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Full text of "Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science"

s^ I, ^^. 



R E P 11 T 



OF THE 



FORTY-FIFTH MEETING 



OF THE 

.7 



BRITISH ASSOCIATION 



FOE THE 



ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE; 



HELD AT 



BEISTOL IN AUGUST 1875. 



LON330N: 
JOIJN MUKRAY, ALBEMARLE STREET. 

1876. 

[Office of the Association: 22 Albemarle Sxeeet, London, W.] 



PRINTED BT 
TAYl,On AND FBAKCIS; EED LION COUHT, FLKKT STBEKT, 



AXEBE I FLAMMAM. 





CONTENTS. 



Page 

Objects and Rules of the Association xvii 

Places of Meeting and Officers from commencement xxiv 

Presidents and Secretaries of the Sections of the Association from 

commencement xxx 

Evening Lectures xl 

Lectures to the Operative Classes xlii 

Treasurer's Account , xliii 

Table shoAving the Attendance and Receipts at Annual jMeetings . . xliv 

Officers of Sectional Committees xlvi 

Officei's and Council, 1875-76 xlvii 

Report of the Council to the General Committee xlviii 

Recommendations of the General Committee for Additional Reports 

and Researches in Science lii 

Synopsis of Money Grants Iviii 

Place of Meeting in 1877 lix 

General Statement of Sums paid on account of Grants for Scientific 

Purposes Ix 

Arrangement of the General Meetings Ixvii 

Add«ess by the President, Sir John Hawkshaw, C.E., F.R.S., F.G.S. Ixviii 

REPORTS OF RESEARCHES IN SCIENCE. 

Eleventh Report of the Committee for Exploring Kent's Cavern, Devon- 
shii-e — the Committee consisting of Sir John Litbbock, Part., F.R.S., 
John Evans, F.R.S., Edwaed Vivian, M.A., George Busk, F.R.S., 
William Boyd Dawkins, F.R.S., "William Ayshford Sanford, F.G.S., 
John EmvARD Lee, F.G.S., and William Pengklly, F.R.S. (Reporter) 1 

a 2 



iv CONTENTS. 

Page 

Seveuth lleport of the Committee, consistiug of Sir W. Tuomson, F.K..S., 
Professor Everett, Sir Charles Lyell, Bart., F.ll.S,, Professor J. 
Clerk Maxwell, F.R.S., G. J. Svjions, F.M.S., Professor Ramsay, 
F.R.S., Professor Geikie, F.R.S., James Glaisher, F.R.S., Rev. Dr. 
Graham, G. Maw, F.G.S., W. Pengellt, F.R.S., S. J. Mackie, F.G.S., 
Professor Hull, F.R.S., Professor Ansted, F.R.S., and Professor 
Prestwich, F.R.S., appointed for the pui'pose of investigating the 
Rate of Increase of Underground Temperature downwards in various 
localities of Dry Land and under Water. By Professor Everett, 
D.C.L. (Secretary) ' 14 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Huxley, F.R.S., P. L. 
ScLATER, F.R.S. , F. M. Balfour, J. Gwyn Jeffreys, F.R.S., Dr. M. 
Foster, F.R.S., E. Ray Lankester, F.R.S., and A. G. Dew-Smith 
(Secretary), on the Zoological Station at Naples 18 . 

Report of a Committee, consisting of E. C. C. St.anforu, James Dewar, 
Alfred E. Fletcher, and Alfred H. Allex (Secretary), appointed 
to inquire into the Methods employed in the estimation of Potash and 
Phosphoric Acid in Commercial Products and on the mode of stating 
the results. Drawn up by Alfred H. AllEiV 24 

Report on the Present State of our Knowledge of the Crustacea. — 
Part I. On the Homologies of the Dermal Skeleton. By C. Spence 
Bate, F.R.S. &c 41 

Second Report of a Committee, consisting of Prof. A. S. Herschel, B.A., 
F.R.A.S., andG. A. Lebour, F.G.S., on Experiments to determine the 
Thermal Conductivities of certain Rocks, showing especially the Geo- 
logical Aspects of the Investigation 54 

Preliminary Report of the Committee, consisting of Professors Roscoe, 
Balfour Stewart, and Thorpe, appointed for the purpose of extend- 
ing the observations on the Specific Volumes of Liquids. Drawn up 
by T. E. Thorpe 02 

Sixth Report on Earthquakes in Scotland, drawn up by Dr. Bryce, 
F.G.S. The Committee consists of Dr. Bryce, F.R.S.E., Sir W. Thom- 
son, F.R.S., J. Brough, G.Forbes, F.R.S.E.,D.Mil]s-e-Home, F.R.S.E., 
and J. Thomson 04 

Seventh Report of the Committee on the Treatment and Utilization of 
Sewage, reappointed at Belfast, 1874, and consisting of I^chaed B. 
Grantham, C.E., F.G.S. (Chairman), Professor A. W. AVilliamson, 
F.R.S., Dr. Gilbert, F,R.S., Professor Corfield, M.A., M.D., Wil- 
liam Hope, V.C, and F. J. Bramwell, C.E., F.R.S 05 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Major Wilson, R.E., and Mr. 
Ravenstein, appointed for the purpose of firrthering the Palestine 
Explorations 31 

Third Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Hakkness, Pro- 
fessor Prestwich, Professor Hughes, Rev. H. W. Crosskey, Professor 
W. Boyd Dawkins, Messrs. C. J. Woodavaed, George Maw, L. C. 
MiALL, G. H. Morton, and J. E. Lee, appointed for the purpose of 
recording the position, height above the sea, lithological characters, 
size, and origin of the more important of the Erratic Blocks of Eng- 
land and Wales, reporting other matters of interest connected v.-ith 
the same, and taking measures for their preservation. Drawn up 
by the Rev, H. W. Crosskey, Secretary 82 



CONTENTS. V 

Report of the Rainfall Committee for the year 1874-75. The Committee 
consists of C. Beooke, F.R.S., Chairman, J. F. Bateman, C.E., F.R.S., 
RoGEKs Field, C.E., J. Glaishee, F.R.S., T. Hawksley, C.E., The 
Earl of RossE, F.R.S., J. SiiriH, Jun., C.E., C. Tomlinson, F.R.S., 
G. J. Stmons, Seeretaiy 91 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Dr. H. E. x\EMSTE0JfG and Dr. T. 
E. Thoepe, appointed for the purpose of investigating Isomeric Cresols 
and their Derivatives. Drawn up by Dr. Aemsxeong 112 

First Report of the Committee for investigating the Circulation of the 
Underground AYaters in the A^ew Red Sandstone and Permian Forma- 
tions of England, and the quantity and character of the "Water supplied 
to various towns and districts from these formations. The Committee 
consisting of Professor Hull, Mr. E. W. Binkey, Mr. F. J. Beam- 
well, Rev. H. W. Ceosskey, Professor Geeen, Professor Haekness, 
Mr. Hoavell, Mr. W. Molyneux, Mr. C. Mooee, Mr. G. H. Moeton, 
Mr. R. W. Mylne, Mr. Pengelly, Professor Peestavicu, Mr. J. Plant, 
Mr. J. Mellaed Reade, Rev. W. S. Symonds, Mr. Tylben Weight, 
Mr. Whitakee, and Mr. C. E. DeRance (Reporter) 114 

On the Steering of Screw-Steamers. By Professor Osboene Reynolds. . 141 

Second Report of the Committee on Combinations of Capital and Labour, 
consisting of Lord Houghton, D.C.L., F.R.S. (Chairman), Jacob Beh- 
eens, Thomas Beassey, M.P., Feank P. Fellows, Aechibald Hamil- 
ton, Professor Leone Levi, A. J. Mundella, M.P., Wm. Kewmaech, 
F.R.S., Lord O'Hagan, R. J. Inglis Palgeave, Professor Thoeold 
Rogees. Drawn up by Professor Leone Levi, F.S.A., F.S.S 140 

Second Report of the Committee, consisting of W. Chandlee Robeets, 
Dr. Mills, Dr. Boycott, A. W. Gadesden, and J. S. Sellon, appointed 
for the purpose of inquiring into the Method of making Gold-assays, 
and of stating the Results thereof. Drawn up by W. Cfandlee 
Robeets, F.R.S., Secretary 155 

Eighth Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Eveee'it, Sir W. 
Thomson, F.R.S., Professor J. Cleek Maxwell, F.R.S. , G. J. Symons, 
F.M.S., Professor Ramsay. F.R.S., Professor A. Geikie, F.R.S., James 
Glaishee. F.R.S., Rev. Dr. Geaham, Geoege Maw, F.G.S., W. Pen- 
gelly, F.R.S., S. J. Mackie, F.G.S., Professor Hull, F.R.S., Professor 
Ansted, F.R.S., Professor Peestwich, F.R.S., and C. Le Neve Fosiee, 
appointed for the purpose of investigating the Rate of Increase of 
Underground Temperature downwards in various Localities of Dry 
Land and under Water. Drawn up by Professor Eyeeett, Secretary . 156 

Tides in the River Mersey. Half-tide Level at Liverpool. By James 
N. Shoolbeed, C.E IGl 

Sixth Report of the Committee, consisting of the Rev. Thomas Wilt- 
SHIEE, M.A., F.G.S., Professor Williamson, F.R.S., and JamesThomson, 
F.G.S., Secretary, appointed to investigate the Structure of the Carbo- 
niferous Corals 105 

Third Report of the Committee, consisting of Sir John Lubbock, Bart., 
Professor Peestwich, Professor T. M'K. Hughes, Professor W. Boyd 
Dawkins, Rev. II. W. Ceosseey, Messrs. L. C. Miall and R. H. Tidde- 
man, appointed for the purpose of assisting in the Exploration of the 
Settle Caves (Yirtoria Cave). Drawn up by R. H. Tidueman. Reporter IGC • 



V] CONTENTS. 

Page 

On the Eiver Avon (Bristol) : its Drainage-Area, Tidal Phenomena, and 
Dock Works. By Thomas Howard, M.Inst.C.E 175 

Report of the Committee, consisting of the Rev. H. F. Barnes, H. E. 
Dresser (Secretary), T. Harland, J. E. Hahting, Professor Neavton, 
and the Rev. Canon Tristram, appointed for the purpose of inquiring 
into the possibility of establishing a " Close Time " for the protection 
of indigenous animals, and for watching Bills introduced into Parlia- 
ment affecting this subject 184 

Report of the Committee appointed to Superintend the Publication of the 
Monthly Reports of the Progress of Chemistry, the Committee consist- 
ing of Professor A. W. Williamson, E.R.S., Professor Fraukland, 
F.R.S., and Professor Roscoe, F.R.S 184 

Report on Dredging oif the Coast of Durham and North Yorkshire in 
1874. By George Stewardson Brady, C.M.Z.S., and David Robert- 
son, F.G.S 185 

Report on Observations of Luminous Meteors during the year 1874-75, 
by a Committee, consisting of James Glaisher, F.R.S., of the Royal 
Observatory, Greenwich, R. P. Greg, F.G.S., F.R.A.S., C. Brooke, 
F.R.S., Professor G. Forbes, F.R.S.E., Walter Flight, D.Sc, F.G.S., 
and Professor A. S. Herschel, F.R.A.S 199 

On the Analytical Forms called Trees, with Application to the Theory 
of Chemical Combinations. By Professor Catlet, F.R.S 257 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Cayley, F.R.S., Pro- 
fessor Stokes, F.R.S., Professor Sir W. Thomson, F.R.S., Professor H. 
J. S. Smith, F.R.S., and J. Y/. L. Glaisher, F.R.S., on Mathematical 
Tables. (Professor Cayley, Reporter.) 305 

Report of the Committee, consisting of W. Spottiswoode, F.R.S., Pro- 
fessor Stokes, F.R.S., Professor Cayley, F.R.S., Professor Clifeord, 

. F.R.S., and J. W. L. Glaisher, F.R.S., appointed to report on Mathe- 
matical Notation and Printing, with the view of leading Mathemati- 
cians to prefer in optional cases such forms as are more easily put into 
type, and of promoting uniformity of notation 337 

Second Report of the Committee appointed to investigate Intestinal Secre- 
tion. By Dr. Lauder Brunton and Dr. Pye-Smith 339 

Third Report of the Sub-Wealden Exploration Committee, consisting of 
Henry Willett, F.G.S., R. A. C. Godwin-Austen, F.R.S., W. Topley, 
F.G.S., T. Davidson, F.R.S., Professor J. Prestwich, F.R.S., Professor 
Boyd Dawkins, F.R.S., and Henry Woodward, F.R.S. Drawn up by 
Henry Willett, F.G.S 346 



CONTENTS. vii 



NOTICES AND ABSTRACTS 



OP 



MISCELLANEOUS COMMUNICATIONS TO THE SECTIONS. 



MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICS. 

Page 

Address by Professor Balpoub Stewart, M.A., LL.D., F.U.S,, President of 
the Section 1 

Mathematics. 

Professor H. S. Ball on a Screw-complex of the Second Order 10 

Professor Cayley on the Analytical Forms called Factions 10 

Professor Clieford on the Theory of Linear Transformations : I. The Gra- 
phical Representation of Invariants ; II. The Expansion of Unsymnietrical 
Functions in Symmetrical Functions and Determinants ; III. The Notation 
of Matrices 11 

Professor J. D. Everett on the Calculus of Motors 11 

Mr. J. W. L. Glaisher on Formulae of Verification in Partitions 11 

on Theorems on the n**" roots of Unity 13 

Mr. W. Hayden on some Geometrical Theorems 14 

Mr. Henry M. Jeffeby's two Memoirs : — I. On the Shadows of Plane Curves 
on Spheres ; II. On Cubic Spherical Curves with triple Cyclic Arcs and 
ti-iple Foci 15 

Professor Paul Mansion's Elementary Solution of Huyghens's Problem on 
the Impact of Elastic Balls 18 

on the singular Solutions of Differential Equations 

of the First Order which represent Lines at Infinity 19 

Professor IIenry' J. Stephen Smith on Singxdar Solutions 21 

on the Effect of Quadric Transformation 

on the Singular Points of a Curve 21 

on Continued Fractions 21 

Mr. H. Martyn Tayt^ob's Contributions to the Mathematics of the Chess- 
board 21 

Sir W. Thomson on Laplace's Process for determining an Arbitrary Constant 
in the Integration of his Differential Equation for the Semidiurnal Tide . . 23 

General Integz'ation of Laplace's Differential Equation of 

the Tides 23 

on the Integi-ation of Linear Differential Equations with 

Rational Coefficients 23 

on some Effects of liaplace's Theory of Tides 23 



Vm CONTENTS. 

Astronomy. 

Page 

Dr. J. Janssen on the'Total Solar Eclipse of April 5,'1875, observed at Baag- 
challo (Siam) - 24 

Rev. R. Main's List of Meteors observed at Oxford 24 

Rev. S. J. Perry on the Transit of Venus^ December 8, 1874 24 

Light, Heat, and Blecteicitt. 

Captain W. de W. Abney on the Ratio of the Actinic Power to the Illuminating 
Power of the Magneto-Electric Light 25 

Dr. J. Janssen on Mirage at Sea 2G 

on the Photographic Revolver, and on the Observations of the 

Transit of Venus made in Japan 26 

Mr. A. Malloch on a Mode of producing a sharp Meridian Shadow 26 

Professor Stokes and Mr. J. Hopkinson on the Optical Properties of a Titano- 
Silicic Glass 26 

Professor W. F. Barrett on the Effects of Heat on the Molecular Structure 
of Steel Wires and Rods 27 

Mr. P. Braham's E.xperiments on Magnetized Rings, Plates, and Disks of 
ILardened Steel 28 

Mr. J. A. Fleming on the Decomposition of an Electrolyte by Magneto- 
Electric Induction 28 

Dr. J. Janssen on the Position of the Magnetic Equator in the Gulf of Siam 
and in the Gulf of Bengal 28 

Mr. H. A. Rowland on the Magnetizing Function of Iron, Nickel, and Cobalt 29 

on Magnetic Distribution 29 

Sir W. Thomson on the Effect of Stress on the Magnetism of Soft Iron .... 29 



Meteouologx. 

Professor Henry Hennessy on the Influence of the Physical Properties of 
Water on Climate 29 

on the possible Influence on Climate of the sub- 
stitution of Water for Land in Central and Northern Africa 30 

Dr. J. Moffat on the apparent Connexion between Sun-spots, Atmospheric 
Ozone, Rain, and Force of Wind , 31 

Mr. G. J. Symons on the Rainfall in Monmouthshire and the Severn Valley 
on July 14th, and on some subsequent Floods in England and Wales .... 31 



CHEMISTRY. 

Address hy A. G. Vernon Hahcourt, M.A., F.R.S., F.C.S., President of 
the Section 32 

Mr. A. H. Allen on a Method of effecting a Solution of difficultly Soluble Sub- 
stances 37 

Dr. Henry E. Armstrong on the Nature of Berthelot's Vinylic Alcohol . . 37 

Mr. G. H. Beckett and Dr. C. R. Alder Wright on the Alkaloids of the 
Aconites 37 

■ on Japanese Camphor 

from Peppermint 38 



CONTENTS. 13C 

Page 

Mr. P. Bkaham's further Experiments on Crystallization of Metals by Elec- 
tricity • "^ 

Mr. Henry T. Chamberlain on the Manufacture and Eefining of Sugar in 
Bristol, 1875 , ^^ 

Mr. F. Clowes on the Action of Ethyl-hromohutyrate upon Ethyl-sodaceto- 
acetate ^' 

Mr. Thomas Davet on the Tobacco Trade of Bristol 40 

Mr. A. S. Davis on a simple Method of Determining the Proportion of Car- 
bonic Acid in Air 

Dr. Debus on the Chemical Theory of Gunpowder 40 

Mr. Sparke Evans on the Manufacture of Sole-leather in Bristol 41 

Mr. T. Fairley on the Separation of Lead, Silver, and Mercury, with a pro- 
posed process for estimation of Lead 4^ 

on a new Method of preparing Periodates, with Application 

as a Test for Iodine and Sodium 4^ 

on new Solvents for Gold, Silver, Platinum, &c., with an 

Explanation of the so-called Catalytic Action of these Metals and their 
Salts on Hydrogen Dionide 4^ 

on the Use of Potassium Dichromate in Grove's and Bunsen's 

Batteries to ensure constancy *" 

Mr. J. W. Gatehouse on Nitrite of Silver 43 

Dr. J. H. Gladstone on the Relation of the Arrangement of the Acids and 
IBases in a Mixture of Salts to the original manner of Combination 43 

and Mr. Alfred Tribe on the Action of the Copper- 
Zinc Couple 4-j 

. on the Augmentation of the 

Chemical Activity of Aluminium by contact with a more Negative Metal . 4." 

Mr. A. "S'ernon Harcourt on an Apparatus for estimating Carbon Bisul- 
phide in Coal-gas 43 

Messrs. L. Jackson and A. Oppenheim on Derivatea of Mercaptan 43 

Mr. Charles T. Kingzett on the Oxidation of the Essential Oils.— The 
Limited Oxidation of Terpenes and Cymene 43 

Mr. J. C. Melliss on the Treatment of Sewage 4-5 

Mr. A. Oppenheim on Onynoitic Acid 45 

Dr. T. L. Phipson on Noctilucine • 4o 

Mr. "William Thomson on Apparatus and Modes of Examination for the 

Source of Polluted Air 45 

Professor T. E. Thorpe on a new Gaseous Compound of Fluorine and Phos- 
phorus ^^ 

Dr. William A. Tilden on the Crystalline Constituents of Aloes 4G 

Dr. John Watts on Miintz and Ramspacher's Apparatus for the Estimation 

of Tannic Acid 4G 



GEOLOGY. 

Address by Thomas Wright, M.D., F.R.S.E., F.G.S., President of the 
Section 4 / 



o 



X CONTENTS. 

Page 
Mr. William Hellier Baily on a new Species of Labj-rinthodont Amphiba 
from the Coal at Jarrow Colliery, near Castlecouier, co. Kilkenny 62 

Rev. James Buodie on the Action of Ice in what is usually termed the Gla- 
cial Period 63 

Rev. P. B. Brodie on the further Extension of the Ehsetic or Penarth Beds 
in Warwickshire, Leicestershire, Nottinghamshire, Yorkshire, and Cumber- 
land ; and on the Occurrence of some supposed Remains of a new Labyrin- 
thodon and a new Radiate therein 64 

Dr. W. B. Carpenter on the Origin of the Red Clay found by the ' Chal- 
lenger ' at great Depths in the Ocean 64 

on the Condition of the Sea-bottom of the North 

Pacific, as shown by the Soundings recently taken by the U.S. Steamship 

' Tuscarora ' 64 

Messrs. Handel Cossham, Edward Wethered, and Walter Saise on the 
Northern End of the Bristol Coalfield 64 

Dr. Clement Le Neve Foster on the Deposit of Tin-ore at Park of Mines, 
St. Columb, Cornwall 64 

Mr. Edward Fry on Moraines as the retaining Walls of Lakes 64 

Mr. A. H. Green on the Variations in Character and Thickness of the 
Millstone-grit of North Derbyshire and the adjoining parts of Yorkshire, 
and on the probable manner in which these Changes have been produced. . 65 

Mr. J. G. Grenfell on Carboniferous Encrinites from Clifton and from 
Lancashire 65 

Mr. John Gunn on the Influx and Stranding of Icebergs during the so-called 
Glacial Epoch, and a suggestion of the possible cause of the Oscillation of 
the Level of Land and Water to which that Influx may be due 66 

IMr. William J. Harrison on the Occurrence of Rhaetic Beds near Leicester 66 

Professor E. Hebert on the Undulations of the Chalk in the North of France, 
and their probable existence under the Straits of Dover 67 

Dr. J. Hector on the Geology of New Zealand 69 

Mr. Henry Hicks on some Areas where the Cambrian and Silurian Rocks 
occur as Conformable Series 69 

Mr. John Hopkinson on the Distribution of the Graptolites in the Lower 
Ludlow Rocks near Ludlow 69 

Prof T. M-^K. Hughes on the Classification of the Sedimentary Rocks 70 

Professor Edward Hull on the Discovery, by Count Abbot Castracane, of 
Diatomacese in Coal from Lancashire and other places 74 

Mr. G. Henry Kinahan on the Drifting- power of Tidal Currents and that of 
Wind- waves .' 74 

Mr. G. A. Lebour on the Limits of the Yoredale Series in the North of 
England , 74 

Mr.'D. Mackintosh on the Geological meaning of the term " River-basin," 
and the desirability of substituting " Drainage-area " 75 



on the Origin of two polished and sharpened Stones from 



Cefn Cave 75 



" on existing Ice-action in Greenland and tho Alps, com- 
pared with former Ice-action in the N.W. of England and Wales 76 

Mr. J. M-^Murtrib on certain Isolated Areas of Mountain-Limestone at Luck- 
iugton and Vobster 7(i- 



CONTENTS. XI 

Page 
Mr. Charles Moore on the Age of the Durdham Down Deposit, yielding 
Thecoduntusaurus &c 77 

Mr. J. 11. Mortimer on the Distribution of Flint in the Chalk of Yorkshire . 78 

ProfessorH. Alleyne Nicholson on^sy^o^ro^^ws, anewGenus of Graptolites 
fi.-om the Skiddaw Slates 78 

and Mr. Charles Lapworth on the Cen- 
tral Group of the Silurian Series of the North of England 78 

Dr. Charles Ricketts on the Cause of the Glacial Period, with reference 
to the British Isles 79 

Mr. William Sanders on certain large Bones in Rhsetic Beds at Aust Cliff, 
near Bristol 80 

Mr. W. W. Stoddart on Auriferous Limestone at Walton 81 

Rev. W. S. Symonds on Changes of Climate during the Glacial Period .... 82 

Mr. E. B. Tawney on the Age of the Cannington-Park Limestone, and its 
Relation to Coal-measures South of the Mendips 82 

Mr. J. E. Taylor on the Discovery of a Submerged Forest in the Estuary of 
the Orwell , 82 

Professor J. Tennant on the South-African Diamonds 82 

Mr. James Thomson on a new Genus of Rugous Corals from the Mountain- 
Limestone of Scotland 8-3 

Mr. William A. Traill on the Occurrence of a Lower Boulder-clay, or Till 
with Shells, in the Counties of Down and Mayo, Ireland 83 

. on a Mass of Travertine or Calcareous Tuff, called 

" The Glen Rock," near Bally castle. County Mayo, Ireland 84 

Dr. Thomas Wright on the Reptilian Remains from the Dolomitic Conglo- 
merate on Durdham Down 85 



BIOLOGY. 

Address by P. L. Sclater, M.A., Ph.D., F.R.S., F.L.S., President of the 
Section 85 



Botant. 

Dr. Sclater's Address 85 

Professor Balfour on Rare Plants fi-om Scotland 156 

Mr. I. Bayley Balfour on Turneracece from Rodrigaiez 156 

on the Geological Structure and Flora of the Mas- 

carene Islands 157 

Professor A. Dickson on an Abnormality o? Primula vulgaris with Interpeta- 

line Lobes 157 

on a Monstrosity in Saxifraga stellaris 167 

on Abnormal Flowers of Tropceohim 157 

Professor W. R. M'^Nab on a Variety of Polypodium vulgare 158 

on a Variety of Rubus 158 

Mr. J. J. Monteiro on the Application of the Fibre of Adansonia digitata . . 158 

Dr. David Moore on Spiranthes Homanzoviana 158 



xii CONTENTS. 

PapTP 

Mr. Cecil H. Sp. Perceval ou a rare Species of Fungus found in Surrey . . 158 
Professor W. C. Williamson on some Fossil Seeds from the Lower Carbo- 
niferous Beds of Lancashire 159 

Zoology. 

Dr. Sclater's Address 85 

Dr. Philip P. Carpenter on the Primary Divisions of the Chitottidee 101 

Dr. W. B. Carpenter on the Nervous and Generative Systems of the Crinoidca 101 

Dr. Hector on the Occurrence of Moa-boues in New Zealand 161 

Dr. C. T. Hudson on the Classification and Affinities of the Rotifera IGl 

Mr. Alfred Newton on certain Neglected Subjects of Ornithological Inves- 
tigation 102 

Mr. D. A. Spalding on Instinct and Acquisition lO-'l 

Anatomy and Physiology. 

Professor Cleland's Address to the Department of Anatomy and Physiology V-'A 

Mr. Henry B. Brady on a new Method of taking Photographs of Microsco- 
pical Objects, de-^'ised by Mr. Hugh T. Bowman 10-3 

Mr. W. J. Cooper on some Physiological Eflects of various Drinking-Waters 10.3 

Professor Dewar and Dr. M'Kendrick on the Physiological Action of the 
Chinodine and Pyridine Bases lOo 

Drs. George and Frances Elizabeth Hoggan on the Origin of the Lym- 
phatics 105 

Mr. D. J. Goodman on Protoplasm and Adipocere 1C7 

Mr. F. Greenwood on the Preservation of the Bodies of the larger Animals 
for Dissection 107 

Mr. C. 0. Groom-Napier on Vegetarianism 169 

Mr. P. Hallett on the Bearings of " the Conservation of Force " on Life . . 169 

Dr. Martyn on some new Researches on the Anatomy of the Skin 1G9 

Messrs. L. C. Miall and F. Greenwood on Vascular Plexuses in the Ele- 
phant and other Animals 170 

Anthuopology. 

Professor Rolleston's Address to the Department of Anthropology 142 

Dr. John Beddoe on the Ossuary at Rothwell, in Northamptonshire 170 

Miss A. W. Buckland on Rhabdomancy and Belomancy 170 

Colonel Carrington on the Indians of the North-western United States. ... 171 

Mr. Hyde Clarke on Prehistoric Culture in India and Africa 171 

■ on Prehistoric Names of Weapons 172 

■ on the Himalayan Origin of the Magyar and Fin Languages 172 

Rev. J. Earle on the Ethnography of Scotland 172 

Mr. R, Edwards on Recent Discoveries of Flint Implements in Drift-gravels 
in Middlesex, Essex, and Berks 173 

Sir Walter Elliot on the Original Localities of the Races forming the pre- 
sent Population of India , 17,3 



CONTENTS. XlU 

Page 

Mr. John Evans ou a uew Code of International Symbols for use on Prehistoric 
Maps .' 173 

Colonel A. H. Lane Fox on Recent Investigations in Cissbury Camp, Sussex 173 

Rev. W. W. Gill on the Origin of the South-Sea Islanders 173 

on some Traditions of the Hervey Islanders 174 

Dr. J. H. Gladstone on the Recent Discovery of a Stone Implement in the 
Brick-earth of Erith, Kent 175 

Mr. Bertram F. IIartshorne ou the Weddas of Ceylon 175 

Dr. Leitneb on an Ethnological and Linguistic Tour of Discovery in Dar- 
distan &c 176 

Mr. D. Mackintosh on Anthropology, Sociology, and N'ationality 17G 

Mr. Robert Michell on the supposed lost Language and Antiquity of the 
Kirghiz, or Buruts 176 

Mr. Charles O. Groom Napier on the Localities from whence the Gold and 
Tin of the Ancients were derived 177 

Dr. T. Nicholas on a new Paragraph in Early English History 177 

Mr. W. Pengelly on the Archaeological Discoveries in Kent's Cavern, Tor- 
quay 177 

on a recent Notice of Brixham Cavern 177 

Dr. J. S. Phene on the Works, Manners, and Customs of the Early Inhabi- 
tants of the Mendips 177 

Rev. Canon Rawlinson on the Ethnography of the Cimbri 178 

Professor Rolleston on the Animal Remains found in Cissbury Camp 178 

on the Applicability of Historical Evidence to Ethno- 
graphical Inquiries 178 

Dr. SiMMS on the Physiognomy of the Ear 178 

Mr. W. S. W. Vaux on the Origin of the Maori Races in New Zealand .... 178 

Mr. C. Staniland Wake on the Predatory Races of Asia and Europe; a 
Chapter in Morals 179 

Mr. HoDDER M. Westropp on the Cycle of Development 179 



GEOGRAPHY. 

Address by Lieut.-General R. Strachey, R.E., C.S.I., F.R.S., President of 
the Section 180 

Dr. J. C. Brown on the Physical Geography of South Africa, and Products 
and Prospects of the Cape of Good Hope 189 

on the late Inundations in France viewed in connexion with 

Reboisement and Gazonnement on the Alps, Cevennes, and Pyrenees, em- 
ployed as a means of extinguishing and preventing the p'ormation of 
Torrents 189 

on South-African Torrential Floods viewed in connexion 

with the late Inimdations in the Valley of the Garonne and its Affluences, 
and Measures adopted in France to prevent such Floods 190 

Dr. W. B. Car penter on Bearings of recent Observations on the Doctrine of 
Oceanic Circulation 190 

Colonel II. B. Carrington on Dacotah, North-west America 190 



XIV CONTENTS. 

Page 

Lieutenant Chippindai.e on a Journey towards the Outlet of the Nile from the 
Lake Albert Nyanza 190 

General Sir Aethub Cotton on the North-west African Expedition 190 

Mr. James Croll on the ' Challenger's ' Crucial Test of the Wind and Gravi- 
tation Theories of Oceanic Circulation 191 

Colonel T. E. Gordon on the Exploration of the Pamir Steppe 19.3 

Mr. Keith .Johnston on Journeys in Paraguay in 1874-75 19.3 

Mr. C. R. Markham on the Progress of the Arctic Expedition and on the 
Proceedings of H.M.S. ' Valorous ' 193 

Colonel T. G. Montoomerde on Himalayan Glaciers 19.3 

Mr. E. Delmar Morgan on Prejevalsky's Travels in jMongolia and Northern 
Tibet : 194 

Dr. G. Nachtigall's Expedition from the Lake Tchad to the Upper Nile . . 195 

Captain the Hon. G. Napier on the Turcoman Frontier of Persia 195 

Lieut.-Colonel R. L. Playfair's Exploration of the Aures Mountains .... 195 

Captain H. Toynbee on the Physical Geography of that part of the Atlantic 
which lies between 20° N. and 10° S. and extends from 10° to 40° W 19G 

M.HJor Herbert Wood on Changes in the Course of the Oxus 197 

Colonel Yule on Trade-Routes to Western China 197 



ECONOMIC SCIENCE and STATISTICS. 

Address by James Heywood, M.A., F.R.S., F.G.S., Pres. Statistical Societv, 
President of the Section ." . 197 

Major-General Sir J. E. Alexander on the probable Cost and Propriety of 
removing to England the fallen Obelisk of Alexandria, presented to Great 
Britain by the Pacha of Egypt 204 

Dr. John Beddoe on the Need of Systematic Observations on the Physical 
Characters of Man in Britain ..." 204 

on the Mortality of Adolescence 205 

-; on the Death-rates of some Health-Resorts. and specially 

of Clifton 205 



Mons. BoNHOMME on Sericicultiu-e 20(5 

Mr. William Botly on Agi-icultural Statistics and Waste Lands 200 

on Workmen's Dwellings 200 

Mr. E. W. Brabrook on the Working of the Building Societies Act, 1874. . 20G 

Mr. Leonard Bruton on the Trade and Commerce of the City and Port of 

Bristol i>(>- 

Rev. John T. Burt on the Principles of Penal Legislation.— Second Paper. . 207 

Miss Carpenter on Industrial Schools 209 

Mi-^^ Henry Chamberlain on the Rise and Progi-ess of the Sugar Trade in 

Ijnstol, 1875 " QQq 

Mrs. R. M. Ceawshay on Domestic Service for Gentlewomen 209 

Mr. Spaeke Evans on the Tanning of Sole-Leather in Bri.^itol 209 

Mr. Francis William Fox on Indian Railways and Indian Finance 209 



CONTENTS. XV 

Mrs. William Grey on the Staudard of National Education , , . . 213 

Mr. P. Hallett on Income Fallacies and some of their Consequences 215 

Professor W. Stanlky Jevons on the Progress of the Coal Question 216 

on the Influence of the Sun-spot Period upon 

the Price of Corn 217 

Mr. D. Mackintosh on th" prevailing Mode of Preparation for Competitive 
Examinations 217 

Dr. F. J. Mouat on the Value of European Life in India in its Social, Poli- 
tical, and Economic Aspects 217 

Mr. C. O. Groom Napier on Legislative Protection to the Birds of Europe . 217 

Mrs. Bladex Neill on the Acclimatization of the Silkworm 218 

IVL-. Thomas Francis Peacock on Building Societies and the Act of 1874. , 218 

Miss A. M. Priestman on the Industrial Position of Women as affected by their 
exclusion from the Suffrage 218 

^[r. D. A. Spalding on Free Trade in Laboiu- 220 

Miss Stamp on Statistics of Free Public Libraries 220 

Mr. E. Vivian on the Comparative Mortalitj^ of Abstainers and Non- Abstainers 
from Alcoholic Liquors 220 

Mr. W. Westgarth on the Science of Capital and Money 220 



MECHANICAL SCIENCE. 

Address by William Froude, C.E., M.A., F.R.S., President of the 
Section 221 

Mr. Frederick Ashmead on the Drainage of the City and County of Bristol 240 

Mons. C. Bergeron on the Prevention of Sand Bars at the Mouth of Harbours 243 

Mr. Walter R. Browne on Roberts's Patent Communicator for Railway 
Trains 243 

Mr. James Brunlees on the Bristol Port and Channel Dock at Avonmouth 
near Bristol ' qj - 

Colonel Carrington on Chrome Steel 245 

Mr. W. B. Clegram on Sharpness Docks 24.5 

Mr. J. D. CoGAN on Toughened Glass 24.5 

Messrs. Crichton and Craig on a System of Audible Signals for Railways. . 24 

Mr. William Denny on tlie Trials of Screw Steam-Ships 246 

Mr. Francis Fox on the Bristol joint Station 248 

Mr. H. Handyside on a Steel Gradient Formation •. . 248 

Mr. R, R. Harper on Block-signalling on Railways ; 248 

Dr. J. HopKiNSON on Improvements in the Clockwork of Revolvino- Lio-ht- 
houses ° ^ ., JO 

Professor Hull's Scheme of Water-supplv for tlie Villages and Countrv 

Parishes of the Central and Eastern Counties of England ". 249 

Mr. Henry Masters on a Sewer-Trap oqq 

Mr. Charles Richardson on tho Severn Tunnel 2oO 

~" on the Tidal Scour in the Severn 250 



o 



Xvi CONTENTS, 

Page 

Mr. Jamks N. Shoolbred on Tides in the Irisli Sea 2-50 

Mr. W. Smith on A. S. Hallidie's Wire Rope Traction-Railway 252 

on a Means of Recording the Movements of Points and Signals 252 

on a Breech-loading Mountain Gun 252 

on a Military Bidon 252 

Mr. F. C. Stileman on Portishead Dock 252 

Messrs. Stroudley and Rusbridge on Communication between Passengers 

and Guards 252 

Mr. John I. Thornycroft on Vertical Motion of Vessels 252 

Sir W. Thomson on a Machine for the Calculation of Tides 253 

and Mr. J. Hopkinson on Methods of giving Distinctive 

Characters to Lighthouses 253 

Mr. W. ToPLEY on the Channel Tunnel 253 

Mr. Beauchamp Tower on a Machine for obtaining Motive Power from the 
Motion of a Ship among Waves 253 

on a Revolution-Indicator 254 

Dr. Joseph Woolley on Steering 255 

APPENDIX. 

Prof. W. F. Barrett on the Effect of Heat in altering the Moleculai- Structure 
of Steel 259 

Mr. N. LowENTiiAL Lonsdale on Mechanical Self-Registering Apparatus 
for Barometer, Thermometei", Rain- and Wind-Gauges 260 



ERUATUM IN EEPOET FOR 1874. 

In the REroiiTs. 

Pago 24'], line 16 from bottom, for Mr. Charles Law rp«(7 Mr. ChuunoU Law. 



OBJECTS AND RULES 



or 



THE ASSOCIATION. 



OBJECTS. 

The Association contemplates no interference with the ground occupied by 
other institutions. Its objects are : — To give a stronger impulse and a more 
systematic direction to scientific inquiry, — to promote the intercourse of those 
who cultivate Science in different parts of the British Empire, with one 
another and with foreign philosophers, — to obtain a more general attention 
to the objects of Science, and a removal of any disadvantages of a public kind 
which impede its progress. 

RULES. 

Admission of Members and Associates. 

All persons who have attended the first Meeting shall be entitled to be- 
come Members of the Association, upon subscribing an obligation to con- 
form to its Rules. 

The Fellows and Members of Chartered Literary and Philosophical So- 
cieties publishing Transactions, in the British Empire, shall be entitled, in 
like manner, to become Members of the Association. 

The Officers and Members of the Councils, or Managing Committees, of 
Philosophical Institutions shall be entitled, in like manner, to become Mem- 
bers of the Association. 

All Members of a Philosophical Institution recommended by its Council 
or Managing Committee shall be entitled, in like manner, to become Mem- 
bers of the Association. 

Persons not belonging to such Institutions shall be elected by the General 
Committee or Council, to become Life Members of the Association, Annual 
Subscribers, or Associates for the year, subject to the approval of a General 
Meeting. 

Compositions, Subscriptions, and Privileges. 

Life Members shall pay, on admission, the sum of Ten_ Pounds. They 
shall receive gratuitously the Reports of the Association which may be pub- 



1875. 



XVIU RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

lishcd after the date of such payment. They are eligible to all the offices 
of the Association. 

Aknual Subsoeibees shall pay, on admission, the sum of Two Pounds, 
and in each following year the sum of One Pound. They shall receive 
gratuitously the Reports of the Association for the year of their admission 
and for the years in which they continue to pay without intermission their 
Annual Subscription. By omitting to pay this Subscription in any particu- 
lar year, Members of this class (Annual Subscribers) lose for that and all 
future years the pri\alege of receiving the volumes of the Association gratis : 
but they may resume their Membership and other privileges at any sub- 
sequent Meeting of the Association, paying on each such occasion the sum of 
One Pound. They are eligible to all the Offices of the Association. 

Associates for the year shall pay on admission the sum of One Pound. 
They shall not receive gratuitoushj the Ecports of the Association, nor be 
eligible to serve on Committees, or to hold any office. 

The Association consists of the following classes : — 

1. Life Members admitted from 1831 to 1845 inclusive, who have paid 
on admission Five Pounds as a composition. 

2. Life Members who in 1846, or in subsequent years, have paid on ad- 
mission Ten Pounds as a composition. 

3. Annual Members admitted from 1831 to 1839 inclusive, subject to the 
payment of One Pound annually. [May resume their Membership after in- 
termission of Annual Payment.] 

4. Annual Members admitted in any year since 1839, subject to the pay- 
ment of Two Pounds for the first year, and One Pound in each following year. 
[May resume their Membership after intermission of Annual Payment.] 

5. Associates for the year, subject to the payment of One Pound. 

6. Corresponding Members nominated by the Council. 

And the Members and Associates will be entitled to receive the annual 
volume of Reports, gratis, or to j^^'^'chase it at reduced (or Members') price, 
according to the following si^ecification, viz. : — 

1. Gratis. — Old Life Members who have paid Five Pounds as a compo- 

sition for Annual Payments, and previous to 1845 a further 
sum of Two Pounds as a Book Subscription, or, since 1845, a 
further sum of Five Pounds. 

New Life Members who have paid Ten Pounds as a composition. 

Annual Members who have not intermitted their Annual Sub- 
scription. 

2. At reduced or Members' Prices, viz. two thirds of the Publication 

Price. — Old "Life Members who have paid Five Pounds as a 

composition for Annual Payments, but no further smn as a 

Book Subscription. 
Annual Members who have intei-mitted their Annual Subscription. 
Associates for the year, [Privilege confined to the volume for 

that year only.] 

3. Members may purchase (for the purpose of completing their sets) any 

of the first seventeen volumes of Transactions of the Associa- 
tion, and of which more than 100 cojiics remain, atone third of 
the Publication Price. Application to be made at the Office 
of the Association, 22 Albemarle Street, London, W. 



RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. XIX 

Volumes not claimed -within two years of the date of publication can only 
be issued by direction of the Council. 

Subscriptions shall be received by the Treasurer or Secretaries, 

Meetings. 

The Association shall meet annually, for one week, or longer. The place 
of each Meeting shall be appointed by the General Committee two years in 
advance ; and the Arrangements for it shall be entrusted to the Officers of 
the Association. 

General Committee. 

The General Committee shall sit during the week of the Meeting, or 
longer, to transact the business of the Association. It shall consist of the 
following persons : — - 

Class A. Permanent Meitbers. 

1. Members of the Council, Presidents of the Association, and Presidents 
of Sections for the present and preceding years, with Authors of Eeports in 
the Transactions of the Association. 

2. Members who by the publication of Works or Papers have furthered 
the advancement of those subjects which are taken into consideration at the 
Sectional Meetings of the Association. With a vieiv of suhmitting neiv claims 
under this Rule to the decision of the Council, tlicy must he sent to the Assistant 
General Secretary at least one month before the Meeting of the Association. 
The decision of the Council on the claims of any Member of the Association to 
be placed on the list of the General Committee to be final. 

Class E. Tempoeart Members, 

1. ThePresidentfor the time being of any Scientific Society pubhshing Trans- 
actions or, in his absence, a delegate representing him. Claims under this Hide 
to be sent to the Assistant General Secretary before the ojocniny of the Meetimj. 

2. Office-bearers for the time being, or delegates, altogether not exceeding 
three, from Scientific Institutions established in tlie place of Meeting. 
Claims under tiiis Bide to be ap^jrovcd by the Loccd Secretaries before the 

opening of the Meeting. 

3. Poreigners and other individuals whose assistance is desired, and who 
are specially nominated in writing, for the Meetriig of the year, by the Pre- 
sident and General Secretaries. 

4. Vice-Presidents and Secretaries of Sections. 

Organizing Sectional Committees* . 

The Presidents, Vice-Presidents, and Secretaries of the several Sections 
are nominated by the Council, and have power to act until their names are 
submitted to the General Committee for election. 

From the time of their nomination they constitute Organizing Committees 
for the purpose of obtnining information upon the Memoirs and Eeports 
likely to be submitted to the Scetionsf, and of preparing Picports thereon, 

* Passed by the General Committee, Edinburgh, 1871. 

t Notice to Covtrihvlorf: of Memoirs.— AxAhoYi are reminded that, under an arrange- 
ment dating iVoni 1871, the acceptance of Memoirs, and tlic days on which they are to be 

6 2 



XX RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

and on the order in which it is desirable that they should be read, to be pre- 
sented to the Committees of the Sections at their first Meeting. 

An Organizing Committee may also hold such preliminary Meetings as the 
President of the Committee thinks expedient, but shall, under any circum- 
stances, meet on the first Wednesday of the Annual Meeting, at 11 a.m., to 
settle the terms of their Eeport, after which their functions as an Organizing 
Committee shall cease. 



Constitution of the Sectional Committees*. 

On the first day of the Annual Meeting, the President, Vice-Presidents, 
and Secretaries of each Section having been appointed by the General Com- 
mittee, these Officers, and those previous Presidents and Vice-Presidents of 
the Section who may desire to attend, are to meet, at 2 p.m., in their Com- 
mittee Eooms, and enlarge the Sectional Committees by selecting individuals 
from among the Members (not Associates) present at the Meeting whose as- 
sistance they may particularly desire. The Sectional Committees thus con- 
stituted shall have power to add to their number from day to day. 

The List thus formed is to be entered daily in the Sectional Minute-Book, 
and a copy forwarded without delay to the Printer, who is charged with 
publishing the same before 8 a.m. on the next day, in the Journal of the 
Sectional Proceedings. 

Business of the Sectional Committees. 

Committee Meetings are to be held on the Wednesday at 2 p.m., on the 
following Thursday, Friday, Saturday, Monday, and Tuesday, from 10 to 
11 A.M., punctually, for the objects stated in the Hules of the Association, 
and specified below. 

The business is to be conducted in the following manner : — 

At the first meeting, one of the Secretaries will read the Minutes of last 
year's proceedings, as recorded in the Minute-Eook, and the Synopsis of 
Eecommendations adopted at the last Meeting of the Association and printed 
in the last volume of the Transactions. He wiU next proceed to read the 
Eeport of the Organizing Committee f. The List of Communications to he 
read on Thursday shall be then arranged, and the general distribution of 
business throughout the week shall be provisionally appointed. At the close 
of the Committee Meeting the Secretaries shall forward to the Printer a List 
of the Papers appointed to be read. The Printer is charged with publishing 
the same before 8 a.m. on Thursday in the Journal. 

On the second day of the Annual Meeting, and the following days, the 

read, are now as far as possible determined by Organizing Committees for tbe several 
Sections before the hcgivnivg of the Meeting. It bas therefore become necessary, in order 
to give an opportunity to the Committees of doing justice to the several Communications, 
that each Author should prepare an Abstract of his Memoir, of a length suitable for in- 
sertion in the published Transactions of the Association, and that he should send it, toge- 
ther with the original Memoir, by book-post, on or before , addressed 

thus--" General Secretaries, British Association, 22 Albemarle Street, London, W. For 

Section .." If it should be inconvenient to the Author that his Paper should be read 

on any particular days, he is requested to send information thereof to the Secretaries in a 
separate note. 

* Passed by the General Committee, Edinburgh, 1871. 
tThis and the following sentence were added by the General Committee, 1871. 



RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. Xxi 

Socretaries are to correct, ou a copy of the Journal, the list of papers which 
have been read on that day, to add to it a list of those appointed to be read 
on the next day, and to send this copy of the Journal as early in the day as 
possible to the Printers, who are charged with printing the same before 8 a.m. 
next morning in the Journal. It is necessary that one of the Secretaries of 
each Section should caU at the Printing Office and revise the proof each 
evening. 

Minutes of the proceedings of every Committee are to be entered daily in 
the Minute-Book, which should be confirmed at the next meeting of the 
Committee. 

Lists of the Eeports and Memoirs read in the Sections are to be entered 
in the Minute-Book daily, which, with all Memoirs and Copies or Abstracts 
of Memoirs furnished by Authors, are to be forwarded, at the close of the Sec- 
tional Meetings, to the Assistant General Secretary. 

The Vice-Presidents and Secretaries of Sections become ex officio temporary 
Members of the General Committee (vide p. xix)," and will receive, on ap- 
plication to the Treasurer in the Eeception Eoom, Tickets entitling them to 
attend its Meetings. 

The Committees will take into consideration any suggestions which may 
be offered by their Members for the advancement of Science. They are 
specially requested to review the recommendations adopted at preceding 
Meetings, as published in the volumes of the Association and the communi- 
cations made to the Sections at this Meeting, for the purposes of selecting 
definite points of research to which individual or combined exertion may be 
usefully directed, and branches of knowledge on the state and progress of 
Avhich Eeports ai-e wanted ; to name individuals or Committees for the exe- 
cution of such Eeports or researches ; and to state whether, and to what de- 
gree, these objects may be usefuUy advanced by the appropriation of the 
funds of the Association, by application to Government, Philosophical Insti- 
tutions, or Local Authorities. 

In case of appointment of Committees for special objects of Science, it is 
expedient that all Members of the Committee shoidd be named, and one of 
them appointed to act as Secretary, for insuring attention to husiness. 

Committees have power to add to their number persons whose assistance 
they may require. 

The recommendations adopted by the Committees of Sections are to be 
registered in the Forms furnished to their Secretaries, and one Copy of each 
is to be forwarded, without delay, to the Assistant General Ser-retary for pre- 
sentation to the Committee of Eecommendations. Unless this be done, the 
Recommendations cannot receive the sanction of the Association. 

N.B. — Eecommendations which may originate in any one of the Sections 
must first be sanctioned by the Committee of that Section before they can be 
referred to the Committee of Eecommendations or confirmed by the General 
Committee. 

Notices Regarding Grants of Money. 

Committees and individuals, to -whom grants of money have been entrusted 
by the Association for the prosecution of particular researches in Science, 
are required to present to each following Meeting of the Association a Ecport 
of the progress which has been made ; and the Individual or the Member first 
named of a Committee to whom a money grant has been made must (pre- 
viously to the next meeting of the Association) forward to the General 



XXU RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

Secretaries or Treasurer a statement of the sums which have heen expended, 
and the balance which remains disposable on each grant. 

Grants of money sanctioned at any one meeting of the Association expire 
« iveeh before the opening of the ensuing Meeting; nor is the Treasurer 
authorized, after that date, to allow any claims on account of such grants, 
unless they be renewed in the original or a modified form by the General 
Committee. 

No Committee shall raise money in the name or under the auspices of the 
Britisli Association without special permission from the General Committee 
to do so ; and no monc}'- so raised shall bo expended except in accordance 
with the rules of the Association. 

In each Committee, the Member first named is the only pei'son entitled to 
call on the Treasurer, Professor A. W. Williamson, University College, London, 
W.C, for such portion of the sums granted as may from time to time be 
required. 

In grants of money to Committees, the Association does not contemplate 
the payment of personal expenses to the members. 

In all cases where additional grants of money arc made for the continua- 
tion of Eesearches at the cost of the Association, the sum named is deemed 
to include, as a part of the amount, whatever balance may remain unpaid on 
the former grant for the same object. 

All Instruments, Papers, Drawings, and other property of the Association 
are to be deposited at the Office of the Association, 22 Albemarle Street, 
Piccadilly, London, W., when not employed in carrying on scientific inquiries 
for the Association. 

Business of the Sections. 

The Meeting Itoom of each Section is opened for conversation from 10 to 
11 daily. The Section Rooms and approaches thereto can he used for no notices, 
exhibitions, or other purp)oses than those of the Association. 

At 11 precisely the Chair will be taken, and the reading of communica- 
tions, in the order previously made public, be commenced. At 3 p.m. the 
Sections will close. 

Sections may, by the desire of the Committees, divide themselves into 
Departments, as often as the number and nature of the communications de- 
hvered in may render such divisions desirable. 

A Ileport presented to the Association, and read to the Section which 
originally called for it, may be read in another Section, at the request of the 
Officers of that Section, with the consent of the Author. 



Duties of the Doorkeepers. 

1. — To remain constantly at the Doors of the Rooms to which they are ap- 
pointed during the whole time for which they are engaged. 
2. — To recjuire of every person desirous of entering the Rooms the exhibi- 
tion of a Member's, Associate's or Lady's Ticket, or Reporter's Ticket, 
signed by the Treasurer, or a Special Ticket signed by the Assistant 
General Secretary. 
3- — Persons unprovided with any of these Tickets can only be admitted to 
any particiUar Room by order of the Secretary in that Room. 
_ No person is exempt from these Rules, except those Officers of the Asso- 
ciation whose names are printed. 



RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. XXiii 

Duties of the Messengers, 

To remain constantly at tho Eooms to which they are appointed, during 
the whole time for which ttey are engaged, except when employed on mes- 
sages by one of the Officers directing these Rooms. 

Committee of Recommendations, 

The General Committee shall appoint at each Meeting a Committee, which 
shall receive and consider the Recommendations of the Sectional Committees, 
and report to the General Committee the measures which they would advise 
to be adopted for the advancement of Science. 

All Recommendations of Grants of Money, Requests for Special Researches, 
and Reports on Scientific Subjects shall be submitted to the Committee of 
Recommendations, and not taken into consideration by the General Committee 
unless previously recommended by the Committee of Recommendations. 

Local Committees. 

Local Committees shall be formed by the Officers of tho Association to 
assist in making arrangements for the Meetings. 

Local Committees shall have the power of adding to their numbers those 
Members of the Association whose assistance they may desire. 

Officers. 

A President, two or more Vice-Presidents, one or more Secretaries, and a 
Treasurer shall be annually appointed by the General Committee. 

Council. 

In the intervals of the Meetings, the affairs of the Association shall be ma- 
naged by a Council appointed by the General Committee. The CouncU may 
also assemble for the despatch of business during the week of the Meeting. 

Papers and Communications. 

The Author of any paper or communication shall be at liberty to resen'e 
his right of property therein. 

Accounts. 

The Accounts of the Association shall be audited annually, by Auditors 
appointed by the General Committee. 



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XXX 



REPORT 1875. 



Presidents and Secretaries of the Sections of the Association. 



Date and Place. 



Presidents. 



Secretaries. 



MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES. 

COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, I. MATHEMATICS AND GENERAL PHYSICS. 

1833. Oxford Davies Gilbert, D.C.L., F.E.S....|'Rev. H. Coddington. * 

1S33. Cambridge Sir D. Brewster, F.R.S Prof. Forbes. 

1834. Edinburgh Rev. W. Whewell, F.R.S |Prof. Forbes, Prof. Lloyd. 



1835. Dublin 

1836. Bristol 

1837. Liverpool ... 

1838. Newcastle... 

1839. Birmingliara 



18-40. Glasgow 



1841. Plymouth... 

1842. Manchester 



-1843. Cork....;.... 

1844. York 

1845. Cambridge.. 

1846. Southampton 

1847. Oxford... 



SECTION A. MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICS. 

Rev. Dr. Robinson Prof. Sir W. R. Ilamilton, Prof. 

Wlieatstone. 

Rev. William Whewell, F.E.S,... Prof. Forbes, W. S. Harris, F. W. 

Jerrard. 

Sir D. Brewster, F.R.S W. S. Harris, Rev. Prof. Powell, Prof. 

Stevellv. 
Sir J. F. W. Ilerschel, Bart., Rev. Prof. Clievallier, Major Sabine, 
F.R.S. I Prof. SlevcUv. 

Rev. Prof. Whewell, F.R.S J. D. Chance, W. Snow Harris Prof. 

j Stevelly. 

Prof. Forbes, F.R.S Rev. Dr. Forbes, Prof. SteveUy, Arch. 

1 Smith. 

Rev. Prof. Lloyd, F.R.S Trof Stevellv. 

Very Rev. G. Peacock, D.D.,';Prof. M'Culloch, Prof. Stevelly, Rev. 
F.R.S. W. Scoresby. 

Prof. M'Culloch, M.R.T.A J. Nott, Prof. Stevelly. 

The Earl of Ro.sse, F.R.S Rev. Wm. Hey, Prof. Stevelly. 



1848. Swansea . . 

1849. Birmingham 

1850. Edinburgh.. 

1851. Ipswich 

1852. Belfast 

1853. Hull 

1854. Liverpool... 

1855. Glasgow ... 

1856. Cheltenham 

1857. Dublin... 



1S58. Leeds 



The Very Rev. the Dean of Ely 

Sir John F. W. Ilerscliel, Bart. 

F.R.S. 
Rev. Prof. PoweU, M.A., F.R.S. 

Lord Wrotteslev, F.R.S 

William Hopkins, F.R.S 

Prof. J. D. Forbes, F.R.S., Sec. 

R.S.E. 
Rev. W. VHiewell, D.D., F.R.S., 

&c. 
Prof.' W. Thomson, M.A., F.R.S 

L. & E. 
The Dean of Ely, F.E.S 

Prof. G. G. Stokes, M.A., Sec. 

R.S. 
Rev. Prof. Kelland, M.A., F.R.S. 

L.&E. 
Rev. R. Walker, M.A., F.R.S. .. 

Rev.T. E. Robin,son,D.D.,F.R.S. 
M.R.I.A. 

Rev. W. Whewell, D.D., V.P.R.S, 



Rev. H. Goodwin, Prof. Stevelly, G. 

Cr. Stokes. 
Jolm Drew, Dr. Stevelly, G. G. 

Stokes. 
Rev. H. Price, Prof. Stevelly, G. G. 

Stokes. 
Dr. Stevelly, G. G. Stokes. 
Prof. Stevelly, G. G. Stokes, W, 

Ridout Wills. 
W. J. Maequorn Rankine, Prof. Smyth, 

Prof. Stevelly, Prof. G. G. Stokes. 
S. Jackson, W. J. Maequorn Rankine, 

Prof. Stevelly, Prof. G. G. Stokes. 
Prof. Dixon, W. J. Maequorn Ran- 
kine, Prof. Stevelly, J. Tyndall. 

B. Blaydes Haworth, J. D. Sollilt,. 
Prof! Stevelly, J. Welsh. 

J. Hartnup, H. G. Puekle, Prof. 

Stevelly. J. Tyndall. J. V.'elsh. 
Rev. Dr. Forbes, Prof. D. Gray, Prof. 

Tyndall. 

C. Brooke, Rev. T. A. Southwood, 
Prof Stevelly, Rev. J. C. TurnbuU. 

Prof. Curl is, Prof Henno.ssy, P. A. 

Kinnis, W. J. Maequorn Rankine, 

Prof. StevfcUy . 
Rev. S. Earnshaw, J. P. Hennessy, 

Prof. Stevelly. H. J. S. Smitii, PrJf. 

Tyndall. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



XXXI 



Date and Place. 


1859. 


Aberdeen ... 


1860. 


Oxford 


18G1. 


Manchester . 


1862. 


Cambridge .. 


1863. 


Newcastle. . . 


1864 


Bath 


186.5. 


Birmingham 


1866. 


Nottingham 


1867. 


Dundee 


1868. 


Norwich . . . 


1869. 


Exeter 


1870. 


Liverpool . . . 



1871. Edinburgh 



1872. 
1873. 

1874. 



Brighton .. 
Bradford .. 
Belfast 



1875. Bristol 



Presidents. 



The Earl of Eosse, M.A., K.P., 

Rev. B. Price, M.A., F.R.S 

a. B. Airy, M.A., D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Prof. G. G. Stokes, M.A., F.R.S. 

Prof. W. J. ]\Iacqiiorn Rankine, 

C.E., F.R.S. 
Prof. Cayley, M.A., F.R.S., 

F.R.A.S. 
W. Spottiswoode, M.A., F.R.S., 

F.R.A.S. 

Prof. Wheatstone, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Prof. Sir W. Thomson, D.C.L., 
Prof. J. Tyndall, LL.D., F.R.S... 

Prof. J. J. Sylvester, LL.D., 

F.R.S. 
J. Clerk Maxwell, M.A., LL.D., 

F.R.S. 

Prof. P. G. Tait, F.R.S.E 



W. De La Rue, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Prof. H. J. S. Smith, F.R.S 

Rev. Prof. J. H. Jellett, M.A., 
M.R.I.A. 

Pi-of. Balfour Stewart, M.A., 
LL.D., F.R.S. 



Secretaries. 



3. P. Hennessy, Prof Maxwell, H. J. 8. 

Smith, Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. G. C. Bell, Rev. T. Eennison, 

Prof. Stevelly. 
Prof R. B. Clifton, Prof. H. J. S. 

Smith, Prof. Stevelly. 
Prof R. B. Clifton, 'Prof. H. J. S. 

Smith, Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. N. Ferrers, Prof. Fuller, F. Jenkin, 

Prof. Stevelly, Rev. C. T. Wliitley. 
Prof. Fuller, F. Jenkin, Rev. G 

Buckle, Prof SteveUy. 
Rev. T. N. Hutchinson, F. Jenkin, G. 

S. Mathews, Prof. H. J. S. Smith, 

J. M. Wilson. 
Fleoniing Jenkin, Prof. H. J. S. Smitli, 

Rev. !S. N. Swann. 
Rev. G. Buckle. Prof. G. C. Foster 

Prof. Fuller, Prof Swan. 
Prof. G. C. Foster, Rev. R. Ilarley, 

R. B. Hayward. 
Prof. G. C. Foster, R. B. Hayward, 

W. K. Clifford. 
Prof W. G. Adams, W. Iv. Cliilbrd 

Prof. G. C. Foster, Rev. W. Allen 

Whitworth. 
Prof. W. G. Adams, J. T. Bottomlcy 

Prof. W. K. Cliiford, Prof J. D.' 

Everett, Rev. R. Harley. 
Prof W.K.Clifford, J.W.L. Glaishcr 

Prof A. S. Hersehel. G. F. Rodwell' 
Prof. W. K. Clifford, Prof. Forbes, J. 

W. L. Glaisher, Prof.A.S.Herschel. 
J. W. L. Glaisher, Prof Hersehel, 

Randal Nixon, J. Perry, G. F. Rod- 
well. 
Prof.W. F. Barrett, J.W. L. Glaishcr 

C. T. Hudson, G. F. Rodwell. 



CHEMICAL SCIENCE. 



1832. 
1833. 
1834. 



1835. 
1836. 

1837. 

1838. 

1839. 
1840. 

1841. 

1842. 



COMMITTEE OF SCIEXCES, II. — CHEMISTRY, MINERALOGY. 

Oxford IJohn Dalton, D.C.L., F.R.S iJames F. W. Johnston. 

Cambridge.. Ijohu Dalton, D.C.L., F.R.S jProf. Miller. 

Edhiburgh...|Dr.IIope |Mr. Johnston, Dr. Christison. 

SECTION E.-- 



CHEMISTEY AND MINERALOGY 

Dublin Dr. T. Thomson, F.R.S 

Rev. Prof. Cumming 



Bristol 

Liverpool... 

Newcastle. . . 

Birmingham 
Glasgow . . . 

Plymouth... 

Manchester. 



Dr. Apjohn, Prof Johnston. 

Dr. Apjobn, Dr. C. Henry, W. Hera- 
path. 

Prof. Johnston, Prof Miller, Dr. 
Reynolds. 

Prof' Miller, R. L. Pattinson, Thomas 
Richardson. 

Golding Bird, M.D., Dr. J. B. Melson. 

Dr. R. D. Thomson, Dr. T. Clark, 
Dr. L. Playfair. 

J. Pridcaux, Robert Hunt, W. M. 
Tweedv. 
Jolin Dalton, D.C.L, F.R.S Dr.L. Playfair,E. Hunt, J. Graham. 



Michael Faraday, F.R.S 

Rev. William Whewell, F.R.S.. 

Prof. T. Graham, F.R.S 

Dr. Thomas Thomson, F.R.S. . 

Dr.Daubeny, F.R.S 



XXXll 



REPORT — 1875. 



Date and Place. 



Presidents. 



Secretaries. 



1843. 
1844. 
1845. 

1846. 
1847. 
1848. 
1849. 
1850. 
1851. 
1852. 



Cork 

York 

Cambridge . 

Southampton 
Oxford ... 
Swansea 
Birmingham 
Edinburgh . 
Ipswich 
Belfast ... 



Prof. Apjohn, M.E.I.A. 
Prof. T. Graham, F.E.S. 
Eev. Prof. Cumming 



1853. Hull , 



1854. 
1855. 
1856. 

1857. 

1858. 

1859. 

1860. 

1861. 
1862. 



Liverpool . . . 
Glasgow . . . 
Cheltenham 



Dublin 

Leeds 

Aberdeen .. 
Oxford 



Manchester . 
Cambridge . 



1863. Newcastle.. 



1864. 
1865. 

1866. 

1867. 

1868. 

1869. 

1870. 
1871. 

1872. 
1873. 
1874. 
1875. 



Bath 

Birmingham 

Nottingham 

Dundee ... 

Norwich . . . 

Exeter 

Liverpool . . . 

Edinburgh 

Brighton ... 

Bradford ... 

Belfast 

Bristol 



Michael Faraday, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Eev.W.V.Harcoui-t, M.A., F.E.S 

Eichard Phillips, F.E.S 

John Percy. M.D., F.E.S 

Dr. Christison, V.P.E.S.B 

Prof. Thomas Graham, F.E.S. ... 
Thomas Andrews, M.D., F.E.S. . 

Prof. J. F. W. Johnston, M.A., 

"CI T? (J 

Prof. W. A. Miller, M.D., F.E.S. 
Dr. Lyon Playfair, C.B., F.E.S. . 
Prof. B. C. Brodie, F.E.S. ... 



E. Hunt, Dr. Sweeny. 

Dr. E. Playfair, E. Solly, T. H. Barker. 

E. Hunt, J. P. Joule, Prof.MHler, 

E. Solly. 
Dr. Miller, E. Hunt, W. Eandall. 
B. C. Brodie, E. Hunt, Prof SoUy. 
T. H. Henry, R. Hunt, T. Williams. 
E. Hunt, G. Shaw. 
Dr. Anderson, E. Hunt, Dr. Wilson. 
T. J. Pearsall, W. S. Ward. 
Dr. Gladstone, Prof Hodges, Prof. 

Eonalds. 
H. S. Blundell, Prof. E. Hunt, T. J. 

Pearsall. 
Dr. Edwards, Dr. Gladstone, Dr. Price. 
Prof Frankland, Dr. IT. E. Eoscoe. 
J. Horsley, P. J. Worsley, Prof. 

Voelcker. 
Dr. Davy, Dr. Gladstone, Prof. Sul- 

livan. 
Dr. Gladstone, W. OdUng, R. Eey- 

nolds. 
J. S. Brazier, Dr. Gladstone, G. D. 

Liveing, Dr. Odling. 
A. Vernon Harcourt, G. D. Liveing, 

A. B. Northcote. 
A. Vernon Harcourt, G. D. Liveing. 
H. W. Elphinstone, W. Odling, Prof. 

Eoscoe. 
Prof. Liveing, H. L. Pattinson, J. C. 

Stevenson. 
A. V. Harcoui-t, Prof. Liveing, E. Biggs. 
A. V. Harcourt, H. Adldns, Prof. 

Wanklyn, A. Winkler Wills. 
J. H. Atherton, Prof Liveing, W. J. 

Eiissell, J. White. 
A. Crum Brovra, Prof. G. D. Liveing, 

W. J. EusseU. 
Dr. A. Cram Brown, Dr. W. J. Rus- 

sell, F. Sutton. 
Prof. A. Crum Brown, M.D., Dr. W. 

J. EusseU, Dr. Atkinson. 
Prof. A. Crum Brown, M.D., A. E. 

Fletcher, Dr. W. J. EusseU. 
J. T. Buchanan, W. N. Hartley, T. E. 

Thorpe. 
Dr. Mills, W. Chandler Eoberts, Dr. 

W. J. EusseU, Dr. T. Wood. 
Dr. Armstrong, Dr. Mills, W. Chan- 
dler Eoberts, Dr. Thorpe. 
Prof A. Crum-Brown, M.D., Dr. T. Cranstoun Charles, W. Chand- 

F.E.S.E., P.C.S. I ler Eoberts, Prof. Thorpe. 

A. G. Vernon Harcourt, M.A., Dr. H. E. Armstrong, W. Chandler 
F.E.S., F.C.S. I Eoberts, W. A. Tilden. 



Prof. Apjohn, M.D., F.E.S., 

M.E.I.A. 
Sir J. F. W. Herscliel, Bart., 

D.C.L. 
Dr. Lyon Playfair, C.B., F.E.S. . 

Prof. B. C. Brodie, F.E.S 

Prof. W. A. MiUer, M.D., F.E.S. 
Prof. W. A. Miller, M.D., F.E.S. 

Dr. Alex. W. Williamson, F.E.S. 

W. Odling, M.B., F.E.S., F.C.S 
Prof. W. A. MUler, M.D., V.P.E.S. 

H. Bence Jones, M.D., F.E.S. ... 

Prof. T.Anderson,M.D., F.E.S E. 

Prof.E. Frankland, F.E.S., F.C.S. 

Dr. H. Debus, F.R.S., F.C.S. ... 

Prof H. E. Eoscoe, B.A., F.R.S., 

F C S 
Prof. T. Andrews, M.D., F.R.S. 

Dr. J. H. Gladstone, F.R.S 

Prof. W. J. EusseU, F.R.S 



GEOLOGICAL (and, until 1851, GEOGRAPHICAL) SCIENCE. 

COMMITTEE OP SCIENCES, III. GEOLOGY AUB GEOGRAPnY. 



1832. Oxford 

1833. Cambridge . 

1834. Edinburgh . 



E. I. Murthison, F.E.S. .. 
G. B. Greenough, F.E.S. .. 
Prof. Jame.sou 



John Taylor. 

W. Lonsdale, John Phillips. 
Prof. Phillips, T. Jameson Torrie, 
Eev. J. Yates. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



XXX ill 



Dato and Place. 



Presidents. 



Secretaries. 



1835. 
1836. 

1837. 

1838. 

1839. 

1810. 

1841. 
1842. 
1843. 
1844. 
1845. 
184(3. 

1847. 

1848. 
1849. 
1850. 



SECTION C. GEOLOGY AND GEOGRAPHY. 

Dublin R. J. GriffiHi 'Captain Portlock, T. J. Torrie. 

Rev. Dr. Buckland, F.R.S.—ffeo- William Sanders, S. Sfcntohbury, T. J. 
graph;/. R. I. Murchison.P.R.S. Torrie. 

Rer.Prof.Sedg\vick,F.R.S. — Geo- Captain Portlock, R. 'Rwn^r.— Geo- 
graphy. Gr.B.GrreenoughjF.R.S.l qraphi/. Captain H M. Denham,R-N. 

C. Lyell, F.R.S., V.P.G.S.— frw- \V. C. 'Trevclyan, Capt, Portlock.— 



Bristol 
Liverpool . . . 

Newcastle... 



graphj. Lord Prudliop 
Biriningham'Rev. Dr. Buckland, P.R.S. — Geo- 
graphy. G.B.Greenongli,F.R.S. 
Charles Lyell, F.R.S.— ffcoy/'rt- 
■phj. G.B. Greenough, F.R.S. 



Glasgow 



Francis M. Jennings, H. E. Strick- 
land. 
Prof. Ansted, E. H. Bunbuiy. 



Geographi/. Cajat. Wasliington 
George Lloyd, M.D., H. E. Strickland, 

Charles Darwin. 
W. J. Hamilton, D. Milne, Hugh 
Murray, H. E. Strickland, John 
Sooular, M.D. 
W. J. Hamilton, Edward Moore,M.D., 

R. Hutton. 
E. W. Binncy, R. Hutton, Dr. R 
_ Lloyd, H. E. Strickland 
Richard E. 
M.R.I.A. 
Henry Warburton, M.P., Pres. 

Geol. Soc. 
Rev. Prof. Sedgwick, M. A., F.R.S. 'Rev. J. C. Cumming, A. C. Ramsay, 

Rev. W. Thorp. 
Robert A. Auaten, J. H. Norten, M.D., 
Prof. Oldham. — Geography. Dr. C. 
T. Beke. 
Prof. Ansted, Prof. Oldham, A. C. 

Ramsay, J. Ruskin. 
Starling Benson, Prof. Oldham, Prof. 

Ramsay. 
J. Beete Jukes, Prof. Oldliam, Prof. 
A. C. Ramsay. 
Edinburgh *|Sir RoderickI.Murchison,F.R.S.|A. Keith Johnston, Hugh Miller, Pro- 
fessor Nicol. 



Plymouth . , 
Manchester 

Cork 

York 

Cambridge 
Southampton 



O-dbrd 

Swansea . . . 
Birmingham 



H. T. De la Beche, F.R.S 

R. L Murchison, F.R.S 

Griffith, F.R.S., 



LeonardHorner,F.R.S. — Geogra- 
phy. G. B. Greenough, F.R.S. 

Very Rev. Dr. Buckland, F.R.S. 

Sir H. T. De la Beche, C.B.^ 

F R S 
Sir Charles Lyell, F.R.S., F.G.S. 



1851. Ipswich ... 

1852. Belfast ...... 

185.3. HuU 

1854. Liverpool . . 

1855. Glasgow ... 
185G. Cheltenham 

1857. Dublin 

1858. Leeds 

1859. Aberdeen ... 
18G0. Oxford 



SECTION c (continued). — geology 
WiUiam Hopkins, M.A., F.R.S... 

Lieut.-Col.Portlock,R.E., F.R.S. 



Prof. Sedgwick, F.R.S 

Prof. Edward Forbes, F.R.S. . . . 

Su- R. I. Murchison, F.R.S 

Prof. A. C. Ramsay, F.R.S 

The Lord Talbot de Malahide ... 

William Hopkins, M.A., LL.D., 

F R S 
Sir Charles Lyell, LL.D., D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
R«v. Prof. Sedgwick, LL.D., 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 



C. J. F. Bunbury, G. W. Ormerod, 

Searles Wood. 
James Bryce, James MacAdam, Prof. 

M'Coy, Prof. Nicol. 
Prof. Harkness, William Lawton. 
John Cunningham, Prof. Harkness, 

G. W. Ormerod, J. W. Woodall. 
James Brycc, Prof. Harkness, Prof. 

Nicol. 
Rev. P. B. Brodie, Rev. R. Hepworth, 

Edward Hull, J. Scougall, T.Wright. 
Prof. Harkness, Gilbert Sanders, Ro- 
bert H. Scott. 
Prof. Nicol, H. C. Sorby, E. W. 

Shaw. 
Prof. Harkness, Rev. J. Longmuir, H. 

C. Sorby. 
Prof. Harkness, Edward Hull, Capt. 

WoodaU. 



* At a Meeting of the General Committee held in 1850, it was resolved "That thG_ 
subject of Geography be separated from Geology and combined with Ethnology, to consti 
tute a separate Section, under the title of the " Geograpliical and Ethnological Section, '- 
for Presidents and Secretaries of which see page xxxvii. 

1875. c 



XXXIV 



UEPORT — 1875, 



Date and Place. 



1861. Maucliester 

1862. Cambridge 

1863. Newcastle ... 

1864. Bath 

1865. Birmingham 
1860. Nottingham 
18G7. Dundee 

1868. Norwich ... 

1869. Exeter 

1870. Liverpool... 

1871. Edinburgh.. 

1872. Brighton ... 

1873. Bradford ... 

1874. Belfast ... 

1875. Bristol,.. 



Presidents. 



Su- R. I. Mm-chison, D.C.L., 

LL.D., F.E.S., &c. 
J. Beete Jukes, M.A., F.E.S 

Prof. Warington W. Smyth, 

E.R.S.,F.G.S. 
Prof. J. Phillips, LL.D., F.R.S., 

F.G.S. 
Sii- E. I. Murchison, Bart.,K.C.B. 

Prof.A.C. Eamsay, LL.D., F.E.S. 

Archibald Geikie, F.R.S., F.G.S. 

E. A. C. Godwin-Austen, F.E.S., 

F.G.S. 
Prof. E. Harbiess, F.R.S., F.G.S 

Sir Philip de M. Grey Egerton, 

Bart., M.P., F.E.S. 
Prof. A. Geikie, F.E.S., F.G.S.. 

E. A. C. Godwin-Austen, F.E.S. 

Prof. J. Phillips, D.C.L., F.E.S., 

- F.G.S. 

Prof. Hull, M.A., F.E.S., F.G.S 

Dr. Thomas Wright, F.R.S.B., 
F.G.S. 



Secretaries. 



Prof. Harkness, Edward Hull, T. Eu- 

pert Jones, G. W. Ormerod. 
Lucas Barrett, Prof. T. Eupert Jones, 

H. C. Sorby. 
E. F. Boyd, Jolui Daglish, H. C. Sor- 
by, Thomas Sopwith. 
W. B. Dawkins, J. Johnston, H. C. 

Sorby, W. PengeUy. 
Eev. P. B. Brodie, J. Jones, Eev. E. 

Myers, H. C. Sorby, W. PengoUy. 
E. Etheridge, W. PengeUy, T. Wil- 

sou, G. H. Wright. 
Edward Hidl, W. PengeUy, Henry 

Woodward. 
Eev. O. Fisher, Eev. J. Gunn, W. 

PengeUy, Eev. H. H. Win wood. 
W. Pengelly, W. Boyd Dawkins, Eev. 

H. H. Winwood. 
W. PengeUy, Eev. H. H. Winwood, 

W. BoydDawkins, G. H. Morton. 

E. Etheridge, J. Geikie, J. McKenny 
Hughes, L. C. Miall. 

L. C. Miall. George Scott, William 
Topley, Henry Woodward. 

L. C. MiaU, E. H. Tiddeman, W. 
Topley. 

F. Drew, L. C. Miall, E. G. Symes, 
E. H. Tiddeman. 

L. C. MiaU, E. B. Tawney, W. Topley. 



BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES. 

COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, IV. ZOOLOGY, BOTANY, PHYSIOLOGY, AH^ATOMY. 



1832. Oxford 

1833. Cambridge* 

1834. Edijiburgh 



Eev. P. B. Duncan, F.G.S 

Eev. W. L. P. Garuons, F.L.S.. 
Prof. Graham 



Eev. Prof. J. S. Henslow. 
C. C. Babington, D. Don. 
W. YarreU, Prof. Burnett. 



1835, Dublin 

1836. Bristol 



SECTION D.— 

Dr. Allman 

Eev. Prof. Henslow 



W. S. MacLeay 

Sir W. Jardine, Bart 

Prof. Owen, F.E.S 

Sir W. J. Hooker, LL.D 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY. 

J. Curtis, Dr. Litton. 

J.Curtis, Prof. Don, Dr. Eiley, S. 
Eootsey. 

C. C. Babington, Eev. L. Jenyns, W. 
Swain.son. 

J. E. Gray, Prof. Jones, E. Owen, Dr. 
Eichardson. 

E. Forbes, W. Ick, E. Patterson. 

Prof. W. Couper, E. Forbes, E. Pat- 
terson. 

J. Couch, Dr. Lankester, E. Patterson, 

Dr. Lankester, E. Patterson, J. A. 
Turner. 

G. J. AUman, Dr. Lankester, E. Pat- 
terson. 

Prof. Allman, H. Goodsir, Dr. Xing, 
Dr. Lankester. 

Dr. Lankester, T. V. Wollaston. 

Dr. Lankester, T. V. Wollaston, H. 
Wooldridge, 

Dr. Lankester, Dr. MelviUe, T. V- 
WoUaston. 

* At this Meeting Physiology and Anatomy were made a separate Committee, for 
Presidents and Sfcretarips of wliich see xsxp. vi. 



1837. Liverpool 

1838. Newcastle 

1839. Erimingham 

1840. Glasgow „. 

1841. Plymouth... 

1842. Manchester 



1843. Cork 

1844. York 



John Eichardson, M.D., F.E.S.. 
Hon. and Very Eev. W. Herbert, 

LL.D., F.L.S. 
WiUiam Thompson, F.L.S 



Very Eev. The DeanofManches 
ter. 

1845. Cambridge JRev. Prof. Henslow, F.L.S 

1846. Southampton Sir J. Eichardson, M.D., F.E.S, 



1847. Oxford. 



H. E. Strickland, M.A,, F.E.S... 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



XXXV 



Date and Place. 



Presidents. 



Secretaries. 



SECTION D {continued). — zoology and botany, iNCirDiNG physiology. 

[For the Presidents and Secretaries of the Anatomical and Physiological Subsections 
and the temporary Section E of Anatomy and Medicine, see p. xxxvi.] 



1848. Swansea ... 

1849. Birmingham 

1850. Edinburgh.. 



William Spence, F.E.S 

Prof. Goodsir, E.E.S. L. &E. 



1851. Ipswich. 

1852. Belfast . 



W. Ogilby 



1853. Hull 

1854. Liverpool ... 

1855. Glasgow .., 

1856. Cheltenham 

1857. Dublin 

1858. Leeds 

1859. Aberdeen .. 

1860. Oxford 

1861. Manchester.. 

1862. Cambridge.. 

1863. Newcastle.. 

1864. Bath 

1865. Bu-mingham 



L. W. DiUwyn, RR.S. .. 



..[Dr. R. Wilbraham Falconer, A. Ilen- 
frey, Dr. Lankester. 

..Dr. Lankester, Dr. Russell. 

..Prof. J. H. Bennett, M.D., Dr. Lan- 
kester, Dr. Douglas Maclagan. 
Rev. Prof. Henslow, M.A., F.E.S. Trof. Allman, F. W. Johnston, Dr. E, 



C. C. Babington, M.A., F.R.S... 

Prof. Balfour, M.D., F.R.S 

Rev. Dr. Fleeming, F.R.S.E. .. 
Thomas Bell, F.R.S., Pres.L.S.... 

Prof. \V. H. Harvey, M.D., F.R.S. 

C. C. Babington, M.A., F.E.S.... 

Sir W. Jardine, Bart., F.R.S.E.. 

Rev. Prof. Henslow, F.L.S 

Prof. C. C. Babington, F.R.S. ... 

Prof. Huxley, F.R.S 

Prof. Balfour, M.D., F.E.S 

Dr. John E. Gray, F.E.S 

T. Thomson, M.D., F.E.S 



Lankester. 
Dr. Dickie, George C. Hyndman, Dr. 

Edwin Lankester. 
Robert Harrison, Dr. E. Lankester. 
Isaac Byerley, Dr. E. Lankester. 
William Keddie, Dr. Lankester. 
Dr. J. Abercrombie, Prof. Buckman 

Dr. Lankester. 
Prof J. R.Kinahan,Dr.E. Lankester, 

Robert Patterson, Dr. W. E. Steele. 
Henry Denny, Dr. Heaton, Dr. E. 

Lankester, Dr. E. Perceval Wright. 
Prof. Dickie, M.D^., Dr. E. Lankester, 

Dr. Ogilvy. 
W. S. Church, Dr. E. Lankester, P. 

L. Sclater, Dr. E. Perceval Wright. 
Dr. T. Alcock, Dr. E. Lankester, Dr. 

P. L. Sclater, Dr. E. P. Wright. 
Alfred Newton, Dr. E. P. Wright. 
Dr. E. Charlton, A, Newton, 'ReY. H. 

B. Tristram, Dr. E. P. Wright. 
H. B. Brady, C. E. Broom, H. T. 

Stainton, Dr. E. P. Wright. 
Dr. J. Anthony. Rev. C. Clarke, Rev. 

H. B. Tristram, Dr. E. P. Wright. 



SECTION D {continued). — biology*. 



1866. Nottingham 



1867. Dundee 

1868. Norvrich ... 



1869. Exeter 



Prof. Huxley, LL.D., F.R.S.— 

FhysiologicalBcp. Prof. Hum- 
phry, M.D., ^.'R.&.—Anthrcypo- 
logicalBep. Alfred R. Wallace, 
F* "R P S 

Prof. Sharpey,M.D., Sec. R.S.— 
Bep. of Zool. and Hot. George 
Busk, M.D., F.R.S. 

Rev. M. J. Berkeley, F.L.S.— 
Bep. of Physiology. W. H. 
Flower, F.R.S. 

George Busk, F.R.S., F.L.S.— 
Bep. ofBot and Zool. C. Spence 
Bate, F.E.S.— i>ep. of Ethno 
E. B. Tylor. 



Dr. J. Beddard, W. Felkin, Rev. H. 
B. Tristram, W. Turner, E. B. 
Tylor, Dr. E. P. Wright. 



C. Spence Bate, Dr. S. Cobbold, Dr. 

M. Foster, H. T. Stainton, Rev. H. 

B. TrLstram, Prof. W. Turner. 
Dr. T. S. Cobbold, G. W. Firth, Dr. 

M. Foster, Prof Lawson, H. T, 

Stainton, Rev. Dr. H. B. Tristram, 

Dr. E. P. Wright. 
Dr. T. S. Cobbold, Prof. M. Foster, 

M.D., E. Ray Lankester, Professor 

Lawson, H. T. Stainton, Rev. H. B. 

Tristram. 



* At a Meeting of the General Committee in 1865, it was resolved: — "That the 
title of Section D be changed to Biology;" and "That for the word ' S ibsection,' in the 
rules for conducting the business of the Sections, the word ' Department ' be substituted. 

c2 



XXXVl 



REPORT 1875. 



Date and Place. 



Presidents. 



1870. Livei-pool . . . 



1871. Edinburgh 



1872. Brighton ... 



1873. Bradford ... 



J874. Belfast, 



1875. iBristol.... 



Prof. G. Eolleston, M.A., M.D., 
F.E.S.,F.L.S.— i>«2'. Anat.and 
Physiol. Prof. M. Foster, M.D., 
F.L.S.— -Z)«2J. of Ethno. J. 
Evans, F.E.S. 

Prof.AllenThomson,M.D.,F.E.S. 
— Dep. of But. and Zool. Prof. 
Wyviile Thomson, F.E.S. — 
Bcp. of Anthropol. Prof. W. 
Turner, M.D. 

Sir John Lubbock, Bart., F.E.S. 
— Bep. of Anat. and Physiol. 
Dr. Burdon Sanderson, F.E.S. 
■ — Dtp of Anihropol. Col. A. 
Lane Fox, F.G.S. 

Prof. AUman, F.E.S.— 7)(y;. of 
Anat. and Physiol. Prof. Eu- 
therford, M.D.— %j. of An- 
thropol. Dr. Beddoe, F.E.S. 

Prof. Eedfern, M.D.— Z>fp. of 
Zool. and Bot. Dr. Hooker, 
C.B., Pre.s. E.S..— Z»c/>. of An- 
thropol. Sir W. E.Wilde,M.D. 

P.L.Solater,F.E.S.— i)ep.o/L4««!', 
a);(^P%/sw/. Prof.Cleland,M.D., 

. F.E.S. — Tti'iK of Anthropol. Prof, 
Eolleston, M.D., F.E.S. 



Secretaries. 



Dr. T. S. Cobbold, Sebastian E-vans, 
Prof. Lawson, Thos. J. Moore, H, 
T. Staiuton, Eev. H. B.Tristram, 
C. Staniland M''ake, E. Eay Lan- 
kester. 

Dr. T. R. Eraser, Dr. Arthur Gamgee, 
E. Eay Lankester, Prof. Lawson, 
H. T. Stainton, C. Staniland Wake, 
Dr. W. Eutherford, Dr. Kelburno 
King. 

Prof. Thiselton-Dyer, H. T. Stainton, 
Prof. Lawson, F. W. Eudler, J. H. 
Lamprey, Dr. Gamgee, E. Eay Lan- 
kester, Dr. Pye-Smith. 

Prof. Thiselton-Dyer, Prof. Lawson, 
E. M'Lachlan, Dr. Pve-Smith, E. 
Eay Lankester, P. W. Eudler, J. 
H. Lamprey. 

W. T. Thiselton-Dyer, E. 0. Cunning- 
ham, Dr. J. J. Charles, Dr. P. H. 
Pye-Smith, J. J. Murphy, F. W. 
Eudler. 

E. E. Alston, Dr. McKoudrick, Prof. 
W. E. M'Nab, Dr. Martyn, F. W. 
Eudler, Dr. P. 11. Pye-Smith, Dr. 
W. Spencer. 



ANATOMICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL SCIENCES. 

COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, V. ANATOMY AND rnYSIOLOGT. 



1833. Cambridge... 

1834. Edinburgh... 



Dr. Haviland IDr. Bond, Mr. Paget. 

Dr. Abercrombie JDr. Eoget, Dr. William Thomson. 



1835. 
1836. 

1837. 

1838. 
1839. 
1840. 
1841. 

1842. 
1843. 
1844. 



SECTION E. (iTNTII. 1847.) ANATOMY AND MEDICINE. 

Dublin ' Dr. Pritchard i Dr. Harrison, Dr. Hart 

Bristol Dr. Eoget, F.E.S 'Dr. Symonds. 

Liverpool ...'Prof. W. Clark, M.D iDr. J. Carson, jun., James Long, Dr 

I I J. E. W. Vose. 

Newcastle ... T. E. Headlam, M.D T. M. Greenhow, Dr. J. E. W. Voso. 

Birmingham John Yelloly, M.D^ F.E.S 'Dr. G. O. Eees, F. Eyland. 



Glasgow ...'James Watson, M.D. 
Plymouth ...IP. M. Eoget, M.D., Sec.E.S. 

Manchester .JEdward Holme, M.D., F.L.S. 

Cork Sir Jame.s Pitcairn, M.D 

York |J. C. Pritchard, M.D 



Dr. J. Brown, Prof.Couper, Prof.Eeid. 
Dr. J. Butter, J. Fuge, Dr. E. S. 

Sargent. 
Dr. Oiaytor, Dr. E. S. Sargent. 
Dr. John Popham, Dr. E. S. Sargent. 
I. Erichsen, Dr. E. S. Sargent. 



SECTION E. PnYSIOLOGY. 

jProf. .T. Haviland, M.D jDr. E. S. Sargent, Dr. Webster. 



184.5. Cambridge 

1846.Southampton'Prof. Owen, M.D., F.E.S... 

1847. Oxford* ... Prof. Ogle, M.D., F.E.S. 



C. P. Keele, Dr. Laycock, Dr. Sargent. 

Dr. Thomas K Chamber.s, W. P. 

Ormcrod. 



18,j0. Edinburgh 
1855. Glasgow .. 
1857. Dublin 



PHYSIOLOGICAL SUIISECTTONS OF SECTION D. 

Prof. Bennett, M.D., F.E.S.E, 
Prof. Allen Thomson, F.E.S. 
Prof. E. Harrison, M.D 



Prof. J. H. Corbett, Dr. J. Struthers. 
Dr. E. D. Lyons, Prof. Eedfern. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



xxxvn 



Date and Place. 



1858. Leeds 

1859. Aberdeen... 

1860. Oxford 

18(j1. Manchester. 

1862. Cambridge . 

1863. Newcastle... 

1864. BatL 

1865.Birminghm*. 



Presidents. 



Sir Benjamin Brodie, Bart., F.E.S. 
Prof. Siiarpey, M.D., Sec.E.S. ... 
Prof. G-. Eolleston, M.D., F.L.S. 
Dr. John Davy, F.R.S.L. & E. . . . 

C. E. Paget, M.D 

Prof. Eolleston, M.D., P.E.S. ... 
Dr. Edward Smith, LL.D., F.E.S. 
Prof. Acland, M.D., LL.D., F.E.S. 



Secretaries. 



C. G. Wheelhouse. 
Prof. Bennett, Prof. Eedfern. 
Dr. E. M'Donnell, Dr. Edward Smith. 
Dr. W. Eoberts, Dr. Edward Smith. 
G. F. Helm, Dr. Edward Smith. 
Dr. D. Embleton, Dr. W. Turner. 
J. S. Bartrum, Dr. W. Turner. 
Dr. A. Fleming, Dr. P. Heslop, Oliver 
Pembleton, Dr. W. Turner. 



GEOGEAPHICAL AND ETHNOLOGICAL SCIENCES. 

[For Presidents and Secretaries for Geography previous to 1851, see Section 0, p. xxxii.] 

ETHNOLOGICAL SUBSECTIONS OF SECTION D. 
Dr. Pritchard Dr. King. 



1846. Southampton 

1847. Oxford 

1848. Swansea ... 

1849. Birmingham 

1850. Edinburgh.. 



1851. Ipswich ... 

1852. Belfast 

1853. Hull 

1854. Liverpool... 

1855. Glasgow ... 

1856. Cheltenham 

1857. Dublin 

1858. Leeds 

1859. Aberdeen ... 

1860. Oxford 

1861. Manchester. 

1862. Cambridge . 

1863. Newcastle... 

1864. Bath 

1865. Birmingham 

1866. Nottingham 



Prof. H. H. Wilson, M.A. 



Vice-Admiral Sir A. Malcolm 



Prof. Buckley. 
G. Grant Francis. 
Dr. E. G. Latham, 
Daniel Wilson. 



SECTION E. GEOGEAPHT AND ETHNOLOGY. 



1867. Dundee.. 

1868. Norwich 



Sir E. I. Murchison, F.E.S., Pres. 

■p p Q 

Col. Chesney, E.A., D.C.L., 

F.E.S. 
R. G. Latham, M.D., F.E.S. ... 

Sir E. I. Murchison, D.C.L., 

F.E.S. 
Sir J. Eichardson, M.D., P.E.S. 

Col. Sir H. C. Eawlinson, K.C.B. 

Eev. Dr. J. HenthawnTodd, Pres. 

E.I.A. 
Sir E. I. Murchison, G.C.St.S., 

F.E.S. 
Eear-Admiral Sir James Clerk 

Eoss, D.C.L., P.E.S. 
Sir E. L Murchison, D.C.L., 

P.E.S. 
John Crawfurd, P.E.S 

Francis Galton, F.E.S 

Sir E. I. Murchiison, K.C.B., 

F.E.S. 
Sii' E. I. Murchison, K.C.B., 

F.E.S. 
Major-General Sir H. Eawlinson 

M.P., K.C.B., F.E.S. 
Sir Charles Nicholson, Bart., 

LL.D. 

Sir Samuel Baker, F.E.G.S 

Capt. G. H. Eichards, R.N., F.E.S 



E. CuU, Eev. J. W. Donaldson, Dr. 
Norton Shaw. 

R. Cull, E. MacAdam, Dr. Norton 
Sliaw. 

E. Cull, Eev. H. W. Kemp, Dr. Nor- 
ton Shaw. 

Eichard Cull, Rev. H. Higgins, Dr. 
Ihne, Dr. Norton Shaw. 

Dr. W. G. Blackie, E. Cull, Dr. Nor- 
ton Shaw. 

R. Cull, P. D. Hartland, W.H.Eum- 
sey. Dr. Norton Shaw. 

E. Cull, S. Ferguson, Dr. E. E. Mad- 
den, Dr. Norton Shaw. 

E. Cull, Francis Galton, P.O'Callaghan, 
Dr. Norton Shaw, Thomas Wright. 

Eichard Cull, Professor Geddes, Dr. 
Norton Shaw. 

Capt. Bm-rows, Dr. J. Hunt, Dr. C. 
Lerapriere, Dr. Norton Shaw. 

Dr. J. Hunt, J. Kingsley, Dr. Norton 
Shaw, W. Spottiswoode. 

J. W. Clarke, Eev. J. Glover, Dr. 
Hunt, Dr. Norton Shaw, T. Wright. 

C. Carter Blake, Hume Greenfield, 

C. E. Markham, E. S. Watson. 

H. W. Bates, C. E. Markliam, Capt. 

E. M. Murchison, T. Wright. 
H. W. Bates, S. Evans, G. Jabet, C. 

E. Markham, Thomas Wright. 
H. W. Bates, Eev. E. T. Cusins, E. 

H. Major, Clements E. Markliam, 

D. W. Nash, T. Wright. 

H. W. Bates, Cyril Graham, C. E. 
Markham, S. J. Mackie, E. Sturroek. 

T. Bailies, H. W. Bates, C. E. Mark- 
ham, T. Wright. . 



* Vide note on page xxxv. 



xxxviu 



REPORT 1875. 



Date and Place. 



Presidents. 



Secretaries. 



1869. 
1870, 
1871. 
1872. 
1873. 
1874. 
1875. 



Exeter 

Liverpool . . . 
Edinburgh. 
Brighton .., 
Bradford ... 

Belfast 

Bristol 



SECTION E (continued). — geography. 



Sir Bartle Frere, K.C.B., LL.D. 

F.E.G.S. 
Sir E. I. Murchison, Bt., K.C.B.. 

LL.D., D.C.L., F.E.S., F.G.S. 
Colonel Yule, C.B., F.E.G.S. ... 

Francis Galton, F.E. S 

Sir Kutherford Alcock, K.C.B.... 

Major Wilson, E.E., F.E.S., 

F.E.G.S. 
Lieut.-General Strachey, E.E., 

C.S.L.F.E.S., F.E.G.S., F.L.S., 

F.G.S. 



H. W. Bates, Clements E. Markham, 
J. H, Thomas, 

H. W. Bates, David Buxton, Albert 
J. Mott, Clements E. Markham. 

Clements E. Markham, A. Buchan, 
J. H. Thomas, A. Keith Johnston, 

H. W. Bates, A. Keith Johnston, Eev. 
J. Newton, J. H. Thomas. 

ir. W. Bates, A. Keith Johnston, Cle- 
ments E. Markham. 

E. G. Eavenstein, E. C. Eye, J. H. 
Thomas. 

H. W, Bates, E. C. Eye, F. P. Tuckett, 



1833. 
1834. 



1835. 
1836. 

1837. 

1838, 
1839. 

1840, 

1841, 

1842, 

1843, 
1844. 

1845. 
1846. 



STATISTICAL SCIENCE. 

COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, TI, STATISTICS, 

Cambridge .IProf. Babbage, F.E.S j J. E. Drinkwater. 

Edinburgh .jSir Charles Lemon, Bart .....jDr. Cleland, C. Hope Maclean, 

SECTION F, STATISTICS 



Dublin , 
Bristol , 



Liverpool . . . 

Newcastle... 



Charles Babbage, F.E.S 

Sir Charles Lemon, Bart., F.E.S. 



Et. Hon. Lord Sandon 
Colonel Sykes, F.E.S 



Birmingham Henry Hallam, F.E.S 

Glasgow 



Plymouth. . . 
Manchester , 



Cork 

York 

Cambridge . 
Southampton 



1847. Oxford. 



1848. 
1849. 



Swansea . . . 
Birmingham 



1850. Edinburgh . 



1851. 
1852. 

1853. 
1854. 



Ipswich. 
Belfast . 



Hull 

Liverpool 



1855, Glasgow 



W. Greg, Prof. Longfield. 

Eev. J. E. Bromby, C. B. Fripp, 

James Heywood. 
W. E. Greg, W. Langton, Dr. W. C, 

Tayler. 
W. Cargill, J. Heywood, W. E. Wood, 
F. Clarke, E. W. Eawson, Dr. W. C, 

Tayler, 
C. E. Baird, Prof. Eamsay, E. W. 

Eawson. 
Eev. Dr. Byrth, Eev. E. Luney, E. 

W. Eawson. 
Eev. E. Luney, G. W. Ormerod, Dr. 

W. C. Tayler. 
Dr. D. BuUen, Dr. W. Cooke Tayler. 
J. Fletcher, J. Heywood, Dr. Laycock. 
J. Fletcher, W. Cooke Tayler, LL.D. 
J. Fletcher, F. G. P. Neison, Dr. W, 

C. Tayler, Eev. T. L. Shapcott. 
Eev. W. H. Cox, J. J. Danson, F. G. 

P. Neison. 
J. Fletcher, Capt. E. Shortrede. 

Et. Hon. Lord Lyttelton iDr. Finch, Prof. Hancock, F. G. P, 

Neison. 
Very Eev. Dr. John Lee, Prof. Hancock, J. Fletcher, Dr. J. 
V-P.E.S.E. I Stark. 

Sir John P. Boileau, Bart J. Fletcher, Prof. Hancock. 

His Grace the Archbishop of Prof. Hancock, Prof. Ingram, James 

Dublin. j MacAdam, Jun. 

James Heywood, M.P., F.E.S. ...Edward Chesliii-e, William Newmarch. 

Thomas Tooke, F.E.S E. Cheshire, J. T. Danson, Dr. W. H. 

, Duncan, W. Newmarch. 

E. Monckton Milnes, M.P J. A. Campbell, E. Clieshire, W. New- 

marcli, Prof. E. H. Walsh. 



Et. Hon, Lord Sandon, M.P., 

F.E.S. 
Lieut.-Col. Sykes, F.E.S 

G. W. Wood, M.P., F,L.S 

Sir C. Lemon, Bart., M.P 

Lieut.-Col. Sykes, F.E.S., F.L.S. 
Et. Hon, The Earl Fitzwilliam... 
G, E. Porter, F.E.S 

Travers Twiss, D,C.L., F.E.S. ... 

J. H. Vivian, M.P., F.E.S. 



1856, Cheltenham 



SECTION F {continued). — economic science and statistics. 



Et. Hon, Lord Stanley, M.P. ... lEev. C. H. Bromby,E. Cheshire, Dr,W, 

1 N. Hancock Newmarch, W, M. Tartt. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



XXXIX 



Date and Place. 



1857. 
1858, 
1859. 
1860. 
1S61. 

1862. 
1863. 

1864. 

1865. 

1866. 

1867. 

1868. 

1869. 

1870. 

1871. 

1872. 
1873. 

1874. 



Dublin 

Leeds 

Aberdeen .. 
Oxford 

Manchester 

Cambridge. 

Newcastle .. 

Bath 

Birmingham 
Nottingham 
Dundee 

Norwich .. 
Exeter 

Liverpool . . 

Edinburgh 
Brighton ., 
Bradford ., 
Belfast 



Presidents. 



Secretaries. 



His Grace the Archbishop of Prof. Cairns, Dr. H. D. Hutton, W. 
Dublin, M.R.I.A. Newmarch. 

T. B. Baines, Prof. Cairns, S. Brown, 

Capt. Fishbourne, Dr. J. Strang. 
Prof. Cairns, Edmund Macrory, A. M. 

Smith, Dr. John Strang. 
Edmund Macrory, W. Newmarch, 

Eev. Prof. J. E. T. Rogers. 
David Chadwiok, Prof. R. C. Christie, 
E. Macrory, Rev. Prof. J. E. T. 
Rogers. 

H. D. Macleod, Edmund Macrory. 

T. Doubleday, Edmund Macrory, 

I Frederick Purdy, James Potts. 
William Farr, M.D., D.C.L.,!e. Macrory, E. T. Payne, F. Purdy. 

F.R.S. I 

Rt. Hon. Lord Stanley, LL.D., G-. J. D. Goodman, G. J. Johnston, 



Edward Baines 
Col. Sykes, M.P., F.R.S. .. 
Nassau W. Senior, M.A. . . 
William Newmarch, F.R.S. 



Edwin Chadwick, C.B 

William Tite, M.P., F.R.S. 



M.P. 
Prof. J. E. T. Rogers. 



M. E. Grant Duff, M.P. 



E. Macrory. 
R. Birkin, Jun., Prof. Leone Levi, E. 

Macrory. 
Prof. Leone Levi, E. Macrory, A. J. 
Warden. 

Samuel Brown, Pres. Instit. Ac-,Rev. W. C. Davie, Prof. Leone Levi. 
tuaries. 



Rt. Hon. Sir Stafford H. North- 
cote, Bart., C.B., M.P. 
Prof. W. Stanley Jevons, M.A. . 



1875. Bristol, 



Edmund Macrory, Frederick Purdy, 

Charles T. D. Acland. 
Chas. R. Dudley Baxter, E. Macrory, 

J. Miles Moss. 
J. G. Fitch, James Meikle. 



Rt. Hon. Lord Neaves 

Prof. Henry Fawcett, M.P jJ. G. Fitch, Barclay Phillips. 

Rt. Hon. W.E. Forster, M.P.... J. G. Fitch, Swire Smith. 

LordO'Hagan Prof. Donnell, Frank P. Fellows, 

Hans MacMordie. 
P. P. FeUows, T. G. P. Hallett, E. 
Macrory. 



James Heywood, M.A., F.R.S., 
Pres.S.S. 



MECHANICAL SCIENCE. 

SECTION G. MECHAXICAL SCIENCE. 



1836. Bristol 

1837. Liverpool ... 

1838. Newcastle ... 

1839. Birmingham 

1840. Glasgow ... 

1841. Plymouth... 

1842. Manchester . 

1843. Cork 

1844. York 

1845. Cambridge.. 

1846. Southampton 

1847. Oxford 

1848. Swansea 

1849. Birmingham 

1850. Edinburgh .. 

1851. Ipswich 

1852. Belfast 

1853. Hidl 



Davies Gilbert, D.C.L., F.R.S.... 

Rev. Dr. Robinson 

Charles Babbage, F.R.S 

Prof. Willis, F.R.S., and Robert 

Stephenson. 
Sir John Robinson 



John Taylor, F.R.S 

Rev. Prof. Willis, F.R.S 

Prof. J. Macneill, M.R.I.A 

John Taylor, F.R.S 

George Rennie, F.R.S 

Rev. Prof. WiUis, M.A, F.R.S. . 
Rev. Prof. Walker, M.A., F.R.S. 
Rev. Prof. Walker, M.A., F.R.S. 
Robert Stephenson, M.P., F.R.S. 

Rev. Dr. Robinson 

WiUiam Cubitt, F.R.S 

John Walker.C.E., LL.D., F.R.S. 

William Fairbairn, C.E., F.R.S. 



T. G. Bunt, G. T. Clark, W. West. 

Charles Vignoles, Thomas Webster. 

R. Hawthorn, C. Vignoles, T. Webster. 

W. Carpmael, William Hawkes, Tho- 
mas Webster. 

J. Scott Russell, J. Thomson, J. Tod, 
C. Vignoles. 

Henry Chatfield, Thomas Webster. 

J. P. Bateman, J. Scott Russell, J. 
Tliomson, Charles Vignoles. 

James Thomson, Robert Mallet. 

Charles Vignoles, Thomas Webster. 

Rev. W. T. Kingsley. 

William Betts, Jun., Charles Manby. 

J. Glynn, R. A. Le Mesurier. 

R. A. Le Mesm-ier, W. P. Struve. 

Charles Manby, W. P. Marshall. 

Dr. Lees, David Stephenson. 

John Head, Charles Manby. 

John F. Bateman, C. B. Hancock. 
Charles Manby, James Thomson. 

James Oldham, J.Thomson, W. Sykes 
Ward. 



xl 



RE-PORT 1875. 



Date and Place. 

1854. Liverpool ... 

1855. Glasgow . . . 

1856. Cheltenham 

1857. Dublin 

1858. Leeds 

1859. Aberdeen ... 

1860. Oxford 

1861. Manchester . 

1862. Cambridge .. 

1863. Newcastle... 

1864. Bath 

1865. Birmingham 

1866. Nottingham 

1867. Dundee 

1868. Norwich ... 

1869. Exeter 

1870. Liverijool... 

1871. Edinburgh 

1872. Brighton ... 

1873. Bradford 



Presidents, 



Secretaries. 



1874. 
1875. 



Belfast , 
Bristol , 



John Scott Eussell, F.E.S 

W. J. Macquorn Eankine, C.E., 

F.E.S. 
George Eennie, F.E.S 

The Eight Hon. The Earl of Pro 

Eosse, F.E.S. 
William Fairbairn, F.E.S. .. 
Eev. Prof. Willis, M.A., F.E.S. . 

Prof. W. J. Macquorn Eankine, 

LL.D., F.E.S. 
J. F. Bateman, C.E., F.E.S 

William Fairbairn, LL.D., F.E.S. 
Eev. Prof. Willis, M.A., F.E.S. . 

J. Hawkshaw, F.E.S 

Sir W. G. Armstrong, LL.D., 

F.E.S. 
Thomas Hawksley, V.P.Inst. 

C.E., F.G.S. 
Prof. W. J. Macquorn Eankine, 

LL.D., F.E.S. 
G. P. Bidder, C.E., F.E.G.S. .. 

C. W. Siemens, F.E.S 

Chas. B. Vignoles, C.E., F.E.S. 

Prof. Fleeming Jenkin, F.E.S.... 

F. J. Bramwell, C.E 

W. H. Barlow, F.E.S 



Prof James Thomson, LL.D. 

CE., P .E.S.E. 
W. Froude, C.E., M.A., F.E.S.... 



John Grantham, J. Oldham, J. Tliom- 

son. 
L. Hill, Jun., William Eamsay, J. 

Thomson. 
C. Atherton, B. Jones, Jun., H. M. 

Jcffery. 
f Downing, W. T. Doyne, A. Tate 

James Thomson, Henry Wright. 
J. C. Dennis, J. Dixon, H. Wright. 
E. Abernethy, P. Le Neve Fester, H 

Wright. 
P. Le Neve Foster, Eev. F. Harrison, 

Henry Wright. 
P. Le Neve Foster, John Eobinson, H, 

Wright. 
W. M. Fawcett, P. Le Neve Foster. 
P. Le Neve Foster, P. Wcstmacott, J, 

F. Spencer. 
P. Le Neve Foster, Eobert Pitt. ■ 
P. Le Neve Foster, Henry Lea, W. f. 

Marshall, AValter May. 
P. Le Neve Foster, J. F. IseUn, M. 

A. Tarbottom. 
P. Le Neve Foster, John P. Smith, 

W. W. Urquhart. 
P. Le Neve Foster, J. F. Iselin, C. 

Manby, W. Smith. 
P. Le Neve Foster, H. Bauerman. 
H. Bauerman, P. Le Neve Foster, T. 

Eing, J. N. Shoolbred. 
H. Bauerman, Alexander Leslie, J. P. 

Smith. 
H. M. Brunei, P. Le Neve Foster, 

J. G. Gamble, J. N. Shoolbred. 
Ci-awford Barlow, H. Bauerman, S. 

H. Carbult, J. C. Hawkshaw, J. N. 

Shocilbred. 
A. T. Atchison, J. N. Shoolbred, John 

Smyth, jun. 
W. E. Browne, H. M. Brunei, J. G. 

Gamble, J. N. Shoolbred. 



List of Evening Lectures. 



Date and Place. 



1842. Manchester. 



1843. Cork , 



1844. York , 



Lectm'er. 

Charles Vignoles, F.E.S. . 

Sir M. L Brunei 

E. I. Murchison 

Prof. Owen, M.D., F.E.S 
Prof. E. Forbes, F.E.S. , 

Dr. Eobinson 

Charles LyeU, F.E.S 

Dr. Falconer, F.E.S 



Subject of Discourse. 



The Principles and Construction of 

Atmospheric Eailways. 
The Thames Tunnel. 
The Geology of Eussia. 
The Dinornis of New Zealand. 
The Distribution of Animal Life in 

the .3igean Sea. 
The Earl of Eosse's Telescope. 
Geology of North America. 
The Gigantic Tortoise of the Siwalik 

Hills in India. 



LIST OF EVENING LECTURES. 



Xli 



Date and Place. 



1845. Cambridge.. 

1 846. Southampton 

1846. Southampton 

1847. Oxford ... 



1848. Swansea 



1849. Birmingham 



1850. Edinburgh. 



1851. Ijjswich. 



1852. Belfast 



1853. Hull 



1854. Liverpool 



1855. Glasgow. 



1856. Cheltenham 



1857. Dublin 

1858. Leeds... 



1859. Aberdeen 



1860. Oxford 



1861. Manchester 

1862. Cambridge 

1863. Newcastle- 

on-Tyne, 



Lecturer. 



Q. B. Airy, F.E.S.,Astron.Eoyal 

E. I. Murchison, RE.S 

Prof. Owen, M.D., F.E.S. ... 

Charles Lyell, F.E.S 

W. E. Grove, F.E.S 



Eev. Prof B. Powell, F.E.S. .. 
Prof M. Faraday, F.E. S 

Hugh E. Strickland, F.G.S. .. 
John Percy, M.D., F.E.S 

W. Carpenter, M.D., F.E.S. .. 

Dr. Faraday, F.E.S 

Eey. Prof. Willis, M.A., F.E.S. 



Subject of Discourse. 



Prof. J. 
F.E.S.E. 



H. Bennett, M.D. 



Dr. Mantell, F.E.S 

Prof E. Owen, M.D., F.E.S. 

G. B. Airy, F.E.S., Astron.Eoyal 
Prof G.G. Stokes, D.C.L., F.E.S 

Colonel Portlock, E.E., F.E.S. 



Prof J. Phillips, LL.D., F.E.S., 
F.G.S. 

Eobert Hunt, F.E.S 

Prof E. Owen, M.D., F.E.S. 
Col. E. Sabine, V.P.E.S 

Dr. W. B. Carpenter, F.E.S. , 
Lieut.-Col. H. Eawlinson ..., 



Col. Sir H. Eawlinson . 



W. E. Grove, F.E.S 

Prof W. Thomson, F.E.S 

Eev. Dr. Livingstone, D.C.L. ... 
Prof J. Phillips, LL.D., F.E.S. 
Prof. E. Owen, M.D., F.E.S. ... 

Sir E.I. Murchison, D.C.L 

Eev. Dr. Eobinson, F.E.S 

Eev. Prof. Walker, F.E.S 

Captain Shcrard Osborn, E.N. 
Prof W. A. Miller, M.A., F.E.S 
G. B. Airy, F.E.S., .Astron. Boy. . 
Prof. Tyndall, LL.D., F.E.S. 

Prof Odling, F.E.S 

Prof Williamson, F.E.S. ... 



Progress of Terrestrial Magneti.sm. 
Geology of Eussia. 
Fossil Mammalia of the British Isles. 
Valley and Delta of the Mississippi, 
Properties of the Explosive substance 
discovered by Dr. Schonbein ; also 
some Eesearches of his own on the 
Decomjjosition of Water by Heat. 
Shooting-stars. 

Magnetic and Diamagnetic Pheno- 
mena. 

The Dodo {Didiis ineptus). 

Metallurgical operations of Swansea 
and its neighbourhood. 

Eecent Microscopical Discoveries. 

Mr. Gassiot's Battery. 

Transit of diiferent Weights with 
varying velocities on Eailways. 

Passage of the Blood througli the 
minute vessels of Animals in con- 
nexion with Nutrition. 

Extinct Birds of New Zealand. 

Distinction between Plants and Ani- 
mals, and their changes of Form. 

Total Soh^r Eclipse of July 28, 1851. 

Eecent discoveries in the properties 
of Light. 

Eecent discovery of Eock-salt at Car- 
rickfergus, and geological and prac- 
tical considerations connected with it. 

Some peculiar phenomena in the Geo- 
logy and Physical Geography of 
Yorkshire. 

The present state of Photography. 

Anthropomorphous Apes. 

Progress of researches in Terrestrial 
Magnetism. 

Characters of Species. 

Assyrian and Babylonian Antiquities 
and Ethnology. 

Eecent discoveries in Assyria and 
Babylonia, with the results of Cunei- 
form research up to the present 
time. 

Correlation of Physical Forces. 

The Atlantic Telegraph. 

Eecent discoveries in Africa. 

The Ironstones of Yorkshire. 

The Fossil Mammalia of Austrah'a. 

Geology of the Northern Highlands. 

Electrical Discharges in highly rare- 
fied Media. 

Physical Constitution of the Sun. 

Arctic Discovery. 

Spectrum Analysis. 

The late Eclipse of the Sun. 

The Forms and Action of Water. 

Organic Chemistry. 

The Chemistry of the Galvanic Bat- 
tery considered in relation to Dy- 



xlii 



REPORT — 1875. 



Date and Place. 



Lecturer. 



Subject of Discourse. 



1863. Newcastle- 

on-Tyue. 

1864. Bath 



1865. Birmingham 

1866. Nottingham. 

1867. Dundee 



1868. Norwich .... 

1869. Exeter 

1870. Liverpool ... 

1871. Edinburgh 

1872. Brighton ... 

1873. Bradford ... 

1874. Belfast 



1875. Bristol 



James Glaisher, F.R.S. 

Prof. Roscoe, RR.S 

Dr. Livingstone, F.R.S. 
J. Beete Jukes, F.R.S. .. 



William Huggins, F.R.S 

Dr. J. D. Hooker, F.R.S 

Archibald Geikie, F.R.S 

Alexander Herschel, F.R.A.S 

J. Fergusson, P.E. S 

Dr. W. Odling, F.R.S 

Prof. J. Phillips, LL.D., F.R.S. 
J. Norman Lockyer, F.R.S 

Prof. J. Tyndall, LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. W. J. Maequorn Rankine, 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
F. A. Abel, F.R.S 



E. B. Tylor, F.R.S 

Prof. P. Martin Duncan, M.D., 

F R S 
Prof. W. K Clifford 



Prof. W. C. WiUiamson, F.R.S. 

Prof. Clerk Maxwell, F.R.S 

Sir John Lubbock, JBart., M.P., 

F R S 
Prof. Huxley, F.R.S 

William Spottiswoode, LL.D., 

F.R.S. 
F. J. Bramwell, F.R. S 



The Balloon Ascents made for the 
British Association. 

The Chemical Action of Light. 

Recent Travels in Africa. 

Probabilities as to the position and 
extent of the Coal-measures beneath 
tlie red rocks of the Mijjland Coun- 
ties. 

The results of Spectrum Analysis 
applied to Heavenly Bodies. 

Insular Floras. 

The Geological origin of the present 
Scenery of Scotland. 

The present state of knowledge re- 
garding Meteors and Meteorites. 

Archreology of the early Buddhist 
Monuments. 

Reverse Chemical Actions. 

Vesuvius. 

The Physical Constitution of the 
Stars and NebulfE. 

The Scientific Use of the Imagination. 

Stream-lines and Waves, in connexion 
with Naval Ai'chitecture. 

Some recent investigations and appli- 
cations of Explosive Agents. 

The Relation of Primitive to Modem 
Civilization. 

Insect Metamorphosis. 

The Aims and Instruments of Scien- 
tific Thought. 

Coal and Coal Plants. 

Molecules. 

Common Wild Flowers considered in 
relation to Insects. 

The Hypothesis that Ajiimals are 
Automata, and its History. 

The Colours of Polarized Light. 

Railway Safety Appliances. 



Lectures to the Operative Classes. 



1867. Dundee.. 

1868. Norwich 

1869. Exeter .. 



1870. Liverpool . 

1872. Brighton , 

1873. Bradford , 

1874. Belfast.... 

1875. BristQl..,. 



Prof. J. TvndaU, LL.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. Huiey, LL.D., F.R.S. .. 
Prof. Miller, M.D., F.R.S 



Sir John Lubbock, Bart., M.P., 

F.R.S. 
William Spottiswoode, LL.D., 

C. W. Siemens, D.C.L., F.R.S... 

Professor Odliug, F.R.S 

Dr. W. B. Carpenter, F.R.S. ... 



Matter and Force. 

A piece of Chalk. 

Experimental illustrations of the 
modes of detecting the Composi- 
tion of the Sun and other Heavenly 
Bodies by the Spectrum. 

Savages. 

Sunshine, Sea, and Sky. 

Fuel. 

The Discovery of Oxygen. 

A piece of Limestone, 



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xliv 



REPORT 1875. 



Table shoiving the Attendance and Recei} 



Date of Meeting. 



1831, Sept. 27 .. 

1832, June 19 .. 

1833, June 25 ,. 

1834, Sept. 8 .. 

1835, Aug. 10 .. 

1836, Aug. 22 .. 

1837, Sept. II .. 

1838, Aug. 10 .. 

1839, Aug. 26 .. 

1840, Sept. 17 .. 

1 841, July 20 .. 

1842, June 23 .. 

1843, Aug- 17 •• 

1844, Sept. 26 .. 

1 845, June 19 . . 

1846, Sept. 10 .. 

1847, June 23 .. 

1848, Aug. 9 

1849, Sept. 12 .. 

1850, July 21 .. 

1851, July 2 

1852, Sept. I .. 

1853, Sept. 3 .. 

1854, Sei^t. 20 .. 

1855, Sept. 12 .. 

1856, Aug. 6 

1857, Aug. 26 .. 

1858, Sept. 22 .. 

1859, Sept. 14 .. 
i860, Jime 27 .. 

1861, Sept. 4 .. 

1862, Oct. I 

1863, Aug. 26 .. 

1864, Sept. 13 .. 

1865, Sept. 6 ., 

1866, Aug. 22 ., 

1867, Sept. 4 .. 

1868, Aug. 19 .. 

1869, Aug. 18 .. 

1870, Sept. 14 .. 

1871, Aug. 2 

1872, Aug. 14 .. 

1873, Sept. 17 •• 

1874, Aug. 19 .. 

1875, Aug. 25 ., 

1876, Sept. 6 



Where held. 



York 

Oxford 

Cambridge 

Edinburgh 

DubUn 

Bristol 

Liverpool 

Neweastle-on-Tyne .. 

Birmingham 

Glasgow 

Plymouth 

Manchester 

Cork 

York 

Cambridge 

Southampton 

Oxford 

Swansea 

Birmingham 

Edinbvu-gh 

Ipswich 

Belfast 

Hull 

Liverpool 

Glasgow 

Cheltenham 

Dublin 

Leeds 

Aberdeen 

Oxford 

Manchester 

Cambridge 

Newcastle-on-Tyne .. 

Bath 

Birmingham , 

Nottingham 

Dundee 

Norwich 

Exeter 

Liverpool 

Edinbm-gh 

Brighton 

Bradford 

Belfast 

Bristol 

Glasgow 



Presidents. 



The Earl PitzwiUiam, D.C.L.... 
The Rev. W. Buckland, RE.S. .. 
The Rev. A. Sedgwick, F.R.S.... 

Sir T. M. Brisbane, D.C.L 

The Rev. Provost Lloyd, LL.D. 

The Marquis of Lansdowne 

The Earl of Burlington, P.R.S. . 
The Duke of Nortlmmberland... 
The Rev. W. Vernon Harcourt . 
The Marquis of Breadalbane . . . 
The Rev. W. Wliewell, F.R.S.... 

The Lord Francis Egerton 

The Earl of Rosse, P.R.S 

The Rev. G. Peacock, D.D 

Sir John P. W. Herschel, Bart. . 
Sir Roderick I. Murchison, Bart. 

Sir Robert H. Inglis, Bart 

The Marquis of Nortliampton . . . 
The Rev. T. R. Robinson, D.D. . 

Sir David Brewster, K.H 

G. B. Airy, Esq., Astron. Royal . 
Lieut.-General Sabine, F.R.S. ... 
William Hopkins, E.sq., F.R.S. . 
The Earl of Harrowby, P.R.S. .. 

The Duke of Argyll, F.R.S 

Prof. C. G. B. Daubeny, M.D.... 
The Rev. Humphrey Lloyd, D.D. 
Richard Owen, M.D., D.C.L. ... 
H.E.H. The Prince Consort . . . 

The Lord Wrotteslev, M.A 

William Fairbairn, LL.D.,P.R.S. 
The Rev. Prof. Willis, M.A. . .. 
Sir William G. Armstrong, C.B. 
Sir Charles LyeU, Bart, M.A.... 
Prof. J. Phillips, M.A.,LL.D.... 
WiUiam R. Grove, Q.C., P.R.S. 
The Duke of Buccleuch, Iv.C.B. 
Dr. Joseph D. Hooker, P.R.S. . 

Prof. G. G. Stokes, D.C.L 

Prof. T. H. Huxley, LL.D 

Prof. Su- W. Thomson, LL.D.... 
Dr. W. B. Carpenter, F.R.S. ... 
Prof. A. W. Williamson, P.R.S. 
Prof. J. Tyndall, LL.D., P.R.S. 
Sir JolmHawkshaw, C.E.,F.R.S. 
Prof. T. Andrews, M.D., F.R.S. 



Old Life 
Members. 



69 

303 
109 

226 

313 

241 

3H 
149 
227 
235 
172 
164 
141 
238 
194 
182 
236 

222 
184 
2S6 
321 

203 
2S7 
292 
207 
,67 
196 
204 

314 
246 
24s 
212 
162 
239 



ATTENDANCE AND RECEIPTS AT ANNUAL MEETINGS. 



xlv 



Annual Meetings of the Association. 



Attended by 


Amount 

received 

during the 

Meeting. 


Sums paid on 
Account of 
Grants for 
Scientific 


Old 
Lnnual 


New 
Annual 


Associates. 


Ladies. Fore 


igners. Total. 


embers. 


Members. 








Purposes. 












£ s. d. 


£ s. d. 


• •• 


::: 


... 


::: 


353 

900 
1298 






■ • ■ 






■ > • 






... 










20 


... 










167 

434 14 
918 14 6 


• •• 








1350 
1840 




... 


... 


... 


... 




• •• 


... 


... 


1 1 00* 


2400 

34 1438 

1-0 1353 

891 

28 1315 




956 12 2 

1595 II 

1546 16 4 

1235 10 II 

1449 17 8 

1565 10 2 

981 12 8 

830 9 9 

685 16 

208 5 4 

275 I 8 


... 




















■46 


317 




"60* 




75 


376 


33t 


331* 




71 


185 




160 




45 


190 
22 


9t 


260 






94 


407 


172 


35 1079 

36 81:7 




65 


39 


270 


196 




197 


40 


495 


203 


J 31 
53 1260 




54 


25 


376 


197 


15 929 


707 


93 


33 


447 


237 


22 I071 


963 


159 19 6 


128 


42 


510 


273 


44 1241 


1085 


345 18 


61 


47 


244 


141 


37 710 


620 


391 9 7 


63 


60 


5>o 


292 


9 iioS 


iog5 


304 6 7 


56 


57 


367 


236 


6 876 


903 


205 


121 


121 


765 


524 


10 1802 


1882 


330 19 7 


142 


lOI 


1094 


543 


26 2133 


231 100 


480 16 4 


104 


48 


412 


346 


9 IIJ5 


1098 


734 13 9 


156 


120 


900 


569 


26 2022 


2015 


S°7 15 3 


III 


91 


710 


509 


13 1698 


1931 


618 18 2 


I2S 


179 


1206 


821 


22 2564 


2782 


684 11 1 


177 


59 


636 


463 


47 1689 


1604 


1241 7 


184 


125 


1589 


791 


15 3139 


3944 


mi 5 10 


150 


57 


433 


242 


25 1161 


1089 


1293 16 6 


154 


209 


1704 


1004 


^5 3335 


3640 


1608 3 10 


182 


103 


1119 


1058 


13 2802 


2965 


1289 15 8 


215 


149 


766 


5c8 


23 1997 


2227 


1591 7 10 


218 


105 


960 


771 


II 2303 


2469 


1750 13 4 


193 


118 


1163 


771 


7 2444 


2613 


1739 4 


226 


117 


720 


682 


45t 2o°4 


2042 


1940 


229 


107 


678 


600 


17 1856 


1931 


1572 


303 


195 


1103 


910 


14 2878 


3096 


1472 2 6 


311 


127 


976 


754 


21 2463 


2575 


1285 


280 


80 


937 


912 


43 2533 


2649 


1685 


237 


99 


796 


601 


II 1983 


2102 


1151 16 


232 


85 


8,7 


630 


12 1951 


1979 


960 


307 


93 


884 


672 


17 2248 


2397 






* Ladies were not admitted by pi 


ircbased Tickets un 


til 1843. 




t T 


ickets for ad 


mission to Sectior 


IS only. \ Ir 


eluding Lac 


ies. 



Xlvi UEPOKT— 1875. 

OPFICEES OP SECTIONAL COMMITTEES PRESENT AT THE 

BRISTOL MEETING. 

SECTION A. MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICS. 

President— Fxofessov Balfour Stewart, M.A., LL.D., F.R.S. 

Vice-Presidents.— Hey. J. W. Caldicott, D.D. ; Professor Oayley, F.R.S. ; Rev. S. 

J. Perry, F.R.S. ; Professor Price, F.R.S. ; Professor H. J. S. Smith, F.R.S. ; 

W. Spottiswoode, F.R.S. ; Professor J. J. Sylvester, F.R.S.; Sir W. Thomson, 

r.R.S. ; Professor Tyndall, F.R.S. 
Secretaries.— Fl•ofessoT'^Y. F. Barrett, F.R.S.E., M.R.I.A., F.O.S. ; J. W. L, 

Glaisher, M.A., F.R.S., F.R.A.S. : C. T. Hudson, M.A., LL.D. : G. F. Rodwell, 

F.R.A.S., F.C.S. 

SECTIOK B. CHEMISTEY AND MINERALOGY, INCLUDING THEIK APPLICATIONS TO 

AGEICULTUEE AND THE AETS. 

President— A. G. Vernon Harcourt, M.A., F.R.S., F.O.S. 

Vice-Presidents. — Professor Atkinson, F.C.S. ; Professor Debus, F.R.S. ; Professor 

J. H. Gladstone, F.R.S. ; Dr. Longstaff; Professor N. Story Maskelvne, F.R.S. ; 

Alderman T. Proctor ; Professor W. J. Russell, F.R.S. ; Professor Williamson, 

F.R.S. 
Secretaries.— H. E. Armstrong, Ph.D., F.C.S.: W. Chandler Roberts, F.R.S.; 

William A. Tilden, D.Sc, F.C.S. 

SECTION C. GEOLOGY. 

President— Dr. Thomas Wright, F.R.S.E., F.G.S. 

Vice-Presidents.— The Earl of Diicie, F.R.S.; Sir Philip de M. GreyEgerton, Bart., 

F.R.S. ; The Earl of EnnishiUen, F.R.S. ; R. A. C. Godwin-Austin, F.R.S. ; 

Sir W. V. Guise, Bart., F.G.S. ; Professor Hai-kness, F.R.S. ; Professor Hull, 

F.R.S. ; W. AV. Stoddart, F.G.S. 
Secretaries.— L. C. Miall, F.G.S. ; E. B. Tawney, F.G.S. ; W. Topley, F.G.S. 

SECTION D. BIOLOGY. 

President— P. L. Sclater, M.A., Ph.D., F.R.S., F.L.S. 
Vice-P-esidents.-FTofessov Cleland, M.D., F.R.S. ; Professor Rolleston, M.A.,M.D., 

F.R.S., F.L.S. ; Dr. Allman, F.R.S.; Osbert Salvin, F.R.S.; Professor W. C. 

Williamson, F.R.S. ; Professor Balfour, F.R.S. ; Colonel Lane Fox, F.G.S. ; 

Dr. Allen Thomson, F.R.S. 
Secretaries.— E. R. Alston, F.Z.S. ; Dr. McKendrick ; Professor W. R. ]\I'Nab, 

M.D. ; Dr. Martyn ; F. W. Rudler, F.G.S.; Dr. P. H. Pye-Smith. 

SECTION E. GEOGEAPHY AND ETHNOLOGY. 

iVrnWewi!.— Lieutenant-General Strachev, R.E., C.S.I., F.R.S., F.R.G.S., F.L.S., 
F.G.S. .^ > > > i > 

Vice-Presidents.— ^ix Rutherford Alcock, K.C.B.; Admiral Sir E. Belcher, K.C.B., 

F.R.S., F.R.G.S. ; Francis Galton, F.R.S., F.R.G.S. ; Major-General Sir H. C. 

Rawlinson,K.C.B., D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S., Pres.R.G.S. ; Rev. Professor Rawlin- 

son, M.A. ; Major Wilson, R.E., F.R.S., F.R.G.S. 
Secretaries.— R.yif. Bates, F.L.S., Assist. Sec. R.G.S. ; E. C. Rye, F.Z.S., Librarian 

R.G.S.; F.F.Tuckett, F.R.G.S. 

SECTION F. ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 

President— 3 waes Hevwood, M.A., F.R.S., Pres. S.S. 

Vice-Prcsidents.—l,ox'& Aberdare ; Dr. Beddoe, F.R.S. ; Right Hon. Stephen Cave, 

M.P. ; M. E. Grant Duff, M.P. ; W. Farr, M.D., F.R.S. ; G. AV. Hastings ; 

Jerom Murch ; Rev. J. Percival, M.A., LL.D. 
Secretaries.— F. P. Fellows, F.S.S., F.S.A. ; T. G. P. Hallett, M.A. ; E. Macrory, 

aVJ. * A. « 

SECTION G. — MECHANICAL SCIENCE. 

PmWcH)!.— AViUiam Fronde, M.A., C.E., F.R.S. 

Vice-Presidents.— W. H. Barlow, C.E., F.R.S, ; F. J. BramweU, C.E., F.R.S. ; James 

Brunlees, C.E. ; P. le Neve Foster, M.A. ; Captain Douglas Galton, C.B., F.R.S. ; 

C. A\ . Merrifield, F.R.S. ; Lord Rayleigh, F.R.S. ; Sir AYilliam Thomson, LL.D., 

F.R.S. ; Edward AVoods, C.E. 
Secretaries— ^Y. P. Browne, M. A., C.E. : H. M. Brunei ; J. G. Gamble, B.A., C.E. ; 

J. N. Shoolbred, C.E., F.G.S. 



OFFICERS AND COUNCIL, 1875-76. 



PRESIDENT. 
8IE JOHN HAWKSHAW, C.E., F.B.8., F.6.8. 

VICE-PRESIDENTS. 



The Eight Hon. the Eael of Ducie, F.K.S., 

F.G.8. 
The Eight Hon. Sir Staffoed H. Noetiicote, 

Bart., C.B., M.P.,F.E.S. 
The MayOE of BbiSXOL (1874-75). 



Major-General Sir Heney C. EAWLIKSON, K.C.B., 

LL.D., F.E.S., F.E.G.S. 
Dr. W. B. Caepentee, C.B., LL.D., F.E.S., F.L.8., 

F.G.S. 
W. Sandebs, Esq., F.E.S., F.G.S. 



PRESIDENT DESIGNATE. 

PEOPESSOE THOMAS ANDEEWS, M.D., LL.D., F.E.S., Hon. F.E.S.E. 

VICE-PRESIDENTS ELECT. 



His Grace the Duke of Argyll, K.T., LL.D., 

P.E.8.L. & E., F.G.S. 
The LoED Peovost of Glasgow. 
Sir WiLLLAM Stibling Maxwell, Eart., M.A., 

M.P. 



Professor Sir William Thomson, M.A., LL.D., 

D.C.L., P.R.S.L. & E. 
Professor Allen Thomson, M.D., LL.D.,F.E.S.L. 

Jt I*' 
Professor A. C. Eamsat, LL.D., F.E.S., F.G.S. 



LOCAL SECRETARIES FOR THE MEETING AT GLASGOW. 

Dr. W. G. Blackie, F.E.G.S. I J. D. Mae wick, Esq. 

James Geahame, Esq. I 

LOCAL TREASURERS FOR THE MEETING AT GLASGOW. 

Dr. Feegus. 

A. 8. M'Clelland, Esq. 



ORDINARY MEMBERS 

Abel, F. A., Esq., F.E.S. 

Bateman, J. P., Esq., F.E.S. 

Bhamwell, F. J., Esq., C.E., P.E.S. 

De La Eue, Waeren, Esq., D.C.L., F.E.S. 

Evans, J., Esq., F.E.S. 

Faee, Dr. W., F.E.S. 

Flowee, Professor W. H., P.E.S. 

Foster, Professor G. C, F.E.S. 

Gassiot, J. P., Esq., D.C.L., LL.D., F.E.S. 

Heywood, J., Esq., F.E.S. 

Jeffreys, J. Gwyn, Esq., F.E.S. 

LoCKY-EE, J. N., Esq., F.E.S. 

Maskely-ne, Prof. N. 8., M.A., F.E.S. 



OF THE COUNCIL. 

Maxwell, Professor J. Cleek, P.B.S. 
Mereifield, C. W., Esq., F.E.S. 
Newton, Professor A., P.E.S. 
OMM.iNNEY. Admiral E., C.B., F.E.S. 
Pengelly-, W., Esq., F.E.S. 
Playfaie, Et.Hon. Dr.LYON, C.B.,M.P.,F.E.S. 
Peestwich, Professor J., F.E.S. 
EOLLESTOS, Professor G., M.A., F.E.S. 
Eoscoe, Professor H. E., Ph.D., F.E.S. 
EusSELL, Dr. W. J., F.E.S. 
Siemens, C. W., Esq., D.C.L., F.E.S. 
Smith, Professor H. J. 8., P.E.S. 



GENERAL SECRETARIES. 
Capt. Douglas Gaiton, C.B., D.C.L., F.E.S., F.G.S., 12 Chester street, Grosvenor Place, London, S.W. 
Dr. Michael Foster, P.E.S., F.C.S., Trinity College, Camhridge. 

ASSISTANT GENERAL SECRETARY. 

George Griffith, Esq., M.A., P.C.8., Harrow-on-the-hill, Middlesex. 

GENERAL TREASURER. 
Professor A. W. Williamson, Ph.D., F.E.S., F.C.S., University College, London, W.C. 

EX-OFFICIO MEMBERS OF THE COUNCIL. 

The Trustees, the President and President Elect, the Presidents of former years, the Vice-Presidents and 
Vice-Presidents Elect, the General and Assistant General Secretaries for the present and former years, 
the General Treasurers for the present and former years, and the Local Treasurer and Secretaries for the 
ensuing Meeting. 

TEUSTEE8 (PEEMANENT). 

General Sir Edwaed Sabine, K.CB., E.A., D.C.L., F.E.S. 

Sir Philip de M. Geey Egeeton, Bart., M.P., F.E.S., F.G.S. 

Bir John Lubbock, Bart., M.P., F.E.S., F.L.S. 



PEESIDENT8 OP FOEMEB TEAES. 



The Duke of Devonshire. 
The Eev. T. E. Eobinson, D.D. 
Sir G. B. Airy, Astronomer Eoyal. 
General Sir'E. Sabine, K.CB. 
The Earl of Harrowby. 
The Duke of Argyll. 



The Eev. H. Llovd, D.D. 
Eichard Owen, M.D., D.C.L. 
Sir W. G. Armstrong, C.B., LL.D. 
Sir William R. Grove, F.E.S. 
The Duke of Buccleueh, K.B. 
Dr. Joseph D. Hooker, D.C.L. 



Professor Stokes, M.A., D.C.L. 
Prof. HiLTley, LL.D., Sec.E.S. 
Prof. Sir W. Thomson, D.C.L. 
Dr. Carpenter, F.E.S. 
Prof Williamson, Ph.D., F.E.S 
Prof. Tyndall, D.C.L., F.E.S. 



F. Galton, Esq., F.E.S. 
Dr. T. A. Hirst, F.E.S. 



GENEEAL OFFICEES OF FOEMEE TEAES. 

Gen. Sir E. Sabine, K.C.B., F.E.S. I Dr. T. Thomson, F.E.S. 
W. Spottiswoode, Esq., F.E.S. | 



Professor J. H. Gladstone, F.E.S. 



AUDITORS. 

W. Spottiswoode, Esq., F.E.S. 



Mjyor-Gencral Strachey, F.E.S. 



xlviii REPORT — 1875, 



Report of the Council for the Year 1874:-75, presented to the General 
Committee at Bristol on Wednesday, August 2oth, 1875. 

The Council have received Eeporfcs during the past year from the General 
Treasurer; and his Account for the year wiU be laid before the General 
Committee this day. 

The General Committee at Belfast referred the following four Resolutions 
to the Council for their consideration, and they beg to report their proceed- 
ings in each case : — 

First Resolution. — " That the Council be requested to take such steps 
as they may deem expedient to urge upon the Government of India 
the desirableness of continuing Solar Observations in India." 

The Council, having considered this Eesolution, requested the President to 
embody their views in a Letter to the Government of India. The following 
is a copy of the letter to the Marquis of Salisbury : — 

" British Association for the Advancement of Science, 
22 Albemarle Street, London, March 5, 1875. 

*' Mt Loed, — By the desire of the General Committee and of the Council 
of the British Association, I beg to lay before your Lordship the accom- 
panying resolutions regarding the continuance of Solar Observations in 
India. 

" Besearches of the character here contemplated ai;e of comparatively 
recent date, and have been hitherto pursued with conspicuous ability by 
independent observers. They may be divided into three distinct groups : — 
namely. Sun-spot Periodicity ; the relation of that Periodicity to Terrestrial 
and Planetary phenomena ; and the Physical and Chemical changes of the 
sun's visible surface. It is the opinion of the Council of the British Associa- 
tion that observations of the sun conducted under these three heads would 
furnish results of the highest scientific importance, and that India, presenting 
as it does every diversity of climate and of atmospheric condition, and every 
degree of elevation from the sea-level to the greatest mountain heights, is a 
field eminently suited to the successful prosecution of such observations. 

" The specific proposal -which, on behalf of the Bi'itish Association, I 
have the honour to submit for your Lordship's consideration is, that the 
instruments recently supplied for the Observation of the Transit of Venus 
should, now that they have served that purpose, be made to contribute to 
the equipment of a Physical Observatorj'' to be established in the Himalayas, 
the Nielgherries, or some other fit locality. These instruments are suitable 
for solar observations, and with the addition of a spectroscope and a few 
other minor adjuncts would suffice for the present. They would be ready to 
be brought into practical action the moment the necessary buildings, which 
might be of the simplest and most inexpensive character, are erected. 

" But to extract from solar observations their full value it is necessary 



EEPORT OF THE COUNCIL. xlix 

that they should be continuous. No day ought to pass without observations 
of the solar surface. This can only bo accomplished by establishing, in 
connexion witli the principal observatory, stations in positions selected with 
tho view of rendering it in the highest degree probable that at one or other 
of them favourable weather would always be found. When, therefore, the 
results obtained in the proposed observatory shall have justified the extension 
(and of such justification the Council entertain a confident hope), outlying 
stations may be added, provided with the moderate equipment needed to 
multiply the chances of that continuity of observation which it is so desirable 
to secure. 

" It is specially agreeable to me, personally, to have the privilege of 
bringing this important question under the notice of a nobleman whoso 
scientific acquirements render unnecessary any lengthened argument to prove 
that the proposed observatory is likely to redound to the honour of England, 
and to materially assist in the advancement of Natural Knowledge. 

" I have the honour to be, 
" My Lord, 
" Your most obedient Servant, 

" John Ttndall, 

Fresident." 
" The Most Honourable 

The Marquis of Salisburi/, 

Secretary of State for Indian 

A copy of this Letter was forwarded to the Governor-General of India. 

The following reply has been received from the Secretary of State for 
India : — 

" India Office, Westminster, S.W., 
April 2, 1875. 

" Sir, — I am directed by the Secretary of State for India in Council to 
acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 5th March, setting forth the 
desirability of instituting continuous Solar Observations in India, and, in 
reply, to transmit to you a copy of a Despatch which his Lordship has 
addressed to the Government of India on the subject. 

" I am. Sir, 

" Your obedient Servant, 

" LoTJis Mallet." 
"Professor Tyndall, F.B.S." 

" ' Geographical (Observatories), 
No. 16. 

"' To His Excellency The Eight Honourable the Governor-General of India 

in Council. 

" ' India Oflice, London, 
March 2-1, 1875. 

" ' My Lord, — Para. 1. I have received and considered in Council your 
Excellency's Despatch, dated 12th February (No. 2, Industry, Science, and 
Art), 1S75, reporting your sanction of an arrangement by which Lieutenant- 
Colonel Tennant, with a small establishment, will be employed, diu'ing the 
year 1875-76, to make observations, at Koorkee, of the sun and of Jupiter's 

1875. d 



1 REPORT — 1875. 

satellites, and to reduce the transit- observations. The instruments* for use 
at Eoorkee will be ordered in this country, and sent out with as little delay 
as possible. 

" '2. I observe that your Government, in sanctioning these arrangements, 
have declined to engage themselves to any thing further at present; and 
that the suggested establishment of a solar observatory at Simla remains an 
open question for future consideration. 

" ' 3. I herewith transmit a copy of a letter, which I have received fi-om the 
President of the British Association, on the importance of continuous Solar 
Observations in India ; and I would suggest for your consideration whether 
an observatory on an inexpensive scale might not usefully be established at 
Simla after the ensuing year, with this object, for which spectroscopes only 
would be necessary, in addition to the instruments already at Boorkee. 

" ' I have the honour to be, 
" ' My Lord, 
" ' Your Lordship's most obedient humble SexTant, 

(Signed) •' ' Salisbury.' " 

Second Resolution. — "That the Council of the Association be reqtiested 
to take such steps as they may think desirable with a view to promote 
the appointment of Naturalists to vessels engaged on the coasts of 
little-known parts of the world." 

The Council drew up the following Letter, which was sig-ned by the 
President, and forwarded to the Admiralty : — 

"British Association for the Advancement of Science, 
22 Albemarle Street, London, March 9, 1875. 

" Sir, — The Council of the British Association have had recently referred 
to them by the General Committee of the Association a question which in 
various forms has been already under their consideration — the importance, 
namely, of attaching Naturalists (that is to say, persons specially trained in 
Natural-historj^ observation) to Surveying-ships generally, and more especially 
to those engaged in the survey of unfrequented or little-known regions. 

" The Council have requested me to communicate to Her Majesty's Govern- 
ment their conviction of the importance of making, wherever practicable, this 
addition to Surveying Expeditions. They believe that such action on the 
part of the Government would not only be of advantage to Science, but that 
it would be conducive to the commercial interests of the country to an extent 
far outbalancing the trifling outlay which such appointments would render 
necessary. 

" We are here in reality only asking for a further application of the en- 
lightened policy which enabled the Government to utilize the talents of such 
men as Banks and Solander in the last century, and which has more recently 
given scope to the abilities of such men as Darwin, Hooker, and Huxley. 
Even in a commercial point of view the advantages which have flowed from 
this policy have been quite out of proportion to its cost to the country. 



* "' A parallel wire micrometer ^20 

Solar and stellar spectroscopes 130 

Micrometer for measuring Bolar photographs 50 

^200 



EErORT OF THE COUNCIL, li 

"The obvious desii-ability of associating trained observers with the Surveys 
of the future is thus strengthened by the experience of the past. The Council 
of the British Association beg therefore to urge upon the favourable con- 
sideration of Her Majesty's Government the question submitted to tlicm by 
the General Committee. 

" I have the honour &c." 

" Vernon LusMngton, Esq., Q.C." 

The following reply has been received from the Admiralty : — 

" Admiralty, 
March 29, 1875. 

" SiE, — I am commanded by My Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty to 
thank you for your letter of the 9th instant, conveying the opinion expressed 
by the Committee of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 
as to the desirability of trained JSTaturahsts being attached to all Surveying- 
vessels, more especially to those engaged in the sm-vey of unfrequented 
regions. 

" I am, Sir, 

" Your obedient Servant, 

" Robert Hall." 
" The President of the British Association 
for the Advancement of Science, 

22 Albemarle Street, S.W:' 

Third Resolution. — " That the Council be requested to take such steps 
as they may think desirable with the view of promoting any applica- 
tion that may be made to Her Majesty's Government by the Eoyal 
Society for a systematic Physical and Biological exploration of the 
seas around the British Isles." 

The Council deferred the consideration of this Resolution until action be 
taken by the Royal Society. 

Fourth Besolution. — " That the Council should take such steps as they 
may think desirable for supporting the request to Her Majesty's 
Government to undertake an Arctic Expedition on the basis proposed 
by the CouncU of the Royal Geographical Society at the beginning of 
the present year, which it is understood will be again made by that 
body." 

The Council are glad to report that the efforts of the Learned Societies to 
obtain a renewal of the Exploration of the Polar Seas have been crowned 
with success ; the Expedition which has been despatched on this service has 
been furnished with the best-known appliances for the furtherance of the 
objects in view. 

The Council have added the following list of name« of gentlemen present at 
the last Meeting of the Association to the list of Corresponding Members : — 



M. A. Niaudet Breguet. 
M. Ch. d' Almeida. 
Dr. W. Eeddersen. 



Dr. Knoblauch. 
Dr. G. Schweinfurth. 
Professor Wiedemann. 
rf2 



lii liEPOiiT — 1875. 

The Council have been informed that the invitation to hold the Annual 
Meeting of the Association in 1877 at Plymouth will be renewed, and that 
an invitation for a future Meeting will be presented from Leeds. 

In accordance with the regulations adopted at the Belfast Meeting for the 
selection of Ordinary Members of Council, the Council append a list of the 
Members of the present Council who are not proposed for re-election for the 
ensuing year : — 

Mr. Sclater. 



Dr. Beddoe. 
Dr. Debus. 
Mr. Fitch. 



General Strachey. 



The Council recommend the re-election of the other Members of the Council, 
with the addition of the following gentlemen : — 



Mr. F. A. Abel. 
Mr. John Evans. 
Mr. J. Heywood. 



Professor A. Newton. 
Professor Rolleston. 



Recommendations adopted by the General Committee at the Bristol 
Meeting in August 1875. 

[Wlien Committees are appointed, the Member first named is regarded as the Secretary, 
except there is a specific nomination.] 

Involving Grants of Money. 

That the Committee, consisting of Professor Cayley, Professor G. G. Stokes, 
Professor H. J. S. Smith, Professor Sir W. Thomson, and Mr. J. "W. L. 
Glaisher (Secretary), be reappointed ; that the sum of ^59 4s. 2d. be placed 
at their disposal as a final payment on account of expenses incurred in the 
calculation of the Elliptic Functions, and that a further sum of £100 be 
placed at the disposal of the Committee for the purpose of continuing the 
printing of the tables of Elhptie Functions. 

That the Committee on the PainfaU of the British Isles, consisting of Mr. 

C. Brooke, Mr. J. Glaisher, Mr. J. F. Bateman,-Mr. T. Hawksley, Mr. G. J. 
Symons, Mr. C. Tomlinson, Mr. Rogers Field, the Earl of Eosse, and Mr, 
J. Smyth, Jun., be reappointed ; that Mr. G. J. Symons be the Secretary, 
and that the sum of £100 be placed at their disposal for the purpose, with 
the understanding that £60 is for completing the observations in Great 
Britain, and that £40 be devoted to observations in Ireland. 

That the Committee, consisting of Mr. James Glaisher, Mr. R. P. Greg, 
Mr. Charles Brooke, Dr. Flight, Professor G. Forbes, and Professor A. S. 
Herschel, on Luminous Meteors, be reappointed, and that a grant of £30 
be placed at their disposal. 

That the Committee, consisting of Professor Clerk Maxwell, Professor J. 

D. Everett, and Mr. A. Schuster, for testing experimentally the exactness 
of Ohm's law, be reappointed, and that the grant of £50 which has lapsed 
be renewed. 

That the Committee, consisting of Professor Stokes, Dr. De La Rue, Pro- 



RECOMMENDATIONS OF THE GENEKAL COMMITTEE. liii 

fessor Clerk Maxwell, Mr. "W. F. Barrett, Mr, Howard Grubb, Mr. G. Johu- 
stone Stonej^ and Professor E. S. Ball, for cxaminiug and re2:)orting upon 
the reflective j^owers of silver, gold, and platinum, whether in mass or 
chemically deposited on glass, and of speculum metal, be reappointed, and 
that the grant of £20 which has lapsed be renewed. 

That the Committee on Thermo-Electricity, consisting of Professor Tait, 
Professor Tyndall, and Professor Balfour Stewart, be reappointed, and that 
the grant of £50 M'hich has lapsed be renewed. 

That Sir W. Thomson, Professor J. C. Adams, Eear-Admiral Richards, 
General Strachey, Mr. W. Parkes, Colonel Walker, Professor Guthrie, Mr. J. 
W. L. Glaislier, Mr. John Exley, Mr. J. N. Schoolbred, and Mr. J. E. Napier, 
be appointed a Committee on Tides, and that the sum of £200 be placed 
at their disposal for completing and setting up in a locality in London, where 
it may be available for use, Sir William Thomson's Tide Calculating 
Machine. 

That Professors Eoscoe, Balfour Stewart, and Thorpe be reappointed as a 
Committee for the purpose of determining the Specific Volumes of Liquids ; 
that Dr. Thorpe be the Secretary, and that the sum of £25 be placed at their 
disposal for the purjjose. 

That Dr. Armstrong, Professor Thorpe, and Mr. "W. W. Fisher, be a Com- 
mittee for the purpose of investigating Isomeric Cresols, and the Law which 
governs Substitution in the Phenol Series ; that Dr. Armstrong be the Se- 
cretary, and that the sum of £10 be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Mr. Frank Clowes, B.Sc. and Dr. W. A. Tilden be a Committee for 
the purpose of examining the Action of Ethjdbromo-butyrate on Ethyl Sod- 
aceto-acetate ; that Mr. Clowes be the Secretary, and that the sum of £10 be 
placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Messrs. Allen, Dewar, Stanford, and Fletcher be a Committee for the 
purpose of examining and reporting upon the methods employed in the esti- 
mation of Potash and Phosphoric Acid in commercial products, and on the 
mode of stating the results ; that Mr. Allen be the Secretary, and that the 
sum of £20 be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Sir John Lubbock, Bart., Professor Prestwich, Professor Busk, Pro- 
fessor Hughes, Professor W. Boyd Dawkins, Eev. H. W. Crosskey, Messrs. 
L. C. Miall and E. H. Tiddeman be a Committee for the purpose of assist- 
ing in the exploration of the Victoria Cave ; that Mr. Tiddeman be the Se- 
cretary, and that the sum of £100 be placed at their disposal for the pur- 
pose. 

That Messrs. J. Evans, W. Carruthers, F. Drew, R. Etheridge, Jun., A. 
H. Green, G, A. Lebour, L, C, Miall, H. A. Nicholson, W. Topley, and W. 
Whitakcr be a Committee for the purpose of carrying on the Geological 
Record ; that Mr. Whitaker be the Secretary, and that the sum of £100 be 
placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Mr. J. Evans, Sir J. Lubbock, Bart., Mr. E. Vivian, Mr. W. Pen- 
gelly, Mr, G. Busk, Professor W. Boyd Dawkins, Mr. W, Ashford Sanford, 
and Mr. J. E. Lee be a Committee for the purpose of continuing the ex- 
ploration of Kent's Cavern, Torquay ; that Mr, Pengelly be the Secretary, 
and that the sum of £100 be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Professor A. S. Herschel and Mr. G. A. Lebour be reappointed a 
Committee for the purpose of making experiments on the Thermal Con- 
ductivities of certain rocks ; that Professor Herschel be the Secretary, and 
that the sum of £10 be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Professor Hull, Mr. E. W. Binney, Mr, H. Howell, Mr. M. Eeado, 



liv REPOKT — 1875. 

Eev. H. W. Crosskey, Professor A. H. Green, Professor Harkuess, Mr, W. 
Molyneux, Mr. G. H. Morton, Mr. Pengelly, Professor Prestwich, Mr. J. 
Plant, Mr. W. Whitaker, Captain D. Galton, and Mr. De Ranee be reap- 
pointed a Committee for the purpose of investigating the circulation of the 
underground waters in the New Red Sandstone and Permian formations of 
England, and the quantity and character of the water supplied to various 
towns and districts from those formations ; that Mr. C. E. De Ranee be the 
Secretary, and that the sum of <£10 be placed at their disposal for the pur- 
pose. 

That Dr. Bryce, Mr. J. Brough, Mr. G. Eorbes, Mr. D. Milne-Home, Mr, 
J, Thomson, Professor Sir W. Thomson, and Mr. Peter Druramond be a 
Committee for the purpose of continuing the Observations and Records of 
Earthquakes in Scotland ; that Dr. Bryce be the Secretary, and that the sum 
of .£20 bo placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Mr. Sclater, Mr. Rye, and Mr. M'^Lachlan be a Committee for the 
purpose of continuing the Zoological Record ; that Mr. Rye be the Secretary, 
and that the sum of <£100 be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Mr. Dresser, Mr. Barnes, Mr. Harland, Mr. Harting, Professor 
ISTewton, and Canon Tristram be reappointed a Committee for the purpose of 
considering the desirability of establishing " a close time " for the protection 
of indigenous animals ; that Mr. Dresser be the Secretary, and that the sum 
of £o be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Professor Balfour, Professor Dewar, and Dr. M'^Kendrick be a Com- 
mittee for the purpose of investigating the Physiological Action of Sound ; 
that Dr. McKendrick be the Secretary, and that the sum of £25 be placed 
at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Professor Huxley, Mr. Sclater, Mr. F. M. Balfour, Dr. M. Foster, Mr. 
Ray Lankester, and Mr. Dew-Smith (^Secretary) be a Committee for the pur- 
pose of arranging with Dr. Dohrn for the occupation of a Table at the Zoo- 
logical Station at Naples during the ensuing year, in accordance with their 
Report ; that Mr. Dew- Smith be the Secretary, and that the sum of ^75 be 
placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Dr. Lauder Brunton and Dr. Pye-Smith be reappointed a Committee 
for the purpose of making physiological researches on the nature of Intes- 
tinal Secretions ; that Dr. Brunton be the Secretary, and that the sum of 
^20 be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Colonel Lane Fox, Mr. John Evans, and Professor RoUeston be a 
Committee for the purpose of Prehistoric Explorations ; that Colonel Lane 
Fox be the Secretary, and that the sum of £25 be placed at their disposal for 
the purpose. 

That the Committee, consisting of Colonel Lane Fox, Dr. Beddoe, Mr. 
Franks, Mr. F. Galton, Mr.E. W. Brabrook, Sir J. Lubbock, Sir W. EUiot, 
Mr. C. R. Markham, Mr. E. B. Tylor, Mr. J. Evans, and Mr. F. W. Rudler, 
be reappointed for the purpose of preparing and publishing brief forms of 
instruction for travellers, ethnologists, and other anthropological observers ; 
that Colonel Lane Fox be the Secretary, and that the sum of .£25 be placed 
at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Dr. Beddoe, Lord Aberdare, Dr. Farr, Mr. Francis Galton, Sir Henry 
Rawlinson, Colonel Lane Fox, Mr. Rawson Rawson, Mr. James Heywood, 
Dr. Mouat, Professor RoUeston, Mr. Hallett, Mr. Fellows, and Professor 
Leone Levi (with power to add to their number), be an Anthropometric 
Committee for the purpose of collecting observations on the Systematic Ex- 
amination of the Heights, "Weights, and other physical characters of the 



RECOMMENDATIONS OF THE GENERAL COMMITTEE. Iv 

inhabitants of tho British Isles ; that Mr. Francis Galton be the Secretary, 
and that the sum of £100 be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That the Committee on instruments for measuring the speed of ships be 
reappointed ; that it consist of the following Members : — Mr. W. Froude, Mr. 
F. J. Bramwell, Mr. A. E. Fletcher, Rev. E. L. Berthon, Mr. James E. Napier, 
Mr. C. W. Merrifield, Dr. C. W. Siemens, Mr. H. M. Brunei, Mr. W. Smith, 
Sir William Thomson, Mr. J. N. Shoolbrcd, and Professor James Thomson ; 
that Mr. J. N. Shoolbred be the Secretary, and that the sum of £50 be placed 
at their disposal for tho purpose. 

That Mr. James R. Napier, Sir WUliam Thomson, Mr. "William Froude, 
and Professor Osborne Reynolds be a Committee for the purpose of making 
experiments and of reporting on the effect of the propeller on the turning of 
Steam-vessels ; that Professor Osborne Reynolds be the Secretary, and that 
the sum of £50 be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 



Applications for Reports and Researches not involving Grants of 

Money. 

That the Committee on Underground Temperature, consisting of Professor 
Everett (Secretary), Professor Sir W. Thomson, Professor J. Clerk Maxwell, 
Mr. G. J. Symons, Professor Ramsay, Professor Geikie, Mr. J. Glaisher, 
Mr. George Maw, Mr. Pengelly, Professor Edward Hull, Professor Ansted, 
Dr. Clement Le Neve Foster, Professor A. S. Hersehel, Mr. G. A. Lebour, 
Colonel Strange, and Mr. A. B. Wynne, be reappointed. 

That the Committee on the Magnetization of Iron, Nickel, and Cobalt, 
consisting of Professor Balfour Stewart, Professor Clerk Maxwell, Mr. H. A. 
Rowland, and Professor W. F. Barrett, be reappointed. 

That the Committee, consisting of Professor Sylvester, Professor Cayley, 
Professor Hirst, Rev. Professor Bartholomew Price, Professor H. J. S. 
Smith, Dr. Spottiswoode, Mr. R. B. Hayward, Dr. Salmon, Rev. Professor E. 
Townsend, Professor Fuller, Professor KeUand, Mr. J. M. Wilson, Professor 
Heurici, Mr. J. W. L. Glaisher, and Professor Clifford, for considering the 
possibility of improving the methods of instruction in elementary geometry, 
be reappointed, and that they be requested to consider the Syllabus drawn 
up by the Association for the Improvement of Geometrical Teaching, and 
report thereon. 

That the Committee, consisting of Dr. Joule, Professor Sir W. Thomson, 
Professor Tait, Professor Balfour Stewart, and Professor J. Clerk Maxwell, 
for effecting the determination of the Mechanical Equivalent of Heat, bo 
reappointed. 

That the Committee, consisting of Professor H. J. S. Smith, Professor 
Clifford, Professor W. G, Adams, Professor Balfour Stewart, Mr. J. G. Fitch, 
•Mr. George Griffith, Mr. Marshall Watts, Professor G. Carey Foster, Mr. W. 
F. Barrett, Professor Clerk Maxwell, and Mr. G. F. RodweU, for considering 
and reporting on the extent and method of Teaching Physics in Schools, be 
reappointed, and that Professor G. C. Foster be the Secretary. 

That Mr. Spottiswoode, Professor Stokes, Professor Cayley, Professor H. J. 
S. Smith, Sir W. Thomson, Professor Henrici, Lord Rayleigh, and Mr. J. "VV. 
L. Glaisher be appointed a Committee to report on Mathematical Notation. 

That Mr. W. H. L. Russell be requested to continue his Report on Hyper- 
elliptic Functions. 

That Dr. Atkinson, Professor Gladstone, and Mr. A. Yernon Harcourt, bo 



Ivi BEPOiiT — 1875. 

a Committee for tlie purpose of collecting and suggesting subjects for Che- 
mical Researches ; that Dr. Atkinson be the Secretary. 

That E. B. Grantham, C.E., F.G.S., Professor A. W. WiUiamson, F.R.S., 
Dr. Gilbert, F.R.S., Professor Corfield, M.D., F. J. Bramwell, C.E., F.R.S., 
W. Hope, V.C, and J. W. Barry, C.E., be a Committee for the purpose of con- 
tinuing the investigations on the Treatment and Utilization of Sewage ; that 
Dr. Corfield be the Secretary. 

That Professor Prestwich, Professor Harkness, Professor Hughes, Professor 
W. Boyd Dawkins, Rev. H. W. Crosskey, Messrs. L. C. Miall, G. H. Morton, 

D. Mackintosh, R. H. Tiddeman, J. E. Lee, T. Plant, W. Pengelly, and Dr. 
Deane be a Committee for the purpose of recording the position, height 
above the sea, lithological characters, size, and origin of the Erratic Blocks 
of England, Wales, and Ireland, reporting other matters of interest con- 
nected with the same, and taking measures for their preservation ; that the 
Rev. H. W. Crosskey be the Secretary. 

That Mr. Spence Bate be requested to continue his Report on our present 
knowledge of the Crustacea. 

That Mr. J. J. Hubbard, M.P., Mr. Chadwick, M.P„ Mr. Morley, M.P., 
Dr. Farr, Mr. Hallett, Professor Jcvons, Mr. Nowmarch, Professor Leone 
Levi, Mr. Heywood, Mr. Shaen (with power to add to their number) be a 
Committee for the purpose of considering and reporting on the practicability 
of adopting a Common Measure of Value in the Assessment of Direct Taxa- 
tion, Local and Imperial, and that Mr. Hallett be the Secretary. 

That the Committee, consisting of Lord Houghton, Professor Thorold 
Rogers, W.Newmarch, Professor Fawcett, M.P., Jacob Behreus, F. P. Fellows, 
R. H. Inglis Palgrave, Archibald Hamilton, Rev. Dr. Percival, Mr. F. 
Bennoch, Mr. T. Sopwith, F.R.S., Mr. Morley, M.P., and Mr. Chadwick, 
M.P., on Capital and Labour, be reappointed ; that Professor Leone Levi 
be the Secretary. 

That the Metric Committee, consisting of James Heywood, M.A., F.R.S., 
Lord O'Hagan, Sir W. Armstrong, F.R.S., William Farr, M.D., D.C.L., 
F.R.S., John Beddoe, M.D.. F.R.S., Dr. Mouat, P. Hallett, M.A., Professor 
Hennessy, F.R.S., W. P. Price, Rev. Dr. Percival, Frank P. FcUows, F.S.S., 
C. W. Siemens, F.R.S., Professor A. W. Williamson, F.R.S.j and Professor 
Leone Levi, be reappointed for the purpose of reporting upon the best means 
of providing uniformity of weights and measures with reference to the in- 
terests of science ; that Professor Leone Levi be the Secretary. 

That the Committee, consisting of Professor Cayley, Mr. J. W. L. Glaisher, 
Dr. W. Pole, Mr. C. W. Merrifleld, Professor Fuller, Mr. H. M. Brunei, and 
Professor W. K. Clifford, be reappointed to estimate the cost of constructing 
Mr. Babbage's Analytical Engine, and to consider the advisability of printing 
tables by its means. 

That the Committee for the purpose of considering the use of steel for 
structural purposes be reappointed, consisting of Mr. W. Barlow, Mr. H. 
Bessemer, Mr. F. J. Bramwell, Captain Douglas Galton, Sir John Hawk- 
shaw, Dr. C. W. Siemens, Professor Abel, and Mr. E. H. Carbutt ; that Mr. 

E. H. Carbutt be the Secretary. 

That the Committee for considering and reporting upon British Measures, 
consisting of Mr. F. J. Bramwell, Mr. J. R. Napier, Mr. C. W. Merrifield, 
Sir John Hawkshaw, and Professor Osborne Reynolds, be reappointed. 

That Sir WiUiam Thomson, Major-General Strachey, Captain Douglas 
Galton, Mr. G. F. Deacon, Mr. Rogers Field, Mr. E. Roberts, and Mr. James 
N. Shoolbred be a Committee for the purpose of considering the Datum-kvcl 



RECOMMENDATIOJJS OP THE GENERAL COMMITTEE. Ivii 

of the Ordnance Survey of Great Britain, with a view to its establishment on 
a surer foundation than hitherto, with power to communicate with the Go- 
vernment if necessary ; that Mr. James N. Shoolbred be the Secretary. 

Communications ordered to he printed in extenso in the Annual Report of 

the Association. 

That Professor Caylej^'s paper " On the analytical forms called Trees, with 
application to the Theory of Chemical Combinations," be printed in extenso 
in the Reports of the Association. 

That the paper of Professor Osborne Eeynolds " On the Steering of Screw- 
steamers " be printed in extenso in the Reports of the Association. 

That the paper of Mr. Thomas Howard " On the River Avon " be printed 
in extenso in the Proceedings of the Sections of the Association, together with 
the necessary Plates. 

That Mr. J. N". Shoolbred's paper " On the Half-tide Level at Liverpool " 
be printed in extenso in the Reports of the Association, together with the 
necessary Plates. 

Resolutions refeited to the Council for consideration and action if it seem 

desirable. 

That the Council be requested to consider the recommendations of the 
Reports of the Royal Commission on Scientific Instruction and the Advance- 
ment of Science, and to take such action thereupon as may seem to them 
best calculated to advance the interests of Natural Science. 

That the Council be requested to take such steps as they think suitable 
for renewing their representations to the Secretary of State for India, as to 
the importance of establishing an Observatory for Solar Physics in India, 
in conformity with the recommendations of the Royal Commissioners on 
Scientific Instruction and the Advancement of Science. 

That the Council be requested to consider and report upon the manner in 
which the Members of Committees and other Officers of the Association shaU 
be selected, and whether Ladies shall be admitted to such ofBces, and if so, 
to what offices, and under what conditions. 

That the Council be requested to take into consideration the expediency of 
appointing Representatives to attend the International Statistical Congress, 
to be held at Buda-Pesth, in 1876. 



Iviii REPORT — 1875. 



Synopsis of Grants of Money appropriated to Scientific Purposes by 

the General Committee at the Bristol Meeting in August 1875. 

The names of the Members who would be entitled to call on the 
General Treasurer for the resjjective Grants are prefixed. 

Mathematics and Physics. 

*Cayley, Professor. — Printing Mathematical Tables £159 4 2 

*Brooke, Mr.— Britist Eainfall 100 

*Glaislier, Mr. J. — Luminous Meteors 30 

*Maxwell, Professor C. — Testing the Exactness of Ohm's Law 50 

*Stokes, Professor. — Eeflective Power of Silver and other 

Substances 20 

*Tait, Professor. — Thermo-Electricity (renewed) 50 

Thomson, Sir William.— Tide Calculating Machine .... 200 

Chemistry. 

*lloscoe, Professor. — Specific Yolumes of Liquids 25 

*Armstrong, Dr. — Isomeric Cresols and their Derivatives .... 10 

Clowes, Mr. — Action of Ethylbromo-butyrate on Ethyl Sod- 

aceto-acctate 10 

*Allen, Mr. — Estimation of Potash and Phosphoric Acid .... 20 

Geology. 

*Lubbock, Sir J. — Exploration of Victoria Cave, Settle 100 

Evans, Mr. J. — Geological Eecord 100 

Evans, Mr. J. — Kent's Cavern Exploration 100 

*Herschel, Professor. — Thermal Conducting-power of Rocks . . 10 

*IIaU, Professor. — Underground "Waters in New Red Sand- 
Stone and Permian 10 

*Bryce, Dr. — Earthquakes in Scotland 20 

Biology. 

Sclater, Mr. — Zoological Eecord 100 

Dresser, Mr. — Indigenous Animals " Close Time " 5 

Balfour, Professor. — -Physiological Action of Sound 25 

Euxlcy, Professor. — Table at the Zoological Station at Naples 75 



Carried forward <£1210 4 2 

* Keappoiuted, 



SYNOPSIS OF GRANTS OF MONEY. lix 

Brought forward £1219 4 2 

*]3runton, Dr. — The Nature of Intestinal Secretion 20 

Fox, Col. Lane. — Prehistoric Explorations 25 

*Fox, Col. Lane. — Forms of Instructions for Travellers 25 

Statistics and Econom ic Science. 

Beddoe, Dr. — Systematic Examination of Heights, Weights, 

of the Inhabitants of the British Isles 100 

Mechanics. 

*Froude, Mr. W. — Instruments for Measuring the Speed of 

Ships and Currents (renewed) 50 

Napier, Mr. J. E. — Effect of the Propeller on the turning of 

Steam-vessels 50 

Total.... £1489 4 2 
* Reappointed. 



The Annual Meeting in 1876. 
The Meeting at Glasgow wiU commence on "Wednesday, September 6, 1876. 

Place of Meeting in 1877. 
The Annual Meeting of the Association in 1877 will be held at Plymouth. 



Ix 



REPORT — 1875. 



General Statement of Sums which have been paid on Account of Grants 

for Scientific Pmyoses. 



£ s. d. 

1834. 

Tide Discussions 20 

1835. 

Tide Discussions G2 

British Fossil Iclithyology 105 

£\61 



1836. 

Tide Discussions 1C3 

Biitisli Fossil Ichthyology 105 

Tlieimometiic Observations, &c. 50 
Experiments on long-continued 

Heat 17 1 

Rain-Gauges 9 13 

Refraction Experiments , 15 

Lunar Nutation CO 

Thermometers 15 6 

"1E434 U 



1837. 

Tide Discussions 284 

Chemical Constants 24 

Lunar Nutation 70 

Observations on Waves 100 

Tides at Bristol 150 

Meteorology and Subterranean 

Temperature 89 

Vitrification Experiments 150 

Heart Experiments 8 

Barometric Observations 30 

Barometers 11 



1 

13 


12 


5 

4 

18 



;€91S 14 G 



1838. 

Tide Discussions 29 

British Fossil Fishes 100 

Meteorological Observations and 

Anemometer (construction) ... 100 

Cast Iron (Strength of) 60 

Animal and Vegetable Substances 

(Preservation of) 19 1 10 

Railway Constants 41 12 10 

Bristol Tides 50 

Growth of Plants 75 

Mud in Rivers 3 6 6 

Education Committee -50 

Heart Experiments 5 3 

Land and Sea Level 267 8 7 

Subterranean Temperature 8 6 

Steam-vessels 100 

Meteorological Committee 31 9 5 

Tliermometers 16 4 



.£956 12 2 



1839. 

Fossillclithyology 110 

Meteorological Observations at 

Plymouth 63 10 

Mechanism of Waves 144 2 

Bristol Tides , , 3,5 ]{j 



£ s. d. 



Meteorology and Subterranean 

Temperature 21 

Vitrification Experiments. 9 

Cast-iron Experiments 100 

Railway Constants 28 

Land and Sea Level 274 

Steam-vessels' Engines 100 

Slars in Histoire Celeste 331 

Stars in Lacaille 11 

Stars in R.A.S. Catalogue 6 

Animal Secretions 10 

Steam-engines in Cornwall 50 

Atmospheric Air 16 

Cast and Wrought Iron 40 

Heat on Organic Bodies 3 

Gases on Solar Spectrum 22 

Hourly Meteorological Observa- 
tions, Inverness and Kingussie 49 

Fossil Reptiles 118 

Mining Statistics 50 



11 





4 


7 








7 


2 


1 


4 








18 


6 








16 


6 


10 











1 























7 


8 


2 


9 









Jei595 11 



1840. 

Bristol Tides 100 

Subterranean Temperature 13 

Heart Experiments JS 

Lungs Experiments 8 

Tide Discussions 50 

Land and Sea Level 6 

Stars (Histoire Celeste) 242 

Slars (Lacaille) 4 

Stars (Catalogue) 264 

Atmospheric Air 15 

Water on Iron 10 

Heat on Organic Bodies 7 

Meteorological Observations 52 

Foreign Scientific Memoirs 112 

Working Population 100 

School Statistics 50 

Forms of Vessels 184 

Chemical and Electrical Pheno- 
mena 40 

Meteorological Observations at 

Plymouth SO 

Magnelical Observations 185 









13 


6 


19 





13 











11 


1 


10 





15 











15 

















17 


6 


1 


6 















7 




13 9 



£1546 16 



1841. 

Observations on Waves 30 

Meteorology and Subterranean 

Temperature 8 

Actinometers 10 

Earthquake Shocks , 17 

Acrid Poisons 6 

Veins and Absorbents 3 

Mud in Rivers 5 

Marine Zoology 15 

Skeleton Maps 20 

Mountain Barometers 6 

Stars (Histoire Celeste) 185 







8 











7 























2 








8 


8 


6 









GENERAL STATEMENT. 



hi 



£ g. d. 

Stars (Lacaille) 79 5 

Stars (Nomenclature of) 17 19 6 

Stars (Catalogue of) 40 

Water on Iron 50 

Meteorological Observations at 

Inverness 20 

Meteorological Observations (re- 
duction of) 25 

Fossil Reptiles 50 

Foreign Memoirs 02 

Railway Sections 38 1 6 

Forms of Vessels 193 12 

Meteorological Observations at 

Plymouth 55 

Magnetical Observations 61 IS 8 

Fishes of the Old Red Sandstone 100 

Tides at Leith 50 

Anemometer at Edinburgh 69 1 10 

Tabulating Observations 9 6 3 

Races of Men 5 

Radiate Animals , 2 

: £1235 10 11 

1842. 

Dynamometric Instruments ...... 113 11 2 

Anoplura Britanniae 52 12 

Tides at Bristol 59 8 

Gases on Light 30 14 7 

Chronometers 26 17 6 

Marine Zoology 15 

British Fossil Mammalia 100 

Statistics of Education 20 

Marine Steam-vessels' Engines... 28 

Stars (Histoire Celeste) 59 

Stars (Brit. Assoc. Cat. of ) 110 

Railway Sections 161 10 

British Belemnites 50 

Fossil Reptiles (publication of 

Report) 210 

Forms of Vessels 180 

Galvanic Experiments on Rocks 5 8 6 
Meteorological Experiments at 

Plymouth 68 

Constant Indicator and Dynamo- 
metric Instruments 90 

ForceofWind 10 

Light on Growth of Seeds 8 

Vital Statistics 50 

Vegetative Power of Seeds 8 1 11 

Questions on Human Race 7 9 

£1449 17 8 



1843. 

Revision of the Nomenclature of 

Stars 2 

Reduction of Stars, British Asso- 
ciation Catalogue 25 

Anomalous Tides, Frith of Forth 120 

Hourly Meteorological Observa- 

tionsatKingussieandlnverness 77 12 8 

Meteorological Observations at 

Plymouth 55 

Whewell's Meteorological Ane- 
mometer at Plymouth 10 



£ 
Meteorological Observations, Os- 
ier's Anemometer at Plymouth 20 
Reduction of Meteorological Ob- 
servations 30 

Meteorological Instruments and 

Gratuities 39 

Construction of Anemometer at 

Inverness 56 

Magnetic Cooperation 10 

Meteorological Recorder for Kew 

Observatory 50 

Action of Gases on Light 18 

Establishment at Kew Observa- 
tory, Wages, Repairs, Furni- 
ture and Sundries 133 

Experiments by Captive Balloons 81 
Oxidation ofthe Rails of Railways 20 
Publication of Report on Fossil 

Reptiles 40 

Coloured Drawings of Railway 

Sections J 47 

Registration of Earthquake 

Shocks 30 

Report on Zoological Nomencla- 
ture 10 

Uncovering Lower Red Sand- 
stone near Manchester 4 

Vegetative Power of Seeds 5 

Marine Testacea (Habits of) ... 10 

Marine Zoology 10 

Marine Zoology 2 

Preparation of Report on British 

Fossil Mammalia 100 

Physiological Operations of Me- 
dicinal Agents 20 

Vital Statistics 36 

Additional Experiments on the 

Forms of Vessels 70 

Additional Experiments on the 

Forms of Vessels 100 

Reduction of Experiments on the 

Forms of Vessels 100 

Morin's Instrument and Constant 

Indicator 69 

Experiments on the Strength of 
Materials 60 

£1565 



s. 


d. 














6 





12 
8 


2 
10 



16 



1 


4 
8 



7 










18 


3 














4 
3 


14 


6 
8 



11 









5 



8 




















14 


10 









10 2 



1844. 

Meteorological Observations at 

Kingussie and Inverness 12 

Completing Observations at Ply- 
mouth 35 

Magnetic and Meteorological Co- 
operation 25 8 4 

Publication of the British Asso- 
ciation Catalogue of Stars 35 

Observations on Tides on the 

East coast of Scotland 100 

Revision of the Nomenclature of 

Stars 1842 2 9 6 

Maintaining the Establishmentin 

Kew Observatory 117 17 3 

Instruments for Kew Observatory 50 7 3 



Ixii 



REPORT — 1875. 



Influence of Light on Plants 10 

Subterraneous Temperature in 

Ireland 5 

Coloured Drawings of Railway 

Sections 15 

Investigation of Fossil Fishes of 

the Lower Tertiary Strata ... 100 
Registering the Shocks of Earth- 
quakes 1842 23 

Structure of Fossil Shells 20 

Radiata and Mollusca of the 

^gean and Red Seas 1842 100 

Geographical Distributions of 

Marine Zoology 1842 10 

Marine Zoology of Devon and 

Cornwall 10 

Marine Zoology of Corfu 10 

Experiments on the Vitality of 

Seeds 9 

Experiments on the Vitality of 

Seeds 1842 8 

Exotic Anoplura IS 

Strength of Materials 100 

Completing Experiments on the 

Forms of Ships 100 

Inquiries into Asphyxia 10 

Investigations on the Internal 

Constitution of Metals 50 

Constant Indicator and Morin's 

Instrument 1842 10_ 

£981 



s. 



d. 










17 


e 








11 




10 

























3 



7 


3 
































3 


6 



12 8 



1845. 
Publication of the British Associa- 
tion Catalogue of Stars 3,')1 

Meteorological Observations at 

Inverness 30 

Magnetic and Meteorological Co- 
operation 10 

Meteorological Instruments at 

Edinburgh 18 

Reduction of Anemometrical Ob- 
servations at Plymouth 25 

Electrical Experiments at Kevf 

Observatory 43 

Maintaining the Establishment in 

Kew Observatory 149 

For Kreil's Barometrograph 25 

Oases from Iron Furnaces 50 

The Actinograph " 15 

Microscopic Structure of Shells 20 

Exotic Anoplura 1843 10 

Vitality of Seeds 1843 2 

Vitality of Seeds 1844 7 

Marine Zoology of Cornwall ... 10 
Physiological Action of Medicines 20 
Statistics of Sickness and Mor- 
tality in York 20 

Earthquake Shocks 1843 15 

£830 

1846. 
British Association Catalogue of 

Stars 1844 211 

Fossil Fishes of the London Clay 100 



14 


f. 


18 


11 


IC 


8 


11 


9 








17 


8 


15 






































7 


























14 


8 



9 9 



15 




£ s. d. 
Computation of the Gaussian 

Constants for 1829 50 

Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory 146 1(3 7 

Strength of Materials CO 

Researches in Asphyxia 6 16 2 

Examination of Fossil Shells 10 

Vitality of Seeds 1844 2 15 10 

Vitality of Seeds 1845 7 12 3 

Marine Zoology of Cornwall 10 

Marine Zoology of Britain 10 

Exotic Anoplura 1844 25 

Expenses attending Anemometers 11 7 6 

Anemometers' Repairs 2 3 6 

Atmospheric Waves 3 3 3 

Captive Balloons 1844 8 19 3 

Varieties of the Human Race 

1844 7 6 3 
Statistics of Sickness and Mor- 
tality in York 12 

£685 16 

1847. 
Computation of the Gaussian 

Constants for 1829 50 

Habits of Marine Animals 10 

Physiological Action of Medicines 20 

Marine Zoology of Cornwall 10 

Atmospheric Waves 6 9 3 

Vitality of Seeds 4 7 7 

Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory 107 8 6 

£208 5 4 

1848. 
Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory 171 15 11 

Atmospheric Waves 3 10 9 

Vitality of Seeds 9 15 

Completion of Catalogues of Stars 70 

On Colouring Matters 5 

On Growth of Plants 15 

£275 1 8 

1849. 

Electrical Observations at Kew 

Observatory 50 

Maintaining Establishment at 

ditto 76 2 5 

Vitality of Seeds 5 8 1 

On Growth of Plants 5 

Registration of Periodical Phe- 
nomena 10 

Bill on account of Anemometrical 

Observations 13 9 

£159 19 "6 

1850. 
Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory 255 18 

Transit of Earthquake Waves ... 50 

Periodical Phenomena 15 

Meteorological Instruments, 

Azores 25 

£345 18 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



Ixi 



11 



£ s. d. 
1851. 
Maintaining the Establishment at 
Kew Observatory (includes part 

ofgrantin 1849) 309 2 2 

TheoryofHeat 20 1 1 

Periodical Phenomena of Animals 

and Plants 5 

Vitality of Seeds 5 6 4 

Influence of Solar Radiation 30 

Ethnological Inquiries 12 

Researches on Annelida 10 

"£391 9 7 

1852. 

Maintaining the Establishment at 
Kew Observatory (including 
balance of grant for 1S50) ... 233 17 8 

Experiments on the Conduction 

ofHeat 5 2 9 

Influence of Solar Radiations ... 20 

Geological Map of Ireland 15 

Researches on the British Anne- 
lida 10 

Vitality of Seeds 10 6 2 

Strength of Boiler Plates 10 

£304 6 7 

1853. 

Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory 165 

Experiments on the Influence of 

Solar Radiation 15 

Researches on the British Anne- 
lida 10 

Dredging on the East Coast of 

Scotland 10 

Ethnological Queries 5 

~£205 

1854. 

Maintaining the Establishment at 
Kevir Observatory (including 
balance of former grant) 330 15 4 

Investigations on Flax 11 

Effects of Temperature on 

Wrought Iron 10 

Registration of Periodical Phe- 
nomena 10 

British Annelida 10 

Vitality of Seeds 5 2 3 

Conduction of Heat 420 

'£380 19 7 

1855. 
Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory 425 

Earthquake Movements 10 

Physical Aspect of the Moon 11 8 5 

Vitality of Seeds 10 7 H 

Map of the World 15 

Ethnological Queries 5 

Dredging near Belfast 4 

£480 16 4 

1856. ~" 

Maintaining the Establishment at 
Kew Observatory: — 

1854 £ 75 01 ,.. . . 

1855 £500 0/ ^'^ " " 



£ .?. d. 
Strickland's Ornithological Syno- 
nyms 100 

Dredging and Dredging Forms... 9 13 9 

Chemical Action of Liglit 20 

Strength of Iron Plates 10 

Registration of Periodical Pheno- 
mena 10 

Propagation of Salmon 10 

£734 13 9 

1857. =i;=^ 

Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory 350 

Earthquake Wave Experiments. . 40 

Dredging near Belfast 10 

Dredging on the West Coast of 

Scotland 10 

Investigations into the Mollusca 

ofCalifornia 10 

Experiments on Flax 5 

Natural History of Madagascar. . 20 

Researches on British Annelida 25 

Report on Natural Products im- 
ported into Liverpool 10 

Artificial Propagation of Salmon 10 

Temperature of Mines 7 8 

Thermometers for Subterranean 

Observations 5 7 4 

Life-Boats 5 

£507 15 4 

1858. ■ 

Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory 500 

Earthquake Wave Experiments.. 25 
Dredging on the West Coast of 

Scotland 10 

Dredging near Dublin 5 

Vitality of Seeds 5 5 

Dredging near Belfast IS 13 2 

Report on the British Annelida... 25 
Experiments on the production 

of Heat by Motion in Fluids ... 20 
Report on the Natural Products 

imported into Scotland 10 

£618 18 2 

1859. ' ' 
Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory 500 

Dredging near Dublin 15 

Osteology of Birds 50 

Irish Tunicata 5 

Manure Experiments 20 

British MedusidiE 5 

Dredging Committee 5 

Steam-vessels' Performance 5 

Marine Fauna of South and West 

of Ireland , 10 

Photographic Chemistry 10 

Lanarkshire Fossils 20 1 

Balloon Ascents 39 11 

^£6 84 II 1 

1860. ' 
Maintaining tlie Establishment 

of Kew Observatory 500 

Dredging near Belfast 16 6 

Dredging in Dublin Bay 15 



Ixiv 



REPORT 1875. 



£ s. d. 

Inquiry into the Performance of 

Steam-vessels 124 

Explorations in the Yellow Sand- 
stone of Dura Den 20 

Chemico-mechanical Analysis of 

Rocks and Minerals 25 

Researches on the Growth of 

Plants 10 

Researches on the Solubility of 

Salts 30 

Researches on the Constituents 

of Manures 25 

Balance of Captive Balloon Ac- 
counts 1 13 6 

J61241 7 



1861. 
Maintaining the Establishment 

of Kew Observatory 500 

Earthquake Experiments 25 

Dredging North and East Coasts 

ofScotland 23 

Dredging Committee : — 

1S60 :^50 01 72 

1861 £22 0/ '^ " " 

Excavations at Dura Den 20 

Solubility of Salts 20 

Steam-vessel Performance 150 

Fossils of Lesmahago 15 

Explorations at Uriconium 20 

Chemical Alloys 20 

Classified Index to the Transac- 
tions 100 

Dredging in the Mersey and Dee 5 

Dip Circle 30 

Photoheliographic Observations 50 

Prison Diet 20 

Gauging of Water 10 

Alpine Ascents C 5 1 

Constituents of Manures 25 



£1111 5 10 



1S62. 
Maintaining the Establishment 

of Kew Observatory 500 

Patent Laws 216 

Mollusca of N.-W. America 10 

Natural History by Mercantile 

Marine 5 

Tidal Observations 25 

Photoheliometer at Kew 40 

Photographic Pictures of the Sun 150 

Rocks of Donegal 25 

Dredging Durham and North- 
umberland 25 

Connexion of Storms 20 

Dredging North-east Coast of 

Scotland 6 9 6 

Ravages of Teredo 3 11 

Standards of Electrical Resistance 50 

Railway Accidents 10 

Balloon Committee 200 

Dredging Dublin Bay 10 

Dredging the Mersey 5 

Prison Diet 20 

Gauging of Water,., 12 10 



£ 

Steanjships' Performance 150 

Thermo-Electric Currents 5 

£1293 1() () 

1863. 
Maintaining the Establishment 

of Kew Observatory GOO 

Balloon Committee deficiency... 70 

Balloon Ascents (other expenses) 25 

Entozoa 25 

Coal Fossils 20 

Herrings 20 

Granites of Donegal 5 

Prison Diet 20 

Vertical Atmospheric Movements 13 

Dredging Shetland 50 

Dredging North-east coast of 

Scotland 25 

Dredging Northumberland and 

Durham 17 3 10 

Dredging Committee superin- 
tendence 10 

Steamship Performance 100 

Balloon Committee 200 

Carbon under pressure 10 

Volcanic Temperature 100 

Bromide of Ammonium 8 

Electrical Standards 100 

Construction and distribu- 
tion ... 40 

Luminous Meteors 17 

Kew Additional Buildings for 

Photoheliograph 100 

Thermo-Electricity 15 

Analysis of Rocks 8 

Hydroida 10 

£ 1608 3 10 

1864. ' 
Maintaining the Establishment 

of Kew Observatory GOO 

Coal Fossils 20 

Vertical Atmospheric Move- 
ments 20 

Dredging Shetland 75 

Dredging Northumberland 25 

Balloon Committee 200 

Carbon under pressure 10 

Standards of Electric Resistance 100 

Analysis of Rocks 10 

Hydroida 10 

Askham'sGift 50 

Nitrite of Arayle 10 

Nomenclature Committee 5 

Rain-Gauges , 19 15 8 

Cast-Iron Investigation 20 

Tidal Observations in the Humber 50 

Spectral Rays 45 

Luminous Meteors 20 

£ 1289 15 8 

1865. ■ ~ — 
Maintaining the Establishment 

of Kew Observatory 600 

Balloon Committee 100 o 

Hydroida 13 



GENERAL STATE.MENT. 



Ixv 



£ s. d. 

Raiii-Oaugfis 30 

'filial Oljsorvations ill the IIuMiber 6 8 

llexylic Compounds 20 

Aiiiyl Compounds 20 

Irish Flora 25 

American MoUusca 3 9 

Organic Acids 20 

Lingula Flags Excavation 10 

Eurypterus 50 

Electrical Standards 100 

Malta Caves Researches 30 

Oyster Breeding 25 

Gibraltar Caves Researches 150 

Kent's Hole Excavations 100 

Moon's Surface Observations ... 35 

Marine Fauna 25 

Dredging Aberdeenshire 25 

Dredging Channellslands 50 

Zoological Nomenclature 5 

Resistance of Floating Bodies in 

Water 100 

Bath Waters Analysis 8 10 

Luminous Meteors 40 

£1591 7 10 

1866. ~ 
Maintaining the Establishment 

of Kew Observatory 600 

Lunar Committee 64 13 4 

Balloon Committee 50 

Metrical Committee 50 

British Rainfall 50 

Kilkenny Coal Fields 16 

Alum Bay Fossil Leaf-Bed 15 

Luminous Meteors 50 

Lingula Flags Excavation 20 

Chemical Constitution of Cast 

Iron 50 

Amyl Compounds 25 

Electrical Standards 100 

Malta Caves Exploration 30 

Kent's Hole Exploration 200 

Marine Fauna, &c., Devon and 

Cornwall 25 

Dredging Aberdeenshire Coast... 25 

Dredging Hebrides Coast 50 

Dredging the Mersey 5 

Resistance of Floating Bodies in 

Water 50 

Polycyanides of Organic Radi- 
cals 20 

Rigor Mortis 10 

Irish Annelida 15 

Catalogue of Crania 50 

Didine Birds of Mascarene Islands 50 

Typical Crania Researches 30 

Palestine Exploration Fund 100 

£1750 13 4 

1867. =^=^^= 
Maintaining the Establishment 

of Kew Observatory 600 

Meteorological Instruments, Pa- 
lestine 50 

Lunar Comniitlec , 120 

1875. 



£ .<!. d. 

Metrical Committee 30 

Kent's Hols Explorations 100 

Palestine Explorations 50 

Insect Fauna, Palestine ......... 30 

British Rainfall 50 

Kilkenny Coal Fields 25 

Alum Bay Fossil Leaf-Bed 25 

Luminous Meteors 50 

Bournemouth, &c. Leaf-Beds ... 30 

Dredging Shetland 75 

Steamship Reports Condensation 100 

Electrical Standards 100 

Ethyle and Methyle series 25 

Fossil Crustacea 25 

Sound under Water 24 4 

North Greenland Fauna 75 

Do. Plant Beds ... 100 

Iron and Steel Manufacture ... 25 

Patent Laws 30 

£1739 4 

1868. ■■" 
Maintaining the Establishment 

of Kew Observatory GOO 

Lunar Committee 120 

Metrical Committee 50 

Zoological Record 100 

Kent's Hole Explorations 150 

Steamship Performances 100 

British Rainfall 50 

Luminous Meteors 50 

Organic Acids 60 

Fossil Crustacea 25 

Methyl series 25 

Mercury and Bile 25 

Organic remains in Limestone 

Rocks 25 

Scottish Earthquakes 20 

Fauna, Devon and Cornwall ... 30 

British Fossil Corals 50 

Bagshot Leaf-beds 50 

Greenland Explorations 100 

Fossil Flora 25 

Tidal Observations 100 

Underground Temperature 50 

Spectroscopic investigations of 

Animal Substances 5 

Secondary Reptiles, &c 30 

British Marine Invertebrate 

Fauna 100 

i:i910 

1869. ^^=^==^ 
Maintaining the Establishment 

of Kew Observatory 600 

Lunar Committee 50 

Metrical Committee 25 

Zoological Record 100 

Committee on Gases in Deep- 
well Water 25 

British Rainfall 50 

Thermal Conductivity of Iron, 

&c 30 

Kent's Hole Explorations 150 

Steamship Performances 30 

e 



ixvi 



REPORT 1875. 



£ s. d. 
Chemical Constitution of Cast 

Iron 80 

Iron and Steel Manufacture ... 100 

Methyl Series 30 

Organic remains in Limestone 

Rocks 10 

Earthquakes in Scotland 10 

British Fossil Corals 50 

Bagshot Leaf-Beds 30 

Fossil Flora 25 

Tidal Observations 100 

Underground Temperature 30 

Spectroscopic Investigations of 

Animal Substances 5 

Organic Acids 12 

Kiltorcan Fossils 20 

Chemical Constitution and Phy- 
siological Action Relations ... 15 

Mountain Limestone Fossils 25 

Utilization of Sewage 10 

Products of Digestion 10 

£1622 



1870. 

Maintaining the Establishment of 

Kew Observatory 600 

Metrical Committee 25 

Zoological Record 100 

Committee on Marine Fauna ... 20 

Ears in Fishes 10 

Chemical nature of Cast Iron ... 80 

Luminous Meteors 30 

Heat in the Blood 15 

British Rainfall 100 

ThermalConductivityoflron&c. 20 

British Fossil Corals 50 

Kent's Hole Explorations 150 

Scottish Earthquakes 4 

Bagshot Leaf-Beds 15 

Fossil Flora 25 

Tidal Observations 100 

Underground Temperature 50 

Kiltorcan Quarries Fossils 20 

Mountain Limestone Fossils ... 25 

Utilization of Sewage 50 

Organic Chemical Compounds... 30 

Onny River Sediment 3 

Mechanical Equivalent of Heat 50 

£1572 



1871. 
Maintainingthe Establishment of 

Kew Observatory 600 

Monthly Reports of Progress in 

Chemistry 100 

Metrical Committee 25 

Zoological Record 100 

Thermal Equivalents of the 

Oxides of Chlorine 10 

Tidal Observations 100 

Fossil Dora 25 












































£ 

Luminous Meteors 30 

British Fossil Corals 25 

Heat in the Blood 7 

British Rainfall 50 

Kent's Hole Explorations 150 

Fossil Crustacea 25 

Methyl Compounds 25 

Lunar Objects 20 

Fossil Corals Sections, for Pho- 
tographing 20 

Bagshot Leaf-Beds 20 

Moab Explorations 100 

Gaussian Constants 40 

£1472 

1872. — — — 

Maintaining the Establishment of 

Kew Observatory 300 

Metrical Committee 75 

Zoological Record 100 

Tidal Committee 200 

Carboniferous Corals 25 

Organic Chemical Compounds 25 

Exploration of Moab 100 

Terato-Embryological Inquiries 10 

Kent's Cavern Exploration 100 

Luminous Meteors 20 

Heat in the Blood 15 

Fossil Crustacea 25 

Fossil Elephants of Malta 25 

Lunar Objects 20 

Inverse Wave-Lengths 20 

British Rainfall 100 

Poisonous Substances Antago- 
nism 10 

Essential Oils, Chemical Consti- 
tution, &c 40 

Mathematical Tables 50 

Thermal Conductivity of Metals 25 

J1285 

1873. 

Zoological Record 100 

Chemistry Record 200 

Tidal Committee 400 

Sewage Committee 100 

Kent's Cavern Exploration 150 

Carboniferous Corals 25 

Fossil Elephants 25 

Wave-Lengths 150 

British Rainfall 100' 

Essential Oils 30 

Mathematical Tables 100 

Gaussian Constants 10 

Sub-Wealden Explorations 25 

Underground Temperature 150 

Settle Cave Exploration 50 

Fossil Flora, Ireland 20 

Timber Denudation and Rainfall 20 
Luminous Meteors 30 

£1685 



s. 


d. 














2 


6 

























































2 6 



























































































GENERAL MEETINGS. 



1) 



XVll 



£ s. d. 
1874. 

Zoological Eecord 100 

Chemistry Eecord 100 

Mathematical Tables 100 

Elliptic Fuuctiona 100 

Lightning Conductors 10 

Thermal Conductivity of Eocks 10 
Anthropological Instructions, 

&c 50 

Kent's Cavern Exploration ... 150 

Luminous Meteors 30 

Intestinal Secretions 15 

British Eain fall 100 

Essential Oils 10 

Sub-Wealden Explorations ... 25 

Settle Cave Exploration 50 

Mauritius Meteorological Ee- 

search 100 

Magnetization of Iron 20 

Marine Organisms 30 

Fossils, North-west of Scotland 2 10 

Physiological Action of Light. . 20 

Trades Unions 25 

Mountain-Limestone Corals ... 25 

Erratic Blocks 10 

Dredging, Durham and York- 
shire Coasts 28 5 

High temperature of Bodies ... 30 



£ s. d. 

Siemens's Pyrometer 3 G 

Labyrinthodonts of Coal-Mea- 
sures 7 15 

i-'l lol 16 

1875. 

Elliptic Functions 100 

Magnetization of Iron 20 f ) 

British Eainfall 120 

Luminous Meteors 30 

Chemistry Eecord 100 

Specific Volume of Liquids ... 25 
Estimation of Potash and Phos- 
phoric Acid 10 

Isometric Cresols 20 

Sub-Wealden Explorations 100 

Kent's Cavern Exploration 100 

Settle Cave Exploration 50 

Earthquakes in Scotland 15 

Underground Waters 10 

Development of Myxiuoid 

Fishes 20 

Zoological Eecord 100 

Instructions for Travellers 20 

Intestinal Secretion 20 

Palestine Exploration 100 

1-900 6 



General Meetings. 

On Wednesday, August 25, at 8 p.m., in the Colston Hall, Professor John 
Tyndall, D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S., President, resigned the office of President to 
Sir John Hawkshaw, C.E., F.E.S., F.G.S., who took the Chair, and delivered 
an Address, for -which see page Ixviii. 

On Thursday, August 26, at 8 p.m., a Soire'e took place in the Colston 
HaU. 

On Friday, August 27, at 8.30 p.m., in the Colston Hall, W. Spottiswoode, 
Esq., M.A., LL.D., F.R.S., delivered a Discourse on "The Colours of 
Polarized Light." 

On Saturday, Avigust 28, at 7 p.m., in the Colston Hall, Dr. W. B.. Car- 
penter, LL.D., F.R.S., delivered a Lecture, on "A Piece of Limestone," to the 
"Working Classes of Bristol. 

On Monday, August 30, at 8.30 p.m., in the Colston Hall, F. J. Bramwell, 
Esq., C.E., F.R.S., delivered a Discourse on " Piailway Safety Appliances." 

On Tuesdaj^, August 31, at 8 p.m., a Soire'e took place in the Colston Hall. 

On Wednesday, September 1, at 2.30 p.m., the concluding General Meeting 
took place, when the Proceedings of the General Committee, and the Grants 
of Money for Scientific purposes, were explained to the Members. 

The Meeting was then adjourned to Glasgow*. 

* The Meeting is appointed to take place on Wednesday, September G, 1870. 



t2 



ADDRESS 



OF 



SIR JOHN HAWKSHAW, C.E., RR.S., F.G.S., 

PRESIDENT. 



Gextlemen, — 
To those on whom the British Associatiou confers the honour of presiding 
over its meetings, the choice of a subject presents some difficulty. 

The Presidents of Sections, at each annual meeting, give an account of 
■what is new in their respective departments; and essay's on science in 
general, though desirable and interesting in the earlier years of the Associa- 
tion, would be less ajipropriatc to-daj\ 

Past Presidents have already discoursed on many subjects, on things 
organic and inorganic, on the mind and on things perhaps beyond the reach 
of mind ; and I have arrived at the conclusion that liumblcr themes will not 
be out of place on this occasion. 

I propose in this Address to say something of a profession to which mj' 
lifetime has been devoted — a theme which cannot perhaps be expected to 
stand as high in your estimation as in my own, and I may have some 
difficulty in making it interesting ; but I have chosen it because it is a subject 
I ought to understand better than any other. I propose to say something on 
its origin, its work, and kindred topics. 

Eapid as has been the growth of knowledge and skill as aijplied to the art 
of the engineer during the last century, wc must, if we -would trace its origin, 
seek far back among the earliest evidences of civilization. 

In early times, when settled communities were few and isolated, the 
opportimities for the interchange of knowledge were scanty or wanting 
altogether. Often the slowly accumulated results of the experience of the 
wisest heads and the most skilful hands of a community were lost on its 
downfall. Inventions of one period were lost and found again. Many a 
patient investigator has puzzled his brain in trying to solve a problem which 
had yielded to a more fortunate labourer in the same field some centuries 
before. 



ADDllESS. Ixix 

The ancient Egyptians had a knowledge of Metallurgy, much of which •s\as 
lost during the years of decline which followed the golden age of their civi- 
lization. The art of casting bronze over iron was known to the Assyrians, 
though it has only lately been introduced into modern metallurgy; and 
patents were granted in 1C09 for processes connected with the manufactui'C 
of glass which had been practised centuries before*. An inventor in the 
reign of Tiberius devised a method of producing flexible glass ; but the 
manufactory of the artist was totally destroyed, we are told, in order to 
prevent the manufacture of copper, silver, and gold from becoming depre- 
ciated t- 

Again and again engineers as well as others have made mistakes from not 
knowing what had been done by those who have gone before them. In the 
long discussion which took place as to the practicability of making the 
Suez Canal, an early objection was brought against it that there was a 
ditFerenco of 32| feet between the level of the Eed Sea and that of the 
Mediterranean, Laplace at once declared that such could not be the case, 
for the mean level of the sea was the same on all parts of the globe. 
Centuries before the time of Laplace the same objection had been raised 
to a project for joining the waters of these two seas. According to the 
old Greek and Eoman historians, it was a fear of flooding Egypt with the 
waters of the Eed Sea that made Darius, and in later times again Ptolemy, 
hesitate to open the canal between Suez and the Nile J. Yet this canal 
was made, and was in use some centuries before the time of Darius. 

Strabo § tells us that the same objection, that the adjoining seas were of 
ditFerent levels, was made by his engineers to Demetrius ||, who wished to 
cut a canal through the Isthmus of Corinth some two thousand years ago. 
But Strabo ^ dismisses at once this idea of a diff'erence of level, agreeing 
with Archimedes that the force of gravity spreads the sea equally over the 
earth. 

When knowledge in its higher branches was confined to a few, those who 
possessed it were often called upon to perform many and various services for 
the communities to which they belonged ; and we find mathematicians and 
astronomers, painters and sculptors, and priests called upon to perform the 
duties which now pertain to the profession of the architect and the engineer. 
And as soon as civilization had advanced so far as to admit of the accumula- 
tion of wealth and power, then kings and rulers sought to add to their glory 
while living by the erection of magnificent dwelling-places, and to provide 
for their aggrandizement after death by the construction of costly tombs and 

* Layard's 'Nineveh and Babylon,' p. 191 ; Bectraan's 'History of Inventions,' vol. ii. 

p. 85. 

t Pliny, Nat. Hist. bk. sxxvi. cap. 66. | Ibid. bk. vi. cap. 33. 

§ Strabo, cap. iii. § 11. || Demetrius I., King of Macedonia, died 283 r.c, 

^ Strabo, cap. iii. § 12. 



IxX REPORT — 1875. 

temples. Accordingly, we soon find men of ability and learning devoting a 
great part of their time to building and architecture, and the post of 
architect became one of honour and profit. In one of the most ancient 
quarries of Egypt a royal high architect of the dynasty of the Psammetici 
has left his pedigree sculptured on the rock, extending back for twenty-three 
o-enerations, all of whom held the same post in succession in connexion with 
considerable sacerdotal offices *. 

As there were in these remote times officers whose duty it was to design 
and construct, so also there were those whose duty it was to maintain and 
repair the royal palaces and temples. In Assyria, 700 years before our era, 
as we know from a tablet found in the palace of Sennacherib by Mr. Smith, 
there was an officer whose title was the Master of "Works. The tablet I 
allude to is inscribed with a petition to the king from an officer in charge of 
a palace, requesting that the Master of Works may be sent to attend to some 
repairs which were much needed at the time f. 

Under the Eoman Empire there was almost as great a division of labour 
in connexion with building and design as now exists. The great works of 
that period were executed and maintained by an army of officers and work- 
men, to each of whom special duties were assigned. 

Passing by those early attempts at design and construction which supplied 
the mere wants of the individual and the household, it is to the East that we 
must turn if we would fiod the earliest works which display a knowledge of 
engineering. Whether the knowledge of engineering, if we may so call it, 
possessed by the people of Chaldaea and Babylonia was of native growth or 
was borrowed from Egypt is, perhaps, a question which cannot yet be 
answered. Both people were agricultural, dwelling on fertile plains inter- 
sected by great rivers, with a soil requiring water only to enable it to bring 
forth inexhaustible crops. Similar circumstances would create similar wants, 
and stimulate to action similar faculties to satisfy them. Apart from the 
question of priority of knowledge, we know that at a very early period, some 
four or five thousand years ago at least, there were men in Mesopotamia and 
Egypt who possessed considerable mechanical knowledge and no little skUl 
in hydraulic engineering. Of the men themselves we know little : happily, 
works often remain when the names of those who conceived and executed 
them have long been forgotten. 

It has been said that architecture had its origin not only in nature, but in 
religion ; and if we regard the earliest works which required mechanical 
knowledge and skiU, the same may be said of engineering. The largest 
stones were chosen for sacred buildings, that they might be more enduring 
as well as more imposing, thereby calling for improvement and invention of 
mechanical contrivances to assist in transporting and elevating them to the 

* Discoveries in Egj'pt, Ethiopia, &c., by Dr. Lepsius, 2jid edit. p. 318. 
t Smith's (G.) ' Assyrian Discoveries,' 2ud edit. p. 414, 



ADDRESS. Ixxi 

position they were to occupy ; for the same reason the hardest and most 
costly materials were chosen, calling for further improvement in the metal 
forming the tools required to work them. The working of metals was 
further perfected in making images of the gods, and in adorning their shrines 
with the more precious and ornamental sorts. 

The earliest buildings of stone to which we can assign a date, with any 
approach to accuracy, are the pyramids of Gizeh. To their builders they 
were sacred buildings, even more sacred than their temples or tcmplo 
palaces. They were built to preserve the royal remains, until, after a lapse 
of 3000 years, which we have reason to believe was the period assigned, the 
spirit which had once animated the body should reenter it*. Although 
built 5000 years ago, the masonry of the Pyramids could not be surpassed in 
these days ; all those who have seen and examined them, as I myself have 
done, agree in this; moreover, the design is perfect for the purpose for 
which they were intended, above all to endure. The building of pyramids 
in Egypt continued for some ten centuries, and from 60 to 70 still remain ; 
but none are so admirably constructed as those of Gizeh. Still many 
contain enormous blocks of granite from 30 to 40 feet long, weighing more 
than 300 tons, and display the greatest ingenuity in the way in which the 
sepulchral chambers are constructed and concealed f. 

The genius for dealing with large masses in buUding did not pass away 
with the pyramid-builders in Egypt; but their descendants continued to 
gain in mechanical knowledge, judging from the enormous blocks which they 
handled with precision. When the command of human labour was unlimited, 
the mere transport of such blocks as the statue of Eameses the Great, for 
instance, which weighed over 800 tons, need not so greatly excite our 
wonder ; and we know how such blocks were moved from place to place, for 
it is shown on the wall-paintings of tombs of the period which still remain. 

But as the weight of the mass to be moved is increased, it becomes no longer 
a mere question of providing force in the shape of human bone and muscle. 
In moving in the last century the block which now forms the base for the 
statue of Peter the Great at St. Petersburg, and which weighs 1200 tons, the 
necessary force could be applied, but great difficulty was experienced in sup- 
porting it, and the iron balls on which it was proposed to roll the block along 
were crushed, and a harder metal had to be substituted:]:. To facilitate the 
transport of material, the Egyptians made solid causeways of granite from the 
Nile to the Pyramids ; and in the opinion of Herodotus, who saw them, the 
causeways were more wonderful works than the Pyramids themselves §. 

* Ferguason's 'History of Architecture,' vol. i. p. 83; Wilkinsoivs 'Ancient Egyptians,' 
2nd series, vol. ii. p. 444. 

t Vyse's ' Pyramids of Gizeh,' vol. iii. pp. 16, 41, 45, 57. 
+ Eondelet's ' Traite de I'Art de Batir,' vol. i. p. 73. 
§ Herodotus, bk. ii. cap. 124. 



isxii REPORT — 1875. 

The Egyptians liarc left no record of how they afcon-,ph"f:hcd a far nicac 
difficult operation than the mere transport of Avcight — that is, how they 
erected obelisks weighing upwards of 400 tons. Some of these obelisks mnst 
have been lifted vertically to place them in position, as they were byFontana 
in Rome in later times, when the knowledge of mechanics, we know, was 
far advanced*. 

The practice of iising large blocks of stone either as monoliths or as forming 
parts of structures has existed from the earliest times in all parts of the 
world. 

The Peruvians used blocks weighing from 15 to 20 tons, and fitted them with 
the greatest nicety in their cleverly designed fortifications f. 

In India large blocks were used in bridges when the repugnance of Indian 
builders to the use of the arch rendered them necessary, or in temples, where, 
as in the Temple of the Sun at Orissa, stones weighing from 20 to 30 tons 
form part of the pj'ramidal roof at a height of from 70 to 80 feet from the 
ground J. Even as late as the last century, Indians, without the aid of 
machinery, were using blocks of granite above 40 feet long for the door-posts 
of the gateway of Seringham, and roofing blocks of the same stone for a span 
of 21 feet§. 

At Persepolis, in the striking remains of the palaces of Xerscs and Darius, 
more than one traveller has noted the great size of the stones, some of which 
are stated to be 55 feet long and 6 to 10 feet broad. 

So in the Greek temples of Sicily, many of the blocks in the upper parts of 
the temples are from 10 to 20 tons weight. 

The Romans, though they did not commonly use such large stones in their 
own constructions, carried off the largest obelisks from Egypt and erected 
them at Rome, where more are now to be found than remain in Egypt. In 
the temples of Baalbek, erected under Roman rule, perhaps the largest 
stones are to bo found which have been used for building since the time of 
the Pharaohs. The terrace wall of one of the temples is composed of three 
courses of stones, none of which are less than 30 feet long ; and one stone 
still lies in the quarry squared and ready for transport, which is 70 feet long 
and 14 feet square, and weighs upwards of 1135 tons, or nearly as much as 
one of the tubes of the Britannia Bridge. 

I have not mentioned dolmens and menhirs, rude unhewn stones often 
weighing from 30 to 40 tons, which are found from Ireland to India, and 
from Scandinavia to the Atlas, in Africa. To transport and erect such rude 
masses required little mechanical knowledge or skill, and the operation has 

* For the obelisk erected at Aries in the year 1676, see Eondelet's 'L'Art cle Batir,' 
vol. i. p. 48. Its weight was nearly 200 tons, and it was suspended vertically by eight 
ships' masts. 

t Fergusson's ' History of Architecture,' vol. ii. p. 779 ; Squier, Peru, p. 24. 

t The temple of the Sun was built 1237-1282 a.d. (Hunter's • Orissa,' vol. i. pp. 288, 297). 

§ Fergusson's ' Rude Stone Monuments,' p. 96. 



ADDRESS. Ixxiii 

excited more wonder than it deserves. Moreover, Fergusson has gone far to 
show that the date assigned to many of them hitherto has been far too remote, 
most, and possibly all, of those in northern and western Europe having been 
erected since the time of the Eoman occupation. And to this day the same 
author shows that menhirs, single stones often weighing over 20 tons, arc 
erected by hill-tribes of India in close proximity to stone buildings of 
elaborate design and finished execution, erected by another race of men *. 

For whatever purpose these vast stones were selected (whether to enhance 
the value or to i^rolong the endurance of the buildings of which they formed 
a part), the tax on tho ingenuity of those who moved and placed them must 
have tended to advance the knowledge of mechanical appliances. 

Tho ancient Assyrians and Egyptians had possibly more knowledge of 
mechanical appliances than they are generally credited with. In the wall 
paintings and sculptures which show their mode of transporting large blocks 
of stone, the lever is tho only mechanical power represented, and which they 
appear to have used in such operations ; nor ought we to expect to find any 
other used, for, where the supply of human labour was unlimited, the most 
expeditious mode of dragging a heavy weight along woiild be by human power; 
to have applied pulleys and capstans, such as would now be employed in 
similar undertakings, would have been mere waste of time. In some countries, 
even now, M'herc manual labour is more plentiful than mechanical apjjliances, 
large numbers of men are employed to transport heavy weights, and do the 
work in less time than it could be done with all our modern mechanical ap- 
pliances. In other operations, such as raising obelisks or the large stones 
used in their temple palaces, where human labour could not be applied to 
such advantage, it is quite possible that the Egyptians used mechanical aids. 
On one of the carved slabs* which formed part of the wall-paneUing of the 
palace of Sardanapalus, which was built about 930 years before our era, a 
single pulley is clearly shown, by which a man is in the act of raising a bucket 
— probably drawing water from a weHf. 

It has sometimes been questioned whether the Egyptians had a knowledge 
of steel. It seems unreasonable to deny them this knowledge. Iron was 
known at the earliest times of which wo have anj^ record. It is often men- 
tioned in the Bible and in Homer ; it is shown in the early paintings on the 
walls of the tombs at Thebes, where butchers are represented as sharpening 
their knives on pieces of metal colonred blue, which were most probably pieces 
of steel J. Iron has been found in quantity in the ruined palaces of Assyria ; 
and. in the inscriptions of that country fetters are spoken of as having been 
made of iron, which is also so mentioned in connexion with other metals as 
to lead to the supposition that it was regarded as a base and common metal. 

* Fergusson's 'Eude Stone Monuments,' pp. 461-465. 
t Layard's 'Nineveh and its Eemains,' vol. ii. p. 31. 
J Wilkinson's ' Ancient Egyptians,' vol. iii. p. 247. 



Ixxiv REPORT — 1875. 

Moreover, iu the Great Pyramid a piece of iron was found in a place where 
it must have lain for 5000 years*. The tendency of iron to oxidize must 
render its prcseiTation for any long period rare and exceptional. The quality 
of iron which is now made by the native races of Africa and India is that 
which is known as wrought iron ; in ancient times, Dr. Percy says the iron 
which was made was always wrought iron. It is very nearly pure iron, and 
a very small addition of carbon would convert it into steel. Dr. Percy says 
the extraction of good malleable iron directly from the ore " requires a degree 
of skill very far inferior to that which is implied in the manufacture of 
bronze "f. And there is no great secret in making steel ; the natives of India 
now make excellent steel in the most primitive way, which tliey have prac- 
tised from time immemorial. When steel is to be made, the proportion of 
charcoal used with a given quantity of ore is somewhat larger, and the blast 
is applied more slowly than when wrought iron is the metal required J. 
Thus a vigorous native working the bellows of skin would make wrought iron 
where a lazy one would have made steel. The only apparatus required for 
the manufacture of the finest steel from iron ore is some clay for making a 
small furnace four feet high and from one to two broad, some charcoal for 
fuel, and a skin with a bamboo tuyere for creating the blast. 

The supply of iron in India as early as the fourth and fifth centuries seems 
to have been unlimited. The iron pUlar of Delhi is a remarkable work for 
such an early period. It is a single piece of wrought iron 50 feet in length, 
and it weighs not less than 17 tons§. How the Indians forged this large 
mass of iron and other heavy pieces which their distrust of the arch led them 
to use in the construction of roofs, we do not know. In the temples of Orissa 
iron was used in large masses as beams or girders iu roof-work in the 
thirteenth century ||. 

The influence of the discovery of iron on the progress of art and science 
cannot be over-estimated. India well repaid any advantage which she may 
have derived from the early civilized communities of the West if she were the 
first to supply them with iron and steel. 

An interesting social problem is afforded by a comparison of the relative 
conditions of India and this country at the present time. India, from thirty 
to forty centuries ago, was skilled in the manufacture of iron and cotton goods, 
manufactures which in less than a century have done so much for this country. 
It is true that in India coal is not so abundant or so universally distributed 
as in this country. Yet, if we look still further to the East, China had pro- 
bably knowledge of the use of metals as soon as India, and, moreover, had a 

* Vyse's 'Pyramids of Gizeh,' vol. i. p. 275. 
t Percy's ' Iron and Steel,' p. 873. .| Ibid. p. 259. 

§ Fergusson's ' History of Architecture,' vol. ii. p. 460 : and ' Eude Stone Monuments,' 
pp. 481-3. CLUiuinghain's ' Archaeological Survey of India,' vol. i. p. 160. 
II Hunter's • Orissa,' vol. i. p. 298. 



ADDRESS. IXXV 

boundless store of iron and coal. Baron Eichthofen, who has visited and de- 
scribed some of the coal-fields of China, believes that one province alone, that 
of Southern Shansi, could supply the world at its present rate of consumption 
for several thousand years. The coal is near the surface, and iron abounds 
■with it. Marco Polo tells us that coal was universally used as fuel in the 
parts of China which he visited towards the end of the fourteenth century, 
and from other sources we have reason to believe it was used there as fuel 
2000 years ago. But what progress has China made in the last ten centuries ? 
A great future is undoubtedly in store for that country ; but cau the race who 
now dwell there develop its resources, or must they await the aid of an Aryan 
race ? Or is any thing more necessary than a change of institutions, which 
might come unexpectedly, as in Japan ? 

The art of extracting metals from the ore was practised at a very early date 
in this countrj-. The existence long ago of tin-mines in Cornwall, so often 
spoken of by classical writers, is well known to all. That iron was also ex- 
tracted from the ore by the ancient Britons is most probable, as it was largely 
used for many purposes by them before the Boman conquest. The Romans 
worked iron extensively in the Weald of Kent, as we assume from the large 
heaps of slag containing Roman coins which still remain there. The Romans 
always availed themselves of the mineral wealth of the coiintries which they 
conquered, and their mining-operations were often carried out on the largest 
scale, as in Spain, for instance, where as many as forty thousand miners were 
regularly employed in the mines at New Carthage*. 

Coal, which was used for ordinary purposes in England as early as the ninth 
century, does not appear to have been largely used for iron-smelting until the 
eighteenth century, though a patent was granted for smelting iron with coal 
in the year IGllf. The use of charcoal for that purpose was not given up 
until the beginning of this century, since which period an enormous increase 
in the mining and metallurgical industries has taken place ; the quantity of 
coal raised in the United Kingdom in 1873 having amounted to 127 million 
tons, and the quantity of pig iron to upwards of 6^ million tons. 

The early building energy of the world was chiefly spent on the erection of 
tombs, temples, and palaces. 

While in Egypt, as we have seen, the art of building in stone had 5000 
years ago reached the greatest perfection, so in Mesopotamia the art of build- 
ing with brick, the only available material in that coimtry, was in an equally 
advanced state some ten centuries later. That buildings of such a material have 
lasted to this day shows how weU the work was done ; their ruinous condi- 
tion even now is owing to their having served as quarries for the last three 
or four thousand years, so that the name of Nebuchadnezzar, apparently one 
of the greatest builders of ancient times, is as common on the bricks of many 
modern towns in Persia as it was in old times in Babylon. The labour re- 

* Strabo, bk, iii. cap. ii. § 10. t Percy's ' Iron and Steel,' p. 882. 



ixxvi KEPORT — 1875. 

quired to construct tlic brick temples aud palaces of Chaldtea and Assj'ria must 
have been enormous. The mound of Koyunjik alone contained 14| million 
tons, and represents the labour of 10,000 men for twelve years. The palace 
of Sennacherib, which stood on this mound, was probably the largest ever 
built by any one monarch, containing as it did more than two mUes of walls, 
panelled with sculptured alabaster slabs, and twenty-seven portals, formed 
by colossal bulls and sphinxes*. 

The pyramidal temples of ChaldEca are not less remarkable for the labour 
bestowed on them, and far surpass the buildings of Assyria in the esccUenco 
of their brickwork. 

The practice of building great pyramidal temples seems to have passed east- 
wards to India and Birrmah, where it appears in buildings of a later date, in 
Buddhist topes and pagodas — marvels of skiU in masonry, and far surpassing 
the old brick mounds of Chahtea in richness of design and in workmanship. 
Even so late as this century a king of Burmah began to build a brick temple 
of the old type, the largest building, according to Fergusson, which has been 
attem])ted since the Pyramids f. 

The mere magnitude of many of these works is not so wonderful when wo 
take into account the abundance of labour which those rulers could com- 
mand. Countries wcro depopulated and their inhabitants carried off and 
made to labour for the conquerors. The inscriptions of Assyria describe 
minutely the spoils of war and the number of captives ; and in Egypt wc 
have frequent mention made of works being executed by the labour of captive 
pcox)les. Herodotus tells us that as many as 360,000 men were employed in 
biiilding one palace for SennacheribJ. At the same time, it must not be 
forgotten that the very character of the multitude would dcmaiid fi-om some 
one the skill and brain to organize and direct, to design and plan the work. 

It would be surprising if men who were capable of undertaking and suc- 
cessfully completing unproductive works of such magnitude did not also em- 
ploy their powers on works of a more useful class. Traces still remain of 
such works ; enough to show, when compared with the scanty records of the 
times which have come down to us, that the prosperity of such countries as 
Egypt and Mesopotamia was not wholly dependent on war and conquest, but 
that the reverse was more likely the case, and that the natural capabilities of 
those countries were greatly enlarged by the construction of useful works of 
such magnitude as to equal, if not in some cases surpass, those of modci n 
times. 

Egypt was probably far better irrigated in the days of the Pharaohs than 
it is now. To those unacquainted with the difficulties which must be met 
with and overcome before a successful system of irrigation can be carried 

* Layarcl's 'Nineveh and Babylon,' p. HSO. 
t Fergn8i5on's 'History of Architecture,' vol. ii. p. 523. 
Eawlinsoii's 'Herodotus,' vol. i. p. S89, 2r.d edit. 



ADDRESS. Ixxvii 

out, oven in countries in whicli tho phj'sical conditions arc favourable, it 
may appear that nothing more is required than an adequate supply of un- 
skilled labour. Far moro than this was required : tho Egyptians had some 
knowledge of surveying, for Eustathius says they recorded their marches on 
maps * ; but such knowledge was probably in those days very limited, and 
it required no ordinary grasp of mind to see the utility of such extensive 
works as were carried out in Egypt and Mesopotamia, and, having seen tho 
utility, to successfully design and execute them. To cite one in Egypt — 
Lake Moeris, of which the remains have been explored by M. Linant, was 
a reservoir made by one of tho Pharaohs, and supplied by tho flood-waters 
of the Nile. It was 150 square miles in extent, and was retained by a bank 
or dam 60 yards wide and 10 high, which can be traced for a distance of 
thirteen miles. This reservoir was capable of irrigating 1200 square miles 
of country t.' No work of this class has been undertaken on so vast a scale 
since, even in these days of great works. 

The prosperity of Egypt was in so great a measure dependent on its great 
river, that we should expect that the Egyptians, a people so advanced in art 
and science, would at an early period have made themselves acquainted with 
its regime. Wc know that they carefully registered tho height of the annual 
rise of its waters ; such registers still remain inscribed on the rocks on the 
banks of the Nile, with tho name of tho king in whose reign they were 
made J. The people of Mesopotamia were equally observant of the regime of 
their great rivers, and took advantage in designing their canals of the different 
periods in the rising of tho waters of the Tigris and Euphrates. A special 
officer was appointed in Babylon, whose duty it was to measure the rise of the 
river ; and he is mentioned in an inscription found in tho ruins of that city, 
as recording the height of the water in the temple of Bel §. The Assyrians, 
who had a far more difficult country to deal with, owing to its rocky and 
uneven surface, showed even greater skiU than the Babylonians in forming 
their canals, tunneUing through rock, and building dams of masonry across 
the Euphrates. While the greater number of these canals in Egy^rt and 
Mesopotamia were made for the purpose of irrigation, others seem to have 
been made to serve at the same time for navigation. Such was the canal 
which effected a junction between tho Mediterranean and the Red Sea, which 
was a remarkable work, having regard to the requirements of the age in which 
it was made. Its length was about 80 miles ; its width admitted of two 
triremes passing one another ||. At least one of the navigable canals of 
Babylonia, attributed to Nebuchadnezzar, can compare in extent with any 

* Ea-wlinson's 'Herodotus,' vol. ii. p. 278, 2ik1 edit. 

t M. Linant's ' Memoire suv lo lac Moeris.' 

} Lcpsiuss ' Discoveries in Egypt, &c.,' p. 268. 

§ Smith's ' A.ssyrian Discoveries,' pp. 395-397, 2nd edit. 

!| Herodotus, bk. ii. cap. clviii. 



Ixxvlii REPORT — 1875. 

work of later times. I believe Sir H. Eawlinson has traced the canal to which 
I allude throughout the greater part of its course, from Hit on the Euphrates 
to the Persian Gulf, a distance of between four and five hundred miles*. It 
is a proof of the estimation in which such works were held in Babylonia and 
Assyria, that, among the titles of the god Vul were those of " Lord of Canals " 
and " The Establisher of Irrigation Works "f. 

The springs of knowledge which had flowed so long in Babylonia and 
Assyria were dried up at an early period. With the faU of Babylon and 
destruction of Nineveh the settled population of the fertile plains around thera 
disappeared ; and that which was desert before man led the waters over it 
became desert again, affording a wide field for, and one well worthy of, the 
labours of engineers to come. 

Such was not the case with Egypt. Long after the period of its greatest 
prosperity was reached, it remained the fountain head from whence know- 
ledge flowed to Greece and Eomc. The philosophers of Greece and those 
who, like Archimedes, were possessed of the best mechanical knowledge of 
the time, repaired to Egj^pt to study and there obtained much of their 
knowledge. 

Greatly as Greece and Eome were indebted to Egypt, it will probably bo 
found, as the inscribed tablets met with in the mounds of Assj-ria and Chaldaja 
are deciphered, that the later civilizations owe, if not more, at least as much 
to those countries as to Egj-pt. This is the opinion of Mr. Smith, who, in 
his work describing his recent interesting discoveries in the East, says that 
the classical nations " borrowed far more from the valley of the Euphrates 
than that of the Nile "+. 

In the science of astronomy, which in these days is making such marvel- 
lous discoveries, Chaldrea was undoubtedly preeminent. Among the many 
relics of these ancient peoples which Mr. Smith has recently brought to this 
country is a portion of a metal astrolabe from the palace of Sennacherib, and 
a tablet on which is recorded the division of the heavens according- to the 
four seasons, and the rule for regulating the intercalary month of the year. 
Not only did the Chalda^ans map out the heavens and arrano-e the stars but 
they traced the motion of the planets, and observed the appearance of comets- 
they fixed the signs of the zodiac, and they studied the sun and moon and the 
periods of eclipses §. 

But to return to that branch of knowledge to which I wish more particu- 
larly to draw your attention, as it grew and spread from East to West, from 
Asia over Europe. Of aU nations of Europe, the Greeks were most inti- 
mately connected with the civilization of the East. A maritime people by 
the nature of the land they lived in, colonization followed as a matter of 

* Rawlinson's ' Herodotua,' vol. i. p. 420, 2nd edit. 

t Ibid. p. 498. 

I Smitli's (G.) 'Assyrian Discoveries,' p. 451, 2nd edit. § Ibid. 



ADDRESS. Ixxix 

course on the tracks of their trading-vessels; and thus, more than any other 
people, they helped to spread Eastern knowledge along the shores of the 
Mediterranean and throughout the south of Europe. 

The early constructive works of Greece, till about the seventh century B.C., 
form a strong contrast to those of its moro prosperous days. Commonly 
called Pelasgiau, they are more remarkable as engineering works than ad- 
mirable as those which followed them were for architectural beauty. "WaUs 
of huge unshapely stones (admirably fitted together, however), tunnels, and 
bridges characterize this period. In Greece, during the few and glorious 
centuries which followed, the one aim in all construction was to please the 
eye, to gratify the sense of beauty ; and in no age was that aim more tho- 
roughly and satisfactorily attained. 

In these days, when sanitary questions attract each year more attention, 
we may call to mind that twenty-three centuries ago the city of Agrigcntum 
possessed a system of sewers, which, on account of their large size, were 
thought worthy of mention by Diodorus*. This is not, however, the first 
record of towns being drained ; the well-known Cloaca Maxima, which 
formed part of the drainage system of Eome, was built some two centuries 
earlier, and great vaulted drains passed beneath the palace mounds of unburnt 
brick at Nimroud and Babylon; and possibly wo owe the preservation of 
many of the interesting remains found in the brick mounds of Chaldsea to 
the very elaborate system of pipe drainage discovered in them and described 
by Loftusf. 

Whilst Pelasgian art was being superseded in Greece, the city of Eomo 
was founded in the eighth century before our era ; and Etrnscan art in Italy, 
like the Pelasgian art in Greece, was slowly merged in that of an Aryan race. 
The Etruscans, like the Pelasgians and the old Egyptians, were Turanians, 
and remarkable for their purely constructive or engineering works. Their 
city waUs far surpass those of any other ancient race, and their drainage 
works and tunnels are most remarkable. 

The only age which can compare with the present one in the rapid oxten-i 
sion of utilitarian works over the face of the civilized world is that durinff 
which the Eomans, an Aryan race, as we are, were in power. As Fergusson 
has said, the mission of the Aryan races appears to be to pervade the world 
with useful and industrial arts. That the Eomans adorned their bridges, 
their aqueducts, and their roads, that with a sound knowledge of construc- 
tion they frequently made it subservient to decoration, was partly owing to 
the mixture of Etruscan or Turanian blood in their veins, and partly to their 
great wealth, which made them disregard cost in their construction, and to 
their lovo of display. 

* Agrigeutum was a celebrated Greek city, foimded B.C. 582, population 200,000 
(Diodorus, 406 B.C.), draiuccl by Plioeax, who lived B.C. 480. 
t Eawlinson's 'Five Ancient Monarchies,' vol. i. pp. 89, 90, 2nd. edit. 



IXXX llEPOHT — 1875. 

Ifc -would bo impossible for inc to do justice to even a small part of tke 
engineering works which have survived fourteen eontiu'ies of strife, and 
remain to this day as monuments of the skill, the energy, and ability of the 
great Eoman people. Fortunately their works are more accessible than 
those of which I have hitherto spoken, and many of you are probably already 
familiar with them. 

Conquerors of the greater part of the civilized world, the admirable orga- 
nization of the Romans enabled them to make good use of the unbounded 
resources which were at their disposal. Yet, while the capital was enriched, 
the development of the resources of the most distant provinces of the empire 
was never neglected. 

"War, with all its attendant evils, has often indirectly benefited mankind. 
In the long sieges which took place during the old wars of Greece and Rome, 
the inventive power of man was taxed to the utmost to provide machines for 
attack and defence. The ablest mathematicians and philosophers were 
pressed into the service, and helped to turn the scale in favour of their 
employers. The world has to regret the loss of more than one, who, like 
Archimedes, fell slain by the soldiery while applying the best scientific know- 
ledge of the day to devising means of defence during the siege*. In these 
days, too, science owes much to the labours of engineers and able men, 
whose time is 8j>ent in making and improving guns, the materials composing 
them, and armour plates to resist them, or in studying the motion of ships 
of war in a seaway. 

The necessity for roads and bridges for military purposes has led to their 
being made where the necessary stimiJus from other causes was wanting ; 
and so means of communication, and the interchange of commodities, so 
essential to the prosperity of any community, have thus been provided. Such 
was the case under the Eoman Empire. So, too, in later times, the ambition 
of Napoleon covered France and the countries subject to her with an admi- 
rable system of military roads. At the same time, we must do Napoleon the 
justice of saying that his genius and foresight gave a great impetus to the 
construction of aU works favourable to commercial progress. So, again, in 
this country it was the rebellion of 1745, and the want felt of roads for 
military purposes, which first led to the construction of a system of roads in 
it unequalled since the time of the Eoman occupation. And lastly, in India, 
in Germany, and in Eussia, more than one example could be pointed out 
where industry will benefit by railways which have originated in military 
precautions rather than in commercial rcquixements. 

But to return to Eome. Eoads followed the tracks of her legions into the 
most distant provinces of the empire. Three hundred and seventy-two great 
roads are enumerated, together more than 48,000 miles in length, according 
to the itinerary of Antoninus. 

The water supply of Eome during the first century of our era woi^ld 

* Archimedes, n, c. 287-212 ; killed at the siege of Syracuse by the Eoman soldiers. 



ADDRESS. Ixxxi 

suflfico for a population of seven millions, supplied at the rate at which the 
prejout population of London is supplied. This water was conveyed to Rome 
hy nine aqueducts ; and iu later years tho supply was increased by the con- 
sLriiction of five more aqueducts. Three of the old aqueducts have sufficed 
to supply tho wants of the city in modern times. These aqueducts of Rome 
are to be numbered among her grandest engineering works *. Time will not 
admit of my saying any thing about her harbour works and bridges, her basi- 
licas and baths, and numerous other works in Europe, in Asia, and in Africa. 
Not only were these works executed in a substantial and perfect manner, but 
they were maintained by an efficient staff of men divided into bodies, each 
having their special duties to perform. The highest offi cers of state superin- 
tended the construction of works, were proud to have their names associated 
with them, and constructed extensive works at their own expense. 

Progress in Europe stopped with the fall of the Roman Empire. In the 
fourth and succeeding centuries the barbarian hordes of Western Asia, people 
who felt no want of roads and bridges, swept over Europe to plunder and 
destroy. 

With the seventh century began the rise of the Mohammedan power, and 
a partial return to conditions apparently more favourable to the progress of 
industrial art, when widespread lands were again united under the sway of 
powerful rulerst. Science owes much to Arab scholars, who kept and handed 
on to us the knowledge acquired so slowly in ancient times, and much of 
which would have been lost but for them. Still, few useful works remain to 
mark the supremacy of the Mohammedan power at all comparable to those 
of the age which preceded its rise. 

A great building age began in Europe in the tenth century, and lasted 
through the thirteenth. It was during this period that these great ecclesias- 
tical buildings were erected, which are not more remarkable for artistic ex- 
cellence than for boldness in design. 

While the building of cathedrals progressed on aU sides in Europe, works 
of a utilitarian character, which concern the engineer, did not receive much 
encouragement, excepting perhaps in Italy. 

From the twelfth to the thirteenth centuries, with the revival of the arts 
and sciences in the Italian republics, many important works were undertaken 
for the improvement of the rivers and harbours of Italy. In 1481 canal-locks 
were first used ; and some of the earliest of which we have record were 
erected by Leonardo da Vinci, who would be remembered as a skilful en- 
gineer had he not left other greater and more attractive works to claim the 
homage of posterity. 

* Total length 250 miles ; 50 on arches, 200 undergrouncl. 

t " Under the last of the house of Ommiyah (750 a.d.) one command was obeyed 
almost along the whole diameter of the known world, from the banks of the Sihon to tho 
utmost promontory of Portugal." — Hallam's Middle Ages, vol. ii. p. 120, 2nd edit. 
1875. " / 



IxXXU UEPORT 1875. 

The great use that has since been made of this simple means of transferring 
floating vessels from one water-level to another, in connexion not only with 
inland navigation, but in all the great ports and harbours of the world, renders 
it aU the more deserving of remark. 

In India, under the Moguls, irrigation works, for which they had a natural 
aptitude, were carried on during these centuries with vigour, and more than 
one emperor is noted for the numerous great works of this nature which he 
carried out. If the native records can be trusted, the number of hydraulic 
works undertaken by some rulers is surprising. Tradition relates that one 
king who reigned in Orissa in the twelfth century made one million tanks or 
reservoirs, besides building sixty temples and erecting numerous other 
works*. 

In India, the frequent overflow of the great rivers, and the periodical 
droughts, which rendered irrigation necessary, led to extensive protective 
works being undertaken at an early period ; but as these works have been 
maintained by successive rulers, Mogul and Mohammedan, until recent times, 
and have not been left for our inspection, deserted and useless for 3,000 years 
or more, as is often the case in Egypt and Mesopotamia, there is more diffi- 
culty in ascertaining the date of such works in India. 

Works of irrigation were among the earliest attempts at engineering under- 
taken by the least civilized inhabitants in all parts of the world. Even in 
Australia, where savages are found as low as any in the scale of civilization, 
traces of irrigation works have been found ; these works, however, must be 
taken to show that the natives were once somewhat more civilized than we 
now find them. In Feejee, our new possession, the natives occasionally irrii 
gate their land t, and have executed a work of a higher class, a canal some 
two miles long and sixty feet wide, to shorten the distance passed over by 
their canoes J. The natives of New Caledonia irrigate their fields with great 
skill §. In Peru, the Incas excelled in irrigation as in other great and useful 
works, and constructed most admirable underground conduits of masonry for 
the purpose of increasing the fertility of the land ||. 

It is frequently easier to lead water where it is wanted than to check its 
irruption into places where its presence is an evil, often a disaster. For 
centuries the existence of a krge part of Holland has been dependent on the 
skill of man. How soon he began in that country to contest with the sea 
the possession of the land we do not know; but early in the twelfth century 
dykes were constructed to keep back the ocean. As the prosperity of the 
country increased with the great extension of its commerce, and land became 

* King Bhim Deo, a.d. 1174, 60 temples, 10 bridges, 40 wells stone-cased, 152 landing- 
stairs, and one million tanks (Hunter's ' Orissa,' toI. i. p. 100). 
t Erskine's 'Western Pacific,' p. 171. 

J Seeman, p. 82. § Ersldue's 'Western Pacific,' p. 355. 

]| Markham's 'Cieza' (note), p. 236. 



ADDRESS. Ixxxiii 

more valuable and necessary for an increasing population, very extensive 
works were undertaken. Land was reclaimed from the sea, canals were cut, 
and machines were designed for lifting water. To the practical knowledge 
acquired by the Dutch, whose method of carrying out hydraulic works is 
original and of native growth, much of the knowledge of the present day in 
embanking, and draining, and canal-making is due. The North-Holland 
Canal* was the largest navigable canal in existence until the Suez Canal was 
completed ; and the Dutch have just now nearly finished making a sea-canal 
from Amsterdam to the North Sea, which, though not equal to the Suez Canal 
in length, will be as great in width and depth, and involves perhaps larger 
and more important works of art. This country was for many years beholden 
to the Dutch for help in carrying out hydraulic works. In the seventcentli 
century much fen land in the eastern counties was drained by Dutch labour^ 
directed by Dutch engineers, among whom Sir Cornelius Yermuyden, an old 
campaigner of the Thirty Years' War and a colonel of horse under CromweU, 
is the most noted, 

"While the Dutch were acquiring practical knowledge in dealing with 
water, and we in Britain among others were benefiting by their experience, 
the disastrous results which ensued from the inundations caused by the 
Italian rivers of the Alps gave a new importance to the science of hydraulics. 
Some of the greatest philosophers of the seventeenth century (among them 
Torricelli, a pupil of Galileo f) were called upon to advise and to superintend 
engineering works; nor did they confine themselves to the construction of 
preventive works, but thoroughly investigated the conditions pertaining to fluida 
at rest or in motion, and gave to the world a valuable series of works on 
hydraulics and hydraulic engineering, which form the basis of our knowledge 
of these subjects at the present day. 

Some of the best scientific works (prior to the nineteenth century) on 
engineering subjects we owe to Italian and French writers. The writings 
of Belidor, an officer of artillery in France in the seventeenth century, who 
did not, however, confine himself to military subjects, drew attention to 
engineering questions. Not long after their appearance, the Pouts et Chaus- 
sees J were established, which has maintained ever since a body of able men 
specially educated for and devoted to the prosecution of industrial works. 

The impulse given to road-making in the early part of the last century 
soon extended to canals and means for facilitating locomotion and transport 
generally. Tramways were used in connexion with mines at least as early 
as the middle of the seventeenth century ; but the raUs were, in those days, 
of wood. The first iron raUs are said to have been laid in this country as 

» North-Holland Canal, finished in 1825. 
t Galileo, b. 1564 ; Torricelli, b. 1608. 
f Ponts et Chauss^es, established 1720. 

/2 



IxXXiV REPORT — 1875. 

early as 173S, after which time their use was gradually extended, until it 
became general in mining-districts. 

By the beginning of this century the great ports of England were connected 
by a system of canals ; and new harbour works became necessary and were 
provided to accommodate the increase of commerce and trade, which improved 
means of internal transport had rendered possible. It was in the construction 
of these works that our Brindley and Smeaton, Telford and Rennie, and other 
engineers of their time did so much. 

But it was not until the steam-engine, improved and almost created by 
the illustrious Watt, became such a potent instrument, that engineering works 
to the extent they have since been carried out became possible or necessary. 
It gave mankind no new faculty ; but it at once set his other faculties on an 
eminence, from which the extent of his future operations became almost 
unlimited. 

Water-mills, wind-mills, and horse-machines were in most cases super- 
seded. Deep mines, before only accessible by adits and water-levels, could at 
once be reached with ease and economy. Lakes and fens which, but for the 
steam-engine, would have been left untouched, Avere drained and culti- 
vated. 

The slow and laborious toil of hands and fingers, bone and sinew, was turned 
to other employments, where, aided by ingenious mechanical contrivances, 
the produce of one pair of hands was multiplied a thousandfold, and their 
cunning extended until results maiTelloTis, if you consider them, were attained. 
Since the time of Watt the steam-engine has exerted a power, made conquests, 
and increased and multiplied the material interests of this globe to an extent 
which it is scarcely possible to realize. 

But while Watt has gained a world-wide, well-earned fame, the names of 
those men who have provided the machines to utilize the energies of the steam- 
engine are too often forgotten. Of their inventions the majority of mankind 
know little. They worked silently at home, i)i the mill, or in the factory, 
observed by few. Indeed, in most cases, these silent workers had no wish to 
expose their work to public gaze. AVere it not so, the factory and the mill 
are not places where people go to take the air. How long in the silent night 
fhe inventors of these machines sat and pondered ; how often they had to cast 
aside some long-sought mechanical movement and seek another and a better 
. arrangement of parts, none but themselves could ever know. They were un- 
seen workers, who succeeded by rare genius, long patience, and indomitable 
perseverance. 

More ingenuity and creative mechanical genius is perhaps displayed in 
machines used for the manufacture of textile fabrics than by those used in any 
other industry. It was not until late in historical times that the manufacture 
of such fabrics became established on a large scale in Europe. Although in 



ADDRESS. IxXXV 

Cbina man was clothed in silk long ago, and although Confucius, in a -work 
written 2,300 years ago, orders with the greatest minuteness the niles to be 
observed in the jn-oduction and manufacture of silk, yet it was worth nearly 
its weight in gold in Europe in the time of Aurehan, whose empress had to 
forego the luxury of a silk gown on account of its cost*. Through Constan- 
tinople and Italy the manufacture passed slowly westwards, and was not 
established in France until the sixteenth century, and arrived at a stiU later 
period in this country. 

So cotton, of which the manufacture in India dates from before historical 
times, had scarcely by the Christian era reached Persia and Egypt. Spain 
in the tenth and Italy in the fourteenth century inanufactured it, but Man- 
chester, which is now the great metropolis of the trade, not until the latter 
half of the seventeenth centurj\ 

Linen was worn by the old Egyptians, and some of their linen mummy- 
cloths surpass in fineness any linen fabrics made in later daysf. The 
Babylonians wore linen also and wool, and obtained a widespread fame for 
skill in workmanship and beauty in design. 

In this country wool long formed the staple for clothing. Silk was the first 
rival, but its costliness placed it beyond the reach of the many. To introduce 
a new material or improved machine into this or other countries a century or 
more ago was no light undertaking. Inventors and would-be benefactors alike 
ran the risk of loss of life. Loud was the outcry made in the early part of 
the eighteenth century against the introduction of Indian cottons and Dutch 
calicoes. 

Until 1738, in which year imj)rovements in spinning-machinery were begun, 
each thread of worsted or cotton wool had been spun between the fingers in 
this and all other countries. Wyatt, in 1738, invented spinning- rollers 
instead of fingers, and his invention was further improved hyArkwright. In 
1770 Hargreaves patented the spinning-jenny, and Crompton the mule in 
1775, a machine which combined the advantages of the frames of both Har- 
greaves and Arkwright. In less than a century after the first invention by 
Wyatt, double mules were working in Manchester with over 2,000 spindles. 

Improvements in machines for weaving were begun at an earlier date. In 
1579 a ribbon-locm is said to have been invented at Dantzic, by which from 
four to six pieces could be woven at one time ; but the machine was destroyed 
and the inventor lost his lifet. In 1800 Jacquard's most ingenious invention 
was brought into use, which, by a simple mechanical operation, determines 
the movements of the threads which form the pattern in weaving. But the 
greatest discovery in the art of weaving was wrought by Cartwright's discovery 

* Manufacture of silk brought from China to Constantinople A.D. 522. 
t Williiuson's ' Ancient Egyptians ; ' Pliny, bk. six. c. ii. 
I Eeckman's ' History of Inventions,' vol. ii. p. 528. 



IxXXvi REPORT — 1875. 

of the power-loom, which led eventually to the substitution of steam for manual 
labour, and enabled a boy with a steam-loom to do fifteen times the work of 
a* man with a hand-loom. 

Eor complex ingenuity few machines wiU compare with those used in the 
manufacture of lace and bobbin net. Hammond, in 17G8, attempted to adapt 
the stocking-frame to this manufacture, which had hitherto been conducted 
by hand. It remained for John Heathcote to complete the adaptation in 1809, 
and to revolutionize this branch of industry, reducing the cost of its produce 
to one-fortieth of what the cost had been before Heathcote's improvements 
were effected. 

- Most of these ingenious machines were in use before Watt's genius gave the 
world a new motive power in the steam-engine ; and, had the steam-engine 
never been perfected, they would still have enormously increased the pro- 
ductive power of mankind. Water-power was applied to many of them ; in 
the first silk-thread mill erected at Derby in 1738, 318 million yards of silk 
thread were spun daily with one water-wheel. 

These are happier times for inventors : keen competition among manufac- 
turers does not let a good invention lie idle now. That which was rejected 
by old machines as waste is now worked up into useful fabrics by new ones. 
Prom aU parts of the world new products come — -jute from India, flax from 
New Zealand, andmany others which demand new adaptations of old machines, 
or new and untried mechanical arrangements to utilize them. Time would 
fail me if I were to attempt to enumerate one tithe of these rare combinations 
of mechanical skill ; and, indeed, no one will ever appreciate the labour and 
supreme mental efi'ort required for their construction who has not himself seen 
them and their wondi'ous achievements. 

Steamboats, the electric telegraph, and railways are more within the cog- 
nizance of the world at large ; and the progress that has been made in them in 
little more than one generation is better known and appreciated. 

It is not more than forty years since one of our scientific men, and an able 
one too, declared at a meeting of this Association that no steamboat would 
ever cross the Atlantic, founding his statement on the impracticability, in his 
view, of a steamboat carrying sufficient coal (profitably, I presume) for the 
voyage. Yet soon after this statement was made, the ' Sirius ' steamed to 
Few York in seventeen days*, and was soon followed from Bristol by the 
' Great Western,' which made the homeward passage in thirteen days and a 
half; and with these voyages the era of steamboats may be said to have 
begun. Like most important inventions, that of the steamboat was a long 
time in assuming a form capable of being profitably utilized ; and even when 
it had assumed such a fonn, the objections of commercial and scientific men 
had still to be overcome. 

* Fii'st steamer crossed the Atlantic by steam alone in 1838, 



ADDRESS. IxXXvii 

Among the many names connected with the early progress in the con- 
struction of steamboats, perhaps none is more worthy of remembrance than 
that of Patrick Miller, who, with the assistance of Symington, an engineer, 
and Taylor, who was his children's tutor, constructed a small steamboat. 
Shortly afterwards Lord Dundas, who saw the value of the application of 
steam for the propulsion of boats, had the fii'st really practical steamboat 
constructed with a view to using it on the Forth and Clyde Canal. The pro- 
prietors, however, objected, and the boat lay idle. Again another attempt to 
make practical use of the steamboat failed through the death of the Duke of 
Bridgewater, who, with his characteristic foresight, had seen the value of 
steam as a motive power for boats, and had determined to introduce steamboats 
on the canal which bears his name. 

The increase in the number of steamboats since the time when the 'Sirius' 
first crossed the Atlantic has been very great. Whereas in 1814 the United 
Kingdom only possessed two steam-vessels, of together 456 tons burden, in 
1872 there were on the register of the United Kingdom 3,662 steam- vessels, 
of which the registered tonnage amounted to over a million and a half of tons*, 
or to nearly half the whole steam tonnage of the world, which did not at that 
time greatly exceed three million tons. 

As the number of steamboats has largely increased, so also gradually has 
their size increased until it culminated, in the hands of Brunei, in the ' Great 
Eastern.' 

A triumph of engineering skill in ship-building, the ' Great Eastern ' has 
not been commercially so successful. In this, as in many other engineering 
problems, the question is not how large a thing can be made, but how large, 
having regard to other circumstances, it is proper at the time to make it. 

If, as regards the dimensions of steamboats, we have at present somewhat 
overstepped the limits in the ' Great Eastern,' much still remains to be done 
in perfecting the form of vessels, whether propelled by steam or driven by the 
force of the wind. A distinguished member of this Association, Mr. Eroude, has 
now for some years devoted himself to investigations carried on with the view 
to ascertain the form of vessel which will offer the least resistance to the water 
through which it must pass. So many of us in these days are caUed upon to 
make journeys by sea as well as by land, that we can well appreciate the value 
of Mr. Fronde's labours, so far as they tend to curtail the time which we must 
spend on our ocean journeys ; and we should aU feel grateful to him if from 
another branch of his investigations, which relates to the rolling of ships, it 
should result that the movement in passenger vessels could be reduced. A 
gallant attempt in this direction has lately been made by Mr. Bessemer ; 
whether a successful one yet remains to be proved. In any event, he and 
those who have acted with him deserve our praise for an experiment which 
must add to our knowledge. 

« Board of Trade Return, 15th Jiily, 1874, Table 8, 



Lxxxviii REPOET — 1875. 

It is a question of vital imj)ortance to the steamboat that the consumption 
of fuel should be reduced to the smallest possible amount, inasmuch as each 
ton of fuel excludes a ton of cargo. 

As improvements in the form of the huU arc effected, less power (that is, 
less fuel) -will be required to propel the tcsscI through the water for a given 
distance. Great as have been the improvements effected in marine eugines to 
this end, much still remains to be done. Wolf's compound engine, so long 
overlooked, is, with some improvements, being at last applied. Whereas the 
consumption of fuel in such vessels as the ' Himalaj^a ' used to be from 5 to 
6 lbs. of fuel per effective horse-power, it has been reduced, bj' working steam 
more expansively in vessels of a later date, to 2 lbs. Yet, comparing this 
with the total amount of energy of 2 lbs. of coal, it will be found that not a 
tenth part of the power is obtained which that amount of coal would theo- 
retically call into action*. 

Wo live in an age when great discoveries are made, and when they are 
speedily taken advantage of if likely to be of service to mankind. 

In former times, man's inventions were frequently in advance of the age, 
and they were laid aside to await a happier era. There were in those earlier 
days too few persons who cared to, or who could, avail themselves of the prof- 
ferred boon, and there was no sufficient accumulation of wealth to justify its 
being ai)proj>riated to schemes which are always in their early stage more or 
less speculative. 

There is no more remarkable instance of the rapid utilization of what was 
in the first instance regarded by most men as a mere scientific idea, than the 
adoption and extension of the electric telegraph. 

* Theoretical enej-gy of 1 lb. of coal: — 

Tbe proportions of heat expended in generating saturated steam at 212° Fahr., and 
at 14'7 lbs. pressure per square inch, from water at 212° are : 

TJnila Mechanical 

of equivalent 

heat. in foot lbs. 

I. lu the formation of steam 892-8 089,242 

II. In resisting the incumbent pressure of 14-7 

lbs. per square inch 72-3 55,815 

965-1 745,057 

One pound of Welsh coal will theoretically evaporate 15 lbs. of water at 212° to 

steam at 212". Therefore the full theoretical value of the combustion of 2 lbs. of 

Welsh coal is 

2 X 15 X 745,057 foot pounds, 

or 

2 X 15 x7 45,057 , .» j • i i, 

P-- 7tWW.7; horse-power, if consumed in 1 hour, 

60 X 33,000 '■ ' 

= 11-2 horse-power. 

As the consumption of coal per effective horse-power in a marine engine is 2 lbs., 

the powei; obtained is to the whole theoretical power as 1 is to 11. 



ADDRESS. Ixxxix 

Those wlio read Odicr's letter written in 1773, in which he made known 
his idea of a telegraph which would " enable the inhabitants of Europe to con- 
verse with the Emperor of Mogiil," little thought that in less than a century a 
conversation between persons at points so distant would be possible. Still 
less did those who saw in the following year messages sent from one room to 
another by Lesage, in the presence of Friedrich of Prussia, realize that they 
had before them the germ of one of the most extraordinary inventions among 
the many that will render this century famous. 

I should weary you were I to follow the slow steps by which the electric 
telegraph of to-day was brought to its present state of efficiency. In the 
present century few years have passed without new workers appearing in the 
field ; some whose object was to utilize the new-found power for the benefit 
of mankind, others (and theii* work was not the least important in the end) 
whose object was to investigate magnetism and electrical phenomena as pre- 
senting scientific problems still unsolved. Galvani, Yolta, Oersted, Arago, 
Sturgeon, and Earaday, by their labours, helped to make known the elements 
which rendered it possible to construct the electric telegraph. "With the 
battery, the electric coil, and the electro-magnet, the elements were complete, 
and it only remained for Sir Charles Wheatstone and others to combine them 
in a useful and practically valuable form. The inventions of Alexander, 
Steinheil, and those of similar nature to that of Sir Charles Wheatstone, were 
made known at a later date in the same year, which will ever be memorable 
in the annals of telegraphy*. 

The first useful telegraph was constructed upon the Blackwall Railway in 
1838, Messrs. Cooke & Wheatstone's instruments being employed. Prom that 
time the progress of the electric telegraph has been so rapid, that at the pre- 
sent time, including land lines and submarine cables, there are in use in 
dififerent parts of the world not less than 400,000 miles of telegraph. 

Among the numerous inventions of late years, the automatic telegraphs of 
Mr. Alexander Bain, of Dr. Werner Siemens, and of Sir Charles "Wheatstone 
are especially worthy of notice. Mr. Bain's machine is chiefly used in the 
United States, that of Dr. Werner Siemens in Germany, In this country the 
machine invented by Sir Charles Wheatstone, to whom telegraphy owes so 
much, is chiefly employed. By his machine, after the message has been 
piinched out in a paper ribbon by one machine, on a system analogous to the 
dot and dash of Morse, the sequence of the currents requisite to transmit the 
message along the wire is automatically determined in a second machine by 
this perforated ribbon. This second operation is analogous to that by which 
in Jacquard's loom the motions of the threads requisite to produce the patterii 
is determined by perforated cards. By Wheatstone's machine errors insepara- 
ble from manual labour are avoided ; and, what is of even more importance in 

* Dates of patents : Wheatstone, March 1, 1837; Alesander, April 22, 1837 ; Steinheil, 
July 1, 1837 ; Morse, October 1837. 



XC REPORT — 1875, 

a commercial point of view, the time during which the wire is occupied in the 
transmission of a message is considerably diminished. 

By the application of these automatic systems to telegraphy, the speed of 
transmission has been wonderfully accelerated, being equal to 200 words a 
minute — that is, faster than a shorthand writer can transcribe ; and, in fact, 
words can now be passed along the wires of land lines with a velocity greater 
than can be dealt with by the human agency at either end. 

Owiag partly to the retarding effects of induction and other causes, the speed 
of transmission by long submarine cables is much smaller. With the cable 
of 1858 only 2^ words per minute were got through. The average with the 
Atlantic cable, Dr. C. W. Siemens informs me, is now 17 words ;.but24 words 
per minute can be read. 

One of the most striking phenomena in telegraphy is that known as the 
duplex system, which enables messages to be sent from each end of the same 
wire at the same time. This simultaneous transmission from both ends of a 
wire was proposed in the early days of telegraphy, but, owing to imperfect 
insulation, was not then found to be practicable ; but since then telegraphic 
wires have been better insulated, and the system is now becoming of great 
utility, as it nearly doubles the capacity for work of every wire. 

And yet within how short a period of time has aU the wonderful progress 
in telegraphy been achieved ! How incredulous the world a few years ago 
would have been if then told of the marvels which in so short a space of time 
were to be accomplished by its agency ! 

It is not long ago (1823) that Mi*, (afterwards Sir Francis) Eonald, one of the 
early pioneers in this field of science, published a description of an electric 
telegraph. He communicated his views to Lord Melville, and that nobleman 
was obliging enough to reply that the subject should bo inquired into ; but 
before the nature of Sir Francis Ronald's suggestions could be known, except to a 
few, that gentleman received a reply from Mr. Barrow " that telegraphs of any 
Idnd were then wholly unnecessary, and that no other than the one then in use 
would be adopted," the one then in use being the old semaphore, which, 
crowning the tops of hills between London and Portsmouth, seemed perfec- 
tion to the Admiralty of that day. 

I am acquainted with some who, when the first Transatlantic cable was 
proposed, contributed towards that undertaking with the consciousness that 
it was only an experiment, and that subscribing to it was much the same 
thing as throwing their money into the sea. Much of this cable was lost in 
the first attempt to lay it ; but_ its j)romoters, nothing daunted, made 900 
miles more cable, and finally laid it successfully in the following year, 1858. 

The telegraphic system of the world comprises almost a complete girdle 
round the earth ; and it is probable that the missing link will be supplied by 
a cable between San Francisco in California and Yokohama in Japan. 

How resolute and courageous those who engaged in submarine telegraphy 



ADDRESS. XGl 

havo been will appear from the fact that, though wo have now 50,000 milca 
of cable in use, to got at this result nearly 70,000 miles were constructed 
and laid. This large percentage of failure, in the opinion of Dr. C. W. 
Siemens (to whom I am much indebted for information on this subject), was 
partly duo to the late introduction of testing a cable under water before it is 
laid, and to the use of too light iron sheathing. 

Of immense importance in connexion with the subsequent extension of 
submarine cables have been the discoveries of Ohm and Sir William Thom- 
son, and the knowledge obtained that the resistance of wire in homogeneous 
metal is directly proportional to the length, so that the place of a fault in a 
cable of many thousand miles in length can be ascertained with so much pre- 
cision as to enable you to go at once to repair it, although the damaged cable 
may lie in some thousands of fathoms of water. 

Of railways the progress has been enormous ; but I do not know that in 
a scientific point of view a railway is so marvellous in its character as the 
electric telegraph. The results, however, of the construction and use of rail- 
ways are more extensive and widespread, and their utility and convenience 
brought home to a larger portion of mankind. It has come to pass, there- 
fore, that the name of George Stephenson has been placed second only to that 
of James Watt ; and as men are and will be estimated by the advantages 
which their labours confer on mankind, he will remain in that niche, unless 
indeed some greater luminary should arise to outshine him. The merit of 
George Stephenson consisted, among other things, in this, that he saw more 
clearly than any other engineer of his time the sort of thing that the world 
wanted ; and that he persevered, in despite of learned objectors, with the 
firm conviction that he was right and they were wrong, and that there was 
within himself the power to demonstrate the accuracy of his convictions. 

Railways are a subject on which I may (I hope without tiring you) speak 
somewhat more at length. The British Association is peripatetic, and with- 
out railways its meetings, if held at all, would, I fear, be greatly reduced in 
numbers. Moreover, you have all an interest in them : you all demand to be 
carried safely, and you insist on being carried fast. Besides, everybody 
understands, or thinks he understands, a railway ; and therefore I shall be 
speaking on a subject common to all of us, and shall possibly only put before 
you ideas which others as weU. as myself have already entertained. 

We who live in these days of roads and railways, and can move with a 
fair degree of comfort, speed, and safety, almost where we will, can scarcely 
realize the state of England two centuries ago, when the years of opposition 
which preceded the era of coaches began ; when, as in 1662, there were but 
six stages in all England, and John Crossdell, of the Charterhouse, thought 
there were six too many ; when Sir Henry Herbcrti, a member of the House 
of Commons, could say, " If a man were to propose to carry us regularly to 



xcii REPORT — 1875. 

Ediiiburgli iu coaches in seven daj-s, and bring us back in seven more, sbonld 
•we not vote him to Bedlam? " 

In spite of short-sighted opposition, coaches made their way ; but it ■was not 
until a century later, in 1784 (and then, I believe, it was in this city of Bristol), 
that coaches were first established for the conveyance of mails. Those here who 
have experienced, as I have, what the discomforts were of long journeys in- 
side the old coaches, will agree with me that they were very great ; and I 
believe, if returns could be obtained of the accidents which happened to 
coaches, it would be found that many more pcox^le were injured and killed 
in proportion to the number that travelled by that mode, than by the rail- 
ways of to-day. 

No sooner had our ancestors settled down with what comfort was possible 
in their coaches, well satisfied that twelve miles an hour was the maximum 
speed to be obtained, or was desirable, than they were told that steam con- 
veyance on iron railways would supersede their " present pitiful " methods 
of conveyance. Such was the opinion of Thomas Gray, the first promoter of 
railways, who published his work on a general iron railway in 1819. Gray 
was looked on as littlo better than a madman. " When Gray first proposed 
his great scheme to the public," said Chevalier Wilson, in a letter to Sir 
Bobert Peel in 1845, " people were disposed to treat it as an effusion of in- 
sanity." I shall not enter on a history of the struggles which preceded the 
opening of the first railway. They were brought to a successful issue by the 
determination of a few able and far-seeing men. The names of Thomas 
Gray and Joseph Sandars, of William James and Edward Pease, should 
always be remembered in connexion with the early history of railways, for 
it was ihej who first made the nation familiar with the idea. There is no 
fear that the name of Stephenson will be forgotten, whoso practical genius 
made the realization of the idea possible. 

The Stockton and Darlington Eailway was opened in 1825, the Liverpool 
and Manchester Eailway in 1830 ; and in the short time which has since 
elapsed, railways have been extended to every quarter of the globe. No 
nation possessing wealth and population can aff'ord to be without them ; and 
though at present in different countries there is in the aggregate about 
160,000 miles of railway, it is certain that in the course of a very few years 
this quantity, large as it is, wiU be very greatly exceeded. 

Kailwaj'S add enoimously to the national wealth. More than twenty-five 
years ago it was proved to the satisfaction of a committee of the House of 
Commons, from facts and figures which I then adduced, that the Lancashire 
and Yorkshii-e Eailway, of which I was the engineer, and which then formed 
the principal railway connexion between the populous towns of Lancashire 
and Yorkshire, effected a saving to the public using the railway of more than 
the whole amount of the dividend which was received by the proprietors. 
These calculations were based solely on the amount of trafiic carried by the 



ADDRESS. XCIU 

railway, and on the difference between the railway rate of charge and the 
charges by the modes of conveyance anterior to railways. No credit what- 
ever was taken for the saving of time, though in England preeminently time 
is money. 

Considering that railway charges on many items have been considerably re- 
duced since that day, it may be safely assumed that the railways in the 
British Islands now produce, or rather save the nation, a much larger sum 
annually than the gross amount of all the dividends payable to the proprietors, 
without at all taking into account the benefit arising from the saving in 
time. The benefits under that head defy calculation, and cannot, with any 
accuracy, be put into money ; but it would not be at all over-estimating this 
question to say that in time and money the nation gains at least what is 
equivalent to 10 per cent, on all the caj^ital expended on railways. I do 
not urge this on the part of railway proprietors, for they did not embark in 
these undertakings with a view to the national gain, but for the expected 
profit to themselves. Yet it is as well it should be noted ; for railway pro- 
prietors appear sometimes by some people to be regarded in the light of 
public enemies. 

It follows from these facts that whenever a railway can be made at a cost 
to yield the ordinary interest of money, it is in the national interest that it 
should be made. Further, that thoiigh its cost might be such as to leave a 
smaller dividend than that to its proprietors, the loss of wealth to so small a 
section of the community will be more than supplemented by the national 
gain, and therefore there may be cases where a government may wisely con- 
tribute in some form to undertakings which, without such aid, would fail to 
obtain the necessary support. 

And so some countries, Russia for instance, to which improved means of 
transport are of vital importance, have wisely, in my opinion, caused lines to 
be made which, having regard to their own expenditure and receipts, would 
be unprofitable works, but in a national point of view are or speedily will bo 
highly advantageous. 

The empire of Brazil also, which I have lately visited, is arriving at the 
conclusion, which I think not an unwise one, that the State can afford and 
will be benefited in the end by guaranteeing 7 per cent, upon any railway that 
can of itself be shown to produce a net income of 4 per cent., on the assump- 
tion that the nation wiU be benefited at least to the extent of the difference. 

A question more important probably in the eyes of many — safety of railway 
travelling — may not be inappropriate. At all events, it is well that the 
elements on which it depends should be clearly understood. It will be thought 
that longer experience in the management of railways should go to ensure 
greater safety ; but there are other elements of the question which go to 
counteract this in some degree. 

Tlie safety of railway travelling depends on the perfection of the machine 



Xciv HEPORT — 1875. 

in all its parts, including the whole railway, with its movable plant, in that 
term ; it depends also on the nature and quantity of traffic, and, lastly, on 
human care and attention. 

With regard to what is human, it may he said that so many of these acci- 
dents as arise from the fallibility of men will never be eliminated until the race 
be improved. 

The liability to accident will also increase with the speed, and might be 
reduced by slackening that speed. It increases with the extent and variety 
of the traffic on the same line. The public, I fear, will rather run the risk 
than consent to be carried at a slower rate. The increase in extent and 
variety of traffic is not likely to receive any diminution ; on the contrary, it 
is certain to augment. 

I should be sorry to say that human care may not do something; and I am 
not among those who object to appeals through the press, and otherwise, to 
railway companies, though sometimes perhaps they may appear in an un- 
reasonable form. T see no harm in men being urged in every way to do their 
utmost in a matter so vital to many. 

A question may arise whether, if the railways were in the hands of the 
Government, they could not be worked with greater safety. Government would 
not pay their officers better, or perhaps so well as the companies do, and it is 
doubtful whether they would succeed in attracting to the service abler men. 
They might do the work with a smaller number of chief officers ; for much of 
the time of the companies' managers is occupied in internecine disputes. They 
might handle the traffic more despotically, diminishing the number of trains, 
or the accommodation afforded by them, or in other ways, to insure more safety ; 
but would the public bear any curtailment of convenienco ? 

One thing they could, and perhaps would do. In cases where the traffic 
is varied, and could more safely be conducted with the aid of relief lines, which 
hold out no sufficient inducement to the companies to make, the Government, 
being content with a lower rate of interest, might undertake to make them, 
though then comes the question whether, when the whole of this vast machine 
came to depend for supplies on annual votes of Parliament, money would be 
forthcoming in greater abundance than it is under the present system. 

But the consideration of this subject involves other and more difficult 
questions. 

Where are the labours of Government to stop ? The cares of State which 
cannot be avoided are already heavy, and will grow heavier every year. Dock- 
yard establishments are trifling to what the railway establishments, which 
already employ 250,000 men, would be. The assumption of all the railways 
would bring Government into conflict with every passeuger, every trader, every 
merchant, and every manufacturer. With the raUway companies there would 
be no difficulty ; they would sell their undertakings to any one provided the 
price was ample. 



ADDRESS. XCV 

Looking at the vast growth of railway traffic, one measure occurs to me as 
conducive to the safety of railway passengers, and likely to be demanded 
some day : it is to construct between important places railways which should 
carry passengers only or coals only, or be set apart for some special separation 
of traffic ; though there wiU be some difficulty in accomplishing this. Laud- 
owners, through whose property such lines would pass, would probably wish 
to use such lines for general purposes. Nevertheless it may have to be tried 
some day. 

It would be instructive, were it practicable, to compare the relative propor- 
tion of accidents by railway and by the old stage-coaches ; but no records that 
I am aware of exist of the latter that would enable such a comparison to be 
made. It is practicable to make some sort of comparison between the acci- 
dents in the earlier days of our own railways and the accidents occurring at a 
later date. 

The Board of Trade have unfortunately abandoned the custom, which they 
adopted from 1852 to 1859, of returning the passenger mileage, which is given 
in the German returns, and is the proper basis upon which to found the pro- 
portion of accidents, and not on the number of passengers without any regard 
to distance travelled, which has altered very much, the average journey per 
passenger being nearly half in 1873 what it was in 1846. 

It would be erroneous to compare the proportions of accidents to passengers 
carried in various years, even if the correct number of passengers travelling 
were given. But a figure is always omitted from the Board of Trade return, 
which makes the proportion of accidents to passengers appear larger than it is ; 
this is the number of journeys performed by season-ticket holders. Some 
estimate could be made of the journeys of season-ticket holders by dividing 
the receipts by an estimated average fare, or the companies could make an 
approximate estimate, and the passenger mileage could be readily obtained 
by the railway companies from the tickets. These additions would greatly 
add to the value of the railway returns as statistical documents, and render 
the deductions made from them correct. 

Though it has been a work of labour, I have endeavoured to supply these 
deficiencies, and I believe the results arrived at maybe taken as fairly accurate*. 

From the figures so arrived at, it appears the passenger mileage has doubled 
between 1861 and 1873 ; and at the rate of increase between 1870 and 1873 
it would become double what it was in 1873 in twelve years fi-om that time, 
namely in 1885. 

The number of passengers has doubled between 1864 and 1873, and at the 
rate of increase between 1870 and 1873 it would become double what it waa 
in 1873 in eleven years and a half, or in 1885. 

It must, however, be remembered that the rate of increase since 1870, though 
very regular for 1871, 1872, and 1873, is greater than in previous years, 

* See Table in Appendixi 



XCVl KEPOKT 1875. 

beiag probably due to tho rise of wages and the great development of third- 
class traffic, and it woiild not be safe to assume this rate of increase will 
continue. 

Supposing no improvement had been effected in the working of railway 
traffic by the interlocking of points, the block system, &c., the increase of 
accidents should have borne some proportion to the passenger mileage, multi- 
plied by the proportion between the train mileage and the length of line open, 
as the number of trains passing over the same line of rails would tend to 
multiply accidents in an increasing proportion, especially where the trains run 
at different speeds. 

The number of accidents varies considerably from year to year ; but taking 
two averages of ten years each, it appears that the proportion of deaths of 
passengers from causes beyond their control to passenger miles travelled in 
the ten years ending December 31, 1873, was only two thirds of the same 
proportion in the ten years ending December 31, 1861 ; the proportion of all 
accidents to passengers from causes beyond their own control was one ninth 
more in the last ten years than in the earlier, whereas the frequency of trains 
had increased on the average one fourth. 

The limit, however, of considerable improvements in signalling, increased 
brake-power, &c. may be reached before long; and if so, the increase of 
accidents will then depend on the increase of traffic, together with the in- 
creased frequency of trains. 

The large growth of railway traffic, which we may assume will double in 
twenty years, wiU evidently greatly tax the resources of the railway com- 
panies ; and unless the present companies increase the number of the lines of 
way, as some have commenced to do, or new railways are made, the system 
of expeditious and safe railway travelling will be imperilled. Up to the 
present time, however, the improvements in regulating the traffic appear to 
have kept pace with the increase of traffic and of speed, as the slight increase 
in the proportion of railway accidents to passenger miles is probably chiefly 
due to a larger number of trifling bruises being reported now than formerly. 

I believe it was a former President of the Board of Trade who said to an 
alarmed deputation, who waited upon him on the subject of railway travelling, 
that he thought he was safer in a railway carriage than anywhere else. 

If he gave any such opinion, he was not far wrong, as is sufficiently evident 
when it can be said that there is only one passenger injured in every four 
million miles travelled, or that, on an average, a person may travel 100,000 
miles each year for forty years, and the chances be slightly in his favom' of 
his not receiving the slightest injurj-. 

A pressing subject of the present time is the economy of fuel. Members of 
the British Association have not neglected this momentous question. 

At the meeting held at Is'ewcastle-on-Tyne in 1863, Sir "William 
Armstrong sonnded an alarm as to the proximate exhaustion of our coal-fields. 



AuuBiiss. xcvn 

Mr. liramwell, when presiding over Iho Mechanical (Section at Brighton, 
drew attention to the waste of fuel. 

Dr. Siemens, in an able lecture he delivered by request of the Association 
to the operative classes at the meeting at Bradford, pointed out the waste of 
fuel in special branches of the iron trade, to which he has devoted so much 
attention. 

He showed on that occasion that, in the ordinary reheating furnace, the 
coal consumed did not produce the twentieth part of its theoretical effect, and 
in melting steel in pots in the ordinary way not more than one-seventieth 
part, in melting one ton of steel in pots about 2| tons of coke being con- 
sumed. Dr. Siemens further stated that, in his regenerative gas-furnace, one 
ton of steel was melted with 12 cwt. of small coal. 

Mr. Lowthian Bell, who combines chemical knowledge with the practical 
experience of an ironmaster, in his Presidential address to the Members of 
the Iron and Steel Institute in 1873, stated that, with the perfect mode of 
Avithdrawing and utilizing the gases and the improvement in the furnaces 
adopted in the Cleveland district, the present make of pig iron in Cleveland 
is produced with 3| million tons of coal less than would have been needed 
fifteen years ago, this being equivalent to a saving of 45 per cent, of the 
quantity formerly used. He shows by figures, with Avhich he has favoured 
me, that the calorific power of the waste gases from the furnaces is sufficient 
for raising all the steam and heating all the air the furnaces require. 

It has already been stated that by working steam more expansively, either 
in double or single engines, the consumption of fuel in improved modern 
engines compared with the older forms may be reduced to one third. 

All these reductions still fall far short of the theoretical efiect of fuel, 
■which may be never reached. Mr. Lowthian Bell's figures go to show that 
in the interior of the blast-furnace, as improved in Cleveland, there is not 
much more to be done in reducing the consumption of fuel ; but much has 
already been done; and could the reductions now attainable and all the 
information already acquired be universally applied, the saving in fuel would 
be enormous. 

How many open blast-furnaces still belch forth flame and gas and smoke 
as uselessly, and with nearly as much mischief to the surrounding neighbour- 
hood, as the fires of Etna or Vesuvius ! 

How many of the older and more extravagant forms of steam-engine still 
exist! 

"What is to be done with the intractable householder, with the domestic 
hearth, where, without going to German stoves, but by using Galton's grates 
and other improvements, every thing necessary both for comfort and con- 
venience could be as well attained with a much smaller consumption of 
coal ? 

If I have pointed out that we do not avail ourselves of more than a frac- 

1875. a 



xcviii KEPOiix — 1875. 

tional part of the useful effects of fuel, it is cot that I expect we shall all at 
once mend our ways in this respect. 

Many cases of waste arise from the existence of old and obsolete machines, 
of had forms of furnaces, of wasteful grates, existing in most dwelling- 
houses ; and these are not to be remedied at once; for not eveiy one can 
afford, however desirable it might be, to cast away the old and adopt tho 

new. 

In looking uneasily to the future supply and cost of fuel, it is, however, 
something to know what may be done even with the application of our 
present knowledge ; and could we apply it universally to-day, all that is 
necessary for trade and comfort could probably be as well provided for by 
one half the present consumption of fuel ; and it behoves those who ary 
beginning to build new mills, new furnaces, new steamboats, or new houses 
to act as though the price of coal which obtained two years ago had beea 
the normal and not the abnormal price. 

There was in early years a battle of the gauges, and there is now a contest 
about guns ; but your time wUl not permit me to say much on their manu- 
facture. 

Here, again, the progress made in a few years has been enormous ; and in 
contributing to it, two men, Sir William Ai-mstrong and Sir Joseph Whit-, 
•worth, both civil engineers, in this country at all events, deservedly stand 
foremost, The iron coil construction of Sir William Annstrong has already 
produced remarkable and satisfactory results ; in discussing further possible 
improvements, the question is embarrassed by attempting to draw sharp lines 
between what is called steel and iron. 

There is nothing that I can see to limit the size of guns, except the 
tenacity and endurance of the metal, whatever we may choose to caU it, of 
which they are to be made. 

Sir Joseph Whitworth, who has already done more than any other man in 
his department to secure good workmanship, and whose ideal of perfection is 
ever expanding, has long been seeking, and not without success, by enormous 
compression, to increase those qualities in what ho calls homogeneous metal. 
Make the metal good enough, and caU it iron if you wiU, and the size of a 
gun may be any thing : the mere construction and handling of a gun of 100 
tons, or of greater weight, with suitable mechanical appliances, presents no 
difficulty. 

Relying on the qualities of his compressed metal. Sir Joseph is now 
seeking by a singular experiment to limit the travel of the recoil, as far as 
practicable, to the elasticity of the metal. By attaching the muzzle of the 
gun to an outer casing, through which the force of the recoil is carried back 
to the trunnions, he proposes to avail himself of this elasticity to the extent 
of once and a half the length of the gun; whether its elasticity alone 
in so short a space will suffice without other aid is, perhaps, doubtful ; but 



ADDRliSS. XCIX 

other aid may be applied, and the experimeut, whether successful or not, 
will be interesting. 

Docks and harbours I have no time to mention; for it is time this long and, 
I fear, tedious address should close. 

" Wheuco and whither," is an aphorism which leads us away from present 
and plainer objects to those which are more distant and obscure ; whether 
we look backwards or forwards, our vision is speedily arrested by an impene- 
trable veil. 

On the subjects I have chosen you will probably think I have travelled 
backwards far enough. I have dealt to some extent with the present. 

The retrospect, however, may be useful to show what great works were 
done in former ages. 

Some things have been better done than in those earlier times, but not all. 

In what we choose to call the ideal we do not surpass the ancients. Poets 
and painters and sculptors were as great in former times as now ; so, pro- 
bably, were the mathematicians. 

In what depends on the accumulation of experience, we ought to excel 
our forerunners. Engineering depends largely on experience ; nevertheless, 
in future times, whenever difficulties shall arise or works have to be accom- 
plished for which there is no precedent, he who has to perform the duty 
may step forth from any of the walks of life, as engineers have not unfre- 
quently hitherto done. 

The marvellous progress of the last two generations should make every one 
cautious of predicting the future. Of engineering works, however, it may 
be said that their practicability or impracticability is often determined by 
other elements than the inherent difficulty in the works themselves. 
Greater works than any yet achieved remain to be accomplished — not, 
perhaps, yet awhile. Society may not yet require them ; the world could 
not at present afford to pay for them. 

The progress of engineering works, if we consider it, and the expenditure 
upon them, has already in our time been prodigious. One hundred and sixty 
thousand miles of railway alone, put into figures at ^20,000 a mile, amounts 
to 3200 million pounds sterling ; add 400,000 miles of telegraph at =£100 a 
mile, and 100 millions more for sea canals, docks, harbours, water and sani- 
tary works constructed in the same period, and wo get the enormous sum of 
3340 millions sterling expended in one generation and a half on what may 
undoubtedly be called useful works. 

The wealth of nations may be impaired by expenditure on luxuries and 
war ; it cannot be diminished by expenditure on works like these. 

As to the future, we know we cannot create a force; we can, and no 
doubt shall, greatly improve the application of those with which we arc ac- 
quainted. "What are called inventions can do no more than this ; yet how 
much every day is being done by new machines and instruments. 



C REPOllT — 1875. 

The telescope extended our vision to distant worlds. The spectroscope has 
far outstripped that instrument, by extending our powers of analysis to re- 
gions as remote. 

Postal deliveries were and are great and able organizations ; but what are 
they to the telegraph ? 

Need we try to extend our vision into futurity further? Our present 
knowledge, compared to what is unknown even in physics, is infinitesimal. 
We may never discover a new force — yet, who can teU ? 






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LIST OF PLATES. 



PLATES I., ir., 

Illustrative of a Report on the present State of our Knowledge of the Crustacea. 

PLATE III. 
Illustrative of the Report of the Rainfall Committee. 

PLATE IV. 
Illustrative of a Paper on Tides in the River Mersey, by J. N. Shoolbred, C.E. 

PLATES Y., VI. 
Illustrative of the Third Report on the Exploration of the Settle Caves. 

PLATE Vn. 

Illustrative of a Paper on the River Avon (Bristol), by Thomas Howard. 

PLATE VIII. 

Illustrative of a Paper on the Analytical Forms called Trees, by Professor 

Cayley. 

PLATES IX., X., XI., XII. 

Illustrative of the Address of W. Froude, Esq., to the Mechanical Section. 

PLATE XIII. 

Illustrative of Papers ou the Speed &c. of Ships by Messrs. W. Denny, J. 
I. Thomycroft, and J. Woollcy. 



11 E P R T S 



ON 



THE STATE OE SCIENCE. 



Eleventh Report of the Committee for Exploring Kent's Cavern, Devon- 
shire — the Committee consisting of Sir John Lubbock, Bart., F.R.S., 
John Evans, F.R.S., Edward Vivian, M.A., George Busk, 
F.R.S., William Boyd Dav^kins, F.R.S., William Ayshford 
Sanford, F.G.S., John Edward Lee, F.G.S., and William Pen- 
GELLY, F.R.S. {Reporter). 

The Committee have again the melancholy duty of reporting that death has 
deprived them of one of their members. As long ago as 1851), as soon as ho 
became aware of the importance of the discoveries made in the Windmill- 
Hill Cavern at Brixham, Sir Charles Lyell expressed a strong desire that 
Kent's Cavern should also be systematically and thoroughly explored ; and 
it was with his full concurrence that the proposal to do so was laid before 
the Committee of the Geological Section of the British Association at Bath 
in 1864, the day after ho delivered his Presidential Address ; whilst his 
ardent advocacy, together with that of the late Professor Phillips, secured its 
ready acceptance by the Committee of Recommendations and the General 
Committee. At the first meeting of the Cavern Committee, appointed in the 
year just mentioned, he was unanimously elected Chairman, and ho con- 
tinued to occupy that post until his lamented decease on 27th February, 
1875. Though the state of his health prevented him from taking any active 
part in the exploration, his interest in the work never abated ; he always 
carefully studied the Monthly Reports of Progress sent him by the Super- 
intendents, and he made careful arrangements for their preservation. 

The Tenth Report, read to the Geological Section of the Association at the 
Belfast Meeting, and printed in the annual volume for last year, brought up 
the work to the end of July 1874. The exploration has been carried on 
without interruption from that date to the present time, the mode of 
excavation adopted at the beginning has been uniformly followed, the 
Superintendents have visited the Cavern daily, the progress of the work 
has been carefully recorded in the Cavern diary, the workmen have, as 
heretofore, given complete satisfaction, and 3Ionthly Reports have been 

1875. B 



/ 



3 REPOKT 1875. 

regularly sent to Sir Charles LyeU until his decease, and subsequently to 
Mr. John Evans. 

The Committee have the satisfaction of stating that they still retain the 
services of George Smerdon, foreman of the work, who has been engaged on 
it from the beginning. As John Clinnick, the second workman, believing 
the employment prejudicial to his health, has sought more congenial labour, 
they have engaged Nicholas Luscombe in his stead, and hope that he may 
prove an equally satisfactory workman. 

The Cavern continues to be much visited by persons desirous of studying 
on the spot its characters and phenomena; and during the last twelve 
months the Superintendents have had the pleasure of taking the following 
gentlemen through those branches which have been explored, and of 
explaining to them the mode of operation : — Sir C. Wheatstone, General D. 
Lysons, Colonel Brine, Major J. Virtue (Madras), the Revs. Dr. Stebbing, 
J. L. Ball, W. E. Buckley, G. Henslow, J. Parker, T. E. E. Stebbing, 
T. Talbot, J. H. Tooke, and E. H. J. Turrell, Dr. T. Oldham (Calcutta), Dr. 

E. B. Tylor, and Messrs. E. W. Alexander (New Zealand), W. F. Alexander, 
A. E. Baker, J. E. Baker, H. S. Ball, W. Beer, C. A. Bleckly, H. F. Bleekly, 
Ceilings Blow, A. Brine, N. Brown, M. de Bunsen, "W. Carruthers, Moncure 
D. Conway, J. D. Crossfield, P. L. Davidson, W. J. Dobie, F. Elder, E. C. 
Elliott, W. Francis, G. S. Gibson, J. Giles, H. Gurney, T. Gurney, T. Har- 
rison, T. N. Hart-Smith, E. S. Hastings, F. J. Hext, C. Holdsworth, J. Holds- 
worth, J. A. Holdsworth, J. H. Holdsworth, J. S. Holdsworth, E. Holds- 
worth, A. E. Hunt, T. Hunton, H. J. J. La\is, J. Norman Lockyer, D. C. W. 
Lysons, J. I. Mackenzie, D. Pidgeon, A. D. Powell, H. Eeutcr, A. Eichard- 
son, A. F. Eobinson, H. Segar, J. Sollas, E. B. Stott, J. S. Stott, F. E. Thom- 
son, J. E. Terry, H. Tozer, J. H. Tuke, S. Tukc, W. S. Tuke, W. A. E. 
Ussher, C. Staniland Wake, E. G. Wake, J. C. Wheat, J. N. White, B. H. 
Williams, F. WlUiams, F. E. Wolfe, B. B. Woodward, H. B. Woodward, and 

F. L. W^oodward. 

Numerous visitors have also been conducted by the " Guide," who, though 
under the control of the Committee, is not permitted to take parties to those 
branches of the Cavern in which the exploration is in progress or has not 
been begun. 

As in former years, rats have frequently been seen running about in 
various parts of the Cavern, including those in which the men have been at 
work, though hundreds of feet from any glimmering of daylight ; and they 
have displayed their usual boldness as well as their skill in carrying off 
candles. In other branches, almost as far from the entrances, where all 
researches have ceased for some years, their footprints are to be seen in very 
great numbers, especially on. the silt left, here and there, where the drip is 
copious in wet weather. It is difficult to understand what draws them 
thither, unless it be the small amount of tallow which drops from the candles 
of visitors. 

On 29th January, 1875, a " buzzing fly" was heard by one of the Super- 
intendents in " The Cave of Inscriptions," about 300 feet from daylight, and 
was subsequently seen by the workmen in the same Cave. 

CKnnicl's Gallery .^-1\ig> Tenth Eeport (1874) stated that the Committee 
had discovered that the " Long Arcade," aboiit 225 feet from its entrance, 
threw off a narrow branch, which had been named " Clinnick's Gallery" 
after the workman who first entered it- — that its exploration was in progress 
and had been completed for about 34 feet — that below the least ancient, or 



ON Kent's cavern, Devonshire. 3 

the " Granular, Stalagmitic Floor," for a distance of 18 feet from the entrance, 
a small quantity of " Cave-earth " uniformly presented itself, beneath whicli 
lay the "Breccia," occasionally separated from it by remnants of the more 
ancient, or the " Crystalline, Stalagmitic Floor " in situ — but that from the 
point just named, up to that reached when the Tenth Report was drawn, 
there was no Cave-earth ; so that the two Stalagmites lay the one imme- 
diately on the other, with the Breccia (that is, as far as is known), the 
oldest of the Cavern deposits, beneath the whole. 

At the commencement of the exploration of this Gallery, the deposits so 
very nearly reached the roof as to induce the belief that a very few feet at 
most was aU that the workmen had before them. In short, no one suspected 
the existence of this branch of the Cavern. As the work advanced, how- 
ever, the unoccupied interspace between the roof and floor became gradually 
larger, until on the 6th of August, 1875, John Clinnick, the workman 
already mentioned, forced himself through, and, after proceeding about 
50 feet, as he estimated, entered a large chamber, of which he brought back 
such a glowing description as to induce one of the Superintendents to follow 
him, when he found the workman's description by no means too^ highly 
coloured. The Chamber, probably one of the largest in the Cavern, is beau- 
tifully hung with stalactites, and has numerous stalagmitic " paps," some of 
them four feet high and of almost cylindrical form, rising from a floor of 
the same material. 

The work iu Cliunick's Gallery was very difficult, as the two stalagmites 
were not only extremely hard and tough, but had an aggregate thickness 
amounting frequently to fully four feet ; and the very contracted height 
and breadth of the Gallery prevented the meu from working to the best 
advantage. 

The state of the Floor was a puzzHng study. The older, or lower, _ or 
Crystalline -Stalagmite was broken in places near the left wall along a line 
parallel with it, and the fragments, occasionally considerable sheets, were 
raised some inches above their original level at their margin most remote 
from the wall and depressed at that nearest to it, whilst every thing remained 
intact at and adjacent to the opposite wall of the narrow Gallery. The dis- 
turbance occurred obviously before the commencement of the formation of 
the upper or Granular Stalagmite ; for not only was this less ancient floor 
undisturbed, but the fragmentary and tilted sheets of the older floor just 
mentioned passed in some instances obliquely through it, rising above its 
upper surface on one side and projecting below its base on the other. 
Adjacent to the left wall, at a point where the Floor was unbroken, a pap 
(which had evidently lost its top) reached the height of 16 inches and was 
still standing erect. Though var5-ing somewhat in diameter, it may be said 
to be cylindrical in form, and at the top it measured 10 inches in circum- 
ference. Almost in contact with it, but lying horizontally at its base, and 
completely enveloped in the Granular Stalagmite, was a fragment of, no 
doubt, the same pap, 10 inches long ; whilst on the opposite side of the 
standing portion was a third fragment, 5 inches long, terminating in a cone, 
and firmly held to the spot by stalagmitic matter. There can be no doubt 
that the three pieces are portions of one and the same pap, of which the 
shorter piece was the conical apex, the unbroken column having been at least 
31 inches long. Phenomena such as these are calculated to induce specu- 
lations respecting the causes which produced them and the time they repre- 
sent. In the case just mentioned, we have, first, the deposition of the 
Breccia, or oldest of the Cavern-deposits, so far as is certainly known ; thia 

b2 



4 HEPORT — 1875. 

was followed by the formation of the Crystalline Stalagmite as a continuons 
sheet of somewhat variable thickness, which sometimes reached fully 3 feet 
ill this Glallcry; next came that very slow drip and pi'ccipitation of car- 
bonate of lime which alone seems compatible with the formation of paps, 
and this continued until the pap just described had reached a height ex- 
ceeding 30 inches and a girth of 10 ; this was succeeded by some cause of 
disturbance, which broke the thick floor of Crystalline Stalagmite, depressed, 
as if by subsidence, the deposit adjacent to one wall, but left every thing 
intact on the opposite side of the narrow passage, broke the pap into three 
pieces, leaving the lowest of them still erect, causing the middle segment to 
fall at its foot on the outside, and that which formed the apex on the inside ; 
finally, this was followed by another shect-lilco floor of btalagmite, of less 
thickness than the former, granular in texture, and capable of preventing 
the results of the disturbance from being themselves disturbed. A faint 
earthquake-tremor would, no doubt, suffice to break some of the long com- 
paratively slender paps ; for some of those which have been found detached 
have been known to resolve themselves into fragments, even at a touch, the 
planes of division being at right angles to the longest axis, whilst others of 
even less thickness will stand a considerable blow. Most of those standing 
intact emit a musical note when gently struck ; and the notes are such as to 
show that the rates of vibration, and hence probably the molecular arrange- 
ment, must differ considerably even in masses differing but little in di- 
mensions. 

CHnnick's Gallery on being excavated was found to be a somewhat tortuous 
passage, varying from 4 to 8 feet in width, and from 7 to 10 feet in height *, 
That it was once a watercourse there can be little or no doubt, as the roof 
bears the marks of the long-continued action of a running stream. The 
walls vary considerably — being in some places smooth, in others mucli fretted 
or corroded, and in others more or less angular. 

The objects of interest found in this branch of the Cavern daring the 
last twelve mouths have been by no means numerous ; nevertheless they 
are not without interest, as a few of them throw a new light on the palaj- 
ontology of the Cavern. 

Attached to the upper surface of the Granular Stalagmitic Floor, the least 
ancient of the two deposits of that material, portions of three land-shells 
(No. 6477) were found, 23rd October, 1874 ; and on the 31st of the same 
month about 20 bones of Mammals (No. 6481) were met with, lying toge- 
ther loose on the Floor, beneath a few smaU fragments of Stalagmite. Their 
characters are such as to imply a recent introduction into the Cavern. 

Incorporated in the Granular Stalagmite itself were a few bones, including 
a humerus (No. 6475), a tibia and ulna (No. 6476), all nearly entire, and 
a portion of a large humerus (No. 6491), each of which had been gnawed. 

TJiough no Cave-eartli was met with beyond the point already specified, 
there seems no doubt that to the era of that deposit may be referred a con- 
siderable portion of a radius (No. 6484) and of an ulna (No. 6489), both 
gnawed and found under loose pieces of stalagmite. 

The Breccia in this Gallery was not much more productive. The total 
remains of animals it has yielded since the last Report was presented arc 
4 teeth of Bear, a few bones and fragments of bone, and 3 teeth of Lion in 
three portions of, no doubt, one and the same lower jaw. The latter " find" 
(No. 6482) is of considerable interest, as being the first known instance of 

* All heights mentioned in this Report have been measured from the bottom of the 
excavations made by the Committee, 



ON KENT S CAVERNj DKVOXSHIKE. 5 

remains of any animal besides Bear met with in the Breccia. It was found 
witli thi'ee bits of bone on the 2nd November, 1874, in the third foot-level ; and 
vertically beneath it, in the next foot-level, were 1 tooth of Bear, a fragment 
of bone, and a flint chip (No. 6483). Though the Superintendents had no 
doubt of the feline character of the teeth, they forwarded one of them (that 
least surrounded with Breccia) to Mr. George Busk, E.R.S. Ac, a member of 
the Committee, on 30th November, 1874, remarking that they believed it to 
be the last lower left molar of Fclis spdcca, and requesting his opinion on it. 
In his reply, dated " 32 Harley Street, December 8, 1874," he remarks : — 
" There is no doubt that the tooth is the left lower carnassial of Felts leo, 
but it is of very unusual size, being, I should estimate, jK, bigger than the 
average dimensions of that tooth in the Lion. It is usually longer, but not 
so thick, in the Tiger than in the Lion ; but the thickness of the present one 
is proportionate to its length, viz. 1-20 x '65 inch. Another peculiarity, as 
it seems to me, is the great wear that the tooth has undergone. I fancy 
existing Lions are not allowed to live long enough to wear their teeth so 
much. At any rate, the Kent's Hole tooth appears to be more worn than 
any other I have as yet met with. Can it belong to Machairodus ? 

(Signed) " Geokge Bxtsk." 

Having succeeded in removing some part of the matrix incrusting the 
other portions of the jaw, they were also forwarded to Mr. Busk, with the 
observation that the Superintendents had carefully considered the question 
before submitting the iirst tooth, and had come to the conclusion that the 
jaw was not that of Machairodus ; for, waiving the fact that none of the 
teeth were serrated, the fang of the canine still remaining iii the jaw was 
much too large for a lower canine of any known species of Machairodus ; and 
it was siiggested that it might be worth considering whether the specimen 
belonged to any of the species of Felis found in the Forest-bed of Cromer. 
Mr. Busk says in his reply, dated August 11, 1875: — "The jaw does not 
appear to present any thing unusual. It is, however, a good example to 
show that the Cave-Li(m lived to a good old age. 

(Signed) " Geoege Busk." 

Clinnick's Gallery also vielded 7 specimens of flint and chert belonging to 
the Breccia (Nos. 0466," 6467«, 6470, 6474, 6478, 6483, and 6485), of ^ 
which the first and fourth alone require fui'ther notice. 

No. 6466 is an irregular tongue-shaped tool, of gamboge-colour exter- 
nally, about 3 inches long, ] -7 inch in greatest breadth, and w inch in 
greatest thickness. It has been reduced to an edge all round the circum- 
ference except at the but -end, is slightlj^ concave on the inner face, on 
which the " bulb of percussion " is well developed near the but-end, and very 
convex on the outer face, whence several flakes and chips have been dis- 
lodged. It was broken into three pieces by the workmen in extracting it, 
and was found, without any other object of interest near it, on 8th August, 
1874, in the third foot-level of Breccia, over which the two Stalagmitic . 
Floors, Avithout any Cave-earth between them, had an aggregate thickness of 
48 inches. 

No. 6474, a flint pebble, pretty well rolled, and 2-1 inches long, was 
found aloue, in the second foot-level of Breccia, on 24th September, 1874. 

The comparative paucity of specimens in Clinnick's Gallery irduccd the 
Superintendents, en 1st December, 1874, to suspend operations in that 
direction for at least a time. The labour of seven months had been ex- 



6 REFOllT 1875. 

pended on it, during whiclL the exploration had reached 75 feet from the 
entrance, where the Great Chamber discovered by John Chnnick may be said 
to begin. 

The following is a list of the objects of interest found in Clinnick's Gallery 
from first to last : — 

Lying on the surface, and apparently recent : 3 shells of Helix and about 
20 bones of Mammals. 

Incorporated in the Granular Stalagmite : a few gnawed bones. 

In the Cave-earth : 8 teeth of Hytena, 2 of Fox, a tolerable number of 
bones and fragments of bone, 1 large Chert implement (No, 6401), and 1 
small flint flake (No. 6426). 

In the Breccia : 90 teeth of Bear, 3 of Lion in portions of a left lower jaw 
(No. 6482), numerous bones and portions of bone, including a large part of 
a skull, a flint pebble, and 1 1 specimens of flint and chert implements, flakes, 
and chips, including the very fine tool No. ^yy. 

The Cave of Inseriptioiis. — The chamber in which " The Long Arcade " 
terminates was called by Mr. MacEnery " The Cave of Inscriptions," on 
account of the number of names, initials, and dates graved on the Stalagmite 
in various parts of it. Besides those on the " The Inscribed Boss of Stalag- 
mite," at the entrance of the " Cave," described in the Tenth Report (1874), 
inscriptions occur on what is known as " The Hedges Boss " and on the walls 
of the Chamber. There are also numerous names &c. smoked on various 
parts of the Roof, as there are, indeed, in almost every branch of the Cavern, 
some of which appear to be of considerable antiquity. 

The left wall, about 35 feet from the entrance, is covered with Stalagmitic 
matter, having usually a rough surface, and to which there does not seem to 
have been recently any addition. On this surface the following inscriptions 
have been noticed : — 

*1. L 0. 2. AW 3. A E 

1609 1792 

4. 1769 

No. 1 is in large badly cut characters. 

No. 2 is in characters about 3 inches high, well cut, bold, and very legible. 
The letters are, of course, an economical form of N W. 

No. 3 is badly cut, and immediately under No. 2. 

No. 4 is in smaU characters. 

There are several other inscriptions, but not sufficiently legible to be 
copied with certainty. 

At the south-western corner of the Chamber the following inscriptions 
occur on the wall : — 

1. A^ . R. 2. G. B. 

5. LB. 

6. William Mather 

Teignmouth 

8. R.B 9. 16.53 

1661 

No. 1 is badly cut. 

No. 4 is within a sqiiare 5-5 inches in the side and looped at each angle. 

* The mimorals prefixed to the inscriptions tie not belong to the originals. 



3. 


HAGH 


4. 


S.G 




64 




1731 


7. 




IM 






FAICT 


DARM 






lOhN 


MARTY 






10. Down all. 





ON Kent's cavern, devonshiue. 7 

Nos. 6 and 10 are in ordinary written cliaracters. 

No. 7 is within a rectilineal figure which has not been completed, or has 
been obliterated, towards the right. There has been a considerable recent 
accretion of stalagmite, which has probably obliterated a portion of the 
enclosing figure and some of the letters there; thus MARTY has perhaps 
lost a terminal N. 

Not far from the centre of the Chamber a considerable boss of stalagmite 
rises from the fioor of the same material, having on its sides several badly 
scratched letters, and the following very well cut inscription in characters 
about an inch high : — 

ROBERT HEDGES 

OF IRELAND 

FEB. 2 0. 16 88. 

On account of the attention which this inscription has attracted and the 
name in it, the mass of Stalagmite has been named " The Hedges Boss." 
It can scarcely be necessary to say that the Committee have left it so far 
intact as they found it. The earlier explorers had broken the Stalagmitic 
Floor all around it, and they, or probably some earlier visitors, seem to have 
contemplated its removal or destruction ; for its apex is broken off, and a hole 
7 inches deep has been bored into it, no doubt with the intention of blasting 
it. In basal circumference it measures about 30 feet ; its present mutilated 
top is about 4 feet high, and the Floor of Granular Stalagmite from which 
it rises is about a foot thick. It is not possible to believe that Mr. MacEnery 
countenanced the attempt to destroy the Boss, as he attached much import- 
ance to the inscription on it, mentioning it at least four times in his ' Cavern 
Researches.' The effort may, no doubt, be ascribed to an earlier period, 
when it is stated by a writer in the ' Monthly Magazine ' for June 1805, 
twenty years prior to Mr. MacEnery's first visit, when the Cavern was open 
to all comers without let or hindrance, that " attempts have been made to 
work the stones and spars [in Kent's Hole], but they do not prove orna- 
mental" *. 

It is not a little strange that though the name " Robert Hedges " is per- 
fectly legible, Mr. MacEnery not only never so renders it, but actually gives 
it in three distinct forms; twice he speaks of it as " Robert Hodges "f, 
once as John Hodgson J, and once as " J. Hodges "§. Nevertheless, his 
description of it is of great value. " The letters," he says, " are glazed 
over and partly effaced "||. Again, " The letters in the inscription are over- 
laid "•[[. In short, the terms he applied to it are still perfectly apposite, and 
justify the belief that the inscription is as old as it professes to be. The di-ip 
on it at present is somewhat plentiful iu wet weather, and there is no doubt 
that calcareous matter is still in course of deposition. Of all the cha- 
racters, the terminal 8 in the date is probably most in danger of obliteration. 

It was stated in the Tenth Report (1874) that the exploration of the Cave 
of Inscriptions had been completed up to 16 feet from its entrance, when, the 
moutb of Clinnick's Gallery being completely exposed, the investigation of 
the deposits in the latter branch of the Cavern was undertaken. This, as 
already mentioned, was carried on until December 1st, 1874, when the work 
in the Cave of Inscriptions was resumed. 

In that portion of this Cave explored in 1 874, the Committee found that there 

* Monthly Magazine, London, vol. xix. p. 435. 

t See 'Trans. Devon. Assoc' vol. iii. (1S69) pp. 275 and 459. t Ibid. p. 314. 

§ Ibid. p. 459. II Ibid. p. 276. •[ Ibid. p. 450. 



8 REPORT 1875. 

were no traces of the presence of their predecessors ; that the Granular, or less 
ancient, Stalagmitic Floor was everywhere intact and continuous, and the Crys- 
tal line, or more ancient, Stalagmite lay beneath it ; that the latter had been 
broken by some natural agency, and though in some cases the severed portions 
remained in situ, in others they had been removed and Tvere not alwaj^s 
traceable ; and that adjacent to the left wall of the Cave a wedge-hke layer of 
Cave-earth lay in its proper place between the Stalagmites, and was 6 inches 
thick at the wall, but thinned out at about a yard from it, beyond which the 
one Floor lay immediately on the other. This continued to be the case to a 
large extent for the next 18 feet (that is, up to 34 feet from the entrance), the 
only exception being that the broken blocks of Crystalline Stalagmite were 
never dislodged beyond being occasionally " faulted " to the extent of 2 or 
3 inches. At and beyond 34 feet from the entrance, traces of the earlier 
explorers were again met with in almost every part of the Cave, but 
were found to be limited to the breaking up of the Stalagmites and of the 
subjacent deposit to the depth of 12 inches at most. A thin layer of typical 
Cave-earth extended throughout the entire Chamber; and it was obvious that 
at the time when its deposition commenced the Crystalline Stalagmite did 
not exist as a continuous sheet, for in considerable spaces the Cave-earth 
lay immediately on the Breccia without any Stalagmite between them. 
Though it was not always easy in these cases to determine the exact junction 
of the two deposits, there was no doubt that the upper surface of the Breccia 
was very uneven when the Cave-earth began to be lodged on it. On the 
discovery of objects of interest at or near this doubtful junction, care was 
taken to record them as belonging to the " Cave-earth and Breccia," even 
though, from their own characters, it was usually easy to refer them to their 
proper deposits and eras respectively. Large blocks of limestone, some of 
them requiring to be blasted, were numerous in this Cave, both in the Stalag- 
mites and below them. 

On its excavation being completed, the Cave of Inscriptions was found to 
extend upwards of 60 feet from north-east to south-west, 45 feet from south- 
east to north-west, and to be upwards of 20 feet high. In the right Avail, 
immediately before reaching the Hedges Boss, there is a recess to which the 
name of " The Alcove " has been given : another, in the north-western corner, 
probably leads to an external entrance to the Cavern : in the south-west 
corner is the mouth of tie long tunnel known as the "Great Oven;" and 
adjacent to it is a Gully about 3 feet wide at the entrance, and extending 
to an unknown distance but too narrow for exploration beyond a length of 
7 feet. 

Two " finds " only were met with in the Granular Stalagmitic Floor : one 
(No. 6491) consisted of a few 'bones, including a portion of a large humcras ; 
the other (No. 6495) was a very small bone, probably of Bat, with bits of 
charcoal and of coprolitc, all lodged in the same hand specimen of Stalagmite, 
and found 3rd December, 1875. 

The Cave-earth yielded 4 teeth of Hyasna, a few gnawed bones, coprolitcs 
on several occasions, and 1 flint flake (No. 6520). 

At and near the junction of the Cave-earth and Breccia, where they were 
not separated by Stalagmite, 2 right lower jaws and 4 loose teeth of IIya?n;i, 
38 teeth of Bear, part of a jaw of Fox, 1 incisor tooth of a small rodent, 
numerous bones and fragments of bone, a somewhat large number of copro- 
htes, and 1 flint flake were met with. At least, most of the ursine remnius 
may be safely referred to the Breccia, whilst all those of the Hj^ajna un- 
doubtedly belong to the Cave-earth. One of the Hyoena-jaws just mentioned 



ON Kent's cavern, DJivoNsmuE. 



(No. 6570) contains all its teeth except the inner incisor ; but, as is com- 
monly the case with lower jaws of the era of the Cave-earth, it has lost its 
lower border and condyles, and is much gnawed. It was found 14th May, 
1875, Avith 1 loose canine tooth of the same species, 4 teeth of Bear, and a 
few fragments of bone. The other jaw of Hyaena (No. 6577) has lost the 
two inner incisor teeth and the condyles, and is slightly gnawed, but is 
otherwise entire. It -was found on 24th of the same month, with 1 loose 
tooth of Hyajua, 1 of Bear, and a fragment of bone. The flint flake (No. 
6582), found 1st June, 1875, probably belonged to the Breccia, but was of 
but little importance. 

There were found in the Breccia 82 teeth of Bear, some of them in jaws 
or parts of jaws ; 2 of Lion, in a portion of right upper jaw ; numerous bones 
and pieces of bone, including part of a skull and several other good specimens ; 
and 13 implements, flakes, and chips of flint and chert (Nos. 6525, 6532, 
6540, 6547, 6550, 6552, 6561, « jioy « Ay- 6565, 6573, 6581, and 6590). 
The Lion's teeth (No. 6518) are the last two molars. The sockets of the 
canine tooth and of the small tooth immediately behind it still exist, and 
every thing betokens an animal of great size. The specimen, to which a 
considerable quantity of the Breccia adheres, is peculiarly interesting as being- 
found in a deposit in which careful methodical research, continued for years, 
had failed to detect any other osseous remains than those of Bear, with but one 
exception — that, as already stated, being also the lower jaw of a Lion, 
found less than two months before. This interesting relic was met with on 
31st December, 1874, with 2 teeth of Bear, bones and fragments of bone, in 
the second foot-level of Breccia. No feline remains have been detected 
since that date. 

A few only of the Flint and Chert specimens require detailed description. 

No. 6550 js an implement made out of a well-rolled chert nodule. It is 
somewhat semilunar in form, but broader at one end than the other, and 
measures about 4-4 inches in length, 2-3 inches in greatest width, and 
25 inches in greatest thickness, Avhich it attains near the broader or but-end. 
It has undergone a considerable amount of chipping, has been reduced to an 
irregular edge along the greater part of its perimeter, and is comparatively 
thin at the more pointed end. It is very, but \mequally, convex on both 
faces, each of which has a central ridge, and retains the original surface of the 
nodule over the whole of the but-eud, whence a trace of it extends along the 
central ridge of the less convex face to about an inch from the point. The 
portion of the surface which has been chipped is of a yellowish hue, derived, 
no doubt, from the matrix in which the specimen lay. This, however, is 
but a superficial stain, as there are indications of an almost white colour 
within. This fine implement was found 15th February, 1875, between the 
Hedges Boss and the left wall of the Cave, 36 feet from its entrance, in 
the second foot-level below the surface (that is, in the uppermost foot-level 
of the Breccia), having no other object of interest near it. 

No. 6565 is a chert implement 3-7 inches long, 2-7 inches in greatest 
breadth, and 1-7 inch in greatest thickness, which it attains not far from 
its centre. It has tmfortunately lost one of its extremities, apparently 
broken off whilst the tool was being made. It is very, perhaps equally, 
convex on each face, but the centres of convexity are not opposite one 
another ; and though obviously made from a nodule, not a flake, no j^art of 
the original surface remains. A considerable amount of work has been 
expended on it, and it has been reduced to an edge all round the perimeter 
except at the broken end. The marginal edge is neither keen, nor regular, 



10 REPORT — 1875. 

nor in the same continuous plane. There can be little doubt that it was 
intended to be a somewhat pointed ovoid tool, and that had it been perfected it 
would have been more symmetrical in form than the Breccia tools are usually. 
Its colour is whiter than that of most of the implements found in the same 
deposit, in which respect, as well as in its shape and the absence of any trace 
of the original surface, it closely resembles the implement No. 6103, found 
in the " Long Arcade," 7th May, 1873, and described in the Ninth Report 
(1873). This specimen was met with on 13th Api'il, 1875, in the second 
foot-level of the Breccia, without any other object of interest near it, 47 feet 
from the entrance of the Cave of Inscriptions. 

No. 6581 is a flint flake, struck from a rolled nodule, round at one end, 
abruptly truncated at the other, and reduced to an edge along both lateral 
margins. It is 2-2 inches in greatest length, 1-6 inch in greatest width, and 
•6 inch in greatest thickness. The inner surface is very irregular ; the outer 
has three longitudinal facets ; the lateral margins are somewhat sharp but 
slightly jagged as if from use ; both ends are blunt, and the " but " retains the 
original surface of the nodule. Its colour is the warm yellow so characteristic 
of most of the specimens found in the Breccia ; but there are indications 
that the interior is white. It was met with on 29tli Maj-, 1875, in the 
second foot-level of the Breccia, 57 feet from the entrance of the Chamber. 

The Gully in the south-west corner of the Cave of Inscriptions, already 
mentioned, was so narrow as to render it impossible to excavate the deposits 
occupying it in " parallels," " levels," or " yards." The specimens found 
in' it, however, were only 2 teeth of Bear, a few pieces of bone, and a 
coprolite. 

The earlier explorers had, as usual with them, imperfectly examined the 
material they dug up in this branch of the Cavern, and then thrown it on one 
side. On taking it to the daylight the Committee found in it 19 teeth of Bear, 
12 of Fox (of which 10 occupied portions of three lower jaws), 9 of Hyaena 
(two of them being in part of a lower jaw), 2 of Horse, andl'of Rhinoceros, and 
a large number of bones (some entire but most of them fragmentary), numerous 
coprolites, a fragment of a marine shell, and 6 flakes and chips of flint. 

The exjiloration of the Cave of Inscriptions was completed on 14th June, 
1875, having occupied the labour of between 8 and 9 months. 

The following is a list of the specimens found in it in undisturbed ground, 
inclusive of those mentioned in the Tenth Report (1874) : — 

In the Granular, or least ancient, Stalagmitic Floor : 1 bone of Bat (?), a 
few bones, a few patches of coprolite, and a bit of charcoal. 

In the Cave-earth : 27 teeth of Hyaena, several of them in jaws or parts of 
jaws ; 11 of Bear ; 1 of a small rodent ; 1 jaw of Fox ; numerous bones and 
fragments of bones, of which 6 had been charred and still more had been 
gnawed ; a large number of " finds " of coprolites ; and 7 tools, flakes, and 
chips of flint and chert. 

In the Breccia : 321 teeth of Bear, some of them in jaws and parts of 
jaws ; 2 of Lion, in parts of an upper jaw ; and 20 implements and flakes of 
flint and chert. 

The JRecess. — On completing the exploration of the Cave of Inscriptions, 
operations were at once commenced in the Recess occupying its north- 
western corner, which, as already stated, was expected to lead to a new 
external entrance to the Cavern. The following are the grounds on which 
this expectation was founded : — At the entrances at present known, on the 
eastern face of the Cavern hill, and termed the " Triangular " and the 



ON Kent's cavkkn, uevonshxre. 11 

" Arched " entrances, the Cave-earth, or least ancient of the two great 
mechanical acciimulations, is at a high level and of great depth. Thence it 
slopes rapitUy downwards in all directions open to it, and at the same time 
decreases in depth, until reaching the remote end of the " Lecture Hall " 
towards the south and the bottom of the " Sloping Chamber " towards the 
west. From these facts it has been concluded that the Cave-earth entered 
the Cavern through the existing and known entrances. Beyond the foot of 
the slopes just mentioned, the levels are found to be no longer governed by 
the Cave-earth but by the Breccia (that is, the underlying or more ancient 
deposit) ; and there is in each case an acclivity, instead of a declivity, on pro- 
ceeding farther and further into the Cavern — comparatively sliort and abrupt 
from the Lecture Hall to the Water Gallery on the east, but long and gentle 
from the Sloping Chamber to the Recess, now under notice, on the west. 
These acclivities apparently indicate that the Breccia entered the Cavern 
not, like the Cave-earth, through the apertures on the eastern side of the 
hill, but through an opening or openings on the western side ; and the same 
line of argument points out the Recess in the north-western corner of the 
Cave of Inscriptions as more likely than any other part of the Cavern to 
lead to such an external entrance. So far as they can be studied, moreover, 
its own characters support this hypothesis. The Recess extends in a north- 
westerly direction for fully 60 feet, and is of sufficient width for a man to pass 
easily ; beyond this its extent is considerable, but at present is too narrow 
for any one to examine it. Its Floor, a thick sheet of the Crystalline, or 
more ancient. Stalagmite, is abruptly truncated at the junction of the Recess 
with the Cave of Inscriptions. Finally, this Floor covered and rested on a 
thick mechanical accumulation, which is unmistakable Breccia and reached 
a higher level than elsewhere in the Cavern, so far as is known at present. 

The exploration of the Recess was begun on 15th June, 1875; and as it 
was decided to leave intact the Stalagmite Floor just mentioned, in fact to 
burrow under it, it was necessary to cut the successive " parallels " 5 feet 
deep instead of the usual 4, in order to give the men height enough for 
working. During the progress of the work a hole was bored through the 
Floor overhead, when it was found to be pure Stalagmite, 18 inches thick. 
AVhen the excavation had reached a distance of 10 feet, the two walls were 
found to be so very nearly together as to render it necessary to abandon the 
work, or to break up the Floor and proceed at a higher level. The former 
course being, though reluctantly, decided on, the work was suspended on 
Gth July, 1875. 

The only objects of interest found here were 2 teeth of Bear, 3 " finds " of 
bones, and 1 piece of flint (No. 6590) of no importance. 

The Alcove. — The exploration of the Alcove or recess near the Hedges 
Boss, already mentioned, was begun on 7th July, 1875, and finished on 26th 
of the same month, or at the end of about 3 Aveeks. When emptied, it proved 
to be scarcely lofty enoiigh, from limestone floor to limestone roof, for an 
ordii^ary man to stand erect, to measure about 10 feet both from north to 
south and from east to west, to be divided into two compartments, a northern 
and a southern, by a limestone partition extending almost completely across 
it, and to have two entrances from the Cave of Inscriptions. The earlier 
explorers had partially ransacked the northern compartment, but had not 
entered the southern, in which a Floor of Stalagmite almost reached the roof. 
Beneath this Floor, and without any trace of Cave-earth, lay the Breccia, 
never exceeding 3 feet in depth, and resting on the limestone floor. 



12 itEPOii'f — 1875. 

39 " finds " of remains of Mammals were met with in the Alcove, iueludirg 
59 teeth of Bear (several of the rain portions of jaws), 16 of Fox (all of them 
in portions of three lower jaws), 4 of Hytena, numerous bones (including 
several good specimens, though all of them were more or less fragmentary), 
and 1 coprolite. The teeth of Hyoena, 2 of the jaws of Fox, and the coprolile 
were met with at the junction of the northern compartment and the Cave of 
Inscriptions, amongst fallen masses of limestone, where neither the character 
of the deposits nor the exact position of the spccmiens could he determined. 
The remaining jaw of Fox, however (No. GG19), was found in the Breccia ; 
it was broken into two pieces, which lay together and contained 5 teeth. 
This specimen, the only known relic of the genus in this old deposit, was 
found at the iinicr or eastern end of the southern compartment, in the 
second foot-level of Breccia, with remains of Bear, 17th July, 1875. It may 
not be out of place to remark that remains of the Common Fox (Canis vulpes) 
have been identified among the Mammalian relics from the Forest-bed under- 
lying the Boulder-clay on the coasts of Norfolk and Suffolk *. 

In proportion to the volume of the deposit it contained, the Alcove was far 
richer in osseous remains than any part of the Cave of Inscriptions, of which 
it is an adjunct. It is worthy of mention, perhaps, that it contained no 
trace of flint or chert. 

Tlie Great Oven.- — The passage or tunnel opening out of the south-west 
corner of the Cave of Inscriptions is very long and narrow, and so low that 
a considerable portion of it can only be traversed on all-fours or in a crouching 
posture. It connects the Cave of Inscriptions with the "Bear's Den," which 
the Committee have not yet explored, and has been termed the " Oven," 
partly from its very contracted breadth and height, but mainly because a 
vertical section of a considerable part of it at right angles to its length 
closely resembles the small earthenware ovens much used formerly in the 
two sotith-western counties. It has received the epithet Great to distinguish 
it from a similar but still more contracted tunnel in another part of the 
Cavern, and known as the " Little Oven." 

The excavation of the Great Oven was begun 27th July, 1875, and at the. 
end of that month, beyond which this Eeport does not extend, it had been 
completed to 4 ftct from the entrance. Like the Cave of Inscriptions, it 
contains a thin layer of Cave-earth, with Breccia beneath it of unknown 
depth. Two " finds " have been met with in the former, containing 1 tooth 
of Hysena and a few bones ; and 9 in the latter, including 6 teeth of Bear 
and several pieces of bone. 

On studying the osseous remains found by the Committee in the Breccia 
in the various branches of the Cavern they have explored during the last 
twelve months, the following prominent facts arrest attention : — Some of the 
teeth of Bear are those of very old animals, and worn almost to the fang, 
such as No. 6597 from the second foot-level, No. 6608 from the second foot- 
level. No. Gull from the fourth foot-level, and No. 6618 from the second 
foot-level, all found in the southern compartment of the Alcove during July 
1875. The jaws, though frequently broken, have never lost their lower 
borders, as is almost uniformly the case with the Cave-earth specimens ; 
and none of the bones appear to have been gnawed. In no instance were 
the bones foitnd lying in their anatomical relations, but different parts of 

* See ' Cave Hunting.' By W. Boyd Dawkins, M.A., F.E.S., F.G.S., F.S.A. 1871, 
p. 418. 



ON Kent's cavern, Devonshire. 13 

the skeleton \rere often huddled confusedly together; thus in No. 601,3, 
found in the second foot-level in the southern compartment of the Alcove, 
loth July, 1875, a canine tooth adheres to one side of the proximal end of a 
tibia, and a piece of jaw to another side. Some of the specimens have 
fretted surfaces, and appear to have been rolled by running water ; this is 
notably the case with Nos. 6608 and 6615, found in the second and first foot- /SJh 
levels, in the southern compartment of the Alcove, on 12th and 16th Jul)', 
1875, respectively. Many of the bones were broken where they were finally 
lodged, and the parts, with little or no displacement, reunited with Stalag- 
mitic infiltration ; as, for example, Nos. -g-^Y-g- and u-gy-jr, found in the first 
foot-level in the branch of the Cavern just named, 17th July, 1875. Others 
appear to have been flattened and more or less crushed where they lay, of 
which there is a striking example in the distal end of a left femur, No. 6530, -. ?•?? 
found in the first foot-level in the Cave of Inscriptions, 34 feet from its 
entrance, 12th January, 1875. Occasionally the same rock-like mass of 
Breccia contains bones of very different colours ; thus No. 6603 is such a 
mass, containing portions of two bones not half an inch apart, each acci- 
dentally broken across ; and whilst one is of a creamy whiteness throughout, 
the other is a very dark brown, approaching to black. It was found in the 
second foot-level in the Alcove, 9th July, 1875. This specimen, by no means 
unique, shows that contemporary bones lying side by side may be of very 
different colours. 

Nor arc the remains met with in the Cave-earth void of instruction. Up to 
the present time, wherever the Cave-earth has been met with, there also have 
traces of the Hyaena been found, either in the form of parts of his skeleton, 
or his coprolites, or bones scored with his teeth-marks, or jaws divested of 
their lower borders, or long bones broken after his well-known and recog- 
nizable fashion. But though everywhere preseut in greater or lesser 
numbers, these traces became less and less plentiful with increased distance 
from the external entrances to the Cavern, and were very " few and far 
between " in the Cave of Inscriptions — the Chamber most remote from the 
entrances. Whilst the remains of the IIya;na were thus met with wherever 
the Cave-earth occurred, they were in the interior accompanied by those of 
very few of his contemporaries. Thus, whilst the Chambers adjacent to the 
entrances contained teeth and bones of Horse, Bhinoceros, Deer (several 
species), Bear, Fox, Elephant, Ox, Lion, Wolf, and Hare, as well as Hyfena 
(the latter being far the most prevalent), there have been found during the 
last twelve months in the Cave-earth remains of the Hya;na alone. Nor is 
it without interest to note the branches of the Cavern in which remains of 
the different forms just enumerated were last detected, so far as is at present 
known, on the way to the Cave of Inscriptions. The Hare has not been 
found anywhere in the Western Division of the Cavern — that of which the 
Cave of Inscriptions is the innermost Chamber ; the Badger, Wolf, and Ox 
were represented in the " Charcoal Cave," but not beyond it ; and relics of 
Horse, Bhinoceros, Deer, Bear, Fox, Elephant, and Lion have not appeared 
beyond the Long Arcade. 

Finally, no traces of Muclimroilus have been met with since the incisor 
tooth found 29th July, 1872, and described in the Eighth Beport (1872), 
presented at Brighton. 



14 REPORT 1875. 



Seventh Report of the Committee, consisting o/Sir W. Thomson, F.R.S., 
Professor Everett, Sir Charles Lyell, Bart., F.R.S., Professor 
J. Clerk Maxwell, F.R.S., G. J. Symons, F.M.S., Professor 
Ramsay, F.R.S., Professor Geikie, F.R.S., James Glaishek, 
FR.S., Rev. Dr. Graham, G. Maw, F.G.S., W. Pengelly, 
F.R.S., S. J. Mackie, F.G.S., Professor Hull, F.R.S., Professor 
Ansted, F.R.S., and Professor Prestwich, F.R.S., appointed fo)' 
the purpose of investigating the Rate of Increase of Underground 
Temperature downwards in various localities of Dry Land and 
under IVater^-. By Professor Everett, D.C.L., Secretary. 

A FEW weeks after the reading of last year's Eeport, another set of observa- 
tions was received from ilcssrs. Mauget and Lippmann, the engineers of the 
great artesian well now sinking at La Chapelle, Paris. The water had been 
undisturbed for a year, this time having been occupied in preparations for 
tubing the well through its entire depth. 

The exceptionally rapid increase of temperature in the lower part of the 
well, as indicated in the previous observations, had given reason to suspect 
that the heat generated by the action of the boring-tool was an important 
disturbing element. It is now manifest that this suspicion was correct ; for 
the bottom temperature (660 metres deep), which was 83°-25 Fahr. in the 
observations of June 1S62, is only 76° Fahr. in the observations of October 
1863, or 7j° colder than before. At the depth of 600 metres the tem- 
perature was 75°- 8 and 7o°-4 in the two observations of June 1862, and 
75° in the observation of October 1863, or about half a degree colder than 
before. 

At the depths of 500 metres and 400 metres there was no change ; and 
at the depths of 300 metres, 200 metres, and 100 metres there was an 
increase amounting to 0°-5 at 300 metres, 0°-8 at 200 metres, and l°-5 at 
100 metres. 

In explanation of the increase at these smaller depths, Messrs. Mauget and 
Lippmann remark: — "When last year's observations were made the well 
had been tubed to the depth of 139-15 metres, but had not been cemented. 
Consequently the springs which were met with in the tertiary strata com- 
municated at the base of the tubes with the water of the well. Cement has 
this year been poured in between all the tubes some days before taking the 
temperature of the water. This operation has excluded the tertiary springs 
and permitted the water of the well to resume its normal temperature." 

The new temperatui'e 59°-5 at lOO metres, combined with the new 
temperature 70° at 660 metres, gives 1° Fahr. for 34 metres, or for 111 feet. 

The old temperature, 58 at 100 metres, combined with the new temperature 
76° at 060 metres, gives 1° Fahr. for 31 metres, or for 102 feet. 

The temperature 53°-l in the caves of the Paris Observatory, at tlic 
depth of 28 metres, combined with the temperature 76° at 660 metres, gives 
1° Fahr. in 27-6 metres, or in 905 feet. 

AU these results differ largely from previous determinations of the rate of 
increase in the neighbourhood of Paris, which were very harmonious among 
themselves, and gave a rate of 1° Fahr. in 56 feet (see 1871 Eeport). 

The only source of error that appears possible in the La Chapelle observa- 
tions is convection by vertical currents in the well. Such action is certainly 

* Head at the Belfast Meeting, 1874. 



ON UNDERGROUND TEMPERATURE. 15 

favoured by the large dicametcr of the well (1-35 metre at the smallest), and 
may have been further jjromoted by the same cause vehich stopped the works 
and rendered tubing necessary — namely, caving in. 

Herr Johann Grimm, Director of the School of Mines at Przibram in 
Bohemia, has furnished some valuable results from observations made by 
himself in the year 1830, and again in 1854-55, in the deepest mines of 
that district. 

The observations in 1830 showed a temperature 11°- 9 E. at a depth of 
1127-4 Austrian feet, as against a temperature 7°-34 at 66 feet. The dif- 
ference here is 4°-56 R. in 1061-4 Austrian feet, or 10°-26 Eahr. in 1100 
English feet, which is at the rate of 1° Pahr. in 107 English feet. 

The observations in 1854-55 showed a temperature of 13°-08 R. at a 
depth of 1832-3 Austrian feet, as against 7°-05 R. at 66 feet. The dif- 
ference here is 6°-03 R. in 1766-3 Austrian feet— that is, 13°-57 Eahr. in 
1832 English feet, which is at the rate of 1° Eahr. in 135 English feet. 

The following is a tabular statement of the results obtained at different 
depths in the observations of 1854-55 : — 



Name of Gallery. 


Joseph Maria 


3rd Maria 


7th Adalbert 


9th „ 


13th „ 


17th 


19th „ 


21st 



Depth below 


Temp, in 


Depth in 


Temp, in 


Austrian feet. 


cleg. Keaum. 


English ft. 


cleg. Fahr. 


66-0 


7-05 


68 


47-9 


288-6 


7-45 


299 


48-8 


599-3 


8-30 


621 


50-7 


904-8 


11-45 


939 


57-8 


1244-4 


11-70 


1209 


58-3 


1362-8 


12-20 


1414 


59-4 


1591-9 


12-98 


1652 


61-2 


1832-3 


13-08 


1900 


61-4 



Taking the differences of successive numbers in the last two columns, we 
deduce the following rates of increase : — 

In the first 68 feet Unknown. 

In the next 231 „ 1° per 200 feet, 

322 „ 1° per 170 „ 

318 „ l°per 45 „ 

351 „ ...... Pper 700 „ 

124 „ 1° per 110 „ 

238 „ l°per 132 „ 

248 „ 1° per 1400 „ 

1900 

If we had omitted the last 248 feet from the reckoning, the average rate 
of increase would have been 1° for 120 feet. 

The following explanatory remarks are extracted nearly verbatim from 
Herr Grimm's letters : — 

" The depths of the shafts in these mines, and specially of the Adalbert 
and Maria shafts, you can see from the annexed Table [Section annexed, 
showing fifteen shafts]. The Adalbert shaft is sunk perpendicularly to the 
depth of 470 Yienna fathoms = 891 -5 metres from the shaft-brace to the 
bottom of the shaft. 

" I have to remark that, for the observations of the temperatures, such 



16 REPORT 1875. 

levels and places were selected as were far Irom the workings and from all 
circumstances which could cause a change of the temperature of the rock. 
The temperature was observed on thermometers put in bore-holes of 2 feet 
depth, which were bored in idle rock free of any particles of iron pyrites 
and far from all lodes. Through the whole time of the experiment, in 
summer and winter, the temperature of the rock on each level remained, 
excepting only some very small variations, nearly without change. 

" From the Table it will be seen that the increment of heat by descending 
in the mines is much smaller than in the mines of other localities. The 
reason of it may be looked for in the quality of the rock, which, belonging 
to the beds of the Lower Silurian formation, is very quartzose and free of 
any particles of iron pyrites. 

" The temperature in the bore-hole remained, by the observations made 
throughout the whole year 1830, without a change, as the bore-hole (which 
was closed up with a piece of clay) kept always the equal temperature of the 
rock. Even in the year 1854-55, when the observations in the higher levels 
were repeated and the same bore-holes used, the temperature remained the 
same. 

" The shaft-braces of the different shafts differ very little in height, as you 
have seen from the sketch sent to you, and all of them are situated on lofty 
hills. My observations of the increase of heat have aU been made near the 
Adalbert shaft, on the different levels ; and tlie difference from the tempera- 
ture on the same levels in the other mines can only be trifling." 

These observations appear to be thoroughly reliable, and to prove con- 
clusively that the rate of increase in this locality is remarkably slow. Even 
after applying a large conjectural correction for tlie convexity of the ground, 
as connected with the fact above stated that all the shaft-braces " are situated 
on lofty hills," the rate of increase will still remain slower than any that we 
have hitherto discussed. From the description of tliis rock, considered in 
connexion with the description given of the rocks iu the Mont-Cenis Tunnel 
(1871 Report), it would appear that highly quartzose rock is characteiized 
by a slow rate of increase — an index probably of high conductivity*. 

Further observations will be taken by Herr Grimm with two thermometers 
which have been supplied to him by the Committee. One of them is a 
maximum protected Negretti, the other a simple mercurial thermometer 
with a large bulb. 

Several insti'umcnts of this latter kind have been constructed for the Com- 
mittee during the past year, with a view to observations similar to those 
above described by Herr Gi'imm. The objects aimed at in the construction 
are, slowness of action, combined with facilitj'^ for reading with quickness 
and certainty in a bad light. 

It was stated in last year's Eeport that M. E. Sadoine, Director-General of 
the mines of the Societe Cocqueril at Seraing, near Liege, had consented to 
have observations taken in the mines of that company. A Negretti maximum 
thermometer was accordingly sent in September 1873, and at a later date 
(March 1874) a non-registering unprotected thermometer. The following- 
results, obtained with the maximum thermometer, have been communicated 
by the chief engineer of the collieries. The observations were made in 
December 1873. 

* Added September 1875. This inference as to the high conductivity of quartz, pub- 
lished a year ago, is verified by the direct experiments of Professor Herschel (see Eeport 
on Conductivity of Rocks in the present volume). Quartz was found to be the best 
conductor of all the rocks experimented on. 



ON UNDERGROUND TEMPERATURE. 17 

Temperatures Fahrenheit. 

NameofColHery. ^2tt S^^- ^J^. ''^ 

Marie 232 59° 78° 77° 

Do 310 .56 77 78 

Henri Guillaume 505 45 77^ 87 

The site of the two coUieries in question is on the banks of the Mouse. The 
observations were made at the bottom of holes 5 centimetres in diameter and 
5 metres deep, bored at the ends of galleries 6 feet high and G feet wide, 
the material of the rock being coal-schist (des schistes houillers). The ther- 
mometer remained in each hole twenty hours. The holes at the depths of 
232 metres and 310 metres are almost vertically beneath the bed of the 
river. The hole at the depth of 505 metres is about 900 metres from the 
river. The coal-bearing strata are covered with 8 or 10 metres of gravel, in 
which the bed of the river is contained. 

Comparing the first and last of the above observations, we have an 
increase of 10° Fahi-. in 273 metres, which is at the rate of 1° Fahr. in 
27-3 metres, or in 90 feet. 

The temperature of the ground near the surface can be approximately 
inferred from Quetelet's observations at Brussels, which is about 50 miles 
distant from Seraing, and about 10 miles further north. Quetelet found the 
ground, both at the depth of 12 feet and of 24 feet, to have a mean annual 
temperature of 12° Cent., or 53°-6 Fahr. If we accordingly assume at 
Seraing a temperature 54° Fahr. at the depth of 5 metres, we have, by com- 
parison with the temperature 87° at 505 metres, an increase of 33° in 500 
metres, which is at the rate of 1° Fahr. in 15-2 metres, or in 50 feet. 

It was mentioned in the 1872 Report that four thermometers had been 
sent to the School of Mines at BaUarat, Australia. A communication has 
recently been received from the Vice-President (his Honour Judge llogers), 
enclosing a report of observations taken at Clunes, in the mine of the IS^ew 
North Clunes Company, by Mr. John Lewis (the Company's general manager), 
and promising a report of observations from the Stawell Mine by an early 
mail. Both mines are about 1000 feet deep. 

Mr. Lewis's observations were taken in twelve bore-holes, each 3 feet 
deep, which were fiUed with water four or five hours previousl)'^, aud the 
thermometer (a large non-registering mercury thermometer) was allowed to 
remain in the hole for thirty minutes before reading. The depths from the 
surface of the ground vary from 160 feet to 1015 feet. It appears that 
sufficient precautions were not taken to exclude atmospheric influences, by 
plugging the holes aud avoiding places where the currents of ventilation were 
strong. The temperatures recorded in all the bores, except one, aj^pcar to 
be thus vitiated, and are very variable from time to time. 

The one bore to which these remarks do not apply is designated " bore 
No. 10," is at a depth of 790 feet from the surface, and is described as 
" being in a cross cut without any circulation of air." The temperatures 
observed in it, in the four observations recorded, were 72°-6, 72°-5, 72°-5, 
and 72°-5, the temperature of the air in its vicinity being 73°- 6, 73°, 73°, 
and 73°. 

Mr. Symons has furnished additional observations made at the depth of 
1000 feet in the Kentish-Town well, but recommends that their publication 
be deferred for the present, as better observations are expected during the 
ensuing year. The hut which covers the well has been repaired, and the 
1875. c 



18 REPORT 1875. 

api^aratus employed in the obserratious has been thoroughly cleaned and put 
in order. 

In answer to an application addressed to the director of the School of 
Mines at Schemuitz, in Hungary, a letter was received, under date Novem- 
ber 1873, from Herr E. Poschl, Counsellor of Mines, and Professor _ of 
Mining Mechanics and DraAvings (the director being absent), requesting 
that thermometers might be sent. A second letter was received from the 
same gentleman, dated December 26, 1873, acknowledging the safe arrival 
of the thermometers (one a Negretti maximum protected, the other non- 
registering and unprotected), and stating that the observations would at 
once be commenced, under the direction of a joint committee of professors of 
the Mining Academy and members of the Directory of Mines. 

Professor Henry, of the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, wrote, 
under date February 3, 1874 : — " You wiU oblige us by sending us three 
sets of guarded registering thermometers, suitable for observations of tem- 
perature of artesian wells of a diameter of 3 inches. We learn that there 
are in the vicinity of Chicago sixty wells varying from 500 feet to 1500 
feet in depth, included within an area of six miles square. Their elevation 
above the level of Lake Michigan, as well as the quahty of the water they 
furnish, are very nearly alike. We shall send a set of these instruments to 
a trustworthy engineer of Chicago." . . . 

In accordance with this request, three protected maximum thermometers 
have been sent. 

No successful observation has yet been made in the Sub-Wealden bore 
nor in the well at Witham. No report has been received fi-om Harwich, 
from Anziu, from the Hoosac Tunnel, nor from the Mont-Cenis Tunnel. 

As regards the St.-Gothard Tunnel, the absence of Professor Ansted has 
hitherto delayed the caiTying out of the resolution adopted by the General 
Committee last year (see Report for 1873, p. Iviii, last paragraph) ; but 
action will probably be taken very speedily. 



Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Huxley, F.R.S., 
P. L. ScLATER, F.R.S., F. M. Balfour, J. Gwyn Jeffreys, F.R.S., 
Dr. M. Foster, F.R.S., E. Ray Lankester, F.R.S., and A. G. 
Dew-Smith {Secretary), on the Zoological Station at Naples. 

At the Bradford Meeting of the Association the Committee on Zoological 
Stations was able to report (see Association Reports, 1873, page 408) that 
tlie buHding of the Zoological Station at Naples had been completed ; but it was 
naturally obliged rather to describe the arrangements made for carrying out 
the objects of the Station than to dwell on the work which had been actually 
done. 

The present Committee, however, can now congratulate the Association 
that, during the two years which have elapsed since the Bradford Meeting, a 
scientific undertaking of cosmopolitan character, hi which the Association 
has taken a lively interest, and which it has in so many ways assisted, has 
proved an undeniable, indeed it might be said a brilliant success. The actual 



ON THE ZOOLOGICAL STATION AT NAPLES. 



19 



difficulties and obstacles have, no less through the great energy of Dr. Dohrn 
than through the help afforded him from time to time, been overcome ; and 
the future of the Station seems in every way bright and iiromising. 

The facts which form the subject of the present lleport will best be con- 
sidered under distinct heads : — 

1. Tlie Nature and Extent of the ivorhing accommodation at the Station. 

At the present time there are in the Station twenty-one working-tables, 
the number of which will by the end of the year be increased to twenty-four ; 
of these no less than seventeen are already occupied or bespoken. 

Each table is in itself a condensed laboratory ; and the nature of the ac- 
commodation offered by the Station to any investigator will perhaps best be 
shown by the following extract from the form of contract between Dr. Dohrn 
and the hirer of the table. 

a. The working-table, fully equipped, will be placed at the disposal of the 
inquirer nominated to occupy it after the interval of a week from the an- 
nouncement of his coming. 

The equipment consists of :— 

1. The necessary chemical reagents. 

2. The ordinary anatomical and microscopical tools and apparatus. 

3. Drawing-apparatus. 

In detail these are as follows : — 



Mear/ents. 

Alcohol, 70 per cent. 

„ 90 per cent. 

,, absolute. 
Distilled water. 
Miiller's fluid. 

Potassic bichromate, 5 per cent. 
Calcic chloride. 
Potassic acetate. 
Alum. 

Gold chloride, 1 per cent. 
Silver nitrate, 1 per cent. 
Chromic acid. 
Perosmic acid. 
Hydrochloric acid, pure. 
Acetic acid (conccutrated). 
Picric acid. 
Oxalic acid. 

Nitric acid (concentrated). 
Sulphuric acid (concentrated). 
Caustic soda. 
Caustic potash. 
Caustic, ammonia. 



Olive- oil. 

Pure fat. 

Turpentine. 

Oil of cloves. 

Creosote. 

Chloroform. 

Ether. 

Glycerine. 

Tincture of iodine. 

Berlin blue solution. 

Canada balsam. 

Gum-arabic. 

Beale's carmine solution. 

Hsematoxylin solution. 

,, „ alcoholic. 

Magenta. 
Picrocarmine. 
Cement. 
Wax. 
Paraffin. 
Si^ermaceti. 



Instimments. 



Section- cutting knife. 

2 pairs forceps. 

3 pairs scissors. 



3 scalpels. 

2 preparation-needles. 

2 dozen needles. 



20 



REPORT — 1875. 



1 Drawing-tablet. 
G Drawing-pins. 
4 Drawing-pencils. 
Blotting-paper. 
Colour-box and brushes 



Braiving-Aiypa ratus . 

Eule. 

Drawing-instruments. 
3 gold pens. 
Ink eraser. 



Olass Listruments. 



1 dozen simple glass slides. 

1 large hollowed glass slide. 

1 small oval hollowed glass slide. 

1 trough object-holder. 

50 thin cover-glasses. 

1 lamp. 

1 measure-glass. 

1 pipette. 

3 glass tubes. 



3 glass rods. 

6 stoppered bottles. 

1 "wash-bottle. 

1 tray with reagents. 

3 beakers. 

5 glass plates. 

1 microscope-shade. 

1 instrument-shade. 



Miscellaneous, 



2 porcelain capsules. 

3 paint-saucers. 

1 dozen filter-papers. 
1 ijreparation- trough. 
1 can. 
1 washing-basin. 



2 towels. 

1 slate. 
India-rubber tubes. 

2 portable tanks for holding 
smaller animals. 



The Station also possesses : — 

a. A number of special instruments and pieces of apparatus which arc not 
in general use, but only required occasionally. These accordingly are not 
supplied to each table, but are regarded as belonging to all the tables in 
common. 

Microscopes are not provided, it being supposed that each investigator 
will possess an instrument of his own, to the use of which he is accustomed. 

h. Each working-table is provided with a number of working experi- 
mental aquaria, and with a constant stream of sea- water ; these are entirely 
at the disposal of the occupant of the table for his investigations. 

c. The animals serving as materials for study are provided by the Station, 
and as constant a supply as circumstances will admit is kept up during the 
investigation. Not only so, but the occupant of the table can, if he pleases, 
take home with him, on his departure from Naples, a number of scientifically 
preserved specimens, to enable him to comjjlete or continue his research. 

The extent of this supply of animals is of course dependent on the variety 
(or abundance) of the specimens and the concurrent demands of otlier 
investigators. 

d. The large aquarium of the Station can be used freely by the occupants 
of tables for suitable purposes; for instance, for the study of the habits of 
animals. 

e. The Library * (the catalogue of which has been, sent to all academies 
and universities), placed close to the Laboratory, is accessible to all occupants 

•* The Library lias already, even iu so short a time, become a fairly extensive one, 
being especially rich m embryological works. A copy of the Catalogue may be seen in 
fcieoolcl and IioUiker 3 ' Zeitschrift,' Bd. sxv. Dr. Dohrn will thankfully receive additions. 



ON THE ZOOLOGICAL STATION AT NAi'LKS. - 21 

of tables. There is also a separate room for making extracts and pre- 
paring MSS. 

/. The laboratory is open at 7 a.m. in summer and 8 a.m. in winter. 
In particular cases special arrangements can be made for access at unusual 
hours ; but the staff cannot undertake to have the Laboratory cleaned before 
the above-mentioned times. 

g. Any occupant of a table is free to accompany and take part in tlio 
fishing- and dredging-expeditions of the Station. He may thus learn the use 
of the dredge and the towing-net and the other means employed for pro- 
curing specimens. 

h. The cost of the ordinary wear and tear of the instruments and appa- 
ratus is borne by the Station to the extent of 20 francs. Damages to a greater 
extent than this must "be paid for by the occupant of the table. 

The working-tables thus equipped and disposed in several rooms constitvite 
the Laboratory of the Station ; and of these, of course, the interest and im- 
portance are purely and exclusively scientific. 

The large aquarium on the ground-floor has, on the other hand, a double 
function. It is partly a popular exhibition, and the payments of visitors consti- 
tute a not inconsiderable and, it is to be hoped, an increasing item in the in- 
come of the Station. It serves also as a large field of observation for scientific 
investigators desirous of learning something about the habits of animals. 

When our great ignorance on this subject is considered, in relation to the 
morphological importance with which the theory of natural selection and 
descent has invested even apparently small details of the working of animal 
economies, the large aquarium may, after all, seem no less a laboratory than 
the working-table. 

It will of course be understood that the general public, who are admitted 
on payment to view the large aquarium, are carefully excluded from the 
laboratories proper, though the occupants of tables in the latter have free 
access to the former. 

The staff of the Station consists of : — 

a. Dr. Dohrn, the general director. 

h. Dr. Eisig, who has direct command of the laboratory, and whose duty 
it is to superintend all the arrangements of the tables, to arrange for the 
providing of the material, and to preside over the distribution of instruments 
and reagents. In Dr. Dohrn's absence Dr. Eisig acts as his substitute. 

There are also two other scientific assistants, one to superintend the large 
aquarium and the fishing, the other to arrange for the collection and pre- 
servation of animals for the use of the Station or for distribution abroad. 

c. Three engineers, four house servants, and four fishermen. 

Such are the general arrangements of the Station for scientific work ; and 
your Committee can report (from the personal experience of two of their 
number during the past winter) that these arrangements are carried out in 
a thoroughly satisfactory manner. 

2. The nature of the worTc for the carrying on of which the Station offers 

facilities, 

a. Investigations into the morphology and emhryology of Marine Animals. — 
It is needless to say much on this poiat. The advantages, first, of an 
organization to secure the animals which it is desired to study, and, secondly, 
of a laboratory in which to work on the animals thus obtained, are too 
obvious to require pointing out. 



32 REPORT — 1875. 

We might, however, remark, as a caution, that the Station cannot provide 
marine animals which do not visit the neighbourhood of Naples ; and more- 
over, seeing the strange coming and going of particular forms at various 
times, cannot undertake to provide certain animals at all times. 

For instance, the investigator who desires to study Pijrosoma must visit 
Naples at the same time as does the object of his study, otherwise it will be 
impossible for the Station to procure him living examples. 

b. Physiological investigation of Marhie Animals. — This branch of study, 
little worked at present, will probably afford rich results in the future. 

c. Study of the liahits of Marine Animals. — Of the importance of this wo 
have already spoken, 

d. Systematic investigation of the Marine Fauna and Flora of the Medi- 
terranean in tJie vicinity of Naples.. — In spite of all that has been done in 
this direction much yet remains to be done. Possibly few tasks seem more 
promising than a thorough systematic and long-continued dredging of the 
Bay of Naples and the sea around. The results of such an inquiry would be 
valuable not only to the systematic zoologist and to the student of the 
distribution of animal life, but also indirectly to the morphologist and to the 
Station, as affording certain information as to where and when particular 
animals may be obtained, and an exact knowledge of the geneiic and specific 
nomenclature of the forms studied. 

On this head we might call attention to the interesting problems connected 
with the periodic appearance and disappearance of certain animals in shoals 
or large numbers — problems which have already attracted the notice of the 
residents at the Station, and which can only be successfully attempted by 
long-continued observations at the same place. 

Animal forms naturally occupy the chief attention at the Station, but no less 
facilities are offered for the study of marine vegetable forms. This is suffi- 
ciently indicated by the fact that Prof. Cohn, of Breslau, and Dr. Reineke are 
about to visit the Station next session to carry on algological researches. 

e. The Station offers also no mean opportunities for the physical inves- 
tigation of the sea in the neighbourhood of Naples. 

/. Experiments on breeding and preserving delicate Marine Organisms 
in a healthy vigorous condition. — This subject has already, since the Brad- 
ford meeting, especially engaged the attention of Dr. Dohrn ; his results, 
however, are not as yet sufficiently definite to enable him to draw up his 
promised report, though we hope that it will be ready at the next Meeting of 
the Association. 

g. Transmission of specimens to investigators at home. — Already this work 
has been carried on, though at present on a small scale. Various inves- 
tigators have received supplies of animals carefully preserved for the purposes 
of research. It is proposed, as soon as the fishing arrangements have become 
more complete, to develop largely this special activity of the Station, so that 
investigators at home and the authorities of museums may be able to obtain 
such animals as they may desire in a perfect condition with great ease and at 
a low price ; in fact, at what is to the Station cost price, 

3, The Scientific results of the Station, 

Since the opening of the Station in the early part of 1874 no less than 

33 investigators have made use of the Station, the stay of each varying from 
a few weeks to several months, and some of them having visited the Station 
during both years. 



ON THE ZOOLOGICAL STATION AT NAPLES. 



23 



The following is a list of the names in an approximately correct chrono- 



logical order : 



1. Prof. Kleinenberg. 

2. Prof Waldeyer. 

3. Mr. F. M. Balfour (2 years). 

4. Mr. A. G. Dew-Smith. 

5. Prof. Wilhelm Miiller. 
G. Prof. Salensky. 

7. Dr. Rajewsky. 

8. Dr. Steiner. 

9. Prof. Henlohc. 

10. Prof. KoUman. 

11. Dr. Greef. 

12. Prof. Eanke. 

13. Dr. Hubrecht. 

14. Prof. Ray Laukester. 

15. Dr. Ivossmann. 

16. Prof. Hoifmann. 

17. Prof. Oscar Schmidt. 



18. Prof. Claus. 

19. Prof. Selenka. 

20. Prof. Langerhans. 

21. Prof. Bobretzky. 

22. Prof. Rosenberg. 

23. Prof, von Anknm. 

24. Dr. Gotte. 

25. Dr. Laurent. 

26. Dr. Zincoue. 

27. Dr. Horst. 

28. Dr. Ulianin. 

29. Dr. Panzago (2 years). 

30. Mr. A. M. Marshall. 

31. Dr. Cavanna (2 years). 

32. Dr. Eetter. 

33. H. Isnokoff. 



Naturally many of the researches undertaken by these gentlemen, espe- 
cially those made during the past winter, have not yet been published ; it is 
therefore impossible to give any thing like a fair statement of the scientific 
results of the Station. It would be useless to give a list of those memoirs 
which have up to the present moment been published, and it would be 
invidious to pick out any for special comment ; but we may say that among 
the researches, both published and unpublished, are some of very high bio- 
logical importance, such as would alone justify the application of the word 
success to the Station. 

Next winter Dr. Dohrn proposes to begin a series of annual accounts of 
the work done at the Station ; in fact a sort of scientific almanack of the 
place, so that the actual research achieved may be made known to all. 



4, TJie present ivants of the Station. 
The large aquarium pays fairly well as a popular exhibition. 



Since the 
guide-books have admitted it into their list of things worth seeiug at Naples, 
the number of foreign visitors, English, German, and Russian, has been 
steadily increasing. Nevertheless the receipts from this source can never be 
looked upon as a main or a stable source of income. A European war or 
an epidemic of cholera would in such a case at once put the Station m 

jeopardy. • i-. •■ 

It is the money paid by Governments, Universities, and other institutions 
for the command of the laboratory tables which is to be regarded as the 

real income. , , , -■. . 

Of the total 24 tables, 17 are already let ; and Dr. Dohrn calculates that 

when the whole 24 are let \ the Station will be able, with strict economy, 

to pay its way. , n j> . -i-x. i- 

We had intended to make this Report entirely a statement of facts, without 
adding any suggestions for action ; but if we have shown (and we venture 
to think we have) that the Zoological Station at Naples is doing sound 
scientific work, and is offering unusual advantages for research to Bntish no 
less than to German investigators, we may perhaps conclude our Report by 



34 REPORT — 1875. 

suggesting to the consideration of the Association whether it would not be 
fairly within the scope of its action to undertake the hire of one of these 
tables. ] t must be remembered that in this country the University of Cam- 
bridge is the only body which is in direct relation with the Station. That 
University occupies two tables, which it has placed, and naturally will continue 
to place, at the disposal of its o^rn alumni. Hence any British naturalist not 
belonging to the University of Cambridge, and not able to bear of himself the 
expense of a taKe, cannot enjoy the opportunities offered by the Station. 
An equivalent to a grant of .£75 per annum would remove the great dis- 
advantage ; and we venture to suggest the funds of the Association could not 
be more profitably sferii as far as biological research is concerned. 



Re2)orf of a Committee, consisting o/E. C. C. Stanford^ James Dewar^ 
Alfred E. Fletcher, awcf Alfred H. Allen {Secretary) , appointed 
to inquire into the Methods employed in the estimation of Potash and 
Phosphoric Acid in Commercial Products and on the mode of stating 
the results. Drawn up by Alfred H. Allen. 

The Committee was of opinion that the objects for which it was appointed 
would be best attained by ascertaining as fully as possible the details of the 
methods of examining phosphates and potash salts in general use, and 
learning the opinions of the chemists employing them as to their special 
advantages and limits of error, at the same time collecting information on 
other closely related matters. 

With the view of carrying out these intentions to the fullest possible 
extent, the Committee issued a circular letter setting forth its aims and 
objects, and sent it to every member of the Chemical Society, to all gentlemen 
known to be interested in the subject, and to such chemists as your Com- 
mittee learnt would be likely to aflbrd assistance. 

The following is the letter referred to : — 

" No. 1 Surrey Street, 
Sheffield. 

May 10, 1875. 

" Sir, — At the last Meeting of the British Association, a Committee, con- 
sisting of Messrs. J. Dewar, A. Fletcher, E. C. Stanford, and myself as 
Secretary, was appointed, 'for the purpose of examining and reporting upon 
the Methods employed in the estimation of Potash and Phosphoric Acid in 
commercial j^roducts, and on the mode of stating the results.' 

" The Committee proposes to ascertain, by inquiry, what methods are in 
general use, and to learn the opinions of the Chemists employing them as to 
their special advantages and limits of error, and also to collect information 
on other closely related matters. 

'• The Committee hopes to be enabled to recommend one or two accurate and 
practical processes for the estimation of Phosphoric Acid and Potash in 
commercial products which would meet with very general adoption by 
Chemists, and would be welcomed by both buyers and sellers as a perfectly 
neutral standard of reference. Such a plan, we believe, would do much to 
secure uniformity in such estimations and in the methods of stating the results. 

" If you have experience in this description of analysis, you will much aid 



ON THE ESTIMATION Ol' POTASH AND PHOSPHORIC ACID. 25 

the Committee by filling up the accompanying paper, and returning it to mo 
at your earliest convenience. 

"A similar paper has been sent to all the Fellows of the Chemical Society ; 
but if you know any other Chemists, whose advice and opinion would be of 
service to the Committee, we shall esteem it a favour if yoa will kindly 
send me their names. 

" I have the honour to be, 

" Your obedient Servant, 

"Alfked H. Allen, 
Hon. Secretarrj of the Committee.'" 

Together with the above circular letter, the Committee forwarded the 
following series of very carefully arranged questions, with the view of indi- 
cating the exact nature of the information they were in need of. 

] . Will you give the Committee the details ~| 

I 



of the process you habitually employ 
for the estimation of the Phosphoric j 
Acid in Commercial Phosphates ? J 



r 



2. What length of time does the above 
process require ? 



Are you of opinion that the method ' 
gives strictly accui-ate results? If not, 
will you state the direction in which >• 
the error occurs, and the maximum i 
extent of it ? J 



4. Would it be possible to eliminate the 

error by taking certain well-defined 
precautions ? 

5. Which process of analyzing Phosphates 
is in your opinion the most accurate ? 
and how long does it require ? 



G. Which is the most rapid and con- "1 
venient ? J 



Which gives the most constant results 1 
in the hands of different manipulators ? J 



8. Do you know of any reliable process 
for the estimation of the so-called "Ee 



n 

, will yoi 
give details of the method ? 



duoed Phosphates?" If so, will you | 



0. Do you think it desirable that Chemists ] 
should be called on to state the com- [• 
mercial value of a manure ? J 

10. What in your opinion are the relative ^ 
values which should be attached to 
Phosphoric Acid existing in the fol- 
lowing forms, taking free anhydrous 
Phosphoric Acid as 100 ? 
A. — As Acid (soluble) IPhosphate of 

Calcium. 
B. — As insoluble Phosphate of Cal- 
cium. 
C.—As " Keduced " Phosphate of Cal- 
cium. 
D. — As Phosphate of Aluminium. 
E. — As Phosphate of Iron. J 



26 



REPORT — 1875. 



11. If a native Phosphate containing oxides 
of Iron, Aluminium, and Calcrura, and 
Phosphoric Acid has been acted on by 
Sulphuric Acid, in what forms do you 
suppose the Phosphoric Acid exists? 
and how would you state the analysis ? 



12. Wliat means should be adopted to in- 
sure the samples submitted to Chemists 
for analysis fairly representing the com- 
position of the bulk ? 



13. Will you give tlie Committee the details ") 

of the process which you consider the 
best for the estimation of Potassium in 
commercial Potash Salts? \^Tiat are 
the limits of error in the process ? 
Are accurate results obtainable by it 
in the hands of mipractised manipula- 
tors? 

14. Which, in your opinion, is the correct "> 

mode of stating the analyses of Com- 
mercial Potash Salts, containing Soda 
and more than one Acid — e.g. com- 
mercial " Muriates," Sulphates, Ni- 
trates, Carbonates, Potashes, and Pearl- 
ashes ? ) 



15. Can you give the Committee the name 
and address of any Chemist not a 
Fellow of the Cbemical Society of 
London whose advice and opinion 
would be likely to be of service ? 



16. 



Write here your name and address, and 
please state quahfications or nature of 
any appointment. 



Ko effort has been spared to make the objects of the Committee widely- 
known, and nearly a thousand circulars hare been distributed. 

In the case of chemists kno'n'n to have special knowledge of the subjects 
on which information was desired, the circulars were accompanied by 
manuscript letters from the Secretary requesting careful consideration of 
and full replies to the queries. 

In answer to their request for information, the Committee has received 
contributions from a considerable number of chemists, both in England and 
on the Continent, the answers in many cases containing much original 
information, and being generally of the utmost value in enabling the Com- 
mittee to form an opinion on the present state of the questions which it was 
appointed to consider and report on. 

On receipt of the replies, a firrther correspondence was in many cases 
entered into by the Secretary, with the view of obtaining explanation of or 
further information upon doubtful points, and every means has been taken 
to elicit the views of correspondents. 

The following is an alphabetically arranged list of chemists to whom the 
Committee is indebted for information: — 

G. Beeeand, Ph.D. Manager of TJnited Chemical Works of Leopoldshall. 
CnAs. Bloxam. Professor of Chemistry, King's College, London. 
T. P. Blunt, M.A. Chemist to Shropshire Chamber of Agriculture. 



ON THE ESTIMATION OF POTASH AND PHOSPHORIC ACID. 27 

J. Campbell BEO^yN, D.Sc. Professor at Infirmary School of Medicine, 

Liverpool, Public Analyst for Liverpool, &c. 
Chas. F. BtJRNARD, of Mossrs. Burnard, Slack, & Alger. 
CnAS. A. Cameron, M.D. Analyst to lioyal Agricultural Society of Ireland, 

Public Analyst for DubHn, &c. 
Jn. Cammace. Analyst to Bridgewater Chemical Works, St. Helens. 
A. H. Church, M.A. Professor at Royal Agricultural College, Cirencester. 
W. M. Cowan. Public Analyst for Greenock. 
John Cox. Chemist to Nottingham MiUs Manure Company. 
V. Cetise. Chemist to Messrs. E. Packard & Co., Ipswich. 
Thomas Faieley. Analyst to the Yorkshire Agricultural Society, Public 

Analyst for Leeds. 
W. Flight, D.Sc. Assistant Examiner in Chemistry, London University. 
— FsANZ, Ph.D. Chief Manager, United Chemical Works, Leopoldshall. 
C. R. Fresenius, Ph.D. &c. Wiesbaden. 

W. Galbeaith. Late Chemist to the Phospho-Guano Company, Liverpool. 
W. A. Hamlet. Analyst to the Peruvian Government Guano Company Agency. 
J. Hughes. Analyst to Lawes's Chemical Manure Company, London. 
H. JouLiE. Paris. 
Alfred Kitchen. Whitehaven. 
M. J. Lansdell, of Messrs. J. C. Nesbit, Lansdell, & Co., Analytical Chemists, 

London. 
Sydney Lupton. The Harehills, near Leeds. 
Leisler, Bock, & Co. Glasgow. 
M. LicHTENSTEiN. Londou. 
Newton, Keates, & Co. St. Helens. 
T. R. Ogilvie. Late Public Analyst for Greenock. 
E. W. Paenell. Chemist at Desoto Alkali Works, Widnes. 
J. Pattinson. Public Analyst for Newcastle-on-Tyue. 
Manning Prentice, Jun. Stowmarket. 
T. Reddeop. Chemist at L. & N. W. R. Co.'s Works, Crewe. 
G. Rosenthal, Ph.D. Chemist to Messrs. HoUoway Bros. 
J. Ruffle. Late assistant to Dr. Yoelcker, &c. 
Alfred Sibson. Analytical Chemist, London. 
G. L. Ulex, Ph.D. Hamburg. 

Wallace, Tatloce:, & Clare. Joint Public Analysts for City of Glasgow. 
Robert Warington. Formerly chemist to J. B. Lawes & Co. 
W. J. Williams. Chemist in charge of Phosphate Sewage Company's Works, 

Hertford. 

It will be observed that in almost every case the replies have been from 
chemists having special experience in the analysis of commercial phosphates or 
potash salts ; and their communications contain, in the aggregate, an amount 
of information on the subject probably far in excess of any previously collected. 

With a few notable exceptions the Committee has received assistance from 
all the best known authorities on the subject ; a few of the leading chemists 
known to have special experience of the kind required have not responded 
to the Committee's request for information, though their assistance was most 
courteously sought by a special letter in each case. 

The cause of the silence observed in the above mentioned cases is probably 
similar to that which prompted the following reply from a well-known firm 
of chemists, whoso results were in some degree the cause of the appointment 
of the Committee. 



28 REPORT — 1875. 

" Mr. Alfred H. Allen. " J"'^^ ^^' ^^^^- 

" Dear Sir, — "We are in receijDt of your favour relating to the examination of 
phosphates and potash salts; but we must decline to give you the information 
required, as we do not think ourselves called upon to publiah our methods of 
analysis, which we have perfected after long aud careful investigation, for 
the benefit of those who have not taken this trouble. 

" We arc, dear Sir, 

" Yours obediently, &c." 

A French chemist of very high standing says he belongs to that class of 
chemists who cannot afford to work " pour la gloire," but must keep their 
methods, their only capital, secret. 

It is evident that the interests of science would materially suffer if a 
similar system were adopted by many chemists ; but happily the above 
answers stand in striking contrast to the generous and elaborate replies that 
have in very many instances been sent to the Committee. 

The answers received to the various specific questions put have shown in 
a very striking manner how very various and even irreconcilable are the 
opinions held by chemists on many of the points submitted for their con- 
sideration. On this account the Committee refrains for the present from 
expressing any definite opinions on the points in question ; but feeling that 
the communications received contain much information which should be at 
once in the possession of those interested, it begs here to submit to the 
Association the following digest of the replies received up to the present 
time. 

The Committee has avoided as far as possible any specific mention of the 
sources of the various items of information, but has departed from this rule 
in cases in which the value of the information would have been seriously 
diminished if the authority on which it was quoted had not been given. 

Phosphoeic Acid. 

Solution of tJie Manure and separation of Silica, 

In the case of soluble phosphates treatment with cold water, with (in 
some cases) subsequent washing with hot water, seems universal. Most 
chemists prefer to lake a considerable quantity of the manure, and grind it 
with small successive quantities of cold water in a mortar. An aliquot part 
of the filtered solution is taken for analysis. 

With but one or two exceptions, h3rdrochloric acid is universally employed 
for effecting the solution of insoluble phosphates *. 

In the great majority of cases they then recommend evaporation to com- 
plete dryness. Some operators omit this step as a rule, but classify it among 
the precautions necessary when great accuracy is required. The effect of 
evaporation to dryness is considered to bo twofold ; silica is rendered 
insoluble and fluorides are decomposed with volatilization of hydrofluoric 
acid or of fluoride of silicon. The residue is next treated with hydrochloric 
acid in the ordinary manner, and the insoluble silica filtered offf. 

* It is evident that the addition of a few drops of nitric acid is desirable here to insure 
the complete peroxidation of any ferrous compounds which may be present. 

t It is evident that iu presence of fluorides the silica here found will not strictly 
represent the quantity originally present in the sample. 



ON THE ESTIMATION OF POTASH AND PHOSPHORIC ACID. 29 

Oxalic-Acid Metliod. 

Of the chemists whose processes of analyzing phosphates have been com- 
municated to the Committee, a decided majority precipitate the phosphoric 
acid as the double phosphate of magnesium and ammonium, after previously 
separating the calcium as oxalate. 

Although there is no great diiference in the general outline of the method 
followed, the most extraordinary variations occur in the details of the 
instructions, and in the precautious recommended to insure accuracy. 

By far the greater number of chemists precipitate the calcium as oxalate" 
after neutralization of the excess of acid. Some add citric acid prc-siously to 
employing oxalate of ammonium. According to Mr. K. Wariugton this 
modification " occasions a deficiency of lime, oxalate of calcium being soluble 
in citrate of ammonium." Those chemists who add citric acid before pre- 
cipitating the calcium usually employ an acetate to get rid of free mineral 
acid. Of course, the addition of citric acid then becomes a necessity when 
iron and aluminium are present, unless the precipitated phosphates of these 
metals are filtered ofl;' and estimated separately. This plan appears to have 
several advantages, and is recommended by some chemists of wide experience. 
By employing it, the phosphates of iron and aluminium (by most chemists 
believed to have a very limited manurial value) are separately estimated, and 
the subsequent addition of citric acid is rendered unnecessary and the iron 
introduced by its use avoided. 

If the phosphates of iron and aluminium are not previousl}? separated, the 
general plan is to neutralize the solution with ammonia till a slight turbidity 
ensues, to clarify the liquid by the addition of a few drops of oxalic acid, to 
add a moderate excess of ammonium oxalate, to heat the liquid nearly to 
boiling, and to filter off the precipitated oxalate of calcium. Some chemists 
filter again after cooling. 

After careful washing of the precipitate, the filtrate is usually concentrated, 
a moderate quantity of citric acid added and then excess of ammonia. A 
precipitate may here occur of silica, fluoride of calcium, or oxalate of calcium. 
The more careful analysts leave the solution for a time to make sure that 
the liquid remains clear, or to filter from any precipitate. 

Precipitation hy Magnesia. 

The clear solution is next precipitated by " magnesia mixture," which is 
universally admitted to be better made with chloride than with sulphate of 
magnesium. It is also clearly proved and generally recognized that a large 
excess of the precipitant should be avoided, some chemists recommending a 
preliminary analysis of the sample with the view of adding the approximately 
theoretical quantity of solution. On the other hand, it has been proved that 
complete precipitation is very slow except in presence of a considerable excess 
of " magnesia mixture." 

Very great variation occurs with respect to the concentration and tem- 
perature of the solution at the time of precipitation. A few chemists recom- 
mend precipitation in a hot solution, but the majority direct precipitation in 
the cold ; one or two recommend the use of a dilute solution, while others 
concentrate, if necessary, to a certain bulk ; and some make a correction for 
the solubility of the double phosjjhate in the liqiiid. 

The amount of free ammonia present during the precipitation varies 
from a moderate excess to one fifth of its bulk of the strongest ammoniat 
(•880). 



30 REPORT — 1875. 

The time allowed for precipitation varies from ten minutes (with vigorous 
stirring) to twenty-four hours ; but most chemists are of opinion that six or 
eight hours are sufficient. 

Very few chemists recommend re-solution and re-precipitation of the 
double phosj)hate. 

Eut few precautions appear to be taken in the ignition of the precipitiitc. 
The more careful analysts thoroughly dry the precipitate and remove it from 
the filter, igniting it first gently, then intensely. 

Very different opinions are held as to the accuracy of the results obtained 
by precipitation with magnesia. In many cases the obseiTers are merely 
able to say that the process gives fairly constant results on repetition ; in 
other cases they state that very concordant results have been obtained when 
the same sample has also been analyzed by some chemist of repute. 

In some cases the observers consider that the process is liable to give 
results somewhat below the truth, owing to the slight solubility of the 
double phosphate in the mother-liquid and the loss of phosphate in the 
oxalate-of-calciura precipitate. lu other cases the process is said to give 
results in excess of the real amount, owing to the presence of other magne- 
sium salts or of iron or aluminium in the double phosphate precipitate. 

A most elaborate series of experiments has been made by Mr. T. E. 
Ogilvie on the magnesia process and the variations to which it is liable *. 
His resiilts have been to a great extent confirmed by the researches of Mr, 
E. M. Dixon. On the other hand, Professor Church writes, " My confidence 
in this plan when carried out successfully, giving time for any oxalate to 
fall after addition of citric acid and excess of ammonia, is not shaken by 
Ogilvie's results reported recently in the ' Chemical News.' His experiments 
seem to me to exaggerate the errors of the method greatly. Several times 
have I got nearly identical results by the use of the molybdic method for 
separating the P^ 0^ from the soluble part of a superphosphate, and by the 
use of the oxalic method. I always use a measured quantity of the am- 
moniacal magnesium chloride ; but considerable excess of this reagent often 
produces but little influence on the result — sometimes none." 

Direct Citnc-Ackl Method. 

The method of Joulie is employed by some chemists of wide experience. 
In this i^rocess the iron, aluminium, and calcium are all retained in solution 
by citrate of ammonium, and no attempt is mado to separate the calcium as 
oxalate ; but the phosphate is at once precipitated from the ammoniacal 
solution by " magnesia mixture," the precipitate being cither ignited and 
weighed or dissolved in acetic or nitric acid and the solution titrated with 
uranium. This method is in 'many respects similar to that recommended by 
rreseuius, Neubaucr, and Luck f. 

Iron-Acetate Ilethod. 

A few chemists employ a process of which the following is an outline : — 

The neutralized hydrochloric solution of an insoluble phosphate (freed 

from silica), or the aqueous solution of a soluble phosphate, is treated with 

acetate of ammonium (filtered from the precipitated phosphates of iron and 

aluminium if their separate estimation is required) and sufficient ferric 

* Chemical News, May 6, 1870; Proceedings of the Philosophical Society (Chemical 
Section) of Glasgow, 1874 and 1875, &c. 
t Zeit. f. anal. Chem. ix. 16, and Sutton's 'Volumetric Analysis,' second edition, p. 241. 



ON THE ESTIMATION OF POTASH AND PHOSPHORIC ACID. 31 

chloride added to cause the precipitate to appear distinctly reddish. The 
liquid is boiled, well filtered, and the precipitate washed slightly. It is 
redissolvcd on the filter in hydrochloric acid, tartaric or citi'ic acid added 
judiciously to the solution, and then a tolerable excess of ammonia. The 
alkaline sohftion should be greenish, not reddish. " Magnesia mixture " is 
then added in moderate excess, the liquid stirred and left over night. The 
precipitated double phosphate is then filtered off and treated in the ordinary 
manner. The method gives results agreeing well with the average of 
chemists of repute. On repetition, the results of the two estimations agree 
■within 4 to -2 per cent. 

Phosjpiates of Iron and Aluminium. 

The precipitate of iron and aluminium phosphates, produced by treating 
the cold solution of a sample containing the above metals with an alkaline 
acetate (or with ammonia and excess of acetic acid), can be very con- 
veniently analyzed by the following method, contributed by Mr. H. Waring- 
ton : — " The precipitated phosphates of iron and aluminium are washed, 
ignited, and weighed, redissolved in strong hydrochloric acid, and the iron 
determined volumetrically with stannous chloride and iodine (see Fresenius). 
Erom the iron the quantity of ferric phosphate in the precipitate is cal- 
culated, the phosxihate of aluminium found by difi'erence, and thus the iron, 
aluminium, and phosphoric acid in the precipitate are obtained. A little 
phosphoric acid is liable to be removed from the precipitate during washing, 
and basic salts are thus reckoned in the calculation as of normal composi- 
tion." 

Estimation hy Uranium. 

The removal of iron and aluminium by addition of an alkaline acetate in 
the cold, with determination of the phosphoric acid in the filtrate by means 
of uranium *, is a method which appears to deserve more extended employ- 
ment. The use of an acetate in a slightly acid solution brings the liquid 
into just the condition required for the use of the uranium process. The 
volumetric estimation by uranium is very highly spoken of by some chemists 
as convenient and fairly accurate, while others consider it very unsatisfactory. 
The conflict of opinion is very great, and special experiments on this process 
appear desirable ; but the following seem to be the precautions necessary for 
successful working. 

The proportions of acetic acid and alkaline acetate employed and the 
volume of the solution should be approximately constant. The uraniimi 
nitrate should be standardized with an acetic-acid solution of pm-e precipi- 
tated ammonio-magnesium phosphate or tricalcic phosphate, instead of with 
phosj)hate of sodium as is commonly done. 

The titration should be converse, the solution of the phosphate being added 
to that of the uranium. The latter should be mixed with a constant 
proportion of acetic acid and heated on a bath of boiling water. The 
indicator should be powdered potassium ferrocyanide on a white plate. 
Owing to the reversal of the usual process, the brown colour of the ferro- 
cyanide of uranium becomes gradually fainter till the end of the titration. 

This method, which is recommended and employed by some authorities of 
great experience, is said to be capable of giving results of every desirable 
accuracy. 

* It is universally admitted that the estimation by uranium is untrustworthy unless 
any iron or aluminium present in the original solution is first removed. 



32 REPORT— 1875. 

The gravimetric method of precipitation by nitrate of uranium is employed 
by a few chemists, and is very well spoken of. 

Molyhdic-Acid Method. 

Of all methods, Sonnenschein's process of precipitation with molybdic acid 
appears to be I'egarded as the most accurate. All the chemists who refer to 
it speak of it as extremely accurate, and consider that it is preferable to any 
other in presence of much iron or aluminium ; but comparatively few use it 
habitually. The causes of this unpopularity are the time required and the 
expensive nature of the reagent. 

As a very large excess of molybdic acid is required above that which is 
actually precipitated as " phospho-molybdate of ammonium," it becomes 
an important matter to recover the molybdic acid from the solution. Unfor- 
tunately no very simple process of effecting this appears to have been 
devised. 

The yeUow precipitate obtained, containing as it does less than four per 
cent, of anhydrous phosphoric acid, becomes very bulky and unmanageable 
when the weight of phosphoric acid present exceeds -1 or -2 gramme. This 
fact necessitates the employment of very small quantities of the phosphate ; 
and as the yellow precipitate has to be subsequently redissolved and 
precipitated with magnesia mixture in the ordinary way, the error liable to 
occur from the use of an unusually small weight of the sample, together 
with the loss of time and expense incident to the use of the process, seem to 
have combined to render the method unijopular for every-day work *, while 
its value is generally admitted when the above considerations are of secondary 
importance. 

J. Macagno has veiy recently proposed to reduce the yellow precipitate 
with zinc and acid, and titrate the solution so obtained with standard 
permanganate. The test experiments show a maximum error of '5 per cent. 
of the phosphoric acid present. 

Eggertz^s Molyhdic-Acid Metliod. 

Metallurgial chemists are well aware that M. Eggcrtz has proposed to 
weigh the yellow precipitate of phospho-molybdate of ammonium instead of 
redissolving it and converting it into ammouio-phosphate of magnesium in 
the ordinary manner. 

The modified plan has the advantage of speed ; and the fact that the 
precipitate contains less than four per cent, of phosphoric anhydride would 
render the results extremely accurate. 

Unfortunately it seems improbable that the precipitate has a constant 
composition ; and any sensible variation in the proportion of phosphoric acid 
contained in it would render it worthless as a method of estimation, at least 
as far as manures arc concerned. 

M. Eggcrtz estimates the anhydrous phosphoric acid contained in the yel- 
low precipitate, obtained under the conditions prescribed by him, at 3-72 per 
cent. 

* Mr. A. Sibson writes : — " The molybdlc-acid process is, in my opinion, not suitable 
for pbospbatic minerals, altbougli invaluable for soils, limestones, &c. containing small 
proportions only of pbosplioric acid. The large excess of molybdic acid necessarily 
employed in the former case is itself a source of error with no adequate advantage, 
inasmuch as the magnesia precipitate has still to be employed ; and it is in the manipula- 
tion of this precipitate that the differences in analyses chiefly arise." 



ON THE ESTIMATION OF POTASH AND PHOSPHORIC ACID. 33 

Other Methods. 

Besides the above-described processes, and trifling modifications of them, 
descriptions have been received of no other method. The lead, bismuth, and 
tin processes appear to have fallen into complete disuse. K^o chemist has 
reported that he precipitates phosphoric acid as tricalcic phosphate by direct 
addition of ammonia to the original solution. 

'^Reduced" Phosphates. 

Of all the chemists who have communicated with the Committee, only two 
consider that the so-called "reduced" phosphates can be estimated even 
approximately by any known method. 

One of these writes as follows : — 

" I employ a process based on the read)' decomposition of gelatinous phos- 
phate of lime by oxalate of ammonia *, and the almost complete inaction on 
the mineral phosphate by the same salt. Although not an exact process, it 
gives good approximate results within g per cent. ; and seeing the urgent 
need for some such means of estimation, more especially in the case of bone- 
manures, in which a large proportion of decomposed phosphate may exist 
imrecognizable by the ordinary soluble phosphate determination, I think it 
better to employ even an imperfect process than to classify such decomposed 
phosphate with undecomposed mineral phosphate." 

Professor A. H. Church, referring to the bicarbonate-of-sodium method 
described in his 'Laboratory Guide 'f, writes, " It is the only method giving 
approximate results." 

A series of highly instructive experiments on the estimation of " reduced " 
phosphates has been contributed by Mr. M. J. Lansdell. 

With the oxalate-of-ammonium method of Mr. Alfred Sibson J, and with 
the bicarbonate method (which was first described by Mr. Chesshire §), Mr. 
Lansdell obtained the following results, the samples being all passed 
through the same sieve and the proportions employed being the same as 
those recommended by the authors. 

Dissolved 
(equal to C&^ P.^ O^). 
Sample contained By Sibsoii's By Chesshire'a 

(equal to Caj P^ O^). method. method. 

Cambridge coprolite .... 56-07 per cent. 8-32, 2-23 per cent. 



Bone-ash 76-87 

Navassa phosphate 65-62 

German phosphate 60-74 

Eedonda phosphate (dried) 87-42 

Eedonda phosphate (lump) 86-58 



10-68, 3-07 

7-48, 5-73 

8-04, 2-09 

19-72, 56-97 

19-10, 64-65 



By employing a solution of bicarbonate of twice the above strength, the 
Eedonda phosphate gave equal to 84-3 of Ca3P2 0^ in solution. 

Using a smaller quantity of the sample in the oxalate method, 47*76 per 
cent, passed into solution. 

* See Chem, News, Sept. 10, IfifiO, p. 123. 

t 3rd Edition, p. 14(5. This process consists in boiling the insoluble poi'tion of 6 
gvamraes of the sample for one hour with a solution of 10 grammes of sodium bicarbonate 
in 300 cub. centims. of water ; filtering hot, acidifying, oonnentrating, precipitating with 
magnesia, &c. 

X Chem. News, Sept. 10, 1809. § Ibid. Sept. 3, 1809, p. 111. 

] 87-">. D 



34 REPORT — 1875. 

The above results show that neither method is at all satisfactory ; and Sir, 
John Hughes* has made experiments leading to the same conclusion. 

Another correspondent writes, " There is no reliable process known for the 
estimation of ' reduced phosphates ' under all circumstances. Even the 
citrate-of-ammonium method (which seems to be the one generally preferred) 
utterly fails to distinguish between 'reduced phosphate' and the native 
phosphate of aluminium known as 'Redonda phosphate,' the latter being 
largely soluble in the citrate-of-ammonium solution ; so that the latter, which is 
a comparatively cheap material, if introduced into a superphosphate, would, 
according to the results obtained by the methods usually employed for esti- 
mating reduced phosphates, be quoted as the latter." 

Mr. T. L. Patterson has criticised the citrate-of-ammonium method in a 
paper contributed to the ' Chemical News' f. 

Mr. W. Galbraith makes the following remarks on the estimation of 
" reduced phosphate " : — 

" It seems to me that an arbitrary method of determining these phosphates 
would serve every purpose — that is, provided there is a necessity for deter- 
mining them (from a commercial point of view), which I am inclined to 
dispute ; because any other phosphate in as fine a state of division as these 
'reduced phosphates ' is of equal value ; and if (as some chemists maintain) 
these ' reduced phosphates ' consist principally of phosphates of iron and 
aluminium, they cannot and should not be reported as, or assumed to be, 
phosphate of calcium. 

" It is well known that the presence of oxide of iron and aluminium is 
the cause of the manure ' going back.' Superphosphates containing no iron 
and aluminium do not ' go back ; ' so that the manufacturer has the remedy 
in his own hands — to avoid using mineral phosphate containing iron and 
aluminium. 

" At present a manufacturer who makes his manure from a phosphate 
containing iron and aluminium, and who sells it immediately after maniifac- 
ture, has a decided advantage over another manufacturer who has made his 
manure from a phosphate containing no iron and aluminium, because a 
mineral phosphate containing iron and aluminium is much cheaper than 
one free from those substances. Besides, the iron and aluminium are 
almost invariably stated in the analysis of a mineral phosphate, while 
those substances are seldom if ever mentioned in the analysis of a super- 
phosphate. 

" I do not think it advisable (even if possible) to determine the actunl 
amount of ' reduced phosphates ; ' but an arbitrary method, or a method of 
determining phosphates of a given fineness, which would include ' precipi- 
tated phosphates,' would, I think, be very serviceable ; and such a process 
could be easily devised." 

Statement of the Commercial and Afirieultural Value of Manures. 

"Without exception, all the chemists who reply to this question are of 
opinion that it is highly undesirable that analysts should express any opinion 
on the commercial value of a manure. Many of them believe that tricalcic 
phosphate (for instance) has a very different value according to its origin 
and state of division, and that any valuation of a manure not taking this 
and similar facts into account must be worse than useless. Most of the 
chemists who have replied consider that phosphates of iron and aluminium 

» Ohem. News, June 4, 18G9, p. 26G. i" May 31 and June 7, 1872, 



ON THE ESTIMATION OF POTASH AND PHOSPHORIC ACID. 35 

have an exceedingly limited raanurial value. The relative maiiurial values 
attributed to phosphoric acid existent in various states is very differently 
regarded ; and as many of the opinions expressed appear to be based on very 
insuiScient evidence, the Committee thinks it unnecessary to quote the 
diflferent replies received. 

Mode of occurrence of the Constituents of Manufactured Manures, and 
statement of the Hesults of Analysis. 

On this subject the Committee has received a large amount of valuable but 
somewhat discordant evidence. 

Very strong opinions are expressed to the effect that the quantity of iron 
and aluminium present in a manufactured manure (superphosphate) should 
always be stated. Such a plan would enable the manufacturer or purchaser 
to judge of the probability of a newly made manure " going back " on 
keeping, and would enable a more accurate opinion to be formed of its true 
value than is possible while the presence of iron and aluminium is ignored. 
At the same time the estimation of the " reduced phosphates " would often 
be rendered superfluous. 

With respect to the mode of occurrence of the constituents of manufac- 
tured manures, the Committee considers the evidence before it too vague and 
conflicting to justify any expression of opinion at present. 

Potash Salts. 
Estimation of Potash. 

The Committee has received comparatively few replies on the estimation of 
potash in commercial salts containing it, on account of the limited number 
of chemists having special experience in its detennination. The answers 
received are, however, from chemists of the first rank as authorities on the 
subject, and appear to be almost exhaustive of the question. 

The method of estimation by piatinic chloride is employed by all the chemisfa 
who have communicated their processes to the Committee, the only differences 
being in the manipulation and details of the method. 

Some chemists recommend the removal of any sulphates by addition of a 
sHght excess of chloride of barium, and some also remove any calcium or mag- 
nesium which may be present. 

The Committee is in possession of some correspondence respecting a sami)lo 
of " muriate " which was analyzed independently by Professor Fresenius and 
Mr. R. E. Tatlock ; and as it throws much light on the origin of the discrepancies 
often observed in the estimation of potassium, the Committee quotes it almost 
in extenso, together with a descriijtion of the methods employed by the two 
authorities above i-eferred to. 

Messrs. Wallace, Tatlock, and Clark write : — 

" We employ the platinic-chloride method as described by Fresenius in the 
sixth edition of his ' Quantitative Analysis,' with a slight modification which 
renders it more applicable to all the numerous varieties as well as strengths 
of commercial potash salts. After pounding and mixing in the usual way, 
a quantity of the salt (500 grains) is weighed out, dissolved in hot water 
and filtered. The filtrate and washings being cooled to normal temperature 
are mixed well, made up with cold water to a fixed bulk (5000 grains) and 
again mixed ; a portion of this solution (100 grains), equal to 10 grains of the 

d2 



36 REPORT— 18 75. 

original sample, is delivered into a small basin, diluted with 400 grms. or 
so of water, and acidified slightly with hydrochloric acid. 

"About 500 grains of platinic-chloride solution (containing at least 25 
grains of platinum) are added, and the fluid evaporated nearly to dryness on 
the water-bath. A few drops of water are then added to the residue, and 
the evaporation repeated to expel the excess of hydrochloric acid. About 
50 grains more of the^strong platinic solution are mixed with the precipitate, 
and the whole stirred well and set aside in a cold place for at least an hour 
with occasional stirring. The precipitate is then thrown on a very small 
filter (unweighed), the basin rinsed out with about 10 drops more of the 
platinic solution, and the precipitate on the filter washed with 10 or 15 drops 
more. The basin with the filter and contents are then washed with the small- 
est possible quantity of alcohol of 95 per cent, strength, and dried at 100° C. 
The dried precipitate is transferred as completely as possible to a small cap- 
sule, in which it is further dried until it assumes a distinct orange-colour, and 
weighed. The filter and trace of adhering precipitate is ignited on a cruci- 
ble lid, and the residual metal with its corresponding chloride of potassium 
calculated to potassio-platinic chloride, and the weight added to that of the 
precipitate. The following factors are employed : — To bring the precipitate to 
potassium -1603, to potash -1930, and to chloride of potassium -3056. The 
figures are based on Stas's numbers for potassium and chlorine, and Berzelius's 
equivalent for potassium." 

Professor Fresenius writes : — 

" I am quite ready to go once more closely into the question regarding the 
estimation of potassium in commercial potash salts. However, I can only do 
so occasionally when I am at leisure, for there are a great many experiments 
still to be made before being able to give a satisfactory answer. As far as I am 
concerned myself, as well as the analyses in my laboratory, these questions are 
of no great importance. The great object I have in view is to be accurate ; 
saving time is only a secondary consideration. I begin by entirely separating 
from the solution the sulphuric acid, lime, and magnesia ; then I weigh the 
pure chloride of the alliali-metals, estimate the potassium as platino-chloride 
of potassium according to the method given in ray manual of quantitative 
analysis, make sure that it is quite pure, and generally also estimate the 
chloride of sodium in the washings by evaporating and heating the residue in 
a current of hydrogen*, partly to have a check, principally, however, to make 
sure that it contains no more potassium. This method, however, is not practi- 
cable in works because it is too elaborate." 

In reference to the estimation of potash, Messrs. Wallace, Tatlock, and 
Clark also write : — 

" It is a notorious fact that while the results obtained by the process we 
follow, as compared with those got by what we may term the alcohol method, 
agree verjf closely in the case oi potassium compounds free from sodium, wide 
differences have jjeen observed when the potassium salts were of low strength 
from the presence of sodium compounds. To this fact it would not be difii- 
cult to get manufacturers and merchants to testify. This remark applies 
specially to the case of potassium products from kelp, of which many thousand 
tons are made in Glasgow every year, some of which contain a large propor- 

* How the proportion of cbloride of sodium present is deduced from the weight of the 
ignited residue is not stated. Probably by washing with water and subtracting the weight 
of the residual metallic platinum. 



ON THK ESTIMATION OP POTASH AND PlIOSrHOKlC ACIO. 37 

tion of sodium sulphate, which is not readily conveitible into sodio-platinic 
chloride, but must be converted into chloride by double decomposition with 
barium chloride — a tedious and unnecessary process, and one liable to lead to 
error in any than very skilled hands. 

"Sulphate of potash made from kelp is an excellent example of the kind 
of salt, as it usuaEy contains about 20 per cent, of sodium sulphate in the 
form of the double salt 3K^ SO^ + Na, SO^. 

" It was with the view of obtaining a process for the estimation of potas- 
sium by platiuic chloride, directly, in these compounds, that the process we 
employ was originated, and it has stood the test of practice for 15 years. It 
has been objected to our process that the potassio-platinic chloride is soluble 
to an appreciable extent in platinic-chloride solution ; but our experience goes 
to show that in the circumstances of a potassium determination, as above 
described, the results obtained are accurate. As an instance of this, we may 
mention that a German firm, supposing that we must necessarily get too high 
results, handed to us for analysis, in the usual commercial way, a sample of 
muriate of potash. We found and reported, as the result of the only trial made, 
99-95 per cent, of chloride of potassium, and were afterwards informed that 
the sample consisted of pure chloride of potassium, prepared and sent in order 
to test our process. A further instance will suffice to show the exactness of 
this mode of estimating potassium in presence of sodium compounds in quan- 
tity. A portion of a carefully mixed and pounded sample of muriate of potash, 
of which we had made previously a complete analysis as usual by this method, 
was forwarded by our client to Dr. Fresenius, unknown to us, with the request 
that he would spare no pains to arrive at the truth regarding the relative 
proportion of potassium and sodium salts which it contained. The following 
are the results of the respective analyses : — 

W. T. & C. Fresenius. 
per cent. per cent. 

Chloride of potassium 88-50 88-86 

Sulphate of potash -13 

Chloride of sodium 8-46 8-39 

Sulphate of lime -18 -22 

Chloride of magnesium -50 -47 

Insoluble -23 -23 

Water 1-80 1-83 

99-80 100-00 

Potash 55-97 56-10 

Equal to chloride of potassium 88-65 88-86 " 

With reference to Mr. Tatlock's method and the above analyses, Dr. 
Fresenius writes : — 

"I must object to his washing the precipitate with chloride of platinum. 
He dissolves by doing so a small quantity of chloride of platinum and potassium ; 
and you see that he makes the chloride of potassium 0-21 per cent, lower than I. 
This discrepancy, however, will scarcely ever be greater. To make sure 
not to keep any chloride of sodium along with the chloride of platinum 
and potassium, I first extract the chloride of platinum and sodium with 
spirits of wine of 80 degrees, and then wash the chloride of platinum and 
potassium with a few cubic centimetres of water drop by drop; then I evapo- 
rate this solution, adding a little chloride of platinum, treat the small preci- 



38 REPORT — 1875. 

pitate again with spiribs of wine, and add the small quantity of chloride of 
platinum and potassium to the bulk." 

In reply to the above criticism the Glasgow chemists say : — "In his analy- 
sis of this sample Dr. Fresenius followed the method described in the sixth 
edition of his ' Quantitative Analysis ; ' but, evidently fearing that the digestion 
of the precipitate with alcohol of even 80 per cent, might not free it from 
sodium compounds, he used a little water, wherewith to ensure the separa- 
tion of the latter, and afterwards estimated the potassium in the washings 
obtained, adding this to the main result — a plan which of course can be 
equally adopted with our process if considered necessary " *. 

Messrs. "Wallace, Tatlock, and Clark further write : — 

" Our method obviates the necessity of converting sulphates into chlorides 
before applying the platinum process. All that is necessaiy in the case of 
these salts, or where they are present, is to add an equivalent qiiantity or 
rather more of pure sodium chloride, which takes up the liberated sulphuric 
acid. We believe that the general tendency is to report potassium results too 
high, not only on account of incomplete removal of sodium compounds from 
the potassium precipitate, but by reason of impure platinic solutions, which, 
however pure when originally made from the metal, are liable to contamina- 
tion through the spent liquors and precipitates being recovered by question- 
able means. 

" There is almost no limit to the accuracy of this process ; with care and in 
good hands, the potash may be estimated easily to within -05 per cent." 

Mr. W. Galbraith, who has had great experience in the analysis of potash 
salts by Mr. Tatlock's method, writes of it as follows : — 

"The method requires a few precautions, the principal of which are that 
the pipette be accurate and that the platinic chloride be pure. Care also 
should be taken that the evaporation should not go to dryness, especially in 
presence of a large quantity of soda salts, or the result will be too high. By 
diluting the solution previous to the evaporation, the precipitate comes down 
in largex crystals, is more easUy filtered and taken off the filter, and is also 
more likely to be pure. 

"With these precautions, which are easily attended to, the method gives 
rigidly accurate results even in the hands of inexperienced manipulators." 

Dr. G. L. Ulex, of Hamburg, separates any sulphates by very cautious ad- 
dition of chloride of barium. He washes the chloroplatinate of potassium 
with alcohol of SO per cent. He obtains results reliable within -2 per cent. 
The process, "although simple, requires to be worked carefully, otherwise 
serious mistakes will be made." 

Mr. M. J. Lausdell says, "I consider the great secret is to use plenty of 
platinum, which facihtates the washing out of the sodium salts, and renders 
the indication by colour (as to when to arrest washing) distinct." 

M. Joulie separates sulphates, and then the barium introduced, together 
with any calcium or magnesium present. He washes the chloroplatinate 
with a mixture of alcohol and ether. Absolutely exact results are obtained 
in .5 or 6 hours, whatever the nature of the original sample. 

Dr. G. Berrand uses a large excess of platinic chloride, and washes the 

. * As the quantity of platinic-chloride solution employed by Mr. Tatlock for washing 
the preoipitat* does not exceed 70 fluid grains, the solution of any sensible quantity of the 
latter seems improbable, and if occurring might be altogether prevented by previously satu- 
rating the platinic chloride used for washing with the potassium salt. 



ON THE ESTIMATION OF POTASH ANO PHOSPHORIC ACID. 39 

precipitate with alcohol of 98 per cent. Us removes any sulphates with a 
slight excess of chloride of barium. He remarks that "the most essential 
point of the whole method is the purity of the chloride of platinum, which 
can be well proved by testing it with chemically pure muriate of potash. 
This, of course, must yield 100 per cent. If more or less, the platimim solu- 
tion has not been pure. If the platinum solution is correct, even less practised 
hands will obtain exact results by the above method, which is now universally 
applied in the manufactories of our place." 

The above replies and correspondence show conclusively the necessity for 
independent experiments on mixtures containing known amounts of real 
potash. 

Statement of Results of Analyses of Potash Salts. 

The information the Committee has received on this subject is limited to 
the opinions of a few chemists. Without endorsing the whole of the fol- 
lowing observations, the Committee beHeve that the subjoined remarks will 
be read with interest and advantage. 

"It is quite likely that the sulphuric acid exists in these (kelp) muriates 
not as sulphate of potash, but as the double salt 3K^ SO^ -t-J^a., SO^ 
(discovered in kelp potash salts by Penny of Glasgow) ; and if so, the large 
proportion of sulphates present in kelp muriates (usually from 4 to G per 
cent.) would involve a shght alteration in the mode of stating the results, and 
would introduce sodium sulphates to a small extent. This view, however, 
even if proceeded upon in practice, would not interfere practically with the 
commercial value of the sulphates. 

" There cannot be a doubt that the alkali present is carbonate of soda, both 
from the fact of these muriates not being deliquescent, and the impossibilitj' of 
the existence of carbonate of potash and chloride of sodium together without 
mutual decomposition ; otherwise carbonate of potash could be made by the 
simple process of mixing solutions of carbonate of soda and chloride of 
potassium." 

Dr. Ulex, of Hamburg, writes : — 

"Potash, carbonate of potash, and pearlash generally contain sulphates 
(which require to be removed carefully by a chloride-of-barium solution be- 
fore estimating the potassium). The whole of the potassium is estimated as 
chloride of platinum and potassium, and calculated to oxide of potassium. 
The sulphuric acid present is precipitated with chloride of barium as sulphate 
of baryta, the chlorine with a solution of silver as chloride of silver ; the former 
is calculated to sulphate of potash, the chloiine to chloride of potassium. 
The oxide of potassium equivalent to these two salts is subtracted from the 
total oxide of potassium, and the remainder calculated to carbonate of potash. 
Part of the sample is titrated with sulphuric acid and noted as carbonate of 
potassium. Subtract from this the carbonate of potash previously found and 
calculate the difference to carbonate of soda." 

Mr. W. Galbraith writes as follows : — 

" Muriates, which may be alkaline and contain sodium carbonate, and there- 
fore will not contain calcium or magnesium soluble in water, I should state 
thus, putting the stronger bases and salt-radicals first : — 

Potassium. Sulphate, 

c ,. Chloride. 

^<''^"™- Carbonate. 



40 REPORT — 1875. 

" When they coutain calcium and magnesium soluble in water, they should 
be stated thus : — 

Calcium. Sulphate. 

Potassium. 

Magnesium. Chloride. 

Sodium. 

" In the case of ' artificial sulphates,' which coutain iron, calcium, and 
magnesium, in addition to potassium and sodium, and are usually acid, the 
results may be stated thus : — 

Hydrogen. 

Calcium. Sulphate. 

Potassium. 

Iron. Chloride. 

Magnesium, 

Sodium. 

" The free acid I should state as sulphuric acid, as I cannot believe that it 
exists as hydrochloric acid, considering the heat of the furnace during tlie 
manufacture. 

" Of course it is evident that the acidity wUl not be really due to free sul- 
phuric acid, but to an acid sulphate, probably acid sulphate of potassium 
(KHSO J. Lumps of chlorides are often to be found in salt cakes and potas- 
sium sulphates of decided acid reaction. 

"Of course carbonates should follow the same rules as the above." 

Mr. M. J. Lansdell holds the following opinions : — 

"I think in this, as in all other instances, it is a mistake to give detailed 
analyses showing any particular arrangement of acids and bases combined. 
I advocate a simple statement of the elements (or acids and bases) separately, 
and any combining of them I am inclined to look upon as padding only 
(to use an expressive word), and as having weight onlj-^ with the uninitiated. 
I do not object to a statement of any one substance (say a base) as being 
equal to a salt, not in the sense that that amount of that salt is present in 
that sample, but as a trade valuation of the base (present) according to a well- 
known or usual standard for its valuation. I find the practice of latter years 
among our clients is to ask only for certain determinations (in potash salts, 
generally of potash only, or for potash and its equivalent amount of sulphate of 
potash or chloride of potassium), and not for detailed analyses, so getting them 
done at a less fee. However, I should see no objection if the Committee 
thought fit to prescribe a mode of statement for detailed analyses which they 
found suited to the requirements of the trade, it being understood that such 
analysis, quoted perhaps as the 'B. A. statement' or ' B. A. analj-sis,' Avas 
only a statement in a conventional form. Yet a statement of the elements 
(or acids and bases) determined — with at most their amounts in equivalent pro- 
portions (each equivalent proportion =1 of hydrogen) — would give to each 
manufacturer an easy means of making all calculations useful to him as to 
value or the capabilities of the articles for separation or manufacture thereof 
of any compound, and would not parade a lot of fictitious or supposititious in- 
formation to impose upon or awe the ignorant. I incline to the belief that 
every analyst should have respect to the ends sought and need not go beyond 
them. A trader, only finding some constituent or constituents of value for 
his purpose, should be accommodated with estimations of such on paying pro- 



ON OUR PRESENT KNOWLEDGE OF THE CRUSTACEA. 41 

perly for them, and should not be led to require as ' the thing ' a lot of other 
information involving greater trouble and higher fees to the limitation of 
general reference to the chemist. The sooner the public learns that chemists 
do not want to take advantage of them, but only to do what is of use to them, 
and that fees are not to be regulated by the number of items given (any more 
than an amount of money by the number of coins of various values it may be 
paid in, but also by the intrinsic value of each), the better I think it will be." 



In the foregoing Eeport the Committee has attempted to give an epitome of 
the very voluminous replies which have been received. 

It will be perceived that there are many points on which the evidence is 
very conflicting ; and the Committee feels it impossible to recommend with 
confidence any particular process or processes unless the special conditions of 
accuracy are very clearly defined. 

The large amount of infoi-mation amassed during the past year has indi- 
cated very distinctly the directions in which further research is desirable ; and 
the Committee, if reappointed, will be able to complete the proposed experi- 
ments and inqviiries before the next Meeting of the Association, and make a 
full report on the whole subject it was appointed to investigate. 



Report on the Present State of onr Knowledge of the Crustacea. — 

Part I. On the Homologies of the Dermal Skeleton. By C. Spence 

Bate, F.R.S. ^c. 

[Plates I. & II.] 

In presenting a Report on the present state of our knowledge of the Crustacea, 
I do not think that I should fulfil the object in view without drawing atten- 
tion to what must be one of the greatest hindrances to the progress of any 
study in an exact or scientific manner. I allude to the want of a uniformity 
in scientific nomenclature. 

The names of the several groups and families, as well as those of the struc- 
ture of the animals, given by the earHest carcinologists, having been based on 
a limited knowledge both of the forms and the variation to which this great 
subkingdom is liable, make them inapplicable to the knowledge of the period. 
Leach named one great group of Crustacea Decapoda, from the number of 
legs that it possesses ; and Dana more recently named another group Tetra- 
decapoda, from the fourteen legs that belongs to its most normal forms. 

Observation has demonstrated that in this latter group some genera, as 
Anceus, have but eight legs ; while in the Decapoda it is only a conventional 
rule that prevents the genus Palmnon and its allies from having the appendages 
of the percion anterior to the last five pairs counted as legs. 

But a greater difiiculty still exists where the names given to any parts of 
the animal carry any significance with them that precludes their being ac- 
cepted in their universally correct sense. Thus the third pair of maxUlipedcs 
in the Brachyurous Crustacea are identical with the first pair of walking-legs 
in the Stomapoda, Amphipoda, and most of the Isopoda. 

It is now exactly twenty years (1855) since I presented to the Association a 
Report on the British Edriophthalmia, in which the same difficulty was pointed 



43 REPOKT — ]875. 

out and a nomouclaturc suggested which, it was hoped, would to a largo extent 
overcome the great difficulty in the study of this branch of natural history. 

But although many of the terms there given have become very general in 
use, yet the custom of some writers of applying different ones at separate 
times for the same parts is significant of a confusion of ideas that precludes 
the student from a just appreciation of the labours of others. 

I do not think that this difficulty will be overcome for some long period 
unless a committee is appointed by this Association, consisting of all the best 
known authors of carcinological works, who shall determine upon a syste- 
matic nomenclature for the structure and classification of the Crustacea to 
which all future writers shall conform. 

In this Eeport I purpose provisionally, except when quoting from others, to 
make use of the same terminology as that adopted in the previous Ileport, and 
confine each term to that which has homologically the same signification. 

In the classification of Crustacea iu his great work*, Dana states 
that " in the crustacean type there are normally twenty-one segments, 
and correspondingly twenty-one pairs of members, as laid down by Slilne- 
Edwards, the last seven of which pertain to the abdomen (ijleon) and the first 
fourteen to the cephalothoras (cephalon and pereion). Now we may gather 
from an examination of the crab, or macrural decapod, acknowledged to bo 
first in rank, what condition of the system is connected with the highest 
centralization in Crustacea. 

" In these highest species, nine segments and nine pairs of appendages out 
of the fourteen ce2}JinIothor cede helong to the senses and mouth, and five pairs 
are for locomotion. Of these nine, three are organs of senses, six are mandibles 
and maxillaj." 

M. Milne-Edwards, in his standard work ' Histoire Naturelle des Crustaccs,' 
says, " We can generallj^ distinguish among these animals a head, a thorax, 
and an abdomen ; but the limit of these regions is not always naturally well 
defined ; and it is not well to attach too much importance to these distinctions, 
for they do not correspond vrith the same parts among mammals, birds, &c. 
. . . ." And in a note to the above he says, " Guided by the principal viscera 
some authors have given the name of abdomen to the thorax, and that of 
postabdomen to that which we call abdomen ; but after this principle we 
must consider the head to be a preabdomen, because it contains the same 
viscera as the thorax and abdomen." 

The twenty-one somites of the t3rpical Crustacea M. Milne-Edwards has 
thvis divided — the anterior seven to the head, the next seven to the thorax, 
and the posterior seven to the abdomen. Eut in his nomenclature of the 
appendages the terms used are suggestive of the anterior two pairs of the 
thorax being attached to the head. In his " Observations sur le Squelette 
tegumentaire des Crustaces decapodes," Ann. des Sciences, 1854, the same 
author statesthat "he has often been convinced thatin many branches of zoology 
the difficulties of the study are considerably augmented by the imj^erfeetion 
of the language by which we attempt to formulate the results of our observa- 
tions. The employment of expressions that are vague in the determination of 
zoological characters and the description of the parts that constitute an 
organism convey naturally the superficial observation with which the observer 
was content, leaving in the mind of the reader an amount of doubt which 
retards his desire for distinct information The terms," he con- 
tinues, " of zoology are far, at present, from that degree of precision 

These considerations have determined me to make a general revision of the 
* United States' Exploring Expedition, p. 1397. 



ON OUR PRESKNT KNOWLEDGE OF THE CRUSTACEA. 43 

' carcinological terminology ' before presenting to zoologists the work that has 
engaged me for some time on the natural distribution of Crustacea from the 
collection in the natural-history museum." 

Even after this M. Milne-Edwards uses the terms head, thorax, and 
abdomen, which he had previously stated to be "regions not naturally defined," 
and gives the api)ellation of pemptorinatlie and hectO(/nathe to the first and 
second pair of appendages attached to the thorax (or pereion). Dana made 
his researches on the highest form in crustacean life ; so also has M. Milne- 
Edwards in his later observations. Buttho two appendages which this latter 
author determines as the seventh and eighth pairs of gnathes are invariably, 
according to his own showing, the anterior two pairs of the thorax. It is 
only in the highest and most consolidated form of crustacean life that we 
find them variated from their typical character so as to make them appear 
organs attached to the mouth ; whereas in a very considerable proportion of 
the various forms of Crustacea they never act as attendants on the mouth, 
but are simply prehensile in their character or locomotive in their power : 
but almost universally throughout Crustacea they are connected with a pair 
of branchial appendages ; and in this they fulfil most efficient work, so that in 
the highest types their connexion with the mouth is one of secondary impor- 
tance only. 

The first two pairs of appendages belonging to the pereion (or thorax), 
through nearly all the orders, of the typical crustacean exhibit a variation 
that distinguishes them from those posterior to them ; and it may be convenient 
to define them, but certainly not by a term that confuses them with appen- 
dages that are only connected with secondary duties. 

Taking into consideration the many and various forms of Crustacea, the 
great and numerous changes they undergo, it is desirable not only to be sure 
that the nomenclature shall be scientifically correct in its determination and 
homological signification, but that it is convenient and applicable to a very 
considerable proportion of the animals it has to define. 

A typical crustacean in any of the well-defined orders can readily be 
divided into three parts, each part to consist of seven somites. 

Thejirst division -we call the cephalon*. It consists of the anterior seven 
somites, and supports the organs of sense and appendages adapted to bo 
attendants on the mouth. 

The second division we call the pereiok. The seven somites that form 
this division support appendages that are more or less adapted for walking in 
their most normal condition. 

The third division we name the pleon. This consists of the posterior 
seven somites ; these support the appendages which, when developed, are always 
more or less perfectly adapted for swimming. 

The last somite of the pleon is almost universally variated from the others, 
and is developed much to resemble an appendage itself. It is, however, the 
posterior somite, and as such we designate it by the name of the telson. 

The appendages that are attached to these several divisions are known by 
their relation to them. Those that are connected with the senses are deter- 
mined by their character — such as the eyes, antennae, and oral appendages. 

The antennae may be distinguished as the anterior and posterior pair, or as 
the auditory or olfactory respectively, in preference to that of the inner and 
outer or upper and lower, which is liable to vary. So the fourth pair of 
appendages, or the first belonging to the oral group, may be known (from their 
mandibular power) as the mandibles, while the three following may be detcr- 
* For the derivation of these terms see Beport of the British Ednophthahnia, 1855. 



44 REPORT — 1875. 

mined by their relationship as the first, second, and third pair of maxill(e,ov, 
as Professor Westwood has suggested, siagnopoda. 

The appendages of the second division, or seven pairs of legs attached to 
the pereion, may be readily denominated the pereiopoda ; but the anterior 
two pairs are commonly variated for different purposes. In Brachyura they 
fulfil the purposes of opercula to the mouth ; in the Squillidae and Edrioph- 
thalmic Crustacea they are adapted for prehensile and ambulatory purposes ; so 
that it may be found convenient to recognize them by a distinctive name, as 
gnatliopoda. 

The appendages of the third division, or pleon, are never developed for 
walking of prehension, but almost universally are formed for swimming ; and 
even in the Isopoda, where these are utilized as branchial organs, they oc- 
casionally fulfil the office of swimming-appendages. Not unfrequently the 
last two, as in the Macrura, and the last three, as in Amphipoda, are variated 
in form so as to enable the animal to spring when on land or dart a con- 
siderable distance in the water ; and the term uropoda has been applied to 
them ; but their variation is so inconstant that the advantage of defining 
them by any special name will be less than the convenience arising from 
the distinction. 

The integumentary structure is one of the most important in the Crustacea, 
and a knowledge of the variations of its several parts is of much assistance, 
not only to the student of the history of these animals, but also for elucidating 
the knowledge of those forms that have passed away and can be studied only 
through the impressions left imbedded in the rocks. 

The external skeleton of a crustaceous animal consists of series of rings, 
that appear to repeat each other, differing only in modification according to 
the necessity of the various portions of the animal. These rings represent 
and protect externally various segments of the body, each division supporting 
one pair of ai^pcndages only and the internal structure that relates to them. 
Each of these several divisions we call a " somite," a term suggested, I 
believe, by Professor Huxley in his lectures at the Royal College of Surgeons. 
Of these there are never more than twenty-one ; and this may be considered 
as being the normal number in all Crustacea above those known as the Ento- 
mostraca, in some few of which, as in the genera Apv^ and Stegocepilialns, the 
number of somites appear to be much more numerous ; but there the somites 
appear to be repeated without having any function to fulfil or appendage to 
support — a numeiical repetition only, the result of an enfeebled force. 

The first somite supports and carries the organs of vision. In some of 
the most condensed forms the eyes are implanted on the outer side of the two 
pairs of antennae ; but the internal structure invariably shows that the most 
anterior pair of nerves are those that are connected with these organs. The 
progress of development which we purpose alluding to in its proper place 
clearly demonstrates the eyes to be the most anterior of aU the organs. 

The second somite bears the first pair of antennte, which, from its position 
in the higher Crustacea, is generally called the inner pair, and from its posi- 
tion in the lower forms is called the upper pair of antennae. 

The third somite supports the second or posterior pair of antennae ; this, 
from its relative position to the other antennae in the higher and lower forms 
of Crustacea, has been called respectively the outer and lower antennae. This 
somite is so closely associated M'ith the fourth that it is not certain that they 
exist distinct in any species of Crustacea. 

The three anterior somites are generally closely blended together. In the 
earlier forms of development they are invariably so ; but in Squilla and its 



ON OUtt PRESENT KNOWLEDGE OF THE CRUSTACEA. 45 

congeners the two anterior somites are distinctly separated from each other and 
the third. In Palinurus the first is distinct from the second; but in the 
greater portion of Brachynrous and Macrurous Crustacea the three first 
somites, and perhaps the fourth, are strongly soldered into one piece. 

This piece in most Crustacea, but more conspicuously so in the more con- 
densed forms, is developed to a greater or less extent, and is recognized under 
the name of the carapace or shield. 

In the lower forms, such as the Amphipoda and Isopoda, it is developed 
sufficiently to cover only the four succeeding somites ; while in the higher 
forms, such as the Brachyura, it is developed so as to protect the whole of the 
animal. 

The carapace varies very much in shape, both in width and length, and 
generally covers the whole of the somites of the pereion ; but not universally 
so. In the Anomura several genera have the posterior somite of the pereion 
exposed ; in the Diastylidse there are three or four somites not covered, and 
in the Edriophthalmic Crustacea all seven are unprotected and developed into 
perfect somites. 

It is one of the earliest features present in the development of the embryo, 
and is distinctly defined in the Nauplins form. Even in this early stage 
of development, as in later existence, the form of the carapace varies 
considerably, and is an easy mark of distinction between genera. It is 
desirable as well as important, in an anatomical point of view, that a clear 
idea should be obtained of the homological relation of this large and con- 
spicuous portion of the highly developed cnistacean. This can be done only 
after an examination and comparison of a large number of various forms 
and types of animals, as well as a close investigation and study of the parts 
during their progressive development. 

Milne-Edwards, as far back as 1834, arrived at the conclusion that the 
carapace in the higher types of Crustacea is " the result of an excessive 
development of the superior arch of the cephalic antenno-maxillary seg- 
ment. . . . But (Hist, des Crust, vol. i. p. 2Q) among certain Stomapods, 
such as Squilla, the head is divided into many distinct segments ; the first 
two, the ophthalmic and antennular rings, are movable and little developed. 
The third and fourth rings are, on the contrary, very large and compose 
between them a single segment that we call the antenno-maxillary. The 
carapace occupies the dorsal portion of the tron^on formed by this union, 
and is prolonged above the six following rings." 

" In studying (I. c. p. 28) the carapace as a whole as well as in its parts, 
we must examine into the rules of the normal organization of Crustacea, not 
only in the later, more or less, remarkable modification, but also the very 
curious structure of certain Eutomostraca, where all the animal is enclosed in 
a kind of bivalve shell." 

These views receive general support from Mr. Dana, who, however, takes 
exception to the assertion that the ventral piece of the carapace is formed 
out of what M. Milne-Edwards calls the epimera {J. c. p. 32), but contends 
that they " are in fact the posterior extension of the mandibular segment ; " 
and he continues, " excepting that we consider what is here called epimeral, 
the mandibular segment, we agree with Milne-Edwards, for the most part, in 
the above-mentioned deduction ; so that while the mandibular segment is 
confined to the ventral pieces of the Brachyural carapax, it constitutes its 
posterior half in Macrura." 

In 18.55 the author of this Report communicated to the 'Annals of Natural 
History ' a memoir on this subject, supporting the opinion of Jtlilue-Edwards 



46 REPORT — 1875. 

as to the homology of the carapace, but denying the existence of epimera in the 
theory of the somite, and corroborating the assertion of Dana that the antennal 
segment constitutes the anterior and upper portion, and the mandibular seg- 
ment the posterior and lower portion of the carapace in the Macrura and Era- 
chyura ; and affirmed that the suture which traverses the lower surface forms 
a line of demarcation between the third and fourth somites ; it homologizes 
with the cervical suture in the Macrura, as also with that which traverses the 
dorsal surface of the cephalon in several genera of Trilobites (PL I. fig. 5). 

If we wish to judge of the relation of these parts in the several forms of 
Crustacea, we must make a careful investigation during the immatiu'e stages 
of the animal. 

In the Megalopa stage the inferior antennae are attached to the anterior 
external horns of the carapace ; these horns are folded beneath the animal, 
and it is this inflection that forms the orbit in which the eye is lodged. 
Through this inversion, consequent upon the monstrous development of the 
hepatic region, this suture lies upon the inferior surface of the carapace in 
Erachyurous Crustacea, extending posteriorly to the extreme limits of the 
carapace. 

The author concluded his paper by saying, " But we have seen in the de- 
scending scale of nervous force the rings which carrj' the organs of conscious- 
ness degenerate in importance, and yield to a corresponding development of 
the mandibular ring : this law appears to be in force in the Amphipoda, the 
lowest type of the Macrura form, in which I am inclined to believe that the 
mandibular ring represents the whole of the upper portion of the cephalic ar- 
ticulation — the anterior three being so diminished in importance, that they are 
to be found only in the perpendicular wall of the head, or perhaps represented 
by their appendages only" (Ann. Nat. Hist., July 1855). 

It would scarcely perhaps be necessary to enter further into the evidence 
that supports the homological relations of the carapace, had not Professor 
Huxley, in his Hunterian Lectures at the Eoyal College of Surgeons, expressed 
an opinion opposed to the above statements. 

In his twelfth lecture Prof. Huxley says : — " In aU the Brachyura and 
ordinary Macrura it appears to me to be obvious that the carapace is con- 
tinuoiis with, and part of, all the somites of the cephalothorax- — that it is 
composed, in fact, of their connate terga, the branchiostegite being nothing 
more than their connate and highly developed pleura ; the cervical suture, 
placed immediately behind the attachment of the mandibular muscles and in 
front of the heart, corresponds in these respects precisely with the posterior 
boundary of the head of a SquiUa and of a Branchiopod, or of an Edrioph- 
thalmian. The cephalic arc roofs over the stomach, as does the tergal region 
of the head in these last-named Crustacea. Anatomically, then, it seems to 
be demonstrable that the scapular arc of the carapace in the ordinary Podoph- 
thalmia is the equivalent of the terga of the thorax, that the cephalic arc 
is the homologue of the terga of the head, and that the carapace is formed 
by aU the cephalothoracic somites." 

Before the Reporter can proceed with any fresh evidence to support the 
argument demonstrative of the homological character of the carapace, it is 
desirable that a clear idea should be given of the theory of a somite or 
segment as it exists in Crustacea. 

Prof. Milne-Edwards, in his ' Histoire des Crustaces,' vol. i. p. 16, says : — ■ 
" Each of the rings of the skeleton appears to be composed of two lateral 
moieties, resembling each other. We can distinguish moreover two arcs, 
the one superior, the other inferior, as shown in the accompanying diagram 



ON OUR PRESENT KNOWLEDGE OF THE CRUSTACEA. 47 

[pi. 1. fig. 3 of his work]. The former results from the assemblage of four 
pieces more or less intimately connected together, and arranged in pairs on 
each side of the median line. The central pieces are called by the name of 
the tergum, and the lateral are called the Jiancs or epimeral pieces. The 
inferior arc is composed of the same number of pieces. The two median 
pieces unite to form the sternum ; and the latter are known by the name of 
tlao episternum, by reason of their analogy with those that M. Audouin has 
designated by the same name among insects. They are united always at the 
sternum ; but there generally exists, between the inferior arc and the epimera 
situated above, a wide space destined for the articulation of the corresponding 
member." 

" "We know of no example," he continues, " of a ring where we are able 
to distinguish at the same time all the pieces that we desire to enumerate. 
Sometimes there is an absence of some of the pieces from the place they 
should occupy, and sometimes they are very intimately soldered together, so 
that we cannot see even a trace of separation ; but in studying each of them 
separately, where it is most distinct, we shall be able to form a clear idea, and 
recognize its character in spite of its union with its neighbouring pieces. 
Moreover, although this analysis of the ring may not be always practicable, 
it is not the least true that it facilitates much the study of the exterior ske- 
leton of articulated animals, and that it wlU permit us often to establish 
analogies where there would first appear to exist the greatest difference." 

" To terminate the enumeration of the constituent parts of the tegumentary 
rings of the Crustacea, there only remains for us to speak of the plates that 
we often see elevated from the internal siu'face aiid arrange themselves into 
cells and canals. These processes are always developed at the points of union 
of two rings or of two neighbouring pieces of the same segment ; and this 
disposition has obtained for them the name of apodemes (from M. Audouin). 
They are the result of a fold of the integumentary membrane which penetrates 
more or less deeply between the oi'gans, and which is strengthened with cal- 
careous matter like the rest of the structure, and "are always formed of two 
thin plates soldered together." 

These views have long been accepted as the acknowledged theory. Isor 
am I aware that any one (except the authors above quoted) has attempted 
upon original investigation to analyze the evidence upon which M. Milne- 
Edwai'ds has formed his theory. 

That the author of this lieport has long held views not consistent with 
M. MUne-Edwards's theory, is known to those carcinologists who have read 
his Eeport on the British Edriophthalmia, which was communicated to this 
Association and piiblished in its Transactions for 1855, wherein he trusts 
that he clearly demonstrated that the pieces to which M. Milne-Edwards 
gave the name of epimera, and selected by him as typical of his theory, 
were parts attached to the legs, and not pieces of the dorsal arc of the 
crustacean somite. 

He is moreover desirous in this Report to show : — that the epimera, as sec- 
tional pieces in a theoretical construction of a somite, cannot exist ; that 
the so-called epimera are portions only of the integumentary structure of 
the appendages of the animal, and that the apodema are formed out of 
this structure, more or less thinned out by lateral pressure and internal 
arrangement ; and that the head of the lower ty^jes and carapace of the 
higher are homologically the same, the carapace being a monstrous deve- 
lopment intended for the covering and protection of the more complicated 
branchial appendages of the higlier types. 



48 REPORT — 1875. 

But this portion will be discussed more fully when the structure of the 
appendages is treated of. 

The earliest stage in the life of a crustaceous animal, in which the dorsal 
shield known as the carapace is observable, is that of the young as it exists 
fresh from the ovum of a cirriped (Pl.jl. fig. 1) . This, which has been named the 
Nauplius form of the Crustacea by Pritz Miiller, exists as a small animal with 
three pairs of appendages only. The eyes are not developed, the ocular spot 
not being homologous with the permanent organs ; but since we see that mate- 
rial does enter into the stomach, we can have no great effort in accepting the 
proposition that this incipient animal has a mouth ; and such being the case, 
we must assume that the anterior four somites are present in the construc- 
tion of the head of the Nauplius stage of Crustacea. The oral apparatus is 
still in an embryonic condition. 

The next stage of living types in which we can observe the carapace to exist 
in the progressive condition is in that known as the Zoea form of Crustacea 
(PI. I. fig. 2). This is the early life of the young of the higher Podophthalmous 
Crustacea. That of the Brachyura is most known and most instructive. Some 
of the appendages are begiuniug to assume a permanent form. The eyes are 
developed, the antennae (though in an immature coudition) are in existence, 
and so are all the appendages of the head except the last. The first two 
pairs of appendages connected with the pereion are present in an immature 
condition, and the posterior pairs are represented by small bud-like appen- 
dages. Dissection readily demonstrates that the carapace in this stage only 
covers, but has no associated connexion with, the appendages of the pereion ; 
and a closer study shows that the heart is connected with and partly exists 
in the great dorsal spine. The relative position of this process, therefore, 
enables us to determine that the future growth of the carapace takes place 
and is connected with the anterior portion of this structure, and not with the 
posterior. In the young of Palinurus, as well as in the larger forms known 
as Phyllosoma, which appears to be the young of Palinurus older in age and 
larger in size, the carapace is developed largely in advance of the oral ap- 
paratus ; it is produced posteriorly so far as to project over the anterior two 
somites of the pereion, but is not attached to any portion beyond the posterior 
oral appendages. An examination of the Zoea of the various types of Podoph- 
thalmous Crustacea supports this observation; and we can trace the same 
facts from the Zoea, through the Megalopa, to the adult Brachyurous Crustacea 
(PL I. fig. 3). It is therefore desirable that we should see how far the study 
of an adult crustacean will assist lis in demonstrating the true relation of the 
carapace to the general structure of the animal. 

In Squilla and allied forms of the same type the two anterior somites (the 
first of which supports the eyes, the second the anterior pair of antennee) exist 
as distinct and perfect, though small somites ; whereas the two succeeding are 
closely associated together, and appear as a large dorsal plate supporting the 
posterior pair of antennae and mandibles. The posterior three somites belong- 
ing to the cephalon and the first two belonging to the pereion are represented 
by the sternal plates only. In the young forms the anterior two somites be- 
longing to the pereion are in a membranous condition dorsally complete. 

According to the theory of Professor Huxley, the carapace represents the 
dorsal arc of all the somites that it protects and have not a distinct roof of 
their own. 

It is therefore desirable that we should learn what may be the distinct 
useful value of the carapace, and why each somite would not serve the same 
purpose by being perfect in its own arc. 



ON OUR PRESENT KNOWLEDGE OF THE CRUSTACEA. 49 

The branchial organs, that are so essential to the aeration of the blood in 
all aquatic animals, are iu the Crustacea appendages attached to the mcmbcr.s 
belonging either to the pereion or pleon or both. In the lower and terrestrial 
types, such as the Isopoda, they are connected with the pleon only. In some 
Stomapods, as Squilla and its allies, we find them attached to the pleopoda 
as well as the pereiopoda; but in the higher groups they are invariably 
attached to the pereiopoda only. In the most simple form the branchite 
exist as mere saccular attachments, whereas in the higher types they become 
more complicated and voluminous. In the saccular condition they arc held 
by a small neck pendent from the joint, and are exposed iu the water without 
protection ; but in the higher Podophthalmous types they are formed of 
very numerous plates folded close together upon a central stalk, aud would 
be very liable to injury if not protected by some means. 

The branchiae, therefore, being in their very nature external organs, and 
attached to the first joints of the several appendages of the pereion, it is 
self-evident that they could not be covered or protected by their own somite, 
inasmuch as if it had passed over them the branchial appendages would be- 
come internal. Their character and constitution would therefore be changed ; 
they would cease to be external ; in fact they would cease to be branchiae. 

But since the appendages exist as branchia) and are covered and protected, 
it must follow that if the protection cannot be evolved from the somites to 
which they are secondarily attached, the covering must be the result of the 
development of some other somite. 

The somites in their simx^lo conditions have a tendency to overlap one 
another to an extent that precludes them from permitting any portion of the 
intermediate structure being exposed. 

Tliat the somites have a tendency to extend in every direction, is very evi- 
dent from the different proportions and forms they severally undergo iu various 
genera, and those which compose the carapace exist in all proportions. 

In the Isopoda the cophalon is reduced to the smallest extent in a typical 
form of Crustacea. In the Amphipoda the cephalon is much larger than 
in the Isopoda ; but in neither of these is the integumentary covering pro- 
duced to cover or protect any somite that is not included within its ana- 
tomical bounds. In the Diastylidas, one of the lowest forms of the Schizopod 
type (where the branchiffi consist of but one or two pairs of a multicellular 
form), the tergal projection of the cephalon extends posteriorly over half the 
pereion ; whereas the lateral walls are anteriorly produced, so as to protect 
and cover the anterior cephalic appendages. These animals burrow and 
live in the mud and sand ; and no doubt this development of the carapace 
forms a good protection to the eyes and antennal organs. Thus we can 
readily interpret the origin and homologue of the shell-covering in Limnadia, 
Cj/pris, &c., by supposing a monstrous development of the carapace iu every 
direction, induced as a protection to a feeble animal that but for this pro- 
tection must perish in its destructive habitat. 

In Squilla and its allies (the typical form on which Milne-Edwards has 
based his researches) the carapace does not extend posteriorly beyond its 
anatomical bounds ; laterally it projects interiorly more so ; but the great 
size of this plate arises from the large amount of space that exists between 
the mandibles and the antennae ; and as a carapace it is scarcely more impor- 
tant than the tergal surface of the cephalon in the Amphipoda. The 
branchial organs in tlris type of animals are saccular, or more rudimentary iu 
their condition than the same organs attached to the pleon. The carapace 
as a covering is not required to protect these branchial organs, wliich are 

1875. E 



50 RErouT — 1875. 

not more important than the same in the Amphipoda. Gradually, as the 
branchise assume a more complicated or multicellular condition, the carapace 
increases in dimensions both laterally and dorsally, until we perceive it 
reaches the important feature we find in the Brachyurous Crustacea. 

In Squilla the eyes are borne on a distinct somite ; in Palmurus the same 
is distinctly visible ; in Cancer the ophthalmic somite is likewise distinct and 
separated from the next succeeding, but it is wrapt over and enclosed by the 
next or anterior antennal somite. In Squilla also the first pair of antenna) 
are borne on a somite distinct from the succeeding. In the Macrura and 
Brachyura this and the succeeding somites are closely blended together ; but 
in SquiJla the fifth, sixth, and seventh somites are capable of being deter- 
mined by their sternal pieces only. As we perceive the tergal pieces of the 
somites of the pereion are wanting in the Brachyura, so we may assume that 
they are not developed in the posterior somites of the head in Squilla under 
similar conditions. There therefore is every reason to believe in the theory, 
that the monstrous development of the mandibidar and posterior antennal 
somites, incorporated together, unite to form the perfect carapace that is so 
characteristic of the typical Crustacea. 

But whatever may bo correct in a theoretical or transcendental point of 
view, for all anatomical and practical requirements the carapace represents 
the tergal surface of the cephalon, so largely developed as to cover and pro- 
tect not only the pereion, but, as in Cryptolitliodes, the entire animal. 

In the development of the Crustacea the gradual progress of the carapace 
may be traced through all its stages. 

In the ovum the members are first represented by small gemmiparous 
sacs, and precede the foi-mation of the dorsal or ventral arcs in the small 
Nauplius. The carapace covers and protects all the animal except the pleon ; 
but this represents only the four anterior somites and their appendages. In 
the Zoea stage the carapace is perfect and folded downwards laterally, and is 
capable of covering and protecting all the appendages of the cephalon and 
the anterior two of the pereion. At this period no branchial organs exist, 
but saccular appendages in an embryonic condition are budding in their places : 
in a short time the pereiopoda are seen to form, and the branchial organs 
assume a definite character ; and with their appearance a change takes place 
in the form of the carapace. 

In a largo number of Brachyiural ZoUoi a more or less conspicuous spine or 
tooth-like process may be seen to occupy a position on the lateral walls. This 
spine, from observation during the progressive growth of the animal, is seen 
to correspond with the angle in the adult that defines the demarcation 
between the branchial and hepatic regions. The deflection of the carapace 
anteriorly bends over the hepatic lobes, the line of the greatest curvature 
being frequently surmounted by a series of well-defined tooth-like cusps ; and 
posteriorly bends over the branchial organs, the curvature here being less 
abrupt and seldom surmounted by any cusp or process. 

Externally the carapace covers and protects both the hepatic and branchial 
organs ; but internally a calcareous wall of demarcation exists. 

This wall, which Milne-Edwards terms the apodema, is continued into a 
thin membranous tissue that makes a distinct and weU-defined separation be- 
tween the branchial appendages and the internal system ; so that the aqueous 
element, so necessary for the aeration of the blood as it passes through the 
branchife, may have fuU power to play upon the gills without having any 
passage that would admit it to the internal viscera and derange the general 
economy of the animal. 

Not only does the carapace vary in external form, but also in the configu- 



ON OUR PRESENT KNOWLEDGE OF THE CRUSTACEA. 51 

ration of its surface. The relation that it holds to the internal viscera is to 
afford protection and means of siipport. 

When the former only is required, the structure is generally smooth and 
even ; where the tissues are internally thicker and irregular, it gives to the 
external surface an indented and irregular aspect, which is common, parti- 
cularly in the flat and short-tailed Crustacea, where the markings are so per- 
sistent as to afford a very valuable assistance for the determination of species. 

These markings are generally induced by the attachments of the tissues 
that secure certain viscera in theii" positions ; these form generally points of 
depression ; but where any organ (such as the liver, stomach, or branchial 
appendages) is protected, the corresponding points in the carapace are ele- 
vations, sometimes crowned with a pointed spine or process. The branchial 
appendages are external in relation to the body of the animal, but covered 
over and protected by the lateral walls of the carapace. To complete this 
so as effectually to protect those organs without pressing on or interfering with 
their functions, a very considerable amount of lateral development has taken 
place, and a peculiar reflection so as to bring the margin of the carapace 
below the branchial appendages and to protect them from rude contact with 
the limbs. The angle which is induced by this inflection of the carapace 
over the hepatic lobes and enclosing the branchias is generally well defined 
and ornamented with points or processes more or less numerous. These 
processes define the dorsal limits of the carapace. 

Desmarest, half a century since, mapped out the dorsal surface of the 
carapace into regions coinciding with the limits of the internal viscera. 

Milne-Edwards, in his 'Histoire des Crustaces,' published in 1839, adopted 
the same views, supporting it by illustrations from several genera. 

Professor Dana more recently, in his great work on Crustacea, has divided 
the dorsal siirface into many more regions, taking the numerous areolites that 
are present in some genera (as Zozynms). 

He divides the carapace by a transverse line that extends from just ante- 
rior to the last of the normal lateral teeth to the same on the opposite side, 
and separates it into anterior and posterior portions. 

The anterior he again divides into three parts, defined by lines of depres- 
sion, and names them the median region and two antero-lateral regions. 

The median region covers the stomach, and includes the gastric and genital 
regions of Desmarest. 

The space anterior to the median region he calls the frontal, and on either 
side the orbits form another, which may be called the orbital region. 

The posterior portion of the carapace he likewise divides into a posterior 
and two postero-lateral regions. 

Professor Milne-Edwards in 1854 readdressed himself to this subject and 
further elaborated it. In the ' Annales des Sciences NatureUes' ho communi- 
cated his researches with illustrations from several genera, and divided the 
dorsal surface of the carapace into regions corresponding with the names of 
the internal viscera. I3ut it appears to me that the correspondence in many 
parts exists in the name only ; as, for instance, in the gastric region, which he 
subdivides into epigastric or anterior lobes of the gastric region, protogastric 
or latero-autcrior lobes, mesogastric or median lobe, metagastric or latero- 
posterior lobes, and urogastric or medio-posterior lobe of the gastric region. 

It is quite Avithin the power of demonstration to prove that it is more in 
accordance with the correct anatomical details of the animal's structure if 
the lobes that he named metagastric, or latere -posterior lobes, were called, 
according to Desmarest, the genital regions after the viscera they protect. 
And no advantage appears to me to be derived from dividing a region 

e2 



52 REPORT — 1875. 

into parts that are not constant, and when present do not represent any In- 
ternal organization, as he has done in dividing the branchial region into : — 
epibranchial, or anterior division of the branchial region ; the mesobranchial 
and metabranchial divisions, which consist of lobes variable in form, but 
represented in most genera by a smooth surface. 

The cardiac region he divides into an anterior and posterior portion. The 
anterior alone represents the position of the heart ; the posterior represents the 
part that lies between the heart and the posterior margin of the carapace. 

The hepatic regions he does not subdivide, but circumscribes their limits 
within the extent of the internal organ — an object of consideration, as it 
appears that the extent of this organ is one of the most important features 
in the moulding of generic forms. The other regions are those situated on 
the ventral sui'face, and which will be considered in a future Report. 

The value of a clearly defined knowledge of the various markings that are 
represented on the dorsal surface of the carapace of Crustacea is best appre- 
ciated in the study of fossil specimens, where the remains of animals, how- 
ever well preserved, can be read by their external features only. 

It is therefore with a view to accelerate this that I liave in this Report 
endeavoured to lay down the several regions that are represented by the 
markings exhibited on the surface of the carapace. 

Taking advantage of the information conveyed by studying the labours of 

the previously mentioned eminent carcinologists, I have laid it down as a rule 

for guidance, that the external markings must define the internal structure ; 

and where this is not the case the lobe or projection exists as an excrescence. 

The most important and constant divisions are :— 

The anterior, which lies immediately above the antero-cesophageal gan- 
glion. This may readily be subdivided into the orbital and antennal portions. 
The entire region, from its relation to those organs from which alone intelli- 
gence is derived, may be termed the cephalic region. 

Directly posterior to the cephalic region is the gastric ; this is generally 
very conspicuous, the intensity of the jjostero-lateral markings being rendered 
more distinguishable by the inner surface of the carapace being adapted for 
the attachment of the anterior tendon of the mandibles. 

The stomach consists, in the more perfectly developed types, of a large 
central chamber, the form of which not only varies in genera, but is capable 
of extension and of being collapsed in the same individual. It has also 
antero-lateral cavities and a posterior or pyloric extension ; but these are 
produced at a lower line, and therefore liable to be less conspicuously repre- 
sented on the dorsal surface. 

The lobe which M. Milne-Edwards has termed the mesogastric, corresponds 
with that portion of the stomach that is projected above the gizzard-like 
plates that stand at the entrance of the pyloric chamber. 

On each side of the pyloric or mesogastric lobe are two generally well- 
defined .lobes that correspond, and are probably induced by the presence 
beneath of the genital apparatus in the male and the commencement of the 
ovaries in the female. I think, therefore, that it is desirable to retain 
for these lobes the name that was first bestowed upon them by Desmarest, 
and call them the genital regions. 

Posterior to these comes the cardiac region, which corresponds very closely 
with that of the heart, which lies immediately beneath it. 

Posterior to the heart the carapace protects no distinct viscera ; but the 
posterior margin covers the anterior half of the first somite of the pleon. 
The muscular system which moves the pleon is attached to the apodema that 
divides tlic cardiac from the branchial cavities, which also affords attachment 



■tS^ Report Bril ~/ssoc. 1873. 



TlcUcl. 




Sn^riwed- iy Ch/i.'.XnM'-am,. 



■i.'"' /tcfit'il JirU. ./soc>,US7S 



rUiMc II 





IZ 




13 



Engi-tw^d, by daf-A^rar^ . 






Sf?^-. 



'-^ 










ON OUR rUESENT KNOWLEDGE Ol' THE CRUSTACEA. 53 

to tlic extensive membrane that protects the internal viscera from the intro- 
clTiction of the water. This membrane is continuous with and attached to 
the inner surface of the posterior margin, and is represented generally by a lobe 
that runs parallel with the posterior margin. This portion may conveniently 
bo known as the postcardiac region. 

The hepatic regions extend on either side from the orbital region anteriorly 
to the posterior tooth of the hepatic crest, and are bounded by the gastric and 
branchial regions. This is a larger portion than is admitted by Milne-Ed- 
wards, but it is one that corresponds with the extent of the hepatic viscera. 

The branchial region reaches from the posterior tooth of the hepatic crest 
to the posterior margin, along which it traverses nearly to the median line 
on either side, and is bounded on the inner side by the cardiac and genital 
regions, and anteriorly by the hepatic regions, from which internally it is 
separated by a thin membranous partition. 

These several divisions appear to me to be based upon strictly anatomical 
grounds, and as such may be regarded as natural divisions, the variation 
of which must depend upon that of structure, and therefore may be relied 
upon as affording characteristic distinctions. 

The great consolidation of the anterior somites of the skeleton has led Prof. 
Dana to pronounce the centralization to amount to a cephalization of the forces ; 
but this opens a subject of considerable extent and interest, which, if permitted, 
I hope to present in a continuation of this Eeport at the next Meeting of the 
Association. 

EXPLANATION OP THE PLATES. 

References in each Plate the same :— C, Cephalic region ; 0, Orbital region ; 8 S, Sto- 
niaohic region; P, Pyloric region ; iJi?; Hepatic region ; Gtl Gi;/,Gemtiil region; Car, Car- 
diac region; Post-Car, Post-Cardiac region; M, Muscles connecting the pereion with the 
pleon. 

Plate I. 

Fig. 1. Carapace oi Navj^lius, or earliest larval form of Crustacea. 

2. Carapace of Zoca, or second larval form. 

3. Carapace of Mcgaloim, or third larval form. 

4. Carapace of Diasft/lis. 

5. Carapace of Trilohita, with that of M'galopa displayed on it, to demonstrate the 

homological relation of the fissure on the ventral surface of the latter with that} 
on the dorsal surface of the former. 

6. Carapace of Cancer j^affurus. 

7. First or ophthabuic somite of Cancer, with ophthalmic appendages and eyes 

attached. 

8. Second or anterior antennal somite, showing external or anterior surface : a a a, 

ophthalmic cavity and foramen ; bbb, anterior antenna, cavity, and foramen. _ 

9. Same, showing internal or posterior surface : a, ophthalmic foramen ; b b, anterior 

antenna and foramen. 
10. Posterior antennal somite, dorsal aspect ; carapace removed to show the internal 
surface of the ventral portion of the somite : c c, posterior antennre ; ol ol, olfac- 
tory foramen. 

Plate II. 
Fig. 11. Diagram showing the connexion of the branchioe with the legs and the external 
character of the branchial chamber in relation to the internal viscera: BB, 
branchial chambei-s ; A'p Ap, apodema. 

12. Dorsal surface of carapace, showing the natviral portions into which it is divided. 

13. The carapace removed to slmw the internal structure and the relation of the 

viscera to the external marking in fig. 12. 



54 REPORT — 1875. 

Second Report of a Committee, consisting of Prof. A. S. HerscheLj 
B.A., F.R.A.S., and G. A. Lebour^ F.G.S., on Experiments to 
determine the Thermal Conductivities of certain Rocks, shoioing 
especially the Geological Aspects of the Investigation, 

The original object proposed to be effected by the Committee of devising a 
simple and direct method of determining- approximately the absolute thermal 
conductivities of solid bodies, and especially of the rocks of most common 
occurrence in geological strata, has not yet been entirely carried out. But 
the experiments described in the last Report were repeated under new con- 
ditions, which enable the Committee to present, with more confidence than 
in their last Report, a list of absolute conductivities of the rocks there spe- 
cified, and to add to the list examples of some further important determina- 
tions. Many uncertainties remained to be removed from the values given in 
the former list, the most notable of which proceeded from the looseness of 
the contact obtained between the points of the thermopile and the two faces 
of the tested plate of rock. The real difference of temperature between the 
two faces was not measured, but that between the air- currents round the 
points of the thermopile in the two sheets of velvet which pressed them 
agaixist the surface of the plate. Thus difference of temperature two or three 
times as great as those intended to be measured (and as those which were 
actually observed when in a few cases the points of the thermopile were 
solidly cemented to the rocks) were constantly recorded. Assuming that the 
indications were always too great in a certain fixed proportion (determined 
approximately by the direct experiments made in a few certain cases), the 
former list of estimated absolute conductivities was compiled from the use of 
the velvet-covered apparatus. India-rubber faces about two millimetres (or 
one twelfth of an inch) in thickness are now stretched tightly over the flat 
faces of the cylindrical cooler and steam-boiler, and are bound down with 
wire, air being carefully excluded from these junctions by disiilacing it with 
a little oil. While the top of the boiler is formed of a thick, circular, brass 
plate a little convex (about one millimetre high in the centre) on the upper 
side, a tripod wooden stand, with straight legs passing through the lid of the 
cooler, rests upon the inner side of its base in the sockets of a flat, circular, 
perforated brass plate with wide lattice openings, and somewhat less in 
diameter than the cooler -base, between which and the base of the cooler, 
again, two thicknesses of coarse wire gauze are introduced, to permit free 
access of the water in the cooler to the inner surface of its tinned-iron base, 
when the central rod of the agitator, which contains the indicating thermo- 
meter, is raised and lowered frequently enough to keep the water in a con- 
stant state of motion. Two twenty-eight-pound weights, suspended from an 
iron link or cross bar carried by the tripod stand, communicated in this 
series of experiments a pressure of abotit 3 lbs. per sqiiare inch to the rock- 
plate placed for examination between the india-rubber-covered faces of the 
boiler and the cooler ; and it was expected that the exclusion of air from 
round the points of the thermopile and from the junctions between the faces 
might be assumed under these conditions : but as india-rubber offers great 
resistance to the passage of heat, it was found inconvenient to use it of suffi- 
cient thickness to accomplish this directly by its elasticity* ; and recourse 

* Altliongli thickly jacketed with a close covering of felt and fur, the cooler, containing 
2^ lbs. of water, was found to lose heat to the atmosphere at the rate of 0°-0025 F. per 
minute for each degree of excess of its temperature above that of the surrounding air ; 
and for an excess of 20° F., which was sometimes reached, the loss being 0°05 F., the 



ON THE THERMAL CONDUCTIVITIES OF CERTAIN ROCKS. 55 

was had, in consequence, to soft cements, to make the junctions between the 
surfaces air-tight. An experiment was also made with slate, by plastering 
the thermopile solidly to it with thin sheets of india-rubber moistened with a 
mixture of red-lead and oU, and testing the conductivity of the plate when, 
after remaining for two weeks under pressure, the cement appeared to have 
Bolidiiied to ijerfect hardness. The result in this case (391) * scarcely dif- 
fered either from the estimated number for the same rock-plate (392) given 
in our former list, or from two other determinations (414 and 425), when, 
instead of the solid junction, a thin paste of boiled starch and another of red- 
lead and oil were used in succession to effect the junction. Two new 
specimens of slate, cut from one piece, and tested by the same process, with 
moist lutings of starch and linseed- meal to secure the junctions, gave as 
values of their conductivities in different experiments the rather lower num- 
bers, apparently belonging to this different sample of the stone, 340, 346, 
349. The i)late of white Sicilian marble described in the last Eeport as pre- 
senting when tested, by attaching the thermopile to it solidly with plaster, a 
resulting conductivity 559, now afforded, with moist linseed luting, the 
number 497. Whinstone, which formerly exhibited in the same manner an 
absolute conductivity 3] 2, now afforded, with linseed luting, the conduc- 
tivity 333. The results obtained with moist lutings are sometimes in excess 
and sometimes in defect of those observed with solid junctions, and nothing 
nccessaiy to be preferred in soUd over liquid attachments of the surfaces to 
each other was found to be indicated by these preliminary trials. 

The inconstancy of some determinations now attempted of new rock- 
specimens with the iron and palladium' thermopile led to the discovery that 
its roUed branches produce thermoelectric currents by alteration of the con- 
dition of the pressed metal ; and no anneahng by heat was able to remove 
this serious objection. While unequally pressed parts of the wire along its 
branches were subjected to unknown temperatures, it was obvious that small 
differences of temperature could not be measured satisfactorily with the 
thermopile, and no reliance in respect of ultimate accuracy could be placed on 
the values found up to this time with the instriiment in its first constructed 
form. German-silver wire was, however, substituted successfully for palla- 
dium in the thermopile, with which the present series of experiments were 
made. It consists of three rolled wires of German silver and two of iron in 
series, between two rolled iron -wire terminals of a Thomson's reflecting 
galvanometer, three junctions of the flattened helix into which they are 
wound upon two bracing-bars of wood being above, and three below the 
rock-section, which slips easily between them. A stout india-rubber collar 
(half an inch in thickness) surrounds the rock-section before it is placed be- 
tween the wire grating of the thermopile ; and similar collars round the con- 
fronting ends of the boiler and cooler make a continuous non-conducting 
casing of the rock-plate and of adjoining parts of the apparatus, protecting 
them entirely, when the pressure acts upon them and upon the lutings that 
connect them, from heat-communication to the outer air. Although German- 
silver wire (even if unflattened) produced, when slightly heated at certain 

effects of undetected external influences might become sensible were the rate of heat- 
transmission to be measured less than 0°'2 F. per minute. The rate actually observed 
with the apparatus above described was between 0°'194 with cauuel-coal and 0°"400 with 
quartz ; and in the following list of absolute conductivities the proper correction for the 
external air-temperature round the cooler has in every instance been applied. 

* The significant figures only of the decimals representing the absolute conductivities- 
in the following Table are hero used, for brevity, to denote them. 



56 KEPOET — 1875. 

points of its length, sensible thermoelectrical effects of local disturbing cur- 
rents, •wbich (as vras also observed in the palladium wire and in some other 
metals which -were tried) did not appear to be removed, like those of strained 
iron wire, by annealing at a considerable heat, yet the high electromotive 
force of the German-silver iron couple and the neutralizing eifect of the 
several loops of German-silver wire, all exposed to the same temperature 
variations, were found, in some suitable experiments made in the process of 
determining the scale of the instrument's indications, to have almost entirely 
eliminated the influence of these small disturbing actions ; and the smallest 
differences of temperature, of only two or three degrees, occurring in the 
rock-conductivity experiments could be accurately measured. Eesistances of 
two, five, and ten ohms were included in the thermoelectric circuit succes- 
sively in each experiment ; and the proportionality of the galvanometer read- 
ings in these several conditions being constant, showed the constancy of the 
resistance, and accordingly the unvarying scale-value of the indications of 
the instrument for every observation ; while the zero of the scale-readings 
could also be conveniently determined at any moment by unplugging, in the 
rheostat connected in the circuit, a very large resistance of 1000 ohms. 
Twelve, seven, and four divisions of the scale represented respectively l°r., 
when the several resistances above named were used * ; and three readings 
being taken for every temperature- difference observation, the results reduced 
in this proportion were accordant to one or two tenths of a degree, as long 
as the total resistance of the circuit had undergone no variations from acci- 
dental injuries of the connexions, and as long as the thermometric value of the 
scale-divisions had accordingly been preserved. The electromotive force of 
a German-silver iron thermopile is shown, by Prof. Tait's representation of 
the specific curves of these metals in his ' First approximation to a Thermo- 
electric Diagram,' to be at ordinary temperatures very exactly proportional 
to the difference of temperature between the junctions ; and the temperature- 
differences noted in these experiments may, it is presumed, be accordingly 
regarded as affected by only very small errors of uncertainty. The thickness 
of the flattened wire (about 0-5 millim.) of the thermopile occasioned, 
however, even with the considerable pressure used, a certain thickness of the 
lutings ; and it is probable that, from this cause as well as from the partial 
fluidity, instead of perfectly solid nature, of the cement, the temperature-difter- 
cnccs observed somewhat exceeded those which actually existed between the 
faces of the tested plates. Besides the small corrections for escape of heat 
from the cooler to the outer air, an addition of one tenth to all the observed 
conductivities is made in the present list for the cooler's thermal capacity and 
for that of the brass foot, wire gauze, and agitator, which it enclosed, the cor- 
rection for which was not included in the conductivities assigned last year. The 
final results in the present list are, notwithstanding this correction, somewhat 
inferior to those formerly observed with the thin palladium-iron thermopile, 
whether its attachments were solid or effected by moist cements ; but in re- 
peated experiments with that instrument on quartz and other rock-sections 
offering only small resistances, the results arrived at were in general so high, 
and at the same time so irregiilar, from the predominance, in measuring their 
small temperature-differences, of the local currents, that for this reason only 
a partial dependence on its generally higher indications can be placed. The 

* An accidental iujui-y -nliieh haiDpened to one of the solclerings was thus immediately 
detected; and the fault having been found and repaired, when the instrument was re- 
.gradnated, it was found to afford, with the above resistances in its circuit, exactly the 
same proportional values of the Bcale-iudications as before. 



ON THE THERMAL CONDUCTIVITIES Or CEKTAIN ROCKS. 



57 



presence of the thin layer of moist luting of linseed-meal (mixed with between 
three and four times its weight of water) in the new series of experiments 
makes it probable, on the other hand, that the absolute conductivities pre- 
sented in the following list are under rather than above, and may occasionally 
be five, ten, or, in the better-conducting rock-specimens, possibly even twenty 
per cent, below their real values ; but the present arrangement of the series 
in a progressive scale of the observed values of the conductivities may bo 
more certainly regarded as in the main correct. 

Some experiments to compare the resistances of different rock-sections 
with that of the luting and india-rubber faces between which they were 
placed, with a view of obtaining relative conducting-powers more expe- 
ditiously without the use of a thermopile, were also made ; but although this 



Absolute Conductivities and Sesistances of Roclc- Sections. 



Section of rock. 



Absolute conductivities in 
C.G.S. units. 



Thermopile 

with local 

currents. 

"Rocks between 

velvet faces. 

(1874.) 



Opaque white quartz 

Slate (cut acrcBS the cleavage. 
Specimen A, Fcstiuiog). 

Calcite (white vein-stuff in 
mountain-limestone). 

Kenton sandstone (thoroughly 
wet). 

Do. (dry) 

Grey Aberdeen granite 

Irish fossil marble 

Devonshire red do 

Sicilian white do 

Eccl Cornish serpentine 

Whinst one 

Slate (cut parallel to the cleav- 
age. Specimen A). 

Do. (do. Specimen A, Fes- 
tiniog). 

Call on Hill trap-rock (from foot 
of the Observatory garden, 
Edinbiu-gh). 

Red brick (thoroughly wet) . . . 

English alabaster 

Plaster of Paris (plate, tho- 
roughly wet). 

Eed brick (dry) 

Plaster of Paris (plate, dry) . . 

Cannel-coal 



0C04S9 

o-coc.oo 

O-COo.59 
0-0052.5 
0005C9§ 
0-00483 
000312 § 
'00392 



0-00620 



0-00412 



000163 
0-00161 § 



Compensated 

Thermopile, 

moistly luted 

to the rocks 

with pressure. 

(1875.) 



0-008821 I 

000876/ 

OOOGCO 

000596 

0-00594 

000549 
0-00514 
0-00488 
0-00469 
0-00462 
0-00399 
000366 
000363 

0-00325 

0-00332 



0-00247 
0-00234 
0-00160 

000147 
0-00120 
0-00065 



Absolute 
resistances 
(or 1 -^ con- 
ductivity). 
(1875.) 



114 

152 

les 

168 

182 
195 
205 
213 
216 
251 
273 
275 

308 

301 



405 
427 
026 

680 

833 

1538 



Resistances in 
an ascending 
symbohc scale. 



(1874*.) 



(B) 

A 

15 

B 

B 



D 

D 



(ro 



(C) 



K 
K 



(1875+.) 



A 
A 



A 

A 
A 
D 
B 
B 
B 
B 
B 

C 

C 



c 
c 

D 

D 
E 
K 



* See Report, 1874, p. 132. t See Diagram, page 59. 

\ Average of two equally good determinations 000879. 

^ The conductivities marked thus were obtained by solid junctions of the thermopile 
to the rock-faces with plaster of Paris; the remaining numbers of the column were de- 
rived (in a constant proportion obtained from these) from conductivities observed with 
the thermopile pressed against the rock-surfaces by velvet faces. 



58 EEPORT — 1875. 

method of comparison appears to be the best adapted, by its directness and sim- 
plicity, for determining relative resistances, the conditions of contact and of 
communication of heat across the junctions appear to be subject to so much 
variation that results of great discordance only have hitherto been obtained. 
Before abandoning a process which recommends itself by its ease and sim- 
plicity, further experiments, however, will be tried to remove if possible, 
from a method which promises in the sequel to become so much more expe- 
ditious, all the most influential sources of disturbance. 

The unit in which the absolute conductivities are expressed is the same as 
that adopted (employing the centimetre, gramme, and second as its basis) in 
the Table of the last Report ; and the absolute resistances in the fourth column 
of the Table are the simple reciprocals of these, or the quotient of unity 
divided by the absolute conductivities. As it is in the form of this quotient 
or of the absolute resistances that the capacities of rock-strata for conducting 
heat are most conveniently employed in calculation, a graphical construction, 
and at the same time a convenient symbolic scale of the various grades or 
degrees of absolute resistance presented by different species of rocks, is 
here annexed (p. 59), with a view of exhibiting to the eye the general extent 
and character of their specific variations. 

Among the rock-sections re-examined, three only (Kenton sandstone, 
Calton trap, and English alabaster) are displaced, in the present list, from 
iheir previous order of succession. The rough and porous surface of the 
Kenton sandstone placing it more effectually in contact with the moist 
cement than the smooth surfaces of other rocks, may be accepted as an 
explanation of the high conductivity which it now presents ; but the rough 
surface of the Calton trap and the smooth faces of the alabaster (although 
these rocks are not, like the specimen of sandstone, extremely porous) would 
give rise to the same or to an opposite variation ; while both are lower in 
the list than the smooth-faced red serpentine, which has not altered its 
position. The defective indications of the first constructed thermopile may 
have introduced errors of the determinations in these latter cases, whUe it 
may probably be to its porosity alone that the Kenton sandstone now owes 
its somewhat superior position. 

The question of the effect of porosity and of the saturation of rocks with 
water in increasing their conducting-power was suggested by the late 
Mr. W. J. Henwood as oije deserving of the Committee's accurate investi- 
gation ; and several observations for this purpose were made, of which the 
resiilts are included in the Table. It was found that of three porous rocks 
examined, Kenton sandstone absorbed (when freed from air in vacuo) 5"7 per 
cent, of its weight of water, while its conductivity rose in consequence from 
549 to 594, or 8 per cent. A plate of fine red buUding-brick, whose absorp- 
tion of water was lo'6 per cent, of its weight, received by this treatment an 
increase of conductivity from 147 to 247, or 68 per cent. ; whUe a plate of 
plaster of Paris which absorbed 26 per cent, of its weight of water, rose in its 
conductivity by the saturation from 120 to 160, or not more than about 
33 per cent. There is no appearance of regularity in these increases, but to 
a more copious saturation with water it is evident that a higher proportion 
of increase of the conductivity is connected ; and again, comparing the highly 
conducting sandstone and the badly conducting brick or plaster, it is also 
evident that to every percentage weight or measure of water absorbed by 
the badly conducting substances, there corresponds a considerably greater 
percentage increase of the conductivity than for the absorption of the same 
percentage quantity of water by the better conductor. That this may arise 



iS '-' !-• 
O o 00 



o 
o 
p 



<IOWh4iC0Wt-'OOC0<JO0lt;i05l0*-' 



p a w a w 

S cfl f^ ca ^ 



W se O 2 

O p P p 

'^ 7 s" S" 

S- I- W I 




?^ 9? ?? C? tf>- 1^ M OJ W to to to fcO to 



C003GOLOt-3 000--l-^Cni— '1— 'C«DGOC505Cni— ' 
00050Cn^5tOiOO'-'OiW>-'05COCr<OitOOOGOl0 4^ 



Thermal 
resistances. 






100 



200 



300 



bd 



400 



500 



600 



700 



800 



900 



H 



1000 



1100 



N 



1200 



1300 



o 



1^00 



1500 



w 



1600 



60 



REPORT ]875. 



from api^reciably good conductivity of -water itself may be inferred with 
some degree of probability from the observations of Prof. Guthrie*, that 
films of water offer from four to fifteen times less resistance to the passage of 
heat through them than those of any other liquid (mercury excepted) of 
whose relative thermal resistances he obtained determinations. Prom Dr. 
Sterry Hunt's recent publication f the following Table of porosities and 
densities of various rocks is extracted, showing to what extent the presence 
of water among such strata may be expected, according to the general 
conclusions, to affect their thermal conductivities and to diminish their 
resistances. 



Tahle of Densities and Porosities of certain Rods. 




Description of 
rock. 


Density 
(real speci- 
fic gravity). 


Absorption 

of water by 

100 volumes 

of rock. 


Description of 
rock. 


Density 
(real speci- 
fic gravity). 


Absorption 

of water by 

100 volumes 

of rock. 


1. Sandstone (Pots- 
dam) (hard and 
white) 


2-644 

2-638 
2-633 
2-618 


average 
1-391 


20. Limestone, Tren- 
ton (black com- 
nact^ 


2-714 


average 
0-30 


2 Do do 


2-72 
2-26 
2-47 


2-21 




3. Do. do 


21. Do. (grey com- 
pact). 


2-715 


0-32 


4. Do. do 






5. Do. (with Scoli- 
thus) 


2-636 
2-641 
2-611 


6-94] 
7-90 8-06 
9-35 J 


22. Do. (crystaUine). 

23. Do. do 


2-673 
2-708 
2-684 


1-16 "1 
1-34 11-40 

1-70 J 


6. Do. do 


24. Do. do 


7. Do. (with lAn- 
gula). 




25. Dolomite (Nia- 
gara). 


2-679 


5-27 


8. Do. Sillery (green 

argillaceous). ... 

9. Do. do 


2-795 
2-719 


2-85]-'*^ 


26. Do.(Calciferous) 

27. Do. do. 


2-833 
2-838 
2-822 
2-832 


2-10-] 

6-61 f * ^ 
7-22 J 




9fi TSc\ rln 


10. Do. Medina (red 

argillaceftus) ... 

11 Do do 


2-767 
2-776 


8-371 0.01 

10-06 ; "^ -^ 


29. Do. do 




30. Do. (Guelph)... 

f\\ Do flo 


2-829 
2-810 


10-601 j„.„.T 
10-04/^"'^- 




12. Do. Devonian (fine 

crrAv^ 


2-646 
2-645 
2-649 


20-24] 
20-64 120-71 
21-27 J 




32. Do. (Onondaga) 


2-825 


10-92 


13. Do. do 


14. Do. do 


33. Do. Chazy (ar- 
gillaceous) 

34. Do. do 


2-824 
2-823 
2-825 
2-891 


13-551 

3-75 

4-69 f ~ 
10-12 J 




15. Shale, Sillery (red 
argillaceous). 


2-784 


3-96 


35. Do. do 


9,f\ Tin rln 


16. Do. Hudson's 
Eiver (black ar- 
gillaceous). 


2-747 


0-30 




37. Caen limestone 

38. Do. do 


2-637 
2-644 
2-611 


29 -49 I 
26-93 1 28-65 
29-54 J 




17. Do. TJtica (Py- 
roscliist^ 


2-334 
2-396 
2-421 


0-751 
0-93 1 1-26 
210 




18. Do. do 


19. Do. do 









* Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, 1869, part 1, p. 659 (Table). 

t Chemical and Geological Essays, by Prof. T. Sterry Hunt, p. 166 (1875). This is 
reprmted from the Report of the Geological Survey of Canada for 1863-66, pp. 281-283. 
By an oversight in this Table the Caen limestone is described as Tertiary by Dr. Sterry 
Hunt instead of Secondary. 



ON THE THERMAL CONDUCTIVITIES OF CERTAIN ROCKS. 



61 



Another subject of important applications in questions relating to under- 
ground temperature ■which has engaged the attention of the Committee, 
is the different degrees of facility -with which some rocks conduct heat in 
different directions, recent researches by M. E, Jannettaz haviiig shown 
that this property is possessed not only (as was long since shown by De 
Sdnarmont) by certain crystals, but also by other mineral substances, and in a 
very high degree by rocks having schistose and laminated structures. To verify 
this important fact, specimens of "Welsh slate were prepared by cutting 
plates from the same piece across and parallel to the plane of cleavage ; and 
the rate of conduction of heat through the plates cut in the former manner 
was found to be nearly twice as rapid as that through plates cut parallel to 
the cleavage-plane. Thus the resistance of slate (shown in the Table) to 
transmission of heat along the cleavage-planes is only half as great as that 
offered to its passage across them. The example of this slate is not an 
exceptional one among laminated or schistose rocks ; and the extreme ratios 
of the resistances in the parallel and transverse directions to the planes of 
cleavage or foliation, which have been studied and measured by M. Jan- 
nettaz * in a variety of cases, exhibit some much more remarkable pro- 
portions. 



Description of rock. 


Ratio of cwces of the 

observed ellipses. 

Paral.diam.: transv. do. 


Extreme ratio of the 

conductivities. 
Parallel : transverse. 


1. Steaschist. U. S. A. (light green, in 

powder very unctuous to tke touch) . 

2. Pkyllade (slate), Deville, Ardennes, 

France 


2-007 : 1 

1-988 : 1 

1-82 :1 
1-78 : 1 
1-6 : 1 

1-2 : 1 

1-00 : 1 (circular). 
1-15 : 1 (the longer 
diameter always in the 
direction of the veins). 


4 028 : 1 

3-952 : 1 

3-312: 1 
3-168 : 1 
2-56 : 1 

1-44 : 1 

1-00 : 1 
1-323 : 1 


3. Fine-grained mica-schist, Aurillac, 
Cantal, Franco 


4. Talcose schist, French Guyana 


5. Pkyllade (slate'), Angers, France 

6. G-neiss, with fine crystals irregularly 

placed 


7. Gneiss, the crystals giving a veined 
appearance, IJyons, France 


8, Serpentine, with curved veins 





The method of experiment adopted by M. Jannettaz is that originally 
employed by De Senarmont, of coating thin sections of crystals with grease or 
wax, and observing the ratio of the diameters of the oval figures formed on 
their surfaces by the melted grease round a point which is heated at the 
centre of the plate. In a series of earlier experiments f on thin plates of 
crystals, M. Jannettaz had determined the ratios of the diameters for forty 
or fifty mineralogical species ; and the values of these ratios are included 



+ 



* Bulletin de la Soci^t^ G6ologique de France, tome ii. p. 264 (April-June 1874). 

t Annales de Chimie et de Physique, s6rie 4, tome xxix. (1873). 

J The cases of ratios excepted from the above limitation are those of the following 
metals or minerals having either two or three priyicipal axes of conduction : — Quartz, 
1-312:1; amphibole hornblende and tremolite, 1-42 and 1-67:1; selenite, 1-54 : 1 ; 
metallic antimony (rhombohedral), 1-59 : 1 ; antimonite, 1836 : 1-451 : 1 ; mica, 2-5 or 
2-4: 2-4 or 2-3: 1. The extreme ratio of good to bad conductivity in mica is 5-76 or 
6-25 : 1 ; and, as in selenite and in some other crystals possessing very distinct cleavages, 
the direction of good conduction is along and that of bad conductiou is across the cleavage- 
plaues. 



63 REPORT— 1875. 

•with only rare exceptions, between 1 and 1-3:1. The ratios of the con- 
ductivities in the directions of these diameters, being the squares of the ratios 
of the measured axes, range in value, for the majority of crystals, between 
1 and 1'7: 1, and rarely approach the values above given for some of the 
talcose and schistose rocks. It is shown in his researches that the principal 
axes of conductivity in crystals are more closely related to the planes of 
cleavage thaia to either the optic or the crystallographic axes, and that in 
rocks of schistose structure it is to the internal texture arising from pressure 
in metamorphic actions rather than to crystalline admixtures, giving to some 
rocks a regularly streaked or veined appearance, that the principal develop- 
ment of the property of unequal thermal conductivity in different directions 
presented by this numerous class of rocks should be ascribed. These new 
considerations, and the further recognition of the important part which the 
saturation of certain rocks with water must exercise in determining the 
distribution of underground temperature in certain cases, together with the 
observation, recorded in the Table of this Eeport, of the extremely high con- 
ductivity of quartz forming compact masses in the neighbourhood of i;nder- 
ground workings, in some situations of considerable extent, are points of 
special interest connected with the progress of this inquiry, the applications 
and extensions of which, should the Committee pursue this iuquii-y further, 
will form the chief object of their immediate investigations. 



Preliminary Report of the Committee, consisting of Professors Roscoe, 
Balfour Stewart, and Thorpe^ apj)ointed for the purpose of ex- 
tending the observations on the Specific Volumes of Liquids. Drawn 
up by T. E. Thorpe. 

We are indebted to the experimental and critical labours of Hermann Kopp 
for the greater part of what we know concerning the relations between the 
specific gravities of liquids and their chemical composition. Kopp has pointed 
out that when the specific volumes of liquids are compared at temperatures 
at which their vapour-tensions are equal, as at their boiling-points, several 
remarkable relations manifest themselves. In the first place, it is found that 
the specific volume of a liquid formed by the union of two other liquids is 
equal to the sum of the specific volumes of its components. Secondly, Kopp 
finds that isomeric liquids of the same chemical type have identical specific 
volumes. Thirdly, that in a series of homologues each increment of CH is 
attended with a constant increment in specific volume. Hence Kopp was 
able to assign certain fundamental values to a number of elementary bodies, 
and thus to calculate with a considerable degree of accui-acy the specific 
volume, and hence the specific gravity, of many liquid substances. It also 
ajjpeared probable that members of the same family of elements have identi- 
cal specific volumes, or, to use Schroder's expression, are " isosterous." Thus 
the analogously constituted terchlorides of arsenic and phosjAorus appear to 
possess the same specific volume ; whence it follows, since no change is ob- 
servable in the volume occupied by chlorine in different compounds, that the 
specific volumes of arsenic and phosphorus are equal. A similar conclusion 
was drawn with respect to tin and titanium, members of the tetratomic group, 
from an examination of their tetrachlorides. 



ON THE SPECIFIC VOLUMES OF LIQUIDS. G3 

It must be admitted, however, that certain of these deductions are drawn 
from experimental evidence, which, in the light of our present knowledge, can 
hardly be deemed sufficiently comprehensive to permit of such broad genera- 
lizations. For example, the examination of only four liquids can scarcely 
afford adequate proof of the universality of the statement that members of 
the same chemical family have identical specific volumes. The conclusion 
with regard to isomerides was necessarily based on limited proof, for the 
reason that the number of cases admitting of examination was limited. The 
number of isomerides has now increased a hundredfold, and we have become 
more precise in defining their character. The validity of the law should be 
tested by an examination of well-chosen and typical isomerides, especially 
among the hydrocarbons. Such an examination would not only afford mate- 
rial for solving the primary question, but would incidentally serve to show 
whether the specific volumes of the component elements, carbon and hydrogen, 
are respectively invariable, as stated by Kopp, no matter how these elements 
may be arranged in a compound with respect to each other. 

It has been shown by Professor Koscoe that vanadium is a member of the 
phosphorus group of elements, and that the vanadium trichloride of Eerzelins 
is in reality an oxychloride of the composition VOCI3, corresponding to the 
phosphoryl trichloride (POCI3). As both these analogously constituted hquids 
are readily obtained in a state of purity and boil at moderately high tempe- 
ratures, it seemed desirable to determine their specific volumes with a view 
of obtaining further evidence on the isosterism of members of the same che- 
mical family. As the result of a series of carefully conducted observations 
made on preparations of a high degree of purity, we find that the specific 
volumes of phosphoryl trichloride and vanadyl trichloride are distinctly 
difierent, the chloride with the higher molecidar weight having the greater 
specific volume. We have thus been led to reopen the whole subject. Start- 
ing with the observations on the question of the specific volumes of members 
of the same chemical family, we find that the result foreshadowed in the case 
of phosphorus and vanadium is a general one, viz. that in a series of analo- 
gously constituted compounds belonging to the same chemical family, as, for 
example, the trichlorides of phosphorus, arsenic, and antimony, and the tetra- 
chloride of silicon, titanium, and tin, the specific volume increases with the 
molecular weight. 

We have completed the experimental work connected with the determina- 
tion of the rates of expansion, boiling-points, and specific gravities, which 
data (together with the molecular weights) are required to fix the specific 
volume, of the following liquids : — 

Br CCl, PCI3 

ICl CBrCL PC1,C,K0 

C.,H,Br, PBr^ 

C,;H,IC1 SiCl, POCI3 

C.,H,C1,, TiCl, POBrCl, 

CH3CHCI, SnCl, PSC13 

CH,C1, VOCI3 

CHlBr", T,., , . . ^ AsF, 



CHCI3- ^^^y^^yljCH^^ ASCI3 

CHBr, and Heptane I ^ ^^ g^^.^ 



The labour of reducing the observations, and more particularly of calcu- 
lating the empirical formuloe for so large a number of liquids, is necessarily 
somewhat heavy and tedious ; its completion has been unavoidably delayed 



64 REPORT — 1875. 

by the pressure of other duties. The Committee, if reappointed, propose not 
only to complete the reduction of the present observations (which work is 
already in progress), but to extend the investigation so as to include a well- 
deiined series of sulphur compounds (a number of which have been already 
prepared and some partially investigated), with the view of repeating the 
observations on the relation of the specific volume of sulphur to the manner 
in which it is held in union. These results will also afford material for 
discussing Buff's hypothesis, that the specific volume of an element varies 
with its atom-fixing power. The only hydrocarbons we have hitherto in- 
vestigated are ethyl amyl and heptane, both C^ Hj,,, concerning which there 
is proof that, contrary to Kopp's law, their specific volumes are not iden- 
tical. Should this result be confirmed by the examination of similarly 
related hydrocarbons, the statement concerning the invariability of the 
specific volumes of carbon and hydrogen will need modification. 



Sixth Report on Barthquakes in Scotland, draivn up by Dr. Bryce, 
F.O.S. The Committee consists of Dr. Bryce, F.R.S.E., Sir W. 
Thomson, F.R.S., J. Brough, G. Forbes, F.R.S.E., D. Milne- 
Holme/ F.JS./S.S., and J. Thomson. 

Dttring the year that has elapsed since the last Meeting of the Association 
the Comrie district has been in a state of entire quiescence, and no earth- 
quake has been reported from any other part of Scotland. Your Committee 
has thus nothing of general interest to lay before the Meeting this year. 

The plea put forward at the last Meeting for an increase of the grant was 
founded on the necessity felt by the Committee of having additional appa- 
ratus set up at Comrie. They desired to have a check of some kind on the 
indications of the seismometer belonging to the Association, which is placed 
in the tower of the parish church, as well as additional means of testing both 
the direction and intensity of the shocks. Por this purpose it seemed neces- 
sary to have apparatus of a different kind, and to find a locality somewhat 
distant from the spot where the seismometer now stands. After experimental 
trial had been made of contrivances of various kinds, the method of upright 
cylinders (one of those recommended by Mr. Mallet in his paper in the 
* Admiralty Manual ') was adopted. The difiiculty of finding a suitable site 
and a competent observer, to whom it should be a matter of perfect conveni- 
ence to visit that site, next presented itself. No suitable apartment in which 
to set up the cylinders could be found in the village ; and the Committee 
therefore resolved to erect a small building for the special purpose. Their 
wish being made known to Peter Drummond, Esq., who resides on his own 
property of Dunearn, about half a mile direct distance from the parish cliurch, 
and nearer to the supposed earthquake-focus, he most kindly offered a site 
on the grounds surrounding his house. Here, accordingly, on a spot care- 
fully selected, the building has been erected. It is founded upon a rock, 
the same slate-rock of which the valley westwards to Loch Earn and the 
enclosing hills are composed, and in continuity with it ; while it is completely 
sheltered from the agitating influences of all winds ; so strongly built, indeed, 
is it, that, even if the situation were exposed, only a storm of extreme violence 
could produce any disturbing effect. No one can have access to the building 



ON THE TREATMENT AND UTILIZATION OF SEWAGE. 65 

but by Mr. Drummond'a permission ; and he has most kindly promised that 
the cylinders shall be his constant care. Your Committee is greatly indebted 
to Mr. Drummoud, not only for this promise (which is all-important for their 
purpose) and for his so readily oifering a site, but also for his liberality in 
making all the necessary preparations for erecting the building, so that the 
cost to the Committee has been considerably diminished. 

The building is of stone and lime, very substantial, about 10 feet square, 
and 11 feet high to the top of the roof, ceiled and floored. On the perfectly 
level floor two narrow smooth planks are placed, one directed N. & S. and 
the other E. & W. On each of these are placed six cylinders of boxwood, 
carefully turned on the lathe, at such distances apart on the planks that one 
cannot strike against another in falling. The floor is levelled up to the 
planks with dry fine sand, on whicli the cylinders must rest, without rolling, 
if they fall. The cylinders are all of the same height, but of diff'erent dia- 
meters, so that they are of very various degrees of stability. In this way 
the exact direction of a shock is indicated, and a rough scale of intensity is 
had. The narrowest cylinder is of so small diameter that it is hoped a very 
feeble shock will be marked by its fall. 

The perfect accessibility of the building for frequent and regular observa- 
tion, the certain and ready response of the cylinders to any movement of the 
ground, and the impossibility of the existence of any disturbing cause, 
will, it is the hope of the Committee, render the results highly satisfactory as 
regards the intensity and horizontal direction of any earthquake-shocks which 
may occur in future years. The comparison of these with the indications of 
the seismometer may lead to more important conclusions than have as yet 
been obtained from this inquiry. 



Seventh Report of the Committee on the Treatment and Utilization of 
Sewage, reappointed at Belfast, 1874, and consisting of Richard 
B. Grantham (Chairman), C.E., F.G.S., Professor A. W. Wil- 
liamson, F.R.S., Dr. Gilbert, F.R.S., Professor Corfield, M.A., 
M.D., William Hope, V.C, F. J. Bramwell, C.E., F.R.S. 

During the past year, from March 25th, 1874 to March 24th, 1875, the ob- 
servations at Breton's Farm, near Eomford, were carried on by the Com- 
mittee, though, owing partly to the want of funds at the beginning of the 
year, and partly to the fact that the notched board by means of which the 
flow of sewage was gauged had been removed from the trough by order of 
the Surveyor to the Local Board, the experiments could not be made as com- 
plete as they would otherwise have been. 

Instead of gauging the sewage applied to the land, as heretofore, by direct 
observations in the distributing-trough, the quantities used on the farm have 
been estimated solely by the method hitherto employed to verify the trough 
gaugings — i. e., the sewage entering the farm during the working hours of the 
engine is calculated by ordinary gaugings in the main sewer, and may be 
considered as the "day" sewage ; the remainder, or the " night" sewage, is 
ascertained by the difi'erent heights of liquid in the tanks at the time when 
the engine stops at night and starts next morning. The quantities thus cal- 
culated are given in Table I., from which we sec that the amount of sewage 

1875. F 



66 REPORT — 1875. 

received on the farm from the town during the year was 482,335 tons, a con- 
siderably larger amount than in previous years ; this is partly owing to the 
fact that more houses have been connected with the sewers. 

The amount of effluent water added to the sewage and repumped on to the 
land was 27,295 tons, making 509,630 tons as the amount of diluted sewage 
received into the tanks; 491 tons of this were run into the river during es- 
cessive flows, &c., and thus the total amount applied to the land was 509,139 
tons. 

Tables IV., V., VI. and VII. correspond with similar tables in previous 
Eeports ; but especial attention is dii-ected to the note at the foot of Table VI., 
or a wrong idea may be given of the amount of crop produced per acre, espe- 
cially in the ease of the Italian rye-grass. 

The total produce of the farm for the year was less (by about 200 tons) 
than that of the previous one, and less also than the average of the three 
preceding years, and this notwithstanding that the crops of Italian rye-grass 
were really better and those of Mangold much better than those of the pre- 
vious year : thus in 1873-74, 18-69 acres produced 1084-94 tons of Italian 
rye-grass, or 58 tons per acre ; while in 1874-75, 13-95 acres produced 869 
tons, or 62-3 tons per acre ; while as to Mangold, the crops in 1873-74 were 
18-3 tons per acre, while in 1874-75 they were no less than 42-8 tons per 
acre. 

The principal reasons for the decrease in the total weight of the crops 
are: — 

I. The increase in the acreage of the cereal crops. 

II. The large quantity of land allowed to lie fallow during the winter, and 
consequently the small quantity of winter greens grown as compared with 
previous years. 

III. The fact that five crops (four of Eape and one of Turnips) were not 
carried off the land but ploughed in, and that two others (of wheat) partially 
failed. 

Prom the autumn of 1874 to the end of the cropping year (March 1875), 
there were 38 J acres of land entirely fallow. In addition, four crops (=10| 
acres) of Eape and one crop (=6| acres) of Turnips were ploughed in, and 
the land, 17| acres in all, treated as fallow. Finally, 14 acres of grass were 
ploughed in during March and April, having thus, so far as produce was 
concerned, been practically fallow land ; making a total of 70 acres, ornearly 
two thirds of the cultivated area of the farm, unproductive during the winter 
months. 

On reference to Table VI. it will be seen that the aggregate acreage of aU 
the crops was 130-42 as against 170-66 of the previous year, which further 
illustrates the above statement ; and this quantity is also less than that of 
the two other years recorded by the Committee. This is owing to the fact 
that the system of cropping has been changed, since the census of the town 
given in the Committee's Eeport for 1872-73 (Fifth Eeport) showed that 
many of the houses in the town were not connected and many only partially 
connected with the town sewer, so that it became necessaiy to manure a 
much smaller area with the sewage. 

But an examination of the Tables given in the present and two previous 
Eeports, whilst establishing the above facts, also shows that the weight per 
acre of crops produced, and the amount of nitrogen estimated to be recovered 
in them, was more in the year under review than in either of the two pre- 
ceding years ; and the improvement in these respects has been progressive 
during the three years, thus ; — 



ON THE TREATMENT AND UTILIZATION OF SEWAGE. 



67 



Year. 


Aggregate 
area. 


Total 
produce. 


Produce 
per acre. 


Total 

Nitrogen 

estimated to 

be recovered. 


Nitrogen 
recovered 
per acre. 


1872-73. 
1873-74. 
1874-75. 


acres. 
156 

171 

130 


tons. 

1704 
2353 

2157 


tons. 
10-9 

13-8 

16-5 


lbs. 

15,704 
22,766 
20,166 


lbs. 
101 

133 
153 



This result is no doubt partly due to the concentration of the sewage on a 
smaller area, and partly to the increased richness of the soil, which was de- 
monstrated by the analytical results given in the Committee's Fifth Eeport. 

It is necessary to state that the year 1871-72 would, if added, show 
an apparent exception to this progress, inasmuch as the total amount of pro- 
duce that year was 2714 tons, an amount that has not been equalled since ; 
but this exception is only an apparent one, and is caused by the fact that 
there were then no cereals grown on the farm (whereas in the following 
years they have formed an important part of the produce), and that a much 
larger area was under cabbages. 

And notwithstanding the large total weight of crops that year, the rate per 
acre of produce was less than in 1874-75 ; whilst the amount of nitrogen 
reckoned as recovered in the crops was less than in either 1873-74 or 
1874-75, as appears from the figures : — 

Nitroeen 

Nitrogen 

recovered 

per acre. 

lbs. 

1871-72. ... 168 2714 16-2 19,667 117 

The areas given in each case are the total areas of all the crops, of course 
including sometimes the same land twice. 

The Committee were unable to have samples of sewage and effluent water 
analyzed regularly every month : but samples were taken three times a week 
(equal quantities in the case of the sewage, quantities in proportion to the 
flow in that of the effluent water) and mixed, and a sample of each mixture 
taken at the end of the month ; thus twelve samples of sewage and twelve 
of effluent water were obtained. 

As the samples had been kept so long and had not (in the case of the 
sewage) been taken in proportion to the flow, it was thought sufficient to niix 
quantities of the samples of sewage proportionate to the monthly quantities 
of sewage pumped, and to have a sample of this mixture (for the whole 
period) analyzed : in the case of the effluent waters it was thought better to 
mix equal quantities (as the monthly total quantities could not be ascer- 
tained), so as to make four samples, one for each three months, and to have 
them analyzed. 

The results of these analyses are given in the foUowing Tables : — 









Nitrogen 








estimated to 


Aggregate 


Total 


Produce 


be recovered 


area. 


produce. 


per acre. 


in crops. 


acres. 


tons. 


tons. 


lbs. 


168 


2714 


16-2 


19,667 



■s2 



m 



HEPORT — 1875. 



Breton's Farm. 
Sewage. — From April 1874 to March. 1875 (botli inclusive). 

In 100,000 parts. 

Ammonia 3'32 

Total Nitrogen (in solution and suspension) . . 5-56 

Chlorine 13-00 

Nitrogen as Nitrates none. 



Efflttent wateb. — In 100,000 parts, 

April, July, October, January, 

May, August, November, February, 

June. September. December. March. 

Ammonia 0-006 0-112 0-004 0-004 

Nitrogen as Nitrates .... 0-78 0-27 0-26 0-56 

Nitrogen not as Nitrates . . 0-13 0-15 0-04 0-06 

Chlorine 10-35 11-45 11-00 9-80 

Total Nitrogen 0-91 0-42 0-30 0-62 

It is to be remarked, in the first place, that the result thus obtained for the 
total nitrogen of the sewage is very near to the average results already ob- 
tained ; thus in the year 1871-72 the average was 5-529, and in 1872-73 it 
was 5-151 per 100,000. And as regards the effluent waters, the total nitro- 
gen is below the average in all cases, and the purification, as shown by the 
smaller amount of nitrogen not as nitrates, is more perfect during the last two 
quarters ; this may be due to the consolidation of the earth around the drain- 
age pipes ; but the Committee would not now express a decided opinion on 
this point, as they intend to institute a series of experiments to investigate 
the changes which go on in sewage and effluent water when kept for some 
time. 

As 509,139 tons of sewage were utilized on the farm, the total amount 
of nitrogen supplied was (according to the analysis of the mixed sample) 
28-38 tons. Last year, from the data obtained from the two previous years, 
the total amount was taken at 27 tons ; but this year an increase was ex- 
pected from the fact that more houses have been connected with the sewers. 

The total amount of nitrogen recovered in the crops is estimated at 20,166 
pounds, or 31-8 per cent, of the nitrogen supplied; in former years the per- 
centages estimated were as follows : — 

1871-72 41-76 per cent. 

1872-73 26-00 „ 

1873-74 37-60 „ 

The amount this year is exactly the mean of the amounts for the last two 
years. 

It should be understood that in these calculations no deduction is made 
for the amount of nitrogen that there would be in the normal unsewaged 
produce; in other words, the figures show the relation of the nitrogen in 
the total produce (not in the increase only) to that estimated to be supplied 
in the sewage. 

The Committee will be able to continue their investigations, owing to the 
generous liberality of a Member of the Association, and more complete 
observations arc now going on again systematically at Breton's Farm. 



Table I. — Breton's Sewage Farm. 

Statement of Weekly quantities of Sewage received on the Farm from the 
Town of Eomford, from March 25, 1874, to March 24, 1875. 



No. of 
vreekly 
return. 


Dates (inclusive). 


Average 
noonday 
tempe- 
rature. 


Eainfall 
during 
week. 


Sewage 
delivered 
on farm. 


Average 
tempe- 
rature 

thereof. 












JJ 


in. 


gallons. 


°F. 


198. 


1874 


March 


25 to March 


29 


56 




1,321,000 


54 


199. 


)) 


J) 


30 „ April 


s 


51 


0-51 


2,045,000 


53 


200. 


»J 


April 


6 JJ .1 


12 




063 


2,129,000 




201. 


»' 


»» 


13 JJ J. 


19 




0-15 


1,780,000 




202. 


I» 


jj 


20 „ „ 


26 






1,934,000 




203. 


I» 


j» 


27 „ May 


3 




0'02 


1,901,000 




204. 


>» 


May 


4 " JJ 


lO 




0-07 


1,691,000 




205. 


t> 


ji 


U JJ 


17 




0-I2 


1,927,000 




206. 


W 


»j 


18 „ J, 


24 




0-38 


1,847,000 




207. 


» 


jj 


25 J. -, 


31 




0-09 


1, 799,000 




208. 


ff 


June 


1 ,, June 


7 




o'64 


1,986,000 




209. 


»» 


>) 


8 JJ ,j 


14 






1,699,000 




210. 


)» 


)» 


15 .. JJ 


21 




0-43 


2,085,000 




211. 


)1 


j» 


22 „ 


28 




078 


1,882,000 




212. 


)» 


'» 


29 „ July 


s 




0-07 


1,794,000 




213. 


}) 


July 


6 ,j JJ 


12 




1-84 


2,130,000 




214. 


)) 


jJ 


13 JJ 


19 






2,066,000 




215. 


»> 


»> 


20 „ „ 


26 




018 


2,437,000 




216. 


)> 


)J 


27 „ Aug. 


2 




0'42 


2,148,000 




217. 


3) 


Aug. 


3 JJ n 


9 




o-o8 


2,109,000 




218. 


J> 


»♦ 


10 ,j JJ 


16 




0-67 


2,094,000 




219. 


it 


" 


J7 JJ ,j 


23 




o-oi 


1,992,000 




220. 


J) 


)j 


24 J. .. 


30 




0-13 


2,013,000 




221. 


J» 


>» 


31 JJ Sept. 


6 




0-37 


2,066,000 




222. 


»> 


Sept. 


7 JJ JJ 


13 




0-31 


2,088,000 




223. 


1i 


J» 


14 JJ JJ 


20 






2,063,000 




224. 


J» 


»» 


21 JJ ,j 


27 




0"27 


2,232,000 




225. 


)» 


)) 


28 „ Oct. 


4 




i-6s 


2,136,000 




226. 


)) 


Oct. 


5 >» )> 


II 




o'6i 


1,977,000 




227. 


J) 


)J 


12 „ „ 


18 




I '06 


2,034,000 




228. 


)l 


JJ 


19 .J JJ 


25 




0-04 


1,767,000 




229. 


)l 


)J 


26 „ Nov. 


I 




i'09 


1,991,000 




230. 


)J 


Nov. 


2 JJ JJ 


8 






1,740,000 




231. 


)» 


)) 


9 JJ JJ 


15 




o'i6 


1,860,000 




232. 


»» 


») 


16 „ „ 


22 





0-35 


2,022,000 




*33- 


)) 


ff 


23 .. ., 


29 






2,232,000 




234. 


»» 


J» 


30 „ Dec. 


6 




1-48 


2,466,000 




23 s. 


J» 


Dec. 


7 JJ JJ 


13 




0-87 


2,328,000 




236. 


»> 


JJ 


14 .. „ 


20 




o'i9 


2,198,000 




237. 


»» 




21 „ „ 


27 






1,826,000 




238. 


»» 


J» 


28 „ Jan. 


31875 





0-82 


1,598,000 




239. 


1875. 


Jan. 


4 J) JJ 


10 






2,040,000 




240. 


>J 


» 


11 J, J. 


17 




0-32 


2,213,000 




241. 


)J 


}i 


18 . „ 


24 




07s 


2,522,000 




242. 


)f 


>i 


25 .. „ 


31 




0-96 


2,752,000 




243. 


)» 


Feb. 


I „ Feb. 


7 




012 


2,512,000 




244. 


J» 


JJ 


8 j> JJ 


14 




0-27 


2,494,000 




245. 


)» 


JJ 


15 .' •> 


21 




021 


2,255,000 




246. 






22 „ 


28 




o-i6 


2,323,000 




247. 


)) 


March 


I „ March 


7 




038 


2,243,000 




248. 


» 


JJ 


8 j> J. 


14 




0-04 


2,i53,coo 




249. 


)» 


JJ 


IS .. J. 


21 




0-09 


2,132,000 




250. 


)} 


JJ 


22 „ „ 


24 






971,000 














- 


1979 
















Total ... 

Tons ... 


108,043,000 




482,335 



70 



REPORT — 1875. 



Table IV. — Breton's 
Statement showing Crops gro-wn from 



Plot. 



No. of beds 
(inclusive). 



Acreage. 



Crop. 



Date when sown or 
planted. 



A 



I to 29 



I to6 & 9 & 10 



7. X 

II to 16 

17 „ z6 

7&I8&11 to 16 

17. 18 
19 to 26 

I „ 26 



9-8 



Italian rye-grass 



June 1873 . 



3-85 



■95 
278 

4'S4 

373 

■93 

3-61 

I2-I2 



Carrots 

Broccoli , 

Cabbage 

Kohlrabi , 

Hardy green plants , 

Peas 

Cabbage 

Hardy greens , 

Brussels sprouts . . . . 

Cabbage -plants 

Fallow. 



April 1874. 
July 1874 . 



April 1874 

March 1874 .. 

Oct. 1873 

Aug. and Sept, 

July 1874 

July and Aug. 1874 



1874.. 



Total B 



I2'I2 



AD. 



1-97 
1-97 
1-97 



Cabbage . 
Rape .... 
Oats 



Oct. 1873 .. 
Sept. 1874 ... 
March 1875 



Total C 



1-97 



D 



All. 



6-93 
693 



Mangold 
Cabbage . , 



April 1874 

Oct. and Nov. 1874 



Total D 



6-93 



E 



I to 22 



576' 
5-76 



Wheat 

Italian rye-grass 



March 1874 
Sept. 1874... 



Total E 



576 



P 



I to 14 
15, 16 
17,18 
15, 16 
itoi4&i7&il 
IS. 16 



Total P 



2-97 
•42 
■42 
•42 

3'39 
■43 

3-82 



Wheat 

Hardy green plants . 

Savoy plants 

Savoys 

Cabbage 

Fallow. 



Feb. 1874 

May 1874 

), ), 

July ,. 
Oct. ,, 



ON THE TREATMENT AND UTILIZATION OF SEWAGE. 



n 



Sewage-Farm. 

March 25, 1874, to March 24, 1875. 



Date when cut or 
gathered. 



May to Nov. 1874. 



Produce. 



Total. Per acre. 



Nov. 1874 

Sept. to Dec. 1874.. 



Aug. 1874 

July 1874 

June and July 1874 ... 
Dec. 1874 to Feb. 1875 
Nov. 1874 to Feb. 1875 
Oct. and Nov. 1874 •• 



tons. 
640*24 



66-6i 

I2'I2 

075 

S"93 

8-45 

82"90 

2o-8i 

5-10 

24" 60 



tons. 
65-3 



21-5 

6-2 
3-0 
i8-2 
5-6 
5-5 
6-8 



Bemarks. 



Eight cuttings. Grass ploughed in 
April 4, 1 875. 



Planted where the Carrots were scarce. 



Straw 6-33 tons. 



One fourth of crop ploughed in. 



230'S7 



i9"o 



Plot fallow at end of year. Sown 
with Barley and Italian rye-grass, 
March 27, 1875. 



June to Aug. 1874 



32-97 



167 



The Eape-seed failed. 



32'97 



167 



Plot in seed (Oats) at end of 
year. 



Oct. 1874 



341-0 



49-2 



Crop remains March 25, 1875. 



Aug. 1874 

Nov. „ , 



341-0 



49-2 



Plot under crop (Cabbage) at end of 
year. 



14-39 
n-52 



2-5 

2-0 



Including 8-53 tons straw. 
One cutting ; grass remains. 



25-91 



+•5 



Plot under crop (Grass) at end of 
year. 



Aug. 1874 

July „ 

)» >» 

Nov. and Dec. 1874 , 



6-59 
2-42 
3-03 
5-46 



2-2 

57 

7-2 

13-0 



Indi ng 4-34 tons straw. 



Crop remains. 



i7'So 



4-6 



Part of plot in crop at end of year 
(Cabbage). 



72 



REPORT 1875. 



Table IV. 



Plot. 


No. of beds 
(inclusive). 


Acreage. 


Crop. 


Date when sown or 
planted. 




J) 


It08&llt012 

13 to 16 

9 
10 & 17 

18 „ 19 

21 „ 22 
20 

I to 2Z 


2-35 

•94 
•23 

•47 
■47 
•47 
■23 

5-17 


Cabbage 


Nor. 1873 




Carrots 


April 1874 




Savoy-plauts 






Broccoli -plants 






Cabbage-plants 






Brussels sprouts 






Kohl rabi plants 

Italian rye-grass 






Sept. ,, 










Total G 




5-17 
















H 

I) 


3 to s 
8 „ 24 
1 >, 24 


•66 
486 

6-40 


Spinacli 


April 187A 




Cabbaee 


Oct. and Not. 1873 ... 
June 1 8 74 




Italian rye-grass 










Total H 




6'40 
















I 


I to 16 

17 & 18 

I to 18 


609 

•58 
6-67 


Wheat 


Feb. 1874. 




Cabbaee 


Nov. 1873 




Turnips 


Sent. 1874. 










Total I 




667 
















K 


All. 


4'44 
•82 


Mangold 


AdfiI 187A 




Spinach 


March 1875. 








Total K 




4'44 
















L 


I 

*. 3 

4 to 20 

All. 


•IS 

•29 

2'43 

2-87 


Cabbaee 


June 187A 




Savoys 






Cabbage 






Beans 


March 1875. 








Total L 




2-87 
















M 


All. 

I to 12 

13 


3-17 

2-89 

•28 


Mangold 


Ai'iril 187A 




Peas 


March 187c 




Fallow. 






Total M 




3'i7 
















N 


All. 


4-15 


Italian rye-grass 


June 1873 











ON THE TKEATMENT AND UTILIZATION OF SEWAGE. 



73 



(continued). 



Date when cut or 
gathered. 



Produce. 



Total. 



Per: 



Bemarks. 



June to Aug. 1874 ... 
Aug. and Sept. „ 

July 1874 

Aug. „ 

»; i> 

July >. 

Aug. „ 

June 1874 

May and June 1 874 . . . 
Sept. to Nov. ,, ... 

Aug. 1874 

June & July 1874 ... 

Nov. 1874 

Nov. 1874 

)i »i 

Sept. to Nov. 1874 ... 

Nov. 1874 



tons. 

39"33 
996 
165 
3-96 
3-30 
3'3o 
3'3o 



tons. 

167 

io'6 
7-2 
8-4 
7-0 
7-0 

I4-3 



Grass remains. 



64-80 



la-S 



Plot all in grass at end of year. 



1-50 

77-04 
35-20 



2-3 

15-9 

5'5 



One cutting; grass remains. 



11374 



17-8 



Plot all in grass at end of year. 



18-50 
U-18 



3'° 
19-3 



Straw 11-28 tons. 
This crop failed. 



29-68 



4-5 



Plot fallow at end of year. 



i6i'oo 



363 



Part of plot fallow at end of year, re- 
mainder sown with Spinach. 



0-75 

4-28 

16-92 



5-0 

14-8 

7-0 



21-95 



77 



Plot all sown with Beans at end of 
year. 



121-00 



382 



Crop remains. 



121-00 



38-2 



Part of plot sown with Peas at end 
of year. 



Apr. i874toMar.i875 



229"35 



55-3 



Grass ploughed in at end of year. 



74 



llEPORT 1875. 



Plot. 



No. of beds 
(mclusive). 



Acreage. 



Crop. 



Table IV. 



Date ■when sown or 
planted. 



O 



All. 



5'9'^ 



Onions . 
Broccoli , 

Wheat , 
Rape .... 
Oats .... 

Wheat , 
Beans 

Wheat , 
Oziers . 
Beans 

Rhubarb 

Wheat . 
Rape .... 
Oats ... 

Wheat , 
Beans 

Wheat , 
Rape ... 
Peas ... 



March 1874 
June „ 

Feb. 1874 ... 
Sept. 1874... 
March 1875. 

Feb. 1874 ... 
March 1875. 

Feb. 1874 ••• 
Jan. 1873 ... 
March 1875. 

Feb. 1873 ... 

Feb. 1874 •■■ 
Sept. 1874 
March 1875. 

March 1874 
„ 187s- 

March 1874 
Sept. „ 
March 1875. 



^otal O 



5'9^ 



All. 



3-50 
3-50 
3"So 



Total P 



Q 



3'So 



All. 



a"34 
2-34 



Total Q 



R 



Part. 



2-34 



2-40 
•12 

2*40 



Total E 



U 



2'52 



All. 



•22 



All. 



a'53 

2'53 
2'53 



Total U 



2'53 



AH. 



5"93 
5"93 



Total V 



W 



5'93 



All. 



2-75 
2-75 
2-75 



Total W 



275 



ON THE TREATMENT AND UTILIZATION OP SEWAGE. 



75 



(continued). 





Date when cut or 
gathered. 


Produce. 


Bemarks. 




Total. 


Per acre. 




Aug. and Sept. 1874... 


tons. 

55-63 

6-43 


tons. 

9'4 
I'l 


Planted where Onions were scarce. 






62'o6 


lo-s 


Plot fallow at end of year. 








Xucf. 187A 


5-57 


1-6 


3-47 tons straw. 
The Eape-seed failed. 










5-57 


1-6 


Plot in seed at end of year. 








Auer. 1874. 


5-i6 


2*2 


4-04 tons straw. 










S-i6 


2'2 


Plot sown with Beans at end of year. 








Auff. 1874. 


5-56 

•71 


2-3 

5-9 


Straw 4-33 tons. 

One cutting; Oziers remain. 




Deo. , 










6'27 


a-5 


Plot nearly all sown with Beans at 
end of year. 








Anril 187J. 


0-45 


2'0 


Ehubarb remains. 








Auff. 187J. 


6-75 


27 


4'o5 tons straw. 
The Rape-seed failed. 














6-75 


27 


Plot fallow till end of year, then sown 
with Oats. 








Oct. 1874 


179 


0*3 


1-15 ton straw. Only one acre of crop 

ripened, 

« 










179 


0-3 


Plot aU. sown with Beans at end of 
year. 






« 




6-58 


2-4 


4-33 tons straw. 
The Rape-seed failed. 














658 


2-4 


Plot fallow at end of year, then sown 
with Peas. 







76 



REPOKT 1875. 











Table IV 




Plot. 


No. of beds 
(inclusive). 


Acreage. 


Crop. 


Date when sown or 
planted. 




J9 


All. 


3-86 

3-86 


Wheat 


March 1874 






>, 1875- 








Total X 




3-86 
















Y 


All. 
11 


5'6o 
5-60 


Hav 


Permanent grass 

1) »» 




Grass-meadow 








Total Y 




5'6o 

















ON THE TREATMENT AND UTILIZATION OF SEWAGE. 



17 



(continued). 





Date when cut or 
gathered. 


Produce. 


Eemarks. 




Total. 


Per acre. 




Oct. 1874 


tons. 
179 


tons. 
0-5 


1 • 1 5 ton Btraw. Only one acre of crop 
ripened. 










179 


0-5 


Plot all sown with Beans at end of 
year. 








June 1874 


lyoo 
i4'oo 


3-0 


One cutting. Plot used for grazing 
October and No-vember, Quantity 
grazed computed. 




Oct. and Nov. 1874 ... 






3 1 "00 


s-s 









78 



REPORT — 1875. 

Table V. — Breton's Sewage-Farm. 
Season 1874-75. — Summary of Cropping Eetum. 



Plot, 



A 
B 

C 
D 
E 
F 
G 

H 
I 
K 
L 

M 
N 

P 
Q 

E 

S 

u 

V 

w 

X 
Y 



Acreage. 



* 9'8o 
i2'ia 

1-97 
6-93 
576 
3-82 
5'i7 

6-40 
6-67 

4"44 
2-87 

3'i7 

*4-iS 

5-92 

rs° 

2-34 

2'52 
0'22 
^•53 

S'93 
275 
3-86 
5'6o 



1 08 "44 



Crops. 



Italian rye-grass 



Carrots, broccoli, cabbage, kohl rabi, 
hardy greens, peas, and Brussels 
sprouts. 



Cabbage 

Mangold 

Wheat and Italian rye-grass , 

Wheat, hardy greens, and savoys 



Cabbage, carrots, savoys, broccoli, Brus- 
sels sprouts, and kohl rabi. 

Spinach, cabbage, and Itahan rye-grass. . 

Wheat and cabbage 

Mangold 

Cabbage and savoys 

Mangold 

Italian rye-grass 

Onions and broccoli 

Wheat 

Wheat 

Wheat and oziers , 

Rhubarb 

Wheat 

Wheat 

Wheat 

Wheat 

Hay and meadow-grass 



Produce. 



Total. 



Total 



tons. 
640'24 

230-57 



32-97 
341-00 
25-91 
17-50 
64-80 

1 1374 
29-68 

161-00 
21-95 

121-00 

229-35 
62-06 

5'57 
S-16 

6-27 
0-45 
6-75 
1-79 
6-58 
1-79 
31-00 



Per acre. 



2157-13 



tons. 
653 

19-0 



16-7 
49-2 

4-5 
4-6 

12-S 

17-8 

4'5 
36-3 

77 
38-2 

SS'3 

10-5 

1-6 

2-2 

25 

2-0 

27 
0-3 
2-4 
0-5 
S'5 



19-9 



See Note at foot of Table VI. 



ON THE TREATMENT AND UTILIZATION OF SEWAGE. 



7© 



Table YI. — Breton's Sewage-Farm. 

Summary of Crops gathered from March 25, 1874, to March 24, 1875, 
showing the quantity of each kind of Produce and Nitrogen contained therein. 



Crop. 



Italian rye-grass 
Grass (meadow) 

Hay 

Oziers 

Cabbage 

Hardy greens.... 

Savoys 

Brussels sprouts 

Broccoli 

Spinacli 

Kohl Eabi 

Peas 

Carrots 

Mangold 

Onions 

Wheat 

Rhubarb 



Total 
acreage 
of each 
descrip- 
tion of 

crop. 



*26-ii 

5-60 

0'12 
21 '46 

S-io 

1-36 

i'4o 

2'00 

0-66 
©•23 
278 

479 
i4"S4 

5"9a 
38-13 

0-22 



1 30-42 



Produce of each crop. Total Nitrogen estimated 

to be in crops. 



Total. 



tons. 
9i6'3i 

i4'oo 

1 7 '00 

o'yi 

3oi'ii 

29'i6 

14-42 

8-40 
13-69 

1-50 

4-05 

fpeas 2-12 
\ straw 6-33 

76-57 
623-00 

55-63 
/grain 26-01 
\ straw 46-67 

0-4S 



2157-13 



Per acre, 



tons. 
35'i 

2-5 

3'° 

59 

14-0 
5-8 

10-6 
6-0 
6-8 

2-2 
17-6 

0-8 

2-3 
16-0 

42-8 

9'4 

0-7 

1-2 

2-0 



i6-5 



Per cent, 



0-54 
0-54 



0-25 
0-25 
0-25 
0-25 
0-25 
0-25 

0-375 

3 "40 
0-80 

O-20 
0-25 

0-22 

1-80 "I 
0-60 J 



Total. 



lbs. 
11,084 

169 

761 

1,686 

163 

81 

47 

77 

8 

34 
161 
113 

343 

3.489 

274 

1,676 



20,166 155 



Per acre. 



lbs. 
424 

30 

136 

78 
32 
60 
34 
38 
12 
148 

} 98 

72 

240 

46 

44 






* This acreage of Italian rye-gi'ass includes not only the 13-95 ""res of plots A and N 
(marked » in Table V.), on which the regular crops for the year's use were grown, but also 
the 12- 16 acres of plots E and H (see Table V.), which were sown according to the usual 
practice for the followiug year's use, and from which only a first light cutting was taken. 



80 



REPORT — 1875. 



Table YII. — Bretoti's Sewage-Farm. 
Statement of Land in crop and Land lying fallow on March 24, 1875. 



Plot. 


Acreage. 


Area in 
crop. 


Area 
fallow. 


Comparison. 






acres. 


acres. 




A 


980 


9-80 






B 


IZI2 




12-12 


In crop. Fallow. Total, 
acres, acres, acres. 


C 


1-97 


1-97 




March 24, 1872 ... 40-49 63-39 103-88 
„ „ 1873 ... 87-62* 19-93 107-55 


D 


6-93 


6-93 




„ „ 1874... 8909* 1935 108-44 






,• » 1875 ... 79-40* 29-04 108-44 


E 


576 


376 






F 


3-82 


339 


•43 






G 


S'ly 


S-I7 






H 


6-40 


6 '40 




* As pointed out last year, the area de- 
scribed as " in crop " comprises most of the 


I 


667 




6-67 


sprmg sowings. 


K 


4'44 


•82 


3-62 


On March 24th, 1873, about 22 J acres. 

n >» )» ^"74 '» 3" " 


L 


2-87 


2'87 




)) » )> '875 ,, 32 „ 
Moreover, on the last date there were 


M 

N 


3-17 
4-15 


2-89 
4*15 


•28 


14 acres of grass which was immediately 
after ploughed in. Practically, therefore, 
in considering the above comparison, 46 
acres should be deducted from the area " in 





5-92 




5-9* 


crop" March 24, 1875. 


P 


3-50 


3-50 






Q 


a-34 


2-34 






R 


2-52 


2-52 






s 


•22 


•22 






u 


2-53 


2-53 


• ih.** 




V 


5-93 


5-93 






w 


275 


27s 






X 


3-86 


386 






Y 


5-60 


5-60 








108-44 


79-40 


29-04 



ON PALESTINE EXPLOIUTIONS. 



81 



Fifth Note on the Dry Earth System. 

Dr. Gilbert has, in continuation of the series of results recorded in former 
Reports, furnished the Committee with the determination of tlie nitrogen 
(by the soda-limo process) in soil which has now passed through a Moule's 
earth-closet six times. The results of the series are as follows : — 





Before 
used. 


After 
using 
once. 


After 
using 
twice. 


After 
using 
three 
times. 


After 
using 
four 
times. 


After 

using 

five 

times. 


After 
using 

six 
times. 


Percentage of nitro- "1 
gen in soil dried I 
at 100° C 


0-073 


0-240 


0-3S3 


0-446 


0-540 


0-614 


0-716 



The increase in the percentage of nitrogen (determinable by the soda-lime 
method) was therefore, by each use, as follows : — 



1 

1 


After 
using 
once. 


After 
using 
twice. 


After 
using 
three 
times. 


After 
using 
four 
times. 


After 

using 

five 

times. 


After 

using 

six 

times. 


Increase in the percentage ] 
of nitrogen in soil dried |- 
at 100° C 


0-167 


0-143 


0-063 


0-094 


0-074 


0-102 









The gain of nitrogen so indicated was therefore greater by the ixth than 
by any previous use of the soil since the first and second. The average gain 
was, however, only 0-11 per cent, by each use. 

As last year, so again this, Dr. llusaell has determined the amount of 
nitrogen existing as nitrates in the soil. Last year, after the soil had been 
passed through the closet five times, the amount of nitrogen as nitrates was 
found to be 0-20 per cent, on the soil calculated as fully dried ; and now, 
after passing through six times, it is found to be 0-254. 

The additional results now recorded do not in any way disturb the con- 
clusions previously arrived at by the Committee as to the value of the 
manure obtained from an earth-closet. For this, and for their opinion of 
the .system in its other aspects, they would refer to their former lleports 
(III. pp. 187 & 188, IV. p. 143, V. pp. 413 & 439, YI. pp. 213 & 214). 



Report of the Committee, consisting of Major Wilson, R.E.,and Mr. 
E,.\VEN STEIN, appointed for the purpose of furthering the Palestine 
Explorations, 

The sum of .£100, granted at the last Meeting of the British Association for 
the purpose of furthering the Palestine Explorations, was paid over by Major 
Wilson to the Palestine Exploration Eund, with a request that the wishes of 
1875. G 



8^ REPORT 1875. 

the General Committee of the Association, as expressed in their Resolution, 
might be carried out. 

No complete account of the work of the last twelve months has yet been 
received from Lieut. Conder, E.E., the officer in charge of the Survej- ; but 
from his monthly reports to the Committee of the Fund, it would appear that, 
since the grant of £100 was made, the triangulation of Palestine has been 
carried southwards as far as Beersheba, and that a large tract of interest- 
ing country, including the plain of Philistia and the southern slopes of the 
mountains of Judah, has been surveyed and plotted on a scale of one inch to 
a mile. 

Amongst other results have been the recovery of several ancient sites, and 
the corrections of many errors in the topography of Southern Palestine, 

Lieuts. Conder and Kitchener, E..E., were recently engaged in running a 
line of levels from the Mediterranean to the Sea of Galilee ; but this work 
was unfortunately stopped by the attack made upon Lieut. Conder and his 
party by the people of Safed. 

Lieut. Conder, who was badly wounded, has been unable to send a full 
report on the levelling; but in a letter written shortly before the affray he 
mentioned that more than ten miles, or about one third of the levelling, had 
been completed, and gave some details of the manner in which the work was 
being carried out. The line of levels was being run by two independent 
observers (non-commissioned officers from the Ordnance Survey) ; bench- 
marks were being cut at frequent intervals, and their position fixed by a line 
of traverse survey from the Mediterranean to the Sea of Galilee, which will 
be laid down on the one-inch survey. 

Lieut.-Gen. Sir Henry James, the Director-General of the Ordnance Survey, 
was kind enough to lend instrument? for the work, and he has taken much 
interest in its progress. 

In consequence of the attack on the Survey party and the spread of cholera, 
it has been decided to withdraw Lieut. Conder and his staff from Palestine for 
the present ; but as soon as the Survey is recommenced the levelhng will be 
completed. 



Third Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Harkness, 
Prof. Prestwich, Prof. Hughes, Rev. H. W. Crosskey, Prof. W. 
Boyd Dawkins, Messrs. C. J. Woodward, George Maw, L. C. 
MiALL, G. H. Morton, one? J. E. Lee, appointed for the purpose of 
recording the position, height above the sea, lithological characters, 
size, and origin of the more important of the Erratic Blocks of 
England and Wales, reporting other matters of interest connected 
with the same, and taking measures for their preservation. Drawn 
up hij the Rev. H. W. Crosskey, Secretary. 

The Committee have received many valuable contributions regarding the 
occurrence and distribution of Erratic Boulders, The inquiry is not yet 
sufficiently exhaustive in its details to permit of any generalization ; and the 
Committee find it necessary to continue their record without attempting as 
yet to connect the facts they report with theories of the history of the glacial 
epoch. 

It will be observed, however, (1) that our knowledge of the extent of 



ON THE ERRATIC BLOCKS OF ENGLAND AND WALES. 83 

country over which erratic blocks are distributed is considerably increased ; 
(2) that the erratic blocks arc connected together more clearly in definite 
groujis, distinctly jiointing to special centres of distribution; (3) that the 
grouping and distribution of the blocks are throwing light upon the periods 
into which the glacial epoch must be divided. 

Devonshire. 

Mr. W. Pengelly, F.R.S., F.G.S., reports the following particulars regard- 
ing boulders and scratched stones in South Devonshire. 

1. The New Bed Sandstone boulders of Waddeton. 

These occur on the left bank of the river Dart, from 3 to 4 miles north 
of Dartmouth, on the estate of Mr. Studdy. Between the Dart and Wad- 
deton Court, and within sight of the latter, three subangular masses are 
imbedded in the soil. So far as it is visible, the largest measures 6 feet 
by 3 feet, and the others are not much smaller. 

They occupy the augailar points of an isosceles triangle, of which the base, 
having the direction N". 78° W. to S. 78° E. magnetic, is 30 paces long, 
whilst the sides are about 50 paces each. In an orchard are numerous pits 
whence boulders have been dug up from time to time, and one specimen in 
situ measures 3 feet long and 2 broad. In the front garden of a neighbour- 
ing farmhouse is an undisturbed boulder. That portion of it which is visible 
is considerably rounded, and measures 9 feet in mean diameter ; its base is 
also weU rounded, and it lodges on undisturbed Devonian slate. This spe- 
cimen has the appearance of a transported block. Adjacent to the same 
farmhouse is the site of a boulder which has been broken up and removed 
by Mr. Studdy, and, from his description, must have been fully 10 feet in 
mean diameter. On the surface of a boulder projecting from the base of a 
hedge there are several parallel grooves, crossed by a second set also parallel 
to one another. This is the only fact suggestive of glacial scratches ; but it 
is not sufficiently pronounced to justify the opinion that the lines were due 
to such an agency. 

These boulders consist of very hard, more or less micaceous red sandstone. 
All that have been found were imbedded in the soil, and, when dislodged, 
all that portion of their surfaces which had been protected from the air was 
very soft and friable, but soon hardened on exposure. So far as has been 
noted, they all occupy areas having a slate subsoil. 

Their heights above mean tide are estimated to be generally from about 
70 to nearly 200 feet ; but a large specimen has been found not more than 
from 15 to 20 feet above low water, which appears undisturbed by man. 

The boulders being in much request by architects, on aecouut of the hard- 
ness and durability of the stone, are sent off to Dartmouth and elsewhere 
throughout a considerable district. 

Besides the sandstone boulders there are two of dolomitized limestone : one 
of them, between the Dart and "Waddeton Court, is rudely globular, and 
about 2'5 feet in mean diameter ; the other is in a field adjacent to that in 
which there is an old well covered with a red sandstone boulder. 

The following questions present themselves respecting the red boulders 
just described: — 1st. Are tlaey travelled masses? 2nd. If so, whence did 
they come ? 3rd. When were they lodged where they now lie ? 4th. What 
was the agent of transportation ? 

1st. The New Eed Sandstone system, as a continuous formation, reached 

g2 



84 KEPoiiT — 1875. 

its southern terminatioa in the fine cliff forming the northern boundary of 
(loodrington Sands, Torbay, about 2 miles in a straight line north-east 
from Waddoton ; but several " outliers " exist to the south aud west of that 
point, aud some of them far removed from it — namely, between Goodrington 
Sands and Saltern Cove, between Saltern Cove and Broad Sands, two very 
small masses near the top of the cliff between lierry Head aud Mudstono 
Bay, at the village of Slaptou on the shore of Start Bay, at Thurlestone in 
Bigbury Bay, and near Cawsand in Plymouth Sound. If these numerous 
outliers on all sides of Waddeton be taken as evidence of the denudation of 
a great volume of New Bed rocks in the south and west of Devon (and on this 
there will probably be little hesitation), it is possible that the blocks vinder 
notice may be, not travelled masses, but remnants in situ of New Bed beds 
which once covered the older formations now exclusively occupying the 
district. It is no doubt true that the form they now bear is not inconsistent 
with transportation ; and it is equally true that the waves, which possibly 
did the work of denudation, may have left them in situ and would have 
reduced them to the shape they now have. 

2nd. Neither in the New Bed Sandstone cliffs forming almost the entire 
coast of South-eastern Devon from Torbay to the confines of Dorsetshire, nor 
in any of the outliers already mentioned, with the exception of the two small 
masses near Berry Head, is there any sandstone having a hardness at all 
approaching that of the Waddeton boulders. The blocks, therefore, if they 
Jiave travelled, and if their parent beds must be pointed out, certainly connect 
themselves with the Berry-Head outliers, upwards of 4 miles off as the crow 
flies, to the exclusion of all other sources, rinless, indeed, they are fragments 
of certain weU-knowu dykes to be briefly described immediate^. Boulders 
similar to those at "Waddeton are by no means rare on the Berry-Head 
plateau ; and a large subangular mass of the same material lies at the base of 
the raised beach between Berry Head and Berry-Head House. 

The Devonian Limestone, forming the southern shore of Torbay, is tra- 
versed by almost vertical dykes of New lied Sandstone, M'hich form two 
systems, one having a direction which may be conveniently termed east and 
west, whilst the other runs from north to south. The east and Avcst system 
is well exposed at intervals from Berry Head to the railway-cutting at the 
southern end of the viaduct crossing Broad Sands, about 1-5 mile east of 
Waddeton. This body of limestone extends to Waddeton, where it termi- 
nates. It is extensively quarried at Galmpton Creek, on the right bank of 
the Dart ; but there are no traces there of such Eed Sandstone dykes as have 
been already described. 

3rd. Tlie fact that the boulders at the Churston station, on the tableland 
known as Galmpton Common, were completely buried in the soil, may be 
taken as evidence that a considerable time has elapsed since they were lodged 
there ; and this is borne out by the more or less corresponding condition of 
most of those at Waddeton. Nevertheless, if man has neither disturbed the 
specimen mentioned as occupying the very low position in the meadow nor 
those at higher levels, the general contour of the district can have undergone 
very little change since they were deposited where they now are, and the 
date of that event cannot be very remote geologically. 

4th. Assunung the boulder formerly adjacent to the farmhouse, and 
broken up by Mr. Studdy, to have been 10 feet in mean diameter, that its 
form was spherical or nearly so, and that its specific gravity Avas 2-5, or not 
above that of common stone, it must have measured upwards of 500 cubic 
feet and weighed fully 36 tons. It is no doubt possible for such Mavcs as 



ON THE EKKATIC BLOCKS OF ENGLAND AND WALES. 85 

occasionally break on the British coast to move a mass having this volume 
and weight; but it maybe safely concluded that they could never have 
transported it across a submarine valley having a depth at all approaching 
that of the valleys which now separate "VVaddeton from any area at present 
occupied by the New lied Sandstone formation. The very soft and friable 
character of their surfaces when first dug out of the soil renders it eminently 
improbable that if they had ever borne glacial scratches they could have 
retained them, aud forbids the attempt to come to any conclusions from the 
more absence of such marks. 

The difi<erent levels at which they are found, the present configuration of 
the siirfacc of the district, and the great weight of some of them, gives pro- 
bability to the opinion that the boulders have reached Waddeton from some 
part of the district lying between Berry Head and Galmpton. Common, and 
that they were transported by ice, although no certain decision can as yet be 
reached. 

2, The Scratched Stones of Englehourne. 

Mr. Pengelly reports that, under the guidance of Mr. Paige-Brown, he 
examined these scratched stones. 

The stones in situ were eight in number, all in that part of Mr. Paige- 
Brown's property known as " Wise's Englebourue." The first was in " The 
Meadow," aud all the others in a field called " Great Yackland." They are 
all of fine-grained trap, of close texture, and extremely tough ; one of them, 
which has been broken, displays a schistose fracture, and may be a trap ash. 
Their heights above mean tide do not differ vcrj' much, and are estimated at 
about 100 feet. The lowest specimen is about 6 feet above the bottom of 
the valley. 

No. 1, near the lower gateway of " The Meadow," measures 2-5 feet in 
length, 1"5 in greatest breadth, and at least 1 foot in depth. No attempt 
was made to ascertain to what depth it penetrated the soil. It is angular, 
the upper surface smooth, with the edges and ridges ro\mded off, which is 
not the case with the lateral faces. There are numerous grooves on it, quite 
distinct but not sharp ; aud whilst most of them are sensibly parallel, and 
have the direction S. 40° E. and N. 40° W, magnetic, a few cross them in 
different directions. 

No. 2 (the first we inspected in " Great Yackland ") has had a portion 
broken off recently, but its further destruction was stayed by the proprietor. 
The remnant is larger than No. 1, and it is much more rounded than that 
mass. It has on it two sets of parallel grooves, one having the direction of 
E. 10° N. and W. 10° S. magnetic, whilst those of the second or less nu- 
merous set cross them in the direction of the magnetic meridian. 

No. 3, not far from No. 2, is subangular, and has numerous grooves, all in 
the direction N. 20° W. to S. 20° E. magnetic. 

No. 4, a short distance from Nos. 2 and 3, has probably been disturbed by 
man. It has two systems of parallel grooves. 

No. 5, near No. 4, has also two systems of parallel grooves. 

No. 6, also near No. 4, does not appear to bear any grooves. 

No. 7 is some distance south of the group 4, 5, and 0. Its length and 
breadth are nearly equal; some of its edges are partially rounded, and it has 
two systems of parallel grooves. 

No. 8, near No. 7, has an almost square upper face, and docs not appear 
to be scratched. 

Of all the specimens No. 2 is the largest and, undoubtedly, the most iu- 



86 REPORT — 1875. 

teresting ; and No. 1 ia probably the next in interest. They all rest on a 
slate subsoil, •which crops up in certain places. 

That the stones have travelled some distance there cannot be a doubt ; for 
whilst they are detached and trappean, they occupy an area having slate as 
its subsoil. 

That thoy have not travelled far is highly probable, from the fact that trap 
occurs ill situ on almost every side of Englebom-ne, at distances varying from 
3 miles to 2-2 miles, to say nothing of numerous remoter masses. Of those 
in the immediate neighbourhood, one of the largest, about 1*6 mile north, 
measures 1"7 mile in length by 3 miles in greatest breadth, and is separated 
by the little river Harber from a much smaller mass on the west side of that 
stream. 

Their size is so inconsiderable as to leave no room for doubt as to their 
mobility imder the action of waves or violent floods ; but to this mode of 
transport there is the grave objection that, with the exception of No. 2, they 
are not suificiently rounded, even though due allowance is made for their 
hard and tough character. 

It appears impossible to account for the grooves otherwise than by sup- 
posing them to have been produced by ice-transportation. That the famous 
granite boulder of Barnstaple Bay was ice-borne was shown in a previous 
licport. That Bovey Heathfield was, during a very recent geological period, 
cold enough to be the habitat of the arctic and alpine Betula nana is a well- 
established fact, and the thick accumulation known as the " Head " on Bovey 
Heathfield is explicable on the glacial rather than on any other hypothesis ; 
and were it not that glacial scratches have never been detected on the lofty 
tors of Dartmoor, where, if anywhere in Devonshire, they might have been 
expected, rather than on the low grounds about Engiebourne, more certainty 
would attach to the opinion that these scratched stones are proofs of glacial 
conditions in South Devon, aud that, as such, they contribute largely to the 
solution of the problem of the New Eed Sandstone boulders of Waddeton, 
from 5 to 6 miles further east. 

Heetfokdshiee. 

Mr. E. P. Greg, F.G.S., reports a group of small boulders in the parish of 
Westmill, near Buntiugford, in the N.E. of Hertfordshire, and 30 miles due 
north of Greenwich. 

About 1 foot aud 2| feet. Several found in same field, some 50 yards or 
BO apart. 

Much rounded to subaugular, angular, and slightly oblong in general form. 

No groovings or striations visible. 

Nearest point certainly Derbyshii'o. 

90 to 100 miles distant exactly N.E. 

The boulders are composed of ordinary Mountain-limestone. 

320 feet above sea ; about 70 feet above river Rib. 

No others have been noticed in Hertfordshire, except three or four in tliis 
cue field, which lies in a slope, with east aspect, about 70 feet above the 
river Eib, which runs here to the south. 

The boulders in question were not exposed on the surface, but turned up 
in draining. Drains 3 feet deep. Soil a clayey loam overlying the chalk, 
which in these parts is more or less covered with clay and gravel to depths 
of 6 inches to 30 feet or more. 



ON THE ERRATIC BLOCKS OF ENGLAND AND WALES. 87 

No'XTINGnAMSHIEE. 

The Committee has been favoured -with the following report from the Eev. 
A. Irving, P.G.S., of the High School, Nottingham. 

1. The boulder and clay deposits herein referred to are scattered over higher 
parts of the imdulating country of the parishes of Plumtreo, >Stanton-on-the- 
"Wolds, Kegworth, and Widmerpool, in South Notts. The new line of rail- 
way, along which they are exposed at present, may be traced on the map 
running to the west of Plumtree, then converging towards the turnpike-road 
from Plumtree to Over Broughton. The line runs for several miles near 
and almost parallel to this road. 

2. The dimensions of the largest boulder measured are 4| x 2 x 1 feet. It 
is of Lias limestone, and near the surface of the ground at the top of the hill 
through which passes the cutting between Stanton and Plumtree. 

The smallest boulders are not bigger than a man's fist. 
Quartzite pebbles of all sizes (as if from the Banter) also abound in the 
boulder-deposits. 

3. Those of the Lias limestone are generally angular or only slightly sub- 
angular. 

Those of MiLLstono-grit or Carboniferous limestone are generally rounded 
very much. 

4. The direction of the longest axis of the largest boulder mentioned, 
and of several others observed in the same section, was very nearly duo N. 
and S. 

5. (a) The strice are numerous on certain boulders, but not on any very 
great proportion of them. They are generally several inches in length, and 
seldom exceed a lino in depth. 

{b) The striae are very variable with respect to the parts of the boulders 
striated. 

(c) The striae are generally in the direction of the longest axes. 

6. (1) The boulders of Lias limestone, which greatly preponderate, are 
derived, in all probability, from the Liassic strata of the immediate neighbour- 
hood, upon which (as shown in the works of the tunnel at Stanton) the 
boulders partly lie. (2) The nearest Millstone-grit is found at Castle Ben- 
nington and Stanton-by-Dale, in Derbyshire, on opposite sides of the Trent 
valley ; the former place 12 miles south of west, the latter 12 mUes north 
of west from the deposits in which they now occur. (3) The nearest Car- 
boniferous limestone which corresponds precisely with that of the boulders 
is at TicknaU, in Derbyshire, about 18 miles distant south of west. 

8, The height of the group above the sea is about 200 feet. 

9. The extent of boulder and clay deposits is at least several square mUes, 
if we include the vast accumulation of drift which caps the tops of aU the hills 
about the district, and is exposed in the road-cuttings as well as on the rail- 
way. In the cutting between Plumtree and Stanton the boulders are largest 
and most numerous, and are mingled with an immense number of quartzite 
pebbles, the whole being in some places so completely bound together as to 
be almost conglomeratic. In the tunnel (near Stanton) 70 feet of a true 
boulder-clay are passed through ; but in this the large (Lias) boulders occur 
less frequently, and the pebbles are more thinly scattered. This tunnel 
penetrates the hiU between Stanton and Bank House (Ord. map). The same 
kind of clay-deposit (or drift) is cut through by the cutting close to Kowhac 
Cover and by that near "Widmerpool New Inn. This clay is extremely 
tenacious. 



88 REPORT— 1875. 

10. Very few of the boulders are found at the surface. 

In that which is most characteristically a houlder-de'posit (between Plum- 
tree and (Stanton) the boulders are covered entirely by a later drift-deposit, 
composed mainly of red marl, as if from the Xeuper, mingled with a smaller 
proportion of Lias clay, and containing a few specimens of rolled Gryplicea. 
Here the boulder- deposit fills up a hollow in the Ehsetie beds, the erosion of 
the strata having gone entirely through the Avicula-contorta beds into the 
blue-grey marls below. At the tunnel and further south the boulder-clay 
rests upon the Lias. 

Leicestekshibe. 

Mr. J. Plant reports the following : — 

Bloclc of ijorphyritic granite at SJwkcrstone, near Gopsall Parle. 5x4x1^ 
feet. Height above the sea about 350 feet. No scratches or striae are at 
present visible, the block having been greatly worn by human agency. 
Identical in composition with the porphyritie greenstone of Whitwick, near 
ColviUc, at the N.E. end of Charnwood Porest, 7 miles from its present site. 
At the same village great numbers of blocks of all sizes (granite, syenite, 
greenstone, basalt) are to be found in the foundations of old houses, wells, 
and churches. 

Numerous Charnivood-Forest hoidders, 7 miles due north of Mt. Sorrel, at 
Normanton, on spar. 

There is no doubt (as pointed out in a previous Eeport) that Charnwood 
Porest was a centre of distribution by ice of blocks of all sizes. 

BJoel- of Milhtone-ffrii at Holy, iiear Melton, about 3x3x3 feet. This 
grit is of peculiar composition, and full of large rounded pieces of quariz. It 
must have come from Durham and Northumberland, 

WoECESTEESHIEE. 

Bromsgrove district. — Ninety-three boulders have been examined in this 
district, many of them of considerable size. In addition to a few derived 
from local rocks, they appear to consist of three varieties of fclspathic rock — 
(1) one variety compact, (2) one with small porphyritie crystals, and (3) 
one a decided ash. The colour of the rock is dark grey to light grey, some- 
times with a greenish tinge, but generally bluish. Evidences abound of a 
very great destruction of boulders in this district from time immemorial. 
Many have been buried to get them out of the way, and many broken up 
for building-purposes. It is impossible, therefore, to generalize upon their 
distribution ; but in the mean time it is very noticeable that no specimens 
of granite boulders have yet been observed in the Bromsgrove district, 
although they occur so abundantly around Wolverhampton. The following 
is a list of the principal boulders in this locality. The Committee are 
under great obligations to Mr. G. Dipple, of Pord House, for his invaluable 
assistance. 

Compact felstone (C. P. below), 2x2x 3ft., 275 feet above sea, corner of 
new road near station. 

Pelstoue with quartz, 272 feet above sea, three fragments close to railway 
bridge. 

C. P., 2x2x2 ft., 276 feet above sea, three boulders with fragments near 
Pinstal House. 

Pclspathic ash (P. A. below), 5 X 3| X 3 ft., 280 feet above sea. Another 
100 yards up the E. road, 3x2 x 1| ft., with four smaller. 

P. A., 3i X 3i X U ft., Webb's farm. 



ON THE ERRATIC ULOCKS Ol' ENGLAND AND WALES. 89 

C. F. (almost hornstone), 2 x 1| X 1 ft., near Stoke Elm and canal bridge ; 
another (iclstono) near Meadow .Farm. 

F. A. (greenish), 21" x 14" x 12", on road from Hanbury to Stoke, Avith 
two fragments of Weulock limestone. 

F. A., 18" X 15" X 9", opposite Stoke church, with others smaller. 

F. A. (horny), 5|' X 4' x 2' 4", 273 feet above sea, at Fringe Green. 

Fclstono (or ash?), six small, on new road to Bromsgrove, 270 feet above sea. 

Felstone (or ash ), five small, 292 feet above sea, near police station. 

Others similar at corner of Old Station Street, Hobbis's Yard, Chapel 
Street, Mill Lane, Alcester Road, &c., at heights from 282 to 296 feet. 

Felspar porphyrite (F. P. below), 4' 8" x 2' 6" x 1' 9", 410 feet above sea, 
Dog Lane, Catshill. 

F. A., 3' X 2' X 1' 8", 415 feet above sea, near Canister, with another 
almost as large. 

F. P., 6' 9" X 2' 9" X 1' 6", 585 feet above sea, near "Woodrow, at corner of 
road to Lydgate Ash. 

F. P., 8' 5" X 4' X 2', angular, 700 feet above sea, near "Whetty. 

Permian breccia, small boulders near Burcott. 

Felspathic ash, light grey, 3' x 2' X 1|', 380 feet above sea, at Burcott. 

Dolerite (? Eowley rag), 2' X 1' 6" x 1', 280 feet above sea, corner of Perry 
Hall, opposite church, subangular; another, half a ton weight, reported as 
buried near. 

F. A., with quartz veins, subangular, 4' x 2' x 1' 3" and 3' x 1' 3" x 1' 3", 
with a large one, more than half buried, near Halfway House ; 100 yards 
further, near gate, four others: — 2' x 1' G" x 1' 3", bluish ash, porphyritic; 
2' 6" X 1' 3" X 1' 3", almost hornstone ; and two smaller F. A. 

F. A., a group of nine, near the cross roads, Woodcote Farm ; largest 
4' X 2' 4" X (boulder half buried), and 4' x 3' 6" x 1' 10", subangular or angular. 

F. A. (subangular), 3' 9" x 2' 9" X 2' 6", road into Ean Dan Woods. 

Many others are found in walls, and some of great size are reported 
buried thoughout the district. 

Mr. C. J. Watson has pointed out a group of boulders between Northfield 
and King's Norton. They occur in an excavation immediately above the 
letter d of Northfield on the Ordnance Map. Eleven large and some smaller 
are found within a radius of 20 yards ; and many others are scattered through 
the fields immediately arormd and extending towards the railway. They are 
of felstone and felspathic ash. The specific gravity of one of them was 2-63. 
The following are the measurcmentsof the largest of the group: — F., 6' x 4' x 3' ; 
F., 4'G"x2'x2'; F.A., 2'xl'6"xl'; F. P., 3' 4" x2' x 1' ; r.,6'x2'6" 
X (buried) ; F., 5' X 3' X 2' &' ; F., 2' 10" X 2' 4" x 1' 11" ; F., 4' 4" x 3' &' 
X (buried) ; F., 6' x 3' X 2' ; F., 2' 4" x 1' 8" x V. 

llev. J. M. L. Aston, Vicar of King's Norton, reports a group of boulders 
of greenish felstone, some of which are worked into the masonry of the 
fonndation of the church-tower and others imbedded in rubbish. They are 
subangular, and the exposed surfaces are often rounded. The largest is 
6'x4' 6"xr C". 

A boulder of compact felstone has been found in Cannon Hill Park, Bir- 
mingham, G' X 4' 3" X 4', rounded in parts and subangular, and to some extent 
smoothed and polished. It was dug out of valloy-drift in making a lake. 

These Worcestershire felspathic boulders are probably from AValcs. They 
are in positions which indicate that they have dropped from floating ice rather 
than been deposited by land-ice. Signs of land-ice in the Midlands must be 
looked for in boulder-clays at considerable depths beneath the general drift. 



90 KEPORT — 1875. 

Lancashiee. 

Mr. Morton reports the following cases of isolated boulders :— 

1. Hacking Hey, near Liverpool Exchange, parish of Liverpool. 
4ft. 6in.x3ft. 3in.x2ft. 

Kounded or subangnlar. 

It was found in an excavation in the boulder-clay, and has since been 
placed in front of the Museum, in "William Brown Street, half a mUo from 
its original position. 

Striated lengthways on one of longest sides. 

Striae on one side only. 

Striations parallel with the longer axis. 

Composed of felspathic breccia. 

Original position in the clay, 30 feet above the sea. 

Originally imbedded in the boulder-clay. 

2. Kensington, near Liverpool (2 miles), parish of West Derby. Rounded 
boulder. 

5ft. 6tn.x4ft.x2ft. 

It was found in the boulder-clay close by, and placed close to the rock 
in its present jiosition. 

Greenstone diorite in a decomposed state. 
About 200 feet above the sea. 
Originally imbedded in the boulder-clay. 

3. Leasowe Castle, parish of Wallasey. A long rounded mass. 

6 ft. 6 in. X 3 ft. X 3 ft. 

It has been drawn up from the shore (which is boulder-clay), and de- 
posited, with two others, in the grounds in front of Leasowe Castle. 

Greenstone diorite, a rock of common occurrence in the boulder-clay 
around Liverpool. It has a strong tendency to exfoliate, and contains the 
mineral isorine. 

It was found several feet below high-water mark. 

It was probably imbedded in the boulder-clay, and exposed by denudation. 

4. Leasowe Castle, parish of WaUasey. Eounded boulder. 
7ft.x7ft.x3ft. 

It has been drawn up from the shore (which is boulder-clay), and depo- 
sited, with two others, in the grounds in front of Leasowe Castle. 
Striated on part of the longest sides. 
A striated surface, 3 ft. X 7 ft. x 7 ft. 
Grey syenite. 

It was found several feet below high-water mark. 
It was probably imbedded in the boulder-clay, and exposed by denudation. 

5. Leasowe Castle, parish of WaUasey. A worn flat mass, subangnlar. 

7 ft. X 7ft. X 2 ft. 6 in. 

It has been drawn up from the shore (which is boulder- clay), and depo- 
sited, with two others, in tho grounds in front of Leasowe Castle. 

A variety of felspathic ash, similar to the boulders which occur in tho 
neighbourhood of Llangollen ; but it is a question if it comes from the same 
region, as they are supposed to have done. 

It was found several feet below high-water mark. 

It was probably imbedded in the boulder-clay, and exposed by denudation. 



ON THK UAINFALL Or THE BHITISH ISLiSS. 91 

YOEKSHIBE. 

Mr. Gibbius reports, at the N.W. of Bradford, a few wliinstoue boulders 
similar to tho rocks at Scaw Tell, Cumberlaud, contaiuiug small garnets. 



To give completeness to their Koport, the Committee propose to catalogue 
from time to time notices of remarkable erratic blocks which may appear. 

The following papers by Mr. D. Mackintosh, F.G.S., contain notices of 
the positions, dispersion, and derivation of many boulders in the North and 
West of England and in North Wales : — ' Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc' for Nov. 
1867, Terminal Curvature of Slaty Laminse in W. Somerset; for June 1869, 
Correlation of the Drifts of N.W. Lancashire &c. ; for Nov. 1872, Sea-coast 
Section of Boulder-clay in Cheshire ; for Aug. 1873, The more remarkable 
Boulders of the N.W. of England &c. ; for Dec. 1874, Additional Eemarks on 
Boulders, with a particular reference to those of North Wales. ' Geological 
Magazine ' for Sept. 1867, Railway Geology, from Exeter to Newton Bushell 
and Moretonhampstead ; for Aug. 1870, Dispersion of ShapfeU Boulders ; for 
Oct. 1870, Origin of tho Drifts &c. of the Lake-district ; for Dec. 1870, Dis- 
persion of Criffell Granite &c. over the plain of Cumberland ; for July 1871, 
Drifts of the W. and S. borders of the Lake-district, and tho three Great 
Granitic Dispersions ; for Jan. 1872, Age of Floating Ice in North Wales ; 
for Sept. 1872, Glacial Drift of tho Central Part of the Lake-district, up to 
2800 feet above the sea ; for Feb. 1874, Section of Preglacial White Clay and 
Sand near Mold. ' Proc. of W. Eiding Geol. Soc' for 1870, Drift-deposits 
of the West Eiding of Yorkshire &c. 

The perpetual destruction of erratic blocks going on throughout the 
country renders the Committee anxious to receive further reports. Tho pro- 
blems to be solved are of large geological importance, and bear directly upon 
the extension of the ice-fields and the ocean cm-rents, the elevation and sub- 
sidence of the land, and tho divisions of the periods in the glacial epoch. 



Heport of the Rainfall Committee for the year 1874-75. The Com- 
mittee consists of C. Brooke^ F.R.S., Chairman, J. F. Bateman, 
C.E., F.R.S., Rogers Field, C.E., J. Glaisher, F.R.S., T. 
HawksleYj C.E., The Earl of Rosse, F.R.S., J. Smyth, Jun., 
C.E., C. ToMLiNSON, F.R.S., G. J. Symons, Secretary. 

Your Committee have taken all the steps in their power to complete the 
reduction al work already in hand, and have succeeded with two exceptions, 
each of which is only partial. The first, and one which is essential to the 
completeness of our work and invaluable to all future inquirers, is a list of 
all observations made in the British Isles from the earliest to the present 
time. The second is an abstract of about 800 position returns, which wiU 
indicate the value to be attached to the different current observations. Both 
of these works are in a very forward state. 

With a view to facilitate reference to our reports, and of placing before 
the Association an epitome of what we have done, our Secretary has em- 
bodied in this Report a ^precis of the rainfall work done by your Committee. 



92 



REPOKT — 1875. 



Rainfall Woek under the atjspices of ihe British Association. 

The first reference to the rainfall work which has now reached so full a 
development is a short note in the British Association Eeport, 1861, -Sections, 
page 74, which is as follows ; — 

" On British Rainfall. By Gr. J. Symons. 

" The author directed attention to the very contraiy statements current on 
the question — Is there any secular variation in the amount of British rain- 
faU? 

" After quoting several of the most important opinions, he stated that, in 
the hope of finally settling the question, he had commenced collecting all 
known rain-registers, and had already tabulated [an aggregate of] more than 
6000 years' observations. 

" He proceeded to invite criticism on the mode of discussion which he in- 
tended to adopt, and also on a proposed method of delineation, — the rainfall 
in 1860, at 241 stations in Great Britain, being laid down on a large map as 
a specimen." 

In 1862, Mr. Symons submitted a paper giving the monthly fall during 
1860-61 at 453 stations, preceded by remarks that unless all gauges were 
accurate, well placed, and their heights above the ground and above sea- 
level known, their results were not comparable. 

This could only be thoroughly ensured by gauges being visited and tested 
in situ b)^ some competent person. 

This paper also contained Tables comparing the mean rainfall of the two 
years 1860-61 with that of the ten years 1850-59, and a short one com- 
paring that of the above-mentioned ten years with several very long series 
of years. "NYc reprint this short Table, as it remarkably supports the results 
subsequently obtained by entirely different methods. 



Difference between Mean Eainfall, as obtained from long series of years and 

from the ten years 1850-59. 



Division. 


Name of Station. 


Period of 
observa- 
tion. 


Total 
number 

of 
years. 


Mean of 

the whole 

period. 


Mean of 
ten years, 
1850-59. 


Differ- 
ence 
per 
cent. 


II. 

V. 

VI. 

VIII. 

IX. 

XV. 




1815-61 
1814-61 
1831-61 
1831-61 
1829-61 
1800-61 


47 
48 
31 
31 
33 
62 


in. 
25-42 

32-80 

29-18 

46 92 

32-38 

48-31 


in. 
23-16 

31-15 

28-82 
44-10 
30-71 
45-97 


-9 
-5 
-1 
-6 
-5 
-5 


St. Thomas, Exeter.. 
Orleton, Worcester.. 
Bolton-le-Moors . . . 
Halifax 


Eothesay, Bute 



This paper was printed in twtcnso among the lleports. 



ON THE RAINFALL OF THE DRTTISH ISLES. 93 

111 1863 the only paper submitted was a short description of some ex- 
perimental gauges erected by Colonel Ward at Calnc, Wilts ; but Mr. Symons 
was requested to report upon the rainfall of the British Isles during the years 
1862 and 1863, and the sum of =£20 was placed at his disposal for the purpose 
of constructing and transmitting rain-gauges to districts where observations 
were not then made — the gauges to be sent within the British Isles, and 
the loan to be cancelled should the observations not be satisfactorily made. 

In 1864 the Report dealt with the steps taken to secure additional sta- 
tions, stated whither the gauges purchased out of the grant had been sent, 
reported the establishment, at the cost and under the personal care of Major 
Mathew, of an extensive series of stations in the Snowdonian district, as to 
the rainfall of which hardly any thing was known, and the testing in situ 
of a considerable number of rain-gauges. It concluded with the biannual 
series of tables of rainfall, viz. those for 1862 and 1863, and remarks 
thereupon. A grant of =£30 for the same purposes as in the previous year 
was passed. 

In 1865 an important Report was drawn up by Mr. Symons; it was 
divided into five principal sections : (1) what had been done prior to 1860 ; 
(2) what has been done since 1860 ; (3) what remains to be done ; (4) a 
few particulars respecting the rainfall of the last fifty j-ears and the fall in 
1864 ; (5) a list of all stations in the British Isles at which rainfall obser- 
vations were known to have been made, with details respecting them. 

Sections (1) and (5) jointly give a nearly complete history of the rainfall 
obsei-vations made in this country from their commencement in 1677 to 1864, 
and notes of publications upon the subject. Section (2) explains the steps 
taken by Mr. Symons to collect and arrange these old observations, to pub- 
lish current ones, to examine rain-gauges in situ and also, before despatch, 
to secure uniformity in records of rainy days (by the adoption of O'Ol in. of 
rain as the unit), and to secure tolerably equal geographical distribution for 
the stations. It also briefly notices the necessity for accurate determinations 
of the influence of elevation above the ground and of variations in the re- 
ceiving area, and states that experimental determination of these values was 
in progress. Also notifies the reestablishment of the mountain rain-gauges 
in the Western Lake-district and the new series in North Wales. 

Section (3) was devoted to what remains to be clone, and need not be con- 
sidered at length. Much of what was then (1865) described as necessary 
has been accomplished, and will therefore be subsequently mentioned ; but 
quite as much remains to be done ; e. g., the search for old records at the 
British Museum has been entirely stopped for several years, and the exami- 
nation of gauges in situ has by no means reached its proper development. 

Section (4) gave a few joarticulars respecting the rainfall of the last fifty 
years and the fall in 1864. This was the first approximation to the deter- 
mination of the fluctuation of the fall of rain over a large extent of country ; 
but as it was followed by a far more elaborate and rather difi'erent investi- 
gation, its interest is merely historical and confirmatory. At this (the 
Birmingham) Meeting (in 1865) it was resolved that Mr. Symons should 
have the assistance and support of a Committee ; and the following were the 
members originally appointed : — J. Glaisher, F.R.S., Lord AVrottesIey, 
F.R.S., Professor Phillips, F.R.S., Professor Tyndall, P.R.S., Dr. Lee, 
F.R.S., J. ¥. Bateman, P.R.S., R. W. Mylne, F.R.S., C. Brooke, F.R.S., 
G. J. Symons, Secretary. 



94 REPORT — 1875. 

In 1866 a very long Report was presented by your Committee ; the prin- 
cipal subjects may be briefly mentioned. In November 1865 a circular 
letter was sent to the Editor of nearly every newspaper published in the 
British Isles, with a request for its insertion in the next iss|ie ; the letter 
gave a brief outline of the necessity for rainfall observations) and invited 
communications from any persons who possessed old records or were willing 
to become observers. About 1400 of these circulars were issued, many 
hundred newspapers reprinted them, so that upwards of a million copies 
must have been circulated. This produced an enormous influx of letters and 
material additions, both to the store of old observations and to the list of 
current observers. The Eeport contained full details of aU the gauges ex- 
amined in situ up to that date, viz. 166 ; also short notices of a series of 
inclined and tipping-funnelled rain-gauges erected at Eotherham by Mr.' 
Chrimes, and on river-mists in the Thames valley. But the special feature 
of the Report, and one which is at present unequalled in this or any other 
country, is the determination of the fluctuation of the rainfall of England 
during 140 consecutive years, viz. from 1726 to 186.5. As all the original 
data are given in the Report, it is open to any one to verify the conclusions 
arrived at. Lastly, the Report contained the usual biannual tables of monthly 
rainfall. 

In the 1867 Report the principal fresh subjects are notes respecting the 
desirability of establishing fresh stations in the vicinity of the Peak of Derby- 
shire and in the Eastern Lake-district, of the perccH^rtf/e of annual rain 
tvhicJi falls monthly in different localities, and on an extensive system for ap- 
proximately determining the height of rain-gauge stations above sea-level. 
The Report also contains details respecting the examination of 75 stations 
visited during the year. 

The 1868 Report deals briefly with the results obtained by the inclined 
experimental gauges at Rotherham, and shows the similarity of monthly 
cm-ves representing — (1) ratio of rainfall at 25 feet to that at 1 foot ; (2) 
velocity of wind ; (3) mean angle from vertical of falling rain. It then 
notices the removal of the Calne experimental gauges to Strathfield Turgiss. 
The Report proceeds to embody the results of the discussion of about 40,000 
monthly values in order to determine the laws which regulate the monthly 
percentage of annual rainfall in different districts, and gives tabular state- 
ments of the results, and factors for eliminating the disturbing element due 
to the fact that the influence of elevation above ground varies with the time 
of year. The usual biannual tables of monthly rainfall are given, also a 
Table comparing the fall 186Q-67 with the average for 1850-59, raised by 
5 per cent, in accordance with the Table published in 1862. A valuable 
paper by Professor Phillips was printed as an Appendix, in which he dis- 
cussed the quantity of rain falling in the Lake-district. 

The 1869 Report contains — (1) a code of rules for observers ; (2) a 
sketch and description of Mr. Symons's first pattern of storm rain-gauge, 
adapted for the accurate measurement of heavy falls of rain of short dura- 
tion ; (3) an abstract and discussion of the results of the gauges erected, 
first at Calne and then at Strathfield Tiirgiss, to determine the influence of 
size and shape i;pon the amount of rain indicated by rain-gauges : there 
were twelve gauges, of which the diameters ranged from 1 to 24 inches ; and 
the final result was that, excluding the gauge 1 inch in diameter, which 
everywhere collects less pro rata than any other, the gauges while at Calne 



ON THE RAINFALL OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 95 

only difFerod 5-8 per ccut., the largest quantity being recorded by those 
gauges which "were most easily managed, viz. those 5, 6, and 8 inches in 
diameter, and that at Strathfield Turgiss they agreed still more closely, all 
but the 1-inch and 24-inch agreeing within 1'5 per cent. ; (4) the Report 
also contains the results of the visitation of 54 rain-gauge stations. 

In the autumn of 1869 our Secretary visited aud examined every rain- 
gauge station in Cornwall, and also those in the Scilly Isles, and thirty-two 
of the Devonshire stations, besides personally starting several new ones on 
Dartmoor. 

The 1870 Report deals first with the establishment of thirty new stations 
provided with instruments by this Association, then proceeds to notice the 
above-mentioned extensive examination tour, 97 stations being reported upon. 
This is followed by a brief history of experimental determinations of the de- 
crease of rainfall with height, and a detailed description and thorough ana- 
lysis of the monthly results obtained at Calne. The Report also contains the 
biannual tables for 1868-69. 

The 1871 Report calls prominent attention to the necessity which exists 
for systematic inspection of stations. It then gives a specimen of forms 
which were issued to all observers, requesting particulars of the position and 
surrounding objects of their gauges. After brief notes upon the establish- 
ment of some new stations in North Derbyshire, and upon the results of some 
experiments with " Isolated level " or " pit " rain-gauges, the Report pro- 
ceeds to notice the results of the discussion of aU British rainfall registers 
which were absolutely continuous from January 1st, 1860 to December 31st, 
1869 — (1) with reference to their bearing on the question of the existence 
or otherwise of secular variation of rainfall in the British Isles, and (2) as 
data indicative of the distribution of rain over the country. 

The 1872 Report explains the steps taken in consequence of the strong 
representations made to your Committee at Edinburgh respecting tlie neces- 
sity for additional stations in the Highlands, viz. the establishment of ten 
stations principally on the west coast, through the cooperation of the Secre- 
tary of the Scottish Meteorological Society, and of about thirty along the 
Highland and Dingwall and Skye railways, through the kindness of the 
Directors of those companies. 

It announces the presentation by this Committee to the Scottish Meteoro- 
logical Society of a set of standard measures for the complete verification of 
rain-gauges, together with the necessary note-books, the understanding being 
that the Secretary of that Society shall from time to time communicate to this 
Committee the results obtained by its employment. It concludes with a dis- 
cussion of the rainfall of the years 1870-71, and the usual biannual tables. 

The 1873 Report calls attention to the existence of many districts where 
additional stations are necessary, but suggests the postponement of any 
special effort towards their supply until the revised edition of the list of 
stations published in the Report of this Association for 1865 is completed. 
The original list has, mainly in consequence of the development of the work 
under the auspices of the Committee, become obsolete, as it does not contain 
more than two thirds of the data now collected. The new list will contain 
notes of all records known at the date of publication, and will be extremely 
valuable to future inquirers. The Report proceeds to state the result of the 
issue of the Position Inquiry forms mentioned in the 1S71 Report, upwards 



96 KEPORT — 1875. 

of 800 of which elaborate returns were received. Although these returns 
would never remove the necessity for personal inspection, which all expe- 
rience, both British and foreign, shows to be essential, yet they are ex- 
tremely valuable as showing the districts in which that inspection is 
most needed. The monthly percentage of total annual fall during the 
decade 18G0-69, as based upon more than thirty-eight thousand monthly 
amounts, is then thoroughly discussed, and the inquiry is supplemented 
by an analysis of several long registers, viz. seventeen registers which indi- 
vidually extend over 40 years, four which extend over 50 years, and one 
which exceeds 60 years. Lastlj^ the Eeport gives the details of the inspec- 
tion of 63 stations. 

The 1874 (and last) Report opens with some remarks upon the comple- 
tion of the abstracts of the position returns and the difficulty respecting their 
publication, which arises from their very voluminous nature ; it then proceeds 
to the subject of the examination of gauges in situ, and dwells with satisfac- 
tion on the number inspected. The progress of the list of stations, which has 
been upwards of five years in hand, is stated ; reference is made to the 
paiicity of stations in Ireland ; and then details are given of the inspection by 
our Secretary of the East-Cumberland mountain gauges, which were pre- 
sented to this Committee in 1869, and have since been kept in operation at 
their expense. After mentioning a few minor matters, the Eeport proceeds 
to discuss fully the exceptional rainfall of 1872 and its many unprecedented 
features. The usual biannual tables for 1872-73 are then given, and the 
Report ends with the results of the examination in situ of 77 gauges. 



The foregoing outline of the contents of our Reports will give an idea of 
the very important work which has been accomplished under the supervision 
of }'our Committee ; but no one could fully realize its amount without going 
carefully through the various branches of work and considering what eacli 
implies. We may be permitted to give one illustration. The last line of 
the above narrative states that '•' the Report ends with the results of the ex- 
amination in situ of 77 gauges.'' Now these stations range from Cumber- 
laud to Southampton, from Kent to Devon ; they are scattered over thirteen 
counties ; they include such difficultly accessible places as "VValshaw Dean, 
Halifax, Dartmoor Prison, and Mardale Green, Haweswater, and have in- 
volved at least 1500 miles of travel in order to inspect them. 

We proceed to report what occurred at Belfast in 1874 and the work 
resulting therefrom. With reference to the engineering paper on the drain- 
age of the Shannon &c., considerable attention was drawn to the small 
number of raiu stations in Ireland, which deficiency we had mentioned in 
our Report. Eventually, on our reappointment at Belfast, we were instructed 
to obtain additional stations in Ireland, and a special grant was entrusted to 
us for the purpose. 

Without entering into details respecting the steps which wo took to obtain 
additional stations, it will be sufficient to mention that they were so success- 
ful that we received 190 offers of assistance. The acceptance of all these 
offers would have involved an expenditure far beyond the funds at our dis- 
posal ; and your Committee were therefore reluctantly compelled to make a 
careful selection, resulting, however, in the establishment of 66 stations, many 
of them in localities of extreme importance. 



J 



: 







\ 











ON THE RAINFALL OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 97 

In explanation of the large number -wliich we have been enabled to erect 
ont of our small grant, we are bound to state that several have been erected 
at the expense of private individuals, that we are largely indebted to Mr. 
Eason of Dublin, who not only gratuitously transmitted all the gauges from 
London to Dublin, but also subsequently despatched them by various routes 
to the destinations directed by our Secretary. "We are also indebted to him 
for 100 copies of a map of Ireland, which has been very useful for working 
purposes, and generally for much assistance. As to the localities, they will 
bo best appreciated by reference to the map (Plate III.). In order to pre- 
vent any dereliction of duty on the part of the observers, wc have instructed 
them to report monthly ; and we are glad to say that they arc working very 
satisfactorily. We need hardly state that the organization of this large 
series of stations involved considerable expense, and occupied much time, as 
the organization of each station involved several letters. Subsequently all 
our efforts have been concentrated on the compilation of the revised edition 
of the list of stations and observations to which we have so often referred. 
We hoped that it would be completed for the present meeting, and have used 
every possible exertion to secure that object, so that we might not only show 
the Association precisely what we have done, but also, if they wish it, ter- 
minate with partial completeness our labours in connexion with the Associ- 
ation. Conscious that without accuracy scientific work is useless, we have 
had every entry extracted in duplicate and every difference rigorously ex- 
amined ; the result, however, is that we are only able to present in its per- 
fect form the list for the first six divisions, which include twenty-seven 
counties. 

The Position returns have all been carefully reduced and analyzed, but the 
final abstract of them for publication has not yet been prepared. The col- 
lection of these returns having been suggested by their eminent member Mr. 
J. F. Bateman, C.E., F.R.S., j'our Committee were desirous to consult him 
respecting the manner in which they could best be utilized, and instructed 
their Secretary to do so. Unfortunately, however, his severe illness has pre- 
vented any stejjs being taken in the matter. 

As, in the opinion of your Committee, it is not desirable that these works 
should be left in their present incomplete state, they are obliged to ask for 
reappointment. 

In conclusion, looking back over the past fifteen years, wc find among the 
work accomplished the following items : — the number of stations raised from 
241 to nearly 2000 ; the influence of size and shape on the indications of 
rain-gauges has been experimentally examined, and also the effect of height 
above ground ; the laws which regulate the seasonal distribution of rainfall 
have been ascertained ; the secular variation of annual fall has been approxi- 
mately determined ; a code of rules has been drawn up for observers ; nearly 
250 stations have been started at the cost of the Association, and 629 stations 
have been visited and the gauges examined by our Secretary. 
I AVe have obtained and supported observations on mouutain-tops and other in- 
accessible places where no observations had been made, in Cumberland, West- 
moreland, Wales, and Scotland, and also an extensive series in Ireland. 
When the works actually in hand are completed, we shall also have furnished 
an index to all observations hitherto made, and a guide to the value to be 
attached to the returns from at least a thousand observers. 

Your Committee cannot conclude without expressing their hope that, as 
the system of rain-gauges in Ireland has l)cen established with such remark- 
able success, the labours of the Committee may be continued. 
1875. H 



98 



REPORT 1875. 



EXAMINATION OF 






P? 



o -S 

M 



557- 



5S8- 



559- 



560. 



561 



562. 



563 



564. 



565. 



566, 



567- 



1874- 
Aug. 10. 



1873. 
Aug. 19 



Aug. 20. 



Aug. 21. 



Aug. 22. 



Aug. 23. 



Aug. 26, 



Sept. 6 



1S74. 

Aug. 17 



Aug. 17, 



Aug. 25 



COUNTY. 

Station. 
OWNER. 
Observer. 



SOMERSET. 

Literary Institution, Bath. 

THE INSTITUTION. 

Mr. Eiissdl. 

WILTSHIRE. 

Tytherton, Chippenham. 

MAJOR GRITTON. 

Major Gritton. 

WILTSHIRE. 

Sunnyside, Trowbridge. 

W. 'j. MANN, ESQ. 

W. J. Mann, Esq. 

WILTSHIRE. 

Alderbuiy, Salisbury. 

REV. R. 8. HUTCHING S. 

Rev. R. S. Hutchings. 

WILTSHIRE. 

Lower Woodford, Salisbury. 

H. HINXMAN, ESQ. 

H. Hi7txman, Esq. 

WILTSHIRE. 

West Dean, Salisbury. 

Rl V. W. EYRE. 

Mr. J. Moodee. 

KENT. 

Eltham Green (Field). 

E. J. C. SMITH, ESQ. 

E. J. C. Smith, Esq. 

KENT. 

Dartford (The Downs). 

R. F. JAR VIS, ESQ. 

R. F. Jarvis, Esq. 

CUMBERLAND. 

Scotby, CarUsle. 

A. SUTTON, ESQ. 

A. Sutton, Esq. 

CUMBERLAND. 

Cemetery, Carlisle. 

J. CARTMEL, ESQ. 

Mr. Bell. 

ANTRIM. 
Linen Hall, Belfast. 

Mr. Maitland. 



a 
o 
■J3 



c3 



o 
Q 



Maker's name. 



VIII. 



XII. 



XII. 



XII. 



III. 



Anon. 



Casella 



Knight 



III. 



XIL 



VIII. 



X. 



11. 



Apps 



5H 



O 60 

£3 P 



Height of 
gauge. 



Above 
ground. 



Casella 



9 a.m. 



9a.m. 



9 a.m. 



ft. in. 
8 7 



I o 



Alj ove 
sea- 
level. 



Casella o a.m 



XIL Casella 



9 a.m. 



Ncgrctti 9 a.m. I o 



Marshall 



Negrctti & Zambra 



Anon. 



o S 



I 2 



I o 



feet. 

75 



157 



190 



263 



150 



140 



80 



9 a.m. 



9 a.m. 



9 a.m. 



9 a.m. 



2 4 



o 8 



140 



114 



3° 



ON THE RAINFALL OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 



99 



RAIN-GAUGES (continued from Brit. Assoc. Rep. 


1874, p. 117). 




" "c" 


Equivalents of 


Error at 


Azimuth and an- 




8 ^• 




V, 


ater. 


scale-point 
specified in 


gular elevation of 
objects above 


Eomarks on position &c. 


S5 g a 






* s 


■^^Q II 


Scale- 


Grains. 


previous 


mouth of rain- 




i% 


« S 


point. 




column. 


gauge. 




« '^ 


in. 


in. 




in. 








6'oo 


-I 


710 
1420 


correct. 




On thermometer-stand in grounds 
of Irstitution; corrected glass 


SSI- 


6-00 


•2 


+ •001 




6-00 


•3 


2100 


+-006 




has been supplied. 




6-00 


•4 


2780 


4-'oii 








M 6-000 


•5 


3450 


-f-017 








4-95 


-I 


490 


correct. 


N.E. Shrubs, 32°. 


On lawn ; best position available. 


558. 


5-00 


-2 


9.70 


+•003 


N.W. Fir, 28". 






4-98 


■3 


1460 


+ •003 


VV. Apple, 44°. 






5-00 


■4 


i960 


+ •002 


S.&S.S.E.Trees,.32° 






M 4-983 


•5 


2460 


correct. 


N.N.W. House, 22° 






4'97 


•I 


490 


H--001 


N.N.E. Trees, 25°. 


In strawberry-bed, good open po- 


559- 


5-00 


-2 


970 


4- '004 


E.S.E. „ 25°. 


sition. 




5-00 


■3 


1470 


4--003 








foo 


•4 


1950 


+-006 








M 4-993 


•5 


2450 


+•004 








4-96 
4-98 


1 

-2 


470 
970 


+-004 
4- -002 


W.S."W.House,40''. 
W. Tree, SO''. 




560. 




4-96 


•3 


1460 


4- -002 


N.E. Trees, 30°. 






5-00 


•4 


1970 


— -001 


E. „ 36°. 






M 4-975 


■5 


2476 


— -004 








4-98 


I 


500 


— -002 


S.S.E. Trees, 38°. 


Surrounded by vegetables and not 


561. 


4'95 


•2 


1000 


— •004 


E.N.E. House, 20°. 


firmly fixed ; observer promised 




4-98 


•3 


1495 


— -005 


E. Tree, 18°. 


that this should be carefidly 




,. ^'9^ 


■4 


2000 


— -007 


W.S.W. Tree, 30°. 


done. 




M 4-973 


•5 


2500 


— -010 


S. Trees, 20°. 






4-97 
5-02 


•1 

-2 


490 
970 


— •001 
+ -004 


N. Tree, 40°. 
N.E. „ 35°. 




562. 




4*99 


■3 


1460 


4- -005 


E.N.E. &E. Tree, 25°. 






5-00 


■4 


X950 


+.006 


S.W. Tree, 35°. 






M 4-995 


■5 


2460 


4- -003 


N.W. „ 38°. 






4-93 
5-04 


"1 


445 
950 


+ ■009 
+•006 




Ill a field, quite clear and open ... 


563. 


•2 




4'9S 


■3 


1450 


+-004 








4-96 


•4 


1950 


4- -002 








M 4-970 


•5 


2440 


4--C02 








4-98 


1 


450 


4- -009 


N.N.E. House, 25°. 


Fixed on lawn, in the stump of a 


564. 


5-OI 


-2 


1000 


— •002 


S.&S.S.E.Trees,34'= 


tree. 




5-00 


■3 


1480 


4--OOI 


S.W.&'W.S.W.Tr.30O 






5-00 


•4 


1970 


4- -002 


N.W. Trees, 25°. 






M 4-998 


•5 


2480 


coi-rect. 








8-00 


•1 


1^55 


— •001 


E. Low Trees, 20°. 


In garden, quite dear except as 


565. 


7-86 


-192 


2400 


— -001 




noted. 




7-90 


•25 


3100 


4-"ooi 








.. ''■93 














M 7-923 














7-99 


■1 


1280 


— '001 


E. Tlier.-stand, 48° 


A piece of ground 9 ft. Xl3 ft. is 


566. 


8-02 


•108 


1390 


— -001 


N. Bailing, 22°. 


surrounded by an iron railing 




8-00 








W. „ 59°. 


5 ft. high, within which are all 




8-00 








S. „ 58°. 


the instruments. 




M 8-002 














11-30 
11*26 


•05 
■I 


1260 


correct. 




In garden in centre of Linen Hal 
Buildings ; quite clear. 


6 


2520 


correct. 






11-30 














11-23 














Mii-273 
























■- „ .> 





100 



REPORT — 1875. 



EXAMINATION OF 



S CD 

If 

568. 
569. 

570. 
571- 

572. 

573- 
574- 

575- 
576. 

577- 


-2.S 


COUNTY. 

Station. 
OWNER. 
Observer. 


a 

•So 

^ 3 




Maker's name. 


50 

« .S 


Height of 
gauge. 


Above 
ground. 


Above 
sea- 
level. 


1874. 

Aug. 26. 
Aug. 28. 
Aug. 28. 
Aug. 28. 
Aug. 29. 
Aug. 29. 
Aug. 29. 
Aug. 29. 
Aug. 29 
Aug 31. 
Aug. 31. 


ANTRIM. 

The Manse, Antrim. 

REF. J. H. ORR. 

Rev. J. H. Orr. 

ANTRIM. 

Queens College, Belfast. 

THE COLLEGE. 

W. Taylor. 

ANTRIM. 

Antrim Road, Belfast. 

THE CORPORATION 

W. J. Smith, Esq. 

ANTRIM. 

Old Park. 

W. GIRDWOOD, ESQ. 

Mr. Armstrong. 

DOWN. 

Milltown, Banbridge. 

J. SMYTH, JUN, ESQ., C.E. 

J. Smijth, Jun., Esq., C.E. 

DOWN. 

Jfilltown, Banbridge. 

J. SMYTH, JUN, ESQ., C.E. 

J. Smi/th, Jun., Esq., C.E. 

Corbet Reservoir. 

BANNRES. COMPANY. 

W. Sprott. 

DOWN. 
Baiin Reservoir. 
J. SMYTH, JUN, ESQ., C.E. 
Mr. J. Burn. ■ 

DOWN. 

Banu Reservoir. 

BANN RES. COMPANY. 

Mr. J. Burn. 

DOWN. 

Wariugstown. 

MAJOR WARING. 

Major Waring. 

DOWN. 

Waringstowu. 

MAJOR WARING. 

Major Waring. 


III. 

IV. 

IV. 
XII. 

X. 
VIII. 

IV. 

I. 

IV. 
X. 

I. 


Casella 




ft. in. 

I 2 

7 
7 
4 
6 

40 

3 3 

2 

3 3 

5 
3 


feet. 

150 

68 
144 
224 

200 
220 
234 
440 

443 
190 

190 

1 
* 


4.nou 


9 a.m. 
9 a.m. 
loa.m. 
9 a.m. 


Anon 


Casella 


Negretti&Zambra 
Anon. 


Mason, Dublin ... 




Anon 


noon. 


Mason, Dublin ... 


Nogrctti &Zambra 
Eryson 


9 a.m. 







ON Tin: ItAINFALL OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 

RAIN-GAUGES (continued). 



101 



■B ^^ Equivalents of 
5 ^ J g water. 


Error at 


Azimuth and an- 







scale-point 


gular elevation of 






e5 « = 


1 




specified in 


objects above 


Eemarks on position &c. 


9 -c 


£ ■£ S " 






.5^-S II 


Scale- 


Grains. 


previous 


mouth of rain- 




- 


fi S 


point 




column. 


gauge. 




« c 


in. 


in. 




in. 








S'OO 
4-98 


1 


500 
9S0 


— -001 




In a field east of the town ; very 
open position. 


568. 


•2 


— ■002 




S"o3 


■3 


1490 


— •001 








498 














M 4998 














1 1 "20 


•C5 


1260 


correct. 




On the lawn south-west of the Col- 
lege ; quite imshelteredw 


569. 


ir3o 




*^ \J^ ^ \J\^K t 




ii'3o 














11-28 














Mll-270 














6-66 


2-5 -2-3 

2-0 -1-75 


1870 
2210 


— •004 
+ -001 




Gauge has a very much rounded 
rim ; position good. 


570. 


6-68 




672 


I'25— i-o 


2320 


— -004 








6-66 


i-o —0-5 


4520 


— -001 








M 6-68o 


0-5 —0-0 


4540 


— "OOI 








498 
5-03 


•I 


500 
980 


— *OOI 




On a post on the east side of a 
hedge, and south of the works. 


571- 


•194 


— -003 




4-98 




broken. 










S°3 














M 5 005 














8-02 


•I 


1270 


correct. 


N. Acacia, 28°. 


On lawn with many trees, but 


572. 


7-97 


•2 


2550 


— -co I 


E. Laurel, 12=. 


none rising to higher angles 




8-03 


•3 


37S0 


-{--002 


S.E. Ash, 35°. 


than those noted. 




, 7-97 


•4 


5120 


— -004 


W. Trees, uudcr20° 






M 7-998 


■5 


6350 


correct. 








lo'cosq. 


1 


2370 


4- "006 


N. Trees, 15°. 


On post 5 ft. above top of roof of 


573- 


lo-co 


•2 


4870 


+ -006 




laboratory. 




9-98 


•3 


7410 


+ -006 








10-00 


•4 


9940 


-f-oo6 








M 9-995 


•5 


12490 


-f-005 








loiosq. 


•15 


30C0 


+ •035 


S.E. Tree, 22^. 


On north bank of river Bann ; 


574- 


10-16 


•27 


6coo 


4- -040 




open position except as noted. 




io-i8 


•38 


9C00 


+■043 








10-22 


•51 


12000 


+ -050 








Mio-i65 


•63 


15000 


+■055 








8-02 








N.E.E.-gauge, 25°. 


Quite exposed, but gauge No. 576 
rather too near ; rod correct, 




8-00 








575- 


8-04 










but inner cyhnder shghtly too 




8-03 










large. 




M 8-022 














io"i2sq. 


•14 


3C00 


+ -024 




Close to No. 575. 


576. 


10-18 


•26 


6cco 


+ -029 






lo-u 


•38 


90CO 


+■034 








io-i6 


•48 


11710 


+ •030 








Mio-142 


•58 


14710 


+-015 








8-00 


•I 


1270 


correct. 


E. Trees, 25°. 


On large lawn, very good position. 


577- 


7-98 


•2 


2480 


+•004 








8-00 


•3 


3740 


+ ■005 








8-00 


■4 


5040 


+ •002 








M 7-995 


•s 


6320 


4--OOI 








3-00 


-27 — 2-01 


3000 
6000 


+•05 
+-c6 




Close to No. 577; gauge not in use. 


578. 


2-98 


2-01 — 3-76 




3-00 


376-5-57 


9000 


+•12 








3-00 S-S7-7-34 


12C00 


+-oS 








M 2-995 7-34_5-,5 


I5OCO 


+ 12 









102 



REPORT — 1875. 



EXAMINATION OF 



« 



-4-3 -r-l 



579' 



580. 



581, 



5S2. 



583. 



584. 



S8S. 



586. 



587. 



SS8. 



589. 



1874. 
Sept. 2, 



Sept. 2, 



Sept. 2, 



Sept. 14, 



Sept. 14, 



Sept. 14, 



Sept. 15 



Sept. 15 



Sept. 15. 



Sept. 15 



Sept. 15, 



COUNTY. 

Station. 
OIVNER. 
Observer. 



DUBLIN. 

Fitzwilliam Square W., Dublin. 

1>B. J. W. MOORE. 

Dr. J. W. Moore. 

WICKLOW. 

Fassaroe, Bray. 

R. BARRINGTON, ESQ. 

R. Barrington, Esq. 

DUBLIN. 

Fitzwilliam Square, Dublin. 

BR. J. W. MOORE. 

Br. J. W. Moore. 

BEBKSHIEE. 

Wantage. 

E. a BA VEY, ESQ. 

E. G. Bttvey, Esq. 

BERKSHIEE. 

Long Witteuham, Abingdon. 

REV. J. C. CLUTTERBUCK. 

Rev. J. C. ClutterbucJc. 

BERKSHIRE. 

Ock Street, Abingdon. 

W. BELCHER, ESQ. 

W. Belcher, Esq. 

OXFORD. 

Magdalen CoU. Laboratory. 

MAGBALEN COLLEGE. 

J. Harris, Esq. 

BUCKINGHAM. 

Addingtou Manor, Wiuslow. 

E. HUBBARD, ESQ., M.P. 

Mr. J. Mathison.- 

BUCKINGHAM. 

Addiugton Manor, Winslow. 

E. HUBBARD, ESQ., M.P. 

Mr. J. Mathison. 

BUCKINGHAM. 

Adstock Fields, Buckingham. 

E. HUBBABD, ESQ., M.P. 

Mr. W. Wesion. 

BUCKINGHAM. 

School Lano, Buckingham. 

MR. W. WALKER. 

Mr. W. Wallier. 



c 

o . 

'€& 

u OS 

o o 
O 



IIL 



IV. 



XII. 



XL 



III. 



XL 



XII. 



XII. 



X. 



XII. 



X. 



Maker's name. 



Anon. 



Yeates 



Casella 



Negretti &Zambra 



Braham 



Negretti & Zambra 



Casella 



CaseUa 



Negretti & Zambra 



CaseUa 



Negretti & Zambra 



s 2 



9 a.m 



9 a.m 



9 a.m, 



9 a.m. 



9 a.m. 



9 a.m. 



9.30 
a.m. 



Height 
of gauge. 



Above 
ground. 



ft. in. 
3 6 



o 10 



7 5 



I o 



o 8 



o 9 



o 9 



o 6 



I 10 269 



ON THIS KAINfALL OF THK BRITISH ISLES. 



103 



IIAIN-GAUGES (continued). 






Equivalents of 
water. 



M 



M 



M 



in. 
5'oo 
5'oo 
5'oo 
5'oo 
5-000 

IO'02 
lO'OO 
I0"00 
lO'OO 

Mio'oo5 
5'oo 
5-04 
5'o6 
5-08 

5 '045 
4-96 

S"°4 

5-00 

5-04 

5'oio 

5-00 

5-00 

4'94 
5"oo 
M 4-985 
5-00 
5-02 
503 

4'99 

5-010 

5-00 

4-98 

4'97 
5-00 
M 4-988 
5-02 
4-98 

499 
4-98 

4-993 

8-00 

8-00 

8-00 

8-00 

8-0OO 

5-00 

4-98 

5-00 

4-98 

4-990 

7-99 
802 
8-00 
8-01 
8-005 



M 



M 



M 



M 



M 



Scale- 




point. 


Grams. 


in. 




•1 


490 


■2 


980 


•3 


1450 


•4 


i960 


•s 


2470 


•I 


2520 


•2 


4970 


■3 


7470 


•4 


9970 


■5 


12220 


■I 


480 


-2 


980 


•3 


1480 


•4 


1980 


•I 


490 


•2 


990 


•3 


1480 


■4 


2000 


•5 


2460 


-I 


475 


•2 


995 


"3 


1500 


■4 


1970 


•s 


2480 


-I 


49° 


-2 


980 


•3 


1455 


■4 


i960 


•5 


2460 


-1 


495 


-2 


9S0 


■3 


1470 


■4 


i960 


■5 


2450 


■i 


495 


-2 


990 


•3 


1490 


•4 


1990 


•5 


2480 


•1 


1200 


-2 


2500 


■3 


37S0 


•4 


5050 


•5 


6310 


•t 


490 


'2, 


990 


•3 


1490 


■4 


1990 


•5 


2500 


•I 


1255 


■0 


2560 


•3 


3770 


■4 


5050 


•5 


6300 



Error at 

scale-point 

speoifiecl in 

previous 

column. 



m. 
-I- -001 

-I--002 

+ •007 
4--005 
+•002 
correct. 
-f-003 
4- -004 
-f-005 
+ •015 
+ •005 
-f -006 
+ •007 
-I--008 

+ -002 
-4- -001 
-f-002 
+ -002 
-I--006 
+ -004 
— -002 
— -004 
correct. 

— •003 
-I- -002 
-f-003 
+ -008 
4--oc6 
+ •006 
correct, 
-f-ooi 
+ -002 
-I--003 
-I- -003 
correct, 
correct. 

— ■001 

— -002 

— -002 
-f-005 
+ -003 
-f-002 
+ •002 
-f-003 
-f -001 
correct. 

— •002 
— -003 

— -006 
-f -001 
— -001 
+ -003 
-f-003 
-f -004 



Azimuth and an- 
gular elevation of 
objects above 
mouth of rain- 
gauge. 



Remarks on position &c. 



S.E. Poplar, 56°. 
E. House, 40°. 
N. WaU, 10°. 
W. „ 33°. 

S.E. Firs, 30°. 
W. Wood, 10°. 



B. House, 39°. 
N. Wall, 48°. 
W. Trees, 38°. 
S. WaU, 28°. 



S.E. Birch, 57°. 
S. Ehu, 44°. 
N.W. Tree, 41°. 



S. Eose-bush, 35°, 



S. Ebiis, 35°. 



E. Apple, 41°. 



E. Apple, 41°. 



N.W. Trees, 35°. 
E. House, 20°. 
S.S.W. Trees, 25°. 



W. Tree, 48°. 
S. House, 40°. 



In small garden in rear of house ; 
bad position, but no better avail- 
able. 



In garden ; good position, but 
ground imdidating. 



Close to No. 579. 



On post in kitchen-garden; aU 
clear. 



In kitchen-garden, east of vicarage 
and church. 



Level garden; position good except 

as noted. 



In the botanical gardens; clear 
except as noted. 



In kitchen-garden, -welL exposed. 



Close to No. 586. 



On small lawn in front of house ; 
owing to the number of trees, 
no better position obtainable. 



Grange loosely placed in an old 
t ub, and jiosition not good. 



104 



REPORT — 1875. 



EXAMINATION OF 








COUNTY. 

Station. 
OW^•EB. 
Observer. 


Construction 
of gauge. 


Maker's name. 


Time of 
reading. 


Height 
of gauge. 


, , Above 
Above 3gj. 

ground, i^^^i 


590. 


1874. 

Sept. 15. 


BUCKINGHiVlI. 

Castle Fields, BuekLugliam, 

C. PAEROTT, ESQ. 

Mr. J. BicJiards. 


XII. 


Casclla 


1 

8.30 
a.m. 


ft. in 
I 6 


feet. 
318 




591. 


Sept. ;i. 


HAMPSHIEE. 

Park Corner, Hcckfield. 

J. MAR TINE AU, ESQ. 

J. Martincau, Esq. 


III. 


Casella 


9 a. in 


I 3 


257 




592. 


Sept. 30. 


KENT. 

Culverlauds Grove. Tunbridge Wells. 

— MILLER, ESQ. 

Mr. Tounsciid. 


X. 


Negrctti it Zambra 


9 a.m. 


2 


403 


593- 


Oct. 3. 


_ SUSSEX. 

Crowboro' Beacon Observatory. 

a L. PRINCE, ESQ. 

C. L. Prince, Esq. 


X. 


Casclla 


9 a.m. 


7 


777 




594- 


Oct. 12. 


SUSSEX. 

The Stevne, Brighton. 

BRIGHTON CORPORATION. 

Dr. Taafc. 


XII. 


Ecwlcv 
















595- 


Oct. 13. 


SUSSEX. 

The Dyke, Poyning. 

BRITISH ASSO'CIA TION. 

Mr. W. ThaeJccr. 


XII. 


CascUa 


9 a.m. 


I 3 


690 




596. 


Oct. 20. 


ESSEX. 

The Gardens, Audlcy End. 

MR. J. BBYAN. 

Mr. J. Bryan. 


XII. 


Casclla 


9 a.m. 


I 


163 


597- 


Oct. 20. 


ESSEX. 

Eircrside, AudleyEnd. 

il/i?. J. BRYAN. 

Mr. J. Bryan. ■ 


XII.' 


Casella 


9 a.m. 
1st. 


I 


i5« 




598. 


Oct. 21. 


LEICESTEESHIEE. 

Town Sluseum, Leicester. 

LEICESTER CORPORA TION. 

W. J. Harrison, Esq. 


XIT. 


CaseUa 


9 a.m. 


1 


238 




S99- 


Oct. 21. 


VriRWICK. 

St. Marv's College, Oscott. 

THE COLLEGE. 

Rev. S. Whitty. 


XII. 


Casclla 


9 a.m. 


6 


461 




600. 


Oct. 22. 


STAFFORD. 

The Heath House, Cheadle. 

J. C. PHILLIPS. ESQ. 

J. C. P/iil/lps, Esq. 


XII. 


Casella 


9 a.m. 


I 


6+7 


1 



ON TIIK RAINFALL OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 



105 



EAIN-GAUGES (continued). 






LI 



m. 

5'oo 
5'oo 
5'oo 
5-01 

5'002 

+■99 

fOO 

5-00 
5-00 

M 4998 
7-90 
7-98 
7-97 
7-94 

M 7-948 
8-00 
S-oo 

799 
8-O0 

M 7998 
5'oo 

4-95 

5'02 

4-92 

M 4-973 
5'oo 

4-99 
SOI 

5'oo 

5'ooo 

5'oo 

5'02 

4-98 

S'oo 

5 'COO 

5-00 

5-02 

4-98 
5x0 
5-000 

5-0° 
S"oo 
5'oo 
5'oo 
5-000 
4-98 
4-98 
5-02 
S'co 
M 4-995 
5-00 
5-00 

4-97 

S'oi 

4-995 



M 



M 



M 



M 



Equivalents of 
water. 



Scale- 
point. 



lU. 

•1 

-2 
-3 
-4 

'S 
•I 



•1 

•2 
•3 
•4 

-5 
•I 

-2 
•3 

•4 

■s 

•I 

•2 
-3 

-4 

-s 

-I 

-2 
-3 

•4 

-5 
•I 
-2 
■3 

•4 

•5 
•I 
•2 
•3 
-4 
•5 
•I 
-2 
-3 
-4 
•5 
•1 
•2 
•3 
•4- 



Grains. 



M 



■3 
•4 
•5 



500 

lOIO 

1490 

2000 
2490 
500 
1000 
1480 
broken. 

1260 
2530 
3760 
5040 
6290 
1300 
2530 
3800 
5010 
6310 
490 
950 
1440 
1950 
2450 

495 
1 000 
1480 

2COO 
2490 
500 
990 
1480 
i960 
2480 

49° 

970 

1450 

1970 

2450 

495 

95° 
1470 
J980 
2470 
490 
980 
1470 
2000 

498 

975 
1480 

1950 
24S0- 



Error at 

scale-point 

specified in 

previous 

column. 



in. 

— •001 
— -004 
correct. 

— •003 
— -002 

— •001 
— -002 
-f-ooi 



— •001 
— -002 
correct. 

— -002 

— •002 

— •002 
4--OOI 
correct. 
+-005 
H--°o3 
correct, 
-f -006 
+ •006 
+•003 
correct, 
correct. 

— •002 
-I--002 
— -C03 
— -C02 

— -ooi 
correct. 
+ -001 
+ -005 
correct, 
-f •001 
+ ■004 
+-007 
+ -003 
-(--006 
correct. 

+■003 
4- -OCX 
+ ■002 

-I--COI 

-f -002 

+ ■003 
— -004 

— -001 
+-C03 
-i--ooi 
-I- -006 

— •OOI 



Azimuth and an- 
gular elevation of 
objects above 
mouth of rain- 
gauge. 



Remarks on position &c. 



S.S.W. Tree, 35°. 



E. Trees, 27°. 



Very good position in rear of 
house ; grounds level. 



IS-. Bushes, 20°. 



In flower-garden ; 
noted. 



clear except as 



On largo lawn sloping to S.W. 



In meteorological enclosure south 
of observatorj ; very open po- 
sition. 



Gauge tested before actual erec- 
tion ; it was to be placed in a 
place selected by myself in the 
Steyue gardens with other me- 
teorological apparatus. 

In garden E. of house ; good po- 
sition. 



S.S.W. Apple, 33° IngardensnearMr. Bryan's house; 
clear except as noted. 



S.E. Araucaria,30' 
N.W. House, 28°. 



Very exposed position on bank of 597. 
river. 



Open garden in centre of town. 



Clear position, S.W. of the college. 



On sloping ground, W. of liouse. 



106 



KEPOET — 1875. 



EXAMINATION OF 






a 

Cm O 

O VS 



6oi. 



6o2. 



6oj. 



604. 



605. 



606. 



607. 



608. 



609. 



610. 



611. 



1874. 
Oct, 22 



Oct. 23 



Oct. 28 



Oct. 28, 



Oct, 28, 



Oct. 30. 



Oct. 30, 



Oct. 30. 



Oct. 31 



Oct, 31 



Nov. 21 



COUNTY. 

Station. 
OWNER. 
Observer. 



STAPFOED. 

The Heath House, Cheadle, 

J. C. PHILLIPS, ESQ. 

J. C. Phillips, Esq. 

STAFFOED. 
Upper Tean Vicarage, 

Stoke • upon-Trent. 

EEV. G. T. BYVES. 

Rev. G. T. Ryvcs. 

YOEKSHIEE. 

Harclrow Vicarage, Hawes, 

REV.F. W. STOW. 

Rev. E. Pink. 

YOEKSHIEE. 

Lunds. 

REV. F. W. STOW. 

Rev. R. Pink. 

YOEKSHIEE. 

Hawes Vicarage. 

REV. DR. PARKER. 

Rev. Dr. Parker. 

LINCOLN. 

Westgate, Louth. 

DR. FAWSSETT. 

Dr. Fawssett. 

LINCOLN. 

Gospelgate, Louth. 

T. W. WALLIS, ESQ. 

T. W. Wallis, Esq. 

LINCOLN. 

Gospelgate, Louth, 

T. W. WALLIS, ESQ. 

T. W. Wallis, Esq. 

LINCOLN, 

Calcethorpe Manor, Louth. 

D. G. BRIGGS, ESQ. 

D. G. Briggs, Esq. 

LINCOLN. 

Calcethorpe Manor, Louth. 

D. G. BRIGGS, ESQ. 

D. G. Briggs, Esq. 

MIDDLESEX. 

Colney-Hatch Lane, Muswell Hill. 

J. W. SCOTT, ESQ. 

J. W. Scott, Esq. 



c 

o . 

■ rt o 

? S 

■*^ bjO 

rfi ^ 

O O 
O 



XII. 



XL 



XII.* 



See 
B.A.E, 

1867, 
p. 467, 

XII.* 



XII. 



Ill, 



III. 



X. 



XII. 



XII, 



Maker's name. 



Casella 9 a.m 



bo 



s s; 



Negrctti &Zambra 



CaseUa 



Casella 



Pastorelli 



Anon. 



Anon. 



Anon. 



Anon. 



Anon. 



Casella 



9 a.m. 



9 a.m. 



Height of 
gauge. 



Above 
ground, 



ft, in. 
I o 



9 a.m 



9 a.m, 



9 a.m. 



9 a.m. 

1st. 



9 a.m. 



o 9 



6 o 



6 o 



o 8 



This mark denotes that the gauge has a deep Suowdoniau rim. 



ON THE RAINFALL OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 



107 



llim-GAVGE^ (continued). 








73 y-^ 


Equivalents of 


Error at 


Azimuth and an- 






l*='S i 


water. 


scale-point 


gular elevation of 






.2^S II 






specified in 


objects above 


Bemarks on position &o. 








Scale- 


Graina. 


previous 


mouth of rain- 




ft S 


point. 


column. 


gauge. 




;^« 


in. 


in. 




in. 








5'oo 


-I 


498 
975 


correct. 




Close to No. 600. 


601. 


■2 


4- -003 








5'oo 


•3 


1480 


+ •001 








5'oo 


•4 


1950 


+•006 








M 5-000 


•5 


2480 


correct. 








foa 


•I 


470 


-f -006 


N. Vicarage, 31°. 


Clear, except as noted. 


602. 


5-02 


■a 


980 


+ •003 


W. Trees, 24°. 






S-oi 


•3 


1480 


4--003 








5'oo 


•4 


1950 


+•009 








M 5'oi2 


•5 


2450 


+ •008 








5'oo 


•I 


500 


—•001 


N. House, 51°. 


Too much sheltered by house, but 


603. 


5-02 


•2 


1000 


— •002 




no better position obtainable; 




4-98 


•3 


1480 


+•002 




quite clear in other directions. 




501 


•4 


1980 


+ -00 1 








M 5-002 


•5 


2480 


correct. 








3-02 

3'oi 


-2 
•4 


350 
710 


-f-004 
+ -003 




Gauge tested, but station not 
visited. 


604. 




S'oo 


•6 


1070 


correct. 








3-00 


•8 


1420 


-f-008 








M 3-007 


i-o 


1775 


4- •010 








5-03 
5-06 








S. House, 31°. 


Good position ; the measuring- 
glaes was very faulty, and a 


605. 








5-03 

S'OS 
M 5-042 










new correct one was supplied. 
















5-00 


•I 


480 


+ •003 


W. Tree, 35°. 


Good position on lawn ; clear ex- 


606. 


5-00 


•2 


990 


+•001 




cept as noted. 




5-01 


•3 


1500 


— -002 








5-02 


•4 


1980 


4--002 








M 5-007 


•5 


2470 


+•003 








3-00 


•22 
•S3 


400 
1000 


4--OOI 
-•017 




Very confined garden in centre of 
town. 


607. 




3-oS 














3-05 














M 3-037 














5-04 


-I 


500 


correct. 


W. Houses, 39°. 


Close to No. 607. 


608. 


5-01 


-2 


1000 


correct. 


E. „ 28°. 






5-02 


•3 


1500 


correct. 


N.E. „ 43°. 






5-02 


■4 


2000 


correct. 








M 5-022 


•5 


2500 


correct. 








7'97 
7-98 


-1 

•2 


1250 

2550 


+ -00 1 
— •002 




Very open position on large lawn. 


609. 




8-00 


■3 


3810 


— -001 








8-00 


•4 


5060 


correct. 








M 7-988 


■5 


6290 


+■003 








5-01 


•I 


490 


+ -002 


E. Tree, 19°. 


Close to No. 609. 


6io. 


S-03 


•2 


980 


+ -004 




' 




5-02 


•3 


1490 


+ -002 








5-03 


•4 


1990 


+ -002 








M 5-022 


•5 


2490 


+ •002 








5-00 


•I 


500 


— •001 


S. Apple, 29°. 


In kitchen-garden ; good position. 


611. 


5-00 


-2 


1000 


— -002 


E.N.E. Pear, 30°. 






5-00 


-3 


1490 


— -003 


N.N.W. Plum,20° 






5-00 


•4 


2000 


— -003 


S.W. Oak, 20°. 






M 5-000 


•5 


2470 


+ •002 









108 



REPORT — 1875. 



EXAMINATION OF 



.§3 a 



6l2. 



613. 



614. 



6,5. 



616. 



617. 



618 



619 



620, 



621 



622 



CJ 


1874. 

Dec. 17 



COUNTY. 

Station. 
OWNER. 
Observer. 



Dec. 17 



Dec. 17 



Dec. 19. 



Dec. 19 



Dec. 21 



Dec. 21. 



1875. 
June 14, 



July 28. 



July 28. 



Aug. 12. 



WILTSHIRE. 

Marlborough College. 

REV. T. A. PRESTON. 

Rev. T. A. Preston. 

WILTSHIEE. 

Marlborough College. 

REV. T. A. PRESTON. 

Rev. T. A. Preston. 

WILTSHIRE. 

Marlborough College. 

REV. T. A. PRESTON. 

Rev. T. A. Preston. 

CARMARTHEN. 

Asylum, Carmarthen. 

G. J. HEARDER, ESQ.. M.D. 

G. J. Hearder, Esq., M.D. 

CARMARTHEN. 

Goal, Carmarthen. 

MR. G. STEPHENS. 

Mr. G. Stciihcns. 

C4LAM0RGAN. 

Tynaut, Radyr. 

F. G. EVANS, ESQ. 

F. G. Evans, Esq. 

GLAMORGAN. 

Crockherbtown, Cardiff. 

W. ADAMS, ESQ., C.E. 

W. Adams, Esq., C.E. 

HERTFORD. 

Tyler Street, Hitchin. 
'W. LUCAS, ESQ. 
Mr. W. Anderson: 

BEDFORD. 

Oaklands, Aspley Guise. 

E. E. DYMOND, ESQ. 

E. E. Dymond, Esq. 

BEDFORD. 

Oaklands, Aspley Guise. 

E. E. DYMOND, ESQ. 

E. E. Dymond, Esq. 

CARDIGAN. 

Gogerddan, Aberystwith. 

SIR PRYSE PRYSE, BART. 

Sir Pryse Pryse, Bart. 



c 
o 

2 SP 

h s Maker's name. 

ts to 

o o 

a 



X. 



xn. 



IIL 



X. 



XII. 



XII. 



XIL 



XIL 



XII. 



XL 



.5 « 



Negretti&Zambra 9 a.m 



Casclla 



Ludd 



NegreLti & Zambra 



Negretti k Zambra 



Casella 



Casella 



Apps 



Casella 



Casella 



Negretti & Zambra 



9 a.m. 



9 a.m. 



9 a.m. 



9 a.m. 



9 a.m. 



9 a.m. 



9 a.m. 



9 a.m, 

IBt. 



9-30 
a.m. 



Height 
of gauge. 



Above 
ground. 



ft. in 
o 8 



» 3 



o 6 



o 6 



» 3 



I 3 



I li 



ON THE RAINFALL OF THE BaiTISH ISLES. 



109 



iAIN-GAUGES (continued). 



*S V si 


Equivalents of 


Error at 


Azimuth and an- 




S u 


water. 


scale-point 
specified in 


gular elevation of 
objects above 


Remarks on position &c. 




c^ S n 






s s 


•s^a II 


Scale- 




previous 


mouth of rain- 




a 


<=^ S 


point. 


Grains. 


column. 


gauge. 




Ph 


in. 


in. 




in. 






8-00 


•I 


1280 


—•001 


N.W.&N.E.Chapel,39° 


On grass in college grounds, S. of 


612. 


7-99 


'■X 


2560 


— •002 


S. Mound, 18°. 


chapel. 




8-OI 


•3 


3820 


— -001 








8-O0 


•4 


5050 


4- -002 








M 8-oco 


•5 


6320 


-f -002 








4-99 
5'oo 


-I 
-2 


500 
990 


— -OOI 

correct. 




Close to No. 612. 


6.3. 




5-00 


•3 


1490 


— •OOI 








5-00 


•4 


i960 


+•004 








M 4-998 


•5 


2450 


-f-oo6 








5'oo 


■1 


48s 


-)-'002 


N.W.-N.E.Chapcl,35° 


Near No. 612, but rather further 


614. 


S-02 


■2 


980 


-f -002 




from the chax3cl. 




4'99 


•3 


1490 


correct. 








5'oo 


•4 


'975 


-I- -002 








M 5-002 


•5 


2470 


-f ^002 








7-98 
8-02 


•I 


1260 


correct. 




Good gauge in vei-y excellent po- 
sition. 


615. 


•2 


2550 


— ■OOI 






7-8+ 


•3 


3790 


4- -OOI 








8-12 


•+ 


5040 


+ ■002 








M 7-990 


•5 


6350 


— •OOI 








8-00 








S.W. Trees, 27°. 


On a large round tower, the centre 
of which is occupied by a garden. 


616. 


7*9+ 


-2 


2590 


— -005 






7-96 










Position uuusual, but, I think. 




8-02 










unobjectionable. 




M 7 '980 


'S 


6350 


— -003 








498 


•I 


495 


correct. 


N.N.W. Laburn., 55°. 


Best position available. The la- 


617. 


5-01 


•2 


1000 


— -002 


N.W.-N.E.House,40° 


burnum will be cut back ; and 




5 00 


■3 


1490 


— •OOI 




the observer states that rain 




5-00 


•4 


2000 


— •004 




usually falls very nearly verti- 




M 4-998 


■5 


2490 


— •003 




cally at Tynant. 




4'97 


•1 


500 


— •OOI 


S.W. Tree, 65°. 


No better position to be had. Ob- 


618. 


S'03 


•2 


990 


correct. 


S.E. „ 50°. 


server did not like to cut tree. 




4-98 


•3 


1480 


4--00I 


N.E. Wall, 35°. 






499 


•4 


1980 


correct. 








M 4'993 


•5 


2490 


— •004 








5-00 


•I 


500 


correct. 


W. Elm, 33°. 


In garden, quite open. 


619. 


S-oi 


•2 


995 


correct. 








5-03 


•3 


1500 


— ■OOI 








S-oi 


•4 


2000 


— •OOI 








M 5'oi2 


•5 


2500 


—•002 








498 


-I 


490 


4- •OOI 


N. House, 20°. 


On Lawn, soutli of house. 


620. 


5-02 


•2 


990 


correct. 








S'oo 


•3 


1480 


-f-'OOI 








5-00 


•4 


1970 


+•003 








M 5-000 


•5 


2470 


+•002 








502 


•I 


490 


-[-•OOI 


N. House, 26°. 


12ft.N. of No. 620. 


621. 


498 


•2 


990 


correct. 








4-99 


•3 


14S0 


-f •OOI 








5-00 


•4 


1970 


-f -002 








M 4-998 


•5 


2470 


4-^ooi 








503 


•I 


500 


— ■OOI 


W.S.W. House, 3° 


On large lawn in bi-oad valley run- 


622. 


5-00 


•2 


1010 


— •003 




ning E.-W. ; quite unsheltered. 




5-00 


•3 


1480 


-1--002 








5-00 


•4 


1980 


-i-'002 








M 5-007 


•5 


2470 


+ ■003 


, 







110 



REPORT 1875. 



EXAMINATION OF 






67,3 



624. 



625. 



626. 



627. 



o ^ 



ft a 



1875. 

Auff. 12. 



Aug. 14, 



Aug. 14. 



Aug. 14. 



Aug. 16. 



COUNTY. 

Station. 

OWNER. 

Observer. 



-628. 



Aug. 16. 



629. 



Aug. 16, 



CAEDIGAN. 

Great Dark Street, Aberystwitli. 

MOREIS JONES, ESQ. 

Morris Jones, Esq. 

MERIONETH. 

Britbdir, Dolgelly. 

BRITISH ASSOCIATION. 

J. H. Hill, Esq.] 

MEEIONETH. 

Britbdir, Dolgelly (Field). 

J. H HILL, ESQ. 

J. H. Hill, Esq. 

MEEIONETH. 

National Scbool, Dolgelly. 

MAJOR MATTHEIV. 

Mr. Orn WilUams. 

MONTGOMEEY. 

Plas, Macbvnlletb. 

MR. J. JOHNSTONE. 

Mr. J. Johnstone. 

MONTGOMEEY. 

Llanwrin, Macbynlleth. 

REV. B. EVANS. 

Rev. D. Evans. 

MEEIONETH. 
Peniarth. 

W. W. E. WYNNE, ESQ. 
The Gardener. 



3 3 

o o 
o 



XII.* 



III. 



XII. 



III. 



XII. 



III. 



Maker's name. 



Casella 



Casella 



Cusella 



Casella 



jipps 



Casella 



Aiion. 






9 a.m. 



9 a.m. 



Height 
of gauge. 



,, Above 

-*-"°^^ sea- 
ground. ie^ei_ 



ft. in. 
I 6 



9 a.m. I o 



I o 



I 6 



feet. 
46 



465 



447 



43 



47 



57 







ON 


THE RAINFALL OF THE BRITISH ISLES. Ill 




EAIN-GAUGEfe 


(continued). 




Diameters 

(that 

marked 

M = mean). 


Equivalents of 
water. 


Error at 

scale-point 

specified in 

previous 

column. 


Azimuth and an- 
gular elevation of 
objects above 
mouth of rain- 
gauge. 


Ecraarks on position &c. 





Scale- 
poiut. 


Grains. 


in. 
7-98 
8-03 
7-98 

8-02 

M 8 -002 
5-00 

4'99 

s-°i 

5-00 
M 5*coo 
5'oo 
5-01 
5-00 
5-01 
M 5-000 
5-00 
5-00 
5-00 

4-99 
M 4-998 
5-00 

5'°3 
5-01 
5-01 

M 5012 
4-98 
5-02 
5-00 
5-00 

M 5-000 
5-04 
4-98 
5-06 

M 5-015 


in. 
•I 

•3 

•5 
•I 

•2 
■3 
•4 
■5 
•I 
•2 
•3 
•4 
•5 
•I 
•2 
•3 
•4 
•5 
•I 
•2 
•3 
•4 

■s 

•1 

. "2 
■3 
■4 
•5 
-I 
•2 
■3 
•4 

•5 


1280 

3790 

6350 
490 
980 
1470 
1980 
2470 

49° 

980 

1470 

1980 

2470 

500 

980 

14S0 

1980 

2470 

510 

1020 

1500 

2010 

2500 

500 

99° 
1490 
1980 
2480 

53° 
1030 
1510 
2000 
2530 


in. 

— •001 

+■002 

correct. 
+-00 1 
+ •002 
+ •003 

+ -OOI 

+ ■002 
+ •001 
+ -C02 
+ -C04 
+ -001 
+-002 
— -001 
+ -002 
+ -001 
correct. 
+ •001 

— •002 
— -C05 
— -001 
— '003 

— •002 
— -001 
correct. 

-•001 

+•00 1 
correct. 

— •006 
— -006 
— -003 

— •001 

— •007 


W. House, 36°. 
N.W. „ 42°. 
N. „ 30°. 
S. „ 35°. 


Very bad position ; to be removed 
to an open part of the castle 
grounds. 

Clear open position in garden. 

This gauge was not in use. I ad- 
vised its erection in an adjacent 
field, rather higher than No. 
624. 

Good position in private garden 
of school. 

In kitchen gai-dens, S. of the town 
and inisheltered. 

Gauge not in use, but site chosen, 
and its erection promised. Quite 
clear. 

In gardens, rather too near green- 
house ; recommended its removal] 
to an unsheltered site. 


623. 
624. 

625. 

626. 

627. 

628, 

629. 















112 REPORT — 1875. 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Dr. H. E. Armstrong and 

Dr. T. E. Thorpe, appointed for the jJurpose of investigating Iso- 

■ meric Cresols and their Derivatives. Drawn up by Dr. Armstrong. 

Since the last Meeting of the Association a number of derivatives of para- 
cresol have been examined, and some attention has been given to the isomeric 
cresols ; but the investigation has meanwhile assumed a much wider aspect 
than originally intended, having become a study of the " law of substitution " 
in the phenol series, for reasons which may be briefly stated as follows. 

The examination of the derivatives of phenol, C^ Hj OH, carried on during 
the past four years by various chemists, has shown conclusively that substi- 
tution takes place in that compound in a very definite and simple manner. 
Kekule's theory, it is well known, admits of the existence of three isomeric 
mono-derivatives of phenol ; and it has been found that the action of all 
reagents which lead to the production of substitution derivatives always gives 
rise to the simultaneous production of two of the three, the so-called ortho- 
and prtrrt-derivative. The third isomeric (so-called meta-) mono-derivative 
is seldom formed in any quantity, if at all ; thus there is no evidence to show 
that it is produced in the ease of the action of nitric or sulphuric acid, and it 
is formed only in very small quantity by the action of chlorine and bromine ; 
the action of iodine, however, appears to give rise to a somewhat larger amount 
of the meta-derivative. The further action of reagents on the ortho- and 
para-mono-derivatives leads ultimately to the production of ^/'^-derivatives, 
and under ordinarj' conditions iliere is no tendency to the formation of liigher 
substituted derivatives. In all the di- and tri-derivatives thus directly formed 
from phenol, it is found that the ortho- and para-positions alone are occupied ; 
so that employing the usual hexagonal symbol to represent phenol, what, 
in the absence of a better expression, may be termed the direction in which 
substitution is effected in phenol may be graphically represented, somewhat 
in the manner suggested by Huebner, by lines drawn within the hexagon, 
thus : — 

OH 

(Oi-tho-position) EC ^^•'*" ""-v!^ 



(Meta-position) H!C. 



.. CH (Ortho-position) 

-T* 



^ CH (Meta-position) 



C 

II 

(Para-position) 

It is evidently a pi'oblem of considerable importance to determine whether 
this very simple " law of substitution " obtains in the case of the homologues 
of phenol ; and our experiments have all been instituted in the hope of con- 
tributing to its speedy solution. The behaviour of paracresol and of thymol 
has, to a certain extent, already been studied, and experiments with the 
isomeric cresols, ethylxDhenol, xylenol, and carvacrol are in progress. 

Paracresol derivatives. — Paracresol, C^ H^ (CH,) OH, being formed from 
phenol by the displacement of the atom of hydrogen in the p«;-«-position by 
methyl, it should yield c?i-derivatives only if the " law " above discussed is 
capable of application, and would accordingly be represented by the symbol : — 



ON ISOMERIC CRE80LS AND THEIR DERIVATIVES. 113 



OH OH 

I I ■*■ I II S 



CH 



1 .CH HC s 



HC^ I ^CH 

H (CH(^ 

Phenol. Paracresol. 



CH 



So far as the action of nitric acid is concerned, it may be said that sucli is 
really the case ; but the behaviour with bromine does not appear to be in har- 
mony with the " law." Thus paracresol is readily converted into nitropara- 
creso] ; and this compound evidently has the nitro-group in the ortho-position, 
since it is identical with the orthonitroparacresol recently obtained by 
"Wagner from orthonitroparatoluidin. By the further action of nitric acid, 
orthonitroparacresol is converted into a dinitroparacresol, which, there is 
every reason to believe, has both nitro-groups in the ortho-positions ; it is 
not possible, however, to introduce a greater number of nitro-groups into 
paracresol. Similarly, by the action of bromine and iodine on orthonitro- 
paracresol, monobromo- and moniorfo-nitroparacresol only can be obtained. The 
behaviour of paracresol with bromine has not yet been examined; but the action 
of bromine on potassium paracresolorthosulphonate, C^ H^ (CH3) OH SO^ K, has 
been studied. From this compound, in the first instance, the corresponding 
bromoparacresolorthosulphonate, C,, H.^ Br (CH3) OH S03K,is produced; but on 
further treatment with bromine this is converted into ^nbromoparacresol, and 
hitherto no intermediate product has been detected. The tribromoparacresol 
thus formed has not yet been sufficiently examined to enable an opinion as to 
its nature to be pronounced ; it is a remarkably unstable compound, being de- 
composed and deprived of a portion of its bromine by mere dissolution in alco- 
hol. This behaviour is certainly remarkable, and may serve on investigation 
to throw light on the formation of a tri-derivative from paracresol, which at 
present we are inclined to regard as abnormal. Potassium bromoparacresol- 
orthosulphonate is readily converted by the action of nitric acid into a bromo- 
nitrocresol identical with that obtained by treating orthonitroparacresol with 
bromine. 

Thymol derivatives. — Thymol being formed from phenol by the displace- 
ment of an atom of hydrogen in the ortho-position by the group propyl, and 
a second atom in the meta-position by the group methyl, it should " theore- 
tically " furnish only cZi-derivatives, thus : — 

OH OH 

EC ^*T^^ CH HC ^1 ^ C (CaHf) 



I 



! 



! I 11 i 

HC j CH (CH3)C^ I ^CH 



H H 

Phenol. Thymol. 



1875. 



114 REPORT 1875. 

The behaviour with bromine is in accordance with this view, inasmuch as 
we find that thymolparasulphonic acid (formed by treating thymol with 
SO3HCI) is converted by the action of bromine into bromothymolparasulphonic 
acid, which, on further treatment with bromine, is entirely transformed into 
dibromothymol. It must not be forgotten, however, that Lallemand has pre- 
pared such compounds as trichlorothymol and trinitrothymol ; and these 
bodies certainly deserve reinvestigation. 

Since meta-derivatives are under certain circumstances produced directly 
from phenol, it is obvious that the " law " under discussion is not an absolute 
but merely an approximate expression of experimental observations, the ap- 
proximation to truth being, however, very close ; and the results thus far 
obtained appear to indicate that in this sense the " law " is equally applicable 
to the homologues of phenol. 



First Report of the Committee for investigating the circulation of the 
Underground Waters in the New Red Sandstone and Permian Forma- 
tions of England, and the quantity and character of the water 
supplied to various towns and districts from these formations. The 
Committee consisting of Professor Hull^ Mr. E. W. Binney, Mr. 
F. J. Bramwell, Rev. H. W. Crosskey^ Professor Green, Profes- 
sor Harkness, Mr. Howell, Mr. W. Molyneux, Mr. C. Moore, 
Mr. G. H. Morton, Mr. R. W. Mylne, Mr. Pengelly, Professor 
Prestwich, Mr. J. Plant, Mr. J. Mellard Reade, Rev. W. S. 
Symonds, Mr. Tylden Wright, Mr. Whitaker, and Mr. C. E. 
DeRance (Reporter). \ 

YoTjR Committee, endeavouring to carry out the investigation with which 
you have entrusted them, have specialty directed their inquiries to obtain- 
ing information as to the thickness, character, sequence, and water- 
bearing properties of the New Eed Sandstone and Permian formations, and 
to the nature and chemical composition of the waters derived from these 
rocks. As special knowledge and local influence are required in each 
particular area, youi' Reporter obtained the consent of the following mem- 
bers of your Committee to undertake the charge of districts : — 

In the north-west of England Prof. Harkness, F.R.S., Messrs. Binney, 
P.R.S., Morton, Mellard Eeade, and your Reporter. 

In the north-east, Prof. Green and Messrs, Howell and Fox Strang- 
ways. 

In the Midland counties, Messrs. J. Plant, Molyneux, Tylden "Wright, and 
the Eev. H. W. Crosskey. 

In the south-west of England, Messrs. Pengelly, E.R.S., C. Moore, and the 
Rev. W. S. Symonds. 

Through the courtesy of Professor Ramsay, LL.D., F.R.S., Director- 
General of the Geological Survey of the United Kingdom, and Mr. Bristow, 
E.R.S., the Director of the English branch, instructions have been given to 
the officers of the Survey to give your Committee any information or sections 
they may require. The sections thus obtained from Mr. Clifton Ward are 
incorporated in the present Report ; a large number of others have been 
promised in the N.E. of England. 



ON THE CIRCULATION OF UNDERGROUND WATERS. 115 

The following circular form of inquiry was drawn up and approved by the 
whole of your Committee, and nearly a thousand copies have been disti'ibuted 
by them. But your Committee regret to report that, owing to the action of 
certain Corporations and Companies seeking additional Parliamentary powers, 
information has been withheld from the Committee, as well as by individuals 
and firms ; but your Committee venture to hope that, in the event of their 
being reappointed, these difiiculties may be overcome, and that much addi- 
tional promised information relating to areas at present reported on will be 
received. 

Name of Member of Committee ashing for information 

Name of Individual or Company applied to _^ 



1. Position of well or wells with which you are acquainted. 
2« Approximate height of the same above the mean sea-level. 

3. Depth from surface to bottom of shaft of well, with "1 
diameter. Depth from surface to bottom of bore-hole, > 
with diameter. J 

4. Height at which water stands before and after pumping. | 
Number of hours elapsing before ordinary level is restored i- 
after pumping. J 

5. Quantity capable of being pumped in gallons per day. 

6. Does the water-level vary at different seasons of the year? "1 
and how ? Has it diminished during the last 10 years ? J 

7. Is the ordinary ivater-level ever affected by local rains ? and 
if so, in how short a time ? And how does it stand in 
regard to the level of the water in the neighbouring 
streams or sea ? 



8. Analysis of the water, if any. Does the water possess 
any marked pecidiarity ? 

9. Nature of the rock passed through, including cover of 
drift, with thicknesses. 

10. Does the cover of drift over the rock contain surface- 
springs ? 

11. If so, are they entirely kept out of the well ? 

12. Are any large faults known to exist close to the well ? 

13. Were any salt springs or brine-wells passed through in \ 
making the weU ? J 

14. Are there any scdt springs in the neighbourhood ? 

15. Have any wells or borings been discontinued in your' 
neighbourhood, in consequence of the water being more 
or less brackish? If so, if possible, please give section in 
reply to query No 9. 



116 



REPOKT — 1875. 



The following form has been circulated amongst scientific and practical 
men, to obtain information as to the position of wells and borings . 

BKITISH ASSOCIATION FOli THE ADVANCEMEJfT OF SCIENCE. 

TJNDERGKOUND WATBE COMMITTEE. 



" Scientific Club, 7 Savile Eow, 
London, W. 



187 



" Deak Sir, — As it is of great importance to obtain, as far as possible, all 
the information in reference to wells, borings, and waterworks in, or 
obtaining their water supplies from, the New Red Sandstone and Permian 
formations of England, I write to ask you to kindly till in this sheet with 
the names and addresses of Individuals, Firms, or Companies likely to afford 
information, mentioning, under the name, the well or waterworks with 
which they are connected, and return it to me. 

" Should you have yourself sent the circular form of inquiry to any of the 
names in your list, please put ' S' against them in the sent column, and ' R ' 
in the returned column to those who have sent you back the form filled up. 

"I am, dear Sir, 

" Yours faithfully, 

" Chaeles E. De Eance, F.G.S., 
Secretary of the Committee." 



No. 



Name. 



Address. 



Sent. Eeturned. 



Should the Committee be reappointed, it is projiosed next year to report 
on the water-bearing properties of the New Red Sandstone and Permian of 
the whole of England. 2. The nature and chemical character of the water 
met -with, including the results obtained by the analysis made for the River 
Pollution Commissioners not yet published. 3. The effect of these waters 
on the sanitary condition of the people using them. 4. The depth at which 
these waters occur in various districts Avhere wells are now carried out, and 
the probable depth at which such waters will occur in districts not yet 
availing themselves of these waters for a supply. 

In the present preliminary Report information from Devonshire, Leices- 
tershire, Lancashire, and parts of other counties are described. 

Devonshire. 

Torquay. — Dr. Colt, of Maidencombe, describes a well at his house, 250 
feet above the level of the sea, which yields a very constant and good 
supply of water from the Red Sandstone at a depth of 91 feet, the top water 
being on an average 13 feet 6 inches from the bottom, falling to 9 ft. 6 in. 
during the dry seasons of 1868, 1869, and 1870, after very severe pumping 
for the use of neighbours and their cattle. 

A fault occurs 300 yards, near which a shaft was sunk 130 feet deep to 
obtain water, without success. 

Teignmouth. — Dr. Lake, writing to Mr. PengeUy, states that a brook rising 



ON THE CIRCULATION OF UNDERGROUND WATERS. 117 

ill the Greensand area of the Haldons, runs through the Combe valley above 
Teignmouth, a large part of the water being received in a small reservoir for 
the supply of that toAvn ; the remaining portion of the water left in the 
Btream, after flowing down the natural channel, is conveyed in a culvert 
thi-ough the grounds of Myln Villa, after which it flows to the river Teign. 
During the severe drought of 1870 nearly the entire supply of this stream 
was taken by the reservoir, and only twenty gallons of water jDer minute 
entered the high end of the culvert at Myln Villa ; but notwithstanding that, 
no less than fifty gallons per minute were discharged. Wells were sank to 
secure more of this excess supply, which was found. 

Tiverton. — At Tiverton Mr. H. S. GiU informs Mr. Pengelly that the 
surface of the water in the wells at the Parish Church and of St. Peter Street 
is 10 feet below the level of the ground, while at the other end of the street, 
which is at a slightly lower level, the water has to be pumped up 35 to 40 
feet, and of much harder quality than that derived from the shallow wells, 
which are, however, affected by heavy rains, during which the deeper well- 
water remains clear and sparkling, especially in a weU near the Town Hall, 
about 270 feet above the sea. 

Daivlish. — Dr. Baker informs Mr. Pengelly that the springs are believed 
to trend with the valley N.N.W. and S.S.E. ; breaking at right angles to this 
line, the wells have to be sunk to a level a little below that of the sea. 

A well at Captain Lampen's on the North Hill, 171 feet above the sea- 
level, was sunk 175 feet through sandstone, gravel, and sand rock, of which 
100 feet had to be penetrated before water was found. 

In a well (Mr. Turner's) 50 feet lower down the hUl, 73 feet deep, the 
water suddenly disappeared in March 1875 ; but some water was reached on 
sinking an additional 5 feet. 

In Mr. Marshall's well, recently sunk close to the edge of the cliif, on the 
opposite side of the valley, at a height of 70 feet above the sea-level, water 
was reached at 75 feet, beneath a hard pan of red sandstone ; when pumped 
dry, five minutes' rest yields sufficient for thirty minutes more pumping. 

At Oaklands, on the S.W. hill, a well is now being sunk at an elevation of 
200 feet ; a surface-spring was met with at 42 feet, which has been cut off, 
and the well is now in hard conglomerate at 65 feet. 

Near the Station, Hatchers Hotel, and along the railway, an abundant 
supply of surface-water is found in the gravel at a depth of 14 feet, which 
supply appears to be pounded back by the sea ; these surface-springs vary much 
in quantity, and are lowest in July. The wells are bricked, and 3 feet 9 inches 
diameter. 

Bramford Speke. — Mr. Gamlen, of Bramford Speke, near Exeter, informs 
Mr. Pengelly that there are 16 wells in that village, of which 14 are from 
45 to 52 feet in depth ; the top water of one of these is maintained to a level 
only 14 feet below the surface of the ground, rising to within 6 feet 
in winter. The wells are in fine orange- coloured sandstone, overlaid by clean 
gravel ; the bottoms of the wells are below the level of the Exe, but the water 
is derived from the high ground to the west. 

Somersetshire. 

At Taunton Mr. Moore reports the deeper weUs 75 feet in depth, situated 
100 feet above the sea ; Dr. Alford states these are with difficulty jjumped dry ; 
the water is derived from the New Eed Sandstone, and contains 6 grains per 
gallon of sulphate and carbonate of Ume. 



118 REPORT 1875. 

Wells at Wellington and Somerton yield constant supplies of hard water, 
unaffected by local rain. 

At Wemhdon, 60 feet above the sea, a well in the Red Sandstone, 30 feet 
deep, yields a plentiful supply of water, which is also the case at Wells, a well 
33 feet deep, at a point 70 feet above the sea. 

Leicestershire. 

The deep wells of Leicester red^tik a maximum depth of 90 feet, and derive 
their water-supply from the Upper Keuper Sandstone, which dips S.E. at a 
low angle from the outcrop, or Davies Hill, towards the town and river, which 
Mr. Plant considers must drain off a large portion of the supply held by the 
sandstone, which consists of from 20 to 50 feet of sandstone, "separated by 
beds of stiff red clay varying in thickness from a few inches to six feet." The 
water in these wells is free from organic impurity ; permanent water-level is 
about the mean height of the water in the river. These wells are tubbed 
or bricked to keep out surface-springs in the Drift ; and one is reported capable 
of yielding 250,000 to 300,000 gallons a day ; another, emptied in 10 hours, 
was restored to its normal level during the night. 

Mr. Plant reports that a number of shallow wells in the town are being 
gradually closed by the authorities, being under 30 feet in depth, and their 
supply derived from drift deposits more or less charged with organic im- 
purity. 

Mr. Plant states the supply from the New Red Sandstone to be very con- 
stant, though limited in quantity, from the smallness of the collecting-area at 
Davies Hill. The present supply given to the town is from " streams flowing 
from the Hills of Charnwood Forest, stored in two large reservoirs at Thornton 
and Cropston." 

Mr. Plant sums up the result obtained by him in Leicestershire by stating 
that the supply of water from the Upper Keuper Sandstone (nowhere more 
than 50 or 60 feet thick) is small but permanent. All the deep wells of the 
town of Leicester being supplied from this source, the water is pure but hard 
from sulphate and carbonate of lime. 

In both the eastern and western districts of the county the supply is from 
the Lower Keuper Sandstone, which is in some places probably 600 feet in 
thickness. The water is pure but not free from hardness, but the supply is 
abundant and permanent. 

Where the Bunter and Permian beds are penetrated, the supply of water 
appears to be enormous and entirely unaffected by dry seasons ; it is pure and 
perfectly soft. 

These results may be tabulated thus : — 

Formation. Supply. Hardness. 

1. Upper Keuper Sandstone. Not abundant. Sulph. and carb. of lime. 

2. Lower „ „ Abundant. Not so hard as 1. 

3. Bunter beds. More abundant. Nearly soft. 

4. Permian beds. Most abundant. Soft. 

The SxAFi'OEDSHrRE returns not being complete, Mr.Molyneux defers sending 
them until next year ; but as previous to this inquiry he had published much 
information regarding the water-supply of Burton-on-Trent, your Reporter 
has thought it well to briefly allude to his results. 

The large number of journals of borings placed at Mr. Molyneux's disposal 
by Messrs. Allsopp and Sons and Messrs. Salt and Co. have enabled him to 



ON THE CIRCULATION OF UNDERGROUND WATERS. 



119 



establish the folio-wing sequences of deposits in the vaUey of the Trent, near 
Burton, in descending order : — 



f 1. Old alluvial deposits. 

2. Valley-sands and gravels. 
I 3. Terrace-gravels. 
■i 4. Stratified sands, gravels, and 
peat of fluviatile origin. 

5. Drift sands and gravel. 

6. Boulder-clay. J 

7. Ehfetic beds. 

8. Keuper Marls 1000 feet thick. 

9. Keuper Sandstone 250 „ 

10. Bunter Conglomerate 300 „ 

11. Coal-measures, 



In the bottom of the valley. 



. On the slope of the vaUey. 
On the top of the hills. 



All the Burton wells previous to 1856 were sunk in the valley-gravels, 
and were not more than 20 feet deep ; in that year Messrs. Ind, Coope, and Co. 
sank a well 24 feet in depth in Station Street; and since then all the old brewery 
wells have been deej^ened, and are now carried down to the underlying Keuper 
beds. 

To obtain a supplementary supply to that afforded by the gravels and the 
top of the Keuper deposits, Messrs. Bass and Co. bored through 194 feet of 
gypsum marls with bands of hard sandstone ; but it only produced one gallon 
of water per hour. 

In 1867-68 Messrs. AUsopp and Sons sank 28 feet through gravel and 
bored 102 feet, with a similar unsuccess. The various borings carried out by 
these firms and Messrs. Salt and Co. prove the existence of two faults in the 
very centre of the valley, bringing up the Keuper Sandstone, with a vertical 
downthrow towards the river of no less than 1100 feet, the whole of which 
enormous mass of strata has been denuded away. 

Mr. Molyneux gives the three following analyses — (1) of water from an arte- 
sian boring in Keuper marls 70 feet in depth, (2) of water from a well 30 feet 
deep in vaUey-gravels, on the east side of High Street, in the time of the 
old breweries, and (3) of a well on the Avest side of that street. 





No. 1. 


No. 2. 


No. 3. 


Sulphate of lime 


Grains in an 

imperial gallon. 

70-994 

9-046 

5-880 

12-600 

13-300 

9-173 

•966 

•000 

1-218 

i-i26 


Grains per 

gallon. 

25-480 

18060 

9100 

0-000 

7-630 

10010 

2-275 

0-000 

•900 
•840 


Grains per ; 

gallon. 

7050 

15-526 

2-128 

0-000 

3-089 

6-030 

13-447 

7-350 

Trace 

Trace 

Trace 

1904 


Carbonate of lime 


Carbonate of magnesia . . . 

Sulphate of magnesia 

Sulphate of soda 


Chloride of sodium 


Chloride of potassium 

Chloride of magnesium . . . 
Carbonate of magnesium. . . 
Protoxide of iron .-.. 


Carbonate of manganese . . . 
Kitric acid (as lime-salt)... 
Silica 




Total solid residues ... 


124297 


74295 


57-730 



120 REPORT— 1875. 

With the exception of the wells in the Keuper Marls at Hornington, all 
the borings prove these marls to be non-water bearing at Burton, the water 
found coming from the sands beneath them. Mr. Molyneux is therefore of 
opinion that the large amount of calcareous ingredients found in the artesian 
wells is derived from the vast area of Keuper Marls with gypseous aggrega- 
tions occurring in the old area of Ifeedwood Forest, to the west of the valley, 
the gypsum-charged water flowing along lines of natural underground 
drainage in a north-easterly direction, until its progress is checked by the 
great north and south Trent-vaUey fault, and a portion of the water forced 
up into the overlying gravels, where it becomes mixed with the ordinary sur- 
face-water of the vallej', which it charges with the calcareous elements which 
give it the materials necessary to the production of Burton beer. 

Mr. J. P. Griess, F.R.S., informs Mr. Molyneux that the gypsum derived from 
the water used in brewing 1000 barrels of ale would be 250 pounds ; so that, 
assuming Burton produces annually 1,400,000 barrels of ale, no less than 
350,000 pounds of this mineral will be drank with the beer in the various 
parts of the world. Of the water derived from the Burton valley -gravels, and 
used in various operations of brewing, probably not less than 1,050,000 pounds 
of gypsum will be disposed of, which Mr. Molyneux considers will not re- 
present one tenth of the actual amount of gypsum being annually carried to 
the sea. And it is believed that many local subsidences which have taken 
place in various parts of Needwood Forest are due to the fracture and sink- 
ing of gypsum-beds corroded by underground streams. 

The water recently obtained by several of the large brewing firms from 
the Keuper Sandstone and Bunter beds rose 23 feet above the level of the 
valley, proving the great height of the sources of supply. These waters were 
softer than those from the marls or from the valley-gravels, the proportion 
of sulphate of lime being much less. 

Lancashire, 

At Manchester Mr. Binney has experienced great difficulty in obtaining 
returns ; in fact out of twenty sent out only three have been returned. 

In one of these a well and boring at Ayecroft, 433 feet in depth, is stated 
to produce about 180,000 to 200,000 gallons per day ; but the well is only 
pumped for two or three weeks at a time, chiefly in dry weather. 

The well is 70 yards from the river Irwell ; and when that river rises, the 
water in the well rises also. 

Prof. HuU states that in 1863 from 60 to 70 wells in the New Red and 
Lower Permian Sandstones of Manchester and Salford yielded not less than 
six million gallons per day, used for factories, breweries, bleaching and dye 
works. 

As the collecting-area is only 7 square miles, covered with houses and 
paved streets, a large part of this supply must be derived from infiltration 
from the rivers Irk, Medlock, and Irwell. 

As the water thus derived is useful for commercial purposes, while that in 
the rivers is little better than sewage, the great natural filtering-properties of 
the New Bed Sandstone are here remarkably shown. . 

Dr. E. Angus Smith, F.R.S., found the water from the deep wells of 
Manchester, in the Permian and Bunter Sandstone, to yield 8 grains oi 
sulphate of lime, and six of carbonate. 

WeU-water rora the south side of Manchester, analyzed by him in 1865, 
contained : — 



ON THE CIRCULATION OF UNDERGROUND WATERS. 121 

grains. 

Chloride of sodium 4-83 

Sulphate of soda 7"33 

Carbonate of soda 7"35 

„ of lime 9"77 

„ of magnesia 5-29 

34-57 

The following section of a well and boring at Seedly Print-Works, given 
by Messrs. Binney and HuU, is of value, as showing that while the Upper 
Permian series attain a thickness of 128 feet, the Lower Permian Sandstone 
is but 12 feet 6 inches, though at CoUyhurst, 2| miles to the east, it has 
expanded to a thickness of 250 feet. 

feet. 

1. Drift. Boulder-clay 61 

2. Trias. Soft red sandstone 139 

3. Upper Permian. Marls, sandstone, and beds of limestone .... 128 

4. Lower Permian. White rock, red sandstone 12| 

5. Coal-measures 30 



370| 



The whole of the Permian formation, as proved by various wells and 
borings, is subject to great variation of thickness, due probably to uncon- 
formability. 

In the borough of Salford Mr. Binney has recorded a large number of 
borings for water at the factories and printing works ; one of these, at Messrs. 
Dewhurst Dawson's Croft, Greengate, gave : — 

feet. 

1. New Bed Sandstone. Ked and streaked sandstone 180 

2. Upper Permian. Eed marls, with 4 thin beds of lime- 

stone and one of grit 210 

3. Lower Permian. Soft bright red sandstone, bottom not 

reached. 

In a boring at the brewery near Albert Bridge, the following sequence 
occurred : — 

feet. 

New Bed Sandstone 470 

Upper Permian. Red marb with limestone 120 

Lower Permian. Red sandstone and clay 10 

These borings point to the Lower Permian Sandstone as the source of the 
water in the deep wells of the Salford district. 

At Ordsull a boring 460 feet in depth failed to reach the base of the New 
Red Sandstone, and the water at the bottom of the bore became so salt that 
the work was given up : this is probably the only instance of salt water 
being met with in the sandstones of the Trias, though it commonly occurs in 
the marls. 

East of the Manchester coal-field is a tract of New Red Sandstone, 2 
miles in width, in which is situated the Gorton Waterworks, where a well 
210 feet is capable of yielding 600 gallons per minute, notwithstanding the 
greater part of the drainage-area is covered with impermeable Boulder- 
clay. 



122 REPORT — 1875. 

The New Red Sandstone in the Liverpool and Preston district consists of 
the following subdivisions : — 

feet. 

1. Lower Keuper Sandstone 400 

2. The Upper Mottled Sandstone 600 

3. Pebble-beds 800 

4. Lower Mottled Sandstone 100 

Permian beds thin and unimportant. 

In a section first described by your Reporter in the railway-cutting at 
Orrcl, near Waterloo, the upper beds of the Keuper Sandstone consist of 
beds of fine-grained sandstone, separated by seams of grey marl, throwing 
out springs, maintaining the characteristic which gives to the Keuper Sand- 
stone in the Midland counties the name of " waterstones ;" between these 
water-bearing beds and a patch of overljdng Keuper Marls let in by a fault 
a conglomerate bed occurs similar to that occurring at the base of the 
Keuper. A small well at a private house to the S.W. yields a good supply 
of water from the water-bearing bed ; but it is probable that a large well 
sank into these rocks would afford a valuable auxiliary supply for "Waterloo 
and Seaforth. 

The Upper Mottled Sandstone consists of rather hard j-ellow sandstone, 
sometimes used for building, which yields a good supply of water in a well 
at Scarisbrick, of the Southport Waterworks, 70 feet above the sea-level. 
Nearer Ormskirk are two other shafts sank, by the direction of Mr. Hawksley, 
in the lower beds of the Upper Mottled Sandstone ; in one of these, the Pilot 
shaft, a good supply of water is obtained ; but in the other, a few yards 
distant, no water was obtained, and the Company are now engaged in driving 
a heading in hopes of finding some. 

At Ormskirk Brewery a powerful spring, known as the " Bath Spring," 
supplies not only the brewery but the town itself. The top of the well is 
about 134 feet above the level of the sea, is 36 feet in depth, and yields 33 
gallons per minute. 

The late Mr. Robert Stephenson, reporting on the supply of water to 
Liverpool in 1851, considered the New Red Sandstone of that district, which 
consists of hard Pebble-beds and Upper Mottled Sandstone, to be generally 
very pervious, deep wells drawing their supplies from distances of more than 
a mile ; and he appears to have considered the whole mass as nearly equally 
permeable in every direction, except when fissures or faults filled with ar- 
gillaceous matter divide the field into water-tight compartments; and he 
showed that the yield of no well can be permanently increased by sinking, 
tunnelling, or boring, except .so far as the contributing area is thereby 
enlarged. 

The mass of the Liverpool wells draw their supplies from the sandstone at 
a level between high- and low-water mark ; and when the uniform pressure 
of the column of fresh water, which prevents any ingress of the fluctuating 
tidal water, is interfered with by excessive pumping, the general top-water 
level is lowered, and Mr. Stephenson pointed out that a reverse action ensues 
and the brackish water obtains a slight advantage. 

As larger and larger quantities of water are pumped, the current of 
brackish water gains in head ; and it appears to be gradually reaching further 
and further inland ; the wells at Bevington Bush, Soho Square, Hotham 
Street, and other places have had to be abandoned ; but whether it will be 
able to penetrate the faults which divide the Liverpool area into a series 
of different water-bearing belts is exceedingly doubtful. 



ON THE CIRCULATION OF UNDERGROUND WATERS. 123 

The high permeability of the New Red Sandstone is remarkably shown in 
the Green-Lane well of the Liverpool Corporation waterworks, of which the 
details were furnished to Prof. Hull by Mr. Duncan, the resident engineer. 

The well was sunk in 1845-46, at a point 144 feet above the sea-level, to a 
depth of 185 feet, or 41 feet below the sea. The yield was then 1,500,000 
gallons per day. 

A 6-inch bore, sunk 60 feet from the bottom of the weU, increased the 
yield to 2,317,000 gallons. 

In June 1853, the supply having slightly fallen off, the bore-hole was 
deepened a further 381 feet, when the yield increased to 2,689,000 gallons. 

In June 1856 the bore-hole was widened, and carried a further 101 feet, 
when the supply rose to 3,321,000 gallons per day. 

In the first boring, as pointed out by Prof. Hull, the increase was at the 
rate of 17,783 gallons per foot, in the second it was only 9789 gallons per 
foot, and the third only yielded 6277 additional gallons per foot ; so that 
increase of depth gives so rapidly a diminishing ratio of volume, that a zero- 
point woiild be soon attained. 

The large volume of water in this well is believed to be due to the existence 
of a large fault, which acts as a duct for the underground waters over a large 
area. 

The water from the Green-Lane well was anah'zed in 1850 by Mr. Philhps, 
and one gallon contained : — 

grains. 

Carbonate of lime 5-26 

Chloride of sodium 2-66 

Sulphate of soda 2-23 

Silica 0-64 

Organic matter, &c 2-81 

13-60 

Mr. Isaac Eoberts, who has given much attention to the wells of Liverpool, 
found by experiment that one square foot of compact sandstone 10| inches 
in thickness, of average coarseness, allowed the following quantities of water 
to pass through it per hour : — 

At a pressure of 10 lbs. to the square inch 4^ gallons. 

J> » "0 „ „ 1% 5> 

» j> 46 ,, » ly „ 

the increase being nearly directly as the pressure. 

Mr. Eoberts examined the Liverpool sandstone microscopically, and found 
it to consist of roughly rounded grains of quartz attached at the points of 
contact with a siliceous cement. When a block of this sandstone is immersed 
in water, the grains do not absorb but attract the water into the spaces 
between the grains by capillary attraction — sandstone of ordinaiy coarseness 
taking up no less than J^ of its own weight of water, of which J^ runs away 
by the influence of gravity, the remainder being held in the cavities of the 
stone by capillary attraction. 

Mr. Roberts describes seven wells which he has sunk or deepened at 
Liverpool, and gives information concerning them, which clearly proves the 
gradually lessening amount of rainfall which can make its way into the 
ground through the large extent of area in Liverpool covered with buUdings 



124 REPORT — 1875. 

or streets, which has caused the underground water to no longer flow from 
the sandstone towards the sea, but to allow a current of tidal water to set in 
towards the land, which gradually increasing in volume, the water in these 
wells becomes yearly more and more charged with salts. 

A well at (1) Earl Street, 350 yards from the Mersey, was perceptibly 
affected by the tide, the top water sinking to low-water level at low tide, 
the bottom of this well being 32 feet below high water. 

In a well at (2) Kainford Square, 500 yards from the river, the bottom of 
which is 76 feet below high-water mark, the supply is abundant ; and Mr. E. 
Davis, F.C.S., found bj' analysis that it contained 

grains. 

Mineral matter per gallon 231-00 

Organic matter ,, 1-75 



232-75 



The mineral matter consisting of: 



o 



Chloride of calcium. Sulphate of lime. 

,, magnesium. „ magnesium. 

„ potassium. Carbonate of lime. 

„ sodium. „ magnesia. 

Oxide of iron. Nitrate of ammonia, trace. 

The large quantities of salts in this well render it unfit for generating 
steam, for which it was formerly used. 

In the water from a well (3) at Johnson Street, 850 yards from the Mersey, 
Mr. Phillips, of London, found the following salts per gallon : — 

grains. 

Sulphate of lime 8-80 

Carbonate of lime 24-33 

Chloride of lime 5-05 

„ magnesium 20-80 

„ sodium 55-79 



114-77 



The analysis was made in 1850, up to which time the water was suitable for 
brewing, but afterwards became so brackish that its use had to be discontinued. 
A well in (4) Wellington Street, about 1200 yards from the river, was 
sunk in the Keuper Sandstone to a depth of 71 feet below high water. An 
analysis of the water from a peighbouring well, made in 1865, gave 117-70 
grains of solid matter per gallon, consisting of : — 

grains. 

Sulphate of lime 29-50 

Chloride of lime 4-00 

,, magnesium 33-60 

„ sodium 47-60 

Carbonate of lime 2-00 

Iron, alumina, &c 1-00 



117-70 
(Analysis made by Messrs. Huson and Audle for Mr. "Westworth.) 

An analysis of the Corporation well at Eootle, about 1800 yards from the 
river, made in 1850 by Mr. Phillips, gave 24 grains of solid matter per 



ON THE CIRCULATION OF UNDERGROUND WATERS. 125 

gallon, consisting of: — 

grains. 

Sulphate of lime 3-31 

Carbonate of lime 7*10 

„ magnesia 6-93 

Chloride of sodium 3-37 

Silica 0-48 

Organic matter 2-81 



24-00 



Mr. Roberts gives the two following analyses, as showing the source of the 
increasing salinity of the Liverpool weUs to be due to the percolation of the 
river and not to any natural hardness. Analysis A was made in 1850 by 
Mr, PhiUips, of well-water in Great Howard Street, Liverpool, 200 yards 
from the docks. Analysis B was made in 1869 by Mr. A Norman Tate, 
F.C.S., of halftide-water, procured from the Mersey by Mr. Roberts, at the 
South Landing-Stage. 

A. B. 

grains. grains. 

Carbonate of lime 28-70 0-64 

,, of magnesia 0-00 0-80 

Sulphate of lime 144-00 56-44 

„ of magnesia 0-00 113-14 

Chloride of magnesium 209-00 85-60 

,, of potassium 0-00 5-32 

„ of sodium 531-00 1295-50 

Silica 0-32 0-64 

Alkaline nitrates . . trace 

Iodides and bromides . . trace 

Organic matter 1-30 not det. 



914-32 1558-08 

In South Lancashire Mr. MeUard Reade has collected valuable information, 
and reports a well at Crouton near Prescot, yielding 800,000 gallons a day, 
407 feet in depth ; a well at the Iron Works, Garston, yielding 240,000 gal- 
lons per day, 351 feet in depth ; a well of the Widness Local Board, with 
bore-hole 300 feet in depth, yielding 6| million gallons per week of 7 days. 

In Cheshire no returns have as yet been received by Mr. Morton, and he 
therefore defers reporting on the Wirral wells until next year. For compa- 
rison with other districts, it may be well to reproduce the following details. 

In sinking the well at Playbrick Hill in Cheshire, 3400 yards from the 
Mersey, water began to weep into the well through cavities in the sandstone 
at 10 feet above high- water mark ; above that level Mr. Roberts, who sank 
the well, states the Keuper Sandstone was free from water ; as the depth 
increased the yield of water became greater, until at 55 feet below high- 
water mark 350,000 gallons were supplied in 24 hours, which quantity, by 
a subsequent bore-hole and adit driven to cut a fault by the direction of 
Mr. Bateman, C.E., was increased to 1,600,000 gallons in the same time. 

Professor Hiill states that this and the other wells belonging to the 
Tranmere Local Board, the Birkenhead Commissioners, and the Wirral Water 
Co., yield together not less than four million gallons. 



126 RKPORT— 1875. 

North-east of England. 

YoRKSHTBE. — Prof. Green and Mr. Fox Straugways defer sending the 
Yorkshire returns, as they are as yet very incomplete. 

The following sections of wells in the New Red Sandstone of Yorkshire 
were collected by Mr. Clifton Ward, F.G.S., of the Geological Survey, and 
forwarded by him to Mr. Whitaker. 

Probable thickness of New Eed and Permian in the Leeds and York 
district : — 

feet. 
m • f Keuper (red and blue binds with stone and beds of 

1 "^00 f ' f I alabaster) 400 

lauu leet. ^ pm^^gj. (-jjg^ Sandstone) 900 

p • f Upper Marls thickness unknown 

V, f ' J Upper Limestone about 40 

300 feet I ^^^^^^ '^^^^^ ^ to 30 

[ Lower Limestone 200 

Ascertained thicknesses from rocks, borings, &c., but not all representing 
total thicknesses : — 

feet. 

Trias JKeuper 285 

inas. ... I p^^j^^gj. Sandstone 700 

rUpper Marls thickness unknown 

p . J Upper Limestone about 30 

rermian ^ -^^^^^^ -^^^i^ to 30 

i^Lower Limestone , 170 

A boring through Magnesian Limestone (Lower) at Tadcaster, 170 feet of 
Lower Limestone was pierced to the underlying Millstone-grit (rough rock). 

Wells and Borings in the New Red and Permian of Yorkshire. 

Well at Selhj :— 

feet. in. 

Warp and clay 10 

Strong clay 10 6 

Sand and clay 14 8 

Strong clay ' 7 10 

Clay and silt 8 9 

Grey sand or loose water-sand 7 9 

Eed sand '. 6 6 

Indurated sand 1 6 

Eed Sandstone 54 6 ] 

Red clay and Fuller's earth with pipe-clay 5 I- 262 ft. 6 in. 

Red Sandstone 203 



330-0 
(Particulars from Mr. Wainright, Holgate Lane.) 

The water is hard (as if from Magnesian Limestone) ; 243,000 gallons are 
pumped up every 24 hours, and the supply is constant. The water stands 
highest at 12 at noon and 12 at night, only varying about 2 inches at these 
hours, but 8 or 9 inches between these hours. 



ON THE CIRCULATION OF UNDERGROUND WATERS. 127 

At the other end of the town (from the Selby Waterworks) there is another 

well 380 feet deep, still in lied Sandstone ; the water stands very near the top. 

Another well at Cawood is about 300 feet deep ; some years after its 

sinking, at 11 in the morning of a certain day, the water fell considerably, 

while at the same hour the Selby well gave an overwhelming supply. 

Well sunk by Mr. Swale at Walmgate Bar, York : — 

feet. in. 

Clay and stones 24 

Quicksand 60 

Fine sandstone 204 

Parting with water 2 

Fine sandstone 279 

567 2 

At Bilton HaU, near York, sandstone (New Red) reached at 20 yards, not 
gone through. 

Boring at Goole in connexion with a railway-bridge across the Ouse : — 

feet. 

Silt and sand 20 

Black peat 18 

Soft brown clay, sand, and gravel 18 

Soft blue shale full of water 18 

Strong blue shale with gypsum (here foundation 

was made) 30 

104 
Well at Street Houses in Tadcaster Road (York) : — 

feet. 

Strong clay 33 

Sand 9 

(New Red) Red Sandstone 6 

Well at Holme, near Market Weighton (at ' Blacksmith's Arms ') : — 

feet. 

(Sunk) Sand 15 

(Bored) Blue stone with a layer of "Plaster" at 

bottom 60 

Blue and brown stone 225 

300 
(Am not sure about these measures. — J. C. W.) 

Sinking and boring at Saltmarsh, 1834: — 

feet. 

Earth 36 

Quicksand 18 

White and blue plaster and red marl 126 1 

Blue marl 33 I 201 

Red marl 42 J 

Soft red sandstone 60 

315 



128 REPORT— 1875. 

Boring at Reedness, upon the estate of Mr. Jolia Egremont. Superin 
tended by Mr. John Walker, C.E. (commenced Oct. 7, 1835) : — 

feet. in. 

Warp and gravel 69 6 

Keuper 272 2 

Bunter 687 2 



..^ 



New Red.V 



1028 10 
(N.B.— I have aU the details of this boring.— J. C. W.) 

MiDDLBSBOEOTTGH, Bolckhow and Vaiighan, 1861, sunk and commuuicated 
by Messrs. T. Docwra and Son. Shaft 178 feet, the rest bored : — 

feet. 

Made ground 1 

('Black slime 8 

Sand full of water 10 

Alluvium.-^ Clays 10 

Sand with water 1 

^Dry sandy loam 3 

'Hard clay, dry 16 

Claystone, water 11 

Clay with gypsum, dry 7 

Gypsum, water 2 

Hed sandstone with gypsum 50 

Gypsum, dry 6 

Red sandstone, a little gypsum 5 

Water 1 

Red rock, dry 4 

„ with gypsum 10 

Blue and white stone 2-^ 

Red sandstone, no gypsum 720 

SOTTTH-WEST OF ENGLAND. 

Name of Member of Committee asking for information, W. Pengelly, La- 
morna, Torquay. 

Name of Individual or Company applied to : — 

Mr. Shepherd and Sons, Exeter. 
1. Bridge Mills, Silverton, near Exeter. 3. 20 ft., diameter 5 ft., total depth 
237 ft. ; bore-hole 6 in. diameter. 4. 214 ft. 5. 100 gallons per minute. 9. Sand 
94 ft. 8 in. ; rock 26 ft. 11 in. ; marl 29 ft. 4 in. ; clay and greensand 30 ft. ; gravel 4 ft. 
9 in., water ; hard clay IG ft. ; rock 15 ft. 10 in. 

Mr. W. S. S. Gamlen, Bramford Speke. 
1. In the village of Bramford Speke, Exeter, on a slight eminence at the foot of 
a long slope of gently rising ground. 2. 140 feet. 3. 62 feet ; diameter 4 ft. 6 in. 
4. 4 to 5 feet generally ; the water returns to this level in about 5 hours. 5. Can- 
not say. 6. About 1 ft. 6 in., higher in winter : I do not think it has varied in quan- 
tity. 7. Only gradually by autumnal rains. The surface of the water is about 
2 ft. above the level of the river Exe. 8. None. Very good di-inking- water, slightly 
hard and containing carbonic acid gas. 9. Drift of sandy loam 3 to 9 ft., of water- 
worn gravel 3 to 7 ft. ; total cover of drift about 13 ft., then New Red Sandstone to 
bottom of well, in beds of about 10 ft. of loose sand, 2 of coarser ditto, and 27 of 
pretty soHd sandstone, but not firm enough for building-stone. 10. About 15 feet 
below surface of the drift-soil springs occur. H. No : thev are slight in summer. 
12. No. 13. No. 14. No. 15. No. 



OJJ THE CIRCULATION OF UNDERGROUND WATERS. 129 

Mr, George Pycroft, Kenton, Exeter. 
1. Well situated in my house, on a liill-side one mile from tidal river Exe. 
2. 80 ft. 3. 70 ft. , diameter 4 ft. 4.13 ft. ; do not know, but by two days' pumping 
I once reduced the level to 3 feet, and it then rapidly refilled. 5. IvTot known : 
well never exhausted. 6. Yes ; it varies from 6 ft. in excessively dry seasons to 
13 ft. 7. Yes. I cannot say, but certainly in 6 hours. The bottom of well about 10 ft. 
above mean sea-level. 8. Not known, but not hard ; excellent for washing and 
drinking ; well filled to a few feet of the top with carbonic acid ; water frequently 
contams well-shrimps. 9. New red conglomerate ; no cover of gravel or drift. 
10. No cover of drift. 12. No. 13. No. 14. No. 15. No. 

ill-. George Pycroft, Kenton, Exeter. 
1. Powderham Castle, right bank of Exe. 2. 30 ft. 3. 50 ft., diameter 3 ft. 
4. Not known ; never exhausted. 5, Not known. 6. Not known. 7. Is aSected 
by local rains, but how rapidly or to what extent not ascertained ; is 20 ft. below the 
mean sea-level. 

8. Saline matters.. 14-19 (less) 

Organic „ 0-62 



14-81 



Degree of hardness . . 7-80 

9. Light porous red sandstone. 10. No. 11. No. 12. No. 13. No. 14. No. 
15. No. 

Mr. Robert Blackburn, Trews Weii", near Exeter. 
1. Within 50 j'ards from the river Exe. 2. 20 ft. above sea-level at Exniouth. 
3.320 ft._ depth of well, and 250 ft. 9 inches bore. 4. Not ascertained. 5. 500,000 
gallons in 24 hours. 6. In winter average height of water 2 ft. above summer 
level. _ 7. Not aflected by rain. 8. Analysis of spring-water at Trews Weir : one 
imperial gallon contains : — 

grains. 

Organic matter (including -168 oxidizing organic matter) -32 

Carbonate of lime 11-61 

Sulphate of lime 5-01 

Carbonate of magnesia 5-25 

Nitrate of magnesia 6'92 

Chloride of magnesia •41 

Chloride of potassium -79 

Chloride of sodium 5'59 

Oxide of iron and alumina -15 

Soluble silica -75 

Total residuum (gained at 140° C, hardness before boiling 27^°) 36-80 

9. Red sandstone, rain-drift. 10. No. 12. None. 13. Not known. 14. No. 
15. None that we know of. 

Dr. Lake, Teignmouth. 
1. Four wells in garden of Myln Villa, Coomb, West Teignmouth, sunk in 
1874 by Teignmouth Local Board as an extra supply for town. These wells are in 
the bottom of a valley not far from a culvert which was built to can-y the water of 
the brook running in the valley; they are therefore independent of the brook, and 
are supplied by springs breaking forth out of the rock in their sides and in those 
of the adit connecting them. 2. The surface of ground about 100 ft. above mean 
tide. 3. 30 ft., diameter 5 ft. 5. No certain means vet of ascertaining this. 8. 
Analysis by Professor Frankland in parts per 100,000 :— Total solid impurity 40-00; 
organic carbon -056; organic nitrogen -008; ammonia -001; nitrogen as nitrates 
and nitrites -530; total combined nitrogen -5.30; chlorine 3-20; hardness, temp. lP-4, 
perm. 11°-1. 9. See plan. 10. No. 13. No. 14. No. 15. No. 

Dr. Sj-mes Saunders. 
1. The well at the Devon County Lunatic Asylum, Exminstev. 2. 1-50 feet. 3. 114 



18 



'•>• K 



130 



REPORT — 1875. 



feetin depth; boreTOfeet; diameter of shaft 6 feet, ditto of bore 4 inches. 4. 20feet 
before reduced by pumping to 8 feet ; restored in 10 hours. 5. 30,000 gallons. 
6. Yes ; in January and February rises occasionally 20 feet. 7. After continuous 
rain level is aifected and water rises 3 or 4 feet. 8. Analysis by Voelcker appended. 
9. Red Sandstone. 10. Yes. 11. No. 12. No. 13. No. 14. No. 15. No. 

Composition of two samples of Water sent by Dr. Symes Saunders, County Lunatic 

Asylum, Exmiuster. -^^r^ter from 

Well- tap in 

An imperial gallon on evaparation left residue, dried at 260° grs. ' grs. 

Fahr. ...: 16-61 1695 

An analysis of the residue gave by direct determination : — 

Organic matter and loss in heating 1'39 1"40 

Oxides of iron and alumina, traces of phosphoric acid "24 "25 

Lime 311 3-24 

Magnesia : 1-46 1*49 

Sulphuric acid '72 "74 

Chlorine 2-20 2-21 

Soluble siHca ,- -90 -81 

Alkalies and carbonic acid (not determined separately) .... 6'59 6-81 

Total residue per gallon 16-61 16-95 

Oxidizable organic matter per gallon -176 "272 

According to the usual mode of combining the constituents of waters, the composi- 
tion of the two samples may be represented as follows : — 

General Composition of two samples of Water in use in the Devon County Lunatic 

Asylum, Exminster. 

An imperial gallon contains in grains : — Well-water. Water from Tap in 

_ . . No. 5 Ward. 

'Organic matter and loss in heating 1-39 1*40 

Oxides of iron and alumina and traces of phosphoric acid "24 -25 

Sulphate of lime 1-22 1-25 

Carbonate of lime . . . : . ; ......;.. 4-66 4-87 

Carbonate of magnesia 3-00 3-11 

Chloride of sodium ; ....:..........,......... 3-62 3-63 

Carbonates of potash and soda 1-52 1-63 

Soluble silica -90 -81 

10-61 10-95 

•Including oxidizable organic matter "176 -272 

Augustus Voelckee, Ph.D. 

11 Salisbm-y Square, Fleet Street, 
Not. 2nd, 1866. 



Mr. Henry John Carter, Budleigh-Salterton, Devon. 

1. All the wells at Budleigh-Salterton are in the New Red Sandstone above the 
great Pebble-bed. 2. Do not know. 3. Depth of our own well 37 feet ; diameter 
3 feet inside the revetment at the top : I know nothing of any other. 4. Do not 
know ; water drawn up by bucket three or four times a day ; bucket cylindrical iron 
15i by 13^ in. measm-ement. 5. Do not know ; there is always 4-6 feet of water in 
our well. 6. Do not know ; well about 150 years old. 7. Do not know ; must be, 
I should think, 40-50 feet above either at the bottom, with the strata inclined south- 
east. 8. No peculiarity ; comparatively pm-e compared with that from the land 
spring, which is so hard that it is only used for washing potatoes and the like. 

9. New Red Sandstone ; drift variable "in thickness, under 10 feet I should thinlv. 

10. Yes, at our house for 6-8 months in the year. 11. Entirely kept out, I believe. 



OxV THE CIRCULATION OP TJNDEllGROUiVD WATERS. 131 

13. Do not know. 13. Not to my knowledge ; well 150 years old. 14. Not to my 
knowledge. 15. Not to my knowledge ; but the water in many of the wells near 
the sea, which are compai-atively shallower, is very " brackish." 

Dr. Albert Baker, Dawlish. 
1. In the valley or town, and on the hills on each side of the valley or town of 
Dawlish. 2. From 5 ft. to 200 ft. 3. Varies from 30 to 180 ft. ; diameter in sand 3 ft. 

9 in., in stone or rock 4 ft. 9 in. ; bore-holes not in use. 4. The average from the 
"mother" or "main spring" is 7 feet, and if pumped out refills in 7 or 8 hours 
everywhere. B. To be calculated. 6. Very little when the " mother " spring is 
struck ; there is very little difference, if any, observed in the past 10 years ; increase of 
population 500 to 600. 7. Only the shallow wells of 14 to 20 feet, which is all from 
drainage through the lower bed of coarse gravel ; this not more than 1 or 2 feet below 
the stream or sea anywhere. 8. Not very hard ; contains a good deal of sulphate of 
lime (Sorby's), which decreases as you ascend the brook ; in many of the low levels it is 
brackish, but varies very much in adjoining wells. 9. Generally red sandstone imtil 
you reach 60 ox 70 feet. The layers run from sandstone to coarse gravel like beach, 
with veins of fine sand, then large flinty stones and gravel, coarse and large ; should 
hard pan of sandstone be hit, the water will be retained by it, or if bored through 
it wells up so fast very often that all fui-ther sinking is stopped and a permanent sup- 
ply of 7 feet deep is obtained ; at about 40 to 50 feet above the sea water is readily 
got at 3-5 feet, but is generally believed to be branch springs and surface percolation 
together, very pure, but not always permanent. It is believed that any well pumped 
out would refill to 7 feet in from 10 to 12 hours. The various beds vary from 1 to 

10 feet or more in thickness ; sandstone always predominates in the deep weUs. 
The only well requiring blasting is at " Oaklands," now 65 feet deep and in very hard 
conglomerate red rock : this well is 200 feet above the sea-level. 10. Yes, many 
in various places. 11. Not generally near wells, but used as open springs and con- 
sidered very pure. 12. No. 13. Never heard of any. 14. No. 15. Never heard 
of any ; and the brackish water gets bitter as you get deeper, and is very variable in 
mostplaces. It appears to me entirely dependent on the loose gi-avel-beds, which 
vary in depth and thickness considerably, and no doubt allow the sea- water to per-« 
colate through them in high tides, dry seasons, and such like. 

Rev. J. Lightfoot, Cofton, near Dawlish. 
1. On Cofton Hill, on the right bank of estuary of the Exe. 2. About 92 feet. 
3. Depth 71 feet, diameter 3 feet. 4. Height of water 19 feet ; no sensible dif- 
ference after pumping. 5. Not known. 6. Do not know ; the water has never failed. 
7. Do not know ; about 40 feet above mean sea-level. 9. Light porous sandy rock. 
10. No. 12. No. 13. No. 14. No. 15. No. 

Mr. John Watson, Torquay, 
1. Compton Farm, Marldon, near Torquay. 3. 90 feet deep, 5 feet diameter ; no 
bore-hole. 4. It is used for the ordinary purposes at the farm-house, and has never 
been exhausted. 6. 10 feet in winter and 6 feet in summer. 7. No stream nearer than 
half a mile, 8. Hard. 9. 10 feet of earth and di-ift, and the remainder red sand- 
stone. 10. No, 12. No, 13. No, 14 No. 15. I have no knowledge of any. 

Dr. J. A. Colt. 
_ 1. At my house at Maidencombe. 2. About 250 feet. 3. 91 feet deep, 3 feet 
diameter; continued to bottom of well. 4. Ordinary height of water 13 feet 
6 inches ; no perceptible difference, unless after two or three hours' pumping in dry 
weather. 5. Several hogsheads have been pumped in a day without more than 2 
inches fall. 6. No, excepting in the diy seasons of 1868, 1869, and 1870, after severe 
pumping to supply cattle and neighbours, when it fell to 9 feet 6 inches in October 
1870. 7. The level is not affected to any evident extent by local rains. 8. It con- 
tains a small quantity of lime. 9. The cover of red-marl drift is about 12 feet thick, 
and aftei-wards nearly solid red sandstone rock, with here and there a layer of lirne- 
stone cobbles cemented in the sand. 10. No surface -springs ; the well is flagged over 
with large slate flags. 11. Yes. 12. No, not nearer than 300 yards, where a well 
130 feet deep refused to hold water- 13. None, 14. No, 15, No. 

k2 



^ 



132 REPORT — 1875. 

Name of Member of Committee asking for information, Mr. C. Moore, 
F.G.S., Bath. 

Name of Individual or Company applied to : — 

Mr. W. W. Stoddart, F.G.S., Bristol. 
1. In the city of Bristol. 2. From 10 feet to 200 feet. 3. From about 60 feet to 300 
feet. 8. Can give a great number of analyses made for sanitary purposes. A large 
number of the Bristol wells are reached by tidal water. 9. Some Triassic marls ; some 
through ditto and Coal-measures, many through peat and gravel. 10. Yes. 11. No. 
12. Yes, in Pennant rock. 13. No. 14. No. 15. Yes ; will try and get section 
of the .300-foot well mentioned in No. 3. 

Mr. Stuart, Braysdown Colliery. 
1. Braysdown Colliery, near Bath. 3. 500 yards. 6. Does not vary. 8. Analysis 
by Mr. Biggs of water from bottom of pit : — 

Silica 25-76 

Sulphuric acid 31'47 

Chlorine* 412'05 

Lime as carbonate C2'67 

Magnesia 16-09 

Soda 332-06 

Solid residue after ignition per gallon . . 920-80 

Specific gravity 1-010 

Very salt. 9. New Red Sandstone, Coal-measures. 10. Surface-springs are kept 
back, but occur on various points. 

Mr. D. Brown, Twerton coal-pit, near Bath. 
1. No. 2 pit (sinking), Twerton. 3. Depth from sm'face to bottom of shaft 125 
yards ; diameters 14 ft. X 11 ft. inside welliug. 5. About 10,800 gallons per 24 hours. 
6. Water increases slightly in rainy seasons. 7. Top spring in gravel-bed 4 ft. 6 in. be- 
low water-level of brook ; bottom "spring 60 ft. 9 in. from level of water in brook. 8. 
112-8 parts per 100,000 of chloride of sodium, estimated purposely by Charles 
Ekiu, F.C.S., Bath. 

9. Section. ft. in. 

Alluvial and yellow clay 7 6 

Gravel (spring) 1 

Ti, T T • r Blue clav and plastic shales (with spring) . . 64 

Blue or Lower Lias I j3i^^^Liag ... 66 

-D, ,. , , I White Lias 12 

Rhffitic beds RhiBtic beds 23 

New Bed Marl 186 

10, Yes. 11. No. 12. No. 13. The lower spring was rather salt. 

Dr. H. J. Alford, Tangier House, Taunton. 
■ 1. Geuerall}^ within a few yards of dwelling-house. 2. From 60 to 100 feet. 3. 
Various, from 25 to 75 feet. 4. In some instances in deep water there is difficulty in 
pumping it dry ; it generally fills again in 12 hours. 7. The shallow wells are 
so affected. 8. On analysis the water is somewhat hard, containing sulphate and 
carbonate of lime ; about 6 grains of lime per gallon. 9. New Bed Sandstone 
gravel subsoil of few feet. 10. No. 12. No. 13. No. 14. No. 15. No. 

The Bev. 0. T. Harrison, Thorn Falcon, Taunton. 
1. Thorn Falcon, Taimtou. 3. 25 to 45 feet. 8. Very hard. 9. Red marls; 
spring derived from a sand-bed beneath. 

Mr. T. H. Dickinson, Ringweston, Somerton. 
1. About 200 yards W.S.W. of Somerton church. 2. About 95 feet above the 
river. 3. Depth 129J feet, diameter 3 inches. 4. 47 feet from the surface no varia- 

* Giving 1008 grains common salt per gallon, or 1440 grains ditto per 100,000. 



ON THE CIKCULATION OF UNDKRGROUND WATERS. 133 

tiou is noticeable. 5. Have never tested, but have taken over 3600 in that ypace 
of time. 6. Has not been tested. 7. Do not think it is. 

8. Sulphate of lime 76-40 ^ 

Carbonate of lime 53 '81 i grains per gallon. 

Carbonate of magnesia . . 12-26 J 

9. The White Lias is said to be from 90 to 99 feet down ; no information in further 
detail can be given ; another well is to be sunk soon about a |- of a mile west of this, 
and a note of the strata will be carefully taken by Mr. Thomas, of Somerton, under 
whose direction it will be sunk. 10. There are siu-face-springs | of a mile west, 
which supply a good deal of water after rain and various pumps ; but I do not appre- 
hend that much goes into this well, and no particular precautions have been taken. 
12. No. 13. No. 14. No. 15. No. 

Mr. Edward Tylor, Wellington. 
(These answers are given by Mr. Robert Knight, Wellington.) 

1. Centre of town of Wellington. 2. 230 feet. 3. Well 48 feet deep, 6 feet 
diameter. 4. Ordinary pumping does not alter the level perceptibly. 5. 120. 
6. There is usually 2 feet less of water in the suinmer : no diminution has been 
noticed in this well. 7. Is not aflected by rain, and is too remote from streams or 
sea. 8. Water pure, particularly " hard." 9. Loose sandstone covered by about 
2 feet of clay. (There is a saying common amongst the country people here, to 
the efl'ect that the breaking of the springs in winter is in some manner influenced 
by the winds of the previous March.) 10. There is no surface-spring within a J 
of a mile of this well. 12. No. 13. No. 14. No. 15. No. 

Well-sinkers say that within the last 20 yeai's the general level at which water 
is reached has sunk 1 or 2 feet. 

Mr. J. M'=Murtrie, F.G.S., Radstock. 
1. Tyning Pit, Radstock. 3. Diameter of pit 8 feet ; depth to chief spring or 
feeder 200 feet. 4. Before pumping, about 90 feet ; after pumping, 200 feet. 5. 
864,000 gallons. 6. It varies a few feet in level summer and winter ; the quan- 
tity does not diminish. 7. Local rains increase the feeder ; the water rises to the 
level of the brook in the valley. 

9. ? Lias 17 

Rhsetic about 18 

Red marls 16-5 

200 

10. No drift. 11, No drift. 12. None. 13. None. 14. None. 15. None. 



y 



Mr. Wilkins, Writhlingion. 
1. liUmersdon Coal-Shaft New Pit. 2. Kilmersdon Pits, one 8 feet, one 10 feet ; 
the 10-foot pit is down 42 fathoms 1 foot 6 in. to a hard stone ; 4100 gallons of 
water per hour come into the pits. 4. Water rose 33 yds. in 24 hours, and stood 
at that point. 5. 24 hours, 98,400 gallons. 6. This spring rises when the wind is 
high, but not at any other time, though I have watched it many years. The above 
spring is what we call " the red-gTound spring," and lies from 20 to 24 fathoms under 
the Lias beds. 8. Stain red, and when in a vessel the sediment of the water is very 
red. The water is hard. 9. Brown clay. Lias and clay, black and blue marl and 
marlstone 13 fathoms ; 34 feet red ground with " lists " of blue stone and conglo- 
merate 4 feet ; ditto 1 foot, then red ground 4 feet, then conglomerate again. 

[Sm-face beds Middle Lias, about 3 to 4 feet thick. 

Base of Lower Lias 37 feet „ 

Base of Rhsetic beds 5 ft, 4 in. „ 

All the beds above the Coal-measures are very thin in this district. — C. 1\I.] 10. Yes, 
lias springs. 11. Yes. 12. Y^es; fault called the 100-fathom fault. 13. In coal-mea- 
sures the water is very salt. 14. One in the Foxcote pit between the first and second 
series of veins, I know none but Foxcote. 



+ 



134 REPORT — 1875. 

Mr. E. Barham, Bath, Bridgwater. 
1. At Wembdon. 2. 60 feet. 3. 30 feet. 4. Plentiful supplj; except in very 
dry summers. 5. Cauuot state precise quantity. 6. It is level in the summer ; 
three or four years ago there was a partial failure of water in August or September. 
7. No immediate eifect is produced by rain, however heavy. The bottom of the well 
is higher than any other stream in the neighbourhood. I have no analysis of the 
water ; it is very clear to look at and very hard ; it " rocks " kettles and sometimes 
when boiling looks " milky." 9. The well is entirely situate in the red sandstone, 
which at the point in question is a band of conglomerate rock, the imbedded rock 
being, I should think, portions of the Quantock formation. 10. There are no surface- 
springs in the immediate neighboiu-hood. 12. There is a fault running from near 
the well past Connington to Charlwick. 13. No. 14. No. 15. No. 

The Rev. M. Drummond, Wookey Vicarage, near Wells. 
1. West of Wells, Somerset. 2. About 70 feet. 3. 33 feet. 4. 3-feet level 
y does not alter under ordinary usage. 6. Varies from 3 feet in driest to 12 feet in 
wettest weather, but no diminution in the supply. 7. No, probably about level 
with the river Axe. 8. No analysis 5 always clear. 

ft. 

9. Redmai-l 30 

Loam 3 

Redstone. 

/A large body of water finds its way, by means of smaller holes and fissures in the 
K > Carboniferous limestone of the Mendip Hills, to the lower levels. Thus a spring 
rises in the Bishop's Palace Garden at Wells which brings coal with it, some of 
which I have ; and a large stream emerges from imder the Carboniferous limestone 
at Cheddar. 10. No drift; all the neighbourhood full of land-springs. 11. Yes. 
13, No. 14. No. 15. No. 

Midland CoTTNirEs. 

Name of Member of Committee aslcing for information, Mr. James Plant, 
F.G.S. 

Name of Individual or Company applied to : — 

Messrs. Fielding & Co. 
1. Leicester. 2. 210 feet, mean tide Liverpool. 3. 75 feet, 8 ft. diameter ; no bore- 
hole. 4. 35 feet, in working reduced to 10 feet and restored in 10 hours. 5. 250 to 
300 thousand gallons. 6. Not observed ; some 10 feet. 7. Not seen; well when full 
about same level as water in river Soar. 8. Sulphate and carbonate of lime ; pro- 
portions not known. 

ft. 

9. Soil 2-6 (there are two wells). 

Drift (clay and sand) 10 

Red marl : 30 

*Upper Keuper sandstone 29 

75 
10. Yes. 11. Yes. 12. None known. 13. No. 14. None known. 15. No. 

Messrs. Hodges and Sons. 

1. Leicester. 2. 206 ft. above mean tide Liverpool. 3. 90 ft., 9 ft. diameter, bottom 

12 feet diameter ; heading driven into sandstone to increase supply. 4. 50 feet ; 

emptied during ten hoiu-s, restored in 14 hours. 5. No estimate. 6. Not observed 

(only sunk 5 years). 7. Not observed, about same level as riverf. 8. Sulphate 

* Thin " wayboards " of red and grey marl and red, white, and grey sandstone alternating 
and full of •' i-ipple-marks ;" beds 4 to 6 inches. 

t The river Soar, near the town, runs through the " Upper Keuper sandstone" beds, 
cutting them down to the red marl below ; the town of Leicester is partly built on these 
upper sandstone beds, but drift lies over all. 



ON THE CIRCULATION OF UNDERGROUND WATERS. 135 

and carbonate of lime, proportion not stated. 

ft. 

9. Drift 10 

Red marl 35 

Upper Keuper sandstone 45 

90 
10. Yes. 11. Yes. 12. None known. 13. No. 14. None known. 15. No. 

Messrs. Pickard and Sons. 
I.Leicester. 2. 206 feet, mean tide Liverpool. 3. 75 feet; no bore-liole ; mean 
width of shaft 8 feet. 4. 30 feet ; emptied in 10 hom-s, restored in a night. 5. No 
estimate. 6. Not observed. 7. Not observed same (about) level as river. 

ft. 

9. Drift 15 

Red marl 25 

Upper Keuper sandstone 35 

75 

10. Yes. 11. Yes. 12. None known. 13. No. 14. None known. 15. No. 

Messrs. Everhard and Co. (Brewery). 
I.Leicester. 2. 203 feet, mean tide Liverpool. 3. 50 feet, diameter 7 feet. 4.15 
to 20 feet. 5. Not estimated. 6. Not observed. 7. No. 8. Sulphate and carbo- 
nate of lime, proportion not known. 

ft. 

9. Diift (clay, &c.) 30 

Upper Keuper sandstone 20 

60 

10. Yes. 11. Yes. 12. None, 13. None. 14. None. 15. No. 

Messrs. Rust and Co. 
1. Leicester. 2. 208 ft., mean tide Liverpool. 3. 80 ft., diameter 9 ft. 4. 40 ft. 
5. No estimate. 6. Not observed. 7. Not observed. 8. No analysis, simply " hard. 

ft. 
9. Soil 10 

Drift (clay, sand, and gravel) .... 30 
Upper Keuper sandstone 40 

80 
10. Yes. 11. Yes. 12. None. 13. None. 14. None. 15. No. 

Messrs. John Knowles, Mansfield. 
1. Nuneaton, centre of the tovm. 2. 210 ft., mean tide Liverpool. 3. 30 ft., 8 ft. 
diameter ; bore 82 ft., 4 in. diameter. 4. 105 ft. ; no pumping done. 5. 250,000 
gallons in 24 hours. 6. No (not more than 3 ft. at most) ; stands permanently 6 ft. 
above level of river Anker. 7. Cannot say. 8. Hard. 

ft. 
9. Drift (sand, gravel, and clay) .... 18 

Red marl 12 

Lower Keuper sandstone 80 

Permian (or Carboniferous) 2 

112 

10. Yes. 11. Yes, by "tubbing." 12. Great triassic fault (running from N.W. to 
S.E.) within 200 yards west of weU. 13. None. 14. None. 15. None. 



136 REPORT — 1875. 

Mr. E. C. Sinclair, C.E., Messrs. Howes, Dye Works. 
1. City of Coventry. 2. 220 ft., mean tide Liverpool. 3. Well 17 ft. ; bore 120 ft., 
7 in. diameter. 4. Always flowing over top of well, pump cannot lower it. 5. 
Half a million gallons in 24 Lours. 6. Made 1866 ; never varied since. 7. Not 
affected by rains ; level of water always 4 ft. above level of river, which runs close 
by. 8. No analysis j quite clear and bright ; no incrustation left on boilers ; water 
considered " soft." ft. 

9. Diift 11 

Red sandstone 1 

Conglomerate (Bunter ?) 6 

Permian sandstone, very variable in 
colour and hardness 119 

137 

last 2 ft. 6 in. a light grey sandstone so hard that the " drilling " cost 2 guineas per 
inch. 10. Yes. 11. Yes. 12. None near this well. 13. None. 14. None nearer 
than Hinckley and Leamington. 15. None. 

Mr. R. C. Sinclair, Coventry Canal Company. 
1. Hawkesbury Pumping-station, 4 miles N.E. of Coventry. 2. 252 feet, mean tide 
Liverpool. 3. 120 feet deep, 10 feet diameter. 4. Before pumping 110 ft. ; after 10 
days and nights constant imm2nng 95 ft. ; fills iip in 3 hours to 110 ft. 5. In 24 hours 
1-t million gallons for weeks together. 6, Is perceptibly lower after long drought. 
7. No ; when engine is not pumping the water stands nearly to the top of well. 8. No 
analysis ; water very pure, and leaves but little incrustation in boiler. 

ft. 

9. Drift 30 

Lower Keuper sandstone 90 

120 

In sinking through the sandstone but little water was met with until the bottom 
bed, "a very hard white sandstone," was blasted; the water then burst in ; the men 
had to escape, leaving all the sinking-tools at bottom, and the water rose at once 
to the above height. 10. A few. 11. Yes. 12. Yes, both east and west. 13. No. 
14. No. 15. None. 

Hinckley Local Board. 

1. The " Holy Well," Hinckley, Leicestershire. 2. About 330 ft., mean tide 
Liverpool. 

3. 

diam. 6„ diam. 11 in., 90 ft.] 

540 ft. 



4. Estimated at 420 ft. 5. No estimate. 6. Not observed; well not used. 7. Not 
observed. 8. 100 thousand gallons* contain 98 lbs. of sulphate and carbonate of 
lime (proportion of carbonate not stated) and 22 lbs. chlorine gas. 

ft. 

9. Drift (pebbly clav, sand, and gravel) 150 

Red marl ' 20 

Lower Keuper sandstone (viz. thin beds of 
clay and gypsum alternating with thick 
beds of red, grey, and white sandstone) . . 370 

540 
10, Numerous (wells in use all from drift springs). 11. Imperfectly. 12. None 

* Eivers Pollution Commission. 



Shaft 20 ft. 


Bore 520 ft. 


diam. 6 „ 


diam. 11 in., 90 ft, 




„ 10 „ 12 




„ 7 „ 105 


• 


„ 4 „ 333 



ON Tim CIRCULATION OF UNDERGKOUND WATERS. 137 

known. 13. See analysis ("Holy Well" was a salt spring). 14. None known 
elsewhere (there are other wells noted for medicinal properties). 15. No. 

Elmsthorpe Boring. 
1. Elmsthorpe, Leicesterslm-e. 2. 300 ft., mean tide Liverpool. 3. 1400 ft. ; bore 
8 in., 6 in., 4 in., 3 in. 4. 800 ft., constant. 5. 800 ft. 6. Permanent level 800 ft. 
7. Not observed. 8. None. 

ft. , 

9. Drift 10 X 

Eedmari 120 ^ 

Lower Keuper sandstone 330 

Coal-measures 980 

these dipping 70° all through. 10. Yes. 11. Yes. 12. 3 miles west great fault 
in trias (Lower Keuper sandstone). 13. No. 14. No. 15. No. 

Lindridge Colliery Company. 
1, Lindridge Hall, Desford, Leicestershire. 2. 400 ft., mean tide Liverpool. 3. 120 
ft., shaft 10 ft. diameter. 4. Water runs over top of shaft. 5. Obliged to put engine 
down before. 6. Sinking shaft deeper. 

ft. V 

9. Drift 2 /N 

Upper Keuper sandstone 20 1 

Red marl (marl with thin bands of gypsum) 44 [• by boring. 

Lower Keuper sandstone waterstones 204 ) 

10. Yes. 11. Yes. 12. East and west fault (downthrow to south) at Huggles- 
cote, 6 miles west. 13. None. 14. No. 15. No. 

Austy Paper-Mill Company. 
1. Austy, Leicestershire. 2. 225 ft., mean tide Liverpool. 3. Shaft 102 ft., dia- 
meter 8 ft. ; bore 85 ft., diameter 3 in. 4. No water ; bottom of bore gypsum. 5. 
No water. 6. No water. 7. No water. 8. No water. 

ft. 
9. Drift, stiff brown " boulder " clay with many roimded pebbles. . 70 
Red marl (Keuper), alternate layers of gypsum (6 in. to 12 in.), 
red clay, white and blue clay 117 

187 

10. Yes, all shallow wells in villages. 11. Yes. 12. None ; is about 1 mile fi'om 
" igneous rocks " at Groby. 13. None. 14. None. 15. None. 

Hathern Boring. 
1. Hathern, Leicestershire. 2. 90 ft., mean tide Liverpool. 3. 320 ft. ? 4. Water 
most abundant, height not observed. 5. Not known. 6. Not known. 7. Not 
known. 8. Not known. 

ft. ^ 

9. Drift 10 7C 

Red mad 110 / 

Lower Keuper sandstone 140 

Bunter conglomerate 60 ? 

320 

10. Yes, many. 11. Yes. 12. 3 miles west of fault in trias. 13. None. 14. 
None. 15. None. 

^Chilwell Boring. 
1. Chilwell, Leicestershire. 2. 95 ft., mcnn tide Liverpool. 3. 460 ft.; bore 6 in., 
6 in., 4 in., 3 in. 4. I^p to the Uf of boic-hole. 5. Great abundance, and conti- 
nuous. 



138 KEPORT— 1875. 

ft. in. 

9. Drift 13 8 

Upper Keuper sandstone . . 53 

Bed marl 53 4 

Lower Keuper sandstone: ; 115 

Upper Bunter (?) 110 4 

Conglomerate 30 8 

Lower Bunter 44 4 

Permian ,15 5 



435 9 
10. \es. 12. Great number N.E. and W. 13. Great number. 14. None. 15. None. 

Spinney Hills Company. 
1. Humberstone, near Leicester. 2. 180 ft,, mean tide Liverpool. 3. 600 ft. ; bore 
8 in., 6 in., 5 in., 4 in. 4. 400 ft. 5. No estimate. 6. No. 7. No. 8. None. 

ft. 

9. Drift 6 

Ehajtic 12 

Upper Keuper sandstone 100 

Red marl with bauds of gypsum . . 250 
Lower Keuper sandstone 2.32 

600 
10. Yes. 11. Tube all the way. 12. None. 13. None. 14. No. 15. No. 

NoETH-wisT OP England. 
Name of Member of Committee asking for information, Mr. E. W. Binney, 

r.E.s, 

Name of Individual or Company applied to : — 

Messrs. Bayley and Craven, Agecroft. 
1. 70 yards from River Irwell. 2. Not known. 

_ on Ti. .. c 1 ^i 1 312 ft. it is 18 in. diameter. 

3. «. 32ft.x5ift 1 gj^ jgjjj 

5. Bore-hole 455 feet deep from surface • • j oQ ft' " 9 in' " 

4. rt. 16 ft. from bottom of well before pumping, and 4 ft. from bottom of well 
after pumping ; h. 5 or 6 hours. 5. About 180,000 to 200,000 gallons. 6. a. As 
we only pump for two or three weeks during dry weather, we have not noticed 
this ; 6. Yes, probably because not worked continuously. 7. a. We have not 
noticed this : h. Tlie water rises in the well if the river is high. 8. No analysis ; 
the water contains a considerable quantity of iron. 9. Stratification in bore-hole 
only. 

^ ft. 

Red rock ' 110 

softish 114 

very hard 76 

soft, with various veins of white sandstone 

from 3 to 6 in. thick. 15 

very hard, with various saddle beds 45 

soft, with veins of white sandstone 12 

rather hard. 18 

soft, with veins of white sand striae 23 

413 
Not known , 20 

433* 

* There is an error of 10 feet somewhere in this stratification : it is copied exactly from 
Messrs. Mather and Piatt's report when the bore-hole was made. 



5> 


>> 


>J 


Ji 


» 


» 


3? 


» 


« 


J) 


J> 


J> 


?) 


J> 



ON THE CIRCULATION OF UNDERGROUND WATERS. 139 

10, We believe so, 11. No, 12, We have heard of one, 13. No, 14. No. 15. Not 
that we know of. 

Messrs. Andrew & Co. 

1. Mount-Street Mill, Harpurhey. 2. See Ordnance Survey. 6 ft. above the high- 
way well. 3. 64 yards deep, 7 feet diameter; bore-hole 44 yards deep, 9 inches 
in diam. for 26 yards, 8 inches for 18 yards : total depth 108 yards. 4. 20 yards 
from surface ; can empty the well ; rises to its level in six hours. 5. 300 gallons 
a minute, night and day. 6, No. 7. No ; above streams 26 to 28 yards. 8. None ; 
hard, chiefly lime. 9. Various, chiefly soft red sandstone, soapstone. [Middle 
Coal-measures. — E. W. B.] 10. Yes, to a comparatively small extent. 11. No. 
12. Am not aware [one of 4000 to 6000 ft. close to.— E. W. B.]. 13, No, 14. No. 
15, No. 

Messrs. Langworthy, Brothers & Co, Mr. John Taylor, Engineer, 
3. 12 yards deep, 6 ft. 6 in, diameter. 5. Plant of four bore-holes, .3^ in. diameter ; 
three of them 60 yards deep and one 180 yards ; yields 20,000 gallons per hour 
perpetually if the pumps are kept at work. Another plant of two bore-holes 60 yards 
deep, S^ in. diam., 8000 gallons per hour for about 60 hours per week, 8. A deposit 
of lime. 9. See enclosed sketch of rock &c. passed through to make the bore-hole 
that is 180 yards deep ; it was bored in 1870 and 1871. I think it is the only 
sketch beyond 60 yards deep that is just in om* immediate neighbourhood. 10. No. 
12. One is supposed to be on the west side of the 4-hole plant, about 100 yards 
distant. 13. No. 14. No. 15. No. 

Name of Member of Committee asking for information, Mr. Mellard Eeade, 
C.E., F.G.S. 

Name of Individual or Company applied to : — 

Mr. Thomas S. Stooke, C.E. 
1. Township of Whiston, Lancashire. 2. 190 feet. 3. 75 yards, 9 feet diameter ; 
bore-hole not made. 4. Works in an incomplete state, as shown by sketch of pre- 
vious date. 5. 1,000,000 gallons. 6, 7. Works in an incomplete state, as shown 
by sketch of pre-vious date. 8. Water not analyzed. 9. Red Sandstone, 3 ft. (no 
cover). 12. Yes. 13. No. 14. No. 

Mr. Robert Winstanley, C.E., Ince Waterworks, Golbome. 
1. Golbome, Newton-le- Willows, Lancashire. 2. Ordnance level, 125 ft. 
3. Well 150 ft. deep, 9 feet diameter ; bore-hole 300 ft., 3 in. diameter. 4. 80 ft., 
120 ft.; 6 hours. 5. 240,000 gallons. 6. Works established four years; no per- 
ceptible change. 8. Hard water, 11°. 

ft. 

9. Surface coal 2 

Marl .-. 2 

Clay 6 

Gravel &c 9 

19 
Red rock, pebble-beds 131 

150 
10. No. 12. Not known. 13, No. 14. No. 15. No, 

'Messrs. Gaskell, Deacon, & Co, 

1. Our three wells are all within 200 yards of the Widnes passenger station, 

2. Surface of the ground is ahout 10 feet above mean sea-level. 

3. No. 1 shaft 30 feet deep, 5 feet diam. ; bore-hole 275 yds., average 3 in. diam. 
No. 2 shaft 39 „ 12 „ „ 213 „ „ 4 „ 



140 KEPORT — 1875. 

4. We pump* almost continuously, except nt "Whitsuntide, when water slowly 
rises to old level at surface. 5. Total quantity now pumped from three wells 
493,913, or, say, 500,000 gallons per 24 hours. 6. (a) No. (b) We fancy so, but 
have no ca idenco. 7. («) Yes. (h) In ahout a month, (c) Slightly by rise and fall 
of tide. No analysis lately ; no peculiarity ; good ordinary quality for domestic 

and manufacturing purposes. 9. Surface, 45 feet of brown clay ; quicksand, 18 
feet; 135 feet of clay and boulder-clay; red sandstone. 10. Yes. 11. No. 
12. Yes ; supposed to cut a fault. 13. No. 14. None in the immediate neigh- 
bourhood. 15. No; but we know of one or two wells which were sunk close 
to the river (which is tidal) which were affected by the entry of brackish water 
through the quicksand. 

Widnes Local Board "Waterworks. 
1. Two wells (A and B) at Litton, near "^^idnes, about 100 feet apart. 2. About 
10 or 15 feet. 3. A, 50 feet, 10 feet diameter, without bore-hole ; B, 30 feet, 
10 feet diameter, with 24-inch bore-hole 300 feet from surface. 4. A, pumped con- 
stantly and hard ; cannot state ; stands about 40 feet from surface in bore-pipe 
in B. 5. 6.^ million gallons per week (of 7 days). 6. Cannot state. 7. Yes, m 
about 10 days. 8. Dont know of any ; nothing particular ; very clear, and very 
slightly "hard." 9. Soft shaly rock and sand. 10. No indication of surface- 
spriugs. 12. None known. 13. No. 14. No. Believe that one or two have, 
much nearer the Mersey than ours. The Board's wells are about 2 miles inland. 

Mr. E. Timmins, Engineer and Contractor, Runcorn. 
1. Stock's Well, Crouton, near Prescot. 2. 45 feet. 3. Shaft 50 feet deep, 10 
feet in diameter ; 1 boring 4 inches diameter, 407 feet deep ; 1 boring 24 inches dia- 
meter, 307 feet deep from surface. 4. Before pumping flows over at surface ; for- 
merly four hom-s (six years ago), now twelve hom-s (July 1875). 5. 800,000. 
6. It has diminished. 7. The yield of water increases after several days' rain. 
The flood-water from " brooks " will rise to within 2 feet of top of well. The 
brook or sea has no influence upon the well. 8. The water is soft, very pm-e, and 
good for domestic purposes. 

ft. in. 

9. Soil 1 6 

Red clay with boulder-stones 28 6 

Light blue cluncli 6 

The further sinking and boring soft red sandstone .... 371 

Total depth fi-om surface 407 

10. No. 11. No. 12. None been ascertained. 13. No. 14. No. 15. None. 

Mr. E. Timmins. 
1. At the Iron Works, Garston. 2. About 15 feet. 3. Shaft 100 feet deep, 
7 feet diameter, and chambered at bottom to 14 feet diameter. One boring 6 inches 
diameter, 351 feet 6 inches from surface 4. Before pumping 10 feet from surface, 
after pumping 80 feet from surface, with bore-valve open ; eighteen hours before 
ordinary level is restored after pumps cease working. 5. 240,000. 6. The water- 
level varies, and has diminished. 7. The yield of water will increase after a 
month's wet weather, and is not aflected by the brooks or sea. 8. The water is 
moderately hard but very pure, and good for ordinary purposes. 

ft. in. 

Soil 1 

Red clay with boulder-stones 16 

The further sinking and boring red sandstone 334 6 

Total depth from surface 351 6 

10. No. 12. No. 13. None. 14. None. 15. None. 

* During pumping the water is about 35 feet from the surface. 



ON THE STEERING OF SCREW-STEAMERS. Ill 

'Name of Member of Cbmmittee asking for information, Mr, C. E. DeEanee, 
F.G.S. 

Name of Individual or Company applied to : — • 

Mr. Matthew Brown. 
1. Pole-Street Breweiy, Preston, Lancashire. 3. 123 feet. 3. 90 feet, diameter 
4 feet. 4. 12 feet G inches before, 5 feet 1 inch after, and rises to 12 feet 6 inches 
in 40 minutes. 5. 1015 gallons per hour. 6. No. 7. No. 8. Cannot tell, inas- 
much as there is a small supply of water at a higher level than the main spring ; 
and this small supply when analyzed contained 30 per cent, of saline and mineral 
im]Durities, the mineral being chiefly iron ; and I estimate this small supply, apart 
from the main spring, would fill a pipe of 1 inch diameter, continually falling into 
the bottom spring or well. 12. No. 13. No. 14. No. 15. No. 



APPENDIX. 

The information collected by Mr. Moore, F.G.S., in the Bristol, Bath, and , 
Radstock coal-field, though not coming strictly within the limits of New Eed 
Sandstone inquiry (the water being chiefly derived from the red marls above it 
or the Coal-measures), is of interest, as showing the water-bearing properties 
of these strata. i 

At Twerten Coal-pit, Twerton, near Bath, 16,800 gallons of water arc ' 
thrown out every 24 hours by a spring in the Lower Lias, at a depth of 
72 feet from the surface; the water was found to contain 112*8 parts per y/ 
100,000 of chloride of sodium, by Mr. Ekin, F.C.S., of Bath. 

At Braysdown CoUiery, 500 yards in depth, a constant volume of water is 
met with, which Mr. Biggs found to contain 1008 grains of common salt per , 
gallon, or 1440 grains per 100,000 : the water appears to be derived from j 
the Coal-measures, and is very salt indeed. ; 

The wells in Bristol, Mr. Stoddart, F.G.S., reports to Mr. Moore are from 
60 to 300 feet in depth, situated on heights of from 10 to 200 feet above the 
sea-level ; but the water is derived either from the red marls or the Coal- 
measures lying beneath ; and some of the weUs are reached by tidal water. 



On the Steering of Screio- Steamers. By Prof. Osborne Reynolds. 

[A communication ordered by the General Committee to be printed in extensoJ] 

Theee does not appear, as far as my observation goes, to be any particular 
difficulty in steering screw-steamers so long as they are going ahead under 
steam, but rather the other way ; they then seem to be better to steer than 
almost any other class of ships. Great difficulty often occurs, however, when 
they are stopping, starting, or otherwise manoeuvring. Their vagaries arc 
then so numerous as to give the idea that there is a certain degree of capri- 
ciousness and uncertainty about their behaviour. This is, of course, mere 
fancy ; and did we but know them, it is certain that there are laws 
which these steamers follow under aU circumstances. In the hope of 
arriving at these laws, I have been investigating this subject now for twelve 
years as opportnnity offered ; and I had come, as I thought, to some leadino- 
facts, when the failure of the ' Bessemer ' to enter Calais Harbour on the 8th 
of May last seemed to establish them. 

It will be remembered that the ship entered between the piers at a speed 
of 12 or 1-3 knots, the tide running strong right across the mouth of the 



142 • KEPORT — 1875. 

harbour, that on her entering between the piers the. engines were reversed, 
and that the ship turned, under the influence of the current, in spite of her 
rudder ; so that Capt. Pittoch, in his letter to the ' Times,' attributed the 
accident entii'ely to her failing to steer at the time. 

On reading of the accident I thought it would be a good opportunity .to 
call attention to the subject of steering steamers ; and I wrote a paper, which 
was published in the ' Engineer' of June 4th, 1875, in which I explained 
why the act of stopping a ship must necessarily affect her power of steering — 
j»ointiag out that when a ship is stopping the water will be following her 
stern relatively faster than when she is moving uniformly, and consequently 
that the eifect of the rudder will be diminished ; • that the longer the ship 
the greater will be the diiference; also that this effect is greatly increased 
when a ship is stopping herself with her propellers, as was the ' Bessemer ' ; for 
then not only is the retardation of the vessel much more rapid, but the 
water hafe a forward motion imparted to it by the propellers, which motion, 
if the propellers are near the rudder, may be greater than that of the ship, 
under which circumstance the effect of the rudder's action will be reversed. 
Since publishing this paper in the ' Engineer ' I have canned the investiga- 
tion further ; and the object of the present paper is to give an account of 
some experiments on model boats driven by screws, and the conclusions to 
which these experiments have led me. 

Two models were used in making these experiments ; the one 2' 6" long, 
driven by a spring, and the other 5' 6", driven by steam. In both models 
the rudders were broad in i)roportion to the boats. In the clockwork model 
the rudder was almost close to the screw, there being no stern-post. In 
the steam model there was a wide stern-post, and the rudder was an inch 
and a half behind the screw. 

Both boats went straight with their screws driving them ahead and with 
their rudders straight, and they both answered their rudders easily with 
their screws going, turning in circles of from four to six feet radius. When 
the screws were stopped and the boats carried on by their own way, they 
both answered theii- rudders, but much more slowly than when their screws 
were going, the smallest circle being now, as near as I could estimate, from 
twelve to fifteen feet radius. 

In order to try the effect of the screw when reversed on the steering of the 
spring-model, the model was towed by a cord attached (as shown in the accom- 
panying figure) to a point T amidship about one third of her length from her 





stern, so that the towing had little or no tendency either to keep her straight 
or turn her. The rudder was then set at an angle of 45° or thereabouts, so 
as to turu her head to the right, towing was commenced, the boat turning in 
a circle to the right. The screw was then started in the reverse direction ; 
Avhereupon the boat ceased to turn to the right, and commenced turning to 
the left to an extent depending on the slowness with which she was being 
towed. When towed very quickly, at from two to three miles an hour, she 
came nearly straight forward, but at the fastest speed showed no tendency to 
turn to the right. 



ON THE STEERING OF SCREW-STEAMEUS. 143 

The mdder Tvas then set so as to turn the boat to the left, and the opera- 
tion was repeated with very nearly corresponding results so long as the 
screw did not race ; but the action of the reversed screw on the rudder when 
set to the left was not so great as when set to the right. This ditference 
led me to suppose that the screw itself might exert an influence to turn the 
boat to the left when it was reversed, although it had been found to exert no 
such influence when going ahead. This was at once shown to be the case 
by setting the rudderj^straight and starting the screw reversed ; the boat 
immediately turned to the left, but not fast unless the screw raced, then she 
turned very rapidly. 

These direct effects of the screw to turn the ship appear to me to account 
for several of the anomalies which have hitherto beset the subject ; and further 
on in the paper I shall discuss them at length. 

The steam model was provided with paddles as weU as screw, and the 
screw could be reversed without reversing the paddles, in which case the 
l^addles overpowered the screw, and the boat moved forward somewhat 
slowly. In this boat the screw was so deeply immersed that it would not 
race, and it had no direct effect to turn the boat when reversed like that of 
the spring model. 

When the screw was reversed and the boat drawn slowly forward by the 
paddles, the effect on the rudder was almost to destroy its action, it having 
only a slight power to turn the boat in the opposite direction to that in 
which it would have turned the boat had the screw been going ahead. 
Practically the boat had lost aU power of steering. Coupled in this way 
with the paddles the screw turned but slowly, the engine being held up by 
the opposing actions. On releasing the paddles and allowing them to turn 
freely, and applying the whole power of the engine to the screw, the model 
behaved almost exactly as the spring model had done, showing when towed 
against the screw a strong tendency to turn in the opposite direction to that 
in which the rudder was set. 

The screw was then set full speed ahead ; and when the boat had acquired 
way the rudder was set, so that she began to turn rapidly to the right ; the 
screw was then reversed, and by the time the boat had lost all forward way 
she had turned to the left through an angle of 30°, so great was the effect of 
the screw on the rudder when stopping the boat. 

This completed the list of the experiments, which, however, were repeated 
over and over again with exactly the same results. 

Conclusions to be drawn from tlie exjjeriments.^The general conclusion is 
that in screw-steamers the effect of the riidder depends on the direction of 
motion of the screw rather than on the direction of motion of the boat. Or 
we have the three following laws : — 

1. That when the screw is going ahead the steamer wiU turn as if she 
were going ahead, whether she have stern-way on or not. 

2. That when the screw is reversed the rudder will act as if the vessel 
wore going astern although she may be moving ahead. 

3. That the more rapidly the boat is moving in the opposite direction to 
that in which the screw is acting to drive it, the more nearly will the two 
effects on the rudder neutralize each other, and the less powerful will be its 
action. It would appear reasonable to suppose that a boat may move fast 
enough to overcome the effect of the reversal of the screw ; but this was not 
the case with the models. 

Thd effect of the screw to turn the boat independently of the rudder. — 
It seems to be supposed by some that a screw necessarily tends to force 



141 REPORT — 1875. 

the stern of the boat in a direction opposite to that in which the tips of its 
lower blades are moving. This is undoubtedly the case when the screw is 
racing or acting in broken water (i. e. water mixed with air), also when the 
screw is not completely covered with water. When, however, the screw is 
properly immersed and is working in unbroken or continuous water, and is 
not aifected by dead water, it has not the least tendency to move itself 
laterally whatever it ma}- have on the ship. Under these circumstances the 
screw-shaft can exert no lateral pressure on its bearings ; and in ships with 
fine runs this is the case. 

Owing to the effect of the dead water, however, it may happen that even 
when the screw is properly immersed it will tend to move laterally. If the 
water be following the ship faster above than below (which it often is), the 
upper blades of the screw will have more work to do than the lower, and con- 
sequently they will have to meet with greater lateral resistance ; and hence 
upper and lower resistances will not balance, but there wUl be a lateral 
thrust transmitted to the bearings. 

Besides the lateral pressure which may be transmitted through the bear- 
ings, the screw may also tend to turn the ship by the lateral motion which 
it imparts to the water, which is again communicated to the ship or the 
rudder. If the form of the ship and the rudder were symmetrical above and 
below the screw-shaft, then the effect of the lateral motion which the screw 
imparts to the water below would exactly balance the effect above the screw- 
shaft ; but owing to the fact that the surface both of the ship and the rudder 
is in general much greater above than below, the water which is driven 
laterally by the upper blades has much more surface to act upon than that 
which is driven in the contrary direction by the lower blades, and therefore 
drives the stern of the ship laterally or tends to turn the ship. This effect 
is in the opposite direction to that which arises from the unequal rate at 
which the water is following the ship as long as both the ship and the screw 
are going ahead ; and consequently these two effects tend to counteract each 
other. When, however, the screw is reversed, and the vessel is still moving 
forwards, the two effects are in '^conjunction ; and conseqi;ently they are more 
likely to become apparent and important. This was the case in the experi- 
ments with the spring model. When screwing ahead she went straight 
enough, but when towed ahead with the screw reversed she turned to the 
left. In this case the effect was smaU ; and I imagine that it must always be 
so, particularly when the ship has a fine ruu. In the steam model, of which 
the run is very fine, the screw-way very large, and the screw small (being 
only three inches while the boat draws five), the effect of the screw to turn 
the boat when not racing was altogether imperceptible. I conclude, there- 
fore, that these effects may be left out of consideration with reference to 
steering ; and in opposition to a popular notion I derive law 4. 

4. That when not breaking the surface the screw has no considerable 
tendency to turn the ship so long as the rudder is straight. 

The effect of racing. — Although the direct effect of the screw is insig- 
nificant when it is not racing or breaking the surface, this is not the case 
when it is racing. It then exerts a very decided and important effect ; and it 
is doubtless experience of this which has given rise to the popular notion 
above referred to. 

In the experiments with the spring model when the screw was drawing 
air down, the stern always showed a tendency to move in the opposite 
direction to that in which the tips of the lower blades were moving, even 
when the boat was going ahead at full speed and the quantity of air very 



ON THE STEERING OF SCREW-STEAMERS. 145 

small ; and -when the screw regularly raced, frothing the water, its effect to 
turn the stern of the boat was very great. 

The screw of the steam model was so deeply immersed that it would not 
race ; but if the stern of the boat was raised by a string it then raced, and the 
effect of the screw to turn the stem of the boat was the same as with the 
spring model. 

The screw of the spring model showed a much greater tendency to draw 
air when reversed (the boat being towed) than when it was driving the 
boat ahead; but its greatest tendency to race was when the boat was 
stationary, or nearly so. This latter tendency I have observed in large 
steamers ; in fact I have never seen a large steamer start or reverse her 
screw when moving but slowly without frothing the water. It appears, 
therefore, that the effect of racing on the steering may be stated in the fol- 
lowing laws : — 

5. That when the screw is frothing the water, or only partially immersed, 
it will have a tendency to turn the stern in the opposite direction to that in 
which the tips of the lower blades are moving. 

6. That when the boat is going ahead its effect wiU be easily counter- 
acted by the rudder ; but when starting suddenly, either forward or back- 
ward, at first the effect of the screw will be greater than that of the rudder, 
and the ship -^vill turn accordingly. 

7. That if when the boat is going fast ahead the screw is reversed, at first 
it almost destroys the action of the rudder, what little effect it has being in 
the reverse direction to that in which it usually acts. If, then, the screw 
draws air or breaks the surface, it will exert a powerful influence to turn 
the ship. 

In accounts of collisions it may be frequently noticed that there is con- 
trary evidence given of the steering of one or both of the ships (if they both 
happen to be steamers). In the instance of the collision between the 
' ynie du Havre ' and the ' Loch Earn,' the captain of the ' Loch Earn ' 
stated that the steamer altered her course almost at the last moment, thus 
rendering the collision inevitable. The officers of the steamer asserted that 
such was not the case; they state, however, that the screw was reversed just 
before the collision. In this case, therefore, the evidence is to show that the 
reversal of the screw caused the steamer to change her course, either by its 
direct effect or by its action on the rudder. The latter effect would be 
sufficient to explain the facts ; and my experiments leave no doubt but that 
this must have taken place. "With regard to the former I have no evidence ; 
although, considering that the ship was moving rapidly at the time, it seems 
probable that the screw may have raced on being reversed, and added its 
direct effect to turn the ship to its effect on her rudder. In this case, 
therefore, the reports of what took place are strictly in accordance with what 
was to be expected from my experiments ; and I think that fi.-om the light 
these throw upon the subject in many cases, the accounts may be less con- 
tradictory than they have hitherto appeared ; and I am in hopes that in the 
future these experiments may assist not only in the discovery of the causes 
of accidents, but, as these become recognized, in the prevention of the acci- 
dents themselves. 

As an illustation of how important a clear conception of the whole cir- 
cumstances of the effect of the screw on the rudder may be, I will read an 
account with which I have been kindly furnished by Mr. Henry Deacon ; 
from which account it appears that a ship was saved by a combination of 
accidents, which led to her being handled in tlic vcrv manner in which she 

1875. ' L 



146 KEPORT — 1875. 

would have been had the conduct of the officer in charge been governed by 
the laws laid down in this paj^er. 

Mr. Deacon says : — 

" I have been reading your communication to the ' Engineer ' of the 4th 
inst. about the ' Bessemer's ' steering, and think the following narrative may 
have some interest for you. A friend of mine came from Philadelphia, U. S., 
early in May to Liverpool in the S.S. ' Ohio.' To avoid ice the vessel went 
out of her coiu'se 160 or 170 miles, and encountered very bad weather. The 
captain spent one or two days without taking off his clothes ; and whilst 
laying down one day, leaving the chief officer in command of the deck, 
amongst fogs and rain, an iceberg was sighted right ahead and quite close 
when seen. The officer stopped and reversed the engines, and put the helm 
hard round. The cessation of motioji awoke the captain, who rushed up 
the bridge. The excitement had spread, the officer's orders had been strictly 
obeyed. The captain took all in at a glance, put the engines on ahead at 
fuU speed, and the ' Ohio,' breaking through the thin ice always skirting 
the icebergs, passed so close to the solid mass, that my American friend, who 
is fond of horses and was on deck, says he could have struck the ice from the 
ship with a tandem whip. The captain afterwards explained the matter 
thus : — the steering-gear was the now usual parallel screws, i. e. exerting 
the least force when the rudder is most moved, but of course retaining the 
rudder in any position with little or no effort. To put the rudder hard 
round when the ship is under full way and the engines working is an almost 
physical impossibility ; but to put it hard round when the engines are stopped, 
and especially to put it round when they are reversed, is comparatively easy. 
The chief officer's order, therefore, enabled the rudder to be put round to the 
utmost ; he both stopped and reversed the engines. The captain's arrival 
and comprehension completed the manoeuvre. The ' way ' was but slightly 
interrupted, but the helm was put hard round and the ship turned from her 
course in the shortest possible distance. 

" I have all this at second hand from my friend ; but this fact of the easy 
movement of the helm whilst the ship was under way with the engines 
reversed appeared to bo one well understood ; and of course if no power be 
required to move the helm, no power can be exerted in steering the vessel ; 
and the whole tale seems to me so illustrative of your remarks on the 
' Bessemer,' that I venture to trouble you with it." 



Second Report of the Committee on Combinations of Capital and Labour, 
consisting of Lord HoubnTON, D.C.L., F.R.S. {Chairman) , Jacob 
Behrens, Thomas Brassey, M.P., Frank P. Fellows, Archibald 
Hamilton, Professor Leone Levi, A. J. Mundella, M.P., Wm. 
Newmarch, F.R.S,, Lord O'Hagan, R. J. Inglis Palgrave, Pro- 
fessor Thorold Rogers. Drawn up by Professor Leone Levi, 
F.S.A., F.S.S. 

Your Committee appointed to inquire into the economic effects of combi- 
nations of labourers or capitalists, and into the laws of economic science 
bearing on the principles on which such combinations are founded, have 
already stated in their preliminary Beport, made last year, the course they 



ON CAPITAL AND LABOUR. 147 

have thought fit to take in order to ascertain the exact views held by both 
employers and employed on the subject in question. Although the general 
objects of such combinations, -whether of capitalists or labourers, are well 
known, both from the written rules which bind them together and from the 
action taken from time to time, your Committee have deemed it desirable to 
come into personal contact with some representative men from both classes, 
with a view of finding whether they do now stand by the rules of their Unions 
and how far they are prepared to defend them ; and for that purpose your 
Committee resolved to hold a consultative jjrivate conference of employers and 
employed in the presence of the members of the Committee, where they might 
discuss the questions involved in the resolution of the British Association, 
with a view of reporting thereon to the same. The points more especially 
inquired into were the following : — 

Ist. What determines the minimum rate of wages ? 

2nd. Can that minimum rate be uniform in any trade ? and can that uni- 
formity be enforced ? 

3rd. Is combination capable of affecting the rate of wages, whether in 
favour of employers or employed ? 

4th. Can an artificial restriction of labour or of capital be economically 
right or beneficial under any circumstances ? 

Por the discussion of these questions your Committee had the advantage 
of bringing together a deputation from the N"ational Federation of Associated 
Employers of Labour, consisting of Messrs. K. E,. Jackson, M. A. Brown, H. E. 
Greg, Joseph Simpson, J. A. Marshall, E. Hannen, and Henry WhitAVorth ; 
as representing labour — Messrs. Henry Broadhurst, Daniel Guile, George 
Howell, Lloyd Jones, George Potter, and Eobert Newton (Mr. Macdonald, 
M.P., and Mr. Burt, M.P., having been prevented from attending) ; and on 
the part of your Committee, Lord Houghton, Professor Eogers, Mr. Samuel 
Brown, Mr. AV. A. Hamilton, Mr. Frank Fellows, and Professor Leone Levi 
were present. 

Many are the works and documents bearing on the questions at issue. 
Of an official character we have the Eeport of tho Eoyal Commission ap- 
pointed " to inquire into and report upon the organization and rules of trade- 
unions and other associations, whether of workmen and employers, and to 
inquire into and report on the effects produced by such trade-unions and 
associations on the workmen and employers and on the relations between 
workmen and employers and on the trade and industry of the country." Of 
an unofficial character we have the Eeport of the Committee of the Social 
Science Association " on the objects and constitution of trade-societies, with 
their effects upon wages and upon the industry and commerce of the country." 
Of special works we have the late lamented Professor Cairnes's ' Leading- 
Principles of Political Economy,' Mr. Thomas Brassey's ' Work and Wages,' 
and Professor Leone Levi's ' Wages and Earnings of the Working Classes.' 

The chief functions of combinations, whether of capital or labour, being to 
operate on wages, your Committee were anxious to ascertain by what 
criterion the parties interested ordinarily judge of the sufficiency or insuf- 
ficiency of existing wages. The first test of the sufficiency of wages is the 
relation they bear to the cost of the necessaries of life. " The minimum of 
wages," said Prof. Eogers, " is the barest possible amount upon which a 
workman can be maintained ; that which, under the most unfavourable cir- 
cumstances, a man is able to obtain." But the minimum thus estimated can 
only be, and is, submitted to under circumstances of extreme necessity. 
" I believe the minimum rate of wages," said one of tho representatives of 

1,2 



148 



REPORT — 1875. 



labour, " is that which, under the worst circumstances, the worst workman 
gets from the worst master." We cannot, therefore, take the minimum rates so 
considered as a proper basis for the sufficiency of wages. How far insufficient 
wages in relation to the cost of living in the United Kingdom is a cause of the 
large emigration which is taking place from year to year it is not possible to 
establish * ; but doubtless the prospect held out in the distant colonies and 
in the United States of America of considerable improvement has been for 
some time past, and still is, a strong inducement to those in receipt of insuf- 
ficient wages in this country to emigrate to other lands. Your Committee 
are desirous to point out in connexion with this question that not only has 
the cost of some of the principal necessaries of life greatly risen within the 
last twenty years f , but that, in consequence of the general increase of 
comfort and luxury, many articles of food, drink, and dress J must now be 
counted as necessaries which some years ago were far beyond the reach of 
the labouring classes ; whilst house-rent, especially adapted for tho labouring 
classes, is considerably dearer. If, therefore, the cost of living be taken as a 
guide to the rate of wages, it would not be enough to take into account the 
cost of the mere necessaries of life. A higher standard of living having been 
established, it is indispensable to compare the wages of labour with such 
higher standard. Yoiir Committee are not satisfied, however, that it is pos- 
sible to regulate wages according to the scale of comfort or luxury which may 
be introduced among the people, and are compelled to assert that it is an 
utter fallacy to imagine that wages wiU. rise or fall in relation to the cost 
of such supposed necessaries or indulgences. 

A better test of the sufficiency of wages is the relation they bear to the 
state of the labour-market; and tested by that standard the minimum rate 
of wages which workmen are at any time prepared to accept is the least 
which they think they are entitled to have under existing circumstances, the 

* The average number of emigrants in the last ten years from the United Kingdom, 
from 1862 to 1873, -was 230,000 per annum. In 1873 the total umnber was 310,612, and 
in 1874 241,014. The emigration to the United States decreased from 233,073 in 1873, 
to 148,161 in 1874. 

t The prices of the principal articles of food in the five years from 1852 to 1856 and 
186S to 1872 are shown in the following Table : — 





Wheat. 


Mutton. 


Beef. 


Potatoes. 




Butter. 


Cheese. 


Tea. 


Sugar. 


1852-56 
1868-72 

1873 ... 

1874 ... 

Repor 


per qr. 
s. d. 
62 

54 8 

58 8 

55 8 

t of Regi 
Deaths 


per lb. 
d. 

5-62 
6-35 
7-68 
6-56 

strar-Goi 
and Ma 


per lb. 
d. 

5-10 
615 
703 
6-59 

leral of ] 
rriages. 


per ton, 
s. 
105 
110 
138 
140 

3irths, 


1856-58 
1871-73 

Repor 

1 


per lb. 
d. 
11-41 
10-38 

t of Loca 


per lb. 
d. 

6-50 
6 

1 Govern 


per lb. 
s. d. 
2 10 
1 6 

ment Bo 


per lb. 
s. d. 
5 
31 

ard. 



t The consumption of articles of food and drink per head 


n 1864, 1873, and 1874 was : 




Bacon. 


Cheese. 


Rice. 


Sugar. 


Tobacco. 


Wine. 


Malt. 


Home 

Spirits. 


Foreign 
Spirits. 


1864 ... 

1873 ... 

1874 ... 


lbs. 
3-77 
907 

7-84 


lbs. 
3-13 
4-69 
5-03 


lbs. 
5-72 
11-37 

10-18 

• ■ 


lbs. 
36-83 
61-59 
56-37 


lb. 
1-29 
1-41 
1-44 


gal. 
0-39 
0-56 
0-53 


bush, 
1-75 
1-98 
1-94 


gal. 
009 
0-91 
0-94 


gal. 
0-21 
032 

0-32 

1 



ON CAPITAL AND LABOUR. 149 

trade-imious guiding them as to the state of trade and the value of labour at 
the time. Unfortunately, however, what workmen think themselves entitled 
to have does not always correspond with what employers find themselves 
able to grant. Trimarily the wages of labour are determined by the 
amount of capital available for the purposes of wages in relation to the 
number of labourers competing for the same. But the amount of capital 
employed in any industry is itself governed by considerations of the relation 
of the cost of production to the market-price of the produce (that is, to the 
price which the consumer is able or willing to give for the same) — the cost 
of production including the cost of materials, the value of capital, the cost 
of superintendence, and the wages of labour. 

Objection was taken at the Conference to this method for arriving at 
the rate of wages ; and it was urged that instead of taking the price of the 
article produced or the interest of the consumer as the basis of the calcula- 
tion, the first ingredient in the cost of the article should be the price to be 
paid to the workman in producing it. Eut a serious consideration will show 
that the employer cannot ignore what the consumer can or will pay any 
more than the share which the value of capital, the cost of superintendence, . 
and the cost of the materials have upon the cost of production ; for he must 
cease producing altogether if he cannot both meet the ability of the con- 
sumer to purchase his article and successfully compete with the producers of 
other countries. Tour Committee think that it is not in the power of the 
employer to control the proportion of the different elements in the cost of 
production, each of them being governed by circumstances peculiar to itself. 
The value of capital as well as the value of the raw materials are regulated 
by the law of supply and demand, not only in this country but in the prin- 
cipal markets of the world. The cost of superintendence and the wages of 
labour are likewise governed by the relation of the amount of capital to the 
number seeking to share in the different employments. The employed saj', 
" We must have certain wages. We care for nothing else. Labour is oiir 
property. We set our value iipon it. If you will have our labour you must 
pay what we ask for it ; and if such wages should require a rise in the 
market-price let the consumer pay it." What, however, if the consumer will 
not or cannot pay sufficient price to enable the employer to pay such wages ? 
What if he can get the article cheaper elsewhere ? Must not production 
cease if there bo no market ? And where will be the wages if there be no 
production ? Nor should it be forgotten that a general rise of wages pro- 
ducing an increase of the cost of all the commodities of life reacts on the 
masses of the people, and thus far neutralizes the benefit of higher wages. 

Disagreements between employers and employed are often produced on the 
subject of wages by the fact that all the elements of the case are not within 
the cognizance of both parties, experience showing that, in making a demand 
for an advance of wages or for resisting a fall, workmen are of necessity 
groping in the dark as to the real circumstances of the case. One of the 
chief advantages supposed to result from the organization of trade-unions is 
the competency of their leaders to give solid and practical advice to those 
interested as to the condition of the labour-market ; and we have no doubt 
that this duty is in the main honestly performed ; but it is very much to 
expect that such leaders should universally possess large and liberal views 
enough to vindicate the exercise of their enormous power, and such constant 
and accurate knowledge of the various facts of the case as would enable 
them to be an almost infallible authority. On the other hand, were it' 
possible for employers, who are not in the dark in such matters, to make 



150 REPORT — 1875. 

known to their own workmen the groiinds of the action they propose taking 
before the resolve is carried into execution, your Committee are convinced 
that many disputes would be avoided, and much of the jealousy which now 
exists between the parties would he removed. The recent lock-out in Soiath 
Wales illustrated the need of such a course. Had the facts which Lord 
Aberdare elicited from the principal colliery firms in Glamorganshire been 
made known previous to or simultaneously with the notice of a fall, it is a 
question whether such a widespread calamity would have occurred. It is, 
perhaps, a natural but unfortunate circumstance that employers are seldom 
found to take the initiative in allowing a rise in wages when the state of the 
market permits it as they are in the case of a fall, and spontaneously to offer 
what they must sooner or later be compelled to grant. A more prompt and 
politic course on their part in this matter would go far to neutralize the 
hostile action of trade-unions. 

Your Committee were anxious to ascertain how far is it in the mind of 
the employed that the employers obtain for themselves too large a share 
of profits at their expense. Your Committee Avcro assured that no such 
. doubts are entertained, though cases were produced supporting such sus- 
picions by reference to the time of the great rise in the price of coals in 1873, 
when workmen's wages did not, in the opinion of the representatives of 
labour, rise to any thing like the proportion of the masters' profits *. Your 
Committee admit that in cases of great oscillations in prices, the share par- 
ticipated either by the employers in the shape of profits, or by the employed 
in the shape of wages, may be for a time greater or less than their normal 
distribution would justify. And it is possible that some portions of these 
extra profits may be unproductively spent or so employed as not to benefit 
the parties more immediately concerned, and even used in totally alien 
speculations. Yet, in the main, the working classes must receive, in one 
way or another, a considerable advantage from them, there being no doubt 
that the largest portion of such extra profits will bo reinvested in the 
ordinary industries of the country. In the end, however, wages and profits 
will be divided among the producers in proper proportions ; and if at any 
time profits or wages should be larger than they ought to be, we may be 
quite sure that ere long the competition of capitalists will tend either to the 
lowering of prices or the raising of wages, so as to make profits and wages 
gravitate towards each other. 

Immediately allied to the question of the determination of a minimum of 
wages is that of their uniformity. In the opinion of many trade-unions, all 
workmen of average ability in any trade should earn the same wages, the 
average ability of each man being understood to have been determined in 
advance by the fact of his being admitted as a member of the union. But a 
man is subject to no examination, and is generally admitted upon the tes- 
timony of those who have worked with him, whose evidence must fre- 
quently be fallacious and insufficient. Nor does it appear that the rejection 
is absolutely certain even if the applicant should not be deemed a man of 
average ability, the acceptance or rejection of the party being always 
optional with the lodge to which he is introduced. Your Committee are 
therefore not satisfied that any guarantees exist that every member of a 

* Mr. Halliday's evidence before the Committee of the House of Commons on coals was 
that, though the custom was to give to workmen a portion of any rise of prices in the 
shaje of increasing wages, the proportion being an additional 2d. a day for every lOd. a 
ton, the rise in wages was often Id. per ton only, and sometimes nothing, whilst when thr 
price rose 2s. Qd. to 5s. a ton, the wages were only increased dd. a day. 



ON CAPITAL AND LABOUR. 151 

union is ablo to cam a fair clay's wages for a fair day's work ; and they 
cannot, therefore, agree in the proposition that all workmen should be 
entitled to uniform wages on the ground of uniform ability. But another 
reason has been alleged for the uniformity of wages, which is still less 
tenable than the former, viz. a supposed uniformity of production independent 
of skill. The right of the workman to a iiniform standard of wages was 
stated to be the production of an article which, though demanding less skill 
to perform, is of equal utility, and is proportionally as profitable to the 
employer. Tour Committee must, however, entirely demur to the principle 
that, in the apportionment of wages, no account should be taken of the skill 
brought to bear on the execution of the task, since a system of that nature 
would act as a premiiim on inferiority of workmanship. Again, by another 
test should the right of each individual to earn certain wages be determined, 
and that is by his productive capacity. Professor Levi asked whether that 
was taken into account when the workman was assumed to be of average 
ability ; and the answer was that the amount of production depended largely 
upon the skill. " The more skilful a man is the more he will produce." 
But whilst in so far this answer was correct, it contradicted the principle 
embodied iu the preceding test ; the answer itself did not take sufficiently 
into account that skill is not the only element in effectiveness of labour. 
There are qualities of mind, judgment, and even of heart, disposition, and of 
moral character, which go far to increase or diminish the efficiency of labour ; 
and of such qualities the employer is, of necessity, a far better judge than 
any union can be. That under ordinary circumstances wages in any trade 
should tend to uniformity is quite possible. The facUity of communication 
and the extension of intercourse of necessity equalize prices and wages ; but 
any attempt to compel uniformity of wages among any large number of men 
of varied capacity must of necessity prove a source of disappointment. 
Much, again, may be said in favour of a common standard of wages in any 
industry, as avoiding the embarrassment necessarily encountered in any 
attempt to adjust the rate to the exact worth of each individual. Yet it is 
impossible to ignore the fact that whilst a uniform rate is sure to operate 
unjustly in favour of persons who may be wanting in fairness of dealing or 
capacity for workmanship, in the nature of things it is almost incapable to 
exist over a wide area, having regard to the varieties in the prices of fuel, 
carriage, house accommodation, or of the means of livelihood, as well as in 
the cost of raw materials and in the processes employed as affecting the 
rate of production of each individual. On the whole, your Committee find 
that an absolute uniformity in the rate of wages in any trade, though to a 
certain extent convenient, is neither just nor practicable, whilst any effort 
to compel uniformity in the amount of earnings of any number of individuals 
must prove fallacious and wrong as an illegitimate interference with the rights 
of industry. 

A. still more important question in connexion with the subject is how far 
combination of any kind can affect permanently or temporarily the rate of 
wages. Upon this, as might be expected, the most divergent opinions are 
held by the representatives of capital and labour. The employers of labour, 
standing on the solid principles of political economy, deny that combinations 
can, under any circumstances, affect the rates of wages, at least in any per- 
manent manner — the argument adduced being that if workmen are entitled 
to higher wages they are sure to get them, since, under the law of supply 
and demand, whenever it is found that profits trench unduly upon wages 
fresh capital is sure to be introduced which provides for the raising of wages. 



153 REPOHT — 1875. 

The employed, on the other haad, confidently appeal to past experience, and 
point to the fact that almost every increase of wages has been due to the 
action of trade-unions. They say that without combination workmen 
cannot secure tlie market-price of their labour, but are to a certain extent at 
the mercy of their employers ; that in trades where one establishment 
employs a large number of workmen the employers can discharge a single 
workman with comxjaratively slight inconvenience, while the workman loses 
his whole means of subsistence ; that without the machinery of com- 
bination the workmen, being dependent upon their daily work for their daily 
bread, cannot hold on for a market. 

Your Committee are not prepared to deny that combinations can render 
iiscful service in matters of wages ; but they think that it is impossible for 
them to frustrate or alter the operations of the laws of supply and demand, 
and thereby to affect permanently the rates of wages. Combinations may 
hasten the action of those laws which would undoubtedly, though perhaps 
more slowly, operate their own results. The limited power of combinations 
is in effect admitted by the workmen themselves. "We do not say," said 
one of the workmen's representatives, " that trade-unions can absolutely 
interfere with supply and demand, because when trade is very bad they 
cannot obtain the standard ; when it is good they easily raise the standard. 
"What they do is, they enable workmen sooner to strike at the right time for 
a general advance. They get the advance sooner than if they were an 
undisciplined mob, having no common understanding ; and when trade is 
receding, the common understanding enables workmen to resist the pressure 
put upon them by their employers. It helps them in both ways, and the 
workmen find they can act together beneficially." The ground here taken 
by the working men is not at variance with sound economic principles. 
Eut there is yet another way in which trade-unions may prove useful, and 
that is by rendering wages more sensitive to the faction of the state of the 
market, and so preventing the influence of custom to stand in the way of 
the operation of supply and demand ; for there are such occupations, as 
agriculture, where custom often exercises imperious rule oven upon wages. 
As it has been well said by M. Batbie, " Wages do not change unless the 
causes for the change exercise a strong influence. If the conditions of supply 
and demand do not undergo a groat change, wages continue the same by 
the simple force of custom. The variations of wages are not like those of 
a thermometer, where the least clouds are marked, where one can read the 
smallest clianges of temperature. They may rather be compared to those 
bodies which do not become heated except under the action of an elevated 
temperature, and remain quite insensible to the slight modifications of the 
atmosphere. Until a great perturbation takes place in the conditions of 
supply and demand, no one would think of changing the rate of wages " *. 
After making every allowance your Committee cannot admit that combinations 
have any power cither to raise permanently the rate of wages or to prevent 
their fall when the conditions of trade require the same, as recent experience 
jibundantly shows ; and whilst admitting that combinations may be bene- 
ficial in accelerating the action of economic laws, your Committee cannot be 
blind to the fact that they produce a state of irritation and discontent which 
often interferes with the progress of production. 

Limited as is the power of combinations to affect the rates of wages, still 
more limited is their power to affect materially the progress of productive 
industry. The Royal Commission on Trade-Unions reported that it was 

* See M. Batbie's article on " Salaires " iu Block's ' Dictionnaire de la Politique.' 



ON CAPITAL AND LABOUR. 153 

extremely difficult to determine how far unions have impeded the develop- 
ment of trade, whether by simply raising prices or by diverting trade from 
certain districts, or from this to foreign countries. The representatives of 
capital at the Conference alluded to endeavoured to prove that certain 
branches of trade have permanently been injured by the unions. "Whether 
the fact can be established or not, it is imdoniablc that British trade has 
enormously increased within the last twenty years, and that the exports of 
manufactured goods are on a larger scale now than they were at any former 
period *. 

"What is perhaps most objectionable in combinations of labour is the 
method they often pursue in order to operate on the rates of wages ; for they 
are not content with making a collective demand on employers for a rise, 
but endeavour to force it, or resist a fall, by restricting the supply of labour 
and increasing the need of it. One such method, explained at the Con- 
ference, seems to your Committee peculiarly objectionable. A representative 
of labour said, " That when depression of trade comes, by means of associated 
funds, the men are liable to say to the surplus labourers ' stand on one side, 
you are not wanted for the time being ; if you go on with your labour at 
half price, it will not mend the trade : we will not let you become a drug on 
the market, putting every other man down, but we will sustain you.' " In 
three years, your Committee were informed, over =£100,000 was thus paid 
for unemployed labour, in the hope that undue fall in wages would be pre- 
vented by keeping labourers out of the market. Your Committee are of 
opinion that the artificial prevention of a fall of wages, when such a fall is 
necessary and inevitable, is economically wrong, and can only have the effect 
of still more injuring the condition of workmen, since by so doing they only 
throw hindrances in the way of production, which is the parent of all wages. 
Equally objectionable in your Committee's opinion, as interfering with the 
freedom of labour and with the general economy of production, is every regu- 
lation of such trade-unions that excludes from employment in the trades all 
who have not been regularly apprenticed, or any rule which should set a 
limit to the number of apprentices. Professor Cairnes, commenting on the 
monopoly thus advocated by trade-unions, said, " It is a monopoly, more- 
over, founded on no principle either of moral desert or of industrial effi- 
ciency, but simply on chance or arbitrary selection ; and which, therefore, 
cannot but exert a demoralizing influence on all who come within its scope — 
in all its aspects presenting an ungracious contrast to all that is best and 
most generous in the spirit of modem democracy." 

The only other question on which your Committee will report is whether 
an artificial restriction of labour or of capital can, under any circumstances, 
be economically right or beneficial. It is, indeed, scarcely necessarj- to say 
that any restriction of labour or of capital having the effect of limiting pro- 

* The following were the quantities of some of the principal articles of British pro- 
duce and manufacture exported from the United Kingdom in 1854 and 1874 : — 

Increase. 
1854. 1874. per cent. 

Coal and coke 4,309,000 tons. 13,027,000 223 

Copper 274,000 cwts. 709,000 159 

Cotton yam 147,128,000 lbs. 220,599,000 49 

Cotton manufacture 1,092,899,000 yds. 3,006,639,000 113 

Iron 1,175,000 tons. 2,487,000 112 

Worsted manufacture 133,600,000 yds. 261,000,000 71 

The total value of British produce exported iucronsed from £1S5,891,(;00 in 18C0 to 
i:ii39,558,000 in 1874, or nt the rcte cf 76 per cent. 



154 EEPORT — 1875. 

duction, must of necessity prove injurious. Yet it may bo a point for con- 
sideration whether, under certain circumstances, it may not be better for 
either labour or capital to submit to the evil of restriction, in order to avoid 
a still greater evil, of producing at a loss, or working at rates of wages not 
sufficiently remunerative. The labourers justify their proceedings in this 
respect by reference to the practice of producers. One of the representatives 
of labour, speaking on this subject, said : — " No doubt there is not a working 
man in Lancashire who would not say that limitation was an injury. Gene- 
rally that there should be the largest possible production in a given time is 
no doubt a true law ; but every trade must regulate that according to its own 
necessities. The ironmaster blows out his furnaces when an increased pro- 
duction would injure ; the cotton manufacturer runs his manufactory short 
time ; and the labourer limits the production." There is httle or no difference 
in the relative position of capital and labour as respects their need of con- 
tinuous production. Primarily both employer and employed aHke depend 
upon production as the only source for profits and wages. Whilst the em- 
ployers have the maximum interest ia producing as much as possible, from 
the fact that the fixed capital, which they cannot withdraw, would lie dor- 
mant and unproductive while the forge or mill is silent, the employed find it 
their interest to aid in such production, inasmuch as they depend upon it for 
their means of subsistence. The argument of the employed against a pro- 
posal for a reduction of wages is exin-essed in the words : — " If you have too 
much of an article in the market and you cannot sell, I would rather limit 
the quantity in your hands than aggravate the evil and take less money for 
it." But by refusing to work when the employer is able or willing to con- 
tinue producing, or by not submitting himself to accept lower wages when 
the inevitable law of supply and demand compels the same, the employed 
only aggravates his own position, whilst he places the employer in a still 
worse strait ; the certain consequence of the withdrawal of laboiir being to 
discourage production, to enhance the cost, and to increase the difficulty of 
foreign competition — injurious alike to the producer and to the whole com- 
munity. 

A frequent source of contention between employers and employed is the 
mode of paying wages, viz. by time, such as by the day or hour, or by 
piecework. There appears to be no uniform practice on the subject. While 
in some branches of industry the rule is to pay wages by piecework, in other 
branches the rule is to pay by time — the reason probably being that whilst in 
some branches it is easy to establish a scale of prices at which the work is to 
be paid for, in other branches such a scale could not easily be framed. In so 
far as the method of payment can be considered to affect production, it seems 
to your Committe that whilst payment by piecework is likely to promote 
quantity of production, payment by time is more likely to promote precision 
of execution. Tour Committee cannot believe, what has often been alleged, 
that payment by piecework is often offered to conceal any reduction of wages. 
If honestly acted upon on either side, payment by piecework has, in the 
opinion of your Committee, all the elements of fair justice. But the ques- 
tion in any case is not of sufficient importance to justify a breach of the 
friendly relation which should exist between capital and labour. When 
either party has any decided preference for one system, it seems advisable 
that the other party should accept the same. 

The economic effects of strikes and lock-oucs are well known, and it matters 
but little which party in the contest in the end may prove successful. In 
recent years strikes and lock-outs have occurred among coal- and iro n-miaers 



ON THE METHOD OF MAKING GOLD-ASSAYS. 155 

tho building-trade, engineers, the cotton-trade, ship-biiilders, and most of the 
trades and industries of the country, each and all of which have caused 
serious losses on tho community at large. In tho opinion of your Committee 
a wcU-devised system of conciliation is the only proper and legitimate 
method of solving labour-disputes. And your Committee cannot too strongly 
express their sense of the grave responsibility which rests on either employers 
or employed when, regardless of consequences, they resort to a step so vexa- 
tious and destructive as a strike or lock-out. 

Your Committee are of opinion that tho British Association will confer a 
lasting benefit if, on its pilgrimage in the principal industrial towns in the 
United Kingdom, it will seize every opportunity for the enunciation of sound 
lessons of Political Economy on the questions in agitation between employers 
and employed. It was suggested to your Committee that workmen should 
be admitted to the meetings of Section F at a reduced rate. Your Committee 
desire to point out the importance of promoting, as far as possible, the study of 
political economy, and especially of those branches of industrial economy which 
most intimately concern the industry, manufactures, and commerce of the 
country. Y'our Committee have learned with pleasure that the Cobden Club are 
prepared to ofler some encouragement for the teaching of political economy to 
the labouring classes ; and your Committee would suggest that the Chambers 
of Commerce might advantageously take similar means in the great centres 
of commerce and manufacture. In the opinion of your Committee, a proper 
sense of the necessity and utility of continuous labour, an earnest desire for 
the achievement of excellence in workmanship in every branch of industry, 
and a keen and lively interest on the part of one and aU to promote national 
prosperity, are the best safeguards against the continuance of those dis- 
turbances between capital and labour which have of late become of such 
hindrance to successful production. In the great contest which Britain has 
to wage with other industrial nations, it is the interest of both masters and 
men to be very careful lest, by raising the prices of British produce and 
manufacture too high, they should no longer be able to carry the palm in the 
arena of international competition. 

Your Committee regret the death of their much esteemed member Mr. 
Samuel Brown, who took an active part in the proceedings. Professor 
Fawcett, M.P., was unable to act. But your Committee have pleasure in 
reporting that tho Eight Hon. Lord O'Hagan, Mr. Thomas Brassey, M.P., 
and Mr. A. J. Mundella, M.P., were added to the Committee. 



Second Report of the Committee, consisting of W . Chandler Roberts, 
Dr. Mills, Dr. Boycott, A. W. Gadesden, and J. S. Sellon, 
appointed for the purpose of inquiring into the Method of making 
Gold-assays, and of stating the Results thereof. Drawn up by W. 
Chandler Egberts, F.R.S., Secretary. 

In their last Eeport the Committee stated that portions of the gold plate, 
which had been so long in course of preparation, had been sent to various 
distinguished chemists on the continent and in America. 

Several Pioports have been received, all of which confirm the favourable 
opinion the Committee expressed as to the purity of the plate. Towards the 



156 REPORT — 1875. 

close of the year the Secretary visited M. Stas in Brussels, aud received 
from hina details of the experiments which he liad made in testing the metal, 
tlie results proving that the plate contained 999'95 parts of pure gold in 
1000. The minute trace of foreign matter which is admixed with the gold 
was probably derived from the clay crucible in which the finely divided metal 
was melted. Mr. J. Norman Lockyer, F.E.S., has photographed the violet 
and ultra-violet parts of the spectrum produced by the electric arc when 
pieces of this gold are employed as terminals, side by side with the solar 
spectrum ; and the result proves that neither silver, copper, nor iron, the 
metals which might have jjeen expected to be present, exists in sufficient 
quantity to be detected by the spectroscope. 

With the completion of this standard plate an important step has been 
made in that a common ::tandard for reference has been secured. With 
regard to the discrepancies between the results of different assayers, the 
Committee propose to collect evidence in the hope of being able to ascertain 
whether the causes of difference are introduced at the second or foi;rth 
stages of the operation, or, in other words, in the furnace or while parting 
with acid. 



Eifjhth Report of the Committee, consisting o/Prof. Everett, Sir W. 
Thomson, F.R.S., Prof. J. Clerk Maxwell, F.R.S., G. J. Symons, 
F.M.S., Prof. Ramsay, F.R.S., Prof. A. Geikie, F.R.S., James 
(ilaisher, F.R.S., Rev. Dr. Graham, George Maw, F.G.S., W. 
Pengelly, FR.S., S. J. Mackie, FG.S., Prof. Hull, FR.S., 
Prof. Ansted, F.R.S., Prof. Prestwich, F.R.S., and C. Le Neae 
Foster, appointed for the pmrpose of investigating the Rate of 
Increase of Undeground Temperature doivmoards in various Locali- 
ties of Dry Land and under Water. Draivn up by Prof. Everett, 
Secretary. 

The supposed difficulties in the way of obtaining observations of temperature 
in the St.-Gothard tunnel have vanished of themselves. On a recent visit to 
the tunnel, your Secretary had the pleasure of meeting Dr. Stapff, who lias 
for two years filled the post of official geologist to the " Direction "' of tlio 
Gothard Eailway, and has in that capacity made the temperature of the tunnel 
a special object of investigation. Dr. Stapff's observations are contained in 
successive numbers of the Monthly and Quarterly Eeports of the Chief 
Engineer to the " Direction," and of the Swiss Government Engineer to the 
subventing States, on the progress of the Gothard Eailway. A^paper on the 
subject was read by Dr. Stapff at a recent meeting of the Swiss Society of 
Naturalists held at Andermatt in the immediate neighbourhood of the tunnel; 
and an abstract of it has been kindly communicated by him to the Secretary, 
accompanied with tables and diagrams. 

Dr. Stapff s observations were of three kinds : — ■ 

I. Observations of rock-temperature, made with very long thermometers, 
inserted in horizontal bore-holes, of depth not exceeding one metre, in the sides 
of the tunnel. The air was excluded by a firm plugging of taUow aU along 
the stem, which was of such length that the scale projected into the air and 
could be read without disturbing the instrument. They were graduated to 



ON UNDER6R0UND TEMPERATURE. 157 

0-2 of a degree Centigrade, and read by estimation to 0-05, all necessary cor- 
rections being applied, including a correction for temperature of stem. The 
index-errors were known from compai'ison with standards, attention being 
paid to the difference between the reading in a vertical and in a horizontal 
position, which, on account of the great length of the column of mercury 
and consequent pressure on the interior of the bulb, amounted to about half 
a degree. As the thermometers were costly, and- were very liable to be 
broken in the process of extraction, these rock- observations Avere compara- 
tively few. 

One of the Committee's protected Negretti maximum thermometers was 

left by the Secretary with Dr. Stapff, and has been used by him for verifying 

some of his previous observations, the thermometer being pushed to the 

bottom of the hole, with a cord attached, and the hole being then tightly 

" plugged with rags and tallow. 

A minimum thermometer would have been more appropriate, as the rock 
was colder than the air ; but the Eutherford's minimum which the Secretary 
had provided was too large for the holes. Besides, it is doubtful whether 
the index could be trusted to retain its place during the extraction of the 
thermometer. The extreme slowness of action of the protected Negretti 
maximum was the one quality which rendered its use possible, and a non- 
registering thermometer possessing the same characteristic would be more 
appropriate. It was accordingly agreed between Dr. Stapff and the Secretary 
that a new pattern of non-registering thermometer should be constructed 
with a special view to slowness of action. This end is to be attained by sur- 
rounding the bulb with tallow or some other non-conducting solid, the whole 
being inclosed in a sealed glass tube. [Six thermometers on this plan have 
since been constructed by Negretti and Zambra, and two of them, after satis- 
factory trials, were forwarded by the Secretary to Dr. Stapff on the 1st of 
November.] 

II. Observations of air-temperature in the tunnel. The air is artificially 
warmed by the presence of the workmen, by their lamps, and by blasting ; 
and, on the other hand, is cooled by the escape of the compressed air from 
the boring-engines. Dr. Stapff states that, notwithstanding these disturbing 
influences, he " gradually fell into a uniform system of observing air-tempe- 
rature, so that the mean results obtained were useful." He further found 
that the mean air-temperature thus determined at any point wlien first laid 
open by the driving forward of the narrow gallery (to be afterwards widened) 
was identical (to a fraction of a degree) with the rock-temperature afterwards 
observed at the same point at the depth of a metre in the walls. For ex- 
ample, at the distance of 800 metres from the Swiss portal the rock-tempera- 
ture, 1 metre deep, was 17°"85, the mean air-temperature when first observed 
having been 17°-80. Again, at the distance of 1443 metres from the Swiss 
portal the rock-temperature, 1 metre deep, was 18°-16 ; the mean air-tem- 
perature when the heading had just advanced to this point was 17°'29, the 
temperature at the same time from 20 to 40 metres further back being 18°"35. 
The last observations made at the Italian end on the occasion of the verifica- 
tion of the axis of the tunnel confirm this conclusion as to the approximate 
identity of the air-temperature in the extreme end of the heading with the 
temperature of the surrounding rock. 

III. Observations of the temperature of springs. In the Swiss portion, 
up to the date of the Secretary's visit, there were no springs of any account ; 
but in the Italian portion they are mimerous. Wlicn water-filled crevices 
(in the Italian portion) are first bored through, the water issues with the 



158 



REPORT 1875, 



velocity due to a height of some 2 or 3 metres ; but as soon as such a cleft 
is totally opened, the water runs down all around the perimeter of the gallery 
without showing signs of pressure. Springs from the bottom (which are by 
no means rare) have never shown signs of pressure. 

The temperature of springs is higher when they are first tapped than at any 
subsequent period. The springs at the distance of from 780 to 820 metres 
from the Italian portal fell, in the first fourteen days, from 10°*52 to 9°-75 C, 
and those at the distance of from 1495 to 1500 metres from the Swiss portal, 
which had a temperature of 17°'l when tapped in November 1874, have now 
fallen to 16°"2, after the lapse of ten months. 

The temperature of springs, even when first tapped, is lower than that of 
the surrounding rock. The average amount of this difference for the first 
2200 metres from the Italian portal was 3°'14 C. In the first 1200 metres 
it was generally greater, and in the remaining 1000 metres always less than 
this average value. At 2180 metres it was reduced to -77 of a degree. 
As these diflferences constitute one of the most noteworthy results of Dr. 
StapfTs observations, they are here presented in tabular form. The degrees 
are Centigrade. 



Distance from 

Italian portal, 

in metres. 



Temperature of 

rock, deduced 

from observations 



m air. 



loo ii'5o 

200 13'43 

300 i5'oo 

400 i3'i3 

500 ii-oj 

600 'i'S3 

700 13'03 

800 i4'o8 

900 i4'84 

1000 iS'o4 

iioo lyiS 

1200 i6'97 

1300 i7"38 

1400 i7'63 

1500 lS'2I 

1600 2o'45 

1700 20-84 

1800 20'64 

1900 2171 

2000 2i'38 

2100 3o"9S 

2180 21'27 



Temperature 




of 


Dififereuce. 


springs. 










8-42 


3-08 


8-00 


5*43 


8-30 


670 


8-8o 


4-33 


8-79 


2-24 


8-75 


2-78 


877 


4-26 


10-63 


3-45 


10-37 


4-47 


11-38 


3-66 


13-30 


3-88 


13-35 


3-62 


14-88 


a-i;o 


15-25 


2-38 


17-40 


3-05 


18-60 


2-24 


18-70 


1-94 


19-00 


2-71 


19-80 


1-58 


20-05 


•90 


20-50 


•77 



Mean 



3'i4 



The strongest springs are those in the first 1300 metres from the Italian 
portal. Their temperature varies, to the extent of a few tenths of a degree, 
with the quantity, as dependent on rainfall, being lowest when the quantity 
is greatest. 

The conformation of the ground and the course of the tunnel are such that 
at equal distances from the two portals the Italian portion is the more distant 
from the surface. It is not, however, upon the whole, warmer than the 
Swiss portion; but for distances (from the portals) intermediate between 
200 metres and 1400 metres is decidedly colder — an eflTect, probably, of the 
abundant infiltration of cold water. 



ON UNDERGROUND TEMPERATURE. 159 

The tunnel has now been carried to a distance of 2500 metres at the Swiss 
and 2200 metres at the Italian end ; and the temperature of the rock, as 
deduced from air-observations, is — 

At 2400 metres from Swiss portal 21°-7 C. 

„ 2180 „ „ ItaHan „ 21°-3 C. 

The distances from the surface (measured in the nearest direction) are 306 
metres in the former case (the plain of Andermatt being overhead), and 
1090 metres in the latter. The mean temperature at Gosclienen (the village 
at the Swiss end) is 6°-82 C. 

Observations were taken (Aug. 17th, 1874) by Mr. John Donaldson, C.E., 
ill a pump-well 413 feet deep, at Mr. Sich's brewery, Chiswick, near London, 
The pumps were kept idle all day to facilitate observation. The thermoincter 
used was a protected Phillips's maximum. During the first series of obser- 
vations, pumping was going on from a well in a neighboiiring brewery, an 
operation which lowers the level of Mr. Sich's weU by about 3 inches. This 
pumping was discontinued before the completion of the second series. The 
surface of the water is 60 feet below the surface of the ground. The diameter 
of the well is 5 feet to the depth of 200 feet, and is less than one foot (and 
gradually diminishing) for the remainder of the depth. The following are 
the observations : — 

Depth from Temperature in degrees Fahr. 

surface of , » n 

ground. First Series. Second Series, 

ft. in. o o 

65 o 55'S 56-2 

i°S 6 546 54-5 

iSS 9 545 54'S 

2°5 9 54'9 55"o 

256 25 5S"° 54"9 

306 7 55'S S5"4 

358 I 56'6 56-6 

395 5 57-5 58-0 

The difference between the two obseiwed temperatures at 65 feet is attributed 
to the disturbance of the water by passing the thermometer and suspending 
wire through it. The difference of half a degree between the two observationg 
at the bottom is attributed to the discontinuance of pumping in the next 
brewery, as mentioned above. These temperatures (57°-5 and 58"-0 at the 
depth of 395 feet) may be compared with the temperatures observed by 
Mr. Symons in the Kentish-Town well at the depth of 400 feet, as given 
in our Reports for 1869 and 1871, namely 58°-l and 57°*9. The agreement 
is satisfactory, as indicating, on the one hand, that even where there is 
strong convectivc action (as in this pump-weU) the temperature near the 
bottom is but slightly affected; and, on the other, that where there are 
no strong springs the temperature at intermediate depths (the Kentish- 
Town well being 1100 feet deep) is likewise nearly free from couvective 
disturbance. 

A boring in search of coal is being made at Swinderby, about eight miles 
to the west of Lincoln, in which observations have been made by Mr. J. T. 
Boot, the engineer of the works. The depth attained on July 19, 1875, was 
1535 feet, the strata penetrated being :• — (1) Lower Lias, 140 feet ; (2) Kew 
Eed Marl (Keuper), 569 feet ; (3) New Red Sandstone (Keuper and Bunter), 
790 feet. The boring is now in red marl of the Permian formation. A great 



160 REPORT — 1875. 

feeder of water was met with at 790 feet on penetrating the Lower Keuper 
Sandstone, and another at 950 feet in the Bunter Sandstone, the water 
from the latter rising above the surface. The bore-hole is being lined 
with tubes. 

The best observations were taken on the 15th, 16th, and 17th of June, 
1875, the hole having remained undisturbed since May 27th. These obser- 
vations were as follows : — 

Temperature. 

Date. Depth. Fahr. Time down. 

feet. o h m 

June 15 100 68 10 

„ 200 68^ 30 

300 68| 30 

400 68| 30 

500 68| 30 

„ 600 69 30 

700 69 30 

„ 800 69 30 

9°° 69 30 

June 16 looo 69!^ 35 

ii°° 69! ' 35 

„ 1200 69^ 30 

1303 yoi 35 

June 17 1400 71 35 



1500 73 40 



At an earlier date. May 13th, the hole having been undisturbed for a few 
days, the temperature 68|° was found at 1308 feet, which was the depth 
then attained, and the temperatures GG°, 66°, 66°-2, 66°-G were found at the 
respective depths of 0, 300, 490, 590 feet. The instrument employed on 
both occasions was the protected Negretti maximum thermometer. 

These observations illustrate the difficulty of obtaining correct results in 
the presence of strong springs of water. It is obvious that nearly all the 
above temperatures are largely affected by convection. If we assume the 
temperature at the bottom in each case to have been free from this source of 
error, as well as from disturbance by the heat generated in boring (assump- 
tions which are somewhat doubtful), and if we estimate the surface- tempe- 
rature at 49°, we have the following mean rates of increase : — 

Between feet and 1308 feet 1° T. for 68 feet. 

„ 1308 „ 1500 „ 1 „ 40 



„ 1500 „ 1 „ 62-5 






A bore-hole is being sunk to a depth of 2000 feet at Bohmisch-Brod, near 
Prague ; and the Secretary has received two independent applications for 
thermometers for the purpose of making observations in it — one of them from 
the Academy of Sciences of Yienna, the other fi'om the Imperial Polytechnic 
School at Prague. Two thermometers (one of the Negretti and one of the 
Phillips pattern) were supplied in each case, the expense being defrayed by 
the recipients. These applications are gratifying, as tokens of an increasing 
interest in the subject of underground temperature. 

Two protected Negretti thermometers have been sent to Dr. Oldham, 
Director of the Geological Survey of India, to be used in borings for coal in 
that country. Arrangements are also being made by Mr. Blanford, Director 
of Meteorological Observations for India, to establish regular observations of 
earth-temperature at small depths at certain selected stations. 



ON TIDES IN THE RIVER MERSEY. IGl 

The following thermometers have also been issued : — • 

To Mr. J. A, Bosworth, a protected Ncgretti, to be used in a deep boring 
in Shropshire. 

To Mr. Atkinson, of Newcastle, a similar instrument, to replace one broken 
in his previous observations. 

To Mr. Pengelly, a protected Phillips, for a boring at Torquaj'. 



Tides in the River Mersey. Half-tide Level at Liverpool. 
By James N. Shoolbred, C.E. 

[A communication ordered by the General Committee to be printed in exiemo.'] 

[Plate IV.] 

In the year 1835, at the Meeting of the British Association in Dublin, 
Captain (now Admiral) Henry Mangles Donham, R.N., Resident Marine 
Surveyor of the Port of Liverpool, announced " that, from observations which 
he had been enabled to take on the rise and fall of a number of tides in the 
lliver Mersey, he had ascertained that there was an oscillating point or mean 
centre which every six hours is common to all tides, whether spring or neap, 
and called the half-tide mark or level." 

In 1837 Captain Denham further announced to the Association, at its 
Meeting in Liverpool, " that the oscillation of each tide, whether spring or 
neap, passed this line, viz. the half-tide level, at three hours before and three 
hours after every high-water time, and not at the balf-elapsed time of high 
and low water." 

Captain Denham considered this half-tide mark, though not a suitable 
one to adjust soundings to, to be a most valuable datum for tide-gauge 
operations, or as a point of departure for engineering levelling-operations — 
a remark which was subsequently fully confirmed by the selection of the 
"level of mean tide at Liverpool" as the datum level for Great Britain for 
the Ordnance maps. 

It will be seen, therefore, that tliis subject of the half-tide level is one that 
has already received some attention, and has had a practical and important 
ajiplication. 

It appears, therefore, not out of place to make a few remarks on this half- 
tide level, and as to its real nature, especially as much information as to the 
action of the tide in the Mersey has been obtained during the interval of 
forty years that has elapsed since Capt. Denham first broached the subject. 

In the latter part of 1853 a self-recording tide-gauge was established at 
Liverpool, near to the St. George's Pier-head, advantage being taken of one 
of the bridges which connected the floating landing-stage to the shore, the 
rising and falling of the bridge with the tide being communicated by a chain 
arrangement to a self-recording drum driven by clockwork and there suit- 
ably registered. 

These observations had been continued without interruption, save for short 
repairs, since the above date until twelve months ago, when they were neces- 
sarily suspended, owing to the burning of the landing-stage and the removal 
of the connecting-bridge during its reconstruction. 

As, however, the whole of the stage is expected to be again open for use 
in the course of a short time, and as the connecting-bridges are now in posi- 

1875. M 



163 REPORT — 1875. 

tion, it may be confidently anticipated that the self-recording of the tides 
may be again soon resumed. 

By the courtesy of the present Marine Surveyor to the Mersey Docks and 
Harbour Board, Staff-Commander Graham H. Hills, E.N., the writer has 
had an opportunity of inspecting a number of the resultant diagrams of the 
tidal curves. 

After careful examination of many tides, the writer confesses himself quite 
unable to agree with Capt. Denham in his definition that " the half-tide level 
is an oscillating point or mean centre which every six hours is common to 
aU tides, whether spring or neap," or with the assertion "that the oscilla- 
tion of each tide, whether spring or neap, passed this line at three hours 
before and three hours after every high- water time." 

Some difterence of opinion seems to exist as to the interpretation of the 
term " mean or half-tide level." The method by which this level appears 
commonly if not generally to be arrived at is by taking the meau of a 
number of levels of high water for a mean high water, then of a nearly 
similar number of low-water ones to form a mean low-water level, the 
difference between these two means giving a mean tidal range, the half of 
which amount, being reckoned upwards from the mean low-water level, 
gives an absolute level called the mean or half-tide level — in fact the 
mean half-range of the tide. 

"Whether this is exactly what Capt. Denham meant by his "oscillating 
point or mean centre," is uncertain. But it is without doubt that this half- 
range varies considerably, not only with successive tides, but even over 
lengthy periods, such as a year in duration, or even a duration of years. 

The writer has been enabled, by the courtesy of the Marine Surveyor, to 
place upon the diagram hereto appended (Plate IV.) the annual means at 
Liverpool for high water, for low water, for tidal range, and for the haK-tide 
level for the twenty years extending from 1854 to 1873 — each year being 
represented by a vertical line with its date upon it, and the position of its 
mean of high water, low water, and half-tide level indicated upon it to a scale 
of a quarter of an inch to one foot. The irregular line at the top of the diagram 
is formed by the junction of the annual means of high water, the mean high 
water for the twenty years being indicated by a horizontal line. The low- 
water means are similarly treated at the bottom of the diagram ; while in 
the middle of the sheet the half-tide levels are described in a like way. 

The datum to which they are reduced is the sUl of the Old Dock at Liver- 
pool, a datum much in use in that neighbourhood. 

A very brief inspection of the diagram will show that there is considerable 
variation in each of the means between different years, amounting, in more 
than one case, to nearly twelve inches. And if so with annual means, how 
much greater the irregularity in shorter periods ! 

If, therefore, by " half-tide, level " Capt. Denham means the level of half- 
tide range, his idea of " an oscillating point common to all tides " cannot 
hold good, seeing that the result of the twenty years' observations shows 
considerable differences to have existed in the "half-tide level" between the 
several years, in some cases nearly nine inches. 

It may, however, be urged that some of the variations occurring in the 
course of this lengthened period are caused by the altered form of the course 
of the tidal channel of the River Mersey near to its mouth, to its being gra- 
dually narrowed and made more direct by each successive prolongation of the 
liver-wall of the Liverpool Docks. 

While admitting that something may be due to this cause (a matter not 



ON TIDES IN THE KIVER MERSEY. 168 

yet proved), tlierc still exists sufficient irregulaiity, shown sometimes in one 
direction and sometimes in another, at times also when no new alterations 
in the form of the channel were taking place, to disprove the accuracy of 
Capt. Dcuham's theory of a permanent oscillating point as far as regards the 
tides in the Mersey. 

As to his second assertion, " that this half-tide level line is passed hy the 
oscillation of each tide at three hours before and three hours after high-water 
time, and not at the half-elapsed time of high and low water," its value can 
only be ascertained by a close inspection and analysis of the tidal diagrams 
themselves. 

The writer can, however, state the opinion of the present Marine Surveyor 
of Liverpool (who has had charge of these tidal observations almost ever 
since their commencement, and therefore is intimately acquainted -with 
them), who considers that this assertion of Capt. Denham's is quite un- 
tenable. 

The selection of the half-tide level at Liverpool as the datum for the 
Ordnance Survey of Great Britain was made after a series of tidal observa- 
tions carried on in 1859 at a number of ports round the coast of England*. 

In the Ordnance book, ' The abstract of Levelling in England and Wales,' 
1861, it is defined in the following terms: — "The datum level for Great 
Britain is the level of mean tide at Liverpool, as determined by our own 
obsei-vations ; it is ^ of an inch above the mean tidal level obtained from 
the records of the self-recording tide-gauge on St. George's Pier, Liverpool." 
These records, as will be seen by the annexed Table, give the mean half- 
tide level for the five years preceding 1859 as 4-948 feet above the Old Dock 
Sill. If to this be added the j\ of an inch (-066 foot) referred to in the 
Ordnance book, a total of 5-014 feet above Old Dock Sill (the zero of the tide- 
gauge at the St. George's Pier) is obtained as the level of the Ordnance 
datum, a difference which is quite borne out by the actual levelling of 
several engineers. 

The Ordnance book of levels already referred to gives, in another portion 
of the book, in the column of levels only 4-67 feet as the difference between 
the Ordnance datum and the zero of the tide-gauge. While, to render the 
discrepancy stUl more intelligible, no doubt, the printer has omitted the 
minus sign before the last-named level, so placing the zero of the tide- 
gauge above the half-tide level — thus introducing a possibility of error (to 
strangers to the locality) of over nine feet in the comparison of these two 
important systems of levels (the Ordnance and the Old Dock Sill). 

When it is considered of what importance to the country are those most 
carefully prepared maps of the Ordnance Sui-vey, and the system of levels 
which they introduce, it will be readily seen that it should be a matter of 
paramount importance to dispel any discrepancy or uncertainty which may 
exist as to the very fons et origo of that system of levels. 

In conclusion, it must not be supposed from the above remarks that the 
writer, while adducing the irregularity of the half-tide level at Liverpool, as 
evidenced by the result of twenty years' observations, wishes to argue against 
the practical uniformity of the mean level of the open sea all the world over 
— a fact which is being each day more fully admitted. Liverpool is not on 

* Since writing the above, it appears, from ii commuiiieatiou received by the author 
from the Ordnance Office at Southampton, that "the assumed mean water at Liverpool 
depends upon tidal observations taken by this Department in March 1844, " and that 
the 1859 observations published in the Ordnan ce book are those of the self -registering 
tide-gauge. 

ii2 



ICi 



REPORT — 1875. 



the open sea but ou au estuary, and one where the conditions of the channel 
have been altered considerably during late years by engineering structures. 

Records of Tides in liiver Mersey at Liverpool, taken by the Self-recording 
Tide-gauge at the George's Pier-head, Liverpool. 



Date. 


Meau 
H.W. 

above 
0. D. S. 


Meau 
L.W. 

below 
0. D. S. 


Mean 
Tidal 
Eange. 


Meau 

Half-tide 

Level 

abode 

O.D.S. 


Means of 10 
years. 


Means of 20 

years, 
1854^1873. 


1854. 
1855. 
1856. 

1857. 
1858. 


ft. 

15-423 

15-366 

15-513 

15-519 

15-349 


ft. 

5-546 

5-.570 

5-466 

5-.531 

5-575 


ft. 

20-969 

20-936 

20-979 

21-050 

20-924 


ft. 

4-938 

4-898 

5-023 

4-994 

4-887 


18i>4-1863. 

0.1 " 

io ic. ■r' P 
I'n o 't! '-■' 

>-l Cl 

• • : <o : 
: : • t- : 

^^ ;ii 

■^ 15; ro 13 C 


1 

et - 
: : : o . 

^o : o ; 


Means of 1 
5 years. J 


15-404 


5-53S 


20-973 


4-948 


18.59. 
1860. 
18G1. 
1862. 
1863. 


15-661 
15-673 
15-638 
15-777 
15-799 


6-477 
5-656 
5-438 
5-551 

5-958 


21-138 
21-129 
21-076 
21-328 
21-758 


5-107 
5-126 
5-100 
5113 
4-920 


Means of ^ 
5 years. J 


15-689 


5-596 


21-285 


5-073 


18G4. 

18G5. 
18G6. 
18G7. 

1868. 


15-743 

15-848 
16-041 
16-150 
16-445 


5-923 
5-980 
5-708 
5-443 
5-139 


21-666 
21-828 
21-749 
21-693 
21-584 


4-910 
4-934 
5-166 
5-3.53 
5-653 


1864-1873 

Oi rfl ■* C- 
lb >h T^ >r 
i-( c\ 

OO : 1 

O O M ^ 


Hfi : : 

do :i ■: 

! 

1 


Means of \ 
5 years. J 


16-045 


5-G39 


21-684 


5-208 


18G9. 
1870. 
1871. 
1872. 
1873. 


16-116 
15-820 
15-708 
16-232 
15-430 


6617 
5-663 
5-206 
4-832 
5-3.54 


21-733 
21-483 
20-914 
21064 
2U-784 


5-250 
5-078 
5-251 
5-700 
5-038 


Means of 
5 years. 


15-801 


5-334 


21-196 


5-2G5 



Datum: Old Dock Sill (O. D. S.) at Liverpool. 



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ON THE STRUCTURE OF CARBONirEROUS CORALS. 165 

Sixth Report of the Committee, consisting of the Rev. Thomas Wilt- 
shire, M.A., F.G.S., Prof. Williamson, F.R.S., and James 
Thomson, F.G.S., Secretary, appointed to investigate the Structure 
of the Carboniferous Corals. 

During the past year the Committee have conducted their investigations 
and have made sections of upwards of 300 specimens. In order that they 
might arrive at as clear a conception as possible of their specific value, the 
Secretary went over to Paris, and examined the types of MM. Milne-Edwards 
and J. Haimc, and also those of Prof, do Koninck in Belgium, and compared 
them with the structural details as delineated in the Plates already prepared ; 
and the result of his investigation warrants them in saying that they are glad 
they have not published more than brief abstracts of their investigations. The 
delay has also enabled them to try several methods for delineating the intri- 
cate and delicate structure of many of these corals, well knowing that their 
structure could not be reproduced by the ordinary process of lithograph}-. 
The system adopted is the result of many experiments, and the one most 
suited for the purpose, as by it can be given facsimiles of the most delicate 
stnicture, thus placing in the hands of students the means whereby they can 
name either genera or sj^ecies even from small fragments. 

The results of the investigations and comparison of the type forms referred 
to point to three new genera. The varieties, however, are so numerous, 
that it was felt desirable to make other sections before determining distinct 
varieties. 

The following have been determined, and arc engraved upon what they 
l^rovisionally term Plate XII. 

AsindiophyUum, Thomson, gen. nov. The generic name is taken from 
the form and position of the boss in the centre of the calice, it being helmet- 
shaped. As the characters upon which the generic distinction is founded 
have been described in detail in the Transactions of the Philosophical Society 
of Glasgow for 1874, the descriptions need not be repeated. The generic 
and specific names of those published are : — 

Pigs. 1 & lA. Aapidiophi/lluni Koniiiclianum, Thomson, sp. nov. 

2. „ Hihvlni/ianvm, Thom., sp. nov. 

3. „ Henncdii, Thom., sp. nov. 

4. „ cniciforme, Thom., sp. nov. 
5 & 5A. „ elegans, Thom., sp. nov. 

In Aspidioplnjllum HuxJeyiannm one of the primary septa is shorter than 
the others, with a clavate tube-like process lying in the plane of the open 
interseptal spaces. Around the inner margin of the tube-like body are 
grouped a number of ovule-like bodies, much resembling ova. Detailed 
accounts of these are published in the Transactions of the Philosophicsi 
Society of Glasgow for 1874. 

Plate XII. figs. 10, 11, 12, 14, 15, and 16 belong to the same genus, but 
differ from those described in essential specific characters, and will be described 
hereafter. 

Plate XIII. contains representations of seven species of the genus Elwdo- 
phyllum, Thomson, gen. nov., which Lave been described in the ' Geological 
Magazine,' viz. : — 



166 REPORT— 1875. 

figs. 1 & 1 A. Bhodophijllum Craigianum, Thomson, sp. nov. 

3. „ Slimonianiim, Thom., sp. nov. 

4. „ Pliillipsianum, Thom., sp. nov. 
6 & 6 A. „ simplex, Thom., sp. nov. 

Figs. 2, 5, 7, aud 8 belong to the same genus, and will be described along 
with the former genus. 

Plate XIV. contains representations of a new genus, which the Secretary 
discovered at Brockley, near Lesmahagow, Lanarkshire, many years ago. It 
exhibits characteristics hitherto unnoticed. The Secretary proposes calling 
it Kumatiojphiillum. It has at least ten good species, which will bo described 
as before stated. 

Plate XV. is another Plate partially prepared, but is not sufficiently for- 
ward to be described in this year's Report. 



Third Report of the Committee, consisting of Sir John Lubbock, Bart., 
Prof. Prestwich, Prof. T. M'K. Hughes, Prof. W. Boyd Daw- 
kins, Rev. H. W. Crosskey, Messrs. L. C. Miall and R. II. Tidde- 
MAN, ajjpointed for the purpose of assisting in the Exploration of the 
Settle Caves {Victoria Cave). Draion up by R. H. Tiddeman, 
Reporter. 

[Plates V. & VI.] 

WoEK was carried on almost uninterruptedly throughout the year, except 
from March 20th to May 20th, when it was stopped for want of funds. An 
appeal to the public by the Settle Committee was made, and at tho end of two 
mouths they considered themselves justified in recommencing work. 

It is a matter of much interest to the Committee that the last subscription 
received (on Jan. 10th, previous to stopping the work for want of funds) was 
from the late Sir Charles Lyell, and imsolicited. Sir Charles had taken a 
deep personal interest in the explorations from theii' commencement, had 
visited the Cave, and been a frequent subscriber to the fund. 

Tlie Glacial Beds. — It wiU be remembered that in the last Eeporc at Bel- 
fast we drew attention to the evidence respecting the pre- or interglacial 
age of tho lower deposits in the Victoria Cave, which contain the early 
Pleistocene fauna associated with a human fibula. Since that time further 
evidence in this direction has been obtained. The great mass of boulders 
which lies upon the edges of the Lower Cave-earth at the entrance and be- 
neath all the screes or talus has been further followed ; aud the facts brought 
to light are very interesting, and throw much light upon the origin and de- 
position of the glacial beds. 

The boulders have now been uncovered over an area of about 30 x 40 feet, 
or 1200 superficial feet (see Plates V. & VI. and descriptions), and probably 
extend beneath the screes over a still greater area. As before, the boulders are 
of all sizes and of various origin. Of the limestone boulders a large proportion 
are of blue or black limestone, and not of the white limestone in which the 
cave is excavated. They probably come from the top of the Carboniferous 
Limestone, which is widely exposed in the country to the north around the 
foot of Penyghent. One large boulder, on the other hand, an easily recog- 



ON THE EXPLORATION OF- THE SETTLE CAVES. 167 

nizable rock, consists of a portion of the base of the Carboniferous Limestone, 
which is a couglomerate of Silurian pebbles in a matrix of limestone, and 
must have travelled at least two miles to its present position. Other bonlders 
consist of Carboniferous Sandstone or Millstone-grit, but a very large propor- 
tion are of Silurian rocks. 

In size they run from large blocks several tons in weight to mere sand- 
grains, for the passage may be easUy observed. At one place you have 
large boulders in a matrix of stony clay, then a clayey gravel, the component 
stones wcU scratched and bruised as only glacial deposits are, then fine 
gravel, still of the same character, shading off into sand. The sand again 
gives place to laminated clay of the finest character. 

A very interesting section showing this has been lately uncovered ; it 
lies at the back of the boulders, and contains several beds of laminated clay, 
sand, and gravel intercalated with indisputable glacial deposits. 

This may be regarded as a positive proof that some at least of the lami- 
nated clay is of glacial age and origin. 

In removing some of the boulders at the entrance, a step which the pro- 
gress of the work necessitated, we appear at length to have come upon the 
solid floor of the cave-mouth. "We found several long, wedge-like masses of 
rock, with their apices upwards, sticking up from amongst the boulders. They 
seem to run along definite lines, the spaces between which coincide with the 
vertical joints traversing the roof and side of the cave. 

They stand up in pinnacles, and are not unlike in form similarly weathered 
floors in other caves in Craven. "We may mention Browgill Cave near 
Horton in Eibblesdale, which is now occupied by a stream. This peculiar 
form seems to have arisen from the water working down along the joints 
and slowly dissolving the limestone, leaving an edge projecting iipwards, in 
some cases almost as shai-p as a knife. That the Victoria Cave was once a 
stream-course there can be no doubt ; not only these limestone pinnacles, 
but the peculiar weathering of the side of the cave at the entrance into a 
succession of arched niches corresponding with the joints (another charac- 
teristic of water caves) render this tolerably certain (see Plates Y. & VI. 
and descriptions). 

And now, with the additional evidence of another year's diggings, we may 
again consider the question (the most interesting perhaps of all the problems 
before us) — Are the glacial deposits, which rest upon the older bone-beds 
containing the extinct pleistocene mammals and man, in the position which 
they occupied at the close of glacial conditions, or have they subsequently 
fallen into their present site ? 

"We may again urge the reasons given last year, strengthened by enlarged 
sections and a wider experience, which go to prove the first alternative. 

1. The cliff immediately above the cave is free from any boulder deposits 

for a considerable distance. 

2. The boulders lie at the base of all the talus, which must have been 

forming ever since glacial conditions declined, and no other falls of 
even isolated boulders have occurred throughout the whole thickness 
of talus. 

3. The boulders are so close beneath the cliif, that if aU the limestone 

which has fallen from it and is now lying on the boulders could be 
restored to the cliff, it would project so much further forward, that the 
fall of the boulders from the cliff to their present position would be 
impossible. 



1C8 REPORT — 1875. 

To these arguments we may now add the following: — 

4. That the extent of the glacial deposits now exposed is so great that 
it is impossible that they can be a mere chance accumulation of 
boulders which have been redeposited in their present position since 
glacial times. 

This being the case, it is clear from the position of the boulders beneath 
all the screes that they form a portion of the general glacial covering of the 
valleys and hillsides which was left by the ice-sheet at the time of its disap- 
pearance. 

These are the main arguments to be derived from the cave itself; but 
further strong presumptive evidence that the Pleistocene fauna lived in the 
north of England before the ice-sheet exists as foUows : — 

The older fauna once lived in that district, a point which admits of no 
dispute from its existence iu the Victoria Cave, in Kirkdale Cave, Eaygill 
Cave in Lothersdale, and perhaps in other caves ; but their bones are now 
found nowhere in the open country. None of the river-gravels contain them ; 
and just that district which is conspicuous by their absence is also remark- 
able for the strongest evidences of great glaciation. If these facts be taken 
together, the probability is very strong that it was glaciation which destroyed 
their remains in the o])en countrj'. 

To suppose that they have been destroyed by other subaerial agencies 
would be to ignore the fact that in the south of England and other non- 
glaciated areas such remains exist both in caves and iu river-gravels. This 
view your Eeporter has held for some j'cars ; a somewhat similar view has been 
well stated by Mr. James Geikie, and Prof. Boyd Dawkins also agrees in it. 

Bones heneaih tlie Talus and on tlie Boulders. 

In removing the talus, certain bones were found lying beneath it upon 
the boulders. 

They have, so far as practicable, been determined by Prof. Busk ; and he 
gives the following account of them. 

" They are nearly all fragments, but No. 1 is perfect. 

" 1. Eight calcaneum of Ursus arctos, 3-4 inches long, 2-2 wide, 1*75 high, 

" 2. Portion of a young, much worn left calcaneum of Ursus, with anterior 
and posterior epiphyses detached. 

" 3-67. Small chips and fragments, mostly apparently of the shafts of long 
bones and ribs of ruminants. Doubtfully referred to Ox? Deer? Goat? or 
Sheep ? 

" 68. Fragment, probably Elephant. 

" 69. Fragment of a large Deer-bone. 

" 70. Fragment of long bone of large bird, probably Swan. 

" 72, Sesamoid bone of • ? 

" 77. Fragment of vertebra, perhaps of Bear." 

It is an interesting point, if we could make it out, what is the age of these 
bones. Are they the remains of animals who died upon the moraine rub- 
bish before the talus was of sufficient thickness to form a recognizable bed ? 
or are they bones washed out of the edges of the older cave-earth then exposed 
above the boulders ? The bone doubtfully referred to Wild Swan would seem 
to point to a rigorous or temperate* climate. The bone doubtfully referred 

* I have heard of three instances of Wild Swans haling been shot in the immediate 
neighbourhood. C. Leigh, in his 'Nat. Hist, of Lancashire' &c., published in 1700, says, 
"Swans are commoD in the.se parts, but more particularly on the sea-coasts " (p. 141). 



ON THE EXPLORATION OF THE SETTLE CAVES. 1G9 

to Elephant docs not give very strong indications. There seems a possibility 
of its having been washed out of the lower cave-earth, which contains 
Elephant-remains. 

Most probably both of these sources contributed to this deposit of bones ; but 
that the greater part of them are washed out of the lower cave-earth seems 
likely, for this reason — that not any fragments of bone were found through 
the 19 feet of talus which lies between the Neolithic layer and the top of the 
boulders. 

Work in CJiamber D. Neiu Galleries. — Besides the work which has been 
done towards unfolding the glacial evidence at the mouth of the cave, 
a considerable amount of work has been done in excavating chamber D, and 
we have the result in a magniiicent series of bones. Chamber D will be re- 
membered by those who made a thorough visit to the cave, and explored all 
its narrowest recesses, as a very low chamber to the right of the principal 
entrance, filled nearly up to the roof with soft wet mud. It was so low over 
a greater part of its extent that progression could not be effected on hands 
and knees, and a seq)ent-like movement through pools of water Ij'ing on soft 
mud was the only way in which it could be visited. Chamber D now presents a 
very different aspect. So extensive have been the workings there, that at 
the entrance the ceiling is now 20 feet above one's head, and it gradually 
declines towards the inner extremity to a height of 4 or 5 feet. It is about 
20 feet wide and 110 feet long ; and two galleries have been discovered 
leading off from it on the right. One is blocked at the entrance with thick 
beds of stalagmite and fallen blocks of limestone, and has not been explored 
hitherto. The other leads down at Parallel 44 into a chamber 44 feet long 
with a N.E. direction, at a tolerably rapid gradient of about 1 in 4"5. At 
the end of this isa narrow squeeze whicli admits your Eeporter for a short 
distance only. The forbidden ground beyond has been visited by Mr. John 
Birkbeck, Jun. ; and he reports that this pipe-like cavitj' proceeds a short dis- 
tance further and crosses a narrow chasm abo\it 20 feet deep, down which he 
descended ; but further progress proved imjiracticable. 

This gallery we propose to call the Birkbeck Gallery, in acknowledgment 
of the energetic and valuable assistance of Messrs. John Birkbeck, Sen. and 
Jun., to the cave exploration from its commencement in 1870. 

The Bemains found in Chamber D. — The Committee is much indebted to 
Prof. Busk for his kindness in determining the bones found. 

Before being submitted to him they have been all marked with register 
numbers* in the form of a fraction, the numerator (in this case 1) standing 
for the year (1874), and the denominator for the no. of the " find " in the 
year thus, -j-, |, g, &c. Eor 1875 the numerator is 2, and for 1876 it will be 
3 if the exidorations continue, and so on. As records are kept of what 
portion of the cave is explored in each year, this system will facilitate the 
reference of any particular bone to its position in the cave. In the past 
year the bones have also been marked with notes of their position. Thus 
the large skull of the Grisly Bear -^^ is marked " P 37, L 4-0, D 4-0," which 
means that it was found in the 2 feet Parallel 37, at a distance of 4 feet left 
of the wall of the chamber, and at a depth of 4 feet from the surface. 

The note-book in which Prof. Busk's determination of the bones is written 
win be preserved in the Giggleswick Museum for reference. 

His summary of the bones found in chamber D is as follows : — 

*■ This and other valuable services have been carefully carried out for the Committee by 
Mr. Jackson, the Superintendent. 



170 REPORT — 1875. 

" Out of about 269 specimens, including detached teeth, 
127 belonged to Bear, 

37 „ Hyaena, 

36 „ Bos, 

24 „ Fox, 

pg -]. J 15 Eed Deer, 

" I 7 Reindeer, 

10 „ Ehinoceros, 

2 „ Horse, 

1 „ Badger." 

To those we may add 1 of Pig, 2 of Elephant, and 1 of Hippopotamus. 

The Elephant-remains consist of two small right and left lower antepenul- 
timate milk-molars of Eleplias antiquus, determined by Prof. Leith Adams. 
A fragment of the tusk of a Hippopotamus, about 2 inches long, is a discovery 
of the year, being the first relic of Hippopotamus found throughout the ex- 
plorations. It was in Parallel 32, at a depth of 7 feet. Close by it was the 
carnassial tooth of a Hyaena, which perhaps may account for its having been 
found at such a distance from the river, now flowing about 1000 feet below. 

It may be well here to correct an error as to the identification of remains 
of which a list occurs in Mr. Denny's paper "On the Geological and Archaeo- 
logical Contents of the Victoria and Dowkabottom Caves in Craven," Proe. 
Geol. and Polytechnic Soc. of the West Eiding, 1859. At the head of the 
list of animals found is the following entry : — 

" Cave Tiger (Felis spelceci). A canine tooth recognized by the late Dr. 
Buckland, and now in the British Museum. — Victoria Cave." 

Inasmuch as in the course of six years' diggings no remains of Tiger or 
Lion had been recognized by the Committee, Mr. William Davies, of the 
British Museum, was communicated with ; and he kindly returned an answer 
that he had examined the remains in the British Museum, that it was a case, 
as surmised, of erroneous identification, and that the tooth in question was 
the canine of a Bear. 

The existence of the Cave-Lion in the Victoria Cave remains therefore to 
be proved. 

Prof. Busk remarks of the bones and teeth submitted to him: — "They are 
a remarkably interesting collection, especially in the Bears ; and I think the 
larger of the two skulls is by far the finest specimen of the kind yet found in 
this country." 

Many interesting facts come out from the systematic record of the position 
of the bones. The aj)pended Table (p. 174) of instances of bones which appear 
to belong to the same individual, but which have been found apart from one 
another, is an interesting commentary upon the way in which bones become 
scattered through a cave whether by the intentional transportation by beasts of 
prey in the process of devouring, or by the shuffling tread of the same beasts 
amongst the loose bones lying on the floor. 

This leads us to the fact that many of the bones have a very fine polish ; 
and it seems probable that the cause of this is that suggested by Dr. Buck- 
land*, the treading of the beasts upon them ; the fine mud occurring in the 
cave would make a very good pollshing-paste, and being of a very plastic 
nature, would tend afterwards, when accumiilating in sufficient quantity, to 
cover up the bones and preserve that polish. It occurs on the long bones of 
both ruminants and Bears, and not only on one side as noticed by Dr. Buck- 
land, but all round. The specimens noticed are all apparently in the upper 

* Reliquiae DiluTianre, p. 31. 



ON THE EXPLORATION Or THE SETTLE CAVES. 



171 



bed, to be hereafter mentioned. One of the polished long bones of an Ox 
has a crust of stalagmite upon it, and the polish I'uns up to and under it. 

The greatest distance to which wc have traced separate bones of the same 
individual is 44 feet in the case of the right calcaneum and right astragalus 
of a Hyffina; they occurred at the depths of 10 and 6 feet respectively. 

Another interesting case is that of a magnificent pair of Reindeer-antlers, 
■which were in four portions scattered over a distance of 32 feet. Moreover, 
and this is an instructive fact, the several portions were in different states of 
preservation, yet could be fitted together without any difficulty. This we 
should do well to remember when inclined to speculate on the relative age of 
bones from their state of preservation. 

Again, the two fibulas of Bear, probably belonging to the same individual, 
being a right and left, and having each a tumour of the bone in the same 
position on the shaft, remind us that bears may have sources of discomfort 
quite apart from the " res angusta domi." Two fearfuUy swollen and dis- 
torted metatarsals of the same animal (^V* ^^^ s'V*) *^^ *^^ same tale. On 
the other hand, two large tusks of the Grisly Bear (^^ and ^), worn down 
almost to their sockets, would seem to indicate a healthy life extending to a 
good old age. 

Your Reporter has carefully reduced from the data in the register a synop- 
tical section, showing the occurrence of each animal in the different parallels 
and the depth at which they occur. The result is a Table too bulky for pub- 
lication, but its substance may be briefly given in words. 

The bones appear to group themselves chiefly along two horizons, which 
are separated from one another by a greater or less thickness of cave-earth, 
laminated clay, and stalagmite. 

The lower extends from the back of the boulder-beds before the cave 
mouth, is continuous with that which contained the human fibula, and runs 
almost continuously as far as P 42, and possibly further. The upper bed com- 
mences only at P 1 5, and extends to about P 43. "^\Tiere the upper bed com- 
mences, the two horizons are about 12 feet from one another ; but the lower 
rises quickly towards P 23, then continues horizontally at a depth of about 5 
feet below the upper bed as far as P 35. At this point it rises still more, and 
the two beds not only touch each other, but seem to be somewhat intermingled. 

The following Table shows the species occurring in the two beds in 
Chamber D : — 





1 






i 








^ »3 


A 










1 




i 


1 


M 

^ 




2 
pq 


tuD 


ii 


i 




Hippopot 
mils. 






.5 

'S 
Ph 


Bosprimi 
genius. 


Goat or 
Sheep. 


Upper Bed 


* 




* 


* 




* 




* 






* 


* 


* 


9 


* 


Lower Bed 


* 


* 


* 


* 


* 




* 




* 


* 




* 




* 





Peculiar to Upper Bed. 

Badger. 

Horse. 

Pig. 

Beindeer. 

Goat or Slieep ? 



PeciiUar to Lower Bed. 
Hyteua. 
Brown Bear ? 
Elephas antiqmis. 
Rhinoceros le-ptorhinits. 
Hippopotamus. 
Bos primigcnivs ? 



Common to both. 
Man. 
Fox. 

Grisly Bear. 
Red Deer. 



Of course further work may much alter these lists. 



173 REPORT — 1875. 

The upper bed probably coutains remains from the Ecindeer period to 
the present, those of later date being mixed up with the older in the mud at 
the surface. But as distinguished from the lower bed, the chief characteris- 
tics of the upper appear to be the presence of Eeindeer, and the absence of 
Elephant, Ilhinoceros, Hippopotamus, and Hj'cena. It is true that by the 
register there appears to be one specimen (a molar tooth) of Reindeer in the 
lower bed. It is marked P 35, and as at a depth of 8 feet, which would 
place it in the lower bed. It seems that this may be possibly a clerical 
error, and that 8 inches would be the proper reading. The mere placing 
the stop before or after the numeral would make the difference ; moreover 
there are Ecindeer- remains in the same parallel at a depth of 1 foot, and in 
the next parallel at a depth of 8 inches. If it was reallj* found at a depth 
of 8 feet, it is a solitary instance of Reindeer in the lower bed, whereas in 
the upper it is common. 

Of Hyaena, very common in the lower bed, there appears at first sight to 
be one specimen (a humerus) in the upper ; but on examination this is not 
quite so certain. It occurs in Parallel 37 at a depth of 2 feet, where the 
two beds run together. This alone ought to put us on our guard. Rut 
strangely enough it is at 2 feet higher elevation in the same parallel than 
the great skull of Grisly Rear, which is proved by the situation of its lower 
jaw on the surface to belong to the upper bed. It did not lie, however, 
immediately above the Rear's skull, but 2 feet east of it ; so that it seems 
quite possible that the apparent superposition may be only due to the un- 
evenness of the floor at the time when the Rear's skull came into position, 'i 

It is also highly improbable that had the Hyaena lived at the same time as 
this great Bear, he would have left so fine a skuU intact for the Committee 
to exhume. 

These facts are of great interest and importance, as warning us against 
the danger of assuming from the juxtaposition of objects their contempo- 
raneity in all cases. In this case we have a fauna which we may confi- 
dently assign to a cold climate, separated in some parts by an accumulation 
of deposits twelve feet in thiclness from an earlier one, which is equally 
characteristic of high temperatures ; whereas in another part of the cave 
not far off, where the material to separate them is wanting, we have animals 
from icy and tropical countries intermingled in a confusion which would 
be puzzling did wc not get the clue hard by. It is evident that here the 
separation is natural and regular ; the mixture is abnormal and accidental. 

It is probable that Rrown Bear occurs in both the beds ; there are many 
Bear-remains in both ; but they do not, in most cases, admit of specific deter- 
mination. Brown Bear has been found before in the higher beds in other 
parts of the cave. 

Rhinoceros leptorhinus has not been found before in the cave, but its pre- 
sence is well established now by teeth and bones*. It is interesting to note 
that it is as usual accompanied by Elephas antlqims. Hippopotamus, as 
already stated, has been found this year for the first time. 

In the upper bed, the only sign of man's presence consists of the spinous 
process of a bear's vertebra, which has been hacked, apparently by some cutting- 
instrument with a tolerably regular edge. It might have been done 
with a bronze celt or a polished flint axe. It is probable that chamber D 
was never the resort of man within the historic period. The soft wet mud of 
the floor and the lowness of the roof render it most unlikely that any one would 
take to it, except under the direst necessity or in the pursuit of science. 

* P.S. It would appear that the remains occurring iu the Care, formerly attributed to 
R, tichorhinus, really belong to this species. 



ON THE EXPLOttATlON 01' THE SETTLE CAVES. 173 

In the lower bed, again, cvklcuce of man's presence is but scanty. At the 
mouth, and close to where the human fibula was found, we have this year 
met with a piece of rib (jf .-) apparently nicked by human agency. It is 
about 2| inches of the dorsal end, but the articulating surfaces are broken 
off. There are nine transverse nicks not reaching quite across, some not 
halfway, and also a longitudinal nick. They appear to have been made by 
some clumsy instrument drawn backwards and forwards. In character they 
are totally unlike the square troughed hollows made by the gnawing of 
rodents ; and they are equally unlike the furrows heavily ploughed by the 
teeth of Carnivores. This specimen was at a depth of 25 feet from the roof 
of the cave, which at this point was filled to the ceiling. We cannot at 
present say of what animal it is a rib. Some light may perhaps be thrown 
on it by a careful comparison. This is immaterial compared to the main 
fact, which is, that there is much difficulty in supposing it to have been 
nicked by any agency other than human. 

Conclmion. — And now, having restricted ourselves almost entirely to the 
hard road of fact, in conclusion we may perhaps be permitted to indulge in a short 
flight of fancy. Let us endeavour to realize how great is the distance in time 
■\vliich separates the savage of Craven from our own day. We have the 
history of much of it in the Victoria Cave itself, and we may restore some of 
the missing pages from the surrounding district. At the Cave, Eoman times 
are separated from our own by sometimes less than one, but not by more 
than two feet of talus, the chips which time detaches from the cliffs above. 
The Neolithic age, which antiquaries know was a considerable time before 
the Homan occupation, is represented by a layer in some places 4 or 5 feet 
beneath the Roman, in others running into it. Then comes a thickness of 
19 feel of talus without a record of any living thing. Judging by the shal- 
lowness of the Roman layer, this must represent an enormous interval of 
time. And this takes ns down to the boulders, the inscribed records of the 
Glacial Period. They must represent a long scries of climatal changes, 
during which the ice was waxing and waning, advancing and melting back 
over the mouth of the Victoria Cave. This period saw the Reindeer and the 
Grisly Bear occasionally in possession. Then we have an unconformity, a break 
in the continuity of tlie deposits, the boulders lying on the edges of the older 
beds — Time again ! And that time was long enough for changes to take 
place which allowed the district to cool down from a warmth suitable to tlie 
Hippopotamus and become a fitting pasture-ground for the Reindeer. It 
was in that warm period that the Craven savage lived and died. 

But these are not all the changes which occurred in the north of England 
since that time. The age of the great submergence represented by the sea- 
beaches of Mod Tryfaen and Macclesfield, and by the Middle- Sands-and- 
Gravels of Lancashire, has left no record up at the cave. Your Reporter is of 
opinion that the submergence did not attain in that district a greater depth 
than six or seven hundred feet ; and this would still leave the cave 700 feet 
above the sea, though it would cut up the land into a group of islands. The 
fact is sufficient for us, the depth is immaterial. Upon no fact arc geologists 
better agreed than i;pon the existence of a ■widespread submergence and 
emergence of land towards the close of the Glacial Period. No tradition is 
common to more races or religions than that of a great deluge. Where back 
in the past is the common point whence those two far-travelled, almost paral- 
lel rays of truth had their origin ? In the opinion of your Reporter the 
Craven savage, ■who lived before the Great Ice-sheet and before the Great Sub- 
mergence, may form another of the many strong ties which bind together the 
sciences of Geology and Anthropology. 



174 



REPORT 1875. 



Appendix. 



Tahle of Remains wMchJlt, pair, or otherwise indicate their belonging to tJie 
same individual, ivith the distances at which they were found apart. 



g 



M 



\ 

5 

1 
17 

1 
i20 

1 

2 13 
_X 
4 1 

_i_ 

24 
_i_ 
139 

1 
2 58 

1 

28 

1 
39 

1 
43 

1 
37 

_L_* 

90 
_JL_* 
2 2 2 

_i 

94 

1 

108 

1 
135 

1 
10 1 

1 
18 2 

1 
117 

1 
118 

1 
132 

1 
205 

1 
242 

1 
256 

1 

192 

1 
194 

1 
199 

1 
253 

9 
1 

2 12 



1 

CD 
-*» 


Distance left of 
riglit wall of 
Chamber J). 


18 


120 


24 


16-4 


20 


9-2 


37 


40 


33 


2-0 


27 


10-3 


30 


■4 


45 


•6 


28 


12-0 


32 


17-0 


36 


40 


31 


1-0 


15 


70 


37 


160 


IG 
22 




40 


28 


90 


18 


7-0 


35 


5-6 


24 


40 


24 


7'0 


27 


3-0 


36 


20 


14 


1-0 


43 


10 


35 


9-0 


35 


40 


35 


■G 


43 


1-3 


20 


130 


36 


30 



g « 



1-6 

2-0 

5-3 
40 
•10 

20 

•6 

1-3 

2-0 
•0 

70 
70 

10-0 
60 

120 
90 

70 

100 

8-0 

9-0 
90 

10 

•8 
1-8 
10 

5-0 
50 

•6 
1-6 

2-0 
5-0 



Nature of the Boues. 



Eadius of large Fox i 

\ correBpond ? 



Femur 



>» n 






1 



Atlas of Bear 

Skull of large Grisly Bear j- fit . 

t Eight ramus of mandible of ditto J 

Eight scapula, Bear 



, pair . 
Left „ „ J }■ correspond ? 



piua, Hear i 

[ pair 

Pelvis of very large Bear 

Left femur of j'oung Bovine "i 

)■ Dan- 



Eight „ „ J 



pan- 



Fibula of Bear with tumour 



\ pair. 



Eight calcaneum, Hyaiua 



•} 



fit. 



■ pair 



Eight astragalus, 

Eight pisiforme of large Cervus 
Left „ „ 

Culeaneum of large Bovine 
Left naviculare, Bos primigcnins j- fit , 
,, astragalus, ,, J 



J 



Eight ulna, Hy£ena 



Eadius, 



£ena i 

pair 



1 



Different portions of a magnificent pair -i 
of Eeiudeer-antlers J 



; 



Eight 08 magnum of Bed Deer i 
,, uneiferme „ J 



Left lower jaw, Fox t 
Eight „ „ J ' 



)j ») 



Left scapho-lunar. Bear 



OS magnum 



, Hear -i 



fit. 



32 



t The left ramus was 
another part of the Cave. 



already la the Giggleswick Museum, and had been found in 



PlaU V. 




THE VICTORIA CAVf] SETTLE ATI. 



\ liiil. -W*; Vet' 







r//A' vrcnjHiA ( wf. st:rTLf: vj/^ 









"^^s .41 



ON THE DKAINAGE-AREA ETC. OF THE RIVER AVON. 175 

EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 

Plate V. 

Victoria Cave, No. 1. Tliis gives a general view of the Cave and the cliffs above. Above 
the workmen is a cavo boarded up and used as a tool-house. To the right of that 
is a niche in the Cliff, the old entrance to tho'^Cave first discovered by Mr. Jackson. 
The present entrance, before the excavations, was completely covered up with screes. 
Mr. Jackson, the figure on the right, is sitting close to the arched niches mentioned at 
p. 167. The flat in the fore ground is not a natural feature, but produced by the 
levelling of the tip and talus. The bottom of the valley is at a far lower level. A 
level cutting through the flat is seen going from the left-hand lower corner up to 
the boulders. 

Plate VI. 

Victoria Cave, No. 2, gives a nearer view of the boulders near the entrance, of the rock- 
pinnacies forming the floor, and of the arched niches described at p. 167. The 
human relics were found near the crowbar, which is seen in the background be- 
yond the workmen, but at a lower level. Mr. Jackson is standing between the 
boulders and the talus, and the marked dilTerence between the two deposits is well 
seen. The boulders before being photographed were marked S for Silurian, L for 
Carboniferous Limestone, and Gr for Carboniferous Gritstone. The marks C°" and 
S'* should have been C" and S'« for Conglomerate and Stalactite, and denote respec- 
tively a piece of the conglomerate from the base of the Carboniferous Limestone, 
and two large pieces of Stalactite, which have apparently fallen on the boulders 
from the roof of the Cave before it had been worn as far back as it now is. 



On the River Avon {Bristol) : its Drainage- Area, Tidal Phenomena, 
and Dock Works. By Thomas Howard, M.Inst. C.E. 

[A communication ordered by the General Committee to be printed in extenso.] 

[Plate VII.] 

The heacT-waters of the Bristol Avon may be considered to take their rise 
in the eastern slopes of the lower CotsM'olds, to the north of Tetbury in 
Gloucestershire, the stream gathering in from the west, in its course south- 
ward through Malmesbury, the drainage of the oolitic district about Bad- 
minton ; while the watershed on the east is only parted by a shght ridge 
from the coiintry draining into the r;ppermost branches of the Thames. 
Below this the Avon drains the Wootton-Bassett district, together with the 
country bounded by the western outcrop of the chalk hills of Marlborough, 
Avebury, and Beckhampton Downs, and the north-western part of Salisbiuy 
Plain, including the towns of Calne, Devizes, Melksham, Westbury, Trow- 
bridge, and Bradford-on-Avon. An important tributary, the Frome (Somer- 
setshire), which brings the most southerly part of the drainage of the Avon, 
jises near Brutou, and, embracing the watershed of the easternmost part of 
the Mendip Hills, drains the town of Frome and several important manu- 
facturing villages, joining the Avon at about three miles below Bradford. 
Below this the Avon receives on the left the Midford Brook, and on the 
right the Box and other streams ; and flowing on through Bath, receives 
several small affluents, and at Keynsham the Chew, which springs from the 
northern slope of the Mendips. In this district the springs from which 
Bristol is supplied with water take their rise, at Chewton Mendip. Con- 
tinuing its course towards Bristol, the river falls into the tideway over a weir 
at Netham, a point about 3| miles above the entrance to the docks at 



176 



REPORT 1875. 



Bristol. The tidal portion of the river continues its course by a new cliaunel, 
cut about seventy years ago south of the city, to its junction -with the 
Severn estuary at Kingroad. The fresh water of the river, impounded by 
the dam at Netham, is diverted by a canal into the heart of the city, passing 
under Bristol Bridge through what -was formerly the old course of the river, 
but now converted into the Bristol floating harbour. Into the harbour 
enters also another affluent, the Prome (Gloucestershire), taking its rise in 
the hills above Wickwar and Chipping Sodbuiy. The docks at Bristol have 
therefore the advantage, in short-water seasons, of the combined volume of 
these streams, -which, after passing through the harbour, is discharged at the 
various outlets of the locks and basins. 

The entire drainage-area of the Avon and its tributaries above Netham is 
about 795 square miles, and that of the Gloucestershii-e Frome about 68 
square miles, making the total area draining in through Bristol Harbour 
about 863 square miles. Between Bristol and the mouth of the river the 
area draining into the Avon is very limited, amounting only to about 31 1 
square miles, the chief drainage of this jjart of the district being direct into 
the Severn. 

The longest branch of the Avon, from its rise above Tctbury to Bath city 
bridge, is, taking its winding course, about 46 miles. The navigable part 
of the river from Bath to Netham is about 14| miles, and the tidal portion 
from Netham to the junction with the Severn about 11 miles. Total length 
about 72 miles. 

The fall in the bed of the Avon from Bath to the Severn is as follows, 
viz. : — 





Distance. 


Fall. 


Average rate 
of fall. 


From Batii Bi-itlgo to tail of Nolhaui Dam . . . 
Tail of Netham Dam to oi^jjositc Cumberland 

Basin J 

Cumberland Basin to junction of Avon and "1 

Severn at low water J 


m. f. chs. 
14 r, 

3 7 
7 1 


feet. 
39-94 

15-63 
19-30 


1 in 1934 
1 in 1298 

1 in 1918 


25 3 8 


74-87 





Between Bath and Netham Dam there are several weirs for impounding the 
water for mills and for navigation purposes. 

The very interesting geological features of the district around Bristol will 
probably be dealt with in some other Section of the present Meeting ; but it 
may be within^ the scope of this paper just to remark that there are few 
rivers of the size of the Avon which embrace in their drainage-areas so 
great a geological range. Every formation from the Old Bed Sandstone to 
the Upper Greensand and Chalk inclusive will be found within its water- 
shed._ About two thirds of the whole consists of the various strata of the 
Oolitic system, while the remaining one third is made up of a small area of 
Chalk with the Greensand formations on the east, and on the -west chiefly 
Lias, together with the formations below it down to the Old Bed Sandstone. 

Although there are no mountainous elevations in the drainage-area of the 
Avon, the greater part of the country is of a hilly character. The general 
average elevation of the upper part of the watershed may be taken as about 
300 feet above mean sea-level ; but there will be found many outliers of the 
great and inferior oolites rising from 600 to 700 feet. The hills of greatest 



ON THE DRAINAGE-AREA ETC. OF THE RIVKR AVON. 177 

elevation will, however, be found in the Frome (Wiltshire) district, -s^liere 
the Old Red Sandstone, at Downliead Common (Mendips), reaches 1078 feet ; 
the Inferior Oolite, at East Cranmore, 814 feet ; the Mountain Limestone, 
at Leigh-upon-Mendip, 800 feet ; and the Coal-measures above Mells 
about 770 feet. The Inferior Oolite at Lansdown, near Bath, also rises to 
about 7i30 feet, and at Dundry, south of Bristol, to about 750 feet. 

The hilly and non-absorbent character of the soils of a great portion of tlie 
district causes the rain which falls to be carried off rapidly ; and heavy floods 
are sometimes experienced in Bristol, especially when the discharge of flood- 
waters, through tlie floating harbour, is impeded for a time by the rise of high 
spring-tides. The mean average annual rainfall in Bristol is about 32^ inches. 
This amount is increased on the slopes of the Cotswold and Mendip Hills, on 
the latter of which it averages about 47 inches ; but the mean of the whole 
district would perhaps not be greatly different from that at Bristol, when the 
lessened quantity, faUing on the eastern part of the drainage-area, is taken 
into calculation. 

In considering the tides of the Avon, it may be desirable for a moment to 
refer to the special tidal phenomena of the Bristol Channel and Severn estuary. 
The crest of the free tidal wave of the ocean, which in the deep waters of the 
Atlantic roUs forward the high-water line at a rate of probably not less than 
about 500 miles an liour, enters the English and Irish t!hannels with a gra- 
dually decreasing velocity, owing to the resistance from the seas becoming 
more shoal ; and this retardation is further increased in the Bristol Channel 
by the converging lines of its shores. The whole of the appreciable tide in 
the estuary of tlie Severn is due to the momentum of the wave originated in 
the deep waters of the open ocean. One important result of these conditions 
is, that as increased resistance is met, so the wave is forced higher and the 
tidal range magnified ; and while the rate of progress of the crest of the wave 
is much diminished, the actual movement of the particles of water to and 
fro, in flood and ebb, becomes more rapid owing to the greater rise and fall. 
"We have thus a great range of tide in the Severn and the Avon with a con- 
siderable velocity, especially in the narrow and deep parts of the former 
river. 

As evidence of the retarded advance of the crest of the tide-wave and the 
increased range of tide spoken of in the Bristol Channel, we may take the 
case of an ordinary spring-tide, which, advancing in fi'om the Atlantic, brings 
higli water off the Scilly Islands at 4'' 30'» o'clock, with a rise of tide of 
IG feet above mean low-water springs at that point. This crest of high water 
will reach Lundy, a distance of 140 miles, at 5'' 15'", where the rise will be 
27 feet ; Nash Point, 49 miles from Lundy, at 6" 25'", with a rise of 33 feet ; 
Cardiff, 24 miles from jSTash Point, at 6'' 56", with a rise of 37| feet ; King- 
road (mouth of the Avon), 16 miles from Cardiff, at 7'' 13'", with a rise of 
40 feet ; and Sharpness, 18^ miles above Kingroad, at 7'' 58'", with a rise of 
25 feet, this latter above Ordnance datum, or an absolute height of about 2 feet 
4 inches above high water at Kingroad, the total range at Sharpness being less 
than at Kingroad, on account of the great slope of the bed of the river. At 
Eramilode, about 13 miles above Sharpness, the effect of the gorging up of the 
tide has attained its maximum, and the tide flowing up the remaining distance 
to Gloucester is due entirely to the acquired momentum. At Gloucester the 
further flow upwards is stopped at ordinary tides by weirs recently erected, 
although the top of equinoctial springs flows over them. 

The total range of tides at the mouth of the Avon, and the great difference 
1875. « 



178 REPORT — 1875. 

between neaps and springs, are sliown on a diagram plotted from observations 
made continuously for a fortnight. In this diagram (Plate VII. fig. 1) the actual 
heights of high and low water of each tide are plotted above or below Ordnance 
datum, and then two equalizing lines, drawn as a mean of the observations, 
serve to show what would be the higli or low water for any given range of 
tide from 15 up to 46 feet. 

The same diagram shows also how far the mean half-tide level at the 
mouth of the Avon agrees with the theoretical mean sea-level, as adopted for 
the Ordnance datum. The half height of each range of tide, taken in the 
above-mentioned observations, is plotted, and a mean equalizing line drawn 
between them. The result shows that at lowest neaps the half-tide level is 
bout 3| inches below, and at highest springs rises to about 1 foot 8 inches 
above Ordnance datum. Other observations made at the moiith of the Avon 
tend to confii-m the conclusion that, so far as regards our local tides, the 
mean half -tide is not a fixed level, and that it is above the Ordnance datum. 
This may point to the probability that the mouth of the Avon is somewhat 
within the influence of the surface fall of the lowest part of the Severn, and 
above the true level of ocean low water. 

In connexion with the subject of meau sea-level, it may not be uninter- 
esting to notice that, at the time of the last Meeting of the British Association 
at Bristol, in 1836, the question was much under general disciTssion, and it 
■was resolved that a series of levels should be taken between the Severn at 
Portishead and Axmouth on the English Channel. These were undertaken 
and carried out by the late Mr. T. G. Bunt in 1837, and were conducted 
■with an amount of care and skiU to secure accuracy which has seldom been 
exceeded. In connexion with the stations levelled to at either end of this 
line, a series of simultaneous tidal observations were made, by which it was 
found that the sea at Portishead rose at high water 13 feet 7 inches higher, 
and fell at low water 12 feet 2 inches lower than at Axmouth, the total 
difference in the ranges of the same tide at the two places being as much as 
25 feet 9 inches. This is a very striking illustration of the effect of the 
momentum of the incoming tide-wave heaping up the water in this funnel- 
shaped estuary. 

On looking at the map it will be seen that the course of the Avon lies at 
about right angles to that of the Severn ; and its tide may be considered to 
be generated, as it were, by the passing tide of the Severn, rather than directly 
due to the momentum of the original tide-wave. As the flood-tide rises in 
Kingroad it pours into the Avon, and a current is established in the latter 
river which soon obtains a momentum of its own. The effect of this is very 
plainly seen, and serves to illustrate the same phenomena of engorgement 
•which takes place on a larger scale in the Bristol Channel, for the tide rises 
to a higher level in the Avon the further we go up the river. Taking the 
flood of an equinoctial spring-tide, we find that at the mouth of the Avon 
high water rises to 24 feet 10 inches, at Sea Mills to 25 feet 3 inches, at 
Cumberland Basin to 25 feet 5 inches, at Netham Dam to 25 feet 9 inches, 
and finds its summit at a point about six miles above Cumberland Basin, 
where it rises to 26 feet 4 inches, all above Ordnance datum. Here the 
momentum, as we have seen in the case of the Severn, becomes spent, and 
the rest of the tide has a reversed slope up the freshwater river to Hanham, 
where its level is only 26 feet above datum. 

On the longitudinal section of the Avon exhibited, the points above men- 
tioned are shown, as also some cross sections of the river, the slope of the 



ON THE DRAINAGE-AREA ETC. OF THE RIVER AVON. 179 

bed, lines of the ordinary run of low water, and lines of spring and neap 
tides. The crest of the dam at Netham is 19-78 feet above Ordnance datum, 
and is the level at which the floating harbour of liristol is maintained. All 
tides above this level flow over the dam up towards Hanham and Kej-nsham. 

Another diagram of tidal observations, taken simultaneously for a fort- 
night at the mouth of the Avon and at Cumberland Basin, shows the relative 
heights and times of the tides at these stations through a complete range of 
springs and neaps. It will be seen that the level of high water at Cumber- 
land Basin is, on an average, about 7 inches higher than at the mouth of the 
river. We also find that, as regards time, high water at Cumberland Basin 
is about the same as at Kingroad. High-water equinoctial springs is, how- 
ever, at Netham about a quarter of an hour, and at Hanham half an hour 
later than at Cumberland Basin. 

Connected with this part of the subject is the duration of flood and ebb, 
and the rate of rise and fall of tide at Kingroad. The general result of our 
observations shows that, at extreme low neaps, the flood is longer than the 
ebb by about one hour ; but that, as the tides increase in range, the duration 
of ebb becomes progressively longer than flood, till at the highest equinoctial 
springs the tide rises from low to high water in 4 hours 45 minutes, and takes 
about 7 hours 30 minutes to ebb. A reference to the diagram (Plate VII. 
fig. 2) will show the rate, hour by hour, of rise and fall at the mouth of the 
Avon for a low neap and a high equinoctial spring-tide. The rapid rate of 
rise of the spring- tide is remarkable, being 11 feet 11 inches in the second 
hour, and 12 feet 4 inches in the third hour of flood. 

The velocity of run of tide is not great in the Avon, the highest rate, from 
observations taken at spring-tides in the river 1| mile below Cumberland 
Basin, hardly reaching 3 miles an hour. In the Severn at Kingroad the velo- 
city on half-flood at high spring-tides comes up to about 6 miles, and at half- 
ebb to about 4| miles an hour. 

Amongst other diagrams connected with the tides will be found some which 
show simultaneous observations of a low neap, and the highest spring this 
year at Cardiff, Portishead, Avonmouth, Bristol, and Sharpness, kindly taken 
by the engineers of the docks at these several places (fig. 3). 

One important though unwelcome feature connected with the tides of the 
Avon is the enormous quantity of mud held in suspension in the water. 
With the exception of the Humber, there is probably no river in England 
that in this respect will compare with it. This part of the subject is one not 
merely of scientific interest, but of practical economical importance ; for it is 
necessary that its efifect should be taken into consideration in all questions 
of dock construction or maintenance in this district. From many obsei-va- 
tions made to ascertain the average amount of mud held in suspension in the 
water in the river, it is found that, from any given volume of the tide-water, 
there will be a deposit of about g^th part of mud, which becomes, under super- 
imposed layers, soon converted into stifii" silt. In the Severn the quantity, 
though very considerable, is less than in the Avon. 

The general character of this mud is somewhat different from that of the 
alluvial deposit which forms the banks of the river Avon and the adjacent 
flat lands bordering on the Severn. This alluvium is generally found to con- 
sist of several feet of stift' brown clay, or brick-earth, underneath the top soil, 
below which is a thick bed of bluish silt, containing much very fine quick- 
sand and with but little clay. Below this again is almost invariably found a 
bed of coarse gravel, with frequent fossil remains of red deer, horse, and 

n2 



180 REPORT— 1875. 

ox (Bos longifrons and Bos prhnigenivs). The level of the surface is very 
uniform over the whole district, aud is below high water of equinoctial 
spring-tides, the country, where exposed to the overflow of the tides, lacing 
jirotected by an ordinary sea-bank of from 3 to 5 feet high. The flat margin of 
grass land between the sea-bank and the edge of the water still continues to 
be raised above the level of the enclosed land by the deposit from very high 
tides. 

The mud spoken of is of an exceedingly light character, borne up and 
down in suspension in the water as long as the mean velocity of ebb or 
flow does not fall much below about 2^ feet per second. Whenever from 
any cause the velocity is much reduced, the mud begins to form a deposit. 
An analysis of this silt, and also of the upper and lower strata of the alluvial 
bed through which the lower part of the Avon runs, has been kindly made 
by Mr. \Y. W. Stoddart, P.G.S., and is as follows :— 

Top heel of Alluvium (Brotun Clay). 

parts. 

Clay 26-52 

Sand with small quantity of mica 28-14 

Carbonate of lime 15-11 

Sulphate of lime 4-41 

Protoxide and peroxide of iron 4-74 

Salts of sodium, magnesium, &c 1-65 

Organic matter 4-15 

lloisture 15-28 

100-00 
Bottom bed (or Blue Silt). 

Clay 3-55 

Saud 31-71 

Carbonate of lime 33-84 

Sulphate of lime 4-69 

Peroxide of iron 2-63 

Soluble salts 1-29 

Organic matter 2-64 

Moisture 19-65 

100-00 

Tidal mud of Avon, talcenfrom recent deposit in "North Channel.'''' 

parts. 

Clay 22-i8 

Sand (viz. coarse 0-61, fine 1-04) 1-65 

Carbouato of lime 22-27 

Peroxide of iron 4-43 

Soluble salts 5-29 

Organic matter 2-13 

Moisture 41-75 

iWoo 

A strildng instance of the great amoimt of mud held in siispension in the 
tide-water of the Avon, and the readiness with which it will, under favour- 



ON THE DRAINAGE-AREA ETC. OF THE KIVER AVON. 181 

liblo conditions, deposit and form accretions, has been shown in the last few 
years at the mouth of the Avon. In the year 1852 the author assisted in 
making a very accurate survey of the depths of water at the junction of the 
Severn and Avon, and of the entrance-channels leading into the latter river. 
At that date, and indeed from time immemorial, the only available channel 
for shipping was tlie " North Channel," and there was then a depth of water 
of from 6 to 10 feet at low water spring-tides. The other channel, the 
" Swashway," was gradually becoming used by sraaU craft when the tide 
was in, but there was no low-water channel through it. The depth of the 
" North Channel " was good up to 1865, when the Irish and other steamers 
used to land their passengers there. Even in October 1867, Capt. Bedford, 
R.N., who was surveying the roadstead, says he " found 42 feet of water in 
this channel, but that in 1871 he only found 8 feet, showing an accumulation 
of 34 feet, or at the rate of 9| inches a month." 

On a plan accompanying this paper (Plate VII.) is shown a survey made 
of the entrances to the Avon in 1852, and another made in 1875, together 
Avith sections taken across the " North Channel " at these dates. In these 
sections the extent of silting up is shown; and calculations made there- 
from give a quantity of over a million cube yards of mud deposited here 
within the last ten years. The top of spring-tide still flows over the surface 
and adds to tlie deposit, but at neap-tides the new ground can be safely walked 
across. The greatest depth of the silting up is about 41 feet above the bed 
of the river in 1852. 

The foregoing remarks on the watershed and on the recorded observations 
of the tides of the Avon will, it is hoped, have served to give a general 
knowledge of the natural conditions and capabilities of the river. It remains 
only necessary to show briefly what has been, from time to time, done in the 
way of providing for or improving the accommodation for vessels frequenting 
the port. 

Up to about the middle of the last century tlie shipowners of Bristol seem 
to have been content with the accommodation the tide (then flowing and 
ebbing through the centre of the city) gave them. Vessels were then'^com- 
paratively small, and of a build adapted to lay aground at low water. From 
the year 1765 to 1800, however, various schemes, including amongst others 
designs from Smeaton, Ralph Walker, Josias and William Jcssop, were brought 
forward for providing floating dock accommodation, ending ultimately in the 
carrying out of a plan by William Jessop. This design took possession of 
those portions of the rivers Avon and Frome which ran through the city, 
converting them into the present floating harbour, and substituting a new 
channel for the tidal water of the Avon to the south of the city. This scheme 
was projected, carried out, and the docks held by a private company. 

Looking at the character of the public works at that day, the construction 
of Jessop's works was a very spirited undertaking, and they afforded for a 
long time accommodation in advance of most other ports. But about the 
year 1830, when steam -vessels were beginning to take an important place 
and ships were growing in size, the inadequacy of the old lock entrances, and 
the difRculties of the navigation of the river, "began to be seriously felt, and 
various schemes were brought forward to provide accommodation at King- 
road. Amongst other designs for this purpose was one for a stone pier by 
Mr. Mylne in 1832, and another by Sir J. MacNeill in 1839, and also one 
for a floating pier by the late Mr. I. K. Brunei in 1839. None of these, 
however, were carried out ; and to the discontent felt at the want of adequate 



182 REPORT— 1875. 

accommodation for the port soon began to be added the opinion that the high 
charges of the Dock Company tended still further to restrict the trade. Much 
local agitatiou ensued, ending in the transfer of the docks (in 1848) from the 
Company to the Corporation of Eristol. They at once resolved to make an 
alteration in one of their entrance-locks, so as to accommodate steamers of 
the ' Great Western ' and ' Great Britain ' class, built in Bristol. A new lock 
sufficiently wide to admit these was constructed, on the site of a smaller lock 
at Cumberland Basin, by the late Mr. Brunei. In this lock may be seen the 
earliest examples of lock-gates made in the form of caissons. 

The first act of the Corporation, on taking over the docks, was to reduce 
the dues ; and from this cause, as well as also partly from the port sharing 
in the general increase of trade thi'oughout the country, the dock revenues 
began to amend. Just about the same time the dimensions of steamers were 
vastly increasing, and an increased desire was felt here that the port of Bristol 
should have accommodation for them. It was not so much a want of dock- 
space in the floating harbour that was felt, as the difficulties arising fi-om the 
tortuous course of and want of depth in the river, and also the limits placed 
on the breadth of vessels by the lock entering the harbour. Some improve- 
ments were made in the river, and several schemes for more extensive 
alterations considered. Various designs for independent docks at Portis- 
head and on the Gloucestershii-e side of the Avon were also brought forth, 
the one on the most extensive scale being by the late Mr. J. M. llendel in 
1852. 

Amongst other modes proposed for providing for the largest class of ocean- 
going steamers was that of placing a dam, with suitable entrance-locks and 
works, at the mouth of the Avon, so as to form the channel of the river into 
an extension of the present floating harbour, entirely supplied with land- 
water, and having facilities for admitting ordinary vessels at almost all states 
of the tide. After long consideration of the subject, and maldng tidal and 
other observations bearing upon the question of its feasibility, the author 
laid before the Corporation, in 1859, the particulars of a design which he con- 
sidered could be practically and safelj' carried out, and which, while it would 
have given to Bristol all she could need for any extension of trade, would 
not, in his opinion, have been detrimental to the navigation of the Severn 
estuaiy or to any national interest. Further, it was obvious that by keeping 
tlie whole of the trade of the port under one jurisdiction, with due responsi- 
bilities, means would have been available for affording that artificial aid to 
the maintenance of the roadstead, and for the regulation of a good channel 
through it, which successive surveys show to be increasingly desirable. These 
opinions have not been altered by more recent observations of the local con- 
ditions of the case, nor by an unprejudiced consideration of the various argu- 
ments which have been advanced against the idea. 

In venturing to propose such a plan, full recognition was given to the 
general axiom, that the abstraction or suppression of the tidal water of an 
estuary or harbour is undesirable. But every case must be judged on its 
own merits ; and investigation of this led to the conviction that it would 
not, as regards the Severn, bo so much a case of abstraction as of partial 
restoration. It is probable that the momentum of the tidal wave, which we 
have in a former part of this paper seen coming up to Kingroad, would not 
be reduced nor the rise of tide there lessened, whether the consequent flow 
of the water were drawn off up the Avon, or left to flow on chi'cctly up the 
Severn. Moreover, it was held likely that this diversion, ijistead of bene- 



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ON THE DEAINAGE-AEEA ETC. OF THE KIVER AVON. 183 

fiting the anchorage, tends to lesson the power of the tide to keep open a 
good deep channel in the Severn. Examination of the soundings tends to 
conhrm this opinion ; there is an evident shoaUug of the ■water in the Severn 
immediatelj- above the mouth of the Avon. 

The limits of this paper will not, however, permit the bringing forward all 
that might be said on this subject, or the opportunity of showing the natural 
as well as commercial requirements and facilities which the district afforded 
for carrying out such a work. The scheme received, for various reasons, 
considerable local opposition, and was ultimately left in abeyance. The 
great outlay (about £1,000,000) which has been recently, or will very shortly 
have been, made on dock-works connected with the Avon, and the separate 
vested interests which have consequently arisen, have placed serious financial 
difficulties in the way of its speedy revival. 

Within the last few years the Corporation have, through the author, as 
their engineer, made many improvements in their existing dock-works. The 
old lock entrances, which were not adapted to the trade of the present day, 
have been supplemented by two new locks, of larger dimensions, laid at a 
deeper level than the old ones, and provided with all modern appliances of 
'hydraulic and other machinery for quick work. It would be out of place to 
attempt to give here all the details of construction of these works. The 
ordinary and some special diificulties were met with and overcome. These 
chiefly arose from unsatisfactory foundations, and from having to work in 
confined spaces surrounded by water, portions of the wall of the approach to 
the outer entrance-lock requiring to be built in trenches on the river-bank, 
within the line of high water, at a depth of 53 feet. In the bottom of the 
lock excavations much trouble was experienced from springs of water from 
the gravel bursting up through the foundation level of the lock. These were 
overcome by building in at intervals along the lock inverts pipes reaching 
down into the gravel, each fitted at the top with a very light gun-metal 
valve, which, lifting easily with pressure from beneath when the tide is low, 
permits the water to escape, and closes again when the pressure becomes 
greater from above. These relief-valves have acted very satisfactorily. The 
lock-gates are mostly of wrought iron, made on the arch principle, and partly 
buoyant. In their design some special features have been adopted, which 
may be seen in the working drawings laid before the Section for inspection 
by any Members feeling interest in the subject. The gates work remarkably 
well and keep practically water-tight, a somewhat unusual success in double 
skin lock-gates. Other drawings and details of the dock-works are also open 
for inspection. 

Improvements are also being carried on by the Corporation in the removal 
of some of the projecting points of rock, and the deepening of the bed of the 
river. The general line of slope to which it is proposed ultimately to re- 
duce the bed is shown on the longitudinal section of the river (Plate YII.). 

Another important work being carried out inside of the harbour is the 
formation of a new quay, about half a milo long, the construction of the 
retaining- wall of which may be a matter of some interest. It is being built 
in a trench, without a coff'er-dam, partly within and partly along the edge 
of the water of the harbour. "With the exception of the face, which is of 
dressed stone, and the coping, which is of granite, the whole of the wall is 
of concrete, laid in steps and beds alternately of blue lias lime and of Portland 
cement concrete, the object being to gain the advantage of the comparative 
cheapness of the lime, and the more quick and certain setting of the cement. 



184 RT2P0RT — 1875. 

A drawing of this work is shown with the others. The two separate portions 
of the work are found to bond well together, and the system is one which 
admits of rapiditj' of construction, and without much skilled laboiir. 

In addition to the dock whicli has hccn alluded to as under construction 
on the Gloucestershire side of the Avon, there is also another dock on the 
Homcrsetshirc side at Portishead. As details of each of these docks have 
already been laid before the Section, it is not necessary again to give the 
particulars which the author had pre])ared respecting them. 



Report of the Committee, conshtiuf/ of the Rev. H. F. Barnes, H. E. 
Dresser (Secretary), T. IIarlaxd, J. E. Harting, Professor 
Newton, and the Rev. Canon Tristram, appointed for the purpose 
of inquiring into the possibility of establishing a "Close Time" for 
the protection of indigenous animals, and for ivatching Bills intro- 
duced into Parliament affecting this subject. 

YoTJR Committee have again to express their regret that, notwithstanding 
every exertion on their part, thcj Avere imable to obtain the introduction 
into Parliament, in time to allow of its being successfully carried, of the 
Eill which their former Ileports have indicated to be most desirable ; but at 
the same time they have great pleasure in stating tliat Mr. Henry Chaplin, 
M.P. for ]\Iid Lincolnshire, holds out to them the hope that he will at an 
early period of the next session bring forward such a measure. 

Your Committee continue to receive assurances of the eiScient working of 
the Sea-birds Preservation Act of 1869. 

In view of the proceedings likely to be taken in the ensuing session, as 
above stated, your Committee respectfully solicit their reappointment. 



Report of the Committee appointed to Superintend the Publication of 
the Monthly Reports of the progress of Chemistry, the Committee 
consisting o/Professor A. W.Williamson, F.R.S., Professor Frank- 
land, F.R.S.,and Professor Roscoe, F.R.S. 

The Committee have much pleasure in reporting that the Chemical Societj'- 
has continued to publish the monthl}'^ reports of the progress of Chemistrj-, 
which were commenced five ycaro ago bj' the aid of a grant of money from 
the Association, and also raised by donations from members of the Society. 

These reports have been edited by Mr. Watts, to whose earnest and 
assiduous labours much of the success of the reports must be attributed. A 
considerable number of chemists divide among themselves the labour of 
preparing abstracts of the chemical papers which have been published in the 
course of each month. 

In spite of the smallness of the remuneration offered to these gentlemen, 
the expense of publishing the abstracts is verj- considerable, and has 



ON DREDGING OFF THE DURHAM AND N. -YORKSHIRE COAST. 185 

become a serious strain upon the resources of the Society, more especially 
now that the aids from the Association and from private sources have already 
been continued for the period which had been assigned to them. 

The Committee have reason to believe that these abstracts supply an 
important need for the advancement of our science, and that they are highly 
valued by the members of the Society and other chemists. 

They confidently trust that the Society may be able to carry on the im- 
portant work which has been thus auspiciously commenced ; and they con- 
gratulate the Association on the service which it has rendered to science 
by supplj'ing to that enterprise the aid which was absolutely needed in its 
infancy. 



Report on Dredging off the Coast of Durham and North Yorkshire in 
1874. By George Stewardson Brady^ C.M.Z.S., and David 
Robertson, F.G.S. 

A BELEP account of the dredging undertaken by us on the coast was presented 
to the British Association last year, but no attempt was then made to give 
lists or detailed observations. The following Report embraces lists of all 
that came under our notice in the groups of MoUusca, Entomostraca (Ostra- 
coda and Copepoda), Polyzoa, Hydrozoa, Spongozoa, and Foraminifera. 
Amongst Echinodermata our captures did not include any species reqiriring 
special notice, whilst among the larger Crustacea (Decapoda) the only species 
of unusual occurrence in the district were /StenorJu/ncJius Jonc/irostris, Fabr., 
Portunits dej]uratof, Linn., and Ebcdia twne facta, Mont. Several species 
belonging to an interesting group of minute Crustaceans not hitherto noticed 
in the British seas (Isopoda llemigantia of G. 0. Sars) were taken, but we 
arc not yet able to name more than one or two of them with certainty. 
Special attention was given to the Acarides, a large number of which were 
obtained, and amongst them some previously nndescribed species which have 
been figured and described by one of us in the ' Proceedings of the Zoological 
Society' for the present year. But the greatest number of novelties occurred 
amongst the Copepoda, 28 species of this group being new to science, and 11 
new to British records. 

The MoUusca, Ostracoda, and Foraminifera of the N'orthumberland and 
Durham coasts had been so fully investigated by the Dredging-Expeditions 
of the Tyneside Naturalists' Field-Club, undertaken with the help of the 
British Association in the years 1862, 1863, 1864, that little was left to be 
done in those branches. But, as might be expected, notwithstanding that 
much of the ground had already beeu well searched, we are now able to add 
to the niunber of species noted in the previous Ecports, while, on the other 
hand, some species contained in the earlier lists arc absent from ours *. 

To the list of Testaceous Mollusca prepared by the late Mr. Alder from the 

* It must be noticed, however, that tlie area embraced in our dredgings of last year 
(1874), though of nearly similar extent, is not quite identical with that investigated by the 
Tyneside Field-Club in the years 18(i2-6Jr. The present Report refers to the coast of 
Durham and the northern part of Yorkshire as far as Scarborough, while those of the earlier 
expeditious embraced the seaboard of tlie two comities of Durham and Northumberland, 
thus reaching nearly sixty miles fm-tber north, while, on the other hand, our last year's 
csplorationa went about thirty-five miles further south than those of ten years ago. 



186 



iiBPOiiT — 1875. 



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ON DREDGING OVV THE DURHAM AND N. -YORKSHIRE COAST. 187 



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193 REPORT — 1875. 

throe years' dredgiugs of the Tyueside Naturalists' Pield-CIub, we are how 
able to add 21 species. 

From the same dredgiugs 19 species of Ostracoda were catalogued by 
Mr. Norman, but five years later the number was increased to 47 by 
Mr. G. S. 13rady. Our present list includes 71 species, oue of which, 
Ct/therideis Hilda, is new to science. 

The Eev. A. M. Norman, who accompanied us during part of the dredging- 
oxpedition, has kindly examined and reported on the Polyzoa, Hydrozoa, and 
iSpongozoa. Among the Polyzoa is one interesting form new to the British 
seas, Bugida fruticosa, Packard ; one Hydrozoon new to the east coast, Lafoea 
jiocillum, Hincks ; and two undescribed sponges, Uipneniaddon virgulatvs 
and Hcdiclwndria virgea, both of which arc here described by Dr. Bowerbank. 

The Foraminifera from the earlier dredgings were ably worked out by 
Mr. H. B. Brady, and numbered 70 species, a total subsequently increased to 
74, or perhaps rather more. The list will now, with the additions wc have 
made, comprise 94 species, or rather more than 60 per cent, of the recorded 
British Poraminifera. 

But apart from the number of species obtained there is much of interest in 
their distribution, as may conveniently bo seen in tlie annexed Tables. It 
was shown by Mr. Alder* that the Testaceous Mollusca of tlie Northumber- 
land coast present a distinctly boreal character, which is shared more or less 
by the whole invertebrate fauna ; but it may be rcmariced with regard to the 
Ostracoda that this character is by no means so apparent. It will be seen 
from the Table that Cythere httea, C. viridis, C. aiujiduia, Cyfheridea pnnc- 
tlUata, and Ci/theru7-a nigrescens are absent or rare. All these species arc 
characteristically boreal, and strongly represented in the Posttertiary (" Gla- 
cial") clays of Scotland. At the same time it is interesting to note that 
although CgtJiere latca and Cgtherura nigrescens are absent or rare in the 
dredgings from this coast, they are extremely common between tide-marks, 
where they must be subject to- much greater variation of temperature. But 
if a low temperature were specially congenial to these species, we should 
expect to find them further out at sea, where they certainly lived in great 
abundance during the deposition of our Posttertiary clays. It is a curious 
fact that these two species are confined almost entirely to the littoral and 
Laminarian zones of the east coast, but are abundant in deep Avater on the 
west, as, for instance, in the Frith of Clyde. On the whole, then, we must 
conclude that the Ostracoda and Forarainifera of the north-east coast of 
England do not present that marked arctic character which has been noticed 
in a considerable group of the Northumbrian Mollusca ; but that there is, on 
the contrary, a marked absence of some typically northern forms which are 
abundant in the M'armer seas of the western coast. Nor can we suppose that 
a cold arctic current is the only or even perhaps the chief agent in the con- 
tinued existence of this peculiar Northumbrian moUuscan fauna, else we 
could scarcely fail to have had an equally well-marked development of arctic 
types amongst other groups of invertebrata whoso organization renders them 
even more easy of distribution. We must therefore, in the absence of more 
accurate information, look to some strictly local circumstances as having been 
the chief causes of the retention of the species in question over particular 
circumscribed areas. 

* Natural-History Transactions of Northumberland and Durham, 1865. 



ON DREDGING OFF THE DURHAM AND N. -YORKSHIRE COAST. 193 

TESTACEOUS MOLLUSCA. 

The letters c, mc, r, nir, signifying common, moderately common, rare, moderately rare, 
refer only to the hauls in which the species were taken. Those marked * are new to the 
district. 

Brachiopoda. 

Argiope capsula, JefF. 4 miles off Robin Hood's Bay, 30-35 fathoms ; bottom broken 
shells and zoophytes. 

CONCHIFEKA. 

Anomia ephippium, Linn. : mr. Small in most of the gatherings where the ground 

was hard. 

, var. aculeata, Miill. : mr. Small in most gatherings on hard ground. 

Pecten ptesio, Linn. : mc. 4-G miles off Hawthorn and Redclitf, 20-30 fa. ; gravel 

and dead shells. 

opercularis, Linn. : mr. The living all small in various gatherings. 

tigrinus, Jliill. : mc. Off Hawthorn, Staiths, RedcUff, and Robin Hood's 

Bay, 20-37 fa. ; gravelly. 

similis, Laskey : mr. 5 miles off Redcliff, 30 fa. ; gravel and dead shells. 

striutus, Miill. : mr. Off Castle Eden and Redcliff, 20-30 fa. ; gravelly. 

* varius, Linn. Dead, off Robin Hood's Bay, 30 fa. ; gravel, dead shells, and 

zoophytes. 
Mytilus edulis, Linn. : r. Dead shell, off Redcliff, 30 fa. ; gravel and dead shells. 
modiolus, Linn. : mc. Small, none above an inch, (3 miles off Hawthorn, 

37 fa. ; sandy gravel. 
Lima Loscomhii, G. B. Sow. : mr. Hawthorn and Redcliff, 20-37 fa. ; sandy 

gravel and dead shells. 
submtrictdata, Mont. : mr. 5 miles off Redcliff, 30 fa. ; sandy gravel and 

dead shells. 
Modiolaria discors, Linn. : mr. 6 miles off Hawthorn, 20 fa. ; sandy gravel. 

nigra, Gray : r. Dead valves, off Staiths, 25 fa. ; gravelly. 

marmorata, Forbes. In the Ascidia mentida, off Seaham, 35 fa. ; gi-avelly 

sandy mud. 
Crenella decussata, Mont. : c. 14 miles off Seaham, 35 fa. ; sandy mud. 
Area tetragmia, Poli : r. Small, 5 miles off Castle Eden, 20 fa. ; coarse gravel. 
Nuculus nucleus, Ijinn. : Hawthorn and Redcliff, 20-30 fa. ; sandy gravel and 

dead shells. 

tenuis, Mont. : c. Fry 20 miles off Sunderland, 45 fa. ; muddy sand. 

nitida, Sow. Dead shell, with the last. 

Leda (caudata) minuta, Miill. : mc. In most of the gatherings. 
*Pectunculus glycijmeris, Linn. A dead shell, 5 miles off Redcliff, 30 fa. ; gravel and 

dead shells. 
Cardium echinatum, Linn. Dead valves, 5 miles off Robin Hood's Bay, 30 fa. ; 

gravelly. 

exiguum, Gmel. : r. With the above. 

cdide, Linn. : r. Dead valves, off Durham coast. 

fasciatum, Mont. Off Hawthorn and Castle Eden, 20-27 fa. ; sandy gravel. 

norvcgicum, Spengl. : mr. Dead valves, 6 miles off Hawthorn, 20 fa. ; 

sandy gravel. 
Liicina hnrealis, Linn. : r. 8 miles off Staiths, 25 fa. ; sandy gravel and dead shells. 
Aximisjlexuosus, Mont. : r. 5 miles off Hartlepool, 35 fa. ; muddy sand. 
*Diplodonta rotunda, Mont. 6 miles off Hawthorn, 37 fa. ; sandy gravel. 
Kellia suborbicularis, Mont. : mr. Off Hawthorn and Redcliff, 20-30 fa. ; sandy 

gTavel. 
Montacuta substriata, Mont. : mc. Off Redcliff and Robin Hood's Bay, 30 fa. ; 

gravel and dead shells. 
Cyprina islandicn, Linn. : mr. Small, off Marsden and Redcliff, 30-33 fa. ; gravel 

and muddy sand. 
Astarte sulcata, Da Costa : c. 5 miles off Hartlepool, 35 fa. ; muddy sand. 

compressa, Mont. : mc. AVith the above. 

triangularis, Mont. : mr. With the above. 

1875. • o 



194 REPORT — 1875. 

Venus exoleta, Linn. Dead valves, 6 miles off Hawthorn, 20 fa. ; sandy gravel. 

Uncfa, Pult. : nir. Off Marsden, 33 fa. ; muddy sand. 

fasciata, Da. Costa,: mc. Of!" Redcliff and Robin Hood's Bay, 30 fa. ; gravelly. 

casina, Linn. : mc, and large. 14 miles off Sealiam, 35fa. ; sandy mud. 

ovata, Penn. : mc. Large, off Hartlepool and lledcliff, 30 fa. ; muddy sand 

and gravel. 

yallina, Linn. : mc. Off Redcliff, 30 fa. ; gi-avelly. 

Tapes virc/ineus, Linn. : mc. OH'Hawthorn and Castle Eden, 20 fa. ; sand and gravel. 
Lt(cmo2}sis widata, Venn. : v. Off Hartlepool, 36 fa. ; muddy sand. 
Tellina crassa, Gmel. Off Hawthorn, dead shells, 20 fa. ; sandy gravel. 

* tenuis, Da Costa : mr. Off Redcliff", 30 fa. ; gravel and dead shells. 

ptmlla, Phil. : mr. With the above. 

* fuhula, Gron. : mc. Large, off Seaham, 35 fa. ; sandy mud. 

Psammohia teUineUa, Lamlr. : mr. 14 miles off Seaham, Hawthorn, 35 fa. ; sandy 

mud and gravel. 

ferroeiisis, Chem. : mc. Off Hawthorn, 20 fa. ; sandy gi-avel. 

Mactra suhtnincata, Da Costa,: r. Castle Eden, 20 fa. ; gravelly. 

elliptica, Brown. Off Hawthorn and Redcliff 

« sitiltonnn, Linn. A valve, oti' Scarborough, 17 fa. ; sandy. 

Scrohicidaria prismatica, Mont. : mc. Off Seaham, 35 fa. ; sandy mud. 

aJba, Wood : r. W^ith the above. 

Solen pellucidus, Penn. 20 miles off Sunderland, 45 fa. ; muddy sand. 

* emis, Linn. A broken valve, oft' Redcliff', 30 fa. ; gravelly. 

Thracia 2}'ipnracea,Vo\i: mr. Oft' Hawthorn, 20 fa. ; sandy gravel. 

, var. villosiuscida, Macq. : r. With the above. 

Neara cuspidata, Olivi. One yoimg, covered with sand, off" Seaham, 3o fa. ; sandy 

mud. 
Corhula gibba,0]i\\: mc. Off Sunderland and Seaham, 35-45 fa. ; muddy sand. 
Mya truncata, Linn. Valves, and some fry between Castle Eden and Redcliff, 

20-35 fa. ; gravelly. 
Saxicava rugosa, linn. : mc. None large, in most of the gatherings. 

arctica, Linn. : r. Redcliff, 30 fa. ; gravel and dead shells. 

*Pholas crispata, Linne. Fragment of large shell, between Castle Eden and Redcliff, 

20-35 fa. ; gravelly. 

SOLENOCONCHIA. 

Dentalium entcdis, Linn. : c, and large. Off Hawthorn, 20 fa. ; sandy gravel and 
other gatherings. 
* tarentuium, Lamk. : r. Small, dead, off Hai'tlepool, 35 fa. ; muddy sand. 

Gastkropoda. 

Cliiton cinereus, Linn. : r. Off Staiths, 25 fa. ; gravel and dead shells. 

marmoreits, Fabr. : r. Robin Hood's Bay, 30 fa. ; gravel and zoophytes. 

Tectura virgwea, Miill. : r. Off Castle Eden, 20 fa. ; coarse gravel. 
£marginulajissiira, Linn. : mr. Off" Redcliff', 30 fa. ; gravel and dead shells. 
C'aptdus hnngaricns, Linn. : mr. Small, off Seaham and Robin Hood's Bay, 

35 fa. ; sandy mud and gravel. 
*Trockus magmis, Linn. : r. Dead, oft" Hawthorn, 20 fa. ; sandy gravel. 
ttimidus, Mont. : mc. Off Redclift', 30 fa. ; gravelly and dead shells, mostly 

small. 

cinerariiis, Linn. : r. Off Castle Eden, 20 fii. ; coarse gravel. 

Montaniti, Wood : r. Oft' Redclift", .30 fa. ; gravel and dead shells. 

7nillegranus, Phil. : c. Off Castle Eden and Redcliff", 20-30 fa. ; gravel and 

dead shells. 
zkyphinus, Linn. : c. OfiF Castle Eden and Redcliff, 20-30 fa. ; gravel and 

dead shells. 

* , var. Lyondi, Leach. With the above. 

*Laeuna crassior, Mont. : r. Off Castle Eden, 20 fa. ; coarse gravel. 

pallidida, Da Costa : r. Off Staiths, 25 fa. ; gravel and dead shells. 

Missoa pimdura, Mont. : mc. Oft Marsden and Seaham and Hawthorn, 20-35 

fa. ; sandy gravel. 



ON DRKDOINQ OFF THE DURHAM AND N. -YORKSHIRE COAST. 195 

Rissoa parva, Da Costa : mc. Durham and NortJiumberland coasts, 20-30 fa. 

, var. intcrrupta. More common. 

striata, A Amms: mc. In most of the gatherings. 

vitrea, Mont. : r. Oft" Plawthorn, 35 fa. ; sandy gravel. 

* soliita, Phil. : mc. Obtained with the above. 

Cacum f/Iahrum, IMont. : nic. Oft" Seaham and Redcliftj 30-35 fa. ; sandy mud 
and gravel. 

Turritella terehra, Linn. Off" Marsden and Seaham, 35 ia.. ; muddy sand. 

Scalaria Trevelijana, Leach : mc. Oft" Redcliff and Robin Hood's Bay, 30-35 fa. ; 
gi"avell3\ 

Aclis ascnrisyTuxton : r. Off Scarborough, 17 fa. ; sandy. 
*Odostomia rissoides, Hanley : r. Oft' Hawthorn, 20 fa. ; "sandy gravel. 

* acuta, Jeff. : mr. Off Hartlepool and Scarborough, 25-35 fa. ; muddy sand 

and gravel. 

tmidentuta, Mont. : r. Off Hawthorn, 20 fa. ; sandy gravel. 

obliqua. Alder : r. Oft" Marsden, 35 fa. ; muddy sand. 

* , var. fFrtnY/i/j", Thompson. Oft" Hawthorn. 

itidistinda, Mont. : mc. Oft' Robin Hood's Bay, 30 fa. ; gravelly. 

interstincta, Mont.: r. Oft' Castle Eden, 20 fa. ; gravelly. 

spiralis, Mont. : mc. Robin Hood's Bay, 30 fa, ; gravelly. 

lactea, Linn. : mc. Redclift", 30 fa. ; gTavel and dead shells. 

* acicu/a, Thil. : mc. Oft' Hawthorn and Scarborough, 20-25 fa. ; sandy gravel. 

Stilifer Turto/ii, Bred. : mr. Oft" Sunderland and Seaham, 20-35 fa. ; on spinea 
of Echinus pictiis. 

Eiditna distorta, Desh. : c. Off Hawthorn, 20 fe. ; sandy gravel. 

, var. gracilis. With the above. 

hilineata, Alder : mc. Oft" Seaham and Hartlepool, 35 fa. ; muddy sand. 

Natica islandica, Gmel. : r. Off Redcliff, 30 fa. ; gravel and dead shells. 

grccnlandica, Beck : r. 20 miles of Sunderland, 45 fa. ; muddy sand. 

Alderi, Forbes : mc. Small, in most of the gatherings. 

Montaenti (Montaffui), Forbes : mr. In a few of the gatherings. 

Velutina laivic/uta, Penn. : mr. Off Robin Hood's Bay, 30 fa. ; gravel and zoophytes. 

Aporrhaii jics-jwlecani, Linn. : mc. Oft" Marsden and Simderland, 33-45 fa. ; 
muddy sand. 

Buccinmn iindatum, Linn. Obtained with the above, the shells thin and small 
with high ridges. 

Trophon truncatus, Strom : mc. Redcliff and Robin Hood's Bay, 30-35 fa. ; gravelly. 

Fiisus gracilis, Da Costa : mc. 7 miles off Marsden, 30 fa. ; muddy sand. 

antiquus, Linn. : mc. With the above, mostly small, some large. 

propinquHs, Alder: mr. Off Marsden, 33 fa. ; muddy sand. 

Nassa incrassata, Strom :■ mc. Ha-svthorn and Redcliff;" 20-30 fa. j sand and 
gravel. 

Defrancia linearis, Mont. : mc. Redcliff, 30 fa. ; gravel and dead shells. 
* picrpnrea, Mont. Obtained with the above. 

Fleurotoma hrachy stoma, Phil. : mr. Off Marsden, 33 fa. ; muddy sand. 

turricida, Mont. : me. Oft Redclift; 30 fa. ; gravel and dead shells. 

Trevehjana, Turton : mc. Off Robin Hood's Bav, 30 fa. ; gravel and zoophytes. 

Cijprcea europcpa, Mont. : r. Dead shell in several gatherings. 

Cylichna nmhilicata, ]\Iont. : mc. Castle Eden and Redclift; 20-30 fa. ; gravelly. 

cylindracea, Penn. : c. With the above. 

*Utricidus mainmtlhttus, Phil. : mr. With the above. 

truncatulus, Brug. : mc. Oft" Sunderland and Redcliff, 30^15 fa. ; muddy 

sand and gravel. 

ohtusus, Mont. : r. Off Sunderland, 45 fa. ; muddy siind. 

*Acteeon tornatilis, Linn. : mc. All small, none more than \ inch, off Hawthorn 
20 fa. ; snndy gravel. 

Philine scabra, Mii'll.: mr. Off Marsden, .33 fa. ; muddy sand. 

PlEEOrOPA. 

*Spirialis retroversus, Flem. : r. 5 miles off Redcliff, SO fa. j gravel and dead shells. 

o2 



196 REPORT — 1875. 

SuTbclass ENTOMOSTRACA. 
Order Copepoda. 

Calanm Jinmarchicus (Gunner). Occurs in almost every dredging. 

* longiremis (Glaus). One specimen found in a depth of '65 fa., off Robin 

Hood's Bay. 
Dias longiremis, Lilljeborg. Abundant in many dredgings, and occurred more or 
less in all. 

Temora lomjicornis (Miiller). Occurred in most of the dredgings. 

Isias clavijjes, Boeck. In a depth of 35 fa., ofl' Robin Hood's Bay. 

Centrojiages hamatus (Lilljeborg). Found in many of the dredgin"-s. 

Ci/clops littoi-alis, Brady. In a depth of 45 fa., 20 miles east of Sunderland. 

Thorellia briinnea, Boeck. Ofl' Robin Hood's Bay and Staiths, 25-35 fa. 

Cyclopsyilus elongatus, nov. gen. et sp. In a depth of 27 fa., off Hawthorn ; sandy 
bottom. 
*Misophrici jKillida, Boeck. In company with the preceding species. 

Lophophoriis insignis, nov. gen. et sp. One specimen taken in the same dredging 
as the preceding. 

Longip)edia coronata, Claus. Abundant in almost every dredging. 

Ectinosoma curticoniis, Boeck. Almost always in company with the preceding, 

and equally abundant ; both species prefer sandy ground. 
* Sarsii, Boeck. Off Robin Hood's Bay, 35 fa. 

erythrops, nov. sp. In depths of 20-35 fa., off Hartlepool, Red Cliff, Staiths, 

and Robin Hood's Bay ; but always scarce. 

tenuis, nov. sp. Off Hawthorn, 27-37 fa. 

Zosime (?) fusiformis, nov. sp. Off Red Cliff, 35 fa. 

spinulosa, nov. sp. Ofl IRtrtlepool. 

*Bradya typica, Boeck. Fom- specimens, off Hartlepool ; sandy bottom. 

Spio brunnea, nov. gen. et sp. Off Hawthorn, 27 fa. ; sandy Ibottom. 
*Amyrnonefalcata, Norman. Off Marsden, 25 fa. ; off Robin Hood's Bav, 35 fa. 

longimana, Claus. One specimen, taken off" Hawthorn, 27 fa. 

* sphcerica, Claus. One specimen, off Red Clifl', about 35 fa. 

Pterothrix sordida, nov. gen. et sp. 20 miles off Sunderland, 45 fa. ; muddy sand : 
and 5 miles off Hartlepool ; sand. 

Tetragoniceps longiremis, nov. gen. et sp. In 30 fa. , off Staiths and Robin Hood's Bay. 
*Stenhelia rostrata ? (Claus). In 35 fa., off Red Clifl'and Robin Hood's Bay. 

hispida (Norman). Off Marsden, .30 fa. 

(?) ima, Brady. Off Marsden, Seaham, Staiths, and Red Cliff, 20-30 fa. 

*Ameira longipes, Boeck. 20 miles off Sunderland, 45 fa. ; aud ofl" Staiths, 35 fa. 

curticoniis, nov. sp. Off Marsden, 30 fa. ; 20 miles off Simderland, 45 fa. 

Idya f areata (Baird). Occun-ed more or less commonly in all the dredgings. 

Delavcdia reflexa, nov. sp. 5 miles ofl" Hartlepool ; sandy bottom. 

robusta, nov. sp. Off Staiths and Robin Hood's Bay, 30-35 fa. 

Laophmite dubia, nov. sp. Oft" Marsden, .30 fa. ; off Hartlepool. 

Hodgii, Brady. Off Hawthorn, 27 fa. ; and off Hartlepool. 

Cletodes pectinata, nov. sp. Off Sunderland, Seaham, Hartlepool, Red Cliff, and 
Robin Hood's Bay, in depths of 20-45 fa. 

propinqua, nov. sp\ Oft" Marsden, 25 fa. 

longicaudata, nov. sp. 5 miles off Hartlepool ; sandy bottom. 

submgra, nov. sp. Off Robin Hood's Bay, 35 fa. 

Harpacticus cheUfer (Miiller). Oft" Marsden, 25 fa. ; muddy sand. 

crassicornis, nov. sp. Ofl" Robin Hood's Bay, 35 fa. 

Zaus omlis (Goodsir). Off Staiths and Red Clifl", 30-35 fa. 

Alteutha bopxjroides, Claus. Common in all the dredgings. 

Thalestris longimana, Claus. Dredged ofl" Scarborough. 

helgolandica, Claus. 6 miles off Hawthorn, 27 fa. 

—— rufocincta, Norman. Off Hawthorn and Red Cliff, 27-35 fa. 
*Dactylopus flams, Claus. Off Hawthorn, Red Cliff, Staiths, and Robin Hood's 
Bay, 27-35 fa. 

tisboides, Claus. Off Red Cliff and Robin Hood's Bay, 30-35 fa. 



ON DREDGING OFF THE DURHAM AND N. -YORKSHIRE COAST. 197 

Dactylopus tenuiremis, nov. sp. 20 miles off Sunderland, 45 fa. ; and ofl' Red Cliff, 
Staiths, and Robin Hood's Bay, 30-35 fa. 

nanus, nov. sp. 20 miles off Sunderland, 45 fa. ; muddy sand. 

cinctus, Glaus. Oft" Red Hill, 35 fii. 

Rhizothrix curvata, nov. gen. et sp. Off Robin Hood's Bay, 35 fa. 
Jurinia minuta, nov. sp. Off Hawtliorn, 27 fa. 
y/Cyclopkera nu/ripes, nov. sp. In many di-edgings, 3-5 miles off shore, in depths 
/ ^ of 20-35 fo. 

*Notodel2)hys agilis, Thorell. 1 specimen, off Hawthorn, 27 fa. 
Lichomolgus fucicolus (Brady), In several dredgings from Marsden to Scarborough, 
20-35 fa. 

liher, nov. sp. Off Marsden, Scarborough, and Hawthorn, 20-27 fa. 

Thorellii, nov. sp. Off Marsden, Hawthorn, and Robin Hood's Bav, 20-35 fa. 

y *Artotrorius orbicularis ?, Boeck. Off Red Cliff, Staiths, and Robin Hood's Bav. 
/ 20-35 fa. ^ 

y Byspontius Normani, nov. sp. 3 specimens taken, miles off Hawthorn, 27 fa. ; sand. 
/^ Soknostoma scutatum, Brady and Robertson. Off Red Cliff, Staiths, Robin Hood's 
^r Ray, and Hawthorn, 27-35 fa. 

Ascomyzon calvum, nov. sp. Oft" Staiths, 30 fa. 
y omatum, nov. sp. Off Scarborough and Robin Hood's Bay, 16-35 fa, 

/ The number of Copepoda noted in this list is 63, of -which 28 are new to 
science, and 11 (marked here with an asterisk) are hitherto unrecorded as 
British species. It is but right, however, to add that several of these, though 
undescribed, were previously known to us. Still the result of the dredging in 
this department is extremely interesting, more especially in the considerable 
number of new species which it has brought to light belonging to the curious 
groups called by Thorell Poecilostoma and Siphonostoma. The list of marine 
Copepoda published by Mr. Brady in 1872, in the ' JS'atural-History Trans- 
actions of JSTorthumberland and Durham,' and including all then known as 
inhabiting the shores of those two counties, both littoral and pelagic, comprised 
only 49 species ; so that our present Hst of 63 species taken over an area of 
similar extent, and from dredged material only, must, we think, be looked 
upon as highly satisfactory. 

The dissection and delineation of these minute' creatures is extremely 
tedious, and we have not as yet been able to complete the work so far as to 
warrant us in giving descriptions of the various new species. 



On the Polyzoa, Hydrozoa, and Spongozoa. By the Rev. A. M. Norman, M.A. 

POLTZOA. 



SciTipocellaria scruposa (Linn.). 

scabra ( Van Ben.). 

CeUularia Peachii, Busk. 
Menipea ternata {Ellifi Sf Sol.), 
Biigula avicularia {Pallas). 

purpurotincta, Norman. 

inabellata (J. V. Thompson), 

Murrayana (Bean). 

fruticosa, Packard. 

Flustra foliacea, Linn. 

truncata, Linn. 

Carbasea papyrea (Pallas). 
Gemellaria loriculata (Linn.). 
Membranipora pilosa (Linn.). 
Flemingii, Busk. 



Lepralia reticulata, Macg. 

auriculata, Hassall. 

concinna, Busk. 

linearis, Hassall. 

ciliata (Linn,). 

nitida (Fahr,). 

Peachii, Johnst. 

ventricosa, Hassall. 

Cellepora avicularis, Hincks. 

ramulosa, Linn. 

dichotoma, Hincks. 

Crisia eburnea (Linn.). 

denticulata (Lamk.). 

Crisidia cormita (Linn.). 



198 



REPORT 1875. 



Hydrozoa. 



Hydractinia echiuata {Fleming), 
Eudendrium ramosum {Linn.}. 
Tubularia indivisa, Liim. 

coronata, Abildc/aard. 

Clytia Jolinstoni (Alder). 
Obelia geniciUata {Linn.). 

longissima (Pallas). 

Campanularia Hincksii, Aider. 

verticillata (Linn.). 

Lafoea dumosa (Fleming). 

pocillum, Ilincks. 

Calycella syriuga (Linn.). 
Filellum serpens (TIassall). 
Coppinia arcta (Dalyell). 
Halecium halecinum (Linn.). 
Beanii, Johnston, 



Sertularella polyzoaias (Linn."). 

tenella, Alder. 

Dipliasia rosacea (Linn.). 

attenuata, Hincks, 

fallax (Johnston). 

tamarisca (Linn.). 

Sertularia tilicula, Ellis 8i Sol. 

abietina, Linn. 

fusca, Johnston. 

Hydrallmania falcata (Linn.). 
Thuiaria articulata (Pallas). 

tliuia (Linn). 

Plumularia pinnata (Linn.). 

■ setacea (Ellis). 

Catharina, Johnston. 



— frutescens, Ellis <§• Sol. 



Spongozoa. 



Grantia ciliata, Johnston. 
Polymastia robiista, Bo^v. 

mamillaris (Johnston). 

Microciona iictitia, Bote. 
Hymeniacidon coccineus, JBoiu. 
virgulatiis, Boxc, n. sp. 



Hj'meniacidon ficus (Johnston). 
Ilalichondria panicea, Johnston. 

virgea, Bore, n. sp. 

Isodictya liirida, Boiv. 
Spongionella pulcliella (Sowerby). 



Among the Polyzoa is Bitgula fnitieosa of Packard*, first described by 
Packard from Labrador, and subsequently by Smitt from Spitsbergen and 
Finmark, but not previously found in our seas. I entirely agree with Smitt 
in considering it to be a form, though a very interesting one, of Bugula 
Murrayana, It differs from the ordinary state of that species in being more 
delicate in structure, the branches and branchlets much narrower, commonly 
with only one or two rows of cells, and the cells armed with only few spines, 
typically one only at the superior and outer angle. 

The Hydrozoon Lafoea jjociUum, Hincks (Hist. Brit. Hydr. Zooph. p. 204, 
pi. xi. fig. 2), is a recently described species, which has not previously been 
found on the cast coast. Its known habitats were Labrador and Oban. 

Two Sponges are pronounced by Dr. Bowerbank to be undescribed, and 
subjoined will be found descriptions which have been drawn up by that 
gentleman. He has named the species Hymeniacidon virguJatus and HaU- 
chondria virgea, 

" Halicliondria virgea, Bowerbank, n. sp. 

" Sponge massive, sessile, more or less nodulous. Surface smooth. Oscula 
simple, dispersed. Pores inconspicuous. Dermal membrane abundantly spi- 
culous ; tension-spicula acuate, very long and slender, numerous, fasciculated ; 
retentive spicula bidentate, equianchorate, large, few in number, and the 
same form, small and numerous. Skeleton — rete more or less regular; fibres 
rarely multispiculous, seldom more than trispiculous ; areas large ; spicula 
subfusiformi-acuate, basally spinous. Interstitial membranes spiculous ; 
spicuise same as those of the dermis; tension-spicula of rare occurrence; 
retentive spicula rather numerous. 

* Menipea frvticosa, Packard, List of Labrador Marine Animals, p. 9, pL i. fig. 3, = 
Cellularia quadridentata, Lor^n, MS. 1834 (fide Smitt), —Bv.gula Murrayana forma quadri- 
dentata, Smitt, Kritisk Forteckning ofver Skandinaviens Hafs-BrTOZoer, p. 292, pi. r\'iii. 
figs. 23-27. 



OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 199 

• " Colour, in the dried state, dark purple. 

" Hah. Coast of Durham, 30 to 35 fathoms {Rev. A. M. Norman). 
" Examined in the dried state." 

" Hymeniacidon virgulatus, Bowerbauk, n. sp. 

" Sponge virgultose, slender. Surface smooth. Oscula simple, dispersed. 
Pores inconspicuous. Dermis abundantly spiculous ; spicula acuate, slender, 
same size as those of the skeleton, dispersed. Skeleton rather open and 
cavernous ; spicula acuate, long and slender. 

" Colour, in the dried state, cream-white. 

" Hah. Coast of Durham, in 20 to 30 fathoms {Bev. A. M. Norman). 

*' E.xamined in the dried state." 



Report on Obsewations of Luminous Meteors during the year 1874-75, 
bi/ a Committee, consisting of J ahes Glmshek, F.R.S., of the Royal 
Observatory, Greemo'ich, R. P. Gkeg, F.G.S., F.JR.A.S., C. Brooke, 
F.R.S., Prof. G. Forbes, F.R.S.E., Walter Flight, D.Sc, F.G.S., 
and Prof. A. S. Herschel, F.R.A.S. 

The operations of the Committee during the past year were restricted to col- 
lecting and recording occasional observations of meteors, without renewing 
periodical requests to observers to watch for the meteor- showers of best 
knowia dates and characters of annual recurrence. The list of collected 
accounts of luminous meteors is therefore less ample, but not less remarkable 
and important, than in former years. The falls of aerolites (as will be seen 
in the concluding Appendix) which have been placed on record since the last 
Eeport are more than ordinarily numerous and interesting. A mass of 
meteoric iron fell on the 24th of August, 1873, at Marysville, California, and 
is one of the very few metallic irons the actual descent of which has been 
witnessed. In the following montJi, on the 23rd of September, 1873, -a 
number of meteorites fell near Khairpur, in the Punjab ; and it is also 
related that in the month of December in the .same year, while the British 
army halted on the banks of the Prah, an aerolite fell in the market-place o( 
Coomassie, and was regarded by the native population as a portent of evil. 
On the 14th and 20th of May, 1874, aerolites fell at Castalia, in North 
Carolina (U.S.A.), and at Virba, in Turkey, the last of which was noted in 
the last Report ; and examinations of both of these meteorites have now been 
made. The last stone-fall of the past year took place near Iowa (U.S.A.) on 
the 12th of February, 1875 ; and of this meteorite also special analyses were 
made in the United States, of which some unforeseen results were lately 
announced by their author, Mr. A. W. Wright, as will be described in the last 
part of this Ileport. In comparison with meteoric irons, it was found that this 
meteorite gave off, by gentle heating in a vacuum, carbon oxides as occluded 
gases in greater abundance than hydrogen, which is the principal gaseous 
constituent of meteoric irons ; and it was observed that the electric spectrum pf 
the gaseous products resembled very closely that found most frequently in 
comets, and even in one condition to exhibit most distinctly the green 
nitrogen line coinciding with a conspicuous line in the sun's coron?.. A 
meteor of unusual size appeared over Victoria, in Australia, on the 14th of 



200 REPORT — 1875. 

April last, which if not aerolitic'was yet of the largest class, and detonated 
■with a violent explosion. Further remarks in the same Appendix describe 
recent researches on meteorites, and some new links which they establish 
between aerolites and terrestrial rocks. 

In England no detonating meteor has been recorded since the last Report ; 
and the brightest meteor that was observed occurred on the 1st of Sep- 
tember last, taking its course over the north of England or Scotland, where 
clouded skies must have prevailed, as its flash was like that of lightning even 
in Cornwall, where, as in Lancashire, its bright luminous streak remained 
visible, at no great apparent altitude, among the northern stars of the Great 
Bear. Other bright meteors occurred also on the 2nd and 16th of September, 
on the 11th of October, on the 17th of December, and subsequently on the 
9th of March, 12th of April, and 2nd and 4th of May in this year, of several 
of which duplicate observations are recorded in the lists of the first two 
Appendices of this Rejiort. A meteor burst with a loud detonation over Paris 
and its neighbourhood on the 10th of February last, which was of great size 
and brilliancy, and left a cloud-like streak of light on its track for more than 
half an hour. No duplicate observation of it was obtained in England ; but 
from the numerous French descriptions of its appearance, its real path and 
height may be expected to have formed at the present meeting in Nantes of 
the French Scientific Association a subject of examination and discussion. 
Another fireball, according to French scientific journals, fell at Orleans on 
the 9th of March, and of this two good observations appear to have been 
obtained in England (in London and in Essex), which may assist to determine 
its real height. 

During the annual meteor-showers of the past year very unfavourable 
weather generally prevailed for recording meteor-tracks, and few meteors 
were seen on those nights when the usual expectations of their appearance 
were entertained. On the 19th of October and 12th of December, 1874, and 
on the 19th-21st of April, 1875, the annual star-showers of those dates 
were scarcely perceptible, or were represented by so few conformable meteors 
as to make the scarcity of the October, December, and April star-showers 
during the past year a marked feature of their periodical disjilay, and no 
appearance of the January meteors could be observed on account of obstinately 
cloudy skies. The August star-showers of 1874 and 1875 were, however, of 
great brilliancy, and afi'orded a great number of excellent observations. 
Duplicate descriptions of some of the meteors were obtained, and the radiant- 
point was noted, its position appearing to have been this year more con- 
fined to the normal place near r/ Persei than it had been recently observed. 
Descriptions of these meteor-showers are added in the third Appendix of 
this Keport. 

A thorough examination of all the observations collected by the Committee 
since the publication of the Meteor Atlas in 1867, with the \'iew of extending 
and correcting the list of general and occasional meteor-showers which it 
embraced, from the best data furnished by recent observations, has been con- 
tinued with satisfactory results under the care and direction of Mr. Greg ; 
and the projection of all these useful materials is now nearly completed and 
exhibited on maps. A supplementary Table of radiant-points contained in the 
pages of this Report represents the results of his examination ; and a number 
of interesting consequences are drawn from them of the position and identity 
of some star-showers, which had been a subject hitherto of questions and 
discussions. 

The scattered radiant-region belonging to the August meteors in Cas- 



OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 201 

siopeia and Perseus appears to be accounted for by a distinct radiant-point 
in Cassiopeia, of which the principal date coincides only partially with the 
10th of August, and whose shower again presents a prominent and distinct 
appearance on the 23rd of that month. Most of the general meteor systems 
described in the former Atlas are found to be confirmed, and some very 
distinct radiant-points not previously recorded have at the same time been 
added to its list. 

APPENDIX. 

I. Meteobs doubly Observed. 

On September 1st, October 11th, and December 17th, 1874, and on 
April 12th and May 2nd, 1875, accounts of the appearance of large meteors 
were received, which had been pretty generally observed, and of which from 
their magnitude it may be hoped that more abundant particulars will be 
obtained. The following descriptions of the first two of these large meteors 
were collected from published sources by Mr. Wood, together with some other 
ajjpearances of large meteors and meteor-showers of interest during the past 
year. Mr. Wood's observation of the fireball of April 12th, 1875, and those 
relating to the other doubly observed meteors above mentioned, wiU be found 
in the firebaU list of the next Appendix, together with some examples of 
doubly observed shooting-stars during the bright shower of the August 
meteors in 1874. It has not been attempted to submit these comparative 
observations to regular reduction and calculation, partly as those of the 
large meteors are too uncertain to afi'ord useful determinations of their real 
heights, and (in the case of the shooting-stars) in the expectation that a 
closer examination of the descriptions received of the August meteor-shower 
in 1874 will continue to furnish further examples of them of which the present 
may be regarded as instances of only the most conspicuous occurrence. 
Among the few records of the periodical meteor-showers that have been 
received (without solicitations from the Committee), during the past year, 
no other cases have presented themselves in which determinations of a 
meteor's real height might be obtained by the combination of distant ob- 
servations. 

Newspaper Accounts of Meteors. 

Aughton, Lancasliire. — " A large meteor seen September 1st, 8.49, in the 
S.S.W., descended the west margin of the Milky Way. Trended a little 
more west. Train of light 25° long, lasted one minute." — Times, Sept. 5. 

Louth. — Meteor moved from S. to N. 

Bnstol. — " Meteor appeared 3° under ;; Ursse Majoris. W. to E." — 
Times, Sept. 3. 

Birmingham. — " About 8.15 p.m. on Sept. Ist a bright meteor emerged 
from the Constellation of the Great Bear, and took a S.W. course. The 
period of transit was several seconds, but the splendid light left in its track 
illuminated the heavens for a considerable time." — Birmingham Daily Post, 
Sept. 3. [For descriptions of this large fireball at Bristol and at Bude, 
Cornwall, see the List in Appendix II.] 

Nottingham. — Meteor of Sept. 2nd, 10.53. See ' Times,' Sept. 4th. 

Birmingham. — October 11th, 8.55. " A bar of fire as even as a mea- 
sure, 4 or 5 yards long and 2 inches thick, in a horizontal position. It 
was very bright, and remained so for a minute and a half. It appeared in 
the N.E." 



203 REPORT — 1875. 

Tipton. — October 11th, &" 55"". '-'Meteor seen as a brilliant white body 
of the size of a 68-lb. shot. It started a little to the right of the North 
Star, taking a downward and rapid flight ; then changing its course in an 
upward curve, in the direction of the Pleiades, with a much slower motion, 
lighting up the neighbourhood, and leaving a luminous train throughout its 
course, visible 6 minutes." — Daily Post. 

A meteor similar to the one described above was observed at almost the 
same time at Leeds, near Maidstone, Kent. " At the end of its flight it ex- 
ploded with a loud noise, so loud that the informant described it as louder 
than the loudest thunder he ever heard."- — Birmingham Daily Post. 

Asserted meteor shower Oct. 15, " between 12 p.m. and 1 a.m. ; meteors at 
the rate of fifty per minute at least." — Enylish Mechanic, Oct. 23, page 158, 
letter 20374. 

" The inhabitants of Valparaiso were in a terrible state of alarm on the 
14th ultimo [November 1874]. A bright star and full moon appeared at 
middle day, notwithstanding the fact that the sun was shining brightly at 
the time. The ignorant amongst the populace thought that an earthquake 
was about to take place. Nothing of the sort, however, occurred." — Bir- 
mingham Local Newspaper, Dec. 1874. 

" Large meteors were seen during the recent clear nights in diflPerent 
places in France — at Havre on the 12th, and at Paris on the 10th. The 
Paris meteor was seen at two o'clock in the morning; the direction was not 
specified, but the colour was green. The Boulevard St. Michel appeared as 
if it were illuminated. The Havre meteor was very large, going with an 
immense velocity from S.E. to N.W." — Nature, April 22nd, 1875. 

" A beautiful meteor was seen at Tottenham Lock on June 3rd, at 
8.40 P.M., rather to the east of south, about 30° from the horizon. This is 
very close to Spica." — English Mechanic, June 11th, page 328, no. 533. 

" At Clapton a splendid meteor was observed at 8.39 p.m. on June 3rd, 
due south, slow speed, taking a south-westerly course. Meteor brilliant, whiter 
and much brighter than Jupiter, which looked faint in comparison." — English 
Mechanic, June 11th, page 328. 

" Great detonating meteor seen at Melbourne, Ajwil 14th, 1875 (see the 
note below)"*.— IF. //. W. 

To the above list of newspaper accounts of large meteors collected by Mr. 
Wood may be added the following two accounts in ' Nature ' of Oct. 15th, 
1874 (vol. X. p. 482), of the remarkable fireball of October 11th, last year. 
A singularity in the meteor's motion, with slow speed on a deflected course 
at last, appears to have been observed both at Tipton (as above) and at 
Eainhill ; but it is doubtful if motions of the persistent streak, left for some 
minutes in a bright patch at the point where the meteor disappeared, may not 
account for the very singular change of motion there, which the nucleus 
itself, in two of these observations, is described to have presented. 

" Bright Meteors. 

" At 8.55 this evening a party of six observed a meteor in the constella- 
tion Aries, or below it, which emitted light sufiicient to cast a bright gleam 
on the neighbouring trees. The body of the meteor shot rapidly along a 

* Communicated by Mr.W. H. Wood. — A paragraph from ' The Illustrated Australian 
News' of May 17th, 1875, is added by Mr. Wood, the substance of which, relating also 
to an engraving of the meteor which accompanies the original notice in the Australian 
iournal, is included in Dr. Flight's review of recent aerolitic meteors (Meteorites, Part I.) 
in the concluding Appendix of this Report. 



OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS MKTEORS. 203 

.course extending about 20°. It then seemed to explode suddenly, and its 
track was luminous for a short time. The granular debris of the meteor con- 
tinued to pursue, with very much retarded velocity, a path slightly deflected 
from its former course : it continued to do so for several degrees ; and it was, 
I think, fully a minute after the explosion that several of us almost simul- 
taneouslj' exclaimed ' It is falling.' It resembled the expiring light of one 
globe of a rocket charged with golden rain. The falling motion was very 
elow. I think it was visible for two minutes after the explosion ; but though 
we tried more than once to consult our watches, the light was insufiicient." 

" Henkt H. Higgins." 
" KainhiU [Sunday], Oct. 11, 1874." 

" An exceedingly brilliant meteor was seen here about 8.50 on Sunday 
evening, which was so bright that it attracted general attention, the light 
from it being as strong as an iinusually bright flash of lightning, but more 
white. On looking up I saw, near the zenith, a long, almost straight and 
uninterrupted ribbon of light, somewhat pointed at the end towards the 
north-east. After watching it for some time, and uoticing that it retained its 
brilliancy, I began slowly counting, and counted up to twenty befoi-e there 
was any noticeable diminution of luminosity. The last portion visible was 
the end opposite the pointed end, which appeared as a faintly luminous patch 
as large as the apparent disk of the moon. I consider that, from its first ap- 
pearance, it was visible from 80 to 100 seconds. " A. Balding." 

"Wisbech [Sunday], Oct. 11, 1874." 

A bright fireball was also seen in Hampshire on the 16th of September, 
1874, of which the journal ' Nature' contained the following descriptiou ; — 

" Meteor. 

" The following is an account of a brilliant meteor which appeared at 
8.53 r.M. on Wednesday, Sept. 16 :— 

" Size : about four times that of Jupiter. 

" Colour : blue, with a red tail. 

" Brightness : throwing a shadow deeper than that of a full moon. 

" Angular measurement of tail : from 12° to 15°. 

" Duration : about 15". 

" Direction of course : N.W. 

" Zenith distance of point of disappearance : 75°. 

" The brilliancy of the tail threw a red light on the surrounding land- 
scape."— if«<in-e, Sept. 24th, 1874. " G. H. Hopkins." 

" Bisterne Close, Burley, Hants, Sept. 16." 

II. L.VEGE Meteors. 

The largest fireball seen in England during the past year appears to have 
been that of September 1st, 1874. Some descriptions of this fireball are 
given in the last, and in the list at the end of this Appendix. Of the remain- 
ing fireballs in the list but little general notice appears to have been taken ; 
but it is assumed, with considerable probability, that the two seen in England 
on the 9th of March and 12th of April, 1875, coincide with large fireballs 
seen in Erance on those dates, of which sufficient particulars for comparison 
with these accounts have not yet been received. Of the unusually large 
meteor of February 10th, 1875, generally observed in Erance, numberless 
accounts, it is reported ('Nature,' vol. xi. p. 413), were received at the Ob- 



204 



REPORT 1875. 



OBSERVATIONS 
AND DOUBLE OBSERVATIONS OF 



Date. 



Hour 

(G. M. T. or 

local time). 



1870 
Sept. 
28 



1874. 
July 28 



Aug. 5 

10 

10 
10 



h m s 
Between 
7 20 and 
7 30 p.m. 



Clapton (Lon- 
don) [and 
Ashby-Brigg, 
Lincolnshire]. 



8 41 p.m 



About 
midnight. 

10 52 15 

10 52 45 
10 55 30 



10 10 55 30 

1011 5 

10 

1011 27 
1011 30 
10,11 32 15 



11 8 



Place of 
Observation. 



Writtle, Chelms- 
ford (Essex). 



Mysore, India. 



Newcastle-on- 
Tyne. 



Apparent 
Magnitude. 



[=Venus] 



Ibid. 
York 



'V 



Large meteor, very 
brilliant. 



::>lst mag.# 



Ibid. 



Newcastle-on- 
Tyne. 



10 



10 



11 34 



11 44 p.m. 



York 



Newcastle-on- 

Tyne. 
York = Venus 



;>lst mag.# 
■ 1st mag.* 



Colour. 



Intense gold 
colour. 



Pale violet 
colour. 



Orange- 
yellovr. 

Orange- 
yellow. 



Duration. 



3 seconds. 



1st mag.» 



Orange- 
yellow, 



= Sirius 



Newcastle-on- 
Tyne. 



York., 
York 



>>Sirius 

= ^ 

= Venus 



1*5 second 

1*6 second 
0*5 second 

07 second 



Position, or 
Apparent Path. 



«= 5= 
Descended be- 
tween the tail 
of the Bear and 
Arcturus. 



From 219° + 13° 
to 185 + 2 



rO second 



White To second 

0-5 second 
1-5 second 



Yellow, then 

red. 
White 



0-5 second 



I 



10 12 6 Birmingham ... =2nd mag.» 



I 



Blue. 



0-5 second 



0'5 second 



From 321°4-15° 
to 310 - 5 

From 324°+ 7° 

to 312 -13 

From 330° +57° 

to 300 +47 

From 333°+38° 
to 316 +50 

Passed across a 
[.'/3] Aquarii. 

• 

From 350°+51° 

to 307 +27 

From 3ll°+3G° 

to 301 + 7 

From 261° + 68° 

to 236 +41 

From 334°+4S° 

to 307 +11 

From 260° +80° 
' to 250 +65 

From31°+32° 
to 29 +24 

From 176° + 75° 
to 190 +62 



OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 



205 



OF LARGE METEORS, 
SHOOTING-STARS, 1874-75. 



Length of 
Path. 



To near the 
horizon. 



20= 

20° 
15° 

16° 



Direction or Radiant-point. 



Fell vertically , 



Perseid 
Perseid 



1 



33° 



28° 
40° 

17° 



Directed from i (j3/n) Pegasi.. 



Perseid 



Perseid. 



Perseid 



Appearance, Remarks, &c. 



J. C. Jackson. [W. 
Darby.] ' Astrono- 
mical Register,' No- 
vember 1870 (mis- 
printed in the former 
Report, " September 
1870"). 



H. Corder. 



' Madras Tiroes,' Aug, 
11th. ' Astronomical 
Register,' November 
1874. 

A. S. Herschel. 



Radiant ij Persei 



Nucleus like an elongated drop ; 
burst as it approached the 
horizon with a profusion of 
sparks. (Seen also at Bushey, 
Watford, like a magnesium 
light, bursting into three green 
and three white stars. The 
flash of light was noticed by 
Mr. Lucas at the Radclitfe Ob- 
servatory, Oxford ; see these 
Reports,' 1873, p. 373.) 
Followed by a short yellow train 

and yellow sparks at the end of 

its course. Seen by another 

observer to rise almost from 

the horizon at its first appear- 
ance. 
Exploded with a loud noise ; 

caused a superstitious terror 

among the natives of Mysore. 

Two fine meteors following each 

other nearly together, leaving 

streaks for about 3 seconds. 

Several others nearly at the 

same time. 
Left a streak. [This and the J. E. Clark. 

next meteor identical with the 

last pair.] 
Left a magnificent streak for 8 

seconds. Four other meteors 

in 2 minutes. 
Left a streak for 2 seconds. Per- A. S. Herschel. 

seid (?) ; position of apparent 

course not well observed. 
Left a streak. [Identical with the J. E. Clark. 

last.] 

Left a streak brightest in middle A. S. Herschel. 

of its course for 4^ seconds. 
Left a streak for 2 seconds. J. E. Clark. 

[Identical with the last.] 
Left a long streak brightest in A. S. Herschel. 

the middle of its course for 8 

seconds. 
Left a streak for 4 seconds; Per- J. E. Clark, 
seid. [Identical with the last 
meteor.] 
Left a streak 7 seconds 



Observer 
and Reference. 



J. E. Clark. 



W. H. Wood. 



206 



REPORT 1875. 



Date. 



1874. 
Aug.lO 

11 



Hour 
(G. M. T. or 
local time) 



h m s 
12 7 30 



10 41 
10 41 
10 43 



Place of 
Observation. 



Apparent 
Ma'^nitude. 



11 
11 

11 11 30 

11 11 30 

Sept. 1 About 

8 49 p.m. 



About 
9 p.m. 
(Time by 
estimation.) 



Dec. 17 



1875 
Feb. 10 



March 
9&10. 



About 
8 40 p.m. 

About 
10 25 p.m 



Newcastle-on- 
Tyne. 

Birmingham ... 

Ibid 

Tooting, Surrey . 

Birmingham ... 
Tooting, Surrey . 
Bristol 



= 2nd mag.* 

= lst mag.* 
=;lst raag.*.., 
= 1^ mag.*.. 



Colour. 



Duration. 



Yellow 1 second 



Yellow 1 second 

I 1 

Yellow 0-75 second... 



Bude (Corn- 
wall). 



Bristol . 



Halifax (York- 
shire). 



= 2nd raag.* 

= 1^ mag.* , 

Very large meteor 



to 
From 
to 

White 1 ;Frora 

to 



Position, or 
Apparent Path. 



From ? Cygni to 3"^ 
preceding e Del- 
phiui. 
From 33° + 66° 
27 -1-72 
32° + 6b° 
25 +70 
157°+62° 
165 -1-57 



75 second ...From 
to 



White 



Very brilliant 
meteor. 



White ; very 
dazziins;. 



4G°-f62° 
45 4-65 

From l42°-|-67° 
to 157 +62 

Passed across Ursa 
Major, leaving a 
streak (visible for 
several minutes 
until it was ob- 
scured by clouds} 
3° under jj Ursae 
Majoris. 

Strfa/c 



Fully as bright as 
Sirius. 



About 
5 45 p.m. 
(Paris 
time). 

Evening ... 



Mar. 9 About 

8 p.m 



Apr. 12 



Belle Isle, Isle |Very large meteor 
d'OIeron , Ne- 
mours, Thiery, 
Cognac, &c. 
(I'Vance). 

France 



Many large meteors 
seen. 



Cooper's Hill As bright as Sirius 

(Kent). 



Passed be- 
tween jtJ &y 
Ophiuchi. 



Vrsa Major 



3 seconds. 



a— 0=: 

From 275°+20° 
to 255 -12 

In the S.E. Dis- 
appeared half- 
way between 
Sirius and tlie 
horizon. 



8 G p.m. Birmingham 



= Venus 



! Moved slowly. 



AVhite 



Began at a point a 
few degrees east 
of Sirius. 



1-5 second 



i From \ Coronae to 
7 Serpentis. 



OBSERVATIONS OP LUMINOUS METEOR3. 



207 



Length of 
Path. 



Direction or Radiant-point. 



15° 



5°. 



3°. 



PerseiVl ; near the radiant-point. 



Course nearly a prolongation 
of the next (11'' 30'»), at 
Tooting. 

Perseid ; near the radiant-point 



j8° j Nearly from cTi, c, Ursae M ajoris 



Appearance, Remarks, &c. 



Left a streak for 2 seconds. Time 
uncertain to half a minute. 

r [The Birmingham observations 
J independent ; accord per- 
I fectly with the next, at 
L Tooting.] 

Disappeared close to jS Ursae Ma- 
juris. 



37'' 



Began as far 
eastward 
from Sirius 
as that star 
was from 
the horizon. 



Directed from y Lyrae 



Course nearly horizontal but 
slightly falling. 



Observer 
and Reference. 



'Descended in a south-easterly 

i direction on a path inclined 

about 60° to the horizon. 



IN. 



[Two meteors only mapped at 

Tooting.] 
The light was as intense as that 

of a vivid flash of lightning. 

[Seen also at Winchester, be. 

hind clouds in the north (mo. 

tion apparently from S. to N.) 

by Dr. Flight.] 



The meteor resembled a flash of 
light falling to the ground 
The streak, like the tail of a 
comet without a head, re- 
mained 3 minutes in the star- 
lit sUy, as in the figure, gra- 
dually fading away. 

Left a streak almost vertical in 
the south-west for a second. 



Seen through glass panes of a 
conservatory. No streak visi- 
ble in the open air. [Perhaps 
the same meteor as that ob- 
served in Paris at 10'' (local 
time), and at Lewes, Susse.'s, ai 
1 0'' 30'" p.m. See the note from 
'Nature/ Dec. 21th, 1874, in the 
' last paragraph of tliis Appendix.] 

Leaving a very persistent streak, 
at first straight, then contorted, 
visible for half an hour. 



A ' meteorite ' is reported to 
have fallen at Orleans on 
March 9th. (' Nature,' vol.xi. 
p. 396.) 

(For Mr. Denning's description of 
the same meteor at Bristol, see 
next page.) 



Perhaps identical with meteors 
noted on the same date in 
France, in Paris, or at Havre. 



A. S. Herschel. 

W. II. Wood. 

T. 11. Waller. 

H. W. Jackson. 

T. H. Waller. 

H. W. Jackson. 

W. F. Denning, ' Astro- 
nomical Kegister,' 
October 1874. 



E. H. Marshall. 



W. F. Denning, ' Astro- 
nomical Register,' 
October 1874. 

Jos. Gledhill, ' Astro- 
nomical Register,' 
October 1875. 



iVccounts by several ob- 
servers in ' Comptes 
Rend us,' vol. Ixxx. 
p. 575 et seq. 

'Nature,' vol. xi. p. 413. 



II. Macleod. 
vol. xi. p. 



' Nature,' 
427. 



W. H. Wood. 



208 



REPORT 1875. 



Date. 



Hour 
(G. M. T. or 
local time). 



Place of 
Observation. 



1875. h m 



Mar. 9 



Apr. 21 



May 4 



July 28 



Aug. 7 



15 



8 p.m 



About 
1 15 a.m 



9 59 p.m. 



Apparent 
Magnitude. 



Quite as bright as 
Venus. 



Colour. 



Newcastle-on- 
Tyne. 



Ibid, 



10 28 p.m. 



About 
10 5 p.m, 



8 35 p.m. 



Regent's Park, 
London. 



Hawkhurst, 
Kent. 



Ibid. 



About = Venus .. 



About = If.. 



Nearly = If. . 



Bright white 



White 



About = Venus 



, Green 



A fine meteor ; 
much brighter 
than Sirius. 



Like a bril- 
liantly 
green star. 



Duration. 



Motion ex- 
ceedingly 
slow; about 
3 seconds. 



About 1^ sec. 



Position, or 
Apparent Path. 



Passed down the 
S.E. sky, about 
9° W. of Cor 
Hydrae, 

a= S^ 

From 134°-16° 
to 144 -26 



,■■ so 



Jupiter 



The 



About 3 sees. 




• Cassiopeia 
• • • 



Descended obliquely from near 
the foot of Cassiopeia across 
Perseus. 



Shot steadily 
moderate 
speed. 



About lAsec, 



Began at e Pegasi. 
Disappeared 
near but below 
Aquilae. 

From a few degrees 
below T Pegasi 
passed a few 
degrees below 
t) i Aquarii and 
4° or 5° further. 



Halfway between 
Capricorn and 
Scorpio. 



OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 



209 



Length of 
Path. 



Direction or Radiant-point. 



Appearance, Remarks, &c. 



Observer 
and Reference. 



16° 



From Radiant A,, near a Persei, Seen through much haze ; left 



No. 38 in Greg's general list. 
[See last year's Report.] 



15° or 20° 



Globular nucleus ; leaving no 
sparks nor streak. Apparent 
course nearly as shovrn in the 
sketch. 



l30° 



15° or 16° .. 



On a line produced from /8 tj 
Pegasi. 



Short course. 



Obliquely downwards 



no visible streak on its course. 



W. F. Denning, 

' Astronomical Re- 
gister,' May 1875. 



J. Hopper. 



Meteor without sparks or streak 
Apparent course about as repre- 
sented in the sketch. 



Id, 



Probably a Perse'id (or ? Pegasid) 
Nucleus with very broad brU. 
liant blue train. 



T. Crumplen. 



M. S. Hardcastle. 




Expanded to middle of its course, 
where it diffused a bright green 
light, and continuing about i a 
second further disappeared ab- 
ruptly. Left a broad reddish 
gold-coloured train, about 5° 
(from a to b), on the middle of 
its course. 



Id, 



1875. 



210 REPORT— 1875. 

servatory in Paris ; and although it is not described as detonating, and no 
aerolitic fall is ascribed to it in any of the published narratives of its appear- 
ance, some determination of its real course, which appears to have been over 
the western departments of France, must, it may he expected, be derivable 
from the abundant materials which have thus been collected. In the follow- 
ing communication on a large fireball of the 2nd of May last supplied to the 
Committee by Mr. Symons, attention is directed to other accounts of the same 
meteor as seen in Kent and elsewhere ; but of these contemporary descrip- 
tions of its appearance the Committee has not received any additional par- 
ticulars. 

" The meteor noticed in Kent and elsewhere at 8'' 45™ p.m. on the evening 
of the 2nd inst. was seen to advantage by myself and two friends. It passed 
from S. by E. to E.S.E., from an altitude of about 35° to about 22°. It 
appeared brighter and larger than Yenus, was of a very red tint, broke into 
fragments just before disappearing, and occupied, as seen here, not seven 
seconds, as mentioned in the papers, but between three and four," 

" W, Clement Let," 
" Ashby Parva Rectory, Lutterworth, May 4tb, 1875. 

" To G. J. Symons, Esq." 

Some meteors of unusual brightness observed in Essex duriDg the early 
part of this year are thus described by Mr. H, Corder in the ' Astronomical 
Eegister' of June 1875 (vol. xiii. p. 145):—" On March 16, at &" 23"", I 
was startled by a bright light from behind me, and on turning round was 
just in time to see the disappearance of what must have been a fine meteor. 
When I saw it it was about the size of Sirius, but had been far brighter. It 
rose perpendicularly over either /3 or o Leonis. I think the former. 

" On the 17th, about Q*" p.m., another bright meteor was seen here, but I 
have received no details of it. 

" On April 22nd, at 11*" 19™, I saw a very beautiful one in the extreme east 
of Virgo, faUing about 4° on each side of the equator from Corona ; and 
though the new moon was shining a few degrees from it, the meteor formed 
a distinct orange ring or co'rona in the highest cloud in front of it. It was 
of a lovely pale-green hue, with a train of sparks ; and though of no appa- 
rent size, was considerably more brilliant than Venus. 

" Another meteor, of a red colour and of short duration, brighter than 
Jupiter, was seen in the south-west about 25° from the horizon on May 6th 
at 7" 55™."— IT. Corder, Writtle, near Chelmsford, May 8t7i, 1875, 

The following is the note in ' Nature ' (vol. xi. p, 153) on the meteor of 
the 17th of December last year, referred to in the present list under the 
observation of the corresponding date : — " On Thursday, December 17th, at 
10 p,M,, a magnificent faUing star was observed in Paris, Its track was to 
be seen for more than a minute, A correspondent, Mr. J. H. A. Jenner, 
writing from Lewes [Sussex], states that ' on Thursday eveniog, the 17th 
inst., at 10,30, a very fine meteor was seen here. It travelled from north 
to south at a seemingly very low elevation ; and though the moon was 
shining brightly it was a very brilliant object, being several times the bright- 
ness of Sirius, Its colour was yellowish, and it left a long, but not very 
persistent, bluish- white train. Had the night been dark, it must have been 
a very splendid object. The point of disappearance was hidden from my 
sight by houses, but there was no noise attending it.' " 



OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 211 



III. Aerolites and Meteoe-Showebs. 

Iowa, United States, America, 1875, Feb. 12th, 10" 30™ p.m. (Chicago 
time). — The Committee is indebted to Mr. B. V. Marsh, of Philadelphia, for 
many contemporary descriptions of this meteor and of the stonefall that 
accompanied it, from American local journa,ls, of which the accompanying 
outline map roughly represents the geographical positions, together with the 
probable line over which the meteor was vertical in its course. The accounts 
contain descriptions of its appearance at Iowa city, where it was observed 
by Prof. N. R. Leonard (Iowa St. Univ.), who afterwards examined and 



Vinton 
Toledo 



Marengo 
• G-Ti- lyii. 



Neitflon . £roo7e- _ jt 



DCS rieUj^ 
Moines __-.— • -^"""^ C^<y 

Marion Siganrney tVestZibtrey 

Oskaloosa 



SO, Miles. 



described the sites of the meteor's faU at GrineU, Oskaloosa, Vinton, Des 
Moines, &c., and additional observations of it at Brooklyn and "West Liberty 
are supplied by Mr. Marsh. The apparent size of the meteor as seen at 
Iowa city was half that of the full moon, and its light appeared at West 
Liberty as strong as that of fuU daylight. It presented three separate 
explosions (attended apparently by as many distinct reports), and a streak 
of bright light marked its course, described at GrineU as intensely bluish 
white and at Iowa city as slightly tinged with green ; the apparent colour 
of the nucleus itself at the latter place was that of molten iron, and the 
whole duration of its visible flight was estimated at about one second. The 
sound of the report followed the appearance there in two or three minutes, 
like three blasts of a quarry, accompanied by a rolling or rumbling noise. 
The explosion at Brooklyn and westward from Iowa city was stiU more 
violent. It followed 3™ after the appearance of the meteor (by watch) at 
GrineU, and at an interval of about 5° at Searsborough (10 miles south of 
GrineU). Its description at Washington is as of a rumbling earthquake 
sound lasting a minute, and shaking houses plainly. At Vinton it consisted 
of three or four cannon-Uke reports, foUowed by a sound resembUng that of 
a raUway-train crossing a bridge. The meteor and its report were seen and 
heard over a space 125 mUes in extent from E. to W., and over half as 
wide a space from N. to S. Fragments, varying in size from a few lbs. to 
150 lbs., were found at Homestead and other places in the neighbourhood 
of Brooklyn and Iowa city, having excavated to a great depth both earth 
and snow upon which they fell. The point marked x in the map is the 
site of one of the first fragments found, about 6 lbs. or 7 lbs. in weight, in 
N. lat. 41° 46', W. long. 92° 0'. 

Descriptions of this meteorite and of another stonefaU which took place a 

p2 



212 REPORT — 1875. 

few months later in Zsadany in Hungary, will be found in a review of such 
occurrences, and of the principal investigations that have been made with 
regard to them during the past year, in the notices on Meteorites (Part I., 
pp. 240, 243) at the end of this Eoport. 

The August Meteor-sliower in 1874. — The shower was partially observed 
near Chelmsford, Essex, by Mr. H. Corder, with the following results as to 
the numbers seen ; but the cloudy state of the sky prevented any appearance 
of the shower from being visible on the night of the 10th. 

August 2ncl, 1874, August 5th, August 6th, 

9i> 50'" to 10" 50™. 13" 36™ to 13" 45". 9" 54"> to 1 1". 1 1" to 1 1" 40"'. 
No. of meteors 

mapped 8 5 31* 6* 

On the night of August 11th, with a favourable view of the sky, Mr. 
Corder, watching alone (as on the former nights), counted the following 
numbers of shooting- stars in the half-hours ending at 

Total ill 
gii-lO". 10''30™. IP. 1P30"'. 12". 12''30'». SbSO". 
No. of meteors 

counted 13 17 22 22 17 13 104 

Three of these meteors were as bright as Jupiter, the brightest appearing 
at 10'' 3.5" P.M. in Cassiopeia ; 82 left streaks, including aU of the 1st, 
nearly all of the 2nd, and a great proportion of the 3rd mag. shooting-stars. 
Twelve meteors were unconformable, or obviously not directed from the 
radiant-point in Perseus, and the length of path varied from g° to 30° (in 
the case of a large one overhead at ll'' 5" p.m.). The prevailing colour of 
the meteors from Perseus was orange. Their general centre of divergence 
was near the cluster ^ in Perseus, extending also to Cassiopeia. On 
August 2nd most of the meteors diverged from e Pegasi ; and on the 6th the 
points of radiation were very various, belonging chiefly, however, to the 
shower from Perseus. 

Mr. J. E. Clark obtained a view of the shower at York on the night of 
the 10th, mapping 40 meteor-tracks between lO** 7™ and ll'' 55™ p.m., and 
together with Mr. E. Grubb counting the following numbers in the successive 
haK-hours of the watch ending at 

Total in 
10" 45". 11" 15". ll"4,'i". 11" 45"" to 12". 1" 45"". 
Numbers of meteors seen 

by two observers 37 19 35 18 109 

The following numbers of meteors of different magnitudes were mapped : — 

Brightness =$or:|. >>lst mag. =lstdo. = 2nd do. =3rd&4tlido. Total. 

No. of meteors 
mapped 7 ' 4 14 10 4 39 

Between lO*" 45" p.m. and midnight on the 10th of August the tracks of 
these August meteors were mapped by Prof. Herschel at Newcastle-on- 
Tyne in the following numbers, diiring the half-hours of the watch end- 
ing at 

* Of these meteors (mostly Perseids, and 14 with trains) the numbers of various bright- 
nesses were : — 

Ist 2nd .Srd 4th and .ith magn. stars. 
5 11 10 11 



OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEOllS. 213 











Total in 




U" 15™. 


11" 45™. 


llh 45™ to 12". 


1" 15". 


No. of meteors 










mapped 


20 


17 


7 


44 



Of the different magnitudes of brightness there were observed the follow- 
iug numbers : — 

Apparent 

brightness... 2/. or J. Sirius. 1st mag. 2ud do. 3rd do. 4tli&5thdo. 
Nos. of meteors 

seen 2 5 8 10 11 10 

Mr. "W. F. Denning's view of the shower on the 10th, at Bristol, is thus 
described in a letter in the ' Astronomical Register ' (September 1874), con- 
taining notes of his observations of the display. The night of the lOth was 
fine and moonless. The meteors were watched almost continuously for four 
hours, from 10" 45™ to 14'' 45™, and 281 meteors were observed. Thirty- 
two of these were as bright or brighter than Ist-magnitude stars ; 252 were 
Perseids, and almost all (with ver}/ few exceptions) left persistent streaks, 
lasting, however, rarely more than about 2 seconds. On the night of the 11th, 
although, as on the 9th, the sky was generally unfavourable for observation, 
a watch of 10™, in a clear interval, soon after 10 o'clock, presented 12 shoot- 
ing-stars ; and they appeared to be nearly as numerous as on the preceding 
night. The principal radiant-centre of divergence of the Perseids was be- 
tween B, C Camelopardi and 1^ Persei', at E. A. 39°, N. Decl. 58^° ; and other 
radiant -centres in Cassiopeia, Pegasus, and Draco were at the same time in 
perceptible activity during the shower. 

The nights of the 9th and 11th having generally been unsuitable for a watch 
on account of the clouded state of the sky, it is satisfactory that at one station 
(Mr. Corder's in Essex) a continuous enumeration of the meteors was possible 
on the night of the 11th ; and by comparison with records on the 10th at the 
other places of observation, it does not appear that the intensity of the display 
had very notably diminished. It is not possible from these particulars to de- 
termine the time of maximum of the display even approximately, although 
in point of brightness and numbers the Perseids in August 1874 were pro- 
bably more conspicuous on the night of the 10th than on the following night. 
If allowance is made for the absence of the moon, the shower appears to have 
been one of very considerable intensity, and to have presented an abundance 
of bright meteors, but scarcely to have exceeded in this respect either of 
those of the two preceding years, nor to have quite attained the somewhat 
exceptional brilliancy of the August star-shower in the year 1871. 

The October Meteor-shower in 1874. — Fine nights for observing these 
meteors occurred at Birmingham on the 18th and 19th of October, and a 
watch for them was continued for one hour on each night by Mr. Wood. 
Four meteors were seen and mapped between 11" and 12" on the 18th, and 9 
meteors between 10'^ 30" and 11" 30" on the 19th, while a further watch of 
half an hour on this latter night from ll*" 30'' to 12" was without result, no 
more shooting-stars being visible during the continuance of the watch. The 
meteors mapped radiated principally from and F,, ^, the two radiants of 
the October period in Orion and Auriga, but not in sufficient numbers to 
make the return of these showers consincuous, or to afford important deter- 
minations of their radiant-points from the few representatives of the prin- 
cipal October meteor-shower which were observed. On the night of the 20th 
the sky was overcast ; and, as far as the Committee has learned, no other 
notes on these dates could, for similar grounds, be obtained at other observing 



214 REPORT — ]875. 

stations where the annual showers of October, November, and December, and 
of January, April, and August, hare hitherto been observed. 

November, December, and Jamtar)/ Meteor-showers, 1874—75. — In con- 
sequence of the accumulating number of meteor observations on the annual 
dates of the periodic shower, observations of the November, December, and 
other annual meteor-showers of the past year have not been especially 
solicited ; and the condition of the sky on the returning dates of the above 
three showers was such that only a widely organized watch could have ob- 
tained useful particulars of their appearance. The November and January 
showers were looked for without success from the prevalence of clouds ; and 
that of the 12th of December, when the circumstances were favourable for 
its observation, disappointed expectation by an unusual scarcity of the Ge- 
minids on the periodic night. With a perfectly clear sky, in the absence of 
moonlight, one meteor only was visible at Newcastle-on-Tj-ne in an interval 
of 45"" from 11" 30"" to 12" lo"" on the night of the 12th ; and although this 
small shooting-star was a Geminid, the loss of intensity of the shower since its 
last periodic return on the 12th of December, 1 873, is very conspicuous and 
striking. A careful record of the meteors of November and December last 
was kept, however, by the astronomers of the Toulouse observatory in France, 
where M. Gruey (' Comptes Eendus,' vol. Ixxs. p. 56) mapped the tracks of a 
considerable number of meteors in both months. But few meteors, and those 
generally unconformable to Leo, were seen on the partially cloudy nights of 
November 12, 13, and during a fine interval of the following night, from 3" 
to 4" 30"° ; and on the morning of the 15th a greater scarcity even of sporadic 
meteors prevailed, and not a single shooting-star was visible during a very 
attentive watch. On the nights of the 10th, 11th, and 12th of December, 
1874, watch was again kept, and on the first two nights a somewhat plentiful 
display of meteors was observed. Three observers, watching a quarter of the 
sky, saw on the night of the 10th 34 meteors in 1" 20"" (average rate of 
frequency 25 per hour) ; on the night of the 11th, 17 meteors in 35 minutes 
(or at the rate of 30 per hour) ; while on the night of the 12th 4 meteors 
only were seen in the first and none in two subsequent watches of 10" each, 
in which the clouds cleared away sufficiently to leave the sky unobscured. 
The majority of these meteors were conformable to a radiant-point near 
which (at K. A. 130°, Decl. -f- 4G=) one of great brightness on the 10th 
appeared stationary ; and although this place differs considerably from the 
usual direction of divergence of the Geminids of this shower, and from the 
place of its centre observed by M. Tisserand in December 1873 (' Comptes 
Eendus,' 1873, December 15), yet the general emanation of the meteor-tracks 
recorded from about this point was very apparent ; and as an average 
radiant-centre of the 11 meteors mapped on the 10th, 7 on the 11th, and 
2 on the night of the 12th (or 20 shooting-stars in all), it was very di- 
stinctly marked. Several radiant-positions by other observers, closely adjacent 
to it, wiU be found in Greg's general list (1874), No. 175. As regards their 
brightness, the following numbers represent the total of each description 
which were visible throughout the watch : — 

Apparent brightness 1st mag. 2nd do. 3rd do. Total. 

and under. 
No.of meteors seen in 2'> 25°>... 18 9 28 55 

M. Gruey suggests (and the conjecture weU deserves further trial and 
corroboration) that the radiant-point of the December shower is multiple, and 
that his new position of it is a special one, which was very perceptible on 
this occasion. 



OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 215 

Mr. Clark watched at Heidelberg for the return of the November meteor- 
shower, during a partially overcast state (clouds concealing about one half 
or two thirds) of the sky, on the mornings of the 14th and loth of November 
last (1S74), for about 25 minutes on each date, and observed a small Leonid 
and two Taurids on the former, and three brighter Leonids (two of which 
left enduring streaks) and one unconformable meteor on the latter date. 
The shower does not appear to have entirely disappeared, and its tendency 
to reach a maximum on the morning of the 15th rather than on that of the 
14th appears still to be sensible in its decreasing phase. At Heidelberg and 
at Sunderland in England, Mr. Clark and Mr. Backhouse reported the state 
of the weather at the principal periods of the December and January showers 
as unfavourable for observations. No observations of the January star- 
shower in ] 875 could, from the general prevalence elsewhere of similarly 
unfavourable conditions, be obtained. 

The April Jleteor-sJiower in 1875. — All the accounts which the Committee 
has received of observations on this star-shower during the bright moon- 
light and hazy state of the sky on the nights of the 19th-21st of April last 
are corroborative of the almost total cessation or disappearance of the shower 
at the usual time of its annual retui-n. During a watch of l*" 30" on the 
19th, and of 1" on the 20th, Mr. M'Clure, with one assistant at Glasgow, 
observed only a single meteor (apparently not a Lyraid) on the former 
night. At Newcastle-on-Tyne the sky was very clear from lO*" 50" p.ir. 
until midnight on the night of April 20th, and five meteors, one of which 
was a small Lyraid, were observed. Two of these were of remarkable 
length of course and brightness, directed apparently from radiant-points 
near Aquila, Arcturus, or in the southern hemisphere : but from the bright- 
ness of the full moon meteors of smaller brightness than 3rd- or 4th-magnitude 
stars would not have been visible on the occasion of this periodic watch ; 
and with regard to the disappearance of the shower on the night of April 
20th, some evidence of its occurrence may have been visible in foreign 
countries, of which, on account of the maximum being reached during day- 
time in England, the observation at English stations could only be very 
partial, and may in this manner have been quite prevented. 

At Birmingham the sky was clear on the 21st, and in the fuU moonlight, 
which stiU prevailed, Mr. Wood observed at Birmingham, at 10** 52", one 
meteor only (a bright Lyraid) as the result of an attentive watch of 1" 5" 
for the expected April shower. 

Meteor-showers of August 1875. — The stormy and unsettled weather of 
the early days of this month interfered at almost every station with regular 
observations^ the day and evening of the 10th of August itself being one of 
most violent thunderstorms throughout the country, and but scattered 
records of the Perseus shooting-stars were in consequence I'eceived. Noticing 
meteors to be frequent on the night of July 28th, Mr. Crumplen mapped 
some of their apparent courses in London between lO*" and 10'' 30" p.m. ; and 
those of seven proved to be Perseids, with a radiant-point between ^ Persei 
and Cassiopeia. A communication concerning observations of meteors on the 
2nd of August was also received by the Committee from Mr. Hind, who 
relates that between 9'' 30" and ll"" p.m. on that evening a number of 
meteors were remarked, one of thom of a Lyroe brightness, the radiant- 
point of which was " most decided," and its position was found to be at 
omicron AndromedjB (R.A. 344°, Decl.-f-41°). The existence of this radiant- 
point in August was pointed out in the first of Mr. Greg's general lists of 
radiant-points (Report, 1864, p. 100, No. xxx.), attaching to it the sign EG 



216 



REPORT — 1875. 



after its neighbourhood to Heis's radiaut-point E in October in the constel- 
lation Lacerta (German Eidechse), which was found by Mr. Greg to be a very- 
persistent and much earlier occurring shower. Although its position was 
afterwards confirmed (as will be seen in the subjoined Table) and extended 
to include radiants with more northern declinations in Schiaparelli's and 
Tupman's lists, yet it appears that the new radiant-point observed by Mr. 
Hind allies itself more closely to an earlier group, close to the same place, 
well marked in Schiaparelli's list, and together with some closely adjoining 
radiant-points forming the only representatives in that list of the well-known 
meteor-shower of the " Pegasids," diverging about the time of the 10th of 
August star-shower of the Perseids from near the star a Pegasi. The con- 
firmation which this observation affords of the early occurrences in July and 
August of " Lacertid " meteor-showers noted in Schiaparelli's list, which were 
unattested hitherto by other observers, is at the same time a corroboration of 
special interest from the very sharply-defined and well-recorded date and 
■ position of the radiation. 

Table of Cepheid, Lacertid, and Pegaskl Meteor-sJiowers in July, August, and September. 



Sign. 



Duration of 

shower. 



Position of 
Eadiant-point. 



Remarks. 



Heis (DieperiodischeStern- 
schnuppen, 1859) and 
Eadiant-list, 1864 

B. P. Greg, Eadiant-list, 
1864. 

Id. Eadiant-list, 1867-68... 

J. F. Schmidt, Eadiant-list, 
1869 



G.V. Scliiaparelli & Zezioli, 
Eadiant-list, 1871 

G. L. Tupman, Eadiant- 
list, 1873 



E 
EG 



E 
(c Lacertae) 



E.Weiss, 1869 

E. P. Greg, Eadiant-list, / 

1872 (and 1874) 1 

J. E. Hind, 1875 



Schiaparelli's & Zezioli's 
list 



Quoted in the Nos. below 
of Greg's General lists. 



Greg's General lists, 1872 
(and 1874) 



No. 145 
„ 146 
„ 151 
„ 52 
„ 64 
„ 77 



90(112)Ei 
96 (125) E, 
(o Andro- 
medse) 



(So. 98 

„ 103 

„ 106 

„ 123 

(Average 

No. 100 

„ 104 

„ 113 

„ 134 

(Average 

76(95, 96)TG 

67 (97) Ti 



Oct. 16-31. 
Aug. 17-Sept. 30 



Aug. 7-Sept. 30 



Aug. 7-31 



Aug. 28 

Sept. 5 

Sept. 20 

.Aug. 22 

Aug. 23 

Sept. 22 

Aug. 12-13 

Aug. 6-31 ? 

Aug. 10-Sept. 30 

Aug. 2 



Jxily 18 

July 19 

July 19 

July 30 

July "18-30 

July 18 

July 19 

July 23 

Aug. 4 

July 18-Aug. 4 

Aug. 3-15 

Jan. 29-Aug. 24 



E.A. Decl. 

330 -f50 

333 -f50 

(from 314, -I- 52 

to 347,-1-47) 

335 -1-52 



347 +51 



340 -h65 ] 

321 -1-60 I 

317 -f47j 

340 -1-33 1 

334 -f 48 \ 
345 -1-61 J 
345 -f50 

335 -f 67 \ 
335 -f52/ 
344 -1-41-5 



332 
338 
334 
335 
335 
342 
332 
336 
342 
338 
337 
330 ^ 
to 345 : 



-f35^ 
-f43 
-f45 
■4-40 

+41) 
+23 
+23 
+ 30 
+29 

+ 26); 
+ 25 

+14 



Continued nearly at tbe 
same place in Sep- 
tember and October. 
No other neighbour- 
ing radiant in these 
months. 

Do. 

Quoted inTupman's list. 

(Ej subradiant of the 
Lacertids, E,). 

Appears to coincide 
with the two ra- 
diants (below) S.& Z. 
123 and 134. 



Eadiant-region, La- 
certa. 



Eadiant-region, 
(i ri fi Pegasi. 



Pegasid subradiant. 

Near a Pegasi. (Ea- 
diant of the Pega- 
sids.) 



OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 217 

Between lO*" p.ir. and midnight on August 9 th, 1875, Mr. Waller ob- 
served 50 shooting-stars at Birmingham, showing that the shower of Perseids 
had already reached a considerable intensity on that night. On the follow- 
ing night Mr. Wood observed at the same place a somewhat larger number 
(as will be seen by his report), and mapped the tracks of 40 meteors radi- 
ating, with only one or two exceptions, from Perseus, and a few of them 
from a branch radiant-point apparently at e Cassiopeiae. The principal 
radiant-point in Perseus was at the star jj of that constellation — scarcely any 
of the meteor-tracks prolonged backwards diverging far from this point, and 
the radiant-point of the remainder, constituting a very small proportion of the 
whole number, being in the neighbourhood of ^^ Persei. One of these meteors 
(at 1 L** 39™ 30*) was as bright as Jupiter ; and eight others were as bright as 
Sirius, or brighter than Ist-magnitude stars. Mr. Wood thus describes the 
general characteristics of the shower during the period of his observations. 
The sky was very clear and, from the absence of moonlight, very favourable 
for obtaining meteor registrations. 

1875, Aug. 10, P.M. Hourly numbers. Average position of Percentage of 

From to Clear sky. One observer. the radiant-point. magnitudes. 

10" 11" 20 meteors seen. E..A. 36°, Decl.-|-57° lst=45p. ct. 

11 12 40 „ „ Perseids 85 per cent. 2ud=27 „ 

3rd=28 „ 

Predominating colour of the meteors yellow. Eighteen of the forty meteors 
mapped were described as leaving very persistent streaks, one of these (the 
last on the regular list, at 12" 6™) being a bright meteor from the direction 
of the well-known concomitant radiant-point of the August shower in 
Pegasus. On the nights of August 9th and 11th the sky was overcast. 

The sky was clear and the meteor-shower was weU seen at Sunderland by 
Mr. T. W. Backhouse on the night of the 10th, from whom the particulars of 
its appearance noted below have been received. The following is Mr. Back- 
house's description of a Perseid of great brightness, which exceeded in magni- 
tude any other meteor of the shower which he observed : — " It appeared at 
13" 24" [1'^ 24" A.M., August 11th, 1875] i° to the right of a Auriga, and 
was directed towards d, disappearing near v and r Aurigae. It increased 
very rapidly in brightness just before disappearing, becoming brighter than 
Venus at its brightest, making a bright glow round it. Its tail also increased 
rapidlj^ in brightness and was of many colours, but its changes were too 
rapid for me to foUow them ; purple, however, predominated at first, and 
afterwards green. After the head disappeared, the tail remained some 
seconds quite straight (and vertical), and gradually became slightly serpen- 
tine — the brightest part (that near the head) lasting at least 4| minutes, 
becoming a group of cloudy patches 3° or 4° in extent, and spreading out 
N. and S. The stars y and r were at first at the S. end, and then in 
the middle of this group. At 13" 27" or 28" I looked at it with my 4^- 
inch refractor with a low power ; it was irresolvable, and like a group of a 
few large iiudcflned nebulae, the brightest part at y and r Aurigae." In a 
watch at intervals between 10'' 20" and 14'' 20", amounting together to 96 
minutes, and equivalent to one of 82 minutes in a sky without clouds or 
twilight, 70 meteors were seen, corresponding (as the number seen in a clear 
sky by one observer) to an average rate of frequency of 51 meteors per 
hour. The great majority of the meteors seen in these periods of observation 
of the shower were Perseids. 



218 REPORT — 1875. 

Between 12" and 12" 30" on the night of August 11th, Mr. Greg observed 
10 meteors, chiefly Persei'ds, in an interval of clear sky, at Buntingford, 
Herts ; and four of these were of considerable brightness. The radiant- 
region was diffuse, extending apparently between a Persei and e or t Cas- 
siopeise. 

General Radiant-lists, and tJieir extension and corroboration by observations 
{chiefly collected by the Committee since the year 1870). — The numerous 
observations (principally of the periodical meteor-showers of January, April, 
August, October, November, and December) communicated during the past 
six or seven years, since the publication of the Committee's " Atlas of 
Radiant-points " in the year 1867, which have remained' unpublished in 
these Eeports since the year 1870, together with the printed meteor-cata- 
logue of the " Eadcliffe Observations," Oxford, for the years 1869-1872, 
aiford abundant materials for revising and correcting, and in some cases for 
extending the list of Radiant-points included in that Atlas, of which ad- 
vantage has only been partially taken by Mr. Greg in his most recently pub- 
lished general lists of Radiant-points (see these Reports for 1868, p. 401, 
the list of the ' Atlas ' of meteor-showers, 1872, Table facing p. 109, and 
1874, pp. 324-339). The latter list contains all the combined radiant-lists of 
various observers, and reproduces, with very little alteration, the earlier 
meteor-shower list of the British Association ' Atlas ' in 1867, as the portion 
of the Catalogue which depends directly upon observations collected by the 
Committee. By comparison with the more recent observations, Mr. Greg is 
now enabled to present the following modifications and instances of corro- 
boration of his general list (p. 221) which the above-named continued series of 
observations are found to afford, and which they suggest as desirable points for 
verification in the case of a continued collection of occasional meteor-observa- 
tions for such an object. Several new radiant-points are comprised among 
these results ; and new positions and durations are assigned to several of the 
formerly established showers, of which the particulars and the general 
extent wiU most readily be gathered from the following notes of these com- 
parisons supplied by Mr. Greg. The reference numbers in the first column 
of the Table correspond to those of the general list in the volume of these 
Reports for 1874 (p. 324), and to this list and to the older one of 1868 the 
present Table supplies a five or six years' commentary and continuation. Some 
radiant-points of the list deserve special notice as having received from the 
new observations important illustrations. Showers formerly very conspicuous 
are occasionally unnoticed, or were invisible in the newer observations. Of 
these showers,B G (G. &H., No. 101) of the " Cygnids " in July and August 
is an example, having been only very sparingly observed since the year 1870 : 
while an eqiiaUy marked meteor-shower of July, near the head of Draco, BZ 
(No. 102), has presented itself with greatest intensity in August as a con- 
comitant of the 10th of August- meteors, and during the periods of observa- 
tion immediately connected with the systematic watches for that shower. 

Two well-defined meteor-showers in October and November, and a third 
in December, the Orionids of October 16th-24th, Taurids of Nov. 2nd-12th, 
and Geminids of December 10th-14th, appear to be connected together by 
intermediate meteors, absorbing with the principal radiant-points themselves 
a large proportion of the sporadic meteors visible in those months. The first 
two of these showers are in great part contemporary, the sliower-radiant in 
Orion comprising, according to Schmidt, six subradiants in October and 
November, with an average position at about R.A 83°, Decl. -f 11°. The 
place of its maximum appearance, about the middle of October, is in some- 



OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 219 

what greater right ascension and declination (by four or five degrees) than 
this position ; and a comparison of its elements might perhaps be attempted 
successfully with those of the comet of 1821, 1, (radiant-point at 86°,4-19°-5), 
if the nodal date (jN'ovember 11th) of this comet is capable of being recon- 
ciled with the much earlier time of appearance of the Orion shower. In the 
' Memorie della Soc. degli Spettroscopisti Italiani ' of May 1874, a memoir on 
the meteors of the 17th-2Sth of October (1609 meteor-tracks observed by 
Drs. Heis and Schmidt, Zezioli, and at the Vienna Observatory, between the 
years 1843 and 1873), by Ludwig Gruber, of Vienna, is inserted, in which 
the author discusses the ap]iareut radiant-points of this meteoric epoch by 
projecting the meteor-tracks recorded successively on each single date. The 
smallest number of tracks (65) occurred on the 20th, and the greatest (284 
and 226) on the 22nd and 24tli of October ; 310 meteors were found to be 
sporadic, or incapable of reduction to any distinguishable radiant-point. 
Of the remaining meteors, Dr. Gruber regards 16 radiant-points as having 
sufficiently well-defined positions to admit of further calculations as regards 
their orbits. The accompanying list (p. 220) exhibits the dates and positions 
together with the relative intensities of these several showers, as shown by 
the percentage numbers of meteors belonging to them on the days when 
they were most conspicuous. The Table also contains comparisons of their 
positions with those of already noted meteor-showers in other radiant-lists. 

These radiants may be grouped in great part under already recognized 
displays, as those of the Orionids (II. & VIII.), Muscids (V., X., XIV.), 
Taurids (VI.), Castorids, or OemelUds (between Castor and Pollux, IX.), a 
shower from near /3 Geminorum (first recorded in that constellation by Herrick 
from the 20th to the 26th of October, 1839, and observed at the above place, 
in great intensity, by Zezioli from the 21st to the 25th, and especially on 
the morning of the 23rd of October, 1868 *), Cassiopeids (XII.), anA.Pokirids 
(XV.). But certain radiant-points of the list are new to the general Radiant 
Catalogue of Mr. Greg in the last volume of these Eeports, and they are in- 
cluded below (Xos. 194, 195) in the present Supplementary Table of that list. 
Dr. Gruber's position of the radiant-point XIII. agrees distantly with that of 
a new radiant-point for the end of October near o Piscium, noticed by Mr. 
Backhouse in 1872, and established by Mr. Greg from several other meteor- 
tracks in his examination of the recent observations. It may be added that 
the older radiants RG^, T^^ ^ 3' ^^<i '^^v E, o, and N^j Ag, in August, and the 
October-December showers Ai5_i7 near Cassiopeia, have undergone revision 
by means of the observations up to the j^ear 1873, and that reductions to 
more definite positions that other showers admit of will perhaps be further 
illustrated when the unusually large collection of observations in the year 
1873-74 have aU been projected. The radiant IST^^ (G. & H., 1874, No. 83) 
appears to have arisen out of a distinct meteor-shower in Cassiopeia (Aj^, 
G. & H., ITos. 83, 98 in the Supplementary List), accompanying that of the 
Persei'ds, reaching a maximum about the 10th and again on the 23rd of 
August, which has been well marked among the recent observations at a 
place (provisionally assigned to it) at y Cassiopeiae. The relation of this 
new shower to the two formerly adopted radiant-points A^ and N^^, and its 
final separation from the Perseus radiant-point, with which it has pro- 
bably been identified by indiscriminate projections hitherto, will form an 
important subject for investigation in future observations. 

* Herrick's shower at 99°, +26° (e Geminorum), Gruber's and Schiaparelli's position 
from Zezioli's observatious, and one in Tupman's list (No. 90) are the only recorded 
radiant-centres of the October period in the constellation Gemini. 



220 



REPORT 1875. 



i3 


4 

o 

M 

0) 




3. 157) Orionids. 
reg, 1874, 
No. 144.) 


Si- 

d GO 

.-cb 


"1 Taurids 
■ (Greg, 1874, 
. No. 156). 

,1874, No. 157; 


GcmelUds: Her- 
G.1874,No.l42). 
,1874, No. 129; 


v.] 

G. 1874, No. 173). 
5, No. 195). 
also No. v.] 
374, No. 143). 
. 1874, No. 128). 


DO 

.1 
o 


1 

c 

c 
J 


3 
> 

> 

JO 
3 




gc5 

00^.2 




l-r! . 3^ 


^-:g|^^ sS^wdc« 

CO '-< J- -q DO 03 ;3CQ - 2 :^^ 








CO --^ 




C3 




CO *-< 


-»^' fc fe lo : CO 

o o 


o o 


sC"0 O 


O 

a, 

S 
o 


d 
o 

1 

ft 


. o o r 


-J 

o 

o 


00 C5 

CO 01 1:5 

o o 

OO 


o feopco -gco 
i^^ciciO^I 

^^ o ci . O 

^O eg 




'o 


O O CO Ttl t- 


05 O 00 CD »o 


C5 Tfl rt 

cr)!?>(M 


"P 00 o in OO o 


• 


: rt lo lo : c-1 


C-l — 1 r-l I— 1 : (M 


: 1— Tt< 00 00 t- 




o 


fi 


•+ + 4- • + 


+ + + + • + 


+ + + 


•:^+ + +++ 




'43 


; 






+ 




(^ 


->i 


o :00-H :iiD 


in o lO -H ; ■* 


r-l O CO 


: in CO 00 ic o o 






« 


• 05 ^ CO . ■* 
05 00 


-* lo lo o : t- 


.-H005 

T—i I— 1 


: ^ ci c) o -H ^ 

Cl .-1 




. 


I:^ C-l lO C5 -^ 


00 05 


(M T^ 


CDt-t-rt O 


^ d 




0-.D CO rH CI O 


CO la? CO 


in c» 


O -!+< -fi CO t~ ^ 


0-3 


fi 


<M r-( O CI 0? 


rt (>) (M 


!N T-1 


CI lO i-H CO CO I- 




+ + + + + 


+ + + 


+ + 


+ + + 4-+ + 


<i 


„<»t- o 


" CO CO 


>n CD 


•T< CI CO CO I:~ 


« 


°§5^l -- 


00 o >o 
in ^ t- 


t— I 


<M rH 00 CD O O 

CI CI CO in CO 
c^ 


°§ 










•C.No 
teors 
Max 
Date. 


CI «D in CO CO 


t-- O CO 


: o 


O rH in t-H CO CO 


(M CO rt (M (M 


.-1 c<)iyj 


: ci 


T-i C<1 i-H -^ rt c^ 


S « 










(SS 










° a n S 


t ^ t^ CO 05 


Ol (M .w 


: CO 


CO -+ ^ CD t- CO 


Dat 
Max 
freqi 

Oct 




(M (M (M 


: c-1 


CI C<1 CJ C) CI c< 


rl . si 
o © tH S 

• r- S <B S 


t-^^ ooo. 


in Cl '-^ 


t- 


m 'T CO 00 


C-l (M C-l 


•^l" 00 


CO <^|" =-,' <^|' ^' c» 


^■s 2 O 


-■tibl -Hr-, 


li oo 


c^^ =•! 


CI 4, ^1 ,_i ^1 CI 


Q "^O 


V~i 1—1 


1-1 C-l CM 


CI 


ci cq ci CI 




00 




o 


o ci 


° s § 


CO 


00- '^. 




t-^ CO 00 


g a c8 


coo 


«o tC 


CD 


CO CD : CO 


S? t^ S 


i-HcTor c5c5 


IC =*„ 


ctT 


oi t-T : t-^ 


^^1 


"O Ttl Tfl t-t^ 


eo 05 


■^ 


tH CD • CD 


c-'ocjoo cTcT 


2 ^2 




CO 05 ai CO oo" 

-* Tt< ■* Tfl Tp 




"f tH Tf Tt* -+ 

CO CO CO 00 CO 




00 00 


00 CO 00 CO 00 




I— t ^H ^H ^H ^H 


1 — 1 r— 1 


,-H ,— ( ^W t-H T— * 


ct. 17-28, 

Radiants 

Gruber). 










1— 1 " 








) o--- 1 









OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS MKTEORS. 



221 



Supplementary Table and general Radiant-list (continued), showing the cor- 
roborations of former meteor-showers and new radiant-points, derived by- 
Mr. Greg from the Eadcliffe Observations of 1870-74, the British Asso- 
ciation Catalogues in these Reports of 1867-74, and from private sources 
(R. P. Greg, A. S. Herschel, J. E. Clark, T. W. Backhouse), including about 
1000 observations independent of the periodic meteor-streams of Perseids, 
Orionids, Leonids, Andromedes, Geminids, Lyraids, and of meteors belong- 
ing to the annual star-shower of the lst-3rd of January. — Supplement to 
the general list of Radiant-points 1874 (volume of these Reports for 1874, 
p. 324), by R. Greg. 

Old Meteor- Showers and Radiants. 



B.A. 

Cat. No. 
Greg, 
1874. 



1. 

2. 
11. 
14. 
16. 
26. 
45. 
47. 
53. 
55. 
59a. 

67. 

67. 
69. 

72. 

74. 
77. 
79. 

81. 

83. 

98. 

83." 

98.. 

84. 



90. 
93. 
94. 
95. 



G.&H. 

Sign of 
Radiant. 



Dates and Confirmations by Observation. 



Position as 
coniirmed. 



NG 

Ml, 2 

MGl 

AGl 

G3 

M3 

MZ. 

DGl 

SZ2 

M6, 7, 8 

Y 

Ql,2 

Q2 
W. 

[W & Q G ?] 

WG 

Bl 

QG 

B4 

Nil 
A9 

All 

MG5 
Q3 



N 12, 13 
H 



f (December, January) confirmed probably "I 

\ for December 4-8 at J 

Confirmed tolerably December 13, at 

December 19 to January 2, partly confirmed 
February 27 to March 6, partly confirmed . . . 

January 9-19, partly confirmed 

February, partly confirmed 

Partially confirmed 

Confirmed March and April 

( = ? S G 2) in part fairly confirmed 

Fairly confirmed 

(? M 3 Z) partially confirmed 

f Confirmed April and May, but not so \ 
\ strongly marked as between 1862-1867 J 

( = Q 1 , 2) May and June, confirmed at 

(May and June) partially confirmed at 

f Slightly confirmed at ; not so well marked "I 

\ as formerly (?) J 

Partially confirmed at 

Fairly confirmed at {3i5o'ig3o| 

Only slightly confirmed ; probably more qui- "I 

escent than some years ago, at j 

J Well confirmed (15th July to August) at ... 

\ Very well confirmed (August) 

Partially confirmed 

Well confirmed at 

J" Confirmed very fairly, July 25 to August "1 
1. 26,(new radiant,yCassiopeise,12°,-t-59°)at J 

Partially confirmed 

f Very slightly confirmed only (perhaps a "1 
\ radiant connected with it in Serpens ?) at J 
August (July), probably confirmed at 

f Partially confirmed (August) 

\ Fairly confirmed (in August only) at 

Not noticed 



E.A. Decl. 

280 -fSO 
139 -t-53 

60 -H37 

165 -f35 



230 -+-29 

232 -f30 

285 -f35 

295 -)-12 

308 -fl5 

307 +&1 

303 -f7 

315 -f45 

310 +45 

360 -f 45 

352 -f62 

to 

10 +60 



{ 



r Very slightly confirmed (and perhaps con- 1 
\ neoted with 96,112, or 125, TG, E 1, E 2) at ] 



265 + 3 

273 +28 

240 -1^83 

340 +4S, 



222 



REPORT 1875. 



Old Meteor-Showers and Eadiants (continued). 



B.A. 

Cat. No. 
Greg, 
1874. 


G. &H. 

Sign of 
Eadiant. 


96. 


TG. 


97. 


Tl 


99. 


V 


102. 


BZ 


103. 


El, 2 


111. 


T2,3 


112. 


El 


113. 


B5 


115. 


E Gl 


122. 


(Tupman) 


125. 


E2 


129. 


El? 


130. 




131. 




136. 


El,, 


142. 




141. 1 
147. ] 






144. 




145. 1 
167. / 


PI 


146. 


BG6 


156. 


EG2 


156. 


Gl 


157. 


O 


166. 


DG2 


185. 1 
= 167. ] 






fl68. 
■ 169. 


A 16 




172. 


A 17, 18, 19 


172. 


A 17 


173. 


A 14, 15 


173.? 


A 15 


174. 


AGl 


175. 




176. 


EG 


185.] 
= 167.) 







Dates and Confirmations by Obserration. 



(or ? 95) slightly confirmed for August at 

Well confirmed (August) at 

Slightly confirmed 

r Confirmed July 10 to September 30 

I Position for August strongly confirmed at... 

Fairly confirmed (in August) at 

f Well confirmed (August) at 

[ Fairly confirmed (September and October) at 
Tolerably well confirmed (August only) at . . . 

[■ Slightly confirmed (August) at 

\ Not confirmed, September (? = No. 130, 

[ B7-9, Heis) 

(August) i-adiant perhaps extends to 

(August 6-12). Very well confirmed by the 

1870-71 Eadcliffe observations 

Slightly confirmed (August only) at.. 

(Of He'is). September (not =E3, October 1- "f 
15), well confii'med at 40°, +35°to33° +35° J 

August ( September) susjiected at 

•Well confirmed at 

Very slightly confirmed 

September, "1 and October, "1 Well confirmed 
100°,+S6°,) 98°,+30°, ) at 

Tupman, confirmed ? September, at 

Perhaps confirmed (October) at 

(Of Heis.) Apparently fairly confirmed in 
October (but possibly, however, only a 

joseiido-shoyfev) at 

Well confirmed (October 15-31) at 

Extremely well confirmed (November 6-12) at 

Well confirmed (? begins November 5) 

Confirmed well 

Confirmed by Clark, at 

December 5-13. Probably confirmed at 

(? Not Andromedes) fairly good at 

Slightly confirmed November 12 to 14, at ... 
(Heis). December 8-19; probably confirmed at 
(Greg). Confirmed December 4-8 {Andro- \ 

medes*) at ) 

(October). Well confirmed at 

( ? 14, 15). Moderately confirmed, November 

Partly confirmed December 4-12 at 

November 4-30 ; well confirmed (possibly ^ 

a new radiant) at j" 

Slightly confirmed at 

December 6-13. Probably confirmed at ... 



Position as 
confirmed. 



E.A. Decl. 

o o 

340 +35 

344 +16 

250 +67 

255 +64 

361 +32 

3.59 +18 

358 +14 

340 +67 

283 +44 



64 +22 

94 +62 

337 +52 

36 +35 

287 +67 

70 +67 

100 +33 

130 +32 

325 +60 

20 +40 

291 +50 

56 +24 



290 +65 

30 +28 

50 +49 

185 +40 

20 +60 

25 +42 

5 +55 

80 +20 

127 +47 

160 +60 

30 +28 



• on the night of December 7th, 1830, recorded by 
me Abb6 Eaillard (' Comptes Eendus,' vol. viii. Jan.-June, 1839, p. 177), is wrongly de- 
scribed as a hoUde (?) on the \2th of December of that year in a former volume of these 
Eeports (for 1873, p. 396) ; but there can be no doubt that the shower was a regular re- 
turn of the ' Andromedes ' connected with the periodical returns of Biela's comet. 



OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 223 

N"ew Meteor-Showers (1875). Principally from the English Observations. 



B.A. Cat. 

No. cou- 

tinued. 

Greg, 1875. 



188. 
189. 



190. 

191. 
(53 a) 

192. 

(69?) 

(110?) 



(83, 98) 

193. 

(119?) 
194. 

195. 

196. 

197. 

198. 
199. 



3S^5 



Date and ObserTations. 



Observed by Denza, Feb. 1 1 -27, 1808, at 

Omitted in new B.A. Catalogue, but in 1867 Atlas, 

March 3-27. Perhaps connected with the 

next, No. 190. 
January 15-February-March 15. Strongly sus- 
pected at 

April 13-May 1. Probable, extending about from 

225°, +22° to 210°, +10°. 
March 18-19, 1874. Observed by Mr. Backhouse 
May 19-June 21. Probably new (?=W, No. 69) 
July 10-30. Very well pronounced. Formerly 

no doubt confused between W and Q 1, 2. 

Confirmed also by Mr. Herschel, July 16, 17, 

1870, at 257°, +36°. 
July 25- August 26 (especially Aug. 7-12 and 23), 

A 11, Cassio2mdi< ; accompanying the August 

shower of Perseids. 
Sej^tember. Well pronoimced in Tarandus ; pos- 
sibly has been confused with F^ ^ (No. 136). 

September. Fairly pronounced at 

Suspected, September, at 

October 18-23; Gruber, Oct. Eadiants IV., XI. 

(average position). 
October IS-Nov. 10 (T. W. Backhouse, Oct. 30, 

1872, at Piscium, 25°, +8°), EB. 
October 17-24; Gruber, Oct. Eadiants I., VII., 

XIII. (average position). 

October 28; S.&Z. 163 

October 28 ; Gruber, Oct. Eadiant XVI 

Very fairly pronounced shower, Nov. 4-Dec. 8, at 
J. E. Clark, Dec. 10-12, 1873 (very accurate 

radiation). 



Position of 
the Eadiant. 



E.A. Decl. 



105 
36 



► 65 

217 

157 
263 
255 



- 5 

+67 



+61 
+16 

+ 13 

+37 
+37 



12 +59 



50 +75 



44 

305 

2 

23 

21 

110 
89' 
34 
57 



+73 
+22 

+25 

+ 8 

+22-5 

+70 

7+71 

+ 7 

+ 6 



Corrections to the last Catalogue (1874). 

No. 12 (page 325). Tupman's positions 177°,+22° and 205°,+4° should belong 
respectively to No. 6 and No. 8 ; S. & Z. 14 should change place with S. & 
Z. 25, No. 18. 

No. 69a (page 330) should be 68a, and should follow No. 68 in the Catalogue. 

No. 83=98 in Cassiopeia, confirmed (?=E 1 in part), includes also S. & Z. 105 

No. 90, ?=87, not 89. 

No. 129. E 3 of Greg and H.=Nos. 167 and 185, November and December. 

No. 141=147 ; receives a new confirmation in September, at 130° +32°. 



Papers relating to Meteoric Astronomy. — In the Sheffield Scientiiie School 
of Yale College, in the United States, Prof. H. A. Newton delivered a lecture 
on March 9th, 1874, " On the story of Biela's Comet," in which he details 
with much completeness the circumstances of the positions of Biela's comet 
in its orbit relative to the earth at the times of the occurrences of the 
greatest meteor-showers known to have proceeded from the earth's approach 
to this comet's orbit. The line of the nodes, or the place of the earth's nearest 
approach to the comet's track, being at N, it appears that in the year 1798, 



224 



REPOKT 1875. 



at the time when the earth encountered at that point the great meteor- 
shower of the 6th of December in that year, observed by Brandes, Eiela's 
comet was in the position marked C, somewhat nearer to the earth than at 
the next occasion when a similar occurrence was observed in the year 1838. 
The comet was in the latter year at a point marked A, about 300 millions of 




miles distant, measured along its orbit, from the earth. At the last great reap- 
pearance of this star-shower connected with Biela's comet, on the 27th of 
Kovember, 1872, the two bodies (which had last been observed in 1852 as 
forming the nucleus of the comet) must have occupied a place on the elliptic 
orbit marked B, at about 200 milhons of miles along the comet's path from 
the place of the earth's intersection with the meteor-stream at N. It thus 
appears that a long extended group of meteor-particles must accompany the 
comet in its periodical revolution, preceding it to a distance of 300 millions 
of miles in front, and following it to a length of 200 millions of miles in the 
rear of its actual position, or occupying, if there is no reason to suppose this 
elongated meteor-current discontinuous, fully 500 millions of miles in its 
observed length along the comet's path. 

A similar investigation has led Prof. Kirkwood, of the Indiana State Uni- 
versity, to a remarkable conclusion regarding the clusters of meteors included 
in the current of the Leonids of November, that at least one other such 
cluster besides that connected immediately with the comet exists to mark 
the ancient disintegrations which this cometary body must have undergone. 
The following letter in ' Nature ' of January 3rd, 1875, relates the results 
of Prof. Kirkwood's investigation, and describes some observations of his own 
by which they are supported. 

" The Meteors of Novemher 14. — The writer some time since called atten- 
tion to the fact that the dates of certain meteoric showers, given by Hum- 



OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 225 

boldt and Quetelet as belouging to the Jfovember stream, indicated the 
existence of two distinct and widely separated chisters moving in orbits very 
nearly identical. The years thus designated were 17S7, 1818, 1820, 1822, 
1823, 1841, and 1846. As the last two were subsequent to the great 
display of 183.3, the meteors seen were noticed only in consequence of their 
being specially looked for ; and as the number conformable to the radiant 
of the Leonids is not given, there may be some doubt whether those observed 
really belonged to the November stream. The former displays occurred 
before the periodicity of such phenomena had been suspected, and the 
number of meteors would seem to have been considerable. As the shower 
of 1787 preceded by twelve years the great meteoric fall witnessed in South 
America by Humboldt, the group from which it was derived had passed 
beyond the orbit of Saturn at the time of the latter display. The pheno- 
mena of 1818, 1820, 1822, and 1823 indicate that, as in the case of the 
major group, which passed its descending node between 1865 and 1870, the 
meteoroids are extended over a considerable arc of their orbit. From No- 
vember 1787 to the middle of the nodal passage of 1818-1823 is about 33^ 
years — a period nearly the same as that of the principal cluster. These 
facts alone were regarded by the present writer as giving reasonable pro- 
bability to the h3'pothesis of an approximate identity of orbits. In ' Nature,' 
vol. xi. p. 407, it was shown that the meteor-showers of October 855 and 
856 were probably derived from the stream of Leonids* ; and it is certainly 
remarkable that the interval from 855 to 1787 is equal to twenty-eight 
periods of 33-293 years. Again, the shower observed in China, Sept. 28, 
A.D. 288, making proper allowance for the nodal motion, corresponds to the 
same epoch, the interval between 288 and 855 containing seventeen periods 
of 33-35 years. In view of the fact that the shower from this cluster was 
due between 1851 and 1855, the following extract from the writer's note- 
book is not without interest : — 

" ' Newark, Delaware, Nov. 13, 1852. ... On the evening of the 11th, 
from 7 to 10 o'clock, an aurora borealis of ordinary brilliancy was constantly 
observed. About midnight the sky became overcast with clouds, thus pre- 
venting our watch for meteors which we were about to commence. On the 
12th, from about 3 to 9 o'clock a.m., rain fell almost incessantly. About 
noon the clouds broke away, and the night between the 12th and 13th was 
quite clear. During six hours (from 10 p.m. to 4 a.m.) constant watch was 
maintained at four windows, facing north, south, east, and west. From 
10 to 1 o'clock the observations were conducted by Prof. Ferris and myself 
with assistants. At 1 the place of Prof. Ferris was taken by Prof. Porter, 
who remained, with myself and assistants, till 4. "We observed — 



* The first of these showers is recorded by an Arabian chronicler, and also as follows hi 
the 'Aiuiales Fuldenses': — "Per totam noctem igniculi instar spiciilorum occidentem 
versus per aerem densissime ferebantur." That of the foUowing year (856) is cited from 
similar but somewhat less authentic sources in Quetelet 's Catalogue, and is suspected to be 
identical with it. By comparing the dates of these two showers with that of the famous 
one which took place in 1306 (a year, as well as the year 868, in which the comet accom- 
panying this star-shower was also seen : vide these Eeports for 1873, p. 401), Boguslawski 
first suspected an advance in the node of the meteor-orbit before its real form and period 
had yet been detected. But the showers of 855-56 preceded by 12years the regular periodic 
shower of 868 ; and it is remarked by Professor Kirkwood that this divergence of their 
dates agrees exactly with the interval by which the weU-marked November showers of 1820 
and 1822 antieiiiated the appearance of the celebrated star-shower of November 13th, 1833. 
(' Nature,' sup. cit., March 25th, 1875.) 

1875. a 



226 REPORT — 1875. 

h "h 

From 10 to 11 20 meteors, 

„ 11 » 12 35 ,, 

» 12 „ 1 40 „ 

„ 1 „ 2 52 „ 

jj 2 „ 3 75 „ 

„ 3 „ 4 59 „ 

Total 281 „ 

" ' When the meteors Trere most numerous, near 3 o'clock, the common 
point of divergence in Leo was distinctly observed.' 

" I may here add, although the fact is not stated in my memoranda, that 
the conformable meteors, or a majority of them, were seen near the radiant, 
and that they were generally smaller and had shorter tracks than the No- 
vember meteors observed between 1865 and 1870. The number seen was 
too small to be called a shower; at the maximum, however, the fall per hour 
was nearly double that of ordinary nights. In short, I have no doubt that 
they were Leonids, and think it highly probable that they were derived from 
a distinct cluster which passed its perihelion in 1787 and 1820. We have 
therefore nine recorded meteor-faUs which indicate the existence of a second 
cluster of Leonids, viz. those of a.d, 288, 855, 856, 1787, 1818, 1820, 1822, 
1823, and 1852. The showers of 855 and 856 may be somewhat doubtful. 
If derived from the same meteor-cloud as the others, the dates would indicate 
considerable perturbations either by Uranus or the earth. The displays 
have been much less conspicuous than those of the major group, and hence 
the phenomena have been less frequently observed. The period is about 
33-33 years, while that of the other swarm, according to Newton, is 33-25 
years. Since their separation, therefore, the latter has gained nearly two- 
thirds of a revolution in their relative motion. The estimates which have 
been made in regard to the recent entrance of the cluster into the planetary 
system must consequently be rejected. — Daniel Kirkwoob." 

" Bloomington, Indiana, U. S. A., 
April 20th, 1875." 

Lists of Meteor and Meteor-shower observations and of Cometary Radiant- 
points. — In the above-quoted publication (of May 1874) of the Italian Spec- 
troscopic Society, Prof. Schiaparelli reviews at some length the catalogue of 
observations and of meteor radiant-points by Capt. Tupman, deriving from 
them chiefly average results relating to the apparent length and to the time 
of flight of the recorded meteor-tracks. The annexed diagram shows ap- 
proximately the numbers of meteors in the list of different lengths and 
durations of flight proceeding by intervals of 1° up to 30° in length of path, 
and of one tenth of a second up to two seconds in the time of flight. The 
curve of relative frequency in length of path is drawn from the actual 
numbers of the observations, including 1951 recorded tracks ; and the most 
frequent leugths of path recorded among them are between 7° and 10° ; the 
average length of path derived from the whole series of observations in the 
list is ll°-0, falling a little short of the mean apparent length of course of 
meteor-tracks (13°-9) assigned by Coulvier Gravier. 

The curve of frequency of the different times of flight is a reduced one 
from the total number of 1613 observations, allowing for the rough estima- 
tions at 0^-5, 1'-O, 1^-5, and 2^-0 preponderating greatly among the other more 



OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 



227 



accurate determinations, and diminishing the scale of modified numbers so 
obtained to one half of the original figures, in order to bring the crest of the 

A duration of 0^-2 is far the most 



curve within the limits of the diagram 



^300 




common time of flight assigned to about one third of all the observations ; but 
a tendency to record longer times of flight in the later years (187l'-71) of 
the Catalogue than in the first year (1869), in which many durations of 
only 0^-1 were recorded, indicates that these exceedingly momentary times 
of flight may very probably have been a little underrated. Above 1*5 
second there are actually noted in the list meteors of great durations in 
the following numbers : — 

Duration of flight in seconds 1-6. 1-7. 2-0. 2-5. 3-0. Aboye 3 seconds. 

Numbers of meteors recorded 1 2 25 9 11 11 

total 59, or only 3f per cent, of all the appearances recorded. Only 47 meteors 
with times of flight varying from I'-l to 1^-5 (or 2-9 per cent, of the whole) 
are noted in the list, the remaining 1506 meteors all having durations not 
exceeding one second. The longest time of flight observed was 16 seconds, 
and the average duration of all the recorded times of flight M-as 0^-44. If 
durations exceeding 1 second are excluded as anomalous and exceptional 
from the general result, the average time of flight of the remaining 1506 
meteors was 0*-32. 

The following agreements of radiant-points in Capt. Tupman's list with 
showers apparently corresponding to them obtained from Zezioli's observa- 
tions are pointed out by Schiaparelli. The sign and number of the shower 
in Mr. Greg's last general list to which they correspond is added for refer- 
ence to that Table ; and although these separate correspondences exhibit 
very excellent agreements, they afford little confirmation of the distinctness 

q2 



328 



REPORT — 1875. 



of some of the adopted radiant-groups in the general list, and offer no new 
appearances of probable connexion with cometary meteor-showers. 



Radiant-point in List of Schia- 
parelli and Zezioli (S. & Z.). 


Radiant-point in Tupman's 
List (T). 


Radiant-point or Group in Greg's 
General List, 1874. 


Ref. 

No. 
S. &Z. 


Duration 
of Shower. 


Position of 
Radiant. 


Ref. 
No. 
T. 


Duration 
of Shower. 


Position of 
Radiant. 


Ref. 

No. G., 

1874. 


Particular Radiant-points 
and Remarks. 


R.A. 


Decl. 


R.A. 


Decl. 


5 

2o» 
147* 

189 


Jan. 11-12 

Feb. 1. 

Sept. 8. 

Dec 27 


o 

183 

215 
60 

137 


o 

+28 

+30 
+32 

+45 


4 

9t 

64t 

102 


Jan. 4-31 

Feb. 3-10 
Sept. 7-15 

Deo. 23-27 


o 

180 

210 
66 

130 




+35 

+36 
+40 

+49 


11 

(t)12 
and 

(*)18 

(t)114 

(*) 129 

2 


MG. (G. & H.), Jan. 1-25 ; 
183°+36°. A well-defined 
radiant-group ; centre at 
T. 4 ; apparent connexion 
with comet 1792 (II) not 
confirmed. 

Shower properly belongs to 
12, a group contiguous 
to 18 (Q Z). No cometary 
radiant -point confirmed. 

FG. (G. cfe H.), including 
also T. 74; August shower 
in Auriga. 

R3 (G. & H.) Muscids. Ra- 
diant group and its dura- 
tion uncertain. 

Mj, 2 (G. & H.). Approxi- 
mate agreement with co- 
met of 1680 not confir- 
med. 



As instances of close apparent connexion of meteor-showers with comets 
which either have been or which yet remain to be verified by repeated obser- 
vations, attention may be drawn to the comparative list of meteor-shower 
and cometary radiant-points in the Table at p. 350 of the volume for 1874 
of these Eeports, in which examples of correspondence in the principal cha- 
racters of nodal or shower-dates and positions of the radiant-centres will be 
found to be very numerous, and to be chiefly exemplified in the annexed 
selected list of the most important cases (p. 229). 

The last Annual Report of the Council of the Eoyal Astronomical Society 
(' Monthly Notices,' vol. xxxv. p. 243) contained some brief remarks on these 
coincidences. It is pointed out that the earth's nearest approach to a comet's 
orbit is sometimes (if the inclination of the comet's orbit is small) at a con- 
siderable distance from the node, and in certain cases, as that of Lexell's 
comet (1770 1), Clausen's comet (1743 1), the comets of 1833, 1702 II, 568 II, 
the best agreements with known meteor-showers are found at the dates of 
the earth's nearest appulse to their orbits rather than at those of its nodal 
conjunctions with them. Another example of the same kind appears to be 
that of Halley's comet, 1835 III, with a date of appulse May 4th, about 
twelve days earlier than that of conjunction with the node, and with a radiant- 
point at that place which does not differ greatly from that of a considerable 
star-shower ob.served by Captain Tupman on the 2nd and 3rd of May, 1870, 
and on the 29th of April, 1 871. In the place of the usual sign for the node, a 
capital Greek Omega (erect or inverted) might be used to signify an " appulse," 
or point of closest approach (which is generally near to one of the nodes) of a 
comet's orbit to the earth's. In a later Table of this Eeport this sign is, for 



OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 



229 



h— » 1— » 1— • 
~J 00 CB-4 

OO tOht' 








00^ ODOO cs OO^ODOOK^CStOO'QO 
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cs CD o 
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I— ' 

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1— 1 

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p, c^ ^ 

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July 25. 
Aug. 10. 
Aug. 12. 
July 8. 




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July. 

June 28 to 
July 6. 

July 18 to 
Aug, 31. 

August. 

August. 

Aug. 9-11. 


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Feb. 13. 


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+ + 


+ + 1 + ++ ++ 1 1 1+ + ++ 

CSOiCOOi v-il—CSOril-'i— 03 h-l— 
O^JOtO 0000 00OCn05O C» I--00 


1 1 1 

1—1 

OS CO OOO 


C3 


tOo 


O 

B 
a* 


'21, 

% 

to 
7* 


!2! O 
■ to 


o o o Jr ^2^ ^23^23 c d c c 
r .-^ .«■ ."■ '%'% 'S-'s-UUiw (R 05 <w 


dec 

oq oq 05 

00 to 1— 

r- T^p 


JS g" "^ 




' 






'-• 

» g a 
CSS, 




1—1 H-1 

05 03 

1-1 cs 


1— 11— 11— 11 — 1 1—11— 11— 1 l-^i— 1 H-* 1—1 
OOCO^ICO M-ICOOSeDQO-a ^ HOD 

If- rf — J 4^ ?r 05 It- 00 OS oi :c oo ires 
(XtOCO -J^PO 0001—14^-1 osiPto 
'"'11183 <in-BC8 MC§83mS3 i-h S p hh 

^C8 S^cgSS 5^ a CS83^83 


H-* 1— h-l 
CO Ci 00 

»;- coon 
CT 05 to 

K 83 M 


•^ o « 
p, & '^ 

m » » 

? o c 

1 ^ 


■ 
-1 



230 KKPORT— 1875. 

brevity, introduced ; but it is not thought necessary to use it in the above 
selected Table of cometary coincidences, where, for greater clearness of de- 
scription, such points of close approach (or of " appulse " of comet-orbits to 
the earth's) are simply denoted in the first columns of this Table as being 
" near " the comet's ascending or descending node. For the general pur- 
poses of comparison between the probable orbits of observed meteor-streams 
whose dates and radiant-positions may be hereafter or have already been 
sufficiently well determined, and those of certain comets whose computed 
orbits are found to pass, at the points of approach to the earth's orbit, either 
very near to or at no very remote distance from it, and for convenience of 
reference in identifying such examples of supposed agreement between 
meteor-showers and cometary radiant-points as have already been pointed 
out, the dates and positions of the radiant-points of all the computed comet- 
orbits intersecting the ecliptic plane within a quarter of the sun's distance 
inside or outside of the earth's orbit are collected together in two Tables 
(pp. 232, 234) in the order of dates and of position of the cometary radiant- 
points above or below the equator, the two lists being arranged for the 
northern and southern hemispheres respectively, according to the north or 
south declinations of the computed radiant-points. As these radiant-points 
were computed by the approximate graphical method devised by Schiaparelli 
(Entwurf einer astronomischen Theorie der Sternschnuppen, p. 78, §49), the 
tests which the elaborate calculations of many of the radiant-points bj'' 
Dr. Weiss supply are employed to check the graphical constructions ; and all 
the radiant-points originally calculated by Professor Weiss, who takes into 
account what has elsewhere been omitted throughout in the graphical pre- 
paration of these Tables (the ellipticity of the orbits of those comets which 
are known to be periodic, and whose orbits accordingly differ sensibly from 
parabolas), are included as standards of correct determinations in the present 
lists. 

In the column of reference numbers at the beginning of the Table the names 
of discoverers and particulars of meteoric connexion of some periodic comets 
are added, together with references to other numbers where comets are known 
or conjectured to be more or less probably identifiable with comets of an 
older date, although no elliptic figure may haA'c been observed or calculated 
in the dimensions of their oi'bits. A question sign is added after that of the 
node or appulse if the elements are uncertain, and the date in the following 
column is corrected for precessional alteration to the year 1875 from that of 
the comet's aijparition. The fourth column contains the comet's radius vector 
or distance from the sun in terms of the semidiameter of the earth's orbit 
as unit, at the node or point of intersection of the orbit with the ecliptic, 
unless the appulse replaces the node in the Table, when the comet's distance 
above (-f-) or below ( — ) the earth's orbit at the point where its radius vector 
is unify is substituted in brackets (in terms of the same unit as the scale of 
measurement) for the value of the radius vector. A similar estimate to that 
afforded by the radius vector in other cases can thus be formed of the degree 
of proximity in Avhich the path of the comet and the earth's orbit approach 
each other in such instances at their points of close conjunctions at equal 
distances from the sun. Thus the comet 18G2 II crossed the ecliptic plane 
(with retrograde motion, at an ascending node corresponding to the shower- 
date on Aug. 19th) about 0*03 (or twelve moon's distances) without the earth's 
orbit ; but, owing to its small inclination, iu approaching nearer to the sun 
it slightly neared the earth's orbit ; and at a point corresponding in the earth's 
annual motion to about the 7th of August, it passed only 0-025 earth's solar 



OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 231 

distance (or about ten times the moon's distance) above the earth's orbit. 
Thus the observation of a star-shower not far from the latter date, between 
the 7th and 19th of August (or on August 10th, S. & Z. 140, in the above 
comparative list), with a radiant-point corresponding closely to that of meteor 
joourstiivants of the comet at this point, is in satisfactory correspondence with 
the earth's conjunction with this comet's orbit, although the date of the 
shower and of the nearest conjunction of the orbits is not exactly that of the 
earth's passage across the line of the comet's nodes. In several other cases 
(as in that of Lexell's comet) of comets moving nearly in the ecliptic, the 
point of nearest conjunction and the time of the year when the earth passes 
through it are very far removed from the place and from the corresponding 
time of the earth's passage through the node ; and the approach of the two 
orbits is yet often closer at the former than at the latter place. 

The particulars of each comet's approach to the earth, whether occurring at 
the node or appulse, will be found, as thus described, in the columns of the 
accompanying lists, the dates in column 3 and the places of the radiant-points 
in columns 5 and 6 being brought up (for precession) to the year 1875, neg- 
lecting any perturbations which the orbit of the comet since the time of its 
appearance may have undergone. In cases of appulses (or of earth's conjunction 
with the comet-orbits at a common radial distance from the sun), the motions 
of the meteor-particles are supposed to be equal and parallel to that of the 
comet ill its orbit there, or at the point where its radius vector is equal to 
the earth's distance from the sun ; as no regard is paid in the graphical 
construction to the slightly elliptic form, both of the orbits of certain comets 
and of the earth's orbit, which are severally assumed to be parabolic and 
circular, small errors on these accounts will present themselves in the lists, 
which, for preliminary purposes, may be looked upon as unimportant. 

A -f or — sign following the dates indicates if the comet's motion is direct 
or retrograde ; and if the comet was approaching the sun, or if it was very 
near to its perihelion at the node or appulse, there is added after the radius 
vector, or appulse-distance, in column 4, a notation sign (* or §) denoting 
these conditions ; where no such sign is added, the comet's motion is receding 
from the sun. The italic letters after the comets' years in column 2 are 
intended to supply some information of their general characters and appearance. 
Thus d implies just discernible by the naked eye, d plainly, and D brightly so ; 
and D a comet visible by day. 1 1 TT indicate corresponding proportions in 
the apparent dimensions of the tails: t less than 5°; t, 5° to 15°; T, 15° to 
30° ; and T upwards of 30° in length. Durations of the comets' periods, 
where elliptic orbits are known to belong or have been calculated and assigned 
to them, are also roughly indicated by letters corresponding to their lengths 
of period thus : I, periods less than 15 years ; 1, 15 to 50 years ; L 50 to 400 
years ; and L comets of very long periods exceeding 400 years. The letter 
p is added to comets having decidedly parabolic orbits, and h to those whose 
orbits are computed to have been hyperbolic. The sign || following these cha- 
racters indicates that at its appearance the comet passed very near the earth. 
The initials P., H. affixed to the comet of 1490 (N. 2) are those of two inde- 
pendent computers, Peirce and Hind, of two distinct and apparently equally 
probable orbits of the comet ; while the mean of two independent sets of orbit- 
elements assigned to it by Pingre is adopted in the Table for the comet of 

P . 

1582 (N. 83), to whose designation a similar initial „ is affixed. The orbit- 
elements used in the rest of the Table are those of Hind's work ' The Comets,' 



232 



REPORT — 1875. 



List of Radiant-points of Comets in the Northern Hemisphere {N.). 

By A. S. Heeschei. 



1. 


2. 


t 


3, 


4. 

Comet's 


5. 6. 
Position of 


7. 




Comet and its 






Radius Radiant-noiut.l 


Meteor- 


Eeference No. 


Node S2 JS , or 


Cometary-Shower |vect. or least! 


1875. 


speed. 


N. 


nearest 
appulse Q O- 


date, 


1875. 


dist. from® 
'above +, 




Miles 
per sec. 














below — ). 


E.A. N.DecI. 




1 


r 1792 II a t 
■ Do. (Weiss) 


Jan. 


4- 


1-050 


o 

214-5 


O 

+ 16 


40-5 




5, 


5- 


107 


194 


+25 


40-2 


(5,7) 2 


1490 ZSd(P) 
1490 y t (H) 


Dec. 


25- 


0-79 


214 


+34 


35-5 


Jan. 


14 + 


0-902* 


179 


+69 


22-7 


(16,17) 3 


1746? oil 


yi 


16+ 


;+o-o7^*) 


60 


+40 


12-0 


4 


1672 Si! 


if 


20+ 


1-042 


256 


+20 


31-5 


(2,7) 5 


1863V is^t 


n 


24+ 


1-09 


272-5 


+25-5 


26-2 


(9,51,55)6 


1833 c 


j» 


27 + 


f +0-036*) 


135 


+25 


20-4 


7 


1810 ?S 


J, 


29+ 


1-33 


277 


+21 


26-2 


8 


r 1857 I'Qp 
1 Do. (Weiss) 


Feb. 


1 + 


1-015 


261-5 


+22-5 


32-0 




it 


2+ 


103 


261 


+23 


31-4 


(6, 51, 55) 9 


1833 ?S 


it 


12 + 


0-787* 


144-5 


+24 


18-5 


(15) 10 


r 1854 V a d 
Do.IV(Weiss) 


it 


13+ 


0-988 


304-5 


+35 


20-0 


)j 


13 + 


0-985 


304 


+.37-3 


19-0 


(12, 13) 11 


f 1858 IV y 
\ Do. (Weiss) 


)) 


13- 


0-9.58 


272 


+ 10-5 


34-0 


}) 


13- 


0-95 


272 


+'12 


33-6 


(11, 13) 12 


1699 I y 




14- 


1-117 


266 


+ 9 


36-3 


(11, 12) 13 


1799 II "isAt 


„ 


15- 


0-72 


264 


+ 17 


34-9 


14 


1797 'G d 


)) 


18- 


1-27* 


211 


+ 9-5 


38-0 


(10) 15 


1845 I 2S 


») 


25+ 


1-23 


309-5 


+ 27 


226 


(3, 17) 16 


1746? y II 


?» 


25+ 


0-97 


33 


+33-5 


110 




1746? II 


Mar 


. 8+ 


(-0-008) 


30 


+ 28-5 


11-7 


(3, 16) 17 


1231 d 


») 


10+ 


(+0-058) 


32 


+31 


11-7 


18 


f 1862 IV ?S 
\ Do. (Wei.ss) 


j> 


16- 


0-982* 


250-5 


+ 0-5 


41-0 






16- 


0-987 


249-5 


+ 1-0 


40-4 


(S. 44) 19 


/ 1763 B L 
\ Do. (Weiss) 


)j 


18 + 


1-02 


312 


+20-5 


28-8 


j> 


18 + 


1-02 


312-5 


+21-5 


28-0 


20 


961 -iS d 


)? 


23- 


1-27 


308 


+12 


34-0 


21 


1743 II? yd 


)) 


26- 


0-703 


296 


+ 1-5 


40-3 


(30, 90) 22 


1702 II ? S3 d 


i» 


29+ 


0-792 


36-5 


+ 5-5 


14-3 


(24, 32) 23 


1857 Y 93 (It 


Apr 


. 4- 


0-722 


302 


+11 


386 


(23, 32) 24 


1825 I y dt 


ty 


9- 


1-38 


312 


+12 


38-0 


25 


18471 yD<L 


it 


11 + 


0-052* 


231-5 


+ 27 


23-4 


(S. 47) 26 


1580 ? y D 


it 


12+ 


1-22 


337-5 


+31 


27-7 


27 


1808 III? y 




15- 


0-73 


307 


+ 4 


41-5 


(Lyraids) 28 


1861 I GditL 


It 


20+ 


1-006* 


270-5 


+32 


29-2 


29 


1844 II y (^ I 


' 


21- 


0-92* 


288-5 


+ 5 


40-6 


(22, 90) 30 


1702II?Qd| 


it 


22+ 


(+0-022*) 


43-5 


+11-5 


17-5 


31 


1748 II? y 


tt 


23+ 


0-887* 


255-5 


+27-5 


27-0 


(23, 24) 32 


r 1790 III yd 
1 Do. (Weiss) 


f 


24- 


1-060 


320-5 


+ 18-5 


37-2 


it 


24- 


0-94 


319 


+19 


36-5 


33 


1784II??y 


i> 


26+ 


1-056 


334-5 


+33 


31-4 


34 


1853 II y d 


( May 1- 


0-927* 


296-5 


+ 13-5 


35-8 


35 


r 1835 III L 
1 1835 III yiJ2 




4- 


(-0-061) 


337 


+ 


41-2 


Halley's 




16- 


0-872 


343-5 


+ 2 


42-2 


Do. 36 


1456 iS BT 


)J 


14- 


0-90 


343 


+ 2 


42-4 


37 


r 1757 a t 
1 1757 Q 


April 26+ 


0-73 


37 


+ 2 


19-8 




May 16+ 


(+0-073) 


56 


+ 5 


19-8 


38 


1618 Illy 2)1 


June 10+ 


MO* 


273-5 


+ 0-5 


24-2 


39 


1781 I y d r 


„ 


14+ 


0-810 


338 


+57 


30-3 


(43, 59) 40 


1864 II L 


tt 


20- 


(-0003) 


8 


+ 5 


44-1 



OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 



233 



List of Eadiant-points (continued). 



\ 



1. 2. 


3. 


4. 


5. 


6. 


7. 










o 


o 




41 


[18501 n dtJj 
Do. (Weiss) 


June 23 + 


l-082§ 


313-5 ■ 


f60-5 


26-3 


„ 24+ 


1065 


312-4 +60-61 


25-1 


42 


lS2-2lYl3diIj 


„ 25- 


M45§ 


348-5 - 


f28 


42-6 


(40, 59) 43 


r 1864 II ?S L 
Do. (Weiss) 


» 27- 


0-967 


13-5 - 


4- 6-5 


44-1 


„ 27- 


0-953 


12-0 + 6-3 


43-15 


44 


1822 III iS 


„ 30- 


1-11* 


342 +14 


42-6 


45 


110 IS DT 


July 8- 


1-20 


39 • 


f45 


37-0 


46 


1770 II ?s ;; 


TO 


0-9U 


349 


+ 12 


40-8 


(58) 47 


f 1819 III 13 I 
18.58 II ?S I 


„ 16+ 


0-790 


188 


+32-5 


11-5 


Winnecke's 


„ 16+ 


0-787 


188 


+30-5 


11-6 


fBurkhardt's 


1766 11-Qdtl 


June 7+ 


0-40§ 


174-5 


+30 


10-8] ? 


48 


1764 25 d t 


July 25- 


0-892 


49 


+45-5 


38-4 


49 


f 1737 II ?S 
Do. (Weiss) 


„ 30+ 


0-987 


180 


+68-5 


18-1 


„ 29 + 


0-975 


175 


+71 


17-85 




'1862 III Bc^t 


Aug. 10- 


1-020 


43 


+57-5 


38-0 


(Perseids) 50 


. Do. Hind 














(1872) ? 


„ 9-5- 




51 


+ 52 




yy 


1870 I 2S 


„ 12- 


1-012* 


43-5 


+53 


39-0 


(6, 9, 55) 51 


1833 Q 


„ 12+ 


(-0-009) 


141 


+ 9-5 


20-4 


52 


/ 1853 III ?sDt 
■ Do. (Weiss) 


„ 13+ 


0-31 


300 


+80 


27-4 


„ 12+ 


0-31 


299 


+80 




53 


1780 II ■& 


„ 14- 


0-817* 


3-5 


+38-5 


35-5 


[57] 54 


1808 II Q, 


„ 16- 


1-07 


89 


+ 6 


37-7 


(6,9,51 55 


1833 U 


„ 16+ 


1-10 


139-5 


+ 10 


21-0 




1862 llaclt 


„ 19- 


1-037* 


48 


+ 14 


44-0 


56 


■ Do. (Weiss) 


„ 19- 


1-027 


47-5 


+ 13 


43-2 




Do.Q 


„ 7- 


(-0-02.5*) 


41 


+ 11-5 


44-3 


(14) 57 


1797 a d 


„ 23- 


0-914 


92-5 


+ 


38-1 


(47) 58 


r 1869 I o I 
■ 1819 III I 


„ 25+ 


(-0-106) 


179-5 


+21 


15-5 


Winnecke's 


„ 26+ 


(-0-12) 


180 


+21 


15-5 


(40, 43) 59 


1864 II o L 


Sept. 2- 


(+0-030*) 


57 


+ 1 


44-1 


Donati's 60 


1858VI2S2>TL 


„ 8- 


0-71 


100 


+59 


37-7 


61 


B.C. 68 ? 2S d t 


] Sept. 18 to ] „ 

\ Oct. 19 + 1 '^ 

Sept. 19+ 


0-855 


198 


+58 


27-0? 


(66) 62 


1769 e J* T L 


1-78* 


17-5 


+ 18 


29-4 


(S. 13) 63 


1683 13 dtL 


„ 19- 


1-175 


145 


+49-5 


33-7 


64 


f 1790 I ? S5 
1 Do. (Weiss) 


„ 20- 


1-068 


111-5 


+38 


41-6 


„ 16- 


1-053 


1081 


+ 37-7 


40-9 


(S. 16, r65 
17) 1 65 


1556 13 D T 


„ 22+ 


0873 


188 


+ 30 


20-0 


1264 S i)T 


„ 26+ 


0-775 


190 


+29 


20-8 


(62) 66 


]769oi)T 


„ 28+ 


(-0-020*) 


24-5 


+17-5 


27-3 


(80) 67 


1840 III B dit 


„ 30+ 


0-850 


172-5 


+68 


29-7 


'68 


1847 VI 13 


Oct. 4- 


0-745* 


54 


+ 52-5 


35-4 


69 


1825 II IS 


„ 7+ 


0-885§ 


134 


+77 


32-0 


(37) [66] 70 


f 1757 t 
\ 1757 IS t 


„ 8+ 


(+0-080*) 


19-5 


+ 19 


22-7 


„ 29 + 


0-67* 


30 


+26 


19-6 


71 


1857 IV B i 


„ 14+ 


0-743§ 


278 


+ 53 


16-3 


72 


r 1864 IV IS 


„ 16+ 


1-05 


212-5 


+41 


22-7 


\ Do. (Weiss) 


„ 16+ 


1-044 


209-6 


+42-7 


21-9 


73 


1850 II IS 


„ 19+ 


0-78* 


2-0 


+54 


20-4 


74 


1842 II IS 


„ 21- 


0-863* 


81 


+57 


35-0 


75 


1739 13 


„ 22- 


1-08 


157 


+39 


39-1 


76 


1848 I IS 


„ 25- 


0-770* 


78 


+60 


33-5 


77 


MQ-i IS AT 


„ 25+ 


0-87 


200 


+25 


24-4 


(S.21) 78 


178 13 d 


„ 27+ 


0-817 


212 


+ 9 


18-9 


79 


f 1849l2SL(? 
\ Do. (Weiss) 


) „ 29+ 


1-018* 


165 


+75 


31-0 


„ 29+ 


1-027 


185 


+61 


30-0 


(67) 80 


1097 13 d T 


Nov. 1 + 


0-94 


205 


+48 


28-3 


81 


1695 ? ? es d t 


„ 1 + 


0-882* 


318 


+ 53 


13-9 


(S. 22) 82 


837 I ? B d 1 


., 4- 


1-34* 


104-5 


+27 


40-7 


83 


1582(5? 13 d 


f „ 9- 


1-00* 


89-5 


+36-5 


35-0? 


84 


1821 a d t 


„ 11- 


1-030* 


86 


+19-5 


32-0 



234 



REPORT 1875. 





List of Radiant-points (contimied). 






1. 


2. 


3. 


4. 


5. 


6. 


7. 










o 


o 




(Leonids) 85 


1866 I ?3 1 


Kov. 13- 


0'984 


150-5 


+23-5 


44-0 


(S. 55) 86 


1743 I ?Q I 


„ 13+ 


(-0-025*) 


21 


+ 4 


13-0 


87 


1813 1 a 


„ 24- 


0-70* 


147 


+ 


43-7 




1852 III ?s I 


,. 27+ 


0-995# 


24-5 


+40 


140 


Biela's 88 


J Do. (Weiss) 

1 Do. (1866), 

Hind 


„ 28+ 




23-4 

25-25 


+43 

+42 


9-7 


89 


1766 I ?3 


„ 28- 


0-852 


190 


+ 16-5 


40-0 


(23, 30) 90 


1702II?od 


„ 29 + 


(-0 070*) 


56 


+18 


17-4 


91 


1798 II? tS 


Dec. 2- 


0-86* 


162 


+34-5 


41-2 


92 


1818 1? ?S 


„ 3+ 


0-798* 


359 


+ 53 


13-6 


Pons' 93 


1812 ^ d( L 


„ 6 + 


0-77 


20U 


+68-5 


37-0 


94 


18-i6YII'i3 diL 


„ 12 \ 
(to 17)- ] 
„ 20+ 


1-087 


200-5 


+ 4-5 


410 


Meohain's 95 


r 1790 II EJ 
1 1858 I -iS L 


1-110* 


220 


+76 


23-3 


(?=)Tut tie's 


„ 20+ 


1075* 


221 


+77 


22-8 


96 


f 1680 ?? Z> T L 
1 Do. (Weiss) 


„ 27+ 


0-940* 


133 


+22 


31-5 


„ 26+ 


0-95 


132 


+21-4 


31-2 


(S. 11 a) 43 a 


1826 III ? Q 


June 28- 


(+0-063) 


42 


+14 


37-5 



List of Radiant-points of Comets in the Southern Hemisphere (S.). 
By A. S. Heeschel. 



1. 


2. 


3. 


4. 

Comet's 


5. 6. 

Position of 


7. 




Comet and its 




Radius 


Radiaut-point 


Meteor- 


Eeference No. 


Node a S, or 


Cometai'y-Shower 


veot. 01- least 


1875. 


speed. 


S. 


nearest 
appulse Q o 


date, 1875. 


di.st. from 8 
(above +, 




Miles 
per sec. 












below — )r 


E.A. 


N.Decl 




1 


1860 IV Q, 


Jan. 6- 


0-955 


O 

187 


O 

-22 


43-3 


(7,54,55) 2 
Blainpain's *" 


1819 1^0^ 


-. v+ 


(+0-08) 


343 


-30 


12-5 


3 


1299?? u 


„ 15- 


0-85* 


157 


-18 


33-3 


4 


f 1840 lad 
\ Do. (Weiss) 


„ 19+ 


0-955* 


127 


-27-5 


24-2 


„ 20+ 


0-964 


128-5 


-28-6 


236 


5 


1 1718 a 

\ Do. (Weiss) 


„ 29- 


l-030§ 


208 


-31-5 


40-5 


„ 29- 


1-042 


208-4 


-31-2 


42-8 


6 


r 1092 a 

\ Do. (Weiss) 


Feb. 5+ 


0-995* 


102 


-32-5 


15-9 


• „ 5 + 


1-012 


103 


-34-5 


14-6 


(2,54,55) 7 


I74;i I ? Q ^ 


„ 6+ 


( + 0-02) 


14-5 


- 0-5 


11-3 


8 


150(5 U 


„ c- 


1-43 


266-5 


-37 


37-2 


9 


1861 III a 


„ 13- 


0-890 


235-5 


-45 


41-4 


(40) 10 


f 1596 •& d 
1845III?Sd!'Z 


„ 23- 


2-4 


285 


- 8 


40-0 


„ 26- 


1-06 


283 


- 4-5 


37-7 


11 


1864 V IS 


Mar. 1- 


1-115§ 


250-5 


-12-5 


44-0 


12 


1590 a d t 


., 8- 


0-702 


275-5 


-38 


12-4 


(N.63) 13 


ri683 aAtL 
Do. (Weiss) 


„ 16- 


1-050* 


209 


-50 


33-7 


„ 16- 


1-026 


207 


-48-5 


32-9 


14 


565 II ? 2S dt 


„ 17- 


1-22* 


227 


-48 


37-4 


15 


1804 9, 


» 18+ 


M38 


35 


-69-5 


230 


(N.(17?)16 


1556 a BT 


„ 19 + 


1-20 


179 


-26 


22-6 


65) (16?) 17 


1264 a BT 


„ 25 + 


0-98* 


182-5 


-28 


22-7 



OBSERVATTONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 



235 





List of Eadiant-points (continued) 


. 






1. 


2_ 


3. 


4. 


6. 


6. 


7. 


18 


1742 I S3 d t 


Mar. 28- 


0-827 


306 


o 

-59-5 


37-3 


(23) 19 


1737 I Q 


Apr. 12+ 


(-0-13*) 


215 


-28 


37-7 


20 


1830 1 Q, At 


„ 15 + 


0925S 


116-5 


-36 


12-9 


(N.78) 21 


178 a d 


„ 23+ 


l-22» 


203 


-32-5 


18-8 


(N. 82) 22 


837lQ?dT 


May I — 


103 


334-5 


-16 


42-5 


(19)23 


1737 I a 


„ 8+ 


0-52# 


235 


-15-5 


21-7 


[26J 24 


1006 ?5 ■? 2) t 


„ 10- 


1-12* 


345 


- 0-6 


414 


^ -^25 


1748 I a di 


,. 13- 


0860# 


351 


-64 


33-4 


[24] 26 


B.C. 1.36 a d 


„ 29- 


1-02 


350 


-18 


44-0 


27 


1863 III 0-2 


„ 31 + 


0-804* 


320 


-69 


31-3 


28 


r 1863 II a, 

1 Do. (Weiss) 


June 2 — 


l-068§ 


2-5 


-44-5 


37-2 


9_ 


1-0.54 


0-5 


-44-7 


36-5 


29 


/ 1684 ^3 

\ Do. (Weiss) 


.- 22+ 


1022 


65 


-46 


25-5 


„ 22+ 


1-010 


62-7 


-47-1 


24-6 


30 


ri861IIS3 DT 


„ 30+ 


0-88 


62 


-37 


31-5 


\ Do. (Weiss) 


„30,5 + 


0-864 


54 


-39 


30 3 


Lexell's „, 

(35,43,53) "^^ 

(34) .32 


17701 odi;/|| 


July 8+ 


(+0-02») 


276 


-21-5 


16-9 


568 II Q D T 


„ 23+ 


(_0014#) 


262-5 


-33 


12-3 


33 


1802 g. 


Aug. 3+ 


1-128* 


49-5 


-63 


23-0 


(32) 34 


568IIS2 Z»T 


„ 5+ 


0-94* 


259 


-36 


11-5 


Lexell's r,' 
31,43,53)^" 


]770Isd!; I 


„ 6+ 


0-782* 


283 


-20 


13-3 


T" f^t'^ d /^"n t\/^ 


f 1852 II Si 
\ Do. (Weiss) 


„ 9- 


1-002* 


42 


-1.3-5 


404 


[37, 40] 36 


„ 10- 


1-013 


40-7 


-13-5 


39-25 


[36, 40] 37 


1827 II a 


„ 11- 


0-838* 


48 


- 8 


414 


38 


1499 a d il 


„ 24+ 


1-036* 


319 


-64-5 


14-4 


(41, 45) 39 


r 1558 Si 
Do. (Weiss) 


,,(25 to)] 
29- I 


0-577 § 


70 


-21 


36-3 




„ 26- J 


0-89 


65 


—22 




(10,36?,,Q 
37?) *" 


f 1596 Si d 
1 1845111 a d;-/. 


„ 27- 


0-754* 


49 


-'9 


40-4 


„ 31- 


0643* 


47-5 


- 6 


39-0 


(39, 45) 41 


f 18.54 lY Si d 
[ „ III(Wei8s) 


Sept. 10- 


1-031* 


530 


-15 


35-8 


„ 10- 


1-018* 


53-0 


-1.5-8 


34-8 


42 


1788 II Si 


„ 16+ 


0-808* 


65 


-45 


26-2 


Lexell's <„ 
(.31,35,53)*'^ 

(N. 19) 44 


1770 I (Prhn.) 


„ 17 + 


0-674 


268 


-18-5 


10-4 


r 1763 Si L 
\ Do. (Weiss) 


„ 21 + 


0-98* 


44 


-23 


28-8 


„ 20+ 


0-971 


44-5 


-24-1 


27-8 


(39,41)45 


961 Si 


„(13to)l 
27-1 
Oct. 9- 


0-975* 


62 


-13 


340 


46 


1723 o t 


1-065 


112-5 


- 7 


40-6 


(N. 26) 47 


1580 S2?I> 


„ 16 + 


1-18* 


61 


-17 


28-5 


48 


r 1779 Si 

{ Do. (Weiss) 


„ 19+ 


0-974* 


37 


-27-5 


18-7 


„ 19+ 


0-978* 


39-2 


-29-7 


17-8 


49 


1585 ad 


Nov. 4 + 


116 


263 


-39-5 


11-6 


50 


1826 IV Q 


„ 7+ 


0-87* 


32-5 


-60-5 


14-5 


51 


1707 Q 


>, 16+ 


0-910* 


115 


-320 


32-0 


62 


17841 a d!- 


„ 20- 


0-737 


146-5 


-18 


40-3 


Lexell's rq 
(31,36,43)^"* 


1770 Ijsdtl 


„ 29 + 


(-0-025) 


257-5 


-21 


16-7 


Blainpain's-^ 
(2, 7, 5.5) ^* 


f 1819 IV a I 


Dec. 10+ 


0-897 


347-5 


-36 


110 


{ Do. (Weiss) 


„ 9 + 


0-914 


346-2 


-44-5 


6-6 


Clausen's f-r 
(2, 7, 54) '^^ 


ri743i?n 


Nov. 13 + 


(-0-020) 


21 


+ 4-5 


10-0 


1 „ ? S2 


Dec. 21 + 


0-862§ 


7-5 


- 2-5 


104 


56 


1818 III S3 k 


„ 23- 


0-868 


168-5 


-35-5 


38-2 


67 


1863 IV Si dt 


., 29+ 


0-707 


147-5 


-57-5 


28-7 


4a 


1759 III Q II 


Jan. 19- 


(-0-053) 


210 


-15 


442 




Do. Perihel. 


Feb. 8- 


(-0-07) 


231 


-21 


44-1 




Do. Q 


Mar. 1- 


(—0-084)* 


253 


-25 


440 


(N.43«)lla 


1826 III ? n 


Mar. 6 — 


(-0076)* 


215 


-16 


37-5 


32 a 


B.C. 370 Si ?? 


Aug. - 


1- 


26 


- 5 


39-5 ?? 



336 REPOET -1875. 

as excellently reproduced and completed up to a very recent date by G. F. 
Chambers in his ' Handbook of Descriptive Astronomy.' Orbits of comets of 
more recent dates (since the year 1866) were extracted from M. A. Guillemin'a 
comprehensive and exceediugly accurate descriptive work ' Les Cometes.' The 
figures in the last column of the Table represent actual speeds of penetration 
or of flight through the atmosphere of meteoric particles proceeding from 
the comets, including the small additional velocities given to them by the 
earth's attraction. A Table for obtaining these, and complete Tables for 
other calculations included in these lists, are given (at the place above 
quoted) in SchiapareUi's work. 

Researches on Meteorites, and accounts of their recent falls or discovery. — As 
will be gathered from the following abstracts of papers and communications 
relating to these subjects, great progress continues to be made in the investi- 
gation of the origin of meteorites, and of the circumstances which attend 
their fall. The first of these communications on the recent falls of Meteorites 
(Part I.), and that on the latest analytical researches and examinations of their 
structui'e (Part II.), contain descriptions of many such new occurrences and 
interesting observations on them which have hitherto been scarcely accessible 
to English readers, owing to the foreign languages and publications in which 
the original papers describing most of these particulars appeared ; the 
following brief analyses and abstracts of their principal contents having accord- 
ingly been reproduced from his extensive summary of such recent contribu- 
tions to aerohtic literature in the ' Geological Magazine ' of the present year 
by Dr. Plight, they are presented here concisely and in a convenient arrange- 
ment for reference in this Report. 

Part I. — Meteorites wJiich have been seen to fall, or have been found, between 
August 1873 and April 1875. By Waiter Plight. 

1873, August 24th. — Marysville, California*. 
All the facts that I have yet been able to gather respecting this fall are 
that an aerolite, weighing 12 lbs., crashed through the tree-tops with a bright 
flash, and was buried to the unusual depth of eight feet in the ground. When 
dug out it was so hot that it could not be handled. 

Pound 1873, August 27th. — Eisenberg, Saxe-Altenburg, Germanyf. 
A block of metal, weighing 1-579 kilog., was left exposed on the surface of 
the ground at the foot of the Schneckenberg, north of the Eisenberg, by a 
heavy thunder-shower washing away the surrounding soil. It is a finely gra- 
nular iron, through which are disseminated here and there yellow particles 
of magnetic pyrites or troilite. Unlike metallic masses of undoubted meteoric 
origin, it contains neither nickel nor cobalt ; when etched with nitric acid it 
exhibits, in place of figures, minute star-like forms. It has the composition : — 

Iron 97-27 

Phosphorus 0'21 

Carbon 0-44 

Silicic acid 1-50 

Graphite 090 

100-32 
The presence of silica was confirmed by treating the white, amorphous, some- 
what rounded particles which remained iindissolved with hydrofluoric acid. 

* Nature, 1st January, 1874. (From ' Iron.') 

+ H. B. Geinitz, ' Sitzungs-Ber. der Isis zu Dresden,' 1874-75. 



OBSEUVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 237 

1873, September 23rd, 5.10 a.m.— Khairpur, 12 miles south of Multan, 36 
miles E.N.E. of Bhawalpur, Punjab, India. [Lat. 29° 56' N., long. 

. 72° 12' E.]* 

A description of the meteor at Khairpur is given by the Eev. G. Yeates, 
similar in aU essential details to that cited in these Eeports (1874, p. 300), 
from the 'Astronomical Register,' with the addition that it first appeared 
near the star Algenib (about 15° above the west horizon) as a meteor,or rather 
cluster of meteors, each exceeding in brightness a star of the first magnitude ; 
and the breadth of the train left behind them is estimated to have been from 3° 
to 5°. From this point " its motion was not very rapid but steady, and by the time 
it had reached about 10° of the meridian, which it passed south of the zenith, 
it assumed an exceedingly brilhant appearance, the larger fragments, glowing 
with intense white light with perhaps a shade of green, taking the lead in a 
cluster, surrounded and followed by a great number of smaller ones, each 
drawing a train after it, which, blending together, formed a broad belt of a 
briUiant fiery red." It lit up the whole country, and produced an effect 
similar to that of the electric light. It proceeded in this way, passing in its 
onward course close under Orion, the lowest star of which (Rigel) was very 
near the meridian, until it reached a point nearly due east, paling again as it 
drew near the horizon, and at about 20° above it appeared to go out rather 
than to fall. The train, which continued very bright for some time, was di- 
stinctly traceable three quarters of an hour afterwards. At first it changed 
to a dull red ; then, as the morning broke, to a line of silvery-grey clouds 
that divided into several portions, and floated away on the wind. The track 
of the meteor was unusually long, extending through nearly 180°. The sky 
was cloudless, the morning being described as remarkably clear, with a faint 
glow in the east, the sun being stiU 45 minutes below the horizon when the 
meteor was first observed. After it had disappeared, and while the train 
stUl attracted attention, there was perfect silence, which was at length broken 
by a loud report, followed by a long reverberation, that gradually died away 
like the roU of distant thunder. This interval is estimated to have been four 
minutes. 

At Bhawalpur the explosion was sufficiently violent to shake the houses 
and slam the doors. At Bhawalgur, 80 miles from Khairpur, the meteor was 
seen, but no explosion was heard. It was also observed at Jodhpur and 
Moradabad, and was probably visible within a radius of 300 miles round 
Khairpur. 

A correspondent of ' The Pioneer ' of the 30th of September records his 
observations made on the Shujabad road, 13 miles south of Multan. He states 
that the different fragments into which the meteor broke up were distinctly 
visible, " more than twenty of them, I should say, moving in parallel courses, 
two or three of the larger ones taking the lead in the centre, and each of 
them leaving a tail of red light behind," which blending together, formed one 
huge band of light. The report, which was very terrific, followed after the 
lapse of about three minutes and a. half, which would make the point where 
the disruption of the aerolite took place about 42 or 45 miles distant. The 
train remained very bright for some time, and the clouds into which it was 

* H. B. Mecllicott, ' Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal,' 1874, pt. ii. no. ii. p. 33 ; ' The Pioneer,' 
Sept. 30tli, 1873 ; Brit. Assoc. Eeport, 1874, p. 300.— The description by " G. Yates " (As- 
tronom. Register, March 1874) a])i5eai's to be compiled from two sources, that of Mr. 
Yeates's account above narrated, and that also quoted here, contributed by a correspondent 
to ' The Pioneer,' from a point of view between Multan and Shujabad. 



238 REPORT— 1875. 

transformed were visible upwards of an hour afterwards, till they faded away 
in the bright sunlight. 

Another correspondent, " Shikaree," states that on the left bank of the 
Chenab, some 60 miles S.W. of Bhawalpur, the meteor displayed great bril- 
liancy, and that a double detonation followed after an interval of six or seven 
minutes. 

One of the meteorites fell close to a man who had gone out into the jungle, 
and frightened him so much that he hardly knew M'hat occurred, and was 
under the impression that the stone pursued him for two hours. He showed 
the spot where it fell, however, and this was the first fragment unearthed and 
forwarded by the Tuhsildar of Khairpur to Major Minchin, PoKtical Agent 
for Bhawalpur. 

The stones fell partly in the State of Bhawalpur and partly in the Multan 
district, on either bank of the Sutlej, over an area extending 16 miles in a 
direction bearing 35° S. of E., with a breadth of about three miles. The 
largest and perhaps the greater number fell to the eastward of Khairpur, and 
penetrated the earth to the depth of about 14 foot. They are preserved in 
the following collections in India, and weigh respectively : — 

lbs. oz. grs. 

Lahore Museum 10 12 126 

Indian Museum 9 11 219 

Indian Museum 7 1-1 236 

Geological Museum 1 2 412 

Geological Museum 3 79 

Of those stones or fragments that fell on the Multan side seven have been 
heard of: — four at different spots near Gogewala well, E.S.E. of Mahomed 
Moorut ; two at Khurampur, on the right bank of the Siitlej ; and one at 
Araoli, two miles N.W. of Khurampur. Of these, one only is in known hands, 
that from Mylsi Pergunnah, which weighs 6 oz. 70 grs. 

The account of the physical characters of the stones is very meagre. They 
are all very irregular in form, and are more or less broken. While some of 
the fractures have evidently been accomplished by hand, and others probably 
took place at the moment of falling, several appear to have occurred during 
the fall, as the glazed surface has been partially renewed. The stones are of 
the usual steel-grey colour and exhibit compact crypto-crystaUine texture. 
One specimen has the specific gravity =3'66. 

1873, December. — Coomassie, Kingdom of Ashantee, Africa*. 

In a letter from the War Correspondent of ' The Standard' it is stated that 
among the poi'tents of evil which were observed at Coomassie while the 
British Army halted on the banks of the Prah, an aerolite fell in the market- 
place of Coomassie. In reply to an application for further details respecting 
this event, Mr. Henty writes that he obtained his information from one of the 
clergymen of the Basle Mission. He sa3'S : — " They mentioned these ' pro- 
digies ' as matters of common rumour and belief at Coomassie, but they do 
not appear to have even made any inquiries whatever as to their truth. 
Coomassie was deserted when we got there, so there was no opportunity of 
gaining further information." 

* G. A. Henty, ' March to Coomassie.' Londou : Tinsley Bros. 1874, p. 320. 



OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 239 

1874, May 14th, 2.30 p.m. — Castalia, Nash Co., N. Carolina. 
[Lat. 36° 11', long. 77° 50'.]* 

A short notice in ' Silliman's Journal ' states that the descent of these me- 
teorites, numbering a dozen or more, was accompanied with a series of explo- 
sions and rumbling noises which lasted about four minutes, and were " not 
unlike the discharge of firearms in a battle a few miles off." Although the 
fall took place by day, a luminous body was observed. The area over which 
the fragments fell was ten miles long and three wide. Three stones, weigh- 
ing 5-5, I'O, aud 0*8 kilog., have been found. The dull-coloured crust does 
not entirely cover the stones, the fused matter forming it being scattered over 
some small parts of the surface in the form of pear-shaped beads ; in one or 
two crevices the fused material has penetrated 5 millims. below the surface, 
and here it is more brilliant than on the surface. 

The colour of the interior is in many parts of a dark grey, owing to the 
presence of a larger amount of nickel-iron ; in the lighter portions are seen 
some white spots of a mineral that is doubtless enstatite. The specific gravity 
of the stone is 2-601, and its proximate composition : — 

Nickel-iron 15-21 

Soluble silicate 44-92 

Insoluble silicate 39-87 

The metallic part consists of 100-00 

Iron =92-12; Nickel =6-20; Cobalt =98-73; 
and the siliceous portions of 

SiO., AI2O3 FeO MgO NajO S 

A. Soluble 38-01 0-46 17-51 41-27 1-01 = 98-26 

B. Insoluble 52-61 480 13-21 2731 1-38 ... = 99-31 

The soluble silicate is an olivine in which the ratio of MgO to Fe is about 
4:1; the insoluble part is a bronzite ; and in addition to the minerals already 
mentioned, the presence in the Castalia stones of smaU amount of iron sul- 
phide and anorthite was recognized. 



1874, May 20th.— Virba, near Vidin, Turkey 



This meteorite fell with a loud noise, and entered the ground to the depth 
of one metre ; it weighed 3-60 kilogs. A fragment presented to the Paris 
collection by His Excellency Safvet Pacha is covered with the usual dull 
black crust : a fractured surface shows the meteorite to have a light-grey 
colour and a very finely grained texture, with grains of metal distributed 
through the mass; in certain parts spherular structure is apparent. In a 
microscopic section it was found that the transparent and almost entirely 
colourless stony particles act on polarized light. The metallic portion is 
nickel-iron, the presence of an iron sulphide is recognized by the nction of 
acid, and numerous small black grains of chromite are distributed thioughout 
the stone. A part of the siliceous constituents gelatinize with acid, indicatiug 
the presence of olivine ; and a residue, which resists the action and consti- 
tutes less than one half of the weight of the stone, is believed to be enstatite. 

The Virba stone belongs to the large class of which the meteorite of Luce, 
Sarthe, France (1708, September 13th), may be taken as the type; and is 

* J. L. Smith, ' Araer. Journ. Sc' 3rd ser. vol. viii. p. 147. 
t Q. A. Daubree, ' Comptes Rendiis,' vol. Isxu.. p. 276. 



240 REPORT — 1875. 

most closely allied to the aerolites of Bachmut, Island of Oesel, St. Denis 
Westrem, Buschof, Dolgaja Wolja, and those of other localities mentioned in 
Daubree's paper. 

1874, August 1st, 11 P.M. — Hexham, Northumberland*. 

In the ' English Mechanic ' is a letter from a person signing himself " Ralph 
Lowdon," of Gateshead, stating that at the above time and place " a massive 
ball of intense light," accompanied by other pear-shaped balls of fire, was seen 
to drop towards the earth. The aerolite, which is alleged to have fallen in an 
orchard on the bank of the North Tyne, at no great distance from Hexham, 
is stated to have been found the foUowiug day at 9 a.m. at a depth of 14 inches 
in the soil, still quite warm, and to have weighed 301 g lbs. Letters directed 
to the above are returned by the Post-ofRce authorities, while a courteous 
reply which I received from the Rev. H. C. Barker, of Hexham, states that 
the editor of ' The English Mechanic ' must have been misinformed. The 
reverend gentleman writes : — " To make assurance doubly sure, I have made 
inquiry in several quarters, and cannot find even the slightest foundation for 
the statement." 

1875, February 12th, 10.30 p.m. (Chicago time). — Iowa Co., State of lowaf. 

A very large and brilliant fireball passed over Iowa City at the above date, 
in a direction slightly N. of W. ; the apparent size of the meteor was about 
half that of the fuU moon, and it was accompanied by a broad train of light 
of a slightly green hue. Three separate explosions of the fireball were noticed 
while it was still in view, and about two or three minutes after it disappeared 
three reports, resembling the discharge of the blast of a qiiarry, were heard. 

The phenomenon attracted general attention throughout several counties in 
the central part of the State of Iowa ; and although the visible path of the 
meteor does not appear to have exceeded 50 to 60 miles, the occurrence 
attracted attention and was heard over an area measuring about 125 miles 
from E. to W., and half that distance from N. to S. An observer at Brooklyn 
was aroused from his bed by the report ; and another, who was riding in a 
sleigh near West Liberty, 40 miles E._of the spot where the stones fell, states 
that objects were rendered about as visible as if it were day, the explosions 
being loud, and followed by a rumbling sound that lasted some 60 or 90 
seconds. According to the ' Grinell Herald,' the interval, as observed at that 
town, between the light of the meteor being seen and the report being heard 
M'as three minutes. The ' Des Moines Register ' states that between Red Rock 
and Newton some of the meteorites passed so near the earth's surface that 
they chpped off branches from the trees. 

Prof. N. R. Leonard, of the Iowa State University, states that the meteo- 
rites weighed altogether about 250 lbs., whereof 141 lbs. came into his pos- 
session ; Prof. Hinriehs makes the total weight about 300 lbs. The largest 
mass, which was broken in falling, weighed 43^ lbs., the chief fragments, 
found together, being 20 lbs. and 16 lbs. in weight. 

According to a description, of a very sensational character, which is given 
in the ' Dubuque Times,' one of the meteorites was found in a field about 
three miles S. of the village of West Liberty, having penetrated, so it is stated, 
to a depth of fifteen feet into the ground. 

* Tlie English Mechanic, August 21st, 1874. 

t A. W. Wright, ' Amer. Journ. Sc' ix. p. 459, and x. p. 44. Cuttings from American 
newspapers and other communications to the Committee received from Mr. B. V. Marsh. 



OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS .METJiOKS. 211 

The ' Davenport Gazette ' states that another stone fell at Homestead, near 
Iowa City (lat. 41° 46' N., long. 92° 0' W.), in a field covered with ice and 
snow, and rebounded in a N.E. direction for a distance of more than thirty 
feet up a slight declivity, where it came to rest in the sand, which was fused 
and adhering to it. It weighed originally about 7 lb. 6 oz., but had been 
reduced by eager curiosity-hunters to 3 lb. 8 oz. ; the fractured surface of 
this meteorite had a dark and less distinct coating than that belonging to the 
larger block from which it had been detached by tbe explosion. 

The stones are covered with the usual black crust, and there is evidence on 
some of the pieces of the meteorites of the fused material of the outer portion 
having run partially over the freshly fractured surfaces. Some fragments 
show distinct evidence of a sort of lamination or imperfect stratification, the 
parts where the surfaces cleaved being smoothed down as if by pressure or 
friction. About 100 were found, varying in size from 9500' to 50 grammes, 
25 kQogs. having been sent to Paris, A preliminary chemical examination 
of this meteorite has already been made by L. Smith, who finds the specific 
gravity to be 3"57 and the composition : — 

Nickel-iron =12-53, Troilite =5-82, Silicates =S1'G1: totallOO-00. 

The nickel-iron consists of 

Iron=89-W, Nickel =10-35, Cobalt=0-54: total 99-93, 

■with traces of copper, phosphorus, and sulphur. The silicate contains iron 
protoxide, alumina, magnesia, soda, with traces of lithia and potash, and has, 
according to L. Smith, very similar compositions to the meteorite of New 
Concord, Guernsey Co., Ohio (1860, 1st May). Daubrce remarks on its chon- 
dritic structure, and considers it to belong to a large class of meteorites, 
notably represented by the stones which fell at YouiUc (1831, May 31st) and 
Aumale, Algeria (1865, August 25th). 

This meteorite being of the stony kind, and having so recently fallen, it 
occurred to Wright (see also the examination of the Texas Meteorite, p. 244) 
to examine the gases contained in the particles of iron distributed throughout 
its mass, with a view to learning whether they present the same characters