworth. 
Prof. W. G. Adams, J. T. Bottomlev, 

Prof W. K. Clifford, Prof. J. f). 
Everett, Rev. R. Harley. 
Prof. W.E.Clifford, J.W.L. Glai.sher, 

Prof. A. S. Herschel, G. F. Rodwell. 

Prof. W. E. Clifford, Prof. Forbes, J. 

W. L. Glaisher, Prof A.S.Herschel. 

J. W. L. Glaisher, Prof. Herschel, 

Randal Nixon, J. Perry, G. F. Rod- 

weU. 



G. B. Airy, M.A., D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Prof. G. G. Stokes, M.A., F.R.S. 

Prof. W. J. Macquorn Eankine, 

C.E., F.R.S. 
Prof. Cayley, M.A., F.R.S., 

F.R.A.S. 
W. Spottiswoode, M.A., P.R.S., 

F.R.A.S. 

Prof. Wheatstone,D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Prof. Sir W. Thomson, D.C.L., 

Prof. J. Tyndall, LL.D., F.R.S... 

Prof. J. J. Sylvester, LL.D., 

J. Clerk Maxwell, M.A., LL.D., 
F.R.S. 

Prof. P. G. Tait, P.R.S.E 

W. De La Rue, D.C.L., F.R.S.., 

Prof. H. J. S. Smith, F.R.S 

Rev. Prof. J. H. Jellett, M.A., 
M.R.I.A. 



CHEMICAL SCIENCE. 



COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, II. — CHEMISTKY, MINERALOGY. 



1832. 
1833. 
1834. 



Oxford 

Cambridge.. 
Edinburgh... 



John Dalton,D.C.L., F.R.S 

John Dalton, D.C.L., F.R.S 

Dr. Hope 



James F. W. Johnston. 

Prof Miller. 

Mr. Johnston, Dr. Christison. 



SECTION B. CHEMISTRY AND MINERALOGY. 



1835. 

1836. 

1837. 

1838. 

1839. 
1840. 



Dublin , 
Bristol , 



Liverpool . . 

Newcastle. . 

Birmingham 
Glasgow 



1841. Plymouth... 



Dr. T. Thomson, F.R.S. 
Rev. Prof. Gumming 



Michael Faraday, F.R.S 

Rev. William WheweU, F.R.S.... 

Prof. T. Graham, F.R.S 

Dr. Thomas Thomson, F.R.S. ... 

Dr.Daubeny, F.R.S 



Dr. Apjohn, Prof Jolinston. 

Dr. Apjohn, Dr. C. Henry, W. Hera- 
path. 

Prof Johnston, Prof Miller, Dr. 
Reynolds. 

Prof Miller, R. L. Pattinson, Thomas 
Richardson. 

Golding Bird, M.D., Dr. J. B. Melson. 

Dr. R. D. Thomson, Dr. T. Clark, 
Dr. L. Playf\ur. 

J. Prideaux, Robert Himt, W. M, 
Tweedy. 



XXXll 



REPORT — 1874. 



Date and Place. 



1842. Manchester. 

1843. Cork 

1844. York 

1845. Cambridge.. 

1 846. Southampton 

1847. Oxford ... 

1848. Swansea 

1849. Birmingham 

1850. Edinburgh . 

1851. Ipswich 

1852. Belfast ... 



1853. Hull . 



1854. Liverpool . . . 

1855. Glasgow ... 
185G. Cheltenham 



1857. Dublin ... 

1858. Leeds ... 

1859. Aberdeen , 
18G0. Oxford... 



1861. Manchester 

1862. Cambridge , 



1863. Newcastle.. 

1864. Bath 

1865. Birmingham 
186G. Nottingham 



Presidents. 



Secretaries. 



John Dalton, D.C.L., F.E.S Dr. L. Playfair, E. Hunt, J. Graham 

Prof. Apjohn, M.E.I. A IE. Hunt, Dr. Sweeny 



Prof. T. Graham, F.E.S. 
Eev. Prof. Cumming. 



Michael Faraday, D.C.L., F.E.S. 
Eev.W.V.Harcourt, M.A., F.E.S. 

Eichard Phillips, F.E.S 

John Percy, M.D., F.E.S 

Dr. Christison, V.P.E.S.E 

Prof. Thomas Graham, F.E.S. ... 
Thomas Andrews, M.D., F.E.S. . 

Prof. J. F. W. Johnston, M.A., 

FES 
Prof. W. A. Miller, M.D., F.E.S. 
Dr. Lyon Playfair, C.B., F.E.S. . 
Prof. B. C. Brodie, F.E.S 

Prof. Apjohn, M.D., F.E.S., 

M.E.I.A. 
Sir J. F. W. Herschel, Bart., 

D.C.L. 
Dr. Lyon Playfair, C.B., F.E.S. . 

Prof. B. C. Brodie, F.E.S 

Prof. W. A. Miller, M.D., F.E.S, 
Prof. W. A.Miller, M.D., F.E.S. 



Dr. Alex. W. Williamson, F.E.S. 

W. Odling, M.B., F.E.S., F.C.S 
, Prof. W. A.Miller,M.D.,V.P.E.S. 
1 H. Bence Jones, M.D., F.E.S. ... 

1867. Dundee ... Prof.T.Anderson,M.D.,F.E.S.E. 

1868. Norwich ...Iprof.E.Fraukland, F.E.S., F.C.S. 

1869. Exeter JDr. H. Debus, F.E.S., F.C.S. ... 

1870. Liverpool... Prof. H. E. Eoscoe, B.A., F.E.S., 
F C S 

Prof. T.' Andrews, M.D., F.E.S. 



1871. Edinburgh 

1872. Brighton .. 

1873. Bradford .. 

1874. Belfast 



Dr. J. H. Gladstone, F.E.S 

Prof. W. J. Eussell, F.E.S 

Prof. A. Crum-Brown, M.D., 
F.E.S.E., F.C.S. 



Dr. E. Playfair, E. Solly, T. H. Barker. 

E. Hunt, J. P. Joule, Prof. Miller, 
E. Solly. 

Dr. MUler, E. Hunt, W. Eandall. 

B. C. Brodie, E. Hunt, Prof. Solly. 

T. H. Henry, E. Hunt, T. Williams. 

E. Hunt, G. Shaw. 

Dr. Anderson, E. Hunt, Dr. Wilson. 

T. J. Pearsall, W. S. Ward. 

Dr. Gladstone, Prof. Hodges, Prof. 
Eonalds. 

H. S. Blundell, Prof. E. Hunt, T. J. 
Pearsall. 

Dr. Edwards, Dr. Gladstone, Dr. Price. 

Prof. Frankknd, Dr. H. E. Eoscoe. 

J. Horsley, P. J. Worsley, Prof. 
Voelcker. 

Dr. Davy, Dr. Gladstone, Prof. Sul- 
livan. 

Dr. Gladstone, W. Odling, E. Eey- 
nolds. 

J. S. Brazier, Dr. Gladstone, G. D. 
Liveing, Dr. Odling. 

A. Vernon Harcourt, G. D. Liveing, 
A. B. Northcote. 

A. Vernon Harcourt, G. D. Liveing. 

H. W. Elpliinstone, W. Odling, Prof. 
Eoscoe. 

Prof. Liveing, H. L. Pattinson, J. C. 
Stevenson. 

A. V. Harcourt, Prof. Liveing, E. 
Biggs. 

A. V. Harcourt, 11. Adkins, Prof. 
Wanklyn, A. Winkler Wills. 

J. II. Atherton, Prof. Liveing, W. J. 
Eu.ssell, J. White. 

A. Crum Brown, Prof. G. D. Liveing, 
W. J. Eussell. 

Dr. A. Crum Brown, Dr. W. J. Eus- 
sell, F. Sutton. 

Prof. A. Crum Brown, M.D., Dr. W. 
J. Eussell, Dr. Atkinson. 

Prof. A. Crum Brown, M.D., A. E. 
Fletcher, Dr. W. J. Eussell. 

J. T. Buchanan, W. N. Hartley, T. E. 
Thorpe. 

Dr. Mills, W. Chandler Eobcrts, Dr. 
W. J. Eussell, Dr. T. Wood. 

Dr. Armstrong, Dr. Mills, W. Chan- 
dler Eoberts, Dr. Thorpe. 

Dr. T.'Cranstoun Charles, W. Chand- 
ler Eoberts, Prof. Thorpe. 



GEOLOGICAL (and, xraiiL 1851, GEOGRAPHICAL) SCIENCE. 

COMMITTEE OP SCIENCES, III. GEOLOGY AND GEOGRAPHY. 



1832. Oxford IE. I. Murehison, F.E.S. 

1833. Cambridge . G. B. Greenough, F.E.S. 
18.34. Edinburgh . I Prof. Jameson 



John Taylor. 

W. Lonsdale, John Phillips. 
Prof. Phillips, T. Jameson Torrie, 
Eev. J. Yates. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



xxxni 



Date and Place. 



Presidenta. 



Secretaries. 



1835. DubHn 

1836. Bristol 



1837. Liverpool... 

1838. Newcastle... 

1839. Birmingham 

1840. Glasgow ... 

1841. Plymouth.. 

1842. Manchester 

1843. Cork 

1844. York 

1845. Cambridge . 

1 846. Southampton 



SECTION C. — GEOLOGY AND GEOGEAPHT 

R.J. Griffith 

Rev. Dr. Buckland, F.U.S.—Geo- 
graphy. R. I.Murchison,F.R.S 



Rev.Prof.*Sedgwick,F.R.S.—Gw- Captain Portlock, R. Hunter.— Gfo- 



Captain Portlock, T. J. Torrie. 
William Sanders, S. Stutchbury, T. J. 
Torrie. 



graphy. G.B.Greenough.F.R.S. 
C. Lyell, F.R.S., V.P.G.S.— ffeo- 

graphy. Lord Prudhope. 
Rev. Dr. Buckland, F.R.S.— G^co- 

^r«jo7c;y. G.B.Greenougli.F.R.S. 
Charles Lyell, F.R.S.— Gco^-ra- 

phij. G. B. Greenough, F.R.S. 

H. T. De la Beche, F.R.S 

R. I. Murchison, F.R. S 



graphy. Captain H. M. Denham,R-N. 
W. C. Trevelyan, Capt. Portlock.— 

Geography. Capt. Washington. 
George Lloyd, M.D., H. E. Strickland, 

Charles Darwin. 
W. J. Hamilton, D. Milne, Hugh 

Murray, H. E. Strickland, John 

Scoidar, M.D. 
W. J. Hamilton, Edward Moore,M.D., 

R. Hutton. 
E. W. Binney, R. Hutton, Dr. R. 

Lloyd, H. E. Strickland. 
Francis M. Jennings, H. E. Strick- 
land. 



Richard E. Griffith, F.R.S 

M.R.I.A. „ _ , 

Henry Warburton, M.P., Pres. Prof. Ansted, E. H. Bunbury 

Geol. Soc. 
Rev. Prof. Sedgwick, M. A., F.R.S. 



1847. Oxford . 

1848. Swansea 

1849. Birmingham 

1850. Edinburgh* 



1851. Ipswich 

1852. Belfast .. 



L9onardHorner,F.R.S. — Geogra- 
phy. G. B. Greenough, F.R.S. 

Very Rev. Dr. Buckland, F.R.S. 

Sir H. T. De la Beche, C.B., 

Sir Charles Lyell, F.R.S., F.G.S. 

Su- Roderick I. Murchison,F.R.S. 



Rev. J. C. Camming, A. C. Ramsay, 

Rev. W. Thorp. 
Robert A. Austen, J. H. Norten, M.D., 

Prof. Oldham. — Geography. Dr. C. 

T Beke. 
Prof. Ansted, Prof. Oldham, A. C. 

Ramsay, J. Ruskin. 
StarUng Benson, Prof. Oldham, Prof. 

Ramsay. 
J. Beete Jukes, Prof. Oldham, Prof. 

A. C. Ramsay. 
A. Keith Johnston, Hugh Miller, Pro- 
fessor Nicol. 



SECTION c (continued). — geology. 
William Hopkins, M.A., F.R.S... 

Lieut.-Col. Portlock, R.E., F.R.S. 



1853. Hull 

1854. Liverpool . . 

1855. Glasgow ... 

1856. Cheltenham 

18.-i7. Dublin 

13.58. Leeds 

1859. Aberdeen ... 

1860. Oxford 



Prof. Sedgwick, F.R.S 

Prof. Edward Forbes, F.R.S. ^... 

Sir R. I. Murchison, F.R.S 

Prof. A. C. Ramsay, F.R.S 

The Lord Talbot de Malahide . . . 

WilHam Hopkins, M.A., LL.D., 

Sir Charles Lyell, LL.D., D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
Rev. Prof. Sedgwick, LL.D., 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 



C. J. F. Bunbury, G. W. Ormerod, 

Searles Wood. 
James Bryce, James MacAdam, Prof. 

M'Coy, Prof Nicol. 
Prof. Harkness, William Lawton. 
John Cunningliam, Prof. Harkness 

G. W. Ormerod, J. W. Woodall. 
James Bryce, Prof. Harkness, Prof. 

Nicol. 
Rev. P. B. Brodie, Rev. R. Hepworth, 

Edward Hull, J. Scougall, T.Wright. 
Prof. Harkness, Gilbert Sanders, Ro- 
bert H. Scott. 
Prof. Nicol, H. C. Sorby, E. W. 

Shaw. 
Prof. Harkness, Rev. J. Longmuir, H. 

C. Sorby. 
Prof. Harkness, Edward Hull, Capt. 

Woodall. 



* At a Meeting of the General Committee held in 1850, it was resolved "That the 
subject of Geography be separated from Geology and combined with Ethnology to consti- 
tute a separate Section, under the title of the " Geographical and Ethnological Section, 
for Presidents and Secretaries of which see page xrxvii. 

1874. " 



XXXIV 



REPORT — 1874, 



Date and Place. 



Presidents. 



Secretaries. 



1861. Manchester 

1862. Cambridge 

1863. Newcastle .. 

1864. Bath 

1865. Birmingham 

1866. Nottingham 

1867. Dundee.... 

1868. Norwich . 

1869. Exeter .... 

1870. Liverpool... 

1871. Edinburgh.. 

1872. Brighton ... 

1873. Bradford ... 

1874. Belfast 



Prof. Harkness, Edward Hull, T. Eu- 

pert Jones, Q-. W. Ormerod. 
Lucas Barrett, Prof. T. Rupert Jones, 

H. C. Sorby. 
E. P. Boyd, Jolin Daglish, H. C. Sor- 
by, Thomas Sopwith. 
W. B. Dawkins, J. Johnston, H. C. 

Sorby, W. Pengelly. 
Rev. P. B. Brodie, J. Jones, Rev. E. 

Myers, H. C. Sorby. W. Pengellv. 
R. Etheridge, W. Pengellv, T. \\^il- 

son, G. H. Wright. 
Edward Hull, W. Pengelly, Henry 

Woodward. 
Rev. O. Fisher, Rev. J. Gunn, W. 

PengpUy, Rev. H. H. Winwood. 
W. Pengelly, W. Boyd Dawkins, Rev. 

H. H. Winwood. 
W. Pengelly, Rev. H. H. Winwood, 

W. Boyd Dawkins, G. H. Morton. 
R. Etheridge, J. Geilde, J. McKenny 

Hughes, L. C. Miall. 
L. C. Miall. George Scott, William 

Topley, Henry Woodward. 
L. C. MiaU, R. H. Tiddeman, W. 
, Topley. 
Prof. Hull, M.A., F.R.S., F.G.S.|F. Drew, L. C. Miall, R. G. Symes, 

R. H. Tiddeman. 



Sir R. I. Mm-chison, D.C.L., 

LL.D., F.R.S., &c. 
J. Beete Jukes, M.A., F.R.S 

Prof. Warington W. Smyth, 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Prof. J. PhilUps, LL.D., F.R.S., 

F.G.S. 
Sir R. I. Murchison, Bart.,K.C.B, 

Prof A.C. Ramsay, LL.D., F.R.S, 

Archibald Geikie, F.R.S., F.G.S 

R. A. C. Godmn-Austen, F.R.S., 

F.G.S. 
Prof R. Harkness, F.R.S., F.G.S, 

Sir Philip de M. Grey Egerton, 

Bart, M.P., F.R.S. 
Prof. A. Geikie, F.R.S., F.G.S... 

R. A. C. Godwin- Austen, F.R.S. 

Prof. J. Phillips, D.C.L., F.R.S., 
F.G.S. 



BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES. 

COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, IV. ZOOLOGY, BOTANY, PHYSIOLOGY, ANATOMY. 



1832. Oxford 

1833. Cambridge* 

1834. Edinbiu-gh 



Rev. P. B. Duncan, F.G.S 

Rev. W. L. P. Garnon.s, F.L.S... 
Prof. Graham 



Rev. Prof. J. S. Henslow. 
C. C. Babington, D. Don. 
W. Yarrell, Prof. Biu-nett. 



1835. DubUn 

1836. Bristol 



W. S. MacLeay 

Sir W. Jardine, Bart 

Prof. Owen, F.R.S 

Sir W. J. Hooker, LL.D , 



SECTION D. ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY. 

Dr. Allman J. Curtis, Dr. Litton. 

Rev. Prof. Henslow J.Curtis, Prof. Don, Dr. Riley, S. 

Rootsey. 

C. C. Babington, Rev. L. Jenyns, W. 
Swain.son. 

J. E. Gray, Prof. Jones, R. Owen, Dr. 
Richardson. 

E. Forbes, W. Ick, R. P.itterson. 

Prof. W. Couper, E. Forbes, R. Pat- 
terson. 

J. Couch, Dr. Lankester, R. Patterson. 

Dr. Lankester, R. Patterson, J. A. 
Turner. 

G. J. Allman, Dr. Lankester, R. Pat- 
terson. 

Prof. Allman, H. Goodsir, Dr. King, 
Dr. Lankester. 

Dr. Lankester, T. V. WoUaston. 
Sir J. Richardson, M.D., F.R.S. tor. Lankester, T. V. WoUaston, H. 

Wooldridge. 
H.E. Strickland, M.A., F.R.S.... [Dr. Lankester, Dr. Mekille, T. V. 

i Wolla.ston. 

* At this Meeting Physiology and Anatomy were )iiade a separate Committee, for 
Presidents and (Secretaries of which see p. xsxvi.' 



1837. Liverpool.. 

1838. Newcastle.. 

1839. Brimingham 

1840. Glasgow .. 

1841. Plymouth... 

1842. Manchester 



1843. Cork 

1844. York 



1845. Cambridge 

1846. Southampton 

1847. Oxford 



John Richardson, M.D., F.R.S. . 
Hon. and Very Rev. W. Herbert. 

LL.D., F.L.S. 
William Thompson, F.L.S 

Very Rev. The Dean of Manches- 
ter. 
Rev. Prof. Henslow, F.L.S. ... 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



XXXV 



Date and Place. 



Presidents. 



Secretaries. 



SECTION D (continued). — zoology and botany, including physiology. 

[For the Presidents and Secretaries of tlie Anatomical and Physiological Subsections 
and the temporary Section E of Anatomy and Medicine, see p. sxxvi.] 



1848. Swansea ... 

1849. Birmingham 

1850. Edinburgh.. 



1851. Ipswich. 

1852. Belfast . 



L. W. DiUwyn, RR.S 

William Spence, RE.S 

Prof. Goodsir, F.R.S. L. &E. ... 

Eev. Prof. Henslow, M.A., P.E.S. 

W. Ogilby 



1853. Hull 

1854. Liverpool ... 

1855. Glasgow ... 

1856. Cheltenham 

1857. Dublin 

1858. Leeds 

1859. Aberdeen .. 

1860. Oxford 



C. C. Babington, M.A., F.R.S... . 

Prof. Balfour, M.D., F.R.S 

Rev. Dr. Fleeming, P.R.S.E. ... 
Thomas Bell, F.R.S., Pres.L.S.... 



C. C. Babington, M.A., RR.S... 
Sir W. Jardine, Bart., F.R.S.E. 
Rev. Prof. Henslow, F.L.S 



1864. Bath 

1865. Birmingham 



Dr. R. Wilbraham Falconer, A. Hen- 

frey. Dr. Lankester. 
Dr. Lankester, Dr. Russell. 
Prof. J. H. Bennett, M.D., Dr. Lan- 
kester, Dr. Douglas Maclagan. 
Prof Allman, P. VV. Jolinston, Dr. E. 

Lankester. 
Dr. Dickie, George C. Hyndman, Dr. 

Edwin Lankester. 
Robert Harrison, Dr. E. Lankester. 
Isaac Byerley, Dr. E. Lankester. 
William Keddie, Dr. Lankester. 
Dr. J. Abercrombie, Prof. Buckman, 

Dr. Lankester. 
Prof.W.H. Harvey, M.D., F.R.S. Prof J. R.K:inahan,Dr. E. Lankester, 

Robert Patterson, Dr. W. E. Steele. 
Henry Denny, Dr. Heatou, Dr. E. 

Lankester, Dr. E. Perceval Wright. 
Prof. Dickie, M.D., Dr. E. Lankester, 

Dr. Ogilvy. 
W. S. Church, Dr. E. Lankester, P. 

L. Sclater, Dr. E. Percoval Wright. 
Dr. T. Alcoek, Dr. E. Lankester, Dr. 

P. L. Sclater, Dr. E. P. Wright. 
Alfred Newton, Dr. E. P. Wright. 
Dr. E. Charlton, A, Newton, Eev. H. 

B, Tristram, Dr. E. P. Wright. 
H. B. Brady, C. E. Broom, II. T. 

Stainton, Dr. E. P. Wright. 
Dr. J. Anthony, Rev. C. Clarke, Rev. 

H. B. Tristram, Dr. E. P. Wright. 



1861. Manchester.. IProf. C. C. Babington, F.R.S. . 

1862. Cambridge... Prof. Huslev, F.R.S 

1863. Newcastle ...Prof. Balfour, M.D., F.R.S 



Dr. John E. Gray, F.R.S. 
T. Thomson, M.D., F.R.S. 



section d (continued). — biology*. 



1866. Nottingham. 

1867. Dundee 

1868. Norwich ... 



1869. Exeter 



Prof Huxley, LL.D., F.R.S.— 
Physiological Dei). Prof Hum- 
phry, M.D., Y.'R.^.— Anthropo- 
logical Bcp. Alfred R. Wallace, 
RR.G.S. 

Prof Sharpey, M.D., Sec. R.S.— 
Z'fp. of Zool. and Bot. George 
Busk, M.D., F.R.S. 

Eev. M. J. Berkeley, F.L.S.— 
I)pf. of Thysiologt/. W. H. 
Flower, F.E.S. 

George Busk, F.E.S., P.L.S.— 
Dej). of Bot. and Zool. C. Spence 
Bate, F.R.S.— i>(y. of Efhno 
E. B. Tylor. 



Dr. J. Beddard, W. Felkin, Eev. H. 
B. Tristram, W. Turner, E. B. 
Tylor, Dr. E. P. Wright. 



C. Spence Bate, Dr. S. Cobbold, Dr. 

M. Foster, H. T. Stainton, Rev. H. 

B. Tristram, Prof. W. Turner. 
Dr. T. S. Cobbold, G. W. Firth, Dr. 

M. Foster, Prof Lawson, H. T. 

Stainton, Rev. Dr. H. B. Tristram, 

Dr. E. P. Wright. 
Dr. T. S. Cobbold, Prof M. Foster, 

M.D., E. Ray Lankester, Professor 

Lawson, H. T. Stainton, Rev. H. B. 

Tristram. 



* At a Meeting of flie General Committee in 1805, it was resolved: — "That the 
title of Section D be changed to Biology ; " and "That for the word ' Subsection,' in tho 
rules for conducting the business of the Sections, the word ' Department ' be substituted, 

c2 



xxxvi 



RiipoRT — 187'4. 



Date and Place. 



18"0, Liverpool.., 



1871. Edinburgh 



1872. Brighton 



1873. Bradford 



1874. Belfast, 



Presidents. 



Prof. a. EoUeston, M.A., M.D., 
F.E.S.,RL.S.— i>«p. Aiiat. and 
Physiol. Prof. M. Foster, M.D. 
F.L.S.— Z>C;^j. Of Ethno. J. 
Evans, F.R.S. 

Prof. Allen Thomsou,M.D.,F.E.S. 
— Bep. ofBot. and Zool. Prof. 
Wyville Thomson, F.E.S.— 
Bep. of Anthropol.\ Prof. W. 
Turner, M.D. 

Sir John Lubbock, Bart., F.E.S. 
- — Bep. of Anat. and Physiol. 
Dr. Burdon Sanderson, F.E.S. 
— Bep of Anthropol. Col. A. 
Lane Fox, F.G.S. 

Prof. AUman, F.E.S.— Z>ep. of 
Anat. and Physiol. Prof. Eu- 
therford, M.D. — Bep. of An 
thropol. Dr. Beddoe, F.E.S. 

Prof. Eedfern, IM.D.— Dcp. of 
Zool. and Bot. Dr. Hooker 
C.B., Pres. ^.B..—Bep. of An- 
thropol. Sir W. E. Wilde, 
M.D. 



Secretaries. 



Dr. T. S. Cobbold, Sebastian Evans. 
Prof. LaWson, Thos. J. Moore, H- 
T. Stainton, Eev. H. B.Tristram, 
C. Staniland Wake, E. Eay Lan- 
kester. 

Dr. T. R. Eraser, Dr. Arthur Gamgee, 
E. Eay Lankester, Prof. Lawson, 
II. T. Stainton, C. Staniland Wake, 
Dr. W. Eutherford, Dr. Kelburno 
King. 

Prof. Thiselton-Dyer, H. T. Stainton, 
Prof. Lawson, F. W. Eudler, J. H. 
Lamprey, Dr. Gamgee, E. Eay Lan- 
kester, Dr. Pye-Smith. 

Prof. Thiselton-Dyer, Prof. Lawson, 
E. M'Lachlan, Dr. Pye-Smith, E. 
Eay Lankester, F. W. Eudler, J. 
H. Lamprey. 

W. T. Thiselton-Dyer, E. O. Cunning- 
ham, Dr. J. J. Charles, Dr. P. H, 
Pye-Smith, J. J. Murphy, F. W. 
Eudler. 



ANATOMICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL SCIENCES. 

COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, V. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY. 



1833. Cambridge...]Dr. Haviland 

183i. Edinburgh. ..JDr. Abercrombie 



Dr. Bond, Mr. Paget. 

Dr. Eoget, Dr. Wilham Thomson. 



1835. 
1836. 
1837. 

1838. 
1839. 
1840. 



Dublin 

Bristol 

Liverpool . . . 

Newcastle ... 
Birmingham 
Glasgow 



SECTION E, (tTNTIL 1847.) ANATOMY AND MEDICINE. 



1841. Plymouth... 



1842. 
1843. 
1844. 



Manchester. 

Cork 

York 



Dr. Pritchard 

Dr. Eoget, F.E.S 

Prof. W. Clark, M.D 

T. E. Headlam, M.D 

John Yelloly, M.D., F.E.S. 
James Watson, M.D 



P. M. Eoget, M.D., Sec.E.S. 

Edward Holme, M.D., F.L.S. 

Sir James Pitcairn, M.D 

.L C. Pritchard, M.D 



Dr. Harrison, Dr. Hart. 

Dr. Symonds. 

Dr. J. Carson, jun., James Long, Dr. 

J. E. W. Vose. 
T. M. Greenhow, Dr. J. E. W. Vose. 
Dr. G. O. Eees, F. Eyland. 
Dr. J. Brown, Prof. Couper, Prof. 

Eeid. 
Dr. J. Butter, J. Fuge, Dr. E. S. 

Sargent. 
Dr. Chaytor, Dr. E. S. Sargent. 
Dr. John Popham, Dr. E. S. Sargent. 
I. Erichsen, Dr. E. S. Sargent. 



SECTION E. PHYSIOLOGY. 



1845. Cambridge .'Prof. J. Haviland, M.D. .. 
1840. Southampton Prof. Owen, M.D., F.E.S... 
1847. Oxford* ...Prof. Ogle, M.D., F.E.S. .. 



Dr. E. S. Sargent, Dr. Webster. 
C. P. Keele, Dr. Laycock, Dr. Sargent. 
Dr. Thomas K. Chambers, W. P. 
Ormerod. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL STOSECTTONS OF SECTION D. 
1850. Edinburgh jProf. Bennett, M.D., F.E.S.E. I 

18.55. Glasgow ...Prof. Allen Thomson, F.E.S. . . . Prof. J. H. Corbett, Dr. J. Struthers. 
1857. Dublin |Prof. E. Harrison, M.D |Dr. E. D. Lyons, Prof. Eedfern. 

* By direction of the General Committee at Oxford, Sections D and E were incorporated 
under the name of " Section D — Zoology and Botany, including Physiology " (.see p. xxxi v). 
Tnr. Section being then vacant w.is assigned in 1851 to Geography. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES 01? THE SECTIONS. 



XXXVll 



Date and Place. 



1858. Leeds 

1859. Aberdeen ... 

1860. Oxford 

1861. Manchester. 

1862. Cambridge . 
186.3. Newcastle... 

1864. BatL 

1865. Birminghm*. 



Presidents. 



Sir Benjamin Brodie, Bart..F.E.S. 
Prof. S'harpey, M.D., Sec.R.S. ... 
Prof. G-. Rolleston, M.D., F.L.S. 
Dr. John Davy, F.R.S.L. & E. . . . 

G.E.Paget, M.D 

Prof. Rolleston, M.D., F.R.S. ... 
Dr. Edward Smith, LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. Acland,M.D.,LL.D., F.R.S. 



Secretaries. 



C. Q-. WheeUioiise. 
Prof. Bennett, Prof. Redfern. 
Dr. R. M'Donnell, Dr. Edward Smith. 
Dr. W. Roberts, Dr. Edward Smith. 
a. F. Helm, Dr. Edward Smith. 
Dr. D. Embleton, Dr. W. Turner. 
J. S. Bartrum, Dr. W. Turner. 
Dr. A. Fleming, Dr. P. Heslop, OliTcr 
Pembleton, Dr. W. Turner. 



GEOGRAPHICAL AND ETHNOLOGICAL SCIENCES. 
[For Presidents and Secretaries for Geography previous to 1851, see Section C, p. xxxii.] 

ETHNOLOGICAL SUBSECTIONS OF SECTION D. 



1846. Southampton 

1847. Oxford 

1848. Swansea ... 

1849. Birmingham 

1850. Edinburgh.. 



Dr. Pritchard 

Prof. H. H. Wilson, M.A. 



Vice-Admiral Sir A. Malcolm 



Dr. King. 
Prof. Buckley. 
G. Grrant Francis. 
Dr. R. G. Latham. 
Daniel Wilson. 



SECTION E. GEOGRAPHY AND ETHNOLOGY. 



1851. 

1852. 
1853. 
1854. 
1855. 
1856. 
18.57. 
1858. 
1859. 
1860. 
1861. 
1862. 
1863. 
1864. 
1865. 
1866. 

1867. 
1868. 



Ipswich . . . 

Belfast 

Hull 

Livei'pool . . . 
Glasgow . . . 
Cheltenham 

Dublin 

Leeds 

Aberdeen ... 

Oxford , 

Manchester 
Cambridge 
Newcastle. 
Bath 



Sir E. I. Murchison, F.R.S., Pres. 

R.G.S. 
Col. Chesney, R.A., D.C.L., 

R. G. Latham, M.D., F.R.S. ... 

Sir R. I. Murchison, D.C.L., 

Sir J. Richardson, M.D., F.R.S 

Col. Sir H. C. RawUnson, K.O.B. 

Rev. Dr. J. HenthawnTodd, Pres. 

R.I.A. 
Sir R. I. Murchison, G.C.St.S., 

F.R.S. 
Rear-Admiral Sir James Clerk 

Ross, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Sir R. I. Murchison, D.C.L, 

F R S 
John Cr'awfurd, F.R.S 

Francis Gblton, F.R.S 



Sir R. I. Murchison, KC.B., 

F.R.S. 
Sir R. I. Murchison, K.C.B., 

F.R.S. 
Birmingliam Major-General Sir R. Rawlinson, 

M.P., K.C.B., F.R.S. 
Sir Charles Nicholson, Bai-t., 

LL.D. 



Nottingham 



Dundee.. 
Norwich 



Sir Samuel Baker, F.R.G.S 

Capt. G. H. Richards, R.N., F.R.S. 



R. Cull, Rev. J. W. Donaldson, Dr. 
Norton Shaw. 

R. Cull, R. MacAdam, Dr. Norton 
Sliaw. 

R. Cull, Rev. H. W. Kemp, Dr. Nor- 
ton Shaw. 

Richard Cull, Rev. H. Higgins, Dr. 
lime, Dr. Norton Shaw. 

Dr. W. G. Blackie, R. Cull, Dr. Nor- 
ton Shaw. 

R. Cull, F. D. Hartland, W. H. Rum- 
sey. Dr. Norton Shaw. 

R. Cull, S. Ferguson, Dr. R. R. Mad- 
den, Dr. Norton Shaw. 

R.Cull,FrancisGalton,P.O'Callaghan, 
Dr. Norton Shaw, Thomas Wright. 

Richard Cull, Professor Geddes, Dr. 
Norton Shaw. 

Capt. Burrows, Dr. J. Hunt, Dr. C. 
Lempriere, Dr. Norton Shaw. 

Dr. J. Hunt, J. Kingsley, Dr. Norton 
Shaw. W. Spottiswoode. 

J. W. Clarke, Rev. J. Glover, Dr. 
Hunt, Dr. Norton Shaw, T. Wright. 

C. Carter Blake, Hume Greenfield, 

C. R. Markliam, R. S. Watson. 
H. W. Bates, C. R. Markham, Capt. 

R. M. Murchison, T. Wright. 
H. W. Bates, S. Evans, G. Jabet, C. 

R. Markham, Thomas Wright. 
H. W. Bates, Rev. E. T. Cusins, P. 

II. Major, Clements R. Markhan . 

D. W.Nash, T.Wright. 
H. W. Bat«s, Cyril Graham, C. P. 

Markham, S. J. Mackie, E. Sturroci . 
T. Baines, H. W. Bates, C. R. Mnrl- 



ham, T. Wright. 



* Vide note on page xxxv. 



XXXVIU 



iiEroKT — 1874. 



Date and Place. 



Presidents. 



Secretaries. 



1869. Exeter 

1870. Liverpool . . , 

1871. Edinburgh. 

1872. Brighton .. 

1873. Bradford .. 

1874. BeKast 



SECTION E (eonthmed). — geography. 

Sir Bartle Prere, K.C.B., LL.D 

RE.G.S. 
SirE. I. Murchison.Bt.K.C.B. 

LL.D., D.C.L., T.E.S., RG.S 
Colonel Yule, C.B., RE.G.S. .. 



Francis Galton, F.E.S 

Sir Eutherford Alcock, KC.B... 

Major Wilson, E.E., RE.S. 
RE.G.S. 



H. W. Bates, Clements E. Markham, 
J. H. Thomas. 

H. W. Bates, David Buxton, Albert 
J. Mott, Clements E. Markham. 

Clements E. Markham, A. Buchan, 
J. H. Thomas, A. Keith Johnston. 

H. W. Bates, A. Keith Johnston, Eev. 
J. Newton, J. H. Thomas. 

H. W. Bates, A. Keith Johnston, Cle- 
ments E. Markham. 

E. G. Eavensteiu, E. C. Eye. 



STATISTICAL SCIENCE. 

committee op sciences, TI. STATISTICS. 



1833. Cambridge .IProf. Babbage, F.E.S. ... 

1834. Edinburgh .|Sir Charles Lemon, Bart. 



J. E. Drinkwater. 

Dr. Cleland, C. Hope Maclean. 



SECTION F. STATISTICS. 

183.5. Dublin jCharles Babbage, F.E.S |W. Greg, Prof. Longfield. 

1836. Bristol jSir Charles Lemon, Bart., F.E.S.[Ecv. J. E. Bromby, C. B. Pripp, 

James Heywood. 



1837. Liverpool... 

1838. Newcastle... 

1839. Birmingham 



Et. Hon. Lord Sandon 



Colonel Sykes, F.E.S. 
Henry Hallam, RE.S 



Et. Hon. Lord Sandon, F.E.S., 

M.P. 
Lieut.-Col. Sykes, RE.S 



1840. Glasgovr .. 

1841. Plymouth.. 

1842. Manchester . G. W. Wood, M.P., F.L.S 



1843. Cork... 

1844. York 

1845. Cambridge . 

1846. Southampton 



1847. Oxford , 



1848. Swansea 

1849. Birmingham 

1850. Edinburgh 



1851. Ipswich. 

1852. Belfast . 



1853. Hull 

1854. Liverpool . . . 

1855. Glasgow 



W. E. Greg, W. Langton, Dr. W. C. 

Tayler. 
W. Cargill, J. Heywood, W. E. Wood. 
F. Clarke, E. W. Eawson, Dr. W. C. 

Tayler. 
C. E. Baird, Prof. Eamsay, E. W. 

Eawson. 
Eev. Dr. Byrth, Eev. E. Luney, E. 

W. Eawson. 
Eev. E. Luney, G. W. Ormerod, Dr. 

W. C. Tayler. 
Dr. D. Bullen, Dr. W. Cooke Tayler. 
J. Fletcher, J. Heywood, Dr. Laycock. 
J. Fletcher, W. Cooke Tayler, LL.D. 
J. Fletcher, F. G. P. Neison, Dr. W. 

C. Tavler, Eev. T. L. Shapcott. 
Eev. W!^ H. Cos, J. J. Danson, F. G. 

P. Neison. 
J. Fletcher, Capt. E. Shortrede. 
Dr. Finch, Prof. Hancock, F. G. P. 

Neison. 
Prof. Hancock, J. Fletcher, Dr. J. 
Stark. 

Sir John P. Boileau, Bart |J. Fletcher, Prof. Hancock. 

His Grace the Archbishop of.Prof. Hancock, Prof. Ingram, James 
Dublin. MacAdam, Jun. 

James Heywood, M.P., F.E.S ' Edward Cheshire, William Newmai'ch. 

Thomas Tooke, F.E.S JE. Cheshii-e, J. T. Danson, Dr. W. H. 

Duncan, W. Newmarch. 
E. Monckton Milnes, M.P !j. A. Campbell, E. Cheshire, W. New- 
march, Prof. E. H. Walsh. 

section p (continued). — economic science and statistics. 



Sir C. Lemon, Bart., M.P 

Lieut.-Col. Sykes, F.E.S., F.L.S, 
Et. Hon. The Earl Fitzwilham. . 
G. E. Porter, F.E.S 

Travers Twiss, D.C.L., F.E.S. .. 

J. H. Vivian, M.P., F.E.S 

Et. Hon. Lord Lyttelton 



Very Eev. Dr. John Lee, 
V.P.E.S.E. 



1856. Cheltenham 



Et. Hon. Lord Stanley, M.P. ... 



Eev. C. H. Bromby, E. Cheshire, Dr. 
W. N. Hancock Newmarch, W. M. 
Tartt. 



PHESIDKNTS AND SiiCKKXAHiliS Ol' THE SECTIONS. 



XXXIX 



Date and Place. 



1857. 
1858. 
1859. 
1860. 
1861. 

1862. 
1863. 

1864. 

1865. 

1866. 

1867. 

1868. 

1869. 

1870. 

1871. 

1872. 
1873. 
1874. 



Dublin 

Leeds 

Aberdeen ... 
Oxford 

Manchester 



Cambridge. . 

Newcastle ... 



His G-race the Archbishop of 

Dublin, M.E.I.A. 
Edward Baines 



Col. Sykes, M.P., F.R.S. ... 
Nassau W. Senior, M. A. . . . 
William Newmai-ch, F.E.S. 



Edwin Chad wick, C.B 

WUliam Tite, M.P., F.E.S. 



Bath. 



Birmingham 
Nottingham 

Dundee 

Norwich ... 



Exeter 

Liverpool . . 

Edinburgh 
Brighton .. 
Bradford .. 
Belfast 



Presidents. 



D.C.L., 



Secretaries. 



Prof. Cau^s, Dr. H. D. Hutton, W, 

Newmarch. 
T. B. Baines, Prof. Cairns, S. Brown, 

Capt. Fishboiu-ne, Dr. J. Strang. 
Prof Cairns, Edmund Macrory, A. M. 

Smith, Dr. John Strang. 
Edmund Macrory, W. Newmarch, 

Eev. Prof J. B. T. Eogers. 
David Chadwick, Prof E. C. Christie, 

E. Macrory, Eev. Prof. J. E. T. 

Eogers. 
H. D. Macleod, Edmund Macrory. 
T. Doubleday, Edmund Macrory, 

Frederick Piu-dy, James Potts. 
E. Macrory, E. T. Payne, F. Pm-dy. 



William Farr, M.D 

F.E.S. 
Et. Hon. Lord Stanley, LL.D., G. J. D. Goodman, G. J. Johnston, 

E. Macrory. 
E. Birkin, Jun., Prof. Leone Levi, E. 

Macrory. 
Prof Leone Levi, E. Macrory, A. J. 

Warden. 
Eev. W. C. Davie, Prof. Leone Levi. 



M.P. 
Prof. J. E. T. Eogers 



M. E. Grant Duff, M.P. 



Samuel Brown, Pres. Instit. Ac- 

Til fl^l f^Q 

Et. Hon.'sir Stafford H. North- 
cote, Bart., C.B., M.P. 
Prof. W. Stanley Jevons, M.A. . . 

Et. Hon. Lord Neaves 

Prof. Henry Fawcett, M.P 

Et. Hon. W. E. Forster, M.P.... 
Lord O'Hagan 



Edmund Macrory, Frederick Purdy, 

Charles T. D. Acland. 
Chas. E. Dudley Baxter, E. Macrory, 

J. Miles Moss. 
J. G. Fitch, James Meikle. 
J. G. Fitch, Barclay Phillips. 
J. G. Fitch, Swire Smith. 
Prof. Donuell, Frank P. Fellows, 

Hans MacMordie. 



MECHANICAL SCIENCE. 

SECTION G. MECHANICAL .SCIENCE. 



1836. 

1837. 
1838. 
1839. 

1840. 

1841. 
1842. 

1843. 
1844. 
1845. 
1846. 
1847. 
1848. 
1849. 
1850. 
1851. 
1852. 

1853. 

1854. 



Bristol 

Liverpool ... 
Newcastle ... 
Birmingham 

Glasgow . . . 

Plymouth . . . 
Manchester . 

Cork 

York 

Cambridge .. 
Southampton 
Oxford . 
Swansea 
Birmingham 
Edinburgh . 

Ipswich 

Belfast 

Hull 

Liverpool .. 



Davies Gilbert, D.C.L., F.E.S.... 

Eev. Dr. Eobinson 

Charles Babbage, F.E.S 

Prof. WilUs, F.E.S., and Eobert 

Stephenson. 
Sir John Eobinson 



John Taylor, F.E.S 

Eev. Prof Willis, F.E.S 

Prof J. Macneill, M.E.LA 

John Taylor, F.E.S 

George Eennie, F.E.S 

Eev. Prof WiUis, M.A., F.E.S. . 
Eev. Prof. Walker, M.A., F.E.S. 
Eev. Prof Walker, M.A., F.E.S. 
Eobert Stephenson, M.P., F.E.S. 

Eev. Dr. Eobinson 

William Cubitt, F.E.S 

John Walker,C.E., LL.D., F.E.S 

William Fairbairn, C.E., F.E.S. 

John Scott Eussell, F.E.S 



T. G. Bunt, G. T. Clark, W. West. 

Charles Viguoles, Thomas Webster. 

E. Hawthorn, C. Vignoles, T. Webster. 

W. Carpmael, WiUiam Hawkes, Tho- 
mas Webster. 

J. Scott Eussell, J. Thomson, J. Tod, 
C. Vignoles. 

Henry Chatfield, Thomas Webster. 

J. P. Batemau, J. Scott Eussell, J. 
Tliomson, Charles Vignoles. 

James Thomson, Eobert Mallet. 

Charles Vignoles, Thomas Webster. 

Eev. W. T. Kingsley. 

William Betts, Jan., Charles Manby. 

J. Glynn, E. A. Le Mesurier. 

R. A. Le Mesm-ier, W. P. Struve. 

Charles Manby, W. P. Marshall. 

Dr. Lees, David Stephenson. 

John Head, Charles Manby. 

John F. Bateman, C. B. Hancock, 
Charles Manby, James Thomson. 

James Oldham, J.Thomson, W. Sykes 
Ward, 

John Grantham, J. Oldham, J. Thom- 
son. 



xl 



REPORT — 1874. 



Date and Place. 



Presidents. 



Secretaries. 



1855. Glasgow . . 

1856. Cheltenham 

1857. Dublin 



1858. Leeds 

1859. Aberdeen 



1860. Oxford 

1861. Manchester . 

1862. Cambridge .. 

1863. Newcastle... 



1864. Bath 

1865. Birmingham 

1866. Nottingham 

1867. Dundee 

1868. Norwich ... 

1869. Exeter 

1870. Liverpool.. 

1871. Edinburgh 

1872. Brighton .. 

1873. Bradford.. 



W. J. Macquorn Eankine, C.E. 

RE.S. 
George Eenuie, RE.S 

The Eight Hon. The Earl of 

Eosse, F.E.S. 
William Fairbairn, F.E.S. . 
Eev. Prof. Willis, M.A., F.E.S. . 

Prof. W. J. Macquorn Eankine, 

LLD., F.E.S. 
J. F. Bateman, C.E., F.E.S 

WilHam Fairbairn, LL.D., F.E.S, 
Eev. Prof. Willis, M.A., F.E.S. . 

J. Hawkshaw, F.E.S 

Si. W. G. Ai-mstrong, LL.D., 

F.E.S. 
Thomas Hawksley, V.P.Inst. 

C.E., F.G.S. 
Prof. W. J. Macquorn Eankine, 

LL.D., F.E.S. 
G. P. Bidder, C.E., F.E.G.S. ... 

C. W. Siemens, F.E.S 

Chas. B. Vignoles, C.E., F.E.S. . 

Prof. Fleeming Jenkin, F.E.S.... 

F. J. Bramwell, C.E 

W. H. Barlow, F.E.S 



1874. Belfast . 



Prof. James Thomson, LL.D., 
C.E., F.E.S.E. 



L. Hill, Jun., William Eamsay, 

Thomson. 
C. Atberton, B. Jones, Jun., H. M. 

Jeifery. 
Prof. Downing, W. T. Doyne, A. Tate, 

James Thomson, Henry Wright. 
J. C. Dennis, J. Dixon, H. Wright. 
E. Abernethy, P. Le Neve Foster, H. 

Wright. 
P. Le Neve Foster, Eev. F. Harrison, 

Henry Wright. 
P. Le Neve Foster, John Eobin.son, H. 

Wright. 
|W. M. Fawcett, P. Le Neve Foster. 
P. Le Neve Foster, P. Wcstmacott, J. 

F. Spencer. 
P. Le Neve Foster, Eobert Pitt. 
P. Le Neve Foster, Henry Lea, W. P. 

Marshall, Walter May. 
P. Le Neve Foster, J. F. Iselin, M. 

A. Tarbottom. 
P. Le Neve Faster, John P. Smith, 

W. W Urquhart. 
P. Le Neve Foster, J. F. Iselin, C. 

Mauby, W. Smith. 
P. Le Neve Fost'er, H. Bauerman. 
II. Bauerman, P. Le Neve Foster, T. 

King, J. N. Shoolbred. 
H. Bauerman, Alexander Leslie, J. P, 

Smith. 
H. M. Brunei, P. Le Neve Foster, 

J. G. Gamble, J. N. Shoolbred. 
Crawford Barlow, H. Bauerman, S. 

H. Carbult, J. C. Hawkshaw, J. N. 

Shoolbred. 
A. T. Atchison, J. N. Shoolbred, John 

Smyth, jun. 



List of Evening Lectures, 



Date and Place. 



Lectm'er. 



Subject of Discourse. 



1842. Manchester 



1843. Cork , 



1844. York , 



1845. Cambridge 
1846.Southampton 



Charles Vignoles, F.E.S 

Sir M. I. Brunei 

E. I. Murchison 

Prof. Owen, M.D., F.E.S. ... 
Prof. E. Forbes, F.E.S 

Dr. Eobinson 

Charles Lyell, F.E.S 

Dr. Falconer, RE.S 

G. B. Airy, F.E.S., Astron.Eoyal 

E. L Murchison, RE.S 

Prof. Owen, M.D., F.E.S. ... 
Charles Lyell, RE.S 



The Principles and Construction of 

Atmospheric Eailways. 
The Thames Tunnel. 
The Geology of Eussia. 
The Dinornis of New Zealand. 
The Di.stribution of Animal Life in 

the yEgean Sea. 
The Earl of Eosse's Telescope. 
Geology of Nortli America. 
The Gigantic Tortoise of the Siwalik 

Hills in India. 
Progress of Terrestrial Magnetism. 
Geology of Eussia. 
Fossil Mammalia of the British Isles. 
Valley and Delta of the Mississippi. 



LIST OF EVENING LECTURES. 



xli 



Date and Place. 



1846. Southampton 

1847. Oxford 



1848. Swansea .. 

1849. Birmingham 

1850. Edinburgh. 



Lecturer. 



1851. Ipswich. 

1852. Belfast . 



1853. Hull 



1854. Liverpool .. 



1855. Glasgow. 



1856. Cheltenham 



1857. Dublin ... 

1858. Leeds 

1859. Aberdeen 



Subject of Discourse. 



1860. Oxford 

1861. Manchester 

1862. Cambridge 

1863. Newcastle- 

on-Tyne. 



W. E. Grove, F.E.S. 



Eev. Prof B. Powell, F.E.S. .. 
Prof. M. Faraday, F.E.S 

Hugh E. Strickland, F.G.S. . . 
John Percy, M.D., F.E.S 

W. Carpenter, M.D., F.E.S. .. 

Dr. Faraday, F.E.S 

Eev. Prof. WiUis, M.A., F.E.S. 

Prof. J. H. Bennett, M.D., 
F.E.S.E. 



Dr. Mautell, F.E.S 

Prof. E. Owen, M.D., F.E.S. 

G. B. Airy, P.E.S., A.stron. Eoy. 
Prof G.G. Stokes,D.C.L., F.E.S 

Colonel Portlock, E.E., F.E.S. 



Prof. J. Phillips, LL.D., F.E.S., 
F.G.S. 

Eobert Hunt, F.E.S 

Prof. E. Owen, M.D., F.E.S. .. 
Col. E. Sabine, V.P.E.S 

Dr. W. B. Carpenter, F.E.S. .. 
Lieut.-Col. H. Eawlinson 



Col. Sir H. Eawlinson , 



1864. Bath 



W. E. Grove. F.E.S 

Prof W. Thomson, F.E.S 

Eev. Dr. Livingstone, D.C.L. ... 
Prof. J. Phillips, LL.D., F.E.S, 
Prof. E. Owen, M.D., F.E.S. ... 

SirE.I.Miu-chison, D.C.L 

Eev. Dr. Eobinson, F.E.S 

Eev. Prof Walker, F.E.S 

Captain Sherard Osborn, E.N. 
Prof W. A. MiUer, M.A., F.E.S 
G. B. Airy, F.E.S., Astron. Eoy. 
Prof. TyndaU, LL.D., F.E.S. .. 

Prof. Odling, F.E.S 

Prof Williamson, F.E.S 



James Glaisher, F.E.S. 

Prof. Eoseoe, F.E.S 

Dr. Livingstone, F.E.S. 



Properties of the Explosive substance 
discovered by Dr. Schonbein ; also 
some Eesearches of his own on the 
Decomposition of Water by Heat. 
Shooting-stars. 

Magnetic and Diamagnetic Pheno- 
mena. 
The Dodo (JDidus ineptus). 
Metallurgical operations of Swansea 

and its neighbourhood. 
Eecent Microscopical Discoveries. 
Mr. Gassiot's Battery. 
Transit of different Weights with 

varying velocities on Eailways. 
Passage of the Blood through the 
minute vessels of Animals in con- 
nexion with Nutrition. 
Extinct Birds of New Zealand. 
Distinction between Plants and Ani- 
mals, and their changes of Form. 
Total Solar Eclipse of July 28, 1851. 
Eecent discoveries in the properties 

of Light. 
Eecent discovery of Eock-salt at Car- 
rickfergus, and geological and prac- 
tical considerations connected with it. 
Some peculiar phenomena in the Geo- 
logy and Physical Geography of 
Yorkshire. 
The present state of Photography. 
Anthropomorphous Apes. 
Progress of re.searches in Terrestrial 

Magnetism. 
Characters of Species. 
Assyrian and Babylonian Antiquities 

and Ethnology. 
Eecent discoveries in Assyria and 
Babylonia, with the results of Cunei- 
form research up to the present 
time. 
Correlation of Physical Forces. 
The Atlantic Telegraph. 
Eecent discoveries in Africa. 
The Ironstones of Yorkshire. 
The Fossil Mammalia of Australia. 
Geology of the Northern Highlands. 
Electrical Discharges in highly rare- 
fied Media. 
Physical Constitution of the Sun, 
Arctic Discovery. 
Spectrum Analysis. 
The late Eclipse of the Sun. 
The Forms and Action of Water. 
Organic Chemistry. 
The chemistry of the Galvanic Bat- 
tery considered in relation to Dy- 
namics. 
The Balloon Ascents made for the 

British Association. 
The Chemical Action of Light. 
Eecent Travels in Africa, 



xlii 



iiEroKX — 1871'. 



Date and Place. 



Lecturer. 



Subject of Discourse. 



186.5. Birmingham 



1866. 

1867. 

1868. 
1869. 
1870. 
1871. 



Nottingham 
Dundee 



Norwich .... 

Exeter 

Liverpool ... 
Edinburgh 



1872. Brigliton 



1873. 

1874. 



Bradford ... 
Belfast 



J. Beete Jukes, F.R.S 



William Huggins, P.R.S. 



Dr. J. D. Hooker, F.E.S. 
Archibald Geikie, F.E.S. 



Alexander Herschel, F.R.A.S. ., 

J. Fergusson, F.E.S 

Dr. W. Odling, F.E.S 

Prof. J. Philliijs, LL.D., F.E.S 
J. Norman Lockyer, F.E.S 

Prof. J. Tyndall, LL.D., F.E.S. 
Prof. W. J. Macquorn Eankiue, 

LL.D., F.E.S. 
F. A. Abel, F.E.S 

E. B. Tylor, F.E.S 

Prof. P. Martin Duncan, M.D., 

Prof. W. K. Clifford 



Prof. W. C. Williamson. F.E.S. 

Prof Clerk Maxwell F.E.S 

Sir [John Lubbock,^Bart., M.P. 

FES 
Prof. Huxley, F.E.S 



Probabilities as to the position and 
extent of the Coal-measures beneath 
the red rocks of the Midland Coun- 
ties. 

The results of Spectrum Analysis 
applied to Heavenly Bodies. 

Insular Floras. 

The Geological origin of the present 
Scenery of Scotland. 

The present state of knowledge re- 
garding Meteors and Meteorites. 

Arch.Tology of the early Buddhist 
Monuments. 

Eeverse Chemical Actions. 

Vesuvius. 

The Physical Constitution of the 
Stars and Nebulfe. 

The Scientific Use of the Imagination. 

Stream-lines and Waves, in connexion 
with Naval Architecture. 

Some recent investigations and appli- 
cations of Explosive Agents. 

The Eelation of Primitive to Modern 
Civilization. 

Insect Metamorphosis. 

The Aims and Instruments of Scien- 
tific Thought. 

Coal and Coal Plants. 

Molecules. 

Common Wild Flowers considered in 
relation to Insects. 

The Hypothesis that Animals are 
Automata, and its History. 



Lectures to the Operative Classes. 



1867. Dundee.. 

1868. Norwich 

1869. Exeter .. 



1870. Liverpool 

1872. Brighton 

1873. Bradford 

1874. Belfast .... 



Prof. J. Tyndall, LL.D., F.E.S. 
Prof. Huxley, LL.D., F.E.S. .. 
Prof. Miller, M.D., F.E.S 



Sir John Lubbock, Bart., M.P. 

F.E.S. 
WilUam Spottiswoode, LL.D., 

FES 
C. W.' Siemens, D.C.L., F.E.S 
Professor Odling, F.E.S 



Matter and Force. 

A piece of Chalk. 

Experimental illustrations of the 
modes of detecting the Composi- 
tion of the Sun and other Heavenly 
Bodies by the Spectrum. 

Savages. 

Sunshine, Sea, and Sky. 

Fuel. 

The Discovery of Oxygen. 



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xliv 



EEPORT 1874. 



Table showing the Attendance and Receipts 



Date of Meeting. 



1831, 
1832, 

1833. 
1834, 

183s. 
1836, 

1837. 
1838, 
1839, 
1840, 
1841, 
1842, 
1843, 
1844, 
1845, 
1846, 
1847, 
1848, 
1849, 
1850, 
1851, 
1852, 

i8S3> 
1854, 

185s. 
1856, 

1857. 
1858, 
1859, 
i860, 
1861, 
1862, 
1863, 
1864, 
1865, 
1866, 
1867, 
i868, 
1869, 
1870, 
187I: 
1872, 
1873- 
1 8 74' 
1875. 



Sept. 27 . 
June 19 
June 25 
Sept. 8 
Aug. 10 
Aug. 22 
Sept. II 
Aug. 10 
Aug. 26 
Sept. 17 
July 20 
June 23 
Aug. 17 
Sept. 26 
June 19 
Sept. 10 
June 23 
Aug. 9 . . . 
Sept. 12 
July 21 
July 2 ... 
Sept. I 
Sept. 3 
Sept. 20 
Sept. 12 
Aug. t ... 
Aug. 26 
Sept. 22 
Sept. 14 
June 27 
Sept. 4 
Oct. I ... 
Aug. 26 
Sept. 13 
Sept. 6 

Aug. 22 

Sept. 4 
Aug. 19 
Aug. 18 
Sept. 14 
Aug. 2 . . 
Aug. 14 
Sept. 17 
Aug. 19 
Aug. 25 



Where held. 



York 

Oxford 

Cambridge 

Edinbiu-gh 

DubHn 

Bristol 

Liverpool 

Newcastle-on-Tyne .. 

Birmingham 

Glasgow 

Plymouth 

Manchester 

Cork 

York 

Cambridge 

Southampton 

Oxford 

Swansea 

Birmingham 

Ediaburgh 

Ipswich 

Belfast 

HuU 

Liverpool 

Glasgow 

Cheltenham 

Dublin 

Leeds 

Aberdeen 

Oxford 

Manchester 

Cambridge 

Newcastle-on-Tyne 

Bath 

Birmingham 

Nottingham 

Dundee 

Norwich 

Exeter 

Liverpool 

Edinburgh 

Brighton 

Bradford 

Belfast 

Bristol 



Presidents. 



The Earl Fitzwilliam, D.C.L.... 
The Eev. W. Buckland, F.E.S. .. 
The Eev. A. Sedgwick, F.E.S.... 

Sir T. M. Brisbane, D.C.L 

The Eev. Provost Lloyd, LL.D. 

The Marquis of Lansdowne 

The Earl of Burlington, F.E.S. . 
The Duke of Northumberland... 
The Eev. W. Vernon Harcourt . 
The Marquis of Breadalbane . . . 
The Eev. W. WheweU, F.E.S.... 

The Lord Francis Egerton 

The Earl of Eosse, F.E.S 

The Eev. G. Peacock, D.D 

Sir John F. W. Herschel, Bart. . 
Sir Eoderick I. Murchison, Bart. 

Sir Eobert H. Inglis, Bart 

The Marquis of Northampton . . . 

The Eev. T. E. Eobinson, D.D. . 

Sir David Brewster, K.H. . . . 

G. B. Airy, Esq., Astron. Eoyal . 

Lieut.-General Sabine, F.E.S — 

William Hopkins, Esq., F.E.S. 

The Earl of Harrowby, F.E.S. 

The Duke of Argyll, F.E.S 

Prof. C. G. B. Daubeny, M.D... 

The Eev. Humphrey Lloyd, D.D. 

Eichard Owen, M.D., D.C.L. ... 

H.E.H. The Prince Consort ... 

The Lord Wrotte.sley, M.A 

William Fairbairn, LL.D.,F.E.S. 

The Eev. Prof. Willis, M.A. ... 

Sir William G. Armstrong, C.B. 

Sir Charles Lyell, Bart.. M.A.... 

Prof J. Phillips, M. A., LL.D.... 

William E. Grove, Q.C., F.E.S. 

The Duke of Buccleuch, K.C.B, 

Dr. Joseph D. Hooker, F.E.S.'. 

Prof. G. G. Stokes, D.C.L 

Prof. T. H. Huxley, LL.D 

Prof Sir W. Thomson, LL.D.... 

Dr. W. B. Carpenter, F.E.S ... 

Prof A. W. WiUiamson, F.E.S, 

Prof J. Tyndall, LL.D, F.E.S. 

Sir JohnHawkshaw, C.E.,F.E.S 



■ Old Life 
Members. 



169 
303 
109 
226 

313 
241 

314 



149 

227 


3 
12 


235 


9 


172 


8 


164 


10 


141 


'3 


238 


23 


194 


33 


182 


14 


236 


15 


222 


42 


184 


^7 


286 


21 


321 


113 


239 


15 


203 


36 


287 


40 


292 


44 


207 


31 


167 


as 


196 


ig 


204 


21 


314 


39 


246 


28 


245 


36 


212 


27 


162 


'3 





ATTENDANCE AND RECEIPTS AT ANNUAL MEETINGS. 


xlv 


at Annual Meetings of the Association. 








Attended by 


Amount 

received 

during the 

Meeting. 


Sums paid on 
Account of 
Grants for 


1 Old Ne 


w 








Annual Anr 


lual Assoc 


iates. 


Ladies. Fore 


igners. Total. 


Scientific 


Members. Mem 


bers. 








Purposes. 












£ s. d. 


£ s. d. 


« • • * 


• * 


• 


^^ 


353 

900 
1298 








•• 






















20 














167 

434 14 
918 14 6 












1350 
1840 




*.• 


. 


. 




.. 





t • ■ 


^ 


^ 


1 


too* 


2400 

34 1438 

40 1353 

891 

z8 1315 




956 12 a 

1595 II 

1546 16 4 

1235 10 II 

1449 17 8 

1565 10 2 

981 12 8 

830 9 9 

685 16 

208 5 4 

275 I 8 


























46 3 


[7 




60* 




75 3' 


?6 3 


3t 


331* 




1 J J 

71 li 


$5 




160 




45 i< 


JO 9 

12 4 


t 


260 






94 '■ 


07 


172 


35 1079 

36 857 




65 


!9 2 


/ 

70 


196 




197 i 


LO 4 


95 
76 


203 


53 1260 




54 : 


15 3 


197 


IS 929 


707 


93 


53 4 


47 


237 


22 1071 


963 


159 19 6 


128 , 


^2 5 


10 


273 


44 1241 


1085 ° 


345 18 


61 


^7 2 


44 


141 


37 710 


620 


391 9 7 


63 


5o 5 


10 


292 


9 1 108 


1085 


304 6 7 


56 


57 3 


67 


236 


6 876 


903 


205 


121 1- 


SI 7 


65 


524 


10 i8o2 


1882 


330 19 7 


142 I( 


31 IC 


94 


543 


z6 2133 


231 100 


480 16 4 


104 , 


^8 4 


12 


346 


9 1115 


1098 


734 13 9 


156 I 


10 9 


00 


569 


26 2022 


2015 


507 IS 3 


III 


?i 7 


10 


509 


13 1698 


1931 


618 18 2 


125 I 


79 " 


06 


821 


22 2564 


2782 


684 II I 


177 


59 « 


36 


463 


47 1689 


1604 


1241 7 


184 I 


15 15 


89 


791 


15 3139 


3944 


iiii 5 10 


150 


57 4 


33 


242 


25 1161 


1089 


1293 16 6 


154 2 


39 17 


04 


1004 


25 3335 


3640 


1608 3 10 


182 I 


D3 II 


19 


1058 


13 2802 


2965 


1289 15 8 


' 215 I, 


^9 7 


66 


508 


23 1997 


2227 


1591 7 10 


218 I 


35 9 


60 


771 


II 2303 


2469 


1750 13 4 


193 I 


18 11 


63 771 


7 2444 


2613 


1739 4 


226 I 


17 7 


20 682 


45t 2004 


2042 


1940 


229 1 


D7 6 


78 


600 


17 1856 


1931 


1572 


3°3 I 


95 II 


03 


910 


14 2878 


3096 


1472 2 6 


311 1 


Z7 9 


76 


754 


21 2463 


2575 


1285 ° ° 


2S0 


80 9 


37 


912 


43 2533 


2649 


1685 


237 


99 7 


96 


601 


II 1983 


2102 


1151 16 


232 


85 8 


17 


630 


12 1951 


1979 





* Ladies were not admitted by purcbased Tickets until 18-l;l 

T Tickets for admission to Sections only. | Including Ladies. 



Slvi ,■ HEPORT — 1874. 

OFFICEES OF SECTIONAL COMMITTEES PRESENT AT THE 
BELFAST MEETING. 

SECTION A. MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICS. 

President— R&y. Professor J. H. Jellett, M.A., M.R.I.A. 

Vice-Presidents.— Vmieasox W. K. Clifford, M.A., F.R.S. ; Professor Everett, 

D.C.L., F.E.S.E.; Professor F. Fuller, M.A., F.R.S.E.; Professor J. Clerk 

Maxwell, F.R.S. ; Professor Purser, M.A., M.R.I.A. ; G, Johnstone Stoney, 

F.R.S. 
Secretaries. — J. W. L. Glaisher, M.A., F.R.A.S. ; Professor Herschel, B.A., 

F.R.A.S. ; Randal Nixon M.A.; J. Perrj^, B.E.; G. F. Rodwell, F.R.A.S., F.C.S. 

SECTION B. CHEMISTET AND MINEKALOGT, INCLUDING THEIE APPLICATIONS TO 

AGEICULTUEE AND THE AETS. 

P/-es«V/e«i;.— Professor A. Crum Brown, M.D., F.R.S.E., F.C.S. 

Vice-Presidents.— I. Lowtliian Bell, F.R.S. ; Dr. Debus, F.R.S., F.C.S. ; Professor 
Gladstone, F.R.S.; Professor Hodges, M.D., F.C.S.; Professor Liveing; Pro- 
fessor Odling, F.R.S. ; Professor Roscoe, F.R.S. ; Professor Maxwell Simpson, 
M.D., F.R.S., F.C.S. ; Professor Williamson, F.R.S. ; James Young, F.R.S. 

Secretaries.— Bi: T. Cranstoun Charles, F.C.S.; W, Chandler Roberts, F.C.S.; 
Professor Thorpe, F.R.S.E. 

SECTION C. GEOLOGY. 

PmjV7«ii;.— Professor Hull, M.A., F.R.S., F.G.S. 

Vice-Presidents.— The Earl of Enniskillen, F.R.S.; Professor Geikie, F.R.S., 
F.G.S. ; Professor Hai-kness, F.R.S., F.G.S.; Dr. Oldham, F.R.S. : W. Pengelly, 

Secretaries.— V. Drew, F.G.S. ; L. C. ISIiall ; R. G. Symes, F.G.S. ; K H. Tidde- 
man, F.G.S. 

SECTION D. DIOLOGY. 

P-esident. — Professor Redfern, ISI.D. 

Vice-Presidents.— Dx. Hooker, C.B., D.C.L., Pres.R.S. ; Sir W. R. Wilde, M.D., 
M.R.LA. ; J. Gwyn Jeffreys, LL.D., F.R.S., F.L.S. ; G. Bentham, F.R.S. ; Pro- 
fessor Cleland, F!R.S. ; Professor E. Perceval Wright, F.L.S. ; P. L. Sclater, 
F.R.S. ; Professor Macalister ; Colonel Lane Fox. 

Secrctaries.—W. T. Thiselton-Dyer, M.A., B.Sc, F.L.S.; R. O. Cunningham, 
M.D., F.L.S. ; Dr. J. J. Charles, M.A. ; Dr. P. H. Pve-Smith ; J. J. Murphy ; 
F. W. Rudler, F.G.S. 

SECTION E. GEOGRAPHY AND ETHNOLOGY. 

PraiVZmi!.— Major Wilson, R.E., F.R.S., F.R.G.S. 
Vice-Prcsidents.—John Ball, F.R.S. ; Sir Walter Elliot, G.C.S.L ; J. A. Henderson, 

J.P., Mayor of Belfast; Admiral Ommanney, C.B., F.R.G.S. ; Colonel Playfair, 

F.R.G.S., H.B.M. Consul-Geueral at Algiers; the Rev. G. Leslie Porter, D.D., 

LL.D. ; Major-General Strachey, F.R.S., F.R.G.S. 
Secretaries.— K G. Ravenstein, F.R.G.S., F.S.S. ; E. C. Rye, F.Z.S., Librarian 

R.G.S. 

SECTION F. ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 

President. — Lord OLIagan. 

Vice-Presidents.— Geneml Sir James Alexander, K.C.B., F.R.S.E. ; Edward Bar- 
rington, J.P. ; R. Dudley Raxter, F.S.S. ; Samuel Brown, F.S.S. ; Rev. Dr. 
Campbell ; Sir George Campbell, K.C.S.I. ; the Right Rev. the Bishop of Edin- 
burgh ; the Mayor of Belfast; William Farr,M.D., F.R.S., D.C.L. ; John Han- 
cock, J.P. ; Janies Heywood, M.A., F.R.S. ; T. B. Sprague, M.A. ; Rev. Robinson 
Scott, D.D..; Lord Waveney. 

Secretaries.— Vioiiissov Donnell, M.A. ; Frank P. Fellows,'F.S.S. ; Hans MacMordie, 
M.A. 

SECTION G. — MECHANICAL SCIENCE. 

President. — Professor James Thomson, LL.D., C.E. 

Vice-Presidents.— B.. Bauerman, F.G.S. ; F. J. Bramwell, C.E., F.R.S. ; P. le Neve 

Foster, M.A. ; Professor G. Fuller, C.E.; Sir Charles Lanyon, C.E. ' 
Secretaries.— A. T. Atchison, ISI.A., C.E. ; J. N. Shoolbred, C.E., J^.G.S. : John 

Snivtb.jun., M.A., C.E. 



OFFICERS AND COUNCIL, 1874-75. 



PRESIDENT. 
PROFESSOR J. TYNDALL, D.C.L., LL.D., F.E.S. 

VICE-PRESIDENTS. 



The Right Hon. the Eael of Enniskillen, D.C.L., 

P.E.S., P.G.S. 
The Eight Hon. the Earl or EOSSE, D.C.L., 

P.R.8., r.E.A.S. 
Sir EicuARD Wallace, Bart., M.P. 



The Eev. P. Suuldam Heney, D.D., M.E.I.A. 

Pi'esident, Queen's College, Belfast. 
Dr. T. Andrews, F.R.S., Hon. F.E.8.E., F.C.S. 
SeT. Br. EOBINSON, F.K.S., P.K.A.S. 
Professor Stokes, M.A., D.C.L., See.E.S- 



PRESIDENT ELECT. 

SIE JOHN HAWKSHAW, C.E., F.E.S., F.G.S. 



The Right Hon. the Earl op Ducie, F.E.S., 

F.G.S. 
The Eight Hon. Sir Stafford H. Northcote, 

Bart., C.B.,M.P., F.E.S. 
The Mayor of Bristol (l87i-75). 



VICE-PRESIDENTS ELECT. 

Major-General Sir Henry C. Ra-sflinSON, K.C.B., 

LL.D., F.E.S., F.E.G.S. 
Dr. W. B. Carpenter. LL.D., F.E.S., F.L.S., F.G.S. 
W. Sanders, Esq., F.E.S., P.G.S. 



LOCAL SECRETARIES FOR THE MEETING AT BRISTOL. 

W. Lant Carpenter, Esq., B.A., B.Sc., F.C.S. 
John H. Clarke, Esq. 

LOCAL TREASURER FOR THE MEETING AT BRISTOL. 

Peoctoe Baker, Esq. 



ORDINARY MEMBERS 

Bateman, J. P., Esq., F.E.S. 

Beddoe, Dr. John, F.R.S. 

Bramwell, P. J., Esq., C.E., F.E.S. 

Debus, Dr. H., F.E.S. 

De La Rue, Waerex, Esq., D.C.L., F.E.S. 

Park, Dr. \V., F.E.S. 

Fitch, J. G., Esq., M.A. 

Flower, Professor W. H., F.E.S. 

Foster, Prof. G. C, F.B.S. 

Gassiot, J. P., Esq., D.C.L., LL.D., F.E.S. 

Jeffreys, J. Gwyn, Esq., F.E.S. 

LoCKYER, J. N., Esq., P.R.S. 

Maskelyne, Prof. W. S., M.A., F.E.S. 



OF THE COUNCIL. 

Maxwell, Professor J. Clerk, F.E.S. 
MerRIfield, C. W., Esq., F.E.S. 
Ojimanney, Admiral E., C.B., F.R.S. 
Pexgelly, W., Esq., F.E,S. 
Playfair, EtHon. Dr.LYON, C.B.,M.P,,F.R.8. 
Prestwich, J., Esq., F.R.S. 
EosooE, Prof. H. E., Ph.D., F.R.S. 
Russell, Dr. W. J., F.R.S. 
Sclater, Dr. P. L., F.E.S. 
Siemens, C. W., Esc, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Smith, Professor H. J. 8., F.E.S. 
Strachey, Major-General, F.R.S. 



GENERAL SECRETARIES. 

Capt. Douglas Galton, C.B.,E.E., F.E.S., F.G.S., 12 Chester Street, Grosvenor Place, London, S.W. 
Dr. Michael Foster, P.R.S., F.C.S., Trinity College, Cambridge. 

ASSISTANT GENERAL SECRETARY. 

George Griffith, Esq., M.A., F.C.S., Harrow-on-the-hill, Middlesex. 

GENERAL TREASURER. 

Professor A. W. Williamson, Ph.D., F.E.S., F.C.S., University College, London, W.C. 

EX-OFFICIO MEMBERS OF THE COUNCIL. 

The Trustees, the President and President Elect, the Presidents of former years, the Vice-Presidents and 
Vice-Presidents Elect, the General and Assistant General Secretaries for the present and former years, 
the General Treasurers for the present and former years, and the Local Treasurer and Secretaries for the 
ensuing Meeting. • 

TRUSTEES (PERMANENT). 

General Sir Edward Sabine, K.C.B., R.A., D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Sir Philip de M. Grey-Egeeton, Bart, M.P., F.B.8., F.G.S. 

Sir John Lubbock, Bart., M.P., F.R.S., F.L.S. 



PRESIDENTS OF FORMER YEARS. 



The Duke of Devonshire. 
The Rev. T. R. Robinson, D.D. 
Sir G. B. Airy, Astronomer Royal. 
General Sir E. Sabine, K.C.B. 
The Earl of Ilarrowby. 
The Duke of Argyll. 



The Eev. H. Lloyd, D.D. 
Richard Owen, M.D., D.C.L. 
Sir W. G. Armstrong, C.B., LL.D. 
Sir William R. Grove, F.R.S. 
The Duke of Buccleuch, K.B. 
Dr. Joseph D. Hooker, D.C.L. 



Professor Stokes, M.A., D.C.L. 
Prof. Huiley, LL.D., Sec. R.8. 
Prof. Sir W. Thomson, D.C.L. 
Dr. Carpenter, F.R.S. 
Prof. Williamson, Ph.D., F.R.S. 



F. Galton, Esq., F.R.S. 
Dr. T. A. Hir8t,.F.R.S. 



GENEEAL OFFICERS OP POEMEE YEARS. 

j Gen. Sir E. Sabine, X.C.B., F.E.S. I Dr. T. Thomson, F.R.S. 
1 W. Spottiswoode, Esq., F.R.S. | 



Professor Sylvester, F.R.S. 



AUDITORS. 

J. Evans, Esq., F.E.S, 



Dr. J. H. Gladstone, F.H.S. 



xlviii REPORT — 1874. 



Report of the Council for the Tear l?>Ti~1 4: presented to the General Com- 
mittee at Belfast, on Wednesday, August 19<7(, 1874. 

The Council have received Reports during the past year from the General 
Treasurer; and his Account for the year will be laid before the General 
Committee this day. 

The General Committee at Bradford referred the following four Resolutions 
to the Council for their consideration, and they beg to report their proceed- 
ings upon each case : — 

First Resolution. — " That the Council be requested to take steps to bring 

the importance of the meteorological researches at Mauritius before 

the Government, in order that, when they become convinced of the 

value of these researches by the action of the Association, they may 

be induced to increase the assistance." 

The Council found that it was unnecessary to take action in this case, 

the application made by the Association last year having resulted in an 

increase to the Staff of the Observatory by the Government. 

Second Resolution. — " That the Council be requested to take such steps 
as they may consider desirable for the purpose of representing to Her 
Majesty's Government the importance of the scientific results to be 
obtained from Arctic Exploration." 
In November last, Sir Bartle Frere, President of the Royal Geographical 
Society, requested Mr. Gladstone to receive ajoint deputation from the Royal 
Society, the Royal Geographical Society, the British Association, and the 
Dundee Chamber of Commerce, on the subject of an Arctic Expedition. 
Mr. Gladstone declined to receive a deputation, but requested an application, 
stating reasons, in a written form. This was furnished, but a change of 
Government occurred. Mr. Disraeli, since his accession to office, has re- 
ceived a deputation on the subject, consisting of Sir H. Rawlinson, Dr. 
Hooker, and Admiral Sherard Osborne, but no answer has yet been returned 
to their application. 

Third Resolution. — " That the Council be requested to consider the pos- 
sibility and expediency of making arrangements for the constitution 
of an Annual Museum for the exhibition of specimens and apparatus 
on a similar footing to tliat of the Sections, and similarly provided 
with officers to superintend the arrangements." 
The Council, in accordance with the desire of the General Committee, have 
provided a room, and appointed a Committee, consisting of the General and 
Assistant General Secretaries, Professor Redfern, Mr. Ewart (one of the 
Local Secretaries), and Mr. Ray Lankester, to make the necessary arrange- 
ments for the reception and due exhibition of specimens and apparatus illus- 
trative of Papers to bo read at the Meeting. 

Fourth Resolution. — "That the Council of the British Association be 
requested to communicate with the authorities in charge of the St. 
Gothard's Tunnel, with the view of obtaining permission for the 
Committee on Underground Temperature to take observations on 
temperature during the progress of the works." 



REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. 



xlix 



Steps are being taken in pursuance of this Eesolutiou. 

The Council have had under their consideration the advisability of laying 
down some systematic rule to govern the election of Members of Council, 
and they recommend to the General Committee the adoption of the following 
regulations, which are in reality little more than a definite expression of the 
general practice of past years : — 

(1) The Council shall consist of 

1. Tlie Trustees. 

2. The past Presidents. 

3. The President and Vice-Presidents for the time being. 

4. The President and Vice-Presidents elect. 

5. The past and present General Treasurers, General and Assistant 

General Secretaries. 

6. The Local Treasurer and Secretaries for the ensuing Meeting. 

7. Ordinary Members. 

(2) The Ordinary Members shall be elected annually from the General 

Committee. 

(3) There shall be not more than twenty-five Ordinary Members, of whom 

not more than twenty shall have served on the Council, as Ordi- 
nary Members, in the previous year. 

(4) In order to carry out the foregoing rule, the following Ordinary Mem- 

bers of the outgoing Council shall at each annual election be 
ineligible for nomination : — 1st, those who have served on the 
Council for the greatest number of consecutive years ; and, 2nd, 
those who, being resident in or near London, have attended the 
fewest number of Meetings during the year — observing (as nearly 
as possible) the proportion of three by seniority to two by least 
attendance. 

(5) The Council shall submit to the General Committee in their Annual 

Report the names of the Members of General Committee whom 
they recommend for election as Members of Council. 

(6) The Election shall take place at the same time as that of the Ofiicers of 

the Association. 

In order to assist the consideration of this question, the Council have 
appended to this Report a list of the Ordinary Members of Council, showing 
the date of election in each case. 

The Council have added the following list of names of gentlemen present at 
the last Meeting of the Association to the list of Corresponding Members : — 



II Signer Guide Cora. 

Dr. Felix Klein. 

Baron von llichthofen, Berlin. 



Dr. A. Shafarik, Prague. 
Professor J. Lawrence Smith, Louis- 
ville, U. S. 



In consequence of the Nomination to the Presidency of Section D of 
Professor Redfern, who was appointed Local Secretary by the General 
Committee at the last Meeting at Bradford, the Council have nominated 
Professor G. Fuller to be a Local Secretary. 

The Council have to announce that Mr. "W. Spottiswoode has notified to 
them that he is unable to continue to hold the office of General Treasurer. 
The Council have received this announcement with great regret, a regret 
which they feel wiU be shared by the Association. Mr. Spottiswoode has 
occupied the post of General Treasurer for the last thirteen years, and has 
invariably promoted the interests of the Association with untiring zeal and 
ability. 

1874. d 



REPORT — 1874. 

After much consideration, they have resolved to recommend Dr. A. Wil- 
liamson as Treasurer in the place of Mr. W. Spottiswoode. 

The General Committee will remember that Bristol has been selected as 
the place of Meeting for next year. The CouncU understand that an in- 
vitation to hold a subsequent Meeting at Glasgow wUl be presented to the 
General Committee. 

The CouncO. cannot close their Eeport without making some mention of 
the irreparable loss which the Association has sustained in the death of the 
late Professor Phillips. 

He, in conjunction with Dean Buckland, Canon Vernon Harcourt, and 
others, founded the Association in 1831, and, from that time until his death, 
his labours on its behalf were untiring. 

He acted as Local Secretary at the first Meeting at York ; he filled, from 
the following year to the year 1882, the ofHce of Assistant General Secretary; 
from 1862 to 1864 that of General Secretary; he was President in 1865; 
and, having seldom been absent from any of the Meetings, he presided last 
year at Bradford over the Geological Section. 

In Professor Phillips, eminence in his own branch of Science and Avide 
general culture, were united with unselfish sympathetic nature, a genial 
kindly manner and with a singularly happy tact in the conduct of affairs. 
It was this rare combination of qualities which guided the Association 
through its early difficulties to the success it has at present achieved, and 
which now makes his loss felt as one which can never be filled up. 



Appendix, 
Ordinary Members of the Council, and 

Elected. Elected. 

1870. Becldoe, John, M.D., F.R.S. 1873. 

1873. Bramwell, F. J., Esq., C.E., F.E.S. 1871. 

1870. Debus, Dr. H., F.R.S. 1870. 
1872. De La Rue, W., Esq., D.C.L., F.R.S. 1873. 
18G8. Evans, John, Esq., F.R.S. 1873. 

1871. Fitch, J. G., Esq., M.A. 1873. 

1872. Flower, Prof. W. H., F.R.S. 1873. 
1871. Foster, Prof. G. C, F.E.S. 1872. 
1868. Galton, Francis, Esq., F.R.S. 1871. 
1871. Hirst, Dr. T. Archer, F.R.S. 1873. 
18G8. Huggins, W., Esq., F.R.S. 1871. 
1871. Jeffreys, J. Gwyn, Esq., F.R.S. 18G8. 
1871. Loekyer, J. N., Esq., F.R.S. 



the Dates of their Election. 

Maxwell, Prof. J. C, F.R.S. 
Merrifield, C. W., Esq., F.R.S. 
Northcote, Right Hon. Sir S. H. 
Oiumanney, Adm. E., C.B., F.R.S. 
PengeUy, W., Esq., F.R.S. 
Prestwich, J., Esq., F.R.S. 
Russell, Dr. W. J., F.R.S. 
Sclater, P. L., Esq., F.R.S. 
Siemens, C. W., Esq., F.R.S. 
Smith, Prof. H. J. S., F.R.S. 
Strachey, Major-Qeneral, F.R S. 
Strange, Lieut.-Col. A., F.R.S. 



recommendations of the general committee. h 

Recommendations adopted by the General Committee at the Belfast 
Meeting in August 1874. 

[When Committees are appointed, the Member first named is regarded as the Secretary, 
except there is a specific nomination.] 

Involving Grants of Money. 

That the Committee, consisting of Professor Cayley, Professor G. G. Stokes, 
Professor H; J. S. Smith, Professor Sir W. Thomson, and Mr. J. W. L. 
Glaisher (Secretary), on Mathematical Tables be reappointed, and that £100 
bo granted to them towards the printing the tables of tlie Elliptic Punc- 
tions. 

That the Committee on the Magnetization of Iron, Mckcl, and Cobalt, con- 
sisting of Professor Balfour Stewart and Mr. W. F. Barrett, be reappointed, 
with the addition of Professor Clerk Maxwell, and tliat tlic sum of =£20 be 
placed at their disposal. 

That the Committee for reporting on the Rainfall of the British Isles, con- 
sisting of Mr. C. Brooke, Mr. J. Glaisher, Mr. J. F. Bateman, Mr. T. Hawks- 
ley, Mr. G. J. Symons, Mr. C. Tomlinson, and Mr. Rogers Field, be reap- 
pointed ; that the Earl of Rosse and Mr. J. Smyth, Junior, be added to the 
Committee ; that Mr. G. J. Symons be the Secretary ; that ,£100 be granted 
for the ordinary purposes of the Committee, and .£20 extra for observations 
in the watershed of the Shannon, and in other parts of Ireland, respecting 
the rainfall of which no records exist. 

That the Committee, consisting of Mr. James Glaisher, Mr. R. P. Greg 
Mr. Charles Brooke, Professor G. Forbes, and Professor A. S. Herschel, on 
Luminous Meteors, be reappointed, and that the sum of ,£30 be placed at 
their disposal for the purpose of providing a sufficient supply of maps and 
registers for their observations. 

That Professor Clerk MaxweU, Professor J. D. Everett, and Mr. A. 
Schuster be appointed a Committee for the purpose of testing experimentally 
the exactness of Ohm's law ; that Mr. Schuster be the Secretary, and that 
the sum of £50 be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That a Committee, consisting of Professor Stokes, Dr. De La Rue, Professor 
Clerk Maxwell, Mr. W. F. Barrett, Mr. Howard Grubb, and Mr. G. Johnstone 
Stoney, be appointed to examine and report upon the reflective powers of 
silver, gold, and platinum, whether in mass or chemically deposited on glass, 
and of speculum metal, and that the sum of .£20 be placed at their disposal. 

That the Committee, consisting of Professor A. S. Herschel and Mr. G. A. 
Lebour, for making experiments on the Thermal Conductivities of certain 
rocks, be reappointed ; that Professor A. S. Herschel be the Secretary, and 
that £10 be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That the Committee on Thermo-Eleetricity, consisting of Professor Tait, 
Professor Tyndall, and Professor Balfour Stewart, be reappointed, and that 
the grant of £50 which has lapsed be renewed. 

That Professors Williamson, Fraukland, and Roscoe be a Committee for 
the purpose of superintending the publication by the Chemical Society of the 
Monthly Reports on the Progress of Chemistry ; that Professor AVilliamson 
be the Secretaiy, and that the sum of £J.OO be placed at their disposal for 
the purpose. 

That Professors Roscoe, Balfour Stewart, and Thorpe be a Committee for 
the purpose of determining the Specific Volumes of Liquids ; that Dr. Thorpe 

d2 



lii REPORT — 1874. 

be the Secretary, and that the sum of J25 be placed at their disposal for the 
purpose. 

That Messrs. Allen, Dewar, Stanford, and Fletcher be a Committee for the 
purpose of examining and reporting upon the methods employed in the esti- 
mation of Potash and Phosphoric Acid in commercial products, and on the 
mode of stating the results ; that Mr. A. H. Allen be the Secretary, and that 
the sum of ,£10 be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Dr, Armstrong and Professor Thorpe be a Committee for the purpose 
of investigating Isomeric Cresols and their derivatives ; that Dr. Armstrong 
be the Secretary, and that the sum of £20 be placed at their disposal for the 
purpose. 

That Mr. H. Willett, Mr. U. A. C. Godwin- Austen, Mr. W. Topley, Mr. 
Davidson, Professor Prestwich, Professor Boyd Dawkins, and Mr. Henry 
Woodward be a Committee for the purpose of promoting the " Sub-Wealden 
Exploration ; " that Mr. H. Willett be the Secretary, and that the sum of 
>£lOO be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Sir C. Lyell, Bart., Sii- J. Lubbock, Bart., Mr. J. Evans, Mr. E. 
Vivian, Mr. W. Pengelly, Mr. G. Busk, Mr. Boyd Dawkins, Mr. W. A. 
Sanford, and Mr. J. E. Lee be a Committee for the purpose of continuing 
the exploration of Kent's Cavern, Torquay ; that Mr. Pengelly be the Se- 
cretary, and that the sura of =£100 be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Sir John Lubbock, Bart., ilr. Boyd Dawkins, liev. H. W. Crosskey, 
Professor Hughes, Mr. L. C. Miall, Professor Prestwich, and Mr. R. H. 
Tiddeman be a Committee for the purpose of assisting the exploration of the 
Victoria Cave, Settle ; that Mr. Tiddeman be the Secretary, aud that the sum 
of £50 be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Dr. Bryce, Mr. J. Brough, Mr. G. Forbes, Mr. D. Milne-Holme, Mr. 
J. Thomson, and Professor Sir W. Thomson be a Committee for the purpose 
of continuing the Observations and Recoi'ds of Earthquakes in Scotland ; 
that Dr. Bryce be the Secretary, and that the sum of £20 be placed at their 
dis])osal for the piirpose. 

That Professor HuU, Mr. E. W. Binncy, Mr. F. J. Bramwell, llcv. H. W. 
Crosskey, Professor A. H. Green, Professor Harkuess, Mr. AV. Molyiieux, Mr. 
G. H. Morton, Mr. 11. W. Mjlne, Mr. Pengelly, Professor Prestwich, Mr. 
James Plant, Mr. De Ranee, Rev. W. S. Symonds, and Mr. W. Whitakcr be 
a Committee for the purpose of investigating the circulation of the uuder- 
ground waters in the New Red Sandstone and Permian formations of England, 
and the quaatity and character of the water supplied to various towns and 
districts from those formations ; that Mr. De Ranee be the Secretary, and 
that the sum of £10 be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Mr. Dresser, Viscount Walden, Mr. R. B. Sharpe, Mr. 0. Salvin, and 
Mr. Sclater be a Committee for the purpose of preparing a Report on the 
present state of our knowledge of the Ornithology of the various parts of the 
world; that Mr. Sclater he the Secretary, and that the sum of £10 be placed 
at their disposal for the purpose of preliminary printing. 

That Professor Rolleston, Mr. Ray Lankester, and Mr. Balfour be a Com- 
mittee for the purpose of investigating the early stages of the development 
of the Myxinoid Fishes ; that Mr. Lankester be the Secretary, and that the 
sum of £20 be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Mr. Stainton, Sir John Lubbock, and Professor Newton be a Com- 
mittee for the purpose of continuing a Record of Zoological Literature ; that 
Mr. Stainton be the Secretary, and that the sum of £100 be placed at their 
disposal for the purpose. 



RECOMMENDATIONS OT THE GENERAL COMMITTEE. lui 

That Colonel Lano Fox, Dr. Beddoe, Mr. Franks, Mr. F. Gnlton, Mr. 
E. W. Br-abrook, Sir J. Lubbock, Sir Walter Elliot, Mr. C. R. Markbam, Mr. 

E. B. Tylor, Mr. J. Evans, and Mr. F. W. Kudler be reappointed n Committee 
for the purpose of preparing and publishing brief forms of instruction for 
travellers, ethnologists, and other anthropological observers ; that Colonel 
Lane Fox be the Secretary, and that the sum of £20 be placed at their dis- 
posal for the purpose. 

That Dr. Brunton and Dr. Pye-Smith be a Committee for the purpose of 
investigating the nature of Intestinal Secretion ; that Dr. Brunton be the 
Secretary, and that the sum of £20 be placed at their disposal for the pur- 
pose. 

That Major Wilson and Mr. Ravenstein be a Committee for the purpose of 
furthering the Palestine explorations ; and that the sum of ,£100 be placed 
at their disposal, to be expended on behalf of the Topograj^hical Survey, and 
especially iu ascertaining the level of the Sea of Galilee and the fall of the 
river Jordan. 

That the Committee, consisting of Lord Houghton, Professor Thorold 
Rogers, W. Newmarch, Professor Fawcett, M.P., Jacob Behrens, F. P. Fellows, 
R. H. Inglis Palgrave, Archibald Hamilton, and S. Brown, on Capital and 
Labour, be reappointed ; that Professor Leone Levi be the Secretary, and 
that the sum of ,£25 be placed at their disposal for the piirpose. 

That the Committee on instruments for measuring the speed of ships be 
reappointed ; that it consist of the following Members : — Mr. W. Froude, Mr. 

F. J. BramweU, Mr. A. E. Fletcher, Rev. E. L. Berthon, Mr. James R. Napier, 
Mr. C. W. Merrifield, Dr. C. W. Siemens, Mr. H. M. Brunei, Mr. W. Smith, 
SirWiUiam Thomson, and Mr. J. N. Shoolbred; that Professor James Thomson 
be added to the Committee ; that Mr. J. N. Shoolbred be the Secretary, and 
that the sum of £50 be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

Applications for Reports and Researches not involving Grants of Money. 

That the Committee, consisting of Dr. Huggins, Dr. De La Rue, Mr. J. 
N. Lockyer, Dr. Reynolds, Mr. Spottiswoode, Mr. G. J. Stoney, and Mr, W. 
M. Watts, on Wave Numbers be reappointed. 

That Mr. Spottiswoode, Professor Stokes, Professor Cayley, Profes.sor Clif- 
ford, and Mr. J. W. L. Glaishcr be appointed a Committee to report on 
Mathematical Notation and printing, with the view of leading mathematicians 
to prefer in optional cases such forms as are more easily put into type, and 
of promoting uniformity of notation. 

That Mr. W. H. L. RusseU be requested to continue his Report on recent 
progress iu the Theory of Elliptic and Hyperelliptic Functions. 

That the Committee on Underground Temperature, consisting of Professor 
Everett (Secretary), Professor Sir W. Thomson, Sir Charles Lyell, Bart., Pro- 
fessor J. Clerk Maxwell, Mr. G. J. Symons, Professor Ramsay, Professor 
Geikie, Mr. J. Glaisher, Rev. Dr. Graham, Mr. George Maw, Mr. Pengelly, 
Mr. S. J. Mackie, Professor Edward Hull, Professor Ansted, and Dr. Clement 
Le Neve Foster, be reappointed. 

That the Committee on Teaching Physics in Schools be reappointed, with 
the addition of the names of Professor J. Clerk Maxwell, Mr. J. Perry, and 
Mr. G. F. Rodwell. 

That the Committee on Tides, consisting of Professor Sir W. Thomson, 
Professor J. C. Adams, Mr. J. Oldham, Rear-Admiral Richards, General 
Strachey, Mr. W. Parkes, Mr. Webster, and Colonel Walker, be reappointed. 



liv REPORT — 1874. 

That the Committee, consisting of Professor Cayley, Mr, J. W. L. Glaisher, 
Dr. W. Pole, Mr. Merrifield, Professor Fuller, Mr. H. M. Brunei, and Pro- 
fessor W. K. Cliiford, be reappointed to estimate the cost of constructing Mr. 
Babbage's Analytical Engine, and to consider the advisability of printing 
tables by its means. 

That the Committee, consisting of Dr. Joule, Professor Sir W. Thomson, 
Professor Tait, Professor Balfour Stewart, and Professor J. Clerk Maxwell, 
be reappointed to effect the determination of the Mechanical Equivalent of 
Heat. 

That Professor Sylvester, Professor Cayley, Professor Hirst, Kev. Professor 
Bartholomew Price, Professor H. J. S. Smith, Dr. Spottiswoode, Mr. K.. B. 
Hayward, Dr. Salmon, Eev. E. Townsend, Professor Puller, Professor Kel- 
land, Mr. J. M. Wilson, and Pi'ofessor Clifford be reappointed a Committee 
(with power to add to their number) for the purpose of considering the pos- 
sibility of improving the methods of instruction iu elementary geometry ; and 
that Professor Clifford be the Secretary. 

That Professors Williamson, Eoscoe, and Gladstone, Dr. Carpenter, Sir 
Walter Elliot, and Mr. Lockyer be a Committee for the purpose of report- 
ing on Science-Lectures ; that Professor Eoscoe be the Secretary. 

That Dr. Mills, Dr. Boycott, Mr. Gadesden, Mr. SeUon, and Mr. W. Chandler 
Eoberts be a Committee for the purpose of investigating the methods of 
making gold assays, and stating the results thereof ; that Mr. W. Chandler 
Eoberts be the Secretary. 

That Messrs. H, B. Grantham, BramweU, and W. Hope, Professor Corficld, 
Dr. J. H. Gilbert, and Professor Williamson be a Committee for the purpose 
of continuing the investigations on the Treatment and Utilization of Sewage. 

That Professor Harkness, Mr. Prestwich, Professor Hughes, Eev. H. W. 
Crosskey, Messrs. Woodward, Dawkins, Maw, Miall, Morton, Lee, Pengelly, 
Plant, and Tiddeman be a Committee for the purpose of recording the posi- 
tion, height above the sea, lithological characters, size, and origin of the more 
important of the Erratic Blocks of England and Wales, reporting other 
matters of interest connected with the same, and taking measures for their 
preservation ; that the Eev. H. W. Crosskey be the Secretary. 

That Professor Huxley, Mr. Sclater, Mr. F. M. Balfour, Mr. Gwyn Jeffreys, 
Dr. M. Foster, Mr. Eay Lankester, and Mr. Dew Smith be a Committee for 
the purpose of making a report on the Zoological Station at Naples, and that 
Mr. Dew Smith be the Secretary. 

That the Eev. H. F. Barnes, Mr. Dresser, Mr. Harland, Mr. Harting, 
Professor Newton, and the Eev. Canon Tristram be reappointed a Committee 
for the purpose of considering the desirability of establishing " a close time " 
for the protection of indigenous animals, and for watching Bills introduced 
into Parliament affecting this subject, and that Mr. Dresser be the Secretary. 

That Mr. Spence Bate be requested to draw up a Eeport on the present 
state of our knowledge of the Crustacea, 

That the Metric Committee be reappointed, consisting of James Hey wood, 
M.A.,F.E.S., LordO'Hagan, The Eight Hon. Sir Stafford Northcote, K.C.B., 
M.P., Sir W. Armstrong, F.E.S., Samuel Brown, F.S.S., AVilliam Farr, M.D., 
D.C.L., F.E.S., Frank P. FcUows, F.S.S., Archibald Hamilton, F.S.S., Pro- 
fessor Franldaud, F.E.S., Professor Hennessy, F.E.S., Professor Leone Levi, 
F.S.S., C. W. Siemens, F.E.S., Professor A. W. Williamson, F.E.S., Major- 
General Strachey, F.E.S., and Dr. Eoberts, and that Samuel Brown, F.S.S., 
be the Secretary. 

That Mr. W. H. Barlow, Mr. H. Bessemer, Mr. F. J. BramweU, Captain 



ttECOMMENDATIONS OP THE GENERAL COMMITTEE. iV 

Douglas Galton, Sir John Hawkshaw, Dr. C. W. Siemens, Professor Abel, 
and Mr. E. H. Carbutt be a Committee for the purpose of considering what 
steps can be taken in furtherance of the use of steel for structural purposes, 
and that Mr. E. H. Carbutt be the Secretary. 

That Mr. F. J. Bramwell, Mr. J. R. Napier, Mr. C. W. Merrifield, Sir John 
Hawkshaw, Mr. T. "Webster, Q.C., and Professor Osborne Eeynolds be a 
Committee for the purpose of considering and reporting upon British Measures 
in use for mechanical and other purposes. 

That Mr. E. J. Bramwell, Mr. Hawksley, Mr, Edward Easton, Sir William 
Armstrong, and Mr. W. Hope be a Committee for the purpose of investigating 
and reporting upon the utilization and transmission of wind and water power, 
and that Mr. W. Hope be the Secretary. 

Communicatioiis ordered to he printed in extenso in the Annual Beport of 

the Association. 

That Mr. Bentham's Report " On the recent progress and present state of 
systematic Botany, in connexion with the development of the Natural Method 
and the doctrine of Evolution " be printed in extenso among the Reports. 

That the lists appended to Mr. Gwyn Jeffrcys's paper in Section D, entitled 
" Additions to the British MoUusca and Notices of rare species from deep 
water off the western coasts of Ireland," be printed in full. 

That Mr. Eroude's " Report on the resistance of a full-sized ship " be 
printed in the Reports of the Association, together with the necessary 
Plates. 

That Mr. Eroude's paper " On Surface-friction in Water " (being a con- 
tinuation of the Report on this subject presented at the Brighton Meeting) be 
printed in extenso in the Report, with the necessary Plates. 

That Mr. J. Smyth's, Jun., M.A., C.E., E.C.S., paper "On the Industrial 
uses of the Upper Bann River " be printed in extenso in the Reports of the 
Association. 

That Mr. T. R. Salmond's paper « On the Belfast Harbour" be printed 
in extenso in the Reports of the Association, together with the necessary 
plans. 

Resolutions referred to the Council for consideration and action if it seem 

desirable. 

That the Council be requested to take such steps as they may deem ex- 
pedient to urge, upon the Government of India the desirableness of continu- 
ing solar observations in India. 

That the Council of the Association be requested to take such steps as they 
may think desirable with a view to promote tlie appointment of naturalists 
to vessels engaged on the coasts of little-known parts of the world. 

That the Council be requested to take such steps as they may tliink desir- 
able with the view of promoting any application that may be made to Her 
Majesty's Government by the Royal Society for a systematic Physical and 
Biological exploration of the seas around the British Isles. 

That the Council should take such steps as they may think desirable for 
supporting the request to Her Majesty's Government to undertake an Arctic 
Expedition on the basis proposed by the Council of the Royal Geographical 
Society at the beginning of the present year, which it is understood will be 
again made by that body. 



Ivi REPORT — 1874. 



Synopsis of Grants of Money appropriated to Scientific Purposes by 

the General Committee at the Belfast Meeting in August 1874. 
The names of the Members who would be entitled to call on the 
General Treasurer for the respective Grants are prefixed. 

Mathematics and Physics. 

*Cayley, Professor. — Printing Mathematical Tables £100 

*Balfour Stewart, Professor. — Magnetization of Iron 20 

*Brooke, Mr.— British Rainfall 120 

*Glaisher, Mr. J. — Luminous Meteors 30 

Maxwell, Professor C— Testing the Exactness of Ohm's Law 50 

Stokes, Professor. — Reflective Power of Silver and other 

Substances 20 

*Herschel, Professor. — Thermal Conducting-power of Eocks . . 10 

*Tait, Professor. — Thermo-Electricity (renewed) 50 

Chemistry, 

*WilKamson, Professor A. W. — Records of the Progress of 

Chemistry 100 

Roscoe, Professor. — Specific Yolumes of Liquids 25 

AUen, Mr. — Estimation of Potash and Phosphoric Acid .... 10 

*Armstrong, Dr. — Isomeric Cresols and their Derivatives 

(renewed) 20 

Geology, 

*WiUett, Mr. H.— The Sub-Wealden Exploration 100 

*Lye]l, Sir C, Bart. — Kent's Cavern Exploration 100 

*Lubbock, Sir J. — Exploration of Victoria Cave, Settle 50 

*Bryce, Dr. — Earthquakes in Scotland (renewed) 20 

HuU, Professor. — Underground "Waters in. New Red Sand- 
Stone and Permian 10 

Biology. 

Dresser, Mr. — Report on Ornithology 10 

RoUeston, Professor. — Development of Myxinoid Fishes .... 20 

*Stainton, Mr. — Record of the Progress of Zoology 100 

♦Fox, Col. Lane. — Forms of Instruction for Travellers 20 Q 

*Brunton, Dr. — The Nature of Intestinal Secretion 20 

Carried forward. , . ,£1005 

* Eeappointed. 



SYNOPSIS OF GRANTS OP MONEY. Ivii 

Oeography. 

Brought forward ^1005 

Wilson, Major. — Palestine Exploration Fund 100 

Statistics and Economic Science, 

*Houghton, Lord. — Economic Effect of Combinations of La- 
bourers, or Capitalists 25 

Mechanics. 

*Froude, Mr. W. — Instruments for Measuring the Speed of 

Ships and Currents (renewed) 50 

Total .... £1080 
* Reappointed. 



The Annual Meeting in 1875. 
The Meeting at Bristol will commence on Wednesday, August 25, 1875. 

Place of Meeting in 1876. 
The Annual Meeting of the Association in 1876 will be held at Glasgow. 



Iviii 



REPORT — 1874. 



General Statement of Sums which have been paid on Account of Grants 

for Scientific Purposes. 



£ s. d. 



1834. 



Tide Discussions 20 

1835. 

Tide Discussions 62 

British Fossil Icluliyology 105 

£167 



1836. 

Tide Discussions 163 

British Fossil Ichthyology 105 

Thermometric Observations, &c. 50 
Experiments on long-continued 

Heat 17 1 

Rain-Gauges 9 13 

Refraction Experiments 15 

Lunar Nutation 60 

Thermometers 15 6 

£434 14 



1837. 

Tide Discussions 284 1 

Chemical Constants 24 13 6 

Lunar Nutation 70 

Observations on Waves 100 12 

Tides at Bristol 150 

Meteorology and Subterranean 

Temperature 89 5 

Vitrification Experiments 150 

Heart Experiments 8 4 6 

Barometric Observations 3ft 

Barometers 11 18 6 



£018 14 6 



1838. 

Tide Discussions 29 

British Fossil Fishes 100 

Meteorological Observations and " '^j 

Anemometer (construction) ... 100 

Cast Iron (Strength of) 60 

Animal and Vegetable Substances 

(Preservation of) 19 1 10 

Railway Constants 41 12 10 

Bristol Tides 50 O'O 

Growth of Plants 75 

Mud in Rivers 3 6 6 

Education Committee 50 

Heart Experiments 5 3 

Land and Sea Level 267 8 7 

Subterranean Temperature 8 6 

Steam-vessels 100 

Meteorological Committee 31 9 5 

Thermometers 16 4 



£956 12 2 



1839. 

Fossil Ichthyology 110 

Meteorological Observations at 

Plymouth 63 10 

Mechanism of Waves 144 2 

Bristol Tides 35 18 6 



£ 8. d. 



Meteorology and Subterranean 

Temperature 21 

Vitrification Experiments 9 

Cast-iron Experiments 100 

Railway Constants 28 

Land and Sea Level 274 

Steam-vessels' Engines 100 

Stars in Histoire Celeste 331 

Stars in Lacaille H 

Stars in ll.A.S. Catalogue 6 

Animal Secretions 10 

Steam-engines in Cornwall 50 

Atmospheric Air 16 

Cast and Wrought Iron 40 

Heat on Organic Bodies 3 

Gases on Solar Spectrum 22 

Hourly Meteorological Observa- 
tions, Inverness and Kingussie 49 

Fossil Reptiles 118 

Mining Statistics 50 



11 





4 


7 








7 


2 


1 


4 








18 


6 








16 


6 


10 











1 























7 


8 


2 


9 









£1595 11 



1840. 

Bristol Tides 100 

Subterranean Temperature 13 

Heart Experiments 18 

Lungs Experiments 8 

Tide Discussions 50 

Land and Sea Level 6 

Stars (Histoire Celeste) 242 

Stars (Lacaille) 4 

Stars (Catalogue) 264 

Atmospheric Air 15 

Water on Iron 10 

Heat on Organic Bodies 7 

Meteorological Observations 52 

Foreign Scientific Memoirs 112 

Working Population 100 

School Statistics 50 

Forms of Vessels 184 

Chemical and Electrical Pheno- 
mena 40 

Meteorological Observations at 

Plymouth 80 

Magnetical Observations 185 









13 


6 


19 





13 











11 


1 


10 





15 











15 

















17 


6 


1 


6 














7 









13 9 



£1546 16 4 



1841. 

Observations on Waves 30 

Meteorology and Subterranean 

Temperature 8 

Actinometers 10 

Earthquake Shocks 17 

Acrid Poisons 6 

Veins and Absorbents 3 

Mud in Rivers 5 

Marine Zoology 15 

Skeleton Maps 20 

Mountain Barometers 6 

Stars (Histoire Celeste) 185 







8 











7 























12 








8 


18 


6 









GENERAL STATEMENT. 



lix 



£ 

Stars (Lacaille) 79 

Stars (Nomenclature of) 17 

Stars (Catalogue of) 40 

Water on Iron 50 

Meteorological Observations at 

Inverness 20 

Meteorological Observations (re- 
duction of) 25 

Fossil Reptiles 50 

Foreign Memoirs C2 

Railway Sections 38 

Forms of Vessels 193 

Meteorological Observations at 

Plymouth 55 

Magnetical Observations 61 

Fishes of the Old Ked Sandstone 100 

Tides at Leith 50 

Anemometer at Edinburgh 69 

Tabulating Observations 9 

Races of Men 5 

Radiate Animals 2 

jE12a5 

1842. 

Dynamometric Instruments 113 

Anoplura Britanniae 52 

Tides at Bristol 59 

Gases on Light 30 

Chronometers 26 

Marine Zoology 1 

British Fossil Mammalia 100 

Statistics of Education 20 

Marine Steam-vessels' Engines... 28 

Stars (Histoire Celeste) 59 

Stars (Brit. Assoc. Cat. of ) 110 

Railway Sections 161 

British Belemnites 50 

Fossil Reptiles (publication of 

Report) 210 

Forms of Vessels 180 

Galvanic Experiments on Rocks 5 
Meteorological Experiments at 

Plymouth 68 

Constant Indicator and Dynamo- 
metric Instruments 90 

Force of Wind 10 

Light on Growth of Seeds 8 

Vital Statistics 50 

Vegetative Power of Seeds 8 

Questions on Human Race 7 

jei449 



«. 


d. 


5 





19 


6 



































1 6 
12 



18 8 





1 10 
6 3 





10 11 



11 2 

12 
8 

14 7 



17 
5 








10 





8 6 











1 II 

9 



17 8 



1843. 

Revision of the Nomenclature of 

Stars 2 

Reduction of Stars, British Asso- 
ciation Catalogue 25 

Anomalous Tides, Frith of Forth 120 

Hourly Meteorological Observa- 

tioMsat Kingussieandlnverness 77 12 8 

Meteorological Observations at 

Plymouth 55 

Whewell's Meteorological Ane- 
mometer at Plymouth 10 



£ 
Meteorological Observations, Os- 
ier's Anemometer at Plymouth 20 
Reduction of Meteorological Ob- 
servations 30 

Meteorological Instruments and 

Gratuities 39 

Construction of Anemometer at 

Inverness 56 

Magnetic Cooperation 10 

Meteorological Recorder for Kew 

Observatory 50 

Action of Gases on Light 18 

Establishment at Kew Observa- 
tory, Wages, Repairs, Furni- 
ture and Sundries 133 

Experiments by Captive Balloons 81 
Oxidation of the Hails of Railways 20 
Publication of Report on Fossil 

Reptiles 40 

Coloured Drawings of Railway 

Sections 147 

Registration of Earthquake 

Shocks 30 

Report on Zoological Nomencla- 
ture 10 

Uncovering Lower Red Sand- 
stone near Manchester 4 

Vegetative Power of Seeds 5 

Marine Testacea (Habits of) ... 10 

Marine Zoology 10 

Marine Zoology 2 

Preparation of Report on British 

Fossil Mammalia 100 

Physiological Operations of Me- 
dicinal Agents 20 

Vital Statistics 36 

Additional Experiments on the 

Forms of Vessels 70 

Additional Experiments on the 

Forms of Vessels 100 

Reduction of Experiments on tlie 

Forms of Vessels 100 

Morin's Instrument and Constant 

Indicator 69 

Experiments on the Strength of 

Materials 60 

A" 1565 



«. 


d. 














6 





12 

8 


2 
10 



16 




1 


4 
8 



7 










18 


3 














4 
3 


14 


6 
8 



n 









5 



8 




















14 


10 









10 2 



1844. 

Meteorological Observations at 

Kingussie and Inverness 12 

Completing Observations at Ply- 
mouth 35 

Magnetic and Meteorological Co- 
operation 25 8 4 

Publication of the British Asso- 
ciation Catalogue of Stars 35 

Observations on Tides on the 

East coast of Scotland 100 

Revision of the Nomenclature of 

Stars 1842 2 9 6 

Maintaining the Establishmentin 

Kew Observatory 117 17 3 

Instruments for Kew Observatory 56 7 3 



be 



REPORT 1874. 



Influenre of Liglit on Plants 10 

Subterraneous Temperature in 

Ireland 5 

Coloured Drawings of Railway 

Sections 15 

Investigation of Fossil Fishes of 

the Lower Tertiary Strata ... 100 
Registering the Shocks of Earth- 
quakes 1842 23 

Structure of Fossil Shells 20 

Radiata and Mollusca of the 

^gean and Red Seas 1842 100 

Geographical Distributions of 

Marine Zoology 1842 10 

Marine Zoology of Devon and 

Cornwall 10 

Marine Zoology of Corfu 10 

Experiments on the Vitality of 

Seeds 9 

Experiments on the Vitality of 

Seeds 1842 8 

Exotic Anoplura 15 

Strength of Materials 100 

Completing Experiments on the 

Forms of Ships 100 

Inquiries into Asphyxia 10 

Investigations on the Internal 

Constitution of Metals 50 

Constant Indicator and Morin's 

Instrument 18 42 10 

JE981 

1845. 
Publication of the British Associa- 
tion Catalogue of Stars 351 

Meteorological Observations at 

Inverness 30 

Magnetic and Meteorological Co- 
operation 16 

Meteorological Instruments at 

Edinburgh 18 

Reduction of Anemometrical Ob- 
servations at Plymouth 25 

Electrical Experiments at Kew 

Observatory 43 

Maintaining the Establishmentin 

Kew Observatory 149 

For Kreil's Barometrograph 25 

Oases from Iron Furnaces 50 

The Actinograph 15 

Microscopic Structure of Shells 20 

Exotic Anoplura 1843 10 

Vitality of Seeds 1843 2 

Vitality of Seeds 1844 7 

Marine Zoology of Cornwall ... 10 
Physiological Action of Medicines 20 
Statistics of Sickness and Mor- 
tality in York 20 

Earthquake Shocks 18 43 15 

£8 30 

1846. 
British Association Catalogue of 

Stars 1844 211 

Fossil Fishes of the London Clay 100 



s. 



d. 










17 


6 








11 




10 



























3 


7 




3 


















3 


6 



12 8 



14 


6 


18 


11 


16 


8 


11 


9 








17 


8 


15 






































7 


























14 


8 



9 9 



£ s. d. 
Computation of the Gau;..->iaii 

Constants for 1829 50 

Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory 146 16 7 

Strength of Materials 60 

Researches in Asphyxia 6 16 2 

Examination of Fossil Shells 10 

Vitality of Seeds 1844 2 15 10 

Vitality of Seeds 1845 7 12 3 

Marine Zoology of Cornwall 10 

Marine Zoology of Britain 10 

Exotic Anoplura 1844 25 

Expenses attending Anemometers II 7 6 

Anemometers' Repairs 2 3 6 

Atmospheric Waves 3 3 3 

Captive Balloons 1844 8 19 3 

Varieties of the Human Race 

1844 7 6 3 
Statistics of Sickness and Mor- 
tality in York 12 

£685 16 

1847. 
Computation of the Gaussian 

Constants for 1829 50 

Habits of Marine Animals 10 

Physiological Action of Medicines "20 

Marine Zoology of Cornwall 10 

Atmospheric Waves 6 9 3 

Vitality of Seeds 4 7 7 

Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory 107 8 6 

£208 5 4 

1848. 
Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory 171 15 II 

Atmospheric Waves 3 10 9 

Vitality of Seeds 9 15 

Completion of Catalogues of Stars 70 

On Colouring Matters 5 

On Growth of Plants 15 

£275 1 8 

1849. 

Electrical Observations at Kew 

Observatory 50 

Maintaining Establishment at 

ditto 76 2 5 

Vitality of Seeds 5 8 1 

On Growth of Plants 5 

Registration of Periodical Phe- 
nomena 10 

Bill on account of Anemometrical 

Observations.. 13 9 

£159 19 6 

1850. ~ 
Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory 255 18 

Transit of Earthquake Waves ... 50 

Periodical Phenomena 15 

Meteorological Instruments, 

Azores 25 

£345 18 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



Ixi 



£ s. d. 



ISol 



Maintaining the Establishment at 
Kew Observatory (includes part 

ofgrantin 1849) 309 

Theory of Heat 20 

Periodical Phenomena of Animals 

and Plants 5 

Vitality of Seeds 5 

Influence of Solar Radiation 30 

Ethnological Inquiries 12 

Researches on Annelida 10 



2 


2 


1 


1 








6 


4 





















Dredging on the East Coast of 



Scotland 

Ethnological Queries 



1SJ6. 
Maintaining the Establishment at 
^- Kew Observatory : — 
1S54 £ 75 

1855 jesoo 



r5 Ol 
30 OJ 



£39 1 9 7 



1852. 
Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory (including 

balance of grant for 1850) ... 233 17 8 
Experiments on the Conduction 

ofHeat 5 2 9 

Influence of Solar Radiations ... 20 

Geological Map of Ireland 15 

Researches on the British Anne- 

lida 10 

Vitality of Seeds 10 6 2 

Strength of Boiler Plates 10 



£a04 6 7 



1853. 

Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory 165 

Experiments on the Influence of 

Solar Radiation 15 

Researches on the British Anne- 
lida 10 



10 
5 



£205 



£ s. d. 
Strickland's Ornithological Syno- 
nyms 100 

Dredging and Dredging Forms... 9 13 9 

Chemical Action of Light 20 

Strength of Iron Plates 10 

Registration of Periodical Pheno- 
mena 10 

Propagation of Salmon 10 

£734 13 9 



1854. 

Maintaining the Establishment at 
Kew Observatory (including 
balance of former grant) 330 15 4 

Investigations on Flax 11 

Effects of Temperature on 

Wrought Iron 10 

Registration of Periodical Phe- 
nomena 10 

British Annelida 10 

Vitality of Seeds 5 2 3 

Conduction ofHeat 4 2 

"£;SSO 19 7 



1857. 

Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory 350 

Earthquake Wave Experiments. . 40 

Dredging near Belfast „. 10 

Dredging on the West Coast of 

Scotland 10 

Investigations into the Mollusca 

ofCalifornia 10 

Experiments on Flax 5 

Natural History of Madagascar. . 20 

Researches on British Annelida 25 

Report on Natural Products im- 
ported into Liverpool 10 

Artificial Propagation of Salmon 10 

Temperature of Mines 7 8 

Thermometers for Subterranean 

Observations 5 7 4 

Life-Boats 5 

£507 15 4 



1S58. 
Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory 500 

Earthquake Wave Experiments.. 25 
Dredging on the West Coast of 

Scoiland 10 

Dredging near Dublin 5 

Vitality of Seeds 5 5 

Dredging near BeKast 18 13 2 

Report on the British Annelida... 25 
Experiments on the production 

of Heat by Motion in Fluids... 20 
Report on the Natural Products 

imported into Scotland 10 

£018 18 2 



1855. 
Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory 425 

Earthquake Movements 10 

Physical Aspect ol the Moon 11 8 5 

Vitality of Seeds 10 7 11 

Map of the World 15 

Ethnological Queries 5 

Dredging near Belfast 4 

£480 16 4 



1859. 
Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory :... 500 

Dredging near Dublin 15 

Osteology of Birds 50 

Irish Tunicata 5 

Manure Experiments 20 

British Medusidas 5 

Dredging Committee 5 

Steam-vessels' Performance 5 

Marine Fauna of South and West 

of Ireland 10 

Pholographic Chemistry 10 

Lanarkshire Fossils 20 1 

Balloon Ascents ....'. 39 11 

£684 II 1 



575 



1860. 
Maintaining the Establishment 

of Kew Observatory...; 500 

Prcdping near Belfast 16 6 

Dredging in Dublin Bay 15 



Ixii 



REPORT — 1874. 



£ s. d. 

Inquiry into the Performance of 

Steam-vessels 124 

Explorations in the Yellow Sand- 
stone of Dura Den 20 

Chemico-meclianical Analysis of 

Rocks and Minerals 25 

Researches on the Growth of 

Plants 10 

Researches on the Solubility of 

Salts 30 

Researches on the Constituents 

of Manures 25 

Balance of Captive Balloon Ac- 
counts 1 13 6 

^ £1241 7 
ISfil. — — — 

Maintaining the Kstablishment 
of Kew Observatory 

Earthquake Experiments 

Dredging North and East Coasts 
of Scotland 

Dredging Committee : — 

1860 \£50 0"! 

181)1 J622 OJ 

Excavations al Dura Den 

Solubility of Salts 

Steam-vessel Performance 

Fossils of Lesniahago 

Explorations at Uriconium 

Chemical Alloys 

Classified Index to the Transac- 
tions 

Dredging in the Mersey and Dee 

Dip Circle 

Photoheliograpliic Observations 

Prison Diet 

Gauging of Water 

Alpine Ascents 

Constituents of Manures 

£[ 

1862. 

Maintaining the Establishment 
of Kew Observatory 

Patent Laws 

Mollusca of N.-W. America 

Natural History by Mercantile 
Marine 

Tidal Observations 

Photolieliometer at Kew 

Photographic Pictures of the Sun 

Rocks of Donegal 

Dredging Durham and North- 
umberland 

Connexion of Storms 

Dredging North-east Coast of 
Scotland 

Ravages of Teredo 

Standards of Electrical Resistance 

Railway Accidents 

Balloon Committee 

Dredging Dublin Bay 

Dredging the Mersey 

Prison Diet 

Gauging of Water 



500 








25 








23 








72 








20 








20 








150 








15 








20 








20 








100 








5 









30 

50 

20 

10 

6 5 1 

25 

111 5 10 



500 

21 6 

10 

5 
25 
40 

150 

25' 

25 

20 

6 9 6 
3 11 

50 

10 

200 

10 

5 

20 

12 10 



£ 

Steamships' Performance 150 

Thermo-Electric Currents 5 

j eT293 16 6 

1863. 
Maintaining the Establishment 

of Kew Observatory 600 

Balloon Committee deficiency... 70 

Balloon Ascents (other expenses) 25 

Entozoa 25 

Coal Fossils 20 

Herrings 20 

Granites of Donegal 5 

Prison Diet 20 

Vertical Atmospheric Movements 13 

Dredging Shetland 50 

Dredging North-east coast of 

Scotland 25 

Dredging Northumberland and 

ninhani 17 3 10 

Dredging Committee superin- 
tendence 10 

Steamship Performance 100 

Balloon Committee 200 

Carbon under pressure 10 

Volcanic Temperature 100 

Bromide of Ammonium 8 

Electrical Standards 100 

Construction and distribu- 
tion ... 40 

Luminous Meteors 17 

Kew Additional Buildings for 

Photoheliograph 100 

Thermo-Electricity 15 

Analysis of Rocks 8 

Hydroida 10 

£ 1608 3 10 

1864. 
Maintaining the Establishment 

of Kew Observatory 600 

Coal Fossils 20 

Vertical Atmospheric Move- 
ments 20 

Dredging Shetland 75 

Dredging Northumberland 25 

Balloon Committee 200 

Carbon under pressure 10 

Standards of Electric Resistance 100 

Analysis of Rocks 10 

Hydroida 10 

Askham's Gift 50 

Nitrite of Amyle 10 

Nomenclature Committee 5 

Rain-Gauges 19 15 8 

Cast-iron Investigation 20 

Tidal Observations in the Humber 50 

Spectral Rays 45 

Luminous Meteors 20 

JE 1289 15 8 

1865. 

Maintaining the Establishment 

of Kew Observatory 600 

Balloon Committee 100 o 

Hydroida 13 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



Ixiii 



Rain-Gauges 30 

Tidal Observations in the Huniber 6 

Hexylic Compounds 20 

Aniyl Compounds 20 

Irish Flora 25 

American Mollusca 3 

Organic Acids 20 

Lingula Flags Excavation 10 

Eurypterus SO 

Electrical Standards 100 

Malta Caves Researches 30 

Oyster Breeding 25 

Gibraltar Caves Researches 150 

Kent's Hole Excavations 100 

Moon's Surface Observations ... 35 

Marine Fanna 25 

Dredging Aberdeenshire 25 

Dredging Channel Islands 50 

Zoological Nomenclature 5 

Resistance of Floating Bodies in 

Water 100 

Bath Waters Analysis 8 

Luminous Meteors 40 



1866. 
Maintaining the Establishment 

of Kew Observatory 600 

Lunar Committee 64 

Balloon Committee 50 

Metrical Committee 50 

British Rainfall 50 

Kilkenny Coal Fields 16 

Alum Bay Fossil Leaf- Bed 15 

Luminous Meteors 50 

Lingula Flags Excavation 20 

Chemical Constitution of Cast 

Iron 50 

Amyl Compounds 25 

Electrical Standards 100 

Malta Caves Exploration 30 

Kent's Hole Exploration 200 

Marine Fauna, &c., Devon and 

Cornwall 25 

Dredging Aberdeenshire Coast... 25 

Dredging Hebrides Coast 50 

Dredging the Mersey ■.■•••.■• ^ 

Resistance of Floating Bodies in 

Water 50 

Polycyanides of Organic Radi- 
cals 20 

Rigor Mortis 10 

Irish Annelida 15 

Catalogue of Crania 50 

Didine Birds of Mascarene Islands 50 

Typical Crania Researches 30 

Palestine Exploration Fund 100 



s. d. 



8 




9 
















10 





£1591 7 10 









13 


4 



















































































































































Metrical Committee 30 

Kent's Hole Explorations 100 

Palestine Explorations 50 

Insect Faiuia, Palestine 30 

British Rainfall 50 

Kilkenny Coal Fields 25 

Alum Bay Fossil Leaf- Bed 25 

Luminous Meteors 50 

Bournemouth, &c. Leaf-Beds ... 30 

Dredging Shetland 75 

Steamship Reports Condensation 100 

Electrical Standards 100 

Ethyle and Methyle series 25 

Fossil Crustacea 25 

Sound under Water 24 

North Greenland Fauna 75 

Do. Plant Beds ... 100 

Iron and Steel Manufacture ... 25 

Patent Laws 30 



£1750 13 4 



1867. 

Maintaining the EstabUshment 

of Kew Observatory 600 

Meteorological Instruments, Pa- 
lestine 50 

Lunar Committee 120 



s. d. 





























4 









.£1739 4 



1868. 
Maintaining the Establishment 

of Kew Observatory 600 

Lunar Committee 120 

Metrical Committee 50 

Zoological Record 100 

Kent's Hole Explorations 150 

Steamship Performances 100 

British Rainfall 50 

Luminous Meteors 50 

Organic Acids 60 

Fossil Crustacea 25 

Methyl series 25 

Mercury and Bile 25 

Organic remains in Limestone 

Rocks 25 

Scottish Earthquakes 20 

Fauna, Devon and Cornwall ... 30 

British Fossil Corals 50 

Bagshot Leaf-beds 50 

Greenland Explorations 100 

Fossil Flora 25 

Tidal Observations 100 

Underground Temperature 50 

Spectroscopic investigations of 

Animal Substances 5 

Secondary Reptiles, &c 30 

British Marine Invertebrate 

Fauna 100 


















































































































































.£1940 



1869. 
Maintaining the Establishment 

of Kew Observatory 600 

Lunar Committee 50 

Metrical Committee 25 

Zoological Record 1 00 

Committee on Gases in Deep- 
well Water 25 

British Rainfall 50 

Thermal Conductivity of Iron, 

&c 30 

Kent's Hole Explorations 150 

Steamship Performances 30 






















































a 



Ixiv 



REPORT 1874. 



£ 8. d. 
Chemical Constitution of Cast 

Iron 80 

Iron and Steel Manufacture ... 100 

Methyl Series 30 

Organic remains in Limestone 

Rocks 10 

Earthquakes in Scotland 10 

British Fossil Corals 50 

Bagshot Leaf-Beds 30 

Fossil Flora 25 

Tidal Observations 100 

Underground Temperature 30 

Spectroscopic Investigations of 

Animal Substances 5 

Organic Acids 12 

Kiltorcan Fossils 20 

Chemical Constitution and Phy- 
siological Action Relations ... 15 

Mountain Limestone Fossils 25 

Utilization of Sewage 10 

Products of Digestion 10 

£1622 



1870. 

Maintaining the Establishment of 

Kew Observatory 600 

Metrical Committee 25 

Zoological Record 100 

Committee on Marine Fauna ... 20 

Ears in Fishes 10 

Chemical nature of Cast Iron... 80 

Luminous Meteors 30 

Heat in the Blood 15 

British Rainfall 100 

Thermal Conductivity of Iron &c. 20 

British Fossil Corals 50 

Kent's Hole Explorations 150 

Scottish Earthquakes 4 

Bagshot Leaf-Beds 15 

Fossil Flora '-^S 

Tidal Observations 100 

Underground Temperature 50 

Kiltorcan Quarries Fossils 20 

Mountain Limestone Fossils ... 25 

Utilization of Sewage 50 

Organic Chemical Compounds... 30 

Onnv River Sediment 3 

Mechanical Equivalent of Heat 50 

£1572 



1871. 
MaintainiugtheEstablishmentof 

Kew Observatory 600 

Monthly Reports of Progress in 

Chemistry 100 

Metrical Committee 25 

Zoological Record 100 

Thermal Equivalents of the 

Oxides of Chlorine 10 

Tidal Observations 100 

Fossil Flora 25 












































£ 

Luminous Meteors 30 

British Fossil Corals 25 

Heat in the Blood 7 

British Rainfall 50 

Kent's Hole Explorations 150 

Fossil Crustacea 25 

Methyl Compounds 25 

Lunar Objects 20 

Fossil Corals Sections, for Pho- 
tographing 20 

Bagshot Leaf-Beds 20 

Moab Explorations 100 

Gaussian Constants 40 

£ 1472 
1872. 
Maintaining the Establish ment of 

Kew Observatory 300 

Metrical Committee 75 

Zoological Record 100 

Tidal Committee 200 

Carboniferous Corals 25 

Organic Chemical Compounds 25 

Exploration of Moab 100 

Terato-Embryological Inquiries 10 

Kent's Cavern Exploration 100 

Luminous Meteors 20 

Heat in the Blood 15 

Fossil Crustacea 25 

Fossil Elephants of Malta 25 

Lunar Objects 20 

Inverse Wave- Lengths 20 

British Rainfall 100 

Poisonous Substances Antago- 
nism 10 

Essential Oils, Chemical Consti- 
tution, &c 40 

M athematical Tables 50 

Thermal Conductivity of Metals 25 

. £1285 

1873. 

Zoological Record 100 

Chemistry Record 200 

Tidal Committee 400 

Sewage Committee 100 

Kent's Cavern Exploration 150 

Carboniferous Corals 25 

Fossil Elephants 25 

Wave-Lengths 150 

British Rainfall 100 

Essential Oils 30 

Mathematical Tables 100 

Gaussian Constants 10 

Sub-Wealden Explorations 25 

Underground Temperature 150 

Settle Cave Exploration 50 

Fossil Flora, Ireland 20 

Timber Denudation and Rainfall 20 

Luminous Meteors 30 

£1685 



s. 


d. 














2 


6 

























































2 6 





















l> 




































































GENERA.Ii MEETINGS. 



Ixv 



£ 
1874. 

Zoological'Eecord 100 

Chemistrv Eecorcl 100 

Mathematical Tables 100 

Elliptic Fiuictions 100 

Lightning Conductors 10 

Thermal Conductivity of Rocks 10 
Anthropological Instructions, 

&c 50 

Xent's Cavern Exploration ... 150 

Luminous Meteors 30 

Intestinal Secretions 15 

British Eainfall 100 

Essential Oils 10 

Sub-Wealden Explorations ... 25 

Settle Cave Exploration 50 



s. d. 
























































































£ s. d. 
Mauritius Meteorological Re- 
search 100 

Magnetization of Iron 20 

Marine Organisms 30 

Fossils, North-west of Scotland 2 10 

Physiological Action of Light. . 20 

Trades Unions 25 

Mountain-Limestone Corals ... 25 

Erratic Blocks 10 

Dredging, Durham and York- 
shire Coasts 28 5 

High temperature of Bodies ... 30 

Siemens's Pyrometer 3 G 

Labyrinthodont, of Coal-Mea- 

sures 7 15 

£1151 16 



General Meetings. 

On "Wedaesday Evening, August 19, at 8 p.m., in the Ulster Hall, Professor 
Alexander W. Williamson, Ph.D., F.R.S., President, resigned the office of 
President to Professor John Tyndall, D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S., who took the 
Chair, and delivered an Address, for which see page Ixvi. 

On Thursday Evening, August 20, at 8 p.jt., a Soiree took place in the 
Ulster HaU. 

On Friday Evening, August 21, at 8.30 p.m., in the Ulster Hall, Sir John 
Lubbock, Bart., M.P., F.E.S., delivered a Discourse on " Common Wild Flowers 
considered in relation to Insects.'' 

On Saturday Evening, August 22, at 7.30 p.m., in the Working Men's 
Institute, Professor Odling, F.R.S., delivered a Lecture on " The Discovery 
of Oxygen" to the Working Classes of Belfast. 

On Monday Evening, August 21-, at 8.30 p.m., in the Ulster Hall, Professor 
Huxley, LL.D., F.R.S., delivered a Discourse on " The Hypothesis that 
Animals are Automata, and its History." 

On Tuesday Evening, August 25, at 8 p.m., a Soiree took place in the 
Ulster Hall. 

On Wednesday, August 26, at 2.30 p.m., the concluding General Meeting 
took place, when the Proceedings of the General Committee, and the Grants 
of Money for Scientific purposes, were explained to the Members. 

The Meeting was then adjourned to Bristol*. 

* The Meeting is appointed to take place on Wednesday, August 25, 1875. 



1874. 



ADDEESS 



OP 



JOHN TYNDALL, P.R.S., 

D.C.L. OXON., LL.B. CANTAB., F.C.P.S., 
PROFESSOR OF NAXURAL PHILOSOPHY IN THE ROYAL INSTITUTION, 

PRESIDENT. 



An impulse inhereut in primeval mau turned his thoughts and questionings 
betimes towards the sources of natural phenomena. The same impulse, in- 
herited and intensified, is the spur of scientific action to-day. Determined 
by it, by a process of abstraction from experience ^^-c form physical theories 
■which lie beyond the pale of experience, but which satisfy the desire of the 
mind to see every natural occurrence resting upon a cause. In forming their 
notions of the origin of things, our earliest historic (and doubtless, we might 
add, our prehistoric) ancestors pursued, as far as their intelligence permitted, 
the same course. They also fell back upon experience, but witli this differ- 
ence — that the particular experiences which furnished the weft and woof of 
their theories were drawn, not from the study of nature, but from what lay 
much closer to them, tlie observation of men. Their theories accordingly took 
an anthropomorphic form. To supersensual beings, which, " however potent 
and invisible, were nothing but a species of human creatures, perhaps raised 
from among mankind, and retaining all human passions and appetites"*, 
were handed over the rule and governance of natural phenomena. 

Tested by obser^'ation and reflection, these early notions failed in the long 
run to satisfy the more penetrating intellects of our race. Far in the depths 
of history we find men of exceptional power differentiating themselves from 
the crowd, rejecting these anthropomorphic notions, and seeking to connect 
natural phenomena with their physical principles. But long prior to these 
purer efforts of the understanding the merchant had been abroad, and ren- 
dered the philosopher possible; commerce had been developed, wealth 
amassed, leisure for travel and speculation secured, while races educated 
under different conditions, and therefore differently informed and endowed, 
had been stimiilated and sharpened by mutual contact. In those regions 
where the commercial aristocracy of ancient Greece mingled with its eastern 
neighboiirs, the sciences were born, being nurtui-ed and developed by free- 
thinking and courageous men. The state of things to be displaced may be 
gathered from a passage of Euripides quoted by Hume. " There is nothing 

* Hume, ' Natural History of Religion.' 



ADDRESS. Ixvii 

in the world ; no glory, no prosperity. The gods toss aU into confusion ; 
mix every thing mth its reverse, that all of us, from our ignorance and un- 
certainty, may pay them the more worship and reverence." Now, as science 
demands the radical extirpation of caprice and the absolute reliance upon 
law in nature, there grew with the growth of scientific notions a desire and 
determination to sweep from the field of theory this mob of gods and demons, 
and to place natural phenomena on a basis more congruent with them- 
selves. 

The problem which had been previously approached from above, was now 
attacked from below ; theoretic effort passed from the super- to the sub- 
sensible. It was felt that to construct the universe in idea it was necessary 
to have some notion of its constituent parts — of what Lucretius subsequently 
called the " First Beginnings." Abstracting again from experience, the 
leaders of scientific speculation reached at length the pregnant doctrine of 
atoms and molecules, the latest developments of which were set forth with 
such power and clearness at the last meeting of the British Association. 
Thought no doubt had long hovered about this doctrine before it at- 
tained the precision and completeness which it assumed in the mind of 
Democritus*, a philosopher who may well for a moment arrest our attention. 
" Few great men," says Lange, a non-materialist, in his excellent ' History of 
Materialism,' to the spirit and to the letter of which I am equally indebted, 
" have been so despitefully used by history as Democritus. In the distorted 
images sent down to us through unscientific traditions there remains of him 
almost nothing but the name of ' the laughing philosopher,' while figures of 
immeasurably smaller significance spread themselves out at full length before 
us." Lange speaks of Bacon's high appreciation of Democritus — for ample 
illustrations of which I am indebted to my excellent friend Mr. Sped- 
ding, the learned editor and biographer of Bacon. It is evident, indeed, 
that Bacon considered Democritus to be a man of weightier metal than 
either Plato or Aristotle, though their philosophy "was noised and cele- 
brated in the schools, amid the din and pomp of professors." It was not 
they, but Genseric and Attila and the barbarians, who destroyed the atomic 
philosophy. " For at a time when all human learning had suflered ship- 
wreck, these planks of Aristotelian and Platonic philosophy, as being of a 
lighter and more inflated substance, were preserved and came down to us, 
while things more solid sank and almost passed into oblivion." 

The son of a wealthy father, Democritus devoted the whole of his in- 
herited fortune to the culture of his mind. He travelled everywhere ; visited 
Athens when Socrates and Plato were there, but quitted the city without 
making himself known. Indeed, the dialectic strife in which Socrates so 
much delighted had no charm for Democritus, who held that "the man who 
readily conti-adicts and uses many words is unfit to learn any thing truly 
right." He is said to have discovered and educated Protagoras the sophist, 
being struck as much by the manner in which he, being a hewer of wood, 
tied up his faggots as by the sagacity of his conversation. Democritus re- 
turned poor from his travels, was supported by his brother, and at length 
wrote his great work entitled ' Diakosmos,' which he read publicly before 
the people of his native town. He was honoured by his countrymen in 
various ways, and died serenely at a great age. 

The principles enunciated by Democritus reveal his imcompromising anta- 
gonism to those who deduced the phenomena of nature from the caprices of the 

* Born 460 B.C. 

e2 



Ixviii EEPORT— 1874. 

gods. They are briefly these : — 1. rrom nothing comes nothing. Nothing that 
exists can be destroyed. All changes are due to the combination and sepa- 
ration of molecules. 2. Nothing happens by chance: Every occurrence has 
its cause from which it follows by necessity. 3. The only existing things 
are the atoms and empty space ; all else is mere opinion. 4. The atoms are 
infinite in number, and infinitely various in form ; they strike together, and 
the lateral motions and whirlings which thus arise are the beginnings of 
worlds. 5. The varieties of all things depend upon the varieties of their 
atoms, in number, size, and aggregation. 6. The soul consists of fine, smooth, 
round atoms, like those of fire. These are the most mobile of all. They 
interpenetrate the whole body, and in their motions the phenomena of life 
arise. The first five propositions are a fair general statement of the atomic 
philosophy, as now held. As regards the sixth, Democritus made his fine 
smooth atoms do duty for the nervous system, whose functions were then 
unknown. The atoms of Democritus are individually without sensation; 
they combine in obedience to mechanical laws ; and not only organic forms, 
but the phenomena of sensation and thought are the result of their com- 
bination. 

That great enigma, " the exquisite adaptation of one part of an organism 
to another part, and to the conditions of life," more especially the construc- 
tion of the human bodj% Democritus made no attempt to solve. Empedocles, 
a man of more fiery and poetic nature, introduced the notion of love and 
hate among the atoms to account for their combination and separation. 
Noticing this gap in the doctrine of Democritus, he struck in with the pene- 
trating thought, linked, however, with some wild speculation, that it lay in 
the very nature of those combinations which were suited to their ends (in 
other words, in harmony with their environment) to maintain themselves, 
while unfit combinations, having no proper habitat, must rapidly disappear. 
Thus more than 2000 years ago the doctrine of the " survival of the fittest," 
which in our daj', not on the basis of vague conjecture, but of positive know- 
ledge, has been raised to such extraordinary significance, had received at all 
events partial enunciation *. 

Epicurus t, said to be the son of a poor schoolmaster at Samos, is the 
next dominant figure in the history of the atomic philosophy. He mastered 
the writings of Democritus, heard lectures in Athens, went back to Samos, and 
subsequently wandered through various countries. He finally returned to 
Athens, where he bought a garden, and surrounded himself by pupils, in the 
midst of whom lie lived a pure and serene life, and died a peaceful death. 
Democritus looked to the soul as the ennobling part of man ; even beauty 
without understanding partook of animalism. Ejucurus also rated the spirit 
above the body ; the pleasure of the body was that of the moment, while 
the spirit could draw upon the future and the past. His philosophy 
was almost identical with that of Democritus; but he never quoted 
either friend or foe. One main object of Epicurus was to free the world 
from superstition and the fear of death. Death he treated with indifference. 
It merely robs us of sensation. As long as we are, death is not ; and when 
death is, we are not. Life has no more evil for him who has made up his 
mind that it is no evil not to live. He adored the gods, but not in the ordi- 
nary fashion. The idea of divine power, properly purified, he thought an 
elevating one. Still he taught, " Not he is godless who rejects the gods of 
the crowd, but rather he who accepts them." The gods were to him eternal 

* Lange, 2nd edit., p. 2S. t Born 342 b.c. 



ADDRESS. Ixix 

and immortal beings, whose Jblessedness excluded every thought of care or 
occupation of any kind. Nature pursues her course in accordance with ever- 
lasting laws, the gods never interfering. They haunt 

"The lucid interspace of world and world 
Where never creeps a cloud or moves a wind, 
Nor ever falls the least wliite star of snow, 
Nor ever lowest roll of thunder moans, 
Nor sound of human sorrow mounts to mar 
Their sacred everlasting calm" *. 

Lange considers the relation of Epicurus to the gods subjective ; the indi- 
cation probably of an ethical requirement of his own nature. We cannot 
read history with open eyes, or study human nature to its depths, and fail 
to discern such a requirement. Man never has been, and he never will 
be satisfied with the operations and products of the Understanding alone ; 
hence physical science cannot cover all the demands of his nature. But the 
history of the efi'orts made to satisfy these demands might be broadly de- 
scribed as a history of errors — the error in great part consisting in ascribing 
fixity to that which is fluent, which varies as we vary, being gross when we are 
gross, and becoming, as our capacities widen, more abstract and sublime. On 
one great point the mind of Epicurus was at peace. He neither sought nor 
expected, here or hereafter, any personal profit from his relation to the gods. 
And it is assuredly a fact that loftiness and serenity of thought may be pro- 
moted by conceptions which involve no idea of profit of this kind. " Did I 
not believe,"' said a great man to me once, " that an Intelligence is at the 
heart of things, my ]ife on earth would be intolerable." The utterer of these 
words is not, in my opinion, rendered less noble but more noble, by the fact 
that it was the need of ethical harmony here, and not the thought of personal 
profit hereafter, that prompted his observation. 

There are persons, not belonging to the highest intellectual zone, nor yet 
to the lowest, to whom perfect clearness of exposition suggests want of depth. 
They find comfort and edification in an abstract and learned phraseology. 
To some such people Epicurus, who spared no pains to rid his style of every 
trace of haze and turbidity, appeared, on this very account, superficial. He 
had, however, a disciple who thought it no unworthy occupation to spend his 
days and nights in the effort to reach the clearness of his master, and to whom 
the Greek philosopher is mainly indebted for the extension and perpetuation of 
his fame. Some two centuries after the death of Epicurus, Lucretius t wrote 
his great poem, " On the Nature of Things," in which he, a Eoman, 
developed with extraordinary ardour the philosophy of his Greek prede- 
cessor. He wishes to win over his friend Memnius to the school of Epi- 
curus ; and although he has no rewards in a future life to offer, although his 
object appears to be a purely negative one, he addresses his friend with the 
heat of an apostle. His object, like that of his great forerunner, is the 
destruction of superstition ; and considering that men trembled before every 
natural event as a direct monition from the gods, and that everlasting 
torture was also in prospect, the freedom aimed at by Lucretius might 
perhaps be deemed a positive good. " This terror," he says, *' and dark- 
ness of mind must be dispelled, not by the rays of the sun and glittering 
shafts of day, but by the aspect and the law of nature." He refutes the 
notion that any thing can come out of nothing, or that that which is 
once begotten can be recalled to nothing. The first beginnings, the 

* Tennyson's 'Lucretius.' t Born 99 b.c. 



IXX REPORT — 1874. 

atoms, are indestructible, and into them alt things can be resolved at 
last. Bodies are partly atoms, and partly combinations of atoms ; but the 
atoms nothing can quench. They are strong in solid singleness, and by their 
denser combination, all things can be closely packed and exhibit enduring 
strength. He denies that matter is ininnitely divisible. We come at length 
to the atoms, without which, as an imperishable substratum, aU order in" the 
generation and development of things would be destroyed. 

The mechanical shock of the atoms being in his view the all-sufficient 
cause of things, he combats the notion that the constitution of nature has 
been in any way determined by intelligent design. The interaction of the 
atoms throughout infinite time rendered aU manner of combinations possible. 
Of these the fit ones persisted, while the unfit ones disappeared. Not after 
sage deliberation did the atoms station themselves in their right places, nor 
did they bargain what motions they should assume. Prom all eternity they 
have been diiven together, and after trying motions and unions of every kind, 
they fell at length into the arrangements out of which this system of things 
has been foi'med. "If you wiU. apprehend and keep in mind these 
things, nature, free at once, and rid of her haughty lords, is seen to do all 
things spontaneously of herself, without the meddling of the gods "*. 

To meet the objection that his atoms cannot be seen, Lucretius de- 
scribes a violent storm, and shows that the invisible particles of air 
act in the same way as the visible particles of water. "We perceive, 
moreover, the diflfereut smells of things, yet never see them coming to our 
nostrils. Again, clothes hung up on a shore which waves break upon become 
moist, and then get dry if spread out in the sun, though no eye can see 
either the approach or the escape of the water particles. A ring, worn long 
on the fingers, becomes thinner ; a water drop hollows out a stone ; the 
ploughshare is rubbed away in the field ; the street pavement is worn by the 
feet ; but the particles that disappear at any moment we cannot see. Nature 
acts through invisible particles. That Lucretius had a strong scientific 
imagination the foregoing references prove. A fine illustration of his power 
iu this respect is his explanation of the apparent rest of bodies whose atoms 
are in motion. He employs the image of a flock of sheep with skipping 
lambs, which, seen from a distance, presents simply a white patch upon the 
green hill, the jiimijing of the individual lambs being quite invisible. 

His vaguely grand conception of the atoms falling eternally through space 
suggested the nebular hypothesis to Kant, its first propounder. Far beyond 
the limits of our visible world are to be found atoms innumerable, which have 
never been united to form bodies, or which, if once united, have been again 
dispersed, falling silently through immeasurable intervals of time and space. 
As everywhere throughout the All the same conditions are repeated, so must 
the phenomena be repeated also. Above us, below us, beside us, therefore, 
are worlds without end ; and this, when considered, must dissipate every 
thought of a deflection of the universe by the gods. The worlds come and 
go, attracting new atoms out of limitless space, or dispersing their own 
particles. -The reputed death of Lucretius, which forms the basis of Mr. Ten- 
nyson's noble poem, is in strict accordance with his philosophy, which was 
severe and pure. 

Still earlier than these three philosophers, and during the centuries between 

* Monro'B translation. In his criticism of this work (Contemporary Review, 1867) Dr. 
Hayman does not appear to be aware of the really sound and subtile obserratioua on 
•which the reasoning of Lucretius, though erroneous, sometimes rests. 



ADDKESS. Ixxi 

the tirst of thein and the last, the hiiniau iutellect was active in other fields 
than theirs. Pythagoras had founded a school of mathematics and made 
his experiments on the harmonic intervals. The sophists had run through 
their career. At Athens had appeared Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle, 
who ruined the sophists, and whose yoke remains to some extent unbroken to 
the present hour. Within this period also the School of Alexandria was 
founded, Euclid wrote his 'Elements,' and made some advance_ in optics, 
Archimedes had propounded the theory of the lever, and the principles of 
liydrostatics. Astronomy was immensely enriched by the discoveries of Hippar- 
chus, who was followed by the historically more celebrated Ptolemy. Ana- 
tomy had been made the basis of Scientific medicine; and it is said by Draper* 
that vivisection had begun. In fact the science of ancient Greece had 
already cleared the world of the fantastic images of divinities operating 
capriciously through natural phenomena. It had shaken itself free from that 
fruitless scrutiny " by the internal light of the mind alone," which had vainly 
sought to transcend experience and reach a knowledge of ultimate causes. 
Instead of accidental observation, it had introduced observation with a purpose ; 
iustruments were employed to aid the senses ; and scientific method was ren- 
dered in a great measure complete by the union of Induction and Experiment. 

"What, then, stopped its victorious advance ? Why was the scientific intel- 
lect compelled, like an exhausted soil, to lie fallow for nearly two millenniums 
before it could regather the elements necessary to its fertility and strength ? 
Eacon has akeady let us know one cause ; Whewell ascribes this stationary 
period to four causes— obscurity of thought, servility, intolerance of disposition, 
enthusiasm of temper ; and he gives striking examples of eachf. But these 
characteristics must have had their antecedents in the circumstances of 
the time. Eome, and the other cities of the Empire, had fallen into moral 
putrefaction. Christianity had appeared, offering the gospel to the poor, and, 
by moderation if not asceticism of life, practically protesting against the 
profligacy of the age. The sufferings of the early christians and the extra- 
ordinary exaltation of mind which enabled them to triumph over the dia- 
bolical tortures to which they were subjected+, must have left traces not 
easily effaced. They scorned the earth, in view of that " building of God, 
that house not made with hands, eternal in the heavens." The Scriptures 
which ministered to their spiritual needs were also the measure of their 
Science. When, for example, the celebrated question of antipodes came to 
be discussed, the Bible was with many the ultimate court of appeal. Augus- 
tine, who flourished a.d. 400, would not deny the rotundity of the earth; but 
he would deny the possible existence of inhabitants at the other side, 
" because no such race is recorded in Scripture among the descendants of 
Adam." Archbishop Boniface was shocked at the assumption of a " world 
of human beings out of the reach of the means of salvation." Thus reined 
in, Science was not likely to make much progress. Later on the political and 
theological strife between the Church and civil governments, so powerfully 
depicted by Draper, must have done much to stifle investigation. 

Whewell makes many wise and brave remarks regarding the spirit of the 
Middle Ages. It Avas a menial spirit. The seekers after natural knowledge 
had forsaken that fountain of living waters, the direct appeal to nature by 
observation and experiment, and had given themselves up to the remanipula- 

* History of the Intellectual Development of Europe, p, 295. 
t History of tlie Inductive Sciences, vol. i. _ ^ 

I Depicted with terrible vividness in Eenan's ' Antichrist. 



xii KEPORT — 1874. 

tioii of the notions of tlicir predecessors. It M"as a time when thought had 
become abject, and when the acceptance of mere authority led, as it always 
does in science, to intellectual death. Natural events, instead of being 
traced to physical, were referred to moral causes ; while an exercise of the 
phantasy, almost as degrading as the spiritualism of the present day, took the 
place of scientific speculation. Then came the mysticism of the Middle Ages, 
Magic, Alchemy, the Neo-platonic philosophy, with its visionary though 
subhme abstractions, which caused men to look with shame upon their own 
bodies as hindrances to the absorption of the creature in the blessedness of the 
Creator. Finally came the Scholastic philosophy, a fusion, according to 
Lange, of the least-mature notions of Aristotle with the Christianity of the 
west. Intellectual immobility was the result. As a traveller without a 
compass in a fog may wander long, imagining he is making way, and find 
himself after hours of toil at his starting-point, so the schoolmen, haviug 
tied and untied the same knots and formed and dissipated the same clouds, 
found themselves at the end of centuries in their old position. 

With regard to the influence wielded by Aristotle in the Middle Ages, and 
which, though to a less extent, he still wields, I would ask permission to 
make one remark. When the human mind has achieved greatness and given 
evidence of extraordinary power in any domain, there is a tendency to credit 
it with similar power in all other domains. Thus theologians have found 
comfort and assurance in the thought that Newton dealt with the question of 
revelation, forgetful of the fact that the very devotion of his powers, through 
all the best years of his life, to a totally different class of ideas, not to speak 
of any natural disqualification, tended to render him less instead of more 
competent to deal with theological and historic questions. Goethe, starting 
from his established greatness as a poet, and indeed from his positive dis- 
coveries in Natural History, produced a profound impression among the 
painters of Germany, when he published his ' Parbcnlehre,' in whiih he 
endeavoured to overthrow Newton's theory of colours. This theory he 
deemed so obviously absin-d, that he considered its author a charlatan, and 
attacked him with a corresponding vehemence of language. In the domain 
of natural history Goethe had made really considerable discoveries ; and wc 
have high authority for assuming that, had he devoted himself wholly to 
that side of science, he might have reached in it an eminence comparable 
with that which he attained as a poet. In sharpness of observation, irj the 
detection of analogies hoAvever apparently remote, in the classification and 
organization of facts according to the analogies discerned, Goethe possessed 
extraordinarjr powers. These elements of scientific inquiry fall in Avith the 
discipline of the poet. But, on the other hand, a mind thus richly endowed 
in the direction of natural history, may be almost shorn of endowment as 
regards the more strictly called physical and mechanical sciences. Goethe 
was in this condition. He could not formulate distinct mechanical concep- 
tions ; he could not see the force of mechanical reasoning ; and in regions 
where such reasoning reigns supreme he became a mere ignis futuus to 
those who followed him. 

I have sometimes permitted myself to compare Aristotle with Goethe, to 
credit the Stagirite with an almost superhuman power of amassing and syste- 
matizing facts, but to consider him fatally defective on that side of the mind in 
respect to which incompleteness has been just ascribed to Goethe. Whewell 
refers the errors of Aristotle, not to a neglect of facts, but to " a neglect of 
the idea appropriate to the facts ; the idea of Mechanical cause, which is 
Force, and the substitution of vague or inapplicable notions, involving only 



ADDRESS. Ixxiii 

relations of space or emotions of wonder." This is doubtless true ; but the 
word " neglect '' implies mere intellectual misdirection, whereas in Aristotle, 
as in Goetlie, it was not, I believe, misdirection, but sheer natural incapacity 
which lay at the root of his mistakes. As a physicist, Aristotle displayed 
what we should consider some of the worst attributes of a modern physical 
investigator — indistinctness of ideas, confusion of mind, and a contident use of 
language, which led to the delusive notion that he had really mastered his 
subject, while he had as yet failed to grasp even the elements of it. He put 
words in the place of things, subject in the place of object. He preached 
Induction M^thout practising it, inverting the true order of inquiry by passing 
from the general to the particular, instead of from the particular to the 
general. He made of the universe a closed sphere, in the centre of which he 
lixed the earth, proving from general principles, to his own satisfaction and 
to that of the world for near 2000 years, that no other universe was possible. 
His notions of motion were entirely unphysical. It was natural or unnatural, 
better or worse, calm or violent — no real mechanical conception regarding it 
lying at the bottom of his mind. He affirmed that a vacuum could not exist, 
and proved that if it did exist motion in it would be impossible. He deter- 
mined a priori how many species of animals must exist, and shows on 
general principles why animals must have such and such parts. When an 
eminent contemporary philosopher, who is far removed from errors of this 
kind, remembers these abuses of the a priori method, he will be able to make 
allowance for the jealousy of physicists as to the acceptance of so-called 
a priori truths. Aristotle's errors of detail, as shown by Eucken and Lange, 
were grave and numerous. He affirmed that only in man we had the beating 
of the heart, that the left side of the body was colder than the right, that 
men have more teeth than women, and that there is an empty space at the 
back of every man's head. 

There is one essential quality in physical conceptions which was entirely 
wanting in those of Aristotle and his followers. I wish it could be ex- 
pressed by a word untainted by its associations ; it signifies a capability of 
being placed as a coherent picture before the mind. The Germans express 
the act of picturing by the word vorstellen, and the picture they call a 
Vorstelliing. We have no word in English which comes nearer to our 
requirements than Imagination, and, taken with its proper limitations, the 
word answers very well ; but, as just intimated, it is tainted by its associations, 
and therefore objectionable to some minds. Compare, with reference to this 
capacity of mental presentation, the case of the Aristotelian, who refers the 
ascent of water in a pump to Nature's abhorrence of a vaciium, with that of 
Pascal when he proposed to solve the question of atmospheric pressure by the 
ascent of the Puy de Dome. In the one case the terms of the explanation 
refuse to fall into place as a physical image ; in the other the image is di- 
stinct, the fall and rise of the barometer being clearly figured as the balancing 
of two varying and opposing pressiires. 

During the drought of the Middle Ages in Christendom, the Arabian intel- 
lect, as forcibly shown by Draper, was active. With the intrusion of the Moors 
into Spain, he says, order, learning, and refinement took the place of their 
opposites. When smitten with disease, the Christian peasant resorted to a 
shrine, the Moorish one to an instructed physician. The Arabs encouraged 
translations from the Greek philosophers, but not from the Greek poets. 
They turned in disgust " from the lewdness of our classical mythology, and 
denounced as an unpardonable blasphemy all connexion between the impure 
Olympian Jove and the Most High God." Draper traces still further than 



Ixxiv REPORT ] 874. 

"Whewell the Arab elements iu our scientific terms, and points out that the 
uuder garment of ladies retains to this hour its Arab name. He gives examples 
of what Arabian men of science accomplished, dwelling particularly on Alhazen, 
who was the first to correct the Platonic notion that rays of light are emitted 
by the eye. He discovered atmospheric refraction, and points out that we 
see the sun and the moon after they have set. He explains the enlargement of 
the sun and moon, and the shortening of the vertical diameters of both 
these bodies, when near the horizon. He is aware that the atmosphere 
decreases in density with increase of elevation, and actually fixes its height at 
581 miles. In the Book of the Balance Wisdom, he sets forth the connexion 
between the weight of the atmosphere and its increasing density. He shows 
that a body^ will weigh differently in a rare and dense atmosphere : he 
considers the force with which plunged bodies rise through heavier media. 
He understands the doctrine of the centre of gravity, and applies it to the inves- 
tigation of balances and steelyards. He recognizes gravity as a force, though he 
falls into the error of making it diminish simply as the distance increased, and of 
making it purely terrestrial. He knows the relation between the velocities, 
spaces, and times of falling bodies, and has distinct ideas of capillary attrac- 
tion. He improved the hydrometer. The determination of the densities of 
bodies as given by Alhazen approach very closely to our own. " I join," 
says Draper, in the pious prayer of Alhazen, " that in the day of judgment 
the All-Merciful will take pity on the soul of Abur-Eaihan, because he was 
the first of the race of men to construct a table of specific gravities." If all 
this be historic truth (and I have entire confidence in Dr. Draper), well may 
he " deplore the systematic manner in which the literature of Europe has 
contrived to put out of sight our scientific obligations to the Mahomme- 
duns"*. . 

The strain upon the mind during the stationary period towards ultra- 
terrestrial things to the neglect of problems close at hand, was sure to 
provoke reaction. But the reaction was gradual ; for the ground was 
dangerous, a power being at hand competent to crush the critic who went too 
far. To elude this power and still allow opportunity for the expression of 
opinion, the doctrine of " twofold truth" was invented, according to which an 
opinion might be held " theologically," and the opposite opinion " philoso- 
phically" t. Thus, in the thirteenth century, the creation of the world in six 
days, and the unchangeableness of the individual soul, which had been so di- 
stinctly affirmed by St. Thomas Aquinas, were both denied philosophically, 
but admitted to be true as articles of the Catholic faith. When Protagoras 
uttered the maxim which brought upon him so much vituperation, that 
" opposite assertions are equally true," he simply meant that human beings 
differed so much from each other that what was subjectively true to the one 
might be subjectively untrue to the other. The great Sophist never meant 
to play fast and loose with the truth by saying that one of Iavo opposite 
assertions, made by the same individual, could possibly escape being a lie. 
It was not " sophistry," but the dread of theologic vengeance that generated 
this double dealing with conviction ; and it is astonishing to notice what 
lengths were possible to men who were adroit in the use of artifices of this 
kind. 

Towards the close of the stationary period a word-weariness, if I may so 
express it, took more and more possession of men's minds. Christendom had 
become sick of the School philosophy and its verbal wastes, which led to no 

* Intellectual Developmeut of Europe, p. 359. 
t Lange, 2ud edit. pp. 181, 182. 



ADDKESS. IXXV 

issue, but left the intellect in everlasting haze. Here and there was heard 
the voice of one impatiently crying in the wilderness, " Not unto Aristotle, 
not unto subtle hypothesis, not unto church, bible, or blind tradition, must 
wc turn for a knowledge of the universe, but to the direct investigation of 
nature by observation and experiment.'' In 1543 the epoch-making work 
of Copernicus on the paths of the heavenly bodies appeared. The total 
crash of Aristotle's closed universe with the earth at its centre followed as 
a consequence ; and " the earth moves " became a kind of watchword among 
intellectual freemen. Copernicus was Canon of the church of Frauenburg 
in the diocese of Ermeland. Por three-and- thirty years he had withdrawn 
himself from the world and devoted himself to the consolidation of his great 
scheme of the solar system. He made its blocks eternal ; and even to those 
who feared it and desired its overthrow it was so obviously strong that 
they refrained for a time from meddling with it. In the last year of the life 
of Copernicus his book appeared : it is said that the old man received a copy 
of it a few days before his death, and then departed in peace. 

The Italian philosopher Giordano Bruno was one of the earliest converts 
to the new astronomy. Taking Lucretius as his exemplar, he revived the 
notion of the infinity of worlds; and combining with it the doctrine of 
Copernicus, reached the sublime generalization that the fixed stars are suns, 
scattered numberless through space and accompanied by satellites, which bear 
the same relation to them that our earth does to our sun, or our moon to our 
earth. This was an expansion of transcendent import ; but Bruno came closer 
than this to our present line of thought. Struck with the problem of the gene- 
ration and maintenance of organisms, and duly pondering it, he came to 
the conclusion that Nature in her productions does not imitate the technic 
of man. Her process is one of unravelling and unfolding. The infinity of 
forms under which matter appears were not imposed i;pon it by an external 
artificer ; by its own intrinsic force and vii'tue it brings these forms forth. 
Matter is not the mere naked, empty capacity which philosophers have 
pictured her to be, but the universal mother, who brings forth all things as 
the fruit of her own womb. 

This outspoken man was originally a Dominican monk. He was accused 
of heresy and had to fly, seeking refuge in Geneva, Paris, England, and Ger- 
many. In 1592 he feU into the hands of the Inquisition at Venice. He 
was imprisoned for many years, tried, degraded, excommunicated, and handed 
over to the Civil power, with the request that he should be treated gently and 
" without the shedding of blood." This meant that he was to be burnt; and 
burnt accordingly he was, on the 16th of Febniary, 1600. To escape a 
similar fate Galileo, 3-3 years afterwards, abjured, upon his knees and Avith 
his hand upon the holy gospels, the hehoceutric doctrine which he knew to be 
true. After Galileo came Kepler, who from his German home defied the 
power beyond the Alps. He traced out from preexisting observations the 
laws of planetary motion. Materials were thus prepared for Newton, who 
bound those empirical laws together by the principle of gra-sdtation. 

In the seventeenth century Bacon and Descartes, the restorers of philo- 
sophy, appeared in succession. Diff'erently educated and endowed, their 
philosophic tendencies were different. Bacon held fast to Induction, be- 
lieving firmly in the existence of an external world, and making collected 
experiences the basis of all knowledge. The mathematical studies of Des- 
cartes gave him a bias towards Deduction ; and his fundamental principle 
was much the same as that of Protagoras, who made the individual man the 
measure of aU things. " I think, therefore, I am," said Descartes. Only 



Ixxvi REPORT — 1874. 

his own identity was sure to him ; and the development of this system would 
have led to an idealism in which the outer world would be resolved into a 
mere phenomenon of consciousness. Gassendi, one of Descartes's contem- 
poraries, of whom we shall hear more presently, quickly pointed out that the 
fact of personal existence would be proved as well by reference to any other 
act as to the act of thinkiug. I eat, therefore I am ; or I love, therefore I 
am, would be quite as conclusive. Lichteuberg showed that the very thing 
to' be proved was inevitably postulated in the first two words, " I think ;" aud 
that no inference from the postulate could by any possibility be stronger 
than the postulate itself. 

But Descartes deviated strangely from the idealism impHed in his funda- 
mental principle. He was the first to reduce, in a manner eminently capable 
of bearing the test of mental presentation, vital phenomena to purely mecha- 
nical principles. Through fear or love, Descartes was a good churchman ; he 
accordingly rejects the notions of an atom, because it was absurd to suppose 
that God, if he so pleased, could not divide an atom ; he puts in the place 
of the atoms small round particles and light splinters, out of which he builds 
the organism. He sketches with marvellous physical insight a machine, with 
water for its motive power, which shall illustrate vital actions. He has made 
clear to his mind that such a machine would be competent to carry on the 
processes of digestion, nutrition, growth, respiration, and the beating of 
the heart. It would be competent to accept impressions from the external 
sense, to store them up in imagination and memory, to go through the internal 
movements of the appetites and passions, the external movement of limbs. 
He deduces these functions of his machine from the mere arrangement of 
its organs, as the movement of a clock or other automaton is deduced from 
its weights aud wheels. "As far as these functions are concerned," he 
says, " It is not necessary to conceive any other vegetative or sensitive soul, 
nor any other principle of motion or of life, than the blood and the spirits 
agitated by the fire which burns continually in the heart, and which is in 
nowise different from the fires which exist in inanimate bodies. Had Des- 
cartes been acquainted with the steam-engine, he would have taken it, instead 
of a fall of water, as his motive power, and shown the perfect analogy whicli 
exists between the oxidation of the food in the body and that of the coal in 
the furnace. He would assuredly have anticipated Mayer in calling the 
blood which the heart diffuses, " the oil of the lamp of life ;" deducing all 
animal motions from the combustion of this oil, as the motions of a steam- 
engine are deduced from the combustion of its coals. As the matter stands, 
however, and considering the circumstances of the time, the boldness, clear- 
ness, aud precision with which he grasped the problem of vital dynamics 
constitute a marvellous illustration of intellectual power*. 

During the Middle Ages the doctrine of atoms had to all appearance 
vanished from discussion. In all probability it held its ground among sober- 
minded and thoughtful men, though neither the church nor the world was 
prepared to hear of it with tolerance. Once, in the year 1348, it received 
distinct expression. But retraction by compulsion immediately followed ; 
and thus discouraged, it slumbered till the 17th century, when it was revived 
by a contemporary and friend of Hobbes of Malmesbury, the orthodox 
Cathohc provost of Digne, Gassendi. But before stating his relation to the 
Epicurian doctrine, it will be well to say a few words on the effect, as regards 
science, of the general introduction of monotheism among European nations. 

* See Huxley's admirable Essay on Descartes. Lay Sermons, pp. 364, 36y. 



ADDRESS. Ixxvii 

" Were nio»," says Hume, " led into the apprehension of invisible intelli- 
gent power by contemplation of the works of Nature, they could never possibly 
entertain any conception but of one single being, who bestowed existence and 
order on this vast machine, and adjusted all its parts to one regular system." 
Referring to the condition of the heathen, who sees a god behind every 
natural event, thus peopling the world with thousands of beings whose caprices 
are incalculable, Lange shows the impossibility of any compromise between 
such notions and those of science, which proceeds on the assumption of never- 
changing law and causality. "But," he continues, with characteristic 
penetration, " when the great thought of one God, acting as a unit upon the 
universe, has been seized, the connexion of things in accordance with the law 
of cause and effect is not only thinkable, but it is a necessary consequence 
of the assumption. For when I see ten thousand wheels in motion, and 
know, or believe, that they are all driven by one, then I know that I have 
befoi-e me a mechanism, the action of every part of which is determined by 
the plan of the whole. So much being assumed, it follows that I may inves- 
tigate the structure of that machine, and the various motions of its parts. 
For the time being, therefore, this conception renders scientific action free." 
In other words, were a capricious God at, the circumference of every wheel 
and at the end of every lever, the action of the machine would be incalculable 
by the methods of science. But tlie action of all its parts being rigidly 
determined by their connexions and relations, and these being brought into 
play by a single self-acting driving wheel, then, though this last prime mover 
may elude me, I am still able to comprehend the machinery which it sets 
in motion. AVe have here a conception of the relation of Nature to its 
Author, which seems perfectly acceptable to some minds, but perfectly 
intolerable to others. Newton and Boyle lived and worked happily under 
the influence of this conception ; Goethe rejected it with vehemence, and the 
same repugnance to accepting it is manifest in Carlyle*. 

The analytic and synthetic tendencies of the human mind exhibit them- 
selves throughout history, great writers ranging themselves sometimes on the 
one side, sometimes on the other. Men of warm feelings, and minds open to 
the elevating impressions produced by nature as a whole, whose satisfaction, 
therefore, is rather ethical than logical, lean to the synthetic side ; while 
the analytic harmonizes best with the more precise and more mechanical 
bias which seeks the satisfaction of the understanding. Some form of pan- 
theism was usually adopted by the one, while a detached Creator, working 
more or less after the manner of men, was often assumed by the other. 
Gassendi, as sketched by Lange, is hardly to be ranked with either. Having 
formally acknowledged God as the great first cause, he immediately dropped 
the idea, applied the known laws of mechanics to the atoms, deducing 
thence all \-ital phenomena. He defended Epicurus, and dwelt upon his 
purity, both of doctrine and of life. True he was a heathen, but so was 
Aristotle. He assailed superstition and religion, and rightly, because he 
did not know the true religion. He thought that the gods neither rewarded 
nor punished, and adored them purely in consequence of their completeness ; 
hero we see, says Gassendi, the reverence of the child instead of the fear of 
the slave. The errors of Epicurus shall be corrected, the body of his truth 

* Boyle's model of the universe was the Strasburg clock with an outside Artificer. 
Goethe, on the other hand, sang 

" Ihm ziemt's die Welt im Innern zu bewegen, 
Natur in sich, sich in Natur zu hegen." 
See also Carlyle, ' Past and Present,' chap. v. 



Ixxviii REVOKT — 1874. 

retained ; and then Gassendi proceeds, as any heathen might do, to build up 
the world, and all that therein is, of atoms and molecules. God, who 
created earth and water, plants and animals, produced in the first place 
a definite number of atoms, which constituted the seed of all things. 
Then began that series of combinations and decompositions which goes on 
at present, and which wUl continue in future. The principle of every 
change resides in matter. In artificial productions the moving principle 
is different from the material worked upon ; but in nature the agent 
woi-ks within, being the most active and mobile part of the material 
itself. Thus this bold ecclesiastic, without incurring the censure of the 
church or the world, contrives to outstrip Mr. Darwin. The same cast of 
mind which caused him to detach the Creator from his universe led him also 
to detach the soul from the body, though to the body he ascribes an influ- 
ence so large as to render the soul almost unnecessary. The aberrations of 
reason were in his view an affair of the material brain. Mental disease is 
brain-disease ; but then the immortal reason sits apart, and cannot be 
touched by the disease. Q'he errors of madness are errors of the instru- 
ment, not of the performer. 

It may be more than a mere result of education, connecting itself probably 
with the deeper mental structure of the two men, that the idea of Gassendi, 
above enunciated, is substantially the same as that expressed by Professor 
Clerk Maxwell at the close of the very able lecture delivered by him at 
Bradford last year. According to both philosophers, the atoms, if I imder- 
stand aright, are fre-pand materials, which, formed by the skill of the Highest, 
produce by their subsequent interaction all the phenomena of the material 
world. There seems to be this difference, however, between Gassendi and 
Maxwell. The one 2^ostulatcs, the other inferx his first cause. In his 
" manufactured articles," as he calls the atoms. Professor Maxwell finds the 
basis of an induction, which enables him to scale philosophic heights con- 
sidered inaccessible by Kant, and to take the logical step from the atoms to 
their Maker. 

Accepting here the leadership of Kant, I doubt the legitimacy of Maxwell's 
logic ; but it is impossible not to feel the ethic glow with which his lecture 
concludes. There is, moreover, a very noble strain of eloquence in his de- 
scription of the stedfastness of the atoms : — " Natural causes, as we know, 
are at work, which tend to modify, if they do not at length destroy, all the 
arrangements and dimensions of the earth and the whole solar system. But 
though in the course of ages catastrophes have occurred and may yet occur 
in the heavens, though ancient systems may be dissolved and new systems 
evolved out of their ruins, the molecules out of which these systems are 
built — the foundation stones of the material universe — remain unbroken and 
unworn." 

The atomic doctrine, in whole or in part, was entertained by Bacon, 
Descartes, Hobbes, Locke, Newton, Boyle, and their successors, until the 
chemical law of multiple proportions enabled Dalton to confer upon it an 
entirely new significance. In our day there are secessions from the theory, 
but it still stands firm. Loschmidt, Stoney, and Sir William Thomson 
have sought to determine the sizes of the atoms, or rather to fix the 
limits between which their sizes lie ; while only last year the discourses of 
Williamson and Maxwell illustrate the present hold of the doctrine upon 
the foremost scientific minds. In fact, it may be doubted whether, wanting 
this fundamental conception, a theory of the material universe is capable of 
scientific statement. 



. ADDRESS. Ixxix 

Ninety years subsequent to Gassendi the doctrine of bodily instruments, 
as it may be called, assumed immense importance in the hands of Bishop 
Butler, who, in his famous ' Analogy of Eeligion,' developed, from his own 
point of view, and with consummate sagacity, a similar idea. The Bishop 
still influences superior minds ; and it will repay us to dwell for a moment on 
his views. He draws the sharpest distinction between our real selves and our 
bodily instruments. He does not, as far as I remember, use the word soul, 
possibly because the term was so hackneyed in his day as it had been for many 
generations previously. But he speaks of "living powers," "perceiving" 
or "percipient powers," "moving agents," "ourselves," in the same sense 
as we should employ the term soul. He dwells upon the fact that limbs 
may be removed, and mortal diseases assail the body, the mind, almost 
up to the moment of death, remaining clear. He refers to sleep and to swoon, 
where the " living powers " are suspended but not destroyed. He considers 
it quite as easy to conceive of existence out of our bodies as in them ; that 
we may animate a succession of bodies, the dissolution of all of them having 
no more tendency to dissolve our real selves, or " deprive us of living faculties 
— the faculties of perception and action — than the dissolution of any foreign 
matter which we are capable of receiving impressions from, or making use of 
for the common occasions of life." This is the key of the Bishop's position : 
" our organized bodies are no more a part of ourselves than any other matter 
around us." In proof of this he calls attention to the use of glasses, which 
" prepare objects " for the " percipient power " exactly as the eye does. The 
eye itself is no more percipient than the glass, is quite as much the in- 
strument of the true self, and also as foreign to the true self, as the glass is. 
" And if we see with our eyes only in the same manner as we do with 
glasses, the like may justly be concluded from analogy of all our senses." 

Lucretius, as you are aware, reached a precisely opposite conclusion ; and 
it certainly would be interesting, if not profitable, to us all, to hear what he 
would or could urge in opposition to the reasoning of the Bishop. As a brief 
discussion of the point will enable us to see the bearings of an important 
question, I will here permi-t a disciple of Lucretius to try the strength of 
the Bishop's position, and then allow the Bishop to retaliate, with the view of 
rolling back, if he can, the difficulty upon Lucretius. 

The argument might proceed in this fashion : — 

"Subjected to the test of mental -pvesentation (VorstcUmig) your views, 
most honoured prelate, would present to many minds a great, if not an in- 
superable difficvdty. Ton speak of 'living powers,' 'percipient or perceiving 
powers,' and ' ourselves ;' but can you form a mental picture of any one of these 
apart from the organism through which it is supposed to act ? Test yourself 
honestly, and see whether you possess any faculty that would enable you to 
form such a conception. The true self has a local habitation in each of us ; 
thus localized, must it not possess a form ? If so, what form ? Have you 
ever for a moment realized it? When a leg is amputated the body is 
divided into two parts ; is the true self in both of them or in one ? Thomas 
Aquinas might say in both ; but not you, for you appeal to the conscious- 
ness associated with one of the two parts to prove that the other is forei"n 
matter. Is consciousness, then, a necessary element of the true self? If 
so, what do you say to the case of the whole body being deprived of con- 
sciousness ? If not, then on what grounds do you deny any portion of the 
true self to the severed limb? It seems very singular that, from the 
beginning to the end of your admirable book (and no one admires its 
sober strength more than I do), you never once mention the brain or 



IXXX REPORT 1874. 

nervous system. You begin at one end of the body, and show that its 
parts may be removed without prejudice to the perceiving power. What 
if j'ou begin at the other end, and remove, instead of the leg, the brain? 
The body, as before, is divided into two parts; but both are now in the 
same predicament, and neither can be appealed to to prove that the other 
is foreign matter. Or, instead of going so far as to remove the brain 
itself, let a certain portion of its bony covering be removed, and let a 
rhythmic series of pressures and relaxations of pressure be applied to the 
soft substance. At every pressure ' the faculties of perception and of ac- 
tion,' vanish ; at every relaxation of pressure they are restored. Where, 
during the intervals of pressure, is the perceiving power? I once 
had the discharge of a large Leyden battery passed unexpectedly through 
me : I felt nothing, but was simply blotted out of conscious existence 
for a sensible interval. Where was my true self during that interval? 
Men who have recovered from lightning-stroke have been much longer 
in the same state ; and indeed in cases of ordinary concussion of the 
brain, days may elapse during which no experience is registered in con- 
sciousness. Where is the man himself during the period of insensibility ? 
You may say that I beg the question when I assume the man to have been 
unconscious, that he was really conscious all the time, and has simply for- 
gotten what had occurred to him. In reply to this, I can only say that no 
one need shrink from the worst tortures that superstition ever invented if only 
so felt and so remembered. I do not think your theory of instruments goes 
at all to the bottom of the matter. A telegraph-operator has his instruments, 
by means of which he converses with the Avorld ; our bodies possess a ner- 
vous system, which plays a similar part between the perceiving power 
and external things. Cut the wires of the operator, break his battery, de- 
magnetize his needle : by this means you certainly sever his connexion with 
the world ; but inasmuch as these are real iustrumcnts, their destruction does 
not touch the man who uses them. The operator sui'vives, and hcl-nows that 
he survives. What is it, I would ask, in the human system that answers to this 
conscious survival of the operator when the battery of the brain is so dis- 
turbed as to produce insensibility, or when it is destroyed altogether? 

"Another consideration, which you may consider slight, presses upon me with 
some force. The brain may change from health to disease, and through such 
a change the most exemplary man may be converted into a debauchee or a 
murderer. My very noble and approved good mastei' had, as j'ou know, 
threatenings of lewdness introduced into his brain by his jealous wife's philter ; 
and sooner than permit himself to run even the risk of yielding to these base 
promptings he slew himself. How could the hand of Lucretius have been 
thus turned against himself if the real Lucretius remained as before ? Can 
the brain or can it not act in this distempered way without the intervention 
of the immortal reason ? If it can, then it is a prime mover which requires 
only healthy regulation to render it reasonably self-acting, and there is no 
apparent need of your immortal reason at all. If it cannot, then the im- 
mortal reason, by its mischievous activity in operating upon a broken instru- 
ment, must have the credit of committing every imaginable extravagance and 
crime. I think, if you will allow me to say so, that the gravest consequences 
are likely to flow from your estimate of the body. To regard the brain 
as you would a statf or an eyeglass — to shut your eyes to all its mysterj-, 
to the perfect correlation of its condition and our consciousness, to the fact that 
a slight excess or defect of blood in it produces the very swoon to which 
you refer, and that in relation to it our meat and drink and air and 



ADDRESS. IxXXl 

exercise have a perfectly transcendental value and significance — to forget 
all tills does, I think, open a way to innumerable errors in our habits of 
life, iind may possibly in some cases initiate and foster that very disease, and 
consequent mental ruin, which a wiser ajipreciation of this mysterious organ 
would have avoided." 

I can imagine the Bishop thoughtful after hearing this argument. He was 
not the man to allow anger to mingle with the consideration of a point of 
tills kind. After due reflection, and having sti'engthened himself by that 
honest contemplation of the facts which was habitual with him, and which 
includes the desire to give even adverse facts their duo weight, I can 
suppose the Bishop to proceed thus : — " You will remember that in the 
' Analogy of Religion,' of which you have so kindly spoken, I did not profess 
to prove any thing absolutely, and that I over and over again acknowledged 
and insisted on the smallness of our knowledge, or rather the depth of our 
ignorance, as regards the whole system of the universe. My object was 
to show my deistieal friends, who set forth so eloquently the beauty and 
beneficence of Nature and the Euler thereof, while they had nothing but 
scorn for the so-called absurdities of the Christian scheme, that they were 
in no better condition than we were, and that, for every difficulty found upon 
our side, quite as great a difficulty was to be found upon theirs. I will now 
with your permission adopt a similar line of argument. You are a Lucrctian, 
and from the combination and separation of insensate atoms deduce all ter- 
restrial things, including organic forms and their phenomena. Let me tell 
you in the first instance how far I am prepared to go with you. I admit that 
you can build crystalline forms out of this play of molecular force ; that the 
diamond, amethyst, and snow-star are truly wonderful striictures which are 
thus produced. I will go further and acknowledge that even a tree or flower 
might in this way be organized. Nay, if you can show me an animal without 
sensation, I will concede to you that it also might be put together by the suit- 
able play of molecular force. 

" Thus far our way is clear, but now comes my difficulty. Your atoms 
ai'e individually without sensation, much more are they without intelligence. 
May I ask you, then, to try j-our hand upon this problem. Take your dead 
hydrogen atoms, your dead oxygen atoms, your dead carbon atoms, your dead 
nitrogen atoms, your dead phosphorus atom?, and all the other atoms, 
dead as grains of shot, of which the brain is formed. Imagine them separate 
and sensationless ; observe them running together and forming all imaginable 
combinations. This, as a jiurely mechanical process, is secahle by the mind. 
But can you see, or dream, or in any way imagine, how out of that mecha- 
nical act, and from these individually dead atoms, sensation, thought, and 
emotion are to arise? Are you likely to extract Homer out of the rattling 
of dice, or the Differential Calculus out of the clash of billiard-balls? 
I am not all bereft of this Vorsfelluiif/s-Knift of which you speak, nor am I, 
like so many of my brethren, a mere vacuum as regards scientific know- 
lodge. I can follow a particle of musk until it reaches the olfactory 
nerve ; I can follow the waves of sound until their tremors reach tho 
water of the labyrinth, and set tho otoliths and Corti's fibres in motion ; 
I can also visualize the waves of ether as they cross the 03-0 and hit the retina. 
Nay more, I am able to pursue to the central organ the motion thus im- 
parted at the periphery, and to see in idea the very molecules of the brain thrown 
into tremors. My insight is not baffled by these physical processes. What 
baffles and bewilders me— is the notion that from those physical tremors 
things so utterly iacongruous with them as sensation, thought, and emotion 
1874. / 



XXxii REPORT — 1874. 

can be derived. You may say, or think, that this issue of consciousness 
from the clash of atoms is not more incongruous than the flash of light 
from the union of oxygen and hydrogen. But I beg to say that it is. 
For such incongruity as the flash possesses is that which I now force 
upDn your attention. The flash is an aff'air of consciousness, the objec- 
tive counterpart of -which is a vibration. It is a flash only by your 
interpretation. You are the cause of the apparent incongruity; and i/on are 
the thing that puzzles me. I need not remind you that the great Leibnitz 
felt the difficulty which I feel, and that to get rid of this monstrous deduc- 
tion of life from death he displaced your atoms by his monads, which were 
more or less perfect mirrors of the universe, and out of the summation and 
integration of which he supposed all the phenomena of life — sentient, in- 
tellectual, and emotional — to arise. 

'* Your difiicnlty, then, as I see you are ready to admit, is quite as great as 
mine. You cannot satisfy the human understanding in its demand for logical 
continuity between molecular processes and the phenomena of conscious- 
ness. This is a rock on which materialism must inevitably split whenever it 
pretends to be a complete philosophy of life. What is the moral, my Lucretian? 
You and I are not likely to indulge in ill-temper in the discussion of these 
great topics, where we see so much room for honest diff'erences of opinion. 
But there are people of less wit, or more bigotry (I say it with humility) 
on both sides, who are ever ready to mingle anger and vituperation with such 
discussions. There are, for example, writers of note and influence at tlic 
present day who are not ashamed to assume the ' deep personal sin ' of a 
great logician to be the cause of his unbelief in a thcologic dogma. And 
there are others who hold that we, who cherish our noble Bible, wrought as 
it has been into the constitution of our forefathers, and by inheritance into 
us, must necessarily be hypocritical and insincere. Let us disavow and dis- 
countenance such people, cherishing the unswerving faith that what is good 
and true in both our arguments will be preserved for the benefit of humanity, 
while all that is bad or false will disappear." 

I hold the Bishop's reasoning to be unanswerable, and his liberality to be 
worthy of imitation. 

It is worth remarking that in one respect the Bishop was a product of 
his age. Long previous to his day the nature of the soul had been so 
favourite and general a topic of discussion, that, when the students of the 
Italian Universities wished to know the leanings of a new Professor, they 
at once requested him to lecture upon the soul. Aboiit the time of Bishop 
Butler the question was not only agitated but extended. It was seen by 
the clear-witted men who entered this arena that many of their best 
arguments applied equally to brutes and men. The Bishop's arguments 
were of this character. He saw it, admitted it, accepted the conse- 
quences, and boldly embraced the whole animal world in his scheme of im- 
mortality. 

Bishop Butler accepted with unwavering trust the chronology of the Old 
Testament, describing it as " confirmed by the natural and civil history of 
the world, collected from common historians, from the state of the earth, and 
from the late inventions of arts and sciences." These words mark progress ; 
and they must seem somewhat hoary to the Bishop's successors of to-day*. 

* Only to some ; for tbei-e are dignitavies who even now speak of tlie cartli's rocky crust 
as so much building material pi-epared for man at tlie Creation. Surely it is time tliat 
his loose language should cease. 



ADDRESS. IXXXUI 

It is hardly necessary to inform you tliat since his time the domain of the 
naturalist has been immensely extended— the whole science of geology, with 
its astounding revelations regarding the life of the ancient earth, having been 
created. The rigidity of old conceptions has been relaxed, the public mmd 
being rendered gradually tolerant of the idea that not for six thousand, nor 
for sixty thousand, nor for six thousand thousand thousand, but for aeons em- 
In-acing untold millions of years, this earth has been the theatre of life and 
death. The riddle of the rocks has been read by the geologist and palaeon- 
tologist, from subeambrian depths to the deposits thickening over the sea- 
bottoms of to-day. And upon the leaves of that stone book are, as you know, 
stamped the characters, plainer and surer than those formed by the mk of 
history, which carry the mind back into abysses of past time compared with 
Avhich the periods which satisfied Bishop Butler cease to have a visual angle. 

The lode of discovery once struck, those petrified forms in which life was at 
one time active, increased to multitudes and demanded classification. They 
were grouped in genera, species, and varieties, according to the ^ degree of 
similarity subsisting between them. Thus confusion was avoided, each 
object being found in the pigeon-hole appropriated to it and to its fellows of 
similar morphological or pliysiological character. The general fact soon 
became evident that none but the simplest forms of life lie lowest down, that 
as we cHmb higher among the superimposed strata more perfect forms 
appear. The change, however, from form to form was not continuous, but 
by steps — some small, some great. "A section," says Mr. Huxley, "a 
hundred feet thick will exhibit at different heights a dozen species of Am- 
monite, none of which passes beyond its particular zone of limestone, or clay, 
into the zone below it, or into that above it." In the presence of such facts 
it was not possible to avoid the question :— Have these forms, showing, 
though in broken stages and with many irregularities, this unmistakable 
general advance, been subjected to no continuous law of growth or variation? 
Had our education been purely scientific, or had it been sufficiently de- 
tached from influences which, however ennobhng in another domain, have 
always proved hindrances and delusions when introduced as factors into 
the domain of physics, the scientific mind never could have swerved from the 
search for a law of growth, or allowed itself to accept the anthropomorphism 
which regarded each successive stratum as a kind of mechanic's bench for 
the manufacture of new species out of all relation to the old.' 

Biased, however, by their previous education, the great majority of 
naturalists invoked a special creative act to account for the appearance 
of each new group of organisms. Doubtless there were_ numbers who 
were clear-headed enough to see that this was no explanation at all, that 
in point of fact it was an attempt, by the introduction of a greater 
difficulty, to account for a less. But having nothing to offer in the 
way of explanation, they for the most part held their peace. Still the 
thoughts of reflecting men naturally and necessarily simmered round the 
question. De Maillot, a contemporary of JS^ewton, has been brought into 
notice by Professor Huxley as one who " had a notion of the modifia,bility of 
living forms." In my frequent conversations with him, the late bir Bcn- 
iamiu Brodie, a man of highly pliilosophic mind, often drew my atten- 
tion to the fact that, as early as 1794, Charles Darwin's grandfather was the 
pioneer of Charles Darwin*. In 1801, and in subsequent years, the ctlc- 
bratcd Lamarclc, who ]n-oduced so profound an impression on the public mind 

* Zoonomia., vol. i, pp. 500-511). 

/2 



xxxiv KEPOiiT — 1874. 

through the vigorous exposition of his views by the author of the * Vestlgea 
of Creation,' endeavoured to show the develoiiment of s^jecies out of changes 
of habit and external condition. In 1813 Dr. Wells, the founder of our 
present theory of Dew, read before the Itoyal Society a paper in which, to 
use the words of Mr. Darwin, " he distinctly recognizes the principle of 
natural selection ; and this is the first recognition that has been indicated." 
The thoroughness and skill with which Wells pursued his work, and the 
obvious independence of his character, rendered him long ago a favourite 
with me ; and it gave me the liveliest pleasure to aliglit upon this additional 
testimony to his penetration. Professor Grant, Mr. Patrick Matthew, Von 
Buch, the author of the ' Vestiges,' D'llalloy, and others*, by the enunciation 
of opinions more or less clear and correct, showed that the question had been 
fermenting long prior to the year 18.58, when Mr. Darwin and Mr. Wallace 
simultaneously but independently placed their closely concurrent views upon 
the subject before the Linnean Society. 

These papers were followed in 1859 by the publicatioi\ of the first edition 
of * The Origin of Species.' All great things come slowly to the birth. Coper- 
nicus, as I informed you, pondered his great work for thirty-three years. New- 
ton for nearly twenty years kept the idea of Gravitation before his mind ; for 
twenty years also he dwelt upon his discovery of Fluxions, and doubtless would 
have continued to makeit tlie object of his private thought had lie not found that 
Leibnitz was upon his track. Darwin for two and twenty years pondered the 
problem of the origin of species, and doubtless he would have continued to do so 
had he not found Wallace upon his track t. A concentrated, but full and power- 
ful epitome of his labours was the consequence. The book was by no means an 
easy one ; and probably not one in every score of those who then attacked it had 
read its pages through, or were competent to grasp their significance if they 
had. I do not say this merely to discredit them ; for there were in those 
days some really eminent scientific men, entirely raised above the heat of 
popular prejudice, willing to accept any conclusion that science had to offer, 
provided it was duly backed by fact and argument, and who entirely mistook 
Mr. Darwin's views. In fact the work needed an expounder; and it 
found one in Mr. Huxley, I know nothing more admirable in the way of 
scientific exposition than those early articles of his on tlic origin of species. 
He swept the curve of discussion through the really significant points of tlie 
subject, enriched his exposition with profound original remarks and 
reflections, often summing u]) in a single pithy sentence an argument which 
a less compact mind would have spread over pages. But there is one 
impression made by the book itself which no exposition of it, however 
luminous, can convey ; and that is the impression of tlie vast amount of 
labour, both of observation and of thought, implied in its production. Let 
us glance at its principles. 

It is conceded on all hands that what are called varieties are continually 
produced. The rule is probably without exception. No chick and no child 
is in all respects and particulars the counterpart of its brother and sister ; 
and in such differences we have " variety " incipient. No naturalist could tell 
how far this variation could be carried ; but the great mass of them held that 
never by any amount of internal or external change, nor by the mixture of both, 

* In 1855 Mr. Herbert Spencer (' Principles of Psycliologv,' 2nd edit. vol. i. p. 405) 
expressed " the belief that life under all its forms has arisen bV an unbroken evolution, 
and through the instrumentality of what are cnlled natural causes." 

t The behaviour of Mr. Wallace in relation to this subject has been dignified in the 
highest degree. 



ADDRESS. IXXXV 

could the offspring of the same progenitor so far deviate from each other as to 
constitute different species. The function of the experimental philosopher is 
to combine the conditions of nature and to produce her results ; and this 
was the method of Darwin*. He made himself acquainted with what could, 
without any manner of doubt, be done in the way of producing variation. 
He associated himself with pigeon-fanciers — bought, begged, kept, and 
observed every breed that he could obtain. Though derived from a 
common stock, the diversities of these pigeons were such that " a 
score of them might be chosen which, if sho'wn to an ornithologist, 
and he were told that they were wild birds, would certainly be ranked 
by him as well-defined species." The simple principle which guides 
the pigeon-fancier, as it does the cattle-breeder, is the selection of some 
variety that strikes his fancy, and the propagation of this variety by 
inheritance. With his eye still directed to the particular appearance 
which he wishes to exaggerate, he selects it as it reappears in succes- 
sive broods, and thus adds increment to increment until an astonish- 
ing amount of divergence from the parent type is effected. The breeder 
in this case does not produce the dements of the variation. He simply 
observes them, and by selection adds them together until the required 
result has been obtained. " No man," says Mr. Darwin, " would ever 
try to make a fantail till he saw a pigeon with a tail developed in some 
slight degree in an unusual manner, or a pouter until ho saw a pigeon 
with a crop of itnusual size." Thus nature gives the hint, man acts 
upon it, and by the law of inheritance exaggerates the deviation. 

Having thus satisfied himself by indubitable facts that the organi- 
zation of an animal or of a plant (for precisely the sonic treatment applies to 
plants) is to seme extent plastic, he passes from variation under domesti- 
cation to variation under nature. Hitherto we have dealt with the adding 
together of small changes by the conscious selection of man. Can Nature 
thus select? Mr. Darwin's answer is, "Assuredly she can." The number 
of living things produced is far in excess of the number that can be sup- 
ported ; hence at some period or other of their lives there must be a struggle 
for existence ; and what is the infallible result ? If one organism were 
a perfect copy of the other in regard to strength, skill, and agility, external 
conditions would decide. But this is not the case. Here we have the 
fact of variety offering itself to nature, as in the former instance it offered 
itself to man ; and those varieties which are least competent to cope with 
surrounding conditions will infallibly give way to those that are most com- 
petent. To use a familiar proverb, the weakest comes to the wall. But the 
triumphant fraction again breeds to overproduction, transmitting the qualities 
which secured its maintenance, but transmitting them in different degrees. 
The struggle for food again supervenes, and those to whom the favourable 
quality has been transmitted in excess will assuredly triumph. It is 
easy to see that we have here the addition of increments favourable to 
the individual still more rigorously carried out than in the case of 
domestication ; for not only are unfavourable specimens not selected by 
nature, but they are destroyed. This is what Mr. Darwin calls "Natural 
Selection," which " acts by the preservation and accumulation of small 
inherited modifications, each profitable to the preserved being." "With this 
idea he interpenetrates and leavens the vast store of facts that he and others 

* The first step only towards experimental demonstration has been taken. Expeii- 
ments now begun might, a couple of centuries hence, furnish data of incalculable value, 
which ought to be supplied to the science of the future. 



Ixxxvi REPOiiT — 1874. 

have collected. We cannot, without shutting our eyes through fear or pre- 
judice, faU to sec that Darwin is here dealing, not with imaginary, but 
with true causes ; nor can we faU to discern what vast modifications may be 
produced by natural selection in periods sufficiently long. Each individual 
increment may resemble what mathematicians call a " differential " (a quan- 
tity indefinitely small) ; but definite and great changes may obviously be pro- 
duced by the integration of these infinitesimal quantities through practically 
infinite time. 

If Darwin, like Bruno, rejects the notion of creative power acting after 
human fashion, it certainly is not because he is unacquainted with the num- 
berless exquisite adaptations on which this notion of a supernatural artificer 
has been founded. His ]jook is a repository of the most startling facts of 
this description. Take the marvellous observation which he cites from Dr. 
Criiger, where a bucket with an aperture, serving as a spout, is formed in 
an orchid. Bees visit the flower : in eager search of material for their combs 
they push each other into the bucket, the drenched ones escaping from their 
involuntary bath by the spout. Here they rub their backs against the viscid 
stigma of the flower and obtain glue ; then against the pollen-masses, which 
are thus stuck to the back of the bee and carried away. " When the bee, so 
provided, flies to another flower, or to the same flower a second time, and is 
pushed by its comrades into the bucket, and then crawls out by the passage, the 
pollen-mass upon its back necessarily comes first into contact with the viscid 
stigma," which takes up the pollen ; and this is how that orchid is fertilized. 
Or take this otlier case of the Catasefum. " Bees visit these flowers in order 
to gnaw the labellum ; in doing this they inevitably touch a long, tapering, 
sensitive projection. This, when touched, transmits a sensation or vibration 
to a certain membrane, wliich is instantly ruptured, setting free a spring, by 
which the pollen-mass is sliot forth like an arrow in tlie right direction, and 
adheres by its viscid extremity to the back of the bee." In this way the fer- 
tilizing pollen is spread abroad. 

It is the mind thiis stored with the choicest materials of the teleologist 
that rejects teleology, seeking to refer these wonders to natural cases. 
They illustrate, according to him, the method of nature, not the " technic " 
of a man-like Artificer. The beauty of flowers is due to natural selection. 
Tliose that distinguish themselves by vividly contrasting colours from the 
surrounding green leaves arc most readily seen, most frequently visited 
by insects, most often fertilized, and hence most favoured by natural selection. 
Coloured berries also readily attract the attention of birds and beasts, which 
feed upon them, spread their manured seeds abroad, thus giving trees and 
shrubs possessing such berries a greater chance in the struggle for existence. 

With profound analytic and synthetic skill, Mr. Darwin investigates the 
cell-making instinct of the hive-bee. His method of dealing with it is re- 
presentative. He faUs back from the more perfectly to the less perfectly 
developed instinct — from tlio hive-bee to the humble bee, which uses its 
own cocoon as a comb, and to classes of bees of intermediate skill, endea- 
vouring to show how the passage might be gradually made from the lowest 
to. the highest. The saving of wax is the most important point in the 
economy of bees. Twelve to fifteen pounds of dry sugar are said to be 
needed for the secretion of a single pound of wax. The quantities of nectar 
necessary for the wax must therefore be vast ; and every improvement of 
constructive instinct whicli results in the saving of wax is a direct profit 
to the insect's life. The time that would otherwise be devoted to the making 
of was is now devoted to the gathering and storing of honey for winter food. 



ADDRESS. IxXXvii 

He passes from the humble bee with its rude cells, through the McUpona 
with its more artistic cells, to the hive-bee with its astonishing architecture, 
The bees place themselves at equal distances apart upon the wax, sweep 
and excavate equal spheres round the selected points. The spheres intersect, 
and the planes of intersection are built up with thin laminae. Hexagonal 
colls are thus formed. This mode of treating such questions is, as I have 
said, representative. He habitually retires from the more perfect and com- 
plex, to the less perfect and simple, and carries you with him through 
stages of perfecting, adds increment to increment of infinitesimal change, 
and in this way gradually breaks down your reluctance to admit that the 
exquisite climax of the whole could be a result of natural selection. 

Mr. Darwin shirks no difficulty ; and, saturated as the subject was with his 
own thought, he must have known, better than his critics, the weakness as well 
as the strength of his theory. This of course would be of little avail were hir 
object a temporary dialectic victory instead of the establishment of a truth 
which he means to be everlasting. But he takes no pains to disguise the 
weakness he has discerned ; nay, he takes every pains to bring it into the 
strongest light. His vast resources enable him to cope with objections started 
by himself and others, so as to leave the final impression upon the reader's mind 
tliat, if they be not completely answered, they certainly are not fatal. Their 
negative force being thus destroyed, you are free to be influenced by the vast posi- 
tive mass of evidence he is able to bring before you. This largeness of knowledge 
and readiness of resource render Mr. Darwin the most terrible of antagonists. 
Accomplished naturalists have levelled heavy and sustained criticisms against 
him — not always with the -view of fairly weighing his theory, but with the 
express intention of exposing its weak points only. This does not irritate 
him. He treats every objection with a soberness and thoroughness which 
even Bishop Butler might be proud to imitate, surrounding each fact with 
its appropriate detail, placing it in its laroper relations, and usually giving 
it a significance which, as long as it was kept isolated, failed to appear. 
This is done without a trace of ill-temper. He moves over the subject 
with the passionless strength of a glacier ; and the grinding of the rocks 
is not always without a counterpart in the logical pulverization of the ob- 
jector. But though in handling this mighty theme all passion has been 
stilled, there is an emotion of the intellect incident to the discernment of new 
truth which often colours and warms the pages of Mr. Darwin. His success 
has been great ; and this imi)lies not only the solidity of his work, but the 
preparedness of the public mind for such a revelation. On this head a 
remark of Agassiz impressed me more than any thing else. Sprung from a 
race of theologians, this celebrated man combated to the last the theory of 
natural selection. One of the many times I had the pleasure of meeting him 
in the United States was at Mr. Winthrop's beautiful residence at Brookline, 
near Boston. Eising from luncheon, we all halted as if by a common impulse 
in front of a window, and continued there a discussion which had been started 
lit table. The inaple was in its autumn glory; and the exquisite beauty of 
the scene outside seemed, in my case, to interpenetrate without disturbance 
the intellectual action. Earnestly, almost sadly, Agassiz turned, and said to 
tlie gentlemen standing round, " I confess that I was not prepared to see this 
theory received as it has been by the best intellects of our time. Its success 
is greater than I could have thought possible.'' 

In our day grand generalizations have been reached. The theory of the 
origin of species is but one of them. Another, of still wider grasp and more 



Ixxxviii REPORT — 1874. 

radical significance, is the doctrine of the Consorvatiou of Energy, the ulti- 
mate philosophical issues of which are as yet but dimly seen — that doctrine 
which " binds nature fast in fate " to an extent not hitherto recognized, 
exacting from every antecedent its equivalent eonse(iuent, from every con- 
sequent its equivalent antecedent, and bringing vital as well as physical 
phenomena under the dominion of that law of causal connexion which, so far 
as the human understanding has yet pierced, asserts itself everywhere in nature. 
Long in advance of all definite experiment upon the subject, the constancy 
and indestructibility of matter had been affirmed ; and all subsequent expe- 
rience justified the affirmation. Later researches extended the attribute of 
indestructibility to force. This idea, applied in the fii'st instance to inorganic, 
rapidly embraced organic nature. The vegetable world, though drawing 
almost aU its nutriment from invisible sources, was proved incompetent to 
generate anew either matter or force. Its matter is for the most part trans- 
muted gas ; its force transformed solar force. The animal world was proved 
to be equally inicreative, all its motive energies being referred to the com- 
bustion of its food. The activity of each animal as a whole was proved to bo 
the transferred activity of its moleciiles. Tbe muscles were shown to be 
stores of mechanical force, potential until unlocked by the nerves, and then 
resulting in muscular contractions. The speed at which messages fly to and 
fro along the nerves was determined, and found to be, not as had been previ- 
ously supposed, equal to that of light or electricity, but less than the speed 
of a flying eagle. 

This was the work of the physicist: then came the conquests of Ihe 
comparative anatomist and physiologist, revealing the structure of every 
animal, and the function of every organ in the whole biological series, from 
the lowest zoophyte up to man. The nervous system had been made the 
object of profound and continued study, the wonderful and, at bottom, entirely 
mysterious controlling power which it exercises over the whole organism, 
physical and mental, being recognized more and more. Thought could 
not be kept back from a subject so profoundly suggestive. Besides the 
physical life dealt with by Mr. Darwin, there is a psychical life presenting 
similar gradations, and asking equally for a solution. How arc the diff'ercnt 
grades and orders of Mind to be accounted for ? What is the princijile of 
growth of that mj'stcrious power which on our planet culminates in Eeason ? 
These are questions which, though not thrusting themselves so forcibly 
upon the attention of the general public, had not only occupied many 
reflecting minds, but had been formally broached by one of them before the 
' Origin of Species ' appeared. 

With the mass of materials furnished by the physicist and physiologist in 
his hands, Mr. Herbert Spencer, twenty years ago, souglit to graft upon this 
basis a system of psychology ; and two years ago a second and greatly ampli- 
fied edition of his work appeared. Those who have occupied themselves 
with tho beautiful experiments of PJateau will remember that when two 
spherules of olive-oil suspended in a mixture of alcohol and water of tlic 
same density as the oil, are brought together, they do not immediately 
unite. Something like a pellicle appears to be formed around tlic drops, 
the rupture of wliic-h is immediately foUoAved by the coalescence of the 
globules into one. There are organisms whose vital actions are almost 
as purely physical as that of these drops of oil. They come into contact 
and fuse themselves thus together. Prom such organisms to others a shade 
higher, and from these to others a shade higher still, and on through an 
ever ascending series, Mr. Spencer conducts his argument. There are U\o 



ADDRESS. Ixxxix 

obvioua factors to be here taken into account — the creature and the medium 
in which it lives, or, as it is often expressed, the organism and its en- 
vironment. Mr. Spencer's fundamental principle is, that between these two 
factors there is incessant interaction. The organism is plaj-ed upon by the 
environment, and is modified to meet the requirements of the environment. 
Life he defines to bo "a continuous adjustment of internal relations to ex- 
ternal relations." 

In the lowest organisms we have a kind of tactual sense diffused over thu 
entire body ; then, through impressions from without and their correspond- 
ing adjustments, special portions of the surface become more responsive to 
stimuli than others. The senses are nascent, the basis of all of them being 
that simple tactual sense which the sage Democritus recognized 2300 years 
ago as their common progenitor. The action of light, in the first instance, 
appears to be a mere disturbance of the chemical processes in the animal 
organism, similar to that which occurs in the leaves of plants. By degrees 
the action becomes localized in a few pigment-cells, more sensitive to light 
than the surrounding tissue. The eye is here incipient. At first it is merely 
capable of revealing differences of light and shade produced by bodies close 
at hand. Pollowed as the interception of the light is in almost all cases by 
the contact of the closely adjacent opaque body, sight in this condition 
becomes a kind of " anticipatory touch." The adjustment continues ; a slight 
bulging out of the epidermis over the pigment-granules supervenes. A lens 
is incipient, and, through the operation of infinite adjustments, at length 
reaches the perfection that it displays in the hawk and eagle. So of the 
other senses; they are special differentiations of a tissue which was originally 
vaguely sensitive all over. 

With the development of the senses the adjustments between the organism 
and its environment gradually extend in space, a multiplication of expe- 
riences and a corresponding modification of conduct being the result. The 
adjustments also extend in time, covering continually greater intervals. 
Along with this extension in space and time the adjustments also increase 
in speciality and complexity, passing through the various grades of brute 
life, and prolonging themselves into the domain of reason. Yery striking 
are Mr. Spencer's remarks regarding the influence of the sense of touch 
upon the development of intelligence. This is, so to say, the mother-tongue 
of all the senses, into which they must be translated to be of service to 
the organism. Hence its importance. The parrot is the most intelligent of 
birds, and its tactual power is also greatest. From this sense it gets know- 
ledge unattainable by birds which cannot employ their feet as hands. Tlie 
elephant is the most sagacious of quadrupeds — its tactual range and skill, and 
the consequent multiplication of experiences, Avhich it owes to its wonderfully 
adaptable trunk, being the basis of its sagacity. Feline animals, for a similar 
cause, are more sagacious than hoofed animals, — atonement being to some 
extent made, in the case of the horse, by the possession of sensitive prehensile 
lips. In the Primates the evolution of intellect and the evolution of tactual 
appendages go hand in hand. In the most intelligent anthropoid apes we 
find the tactual range and delicacy greatly augmented, new avenues of know- 
ledge being thus opened to the animal. Man crowns the edifice here, not only 
in virtue of his own manipulatory power, but through the enormous extension 
of his range of experience, by the invention of instruments of precision, whicli 
serve as supplemental senses and supplemental limbs. The reciprocal action of 
these is finely described and illustrated. That chastened intellectual emotion 
to which I have referred in connexion ■«ith Mr. Darwin is not absent in Mr. 



XC REPOHT — 1874. 

Spencer. His illustrations possess at times exceeding vividness and force ; 
and from his style on such occasions it is to be inferred that the ganglia of 
this Apostle of the Understanding are sometimes the seat of a nascent 
poetic thriU. 

It is a fact of supreme importance that actions the performance of which at 
first requires even painful effort and deliberation, may by habit be rendered 
automatic. Witness the slow learning of its letters by a child, and the subse- 
quent facility of reading in a man, when each group of letters which forms a 
word is instantly, and without effort, fused to a single perception. Instance 
the billiard-player, Avhose muscles of hand and eye, when he reaches the per- 
fection of his art, are unconsciously coordinated. Instance the musician, who, 
hj practice, is enabled to fuse a midtitude of arrangements, auditory, tactual 
and muscular, into a process of automatic manipulation. Combining such 
facts with the doctrine of hereditary transmission, we reach a theory of 
Instinct. A chick, after coming out of the egg, balances itself correctly, runs 
about, picks up food, thus showing that it possesses a power of directing its 
movements to definite ends. How did the chick learn this very complex 
coordination of eye, muscles, and beak ? It has not been individually 
taught ; its personal experience is nil ; but it has the benefit of ancestral 
experience. In its inherited organization are registered all the powers 
which it displays at birth. So also as regards the instinct of the hive-bee, 
already referred to. The distance at which the insects stand apart when 
they sweep their hemispheres and build their cells is " organically remem- 
bered." Man also carries with him the physical texture of his ancestry, as 
weU as the inherited intellect bound up with it. The defects of intelligence 
during infancy and youth are probably less due to a lack of individual expe- 
rience than to the fact that in early life the cerebral organization is stiU 
incomplete. The period necessary for completion varies with the race, and 
Avith the individual. As a round shot outstrips a rifled one on quitting the 
muzzle of the gun, so the lower race in childhood may outstrip the higher, 
liut the higher eventually overtakes the lower, and surpasses it in range. As 
regards individuals, we do not always find the precocity of youth prolonged to 
mental power in maturity; while the dulncss of boyhood is sometimes stiikingly 
contrasted with the intellectual energy of after years. Newton, when a boy, 
was weakly, and he showed no particular aptitude at school ; but in his 
eighteenth year he went to Cambridge, and soon afterwards astonished his 
teachers by his power of dealing with geometrical in-oblems. During his 
quiet youth his brain was slowly preparing itself to be the organ of those 
energies which he subsequently displayed. 

By myriad blows (to use a Lucretian phrase) the image and superscription 
of the external world are stamped as states of consciousness upon the organ- 
ism, the depth of the impression depending upon the number of the blows. 
\yhen two or more phenomena occur in the environment invariably together, 
they are stamped to the same depth or to the same relief, and indissolu- 
bly connected. And here we come to the threshold of a gi'eat question. 
Seeing that ho could in no Avay rid himself of the consciousness of Space and 
Time, Kant assumed them to be necessary " forms of intuition," the moulds 
and shapes into Avhich our intuitions are thrown, belonging to ourselves 
solely and without objective existence. With unexpected power and success 
Mr. Spencer brings the hereditary experience theory, as he holds it, to bear 
upon this question. " If there exist certain external relations which are 
experienced by all organisms at all instants of their waking lives — relations 
which are absolutely constant and universal — there will be established an- 



ADDRESS. XCl 

Rwering internal relations that arc absolutely constant and universal. Such 
relations wo have iu those of Space and Time. As the substratum of all 
other relations of the Non-Ego, they must be responded to by conceptions 
that are the substrata of all other relations in the Ego. Being the constant 
and infinitely repeated elements of thought, they must become the automatic 
elements of thought — the elements of thought which it is impossible to get 
rid of — the ' forms of intuition.' " 

Throughout this application and extension of the "La^iv of Inseparal)lc Asso- 
ciation," Mr. Sjienccr stands wpon his own ground, invoking instead of the 
experiences of the individual the registered experiences of the race. His 
overthrow of the restriction of experience to the individual is, I think, 
complete. That restriction ignores the power of organizing experience fur- 
nished at the outset to each individual ; it ignores the different degrees of 
this power possessed by different races and by chfferent individuals of the same 
race. Were there not in the human brain a potency antecedent to all expe- 
rience, a dog or cat oiight to be as capable of education as a man. These 
predetermined internal relations are independent of the experiences of the 
individual. The human brain is the " organized register of infinitely nu- 
merous experiences received during the evolution of life, or rather during the 
evolution of that series of organisms through which the human organism has 
been reached. The effects of the most uniform and frequent of these expe- 
riences have been successively bequeathed, principal and interest, and have 
slowly mounted to that high intelligence which lies latent in the brain of the 
infant. Thus it happens that the European inherits from twenty to thirty 
cubic inches more of brain tlian the Papuan. Thus it happens that faculties, 
as of music, which scarcely exist in some inferior races, become congenital 
iu superior ones. Thus it happens that out of savages unable to count up 
to the number of their lingers, and speaking a language containing only nouns 
and verbs, arise at length our l^ewtons and Shakespeares." 

At the outset of this Address it was stated that x^hysieal theories which lie 
beyond experience are derived by a process of abstraction from experience. 
It is instructive to note from this point of view the successive introduction of 
new conceptions. The idea of the attraction of gravitation was preceded by 
the observation of the attraction of iron by a magnet, and of light bodies by 
rubbed amber. The polarity of magnetism and electricity appealed to the 
senses ; and thus became the substratum of the conception that atoms and 
molecules are endowed with definite, attractive and repellent poles, hj the 
play of which definite forms of crystalline arcliitecture are produced. Thus 
molecular force becomes structural. It required no great boldness of thought 
to extend its play into organic nature, and to recognize iu molecular force 
the agency by which both plants and animals are built up. In this way out 
of experience arise conceptions which are wholly ultra-experiential. K'one 
of the atomists of antiquity had any notion of this play of molecular polar 
force, but they had experience of gravity as manifested by falling bodies. 
Abstracting from this, thej- permitted their atoms to fall eternally through 
empty space ; Democritus assumed that the larger atoms moved more rapidly 
than the smaller ones, which they therefore could overtake, and with which 
tliey could combine. Epicurus, holding that empty space could offer no 
resistance to motion, ascribed to all the atoms the same velocity ; but he seems 
to have overlooked the consequence that under such circumstances the atoms 
could never combine. Lucretius cut the knot by quitting the domain of physics 
altogether, and causing the atoms to move together by a kind of volition. 

AYas the instinct utterly at fault which caused Lucretius thus to swerve 



XCii REPORT — 1874. 

from his own principles ? Diminishing gradual! j' the number of progeni- 
tors, Mr. Darwiu comes at length to one " primordial form ; " but he docs 
not say, as far as I remember, how he supposes this form to have been in- 
troduced. He quotes with satisfaction the words of a celebrated author 
and divine who had "gradually learnt to see that it is just as noble a con- 
ception of the Deity to believe He created a few original forms, capable of 
self-development into other and needful forms, as to believe that He required 
a fresh act of creation to supply the voids caused by the action of His laws." 
What Mr. Darwin thinks of this view of the introduction of life I do not 
know. But the anthropomorphism, which it seemed his object to set aside, 
is as iirmly associated with the creation of a few forms as Avith the creation 
of a multitude. We need clearness and thoroughness here. Two courses and 
two only are possible. Either let us open our doors freely to the conception 
of creative acts, or, abandoning them, let us radically change our notions of 
Matter, If we look at matter as pictured by Democritus, and as defined 
for generations in our scientific text-books, the notion of any form of life 
whatever coming out of it is iitterly imimaginable. The argument placed 
in the moiith of Bishop Butler suffices, in my opinion, to crush all such ma- 
terialism as this. But those who framed these definitions of matter were 
not biologists but mathematicians, whose labours referred only to such acci- 
dents and properties of matter as could be expressed in their formulae. The 
very intentness with which they pursued mechanical science turned their 
thoughts aside from the science of life. May not their impei-fect definitions 
be the real cause of our present dread ? Let us reverently, but honestly, 
look the question in the face. Divorced from matter, where is life to be 
found? Whatever our faith may say, out hnowlalge shows them to be indis- 
solubly joined. Every meal we eat, and every cup we drink, illustrates the 
mysterious control of Mind by Matter. 

Trace the line of life backwards, and see it approaching more and more to 
what we call the purely physical condition. We come at length to those 
organisms which I have compared to drops of oil suspended in a mixture of 
alcohol and water. We reach the profor/encs of Haeckel, in which we have " a 
tj'pc distinguishable from a fragment of albumen only by its finely granular 
character." Can vc pause here ? We break a magnet and find two poles 
in each of its fragments. We continue the process of breaking, but, however 
small the parts, each carries with it, though enfeebled, the polarity of the whole. 
And when we can break no longer, we prolong the intellectual vision to the 
polar molecules. Arc we not urged to do somethincj similar in the case of 
life ? Is there not a temptation to close to some extent with Lucretius, when ho 
affirms that " nature is seen to do all things spontaneously of herself without 
the meddling of the gods"? or with Bruno, when he declares that Matter is 
not " that mere empty ca]jacity which philosophers have pictured her to be 
but the universal mother who brings forth all things as the fruit of her own 
womb " ? Believing, as I do, in the continuity of N'ature, I cannot stop 
abruptly where our microscopes cease to be of use. Here the vision of the 
mind authoritatively supplements the vision of the eye. By an intellechial 
necessity I cross the boundary of the experimental evidence, and discern in 
that Matter which we, in our ignorance of its latent powers, and notwitii- 
standing our j^rofessed reverence for its Creator, have hitherto covered m ith 
opprobrium, the promise and potency of all terrestrial Life. 

If you ask me Avhether there exists the least evidence to prove that any 
form of life can he developed out of matter, without demonstrable antecedent 
life, my reply is that evidence considered perfectly conclusive by many has 



ADDRESS. Xciii 

been adduced ; and that were some of us who have pondered this question to 
follow a very common example, and accept testimony because it falls in with 
our belief, we also should eagerly close with the evidence referred to. But 
there is in the tnie man of science a wish stronger than the wish to have his 
beliefs upheld ; namely, the wish to have them true. And this stronger wish 
causes him to reject the most plausible support if he has reason to suspect 
that it is vitiated by error. Those to whom I refer as having studied this 
question, believing the evidence offered in favour of " spontaneous genera- 
tion" to be thus vitiated, cannot accept it. They know full well that the 
cliemist now prepares from inorganic matter a vast array of substances which 
•were some time ago regarded as the sole products of vitality. They are in- 
timately acquainted with the structural power of matter as evidenced in the 
phenomena of crystallization. They can justify scientifically their belief in 
its potency, under the proper conditions, to produce organisms. But in reply 
to your question they will frankly admit their inability to point to any satis- 
factory experimental proof that life can be developed save from demonstrable 
antecedent life. As already indicated, they draw the line from the highest 
organisms through lower ones down to the lowest, and it is the prolongation 
of this line by the intellect beyoud the range of the senses that leads them 
to the conclusion which Bruno so boldly enunciated*. 

The " materialism " here professed may be vastly different from what you 
suppose, and I therefore crave your gracious patience to the end. " The ques- 
tion of an external world," says Mr. J. S. Mill, " is the great battle-ground 
of metaphysics " f. Mr. Mill himself reduces external phenomena to " possi- 
bilities of sensation." Kant, as we have seen, made time and space "forms " 
of our own intuitions. Fiehtc, having first by the inexorable logic of his un- 
derstanding proved himself to be a mere link in that chain of eternal causa- 
tion which holds so rigidly in nature, violently broke the chain by making 
nature, and all that it inherits, an apparition of his own mind J. And it is by 
no means easy to combat such notions. For when I say I see you, and that 
I have not the least doubt about it, the reply is, that what I am really con- 
scious of is an affection of my own retina. And if I urge that I can check 
my sight of you by touching you, the retort would be that I am equally trans- 
gressing the limits of fact ; for what I am really conscious of is, not that 
you are there, but that the nerves of my hand have undergone a change. 
All we hear, and see, aud touch, and taste, and smell, are, it would be urged, 
mere variations of our own condition, beyond which, even to the extent of a 
hair's breadth, we cannot go. That any thing answering to our impressions 
exists outside of ourselves is not Si, fact, but an inference, to which all validity 
would be denied by an idealist like Berkeley, or by a sceptic like Hume. 
Mr. Spencer takes another line. With him, as with the uneducated man, there 
is no doubt or question as to the existence of an external world. But he dif- 
fers from the uneducated, who think that the world really is what conscious- 
ness represents it to be. Our states of consciousness are mere si/mbols of an 
outside entity which produces them and determines the order of their 
succession, but the real nature of which we can never know §. In 

* Bruno wa3 a "Pantheist," not an "Atheist" or a "Materialist." 

t Examination of Hamilton, p. 154. 

J Bestimmung des Menschen. 

§ In a paper, at once popular and profound, entitled " Recent Progre.ss in the Theory 
of Vision," contained in the volume of Lectures by Helmholtz, published by Longmans, 
this symbolism of our states of consciousness is also dwelt upon. The impressions of sense 
nro the mere sipis of external things. Li tin's paper Helmlioltz contends strongly against 
the view that the consciousness of space is inborn ; and he evidently doubts the power 



XCiv REPORT — 1874. 

fact the whole process of evolution is the manifestation of a Power abso- 
lutely inscrutable to the intellect of man. As little in our day as in the days 
of Job can man by searching find this Power out. Considered fundamentally, 
then, it is by the operation of an insoluble mystery that life on earth is 
evolved, species differentiated, and mind unfolded from their prepotent 
elements in the immeasurable past. There is, you will observe, no very 
rank materialism here. 

The strength of the doctrine of evolution consists, not in an experimental 
demonstration (for the subject is hardly accessible to this mode of proof), 
but in its general harmony with scientific thoiight. From contrast, more- 
over, it derives enormous relative strength. On the one side we have a 
theory (if it could with any propriety be so called) derived, as were the 
theories referred to at the beginning of this Address, not from the study 
of nature, but from the observation of men — a theory which converts tlie 
Power whose garment is seen in the visible universe into an Artificer, 
fashioned after the human model, and acting by broken efforts as man is 
seen to act. On the other side we have the conception that all we see 
around us, and all we feel Avithin us — the phenomena of physical nature 
as well as those of the human mind — have their unsearchable roots in a 
cosmical life, if I dare apply the term, au infinitesimal span of which is 
offered to the investigation of man. And even this span is only knowablc 
in part. We can trace the development of a nervous system, and correlate 
with it the parallel phenomena of sensation and thought. "We see with un- 
doubting certainty that they go hand in hand. But we try to soar in a 
vacuum the moment we seek to comprehend the connexion between them. 
An Archimedean fidcrum is here required which the human mind cannot 
command ; and the eftbrt to solve the problem, to borrow a comparison from 
an illustrious friend of mine, is like the effort of a man trying to lift himself 
by his own waistband. All that has been here said is to be taken in connexion 
with this fundamental truth. When " nascent senses " are spoken of, when 
" the differentiation of a tissue at first vaguely sensitive all over " is spoken 
of, and when these processes are associated with " the modification of an 
organism by its environment," the same parallelism, without contact, or even 
approach to contact, is implied. Man the object is separated by an impassable 
gulf from man the suhjecf. There is no motor energy in intellect to carry it 
without logical rupture from the one to the other. 

Further, the doctrine of evolution derives man, in his totality, from the in- 
teraction of organism and environment through countless ages past. The 
Human Understanding, for example — that faculty which Mr. Spencer has 
turned so skilfully round upon its own antecedents — is itself a result of the 
play between organism and environment through cosmic ranges of time. Never 
surely did prescription plead so irresistible a claim. But then it comes to 
pass that, over and above his understanding, there arc many other things ap- 
pertaining to man whose prescriptive rights are quite as strong as those of the 
understanding itself. It is a result, for example, of the play of organism and 
environment that sugar is sweet and that aloes are bitter, that tlic smell of 

of the chick to pick up grains of corn without preliminary lessons. On tliis point, he 
Bays, further experiments are needed. Such experiments have been since made by Mr. 
Spalding, aided, I believe, in some of his observations by the accomplished and deeply 
lamented JLady Amberly ; and they seem to prove conclusively tluit the chick does not 
need a single moment's tuition to enable it to stand, run, govern the muscles of its ejes, and 
peck. Helinholtz, however, is contending against the notion of preestablished harmony ; 
and I am not aware of his views as to the organization of experiences of race or breed. 



ADDRESS. XCV 

hcnhane differs from the perfume of a rose. Such facts of consciousness 
(for which, by the way, no adequate reason has yet been rendered) are 
quite as old as the understanding ; and many otlier things can boast an 
equally ancient origin. Mr. Spencer at one place refers to that most 
powerful of passions — the amatory passion — as one which, when it first 
occurs, is antecedent to all relative experience whatever ; and wc may pass 
its claim as being at least as ancient and valid as that of the understanding. 
Then there are such things woven into the texture of man as the feeling 
of Awe, Eoverence, "Wonder — and not alone the sexual love just referred 
to, but the love of the beautiful, physical, and moral, in Nature, Poetry, 
and Art. There is also that deep-set fcelmg which, since the carlicf-t 
dawn of history, and probably for ages prior to all history, incorpoi'atcd 
itself in the Religions of the world. You who have escaped from these 
religions into the high-and-dry light of the intellect may deride them ; 
hut in so doing you deride accidents of form merely, and fail to touch the 
immovable basis of the religious sentiment in the nature of man. To yield 
this sentiment reasonable satisfaction is the problem of problems at the pre- 
sent hour. And grotesque in relation to scientific culture as many of the 
religions of the world have been and are — dangerous, nay, destructive, to 
the dearest privileges of freemen as some of them undoubtedly have been, 
and would, if they could, be again — it will be wise to recognize them as 
the forms of a force, mischievous, if permitted to intrude on the region of 
objective Inoivledge, over which it holds no command, but capable of adding 
in the region oi poetry and emotion, inward completeness and dignity to man. 

Feeling, I say again, dates from as old an origin and as high a source as 
intelligence, and it equally demands its range of jjlay. The Avise teacher of 
humanity will recognize the necessity of meeting this demand rather than of 
resisting it on account of errors and absurdities of form. "What we should 
resist, at all hazards, is the attempt made in the past, and now repeated, to 
found upon this elemental bias of man's nature a system which should exer- 
cise despotic sway over his intellect. I have no fears as to such a consumma- 
tion. Science has already to some extent leavened the world: it will leaven 
it more and more ; and I should look upon the light of science breaking in upon 
the minds of the youth of Ireland, and strengthening gi-adually to the per- 
fect day, as a surer check to any intellectual or spiritual tyranny which now 
threatens this island, than the laws of princes or the swords of emperors. 
We fought and won our battle even in the Middle Ages : should we doubt 
the issue of a conflict with our broken foe ? 

The impregnable position of science may be described in a few words. 
"We claim, and we shall wrest, from theology the entii'e domain of cosmo- 
logical theory. All schemes and systems which thus infringe upon the 
domain of science must, in so far as tlicy do this, submit to its control, and 
relinquish all thought of controlling it. Acting otherwise proved disastrous 
in the past, and it is simply fatuous to-day. Every system which would 
escape the fate of an oi-ganism too rigid to adjust itself to its environment 
must be plastic to the extent that the growth of knowledge demands. When 
this truth has been thoroughly taken in, rigidity will be relaxed, exclusive- 
ncss diminished, things now deemed essential will be dropped, and elements 
now rejected will be assimilated. The lifting of the life is the essential 
point ; and as long as dogmatism, fanaticism, and intolerance are kept out 
various modes of leverage may be employed to raise life to a higher level. 

Science itself not unfrequently derives motive power from an ultra- 
scientific source. Some of its greatest discoveries have been made under the 



XCvi REPORT —1874'. 

stimulus of a non-scientific ideal. This was the case among the ancients, and 
it has been so amongst ourselves. Maj-cr, Joule, and Colding, Avhose names 
are associated with the greatest of modern generalizations, were thus influ- 
enced. With his usual insight, Lange at one place remarks, that " it is not 
alwaj-s the objectively correct and intelligible that helps man most, or leads 
most quickly to the fullest and truest knowledge. As the sliding body upon 
the brachystochrone reaches its end sooner than by the straighter road of the 
inclined plane, so through the swing of the ideal we often arrive at the naked 
truth more rapidly than by the more direct processes of the understanding." 
Whewell speaks of enthusiasm of temper as a hindrance to science ; but he 
means tlie enthusiasm of weak heads. There is a strong and resolute enthu- 
siasm in which science finds an ally ; and it is to the loM'ering of this 
fire, rather than to the diminution of intellectual insight, that the lessening 
productiveness of men of science in their mature years is to be ascribed. 
ilr. Buckle sought to detach intellectual achievement from moral force. He 
gravely erred ; for without moral force to whip it into action, the achieve- 
ments of the intellect would be poor indeed. 

It has been said that science divorces itself from literature ; but the state- 
ment, like so many others, arises from lack of knowledge. A glance at the 
less technical writings of its leaders — of its Helmholtz, its Huxley, and its 
Du Bois-Reymond — would show what breadth of literary culture they com- 
mand. Whore among modern writers can you find their superiors in clear- 
ness and vigour of literary style ? Science desires not isolation, but freely 
combines with every effort towards the bettering of man's estate. Single- 
handed, aud supported not by outward sympathy, but by inward force, it has 
built at least one great wing of the many-mansioned home which man in his 
totality demands. And if rough walls and protruding rafter- cuds indicate 
that on one side the edifice is still incomplete, it is only by wise combination 
of the parts required with those already irrevocably built that we can 
hope for completeness. There is no necessary incongruity between what 
has been accomplished and what remains to be done. The moral glow of 
Socrates, which we all feel by ignition, has in it nothing incompatible with 
the physics of Anaxagoras which he so much scorned, but which he would 
hardly scorn to-day. And here I am reminded of one amongst us, hoary, but 
still strong, whose prophet-voice some thirtyyears ago, far more than any other 
of this age, unlocked whatever of life and nobleness lay latent in its most gifted 
minds — one fit to stand beside Socrates or the Maccabean Eleazar, and to dare 
and suffer all that they suffered and dared — fit, as he once said of Pichte, " to 
have been the teacher of the Stoa, and to have discoursed of Beauty and 
Virtue in the groves of Academe." With a capacity to grasp physical prin- 
ciples which his friend Goethe did not possess, and which even total lack of 
exercise has not been able to reduce to atrophy, it is the world's loss tliat lie, 
in the vigour of his years, did not open his mind and sympathies to science, 
and make its conclusions a portion of his message to mankind. Marvel- 
lously endowed as ho was — equally equipped on the side of the Heart and of 
the Understanding — he might have done much towards teaching us how to 
reconcile the claims of both, and to enable them in coming times to dwell 
together in unitj of spirit and in the bond of peace. 

And now the end is come. With more time, or greater strength and 
knowledge, what has been here said might have been better said, while 
worthy matters here omitted might have received fit expression. But there 
would have been no material deviation from the views set forth. As regards 
myself, they arc not the growth of a day ; and as regards yoii, I thought you 



ADDRESS. XCvii 

ought to know the environraent which, with or without your consent, is rapidly 
surrounding you, and in relation to which some adjustment on your part may be 
necessary. A hint of Hamlet's, however, teaches us all how the troubles of 
common life may be ended ; and it is perfectly possible for you and mc to pur- 
chase intellectual peace at the price of intellectual death. The world is not 
without refuges of this description ; nor is it wanting in persons who seek their 
shelter and try to persuade others to do the same. The unstable and the 
weak have yielded, and will yield to this persuasion, and they to whom 
repose is sweeter than the truth. But I would exhort you to refuse the 
offered shelter, and to scorn the base repose — to accept, if the choice be 
forced upon you, commotion before stagnation, the leap of the torrent before 
the stillness of the swamp. In the course of this address I have touched on 
debatable questions, and led you over what will be deemed dangerous ground 
— and this partly with the view of telling you that as regards these questions 
science claims unrestricted right of search. It is not to the point to say that 
the views of Lucretius and Bruno, of Darwin and Spencer, may be wrong. 
Here I should agree with you, deeming it indeed certain that these views 
will undergo moditication. But the point is, that, whether right or wrong, 
we claim the right to discuss them. For science, however, no exclusive 
claim is here made ; you are not urged to erect it into an idol. Inexorable 
advance of man's understanding in the path of knowledge, and those un- 
quenchable claims of his moral and emotional nature which the understanding 
can never satisfy, are here equally set forth The world embraces not only a 
Newton, but a Shakspeare — not only a Boyle, but a Raphael — not only a 
Kant, but a Beethoven — not only a Darwin, but a Carlyle. Not in each of 
these, but in all, is human nature whole. They are not opposed, but supple- 
mentary — not mutually exclusive, but reconcilable. And if, unsatisfied with 
them all, the human mind, with the yearning of a pilgrim for his distant 
home, will still turn to the Mystery from which it has emerged, seeking so 
to fashion it as to give unity to thought and faith, so long as this is done, not 
only without intolerance or bigotry of any kind, but with the enlightened 
recognition that ultimate fixity of conception is here unattainable, and that 
each succeeding age must be held free to fashion the mystery in accordance 
witii its own needs — then, casting aside all the restrictions of Materialism, I 
would affirm this to be a field for- the noblest exercise of what, in contrast 
with the hyiowing faculties, may be called the creative faculties of man. 
Here, however, I touch a theme too great for me to handle, but which will 
assuredly be handled by the loftiest minds when you and I, like streaks of 
morning cloud, shall have melted into the infinite azure of the past. 



K E P R T S 



ON 



THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



Tenth Report of the Committee for Exploring Kent's Cavern, Devon- 
shire, the Committee consisting of Sir Charles Lyell, Bart., 
F.R.S., Sir John Lubbock, Bart., F.R.S., John Evans, F.R.S., 
Edward Vivian, M.A., George Busk, F.R.S., William Boyd 
Dawkins, F.R.S., William Ayshford Sanford, F.G.S., John Ed- 
ward Lea, F.G.S., and William Pengelly, F.R.S. [Rejjorter). 

Before entering on this, their Tenth Report, the Committee desire to express 
their deep sense of the great loss they have sustained in the decease of Pro- 
fessor Phillips. No member was more regular in his attendance at the meet- 
ings of the Committee, or felt a livelier interest in the investigation with 
which they are charged. On March 18, 1874 (little more than a month 
before his lamented death), though suffering from a severe cold, he visited 
the Cavern, when he carefully inspected those branches of it which have been 
explored, and expressed his admiration of the clearness and importance of 
the evidence bearing on the question of human antiquity which had been 
obtained. 

The Ninth Keport, presented to the Association at the Bradford Meeting, 
brought the work up to the end of August 1873, when the Committee were 
engaged in the Exploration of the " Long Arcade." From that time the in- 
vestigation has been pursued, without intermission, in the manner uniformly 
observed from the commencement, and which was described in detail in the 
Pirst Report (1865). The work has been performed in the most satisfac- 
tory manner by the workmen mentioned last year (George Smerdon and John 
Clinnick) ; the Superintendents have visited the Cavern daily, and have 
exercised the same care as heretofore in accurately recording the results 
from day to day. 

The interest felt in the exploration by the inhabitants and visitors of Tor- 
quay has suffered no abatement ; and the Superintendents have had the plea- 
sure of conducting a large number of persons through the Cavern, including 
the Rev. Dr. Callaway, Bishop of Kaffraria, Rev. T. BuUivan, Rev. C. Chapman, 
Rev. S. C. Davis, Rev. W. W. FoUett, Rev. W. M. Kingsmill, Rev. W. H. 

1874., . R 



9 REPORT — 1874. 

Self, Eev. T. R. E. Stebbing, Eev. G. C. Swayne, Eev. Mr. Valpy, Eev. H. 
L. Williams, Eev. E. E. WoKe, General Cotton, Col. Bushe, Lieut.-Col. J. 
G. E. Forlong (British India), Capt. Baudry (Bombay), Capt. J. C. Boyce, 
Capt. F. Miles, Dr. Ayerst, Dr. H. P. Blackmore, Dr. H. Evens, Dr. Houn- 
sell, Dr. A. Parr, Dr. Topbam, Dr. J. S. Burden Sanderson, Dr. Wilks, and 
Messrs. C. A. Adamson, T. Aggs, G. Baudry (Bombay), W. Blackmore, W. 
H. Bridges, J. Duntze Carew, J. M. Curzou, M. Davidson, E. C. Dunn (Mel- 
bourne, Victoria), T. M. Eccles, A. B. Emmons (U. S. America), A. E. Elet- 
cher, D. Hanbury, C. W. Hodson, E. D. Mashiter Hooper, T. Hunton, P. Q. 
Karkeek, E. Keep (Melbourne, Yictoria), C. Lister, E. Lowndes, H. T. Mac- 
kenzie, J. I. Mackenzie, G. Meurling, F. A. Paley, T. M. Patterson, F. Eayner, 
G. F. Eemfry, J. Hassard Short, J. Barclay Thompson, W. Vicary, T. Viccars, 
T. Warner, J. F. Webb, and H. Wyndham. 

During a meeting at Torquay of the South-western Branch of the British 
Medical Associatiou, the Cavern was visited by a large party of the members, 
attended by the Superintendents, including Dr. Aldridge, Dr. Baker, Dr. S. 
Budd, Dr. Dalby, Dr. EUery, Dr. Finch, Dr. Harris, Dr. Henderson, Dr. 
Hudson, Dr. L. Shapter, Dr. "W". E; Woodman, and Messrs. L. Armstrong, 
W. Brown, A. J. Cumming, J. Doidge, S. A. GiU, T. Harper, J. D. Harris, 
J. Kempthorne,W.C. Hunt, E. Kerswill, J. Lawton, H. E. Norris, T. E. Oweu, 
C. Parsons, C. Pridham, G. T. Eolston, C. H. Eoper, W. K. Spragge, A. J. 
Wallis, and J. Woodman. 

The Cavern was also visited, under the guidance of the Superintendents, 
by Messrs. W. E. Blatch, A. B. Hill, A. D. Hill, W. E. Hughes, andJ.Mor- 
ley, members of the Birmingham Natural-History and Microscopical Society, 
during a scientific visit of that body to South Devon. 

Besides the foregoing, a large number of visitors have been conducted by 
the Guide to the Cavern, appointed by the proprietor. Sir L. Palk, Bart., but 
who is placed under the directions of the Superintendents of the Exploration. 
In such cases the visitors are taken through those parts of the Cavern which 
have been explored, but not into the branches which have not been examined, 
or where the work is still in progress. 

During May 1874 an arrangement was made with the Superintendents by 
Professor Alfred Newton, F.E.S., of Magdalen College, Cambridge, for Mr. 
H. H. Slater, one of the Naturalists to the Eodriguez Transit Expedition, to 
spend some time in the cavern studying the mode of exploration followed 
there, it being not improbable that he might have to explore some very inter- 
esting caves which exist in the island, and where, instead of intelligent men, he 
would probably have only half savages to dig for him. Mr. Slater reached Tor- 
quay on June 1st, when every thing was done to facilitate his purpose, and 
he spent some days watching the men at work. 

Live rats continue to present themselves in the Cavern from time to time, 
and sometimes prove to be very troublesome. On Tuesday, October 7, 1873, 
one, which had been seen by the workmen, carried off six caudles in the course 
of the afternoon, having detached them from a nail at a spot believed to have 
been inaccessible even to rats, and which had been used for the purpose during 
a period of three years without any previous loss. Gins were at once set for 
the marauder, and he was captured on the following Friday. On the 29th of 
the same month, another, between the hours of nine and one, ate through 
the basket in which one of the workmen had placed his dinner of bread and 
meat, and carried off every thing but the bread, the whole of which was left. 
A large number have been captured during the last twelve months. 

It may not be out of place to remark that during the summer months 



ON KENt'.S cavern^ DEVONSHIRE. 3 

bees have frequently been seen and beard in the innermost brandies of the 
Cavern, very far beyond any glimmering of daylight. 

The Long Arcade. — It was stated in the Ninth Report (1873) that the 
*' Long Arcade," after extending about 50 feet beyond the point reached by 
the excavators at the end of August 1873, terminated in a large chamber 
termed by Mr. MacEnery the *' Cave of Inscriptions," and sometimes the " Cul- 
de-sac." On carefully perusing Mr. MacEnery's " Cavern researches," how- 
ever, it was found that he regarded a large mass of Stalagmite on which are 
numerous inscriptions, and which it is proposed to call " The Inscribed Boss 
of Stalagmite," as being in the Cave of Inscriptions, and not, as the Superin- 
tendents considered, in the Long Arcade. In other words, he held that the 
line of junction of the two branches was on the north-east of the Inscribed 
Boss, whilst they drew it some distance on the south-west. To prevent 
ambiguity, it has been decided to adopt Mr. MacEnery's boundary and to re- 
gard the Long Arcade as extending from the south-west corner of the Sloping 
Chamber to, but not beyond, the Inscribed Boss. Thus defined, it stretches 
for about 225 feet in a tolerably straight line towards the south-south-west, 
varies in height from about 10 to 20 feet (the measurements being taken 
from the bottom of the excavations made by the Committee), and from 5 to 
nearly 20 feet in width. 

Besides being the only passage to the Cave of Inscriptions, which may be 
regarded as its expanded prolongation, it throws off three branches on the left 
or eastern side and one on the right. Of the former, the first, or most north- 
erly, is the " Charcoal Cave " described in the Eighth Report*, the second is 
known as "Underhay's Gallery," and the third, a few feet further south, con- 
sists of two successive and considerable chambers, termed '•' The Labyrinth " 
and " The Bear's Den." The branch on the other, or right, side, which it is 
proposed to name " Clinnick's Gallery," is at the inner extremity of the 
Arcade. 

So far as this branch of the Cavern is concerned, Mr, MacEnery's re- 
searches entirely ceased about 12 feet before reaching the end of the Arcade, 
and throughout the remaining area the " Granular Stalagmite " (that which 
covers the " Cave-earth ") was everywhere continuous, and varied from 12 to 
30 inches in thickness. Its surface was occupied with large natural " Basins," 
some of them 12 inches deep, such as have been described in previous Re- 
ports f. Whilst the excavation was in progress several points of interest 
connected with the Basins were noted : — 

1st. The Stalagmite forming their walls was harder and tougher than that 
surrounding them, whilst that composing their bottoms was comparatively 
soft and friable. 

2nd. Their walls were traceable through the entire thickness of the Stalag- 
mitic Floor ; in other words, during the entire deposition of the Floor, Basins 
had existed in it, the bottom rising with the walls but at a slower rate. 

3rd. The water which filled them in rainy seasons passed down through 
the bottom in 3 or 4 hours at most. 

4th. Immediately beneath most of the Basins there was an almost conti- 
nuous interspace of about half an inch vertically between the bottom of the 
Stalagmite and the top of the Cave- earth, caused, no doubt, by the finer par- 
ticles of the deposit being carried by the percolating water through interstices 
to a lower level. 

* Report Brit. Assoc. 1872, pp. 38-44. t Ibid. 1872, p. 45, and 1873, p. 201. 

b2 



REPORT — ISri. 

It happened that, the exploration of that part of the Arcade in which the 
Uasins were thus numerous was carried on during a very wet season, when the 
water passing through the Stalagmitic Floor, as just mentioned, caused two 
or three slips in the Cave-earth and the " Breccia." The largest of these fell 
during the night of January 8th-9th, and in the fallen matter a tooth of 
Bear, a vertebra, fragments of bone, and a well-rolled flint nodule were found. 
It is, of course, impossible to say whether this nodule belonged to the era of 
the Cave-earth or that of the more ancient Breccia. This is to be regretted, 
as it is the only specimen of the kind which up to this time the Cavern haa 
yielded. 

The " Crystalline Stalagmite " (that wtich lies between the Cave-earth 
above and the Breccia below, when all these occur in the same vertical sec- 
tion) was also occasionally met with in situ, and always beneath the granular 
or less ancient variety. In some instances there was a space between them 
filled with the true Cave-earth with its characteristic bones and coprolites, 
whilst in others the two Stalagmites were in immediate contact. Where the 
older variety did not exist the Cave-earth lay at once on the Breccia. 

The only noteworthy objects found in the Granular Stalagmite were a tooth 
of Bear, fragments of bone, one considerable " fijid " of coprolites, and charred 
wood on two occasions. The following is the complete list of objects of in- 
terest found in the Granular Stalagmite throughout the entire length of the 
Long Arcade from 1871-2 to February 23rd, 1874, when its exploration 
closed : — 2 teeth of Hyaena, 1 of Bear, 1 of Deer, a large vertebra, fragments 
of bone on several occasions, several specimens of charred wood, a flint tool or 
"core" (No. 5990), and a piece of black flint. 

Since the period at which the Ninth Report closed the iindisturbed Cave- 
earth in the Long Arcade has yielded a considerable number of bones and 
fragments of bone and 63 teeth (30 of Hyaena, 24 of Bear, 4 of Horse, 3 of 
Mammoth, and 2 of Fox). 

The total number of Teeth found by the Committee in undisturbed Cave- 
earth in the Arcade from fii'st to last was about 340, which may be distributed 
as shown in the following Table : — 



Table I. — Showing how many per cent, of the total number of Teeth found 
by the Committee in undisturbed Cave-earth throughout the Long Arcade 



belonged to the diff'erent kinds of Mammals. 



Hyaena 41-5 per cent. 

Horse 21 „ 

Bear 14-5 ,, 

Rhinoceros 9 „ 

Fox 4-5 



Pi£ 



2-5 



Deer 


2 


Mammoth 

Megaceros .... 
Dog ? 


....2 
.... 1 
1 


Lion 


1 


Machairodus 


.. .. 1 



per cent. 



tooth only. 



It is perhaps worthy of remark that in the Long Arcade, as elsewhere so 
far as the exploration has extended, wherever Cave-earth presented itself 
there also were remains of the Hyajna found, and in greater numbers than 
those of any other kind of mammal. Nor wei'e his teeth and bones the only 
indications of his presence in the Arcade ; for, to say nothing of the fact that 
some of the remains found with his were gnawed, nearly 40 " finds " of his 
coprolites were met with. They sometimes, though rarely, consisted of a 
solitary ball, whilst at others upwards of 20 were lying together and not un- 
frequently cemented into considerable lumps. Occasionally the amount of 



ON KENT S CAVERNj DEVONSHlKE. 5 

matter of this kind found in a single day was sufficient to fill a very large 
basket. 

The followiug specimens of flint and chert, found in the Long Arcade since 
the end of August 1873, belong to the Cave-earth era : — 

No. 6304 is merely a flint chip so angular as to render it improbable that 
since its dislodgment from the nodule it has been in any Avay exposed to the 
action of flowing water. It was found in the first foot-level, with 2 teeth 
of Eear, bone chips (one of them being burnt), and 11 balls of coprolite, on 
December 13, 1873. 

'No. 6324, found December 30th, 1873, in the second foot-level, beneath 
the Ploor of Granular Stalagmite from 2 to 2-5 feet thick, is a very symmetrical 
tongue-shaped tool, fashioned with much labour out of a chert nodule, and is 
worked to an edge all round the perimeter except at the butt-end, where 
portions of the original surface remain on both faces. It is 3'8 inches long, 
2-3 inches in greatest breadth, 1"5 inch in greatest thickness, and convex on 
both faces, from each of which several flakes have been struck. Its era can- 
not be determined with perfect accuracj-, since it occurred at or near the 
junction of the Cave-earth and the Breccia, where, unfortunately, thej^ were 
not separated by Stalagmite. The fact that it was fashioned out of a 
nodule and not out of a flake, suggests that it belonged to the Breccia ; and 
this finds some support from its occurrence in the second foot-level, for though 
the Cave-earth occasionally attained this depth in the inner part of the 
Arcade, it did so but rarely. On the other hand, its symmetrical outline and 
comparatively high finish are equally suggestive of the Cave-earth or less 
ancient period. 

The presence of man in the Cave-earth of the Arcade was also indicated by 
several bones having the appearance of the action of fire. Specimens of this 
kind were met with on six different occasions. 

Without including those found in the materials dislodged by their pre- 
decessors, the Committee have met with a total of 27 implements of flint 
and chert in Cave-earth which they found intact in the Long Arcade. 

From the end of August 1873 to the end of July 1874 a considerable 
number of bones and 149 teeth of Bear, but no known remnant or indication 
of any other kind of animal, were found in the Breccia in the Arcade, making 
a total of about 200 teeth of this genus met with in this oldest deposit of the 
Cavern deposits, so far as is known at present, in the branch of the Cavern 
now under notice. Though several good specimens were obtained, none of 
them require special remark or description. 

The same deposit yielded 10 tools, flakes, and chips of flint and chert 
during the year just closed. 

No. 6186 is a chert pebble, displaying some chipping, but not sufficient to 
convert it into a useful tool. It was found in the third foot-level, without 
any other object of interest, September 2, 1873. 

No. 6192 is a rude flake of flint, retaining a portion of the original surface 
of the nodule, and distinctly showing the " bulb of percussion." It was 
found alone, in the fourth or lowest foot-level, September 10, 1873. 

No. 6201, a chert pebble, which has undergone some chipping and pro- 
bably subsequent rolling, was found by itself in the second foot-level, Sep- 
tember 18, 1873. 

No. 6204 is simply a chip which has the appearance of having been arti- 
ficially struck off a flint nodule, the original surface of which it retains on 
one face. It was found, with a few fragments of bone, in the third foot-level, 
September 23, 1873. 



6 REPOHT — 1874'. 

No. 6291, a piece of coarse chert, having the form of a horseshoe-shaped 
scraper, is about 2-1 inches long and broad, and "7 inch in greatest thickness. 
The hinder end is sharply truncated, and the " bulb of percussion " is -well 
developed near it on the inner face, but everywhere else its margin is a thin 
edge. It was found alone, in the fourth foot-level, November 29, 1873. 

No. 6292, found on the same day and in the same "parallel" and "level" 
as No. 6291, but about 3 yards on the left of it, is a portion of a white"flint, 
probably a " core " from which flakes had been struck. It retains a part 
of the original surface of the nodule. No other object was found near it. 

No. 6299 is a rude flake of chert having little or nothing about it suggestive 
of an artificial origin. It has undergone the metamorphosis so frequently 
observed in Cave flints, by which it has acquired a granular chalky texture 
and has lost a part of its weight. It was found without any other object, 
in the third foot-level, December 8, 1873. 

No. 6358, a coarse chert tool, which has also been metamorphosed, is of a 
very irregular nondescript form, and remains partially surrounded with 
Breccia. It was met with in the second foot-level, February 3, 1874, and 
was unfortunately broken by the workmen, but has been repaired. 

No. 6364, a rather rude flake of coarse chert which has been rolled since 
it was struck off, retains much of the original surface of the nodule, and, 
though perhaps not intentionally fashioned as a tool, may have been utilized. 
It was found, with a tooth of Bear, bones and fragments of bone, in the third 
foot-level, February 14, 1874. 

No. 6367, an angular chip of flint, was found, with 2 teeth of Bear and 
fragments of bone, in the fourth foot-level, February 23, 1874. 

The entire number of noteworthy specimens of flint and chert (most of 
which, at least, have been made and used by man) which the Committee have 
found in the Breccia in the Long Arcade amounts to 27. 

The materials which Mr. MacEnery had dug up and cast aside in that part 
of the Arcade explored during the period over which the present Report ex- 
tends were found on examination to contain 13 teeth of Hyaena, 9 of Bear, 
8 of Horse, 2 of Deer, 1 of Ox, several bones, numerous lumps of coprolite, 
and 1 flint flake (No. 6328). The specimens thus overlooked or neglected 
by the earlier explorers, which have been recovered bj"" the Committee in the 
Long Arcade from first to last, are 63 teeth of Hyaena, 15 of Horse, 9 of Bear, 
7 of Bhrnoceros, 4 of Deer, 3 of Ox, 1 of Elephant, 1 of Fox, numerous por- 
tions of bones and of antlers, a large quantity of faecal matter, and 9 tools and 
flakes of flint and chert. 

UnderJicn/s Gallery. — Atabout 185 feet from the entrance of the Long Arcade 
in the Sloping Chamber there is in the left or eastern wall, as already stated, 
a small lateral branch, to which the Superintendents have given the name of 
" Underhay's Gallery," after the late Mr. John Underhay, who for some years 
was Sir L. Palk's guide to the Cavern. Before the Committee commenced its 
exploration its mouth was almost closed with the large masses of limestone 
mentioned in the Ninth Eeport as Ij'ing in wild confusion beyond "The 
Bridge" *. Notwithstanding this, Mr. Underhay and his son forced a passage 
into the Gallery several years ago, even though after passing the entrance they 
must have found the Granular Stalagmitic Floor within a foot of the roof in 
certain places. They contrived, moreover, to bring back several small bones, 
which j)roved to be phalanges of human feet, which they had found on and in 
the Floor. 

* Report Brit. Assoc. 1873, p. 109. 



ON KENT^S CAVERN, DEVONSHIRE, 7 

The Gallery extends about 20 feet in a south-easterly direction, varies 
from 2-5 to 7 feet in width, and, when measured from the bottom of the ex- 
cavation made by the Committee, from 7"5 feet at the entrance to less than 
6 feet in height within. The roof and walls have the appearance of an old 
watercourse, and are worn smooth, with but little of that fretted character so 
prevalent in some other branches of the Cavern. Near the mouth there are 
four circular holes in the right wall, about 6 inches in diameter, which look 
like the mouths of " flues," but are found to extend not more than a foot 
into the rock and to run into one another. A Floor of the Granular Sta- 
lagmite, never exceeding 10 inches in thickness, extended from the mouth to 
16 feet within it, where it " thinned out." Beneath it there were, in certain 
places, chiefly adjacent to the left wall, remnants of the Crystalline Stalag- 
mite in siftt ; but the greater part of this older Floor had, as in many other 
parts of the Cavern, been broken up by some natural agency. 

"With rare exceptions, a thin layer of Cave-earth lay at once on the Breccia 
without any Stalagmite between them. In the Breccia itself, however, 
there were numerous fragments or blocks of Stalagmite which cannot but be 
regarded as remnants of a Floor still older than the Crystalline Stalagmite 
found on the Breccia. Similar indications of this Floor, of what may be 
called the third order of antiquity, have frequently been met with elsewhere 
in the Cavern, and mentioned in previous Eeports *. The Breccia was ex- 
tremely hard, and had to be split out with wedges to the depth of 2 feet. 
This, added to the contracted dimensions of the Gallery, rendered the work 
probably the most severe that has been experienced in the Cavern from the 
commencement. 

Though the human bones found by Mr. Underhay on and in the Granular 
Stalagmite, as already mentioned, did not appear, from their aspect or specific 
gravity, to be of an antiquity equal to that of the Cave-hyaena and his con- 
temporaries, the Superintendents, in the hope of finding some further traces 
of the skeleton, very carefully watched the progress of the work ; and on 
reaching Mr. Underhay's very limited diggings, they met with a series of bones 
also on and in the Stalagmite, some of which were certainly human, whilst 
others were as clearly infra-human. The whole were at once forwarded to 
Mr. George Busk, F.R.S. &c., a member of the Committee, who has been so 
good as to forward the following report on them. They were all numbered 
eiVx' 6-vVr' &C-' Wf^» -jhW' ¥?8-¥' <^c., and so on. 

Me. Busk's Repoet. 

" I. Human. 
No. 
6261. 1. Lower end of left humerus. 
6285. 1. Eight astragalus (small size). 

4. Fragment of rib. 

5. Do. do. 

6. Second phalanx of fourth finger. 

7. Fragment of proximal epiphysis of humerus. 

8. Fragment of eleventh or twelfth rib. 

9. Fragment of cervical vertebra. 

10. Fragment of rib ? 

11. Navicular bone. 

* See Report Brit. Assoc. 1868. p. 57. 



8 Ki'POKT — 1874. 

No. 
6285. 12. A trapezium. 

13. Fragment of rib. 

14. Fragment of cervical vertebra. 

15. Fragment of rib. 

17. Second phalanx of fourth ^oe. 

18. Do. do. do. 
6289. 1. Fragment of rib. 

2. Eight patella. 

3. Eight first metatarsal. 

4. Eight ectocuneiforme. 

6. Fragment of cervical vertebra. 

7. Fragment of lumbar (first) vertebra. 

8. Fragment of axis vertebra. 

9. Fragment of cervical vertebra. 
10. Do. do. do. 

13. Second phalanx of little finger. 

14. Fragment of rib. 

15. Fragment of cervical vertebra. 

" II. Not Human. 
No. 
6285. 2. Gnawed fragment of small cannon-bone of Sheep or Goat. 

3. Fragment of shaft or humerus of very young Sheep or Goat. 
6. Ungual phalanx of very small Sheep (not Goat nor Roebuck). 
6289. 5. Ectocuneiforme of very large Deer. 

11. Fragment of tooth of ? 

12. A tooth ? 
6261. Irt. Fragment of skull of ? 

" With respect to the human remains, they appear to be those of an adult 
individual of small size and delicate make, probably therefore, at that period, 
a female ; but it is impossible to speak positively as to this. I should imagine 
them not necessarily of any very remote antiquity. 

'• The Sheep must have been of the smallest Welsh type. 

" There are two or three specimens of a much more ancient type. One of 
these (aTT^sr) ^^ ^^^'^ ectocuneiforme of a Deer as large, I imagine, as the Wa- 
piti Deer. Another is the fragment of a large tooth (^^^^r); it may be of 
Bear or Hyajna ; and the third (^44m) ^^ ^ single-fanged tooth of singular 
form, which may by remote possibility be a premolar of a large Bear. These 
specimens are in a widely different mineral condition from that of the human 
and ovine remains. 

(Signed) " George Busk." 

" 32 Harley Street, January 3, 1874." 

When the very contracted character of this Gallery, prior to its excavation 
by the Committee, is borne in mind, it is difficult to understand how the 
remains were introduced. There were neither potsherds, nor charcoal, nor, 
in short, any thing suggesting that the bones were the remnants of a body 
disposed of by cremation, such as were met with in the Charcoal Cave *; nor 
were there any marks of teeth on the bones such as might have been ex- 
pected had they been taken thither by a carnivorous animal, or the relics of 
* Spc Eeport Brit. Assoc. 1872, pp. .38-41. 



ON Kent's cavern, ukvonshire. 9 

» 

a skeleton buried or secreted there, of which all other portions had been 
carried off by some carnivore. 

The commingling of a few specimens of a more ancient type with the 
comparatively recent human and ovine remains was no doubt produced by 
Mr. Underhay's diggings at the spot. 

Besides the foregoing specimens no object of interest was found in 
connexion with the Granular Stalagmite. 

The Cave-earth in Underhay's Gallery yielded 2 balls of coprolite, numerous 
bones, and 94 teeth ; of which 61 were those of Hyaena, 22 of llorse, 4 of 
llhinoceros, 4 of Pox, 1 of Bear, 1 of Lion, and 1 probably of Wolf. 

The following specimens of flint and chert were also met with in the Cave- 
earth : — 

No. 6234, a mere angular chip of drab-coloured flint, was found, with 
1 tooth of Hyaena and one of Rhinoceros, in the first foot-level, October 14, 
1873. 

Nos. -H-^^^T), -g-^e y, and y-^\g- are three small fragments of flint (two of them 
angular and the third subangular), having no appearance of having been 
artificially formed, and were found, with 7 teeth of Hyaena and 1 of Fox, 
part of a jaw of Fox, part of a skull, and a gnawed bone, in the first foot- 
level, November 10, 1873. 

No. 6289 is a small bit of flint, found, with 15 teeth of Hyaena, 7 of Horse, 
1 of Bear, and a few bones, lying 07i the Cave-earth in the innermost part of 
the Gallery, beyond the point at which the Granular Stalagmite had thinned 
out. 

The Breccia in Underhay's Gallery produced several bones, 115 teeth of 
Bear, and the following specimens of flint and chert : — 

No. 6220, an irregular flint chip, which has been somewhat rolled, was 
found, with three teeth of Bear and fragments of bone, in the second foot- 
level, October 30, 1873. 

No. -iv-Tj^^T ^^ apparently a flint " core," which retains a portion of the original 
surface of the nodule, and was found, with three teeth of Bear, also on 
October 30, 1873, and one foot below No. 6220. 

No. -jr^y is a rolled flake of chert found with No. y-jVy 

No. 6279 is a flake of chert still imbedded in the Breccia, and was found, 
with bone fragments, in the second foot-level, November 17, 1873. 

No. 6281 is a small flake of chert, found, with three fragments of teeth of 
Bear and jneces of bone, in the fourth foot-level, November 18, 1873. 

The Breccia in this Gallery also yielded a piece of iron-ore and a small 
piece of umber. 

The Inscribed Boss of Stalac/mite. — Though inscriptions exist in various 
parts of the Cavern, the huge mass of Stalagmite, standing at the point whore 
the Long Arcade, the Cave of Inscriptions, and Clinnick's Gallery meet, is, 
with the exception perhaps of the " Crj-jit of Dates"*, more thickly scored 
with names, initials, and dates than any other equal area within the Cavern. 
Indeed it seems to have been the spot where visitors usually left their 
names. Those alone who were sufliciently adventurous and expert to get 
beyond the " Lake" could leave a proof of the fact in the Crypt. The Boss, 
which may be described as a frustum of an oblique cone, measures 43 feet 
in basal circumference and 14 feet along the slant side, which, forming an 
angle of 70° with the horizon, gives a vertical height of fully 13 feet. The 
cubic contents are probably not less than 630 cubic feet of Stalagmite. Its 
* See Report Brit. Assoc. 1860, pp. 104-196. 



10 



REPOHT — 1874. 



base consists of the Older or Crystalline Stalagmite, and the upper portion 
(without any intervening Cave-earth) of the Granular variety, which not only 
surmounted and completely encased the former, but, by flowing in vast sheets, 
formed the thick Granular Floor spreading far and without a break in every 
direction. 

The inscriptions occupy its outer or most accessible semi-surface, where in 
certain places they form quite a network. Letters of all sizes, from some 
fully three inches in height to others as smaU as ordinary writing, cross each 
other and add to the difficulty of decipherment. Some of them were cut 
with great care and finish, and must have occupied a large amount of time, 
whilst others were but hasty scratches. 

It seems to have been somewhat fashionable to surround the inscriptions 
with rectangular parallelograms, varying from 6-5 to 3-75 inches in length 
by 5-5 to 3-5 in breadth. In, at least, one or two cases the cutting of the 
parallelogram preceded that of the inscription, as the latter extends beyond 
the space intended. Kot unfrequently several names occur together, whether 
within a parallelogram or not, and in each such case the entire work seems 



to have been performed by the same hand, 
most legible, may suffice as examples : — 



The following, which are the 



*1. PETER LEMAIRE 
RICH: COLBY OF 
LONDON. 1615. 

3. lANE 
PRIDE 
TTLIXI 
1626 t 

5. JOHN TAYLOR 

1700 

7. R. H. THOMAS 

LONDON 

1811 



2. THOMAS TRENHELE 
1617. 



4. 16 [??] + 

5CMBR0SE LANE 

MILDRED 

TORKINTON 

6. YIZARD 

1809 



8. RICHARD 
LANE. FEB. 



9. M. 



12. N 
14. I. 
16. R 



CHAMPERNOWNE 
GILBART 
STAPLYN§ 

I, FFRSE 
WISH 
CRAMPTON 



10. 


DELYC 


11. 


W. P. WILLIS 


13. 


W. WISH 


15. 


R. LEAR 


17. 


JOB. F. LIEVR 



* The numerals pi-efised to the inscriptions form no part of the original. Mr. Mac- 
Enery, who copied some of these inscriptions, appears to have made a few mistakes. 
Thus, in No. 1, instead of " Lemaire " he copied " Leraaine," and instead of " Colby," 
"Galley;" and in No. 4, instead of "Torkinton," " Torkington." (See Trans. Devon 
Assoc, vol. iii. p. 275, 1869.) 

t The first three lines of No. 3 are within a parallelogram, 4-75 in. X 3-25 in., having 
the date, which seems clearly to belong to it, immediately below. It does not seem easy 
to attach a meaning to the third line. 

J The two last figures of the date in the upper line of No. 4, represented above by two 
notes of interrogation within brackets, are illegible. 

§ The characters employed in No. 9 are very peculiar, and are the same for the three 
names, which are close together, and clearly were inscribed at the same time. 



ON Kent's cavern, devonsuihe. 11 

Of the foregoing names, No. 10 may perhaps be that of Mr. J. A. 
DELUC, F.R.S. &c. He visited Torquay in October 1805, but, as the 
following passage in his ' Geological Travels ' shows, does not appear to 
have entered the Cavern at that time. Speaking of the " limestone strata," 
between Babbicombe and Tor Baj's, he says, " There is, as I was told, a 
succession of caverns within this mass, resembling those of the Mendip hills, 
which I shall hereafter describe : the Caverns here have the name of Kent's 
Cave"*. This appears to be the only mention he makes of the Cavern. The 
inscription is in comparatively small capitals, which, though no great pains 
appear to have been bestowed on them, are very distinct, and stand imme- 
diately above the parallelogram containing the inscription No. 1. 

The name of Champernowne (No. 9) is that of a well-known. Devonshire 
family, now represented by A. Champernowne, Esq., F.G.S., of Dartington 
House, near Totnes, the seat of his ancestors for many generations. It is 
worthy of remark, perhaps, that the mother of Sir Humphrey Gilbert, born 
near Torquay, the half-brother of Sir Walter Ealeigh, was a Champernowne. 
In the inscription, however, the name is Gilbart, not Gilbert. Whether 
" Staplyn," also in No. 9, is the name of a person or of a place, there seems 
to be no mode of determining ; but it may be observed that " Staple " is the 
name of a hamlet in the parish of Dartington. 

Some of the names inscribed on the boss are no doubt those of persons of 
the immediate neighbourhood. " W. Wish " (No. 13) was the name of one 
of the principal builders at Torquay when Mr. MacEnery's Cavern researches 
were in progress, and he had a nephew named "James Wish" (No. 14). 
The name of " Lear" (No. 15) is very prevalent in the adjoining parish of 
St. Mary Church. 

It must be unnecessary to add that every care has been taken to preserve 
this Boss with its inscriptions uninjured. 

The Cave of Inscriptions. — Though the principal entrance to Clinnick's 
Gallery is between the Inscribed Boss of Stalagmite and the right wall of the 
Long Arcade, a second, but smaller one, opens out of the Cave of Inscriptions 
immediately beyond the Boss ; in fact the original entrance was partially filled, 
and thus converted into two, by the Boss. As the smaller of the two 
entrances was the more convenient for excavating the GaUery, it was 
decided to complete the exploration of the Cave of Inscriptions so far as to 
render this entrance available, that is i;p to 16 feet from its commencement. 
Mr. MacEnery had not broken ground in any part of this area, and the 
Granular Stalagmitic Eloor was everywhere intact and continuous from the 
slopes of the Inscribed Boss. The Crystalline Stalagmitic Eloor lay beneath 
it, and, as already stated, formed the base of the Boss without any inter- 
mediate deposit ; but towards the left or remote wall of the Cavern there 
was a space between them filled with a wedge-like layer of Cave-earth. 
Not unfrequently, however, the lower or older Stalagmite had been broken. 
In some instances the severed portions were not dislodged, whilst in others 
considerable masses had been removed by some natural agency, and were 
not always traceable. 

In this commencement of the Cave of Inscriptions the Cave-earth yielded 
20 teeth, of which 11 were those of Bear, 5 of Elephant, 3 of Hyaena, and 
1 of Horse. There were also several bones, of which 6 had been burnt and a 
few gnawed ; and a considerable quantity of coprolitic matter was met with 
in 14 distinct " finds." 

» ' Geological TraveU,' by J. A. De Luc, F.R.S., toL ii. 1814, p. 300. 



12 KEroB'r — 1874. 

The following specimens of flint and cliert were also found in the Cave- 
earth in this branch of the Cavern : — 

JS'o. 6378 is a mottled, grey, angular flake of chert, 2-3 inches long, 
1-5 inch broad, -3 inch thick, very concave on the inner face, and has had 
several flakes struck ofi^ the outer face. There is little or no evidence of its 
having been used, and it was found, with two specimens of plates of Elephant 
molars, 2 teeth of Bear, gnawed bones, 1 burnt bone, and 5 lumps of copro- 
lite, in the first foot-level, March 6, 1874. 

No. 6382, a small grey flint flake or chip, with the "bulb of percussion" 
strongly marked, was found in the first foot-level beneath a cake of stalag- 
mite 12 inches thick, with 3 teeth of Bear and 11 balls of coprolite, March 
11, 1874. 

No. 6384 is a rudely lanceolate flake of grey flint, 2-2 inches long, -9 inch 
in greatest breadth, -3 inch in greatest thickness, slightly concave on the inner 
face, reduced to an edge along both lateral margins, having two ridges 
extending its entire length on the outer face, and has been but little, if at 
aU, used. It was found, with 4 teeth of Bear, fragments of bone, and a 
coprolite, in the first foot-level, March 13, 1874. 

No. 6390 is a small flint flake, 1-4 inch long, -8 inch in greatest breadth, 
•3 inch in greatest thickness, slightly concave in both directions on the inner 
face, strongly carinated on tlae other, sharply truncated at each end, reduced 
to an edge on the lateral margins, one of which is broken or jagged, of a 
light drab colour on the sui'face and to some depth below it, but retaining 
the original almost black colour at the centre. It was found in the first 
foot-level beneath 10 inches of stalagmite, with 1 tooth of Bear, 2 fragments 
of burnt bone, and 4 lumps of coprolite, March 24, 1874. 

No. 6399 is a nearly white flint of fine texture, 2-9 inches long, varying 
from '7 to "9 inch broad, '5 inch in greatest thickness, sharply truncated at 
the butt-end, round-pointed and blunt at the other, sharp and unworn at the 
lateral margins, longitudinally concave on the inner face, and having a 
strong central ridge on the other extending from the butt-end nearly two 
thirds of its length, where it bifurcates in consequence of the dislodgment 
of a small flake, which has left an uneven surface. At the butt-end there is 
on one of the slopes a portion of the original surface of the nodule about an 
inch long, and the " bulb of percussion " is well developed near the point. 
It was found, with 2 fragments of bone and 2 lumps of coprolite, in the first 
foot-level beneath a layer of Granular Stalagmite 24 inches thick, on April 
1, 1874. 

No. 6435 is a grey flint flake, 1-5 inch long, -7 inch broad, -35 inch in 
greatest thickness, which it attains along one of its lateral margins, sharply 
truncated at one end, round-pointed and blunt at the other, where, on the 
inner face, the " bulb of percussion " presents itself, reduced to a thin edge 
along one of its lateral margins, where there are indications of its having 
been used as a scraper. On its outer face it has, for a short distance near 
the middle of its length, a central ridge which bifurcates towards each end. 
It was found in the first foot-level on May 28, 1874. 

Nothing was met with in the Crystalline Stalagmite ; but the Breccia 
beneath it yielded remains of Bear as usual, including numerous bones 
and fragments of bone and 91 teeth, but, so far as is known, no trace of 
any other animal. 

The foUowiag specimens of flint and chert were also met with in this 
oldest of the Cavern deposits : — 



ON Kent's cavern, devonsiiiiie. 13 

No. 6375 is a large rude flake of a very rough flint nodule, -which has 
undergone sufiicieut metamorphosis to produce a granular texture and render 
it capable of being scratched with a knife, but without any marked loss of 
weight. Its form is rudely quadi-ilateral with the angles rounded oft'. The 
inner face displays the " bulb of percussion " near the truncated butt-end, 
but elsewhere has a tendency to flatness. The outer face retains a large 
portion of the original surface of the nodule. It is 4-25 inches long, 
3 inches broad, l-S inch in greatest thickness, and was found in the fourth 
or lowest foot-level, with 2 teeth of Bear and a small flint pebble, March 3, 
1874. 

No. 6388 is a bluish-grey flint of somewhat coarse texture, 2 inches long, 
•7 inch broad at the truncated butt-end, whence it tapers to a point at the 
other, -4 inch in greatest thickness, slightly concave on one face and very 
strongly ridged on the other. It was found, with 2 teeth of Bear and frag- 
ments of bone, in the second foot-level, March 17, 1874. 

No. 6392, an irregularly shaped flake or chip of pinkish drab chert, 
2-2 inches long, 1-8 inch broad, and -3 inch in greatest thickness, was 
found, without any other object of interest, in the third foot-level, March 25, 
1874. 

No. 6396 is a subtriangular flake of coarse chert, 1-8 inch long, 1-1 inch 
in greatest breadth, -4 inch in greatest thickness, nearly flat on one face 
and has a strong curvilineal ridge on the other. It was found, with frag- 
ments of bone, in the first foot-level, March 31, 1874. 

No. 6455 is a small specimen, or rather a portion of one, it having been 
broken in extracting it from the matrix. It is -9 inch long, scarcely 
•5 inch broad, and -2 inch in thickness, which it retains to each of its 
lateral margins. It was found, with fragments of bone, in the fourth 
foot-level, June 19, 1874. 

ClinnicJc's Gallery. — As already stated, the Long Arcade throws off a 
lateral branch at its inner extremity, at its junction with the Cave of 
Inscriptions and in the right wall. Its principal entrance is about 225 feet 
from the mouth of the Arcade. It was left entirely untouched by Mr. Mae- 
Enery; but in 1846 the Torquay Natural-History Society appointed a 
Committee of three of its Members, including the two Superintendents of 
the present work, to make some very limited researches in the Cavern. 
That Committee broke ground in three dift'erent places, and found flint 
implements in each. One of the spots selected was the smaller or innermost 
of the two mouths of this Gallery, immediately behind the Inscribed Boss of 
Stalagmite. Mr. Yivian, speaking of the flint tool found there, says, " In 
the spot where the most highly finished specimen was found the passage was 
so low that it was extremely difficult, with quarrymen's tools and good 
workmen, to break through the crust; and the supposition that it had 
been previously disturbed is impossible"*. The specimens found during 
those researches are now in the Museum of the Torquay Natural-History 
Society. 

The work on that occasion was performed as in all previous cases : the 
excavated materials were examined by candlelight as they were dug out, 
and then thrown on one side, but not taken out of the Cavern to be re- 

* See Report Brit. Assoc. 1847, Proceedings of Sections, p. 73. Also Trans. Devon 
Assoc. Tol. ii. p. 518 (1808). 



14 REPORT 1874. 

examined by daylight. The excavation was about 7-5 feet long, 5 feet 
broad, and penetrated to a depth of not more than 2 feet below the bottom 
of the Granular Stalagmitic Floor. The materials then cast aside have been 
taken out of the Cavern by j'our Committee, and the following objects found 
in it: — 7 teeth of Bear, 1 of Fox, and 13 lumps of coprolite. Before its 
removal, the surface of the mass was carefully examined to ascertain what 
thickness had been reached by the Stalagmite which, as the Superintendents 
well knew, had been accreting on it since its lodgment in the spot it had 
occupied for 28 years, beneath one of the overhanging walls of the Cavern : 
the result was a film of the thickness of writing-paper only, and limited to 
two examples of from 2 to 3 square inches each. When your Committee 
began the exploration of this Gallery, they supposed it likely to prove but a 
very small affair ; but at the end of July 1874 three months' labour had been 
expended on it, and it is still unfinished. The Granular Stalagmitic Floor 
so very nearly reached the Hoof as to lead to the conclusion that the entire 
Gallery was exposed to view ; but as the work advanced the space between 
the Floor and lloof became steadily greater, until John Cliunick, the work- 
man after whom the Gallery is named, was able to force himself through the 
low tunnel, and to enter a chamber which he speaks of as being large and 
beautifully hung with Stalactites. 

This Gallery, uji to the point at present explored, must have had a 
perfectly continuous floor of Granular Stalagmite before it was broken in 
1846, as already stated. It varied from 14 to 30 inches in thickness ; and 
at about 3 feet from the base of the Inscribed Boss there rose from the Floor 
another, in the form of a tolerably regular paraboloid, which, though dwarfed 
by its gigantic companion, M'oidd have arrested general attention elsewhere. 
It measured 10 feet in basal circumference, 3 feet in height, and had to be 
blasted in order to effect its removal, when it was found to be pure stalag- 
mite throughout. 

Up to 18 feet from the entrance of the Gallery a small quantity of Cave- 
earth uniformly presented itself, beneath which lay the Breccia occasionally 
separated from it by remnants of the Crystalline Stalagmite in situ ; but at 
the point just mentioned the upper Stalagmite rested immediately on the 
lower, and that on the Breccia ; and this condition has been retained iip to 
the present time, that is through an area 16 feet long. The Committee, 
however, are not unprepared to find Cave-earth, at least in the form of 
" pockets," between the two Floors, with its characteristic remains, as the 
work progresses, as was the case in the " South-west Chamber" *. 

The Cave-earth in Clinnick's Gallery yielded 8 teeth of Ilyajua, 2 of Fox, 
a tolerable number of bones, 13 "finds" of coj)rolite, and the following 
specimens of Hint and chert : — 

No. 6401 was a rather large chert implement broken into several pieces 
by a blow of the workman's tool. It was found, with a tooth of Hya?na, in 
the first foot-level, on which the Granular Stalagmite was 24 inches thick, 
on April 7, 1874. 

No. 6426 is a small white flint flake, 1-3 inch long, 1 inch broad, -3 inch 
in greatest thickness, nearly flat on one face, strongly ridged rather near 
the margin on the other, blunt at the ends, but reduced to a thin edge 
everywhere else ; one margin is nearly straight, whilst the other is an almost 
circular arc, giving the specimen a semicircular form. It has undergone 

» See Eeioort Brit. Assoc. 1869, p. 193. 



ON Kent's caVern, Devonshire. 15 

the prevalent mctamorpliosis, and was found in the first foot-level, May 12, 
1874. 

The Breccia in this Gallery had produced, up to the end of July 1874^ 
86 teeth of Bear, numerous bones, including a large portion of a skull 
(No. 6458), and the following specimens of flint and chert: — 

Ko. 6403 is a pinkish drab flake of chert, somewhat pentagonal in form, 
about 2*1 inches long, 1-5 inch broad at what may be regarded as its front 
edge, '45 inch in greatest thickness, and pi'obably an efficient " scraper." It 
was found alone in the fourth foot-level, April 15, 1874. 

No. 6415, a pinkish drab flake of chert, 2-2 inches long, 1 inch broad, 
•35 inch in greatest thickness, with the "bulb of percussion" on the inner 
face, which is concave in both directions, whilst the outer face is convex and 
retains the original surface of the nodule on about one third of its length. 
It does not appear to have been used, but a considerable part of its margins 
are concealed by portions of the Breccia. It was found, with 3 teeth of 
Bear, in the first foot-level, April 28, 1874. 

No. 6427 is an irregidar pentagon in form, 2-9 inches in length, 2*4 inches 
in greatest breadth, -9 inch in greatest thickness, nearly flat on one face, 
which shows the "bulb of percussion," and convex on the other, whence 
several flakes have been dislodged leaving conchoidal facets. It was 
probably reduced to a thin edge along each of its sides except one ; and it 
seems to have been pretty much used. It was found, with fragments of 
bone, in the fourth foot-level. May 14, 1874. 

No. 6462 is a rough irregular flake, 2*4 inches in length, 1*2 inch in 
greatest breadth, and "5 inch in greatest thickness. It was found, with a Bear's 
tooth and a few fragments of bone, in the first foot-level, July 13, 1874. 

Noi ■gi[Vr' *^® finest stone implement found in the Breccia since the Ninth 
Report was presented, has, on that account, been reserved for the last to be 
here described. It was found April 23, 1874, in the fourth or lowest foot- 
level, with 1 tooth of Bear, fragments of bone, and a small chert flake (f^-j) 
which had probably been rolled. It measures 4-5 inches in length, 3 inches 
in greatest breadth, 1-1 inch in greatest thickness, is very convex on one 
face, slightly so on the other, retains a portion of the original surface near 
the butt-end, and is rudely quadrilateral in form with the angles rounded oflp. 
Several flakes have been s"truck off each face ; the edge to which it lias been 
reduced along its entire margin, except at the butt-end, is by no means 
sharp ; its surface is almost entirely covered with an almost black, probably 
manganesic, smut, whilst a slight chip near the pointed end shows it to 
consist of a very light-coloured granular chert. Several lines, betokening 
planes, probably, of structural weakness or perhaps of fracture, entirely 
surround it. If it has really been fractured, it must have occurred where 
the tool was found, and the parts have been naturally reunited without being 
faulted. Its character, as well as its position, shows that this fine implement 
belonged to the era of the Breccia. 

This specimen is of considerable interest, both on account of the lines which 
cross its surface and of the position it occupied. 

Amongst the flint implements found in Brixham Cavern, that known as 
No. 6-8 has attracted considerable attention, and has been described and 
figured by Mr. John Evans, F.R.S., P.G.S., a member of the Committee, both 
in his * Ancient Stone Implements ' * and in the " Report on the Explora- 

* 'Ancient Stone Implements, &c. of Great Britain,' by John Evans, F.R.S., F.S.A., 
1872, pp. 4C8-4C9, fig. 409. 



16 REPORT 1874. 

tion of Brixham Cave"*. It was found in two pieces — the first on the 
12th of August, 1858 ; the second, 40 feet from it, on the 9th of the following 
September ; and it was not until some time after the latter date that the late 
Dr. Falconer discovered that the two fragments fitted each other, and, when 
reunited, formed a massive spear-shaped implement. The lines on the 
Kent's Cavern implement just described (g^Vr) ^^^w that it had either been 
fractured where it was found, or, what seems more probable, that it is 
traversed by planes of structural weakness, such that a slight blow would 
break it into two or more pieces, which a stream of water would easily 
remove and probably separate, and thus produce a repetition of the Brixham 
case. 

The Kent's Cavern tool was found in a small recess in the wall, just 
within the outer or wider entrance of Clinnick's Gallery, a very few feet 
from the Inscribed Boss of Stalagmite, and, as has been already stated, in 
the fourth foot-level of the Breccia — that is, at the greatest depth in the oldest 
of the Cavern deposits to which the present exploration has been carried ; 
and is thus wonderfully calculated to take the mind step by step back into 
antiquity. 

First, very near the spot occupied by the specimen there rises a vast 
cone of Stalagmite, which an inscription on its surface shows has under- 
gone no appreciable augmentation of volume during the last two and a 
half centuries. 

Second, prior to that was the period spent in rearing the greater portion 
of this cone, which measures upwards of 40 feet in basal girth, reaches a 
height of fully 13 feet, and contains more than 600 cubic feet of stalag- 
mitic matter. 

Third, still earlier was the era during which the Cave-earth was intro- 
duced, in a series of successive small instalments with protracted periods of 
intermittence, when the Cavern was alternately the home of man and of the 
Cave-hya3na, and the latter dragged thither piecemeal so many portions of 
extinct mammals as to convert the Cave into a crowded palaeontological 
Museum. 

Fourth, further back still was the period during which the base and 
nucleiis of the cone or boss was laid down in the form of Crystalline 
Stalagmite. 

Fifth, and earliest of all, was the time when materials, not derivable from 
the immediate district, were carried into the Cavern through openings now 
probably choked up, entirely unknown, and the direction in which they lie 
but roughly guessed at — when, apparently, the Cavern-haunting Hyaena had 
not yet arrived in Britain. At an early stage in this earliest era man 
occupied Devonshire ; for prior to the introduction of tlie uppermost four 
feet of the Breccia one of his massive unpolished tools, rudely chipped 
out of a nodule of chert, found its way into a recess in the Cavern, and 
having a character such as to show that it must have lain undisturbed 
in the same spot until it was detected by a Committee of the British 
Association. 

It may be of service before closing this Eeport to show, in a tabular form, 
the distribution of the dilferent kinds of lEammals in the Cave-earth in 
various branches of the Cavern. 

* Pbil. Trans, vol. clxiii. part 2, pp. 550-5.51. 



CHEMICAL CONSTITUTION ETC. OF ESSENTIAL OILS. 



17 



Table II. — Showing how many per cent, of the Teeth found in the Cave- 
earth, in different branches of the Cavern, belonged to the different 
kinds of Mammals. 





South 
Sally- 
port. 


North 
Sally- 
port. 


Smer- 
don's 
Pas- 
sage. 


Slop- 
ing 

Cham- 
ber. 


Wolfs 
Cave. 


Cave 
ofEo- 
dentia. 


Char- 
coal 
Cave. 


Long 
Ar- 
cade. 


Under- 
hay's 
Gal- 
lery. 


Hyaena 


27 


31 


43 


39 


44^5 


44 


29^5 


41^5 


65 


Horse 


29 


31 


27 


28^5 


25 


28 


33 


21 


23-5 


Rhinoceros .... 


11 


16 


15 


14 


15 


9-5 


10^5 


9 


4^25 


Bear 


8 


1 


2 


2-5 


3 


3 


3-5 


14^5 


* 


Sheep t 

Badger 

Pox 


7 
3 
3 
3 


•5 

4 

•5 
2 


2-5 

1-5 

•1 




•5 

* 
•5 


■5 


1 

6 

12 


4^5 


4-'25 


Rabbit 


Elephant .... 
Deert 


2 

2 


2 
6 


•2 

7 


1^5 

8-5 


2-5 
5-5 


1 
9-5 


1 


2 
3 




Lion 


2 


2 


•5 


1 


1 






1 


* 


Ox 


1 
•5 


•5 


3 

•5 


2 

1 


1 

1 


2 

* 


1 
2-5 


• • 


* 


Wolf 


Hare 


•5 


•5 












^ , 


, , 


Bog? 


•5 


■ • 


•25 


* 








1 


, , 


Pig 


•5 


•5 

•5 












2-5 




Beaver 


Bat 






•15 


• • 






• • 


* 


• • 


Machairodus . . 



No trace of Maclvxirodus has been metwith since the Eighth Report (1872) 
was presented. 



Report of the Committee, consisting of Dr. Gladstone, Dr. C. E,. A. 
Weight, and W. Chandler Roberts, appointed for the purpose of 
investigating the Chemical Constitution and Optical Properties of 
Essential Oils. Drawn up by Dr. Wright. 

Since the last Meeting of the Association the following results have been 
obtained ; — 

I. Oil of Wormavood {Artemisia Absinthium, L.). — By fractional distilla- 
tion, a sample of pure oil obtained from Dr. S. Piesse was split up into : — (1) 
A terpene boiling at about 150°, and constituting about 1 per cent, of the oil. 
(2) A smaller quantity of hydrocarbon, probably a terpene, boiling between 
170° and 180°. (3) An oxidized product, the absinthol of Gladstone, indi- 
cated by the formula C,„H,jO, and hence isomeric with camphor, boiling at 
200°-201° (corrected) : this product was first obtained by Leblanc, and stated 
by him to boil at 204° ; Gladstone found the boiling-point to be 217° ; whilst 

t There is reason to believe that the remains of Sheep found in the Cave-earth had been 
introduced in comparatively recent times by burrowing Carnivores. 

J The " Irish Elk," Keindeer, Eed Deer, &c. are all included under the general name 
" Deer." The asterisks in the Table denote that only 1 tooth was found, 
1874. ■ c 



18 REPORT — 1874. 

in a paper published during the progress of those experiments Beilstein and 
Kupffer state that the substance boUs at 195°. (4) Ilesiiious substances not 
volatile at 350°. (5) " Blue oils " boiling at near 300° and upwards. 

Absinthol differs from its isomeride myristicol (boiling at 212° to 218°, or 
about 15° higher) in that it is not appreciably polymerized by continued 
rectification; like this substance, however, it is dehydi'ated by hot zinc 
chloride fornaiug cymene, thus, 

the yield of cymene is, however, but small (20 to 25 per cent.), most being 
converted into a non-volatile resinous mass. 

When treated with phosphorus pentasulphide absinthol loses the elements 
of water, cymene resiilting ; the yield of this hydrocarbon is not much greater 
than when zinc chloride is used : a portion of the absinthol also becomes 
converted into cijmyl-sulphliydrate, Cj^Hj^ . SH, apparently identical with that 
obtained from camphor by similar treatment ; camphor and absinthol, there- 
fore, are identical in so far as the action of pentasulphide of iihosphorus is 
concerned. The production of cymene from absinthol in this way has also 
been observed by Beilstein and Kupffer, who, however, did not observe the 
simultaneous production of cymyl-sulphhydrate. 

' II. Oil of Citeonella (AndrojJogoaScJioenanihus). — A pure sample of this 
oil was found to consist mainly of an oxidized substance boiling at near 210°, 
but altered by continued heating, becoming somewhat resinizcd and partially 
losing the elements of water. This substance gave numbers on combustion 
agreeing with those calculated for the formula C,„JEj^O ; therefore it is iso- 
meric, not with camphor, myristicol, and absinthol, but with cajejnitol from 
oil of cajeput. (Gladstone found iii a sample of citronella a body termed by 
him eitronellol, boiling pretty constantly at 199°-205°, which gave numbers 
agreeing sharply with the formula Cj(,H,|.0 ; essential oils not improbably 
differ in the character of their ingredients with the season, age of plant, &c.) 
When two equivalents of bromine are cautiously added to this oxidized 
substance combination takes place, much heat being evolved ; the resulting 
dibromide breaks up on heating into water, hydrobromic acid, and cymene, 
thus, 

C, AsBr,0=H,0 + 2H Br + C.^H,,, 

a considerable amount of resinous by-products being also formed. 

"When treated with phos2)horus pentasulphide, the first action is the removal 
of the elements of water, a terpcue or a mixture of terpenes boiling between 
160° and 180° being formed, thus, 



C,„R,0=KO + nH 



16 > 



polyraerides of terpenes boiling at about 250° and upwards are also produced ; 
by a further action the terpene becomes partially converted into cymene, 
sulphuretted hydrogen being evolved, thus, 

When heated with zinc chloride the oxidized constituent of citroneUa-oil 
is decomposed, a mixture of hydrocarbon being apparently formed, amongst 
which a terpene boiling between 170° and 180° predominates ; nine tenths 
of the substance are, however, converted into a resinous non-volatile mass. 

Phosphcirus pentacloloride forms a chlorinated product which splits up on 



CHEMICAL CONSTITUTION ETC. OF ESSENTIAL OILS. 19 

heating, forming hydrochloric acid, a terpene boiling between 168° and 173° 
and polymerides of higher boiling-point, the reactions being 

C,„H,30+PCl,=HCl+POCl3 + C,„H,Cl 
and 

C,„H,,C1=HC1 + C,„H,. . ■ 

III. Oil of Cajeptjt. — The " cajeputene hydrate " of Schmidt (the " caje- 
putol " of Gladstone) was approximately isolated from resinous higher boiling 
substances simultaneously present in the oil by fractional distillation, and 
boiled between 176° and 179°, or more than 30° lower than the isomeric 
substance from citronella-oil ; like its isomeride, it combined with two equi- 
valents of bromine, evolving much heat, and forming a dibromide splitting iip 
by heat into hydrobromic acid, water, and cymene, thus 

C.„H,,Br,0=2HBr-FH,0 + C,„H,,. 

The yield of cymene, however, was much greater with the cajeputol dibro- 
mide than with the citroneUa product, 100 parts of Cj„II,,0 from cajeputol 
yielding about 67 parts of cymene, and 100 of that from citroneUa less than 
half as much. 

"With phosphorus pentasulphide cajeputol behaves just as its isomeride, 
forming first a terpene and then cymene, the elements of water being first 
abstracted, and then two equivalents of hydrogen removed. 

IV. Action of Phosphoeus Pentasulphide on Teepenes. — In order to prove 
that the cymene formed when pentasulphide of phosphorus acts on the pro- 
ducts C,jII,j,0 from citroneUa and cajeput oils is reaUy produced from a terpene 
first generated, the action of phosphorus pentasulphide on other terpenes was 
examined, oil of turpentine (boUing at 159°) and hesperideue (boiling at 178") 
being chosen as being near the extremes of the range of boiUng-points of the 
terpenes as a class. In each case most of the hydrocarbon was converted 
into a resinous mass ; torrents of sulphuretted hydrogen were evolved, and 
some cymene formed, the yield being about 30 per cent, with oil of turpen- 
tine, and 40 per cent, with hesperidene ; in these eases evidently the cymene 
is formed by the reaction 

C,„H,, + S=H,S + C,H,,. 

In each case a trace of cjonyl-sulphhydrate appeared to be formed. 

Y. Examination of vakiotts Cymenbs. — The cymenes obtained as above 
described were carefuUy examined in the way detaUed in last year's Eeport ; 
all seemed to be identical with each other and with each of the eight kinds 
of cymene formerly examined as described in that Report. The following 
numerical values were obtained : — 

A Cymene from absinthol and zinc chloride. 

B „ „ „ and phosphorus pentasulphide. 

C „ „ citroneUol dibromide. 

D „ „ „ and pentasulphide of phosphorus. 

E ,, „ cajeputol dibromide. ... 

F „ „ „ and pentasulphide of phosphorus. 

G ,, „ hesperidene and pentasulphide of phosphorus. 

H „ „ oil of turpentine and pentasulphide of phosphorus. 

c 2 



^>0 







REPORT — 1874 


t 






Boiling-points 


Specific 


Specific 
retractive 


Spscific 




(corrected). 


gravity. 


energy. 


dispersion 


A . 


. 175-178 


0-8508 


0-5652 


0-0397 


B 


. 175-178 


0-8622 


0-5562 


0-0413 


C 


. 175-177 


0-8373 


0-5620 


0-0414 


D 


. 175-177 


0-8555 


0-5611 


0-0407 


E 


. 176-177 


0-8682 


0-5510 


0-0391 


F 


. 175-178 


0-8455 


0-5654 


0-0406 


G 


. 176-177 


0-8577 


0-5626 


0-0420 


H 


. . 175-178 


0-8534 


0-5589 


0-0404 



Each of these specimens yielded terephthalic acid (averaging 40 per cent.) 
free from all trace of isophthalic acid, together with acetic acid free from all 
trace of higher homologues, by the action of chromic acid liquor. 

The statements of Riban, that cjmene is formed by the action of sulphuric 
acid on certain terpenes by the reaction 

C,„H,,+H,S0,= 2H,0 + S0, + C,„H,„ 

have been verified ; nevertheless the opinions expressed by the reporter in 
last year's Report that cymeno may be isolated from certain hydrocarbons, 
e. g. oil of turpentine, by the polymerizing action of sulphuric acid have been 
found correct, it being found practicable to obtain a few per cents, of cpnene 
from an old sample of turpentine-oil without any evolution of sulphur dioxide 
by careful manipulation. Orlowski also has recently obtained cymene from 
old oil of turpentine by continued fractional distillation, the mode of produc- 
tion of the cymene being probably first the absorption of oxygeu and produc- 
tion of a camphor-isomeride like myristicol, or the analogous products obtained 
in small quantity by the action of chromic liquor on hesperidcne and myris- 
ticene (British Association lleport, 1872), and the subsequent breaking up of 
this product into water and cymene by continued distillation. 

2(<„H,3 + 0,=2C,„H,,0, 

Physical Properties of Essential-oil Constituents and Conclusions. 

The following values were obtained for some of the other constituents of 
the essential oils examined : — 

Ter2}enes, 
Boiling-point Specific I .- Specific 



I. Citronellol and phosphorus 
pentasulphide 
II. Citronellol and zinc chlo- 
ride 



Source. ^..i.-.g-p^... op...... retractive 

(corrected). gravity. , . ui»|jci-»iuii 

■ 170-178 0-8484 0-5570 0-0271 

■170-180 0-8375 0-5400 0-0285 



Oxidized substances. 
Absinthol 199-202 0-9128 0-4887 0-0234 



Cajcputol 
Citronellol 



176-179 0-9207 0-4916 0-0251 

200-205 0-870 0-5213 0-0289 

210-215 0-890 0-5176 0-0284 

225-230 0-887 0-5247 0-0301 



Neither of the two terpenes were perfectly pure, I. being admixed with 



ON THE SUB-WEALDEN EXPLOKATION. 21 

a little cymene formed, as above stated, by the further action of the phosphorus 
pentasulphide, and II. yielding on combustion carbon 86"55, hydrogen 12-81, 
agreeing more nearly with the formula Cj^Hi^ than with C,„Hjg, which requires 
carbon 88-24, hydrogen 11-76. 

The physical properties of the three oxidized bodies agree tolerably well 
with the previous determinations. 

The three specimens of citronellol are certainly not identical, for that with 
the lowest boiling-point rotated the polarized ray very strongly to the left. 
The intermediate one was without circular polarization, and that with the 
highest boiling-point showed a very little right-handed rotation. 

The experiments made so far appear to indicate that many of the consti - 
tuents of essential oiLs are closely related to the hydrocarbon cymene, this 
body being as it were the central form of matter from which terpenes and 
their derivatives of the forms C^^H^fi and Cj^Hj^O are all derived by various 
operations. As yet no reasonable pi-ospect of success has appeared in the 
attempt to determine the different amounts of energy involved in those ope- 
rations which yield isomeric products (e. g. in the operations whereby cj'mene 
is converted into camphor, myristicol, or absinthol, or into terebene, hespe- 
ridene, myristicene, &c.), one great difficulty in the way being the almost 
impossibility of obtaining absolutely pure homogeneous substances to operate 
upon. 



Second Beport of the Sub-Wealden Exploration Committee, the Com- 
mittee consisting of Henry Willett, F.G.S., R. A. C. Godwin- 
Austen, F.«.S., W. ToPLEY, F.G.^., T.Davidson, F.R.S., Prof. 
J. Prestwich, F.R.S., Prof. Boyd Dawkins, F.R.S., and Henry 
Woodward/ F.i?./S. Drawn tip by Henry Willett and W. Topley. 

At the Meeting at Bradford the General Committee granted £25 in aid of the 
Sub-Wealden Exploration. 

In August 1873, 290 feet, at a diameter of 9 inches, had been bored ; and 
it was during the Bradford Meeting that Mr. Pejton, F.G.S., discovered 
Linr/ida ovalis in a core at the depth of 290 feet from the surface, indicating 
that at such a depth the boring was traversing Kimmeridge Clay. The slow 
rate of advance by the old system of boring was most disheartening; and at a 
Committee Meeting held 7th November, 1873, a definite tender having been 
obtained from the Diamond Kock Boring Company, it was accepted. This 
Company forthwith energetically commenced, ably performed, and completed 
it to a depth of 1000 feet on June 18th, 1874, at a cost of over .£1400 for the 
additional 700 feet. The funds being by this time exhausted, at a Committee 
Meeting it was considered by the Members to be very important that the 
work should not be abandoned, and a Subcommittee (consisting of Professor 
Ramsay, LL.D., F.R.S., Director- General of the Geological Survey of England, 
John Evans, Esq., F.R.S., President of the Geological Society, and Prof. 
Joseph Prestwich, E.R.S., Ex-President of the Geological Society) was ap- 
pointed to draw up a fresh appeal to the public for additional subscriptions ; 
and Mr. Willett was urged to continue in office as Honorary Secretary and 
Treasurer. An interview also for Professor Ramsay and Mr. Willett with the 
Chancellor of the Exchequer was obtained by the Secretary of the Treasury, 
at which a grant of the public money in aid of the prosecution of this enter- 



g^ REPORT 1874. 

prise was solicited on the ground that it was of national importance, and that 
such an exploration had been recommended by a Parliamentary Committee 
(Coal Commission). In response a Treasury Minute was received to the effect 
that a maximum grant of £1000 would be recommended to Parhament, £100 
of which is to be paid for every 100 feet bored beyond the first 1000 feet*. 
This recognition will, it is hoped, induce the Members of the General Com- 
mittee of the British Association, at the Meeting at Belfast, to vote a liberal 
grant in aid on similar conditions ; for under the most favourable calculation 
from £3000 to £4000 (including the cost of lining-tubes) will be needed ere 
2000 feet (or Palaeozoic strata) are reached. 

No favourable opportunity having presented itself for observing the under- 
ground temperature, owing to the constant obstruction in the hole, these ex- 
periments are postponed until the bore-hole shall be lined. 

The cost of the lining-tubes will approximate £500, towards which it is 
proposed to apply the grant which it is hoped will be made at Belfast. 



Oeolofjkal Beport hy W. Topley, F.G.S., Assoc.Inst.C.E., Geological Survey 

of England. 

When the last Keport upon the Sub-Wealden Boring was read at the 
Bradford Meeting of the Association, a depth of 300 feet had been attained, 
but no good fossils had been observed, and no certain information could be 
given as to the age of the beds traversed. The only point certainly esta- 
bUshed was that the higher beds of the boring, as well as the " Ashburnham 
Beds" of the neighbouring district, belonged to the Purbecks; but how 
deep the Purbecks extended, and what was the age of the underlying strata, 
were points then undecided. 

We are still in some uncertainty as to the first point. Some imperfect 
specimens of Estherm (Oyclas) were observed by Mr. Peyton at about 100 
feet from the surface, but no other fossils were noticed until the Kimmeridge 
Clay was reached. It is then only by the lithological characters of the 
intermediate strata that we can form any idea as to their age. A detailed 
section of the strata was given in the last Report, and specimens are still 
preserved at the boring. We should probably not bo far wrong in as- 
eigning the beds down to the depth of 180 feet to the Purbecks, and re- 
garding all between that depth and 290 feet as Portlaud. This classifica- 
tion places the gypsum and associated gypseous marls with tlie Purbecks, 
the sandy beds (sometimes almost a sandstone) and all the beds containing 
chert nodules with the Portland. Almost at the base of the Portland beds 
there are some veins of gypsum in pale shale. Some of the Portland sand or 
sandstone is rather greenish in colour. 

At the last Meeting of the Association some specimens of the strata tra- 
versed were shown, including pieces of clay from the lower part. After the 
Report was read this clay was broken up by Mr. Peyton, who noticed some 
fragments of fossils which Prof. Phillips recognized as Linyula ovalis, a 
characteristic sheU of the Kimmeridge Clay in England, but which was then 
unknown in the Boulonnais. Shortly after this, Mr. Peyton, in examining 
the cliffs near Boulogne, was fortunate enough to find there several examples 
of the same species. 

* The grant was subsequently matlc by the Ilouse of Commons. 



ON THE SUB-WJSAIiDEN J3XPL0KAT10N. 23 

At the end of last year (1873), the contract with Mr. Bosworth (then the 
contractor) having expired, the work was handed over to the Diamond Eock 
Boring Company. By their system of boring long cores of strata are brought 
up, of which the mineral character and fossil contents can be ascertained with 
great accuracy*. 

The boring is now (August 1874) 1030 feet from the surface, but the lowest 
17 feet of core are not yet extracted. The strata from about 350 feet to 
1013 feet have been examined with care, and many thousands of fossils or 
fragments of fossUs have been observed. The greater part cannot be deter- 
mined at aU ; in a large number of instances the genus only can be ascertained ; 
but several hundred specimens can be with certainty assigned to their 
respective species. I have to thank Mr. Etheridge for much assistance in 
determining the fossils. Mr. G. Sharman and Mr. E. T. Newton have also 
kindly given me their aid. To Mr. Davidson I am also much indebted ; he 
has looked over and named the Brachiopoda, and has drawn specimens of 
Lingula ovalis and Discina latissima from the boring for the forthcoming 
Supplement to his ' Monograph on the Brachiopoda,' published by the Palaeon- 
tographical Society. 

The greater part of the cores have been broken up on the spot, and the 
fossils sorted out for more detailed examination in London. In this task I 
have often had the assistance of Mr. "Willett and Mr. Peyton. Some of the 
cores have been broken up and examined by Mr. Willett at Brighton. 

The greater part of the strata traversed below 290 feet is clay ; generally it 
is rather calcareous, and from 640 feet downwards there are bands of cement- 
stone. The higher part of the Kimmeridge Clay is rather sandy, but no beds at 
all approaching a sandstone in character have been observed in that formation. 
The middle and lower part of the Kimmeridge Clay contains much petro- 
leum ; at some horizons there is so much that the shale will burn. The petro- 
leum shales of the lower part are generally very fossiliferous ; but those of 
higher portions are often very bare of life. 

The Oxford Clay often contains much petroleum, and it also is very fossili- 
ferous. 

Generally in England the Coral Eag comes between the Kimmeridge and 
Oxford Clays ; this is also the case in the Boulonnais. Occasionally, however, 
in England the two clays come together without the intervention of the Coral 
Eag. This appears to be the case in the boring. An Oxford-Clay fossO. 
{Ammonites Sedf/ivicJcii, Pratt) was observed at 972 feet from the surface. 
Below this several imperfect specimens of ornate Ammonites occur. A good 
example of ^m. Jason, Eein., occurred at 990 feet, and Am. Lamherti, Sow., at 
1000 feet. A fragment of Pollkipes (probably P. concinnus, Sow.) occurred 
at 993 feet, and a doubtful Gervillia at 998 feet. PoIUcIjms and Gervillia'both. 
occur in the Oxford Clay, but I believe have not yet been recorded from tho 
Kimmeridge Clay of England. 

With regard to the exact point at which the Kimmeridge Clay leaves off 
and the Oxford Clay begins there is some doubt. We must be guided in 
this case by palfeontological evidence, assigning all those strata to Oxford 
Clay which contain fossils only hitherto known from that formation, and 
doing the same with the Kimmeridge Clay. We have seen that an Oxford- 
Clay fossil (Ammonites SedgwicJcii) occurs at 972 feet. Grypliaa virgvJa, 
Defr., a Kimmeridge-Clay fossil, occurs at 950 feet ; this is therefore Kim- 

* It should be mentioned that other methods of boring (in holes of small diameter) 
succeed in extracting solid cores of strata ; but probably no other would give such long and 
unbroken cores. 



24 KEPOKT — 1874, 

meridge Clay. Between 950 feet and 972 feet we have no good palaeonto- 
logical evidence. The fossils which occur here are the following : — 



Avicula. 952 feet. 

Cardium striatulum. 961, 952 feet. 

C. striatulum, yar. lepidum, Sauv. et Biff. 

967 feet. 
Nucula. 951, 952 feet. 
Lingula, resembling L. ovalis, Sow. 



Ostrea. 953, 965 feet. 
Pecten arcuatus. Sow. 952 feet. 
Astarte (a smooth species). 956 feet. 
Thracia depressa. 965 feet. 
Ammonites biplex ? 957, 969 feet. 
Tornatella. 967 feet. 



All of these (excepting perhaps Tornatella) occur in the Kimmeridge Claj*. 
Thracia depressa is very characteristic of the Kimmeridge Clay, but it also 
ranges downwards to the Great Oolite. It occurs at 965 feet in a soft dark 
clay, which ranges with much the same characters from 963 feet to 976 feet ; 
and as it is this clay which (at 972 feet) contains Ammonites SedgwicJcii, we 
can hardly take a boundary at this point. Above this there are 5 feet of 
unfossiliferous sandy clay, and then come 8 inches of hard, dark grey, heavy, 
and sandy clay, with much petroleum. Just above this there is a little hard 
sandy clay, containing a layer of a smooth form of Astarte, and above that 
some soft dark clay. 

If we have to fix upon a definite line, it would probably be advisable to take 
it just below the soft clay last named, at 956 feet. One reason for doing this 
is, that at 965 and 972 feet there are sometimes well-marked signs of a dip 
across the bore-hole ; sometimes this is shown by the layers of fossils lying 
obliquely ; and at 965 feet it was very distinctly shoM'n by a layer, 1 inch 
thick, of light-coloured clay ; the dip of this was about 10°. 

The dips in these places are not owing to an unconformity, because the 
layers of fossils just above and just below are quite horizontal. But nothing 
of the sort has been observed in the true Kimmeridge Clay ; and this is one 
reason, though a very slight and untriLstworthy one, for taking the boun- 
dary above these beds. Higher up in the Kimmeridge Clay there have been 
cores breaking obliquely, which at first look lilce inclined strata ; but in all 
such cases careful examination has shown that these appearances are due to 
thin veins of carbonate of lime. 

It was stated above that Orypheea virgula is solely a Kimmeridge-Clay[shell. 
In Damon's ' Geology of Weymouth ' it is stated that this shell occurs in 
the Oxford Clay of that district ; but in the Atlas of Plates which accompa- 
nies the Handbook, a figure is given as Gryphaia (Ostrea) virgula, which is 
certainly not that shell, nor one in any way resembling it. We must therefore 
conclude that the true Gryphcea virgula has not yet been found in the Oxford 
Clay of Weymouth. 

In the Sixth and Seventh Quarterly Reports, Modiola pectinata, Sow., appears 
amongst the lists of fossils. Purther examination of these shells has shown 
that, although they resemble the shell figured under that name in PhiUips's 
' Geology of Oxford,' they are really distinct from the shell figured by Sowerby. 
Sowerby's shell is really a Mytilus, and as such he described it {Mytilus 
pectinatus) ; whilst the shells of the boring are certainly Modiolce. They 
somewhat resemble the Mytihis Mornsii of Sharpe, originally figured from 
specimens from the Sub-Cretaceous limestone of Portugal, but which also occurs 
in the Kimmeridge Clay of Wootton Bassett and in the Boulonnais. , They are, 
however, distinct from this, and must be regarded as a new species. In 
the Museum of Practical Geology there is an unnamed specimen of this 
species from the Kimmeridge Clay of HartweU. 

Dr. Lycett has kindly examined some specimens of Trigonia from tho 
boring. Amongst them he recognized a young form of Trigonia Juddiana, 



ON THJi SUB-WEALDEN EXPLOHATION. 25 

Lyc, and another species which is apparently new. We have also observed 
some specimens of a small elongated ribbed Astarte which appears to be new. 

In the Sixth Report Astarte alicaa, Phil., was mentioned, and in the 
Seventh lleport Astarte Aittissiodorensis, Cotteau. More careful examination of 
a greater number of specimens has shown that these names cannot be retained. 
The small ribbed Astartes of the boringVary a little in size and in the number 
and character of their ribs ; but it seems preferable to regard them all as slight 
varieties of the Astarte Mysis of De Loriol. The ribs are always less in 
number than in the true Astarte Autissiodorensis. 

Considerable difficulty has occurred in naming the Cardiums. The French 
palaeontologists have founded several species upon what most English palaeon- 
tologists would regard as simply varieties of the original Cardium striatuhim 
of Sowerby. In the higher part of the boring the Cardiums are large, 
and may with tolerable certainty be referred to C. striatuhim. In the lower 
part, both in the Oxford and Kimmeridge Clays, the shells are smaller. 
MM. Sauvage and Eigaux have described similar shells from the Kimmeridge 
Clay of the Boulonnais as Cardium le-pidum. It may perhaps be advisable 
to retain this name, regarding the shell, however, as a variety of C. striatuhim 
and not a distinct species. 

The following is a list of all the fossils hitherto observed. Those species 
which occur in both the Oxford Clay and Kimmeridge Clay are marked 
^vith an asterisk. 

List of Fossils from the Kimmeridge Clay. 

Serjyida. Attached to Cardium at 842 and 847 feet. 
Cidaris Boloniensis, Wright. At 397 feet. 



Discina Humphrisiana, Sow. At 569 and 570 feet. 
B. latissima, Sow. Common. 
*Linffula ovalisf, Sow. Common. 

Area. Species not determined. Tolerably abundant. 

Avicula. Rather rare. 380, 420, 438, 456, 952 feet. 

Astarte Hartwellensis, Sow. It is not easy to distinguish fragments of this 

shell from TJiracia depressa. 
A. ovata, W. Smith. At 570 feet. 
A. Ml/sis, D'Orbigny. Common. 
Astarte, new sp. 463 feet. 
* Cardium striatuhim, Sow. Common, especially in the higher part. 
*C striatidum, var. lepidum, Sauvage et Rigaux. 813, 814, 817, 818, 

898, 913, 925 feet. 
Corhula. 784 feet. 

Gryphcea nana, Sow. 430, 900, 902 feet. 
G. virgulafDeiT. Several crushed specimens at 913 feet; a perfect form 

at 950 feet. 
Hinnites ? 478 feet. 
Leda. 494 feet. 

Leda, allied to L. Bammariensis, Duv. 415, 511 feet. 
Lima. 380, 804 feet. 
Lucina. 415, 465, 493 feet. 

t There is a Lingula in the Oxford Clay, which is distinguished from L. ovalis only by 
its size, it being always small, whilst L. ovalis Taries much in size. Mr. Davidson pro- 
jwses to distinguish the Oxford-Clay shejl by a. new specific name. 



U6 iiEVonr — 1874. 

Modiola, n. sp. Common down to 782 feet. 
Mijacites. 380, 388, 415 feet. 
Nucula. 388, 951, 952 feet. 
Opis. Depth uncertain. 
Ostrea deltoidea, Sow. 452?, 470, 478 feet, 
0. Thurmanni, (var. of) Etallon. 719, 794 feet. 
Ostrea, ? sp. Numerous fragments. 

Pecten arcuatus, Sow. 388, 396, 418, 480, 492, 493, 496, 576, 952 feet. 
Pecten. A form with coarse ribs. 
Pholas compressa, Sow. ? 526 feet. 

Pholadomya. Fragments of large forms at 725 and 789 feet. 
Tellina. 910 feet. 
*Thracia depressa, Sow. 397, 415, 437 feet. 
Tri(/onia Juddiana, Lye. (young form of). 926 feet. 
T. Pellati, Mun. Ch. 376 feet. 
Trigonia, ? new species. 402 feet. 

Alaria. Rather common. 

Cerithium. 789 feet. 

Pleurotomaria reticulata. Sow. 830, 900, 913 feet. 

Pleurotomaria, ? sp. (probably P. reticulata). 726, 741, 898, 902 feet. 

Turbo. 783. 



Belemnites. Rather common. 
*Animonitcs hiple.v, Sow. Common. 



Hyhod^is-iQoi]i. Depth uncertain. 
Pish-vertebra. 492, 550 feet. 

List of Fossils from the O.iford Chiij. 
Pollicipes concinnus, Sow. 993 feet. 

*Lingula (? L. ovalis). 988 feet. 



Area. 976, 991, 992, 995, 996, 998, 1000 feet. 

Avkula. 993. 1000 feet. 

Astarte. 969, 976, 990, 993 feet. 
*Cardiwn striatulum, Sow. 979 feet. 

*C. striatulum, var. lepidum, Sauv. et Rig. 907, 977, 979, 990, 993, 999^ 
1001 feet. 

Corhula. 995, 996 feet. 

Gervillia. 998 feet. 

Macrodon. In hard sandy strata at 1013 feet. 

Ostrea. 965, 990, 994, 996, 1004, 1612 feet. 

Tellina. 990 feet. 
*Thracia depressa. Sow. 965 feet. 

Alaria. 990 feet. 
Cerithium. 998 feet. 
Tornatella. 967, 1003 feet. 



* Ammonites hiplex, Sow. 957, 969, 972, 991, 998 feet. 



KECENT PROGRESS OF SYSTEMATIC BOTANY. 27 

Ammonites Jason, Eein. 990 feet. 

A. Sedgwickii, Pratt (var. of A. Jason). 972 feet. 

A. Lambertii, Sow. 1000 feet. 

Ammonites, ? sp. (with tubercles). 979, 998 feet. 

Fish. 1001 feet. 
Hyhodus. 1004 feet. 



On the Recent Progress and Present State of Systematic Botany. 
By George Bentham,, F.R.S. 

[A communication ordered by the General Committee to be printed in eicienso.] 

It is now some years beyond half a century since I took up the pursuit of 
systematic botany — at first as a mere recreation, rather later as a study either 
subservient to or as a diversion from others which my then social position 
rendered more important, but for the last forty years as the main occupation 
of my life. During that long period the science has undergone various 
vicissitudes. At one time generally regarded as constituting the whole or 
nearly the whole of botany, subsequently reduced by some to a mere tech- 
nical cataloguing of names, it became the fashion, especially among physio- 
logists, who arrogated to themselves the exclusive title of scientific botanists, 
to sneer at it as a trivial amusement ; it has now again vindicated its im- 
portance, especially since, by the promulgation of the great Darwinian 
theories, it has become absolutely necessary to include in it, not only the 
life-history and distribution of races, but also the results at least of the 
investigations of physiologists and palaeontologists, whilst physiologists 
themselves have but too frequently been led astray by their neglect of the 
labours of scientific systematists. Having in my early days personally con- 
versed with one of Linnaeus's active correspondents (Gouau of Montpellier), 
having received many useful hints on the method of botanical study from 
the great founder himself of the ISTatural System (Antoine Laurent de 
Jussieu), having been honoured with the intimacy of the chief promoters 
and improvers of that system (Auguste Pyrame De CandoUe, Robert Brown, 
Stephan Endlicher, John Lindley), having enjoyed the friendly assistance 
either personally or by correspondence of almost every systematic botanist 
of note of this nineteenth century (whether followers or, in earlier days, 
antagonists of the Jussieuan methods), I had from the first taken some part 
in the controversies which ensued, and always watched them with an in- 
terested eye. And now at the close of my career I had sketched out a 
review of the position this, my special branch of the science, lias occupied 
in relation to the others for my valedictory address to the Linnean Society. 
My premature resignation of the Presidency having rendered unnecessary 
the dravving-up of that address, I have put my notes into a form which I 
have thought might not be unacceptable to the Association, as some compli- 
ance with the request made to me at its Meeting at Cambridge in 1833. 

Before the days of Linnaeus, the attempts to scale and explore the steep 
and rugged acclivities of the Parnassus of Science on the side of Natural 
History, and especially in the district of Systematic Botany, had been many, 
but vague and unsuccessful. Some general ideas of the direction to be 



28 iiEi-oRX— 1874. 

followed had, indeed, been formed by Eay, and after him by Touruefort, 
Allioni, and others of undoubted eminence; but it was reserved for the 
master-mind of the immortal Swede to mark out a clear, safe, and definite 
road along the first great ascent, and to fix on its summit, by the establish- 
ment of genera and species upon sound philosophical principles, a firm stage 
to serve as a basis and starting-point for further progress and exploration. 
Such further progress under the guidance of the same principles was indeed 
contemplated and to a certain degree sketched out by Linnaeus himself, but 
the territory forming the next acclivity was too little known to disclose the 
best paths for ascending it. Among the eight or ten thousand species 
known to Linna3us, chiefly from the northern hemisphere or from the Cape of 
Good Hope, a sufficient number of genera were exhibited to him in their 
entirety to enable him to fix the relations of genus and species ; but of the 
higher groups, the orders or natural families, too large a proportion were as 
yet undiscovered or were too sparingly represented to encourage any imme- 
diate attempt to define them. A further knowledge of the territory was 
necessary in order to clear the ground for its regular ascent, and yet it was 
necessary to ascend in order to eifect its survey ; as a temporary assistance, 
therefore, Linnajus devised the scaffolding, known under the name of the 
sexual system, with its artificial and easy though frail ladders, the twenty- 
four classes and their sudsidiary orders. 

The progress was now wonderfully rapid. A very few years doubled the 
number of plants known, and after the commencement of the present 
century new discoveries and more accurate studies of those previously known 
were being published in all parts of Europe in an increasing ratio. It was, 
however, rather earlier, and not long after the death of Linnaeus, that 
Antoine Laurent de Jussieu, following in the footsteps of his uncle Bernard, 
with a methodical mind yielding but little to that of the great Swedish master, 
having all the advantages of the additional materials at his disposal, and 
having to start from the elevated platform so firmly established by his pre- 
decessor, was enabled, in his ' Genera Plantarum ' (begun in 1778 and 
finally published in^l789), to carry the high road up the next rising, marking 
it out perhaps at first rather vaguely, but upon principles so sound that it 
was warmly taken in hand by the French school in the first instance, soon to 
be followed up in this countiy, and later and less willingly in Germany. 
Among the earliest and most important contributors to the perfecting the 
work were Eobert Brown and the elder De CandoUe ; and their labours had 
^ already been sufficiently advanced to enable me, when I first came upon the 
stage, to avail myself of the road thus established and ascend with ease to 
the higher platform. The great Linncan thoroughfare to species and genera 
had long been universally followed, and my apprenticeship to the science, 
from 1817 to my first botanical publication in 1826, was entirely under the 
guidance of De Candolle's ' Flora ' and ' Theorie ;' so that I had no occasion to 
make use, or even to take any notice, of the Linnean scaffolding and ladders. 
I never learnt the twenty-four classes till after the publication of my ' Cata- 
logue des Plantes indigenes des Pyrenees et du Bas Languedoc' Easy as 
they were supposed to be, I found, for purposes of reference, alphabetical 
indexes still. easier.] 

Towards the close of this same year (1826), in which I had thus entered 
my name in the roll of working botanists, I returned to England after a 
twelve years' residence in France ; and although logic, law, and law-making 
were at first the chief subjects of my studies and publications, I gradually 
gave up more and more time to botany, and having spent two vacations 



RECENT PROGRESS OF SYSTEMATIC BOTANY. 20 

among the naturalists of Germany, I had by the year 1832 become acquainted 
not only with the principal continental botanists, but also with the practical 
working of the botanical establishments of Paris, Berlin, Vienna, Munich, and 
Geneva ; and as this was a period when the gradual substitution of natural 
to artificial systems had given a general impulse to the scientific study of 
plants, I take this year as the starting-point for comparing the state of syste- 
matic botany with that of future periods. 

In France, under the guidance of De CandoUe of Geneva, and of Brongniart, 
the younger Jussieu, and other Professors of Paris, it was now universally 
taught, and it had become generally acknowledged, that the main object of 
systematic botany was not the finding out the name of a plant, but the 
determining its relations and affinities, the making us thoroughly acquainted 
with its resemblances and differences, with those properties which it pos- 
sessed in common with others or which were peculiar to itself, whether 
these properties consisted in outward form, inner structure, physical con- 
stitution, or practicable applicability to use, all of which had to be taken into 
account in the formation of orders, genera, and their subdivisions. As text- 
books, De CandoUe had developed his ' Theorie ' into the five volumes of his 
' Cours de Botanique ' (' Organographie Vegetale,' two vols., 1827, and ' Phy- 
siologic Vegetale,' three vols., 1832), while Richard, in the successive editions 
of his ' Elements de Botanique,' then in general use by teachers of the science, 
vras substituting an elaborate exposition of the natural orders for the some- 
what modified Linnean classes he had in the first instance adopted ; and for 
practical use, although De CandoUe's admirable ' Flore Frangaise ' was 
already out of print, Duby's synopsis of it and a few local floras drawn 
up under the natural method had expelled from the market all technical 
works which adhered to the sexual classification. For the general botanist, 
De CandoUe's ' Prodromus ' had already reached its foiirth volume, describing 
under the natural arrangement about 19,000 species, or nearly one third of 
those then known *. 

In England considerable progress had also been made in the substitution of 
the scientific instead of the technical arrangement of plants for study, but only 
among the more advanced followers of the science. Owing in a great mea- 
sure to the influence and persevering labours of Sir James Smith, whose pos- 
session of the Linnean collections and long Presidency of the Linnean Society 
gave him great and generally acknowledged authority in the country, the 
cataloguing of plants under the twenty-four classes -was stiU adhered to in 
our botanical schools and examinations, and in the standard British floras as 
weU as in aU local ones. But this was not to be of long duration. The 
great advances made by Robert Brown, although better known on the Con- 
tinent than at home, were beginning to have their influence in England 
also. The example and teaching of Sir William (then Dr.) Hooker, whose 
vast collections and library had already, from the liberal use he made of them, 
become of national importance, had caused the natural method to be regarded 
as the only one for illustrating exotic botany and for the useful arrangement 
of herbaria. Lindley had commenced that series of works which more 
than any others tended to that final acceptance of the natural method in this 
country which it had obtained in France. The first edition of his ' Intro- 
duction to the Natural System ' was published in 1830 ; and he was much 

* For further details on the origin and progress of this great work I may refer to an 
article I contributed to the 'Natural- History Review' for October 1864, and to that 
recently published by Alphonse de CandoUe in the ' Bibliotlieque de Geneve,' entitled 
" Reflexions sur les Ouvrnges g4neraus de Botanique descriptive." 



30 REPORT — 1874. 

engaged in' the preliminary labour of a ' Genera Plantarum ' he coutemplated. 
Monographs also of individual natural orders or large genera which De Can- 
doUe alwaj'S strongly recommended, not only as the best exercise for young 
botanists, but as the best means of promoting the science for those whose 
circumstances prevented their undertaking more general investigations, were 
in some instances being prepared in England as on the Continent. Hooker, 
Greville, Arnott, and others had devoted special works to Ferns and Mosses ; 
Lindley had made considerable progress with his ' Genera and Species of 
Orchideae,' and at his suggestion I had taken up the Labiatae. Even for the 
British flora S. E. Gray's ' Natural Arrangement ' and Lindley's ' Synopsis ' 
were intended to bring the natural orders into use by our local botanists ; 
but owing to defects in form and to the want of any artiticial Clavis, neither 
of these works was calculated to overcome the prejudices then prevailing in 
favour of the Linnean classes. 

In Germany the progress had been slower. The country abounds in those 
plodding minds which revel in the working out minutioe of detail, and, to find 
their way, are satisfied with a sexual, alphabetical, or any other artificial 
index, as well as in pure speculators, who, in developing the conceptions of their 
brain, will not bo bound by any system. The advantages of the natural 
method were long in overcoming the force of habit, kept up as it was by 
the number of works which the German press supplied for the use of 
collectors and technical botanists. The most important of these took 
the form of new editions of Linna;us's ' Systema Vegctabihum ' or of his 
' Species Plantarum.' The last two of these had a very general circulation 
in the botanical world: Sprengel's, completed in four volumes from 1817 to 
1820, would have been useful from its compactness had it been a conscientious 
compilation, and actually served for the aiTangement of herbaria in the charge of 
mere librarians *; but it was so carelessly and recklessly worked out as to be 
soon rejected by all true botanists who attempted to use it. Eoemer and 
Schultes's ' Systema,' continued through eight volumes from 1817 to 1830, was 
the result of great labour and was generally accurate in detail, and would 
have been really useful had it been brought to a conclusion within a short 
time. But by the time it had reached the end of Hexandria, the progress 
of De Candolle's ' Prodromus ' had even in Germany driven it out of the 
market, leaving it, in its incomplete state, nothing but a long succession of 
disconnected genera, the confusion of which was stiU further increased by a 
series of ' Mantissas ' and first and second Additamenta to ' Mantissas.' Neither 
the ability of the younger Schultes, the author of the last two and best 
volumes (Hexandria), nor the arguments of Eoemer (who in the preface 
justified the use of the sexual system, first on the authority of Linnaeus, 
secondly because it was easy, and thirdly because, like nature, it never changed) 
could any longer sustain the crumbling fabric. The Natural Orders were 
becoming generally taught, and BartHng, in his ' Ordines Naturales Plantarum,' 
1830, had proposed one of those speculative rearrangements of the Jussieuan 
and Candollean Orders which have since been so frequently indulged in to 
so little purpose. But as yet there was no flora of the country or other 
practical work calculated to place the natural or scientific method within 
reach of the beginner. 

Other more distant countries showed still fewer outward signs of the spread 
of the philosophical teaching of botanical systems, which, however, through 
the influence especially of Erench works, was gradually gaining ground in 

* Eren at Paris the rich herbaria of Delessert were to the last arranged according to 
Sprcngel, to the thorough disgust of all working botanists who had to consult tli?m, 



RECENT PROGRESS OF SYSTEMATIC BOTANY. 31 

Sweden, Eussia, and North America, whilst in Southern Europe Spain and 
Italy, which during the preceding half century had produced so many emi- 
nent botanists in various branches, seemed now disposed to limit themselves 
to local floras and the sexual classes. 

We may take as the next period in the progress of systematic botany the 
seventeen years that elapsed from 1832 to 1859, during which the advance 
had been wonderfully successful. The change from the technical to the scien- 
tific study of plants, which during the preceding period had been working its 
way through so many obstacles, was now complete. The Linnean platform, 
established on the relations of genera and species, had now been so long and 
60 universally adopted as the basis or starting-point, that the credit due to 
its founder was almost forgotten in the triumphant destruction of the sexual 
scaffolding he had erected for the ascent of the higher stages, and now com- 
pletely superseded by the progress of the Jussieuan roads, although it was 
chiefly by the consistent following out the principles laid down by Linnaeus 
himself that the change had been effected. No would-be botanist was allowed 
any longer to eschew the labour of the methodical study of plants, or to 
indulge in the belief that tlieir technical sorting constituted the science. At 
every stage he was taught that plants must be grouped upon a pliilosophical 
study of their affinities, whether morphological, structural, or physiological. 
The natural orders, as well as genera, were exhibited to him in every work 
prepared for his use. Their exposition formed part of the admirable text- 
books of the De Candolles (father and son), Adrieji de Jussieu, Lindley, and 
others ; Endlicher's ' Enchiridion ' and, above all, Lindley's ' Vegetable 
Kingdom ' exhibited the rich stores of knowledge disclosed by their study. 
As systematic guides, Endlicher's ' Genera Plautarum ' was complete, and 
De Candolle's ' Prodromus ' for Dicotyledons and Kunth's ' Enumeratio ' for 
Monocotyledons were far advanced, the gaps being also partially filled up by 
numerous monographs of various degrees of merit ; whilst in Cryptogams the 
works of Hooker, Mohl, Mettenius, Montague, Fries, Tulasne, Berkeley, 
Agardh (father and son), Harvey, Thuret, Kiitzing, and many others were 
already showing that for their discrimination and study it was no longer suffi- 
cient to rely upon outer characters alone, but that their inner structure and 
physiological changes must be taken into account ; and monographs or 
" species " of Ferns, Mosses, Hepaticae, Lichens, Fungi, and Algae, arranged 
upon principles more or less philosophical, were prepared for the use of the 
student in these several branches. For more local botanists and amateurs 
most European countries, and a few distant ones, had now their standard 
floras in a more or less advanced state, arranged according to the natural 
method, the more important of which I shall presently have occasion to 
refer to. 

It would seem, therefore, that at this advanced stage of our progress the 
guide-posts indicative of the principal paths had become so firmly established, 
the principles upon which plants should be scientifically classed so clearly 
laid down and so far carried into practice, that little remained to be done 
towards completing the survey of the territory, towards a general distribu- 
tion of species according to their natural affinities, beyond the more accu- 
rate delineation of details and the interpolation of newly discovered species, 
and that the systematic botanist could already look towards that summit, 
upon reaching which his labours in aid of the general advance of the science 
might come to a close. But there was a rock a-head which had long been 
looming in the distance, and which on a nearer spproach opposed a formidable 
obstacle, to most minds apparently insurmountable. What is a species ? 



32 REPORT— 1874. 

and what is tlie meaning of those natui-al afliuities accordiug to which species 
are to be classed ? were questions which in 1859 it was generally thought vain 
to discuss, or the answers to which, given to us by doctrinal teachers, unsup- 
ported by or independent of facts, it was considered as sacrilegious to doubt. 
We were taught, and some may still believe, that every species, such as we 
now see it, was an original creation, perpetuated through every generation 
■within fixed limits which never have been and never will be transgressed. 
We were less authoritatively told that resemblances of different species were 
owing to their having been formed upon one plan variously modified. To the 
question why they were so modified, the ready answer was, such was the will 
of the Creator ; and in order not to suppose that that will was influenced by 
mere caprice, it was suggested that the modifications were either to suit the 
plant to the circumstances it was placed in, or to remedy defects in the 
original plan, or we were simply told that the subject was beyond our powers 
of comprehension *. 

One consequence of this apparent impossibility of proceeding further in the 
investigation of the causes of afllinities and of this necessity of taking species 
as separate creations in enormous numbers, with resemblances and differences 
in endless variety according to the inscrutable will of the Creator, was the 
encouragement it gave to arbitrary classifications and interminable disputes 
as to the limits of individual species. It was, indeed, generally admitted that 
plants should be arranged in genera, orders, &c., in groups of higher and 
higher grades according to the importance of the characters they had in com- 
mon, and that the test of species was the persistence of its characters through 
two or more generations ; but there were no means of estimating the import- 
ance or value of characters except by such vague standards as the number of 
species in which they had been observed to prevail, no means of determining 
what degree of variation and persistence actually distinguished the species 
from the variety. The botanist who affirmed that JRnbus frutlcosus, Draha 
verna, or Sphagnum palustre were each one very variable species, and he who 
maintained that they were collective names for nearly four hundred, for at 
least two hundred, or for some twenty separately created and invariably pro- 
pagated species, had each arguments in their favour to which no definite 
reply could be given ; and systematic botany was in too many cases begin- 
ning to merit the reproach of German physiologists, that it was degenerating 
into an arbitrary multiplication and cataloguing of names and specimens, of 
use to collectors only, and serving as impediments instead of aids to the 
extension of our scientific knowledge of the vegetation of the globe. 

It is true that long before the period under consideration some indications 
by which this great obstacle to further progress might be surmounted had 

♦ In my frequent intercourse during the above period with foreign botanists, I heard 
more than one German Professor affirm tliat a type-form was created for each natural 
order (the common clover, for instance, being that for Papilionaceje), that Nature set to 
work to modify this type-form in framing species of a more complicated structure, till, 
tired of the exertion, she next produced new species by the simple omission of some of 
the complications. A French botanist of great eminence, to account for the number of 
plants in cultivation which are not known to exist in a wild state, observed that we could 
not suppose that man would have been created without a simultaneous creation of plants 
for him to cultivate for food, quite independent of the wild vegetation which existed before 
him for the food of animals. And many other still wilder theories were propounded to 
account for facts inconsistent with the presumed independent creation and absolute fixity 
of species. The bsst authorities went no further than defining affinity as correspondence 
of charasters, physiological or structural, and estimating the value of characters and the 
importance of peculiarities or modifications of character according to their known connexion 
with the phenomena of life. 



RECENT PROGRESS OF SYSTEMATIC BOTANY. 33 

been vaguely given, and the theory of a common descent of modern species 
had been broached, or generally proposed as a solution of some of the dif- 
ficulties ; but not in a manner suiRciently plausible to overcome the prejudices 
against following up any such track, nor supported by facts and observations 
sufficient to awake the attention of the more anxious pursuers of the science. 
It was reserved for the publication of the ' Origin of Species' in 1859 to 
mark out a practicable path by which the higher summits might be attained. 
The doctrine of evolution of species, according to laws originally fixed, 
instead of arbitrary intervention upon each and every occasion, was in this 
remarkable work clearly traced out, supported by powerful arguments, and 
founded upon facts and observations the accuracy of which no one could 
doubt; and a way was thus opened up to a pinnacle, which in a wonderful 
degree enlarged the range of vision of those who had the courage to follow 
its propounder up the giddy height. It was immediately and successfully 
taken to by several of the most eminent of our naturalists accustomed to 
philosophical deductions from ascertained facts ; it was blindly accepted, but 
misused, by some German and ItaUan speculators, who, in their hurry to 
adopt Darwinism before they well understood it, and in their eagerness to 
go beyond the point to which the road had been securely marked out by 
the author, or to diverge into by-paths which led to precipices and pitfalls, 
added to the alarm of the timid ; whilst it was not only shunned, but de- 
nounced as fraught with the utmost danger by the great majority who were 
accustomed to place tradition above reasoning. We systematists hesitated 
at first to advance in a direction so contrary to that which we had deter- 
minately followed for so long a period ; but after a careful study of the facts 
and arguments upon which the new course was founded, and of the guide- 
posts which had been set in it, we most of us have felt but little doubt of 
its safely leading us over difficulties, which we had so long reckoned as in- 
surmountable, into a vast and entirely new field of observation, calculated 
to give a stability to the results of our labours, of which we had hitherto 
formed no conception. The last of the eminent observers of nature who 
persistently maintained the independent ci-eation and absolute fixity of spe- 
cies (the late distinguished Professor Agassiz) has recently gone from among 
us ; and it may now be given as a generally received doctrine, that all natural 
methods must be founded on affinities as dependent on consanguinity. Fifteen 
years have sufficed to establish a theory, of which the principal points, in as 
far as they affect systematic botany, may be shortly stated as follows : — 

That although the whole of the numerous offspring of an individual plant 
resemble their parent in aU main points, there are slight individual differ- 
ences between them. 

That among the few who survive for further propagation, the great majority, 
under ordinary circumstances, are those which most resemble their parent, 
and thus the species is continued without material variation. 

That there are, however, occasions when certain individuals with slightly 
diverging characters may survive and reproduce races in which these diver- 
gences are continued even with increased intensity, thus producing Varieties. 

That in the course of an indefinite number of genei-ations circumstances 
may induce such an increase in this divergency, that some of these new races 
will no longer readily propagate with each other, and the varieties become 
New Species, more and more marked as the unaltered or less altered races, 
descendants of the common parent, have become extinct. 

That these species have in their turn become the parents of groups of spe- 
cies, i. e. Genera, Orders, &c., of a higher and higher grade according to the 

1874. D 



34 REPORT — 1874. 

remoteness of the common parent, and more or less marked according to the 
extinction or preservation of unaltered primary or less altered intermediate 
forms. 

As there is thus no difference but in degree between a variety and a 
species, between a species and a genus, between a genus and order, all disputes 
as to the precise grade to which a group really belongs are vain. It is left 
in a great measure to the judgment of the systematist, with reference as 
much to the use to be made of his method as to the actual state of things, 
how far he should go in dividing and subdividing, and to which of the grades 
of division aud subdivision he shall give the names of Orders, Suborders, 
Tribes, Genera, Suljgenera, Sections, Species, Subspecies, Varieties, &c., with 
the consequent nomenclature. In the limitation of his orders, genera, spe- 
cies, &e. he must carefully observe those cases where the extinction of races 
has definitely isolated groups having a common parentage ; and in other 
cases where the preservation of intermediate forms has left no such gaps, he 
is compelled to draw arbitrary lines of distinction wherever it appears to be 
most convenient for use. In the pre-Darwiuian state of the science we were 
taught, and I had myself strongly urged, that species alone had a definite exist- 
ence, and that genera, orders, &c. were moz-e arbitrary, established for prac- 
tical use, and founded on the combination of such characters as appeared the 
most constant in the greater number of species, and therefore the most im- 
portant ; we must now test our species as well as genera or other groups, by 
such evidences as we can collect of affinity derived from consanguinity. 

In valuing these evidences, in estimating the comparative value of cha- 
racters, a new difficulty has arisen, that of distinguishing the two classes of 
characters to which Professor Flower has appropriately given the names of 
essential and adaptive, the former the result of remote hereditary descent, 
the latter the more recent effect of external influences. This distinction is 
often the more difficult, as the essential ones are often only to be found in 
embryos, in the early stages of organs, or are merely indicated by slight 
rudiments requiring close observation to detect them; whilst the adaptive 
ones, of comparatively small systematic importance, are often developed in 
external form, in ramification, spinescence, foliage, &c., and are the most 
striking to the eye. One consequence is, that the systematist of the present 
day sees more and more the necessity of preparing a double arrangement of 
his genera, species, and other groups — a natural one according to the best 
evidences of affinity for the purpose of scientific study, aud an artificial clavis 
by which the student can be led to identify genera or species by the more 
readily observed characters, which may only form part, or be but chance 
accompaniments, of the essential ones. The greatest change, however, which 
the adoption of the doctrine has effected in the methodical study of plants 
is the having rendered it necessary, in the case of everj- genus or other group, 
to take into account and specially to estimate the value of all the characters 
observed- — -no one can be taken as so absolute as to obviate the need of con- 
sidering others, no one can be passed over as theoretically wortliless ; and 
whilst this adds immensely to the labour of the systematist and to the calls 
on his judgment, it gives equal increase to the value of the results obtained. 
The principal works through which the systematic botanist contributes to 
the scientific studj^ of the vegetable kingdom are: — 1. General treatises or 
descriptive reviews of the natural orders (Ordines Plantarum) ; 2. Methodical 
ennmeration aud descriptions of genera (Genera Plantarum); 3. Methodical 
enumei'alion and descriptions of species (Species Plantarum) ; 4. Monographs 
of separate orders or genera, subgenera or species ; 5. Floras of separate 



RECENT PROGRESS OK SYSTEMATIC BOTANY. 35 

countries or districts ; G. Detached and miscellaneous specific descriptions. 
Before considering how far the works now complete or in progress answer 
our requirements under each of these heads, a few general remarks are sug- 
gested with regard to the languages in use. 

In the pursuit of my systematic studies, and especially in the preparation 
of my reports and addresses to the Linnean Society, I have had to consult or 
refer to botanical publications in no less than fifteen different languages *. 
This, to say the least of it, entails the use of a scries of dictionaries which 
but a small number of botanists can have access to ; and many an important 
observation or discovery recorded remains, for this reason alone, long un- 
known to the general botanist. That works intended for the use of the 
beginner or local amateur, or exclusively teaching the well-known botany of 
a particular country, should be in the familiar language of the country, is a 
rule that every one Avill admit the expediency of ; but for purely scientific 
treatises and technically descriptive works which all botanists may have to 
take cognizance of, and for which the commercial demand may be too limited 
to ensure their translation into various languages, it is essential that that 
one should be selected which is most likely to be intelligible to the greater 
number of students of all countries. With this view Latin had been very 
generally adopted during the last and the early portion of the present cen- 
tury. It was taught in all European schools, and served even as a vehicle 
for general interchange of ideas between the votaries of science of diff'ereut 
countries where the study of modern languages was exceptional ; and even 
now it is found to be the best suited for technical diagnoses and descriptions 
from its concise character and from its susceptibility of being subjected to tech- 
nical forms, without jarring upon the conventionalities of living languages 
in familiar use. Every botanist must still, therefore, learn to read, and every 
descriptive botanist to draw vip, these Latin formulae, notwithstanding the 
character of dog-Latin which the scholar may be disposed to charge them 
"with ; but general descriptions, treatises, and discussions require a language 
more thoroughly understood and in familiar use for other purposes. A clas- 
sical education is now much less common than it was, and almost unknown 
in some countries where science is eagerly pursued. Modern languages are, 
on the other hand, much more frequently taught for general use ; and there 
are three which at the present day every botanist ought to understand, and 
in one of which he ought to be able to write — all three having a rich lite- 
rature in every branch to repay the labour of learning them, independently 
of science ; these are, French, English, and German. 

French has long been considered the one among modern languages 
forming the nearest approach to a common one ; it is easy, comparatively 
simple in construction, not overburdened with redundant words, and, above 
all, is readily broken up into short phrases, an invaluable qualification for 
clearness of methodical exposition. It has long been the recognized diplo- 
matic language, and the first foi'eign one taught in most European schools; 
and although within my own recollection national animosities may have 
from time to time throM'n it into disfavour in Germany and Eastern Europe, 
yet it always appears to recover its prestige there in general society. At 
the meetings of the botanists of various nations congregated at Florence last 
May it was the general medium of intercourse, although the Frenchmen 
present were in a very small minority. And in every branch of science or 
literature to 'nhich I have paid more or less attention, it possesses more 

* Latin, Englisl!, Frfiich, Gern-.an, Dutcli, Dariii-b, Swrclish, Ruesian, Polish, Bohemiar, 
Hungarian, PorUiguese, h'panisli, It.ilian, and modern Greek. 

D 2 



36 REPORT — 1874. 

instructive elementary works, more readily intelligible treatises and clear 
expositions of abstruse subjects, than any other language I am acquainted 
with. For the botanist, therefore, as Avell as for all naturalists, its study is 
still, and I believe will long remain, of first-rate importance. 

The English language has of late years been recommended by more than 
•one continental naturalist for general adoption as a vehicle for international 
scientific intercourse. It partakes of some of the advantages of both the 
French and the German. Though less brilliant, it oflTers more variety than 
the former, it is less involved than the latter, and it appears to be capable 
of giving more precision and force to argument than either. It is now the 
national language of the largest proportion of the civilized population of the 
globe, and its use continues steadily to spread out of Europe generally, and 
to a certain extent among European naturalists and other educated classes, 
especially in eastern and northern Europe. They begin to admit the neces- 
sity of consulting our untranslated treatises and memoirs, and our German 
and east European botanical correspondents, at least, accept English letters 
as readily as French. In southern Europe French is still much more gene- 
rally understood ; but even there the objections to the extended use of our 
language for botanical works have now, I believe, lost much of their force. 

The German is a more difficult language, much more difficult, indeed, for 
the Latin nations of southern and western Europe than for ourselves. Its 
construction is involved, its extraordinary copiousness occasions a strain upon 
the memory ; but it affords great facilities for giving expression to minutely 
distinguished details, whether of fact or of thought. It may thus frequently 
give greater solidity to their theoretical expositions than the French, but is 
infinitelj' more difficult to translate ; and to those who are not thoroughly 
used to its intricacies it seems to foster, if not to create, confusion of ideas. 
Germany has now, however, so long included so many publishing centres of 
scientific importance, and its language has been so generally used by Scan- 
dinavian and Sclavonian, as well as by their own naturalists, that a sufficient 
acquaintance with it, to study the very numerous works it produces, can no 
longer be dispensed with by the general botanist. 

The Dutch language, notwithstanding the number of scientific working 
naturalists the coimtry has fostered, both at home and in its Malayan colo- 
nies, has too limited a range to be generally studied, and is not likely to 
extend. It is much to be regretted, therefore, that it should have been so 
much made use of for works intended for the use of others as well as of their 
own Subjects. Some of the late Professor Miquel's most valuable essays 
(that, for instance, on the vegetation of Sumatra with relation to its physical 
conditions) remain a sealed book for the botanical community at large. I 
perceive now, however, that their more important papers in the ' Ai-chives 
Neerlandaises ' and some other journals are being printed in French as well 
as in Dutch, and we must hope that so commendable a practice may in future 
be generally adopted. 

The Scandinavian nations, Denmai'k and Sweden, whose men of science 
have included a large proportion of the most eminent naturalists, have always 
felt the objections to the publication of the results of their labours in their 
own language. Linnaeus conducted his foreign correspondence and edited all 
such works as were intended for foreign use in Latin, and his example was 
much followed. In the first half, however, of the present century, both 
Danes and Swedes began to indulge more in the use of their native languages, 
and some important essays, especially on geographical botany' and on the 
cryptogamic section of systematic botany, have appeared in that disguise. 



RECENT PROmiESS OP SYSTEMATIC BOTANY. 37 

More recently the botanical papers in the Copenhagen Transactions and 
Journals are frequently accompanied by a French abstract ; and in Sweden 
some of their Natural-History memoirs, such as Morell's ' Monograph of 
Spiders,' have been printed exclusively in English. German is also a lan- 
guage very generally understood by Swedish men of science, more so amongst 
some of them than French or English ; and it cannot be too strongly recom- 
mended to them to bear in mind that, at the present day, the study of 
Swedish and Danish is not usually treated as more necessary to the general 
botanist than that of Dutch. 

Still less is it the case with the Russian language, which, notwithstanding 
its poetic beauty, its conciseness, and many other intrinsic advantages, 
besides the extent of territory over which it is officially spoken, is far too 
uncongenial with those of Western Europe to give any prospect of its being 
generally learnt, and the publication in it of any works intended for foreign 
circulation cannot be too strongly deprecated. The Academy of Sciences of 
St. Petersburgh and the principal Natural-History Society of Moscow accord- 
ingly admit in their Transactions and Bulletins memoirs in French, German, 
or Latin ; but still there are a few important ones issued by these bodies as 
■well as by a second Moscow Society, and others at Kazan and Odessa, entirely 
in Russian. These are of course ignored by the rest of the botanical world 
untU translated or abstracted in one of the western languages. Such is also 
the fate of the fortunately very few botanical papers which I have met with 
in Polish, Bohemian, and Hungarian publications. 

The Portuguese and Spaniards, with the vast possessions they formeiij' 
held in America, where their languages have persisted as national, and those 
they still retain (the former in tropical Africa, the latter in the Philippines 
and West Indies), have in their time done good work in botany, and have 
generally had the good sense to publish in Latin. There are some floras, 
however, of their present or former colonies, more used by foreigners than 
by themselves, which are entirely in their own languages. But these 
languages, are, I believe, not now spreading further, and in America, at least, 
English is gaining upon them for business transactions. For the Portuguese 
language 1 have little sympathy, for it has always appeared to me harsh and 
disagTeeable ; but one cannot but feel some regret that so noble and powerful 
a language as the Spanish should now be applied to so little purpose. 

Italian botanical publications are rather numerous and of some importance, 
especially in physiological and theoretical botany (their floras are mostly in 
Latin) ; the language is also so generally and deservedly admired in a literary 
point of view, and so far from difficult to those who are acquainted with 
Latin and French, that some knowledge of it might be recommended to 
botanists. Yet such general acquaintance with it ought not to be too much 
relied upon ; and Italian botanists will do well in continuing to resort to 
Latin or Frencb for such works as are intended for the use of foreigners. 
And, lastly, with regard to modern Greek, we can only hope that its use wiU 
be closely restricted to purposes of local instruction, which is indeed the 
character of the few botanical publications I have seen in that language. 

We may now proceed to consider the principal works in systematic botany 
recently published or now in progress, under the several heads above 
enumerated. 

1. Okdines Plantaetjm, or General Expositions of the Orders and Sub- 
orders constituting the Vegetable Kingdom. 

It is to these ' OrdLnes Plantarum ' that we are now obliged to limit our 



38 . REPORT — 1874. 

demands for single general histories of all plants. Alph. de CaadoUe, in the 
" Reflexions " above referred to, has shown hovf hopeless it is to expect the 
completion of any single ' Species Plantarum,' even if limited to the technical 
elaboration of the 1.50,000 or more species and subspecies now known, and 
a ' Genera Plantarum' has now become a long and tedious labour. But wo 
have a right still to hope that a general account of the Vegetable Kingdom, 
such as pre-Linnean botanists used to edit, but keeping pace with our 
advanced knowledge, may still be issued from time to time, in a single volume, 
as the work of a single author, provided he limit himself to the higher groups, 
to orders and suborders in number not above a few hundred, neglecting the 
lower groups, genera, and species, except for illustration or exemplification. 

In such a work we should expect, for each order or other group illustrated, 
the following particulars : — 

(1) A diagnosis or short indication of its most important or most generally 
prevailing character. 

(2) A more detailed technical description of its general characters, with 
indication of known exceptions. 

(3) A discussion of its affinities, including an indication of the line of 
demarcation adopted for its separation from the orders into which it may 
pass insensibl)', as well as of such aberrant or isolated forms as may lie 
betwt n it and some order otherwise separated by a wide gap. 

(4) Its geographical distribution and the modifications of its characters 
which prevail in difi'erent countries. 

(5) Its connexion with extinct forms. 

(6) Its properties and applied relations, industrial, economical, or phar- 
maceutical. 

Such a general history of plants is so useful not only to all classes of 
botanists, but to the followers of other brandies of natural and other science, 
that it is most desirable that it should be drawn up in one or more of the 
most widely diffused modern languages, and accompanied by well-selected 
explanatorj' illustrations. 

We have two works which have fulfilled tlie greater number of the above 
conditions, bringing the science down to the comparatively recent periods 
when they were first prepared : — Lindley's ' Vegetable Kingdom,' published 
in 184-5, in English, somewhat modified in Endlicher's ' Enchiridion Botani- 
cum ' in Latin in 1846, and reissued by the author, with many additional 
notes, in 1853 ; and Le Maout and Decaisue's ' Traite de Botanique,' pub- 
lished in French in 1 868, translated into English by Mrs. Hooker, with 
considerable additions and some modifications by Dr. Hooker, in 1873. 

Lindley's ' Vegetable Kingdom ' was chiefly founded upon a large number 
of original observations, notes, and other materials he had collected and 
partly worked up in contemplation of a ' Genera PJantarum,' a work which the 
increasing calls upon his time and thoughts obliged him in the first place to 
postpone, and which he finally gave up on the appearance of the first parts 
of Endlicher's ' Genera.' These materials were elaborated with great care 
into his * Natural System of Botany,' 2nd edition, 1836, and afterwards 
extended, chiefly by compilation, but always under the guidance of his very 
extensive practical knowledge of plants, into the ' Vegetable Kingdom,' 
which long remained a most valuable resume of all that was important to 
know of the 303 orders into which the subject matter was divided. This 
work, however, is now nearly thirty years (or the greater part of the original 
matter nearly forty years) old, and is thrown quite out of date by the great 
progress the science has made during that period. The present proprietors 



RECENT PROGRESS OP SYSTEMATIC BOTANY. 39 

have, I understand, made proposals for the preparation of a new edition ; but 
this would scarcely be fair to the memory of the talented author. There are 
many errors in it which he would have corrected and which must be cor- 
rected, there are many views which he would now have modified and which 
must be modified, but it would be impossible to tell to M'hat extent he would 
have admitted such corrections and modifications ; and they at any rate would 
bear so important a part upon the whole plan, that the new editors would 
not be justified in issuing the altered work under the sanction of his name. 
It must be in a great measure rewritten, as will clearly appear on conside- 
ration of the following particulars : — • 

The technical characters of each order would be carefully checked in 
every particular. They were often taken from some one or two genera sup- 
posed to be typical, and in some instances have been proved inapplicable even 
to the great bulk of the order, or to have been founded wholly on error. In 
many cases they may require considerable extension as to particulars which 
have proved to be more important than they were originally estimated. 

The affinities given require reconsideration throughout. Lindley insisted 
on the principle, which was at that time generally prevalent amongst the 
first naturalists, that affinity was no more than correspondence in structure, 
more or less modified in proportion to its connexion with the phenomena of 
life, and that an absolute scale of the relative value of characters founded on 
their degree of constancy could be drawn up, so as to form a practical test of 
natural afiinities ; and it was from an adherence to this rule that, in grouping 
his orders, he was led to dissociate such natural allies as Apocyneae and 
Asclejnadese or Ericaceae and Vacciniese in order to class them with others 
universally acknowledged to be more remote. The new light thrown on the 
subject by the doctrine that affinity is the result of consanguinity, would, 
there is very little doubt, have been taken fullj^ advantage of bj^ Lindley 
himself. He would have acknowledged that there is no character whicn 
may not be of very different importance in different orders or genera, or even 
in different countries in one and the same order or genus, and that the true 
characters of all natural assemblages are not so extremely simple as he then 
beheved them to be (see ' Yeg. Kingd.' Introd. p. xxix). The adoption of 
this theory would entail the rewriting and extending the important para- 
graphs introduced by Lindley immediately after the technical characters of 
each order, and destined to indicate the most generally constant features and 
the most important aberrant forms exhibited in it, and tlieir connexion, near 
or distant, with other orders or isolated genera or species. 

Geograjihical distribution has, since Lindley wrote, acquired great impor- 
tance with reference to natural method, as well as forming now an essential 
item in tlie general history of plant-races. Although never neglected in the 
'Vegetable Kingdom,' it requires much further development, with a resume 
of such evidences as the recent progress of the science has collected, respect- 
ing the presumed origin and extension of the several orders. And to this 
should be added a reference to the localities and the presumed geological 
periods among the remains of which well-authenticated representatives of 
any order may have been found. This, however, should only extend to the 
few cases where the evidences are really satisfactory. The numerous 
palseontological identifications derived from impressions of leaves only, upon 
which so many expositions of ancient distribution have been founded, are 
for the most part mere guesses, more likely to lead astray by giving a false 
support to preconceived theories than to supply any sound data for the 
history of plant-races. 



40 REPORT — 1874. 

The properties and applied relations, the " qualitates et usus " of Endli- 
cher's 'Enchiridion,' are very fully exhibited by Lindley, and would only 
require revising in conformity with the advance of the science of applied 
botany, much promoted of late by various important works and essays, and 
in no small degree by the establishment of the Kew Museum. 

The sequence of orders adopted in the ' Vegetable Kingdom ' is a very 
objectionable one. The practical convenience of following the CandoUean 
sequence in its main features, until some other one shall have been pro- 
pounded which shall prove to be such an improvement as to ensure its 
general adoption, has been too clearly brought forward by Dr. Hooker and 
others to make it necessary for me to repeat the reasons adduced. Lindley 
felt its defects, as we all do, but failed in his repeated attempts to remedy 
them. He was, indeed, so little satisfied with any of the four different 
systems he successively proposed, that he adopted none of them for his own 
herbarium, in which he arranged the orders alphabetical^. Brongniart's 
arrangement has found its way into a few French works, and Endlicher's 
into a few German ones ; but the very numerous ones proposed by other 
French, German, and Swedish systematists have rarely been followed by more 
than the individual authors, and many of them have only been broached in 
text-books without ever having been put into practice. The Candollean 
series is so generally adopted in floras, that these attempts to interfere with 
its universality have hitherto only ^iroduced confusion. 

To sum up, it appears to me that the most useful work a competent 
botanist could now apply himself to would be a new ' Vegetable Kingdom,' 
founded on that of Lindley, but extended and modified according to the 
above suggestions. 

Le Maout and Decaisne's ' Traite de Botanique ' is an excellent and most 
valuable work, biinging down the science, in most respects, to the year 
1868, taking well the place of Lindley's ' Vegetable Kingdom,' and now our 
standard history of plants. With great original merit it is still further im- 
proved by Hooker's notes and additions, including a rearrangement of the 
293 orders according to the Candollean sequence ; and the illustrations, many 
of them original, from Decaisne's own drawings, may be thoroughly depended 
upon for that most essential of all qualities, their correctness. Yet in some 
respects it seems to require rewriting, which of course could not be done by 
an editor. Independently of a few oversights and accidental errors, there 
are some partial views which are more or less out of date, and the general 
principles followed are essentially pre-Darwinian. How far the French 
authors may or may not be prepared to adopt the theory of evolution does 
not appear, it is not in any manner alluded to ; but the old doctrine that 
affinities are to be determined by a calculation of resemblances, estimated 
according to a fixed scale of the relative value of characters, is as absolutely 
insisted upon by Decaisne and Le Maout as it was by Lindley, and is to a 
certain degree practically carried out in this and others of the principal 
aiithor's excellent systematic works, with the usual result. Some of the 
groupings of species or genera, which, when tested by the value assigned 
a priori to the characters used, ought to be highly natural, have proved, on 
the contrary, to be purely artificial. This, however, is not frequently the 
case with Decaisne ; he knows too well how to appreciate natural affinities to 
follow strictly in practice the rules so stringently inculcated in theory. 

1 can scarcely include Baillon's ' Histoire des Plantes ' amongst methodical 
' Ordines Plantarum,' for there is no method in it ; it is rather a series of 
essays or notes on the principal genera of various orders taken at random. 



RECENT PROGKESS OF SYSTEMATIC BOTANY. 41 

intended, in the first instance, to illustrate Payer's views on organogenesis, 
and thence enlarged into desultory reviews of the orders, exhibiting in many 
iustances undoubted talent, containing a number of shrewd observations, 
accompanied by beautiful illustrations, and followed by technical characters 
of genera, in which but very little is original, being mostly transcripts from 
our ' Genera Plantarum' and some other works. The result is a work not sufii- 
ciently concise, exact, or methodical for scientific reference, too much encum- 
bered with technical matter for general popular use, although it may well 
adorn a scientific drawing-room table. It was begun in 1867, and four 
volumes and a half are now completed. These, however, scarcely embrace 
one sixth of the vegetable kingdom ; and if the same plan is followed 
throughout, the work must ultimately extend to some five and twenty to 
thirty volumes. An English translation is in progress, two volumes being 
already published. That BaiUon shoiild have undertaken so cumbersome a 
work, with so little of that clear method for which his countrymen are justly 
celebrated, is the more to be regretted, as the theory of organogenesis, which 
it has been his great object to develop, is one of the greatest aids recently 
introduced into the investigation and determination of natural affinities, 
wherever it has been critically appKed and properly checked by other classes 
of observations. 

2. Genera Plantarum, or Systematic Descriptions of aU the Genera con- 
stituting the Vegetable Kingdom. 

This is the utmost extent to which we can expect to see all known plants 
methodized and described within the limits of a single work by a single 
author ; and even in that work they can only be treated of scientifically and 
technically for the use of the botanist, without the generalities and accessory 
details which adapt the ' Ordines Plantarum ' to a wider circulation . Taking 
for genera those groups of species, those plant-races of an intermediate grade 
between the order and the species, which appear to be the best defined in 
the present state of nature, and to which the generic nomenclature can be 
applied with the greatest practical advantage, we should estimate them as 
rather above eight thousand for Phenogams and vascular Cryptogams, and at 
least a thousand more for cellular Cryptogams. Such a work can still be 
brought within the compass of about three manageable volumes. Indis- 
pensable as it always is for the working botanist, the demand for it would 
never be sufiicient to admit of its being simultaneously issued in the three 
generally diffused modern languages, and it therefore usually has been, and 
will still be, most usefully drawn up in botanical Latin. 

Since the introduction of the natural method, there have been but two 
good complete ' Genera Plantarum,' the original one of Jussieu in 1789 and 
that of Endlicher, with its supplements ranging over the five years from 
1836 to 18-10 ; the latter was the work of a clear methodical head, applied 
with great care and assiduity to a stock of materials very fair for the time, 
and the general plan is good. But it was necessarily in a great measure a 
compUatiou, and it affords no means of judging how far the characters given 
had been confirmed by actual observation. This would have been the more 
useful, as it is evident that in many cases ordinal characters are repeated 
under each genus upon no other authority than that the genus had been 
referred by its proposer to the order in question. The work had, moreover, 
become quite out of date ; and the need of a new one was so much felt, that 
Dr. Hooker and myself undertook the preparation of a ' Genera Plantarum ' 
on a i)lan which long experience had led us to hope might be an improved 



42 REPORT — 1874. 

oue. The first part was published in 1862, and the whole of the first 
volume (completing the Polypetalous Dicotyledons) was, with the aid of a 
supplement, brought down to the year 1867. The first half of the second 
volume, issued last year, contains nearly half the Gamopetalous Dicotyledons, 
the remainder of which, completing the second volume, will, wa hope, be in 
the printer's hands early next winter. Monochlamydous Dicotyledons and 
Monocotyledons will probably fill a third volume. 

The plan which we have set to ourselves has been to prefix to each volume 
a methodical diagnosis or short conspectus of the most striking characters of 
the several orders contained in the volume, and under each order to give the 
following particulars : — 

(1) The general characters of the order. 

(2) A short sketch of its geographical distribution. 

(3) An equally abridged sketch of its affinities. 

(4) An enumeration of the aberrant forms observed in individual genera, 
an addition which is, I believe, here introduced for the first time, we having 
both of us long felt the want of it in general works. 

(5) A conspectus of the genera — that is, a short and as much as possible 
contracted exposition of the most salient characters of each genus, as a guide 
to the determination of plants. Where the order is large enough, or hetero- 
morphous enough, to be subdivided into distinct suborders or tribes, the 
tribual characters are given in this conspectus ; and where the tribes are 
numerous, as in Leguminosoe, Umbellifei'ie, Kubiaceae, and Composite, a short 
conspectus of them precedes that of the genera. This arrangement into 
tribes has been everywhere thoroughly investigated, and in the case of most 
of the large orders entirely recast. 

(6) An enumeration of genera which are either so nearly allied that they 
might be supposed to belong to the order, or which have been erroneously 
included in it, or have been so imperfectlj- described as to be wholly doubtfal. 

(7) Then follow the detailed characters of each genus, with an evaluation 
of its extent, its geographical distribution, a full synonymy, references to 
plates illustrating it, and such occasional notes as appeared necessary on 
affinities, on genera confounded with it, or in our opinion unadvisedly sepa- 
rated from it. Where the genera are sufficiently large or varied, the characters 
of its primary sections are entered into. 

We have taken care to indicate the genera, very few in number, of 
which we have been unable to examine any specimen, and the characters 
which we have not personally investigated, indicating always the sources 
whence those we give have been taken ; and we have also thought it neces- 
sary to pay particular attention to the typographical details of the work, an 
element of clearness which is sadly neglected in many German and some 
French systematic works. 

3. Species Plantaktjm, or Systematic Enumeration and Descriptions of all 
known species. 

In the above-quoted article in the ' Natural-History Review ' for October 
1864, I gave a sketch of the last attempts made to pulilish a complete ' Spe- 
cies Plantarum,' including a detailed history of the great work of modern 
days, De Candolle's ' Prodromus,' which I need not now repeat. This work 
has now been brought to a conclusion by the issue, last autumn, of the 
seventeenth volume, forty-nine years after the publication of the first. Its 
celebrated originator began in 1818 a ' Systema Vegetabilium,' with aU the 
details of the so-called new editions of Liuna}us, but drawn up and arranged 



HiiCE.VT PttOSBESS OP SYSTEMATIC BOTANY. 43 

accorJiug to the principles of the uataral method. After the issue of the 
second volume iu 1821, he fouud himself obliged to give up the task as 
already far beyond the means of a single life, and substituted an abridged 
' Prodromus,' which he long continued, almost unassisted, at first with a vague 
idea of its being preliminary to a more detailed work. As that hojje was 
finally extinguished, and especially since the elder De Candolle's death, the 
' Prodromus ' has been gradually extended into a series of concise monographs 
by different authors, differing much in merit, but drawn up as nearly as 
could be according to one plan, and uniformly printed in the successive 
volumes of a single work — the younger De Candolle, besides working up 
many of the orders himself, having gone through the tedious labour of edit- 
ing them, giving to the botanical world a splendid monument of industry 
and perseverance, which will long be of great practical utility. It is now 
nominally complete, but only as to Dicotyledons, and the first volumes are 
quite out of date. They are, however, to a certain degree, supplemented by 
Walpers's ' Repertorium ' and 'Annales ;' and the botanist has thus, in thirty 
volumes, a very fair repertoiy of all described Dicotyledons up to a recent 
date. For Monocotyledons he has only Kuuth's ' Enumeratio,' which extends 
to little more than half the class, having been put an end to by the author's 
death in 1850. For the remaining portion of Monocotyledons, for Crypto- 
gams, and for all recently discovered species or recent methodizations of old 
ones, he must have recourse to detached monographs and floras, which are 
henceforth likely to be his only resoui'ce for the history of species. Alphouse 
de Candolle, in the above-quoted " Keflexious," has shown how little chance 
there is of a uniform ' Species Plantarum ' being again undertaken with any 
prospect of its being brought to a successful conclusion. He calculates that 
it would require fifteen or sixteen years' labour of some five-and-twenty 
botanists, working under the direction of about eight to ten editors, a com- 
bination which it is highly improbable will ever be practically brought to 
bear. His calculations may, however, be a little overcharged. He supposes 
that each botanist would not work up more than 300 species in a year ; 
that may be the case in a monograph when every detail is to be gone through 
from personal observation, but this would not now be necessary in a general 
' Species Plantarum,' which would be most useful as a concise methodical com- 
pilation. Much of the labour expended on the ' Prodromus' and on detached 
monographs and floras need not be repeated. As pre-Linnean synonyms, 
upon which so much time was formerly expended, have now been generally 
given up, so, for post-Linuean synonyms, there would now be no use in 
repeating those given in the ' Prodromus ' and other works compiled from, 
unless where errors have been detected ; and this alone would save a great 
deal of time, labour, and expense. And with regard to the greater number 
of the orders or genera contained in the recent volumes of the ' Prodromus ' 
and the best modern monographs and floras, a careful and intelligent 
abridgment of the specific characters without reexamination is all that would 
be necessary. 

It might be useful to consider what would be the requisites of any such 
abridged 'Species Plantarum' or 'Synopsis,' restricted within limits which 
should render it possible, at least as to phenogamous plants. 

We might expect it to follow the sequence of orders the -most generally 
adopted, that of the ' Prodromus' and of our ' Genera Plantarum,' with such 
slight modifications only as the progress of science has rendered necessary, 
without attempting hypothetical improvements. 

To each order and to each genus should be given short diagnostic cha- 



44 REPORT— 1874. 

racters, abridged from tlie last ' Genera Plantarum ' or other best sources, 
selecting chietiy those which are most essential and contrasted, but including 
also the most striking or the most general amongst the adaptive ones, and a 
general indication of geographical range, with careful reference to the works 
where more details are to be found. 

Where the orders or genera are large, a synopsis or conspectus of the 
principal divisions and subdivisions would be useful. 

To each species should be given : — 

(1) The name. 

(2) The diagnosis, specific character, or abridged description, which are 
but different names for the same thing, and which it appears to me would 
be always more satisfactory in the nominative than in the ablative case. 
After the example of LinuEeus, and based upon the doctrine of the fixity of 
species, it has been almost universally the custom to distinguish the specific 
diagnosis and description, the former to contain the absolutely distinctive 
characters (any deviation from which would exclude a plant from the spe- 
cies), the latter to aid the student in identifying a plant by the enumeration 
of characters which, though general, might vary in the same species, or 
which it may possess in common with other species. In order to mark the 
more strongly this difference, the diagnosis, when in Latin, has been given 
in the form of the ablative absolute, the description in the ordinary nomina- 
tive form. There is, however, nothing really absolute in nature. There is 
no class of characters which may not occasionally admit of exceptions ; and 
although care should be taken to select the most important and constant 
ones, yet, in some instances, those which are generally discarded as too 
variable for a diagnosis, such as dimensions, colour, &c., may yet be most 
useful, or even essential, for the distinction of species or even of genera. 
These diagnoses, moreover, to be useful should be short. We cannot now 
restrict them to the twelve-word law of Linnaeus, but a twelve-line ablative 
diagnosis is an absolute nuisance. 

(3) Eeferenee to the source whence the diagnosis is taken, to the work 
where a further description, the synonymy, and history of the species are to 
be found, and to any plates where it may be satisfactorily represented ; and 
all further synonymy should be avoided, except where it may be necessary 
to refer to descriptions, names, or modifications published since the one 
specially abstracted from. 

(4) The habitat of the species. 

(5) Occasional notes on affinities or other points in the history of the 
species should be very sparingly indulged in, and only when they may assist 
essentially in the provisional determination and elucidation of a' plant. All 
discussions on doubtful points and all details shoiild be reserved for mono- 
graphs or separate papers, where alone they can really tend to the advance- 
ment of the science. 

Each volume of the ' Synopsis ' would of course be accompanied by a full 
index of genera, species, and such synonyms as it may have been found 
necessary to give. 

The whole work would be so indispensable to botanists of all nations, that, 
like the ' Genera Plantarum,' it should be entirely in botanical Latin, which, 
moreover, from the number of conventional expressions to which a technical 
meaning has been assigned, is specially suited for short diagnoses. 

No new species should be first published in this ' Synopsis.' Nothing has 
tended more to produce confusion in systematic botany than the publication 
of real or supposed new species, with short diagnoses, unattended by any full 



RECENT PROGEESS OF SYSTliMATIC BOfAXV. 45 

description or detailed indications of its affinities. &c. However carefully 
the diaguosis may be woi'ded so as to distinguish the species from those 
previously published, it would bo insufficient for its identification, and full 
descriptions would be inadmissible from the plan of the work. At the same 
time it is to be expected that the author, in preparing the ' Synopsis,' should 
meet with new forms, which he may be desirous to make known, in order 
to render his work as complete as possible. But his course should be to give 
their full history in a separate monograph, to which, when published, he 
could refer in the ' Synopsis.' He should here not only thus avoid all addition 
to the numerous puzzles with which the science is overloaded from insuffi- 
cient description, but strictly abstain from all mention of manuscript and 
other names which, according to the recognized rules of nomenclature, are 
not admitted as sufficiently published. 

The grade of plant-race to which the specific name and diagnosis should 
be attached, would be the species in the Linuean sense, which, though not 
susceptible of a strict definition, is pretty generally understood amongst 
botanists, whether they may designate it as a true species, a Linuean, or a 
compound species. The ' Synopsis' might also distinguish marked varieties 
whose admission or rejection as species might be doubtful ; but the innume- 
rable forms variously termed varieties, subspecies, or critical species should 
be passed over in silence, as their admission would simply render a general 
work impossible, and a more partial one comparatively useless. The enume- 
ration and distinction of the various forms of Brasska campestn's and oleracea, 
of Pisnm sativum, Viola tricolor, &c. may be serviceable to the agriculturist 
or gardener, that of the forms of Hubus fruticosus may be interesting to 
the investigator of the flora of a limited district, but they are only useless 
encumbrances to the general systematist as well as to the naturalist in other 
branches who would have to make use of the ' Synopsis ; ' and the names and 
diagnoses of two hundred forms of Draha verna would be a simple nuisance, 
of no use whatever to any one*. 

Taking the species, therefore, in the Linnean sense, we should, with Alph. de 
CandoUe, estimate the number of Phenogams now published, or in the course 

* The mode of dealing with species which in the present state of vegetation pass into 
each other through a series of interiuediate forms which canaot fairly be supposed to be 
hybrids, is well disoussed by JJageli in a series of papers in the ' Sitzungsberichte ' of the 
Munich Academy for 1866, the result of careful observation chiefly of the genus Hiera- 
cium. After admitting liimself to have been originally a firm believer in the fixity of 
species and a strong advocate of the hybrid jjarentage of the large number of intermediate 
forms observed, he acknowledges his conversion to the doctrine of evolution. " In the 
present state of the science " he sees " no other possibility than the assumption that the 
spec'es of Hieraciiini have arisen by transmutation either from extinct or from still sur- 
viving forms, and that there are stiU persistent a great number of the intermediate stages 
(races) formed either by the original differentiation of the extinct species, or in the course 
of the transformation of one yet living species into the diverging forms." — Sitciingsbcr. 
1866, i. 330. 

In a subsequent paper he shows that the genus Hieraciuvi affords instances of great 
diversity in the degree to which differentiation has attained and in the definiteness of the 
species estabhshed by the extinction of intermediates. He instances, amongst those to 
which he would in their present state assign the rank of species : — ■ 

1. Aggregate forms, such as H. pilosella, which cannot as yet be sepai-ated into distinct 
groups. H. Hop]-)canum, Schult., H. Pelleferianum, Merat, H. pseiidopiloseUa, Jen., are 
not yet sufficiently isolated by the disappearance of intermediate forms to be ranked as 
species. 

2. Forms which, by the disnppearance of closely allied ones, have attained sharper and 
more fixed limits, and yet between which isolated intermediates may still be found, are 
exemplified 'oy H. auricula, H. auranfiacum. and H. pilosella, or by H. muroruni, H. vil- 
tostim, and H. glaii.ciou. On the other hand, it is uncertain whether the relations of 



48 REPOKT — 1874. 

of publication, from materials already in onr herbaria, at bet^vcen 110,000 
and 120,000. A competent botanist would readily get through three or four 
thousand in a year. In the ' Flora Australiensis ' I had no difficulty in pre- 
paring a thousand to twelve hundred in the year, and that was all original 
work, entailing the personal examination of every species often in numerous 
specimens, and a long and tedious investigation of synonyms. Such a com- 
pilation as I have above characterized would require, it is true, a competent 
knowledge of plants and occasional verifications ; but still the labour would be 
reduced by at least two thirds ; and 300 species a month, with a month or six 
weeks' vacation, would be no great strain upon the mind. Thus three or four 
botanists might complete the synopsis of ten thousand species in the year ; 
and the general synoptical enumeration of all known Phenogams would not 
be beyond the range of possibility, however little chance there may be of my 
living to see it commenced. 

Cryptogamic details require the cooperation of more special botanists, who 
have already furnished us with monographs or synopses of some of the 
primary groups. In Ferns, Hooker's ' Species Filicum ' is very complete, and 
is brought down to the present day by his ' Synopsis Filicum,' edited by Baker, 
of which a new edition is now ready. For Mosses, the last general work 
is Carl Mueller's ' Species Muscorum,' completed in 1851, since which date 
the number of species described has been at least doubled. Modern musco- 
logists have, however, so much lowered their generic and specific standards, 
that they have placed the study of this most interesting class of plants almost 
beyond the reach of the general botanist. A monographer who would boldly 
reestablish the species according to Linnean principles, and group them in a 
manageable number of genera, treating the lower grades as subspecies only, 
disencumbering the binomial nomenclature from them, would render a gi-eat 
service to science. In Hepaticse there has been no general ' Species ' since that 
of Gottsche and Lindenberg, begun in 1844, and, by means of supplements, 
brought down to 1847. Lichens are still more in arrear. Nylnnder began, 
indeed, a new ' Synopsis ' in 1867, but it has never been continued. In Alga?, 
Agardh's ' Species Algarum,' commenced in 1848, was completed in 1863; 
and Kiilzing's Thycologia' and ' Species Algarum,' issued in 1849, have, 
through the nineteen volumes of his ' Tabula,' been brought down to 1869. 
The enormous class of Fungi is much more complicated, and their sludy much 
more specialized than any other branch of systematic botany; and although 
mycologists, no more than phenogamists, have at present any general com- 
prehensive systematic work, they have the advantage of Streinz's 'Ncmen- 
clator,' a convenient general index to the i.umeroiis detached monographs 
and papers descriptive of fungi. 

4. MoNOGEAPHS of Ordors and Genera. 

Monographs, like ' Ordincs Plantarum,' are general histories of plants ; but 
the field being limited to single orders or genera, the author can descend to 



H. auricula and H. glacialc, or of H. mvrorvvi and H. tndgaivm. shoiikl be included in 
this stage, or are still in the first -mentioned category. 

3. fc'pccies between which no constant intermediates survive, hut which still are capable 
of producing intei mediate hybrids, are represented hy H. alpivviu and //. iiUosiin,hy 
H. ahphivm and U. cjlavnm, by B. mvrorvm and B. mvhdUilvm, &c. 

.4. Lastly, the three sections JVosella, Archicracivnu and SUvoihcca arc races which 
have become so far distanced f rt m each other that hybrid fertilization no longer takes 
place between (hem. — SH-iivqsb. 18C6, i. 472. 



KECENT PROGRESS OF SYSTEMATIC BOTANY. 47 

Species and primary varieties instead of limiting himself to orders and tribes. 
They are at the present day amongst the most important botanical works. 
They are required by the systematist for the identification of plants, and by 
the general naturalist as the source whence he is to derive the data he requires 
respecting individual species in theoretical, geographical, physiological, or 
applied botany. This preparation has been recognized as the best exercise 
for the young botanist ; and monographs of difficult ordei's have been re- 
ceived as most valuable contributions from some of the most eminent heads of 
the science. 

Our requirements for a complete monograph are analogous to those we 
expect in ' Ordincs ' and ' Genera Plantarum,' — methodical arrangement, tech- 
nical diagnoses and descriptions, indications of geographical distribution, 
" qualitates et usus," and occasional notes on affinities and systematic limits, 
including an investigation of synonyms, well selected illustrations adding 
always to the practical value. The technical diagnoses and descriptions for 
the use of the systematist ought invariably to be drawn up in botanical Latin ; 
the more general matter would usually be more readily written, and often 
much more intelligible, in one of the three general modern languages. 

This similarity required in the histories of orders, genera, and species 
has not, however, been hitherto generally acknowledged, and could not even 
have been admitted so long as it was believed that there was an essential 
difl'erence between the groups — between the definite fixity of species and 
the moi'e arbitrary limitation of genera and orders. In early systematic 
works, therefore, whilst the definitions of orders and genera were single 
and in ordinary phraseology, it was thought necessary, in the case of species, 
to give a double definition — a diagnosis containing the supposed fixed 
characters, by which the species could be absolutely tested, and therefore 
expressed in the ablative absolute, and a description admitting all classes of 
characters in the ordinary form of phraseology. As the number of species 
increased, greater extension Avas habituallj* given to both diagnosis and de- 
scription, till the}' became unwieldy for use, without some short indication 
of the most striking points to be attended to. This has been done in two 
ways, either by prefixing to the group of species described a tabular clavis or 
a short conspectus of the contrasted characters to which attention is specially 
called, or by italicizing them in the long diagnosis. The former course en- 
tails often the useless repetition of the same characters tliree times over, in 
the clavis, in the diagnosis, and in the description ; the latter, seeing that the 
italicized words are usually adjectives, often occasions confusion and loss of 
time in searching for the substantives to which they belong. Now that it is 
laid down that there is no more absolute fixity in a species than in an order 
or genus, the complication is no longer necessary ; there is no more need of an 
absolute test in the one case than in the others. In all we want a short 
indication of the most prominent contrasted characters for approximate or 
preliminarj" determination, prefixed to the detailed description for subsequent 
verification. 

These short characters are given in three difi"erent forms : — 1st, a tabular 
clavis, more or less on the dichotomous principle, as is now frequently exem- 
plified in local floras ; 2nd]y, a conspectus prefixed to the whole group of 
species; 3rdly, the short character prefixed to each description. In 
elaborate monographs, where the descriptions are long, the conspectus is pro- 
bably the most satisfactory form ; in more concise ones, where the descrip- 
tions are short, the tabular clavis will be found more useful. In synopses, 
where the descriptions are reduced to occasional notes or limited to new 



48 REPORT — 1874. 

Bpecles, tlie short characters or diagnosia (which, I think, should never be 
omitted) would form the body of the work, and the notes and descriptions, 
when they occur, should be given under each diagnosis. 

It should always be borne in mind by the monographist that the great test 
of the quality of a descriptive work lies in short descriptions, diagnosis, and 
conspectus or clavis. Any tyro with a little practice can draw up long descrip- 
tions oi specimens, fairly detailing every organ ; but the selecting the characters 
necessary to give a good idea of a sjiecies in a short description requires a 
thorough knowledge of the subject and a methodical mind. Still more diffi- 
cult is it to prepare a good clavis. After half a century of experience in using 
as well as in making these keys, I find that I have failed in some of those on 
which I had spent the greatest pains ; and in some floras I have met with 
tabular keys which are in many respects rather impediments than aids to the 
determination of plants. At the same time a successful clavis or contrasted 
conspectus is an excellent test of the quality of a method — of the appropriate 
grouping into genera, sections, and species. 

Really good monographs are not very numerous, and several of them not 
very recent. Some of the best among complete monographs have proceeded 
from the French school ; and I may refer as models to liichard's Conifers, 
Adrien de Jussieu's Malpighiacese, Decaisne's Mistletoe and Lardizabalete, 
Weddel's Urticefe, Tulasne's Monimiace^, and others. Their illustrations also, 
as well as some of the German ones, far exceed our own in neatness, clearness, 
and correctness of analytical detail. For more concise and technical mono- 
graphs some of the recent volumes of the ' Prodromus ' aftbrd good examples. 
Amongst the worst I have had occasion to refer to are De Vriese's detailed 
monograph of Goodenovieae and Steudel'smorc concise synopsis of Glumacese. 
The Germans have of late years done but little in this respect beyond what 
has been incidental to the ' Flora Brasiliensis.' In England the principal recent 
ones have been Hiern's Ebenaceas, remarkable for the scrupulous care with 
which the minutest details have been worked out, and Miers's Menispermaceae, 
the value of which we fully recognize, although we do not accept the low 
grades to which he assigns the rank of genera and species respectively. Some 
good partial ones have appeared in the Swedish and Danish as well as our 
own Transactions ; and we have had excellent Russian and North- American 
monographic memoirs, limited, however, to plants of their own territories, 
and therefore scarcely coming under the present head. 

The orders now most in need of the labours of able and methodical mono- 
graphista are, in the first place, the Monocotyledon ous ones. The largest of 
them, that of the Orchideae, was once well worked up by Lindley ; but the 
enormous additions made to it since thesfe curiously diversified plants have 
been brought into fashion by horticultui'ists have thrown the ' Genera et 
Species Orchidearum ' quite out of date. The next two in point of number, 
Graminere and Cyperaceae, have been imdertaken chiefly by Germans ; and if 
Trinius, Kunth, and jSees von Esenbeck had partially cleared up the confusion 
which prevailed among them, Steudel has in a great measure contributed to 
throw them into a worse chaos than before. Munro, who has long made the 
Graminere a subject of special study, has as yet only published his monograph 
of BambusesE. In Cyperaceae, Bockelcr's desultory descriptions of those of 
the Berlin Herbarium are sometimes perhaps rather obstacles than aids to 
a general systematic acquaintance with the order. Masters's monograph of 
Restiaceao is limited to the African species. Klatt's Irideae do not very well 
bear the test of practical use. Martius's splendid work on Palms requires 
already much supplementing. Baker is now rendering good service in working 



RECENT PROORESS OF SYSTEMATIC BOTANV. 49 

up the Liliaceous groups ; but some of the remaiuiug orders appear to have 
becu almost entirelj' neglected. 

Among Dicotyledons the orders which I would particularly recommend as 
the subject of specific monographs are those which are contained in the first 
volume of the ' Prodromus,' and more especially such as comprise a large 
number of plants from the temperate and mountain-regions of the northern 
hemisphere (e. g. llanunculacefe, Cruciferoe, many genera of Papilionacea?, 
Rosacea, &c.) ; and this not only, for the purpose of methodizing the data sup- 
plied by the numerous writers on local floras, but with a view to the careful 
and intelligent, but merciless excision of the overwhelming numbers of races 
of lower grades which have, to the great detriment of science, been allowed 
to rank with those legitimately deserving the name of species. Tropical and 
southern orders are so much within the scope of the great floras now in 
course of publication, that special monographs, except as connected with those 
works, are not in such immediate demand. 

Monographs of variable or ill-defined species have also their importance, if 
worked out with a view to ascertaining the extent to which, and the circum- 
stances under which, a species varies or is connected with others, and not 
for the sole purpose of dividing and subdividing it into races of a lower grade, 
to receive the same binomial nomenclature as the normal or compound species. 
Such a monograph should comprise the history of the species throughout the 
area it occupies, the investigation of the modifications which its several organs 
undergo in different localities, of the extent to which the divergencies are 
carried out under .different circumstances, of the relative numbers (that is, of 
the frequency or rarity) of the divergent forms, of the extraneous circum- 
stances (such, for instance, as the vicinity of allied species &c.) which may be 
supposed to have influenced these divergencies — every thing, in short, which 
might tend to show whether the variability is an indication of a progressive 
differentiation of a flourishing race, or a temporary result of hybrid fertiliza- 
tion, or the immediate effect of climatological or other conditions affecting the 
individual rather than the race. The working out such a monograph in 
some one or two species would be highly instructive to the general botanist, 
and the data obtained might consolidate the foundations of more general 
speculations. It may even be useful to define and to give subordinate names 
to those varieties which approach the state of distinctness which might entitle 
them to rank as species ; but the technical defining of the slight diversities of 
form assumed by a species in a limited locality, however constant those varie- 
ties may there be found, can be of little interest but to the inhabitants of that 
locality, and the giving them names as of species to be receivecl by general 
botanists is only adding to the encumbrances with which the science is over- 
loaded, without a single corresponding advantage. 

5. Floras, or Histories of the Plants of particular countries or districts. 

Floras, like monographs, are histories of plants so limited that the author 
can descend to species ; but the limit is geographical instead of systematic. 
The general requirements as to their contents are the same as in respect of 
Ordines Plantarum and Monographs, but with greater variety in the details, 
according to the class of persons for whose use they are intended. If the 
country of which the flora is given is large and the civilized inhabitants com- 
paratively few, the work is chiefly useful to the general botanist, and requires 
special attention to the technically systematic portion in botanical Latin. 
Where the geographical extent is more limited, or the science generally cul- 
tivated amongst its inhabitants, the general description and history should be 

1874. T' 



50 REPORT — 1874. 

more extended, and the local language may be admitted or preferred accord- 
ing to circumstances. The more botany is cultivated in a country, the more 
variety mey be given to its floras — a scientifically morphological one for a 
text-book in classes, an easy descriptive one for the beginner and amateur, a 
very fully detailed one for study at home, an abridged synopsis for a com- 
panion in the field. In all, correctness and clearness of method and language 
are the first qualities requisite; and -wherever any instruction or information 
beyond the means of determining plants is the object, geographical distribu- 
tion (without as well as within the special area of the flora) is a most essen- 
tial point to be attended to. It is to local floras that the general botanist 
must have recourse for most of the data he requires for the investigation of 
the history and development of plant-races ; and his reliance upon the cor- 
rectness of the facts supplied depends much upon the intrinsic evidence of a 
careful comparison on the part of the author of his plants with those of coun- 
tries adjoining to or otherwise connected with his own. It tends also vei-y 
much to enlarge the ideas of a local botanist to learn how very widely spread 
are species which he has been accustomed tacitly or expressly to consider 
rare local creations, and how very differently plants may be distributed or 
varied in other countries from what he has observed at home. Exotic dis- 
tribution is, however, a point very little attended to in many of our best 
modern floras. I well recollect the interest that it gave to the first in which 
I met with it, Cambessedes's enumeration of the plants of the Balearic 
Islands, published in 1827 ; but his example was but rarely followed. More 
recently, I believe, I was the first to introduce it into British floras. Dr. 
Hooker has paid particular attention to it in all his systematic works ; it is 
one of the conditions introduced by the late Sir WUliam Hooker in his plans 
for the series of Colonial Floras, and has been partially attended to by some of 
the contributors to the great work on Brazilian plants. "We may hope, there- 
fore, to see it gradually included in the standard continental floras, as well as 
in more local ones. It is gratifying to observe that in that of Dorsetshire, 
just published by Mr. Manscl-Pleydell, special indications are given of the 
species which extend to the opposite coast of Normandy. 

In several of my Linnean Addresses, especially in those of 1866 and 1871, 
as well as in two articles in the ' Natural-History Review ' (one on Maxi- 
mowitz's "Amur Flora" in April 1861, the other on "South-European 
Floras " in July 18G4) I had occasion to enter into many details relating to 
the Floras recently published or in progress, which it would be superfluous 
now to repeat. I may only state generally that those of the central and 
northern States of Europe are well kept up. Lange and "WUlkomm's 
Prodromus of Spanish Plants has very recently made a step in advance by 
the issue of the first part of the third and last volume, which it may be hoped 
will be now soon complete. Parlatore's Italian Flora gives no such pro- 
mise, though it still di-ags its long pages slowly on. The vegetation of the 
eastern portion of the vast Russian empire is being thoroughly and scienti- 
fically investigated by Maximowitz. Boissiers much-wanted ' Flora Orien- 
talis ' has reached the end of Polypetala; in its second volume, and a third is 
said to be far advanced. The still more important * Flora Indica ' is at 
length fairly afloat ; two parts, by various authors, under the enlightened 
editorship of Dr. Hooker, are on sale, and a third is nearlj^ ready. The 
'Flora Australiensis ' reached its sixth volume last summer ; and if health and 
strength be spared me, I hope to complete the seventh and last next summer. 
Weddell is, I understand, preparing the third and last volume of his ' Chloris 
Andina ;' and that splendid monument to systematic botany, the great 'Flora 



RECENT PROfiRESS OF SYSTEMATIC BOTANY. 51 

Brasiliensis,' thanks to the munificent patronage of the Emperor and his 
Government, and to the unwearied zeal and energy of the present able editor, 
Dr. Eichler, has so far advanced, that its completion, once thought hopeless, 
may now be fairly reckoned on at no distant period. 

Turning to the desiderata in this branch of systematic botany, besides the 
completion of the above-mentioned works in progress, and of the remaining 
colonial floras begun or contemplated according to the plans of Sir W. Hooker, 
there are three which are much in need of a thorough investigation and re- 
working up on sound scientific as well as practically useful principles. These 
are the European, the Eussian, and the North- American. The three together 
comprise the whole vegetation of the temperate and cold zones of the northern 
hemisphere, by far the most extended continuous flora of the globe, and the 
most closely connected with what we know of the vegetation of the latest 
preceding geological periods. Its present continuity, with only a gradual 
east-and-west change in the northern portion, but more and more marked 
divergencies as it recedes from the arctic regions, and the evidences we have 
of that continiiity having been as great at a former period and in some 
instances perhaps yet wider extended, would suggest that it ought to be 
treated as one whole. That would, however, be too great an undertaking for 
a single hand; and there are other advantages in dividing it into three 
separate floras, provided the three are carried out according to one plan, with 
a uniform estimate of specific and generic grades, and each one always in close* 
connexion with the other two. The different materials which each of the 
three investigators would have to work upon would require some differences 
in their treatment, besides that each one ought to be an inhabitant of 
the region he investigates, so as to have some personal experience of its 
living flora. 

The writer of the European flora would be much more bewildered by a 
superabundance of data than at a loss on account of any deficiency. His first 
great difficulty would arise from the enormous number of names published 
by local botanists, and the consequent call upon him to carry out on a large 
scale that judicious excision of insufiiciently differentiated species which I 
have above tirged in the case of monographs. His work would be more in 
the hands of the general than of the local botanist, and conciseness, method, 
and accuracy would be more important than minuteness of detail. Innova- 
tion would be avoided unless upon very strong grounds. The most useful 
sequence to be adopted in the present state of the science would be, without 
doubt, the CandoUean, the genera and species restricted to the higher grades 
sanctioned by the best modern monographists and other systematists. In the 
majority of cases he would have little difliculty in this respect ; and when he 
comes to such involved genera as Eaminculus, Hieracium, Ruhus, &c., where 
there are really so many indefinite species, he would limit his specific names 
and descriptions to the ' Hauptformen ' of Nageli, which one set of botanists 
may designate as Linnean or legitimate and another as compound species. 
Isolated intermediate forms, whether hybrid and evanescent or more or less 
constant, and a few of the principal subspecies, varieties, critical or, in the 
Jordanian view, true species, may require mention by name, with a few 
descriptive notes where the low gTade may be doubtful ; but the great majority 
may be dismissed with a general statement of their having been proposed by 
dozens or by himdreds, as the case may be, with a careful indication, however, 
in so far as possible, of the degree in which the species admitted have been 
observed to vary, and of any difference in this respect in different parts of 
the area of the flora. The language of such a European flora should be, 

e2 



53 REPORT— 18r4. 

without doubt, botanical Latin for the technical descriptions ; French or 
English might be better suited for the occasional notes and geographical 
distribution. 

This geographical distribution would be a most essential feature in the 
general flora of Europe, which exemplifies the gradual extinction southwards 
of the arctic plants, and eastwards of a very interesting western flora, whilst 
a certain number of Asiatic plants enter its eastern limits, but fail to reach 
the western States ; and much interest attaches to the botanical connexion of 
the Pyrenean and Alpine floras with the north and with each other. Accu- 
rate data are much wanted for the inquiry into the history of the dispersion 
of plant-races, their origin, progress, decline, and final extinction ; and to 
supply these data all general floras will be expected to record for each species 
the area it occupies within the flora, distinguishing the localities where it is 
most common and the direction in which it becomes rare, and its ultimate 
limits if within those of the flora, or if not, noting generally its extension 
into adjoining regions in identical or representative forms. For the European 
flora the limits are well marked on three sides: — To the westward, the Atlantic 
opposes an insurmountable obstacle to any gradual extension of European 
plants, except in the extreme north. To the south, the Mediterranean and 
Black Seas and the ridge of the Caucasus give a good natural boundarj- ; for 
though many of the European forms are still prevalent on the African coasts 
and in Asia Minor, yet they are very soon arrested southwards by climato- 
logical conditions. To the north, the limits of the European flora are those 
of all vegetation. To the east only is there no definite limit, and an arbitrary 
line must be drawn to separate it from the North-Asiatic region ; that of the 
Ural, though no better marked botanically than physically, is on the whole 
the most convenient. 

For the Kussian, or rather the North-Asiatic, flora (for it ought to include 
or to be drawn up in close connexion with that of Japan) a methodical and 
geographical work, by one who should have the intimate acquaintance with 
the vegetation and the sound views of Maximowitz, would be a great booii. 
Here, again, the northern limits are those of all vegetation, and the southern 
ones at present fairly defined by the comparatively unexplored mountain- 
masses of Central Asia, beyond which the northern plants are replaced by a 
totally diff'erent vegetation ; but besides the actual continuity with the Euro- 
pean flora to the westward, there is a close connexion with that of North 
America to the cast, notwithstanding the definite limits interposed by the 
Pacific — a connexion which has been already exhibited by Asa Gray from an 
American point of view, and by Maximowitz on the part of East Russia and 
Japan, but still requires a much fuller development. Ledebour's 'Flora 
Eossica ' would form a very good basis for the new work : it is the best 
complete flora of so large a tract of country which we possess ; but it now 
requires a thorough revision, with the insertion of the numerous additions 
made by recent explorations, and the geographical data must be entirely 
remodelled and extended to meet the above-mentioned requirements. With 
regard to the Japanese flora, abundant materials have been collected and 
published in various works, chiefly by Dutch botanists ; but the absence of 
all method in Miquel's ' Prolusiones,' where they profess to be enumerated, 
renders that work of little use to the general botanist, and a geographical 
flora is very much needed. The connexion, indeed, between Asia and America 
cannot be studied without constant reference to Japan. 

For the North-American flora we must look to Asa Gray. The Americans 
have for many years past been most active in the ex^)loratiou of their vast 



o 



KK CJiM' TKOGKESS 01' SYSTEMATIC BOTANY. 53 

territory, and its botany has been partially •n'orkcd up monographically by A. 
Gray, geographically by Screno Watson, Porter, and others ; but the great 
mass of data collected are scattered over so great a variety of publications as 
to render them almost useless to the general botanist. We cannot even 
approximately tix upon the boundary-line to separate the North-American 
from the very different Mexican flora to the south-west. Northward it 
should, if it is wished to make it really instructive, extend, like the two other 
great floras, to the limits of vegetation ; eastward and westward the Atlantic 
and Pacific afford definite boundaries. But the comparative degree in which 
the external connexion with Europe and Asia is broken off by the two oceans, 
the causes of the difference observed, as further illustrated by recent palajon- 
tological discoveries, the effect of the north-and-south ridge of mountains and 
other causes in separating eastern and western races within the territory, and 
many other important elements in the history of plants can only be satisfac- 
torily investigated with the aid of such a comprehensive, methodical, and 
geographical flora as we are in hopes the distinguished Harvard-University 
botanist is now preparing. 

6. Specific Descriptions, detached or miscellaneous. 

Had I to report only on the progress,"and not on the present state also, of 
systematic botany, I should here stop, for the great majority of recent detached 
and miscellaneous descriptions are almost as much impediments as aids to the 
progress of the science. I have too often in my Linnean Addresses, espe- 
cially in those, of 1862 and 1871, animadverted on the mischief they produce 
to enter now into any details ; I can only lament that the practice continues, 
and is even rendered necessary by considerations not wholly scientific. Hor- 
ticulturists must have names for their new importations. It is due to tra- 
vellers who, under great perils and fatigues, have contributed largely to sup- 
plying us with specimens of the vegetation of distant regions that the results 
of their labour should be speedily made known ; it is even important to 
science that any new form influencing materially methodical arrangements 
should be published as soon as ascertained. But all this is very different 
from the barren diagnoses of garden -catalogues, and the long uncontrasted 
descriptions hastily got up for the futile purpose of securing priority of name. 
I own that I have myself erred in the want of sufficient consideration in the 
publication of some of the species of ' Plantae Hartwegianae ; ' and some descrip- 
tive miscellanea, even by men who stand very high in the science (such as 
Miquel's ' Prolusiones,' above referred to, and Baron von Mueller's ' Frag- 
menta'), are rendered comparatively useless from their utter want of method. 
Whilst, therefore, discouraging as much as possible aU such detached publi- 
cations of new species, I would admit their occasional necessity, but suggest 
the following rules as the result of a long practical experience : — 

No detached description of a new species should be ventured upon unless 
the author has ample means of reviewing the group it belongs to ; and if any 
doubts remain of its substantive validity, he should refrain from giving it a 
name till those doubts are cleared up. 

The description, when given, should be full, but contrasted, and accom- 
panied by a discussion of affinities with previously known species, and an 
indication of the place the new one should occupy in the several monographs 
and floras in which it would be included. 

An illustration of the new plant, with analytical details, should never be 
neglected where circumstances admit of it. 

In conclusion, if I am correct in the views I have taken of the desiderata 



54 KEPORT — 1874. 

under the six heads above detailed, I hope it may be admitted that, notwith- 
standing recent progress, there is still a wide field open" for the researches of 
the systematic botanist, and that his branch of the science is not the mere 
child's play or herbarium amusement it has been charged with ; for no 
thorough knowledge of plants can be satisfactorily obtained or success- 
fully communicated without scientific method, and no such method can be 
framed without a thorough study of the plants methodized ia every point 
of view. 



Report of the Committee, consisting of Dr. Pye-Smith^ Dr. Brunton 
(Secretary) , and Mr. West, appointed for the purpose of investi' 
gating the Nature of Intestinal Secretion. 

Foe some time the opinion has prevailed among physiologists that the nervous 
system not only exerts an influence upon the calibre of the vessels supplying 
glands with blood for secretion, but that the secreting cells themselves arc 
excited to action by nervous stimuli. So firmly, indeed, has this opinion been 
held, that Pfliiger's discovery of nerves terminating in the secreting cells has 
been almost universally accepted, notwithstanding his failure to demonstrate 
these structures to others. Partly, no doubt, this belief has been due to the 
high personal consideration in which this distinguished physiologist is justly 
held, but it is also due in part to the conviction which prevails that such 
structures must exist. 

A distinct proof to this effect has been afforded by the researches of 
Heidenhain, on the effect of atropia upon the secretion of the submaxillary 
gland. 

When one of the nerves going to this gland (viz. the chorda tympani) is 
stimulated, two effects usually follow : — First, the vessels going to the gland ' 
dilate, the blood flows quicldy through them, and a free supply of lymph is 
poured out into the lymph-spaces surrounding the gland ; secondly, the cells 
of the gland absorb this lymph, convert it into saliva, and pour it out into the 
duct of the gland. 

If the animal be partially poisoned with belladonna (or its active principle 
atropia), or if atropia be injected into the vessels of the gland itself so as to 
exert its poisonous action upon the branches of the chorda tympani ending 
in the gland, a very different result talies place. 

When the nerve is then irritated the vessels dilate as before, the blood 
pours rapidly through them, but not a drop of saliva is secreted. That part 
of the chorda tympani which acts on the vessels has not been affected by the 
poison, but those fibres which go to the secreting cells and stimulate them 
to secrete have been paralyzed by it. 

It is obvious, however, that the salivary secretion is only exceptionally 
induced by dii-ect irritation of the chorda tympani nerve, lying as this does 
far below the surface and well protected from external influences. Usually 
secretion is induced reflexly from the mucous membrane of the mouth or 
tongue, the impression made by sapid substances upon the sensory nerves of 
those parts being transmitted up to the brain and then reflected outwards 
along the chorda tympani to the gland. 



ON THE NATURE OV INTESTINAL SECRETION. 55 

There is, however, yet a third way in which secretion may be induced, and 
that a somewhat extraordinary one, viz. by paralysis of certain nerves going 
to the gland instead of by irritation. What the cause of this secretion is 
has not been clearly made out, but the secretion itself is distinguished by its 
profusion and long continuance. It has not yet been ascertained whether 
this kind of secretion is arrested by atropia or not. We propose to ascertain 
this in future experiments ; but as the question did not lie directly within 
the limits of our present investigation (although closely connected with it), 
we have not as yet attempted to solve it. There are, then, three ways in 
which secretion may be induced in the salivary glands : — 1st, by direct irri- 
tation of the secreting nerves ; 2nd, by reflex irritation of these nerves; and 
3rd, by paralysis of nerves. 

We have entered thus fully on the physiology of secretion in the submaxil- 
lary gland, because in it alone has the secreting process and the action of 
nerves upon it been at all fuUy studied. 

Regarding secretion in the intestines very little is known, but it is probable 
that the process is performed in much the same way as in the salivary 
glands. 

The reasons for this belief are as follows : — 

1st. When the process of digestion is going on and the food is present in 
the intestines, their vessels are fuUer than at other times, just as they are in 
the salivary glands. 

2nd. Stimulation of the mucous surface of the iutestire induces secretion of 
intestinal juice, just as stimulation of the mucous meiabrane of the mouth 
induces a flow of saliva. 

3rd. Section of all the nerves going to the intestine produces a profuse 
secretion of intestinal juice, which at once reminds us of the paralytic secre- 
tion observed in the submaxillary gland after section of its nerves. 

This secretion of the intestine was first discovered by Moreau, who isolated 
a loop of intestine by means of ligatures, and then divided aU the nerves 
passing to it on their course along the mesentery. On examining the intes- 
tine after four hours, the loop which had previously been empty was dis- 
covered to be filled with fluid. 

This fluid was investigated chemically by Professor Kiihne, now of Heidel- 
berg, who found it to be neither more nor less than very dilute intestinal juice 
and almost identical in composition with the rice-water fluid which is poured 
from the intestines so abundantly in cholera (Kiihne and Parkes). 

The intestinal secretion can therefore be excited like the salivary one: — 
1st, reflexly by stimulation of the mucous membrane of the intestine ; and 
2nd, by division and consequent paralysis of all the nerves jjassing to the 
intestines. 

Unlike the salivary secretion, however, it has not yet been induced by 
direct stimulation of the secreting nerves ; and, indeed, these nerves are not yet 
known. It is not improbable, however, that they are extremely short, and 
are situated in the wall"- of the intestine itself, in which, indeed, the who^e 
apparatus necessary to secretion would appear to be contained. This consists 
of the secreting glands, vessels, and nerves. The nerves immediately inducing 
secretion are probably the ganglia contained in Meissner's plexus, the 
short afferent fibres passing to these from the intestinal mucous membrane, 
and the short secreting fibres passing from them to the intestinal glands. 

Tlie stimuli which excite secretion, when applied to the intestinal mucous 
membrane, are of various sorts. 

Mechanical stimulation, such as tickling the surface .of the mucous racm- 



56 • KEPoRT — 1874'. 

branes, at once excites it. The application of dilute hydrochloric acid and 
induced electrical shocks have a similar effect. Sulphate of magnesia and 
other purgatives, however, instead of exciting secretion at once, do so only 
after an interval; and for some time it was supposed that they did not excite 
secretion at all. The experiments of Moreau, in which he injected magnesium 
sulphate into a loop of intestine and left it there for four hours, showed that 
the failure of previous experiments was due to their having applied it to 
the intestine for too short a time. These experiments were repeated by 
Vulpian, and also by Brunton, with similar results. 

Your Committee, starting from the facts we have briefly enumerated, 
endeavoured to ascertain, first, whether other neutral salts have a similar 
effect to magnesium sulphate on intestinal secretion ; secondly, whether any 
other compounds have the power of preventing such action ; and thirdly, what 
are the nerves which regulate this secretion during life. 

Sekies I. Action of other neutral salts on intestinal secretion. The 
method adopted in each case was as follows : — 

A cat was chloroformed and an opening was made through the abdominal 
wall in the middle line. A coil of small intestine was then drawn out 
through the opening, and four ligatures were tied round it at a distance of 
10 centimetres (4 inches) from each other, so as to isolate three pieces of 
intestine from each other and from the remainder of the intestinal tube. 
The measured quantity of solution was then injected into the middle loop, 
either by a very fine Wood's syringe, when the fluid was quite clear, or 
by making a puncture in the middle loop close to one end, inserting the 
nozzle of a syiinge, and then after the injection of the fluid tying another 
ligature roi;nd the intestine close to the wound so as to prevent the exit of 
any fluid. This proceeding hardly diminished the length of the loop by 
more than 3 millimetres Q of an inch). 

The intestine was then returned to the abdominal cavity, the wound sewn 
up, and the animal allowed to recover. After about four hours it was killed 
by a blow on the head with a hammer; the abdominal cavity was opened and 
the intestine examined. 

Experiments were made with potassium acetate, chlorate, ferrocyanide, 
iodide, sulphate, neutral tartrate, with sodium acetate, bicarbonate, chloride, 
phosphate, and sulphate, as well as with tartrate of potash and soda. [For 
particulars see Series I. and Table I. in Appendix.] 

From these it appears that several of the other neutral salts possess a 
similar action to that of magnesium sulphate, though none are so constant or 
so marked in their action. 

The amoimt of secretion obtained from similar pieces of intestine with 
similar quantities of the salts differed considerably in different experiments. 
The caiise of this we have not yet determined. It is not improbable that it 
depends to some extent on the stage of digestion when the injection was 
made ; but this we purpose to ascertain hereafter, 

Seeiis II, We next tested the effect of various drugs in preventing this 
action of neutral salts, and for this pui-pose took a saturated solution of 
magnesium sulphate as that of which the action is the most constant yet 
ascertained. 

In some eases we mixed the modifying agent with the magnesium sulphate 
in order to obtain the local action of the drug on the mucous membrane, in 
others it was introduced into the circulation by subcutaneous injection so as 
to obtain its general action on the nervous system. The drugs tested in the 
former way were : — 



ON THE NATURE OF INTESTINAL SECRETION. 57 

Gramme. 

■32 sulphate of atropia. 

•32 iodide of methyl-atropia. 

•32 chloral hydrate. 

•064 emetia. 

•13 morphia. 

•32 sulphate of quinine. 

•32 tannin. 

•064 sulphate of zinc. 

Those introduced by subcutaneous injection were, 
1 gramnie^ chloral 1 ^^^^ .^ ^^^^^^^ ^^ Dr. HaU, of Bengal. • 

•064 acetate of morphia. 

In none of these experiments was there any effect of the above drugs in 
diminishing the average amount of secretion produced by magnesium sul- 
phate. There appears, therefore, to be no action analogous to that of atropia 
upon secretion of the submaxillary gland. For summary see Table II. in 
Appendix. 

Direct ligature of the mesenteric veins produced profuse haemorrhage into 
the loop of intestine, -without any apparent secretion. 

Series III. The last point we proposed to investigate was the precise 
manner in which the nervous system influences secretion. 

We first repeated Morcau's experiment by dividing the filaments of nerve 
in the mesentery which passed to a ligatured loop of intestine. In two 
cases we obtained a negative result, owing probably to some of the smaller 
fibres having escaped ; but in the third a more successful division was followed 
by profuse secretion into the loop. This, therefore, is an effect common to cats 
as well as to dogs and rabbits. 

We next divided both splanchnic nerves below the diaphragm ; and as this 
produced no abnormal result on the intestine, we determined to excise the 
semilunar ganglia (dividing the splanchnics in the same operation). 

In 18 experiments we only once found any considerable secretion in the 
loop of intestine. 

The results on the vascularity of the intestines, their peristaltic movements 
and tonic contraction are given in detail in the Appendix, Series III. 

It would appear from these experiments that the splanchnic nerves are 
not the channel by which currents from the cord pass to the secretory appa- 
ratus of the intestine. 

What this channel is we hope to ascertain by further investigation, which 
we intend to apply not only to the secretion but also to the movements of 
the intestinal tube. 

APPENDIX. 
Sekies I. 

Exjjeriment 1. — Saturated solution of magnesium sulphate. Three loops 
were isolated, and 2^ c. c. injected into the middle loop. 
On examination, 

Middle loop contained 8-5 c. c. of opalescent fluid, which gave an 

abundant precipitate with HNO^. 
Upper loop I , 
Lower „ J *^ *' 
Mucous membrane pale in all loops. 



^8 REPOKT — 1874. 

Experiment 2. — Saturated solutioa of potassium acetate. 5 c. c. were in- 
jected into the middle loop. 
On examination, 
Middle loop contained 8 c. c. blood-stained turbid fluid with very little 

• mucus, 
= 7'5 c. c. after filtration. Precipitated by IINO3. 

Upper 8 c. c. yellow and turbid, 

= 5 c. c. after filtration. Not changed by the 
addition of HNOg. 
Lower. ..*.... = 5'5 c. c., 

= 3-5 c. c. after filtration. Precipitated by HNO3. 
Mucous membrane : — 

Middle loop pale, covered with tenacious mucus ; serous coat greatly 

injected. 
Upper „ pale. 
Lower „ pale, covered with mucus. 

Experiment 3. — Saturated solution of potassium acetate. 2| c. c. were in- 
jected into the middle loop. Weight of cat 2,| lbs. 
On examination, 

Middle loop contained 15*5 c. c. of turbid fluid. 

Upper ,, empty. 

Lower „ about 1 c. c. of mucus. 
Mucous membrane : — 

Middle loop slightly congested, covered with flakes of mucus. The 
mucous membrane appeared very thin. 

Upper „ normal ; bile stained. 

Lower „ soft, moist, covered with mucus. 

Experiment 4. — Saturated solution of potassium chlorate. Into the middle 
loop 2| c. c. were injected. 
On examination, 

Middle loop "1 each contained jl3 c. c. of a fluid resembling white of 

Lower „ J a^g, both in colour and consistency. 

Upper „ empty. 
Mucous membrane : — 

^^^"'^P I normal in colour; soft. 
Lower „ J 

Upper „ moist, covered with bile-stained matter. 

The fluid from the middle and lower loops was not coagulated by heat. It 

was rendered turbid by HNO3, and slightly so by acetic acid. 

Exj^eriment 5. — Saturated solution of potassium chlorate. AYcight of cat 
3 lbs. 2| c. c. of the saturated solution were injected into the middle loop. 
On examination. 

Middle loop contained 9 c. c. of a grey muddy fluid. 

Upper „ „ I c. c. 

Lower „ „ g c. c. 

Mucous membrane : — 

Middle loop pale, moist. 

Upper „ do. 

Lower „ do. 

Experiment 6. — Saturated solution of potassium ferrocyanide. Three loops 
were isolated as before ; into the middle one 2| c. c. were injected. 



ON THE NATURE 0¥ INTESTINAL SECRETION. 59 

On examination. 
Middle loop contained a small quantity of fluid, probably about 5 c. c; 
but as the intestine was punctured in opening the abdomen and some 
of the fluid escaped, it could not be exactly measured, and was esti- 
mated approximatelJ^ Other loops empty. 

E^vpenment 7. — Saturated solution of potassium ferrocyanide. 2g c. c. were 
injected into the middle loop. The cat escaped, and twenty-two hours after 
was found dead. Weight of cat 3 lbs. 
On examination, 
Middle loop contained 5"5 c, c. of a purulent-looking fluid. 
Upper „ „ 3 c. c. of do. do. 

Lower ,, empty. 
Mucous membrane : — 

Middle loop. All the coats deeply congested. 

yPP'" " Ipale. 
Lower „ J *^ 

Experiment 8. — Saturated solution of potassium ferrocyanide. 2| c. c. 
injected iuto middle loop. 
On examination. 

Middle loop contained 13 c, c. 

Upper „ „ 10 c. c. 

Lower „ empty. 
The fluid gave no colour with perchloride of iron. 
Mucous membrane : — 

Middle loop moist, pale. 

Upper „ diy, pale. 

Lower „ moist ; contained a little moist fsecal matter. 

Experiment 9. — Saturated solution of potassium iodide. 2| c. c. injected 
into middle loop. After tying the ligatures round the intestine, it contracted 
to the thickness of a pencil. Weight of cat 6 lbs. 

On examination, 

Middle loop empty ; has a hole in it. 

PP j> I jjQ^i^ contained about 3 c. c. of fluid. 

Mucous membrane : — 

Middle loop. Part of this loop seems to have been eroded by the potas- 
sium iodide, causing the formation of a hole in the intestine. 
The mucous membrane is congested and partly covered 
with bloody mucus. 

Lower ',', } P^^^ ' ^^^'"^'^l- 

Experiment 10. — Almost (but not quite) saturated solution of potassium 
iodide. 5 c. c. injected into the middle loop. 
On examination. 

Middle loop empty ; contained no liquid, 

Sr ;; }-p'y- 

Serous coat of middle loop deeply congested and bright red all over. 
Upper loop 1 , 

L^wer „ l'^^™^^- 



60 . RE^oKT — 1874. 

Mucous membrane : — ■ 

Middle loop normal, but the deep injection of the submucous coat shines 
through it. 

PP » I normal. 
Lower „ J 

Experiment 11. — Nearly saturated solution of potassium iodide. 1 c. c. was 
injected into the middle loop, and by gentle pressure was brought into contact 
with the whole of its surface. 
On examination. 

Middle loop contained 8 c. c. 
Upper 
Lower 
Mucous membrane : — 
Middle loop congested. 



" l empty. 



PP » I normal, dry. 
Lower „ J 



Experiment 12. — Saturated solution of potassium sulphate. 5 c. c. injected 
into middle loop. 
On examination, 

Middle loop contained 14 c. c, which after filtration = 9 c. c. 

Upper „ „ 3 c. c. 

Lower ,, „ 3 c. c. 

Mucous membrane, 

Middle loop moist, not congested. 

yPP*^^" » I normal. 
Lower „ J 

Experiment 13. — Saturated solution of potassium sulphate. 2| c.c. injected 
into middle loop. "Weight of cat 4| lbs. 
On examination. 
Middle loop contained 9 c. c. of turbid fluid, with many flakes of thick 
mucus. 



?PP^^ » 1 empty. 
Lower ,, j ^ •' 



Mucous membrane : — 

Middle loop faintly congested, covered with soft flakes of white mucus. 
Upper „ normal, dry. 
Lower „ do. do. 

Experiment 14. — Saturated solution of potassium sulphate. 5 c. c. injected 
into the middle loop. 
On examination. 

Middle loop contained 14 c. c, which after filtration = 9 c. c. 

Upper „ „ 3 c. c. 

Lower „ „ 3 c. c. 

Mucous membrane : — 

Middle loop moist, not injected. 

^'PP^^' " 1 normal. 
Lower ,, J 

Experiment 15. — Saturated solution of potassium tartrate. 2g c.c. were 
injected into the middle loop. 



i empty. 



ON THE NATURK OF INTESTINAL SECRETION. 61 

On oxaraination, 

Middle loop contained 7 c. c. of fluid, which after filtration = 2| c. c. 

T ^^ " > empty. 
Lower ?> J 

Exj)eriment 16. — Saturated solution of sodium acetate. 2^ c. c. were in- 
jected into the middle loop. Weight of cat 6| lbs. 
On examination, 

Middle loop, 10 c. c. 

Upper „ 9 c. c. 

Lower „ empty. 
Mucous membrane : — 

Middle loop congested, covered with soft mucus. 

Upper „ pale, covered with soft mucus. 

Lower „ covered with bile-stained matter. 

Experiment 17. — Satm-ated solution of sodium acetate. 5 c. c. injected into 
middle loop. 

On examination, 

Middle loop contained 10 c. c. of fluid, after filtering = 5 c. c. 

Upper 

Lower 
Mucous membrane ; 

Middle loop soft, surface exceedingly so. 

^PP^'^ » I natural 
Lower „ | natural. 

Experiment 18. — Saturated solution of sodium bicarbonate, 5 c. c. of the 
solution injected into the middle loop. 
On examination, 

Middle loop contained a tapeworm and some fluid. 

The worm, mucus, and fluid were = 15 c. c. 
After filtration, the fluid only . . = 6*5 c. c. 

Upper „ contained a worm and fluid = 8 c. c. 

After filtering = 6 c. c. 

Lower „ empty. 
Mucous membrane : — 

Middle loop much congested. 

Upper „ much thickened, not congested. 

Lower „ natural. 

Experiment 19. — Saturated solution of sodium chloride. 5 c. c. of the solu- 
tion were injected into the middle loop. 
On examination four hours after. 

Middle (injected) loop contained 10-25 c. c. fluid. 

Of this about one third appeared to be thick mucus. 

Lower ^1°^ } completely empty. 
Mucous membrane : — 

Middle loop much thickened and congested. 
Upper „ I - , 
Lower „ | J^^tural. 

Experiment 20. — Saturated solution of sodium phosphate. 2h c. c. were 
injected into the middle loop. The omentum stuck in the wound in the abdo- 



62 REPORT — 1874. 

minal walls and was caught in the stitches and attached to the wound while 
it was heiug sewn up. Weight of cat 4| lbs. 
On examination, 

Middle loop contained soft faeces. No fluid. 

yPP^^ » I dry. 
-Lower « J 

The whole intestine was pale. 

Middle loop "1 

Upper „ V not congested. 

Lower „ J 

Experiment 21. — Saturated solution of sodium phosphate. 5 c. c. injected 
into middle looj). 
On examination, 

Middle loop contained 11 c. e. blood-stained fluid, which =55-5 c. c. after 
filtering. 

Fpper „ empty. 

Lower „ 7"5 c. c, = 4 c. c. after filtering. 
Mucous membrane : — 

Middle loop much congested. 

Upper ,, natural ; contains a little blood slightly altered. 

Lower „ soft, not congested. 

Experiment 22. — Saturated solution of sodium sulphate. 2| c. c. were 
injected into the middle loop. Weight of cat 3 lbs. 
On examination. 

Middle loop contained 18 c. c. of a mQky fluid. 

Upper „ „ 5 e. c. 

Lower „ „ 3 c. c. 

Mucous membrane : — 

Middle loop slightly congested, soft, moist. 

Upper ,, pale, moist. 

Lower „ do. do. 

Experiment 23. — Saturated solution of sodium sulphate. 5 c. c. injected 
into middle loop. ... 

On examination, 

Middle loop contained 9 c. c, after filtering = 7 c c. 

KS ;; }-i"y- , 

Mucous membrane : — 

Middle loop soft, but not at all congested. 

Upper „ 1 „„,„„.! 
Lower „ | natural. 

Experiment 24. — Saturated solution of sodium tartrate. 5 c. c. injected 
into middle loop. 

Middle loop contained 11 c.c. blood-stained fluid, after filtering = 7'5 c.c. 

ir/. ;; }-»*■ 

Mucous membrane : — 

Middle loop slightly congested and soft. 

Lower " I "^^'^^^''^^ ' co'^ered with a layer of black faecal matter. 

Experiment 2.5. — Saturated solution of sodium and potassium tartrate. 2\ 
c. e. were injected into the middle loop. Weight of cat 4| lbs. The wound 



ON THE NATURE OF INTESTINAL SECRETION. 



03 



was sewed up as usual, but the sutures gave way, and the intestines protruded 
for some time before examination. 
On examination, 

Middle loop contained 16 c. c. of fluid mixed with flakes of soft mucus 
and small coagula of blood. 

PP^ " r ^^(^■^^ contained about \ e. c. of soft glairy fluid. 

Mucous membrane : — 
Middle loop 
Upper „ 
Lower „ 



congested. 



Table I. Exhibiting the results of the tUjcaty-Jive experiments above chscribed. 



Salt injected. 

Magnesium sulphate . . 
Potassium acetate .... 

Ditto 

Potassium chlorate . . . 

Ditto 

Potassium ferrocyanide 

Ditto 

Ditto 

Potassium iodide .... 

Ditto 

Ditto 

Potassium sulphate . . 

Ditto 

Ditto 

Potassium tartrate .... 

Sodium acetate 

Ditto . 

Sodium bicarbonate . . 
Sodium chloride .... 
Sodium phosphate .... 

Ditto 

Sodium sulphate .... 

Ditto 

Sodium tartrate 

Sodium and potassium 
tartrate 



Quantity. 





• 


2-5 


c. c. 


5 


)) 


2-5 


j> 


2-5 


5) 


2-5 


>> 


2-5 


}} 


2-5 


J> 


2-5 


>} 


2-5 


)» 


5 


» 


1 


)) 


5 


5> 


2-5 


J) 


5 


J) 


2-5 


;? 


2-5 


» 


5 


}> 


5 


» 


5 


>) 


2-5 


» 


5 


)} 


2-5 


JJ 


5 


5> 


5 


J> 


2-5 


J> 



Fluid found in middle loop. 



8'5 c. e. opalescent, albuminous. 

7'5 ,, blood-stained, turbid, albuminous. 

15'5 „ turbid. 

13 „ glairy. 

9 ,, muddj\ 

5 „ approximate!}'. 

5'5 ,, puriform. 
13 „ 

„ intestine corroded. 

, empty. 



8 

9 

9 

9 

2-5 
10 

5 

6-5 
10-2 

5-5 

18 
7 
7-5 

16 



after filtration, 
turbid. 

after filtration, 
after filtration. 

after filtration. 

ditto worm present. 



ditto 
no fluid, 
blood-stained, 
milky. 

blood-stained. 



mucus and blood. 



about 4 mucus. 



Series II. 

Ex]ye)~iment 26. — Sulphate of atropia. 2^ c. c. saturated solution of mag- 
nesium sulphate mixed with 5 grains of sulphate of atropia were injected into 
middle loop. 

On examination, 

Middle loop contained 15-5 c. c. turbid and blood-stained fluid, «= 8-5 c. c. 
after filtration. 

PP » I empty. 
Lower „ J ^ •' 



64 REPORT — 1874'. 

Mucous membrane : — 

Middle loop injected, minute points of ecchymosis. 
Upper „ -I , 
Lower „ J P^^^' 

Exjieriment 27. — Iodide of methyl-atropia. 2^ c. c. saturated solution of 
magnesium sulphate containing 5 grains of iodide of methyl-atropia injected 
into middle loop. 
On examination, 

Middle loop contained 6 c. c. opalescent fluid, = 4-5 c. c. after filtration. 
It gave a copious precipitate with HNO^. 

T " i empty. 

Lower „ J ^ "^ 

Mucous membrane : — 

Middle loop injected, with minute ecchymosis, and covered with tenaci- 
ous mucus. 
Upper „ "1 ^^^ 
Lower „ J ^ ' 
Experiment 28. — Chloral hydrate. 2| c. c. saturated solution of magnesium 
sulphate containing 5 grs. of chloral hydrate were injected into the middle loop. 
On examination, 

Middle loop contained 10 c. c. slightly blood-stained fluid, = 9 c, c. after 

filtration. 
Upper 
Lower 
Mucous membrane :- 
Middle loop pale. 

T " \ pale also. 

Lower „ J ^ 

Experiment 29. — Emetia. 2| c. c. saturated solution of magnesium sulphate 
with 1 grain of emetia injected into the middle loop. 
On examination, 

Middle loop contained 12-5 c. c. blood-stained fluid mixed with mucus, 
= 10 c. c. after filtration. It gave a dense precipitate 
with HNO, 
Upper 
Lower 
Mucous membrane : — 

Middle loop injected, with minute ecchymosis, covered with thick yellow 
mucus. 



" I empty. 



" I empty. 



^PP^^ " I pale. 



Lower ,, 

Experiment 30. — Morphia. 2^ c. c. saturated solution of magnesium sul- 
phate containing 2 grains of morphia wei-e injected into the middle loop. 
On examination. 

Middle loop contained 7'5 c. c. of clear fluid, with a little mucus ; after 
filtration = 6'5 c. c. It gave no precipitate with IINOj. 

Lower ',', } ^"^P^^' 
Mucous membrane : — 

Middle loop slightly injected and covered with thin mucus. 

yPP^^ " Ipale. 



ox THE NATUKE OF I.VTESTXNAL SECRETION, 65 

Experiment 31. — Sulphate of quinine. 2^ c. c. saturated solution of mag- 
nesium sulphate containing 5 grains of sulphate of quinine were injected into 
the middle loop. 
On examination. 
Middle loop contained 19 c. c. of turbid fluid and thick mucus. After 
filtration it was = 7 c. c. and opalescent. It gave a copious 
precipitate with HNO3. 
Upper „ empty. 

Lower „ contained a very little fluid. 
Mucous membrane : — 

Middle loop slightly injected, covered with gelatinous mucus, 
Upper „ T jg 
Lower „ J ^ 

Experiment 32. — Tannin. 2| c. c. of a saturated solution of magnesium 
sulphate containing 5 grains of tannin were injected into the middle loop. 
On examination, 

Middle loop contained 7 c. c. thick fluid with a granular sediment ; no 
mucus. After filtration = 6 c. c. 

Upper „ contained a tapeworm and a little fluid. 

Lower „ „ 7*5 c. c, after filtration = 5-5 c. c. 

The fluid gave an abundant precipitate with HNO3. 
Mucous membrane : — ■ 

Middle loop slightly injected, with extensive submucous extravasation. 

yPP*^^ » I pale. 
Lower ,, J ^ 

Experiment 33. — Sulphate of zinc. 2| c. c. saturated solution of magnesium 
sulphate with 1 grain of zinc sulphate were injected into the middle loop. 
On examination. 

Middle loop contained 8 c. c. clear fluid, no mucus. It gave an abundant 

precipitate with HNO3 
Upper „ 
Lower „ 
Mucous membrane : — 

Middle loop slightly injected, 

yPP^^ " I pale. 
Lower „ J ^ 

Experiment 34.— Chloral hydrate. 2| c. c. of a saturated solution of 
magnesium sulphate were injected into the middle loop, and after closure of the 
abdominal woiind 15 grains (1 gramme) of chloral in 2 c. c. of water were in- 
jected subcutaneously. The cat weighed 4^ lbs. 
On examination, 

Middle loop contained 13i c. c. of clear fluid with lumps of gelatinous 
mucus. 

• yPl'^^' " I empty. 
Lower „ ] ^ ^ 

Mucous membrane : — 

Middle loop pale, (Edematous, covered with soft gelatinous mucus. 



[ empty. 



^PPer „ 1 ^^^^ ^^^ ^^^ swollen. 
Lower „ J '■ 



Experiment 35. — Chloral hydrate. 2| c. c. saturated solution of magnesium 
sulphate wore iniected into the middle loop, and as soon as the abdominal 
1874. ' F 



66 



REPORT — 1874. 



j-pale 



^Yound had been closed, 3 grains of hydrate of chloral iu 30 miuims of water 
were injected subcutaneously into the flank of the animal. It weighed 3^ lbs. 
On examination, 

Middle loop contained llg c. c. of clear fluid, with flakes of mucus. 

Lower " | ^°^P*y- 
Mucous membrane : — 

^Middle loop moderately injected and covered with mucus. The serous 

covering of this loop was much injected. 
Upper 
Lower 

Experiment 36. — Acetate of morphia. 2| c. c. of a saturated solution of 
magnesium sulphate were injected into the middle loop, and immediately 
after closure of the abdominal wound 1 grain of acetate of morphia in 2 c. c. 
of water was injected subcutaneously into the flank of the cat, which weighed 
5 lbs. 

On examination, 

Middle loop contained 10'5 c. c. of turbid fluid, tinged with blood. 
Upper „ „ a large tapeworm. 

Lower „ empty. 
Mucous membrane : — 

Middle loop pale, covered with thin gelatinous mucus. 

Lower „ J P^^^' 



Table II. Exlnhitmg the results of the Second Series of experimentg. 



Drugs injected. 



Quantities. 



Fluid found in middle loop. 



1. Magnesium sulphate . . . . 
Atropia suljAate 

2. Magnesium sulphate . . . . 
Iodide of methyl-atropia . 

3. Magnesium sulphate . . . . 
Chloral 

4. Magnesium sulphate . . . . 
Emetia 

5. Magnesium sulphate . . . . 
Morphia 

6. Magnesium sulphate . . . . 
Quinine sulphate 

7. Magnesium sulphate . . . . 
Tannin 

8. Magnesium sulphate . . . . 
Zinc sulphate 



•4 



2-5 c. c 
5 grains 
2-5 c. c. I 
5 grains J 
2-5 c. c. " 
5 grains 
2-5 c. c. 

1 grain ] 
2-5 CO. 1 

2 grains J 
2-5 c. c. 1 
5 grains J 
2-5 c. c. 1 
5 grains J 
2-5 c.c. I 
1 grain J 



15-5 c. c. turbid, blood-stained, = 
8"5 c. c. after filtration. 

6 c. e. opalescent, albuminous, = 
4'5 c. c. after filtration. 

10 c.c. blood-stained, = 9 c.c. after 

filtration. 
12-5 c. c. blood-stained mucus, = 

10 c. c. after filtration. 
7'5 c. c. clear mucus, = 0*5 c. c. 

after fdtration. 
19 c. c. turbid fluidand thick mucus, 

= 7 c. c. after filtration. 

7 c. c, = 6 c. c. after filtration. 

Sec. 



Subcutaneous injection of chloral, with injection of 2-5 c. c. magnesium 
sulphate into the loop in each case. 

13-5 c.c. clear gelatinous mucus. 
11*5 c.c. clear fluid, mucus. 
10-5 c. c. turbid, blood-stained. 



9. Chloral 

10. Chloral 

11. Morphia acetate 



1 gram. 
•29 „ 
•065 „ 



ON THE NATURE OF INTESTINAL SECRETION. 67 

E.-Cpetimea 37. — Eftect of ligature of the mesenteric veins. Three loops of 
intestine were isolated as nsual, but nothing was injected into any of them. 
The veins passing along the mesentery from the middle loop were carefully 
isolated and ligatured. 

On examination, 

Middle loop contained 6-5 c. c. of coagulated blood. 

T ^ " \ empty. 

Lower „ J ^ •' 

Mucous membrane and all the coats of the middle loop were intensely 

congested, the mucous membrane being more so than the other coats. There 

was very little mucus upon it. 

Upper loop 1 

Lower ,, ] '■ 

Series III. 

Experiment 38. — Division of the mesenteric nerves. Three loops were 
isolated as usual. Nothing was injected, but the nerves passing along the 
mesentery to the middle one were carefully sought for and divided. No 
microscopic examination was made afterwards, however, and it is therefore 
uncertain whether all the filaments were divided or not. The animal 
weighed 5 lbs. 
On examination. 
Middle loop ] 
Upper „ l all empty. 
Lower „ J 
Mucous membrane :■ — • 
Middle loop "1 
Upper „ I all dry. 
Lower „ J 

Experiment 38 a. — This experiment was repeated on another animal with 
a similar result. 

Experiment 38 h. — Division of the mesenteric nerves. Three loops of intes- 
tine were isolated by ligatures. In one of them the vessels were carefully 
isolated, and the nerves and remaining structures in the mesentery connected 
with the loop were divided. 
On examination. 

Operated loop contained 15 e. c. of fluid. 
Other loops empty. 
Mucous membrane : — 

Operated loop somewhat congested. 
Other loops normal. 

Experiment 39.— -Division of both splanchnios. The loops were isolated 
as usual; nothing was injected into any, but both splanchnic nerves were cut. 
The animal weighed 5| lbs. 

On examination, about four hours after the operation. 
Middle loop 1 
Upper „ I all empty. 
Lower „ J 
Mucous membrane : — 
Middle loop "1 

Upper „ I all pale and contracted. 
Lower „ J 

52 



(58 REPORT — 1874. 

Ex'pprhneni 40. — Extirpation of the upper two thirds of right semilunar 
ganglion. Division of the right greater splanchnic. 
On examination, 

Duodennm 1 ^^^^^_ 
Jejunum j 
Lower part of ileum closely contracted. 

The loop of ileum 10 centims. long, which had been isolated, was empty. 
The part of intestine above the loop was full. 
The „ „ below „ empty. 

Experhmnt 41. — Excision of lower two thirds of right semilunar ganglion. 
Splanchnics not divided. One loop of intestine was isolated. 

On examinatioix the intestines were found much contracted. Their dia- 
meter was only about half their normal one, and they were also contracted 
in the direction of their length. 

The loop, originally 10 centims., had contracted to 5 centims. The whole 
intestine was empty. 

Experiment 42. — Extirpation (complete) of right semilunar ganglion. In 
this operation the receptaculum chyli was wounded. The great splanchnic 
of the right side was divided in removing the ganglion ; the lesser splanchnics 
were unhurt. The animal was in full digestion, and the lacteals and recep- 
taculum were full of milky chyle. The cat was killed about four hours 
afterwards by a blow on the head. 

On examination the whole intestine was normal as regards vascularity and 
contraction. 

One loop of intestine (10 centims. long) had been isolated by ligatures at 
the time the ganglion was removed. It was situated 35 inches (89 centims.) 
from the pylorus and 18 inches (45| centims.) from the ileo-cfecal valve. The 
loop was distended with fluid. On measurement this amounted to 13 c. c. 

The intestine above the loop did not contain more than 12 c. c. of fluid, 
although it looked fuU. The intestine below the loop was empty. There 
was no worm in the loop. The mucous membrane of the loop was normal. 

Experiment 43.- — Extirpation of right semilunar ganglion. The right semi- 
lunar ganglion was excised as usual, and a loop of intestine 10 centims. long 
was isolated. On examination about four hours afterwards the whole intes- 
tine was normal as regards contraction and vascularity when the abdominal 
cavity was opened. 

After the cavity was opened the intestines contracted ; after division of 
the mesentery they again relaxed, the loop, originally 10 centims., contract- 
ing to 7"5 centims., and again relaxing to 10 centims. 
The intestines above the loop were empty. 
Loop was empty. 

Intestines below the loop were full. 
Mucous membrane of loop pale, covered with bile-stained mucus. 
Experiment 44. — Extirpation of right semilunar ganglion. One loop of 
intestine isolated in the jejunum and another in the ileum, close to the ileo- 
cfecal valve. 

On examination all the intestine was normal as regards both vascularity 
and state of contraction. 
Jejunal loop ] , 
Iliac „ I ^°^P^y- 
Experiment 45. —Extirpation of right semilunai' ganglion. The ganglion 
in this case was reached from the inner side of kidncv. 



ON THE NATUKE OF INTESTINAL SECKETION. 69 

A loop of intestine isolated close to duodenum and another at ileo-csecal 

valve. 

On examination, 

Duodenal loop 1 , iu i 
THo,^ [both empty. 



Iliac 

There were some Avorms in the duodenal loop and none in the iliac. The 
latter was more contracted than the former, 
Vascularitjr of intestine normal. 

E.v2-)eriment 4G. — Extirpation of right semilunar ganglion. It was cut out 
from the inner side of the right kidney. One loop of intestine isolated close 
to the duodenum and another at the ileo-caecal valve. 
On examination, 

Jejunal loop contained some worms, but was otherwise empty and dry. 
Iliac ,, ,, I c. c. of fluid. Its mucous membrane was moist. 

Experiment 47. — Excision of left semilunar ganglion and upper two thirds 
of right ganglion. Section of both greater splanchnics. 
On examination, 
Duodenum natural. 
Jejunum natural. 
Ileum pale. 
The mucous membrane of the isolated loop was moist and pale. The 
loop contained about ^ c. c. of fluid. 

There were no Tcenice nor Ascarides present." 

Experiment 48. — Extirpation of both semilunar ganglia. Right semilunar 
was excised from the inside of the right kidney, and all the nerves attached 
to it were divided. 

One loop of intestine was isolated close to the duodenum, and another 
near the ileo-csecal valve. 
On examination, 

Duodenal loop contained 1 c. c. of fluid. 

Iliac „ „ 4J c. c. of pale opalescent fluid. It efiervesccd 

and coagulated with nitric acid. 
Mucous membrane : — 

Duodenal loop swoUen, soft, pale. 
Iliac ,, pale. 

Experiment 49. — Extirpation of both semilunar ganglia, splanchnics on 
both sides divided, but some small branches of right great splanchnic not 
divided. 

One loop isolated close to the duodenum and another close to the ileo-ca;cal 
valve. 

On examination both loops empty. 

Vascularity of intestines normal. 

Experiment -50. — Extirpation of both semilunar ganglia. The right gan- 
glion was reached from the inside of the right kidney. 

One loop of intestine isolated at the upper end of the jejunum and another 
at the lower end of the ileum. 

On examination the whole intestine looked large. Instead of the opposite 
sides lying flat against each other the intestine was round like a rope. 

Jejunal loop contained 1 c. c. of fluid and some fa:cal matter. 

Iliac loop nearly eirpty. 



70 REPORT — 1874. 

Mucous membrane : — 
Jejunal loop swollen. 
Iliac „ pale, moLst. 

Experiment 51. — Excision of semilunar ganglia. Both semilunar ganglia 
•were excised. One loop of jejunum near the duodenum was isolated. When 
the animal was killed about four hours afterwards, and the intestine examined, 
it was found to be normal. 

The loop contained about 1 c. c. of fluid. 

Experiment 52. — Extirpation of semilunar ganglia. Both semilunar gan- 
glia were excised, and one piece of small intestine 10 c. c. long isolated. 
About four hours after the cat was killed by a blow on the head. 

On examination the duodenum was normal. 

The jejunum and ileum were shortened and thickened. 

The loop, originally 10 centims. long, had shortened to 7*5 centims. On 
pressing any part of the jejunum or ileum strongly between the fingers the 
part contracted to half its former diameter, but there was no peristaltic propa- 
gation of the contraction. On cutting away the intestine from the mesentery it 
lengthened, the loop again becoming 10 centims. long. When any part of the 
intestine was now pressed after its separation from the mesentery, the con- 
traction occurred most strongly at the point of pressure, but it was also pro- 
pagated to the adjoining portions of intestine. 

The mucous membrane of the whole intestine was moist and bile-stained. 

The loop contained about 1 c. c. of clear fluid. 

Experiment 53. — Excision of semilunar ganglia ; division of splanchnics. 
The splanchnics, large and small, were divided on both sides, and both semi- 
lunar ganglia completely excised. Pour hours afterwards the cat was killed 
by a blow on the head. 

There was no hypera;mia of the intestine, which was, on the contrary, 
rather pale. The mucous membrane "was pale and dry. 

Experiment 54. — Excision of lower two thirds of right semilunar ganglion; 
division of right splanchnic, with the exception of one or two smaU commu- 
nicating branches with left splanchnic and branches to suprarenal capsule. 

Two loops of intestine isolated, one at upper end of jejunum, and the other 
at the lower end of ileum. 

On examination both loops were empty. 

Mucous membrane in both normal in coloxir, dry, biliary matter covering 
its surface. 

Experiment 55. — Excision of right semilunar ganglion ; division of nerves 
passing from it around the blood-vessels. Three loops of intestine isolated — 
one at upper end of jejunum, one at ileo-cseeal valve, and one midway 
between the tAvo. 

On examination aU the loops were empty. Mucous membrane normal 
in all. 

Experiment 56. — Excision of the left semilunar ganglion and division of 
nerves passing from it around the vessels. 

Three loops of intestine isolated — one at upper end of jejunum, one at 
lleo-caecal valve, and one midway between the two. 

On examination all the loops were empty. Mucous membrane normal 
in aU. 

AU the loops were the same length when tied, xii. 10 centims. 



ON THE TEACHING OF PHYSICS IN SCHOOLS. 71 

Ou measurement, 

Lower loop, 7'5 centims. 
Middle „ 10 
Upper „ 8-7 „ 

Experhnent bl. — Division of left vagus at tlie diaphragm, Thi'ee loops 
isolated — one at the upper end of jejunum, one at the ileo-caecal valve, and 
one midway between the two. 

On examination the stomach was distended with food; contained httle 
fluid. The duodenum appeared full, but on opening it it was found to con- 
tain no fluid. 

AU the loops were empty. 
On measurement, 

Upper loop, 7*5 centims. 
Middle „ 8-7 
Lower ,, G-2 „ 



Report of the Committee on the Teaching of Physics in Schools, the 
Committee consisting of Professor H. J. S. Smith, Professor Clif- 
ford, Professor W. Gr. Adams, Professor Balfour Stewart, Pro- 
fessor R. B. Cltftox, Professor Everett, Mr. J. G. Fitch, Mr. 
G. Griffith, Mr. Marshall Watts, Professor W. F. Barrett, 
Mr. J. M. Wilson, Mr. Lockyer, and Professor G. C. Foster 
(Secretary) . 

In view of the very great diversities in almost aU respects of the conditions 
under which the work of different schools has to be carried on, the Com- 
mittee considered that, in any suggestions or recommendations that they 
might make, it would be impossible for them with any advantage to attempt 
to enter into details. They have therefore, in the recommendations which 
they have agreed upon, endeavoured to keep in view certain principles which 
they regard as of fundamental importance, -^-ithout attempting to prescribe 
any particular way of carrj-ing them out in practice. 

They have assumed, as a point not requiring further discussion, that the 
object to be attained by introducing the teaching of Physics into general 
school-work is the mental training and discipline which the pupils acquire 
through studying the methods whereby the conclusions of physical science 
have been established. They arc, however, of opinion that the fii'st and one 
of the most serious obstacles in the way of the successful teaching of this 
subject is the absence fi-om the pupils' minds of a fii"m and clear grasp of the 
concrete facts and phenomena forming the basis of the reasoning processes 
they are called upon to study. They therefore think it of the utmost im- 
portance that the first teaching of all branches of physics should be, as far 
as possible, of an experimental kind. "VThenever circumstances admit of it, 
the experiments should be made by the pupils themselves, and not merely by 
the teacher ; and though it may not be needful for every pupil to go through 
every experiment, the Committee think it essential that every pupil should 
at least make some experiments himself. 

For the same reasons, they consider that the study of text-books should 
be entirely subordinate to attendance at experimental demonstrations or 



72 KKi'OKT — 1874'. 

lectures, in order that the pupils' first impressions may be got directly from 
the things themselves, and not from -what is said abont them. They do not 
suppose that it is possible in elementary teaching entirely to do without the 
use of text-books, but they think they ought to be used for reviewing the 
matter of previous experimental lessons rather than in preparing for such 
lessons that are to follow. 

With regard to the order in which the different branches of Physics can 
be discussed with greatest advantage, — considering that all explanation of 
physical phenomena consists in the reference of them to mechanical causes, 
and that therefore all reasoning about such phenomena leads directly to the 
discussion of mechanical principles, — the Committee arc of opinion that it is 
desirable that the school-teaching of Physics should begin with a course of 
elementary mecJianics, including hydrostatics and pneumatics, treated from 
a purely experimental point of view. The Committee do not overlook the 
fact that very little progress can be made iu theoretical mechanics without 
considerable familiarity with the technicalities of mathematics; but they 
believe that, by making constant appeal to experimental proofs, the study of 
mechanics may be profitably begun by boys who have acquired a fair know- 
ledge of arithmetic, including decimals and proportion, and as much geometry 
as is equivalent to the Pirst Book of Euclid. They believe that it will be 
found sufficient to impart such further geometrical knowledge as may be 
required (such, for instance, as a knowledge of the properties of similar tri- 
angles) in the first instance provisionally, without demonstration, during the 
course of instruction in mechanics. 

In reference to the order in which the other departments of Physics 
should be studied, the Committee do not think it possible to prescribe any 
one order that is necessarily preferable to others that might be adopted ; but 
they consider it desirable that priority should be given to those branches in 
which the ideas encountered at the outset of the study are most easily appre- 
hended, and illustrations of wliich are most frequently met M'ith in common 
experience. On these grounds they suggest that the elementary parts of the 
science of heat may advantageously follow mechanics, that elementary optics 
(including the laws of reflexion and refraction, the formation of images, 
colour, chromatic dispersion, and the construction of the simple optical 
instruments) should come next, and afterwards the elements of electricity 
and magnetism*. When it is found possible to include in the work of a 
school a fuller or more advanced course of Physics than that here indicated, 
the Committee are of opinion that the discretion of the master, guided by 
the circumstances of the case, will best decide in what direction the exten- 
sion should take place ; they suggest, however, that an early place in the 
course should be given to elementary astronomy, both because it furnishes 
the grandest and most perfect examples of the application of dynamical 
principles, and because it promotes an intelligent interest in phenomena 
which, in their most superficial aspects, at least, cannot fail to arrest atten- 
tion, and familiarizes the mind with the wide range of application of physical 
laws. 

The Committee are strongly of opinion that no very beneficial results can 
be looked for from the general introduction of Physics into school-teaching, 
unless those who undertake to teach it have themselves made it the subject 
of serious and continued study, and have also given special attention to the 
best methods of imparting instruction in it. They therefore suggest that, 

* It should be stated that one member of the Committee did not approve of the order 
of subjects suggested in tlie text. 



ON ISOMiiHlC (JKESULS AND THJilK DEHIVATIVES. 73 

■with a view to aflfording facilities to persons desirous of becoming teachers 
of Physics, of familiarizing themselves with the most efficient methods and 
of gaining experience in them, the Council of the British Association should 
invite the leading teachers of Physics in the universities, colleges, and schools 
of the United Kingdom to allow such persons, under suitable regulations, to 
be present at the instruction given by them, and, when practicable, to act as 
temporary assistants. The Committee do not hereby mean that aspii-ants to 
the teaching function should be encouraged to drop in at random to hear a 
lecture by any established teacher who may happen to be within reach ; the 
kind of attendance they have in view would be systematic, and continued for 
not less than some moderate period of time, such perhaps as two or three 
months, agreed upon, at starting. They believe that the benefits which 
might result from the adoption of such a plan are very great ; the advantages 
to those who might avail themselves of it are obvious ; and while teachers of 
established success would have a chance of spreading widely their methods 
of instruction, and, in fact, of founding schools of disciples, the stimulus to 
exertion, afforded by the consciousness that they were being watched by men 
Avho were preparing themselves to occupy positions similar to their own, 
would be of the most efficient kind. 



Preliminary Report of the Committee, consisting of Dr. Armstrono 
and Professor Thorpe, appointed for the purpose of investigatiiig 
Isomeric Cresols and their Derivatives. Drawn up by Dr. Henry E. 
Armstrong. 

A NUMBER of isolated observations have shown that the so-called cresylic 
acid from coal-tar contains both para- and ortho-cresol, but a satifactory 
examination of the crude product which would enable us to say that it con- 
sists of these two modifications alone has not hitherto been made j moreover, 
supposing it to contain only these two isomerides, no method is at present 
known by which it is possible to separate them and obtain each in a state of 
purity. In conjunction with Mr. C. L. Field your reporter has therefore 
sought, in the first place, to ascertain what are the constituents of ordinary 
cresyhc acid ; and, in the second, to devise a method of separating the isomeric 
cresols. 

The method of examination employed is as follows : — The cresylic acid is 
heated with an equal weight of concentrated sulphuric acid for 15-20 hours 
at about 100° ; the resulting mixture of sulpho-acids is then thrown into 
water and neutrahzed with baric carbonate, and to the solution separated 
from the precipitated baric sulphate baric hydrate solution is added as long 
as a precipitate is produced. The basic baric salt of paracresolsulphonic acid 
thus precipitated is separated from the liquid, decomposed by a slight excess 
of sulphuric acid, the excess of sulphuric acid is removed by plumbic car- 
bonate and hydric sulphide, and the solution of paracresolsulphonic acid thus 
obtained neutralized with potassic carbonate. On concenti-ating the result- 
ing solution potassic paracresolsulphonate, C^ H^ SO^ K, 2OH2, separates out 
almost in a state of purity. 

The solution filtered from the basic baric salt is treated with sulphuiic 
acid, and thus at least tAVo thirds of the barium present removed as sulphate ; 



74 REPORT — 1874. 

potassic carbonate is then added until a precipitate of baric carbonate no 
longer forms. The solution then contains a mixture of potassic salts of very 
different solubilities, which may be separated by fractional crystallization. 
PinaUy, three products are obtained: — 1, potassic phenolparasulphonate ; 
2, potassic phenolmetasulphonate ; 3, which is the most soluble portion, 
more or less pure potassic orthocresolsulphonate. Hitherto no indication 
has been obtained of the presence of the third isomeric cresol (metacresol) in 
the coal-tar product ; but it is by no means certain, although probable, that 
this modification is absent. Until characteristic derivatives of this cresol are 
known this point must remain undecided. 

Having thus separated the sulpho-acids derived from the isomeric cresols, 
it is easy to obtain the corresponding cresols in a state of purity ; aU that is 
necessary for this purpose is to heat the sulpho-salt with hydrochloric acid 
in sealed tubes at about 160° during a couple of hours. The potassic para- 
cresolsulphonate above referred to is thus resolved into paracresol and hydric 
potassic sulphate; the orthocresolsulphonate into orthocresol and hydric 
potassic sulphate. In order to purify the cresol thus separated, it is advan- 
tageous first to distil it in a current of steam before it is distilled alone. 
The orthocresol sei^arated from the sulpho-acid gave a large quantity of sah- 
cylic acid on fusion with potassic hydrate. 

A number of derivatives of paracresol have already been prepared, but 
their study is as yet by no means completed. On treatment with nitric acid, 
paracresol yields a mononitrocresol of low melting-point and volatile in a 
current of steam ; a second body, crystallizing in prisms and uou-volatilc, 
which is formed simultaneously, is perhaps an isomeric compound. On further 
treatment with nitric acid the volatile nitrocresol is converted into dinitro- 
cresol (m. p. 81°) ; this dinitrocresol apparently cannot be converted by 
further nitration into a trinitrocresol. Potassic paracrcsolsulphonate is 
readily converted by the action of dilute nitric acid into potassic nitropara- 
cresolsulphouate, which by the continued action of the acid is converted into 
dinitrocresol (m. p. 81°). Potassic nitroparacresolsulphonate yields on treat- 
ment with bromine a dibromonitrocresol, which appears to be isomeric with 
that obtained on brominating the volatile nitroparacresol previously mentioned. 
By the action of bromine jjotassic paracrcsolsulphonate is successively con- 
verted into bromoparacresolsulphonate, dibromoparacresolsulphouate, and 
finally into tribromocresol. 

Considerable quantities of the isomeric cresols having now been obtained 
from coal-tar by the method above given, it is intended to institute a careful 
comparative examination of their derivatives. 

No portion of the grant made to this Committee having been drawn, it is 
requested that they be reappointed, and that the same sum be again placed 
at their disposal. 



Third Report of the Committee, consisting of Dr. James Bryce and 
William Jolly, appointed for the purpose of collecting Fossils from 
localities of difficidt access in North-western Scotland. Drawn up 
by William Jolly, Secretary. 

The Committee are sorry to have still to report that no organic remains 
have yet been discovered by them in any locality along the great limestone 



ON THE RAINFALL OF THE BKITISH ISLES. 75 

strike of the N.W. Highlands, other than the Durness basin, from which the 
fossils found by the Committee have alone been obtained. The Committee 
have not been able personalljr to prosecute the search during the past year, 
and the Secretary's official work as Inspector of Schools, which formerly 
extended over the whole of the district of investigation, is now confined to 
other localities ; so that the same active search and personal superiutendence 
of diggings are not now possible. But they have the services of gentlemen 
resident in the district, who are willing to prosecute the search. The Com- 
mittee still hope that theii- labours will have successful results in some of 
the localities hitherto barren, and this all the more certainly that fossils were 
discovered by Mr. Peach at Inchnadamph on Loch Assyut. 

The Committee beg to propose that the fossils already obtained from 
this N.W. limestone should be submitted to Mr. Etheridge, Dr. Duncan, 
Dr. Hicks, or other competent palseontologists, whose report would be 
presented to the next Meeting of the Association, on the age and species of 
the fossils, so as, if possible, to lead to a more certain determination of the 
place in the geologic series of the rocks in which they are found, than was 
possible with the few and imperfect specimens submitted to Mr. Salter 
in 1858. The fossils available for this examination consist of: — (1) those 
collected by the Committee; (2) those collected for Professor Nicol of 
Aberdeen, and now deposited in the College Museum there ; (3) those 
submitted to Mr. Salter in 1858 and deposited in the Geological Museum in 
Jermyn Street ; and (4) any others that may be obtained by the Committee 
during the next year. These would form material for a more certain determi- 
nation of the age of these fossils than has hitherto been possible, as they are 
both more numerous and more perfect than those originally discovered by 
Mr. Peach, which were submitted to Mr. Salter and figured in Sir Eoderick 
Murchison's paper on the subject. 

The Committee would therefore propose their reappointment by the Asso- 
ciation, for the purpose of arranging for this examination and Report, and 
of prosecuting still further their search in this interesting and important 
field. 



Report on the Rainfall of the British Isles for the years 1873-7'4^ hj a 
Committee, consisting of C. Brooke, F.R.S., J. Glaisher, F.R.S., 
J. F. Bateman, C.E., F.R.S., T. Hawksley, C.E., C. Tomlinson^ 
F.R.S., Rogers Field, C.E., G. J. Symons, Secretary. 

The attention of your Committee during the past year has been mainly 
directed to completing work previously commenced, and to the carrying out 
of all measures likely to tend to still greater accuracy on the part of the 
observers. 

Position Seturns. — It will be in the recollection of the members of the 
Association, that as a partial substitute for the expensive, although most 
important, practice of personal inspection of rain-gauge stations by our Secre- 
tary, we issued (in 1872) to every observer a blank form, on which he was 
to send full particulars respecting the position of his rain-gauge. A spe- 
cimen of this form is given in our 1871 Report, page 99. Upwards of 800 
were duly filled up by the observers and retiu'ned to our Secretary, and they 



1862 . 


. 51 


1867 . 


. 50 


1863 . 


. 44 


1868 . 


. 40 


1864 . 


. 20 


1869 . 


. 115 


1865 . 


. 17 


1870 . 


. 39 


1866 . 


. 60 







76 HEPOHT — 1874. 

have all, during the past year, been examined and reduced to the compact 
form shown on page 259 of our last Report. The number is, however, so 
great that they would occupy nearly 100 pages of the annual volume, even 
if further condensed and the utmost economy of space exercised. Your 
Committee therefore, although fvilly impressed with the great value of the 
information which they have thus obtained, do not insert them in the present 
Report, which is necessarily rather heavy from other causes, and reserve 
them for next year, when these causes will bo absent. 

Examination of Rain-gauges in situ. — Your Committee have always re- 
garded this as the most important branch of their work. Only those who 
have personally inspected large numbers of stations can realize fully the 
variety of details which it is the duty of an inspector to notice and have 
rectified. It is worse than useless to collect masses of statistics unless at 
the same time every effort is made to ascertain that the observations have 
been in all respects properly made. It is therefore with much pleasure that 
we are able to state that the number of stations visited by our Secretary 
since the preparation of oiu- last Report is 50, being, as will be seen by the 
following Table, considerably above the average. 

Number of stations inspected and rain-gauges tested in situ each j-ear :-— 

1871 .. 21 

1872 .. 24 

1873 .. 27 

1874 . . 50 (to Aug. 12th). 

The total number tested up to the present time is 558, and they are 
tolerably well scattered over Great Britain (as was shown by the map exhi- 
bited at the Meeting, whereon the locality of each station which has been 
visited by our Secretary was marked by a red disk). We can only once 
more express our regret that the limit of our grant prevents our providing 
that which the present system of rainfall observations imperatively requires, 
viz. one permanent travelling inspector. The results of the inspections since 
December 4th, 1872, are given in the usual form in the Appendix to this 
paper. "VVe are glad to state that a steady approach towards accuracy appears 
to prevail amongst observers, and also a firm conviction that, if it is to be 
attended to at all, it should receive very careful attention. 

List of Stations. — In our last Report we stated that we hoped " at an early 
date to present a revised edition of the list of stations published in the Report 
of this Association for 1865," which mainly, in consequence of the work 
under the auspices of your Committee, had become obsolete, as it docs not 
contain more than two thirds of the data now collected. This work, though 
mentioned last year for the first time, has been in progress under the super- 
vision of our Secretary for upwards of five years, is now in a forward state, 
and will form a remarkably complete index of all rainfall observations ever 
made in this country, and a voluminous one, too, for it would occupy 60 or 70 
pages of the annual volume instead of less than 50 pages, as was the case 
with the last one. 

Gaiiges in the Eastern Lahe-district. — In the autumn of 1866 thirteen 
gauges were placed in the watersheds of Ullswater, Haweswater, Easedale 
Tarn, &c., by Mr. Symons. These were transferred to your Committee in 
1869, and the observations continued at their expense. At their meeting on 
September 18th, 1873, the Secretary reported that seven years bad elapsed 
since their erection, that several of them were out of order, and new observers 



ON THE RAINFALL OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 77 

AV.'^rc in cliargo of others, concerning' which personal instruction was dosirahle. 
Thereupon he was directed to proceed to the district and take such steps as 
he thought most expedient for securing accurate observations at a moderate 
cost. The following is an abstract of his reports : — 

The returns from Wet Sleddale have at all times been sent with great 
irregularity, and for two years none have been received. As a new station 
had been organized at Shap, that at Wet Sleddale was abandoned. If, how- 
ever, a good position and a good observer could be obtained in the Sleddale 
valley, it would be very advantageous. 

At Mardale Green the gauge was found to be in perfect order, but the 
measuring-rod had been broken and clumsily mended ; a new one was 
supplied. 

At Measandbecks, Haweswatcr, the observer had been obliged to move the 
gauge, and had placed it on ground sloping too precipitously ; it was removed 
a few feet, so as to place it on a level plateau. 

The Matterdale Common and Gowbarrow gauges were not visited, as they 
were repaired some time pi-eviously, and the observer reported them to be in 
perfect order. 

Owing to the removal and subsequent death of the observer at the Green- 
side Mines in Patterdale, the series of observations instituted there, which 
embraced gauges at 500 feet, 1000 feet, 1550 feet, and 2000 feet, were 
stopped. Aware of the great importance of accurate observations from that 
locality, our Secretary visited it, and had the pleasure of finding that the 
manager of the mines had resumed observations at 1000 feet, the gauge (a 
very accurate one) being well placed. 

The gauges at Wythburn, Easedale Tarn, and Watendlath were in perfect 
order, and the observations made by the observers originally appointed. 

The observer of the gauge at Berkside, Helvellyn, died a few years back, 
and the gauge had become out of order ; the gauge was sent to Keswick for 
repair, and a new observer instructed in the duties. 

The gauges at Seathwaite were in good order, except the large float one, 
•which was repaired at Keswick. 

A new observer had been appointed to Kirkstone Pass, who consequently 
had not received personal instruction ; neither of his gauges was in perfect 
order, but both were put so, and the subsequent records are very satisfactory. 

The returns from Skiddaw, though carefuUy kept, have always been ex- 
cessively small for the altitude (1677 feet) of the gauge. This is probably 
due to its very exposed position on the S.W. flank of the mountain. In 
accordance with a suggestion by the observer (who is on the mountain in all 
weathers) a second gauge has been placed on Skiddaw, the new site being at 
the head of Whitbeck. 

Majy of Stat'wiis in operation. — In consequence of the intimation conveyed 
to your Committee last year, they have discontinued entirely the issue of 
rain-gauges on loan, and have endeavoured to induce gentlemen to purchase 
gauges for themselves. "With a view to determining the districts in which 
additional gauges are most needed, a map was prepared, showing the site of 
every rain-gauge known to be in operation. It will be seen from it, that 
large as is now our field of operations, there are many districts in which all 
our efforts to obtain observers have been futile ; this is especially the case in 
the West of Ireland. 

Gauges along the Highland Eailwai/. — Your Committee are happy to be 
able to report that the observations by the station- agents of this Company 
appear to be carefully and correctly made ; but this is another matter which 



78 REPORT — 1874. 

would be miTCii iraproYcd if it were possible to provide a travelling inspector. 
At present tbe demands upon the time of our Secretary have been such that 
he has not been able to visit any of these stations ; but he is still hoping 
shortly to do so. With a view to lessening as far as possible the heavy cost 
of travelling, yonr Committee purpose applying to the railway companies for 
a ft-ee pass for their Secretary when travelling for such an essentially national 
purpose. 

Testing Case presented to the iscotttsh Meteorological Society. — We are glad 
to say that Mr. Buchan has made very good use of the above ; the pressure 
on his time has prevented his yet forwarding us the details of the examina- 
tions of 35 stations visited and tested by him, and of numerous gauges tested 
before issue ; but the work has been done, and the results are promised for 
our next Eeport. 

Eainfall of the British Isles during the years 1872 and 1873. — The very 
exceptional character of the rainfall of 1872 was mentioned in our last 
Report ; but in accordance with a custom which has now prevailed for twelve 
years, it was only incidentally referred to, the details being deferred until 
the two years 1872 and 1873 could be published together. This course, 
which was originally adopted with a view to economy in printing, has, in 
the present instance, had the fortunate result of bringing together two very 
remarkable features, of each of which we must speak separately. 

Bainfcdl of 1872. — Records of rainfall have been collected and discussed 
in our previous Reports, which enable us to compare the total fall in any year 
or years from 1726 to the present time with the mean fall. One of these 
Tables (that facing page 286, British-Association Report, 1866) contains nine 
long registers, extending over 140 consecutive years ; but the greatest excess 
above the mean, even at a single station, was only 58 per cent, (at Oxford 
in 1852). In 1872 this value was largely exceeded at a number of stations, 
as is shown by Tables I. and II., whence it appears that at 14 stations out 
of 115 (or 12 per cent.), it exceeded this previously unparalleled value. At 
13 the excess was greater than 60 per cent., and it reached or exceeded 70 
per cent, at the following stations : — 

Shropi5liire Sbiffnal Eainfall 77 per cent, above average 1860-69. 

„ Shrewsbury „ 75 „ „ „ 

„ Hengoed, Oswestry.. „ 70 „ „ „ 

Northumberland . . Bywell „ 77 „ „ „ 

Haddingtonshire.. East Linton ,, 70 „ „ „ 

Aberdeenshire .. ..Braemar „ 78 „ „ „ 

No similar fall has occurred since 1726, and there is no evidence of such a 
fall since rainfall observations were commenced nearly two centuries since. 
Pull details respecting the monthly fall of rain in this very remarkable year 
are given in the Appendix to this Report ; and we think it may be regarded 
as fortunate that so extraordinary a fall has occurred at a period when (owing 
largely to the operations of this Committee) the system of observation is in a 
state unprecedentedly near perfection. 

The liainfaU of 1873. — If this year had stood by itself, it would merely 
have been classed as a rather diy year, and would have soon passed into 
oblivion. Coming, however, - immediately after such an exceptionally wet 
year, it has produced the unusual result of giving two consecutive years, one 
with twice the rainfall of the other, and in many instances with much more 
than twice. How rare is this occurrence may be judged from the fact that 
there is no case in the 140-years Table just referred to. The nearest ap- 
proaches are, Chatsworth, in 1788 19-86 inches, in 1789 36-31 inches^ the 



ON THK RAINFALL OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 



79 



Table I.— Ratio of Rainfall in 1872-73 to Mean of 1800- 
(See B. A. Report, 1871, p. 100.) 



■09. 



Stations. 



I. 
II. 



III. 



IV. 



VI. 



VII. 



VIII. 



IX. 



X. 



1872. 



Camden Square 

Croydon 

Hunton Court 

Chilgi-oye 

Dale Park 

Ucklield 

Isle of Wight (Osborne) . 

Aldershot 

Berkhampstead 

Eoyston 

High Wycomb 

Banbury, High Street . . . 

Althorpe 

Cardington 

Elyi 

Witham, Dorward's Hall 

Aldham 

Barton Hall 

Honingham Hall 

Salisbury Plain(Chiltern) 

Swindon, Penhill 

Bridport 

Ham 

Tavistock, West Street 

Exeter Institution 

Broadhembury 

Barnstaple 

Helston 

Truro Institution 

Bristol 

Eoss 

Shiffnal 

Shrewsbury 

Oswestry, Hengoed ... 

Orleton 

Wigston 

Spalding, Pode Hole 

Lincoln 

Welbeck 

Derby 

Macclesfield 

Belmont 

Eufford 

Caton 

Coniston 

Eedmires 

Well Head 

Holbeck 

York, Bootham 

Hull 

Malton 

Bywell 

WylamHall 

Lilburn Tower 

Seathwaite 

Keswick Post Office . . 

Kendal, Kent Terrace 

Appleby 



132 
140 

135 
130 
124 
124 
128 
140 

133 
121 
120 
135 
153 
135 
132 
148 
139 
141 

143 
124 
125 
136 
122 
13s 
145 
140 

H5 
137 
124 
125 

147 
177 

175 
170 

143 
156 
128 
154 
155 
146 

143 
119 
149 

147 
117 

151 

142 

157 
163 
146 
152 
177 
166 
163 
118 

133 
130 
128 



1873. 



88 

94 
85 
94 
92 
96 
84 
93 
95 
89 
92 

87 
106 

95 
87 

99 

90 

98 
93 
85 
84 

85 
94 

95 

106 

90 

99 
103 

87 
loi 

95 
99 
86 

88 
82 

91 
78 
88 

91 

83 
94 
93 
87 
84 
80 
81 
77 
77 
77 
88 

75 
83 
71 
83 
93 
88 

93 
81 



Division 



Stations. 



XI. 



XII. 



XIII. 



XIV. 
XV. 



XVI. 



XVII. 



XVIII. 



XIX. 

XX. 
XXI. 

XXIII. 



Cardiff 

Ehayader 

Maes-y-dre, Holywell 

Llandudno 

Mull of Galloway 

Corsewall 

Little Eoss 

Dumfries 

Carlesgill 

Bowhill 

Dunse 

East Linton 

Inveresk 

Bothwell Castle 

Pladda 

Castle Toward 

Callton Mor 

Inverary 

Appin 

Mull of Cantire 

Ehinus of Islay 

Lismore 

Hynish 

Isle of May 

Aberfoyle 

Deanston 

Scone Palace 

Hillhead 

Arbroath 

The Burn, Brechin .. 

Girdleness 

Braemar 

Buchanness 

Gordon Castle 

Stornoway 

Bernera 

Portree 

Barrahead 

South Uist 

Island Glass 

CuUoden 

Golspie 

Cape Wrath 

Noss Head 

Pentland Skerries 

Sandwick 

Bressay 

Cork 

Waterford 

Killaloe 

Woodstock 

Portarlington 

Tullamore 

Black Eock 

Enniskillen 

Armagh 

Belfast 



1872. 1873. 



134 
164 
152 

155 
no 

120 

151 
136 
116 

151 
j66 

170 

155 
160 
132 
132 
129 
106 
107 
152 
136 
104 
84 

145 
134 
132 
163 
148 

134 
151 
152 
178 

"5 

150 

112 
158 
82 
128 
134 
157 
118 
129 
116 
133 
119 
103 

135 
119 
139 
m 
163 
102 
128 
156 
138 
124 
130 



80 



REPORT — 1874. 



TaijLE II. — ileau aiiJ Extreme Eatios in each Division. 
Abstract of Table I. 



DiTision. 



I. 

II. 

III. 

IV. 

V. 

VI. 

VII. 

VIII. 

IX. 

X. 

XI. 



XII. 

XIII. 

XIV. 

XV. 

XVI. 

XVII. 

XVIII. 

XIX. 



XX. 

XXI. 
XXIII. 



Description. 



England and Wales. 

Middlesex 

South-Eastern Coimtiea ... 
South Midland Counties ... 

Eastern Counties 

South- Western Counties ... 
West Midland Counties ... 
North Midland Counties . . . 
North- Western Counties ... 

Yorkshire 

Northern Counties 

I Monmouthshire, Wales, &c. 

Scotland. 

Southern Counties 

South-Eastern Counties .., 
South-Western Counties ... 
West Midland Counties . . , 
East Midland Counties ... 
North-Eastern Counties ... 
North-Western Counties.. 
Northern Counties 



Ireland. 



Munster 
Leinster . 
Ulster.... 



Mean 

Maximum 
Minimum 






I 

7 
7 
4 

10 

6 

S 

S 
6 

7 
4 



3 
4 
3 



o 



Ratio for 1872. 



Mean. Highest. Lowest. 



132 
132 
133 
143 
133 
,56 

148 

13s 
152 

138 
151 



127 
161 
160 
120 

143 
149 

127 
123 



123 
137 
131 



139 
161 
120 



132 
140 

153 
148 

145 
177 
156 
149 
163 
177 
164 



151 
170 
160 
152 
163 
178 
.58 
13s 



139 
163 
138 



J55 
178 
132 



132 
124 
120 
139 
122 
125 
128 
117 
142 
118 
134 



no 

151 
160 

84 
132 

115 

82 

103 



III 

102 
124 



122 

160 

82 



Eatio for 1870. 



Mean. 



Highest. 



88 

91 
93 
95 
93 
92 
86 
88 
79 
83 
86 



84 
104 
112 

95 

95 
106 

98 
107 



lOI 

98 



94 
112 

79 



88 

96 

106 

99 
103 

lOI 

91 

94 
88 

93 
91 



100 
122 
112 
108 

100 

128 

138 
123 



III 

119 

9' 



104 

138 

88 



Lowest. 



88 

84 

87 
90 

84 
82 

83 

80 

75 
71 
82 



60 

97 
112 

79 
86 

94 
74 
89 



94 
80 

84 



84 

112 

60 



former being 55 per cent, of the latter, A still nearer approach occurred at 
Cobham, in Surrey, in 1851 and 1852, when the totals were 17'38 inches and 
84-19 inches respectively, the former being 51 per cent, of the latter. In 
Table III. no cases are admitted unless much more striking than the above. 
The districts in which these exceptional ratios occur are (as might be ex- 
pected) principally those in which the excess in 1872 was greatest ; but there 
are also a few of which the explanation is not so obvious. It is very satis- 
factory to feel that these two exceptional years have found in the British 
Isles the most nearly perfect system of observation in the world. 

Your Committee cannot close their Report Avithout expressing, as far as 
words can do so, the loss which they have sustained in the death of Professor 
Phillips, one of the original members appointed in 1865, who, notwithstand- 
ing the numerous other demands upon his time, was always as willing as he 
was able to assist the Committee in any of the various difficulties which the 
extent of their operations inevitably involve. 



ON THE RAINFALL OF THE BRITISH ISLES, 



81 



Divibion. 



Station. 



Total Fall, 

1872. 



Total Fall, Per cent. 
1873. of 1872. 



VI. 



VIII. 



IX. 



X. 



Leysters, Leominster 

Craven Arms, Stokesay 

Shrewsbury 

Newport, Olieswell Grange 

Whitchurch 

Penkridge, Rodbaston 

Chest«r, Pulford Hall 

Bosley Minns 

Chester, Newton Nurseries 

Neston, Hindevton 

Marple Top Lock 

Handsworth Grange, Sheffield .... 

Broomhall Park, Sheffield 

Crookes, Sheffield 

Tinsley Locks, Sheffield 

Moorgate Grove, Rotherham 

Wath-upon Dearne, Rotherham . 

West Melton, Rotherham 

Elsecar, Barnsley 

Doncaster 

„ (Magdalens).. 

Worsborough, Barnsley 

Dunford Bridge Station 

Penistone 

Barnsley 

„ Church Street 

Ackworth 

Mirfield 

Rastrick, Huddersfield 

Bradford Mechanics' Institution. 

,, (Chellow Dean) 

Holbeck, Leeds 

Bootham , York 

Cherry Hill, York 

Ripon, Littlethorpe 



Thicket Priory, Thorganby 

Malton 

Filey 

Thorpe Perrow, Bedale 

Leyburn 

Northallerton 

Tunstall, Catterick 

Grosmout 

Whitby, North Lighthouse 

,, Guisborough Road ..... 

Greta Bridge 

Grey Towers, Middlesborough . 
Marton Hall, „ 

Upleatham 

Middlesborough 

Eaglescliffe [Yarm] 

Whorlton 

Sedgeficld 

Wolsingham 

Durham Observatory 

Sealiam Vicarage 

ShotleyHall 

By well 

WylamHall 

Newcastle, Rye Hill 

„ Philosophical Society. 

„ Town Moor 

North Shields, Whitley 

Glanton Pyke 



in. 

54-03 
50-87 

341S 
4636 

55-03 
4816 

48-31 
51-87 
52-02 
45-45 
54-35 
37-60 

45-8i 
43-00 

45-91 
39-26 
40-16 

3953 
41-07 

42-29 

3839 
56-86 

85-74 
54-42 
42-28 

45-54 
41-07 

37-45 
43-44 
43-12 
51-52 
35-90 

39-97 
40-38 
42-68 
42-07 
34-05 
41-79 
46-81 
44-22 
49-66 
40-53 
42-10 
57-18 

39-95 
38-62 

44-75 
41-82 
40-64 
36-25 
34-70 
39-46 
41-69 

39-34 
53-80 
48-47 
41-62 
48-03 
51-16 
44-64 
41-56 
4«-33 
41-49 
39-97 
50-87 



in. 

2682 

2.5-32 

16-70 

22-83 

26-87 

23-96 

21-21 
25-65 
24-49 
21-74 
26-53 
17-65 
22-40 
21-41 
21-54 
17-63 
16-92 
16-84 
18-79 
19-39 
18-18 
22-33 
42-44 
25-78 
15-90 
18-45 
19-07 
1865 

19-31 
19-96 

24-75 
17-50 

i8-8o 
19-87 
20-52 
19-63 
16-73 
20-71 
21-07 
19-29 

2J'53 
19-92 
19-05 
i8-88 
17-04 
19-07 
20-80 
1718 
19-20 
17-30 
1586 
19-69 
20-21 
19-67 
24-98 
22-99 
20-27 
2167 
24-00 
19-16 
20-43 
19-02 
20-35 
19-87 
23-42 



49 

50 
49 
49 
49 
50 
44 
SO 
47 
48 
49 
47 
49 
50 
47 
45 
42 

43 
46 
46 
47 
39 
49 
47 
38 
40 

47 
50 
44 
46 

48 
49 
47 
49 
48 
47 
49 
50 
45 
44 
43 
49 
45 
33 
43 
49 
46 

41 
47 
48 
46 

50 
49 
50 
46 

47 
49 
45 
47 
43 
49 
46 

49 
50 
46 



1874. 



83 



REPORT — 1874. 

TABLES OF MONTHLY RAIN- 
ENGLAND. 



Division I. — Middlesex. 


Div. II.— S.E. COTTNTIES. 


Middlesex. 


SuRItEY. 


Height of 

Rain-gauge 

above 

Ground 

Sea-level 


Camden 
Square. 


Upper 
Clapton. 


Hampstead, 
Squire's 
Mount. 


Winchmore 
Hill. 


Dun 8 fold, 
Godalraing. 


Weybridge 
Heath. 


ft. fi in. 
Ill ft. 


1 ft. 1 in. 
98 ft. 


1 ft. in. 

388 ft. 


1 ft. in. 
350 ft. 


2 ft. 6 in. 
166 ft. 


ft. 6 in. 
150 ft. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


January 

February . . . 

March 

April 


in. 
3-46 
•96 
2-66 
1-39 
3-05 
a-55 
2-57 
2*05 
1-64 

5-20 

398 

435 


in. 
2-44 
i'96 
1-46 

•55 
1-56 
2-24 
l'8i 
2-87 
2-46 
2-97 
1-87 

•48 


in. 

3-33 
-81 
2-50 
I -41 
2-90 
1-99 

2-55 
2-74 
1-30 
4-42 
3'39 
419 


in. 
2-36 
i-36 
1-44 

•67 
1-88 
2-32 
1-63 

235 
2-29 
2-84 
1-80 
•31 


in. 
3-48 
•85 

2-37 
I-S7 
3-27 
2-30 
2-61 

2'22 

1-54 

355 
4-31 


in. 
2-34 
1-28 
»'54 
•56 
173 

2-24 

I 99 
3-06 
3-03 
3-20 
1-95 
•60 


in. 
3-92 
•98 
2-95 
143 
3-45 
3-31 
338 
2-6i 
1-60 
5-40 
4-09 

473 


in. 

2-76 
229 
1-86 

•66 
2-25 
2-3J 
2-o8 
2-54 
326 
284 
2-10 

•51 


in. 
5-82 

2 '04 
2-32 

296 
2-54 
2-47 

2-27 

173 
5'6o 

5-03 
471 


in. 
3-84 
206 
1-62 

•70 
1-40 

2'03 

1-96 

1-44 
2-78 
3-07 
2-49 
•50 


in. 
4-01 

J -22 

1-85 
110 
338 

2-39 
363 

1-88 
1-27 

4-45 
3-36 
403 


in. 
2-68 

'V 
1-64 

•66 
1-57 
1-54 
1-48 
1-89 
2-44 
3-22 
2-19 

-38 


May 


June 


July 


August 

September ... 

October 

November ... 
December ... 


Totals 


33-86 


22-67 


3«-53 


21-25 


33-59 2352 


37-85 


2546 


38-46 


2389 


3257 


21-64 



Division II. — Sotith-Eastebn CotrNirES (contlmied). 


Kent (continued). 


Sussex. 


Height of 

Rain-gauge 

above 

Ground 

Sea-level 


River Head, 

Sevenoaks. 


Acol, 
Margate. 


Sidcup, 
Foot's Cray. 


Brighton, 
Lewes Boad. 


Chichester 

Museum. 


Bleak House, 
Hastings. 


1 ft. in. 
520 ft. 


1 ft. in. 
70 ft. 


ft. 8 in. 
231 it. 


3 ft. 9 in. 
90 ft. 


ft. 6 in. 
50 ft. 


1 ft. in. 
80 ft. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


January 

February . . . 

March ' 

April 


in. 
6-62 
i-8o 
2-59 
1-18 
369 
2-88 
2-58 

2-21 

2-07 

5-23 
5-84 
596 


in. 
4-21 
2-50 

2-OI 
1-07 
I -60 
248 
218 
362 
2-65 
4-CO 

3-15 
■76 


in. 
2-32 

•48 
l-6o 
1-25 
3-01 
281 
3'oo 
223 
1-29 
3'53 
5'52 
471 


in. 
1-48 
1-52 
I -06 

1-22 

1-20 

rc4 
115 
1-50 
1-71 
3-.6 
»-54 
•31 


in. 
4-01 

75 
2-09 

1-07 
4-'7 

1-62 

2-44 
1-76 
1-40 
5-26 
3-24 
3-94 


in. 

2-32 
2-33 

1-39 
•66 


; in. 

5-64 

2-62 

2-49 

•8c 


in. 
3-01 
183 
2-o6 

•97 
1-03 
2-30 
1-93 
3-54 

3-22 
4-69 

339 
78 


in. 

5'20 

1-98 
2'6g 
•84 
2-70 
I 94 
3'o5 
2-57 
1-42 
4-98 
4-86 
4-70 


in. 

3-39 
2-90 
2-25 

1-02 

1-96 

1-77 
1-74 
2-31 
318 
2-36 
•56 


in. 
4-83 

1-50 
228 
-86 
2-22 
2-o8 

1-79 

1-45 
2-35 
573 
6-92 

5-97 


in. 
3-25 
1-94 
234 
•83 
113 
2-31 
113 
2-00 
2-39 
3-89" 
2-56! 

•59 


Mav 


•96: 3^i4 
i'93 , 2-66 

2'20 li 1-'J8 


June 


July 


August 

September . . . 

October 

November ... 
December ... 


3-06 

i-8s 

3-35 
2-32 

■42 


! 2-15 

t 2-33 
t 5-36 

1 ^'f 
5-61 


Totals 


42-65 


30-23 


31-75 


16-89 


3»75 


22-79 


1 40-69 


28-75 


3693 


24-41 


37-98 


24-36 



































ON- 


THE RAINFALL OF 


THE BRITISH ISLI 


s. 




8 


3 


FALL IN THE BRITISH ISLES. 












1 






ENGLAND. 
















Division II. — SoTjin-EASTERif CouNirES 


(continued). 






Surrey {coiitimfcd). 


Kent. 


Cliob^***"" 


Kew 


Kennington 


Dover 


TT,- 


1, - 


Linton, 


Falconhurst, 






Observatory. 


Eoad. i 

i 

1 


Castle. 




Maidstone. 


Edenbridge. 


1 ft. 


2 in. 


1 ft. 3 in. 


5 ft. in. 


1 ft. 6 in. 


ft. 


5 in. 


Oft. 


R in. 


1 ft. in. 


93 ft. 


19 ft. 


19 ft. 


32 ft. 


12 


ft. 


296 ft. 


400 ft. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


in. 


in. 


in. in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. in. 


4-20 


2-50 


3-43, a- 15 


2-71 


1-99 


4"45 


3-i8 


5-03 


3-35 


4-68 


2-69 


6-15 3-65 


1-28 


1-92 


-81 


'•57 


•85 


r8o 


1-34 


2-20 


'■54 


2-28 


1-33 


2-24 


1-65 I 2-19 


»-53 


170 


'74 


1-37 


1-82 


1-04 


2-41 


1-82 


2-93 


2-27 


1-93 


1-66 


2-52 ' 2-27 


1-12 


•24 


'•43 


■41 


•97 


•77 


1-64 


1-42 


1-97 


1-50 


rs6 


•81 


-83 i i-o8 


2-9S 


1-41 


2-95 


132 


3-i6 


'•4' 


379 


2-05 


3-26 


2-09 


4"35 


•97 


2-48 : 1-40 


2'o6 


»*35 


1-48 


279 


75 


2-57 


2-68 


2'35 


2-57 


.•63 


4' '3 


370 


2-i8 


2-88 


4*io 


2-47 


iSi 


1-98 


3-06 


1-52 


3-30 


1-02 


2-56 


2-oS 


2-21 


I -60 


'78 


2-02 


'•55 


i-8i 


'•45 


1-84 


261 


3-4' 


z-95 


2-12 


'•57 


3'39 


'•35 


2-13 


174 


2-79 


1-44 


2-25 


129 


2-1 I 


1-23 


223 


1-89 


2-45 


211 


3-63 


2'OI 


2-69 


2-13 


2-38 


4'43 


266 


43' 


291 


4-27 


2-75 


6-08 


4-61 


466 


4''7 


4-48 


3'3i 


616 


4-41 


3-53 


1-82 


2-96 


1-96 


3-i8 


'•95 


10-44 


2-96 


8-53 


2-87 


S-8i 


173 


5-50 


2-47 


4-14 


•4» 


373 


-40 


37' 


•32 


6-6i 


•90 


7-58 


1-25 


526 


-46 


4-95 


•64 


3*"33 


20-55 


27-39 


2o-8i 


28-32 


21-76 


46-58 


27-08 


44-31 


30-5' 


39-10 


23-99 


38-07 


28-18 































Division II. — Sottth-E astern Counties {continued). 











Sussex {contimied). 










Hampshire. 


Bale Park, 


T?oHIn 


Uckfield 


Chil grove, 


Balcomb 

Place, 
Cuckfield. 


Petn 


•ortli 


St. Lawrence, 


Arundel. 






Observatory. 


Chichester. 


Eectory. 


Isle of Wight. 


3 ft. 5 in. 


1ft. 


3 in. 


ft. in. 


ft. 6 in. 


1 ft. 3 in. 


2 ft. 


Oin. 1 


1ft. Oin. 


310 It. 






149 ft. 


284 ft. 


300 ft. 


190 ft. 


75 ft. 




1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


in. in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


7'3o 4-86 


5-37 


3-68 


S-36 


3-60 


7-42 


4-91 


6-92 


4-1 1 


7-05 


S'" 


5-84 4-24 1 


2-14 2-10 


1-91 


2-22 


rSo 


2-02 


2-83 


3-20 


2-38 


2-70 


2-30 


2-77 


2-c6 


3 '04 


• 1-40 2-40 


259 


2-87 


1-94 


2-i8 


277 


2-44 


3-II 


1-8, 


2-8i 


2-39 


3-60 


2'35 


1-23 I -65 


111 


1-02 


-61 


-64 


•96 


74 


•64 


-68 


79 


•68 


1-31 


7^ 


! 361 110 


2-95 


1-36 


3-.6 


1-02 


2-82 


1-46 


4-87 


1-28 


3-10 


rc8 


2-76 


-89 


2-IO 


2'50 


2-77 


2-67 


2-72 


2-79 


2'C3 


2-52 


2-95 


2-63 


3-12 


2-8, 


1-88 


2-15 


' 270 


2-52 


2-2 1 


.•78 


'•59 


2-35 


3-02 


2 -60 


2-91 


2-49 


4"35 


2-48 


323 


1-84 


2-00 


3''5 


i-SX 


2-54 


i-So 


3-62 


1-60 


2-03 


1-26 


4-15 


1-87 


1-72 


1-09 


I-";? 


1-67 


260 


280 


2-59 


'•83 


3-07 


2-54 


3-16 


2-OI 


2-62 


2-1 I 


2-8i 


170 1 2-^8 i 


7'55 


4-05 


^■95 


459 


5-03 


4-67 


5-97 


4'49 


6'33 


5-64 


7 -04 


4'S7 


5''S 


5-03 


S'37 


3-70 


7-08 


2-6l 


6-92 


3-,6 


5'39 


2-90 


6-13 


2-48 


5-02 


3-02 


' 5"3' 


2-99 


465 


1-25 


6-86 


•84 


5-88 


•94 


5-86 


-72 


5-10 


-64 


5-33 


■64 


< 6-02 


•8? 


41-72 


30-88 


4348 


28-77 


38-64 


30-06 


43-21 


31-17 


44-61 


31-27 


44-89 


30-12 


3995 


28-05 



g2 



Rl- 



HEPORT 187 J. 

ENGLAND. 




HAMrsiiiitE {contimicd). 



Height of 

Bain-gauge 

above 

Ground 

Sea -level 

January 

February ... 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September . . . 

October 

November ... 
December ... 

Totals 



Eyde, 
Isle of Wight. 



7 ft. in. 
20 ft. 



1872. 



1873. 



in. 


in. 


6-30 


4-87 


1-95 


395 


31b 


2-29 


i-o^ 


1-22 


2-83 


1-02 


2-24 


I "49 


ri8 


2-64 


1-32 


1-38 


2-02 


2-30 


5-56 


3-81 


.5-51 


'■«3 


610 


•67 



41-23 



27'47 



Osborne, 
Isle of Wight, 



ft. 8 in. 
172 ft. 



in. 

568 
228 
2-68 
1-05 
228 
2 '40 
2-84 
1-86 
197 
5-88 
5-46 

5 '00 



1872. 1873. 



m. 

4'62 
277 

2"IO 
1-25 

I'OO 

'•54 
1-96 
1-65 
2-45 
37» 

2-00 

74 



39-38 25-79 



Fareham. 



10 ft. in. 
36 ft. 



1872. 1873. 



in. 

5-60 
1-07 
3-17 
i-io 
2-41 
3-07 
1-18 
2-07 
2-83 
4-41 
4-89 
4-61 



in. 
4-25 
1-44 

374 
I -00 

1-27 

173 

^■55 
228 

2-85 

2-88 

309 

•47 



36-41 \ zrss 



Otterbourne, 
Winchester. 



1 ft. 3 in. 
115 ft. 



1872. 1873. 



in. 
6-00 
2-14 
2-84 
1-56 
2-59 
3-61 
3-00 
1-86 
1-72 
5-62 
4"34 
5-83 



41-11 



in. 

373 
1-82 
2-36 

79 
1-43 

1-40 

2"02 
271 

2-77 

2-93 

2-18 

•53 



24-67 



Selborne. 



4 ft. in. 
400 ft. 



1872. 1873. 



in. 

7-87 
3-10 
3-02 
1-49 
3-40 
368 
348 
2-03 
2-27 
6-8 1 

S78 
6-63 



49-56 



538 
2-60 
2-95 

•54 
1-90 

»S3 

3-48 
2-36 

3>9 

3-72 

2-61 

•56 



30-82 



Liss, 
•Petersfield. 



ft. 7 in. 
250 ft. 



1872. 1873. 



in. 

973 
2-79 

4-21 

I 67 

3'34 
2-85 
5-68 
2-02 
2-13 

TSS 
5-40 
6-44 



in. 

6-76 

2-05 

2-87 

•68 

13s 
170 
319 
1-92 
2-69 

4'i7 
2-8o 

•65 



53-81 30-83 



Division III, — South Midl.a.nj) Counties (continued). 


BlICKI.NOHAMSIIIEE. 


Northampton. 


Bedford. 


Cambridge. 


Height of 

Eain-gauge 

above 

Ground 

Sea-level 


HighWycomb. 


Althorpe 
House. 


WeUing- 
borougli. 


Cardington. 


Wisbeacli. 

1 


Stretham, 
Ely. 


ft. 9 in. 
225 ft. 


3 ft. 10 in. 
310 ft. 


ft. 1 in. 


ft. in. 
106 ft. 


ft. G in. 
10 ft. 


4 ft. 9 in. 






1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 

in. 

2-54 
1-3. 

2-44 

4-03 

2-15 

, ^-97 

593 

! 4-4!5 

1 2-49 

3'35 

3-50 

3-27 


1873. 

in. 
1-88 
1-69 
1-56 
1-06 
2-84 
I 60 
2-51 
4-02 
1-87 
a-39 
142 
•55 


1872. 


1873. 


January 

February . . . 

March 

April 


in. 
4-31 
169 

2-20 
1-50 
2-26 
2-72 
2-12 
1-46 
-81 

3-6z 

375 
4'37 


in. 

3-53 
1-87 
2-34 

•37 
1-56 
1-80 
,•87 
219 
2-85 
2-68 
2-03 

•43 


in. 
3-56 

174 
1-87 
2-87 
1-63 

3'4' 
4-66 

2-70 

1-54 
3-91 
4-03 
370 

j 


in. 
2-14 
1-26 

2*o6 

•59 

2-45 

4-82 

1-90 

3-05 

1-21 

2-20 

2-33 

•65 


in. 
2-88 

»-53 
1-70 
2-71 
213 
2-99 

376 
2-74 
1-36 
3-60 
3-68 
3-09 


in. 
2-01 
1-29 
1-43 
79 
2-33 
3-20 

2 -02 
2-32 
1-04 
2-08 

175 


in. 
275 

I-IO 

175 
1-90 
2-o8 

2-50 
4-30 

3-00 

.15 

3'i5 
3-36 
3-20 


in. 
2-15 
1-46 
1-46 
1-20 

2-O0 

2-35 

2-00 
2-20 
1-90 

2-15 

2-00 

•50 


in. 
1-81 

74 
1-45 
182 
2-32 
2-43 
4-05 

2-35 

i'54 
3'03 
3'49 

2-17 


in. 
1-44 

•59 

1-02 

V 

i-8o 

1-57 " 

1-95 

2-31 

2-02 

2-48 

1-47 

18-03 


May 


June 


July 


August 

September . . . 

October 

November ... 
December ... 


Totals 


30-81 


23-52 


35-62 


24*66 


32-17 


20-77 


30-24 


21-37 


38-46 


23-39 


27-20 



0\ THli KAINI'ALL OF THE BlllTISH ISLES 



85 















ENGLAND 














r- 

Division II. — Sourn- 










Eastebn Counties 


Division III. 


—South Midiahb Counties. 


(continued). 










Hampshire |{ Berkshire. 
(contmucd). \\ 


Hertfordshire. 


Oxfordshire. 

1 


Aldershot. 


Long 
Wittenham. 


Berkliamp- 
stead. 


Eoyston. 


Hitchin. 


EadcUffe 
Obseryatory. 


Banbury. 


6 ft. in. 


1 ft. in. 


1 ft. 6 in. 


ft. 6 in. 


1ft 


Oin. 


Oft.. 11 in. 


7 ft. in. 


316 ft. 


70 ft. 


370 ft. 


266 ft. 


238 ft. 


208 ft. 


350 ft. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


5-6i 


3-«7 


4-42 


3-42 


5-07 


4'44 


2-92 


2-64 


374 


2-8o 


4-06 


2-20 


4-27 


2-45 


2-07 


2-i8: 1-36 


1-30 


1-70 


1-76 


1-09 


2-32 


1-25 


164 


1-50 


1-52 


1-88 


1-50 


215 


2-28 1-44 


2-09 


2-42 


2-47 


211 


I "49 


1-97 


1-52 


177 


2-34 


211 


2-22 


I "40 


•53 


2-i8 


•79 


i'9- 


■«5 


i-8i 


■74 


1-88 


•«3 


1-87 


-48 


2-15 


•44 


2-51 


114 


2-44 


1-74 


3-25 


2-46 


27s 


170 


3-01 


i-8o 


^•55 


2-30 


in 


2'48 


260 


1-49 i 


2-29 


2-37 


3-62 


2-o6 


270 


I "09 


2-47 


1-68 


2-87 


2-78 


2-76 


368 


a-S7 


2-03: 


3-68 


1-50 


3-i8 


2-84 


276 


1-45 


2-27 


I 99 


2-91 


2-22 


4'43 


2-i8 


212 


1-86 


1-88 


231 


2-29 


2-o6 


195 


2-94 


1-50 


2-17 


116 


2-62 


2-84 


261 


144 


249 


1-05 


199 


'■37 


2-96 


■88 


1-90 


•69 


2-49 


•97 


1-82 


1-46 


1-49 


4*62 


2'54 


2-94 


2-40 


4'7S 


2-95 


3"39 


2-3b 


3'73 


2-48 


2-89 


2-69 


3 "45 


1-84 


3-20 


2-26 j 


2-34 


2'I I 


4'45 


2-23 


274 


. i'96 


3-43 


1-87 


3-13 


170 


4-87 


113 


4-65 


•641 


3*68 


■52 


4-95 


•70 


3-42 


•50 


378 


•60' 


3-79 


•51 


4-00 


•Sol 

1 


34-94 


23-31 


2970 


22-54 


3897 


2778 


28-52 


21 09 


29-72 


21-87 


29-47 


23-18 


3S'33 


22-82 


,i 



Division IV. — Eastekn Counties. 



Essex. 


Suffolk. 


TheHemnalls, 


Dorward's 


Dunmow. 


Booking, 
Braintree. 






Culford, 


Epping. 


Hall, Witham. 


Eectory. 


Grundisburgh 


Bury St. 
Edmund's. 


ft. 8 in. 


1 ft. 6 in. 


ft. in. 


4ft 


Oin. 


1 ft. 6 in. 


3 ft. 9 in. 


1 ft. 6 in. 


345 ft. 


20 ft. 


234 ft. 


200 ft. 


300 ft. 






1872. 
in. 


1873. 


1872. j 1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


4'02 


2-86 


3-08 


1-57 


3'53 


3-02 


3-94 


2^96 


3^o8 


3-12 


3-77 


193 


2-83 


1-91 


i-oi 


I 94 


-86 


163 


•92 


1-65 


-87 


199 


•89 


ryo 


•66 


i-9» 


•90 


1-88 


2-84 


1-48 


2-59 


i"43 


1-96 


1-33 


2-6o 


1-49 


2-69 


1-481 


3^22 


1-44 


2-50 


1-66 


1-90 


1-07 


1-35 


■56 


2-30 


1-12 


2 'CO 


-99 


175 


•90 


2-3 5 


I •CO 


1-86 


1-3' 


371 


1-86 


3-05 


1-27 


2-42 


1-54 


2-71 


1-50 


i'96 


'■75 


2^82 


i'90 


2-53 


2^o6 


2-86 


189 


2-56 


2-35 


2-94 


2-66 


2^65 


4-29 


2-8? 


2^09 


3-74 


1^69 


2-OI 


2^50 


377 


2-o8 


3-46 


1-83 


3-04 


1-77 


4-48 


1-45 


5-o8 


216 


2'72 


1-73 


6^21 


2-23 


2'00 


3-43 


2 '40 


2-50 


1-70 


1-69 


i^64 


1-94 


112 


180 


1-59 


1-33 


2-49 


2^19 


1-50 
46 1 


2^96 


i-'S 


2-53 


J-3S 


2-55 


189 


3-09 


1-27 


289 


2^03 


2-45 


2-35 


2-72 


278 


3-35 


2-15 


4'45 


2-62 


375 


2-33 


3^66 


2-54 


4-32 


2^12 


312 


3"57 


3SI 


2-o6 


3-07 


1-93 


2-82 


214 


3^20 


1-71 


3-40 


2^40 


4-75 


1-53 


401 


2^00 


4-43 


•48 


3'37 


•43 


4-08 


•4b 


3-67 


•52 


3-90 


•54 


3-25 -52 


3-83 


•69 j 


3616 


24-89 


30-29 


20-18 


31-54 


22-55 


33-40 


24^26 


31-67 


23-37 


35-22 19-55 


1 
34-64 j 24-72 j 



86 



HEPOHT — 1874. 

ENGLAND. 



Division IV. — Eastern Counties (cmitinued). 


Division V. — 

South-Western 

Counties. 




Norfolk. 


Wilts. 




Height of 

Kain-gauge 

above 

Ground 

Sea-level 


Geldeston, 
Beccles. 


Cossey, 
Norwich. 


SwaflFham. 


Holkham. 


Wilton, 
Salisbury. 


Marlborough 
College. 




1 ft. in. 
40 ft. 


1ft. in. 


1 ft. in. 
160 ft. 


ft. in. 
39 ft. 


ft. 6 in. 
180 ft. 


ft. in. 
456 ft. 




1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 




January 

February . . . 

March 

April 


in. 
278 
•98 
276 

2'05 

2-47 
2 '44 
4-60 

2'20 

i'94 
3-08 

S'i7 
3 '44 


in. 
1-90 
1-49 
152 

1-07 
1-49 
173 
2-24 

'85 

2-03 

2^69 

76 

•39 


in. 
2*05 

•93 
3-96 
2-26 
2-o8 
3-13 
3-29 
367 
2-8i 
3'>S 
4-17 
3'74 


in. 
1-99 
1-90 

2'02 

1-34 
1-88 
1-67 
198 
2-03 

3 '02 
2-29 
1-28 

•66 


in. 
2*63 
1-40 

2-29 

2-S3 

2-25 
4-72 
5-89 

4-21 

3-13 

2-84 
4-28 
396 


in. 

2'20 
1-84 

1-88 

1-27 
2-28 

'•54 
1-95 
I '90 

3-02 

2-42 

1-37 
76 


in. 
210 

•83 
2-30 
2-6o 

170 

i'75 
3-50 
6-23 
2-65 

*'S5 
385 

3-38 


in. 

rSo 
3-i8 
172 
ro7 

2'10 

1-15 

2'00 

I'7S 
275 
215 
115 
•60 


in. 

7-33 
2^82 

3-05 

Z'21 

2-8i 

3'49 
3-00 
2-43 

I'77 
5-89 

S'49 
5-72 


in. 

S'59 
192 

3-25 

I'OI 

i'35 
2-4S 
1-39 
2-6s 
199 
198 
3'39 
•93 


in. 
6-84 
2-6s 
2-39 
1-96 
2-30 

341 
2-63 
2-32 
108 

5'67 
5-23 


in. 
4-38 
1-40 
2-79 
r*s 
1-89 

i'63 
2-15 
2-52 

3-14 
2-63 

3-33 
•60 




May 


June 


Julv 


August 

September . . . 

October 

November ... 
December ... 


Totals 


33'9i 


i8i6 


35'H 


22'06 


40-13 


2243 


33-44 


21*42 


460 1 


27-90 


41-99 


27-71 



Division V. — South-Western Counties (eontinued). 


Devonshire {continued). 


Height of 

Eain-gauge 

above 

Ground 

Sea-level 


Landscore, 
Teignmouth. 


Broadhem- 

bury, 

Honiton. 


Cove, 
Tiverton. 


Castle Hill, 
S. Molton. 


Great 
Torrington. 


Barnstaple. 


ft. 6 in. 
200 ft. 


1 ft. 6 in. 
400 ft. 


ft. 4 in. 
450 ft. 


4 ft. in. 
200 ft. 


1 ft. 1 in. 
323 ft. 


1 ft. in. 
31 ft. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 1873. 


January 

February ... 

March 

April 


in. 

7-50 
4-72 

3'37 
2-99 
2-07 
3-04 
4-05 
1-42 

3-05 
5-19 

4'99 

7-23 


in. 
679 
3'55 
S'33 
1-17 
1-91 
1-09 
2-17 

4-35 
3-OI 
1-98 
4'5S 
'5' 


in. 

5-46 
4-26 

2'73 
2-71 

2-2S 

4'58 
4'77 
1-40 
3-28 
5'86 
4-70 
6-32 


in. 
4-66 
2-09 
4-16 

l-QO 
1-25 

1-83 

i'9S 
482 
2-26 

2-03 

4'S7 

'43 


in. 
7-17 
6-40 

3'39 
2-78 
2*26 
2-87 
3-36 
2-38 
3-66 

6'43 
623 
8-28 


in. 

S-78 

2'33 
4-78 
119 

2-IO 
I-IO 

333 
4-50 
2-82 
3-66 

4-07 
1-05 


in. 

rss 
s-30 
3-91 
3-52 

2-6o 

4-52 

7'39 
4'iS 
4'79 
867 

638 
6-04 


in. 

4-87 
-16 
3-21 
1-84 
2-95 
1-84 

5'Si 
7'47 
4-86 
4-62 
2-84 
I '45 


in. 
6-3. 
4-91 
481 
3-11 
1-85 
4'79 
4-10 
2-73 
4'37 

7 '49 
6-30 
6-43 


in. 
6-02 
3-48 
328 
ri6 
1-92 
1-62 

4-35 
5-76 

3-22 
483 

3 '44 
1-13 


in. 

5-98 
4-64 

374 
2*68 

1-93 
6*35 

2-82 

S'»4 
7-38 

6*27 
5'7i 


in. 

5 '43 
2-29 

3'77! 

in 

2-30 

1*50 

4*50 

7-19 

3-,6 

4-46 

2-14 

i'45 


May 


June 




August 

September . . . 

October 

November ... 
December ... 


Totals 


49-62 


36-41 


48-32 


3 1 'OS 


S5'2i 


3671 


64-82 


41-62 


57-20 


40*21 


57:96] 39;_3o|J 



ON THE RAINFALL OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 

ENGLAND. 



87 



Wi 






Division Y.- 


-South-Westekn Counties {continued) 


• 




LTS 






Dorset. 






Devonshire. 




{cotitimtea). 




















Chippenham, 
Tytherton. 


1 
Longthorns. 


Upwey. 


Eridport. 


Saltram 
Gardens. 


Totnesa. 


Dartmoor 
Reservoir. 


1 ft. 2 in. 


Oft.. 


4 in. 


1ft, 


Oin. 


ft. 8 in. 


ft. 3 in. 


1 ft. 


Oin. 


ft. 2 in. 


150 ft. 


360 ft. 


70 ft. 


63 ft. 


95 ft. 


120 ft. 


1400 ft. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


m. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


4-46 


yn 


8-8o 


601 


648 


4-46 


5*94 


3-88 


871 


7-90 


11-82 


8-99 


11-21 


10-89 


2-63 


116 


4-20 


2-42 


2-51 


3-8. 


2-53 


3-'7 


603 


3-75 


6-54 


4-33 


8-99 


6-99 


174 


2-76 


4-27 


4-7S 


3'i4 


3-84 


3-00 


3-04 


5*37 


4-85 


5-30 


5-90 


6-16 


6-59 


2-28 


•79 


3*05 


105 


252 


•67 


2-i8 


78 


-65 


•54 


2-81 


-46 


4-07 


1-11 


2-46 


1-65 


3-05 


■i% 


2-22 


I -20 


1-88 


■88 


1-19 


2*04 


2-94 


i'54 


3-41 


310 


371 


1-36 


3'63 


.•69 


3'94 


1-75 


4-12 


1-76 


r70 


2-05 


4-3«' 


1-41 


7-69 


3-59 


3*4 


3-29 


*'54 


2-05 


3-84 


179 


3-93 


i-6i 


3-71 


3'34 


4-25 


2-45 


5-17 


5-40 


194 


2-02 


2-39 


273 


125 


2-28 


116 


3-46 


1-28 


5-20 


1-31 


5-26 


3-66 


10-59 


1-40 


1-65 


2-27 


2-90 


138 


1-63 


176 


1-66 


227 


3-47 


3-62 


277 


5-76 


3-42 


379 


2*22 


5-44 


311 


6'i4 


322 


676 


2-49 


5-95 


2-27 


7-99 


1*04 


995 


5-69 


469 


2*30 


6*50 


5-01 


5-15 


420 


576 


4-28 


7-04 


4-60 


7-66 


5-00 


8-24 


7-33 


399 


■5* 

22-89 


464 


•44 


5-11 


-57 


S-04 


•34 


8-6o 


2*00 


8'io 


I -00 


9-82 


2-59 


36-33 


5078 


3299 


4368 


29-42 


44-06 


27-35 


52-50 


42*01 


66-70 


40-15 


84-13 


67-29 






• 

Divisic 


)u V.- 


-SoUTI 


i-Westebn Counties (com 


inuicT 


. 


1 


Cornwall. 


Helstone. 


Penzance. 


Tehidi 
RedL 


J Park, 
ruth. 


Truro, Royal 
Institution. 


Trevarna, 
St. Austell. 


Bodmin, 
Castle Street. 


Altarnum. 


5 ft. in. 


3 ft. 


Oin. 


Oft. 


6 in. 


40 ft. in. 


ft. 6 in. 


2 ft. 


4 in. 


1 ft. in. 


. 115 ft. 


94 


ft. 


IOC 


► ft. 


56 ft. 


300 ft. 


338 


ft. 


570 ft. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


ill. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


7-03 


4-88 


8-99 


5-77 


970 


5-88 


8-13 


5-32 


941 


6-27 


973 


806 


12-47 


10-72 


6-25 


3-«9 


6-32 


662 


660 


4-40 


6-98 1 503 


8-40 


5'73 


9"02 


4-70 


959 


4-74 


370 


5-50 


4-41 


4-28 


4-15 


4-28 


3-98 


4-05 


349 


456 


5-25 


433 


6-10 


5-68 


3-6i 


-83 


3-06 


-58 


3"aS 


•50 


277 


•51 


371 


■80 


436 


-64 


4'33 


•55 


2-09 


! 2*OI 


1-86 


212 


3-35 


2-0O 


2-79 


I '49 


260 


2'tl4 


301 


206 


3-34 


2-83 


a'5S 


1-83 


3-30 


2-02 


4-10 


175 


2-77 


1-38 


3-35 


2-41 


3-01 


2-22 


3-92 


2-24 


3-39 


3-«4 


2-65 


4-23 


2-00 


4-23 


2-69 


3-69 


3-46 


386 


3-12 


396 


4-00 


5-19 


2'21 


4-04 


2-o8 


5-12 


'75 


4' 20 


199 


4-81 


182 


5-55 


218 


b-25 


284 


912 


2-94 


3''3 


253 


2-73 


2-90 


2-30 


3-2b 


2-41 


4'43 


2-8i 


4-79 


399 


5-90 


461 


7'»S 


3-61 


7-42 


4-25 


6-40 


370 


5-67 


3-34 


624 


3'3o 


775 


4'37 


9-80 


6-53 


4-92 


4-31 


678 


399 


5-40 


4-05 


5-96 


405 


7-64 


4-40 


7-42 


582 


939 


5-89! 


578 


114 


7-8 1 


1-36 


6-50 


3-50 


6-13 


1-23 


7-87 


1-13 


9-19 


1-26 


12-43 


1-82 


51-62 


39-01 


57-21 


43-07 


56- 10 


40-79 


53-12 


37-31 


62-42 


4346 


6883 


47-66 


84- n 


59-92 



88 



Rlil'OttT — 1874. 

ENGLAND, 



Division V. — South-Westekn Counties (continued). 


Division VI. — West 
Midland Counties. 




Somerset. 


Gloucester. 




Height of 

Rain-gauge 

above 

Ground 

Sea-level 


Fulland's 

School, 
Taimton. 


Ilchester. 


Sherborne 

Reservoir, 

E. Harptree. 


Batheaston 
Reservoir. 


Chfton. 


The Firs, 
Cirencester. 




1 ft. 4 in. 


2 ft. in. 
40 ft. 


1 ft. in. 
338 ft. 


2 ft. in. 
226 ft. 


ft. 6 in. 
192 ft. 


ft. 8 in. 
352 ft. 








1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 




January 

February . . . 

March 

April 


in. 

559 
292 
251 
2-87 
216 

275 
325 
1-67 
199 

4'54 
436 

5-52 


ill. 
463 
1-88 
366 
70 
■88 
175 

2^0O 

396 
222 

2-54 

3-32 

■35 


in. 

4-50 
314 

2^70 

3-05 
1-25 
374 
363 
1-67 
2-37 
529 
4-52 
583 


in. 

393 
1-19 

373 

•87 

I -07 

•99 
3-os 

273 
2-42 
2-42 
372 
•64 


in. 

io'09 
538 
3 '4° 
3-44 
328 

559 
3-23 
2-54 
358 
6-31 
6-86 
880 


in. 
7-52 

2^02 

5'oo 

■66 

2-42 

1^40 


in. 

5 -00 
320 

235 
280 

2-30 

-!-82 


in. 
3-45 
•85 
2-95 

75 
1-95 
1-35 
2-97 

2-85 
1-90 
230 

2^20 
■55 


in. 
6^42 
4-19 

220 

275 
265 
3-42 
3-72 
2-18 
2-21 

4-12 

433 
4-18 


in. 

4-44 
1-42 

363 
•60 
2-64 
1-17 
4-14 
378 
2-92 
389 

273 
71 


in. 
5-04 
2-87 
2-54 
2-37 
2-09 

3-45 
4-65 

327 
1-61 
3-65 
482 
4-04 


in. 

372 
1-63 
3-06 
-82 
2-6o 

2-21 

294 
2-61 
.•63 
2-36 
208 
•97 




May 




June 




July 


3^78 1 ■5'20 




August 

September . . . 

October 

November ... 
December ... 


4-04 
287 

3-8, 

395 
i-i6 


275 

2^8o 

375 
4-40 
4-80 




Totals 


4013 


27-89 


41-69 


26'76 


62-50 


3863 


41-17 


24-07 


42-37 


32"o7 


40-40 


26-63 





Division VI. — ^West Midland Counties (continued). 


Division VII.— North 
MiDL.iND Counties. 




Worcester (continued). 

i 


Warwick. 


Leicester. 




Height of 

Rain-gauge 

above 

Ground 

Sea-level 


Bromsgrove. 


Orleton, 
Tenbury. 


Arden House, 

Henley- in- 

Arden. 


Birmingham. 


•«7,-„„t„„ Thornton 
Wigston. Reservoir. 

i 




4 ft. in. 
273 ft. 


ft. 9 in. 
200 ft. 


2 ft. 2 in. 
400 ft. 


ft. 8 in. 
340 ft. 


ft. 10 in. 
220 ft. 


2 ft. 8 in. 
420 ft. 




1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 




January 

February ... 
March 


ill. 

399 

2-79 

1-88 

3-20 

170 

4-55 
4-27 

377 

2-10 

4-41 
4-47 

394 


m. 

275 
•37 
264 
•91 
2^24 
2-8o 
2-02 
2-68 

I '44 

1-94 

132 

•54 


in. 

5 '49 
4-14 
230 
2-82 
1-96 
5-29 
371 
2-57 
208 
4-52 
4-42 
4-86 


is. 
3-29 
I 02 
338 

-87 
2-38 
278 
2-63 
363 
1-34 
2-05 

1-59 
•62 


in. 
4-30 

2-43 
1-88 
2-37 
2-06 
7-13 

271 
4-21 
1-96 

1 4'3° 
! 4' 30 
1 3-67 


in. 
J -92 
1-44 
2-17 

79 
2-27 
206 
301 

3 '41 

r6i 

1-89 

■94 

•43 


ill. 
475 
3-41 
2-37 
392 
227 

577 
3-56 
3-8i 
265 
465 

3-47 
4'5i 


in. 

4-15 

1-71 

2-8^ 

•78 

239 
4-45 
2-72 

3-07 

2-12 

1-68 
2'3o 

•56 


in. 
3-43 

2'05 

I 90 

3-03 
2-13 
468 
5-88 

3 '44 
2-28 

372 
358 
3-13 


in. 
i-6i 

174 
206 

■57 

2'03 

406 

2-34 
2-68 

'•45 

201 

1-97 

■49 


in. 

3'34 
2-42 

I 44 
2-13 

143 
496 

3'4° 
309 
3-47 
3-43 
383 
3 49 


in. 
2-13 

74 
2-16 

•47 
2-30 
3-24 
2-96 
2-86 
1-83 
2-41 
273 

•37 




May 




June 




July 




August 

September . . . 

October 

November ... 
December ... 




Totals 


4107 


21*65 


44-16 


25-58 


j 41-32 21-94 


45J4 


28-78 


39-25 


23-01 


36-43 


24-20 





ON THK RAINFALL OF THE BRITISH ISLES, 

ilNGLAND. 



89 





Division VI. — ^Wesx Midland Counties {continued). 








Gloucester 


Hereford. 


SlIROPSlIIEE. 


Stafford. 




Wokcester. 




{continutd). 


















Qiiedgeley. 


Stretton 
Rectory, 
Hereford. 


Haughton 
Hall, 

Shifnall. 


Hengoed, 
O-swestry. 


Barlaston, 
Stoke. 


Northwick 
Park. 


WeBtMalrem. 


ft. 10 in. 


1 ft. in. 


3 ft. 6 in. 


6 ft. in. 


ft. 6 in. 


1ft. 


(5 in. 


1ft. 


3 in. 


60 ft. 


198 ft. 


353 ft. 


470 ft. 


530 ft. 






850 ft. 




1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


1 1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


iu. 


in. 


iu. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


iu. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


1 . 
i m. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


4-27 


2'90 


5'i7 


3"4o 


4-63 


2-37 


6-62 


4*97 


5-72 


2-68 


4-19 


3-75 


4-06 


3-72 


248 


I'OO ' 


3S6 


1-32! 


2-89 


•94 


4-16 


1-56 


3'94 


1-19 


2-68 


1-61 


3-70 


1-38 


2-2S 


322 


2'00 


295 


2-04 


3-20 


333 


369 


2-85 


3-ob 


2-CI 


2-26 


2-16 


2-53 


271 


■84 


2-8, 


I -08 


296 


•78 


3-55 


2-01 


3-i8 


•90 


j 2-75 


1-14 


2*02 


1-16 


130 


2-53 


1-25 


163 


2-o6 


2-70 


2-86 


1-74 


2-96 


2-27 


! 1-90 


2-75 


3-i8 


2-33 


4-59 


224 


3-41 


2-66 


4-72 


2-6i 


5-10 


178 


5-29 


2-30 


3-25 


2-47 


5-34 


1-28 


651 


273 


478 


276 


3-84 


2-73 


5-06 


3-10 


5-12 


3'3i 


3-62 


3-40 


3-15 


4-77 


282 


233 


2-12 


2-48 


4-21 


3-17 


3-51 


283 


4-27 


2-94 


2-92 


2-80 


1-77 


2-97 


3-20 


146 


1-89 


'■49 


3-72 


1-43 


b-23 


2-34 


374 


2-35 


1-45 


2-02 


2*29 


2-04 


3'33 


206 


3'79 


I '60 


6-07 


2-38 


7-09 


333 


5-40 


3-60 


4-3 » 


1-85 


4-09 


2-21 


576 


165 


564 


I -80 


3-21 


i-6o 


642 


2-6i 


3-i8 


2-26 


6-86 


2-23 


5-31 


1-52 


a'90 


■58 


5-02 


■'A 


371 


•85 


6-52 


1-38 


4-38 


-72 


4-65 


78 


4-34 


-67 


42* 12 


2354 


41-48 


23-98 ; 


44-06 


24-76 


60-45 


3»-34 


50-03 


27-59 


40-59 


27-06 


41-41 


26-58 





Division 


VII.- 


-NoBTH Midland Counties (continued) 


). 






Leicester 








Lincoln. 










{contimicd). 




















Belvoir Castle. 


Lincoln. 


Market Easen. 


Gainsborough. 


Brigg. 


Grimsby. 


New Holland. 


1 ft. in. 


3 ft. 6 in. 


3 ft. 


5 in. 


3 ft. 6 in. 


3 ft. 6 in. 


15 ft. 


Oin. 


3 ft. 


6 in. 


237 ft. 


26 ft. 


100 ft. 


7Gft. 


16 ft. 


42 


ft. 


18 ft. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


2-95 


2-00 


2-39 


J-57 


2-20 


1-69 


2-02 


1-87 


3-00 


2-42 


2-34 


1-48 


3-57 


1*69 


2-10 


1-59 


2-17 


134 


3-04 


'■35 


1-78 


100 


1-96 


1-27 


1-88 


1-67 


213 


1-53 


2-17 


164 


1-45 1 '■°4 


1-69 


J -56 


I -06 


-96 


2-04 


1-61 


1-52 


1-66 


1-90 


176 


338 


I -07 


3-22 


•82 


1-96 


•93 


3-21 


-37 


2-90 


■55 


2-81 


-55 


2-47 


-46 


.-83 


2-25 


■93 


1-07 


1-52 


2-37 


J-43 


-84 


-91 


1-86 


-94 


2-20 


1-18 


1-92 


2-92 


1-32 


2-8o 


1-54 


1-48 


1-15 


3'4 


-60 


1-54 


1-30 


-63 


1-05 


1-49 


2x5 


423 


1-08 


5-09 


1-72 


223 


2-18 


4-40 


1-45 


376 


2-71 


4-16 


2-70 


3-4« 


2-52 


2-60 


2-6 1 


2-39 


2-95 


2-70 


271 


5-13 


'/•95 


3-10 


2-82 


2-05 


2-81 


2-02 


2*30 


2-83 


1-64 


2-90 


1-95 


2*90 


2-00 


5-52 


•98 


3-04 


1-80 


2-00 


2-30 


2-70 


2-78 


3-65 


1-94 


i 3-39 


2-57 


497 


2-19 


5-12 


1-86 


3-47 


1-74 


1-94 


301 


3-02 


1-85 


3-43 


2-49 


2-83 


1-58 


3-52 


-95 


4-48 


1-84 


2-27 


J -45 


3-19 


1-42 


4-32 


1-36 


3-36 


-19 


' 259 -16 


1-98 


-23 


2-54 


-28 


2-33 


•38 


2-93 


•17 


3-49 


-20 


35-45 


19-82 


1 32-15 


18-31 


30-19 


'9-31 


3983 


? 1 3-00 


30-32 


1991 


26-39 


2I-C2 


31-70 


20-52 



90 



KETORT — 187-i. 



ENGLAND. 



Division YII. — Noarn Midland Counties (continued). 


Div.VIII.— 

N.-Wesiern 
Counties. 




N0TTI.\GUAM. 


Derbv. 


CiLESIIIRE. 




Height of 

Rain-gauge 

above 

Ground 

Sea-level 


Welbeck. 


Derby. 


Chestei-field. 


Comb's Moss. 


Chapel-en-le- 
Frith. 


Cholmondelly 

Castle, 

Nantwich. 




4 ft. 6 in. 

88 ft. 


(3 ft. iu. 
180 ft. 


3 ft. (5 in. 
248 ft. 


3 ft. 6 in. 
1669 ft. 


3 ft. 6 in. 
965 ft. 


1 ft. 6 in. 
42 ft. 




1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 

in. 
3-48 
2-61 
1-93 
2-83 

3-13 
4-02 
5-00 
228 

4-12 

5-22 
3-43 
3-^5 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 




January 

February . . . 

March 

Anril 


iu. 
3-05 
2-24 
1-91 

375 
.1-66 

3-20 

5-60 

2-42 
2-81 
4-83 

3-21 

3-57 


in. 
293 
115 

2-23 
•63 
2-10 
1-53 
2-02 
2-65 

1-87 

2-42 

2-77 

•II 


in. 
3-72 
2-87 
1-84 
2-24 
1-63 
5-27 
4-68 
3-34 
2-93 
4-56 
2-36 
378 


in. 
2-04 

•68 
2-15 

•46 
2-31 

2-21 
2-14 
2-92 
1-58 
2-40 
2^03 
•26 


in. 

365 
•81 

2-00 

■55 
1-82 
1-29 

177 
2-60 
2-35 

3-34 

2-70 

•08 


in. 

8-02 

6-87 
6-27 
S«8 

4-84 
10-5^. 
5-36 
4-00 
10-52 
930 
6-82 
533 


in. 

3'97 
1-24 
2-51 
1-84 

3'94 
386 

3-8i 
4-41 
4-20 

6-53 
4-88 

1-83 


in. 

7-45 

3-36 
4-90 

3-81 
3-80 
9-12 

578 
3-67 
7-85 
8-47 

5-5* 
4-04 


in. 

375 

73 

3-23 

77 
3-5^ 
3"33 
310 
4-11 
2-89 
4-50 

373 
1-02 


in. 
4-24 
230 
3-20 

3 •40 
2-67 

6-59 

4'39 
3-30 

574 
7 '49 
3-85 
4'5> 


in. 

2-59 

•98 

394 
I -00 

1-93 
201 

33* 
4-12 

3*°5 
3-23 
2-40 
1-14 




May 




June 




July 




August 

September... 

October 

November ... 
December ... 




Totab 


3825 


22-41 


3922 


2I18 


41-30 


22-96 


8305 


43 -Oi 


6777 


34-68 


Sr68 


2971 





Division VIII. — Nobth-Western Counties (continued). 


Div. IX. — YoBKsniKE. 




L.iNCASuiRE {continued). 


York. — W%s,i Riding. 




Height of 

Eain-gauge 

above 

Ground 

Sea-level 


Stonyhurst. 


Caton, 
Lancaster. 


Holker, 
Cartmel. 


Coniston. 


BroomhaU 

Park, 
Sheffield. 


Redmires, 
Sheffield. 




1 ft. in. 
376 ft. 


1 ft. 4 in. 

118 ft. 


4 ft. 8 in. 
155 ft. 


1 ft. in. 
287 ft. 


2 ft. in. 
330 ft. 


5 ft. in. 
1100 ft. 




1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 




January 

February ... 

March 

April 


iu. 

5-56 
4-58 

475 
3-68 
3-20 

5 "04 
4'49 
5'S7 
8-85 

6 00 
470 
409 


in. 
6-17 
•82 

3 '4° 
•82 

285 
4*oi 
4^8 1 
6-38 
2-82 
8-68 
3-87 
2-40 


in. 

7-09 
4-71 
4*98 

2-27 
2-47 

5'45 
7-48 

5-5^ 
7-96 

647 

5-05 

524 


in. 
6-19 

77 

3-12 

•59 
1-62 
2-36 
4-41 
5-26 
2-54 
6-32 
2-05 
1-90 


in. 
8-19 
4-68 

4^21 

1-83 
1-68 
4-95 
5'9S 
4-86 
9-16 
6-53 
5-04 
479 


in. 

571 
i*o6 
3-83 
•62 
2-47 
2-45 
4-46 
5-8, 
2-81 
6-52 
2-98 
1-94 


iu. 

13-86 
9-46 

873 

2-58 

3'97 
8-63 
6-04 
7-61 

11-43 
12-22 

9'94 
9*47 


iu. 

11-21 
211 

5-15 
1-30 
3-64 

471 
10-31 
898 
5-81 
12-50 
5-02 
5-22 


in. 
4-24 
2-79 
2-32 
3-66 

1-33 
4-56 
634 

2-55 
3-84 
5-42 

378 
3-98 


in. 
2-59 
1-22 

2-74 

•91 
2-29 
1*96 

1-55 
1-85 
i'95 
2-44 
2-51 

■39 


in. 
5-55 
4*1 1 

3-^5 
4-82 

6-27 

7-i6 

3-40 

5-34 
6-97 

4"93 
4-5' 


in. 

271 
•87 
3-62 
I -07 
3-30 

m 
2-48 

377 
255 
3-42 
3-83 

1-07 




May 




June 




July 




August 

September ... 

October 

November ... 
December ... 




Totals 


60-51 


47-03 


64-69 


37-13 


61-87 


40-66 


103-94 


75-96 


45-8i 


22-40 


59-84 


31-92 





ox THE UAINFALL Ol' THE BKITISH ISLES. 

ENGLiND. 



91 



CllKS 




Division VIII.- 


— North-Western 


Counties (continued). 






HIRE 












L.t.NCASIIIRE. 








{'•oiiti 


need). 






















Macclesfield. 


Manchester. 


Waterhouses. 


Bolton-le- 

Moors. 


Eufltord, 
Ormskirk. 


Audley Place, 
Blackburn. 


South Shore, 
Blackpool. 


3 ft. 


6 in. 


2 ft. 


7 in. 


3 ft. 


6 in. 


3 ft. 


6 in. 


ft. 8 in. 


fit. 6 in. 


1ft. 


Bin. 


539 ft. 


106 ft. 


345 ft. 


283 ft. 


38 ft. 


450 ft. 


29 ft. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


m. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


473 


2-14. 


4*26 


3-14 


412 


3-*3 


5-35 


S-°7 


4-57 


4-31 


6-03 


6-12 


545 


3-70 


3-62 


i-o6 


3-02 


•67 


3-83 


•42 


4-60 


1-29 


3-41 


74 


3-17 


J -43 


2-60 


•t>5 


3 '20 


a-55 


277 


179 


r^^ 


2'96 


4'i5 


3-92 


395 


3*3° 


6-12 


3-22 


320 


3 '49 


3-82 


•s« 


2-98 


•51 


2-91 


•66 


3-08 


•95 


2-77 


•72 


3 "49 


•57 


1-65 


-48 


3*34 


2-7« 


2-14 


1-91 


262 


2-44 


3-03 


2-29 


2-25 


1-99 


3'94 


342 


1-40 


'75 


5^9 


272 


6'9o 


2-97 


654 


3-29 


6-56 


2-47 


6-05 


1-62 


5-68 


228 


5-05 


1-93 


698 


ssft 


7-66 


4-65 


7-27 


4-91 


434 


7-03 


7-08 


3-34 


4-50 


4-68 


6-55 


2-70 


218 


5-,6 


2-78 


4"20 


3-21 


4-88 


379 


5-21 


3-12 


3-4it 


596 


623 


1-95 


2 'SO 


3-37 


2-72 


7-04 


2-48 


6-57 


3*59 


8-42 


3-i8 


660 


2-76 


7'o8 


3-02 


7-20 


2-20 


5-64 


S-io 


4-40 


4'44 


458 


6*04 


5-32 


6-43 


477 


4' 59 


6-31 


7-18 


540 


4'3» 


3-09 


3'io 


377 


2-28 


4-46 


3-25 


480 


3-47 


3-8i 


2-04 


5-72 


4-14 


3-i8 


1-65 


395 


•99 


2-97 


7« 


2-i6 


■97 


41S 


i-3ii 


388 


1-42 


502 


i-8i 


37* 


i-*o 


49-ai 


3a-39 


50-69 


29*82 


5 ••49 


36-64 


S7'59 


4269 


52-26 


3°3« 


63-02 


44-10 


47-35 


»6-27 



Division IX. — Yorkshire (continued). 



York. — West Eiding (continued). 



TickhiU. 



1 ft. in. 
61 ft. 



1872. 1873. 



Peuistone. 



3 ft. 6 in. 

717 ft. 



1872. 1873. 



Saddleworth. 



Ackworth, 
Pontefract. 



5 ft. in. 
640 ft. 



1872. 1873. 



1 ft. 6 iu. 
135 ft. 



1872. 1873. 



Goole. 



3 ft. 4 in. 



1872. 1873. 



WeU Head, 
Halifax. 



1 ft. in. 

486 ft. 



1872. 1873. 



Oveuden 

Moor, 
Halifax. 



ft. 10 in. 
1375 ft.. 



1872. 1873. 



in. 
2-89 
2-10 

178 
314 

I-I2 

39« 

6 -08 

1-68 

371 
4-II 
2-85 
325 

36-62 



in. 
1-98 
i-oi 

2-07 

•76 

1-86 

1-04 

2'OI 
2-01 

1-68 

1-79 

1-98 

■14 

18-33 



lU. 
5-21 

3-58 

2-48 
3-82 

2-23 

4-29 

8-31 

2-21 

4'97 
693 

5 '44 
4'95| 

54"4* 



in. 
2-87 
i-io 
2-78 

■15 
2-76 
2-30 
1-44 

2-22 
2-63 
419 

473 
-6i 

2578 



4'37 
488 

3'34 
2-31 
3-48 

5'63 
6-30 

439 
6-68 
6-75 

575 
2-92 

56-80 



in. 
5-08 
-56 

4-04 

i'34 
2-47 

3-17 
2-22 

4-57 
3-3S 
5-62 

3-»5 
I -00 

36-60 



in. 

2-48 
2-18 
1-86 
365 

1-02 
4-41 
8-01 
2-64 

385 

4-41 

3'3i 

3-25 

41-07 



in. 
1-58 

•70 

2-22 

•85 
2-36 

-58 
3-04 
2-50 
2-13 
1-49 
1-44 

•18 

19-07 



in. 
2-30 
2-93 

2-53 
3'co 

1-45 
4-18 
488 
211 
5-12 
4-22 
3-28 
2-46 

38-46 



in. 
1-52 

75 
2-10 
1-08 
2-06 
1-70 
2-81 
2-32 
214 
1-88 

'•35 
•31 

20-02 



4-23 

3-57 
2-57 
3-60 
2-05 
5-CI 
3-70 
4-00 

5'05 
4-07 
5-96 
3-40 

47-21 



in. 

393 
-80 

2-86 
•31 

Z'll 

1-24 

284 

2-47 

2-22 

375 

2-31 

-72 

25-56 



in. 
5-90 
4-80 

3 '4° 
4*oo 
2-40 
6-60 
4-30 
5-90 
7-00 
5-60 
6-40 
4-40 

60-70 



4-50 

•90 

2-6o 

-60 

2-8o 
i-6o 
3-70 
4-40 
270 
6-90 
3 •60 
2-10 

36-40 



9i 



REroRT — 1874. 
ENGLAND. 









Division IX 


. — YoEKSHiEE {continued) 










YoKK. — West Biding {continued). 


York. — East EinxG. 


Height of 

Eain-gauge 

above 

Ground 

Sea-level 


Eccup, 
Leeds. 


York. 


Harrogate. 


Arncliffe. 


BeverleyEoad, 
Hull. 


Warter, 
Pocklington. 


ft. 9 in. 
340 ft. 


ft. 6 in. 
50 ft. 


ft. 6 in. 
380 ft. 


2 ft. 9 in. 
750 ft. 


3 ft. 10 in. 
11 ft. 


1 ft. 10 in. 
230 ft. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


January 

February . . . 

March 

April 


in. 

372 
324 
2-28 

3-35 
1-44 

474 
5-31 
3-i8 

395 
5-4 ' 
4-31 
3 94 


in. 
2-57 
1 19 
2-86 
•64 
2-82 

i'33 
3-01 
2-65 
2-o8 
2-i8 

211 

•50 


in. 
2-89 
2-50 
2-17 
2-81 

1-02 
5-84 

4'3° 
281 

3-63 
3 '94 
4-30 

376 


in. 
2-12 
1-28 
2-16 

•80 
2-25 

-96 

174 
2-15 
1-84 
.-67 

145 

•38 


in. 

4-50 

3-15 
2-31 

3-5' 
104 

470 

4-48 
5-18 
5-IO 
5-23 
418 


in. 
3; 18 
I 69 
3'39 
•95 
2-68 

1-90 
2-65 
276 

2-l8 

^•39 

2'22 
•70 


in. 
9-18 

7-91 
6-39 
4'44 
3'94 
6-05 
3-42 
458 

9"59 
7-28 

10-2I 

6-01 


in. 
8-90 

1-27 

3-85 
•69 

2-55 
2-53 

5-47 
6-68 

4-49 
9-10 
4-66! 

3-57 i 


in. 
3-40 
266 

a'S5 
2-88 
1-68 
1-83 
483 
2-24 
3-50 

319 
4-46 
3-28 


in. 

172 

1-81 

2-45 

78 

2-28 
1-36 
3-08 

2-8i 

1-98 

2-04 

1-48 

•30 


in. 

378 
3-22 
2-74 
2-96 

2-C2 

3-36 
5-20 

3-63 

5-56 
4-58 
546 
4-24 


in. 1 
1-52 j 

2-02 1 

i-?8! 

2-69 

1-47' 
3-15 
2-82 
2*48 

2-27 

1-27: 
•52 


Mav 


June 


Julv 


August 

September . . . 

October 

November ... 
December ... 


Totals 


44-87 


23-94 


39-97 


18-80 


49-88 


26-69 


79-00 


5376 j 


36-50 


22-09 


467s 


H'34 1 



Division X. — Northern CotrNiiES {continued). 




Northumberland. 


Cumberland. 




Height of 

Eain-gauge 

above 

Groimd 

Sea-level 


Bywell. 


North 
Shields. 


Haltwhistle. 


Lilburn 
Tower. 

1 


Bootle. 


Seathwaite. 




ft. 6 in. 
87 ft. 


1ft. in. 
126 ft. 


ft. 9 in. 
380 ft. 


6 ft. in. 
300 ft. 


1 ft. in. 
80 ft.. 


lft.0in. 
422 ft. 




1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 

. 
m. 

28-64 

3-05 

7-30 
1-76 

5-58 
7-78 
16-96 
1873 
13-70 
2123 
io-c6 
11-74 




January 

February . . . 

March 

April 


in. 

4'3o 
372 
4-60 
3-80 

173 
2-57 
460 
4-18 
5-20 
583 
5:3 
5-50 


in. 

2-14 

1-65 
2-i8 
1-01 
2-86 

1-62 
2-22 
2-49 
2"19 

2-85 

2-07 

-72 


in. 
278 
2-39 

3-45 
1-94 
1-96 
£-95 
2.39 
371 

479 
596 

4-11 
4-46 


in. 

1-02 

1-91 
1-86 
1-05 
3-03 
1-43 
2-27 

3-47 
2-16 
2-24 
1-30 
•29 


in. 

375 
2-6o 
2-86 
2-79 
2-82 

3-52 
4-25 

4-54 
4-87 

5-47 
477 
4-05 


in. 

6-34 

•6: 

1-86 

-68 

'•95 
1-40 
1-81 
4-61 
2-56 
4-02 
2-44 
1-89 


in. 
2-88 
2-62 
292 

3-85 
2-52 
150 
563 

3'42 
5-98 
598 

4'43 
4-86 


in. 
1-88 
212 

1-73 
-48 
1-50 
104 
1-90 

373 
2-47 
3-22 
2-47 
1-34 


in. 

8-55 
6-26 

4-38 
1-38 
2-69 
6-90 
4-83 
4-08 
7-98 
8-11 
519 
6-79 


in. 
5-18 
I 43 
4-33 
•55 
1-39 
2-64 

5-57 
4-10 
2-23 
5-91 
2-89 
2-32 


in. 

32-14 

17-53 

11-23 

5-08 

954 

1230 

5-90 

934 
20-85 
19-13 
18-64 
20-37 




May 




June 




July 




August 

September . . . 

October 

November ... 
December ... 




Totals 


51-16 


24-00 


40-89 


22-03 


46-29 


30-17 


46-59 


2388 


67-14 


38-54^182-05 146-53 





OV THK HAINFAT.T- OF THE BRITI.SH ISLES. 

ENGLAND. 



9Z 







Division IX. 


— YoHKSHiRE {continued). 






Division X.- 
Coui 


— Northern 

fTIES. 






York. — North Riding. 








1 
Durham. 


Malton. 


Beadlam 
Grange. 


Scarborough. 


Northallerton. 


Middles- 
borough. 


Ushaw, 
Durham. 


Wolsingham. 


1ft. 


Oin. 


ft. 6 in. 


1 ft. in. 


1ft. 


3 in. 


1 ft. 


fi in. 


ft. 10 in. 


1 ft. 


Oin. 


75 


ft. 


192 ft. 


102 ft. 


133 ft. 


21 ft. 


600 ft. 


464 ft. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


3'H 


i-8i 


3-59 


173 


2-99 


129 


2*02 


1-56 


1-47 


•92 


3-06 


r8o 


4-78 


3-28 


a-25 


1-36 


2-64 


1-91 


1-98 


1-91 


2-44 


1-03 


2'00 


i-i6 


3-29 


i-6i 


3-77 


2-01 


2-78 


2-04 


279 


2-91 


2-82 


i'6o 


2-62 


2-69 


2-38 


I-2I 


320 


2-38 


4-48 


3-10 


2-66 


•96 


3 '00 


r6, 


2'22 


roo 


2-93 


1-26 


2-52 


1*21 


2-87 


1-09 


385 


•99 


'■47 


2-26 


1-95 


i'90 


2-33 


i-8i 


211 


2-29 


2-62 


1-89 


1-97 


2-63 


2-23 


2-44 


414 


1-37 


44° 


1-94 


2-40 


1-39 


4-77 


•98 


3-24 


1-03 


2-55 


2-14 


2-74 


1-32 


4-66 


218 


3-9« 


SH 


378 


2-24 


4-40 


2-44 


3-15 


1-94 


452 


2-26 


503 


2-26 


2-82 


2-27 


3-39 


4-80 


2-48 


17b 


3-62 


173 


3'53 


208 


3-21 


3-03 


3 64 


2-77 


S-i8 


1-66 


5-04 


2-46 


602 


2-57 


3-75 


1-35 


526 


I -02 


4-65 


1-61 


4-65 


1-92 


3-92 


274 


5-14 


2'09 


398 


216 


4-10 


1-98 


3-43 


1-84 


5-51 


1-96 


7-02 


2-29 


4-88 


1-58 


5-96 


178 


5-S6 


1-41 


4-42 


2-28 


280 


1-35 


4-67 


1-34 


6-27 


1-91 


3-89 


•48 


4-02 


•29 


274 


•58 


3-35 


•33 


2-30 


•21 


4-43 


-37 


5-34 


•69 


4179 


2071 


46"oo 


28-60 


39-30 


19-72 


40-53 


19-92 


34-70 


15-86 


43-93 


22-22 


53-80 


24-98 









Division X. — Northern Counties {continued). 








Cumberland 


(continued). 








Westmoreland 


• 




WhinfellHall, 
Coekermouth. 


Post Office, 
Ke.swick. 


Scaleby Hall. 


! Kendal. 

1 


Kirkby 
Stephen. 


Appleby. 


Great 

Strickland, 

Penrith. 


2 ft. in. 


1ft. 


Oin. 


1 ft. 


1 in. 


1 ft. 6 in. 


1ft. Oin. 


1ft. 


Oin. 


1ft. Oin. 


265 ft. 


270 ft. 


112 


feet. 


146 ft. 


574 ft. 


442 ft. 


650 ft. 


872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 1 in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


995 


10-68 


11-62 


13-96 


4'9S 


573 


9-87 


9'44 


710 


9-08 


5-98 


8-93 


8-86 


8-72 


5-23 


•72 


5-37 


■93 


2-90 


■53 


5-93 


•65 


4-97 


•64 


4-38 


,-38 


9-47 


1-15 


4-55 


3-5 « 


3-82 


379 


2-71 


2-07 


5-6i 


3-30 


3-92 


2-29 


2-62 


2-01 


3-32 


2-14 


1-98 


•40 


2-54 


-66 


1-36 


•36 


2-19 


•5' 


3-21 


-69 


1-14 


•67 


•93 


-26 


37b 


216 


i-74 


2-05 


2-67 


2-30 


2-73 


2-52 


2-46 j 1-54 


2-44 


•92 


1-56 


1-42 


6-03 


3-09 


499 


2-27 


3-37 


1-38 


4-65 


2-69 


5-°5 


1-59 


3-26 


1-36 


2-84 


1-30 


3-78 


7-07 


3-80 


7-15 


4-63 


7'°9 


4-80 


7-30 


3-97 


339 


3-03 


2-59 


4-09 


3-39 


4-01 


6-10 


4*5 


b-15 


2-37 


601 


4-64 


5-90 


4-7b 


3-24 


4'45 


3-26 


392 


3-58 


8-40 


3-12 


8-89 


3 '44 


4-6S 


3-53 


8-18 


2-94 


492 


2-23 


4-35 


1-42 


5-57 


2-13 


io-o6 


7-35 


9-74 


6-12 


5-34 


464 


7-57 


8-36 


7-23 3-77 


6-23 


2-90 


7-06 


3-72 


7-ib 


3-2b 


10-17 


309 


2-91 


1-87 1 


664 


3-33 


5-74 2-30 


379 


216 


5-92 


2-03 


7-59 


2-78 


8-41 


3b5 


4->3 


l-li 


6-37 


2-43 


579 1-50 


4-25 


1-43 


5-62 


1-64 


72-50 


50-24 


76-34 


53-26 


42-02 


36-62 


69-18 


49'37 


59-12 


32-26 


45-92 


29-03 


59-16 


31-48 































94 








RKPORT ]87 

WALES. 


4. 










1 


Division XI. — Monmouth, "Wales, and the Islands. 


Monmouth. 


GlAM0RG.\N. 


Carmarthen. 


Pembroke. 


Height of 

Rain-gauge 

above 

Ground 

Sea-level 


Llanfrechfa, 
Newport. 


I 
Abergavenny. 


Swansea. 


Pentyrch, 
Cardiff. 


Carmarthen 
Gaol. 


Haverford- 

■west. 


4 ft. in. 
326 ft. 


1 ft. in. 
220 ft. 


14 ft. 9 in. 
40 ft. 


1 ft. 1 in. 
100 ft. 


ft. 6 in. 

92 ft. 


1 ft. in. 

94 ft. 


187-2. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


January 

February ... 

March 

April 


in. 
9-85 
529 

5-34 
2-20 
2-06 
4-18 
3-68 
2-68 
3-29 
6-90 
9-67 
7-13 


in. 

977 

1-81 

6-03 

-62 

2'53 
3-30 
418 
4-03 
3-06 
4-00 
i-oi 
1-09 


in. 

7-01 

5-42 

3-4' 
2-84 
1-19 

3-50 

4' 34 
2-09 
2-25 
4-91 

7-58 
7-66 


in. 
6-15 
2-22 
414 
-63 
2-13 
3-04 
2-82 
3-67 
1-89 
1-99 
2-41 
70 


in. 
7-76 
4-01 

3 '47 
1-60 
1-31 
4-87 
3-42 
2-65 
3-8i 
6-16 

5"5« 
6-12 


in. 
5-72 

•85 
3-33 

•53 
2-84 
i-o6 


in. 
8-8i 

S"°7 
4-10 
2-o8 

2-87 

5'S2 


in. 
6-63 
1-86 

4-78 

•49 
3-IO 

2-73 
5-01 

5-33 
3-34 
5-62 
2-83 
2-62 


in. 

975 
7-34 
6-26 
2-69 

2-23 

7 '43 
2-99 

345 
566 
7-70 
9-67 
9-69 


in. 
8-39 
2-54 

3-57 

•72 

2-8o 

1-99 

439 
6-72 
3-66 
4-56 
a'46 
2-24 


in. 
8-90 
6-62 

5'37 
2-4S 
2-30 
5-38 
4-6 1 
2-02 
5-50 
7"93 
871 
999 


in. 
7-88 
3-76 

4"«7 
•96 
3-25 
I'll 
4-23 
6-05 
373 
4-43 
344 
1-66 


May 


June 


July 


3'00 ' i;-Q2 


August 

September ... 

October 

November ... 
December ... 


4-38 
272 
3-56 

173 
1-52 


3-50 
S-«4 
5-97 
6-co 

775 


Totals 


62-27 


41 '43 


52-20 


3179 


50-69 


31-24 


62-73 


44"34 


74-86 


44-04 


69-78 


45-67 





Division XI.- 


-Monmouth, 


Wales, and the Islands. 








Merioneth. 


Flint. 


Carnarvon. 


Height of 

Rain-gauge 

above 

Ground 

Sea-level 


Dolgelly, 
Brithdir. 


Bala. 


Maes-y-dre. 


Hawarden. 


Beddgelert. 


Cocksidia, 
Carnarvon. 


1 ft. a in. 
500 ft. 


1 ft. in. 
544 ft. 


5 ft. in. 
400 ft. 


ft. 6 in. 
270 ft. 


3 ft. in. 

264 ft. 


1 ft. 1 in. 
120 ft. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 

in. 
6-a6 

1-14 

2-94 

1-22 

1-66 
i-io 

3-01 

4'49 
3-00 

1-96 
201 


January 

February ... 

March 

April 


in. 
10-78 

8-35 

7-13 

i"57 

4-63 

! 7'93 

6-o8 

'• 5-'8 

! 9-42 

14-24 
13-26 


in. 
13-93 

>-57 
4' 54 
2-04 
2-90 
3-33 
575 
7-50 

4-49 
984 
4-21 
2-69 


in. 
8-81 
6-06 

4-67 
3-32 
2-92 
4-70 
5-02 

3-43 

829 

8-88 

11-65 

7-43 


in. 
8-87 
1-38 
3-58 
132 
2-36 

J-54 
4-61 

4-35 
3-5« 
611 
3',6 
198 


in. 

2-53 
2 '04 
196 
2-07 
2-03 
3'68 
4'oo 

2'04 
5'20 

5'o8 
2-88 
3-6i 


in. 

195 
-66 

2-34 

■(■7 

J "49 
1-18 

I '47 
2-63 

2-74 
2-53 
173 

73 


in. 
3-24 
2-65 
3'64 
34° 
1-93 
4-65 
6-76 
2-40 
488 

7-C2 

4-01 
3'90 


in. 
2-16 
-89 

344 

-92 

1-90 

1-21 
1-48 

3-27 

4'34 

256 

2-01 

•89 


in. 

22'53 

i2'47 
1351 
5-45 
5'96 
12-21 
6-49 
6-84 

1477 
16-95 
i7-o6 

15-97 


in. 

21-46 

3-50 

8-59 

373 

5-37 

601 

10-56 

11-86 

10-09 

12-12 

8-36 

6-29 


in. 
6-58 

4-52 

3-74 
1-94 
2-32 
5-29 
4-61 

313 
6-52 
10-28 
6-12 
6-21 


May 

June 

July 

August 

September ... 

October 

November ... 
December .. 


Totals 


100-39 


6279 75-18 


4*77 


37-12 


20-12 


48-48 


25-07 


150-21 


107-94 


61-26 


34'33 


i .. 



























ON THE RAINFALL OK THK HRITISH ISLES. 
WALES. 



95 









Division XI.- 


— Monmouth, 


Wales, and the Islands. 








Fembroeg 


Brecknock. 


Montgomery. 




Cardigan. 






Radnor. 




(continued). 


























Castle 
Malgwyn. 


Brecknock. 


Carno. 


Lampeter. 


Gog 


nan. 


Rhaj 


ader. 


Heyhope 
Eectory. 


1 ft. 2 in. 


2 ft.. 


Oin. 


1 ft. 


Oin. 


4 ft. 


Sin. 


2 ft. 


6 in. 


2 ft,. 


Oin. 


1ft. 


Oin. 


50 ft. 


437 ft. 


550 ft. 


420 ft. 


290 ft. 


880 ft. 


690 ft. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


496 


8-22 


10-30 


9*74 


7-50 


6-20 ' 




5-20 


5-81 


4-80 


7-51 


5-64 


779 


6-53! 


6-21 


2 -06 


6-57 


1-38 


5-30 


7-30; 


S-2 


1-58 


3-51 


»*34 


5-85 


2-26 


5-76 


J-43: 


6-43 


3"°Si 


4*62 


y^<>, 


3-60 


4-00 





2-99 


3-97 


3'33 


3-5» 


3'3«> 


377 


4-36 


2-39 


•49: 


3'4S 


2-57 


3-30 


rSo 


^" 


lOI 


3-28 


1-45 


3-63 


1-87 


3-83 


1-86 


1-6, 


2-40 1 


1-72 


1-72 


3-70 


3-20 


^■n 


2-19 


2-20 


3-05 


3-28 


3"4i 


a'55 


2-3S 


4-«3 


1-32 


4-53 


2-11 


5-20 


1-60 





•63 


6-18 


1-64 


5-72 


i'95 


4-33 


2-47 


4-63 


3-X7 


6-07 


1-92 


s-30 


3-10 


o«. 


2-79 


4-14 


4-53 


5-43 


3-78 


599 


3-55 


4-42 


5-53 


3-69 


368 


4-00 


4-00 


'T3 


3-91 


2-63 


S-46 


4-34 


577 


3-08 


3-40 


6-2, 


3"37 


4-38 


2-26 


5-80 


4-30 


2-14 


7-08 


S-«4 


575 


2-71 


4-25 


2-.5 


8-6i 


2-4?! 


6-80 


2-75 


6-70 


4-70 


9"47 


374 


7-66 


6-52 


860 


3-34 


6-75 


375 


8-S7 


2-12 


13-06 


3-52 


8-50 


3-20 


803 


2-47 


8-06 


2-46 


10-48 


3-30 


863 


2-go 


930 


1-78 j 


10-34 


1-51 


8-10 


4-20 




•87 


571 


1-60 


9-66 


1-24 


7-87 


1-17 


68-26 


36-66 


75*53 


36-42 


67-00 


47-60 




29-52 


60-24 


41-32 


7376 


38-57 


64-60 


35-82 



Division XI. — Monmouth, Wales, and the Islands. 


Carnarvon 


(coiiiimied). 


Isle of Man. 


Guernsey. 


Sark. 


Jersey. 


Llanfair- 
feehan. 


Llandudno. 


Douglas. 


Kirk 
Michael. 


Guer 


nsey. 


Sark. 


Millbrook. 


Oft. 


8 in. 


ft. G in. 


1 ft. 1 in. 


1 ft. in. 


12 ft. 


Oin. 


1ft. 


Oin. 


1 ft. in. 


150 ft. 


98 ft. 


78 ft. 


100 ft. 


204 ft. 


840 ft. 


50 ft. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


6-49 


8-2, 


3*35 


5-8i 


S-72 


7-87 


683 


5-S2 


6-11 


663 


4'95 


486 


4-42 


4-07 


,-.8 


1-07 


3-04 


1-23 


4-98 


1-80 


6-72 


2-86 


2-77 


3-31 


2-37 


3-65 


1-27 


3-40 


3'33 


2-96 


2-19 


2-09 


3-6, 


3-68 


^""l 


3 '94 


4-41 


3-85 


3-05 


3-46 


2-49 


4-56 


2-48 


149 


2-17 


1-04 


2-21 


•42 


2-18 


•23 


2-40 


•47 


1-94 


■|3 


1-74 


•49 


3'i7 


1-6, 


2-02 


118 


197 


i-fe5 


1-76 


1-18 


4-05 


1-64 


371 


1-67 


3-53 


1-00 


s-zi 


1-64 


5-20 


•66 


6-14 


i-ii 


S-.6 


•19 


3-13 


1-62 


2-48 


1-72 


2-03 


2-40 


595 


2-12 


346 2-28 


4-12 


2-75 


4-22 


2-28 


4-53 


3-34 


4-14 


2-35 


4-58 


296 


224 


368 


2-15; 2-44 


S-b, 


2-91 


369 


2-08 


2-19 


509 


I-J3 


4-62 


1-45 


4-43 


727 


3-53 


6S3 


2-65 


b-37 


2-49 


4-90 


169 


2-14 


2-34' 


2-05 


2-09 


252 


274 


10-42 


3-92 


8-16 


398 


4-98 


4-53 


6-36 


2-45 


11 04 


2-51 


7-71 


3-29 


7-39 


2-95 


7J3 


2-05 


S-22 


1-68 


6-79 


3-04 


5-90 


189 


7-40 


5-87 


-•56 


3-42 


790 


2-66 


7-IO 


1-98 


4-23 


1-44 


7 '44 


1-52 


8-33 


i'33 


6-79 


1-05 


6-o8 


1-59 


7-17 


•99 


6603 


34'34 


48-02 


26-48 


62-94 


3377 


S9-3a 


15-94 


56-96 


37-72 


47-17 


33-25 


46-49 


32-65 





























or, 



REPORT — 1871. 

SCOTLAND. 



Division XII. — Southern Counties, 




Wigtown. 


: Kirkcudbright. 

1 


Dumfries. 




Height of 

Rain-gauge 

above 

Ground 

Sea-level 


13alfern. 


Little Ross. 


Carsphairn. 


Cargen. 


TV 1 • Wanlock- 
Drumlanng. ^^^^ 




Oft. 11. in. 
75 ft. 


3 ft. 3 in. 
130 ft. 


3 ft. 10 in. 
574 ft. 


ft. 4 in. 
80 ft. 




ft. 4 in. 
1330 ft. 




191 ft. 




1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 




January 

February . . . 

March 

April 


in. 

933 
5-36 
4-20 
•78 
2-58 
5-28 
3-70 
5-38 

5-93 
4-96 
5-46 
9-26 


in. 
5-48 

•97 
3 '49 

•5' 
1-90 
1-59 

579 
4-36 
3-32 
5-46 

1-82 

1-65 


in. 

4'43 

2-55 

2-72 

■49 
2-19 

439 

4-42 

339 
4-07 

3-57 
2-64 

5-83 


in. 
2-90 

2-76 

•20 

1-93 

1-53 
2-81 
2-43 

2-14 

4-36 

1-59 

•67 


in. 

1314 
873 
5-40 
1-39 
3-62 
7-11 

394 
5-85 
8-90 
5-33 
9 '47 
i3'8o 


in. 

11 60 
1-98 
3-80 

■53 
2-42 

2-17 

6-89 

5-87 
S-58 

779 
4'44 
395 


. 
in. 

10-02 

6-76 
3-96 
113 

3-54 
5-91 
4-31 

327 
5-62 

5-12 

5-30 
8-56 


in. 
8-70 
1-05 

359 
-10 

a-22 
1-44 
5-46 
6-49 
3-76 
6-08 
2-44 

2-21 


in. 

11-00 
7-40 
3-90 

2-00 
3-30 
8-00 
4-10 
4-30 
S-70 
4-00 
8-40 
9-50 


in. 

lo-io 
1-20 

'- 

2-30 
i-6o 
7-70 
5-90 

4-30 
8-10 
3-60 
3-50 


in. 

16-75 
9-36 
6-80 
2-35 
2-96 
9-25 
3-78 

6-12 

8-41 

5-82 
10-56 

»5-54 


in. 

12-52 

1-85 

S-38 

-23 

3-73 
3-64 
12-95 
6-74 
639 
7-S3 
4-80 
5-86 




May 




Juno 




July 




August 

September ... 

October 

November ... 
December ... 




Totals 


62-22 


36-34 


40-69 


23-83 I 86-68 


57-02 


63-50 


43-52 


71-60 


52-15 


97-70 


71-92 





Division XIV. — South- Western Counties. 


Lanark. 


1 

AvR. 


Renfrew. 


Height of 

Rain-gauge 

above 

Ground 

Sea-level 


Newmains, 
Douglas. 


Auchinraith, 
Hamilton. 


Glasgow 
Observatory. 


Hole House, 
Patna. 


Mansfield, 
Largs. 


Newton 
Mearns. 


ft. 4 in. 
783 ft. 


4 ft. 9 in. 
150 ft. 


ft. 1 in. 
180 ft. 


1 ft. in. 
446 ft. 


ft. G in. 
30 ft. 


1 ft. in. 
350 ft. 


1872. 1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. j 1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


January 

February . . . 

March 

April 


in. 
9-23 

3'45 
2-85 
i-ii 

3-57 
5-27 
3-72 

3-93 
8-5. 
4-78 
6-69 

7-Si 


in. 
8-47 
1-13 

3-37 
•59 
3-45 
1-78 
5-42 
569 
5-70 
8-04 
2-80 
3-8i 


in. 
4-65 
2-45 

1-74 
-62 
278 
6-6S 
6-26 
3-50 
6-60 
2-60 
4-04 
402 


in. 
4-50 
,15 
2-10 
•08 
2-35 
1-30 

4-35 
402 
4-06 
4-76 

»-35 
2-05 


in. 

5-95 
3-09 
2-6i 


in. 
667 

2-02 
2-52 


in. 
8-54 
3-49 

2-24 


in. 
6*07 
-82 

2-87 


in. 
8-00 
6-0O 
4-10 
1-40 
2-80 
7-50 

4-50 
3-40 
7-90 
4-50 
8 00 

7-20 


in. 
7-10 
110 

2-00 
•30 

2-6o 
2-30 
6-IO 

5-20 

5-00 

5-90 

4-00 

3-00 


in. 
8-56 
3-65 

371 
1-32 

3-43 
6-55 
4-80 
386 
8-76 
4-71 
7-47 
8-14 


in. 
9-26 

1-25 

3'4 

•30 

2-94 
302 

5 '49 
5-16 

5'o3 
8-OI 

3-25 
4-90 


May 


3-68 3-47 ' 
904 2-54 ' 
6-52 5-33 i 

5-19 4-56 
9 80 5-16 
3-69 6-35 
5-II 2-39 
6-00 2-25 


3-28 , 2-30 
5-79 1-64 


June 


Julv 


August 

September ... 

October 

November ... 
December ... 


4-21 

8-17 
4-56 

575 
5-08 


T y 
5-47 
6-08 
6-76 

2-66 
2-95 


Totals 


60-92 


50-25 


45-94 


32*07 1 6i-6o 


43-52 


55-70 


42-S6 


65-30 


4460 


64-96 


5»75 





























ON THE RAINFALL OP THE BRITISH ISLES. 

SCOTLAND. 



97 



Division XIII. — South-Eastern Cottnties. 



KOXBURGH. 



Silverbut 
Hall, Hawick. 



4 ft. in. 
512 ft. 



1872. 



397 
3-32 
2-56 
3-03 
3-66 
278 
5-62 

4'22 
3-84 

3-86 
492 
4-29 



46-07 



1873. 



m. 
5-62 
118 
r6i 
•60 
1-91 
1-52 
4-06 
409 
2*56 
391 
2-37 
1-48 



30-91 



Selkirk. 



Galashiels. 



ft. 6 in. 
416 ft. 



1872. 1873, 



in. 
4-25 

399 
2-94 
3-16 
2-97 
3"i3 
399 
4-23 

4'49 
4'59 
6-54 

474 



49-02 



in. 
4-72 
1-72 
1-64 

■82 
2-15 

•63 

4-J7 
3'45 
2-96 
4-07 
282 
i'53 



30-68 



Peeble.s. 



North Esk 
Reservoir, 
Penicuick. 



ft. 6 in. 
1150 ft. 



1872. 1873. 



5-20 

^•35 
3-20 
1-95 
415 
3-55 
2-50 

4'iS 
6-05 

S'S 
7-10 

2-95 



48-30 



in. 

4-60 

1-45 
2-is 
•20 
2-85 
1-30 

375 
4-50 

4-45 

S-70 

4-35 
»'55 



37-85 



Berwick. 


Thirleetane. 


Oft. 


Sin. 


558 ft. 


1872. 


1873. 


in. 


in. 


4-20 


3-IO 


4-00 


1-90 


2-80 


1-40 


2-90 


•30 


2-70 


1-70 


2-50 


-40 


3-IO 


4'oo 


3-70 


2-70 


5-10 


i-6o 


6-30 


4-30 


6-6o 


2-30 


4-65 


1-60 


48-55 


25-30 



Haddington. 


East Linton. 


Oft. 


3 in. 


90 ft. 


1872. 


1873. 


in. 


in. 


4-21 


1-44 


2-34 


1-98 


3-31 


1-72 


2-68 


-85 


3-20 


2-40 


3-10 


2-1 8 


2-70 


5-43 


3-72 


3-^7 


5-15 


2-46 


3-53 


3-51 


3-82 


2-51 


2-66 


1-77 


40-43 


29-12 



Edinburgh. 



Glencorse. 



ft. 6 in. 

787 ft. 



1872. 1873 



5-50 
2-6o 
4-60 

3'35 
5-20 

3-35 
3-85 

375 
5-30 

5-55 
575 
2-90 



51-70 



m. 
4-85 

1-40 
1-50 
-40 
2-50 
1-05 
3-85 
4-50 

3-^5 
6- 10 
4-20 
2-90 



36-50 



Charlotte Sq., 
Edinburgh. 



ft. 6 in. 
230 ft. 



1872. 1873, 



in. 

3-63 
2-02 

3-30 
1-70 
3-46 

3-13 
3-58 
3-28 
5-80 
3-38 
3-60 
2-o8 



38-96 



in. 
2-32 
,•38 
1-60 
-21 
2-70 

I -2 I 

2-8o 

4-53 
4-46 
3-07 
2-47 
1-44 



28-19 



Div xrv. 
















(continued). 




Division XV. — West Midland Counties 


• 




Renfrew 

(continued). 


Dumbarton. 


Stirling. 


Bute. 


Argyll. 


Glenbrae, 


Ballock 


Arddarock, 


Polmaise 


"D1« 


-T 1 


Castle 


Oallton Mor. 


Greenock. 


Castle. 


Loch Long. 


Garden, 


Plauaa. 


Toward. 


ft. 9 in. 


Oft. 


4 in. 


ft. 10 in. 


Oft. 9 in. 


3 ft. 


3 in. 


4 ft. 


Oin. 


4 ft. in. 


574 ft. 


91ft. 


80 ft. 


12 ft. 


55 ft. 


65 ft. 


65 ft. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


tr6o 


11-90 


865 


8-74 


12-34 


14-05 


5-00 


7-50 


5-43 


7-53 


8-21 


7-77 


9-15 


7-46 


7-50 


1-70 


5'12 


1-52 


10-59 


1-36 


3-50 


1-30 


3-58 


-29 


5-35 


1-77 


5-89 


•61 


510 


3-00 


5-00 


*-33 


6-58 


3-57 


2-60 


2-CO 


3-6. 


1-90 


4-35 


179 


4-55 


2-70 


2-00 


•50 


1-67 


•3a 


3-51 


-94 


2-40 


-3° 


-64 


•41 


182 


-39 


1-62 


-87 


3-50 


4-10 


3-'5 


3-62 


3-94 


4-19 


3-80 


2-40 


2-46 


2-73 


3-79 


3-i8 


3-01 


3-01 


8-20 


3-30 


7-60 


a-47 


918 


4-36 


6-20 


170 


7-12 


1-96 


8-67 


2-39 


809 


2-43 


4-80 


6'20 


7-39 


6-34 


626 


869 


3-20 


4-70 


4-21 


3-68 


4-83 


5-36 


3-65 


5-77 


5-00 


7-20 


4-82 


5-57 


8-55 


7-07 


480 


4-20 


4-53 


4-01 


6-33 


489 


515 


618 


II-40 


8-50 


956 


5-87 


10-82 


577 


5-4° 


4-10 


6-41 


3-39 


8-39 


5-34 


9-27 


8-56 


600 


9-00 


4-48 


8-85 


953 


11-48 


3-00 


5-50 


4-58 


9-37 


5-71 


8-19 


629 


10-36 


io-8o 


570 


8-6o 


4-75 


12-89 


6-92 


5-80 


1-70 


5-30 


4-51 


8-39 


519 


7 49 


4-21 


9-10 


6-8o 


7-80 


461 


1234 


8-o6 


5-70 


3-10 


5-27 


2-12 


6-32 


3-39 


5-67 


499 


8 5 00 


67-90 


73-84 


54-99 


106-53 


76-46 


51-40 


38-50 


53-14 


41-90 


72-16 


49-65 


69-83 


57-15 




1874. 




















H 







98 



REPORT 1874. 

SCOTLAND. 



Division XV. — AVest Midland Counties {continued). 




Argyll {continued). 




Height of 

Rain-gauge 

above 

Ground 

Sea-level 


Inverary 

Castle. 


Airds, 
Appin. 


Corran, 
Loch Eil. 


Ardnamur- 
clian. 


Devaar, 
Campbeltown. 


Skipness 
Castle. 




ft. 2 in. 
30 ft. 


ft. 5 in. 
15 ft. 


ft. 4 in. 
14 ft. 


3 ft. 6 in. 

82 ft. 


3 ft. 4 in. 
75 ft. 


1 ft. 4 in. 
20 ft. 




1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 




January 

February . . . 

March 

April 


in. 
7-O0 
6-00 
4-00 
i-oo 
4-00 

11-00 
4-00 
6-00 
5-50 
6-00 
9-00 
8-00 


in. 
8-00 

2-00 

1-00 

l-co 
4-00 
4-00 

8-50 

8 -co 
6-50 

ii-oo 
7-00 

11 -oo 


in. 
9-10 

3-80 
2-40 
2-50 
10-10 
4-00 
6-70 
7'6o 
6-10 
6-50 
4-30 


in. 
7-40 
-60 
2-70 
1-30 
4-60 
390 
7-20 
5-50 
5-00 
7-60 
5-40 
630 


in. 

11-80 
8-15 
2-35 

3-95 
3-65 
7-30 
4-05 
7-80 
9-25 
8-15 
9-65 
5-90 


in. 
13-60 
•60 
3-20 

•95 

2-70 

5-5° 
9-40 
7-10 
6-45 
8-50 
6*90 
12-25 


in. 

6-82 
4-64 
2-39 
2-02 
2-70 

5'49 
3-37 
3-12 
6-42 

774 
6-43 

4'°4 


in. 
7-32 

•38 
1-99 

-61 
2-29 
3-08 

3'99 
4-72 
3-92 
8-30 
5-44 
5'3° 


in. 
956 

474 
3-53 
1-25 

3-38 
5-34 
3-94 
3'Si 
5-25 
3-62 
6-29 
8-02 


in. 
7'ao 

i'33 
2-07 

•54 
2-26 

1-67 
4-57 
4"57 
3"i4 
8-59 
4-41 
2-23 


in. 

5-70 
4-20 
3-50 

37° 
3-50 
6-70 
3-50 

37° 
8-6o 

6-IO 
5-40 


in. 
6-30 
1-30 
2-30 
2-50 
70 
1-50 
5-20 

6-20 

5-60 

7-40 

4-10 

3-70 




May 




June 




July 




August 

September ... 

October 

November ... 
December ... 




Totals 


71-50 


72-00 


68-20 


55*5° 


82-00 


77"i5 


55-18 


47'34 


58-44 


42-58 


59-90 


47-80 





Division XVI. — East Midland CotTNTiEs {continued). 


Perth {continued), \ 


Height of 

Rain-gauge 

above 

Ground 

Sea-level 


Deanston. 


Loch 
Katrine. 


Auchterarder 
House. 


Stronvar, Loch 
Earn Head. 


Trinity 
Gask. 


Scone 
Palace. 


1 ft. in. 
130 ft. 


ft. 6 in. 
830 ft. 


2 ft. 3 in. 
162 ft. 


ft. 4 in. 
460 ft. 


ft. 1 in. 

133 ft. 


2 ft. 6 in. 

80 ft. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


January 

February . . . 

March 

April 


in. 

5-5^ 
4-12 

374 
1-35 
2-99 
6-88 
3-65 
6-26 
7-11 

3'43 
7-70 
5-48 


in. 
6-67 
ro8 

1-45 
-38 

3-17 
2-06 
6-84 
4-82 
4-02 
6-26 
2-91 
3-69 


in. 

11 -oo 

11-60 

5-60 

2-8o 

3-30 

11-20 

7-20 
lO'lO 

9-90 

8-30 

13-10 

13-00 


in. 

i3'4° 
1-40 

3-10 

1-00 

4-40 

4-20 

9-00 

7-30 

5-2° 
9-60 

5-5° 
10-10 


in. 

4-85 
5-84 
2-05 
1-08 
3-08 

374 
2-50 

2-3 5 
4-65 

3-95 
5-64 

5-18 


in. 

5-93 
1-25 
1-40 

-20 
2-88 

•63 
373 
3'33 
2-15 

3-48 
I2-16 


in. 

12-25 

13-00 

4-00 

2-90 

3-82 

7-00 

5-85 

6-85 

9-10 

7-30 

12-90 

10-80 


in. 
ii-io 

1-25 
2-95 
i-8o 
3-90 
3-20 
77° 
5-5° 
4-25 
8-35 
5-80 
915 


in. 
4-90 
4-80 
2-90 
-98 
4-80 
5-20 
2-96 
3-00 
5-16 
3-45 
5'44 
610 


in. 

2-65 

1-55 

•20 

3-08 

I -20 

4"54 
4*26 

3-55 
3-80 
2-03 
2-23 


in. 
4' 10 

5-64 

2-6l 

•90 
3-38 
3-68 
3-00 
4'6o 
5-40 

325 
4-90 
620 


in.. 
3-88 

I-oo 

1-20 

-20 

2-88 

I-I7 

3-25 
,-65 

3'S2 
3-40 

1-40 
1-60 


May 


June 


July 


August 

September ... 

October 

November ... 
December ... 


Totals 


58-23 


43-35 


107-10 


74-20 


44-91 


47-14 


9S77 


64-95 


49-69 


34-44 


47-66 


45-15 





























ON THE RAINFALL OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 

SCOTLAND. 



99 



Div. XV. — "West Midland Counties 


(continued). 


Division XVI. — East Midland 
Counties. 


Argyll (continued). 


Kinross. 


Fife. 


Perth. 


Eliinns of 
Islay. 


Eallabus, 
Islay. 


Lismore. 


Hynish, 


Loch Leven 
Sluice. 


Nookton. 


Kippenross. 


3 ft. in, 

74 ft. 


1 ft. in. 
71ft. 


3 ft. 4 in. 
37 ft. 




ft. 10 in. 
360 ft. 


ft. 6 in. 
80 It. 


ft. 4 in. 
150 ft. 






1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1B73. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


571 


4-56 


7"47 


6-13 


6-85 


7-29 


4'57 


12-83 


4-80 


4-30 


4-15 


3-69 


475 


6-45 


2-86 


•79 


4-68 


•83 


6*29 


•54 


8-63 


71 


5-00 


1-20 


4-06 


1-13 


3*9° 


I 00 


176 


2-35 


3-°S 


2-28 


2-07 


1-28 


6-02 


3*96 


3-30 


1-90 


2'6l 


1-70 


2-8, 


r4o 


2-05 


•88 


I'I2 


75 


1-33 


•47 


4-07 


•65 


1-30 


-10 


175 


•29 


1-20 


-00 


2'o6 


2-57 


2-27 


1-87 


2'o6 


2-32 


5-08 


3-0 1 


3-50 


3-IO 


2-92 


277 


2-70 


2-30 


5-32 


173 


4-97 


2-i6 


6-50 


2-33 


6-39 


3'4i 


4-40 


1-40 


3-63 


1-39 


S'5o 


175 


172 


3'77 


1-47 


496 


3-bi 


5-59 


3-09 


8-IO 


2-6o 


5-00 


3'37 


3-62 


3-50 


4-15 


2-82 


4-03 


4-13 


5-14 


4-35 


4'«7 


3-69 


6-03 


5-80 


4-00 


5-98 


3"43 


3-80 


4-00 


5-22 


2-93 


770 


4-98 


3-44 


2-73 


3-20 


4-26 


3-30 


3-60 


3-92 


3-4^ 


5-80 


3-5° 


5-56 


7-8s 


6'3o 


7-96 


5-09 


573 


8-53 


7-00 


3-50 


4-30 


3-58 


373 


2-55 


6 00 


606 


i'53 


775 


3-24 


366 


4'45 


93^ 


5-5° 


6"oo 


3-10 


4-44 


1-97 


7-60 


3-00 


4-23 


2-19 


477 


37b 


275 


431 


4-49 


7-8i 


4-80 


2-00 


3-04 


1-56 


6-8o 


320 


45*37 


3618 


55-68 


44-06 


48-00 


41-21 


6708 


63-27 


48-30 


34-00 


4 3-45 


28-70 


50-95 


36-75 



Division XVI. — East Midland Counties 


Division XVII. — Nokth-E astern 




{continued). 






Counties. 


Perth 

{continued). 


[Forfar. 


Kincardine. 


Aberdeen. 


Strath-tay, 


Dundee 


Arbroath. 


Montrose, 


The Bum, 


Braemar. 


Aberdeen, 


Logiei-ait. 


Necropolis. 


Bridge Street. 


Brechin. 


Rose Street. 


1 ft. in. 


ft. 5 in. 


2 ft. in. 


ft. 3 in. 


ft. 4 in. 


ft. 9 in. 


ft. 5 in. 


313 ft. 


167 ft. 


60 ft. 


26 ft. 


235 ft. 


1114 ft. 


95 ft. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


4-23 


5 "44 


375 


2-8o 


3-63 


3-.8 


3-42 


2-87 


4-50 


3701 


6-70 


4-48 


2-51 


2-13 


608 


75 


6-15 


■80 


3-60 


-89 


4-63 


1-01 


7-70 


I'lO 


616 


•«7 


3-91 


1-30 


1-82 


1-98 


2-bs 


1-90 


2-52 


i-8i 


2-33 


2-00 


2-70 


2-30 


2-62 


•69 


1-70 


2-48 


1-05 


78 


1-70 


•10 


1-98 


'H 


1-94 


-27 


2-20 


•60 


3-29 


1-74 


2-34 


-82 


2-40 


2-43 


2-85 


3-30 


3-02 


2-23 


1-31 


2-14 


3-60 


2-8o 


3-91 


6-i8 


2-87 


2-63 


5-20 


1-40 


4-30 


1-25 


4-37 


1-37 


375 


1-00 


6-20 


•90 


5-49 


2-83 


3-06 


I -02 


341 


4-06 


2-15 


5-»o 


1-72 


4-70 


1-88 


3'i5 


2-60 


5-60 


2-38 


4-21 


1-66 


4-13 


2-88 


2-67 


270 


3-00 


2-1 I 


2-66 


2-25 


2-73 


2-80 


2-70 


3-64 


2-64 


3-08 


4-82 


4-79 


331 


4-65 


370 


4*6 1 


465 


4-75 


6-26 


4-10 


5-00 


578 


7-27 


5-81 


3-66 


498 


4-20 


3 'CO 


2-70 


3-34 


2-79 


2-50 


2-85 


4-30 


3-30 


483 


3-89 


4'io 


2-59 


5-80 


1-38 


4-70 


1-90 


4-63 


2-59 


4-82 


2-45 


5-90 


3-30 


7*26 


4-82 


571 


3'93 


5-56 


269 


4-20 


1-85 


3-45 


1-84 


3-65 


1-90 


6-IO 


a-oo 


7-19 


3-16 3-06 


1-77 


48 20 


3109 


42-80 


28-40 


38-98 


28-95 


37-23 


28-63 


5270 


33-30 


59-25 


4278 


39-81 


31-28 



n2 



100 



REPORT — 1874. 

SCOTLAND. 



Division XVTI. — North-Eastee\ Counties (continued). 


Div. XVIII.— NoRTH- 

Westeen Counties. 




Abehdken (continued). 


Banff. ! 


Elgin. 


Ross AND CROMAnTV. 




Height of 

Rain-gauge 

above 

Ground 

Sea-level 


Leochel, 
Cushnie. 


Tillydesk, 
Eilon. 


Gordon 
Castle. 


Grantown. 


Inverinate 

House, 
Loch Alsh. 


Gairloch. 




3 ft. in. 
882 ft. 


ft. 4 in. 
349 ft. 


1 ft. 6 in. 
70 ft. 


1 ft. 1 in. 
712 ft. 


3 ft. in. 
150 ft. 


6 ft. in. 
13 ft. 




1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 




January 

February ... 

March 

April 


in. 
3-61 

5'39 
3-28 

3-96 

S'55 
4-29 
2-61 

3'47 
646 
4-69 
7-06 
4-60 


in. 
1-84 

I '43 
2-22 
,-67 

4'44 
I-I7 
5-12 
3-06 
4-67 
2-95 

4'i5 

2-37 


in. 
3-01 

3'74 
2-8 1 

2-91 
485 
4-12 
1-98 

2-98 
5-86 
4-26 
5-03 
4-30 


in. 
1-91 
1-98 

2-43 

I-2I 

2-77 
i-iS 
4-19 

4-33 
4-02 
3-26 

3-53 
1-56 


in. 

3-»4 
,-36 
2-51 
2-27 
4-01 
6-13 
1-85 
4-02 
563 
6-00 

4-17 
2-48 


in. 
1-25 
i'43 

2*22 
1-56 
3-60 
1-73 
3-06 
2-94 

4-83 
3-26 

4'i7 
2-26 


in. 

2-37 
-60 
156 
3-71 
3-65 
5-62 
2-29 
3-67 
8-10 

4'33 
5-01 
172 


in. 
1-04 
1-30 
1-93 
2-99 

3'39 
3-58 
398 
226 

5'oo 
289 

3'45 
2-47 


in. 
11 -08 

4'43 
1-85 

3-45 
6-97 
8-32 

3-45 

335 

11-25 

9-60 

7-65 
5-55 


in. 

12-37 
1-85 
3-20 
2-03 
5-98 
7-38 
5-04 
9'35 
6-71 

11-07 

7-40 
15-75 


in. 
11-13 

3-76 
3-67 
3-00 

3-79 
13-42 
6-60 
2-44 
9-21 

7'34 
5-78 
3-89 


in. 
5-69 
1-52 
2-08 
2-28 
2-32 
3-72 

3-40 
4-90 

S'47 
7-27 
386 
6-20 




May 




June 




July 




August 

September . . . 

October 

November ... 
December ... 




Totals 


54'97 


35-19 


45-85 


32-37 


43-67 


32-31 


42-63 


34-28 


76-95] 88-13 


74-03 


4871 





Division XVIII. — North-Western- CotrNTiEs 
(continued). 


Division XIX. — Northern Coitnties. 


Inverness (continued). 


Sutherland. 


Height of 

Rain-gauge 

above 

Groimd 

Sea-level 

January 

February ... 

March 

April 


Island Glass, 
Harris. 


Corrimony, 

Glen 
Urquhart. 


Laggan. 


Dunrobin. 


Scourie. 


Cape Wrath. 


3 ft. 4 in. 
60 ft. 


ft. 7 in. 
540 ft. 


ft. 9 in. 
821 ft. 


ft. 3 in. 
6 ft. 


ft. 3 in. 
26 ft. 


3 ft. 6 in. 

355 ft. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


in. 

9-03 
3-60 
279 

3-00 
2-83 
4-28 

3-51 
1-84 

4-00 

5-35 
4-94 

3-70 


in. 

4-84 

■91 
I '45 
in 
1-51 

3-20 
4-50 
4-57 
2-89 

7-34 
4-10 

6-5' 


in. 
8-45 
3-60 
1-30 
l-8o 
3-00 
5-80 
3-40 
2-40 
5-50 
5-80 
6-50 
5-^5 


in. 

9-90 

-40 

-90 

•90 

1-50 

2-30 

3-00 

2-80 

4-70 

5-20 

4-60 

6-8o 


in. 
5-28 
3-°5 
175 
328 
3-24 
3'63 

5-49 
3-87 

8-32 
6-09 
920 
8-34 


in. 

7-49 
2-88 
2-22 
3-42 
4-29 
5-83 
5-10 
465 

S'34 
4-08 
4-52 
5-11 


in. 
2-8o 

2-00 
I-20 
I -60 

J-43 
5-42 
2-50 
1-83 

3-50 
5-00 
5-80 
2-70 


in. 

2'02 
2-20 
1-31 

l-8o 
2-52 
1-73 
3-61 
3-82 
3-30 

3-3° 
4-96 
3-60 


in. 
6-10 

1-00 
1-70 
2-30 
160 
4-10 

3-50 
2-00 

5 60 
7-90 
3-50 
290 


in. 

4-50 
1-60 
2-50 
1-30 
2-70 

2*00 

3'S° 
4-80 
3-20 
6-60 
2-10 
6'io 


in. 
5-61 
1-62 
2-13 
2-33 
770 
3-61 

3"S9 
2-47 

4-»5 
S-35 
4-«5 
275 


in. 

393 
•20 

2'52 

-83 

2-20 

2-29 

-95 
4-86 

5-47 

8-33 
4-05 
6-09 


Mav 


June 


July 


August 

September . . . 

October 

November ... 
December ... 


Totals 


48-88 


42-93 


52-80 


43-00 


61-54 


54-93 


3578 


34-17 


42-20 


40-90 


45-56 


41-72 



ON THE KAINFALL OV THK IJRITISH ISLES. 

SCOTLAND. 



101 



• 






Division XVIII. — Nokth-Westeen Counties (continiiecT). 








Eoss AND Ceomakty (continued). 






Inverness. 






Lochbroom. 


Cromarty. 


Ardross 
Castle, 
Alness. 


Oronsay. 


Barrahead. 


Ushenish, 
South Uist. 


Culloden 
House. 




Oft. 


8 in. 


3 ft. 4 in. 


1 ft. in. 


ft. 6 in. 


3 ft. 


Oin. 


ft. 4 in. 


3 ft. 


Oin. 




48 ft. 


28 ft. 


450 ft. 


15 ft. 


640 ft. 


157 ft. 


104 ft. 




1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 




in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 




59° 


6-8i 


1-99 


1-55 


3-37 


2-86 


6-16 


17-30 


5-24 


3-84 


7-82 


5-98 


2-54 


1-52 




2-12 


2-36 


•71 


•57 


3-26 


-91 


475 


76 


377 


•45 


7-22 


-90 


-52 


-82 




1-62 


!•« 


1-03 


1-02 


2-04 


1-75 


3-00 


3-40 


1-60 


1-64 


2-48 


1-71 


-84 


1-50 




2-83 


3-05 


•89 


•62 


3-34 


3-34 


4-67 


3 20 


3-62 


-60 


4.-IS 


1-23 


-92 


•87 




3-91 


2-38 


a-59 


2-28 


3-Ot; 


5-50 


6-77 


475 


1-40 


1-37 


2-73 


2-19 


3'63 


3-1 8 




566 


2-49 


4-69 


1-13 


6-35 


2-69 


6-92 


7-36 


4-07 


1-48 


3-35 


3-83 


4-94 


1-45 




i-8o 


3-54 


2-8l 


2-58 


3-I5 


4-68 


658 


6-30 


3-01 


374 


370 


6-45 


3-14 


3-50 




277 


575 


1-58 


r5b 


2-39 


4-09 


474 


10-50 


i-6i 


3'oo 


2'3S 


5-11 


2-41 


1-98 




690 


S-C7 


3-10 


4-42 


5-75 


660 


lo-co 


5-87 


5-15 


1-95 


6-54 


3-96 


376 


5"57 




772 


9-80 


3-35 


2-76 


4-83 


571 


966 


io-o6 


4-60 


3-66 


7-00 


6-85 


3'37 


2-30 




667 


5-ib 


385 


285 


6-03 


3-13 


14-96 


11-56 


3-90 


3-19 


6-61 


4-72 


4' 34 


3-i8 




3-35 


8-i6 


1-29 


2-25 


2-6 I 


353 


5-00 


19-30 


2-80 


2-91 


4-67 


4-91 


1-44 


2-51 




51-25 


56-00 


2788 


23-61 


46-21 


4479 


83-21 


100-36 


4077 


27-83 


58-62 


47-84 


31-85 


28-38 











Division XIX. — Nokthekn Counties 


(contim(ed). 






Caithness. 


Okkney. 


Shetland. 




Nosshead. 


Holburnhead. 


Pentland 
Skerries. 


Balfour 
Castle. 


Sandwick 
Manse. 


Stourliead. 


Bressay. 




3 ft. 4 in. 

127 ft. 


Oft. 4 in. 
60 ft. 


3 ft. 3 in. 

72 ft. 


ft. 6 in. 
50 ft. 


2 ft. in. 

78 ft. 




ft. 4 in. 

00 ft. 












1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 




in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 




295 


1-67 


2-60 


1-50 


3-35 


2-15 


5-30 


2-10 


4-44 


3-52 


360 


9-60 


5-96 


4-70 




'■55 


1-03 


1-60 


-5° 


1-80 


-b5 


3-10 


-10 


2-16 


1-54 


1-40 


I -00 


3-51 


1-54 




178 


1-65 


1-20 


2-40 


1-32 


2-30 


1-60 


1-90 


2-04 


220 


1-50 


3-00 


178 


3-93 




188 


171 


2-50 


i-8o 


2-81 


•20 


3-10 


-80 


2-40 


1-44 i 


-80 


2-10 


3-65 


1-79 




III 


'•43 


1-50 


2-00 


1-48 


1-97 


160 


l-io 


1-69 


1-71 1 


2-40 


3-40 


2-81 


1-83 




4-54 


1-35 


3-00 


160 


2-o8 


1-31 


4-00 


1-20 


3-52 


1-82 


1-60 


5-70 


4-20 


1-66 




2-45 


1-58 


2-40 


1-40 


2-55 


1-39 


210 


2-00 


2-60 


2-39 


3-40 


5-70 


3-07 


4-37 




2-67 


3-40 


2-10 


3-30 


2-49 


2-10 


3-10 


2-20 


3-40 


4-06 ! 


-80 


480 


4-60 


5-03 




3-22 


2-92 


4-00 


490 


2-68 


2-23 


3-40 


2-80 


3-50 


3-51! 


2-30 


3-10 


4-20 


3-33 




3-55 


5-32 


5-50 


6-40 


5-07 


378 


6-20 


6-20 


4-72 


6-561 


4-90 


4-60 


569 


4-5 > 




3-52 


392 


3-70 


4" 70 


4-54 


4-10 


510 


4-70 


5-C2 


4-69 1 


4-70 


3-60 


4-39 


2-57 




3-61 


2-49 


S-io 


3-40 


3*97 


3-32 


6-20 


4-20 


4-41 


4-29 1 


5-20 


6-40 


5-22 


5-23 




32-83 


28-47 


35-20 


33-9° 


34-14 


25-50 


44-80 


29-30 


39-9° 


3773 


32-60 


53-00 


49-08 


40-49 



102 



REPORT 1874. 

IRELAND. 



Division XX. — Mttnstek. 



COKK. 



Height of 

Eain-gauge 

above 

Ground 

Sea-level 

January .... 
February . 
March .... 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August .... 
September . 

October 

November . 
December . 

Totals .... 



Cork, 
Queen's 
College. 



6 ft. in. 
65 ft. 



1872. 1873, 



in. 
7*26 
5-32 
3-80 
i"ii 
1-50 

3'5i 
6-94 
683 
3-16 
5-27 
6*27 
10-59 



61-57 



in. 

9-70 
1-46 
4-85 
1-98 

1*47 
2-43 

3 '4° 
3-24 
2-8o 
2-17 
2-52 
•77 



3679 



Fermoy. 



4 ft. in. 
114 ft. 



1872. 1873 



in. 

4'94 
5-II 

3-51 
1-26 
1-30 
2-68 
4"S4 

4-59 
2-26 
3-15 
4-89 
8-37 



46-60 



7 '47 
2*24 

3-83 
1-80 

I-2I 

J"54 
2-96 
3-85 
2-22 
3-04 
2-07 
■87 



33-10 



Kerry. 



Darrynane. 



1 ft. 1 in. 
12 ft. 



1872. 1873 



m. 
7-81 
5-62 
4-67 
1-72 
2-45 
5-27 
5-72 

5-38 
5'04 
8-11 
6-50 
8-73 



67-02 



in. 
779 

4'49 
4-65 
2-26 

3'o3 
2-99 
6-07 

5-95 
6-59 
6-95 
4-41 
1-86 



57-04 



Watekford. 


Waterford. 


4 ft. 6 in. 


60 ft. 


1872. 


1873. 


in. 


in. 


694 


8-01 


5-5* 


2-92 


5-46 


3-87 


3-04 


1-02 


1-4 1 


1-36 


3-20 


1-44 


2-76 


373 


4-25 


600 


3-20 


3'39 


3-30 


4-19 


6-24 


3-17 


11 -08 


ri6 


56-40 


40-26 



Clare. 



Killaloe. 



Div.XXI.— 
Leinster 



Carlow. 



Fenagh 
House, 

Bagnalstowii. 



5 ft. 


Oin. 


1ft. 


Oin. 


123 ft. 


340 ft. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


644 


7-72 


5-22 


4-95 


4-59 


2-01 


4-96 


1-44 


292 


3-98 


3-21 


2-99 


2*46 


2-71 


2-76 


-87 


2-44 


3-09 


1-78 


2'20 


473 


2-91 


4-39 


i-i8 


1-88 


4-18 


2-09 


3-49 


5-01 


861 


5-40 


609 


4'S9 


5-2b 


3-41 


2-48 


5-70 


b-S? 


rub 


3'35 


5"5i 


3-i8 


5-48 


2-16 


6-78 


2-51 


966 


-80 


53-05 


5^73 


51-92 


32-00 



Division XXII, — Connattght (continued). 


Division XXTII. — Ulstee. 




Roscommon. 


Mayo. 


Sligo. 


Cavan. 


1 
Enkiskillen. 


Antrim. 




Height of 

Kaiu-gauge 

above 

Ground 

Sea-level 


Holywell. 


Doo Castle. 


Mount 

Shannon, 

Sligo. 


Eed Hills, 
Belturbet. 


Florence 
Court. 


Aghalee, 
Lurgau. 




5 ft. in. 


1 ft. in. 


4 ft. 5 in. 
70 ft. 


ft. 9 in. 

208 ft. 


1 ft. 11 in. 
250 ft. 


1 ft. in. 
106 ft. 










1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 




January 

February . . . 
March 


iu. 
5-31 

2-27 

2-66 

•56 
2-57 

3-48 

1-75 
4-02 
5-II 
5-68 

4-33 
5-22 


iu. 

3-°9 
1-18 

2-99 
-99 

2-IO 
1-69 
5-00 
2-99 
2-62 
4-90 
I -20 
I'OO 


in. 
6-44 
3-60 
4-70 
i-i6 
2-43 
3-96 

2-15 

4-28 
6-96 

6-33 
5-82 

5-03 


in. 
5-01 
1-02 
2-83 
1-29 
2-45 
1-39 
4-23 

5-35 
2-42 
4-81 
1-86 
.•63 


in. 
5-91 

3-83 
3-01 
2-o8 
2-29 

6-15 

I-8I 

3'79 
7-17 
6-97 
5-33 
5 '49 


in. 
616 

■79 
2-53 

1-43 
2-37 
1-60 

3-8^ 
7 -02 
2-38 
7-03 
2-29 
i-i6 


in. 
5-67 
3-16 
2-31 
2-30 
1-94 
4-04 
1-50 
3-25 

5-5° 
4'57 
3-73 
5-30 


in. 

5-29 

-80 

2-45 

1-41 

1-74 
1-42 

3-73 
5-62 
3-20 
2-77 
2-05 
1-13 


in. 

9-17 
4-50 
362 
1-56 

3-40 
5-17 

1-74 
6-51 
6-63 
5-11 
5-90 
769 


in. 
9-92 
-95 

2-02 

112 

1-32 

1-39 

4-43 
7-20 

3-03 

3-91 
2-6i 
2-36 


in. 

5-05 

3-31 
2-6i 

3-54 
3-15 
3-98 
2-43 
3-40 

4-59 
4-58 

4-13 

6-02 


in. 

3-9° 

•66 

211 

-62 
1-78 
1-97 
7-17 

4-95 
2-91 
2-77 
235 

75 




May 




June 




July 




August 

September ... 

October 

November ... 
December ... 




Totals 


42-96 


29-75 


52-86 


34-29 


53-83 


38-58 


43-07 


31-61 


61-00 


40-26 


4679 


31-94 

































ON THE RAINFALL OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 

IRELAND. 



103 



1 

Division XXI. — Leinstee (continued). 


Division XXII.— 

CoNNAXTGnX. 


Carlow 


King 


sCo. 




WiCKLOW. 


Dublin. 




Gamvay. 


(continued). 


















1 


Brown's HiU, 
Carlow. 


Portarlington. 


Tullamore. 


Fassaroe, 
Bray. 


Black Eock. 


Gregg 


Park. 


Galway, 
Queen's i 
College. 


1ft. Oin. 


1 ft. 2 in. 


3 ft. 


Oin. 


5 ft. in. 


29 ft. 


Oin. 


3 ft. 


Oin. 


9 ft. in. 


291 ft. 


240 ft. 


235 ft. 


250 ft. 


90 ft. 


130 ft. 


30 ft. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


4'43 


4-92 


2-63 


4-32 


3-45 


5-22 


4'97 


4-37 


3-74 


371 


5-64 


7-06 


6-63 


7-13 


4-61 


■88 


3-12 


•49 


2-41 


-82 


4'97 


i'35 


3-91 


-50 


3-bi 


rb4 


3-93 


1-51 


2-84 


3-i6 


2-44 


3-24 


2-1 1 


3"49 


2-88 


3-24 


2-41 


2-78 


1-85 


2-95 


2-72 


313 


2-57 


1-26 


2-33 


214 


2-IO 


2-19 


3-25 


•S3 


3-02 


•»5 


i-6o 


2-16 


1-70 


3-22 


I 46 


2'12 


1-92 


1-78 


1-87 


1-72 


2-48 


-84 


1-97 


•81 


3-24 


2-41 


2-30 


2-40 


3-32 


I'lO 


321 


1-47 


3'99 


1-12 


3-25 


1-04 


2-92 


•45 


4'43 


2-23 


6-09 


3-54 


2-40 


3-29 


262 


3-17 


2-14 


3-96 


1-40 


3-13 


1-12 


4-42 


2-31 


5-14 


2-80 


6-47 


4-89 


b-SS 


3-b, 


4-33 


3-51 


4-22 


379 


4-18 


4-31 


388 


3-39 


5-40 


5-25 


6-28 


3'6o 


2-28 


2-59 


1-76 


2-51 


2'55 


3-13 


2-46 


2-68 


2-32 


3-5b 


3-21 


6-90 


4-14 


4-04 


3-19 


4-22 


3S« 


.3-«S 


4-62 


5-04 


3-28 


4-23 


2-41 


4-48 


5-32 


6-45 


5^5° 


495 


1-55 


3'39 


2-13 


3-59 


2-30 


b-^l 


2-77 


5-19 


2-33 


4-18 


1-94 


5-77 


2-92 


8-i8 


•93 


564 


1*09 


4-15 


•91 


8-83 


•55 


6-82 


•50 


5-88 


1-28 


5-83 


1-84 


47-29 


31-01 


377^ 


29-50 


35-68 


33-12 


50-50 


^T74- 


42-32 


2496 


44' 1 7 


40-74 


56-37 


48-08 





Division XXIII.— 


-UxsTEE (continued). 










Antrim (contimied). 


Londonderry. 


Tyrone. 


Donegal. 


Antrim. 


Belfast, 
Queen's 
College. 


Monedig, 
Garvagh. 


Londonderry. 


Omagh. 


Dungloe. 


Moville. 


1 ft. in. 


7 ft. 4 in. 


1 ft. in. 


Oft. 


3 in. 


1 ft. in. 


Oft. 


6 in. 


4 i't. 


Oin. 


150 ft. 


68 ft. 


120 ft. 


80 ft. 


275 ft. 


10 ft. 


100 ft. 1 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


1872. 


1873. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


4-18 


3^73 


4-26 


3^58 


6-58 


4-56 


6-02 


5-20 


5-65 


4-69 


826 


6co 


669 


411 


3''4 


•54 


3-55 


76 


3^39 


1-29 


3-05 


-86 


365 


•77 


377 


.■«3 


2-79 


1-45 


3-27 


1-87 


1-79 


2-23 


3-i6 


2-29 


3-25 


2-62 


2-0O 


2-01 


3-40 


2-71 


3-68 


2-38 


3^83 


•So 


2-59 


•33 


3 '44 


-81 


2-70 


•75 


2-49 


-5b 


1-41 


1-30 


4-10 


'T 


2-15 


1-92 


2-60 


2-12 


3 '44 


2-6i 


2-90 


2-10 


1-90 


2-3b 


2-79 


3-32 


3-6 


3-67 


3-70 


1-67 


4-«7 


i-8i 


4-78 


1-61 


3-65 


2-20 


5'27 


2-14 


5-60 


21S 


4-77 


1-62 


r6i 


6-58 


3^05 


S-io 


2-o8 


4-82 


1-25 


5-04 


150 


4'43 


III 


5-04 


2-39 


4-60 


4-05 


5-41 


3-25 


5-63 


4-50 


5-73 


4-15 


6-50 


3-05 


b-15 


^.•63 


7-02 


477 


5-90 


4*47 


1-92 


4-28 


2-44 


6*90 


3-61 


4-90 


375 


b-71 


4^13 


7-b5 


4-15 


928 


4-59 


4-98 


3'93 


5-10 


3^97 


595 


4-58 


4-30 


5-9° 


4"47 


4-00 


5-05 


7-48 


5-30 


7-30 


2-74 


2-65 


4^53 


^•55 


5-27 


2-02 


4-30 


2-40 


5-30 


209 


5-02 


3-85 


6-68 


2-68 


4-48 


1-04 


529 


•61 


5-01 


2-03 


3-20 


2-75 


4-20 


i'S5 


4-08 


3-33 


3-80 


2-99 


4260 


32-06 


44-46 


3113 


55-00 


35-96 


43*67 


40-07 


46-19 


34-88 


52-77 


47-21 


57-51 


42-19 



104 



REPORT — 1874. 



EXAMINATION OF 









IS72. 
480.1 Dec. 4. 



COUNTY. 

Station. 
OWNEE. 

Observer, 



a 
o . 

O O 

a 



48 1. 



482. 



484. 



485. 



Dec. 4. 



Dec. 5. 



1873, 
July 13. 



July 13. 



Aug. 14. 



486. 



487, 



488 



489. 



49° 



Aug. 15, 



Aug. 15. 



Aug. 15. 



Sept. 29. 



Sept. 29. 



OXFOEDSHIEE. 

Banbury, Parson Street. 

J. JARVIS, ESQ. 

J. Jar vis, Esq. 

OXFORDSHIRE. 

Banbury, Parson Street. 

J. JAB VIS, ESQ. 

J. Jarvis, Esq. 

HERTFORDSHIRE. 

Rothamsted. 

J. B. LAWES, ESQ., F.R.8. 



KENT. 

Harefield, Selling. 

E. NEAME, ESQ. 

E. Neamc, Esq. 

KENT. 

Sheldwich Vicarage. 

EEV. B. S. M ALLEN. 

Bev. B. S. Maiden. 

SUSSEX. 

Crowborough Beacon Observatory. 

C. L. PRINCE, ESQ. 

C. L. Prince, Esq. 

SUSSEX. 

Uckfield Observatory. 

C. L. PBINCE, ESQ. 

C. L. Prince, Esq. 

SUSSEX. 

The Grange, Framfield. 

CAPT. DRAKE. 

Copt. DraJce. 

SUSSEX. 

Buxted Park. 

COL. HABCOUBT. 

Mr. J. Edmcads. 

WESTMORELAND. 

Mardale Green. 

BBITISH ASSOCIATION. 

Mr. Hcbson. 

WESTMORELAND. 

Measandbecks, Haweswater. 

BBITISH ASSOCIATION. 

Mr. J. Bigg. 



n. 



IL 



XL 



XII. 



in. 



VI. 



VI. 



Maker's name. 



o ^ 



Height of 
gauge. 



Above 
ground. 



ft. in. 

9 a.m. 4 6 



Above 
sea- 
level. 



Casella 



Casella 



9 a.m. 
and 
4.30 
p.m. 

9 a.m. 



9 a.m. 



9 a.m. 



4 o 



feet. 
350 



350 



2 o 420 



2 6 



Negretti & 2>ambra 



Negretti & Zambra 



6 o 



9 a.m. 6 3 



Casella 



Casella 



I 2 



I o 



I o 



9 a.m. 



9 a.m. 

ist of 

month 



9 a.m. I 2 

1st of 
month. 



217 



259 



777 



149 



185 



193 



800 



1200 



ON THE RAINFALL OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 



105 



BAIN-GAUGES (continued from Brit. Assoc. Rep. 1873, p. 303). 



m y^ 


' Equivalents of 


Error at 


Azimuth and an- 




a> . 




water. 


scale-point 


gular elevation of 




t. 
(3 « 


.a^g II 






specified in 


objects above 


Eemarks on position &c. 


fe-e 






Scale- 


Groins. 


previous 


mouth of rain- 




S« 


fi ^ 


point. 




column. 


gauge. 




P5 


in. 


in. 




in. 








9-92 
io'o6 


'I 


1760 
3523 


-4-.012 




In garden in centre of town, fair 
exposure. 


480. 


-2 


-f-024 






10'02 


■3 


5^83 


+ •037 








992 


•4 


7045 


+ .049 








M 9-980 


■5 


8805 


+ -061 








10-10 
10-15 


• T 


1980 

3954 


+ •002 
+ •003 




Close to 480. 


481. 


-2 




^*' 


10-00 


•3 


5930 


+ -00 5 








10-03 


■4 


7908 


+ -OO7 








Mio-070 


•5 


9885 


+ -009 








4-93 
4-98 










Gauge in large experimental field. 
Measuring-glass not accessible; 


482. 












4-98 










said to have been verified in the 




5-01 










laboratory. 




M 4-975 














5-02 


•1 


495 


correct. 


S. Tree, 46°. 


Position not good, but no better 


483. 


4-98 


-2 


990 


correct. 


S.E. „ 35°. 


available for daily observations. 




4'99 


■3 


1470 


+ -C03 




Establishment of a monthly 




5-01 


•4 


1970 


+ -003 




gauge at a little distance sug- 




M 5-0CO 


-5 


2450 


4--C06 




gested. 




5-00 
4'95 


I 

•2 


490 
980 


-t--coi 
+ ■002 




All clear, S.E. of church and 
within 100 yards of it. 


484. 




5-09 


■3 


1470 


-1--002 








4-92 


■4 


1970 


+ •001 








M 4-990 


•5 


2470 


correct. 








11-20 
iiz8 


■ J 


2265 
4550 


+ -OIO 




This gauge not in use, being con- 
sidered incorrect. 


485. 


-2 


+•019 






11-32 


•3 


6825 


+ •028 








11-22 


•4 


9100 


+ -038 








Mii-255 


•5 


11375 


+■047 








11-28 

II'2I 




2450 
4940 


+-002 
+ -002 


N.W.Chestnut,25° 
S.E. Apple, 24°. 




486. 


* 1 

-2 




11-23 


•3 


7300 


+■008 








11-19 


•4 


9720 


4-011 








Ml 1-228 














7-88 


I 


1280 


— -001 


W.N.W.Tree,15°. 


On lawn ; no better position avail- 


487. 


8-13 


-2 


2500 


+-00 3 


N.W.-N.N.W.Ho.45° 


able. 




7-96 


■3 


3790 


-|--ooi 


N. Trees, 30°. 






8 -02 


•4 


5100 


— -002 








M 7-998 


-5 


6330 


-4- -00 1 








8-04 


-I 


1360 


— -007 


S.W. Tree, 48°. 


Gauge to be moved further north- 


488. 


8-03 


-2 


2550 


— -001 


N.E. Fir, 31°. 


wards ; on lawn N. of house. 




8-00 


•3 


3800 


correct. 








7-92 


■4 


5040 


+•003 








M 7-998 


•5 


6250 


+•007 








8-00 
7-98 
8-03 








E.S.E. Hill, 31°. 
S.S.E. Firs, 36°. 


Else clear. Bod and gauge correct. 


489. 














800 














M 8-002 














7-92 
8-07 
800 
7-98 










The gauge was moved two years 
ago ; rod correct and gauge true. 


490. 
























M 7-993 














1 















lOG 



REPORT — 1874. 



EXAMINATION OF 






rt 



-2 S 



COUNTY. 

Station. 

OWNER. 

Observer. 



a 

o . 

• rt a 

o 60 

'*-> bo 

o o 



Maker's name. 



<D.S 



Height of 
gauge. 



Above 
ground 



491. 



492 



493 



494 



495- 



496. 



497' 



498. 



499' 



500. 



501, 



1873. 
Sept. 30. 



Sept. 30, 



Oct. 3 



Oct. 



Oct. 4, 



Oct. 4. 



Oct. 9. 



Oct. II, 



Oct. 13. 



Oct. 20, 



WESTMOEELAND. 

Crosby Ravensworth. 

liEV. G. F. WESTON. 

Rev. G. F. Weston. 

WESTMORELAND. 

Eeagill. 

MR. W. WILKINSON. 

Mr. W. Wilkinson. 

WESTMORELAND. 

Bels field, Windermere. 1 

H. W. SCHNEIDER, ESQ. 

Mr. Chaplin. 

LANCASHIRE. 

Backbarrow, Cartmell. 

MAJOR AIN8W0RTH. 



LANCASHIRE. 

Lanehead, Coniston. 

R. T. BY WATER, ESQ. 

R. T. Bywater, Esq. 

LANCASHIRE. 

Lanehead, Coniston. 

R. T. BYWATER, ESQ. 

R. T. Bywater, Esq. 

WESTMORELAND. 

Greeuside Mines. 

MR. TAYLOR. 

Mr. Taylor. 

CUMBERLAND. 

Barrow House. 

S. Z. LANGTON, ESQ. 



CUMBERLAND. 

Brow Top, Keswick. 

W. SHERWIN, ESQ. 

Mr. J. Barker. 

CUMBERLAND. 

Shu-le-Crow, Keswick. 

H. DAWSON, ESQ. 

H. Dawson, Esq. 

CUMBERLAND. 

The Stye. 

ISAAC FLETCHER, ESQ., M.P. 

Mr. J. Wilson. 



X. 



Baker 



ft. in. 
I o 



X. Baker 



XII. 



IV. 



XI. 



X. 



X. 



III. 



IV. 



Casella 



9 a.m. 



9 a.m. 



Hartley , 



Negretti &Zambra 



Negretti &Zambra 



Casella 



Negretti &Zambra 



Cook 



Chadbum 



Cook 



9 a.m. 



1st of 
month. 



9 a.m. 



8 a.m. 



9 a.m 



istof 
month. 



4 6 160 



3 2 



I o 



I o 



o 8 



3 o 



I o 



ON THE RAINFALL OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 



107 



UAIN-GAUGES (continued). 



2 Ha 
^ ^ b ^ 



M 



M 



M 



7-92 
8-00 
802 
8-00 

7-985 

7-98 

8-00 

8-00 

800 

7995 

5'oo 

S'oo 

5'oo 

5"oo 

5'ooo 

I2'I0 

12-05 
1205 
ii'go 

Ml2'025 

4-98 
5-00 

5 '02 
5-04 

5'oio 
7-98 

8-02 

8-03 

T97 
8'ooo 
7'oo 
6-99 

7'02 

7'oo 

7'0O2 

798 

8-02 

7-98 

802 

S'ooo 
5'°i 
5-05 
5-01 

5-°5 
5-030 

I2-00 
12-0O 

11-99 
12-OI 

Mi2-coo 

4-00 
4-00 

399 

4-01 
4-000 



M 



M 



M 



M 



M 



M 



Equivalents of 
water. 



Scale- 
point. 



in. 

•I 

•2 

•3 

•4 

•5 

-I 

•2 

•3 

•4 

•5 

-I 

•2 

•3 

■4 

•s 

-082 
-110 
•138 



■I 

-2 
•3 
■4 
•5 
-I 
•2 
-372 

•f 



-2 
•3 
•4 

•5 

•I 

-2 

•3 

•4 

•5 

•I 

-2 

•3 

■4 

•5 

■09 

•19 

•295 

-406 

•51 



Grains. 



1250 
2550 
3780 
5030 
6300 
1310 
1550 
3780 
5100 
6340 

500 
1000 
1490 
2000 
2470 

780 
1650 
2570 



490 
990 
1470 
i960 
2470 
1290 
2560 
4730 
6250 

1090 
2000 
3000 
3900 
4900 
1260 
2540 
3800 
5048 
6300 
490 
970 
1480 
1980 
2470 
3000 
6000 
9000 
I2C00 
15000 



Error at 

scale-point 

specified in 

previous 

column. 



in. 

+•001 

— -002 
+-001 
+-C02 
+-002 
— -003 

— -ooi 
+ -002 

— -002 
correct. 

— -001 
— -002 
— -001 

— -003 
+ •002 
+ -056 
+ •052 
+ ■047 



+ -C02 

4-' 001 

-f-005 

-|-'oo6 
+-004 
— -002 
— -002 
— -001 
--008 

— -012 

— •006 
— -008 

— •001 

— •003 
+-00 1 
correct. 

+-00 1 
+-002 
+ •004 
-(--002 
+ -007 
4- -co; 

+ ■005 
4- -008 
--015 
— -020 

— -020 
— -014 
--015 



Azimuth and an- 
gular elevation of 

objects above 
mouth of rain- 
gauge. 



S.E. Stables, 28°. 
W.N.W. Belt of 
trees, 25°, 



S. House, 20°. 



E. Fir, 54°. 
S. „ 34°. 
W. „ 0°. 
N.W. Trees, 68°. 
N. House, 10°. 



E. Shrubbery,53° 
S. Oak, 48°. 



Bemarka on position &c. 



S.E. of church ; gauge in garden, 
clear except as noted. 



In field, quite clear except as 
noted. 



In gardens, quite clear. 



In garden, very much shut in by 
trees. Gauge out of order, and 
believed to have been subse- 
quently abandoned. 

Quite open, on lawn. 



Close to 495. 



On N. slope of valley, but near its 
bottom ; unsheltered except by 
the ground, which runs up at 
perhaps 45° to between 1500 
and 2000 feet. 

Position not good, but no better 
available near the house. 



Clear ; on N. corner of lawn. 



In garden on bank of Derwcnt, 
quite clear. 



Mea.suriug-glass not accessible. 
Gauge concealed among rocks 
6n the eastern slope of the Stye 
Head Pass. 






108 



REPORT — 1874. 



EXAMINATION OF 






? e 
« *= 



502. 



503, 



504, 



505 






1873. 

Oct. 22. 



Oct. 23 



Oct. 24 



Oct. 24 



COUNTY. 

Station. 
OWNER. 
Observer. 



506. Oct. 25 



507. 



508. 



509 



510, 



511 



512 



Oct. 25 



Not. 1 



1874. 
Mar. 31. 



Mar. 31 



Mar. 31 



Apr. I 



CUMBERLAND. 

Deer Close, Keswick. 

H. a MARSHALL, ESQ. 

YORKSHIRE. 

Moorside, Halifax. 

L. J. CROSSLEY, ESQ. 

Mr. Page. 

YORKSHIRE. 

Settle. 



YORKSHIRE. 

LangclifTe, Settle. 

MISS SEDGWICK. 

Miss Sedgwick. 

YORKSHIRE. 

Cherrj' Hill, York. 
H. RICHARDSON, ESQ. 



YORKSHIRE. 

Cherry Hill, York. Second gauge. 

H. RICHARDSON, ESQ. 

H. Richardson, Esq. 

NOTTINGHAM. 

Southwell. 

W. W. P. CLAY, ESQ. 

W. W. P. Clay, Esq. 

YORKSHIRE. 

Penistone. 
M. S. 4- L. R. Co. 



YORKSHIRE. 

Carlcotes. 
M. S. ^ L. R. Co. 



YORKSHIRE. 

Diinford Bridge Reservoir. 

DEWSBURY WATER Co. 

Mr. G. Whitfield. 

YORKSHIRE. 

Dunford Bridge Station. 

M. S. ^ L. R. Co. 



c 
o . 

= 2 

u d 

C *« 
o o 
O 



XII. 



III. 



III. 



III. 



III. 



VIII. 



VIII. 



n. 



VIII. 



Maker's name. 



Casella 



Negretli &Zambra 



o ^ 

H 2 



9 a.m. 



9 a.m. 



Davis , 



Casartelli 



Casartelli 



Casartelli 



9 a.m. 



9 a.ui, 



Height 
of gauge. 



Above 
ground. 



8a.m 



9 a.m. 



9 a.m. 



ft. in. 
J 8 



I o 



8 o 



I 6 



I 6 



z II 



3 6 



954 







ON THE RAINFALL OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 109 




RAIN-GAUGES 


(continued). 






Diameters 

(that 

marked 

M=mean). 


Equivalents of 
water. 


Error at 

scale-point 

specified in 

previous 

column. 


Azimuth and an- 
gular elevation of 
objects above 
mouth of rain- 
gauge. 


Remarks on position &c. 




a 
502. 

503- 
504. 
505. 


Scale- 
point. 


Grains. 


in. 
6-96 

7-00 
6-95 
7-00 
M 6-978 
8-04 
7-90 
8-03 
7-96 

M 7-983 
500 
5-00 
5-0 1 
5-01 

M 5-005 
8-00 
8-02 
8-00 


in. 
-I 

•2 
•3 
•4 

•s 

•I 

-2 

■3 
•4 

•5 
-I 

•3 
•5 

•I 

-2 
•3 


970 
i960 
2940 
3880 

485s 
1260 

2520 
3800 
5040 
6260 
496 
1490 
2450 

1255 
2520 
3S00 


in. 
correct. 

— -002; 
-•004 
— -002 
— -002 
-f-ooi 

+ '002 
— •002 
+ •003 
+ -0I2 

correct, 
correct. 
-|--oo6 

+•003 
+•004 

-|-'002 


N.E. House, 32°. 


Good position in front of house. 
Set on a large stone, which had 
sunk towards S.W. : requested 
that it might be rendered level. 
On edge of lawn, quite clear. 




On a bracket from west eaves of 
cottage. Gauge was tipping one 
inch to the west. Believed to 
belong to contractor of Settle 
and Carlisle Railway. 

Gauge in dwarf stump. Good po- 
sition in garden. 


N. House, 22°. 
S.E.Labumum,16° 
W. Tree, 13°. 


7-98 
M 8 -OOO 
4-96 
5-02 

4-94 
5-OI 
M 4-983 
502 
5-07 
5-00 

M 5-035 
6-05 
6-00 
6-05 
6-05 

M 6-037 
8-50 
848 
8-58 
8-42 

M 8-495 
8-70 
8-48 
8-43 


■4 

•5 

-1 

-2 

•3 

•4 

■5 

-I 

-2 

•3 

•4 

•5 

.05 

•I 

-2 

■3 
•4 
-I 
•2 
•3 
•4 
■5 


5100 

6310 

450 

948 

I415 

1915 

2400 

450 

948 

141 5 

1915 

2400 

440 

880 

1750 

2630 

3500 

1280 

2600 

3860 

5270 

6580 


— •004 
-f-007 
-f-008 
-f-007 

-f -012 
•f -OH 
+ •012 
+ -OII 
+ -OI2 
+ -OI9 
+ -OI9 
+ •023 

— on 

— ■022 
-•042 
— -064 
— -098 
-I--012 
+-017 
+-030 
+-032 
+ •043 


W. Tree, 58°. 
S. „ 38°. 
E. „ 50°. 
N. „ 30°. 


In garden, too much sheltered by 
trees ; b3tter spot selected. 

Close to 506. 

The measure supplied with the gauge 
was broken shortly after, and a me- 
morandum was made previously that 
0-2-3 in. in measure = 5 oz. in the 
large graduated measure, which holds 
8 oz. The memorandum probably 
should have been that 026 in. =4 oz., 
instead of 5 oz., a most serious error. 

E.N.E. of church, in the yard of 
the old station. 

Grauge not firmly fixed. 


506. 
507. 
508. 

509- 
510. 








•1 
-2 


1510 

3020 


— -005 
— -010 




8-42 
M 8-507 
1 1-92 

12-02 
I2-00 


•3 
•394 


4290 

5740 


+ -001 
— -006 




Same gauge and in same position 
as when visited April &th, 1869. 
See No. 299. 


511. 










11-93 

Mil 968 
8-45 

8-55 
8-42 

860 
M 8-505 


-I 

-2 
■3 
■4 
•45 


1450 
2790 
4300 
5780 
6450 


^•00 1 

+ -005 
correct. 
— -003 
correct. 




Since previous testing (No. 19 3) a 
new glass has been provided, 
and the funnel either bent or 
renewed. 


512. 




1 















110 



KEPORT 187 4i 



EXAMINATION OF 



MB 



sa 

-S 9 

l~1 TO 



COUNTY. 

Station. 
OWNER. 
Observer. 



a 
o 

'■3 o 

3 3 

o o 
O 



Maker's name. 



.§1 



Height 
of gauge. 



Above 
ground. 



5'3- 



514. 



S^S- 



S16. 



517. 



S18 



S19 



•520 



521 



522 



523, 



1874. 
Api\ I, 



Apr. I. 



Apr. 



June 16. 



June 16. 



June 16. 



June 16. 



June 16 



June 17. 



June 17 



June 17 



YOEKSHIEE. 

Border Hill, Swindeu. 

WAKEFIELD NEW WATER Co. 



YOEKSHIRE. 

Swinden Lodge. 
WAKEFIELD NEW WATER Co. 



YOEKSHIEE. 

Laugsett. 

WAKEFIELD NEW WATER Co. 



YOEKSHIEE. 

Gibbet, Halifax. 

HALIFAX CORPORATION. 

J. E. Lambert, Esq. 

YOEKSHIEE. 

Victoria Eeservoir, Halifax. 

HALIFAX CORPORATION. 

Mr. G. Moore. 

YOEKSHIEE. 

Eamsden Wood, Halifax. 

HALIFAX CORPORATION. 

Mr. E. Demiia. 

YOEKSHIEE. 

Ogden Eeservoir, Halifax. 

HALIFAX CORPORATION. 

Mr. John Smith. 

Y'OEKSHIEE. 

Stansfield Hall, Todmorden. 

J. FIELDEN, ESQ., M.P. 

Mr. W. Fieldc7i. 

YOEKSHIEE. 

Walshaw Dean. 

HALIFAX CORPORATION. 

J. Midgelcy. 

Y'OEKSHIEB. 

Midgeley Moor. 

HALIFAX CORPORATION. 

Mr. N. Greenwood, 

Y'OEKSHIEE. 

Warley Moor. 
HALIFAX CORPORATION. 

Mr. N. Greenwood. 



III. 



III. 



III. 



XII. 



XII. 



X. 



X. 



I. 



Negretti & Zambra 



Negretti &Zambra 



Negretti & Zambra 



Guest & Chrimes 



Guest & Chrimes 



Negretti & Zambra 



ft. in. 



9 a.m. 



8 a.m. 



I I 



Negretti & Zambra 



9 a.ni, 



9 a.m. 



9 a.m, 



9 a.m, 



9 a.m 



Mon- 
days 
and 
1st of 

month. 
Mon- 
days 
and 
ist of 

month. 
Mon- 
days 
and 
ist of 

month. 



5 o 



I a 



I 3 



o 3 



o 6 



o 6 



ON THE RAINFALL OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 



Ill 



RAIN-GAUGES (continued). 



« ^ « OS 



in. 



M 



5-04 
5-04 
5-04 
5-04 
5-040 



4-98 

5 'CO 

4'97 

S"oi 

4-990 

5-00 
5-00 
5-00 
4-98 

4"995 

7-96 

8-01 

804 

8-00 

8-005 

80a 

8-00 

7-98 

8-03 

8-007 

798 

8-05 

7-92 

8-IO 

8-OI2 

808 
8-10 
8-10 
800 
807 
676 
6-97 
6-86 
6-96 

M 6-888 
7-12 
706 
7-00 
7-00 

M 7-C45 



M 



M 



M 



M 



M 



M 



Equivalents of 
water. 



Scale- 
point, 



•I 
-2 
•3 

■4 

•s 



•1 

-2 
•3 
■4 

■5 
-I 
•2 
•3 
•4 
•5 
•I 
•2 
'3 
•4 
•5 
.1 
-2 
•3 
■39 

'I 

-2 

■3 
•4 



Grains, 



49° 
1020 
1500 
2000 
2500 



49° 
960 

1450 

1948 

2450 

460 

950 

1450 

1950 

243 s 
1275, 
2550 
3820 
5040 
6320 
1280 
2520 

375° 
4900 

1320 
2590 
3760 
505° 



Error at 

scale-point 

specified in 

previous 

column. 



4- -00 3 

— •002 
+-002 
+■003 
+-004 



+ -00 1 
+-006 
+ -006 
+•005 
4- -004 
-f-007 
+•008 
4- -007 
+-006 
+-008 
correct, 
— -001 

— •001 
4- -00 3 
4- -003 

— •001 
4- -002 
4--0O5 
4- -005 

— •004 

— -003 
4- -005 
4--003 



correct. 



Azimuth and an- 
gular elevation of 
objects above 
mouth of rain- 
gauge. 



N.W.-N.E. Wall, 
40°. 



S.' House, 33°. 
S.\V. House, 52°. 
N. Buildings, 12°. 
W. Buildings, 25° 



S. House, 33°. 
W.Reservoirbank 



Remarks on position &c. 



Site only of gauge inspected, the 
gauge having been broken and 
removed. Very open tableland, 
good position. 

Rim of gauge rather flat. Gauge 
well exposed in open field. 



Site only inspected, wliich was ex- 
tremely bad, a mere shelf-like 
path on the northern side of a 
gorge. 

Gauge erected on the base of the 
old Gibbet; site had, but no 
better available. 



Very open position on side of re- 
servoir. 



Clear except as noted. 



Very open position. 



In garden, quite unsheltered. 
Gauge old, and measuring-glass 
broken off at -41. 



Gauge sunk in a box which was 
nearly level with the rim ; put 
in sods to raise it 2 in. above 
the wood. Site quite open, and 
gauge correct. 

Gauge correct, and site very good. 



On open moor. 



113 



REPORT — 1874. 



EXAMINATION OF 



'-' a 



a 

O -13 



5*4- 



5*5- 



526. 



527, 



528. 



5*9 



530, 



53' 



1874. 
June 17. 



July 3 c 



July 30. 



July 30 



July 30. 



July 31. 



July 31 



July 31. 



532. July 31. 



533 



534 



Aug. 1 



Aug. 1 



COUNTY. 

Station. 
OWNER. 
Observer. 



YOEKSHIRE. 

Ovenden Moor. 

HALIFAX CORPORATION. 

Mr. N. Greenwood. 

HAMPSHIRE. 

Ashdell, Alton. 

F. CROWLEY, ESQ. 

F. Crowley, Esq. 

HAMPSHIRE. 

East Tisted Rectory, Alton. 

REF. F. HOWLETT. 

Rev. F. Howlett. 

HAMPSHIRE. 

The Wakes, Selborne. 

T. BELL, ESQ., F.R.S. 

Mr. W. Binnie. 

HAMPSHIRE. 

Chawton House, Alton. 

MR. FRANCES. 

Mr. Frances. 

HAMPSHIRE. 

Wester Court, Alresford. 

T. P. MAY, ESQ. 

T. P. May, Esq. 

HAMPSHIRE. 

Arle Bury, Alresford. 

F. MARX, ESQ. 

Mr. Kinffe. 

HAMPSHIRE. 

Otterbourn, Winchester. 

J. B. YONGE, ESQ. 

J. B. Yonge, Esq. 

HAMPSHIRE. 

Otterbourne, Winchester. 

J. B. YONGE, ESQ. 



HAMPSHIRE. 

Red Lodge, Southampton. 

R. C. HANKINSON, ESQ. 

R. C. HanJcinson, Esq. 

HAMPSHIRE. 
Red Lodge, Southampton. 

(Plantation Gauge.) 
R. C. HANKINSON, ESQ. 

R. C. Hankmson, Esq. 



c 

o . 

U S3 

o o 



Maker's name. 



in. 



Square 
V. 



III. 



X. 



in. 



xn. 



III. 



XII. 



III. 



Smith & Beck 



Casella 






Mon- 
days 
and 

ist of 

month. 

9 a.m. 



Height of 
gauge- 



Above 
ground. 



Anon. 



Casella 



Negrctti &Zambra 



Casella 



Casella 



Casella 



Casella 



9 a.m. 



9 a.m. 



9 a.m 



9 a.m 



ft. in. 
o 6 



3 3 



» 3 



4 7 



Above 
sea- 
level. 



I 4 



Davi: 



9 a.m. 



9 a.m. 



J 3 



o 5 



4 o 



194 



ON THE RAINFALL OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 

RAIN-GAUGES (continued). 



113 



.2^S II 
ft S 



in. 



M 



M 



M 



M 



M 



M 



M 



M 



M 



M 



M 



7'io 

7*oo 
7'o6 
7'io 
7-065 

798 
8-00 
8-01 
798 
7993 

499 

5'oo 

4'97 

5'02 

4995 

6-C009 j 

S"9S°9 1 
6*0409 I 
6-0 1 09 I 
6'oo39 
3"oo 
2-99 
3'oi 
3"oo 

3'C03 

8-00 
7'98 

799 

8 -co 

7'993 

5-ci 

499 
5'oo 

5'oo 

5"ooo 

5 '00 

S'oi 
S'oo 

S'OO 

S'ooz 

4"94 

5 "00 

5-02 

4'97 

4-983 

5-03 

4"94 
4-98 
504 
4-998 

5"o3 
4-96 

499 
4-98 
4-990 

18747 



Equivalents of 
water. 



Scale- 
point. 



•2 
•3 
•4 
•5 
•I 
•2 

■3 
■4 

"S 
-028 

■'39 
•278 

•417 
•556 
•I 

-2 

■3 

•4 
■5 
•I 
-2 
■3 
■4 

■5 
■I 

•2 
■3 
-4 
•5 
•I 
•2 
•3 
■4 
■5 



•I 
■2 

■3 
■4 
•5 
■1 
-2 
•3 
■4 
•5 



Grains. 



1290 

2550 
3800 
5400 
6340 

495 

980 

1480 

1980 

2470 

200 

1320 

2740 

4050 

5210 

180 

340 

520 

692 

865 

1248 

2500 

3750 
5010 
6280 
470 
9S0 
1480 

'95° 

2450 

500 
1000 
1500 
20C0 
2500 



480 
1000 
1470 
I960 
2460 

49° 
1000 
1460 
1970 
2450 



Error at 

scale-point 

specified in 

previous 

column. 



m. 
correct. 



— -002 

— •001 
correct. 

— ■026 
correct, 
correct. 
+ -002 
+ 'oor 
correct, 
-f-ooi 

— •003 

— ■024 

— ■061 
-•0S3 
-•087 
correct. 
+ -010 
~|--oio 
+ •013 
+ -017 
-f -001 
+ •003 
4- -004 
+ -C05 
+ -C04 
+ •005 

-F-CC2 
+ -COI 
4-CO7 
+ ■006 

— ■001 

— ■002 

— •002 
— -003 
— -004 



Azimuth and an- 
gular elevation of 
objects above 
mouth of rain- 
guuge. 



S.S.W.Pea8,20°. 



S.E. Church-tower 

23°. 



Remarks on position &c. j g -2 



On open flat moorland. 



In garden , quite clear ; ground level , 
but falling rapidly at a short 
distance. 



On lawn N.W. of church. 



. a 



524 



52s 



526. 



N.E. Yew, 3S°. Position good, but glass very in-; 527' 
S.W. Hill wooded,: correct ; a new one supplied, 
1U°. 



S.E. Firs, 48°. 



Gauge not in use, but to be re- 
started August 1st, I874. Fair 
po.sition in garden. 



On N. side of a sunk fence, and 
about 3 ft. from the edge ; other- 
wise good position. 



-f'003 

— -OC2 

4- -003 
4- -004 
4- -00 3 
-f-ooi 
— -002 
4- -004 
-f -001 
-I- -004 



S.E. Limes, 42°. ' In kitchen-garden ; clear, except as 
I uoted. 



S.W. Trees, 32°. 1 Open position in kitchen-garden. 
E.N.E. Peas, 30°. 



N.E. House, 25° 



Close to 531. 



On lawn; clear, except as noted. 



In plantation, S.W. 
clear at present. 



of hou.se ; 



S2i 



529. 



53°-: 



53'- 



S32- 



533 



534' 



114 



REPORT — 187'4. 



EXAMINATION OF 



1^ 




COUNTY. 

Station. 
OWNEU. 
Observer. 


Construction 
of gauge. 


Maker's name. 




Height 
of gauge. 


Aliove 
ground. 


Above 
sea- 
leTel. 




1874. 










ft. in. 


feet. 


535- 


Aug. I. 


DOESETSHIEE, 

Upwey. 

J. MILLER, ESQ. 

J. Miller, Esq. 


III. 


Casella 


9 a.m. 


' 3 


70 




536. 


Aug. 3. 


DOESETSHIEE. 

Osmington Lodge, Weymouth. 

MAJOR HALL. 

Major Hall. 


XII. 


Caaella 


9 a.m. 


I 


270 




537- 


Aug. 3. 


DOESETSHIEE. 

Abbotsbury. 

EARL OF ILCHESTER. 

Mr. Dight. 


XII. 


CascUa 


9 am. 


3 


140 




538. 


Aug. 4. 


DOESETSHIEE. 

St. Andrew's Villns, Bridport. 

A. STEPHENS, ESQ. 

A. SfepJuns, Esq. 


X. 


Negretti&Zambra 


9 a.m. 


> 3 


60 


539- 


Aug. 4. 


DOESETSHIEE. 

Bridport. 

A. STEPHENS, ESQ. 

Mr. H. Hoarc. 


X. 


Negrctti&Zambra 


9 a.m. 
Ist. 


» 3 


45 


540. 


Aug. 4. 


DOESETSHIEE. 

Spring Cottage, Lyme Eegis. 

//. TUCKER, ESQ. 

H. Tucker, Esq. 


XI. 


Negretti&Zambra 




4 6 


270 




541. 


Aug. 4. 


DEVONSHIEE. 

Cleyelands [Lyme Eegis]. 
E. L. AMES, ESQ. 


XL 


Negrctti&Zambra 


9 a.m. 


I 


463 


54'- 


Aug. 4. 


DEVONSHIEE. 

Wliito Clifr Glen, Sc.aton. 

T. F. A. LYLES, ESQ. 

T. F. A. Bj/les, Escji. 


XL 


Negretti & Zambra 


10 a.m. 


2 


160 


543- 


Aug. 4. 


DEVONSHIEE. 

Sidiiiount, Siflnioutb. 

DR. RADFORD. 

Dr. Radford. 


III. 


Caaella 


9 a.m. 


1 


'■19 


544- 


Aug. 4. 


DEVONSHIEE. 

Siduiount, Sidmouth. 

DR. RADFORD. 

Dr. Radford. 








8 7 


195 








545- 


Aug. 6. 


DEVONSHIEE. 

Mount Tayy. Tavistock. 

?L CLARK, ESQ. 


IIL 


Casella 




I 3 


316 























ON THE RAINFALL OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 

RAIX-GAUGES {continued). 



115 



«> 



c S3 t^ ;3 

;S^a II 

O !s! 



in. 
4-98 

5-03 

5-03 

5'oo 

5'oio 

5-00 

5"oo 

5 "02 

5"oo 
5-005 

4-98 
5-02 
4-99 

S-oi 

5 '000 

S-02 
7-98 
7-98 
799 

7'993 

8-00 

8-00 

S'oo 

7-98 

7-995 
4-98 

4'99 
5-01 

5 '00 

+•995 

5'oo 

5-01 

5'02 

5'oo 
5-007 

s-02 

4-98 

5C2 

5-00 

5-005 

5-03 

4-98 

4'95 
501 

4-993 

5-02 

5-01 

5'co 

S-oi 

5-010 

500 

4-99 

5-00 

M 4.995 



Equivalenta of 
water. 



Scale- 
point. 



M 



M 



M 



M 



M 



M 



j\r 



ii 



M 



M 



in. 
■I 

• 2 

•3 
•4 

"S 
'I 

"2 

■3 
■4 

"5 
•1 

■2 



■3 
■4 
■5 
■1 
■2 
•3 
■4 
•5 
-I 

•2 
•3 
•4 

•5 
•I 
•2 
-3 
-4 
•5 
-1 
■2 

■3 
•4 
•5 
-I 
•2 
-3 
•4 

■5 
-1 

-2 
•3 
•4 



Grain 



510 
1010 
1500 
2000 
2500 

490 

980 
15CO 
1980 
2450 

490 
broken . 



1210 

2510 

3740 
5090 
6340 
1270 
2570 
3770 
5050 
6350 
5C0 
1000 
1470 
1980 
24S0 

475 

940 

1450 

1950 

2465 

460 

950 

1450 

1940 

2440 

490 

9S0 

1480 

1970 

2460 

490 

980 

1470 

1960 



I 


500 


2 

3 
4 
5 


990 
1490 
1980 
2470 



Error afc 

scale-point 

specified in 

previous 

column. 



in. 
— -002 

— •003 

— •001 

— •002 

— •002 
+ -001 
-f-003 

— •002 

-f-'OOI 

-f-007 

+ -C0I 



+ •004 

-1--002 
-f -005 
— -002 

correct, 
correct. 

— ■003 
+ ■003 
4- -002 

— •001 

— •001 
— -C02 
-f -003 
correct. 

— ■001 
+ -004 
-t--oii 
+ ■008 
+ -oc8 
4- "004 
-J--007 
-f-cog 
+ •008 
■f -009 
+ -009 
4- -00 1 

-f -OC2 

+ -00 1 
4- -002 
+ -C02 
-I- -002 
+ -003 
4- -005 
4- -006 

— -00 1 
correct. 
— -ooi 
correct. 
+-00 1 



Azimuth and an- 
gular elevation of 
objects above 
mouth of rain- 
gauge. 



E. Tbom bush 
4.'5°. 



N.W. House, 25° 
N.W. Pear-tree, 

27 ^ 



S.E. Oak and" 
mulberry, 42°. 



E. Elms, 52°. 
N.W. House, 42°. 
N.E. Elms, 30° 



Remarks on position &c. 



S 

0x1 

.41 



On lawn in rear of house; good 1 535 
position. 



536. 



S.W. Trees, 38°. 



E.N.E. Pear, 33° 
N.N.W. Tree,41°. 



S. Hill, 32° 



Gauge to bs moved 40 ft. N., when 
all will be under 20°. 



Position not good, but no bettor 
available. 



Very good position in field; kept 
as a check on 538. 



On N.E. slope of hill, at side of 
road. Position not good, but 
no better on the jircmises. 



Very good position in kitchen- 
garden. 



On a rapid s'ope, in the best posi- 
tion available. 



S.E. & S.W. El'iis On lawn ; open, except as noted. 
40°. 



S.E. Elms, 20° 



N. Beech, 72° 



Very good position. 



Gauge (o be moved 40 ft. S., where 
tree = 40°, and all else clear. 



I a 



537 



538 



539 



540. 



54» 



542 



543 



544' 



545 



IIG 



REPORT — 1874.'. 



EXAMINATION OF 



a; ^ 

v B 
■ s 

'A « 



=" 2 

o .3 
-2 13 



546. 



547 



548. 



549 



■550, 



551 



552 



553 



554- 



555' 



556 



1874. 
Aug. 6. 



Aug. 6, 



Aug. 6 



Aug. 7. 



Aug. 7 



Aug, 8 



Aug. 8 



Aug. 8. 



Aug. 8 



Aug. 8, 



Aug. 10, 



COUNTY. 

Station. 
OWNER. 
Observer. 



DEVONSHIRE. 

Eundlestone, Dai-tmoor. 
G. J. SYMOSS, ESQ. 



DEVONSHIRE. 

Prison Gat-den, Dartmoor. 

G. J. SYMONS, ESQ. 

E. E. Power, Esq., M.D. 

DEVONSHIRE. 

Kilworthy Hill, Tavistock. 

W. MEREIFIELD, ESQ. 

W. Merrifield, Esq. 

DEVONSHIRE. 

Oaklands, Okebampton. 

W. H. HOLLEY, ESQ. 

W. H. Holley, Esq. 

DEVONSHIRE. 

Lit. and Sci. Instit., Barnstaple. 

LIT. AND SCI. INSTITUTION. 

Mr. Knill. 

DEVONSHIRE. 

Northani, Bideford. 

BEV. J. D. CHURCHWABB. 

Bev. J. D. Churchward. 

DEVONSHIRE. 

Horvvood, Bideford. 

BEV. J. DENE. 

Bev. J. Dene. 

DEVONSHIRE. 

Great Torrington. 

BEV. S. BUCK LAND. 

Bev. S. BiuJdatid. 

DEVONSHIRE. 

Lang(rpe Wick (daily). 

MISS NUNES. 

Miss Nil lies. 

DEVONSHIRE. 

Langtree Wiek (inonthlv). 

MISS NUNES. 

Miss Ninies. 

SOMERSET. 

Giiv Street, Bath. 

C. S. BABTEB, ESQ., M.B. 

C. S. Barter, E>:q., M.B. 



o . 

= 3 
c c 



XII. 



XII. 



XII. 



XII. 



X. 



XII. 



III. 



XII. 



XII. 



XII. 



XL 



Maker's name. 



Casella 



Casella 



CassUa 



Casella 






Height 
of gauge. 



Above 
ground. 



ft. in. 
I o 



Negretti & Zambra 



Casella 



Pastorelli 



Apps 



Pastorelli 



Casella 



9 a.i 



9 a.m. 



9 a.m. 



9 a.m. 



9 a.m. 



9 a.m. 



Noon. 



9 a.m. 
daily. 



m. o 10 



9 a.m. 



OxV THE RAINFALL OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 



117 



KAIN-GAUGES (continued). 



u -"a" 


Equiualents of 


Error nt 


Azimuth and an- 


\2c 


-S^li 


w 


iter. 


scnie-point 


gular elcration of 






Ills 






specified in 


objects above 


Remarks on position &c. 


^i 








Scale- 
point. 


Grains. 


previous 
column. 


mouth of rain- 
gauge. 




^^ 


iu. 


in. 




in. 














S.E. House. 30°. 


Gauge removed; site very good, 
in small garden. 


546. 










K^« J-#> Jk-lk^^ L4LJ\.^^ ^^\^ ■ 




S-co 
5'oo 


•I 


490 
975 


+ -001 




In garden, quite open ; good posi- 
tion. 


547- 


2 


+ -C03 






5'oo 


■3 


1470 


+ -C03 








499 


■4 


'975 


+ ■00 1 








M 4'99S 


•5 


2460 


+ -003 








501 


-1 


500 


— •001 


N.N.W. Wall and 


In small garden ; clear, except as 


548. 


5 -co 


•2 


99° 


correct. 


trees, 35°. 


noted. 




5'oo 


■3 


1480 


+'002 








$•00 


•4 


1950 


+ -CO7 








M 5 '002 


■s 


2490 


— •002 








498 


•I 


49° 
97° 


+ 'f^oi 




Excellent position in very large 
garden. 


549- 


-2 


+ -CO5 






5"oo 


•3 


1470 


+ -C04 








5-02 


■4 


i960 


+ •005 








M 5 '005 


•5 


2470 


+ -003 








8 CO 


-I 


J 270 


correct. 


S. Pear, 41°. 


In sniiill garden, and rather too 


55°- 


8-00 


■2 


2500 


+-003 




sheltered. 




7-98 


•3 


3760 


+ -004 








S'oi 


•4 


5050 


-f-0C2 








M 7998 


•5 


65CO 


+ •003 




1 1 

1 1 


5 '00 


-I 


500 


--00 1 




Quite clear, in large level garden, 


551. 


5'oo 


■2 


99° 


core ct. 




near the church. 




4-98 


•3 


1490 


— -001 








5-00 


■4 


19S0 


correct. 








M 4-995 


•5 


2480 


— -001 








5-01 


•I 


490 


+ -001 


N. Firs, 52°. 


On edge of lawn. Position good. 


552. 


5'oo 


•2 


980 


+ •002 


S.W. Tree, 28°. 


ground nearly level. 




S'oo 


J 


1490 


— -001 








„ 499 














M 5-000 














4-98 


•I 


500 


correct. 


S.S.E. Trees, 40°. 


On lawn in Rectory garden. 


552- 


504 


•2 


995 


+ -00I 


N. Trees, 28°. 






5-01 


•3 


1450 


+ -009 








^. 5°^ 


■4 


i960 


+-C07 








M 5015 


•5 


2455 


+ 008 








5-01 


•1 


475 


+-004 




Good position in large garden. 


554' 


5-C0 


•2 


980 


+ -OC3 








5-01 


•3 


1480 


+ •002 








5-00 


■4 


1970 


+ -003 








M 5005 


•5 


2460 


-f-005 








4-98 
5-00 


-1 

-2 


475 
980 


+ •004 
+ -002 




Close to No. 554. 


555- 




5-02 


•3 


1480 


+ ■001 








4-97 


■4 


1970 


+ -002 








M 4-993 


•5 


2460 


+ -002 






556. 


4'y5 


-I 


49° 


+ •001 


E. House, .32°. 


Position not good, but no better 


485 


•2 


980 


+ •002 


W. Tree, 35°. 


available. 




4-95 


•3 


1480 


-f 'OOI 








' ,, -^'^^ 


■4 


1950 


+-006 








M 4-898 


■5 


2440 


-f 006 
















, 







118 REPORT 1874, 

On the Belfast Harbour. By T. R. Salmond, C.E. 

[A communication ordered by the General Committee to be printed in exfenso,'] 

(Plates I.-III.) 

It is with no small degree of diffidence that I have undertaken to draw 
up an account of the Port and Harbour of Belfast, the subject being one 
of considerable importance, and the materials at my disposal somewhat 
meagre, at least so far as the ancient historj' of the harbour is concerned. 
I have, however, endeavoured to prepare, in as concise a manner as possible, 
a synopsis of the various improvements which have been effected in the 
harbour, at least so far back as the sixteenth century ; prior to which time 
the position of Belfast as a seaport or place of resort for shipping was rather 
vague and indefinite, if we can judge from the fact that no mention whatever 
is made of its existence as a harbour in any historical record prior to that 
date. On examiiiatiou of the map of Belfast (vide Plate I.) which was 
prepared as early as IGGO (perhaps one of the most ancient maps of the 
town now extant), it will be seen that the old town was, as compared 
with Belfast of the present, a very insignificant plaCe indeed. The limits of 
the town were circumscribed by an extensive line of fortification, which 
encompassed it on the north, south, and western sides only, it beii'ig bounded 
on the east side by the river Lagan, the land entrances to the town being by 
two gates called the North Gate and the Mill Gate. The North Gate was 
situated in North Street, at its juncture with John Street, and the Mill Gate 
was situated iu Mill Street, at a point about 330 yards from the entrance to 
the Old Castle. It would, then, appear that the ramparts of the town ceased 
at William Street and commenced at Mary Street, now called Corporation 
Street, the interval between these points being bounded by the Lagan river 
precluded the chance of land attack from the eastward side of the town. 
At this time Belfast only consisted of five streets — High Street, Bridge 
Street, Skipper's Lane, Waring Street, and North Street ; and the number of 
houses then in existence were, exclusive of the Castle, 150, the greater 
number of which were thatched houses of an inferior class. 

Previous to the year 1637 the harbour appears to have been under no 
regular system of government, and was assumed to be the property of the 
Chichester family. The trade was at that time as insignificant as the harbour 
itself, which was, in point of fact, a port of secondary importance to Carrick- 
fcrgus, which was the only stronghold in the bay occupying the same position 
relative to the latter town that Carlingford did in respect to Newry. Prior 
to the date I have just mentioned, the Corporation of Carrickfcrgus enjoyed 
the privilege of reserving to their use one third of all the Customs duties 
payable on goods imported into that place, together with other trading mono- 
polies. These immunities, however, the Earl of Strafford succeeded in pur- 
chasing in 1637, since which time the commerce of this port has become a 
matter of importance. A Custom House was then for the first time esta- 
blished in Belfast, and the revenue business of the port removed from Carrick- 
fcrgus. In the year 1729 the first legislative interference with the port took 
place, when an Act, 3rd George II., was passed, which delegated to the 
Sovereign and free burgesses of the town the conservancy of the harbour. 
The Corporation of Belfast had the harbour-trust committed to their care, 
and the reason assigned for appointing them as the conservancy was that, as 
expressed in the Act, "The harbour had become extremely shallow, by 
which means voyages have been prolonged, to the very great prejudice of 



ON THE BELFAST HARBOUR. 119 

trade, and His Majesty put to extraordinary expense and charge in keeping 
officers longer on board the vessels trading to and from the said town than 
would be needful had the said harbour and channel been preserved in the 
same condition as it formerly was." This Act was, however, repealed in 
1785 by the Act 25th George III. cap. 64, which appointed a separate Cor- 
poration, giving to them the sole management of the affixirs of the port ; and 
with the appointment of the Harbour Commissioners as a distinct body, the 
substantial improvements of the port may bo said to have commenced. 

Among the first acts performed by the new Corporation were the removal 
of several artificial fords, which formed bars across the Lagan, and also the 
gradual deepening of the bed of the river by dredging; and in 1786 the 
course of the old south channel was ordered to be marked with buoys and 
perches down to the Pool of Garmoyle. 

In the year 1791 a graving-platform was erected for the repairing of smaU 
craft ; and subsequently two graving or dry docks, which are at present in 
existence, were constructed, the first of which (No. 1) was completed and 
opened in the year 1800, and the second, now called No. 2 Dock, was opened 
in the year 1826. 

These docks arc situated on the south-west side of Clarendon Dock, and are 
found to be of great service for the repairing of vessels of small draft and 
tonnage. Their general dimensions are as follow : — 

Dock No. 1. 

ft. in. 

Length on floor 245 

Length at top 252 6 

Brcadtli at top 50 

Ureadth at bottom 35 6 

Level of sill above datum 1 9 

Depth of dock from coping to floor 14 

Width of entrance 30 

Dock No. 2. 

Length on floor 287 

Length at top 299 

Breadth at top 58 

Breadth at bottom 34 

Level of sill datum 

(which is 3 ft. above the Ordnance datum) 

Dtpth of dock 15 G 

"Width of entrance 36 

In the year 1S26 Mr. John Ilcnnie reported upon tb.e state of the harbour 
with a view to its being extended and improved, and in the year 1829 Mr. 
Telford reported for a similar purpose. Mr. llennie again reported in 1829. 
No action, however, was taken on either of these reports, and the improve- 
ment of the harbour was consequently delayed until a report and ])lan had 
been received from Messrs. Walker and Burgess in the year 1830, which plan 
Avas adopted by the Commissioners, and received the royal assent in the year 
1831. Obstacles were, however, thrown in the way of procuring the neces- 
sary funds to carry out the work, and the result was an application to Parlia- 
ment, in the year 1837, for a new Act, 1st Vic. cap. 76, which was acceded 
to ; and the works dii-ected to be undertaken iu connexion therewith were : — 



130 REPORT — 1874, 

1st. The making of a new channel for the river Lagan, from Dunbar's 
Dock to Thompson's Tower, cutting off the first bend of the old channel 
nearest the town. 

2nd. The purchase of the existing quays and docks, which were private 
property, and the widening and improving of the same. 

3rd. The continuation of the straight cut for the river as far as deep 
water, cutting off the second bend of the river, so as to form a straight 
channel from the town towards Garraoyle, and other works contemplated by 
the Act. 

The first of the foregoing works, being the first section of the new channel, 
was undertaken by Mr. Dargau, the contractor, and was completed and 
opened in the year 1841, the cutting of the channel forming a very valuable 
property called the Queen's Island, which contained an area of seventeen 
acres of land. The entire cost of this work, including the purchase of pro- 
perty, amounted to ^42,352. 

In the year 1842 the whole quays and wharves on both sides of the river, 
together with Dunbar's dock (now called Prince's Dock), quays, timber-pond, 
and nineteen acres of ground, the site for future docks, were all purchased 
at a sum amounting to £152,171; and a sum of nearly £1000 was expended 
in the improvement and permanent repair of Prince's Dock, the walls of which 
were composed of timber and brickwork. 

In the year 1844 the construction of new quays was commenced on the 
county Down side of the harbour for a length of 2500 feet — about 500 feet, 
next the Queen's Bridge, being in front of an old wharf purchased from Mr. 
Eatt, and the remaining portion on the slob land lying between it and the 
Queen's Island. This work was called the Queen's Quay, in the construction 
of which was expended the sum of £31,167. It is composed of a faciiig of 
timber securely tied buck by three rows of strong piles, which are connected 
together with tic-rods of iron 1^ inch in diameter; the main jnles are 
12 in. by 12 in., and the sheeting-piles are 7 inches in thickness, driven to 
a batter of 1 inch to a foot. The quay being formed, a landing-shed was 
erected on it, 300 feet in length. The material used for filling in or backing 
up the quay was mainly procured by the deepening of the river, which was 
also considerably Avidened in front, a quantity amounting to about 524,175 
tons of material being deposited in forming the quays. 

Among other works carried out at this time were a large pond for the 
storage of timber on the east side of the Queen's Island, formed at a cost of 
£1878 ; and the lighthouse, erected on piles, which is situated on the Holy- 
wood Bank, and wliich is used as a pilot station, was constructed at a cost of 
£1300. 

Having in the year 1844 secured possession of the old quays and other 
property on the county Antrim side of the river, the construction of new 
quays on that side was immediately proceeded with. The total length of 
quayage erected at that time was 1375 feet, of which 713 feet was an 
increase, the remainder being the restoration of a portion of the old work. 
These quays were formed of timber, and were carried out on the same plan 
as that adopted for the Queen's Quay. 

The total monies expended previous to the year 1847 on the various works 
embraced in the Act of 1837, including the construction of the Holywood 
Bank Light Station, amounted to £238,740. 

In November 1846 a contract was entered into with Mr. "William Dargan 
for forming the second section of the new channel, which was completed and 
formally opened in the year 1849, when it received the title of Yictoria 



ON THE BELFAST HARBOUR. 121 

Channel. This, the second portion of the channel executed, lies between the 
Twin Islands, which were formed by the material excavated from the bed of 
the second cut, and cast up so as to form a sea-slope of about 4 feet horizontal 
to 1 foot vertical, the channel faces of which slope were jirotected by a heavy 
facing of stone-pitching. The length of this cut is about 3300 feet, the 
width at top being about 450 feet, with a depth of about 23 feet at high 
water, and the amount expended in its formation was .£41,000. 

The next work of importance which was proceeded with was the rebuilding 
of the county Antrim quays from tlie Queen's Bridge to Dunbar's or Prince's 
Dock, and their extension, or the formation of new quays, from that point 
to the Milewater Eiver, the latter portion being commenced and completed 
in the year 1847 — the entire quays being handed over by the contractor, 
Mr. Cranston Gregg, comi^lete during the year 1848, their cost being about 
£44,390. This work is composed of timber facing, similar to that adopted 
on the Queen's Quay, and the entire designed with a view to having about 
10 feet of water close to the quay at low tide. 

In the year 1847 the construction of a patent slip was commenced on the 
south end of the Queen's Island. This slip is 560 feet in length, and 
was designed so as to be capable of taking on vessels of 1000 tons burthen. 
It is worked by a twcntj' horse-power steam-engine, with hauling machinery. 
The cost of the entire work in connexion with the slip was about =£10,753. 
The work was completed and opened for traffic early in 1849. In the year 
1847, owing to improvements then in contemplation and in course of 
progress, it became necessary to procure a new steam-dredger in addition to 
the one then in the Commissioners' possession. The new machine was con- 
structed in that year by Messrs. Coates and Young, and was provided with a 
twenty horse-power engine ; the cost of the new machine was .£5200. The 
way in which the dredgers were principally employed at this time was in 
deepening of the river between the new wharves, and the material raised was 
used for filling up the spaces between the old and new Ballymacarrett quays, 
filling up the old town dock at the foot of High Street, and other old docks 
on the county Antrim side of the harbour, and in backing \ip the new quay 
of the first cut of the channel, now called Albert Quay. 

In the year 1847 a second timber-pond was constructed on the county 
Antrim side of the river, and is situated convenient to Prince's Dock and 
Albert Quaj\ This pond was made by Mr. Dargan in a field adjoining the 
old pond, about 20,000 cubic yards of stuff being removed in its formation. 

The only additional works worthy of notice which were undertaken in the 
year 1848 were the erection of a stoiie beacon on the tail of the west bank 
at Garmoyle, at a cost of .£218, and the construction of a wrought-irou 
swing-bridge to span the entrance to the then Graving-Dock Basin, at a cost 
of about =£1351. These works were completed during the year 1849. 

In the year 1849, in order to meet the growing requirements of a very 
important class of shipping, such as the moderate-sized vessels carrying 
valuable cargoes from the Mediterranean and Baltic ports, it was determined 
to extend the basin in front of the graving-docks. This work was proceeded 
Avith, the basin being extended in a southward direction so as to form a dock, 
which in 1 850 was designated the Clarendon Dock. In the same year, 1849, 
the old tidal docks, situated at the foot of Waring Street and Great George's 
Street, were filled up, and the spaces occupied by them thrown open to the 
public. 

Prior to the commencement of the improvements embraced in the Act of 
1837, the cost of dredging had always formed a large item in the annual 



122 EEPORT — 1874. 

expenditure of the Belfast Harbour. This had, however, considerably 
increased during the four or five years just preceding the year 1849— as, in 
addition to maintaining the original depth, the course of the river opposite 
what was then called Eitchio's Dock was diverted from its natural channel 
by the extension of the quays, and the entire space from the Queen's Bridge 
to the Prince's Dock doubled in width, the depth of the water being at the 
same time increased 5 to 7 feet. 

It was anticipated that the formation of the straight channel would obviate 
the necessity of so much dredging as hitherto in the lower part of the river ; 
and the fact that the upper section of it maintained its depth without dredging 
from its opening in 1841 for a period of nine or ten years, confirms this view. 
The increased depth, however, given to the river opposite the quays, being 
much below its natural bed, will always require an additional amount of 
dredging to prevent it from silting up, whicli would, of course, vary and 
increase in extent as the sewerage of the town increases, if allowed to bo 
discharged into the harbour. 

In the year 1850 the only works worthy of notice which were entered upon 
were the erection of coal-offices, yards, and weighing-machines on Queen's 
Quay, and six landing- or goods-sheds on Doncgall Quay, and contracts for 
the erection of a stone wall on the north side of the Clarendon Dock.^ 

In the year 1851 three lighthouses were constructed in the Channel, 
between Garmoyle and the town of Belfast, and provided with accommodation 
for resident lightkcepcrs in order to supersede the difficult and uncertain plan 
previously resorted to, r. e. of attending to the Channel hghts (which Avcro 
fixed upon perches) by means of a boat. One of the houses, a substantial 
stone structure, is situated on the lower end of the East Twin Island, and 
provided with a bright green light; one on the margin of the old Seal 
Channel, provided with a red light ; and the other at the Pool of Ganuoylo 
below the stone beacon and on the opposite side of the Channel, which is 
provided with a green light. The two latter lighthouses are constructed on 
the borders of the slob banks, and are composed of timber supported upon 
strong piles, braced with wrought-iron tie-rods, the cost of tho three houses 

being about £741. , , , ^i - 

In the year 1852 an iron foot-bridge was constnictctt across the entrance 
to the Prince's Dock at a cost of =:£309, and a timber bridge across the entrance 
to the Milewater Pdvor, thereby opening up an uninteiTU])ted traffic for foot 
passengers from the Queen's Bridge to Thompson's embankment. 

In the year 1854 a new Harbour Office was erected at the foot of Great 
George's Street,, at a cost of =£8306 ; and the only other new works carried 
on in that year were the construction of a branch line of railway, com- 
mencing at the main line, a short distance from the terminus of the Northern 
Counties EaUway, running along the reclaimed ground purchased from Mr. 
Thompson, and connected with the Albert Quay ; and a new street caUed 
Whitla Street, running from the north end of Garmoyle Street to York 
Street, opening up a connexion between the quays and the railway. 

The' Harbour Commissioners having in the year 1854 obtained a Bill 
empowering them to reclaim a large portion of the slob lands lying on the 
county Down side of the river, consequently in the following year a com- 
mencement was made upon that work, Mr. James Connor being appointed 
contractor for the execution of a bank extending from the Queen's Island to 
Conswater Eailway Bridge. This work was completed in 1858. This 
portion of the reclamation included the part to be devoted to the purposes of 
a public park, to be called Victoria Park. 



ON THE BELFAST IIAKBOUR. 123 

In tho year 1858 a commencement was made towards the regular deepen- 
ing of the navigable channel from the Holy wood Lighthouse to the upper end 
of Donegall Quay. The improvement made by the dredging, which con- 
tinued from 1858 to 1861, was such that vessels with a deep draft of water 
were enabled to get up to the lower end of the Victoria Channel without 
lightening their cargoes, as they liad hitherto done, two miles lower down tho 
river, in order to enable them to take a berth at the quays or to enter tho 
docks ; and steamboats were also enabled to reach their berths at all times 
of the tide. Tho next works of magnitude which were undertaken by the 
Belfast Harbour Commissioners were commenced in the year 1864, and con- 
sisted of the construction of a floating dock and tidal dock on the county 
Antrim side of the harbour, and a graving or dry dock and tidal basin on the 
county Down side of the harbour. These may be said to be the first really 
important works, apart from the deepening of the harbour, which were 
undertaken since tho year 1847. 

UnlOvO the previous mode of constructing the wharves vrith. timber, tho 
Commissioners M'cre advised in these cases to resort to the use of stone as a 
building material. On the county Antrim side of the harbour, where the 
ground for foundations is of such a treacherous nature, the entire works had 
to be buUt upon bearing or supporting piles. On the top of the piles a layer 
of concrete two feet in depth was laid, on which the superstructure was 
raised. The walls are generally of the section shown on the contract 
drawing, and are built of rubble stonework, faced with random rubble. On 
the county Down side of the river, the nature of the soil being firm hard 
sand, no artificial foundation was necessary. On both sides, however, the 
precaution has been adopted of driving a row of sheet piles, 6 inches thick, 
along the face of tho work, to preclude the chance of the foundations being 
undermined by dredging or other caiises. 

These dock works, though commenced in tho year 1864, were not aU com- 
pleted till the year 1871. Tho Hamilton Graving-Dock and Abcrcorn Basin 
were, however, finished and formally opened by tho Lord Lieutenant in the 
year 1867. 

The Abercorn Basin is 725 feet in length by 635 feet in breadth, having a 
water-area of 12i acres. The average depth of water in that basin is now 
about 11 feet at low water, and a canting space seciired in the harbour which 
wlU allow a vessel of 600 feet in length to turn upon its own centre as a 
pivot. The cost of this basin was £23,163. 

The Hamilton Graving-Dock is in length at top 470 foot, and at bottom 
451^ feet. It is 84 feet 6 inches broad at coping, and 50 feet broad at 
bottom. The coping is 15 feet above datum, and the level of sill at entrance 
is 5-60 feet below datum. The entrance of the dock is GO feet in width, and 
the depth of the dock is 22 feet 9 inches below coping. It is provided with 
a caisson gate, which can be used as a bridge or road for horse-and-cart 
traffic when set in place. A powerful engine and centrifugal pump, with 
pumping machinery, is provided for clearing the dock of water -svhen requisite 
for repairing vessels. The cost of this graving-dock, including mooring- 
paals, paving, gas- and water-pipes, capstans, paals, &c., amounted to =£33,756. 
Of this, c£2376 was expended on the caisson ; and a further sum of ,£5140, 
not included in the above, was expended on the engine and pumping 
machinery and buildings in connexion therewith. 

The works on the county Antrim side, comprising the Spencer Dock, 
Dufferin Dock, and entrance-basin, were formally opened by Earl Spencer, 
Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, in the year 1872. The Spencer Dock is a tidal 



124 REPORT— 1874. 

dock, 600 feet long by 550 feet broad, having a water-area of 7g acres, and 
a quayage in length 1900 feet. The average depth of water in this dock is 
14 feet below datum, and the coping is 15-6 feet above datum. The entrance 
to the dock is 80 feet in width by 265 feet in length. The entrance- basin 
has an area of 5 acres of water, with a quayage of 200 feet in length. 

The Dufferin Dock is a floating dock, provided with gates, inside which 
vessels with a draught of 22 feet can discharge afloat at all times of the tide. 
The entrance to this dock is from the Spencer Dock, and is 60 feet in width 
by 139 feet in length. The platform for gates is 14 feet below datum, and 
the sill is 12 feet below datum. The dock is in length 630 feet by 225 feet 
in width, having a water-area of 3j acres and length of quayage of 
1045 feet. 

The walls of these works arc all constructed of stone, the lower portion of 
the clock from bottom x\p to datum-level being composed of hammerstone 
ashlar, the stone being from the Scrabo quarries, county Down ; and the 
portion above datum is composed of freestone hearting, with facing of 
Dundonald whinstone, the coping being of Cornish limestone in large blocks. 
The cost of these works amounted to £95,334, including gates, mooring, 
paals, chains, paving, &c. Simultaneously with the execution of these 
M'orks, other incidental works, though of minor importance, were being 
carried on. The Milewater Eiver was diverted into a new channel, and two 
extensive timber-ponds, one of 5 acres and the other of 14 acres, formed 
on the Antrim side of the harbour, chiefly by the excavations from the dock 
works. The branch railway was diverted along Albert Quay, and a per- 
manent line of tramwaj- laid connecting it with the Northern Counties 
Kailway. 

The slob reclamation in county Down was being proceeded v/ith from year 
to year; and in 1864 a carriage-road bridge was constructed across Conns- 
water to connect the Victoria Park with the Ballymacarrctt reclaimed pro- 
perty, at a cost of £632. 

In 1807 a double line of tramway was laid along the south side of the 
Abercorn Basin, and connected with the county Down llailway. A number 
of goods-sheds were erected along the quays from time to time, and dock- 
master's houses and other tenements, as required by the extension of the 
harbour; and in the year 1871 a large pair of masting-sheers were erected 
on the east side of Abercorn Quay, capable of lifting a weight of 50 tons 
and masting the largest vessels afloat ; the cost of these sheers amounted to 
£2732, including foundations, engine-house, etc. In the same year (1871) 
a line of tramway, commencing at the junction of the Central llailway at 
Oxford Street and extending along the Antrim quays around Prince's Dock, 
formed a junction with the Northern Counties branch of the quay's tramway 
at the south end of the Duff"erin Dock. Owing to the extension of the hai'bour 
works, it became necessary in the year 1870 to provide for extensive 
dredging. A contract was therefore entered into for a new steam -dredger 
of 40 horse-power, capable of working in 26 feet of water, which was com- 
pleted in the following year at a cost of £7923, and a large number of new 
scows were constructed in connexion with this machine. In the year 1872 
an inclined discharging-slip was constructed at the lower end of the Queen's 
Island, and provided with a hauling-engine and gearing for the purpose of 
disposing of the dredging-material in the embanking of the county Down 
reclaimed lands ; and for the transit of the stuff a locomotive engine and 
stock of tipping-waggons were provided, by which means the material can be 
both cheaply and expeditiously transported to any part of the county Down 



ON THE BELFAST HARBOUR. 125 

property. In the same year, the Commissioners having secured by purchase 
from Dr. Ritchie a large tract of slob land on the county Antrim side of the 
channel north of Thompson's embankment, a commencement was made with 
its reclamation from the sea. This work is still in course of progress, and 
when reclaimed will afford a valuable parcel of ground for harbour exten- 
sion, 95 acres in area. The embankment is being entirely formed of material 
raised by the dredgers in deepening the harbour. The slope is formed on 
the outside, at an inclination of 4 to 1, and is being securely protected by 
stone-pitching. Having acquired the latter grounds, steps were at once 
taken to form a large portion of it into a timber-pond, which was done by 
enclosing an area of about 2G acres with a row of closely driven round larch- 
piles. 

In the year 1872 a work of considerable magnitude was commenced, and 
is at the present time in course of progress ; it consists of the renewal of the 
entire length of Albert Quay, and its further extension to the circular pier 
head of the Spencer Dock. A portion of this work for a length of 267 feet 
is constructed of stone, in the same manner as that in which the other stone- 
work of the docks is executed, the remainder being constructed of timber. 
The entire length of the work is about G80 yards, which will give, besides 
the renewal of the decayed portion of the Albert Quay, an additional length 
of quayage of 207 yards. The timber-wharf is about 1776 feet in length by 
25 feet in width at the top, is composed of three rows of bearing-piles of 
creosoted pitch-pine timber, 12 inches square, the front row being 48 feet in 
length, the middle row 43 feet, and the back row 40 feet. These piles arc 
driven 5 feet apart, centres longitudinally, and between the piles in the front 
and mid row sheeting-piles of the same timber 11 inches in thickness are 
driven quite close together, the length of the front row being 37 feet, and 
that of the middle row 32 feet. Tlie front and back rows of main piles are 
secured together by diagonal braces. The platform is composed of strong 
joists 12 inches by 6 inches, sheeted with timber planking 5| inches thick, 
which is covered with a layer of bitumen, and paved with square setts. 
The back of the wharf is sheeted with timber 4 inches in thickness, against 
which is filled a backing of engine ashes and cinders, in order to secure the 
least possible lateral thrust against the wliarf. The space iiuderneath the 
wharf, between the front and back row of piles, is formed into a slight slope, 
which is paved with pitching-stones, in order to prevent the abrasion of the 
water from carrying away the soil ; and the front face of the wharf is cleaded 
with open timber work to prevent the deposit and accumulation on the 
slopes of bulky matters held in suspension by the water. Mooring-piles of 
egreenheart timber, cuppd with cast-iron hoods, are driven every 60 feet apart 
along the entire wharf to secure vessels to ; and a number of sets of strong 
piles are driven 60 fe.et back from the wharf, and are connected with it by 
strong tie-rods of wrought iron, in order to guard against the possibility of 
the wharf being driven forward by any undue weight placed on the platform, 
or by the weight of the materials by wliicli it is backed up. The piling of 
this work is so designed that a depth of 16 feet at low water may be 
secured by dredging without the risk of injuring the stability of the super- 
structure, and by the setting back of the quay line as it is done a wat( r 
space of about 335 feet in width will be provided in the river opposite tie 
new wharf. This work is being carried on bj' Messrs. H. and J. Martin, 
contractors, and will, when completed, cost about .£50,000. During the 
present year an extensive double line of tramway has been laid by the 
Harbour Commissioners from the South Quay of the Abercorn Basin through 



126 REPORT— 1871'. 

their property in Ballymacarrett, aud connected with the Central Railway 
near the point where it crosses the county Down line. This tramway com- 
pletes a system which opens np a thorough line of communication between 
the county Antrim and county Down sides of the river, and affords a valu- 
able means of transit of goods by rail from almost all quays in the harbour 
to the County Down, Central, Ulster, and Northern Counties Railways, In 
order to meet the rapidly increasing requirements of the trade of Belfast for 
additional dock and harbour accommodation, I lately received instructions 
from the Commissioners to jirepare plans and specifications for works of con- 
siderable magnitude proposed to be carried out on the county Antrim side of 
the harbour. The plans which I submitted were approved of by the Com- 
missioners. They consist of a large wet dock 1200 feet in length, exclusive 
of the entrance, and 280 feet in width, with a depth of 20 feet at low water. 
This dock it is proposed to extend, when the trade of the port shall have 
increased to such an extent as to warrant it, from where it is at present 
shown to terminate to the foot of Corporation Square, an additional distance 
of about 1250 feet, which would close the Clarendon Dock, and do away 
with the two old graving-docks situate off that dock. The entire length of 
the dock ■\\'hen completed would be 2450 feet, giving a water-area of about 
15|- acres, with two entrances, one where the present entrance to Prince's 
Dock is situated, and one entering from the Spencer Dock ; and I may just 
state that my reasons for recommending an open wet dock in preference to a 
dock closed by gates are, that the moderate range of tide which exists in this 
harbour being only 8 feet average, together with the improved modern 
niechanical appliances for loading and discharging vessels, renders the rise 
am fall of a few feet of tide an immaterial question either as regards time 
or i^pney ; and further, that with an open dock vessels will not require, as 
they" would with a close dock, to accumulate opposite the entrance to such 
an extent as to impede the general traffic in the outer or Spencer Dock, a 
free and open means of communication being maintained with the river, 
so that vessels can arrive and depart at all times of the tide. The gates 
and sluices of a close dock are also liable to derangement or accident, and 
tend under any circumstances more or less to limit the amount of traffic to 
the dock. . 

It is also proposed, in order to meet the demand for additional graving- 
dock accommodation, to construct, on the county Antrim side of the river, a 
dock of about GOO feet in length, capable of receiving the largest vessels 
built in or frequenting this port. 

Another extensive improvement, which has for some time occupied the 
attention of the Commissioners, is the formation of a new straight channel 
across the west bank, in continuation of the Victoria Channel, between the 
Twin Islands and "Whitehouse Roads ; and will, no doubt, when carried out, - 
afford great facilities (as compared with the present circuitory route) for 
vessels either entering or leaving the port, and lessen the risk of danger and 
delay consequent upon vessels taking the ground on the slob banks lying on 
either side of the present channel. I have thought it might be interesting, 
and have therefore appended detailed information as to the areas, &c. of 
the property at present in possession of the Belfast Harbour Commissioners. 
The total area of property on both sides of the harbour is 1008 a. 2r. 17 p.; 
of which 526 a. 1 r. 11 p. is on the county Antrim side, and ^^82 a. 1 r, 6 p. 
on the county Down side according to the oiiginal county boundary, 95 acres 
of the property on the county Antrim side being at present in course of 
reclamation. Of the above area about 470 acres have been reclaimed from 




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ON THE METHOD OF MAKING GOLD-ASSAYS. 127 

the sea. The total water-area of the harbour, including docks and basins, 
amounts to about 100 acres ; and the total length of available quayage 
16,433 linear feet. The area of timber-ponds at present in existence is 
C4'a. 2r. 20 p. 

The total number of vessels Avhich entered the Port last year was /533, 
of an aggregate registered tonnage of 1,208,845 tons; and the revenue for 
the same year (1873) amounted to ^£G9,G81 8s. Id. 

The Plans illustrative of this paper are :— 

Plate I. Map of Belfast in IGGO, and Map of the Port and Harbour of 
Belfast in 1840. 

Plate II. Map of the Port and Harbour of Belfast in 1874. 

Plate III. Sheet of Sections of the Timber and Stone Quays ; and a Lon- 
gitudinal Section of the river Lngan from first Canal Lock to Queen's Bridge 
in 1874, and of the Harbour and present navigaltlo clianncls from Queen's 
Bridge to Ilolywood Lighthouse, showing the greatest depths' in the years 
182G, 1850, and 1874. 



Fieport of the Committee, consist'my of W. Chandler Egberts, Dr. 
Mills, Dr. Boycott, A. W. Gadesden, and J. S. Sellon, appointed 
for the purpose of inquiriny into the Method of making Gold-assays, 
and of stating tlie Results thereof. Drawn vp 'bij W. Chandler 
lloBERTS, Secretary. 

In their last Report the Committee described the results of a seriesof 
experiments made with a view to determine the degree of accuracy to which 
it is possible to attain in gold-assaying. It was proved that the error was 
included between the ^— ^ and ^ parts of the portion of metal operated 
upon. They recommended that a standard plate of pure gold, prepared by 
the Chemist of the Mint, should be adopted as a basis for a new series of com- 
parisons between the reports of different assayers ; but during the past year 
the Committee have rejected this plate in favour of a second, which proved to 
be of a sensibly higher degree of purity. 

Tliis new plate was submitted in December last to a jury of assayers, sum- 
moned by the Goldsmiths' Company, and their certificate as to its purity is 
published in the Report of the Deputy Master of the Mint for 1873, p. 58. 

Portions of this plate have since been sent by the Warden of the Standards, 
to whom the custody of the trial plates is entrusted, to Mr. Du Bois of the 
United States iMint, to M. Peligot at Paris, to the Chevalier Van Riemsdijk of 
the Netherlands Mint, and to M. Stas at Brussels, as well as to the Assayers 
of the Mints at Sydney and Melbourne. 

Only one Report has as yet been received, and the Committee therefore 
considered that they were not in a position to proceed further with the 
investigation before this Meeting of the British Association. 



128 REPORT— 1874. 

Report of a Committee, consisting of Prof. A. S. Herschel, B.A., 
F.R.A.S., and G. A. Lebour, F.G.S., on Experiments to determine 
the Thermal Conductivities of certain Rocks, showing especially the 
Geological Aspects of the Investigation. 

Description and Results of the Experiments. By Prof. A. S. Herschel. 

In the introductory notes on these experiments in the Transactions of the 
Sections, p. 223, in the volume for ] 873 of these Keports, the list of rocka 
selected and the manner of experimenting on them were described. With 
the exception that sections of Calton trap-rock, of a great pj-ramid casing- 
stone (nummulitic limestone), Caenstone (or Normandy building-limestone), 
cannel-coal, chalk, and red brick were added to this list, and that the 
apparatus received some small but very important improvements to make it 
heat-tight, the material of the experiments, as well as the method of making 
them, remained substantially the same as last year. Instead of a conical tin 
vessel with 1 lb. of water, a cyHndrical one holding 2| lbs., with an internal 
agitator and thermometer, was used as the cooler. The oi^ijosing surfaces 
of the heater and cooler are faced with velvet, and are each encircled by a 
caoutchouc collar, which in-ojocting a little beyond them clasps the circular 
edge of the rock plate when it is placed between them ; two small slits in 
each collar-edge allow the wires of a thermocouple to be introduced, touching 
the rock-surfaces while the rock is being heated. AVith the view of traversing 
the plate witli the thermopile in ditferent directions, the piece of stout 
palladium wire (about 18 gauge), used as the electromotive element between 
two iron wire terminations of a delicate reflecting galvanometer, was silver- 
soldered to the iron wires at its two ends, all the wires being first rolled thin 
and flat to some distance from the junctions. The scythe or scimitar-blade 
shape generally given to the wire in rolling it thin was advantageous in the 
construction, because instead of uniting the wires continuously in one straight 
length and folding the points of junction upon opposite sides of the rock (thus 
confining their range upon it to a single diameter or to one straight line), 
advantage of the curvature was taken to connect the wires by superposition, 
instead of by prolongation at their junctions, without ovcrl3'ing each other, 
into two flat ogee-arches or merry-thought-like blades, between which the' 
rock is held as in a forceps. The unrolled parts of the wires are bound very 
firmly to a small square piece of wood, which acts as a handle to guide the 
points of the forceps to vaiious parts of the rock-faces, while it keeps them 
securely in their places, and also allows the small elastic pressure of the wires 
to help to clasp the rock gently between the points of the thermoelectric 
pincette without assistance from the velvet covers. After thus inserting a 
rock section in the apparatus, protecting the rock and cooler from below with 
a stout wooden screen, and from loss or gain of heat in other directions by 
a suitably thick case of woollen stufl!" and a few bandages of similar mate- 
rials, the rate of rise of temperature in the cooler, when agitated, was noted 
by the average number of seconds taken by a delicate thermometer con- 
tained in it to rise ^° F. (one graduation on its stem), as soon as this rate 
of rise was found to have become sensibly constant. About twenty minutes 
were usually occupied in the beginning of an expenment with watching for 
a steady condition of the thermometer-readings ; and ten or twelve minutes 
more were required to ensure it, and to obtain the average rate of their 
increase for the rock specimen under observation. The temperature-difler- 
ence shown by the galvanometer at the same time at first rose rapidly to a 



ON THE THERMAL CONDUCTIVITIES OF CERTAIN ROCKS. 129 

high maximum, and then descended very gradually to a fixed lower reading. 
The pincette "was traversed to and fro over the rock-surfaces while the 
thermometer was heing noted, and exhibited during these motions fluctu- 
ations answering to about one or two Fahrenheit degrees on either side of 
an average position ; corrected for zero of the scale, and reduced by trials 
for this purpose between every two or three experiments to Fahrenheit 
degrees, the temperature-difference thus found, divided by the quantity of 
heat transmitted to the cooler jjer minute, gave the apparent thermal con- 
ductivitj' of the plate. The results, in Peclet's units, were scarcely more 
than one third of what Peclet and other earlier experimenters had obtained. 
It was obvious that instead of marking the temperature-difference between 
the two solid contact surfaces of the rock and velvet which they touched, 
the points of the thermoelectric forceps showed the temperature of the fluid 
air-bath in which those two surfaces are immersed. The extreme mobility of 
this fluid medium, enabling it to pass to and fro through the velvet between 
the plates of the heater and the cooler, while it equally insinuates itself 
between the rock-surface and the thermopile that can only enter into actual 
solid contact with each other (at least theoretically) at three points, controls 
the temperature of the metallic thermometer far more powerfully than the 
rock-face that it touches, and the real temperature-differences between the 
rock-faces are accordingly completely masked. It is very probable that if 
the velvet covers on the instrument are replaced by caoutchouc or soft wash- 
leather, the source of this error will be very much reduced ; and although it 
is certain that the confronting rock and leather surfaces will never have 
actually the same temperature from the existence of a sensible quantity of 
resisting air between them (so that, as before, the thermopile will not mark 
the true rock-temperature-difforonce, but a mean between that difference 
and a similar difference for the leather-faces), yet the range of this error 
will be considerably smaller than in the experiments already made with 
velvet covers, whose loose texture makes air-currents the principal medium 
of heat-transmission through them. The comparative resiilts now obtained 
are accordingly only subjoined with this Heport as first approximations, 
from which the errors, anticipated last year as likely to arise from surface 
characters of the rock sections, are as yet far from having been satisfactorily 
removed. 

To obtain the true rock-temperature-differences means were taken to 
cement the thermopile-points to the rock with plaster, which it would be 
desirable to adopt with as few samples as possible, on account of the tedious- 
ness of the process, and the injury from using them thus as standards of 
correction for the rest done to the beautifully worked surfaces of many of the 
plates. If the correction found to be required can be restricted by the 
mode of operating to a range of such small limits as to be applicable gene- 
rally, without appreciable influence of the surface characters in making its 
occasional departures from a mean value very sensible, then the reduction- 
factor, found by absolute experiments with a few rocks of characteristically 
rough and smooth or polished surfaces giving the true tcmperature- 
difterence for a given heat-flow from the apparent one shown by the thermo- 
couple placed simply between the rock and leather faces, will be admissible 
(within the limits of error of the observations) to convert a list of apparent 
conductivities, as just supposed to be obtained, from a mere comparative 
table of relative conducting-powers to a table of absolute thermal conducti- 
vities, in which the errors of the values given will certainly not be greater 
than would in all probability have been committed had the direct method 

1874. K 



130 REPORT — 1874. 

of absolute measurement been applied separately to each specimen of the 
list instead of only to a few rocks which furnish data for calculating the 
absolute conductivities of the remainder. Circular disks of linen well wetted 
with plaster of Paris (mixed with a little glue or white of egg) were laid over 
the surfaces of two or three of the rocks, enclosing under them and against 
the rock the two points of the thermopile-pincette, which were also first 
dipped into plaster. When these had set quite hard under pressure, and were 
thoroughly dried by a gentle heat, they were placed in the apparatus, and a 
measurement of the absolute temperature-difference and accompanying heat- 
flow was thus obtained, affording the real conductivity and a means of com- 
parmg it with the apparent one found by similar observations of the same 
rock when no plaster was used, and when the points of the thermopile 
merely pressed against its surface. Thus the thermoelectric difference ob- 
tained with the wire couples merely touching the surfaces of white statuary- 
marble between velvet faces was 16° ; while for the same heat-flow, when 
the arms of the thermopile were firmly plastered to the marble plate, the 
temperature-difference observed was only 6°-2*, being more than twice 
and a half as large a difference in the former as in the latter case. With 
whinstone the corresponding temperature-differences were 26° and 8°-5, in 
the proportion of very nearly 3:1. A similar experiment was made with 
cannel-coal, of which the conductivity is much less than those of the last 
mentioned rocks, the temperature-differences obtained being for the same 
heat-flow in the plain and plastered plate 53°-4 and 39°-7 ; in the proportion 
of only 1-37: 1, a far smaller reduction than was observed in the two fore- 
going cases. Care is, however, necessary to introduce wet plaster under as 
well'as over the points of the thermopile in cementing them to the rock, that 
air may be excluded and the junction may be solid— a precaution which was 
omitted in this case, and plaster without size was used, which in drying 
sometimes flakes off from the rock-surface, either entirely or in places, which 
may render an experiment, as that on canacl-coal may not impossibly have 
been from this cause, entirely valueless ; yet this result presents itself, with 
many others met with in the investigation, as very well worth repetition, 
with fresh precautions and with new arrangements, to guard against the 
possibility of false conclusions. 

Adopting for the present, as probably not far from the truth, a common 
reduction-factor of 2|- as the proportion in which the recorded tempcrature- 
diftcrences of the plain rock-surfaces between velvet faces exceeded the true 
temperature-differences of the surfaces of the rocks examined, and intro- 
ducing some very small corrections for the thicknesses of the plates, the 
thermal capacity of the metal cooler, &c., which are all probably (as well as 
the allowance for heat-absorption in raising the temperature of the rock 
plates very slowly during the observations) really negligible in comparison 
with the uncertainty that attaches (except in one or two well-observed cases 
of absolutely measured tcmperature-diflerences of the rock-faces) to the 
great majority of the determinations from unknown peculiarities of surface- 
contact and heat-transfer where air surrounds the thermopile, the following 
Table gives the absolute thermal conductivities (in centimetrc-gramme-second 

* The beat -flow tlirough the plate was actually greater in this latter than in the former 
case in the proportion of about 5: -4, showingthat the rougli plaster-washed linen surface 
received and delivered heat to the velvet covers nnicb more readily than the smoothly 
dressed surface of the stone ; and the whole resistance was loss in the former than in the 
latter case, although tlie rock plate itself had been made thicker. Tlie same diminution 
of the total resistance occurred also in the experiment with plastesed whinstone. 



ON THE THERMAL CONDUCTIVITIES OF CERTAIN ROCKS. 



13 



or absolute British-Association units) thus provisionally obtained, together 
with a few similar results (in the third column of the Table) found by Peclet, 
Forbes, and Sir William Thomson in rocks differing little in their description 
from those included in the present list : — 

Provisional determinations of Thermal Comhictivities of certain RocJcs. 
First Expenmental Mesidts. 



Description of rock. 


Thermal conductivity 
(gramme --water-de- 
gree heat-units per 
sec, at 1° difference 
of the faces, through 
a centimetre-cube). 


Earlier ol)servations of conductivitie.'i 
of similar rocks. 


Description of rock. 


Observers. 


Grey Aberdeen granite. . . 
Red Cornish serpentine. . . 
Calton trap-rock (first 

specimen), 
Whinstone 


•00600 
■00483 
•00520 

•00312 

•00489 
•00462 

•00392 
•00412 
•00559 

•00559 

•00525 

•00512 

•00507 
•00433 

•00305 

•003S4 
•00178 

•00161 
1 -00163 


•00206 
-00169 

•00089 

-0007 
-0077 
•0058 
•0047 

r ^0037 1 
•0035 / 

f -00145 
•00122 


Calton trap-rock 

Sand of experimental 1 
rock. Thermometer [ 
Garden. 

Craigleith sandstone . . . ■' 

Fine-grained grey mar- ^ 

ble. 
Coarse crystalline white 

marble. > 
Fine-grained calcareous 

stone. 
Ditto ditto , 

Coarse - grained Lias ' 
building-stono 

Ordinary fine plaster" 
(made up). 

Finest plnstor for cast- 
ing (made up). 


Forbes 
and 
Thomson. 

Peclet. 

Peclet. 
Peclet. 


Kenton sandstone 


Congleton " second grit " 

sandstone. 
Slate 


Alabaster 


Sicilian white statuary- 
marble. 
Irish fossil marble ...... 

Devon.shire red marble... 

Italian vein marble(whito, 
grey veins). 

Irish green marble 

Nurainulitic limestone (a 
piece of Great Pyramid 
casing-stone, presented 
by Prof. C. P. Smytli). 

Caen (building) limestone 

Chalk 


Black shale (Ncwcastle- 

on-Tyne). 
Canncl-coal 


Plaster of Paris (for cast- 
ings) 



Geohrjical Aspects of the Results of the Experiments. By G. A. Leboitr. 

So far as these experiments have gone, they have certainly warranted the 
importance, from a geological point of view, which it was hoped they would 
have. Not only have the relative conductive powers for heat of a consider- 
able number of rocks been arrived at, but a distinct grouping of the various 
kinds, according to their conductivity, has sketched itself out sufficiently 
clearly, if one considers the limited amount of substances yet tested. 

k2 



183 UEPORT — 18/4'. 

Speaking broadly, one may say that the lighter and more porous the rock 
the greater its resistance to heat ; the more compact and crystalline the less 
is this resistance. Of the specimens operated on, granite of averaged- sized 
grain offered the least resistance to the passage of heat, and coal and plaster 
of Paris were at the other end of the scale with the greatest resistance. 
The intermediate grouping of the other substances is interesting, and may be 
perhaps best understood by means of a mental diagram. Imagining a line 
divided into nine equal parts, the ten points being marked A, B, C, D, E, F, 
G, H, I, K respectively ; then, according to the resistances calculated from 
the Table of conductivities given in the first part of the Report : — 

A = Granite (with least resistance). 

B = Grit. 

C=Chalk. 

D = Basalt. 

E = ?^ 

p _ 9 ?• (°ot known yet). 

H=?J 

I = Shale. 

K=Coal and plaster of Paris (highest resistance). 

Now between A and B Ave get five kinds of marble and Calton trap-rock, 
and close to B, Kenton sandstone and Red Serpentine ; between B and C we 
get Numnuilitic limestone, alabaster, and slate. 

When a much larger number of rocks have been experimented on we may 
hope to fill up the gaps, and show the natural grouping still more strikingly; 
and it will then become a question whether a scale somewhat of the nature 
of that iust sketched out may not be constructed fully and accuratelj', which 
to the geologist would afford a ready means of referring new observations 
to their proper relative positions. A scale of this kind would become to the 
physical geologist something analogous to what the scale of hardness is to 
the mineralogist. Using even the imperfect one which is all we can arrive 
at yet, I have translated, so to speak, some of the detailed sections of strata 
in which underground temperatures have been observed into heat-resistance- 
equivalents with such results as I ho])c to be able to embody in next year's 
Report, showing how far the connexion which undoubtedly exists between 
the conductivity of the various rocks and the tomperatui'es observed is dis- 
turbed, altered, and, I believe, occasionally reversed by external conditions. 
I have especially worked this out in the case of the South Hetton Colliery 
section, which for the accuracy of the temperature observations and the 
exactness of the boring records, together with considerable depth, is second to 
none (see Brit. Assoc. Report, 1872, p. 132). In this case an evident rela- 
tion is observable between the calculated conductivities and the thermometric 
results. This case and the others, however, require considerably more working- 
out before the result can be published. 



ON THE EXPLORATION OF THE SETTLE CAVES. 1 ?i3 

Second Report of the Committee, consisting of Sir John Lubbock, 
Bart., Prof. Hughes, Prof. W. Boyd Dawkins, Messrs. L. C. Miall 
and R. H. Tiddeman, appointed for the purpose of assisting in the 
Exploration of the Settle Caves {Victoria Cave). Drawn up by 
R. H. Tiddeman, Secretary. 

The Committee have to record their deep sorrow at the loss sustained by the 
death of one of their number, the late Professor Phillips, a loss so univer- 
sally felt, that any remarks upon the matter would bo superfluous ; suffice it 
to say that Professor Phillips took great interest iu the exploration, aud was 
very anxious for its further prosecution. 

On the 18th of September tlie Committee with a select party of the Mem- 
bers went to see the Cave aud the Cave Collection at the invitation of Mr. 
John Birkbeck, Sen., and were most hospitably entertained by him and his 
son, the Treasurer and Secretary to the Settle Committee. Although the 
W'cather was very bad and dusk came on earlier than was convenient, enough 
was seen to show the members of the expedition the chief bearings and diffi- 
culties of the exploration. On their return, the Museum at Giggleswick 
School was visited, and ranch satisfaction was expressed at the results already 
obtained, Professor Phillips in particular being very warm in his admu-ation. 

At a Meeting of the Settle Committee held at Giggleswick on the 9th of 
October, Sir J. P. Kay-Shuttleworth, Bart., in the chair, the further working 
of the Cave was discussed, and it was decided that work should be recom- 
menced so soon as subscriptions to the amount of £100, inclusive of the As- 
sociation grant, had been received. It was further proposed and agreed that 
your Reporter should be entrusted with the scientific direction of the work. 
There being a debt; of over .£37 from the work of the preceding year, Mr. 
John Birkbeck, Sen., one of the most energetic promoters of the work from 
the commencement, generously paid that sum in order that the Committee 
might start afresh unhampered by any liabilities. 

The Settle Committee have raised and expended in the course of the year, 
besides the British-Association grant of .£50, £113 4s. 2>cl. 

On the 7th of October a most important communication was received from 
Professor Busk. It was to the effect that a certain bone from the cave, which 
had been in his keeping some time and had been doubtfully referred to 
elephant, was undoubtedly human — a fibula of unusually clumsy build, and 
in that respect not unlike the same bone in the Mentone skeleton. This 
bone was exhumed by the Committee in May 1872, and was lying in juxta- 
position with and under circumstances which left no doubt of its having been 
contemporary with Ursus spelceus and ferox, Hycena, lihinoceros tichorhiniis. 
Bison, and Cervus elaphus; also close by it were two small molars of Ek~ 
phas. It was at fii-st supposed that these were 2y>'"n{ genius. Dr. Leith 
Adams, however, during the past year expressed a doubt upon the determi- 
nation, and after a careful comparison with type specimens in the British 
Museum, pronounced them to be Elephas antiquum, an opinion in which Mr. 
T. Davies concurs. Professor Busk, after examining them again does not 
commit himself to a definite opinion, but thinks on the whole that they are 
most likely aiUtqxms. The balance of opinion, therefore, strongly preponde- 
rates in favour of Dr. Leith Adams's decision, and this is important as ex- 
tending the range of that species. It had been before found at Kirkdale, but 
was previously unknown in the north-west of England. 

On the 9th of December Professor Busk read a paper upon, the humau 



13-i REPORT — 1874. 

fibula to the Anthropological Institute. He states that " there is nothing 
in the condition of the bono opposed to its belonging to the most remote 
antiquity, nor to its owner having been coeval with the extinct mammalia 
(before mentioned), with whose remains the specimen, as to condition, difters 
in no appreciable respect- Its interest, therefore, as representing one of the 
earliest extant specimens of humanity, will be at once obvious. But in 
another regard also it appears desirable that some notice of it should be placed 
on record. The very iiausual form and thickness of the bone have caused 
such great difficulty in its recognition as human, that it is well worth while 
to draw attention to its peculiarities." Professor Busk proceeds to state that 
after much hesitation he was induced to think, at the suggestion of Mr. James 
Plower, that the bone in question might be referred to a small form of ele- 
phant ; but considerable doubt remained on their minds untU Professor Busk 
saw the Mentone skeleton at Paris, and noticing the thick and clumsy fibula 
belonging to it, was at once struck with the apparent resemblance between 
it and the Victoria-Cave bone. Following up this suggestion, Mr. James 
Flower discovered in the Museum of the College of Burgeons a recent human 
fibula of unusual thickness, which at once removed all doubt. The circum- 
ference of the cave bone about the middle is 2"-2. The unusually thick 
fibula with which Professor Busk compares it measures 2", whereas he con- 
siders that ordinary full-sized human fibulas may be taken at from 1"*4 to 
1"'8. It is obvious, therefore, that the Settle specimen is unusually thick. 
Professor Busk expresses his opinion that it does not appear from the form of 
the bone that the corresponding tibia was platycnemic, but he hopes that 
further exploration may clear up this and other interesting points. (Journal 
of the Anthropological Institute, vol. iii. No. 3, pp. 392-4.) 

This communication was of the greatest interest, for it had been some time 
before pointed out that there was much chance of the beds in which this bone 
occurred being preglacial, or at any rate of an age preceding that time when 
Scotland, a great part of Ireland, and the north of England were slumbering 
beneath a great sheet of ice similar to those which now cover the greater 
part of Greenland and enshroud a portion of the southern hemisphere. 

The Committee was decided by this in its course of work for the year. The 
question was one of such importance, that we felt the first thing to be done 
was to develop all the e\ddence that could be procured upon the question of 
whether these beds containing the older mammals and Man were of pre- 
glacial or interglacial age or not. 

In order that these operations may be the better understood, it is neces- 
sary briefly to recapitulate the order and succession of beds inside and out- 
side the cave. The three principal beds inside the cave are 

The Upper Cave-earth, 
The Laminated Clay, 
The Lower Cave-earth. 

These beds were described by your Keporter in a communication to the Settle- 
Caves Committee early in 1871, and subsequently to the British Association 
in 1872, but appeared in full in the ' Geological Magazine ' for January 1873, 
to which ho must refer for detailed description. In those communications 
reasons were given for thinking it probable that the laminated clay was ac- 
cumulated under glacial conditions from the muddy water of a glacier or an 
ice-sheet. Such water would penetrate hoUows in the rocks anywhere, and 
have a tendency to throw down its mud. Subsequent explorations have only 
served to confirm this view. First (in 1872) came the discovery of the Pleis'-. 



ON THE EXPLORATION OF THE SETTLE CAVES. 135 

tocene fauna at some depth below the laminated clay, they never having been 
found above it. Next, the exploration brought to light the existence of a 
bed of glacial boulders resting on the denuded edges of the lower cave-earth. 
The work of the past year has shown exceedingly well the extent and im- 
portance of this bed, and further has brought to light the existence of several 
well-glaciated small boulders in the laminated clay itself. This clay, so far, 
has yielded no organic remains. It ranges quite across the cave, and is co- 
extensive with the explorations so far as they have gone, and in one place 
attains a thickness of 12 feet. It has been a horizon of great importance 
from its continuity, distinguishing the earlier from the later beds. The latest 
work in chamber J) (on the right), however, appears to show that it is di- 
minishing in thickness as we go inwards in that direction. Besides the main 
bed of it, many of the little chinks between fragments of rock in the lower 
cave-earth have been filled up with it. This filling in may have occurred at 
about the same time as the formation of the great mass above ; for certainly 
glacial conditions imply amongst other things the running of much muddy 
water, and wherever preexisting chinks occui-red, they would have much 
chance of being filled up. Laminated clay of course may be, and often is, 
formed under other than glacial conditions (that of the Victoria Cave, indeed, 
bears a strong resemblance to the famous Nile-mud); but here its thickness and 
the contrast it affords to the deposits above and below, taken with its extent, 
seem to demonstrate a change and a long continuance of distinct physical 
conditions. 

It was noticed by those who visited the Victoria Cave last year that it is 
approached by a narrow cutting on the right as you face it. This had been 
made through a great thickness of "screes" or limestone talus ; and below that 
talus, close to a large fallen block of limestone, which, with the face of rock 
en the right, formed a natural arch about 7 feet high, were visible at that 
time a few glaciated boulders. It was determined to expose these boulders 
and follow them, noting their position and range ; but, in order to do this, 
we were under the necessity of removing a great mass of talus. Moreover, 
the " tip " of the old Avorkings had accumulated in the front to such an extent 
as to seriously impede the operations. We therefore proceeded to remove a 
large breadth both of the tip and of the talus. The removal of the tip was 
of course mere mechanical labour, but the talus was removed with careful 
searching for the following reasons. 

In the first place, it occurred to us that if the boulders beneath the cliff 
had fallen from that cliff, or from hollows in it, it was not improbable that 
other boulders might be found at different heights in the talus. 

Secondly, we thought that if the boulders at the bottom of the talus had 
been deposited in their position in glacial times, and the talus represented 
the wearing away of the cliff by frost and other atmospheric influences, we 
might get a succession (an imperfect one, but still a succession) of the differ- 
ent forms of life which had followed one another thi'ough that long period. 

Our first inquii-y established the fact that through this great thickness 
(19 feet) of talus, from the base of the Roman layer which lies within the 
first two feet of the surface down to the horizon where the boulders lie in a 
great mass, not a single fragment of foreign rock, whether of Silurian grit, 
of MiUstone-grit, or of limestone, other than that of which the cliff above is 
composed, occm-red. The whole mass consisted of sharply angular fragments 
of white limestone. No rounded forms existed ; nothing with any of the . 
characteristics of ice-worn boulders or of stream-borne pebbles. The whole 
deposit spoke of the slow wearing away of a cliff, free from drift, by the 



136 . REPORT— 1874. 

ordinary effects of winter frosts and summer rain. The edge of the cliff, on 
the retiring of the ice-sheet, was probably as free from glacial drift as we 
now find it. 

Our second inquiry, which proceeded simultaneously with the first, met 
with only negative results. From the bottom of the Roman layer to the main 
mass of the boulders we met with no bones whatever, nor with anj'' evidence 
of man's presence*. If, through the long time represented by these 19 feet of 
talus, animals existed in the neighbourhood, either they did not happen to 
die at or to be carried to the spot excavated, or tlieir bones have been entirely 
dissolved by the action of rain. The former seems the more probable alter- 
native ; for if bones were dissolved, some remains of teeth at any rate would 
probably survive. A few bones, however, were found u])on and among the 
boulders ; these we have not yet had an opportunit)' to determine, and from 
their position it is doubtful to what age they may belong, for it is quite pos- 
sible that they may have been washed out of the sloping denuded edges of 
the lower cave-earth on which the boulders rest. One appears to be a frag- 
ment of a very large bone, and possibly may be elephant ; another is the 
OS calcis of an ox. 

The Eoman layer, as the black band is with much reason called, contained 
several different kinds of pottery, some coarse and black, others white, and 
some red Samian Avare. Of bronze articles six were found : two were brace- 
lets, one consisting of three strands of wire twisted, with the hook by which 
it was fastened still remaining at one end ; a second was thicker, consisting 
of five strands, but merely a fragment, only one fourth of what must have 
been its entire length ; a band of thin bronze plate, which looks as if it 
might have bound a sword- or dagger-sheath ; the bow end of a broken key ; 
a scent-box or vinaigrette perforated with four holes, in appearance some- 
thing like the top of a peppercaster, only one side of it remaining, together 
with the hinge still in working order, and the loop by which it was sus- 
pended round the fair neck of its wearer. Similar ornaments are figured in 
' Eoman Antiquities, Mansion House,' by Mr. J. E. Price, F.S.A., to whom we 
arc indebted for its identification. A sixth object was found amongst some 
of the lloman laj^er which had been thrown over the tip, and is of doubtful 
age. It is a circular plate 1| inch in diameter, with a hole in the centre and 
two rivets at the back. It must have been afiixed to some perishable mate- 
rial, for the rivets which project for some distance at their distal ends are 
quite perfect. It seems to have some traces of silvering at its centre. During 
the removal of the talus, the Eeporter found three rudely discoidal pieces of 
Carboniferous gritstone, which appeared to have been roughly chipped to a 
diameter of between 5 and 6 inches. They were red, and had evidently been 
subjected to fire ; most probably they had been used as pot-boilers, and their 
discoidal form was given to them that they might better fit the bottom of the 
pot. They were from the upper portion of the talus, that containing the 
pottery, but the exact position had been forgotten by the workmen. 

As the summer advanced, the talus and overlying " tip " were so far re- 
moved that it was determined to convene a Meeting of the Committee and 
others to witness the removal of the last layers of talus and the uncovering 
of the boulder-bod. Invitations for the 6th of July were issued to aU the 
Committee, to all who had written papers on the cave, and some other 
geologists. 

Of the British Association Committee, only Mr. MiaU and I were able to 

* The Neolithic layer appears to have died out down the slope, or to have coalesced 
with the Eoman layer. 



ON THE EXPLORATION OP THE SETTLE CAVES. 137 

attend ; Mr. John Birkbeck, Jun., represented the Settle Committee : we had 
the valuable assistance of Messrs. Aveline, Dakyns, and otlicr gentlemen. 
We were unfortunately deprived at the last moment of the valuable services 
of Professor Kamsay, who had expressed his intention of being present, but 
was prevented by public business. 

In the course of the 6th and 7th of July the boulders were quickly brought 
to view and in great numbers ; we counted over two hundred, of dimensions 
from a few inclies to 6 feet in diameter, besides numberless smaller ones 
which it was not possible to preserve. Wherever a boulder was exposed it 
was left hi situ, and the clearing away of the talus proceeded along the face 
of the bed. In several places we found a little clay above the boulders ; but 
it was apparently of very recent introduction, and had been washed into the 
talus by the draining of Avaler from above before the workings had got down 
to their present level. This was apparent from its containing blades of grass 
and pieces of straw which had not rotted away. 

The boulders were found to be lying in an irregular layer from 3 to 4 feet 
tbiek at bottom, dipping outwards from the cave in a direction W. 40° S., 
and extending across its mouth at the level where we were then working ; 
but at the north-western extremity of its range it curved round more to the 
north, and therefore dijjped more westerly, showing in all a breadth of glacial 
deposits of about 12 yards. The boulders consisted almost exclusivelj' of 
blocks of Silurian grit and of Carboniferous Limestone in about equal num- 
bers, but there were one or two of Carboniferous Sandstone. The form was 
qviite enough to distinguish the Carboniferous Limestone boulders from the 
sharply angular blocks of the talus; but, besides, many of them were of black 
bituminous limestone, and not of the white limestone in which the cavern is 
excavated. They were nearly all of well-marked glacial form, and most re- 
tained glacial markings. One round pebble of limestone was found near the 
base of the bed. The sites, dimensions, and arrangement of some of the 
principal were noted with reference to a level datum-line running N. 40° W. 
from a mark upon the wail of rock on the right, and after the saction had 
been well cleared of talus ; the boulders were marked (S) for Silurian and (L) 
for limestone, and then photographed. Angular pieces of limestone, similar 
to those in the lower cave-earth and in the talus, were mixed up with 
boulders throughout, and the whole was filled in with mud, but much of it 
appeared to be rather recent. The boulder-bed thinned away upwards, and 
is apparently thickening rapidly towards the dip ; doubtless it will be found 
much thicker at a lower level. 

In accordance with a suggestion from Professor Prestwich, a hole was dug 
in front of the large fallen block which forms the arch already mentioned, 
and the boulder-bed penetrated. A great many large and small boulders 
were dug out of this hole. Beneath was a bed of angular gravel filled in 
with clay a few inches thick. When washed, the small pieces of stone of 
which it was composed were found to be really small boulders, many of 
them scratched and bruised. Whilst wet it bore some resemblance to the 
gravel which covers little cones of ice low down upon a glacier near the 
moraine, and which ofi'ers such apparently good, but really bad foothold to 
unwary travellers *. Below this were a few inches of yellow clay, which 
Mr. Jackson, our Superintendent, says is similar to that which was found at 
the bottom of the 12 feet of laminated clay in the 25-foot shaft in Chamber B. 
This is an interesting point ; for if the laminated clay and the boulder-bed 
are both^ of glacial age, it seems likely that this thin bed of yellow clay 
* Torbes, ' Theory of Glaciers,' p. 241. 



138 REPORT — 1874. 

beneath them may have been forming simultaneously inside and outside the 
cave ; and these two spots, we believe, are the only places where we have 
found distinctly ycUow clay during the explorations. Some small fragments 
of bone were found beneath the yellow clay in ordinary cave-mud with an- 
gular limestone, to all appearance lower cave-earth, similar to that more fully 
exposed in the cave ; but we came down upon some very large blocks of 
limestone, and did not think it advisable to enlarge the hole. 

This is the only vertical hole which the Committee have dug this year, and 
it is shallow, not more than 4 feet deep. All our operations have been con- 
ducted by digging out in horizontal layers, to avoid any confusion which 
might arise from the falling in or mixing up of things of different ages in 
vertical shafts. 

Those who were present at the uncovering of the boulders were unani- 
mously of opinion that they had not fallen from the clilf in postglacial times, 
for the following reasons : — 

1. The cliff immediately above the cave is free from any boulder deposits 

for a considerable distance. 

2. The boulders lie at the base of all the talus, which must have been 

forming ever since glacial conditions declined, and no other falls of 
even isolated boulders have occurred throughout the whole thickness 
of screes. 

3. The boulders are so close beneath the cliff, that if all the limestone 

which has fallen from it and is now lying on the boulders could be 
restored to the cliff, it would project so much further forward, that 
the fall of the boulders from the cliff to their present position would 
be impossible. 

Professor Prestwich and Mr. Bristow, who were good enough to visit the 
cave earlier in the year, both give it as their opinion that the boulders had 
not fallen from the cliff, but were part of the ordinary drift deposit which 
covers the bottom of the valley and lines the hill-sides up to the bottom of 
the cliff's hard bJ^ 

The important bearing of these questions upon the correlation and age of 
the drifts of England and the antiquity of Man cannot be overestimated*. 
If rightly interpreted, it may give the key to much that has hitherto been 
imsatisfactory, and even contradictory, in Pleistocene geology. 

In conclusion, the Committee have much pleasure in offering their thanks 
to the Settle Committee for the generous and liberal manner in which they 
have carried on this important investigation, and to Mr. John Birkbeck, Jun., 
for his valuable services as Honorary Treasurer and Secretary from the com- 
mencement. 

They have also to thank the following gentlemen for assistance kindly 
given : — Professor Busk, Dr. Leith Adams, Mr. Franks, and Mr. T. Davies of 
the British Museum. 

Your Committee propose that they may be reappointed. 

* " The Eelation of Man to the Ice-sheet'in the North of England," ' JJatui-e,' vol. ix. 
No. 210, p. 14. 



ON THE INDUSTRIAL USES OF THE UPPER BANN RIVER. 139 

On the Industrial Uses of the Upper Bann River. 
By John Smyth, Jun., M.A., C.E., F.C.S. 

[A communication ordered by the General Committee to be printed in cxfciiso.] 

The river Bann rises in the Moiirnc Mountains and flows a distance of 85 
miles, in a northerly direction, through Lough Ncagh into the North- Atlantic 
Ocean at Coleraine. Its drainage-area, including that of its many tribu- 
taries and the surface of Lough Ncagh, is 2345 square miles, and is surpassed 
in Ireland only by that of the Shannon, which is 6946 square miles, and the 
Barrow Nore and Suir, which is 3410 square miles. This area or rainfall 
gathering-ground is well surrounded by mountains flanked by high table- 
land, the descent from which is rapid. The banks of the various branches 
of the Bann, therefore, ofi'er pecuharly favourable sites for mills, a fact which 
has been well taken advantage of by the industrious inhabitants of this pros- 
perous district, and, to a large extent, contributed to the establishment of the 
linen trade in the north of Ireland. The principal branches or tributaries of 
the Bann are the 

Blackwater river, which drains part of the counties of Armagh, Monaghan, and Tyrone. 

Ballinderry „ ,, „ Tyrone and Londonderry. 

Moyola „ „ county of Londonderry. 

Claudy „ „ „ „ 

Agivey „ „ 

Maine „ „ ,, Antrim. 

Six-Mile Water „ „ „ „ 

Upper Bann ,, „ „ Down. 

Cusher ,, ,, „ Armagh. 

. Although the Upper Bann drains a much smallei- area than either the 
Blackwatcr or Maine, it is the most important and interesting in an econo- 
mic and engiiieering aspect. For in that valuable work ' The Industrial 
Besoijrces of Ireland,' published thirty years ago by Sir Robert Kane, he says 
" The Upper Bann is the most fuUy economized river in Ireland," and refers 
to it as of an example worthy of imitation in the application of engineering 
science to the development of natural resources by the construction of its 
reservoirs. I therefore proceed to describe what has already been done to 
turn its natural advantages to good account and the result. 

The Upper Bann, from its source to the point where the water from the last 
miU is returned to the river, is about 31 miles long, and drains an area of 
134 square miles, or one seventeenth of that of the Banu-system. Trom this 
point to Lough Ncagh, a distance of 10 miles, it is navigable, and forms with 
the Cusher river and canal part of the Newry navigation. There is no record, 
as far as I have been able to discover, of the time mills were first erected 
on the Upper Bann. The weir-dams which are found in the old maps 
bear the appearance of ancient construction ; and reference is made in ancient 
leases to the repair of weir-dams and the necessity of grinding corn at the 
manor mill. There is no doubt but that the establishment of the linen trade 
on the river Bann is of very ancient date. It is stated that in the year 1772 
there were 26 bleach-mills on the Bann, and the linens from that district were 
weU known and highly esteemed in England and Scotland. The machinery 
in these miUs was driven by undershot-wheels, which only give out about 25 
per cent, of the theoretical useful efl'ect of the fall of water. About the year 
1833, however, apphcation was made by Mr. Law, of Hazelbank mill, to the 
late Sir William Pairbairn, F.li.S., the celebrated hydraulic engineer, who, 



140 REPORT — 1874. 

through a professional connexion with Ireland of fifty years, has so much 
advanced the usefulness of the Upper Banu by improved mechanical and en- 
gineering appliances ; unfortunately for the world that eminent and invalu- 
able life has just terminated, after having accomplished more than the most 
sanguine could hope to see realized in a lifetime. He put up an iron breast- 
wheel, which gave great satisfaction and is still capable of doing good work. 
It was at first used for driving linen beetling-machines, and was calculated 
to give a useful effect equal to 60 per cent, of the theoretical power of the 
water. He erected another of the same kind shortly after this at ^capatrick, to 
drive beetling-engines and power-looms, and subsequently several others were 
put up at different mills on the river by Mr. Boyd and the firm of Coatcs and 
Young, of Belfast. In 1835 the principal miU-owners formed themselves into 
a provisional Committee to take steps to procure a better and more regular 
supply of water by the construction of reservoirs. They placed the matter 
ill the hands of Sir AVilliam Fairbairn, who, assisted by J. F. Batcman, Esq., 
F.ll.S., surveyed the collecting-grounds of the river Bann and its several 
tributaries, and made an excellent and most interesting report of the water- 
bearing resources of the district. He recommended the construction of two 
impounding reservoirs, Lough Island Heavy and Deer's Meadow, and one 
auxiliary one, the Corbet Lough. The Bann lleservoir Company was then 
formed, and Lough Island Eeavy first constructed according to the plans and 
under the superintendence of Mr. Bateman, and was finished in the latter 
part of the year 1839. 

The Corbet reservoir M'as also constructed, but not to the full extent 
contemplated, the embankment having been made to impound the water to 
a dei^th only of 11 feet 3 inches instead of 18 feet. Much difliculty was 
encountered in the worlc, which was not finished till the year 1847. 

The Deer's-Meadow reservoir was abandoned, as the works were of a heavy 
character, and the gathering-ground being small, it was feared there would not 
be sufficient water to fill it. A detailed account is given of the works at 
Lough Island Reavy by Mr. Bateman in the ' Transactions of the Institution 
of Civil Engineers ' for 1841 or 1842, so it is not necessary to do more than 
to describe a few specialities. The works arc most substantial, and the em- 
bankments never showed any deficiency or weakness ; one peculiarity in their 
construction is the use of a wall of peat on the water side of the puddle-wall 
and another on the water face of the embankment. " Its application has been 
most successful, as there has been no leakage through the embankment. I 
have found peat used in this way in conjunction with clay puddle most effi- 
cacious in mill-dams and river- courses, and for surrounding smooth iron pipes 
in their passage through banks ; indeed the value of its use is well attested by 
the prevalent practice of its traditional adoption in difficult cases in those 
districts where it is procurable. Some experiments made to determine the 
rationale of its action, showed that, like a sponge, it expands to fill the space 
left by the shrinkage of the puddle ; if this space were not thus occupied, 
water would trickle into the fissures and gradually wash soft material away. 

In the solid ground under the main embankment a culvert is built about 
150 feet long, filled at the half of its length by a solid plug of masonry, 
into which three iron pipes are inserted. These pipes are each 18 inches in 
diameter ; one of these, which lies above the other two, is for use in cases of 
emergency, only Tg feet long and closed (by a dead flanche) on the discharge 
end; the others, which arc laid on the bottom of the culvert, are 82 feet long 
and provided with sluice-valves. These valves are surrounded by an arched 
chamber (an enlargement of the outer culvert), and are regulated, according 



ON THE INDUSTRIAL USES OF THE UPPER BANN RIVER. 141 

to the depth of water in the reservoir, to give the regular supply allowed to 
tlic mills. The greatest depth to which the reservoir is filled over the level 
of discharge of these pipes is 38^ feet; when this is the case the surface of 
the lake is ahout 250 acres in extent. It was intended to have been 40 feet, 
hut the works were not carried out to that extent. The culvert, as Mr. 
Bateraan tells us in his paper, has given some trouble, since the superin- 
tendent did not carry out the work in accordance with his designs, having 
surrounded the arch with rubble-backing. The cement, which was made on 
the ground from the specification of M. Vicat, just then published, gave way 
under the water pressure, was washed out of the joints and allowed the 
water to escape from the reservoir through the rubble-backing. Mr. Bateman 
then had part of the backing removed and replaced by puddle, and the inner 
joints of the tunnel caulked with oakum. This cured the evil for sometime; 
but in a few years the leakage again appeared, and had increased so much in 
1867 that Mr. Bateman was brought over to examine it. He recommended 
as the only effectual remedy to the leakage to cut out the centre of the em- 
bankment down to the culvert, take away the rubble-backing and all loose 
material around the culvert, and erect perfectly water-tight waUs closely 
connected with the existing masonry on each side of the puddle-ti'ench. As 
it was then too late in the season to carry out this great work, he recom- 
mended as a temporary expedient to repeat the measures adopted in 1839, 
of puddling round the mouth of the inner culvert and caulking all its open 
joints, also, if necessary, to make good the concrete under the invert. The 
Directorsof the Bann Keservoir Company were unwilUng to incur the expense 
of cutting out the centre of the embankment, as it would not only have cost 
a large sum for the work, but also have stopped the rates for at least a year. 
I was therefore requested to make the smaller work, recommended as tem- 
porary, if possible so effectual in moderating or stopping the leakage as to 
prevent recourse being had to the larger work. I had therefore a portion of 
the bank excavated so as to expose about six feet of the culvert close to the 
forebay or mouth, the concrete under the invert removed for about three feet, 
and a close wall of fire-brick and Portland cement built under and around 
the culvert, with which it was closely united. The excavation was then 
made up with puddle and dry peat, so staunch as to prevent access of water 
from the embankment to the backing of the culvert, and the old plan of 
caulking and cementing the open joints prevented the water getting to it 
through the inside of the arch. This caulking was not carried out as com- 
pletely as I wished, since it was then so late in the season that further delay 
in getting water into the reservoir would have been likely to entail serious 
loss ; so only the points that showed weakness were attended to, and a lining 
of cement applied to the whole of the inner culvert. 

The result was most satisfactory, asthe leakage was almost entirely stojiped, 
and since then has given no trouble. The insignificant escape then left, 
although somewhat increased by the softening of the cement in some of the 
joints, may be stopped when a convenient opportunity occurs by caulking ; or 
the difficulty of the imperfect masonry may be got over by continuing the 
iron pipes back to the mouth of the culvert, and securing them there by a 
solid plug of masonry. A portion of this leakage is probably derived from a 
spring, as it is harder than the water in the reservoir. A more detailed descrip- 
tion of these repairs may be found in a paper by me published in the ' Trans- 
actions of the Institution of Civil Engineers of Ireland,' vol. ix. p. .51. 

Lough Island Reavy reservoir is 430 feet above the sea- level, and is mainly 
supplied from the Muddock river by a feeder of about one and a half mile 



.142 REPORT— 1871. 

long, which leaves the river at a point 10 feet higher than the top level of 
the reservoir, and three miles from its source on the Butter Mountain, There 
are stop-sluices at the head or intake of the feeder to turn the water back 
into the river when the reservoir is full. Another feeder from the Money- 
scalp river supplies to the reservoir about one fourth the quantity derived 
from the Muddock, and is also supplied with stop-sluices. This Moneyscalp 
river runs to the sea at Newcastle. The whole rainfall gathering-ground of 
Lough Island Eeavy, including the lake itself, is about five square miles. 
The water from the pipes for the supply of the mills is delivered into an open 
conduit, which is about one mile long, and joins the Muddock again about a 
mile below the intake. 

The river Muddock is one of the most important branches of the Bann ; it 
rises about 1200 feet above the top water-level of the reservoir, and conse- 
quently falls nearly 400 feet per mile above the intake of the feeder. For 
three miles below the reservoir the fall is about 40 feet per mUe, and from 
that to its confluence with the river Bann (which is also three miles) the fall 
is only 3 feet per mile. This last three miles of the river Muddock has been 
a source of great trouble and expense to the Bann Reservoir Company, as it 
is not only sluggish in its flow, but exceedingly tortuous, and consequently 
continually siltiug-up. There is a difficulty in point of law as to whether 
the riparian owners or the Reservoir Company should clean the river. This 
question is at present being argued. The lleservoir Company did clean out 
the river sixteen years ago, when they were in faidt in not putting down the 
sluices at the intake of the Moneyscalp feeder when the reservoir was full ; 
consequently in time of flood water flowed down the old Muddock river 
which had never done so before the formation of the reservoir ; and the Com- 
pany were held responsible under an arbitration and recommended to scour 
the river. As they had no power over the banks of the stream, they were 
obliged to pay large sums to the farmers for their use, and also for throwing 
out on and removing from them the scourings and weeds, although by the 
construction of the reservoir floods are caught which previously overflowed 
these low lands for the greater part of the year. Since then some of the 
banks have fallen in, and the weeds have increased so much as to form 
with the siltings a serious obstruction to the discharge of sufficient water 
for the miU supply, which in some places makes its way up the side drains, 
and (where the back drains are not attended to) overflows grounds lower 
than the banks ; and actions have been taken against the Company. The 
banks also are low — indeed, for this three miles of the Muddock's course, 
under the level to which floods sometimes rise in the Bann at its moutJi ; 
consequently these floods make their way back and overflow to a great depth 
large tracts of low land on each side. The outlet is through a narrow bridge, 
and so, augmented by the Muddock's own floods, they are prevented from 
running off rapidly and thus injure these lands, for which the Bann Reservoir 
Company were obliged to pay damages. 

There is a great obstruction to the flow of the Bann at its confluence with 
the Muddock, which if removed, and the channel of the Muddock altered for 
about fifty yards, so as to flow with instead of against the stream of the 
Bann, the Bann also widened and deepened for a short distance, and tlio iiar- 
row Muddock bridge referred to above widened and deepened, the floods of 
the Bann might in a great measure be prevented from interfering with the 
Muddock, and the drainage of the Muddock itself much improved. The 
Reservoir Company were at that time willing to unite with the proprietors 
of the land in carrying out this improvement, but the latter were not willing 



ON THE INDUSTRIAL USES OF THE UPPER BANN RIVER. 143 

to join. From the confluence of the Muddock to Kate's Bridge, a distance 
of six and a half miles, there is 27 feet !) inches of unoccupied full. There 
were two weir-dams on this reach, called Eonghan and Ballyroney ; the former 
was taken down more than ten years ago, and the latter has become dila- 
pidated since the mill was burnt a few years ago. From Kate's Bridge to 
Aughnacloy or Ervin's Weir, a distance of two miles, there is one fall of 
7 feet 3 inches occupied by a corn-mill and 2| feet of unoccupied fall. The 
intake of the feeder to the Corbet reservoir from the Bann is about thirty 
yards above Ervin's Weir, and is regulated by sluices 20 feet wide, which 
admit a large quantity of water when the river is flooded. Outside these 
sluices a stone ridge or sill, at a level 1|- inch below that of Ervin's Weir, is 
built across the widened mouth of the feeder to regulate between the Bann 
Keservoir Company and the mill-owners on this fall. On this sill the care- 
taker daily measures the depth of water, and, when he finds it below the 
standard, supplies the deficiency from the Corbet Reservoir ; when that is 
exhausted he sends for a supply to Lough Island Keavy. The rainfall 
gathering-ground of the Bann above this point is eighty square miles, and 
there is a rain-gauge now kept there by the caretaker, who also keeps a 
register of the depth of the daily flow of water over Ervin's Weir and the 
daily height of water in the reservoir. The feeder is one and three eigliths of 
a mile long and 24 feet wide. At its entrance to the reservoir there are 
self-acting gates, which close when the water in the reservoir is higher than 
that in the feeder. The area of the reservoir when fuU is 70 acres, and 
the greatest depth of water above the lowest point of discharge 11 feet 
3 inches. The sill at Ervin's Weir is 7 feet above the lowest point of dis- 
charge, so the river raises the reservoir as much in excess of that height 
as the floods rise above the sill. A small stream at the north-east end of 
the reservoir makes it up to the top level in winter. The water from the 
reservoir is discharged through three iron sluices 3 feet wide each, and capable 
of being raised to a height of 1 foot : one only of these is now used. The 
sluice-frame is secured in a strong water-tight wall in the centre of the em- 
bankment, beliind which is an arched chamber, into which the water floM's, 
and passes down a conduit, a quarter of a mile long and 20 feet wide, to the 
river. There was only embankment required for this reservoir ; a considerable 
portion of the feeder also required embanking. It cost more, in proportion 
to the extent of the works, than Lough Island Eeavy, as the contractor was 
not able to carry out his contract, and the Company were obliged to finish it 
themselves. Lough Island Heavy cost for engineering works £15,000, and 
for land £6000. The capital of the Company is £31,000 ; deducting the 
reserve fund of £1000, there remains £9000 for the Corbet reservoir and 
parliamentary expenses. The income of the Company is derived from the 
falls, on which the charge is £10 per annum per foot to linen-bleachers, 
manufacturers, and spinners and flour-miUers, and £.5 to corn-millers and 
flax-scntch millers. 

The fall from the outlet at Lough Island Eeavy to the tail-race of the last 
mill at Moyallen is 3.50 feet ; of this, 180 feet 2 inches arc occupied by mills, 
and can be rated. Of this 180 feet 2 inches, 7 feet 3 inches are occupied by 
the Linen Hill mill, about one and a quarter mile above the intake to the 
Corbet reservoir, and G feet 4 inches by the Ardbrin Mill on Ervin's Weir at 
the intake. The remaining fall of IGO feet 7 inches is below the outlet from 
tke Corbet reservoir, and is divided over a distance of eleven and a Iialf miles 
of the course of the Bann, passing the towns of Banbridge and Gilford, and 
ending at Moyallen, below which the river is joined by the Newiy canal and 



144 REPORT — 1874, 

the Cusher river. Of tbis 166 feet 7 inches, 155 feet 4 inches are rated at 
JIO per annum per foot fall, and 11 feet 3 inches at £o. Linen Hill and 
Ardbrin falls are also rated at £5, and make the total income £1675 8s. 4(/, ; 
but £224 lis. 8d. must be deducted from this for four falls unoccupied at 
present, leaving a net sum of £1450 16s. 8d. For so far the undertaking has 
not paid the shareholders well, as the expenses connected with the Muddock 
river sometimes absorbed the entire dividend ; latterly, however, the dividend 
has amounted to above 3 per cent. ; and if the present litigation was favour- 
ably settled and the falls more fully occupied, a fair return may be expected. 
The recent material advance in the price of fuel and the expected opening of 
the Banbridge Extension Railway should contribute to this end. 

Lough Island Reavy reservoir has now been worked for thirty-four years, 
and has weU borne out Sir WUliam Fairbairn's anticipations of its utility in 
impounding water and giving out a supply to the mills. In his calculations, 
as no extended rainfall observations had been made in that district, he 
assumed the rainfall as 36 inches, which was the average for the whole of 
Ireland. He deducted one sixth of the rainfall for absorption and evapora- 
tion, and concluded there would be sufficient left to fill the reservoir once 
and a quarter, on the average, in the year. I have, however, maintained 
a rain-gauge at Lough Island Reavy since May 1861, and find the average 
faU at a level of 6 feet above the top water of the reservoir is 46 inches. 
That amount over the five square miles drainage-area of the lake yields 
535,000,000 cubic feet, and the capacity of the reservoir filled to 38 feet 
6 inches above the outlet is 270,000,000 cubic feet. A rainfall of 23 inches, 
if there were no loss, would fill the reservoir ; but it requires about 30 inches 
to do so from the beginning of October till that of April (the season it is 
generally filled), and the evaporation during the otlier six summer months is 
about four times as much. We may therefore assume the loss to be about 
one third the whole rainfall, leaving sufficient to fill the reservoir one and 
one third times. The rainfall must bo greater on the high ground than at 
the gauge, so that only oue half the whole rainfall is probably available. 
The Butter Mountain, from which most of the drainage is derived, is peaty, 
which will account in some measure for the largo amount of absorption on 
such steep ground. It is also to be remembered that the evaporation from 
the surface of the reservoir is very great. At the intake of the Corbet reser- 
voir, where the drainage from eighty square miles of mixed flat and moun- 
tainous country passes down the river Bann, I found, on comparing the 
quantity passed over Ervin's Weir with the average rainfall for the year 
1872, the former to be only one fifth the latter, equal to a loss of four fifths 
the rainfall by evaporation and absorption. This calculation can only be 
taken as an approximation, since Ervin's Weir is not constructed for accurate 
gauging, and I was obliged to deduct 20 per cent, from the calculated dis- 
charges as a rough estimate of the loss from the absence of a level ridge 
board and the broad and irregular surface of the weir ; besides, to obtain an 
accurate idea of the amount of rainfall, returns should be obtained from a 
number of gauges well placed over the varying surface of the country. This 
inquiry as to the relative amount of rainfall and absorption in various 
districts of country is very interesting, and more information on the subject 
is desirable. 

A register of the daily height of the water in Lough Island Reavy has been 
kept since 1847 by the caretaker. It shows that this reservoir has been of 
great service to the mill-owners on the Upper Bann, as during twenty-six 
years an average supplementary supply of about two fifths of the standard 



ON THE INDUSTRIAL USES OF THE UPPER BANN RIVER. 145 

summer discharge allowed over Ervin's Weir, or about 30 cubic feet per 
second (equal to two and a half horse-power to the foot fall at Sir William 
Fairbairn's estimate of 12 feet in its best application to a water-wheel equal 
to one horse-power), has been granted for 2663 days, or, on an average, 
102 days yearly ; and the reservoir has only been empty 303 days, or, on an 
average, eleven and a half days yearly. The Corbet reservoir has been of 
much more service than its capacity would lead one to expect, as it may be 
filled and emptied four or five times in each year by small floods in the river, 
and all the Sunday's water can be sent into it and let down to the mills on 
Monday and Tuesday. It is generally exhausted before the upper reservoir 
is called upon, and keeps up a supply when there is a scarcity in frosty wea- 
ther in winter ; and when a flood comes at the end of these short terms of 
scarcity it is ready to receive it, and thus diminish the amount of back water 
on the wheels. If its area were five or six times as great, it would be almost 
that much more valuable, as so many floods pass when it is full ; for its 
drainage-area is about sixteen times that of Lough Island Reavy. According 
to the original plan, the embankment should have been raised so as to impound 
the water to a depth of 18 feet instead of 11 feet 3 inches, and contain 
46,783,440 cubic feet instead of 28,177,221 cubic feet; unless, however, the 
intake from the river was at a much higher level, say at Linen Hill weir, it 
would not be much advantage, for the drainage-area of the lake itself is 
very small. 

The register of the Corbet reservoir has not been kept so long or as accu- 
rately as that of Lough Island Reavy, so it is not possible to show so well the 
ser^dce it has done the mills ; from the average of three years, however, and 
comparison with the register of Lough Island Reavj'^, I calculate it has given 
120,000,000 cubic feet in the year, exactly one half that of Lough Island 
Reavy, or a good supply for fifty-one days ; add this to the Lough Island 
Reavy supply, and there is a total of 153 days of twenty-four hours each. 
Sir William Fairbairn calculated that when all the reservoirs should be made 
(including the Deer's Meadow and the fuU completion of the other two reser- 
voirs), there would be a supply of 60 feet per second for 108 days of twenty- 
four hours each year. Reducing it to 108 days, the supply really has been 
44 cubic feet per second, which is very nearly in the same proportion to the 
amount that can be impounded as his calculation was to that proposed to be 
impounded. As the supply from the reservoirs has only failed, on an average, 
eleven and a half days yearly, the standard water-power may be said to have 
been almost constantly maintained. This constancy in the supply makes the 
Upper Bann most valuable as a power ; indeed it is almost as good as steam- 
power, but at a much less cost. 

Whilst the average value of water-power in Ireland is about £2 per horse- 
power per annum, on the Bann it may be estimated at .£4 where only ten 
hours' work per diem is available, and £7 where constant work is maintained 
after paying the water tax. Steam-power on the Bann costs about £0 per 
annum per horse-power, calculating 4 pounds of coal equal to one horse- 
power per hour. The first cost and maintenance of works necessary to render 
these powers available would be greater in the case of steam than water. 
More convenient mill sites can, however, be obtained for the application of 
steam than water. On the Bann it is found more economical to work steam 
and water in conjunction where much power is required, as advantage can be 
taken of moderate floods to ease the steam ; this method of working is parti- 
cularly applicable] to bleach-works, where the steam, after passing through 
the cyhnder of a high-pressure engine, can be used for boiling and heating. 

1874. L 



146 



a g g 

^ ' — :* tn 

%^ i 



2J 



H 



25 



X 

o 

I 

i 

J. 



1 

1 



21i 



KEPORT 1874. 

Table of Falls on the Upper Baun River from the 



Name of 

Mill or 

nearest 

Townland. 



Roughan . . 

BalljToney 

Linen Hill 

Ardbrin ... 
Anghna- 
eloy. 

Corbet 

)» 
Ballievy ... 



Names of 
Occupiers. 



Unappropriated . . 
Alexander Stewart 
Unappropriated . , 

Mrs. Murphy 

Unappropriated . . 
Alexander Porter .. 
Unappropriated . , 

William Kirk 

Mrs. Ervin 



Unappropriated 
John Simms 



George Crawford 



Lisnaree . . . 
Ballydown 

Tullyear . . . 
Ban bridge . 

>) 
Millniount 

)j 
Seapatrick. 

)) 
Milltown . 

j» 
Lenaderg . 

BanTille . . 

Hazelbank. 

)) 
Knockna- 
gor. 

SpringVale 

j> 
Millpark... 
Banl'ord ... 

)» 
Mount 
Pleasant. 

GlenMills 
Thornhill . 
Gilford ... 

»» 

)» 
Moyallen . 



Thomas E. Henry 

G. Lindsay and J. Lindsay 



James M' William. 



William Hayes 

)i )j 

W. Smyth and John Smyth, jun. 



Mrs. M'Tier and Miss Law. 

>) )i j» 
William Uprichard 



T. Haughton and J. Jaffe 

J) »» )j 
George Mulhn 



Description 
of Mill. 



Taken down 

Corn and Flax Scutch. 
Corn and Scutch 



Scutch , 

Taken down 



Linen Beetling 

Corn 

Linen Beetling 



W. Uprichard and H. Uprichard . . 



H. D. M'Master and J. G. M'Master 



David Mercier 



Scutch 

Linen Bleach 1 

„ Beetling ... J 

Yarn Bleach 

Linen Bleach 

„ Beetling ... "1 

Corn J 

Linen Bleach.... 



Flax Spinning . 
Linen Bleach.... 
Linen Beetling.. 



Flax Spinning .... 

») )) ••• ■ 
Scutch 



Amount 
of Fall. 



Corn 

Linen Bleach. 



Linen Beetling . . . ] 
Flour J 



Linen Beetling 
Corn 



Flax Spinning 
Flour 



:;;;} 



ON THE INDUSTllIAL USES OF THE UPPER BANN RIVER. 

Confluence of the Muddock Eiver to Moyallen Mill. 



147 



Prime Movers. 



Water- 
wlieels. 



Steam- 
engines. 



2 Undershot . . . 
r 1 Breast 



1 Iron Breast... 
1 Undershot 

1 Thomson's 
Vortex. 

2 Undershot 
1 Iron Breast... 

•*• >» »» 
1 Undershot 



1 Turbine .... 
1 Undershot . 
1 Iron Breast. 
■*■ j» ») • 
1 J) )» - 



/ 1 Iron Breast.. 

I 1 ,„ „ .. 
r 1 Undershot .. 
i [dershot. 

[ 1 Poacelet Un 
( 1 Iron Poncelet 
i Undershot. 
[ 1 Undershot .. 
/ 1 Iron Breast . 

I 1 „ 

( 1 Undershot .., 

1 1 

f 1 Iron Breast. . 

1 1 „ „ .. 



1 Turbine , 

1 Small Breast 
1 Undershot .. 



1 Breast 

2 Iron Breast.. 
1 Undershot .. 

1 Breast 

1 Iron Breast.. 



1 High-pressure. 



High-pressure . 
Condensing 



High-pressure . 
Condensing...., 



y t- 03 
^ bo » 



} 



18 
15 



44 
25 



Condensing.... 
High-pressure . 



1 Condensing. 



1 Condensing.. 



High-pressure . 
Condensing 



Condensing. 



1 Iron Breast. 



2 Condensing. 
1 " ' 



18 

1 90 

26 

170 
106 

aoo 

130 
20 

20 

200 

12 

120 

176 

65 

59 
12 

760 

110 

2496 



Remarks. 



Weir and race lerelled. 

Weir broken down. 

Mill partly burnt ; not working. 

N. side. [feeder. "I Water divided 

S. „ Intake of Corbet j on same fall. 



m 



Water divided. 



r ^Tieel and Engine connected. "I Water 

1 J divided. 

Wheel and Engine connected. 
f Near Beetling-mill. 

Is' I ^^t^"^ divided. 

J Wheel and Engine connected. "[ Water 

1 J divided. 

r Wheel and Engine connected. 
\ Close to foregoing. 

Wheel and Engine connected. Water divided 



Water divided. 



Water divided. 

f _. I Water 

\ Wheel and Engine connected, j divided. 

Water divided. 

f I Water 

\ Wheel and Engine connected. J divided. 
Not working. 

Wheel and Engine connected. Water divided. 

Water divided. 
Wheel and Engine connected. 
Wheels close together. 

I Water divided. Wheel and Engine con- 
J nected. 
Close to foregoing. 
Wheel and Engine connected 



l2 



148 REPORT— 1874, 

For the utilizatioa of the water-power of the Bann there are thirty-one 
mill-falls (besides the two mentioned before, where the weirs have been taken 
down) : eight of these are above the confluence of the Muddock, one of them 
on the Rocky river and one on the Leitrim river (both important branches 
of the Bann) ; the other six are on the Bann itself. As none of these derive 
any advantage from the reservoirs, the Deer's Meadow not having been 
made, their power is small and variable, and they are nearly aU occupied by 
small corn- and scutch-mills. In the preceding Table (pp. 146 & 147) full 
particulars are given of the remaining twenty-five falls, which are more 
.important, inasmuch as, in addition to the Bann, they command the water 
of the Muddock and the reservoirs. 

An inspection of the Table shows that the first four falls are at present 
unprofitable to the Heservoir Company, as the rates annually struck on them 
are annually remitted on account of the mills not being worked. There are 
several reasons for this : some of these are flax-scutching miUs and have been 
burnt ; and as that is a bad biTsjness at present, and steam scutch-miUs can be 
kept going by using the waste products of the scutching for fuel, there is no 
inducement to put up new mills and pay the reservoir rate. Although the 
rate is the same as below the Corbet reservoir, these falls are deprived of the 
advantages of that reservoir ; and the busiest season for both scutch- and 
corn-mills is subsequent to the time the greatest use is made of Lough Island 
Eeavy. They are at a distance from large and important towns, surrounded 
by a poor part of the country, much of which is mountainous. 

The Banbridge Extension Railway is almost finished as far as Ballyroney 
MiU, and runs close to the river all the way from Banbridge ; when it is 
opened a great stimulus wiU be given to the trade of that part of the country, 
and, it is expected, capital drawn to it for the establishment of mills engaged 
in permanent manufactures, such as have clustered themselves around Ban- 
bridge. An improvement may therefore be looked for; and manufacturers, 
as they become alive to the fact that steam, although a very convenient, is a 
most expensive power, will gladly avail themselves of such a cheap and con- 
stant water-power as the Upper Bann offers. 

A consideration of what has been ah-eady done on the Upper Bann shows 
that had the Act of Parliament been such as, after forty years' experience, is 
now adopted for such works, and power over the various watercourses secured, 
much litigation would have been prevented, and the Bann Reservoir Company 
much more prosperous ; also, that many of the falls could be nearly doubled 
in value by unproved water-wheels. 

I hope this brief description of what has been already done on the Upper 
Bann may induce other districts, profiting by this experience, to econf)mize 
the vast amount of water-power that runs to waste in all parts of Ireland. 
Were such the case, it would go far to make up for the want of coal in that 
country, and much promote its industrial prosperity. 

The Upper Bann wa^ formerly celebrated for its trout-fishing, which has 
been much injured of late years by the discharge of flax steep-water into the 
river, instead of lifting the flax out of the water when the water is low. It 
is said if some improvements were made in the weirs, salmon would come up 
the river. Eels can be taken during floods, but are not much sought after. 
Pearls have been found in rare instances in the river. The water is exceed- 
ingly soft (about 5°, Clark's test), and pecuharly well adapted for bleaching, 
which is extensively carried on at the various establishments along the river. 



ON THE CLASSIFICATION OF THE LABYRINTHODONTS. 149 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Huxley, LL.D., 
F.R.S., Professor Harkness, F.R.S., Henry Woodward, F.R.S., 
James Thomson, John Brigg, and L. C. Miall, on the Structure 
and Classification of the Labyrinthodonts . Drawn up by L. C. 
Miall, Secretary to the Committee. 

(Plates IV.- VII.) 

In this, as in the preceding Report, the Committee have included the Permian 
and Secondary Labyrinthodonts. Before their work had made much pro- 
gress it was perceived that the Carboniferous species cannot be satisfactorily 
studied alone. 

The present Report treats of all the well-investigated species hitherto 
recorded, and the Committee have not, therefore, recommended their own 
reappointment. In laying down their commission, they desire to thank the 
many friends who have assisted their labours. Professor Cope, Messrs. 
Embleton and Atthey, Mr. T. P. Barkas, and the Natural-History Society of 
Northumberland and Durham have forwarded publications on Labj-rintho- 
donts ; the authorities of the Warwick and Bristol Museums, Mr. John Ward 
of Longton, Mr. James Thorhson of Glasgow, Mr. George Maw of Broseley, 
Mr. T. P. Barkas of Newcastle, and Mr. William Home of Leyburn, Wens- 
leydale, have sent specimens for examination ; while Professor Cope and Mr. 
Thomson have sent photographs from fossils in their possession. Every 
facility for examination of Labyrinthodont remains has been afforded by 
the officers of the various public museums visited ; and two members of 
the Committee have had the advantage of inspecting a large part of the 
valuable collection belonging to Mr. Thomas Atthey, of Gosfort-h, near New- 
castle. 

It does not appear necessary to prefix to the arrangement of the Laby- 
rinthodonts here proposed any discussion of the opinions of previous writers 
on this subject. In no classification that has yet appeared have ev^ one 
fourth of the genera here recorded been noticed at all. We are sensible of 
the great imperfection of the materials at our command, and can only regard 
the present arrangement as a sketch to be fiUed in and corrected hereafter. 

CHARACTERS OF THE ORDER. 

Body elongate, furnished with a tail. Postorbital, supratemporal, epiotic, 
and paired supraoccipital ossifications usually present in the skxill. A parietal 
foramen. Palatine and vomerine teeth in most or all. Dentine usually much 
folded ' ; the apex of the j'oung tooth two-edged. A sclerotic orbital ring in 
some, possibly in all. Vertebras amphiccelous. Three thoracic plates^, and a 
ventral armour of small scutes. Limbs four', often, perhaps usually, pentadactyle. 

TABULAR VIEW OF THE CLASSIFICATION OF THE 
L AB YRIN THODONTA. 

A. Centra of dorsal vertehrce discoidal*. — Genera 1 to 23. 

I. EuGLYPTA. Cranial bones strongly sculptured. Lyra Conspicuous. Mandible 

' Slightly folded at the base only in some of the teeth of Dendrerpeton ; simple in 
Hylonomits and Hyhrfeton. 

''■ Unknown in the Microscmria, as well as in various genera and species which have 
been hitherto represented only by fragmentary examples. 

' Believed to be wanting in Ophideripefon and Dolkhosoma. 

* This character is not of primary importance, but seems to be available for an arrange- 
ment determined by other considerations. 



150 REPORT — 1874. 

with well-developed postarticular process. Teeth conical ; their internal structure 
complex ; dentine much folded. Palato-vomerine tusks in series with small teeth. 
Short inner series of mandibular teeth. Sculptured thoracic plates, with reflected 
process upon the external border. 

* Palatine foramina large, approximated. 

t Mandible with an internal articular buttress. 
I Orbits central or posterior. 

1. INlastodonsaurus, Jager. 

2. Capitosaurus, Miinst. 

3. Pachygonia, Huxley (?). 

4. Trematosaurus, Braun. 

5. Gonioglyptus, Huxley. 

XX Orbits anterior. 

6. jMetopias, Von Meyer. 

7. Labyrinthodon, Owen^. 

tt Mandible without internal articidar buttress, 

8. Diadetognathus, Miall. 

** Palatine foramina small, distant. 

9. Dasyceps, Huxley. 

10. Anthracosaurus, Huxley, 

II. Bbachyopina. Skull parabolic. Orbits oval, central or anterior. Postar- 
ticidar process of mandible wanting (?). 

11. Brachyops, Owen. 

12. Micropholis, Huxley. 

13. Rhinosaurus, Waldheim. 

14. Bothriceps, Huxley. 

III. Chatjliodonta^. Skull vaulted, triangular, with large postero-lateral ex- 
pansions. Lyra consisting of two nearly straight longitudinal grooves, continued 
backwards as ridges^. Orbits moderate or large, posterior. Temporal depressions 
passing backwards from orbits'*. No postarticular process to mandible'. Teeth 
unequal, clustered. 

* Teeth tvith large anterior and posterior cutting-edges. 

15. Loxomma, Huxley. 



** Teeth conical. 



16. Zygosaurus, D'JEichwald. 

17. Melosam-us, Von Meyer, 



TV. Atheoodonta. Maxillary teeth wanting. Vomerine teeth aggregated. 
Orbit imperfect. 

18. Batrachiderpeton, Hancock ^ Atthey. 

19. Pteroplax, Hancock i^ Atthey ". 

[V. An uncharacterized group for the reception of some or all of the following 
genera.] 

20. Pholidogaster, Huxley. 

21. Ichthyerpeton, Huxley. 

22. Pholiderpeton, Huxley, 

^ Orbits unknown. 

^ The name of Malacocyla was previously proposed for this section. The name, how- 
ever, is inappropriate for Melosaurus, which we have since seen reason to associate with 
Loxomma and Zygosaurus. ^ Unknown in Melosaurus. 

* Loxomma, Zygosaurus. '' Loxomma, Melosaurus. 

• The vomerine teeth are unknown, and this genus may therefore require to be 
removed. 



ON THE CLASSIFICATION OF THE LABYRINTHODONTS. 151 

VI. Archegosaubia, Von Meyer. Vertetral column notochordal. Occipital 
condyles unossitied. 

23. Archegosaiurus, Goldfiiss. 

B. Centra of dorsal vertebra elongate, contracted in the middle. — Genera 24 to 31. 

VII. Heleotheepta. Skull triangular, with produced, tapering snout. Orbits 
central. Mandibular symphysis very long, about \ of tlie length of the skull. 

24. Lepterpeton, Huxley. 

VIII. Nectbidea. Epiotic cornua much produced. Superior and inferior pro- 
cesses of caudal vertebrae dilated at the extremities and pectinate. 

25. Urocordylus, Huxley. 

26. Keraterpeton, Huxley. 

IX. AiSTOPODA. Limbs wanting. 

27. Ophiderpeton, Huxley. 

28. Dolichosoma, Huxley. 

X. MiCBOSAUBiA, Dawson. Thoracic plates unknown. Ossification of limb- 
bones incomplete. Dentine nearly or altogether non-plicate ; pulp-cavity large. 

29. Dendrerpeton, Owen. 

30. Hylouomus, Dawson, 

31. Hylerpeton, Owen. 

DESCRIPTION OF GENERA AND SPECIES. 
I. EUGLYPTA. 

Mastodonsaurus, Jager. 

Salamandroides, Jiiger. 
Lahyrinthodon (part.), Owen. 

Skidl (figure). Triangular, broad, sides slightly concave (in the imcompressed 
skull) near the orbits ; snout obtuse. Orbits. Oval, narrowed and pointed in front, 
moderate, somewhat posterior, approximated. Palatine foramina. Large, broadest 
near the middle, approximated. Extertial nasal foramina. Small, roundish, sepa- 
rated by a distance about equal to the interorbital space. Choance. Roundish oval, 
distant, posterior to external nasal foramina. Teeth (disposition). Premaxillary 
apparently 8 or 10 on each side, larger than maxillary ; maxillary very numerous, 
small, diminishing in size behind ; palato-vomerine, two or more tusks in front 
of the choana, two behind it, succeeded by a few small teeth ; a row of small teeth 
internal to these, which is continued transversely across the fore part of the imited 
vomers ; mandibular a nearly imiform series ; one or two tusks form a short inner 
row near the symphysis. Teeth (structure). Conical, pointed, externally striate, 
with a thin investment of enamel above ; dentine much complicated ; pulp-cavity 
with sinuous and branching extensions. Mandibular articulation. A strong internal 
articular buttress ; postarticular process well developed. Cranial sctdjiiiire. Radiate 
pits and grooves upon each ossification ; an oval lyra commencing in the interor- 
bital space, expanding upon the face ; in the premaxillary region the two grooves 
suddenly take a parallel and longitudinal direction, passing between the external 
nasal foramina ; maxillary and malar grooves ; on the mandible there is an alveolar 
groove and a descending angular groove, which disappears near the angle of the jaw. 
Thoracic plates. Median plate rhomboidal, with four concave borders ; lateral plates 
triangidar, the postero-lateral angle being produced backwards and reflected ; outer 
surface of all three strongly and radiately sculptured. Vertebra. Centra discoidal, 
biconcave, well ossified. Ribs. Some of the ribs in the dorsal region are long, stout, 
compressed in the antero-posterior direction towards the head, cm-ved and bicipital. 
Limbs. The osseous elements of the limbs are dilated at the ends, and contracted in 
the middle, differing from each other chiefly in size. 



153 REPORT — 1874. 

M. GiGANTEUS, Jager (^M. Jdgen, Albert!) . 

Interorbital space much less than transverse diameter of orbit. Parietal foramen 
round, in the middle of the parietal suture. Choana roundish. Palatine foramen 
blimtly angulated at its anterior extremity. Teeth regularly conical, slightly 
curved, striate, except at the apex, an additional series of alternate and equal striae 
being intercalated towards the base. 

The largest known Labyrinthodont. 

Measurements. (From a fragment figured by Von Meyer, ' Saurier des Muschel- 

kalkes,' t. Iviii.) 

' ' in. 

Width of palatine foramen 4-8 

Least distance between palatine foramina 2'56 

Extent of mandibular symphysis 3 

Greatest length of palato-vomerine tusks (about) 4 

Diameter of largest palato-vomerine tusk 1"5 

(From the Gaildorf specimen in the Stuttgard Museum.) 

Total length of skull 30-5 

Length of skull along middle line 23'625 

Greatest breadth of skull 22*75 

Breadth at middle of orbits 19'5 

From centre of occiput to posterior end of orbit 6 

From tip of snout to anterior end of orbit 13"5 

Length of orbit 6-25 

Width of orbit 4 

Least width of interorbital space '. . . 2"5 

Length of palatine foramen (about) 14 

Width of palatine foramen 4"75 

Least distance between palatine foramina "5 

Extent of mandibular syiuphysis 2 

Length of postarticular process of mandible (about) 4 

Locality. Lettenkohle, Gaildorf, Wiirttemberg ; Keuper Sandstone, Guy's Cliff, 
Warwick ; Rhsetic, Aust Cliff (near Bristol) ; Musehelkalk of Schwenningen ? 

References. Jiiger, Fossile Reptilien welehe in Wiirttemberg aufgefunden wordeu 
sind, pp. 35, 38, t. iv. figs. 4, 5, 6, t. v. [1828].— Von Meyer, Palaeologica, p. 107 
[18.32 J.— 7d Bullet, der Geol. Soc. in Frankreich, vol. iii. pp. 86-89. Ja- 
ger here unites the two genera Mastodonsauriis and Salamnndroicles [18331. — 
Alberti, Beitrag zu einer Monographie des Bimten Sandsteins, Muscnel- 
kalks, und Keupers, &c. p. 120 [18.34]. — Von Meyer and Plieniuger, Paliion- 
tologie Wiirttembergs, pp. 6, 21, 57, &c., tt. iii.-vi. tig. 1, t. vii. fig. 1, t. xii. 
fig. 14 [1844].— Owen, Trans. Geol. Soc. 2nd ser. vol. vi. p. 537, t. xlvii. 
\\M2].—Id. Odontography, p. 19-5 &c.,t. Ixiii. fig. 1, tt. Ixiv., Ixv. [1840-5]. 
— Von Meyer, Saurier des Muschelkalkes, pp. 9.3, 144, &c. tt. Iviii., Ixi. 
figs. 4-9, t. Ixiv. figs. 1, 2, 15 [1847-55].— Alberti, Ueberblick iiber die 
Trias, &c., p. 255 [1864].— Miall, Q. J. Geol. Soc. vol. xxx. p. 430, &c., 
fig. 2 [1874]. 

M. PACHYGNATHUS, OwCU. 

Numerous fragments have occurred in the Keuper Sandstone of Warwick, which 
indicate a species of 3Iastodonsaurus considerably smaller than M. c/iganteus. The 
mandibular teeth are less conical than in the last-mentioned species ; they preserve 
much of their thickness to near the apex, when they taper rapidly. Though some 
parts of the fossils attributed to this species throw light upon the sti'ucture of the 
Labyrinthodont skull, their zoological value is hitherto small, and the species can- 
not be regarded as thoroughly established. 

References. Owen, Trans. Geol. Soc. 2nd ser. vol. vi. p. 526 &c., t. xliii. figs. 4-11, 
t. xliv. figs. 1-3, t. xlvi. figs. 6, 7 [1842].— Von Meyer & Plieninger, Palii- 
ontologie Wiirttembergs, p. 36 [1844". — Id. Saiu-ier des Muschelkalkes, 
p. 169.— Owen, Odontography, p. 205, &c., t. Ixiv. b. figs. 1, 2 [1840-6].— 



ON THE CLASSIFICATION OF THE LABYRINTHODONTS. 153 

Miall, Q. J. Geol. Soc. vol. xxx. pp. 418, 431, &c., t. xxvi., xxvii. figs. 1, 2, 

4? [1874]. 

M. FiJRSTENBEBGANUs, VoD Meyer. 

Differs from M. (jigantetis in its mucli smaller size, in the proportions and posi- 
tion of the palatine foramina, which are relatively larger and wider, as well as more 
posterior, and in the elongated choana. Von Meyer is disposed to refer it to Tre- 
matosaurus ; but the great breadth of the fore part of the palatine foramen, and the 
numerous inner series of vomerine teeth, disposed as in Mastodonsaurus, oppose this 
determination. The resemblance to Labyrinthodon (and in some points to Capito- 
saurus) is considerable. A cast only of part of the palate is known. 

Measurements. 

From choana to anterior end of palatine foramen (about) 2 

From tip of snout to anterior end of palatine foramen (about) 4-5 

Length of palatine foramen (about) 4'5 

Width of palatine foramen (about) 1"75 

Least distance between palatine foramina "375 

Locality. Vosges Sandstone (Bunter) of Herzogenweiler. 

References. Von Meyer, Jahrbuch fiir Mineralogie, 1847, p. 186. — Id. Saurier dea 
Muschelkalkes, "p. 138, t. Ixiv. fig. 16. 

M. Vaslenensis, Von Meyer. 

Interorbital space wider than transverse diameter of orbit. Skull about one half 
the size of M. gigantetis, but wider in proportion. Parietjil foramen transversely 
oval, rather behind the centre of the parietal suture. Teeth unknown. 
Locality. Vosges Sandstone (Bunter) of Wasslenheim, Lower Rhine. 
References. Von Meyer, Jahrbuch flu- Mineralogie, 1847, p. 455. — Id. Saurier des 
Muschelkalkes, p. 136, t. lix. figs. 6, 7, 8 (skull), and t. Ixiii. fig. 12 (thoracic 
plate ?). 

To the same genus are referable some or all of the following, which are imper- 
fectly known : — 

Xestorrhytias Perrini, Von Meyer, Muschelkalk of Liineville, and other Laby- 
rinthodont fossils from the same locality. (Saurier des Muschelkalkes, pp. 77, 78, 
t. Ixii. figs. 12, 13, 14.) 

M. Adriani, Miinst., from the Keuper of Wiirtzburg. (Petref. i. 1839, p. 102, 
t. xiii. fig. 8, and Saurier des Muschelkalkes, p. 151, t. Ixiv. fig. 4.) 

M. Meyeri, Miinst., Muschelkalk of Rothenburg. (Jahrbuch fiir Mineralogie, 
1834, p. 527; Saurier des Muschelkalkes, p. 93, t. Ixiv. fig. 5.) 

Odontosaurns Voltzii, Von Meyer, Bunter Sandstone of Sulzbad. (M(?moires de 
Strasbourg, p. 3, t. i. fig. 1 ; Saurier des Muschelkalkes, p. 136, t. Ixiii. fig. 10.) 

Also the remains from the Muschelkalk of Crailsheim (Saurier des Muschelkalkes, 
p. 91, t. Ixiii. figs. 7, 8, 9, 13) ; of Losau, near Baireuth (ib. p. 92, t. Ixiv. fig. 7) ; 
of Bibersfeld {ib. p. 92, t. Ixiii. fig. 4) ; of Pfiffelbach {ib. p. 91, t. Ixii. fig. 17) ; and 
from the Lower Keuper of Golsdorf (Palaontologie Wiirttembergs, pp. 66, 72, 
t. xii. fig. 15). 

Capitosaurus, Miinster. 

Skull (figure). Triangular, with broad and obtuse snout. Orbits. Small, oval, 
slightly convergent in front, situate far back, distant about twice the lateral dia- 
meter of one of them. External nasal foramina. Oval or roundish, convergent, 
distant. Palatine foramina. Large, closely approximated, expanded in front, pointed 
behind. Choana. Oval, marginal, about an inch behind and external to the external 
nasal foramina. Teeth (disposition). Premaxillary and maxillary, a nearly uniform 
series, diminishing in size behind ; palato-vomerine, large tusks adjacent to choana, 
numerous smaller teeth on palatal ; mandibular, a regular and uniform series. In C. 
arenacens there are indications of an inner row of one or two tusks close to the sym- 
physis ; the mandibular and palatal series do not extend backwards so far as the 
maxillary row (in C. robustus). Teeth (structure). (C robusttis) Crown with small 



154 REPORT — 1874. 

anterior and posterior cutting-edges, which disappear with age ; base transversely 
oval, or even oblong-rectangiilar, adherent to the alveolar parapet, where there is 
one ; no central pulp-cavitj' visible in the adult tooth ; dentine much complicated, 
as in Mastodunsaurus. Mandibular articulation. (C. rohustus) Postarticular pro- 
cess well developed ; a strong internal articular buttress ; glenoid cavity transversely 
extended, and bounded in front by a broad recurved flange, which receives the ante- 
rior edge of a horizontal plate (formed apparently by the quadrate and pterygoid 
jointly), so as to prevent dislocation of the mandible backwards. In C. arena- 
ceus the postarticular process is similar; the other details cannot be made out. 
Cranial sculpture. Each ossification sti-ongly pitted towards the centre, and radiately 
grooved towards the circumference. Thoracic plates. ( C. rohustus) Median plate 
rhomboidal, with rounded entering angles ; lateral plate not produced backwards, 
with strong reflected process ; radiately sculptured. Vertebra. Not certainly iden- 
tified ; those attributed to Capitosaurus rohustus are discoidai, biconcave, very short 
in the antero-posterior direction. 

C. AKENACBtis, Miinster. 

Orbits roundish. Parietal foramen transversely oval. The only skull known is 
smaller than any example of C. rohustus. 

Locality. Keuper of Benk, Franconia ; Bunter Sandstone of Bernburg ? 
References. Miinster, Jahi-buch fiir Mineralogie, 1836, p. 580. — Von Meyer, 
Palaontologie Wtii-ttembergs, p. 10 [1844].— 7(^. Saurier des Muschelkalkes, 
pp. 141, 152, t. lix. figs. 3-5 [1847-55]. — Biu-meister, Trematosaurus, p. 3 
[1849]. 

Measurements (from Von Meyer's figure). . 

Greatest breadth of skull 11 ? 

From tip of snout to anterior end of orbit (about) 14 

Length of orbit 3 

Width of orbit (about) 2 

Least width of interorbital space (about) "75 

Greatest depth of mandible 2'5 

Average length of mandibular teeth '625 

C. EOBtrsTUS, Von Meyer. 

Orbits oval. Parietal foramen round. 

Locality. Keuper Sandstone of Wurttemberg. 

References. Von Meyer & Plieninger, Palaontologie Wlirttembergs, pp. 6, 21, 75, 
76, 77, &c., t. ix. figs. 1, 2, 3, 7 [1844].— Quenstedt, Die Mastodonsaurier im 
Griinen Keupersandsteine Wlirttembergs &c. passim, t. i. figs. 1, 3, 4, 6, t. ii., 
t. iii. figs. 4, 11 ?, 13, 15, 16, 17, 18, t. iv. (the shields and cranial bones in 
this plate cannot as yet be accurately determined) [1850]. — Von Meyer, 
Saurier des Muschelkalkes, p. 146, t. Ixi. fig. 10 [1847-55]. 

Measurements (from Quenstedt's Plates). 

Total length of sk-uU 23-5 

Greatest breadth of skull 21 

Breadth at middle of orbits 15 

From centre of occiput to posterior end of orbit 5*5 

From tip of snout to anterior end of orbit 14"2 

Length of orbit 2-5 

Width of orbit 1-9 

Least width of interorbital space 3'875 

Distance between external nasal foramina 2*4 

From tip of snout to external nasal foramen (about) 2-2 

Length of palatine foramen 12'25 

Width of palatine foramen 4"25 

Least distance between palatine foramina "625 

Greatest depth of mandiole 4-5 



ON THE CLASSIFICATION OF THE LABYEINTHODONTS. 155 

Pacliygonia, Huxley. 

The mandible upon which the above genus is founded presents the following 
peculiarities : — The external surface is strongly sculptured, and has mucous canals 
similar to those of Mastodonsaurus. " The outer wall of the ramus swells out, sud- 
denly, just behind the level of the articular cavity, and the upper edge of the supra- 
angiilar process is, as it were, bent in by the development of this projection." The 
outer sm-face of the postarticular process is clearly more convex than usual, but we 
fail to detect in the text or woodcut of Prof. Huxley's memoir any really important 
difference between this part of the jaw of Pacliygonia and the same part in Masto- 
donsaurus.''^ The spleuial plate (of the articular bone) " exhibits minute, roimd, 
crater-like elevations." Teeth transversely oval at the base, conical above, small, 
regular ; 15 or 16 only, in the back part of the ramus, are known. 

Measurements (from Prof. Huxley's Memoir). 

Greatest depth of mandible (about) •875 

Transverse diameter of mandibular teeth -1 

Longitudinal diameter of mandibular teeth (about) -OSS 

P. iNCURVATA, Huxley. 

Locality. Panchet Rocks (Triassic?), Ranigunj, Bengal. 

References. Huxlev, Palseontologia Indica: Part IV. On Vertebrate Fossils from 
the Panchet Eocks, p. 6, figs. 1, 2 [1865]. 

Trematosaurus, Braun. 

Skull (figvu-e). Elongate-triangidar, with roimded apex ; superior surface fiattish, 
concave along the middle line. Orbits. Small, oval, separated by about twice the 
transverse diameter of one of them ; margin slightly raised. Palatine foramina. 
Large, closely approximated, semielliptical, the straight sides being adjacent. 
Kvternal nasal forannna. Large, elongate-oval, separated by about twice the width 
of one of them. Choancc. Elongate-oval, distant. Teeth (disposition). Premaxil- 
lary 12 to 14, the central ones larger ; maxillary numerous, small, nearly uniform ; 
palato-vomerine, two tusks in front of the choaua; behind, the teeth gradually 
diminish from large tusks to the ordinary size of maxillary teeth ; there are foiu* 
small teeth internal to the choana ; mandibidar, outer series numerous, imiform, one 
or more tusks forming a short inner row close to the symphysis. Teeth (structm-e). 
Elliptical in section at the base, conical above, slightly recm-ved, striate ; internal 
structure similar to that oi Mastodonsaurus. Mandibular articulation. The articular 
sm'face is produced inwards beyond the plane of the ramus, but the natiu-e of the 
supporting mass is not known; a well- developed postarticidar process. Cranial 
sculpture. The centre of each ossification is strongly pitted, and the margin radiately 
sculptm-ed. Thoracic plates. The median plate resembles a Latin cross, with the 
entering and salient angles rounded ; the short (posterior) arm is radiately sculptiu-ed 
on the exposed sm-face ; the rest of the plate is nearly smooth ; the lateral plate 
has a thickened and reflected external margin, a short, notched posterior side, and 
a tapering anterior extremity. The scidpture is not Imown, but doubtless radiated 
from the thickened postero-external angle. 

T. Bbaunii, Burmeister. 

Orbits central. Palatine foramina narrowed to an acute angle, especially 
in front. 

Locality. Bimter Sandstone of Bernbrn-g. 

Peferetices. Braun, Bericht der deutschen Natm-forscher und Aerzte,Braimschweig, 
1841, pp. 74, 75 [18421— 7rf. Jahrbuch fur Mineralogie, 1844, p. ,569.— Von 
Meyer, Paliiontologie vViirttembergs, pp. 4, 6, 7 [1844]. — Bm-meister, Die 
LabjTinthodonten aus dem bunten Sandstein von Bernbiug. I. Tremato- 
saurus [18491. — Von Meyer, Saurier des Muschelkalkes, p. 139, t. Ixi. 
figs. 11, 12 [1847-55]. — Id. Reptilien aus der Steinkohlenformation in 
Deutschland, pp. Ill, 112 [1858]. 



156 REPORT — 1874. 

Measurements (from Burmeister's figures). 

Total length of skull 9 25 

Length of skull along middle line 8-2o 

Greatest breadth of slaill 5'125 

Breadth at middle of orbits 2'9 

From centre of occiput to posterior end of orbit 3-38 

From tip of snout to anterior end of orbit 4 

Length of orbit -So 

Width of orbit -4 

Least width of interorbital space l'2o 

Distance between external nasal foramina -375 

From tip of snout to external nasal foramen 1 

Length of palatine foramen 4'7 

Width of palatine foramen -9 

Least distance between palatine foramina "IS 

Greatest depth of mandible (about) 1"38 

Length of postarticular process of mandible 1 

Average length of maxillary teeth '125 

Greatest length of palato-vomerine tusks (about) "5 

Average length of mandibular teeth '13 

Greatest length of mandibular tusks (about) "5 

Diameter of largest palato-vomerine tusk -38 

Length of median thoracic plate (about) 6-9 

Greatest width of median thoracic plate 3'85 

T. OCELLA, Von Meyer. 

This second species differs from T. Braunii in the somewhat broader form of the 
skull, in the blunt anterior end of the palatine foramen, and in the backward posi- 
tion of the orbit, which, instead of lying anterior to the centre of the palatine 
foramen, falls in its posterior half. The orbits are not, however, so far back as in 
Capitosaurus. The differences between the two species are not due to difference of 
age ; for T. ocella is the smaller, and yet its distinctive pecrdiarities are such 
as increasing age would not diminish but exaggerate. 

Locality. Bunter Sandstone of Bernburg. 

References. Von Meyer, Jahrbuch fiir Mineralogie, 1848, p. 469. — Id. Saurier des 
Muschelkalkes, p. 140, t. Ixi. figs. 1, 2 [1847-55]. 

Measurements (from Von Meyer's figures). 

Greatest breadth of sladl 5*4 

Breadth at middle of orbits 4'2 

Length of orbit -66 

Width of orbit -6 

Least width of interorbital space l-l 

Length of palatine foramen 4'25 

Width of palatine foramen 1-2 

Least distance between palatine foramina 3*8 

Gonioglyptus, Huxley. 

Skull (figure). Imperfectly known ; the small part preserved agrees in its general 
proportions with Trematosaurus Uraunii. Palatine foramina. Pointed in front, 
relatively more distant from each other and from the choanfe than in Trematosaurus 
Braunii. Choanal. Elongate-oval, approximated. Teeth (disposition). What is 
seen of the maxillary, palatal, and maxillary series is similar to the same parts of 
Trematosaurus. Mandibular artictdation. The articular sm-face is concave forwards, 
and produced internally beyond the vertical plane of the inner siuface of the ramus ; 
a well-defined postarticular process. Cranial sctdpture. A conspicuous group of 
pits and grooves upon each ossification. Lyra with distinct angle (directed out- 



ON THE CLASSIFICATION OF THE LABYRINTHODONTS. 157 

wards) in front of the orbit ; there is a maxillary groove, and upon the mandible a 
descending and a horizontal groove, as in Mastodonsaurus. Thoracic plates. A 
fragment of a lateral thoracic plate, which is probably referable to this genus and 
species, shows a radiate sculpture upon the external suiface ; the postero-external 
angle is reflected. 

Measurements (from Prof. Huxley's Memoir). 

Breadth at fore part of orbits , 1'06 

Least distance between palatine foramina and choanse "5 

Greatest depth of mandiole (about) -5 

Length of postarticular process of mandible '7 

G. LONGiBOSTBis, Huxley. 

Locality. Panchet Rocks (Triassic ?), Ranigunj, Bengal. 

References. Huxley, Pal;eontologia Indica: Part IV. On Vertebrate Fossils 
from the Panchet Rocks, p. 1, t. vi. figs. 1, 2, 3-8 ? [1805]. 

Metopias, Von Meyer. 

SkuU (figure). Triangular, with obtuse snout and somewhat convex sides; 
posterior border unknown. Orbits. Far forwai'ds, oval, small, distant, converging 
in front. External nasal foramina. Large, oval, separated by about half the inter- 
orbital space, converging in front. Palatine foramina. Large, broadest in front and 
towards the middle, somewhat contracted behind, approximated. Choance. Directly 
in advance of palatine foramina, and distant about half an inch from them, oval, con- 
verging in front, more distant from each other than are the external nasal foramina, 
situate upwards of 1^ in. further back. Teeth (disposition). Premaxillary and maxil- 
lary imknown ; palato-vomeriue, large tusks in series, with very numerous small 
teeth, a transverse row of small vomerine teeth in advance of the choanse ; mandibular 
imperfectly known, a few of rather large and uniform size have been foimd together 
in one example. Teeth (structm-e). Conical, dilated towards the tip, blunt, striate. 
Cranial sculpture. Strongly pitted, with radiating grooves towards the margins of 
the ossifications ; a deep and conspicuous lyra, beginning in the interorbital space, 
rather behind the orbits, expanding into a nearly circular figiu?e upon the face, and 
much contracted between the external nasal foramina. A well-marked malar 



groove 



3Ieasuret7ients. 

in. 

Greatest breadth of skull (about) 12 

Breadth at middle of orbits (upwards of) 8 

Length of orbit 1-6 

Width of orbit 1-25 

Least width of interorbital space 3'1 

Distance between external nasal foramina 1-5 

Length of palatine foramen 6'5 

Width of palatine foramen 2-25 

Least distance between palatine foramina 1 

Average length of mandibular teeth (about) "5 

Diameter of largest palato-vomerine tusk -45 

M. DiAGNOSTicus, Von Meyer. 

Locality. Lower Keuper Sandstone of Stuttgart; Rhsetic of Aust Cliff, near 

Bristol. 
References. Von Meyer & Plieninger, Palaoutologie Wiirttembergs, pp. 18, 75, &c. 

t. X. fig. 1, t. xi. fig. 11. — Von Meyer, Saurier des Muschelkalkes, p. 146,' t. Ix., 

t. Ixi. fig. 3, t. Ixiv. fig. 10. 
TJiere. is a skull in the British Museum, from which part of the above descrip- 
tion has hixn taken. The lihaedc example quoted is in the Bristol Museum. 

* Only the int«rnal half of this is shown in Von Meyer's figure (' Saurier des Muschel- 
kalkes,' pi. Ix.). 



158 REPORT — 1874. 

Labjrrinthodon, Owen. 

Choanm. Large, oval, distant. Teeth (disposition). Maxillary, at least one large 
tusk, succeeded by small serial teeth ; palato -vomerine, a transverse row of a few 
small teeth between choana and anterior palatine foramen, one or more tusks in 
front of choana, a short row of small teeth internal to it, the rest unknown ; 
mandibular numerous, subequal, a short inner series of one or two tusks adjacent 
to the symphysis. Teeth (structure). Slender, tapering to the apex, somewhat 
elliptical at the base, conical above ; the lower third is fluted ; the internal struc- 
ture is similar to that of Mastodonsaurus, but the folds of dentine are fewer in pro- 
portion to the diminished circumference of the tooth. Cranial sculpture. Radiate, 
consisting of ridges enclosing flat spaces ; elsewhere tuberculate and irregxdar ; a 
well-defined lyra (imperfectly preserved) and maxillary groove. 

Measurements of Teeth (from Owen's ' Odontography'). 

Anterior mandibular tusk, diameter '5 

Posterior mandibular teeth, „ "125 

Maxillary tusk, „ '2 

Serial maxillary teeth, ,, "027 

Serial maxillary teeth, length (imperfect) "12 

L. LEPT0GNATHU8, Owcn. 

Locality. Keuper Sandstone of "Warwick. 

References. Owen, Trans. Geol. Soc. vol. vi. pi. ii. p. 503, pi. xliii. figs. 1—3, pi. xliv. 
figs. 7-9 [1842].— /d Odontography, p. 207, t. Ixiii. a. figs. 1, 1', 2, 2', 3, 
t. Ixiii. B [1840-45]. — V^on Meyer, Palaontologie Wlirttembergs, p. 36 
[1844].— Miall, Q. J. Geol. Soc. vol. xxx. pp. 425, 4.30 [1874]. 

Diadetognathus, MiaU. 

Mandibular articulation. A large postarticidar process, concave above ; no in- 
ternal articular buttress. Teeth. Much compressed, antero-po.'<teriorly, at the base, 
so that in section they present the form of a rectangle, with the long sides perpen- 
dicular to the axis of the jaw; above, the teeth gradually become conical; the 
external surface exhibits numerous strife, but no conspicuous ridges ; the dentine 
is much folded, but there are many intricacies of arrangement which no folding, 
however complicated, can explain ; no pulp-cavity is visible, but the upper part of 
the tooth has not yet been microscopically examined. Cranial sculpture. Similar 
to that of Mastodonsaurus, but less sharply defined. 

D. VABviCENSis, Miall. 

Locality. Keuper Sandstone of Warwick. 

References. Miall, Q. J. Geol. Soc, vol. xxx. pp. 42.5, 432, fig. 3, t. xxvii. fig. 3, 
t. xxviii. [1874]. 

Dasyceps, Huxley. 

Skull (figure). Triangular, rounded in front, slightly convex on the sides, with 
projecting epiotic cornua and large trimcated postero-lateral expansions ; a facial 
" fontanelle." Orbits. Small, round, distant, placed far back. Palatine fora7)iina. 
Relatively small, distant. External nasal fvi-atnina. Small, round, distant, im- 
usually far back. Choanm. Large, oval, marginal, imusually far back. Parietal 
foramen. Large, round, but little posterior to the orbits. Teeth. Maxillary, 
" pointed, much cm'ved, and about a quarter of an inch long, their bases having "a 
diameter of three fortieths of an inch. They are directed outwards, their curved 
sides being downwards and inwards (in the natural position). They are anchylosed 
to the margins of the jaw, which exhibits no alveolar groove. Their bases are 
longitudinally striated, and they present apparently a wide pidp-cavity ; but I can 
say nothing respecting their minute structure, as I did not feel jusiified in detaching 
any of the few which remain. Obscure traces of teeth are seen in the rest of tiie 



ON THE CLASSIFICATION OP THE LABYRINTHODONTS. 159 

alveolar mai'gins." — Huxley. Cranial sculpture. Pitted, with the intervening ridges 
rising at intervals into slender truncated prominences ; obscure traces of a lyra. 

Measurements (from Prof. Huxley's Memoir and figures). 

Length of skull aloug middle line 10 

Greatest breadth of skull 9-.3 

Breadth at middle of orbits (about) 7'5 

From centre of occiput to posterior end of orbit 2-25 

From tip of snout to anterior end of orbit 7'd 

Length of orbit -75 

Width of orbit -75 

Least width of interorbital space 2'4 

Distance between external nasal foramina 2 '25 

From tip of snout to external nasal foramen 3'25 

Least distance between palatine foramina 2*8 

Average length of maxillary teeth (about) -25 

D. BucKLANDi, Lloyd. 

Locality. Permian Sandstone of Kenilworth. 

Reference. Huxlev, Appendix to Howell's Memoir on the Warwicktiire Coal- 
field &c., Mem. Geol. Surv. [1859]. 

As to the age of the rocks in which Dasyceps occurs, see Howell, ibid. p. 32, and 
Ramsay, Quart. Joiu-n. Geol. Soc. vol. xi. p. 198. 

Anthracosaurus, Huxley. 

Skull (figure). Triangular, with rounded anterior end, back part not known ; the 
upper surface is flat, with a median ridge in the anterior part. Palatine foratnina. 
The separate existence of these foramina is doubtful. (Jlioance. Circular, distant. 
Teeth (disposition). The premaxillary and maxillary teeth form a somewhat in-e- 
gular series, the teeth being very unequal in size and relatively few in number ; 
there is an internal row of vomerine and palatine teeth, including large tusks in 
front, and diminishing in size somewhat irregularly behind ; mandibular teeth un- 
equal. Teeth (structure). Conical, pointed, laterally compressed and recurved 
towards the apex, somewhat angular at the base. " Transparent transverse sections 
of the teeth exhibit a singularly beautiful and complex structure. The relatively 
small pulp-cavity sends oft" primary radiating prolongations, which pass straight to 
the circumference of the tooth, and at a small distance from it terminate by dividing 
usually into two short branches, each of which gives off" from its extremity a wedge- 
shaped pencil of coarse dentinal tubuli. These spread out from one another, and 
terminate in a structiu'eless or granular layer, which forms the peripheral portion of 
the dentine, and, from the small irregular cavities scattered here and there through 
its substance, reminds one of the ' globular dentine ' of the human tooth. An 
extension of this peripheral layer is continued towards the centre of the tooth, 
between every pair of primary prolongations of the pulp-cavity. The short 
secondary processes which are sent out from opposite sides of the primary prolonga- 
tions of the pulp-cavity give oft" in the same way, fi-om their ends, pencils of con- 
spicuous dentinal tubuli, the ends- of which terminate in the inward extensions of 
the peripheral layer. The secondary processes of adjacent primary prolongations 
alternate and, as it were, interlock with one another, so that the inward extension 
of the peripheral layer takes a sinuous course between them. A thin layer of dense 
and glassy enamel invests the tooth continuously, but sends no processes into its 
interior ; and, of course, under these circumstances there can be no cement in the 
interior of the tooth, nor can its sm-face be said to be plaited or folded. It will be 
imderstood that this description gives merely the principle of arrangement of the 
parts of the tooth ; its details could only be made intelligible by elaborate figures"*. 
Mandibular articulation. Strong, transversely elongated ; a well-developed post- 
articular process and an internal buttress are present. Vertebra and ribs. There is 

* Huxley, loc. cit. 



160 REPORT — 1874. 

no proof that the vertebrae and rih figured by Prof. Huxley really belong to 
Anthracosaiirus. 

*** Professor Huxley has described a " supratemporal foramen " in the skull of 
Anthracosaurus. It occurs on both sides of the only skull yet discovered, and is of 
elongate-oval figure, measuring 13 in. x "4 in. 

A. RussELLi, Huxley. 

Locality. Glasgow, Newsham (Northumberland), Fenton (Stafibrdshire). 
References. Pluxley, Quart. Jom-n. Geol. Soc. vol. xix. p. 56, fig. 1 [1863]. — 

Hancock and Atthey, Nat. Hist. Trans. Northumberland and Diu'ham, 

vol. iv. p. 385, pi. xii. [1872]. 

II. BRACHYOPINA. 

Brachyops, Owen. 

Skull (figure). Parabolic, rather broader than long * ; muzzle rounded. Orbits. 
Situate far forwards, large, oval, converging in front. Cranial sculpture. Faintly 
radiate ; Ip'a consisting of two shallow grooves, which converge as they pass for- 
wards from the squamosals to the posterior part of the interorbital space, thence 
curving outwards and again inwards in a sigmoid line ; there is a trace of malar 
grooves. 

Measureme7its (from Prof. Owen's Memoirs and figures). 

^ ° ^ m. 

Total length of skull 4-25 

Length of skull along middle line 3'6 

Greatest breadth of skull 4'75 

From centre of occiput to posterior end of orbit 2'25 

From tip of snout to anterior end of orbit (about) 1'2 

Length of orbit 1 

"Width of orbit 7 

Least width of interorbital space 1'6 

B. LATicEPs, Owen. 

Locality. Jiu-assic (?) Sandstone of Mangali, Central India. 

Iiefere7ices. Owen, Quart. Joiurn. Geol. Soc. vol. x. p. 473 [1854], vol. xi. p. 37, 

t. ii. [1855]. 
[For geological details as to the Mangali Sandstone, see Hislop & Hunter, Quart. 
Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. x. p. 472 [1854], vol. xi. p. 345 [1855].] 

Micropholis, Huxley. 

Sktdl (figure). Parabolic ; postero-lateral angles produced backwards. Orbits. 
Large, oval, occupying the middle third of the skull, converging forwards ; inter- 
orbital space less than the transverse diameter of the orbit. Nasal foramina. 
Rounded, " distant less than twice their own antero-posterior diameter from the 
anterior edge of the orbit;" separated by an interval equal to the interorbital 
space. Mandibular articulation. Transversely elongate ; postarticular process 
aDsent, or very short. Teeth. " Very numerous and close-set, slender, conical, 
sharply pointed, and either straight or concave inwards ; they are stronger in the 
lower jaw than in the upper, and in the anterior than in the posterior part of the 
lower jaw." 

Measurements (fi'om Prof. Huxley's Memoir and figm-es). 

Total length of skull (about) 1-7 

Length of skull along middle line 1-4 

Greatest breadth of skull 1-3 

* The single example known is probably flattened by post mortem pressure. A median 
depression may be due to the same cause. 



ON THE CLASSIFICATION OF THE LABYRINTHODONTS. 161 

in. 

Breadth at middle of orbits, restored 1-25 

From centre of occiput to posterior end of orbit -68 

From tip of snout to anterior end of orbit (about) -55 

Length of orbit 75 

Width of orbit -o 

Least width of interorbital space -70 

M. Stowii, Huxley. 

Lucaltty. Triassic rocks at the foot of the Rhenosterberg, a branch of the 

Sneewbergeu Range, S. Africa. 
References. Huxley, Quart. Journ. Gaol. Soc. vol. xv. p. 042, pi. xxi. [1859]. 

Rhinosaurus, Waldheim. 

Skull (figure). Triangular, rounded in front, sides somewhat convex ; auditory 
openings conspicuous, wide and deep ; epiotic cornua short, broad ; postero-lateral 
expansions large, overlapping much of the posterior part of the mandible. Orbits. 
Large (length about one foiurth the length of the skull along the middle line), central, 
roimdish, irregular, distant. External nasal foramina. Large, round, approximated, 
close to the tip of the snout. Parietal foramen. Large, situate in the fore part of 
the interparietal suture, much neai-er to a line joining the posterior ends of the 
orbits than to the occipital border. TeeLli. Maxillary and mandibular appai-ently 
nearly regular, smaller behind, slender, slightly compressed, conical, pointed, 
curved. Cranial sculpture. Pitted radiately ; no mucous grooves visible. 

*j(f* The single skidl of Rhinosaurus shows a round foramen (situate apparently 
in the fore part of the quadrato-jugal). This may be accidental, or it may represent 
what Prof. Huxley has called the " supratemporal foramen" in Anthracosaurus. 

Measurements (from Fischer de Waldheim's Memoir). 

(French) in. lines. 

Total length of slaill 3 5 

Length of skull along middle line 2 11 

Greatest breadth of skull 2 4 

Breadth at middle of orbits 1 8 

Length of orbit (about) 9 

Least width of interorbital space 10 

Distance between external nasal foramina 4 

Greatest depth of mandible 7 

R. JASiKOva, Waldheim. 

Locality. Oolite of Simbirsk, Russia. 

References. Fischer de Waldheim, "Notice sm- quelques Sam'ieus de I'Oolithe 

du Gouvernement de Simbirsk," Bull. Soc. Natiu-alistes de Moscou, tom. xx. 

pt. 1, p. 364, t. V. [1847]. 

Bothriceps, Huxley. 

Skull (figure). Parabolic. Orbits. Large, oval, central, converging forwards; 
interorbital space gi-eater than transverse diameter of orbit. Nasal foramina. 
Largo, roundish, separated by about half the interorbital space. Teeth. " Very 
numerous and close-set, not more than one eighth of an inch long; they are 
conical, straight, and sharp-pointed, and their bases are expanded and marked by 
about twelve longitudinal folds, which extend to neai- the apex of the tooth." 
Cranial sculpture. Pitted closely and irregularly. 

Measurements (from Prof. Huxley's Memoir and figiu-es). 

Length of skull along middle line 1*3 

Greatest breadth of skull (about) 1-3 

Breadth at middle of orbits (about) 1'75 

1874. M 



162 KEPOKT— 1874. 

in. 

From centre of occiinit to posterior end of orbit 1'5 

From tip of snout to anterior end of orbit 1'26 

Length of orbit '8 

Width of orbit -6 

Least widtli of interorbital space '^S 

From tip of snout to external nasal foramen •375 

B. AusTEALis, Huxley. 

Locality. Triassic (?) rocks of some part of Australia. Precise locality unknown. 
JReferences. Huxley, Quart. JoiU'n. Geol. Soc. vol. xv. p. 647, pi. xxii. figs. 1, 2 

[1859]. 

III. CHAULIODONTA. 

Loxomma, Huxley. 

Skull (figure). An elongated isosceles triangle, with large rounded postero-lateral 
expansions and short epiotic cornua ; coronal tract elevated, bounded on each side 
by temporal depressions ; auditory openings indenting considerably the upper 
siu'face. Orbits. Very large, irregular-oval, with cusps proceeding from the 
posterior part of both inner and outer margins ; narrowed in front ; slightly 
oblique, the long axes diverging forwards ; edges raised ; interorbital space less than 
the transverse diameter of the orbit. External nasal foramina. Oval, lateral, 
distant*. Choana. Marginal, distant, small, slightly posterior to the external nasal 
foramina. Teeth (disposition). Premaxillary, three or four on each side, larger than 
maxillary ; maxillary numerous, subequal ; palato-vomerine, large tusks before and 
behind the choanse ; mandibular very imequal, 18 to 25. Teeth (structure). Coni- 
cal, striate, with opposite (anterior and posterior) cutting-edges ; a thin layer of 
enamel invests the crown of the tooth, and descends low down upon the sides ; the 
dentine forms a thick and compact internal lining to the cap of enamel in the upper 
half of the tooth, occupying nearly all the space, and reducing the pulp-cavity to a 
small fiattened cjdinder in the centre of the tooth ; in the lower half of the tooth 
the pulp-cavity expands and the parietes become somewhat thinner ; at the same 
point the dentine separates into numerous vertical lamellas, or folds, and a peripheral 
layer of dentine appears ; towards the base of the tooth the imlp-cavity is large, 
occupying about one third of the diameter ; the dentinal lamelue are numerous, 
irregular, rarely branched, and radiately disposed around the pulp-cavity ; the peri- 
pheral layer of dentine occupies the outside of the tooth, and takes a sinuous coiu-se 
along the centre of each lamella ; when seen in cross section, each tiun of the 
sinuous lamella of peripheral dentine appears to be strengthened by a short out- 
standing process, so that the lamella itself appears to be angulated ; dentinal tubules 
pass fi'om the peripheral layer at right angles. Mandibular articulation. Shallow, 
transversely elongated ; postarticular process wanting. Cranial sculpture. A honey- 
comb pitting covers the chief part of the skull : there is a lyra consisting of two 
grooves which occupy the summits of slightly elevated ridges in the preorbital 
tract ; the grooves begin in the interorbital space, and pass forwards, diverging 
regularly, to the maxillo-premaxillary sutiu-e ; they are connected in front by a 
transverse groove : short maxillary grooves ; no malar grooves. Thoracic plates 
have been described as those of Loxomma, but without satisfactory identification. 
Vertebra;. Centi-a well ossified, biconcave ; spinous processes broad and lofty. 
Ribs. Long, slightly cm-ved, strong. 

* In the restoration of the skull of Loxomma given in last year's Report (t. i.) the ex- 
ternal nai-es are incorrectly placed. They are shown by Mr. Atthey's fine specimen, 
figured in the paper referred to below, to be external to the mucous grooves upon the pre- 
maxilla. The same paper will enable us to rectify and complete the delineation of the 
sutures upon the upper surface of the skull in this genus. We cannot accept Messrs. Em- 
bleton and Atthey's interijretation of the palate of Loxomma, which is foimded upon an 
analogy with Crocodilia which we believe to be mistaken. The " palate-plates of the 
maxiUaries " are true palatals, and no ectopterygoid exists in the Labyrinthodont skidl. 
The apertures named by them " posterior nares " are probably vascular canals, and we 
regard the foramina marked " Ap " in t. v. as the true ehoantc. 



ON THE CLASSIFICATION OF THE LABYRINTHODOXTS. 163 

Measurements (from Messrs. Embleton and .Vtthey's Memoir and Platesj. 

in. 

Total length of skull (about) 13-5 

Length of skull along middle line 11'5 

Greatest breadth of skull 8 

Breadth at middle of orbits , (about) 6 

From centre of occiput to posterior end of orbit 2'5 

From ti}) of snout to anterior end of orbit 6 

Length of orbit 4-5 

Width of orbit 1-5 

Least width of interorbital space 1"5 

Distance between external nasal foramina 2'7r> 

From tip of snout to external nasal foramen 2 

Greatest depth of mandible 2'75 

Extent of mandibular symphysis 1'75 

Diameter of largest palato-vomerine tusk (longitudinal) "7 

„ „ „ (transverse) "o 

Antero-posterior depth (superficial) of largest vertebral centrum . . '65 

Greatest width of vertebral centrum 1'3 

Length of longest rib preserved ^ 7'875 

L. Allmani, Huxley. 

Locality. Edinburgh, Glasgow, Newsham, Broseley, Longtou. 

References. Huxley, Q. J. Geol. Soc. vol. xviii. p. 291 [1862].— Hancock & 

Atthev, Trans. Nat. Hist. Soc. Northumberland and Durham, vol. iv. pp. 

201, 390 [1871].— Embleton & Atthey, Ann. Nat. Hist. ser. 4, vol. xiv. 

p. 38, pis. iv.-vii. [1874]. 

Zygosaitrus, Eichwald. 

SJmU (figiu-e). Triangular, with concave sides and obtuse snout ; occipital border 
concave ; skull lofty in the occipital region, falling away gradually in front and 
rapidly on the sides. 

Eichwald remarks that " the skull is distinguished by large temporal grooves, 
similar to those of the Crocodilian Sauria, which serve for the reception and attach- 
ment of the temporal muscles. These are observed in the Labyrinthodonts also, 
but especially in the Enaliosauria, as in Nothosaurus and Sitnosaurus. Thus 
Zygosaurus in this respect connects the Labyrinthodonts with the Enaliosam-ia and 
Grocodilia"*. 

It does not, however, appear that Zygosaunis is fairly comparable as to the tem- 
poral region of the skull with Grocodilia. It has doubtless wide postorbital depres- 
sions, which probably served for muscular attachment ; and these depressions may 
have been destitute of sculptiu-e, though in the only skull known the original sur- 
face of this and other parts has been removed by fracture. The sutures are effaced, 
and it is therefore impossible to say positively whether the supratemporal and post- 
orbital ossifications, which best distinguish the upper siu-face of the Labyrinthodont 
from that of the Crocodilian skull, were present in Zygosaunis or not. Probably 
they were, and the temporal depressions of Zygosaurus would in this case much 
resemble those of Lo.vonuna. There is only a distant similarity between the shallow 
postorbital grooves of Zygosaunis and the vacuities circumscribed by bone which 
occupy a large part of the temporal region in Nothosaurus and Simosaurus. Eich- 
wald's remarks may refer to the depressions in the occipital tract of the skull, 
though nothing quite similar is foimd in recent Grocodilia. The state of the speci- 

* "Der Schiidel zeichnet sicli durch grosse Schlafengmben aus, die in ahnlicher Ent- 
wicklung in den krokodilartigen Eideehsen zur Aufnahme nnd Befestigung der Scliliifeii- 
muskebi dienen, imd audi in den Labyrintbodonten, vorziiglich aber in den EnaLiosauriern, 
wie im Nothosaurus und Simosaurus beobachtet warden, so dass der Zyyosauriis hierin die 
Labyi-intliodonten mit den EnaUosauriern und Krokodiliern verbindet." — Bull, de la Soc. 
des Naturalistes de Moscou, torn. rxi. (1848), p. 159. 

M 2 



164 REPORT — 1874. 

mon is such that it is not clear whether these depressions represent natural cavities 
or fractures. 

Orbits. Slightly posterior, large, irregular ; interorhital space ec[ual to transverse 
diameter of orbit. Teeth (disposition). Premaxillary, two or more teeth on each 
side, larger than the maxillary; maxillary about 16-18 on each side, small, uni- 
form ; palato-vomerine tusks in series with small teeth. Teeth (structiu-e). Conical, 
stronc, nearly straight ; apex smooth and obtuse, base with about 20 simple, regular 
grooves. Cranial sculpture. Tuberculate, radiate ? 

Measurements (from Eichwald's Memoir and figures). 

Total length of skull (about) 7 

Length of skull along middle line 6 

Greatest breadth of skull 5 

Breadth at middle of orbits 475 

From centre of occiput to posterior end of orbit 2 

From tip of snout to anterior end of orbit 3" 125 

Length of orbit 1"^ 

Width of orbit (about) 1 

Least width of interorhital space 1-125 

Z. LUCIUS, Eichwald. 

Locality. Zechstein of tha Government of Perm, Russia*. 

References. Eichwald, Bulletin de la Society des Naturalistes de Moscou, torn. xxi. 
p. 159, tt. ii., iii., iv. [1848].— Pictet, Paleontologie, vol. i. p. 550 [185-3].— 
Eichwald, Lethsea Rossica, vol. i. pi. ii. p. 1630 [18(30-61]. 

Melosaurus, Von Meyer. 

Etirosaurus, Eichwald. 

Skull (figm-e). Triangular, with concave sides, obtuse snout, and concave occipital 
border. Orbits. Moderate, oval, posterior, interorhital space equal to transverse 
diameter of orbit. External nasal foramina. Rather small, fmther back and more 
central than usual. Parietal foramen with raised edges. Teeth. Mandibular 
about 30 on each side, small behind, irregular in front, small teeth in series with 
verv large ones ; conical, slightly recurved, pointed, striate at the base. Mandi- 
bular aiiiculation. Postarticular' process wanting. Cranial sculpture. Radiately 
pitted. Vertebrce, &c. The vertebrae and limb-bones attributed to this genus by 
Eichwald are not proved to belong to it ; and some of them differ much from the 
same parts of undoubted LabjTinthodont skeletons. 

Measurements (from Eichwald's figvu'e). 

Total length of skiill 7-75 

Greatest breadth of skull 5-25 

From centre of occiput to posterior end of orbit 2'25 

From tip of snout to anterior end of orbit 4'9 

Length of orbit 1"13 

Width of orbit -76 

Least width of interorhital space "75 

Length of postarticular process of mandible 2'5 

Greatest length of mandibular tusks 1 

M. URALENSis, Von Meyer. 

Locality. Calcareous marl (Permian) of Orenburg. (The single example is now 

at Berlin.) 
References. Von Meyer, Jahrbuch fiir Mineralogie, p. 298 [1859]. — Id. Palaeon- 

tographica, vol. vii. p. 90, t. x. [1859]. — Eichwald, Lethaea Rossica, vol. i. 

pt. 2, p. 1621, t. Ivii. fig. 25 [I860]. 

* Eichwald has identified the Chelonia radiata of Fischer with Zygosaurus ; it appears 
much more like a fossil fish. 



ON THE CLASSIFICATION OF THE LABYRINTHODONTS. 165 

IV. ATHROODONTA. 

Batrachiderpeton, Hancock & Atthey. 

Shdl (figure). Wide ; postero-lateral expansions large, produced far backwards ; 
maxillte deficient ; coronal bones defined by raised lines. Number of ossifications. 
No maxillae; probably no jugals or quadrato-jugals. Orbits. Anterior, oval?, 
large ?, incomplete, being boimtled by bone upon tne inner side only. Choana. Large, 
oval. Parietal foramen. Far forward, large, with raised margin. Teeth (disposi- 
tion). Premaxillary about 9 on each side, strong, equal ; palato-vomerine, a dense 
and large central mass of aggregated (vomerine ?) teeth, with a lateral (palatine .P) 
row in advance of the choana ; mandibular about 16, in the anterior part only of 
each ramus. Teeth (sti-ucture). Conical, pointed, strong ; striated and somewhat 
compi'essed towiirds the apex. Cranial sculpture. Tuberculate or rugose. 

Measurements (from Messrs. Hancock and Atthey's Memoir). . 

Total length of skull 2-3 

Length of skull along middle line l'87o 

Greatest breadth of skull 2-025 

Average length of premaxillary teeth '06 

Average leng-th of mandibular teeth •06 

B. LiNEATUM, Hancock & Atthey. 

Locality. Newsham (Northumberland). 

References. Hancock & Atthey, Nat. Hist. Trans. Northumberland and Durham, 
vol. iv. p. 208 [1871]. 

Pteroplax, Hancock & Atthey. 

Sliill (figure). Spatulate, narrowed in front, with acute postero-lateral (epiotic) 
projections; occipital margin concave. Number of ossifications. There are appa- 
rently no maxillae, lachrymals, prefrontals, postorbitals, jugals, squamosals, supra- 
temporal.s, or quadi'ato-jugals. Orbits. Large, anterior, incomplete, being bounded 
by bone upon the inner side only. Cranial sctdpture. Pitted, the iuter^'ening 
ridges imperfectly defined ; irregular. Vertebrce. Biconcave, thick, well ossified. 

The teeth and premaxilla described by Messrs. Hancock and Atthey as those of 
Fteroplax belong to Loxomma. 

Measurements. (From Messrs. Hancock & Atthey's Memoir.) . 

Total length of skull (imperfect) 7 

Length of skull along middle line 3'75 

Length of epiotic cornua (about) 1 

(From specimen in the Leeds Museum.) 

Greatest breadth of skull (along occipital margin) 4 

Length of epiotic cornua 1'75 

Antero-posterior depth (superficial) of largest vertebral centrum , . "45 

Greatest width of vertebral centrum 1"3 

P. coRNUTA, Hancock & Atthey. 

Localittj. Newsham (Northumberland). 

Riferences. Hancock & Atthey, Nat. Hist. Trans. Northumberland and Durham, 
vol. iii. p. 66, t. ii. fig. 1, vol. iv. p. 207. 

[V. Uncliaracterized.] 
Pholidogaster, Huxley. 

Slciill (figure). Imperfectly shown ; snout obtuse. Teeth. Two premaxillary teeth 
visible ; these are conical, recurved, and strongly grooved at the base. Thoracic 



166 REPOKT — 1874. 

plates. Lateral plates triangular, with a reflected process at the outer angle ;'radiately 
sculptured. Vertebrm. Centra completely ossified, somewhat broader than long-, 
constricted in the middle, biconcave. Scutes. A ventral armour, consisting of im- 
bricated oat-shaped scutes, occurs between the pectoral and pelvic limbs. 



Measurements (from Prof. Huxley's Memoir). 



m. 



Greatest breadth of skull (about) 5 

Length of mandible 7 

Length of premaxillary tooth '2 

Total length of head, trunk, and tail (slightly imperfect) 43-4 

P. pisciFonMis, Huxley. 

Locality. Edinburgh Coal-field. 

Heferences. Huxley, Q. J. Geol. Soc. vol. xvlii. p. 294, t. x. figs. 1, 4 [1862]. 

IcMiiyerpston, Huxley. 

Vertebrce. Centra discoidal ; caudal vertebra imperfectly ossified ? Ribs 
Cposterior dorsal region). Short, tapering. Scutes. A ventral shield of minute 
scutes disposed in a chevron pattern. Hind limb. " Four distinct digits, with 
three short and thick phalanges in each, can be distinguished ; the fifth digit is not 
apparent." 

Measurements (from Prof. Huxley's Memoir and Plate). 

Antero-posteiior depth (superficial) of vertebral centrum -15 

Length of 10 thoracic vertebras 1"G 

r. BKADLEYiE, Huxlcy. 

Locality. Jarrow Collieiy, Kilkenny. 

References. Huxley, " Description of Vertebrate Remains from the Jarrow 

Colliery. Kilkenny," Trans. Roval Lish Acad. vol. xxiv. p. 17, t. xxiii. 

fig. 1 [1867]. 

Pholiderpeton, Huxley. 

Terf/i (structiu-e). Maxillary and maudibidar series nearly uniform ; a detached 
tooth of large size has been distinguished upon the same slab with a skull and 
vertebral column; the teeth are conical, pointed and recurved at the apex. Cranial 
sculpture. Close and u-regular pitting. Vertebra. Centra well ossified, discoidal, 
biconcave. Ribs. Long, stout, and curved, some bicipital. Scutes. A ventral 
armour of large bony scutes, most of Vv'hich are elongate, pointed at one end and 
roimded at the other, with a raised central ridge. 

Measurements. 

in. 

Average length of maxillary teeth -45 

Antero-posterior depth (superficial) of largest vertebral centrum . . -4 

Greatest widtli of vertebral centrum ., . . 1-4 

Length of longest rib preserved (chord) 7 

P. scuTiOERUM, Huxley. 

Locality. Toftshaw, near Bradford, Yorlcs. 

References. Huxley, Q. J. Geol. Soc. vol. xxv. p. .300, t. xi. [1869]. 

VI. ARCHEGOSATJEIA. 
Archegosaurus, Goldf. 

Skull (figure). Triangular, with rounded angles, sides slightly convex. Orbits. 
Situate in the posterior half of the skull {A. Decheni), or about the middle (A. 



ON THE CLASSIFICATION OF THE LABYRINTHODONTS. 167 

latiroslris) ; oval, small, somewhat oblique, distant*, the pointed anterior ends con- 
verging; orbital margin raised. Palatine foramina. Elongate, large, adjacent, 
pointed in front. External nasal foramina. I'^longata- oval, approximated. Teeth 
(^disposition). Premaxillary not fewer than 8 on each side in A. Decheni, or 11 in 
A. latirostris ; maxillary not fewer than 30, irregular, of small size, diminishing 
behind ; palato-vomerine, two or three tusks in front of the clioana, and 12 or more 
behind, diminishing backwards to size of maxillary teeth ; mandibular, a single row 
of nearly uniform ^teeth. Teeth (structure). Conical, finely striate, tipped with a 
two-edged crown of enamel when new and small ; the dentine gives off a relatively 
small number of converging folds, which alternate with simple, radiating extensions 
of the pulp-cavity. Mandibular articulation. Somewhat weak ; postarticular pro- 
cess short. Cranial sculpture. An incomplete lyra, faintly marked ; pitting radiate, 
obscure in young specimens. Thoracic plates. Rhomboidal plate further produced 
in advance of the centre of radiation than behind it, with a slight median ridge ; 
lateral plates triangular, truncated behind, extending backwards a little beyond the 
centre of the median plate ; sculpture radiate, rather obscure. Vertebrce. Noto- 
chordal; the superior and inferior arches are ossified, and there are also three osseous 
cortical plates to each vertebrte, one ventral and two lateral. Ribs. Short, nearly 
straight, extending throughout the trunk and into the caudal region. Fore limb. 
About half the length of the skull ; at least four digits (number uncertain). Hind 
limb. Rather larger than fore limb (as 3 : 2 in adult specimens) ; at least four digits. 
Scutes. Oval, lancet-shaped, &c., imbricate; ventral armour forming a chevron 
pattern, which is reversed behind. 

A. Decheni, Goldf. {A. medius, Goldf. ; A. minor, Goldf.). 

Skull nearly twice as long as broad (adult). Orbit elongate-oval. 

Measuretnents t. 

in. 

Total length of skull 1-1 

Ijength of skull along middle line 109 

Greatest breadth of skull o-C>2 

Breadth at middle of orbits 3-375 

From centre of occiput to posterior end of orbit 2o5 

From tip of snout to anterior end of orbit 7'5 

Length of orbit 1'31 

Width of orbit -To 

Least width of Interorbital space 1'25 

Distance between external nasal foramina "875 

From tip of snout to external nas;il foramen 1'375 

Greatest depth of mandible 1"5 

Greatest length of mandibular tusks "48 

Length of median thoracic plate (upwards of) 7 

Greatest width of median thoracic plate 2-5 

Length of 8 posterior thoracic vertebrae v . . 6 

Locality. Coal-measures of Saarbriick ; Coal-measures of Artinsk, UralJ. 

References. Goldfuss, Beitrage zm- vorweltlichen Fauna des Steiulcohlengebirges 
[1847]. — Burmeister, Die Labyi-inthodonten aus dem Saarbriicker Stein- 
kohlengebirge {Archegosaurus) [18501. — Von Meyer, Reptilien aus der 
Steinkohlenformation in Deutschland [1858]. — Jordan, "Erganzeudo Beo- 
bachtimgen zu der Abhandlimg von Goldfuss iiber die Galtimg Archeyo- 
saurux," Verb. nat. Vereius d. Preuss. Rheiulande, p. 70, t. iv. fig. 1, t. vi. 
[1849].— Owen, PaliBoutologv, p. 168 [1800].— Eichwald, Lethsea Rossica, 
vol. i. pt. ii. p. 1633 [1860]. " 

* That is, separated by more than the transverse diameter of one of them. 

t The measurements of the skull are taken from the nearly perfect example figured by 
Von Meyer (Reptilien aus der Steinkohlenformation, t. a). The other measurements 
are from large and perfect examples of the individual parts belonging to different 
skeletons. 

} Eichwald, loc. cit. The identification rests only upon a limb-bone, and is questionable. 



168 REPORT— 1874. 

A. LATiROSTRis, Jordan. 

Length of skiill about once and a half the breadth. Orbit roundish oval. 

Measurements (from Von Meyer, ' Reptilien ' &c., t. i. fig. 1). . 

Length of skull along middle line (about) 4*75 

Greatest breadth of skull (about) 4-75 

Breadth at middle of orbits 3*125 

From centre of occiput to posterior end of orbit 1'5 

From tip of snout to anterior end of orbit (about) 2'87o 

Length of orbit "87 

Width of orbit -65 

Least width of interorbital space "75 

Greatest depth of mandible "S 

Locality. Coal-measm-es of Saarbriick. 

References. H. Jordan, " Beobachtuugen &c.," Verb. d. natm-f. Vereins d. Preus- 
sischen Rheiulande, vi. p. 78, t. iv. figs. 2, 3 [1849]. — Burmeister, Die Labj^- 
rinthodonten aus dem Saarbriicker Steinkohlengebirge (Archegosam-us), p. 69, 
t. ii. figs. 3, 4 [1850].— Von Meyer, Jahrbuch fur Mineralogie, 1854, p. 422. 
— Id. lb. 1855, p. 326. — Jd. Reptilien aus der Steinkohlenformation in 
Deutschlnud, p. 119, tt. i., ii. figs. 1-4 [1858]. 

VII. HELEOTHREPTA. 

Lepterpeton, Huxley. 

Skidl (figm-e). Triangular, with produced, tapering snout. Orbits. Centi-al, oval, 
moderate. Teeth. " There ai-e indications of relatively long, pointed, and slightly 
curved teeth, set at intervals in the upper jaw." Mandibtdar si/t)iphysis. Elongate ; 
" tlie slender rami of the mandible converge towards one another to tlie sjTuphysis, 
whtre they become parallel, and are united for nearly 0'3 in." Vertebrce. About 20 
precaudal and 25 caudal vertebrae ; centra elongate, narrowed in the middle ; neural 
spines low, elongate. Ribs. Short and curved. Fore limb. Carpus unossified ; 
manus longer than the rest of the limb. Hind limb. " The hind limb is penta- 
dactyle, and has a small hallux, the other digits (each of which appears to have 
possessed three phalanges) being very long and slender;" tarsus imossified; pes 
longer than the rest of the limb. Scutes. Indistinct traces of a ventral armoiu*. 

Measurements (from Prof Huxley's Memoir). 

Total length of skull -85 

Length of orbit -13 

Antero-posterior depth (superficial) of average vertebral centrum . . '1 

Length of tail 3-16 

Length of fore limb -5 

Length of hind limb -85 

Total length of head, trunk, and tail 6 

L. DoBESii, Huxley. 

Locality. Jarrow Colliery, Kilkenny. 

References. Huxley, " Description of Vertebrate Remains from the Jarrow Colliery, 
Kilkenny," Trans. Royal Irish Acad. vol. xxiv. p. 12, t. xxi. figs. 1, 2 [1867]. 

VIII. NECTEIDEA. 

TTrocordylus, Huxley. 

Skidl (figm'e). Triangular, truncated behind, with rounded snout ; prominent 
epiotic cornua *; postero-lateral expansion angulated, but not produced as a horn f. 

* These are seen in the specimen described by Messrs. Hancock and Atthey, and also 
in an example found by Mr. Jolm Ward, of Longton. 
t Shown in Mr, Ward's specimen. 



ON THE CLASSIFICATION OP THE LABYRINTHODONTS. 1C)9 

Teeth (mandible of U. reticulatu^). Small, slightly curved, the apices apparently 
abruptly pointed. Cranial sculpture. In U. reticulatus the surface of the cranial 
bones exhibits " a coarse reticulated structure of elevated ridges or lines, which, fi-om 
the elongation of the meshes in some of the bones, have the ajjpearance of strong, 
raised, parallel striae" (Plancock & Atthey). Thoracic plates. Covered (in U. reti- 
culatus) with " a minute reticulation of raised lines, which assume a radial disposi- 
tion, as if from centres of growth" (Hancoclv & Atthey). Vertebrce. Probably 
20 precaudal vertebrae, " with long and low, plate-like, neural spines, the faces of 
which are striated, and the edges sen-ated, as in Keraterpeton''^ (Huxley) ; about 75 
caudal vertebrae, their nem-al spines fan-like, narrow beneath, expanded and trun- 
cated above, with distinct lateral striae and serrated superior edges ; chevron-bones 
similar to the caudal neural spines, but broader and shorter; " up to and including 
the thirty-sixth vertebra, the axes of the nem-al spines and subvertebral bones coin- 
cide, or are parallel, both being vertical to the long axes of the vertebrae ; but in the 
succeeding vertebrae the axes of both incline backwai'ds, and meet at a very obtuse 
angle ; up to the forty-second vertebra the spines and subvertebral bones, though 
gradually diminishing in antero-posterior extent, retain their strong grooves and 
striatious and their frayed or notched edges ; but fiirther backward they first taper 
towards their ends, and finally assume the characters of ordinary spinous processes " 
(HiLxley). • Ribs. " Traces of numerous, short, curved, and stout ribs are visible in 
the confused mass which occupies the dorsal region of the trunk " ( Huxley). Scutes, 
A ventral shield composed of numerous oat-shaped scales, "2 inch long ; specimens 
from Kilkenny, acquired by the British Museum since the publication of Prof. 
HiLxley's description, show that these were disposed in a chevron pattern. Fore 
and hind limbs. Pentadactyle ; " the fore limb had probably two thirds the length 
of the hind limb " (Huxley). 

Measurements. (From Prof. Huxley's Memoir.) 

Antero-posterior depth (superficial) of dorsal vertebral centrum . . -2 

Total height of anterior caudal vertebra "95 

Length of ten caudal vertebrte (51 to 60) 1 

Length of ten anterior caudal vertebrae (nearly) 2 

Length of tail (about) 13 

Total length of head, trunk, and tail (about) 19'5 

(From Mr. Ward's specimen.) 

Total length of slfiill -9 

Length of skull along middle line , -625 

Greatest breadth of slndl •65 

U. Wandesfordii, Huxley. 
Locality. Jarrow Colliery, Kilkenny ; Longton, Stafibrdshire. 
Heferences. Huxley, " Description of Vertebrate Remains from the Jarrow Col- 
liery, Kilkenny," Trans. Koyal Irish Acad. vol. xxiv. p. 9, t. xx. [1867]. 

U. RKTicuLATUS, Ilancock & Atthey. 

The specific distinctness of this example is not clear. 

Measurements (from Messrs. Hancock & Atthey 's paper). 

l^ength of skull along middle line -4 

Greatest breadth of skull -5 

Length of epiotic comua -2 

Antero-posterior dejjth (superficial) of vertebral centrum •! 

Total height of caudal vertebral centrum -25 

Total length of head, trunk, and tail (estimated) 4-5 

Locality. Newsham Colliery, Northumberland. 

Mefercnces. Hancock & Atthey, Nat. Hist. Trans. Northumberland and Durham, 
vol. iii. p. 310 [1870J. 

*** The genera Oestooephalus and Ptyo7iius of Cope appear to belong to Urocor- 
dylus. Professor Cope enumerates and distinguishes the species as under: — 



170 REPORT — 1874. 

PxTONIUS. 

a. Abdominal rods coarser, not more than ten in "005 m. 

Median pectoral plate broad, radiate, ridged P. Marshii. 

aa. Abdominal rods hair-like, fifteen or more in -OOo m. 

]\Iiddle pectoral shield with radii from the centre, the principal forming a 

cross ; form wider P. VinchcUimws. 

Middle pectoral with pits at the centre, and few or no radii ; form nai-row. 

P. pectinatus. 
Middle pectoral shield narrow, closely reticulate medially, and r'kdiate towards 
the circumference ; size half that of the last P. serrula. 

Oestocephalus. 

I. Vertebrae elongate ; fan-like caudal processes narrower. Size large ; mandi- 
bular teeth of unec^ual lengths, with the apices tm-ned baclrwards. 

O. remex. 
II. Species only known from cranial bones with teeth ; teeth equal, erect, with 

acute conic apices, eleven in -005 m 0. rectidens. 

All the species from the Coal-measures of Linton, Ohio. 

Peferences. Cope, Proc. Acad. Sci. Philadelphia, 1868, p. 217, &c.—Id. Synopsis, 
Trans. American Phil. See. vol. xiv. p. 16, &c. [1869].— /</. Supplement, 
p. 4, &c. 

Keraterpeton, Huxley. 

SkuU (figure). Hexagonal ; prominent postero-lateral and posterior (epiotic) 
cornua ; snout very short, obtuse. Orbits. Large, oval, anterior ; interorbital space 
about equal to the transverse diameter of the orbit. Teeth. Mandibular minute, 
close-set, pointed. Cranial sculpture. Obscure ; general surface perhaps smooth, 
epiotic cornua longitudinally striate. Thoracic plates. Form indistinct ; covered 
with a conspicuous reticulated sculptiu-e. Vertebra. Twenty vertebrae, bearing 
ribs, in advance of the fii-st caudal ; centra elongate, slightly constricted in the 
middle; neural spines (of precaudal region) low, truncate, the sides striates, the 
edges serrated ; distinct zygapophyses ; caudal vertebrae with " broad wedge-shaped 
subvertebral bones, which are anchylosed to the middle of their centra," devoid of ribs ; 
neural spines and subvertebral bones similar. JRibs. Twelve pairs can be counted ; 
" it is probable, however, that all the vertebrae between the occiput and the first 
caudal (21) bore ribs;" " they are stout, and strongly curved, with distinct tuber- 
cula and capitula ; the anterior ribs .are rather larger than the posterior ones, and 
are equal to about three of the vertebrae in length ; their ventral ends are rounded, 
and no traces of sternal ribs are anywhere visible ; the ribs behind the posterior 
limbs (in their present position) are shorter than the others." Fore limb. Radius 
and ulna similar ; carpus unossitied ; five digits, the greatest number of phalanges 
in any one being four ; somewhat shorter than hind limb. Hind limb. Femm" short 
and stout, about one third longer than the tibia and fibula, which are similar to the 
radius and ulna; five digits, the first with two phalanges, the rest with three. 
Scutes. Ventral shield consisting of small, elongate, imbricate scutes. 

Measurements (from Prof. Huxley's Memoir and Plates). • 

Total length of skull, including epiotic cornua (about) Vo 

Length of skull along middle line 1 

From centre of occiput to posterior end of orbit (about) '5 

From tip of snout to anterior end of orbit (about) '3 

Length of orbit '625 

Width of orbit. -2 

Least width of interorbital space '2 

Antero-posterior depth (superficial) of largest vertebral centrum 

(nearly) '2 

Length of 20 foremost vertebrae 3-6* 

Total length of head, trunk, and tail (not exceeding) 10 

* In the text of Prof. Huxley's Memoir, p. 7, this measurement is given as 21b in., but 
this does not agree with the figure. 



ON THE CLASSIFICATION OF THE LABYRINTIIODONTS. 171 

K. Galvani, Huxley. 

Locality. Jan'ow Colliery, Kilkenny. 

References. Huxley, "Description of Vertebrate Remains from the Jarrow 
Colliery, Kilkenny," Trans. Royal Irish Acad. vol. xxiv. p.^i, t. xLx. 

IX. AiSTOPODA. 

Ophiderpeton, Huxley. 

Skull. In all the examples hitherto discovered the skiill was in an imsatisfactory 
state of preservation. Prof. Huxley remarks concerning one of these that " the roof 
of the skull is broad, and has an obtuse and rounded anterior end ; the ramus of the 
mandible is strong, and has a curved lower contom*, its ai-ticular end being especially 
curved up." Vertehrce. The number may have amounted to one hundred or more ; 
centra elongate, contracted in the middle; spinous processes low, shorter antero- 
posteriorly than the centra. Ribs. Long, nearly straight. Limbs. Probably want- 
ing ; no trace of fore or hind limb has occm-red in any one of several specimens 
which have been discovered in L-eland and Northumberland. Scutes. A ventral 
shield, long and naiTOw, made up of elongate, imbricate, slightly curved scutes, dis- 
posed in a chevron pattern. 

Measurements (from Prof. Huxley's Memoir). 

Total length of the largest example (incomplete) 21 

Length of middle vertebra of ditto '25 

Length of the largest skull 1*6 

O. Bbownriggu, Huxley (O. nanum, Hancock & Atthey?)*. 

Locality. Jarrow Colliery, Kilkenny (O. Broiunrigyii) ; Newsham Colliery, 

Northumberland (O. nanum). 
References. Huxley, " Description of Vertebrate Remains from the Jarrow 

Collierj', Kilkenny," Trans. Royal L-ish Acad. vol. xxiv. p. 14, t. xxii. [1867]. 

— Hancock & Atthev, Nat. Hist. Trans. Northumberland and Dm-ham, 

vol. iii. p. 79 [1869]. ' 

Dolichosoma, Huxley. 

STcull (figure). " Narrow, tapering from the occiput to the snout, so as to have 
the form of an isosceles triangle ; the lower jaw repeats the form and general dimen- 
sions of the head, and has very slender rami" (Huxley). Vertebrce. Complete 
number unloiown ; about fifty in the single incomplete specimen hitherto disco- 
vered ; centra stout, slightly constricted ; neural spinous processes low ; zygapo- 
physes apparently well developed. Ribs. Slender, straight, short (hardly "longer 
than the vertebne), rapidly tapering. Limb. No trace of fore or hind Umb in the 
single example known. 



in. 



Measurements (from Prof. HiLsley's Memoir). 

Total length of skull ""•32 

Greatest breadth of skull -13 

Length of 10 anterior vertebrae -So 

Total length of head, trunk, and tail (incomplete) 3'7 

D. Emehsoni, Huxley. 

Locality. Jarrow Colliery, ICllkenny. 

References. Huxley, "Description of Vertebrate Remains from the Jarrow 
Colliery, Kilkenny," Trans. Royal Irish Acad. vol. xxiv. p. 16, t. xxi. fig. 3 

* Doubtfully distinct. The specimen is very imperfect, and differs ehiofly in size from 
0. lirounriggii. 



172 REPORT — 1874. 

X. MICROSAURIA. 
Dendrerpeton, Owen. 

Sktdl (figure). Parabolic. Orbits. Circular, central, distant, small*. External 
nasal foramina. " Small, and near the muzzle " (Dawson). Teeth (disposition). 
Premaxillary larger than the maxillary series ; palato-Yomerine, a close series of 
teeth internal to the maxillary teeth, and larger ; Dr. Dawson finds also blunt 
teeth attached to loose bones, which he thinks may represent the vomer ; mandibular, 
" in the lower jaw there was a uniform series of conical teeth, not perceptibly en- 
larged toward the fi-out, and an inner series of larger. . . .teeth. ..." (Dawson). 
Teeth (structure). (Z>. acadiamtm) "Those of the vomer are thinly walled and 
simple, the outer series on the maxillaries and intermaxillaries [and mandible] 
simple and flattened, while the inner series of teeth [in both jaws] are conical and! 
plicated" (Dawson)t. Cranial sculpture. Reticulate and radiate, minute. Vertebra. 
Centi-a conti-acted in the middle, deeply biconcave ; broad transverse processes, 
tapering to a point at their free ends, have been found attached to some of these, 
and distinct zygapophyses have been obsei-ved in others ; " there is a large and 
flattened neural spine;" "there are other [vertebrae] with long spines above and 
below " (Dawson ). liibs. " Long and curved, with an expanded head, near to 
which they are solid, but become hollow toward the middle " (Dawson) ; some, 
at least, have a distinct tuberculum and capitulum. Fo7-e limb. Supposed by 
Dr. Dawson to have been as large as the hind limb or larger ; " the bones were 
hollow. . . . ; the humerus, however, was a strong bone, with thick walls and a 
cancellated structure toward its extremities " (Dawson). Hind limb. The compo- 
nent bones, as in the fore limb, are narrowed in the centre and expanded at the 
ends ; Dr. Dawson supposes that '• the foot must have been broad, and probablj' 
suited for swimming or walking on soft mud, or both." Scutes. "The external 
scales are thin, oblique-rhomboidal, or elongated-oval, marked with slight concen- 
tric lines, but otherwise smooth, and having a thickened ridge or margin ; in 

one of the specimens the scales of the throat remain in their natural position, and 
are seen to be of a narrow ovate form, and arranged in imbricated rows diverging 
from the mesial line " (D.awson). 

D. ACADiANUM, Owen. 

^ Dr. Dawson's account of the diiferences between this species and D. Oneni is 
given below (see D. Oweni). 

Measurements (from Dr. Dawson). 

in. 

Total length of skull 2-75 

Breadth at middle of orbits 2 

Length of humerus 1-33 

Length of ulna 1 

Length of femur 1 

Length of 11 vertebrae 22^ 

Locality. South Joggins, Nova Scotia. 

References. Lyell & Dawson, Q. J. Geol. Soc. vol. ix. p. 68, tt. ii., iii. [1853]. — 
Owen, ibid. vol. xviii. t. ix. fig. 13, t. x. figs. 5, 6, 7 [1862]. — Dawson, ibid, 
vol. xix. p. 469 [1863].— /</. Acadian Geologv, 2nd edit. p. 362, fig. 142 

[1867]. ^ ^ ^ ^'' i- > ^ 

D. O'svENi, Dawson, 

" Differs from D. acadianum in the following particulars : — (1) Its much smaller 
size ; (2) its long and hooked teeth. . . . ; (3) the greater plication of the ivoi'v in 
the intermaxillary teeth (in Z>. acadianum these teeth are on the outside simple 

* Larger in D. Oweni than in B. acadianum, according to Dr. Dawson. 

+ In Dr. Dawson's ' Air-breathers of the Coal Period ' [18G3], p. 61, t. vi. fig. 54, the 
vomerine teeth are represented as aggregated into symmetrical lateral masses, wJiich 
follow the outhne of the maxillaries, but are most dense towards the middle line. 



ON THE CLASSIFICATION OF THE LABYRINTHODONTS. 173 

almost to the base, and plicated on the inner side, while in this species they ai-a 
plicated all around like the iuuer maxillary teeth) ; (4) the form of the skull, which 
has the orbit larger in proportion, and is also shorter and broader"*. 
Localiti/. Coal-measures of South Joggins, Nova Scotia. 

References. Owen, Q. J. Geol. Soc. vol. xviii. p. 242, t. ix. fig. 4, t. x. fig. 3 [18G2J. 
— Dawson, ihid. vol. xix. p. 469 [1863]. — Id. Acadian Geology, 2ud edit, 
pp. 362-370, figs. 142, 143 [1867]. 

Hylonomus, Dawson. 

Teeth (disposition). Maxillary about 30 on each side ; mandibular about 40 in 
each ramus ; " in the anterior part of the lower jaw there is a group of teeth larger 
than the others" (Dawson). Teeth (structure). Conical, sharp, "perfectly simple, 
hollow within, and with very fine radiating tubes of ivory " (Dawson)t. Cranial 
sculpture. The bones of the skull " are smooth on the outer surface to the nalced 
eye, and under a lens show only delicate uneven strife and minute dots " (Dawson). 
Vcrtebrce. Centra elongate, contracted in the middle ; some of the superior spinous 
processes broad and lofty. JRibs. Long and curved, but some short and sti-aight, 
bicipital or notched at the proximal end, hollow. Fore limb. " The anterior limb, 
judging Irom the fragments procured, seems to have been slender, with long toes, 
four or possibly five m number " (Dawson). Hind limb. " The thigh-bone is well 
formed, with a distinct head and trochanter, and the lower extremity flattened and 
moulded into two articulating siu-faces for the tibia and fibula, the fragments of 
which show that they were much shorter ; the toes of the hiud feet have been seen 
only in detached joints ; they seem to have been thicker than those of the fore foot 
. . . . ; the limb-bones present in cross section a wall of dense bone, with elongated 
bone-cells surroimdiug a cavity now filled with brown calc-spar, and originally 
occupied with cartilage or marrow" (Dawson)J. Scutes. The venti-al surface 
occupied by oval bony scutes ; " the bony scales difier in form from those of Den- 
drerpeton ; they are also much thicker ; on the inner side they are concave, with a 
curved ledge or thickened border at one edge ; on the outer side they present con- 
centric lines of growth " (Dawson) : Dr. Dawson has also described an " ornate appa- 
ratus of horny appendages," which he supposes to have covered H. Lyelli above. 

II. Lyelli, Dawson. 

The description of the genus is that of this, the typical species. 

Measurements (from Dawson's ' Acadian Geology '). 

Length of mandible -7 

Length of humerus -5 

Length of femur •? 

Length of tibia -45 

Length of longest rib preserved (chord) -G 

Localiti/. Coal-measiu-es of South Joirgins, Nova Scotia. 

References. Owen, Q. J. Geol. Soc. vol. xviii. p. 238, t. ix. figs. 1-6, 14 [1862].— 

Dawson, ibid. vol. xix. p. 473 [1863]. — Id. Acadian Geology, 2nd, edit. p. 

370, fig. 144 [1867]. 

* Dawson, 'Acadian Geology,' 2ad edit. p. 368. 

t In Dr. Dawson's 'Air-breathers of the Coal Period' [1863], p. 61, t. vi. fig. 54, a 
patch of " palatal " (vomerine ?) teeth is sliowu in the centre of the palate and far forward. 

I " All the long bones, even the ribs, are hollow ; and the cavity is enclosed by a com- 
pact wall of ahuost uniform thinness throughout each bone, indicative that such cavity was 
not properly a meduUary one, in the sense of having been excavated by absorption after 
complete consolidation of the bone by the ossifying process, but was posthumous, and due 
to the solution of the primitive cartilaginous mould of the bone, which liad remained un- 
changed by ossification in the living species. I conclude, therefore, that these hollow long 
bones (and, indeed, the bodies of the vertebras seem only to have received a partial and 
superficial crust of bone) were originally solid, and composed, like the bones in most 
Batrachia, especially the Perennibranchiates, of an exteamal osseous crust, enclosing soUd 
cartilage."— Owen, Q. J. Geol. Soc. vol. xviii. p. 238 [1862]. 



174 REPORT — 1874. 

H. ACiEDENTATUS, Dawson. 

About twice as large as the last species. " Its teetli are very different iu form. 
Those on the maxillary and lower jaw are stout and short, placed in a close and 
even series on the inner side of a ridge or plate of bone. Viewed from the side 
they are of a spatulate form, and present a somewhat broad edge at top .... Viewed 
in the opposite direction they are seen to be rery thick in a dhectiou transverse to 
that of the jaw, and are wedge-shaped. There are about forty on each side of the 
mandible, and about thh-ty on each maxillary " (Dawson). Pidp-cavity relatively 
smaller than in H. Lyelli. 

Locality. Coal-measm-es of South Joggins, Nova Scotia. 

References. Owen, Q. J. Geol. Soc. vol. xviii. p. 239, t. ix. figs. 7«, 9 [1862].— 
Dawson, Acadian Geology, 2nd edit. p. 376, fig. 145 [1867]. 

H. Wymani, Dawson. 

Teeth bluntly conical, and fewer in number than iu the other species. The 
remains hitherto foimd have belonged to ver^' small individuals, not exceeding 4 or 5 
inches in length. They ai-e too scanty to admit of precise definition of the species. 

Locality. Goal-measiu*es of South Joggins, Nova Scotia. 

jteferences. Owen, Q. J. Geol. Soc. vol. xviii. p. 240, t. ix. figs. 8, 11, 12 [1862]. 

— Dawson, ibid. vol. xix. p. 471 [1863]. — Id. Acadian Geologv, 2nd edit. 

p. 378, fig. 146 [1867]. 

Hylerpeton, Owen. 

Teeth. Relatively larger than iu Hylonomns or Dcndrerpeton, conical-pointed ; 
dentine non-plicate. 

Fragments of ribs, a few centra of caudal (?) vertebras, the bones of a foot, and a 
few ovate bony scales aa-e attributed to the same genus by Dr. Dawson. 

H. Dawsoni, Owen. 

Loccdity. South Joggins, Nova Scotia. 

References. Owen, Q. J. Geol. Soc. vol. x^iii. p. 241, t. ix. fig. 16. — Dawson, 
Acadian Geology, 2nd edit. p. 380, fig. 147 [18C7]. 



ANALYSIS OF CHARACTERS OF LABYRINTHODONT GENERA. 

Sktdl elongate ; length 7nore than once and a half the greatest breadth. 
Trematosaurus, Gonioglyptus, Loxomma, Pteroplax, Archegosaurus Decheni, 
Lepterpeton. 

Skull broad; length not more than once and a half the greatest breadth. 
Maatodonsaurus, Capitosaurus, Metopias, Dasyceps, Anthracosaurus, Brachyops, 
Micropholis, Rhiuosaurus, Bothriceps, Zygosaurus, Batrachidei-petou, Pholido- 
gaster ?, Archegosaurus latirostris, Urocordylus*, Keraterpeton. 

SJcull triangidar, with rounded snout. 
Mastodonsaurus, Capitosaurus, Eurosaurus, Trematosaurus, Gonioglyptus, Metopias, 
Dasyceps, Anthracosaurus, Loxomma, Zygosaurus, Archegosaurus, Lepterpeton, 
Urocordylus, Dolichosoma. 

Skull parabolic. 
Brachyops, Micropholis, Rhinosaurus, Bothriceps, Batrachiderpeton?, Dendrerpeton. 

Skidl polygonal, with projecting postero-lateral cornua. 
Keraterpeton. 

Skull much contracted in the frontal tract, expanded and truncated behind, 
ivith postero-lateral (epiotic) cornua. 
Pteroplax. 

* Not including the epiotic cornua in the length of the skull. 



ON THE CLASSIFICATION OF THE LABYRINTHODONTS. 175 

Maxillm deficivnt, pre7ncixill(B with free termination behind, 
Batracliiderpeton ?, Pteroplax ? 

Orbit round. 
Dasyceps, Rhinosaurus (irregular), Dendi-erpeton. 

Orbit oval. 
Capitosaurus, Eiirosauriis, Trematosaurus, Metopias, Bracliyops, Micropholis, Both- 
riceps, Archegosaurus, Lepterpeton, Urocordylus, Keraterpeton. 

Orbit irreffular-oval. 
Mastodonsaurus, Loxomma, Zygosaurus. 

Orbit larf/e; not less than one fourth of the length of the sktilL 
Brachyops, Micropholis, Loxomma, Keraterpeton*. 

Orbit moderate ; not less than one eighth of the length of the skull. 
Mastodonsaurus, Eurosaurus, Rhinosaurus (nearly J), Bothriceps (nearly ^), Zy-= 
gosaurus (nearly J), Archegosaurus latirostris, Lepterpeton. 

Orbit small; less than one eighth of the length of the sktdl, 
Capitosaurus, Trematosaurus, Metopias, Dasyceps, Archegosaurus Decheni. 

Orbit central. 
Trematosaurus, Micropholis, Rhinosaurus, Bothriceps, Loxomma (slightly posterior), 
Zygosaurus (slightly posterior), Lepterpeton. 

Orbit anterior. 
Metopias, Brachyops, Batrachiderpeton, Keraterpeton. 

Orbit posterior. 
Mastodonsaurus, Capitosaurus, Eurosaurus, Dasj'ceps, Ai-chegosaurus. 

Interorbital space equal to transverse diameter of orbit. 
Eurosam-us, Rhinosam-us, Loxomma, Keraterpeton. 

Interorbital space greater than transverse diameter of orbit. 
Capitosaurus, Trematosaurus, Metopias, Dasyceps, Brachyops, Bothriceps, Zygo- 
saurus, Archegosaurus, Dendrerpeton. 

Interorbital space less than transverse diavieter of orbit. 
Mastodonsaurus, Micropholis. 

Palatine fwaviina large, approximate. 
Mastodonsaurus, Capitosaurus, Trematosaiu-us, Gouioglyptus, Metopias, Archcgo- 
saurusf. 

Palatine foramina small, distant. 
Dasyceps, Anthracosaurus, Loxomma? 

E.Hernal nasal foramina relatively near, 
Mastodonsaurus, Trematosaurus. 

Pxto'nal nasal foramina relatively distant. 
Capitosaurus, Metopias, Dasyceps, Micropholis, Bothriceps, Loxomma, Archego- 
saurus, Dendrei-peton. 

Kvternal 7iasal foramina oval. 

Trematosaurus, Metopias, Loxomma, Archegosaunis|, Dendrerpeton §. 

* Not inchiding the epiotic cornua in the length of the skull. 

t Inferred from the slcnderness of the 2^^ocessi(s ndtriformis of the parasphcnoid. 

\ Or hippocrepiforra. § Transversely oval ; IcngitudiuaUy oval in the rest. 



176 REPORT— 1874. 

External nasal foramina roundish. 
Mastodonsaurus, Capitosaurus, Dasyceps, Micropholis, Rhinosaurus, Bothriceps. 

Auditor!/ opening indenting posterior margin of tipper surface of skull. 
Mastodonsaurus, Eurosaurus, Trematosaurus, Dasyceps ?, Micropholis ?, Rliiuo- 
saurus, Loxomma, Arcliegosaurus. 

Auditory opening not indenting posterior margin of upper surface of shull. 
Pteroplax, Urocordylus, Keraterpeton. 

Epiotic cortma conspicuous. 
Dasyceps, Loxomma; Batrachiderpeton, Pteroplax, Urocordylus, Keraterpeton. 

Epiotic cornua inconspicuous or wanting. 
Mastodonsaurus, Capitosaurus, Trematosaurus, Micropholis, Rhinosaurus, Arche- 
gosaurus *. 

Mandible with well-developed postaHicular process. 
Mastodonsaurus, Capitosaurus, Eurosaurus, Pachygonia ?, Trematosaui'us, Gonio- 
glyptus, Diadotognathus, Anthracosaurus ? 

Postarticular process of mandible inconspicuous or wanting. 
Micropholis, Loxomma, Archegosaurus. 

Mandible tvith internal articular buttress. 
Mastodonsaurus, Capitosaurus, Pachygonia ?, Gouioglyptus, Anthracosaurus. 

Mandible without internal articular buttress. 
Diadetognathus, Loxomma, Archegosaurus. 

Mamlibidar symphysis short, not exceeding twice the vertical depth of the 
ramus in front. 
Mastodonsaurus, Capitosaurus, Trematosaurus, LabjT-inthodon, Ai'chegosaurus, 
Keraterpeton. 

Mandibular symphysis long, exceeding twice the vertical depth of the ramus 
in front. 
Lepterpeton (upwards of one third the length of the skull). 

Maxillary teeth wanting. 
Batrachiderpeton, Pteroplax. 

Maxillary teeth equal or subeqtial. 
Mastodonsaurus, Capitosaurus, Trematosaurus, Gonioglyptus ?, Dasyceps, Rhino- 
saui-us, Zygosaurus, Pholiderpeton, Archegosaurus, Dendrerpeton. 

Maxillary teeth tcnequal. 
Latyrinthodou, Anthracosaurus, Loxomma. 

A transverse row of vomerine teeth. 
Mastodonsaurus, Metopias, Labyrinthodon. 

Vomerine teeth aggregated. 
Batrachiderpeton, Dendrerpeton t, Hylonomus t- 

Mandibular teeth {outer series inhere there are tioo) equal or subeqttal. 
Mastodonsaurus, Capitosaurus, Trematosaurus, Labyrinthodon, Diadetognathus, 
Batrachiderpeton, Pholiderpeton, Archegosaurus, Dendrerpeton, Hylonomus, 
Hylerpeton. 

* In one example of A. Decheni the cornua are 5 in. long, the length of the skull along 
the middle line being 11 in. t Dawson. 



ON THE CLASSIFICATION OF THE LABYRINTHODONTS. 177 

Mandibular teeth unequal. 
Melosaurus, Anthracosaurus, Loxomma, Pteroplax. 

One or two mandibular tusks near the symjihy sis, forming a short inner series. 
Mastodonsaurus, Trematosaurus, Labyrinthodon. 

A numerous inner series of mandibular teeth. 
Dendrerpeton acadianum *. 

Teeth recurved at apex. 
Anthracosaurus, Rhinosaurus, Pholiderpeton, Dendrerpeton Oweni. 

Teeth with anterior and posterior cutting-edges. 
Loxomma. 

Dentine non-plicate. 
Dendrerpeton acadianum (outer premaxillaiy, maxillary, and mandibular series, and 
vomerine ? teeth)t, Hylonomus, Hylei-peton. 

Dentine simply plicate. 
Archegosaurus. 

Dentine coiyijjlex-plicate. 
Mastodonsaurus, Capitosaurus, Trematosaurus, Gonioglyptus, Labyrinthodon, Dia- 
detognathus, Anthracosaurus, Loxomma, Pteroplax, 

Lyra enclosing an oval or rounded space in front of the orbits. 
Mastodonsaurus, Trematosaurus, Metopias, Labyrinthodon, Brachyops. 

Lyra angulated. 
Gonioglyptus. 

Lyra consisting of two straight or nearly straight lines, diverging infrowt. 
Loxomma, Zygosaurus. 

Lyra imperfect. 
Archegosaurus. 

Lyra absent. 
Rhinosamus, Pteroplax ? 

Thoracic plates externally sculptured. 
Mastodonsaurus, Capitosaurus ? %, Trematosaurus, Gonioglyptus ? |, Archego- 
saurus, Urocordylus, Keraterpeton. 

Lateral thoracic plate with a reflected process, 
Mastodonsaurus, Capitosaurus, Trematosaurus. 

Vertebral column notochordal. 
Archegosaurus. 

Vertebral centra discoidal. 

Mastodonsaurus, Anthracosaurus, Loxomma, Ichthyerpeton, Pteroplax, Pholider- 
peton. 

* Dawson. 

t The inner series on the prsemaxillae, maxillse, and mandible are described as plicated. 
The outer geries (?) in the praemaxillae of B. Oweni are described by Dr. Dawson as plicated 
like the inner maxillary teeth. 

X The pectoral plates believed to belong to these genera are not certainly identified. 
1874. N 



178 



REPORT 1874. 



Vertebral centra elongate, contracted in the middle. 
LepterpetoHjUrocordyluSjKeratei-petoii, Ophiderpeton, Dolichosoma, Dendrerpeton, 
Hylonomus. 

Superior and inferior processes of caudal vertebra expanded distally. 
Urocordylus, Keraterpeton f. 

lAmbs tcantiuff. 
Opliiderpeton, Dolichosoma. 

Ventral armour consisting of scutes in a chevron pattern. 

a. Chevron pattern continuous. 
Urocordylus J. 

b. Chevron pattern reversed behind. 
Arclicgosaurus. 

TABLE OF DISTRIBUTIOK 



AbbreTiations : 



-C. Carboniferous. P. Permian. B. Bunter. M. Muschelkalk. 
K. Keuper. E. Rlitetic. O. Oolite. 



' 


1 
1 




1 


i 

1 


s 

u 


en 

3 


03 
g 


i 

'i 
1 

o 

02 


03 

1 


_C3 

8 


1 

'3 
p 


Maslodonsavu'iis, Jag. 
giganteus, Jiig. M. ?, K., R. . . 

paclivgnatlius, Ouen. K 

Furstenberganus, Meyer. B. . . 
A'asleuensis. 3Ieuei'. JB 


* 
* 








* 

* 
* 

* 
* 


* 


* 
* 


















* 


Capitosaurus, Miinst. 

arenaceus, Miinst. B. ?, K 

robustus, Meyer. K 








Pachygonia, Hux. 

incuiTata, Hia: Triassic ? .... 
Melosaiu-us, Meyer. 










Trematosaurus, £}-aun. 

Braunii, JBiirm. B 










* 

* 

* 


ocella, Meyer. B 










Gonioglyptus, Hux. 

longirostris, Hux. Tiiassic ? . . 
Metopias, Meyer. 

diagnosticus, Meyer. K., R 

Labyrintbodon, Otven. 

leptoguatbus, Owen. K 

Diadetognathus, 3IiaU. 

varvicen.sis, Miall. K 


* 
* 
* 









t An example in the collection of the British Museum shows that the spinous proceeses 
are expanded, though not to the same extent as in Urocordylus. 
:} Not known to be reversed. The entire ventral armour has not been seen. 



ON THE CLASSIFICATION OF THE LABYRINTHODONTS 

Table (continued). 



1/9 



C. 



Dasyceps, Hux. 

Bucklandi, Lloyd. P 

Anthracosaurus, Hux, 

Russelli, Hux. C 

Bracbyops, Owen. 

laticeps, Owen. Jurassic ? . 
Micropholis, Hux. 

Stowii, Hux. Triassic . . . 
Rhinosaurus, Waldh. 

Jasikovii, Waldh. 

Bothriceps, Hux. 

australis, Hux. Triassic ? 
Loxomma, Hux. 

AUmani, Hux. 
Zygosaurus, Ekh. 

lucius, Eich. P 

Bati-achiderpeton, H. 8^ A, 

lineatum, H. ^- A 

Pteroplax, H. ^- A. 

coruuta, H. ^- A 

Pholidogaster, Hux. 

pisciformis, Hux. C. 
Iclithyerpeton, Hux. 

Bradleyae, Hux. C. ... 
Pholiderpeton, Hux. 

scutigerum, Hux. C. . . . 
Archegosaiirus, Gold/. 

Decheni, Gold/. C. ... 

latirostris, Jord. C. ... 
Lepterpeton, Hiu: 

Dobbsii, Hu.v. C 

IJj-ocordylus, Hux. 

Wandesfordii, Hux. C. . 

reticulatus, H. Sf A. C. 

species. C 

Keraterpeton, Hux. 

Galvani, Hux. C 

Ophiderpeton, Hux. 

Brownriggii, Hux. C. . 
Dolicbosoma, Hux. 

Emersoni, Hux. C. ... 
Dendrerpeton, Owen. 

acadiamim, Oicen. 

Oweni, Daws. 0. . 
Hylonomus, Daios. 

Lyelli, Daws. C. . 

aciedentatus, Daws. 

Wymani, Dates. C. 
Hylerpeton, Owen. 

Dawsoni, Owen. C. 



C. 



C. 



P^ 



O 



6- 

o 

;2; 






13 



* 

* 
* 
* 



n2 



180 



REPORT 1874. 



The genera and species enumerated in the Appendix may next be tabulated, 
omitting such as are evidently founded in mistake or too imperfectly known 
for definition. 



0. 
C. 
C. 



c. 



Amphibamus, Cope. 

grandiceps, Cope. 
Apateon, Meyer. 

pedestris, Meyer. 
BapheteSj Owen. 

planiceps, Owen. 
Bracbydectes, Coj}e. 

Newberryi, Cope. 
Cbalcosam'us, Meyer. 

rossicus, Meyer. P. ? . . . 
Cocytinus, Cope. 

gyrinoides, Cope. C. . . . 
Dictyocepbalus, Leidy. 

elegans, Leidy. Triassic 
Erpetocephalus, Hux. 

rugosus, Hu.v. 

Leptopbractus, Cope. 

obsoletus, Cope. C. ... 
Molgopbis, Cope. 

macruxus, Cope. 0. ... 

Wheatleyi, Cope. 0. . . . 
Oestoeepbalus, Cope. 

remex, Cope. C 

rectidens, Cope. 

Osteopborus, Meyer. 

Bomeri, Meyer. P. . . . 
Pariostegus, Cope. 

myops, Cope. Triassic . 
Pelion, Wymau. 

Lyellii, Wyman. C. . . . 
Phlegetbontia, Cope. 

linearis, Cojie. 

serpens, Cope. 

Ptyonius, Cope. 

Marsbii, Cope. 

VincbeUianus, Cope. C. 

pectinatus, Cope. C. . . . 

serrula. Cope. 

Sauropleura, Cope. 

longipes, Cope. 

digitata, Cope. C 

Sclerocepbalus, Goldf. 

Hauseri, Goldf. C. . . . 
Tuditanus, Cope. 

punctulatiis, Cope. C. . 

brevirostris, Cojie. C. 

radiatus. Cope. C. . . .' . . 

obtusus, Cope. 

niordax, Cope. 0. . . . . . 

Huxleyi, Cope. C 






d5 



3 



OS 
> 

o 

121 



c3 

-4-3 

'S 



* 
* 



* 
* 



* 

* 

* 

* 
» 
* 

* 
* 



* 

* 
* 
* 



ON THE CLASSIFICATION OF THE LABYRINTHODONTS. 181 

APPENDIX. 

In this appendix are recorded various published genera, which are either 
founded upon very imperfect examples or are insufficiently described by the 
authors for the purposes of a classification. Hence some are not known to 
be Labyrinthodonts at all ; others, while doubtless belonging to the order, 
cannot be satisfactorily placed ; and a third class are of doubtful distinctness 
from previously published genera. The genus Ichthyerpeton might fairly 
have been placed in the appendix, for we know very little about it. The 
reader will regard its insertion in a provisional group (p. 166) as a mere 
suggestion, which may be adopted or discarded when more perfect specimens 
have been brought to light. 

Some of the American descriptions have the air of rapid determinations 
published to save priority. In the absence of figures, and without an oppor- 
tunity of examining specimens, we have often been unable to recognize any 
characters of systematic value in these genera and species. "When Prof. 
Cope's detailed account of the Carboniferous Amphibia of Ohio shall appear*, 
we hope that these difficulties mil be removed, and that the important Laby- 
rinthodont fauna of the United States will then render its full service to 
palaeontology. 

Amphibamus, Cope, 

Skull broad. Orbits large, rounded. Preemaxilles each with 11 or 12 teeth. 

"The integument of the head was squamous The dentition is pleurodont; 

the teeth are only visible on the mandible and the outer edge of the upper jaw ; 
they are there of but one kind, small, closely set, acute-conic, not compressed, 
hollow, and without any inflections of the enamel " f- 

The dorsal vertebrae were originally described as opisthoccelianj, without traces 
of ribs or transverse processes. " The impression of a sacral vertebra is distinctly 
preserved." Centra of caudal vertebrae probably unossified ; of the neural spinous 
processes of the caudal vertebrae " twelve very distinct impressions may be counted 
to the sacral region ; the posterior are most slender, the median most elevated, the 
anterior lower and of greater longitudinal extent." Inferior arches were probably 
present in the caudal region. 

'' The anterior limbs were short and weak." Humerus slender, not much dilated, 
without condyles. Ulna and radius separate and slender. " The femiu- is slender, 
much dilated distally, slightly curved in the posterior direction, and without con- 
dyles The tibia and fibula are one half the length of the femur, are slender, 

most dilated proximally The tarsus was probably cartilaginous The num- 
ber of phalanges is 3, 3, 4, 5, 4 The terminal phalanges are elongate acute." 

" A few traces indicate that the dermal integument was covered, on the anterior 
part of the body at least, with small and subangular scales, There have been ab- 
dominal scales arranged in narrow imbricate series, directed inward and posteriorly. 
Traces of plates are wanting, excepting a small fragment lying beside the cervical 
vertebrae." 

Professor Cope believes that the iris and pigmentum nigi-um of the eye are pre- 
served in the fossil. A median lenticular vacuity is " obviously the vertical pupil 
of a nocturnal animal These appearances cannot be explained on any suppo- 
sition of artificial production." 

" This animal combines with its Batrachian, a few Lacertilian characters, having 
some resemblance to Dawson's genus Hylonomus, and much aflinity with Prof. 

; * Palfeontology of Ohio, vol, ii. (unpublished). t Peripheral layer of dentine ? 

X This was afterwards found to be erroneous. " There were actually, however, only 
osseous neural arches present ; and I am now decidedly of the opinion that the vertebral 
cwitra were either cartilaginous or annuliform, as in Archegosaurus," — Cope, Synopsis, 
p. 8. 



182 REPORT lHt4. 

Wyman's Raniceps Lyellii. Its squamous integument and narrow nasal roof give 
it the somewhat Lacertilian physiognomy, more especially Geccotian, in its hroad 
cranium and orbits, its large marginal palpebral scales, and rather short digits. Its 
true affinities are indicated by the presence of two premaxillaries, with a squamoso- 
postorbital arch, as in Labyrinthodontia, some Batrachia Gradientia, and Crocodilia ; 
its quadrato-jugal arch as in Labyrinthodontia and Batrachia Salientia ; its poste- 
riorly directed oblique quadratum and lack of ribs, as in Batrachia Salientia ; its 
probably short pelvis, short separate bones of the leg and forearm ; its opistho- 
ccelian dorsal vertebrae, and long caudal neural spines, as in Batrachia Gradientia. 
It is, then, the type of a group intermediate between the Labyrinthodontian and 
Gradient Batrachians, distinguished from the former by the opisthocoelian vertebrae, 
absence of ribs, and pleurodont dentition ; and from the lattei'by the scaly integu- 
ment, absence of ribs, and structure of the nasal and prefronial regions. But one 
genus of Salamanders, Glossolega, has a similar os quadrato-j:igale, and but a part 
of one family, the Salamandridae, the postfronto-squamosal or posterior zygomatic 
arch. A ribless type might, however, well exist among Gradientia, when we con- 
sider the great difference between their development in Pleurodeles on the one hand 
and Amphiuma on the other. From the Salientia the dentigerous mandible, squa- 
mosal arch, form of vertebrae, sacrum and extremities, &c. widely distinguish it. 
To the Batrachian orders Labyrinthodontia, Gradientia, Gymnophidia, and Salientia, 
the present may be added, under the name Xenorachia. 

************ 
" If we compare the peculiarities of this genus with those of the Batrachia of the 
same period, we find it to be distinguished, independently of the ordinal characters, 
from such genera as Osteophorus, Melosauncs, Sclerocephalus, Xestorrhytias, Baphetes, 
and Brachyops, by the absence of the sculpturing of the cranial bones, the lack of 
dermal shields, characteristic of most of these, and by the presence of cranial and 
palpebral scales. The crania of the first genera are much more elongate, and imitate 
those of some Crocodilia. Similar differences exist between the Illinois Batrachian 
and Dendrerpetoii (Owen) ; the latter possesses also a double row of teeth. Hylo- 
nomus (Dawson), supposed to possess Lacertilian affinities, exhibits ribs and bicon- 
cave vertebrae. The ribs of Telerpeton will distinguish it also. The only genus as 
yet known to approach closely that under consideration has been described by Prof. 
J.Wym<in under the name oi Raniceps. This animal is only known from a study of 
the inferior aspect of a portion of the skeleton ; nevertheless it is certainly different, 
being nearly double the size, and having relatively longer and stronger anterior 
limbs. The angles of the mandible appear to have been considerably more incurved 
than in the. Illinois species. They may have belonged to the same genus ; in that 
case the name here given will not prove superfluous, as the older appellation was 
previously applied to a genus of Gadid Fishes." 

A. GBANDICEPS, CopC. 

Locality. Coal-measures of Morris, Grundy co., Illinois. 

References. Cope, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1865, p. 134. — Id. Geol. 
Survey of Illinois, vol. ii. p. 135, t. xxxii. — " Synopsis of Extinct Batrachia, 
&c. of Noi'th America," Trans. American Phil. See. vol. xiv. p. 7 [1870]. 

AmpMcoelosaurus, Barkas. 
Founded upon three biconcave vertebral centra, with minute notochordal foramina. 
A. Tayiohi, Barkas. 

Locality. Sandstone above the High-Main Coal, Northumberland. 
References. Barkas, Coal-measure Palaeontology, p. 104 [1873]. — Atlas of Car- 
boniferous Fossils, t. X. figs. 234 a, b, c [1873]. 

AmpMsaTirus, Barkas. 

This genus is apparently founded upon part of a mandible with teeth of Anthra- 
cosatirits. 



ON THE CLASSIFICATION OP THE LABYRINTHODONTS. 183 

A. AMBLYODUS, Baikas. 

Locality. Hi^h-^Iain Coal-Shale, Northumberland. 

References. Barkas, Ooal-measure PaliBontology, pp. 72, 91 [1873]. — Atlas of 
Carboniferous Fossils, t. ix. tig. 192, t. x. tigs. 221, 221 a, 222 [1873]. 

Anisopus, Owen. 

This genus is very imperfectly known, and is probably not Labyrinthodont. (See 
Rhombopholis, p. 190.) 

A. scuTtJLATUs, Owen. 

Locality. Keuper Sandstone of Leamington. 

References. Owen, Geol. Trans. 2nd ser. vol. vi. p. 538, t. xlvi. fig. 1 [1842]. — • 
Id. Palfeontology, p. 194 [I860].— Brit. Assoc. Report, 1873, p. 243. 

Apateon, Von Meyer. 

The fossil upon which this genus is founded is of considerable historical interest. 
Upon it was based the first distinct assertion that the Carboniferous formation 
yielded vertebrate remains of higher rank than those of fishes. Unfortunately the 
only example known is somewhat obscure. It may prove to be identical with Ar- 
chegosaurus ; if distinct, its generic characters are not yet apparent. Von Meyer 
considered it distinct, and remarked its minute size, the absence of thoracic plates 
and ribs, as well as certain diflerences of proportion between it and Archef/osauiits*. 
The imperfect state of preservation deprives these considerations of much of their 
weight. 

A. PEDESTRis, Von Meyer. 

Locality. Brandschiefer of Miinster Appel. 

References. Gergens, Jahrbuch fiir Mineralogie, 1844, p. 49. — Von ftleyer, ih. 
1844, p. SSe.—Id. Palseontographica, i. p. 153, t. xx. tig. 1 [1851].— 7f/. Rep- 
tilien aus der Steinkohlenformation in Deutschland, p. 123, t. xi. fig. 1 
[1858].— Owen, Palaeontology, p. 168 [I860]. 

Baphetes, Owen. 

The fossil "displays accurately the contour of the fore part of the upper jaw, 

which was broad, obtuse, and rounded The pai-ts preserved include the pre- 

maxillaries, nasals, and portions of the frontal, prefrontal, and maxillary bones, the 
proportions and connexions of which best agree with those in the skull of the C'a- 

pitosaurus The premaxiUaries, which show some obscure traces of a symphysial 

suture at the median line, anterior to the nasal or naso-palatine vacuities, extend 
outwards, on each side, for an extent of 2i inches, and there join the maxillaries. 
Traces of round alveoli for teeth, some of which are 2 lines in diameter, are visible 
on the alveolar border of the premaxiUaries. The alveolar border is continued, 

* "Gegen den Archegosaurus muss bei dem Apateon zmiachsfc aufiallen, dass, ungeachtet 
der Eleinheit des Thiers, die Wirbelsaide auf der Nebenseite liegt, dass die Kehlbrust- 
platten zu fehlen scheinen und dass keine Eippen ■wahrgenommen werden, die daher, wenn 
sie knochem entwickelt waren, unmoglich von Belang seyn konnten. Der Apateon is ein 
Thier von der Grosse der auf Taf. VI. Fig. 4, 6, 7 abgebildeten Exemplare von Archego- 
saurus ; allein seiu Kopf war nur halb so gross als am kleinsten Exemplar Fig. 4 und 
verhaltnissmassig breiter oder weniger spitz. Die gegenseite Entfernvmg der vorderen xmd 
hinteren Gliedmaassen ist dieselbe. Dabei aber ist der Oberarm und Obersehenkel gegen 
Archegosaurus langer und starker, was insbesondere fiir den Oberarm gilt ; und wenn die 
Tom Becken iiberlieferten Knochen die Sitzbeine darstellen, so ist hervorzidieten, dass sie 
in Archegosaurus bei einem Alter, wo sie ahnliche Grosse einnehmen wiirden, wohl noch 
gar nicht knochem entwickelt waren ; die kleinsten aber, welche vorliegen, sind weniger 
quadratisch gef ormt. Das Thier konnte hienach, wenn auch seine Wirbelsaule auf embryo- 
naler Stufe stand, nioht zu Archegosaurus geliort haben." — Eeptilien aus der Steinkohlen- 
formation, p. 124. 



184 REPORT — 1874. 

by the maxillary bone, for an extent of 4 a inches beyond the premaxillaries; and 
this border shows still more distinct traces of alveoli, of a circular form, about a 
line in diameter, and rather closely set in a single series. The fore part of the orbit 
is very unequivocally displayed, the smooth under or inner surface of the bone 
forming that part being entire ; and this shows the fore part of the orbit to be 
formed, partly by the maxillary, partly by a lachrymal or prefrontal bone in close 
sutural union therewith, — a structure which does not exist, to my knowledge, in any 
recent or fossil fish with a dentigerous superior maxillary bone. Where the sub- 
stance of the bone has been detached so far as to expose the exterior layer in con- 
tact with the coal, as, e.g., on the frontal and part of the prefrontal bones, the ex- 
terior surface of those bones is shown to have been impressed by subhemispheric 
or elliptical pits, from 1 line to I5 line in diameter, and with intervals of half that 
extent : and this coarsely pitted character agrees with that presented by the outer 
surface of the similarly broad and flat crania of the Labyrinthodont Batrachia, e. g. 

Tromitosm/rKS, Cupitosaurus, and Labyrinthodon proper The traces of the 

nostrils are less definite and satisfactory than the remains of the orbits ; but the 
latter appear to me to be decisive against the piscine nature of the fossil." — Owen. 
The teeth are conical and slightly curved, grooved below, and smooth towards 
the tip. The peripheral dentine gives off simple, slightly undulating processes 
towards the centre. Pulp-cavity rather large. If, as is probable, the section here 
described was made in the upper part of the tooth, the structure has not a little 
resemblance to that of Labyrinthodon leptoynathus. 

B. PLANiCEPS, Owen. 

Locality. Pictou Coal-field, Nova Scotia. 

Heferences. Owen, Q. J. Geol. Soc. vol. x. p. 207, t. ix. [1853].— JJ. Palaeonto- 
logy, p. 184 [1860].-^Dawson, Acadian Geology, 2nd ed. pp. 328, 360, tigs. 
137, 141 [1867]. 

Brachydectes, Cope. 

" This genus is indicated by two rami of a mandible and a portion of a premax- 

illary only The teeth ai'e elongate cylindric cones, with their acute tips turned 

a little posteriorly. The fractiu-ed ones display a large pulp-cavity. The three 
premaxillaries preserved are similar, but without curvature of the tips. They do 
not exhibit striae or any other sculpture. So far as the remains go, the genus is 
nearer Hyleryeton than any other." 

B. Newbebryi, Cope. 

Locality. Coal-measures, Linton, Columbiana County, Ohio. 
References. Cope, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1868, p. 214. — Id. Synopsis, 
p. 14. — Id. Supplement, p. 8. 

Chalcosaurus, Yon Meyer. 

The skull only is known. Von Meyer's description (from a photograph) is ap- 
pended. The few characters fui-nished seem to associate Chalcosaurus with the 
Urachyopina. 

" The skull is of nearly equal length and breadth, which amount to 160 millims., 
not quite half a Paris foot. The hinder part appears to be injured ; the obtusely para- 
bolic anterior end is well preserved. The regularly oval orbits are situated in the 
middle of the anterior half of the skull. They appear to measure 29 millims. in 
length and 20 millims. in breadth, and are hardly more than their own length 
distant from each other. The margin of the [lower] jaw is set with a single row 
of small teeth. Indications of siitures are present, which do not, however, suffice 
to determine the composition of the skuU." 

C. Hossicus, Von Meyer. 

Locality. Kupfer-Sandstein of the southera side of the Obschtij-Syrt, near Oren- 
burg. 
Bcfermices. Von Meyer, Palaeontogi'aphica, vol. xv. p. 124, t. xxi. fig. 1 [1866]. 



ON THE CLASSIFICATION OF THE LABYRINTHODONTS. 185 

The age of the deposit from which Chalcosaurus was derived is still somewhat 
doubtful. Murchisou I'efers it to the Permian formation. Eiehwald, Ludwig, and 
Geinitz dissent from this view, and regard it as either Triassic or as intermediate 
between the Palaeozoic and Neozoic epochs. Summaries of the evidence will be 
found in Naumann's ' Geognosie,' 2nd ed. p. 658, and in Von Meyer's ' Palaeonto- 
graphica,' vol. xv. p. 98. 

Cocjrtinus, Cope. 

" Vertebra and ribs osseous ; anterior limbs, thoracic shields, and abdominal arma- 
ture apparently wanting. Teeth on the premaxillary bone, none on the maxillary. 
Hyoid elements largely developed. An axial hyal with basihyal on each side, 
closely united with the corresponding ceratohyal, at the end of which is an element 
in the position of a stylohyal. Haemal or basal branchihyals three, the anterior 
two each supporting one pleural branchihyal, and the third supporting one also. 
The first or anterior haemal branchihyal on the haemal side of the ceratohyal, ap- 
proaching the median line, and with elongate pleural element. Urohyal not seen." 

C. GYBIN0IDE8, Cope. 

Locality. Coal-measures, Linton, Columbiana County, Ohio. 
References. Cope, Proc. American Phil. Soc. 1871, p. 177. — Id. Supplement, 
p. 16. 

Colosteus, Cope. 

We fail to perceive any distinctive features of this genus. " The usual three sculp- 
tured pectoral bones are present The abdominal region is protected by a series of 

scales which extend obliquely foi-wards to the medial line, where they meet, forming 

chevrons Most of the teeth are coarsely incised sulcate for perhaps their basal 

half . . . .The aiBnities are thus obviously to Apateon, and it is not beyond possi- 
bility that future investigations may prove it is the same." 

C. BCUTELLATUS, Newberry { = Pygopterus scutellatus, Newberry; Colosteus crqssi- 
scutattts, Cope). 

C. rovKATUS, Cope. 

C. PAUCIBADIATUS, Cope. 

Locality. Coal-measures, Linton, Columbiana County, Ohio. 
References. Newberry, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1856, p. 98. — Cope, 
Synopsis, p. 22. — Id. Supplement, p. 15. 

Dictyocephalus, Leidy. 

The posterior pait of the upper surface of the skull is known. Dr. Leidy remarks 
that in the arrangement of the cranial plates Dictyocephalus bears considerable 
resemblance to Trematosaurus. A radiate sculpture is conspicuous. The parietal 
foramen is situate in the centre of the parietal suture. " The occipital outline of 
the skull is much less sinuous than in Archegosavrus and Trematosaurtis, there being 
only a moderate transverse concavity on each side between the mastoid and 
tvmpanic lines, instead of a deep notch." The occipital condyles are figured as 
close together. 

"Breadth of the specimen in its present condition, '2^ in. Breadth of occiput 
outline, about 2j in. Length of occipitals, 4^ lines ; breadth, 3f lines. Length of 
parietals, 8i lines ; breadth anteriorly, 3| lines ; posteriorly, 3 lines." 

The teeth figured and described as possibly those of Dictyocephahis appear to be 
Deinosaurian. The rib and "bone of the forearm" have no Labyrinthodont cha- 
racters. The skull is doubtless that of a true Labyrinthodont, though we are unable 
to assign it a definite place in the order. 

p. ELEGANS, Leidy. 

Locnlify. Coal-field (Triassic) of Chatham County, North Carolina. 
References. Emmons, American Geologj', pt. vi. p. 58, figs. 31, 32 [1857]. — 
Leidy, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. viii. p. 256 [1857]. 



186 REPORT— 1874. 

Eosauru3, Marsh. 

Two vertebral centra, about 21 inches in diameter, biconcave, discoidal, well- 
ossified. They were described as Enaliosaurian, but Prof. Huxley has suggested 
that they may possibly be Labyrinthodont. 

E. ACADiANus, Marsh. 

Locality. South Joggins, Nova Scotia. 

References. Marsh, American Journal of Sci. & Arts, vol. xxxiv. p. 1, t. i. figs. 1, 
2 [1862].— 7<^. Q. J. Geol. Soc. vol. xLt. p. 52 [1863] (abstract).— Huxley, 
Q. J. Geol. Soc. vol. xix. p. 62 [186-3]. — Dawson, Acadian Geology, 2nd ed. 
p. 382, fig. 148 [1867]. 

Erpetocephalus, Huxley. 

Skull (figure). Parabolic ? ; posterior border indented by wide auditory openings. 
Orbits. Central, oval, rather large, distant. Cranial sculpture. Irregular, rugose ; 
no mucous grooves distinguishable. Teeth. " The right ramus of the mandible ex- 
hibits a number of small sharp-pointed conical teeth, set in a single series." 

E. BUGosus, Huxley. 

Locality. Jarrow Colliery, Kilkenny. 

Heferences. Huxley, "Description of Fossil "Vertebrata from the Jarrow Colliery, 
Kilkenny," Trans. Royal Irish Acad. vol. xxiv. p. 18, t. xxiii. fig. 2 [1867]. 

Eupelor, Cope. 

Founded upon a pitted fragment of the upper cranial surface. The teeth origi- 
nally described as those of Eupelor are now supposed by Prof. Cope to belong to 
Thecodonts. 

E. DtJB-us, Cope { = 3fastodonsaurusdurus, Cope). 

Locality. Triassic Red Sandstone near Phoenixville, Chester County, Pennsyl- 
vania. 

Heferences. Cope, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1866, p. 249. — Ld. Synopsis, 
p. 25. 

Eurythorax, Cope. 

" Established on a large thoracic shield of peculiar form. It is a median, and 
exhibits broad smooth surfaces for the contact of the overlapping margins of 
the lateral plates. The form is subrotund, with a large excavation from the pos- 
terior margin on each side. The narrowed portion left has a convex outline. 
Sculpture none. The form resembles remotely the corresponding scute of Tudi- 
tantts punctulatus, the posterior narrow face representing the xiphisternal process of 
that species." 

E. suBL^vis, Cope. 

Locality. Coal-measures, Linton, Columbiana County, Ohio. 

References. Cope, Proc. American Phil. Soc. 1871, p. 177. — Id. Supplement, p. 15. 

Labyrinthodontosaurus, Barkas. 

The teeth and fragment of mandible thus named are known to us only from Mr. 
Barkas's description and figures. They can hardly be Labyrinthodont, but much 
resemble a genus of fossil fishes. 

L. SiMsni, Barkas. 

Locality. Low-Main Coal-Shale, Northumberland. 

References. Barkas, Coal-measure Palaeontology, pp. 75, 94 [1873]. — Atlas of 
Carboniferous Fossils, t. ix. fig. 194, t. x. figs. 223, 223 a, 224 [1873]. 



ON THE CLASSIFICATION OP THE LABYRINTHODONTS. 187 

Lepidotosaurus, Hancock & Howse. 

There does not appear to be adequate grouad for reckoning this fossil among the 
Labyrinthodonts. 

L. DuFFii, Hancock & Ilowse. 

Locality. Magnesian Limestone (Permian) of Midderidge, Durham. 
References. Hancock «& Howse, Q. J. Geol. Soo. vol. xxvi. p. 5-56, t. xxxviii. 
[18701. — Reprint in Nat. Hist. Trans. Northumberland and Durham, vol. iv. 
p. 219, t. vi. [1871].— Brit. Assoc. Report for 1873, p. 245 [1874]. 

Leptognathosaurus, Barkas. 

This genus is not adequately characterized by Mr. Barkas, and the figure (of a 
mandible with teeth) does not enable us either to identify or discriminate the 
fossil. 

L. ELONGATUS, Barkas. 

Locality. Low-Main Coal-Shale, Northumberland. 

References. Barkas, Coal-measure Palaeontology, p. 160 [1873]. — ^Atlas of Car- 
boniferous Fossils, t. X. iig. 236 [1873]. 

Leptophractus, Cope. 

The description of the superior sm-face of the skull does not yield any characters 
of which we can avail ourselves. " The teeth are rather distantly grooved for 
some distance above the base. They are of different sizes ; the smaller are com- 
pressed and with fore-and-aft cutting edges The smaller ones are close together, 

and their crowns are curved backwards ; the larger ones are at more remote inter- 
vals ; both have enlarged bases ; whether both forms are in the same series I 
cannot determine." 

" The Leptophractus was about as large as a medium-sized alligator." 

L. OBSOLETUS, Cope. 

Locality. Coal-measures of I^inton, Ohio. 

Reference. Cope, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1873, p. 340. 

Macrosaurus, Barkas. 

A vertebral column, containing 80 biconcave centra, with numerous ribs attached. 
" The diameters of the larger vertebrse are 21 in., and the diameters of the smaller 
1^ in." The fossil is doubtless Labyrinthodont, but inadequately characterized. 

M. POLYSPONDYLUS, Barkas. 

Locality. Low-Main Coal-Shale, Northumberland. 

References. Barkas, Coal-measure Palaeontology, p. 57 [1873]. — Atlas of Car- 
boniferous Fossils, t. vii. [1873]. 

Megalerpeton, Young. 

" Cranium narrower than that of Anthracosaurus in the proportion of 4 to 5 ; 
posterior nares between fii-st and second pairs of tusks ; pterygomaxillary apertures 
commence an inch behind them ; mandible tapering rapidly to symphysis, coarsely 
pitted externally ; teeth regular, equal, their base oval transversely to jaw ; crown 
circular, blunt, slightly recurved. The vertebrae difi'er somewhat in proportion from 
those of Anthracosaurus ; their transverse processes are oblique downwards, those 
of Anthracosaurus horizontal." 

M. PLicroENS, Young. 

" Convolutions sinuous, oc3upying larger part of transverse section, encroaching 
very much on pulp-cavity." 



188 REPORT — 1874. 

M. SIMPLEX, Young. 

" Puip-cavity larger ; folds straight, the alternate long pHcse reaching only half- 
way from circumference to pulp." 

Locality. Lanarkshire Coal-tteld. 

Reference. Thomson & Young, Brit. Assoc. Report, 1869, ii. p. 101. 

Megalocephalus, Barkas. 

To judge from the figure, this genus is hased upon the posterior part of a skull of 
Loxomma. Mr. Barkas enumerates it among the true Reptilia. 

M. MACROMMA, Barkas. 

Locality. Low-Main Coal-Shale, Northumberland. 

References. Barkas, Coal-raeasure Palaeontology, p. 69 [1873]. — Atlas of Carbo- 
niferous Fossils, t. ix. fig. 189 [1873]. 

Mesosaurus, Barkas. 

M. Taylori, Barkas, respecting which we have no information, is enumerated by 
Mr. Barkas among the Amphibia of the Northumberland Coal-field (Manual of 
Coal-measm-e Palaeontology, p. 116). 

MolgopMs, Cope. 

" The characters of this genus are : — Body long, serpentine, without dermal arma- 
ture, so far as known. Vertebrae large and broad, with very prominent zygapo- 
physes and moderate nem-al spines j ribs large, convex." 

M. MACRUBUS, Cope. 

M. Wheatleyi, Cope. 

Locality. Coal-measures, Linton, Columbiana County, Ohio. 
References. Cope, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1868, p. 220. — IJ. Synop- 
sis, p. 20. — Id. Supplement, p. 3. 

Oestocephaliis, Cope. 
See Urocoedvlus, p. 170. 

Orthosaurus, Barkas. 

The illustrative figure represents a skull of Loxomma. It is considered by Mr. 
Barkas a distinct genus of true Reptiles. 

0. PACHYCEPHALUS, Barkas. 
Locality. Low-Main Coal-Shale, Northumberland. 

References. Barkas, Coal-measm-e Palaeontology, pp. 61, 102 [1873]. — Atlas of 
' Carboniferous Fossils, t. viii. figs. 183, 184, 1«5, t. x. fig. 2S2 [1873]. 

Osteophorus, Von Meyer. 

The upper surface only of the skull is known from an imperfect natural cast. " The 
total length of the slcuU amounts to 207 millims., the breadth to 274 millims. The 
length, as far as the hinder margin of the parietal tract, measures little more than 
the breadth. The orbits lie in the posterior half of the skull, nearer the middle 
than the hinder end ; they are nearly circular, and not noticeably oblique in posi- 
tion ; their transverse diameter is to the longitudinal dimension as 2 to 3. The 
external nasal foramina are more distant from the anterior end of the skull than 
from the external margin ; they are somewhat less distant from each other than 
the orbits, while the distance between the nasal foramina and the orbits is about 



ON THE CLASSIFICATION OF THE LABYRINTHODONTS. 189 

two fifths of the length of the skull. The nasal foramiaa are set obliquely, and 
their length amounts to more than twice the breadth ; they lie for the most part 
in the praemaxilla, and only behind are they bounded externally by the maxilla, in- 
tarn illy by the nasal bone. The lachrymal is excluded from the nasal foramina as 
well as from the orbits." The interorbital space is equal to once and a half 
the transverse diameter of the orbit. The most distinctive feature which appears 
in Von Meyer's description of the cranial bones is the presence of an azygous inter- 
nasal bone. This is a narrow slip, somewhat shorter than the frontal, which lies 
in its anterior half between the nasals, and in its posterior half between the frontals. 
Von Me3'er proposes for this bone the name of " Zwischennaaenstirnbein " (inter- 
naso-frontale or naso-froiitale). Duges has pointed out, in the skull of Coecilia, a 
similarly placed bone, which he calls the ethmoid*. It is the "single frontal " of 
Cuvier. The " facial fontanelle " of Z)ns?/ce/)s occupies precisely the same position. 
The parietal foramen is situated a little behind the middle point of the parietal 
suture. Von Meyer remarks that if the occipital border is perfectly preserved, it 
must have been remarkably concave. Tlie cranial sculpture consists of deep pits 
and furrows upon each bone ; no evidence of mucous grooves appears. Obscure 
indications of an affinity with Loxomma, Melosaunis, and Zi/r/osaurus may be 
traced in the skull of Osteophorus ; but we are not yet able to place it satisfactorily. 
Of its Labyrinthodont character and its generic distinctness we have no doubt. 

0. RoMERi, Von Meyer. 

, Locality. Black Marl-slate (Rothliegende) of Lowenberg, Silesia. 
References. Von Meyer, Saurier des Kupferschiefer, p. vi [1856]. — Id. Jahrbuch 
fiir Mineralogie, 1856, p. 824. — Id. Zeitschrift der Deutsch. geolog. Gesell- 
schaft, 1857, p. 61. — Id. Palseontographica, vol. vi. p. 99, t. xi. [I860]. 

Parabatrachus, Owen. 

The type specimen, now in the British Museum, is believed to be the inner sur- 
face of the upper jaw of Megalichthys. 

P. CoLEi, Owen. 

Locality. Coal-measures, Carluke ? 

Reference. Owen, Q. J. Geol. Soc. vol. ix. p. 67, t. ii. [1853]. 

Pariostegus, Cope. 

" The maxillary appears to extend posteriorly to a free termination, as in modern 
Salamanders, and the supratemporal bone presents a very prominent, obtuse, arched 
margin. This margin extends from the orbits on each side, and is inclined towards 
the posterior part of the cranium. There is therefore no quadrato-jugal piece." 
The median reo^ion of the mandible " exhibits a succession of shallow transverse 
notches, enclosing thirteen obtuse elevations." " The orbits are remarkably small, 
and situated probably near the middle of the longitudinal measurement of the 
cranium." 

P. MYOPS, Cope. 

Locality. Coalfield (Triassic), Chatham County, N. Carolina. 
References. Cope, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1868, p. 211. — Id. Synop- 
sis, p. 10. 

Pelion, Wyman. 

Originally named Raniceps, an appellation previously applied by Cuvier to a 
genus of Acanthopterygii. 

This fossil is doubtless amphibian, but it does not exhibit indisputable Labyrin- 
thodont characters. " The general form of the head resembles that of frogs ; it is 
triangular, and its greatest breadth nearly equals its length." The quadrate extends 
backwards beyond the occiput. Prsemaxillse with " small single-pointed teeth." 

* Eecherches sur les Batraciens, t. xiv. fig. 92, pp. 201, 209. 



190 - REPORT— 1874. 

" The palatine bones could not be traced. The atlas is in close apposition with the 
occiput, so that the articulating surfaces are not visible. The expansion of the 
atlas indicates, however, that two condyles probably exist. No portions of the 
hyoid bone or of branchial arches were recognized. The vertebrae are very imper- 
fectly preserved, and are remarkably small in proportion to the size of the animal; 
and though several of them are destroyed, it is estimated that about twenty existed 
between the occiput and the pelvis. The transverse processes, if any exist, are not 

visible ; nor is there e\-idence of ribs A slightly raised outline appears to be 

the only thing to indicate a scapular arch, but there are no details of structure. The 
arm is better preserved, the humerus is much contracted in the middle as in Ba- 
trachians generally ; the radius and ulna are separate as in Urodels, and not united 
as in Anoura. In consequence of the displacement or concealment of some of the 
phalanges, the number of fingers could not be ascertained with precision. There 
were certainly foiu-, but a fifth is doubtful. It would be of great importance if a 
fossil should be detected with five fingers, since no existing Batrachians have more 
than four, while many of the supposed Batrachian footprints of the coal-formations 
have five. The pelvis was destroyed^ but traces of the right and left femur and of 
the right tibia remain." 

P. Lybllu, Wyman. 

Locality. Coal-measures, Linton, Ohio. 

Heferences. Wyman, American journal of Science and Arts, 2nd ser. vol. xxv. 

p. 158 [1858]. The description is accompanied by an outline drawing. — 

Cope, Synopsis, p. 9. — Id. Supplement, p. 9. 

Phlegethontia, Cope. 

" Head elongate triangular ; body and tail extremely elongate, the dorsal ver- 
tebrae without ribs, and the caudals without dilated spines. No ventral armature 

nor limbs Chevron bones are not observable on the caudal vertebrae. This 

form is a true Batrachian snake." 

P. LINEARIS, Cope. 

P. SERPENS, Cope. 

Locality. Coal-measures, Linton, Columbiana County, Ohio. 

Refei-etices. Cope, Proc. American Phil. Soc. 1871, p. 177. — Id. Supplement, p. 2. 

Ptyonius, Cope. 
See Uhocohdylus, p. 170. 

Rauiceps, Wyman. 
See Pelion, p. 189. 

Ehombopholis, Owen. 

A substitution for Atmojms, which had been previously used by Templeton for a 
proposed genus of Amphipodous Crustacea. 
Refermce. Owen, Comp. Anatomy of Vertebrates, vol. i. p. 15 [1866]. 

Salamandroides, Jager. 
See Mastodonsaurus, p. 151. 

Sauropleura, Cope. 

" Vertebrae and ribs well developed, no fan-shaped processes of the former. 
Limbs four, well developed and elongate," pentadactyle. "Ventral aimature of 
slender rods an-anged en chevron, the angle anterior. Probably no thoracic arma- 



ON THE CLASSIFICATION OF THE LABYRINTHODONTS. 191 

tiire. This is the most Lacertilian of the Carboniferous genera, and might almost 
be suspected to be a reptile were it not for the ventral armatiu-e, which is precisely 
that of Oestocephalus and other genera. It appears to lack the thoracic shields of 
those genera." 

S. LONGiPES, Cope. 

S. DIGITATA, Cope. 

Locality. Coal-Measures, Linton, Columbiana County, Ohio. 
References. Cope, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1868, p. 216. — Id. Synopsis, 
p. 15. — Id. Supplement, p. 9. 

Sclerocephalus, Goldf. 

The single imperfect skull known seems to belong to Archegosaurus, and is not 
improbably identical with A, latirostris. 

S. Hausehi, Goldf. 

Locality. Coal-measures of Heimkirchen, north of Kaiserslautem, Bavaria. 
References. Goldfuss, Jahrbuch fiir Mineralogie, «&c. 1847, p. 403. — Beitrage zur 

vorweltlichen Fauna des Steinkohlengebirges, p. 13, t. iv. figs. 1-3 [1847]. 

— Von Meyer, Jahrbuch fiir Mineralogie, &c. 1848, p. 468. — Ih. 1854, p. 431. 

— Keptilien, &c. p. 120, t. vii. tig. 9 [1858]. 

Strepsodontosaurus, Barkas. 

We do not gather either from the text or the figure any evidence of the Laby- 
rinthodont nature of this fossil. 

S. CAHiNATUS, Barkas. 

Locality. Low-Main Coal-Shale, Northumberland. 

References. Barkas, Coal-measure Palaeontology, p. 107 [1873]. — Atlas of Car- 
boniferous Fossils, t. X. fig. 237 [1873]. 

Tuditanus, Cope. 

" Cranium broad, flat, orbits anterior, bones more or less sculptured. Teeth on 
premaxillaiy and maxillary bones of nearly equal sizes. Three pectoral shields 
sculptured externally. Form lizard-like ; two pairs of limbs of medium proportions.' 
Ventral scutes unknown. 

T. PUNCTULATtJS, Cope ; T. bhetieosthis, Cope; T. hadiatus. Cope; T. ob- 
Tusus, Cope {=l)endrerpeton obtusum, Cope) ; T. moedax, Cope ; T. Huxjleyi, 
Cope. 

Locality. Coal-measures, Linton, Cohunbiana County, Ohio. 
References. Cope, Proc. American Phil. Soc. 1871, p. 177. — Id. Supplement, 
p. 11. 

Xestorrhytias, Von Meyer. 

The fragment of cranial bones from the posterior pai-t of the skull figured in 
' Saurier des Muschelkalkes ' has few distinctive features. The ridges which divide 
the pits and furrows are flat and smooth, and the pattern of sculpture is unusually 
large. The generic value of the fossil cannot be asserted. It is apparently nearly 
allied to Mastodonsaurus. 

X. Pebbini, Von Meyer. 

Locality. Muschelkalk of LiineviUe. 

Reference. Von Meyer, Saurier des Muschelkalkes, p. 78, t. Ixii. fig. 5 [1847-55]. 



192 REPORT — 1874. 

EXPLAI^ATION OF THE PLATES. 

All the figures are reduced to one length. The natural dimensions are given in the 
text. The bones are lettered thus : — Pmx, PrEemaxilla ; Mx, Maxilla ; Na, Nasal ; La, La- 
chrymal; PFr, Prefrontal; Fr, Frontal; P^i^r, Postfrontal; Pa, Parietal; Pi! 0, Post- 
orbital; Sq, Squamosal; SO, Supraoocipital ; £'/), Epiotic ; Jm, Jugal; $•/, Quadrato- 
jugal; Q, Quadrate; Pal, Palatal; Vo, Vomer; Pt, Pterygoid. 

Plate IV. 

Figs. 1, 2. Slightly altered from Von Meyer's ' Saurier des Muschelkalkes,' t. Ixi. figs. 4, 5. 
3, 4. Reduced from Burmeister's ' Trematosaurus,' tt. i., ii. 

Plate V. 

Fig. 1. Slightly altered from Von Meyer's 'Saurier des Muschelkalkes,' t. Ixi. fig. 10. 

2. Chiefly from specimen in the British Museum. 

3. Adapted from Huxley's Appendix to Howell's "Memoir on the Warwickshire 

Coalfield" &c. (Mem. Geol. Surrey), figs. 1, 2. 

4. Adapted from Prof. Owen's figure, ' Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc' vol. xi. t. ii. 

Plate VI. 

Fig. \. From Waldheim's " Notice " &c., Bull. Soc. Naturalistes de Moscou, torn. ix. t. v. 

2. Chiefly from Embleton & Atthey, 'Ann. Nat. Hist.' ser. 4, vol. xiv. t. iv. 

3, 4. Adapted from Hancock & Atthey, ' Nat. Hiat. Trans. Northumberland and Dur- 

ham,' vol. iv. t. iv. 

Plate VII. 

Fig. L Partly from Hancock & Atthey, ' Nat. Hist. Trans. Northumberland and Durham,' 
vol. iii. t. ii. fig. 1. The conjectural restoration (in dotted lines) from the recent 
Menopoma. 

2. Adapted from Huxley, ' Trans. Royal Irish Acad.' vol. xxiv. t. xix. 

3. Reduced from Von Meyer's ' Reptilien ' &c., t. A. 

4. Compiled from various fragments figured by Von Meyer in the same work. 



Second Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Harkness, 
Prof. Prestwich, Prof. Hughes, Eev. H. W. Crosskey, Prof. W. 
Boyd Dawkins, Messrs. C. J. Woodward, George Maw, L. C. 
MiALL, G. H. Morton, and J. E. Lee, appointed for the purpose of 
recording the position, height above the sea, lithological characters, 
size, and origin of the more important of the Erratic Blocks of 
England and Wales, reporting other matters of interest connected 
with the same, and taking measures for their preservation. Drawn 
up by the Rev. H. W. Crosskey, Secretary. 

YoTJR Committee, in fulfilment of the duty entrusted to them, prepared and 
distributed a schedule of questions having reference both to isolated erratic 
boulders and groups of boulders, defining boulders as masses of rock trans- 
ported by natural agency from some locality more or less remote. The sche- 
dule was adapted from one issued by the Edinburgh Boulder Committee 
(quoted in the last Report); but it was thought desirable to extend its scope 
so as to include groups of boulders as well as isolated specimens, and to 
place no limit of measurement to the definition. 

As far as possible also the schedule has been made complete, and the ques- 
tions asked have been extended to details of considerable scientific importance. 

The following is a copy of the schedule issued : — 



44^1Upirrt Bnt: Assoc- 181*. 



ricLU 4. 



JJpber Snrfa.ce.. 




2. '^^^J^astodon.saiinw!. 

VruLer SurfarJt,. 




'\s^> 



3. Tremjotosajxrus. 
Vpp er SicrfcLc e . 




'i. Tr ernatf) smi.ru s. 
l/iidfi- Surfate . 




Enarayfd tv CKa^Xi^T.am. 






M^y 



<^'VAL \^€ 



44^Krport BtiZ. Assoc 28 74. 



.PiaZt- 3. 



I. Cafjitosoa.ui4^. 

Vppa- Surface . 








3. Xlosyccps. 
Tipper SzirfcuA.. 



4. Sraxhyop s . 

libber S-urfcui^. 




Eruif{7t^.*il by Chx^.lrjram.. 



44^Report Bfit.AssoolBT4. 



TZate. 6. 



1. RhinosoMrus 



2. Loocammcu. 





3. BatraxJvid^'r^etonj. 
Upper Surface. 










r 










4. S atracTvulerpetorv. 
Und er Surfcu^y- 




Jftftufit by CJh^mm 



44^Jl^>orC Brit: As!oc:1874. 



Plate. 7. 



1 . tPterof?la-a> 

Ubher Surface 




2. JCerciierpetorL 

Upjier Svrfhce 




3. ^iiArche^oscucrutS 

IJhber Surfiute. 




4. "xArch^qosaarus 
Und&r Surfixce 




£h^rjivcd. bvC^Jyicra/Tj.. 



ON THE ERRATIC BLOCKS OF ENGLAND AND WALES. 



193 



If there are in your District any (A) Isolated Erratic Blocks or Boulders, or (B) 
Groups op Boulders (i. e. masses of Rock evidently transported by natural agency from 
some locality Tnore or less remote), please return this paper, with answers to the following 
Queries, to the Rev. H. W. CEOSSKEY, Secretary to the Boulder Committee, 28 George 
Road, Birmingham. 

(A) ISOLATED BOULDERS. 



Queries. 

1 . What is name of the Parish, Estate, and "^ 
Farm on which Boulder is situated ? 
adding nearest Town and County, and V 
any particular enabling its position to I 
be marked on the Ordnance Map. ) 



Answers. 



What are dimensions of Boulder, in 1 
length, breadth, and height above [• 
ground ? J 



3. Is the Boulder rounded, subangular, or ' 
angular ? 



4. If the Boulder is long-shaped, and has 
not been moved by man, what is direc- 
tion by compass of its longest axis ? 



5. If there are any natural ruts, groovings, "^ 
or striations on Boulder, state — 
(«) Their lengths, depth, and number. 
(6) The part of Boulder striated, viz. 

whether top or sides, 
(c) Whether the striations are in the 
direction of the longer axis, or at 
what angle to it. 



G. What is the nature of the rock com- ^ 
posing the Boulder ? If it is of a species 
of rock differing from any rocks adjoin- 
ing it, state locality where, from pei-son- 
al observation, you know that a rock of 
the same nature as the Boulder occurs, 
tlie distance of that locality, and its 
bearings by compass from the Boulder, y 



y 



7. If Boulder is known by any popular 1 
name, or has any legend connected with j- 
it, mention it. J 



What is the height of Boulder above the 1 
sea? J 



Is the Boulder indicated on any map ? or 
does it mark any boundary of a County, 
Parish, or Estate ? 



10. If there is any Photograph or Sketch of "1 
the Boulder, please to say how Com- \ 



raittee can obtain it. 



; 



11. Is the Boulder connected with any long 
ridges of gravel or sand, or is it iso- 
lated ? 



} 



12. On what does the Boulder rest .' 



1874. 



194 



REPORT — -1874. 



(B) GROUPS OF BOTJLDERS. 

Though there may he no one Boulder in your district so remarkable as to deserve descrip- 
tion, there may be Groups of Boulders. 



Queries, 

1. What is the name of the Parish, Estate, 
and Farm on which they are situated ? 
adding the nearest Town and County, 
and any particular enabling their posi- 
to be marked on the Ordnance Map. 



2. What are the dimensions of the smallest 1 
and largest Boulders of the group ? J 



3. Are the Boulders rounded, subangular, "[ 
or angular? J 



Answers. 



If any large Boulder of the group (which 1 
has not been moved by man) is lone- I 
shaped, what is direction by compass 



its longest axis ? 






5. If there are any natural ruts, grooving, ' 
or striations on any Boulder, state — 
(a) Their lengths, depth, and number. 
(6) The parts of the Boulder striated, 

viz. whether top or sides, 
(c) Whetljer the striations are in the 
direction of the longer axis, or at 
what angle to it. 



State (a) localities where rocks undoubt- "^ 
edly of the same nature as the Boulders 
occur. 
[Be careful to ascertain that none of the 
Boulders have been broughtfrom- 
a distance by human agency.'] 
(6) The distances of those localities and 
their bearings by compass from 
the Boulders. 



7. What is the nature of the Rocks com- " 
posing the Boulders ? and in what pro- 
portions do the Boulders of the various 
rocks represented in the group occur? 



8. What is the height of the group above | 
the sea ? j 



9. Over what area does the group extend ? 1 
and what number of Boulders are there I- 
in the group or per acre ? J 



10. Are the Boulders exposed on the sur-^ 
face or are they surroimded by any de- 
posit ? Add any observations explana- 
tory of the position in which the Boul- 
ders are found. 



ON THE ERRATIC BLOCKS OF ENGLAND AND WALES. 195 

The Committee have reason to believe that inquiries are being made on its 
behalf in many parts of the country, although the returns at present received 
are not sufficiently complete to admit of systematic classification. It is felt, 
indeed, that a classified arrangement of the facts can only be attempted when 
the investigation approaches its termination. So many speculative theories 
are involved in glacial geology, that the greatest service can be rendered by, in 
the first instance, collecting the facts from every quarter, afterwards proceeding 
to their classification, and finally pointing out the relation of the classified 
facts to the various theories under discussion. This is the course which it is 
intended to pursue. 

The Committee would respectfully ask Members of the Association who 
have received schediiles to return them with the information desired. 

Districts in which boulders are rarest are of especial importance. The 
evidence respecting the southward extension of the ice-sheet over England, 
or the reach of the waters of the glacial sea, depends largely upon the facts 
connected with their presence or absence ; while the method of distribution 
of boulders over England and "Wales vnU. furnish the key for the solution of 
many problems. 

The necessity for the work of the Committee is increased by the fact that 
all over England and Wales the destruction of boulders is rapidly proceeding. 
Fields are being cleared for agricultural purposes, while the boulders of many 
districts furnish building-material out of which houses and bridges as well as 
walls are constructed. It is not too much to say that, in the course of a few 
years, some of the most curious and important facts connected with the cha- 
racter and distribution of boulders (facts involving the explanation of many 
of the phenomena of the glacial epoch) will remain simply matters of record 
without any possible verification in the field. The importance of a careful 
and thorough carrjdng out of the work of this Committee wiU be evident, how- 
ever long and tedious it may prove to be. 

NoKTHTJMBERLAND. 

The following is reported by Mr. Topley : — 

(A) ISOXATBD BotTLDERS. 

Answers, 

1. Parish of Rochbury, Northumberland. It is marked on the 6-inch map 
of Northumberland (sheet 44) as " Main Stone," about 3g miles west south- 
west of the parish church. 

2. Length 14 yards, breadth 5 yards, height 4 yards. 
N.B. It rests on surface of rock. 

3. Nearly rectangular. 

4. Longer axis S.S.E. and N.N.W. 

5. No markings except natural lines of weathering. 

6. Composed of sandstone. Similar sandstone forms the mass of the hill 
on which it rests. 

7. CaUed the " Main Stone." 

8. Height above the sea about 1350 feet. 

9. Marked on 6-inch map of Northumberland (sheet 44), A township 
boundary-mark. 

11. Not connected with any long ridges of gravel or sand. 



Yorkshire. 
Mr. E. G. Spencer reports a remarkable isolated boulder. 



o2 



196 REPORT — 1874'. 

Anstvers. 

1. The isolated boulder lies in the division of Icornshaw in the town- 
ship of Cowling, Sutton, in the parishes of Kildwick and Keighley. See 
Ordnance Map (185) Yorkshire. 

2. At least 20 yards round and some 8 yards high above ground, 

3. Angular, but one or two rounded corners. 

4. The boulder nearly square, but very irregular. Its longest axis from 
east to west. 

5. There are some marks, but more like what would appear from washings. 
The markings are in the softer parts of the stone. 

G. Composed of Millstone-grit, and no rock similar excepting Hantjing 
Stone Quarry. This stone is within 2 inches of south left-hand corner of 
Ordnance Map (sheet 185). Hanging Stone Quarry is 4 to 5 inches north, 
so will be near a mile off. 

7. Popularly known as Hitching Stone on Hitching Stone HiU. 

8. About 1175 feet above the sea. 

11. Perfectly isolated ; but within some few hundred yards there are others, 
but of much smaller dimensions. 

12. On heath, and the bottom of stone may be imbedded. 

Lancashire. 

Two large boulders are reported by Mr. Latham, which he describes as "ap- 
parently granite," in the lane caUed Birkdale Cop, Scambrick, Lancashire. 
One is much larger than the other, and is 2| x 7| x 7 yards, and lies about 2| 
miles in a direct line from the coast of the Irish sea, and is only g of a mile from 
the Moss, which lies between the sandstones on the coast and the clay land. 
The other is in a brick -yard at Snape, § of a mile more inland, and was found 
in the clay. 

Midland District. 

In the Midland district the plan suggested by the Geological Section of the 
Birmingham Natural-History Society, and described in the last Report, is 
being actively carried out. The minuteness of detail attempted will necessarily 
render the mapping of the district a work of considerable time. When com- 
pleted, a map will exist in which the approximate number of boulders and 
the character of the rocks of which they are formed wiU be shown, as well 
as the effect of the configuration of the country on their distribution. 

It is necessary to record the general position of the boulders in order to 
understand their geological meaning. 

In the Midland district, around Birmingham as a centre, the general po- 
sition of the boulders may be described in the following way : — The softness 
of the Bunter Sandstone of the district has prevented the preservation of gla- 
cial striae to any extent ; but in one part (California near Harbome) they 
have been observed upon the native rock. The striated rock is covered by a 
thick clay containing boulders in the sense in which they occur in the oldest 
Boulder-clay of Scotland, many being striated. 

Upon this old Boulder-clay, covering a glaciated surface, occurs gravel fol- 
lowed by a thick clay with many boulders scattered through it, striated spe- 
cimens being less common and less clearly marked. 

This is succeeded by sands and gravels, in which boulders of any size are 
far less frequent and evidently worn. Over the surface of the groimd many i 
boulders are spread, any sand and gravel which may at any time have sur- 
rounded them having been washed away. These boulders have possibly been | 
dropped by floating ice over the Midland glacial sea. These facts have been 



ON THE ERRATIC BLOCKS OF ENGLAND AND WALES. 197 

mentioned to show that houlders exist over this district deposited at several 
ages. 

(1) Boulders of the earliest ice period. 

(2) Boulders of the period of submergence, in the lower parts of the gla- 
cial clays. 

(3) Boulders of the period of the reelevation of the land. 

These varieties have yet to be traced to their various sources ; and upon 
this work members of the Committee are engaged. It is as impossible to 
assign all boulders to one epoch of distribution as it is to assign aU glacial 
sands, clays, and gravels to one period. 

Leicesxeeshiee. 

Mr. J. Plant reports both remarkable isolated boulders and groups of 
boulders, and records one remarkable fact of especial importance. Below the 
drift-clay, and quite distinct from the surface-boulders freely scattered over 
the county, a group of boulders has been exposed in an excavation made in 
the centre of Leicester, 25 feet deep, composed of rocks which Mr. Plaut 
failed to recognize as British. This group, it is suggested, was deposited by 
a stranded iceberg. The fact of the existence of groups of boulders belong- 
ing to the earliest part of the glacial epoch and of foreign origin, points to 
the submergence of the Midland district in. very early glacial times, and is 
worthy of detailed investigation. 

Mr. Plant states that he looked over hundreds of the blocks as they lay 
piled up on both sides of the roadway, and could not recognize one tenth as 
"Forest Rocks." Many were dark hornblendic-looking masses, neither 
dolerite or diorite, but fibrous or slaty rather than granular. 

All these patches of boulders (and, in the instance reported, Mr. Plant 
registered five hundred blocks) are below the drift-clay, and quite distinct 
from the surface-boulders that lie all over the country, either on the surface 
or 1 to 3 feet below. 

(A) Isolated Boulders. 

Answers. 

1. (1) In the "Johnstone Close," one mile from Leicester, and near 
Leicester Abbey. (2) Parish of Humberstone, Leicestershire, on Kirby's 
Farm. 

2. (1) In 1806 stood 7 feet above ground, now about 2 feet ; depth in the 
ground unknown ; oval shape. (2) About same height. 

3. (1) Has been shaped roughly. (2) Rounded. 

4. (1) Upright on short end. (2) Cannot say. 

5. No striations seen on either. 

6. (1) May be Millstone-grit or maybe Upper Keuper Sandstone; no 
rock near like it. (2) Syenite or granite from Mount Sorel or Buddon, 
Charnwood Forest, distance 6 miles N.W. 

7. (1) Known as the Little John's Stone or St. John's Stone. (2) Known as 
Hell-Stone. Both have legends connected with them, and one has a festival. 

8. (1) About 250 to 300 feet above the sea. (2) Ditto. 

11. (1) Has gravel-beds near. (2) Drift-clay. 

12. Bottom not seen. 

(B) Groups of Boulders. 

Anstuers. 

1. AU Leicestershire. Potter's Hill in Melton, Leicester; forest near 
Desford, Hoby, Ratlifte. 



198 REPORT — 1874. 

2. One near Leicester, Victoria Road, at 12 feet deep ; 7 feet X 6 feet, 2 feet 
exposed ; was not dug ont. None under 1 cubic foot. 

3. All angular or subangular. 

5. Striations, sometimes only one side, in other cases two sides, and often at 
right angles ; rarely seen on the granite or syenite, but on greenstone and slate. 
Erratics of black basalt, not Leicestershire, occur at Hoby, towards Melton. 

6. Localities where rocks undoubtedly of the same nature as the boulders 
occur — Mount Sorel, Buddon "Wood, Bradgate Park, Grooby, and Markfield. 

5 to 10 or 12 miles from the supposed source, Charnwood Forest, E., S.E., 
S., S.W., W. One large group at Long Whatton, near Regworth, is due N. 

7. Boulders composed of syenite, granite, greenstone, basalt, chert, moun- 
tain-limestone, lias limestone, sandstone, but principally igneous rocks. 

8. 160 to 300 and 400 feet above the sea. Never saw any boulders on 
the marlstone, which in this county is 600 to 700 feet. 

10. Boulders occur on the surface, but generally seen in excavations of 1 
or 2 feet; many have been uncovered in lowering the top of a hill or 
widening or straightening the road. 

Note. — Great numbers of boulders existed over all this county four years ago 

6 to 7 feet long, 3 to 5 feet high, particularly in the Leicester forest district, 
near Desford. They have been gradually broken up by gunpowder. A large 
water-colour representation of the Little John's Stone, made at the beginning 
of the century, makes it 7 feet high. It is now much reduced. In a recent 
uncovering of the granite of Mount Sorel a deposit of drift with boulders and 
pebbles has been removed, about 8 feet in depth ; and the rock below shows 
clearly that it was subject to the action of waves. It is rounded and worn 
precisely as rocks upon modem shores. 

Wabwickshiee. 

In this district a great change occurs. The drift-beds are reduced almost 
to beds of pebbles ; and local geologists give the name of boulders to speci- 
mens which in other parts would not be regarded as worthy of the name. 
Striations are faint and rare ; the grouping, however, is remarkable. They 
come from all parts of the compass (some possibly from Scandinavia) ; and 
metamorphic and volcanic rocks are numerous. Quartzose pebbles with 
Lower Silurian fossils are abundant; and it is a question of much interest to 
trace their origin. 

The Rev. P. B. Brodie makes the following report of groups of boulders : — 

Ansivers, 

1. Groiips of boulders at Rowington, Hatton, Lapworth, Hazeler, Pack- 
wood, Knowle, Preston, Wroxall, Temple Balsall, Eddsone, Brown's Wood 
near Watton Wawen, Baddcsley. 

2. In Hatton and along line in gravel between Hatton Station and Wilm- 
cote many large angular flints occur, and a few flints and some hard chalk are 
scattered over fields, and in drift generally. One rounded boulder (Rowing- 
ton) measured 1| ft. X 2 ft., and 1 ft. in depth, the average size of large boul- 
ders. I have seen some still larger. Boulders are of all sizes (frequently as 
large as a man's head) and are numerous. The still larger boulders are not 
so frequent. One large block of granite. Other larger ones occasionally oc- 
cur, but I have not measured them. Scattered about here and there. 

3. Both rounded and angular. 

5. Have observed a few groovings and striations, but very faint and not 
numerous ; and on small pebbles in district referred to. 

6. («) Rocks of the pame nature occur at Cumberland and Salop, Malvern. 



ON THE EURATIC ULOCKS OF ENGLAND AND WALES. 199 

(5) I believe they are derived from all points of the compass, some pos- 
sibly from Scandinavia, &c. Metamorphic and volcanic rocks are numerous. 
The most abundant are the quartzites and siliceous pebbles (Budleigh- 
Salterton pebbles) with fossils (Orthis reclux, Lingulce, &c.). Carboni- 
ferous sandstones and mountain-limestones occiar. Not much Lias, and a few 
pieces of oolite (Great Oolite and Cornbrash) with characteristic fossils. 
In one small field in Rowington numerous oolitic rock-fragments with 
chalk and flint and older rocks occur. Felstone (Cumberland or North Wales) 
recognized ; volcanic rock (The "Wrekin, Salop) recognized ; peculiar amyg- 
daloid granite (Malvern ?). 

7. Primitive limestone, porphyritic greenstone, trap, volcanic grit, several 
varieties of granite, syenite, hard siliceous gi'it (abundant), pebbles of quartz, 
jasper agate (numerous), crystalline and schistose slate, sandstone pebbles, 
felstone, dolerite (varieties of). 

Chalk (hard and soft, the former predominates), Cornbrash, forest-marble. 
Great Oolite, Lias, Magnesian limestone, Mountain-limestone, chert (Carboni- 
ferous), Millstone-grit, Permian wood, Calymene in nodule (?), Lower-Silurian 
fossiliferous pebbles. AU the above are fossiliferous. 

See, on the drift in Warwickshire, Proceedings Geological Society and W. 
N. Field-Club, 1866, by Eev. P. B. Brodie. Later 'Proceedings' will also 
give an account of drift near Coventry by Messrs. Whitler. A list and full 
account of drift in both, Geol. Proc, 1857. 

8. The height of the group above the sea is about 400 feet or more. Can- 
not state this positively. 

9. In reply to No 1, many miles. 

10. Sometimes exposed on surface in fields, and in the gravel (drift) pits 
in district. 

It must be remarked that the stones called " boulders " in this communi- 
cation are not of the same size and character as the glaciated boulders scat- 
tered over Staffordshire and other neighbouring districts. Attention is called 
to the quartzose pebbles with certain Lower-Silurian fossils which predominate 
in the drift of this district. Orthis reduce, so common in Devon and Nor- 
mandy, is the most frequent fossil in these pebbles, although fossils are few 
and far between. The question raised is whether they really have drifted, or 
whether an old Lower-Silurian centre once extended in^this direction. 

Devon. 

Mr. Widger reports travelled boulders at Bishop's Steignton parish, Lind- 
ridge Estate, Coombe Farm near Teignmouth, Devon, from 6 inches to 4 
feet in diameter, 300 feet above the sea. 

That very great interest attaches to boulders in Devonshire, appears from 
Mr. Pengelly's remarkable description of the granite boulder on the shore of 
Barnstaple Bay, North Devon, given in last year's Report. It is hoped that 
Mr. Pengelly wiU favour the Committee by carrying on his investigations 
and contributing them to next year's Report. 

Llanewst. 
Mr. Norris reports as follows : — 

1. Boulder at Llanrwst, Gorphwysfa, co. Denbigh, one mile N.E. of town 
next to Cae Brachina. 

2. (1) Conical stone, height 7 feet 6 inches, greatest circumference 10 feet, 
tapers to a point. (2) Height 5 feet, cii'cumference 9 feet. 

3. (1) Angular siliceous conglomerate, rough fracture on two sides at right 



200 REPORT — 1874. 

angles, weathered in spurious conchoidal forms. (2) Fine-grained white fel- 
spathic stone with somewhat slaty fissure ; rolled on two thirds of its surface, 
weathered and fissured on the other. 

4. Moved. 

;^(,te. — Gorphwysfa is 336 feet above the sea-level on the western slope of 
a hiU 500 to 600 feet high towards the vale of Conway. The soil of the hill 
and neighbourhood is Boulder-clay on the Denbyshire grit and imperfect slates. 
All the old walls and hedge-footings have boidders built into them ; and the 
foundations of my own modern house include a large number, some from Pen- 
y-bryn. At Qae-MeUor Farm near ten tons were removed from two acres 
in rounded masses reaching a diameter of 3 feet of varica. 

6. Conglomerates. On the mountain-top opposite tliis, between Llanrwst 
and Bettwys-Coed, I came across a boulder of red porphyry. 

8. Height above the sea 336 feet. 



Siwth Report of the Committee on the Treatment and Utilization of Sew- 
age, consisting o/Richard B. Grantham^ C.E.,F.G.S. (Chairman), 
r. J. Bramwell, C.E., F.R.S., Professor W. H. Cokfield, M.A., 
M.D. (Oxon.), J. H. Gilbert, Ph.D., F.R.S., F.C.S., W. Hope, 
V.C, and Professor A. W. Williamson, Ph.D., F.R.S., F.C.S. 

During the past year the Committee has been able to continue its observa- 
tions on the amounts of the various crops obtained at Breton's Farm, near 
Bomford, but has not been able, from want of funds, to continue the regular 
gaugings of the sewage and effluent water, nor to have any more analyses 
performed ; so that neither the quantities of sewage and effluent water nor 
their composition can be given for the past year. 

It has been thought desirable to keep the corresponding Tables numbered 
as they have been heretofore ; and as Tables I., II., and III. cannot be given 
this year, Table IV. is the first, and shows, as it did last year, the kind of crops 
grown on the diiFerent beds of the farm, the dates when sown or planted, 
and when cut or gathered, the total produce, and the produce per acre, with 
other particulars, but does not show this year the approximate amounts of 
sewage applied, nor the number of dressings which each crop received. 

Table Y. is a summary of Table IV., the acreage of eacb plot being given, 
the kinds of crops grown, and the total amount and amount per acre for 
each plot ; it onlj' corresponds to a small part of Table V. of last year. 
From it we see that 2353*43 tons of crops were taken ofi" the farm from 
March 25th, 1873, to March 24th, 1874, this being at the rate of 21-7 tons 
per acre. In 1872-73 only 1704 tons were taken off, as against 2714 tons 
during 1871-72; and this was, as explained in last year's Report, due 
partly to the fact that a much larger amount of crop was standing on 
March 24th, 1873, than on the same day in 1872, and partly to the fact 
that cereals were much more largely grown in 1872-73 than in 1871-72. 

In Table VII. these particulars are given for the past year ; and a com- 
parison is also made with the two previous ones ; from which it appears 
that the area actually fallow on March 24th, 1874, was nearly the same as 
that on March 24th, 1873, and very much less than that lying fallow on 
March 24th, 1872 ; from which it might at first seem that the amount of 
standing crop left on March 24th, 1874, Avas about the same as that found 
on the land on March 25th, 1873, when the year began as far as the records 
are concerned ; but it must be observed that the land sown with spring wheat 



ON THE TREATMENT AND UTILIZATION OF SEWAGE. 



201 



is counted as laud in crop, so that a fairer comparison of the crops actually- 
standing is got by subtracting the acreage of the land so sown from the total 
number of acres " in crop" each year; thus : — 





March 24th, 
1872. 


March 24th, 

1873. 


March 24th, 
1874. 


In crop .... 


40-49 

0-00 


87-62 
22-54 


89-09 
38-13 


Acreage of spring wheat re- 
cently sown 




Do. of crop standing 


40-49 


65-08 


50-96 



Thus we see that the amount of crop actually standing was less at the end of 
1873-74 than at the end of 1872-73 — that is to say, that more of the crop 
standing at the end of 1872-73 was gathered and reckoned to the credit of 
the year ending March 24th, 1874, than is left from that year to be gathered 
during the twelve months ending March 24th, 1875. 

It should be noticed that as the total of crops for 1872-73 was smaller 
partly on account of the greater amount of cereals grown (26-18 acres), the 
total for 1873-74 would be larger than it is but for the still greater amount 
(38-82 acres) of cereals grown. 

Table VI. corresponds with part of Table YI. of last year's Report ; it is, 
like Table V. , compiled from the particulars in Table IV., the results being 
exhibited according to crops instead of according to plots or beds ; the total 
acreage of each description of crop is given, the total amount of each crop 
and the amount per acre, and the estimated amount of nitrogen for each 
crop, these estimates being obtained from the same data which were used in 
preceding years. 

The total amount of nitrogen estimated to be recovered is 22,766 lbs., 
as against 15,704 lbs. in 1872-73 : the amount that year was no doubt 
exceptionally small, on account of the large amount of crop stiU ungathered 
at the end of the year. The total amount of nitrogen brought to the farm 
from the town was shown in last year's Report to be practically the same 
in 1872-73 as the year before, and may be considered to be approximately 
27 tons, or 60,480 lbs. 

Assuming the same amount for the year 1873-74, there would be 37-6 
per cent, of the nitrogen applied recovered in the crops. In 1871-72 the 
amount recovered was estimated at 41-76 per cent., and in 1872-73 at 
26 per cent. The amount of nitrogen lost in the effluent water this year has 
not been ascertained. 

To take the total of the three years during which the quantities of nitrogen 
have been determined or estimated, it appears that about 168,000 lbs. of 
nitrogen have been distributed on the farm, of which it is estimated nearly 
58,200 lbs. have been recovered in the crops, or 34-6 per cent. ; of the re- 
mainder, some has escaped in the effluent water (chiefly in the form of nitrates 
and nitrites) and been lost, and some, as shown in last year's Report, has 
been stored in the soil. 

Ill conclusion your Committee feels very strongly the desirability of con- 
tinuing these observations (if they are to be made really useful) through a 
series of years, as only thus can a reliable average be obtained, and considers 
it a matter of much regret that, for the reason already given, the analyses of 
the sewage and effluent water had to be discontinued. 



io^ 



KEPOET — 1874. 



Table IV. — Breton's 
Statement showing Crops grown from 



Plot. 



No. of beds 
(inclusive). 



I to 29 



Acreage. 



9-8 
9-8 
9-8 



Crop. 



Cabbage 

Barley 

Italian rye-grass 



Dat« when sown or 
planted. 



Oct. 1872 
June 1873 



Total A 



B 



8 to 16 

I .. S 

6 „ 7 

17 „ «6 

I .. 3 



4 
6 



5 



8 

9 to 14 
J5 .. 16 
17 „ 26 
II „ 16 

I ,, 10 



9-8 



4'20 

2-43 

•96 

4'54 

I '47 

•97 
i'43 

•44 

2-8o 

•92 

4"54 
278 

4-80 



Cabbage . 
Oats .... 

Wheat . 



Sprouting broccoli 



Brussels sprouts 
Cabbage 



Peas 

Cabbage-plants . 

Turnips 

Cabbage 

Peas 

FaUow. 



Sept. 1872 .. 
March 1873 



Aug. 



May „ 
Aug. „ 

)f it 

Oct. 
March 1874 



Total B 



C 



AU. 



1*97 
1-97 



Wheat . 
Cabbage 



March 1873 
Oct. 



Total C 



D 



All. 



1-97 



6-93 



Italian rye-grass 



Aug. 1872 



E 



Total E 



I to 22 

I „ 16 

17 
18 

part 19 
>, 19 
,. 19 

20 to 22 
I „ 22 



576 

4-35 
•24 

•24 

'12 
•12 
•12 
•69 

576 



Cabbage . 



Cauliflowers 

Sprouting broccoli 



Onions 

Lettuce 

Cabbage-plants , 

Mangold 

Wheat 



Oct. 1872 



June and July 1873 
June 1873 



Aug. , 

May and June 1873 , 
March 1874 



ON THE TREATMENT AND UTILIZATION OF SEWAGE. 



203 



Sewage-Farm. 

March 25, 1873, to March 24, 1874. 





Date when cut or 
gathered. 


Produce. 


Eemarks. 




Total. 


Per acre. 




April to June 1873 ... 
Oct. 187'; 


tons. 

124-74 

13-52 

3263 


tons. 

12-7 

I '4 
3"3 


Including 6*94 tons straw. 

Sown the day after the barley ; once cut. 




Dec. i873andjan.i874 






170-89 


17-4 


The whole plot under crop at the end 
of the year. (Italian rye-grass.) 








May to July 1873 

Auff. 1%TX 


92-92 
658 

• 15-44 
5-52 

0-75 
ail 

1-27 

11=67 

13-30 


22-1 

2-7 

2-8 
3-8 
0-8 

i-s 

2-9 

4-2 

i4'5 


One third consumed by cattle, waste, &c. 
4-33 tons straw. 

9-54 tons straw. 

One third ploughed in or consumed by 

cattle. 

One half ploughed in or consumed by 

cattle. 
1 ton straw. 
Plants replanted on farm. 

Crop remained March 1874. 
i> » )> 












March 1874. 












Aug. and Sept. 1873... 
Sept. and Nov. „ ... 
Oct. to Dec. „ ... 














149-56 


12-3 


Part of plot under crop at end of year. 








Auer. 1^71 


5-24 


2-7 


3-47 tons straw. 

Crop remained March 1874. 














5*24 


2-7 


Plot all under crop (Cabbage) at the 
end of year. 








July to Dec. 1873 


452-95 


65-4 


Grass ploughed in. Plot fallow, March 
25, 1874 ; Mangold sown afterwards. 




May and June 1873 ... 

Sept. to Nov. „ ... 
Oct. 1873 


85-42 

73-07 
1-25 

2-58 

2-25 
1-50 

2-43 
12-25 


14-8 
16-8 

5"2 

IO-7 
i8-7 

12-5 

20-2 
17-9 


One fourth ploughed in or carted to 

cattle. 

n )) a ff 

One half leaves, &c., consumed by cattle 
or ploughed in. 

Crop remained March 1874. 




Jan. and Feb. 1874 ... 

Oct. and Nov. 1873 ••• 
Julv 1871 




Oct. „ 




Nov. „ 










180-75 


31-4 


Plot all under crop of Spring Wheat at 
end of year. 











um 



REPORT — 1874. 



Table IV. 



Plot. 



F 



No. of beds 
(inclusiye). 



12 to i8 
I ., 6 
7 .. " 

15 „ i8 

X f. 14 



Acreage. 



1-48 
1-47 
I -06 

2-97 



Crop. 



Strawberries 

Oats 

Barley 

Cabbage 

Wheat 

Cabbage 

Carrots 

Onions 

Hardy green plants 
Spinach 

Mangold 

Turnips 

Sprouting broccoli 

Spinach 

Lettuc« 

Cabbage 

Hardy greens 

Cabbage 

Fallow. 

Onions 

»» • ••• ••• 

Hardy green plants 

Cabbage 

French beans 

Hardy greens 

Spinach 

Cabbage 

Fallow. 

Onions 

Carrots , 

Savoys 

Carrots 

Cabbage , 

Wheat 

Cabbage 



Date when sown or 
planted. 



March to Nov. 1872 
April 1873 

)» tt 

Sept. „ 

Feb. 1874 

Sept. and Oct. 1872 

March 1873 

Sept. 1872 

May 1873 

II ji .••... 

July „ 

»i it •• 

»» i» ••• 

»i n 

May „ 

i» i» 

July » 

Nov. „ 

Feb. and March 1873 

H >t It 

May 1873 

July , 

May „ 

Aug. , 

11 I 

Oct. and Nov. 1873 

April 1873 

June , 

April „ 

June , 

Feb. 1874 

Nov. 1873 



Total F 



G 



5 to 10& 
17 .. " 

» .. 4 
II „ 12 

II 

13&1S to 16 

lto8&II&I2 

13 to 16 

9 I. 10& 
17 „ 20 
21 
i 22 

^ 22 

i 22 

lto8&IltOI2 

i3toi6,9&io 
& 17 to 22 



Total G 



H 



174 
i7i 
i7i 
20 
I 



to I7i 
24 
19 
19 
*4 
S 



6&7 
8 to 24 
I .. 5 



Total H 



I to 3i 

. 16 
. 18 
I 16 
. 18 



7 
13 
17 

I 

17 



Total I 



3-82 



2-82 

■94 

•47 

•23 

•70 

2-35 

■94 
1-41 

•*3 
•12 

•12 
•12 

2-35 
2-82 



S-«7 



411 

2'29 

•76 
■76 

1-53 
ro8 

•47 
486 
ro8 



6-40 



1-30 
•94 

2"29 

1-56 

•58 

6"o9 
■S8 



667 



I 

i 

j 



ON THE TREATMENT AND UTILIZATION OF SEWAGE. 



205 



(continued). 





Date when cut or 
gathered. 


Produce. 


Bemarks. 




Total. 


Per acre. 




June to July 1873 ... 
Aug. 187? 


tons. 
009 
4-69 

2-71 

1-20 


tons. 
0-06 

37 

1-4 


2-89 tons straw. 

173 .. 

Seed bed. 

Crop remained March 1874. 








Mar 














8-69 


23 


Part of plot under crop at end of year. 








May to July 1873 ... 

June and July „ 
June 1873 

July „ 


5 1 -87 

4-28 
o-6i 

7-07 

8-02 

44- JO 

2660 

8-74 

2-25 

1-12 
2-65 
2-00 


18-4 

46 
13 

30-7 
11-4 

i8-8 

28-3 

6-2 

9-8 
9'3 

22*1 
16-7 


One third carted to cattle or ploughed 
in. 

The produce of one bed only ; the other 
failed. 

One tenth only sent to market ; re- 
maindergiven tocattle or ploughed in. 
One sixth tops &c. 

Crop remains. 




May to July 1873 

Nov. 1873 




Sept. to Dec. 1873 ... 
March 1874 




AufiT. iS?-? 




July , 








Nov. „ 










159-31 


30-8 


Part under crop at end of year. 








July to Sept. 1873 ... 


36-14 

"4-28 

12-37 
2-52 
8-29 
0-67 


8-8 

■■;-6 

16-3 

17 

77 
I '4 


Crop failed. 

This crop still remains. 




July i87'j 




Oct. and Nov. 1873 ... 
July to Sept. „ ... 
Dec. 1873 




Oct. 1873 to Mar. 1874 






64-25 


lo-o 


Part under crop at end of year. 








Sept. and Oct. 1873 ... 

Au£. 1871 


8-43 

4-69 

26-30 

14-70 

10-87 


6-5 

50 

ii-S 

9"4 

18-7 


One fifth to cattle or ploughed in. 

Crop remains. 
i> It 




Dec. 1873 to Feb. 1874 
Auff. 1871 




Aug. to Oct. 1873 ... 














6499 


97 


Plot all under crop at end of year. 







^06 



REPORT— 1874. 



TABtE IV. 



Plot, 



No. of beds 
(inclusive). 



All. 



Acreage. 



4"44 



Crop. 



Italian rye-grass 

Mangold 

Hardy greens . . 
Savoys 

Italian rye-grass 

Italian rye-grass 

Barley 

Italian rye-grass 

Cabbage 

Hardy greens . , 
Cabbage-plants 
Hardy greens ., 
Onions 

Wheat 

Hardy greens , , 
Wheat 

Cabbage 

Mangold 

Wheat 

Mangold . , 

Wheat 

Oziers 

Ehubarb 



Date when sown or 
planted. 



Sept. 1872 

July 1873 

>» ) • •• 

j» j» • • 

Sept. 1872 

March and May 1874 

June 1873 

II I 

Sept. 1872 

July 1873 

II II •••• 

Oct 

March 1874 

Mareh 1873 

Aug. „ 

Feb. 1874 

Oct. 1872 

Mayi873 ■ 

Feb. 1874 

April 1873 , 

Feb. 1874 , 

Jan. 1873 • 

Feb. 1873 • 



Part. 



I '22 

•66 

I'OO 



Total L 



2-88 



M 



AU. 



3"i7 



N 



I to 16 



4'if 
4-15 
4-15 



Total N 



4-15 



O 



All. 

ito8&iotoi7 

9 

9 

1 to 17 



5-92 

5-55 

•37 

•37 

5-92 



Total 



3-92 



All. 



3'So 
3*5° 
35° 



Total P 



3'S° 



Q 



I to 10 

I „ 20 
I „ 20 



I '04 
2-34 

2-34 



Total Q 



2-34 



R 



Part. 



2-40 

2 '40 

•12 



4 



Total R 



2"52 



All. 



ON THE TREATMENT AND UTILIZATION OF SEWAGE. 



207 



(continued). 



Date when cut or 
gathered. 



Produce. 



Total. 



Per acre. 



Bemarks. 



Mar. i873to Jan. 1874 

Nov. 1873 

Dec. „ 

Feb. 1874 

Mar. 1873 to Jan. 1874 

March to May 1873 ... 

Sept. 1873 , 

Nov. 1873 to Mar. '^74 

April to June 1873 ... 
Oct. to Dec. „ 
Aug. and Sept. „ 
Jan. 1874 

Aug. 1873 

Jan. and Feb. 1874 ... 

April 1873 

Nov. „ 

Oct. and Nov. 1873 ... 
Cleared Nov. 1873 ... 



tons. 
27706 



tons. 
62'4 



Crop remains ; cut eight times in year, 



25-05 
4-38 



20'5 

49 
4'4 



32'66 



11-4 



Plot all fallow at end Of year. 



182-49 



srs 



Crop remains ; cut eight times in year, 



140-96 

474 
26-74 



34-0 
i-i 
6-4 



Grass plo'.ighed in May 1873. 
Including straw 3-47 tons. 
This grass was set with the barley and 
still remains. 



172-44 



41-5 



Plot all under crop at end of year. 



8589 
69-86 

2-33 
71 



14-5 

12-6 

6-3 

19 



Transplanted. 
Crop remains. 



158-79 



26-8 



Plot all imder crop at end of year. 



8-68 
10-82 



2"5 

31 



6-07 tons straw. 
Crop remains. 



19-50 



S-6 



Plot all under crop at end of year. 



2-00 
38-00 



1-9 

l6-2 



Crop remains. 



40-00 



iX-i 



Plot all under crop at end of year. 



45-32 
•50 



18-8 
4" I 



Crop remains. 

Oziers used for bunching greens, &c. 



45-82 



i8-2 



Plot nearly all under crop at end of 
year. 



Feb. and March 1874 



0-17 



Crop remains. 



208 




REPORT — 1874. 


Table IV 


Plot. 


No. of beds 
(inclusive). 


Acreage. 


Crop. 


Date when sown or 
planted. 


U 

I» 


All. 

" 


1-53 
2"53 
2'53 


Wlieat 


March 1873 


Hardy greens 


Wheat 


Feb. 1874. 






Total U 




2-53 












V 

It 


Part. 
All. 


z-93 
3 '00 

5"93 


Cabbage 


Oct. 1872 

May 1873 

March 1874 


Scarlet beans 


Wheat 




Total V 




593 












W 


All. 

»» 


2-75 

^•75 
2-7S 


Wheat 


March 1873 

Sept. and Oct. 1873 ••• 
March 1874 


Hardy greens 


Wheat 




Total W 




2-7S 












X 

it 


All. 


3-86 
3-86 


Wheat 


March 1873 

.. 1874 




'* 


Total X 




3-86 












Y 




S'6o 
5'6o 


Hay 


Permanent grass 

»» »» 




Grass-meadow 

















N.B. The boundaries of plots Q and \ 



ON THE TREATMENT AND UTILIZATION OF SEWAGE. 



209 



(continued). 



Date when cut or 
gathered. 


Produce. 


Eemarks. 


Total. 


Per acre. 


Auff. lii-i 


tons. 
7-05 
5-62 


tons. 
2-8 

22 


4-62 tons straw. 
Crop remains. 


Jan. and Feb. 1874 ... 






i2'67 


5-0 


Plot all under crop at end of year. 




May to July 1873 

Aug. and Sept. „ 


58-48 

o'5o 


20-0 
-2 


This crop was nearly all destroyed by 

an accident with the sewage. 
Crop remains. 






58-98 


9-9 


Plot all under Spring Wheat at end of 
year. 




Aug. 1873 


6-6i 
5-12 


2-4 

1-9 


Straw 4-62 tons. 
Crop remains. 


Feb. to Mar. 1874 






11-73 


4-3 


Plot all under Spring Wheat at end of 
year. 




Sept. 1873 


899 


23 


Straw 6 36 tons. 
Crop remains. 






8-99 


2-3 


Plot all under Spring Wheat at end of 
year. 




July 1873 


J5'S° 
6o'oo 


2-8 

10-7 


One cutting only. Plot used for gra- 
zing from July to November 1873. 
Quantity grazed computed. 


July to Nov. 1873 



\ 



ave been rearranged since last year. 



1874. 



210 



Plot, 



H 



REPORT — 1874. 

Table V. — BretovUs Sewage-Farm, 
Season 1873-74.— Summary of Cropping Eeturn. 



A 


9-80 


B 


1212 


C 


I '97 


D 


6-93 


E 


576 


F 


3-82 


G 


5-17 



Acreage. 



6-40 



I 


6-67 


K 


4'44 


L 


2-88 


M 


3-17 


N 


4-15 





5-92 


P 


3-50 


Q 


2-34 


R 


2-52 


S 


•22 


u 


2-53 


V 


5"93 


w 


27s 


X 


3-86 


Y 


5-60 



108-45 



Crops. 



Cabbage, barley, and Italian rye-grass . . . 

Cabbage, oats, wheat, sprouting broccoli, 
Brussels sprouts, peas, cabbage-plants, 
and turnips. 

Wheat 

Italian rye-grass 

Cabbage, cauliflowers, sprouting broccoli, 
onions, lettuce, cabbage-plants, and man- 
gold. 

Strawberries, oats, barley, and cabbage . . . 

Cabbage, carrots, onions, hardy green 
plants, spinach, mangold, turnips, 
sprouting broccoli, lettuce, and hardy 
greens. 

Onions, hardy green plants, French beans, 
cabbage, hardy greens, and spinach. 

Onions, carrots, savoys, and cabbage ... 

Italian rye-grass 

Mangold, hardy greens, and savoys ... 

Italian rye-grass 

Italian rye-grass and barley 

Cabbage, hardy greens, and cabbage-plants 

Wheat and hardy greens 

Cabbage and mangold 

Mangold and oziers 

Rhubarb 

Wheat and hardy greens 

Cabbage and scarlet beans 

Wheat and hardy greens 

WTieat , 

Hay and meadow-grass 



Produce. 



Total. 



tons. 
170-89 

H9"S6 



5-24 

4S2'9S 
180-75 

8-69 
i59"3i 

64-25 



a3S3-43 



Per acre. 



tons. 

17-4 

12-3 



2-7 

654 

3i'4 

2'3 
308 

1 0-0 



64-99 


97 


277-06 


62-4 


32-66 


11-4 


18249 


S7'S 


172-44 


41-5 


158-79 


268 


19-50 


5-6 


40-00 


18-, 


4582 


18-2 


■17 


•8 


12-67 


5-0 


58-98 


9'9 


11-73 


4-3 


8-99 


2-3 


ys'S'^ 


i3"5 



21-7 



ON THE TREATMENT AND UTILIZATION OF SEWAGE. 



311 



Table VI. — BretorCs Seivage-Farm. 

Summary of Crops gathered from March 25th, 1873, to March 24th, 1874, 
shovring the quantity of each kind of Produce and Nitrogen contained therein. 



Crop. 



Italian rye-grass 

Grass (meadow) 

Hay 

Oziers 

Cabbage 

Hardy greens 

SaTOys 

Brussels sprouts 

Broccoli 

Cauliflowers 

Beans (Frencli and ruiiner) 

Spinach 

Peas 

Carrots 

Turnips 

Lettuce 

Mangold 

Onions 

Oats 

Barley 

Wheat 

Strawberries 

Bhubarb 



Total 
acreage 
of each 
descrip- 
tion of 

crop. 



Produce of each crop. 



Total. 



28-49 

5-60 

0*12 
43-85 

17'5S 
3'i9 
0-97 
3-12 
0-24 

4'S3 
i'40 
o'44 

3*44 
.i-86 

0'24 

9'oo 
6'oo 

370 

15-01 

20-11 

1-48 

0-22 



170-66 



tons. 
1112-83 

60-00 

I5-50 
0-50 

620-02 

117-00 

3068 

6-75 

16-84 

i-25 

*3-02 

10-94 

f peas -27 
I straw I -00 

23-67 

39"9o 

2-62 

164-72 

47"4i 
r grain 4-05 
\ straw 7-22 
[grain 8-83 
[straw 12-14 
f grain 17-33 
\ straw 3 4" 6 8 

0-09 
0-17 



Per acre. 



tons. 
391 

10-7 
2-8 

4" I 
14-1 

6-7 

93 
0-8 

5'4 

s-i 

*o-7 

7-8 

-6 
2-3 

6-9 

21-5 
10-9 
18-3 

7-9 

11 

19 
0-6 

0-8 
0-8 
17 
0-06 



2353-43 



13-8 



Nitrogen estimated 
in crops. 



Per cent, 



0-54 
0-54 
2-00 

0-25 
0-25 
0-25 
025 
0-25 
0-25 

0-375 
0-25 



-40 1 
■80/ 



0-20 
o-i8 
0-25 
0-25 
0-22 



2-0 1 

0-6 / 

1-6 I 

0-5 / 

1-8 I 

0-6 / 



01 



Total. 



lbs. 
13,461 

726 

694 



3.473 
65i 
172 

4 
94 

7 

25 
61 

62 
106 
161 

15 
922 

234 

278 

452 

1,165 



22,766 



Per acre. 



lbs. 
472 

130 

124 

79 
37 
S* 
4-1 
30 
29 

5-5 
44 
141 

31 

87 

63 

102 

39 
75 
30 

58 



1334 



* Crop nearly all destroyed by accident. 



p2 



212 



REPORT 1874. 



Table YII. — Breton's Sewage-Farm. 
Statement of Land in crop and Land lying fallow on March 24th, 1874. 



Plot. 



Acreage. 



A 


980 


B 


1212 


C 


1-97 


D 


6-93 


E 


576 


F 


3-8* 


G 


5'i7 


H 


6-40 


I 


667 


K 


4'44 


L 


a-87 


M 


3-17 


N 


415 





5-9* 


P 


3-50 


Q 


a-34 


E 


2-52 


S 


•22 


u 


2-53 


V 


5-93 


w 


27s 


X 


3-86 


Y 


S-6o 



Area in 
crop. 



108-44 



acrea. 
980 

7-32 

1-97 



5-76 
2-97 
2-35 
5'3i 
6-67 

4"44 

3-17 
4'iS 
S'9a 

3"5° 
2-34 

2'52 

•22 

2-53 

593 
2-75 
386 
5-60 

89-09 



Area 
fallow. 



acres. 



480 
693 

•85 
2-82 

i-o8 
2-87 



Comparison. 



In crop. Fallow. Total. 

acres, acres, acres. 

March 24, 1872 ... 4049 63-39 i03'88 

„ „ 1873 ... 87-62# 19-93 107-55 

„ 1874... 8909» 19-35 108-44 



* In regard to this comparison, it should 
be stated that the area described as " in 
crop " comprises land sown with spring 
wheat. 

On March 24th, 1873, about 22^ acres, 

,1 ■> •• 1874 " 38 ,. 
There was no wheat in on March 24th, 
1872. The spring wheat being sown in 
March, these figures should be borne in 
mind in comparing the above. 



i9"35 



ON THE TREAT.MENT AND UTILIZ.4TI0N OF SEWAGE. 



213 



Section I. — Fourth Note on the Diy Eurth System. 

Dr. Gilbert has supplemented the results given in former lleports by the 
deterraiuation of the nitrogen (by the soda-lime process) in soil which has 
now passed through a Moule's eartli-closet five times. The determinations 
were made upon the air-dried manure ; but, for uniformity and for fairer 
comparison, the psrcentage is, in each case, calculated upon the soil as dried 
at ] 00° C. The results of the series are as follows : — 





Before 
used. 


After 
using 
once. 


After 
using 
twice. 


After 
using 
three 
times. 


After 

using 

four 

times. 


After 

using 

five 

times. 


Percentage of nitrogen in 
soU dried at 100° C 


0-073 


0-240 


0-383 


0-446 


0-540 


0-614 



Dr. Russell has also determined the quantity of nitrogen existing as nitrates 
in the soil in its present state — that is, after it had passed throagh the closet 
five times ; and he finds it to amount to 0-20 per cent, in the soil as fully dried. 
Supposing the whole of this to be in addition to that determined by the soda- 
lime method, the total nitrogen in the dried soil would be raised to 0-814 
per cent. — still, therefore, to considerably less than 1 per cent, in the fuUy 
dried condition, and scarcely | per cent, in the air-dried condition. The 
Committee must again say " That such a manure, even if disposed of free 
of charge, would bear carriage to a very short distance only." It may be 
observed, however, that the process of emptying was still unaccompanied by 
any oflfensive smell, and that the soil after drying on the floor of a shed 
could scarcely be distinguished from ordinary mould. 

The increase in the percentage of nitrogen (determinable by the soda-lime 
method) in the soil, calculated as fully dried, by each use was as follows : — 





After 
using 
once. 


After 
using 
twice. 


After 
using 
three 
times. 


After 

using 

four 

times. 


After 

using 

five 

times. 


Increase in the percentage of nitro- 
gen in soil dried at 100° C 


0-1670 


0-1427 


0-0626 


0-0949 


0-0785 



The gain of nitrogen as ammonia or organic nitrogen was therefore 
considerably greater by the first and second than by cither of the subsequent 
uses of the soil. The differences observed may probably be partly due to 
the diff'ereuces in the length of time during which the manure was exposed 
to dry, and in the temperature of the periods — circumstances which would 
aff"ect the degree of further change, and, as one result of this, the amount of 
nitrogen passing into the form of nitrates. The general result is, however, 
an average gain of total nitrogen of scarcely 0-15 per cent, by each pas- 
sage through the closet. On this point it may be remarked that, if only 
two pounds of soil were used per head per day, and as much as one third of 
the total nitrogen voided in fsEccs and in urine by an average individual in 
24 hours were collected with it in the closet, the nitrogen so added to the 
soil would amount to about 0-5 per cent, of its weight by each use, or by 
using five times to nearly 2-5 per cent. Probably in practice a larger 



214 REPORT — 1874. 

amount of soil, aud a smaller proportion of the total nitrogen daily voided, 
would be collected in an earth-closet. The increased percentage of nitrogen 
actually found is seen to be less than one third of the amount calculated on 
the foregoing assumption. There can, indeed, be little doubt that there is a 
considerable evolution of nitrogen in some form ; and the probability is that 
it takes place to a great extent as free nitrogen. 

The Committee would refer to their former Reports (III. pp. 187 & 188, 
IV. p. 143, V. pp. 413&439) for their opinion of the system in its other aspects 
than that of the composition and manurial value of the product. 



Report on the Anthropological Notes and Queries for the use of 
Travellers jiublished by the Committee, consisting of Colonel Lane 
Fox, Dr. Beddoe, Mr. Franks, Mr. Francis Galton, Mr. 
E. W. Brabrook, Sir John Lubbock, Sir Walter Elliot, Mr. 
Clements Markham, aud Mr. E. B. Tylor. By Colonel A. 
Lane Fox, Secretary of the Committee. 

These Notes and Queries are the result of a resolution of the General Com- 
mittee passed at the Brighton Meeting in 1872, to the following effect: — 
" That Colonel A. Lane Fox, Dr. Beddoe, Mr. Franks, Mr. Francis Galtoi], 
Mr. E. AY. Brabrook, Sir John Lubbock, Sir AValter Elliot, Mr. Clements 
Markham, and Mr. E. B. Tylor be a committee for the purpose of prepariug 
and publishing brief forms of instruction for travellers, ethnologists, and 
other anthropological observers ; that Colonel Lane Fox be the Secretary, 
and that the sum of .£25 be placed at their disposal for the purpose." 

At the Bradford Meeting in 1873 the Committee was reaj^pointed, and 
the grant increased to .£50, with the view of covering all possible expenses 
and producing a work calculated to suffice for the use of travellers for some 
time to come. 

A report on the progress of the work was made to the General Committee 
last year, to which it is unnecessary to refer here. The object of the book 
is to promote accurate anthropological observation on the part of travellers, 
and to enable those who are not anthropologists themselves to supply the 
information which is wanted for the scientific study of anthropology at home. 

Similar instructions on a smaller scale have been published by this Asso- 
ciation in former years, as also by the Smithsonian Institute, the Anthropo- 
logical Society of Paris, the Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and 
Ireland, and other bodies ; but many of them have become obsolete, and are 
but little known to travellers at the present time. 

The chief defect of most of these works has been their insufficient detail. 
It is not enough to publish such general queries as might suggest themselves 
unaided to any well-informed traveller ; what is wanted is to draw attention 
to minutiae which might ordinarily be expected to pass unnoticed, but which 
are often of the first importance to the student of the different branches of 
anthropological research. 

To this end it has been thought advisable that the questions on the several 
sections should be drawn up by different anthropologists, each of whom has 
paid special attention to the subject treated. 

The work has been divided into two main divisions — the first relating to 
the constitution of man, physical and mental ; the second to the history and 
development of culture. 

Under the first division we have questions relating to ethnology proper. 



ANTHROPOLOGICAL NOTES AND QUERIES FOR TRAVELLERS. 215 

and directed to the acquirement of knowledge resi)ccting the geographical 
distribution, migration, and intermixture of the different races of mankind, 
as well as the ph^^sical and mental capacity of these races for civilization. 

Under the second division we have questions bearing upon the rise and. 
progress of the arts, religions, laws, customs, and institutions of mankind, 
and the means by which they have been developed and spread by war, com- 
merce, and other causes, and includiug all that comes under the head of the 
new science of Sociology, to which comparatively little attention has been 
paid hitherto. 

The whole of the first or ethnological division of the subject has been 
intrusted to Dr. Beddoe, with the exception of the section on physiognomy, 
which has been contributed by Mr. Darwin, and some remarks on heredity 
by Mr. Galton. In Section I. is given a description of the various instru- 
ments to be employed in measuring the different parts of the body and 
skulls. A description of the parts to be measured is given in Section 
II., which includes two diagrams showing the positions in Avhich the 
measurements are to be taken. Under anatomy and physiology are in- 
cluded questions relating to the internal organism and the soft parts of the 
body — muscles, circulation, respiration, temperature, nerves, tissues, &c. In 
Section IV., under development and decay, are given inquiries _ into the 
periods of growth, length of life, puberty, dentition, death-rate, birth-rate, 
&e. Section V. is devoted to the qualities, mode of growth, and tex- 
ture of the hair. Under Section YI. are given instructions for esti- 
mating accurately the colour of the eyes, skin, and hair of races. _ "Even 
educated men," says Dr. Beddoe, " differ very widely as to the appreciation of 
colours and their nomenclature. Such a term as olive, for example, is used 
by different observers to denote hues totally different from each other. 
Moreover, decided colours, such as bright red or yellow, or coal-black, are 
apt to attract the eye, and their frequency is likely to be overestimated. It 
is therefore most desirable that information as to the colour of the skin, hair, 
and eyes should be collected in a systematic manner, by comparing those of 
every individual observer with a table of numbered squares showing the 
various shades of colour graduated from coal-black to the fairest European 
flesh-colour, and including all the different hues that are to be found amongst 
the races of mankind." In order that the data of European and foreign 
observers might tally as closely as possible in their system of appreciating 
these colours, we have adopted the chromatic tables of M. Broca, who has 
kindly given his assistance in obtaining the identical shades which he has 
employed. These tables occupy three pages of the book. 

Passing over two sections relating to the odour and motions of the body, 
we come to Section IX. on physiognomy, by Darwin, which includes such 
remarks as the following: — "General remarks on expression," he says, 
" are of comparatively little value ; and memory is so deceptive that it ought 
not to be trusted. A definite description of the countenance under any 
emotion or frame of mind, with a statement of the circumstances under which 
it occurred, would possess much value. 1. Is astonishment expressed by the 
eyes and mouth being opened wide, and by the eyebrows being raised ? Are 
the open hands often raised high up, with the fingers widely separated, and the 
palms directed towards the person causing astonishment ? Is the open mouth 
in some cases covered by the hand? or is the hand carried to some part of the 
head ? 2. Does shame excite a blush when the colour of the skin allows it 
to be visible ? and especially how low down the body does the blush extend ? 
3. "When a man is indignant or defiant, does he frown, hold his body and 
head erect, square his shoulders, and clench his fists ? 4. When considering 



216 KEPOiiT — 1874. 

deeplj'' oil any subject, or trying to understand any puzzle, does he frown or 
wrinkle the skin beneath the lower eyelids ? 5. When in low spirits, are the 
corners of the mouth depressed, and the inner corner of the eyebrows raised 
by that muscle which the French call the ' Grief muscle' ? " The questions 
on this head are sixteen in number. 

After a section on " Pathology " we come to " Abnormalities," which are 
natural deformities, and are distinct from Deformations or artificial deformities, 
which have a distinct section allotted to them under the division of " Culture." 

Under the section devoted to the " Senses " are given various tests to serve 
as means of comparison, including two pages of the test-dots used for testing 
the eyesight of recruits in the British army. By this means a comparison of 
the eyesight of natives with that of Europeans can be made. The instructions 
for judging distances in use by the army are also given for the same object. 

Under the head of " Crosses " are given tables for indicating the racial posi- 
tion of mongrels and mestizos, and for estimating the number of return 
crosses which restore apparent purity of blood. 

Under " Psychology " special attention is drawn by a series of questions to 
the desirability of distinguishing between the effect of European customs 
when introduced amongst savages and exposed to contact with native sur- 
roundings ; and, on the other hand, to the eifect of culture upon natives 
of the same race who have been removed at an early age from native 
surroundings and brought up in European schools. 

All the foregoing sections are included under the head of " Constitution 
of Man," and, as already said, are ethnological in their bearings; but with 
the adoption of the term anthropology our science has widened its sphere. 
It is true that in the old days ethnology did practically include a broader 
range of subjects than are comprehended under the strict derivation of the 
term " ethnos." It is equally true that anthropology has and does at the pre- 
sent time confine itself far too exclusively to questions of race. But as the 
widening of our science has been coincident with the change of name it may 
be well to consider for a moment the causes that may be expected to assign 
to race-questions a less important place in our deliberations than formerly. 

According to the old dogma, all human life was destroyed by the uni- 
versal deluge with the exception of one family ; and as the whole of the 
existing races of mankind must have descended from one or other of the 
three sons of Noah, the ethnological or racial question was of paramount 
and immediate importance, and was limited to the determination of the 
period, and the causes by which such races as the Fucgians, the Tasmanians, 
Australians, or Esquimaux were constrained to change their colour and other 
physical peculiarities, and descend to the comparatively low condition in 
which they are now found. 

Since, however, science has demonstrated the error of this theory, and 
has shown that long prior to the supposed era of the deluge the whole 
world was peopled by races of beings some of which were, in all probability, 
human only in form, and since the researches of Mr. Darwin and others 
have shown the great probability of the descent of the human species from 
the lower forms of life, the racial question, though still of primary importance, 
zoologically considered, has been transferred to the domain of palaeontologj', 
to be determined perhaps by geologists in the far distant future. And as a 
line must be drawn somewhere, man's origin, in the proper acceptation of 
the term — man as a progressive being — has become indissolubly connected 
with the origin and development of culture. It is to this science of culture 
or sociology that Sir John Lubbock, Mr. Tylor, Mr. Herbert Spencer, and 
others have of late years turned their attention. 



ANTHROPOLOGICAL NOTES AND QUERIES FOR TRAVELLERS. 217 

It has been shown that the rise of culture in man has been one of evolu- 
tion, corresponding in all respects with the evolution of those species of 
animals amongst which that of man is included, that every art, custom, and 
institution has a history of development which is capable of being studied 
apart from that of the devclopmcut of the particular races amongst whom 
those customs thrive, and that the attention of anthropologists in the future 
wiU in a great measure bo occupied in tracing the sequence of that develop- 
ment and the laws by which it is governed. 

This is the science of " Sociology," the rise of which has been marked by the 
conversion of ethnology into anthropology, or the study of man in all its 
bearings, and for the prosecution of which far greater accuracy of detail is 
required in the description of the social institution of savages and barbarous 
races than has been devoted to the subject hitherto. Every work of man's 
hand and brain has now to be studied in its bearings upon social evolution ; 
just as in the study of natural history every part of an organism and every 
variety of species has to be studied in its bearings upon the evolution of 
species. The social anatomy of every tribe and race has to be considered 
in all its parts, and the questions by which the attention of travellers have 
been directed to the several subjects have therefore been classified, as far as 
possible, by their affinities, and by their relation to the general results. 

Under the head of " History " it has been endeavoured to collect all the 
information that can be obtained from the traditions of the people, and from 
inquiries as to their mode of recording events. Archaeology is divided into 
Palfeolithic period, Cave period, Neolithic or Surface period, Megalithic 
monuments, Tumuli, (fee. ; engravings of the principal types of implements 
to be looked for have been contributed by Mr. John Evans, and the attention 
of travellers has been directed, by means of a diagram, to the position in 
which such implements are likely to be found. When it is considered that 
it is only within the last fifteen or twenty years that archaeologists have begun 
to study in earnest the prehistoric monuments and implements of civilized 
countries, and that the antiquities of savage and uncultivated countries are 
entirely unknown, important results may be expected from this branch of 
inquiry. 

The important subjects of food, narcotics, cannibalism, personal ornament, 
tattooing, and clothing have been treated by Mr. Franks. War, hunting, 
games, archasology, stone implements, circumcision, drawing, and ornamen- 
tation, by myself. Deformations, by Professor Busk. Machinery, string, 
weaving, dyeing, basketwork, and engineering, by Mr. John Evans. 
Medicine, by Dr. Barnard Davis. Trade, money, weights, and measures, 
domestication of animals, by Mr. Hyde Clarke. Communications, causes that 
limit population, population, and statistics, by Mr. Galton. Contact of 
savages with civilized races, by Sir T. Gore Browne. Marital relations, 
relationships, treatment of widows, infanticide, and memorial structures, by 
Sir John Lubbock. Pastoral and monastic life, by Mr. Howorth. Govern- 
ment, laws, and crimes, by Mr. Brabrook. Etymology, arithmetic, morals, 
covenants, rehgions, superstitions, magic, customs, taboo, language, poetry, 
writing, by Mr. Tylor. Music, by Mr. Carl Engel. The subject of religion 
is treated by Mr. Tylor in great detail, and is divided under numerous sub- 
headings. 

The work concludes with a valuable section by 'Mr. Galton, on the mode 
of obtaining statistics and striking averages. Many of the questions through- 
out the book are of a nature which, from the apparent insignificance of the 
subjects referred to, might appear to those ignorant of the requirements of 
anthropology unimportant or even childish ; and yet from that very cause 



218 REPORT — 1874. 

these apparently trivial matters, owing to their having been less influenced 
by progressive changes, are often of the utmost value in tracing the con- 
nexions between the culture of different races and localities. 

The necessity which exists for laying the groundwork of our science on 
a sounder basis must have struck most of those who have attended the 
meetings of this department during past years. Why is it that cur leading 
biologists devote their attention so exclusively to the lower forms of life ? 
It cannot be because men of science think the noblest study for mankind is 
beast kind, but because beast kind is more scientifically treated than man- 
kind, especially as regards the branch of descriptive anthropology, upon 
which all sound deductions must be based. 

Travellers have usually recorded only those customs of modern savages 
which they have chanced to observe; and, as a rule, they have observed chiefly 
those which their experience of civilized institutions has led them to look 
for. Nor are there wanting instances in which the information thus obtained 
has been lamentably distorted in order to render it in harmony with precon- 
ceived ideas. 

In attempting to trace the distribution of cognate arts and customs, the 
anthropologist is perpetually thwarted by the difiiculty of distinguishing 
between positive and negative evidence, i. e. between non-existence and non- 
recorded existence ; so that, to use the words of Mr. E. B. T3'lor, it is " play- 
ing against the bank for a student to set up a claim to isolation for any art 
or custom, not knowing what evidence there may be against him buried in 
the ground or hidden in remote tribes." 

The rapid extermination of savages at the present time, and the rapidity with 
which they are being reduced to the standard of European manners, renders 
it of urgent importance to correct these sources of error as soon as possible. 

It is hoped that the questions contained in this work may be a means of 
enabling the traveller to collect information witliout prejudice from his indi- 
vidual views. 

To this end it is particularly to be hoped that they will endeavour to 
answer the questions as fully as possible, not confining themselves to a 
detailed account of those things which exist, but also, by special inquiries 
directed to the subject, endeavouring to determine the non-existence of 
others to which attention is drawn*. 



On Cyclone and Rainfall Periodicities in connexion with the Sun-spot 
Periodicity. By Charles MELDRUMf. 

The catalogue of cyclones experienced in the Indian Ocean from 1847 to 
1873, submitted last year, indicates that during that period the number of 
cyclones in the space between the equator and 34° S. lat., and the meridians 
of 40° E. and 110° E., was much greater in the years of maximum than in 
the years of minimum sun-spot frequency. 

It will now, and in subsequent Eeports, be shown that not only the num- 

* Tlie Notes and Queries bave been publislied by Stanford, of CI aring Cross, and a 
notice bas been inserted in tbe flj'leaf requesting that any communications from travellers 
relating to the queries contained in tbe volume may be sent to the Secretary of the An- 
thropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, 4 St. Martin's Place, Trafalgar 
Square, London. The names of Mr. John Evans and Mr. F. W. Eudler have been added 
to the Committee. 

t A grant of £100 was made at Bradford to Prof. Balfour Stewart, Mr. J. Q-laisher 
and Mr. J. N. Loekyer, to assist Mr. Meldrum in conducting meteorological researches 
in Mauritius. 



CONNEXION OF CYCLONES AND RAINFALL WITH SUN-SPOTS. 



219 



ber of cyclones, but their duration, extent, and energy were also much greater 
in the former than in the latter years, and that there is a strong probability 
that this cyclonic fluctuation has been coincident with a similar fluctuation 
of the rainfall over the globe generally. 

The present communication is confined to the twelve years 1856-67, 
comprising a complete sun-spot cycle. 

With regard to the cyclones of the Indian Ocean, the investigation is based 
upon the extensive collection of observations made by the Meteorological 
Society of Mauritius, on the assumption that the observations are so numer- 
ous that no cyclone of any considerable extent or violence can have escaped 
detection. 

A chart has been prepared for noon on each day of the period during 
which a cyclone lasted. The chart shows the positions of the vessels, the 
direction and force of the wind, the state of the weather and sea, &e. In 
this way the position of the centre of the cyclone is ascertained for each 
day. Then, by examining the several charts, the duration, extent, &c. of 
the cyclone are determined. 

The number of cyclones thus examined for the twelve years is one hundred 
and thirteen, and their tracks have been laid down on six charts. 

The results of the investigation are given in Table I. Column 1 shows 
the dates ; 2, the number of cyclone on chart ; 3, the distance traversed ; 
4, the mean radius of cyclone ; 5, area of cyclone, or irv" ; 6, the duration in 
days ; and 7, total cyclonic area, or Drrr". 

Prom Table I. we obtain the following general results : — 



Years. 


Number 
of cy- 


Total 
distance 


Sum 
of 


Sum of 


Dura- 
tion, in 


Sum of 
total 


Relative 


Wolf's 
rotation 




clones. 


traTersed. 


radii. 


areas. 


days. 


areas. 


areas. 


sun-spot 
numbers. 


t 




miles. 


miles. 


sq. miles. 










1856. 


6 


850 


815 


356,408-5 


20 


1,221,9310 


1-00 


4-2 


1857. 


5 


1850 


740 


354,820-0 


19 


1,270,1300 


1-04 


21-6 


1858. 


12 


3880 


1656 


775,215-8 


39 


2,890,781-7 


2-37 


50-9 


1859. 


14 


5640 


2026 


1,107,440-4 


48 


4,809,189-9 


3-94 


96-4 


1860. 


13 


8054 


3131 


2,620,929-9 


61 


13,616,789-7 


11-14 


98-6 


1861. 


12 


8730 


2861 


2,349,552-1 


72 


14,937,699-7 


12-23 


77-4 


1862. 


14 


6140 


2968 


2,406,879-1 


57 


11,370,279-7 


9-53 


59-4 


1863. 


9 


6320 


2137 


1,590,155-7 


49 


7,5.50,447-3 


6-18 


44-4 


1864. 


7 


4920 


1341 


876,628-5 


86 


4,893,009-5 


4-00 


46-9 


1865. 


8 


3970 


1426 


904,150-4 


28 


3,396,409-1 


2-78 


30-5 


1866. 


8 


3130 


960 


509,961-2 


44 


2,762,221-2 


2-26 


16-3 


1867. 


6 


2280 


881 


414,985-5 


27 


1,913,845-5 


1-67 


7-3 



The total cyclonic area in 1860 and 1861 was about twelve times greater 
than in 1856 and 1857, and nearly eight times greater than in 1867. 

In short, all the factors were greatest in the years of maximum sun-spot 
frequency. 

It will be noticed that the cyclonic area increased rapidly from 1858 to 
1860, and diminished slowly from 1861 to 1866. 

The registers for the years 1856, 1857, 1866, and 1867 have been exa- 
mined with special care in order that nothing might be omitted; and to 
give the utmost possible weight to those years, every instance of even an 
ordinary gale has been taken into account. 

In 1856 there was no great hurricane at all ; and the saime may be said 
of 1857, 1866, and 1867. 



220 



REPORT 1874. 



From the chart for 1866 it will be seen that in April of that year there 
was a number of small cyclones. The S.E. trade and N.W. monsoon were 
in collision for a considerable time, and several cyclonic eddies of short 
duration were formed. 

If we could obtain good values of the mass of air in motion and the velo- 
city of the wind, it would probably be found that the ratios of cyclonic 
energy were still greater than those of cyclonic area ; for the cyclones were 
much more violent in the years of maximum than in those of minimum sun- 
spot frequency. 

Assuming the mass to be nearly proportional to the area, and the velocity 
of the wind in a strong gale to be fifty-five miles, in a whole gale seventy 
miles, and in a hurricane eighty-five miles an hour, the amount of cyclonic 
energy in 1860 was about eighteen times greater than in 1856, the squares 
of the velocities being nearly three to five. 

Although the results are necessarily rough approximations, yet the fact 
that the number and violence of the cyclones of years of maximum sun-spot 
were far greater than in the years of minimum sun-spot is beyond all doubt. 
There is independent evidence of this, which any one may examine for him- 
self. When a great hurricane tabes place in the Indian Ocean the disabled 
ships are obliged to put into the nearest port ; and the newspapers, in their 
" Shipping Intelligence," announce the arrivals of the vessels, the dates and 
localities of the bad weather, and the amount of damage sustained. 

For upwards of twenty years the ' Commercial Gazette ' of Port Louis has 
published all arrivals of vessels and all maritime events which have been 
reported bj' them. Considering, then, the geographical position of Mauritius, 
a cyclone periodicity, if one exists, should be traceable in the " Shipping 
Intelligence." Now, from Table II., which gives the published reports for 
1856, 1860, and 1867, it will be seen that the number of storms and the 
damage sustained in 1856 and 1867 were insignificant compared with the 
long list of hurricanes and disasters in 1860. 

Table III. gives as complete a list of hurricanes and storms experienced 
in Mauritius as I have hitherto been enabled to prepare. The list comprises 
only such storms as, from the violence of the wind, committed considerable 
damage. Taking each maximum and minimum sun-spot year, and two years 
on each side of it, we get the following results : — 

Number of 
Hurricanes. 
1 



Max. Years. 

1695 


Number of 
Hurricanes. 


Min. Years 
172.3 


1759 




17.31 


1760 




1743 


1761 




1754 


1771 




1766 


1772 




1786 


1786 




1800 


1788 




1824 


180G 






1815 






1817 






1818 






1819 






1828 






1829 






1836 






1848 






Total .... 18 





Total 



CONNEXION OF CYCLONES AND KAINFALL WITH SUN-SPOTS. 221 



Table IV., which contains a list of Bourbon (Reunion) hurricanes and gales 
from 1733 to 1754, gives the following results : — 



Max. Tears. 

1736 . 

1737 . 

1738 . 

1739 . 

1740 . 
1748 . 

1750 . 

1751 . 

1752 . 



Number of 
Hurricanes. 
... 2 
... 2 
... 1 
... 2 
... 3 

2 
... 3 
... 1 

2 



Total 



18 



Min. Tears, 

1733 . 

1743 . 

1744 . 

1745 . 

1746 . 

1747 . 
1754 . 



Number of 
Hurricanes. 
.... 2 



Total 



1 
1 
1 
3 
1 
2 

11 



For the two islands the number of cyclones in the maxima years was 
thirty-six, and for the minima years nineteen. This result is favourable. 

It would appear also from Mr. Pocy's researches, and from investigations 
made at Mauritius in 1872, that the cyclones of the "West Indies are, upon 
the whole, subject to the same periodicity. 

The rainfall for the twelve years under discussion is given in Tables Y. 
to IX. 

Taking the mean annual rainfall at thirty stations in Scotland, thirty-one 
stations on the continent of Europe, and the annual falls at Greenwich, Cal- 
cutta, Bombay, Mauritius, and the Cape, we get : — 



Tears. 


Scotland, 
30 stations. 


Green- 
wich. 


Continent 
of Europe, 
31 stations. 


Calcutta. 


Bombay. 


Mauritius. 


Cape of 
G. Hope. 


Sums. 


1856. 


37-6 


21-9 


24-8 


64-2 


65-9 


46-2 


21-9 


282-5 


1857. 


360 


21-4 


21-2 


690 


51-3 


43-4 


22-7 


265-0 


1858. 


37-4 


17-8 


22-6 


59-8 


62-4 


35-5 


241 


259-6 


1859. 


40-8 


25-9 


25-7 


68-7 


77-2 


56-9 


36-7 


331-9 


1860. 


39-9 


320 


27-5 


62-6 


621 


45-1 


291 


288-3 


1861. 


45-3 


20-4 


23-7 


89-1 


76-9 


68-7 


25-4 


349-5 


1862. 


46-6 


26-5 


26-3 


73-4 


73-6 


28-4 


320 


306-8 


1863. 


42-6 


19-8 


24-6 


611 


77-7 


33-4 


26-6 


284-8 


1864. 


400 


16-9 


23-9 


84-2 


45-6 


241 


18-9 


253-6 


1865. 


35-7 


28-7 


23-4 


616 


77-8 


44-7 


18-7 


290-5 


1866. 


44-7 


30-7 


26-8 


65-7 


78-4 


20-6 


19-2 


286-1 


1867. 


41-5 


28-4 


29-1 


76-7 


62-3 


36-0 


23-0 


297-0 



It appears from the rainfall at sixty-seven stations that the maximum fall 
was in the years 1859 to 1862, and the minimum in the years 1857, 3858, 
and 1864. We thus find a certain degree of correspondence between the 
cyclone and rainfall fluctiiations ; and it is possible that if we had returns 
from America, the correspondence would be much greater ; for it would 
appear from researches by Mr. G. M. Dawson that the level of the American 
great lakes was considerably less in 1866-68 than in 1859-61*. 

A large number of additional rainfall returns has been received from 
Europe and other parts of the world ; and the results, which will be com- 
municated in another Report, afford fresh evidence of a RainfaU Periodicity. 

* The year 1867 has been almost the only exception to the rule, in Europe, since the 
commencement of the century ; and as most of the stations are in that part of the world, 
the results for 1856-67 are not so favourable as for previous cycles. 



22JJ 



REPORT 1874. 



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REPORT 1874. 



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226 



REPORT 1874. 



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CONNEXION OF CYCLONES AND RAINFALL WITH SUN-SPOTS. 



227 



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January 15 to 19 

February 1 „ 2 

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AprH 11 „ 14 

May 24 „ 28 

December 15 „ 18 


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228 



REPORT — 1874. 



Table II. — Reports of bad weather experienced in the Indian Ocean from 
the Equator to 32° S. in the years 1856, 1860, and 1867. (Extracted 
from the ' Commercial Gazette ' of Port Louis, Mauritius.) 



Date. 



1856. 
JS'o date . 

Feb. 4 . 



„ 4-6 
„ 4,5 



April 4 



No date 



Oct. 13 



( 



I 



Nov. 


7 


)i 


11 


Dec. 


28 


18C0. 


Jan. 


15 



Eeports. 



French ship ' Auguste,' from Muscat, expe- 
rienced strong N.W. winds ; sprung a leak. 

Brig ' Alert,' from Table Bay, experienced 
heavy gales ever since ship left the Cape ; 
carried away sails and masts. 



Brig ' Ituna,' in 32° S. and 58° E.P., expe- 
rienced a heavy gale from N.W. to S. and 
W. ; carried away cross-jack yard. 

Barque ' Caliphurnia ' experienced strong 
southerly winds ; no position given. 

French barque ' Parcou de la Barbinais,' in 
24° S. and 57° E.P., experienced strong 
winds from southward and heavy sea. 

The ' Annie ' met with a hurricane not far 
from the island (Mauritius), and on Fri- 
day night (the 4th) it was most violent. 
The vessel was on her beam ends and in 
the greatest danger. Lowest barometer 
28-40 inches. 

The ' Estafette ' that left Eeunion for Ceylon 
on the 29th March, met with a hurricane, 
and was obliged to put back ; dismasted. 
She is at St. Slary, repairing. 

The Belgian barque ' Fanny,' in 14° 56' S. 
and 83° 30' E., experienced a very severe 
hurricane, ship making much water ; car- 
ried away three yards and lost several 
sails. 

Ship ' Her Majesty,' in 1 1 ° 30' S. and 82° 20' 
E., experienced a strong gale ; lost fore 
topmast, fore yard, and maintop gallant 
mast. 

French ship ' St. Michel," in 5° S. and 89" 
E.P., experienced a gale from S.E. ; sprung 
a leak. 

French barque ' Augustine,' at about 150 
miles from Mauritius, experienced a gale 
of wind from N.N.E. ; ship sprung a leak ; 
put back for repairs. 



French barque 'Louise and Gabrielle,' in 
2()° S. and 61° E.P., exj>erienced a severe 
hurricane, which lasted twenty-four hours ; 
wind N.E. to N.W. ; mainmast carried 
away, with every thing attached to it ; three 
boats stove in, a suit of sails carried away, 
every thing on deck swept away ; bore up 
to Mauritius for repairs. 



The reports of the 'Auguste' 
and ' Alert,' which appear 
in the ' Commercial Ga- 
zette' of the nth of Fe- 
bruary, probably refer to 
the gale of Feb. 1-6, the 
track of which is regis- 
tered in Table I.* 



Remarks. 



The track of the small cy- 
clone experienced by the 
'Annie ' and ' Estafette ' is 
registered in Table I. 



This was the cyclone expe- 
rienced by the ' Annie.' 



As the log-book of this ves- 
sel was not received, and 
her report has not been 
confirmed, the alleged 
hurricane has not been 
entered in Table I. 



No evidence of a cyclone; 
not entered in Table I. 



From January the 10th to 
the 28th there were three 
hurricanes, the tracks of 
which are entered in 
Table I. 



* In the Overland 
Cth of February. 



' Commercial Gazette ' the dates are given ; they were the 4th to tlic 



CONNEXION OF CYCLONES AND KATNTALL "WITH SUN-SPOTS. 
Table II, (continued). 



229 



Date. 



Jan, 



1860. 
25., 



26, 



15. 



18, 



10, 



27, 



22. 



27, 



10. 



10. 



12-14. 



15, 



14-15. 



Eeports. 



Ship 'Atieth Eobaman,' from Port Louis, 
bound to Bombay, experienced a violent 
hurricane in 18° S. and 57° E. ; wind 
from E.S.E. to W. ; lost topsails, jib, fore- 
top gallant and royal masts, &e. 

Barque ' Stag,' in 22° S. and 59° E., expe- 
rienced hard gales from E.N.E., N.N.E., 
and N., with heavy sea, much rain, and 
lightning. 

Ship ' Gulnare,' in 30° S. and 70° E., experi- 
enced a hurricane which lasted ten hours ; 
barometer 28'40 inches ; wind N.E. to 
N.W., W.S.W. and S. ; sprung a leak, and 
lost spars and sails ; bore up to Mauritius 
for repairs. 

Ship ' Cossipore,' in 17° S. and 75° E., at 
midnight, got into the vortex of a cyclone, 
blew and cut away a suite of sails, lost 
main topmast, yards, jib, and flying booms, 
mizzen topmast, boats, &c. ; wind E. to 
E.S.E. and \V. to N. and N.N.E. Baro- 
meter just before the calm 2832 inched. 

Schooner ' Yarra,' in 20° S. and 71° E., ex- 
perienced a very severe hurricane (baro- 
meter 28-30 inches, wind E. by S. to S.E.), 
and all at once fell calm, then recom- 
menced at N.N.E. ; lost bulwarks, sails, 
&c. 

French barque ' Gironde,' put to sea from 
Eeunion, experienced a gale from S.E. ; 
then calm ; afterwards a gale from N.W. ; 
sprimg a leak. 

American barque ' Uriel ; ' violent gale from 
N.E., with an awful sea; saw a sail astern 
under close-reefed topsails making signals 
of distress, the Portuguese brig of war 
' Mondego : ' at 4.20 p.m. had received 
fifty-seven men in iive boats ; at 5.30 the 
captain, 1st lieutenant, and eight men got 
on board, leaving forty-three men in the 
wreck; at 6 the brig heeled to port and 
went down instantly. 

French ship ' Arthur and Mathilda,' in 25° 
S. and 58° E.P., experienced a cyclone ; 
wind E. by N. to N.W. 

Ship 'Anglo-Saxon,' in 17° S. and 63° E., 
experienced all the symptoms of a cyclone ; 
wind veering from E. to N.W. bv the S. 

French brig ' Ibis,' in 18° S. and 62° E., ex- 
perienced a gale which lasted twenty-four 
hours ; wind S.E. to N.W. by the S. 

Barque ' Anna Henduron ' experienced very 
strong westerly gales, with high cross sea. 

French barque ' Bonne Mere,' in 23° S. and 
58° E.P., experienced a gale from S.S.E. 

Brig ' Woodlark,' in 25° S. and 59° E., ex- 
perienced a severe hurricane ; wind S.E. 
to W. by the S. 



Remarks. 



330 



KEPORT — 1874. 

Table II. (continued). 



Date. 



Reports. 



Remarks. 



Jan 


I860 
10 




jj 


12, 


13.. 


)) 


11 




>» 


15 





i* 


15, 


16.. 



Feb. 1-1. 



09 



„ 27 

„ 24-27. 



21 



„ 26, 



„ 24, 25. 
Mar. 2 



French ship ' Bailly de Suffren,' in 18° S. 
and 63° B.P., experienced a cyclone which 
lasted forty-eight hours ; wind B. round 
toN. 

Ship ' Maria Gray,' in 20° S. and 65° E., 
experienced a cyclone ; wind S.E. to E.N.E. 
and N.W. 

Ship ' Akbar,' in 20° S. and 62° E., experi- 
enced a heavy gale which lasted thirty-six 
hours ; wind E. to S. 

Barque 'Jane Lakey,' in 24° S. and 65° E., 
experienced a gale from N.E. to N.N.W., 
W.S.W., and S. 

Danish ship ' Calloe,' in 26° S. and 63° E., 
experienced a very heavy gale ; wind N. 
to S.S.W., with very heavy cross sea ; 
sprung a leak; bore away for Mauritius 
for repairs. 

Barque ' Good Hope,' in 30° S. and 51° E., 
experienced a hurricane which lasted fifty 
hours ; wind E.S.E. to N.W. 

Schooner ' Phoenix,' from Mauritius, bound 
to Johanna, in 14° S. and 56° E., experi- 
enced a gale from S.E. ; barometer 28'60 
mches ; wind shifted to southward and 
westward, carried away foremast, jibboom, 
and main topmast, &c. ; bore up to Mau- 
ritius for repairs. 

French barque ' Rosalie,' in 18° S. and 69° 
E.P., experienced very heavy weather, with 
high cross sea, stove in long boat, started 
the cookhouse, &c. 

Hanoverian schooner ' Jolianua,' in 18^ S. 
and 56° E., experienced a hurricane ; wind 
N.E. to N.N.E. ; barometer 28-00 inches ; 
lost head of foremast, fore topmast, and 
top gallant mast, a suit of sails, &c. On 
the 29th signalled tlie French ship ' Tur- 
got ' (put to sea from Reunion on the 25th), 
witli loss of main and main topsail yard 
and sails. 

French barque ' Chene,' in 17° S. and 52° 
E.P., experienced a hurricane which lasted 
four days ; lost mainmast, sails, and 
damaged rudder, &c. 

French schooner ' Messager du Nossibe,' at 
about 15 miles N.E. of Bourbon, ex- 
perienced a cyclone ; vrind S.E. to N. ; 
lost mainmast and every thing at- 
tached to it; rigging, boats, and rudder 
damaged, &c. ; bore up for Mauritius for 
repairs. 

French ship ' Eleonore ' sprung mainmast 
and sustained other damage in the voyage 
froni Tamatave to Reunion. 

Ship 'Adelaide,' in 10° S. and 80° B., expe- 
rienced heavy gales, with every appearance 
of a cyclone passing. 



In February there were four 
cyclones (see Table I.). 



There was a cyclone from 
the 2nd to the 6th of 
March (see Table I.). 



CONNEXION OF CYCLONES AND RAINFALL WITH SUN-SPOTS. 231 
Table II, (continued). 



Date. 



Reports. 



Remarks. 



1860. 
Feb. 26 

,. 24 

„ 28 



No date , 



Mar. 19 
April 9 
May 6 



,. 29 

„ 30 



„ 30, 31 . 
„ 28,29. 
„ 30 



„ 28. 



French ship ' Alfred,' from Eeunion, lost 
mainmast and long boat. 

French ship ' Virginia,' m 4° S. and 89° E., 
experienced very bad weather, which lasted 
five days ; wind at W. ; sprimg a leak ; 
put in for repairs. 

Prussian ship ' Der Slid,' in 12° S. and 102° 
E., experienced a hurricane ; vessel hove 
on her beam ends ; had to cut away the 
fore mast. The hurricane lasted twelve 
hours. 

Barque ' Helen Lindsay,' in 18° S. and 62° 
E., experienced a hurricane wliieh lasted 
thirty-six hours; ship hove on her beam 
ends, and sprung a leak. Lost bulwarks, 
sails, &c. 

Barque ' Teazer,' in 18° S. and 64° E., ex- 
perienced a heavy hurrciane from N.E,, 
shifting to S.E. ; fore and main masts went 
bv the board, &c. Barometer 28-60 inches. 

Barque ' Bessie Young,' in 24° S. and 65° E., 
had strong winds from S.E. ; a heavy sea 
struck the vessel ai't ; bore up for Mauri- 
tius. 

Ship 'Blue Rock,' in 15° S. and 78° E., ex- 
perienced heavy gales and heavy sea ; ship 
hove on her beam ends ; had to cut away 
the main mast ; bore away for Mauritius 
for repairs. Spoke the ship ' Entoclydon ' 
from Bombay bound to Liverpool; Captain 
reported that on the 6th of May he lost his 
rudder, and his ship was very leaky. 

Barque ' Josephine,' in 18° S. and 59° E., 
experienced heavy gales from south-east- 
ward ; lost jibboom and sails. 

Barque ' Queen of the Wave,' in 18° S. and 
67° E., experienced a cyclone for thirty- 
six hours ; barometer 29'25 inches ; sprung 
main topmast, and lost maintop gallant 
yard, a portion of the bulwarks, sails, &c. 
Wind N.N.E. to S.S.E. 

Oldenburg barque ' Fanny Kirchner,' in 16° 
S. and 80° E., experienced very bad 
weather, sprung a leak, and had to bear 
away for Mauritius. 

Ship ' Shah AUum,' in 11° S. and 77° E., 
experienced a very heavy gale from S.E. 
to N.W., which lasted thirty-eight hom-s; 
sustained no damage. 

Ship ' Mary Sparks,' in 14° S. and 79° E., 
experienced a hurricane from N.N.E. to 
N.E. and S.E. ; had to cut away main and 
mizzen masts, as the ship was lying on her 
beam ends ; lost boats, bulwarks, sails, 
&c 

Ship 'Hurricane,' in 7° S. and 83° E., ex- 
perienced a hurricane, lost sails, yards, 
&e. 



A hurricane from March 
the 18th to the 26th (see 
Table L). 



No evidence of a cyclone ; 
not entered in Table I. 



There is not sufficient evi- 
dence that this was a 
cyclone ; it is therefore 
not entered in Table I. 



Two cyclones in May : one 
from the 27th to the 
31st, and one on the 29th 
and 30th. 



233 



REPORT 1874. 

Table II. (continued). 



Date. 



Reports. 



Remarks. 



1860, 
May 24 

Oct. 2 

Nov. 16 



14, 



Oct. 10, 



Dec. 6 



9-10, 



Jan 



1867. 
. 9-11 .. 



16 



15-19 



18. 



Prussian barque ' Heros ' experienced very 
heavy weather, lost sails ; bore up for 
Mauritius on 2nd of June. 

Ship 'Adelaide,' in 11° S. and 81° E., expe- 
rienced a verv heavy gale ; wind W.S.W. 
to E.N.E. 

Hamburg brig 'Canoe,' from Batavia, 7th 
November, experienced hard gale with 
heavy sea since leaving the Strait ; on 
the 18th November bore up for Mauritius 
for repairs. 

American ship ' John Haven ' experienced a 
hurricane in 10° S. and 104° E. ; wind 
from N.N.B to N. and N.W. ; carried 
away fore t0)imast and all attached to it, 
main top gallant mast, &e. ; lo.st topsails, 
top gallant sails, &c. ; bore up for Mauri- 
tius for repairs. 

Barque ' Skimmer of the Waves,' in 14° S. 
and 91° E., experienced a heavy gale from 
S.S.E. ; sprung a leak ; bore away for 
Mauritius for repairs. 

Barque ' Wave,' from Colombo, bound for 
Loudon, in 8° S. and 83° E., experienced 
a hurricane from W.N.W. to N. : ship 
thrown on her beam ends; carried away 
mizzen topmast, main topmast, &c. Baro- 
meter 28'663 inches. 

Ship ' Helvellyn,' in 9° S. and 85° E., expe- 
rienced a hurricane from S.S.W. to N.W, 
Sprung a leak ; bore up for Mauritius for 
repairs. 

Ship ' Algeria,' in 15° S. and 77° E., expe- 
rienced a hurricane ; wind from N.E. to 
S.S.E. ; lost top gallant masts, flying jib- 
boom, and sails. Barometer fell to 27 
inches. 

Barque ' Colinda,' in 3° S. and 85° E., ex- 
perienced a terrific gale from N.W. to 
S.E., which lasted fifty hours. 



Steamer ' Dromedary,' in 30° S. and 56° E., 
experienced a very heavy gale, with high 
cross sea ; wind from E. to N.W. 
Rio,' in 13° S. and 70° E.P., experienced 
very heavy weather ; wind S.S.W. to 
N.N.W. ; bad weather lasted three 
days. 

Barque ' Seringapatam,' in 18° S. and 70° E., 
experienced a very heavy gale from E. to 
S.E. on the 15th, and on the 18th and 
19th a severer gale, blowing a hurri- 
cane. Barometer 29'38 inches. 

' Agenesia ' experienced a complete hurricane 
from E. to S.E. ; barometer 2880 inches ; 
cut away fore topmast, taking with it 
jibboomand mizzen top gallant mast &c. 



There is not sufficient evi- 
dence of a cyclone. 



Not having .seen this vessel's 
log, her hurricane has not 
been entered. 



There is not sufficient evi- 
dence of a cyclone. 



A cyclone from the 4th to 
the 8th December. See 
Table I. 



The track of a hurricane 
from the 15th to the 19th 
January is entered in 
Table I. 



CONNEXION OF CYCLONES AND RAINFALL WITH SUN-SPOTS. 238 

Table II. (continued). 



Date. 



1867. 
Feb. 1 



„ 1 



„ 3 



Dec. 17 



„ 5 



Reports. 



„ 16... 

„ 16... 
No date ... 

Dec. 16-17 . 



Schooner 'Jessie Kelly,' in 20° S. and 80° 
E., experienced a severe hurricane, which 
lasted twenty-four hours ; wind from east- 
ward, veering round the compass ; lost 
about fifty pieces of timber off the deck. 

Ship ' Montrose,' in 15° S. and 79° E., ex- 
perienced a very heavy hurricane from 
N.E. ; barometer (ranging 29-50 inches) 
suddenly fell two tenths of an inch ; cut 
away mizzen top gallant mast ; gale lasted 
thirty-six hours, ending W. by N. 

Ship ' Briton,' in 20° S. and 59° E., expe- 
rienced a severe hurricane ; barometer 
ranging 29-75 inches ; wind E.N.E. to N. 
and N.N.W., and shifted to W. and S.W.; 
bad weather lasted. 

Barque 'Warrior,' in 27° S. and 59° E., ex- 
perienced a strong breeze S. by E., with 
a dull cloudy threatening appearance; 
barometer falling from 29'90 to 2970 
inches ; ended with very rainy weather ; 
no gale. 

Ship ' Crochranges,' in 25° S. and 60° E., 
had a gale with threatening appearance ; 
at midnight strong gale and very heavy 
squalls. 

Barque ' Formosa,' in 20° S. and 65° E., ex- 
perienced a severe gale from N.E. to N. ; 
no damage. 

Ship (Dutch?) ' Zeemanschep,' in 26° S. 
and 67° E., experienced a gale which in- 
creased to a hurricane, with a tremendous 
sea. Barometer fell from 3010 to 2870 
inches. 

Ship ' Berar,' in 24° S. and 68° E., experi- 
enced a heavy gale, with thunder and 
lightning ; ship hove on her beam ends ; 
cut away top gallant mast ; every plat«, 
all clothing, and every book on board 
washed away. Barometer 29"30 inches. 

French barque ' Carmeline ' experienced a 
severe hurricane. No position given. 



N.B. I find no mention in the ' Com- 
mercial Gazette ' of the cyclones of April 
and May entered in Table I. 



Remarks. 



See Table I. for notice of 
hurricane from Ist to 2nd 
February. 



See Table I. for track of a 
cyclone from 15th to 
18th December. 



No evidence of this having 
been a tropical hurricane. 



'331 



REPORT — 1874. 



Table III. — List of Hurricanes experienced at Mauritius from 1695 to 
1848. Compiled from information contained in the Mauritius Almanacs 
for 1837 and 1869, and from observations made by M. Cere, M. Labrette, 
Colonel Lloyd, &c. 



Year. 


Day and Month. 


Remarks. 


1695 

1723 

1731 

1743 

1754 

1759 

1760 

1761 

1766 

1771 

ft 

1772 

1773 

1786 

1788 ...1 

1789 ...j 

1800 

1806 

1807 

1813 

1814 

1815 

1817 

1818 

1819 

1824 

1828 

1829 

1834 

1836 

1840