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Full text of "Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science"

c: 



1^. 



R E P E T 



OF THE 



FORTY-SIXTH MEETING 




OF THE: 



BRITISH ASSOCIATION 



FOE THE 



ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE; 



HELD AT 



GLASGOW IN SEPTEMBER 1876. 



LONDON: 
JOHN MUKRAY, ALBEMARLE STREET. 

1877. 

[Office of the Associalion : 22 Albemaeie Stkeet, London, W.] 



FKIHTED BY 
■TAYLOR AND FSANCIS, RED LION COUET, FLEET 8TEEKT. 



AXEEE ! FLAMMAM, 







CONTENTS. 



Page 

Objects and Rules of the Association xvii 

Places of Meeting and Officers from commencement xxiv 

Presidents and Secretaries of the Sections of the Association from 

commencement xxx 

Evening Lectures xli 

Lectures to the Operative Classes : xliii 

Table showing the Attendance and Receipts at Annual Meetings . . xliv 

Treasurer's Account , xlvi 

Officers of Sectional Committees xlvii 

Officers and Council, 1876-77 xlviii 

Report of the Council to the General Committee xlix 

Recommendations of the General Committee for Additional Reports 

and Researches in Science li 

Synopsis of Money Grants Ivii 

Place of Meeting in 1878 Iviii 

General Statement of Sums paid on account of Grants for Scientific 

Purposes lix 

Arrangement of the General Meetings Ixxdi 

Address by the President, Professor Thomas Andrews, M.D., LL.D,, 

r.R.S., Hon. F.R.S.E., &c Ixviii 

REPORTS OF RESEARCHES IN SCIENCE. 

Twelfth Report of the Committee for Exploring Kent's Cavern, Devon- 
shire, the Committee consisting of John Evans, F.R.S., Sir John 
Lubbock, Bart., F.R.S., Edavakd Vivian, M.A., George Busk, F.R.S., 
AViLLiAM Boyd Dawkins, F.R.S., William Atshford Sanford, F.G..S, 
John Edward Lee, F.G.S., and William Pengellt, F.R.S. (Reporter) 1 

a2 



iv CONTENTS. 



Page 



Ecport of the Committee, consisting of Prof. Syltestee, Prof. Catlet, 
Prof. Hirst, llev. Prof. Bartholomew Price, Prof. H. J. S. Smith, 
Dr. SroTTiswooDE, Mr. R. B. Haywaru, Dr. S.^mon, Rev. Prof. R. 
TowNSEND, Prof. Fuller, Prof. Kelland, Mr. J. M. Wilson, Prof. 
Henrici, Mr. J. W. L. Glaisher, and Prof. Clifford, appointed for 
the purpose of considering the possibility of Improving the Methods 
of Instruction in Elementary Geometry, and reappointed to consider 
the Syllabus drawn up by the Association for the Improvement of 
Geometrical Teaching, and to report thereon. Drawn up by Mr. 
Hatward 8 

Results of a Comparison of the British- Association Units of Electrical 
Resistance. By G. Chrtstal and S. A. Saunder 13 

Third Report of a Committee, consisting of Prof. A. S. Herschel, B.A., 
r.R.A.S., andG. A. Lebour, F.G.S., on Experiments to determine the 
Thermal Conductivities of certain Rocks, showing especially the Geo- 
logical Aspects of the Investigation 19 

Report of a Committee, consisting of the Right Hon. J. G. Hubbard, 
M.P., Mr. Chadwick, M.P., Mr. Morlet, M.P., Dr. Fare, Mr. Hal- 
lett, Professor Jevons, Mr. Neavmarch, Professor Leone Levi, Mr. 
Heywood, and Mr. Shaen (with power to add to their number), 
appointed for the purpose of considering and reporting on the practi- 
cability of adopting a Common Measure of Value in the Assessment 
of Direct Taxation, local and imperial. By Mr. Hallett, Secretary 27 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Clerk Maxwell, Pro- 
fessor J. D. Everett, and Dr. A. Schuster, for testing experimentally 
Ohm's Law 36 

Report of the Committee, consisting of the Rev. H. F. Barnes, H. E. 
Dresser (Secretary), T. Harland, J. E. Harting, T. J. Monk, Pro- 
fessor Newton, and the Rev. Canon Tristram, appointed for the pur- 
pose of inquiring into the possibility of establishing a " Close Time " 
for the protection of indigenous animals, and for watching Bills intro- 
duced into Parliament affecting this subject 63 

Report of the Committee, consisting of James R. Narier, F.R.S., Sir W. 
Thomson, F.R.S., W. Feoude, F.R.S., and Osboene Reynolds (Secre- 
tary), appointed to investigate the effect of Propellers on the Steering 
of Vessels. (Plate I.) 66 

On the Investigation of the Steering Qualities of Ships. By Professor 
Osborne Reynolds 70 

Seventh Report on Earthquakes in Scotland, drawn up by Dr. Betce, 
F.G.S., F.R.S.E. The Committee consists of Dr. Bryce, F.G.S., Sir 
W. Thomson, F.R.S., J. Brough, G. Forbes, F.R.S.E., D. Milne-Home, 
F.R.S.E., and P. Deummond 74 

Report on the Present State of our Knowledge of the Crustacea. — Part 
II. On the Homologies of the Dermal Skeleton (continued). By C. 
Spence Bate, F.R.S. &c. (Plates II. & III.) 75 



CONTENTS. V 

Page 

Second Report of the Committee for investigating the Circulation of the 
Underground Waters in the New Red Sandstone and Permian Forma- 
tions of England, and the quantity and character of the water supplied 
to various towns and districts from these formations. The Committee 
consisting of Professor Hull, Mr. Binnet, Rev. H. W. Crosskey, 
Captain D. Galton, Professor A. H. Geeex, Professor Harkness, Mr. 
H. HoAVELL, Mr. W. Molyneitx, Mr. G. H. Morton, Mr. Pengellt, 
Professor Prestwich, Mr. J. Plant, Mr. Mellard Reade, Mr. C. 
Fox-Stbangwats, Mr. W. Whitakee, and Mr. C. E. De Range. Drawn 
up by Mr. De Rance (Secretary) 95 

Fourth Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Harkness, Prof. 
Prestwich, Prof. Hughes, Rev. H. W. Crossket, Prof. W. Botd 
Dawkins, Dr. Deane, Messrs. C. J. Woodward, L. C. Miall, G. H. 
Morton, and J. E. Lee, appointed for the purpose of recording the 
position, height above the sea, lithological characters, size, and origin 
of the more important of the Erratic Blocks of England and Wales, 
reporting other matters of interest connected v/ith the same, and 
taking measures for their preservation. Drawn up by the Rev. H. 
W. Crossket, Secretary 110 

Fourth Report of the Committee, consisting of Sir John Lubbock, Bart., 
Prof. Prestavich, Prof. Busk, Prof. T. M'K. Hughes, Prof. W. Botd 
Dawkins, Prof. Miall, Rev. H. W. Crossket, and Mr. R. H. Tidde- 
MAN, appointed for the purpose of assisting in the Exploration of the 
Settle Caves (Victoria Cave). Drawn up by R. H. Tiddeman, Reporter 115 

E.eport on Observations of Luminous Meteors during the year 1875-76, 
by a Committee, consisting of James Glaisher, F.R.S., R. P. Greg, 
F.G.S., F.R.A.S., C. Brooke, F.R.S., Prof. G. Forbes, F.R.S.E., Wal- 
ter Flight, D.Sc, F.G.S., and Prof. A. S. Herschel, M.A., F.R.A.S. 
(Plate IV.) 119 

Report on the Rainfall of the British Isles for the years 1875-76, by 
a Committee, consisting of C. Brooke, F.R.S. (Chairman), J. F. 
Bateman, C.E., F.R.S., Rogers Field, C.E., J. Glaisher, F.R.S., 
T. Hawkslet, C.E., The Earl of Rosse, F.R.S., J. Smyth, Jun., C.E., 
C. ToMLiNsoN, F.R.S., G. J. Stmons (Secretary) 172 

Ninth Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Everett, Sir W. 
Thomson, F.R.S., Professor J. Clerk Maxwell, F.R.S., G. J. Stmons, 
F.M.S., Professor Ramsat, F.R.S. , Professor A. Geikie, F.R.S., James 
Glaisher, F.R.S., George Maw, F.G.S., W. Pengellt, F.R.S., Pro- 
fessor Hull, F.R.S., Professor Ansted, F.R.S., Professor Prestwich, 
F.R.S., Dr. C. Le Neve Foster, Professor A. S. Herschel, G. A. Le- 
BOUR, F.G.S., and A. B. Wtnne, appointed for the purpose of investi- 
gating the Rate of Increase of Underground Temperature downwards 
in various Localities of Dry Land and under Water. Drawn up by 
Professor Everett, Secretary 204 

Nitrous Oxide in the Gaseous and Liquid States. By W. J. Janssen . . 211 



VI CONTENTS. 



Page 



Eighth Report of the Committee on the Treatment and Utilization of 
Sewage, reappointed at Bristol, 1875, and consisting of Richard B. 
Grantham (Chairman), C.E., F.G.S., Professor A. "W. Williamson, 
F.R.S., Dr. Gilbert, F.R.S., Professor Corfield, M.A., M.D., "William 
Hope, Y.C, F. J. Bramwell, C.E., F.R.S., and J. Wolfe Barry, C.E. 225 

Improved Investigations on the Flow of Water through Orifices, with 
Objections to the modes of treatment commonly adopted. By Prof. 
James Thomson, LL.D., D.Sc 243 

Report of the Anthropometric Committee, consisting of Dr. Beddoe, Lord 
Aberdare, Dr. Farr, Mr. Francis Galton, Sir Henry Rawlinson, 
Colonel Lane Fox, Sir Rawson Rawson, Mr. James Heywood, Dr. 
MoTTAT, Professor Rolleston, Mr. Hallett, Mr. Fellows, and Pro- 
fessor Leone Levi 266 

On Cyclone and Rainfall Periodicities in connexion with the Sun-spot 
Periodicity. By Charles Meldrttm 267 

First Report of the Committee, consisting of Dr. Joule, Prof. Sir W. 
Thomson, Prof. Tait, Prof. Balfour Stewart, and Prof. MAX^VELL, 
appointed for the purpose of determining the Mechanical Equivalent 
of Heat 275 

Report of the Committee appointed for the purpose of promoting tho 
extension, improvement, and harmonic analysis of Tidal Observations. 
Consisting of Sir William Thomson, LL.D.,'F.R.S., Prof. J. C. Adams, 
F.R.S., J. Oldham, William Parses, M.Inst.C.E., and Admiral 
Richards, R.N., F.R.S. Drawn up by Sir William Thomson 275 

Third Report of the Committee, consisting of Dr. Brunton, F.R.S. , and 
Dr. Pye-Smith, appointed to investigate the Conditions of Intestinal 
Secretion and Movement 308 

Report of the Committee, consisting of A. Vernon Harootjrt, Professor 
Gladstone, and Dr. Atkinson, appointed for the purpose of collecting 
and suggesting subjects for Chemical Research 314 



CONTENTS. VU 

NOTICES AND ABSTRACTS 

OF 

MISCELLANEOUS COMMUNICATIONS TO THE SECTIONS. 



MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICS. 

Pag« 

Address by Professor Sir William Thomson, LL.D., M.A., F.R.S,, President 
of the Section 1 

Mathematics. 

M. Valentino Cebruti sur les Mouvements api5riodic[ues des Systemes de 

Points Materiels - 12 

Professor LmG-i Cremona siir les Systemes de Spheres et les Systemes de 

Droites 12 

Mr. George H. Darwin on Graphical Interpolation and Integration 13 

Ml'. J. W. L. Glaisher on certain Determinants 13 

on a Series Summation leading to an Expression for 

the Theta Function as a Definite Integral 15 

Mr. W. Hatden on Parallel Motion 16 

Mr. Henry M. Jeffery on Plane Cuhics of the Third Class with a Double 

and a Single Focus 17 

on Spherical Class-cubics with Double Foci and 

Double Cyclic Arcs 19 

Professor Giuseppe JuxG; on the Inverse Problems of Moments of Inertia and 

of Moments of Resistance 21 

on the Graphical Representation of the Moments 

of Resistance of Plane Figures 23 

on a new Construction for the Central Nucleus of 

a Plane Section 25 

Professor A. B. W. Kennedy on Centroids, and their Application to some 

Mechanical Problems 2G 

Professor Paul Mansion on an Elementary Demonstration of a Fundamental 

Principle of the Theory of Functions 26 

Mr. Thomas Muer on Convergents 27 

on the Relation between two continued Fraction Expan- 
sions for Series 28 

Professor F. W. Newman on the Use of Legendre's Scale for Calculating the 

Firet Elliptic Integral 28 

Professor P. G. Tait on General Theorems relating to Closed Cui-ves 29 

Professor James Thomson on a Theorem in the Mensuration of certain Solids 30 

Mr. W. H. Walenn on Division-remainders in Arithmetic 30 

Mr. M. M. U. Wilkinson on Many-valued Functions 30 

GrENEBAL PhTSICS, &C. 

Dr. James Croll on the Transformation of Gravity 30 

Mr. WiLLi.^M Crookes on the Influence of the Residual Gas on the Move- 
ment of the Radiometer 30 



VIU CONTENTS. 

Page 
Mr. W. Froude's Mechanical Theory of the Soaring of Birds 31 

Professor F. Guthbie and Dr. F. Guthrik on the Passage of Fluids through 

Capillary and other Tubes 31 

Professor J. Purser on the Modification of the Motion of Waves produced by 

Fluid Friction .* 31 

Lord Rayt.eigh on the Forces experienced by a Lamina immersed obliquely 

in a Fluid Stream 31 

Professor Osborne Reynolds on the Resistance encountered by Vortex 
Rings, and the Relation between the Vortex Ring and Stream-lines of a 

Disk 31 

Dr. C. W. SiEMENs's Description of the Bathometer 31 

Mr. G. Johnstone Stoney on the Amplitude of Waves of Light and Heat . 31 
on Acoustic Analogues to Motions in the Mole- 
cules of Gases 31 

Professor James Thomson on the Origin of Windings of Rivers in Alluvial 

Plains 31 

■ on Metric Units of Force, Energy, and Power, 

larger than those on the Centimetre-Gram-Second System 32 

Sir W. Thomson on the Precessional Motion of a Liquid 33 

on the Laws of the Diffiision of Liquids 35 

on a new case of Instability of Steady Motion 35 

on the Nutation of a Solid Shell containing Liquid 35 

Light and Heat. 

Captain Abney's Photometric Measurements of the Magneto-electric Light . 36 

Mr. J. T. BoTTOMLEY on the Conductivity of Heat by Water 36 

Mr. Howard Grttbb on the Testings of Large Objectives 36 

on Recent Improvements in Equatorial Telescopes .... 37 

on a Method of Photographing the Defects in Optical 

Glass arising from want of Homogeneity 37 

Professor Hennessy on the Decrease of Temperature with Height on the 

Earth's Surface 39 

on the Distribution of Temperature over the British 

Islands 39 

Dr. J. Janssen sur les Usages du Revolver Photographique en Astronomic et 

en Biologic 40 

, Photographies du Passage de V^nus a Kob^ 40 

sur le Mirage en Mer 40 

on Solar Photography, with reference to the History of the 

Solar Surface 40 

on the Eclipse of the Sun observed at Siam in April 1875 . . 40 

Mr. John Kerr on Rotation of the Plane of Polarization by Reflection from 

a Magnetic Pole 40 

Mr. W. Ladd's Description of Spottiswoode's Pocket Polarizing Apparatus . . 41 

Professor G. G. Stokes on a Phenomenon of Metallic Reflection 41 

Electricity. 

Professors Ayrton and Perry on the Contact Theory of Voltaic Action 42 

Professor J. Dewar on a new Form of Electrometer 42 

Mr. Oliver J. Lodge on a Mechanical Illustration of Electric Induction and 
Conduction 42 

on a Mechanical Illustration of Thermoelectric Pheno- 
mena 43 



CONTENTS. IX 

Page 
Professor J. Clerk Maxwell on the Protection of Buildings from Liglituiug 43 

Sir W. Thomson on Compass Correction in Iron Ships 45 

on Eflects of Stress on the Magnetization of Iron 45 

on Contact Electricity 45 

ACOTTSTICS. 

Mr. R. H. M. BosANQUET on the Conditions of the Transformation of Pendu- 
lum-Vibrations ; with an experimental illustration 45 

Mr. Colin Brown on true Intonation, illustrated by the Voice-Harmonium 
with Natural Finger-board 46 

Sir W. Thomson on a Practical Method of Tuning a Major Third 48 

Insteuments, &c. 
Professor Barrett on a Form of Gasholder giving a uniform Flow of Gas . . 48 

on the new Lecture-Table for Physical Demonstration in 

the Royal College of Science for Ireland 48 

on two new Forms of Apparatus for the Experimental 

Illustration of the Expansion of Solids by Heat 48 

Mr. C. H. GiMiNGHAM on a Modification of the Sprengel Pump, and a new 

Form of Vacuum-Tap 49 

Professor Hennessy on new Standards of Measure and Weight 49 

Mr. G. J. Symons on a new Form of Thei-mometer for observing Earth Tem- 
perature 49 

on an Unmistakable True North Compass 49 

Sir W. Thomson on a new Form of Astronomical Clock with Free Pendulum 

and Independently Governed Uniform Motion for Escapement-wheel .... 49 
Mr. W. H. Walenn on Mr. Sabine's Method of Measuring small Intervals of 
Time 52 

Captain A. W. Baird on Tidal Operations in the Gulf of Cutch by the Great 

Trigonometrical Survey of India 52 

Sir W. Thomson on the Physical Explanation of the Mackerel Sky 54 

on Navigational Deep-sea Sovmdings in a Ship moving at 

High Speed 54 

CHEMISTRY. 

Address by Mr. William Henry Perkin, F.R.S., President of the Section . 65 

Mr. F. H. T. Allan on a Safe and Rapid Evaporating-pan 61 

Mr. J. Banks on Sewage Purification and Utilization 62 

Mr. H. W. Biggs on a new Voltaic Battery 62 

Professor Crum Brown on the Action of Pentachloride of Phosphorus on 

Turpentine 62 

Mr. James T. Brown on Anthracene-testing 62 

Mr. J. y. Buchanan on some Instruments used in the ' Challenger ' 63 

Dr. Cameron on Ammonic Seleniocyanide 63 

Mr. J. J. Coleman on a Gas-condensing Machine for the Liquefaction of 

Gases by combined cold and pressure, recently employed in the manufacture 

of Volatile Liquid Hydrocarbons 63 

on the Chemical Treatment of Town Excretion 63 

Professor Dewah on the Transformation of Chinoline into Aniline 63 

Mr. W. DiTTMAR on the Proximate Analysis of Coal-Gas.— Remarks on 

Reboul's Paper on Pyro-Tartaric Acid 63 



X CONTENTS. 

Page 

Mr. E. M. DrxoN on an Apparatus for the Analysis of Impurities in the Atmo- 
sphere 63 

Mr. J. DuNNACHEE on Fire-Brick 63 

Mr. A. Fergusson on White-Lead 63 

Professor Gamgee on the Physiological Action of Pyro-, Meta-, and Ortho- 
phosphoric Acids 64 

Professor Gladstone on the Influence of the Condition and Quantity of the 

Negative Element on the Action of the Copper-Zinc Couple 64 

Professor Guthhie on Solid "Water 64 

Mr. W. N. Haetley on the Critical Point of Liquid Carbonic Acid in ]\Iinerals 64 

Mr. William Hendeeson on the History of Copper-extraction by theWet Way G4 

Colonel Hope on the Purification of the Clyde 64 

Mr. Chaeles T. Kingzett on the Limited Oxidation of Terpenes. — Part IV. 64 

Mr. A. C. Letts on two new Hydrocarbons from Turpentine 65 

Mr. J. Macteab on Soda Mauufactui-e 65 

Dr. Macvicae on the possible Genesis of the Chemical Elements out of a 

Homogeneous Cosmic Gaa or Common Vapour of Matter 65 

Mr. M. M. Pattison Muib on Essential Oil of Sage. — I'art 1 65 

— on the action of Dilute Saline Solutions upon 

Lead 66 

on certain Compounds of Bismuth 66 

Mr. J. A. R. Newlands on Relations among the Atomic Weights of the 

Elements 66 

on the Alum Process in Sugar-refining 66 

Mr. T. L. Patteeson on Sugar 67 

Mr. W. H. Perkin on some new Anthracene Compounds 67 

Dr. William Ramsay on Picoline and its Derivatives 67 

Dr. J. Emeeson Reynolds on Glucinum, its Atomic Weight and Specific 

Heat 68 

Mr. W. C. SiLL.ui on the Utilization of Sewage 68 

Mr. R. D. Silva on the Action of Hydriodic Acid on mixed Ethers of the 

General Formula C„H2n+i-l-0 . CH3 68 

Mr. Anderson Smith on Sodium 68 

Mr. Edwaed C. C. Stanfoed on the Manufactm-e of Iodine 68 

Mr. J. E. Stoddaet on Lead Desilverizing by the Zinc Process 69 

Mr. J. Johnstone Stoney on the Atomicity of Oxygen and on the Constitu- 
tion of Basic Salts 69 

Mr. D. Swan on Zinc 69 

Rev. R. Thomson on the Prevention of the Pollution of Rivers 70 

Mr. William Thomson on the Growth of Mildew in Grey Cloth 70 

Dr. W. A. TiLDEN on the Nitroso Derivatives of the Terpenes 70 

on a new Iso-purpui-ine 70 

Mr. F. Waed on the Prevention of Fraudulent Alterations in Cheques &c 70 

Mr. Waiter Weld on on the Means of Suppressing Alkali Waste 70 

Dr. C. R. Aldeb Wright on New Cotamine Derivatives 70 

on the Alkaloids of the Aconites 71 

GEOLOGY. 

Address by Professor J. Young, M.D., F.G.S., President of the Section 72 

His Grace The Duke of Argyll on the Physical Structure of the Highlands 

in connexion with their Geological History 81 

Major Beaumont on the Sub-Wealden Exploration 87 



CONTENTS. XI 

Page 

Dr. Jamks Brych on the Granite of Strath-Errick, Lough Ness 87 

on the Earthquake Districts of Scotland 88 

Dr. James Croll on the Tidal-Retardation Argument for the Age of the Earth 88 
Mr. C. E. De Rance on the Variation in Thickness of the Middle Coal Mea- 
sures of the "Wigan Coal-field ; • ■ • ^^ 

Dr. Anton Fritsch on Labyrinthodont Remains from the Upper Carbonifer- 
ous (Gas-Coal) of Bohemia ®^ 

Mr George A. Gibson on the Physical Geology and Geological Structure of 

Foula ^" 

Dr. Gilchrist on the Red Soil of India 90 

Professors Hahkness and A. H. Nicholson on the Strata and Fossils between 

the Borrowdaile Series of the Coniston Flags of the North of England 90 

Professor Edward Hull on the Upper Limit of the essentially Marine Beds 
of the Carboniferous System of the British Isles, and the necessity for the 

establishment of a Middle Carboniferous Group 90 

on a Deep Boring for Coal at Scarle, near Ijincoln . . 91 

Mr. R. L. Jack on Tertiary Basalt-rock Dykes in Scotland 9^ 

Dr. Von Lasahlx on some New Minerals, and on Doubly-refracting Garnets . 92 
Mr. G. A. Lebour on the Changes affecting the Southern Extension of the 

Lowest Carboniferous Rocks '^'^ 

Mr. J. Macfadzean on the Parallel Roads of Glen Roy 93 

Dr. David Milne-Hoivle on the Parallel Roads of Glen Roy 93 

on High-level Terraces in Carron Valley, County of 

Linlithgow 

Mr. W. S. Mitchell on the Bagshot Peat-Beds 94 

Mr. C. W. Peach on Circinnate Vernation of Sphenopteris affinis from the 
Earliest Stage to Completion ; and on the Discovery of Staphylopteris, a 

Genus new to British Rocks "^^ 

Dr. F. RoMER on the Mountain Limestone of the West Coast of Sumatra 95 

Mr. R. Russell and Mr. J. V. Holmes on the Raised Beach on the Cumber- 
land Coast, between Whitehaven and Bowness 95 

Rev. E. Sewell on the Drifts and Boulders of the upper part of the Valley of 

the Wharfe, Yorkshire 95 

Dr. R. Slimon on the Upper Silurian Rocks of Lesmahagow 96 

Mr. J. E. Taylor on the Age, Fauna, and Mode of Occurrence of the Phos- 
phorite Deposits of the South of France 96 

Professor James Thomson on Ridgy Structure in Coal, with Suggestions for 

accounting for its Origin "^^ 

on further Illustrations of the Jointed Prismatic 

Structure in Basalts and other Igneous Rocks 96 

Mr. William A. Traill on certain pre-Carboniferous and Metamorphosed 

Trap-dykes and the Associated Rocks of North Mayo, Ireland 97 

Mr. H. Willett on the Sub-Wealden Exploration 97 

Professor W. C. Williamson on Recent Researches into the Organization of 

some of the Plants of the Coal-measures 98 

Mr. E. A. WiJNSCH on the Junction of Granite and Old Red Sandstone at 

Corrie and Glen Sannox, Arran 98 

Mr. John Young on Siliceous Sponges from the Carboniferous Limestone near 
Glasgow 99 



BIOLOGY. 

Address by Alfred Russel Wallace, F.R.G.S., F.L.S., President of the 



Section 



100 



Xll CONTENTS. 

Botany and Zoology. 

Page 
Prof. Alfred Newton's Address to the Department of Botany and Zoology . 119 
Dr. 1. Batley Balfour on the Pandaneje of the Mascarene and Seychelles 

Islands 142 

Mr. G. S. Boulger on the Evolution of Sex in the Vegetable Kingdom 142 

Professor Alexander Dickson on Two Monstrosities of Matricaria inodora . 143 
. on Laticiferous Canals in Fruit of Limno- 

charis Plumieri 144 

Mr. A. G. More on the Occurrence in Ireland of Ntiphar intermedium, Ledeb. 144 

, exhibition of Zostera nana from Carnarvonshire 144 

Professor W. R. M'Nab, exhibition of Choreocliola.x polysiphonice, Reinscli . . 144 
on the Structure of the Leaf in different Species of 

Abies 144 

Mr. C. W. Peach on Circinnate Vernation of Sphenopteris affinis from the 

Earliest stage to Completion, and on the discovery of Staphylopteris, a Genus 

new to British Rocks 144 

Professor W. C. Williamson on some of the Physiological and Morphological 

Features seen in the Plants of the Coal-measures 145 

Professor A. Leith Adams on Gigantic Land-Tortoises and a Freshwater 

Species from the Maltese Caverns, with observations on their Fossil Fauna . 145 

Dr. W. B. Carpenter on the Arenaceous Foraminifera collected in the 
' Valorous ' Expedition 14G 

: — on Further Researches on the Nervous Sj'stem of 

Antedon rosaceus (Cotnatula rosacea, Lamk.) 146 

Mr. P. Herbert Carpenter on the Anatomy of the Arms of the Crinoids . . 146 
Dr. D. J. Cunningham on Delphinus aJhirostris 146 

Professor Ferdinand Cohn on the Formation and Growth of Artificial Silica 
Cells 146 

Dr. N. Carmichael on Spontaneous Evolution and the Germ Theory 146 

Dr. J. GwYN Jeffreys on the Biological Results of a Cruise in II.M.S. 
' Valorous ' to Davis Strait in 1875 147 

Rev. F. 0. Morris on a Double Dilemma in Darwinism 147 

Mr. John Murray on Oceanic Deposits and their Origin, based on Observa- 
tions made on board H.M.S. ' Challenger ' 147 

Professor J. Young on the new Cases in the Hunterian Museum 147 

Anatomy and Physiology. 

Dr. John Grey M'Ivendrick on the Future of Physiological Research.— 
Address to the Department of Anatomy and Physiology 126 

Mr. F. M. Balfour on the Development of the Proto-Vertebrte in Elasmo- 
branchs I47 

Mr. H. G. Brooke and Mr. E. 0. Hopwood on the Changes in the Circu- 
lation which are induced when the Blood is expelled from the Limbs by 
Esmarch's Method I47 

Dr. W. B. Carpenter on the Morphology and Histology of the Nervous 

System of Antedon rosaceus {Comatida rosacea, Lamk.) 148 

Dr. Cassells on a Hypothesis of the perception of Articulate Speech 148 

Professor Cleland on the Morphological Relations of the Lower End of the 
Humerus j^g 

on a Hydrocephalic Skull, and on the Duplicity of the Tem- 
poral Ridge 249 



CONTENTS. XIU 

Page 

Dr. D. J. Cunningham on tlie Spinal Nervous System of the Cetacea 14'J 

Professor Dewab on Recent additional Observations on the Physiological 

Action of Sight 151 

Professor Arthtjb Gamgee and Leopold Labmuth on the Action of Vana- 

diam upon the Intrinsic Nervous Mechanism of the Frog's Heart 151 

— , John Pbiestley, and Leopold Labmuth on the 

Dift'erence in the Poisonous Activity of Phosphorus in Ortho-, Meta-, and 

Pyrophosphoric Acids 151 

. on the 

Action of Pyrophosphoric Acid on the Circulation 152 

Mr. Robert Gabneb on the Brain of the Canida; 152 

Mr. C. 0. Gboom Napieb on the Unwholesomeness of Flesh Diet in Tropical 

Climates 153 

Eenest Haeckel iiber die Physemarien {Haliphysema und Gastrophysemd) . 153 

Surgeon-Major Johnston on the Dynamics of the Racial Diet in India 154 

Mr. Chables Thomas Kingzett on the Action of Alcohol on the Brain. . . . 154 
Mr. Leopold Labmuth on the Poisonous Activity of Vanadium in Ortho-, 

Meta-, and Pyrovanadic Acids 155 

Dr. Paton on the Action and Sounds of the Heart 165 

Mr. John Pbiestley on the Physiological Action of Vanadium 155 

on the Physiological Action of Chromium 156 

Dr. Ueban Pritchaed on the Termination of the Nerves in the Vestibule and 

Semicii-cular Canals of Mammals 156 

on a Microscope adapted for showing the Circulation 

in the Human Subject ' 158 

Mr. George J. Romanes on the Physiology of the Nervous System of Medusae 158 
Professor Bubdon Sandebson on the Electrical Phenomena consequent on 

Irritation of the Leaves of the Fly-Trap (Dioncra musciptda) 163 

Dr. WiLLiAJi Stirling on the Nervous Apparatus of the Lungs 163 

Professor Stbuthees on Finger-muscles found in the Greenland-Right 

Whale 163 

on Dissections of the supposed Rudimentary Hind Limb 

of the Greenland Right Whale 163 

Professor W. Turner on the Structure of the Placenta in relation to the 

Theoiy of Evolution 163 

Mr. J. A. Wanklyn on the Effects of the Mineral Substances in Drinking- 

Water on the Health of the Community 163 

Anthkopoloqt. 

Mr. Alfred Russel Wallace's Address 100 

General Sir J. Alexander on the Oldest Woman in Scotland 164 

Professor Barrett on some Phenomena associated with Abnormal Conditions 

of Mind 104 

Mr. A. W. BucKLAND on Primitive Agriculture 164 

Rev. Mr. Cameron on the Relation of Gaelic and English 164 

Mr. Hyde Clarke on the Prehistoric Names for Man, Monkey, Lizard, &c. . 165 
on Hittite, Khita, Hamath, Canaanite, Lydian, Etruscan, 

Peruvian, Mexican, &c 165 

Professor Cleland on a Sooloo Skull 165 

Mr. C. 0. Groom Napier on the Phoenicians 165 

Mr. W. Harper on the Natives of British Guiana 165 

Mr. J. Park Harrison on the Eastern Picture-writing 165 



XIV CONTENTS. 

Page 

Mr. Bertram F. Hartshorkte on the Eodiyas of Ceylon 1G5 

Captain J. S. Hay and Commander Cameron on Homed Men of Akkem, in 

Africa 165 

Mr. H. V. HusiBOLDT v. d. Horck on the Laplanders and People of the North 

of Eiarope 166 

Mr. W. J. Knowles on the Classification of An-ow-heads 166 

on the Find of Prehistoric Objects at Portstewart 166 

Dr. liNOx on Bosjes Skulls 166 

Rev. J. M'Cann on the Orig-in of Instinct 166 

Mr. Hector MacLean on the Gaelic Inhabitants of Scotland 166 

on the Anglicizing and Gaelicizing of Surnames .... 167 

Mr. Kerry Nichols on Explorations in the Islands of the Coral Sea 167 

Mr. W. Pengelly on an Urn from Chudleigh, Devon 169 

Mr. J. S. Phene on Relics of Totemism in Scotland in Historic Times 169 

on the Arthurian Apple and the Serpent of the Ancients . . 169 

Mr. James Shaw on Right-handedness 169 

— on the Mental Progress of Animals during the Human 

Period 169 

Dr. Allen Thomson on two SkuUs from the Andaman Islands 169 

GEOGRAPHY. 

Address by F. J. Evans, C.B., F.R.S., Captain R.N., President of the Section 169 
Mr. A. Bowden on a new Route to the Sources of the Niger 181 

Mr. J. Y. Buchanan on the Specific Gravity of the Surface-water of the Ocean, 

as observed during the Cruise of H.M.S. ' Challenger ' 181 

on a new Deep-sea Thermometer 181 

Commander V. L. Cameron on his Journey through Equatorial Africa .... 181 
Signor G. E. Cerrtjti on his Recent Explorations in N.W. New Guinea .... 182 

Lieutenant W. H. Chippendall on the White Nile between Gondokoro and 
Appuddo 182 

Mr. W. Barrington D'Almeida on Perak and Salangore 182 

Mr. Sandford Fleming on the Conventional Division of Time now in use, 
and its Disadvantages in connexion with Steam Communications in different 
pai'ts of the World ; with Remarks on the desirability of adopting Common 

Time over the Globe for Railways and Steam-Ships 182 

Professor Forbes on the Site of the Grave of Geughiz Khan 182 

Dr. Litton Forbes on the Samoan Archipelago 183 

Captain J. S. Hay on Akem and its People, West Africa 183 

Mr. J. Murray on the Geological Distribution of Oceanic Deposits 183 

Mr. Kerry Nichols on the Islands of the Coral Sea 183 

Rev. J. Paterson on a Journey across Finland, from Ellenborg to Archangel 
rid Kemi 183 

Colonel R. L. Playpair on Travels in Timis in the Footsteps of Bruce 183 

Professor Porter on some Points of Interest in the Physical Conformation and 

Antiquities of the Jordan Valley 184 

Mr. A. SiMSON on the River Putumayo or I^a, South America 184 

Mr. OcTAvius Stone on his Recent Jom-neys in New Guinea 184 

Stafl-Commander Tizard on the Temperature obtained in the Atlantic Ocean - 

during the Cruise of H.M.S. ' Challenger ' 185 



CONTENTS. XV 



ECONOMIC SCIENCE and STATISTICS. 

Page 

Address by Sir George Campbell, K.C.S.I., M.P., D.C.L., President of the 
Economic Section 186 

Mr. William Botly on Agricultiu-al Statistics 194 

Rev. John S. Bubt on the Economy of Penalties 195 

Rev. Aaron Busacott on the present extent of Slavery and the Slave Trade, 
with a reference to the Progress of Abolition since the close of the American 

War 196 

Mr. Alexander M'Neel Caird on some Special Evils of the Scottish Poor 

Law 197 

Mr. Hyde Clarke on the part in the Operation of Capital due to Fixed or 

Limited Amounts invested in Trade 198 

Mr. St. John V. Day on recent attempts at Patent Legislation 198 

Dr. W. Neilson Hancock on the Importance of extending the British Gold 
Standard, Avith subordinate Silver Coins, to India as a remedy for the incon- 
venience in India of a rapid Depreciation of Silver 198 

on Savings' Banks as a State Function developed 

by Charity Organization 199 

Mr. J. Heywood on the Memorial of Eminent Scientific Gentlemen in 
favour of a Permanent Scientific Museum 199 

Dr. William Jack on the Results of Five Years of Compulsory Education . 200 

Mr. Henry Jephson on the Valuation of Property in Ireland 206 

Mr. W. Jolly on Physical Education and Hygiene in Schools 207 

Rev. Dr. M'Cann on the Organization of Original Research 207 

Don Arturo de Marcoartu on Spanish Mining 207 

Mr. Stephen Mason on the Deprecia.tion of Silver and a Gold Standard for 
India 207 

Mr. J. Matheson, Junr., on the Silver Dilemma 207 

Mr. R. W^. Pitcher on Overcrowding in Liverpool 208 

Rev. W. Ross on the Educational Value of their Native Language to the 

Gaelic-speaking Population of Scotland 208 

Mr. F. Russell on Sherifi" Courts and Relative Judicial Statistics 208 

Mr. James Stephenson on the Civilization of South-Eastern Africa 208 

Mr. P. M. Tait on the TheoiT and Practice of Accident Insurance by Sea and 
Land ' 208 

Mr. W. TuLLACK on the Boarding-out of Pauper Children in England 209 

Rev. R. Thomson on the Prevention of the Pollution of Rivers 210 

Rev. F. S. Turner on the Statistics of the Indian Opium Revenue 210 

MECHANICAL SCIENCE. 

Address by Charles W. ]\Ierrifield, F.R.S., President of the Section .... 211 
Major Beaumont on the Removal of Subaqueous Rocks by the Diamond 
Rock-borer 219 

Mr. M. Bergeron on the Removal of Sand-bars from Harbour-mouths .... 219 
Mr. J. B. Beynon on a Hand-machine for Shaping and Finishing Metal SiU'- 
faces 219 

Mr. A. B. Brown on a Flanging-iron and Steel Plates for Boiler pui-poses . . 210 

on an Engine for Starting and Reversing large Marine 

Engines 219 



XVI CONTENTS. 

Page 
Mr. J. J. OoLUMAN on a Machine for the Liquefaction of Gases by combined 

Cold and Pressure 220 

Mr. A. Crum-Ewing on Drainage Outlets through Slob Lands 220 

Mr. St. J. Vincent Day on recent Attempts at Patent Legislation 220 

Mr. G. F. Deacon on the Form of Blocks for Testing Cement 220 

on the Strength of Concrete as affected by delay between 

mixing and placing in situ 220 

Mr. J. Deas on Stobcross Docks 220 

Mr. Thomas Dobson on Improved Safety-Apparatus for Mine-Hoists and 

Warehouse-Lifts 222 

Mr. Mortimer Evans on the Application of Spring Fenders to Pier-heads . . 223 

on a Safety-Lock for Facing-points 223 

Mr. J. B. Fell on the Experiments made at the Camp at Aldershot with a 

new form of Military Field-Railway, for rapid construction in war time . . 223 
Captain Douglas Galton on Railways on Three-foot Gauge in the United 

States 224 

Mr. J. H. Greenhill on an Improved Grain-sieve 225 

Mr. R. R. Harper on Improvements in Railway Appliances 225 

Mr. T. S. Hunter on Dock- and Quay-Walls, Foundations, &c 225 

Professor A. B. W. Kennedy on Reuleaux's Treatment of Mechanisms .... 226 

Mr. Baldwin Latham on the Importance of Hydro-Geological Surveys from 
a Sanitary point of view 226 

Mr, R. Mansel on the Direct Motion of Steam -Vessels 227 

Mr. W. J. Millar on the Strength and Fracture of Cast Iron 227 

Mr. James Nasmyth on a Spherical Pendulous Safety- Valve 229 

Professor Osborne Reynolds on the Steering Qualities of Ships 229 

Mr. R. Lavender on a New Form of Lamp 229 

Mr. F. J. Rowan on Boiler Incrustation and Corrosion 229 

Mr. John Lang on an Apparatus for Cleaning Filtering-Sand 232 

Mr. W. D. Scott-Moncreiff on a Pneumatic Tramway Car 233 

Mr. Wm. Simons on an Elevating Steam Ferry 233 

Mr. James Steel on the Brake Problem 233 

Mr. W. Stroudley on Communications between Passengers and Guards in 

Railway Trains 233 

Sir W. Thomson on Naval Signalling 233 

Mr. J. Evelyn Williams on Steam-Ship Resistance 233 



EEEATUM IN EEPORT FOR 1876. 

In the Reports. 

In the Table, p. 174, eighth line from bottom, for 14 read 41. 

Note.— The figures in the third and fourth columns in the Table represent 

feet and inches. 



LIST OF PLATES. 



PLATE I. 

Illustrative of a Keport on the effect of Propellers on the Steering of Vessels. 

PLATES II., III. 

Illustrative of a Report on the present State of our Knowledge of the Crustacea. 

PLATE IV. 

Illustrative of a Report on Observations of Luminous Meteors. 



OBJECTS AND RULES 



OF 



THE ASSOCIATION. 



OBJECTS. 

The Association contemplates no interference with the groimd occupied by 
other institutions. Its objects are : — To give a stronger impvilse and a more 
systematic direction to scientific inquiry,— to promote the intercourse of those 
who cultivate Science in diiferent parts of the British Empire, with one 
another and with foreign philosophers, — to obtain a more general attention 
to the objects of Science, and a removal of any disadvantages of a public kind 
which impede its progress. 

RULES. 

Admission of Members and Associates, 

All persons who have attended the first Meeting shall be entitled to be- 
come Members of the Association, upon subscribiag an obligation to con- 
form to its Rules. 

The Fellows and Members of Chartered Literary and Philosophical So- 
cieties pubhshing Transactions, in the British Empire, shall be entitled, in 
like manner, to become Members of the Association. 

The Ofl[icers and Members of the Councils, or Managing Committees, of 
Philosophical Institutions shall be entitled, in like manner, to become Mem- 
bers of the Association. 

AU Members of a Philosophical Institution recommended by its Council 
or Managing Committee shall be entitled, in hke manner, to become Mem- 
bers of the Association. 

Persons not belonging to such Institutions shall be elected by the General 
Committee or Coiincil, to become Life Members of the Association, Annual 
Subscribers, or Associates for the year, subject to the approval of a General 
Meetins;. 



■'o- 



Compositions, Subscriptions, and Privileges, 

Life Members shall pay, on admission, the sum of Ten Pounds. They 
shall receive gratuitously the Reports of the Association which may be pub- 
1876. b 



XVUl RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

lished after the date of such payment. They arc eligible to all the offices 
of the Association. 

Annual Subscribers shall pay, on admission, the sum of Two Pounds, 
and in each following year the sum of One Pound. They shall receive 
yratuitousJij the lieports of the Association for the year of their admission 
and for the years in which they continue to pay ivithout iJiterniission their 
Annual Subscription. By omitting to pay this Subscription in any particu- 
lar year, Members of this class (Annual Subscribers) lose for that and all 
future years the privilege of receiving the volumes of the Association gratis : 
but they may resume their Membership and other privileges at any sub- 
sequent Meeting of the Association, paying on each such occasion the sum of 
One Pound. They are eligible to all the Offices of the Association. 

Associates for the year shall pay on admission the sum of One Pound. 
They shall not receive gratuitousli/ the Peports of the Association, nor be 
eligible to serve on Committees, or to hold any office. 

The Association consists of the following classes: — 

1. Life Members admitted from 1831 to 1845 inclusive, who have paid 
on admission Five Pounds as a composition. 

2. Life Members who in 1846, or in subsequent years, have paid on ad- 
mission Ten Pounds as a composition. 

3. Annual Members admitted from 1831 to 1839 inclusive, subject to the 
payment of One Pound annually. [May resume their Membership after in- 
termission of Annual Payment.] 

4. Annual Members admitted in any year since 1839, subject to the pay- 
rr ent of Two Pounds for the first year, and One Pound in each following year. 
[May resume their Membership after intermission of Annual Payment.] 

5. Associates for the j'ear, subject to the payment of One Pound. 

6. Corresponding Members nominated by the Council. 

And the Members and Associates will be entitled to receive the annual 
volume of Eeports, gratis, or to purchase it at reduced (or Members') price, 
according to the following specification, viz. : — 

1. Gratis. — Old Life Members who have paid Five Pounds as a compo- 

sition for Annual Payments, and previous to 1845 a further 
sum of Two Pounds as a Book Subscription, or, since 1845, a 
further sum of Five Pounds. 

New Life Members who have paid Ten Pounds as a composition. 

Annual Members who have not intermitted their Annual Sub- 
scription. 

2. At reduced or Memhcrs' Prices, viz. two thirds of the Publication 

Price. — Old Life Members who have paid Five Pounds as a 

composition for Annual Payments, but no further sum as a 

Book Subscription. 
Annual Members who have intermitted their Annual Subscription. 
Associates for the year. [Privilege confined to the volume for 

that year only.] 

3. Members may purchase (for the purpose of completing their sets) any 

of the first seventeen volumes of Transactions of the Associa- 
tion, and of which more than 100 copies remain, atone third of 
the Publication Piice. Application to be made at the Office 
of the Association^ 22 Albemarle Street, London, W. 



RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. XIX 

Volumes not claimed within two years of the date of publication can only 
be issued by direction of the Council. 

Subscriptions shall be received by the Treasurer or Secretaries. 

Meetings. 

The Association shall meet annually, for one week, or longer. The place 
of each Meeting shall be appointed by the General Committee two years in 
advance ; and the Arrangements for it shall be entrusted to the Officers of 
the Association. 

General Committee. 

The General Committee shall sit during the week of the Meeting, or 
longer, to transact the business of the Association. It shall consist of the 
following persons : — 

Class A. Permakent Members. 

1. Members of the Couucil, Presidents of the Association, and Presidents 
of Sections for the present and preceding years, with Authors of Eeports in 
the Tranr.actions of the Association. 

2. Members who by the publication of "Works or Papers have furthered 
the advancement of those subjects which are taken into consideration at the 
Sectional Meetings of the Association. With a vieiv of submitting new claims 
under this Bule to the decision of the Council, tliey must he sent to the Assistant 
G'enercd Secretary at least one month before the Meeting of the Association. 
The decision of the Council on the claims of any Member of the Association to 
he lilaced on the list of the General Committee to be final. 

Class B. Temporary Memeers. 

1. The President for the time being of any Scientific Society publishing Trans- 
actions or, in his absence, a delegate representing him. Claims under this Ride 
to he sent to the Assistant General Secretary before the opening of the Meeting. 

2. Office-bearers for the time being, or delegates, altogether not exceeding 
three, from Scientific Institutions established in the place of Meeting. 
Claims under this Hide to be apjiroved by the Loccd Secretaries before the 
opening of the Meeting. 

3. Foreigners and other individuals whose assistance is desired, and who 
are specially nominated in writing, for the Meeting of the year, by the Pre- 
sident and General Secretaries. 

4. Yice-Pi'esidents and Secretaries of Sections. 

Organizing Sectional Committees* . 

The Presidents, Vice-Presidents, and Secretaries of the several Sections 
are nominated by the Council, and have power to act until their names are 
submitted to the General Committee for election. 

From the time of their nomination they constitute Organizing Committees 
for the purpose of obtaining information upon the Mcmoii's and Eeports 
likely to be submitted to the Sectionsf, and of preparing Eeports thereon, 

* Passed by the General Committee, Edinburgh, 1871. 

t Knt.icR to Contrihxtors of Memoirs.— \\\\\\ors are reminded tliat, under an arranjre- 
ment dating 'rem 1871, the acceptance of Memoirs, and the days on which they are to be 



XX RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

and on the order in which it is desirable that they should be read, to be pre- 
sented to the Committees of the Sections at their first Meeting. 

An Organizing Committee may also hold snch preliminary Meetings as the 
President of the Committee thinks expedient, but sliall, under any circum- 
stances, meet on the first Wednesday of the Annual Meeting, at 11 a.m., to 
settle the terms of their Report, after which tlieir functions as an Organizing 
Committee shaR cease. 



Constitution of the Sectional Committees *. 

On the first day of the Annual Meeting, the President, Vice-Presidents, 
and Secretaries of each Section having been appointed by tlie General Com- 
mittee, these Officers, and those previous Presidents and Vice-Presidents of 
the Section who may desire to attend, are to meet, at 2 p.m., in their Com- 
mittee Ilooms, and enlarge the Sectional Committees by selecting individuals 
from among the Members (not Associates) present at the Meeting whose as- 
sistance they may particulai-ly desire. The Sectional Committees thus con- 
stituted shall have power to add to their number from day to day. 

The List thus formed is to be entered daily in the Sectional Minute-Pook, 
and a copy forwarded without delay to the Printer, who is charged Avith 
publishing the same before 8 a.m. on the next day, in the Journal of the 
Sectional Proceedings. 

Business of the Sectional Committees. 

Committee Meetings are to be held on the "Wednesday at 2 p.m., on the 
following Thursday, Friday, Saturday, Monday, and Tuesday, from 10 to 
11 A.M., punctually, for the objects stated in the Eules of the Association, 
and specified below. 

The business is to be conducted in the following manner : — 

At the first meeting, one of the Secretaries wiU read the Minutes of last 
year's proceedings, as recorded in the Minute-Book, and the Synopsis of 
Eecommcndatious adopted at the last Meeting of the Association and piinted 
in the last volume of the Transactions. He will next proceed to read the 
Peport of the Organizing Committee f. The List of Communications to be 
read on Thursday shall be then arranged, and the general distribution of 
business throughout the week shall be provisionally ai)pointed. At the cltse 
of the Committee Meeting the Secretaries shall forward to the Printer a List 
of the Papers appointed to be read. The Printer is charged with publishing 
the same before 8 a.m. on Thursday in the Journal. 

On the second day of the Annual Meeting, and the following days, the 

read, are now as far as possible determined by Organizing Committees for the several 
Sections before the hegiiming of the Meeting. It has therefore become necessary, in order 
to give an opportunity to the Committees of doing justice to the several Communications, 
that each Author should prepare an Abstract of his Memoir, of a length suitable for in- 
sertion in the published Transactions of the Association, and that he should send it, toge- 
ther with the original Memoir, by book-post, on or before , addressed 

thus — " Genei'al Secretaries, British Association, 22 Albemarle Street, London, W. For 

Section " If it should be inconvenient to the Author that his Paper should be read 

on any particular days, he is requested to send information thereof to the Secretaries in a 
separate note. 

* Passed by the General Committee, Edinburgh, 1871. 

t This and the following sentence were added by the General Committee, 1871. 



RULES OP THE ASSOCIATION. XXI 

Sscretaries are to correct, on a copy of the Journal, the list of papers which 
have been read on that day, to add to it a list of those appointed to be read 
on the next day, and to send this copy of the Journal as early in the day as 
possible to the Printers, who are charged with printing the same before 8 a.m. 
next morning in the Journal. It is necessary that one of the Secretaries of 
each Section should call at the Trinting Office and revise the proof each 
evening. 

Minutes of the proceedings of every Committee are to be entered daily in 
the Minute-Book, which should be confirmed at the next meeting of the 
Committee. 

Lists of the lleports and Memoirs read in the- Sections are to be entered 
in the Minute-Book daily, which, with all Memoirs and Copies or Abstracts 
of Memoirs furnished by Authors, are to be forwarded, at the close of the Sec- 
tional Meetings, to the Assistant General Secretary. 

The Yice- Presidents and Secretaries of Sections become ex officio temporary 
Members of the General Committee (vide p. xix), and will receive, on ap- 
pUcation to the Treasurer in the lieception Eoom, Tickets entitling them to 
attend its Meetings. 

The Committees will take into consideration any suggestions which may 
be ofi'ered by their Members for the advancement of Science. They are 
specially requested to review the recommendations adopted at preceding 
Meetings, as jniblished in the volumes of the Association and the communi- 
cations made to the Sections at this Meeting, for the purposes of selecting 
definite points of research to which individual or combined exertion may be 
usefully directed, and branches of knowledge on the state and progress of 
which lleports are wanted ; to name individuals or Committees for the exe- 
cution of such Reports or researches ; and to state whether, and to what de- 
gree, these objects may be usefully advanced by the ap] iropriation of the 
funds of the Association, by application to Government, Philosophical Insti- 
tutions, or Local Authorities. 

In case of appointment of Committees for special objects of Science, it is 
expedient that all Members of the Committee should be named, and one of 
them appointed to act as Secretary, for insuring attention to business. 

Committees have power to add to their number persons whose assistance 
they may require. 

The recommendations adopted by the Committees of Sections are to be 
registered in the Forms furnished to their Secretaries, and one Copy of each 
is to be forwarded, without delay, to the Assistant General Secretary for pre- 
sentation to the Committee of Recommendations. Unless this be done, the 
Recommendations cannot receive the sanction of the Association. 

N.B. — Recommendations which may originate in any one of the Sections 
must first be sanctioned by the Committee of that Section before they can be 
referred to the Committee of Recommendations or confirmed by the General 
Committee. 

Notices Regarding Grants of Money. 

Committees and individuals, to whom grants of money have been entrusted 
by the Association for the pi'osecution of jiarticular researches in Science, 
are required to present to each following Meeting of the Association a Re])ort 
of the progress which has been made ; and the Individual or the Member first 
named of a Committee to whom a money grant has been made must (pre- 
viously to the next meeting of the Association) forward to the General 



XXU RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

Secretaries or Treasurer a statement of tlie sums which have been expended, 
and the balance which remains disposable on each grant. 

Grants of money sanctioned at any one meeting of the Association expire 
a week before the opening of the ensuing Meeting; nor is the Treasurer 
authorized, after that date, to allow any claims on account of such grants, 
unless they be renewed in the original or a modified form by the General 
Committee. 

No Committee shall raise money in the name or under the auspices of the 
British Association without special permission from the General Committee 
to do so ; and no money so raised shall be expended except in accordance 
with the rules of the Association. 

In each Committee, the Member first named is the only person entitled to 
call on the Treasurer, Professor A. W. Williamson, University College, London, 
W.C, for such portion of the sums granted as may from time to time be 
required. 

In grants of money to Committees, the Association does not contemplate 
the payment of personal expenses to the members. 

In all cases where additional grants of money are made for the continua- 
tion of Hesearches at the cost of the Association, the snxa named is deemed 
to include, as a part of the amount, whatever balance may remain unpaid on 
the former grant for the same object. 

All Instniments, Papers, Drawings, and other property of the Association 
are to be deposited at the Office of the Association, 22 Albemarle Street, 
Piccadilly, London, W., when not employed in carrying on scientific inquiries 
for the Association. 

Business of the Sections, 

The Meeting Room of each Section is opened for conversation from 10 to 
11 daily. Tlie Section Rooms and approuclies thereto can he used for no notices, 
exhibitions, or other purposes than those of the Association. 

At 11 precisely the Chair wiU be taken, and the reading of communica- 
tions, in the order previously made public, be commenced. At 3 p.m. the 
Sections will close. 

Sections may, by the desire of the Committees, divide themselves into 
Departments, as often as the number and nature of the communications de- 
livered in may render such divisions desirable. 

A Report presented to the Association, and read to the Section which 
originally called for it, may be read in another Section, at the request of the 
Officers of that Section, with the consent of the Author. 

Duties of the Doorkeepers. 

1. — To remain constantly at the Doors of the Rooms to which they are ap- 
pointed during the whole time for which they are engaged. 
2. — To require of every person desirous of entering the Rooms the exhibi- 
tion of a Member's, Associate's or Lady's Ticket, or Reporter's Ticket, 
signed by the Treasurer, or a Special Ticket signed by the Assistant 
General Secretary. 
3. — Persons unprovided with any of these Tickets can only be admitted to 
any particular Room by order of the Secretary in that Room. 
No person is exempt from these Rules, except those Officers of the Asso- 
ciation whose names are printed. 



RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. XXlU 

Duties of the Messengers. 

To remain constantly at the llooms to which they arc appointed, during 
the whole time for which they are engaged, except when employed on mes- 
sages by one of the Officers directing these Rooms. 

Committee of Recommendations. 

The General Committee shall appoint at each Meeting a Committee, which 
shall receive and consider the Recommendations of the Sectional Committees, 
and report to the General Committee the measures which they would advise 
to be adopted for the advancement of Science. 

All Recommendations of Grants of Money, Requests for Special Researches, 
and Reports on Scientific Subjects shall be submitted to the Committee of 
Recommendations, and not taken into consideration by the General Committee 
luiless previously recommended by the Committee of Recommendations. 

Local Committees. 

Local Committees shall be formed by the Officers of the Association to 
assist in making arrangements for the Meetings. 

Local Committees shall have the power of adding to their numbers those 
Members of the Association whose assistance they may desire. 

Officers. 

A President, two or more Vice-Presidents, one or more Secretaries, and a 
Treasiu'cr shall be annually appointed by the General Committee. 

Council. 

In the intervals of the Meetings, the affairs of the Association shall be ma- 
naged by a Council appointed by the General Committee. The Council may 
also assemble for the despatch of business during the week of the Meeting. 

Papers and Communications. 

The Author of any paper or communication shall be at liberty to reserve 
his right of property therein . 

Accounts. 

The Accounts of the Association shall be audited annually, by Auditors 
appointed by the General Committee. 



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XXX 



REPORT 1876. 



Presidents and Secretaries of the Sections of the Association. 



Date and Place. 



Presidents. 



Secretaries. 



MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES. 

COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, I. MATHEMATICS AND GENERAL PHYSICS. 

1832. Oxford iDavies Gilbert, D.C.L., F.E.S....|Ilev. H. Coddington. 

1833. Cambridge SirD. Brewster, F.E.S Prof. Forbes. 

1834. Edinburgh |Eev. W. WheweU, F.E.S |Prof. Forbes, Prof. Lloyd. 



1835. Dublin 

1836. Bristol 

1837. Liverpool . . , 

1838. Newcastle... 

1839. Birmingham 

1840. Glasgow ... 

1841. Plymouth... 

1842. Manchester 



1843. Cork 

1844. York 

1845. Cambridge. 

1846. Southampton 

1847. Oxford... 



1848. Swansea . 

1849. Birmingham 

1850. Edinburgh.. 

1851. Ipswich... 

1852. Belfast ... 
1863. HuU 

1854. Liverpool... 

1855. Glasgow 

1856. Cheltenham 

1857. Dublin... 



1858. Leeds 



SECTION A. MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICS. 

Eev. Dr. Eobinson Prof. Sir W. E. Hamilton, Prof. 

I Wheatstone. 
Eev. WiUiamWhewell,P.E.S.... Prof. Forbes, W. S. Harris, F. W. 

I Jerrard. 
Sir D. Brewster, F.E.S W. S. Harris, Eev. Prof. PoweU, Prof. 

Stevelly. 
Eev. Prof Chevallier, Major Sabine, 

Prof. Stevelly. 
J. D. Chance, W. Snow Harris Prof. 

Stevelly. 
Eev. Dr. Forbes, Prof. Stevelly, Arch. 

Smith. 
Prof. Stevellv. 
Prof. M'Cuiloch, Prof. Stevelly, Eev. 

W. Scoresby. 
J. Nott, Prof Stevelly. 
Eev. Wm. Hey, Prof Stevelly. 
Eev. H. Goodwin, Prof Stevelly, G. 

G. Stokes. 
John Drew, Dr. Stevelly, G. G. 

Stokes. 
Eev. H. Price, Prof. Stevelly, G. G, 

Stokes. 
Dr. Stevelly, G. G. Stokes. 
Prof Stevelly, G. G. Stokes, W. 

Eidout Wills. 
W. J. Macquorn Eankine, Prof. Smyth, 

Prof. Stevelly, Prof. G. G. Stokes. 
S. Jackson, W. J. Macquorn Eankine, 

Prof Stevelly, Prof G. G. Stokes. 
Prof. Dixon, W. J. Macquorn Ean- 
kine, Prof SteveUy, J. Tyndall. 

B. Blaydes Haworth, J. D. Sollitt, 
Prof Stevellv, J. Welsh. 

J. Hartnup, H. G. Puekle, Prof. 

Stevelly. J. Tyndall, J. Welsh. 
Eev. Dr. Forbes, Prof D. Gray, Prof. 

Tyndall. 

C. Brooke, Eev. T. A. Southwood, 
Prof Stevelly, Eev. J. C. Turnbiill. 

Prof. Curtis, Prof. Hennessy, P. A. 

Ninnis, W. J. Macquorn Eankine, 

Prof. Stevelly 
Eev. S. Earnshaw, J. P. Hennessy, 

Prof Stevelly, H. J. S. Smith, Prof. 

Tvndall. 



Sir J. F. W. Herschel, Bart., 

F.E.S. 
Eev. Prof Whewell, F.E.S 

Prof. Forbes, F.E.S 

Eev. Prof Lloyd, F.E.S 

Very Eev. G. Peacock, D.D., 
F 7? S 

Prof. M'Culloch, M.E.I. A 

The Earl of Eosse, F.E.S 

The Very Eev. the Dean of Ely . 

Sir John F. W. Herschel, Bart., 

F.E.S. 
Eev. Prof PoweU, M.A., F.E.S. 

Lord Wrottesley, F.E.S 

William Hopkins, F.E.S 

Prof J. D. Forbes, F.E.S., Sec. 

Eev.'w.'wTiewell, D.D., F.E.S., 

Prof. W. Thomson, M.A., F.E.S. 

L. &E. 
The Dean of Ely, F.E.S. ... 

Prof G. G. Stokes, M.A., Sec. 

E.S. 
Eev. Prof. KeUand, M.A., F.E.S. 

L.&E. 
Eev. E. Walker, M.A., F.E.S. ... 

Eev.T. E. Eobinson,D.D.,F.E.S., 
M.E.I.A. 

Eev. W. Whewell, D.D., V.P.E.S. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECKETARIES OV THE SECTIONS. 



XXXI 



Date and Place. 

1859. Aberdeen . 

1860. Oxford 

1861. Manchester. 

1862. Cambridge.. 
1S63. Newcastle... 

1864. Bath 

186n. Birmingham 

1866. Nottingham 

1867. Dundee 

1868. Norwich ... 

1869. Exet«r 

1870. Liverpool ... 

1871. Edinburgh . 

1872. Brighton ... 

1873. Bradford .., 

1874. Belfast 



Presidents. 



Secretaries. 



.'The Earl of Kosse, M.A., K.P., 

ReT. B. Price, M.A., F.E.S 

G. B. Airy, M.A., D.C.L., F.E.S. 
Prof. a. G. Stokes, M.A., F.E.S. 

Prof W. J. Macquorn Eankine, 

C.E., F.E.S. 
Prof. Cavley, M.A., F.E.S., 

F.E.A.S. 
W. Spottiswoode, M.A., P.R.S., 

F.E.A.S. 

Prof. Wheatstone, D.C.L., F.E.S. 
Prof. Sir W. Thomson, D.C.L., 

"P TJ G 

Prof. J. Tyndall, LL.D., F.E.S... 

Prof. J. J. Sylvester, LL.D. 

J. Clerk Maxwell, M.A., LL.D. 
F.E.S. 



1875. 
1876. 



Bristol .. 
Glasgow 



Prof. P. G. Tait, F.E.S.E 

W. De La Eue, D.C.L., F.E.S.. 

Prof. H. J. S. Smith, F.E.S 

Eev. Prof. J. H. Jellett, M.A. 
M.E.I.A. 

Prof. Balfour Stewart, M.A., 

LL.D., F.E.S. 
Prof. Sir W. Thomson, M.A., 

D.C.L., F.E.S. 



J. P . Hennessy, Prof. Maxwell, H. J. S. 

Smith, Prof. Stevellv. 
Eev. G. C. BeU, Eev. T. Eennison, 

Prof. Stevelly. 
Prof E. B. Clifton, Prof. H. J. S. 

Smith, Prof. Stevelly. 
Prof E. B. Clifton, Prof. H. J. S. 

Smith, Prof. Stevelly. 
Eev. N. Ferrers, Prof. Fuller, F. Jenkin, 

Prof. Stevelly, Eev. C. T. Wliitley. 
Prof. Fuller, F. Jenkin, Eev. G. 

Buckle, Prof. Stevelly. 
Eev. T. N. Hutchinson, F. Jenkin, G. 

S. Mathews, Prof. H. J. S. Smith, 

J. M. Wilson. 
Fleeming Jenkin, Prof. H. J. S. Smith, 

Eev. S. N. Swann. 
Eev. G. Buckle, Prof. G. C. Foster, 

Prof. Fuller, Prof. Swan. 
Prof. G. O. Foster, Eev. E. Harley, 

E. B. Hayward. 
Prof G. C. Foster, E. B. Hayward, 

W. K. Clifford. 
Prof W. G. Adams, W. K. Clifford, 

Prof. G. C. Foster, Eev. W. Allen 

Whitworth. 
Prof. W. G. Adams, J. T. Bottomley, 

Prof. W. K. Clifford, Prof. J. D. 

Everett, Eev. E. Harley. 
Prof. W.K.Clifford, J.W.L. Glaisher, 

Prof A. S. Herschel, G. F. Eodwell. 
Prof. W. K. Clifford, Prof Forbes, J. 

W. L. Glaisher, Prof. A. S. Herschel. 
J. W. L. Glaisher, Prof. Herschel, 

Eandal Nixon, J. Perry, G. F. Eod- 
well. 
Prof .W. F. Barrett, J.W. L. Glaisher, 

C. T. Hudson, G. F. EodweU. 
Prof. W. F. Barrett, J. T. Bottomlev, 

Prof. G. Forbes, J. W. L. Glaisher, 

T. Muir. 



CHEMICAL SCIENCE. 



COMMITTEE OP SCIENCES, II. — CHEMISTRY, MINERALOGY. 

1832. Oxford [John Dalton.D.C.L., F.E.S IJames F. W. Johnston. 

1833. Cambridge..! John Dalton, D.C.L., F.E.S IProf. Miller. 

1834. Edinburgh...|Dr. Hope JMr. Johnston, Dr. Christison. 



1835. Dublin . 

1836. Bristol , 



1837. Liverpool. 



SECTION B. CHEMISTRY AND MINERALOGY. 

Dr. T^ Thomson, F.E.S |Dr. Apjohn, Prof. Johnston. 

Dr. Apjohn, Dr. C. Henry, W. Hera- 
path. 

Prof. Johnston, Prof. Millci-, Dr. 
Eeynolds. 

Prof MiUer, R. L. Pattinson, Thomas 
Eichardson. 



Eev. Prof. Cumming. 
Michael Faraday, F.E.S 



1838. Newcastle... Eev. William Whewell, F.E.S., 



xxxu 



REPORT — 1876. 



Date and Place. 



Presidents. 



Secretaries. 



18.39. Birmingham Prof. T. Graham, F.E.S 

1840. Glasgow ... Dr. Thomas Thomson, F.E.S. .. 



1841. Plymouth... 



1842. 
1843. 
1844. 
1845. 

1846. 
1-547. 

1848. 
1849. 
1850. 
1851. 
1852. 



Manchester, 

Cork 

York 

Cambridge.. 

Southampton 
Oxford 

Swansea . . . 
Birmingliam 
Edinburgh 
Ipswich . 

Belfast .... 



Dr.Daubeny, F.E.S 

John Dalton, D.C.L., F.E.S.. 

Prof. Apjohn, M.E.I. A 

Prof. T. iSraham, F.E.S 

Eev. Prof. Cummins 



1853. Hull , 



1854. 
1855. 
1856. 

1857. 

1858. 

1859. 

1860. 

1861. 
1862. 



Liverpool . . . 

Glasgow . . . 
Cheltenham 

Dublin 

Leeds 

Aberdeen . . 

Oxford 



Manchester . 
Cambridge 



1863. Newcastle... 



1864. 
1865. 

1866. 

1867. 

1868. 

1869. 

1870. 

1871. 

1872. 

1873. 

1874. 

1875. 

1876. 



Bath 

Birmingham 

Nottingham 

Dundee ... 

Norwich . . . 

Exeter 

Liverpool . . . 

Edinburgh 

Brighton ... 

Bradford ... 

Belfast 



Michael Faraday, D.C.L., F.E.S. 
Eev.W.V.Harcourt, M.A., F.E.S. 

Eichard Phillips. F.E.S 

John Percy, M.D., F.E.S 

Dr. Christison, V.P.E.S.E 

Prof. Thomas Graham, F.E.S. ... 
Thomas Andrews, M.D., F.E.S. . 

Prof. J. F. W. Johnston, M.A., 

Prof. W. A. MiUer, M.D., F.E.S. 
Dr. Lyon Playfair, C.B., F.E.S. . 
Prof. B. C. Brodie, F.E.S 

Prof. Apjohn, M.D., F.E.S., 

M.E.LA. 
Sir J. F. W. Herschel, Bart., 

D.C.L. 
Dr. Lyon Playfair, C.B., F.E.S. . 

Prof B. C. Brodie, F.E.S 

Prof. W. A. Miller, M.D., F.E.S 
Prof. W. A. Miller, M.D., F.E.S 

Dr. Alex. W. Williamson, F.E.S. 

W. Odling, M.B., F.E.S., F.C.S. 
Prof. W. A. Miller, M.D., V.P.E.S. 

H. Bence Jones, M.D., F.E.S. ... 

Prof. T. Anderson.M.D. , F.E.S E. 

Prof.E. Frankland, F.E.S., F.C.S. 

Dr. H. Debus, F.E.S., F.C.S. ... 

Prof. H. E. Eoscoe, B. A., F.E.S., 

F C S 
Prof. T.' Andrews, M.D., F.E.S. 

Dr. J. n. Gladstone, F.E.S 

Prof. W. J. Eussell, F.E.S 



Prof. A. Crum-Brown, M.D., 
F.E.S.E., F.C.S. 
Bristol I A. G.Vernon Harcom-t, M.A., 

i F.E.S., F.C.S. 
Glasgow ...IW.H. Pcrkiu, F.E.S 



Gelding Bird, M.D., Dr. J. B. Melson. 
Dr. E. D. Thomson, Dr. T. Clark, 

Dr. L. Playfair. 
J. Prideaux, Eobert Hunt, W. M. 

Tweedy. 
Dr. L. Playfair, E. Hunt, J. Graham. 
E. Hunt, Dr. Sweeny. 
Dr. E. Playfair, E. Solly, T. H. Barker. 
E. Hunt, J. P. Joule, Prof. Miller, 

E. Solly. 
Dr. Miller, E. Hunt, W. Eandall. 
B. C. Brodie, E. Hunt, Prof. Solly. 
T. H. Henry, E. Hunt, T. Williams. 
E. Hunt, G. Shaw. 
Dr. Anderson, E. Hunt, Dr. Wilson. 
T. J. Pearsall, W. S. Ward. 
Dr. Gladstone, Prof. Hodges, Prof. 

Eonalds. 
H. S. Blundell, Prof. E. Hunt, T. J. 

Penrsall. 
Dr. Edwards, Dr. Gladstone, Dr. Price. 
Prof. Frankland, Dr. H. E. Eoscoe. 
J. Horsley, P. J. Worsley, Prof. 

Voelcker. 
Dr. Davy, Dr. Gladstone, Prof. Sul- 
livan. 
Dr. Gladstone, W. OdUng, E. Eey- 

nolds. 
J. S. Brazier, Dr. Gladstone, G. D. 

Liveing, Dr. Odling. 
A. Vernon Harcoui't, G. D. Liveing, 

A. B. Northcote. 
A. Vernon Harcourt. G. D. Liveing. 
H. W. Elphinstone, W. Odling, Prof. 

Eoscoe. 
Prof. Liveing, H. L. Pattinson, J. C. 

Stevenson. 
A. V. Harcourt. Prof. Liveing, E. Biggs. 
A. V. Harcourt, H. Adkins, Prof. 

Wanklyn, A. Winkler Wills. 
J. H. Atherton, Prof. Liveing, W. J. 

Eussell, J. White. 
A. Crum Brown, Prof. G. D. Liveing, 

W. J. Eussell. 
Dr. A. Crum Brown, Dr. W. J. Eus- 
sell, F. Sutton. 
Prof. A. Crum Brown, M.D., Dr. W. 

J. Eussell, Dr. Atkinson. 
Prof. A. Crum Brown, M.D., A. E. 

Fletcher, Dr. W. J. Eussell. 
J. T. Buchanan, W. N. Hartley, T. E. 

Thorpe. 
Dr. Mills, W. Chandler Eoberts, Dr. 

W. J. Eussell, Dr. T. Wood. 
Dr. Armstrong. Dr. Mills, W. Chand- 
ler Eoberts, Dr. Thorpe. 
Dr. T. Cranstoun Charles, W. Chand- 
ler Eoberts, Prof. Thorpe. 
Dr. H. E. Armstrong, W. Chandler 

Eoberts, W. A. Tilden. 
W. Dittmar, W. Chandler Eoberts, 
J. M. Thomson, W. A. Tilden. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



XXXlll 



Date and Place. 



Presidents. 



Secretaries. 



GEOLOGICAL (and, until 1851, GEOGEAPHICAL) SCIENCE. 

COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, III. — GEOLOGY AND GEOGRAPHY. 



1832. Oxford R. I. Murcbison, RR.S 

1833. Cambridge .G. B. Greenougb, RR.S 

1 834. Edinburgh . Prof. Jameson 



John Taylor. 

W. Lonsdale, John Phillips. 

Prof. Phillips, T. Jameson Torrie, 

I Rev. J. Yates. 



SECTION C. — GEOLOGY AND GEOGRAPHY. 



1835. 

1836. 
1S.37. 
1838. 
1839. 
1840. 

1841. 
1842. 
1843. 
1844. 
1845. 
1840. 



Dublin R.J. Griffith 

Bristol Rev. Dr. Buckland, F.R.S.— Geo- 

, graphy. R. I. Murchison,F.R.S. 
Liverpool . . |Rev.Prof. Ssdgwick.RR.S. — Geo- 

\ ^rrrt^^y. G.B.Greenough.RR.S. 
Newcastle... IC.Lyell, RR.S., V.P.G.S.— (^w- 

I graphy. Lord Prudhope. 
BirminghamlRev. Dr. Buckland, F.R.S. — Geo- 

I graphy. G.B.Greonough,F.R.S. 
Glasgow ...Charles Lyell, F.R.S.^(?«0(7?-rt- 
2)hy. G. B. Greenough, F.R.S. 



Plymouth . . 
Manchester 

Cork 

York 

Cambridge . 
Southampton 



H. T. De la Beche, F.R.S 

R. L Murchison, F.R.S 

Richard E. Griffith, F.R.S., 

M.R.I.A. 
Henry Warburton, M.P., Pres. 

Geol. See. 
Rev. Prof. Sedgwick, M. A., F.R.S. 

LeonardIIorner,F.R.S. — Geogra- 
phy. Or. B. Greenough, F.R.S. 

Very Rev. Dr. Buckland, F.R.S. 



1847. Oxford 

1848, 

1849 

1 850. Edinburgh * Sir Roderick I. Murchison,F.R.S. 



Swansea ...Sir H. T. De la Beche, C.B. 

I F.R.S. 
Birmingham Sir Charles Lyell, F.R.S., F.G.S. 



Captain Portlock, T. J. Torrie. 
William Sander.s S. Stutohbury, T. J. 

Torrie. 
Captain Portlock, R. Hunter. — Gco- 
graphi/. Captain H. M. Denham.R.N. 
W. C.'Trevelyan, Capt. Portlock.— 

Geography. Capt. Washington. 
George Lloyd, M.D., H. E. Strickland, 

Charles Darwin. 
W. J. Hamilton, D. Milne, Hugh 

Murray, H. E. Strickland, John 

Scoular, M.D. 
W. J. Hamilton, Edward Moore,M.D., 

R. Hutton. 
E. W. Binney, R. Hutton, Dr. R. 

Lloyd, H. E. Strickland. 
Fi-ancis M. Jennings, H. E. Strick- 
land. 
Prof. Ansted, E. H. Banbury. 

Rev. J. C. Cummhig, A. C. Ramsay 

Rev. W. Thorp. 
Robert A. Austen, J. H. Norten, M.D., 

Prof. Oldham. — Geography. Dr. C. 

T. Beke. 
Prof. Ansted, Prof. Oldham, A. C. 

Ramsay, J. Ruskin. 
Starling Benson, Prof. Oldham, Prof. 

Ramsay. 
J. Beete Jukes, Prof Oldham, Prof 

A. C. Ramsay. 
A. Keith Johnston, Hugh Miller, Prof. 

Nicol. 



1851. 


Ipswich ... 


1852. 


Belfast 


ISiiS 


Hull 


18.54. 


Liverpool . . 



SECTION c {continued). — geology. 

William Hopkins, M.A., F.R.S... C. J. F. Bunbury, G. W. Ormerod, 

I Searles Wood. 
Lieut.-Col.Portlock,R.E., F.R.S. James Bryce, James MacAdam, Prof. 

M'Coy, Prof Nicol. 
Prof Harkness, William Lawton. 
John Cunningham, Prof. Harkness, 
G. W. Ormerod, J. W. Woodall. 



Prof. Sedgwick, F.R.S 

Prof. Edward Forbes, F.R.S. 



<f At a Meeting of the General Committee held in 1850, it was resolved '-That the 
subjoet of Geography be separalcil from Geology and combined with Ethnology, to consti- 
tute a separate Section, under tlio title of the "• Geogi-aphical and Ethnological Section," 
for Presidents and Secretaries of which see page xxxvii. 

1876. c 



XXXIV 



REPORT — 1876. 



Date and Place. 

1855. Glasgow ... 

1856. Cheltenham 

1857. Dublin 

1858. Leeds 

1859. Aberdeen ... 

1860. Oxford 

1861. Manchester 

1862. Cambridge 

1863. Newcastle ... 
1804. Bath 

1865. Birmingham 

1866. Nottingham 

1867. Dundee 

1868. Norwich ... 

1869. Exeter 

1870. Liverpool... 

1871. Edinburgh.. 

1872. Brighton ... 

1873. Bradford ... 

1874. Belfast 

1875. Bristol 

1876. Glasgow ... 



Presidents. 



Sir R. I. Murchison, F.E.S. . . , 
Prof. A. C. Ramsay, F.E.S. ... 
The Lord Talbot de Malahide 



WiUiam Hopkins, M.A., LL.D., 

F.E.S. 
Sir Charles Lyell, LL.D., D.C.L 

F.E.S. 
Eev. Prof. Sedgwick, LL.D., 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Sir E. I. Miu-chison, D.C.L., 

LL.D., F.E.S., &c. 
J. Beete Jukes, M.A., F.E.S 

Prof. Warington W. Smyth, 

F.E.S., F.G.S. 
Prof J. Phillips, LL.D., F.E.S., 

F.G.S. 
Sir E. I. Murchison, Bart.,K;.C.B. 

Prof A.C. Eamsay, LL.D., F.E.S. 

Archibald Geikie, F.E.S., F.G.S. 

E. A. C. Godwin-Austen, F.E.S., 

F G S 
Prof. E."Harkness, F.E.S., F.G.S. 

Sir Philip de M. Grey Egerton, 

Bart., M.P., F.E.S. 
Prof. A. Geikie, F.E.S., F.G.S... 

E. A. C. Godwin-Austen, F.E.S. 

Prof. J. Phillips, D.C.L., F.E.S., 

F.G.S. 
Prof. Hull, M.A., F.E.S., F.G.S. 



Secretaries. 



Dr. Thomas Wright, F.E.S.E., 

F.G.S. 
Prof. John Young, M.D 



. . . James Bryce, Prof. Harkness, Prof. 
Nicol. 

Eev. P. B. Brodie, Eev. E. Hepworth, 
Edward Hull, J. Scougall, T.Wright. 

Prof. Harkness, Gilbert Sanders, Ro- 
bert H. Scott. 

Prof Nicol, H. C. Sorbv, E. W. 
Shaw. 

Prof Harkness, Eev. J. Longniuir, H. 
C. Sorby. 

Prof. Harkness, Edward Hull, Capt. 
Woodall. 

Prof Harkness, Edward Hull, T. Ru- 
pert Jones, G. W. Ormerod. 

Lucas Barrett, Prof. T. Rujiert Jones, 
H. C. Sorby. 

E. F. Boyd, Jolm Daglish, H. C. Sor- 
by, Thomas Sopwith. 

W. B. Dawkins, J. Johnston, H. C. 
Sorby, W. Pengelly. 

Eev. P. B. Brodie, J. Jones, Eev. E. 
Myers, H. C. Sorby. W. Pengelly. 

E. Etheridge, W. Pengelly, T. Wil- 
son, G. H. Wright. 

Edward Hull, W. Pengelly, Henry 

Woodward. 
Eev. O. Fisher, Rev. J. Gunn, W. 

Pengelly, Rev. H. H. Winwood. 
W. Pengelly, W. Boyd Dawkins, Rev. 

H. H. Winwood. 
W. Pengelly, Rev. H. H. Winwood, 

W. Boyd Dawkins, G. H. Morton. 
R. Etlieridge, J. Geikie, J. M^Kenny 

Hughes, L. C. Miall. 
L. C. Miall, George Scott, William 

Topley, Henry Woodward. 
L. C. Miall, E. H. Tiddeman, W. 

Topley. 

F. Drew, L. C. Miall, E. G. Symcs, 
R. H. Tiddeman. 

L. C. Miall, E. B. Tawney, W. Topley. 



J. Armstrong, F. W. Rudler, W. 
Topley. 



BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES. 

COMMITTEE OP SCIENCES, IT. ZOOLOGY, BOTANY, rHYSIOLOOY", ANATOMY. 



1832. Oxford 

1833. Cambridge* 

1834. Edinburgh 



Rev. P. B. Duncan, F.G.S 

Eev. W. L. P. Garnons, F.L.S. 
Prof. Graham 



Rev. Prof. J. S. Henslow. 
C. C. Babington, D. Don. 
W. Yarrell, Prof. Biu-nett. 



* At this Meeting Physiology and Anatomy were made a separate Committee, for 
Presidents and Secretaries of which see p. xxxvi. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



XXXV 



Date and Place. 



Presidents. 



Secretarie.s. 



SECTION D. ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY. 



1835. Dublin 

1836. Bristol 



1837. Liverpool . . . 

1838. Newcastle... 

1839. Brimingham 

1840. Glasgow ... 

1841. Plymouth... 

1842. Mancliester 



1843. Cork . 

1844. York. 



1845. Cambridge 

1846. Southampton 

1847. Oxford 



Dr. Allman 

Rev. Prof. Henslow 



W. S. MacLeay 

Sir W. Jardine, Bart 

Prof. Owen, F.R.S 

Sir W. J. Hooker, LL.D . 



John Eiehard.son, M.D., F.R.S. . 
Hon. and Very Rev. W. Herbert 

LL.D., F.L.S. 
William Thompson, F.L.S 

Very Eev. The Dean of Manches- 
ter. 

Rev. Prof. Henslow, F.L.S 

Sir J. Richardson, M.D., F.R.S. 

H. E. Strickland, M.A., F.R.S... 



J. Curtis, Dr. Litton. 

J.Curtis, Prof. Don, Dr. Riley, S. 
Rootsey. 

C. C. Babington, Rev. L. Jenyns, W. 
Swainson. 

J. E. Gray, Prof. Jones, R. Owen, Dr. 
Richardson. 

E. Forbes, W. Ick, R. Patterson. 

Prof. W. Couper, E. Forbes, R. Pat- 
terson. 

J. Couch, Dr. Lankester, R. Patterson. 

Dr. Lankester, R. Patterson, J. A. 
Turner. 

G. J. Allman, Dr. Lankester, E. Pat- 
terson. 

Prof. Allman, H. Goodsir, Dr. King, 
Dr. Lankester. 

Dr. Lankester, T. V. Wollaston. 

Dr. Lankester, T. V. Wollaston, H. 
Wooldridge. 

Dr. Lankester, Dr. Melville, T. Y. 
Wollaston. 



SECTION D (continued). — zoology and botany, including physiology. 

[For the Presidents and Secretaries of the Anatomical and Physiological Subsections 
and the temporary Section E of Anatomy and Medicine, see p. xxxvii.] 

1848. Swansea 



1849. Birmingham 

1850. Edinburgh.. 



1851. Ipswich. 

1852. Belfast . 



18.53. Hull , 

1854. Liverpool ... 
18.55. Glasgow ... 
1856. Clieltenham 



1857. Dublin .. 

1858. Leeds 

1859. Aberdeen 



L. W. Dillwyn, F.R.S. 



William Spence, F.R.S 

Prof. Goodsir, F.R.S. L. &E. ... 

Rev. Prof. Henslow, M.A., F.R.S. 

W. Ogilby 

C. C. Babington, M.A., F.R.S. 



Prof. W. H. Harvey, M.D., F.R. S. 



Sir W. Jardine, Bart, F.R.S.E.. 



Dr. R. Wilbraham Falconer, A. Hen- 
frey. Dr. Lankester. 

Dr. Lankester, Dr. Russell. 

Prof. J. H. Bennett, M.D., Dr. Lan- 
kester, Dr. Douglas Maclagan. 

Prof. Allman, F. W. Johnston, Dr. E. 
Lankester. 

Dr. Dickie, George C. Hyndmau, Dr. 
Edwin Lankester. 

Robert Harrison, Dr. E. Lankester. 

Prof. Balfour, M.D., F.R.S jlsaac Byerley, Dr. E. Lankester. 

Rev. Dr. Fleeming, F.R.S.E. ...IWilliam Keddie, Dr. Lankester. 
Thomas Bell, F.R.S., Pres.L.S.... Dr. J. Abercrombie, Prof. Buckman, 

Dr. Lankester. 

Prof. J. R.Ejnahan,Dr.E. Lankester, 
Robert Patterson, Dr. W. E. Steele. 
C. C. Babington, M.A., F.R.S.... iHenry Denny, Dr. Heaton, Dr. E . 

Lankester, Dr. E. Perceval Wright. 

Prof. Dickie, M.D., Dr. E. Lankester, 
Dr. Ogilvy. 

1860. Oxford Rev. Prof Henslow, F.L.S iW. S. Chm-ch, Dr. E. Lankester, P. 

I I L. Sclater, Dr. E. Perceval Wright. 

1861. Manchester.. Prof. C. C. Babington, F.R.S. ...iDr. T. Alcock, Dr. E. Lankester, Dr. 

I j P. L. Sclater, Dr. E. P. Wright. 

1862. Cambridge...Trof. Huxley, F.R.S 

1863. Newcastle ...IProf. Balfour, M.D., F.R.S. , 



1864. Bath 

1865. Birmingham 



Dr. John E. Gray, F.R.S. 
T. Thomson, M.D., F.R.S. 



.! Alfred Newton, Dr. E. P. Wright. 
Dr. E. Charlton, A. Newton, Rev. H. 

B. Tristram, Dr. E. P. Wright. 
H. B. Brady, C. E. Broom, H. T. 

Stainton, Dr. E. P. Wright. 
Dr. J. Anthony. Rev. C. Clarke, Rev. 
, H. B. Tristram, Dr. E. P. Wright. 
C2 



XXXVl 



REPORT 1876. 



Date and Place. 



Presidents. 



Secretaries. 



1866. Nottingham 



SECTION D (continued). — biology*. 



1867. Dundee 

1868. Norwich ... 

1869. Exeter 



1870. Liyerpool... 



1871. Edinburgh 



1872. Brighton ... 



1873. Bradford ... 



1874. Belfast 



187.'''. Bristol.... 



1876. Glasgow ... 



Prof. Huxley, LL.D., F.E.S.— 
Physiological Bep. Prof. Hum- 
phry, M.D., RE.S. — AnthropoA 
logical Bcp. Alfred E.Wallace,' 
RE.G.S. 

Prof. Sharpey, M.D., Sec. E.S.— 
Bcp. of Zool. and Bot. George 
Busk, M.D., RE.S. 

Eev. M. J. Berkeley, F.L.S.— 
Bcp. of Fhysiology, W. H. 
Flower, F.E.S. 

George Busk, RE.S., RL.S.— 
Bep. of Bot. and Zool. 0. Spence 
Bate, F.Tl.S.—Bcp. of Efkno. 
E. B. Tylor. 

Prof. G. Eolleston, M.A., M.D. 
F.B..S.,F.L.8.— Bep. Anat. ami 
Physiol. Prof. M. Foster, M.D.,i 
F.L.a.—Bep. 0/ Efkno. J., 
Evans, RE.S. 

Prof. Allen Tliomson,M.D.,F.E.S. 
— Bep. of Bot. and Zool. Prof. 
Wyville Thomson, F.E.S. — 
Bep. of Anthropol. Prof. W. 
Turner, M.D. 

Sir John Lubbock, Bart., F.E.S. 
— Bep. of Anat. <ind Physiol. 
Dr. Burdon Sanderson, F.E.S. 
— Bcp of Anthropol. Col. A. 
Lane Fox, RG.S. 

Prof. Allman, F.E.S.— i)*^;. of 
Anat. and Phi/siol. Prof. Eu- 
therford, M.J).— Bep. of An- 
throjwl. Dr. Beddoe, F.E.S. 

Prof. Eedfern, M-B.—Bcp. of 
Zool. and Bot. Dr. Hooker, 
C.B., Pres. ^.^..—Bcp. of An- 
thropol. Sir W. E.Wilde,M.D. 

F.L.Sc\ater,F.'R.S.— Bep. of Anat. 
andPhysiol.Proi.CleUndyM.T)., 
F.n.S.—Bep. of Anthropol. Prof. 
Eolleston, M.D., F.E.S. 

A. Eussel Wallace, RE.G.S., 
RL.S.— Z'fp. of Zool. and Bot 
Prof. A. Newton, M.A., F.E.S. 
— Bep. of Anat. and Physiol. 
Dr.J.G.McKendriek,F.E.S.E. 



Dr. J. Beddard, W. Felkin, Eev. H. 
B. Tristram, W. Turner, E. B. 
Tylor, Dr. E. P. Wright. 



C. Spence Bate, Dr. S. Cobbold, Dr. 
M. Foster, H. T. Stainton, Eey. H. 

B. Tristram, Prof. W. Turner. 

Dr. T. S. Cobbold, G. W. Firth, Dr. 

M. Foster, Prof. Lawson, H. T. 

Stainton, Eev. Dr. H. B. Tristram, 

Dr. E. P. Wright. 
Dr. T. S. Cobbold, Prof. M. Foster, 

M.D., E. Eay Lankester, Professor 

Lawson, H. T. Stainton, Eev. H. B. 

Tristram. 
Dr. T. S. Cobbold, Sebastian Evans, 

Prof. Lawson, Thos. J. Moore, H, 

T. Stainton, Eev. H. B.Tristram, 

C. Staniland Wake, E. Eay Lan- 
kester. 

Dr. T. E. Eraser, Dr. Arthur Gamgee, 
E. Eay Lankester, Prof. Lawson, 
H. T. Stainton, C. Staniland Wake, 
Dr. W. Eutherford, Dr. Kelburno 
King. 

Prof. Thiselton-Dyer, H. T. Stainton, 
Prof Lawson, F. W. Eudler, J. H. 
Lamprey, Dr. Gamgee, E. Eiiy Lan- 
kester, Dr. Pye-Smith. 

Prof. Thiselton-Dyer, Prof. Lawson, 

E. M'Laohlan, Dr. Pye-Smith, E. 

Eay Lankester, F. W. Eudler, J. 

H. Lamprey. 
W. T. Thiselton-Dyer, E. O. Cunning- 
ham, Dr. J. J. Charles, Dr. P. H. 

Pye-Smith, J. J. Murphy, F. W. 

Eudler. 
E. E. Alston, Dr. McKeudrick, Prof. 

W. E. M'Nab, Dr. Martyu, F. W. 

Eudler, Dr. P. H. Pye-Smith, Dr. 

W. Spencer. 
E. E. Alston, Hyde Clarke, Dr. Knox, 

Prof. W. E. M'Nab, Dr. Muirhead, 

Prof. Morrison Watson. 



ANATOMICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL SCIENCES. 

COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, V. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY. 



18.33. Cambridge.., 
1831. Edinburgh... 



Dr. Haviland 

Dr. Abercrombie 



Dr. Bond, Mr. P.aget. 

Dr. Eoget, Dr. William Thomson. 



* At a Meeting of the General Committee in 1865, it was resolved :—" That the 
titleof Section D be changed to Biology;" and "That for the word 'Subsection,' in the 
rules for conducting the business of the Sections, the word ' Department ' be substituted. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS, 



XXXVU 



Date and Place. 



Presidents. 



Secretaries. 



SECTION E. (xrXTIL 1847.) ANATOMY AXD MEDICINE. 



1835. Dublin ^Dr. PritcLard 



1836. Bristol .... 

1837. Liverpool . 



Dr. Eoget, RKS 

Prof. W. Clark, M.D. 



1838. Newcastle . . . T. E. Headlam, M.D 

1839. Birmingham John Yelloly, M.D.,F.E.S. .. 

1 840. Glasgow . . . James Watson, M.D 

1841. Plymouth ... P. M. Eoget, M.D., Sec.E.S. 

1842. Manchester .'sdward Holme, M.D., F.L.S. 

1843. Cork 'Sir James Pitcairn, M.D 



1844. York , 



:J. C. Pritchard, M.D. 



... Dr. HarrLson, Dr. Hart. 

... Dr. Symonds. 

... Dr. J. Carson, jun., James Long, Dr. 

J. E. W. Vose. 
... T. M. Greenhow, Dr. J. R.W. Voso. 
... Dr. G. O. Eees, F. Eyland. 
. . . Dr. J. Brown, Prof.Couper, Prof.Reid. 
...Dr. J. Butter, J. Fuge, Dr. E. S. 

Sargent. 
...jDr. Chaytor, Dr. E. S. Sargent. 
...|Dr. John Popham, Dr. E. S. Sargent. 
. . . T. Erichsen, Dr. R. S. Sargent. 



SECTION E. PHYSIOLOGY. 



1845. Cambridge . Prof. J. Haviland, M.D 

1846. Southampton Prof. Owen, M.D., F.E.S 

1847. Oxford* ...!Prof. Ogle, M.D., F.E.S.. 



Dr. E. S. Sargent, Dr. Webster. 
C. P. Keele, Dr. Laycock, Dr. Sargent. 
Dr. Thomas K. Chambers, W. P. 
Ormerod. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL SUBSECTIONS OF SECTION D. 



1850. Edinburgh iProf. Bennett, M.D., F.E.S.E. 
1855. Glasgow ...Prof. Allen Thomson, F.E.S. ... 

1857. Dublin Prof. E. Harrison, M.D 

1858. Leeds Sir Benjamin Brodie,Bart.,F.E.S. 

ISSa Aberdeen ... Prof. Sharper, M.D., Sec.E.S. ... 

1860. Oxford Prof. G. RoUeston, M.D., F.L.S. 

1861. Manchester. Dr. John Daw, F.E.S.L. & E. ... 

1 862. Cambridge . C. E. Paget, M.D 

1863. Newcastle... Prof Eolleston, M.D., F.E.S. ... 

1864. Bath |Dr. Edward Smith, LL.D., F.E.S 

1865.Birminghmt.Prof.Acland,M.D.,LL.D.,F.E.S. 



Prof. J. H. Corbett, Dr. J. Struthers. 
Dr. E. D. Lyons, Prof. Eedfern. 
C. G. Wheeihou.se. 
Prof. Bennett, Prof. Eedfern. 
Dr. R. M'Donnell, Dr. Edward Smith. 
Dr. W. Roberts, Dr. Edward Smith. 
G. F. Helm, Dr. Edward Smith. 
Dr. D. Embleton, Dr. W. Turner. 
J. S. Bartrum, Dr. W. Turner. 
Dr. A. Fleming, Dr. P. Heslop, Oliver 
Pembleton, Dr. W. Turner. 



GEOGRAPHICAL AND ETHNOLOGICAL SCIENCES. 

[For Presidents and Secretaries for Geography previous to 1851, see Section C, p. xxsiii.] 
ETHNOLOGICAL SUBSECTIONS OF SECTION D. 



1846. Southampton [Dr. Pritchard 

1847. Oxford Prof. H. H. Wilson, M.A. 

1848. Swansea ... 

1849. Birmingham 

1850. Edinburgh.. 



Vice-Admiral Su- A. Malcolm ... 



Dr. King. 
Prof. Buckley. 
G. Grant Francis. 
Dr. R. G. Latham. 
Daniel Wilson. 



1851. Ipswich 

1852. Belfast . 



SECTION E.^GEOGKAPHY AND ETHNOLOGY. 



Sir E. I. Murchison, F.E.S., Press. 

E.G.S. 
Col. Chesney, E.A., D.C.L., 

F.E.S. 



E. Cull, Rev. J. W. Donaldson, Dr. 

Norton Shaw. 
E. Cull, E. MacAdam, Dr. Norton 

Shaw. 



* By direction of the General Committee at Oxford, Sections D and E were incorporated 
■.:v,der the name of " Section D— Zoology and Botany, including Physiology" (see p. xxxv). 
Tlio Section being then vacant was assigned in 1851 to Geography. 

1" Vide note on page rtxvi. 



xxviii 



REPORT — 1876, 



Date and Place. 



1853. 
1854. 
1855. 
1856. 
1857. 
1858. 
1859. 
1860. 
1861. 
1862. 
1863. 
1864. 
1865. 
1866. 

1867. 
1868. 



Hull 

Liverpool . . . 
Glasgow . . . 
Cheltenham 

Dublin 

Leeds 

Aberdeen ... 

Oxford 

Manchester . 



Cambridge . 



Newcastle... 

Bath 

Birmingliam 
Nottingham 



Dundee.. 
Norwich 



Presidents. 



Secretaries. 



R. G. Latham, M.D., F.R.S. ... 
Sir E. I. Murchison, D.C.L., 
Sir J. Richardson, M.D., F.R.S. 
Col. Sir H. C. Rawlinson, K.C.B. 

Rev. Dr. J. HenthawnTodd, Pres. 

R.LA. 
Sir R. I. Murchison, G.C.St.S. 

F.R.S. 
Rear-Admiral Sir James Clerk 

Ross, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Sir R. I. Murcliison, D.C.L., 

John Crawfurd, F.R.S 

Francis Galton, F.R.S 

Sir R. I. Murchison, K.C.B., 

F.R.S. 
Sir R. I. Murchison, K.C.B., 

F.R.S, 
Major-General Sir H. Rawlinson, 

M.P., K.C.B., F.R.S. 
Sir Charles Nicholson, Bart., 

LL.D. 

Sir Samuel Baker, F.E.G.S 

Capt. G. H. Richards, E.N., F.R.S.j 



R. CuU, Rev, H. W. Kemp, Dr. Nor- 

ton Shaw. 
Richard Cull, Rev. H. Higgins, Dr. 

Ihne, Dr. Norton Shaw. 
Dr. W. G. Blackie, R. Cull, Dr. Nor- 

ton Shaw. 
R. Cull, F. D. Hartland, W.H.Rum- 

sey, Dr. Norton Shaw. 
E. Cull, S. Ferguson, Dr. R. E. Mad- 
den, Dr. Norton Shaw. 
E.Cul],FrancisGalton,P.O'Callaghan, 

Dr. Norton Shaw, Thomas Wriglit. 
Eichard Cull, Professor Geddes, Dr. 

Norton Shaw. 
Capt. Burrows, Dr. J. Hunt, Dr. C. 

Lempriere, Dr. Norton Shaw. 
Dr. J. Hunt, J. Kingsley, Dr. Norton 

Shaw, W. Spottiswoode. 
J. W. Clarke, Ecv. J. Glover, Dr. 

Hunt, Dr. Norton Shaw, T. Wright. 
C. Carter Blake, Hume Greenfield, 

C. E. Markham, E. S. Watson. 

H. W. Bates, C. R. Markham, Capt. 

R. M. Murchison, T. Wright. 
H. W. Bates, S. Evans, G. Jabet, C. 

R. Mai-kham, Thomas Wright. 
H. W. Bates, Rev. E. T. Cusins, E. 

H. Major, Clements R. Markliam, 

D. W. Nash, T. Wright. 

H. W. Bates, Cyril Graham, C. E. 
Markham, S. J. Mackie, E. Sturrock. 

T. Baines, H. W. Bates, C. E. Mark- 
ham, T. Wright. 



SECTION E (continued). — geography. 



1869. Exeter 

1870. Liverpool.. 

1871. Edinburgh. 

1872. Brighton .. 

1873. Bradford .. 

1874. Belfast 

1875. Bristol 



1876. Glasgow .. 



Sir Bartle Frere, KC.B., LL.D., 
"P "p r^ o 

Sir E. I. Murchison. Bt., K.C.B,, 
LL.D., D.C.L., F.E.S., F.G.S. 
Colonel Yule, C.B., F.E.G.S. ... 

Francis Galton, F.R.S 

Sir Rutherford Alcock, K.C.B... 

Major Wilson, R.E., F.R.S. 

F.E.G.S. 
Lieut.-General Strachey, E.E. 

C.S.I.,F.E.S., F.E.G.S., F.L.S. 

F.G.S. 
Capt. Evans, C.B., F.E.S 



H. W. Bates, Clements E. Markham, 
J. H. Thomas. 

H. W. Bates, David Buxton, Albert 
J. Mott, Clements E. Markham. 

Clements E. Markham, A. Buchan, 
J. H. Thomas, A. Keith Johnston. 

H. W. Bates, A. Keith Johnston, Eev. 
J. Newton, J. H. Thomas. 

H. W. Bates, A. Keith Johnston, Cle- 
ments E. Markham. 

E. G. Eavenstein, E. C. Eye, J. H. 
Thomas. 

H. W. Bates, E. C. Eye, F. F. Tuckett. 



H. W. Bates, E. C. Rye, E. Oliphant 
Wood. 



STATISTICAL SCIENCE. 

COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, VI. STATISTICS. 

1833. Cambridge .IProf. Babbage, F.R.S IJ. E. Drinkwater. 

1834. Edinburgh .|Sir Charles Lemon, Bart |Dr. Cleland, C. Hope Maclean. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



XXXIX 



Date and Place. 



Presidents. 



Secretaries. 



1835. 
1830. 

1837. 

1838. 
1839. 

1840. 

1841. 

1842. 

1843. 
1844. 
1845. 
1846. 

1847. 

1848. 
1849. 

1850. 

1851. 
1852. 

1853. 
1854. 

1855. 



Dublin 

Bristol 

Liverpool . . . 

Newcastle... 
Birmingham 

Glasgow ... 

PljTnouth. . . 

Mancliester . 

Cork 

York... 

Cambridge . 
Southampton 

Oxford 

Swansea . . . 
Birmingham 

Edinburgh .. 

Ipswich 

Belfast 

Hull 

Liverpool ... 

Glasgow 



SECTION F. STATISTICS. 

W. Greg, Prof. Longfield. 

Rev. J. E. Bromby, C. B. Fripp, 

James Heywood. 
W. R. Greg, W. Langton, Dr. W. C. 

Tayler. 
W. Cargill, J. Heywood, W. R. Wood. 
F. Clarke, R. W. Rawson, Dr. W. C. 

Tayler. 
C. R. Baird, Prof. Ramsay, R. W. 

Rawson. 
Rev. Dr. Byrth, Rev. R. Luney, R. 

W. Rawson. 
Rev. R. Luney, G. W. Ormerod, Dr. 

W. C. Tayler. 
Dr. D. Bullen, Dr. W. Cooke Tayler, 
J. Fletcher, J. Heywood, Dr. Laycock. 
J. Fletcher, W. Cooke Tayler, LL.D. 
J. Fletcher, F. G. P. Neison, Dr. W. 

C. Tayler, Rev. T. L. Shapcott. 
Rev. W. H. Cox, J. J. Danson, F. G. 

P. Neison. 
J. Fletcher, Capt. R. Shortrede. 
Dr. Finch, Prof. Hancock, F. G. P. 

Neison. 
Prof. Hancock, J. Fletcher, Dr. J. 

Stark. 
J. Fletcher, Prof. Hancock. 
His Grace the Archbishop of Prof Hancock, Prof Ingram, James 
Dublin. I MacAdam, Jun. 

James Heywood, M.P., F.R.S Edward Chesliire, WiUiam Newmarch. 

Thomas Tooke, F.R.S Ie. Cheshire, J. T. Danson, Dr. W. H. 

1 Duncan, W. Newmarch. 

R. Monckton Milnes, M.P 'J. A. Campbell, E. Cheshire, W. New- 

1 march. Prof R. H. Walsh. 



Charles Babbage, F.R.S 

iSir Charles Lemon, Bart., F.R.S. 

Rt. Hon. Lord Sandon 

Colonel Sykes, F.R.S 

Henry Hallam, F.R.S 

Rt. Hon. Lord Sandon, M.P., 

F R S 
Lieut.-Col. Syke.s, F.R.S 

G. W. Wood, M.P., F.L.S 

Sir C. Lemon, Bart., M.P 

Lieut.-Col. Sykes, F.R.S., F.L.S. 
Rt. Hon. The Earl Fitzwilliam. . . 
G. R. Porter, F.R.S 

Travers Twiss, D.C.L., F.R.S. ... 

J. H. Vivian, M.P., F.R.S 

Rt. Hon. Lord Lyttelton 



Very Rev. Dr. John Lee, 

V.P.R.S.E. 
Sir John P. Boileau, Bart. 



SECTION F (continued). — economic science and statistics. 

1856. Cheltenham !Rt. Hon. Lord Stanley, M.P. ... Rev. C. H. Bromby,E. Cheshire, Dr. W. 

I N. Hancock, W. Newmarch, W. M. 

I Tartt. 

1857. Dublin 'His Grace the Archbishop of Prof Cairns, Dr. H. D. Hutton, W. 

I Dublin, M.R.I. A. | Newmarch. 

1858. Leeds Edward Baines !T. B. Baines, Prof Cairns, S. Brown, 

_ Capt. Fishbom-ne, Dr. J. Strang. 

1859. Aberdeen ...Col. Sykes, M.P., F.R.S. .. 



1860. Oxford iNassau W. Senior, M.A. 



1861. Manchester 



1862. Cambridge.. 

1863. Newcastle ... 

1864. Bath.... 



William Newmarch, F.R.S. 



Edwin Chadwick, C.B 

Wniiam Tite, M.P., F.R.S. 



...William Farr, M.D., D.C.L., 
I F.R.S. 

1865. BirminghamRt. Hon. Lord Stanley, LL.D., 
1 M.P. 



Prof. Cairns, Edmimd Macrory, A. M. 

Smith, Dr. John Strang. 
Edmund Macrory, W. Newmarch, 

Rev. Prof J. E. T. Rogers. 
David Chadwick, Prof R. C. Christie, 

E. Macrory, Rev. Prof J. E. T. 

Rogers. 
. . H. D. Macleod, Edmund Macrory. 
T. Doubleday, Edmund Macrory, 

Frederick Purdy, James Potts. 
E. Macrory, E. T. Payne, F. Purdy. 



G. J. D. Goodman, G. J. Johnston, 
E. Macrory. 



xl 



REPORT 187G. 



Date and Place. 



Presidents. 



Secretaries. 



1866. Nottingham 

1867. Dundee 

1868. Norwich ... 

1869. Exeter 

1870. Liverpool.., 

1871. Edinburgh 

1872. Brighton .., 

1873. Bradford .., 

1874. Belfast 



Prof. J. E. T. Kogers 

jM. E. Grant Duff, M.P 

Satnuel Brown, Pres. Instit. Ac- 
t tuaries. 

Et. Hon. Sir Stafford H. North- 
j cote, Bart., C.B., M.P. 
iProf. W. Stanley Jevons, M.A. . 

!Kt. Hon. Lord Neaves 

iProf. Henrv Fawcett, M.P 

,iRt. Hon. W. E. Forster, M.P... 
, Lord O'Hagan 



1875. Bristol 

1876. Glasgow .. 



'James Heywood, M.A., P.E.S. 

Pres.S.S. 
ISir George Campbell, K.C.S.L 
I M.P. 



R. Birkin, Jiin., Prof. Leone Levi, E. 

Macrory. 
Prof. Leone Levi, E. Macrory, A. J. 

Warden. 
Eev. W. C. Davie, Prof. Leone Levi. 

Edmund Macrory, Frederick Purdy, 

Charles T. D. Acland. 
Clias. R. Dudley Baxter, E. Macroi-y, 

J. Miles Moss. 
J. G. Fitch, James Meikle. 
J. G. Fitch, Barclay Phillips. 
J. G. Fitch, Swire Smith. 
Prof. Donnell, Frank P. Fallows, 

Hans jMacMordie. 
F. P. FeUows, T. G. P. Hallett, E. 

Macrory. 
A. M'Neel Caird, T. G. P. Hallett, 

Dr. W. Neilson Hancock, Dr. W. 

Jack. 



MECHANICAL SCIENCE. 



SECTION G. MECHANICAL .SCIENCE. 



1836. 

1837. 
1838. 
1839. 



Bristol 

Liverpool ... 
Newcastle .. j 
Birmingham 



1840. Glasgow 



Davies Gilbert, D.C.L., F.R.S.... 

Rev. Dr. Robinson 

Charles Babbage, F.R.S 

Prof. Wilhs, F.R.S., and Robert 

Stephenson. 
Sir Jolui Robinson 



1841. 
1842. 

1843. 
1844. 
1845. 
1846, 
1847. 
1848. 
1849. 
1850. 
1851. 
1852. 

1853. 

1854. 

1855. 

1856. 

1857. 

1858. 
1859 



Plymouth . . . [ 
Manchester . 



Cork 

York 

Cambridge .. 
Southampton 

Oxford 

Swansea 

Birmingham 
Edinburgh .. 

Ipswich 

Belfast 



John Taylor, F.E.S 

Rev. Fr6f. Willis, F.E.S 

Prof J. Macneill, M.R.I.A 

John Taylor, F.R.S 

George Rennie, F.E.S 

Eev. Prof. Willis, M.A., F.E.S. . 
Rev. Prof. Walker, M.A., F.R.S. 
Rev. Prof. Walker, M.A., F.R.S. 



Rev. Dr. Robinson 

William Cubitt, F.R.S 

John Walker.C.E., LL.D., F.R.S. 



Hull 

Liverpool ... 
Glasgow . . , 
Cheltenham 
Dublin 



Leeds 

. Aberdeen .. 



1860. Oxford 



T. G. Bunt, G. T. Clark, W. West. 

Charles Vignoles, Thomas Webster. 

R. Hawthorn, C. Vignoles, T. Webster. 

W. Carpmael, William Hawkes, Tho- 
mas Webster. 

J. Scott Russell, J. Thomson, J. Tod, 
C. Vignoles. 

Henry Chatfield, Thomas Webster. 

J. F. Bateman, J. Scott Russell, J. 
Thomson, Charles Vignoles. 

James Thomson, Robert Mallet. 

Charles Vignoles, Thomas Webster. 

Rev. W. T. Kingsley. 

William Betts, jun., Cliarles Manby. 

J. Glynn, R. A. Le Mesurier. 

R. A. Le Mesm-ier, W. P. Struve. 



Robert Stephenson, M.P., F.R.S.jCharles Manby, W. P. Marshall. 



William Fairbairn, C.E., F.E.S.. 

John Scott Eusscll, F.E.S 

W. J. Macquorn Eankine, C.E.. 

F.E.S. 
George Eennie, F.E.S 



Dr. Lees, David Stephen.=;oii. 
John Head, Cliarles Manby. 
John F. Bateman, C. B. Hancock, 

Charles Manby, James Thomson. 
James Oldham, J.Thomson, W. Sykes 

Ward. 
John Grantham, J. Oldham, J. Thom- 
son. 
L. Hill, Jvm., William Ramsay, J. 

Thomson. 
C. Athcrton, B. Jones, jun., H. M. 
I Jeffery. 

The Eight Hon. The Earl of|Prof. Downing, W. T. Doyne, A. Tate, 
Rossc, F.R.S. I James Thomson, Henry Wright. 

William Fairbairn. F.R.S 'J. C. Dennis, J. Dixon, H. Wright. 

Rev. Prof. WiUis, M.A., F.E.S. .IE. Abcrnethy, P. Le Neve Foster, H. 

j Wright. 
Prof. W. J. Macquorn Eankine, P. Le Neve Foster, Rev. F. Harrison , 
LL.D., F.E.S. 1 Henry Wriglit. 



LIST OF EVENING LECTURES. 



xli 



Date and Place. 

18(31. Manchester . 

1862. Cambridge .. 

1863. Newcastle... 

1864. Bath 

1865. Birmingham 

1866. Nottingham 

1867. Dundee 

1868. Norwich ... 

1869. Exeter 

1870. Liverpool . . . 

1871. Edinburgh 

1872. Brighton .., 
L873. Bradford.. 



Presidents. 



Soeretanes. 



1874. Belfost .. 

1875. Bristol.. 

1876. Glasgow 



J. F. Bateman, C.E., RE.S P. Le Neve Foster, John Eobinson, H. 

j Wright. 
William Fairbairn, LL.D.,F.E.S. W. M. Fawcett, P. Le Neve Foster. 
Rev. Prof. Willis, M.A., F.R.S. . T. Le Neve Foster, P. Wcstmacott, J. 

i F. Spencer. 

J. Hawkshaw, F.E.S jP. Le Neve Foster, Eobcrt Pitt. 

Sir W. G. Armstrong, LL.D.,!p. Le Neve Foster, Henry Lea, W. P. 

F.E.S. I Marshall, Walter May. 

Thomas Hawksley, V.P.Last.'p. Le Neve Foster, J, "F. Iselin, M. 

C.E., F.G.S. 1 A. Tarbottom. 

Prof. W. J. Macquorn Eankine, P. Le Neve Foster, John P. Smith, 



LL.D., F.E.S. 
G. P. Bidder, C.E., P.E.G.S. 



W. W. Urquhart. 
P. Le Neve Foster, J. F. Iselin, C. 

Mauby, W. Smith. 

C. W. Siemens, F.E.S P. Le Neve Foster, H. Baucrman. 

Chas. B. Yignoles, C.E., F.E.S. .'H. Bauerman, P. Le Neve Foster, T. 

I King, J. N. Shoolbred. 
Prof. Fleeming Jenkin, F.E.S.. ..|II. Bauerman, Alexander Leslie, J. P, 

Smith. 
H. M. Brunei, P. Le Neve Foster, 

J. G. Gamble, J. N. Shoolbred. 
Crawford Barlow, H. Bauerman, E. 

H. Carbult, J. C. Hawkshaw, J. N. 

Shoolbred. 
A. T. Atchison, J. N. Shoolbred, Johu 

Smyth, jun. 
W. E. Browne, H. M. Brunei, J. G. 

Gamble, J. N. Shoolbred. 
W. Bottomley, jun., W. J. Jlillar, J. 

N. Shoolbred, J. P. Smith. 



F. J. Bramwell, C.E 

W. H. Barlow, F.E.S 



Prof. James Thomson, LL.D. 

C.E., F.E.S.E. 
W. Froude, C.E., M.A., F.E.S... 

C. W. Merrifield, F.E.S 



List of Evening Lectures. 



Date and Place. 


Lecturer. 


Subject of Discour.se. 


1842. Manchester . 


Charles Yignoles, F.E.S 


The Principles and Con.struction of 
Atmospheric Eailways. 




Sir M. I. Brunei 


The Thames Tunnel. 




E. I. Murchison 


The Geology of Eussia. 

The Dinoruis of New Zealand. 


1843. Cork 


Prof. Owen, M.D., RE.S 

Prof. E. Forbes, F.E.S 




The Distribution of Animal Life in 






the jEgean Sea. 




Dr. Eobinson 


The Earl of Eosse's Telescope. 
Geology of North America. 


1844. York 


Charles Lyell, F.E.S 

Dr. Falconer. F.E.S 




The Gigantic Tortoise of the Siwalik 






Hills in India. 


1845. Cambridge .. 


G. B. Airy, F.E.S.. Astron.Eoyal 


Progress of Terrestrial Magnetism. 




E. I. Murchison, F.E.S 


Geology of Eus^a. 


1 846. Southampton 


Prof. Owen, M.D., F.E.S 


Fossil Mammalia of tlie British Isles. 




Charles Lyell, F.E.S 


Valley and Delta of the Mississippi. 


1846. Southampton 


W. E. Grove, F.E.S 


Properties of the Explosive substance 
discovered by Dr. Schonbein ; also 
some Eesearches of his own on the 
Decomposition of Water by Heat. 


1847. Oxford 


Eev. Prof. B. Powell, F.E.S. ... 


Shooting-stars. 




Prof. M. Faraday, F.E.S 


Magnetic and Diamagnetic Phcno- 




Hugh E. Strickland, F.G.S. ... 


Tho Dodo {Bichis incjifiia). 



xlil 



REPORT 1876. 



Date and Place. 


1848. 


Swansea . . . 


1849 


Birmingham 


1850. 


Edinburgh. 


1851. 


Ipswich 


1852. 


Belfast 




1853. Hull 



1854. 
1855. 
1856. 

1857. 

1858. 
1859. 

1860. 
1861. 
1862. 
1863. 



Liverpool .. 

Glasgow 

Cheltenham 

Dublin 

Leeds 

Aberdeen ... 



John Percy, M.D., E.E.S 

W. Carpenter. M.D., F.E.S. .. 

Dr. Faraday, F.E.S 

Eev. Prof. WiUis, M.A., F.E.S. 

Prof. J. H. Bennett, M.D., 
F.E.S.E. 

Dr. Mantell, F.E.S 

Prof. E. Owen, M.D., F.E.S. 

G. B. Airy, F.E.S., Astron.Eoyal 
Prof. G.G. Stokes, D.C.L., F.E.S. 

Colonel Portloek, E.E., F.E.S. 



Prof. J. Phillips, LL.D., F.E.S., 
F.G.S. 

Eobert Hunt, F.E.S 

Prof. E. Owen, M.D., F.E.S. ... 
Col. E. Sabine, V.P.E.S 

Dr. W. B. Ciu-pcntcr, F.E.S. ... 
Lieut.-Col. H. Eawlinson 



Col. Sir H. Eawlinson , 



Oxford 

Manchester . 

Cambridge . 

Newcastle- 
on-Tyne. 



Newcastle- 

on-Tyiie. 

Bath 



1863. 
1864. 

1865. Birmingham 

1866. Nottingham. 



W. E. Grove, F.E.S 

Prof. W. Tliomson, F.E.S 

Eev. Dr. Livingstone, D.C.L. ... 
Prof. J. Phillips, LL.D., F.E.S. 
Prof. E. Owen, M.D., F.E.S. ... 

SirE.I.Murchison, D.C.L 

Eev. Dr. Eobinson, F.E.S 

Eev. Prof. Walker, F.E.S 

Captain Shcrard Osborn, E.N. . 
Prof. W. A. MiUer, M.A., F.E.S. 
G. B. Airy, F.E.S., Astron. Eoy. . 
Prof. Tyndall, LL.D., F.E.S. ... 

Prof. Odling, F.E.S 

Prof. Williamson, F.E.S 



James Glaisher, F.E.S. 

Prof. Eoscoe, F.E.S 

Dr. Livingstone, F.E.S. 
J. Beete Jukes, F.E.S... 



William Huggins, F.E.S 

Dr. J. D. Hooker, F.E.S 



Metallurgical operations of Swansea 
and its neighbourliood. 

Eeeent Microscopical Discoveries. 

Mr. Grassiot's Battery. 

Transit of dilferent Weights with 
varying velocities on Eailways. 

Passage of the Blood through the 
minute vessels of Animals in con- 
nexion with Nutrition. 

Extinct Birds of New Zealand. 

Distinction between Plants and Ani- 
mals, and their changes of Form. 

Total Solar Eclipse of July 28, 1851. 

Eeeent discoveries in the projjreties 
of Light. 

Eeeent discovery of Eock-salt at Car- 
rickfergus, and geological and prac- 
tical considerationscounected with it. 

Some peculiar phenomena in the Geo- 
logy and Physical Geography of 
Yorkshire. 

The present state of Photography. 

Anthropomorphous Apes. 

Progress of researches in Terrestrial 
Magnetism. 

Characters of Species. 

Assyrian and Babylonian Aatiqiutics 
and Ethnology. 

Eeeent discoveries in Assyria and 
Babylonia, with the results of Cunei- 
form research up to the present 
time. 

Correlation of Physical Forces. 

The Atlantic Telegraph. 

Eeeent discoveries in Africa. 

The Ironstones of Yorkshire. 

The Fossil Mammalia of Australia. 

Geology of the Northern Higlilands. 

Electrical Discharges in highly rare- 
fied Media. 

Physical Constitution of the Sim. 

Arctic Discovery. 

Spectrum Analysis. 

The late Eclipse of the Sun. 

The Forms and Action of Water. 

Organic Chemistry. 

The Chemistry of the Galvanic Bat- 
tery considered in relation to Dy- 
namics. 

The Balloon Ascents made for the 
British Association. 

The Chemical Action of Light. 

Eeeent Travels in Africa. 

Probabilities as to the position and 
extent of the Coal-measures beneath 
the red rocks of the Midland Coun- 
ties. 

The results of Spectrum Analysis 
applied to Heavenly Bodies. 

Insular Floras. 



LIST OF EVENING LECTURES. 



xliii 



Date and Place. 



Lecturer, 



Subject of Discourse. 



1867. Dundee. 



1868. Norwich ..., 

1869. Exeter 

1870. Liverpool ... 

1871. Edinburgh 

1872. Brigliton ... 

1873. Bradford 

1874. Belfast... 



1875. Bristol 

1876. Glasgow .. 



Archibald Geikie, F.E.S 

Alexander Herschel, F.E.A.S 

J. Fergusson, F.R.S 

Dr. W. Odling, F.E.S 

Prof. J. Phillips, LL.D., F.E.S. 
J. Norman Lockyer, F.E.S 

Prof. J. Tyndall, LL.D., F.E.S. 
Prof. W. J. Macquorn Eankine, 

LL.D., F.E.S. 
F. A. Abel, F.E.S 

E. B. Tylor, F.E.S 

Prof. P. Martin Duncan, M.D., 

FES 
Prof. W. K.CliiTord 



Prof. W. C. Williamson, F.E.S. 

Prof. Clerk Maxwell, F.E.S 

Sir John Lubbock, Bart., M.P., 

FES 
Prof. Huxley, F.E.S 

William Spottiswoode, LL.D., 
F.E.S. 

F. J. Bramwell, F.E.S 

Prof. Tait, F.E.S.E j 

i Sir Wyville Thomson, F.E.S. ... 



The Geological origin of the present 
Scenery of Scotland. 

The present state of knowledge re- 
garding Meteors and Meteorites. 

Archaiology of tlie early Buddhist 
Monuments. 

Eeverse Chemical Actions. 

Vesuvius. 

Tlie Physical Constitution of the 
Stars and Nebula?. 

The Scientific Use of the Imagination. 

Stream-lines and Weaves, in connexion 
witli Naval Architecture. 

Some recent investigations and appli- 
cations of Explosive Agents. 

The Eelation of Primitive to Modern 
Civilization. 

Insect Metamorphosis. 

The Aims and Instruments of Scien- 
tific Thought. 

Coal and Coal Plants. 

Molecules. 

Common Wild Flowers considered in 
relation to Insects. 

The Hypothesis tliat Animals are 
Automata, and its History. 

The Colours of Polarized Light. 

Eailway Safety Appliances. 

Force. 

The ' Challenger ' Expedition. 



Lectures to the Operative Classes. 



1867. Dundee.. 

1868. Norwich 

1869. Exeter .. 



1870. Liverpool , 

1872. Brighton 

1873. Bradford 

1874. Belfast... 

1875. Bristol... 

1876. Glasgow 



Prof. J. Tyndall, LL.D., F.E.S. 
Prof. Huxley, LL.D., F.E.S. ... 
Prof. Miller, M.D., F.E.S 



Sir John Lubbock, Bart., M.P., 

F.E.S. 
William Spottiswoode, LL.D., 

RES 
C. W.' Siemens, D.C.L., F.E.S... 

Profe.s3or Odling, F.R.S 

Dr. W. B. Carpenter, F.E.S. ... 
Commander Cameron, O.B.,E-N. 



Matter and Force. 

A piece of Chalk. 

Experimental illustrations of the 
modes of detecting the Composi- 
tion of the Sun and other Heavenly 
Bodies by the Spectrum. 

Savages. 

Sunshine, Sea, and Sky. 

Fuel. 

The Discovery of Oxygen. 

A piece of Limestone. 

A Journey through Afiica. 



xHv 



REPORT 1876. 



Table showing the Attendance and Receipts 



Date of Meeting. 


Where held. 


Presidents. 




Old Life 
Members. 


New Life 
Members. 


i 


1831, Sept. 27 ... 

1832, June 19 ... 

1833, June 25 ... 

1834, Sept. 8 ... 

1835, Aug. 10 ... 

1836, Aug. 22 ... 

1837, Sept. II ... 

1838, Aug. 10 ... 

1839, Aug. 26 ... 

1840, Sept. 17 ... 

1841, July 20 ... 

1842, June 23 ... 

1843, Aug. 17 ... 

1844, Sept. 26 ... 

1845, June 19 ... 

1846, Sept. 10 ... 

1847, June 23 ... 

1848, Aug. 9 

1849, Sept. 12 ... 

1850, July 21 ... 

1851, July 2 

1852, Sept. I 

1853, Sept. 3 ... 

1 8 54, Sept. 20 ... 

1555, Sept. 12 ... 

1556, Aug. 6...... 

1857, Aug. 26 ... 

1858, Sept. 22 ... 

1859, ^^P*"- ^4 ••• 
i860, June 27 ... 

1 861, Sept. 4 ... 

1862, Oct. I 

1863, Aug. 26 ... 

1864, Sept. 13 ... 

1865, Sept. 6 ... 

1866, Aug. 22 ... 
1S67, Sept. 4 ... 

1868, Aug. 19 ... 

1869, Aug. 18 ... 

1870, Sept. 14 ... 

187I; Aug. 2 

1S72; Aug. 14 ... 

1873, Sept. 17 ••• 

1874, Aug- 19 •■• 
187s, Aug. 25 ... 

1876, Sept. 6 

1877,;; Aug. 15 - 


York 

Oxford 

Cambridge 

Edinburgh 


The Earl Fitzwilliam, D.C.L.... 
The Eev. W. Buckland, F.E.S. .. 
The Eev. A. Sedgwick, F.E.S... . 

Sir T. M. Brisbane, D.C.L 

The Eev. Provost Lloyd, LL.D. 

The Marquis of Lansdowne 

The Earl of Burlington, F.E.S. . 
The Duke of Northumberland... 
The Eev. W. Vernon Harcourt . 
The Marquis of Breadalbane ... 
The Eev. W. -Wliewell, F.E.S.... 

The Lord Francis Egerton 

The Earl of Eosse, F.E.S 

The Eev. G. Peacock, D.D 

Sir John F. W. Herschel, Bart. . 
Sir Eoderick I. Murchison, Bart. 

Sir Eobert H. Inglis, Bart 

The Marquis of Northampton . . . 
The E«v. T. E. Eobinson, D.D. . 

Sir David Brewster, K.H 

G. B. Airy, Esq., Astron. Eoyal . 
Lieut.-Gcneral Sabine, F.E.S. ... 
William Hopkins, Esq., F.E.S. . 
The Earl of Harrowby. F.E.S. .. 

The Duke of Argyll, F.E.S 

Prof. C. G. B. Daubenv, M.D.... 
The Eev. Humphrey Llovd, D.D. 
Eichard Owen, M.D., D'C.L. ... 
H.E.H. The Prince Consort . . . 

The Lord Wrottcsley, M.A 

William Fairbairn, LL.D.,F.E.S. 
The Eev. Prof. Willis, M.A. . . . 
Sir William G. Ai-mstrong, C.B. 
Sir Charles Lyell, Bart, M.A... . 
Prof J. Phillips, M.A.,LL.D.... 
William E. Grove, Q.C., F.E.S. 
The Duke of Buccleuch, K.C.B. 
Dr. Joseph D. Hooker, F.E.S. . 

Prof. G. G. Stokes, D.C.L 

Prof. T. H. Huxley, LL.D 

Prof. Sir W. Thomson, LL.D.... 
Dr. W. B. Carpenter, F.E.S. ... 
Prof. A. W. Williamson, F.E.S. 
Prof J. Tjaidall, LL.D., F.E.S. 
Sir John Hawkshaw, C.E.,F.E.S. 
Prof. T. Andrews, M.D., F.E.S. 
Prof. A. Thomson, M.D., F.E.S. 


•• 




1 






Dublin 

Bristol 

Liverpool 

Newcastle-on-Tyiie .. 

Birmingham 

Glasgow 






Plymouth 


169 

3°3 
109 

226 

313 

241 

314 
'49 
227 
235 
172 
164 
141 
238 
194 
182 
236 
222 
184 
286 
321 
239 

203 

2S7 
29a 

207 

167 
196 

204 

314 

246 

245 

212 
162 
239 
221 


65 
169 

28 
150 

36 
10 
18 

3 
12 

9 

8 

10 

13 
23 

33 
'4 
15 
42 
27 
21 
113 

'5 
36 
40 

44 
31 
25 
18 
21 
39 

36 
27 
13 
36 

35 




Manchester 




Cork 




York 




Cambridge 




Southampton 

Oxford 




Swansea 




Birmingham 




Edinburgh 




Ipswich 

Belfast 

HuU 




Ijiverpool 




Glasgow 




Clielteuham 




Dublin 

Leeds 

Aberdeen 

Oxford 




Manchester 

Cambridge 




Newcastle-on-Tyne .. 
Bath 












Dundee 




Norwich 

Exeter 




Liverpool 




Edinburgh 




Brighton 




Bradford 




Belfast 




Bristol 




Glasgow 




Plymouth 




■ 





ATTENDANCE AND RECEIPTS AT ANNUAL MEETINGS. 



xlv 



ut Annual Meetings of the Association. 



Attended by 


Amount 

received 

during the 

Meeting. 


Simis paid on 
Account of 
Grants for 


Old 


New 










Annual 


Annual Assoc 


iates. 


Ladies. 


Foreigners. 


Total. 


Scientific 


Members. 


Members. 










Purposes. 














£ .s. d. 


£ s. d. 


*.* 


.*• . 


• 


... 


... 


353 

900 
1298 
































20 












. . . 




167 

434 14 
918 14 6 














1350 
1840 








... 


. 


... 


... 








• 


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1 1 00* 


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2400 
1438 




956 12 2 

1595 II 

1546 16 4 

1235 10 II 

1449 17 8 

1565 10 2 

981 12 8 

830 9 9 

6S5 16 

- 208 5 4 

275 I 8 








. 




34 












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40 


1353 
891 




46 


317 




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75 


376 3 


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28 


1315 




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185 




160 






45 


190 9 

22 ^ 


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260 








94 


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172 


35 


1079 

857 
1260 




65 


39 2 


70 


196 


36 




197 


40 4 


95 


203 


53 




54 


25 3 


76 


197 


15 


929 


■joy 


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33 4 


47 


237 


22 


1071 


963 


159 19 6 


iz8 


42 5 


10 


273 


44 


1241 


1085 ° ° 


345 18 


61 


47 2 


44 


141 


37 


710 


620 


391 97 


63 


60 ■ 5 


10 


292 


9 


1108 


iog5 


304 6 7 


56 


57 3 


67 


236 


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876 


903 


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121 


121 7 


65 


524 


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1802 


1882 


33° 19 7 


142 


loi 10 


94 


543 


26 


2133 


2311 


480 16 4 


104 


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346 


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1115 


1098 


734 13 9 


156 


120 9 


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569 


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2015 


507 15 3 


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91 7 


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509 


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1698 


1931 


618 18 2 


125 


179 12 


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821 


22 


2564 


2782 


684 II I 


177 


59 6 


36 


463 


47 


1689 


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1241 7 


184 


125 15 


89 


791 


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3139 


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iiii 5 10 


150 


57 4 


33 


242 


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1161 


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154 


209 17 


04 


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25 


3335 


3640 


1608 3 10 


182 


103 II 


19 


1058 


13 


2802 


2965 


1289 15 8 


215 


149 7 


66 


508 


23 


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2227 


1591 7 10 


2l8 


105 9 


60 


771 


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2303 


2469 


1750 13 4 


193 


118 II 


63 


771 


7 


2444 


2613 


1739 4 


226 


117 7 


20 


682 


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1 940 


229 


107 6 


78 


600 


17 


1856 


1931 


1572 


303 


195 II 


03 


910 


14 


2878 


3096 


1472 2 6 


3" 


127 9 


76 


754 


21 


2463 


2575 


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80 9 


37 


912 


43 


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2649 


1685 


237 


99 7 


96 


601 


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2120 


1151 16 


232 


85 8 


o^ 


630 


12 


1951 


1979 


960 


307 


93 8 


84 


672 


17 


2248 


2397 


1092 4 2 


331 


185 12 


65 


712 


25 


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OFFICERS OP SECTIONAL COMMITTEES. xlvii 

OFFICEES OF SECTIONAL COMMITTEES PRESENT AT THE 
GLASGOW MEETING. 

SECTION A. MATHEMATICS AND PnYSICS. 

iVmWewl— Professor Sir William Thomson, M.A.,LL.D.,D.C.L., F.R.S., F.R.S.E. 

Vice-Presidents. — Professor Blackbuiai, M.A. ; Professor Cremona ; Professor 
Grant, M.A., LL.D., F.R.S., F.R.A.S. ; Rev. Professor Haugliton, M.A., F.R.S. ; 
Professor A. S. Herschel, B.A., F.R.A.S.; Dr. J. Janssen; Rev. Dr. Lloyd, 
F.R.S. ; Professor Clerk Maxwell, F.R.S. ; Professor G. G. Stokes, Sec.R.S. ; 
Professor P. G. Tait, F.R.S.E. ; Professor Wiillner. 

-Secretaries.— Professor W. F. Barrett, F.R.S.E., M.R.I.A., F.O.S. ; J. T. Bottom- 
ley, M.A., F.R.S.E., F.C.S. ; Professor G. Forbes, B.A., F.R.S.E. ; J. W. L. 
Glaisher, M.A., F.R.S., F.R.A.S. ; Thomas Miiir, M.A., F.R.S.E. 

SECTION B. CHEMISTRY AND MINERALOGY, INCLrDrPTG THEIR APPLICATIONS TO 

ACtRICTJLTUEE and THE ARTS. 

President. — W. II. Perkiu, F.R.S., Secretary of the Chemical Society. 
Vice-Presidents. — Professor T. Andrews, M.D., F.R.S. ; Professor Criim Brown, 

M.D., F.R.S.E. ; W. Crookes, F.R.S. ; Professor J. Ferguson, M.A. ; Professor 

G. C. Foster, F.R.S. ; Dr. Gilbert, F.R.S. ; Professor J. H. Gladstone, F.R.S. ; 

Professor Edmund J. Mills, D.Sc., F.R.S. ; Professor A. W. Williamson, F.R.S. ; 

James Young, F.R.S. 
Secretaries.— V*\ Dittmar; W. Chandler Roberts, F.R.S.; John M. Thomson, 

F.C.S. ; ^y. A. Tilden, D.Sc. 

SECTION C. GEOLOGY. 

President.— ProiesRov John Young, M.D. 

Vice-Presidents.— B.ia Grace the Duke of Argyll, K.T., LL.D., F.R.S. ; Professor 
A. Geikie, LL.D., F.R.S. ; Professor E. Hull, F.R.S. ; J. Gwvn Jeffreys, 
LL.D., F.R.S. ; W. Pengellv, F.R.S. ; Rev. T. Wiltshire, M.A., F.G.S. 

Secretaries.— J SLS. Armstrong; F. W. Rudler, F.G.S. ; W. Topley, F.G.S. 

SECTION D.- BIOLOGY. 

President— A. Russel Wallace, F.L.S., F.R.G.S. 

Vice-Presidents.— ProhssorBaMowc, M.D., F.R.S.; G. Bentham, F.R.S.; Professor 
A. Buchanan, M.D. ; Professor Clelaud, M.D., F.R.S.; Dr. Ferdinand Cohn; 
Professor Dickson, M.D., F.L.S. ; Professor Grube ; Professor Haeckel; Dr. 
Hooker, P.R.S. ; Dr. M'Kendrick, F.R.S.E.; Professor Morreu ; Professor 
Newton, F.R.S. ; Dr. Redferu ; Dr. Allen Thomson, F.R.S. ; Sir Wyville Thom- 
son, F.R.S. ; Rev. Csnon Tristram, F.R.S. ; Professor W. C. Williamson, F.R.S. 

Secretaries.— E. R. Alston, F.Z.S. ; Hyde Clarke; Dr. Knox, M.A; Professor W. 
R. M'Nab, M.D. ; Dr. Muirhead ; Professor Morrison Watson. 

SECTION E. GEOGRAPHY AND ETHNOLOGY. 

President. — Captain Evans, C.B., F.R.S., Hydrographer to the Admiralty. 
Vice-Presidents. — General Sir James E. Alexander, K.C.B., F.R.G.S. ; Sir T. E. 

Oolebrooke, Bart., M.P. ; Captain Douglas Galton, C.B., F.R.S. ; A. Kinnaird, 

M.P. ; Chevalier Cristoforo Negri; Col. R. L. Playfair; Commander E. IL 

Verney. R.N. 
Secretaries.— U. W. Bates, F.L.S., Assist. Sec. R.G.S. ; E. C. Rve, F.Z.S., Librarian 

R.G.S. ; R. Oliphant Wood. 

SECTION F. ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 

President.— Siv George Campbell, K.C.S.I., D.C.L., M.P., F.R.G.S. 
Vice-Presidents. — G. Anderson, M.P. ; Principal Caird, D.D. : Charles Cameron, 

LL.D., M.P. ; J. G. Fitch, M.A. ; J. Grieve, M.P. ; G. W. Hastings ; J. Hey- 

wood, F.R.S. ; Judge Longfield ; Lord O'Hagan ; The Lord Provost of Glasgow ; 

Sir James Watson. 
Secretaries.— A. M'Neel Caird ; T. G. P. Ilallett, M.A. ; W. Neilson Hancock, 

LL.D., M.R.I.A. ; W. Jack, M.A,, LL.D. 

SECTION G. — MECHANICAL SCIENCE. 

President— C. W. Merrifield, F.R.S. 

Vice-Presidents.— C. Bergeron; F. J. Bramwell, F.R.S.; W. Froude,M.A., C.E., 
F.R.S.; Sir John Hawkshaw, F.R.S.; C. W. Siemens, D.C.L., F.R.S.; Thomas 
Stevenson; Professor James Thomson, M.A., LL.D., F.R.S.E. 

^cretor/es.— W. Bottomlev,jmi.; W. J. Millar; J. N. Shoolbred, O.E., F.G.S. J 
J. P. Smith, C.E. 



OFFICERS AND COUNCIL, 1876-77. 



PRESIDENT. 

PEOFESSOE THOMAS ANDEEWS, M.D., LL.D., F.E.S., Hon. F.E.8.E. 

VICE-PRESIDENTS. 



His Grace the Duke of Argyll, K.T 

F.E.8.L. & E., F.G.S. 
The Lord Peovost of Glasgow. 
Sir William Stirling Maxwell, Bart., K.T., 

M.A., M.P. 



LL.D., I Professor Sir William Thom.son, M.A., LL.D., 
D.C.L., F.E.S.L. & E. 
Professor Allek THOMSON, M.D., LL.D., F.E.8.L. 

Professor A. C. Eamsay, LL.D., F.E.S., F.G.S. 
James Young, Esq., F.E.S., F.C.8. 



PRESIDENT ELECT. 
PEOFESSOE ALLEN THOMSON, M.D., LL.D., F.E.S.L. & E. 



VICE-PRESIDENTS ELECT. 

The Eight Hon. the Earl of Mount-Edgcumbe. William Froude, Esq., M.A., C.E., F.B.8. 

The Eight Hon. Lord Blachford, K.C.M.G. " "■ — " " ■" " ■"^° 

William Spottiswoode, Esq., M.A., LL.D., 
r.E.S., F.E.A.8., F.E.G.S. 



Charles Spence Bate, Esq., F.B.S., P.L.S. 



LOCAL SECRETARIES FOR THE MEETING AT PLYMOUTH. 

William Adams, Esq. I Hamilton Wjiiteford, Esq. 

William Square, Esq. | 

LOCAL TREASURER FOR THE MEETING AT PLYMOUTH. 

Fra>-cis Hicks, Esq. 

ORDINARY MEMBERS OF THE COUNCIL. 



Abel, F. A., Esq., F.E.S. 

Alcock, Sir Eutiierfoed, K.C.B. 

Bramwell, F. J., Esq., C.E., F.E.S. 

Cayley, Professor, F.E.S. 

De La Eue, Warrex, Esq., D.C.L., F.E.8. 

Evans, J., Esq., F.E.S. 

Farr, Dr. W., F.E.S. 

Flower, Professor W. H., F.E.S. 

Froude, W., Esq., F.E.S. 

Gassiot, J. P., Esq., D.C.L., LL.D., F.E.S. 

Heywood, J., Esq., F.E.S. 

Houghton, Et. Hon. Lord, F.E.S. 



Jeffreys, J. Gwy'N, Esq., F.E.S. 
Maskelyne, Prof. M". S., M.A., F.E.S. 
Maxwell, Professor J. Clerk, F.E.S. 
Merrifikld, C. W., Esq., F.E.S. 
Newton, Professor A., F.E.S. 
Ommakney, Admiral E., C.B., F.E.S. 
Pengelly, W., Esq., F.E.S. 
Prestwich, Professor J., F.E.S. 
Eoileston, Professor G., M.A., F.E.S. 
EoscoE, Professor H. E., Ph.D., F.E.S. 
EUSSELL, Dr. W. J., F.E.S. 
Smith, Professor U. J. S., F.E.S. 



HUGGINS, W., Esq., F.E.S. 

GENERAL SECRETARIES. 
Capt. Douglas G alton, C.B., D.C.L., F.E.S. , F.G.S., 12 Chester Street, Grosvenor Place, London, S.W. 
Philip Lutley Sci.ater, Esq., M.A., Ph.D., F.E.S., F.L.S., 11 Hanover Squ.arc, London, W. 

ASSISTANT GENERAL SECRETARY. 
George Griffith, Esq., M.A., F.C.S., Harrow-on-the-hill, Middlesex. 

GENERAL TREASURER. 

Professor A. W. Williamson, Ph.D., F.E.S., F.C.S., Umvcrsily College, London, W.C. 

EX-OFFICIO MEMBERS OF THE COUNCIL. 

The Trustees, the President and President Elect, the Presidents of former years, the Vice-Presidents and 
Vice-Presidents Elect, the General and Assistant General Secretaries for the present and former years, 
the General Treasurers for the xiresent and former years, and the Local Treasurer and Secretaries for the ■ 
ensuing Meeting. 

TEUSTEES (PEEMANENT). 

General Sir Edward Saeine, K.C.B.. E.A., D.Cj:,., F.E.S. 

Sir Philip de M. Grey Egerton, Bart., M.P., F.E.S., F.G.S. 

Sir John Lubbock, Bart., M.P., F.E.S., F.L.S. 



PRESIDENTS OF FOEMEE TEARS. 



The Duke of Devonshire. 
The Eev. T. E. Eobinson, D.D. 
Sir G. B. Airy, Astronomer Eoyal. 
General Sir E. Sabine, K.C.B." 
The Earl of Harrowby. 
The Duke of Argyll. 
The Eev. H. Lloyd, D.D. 



1 Eichard Owen, M.D., D.C.L. 
Sir W. G. Armstrong, C.B., LL.D. 
Sir William E. Grove, F.E.S. 
The Duke of BuccIeueh.K.G. 
Dr. Joseph D. Hooker, D.C.L. 
Professor Stokes, M.A., D.C.L. 



Prof. Huxley, LL.D., Sec.E.8. 
Prof. Sir W. Thomson, D.C.L. 
Dr. Carpenter, F.E.S. 
Prof Williamson, Ph.D., F.E.S. 
Prof. Tyndall, D.C.L., F.E.S. 
Sir John Hawkshaw, C.E., F.E.S. 



F. Galton, Esq., F.E.S. 
Dr. T. A. Hirst, F.E.S. 



GENEEAL OFPICEES OF FOEMER TEARS. 

I Gen. Sir E. Sabine, K.C.B., F.E.S. I Dr. T. Thomson, F.E.S. 
I W. Spottiswoode, Esq., F.E.S. | Dr. Michael Foster, F.E.S. 



Pi-ofessii- G. C. Foster, F.R.S. 



AUDITORS. 
W. Spottiswoode, Esq., F.E.S. 



Major-Genoral Strachey, F.E.S. 



REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. xlix 



Report of the Council for the Year 1875-76, presented to the General 
Committee at Glasgow on Wednesday, September 6th, 187G. 

The Council have much regret in announcing that Sir Robert Chriatison, 
"who was elected President for the Glasgow Meeting, informed the Council in 
the course of last winter that he felt himself unable to preside, in conse- 
quence of the state of his health. Under these circumstances the Council 
selected Dr. Andrews, of Belfast, for nomination for the office of President ; 
and the first business of the General Committee of the Association will be to 
confirm this nomination. The Council also recommend that Mr. J. Young, 
P.R.S., be elected a Vice-President of the Association. 

The Council hare received Reports during the past year from the General 
Treasurer, and his Accounts for the year will be laid before the General Com- 
mittee this day. 

The General Committee at Bristol referi'ed the following four Resolutions 
to the Council for their consideration, and they beg to report their action 
thereon in each case : — 

First Resolution. — " That the Council be requested to consider the re- 
commendations of the Reports of the Royal Commission on Scientific 
Instruction and the Advancement of Science, and to take such action 
thereupon as may seem to them best calculated to advance the inte- 
rests of Natural Science." 

The Council having considered this Resolution, waited as a deputation 
upon the Lord President of the Council and upon the Secretary of State for 
the Home Department, and urged upon the Government the opinion of the 
Association that it is of the highest importance to the welfare of this country 
that the Government should without delay give systematic material aid to the 
development of the higher Scientific Education, in the spirit of the Fifth and 
Eighth Reports of the Royal Commission on Scientific Instruction and the 
Advancement of Science ; and the Council further urged upon the Govern- 
ment that, in the selection of Members of the proposed University Commis- 
sion, Science should be duly represented. The Government promised to give 
due consideration to tlie representations of the British Association ; and they 
have increased the amount of the Grant to the Royal Society for aiding 



fScientific Investigation. 



Second Resolution. — " That the Council be requested to take such steps 
as they think suitable for renewing their representations to the 
Secretary of State for India, as to the importance of establishing an 
Observatory for Solar Physics in India, in conformity with the recom- 
mendations of the Royal Commissioners on Scientific Instruction and 
the Advancement of Science." 

The Council having learned that steps were being taken in India in refer- 
ence to this matter, deemed it advisable to defer any action for tlie present. 
1876. ■ d 



i -•- " REPORT — 1876. : 

Tliird Resolution. — " That the Council ho requested to consider and 
report upon the manner in which the Memhers of Committees and 
other Officers of the Association shall be selected, and whether Ladies 
shall be admitted to such offices, and if so, to what offices, and under 
what conditions." 

Upon this Resolution the CouncU have come to the following conclusion, 
viz. : — 

That it does not appear to have been the practice of the British 
Association to elect Ladies as Officers of the Association, or to 
place them upon the General. or Sectional Committees ; and they 
are of opinion that no case has been made out for altering the 
practice hitherto in force. 

Fourth Resolution. — " That the Council be requested to take into cou- 
sideratiou the expediency of appointing Representatives to attend the 
Liternational Statistical Congress to be held at Buda-Pesth in 1876." 

The Council have not taken any action on this Resolution. 

The Council regret to have to announce that Dr. Michael Poster, M.A., 
F.R.S., is unable to continue to act as one of the General Secretaries of the 
Association. They cannot refrain from expressing their regret at the loss of 
his valuable services. 

The Council have agreed to recommend that Mr. Philip Lutley Sclater, 
r.R.S., be appointed one of the General Secretaries in his place. Mr. Sclater 's 
name will be proposed to the General Committee at the Meeting for the 
Election of the Council and Officers on Monday next. 

The Council have added to the List of the Corresponding Members of the 
Association the names of the following gentlemen present at the last Meeting 
of the Association, viz. : — 

Dr. ITachtigal. 
Dr. Oppenheim. 
Dr. E. L. Youmans. 

The Council have been informed that invitations for the Meeting to be held 
in 1878, or following years, wiU be presented from Leeds and Dublin. 

The following are the names of Members of Council for the past year who, 
in accordance with the regulations, are not eligible for re-election this year, 
y\T. : — 

Mr. Bateman. 
Professor G. C. Foster. 
Mr. Lockyer. 

The Council recommend the re-election of the other ordinary Members of 
Council, with the addition of the gentlemen whose names are distingiiished 
by an asterisk in the following list : — 



Right Hon. Lyon Playfair. 
Dr. C. W. Siemens. 



Abel, F. A., Esq., F.R.S. 
*Alcock, Sir Rutherford, K.C.B. 

BramweU, F. J., Esq., C.E., F.R.S. 
*Cayley, Professor, F.R.S. 

De La Rue, Warren, Esq., D.C.L., 
F.R.S. 

Evans, J., Esq., F.R.S. 

Farr, Dr. W., F.R:S. 

Flower, Professor W. H., F.R.S, 



*Froude, W., Esq., F.R.S. 

Gassiot, J. P., Esq., D.C.L., LL.D., 
F.R.S. 

Heywood, J., Esq., F.R.S. 
*Houghton, Lord, F.R.S. 
*Huggins, W., Esq., F.R.S. 

Jeffreys, J. Gwyn, Esq., F.R.S. 

Maskelj-ne, Prof. N. S.,M.A., F.R.S. 

Maxwell Professor J. Clerk, F.R.S.- 



RECOMMENDATIONS OF THE GENERAL COMMITTEE. ll 

Merriiield, C. W., Esq., F.R.S. I RoUeston, Professor G., M.A., F.R.S. 

K'ewton, Professor A., F.E.S. Roscoe, Professor H. E., Ph.D., 
Ommanney, Admiral E., C'.B.,F.rv.S.l F.R.S. 

Pengelly, W., Esq., E.R.S. i Russell, Dr. W. J., F.R.S. 

Prestwich, Professor J., F.R.S. ^ Smith, Professor H. J. S., F.R.S. 



Recommendations adopted by the Geneeal Committee at the Glasgow 
Meeting in September 1876. 

[When Committees ai'e appointed, the Member first named is regarded as the Secretary, 
except there is a specific nomination.] 

Involving Grants of Money. 

That the Committee on Underground Temperature, consistiDg of Professor 
Everett, Professor Sir "W. Thomson, Professor J. Clerk Maxwell, Mr. G. J. 
Sj-mons, Professor Ramsaj% Professor Gcikie, Mr. J. Glaisher, Mr. Pengelly, 
Professor Edward Hull, Professor Ansted, Dr. Clement Le Keve Foster, 
Professor A. S. Herschel, Mr. G. A. Lebour, Mr. A. B. Wynne, Mr. Galloway, 
and Mr. Joseph Dickinson, be reappointed ; that Professor Everett be the 
Seeretary, and that the sum of £50 be placed at their disposal. 

That the Committee, consisting of Professor Stokes, Dr. De La Rue, Pro- 
fessor Clerk Maxwell, Professor W. F. Barrett, Mr. Howard Grubb, Mr. G. 
Johnstone Stoney, and Professor R. S. Ball, for examining and reporting 
upon the reflective powers of silver, gold, and platinum, whether in mass 
or chemically deposited on glass, and of speculum metal, be reappointed; 
and that the grant of X20 which has lapsed be renewed. 

That Professor Sir William Thomson, Professor Tait, Professor Grant, 
Dr. Siemens, and Professor Purser be appointed a Committee to undertake 
experiments for the Measurement of the Lunar Disturbance of Gravity ; and 
that the sura of £50 bo placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That the Committee on Thermo-Electricity, consisting of Professor Tait, 
Professor Tyndall, and Professor Balfour Stewart, be reappointed ; and that 
the grant of £50 which has lapsed be renewed. 

That the Committee, consisting of Professor Cayley, Professor G. G. Stokes, 
Professor H. J. S. Smith, Professor Sir W. Thomson, and Mr. J. W_. L. 
Glaisher (Secretary), be reappointed ; that the tables of the EUiptic Functions 
be completed and published ; that the sum of =£250 be placed at the disposal 
of the Committee for the purpose ; and that it be referred to the Council to 
settle the details of publication. 

That the Committee, consisting of Dr. Joule, Professor Sir W. Thomson, 
Professor Tait, Professor Balfour Stewart, and Professor J. Clerk Maxwell, 
for effecting the determination of the Mechanical Equivalent of Heat, be 
reappointed; and that the sum of £100 be placed at their disposal for the 
purpose. 

That the Committee on Luminous Meteors, consisting of Mr. James Glaisher, 
Mr. R. P. Greg, Mr. Charles Brooke, Dr. Flight, Professor G. Forbes, and 
Professor A. S. Herschel, be reappointed ; that Professor Herschel be the 
Secretary, and that the sum of £30 be placed at their disposal. 

(12 



lii REPORT — 1876. 

That Professor G. Forbes and Professor Sir W. Thomsou be a Committee 
for tbe purpose of endeavouring to make arrangements for the taking of 
certain observations of Atmospheric Electricity in India ; that Professor G. 
Forbes be the Secretary, and that the sum of .£15 be placed at their disposal 
for the purpose. 

That the Committee for investigating the methods employed in the esti- 
mation of Potash and Phosphoric Acid in commercial products be reappointed ; 
also that Mr. E. "W. Parnell and Mr. Ogilvic be added to the Committee; 
that Mr. Allen be the Secretary, and that the sum of .£20 be placed at their 
disposal for the purpose. 

That Dr. AVilliam Wallace, Professor Dittmar, and Mr. Thomas Wills be 
a Committee for the purpose of reporting on the best means for the develop- 
ment of Light from Coal-gas of different qualities ; that Dr. Wallace be the 
Secretary, and that the sum of .£20 be placed at their disposal for the 
purpose. 

That the Committee, consisting of Dr. F. Clowes and Dr. W. A. Tildcn, 
for the purpose of examining the Action of Ethylbromo-butyrate on Ethyl 
Sod-aeeto-acetate, be reappointed ; that Dr. Clowes be the Secretary, and that 
the sum of £10 be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That the Committee, consisting of Dr. Armstrong, Professor Thorpe, and 
Mr. W. W. Fisher, for the purpose of investigating the Isomeric Cresols and 
the Law of Substitution in the Phenol Series, be reappointed ; that Dr. 
Armstrong be the Secretary, and that the sum of £10 be placed at their dis- 
posal for the purpose. 

That Mr. W. N. Hartley, Mr. J. M. Thomson, and Mr. W. Chandler 
Eoberts bo a Committee for the purpose of investigating the Constitution of 
Double Compounds of Cobalt and Nickel ; that Mr. J. M. Thomson be the 
Secretary, and that the sum of .£10 be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Dr. Crum-Brown, and Messrs. Dewar, Dittmar, and Dixon be a Com- 
mittee for the purpose of investigating some methods that have been recently 
proposed for the Quantitative Estimation of Atmospheric Ozone ; that Mr. 
E. M. Dixon be the Secretary, and that the sum of ^15 bo placed at their 
disposal for the purpose. 

That Mr. W. N. Hartley, Dr. E. J. Mills, and Mr. W. Chandler Eoberts be 
a Committee for the purpose of investigating the conditions under which 
liquid Carbonic Acid occurs in Minerals ; that Mr. W. N. Hartley be the 
Secretary, and that the sum of £20 be placed at their disposal for the 
purpose. 

That Mr. J. Evans, Sir J. Lubbock, Bart., Mr. E. Vivian, Mr. W. Pen- 
gelly, Mr. G. Busk, Professor W. Boyd Dawkins, Mr. W. Ayshford Sandford, 
and Mr. J. E. Lee be a Committee for the purj^ose of continuing the ex- 
ploration of Kent's Cavern, Torquay ; that Mr. Pengelly be the Secretary, 
and that the sum of £100 be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Sir John Lubbock, Bart., Professor Prestwich, Professor Busk, Pro- 
fessor Hughes, Professor W. Boyd Dawkins, Rev. H. W. Crosskey, Messrs. 
L. C. Miall and R. H. Tiddeman be reappointed a Committee for the pur- 
pose of assisting in the exploration of the Victoria Cave ; that Mr. Tiddeman 
be the Secretary, and that the sum of £100 be placed at their disposal for 
the purpose. 

That Mr. J. Evans, Rev. T. G, Bonney, Professors A. H. Green and H. A. 
Nicholson, Messsrs. W. Carruthers, F. Drew, R. Etheridge, Jun., G. A. 
Lebour, L. C. MiaU, F. W. Rudler, E. B. Tawney, W. Topley, and W. 
Whitaker be a Committee for the purpose of carrying on the Geological 



b 



I 



RECOMMENDATIONS OF THE GENERAL COMMITTEE. lui 

Record ; that Mr. Whitaker be the Secretary, and that the sum of .£100 be 
placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Professor Hull, Mr. E. W. Binney, Mr. H. Howell, Mr. M. Eeade, 
EcY. H. W. Crosskey, Professor A. H. Green, Professor Harkness, Mr. W. 
Molyneux, Mr. G. H. Morton, Mr. Pengelly, Professor Prestwich, Mr. J. 
Plant, Mr. W. Whitaker, Captain D. Galton, and Mr. De Eance be a 
a Committee for the purpose of investigatingj the circulation of the under- 
ground waters in the New Red Sandstone and Permian formations of 
England, and the quantity and character of the water supplied to various 
towns and districts from those formations ; that Mr. C. E. De Ranee be the 
Secretary, and that the sum of .£10 be placed at their disposal for the pur- 
pose. 

That Professor A. S. Herschel and Mr. G. A. Lebour be a Committee 
for the purpose of making experiments on the Thermal Conductivities of 
certain rocks ; that Professor Herschel be the Secretary, and that the sum 
of JIO be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Dr. Bryce, Mr. J. Brough, Mr. G. Forbes, Mr. D. Milne-Home, Mr. 
J. Thomson, Professor Sir "W. Thomson, and Mr. Peter Drummond be a 
Committee for the purpose of continuing the Observations and Records of 
Earthquakes in Scotland ; that Dr. Bryce be the Secretary, and that the sum 
of £10 be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Mr. W. Topley, Mr. H. Willett, Mr. R. A. C. Godwin- Austen, Mr. 
Davidson, Prof. Prestwich, Prof. W. Boyd Dawkins, Mr. H. Woodward, and 
Prof. Hull bo a Committee for the purpose of promoting the Sub-Wcalden 
Exploration ; that Mr. Willett and Mr. Topley be the Secretaries, and that 
the sum of £100 be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Professor Arthur Gamgee, Professor Roscoe, and Mr. Priestley be a 
Committee for the purpose of investigating the Physiological Action of Ortho-, 
Pyro-, and Metaphosphorie Acids and of allied compounds ; that Professor 
Gamgee be the Secretary, and that the sum of £15 be j)laced at their disposal 
for the purpose. 

That Dr. Hooker, Professor Oliver, and Mr. Dyer be a Committee for the 
purpose of preparing a Report on the Family of the Diptorocarpese ; that Mr. 
Dyer be the Secretary, and that the sum of £20 be placed at their disposal 
for the purpose. 

That Mr. Stainton, Sir John Lubbock, and Mr. Sclater be a Committee 
for the purpose of continuing a Record of Zoological Literature ; that Mr. 
Stainton be the Secretary, and that the sum of £100 be placed at their dis- 
posal for the purpose. 

That Professor Huxley, Dr. Carpenter, Mr. Sclater, Mr. F. M. Balfour, 
Dr. M. Foster, Professor Ray Lankester, and Mr. Dew-Smith be reappointed 
a Committee for the purpose of arranging with Dr. Dohrn for the occupation 
of a Table at the Zoological Station at Naples during the ensuing year ; 
that Mr. Dew- Smith be the Secretary, and that the sum of £75 be placed at 
their disposal for the purpose. 

That Colonel Lane Fox, Dr. Beddoe, Mr. Franks, Mr. F. Galton, Mr. E. 
W. Brabrook, Sir J. Lubbock, Sir W. Elliot, Mr. C. R. Markham, Mr. E. B. 
Tylor, Mr. J. Evans, and Mr. F. W. Rudler be reappointed a Committee for 
the pm-pose of preparing and publishing brief forms of instruction for tra- 
vellers, ethnologists, and other anthropological observers ; that Colonel Lane 
Fox be the Secretary, and that the sum of £25 be placed at their disposal for 
the purpose. 

That Colonel Lane Fox, Professor RoUeston, Mr. Park Harrison, Mr. T. 



liv BEPORT — 1876. 

H. Price, and Mr. J. E. Mortimer be a Committee for the purpose of the 
Exploration of Ancient Earthworks and other Prehistoric Remains ; that 
Colonel Lane Fox be the Secretary, and that the unexpended balance of £25 
be placed at theii" disposal for the purpose. 

That Dr. Earr, Dr. Beddoe, Mr. Brabrook, Sir George Campbell, the Earl of 
Ducie, Mr. E. P. Eellows, Colonel Lane Eox, Mr. E. Galton, Mr. Park Harri- 
son, Mr. J. Hcywood, Mr. P. Hallett, Professor Leone Levi, Sir Rawson Raw- 
son, and Professor RoUeston be a Committee for the purpose of continuing 
the collection of observations on the Systematic Examination of Heights, 
"Weights, &c. of Human beings in the British Empire, and the publication of 
Photographs of the typical races of the Empire ; that Colonel Lane Eox be 
the Secretary, and that the sum of £100 be placed at their disposal for the 
purpose. 

That the Right Hon. J. G. Hubbard, M.P., Mr. Chadwick, M.P., Mr. 
Morlej, M.P., Dr. Earr, Sir George Campbell, M.P., Mr. Hallett, Professor 
Jevons, Mr. Newmarch, Mr. Shaen, and Mr. Macneel Caird (with power to 
add to their number) be continued as a Committee for the purpose of 
further developing the investigations into a Common Measure of Value in 
Direct Taxation ; that Mr. Hallett be the Secretary, and that the sum of 
£10 be placed at their disposal for the purpose of defraying expenses incurred 
and to be incurred in the inquiry. 

That the Committee on instruments for measuring the speed of ships be 
reappointed ; that it consist of the following Members : — Mr. W. Froude, Mr. 
E. J. Bramwell, Mr. A. E. Fletcher, Rev. E. L. Berthon, Mr. James R. Napier, 
Mr. C. W. Mcrrifield, Dr. C. W. Siemens, Mr. H. M. Brunei, Mr. W. Smith, 
Sir William Thomson, Mr. J. N. Shoolbrcd, and Professor James Thomson ; 
that Mr. J. N. Shoolbrcd be the Secretary, and that the sum of £50 be placed 
at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Professor Sir W. Thomson, Professor Clerk Maxwell, Professor Tait, 
Dr. C. W. Siemens, Mr. F. J. Bramwell, Mr. W. Eroude, and Mr. J. T. 
Bottomley be a Committee for the pm-pose of commencing secular experi- 
ments on the Elasticity of Wires ; that Mr. Bottomley bo the Secretary, and 
that the sum of £100 be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 



Applications for Reports and Researches not involving Grants of 

Money. 

That the Committee, consisting of Professor Cayley, Mr. J. W. L. Glaisher, 
Dr. W. Pole, Mr. C. W. Merrifield, Professor EuUer, Mr. H. M. Brunei, and 
Professor W. K. Clifford, be reappointed to estimate the cost of constructing 
Mr. Babbage's Analytical Engine, and to consider the advisability of printing 
tables by its means ; and that Professor W. K. Clifford be the Secretary. 

That Dr. W. Huggins, Mr. J. jS". Lockyer, Professor J. Emerson Reynolds, 
Mr. G. J. Stoney, Mr. Spottiswoode, Dr. Do La Rue, and Dr. W. M. Watts 
be a Committee for the purpose of preparing and printing Tables of Wave- 
frequency (Inverse Wave-lengths); and that Mr. G. J. Stoney be the 
Secretary. 

That the Committee, consisting of Professor Sylvester, Professor Cayley, 
Professor Hirst, Professor Bartholomew Price, Professor H. J. S. Smith, 
Dr. Spottiswoode, Mr. R. B. Hayward, Dr. Salmon, Professor R. Townsend, 
Professor Fuller, Professor KeUand, Mr. J. M. Wilson, Professor Henrici, 
Mr. J. W. L, Glaisher, and Professor Clifford, for considering the possibility 



KECOMMENDATIO>rS OP THE GENERAL COMMITTEE. Iv 

of improving the methods of instruction in elementary geometiy, be reap- 
pointed. 

That Mr. Spottiswoode, Trofessor G. G. Stokes, Professor Cuyley, Professor 
H. J. S. Smith, Professor Sir W. Thomson, Professor Henrici, Lord Rayleigh, 
Mr, C. Erooke, and Mr. J. W. L. Glaisher be appointed a Committee to 
report upon Mathematical Notation and Printing. 

That the Committee on the Magnetization of Iron, Nickel, and Cobalt, 
consisting of Professor Balfour Stewart, Professor Clerk Maxwell, Mr. H. A. 
Rowland, and Professor W. F. Barrett, be reappointed. 

That Professor Prestwich, Professor Harkness, Professor Hughes, Professor 
"W. Boyd Dawkins, Rev. H. W. Crosskey, Messrs. L. C. Miall, G. H. Morton, 
D. Mackintosh, R. H. Tiddeman, J. E. Lee, T. Plant, AV. Pengelly, and Dr. 
Deane be a Committee for the purpose of recording the position, height 
above the sea, lithological characters, size, and origin of the Erratic Blocks 
of England, Wales, and Ireland, reporting other matters of interest con- 
nected with the same, and taking measures for their preservation ; that the 
Rev. H. W. Crosskey be the Secretary. 

That the Rev. H. F. Barnes, Mr. C. Spence Bate, Mr. H. E. Dresser, 
Dr. Giinther, Mr. J. E. Harting, Dr. J. Gwyu Jeffreys, Professor ]S'e-wi;on, 
and Rev. Canon Tristram be a Committee for the purpose of inquiring into 
the possibility of establishing a " close time " for the protection of indige- 
nous animals. 

That Mr. Spence Bate be requested to continue his Report " On the present 
state of our knowledge of the Crustacea." 

That Mr. R. Bruce Bell, Mr. J. Wolfe Barry, Mr. James Brownlee, 
Mr. Henry Brunei, Mr. St. John V. Day, Mr. Edward Easton, Mr. William 
Fronde, Sir John Hawkshaw, Professor A. B. W. Kennedy, Dr. W. Pole, 
Mr. Hazelton Robson, Mr. David Rowan, and Mr. William Smith be a 
Committee for the purpose of reporting on the different kinds of Safety- 
valves used or designed for marine and other engines. 

That the Committee for the purpose of making experiments and of re- 
porting on the effect of the Propeller on the turning of Steam-vessels be re- 
appointed (with power to communicate with the Government), consisting of 
Mr. James R. Napier, Sir William Thomson, Mr. William Fronde, and 
Professor Osborne Reynolds; that Mr. J. T. Bottomley be added to the 
Committee, and that Professor Osborne Reynolds be the Secretary. 

That the Committee, consisting of Professor Sir William Thomson, Major- 
General Strachey, Captain Douglas Galton, Mr. G. F. Deacon, Mr. Rogers Field, 
Mr. E. Roberts, and Mr. James N. Shoolbred, for the purpose of consider- 
iu"- the Datum-level of the Ordnance Survey of Great Britain, with a view 
to°its establishment on a surer foundation than hitherto, with power to 
communicate with the Government if necessary, be reappointed ; that Mr. 
James N. Shoolbred be the Secretary. 

That the Committee, consisting of Mr. W. H. Barlow, Mr. H. Bessemer, 
Mr. F. J. Bramwell, Captain Douglas Galton, Sir John Hawkshaw, Dr. 
C. W. Siemens, Professor Abel, and Mr. E. H. Carbutt, for the purpose of 
considering the use of steel for structural purposes, be reappointed ; that Mr. 
E H. Carbutt be the Secretary. 

That Dr. A. W. Williamson, Professor Sir W. Thomson, Mr. Vincent 
Day,*'Dr. Siemens, Mr. Mcrrifield, Mr. Nelson Hancock, Professor Abel, Mr. 
R. Napier, Captain Galton, Mr. Newmarch, Mr. Carbutt, and Mr. Macrory 
be a Committee for the purpose of watching and reporting to the Council 
on Patent Legislation ; that Mr. Bramwell be the Secretary. 



Ivi REPOET — 1876. 

Hesolution referred to the Council for consideration and action if it seem 

desirable. 

That the Council be requested to consider, and to take stdps if they think 
it desirable, to urge upon H.M. Government the advisability of forming a 
Museum of Scientific Instruments and Chemical Products, as suggested irt 
the Memorial presented in June last to the Lord President of H.M. Council. 

That the arrangement of the Journal of Sectional Proceedings be altered, - 
and that the list of the papers to bo read on the day of issue be placed 
before the list of papers read on the previous day. 

That in future the Presidents-elect of the various Sections be invited to 
confer with the General Secretary, preparatory to the issuing of the first 
number of the Journal, to arrange the order in which the Sectional Addresses 
should be delivered, so as to afford opportunity to tho Members of the Asso- 
ciation to attend the several Addresses in those subjects in which they may 
be interested, and that the order in which the Addresses are to be read bo 
announced in the first number of the Journal. 



Communiaitions ordered to he ]irinted in extenso in the Annual Report of 

the Association. 

That Professor James Thomson's paper, " Improved Investigations on the 
Flow of Water through Orifices, with objections to the Modes of Treatment 
commonly adopted," be printed in extenso in the Reports of the Association. 

That Mr. W. J. Janssen's paper, " Nitrous Oxide in the Gaseous and 
Liquid States," bo printed in extenso in the Reports of the Association. 

That the paper by Mr. G. Chrystal and Mr. S. A. Saunder, " On a Com- 
parison of the B.A. Standards of Electrical Resistance," be printed in extenso 
among the Reports. 

That the paper by Professor Osborne Rej'nolds, " On the Investigation of 
the Steering-qualities of Ships," be printed in extenso in the Reports of the 
Association together -with the necessary Plates. 



SYNOPSIS OF GRANTS OF MONEY. Ivii 

Synopsis of Grants of Money appropriated to Scientific Purposes by 
the General Committee at the Bristol Meeting in September 1876. 

The names of the Members who would be entitled to call on the 
General Treasurer for the respective Grants are prefixed. 

Matliematics and Physics. 

*Everett, Professor. — Underground Temperature ^50 

*Stokes, Professor. — Eeflectivo Power of Silver and other 

Substances (renewed) 20 

Thomson, Sir AVilliam. — Measurement of the Lunar Disturb- 
ance of Gravity 50 

*Tait, Professor. — Thermo-Electricity (renewed) 50 

*Cayley, Professor. — Publication of Tables of EUixitic Functions 250 

*Joule, Dr. — Determination of the Mechanical Equivalent of 

Heat 100 

*Glaisher, Mr. J. — Luminous Meteors 30 

Forbes, Prof. G. — Observation of Atmospheric Electricity in 

India 15 o 

Chemistry. 

*AUen, Mr. — Estimation of Potash and Phosphoric Acid .... 20 

"Wallace, Dr. W. — Light from Coal Gas 20 

*Clowes, Dr. E. — Action of Ethyl Bromo-butjratc on Ethyl 

Sodaceto-acetate (renewed) 10 

*Armstrong, Dr. — Isomeric Cresols and the Law of Substitution 

in the Phenol Series (renewed) 10 

Hartley, Mr. W. N. — Double Compounds of Cobalt and Nickel 10 

Brown, Prof. Crum. — Quantitative Estimation of Atmospheric 

Ozone 15 o 

Hartley, W. N. — Liquid Carbonic Acid in Minerals 20 

Geology, 

*Evans, Mr. J. — Kent's Cavern Exploration 100 

*Lubbock, Sir J., Bart. — Exploration of Victoria Cave, Settle. . 100 

*Evans, Mr. J. — Eecord of the Progress of Geology 100 

*HuU, Professor. — Underground "Waters in the New Red Sand- 
stone 10 

*Herschel, Professor. — Thermal Conductivities of Rocks 10 

*Bryce, Dr. — Earthquakes in Scotland 10 

Topley, Mr.^Sub-"Wealdeu Epxloration 100 

Carried forward £\im 

* Keappointed. 



Iviii REPORT — 1876. 

Bioloriy. 

Brought forward =£1100 

Gamgee, Prof. — Physiological Action of Ortho-, Pyro-, and 

Meta-phosphoric Acids 15 

Hooker, Dr. — Report on the Family of the Dipterocarpeae . . 20 

*Stainton, Mr. — Record of Zoological Literature 100 

*B[uxley, Professor. — Table at the Zoological Station at Naples 75 

*Fox, Col. Lane. — Exploration of Ancient Earthworks (renewed) 25 

*Pox, Col. Lane. — Instructions for the use of Travellers 25 

Statistics and Economic Science, 
*Farr, Dr. — Anthropometric Committee (partly renewed) .... 100 

*Hubbard, Right Hon. J, G. — Common Measure of Yalue in 

Direct Taxation 10 

Mechanics. 

*rroude, Mr. W. — Instruments for Measuring the Speed of 

Ships (partly renewed) 50 

Thomson, Sir William. — Secular Experiments on the Elasti- 
city of Wires 100 

Total .... .£1620 
• * Eeappointed. 



The Annual Meetinrj in 1877. 
The Meeting at Plymouth will commence on Wednesday, August 15, 1877. 

Place of Meeting in 1878. 
The Annual Meeting of the Association in 1878 will be held at Dublin. 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



lix 



General Statement of Sums which have been paid on Account of Grants 

for Scientific Purposes. 



1834. 
Tide Discussions 20 

1835. 

Tide Discussions 62 

British Fossil Ichtliyology 105 



£1C7 



1836. 

Tide Discussions 1G3 

British Fossil Ichthyology 105 

Thermometric Observations, &c. 50 
Experiments on long-continued 

Heat IV 1 

Rain-Gauges 9 13 

Refraction Experiments 15 

Lunar Nutation 60 

Thermometers 15 6 

~£ 434 14 

1837. 

Tide Discussions 284 1 

Chemical Constants 24 13 6 

Lunar Nutation 70 

Observations on Waves 100 12 

Tides at Bristol 150 

Meteorology and Subterranean 

Temperature 89 5 

Vitrification Experiments 150 

Heart Experiments 8 4 6 

Barometric Observations 30 

Barometers 11 18 6 



1839. 



Fossil Ichthyology 110 

Meteorological Observations at 

Plymouth 63 

Mechanism of Waves 144 

Bristol Tides 35 



£918 14 6 



1838. 

Tide Discussions 29 

British Fossil Fishes 100 

Meteorological Observations and 

Anemometer (construction) ... 100 

Cast Iron (Strength of) 60 

Animal and Vegetable Substances 

(Preservation of) 19 1 10 

Railway Constants 41 12 10 

Bristol Tides.., 50 

Growth of Plants 75 

Mud in Rivers 3 6 6 

Education Committee 50 

Heart Experiments 5 3 

Land and Sea Level 267 8 7 

Subterranean Temperature 8 6 

Steam-vessels 100 

Meteorological Comtnittee 31 9 5 

Thermometers 16 4 



£956 12 2 



£ s. d. 



Meteorology and Subterranean 

Temperature 21 

Vitrification Experiments 9 

Cast-Iron Experiments 100 

Railway Constants • 28 

Land and Sea Level 274 

Steam-vessels' Engines 100 

Stars in Histoire Cejeste 331 

Stars in Lacaille 11 

Stars in R. A. S. Catalogue 6 

Animal Secretions 10 

Steam-engines in Cornwall 50 

Atmospheric Air 16 

Cast and Wrought Iron 40 

Heat on Organic Bodies 3 

Gases on Solar Spectrum 22 

Hourly Meteorological Observa- 
tions, Inverness and Kingussie 49 

Fossil Reptiles 118 

Mining Statistics 50 



11 





4 


7 








7 


2 


1 


4 








IS 


6 








16 


6 


10 











1 























7 


8 


2 


9 









£1595 11 



1840. 

Bristol Tides 100 

Subterranean Temperature 13 

Heart Experiments 18 

Lungs Experiments 8 

Tide Discussions 50 

Land and Sea Level 6 

Stars (Histoire Celeste) 242 

Stars (Lacaille) 4 

Stars (Catalogue) 264 

Atmospheric Air 15 

Water on Iron 10 

Heat on Organic Bodies 7 

Meteorological Observations 52 

Foreign Scientific Memoirs 112 

Working Population 100 

School Statistics 50 

Forms of Vessels 184 

Chemical and Electrical Pheno- 
mena 40 

Meteorological Observations at 

Plymouth 80 

Magnetical Observations 185 









13 


6 


19 





13 











11 


1 


10 





15 











15 

















17 


6 


1 


f> 















7 









13 9 

£1546 T6~4 









10 





2 





18 


6 



1841. 

Observations on Waves 30 

Meteorology and Subterranean 

Temperature 8 8 

Actinometers 

Earthquake Shocks 17 

Acrid Poisons 

Veins and Absorbents , 

Mud in Rivers 

Marine Zoology »... 15 12 8 

Skeleton Maps 20 6 

Mountain Barometers 6 18 

Stars (Histoire Celeste)...... 185 



10 








17 


7 





6 








3 








5 









k 



REPORT — 1876. 



Stars (Lacaille) 79 

Stars (Nomenclature of) 17 

Stars (Catalogue of) 40 

Water on Iron 50 

Meteorological Observations at 

Inverness 20 

Meteorological Observations (re- 
duction of) 25 

Fossil Reptiles 50 

Foreign Memoirs 62 

Railway Sections 38 

Forms of Vessels 193 

Meteorological Observations at 

Plymouth 55 

Magnetical Observations CI 

Fishes of the Old Red Sandstone 100 

Tides at Leilh 50 

Anemometer at Edinburgh 69 

Tabulating Observations 9 

Races of Men 5 

Radiate Animals -- 2^ 

£1235 

1842. 

Dynamomctric Instruments 113 

Anoplura Britannije 52 

Tides at Bristol 59 

Gases on Light 30 

Chronometers 26 

Marine Zoology 1 

British Fossil Mammalia 100 

Statistics of Education 20 

Marine Steam-vessels' Engines.., 28 

Stars (Histoire Celeste) 59 

Stars (Brit. Assoc. Cat. of ) 110 

Railway Sections 161 

British Belemnites , 50 

Fossil Reptiles (publication of 

Report) 210 

Forms of Vessels 180 

Galvanic Experiments on Rocks 5 
Meleorological Experiments at 

Plymouth 68 

Constant Indicator and Dynamo- 
metric Instruments 90 

Force of Wind 10 

Light on Growth of Seeds 8 

Vital Statistics 50 

Vegetative Power of Seeds 8 

Questions on Human Race ,...^ '!_ 

£1449 



«. 


d. 


5 





19 


6 























1 6 
12 





18 8 





1 10 
6 3 





10 11 



11 


2 


12 





8 





14 


7 


17 


6 


5 



































10 























8 


6 













1 11 

9 



17 8 







1843. 

Revision of the Nomenclature of 
Stars 2 

Reduction of Stars, British Asso- 
ciation Catalogue 25 

Anomalous Tides, Frith of Forth 120 

Hourly Meteorological Observa- 

lionsatKingussieandlnverness 77 12 8 

Meteorological Observations at 
Plymouth 55 

Whewell's Meteorological Ane- 
mometer at Plymouth 10 



n 







£ «. rf. 

Meteorological Observations, Os- 
ier's Anemometer at Plymoutli 20 

Reduction of Meteorological Ob- 
servations 30 

Meteorological Instruments and 

Gratuities 39 G 

Construction of Anemometer at 

Inverness 56 12 2 

Magnetic Cooperation 10 S 10 

Meteorological Recorder for Kew 

Observatory 50 

Action of Gases on Light 18 16 1 

Establishment at Kew Observa- 
tory, Wages, Repairs, Furni- 
ture and Sundries 133 4 7 

Experiments by Captive Balloons 81 8 

Oxidation ofthe Rails of Railways 20 

Publication of Report on Fossil 

Reptiles 40 

Coloured Drawings of Railway 

Sections 147 18 3 

Registration of Earthquake 

Shocks 30 

Report on Zoological Nomencla- 
ture 10 

Uncovering Lower Red Sand- 
stone near Manchester 4 4 6 

Vegetative Power of Seeds 5 3 8 

Marine Testacca (HabiU of) ... 10 

Marine Zoology 10 

Marine Zoology 2 14 11 

Preparation of Report on British 

Fossil Mammalia 100 

Physiological Operations of Me- 
dicinal Agents 20 

Vital Statistics 36 

Additional Experiments on the 
Forms of Vessels 70 

Additional Experiments on the 
Forms of Vessels 100 

Reduction of Experiments on the 
Forms of Vessels 100 

Morin's Instrument and Constant 
Indicator 69 

Experiments on the Strength of 

Materials 60 

'£1505 10 2 









5 


8 




















4 


10 









1844. 

Meteorological Observations at 

Kingussie and Inverness 12 

Completing Observations at Ply- 
mouth 35 

Magnetic and Meteorological Co- 
operation 25 8 4 

Publication of the British Asso- 
ciation Catalogue of Stars 35 

Observations on Tides on the 

East coast of Scotland 100 

Revision of the Nomenclature of 

Stars 1842 2 9 6 

Maintaining the Establishment in 

Kew Observatory 117 17 3 

Instruments for KewObservatory 56 7 3 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



Ixi 



£ 

Influence of Light on Plants 10 

Subterraneous Temperature in 

Ireland 5 

Coloured Drawings of Railway 

Sections 15 

Investigation of Fossil Fishes of 

the Lower Tertiary Strata ... 100 
Registering the Shocks of Earth- 
quakes 1842 23 

Structure of Fossil Shells 20 

Radiata and Mollusca of the 

^gean and Red Seas 1842 100 

Geographical Distributions of 

Marine Zoology 1842 10 

Marine Zoology of Devon and 

Cornwall 10 

Marine Zoology of Corfu 10 

Experiments on the Vitality of 

Seeds 9 

Experiments on the Vitality of 

Seeds 1842 8 

Exotic Anoplura 15 

Strength of Materials 100 

Completing Experiments on the 

Forms of Ships 100 

Inquiries into Asphyxia 10 

Investigations on the Internal 

Constitution of Metals 50 

Constant Indicator and Morin's 

Instrument 1842 10^ 

£981 



s. 



d. 










17 


6 








11 



10 
























3 



7 


3 
































3 


6 



12 8 



1845. 
Publication of the British Associa- 
tion Catalogue of Stars 351 14 6 

Meteorological Observations at 

Inverness 30 IS 11 

Magnetic and Meteorological Co- 
operation IC 16 8 

Meteorological Instruments at 

Edinburgh 18 11 9 

Reduction of Anemometrical Ob- 
servations at Plymouth 25 

Electrical Experiments at Kew 

Observatory 43 17 8 

Maintaining the Establishment in 

Kew Observatory 149 15 

For Kreil's Barometrograph 25 

Oases from Iron Furnaces 50 

The Actinograph 15 

Microscopic Structure of Shells 20 

Exotic Anoplura 1843 10 

Vitality of Seeds 1843 2 7 

Vitality of Seeds 1844 7 

Marine Zoology of Cornwall ... 10 
Physiological Action of Medicines 20 
Statistics of Sickness and Mor- 
tality in York 20 

Earthquake Shocks 18 43 15 1 4 8 

~j ES30 9 9 

184G. 
British Associalion Catalogiie of 

Stars 1844 211 15 

FossilFishesof the London Clay 100 



£ s, d. 
Computation of the Gaussian 

Constants for 1829 50 

Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory 146 1(5 7 

Strength of Materials GO 

Researches in Asphyxia C 16 2 

Examination of Fossil Shells 10 

Vitality of Seeds 1844 2 15 10 

Vitality of Seeds 1845 7 12 3 

Marine Zoology of Cornwall 10 

Marine Zoology of Britain 10 

Exotic Anoplura 1844 25 

Expenses attending Anemometers 11 7 G 

Anemometers' Repairs 2 3 6 

Atmospheric Waves 3 3 3 

Captive Balloons 1844 8 19 3 

Varieties of the Human Race 

1844 7 6 3 
Statistics of Sickness and Mor- 
tality in York 12 

£685 16 

1847. 
Computation of the Gaussian 

Constants for 1829 50 

Habits of Marine Animals 10 

Physiological Action of Medicines 20 

Marine Zoology of Cornwall 10 

Atmospheric Waves 6 9 3 

Vitality of Seeds 4 7 7 

Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory 10 7 8 6 

£208 5 A 

1848. 
Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory 171 15 11 

Atmospheric Waves 3 10 9 

Vitality of Seeds 9 15 

Completion of Catalogues of Stars 70 

On Colouring Matters 5 

On Growth of Plants 15 

£275 1 8 

1849. 

Electrical Observations at Kew 

Observatory 50 

Maintaining Establishment at 

ditto 76 2 5 

Vitality of Seeds 5 8 1 

On Growth of Plants 5 

Registration of Periodical Phe- 
nomena 10 

Bill on account of Anemometrical 

Observations 13 9 

"£159 19 6 

1850. 
Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory 255 18 

Transit of Earthquake Waves ... 50 

Periodical Phenomena 15 

Meteorological Instruments, 

Azores 25 

£345 18 



Ixii 



EEPORT 1876. 



£ 

1851. 
Maintaining the Establishment at 
Kew Observatory (includes part 

ofgrantin 1849) 309 

Theory of Heat 20 

Periodical Phenomena of Animals 

and Plants 5 

Vitality of Seeds 5 

Influence of Solar Radiation 30 

Ethnological Inquiries 12 

Researches on Annelida 10 

J639I 

1852. ^'''''^^^ 

Maintaining the Establishment at 
Kew Observatory (including 
balance of grant for 1850) ... 233 
Experiments on the Conduction 

of Heat 5 

Influence of Solar Radiations ... 20 

Geological Map of Ireland 15 

Researches on the British Anne- 
lida 10 

Vitality of Seeds 10 

Strength of Boiler Plates 10 

£304 

1853. 

Maintaining the Establishment at 
Kew Observatory 165 

Experiments on the Influence of 
Solar Radiation 15 

Researches on the British Anne- 
lida 10 

Dredging on the East Coast of 
Scotland 10 

Ethnological Queries 5 

~£2()5~ 

1854. 
Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory (including 

balance of former grant) 330 

Investigations on Flax 11 

Effects of Temperature on 

Wrought Iron 10 

Registration of Periodical Phe- 

nomena ]0 

British Annelida 10 

Vitality of Seeds 5 

Conduction of Heat 4 

'£380 
1855. 
Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory 425 

Earthquake Movements ]0 

Physical Aspect of the Moon 11 

Vitality of Seeds 10 

Map of the World 15 

Ethnological Queries 5 

Dredging near Belfast 4 

£480 

1856. 
Maintaining the Establishment at 
Kew Observatory : — 

1854 £ 75 0\ ,., 

1855 £500 OJ '^'^ 



d. 



2 


2 


1 


1 








6 


4 





















9 7 



2 


9 




















6 


2 





















15 












19 7 



16 4 







£ X. d, 
Strickland's Ornithological Syno- 
nyms 100 

Dredging and Dredging Forms... 9 13 9 

Chemical Action of Light 20 

Strength of Iron Plates 10 

Registration of Periodical Pheno- 
mena 10 

Propagation of Salmon 10 

£734 13 9 

1857. 

Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory 350 

Earthquake Wave Experiments. . 40 

Dredging near Belfast 10 

Dredging on the West Coast of 

Scotland 10 

Investigations into the MoUusca 

ofCalifornia 10 

Experiments on Flax 5 

Natural History of Madagascar. . 20 

Researches on British Annelida 25 

Report on Natural Products im- 
ported into Liverpool 10 

Artificial Propagation of Salmon 10 

Temperature of Mines 7 8 

Thermometers for Subterranean 

Observations 5 7 4 

Life-Boats 5 

£50 7 15 4 

1858. 
Maintaining the Establisliment at 

Kew Observatory ; 500 

Earthquake Wave Experiments.. 25 
Dredging on the West Coast of 

Scotland 10 

Dredging near Dublin 5 

Vitality of Seeds 5 5 

Dredging near Belfast 18 13 2 

Report on the British Annelida... 25 
Experiments on the production 

of Heat by Motion in Fluids ... 20 
Report on the Natural Products 

imported into Scotland 10 

I egTFTs 2 

1859. ' 

Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory 500 

Dredging near Dublin 15 

Osteology of Birds 50 

Irish Tunicata 5 

Manure Experiments 20 

British MedusidiE 5 

Dredging Committee 5 

Steam-vessels' Performance 5 

Marine Fauna of South and West 

oflreland 10 

Pliotographic Chemistry 10 

Lanarkshire Fossils 20 1 

Balloon Ascents 39 1 1 

'£684 I 1 1 

1860. 
Maintaining the Establishment 

of Kew Observatory 500 

Dredging near Belfast 16 6 

Dredging in Dublin Bay 15 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



Ixiii 



£ s. d. 

Inquiry into the Performance of 

Steam-vessels 124 

Explorations in the Yellow Sand- 
stone of Dura Den 20 

Chemico-mechanical Analysis of 

Rocks and Minerals 25 

Researches on the Growth of 

Plants 10 

Researches on the Solubility of 

Salts 30 

Researches on the Constituents 

of Manures 25 

Balance of Captive Balloon Ac- 
counts 1 13 6 

^1241 7 



1861. 
Maintaining the Establishment 

of Kew Observatory ...? 500 

Earthquake Experiments 25 

Dredging North and East Coasts 

ofScotland 23 

Dredging Committee : — 

1860 -J50 0\ ►, n n 

1861 £22 OJ '- " " 

Excavations at Dura Den 20 

Solubility of Salts 20 

Steam-vessel Performance 150 

Fossils of Lesmahago 15 

Explorations at Uriconium 20 

Chemical Alloys 20 

Classified Index to the Transac- 
tions 100 

Dredging in the Mersey and Dee 5 

Dip Circle 30 

Photoheliographic Observations 50 

Prison Diet 20 

Gauging of Water 10 

Alpine Ascents 6 5 1 

Constituents of Manures 25 



i^nil 5 10 



1862. 
Maintaining the Establishment 

of Kew Observatory 500 

Patent Laws 216 

Mollusca of N.-W. America 10 

Natural History by Mercantile 

Marine 5 

Tidal Observations 25 

Photoheliometer at Kew 40 

Photographic Pictures of the Sun 150 

Rocks of Donegal 25 

Dredging Durham and North- 
umberland 25 

Connexion of Storms 20 

Dredging North-east Coast of 

Scotland 6 9 6 

Ravages of Teredo 3 11 

Standardsof Electrical Resistance 50 

Railway Accidents 10 

Ballooii Committee 200 

Dredging Dublin Bay 10 

Dredging the Mersey 5 

Prison Diet 20 

Gauging of Water 12 10 



£ s. d. 

Steamships' Performance 150 

Thermo-Electric Currents 5 

£1293 16 6 

1863. "~"~~~~ 
Maintaining the Establishment 

of Kew Observatory COO 

Balloon Committee deficiency... 70 

Balloon Ascents (other expenses) 25 

Entozoa 25 

Coal Fossils 20 

Herrings 20 

Granites of Donegal 5 

Prison Diet. 20 

Vertical Atmospheric Movements 13 

Dredging Shetland 50 

Dredging North-east coast of 

Scotland 25 

Dredging Northumberland and 

Durham 17 3 10 

Dredging Committee superin- 
tendence 10 

Steamship Performance 100 

Balloon Committee 200 

Carbon under pressure 10 

Volcanic Temperature ,... 100 

Bromide of Ammonium 8 

Electrical Standards 100 

Construction and distribu- 
tion ... 40 

Luminous Meteors 17 

Kew Additional Buildings for 

Photoheliograph 100 

Thermo-Electricity 15 

Analysis of Rocks 8 

Hydroida 10 

£ 1608 3 10 

1864. 

Maintaining the Establishment 

of Kew Observatory 600 

Coal Fossils 20 

Vertical Atmospheric Move- 
ments 20 

Dredging Shetland 75 

Dredging Northumberland 25 

Balloon Committee 200 

Carbon under pressure 10 

Standards of Electric Resistance 100 

Analysis of Rocks 10 

Hydroida 10 

Askham's Gift 50 

Nitrite of Amyle 10 

Nomenclature Committee 5 

Rain-Gauges 19 15 g 

Cast-iron Investigation 20 

Tidal Observations in the Humber 50 

Spectral Rays 45 

Luminous Meteors 20 

£ 1289 15 8 

1863. ■ 

Maintaining the Establishment 

of Kew Observatory 600 

Balloon Committee 100 

Hydroida 13 



Ixiv 



REPORT 1876. 



£ s. d. 

Rain-Gauges 30 

Tidal Observations in the Humber 6 8 

Hexylic Compounds 20 

Amyl Compounds 20 

Irish Flora 25 

American Mollusca 3 9 

Organic Acids 20 

Lingula Flags Excavation 10 

Eurypterus 50 

Electrical Standards 100 

Malta Caves Researches 30 

Oyster Breeding 25 

Gibraltar Caves Researches 150 

Kent's Hole Excavations 100 

Moon's Surface Observations ... 35 

Marine Fauna 25 

Dredging Aberdeenshire 25 

Dredging Cliannellslands 50 

Zoological Nomenclature 5 

Resistance of Floating Bodies in 

Water 100 

Bath Waters Analysis 8 10 

Luminous Meteors • 40 

£1591 7 10 

1866. "~ 
Maintaining the Establishment 

of Kew Observatory 600 

Lunar Committee 64 13 4 

Balloon Committee 50 

Metrical Committee 50 

British Rainfall 50 

Kilkenny Coal Fields 16 

Alum Bay Fossil Leaf-Bed 15 

Luminous Meteors 50 

Lingula Flags Excavation 20 

Chemical Constitution of Cast 

Iron 50 

Amyl Compounds 25 

Electrical Standards 100 

Malta Caves Exploration 30 

Kent's Hole Exploration 200 

Marine Fauna, &c., Devon and 

Cornwall 25 

Dredging Aberdeenshire Coast... 25 

Dredging Hebrides Coast 50 

Dredging the Mersey 5 

Resistance of Floating Bodies in 

Water 50 

Polycvanides of Organic Radi- 
cals 20 

Rigor Mortis 10 

Irish Annelida 15 

Catalogue of Crania 50 

Didine Birds of Mascarene Islands 50 

Typical Crania Researches 30 

Palestine Exploration Fund 100 

£1750 13 4 

1867. ' 
Maintaining the Establishment 

of Kew Observatory 600 

Meteorological Instruments, Pa- 
lestine 50 

J.uuar Committee 120 



£ 

Metrical Committee 30 

Kent's Hole Explorations 100 

Palestine Explorations.... 50 

Insect Fauna, Palestine ...;,.... 30 

British Rainfall 50 

Kilkenny Coal Fields 25 

Alum Bay Fossil Leaf-Bed 25 

Luminous Meteors 50 

Bournemouth, &c. Leaf-Beds ... 30 

Dredging Shetland 75 

Steamship Reports Condensation 100 

Electrical Standards 100 

Ethyle and Methyle series 25 

Fossil Crustacea 25 

Sound under Water 24 

North Greenland Fauna 75 

Do. Plant Beds ... 100 

Iron and Steel Manufacture ... 25 

Patent Laws 30 

J1739 

1868. 
Maintaining the Establishment 

of Kew Observatory 600 

Lunar Committee 120 

Metrical Committee 50 

Zoological Record 100 

Kent's Hole Explorations 150 

Steamship Performances 100 

British Rainfall 50 

Luminous Meteors 50 

Organic Acids 60 

Fossil Crustacea 25 

Methyl series 25 

Mercury and Bile 25 

Organic remains in Limestone 

Rocks .'... 25 

Scottish Earthquakes 20 

Fauna, Devon and Cornwall ... 30 

British Fossil Corals 50 

Bagshot Leaf-beds 50 

Greenland Explorations 100 

Fossil Flora 25 

Tidal Observations 100 

Underground Temperature 50 

Spectroscopic investigations of 

Animal Substances 5 

Secondary Reptiles, &c 30 

British Maiine Invertebrate 

Fauna ■ 100 

£1940 

1869. 
Maintaining the Establishment 

of Kew Observatory 600 

Lunar Committee 50 

Metrical Committee 25 

Zoological Record 100 

Committee on Gases in Deep- 
well Water 25 

British Rainfall 50 

Thermal Conductivity of Iron, 

&c 30 

Kent's Hole Explorations 150 

Steamship Performances 30 



s. d. 





























4 











4 


























































































































































































a 


















GENERAL STATEMENT. 



Ixv 



£ s. d. 
Clicmical Constitution of Cast 

Iron 80 

Iron and Steel Manufacture ... 100 

Methyl Series 30 

Organic remains in Limestone 

Rocks 10 

Earthquakes in Scotland 10 

British Fossil Cora'.s 50 

Ragshot Leaf-Beds 30 

Fossil Flora 25 

Tidal Observations 100 

Underground Temperature 30 

Spectroscopic Investigations of 

Animal Substances 5 

Organic Acids 12 

Kiltorcan Fossils 20 

Chemical Conslitntion and Phj'- 

siological Action Relations ... 15 

Mountain Limestone Fossils 25 

Utilization of Sewage 10 

Products of Digestion 10 

£1622 



1871. 
Maintaining (he Establishment of 

Kew Observatory 600 

Monthlv Reports of Piogrfss in 

Clieniistry 100 

Metrical Cfimmittce 25 

Zoological Record 100 

Thermal Equivalents of the 

Oxides of Chlorine 10 

Tidal Observations 100 

I'lisiil Flora 25 










































































































1870. 

Maintaining the Establishment of 

Kew Observatory 600 

Metrical Committee 25 

Zoological Record 100 

Committee on Marine Fauna ... 20 

Ears in Fishes 10 

Chemical nature of Cast Iron ... 80 

Luminous Meteors 30 

Heat in the Blood 15 

British Rainfall 100 

ThermalConductivityoflron&c. 20 

British Fossil Corals 50 

Kent's Hole Explorations 150 

Scottish Earthquakes 4 

Bagshot Leaf-Beds 15 

Fossil Flora 25 

Tidal Observations 100 

Underground Temperature 50 

Kiltorcan Quarries Fossils 20 

Mountain Limestone Fossils ... 25 

Utilization of Sewage 50 

Organic Chemical Compounds... 30 

Onny River Sediment 3 

Meclianical Equivalent of Heat 50 

£1572 












































Luminous Meteors 30 

British Fossil Corals 25 

Heat in the Blood 7 

British Rainfall 50 

Kent's Hole Explorations 150 

Fossil Crustacea 25 

Methyl Compounds 25 

Lunar Objects 20 

Fossil Corals Sections, for Pho- 
tographing '. 20 

Bagshot Leaf-Beds 20 

Moab Explorations 100 

Gaussian Constants -10 

£T472~ 
1872. ~ 

Maintaining the Establishment of 

Kew Observatory 300 

Metrical Committee 75 

Zoological Record 100 

Tidal Committee 200 

Carboniferous Corals 25 

Organic Chemical Compounds 25 

Exploration of Moab 100 

Terato-Embryological Inquiries 10 

Kent's Cavern Exploration 100 

Luminous Meteors 20 

Heat in the Blood 15 

Fossil Crustacea 25 

Fossil Elephants of Malta 25 

Limar Objects 20 

Inverse Wave-Lengths 20 

British Rainfall 100 

Poisonous Substances Antago- 
nism 10 

Essential Oils, Chemical Consti- 
tution, &c <!0 

Mathematical Tables 50 

Thermal Conductivity of Metals 25 

i'1285 
187.3. ' 

Zoological Record 100 

Chemistry Record 200 

Tidal Committee 400 

Sewage Committee 100 

Kent's Cavern Exploration 15:) 

Carboniferous Corals 25 

Fossil Elephants 25 

Wave-Lengths 150 

British Rainfall 100 

Essential Oils 30 

Mathematical Tables 100 

Gaussian Constants 10 

Sub-Wcalden Explorations 25 

Underground Temperature 150 

Settle Cave Exploration 50 

Fossil Flora, Ireland 20 

Timber Denudatirn ai;d Rainfall 20 

Luminous Meteors 30 

£1685 



s. 


(1. 














2 


(•) 













































(I 
00 

2 e 

















































































n 


(» 





1) 






















































































































































1870. 



1 



XVI 



REPORT 1876. 



£ s. d. 
1874. 

Zoological Record 100 

Chemistry Eecorcl 100 

Mathematical Tables 100 

Elliptic Functions 100 

Lightning Conductors 10 

Thermal Conductivity of Rocks 10 
Anthropological Instructions, 

&c 50 

Kent's Cavern Exploration ... 150 

Luminous Meteors 30 

Intestinal Secretions 15 

British Rainfall 100 

Essential Oils 10 

Sub- Wealden Explorations ... 25 

Settle Cave Exploration 50 

Mauritius Meteorological Re- 
search 100 

Magnetization of Iron 20 

Marine Organisms 30 

Fossils, North-west of Scotland 2 10 

Physiological Action of Light. . 20 

Trades LTnions 25 

Mountain-Limestone Corals ... 25 

Erratic Blocks 10 

Dredging, Durham and York- 
shire Coasts 28 5 

High temperature of Bodies ... 30 

Siemens's Pyrometer 3 6 

Labyriuthodonts of Coal-Mea- 

.sures 7 15 

£1151 16 

1875. 

Elliptic Functions 100 

Magnetization of Iron 20 

British Rainfall 120 

Luminous Meteors 30 

Chemistry Record 100 

Specific Volume of Liquids ... 25 
Estimation of Potash and Phos- 
phoric Acid 10 

Isometric Cresols 20 



£ 

Sub-Wealden Explorations 100 

Kent's Cavern Exploration 100 

Settle Cave Exploration 50 

Earthquakes in Scotland 15 

Underground Wa ters 10 

Development of Myxinoid 

Fishes 20 

Zoological Record 100 

Instructions for Travellei's 20 

Intestinal Secretion 20 

Palestine Exploration 100 



s. 


(7. 



































































1870. 

Printing Mathematical Tables . 159 4 2 

British Rainfall 100 

Ohm's Law 9 15 

Tide Calculating Machine 200 

Specific Volume of Liquids ... 25 

Isomeric Cresols 10 

Action of Ethyl Bromobutyrate 

on Ethyl Sodaceto-acetate ... 5 
Estimation of Potash and Phos- 
phoric Acid 13 

Exploration of Victoria Cave, 

Settle 100 

Geological Record 100 

Kent's Cavern Explorat ion 100 

Thermal Conductivities of Rocks 10 

LTnderground Waters 10 

Earthquakes in Scotland 1 10 

Zoological Record 100 

CloseTime 5 

Physiological Action of Sound . 25 

Zoological Station 75 

Intestinal Secretions 15 

Pliysical Characters of Inhabi- 
tants of British Isles 13 15 

Measuring Speed of Ships 10 

Effect of Propeller on turning 

of Steam Vessels 5 

11092 4 2 



GENERAL MEETINGS. Ixvii 



General Meetings. 

On "W'educsclay, September 6, at 8 r.jr., in the Garden Palace, Botanic 
Gnrdens, Sir John Hawkshaw, QM., F.ll.S., F.G.S., President, resigned the 
office of President to Professor Thomas Andrews, M.D., LL.D., F.R.S., who 
took the Chair, and delivered an Address, for which see page Ixviii. 

On Thursday, September 7, at 8 r.ir., two Soire'es took place, one in the 
Royal Exchange, the other in the Corporation Galleries. 

On Friday, September 8, at 8.30 p.m., in the Garden Palace, Potanic 
Gardens, Professor Tait, F.R.S.E., delivered a Discourse on " Force." 

On Saturday, September 9, at 6 p.m., in the City Hall, Commander 
Cameron, U.K., C.B., delivered a Lecture, on "A Journey through Africa," 
to the Working Classes of Glasgow. 

On Monday, September 11, at 8.30 r.M., in the Garden Palace, Botanic 
Gardens, Professor Wyville Thomson, LL.D., F.R.S., delivered a Discourse 
on " The ' Challenger' Expedition." 

On Tuesday, Sei^tember 12, at 8 p.m., a Soiree took place in the Garden 
Palace, Botanic Gardens. 

On Wednesday, September 13, at 2.30 p.m., the concluding General Electing 
took place, when the Proceedings of the General Committee, and the Grants 
of Money for Scientific purposes, were explained to the Members. 

The Meeting was then adjourned to Plymouth*. 

* The Meeting is appointed to take place on Wednesday, August 15, 1877. 



ADDRESS 



OF 



THOMAS ANDREWS, M.D., LLJ)., 

F.R.S., Hoji.F.R.S.E., Etc. 



PEESIDENT. 



Srx and thirt}^ years have passed over since the British Association for the 
Advancement of Science held its tenth meeting in this ancient city, and 
twenty-one years have elapsed since it last assembled here. The representa- 
tives of two great Scottish families presided on these occasions ; and those who 
had the advantage of hearing the address of the Duke of Argj-ll in 1855 
will recall the gratification they enjoyed while listening to the thonghtful 
sentiments which reflected a mind of rare cultivation and varied acquire- 
ments. On the present occasion I have undertaken, not without anxiety, 
the duty of filling an oiRce at fii'st accepted by one whom Scotland and the 
Association would alike have rejoiced to see in this Chair, not only as a 
tribute to his own scientific services, but also as recognizing in him the 
worth}'' representative of that long line of able men Avho have upheld the 
preeminent position attained by the Scottish schools of medicine in the middle 
of the last century, when the mantle of E;erhaave fell upon Monro and 
Cullen. 

The task of addressing this Association, always a difiicult one, is not ren- 
dered easier when the meeting is held in a jilacc which presents the rare 
combination of being at once an ancient seat of learning and a great centre 
of modern industry. Time will not permit me to refer to the distinguished 
men who in early days have left here their mark behind thera ; and I regret 
it the more, as there is a growing tendency to exaggerate the value of later 
discoveries, and to underrate the achievements of those who have lived before 
us. Confining our attention to a period reaching back to little more than a 
century, it appears that during that time three new sciences arose, at least 
as far as any science can be said to have a distinct origin, in this city of 



ADDRESS. ]xix 

Glasgow — Expcrimenlal Cheiuifctrj', Political Econoiiiy, aud ^Icdiaiiical 
Engineering. It is now conceded that Black laid the foundation of modern 
chemistry ; and no one has ever disputed the claims of Adam Smith and of 
"Watt to having not only founded, but largely built up, the two great branches 
of knowledge with which their names will always be inseparably connected. 
It was here that Dr. Thomas Thomson established the first school of Practical 
Chemistry in Great Eritain, and that Sir W. Hooker gave to the chair of 
IJotany a European celebrity ; it was here that Graham discovered the law 
of gaseous diflusion and the properties of polybasic acids ; it was here that 
Stenhouse and Anderson, Eankine and J. Thomson made some of their finest 
discoveries ; and it was here that Sir William Thomson conducted his 
physico-matheraatical investigations, and invented those exquisite instru- 
ments, valuable alike for ocean telegraphy and for scientific use, which are 
among the finest trophies of recent science. Nor must the names of Tcnjiant, 
ifackintosh, Neilson, Walter Crum, Young, and Napier be omitted, who, 
with many others in this place, have made large and valuable additions to 
practical science. 

The safe return of the ' Challenger,' after an absence of three and a half 
years, is a subject of general congratulation. Our knowledge of the varied 
forms of animal life, and of the remains of animal life, which occur, it is now 
known, over large tracts of the bed of the ocean, is chiefly derived from the 
observations made in the ' Challenger ' and in the previous deep-sea expedi- 
tions which were organized by Sir Wyville Thomson and Dr. Carpenter. 
The physical observations, and especially those on the temperature of the 
ocean, which were systematically conducted throughout the whole voyage of 
the 'Challenger,' have already supplied valuable data for the resolution of 
the great question of ocean-currents. Upon this question, which has been 
discussed with singular ability, but under different aspects, by Dr. Carpenter 
and Mr. CroU, I cannot attempt here to enter; nor will I venture to forestall, 
by any crude analysis of my own, the narrative which Sir W. Thomson has 
kindly undertaken to give of his own achievements and of those of his staflT 
during their long scientific cruise. 

Another expedition, which has more than fulfilled the expectations of the 
public, is Lieutenant Cameron's remarkable journey across the continent of 
Africa. It is by such enterprises, happily conceived and ably executed, that 
we may hope at no distant day to see the Arab slave-dealer rei)laced by the 
legitimate trader, and the depressed populations of Africa gradually brought 
within the j)ale of civilized life. 

From the North Polar Expedition no intelligence has been received ; nor 
can we expect for some time to hear whether it has succeeded in the erowii- 
iug object of Arctic enterprise. In the opinion of many, the results, scientific 
or other, to be gained by a full survey of the Arctic regions can never be of 
such, value ns to justify the risk aud cost which mufet be incurred. But if is 



IxX REPORT — 1876. 

not by cold calculations of this kind that great discoveries are made or great 
enterprises achieved. There is an inward and irrepressible imiJiilse — in indi- 
viduals called a spirit of adventure, in nations a spirit of enterprise — which 
impels mankind forward to explore every part of the world we inhabit, 
however inhospitable or difiicult of access ; and if the country claiming the 
foremost place among maritime nations shrink from an undertaking because 
it is perilous, other countries will not be slow to seize the post of honour. If 
it be possible for man to reach the poles of the earth, whether north or south, 
the feat must sooner or later be accomplished ; and the country of the success- 
ful adventurers will be thereby raised in the scale of nations. 

The passage of Venus over the sun's disk is an event which cannot be 
passed over without notice, although many of the circumstances connected 
vrith it have already become historical. It was to observe this rare astro- 
nomical phenomenon, on the occasion of its former occurrence iu 1769, that 
Captain Cook's memorable voyage to the Pacific was undertaken, in the 
course of which he explored the coast of New South Wales, and added that 
great country to the possessions of the British Crown. 

As the transit of Venus gives the most exact method of calculating the 
distance of the earth from the sun, extensive preparations were made on the 
last occasion for observing it at selected stations — from Siberia in northern, 
to Kerguclen's Land in southern latitudes. The great maritime powers vied 
"^^dth each other to turn the opportuuity to the best account; and Lord 
Lindsay had the spirit to equip, at his own expense, the most complete ex- 
pedition which left the shores of this country. Some of the most valuable 
stations iu southern latitudes were desert islands, rarely free from mist or 
tempest, and without harbours or shelter of any kind. The landing of the 
instruments was in many cases attended with great diihculty and even per- 
sonal risk. Photography lent its aid to record automatically the progress of 
the transit ; and M. Janssen contrived a revolving plate, by means of which 
IVom fifty to sixty images of the edge of the sun could be taken at short 
intervals during the critical periods of the phenomenon. 

The observations of il. Janssen at Nagasaki, in Japan, were of special 
interest. Looking through a violet-blue glass he saw Ycnus, two or three 
minutes before the transit began, having the appearance of a pale round spot 
near the edge of the sun. Immediately after contact the segment of tho 
planet's disk, as seen en the face of the sun, formed with what remained of 
this spot a complete circle. The pale spot when first seen was, in short, a 
partial eclipse of the solar corona, which was thus proved beyond dispute to 
be a luminous atmosphere surrounding the sun. Indications were at the 
same time obtained of the existence of an atmosphere around Tonus. 

The mean distance of the earth from the sun was long supposed to have 
been fixed within a very small limit of error at about 95,000,000 miles. 
The accuracy of this number had already been called in question on thco- 



ADDRESS. Ixxi 

rclical grounds by Hansen and Leverrier, -wiiou Foucault, in 1802, decided 
the question by an experiment of extraordinary delicacy. Taking advantage 
of the revolving-mirror, with which Wheatstono had some time before 
enriched the physical sciences, Foucault succeeded in measuring the absolute 
velocity of light in space by experiments on a beam of light, reflected 
backwards and forwards, within a tube little more than thrrtcen feet in 
length. Combining the result thus obtained with what is called by astrono- 
mers the constant of aberration, Foucault calculated the distance of the earth 
from the sun, and found it to be one thirtieth part, or about 3,000,000 miles, 
less than the commonly received number. This conclusion has lately been 
confirmed by 31. Cornu, from a new determination he has made of the 
velocity of light according to the method of Fizeau ; and in complete accord- 
ance with these results are the investigations of Leverrier, founded on a 
comparison with theory of the observed motions of the sun and of the 
planets Tonus and Mars. It remains to be seen whether the recent obser- 
vations of the transit of Yenus, when reduced, will be sufficiently concordant 
to fix with even greater precision the true distance of the earth from the 
sun. 

In this brief reference to one of the finest results of modern science, 
I have mentioned a great name whose loss England has recently had to 
deplore, and in connexion with it the name of an illustrious physicist whose 
premature death deprived France, a few years ago, of one of her brightest 
ornaments — Vhcatstone and Foucault, over to be remembered for their 
marvellous power of eliciting, like Galileo and Newton, from familiar 
phenomena the highest truths of nature ! 

The discovery of Huggins that some of the fixed stars are moving to- 
wards and others receding from our system, has been fully confirmed by 
a careful scries of observations lately made by Mr. Christie in the Observa- 
tory of Greenwich. Mr. Huggins has not been able to discover any indications 
of a proper motion in the nebulas ; but this may arise from the motion of 
translation being less than the method would discover. Few achievements 
iu the history of science are more \^-onderful than the measurement of the 
proper motions of the fixed stars, from observing the relative position of two 
delicate lines of light in the field of the telescope. 

The observation of the American astronomer Young, that bright lines, 
corresponding to the ordinary lines of Fraunhofer reversed, may be seen in 
the lower strata of the solar atmosphere for a few moments during a total 
eclipse, has been confirmed by Mr. Stone, on the occasion of the total eclipse 
of tho sun which occurred some time ago in South Africa. In the outer 
corona, or higher regions of the sun's atmosphere, a single green line only 
was seen, the same which had been already described by Y^oung. 

I can here refer only in general terms to the observations of lloscoe and 
Schuster on the absorption-bands of potassium and sodium, and to the in- 



Isxii REPORT — 18~G. 

vestigations of Lockycr on the absoiptivc powers of metallic and metalloidal 
vapours at difForeut temperatures. From the vapour of calcium the latter 
lias obtained two wholly difstinct spectrn, one belonging to a low, and the 
other to a high temperature. Mr. Lockyer is also engaged on a new and 
greatly extended map of the solar spectrum. 

Spectrum analysis has lately led to the discovery of a new metal — gallium 
— the fifth whose presence has been first indicated bj'' that powerful agent. 
This discovery is duo to M. Lccoq dc Boisbaudran, already favourably known 
by a work on the application of the spectroscope to chemical analysis. 

Oiu- knowledge of aerolites has of late years been greatly increased ; and I 
cannot occupy a few moments of your time more usefully than by briefly 
referring to the subject. So recently as 1 860 the most remarkable meteoric 
fall on record, not even excepting that of L'Aigle, occurred near the village of 
New Concord in Ohio. On a day when no thunder-clouds were visible, loud 
sounds were heard resembling claps of thunder, followed by a large fall of 
meteoric stones, some of which were distinctly seen to strike the earth. One 
stone, above 50 pounds in weight, buried itself to the depth of two feet in 
the ground, and when dug out was found to be still warm. In 1872 another 
remarkable meteorite, at first seen as a brilliant star with a luminous train, 
burst near Orvinio in Itah', and six fragments of it were afterwards collected. 

Isolated masses of metallic iron, or rather of an alloy of iron and nickel, 
similar in composition and properties to the iron usually diffused in 
meteoric stones, have been found here and there on the surface of the 
earth, some of large size, as one described by Pallas, which weighed about 
two thirds of a ton. Of the meteoric origin of these masses of iron there 
is little room for doubt, although no record exists of their fall. Sir Edward 
Sabine, whose life has been devoted with rare fidelity to the pursuit of 
science, and to whose imtiring efforts this Association largelj' owes the 
position it now occupies, was the pioneer of the newer discoveries in meteoric 
science. Eight and fifty years ago he visited with Captain Eoss the northern 
shores of Baffin's Bay, and made the interesting discovery that the knife- 
blades used by the Es{}uimaux in the vicinity of the Arctic highlands were 
formed of meteoric iron. This observation was afterwards fully confirmed ; 
and scattered blocks of meteoric iron have been found from time to time 
around BnfHu's Bay. But it was not till 1870 that the meteoric treasures 
of Baffin's Bay were truly discovered. In that year Nordenskiold found, at 
a part of tlie shore difficult of oppruach even in moderate weather, enor- 
mous blocks of meteoric iron, the Inrgest weighing nearly twenty tons, im- 
bedded in a ridge of basoliie rock. The interest of this observation is greatly 
enhanced by the circumstance that these masses of meteoric iron, like tha 
basalt with which they are associated, do net belong to the present geologi- 
cal epoch, l)ut must have fallen long before the actual arrangement of land 
and sea existed,— during, in short, the middle Tertiary, or Miocene period of 



ADDiirss. Ixxiii 

Lycli. TIio uictooric origin of these iron niasscs from Ovifak has Leen 
called in question by Lawrence Smith ; and it is no douht possible tliat they 
may have been raised by upheaval from the interior of the earth. I have 
indeed myself shown by a magucto-chemical process tluit metallic iron, in 
particles so fine that they have never yet been actnally seen, is everywhere 
diffused through the Miocene basalt of Slieve Mish in Antrim, and may 
likewise be discovered by careful search in almost all igneous and in many 
raetamorphic rocks. These observations have since been verified by lleuss in 
the case of the Bohemian basalts. But, as regards the native iron of Ovifak, 
the weight of evidence appears to be in favour of the conclusion, at which M. 
Daubree, after a careful discussion of the subject, has arrived — that it is 
really of meteoric origin. This Ovifak iron is also remarkable from con- 
taining a considerabe amount of carbon, partly combined with the iron, 
partly diffused through the metallic mass in a form resembling coke. In 
connexion with this subject, I must refer to the able and exhaustive memoirs 
of Maskelync on the Bust! and other aerolites, to the discovery of vanadium 
by E. Apjohn in a meteoric iron, to the interesting observations of Sorby, 
and to the researches of Daubree, Wohler, Lawrence Smith, Tschermak, and 
others. 

The important services which the Tvew Observatory has rendered to 
meteorology and to solar physics have been fuUy recognized ; and Mr. Gassiot 
has had the gratification of witnessing the final success of his long and 
noble efforts to place this observatory upon a permanent footing. A phy- 
sical observatory for somewhat similar objects, but on a larger scale, is in 
course of erection, under the guidance of M. .Janssen, at Fontenay in France, 
and others are springing up or already exist in Germany and Italy. It is 
earnestly to be hoped that this country will not lag behind in providing 
phj'sical observatories on a scale worthy of the nation and commensurate 
Avith the importance of the object. On this question I cannot do better 
than refer to the high authority of Dr. Balfour Stewart, and to the views he 
expressed in his able address last year to the Pliysical Section. 

Weather telegraphy, or the reporting by telegraph the state of the weather 
at selected stations to a central office, so that notice of the probable approacli 
of storms may be given to tlie seaports, has become in this country an 
organized system ; and considering the little progress meteorology has made 
as a science, the results may be considered to be on the whole satisfactory. Of 
tlie warnings issued of late years, four out of five were justified by the 
occurrence of gales or strong winds. Few storms occurred for which no 
warnings had been given ; but unfortunately among these were some of the 
licaviest gales of the period. The stations from which daily reports are sent 
to the meteorological office in London cmbi'ace the whole coast of "Western 
l']urope, including the Shetland Isles. It ajipears that atmospheric disturb- 
ances seldom cross the Atlantic without being greatly altered in charncter, 



Ixxiv BEPOET — 1876. 

and that the origin of most of our storms lies eastward of the longitude of 
Newfoundland. 

As regards the velocity of the wind, the cup-anemometer of Dr. Robinson 
has fully realized the expectations of its discoverer ; and the venerable 
astronomer of Armagh has been engaged during the past summer, with all 
the ardour of youth, in a course of laborious experiments to determine the 
constants of his instrument. From seven years' observations at the Observa- 
tory of Armagh, he has found that the mean velocity of the wind is 
greatest in the S.S.W. octant and least in the opposite one, and that the 
araouut of wind attains a masimum in Januarj^, after which it steadily 
decreases, with one slight exception, till July, augmenting again till the end 
of the year. 

Passing to the subject of electricity, it is Vv"ith pleasui'e that I have to 
announce the failure of a recent attempt to deprive Oerstedt of his great 
discovery. It is gratifying thus to find high reputations vindicated, and 
names which all men love to honour transmitted with undimiuished lustre 
to posterity. At a former meeting of this Association, remarkable for an 
unusual attendance of distinguished foreigners, the central figui'e was 
Oerstedt. On that occasion Sir John Hcrschel in glowing language compared 
Oerstedt's discovery to the blessed dew of heaven which only the master- 
mind could draw down, but which it was for others to turn to account and 
use for the fertilization of the earth. To Franklin, Volta, Coulomb, Oerstedt, 
Ami)cre, Faraday, Seebeck, and Ohm arc due the fundamental discoveries of 
modern electricity — a science whose applications in Davy's hands led to 
grander results than alchemist ever dreamed of, and in the hands of others 
(among whom Wheatstone, Morse, and Thomson occupy the foremost place) to 
the marvels of the electric telegraph. "When we proceed from the actual 
phenomena of electricity to the molecular conditions upon which those 
phenomena depend, we are confronted with questions as recondite as any 
with which the physicist has had to deal, but towards the solution of which 
the researches of Faraday have contributed the most precious materials. The 
theory of electrical and magnetic action occupied formerly the powerful minds 
of Poisson, Green, and Gauss ; and among the living it will surely not be 
invidious to cite the names of Weber, Helmholtz, Thomson, and Clerk Max- 
well. The work of the latter on electricity is an original essay worthy in 
every way of the great reputation and of the clear and far-seeing intellect 
of its author. 

Among recent investigations I must refer to Professor Tait's discovery of 
consecutive neutral points in certain thermo-electric junctions, for which he 
was lately awarded the Keith prize. This discovery has been^the residt of 
an elaborate investigation of the properties of thermo-electric currents, and 
is specially interesting in reference to the theory of dynamical electricity. 
Nor can I omit to mention the very interesting and original experiments of 



ADDEESS. IXXV 

Dr. Kerr on the dielectric state, from -which it appears that when electricity 
of high tension is passed through dielectrics, a change of molecular arrange- 
ment occurs, slowly in the case of solids, quickly in the case of li(]uids, and 
that the lines of electric force are in some cases lines of compression, in 
other cases lines of extension. 

Of the many discoveries in physical science due to Sir William Grove, 
the earliest and not the least important is the hattery which hears his name, 
and is to this day the most powerful of all voltaic arrangements ; but with a 
Grove's battery of 50 or even 100 cells in vigorous action, the spark will not 
pass through an appreciable distance of cold air. By using a very large 
number of cells, carefully insulated and charged with water, IMr. Gassiot 
succeeded in obtaining a short spark through air ; and lately De La Eue and 
MiiUer have constructed a large chloride-of-silver battery giving freely sparks 
through cold air, which, when a column of pure water is interposed in 
the circuit, accurately resemble those of the common electrical machine. 
The length of the spark increasing nearly as the square of the number 
of cells, it has been calculated that with 100,000 elements of this battery 
the discharge should take place through a distance of no less than eight 
feet in air. 

In the solar beam we have an agent of surpassing power, the investiga- 
tion of whose properties by Newton forms an epoch in the history of experi- 
mental science scarcely less important than the discovery of the law of 
gravitation in the history of physical astronomy. Three actions chaiacterize 
the solar beam, or, indeed, more or less that of any luminous body — the 
heating, the physiological, and the chemical. In the ordinary solar beam 
we can modify the relative amount of these actions by passing it through 
dilferent media, and we cau thus have luminous rays with little heating or 
little chemical action. In the case of the moon's rays it required the highest 
skill on the part of Lord Eosse, even with all the resources of the observatory 
of Parsonstown, to investigate their heating properties, and to show that the 
surface of our satellite facing the earth passes, during every lunation, through 
a greater range of temperature than the difference between the freezing- and 
boiling-points of water. 

But if, instead of taking an ordinary ray of light, wc analyze it as Kewton 
did by the prism, and isolate a very fine line of the spectrum (thcoreticallj' a 
line of infinite tenuity), that is to say, if wo take a ray of definite refrangi- 
bility, it will be found impossible by screens or otherwise to alter its pro- 
perties. It was his clear perception of the truth of this princii)le that led 
Stokes to his great discovery of the cause of epipolic dispersion, in which he 
showed that many bodies had the power of absorbing dark rays of high 
refrangibility and of emitting them as luminous rays of lower refrangibility — 
of absorbing, in short, darkness and of emitting it as light. It is not, 
indeed, an easy matter in all cases to say whether a given effect is due to 



Ixxvi KEPORT — 18/6, 

the action of licat or light; and the question M'hich of these forces is the 
efficient agent in causing the motion of the tiny disks in Crookes's radiometer 
has given rise to a good deal of discussion. The answer to this question in- 
volves the same principles as those bj'which the image traced on the dnguerrco- 
type i)late, or the decomposition of carbonic acid by the leaves of plants, is 
referred to the action of light and not of heat ; and applying these principles 
to the experiments made Tvith the radiometer, the weight of evidence appears 
to be in favour of the view that the repulsion of the blaclvcncd surfaces of 
the disks is due to a thermal reaction occurring in a highly rarefied mcdiimi. 
I have myself had the pleasure of -witnessiug many of Mr. Crookes's experi- 
ments, and I cannot sufficientljf express my admiration of the care and skill 
"with which ho has pursued this investigation. The remarkable repulsions 
he has observed in the most perfect vacua hitherto attained are interesting, 
not only as having led to the construction of a beautiful instrument, but as 
being likely, -when the subject is fully investigated, to give valuable data for 
the theory of molecular actions. 

A singular property of light, discovered a short time ago by Mr. Willoughby 
Smith, is its power of diminishing the electrical resistance of the element 
selenium. This property has been ascertained to belong chiefly to the luminous 
rays on the red side of the spectrum, being nearly absent in the violet or 
more refrangible rays and also in heat-rays of low refrangibility. The 
recent experiments of Prof. W. G. Adams have fully established the accuracy 
of the remarkable observation, first made by Lord llosse, that the action ap- 
peared to vary inversely as the simple distance of the illuminating source. 

Switzerland sent, some years ago, as its representative to this country the 
celebrated Do la Rive, whose scientific life formed lately the subject of an 
eloquent f'lV/e from the pen of M. Dumas. On this occasion we have to 
welcome, in Oeneral Menabrea, a distinguished representative both of the 
kingdom of Italj- and of Italian science. His great work on the determina- 
tion of the pressures and tensions in an elastic system is of too abstruse a 
character to be discussed in this address; but tlie principle it contains may 
be briefly stated in the following words : — " When any elastic sj-stem places 
itself in equilibrium under the action of external forces, the work developed 
by the internal forces is a minimum." General Menabrea has, however, other 
and special claims upon us here, as the friend to whom Babbage entrusted the 
task of making known to the world the principles of his analytical machine 
■ — a gigantic conception, the efibrt to realize which it is known was one of 
the chief objects of Babbage's later life. The latest development of this con- 
ception is to be found in the mechanical integrator of Trof. J. Thomson, in 
M-hich motion is transmitted, according to a new kinematic princiiJe, from a 
disk or cone to a cylinder through the intervention of a loose baU, and in 
Sir ^\. Thomson's machine for the mechanical integration of differential 
equations of the second order. In the exquisite tidal machine of the latter 



ADDKESS. Ixxvii 

we luivo an iListrumout by lucaus of which the heigM of the tido at .1 given 
port can be accuratclj' predicted for all times of the day and night. 

The attraction-meter of Siemens is an instrument of great delicacy for 
measuring horizontal attractions, which it is proposed to use for recording 
the attractive influences of the sun and moon, upon -which the tides depend. 
The bathometer of the same able physicist is another remarkable instrument, 
in which the constant force of a spring is opposed to the variable pressure of 
a column of mercury. By an easy observation of the bathometer on ship- 
board, the depth of the sea may be approximately ascertained without the 
use of a sounding-line. 

The Loan Exhibition of Apparatus at Kensington has been a eomploto 
success, and cannot fail to be useful, both in extending a knowledge of 
scientific subjects and in promoting scientific research throughout the country. 
Unique in character, but most interesting and instructive, this exhibition 
will, it is to be hoped, be tlie precursor of a permanent museum of scientific 
objects, which, like the present exhibition, shall be a record of old, as well 
as a representation of new inventions. 

It is often difficult to draw a distinct line of separation between the phy- 
sical and chemical sciences ; and it is perhaps doubtful whether the division 
is not really an artificial one. The chemist cannot, indeed, make any large 
advance without having to deal with physical principles; and it is to Eoyle, 
Balton, Gay-Lussac, and (Jraham that we owe the discovery of the mecha- 
nical laws which govern the properties of gases and vapours. Some of these 
laws liave of late been made the subject of searching inqiiiry, which has 
fullj- confirmed their accuracy, when the body under examination approaches 
to what has not inaptly been designated the ideal gaseous state. But when 
gases are examined under varied conditions of pressure and tcmperatiu-e, it 
is found that these laws are only particular cases of more general laws, and 
that the laws of the gaseous state, as it exists in natiire, although they may 
be enunciated in a precise and definite form, are very diflferent from the 
simple expressions which apply to the ideal condition. The new laws be- 
come in their turn inapplicable when from the gaseous state proper wo 
pass to those intei-mediate conditions which, it has been shown, link with 
unbroken continuity the gaseous and liquid states. As wc approach the 
liquid state, or even when we reach it, the problem becomes more com- 
plicated ; but its solution even in these cases will, it may confidently be 
expected, yield to the powerful means of investigation we now possess. 

Among the more important researches made of late in physical chemistrv, 
I may mention those of F. Weber on the specific heat of carbon and the 
allied elements, of Berthelot on thcrmo-chemistry, of Eunsen on spectrum 
analysis, of Wiillner on the band- and line-spectra of the gases, and of 
CUithrie on the cryohydrates. 

C'osmicnl chemistrv is a science of vesterdav : and vet it alreadv nbonjuls in 



Ixxviii REPORT — 1876. 

facts of tlie highest interest. Hydrogen, which, if the ahsolute zero of the 
physicist does not bar the way, we may hope yet to see in the metallic form, 
appears to be everywhere present in the universe. It exists in enormous 
quantity in the solar atmosphere, and it has been discovered in the atmo- 
spheres of the fixed stars. It is present, and is the only known element of 
whose presence we are certain, in those vast sheets of ignited gas of which 
the nebulfe proper are composed. Nitrogen is also widely diffused among 
the stellar bodies, and carbon has been discovered in more than one of the 
comets. On the other hand, a prominent line in the spectrum of the Aui'ora 
Borealis has not been identified with that of any known element ; and the 
question may be asked : — Does a new element, in a highly rarefied state, 

o 

exist in the upper regions of our atmosphere? or are we with Angstrom to 
attribute this line to a fluorescent or phosj^horescent light produced by the 
electrical discharge to which the aurora is due ? This question awaits farther 
observations before it can be definitely settled, as does also that of the source 
of the remarkable green line which is everywhere conspicuous in the solar 
corona. 

I must here pause for a moment to pay a passing tribute to the memory 
of Angstrom, whose great work on the solar spectrum will always remain as 
one of the finest monuments of the science of our period. The influence, 

O 

indeed, which the labours of Angstrom and of Kirchhoff have exerted on the 
most interesting portion of later physics can scarcely be exaggerated; and it 
may be truly said that there are few men whose loss wUl be longer felt or 
more deeply deplored than that of the illustrious astronomer of Upsala. 

I cannot pursue this subject further, nor refer to the other terrestrial 
elements which are present in the solar and stellar atmospheres. Among 
the many elements that make up the ordinary aerolite, not one has been 
discovered which does not occur upon this earth. On the whole we arrive at 
the grand conclusion that this mighty universe is chiefly built up of the same 
materials as the globe wo inhabit. 

In the application of science to the useful purposes of life, chemistry and 
mechanics have run an lionourable race. It was in the valley of the Clyde 
that the chief industry of this country received, within the memory of many 
here present, an extraordinary impulse from the application by Ncilson of 
the hot blast to the smelting of iron. The Bessemer steel process and the 
regcJicrativc furnace of Siemens are later appHcations of high scientific prin- 
ciples to the same industry. But there is ample work yet to be done. The 
fuel consumed in the manufactui'e of iron, as, indeed, in every funiace where 
coal is used, is greatly in excess of what theory indicates ; and the clouds of 
smoke which darken the atmosphere of our manufacturing towns, and even 
of whole districts of country, are a clear indication of the waste, but only of 
a small portion of the waste, arising from imperfect combustion. The de- 
pressing effect of Ihifl ntinosphero upon Ihc working population can scarcely 



ADDRESS. Ixxix 

be overrated. Their palo, I had almost said etiolated, faces are a sure indi- 
cation of the absence of the vivifying influence of the solar rays, so essential 
to the maintenance of vigorous health. The chemist can furnish a simple 
test of this state of the atmosphere in the absence of ozone, the active form 
of oxygen, from the air of our large towns. At some future day the efforts 
of science to isolate, by a cheap and available process, the oxygen of the 
air for industrial purposes may be rewarded with success. The effect of such 
a discovery would be to reduce the consumption of fuel to a fractional part 
of its present amount ; and although the carbonic acid would remain, the 
smoke and carbonic oxide would disappear. But an abundant supply of puro 
oxygen is not now witliin our reach ; and in the mean time may I venture to 
suggest that in many localities the waste products of the furnace might be 
carried off to a distance from the busy human hive hj a few horizontal flues 
of large dimensions, terminating in lofty chimneys on a hillside or distant 
plain ? A system of this kind has long been employed at the mercurial mines 
of Idria, and in other smclting-works where noxious vapours are disengaged. 
With a little care in the arrangements, the smoke wouH be wholly deposited, 
as flue-dust or soot, in the horizontal galleries, and wonld be available for 
the use of the agriculturist. 

The future historian of organic chemistry will have to record a succession 
of beneficent triumphs, in which the efforts of science have led to results of 
the highest value to the wellbeing of man. The discovery of quinine has 
probably saved more human Ufe, with the exception of that of vaccination, 
than any discovery of any age ; and he who succeeds in devising an artificial 
method of preparing it will be truly a benefactor of the race. Not the least 
valuable, as it has been one of the most successful, of the works of our 
Government in India, has been the planting of the cinchona-tree on tho 
slopes of the Himalaya. As artificial methods are discovered, one by one, of 
preparing the proximate principles of the useful dyes, a temporary derange- 
ment of industry occurs, but in the end the waste materials of our manufac- 
tures set free large portions of the soil for the production of human food. 

Tho ravages of insects have ever been the terror of the agriculturist, and 
the injury they inflict is often incalculable. An enemy of this class, carried 
over from America, threatened lately with ruin some of the finest vine 
districts in the south of France. The occasion has called forth a chemist of 
high renown ; and in a classical memoir recently published, M. Dumas ap- 
pears to have resolved the difficult problem. His method, although immedi- 
ately applied to the PJujlIoawa of the vine, is a general one, and will no 
doubt be found serviceable in other cases. In the apterous state the PJti/l- 
loxera attacks the roots of the plant ; and the most efficacious method hitherto 
known of destroying it has been to inundate the vineyard. After a long and 
patient investigation, M. Dumas has discovered that the sulphocarbonate of 
potassium, in dilute solution, fulfils every condition required from an insccti- 



IXXX. REPORT 187G. 

cide, clcsfcro_yiug tlic insect without injuring the jjlant. The process required 
time and patience ; but the trials in the vineyard have fully confirmed the 
experiments of the laboratory. 

The application of artificial cold to practical purposes is rapidly extending ; 
and, with the improvement of the ice-machine, the influence of this agent 
upon our supply of animal food from distant countries will undoubtedly be 
immense. The ice-machine is already employed in paraffin-works and in 
large breweries ; and the curing or salting of meat is now largely conducted 
in vast chambers, maintained throughout the summer at a constant tempera- 
ture by a thick covering of ice. 

I have now completed this brief I'evicw, rendered difficult by the abun- 
dance, not by the lack of materials. Even confining our attention to the 
few branches of science upon which I have ventured to touch, and omitting 
altogether the whole range of pure chemistry, it is with regret that I find 
myself constrained to make onlj- a simple reference to the important work of 
Cayley on the Mathematical Theory of Isomers, and to elaborate memoirs 
which have recently appeared in Germany on the reflection of heat- and light- 
rays, and on the specific heat and conducting-powcr of gases for heat, by 
Knoblauch, E. "Wiedemann, "Winkelmann, and Buff. 

The decline of science in England formed the theme, fifty years ago, of nn 
elaborate essay by Babbage ; but the brilliant discoveries of Faraday soon 
after -wiped oft' Ihe reproach. I will not verdure to say tliat the alarm which 
has lately arisen, here and elsewhere, on the same subject will prove to 
be equally groundless. The duration of every great outburst of human 
activity, whether in art, in literature, or in science, has always been short, 
and experimental science has made gigantic advances during the last three 
centuries. The evidence of any great failure is not, however, very manifest, 
at least in the physical sciences. The journal of PoggcndorfF, which has long 
been a faithful record of the progress of jAysical research thi'oughout the 
world, shows no signs of flagging; and the Jubelband by which Germany 
celebrated the fiftieth year of Poggendorff"s invaluable services was at the 
sarao time an ovation to a scientific veteran, who has perhaps done more 
than any man living to encourage the highest forms of research, and a proof 
that in Northern Europe the physical sciences continue to be ably and 
actively cultivated. If in chemistry the case is somewhat weaker, the ex- 
planation, at least in this country, is chiefly to be found in the demand on 
the part of the public for professional aid from many of our ablest chemists. 

But whatever view be taken of the actual condition of scientific research, 
there can be no doubt that it is both the duty and the interest of the country 
to encourage a pirrsuit so ennobling in itself, and fraught with such impor- 
tant consequences to the weUbeing of the community. Xor is there any 
question in which this Association, whose special aim is the advancement of 
science, can take a deeper int( rost. Tb.o public rnii'd has also been awakened 



ADDRESS. Ixxxi 

to its importance, and is prcjiared to aid in carrying out any proposal which 
offers a reasonable prospect of advantage. 

In its recent phase the question of scientific research has been mixed up 
with contemplated changes in the great universities of England, and par- 
ticularly in the University of Oxford. The national interests involved on 
aU sides are immense, and a false step once taken may be irretrievable. It 
is with diffidence that I now refer to the subject, even after having given to 
it the most anxious and careful consideration. 

As regards the higher mathematics, their cultivation has hitherto been 
chiefly confined to the Universities of Cambridge and Dublin, and two great 
mathematical schools will probably be sufficient for the kingdom. The case 
of the physical and natural sciences is different, and they ought to be cul- 
tivated in the largest and widest sense at every complete university. Nor, 
in applying this remark to the English universities, must we forget that if 
Cambridge was the alma mater of Newton and Cavendish, Oxford gave birth 
to the Eoyal Society. The ancient renown of Oxford will surely uot suffer, 
while her material position cannot fail to be strengthened, by the expansion 
of scientific studies and the encoiiragement of scientific research within her 
walls. Nor ought such a proposal to be regarded as in any way hostUo to 
the literary studies, and especially to the ancient classical studies, which 
have always been so carefully cherished at Oxford. If, indeed, there were 
any such risk, few would hesitate to exclaim — let science shift elsewhere for 
herself, and let literature and philosophy find shelter in Oxford ! But there 
is no ground for any such anxiety. Literature and science, philosophy and 
art, when properly cultivated, far from opposing, will mutually aid one 
another. Tliere will be ample room for aU, and, by judicious an-angements, 
all may receive the attention they deserve. 

A University, or Studium Generale, ought to embrace in its arrangements 
the whole circle of studies which involve the material interests of society, as 
well as those which cultivate intellectual refinement. The industries of the 
country should look to the universities for the development of the principles 
of applied as well as of abstract science ; and in this respect no institutions 
have ever had so grand a possession within easy reach as have the univer- 
sities of England at this conjuucture, if only they have the courage to seize it. 
"With their historic reputation, their coUegiate endowments, their command- 
ing influence, Oxford and Cambridge should continue to be all that they now 
are ; but they should, moreover, attract to their lecture-halls and working 
cabinets students in large numbers preparing for the higher industrial piu-- 
suits of the country. The great physical laboratory in Cambridge, founded 
and equipped by the noble representative of the House of Cavendish, has in 
this respect a peculiar significance, and is an important step in the direction 
I have indicated. But a small number only of those for whom this temple 
of science is designed are now to be found in Cambridge. It remains for the 

1876. / 



Ixxxii REPORT — 1876. 

University to perform its part, and to widen its portals so that tlie nation at 
large may reap the advantage of this well-timed foundation. 

If the Universities, in accordance with the spirit of theu- statutes, or at 
least of ancient usage, would demand from the candidates for some of the 
higher degrees proof of original powers of investigation, they would give an 
important stimulus to the cultivation of science. The example of many con- 
tinental universities, and among others of the venerable University of Leyden, 
may here be mentioned. Two proof essays recently written for the degree 
of Doctor of Science in Leyden, one by Van der Waals, the other by Lorenz, 
are works of unusual merit ; and another pupil of Professor Eijke is now 
engaged in an elaborate experimental research as a qualification for the same 
degree. 

The endowment of a body of scientific men devoted exclusively to original 
research, without the duty of teaching or other occupation, has of late been 
strongly advocated in this country ; and M. Fremy has given the weight of 
his high authority to a somewhat similar proposal for the encouragement of 
research in France. I will not attempt to discuss the subject as a national 
question, the more so as after having given the proposal the most careful 
consideration in my power, and turned it round on every side, I have failed 
to discover how it could be worked so as to secure the end in view. 

But whatever may be said in favour of the endowment of pure research as 
a national question, the Universities ought surely never to be asked to give 
their aid to a measure which would separate the higher intellects of the country 
from the flower of its youth. It is only through the influence of original 
minds that any great or enduring impression can be produced on the hopeful 
student. . Without original power, and the habit of exercising it, you may 
have an able instructor, but you cannot have a great teacher. No man can 
be expected to train others in habits of observation and thought he has never 
acquired himself. In every age of the world the great schools of learning 
have, as in Athens of old, gathered around great and original minds, and 
never more conspicuously than in the modem schools of chemistry, which 
reflected the genius of Liebig, Wohler, Bunscn, and Hofmann. These 
schools have been nurseries of original research as well as models of scientific 
teaching ; and students attracted to them from all countries became enthu- 
siastically devoted to science, while they learned its methods from example 
even more than from precept. "Will any one have the courage to assert that 
organic chemistry, with its many applications to the uses of mankind, would 
have made in a few short years the marvellous strides it has done, if Science, 
now as in mediaeval times, had pursued her work in strict seclusion, 

SeiDota ab nostris rebus, seiunctaque longe, 
Ipsa suis pollens opibus, nil indiga nostri ? 

But while the Universities otight not to apply their resources in support 



ADDRESS. Ixxxiii 

of a measure -vrhich would render their teaching ineffective, and would at the 
same time dry up the springs of intellectual growth, they ought to admit 
freely to university positions men of high repute from other universities, and 
even without academic qualifications. An honorary degree does not neces- 
sarily imply a university education ; but if it have any meaning at all, it 
implies that he who has obtained it is at least on a level with the ordinary 
graduate, and should be eligible to university positions of the highest trust. 

Not less important would it be for the encouragement of learning 
tkroughout the country that the English Universities, remembering that 
they were founded for the same objects, and derive their authority from a 
common source, should be j^repared to recognize the ancient universities of 
Scotland as freely as they have always recognized the Elizabethan University 
of Dublin. Such a measure would invigorate the whole university system 
of the country more than any other I can think of. It would lead to 
the strengthening of the literary element in the northern, and of the 
practical element in the southern universities, and it would bring the highest 
teaching of the country everywhere more fully into harmony with the 
requirements of the times in which we live. As an indirect result, it could 
not fail to give a powerful impulse to literary pursuits as well as to scientific 
investigations. Professors would be promoted from smaller positions in 
one university to higher positions in another, after they had given proofs 
of industry and ability ; and stagnation, hurtful alike to professorial and 
professional life, would be effectually prevented. If this union were estab- 
lished among the old universities, and if at the same time a new univer- 
sity (as I myself ten years ago earnestly proposed) were founded on sound 
principles amidst the great populations of Lancashire and Yorkshire, the 
university system of the country would gradually receive a large and useful 
extension, and, without losing any of its present valuable characteristics, 
would become more intimately related than hitherto with those great indus- 
tries upon which mainly depend the strength and wealth of the nation. 

It may perhaps appear to many a paradoxical assertion to maintain that 
the industries of the country should look to the calm and serene regions 
of Oxford and Cambridge for help in the troublous times of which we 
have now a sharp and severe note of warning. But I have not spoken 
on light grounds, nor without due consideration. If Great Britain is to 
retain the commanding position she has so long occupied in skilled manu- 
facture, the easy ways which (owing partly to the high qualities of her 
people, partly to the advantages of her insular position and mineral wealth) 
have sufficed for the past, will not be found to suffice for the future. 
The highest training which can be brought to bear on practical science 
will be imperatively required ; and it will be a fatal policy if that training 
is to be sought for in foreign lands, because it cannot be obtained at home. 
The country which depends unduly on the stranger for the education of 

/2 



Ixxxiv REPORT — 187G. 

its skilled men, or neglects in its highest places this primary duty, may ex- 
pect to find the demand for such skill gradually to pass away, and along 
with it the industry for which it was wanted. I do not claim for scien- 
tific education more than it will accomijlish, nor can it ever replace the 
after- training of the workshop or factory. Rare and powerful minds have, 
it is true, often been independent of it ; but high education always gives an 
enormous advantage to the country where it prevails. Let no one suppose 
I am now referring to elementary instruction, and much less to the active 
work which is going on everywhere around us, in preparing for examina- 
tions of all kinds. These things are all very useful in their way ; but it is 
not by them alone that the practical arts are to be sustained in the country. 
It is by education in its highest sense, based on a broad scientific founda- 
tion, and leading to the application of science to practical purposes — in itself 
one of the noblest pursuits of the human mind— that this result is to be 
reached. That education of this kind can be most eff'ectively given in a 
university, or in an institution like the Polytechnic School of Ziirich, which 
differs from the scientific side of a university only in name, and to a large 
extent supplements the teaching of an actual university, I am firmly con- 
vinced ; and for this reason, among others, I have always deemed the estab- 
lishment in this country of Examining Boards with the power of granting 
degrees, but with none of the higher and more important functions of a 
university, to have been a measure of questionable utility. It is to Oxford 
and Cambridge, widely extended as they can readily be, that the country 
should chiefly look for the development of practical science ; they have abun- 
dant resources for the task ; and if they wish to secure and strengthen their 
lofty position, they can do it in no way so effectually as by showing that in 
a green old age they preserve the vigour and elasticity of youth. 

If any are disposed to think that I have been carrying this meeting into 
dream-land, let them pause and listen to the result of similar efforts to those 
I have been advocating, undertaken by a neighbouring country when on the 
verge of ruin, and steadily pursued by the same country in the climax of its 
prosperity. " The University of Berlin," to use the words of Hofmann, 
*' like her sister of Bonn, is a creation of our century. It was founded in 
the year 1810, at a period when the pressure of foreign domination weighed 
almost insupportably on Prussia ; and it will ever remain significant of the 
direction of the German mind that the great men of that time should have 
hoped to develop, by high intellectual training, the forces necessary for the 
regeneration of their country." It is not for me, especially in this place, to 
dwell upon the great strides which Northern Germany has made of late years 
in some of the largest branches of industry, and particularly in those which 
give a free scope for the application of scientific skill. " Let us not sup- 
pose," says M. "VVurtz in his recent report on the Artificial Dyes, " that 
the distance is so great between theory and its industrial applications. This 



ADDRESS. IXXXV 

report would have been written in vain, if it had not brought clearly into 
view the immense influence of pure science upon the progress of industry. 
If unfortunately the sacred flame of science should burn dimly or be extin- 
guished, the practical arts would soon fall into rapid decay. The outlay 
which is incurred by any country for the promotion of science and of high 
instruction will yield a certain return ; and Germany has not had long to wait 
for the ingathering of the fruits of her far-sighted policy. Thirty or forty 
years ago, industry could scarcely be said to exist there ; it is now widely 
spread and successful." As an illustration of the truth of these remarks, I 
may refer to the newest of European industries, but one which in a short 
space of time has attained considerable magnitude. It appears (and I make 
the statement on the authority of M. Wurtz) that the artificial dyes produced 
last year in Germany exceeded in value those of all the rest of Europe, in- 
cluding England and France. Yet Germany has no special advantage for 
this manufacture except the training of her practical chemists. We are not, 
it is true, to attach undue importance to a single case ; but the rapid growth 
of other and larger industries points in the same direction, and will, I trust, 
secure some consideration for the suggestions I have ventured to make. 

The intimate relations which exist between abstract science and its appli- 
cations to the uses of life have always been kept steadily in view by this 
Association, and the valuable Reports, which are a monument to the indiistry 
and zeal of its members, embrace every part of the domain of science. It is 
with the greater confidence, therefore, that I have ventured to suggest from 
this Chair that no partition wall should anywhere be raised up between pure 
and applied science. The same sentiment animates our vigorous ally, the 
French Association for the Advancement of Science, which rivalling, as it 
already does, this Association in the high scientific character of its proct^ed- 
ings, bids fair in a few years to call forth the same interest in science and its 
results, throughout the great provincial towns of France, which the Erilish 
Association may justly claim to have already efi'ected in this country. No 
better proof can be given of the wide base upon which the French Associa- 
tion rests, than the fact that it was presided over last year by an able repre- 
sentative of commerce and industry, and this year by one who has long 
held an exalted position in the world of science, and has now the rare di- 
stinction of representing in her historic Academies the literature as well as 
the science of France. 

Whatever be the result of our efforts to advance science and industry, it 
requires no gift of prophecy to declare that the boundless resources which 
the supreme Author and Upholder of the Universe has provided for the use 
of man will, as time rolls on, be more and more fully applied to the im- 
provement of the physical and, through the improvement of the i)hysical, to 
the elevation of the moral condition of the human family. Unless, however, 
the history of the future of our race be wholly at variance with the hi&tory 



XXXvi REPORT — 1876. 

of the past, the progress of mankind will be marlced by alternate periods 
of activity and repose ; nor will it be the work of any one nation or of 
any one race. To the erection of the edifice of civilized life, as it now 
exists, all the higher races of the world have contributed ; and if the balance 
were accurately struck, the claims of Asia for her portion of the work would 
be immense, and those of Northern Africa not insignificant. Steam-power 
has of late years produced greater changes than probably ever occurred be- 
fore in so short a time. But the resources of Nature are not confined to 
steam, nor to the combustion of coal. The steady water-wheel and the rapid 
turbine are more perfect machines than the stationary steam-engine ; and 
glacier-fed rivers with natural reservoirs, if fully turned to account, would 
supply an unlimited and nearly constant source of power depending solely 
for its continuance upon solar heat. But no immediate dislocation of indus- 
try is to be feared, although the turbine is already at work on the Rhine and 
the Ehone. In the struggle to maintain their high position in science and its 
applications, the countrymen of Newton and Watt will have no ground for 
alarm so long as they hold fast to their old traditions, and remember that 
the greatest nations have fallen when they relaxed in those habits of intelli- 
gent and steady industry upon which all permanent success depends. 



REPORTS 



ON 



THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



E E P II T S 



ON 



THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



Twelfth Report of the Committee for Exploring Kent's Cavern, 
Devonshire, the Committee consisting of John Evans, F.R.S., Sir 
John Lubbock, Bart., F.R.S., Edward Vivian, M.A., George 
Busk, F.R.S., William Boyd Dawkins, F.R.S., William Aysh- 
FORD Sanford, F.G.S., John Edward Lee, F.G.S., and William 
Pengelly, F.R.S. (Reporter). 

The Eleventh Eeport, presented by the Committee to the Association during 
the Meeting at Bristol in 1875, and read to the Geological Section *, brought 
up the narrative of the exploration to the end of July of that year. From 
that date the work, which is still in progress, has been carried on uninter- 
ruptedly, in all respects as in previous years ; and it is intended in the 
present Report to describe the researches made during the thirteen months 
ending 31st of August of the present year. 

Though the Committee have still the satisfaction of stating that they retain 
the valuable services of George Smerdon, foreman of the work, they have to add 
that Nicholas Luscombe, who had been engaged a short time before the Eleventh 
Report was drawn up, was obliged to leave very soon afterwards on account of 
illness, and that there was some difficulty in supplying his place, there being 
a great demand for labourers at Torquay. At the beginning of September, 
however, they engaged a young man named AVilliam Matthews, who has 
given complete satisfaction, and is still at work in the Cavern. 

The Superintendents have had the pleasure, as in former years, of con- 
ducting a large number of persons into the Cavern, of explaining to them on 
the spot the mode of working, and describing the facts which have been dis- 
covered, as well as of settiug forth their bearing on Palasontology and 
Anthropology. The following may be mentioned as amongst the visitors since 
the Eleventh Eeport was presented : — Lord Erskine, Hon. J. C. Erskine, Sir 
J. L. Duntze, Sir L. Palk, Sir J. Walroud, Colonel Eridges, Colonel Buckle 
(Bangalore), Major Lang, Captain F. G. D. Watson, the Eevds. Chancellor 
Benson, T. Hincks, W. E. Stevenson, and E. E. Wolfe, Dr. Boycott, Professors 

* See Eeport Brit. Assoc. 1875, pp. 1-13. 
1876. B 



3 REPORT— 1876. 

H E. Roscoe and W. C. Williamscn, and Messrs. A. S. Bicknell, G. E. 
Bicknell, H. C. Browne, J. L. Budgett, T. Budgett, G. Cheney, A. H. Clerk, 
E. Conway, W. W. Crowfoot, C. D. Engelhart (Stockholm), A. E. Fletcher, 
W. Francis, H. Green, C. Hart, H. Hayes, P. Hickson, S. J. Hickson, T. A. 
Hickson, E. Howard, A. D. Jessup (U. S. A.), A. J. Jones, E. C. Lang, C. J. 
Lilly C Pannel, G. Pycroft, N. F. Eoberts, E. G. Stone, E. C. Tancock, 
E. H. Tiddeman, W. A. Trail, F. F. Tuckett, A. M. TurnbuU (Natal), P. S. 
Wilkinson, E. W. Williamson, J. E. Wolfe, G. WoUen, and a large number 
of ladies. The Cavern has also been visited by numerous persons who have 
been attended by the " Guid*e," i. e. the foreman of the work, under arrange- 
ments laid down by the Superintendents. 

The Great Overu — Your Committee stated last year that on the 27th of July, 
1875 (five days before their Eleventh Eeport was drawn up), they began the 
exploration of the small passage or tunnel known as " The Great Oven," 
which connects with one another " The Cave of Inscriptions " and " The 
Bear's Den," the two remotest chambers of the Cavern. The Great Oven may 
be said to consist of three Beaches, the Eastern, Central, and Western, all of 
them, and especially the Central, being very contracted in height and width. 
The Western Eeach (the only one which has been explored) extends tortuously, 
from its commencement in the south-west corner of the Cave of Inscriptions 
towards E.S.E., for a distance of 58 feet, where it is succeeded by the Central 
Eeach, and throws oft' two branches, one in a northerly and the other in a 
southerly direction. At its mouth, or junction with the Cave of Inscriptions, 
it is 8 feet high from the limestone roof to the bottom of the usual four-feet 
excavation made by the Committee. Its width is commonly about 4 feet ; 
but at one point it contracts to 3 feet, and at another expands to 7 feet. 
Throughout its entire length, and especially at and near the entrance, the 
roof and walls have the aspect of a well-worn watercourse. A few small 
lateral ramifications open out of the walls, almost all of them being quite 
empty and well worn by the action of flowing water. How far they extend 
cannot be determined, as they are too narrow for investigation. 

In the Western Eeach of the Great Oven there was no continuous Floor of 
Stalagmite, though here and there portions of such a floor, perhaps never 
continuous, adhered to and projected from the walls ; and pieces of stalagmite, 
as well as detached " Paps " of the same material, occurred in the deposit 
below. There was no reason to suppose that earlier explorers had ever 
worked in this branch of the Cavern. 

As in the adjacent chambers and galleries, the deposits consisted of a thin 
layer of " Cave-earth " above, and "Breccia" below ; and throughout the Eeach 
the one lay immediately on the other, without any intermediate Crystalline 
Stalagmite, such as occurs in typical sections. At the entrance, and up to 
34 feet from it, the usual four-feet sections failed to reach the bottom of tho 
Breccia, so that its depth is undetei mined; but at the point just named, 
the limestone floor was found at a depth of 3"5 feet below the upper siirface 
of the Cave-earth ; and thence to the inner end of the Eeach the floor was 
found everywhere at a depth of 4 feet at most, and frequently at but little 
more than 2 feet, thus displaying a continuous Limestone Floor for a length 
of 24 feet — a fact without a parallel in the history of the exploration. At the 
innermost end the height of the Eeach was 8*5 feet, from Limestone Eoof to 
Limestone Floor. The upper surface of the Cave-eaith was an irregularly 
inclined plane, ascending 8 feet from the entrance inwards, or rising at a 
mean gradient of about 1 in 7 ; whilst the Limestone Floor was inclined in the 
same direction at a higher mean gradient and with still greater irregulai'ity. 



ON KENT^S CAVERN^ DEVONSHIRE. 3 

The discoveries in this branch of the Cavern were neither numerous nor 
important. The total number of " finds," inchiding the few mentioned in the 
Eleventh Eeport, amounted to 50. The remains found in the Cave-earth 
included 2 teeth of HyaeHa, 6 of Eear, 10 of Ox, 1 plate of a small molar of 
Mammoth, several bones and pieces of bone, including an astragalus of Horse, 
a few coprolites of Hyaena, a portion of a flint flake (No. 6672), and a flint 
chip (No. 6661). 

The flint flake (No. 6672) is of a pretty uniform cream-colour, almost a 
parallelogram in outline, 1-4 inch long, -7 inch broad, abruptly terminated at 
each end, one of which retains the original surface of the nodule from which 
it was struck, and -3 inch in greatest thickness, which it attains near the 
butt end. The inner face is slightly concave; the outer is very convex, 
and consists of three planes or facets, the central one commencing near the 
butt end, whilst those on each side of it extend the entire length of the flake. 
Its ridges and (excepting a very few smaU notches) its lateral edges are quite 
sharp, and show that it can have had little or no wear and tear in any way, 
and that in all probability it reached the spot in which it was found, not by 
the transporting action of water, but by human agency ; in short, that man 
intentionally took it to, or accidentally left it in, one of the brajiches of the 
Cavern most remote from the known external entrances. It occurred with 
chips of bone, within a foot of the upper surface of the Cave-earth, 40 feet 
from the mouth of the Great Oven, on 13th October, 1875. 

The specimens found in the Breccia were 8 teeth of Bear and a few bones, 
none of which call for special description. 

■ Besides the foregoing, there were 2 teeth of Bear and some bones and pieces 
of bone found at and near the junction of the two deposits, where, there 
being no separating stalagmite, it was not always easy to determine whether 
they belonged to the Cave-earth or to the Breccia, without trusting entirely 
to the mineral characters of the specimens themselves. 

The Central or most contracted Eeach, that from which the Great Oven 
more especially takes its name, is a perfectly empty tunnel, of elliptical 
transverse section, about 2-75 feet high and 325 feet wide, with roof and 
walls and floor so strikingly smooth as to denote a weU-worn and completely 
fiUed watercourse, extending through the limestone in an easterly direction 
for a distance of 20 feet, where it is succeeded by the Eastern Eeach, which 
finally terminates in the Bear's Den, whence its exploration can alone be 
undertaken. 

The two branches which the "Western Eeach throws off at its inner end, 
one on each side of the Central Eeach, are filled with deposits from roof to 
floor ; but as they are, at least at their entrances, very contracted in both 
height and breadth, as the deposits they contain form a most intractable 
concrete, and as the specimens found in their vicinity were comparatively 
few and unimportant, the Superintendents closed their attempts to explore 
them, at least for the present, and left the Great Oven on 27th October, 
1875, having spent about three months on it. 

Tlie Labyrinth. — Three branches of the Cavern, known as " The Charcoal 
Cave," " Underhay's Gallery," and " The Labyrinth," open out of the left or 
eastern wall of " The Long Arcade," described in previous Eeports *. The 
first two have been explored and reported onf; but the Committee had 
undertaken no researches in the Labyrinth, the innermost and most important 

* See Eeiwrts Brit. Assoc. 1872, pp. 44-47 ; 1873, pn. 198-209; and 1874, pp. 3-6. 
t lUJ. 1872, pp. 38-44; and 1874, pp. 6-9. 



4 REPORT 1876. 

of them, -when the Eleventh Eeport was presented. When Mr. MacEnery 
and his contemporaries commenced their labours in the Cavern, the existence 
of this chamber was probably known to but very few persons, as what 
appeared to be its two entrances must have been so nearly filled with deposits 
of different kinds as to reduce them to the size of mere pigeon -holes ; and it 
is perhaps worthy of remark, by way of confii'mation, that though it contained 
large and lofty bosses of stalagmite, such as visitors loved to enrich with 
their names or initials, the only inscription found in it is dated many years 
after the commencement of Mr. MacEnery's researches. 

The entrance to the Labyrinth is about 190 feet from the mouth of the 
Long Arcade, and 280 feet from the nearest external entrance to the Cavern. 
The name of Labyrinth was given to it on account of the difficulty which, 
without a guide, visitors experienced in threading their way between the 
numerous masses of fallen limestone and the large bosses of stalagmite which 
occupied its floor. In fact it was not only the most bewildering branch of the 
Cavern, but even persons somewhat familiar with the scene so constantly 
" lost their bearings " as to be unable, even after emerging from it, to tell 
whether their way out of the Cavern lay to the right hand or to the left. 
" There was," says Mr. MacEnery, " a tradition of the loss of life here by a 
young man who ventured to explore it without a guide. It is certain that 
two gentlemen who lost their light and way spent a night of horror here, 
dreading to advance for fear of falling into the pits .... they remained im- 
movable until their friends came to their relief, alarmed by their absence " *. 
In another passage, speaking of the Labj-rinth as " The Zigzag Eoute," 
he says, " Of the dangerous intricacies of this section of the Cavern a memo- 
rable and nearly fatal illustration occurred during the American War. Some 
officers of the fleet then stationed in Torbay had the hardihood to attempt to 
explore it without a guide. Having lost their clue, they wandered about in 
the vain hope of retracing their steps, during which their torches were burnt 
out. They then groped about in different directions and separated. After a 
night .of horror they were released by their friends, who, alarmed at their 
absence, recollected the projected adventure and hastened to their deliver- 
ance "t. 

The Labyrinth extends from the Long Arcade, in a south-easterly direction, 
for about 46 feet, throwing off three narrow branches at and near its inner 
end. Of these, the central one, opening out of the south-eastern corner, and 
which it is proposed to call " Matthews's Passage," after one of the workmen, 
leads into the Bear's Den ; another, the mouth of which is immediately 
adjacent and opens out of the north-eastern wall, has long been famous as 
" The Little Oven," and has its other end on the mass of limestone known as 
" The Bridge "t, at a distance of upwards of 60 feet towards the north ; whilst 
the third, commencing in the southernmost corner, extends for a distance of 
at least from 15 to 20 feet towards the south-west. The Labyrinth is com- 
monly from 17 to 18 feet wide, but expands at one point to 22 feet, and 
contracts at another to 15 feet; its greatest height is 18 feet, measured from 
the bottom of the excavation. 

The walls and roof, though by no means without traces of the erosive action 
of flowing water, are in most places extremely rugged, and suggest by their 
fretted aspect that even the last of the numerous blocks of limestone encum- 
bering its floor must have fallen a long time ago. 

* See Trans. Devon. Assoc, vol. iii. (1869), p. 238. 

t Ibid. p. 460. 

\ See Eeport Brit. Assoc. 1873, p. 199. 



ON Kent's cavern^ Devonshire. 5 

It is separated from tlie Long Arcade by a massive curtain of limestone, 
descending from the roof to the depth of 9 feet, across a space about 18 feet 
wide, being, so to speak, slightly looped up at each end to form two small 
entrances. Observers unaccustomed to caverns are not unlikely to speculate 
on the cause which prevents the fall of this mass, and to hasten on lest the 
time before the event occurs may be undesirably brief. 

Mr. MacEnery had conducted some diggings in the Labyrinth, and had 
carried them to a depth of at least three feet at one of the entrances, so that 
by assuming a stooping posture ingress and egress became possible. In all 
other parts of the chamber his work was much less deep, and, on account of 
the state of the floor, was necessarily discontinuous. 

Omitting the large blocks of limestone, the deposits were : — Eii'st, or upper- 
most, a Floor of Granular Stalagmite, from which there arose several huge 
bosses also of Stalagmite, one of which was 11 feet high above the floor, whilst 
its base occupied a rudely circular space fully 15 feet in mean diameter. 

Second, a layer of Cave-earth, rarely amounting to more than a foot in 
depth, and sometimes to not more than a few inches, whilst it occasionally 
reached as much as 2 feet. 

Third. Though it may be doubted whether there ever was a Floor of the 
more ancient, the Crystalline, Stalagmite in the Labyrinth, the lower, and by 
far the greater, part of the bosses mentioned above was of that variety, and 
was covered with a comparatively thin envelope of the Granular kind, without 
any mechanical deposit between them. 

Eourth, the Breccia, or, so far as is known, the most ancient of the Cavern 
deposits, lay immediately beneath the Cave-earth, from Avhich there was 
nothing to separate it, and extended to a depth exceeding that to which the 
excavations were carried. 

In looking at the facts as they presented themselves, day after day, the 
following appears to be not improbably the history of the deposits in this 
branch of the Cavern. 

During, as well as after, the deposition of the Breccia, with its ursine relics, 
stalagmite, having now a crystalline texture, was in course of precipitation, 
and in such a way as to form, not sheets ov floors, but bosses oi a more or less 
conical form, which, whilst they rested on Breccia, had their lower slopes 
covered with the same material, so that their bases were deeply buried in 
that ancient deposit. After the close of the era of the Breccia, the precipi- 
tation was still carried on, but, as before, in such a way as to add to the 
volume of the bosses, and not to produce a floor. Then came the deposition 
of the Cave-earth, containing remains of Bear, Lion, Fox, Hyajna, Mammoth, 
Ehinoceros, Horse, Ox, and Bird — all of them, with the exception of the first 
three, unknown to the Breccia. Later still was the precipitation of that 
stalagmite which is granular instead of crystalline, and which not only added 
to the dimensions of the already massive bosses, but flowed out in sheets and 
covered the Cave-earth. Whilst all these successive operations were in pro- 
gress, blocks of limestone from time to time fell from the roof — some of them 
being buried in the Breccia at depths the excavators have not reached, some 
lying loose on the Floor of Granular Stalagmite, and others occupying all 
intermediate zones and representing all the intervening periods. 

In order to achieve the thorough exploration of the Labyrinth, it was 
necessary to break up all the bosses of stalagmite with the exception of the 
largest of them, of which a portion has been left intact, it being believed that 
it shows strikingly the utter inadequacy of the data derived from a boss to 
solve the problem of the amount of time represented by a floor, and vice versd. 



o 



6 REPORT — 1876. 

Before directing the workmen, however, to remove any of these stalagraitic 
accumulations, the Superintendents carefully examined them for inscriptions. 
Nevertheless, one inscription was overlooked — that already referred to as the 
only specimen of the kind within the Labyrinth ; and it was not until a 
portion of the largest boss was blasted oif that it was found to have on it 
" G. Knight, June 1, 18.36." 

The upper surface of both the Cave-earth and the Breccia rose, with some 
irregularities, 38 inches from the mouth of the Labyrinth to its innermost 
extremity, giving a mean ascending gradient of about 1 in 17. 

The total number of " finds " in this branch of the Cavern was 135, and 
the specimens they included were as follow : — 

Lying on the surface. — Three portions of ribs and two other bones (No. 
6780), the two latter having been cut with a sharp tool, perhaps by an 
existing butcher, and one bone of Bat in a heap of " Pipes " of Stalactite, 
probably collected by man. 

In the Granular Stalagmite. — One tooth of Lion. 

In the Cave-earth. — 32 teeth of Hyoena, 7 of Bear, 6 of Fox, 3 of Horse, 
2 of Rhinoceros, 3 plates of a molar of a young Mammoth, 1 of Lion, 1 of 
Ox, and 1 of Sheep (of doubtful position) ; several bones and portions of bone, 
including a tarsus of Bird, and two pieces of bone apparently charred ; 1 
coprolite; and 1 small chip of f jit. 

In the CnjstaUine Stalagmite. — 6 teeth of Bear, of which 5 were in one 
and the same jaw. 

In the Breccia. — 215 teeth of Bear, and a considerable number of bones, of 
which many are good specimens. 

As in all other parts of the Cavern where he had made researches, IVfr. 
MacEnery simply cast aside the material he dug up, without taking it to the 
exterior for final examination. The Superintendents took outside the 
Cavern the " broken ground " met with in the Labyrinth and examined it 
carefully by daylight, as in all previous cases of the kind. It yielded 17 
teeth of Bear, 14 of Hya3na (three of them in pieces of jaws), 2 of the Gigantic 
Irish Deer (in part of a jaw), 1 of Deer, 1 of Horse, 1 of Sheep ; bones and 
pieces of bono ; and i^art of a Crab's claw, no doubt quite recent. 

The exploration of the Labyrinth, commenced on October 28, 1875, was 
completed on July 10, 1876, upwards of 8 months having been spent on it. 

MattJieivs^s Passage.— Having finished their researches in the Labyrinth, 
the Committee proceeded at once to explore the small branch leading from it 
to the Bear's Den, and termed, as already stated, Matthews's Passage, thus 
leaving the two other and adjacent small ramifications to be undertaken on 
some future occasion. To this course they were tempted partly on account 
of the severe and protracted labour which, from their very limited breadth 
and the character of their deposits, must attend the excavation of these 
branches, and partly by the wealth of osseous remains which, from Mr. Mac- 
Enery's description, they are likely to find in the Bear's Den. 

Matthews's Passage consists of two Reaches : the first, opening out of the 
Labyrinth, extends for about 14 feet towards the south-east, where the 
second turns sharply towards east-north-east, and after a somewhat tortuous 
course for about 15 feet, enters the Bear's Den. Their height is from 9 to 
10 feet almost everywhere (measuring, as usual, from the bottom of the 
excavation, which nowhere reaches the limestone floor), and they vary from 3-5 
feet to 7 feet in width. The walls and roof, the latter especially, bear evident 
traces of the erosive action of a flowing stream, succeeded by the corrosion 



ON KENT rf CAVERN, DEVONSHIRE. T^; 

due, no doubt, to acidulated water, as the surfaces are mucli fretted. Holes, 
having the aspect of mouths of small watercourses, open out of the walls and 
roof in various places ; and about midway in the Second Reach the roof rises 
into a small water- worn dome, from the apex of which a cylindrical flue ascends 
iuto the limestone, and, like the watercourses just mentioned, is quite 
empty. 

There were but scanty traces of a Stalagmitic Floor in the First Reach, in 
which, however, the earlier explorers had here and there broken ground ; 
but throughout the entire length of the Second Reach a Floor of Granular 
Stalagmite extended from wall to waU, varying from 10 to 24 inches in 
thickness ; and at about 10 fest from its entrance there was also a portion of 
a Floor of Crystalline or old Stalagmite adhering to the left wall, whence it 
probably never extended to the opposite side. It was about 15 inches thick, 
below and almost in contact with the Granular Floor, but separated from it 
by a layer of Cave-earth about one inch thick. 

The mechanical deposits in the First Reach were the usual thin layer of 
Cave-earth above, and the Breccia of unknown depth below ; but in the 
Second Reach the space beneath the Stalagmitic Floor was mainly occupied 
with large loose masses of limestone, some of which required to be blasted 
more than once in order to remove them. The spaces between them were 
filled with Cave-earth or Breccia, with comparatively few specimens of any 
kind. 

The upper surface of the Cave-earth was almost perfectly horizontal in the 
First Reach; but in the Second there was a gradual and total ascent of 27 
inches, giving a mean gradient of about 1 in 7 for that Reach. 

Matthews's Passage yielded a total of 49 " finds," consisting of specimens 
which may be thus distributed : — 

In the Cave-earth. — 26 teeth of Hytena (some of them in portions of jaws), 
2 of Bear, 1 of an immature Mammoth, 1 of Fox, and a considerable 
number of bones, many of them being more or less broken and a few of 
them gnawed. 

In the Breccia. — 100 teeth of Bear and a large number of bones, including 
many good specimens. The richest " finds " were met with in a small 
narrow recess in the outer angle at the junction of the two Reaches, where 
the teeth and bones lay huddled confusedly together, suggesting that a rush 
of water had probably carried them to the spot they occupied. 

No trace of man was detected in any part of this branch of the Cavern. 

The exploration of Matthews's Passage, begun on 11th July, 1876, was 
completed on 31st August, having occupied about 7 weeks : and operations 
were commenced in the Bear's Den on 1st September. 

In looking over the work accomplished, and the discoveries made, since 
the Eleventh Report was presented at Bristol in 1875, the following note- 
worthy facts present themselves : — 

1st. In their Eleventh Report the Committee sketched the distribution in 
the Cavern of the remains of the various species of Mammals which characterize 
the Cave-earth. Of this sketch the following is a brief summary: — The 
Hyaena had been met with wherever the Cave-earth was found ; the Hare had 
not been detected anywhere in the " Western Division " of the Cavern — 
that most remote from the external entrances ; the Badger, Wolf, and Ox 
had not been found beyond the " Charcoal Cave ; " and relics of Horse, 
Rhinoceros, Deer, Fox, Elephant, and Lion had not appeared beyond the 
" Long Arcade." 



8 REPORT 1876. 

The discoveries which have since been made require that this sketch should 
be corrected in the following particulars : — Remains of Ox, Horse, Ehinoceros, 
Deer (?), Fox, Elephant, and Lion have all now been found beyond the Long 
Arcade, in one or more of the three branches of the Cavern explored since 
the Bristol Meeting. In all other particulars the distribution remains at 
present as sketched in 1875. 

2nd. No tooth, or, so far as is at present known, other trace of Maehcdrodus 
latidens has been met with since the last Eeport Avas drawn up. In short, the 
only evidence of the presence in the Cavern of this extinct species of Mammal 
which the Committee have detected during the continuous labour of almost 
twelve years, is the one solitary, but well-marked, incisor found 29th Julj^, 
1872 — a fact well calculated to impress one with the unsatisfactory nature 
of merely negative evidence. It cannot be doubted that had this compara- 
tively small specimen been overlooked, the palseontologists who, prior to its 
discovery, were sceptical respecting the occurrence of MacJiairodus in Kent's 
Hole, as stated by Mr. MacEnery, would have believed their scepticism to be 
strongly confirmed by the labours of your Committee, whilst the number of 
their followers would have been greatly increased. 

3rd. As has been already stated, the Committee commenced the exploration 
of the Labyrinth on 28th October, 1875, and from that time to 31st August, 
1876 (a period of upwards of ten months), they were occupied in it and in 
Matthews's Passage, both of which they completely explored ; yet, during all 
that time, and in those two important branches of the Cavern, they found no 
trace whatever of prehistoric man. Had your Committee, on receiving their 
appointment from the British Association in 1864, commenced their researches 
in either of the branches just named (and such a course was by no means 
without its advocates), instead of beginning at the external mouth of the 
Cavern and proceeding thence steadily through the successive chambers and 
galleries, there can be little or no doubt that Kent's Hole would have been 
pronounced to be utterly destitute of any evidence on the question of Human 
Antiquity, and but poorly furnished with the remains of extinct Mammalia. 
The work would probably have been closed without going further, to the 
great loss of Anthropology and Palaeontology, as well as of popular education 
in these important branches of science. 



Report of the Committee, consisting of Prof. Sylvester, Prof. 
Cayley, Prof. Hirst, Rev. Prof. Bartholomew Price, Prof. H. J. 
S. Smith, Dr. Spottiswoode, Mr. R. B. Hayward, Dr. Salmon, 
Rev. Prof. R. Townsend, Prof. Fuller, Prof. Kelland, Mr. J. M. 
Wilson, Prof. Henrici, Mr. J.W. L.Glaisher, andVroi'. Clifford, 
appointed for the purpose of considering the possibility of Imjiroving 
the Methods of Instruction in Elementary Geometry, and reappointed 
to consider the Syllabus drawn up by the Association for the Im- 
provement of Geometiical Teaching, and to report thereon. Drawn 
up by Mr. Hayward. 

In a previous Eeport (Report for 1873, p. 459) the Committee recognized the 
fact that the main practical difficulty in effecting an improvement in the 
existing methods of teaching elementary geometry is that of reconciling the 



ON METHODS OF INSTRUCTION IN ELEMENTARY GEOMETRY. 9 

claims of the teacher to greater freedom with the necessity of one fixed and 
definite standard for examination purposes. They also expressed their con- 
viction that " no text-hook that has yet heen produced is fit to succeed Euclid 
in the position of authority ; " and that in the absence of such a text-book, 
whether the existence of a standard authority in the future such as Euclid 
has been in the past be regarded as desirable or not, it is important to secure 
" the requisite degree of uniformity and no more by the pubhcation of an 
authorized Syllabus " of propositions in a definite sequence, which should be 
regarded as a standard sequence for examination purposes, and subject to 
which alone any amount of variety in demonstration and general treatment 
of the subject should be admissible. 

As it was understood that the Association for the Improvement of Geo- 
metrical Teaching was engaged in the task of drawing up such a Sj'Uabus, no 
further action was taken by the Committee until the present year, when, the 
Syllabus having been completed and published, they have proceeded to con- 
sider the same in accordance with the instructions contained in the resolution 
reappointing the Committee. 

The Committee have not considered it to bo their duty to examine the 
Syllabus in minirte detail, but rather to report on its general character and 
its fitness as a basis for an authorized standard sequence of propositions. 

The Committee have no hesitation in stating at the outset, as the result of 
their consideration of the Syllabus as a whole, that it appears to have been 
drawn up with such care, and with such regard to the essential conditions of 
the problem, as to render it highly desirable that it should be considered in 
detail by authorized representatives of the Universities and the other great 
examining bodies, of the United Kingdom with a view to its adoption, subject 
to any modifications which such detailed consideration may show to be 
necessary, as the standard for examinations in Elementary Geometry. 

It may be well to observe that the adoption of this or some such standard 
SyUabus would not necessitate the abandonment of the 'Elements of Euclid' 
as a text-book by such teachers as still preferred it to any other, as it would 
at the utmost involve only such supplementary teaching as is contained in 
the notes appended to many of the editions of Euclid now in use ; while it 
would greatly relieve that large and increasing body of teachers, who demand 
greater freedom in the treatment of geometry than under existing conditions 
they can venture to adopt. 

Having thiis expressed their opinion of the general merits of the Syllabus 
as a whole, the Committee have only further to add a few remarks on its 
more important features, which may serve to call attention to those points in 
which it differs from Euclid, and which give it a claim on the consideration 
of aU who are interested in the improvement of instruction in Geometry. 

1. Geometrical. Constructions. 

It has been found, in the experience of many who have taught Geometry to 
young beginners, that the attainment of a firm grasp of its fundamental con- 
ceptions and methods is much facilitated by a series of exercises in con- 
structions made with the ruler and compasses, such exercises being given 
either as preliminary to, or simultaneously with, the study of the earlier parts 
of Theoretical Geometry. A judicious selection of such exercises is prefixed 
to the Syllabus ; and the Committee remark with approval that here, as well 
as in the Postulates of Book I., the use of the compasses for direct transference 
of distances is formally admitted. 



10 REPORT— 1876. , 

2. Logical Introduction, 

The Syllabus is further prefaced with an introduction, in which are collected 
together and formulated the most important logical relations of the several 
propositions logically associated with a given proposition, namely its converse, its 
obverse (sometimes called its opiiosite), and its contrapositive. It is distinctly 
stated, in a note prefixed to this introduction, that it is not intended that a 
study of the abstract logical j-elations contained in it should precede the study 
of Geometry, but that the introduction should be referred to from time to 
time as instances of the applications of its principles arise, until the student 
obtains such a grasp of the principles and rules as to be able to apply them 
without difficulty. With this understanding the Committee regard the pro- 
posed logical introduction as a valuable feature of the Syllabus. 

3. Separation of Theorems and Problems — Loci. 

Throughout the Syllabus, the Problems, instead of being interspersed among 
the Theorems, are collected together in separate sections at the end of each 
Eook. This may be regarded as equivalent to the assertion of the principle 
that, while Problems are from their very nature dependent f()r the form, and 
even the possibility, of their solution on the ai'bitrary limitation of the instru- 
ments allowed to be used. Theorems being truths involving no arbitrary 
element ought to be exhibited in a form and sequence independent of such 
limitations. In other words, constructions may be rightly assumed in the 
demonstrations of theorems, whether or not they have been shown previously 
to be capable of being effected by ruler and compasses, provided only they 
can be seen from the nature of the case, or be proved, to be possible. For 
instance, the existence of the third part of an angle being regarded as 
axiomatic, the impossibility of trisecting an angle with ruler and compasses 
only ought to form no obstacle to the ])roof of a theorem for which the trisec- 
tion of an angle is required. It should be remembered that the acceptance 
of the principle here asserted by no means necessitates in ieacAinr/ that separa- 
tion of Theorems from Problems which seems desirable in a syllabus. It is 
probable that most teachers would prefer to introduce problems, not as a 
separate section of geometry, but rather in connexion with the theorems with 
Avhich they are essentially related. The S3'llabu8 in this respect leaves com- 
plete freedom to the teacher. 

The early introduction of the notion of a Locus and its use in the solution 
of problems by the intersection of Loci the Committee regard with favour ; and 
they observe with satisfaction that the Syllabus rightly insists on the demon- 
stration of two theorems (a theorem, and either its converse or its obverse) as 
necessary for the complete establishment of a locus, a point which is too often 
neglected in the investigation of loci, 

4. Book I. The Straight Line. 

The Definitions are substantially those of Euclid. An attempt to give a 
real definition of a straight line (Euclid's is only verbal) is to be commended, 
though the wording is difficult, and would for a beginner require detailed 
and familiar explanation. 

The definition of an an|le is another of the elementary difficulties of Geo- 
metry. The Syllabus in a note asserts that " an angle is a simple concept in- 
capable of definition, properly so called," but enters into a somewhat detailed 



ON METHODS OF INSTRUCTION IN ELEMENTARY GEOMETRY. 11 

explanation in ■whicli the notion of rotation is freely but judiciously used. The 
Syllabus does not (like Euclid) limit the notion of an angle to ono less than 
two right angles, but it does not explicitly recognize an angle greater than 
four right angles. Possibly, considering the difficulties of expression which 
the complete notion of an angle of unlimited magnitude involves, this limita- 
tion at the outset is wise. The Committee note with approval the use of the 
term conjugate for the two angles which, being contained by the same pair of 
lines drawn from a point, together make up four right angles. 

They also approve the introduction of the term " identically equal " for 
figures which, differing only in respect of position, can be made to coincide 
•with one another, whilo the term "equal" is reserved for such as are equal 
in area, but not necessarily in other respects. 

The Syllabus divides the Axioms (as, indeed, Euclid did) into General 
Axioms (Euclid's Kouai eyvoiai), which find their fitting place in the Logical 
Introduction, and specially Geometrical Axioms (Euclid's aJr/z/iara), which 
arc nearly those of EucUd — that about the equality of right angles being 
omitted, while that asserting that "two straight lines cannot enclose a space" 
is extended so as to assert coincidence beyond as well as between the two 
points which coincide. 

The Postulates are those of Euclid's ' Elements,' with a modification in the 
third postulate, which admits of the direct transference of distances by the 
compasses, as before remarked. 

The Theorems of Book I. are mainly those of Euclid I. 1-34, rearranged. 
The guiding principle of the rearrangement appears to have been the nearness 
or remoteness of the theorems from the possibility of proof by the direct appli- 
cation of the fundamental principle of superposition, the free use of this 
principle being indicated as desirable in many cases where Euclid j^refers to 
keep it out of sight. 

The discussion of the cases of identical equality of two triangles is rendered 
complete by the introduction of a theorem asserting the true conclusion from 
the equality of two sides and a non-included angle in each, namely, that the 
other non-included angles are either equal or supplementary, and that in the 
former case only are the triangles identically equal. 

For the treatment of Parallels, Playfair's Axiom that "Two straight lines 
that intersect one another cannot both be parallel to the same straight line," 
has been substituted for Euchd's twelfth Axiom, and, in the opinion of the 
Committee, judiciously. It may, in fact, be regarded as merely an improved 
form of that axiom. 

5. Book II. Areas. 

This book contains in thirteen Theorems the various theorems contained in 
Euclid between I. 35 and the end of Book II. Beyond noting the fact that it 
brings together more completely than in Euclid those theorems which are 
naturally related to one another, no comment is necessary which is not of the 
nature of that detailed criticism which the Committee do not think it their 
duty to offer. 

6. Book III. TJie Circle. 

In this Book the sequence of Theorems differs materially from that of 
Euclid, those propositions being placed first which are fundamental in the 
sense that they follow directly from supei-position. Other criticisms which 



13 REPORT — 1876. 1 

miglit be offered on this part of the Syllabus are chiefly on points of detail on 
which the Committee think it unnecessary here to enter. 

They would remark, however, with respect to the two modes of treatment 
of tangents in the Syllabus, that they would not recommend the second 
(depending on the notion of limits) in any case as a substitute for the first, 
however desirable it may be that it should be freely used by way of illustra- 
tion and as leading up to the methods of Higher Geometry. 

7. Eooks IV and V. Ratio and Proportion, and their application to Geometry 

A theory of Proportion which shall be at once perfectly rigorous and com- 
plete is necessarily difficult. The Committee recognize with satisfaction that 
the Syllabus does not attempt to attain simplicity by any sacrifice of rigour, 
nor in Book IV. by any sacrifice of completeness. In Book IV. the theory is 
essentially that of Euclid in his famous, though (at the present day) little 
studied, Fifth Book : it is suggested, however, by an unusually full indication 
in this part of the Syllabus of the forms of demonstration recommended, that 
his theory may be presented in a form more easy to be grasped and applied 
by the adoption of the late Prof, de Morgan's notation, in which magnitudes 
are denoted by capital letters, instead of by straight lines, and their multiples 
by prefixing to the capitals small letters denoting integral numbers, instead 
of denoting them by longer lines. Opinions will probably differ as to the 
wisdom of retaining Euclid's treatment in any shape*; but the Committee 
doubt whether any rival theory, which is equaUij rigorous and equallij com- 
plete, would be more generally accepted. 

It may, however, be thought that this complete theory is one which the 
ordinary student can hardly be expected to master at an early stage of his 
mathematical studies, even though he may be well prepared for the study of the 
geometrical applications of the theory of Proportion. At the same time it is 
undesirable that the study of Similarity of Figures &c. should be commenced 
without some definite groundwork of demonstrated properties of Eatios and 
Proportions. The Syllabus suggests a mode of meeting this difficulty by pre- 
fixing to Book V. an indication of a method of treatment of the general 
doctrine of proportion, in which greater simplicity is obtained, not by the 
sacrifice of rigour, but by a certain sacrifice of completeness, in limiting the 
magnitudes considered to such as are commensKrahle. 

The notion of Eatio may be regarded as an extension and generalization of 
the notion of quantvpUcity, the simplest expression of which is contained in 
the question, "How many times does a magnitude A contain another magni- 
tude B ? " This question may be generalized so as to apply to any pair of 
commensurable magnitudes in two ways — the question taking the shape either 
"How many times does A contain some aliquot part of B?" or else " What 
multiples of A and B are equal to one another?" The former leads to a 
treatment of proportion such as is usually given with more or less exactness 
in treatises on Arithmetic or Algebra, while the latter leads to a treatment 
similar in principle to Euclid's, but simplified by its limitation to commensu- 
rables. The Syllabus indicates a few of the more important general properties 
of proportion which ought to be proved by one or other of these methods, but 
leaves it open to the teacher to adopt whichever mode of treatment he may 
prefer. 

In the Geometrical Applications of Proportion the Syllabus groups together 
* Prof. Cayley is strongly of opinion that it^^ought to be retained. 



ON THE B.A. UNITS OF ELECTRICAL RESISTANCE. 13 

all the theorems which directly depend on the definition of proportion, indi- 
cating that the demonstrations are to be adapted to the complete or to the 
partial theory according as the one or other has been studied. Alter these 
follow the usual standard theorems on Similar Pigures, &c., on which it is un- 
necessary for the Committee to oifer any comment. 

The Association for the Improvement of Geometrical Teaching has not yet 
published any Syllabus of Solid Geometry. Should the present Syllabus of 
Plane Geometry be successful in leading to the establishment of a standard 
sequence of propositions in that subject, it is to be hoped that the Association 
will continue its labours in the field of Solid Geometry, where the Committee 
believe they are equally needed. 



Results of a Comparison of the British- Association Units of Electrical 
Resistance. By G. Chrystal and S. A. Satjnder*. 

[A communication ordered by the General Committee to be printed in extenso 

among the Reports.] 

BifficuJtii's encountered. — The difficulties of the kind of measurement we 
had to make are confined almost entirely to the temperature determinations. 
Were it not for these a much higher degree of accuracy could be attained ; 
for while resistances comparable with the B.A. unit can be measured with- 
out difficulty to the 100,000th part, it is very difficult to determine the tempe- 
rature of a wire imbedded in paraffin, as are the wires of the standards, 
nearer than the one tenth of a degree Centigrade, an error to which extent 
entails in some of the coils an error of -03 per cent, of resistance. 

A mere comparison of the coils at the temperatures given on page 483 of 
the B.A. Report on Electrical Standards (1867)t would hardly have been satis- 
factory, since it would have given no check on the accuracy of the observa- 
tions and atforded no information as to the temperature value of a variation 
in resistance, and conversely. 

Object aimed at. — The object aimed at in the experiments was to get the 
diff'erences between the resistances of the several coils at some standard 
temperature, and also the coefficients of variation of resistance with tempe- 
rature in the neighbourhood of the standard temperature. 

That it is inadmissible to apply to any given coil the variation-coefficient 
for its supposed material, as found by Matthiessen and others from experi- 
ments on naked wires, is abundantly evident. This appears very strikingly 
in the case of coils Nos. 2 and 3 (A and B in our subsequent numbering) ; and 
an examination of the results of Lenz, Arndtsen, Siemens, and others for 
platinum shows that within certain limits its behaviour is very uncertain. 
This arises no doubt from the presence of more or less iridium or other 
platinoids, a small admixture of which, without altering the value of platinum 
commerciall}', aftects its electric resistance very considerably. 

* In the spring of last year a series of experiments was made by one of the authors 
(G. Chrystal) with a view of comparing the different resistance-coils of the set of British- 
Association units formerly deposited at Kew Observatory and now in the Cavendish 
Laboratory at Cambridge. In the month of October a final set of experiments was made, 
which was the work of both of us, sometimes working together and sometimes separately. 

t Or Eeprint, p. 146. 



14 REPORT 1876. 

Preliminary experiments. — The preliminary experiments gave the differ- 
ences between the coils and the variation-coefficients approximately. 

The results appeated in some cases different from former measurements, 
so that it was thought better not to rely on these, but to make a more careful 
set of experiments on which to found the final comparison. 

Ai^proximate coefficient of " Flat Coil " and Middle Coils. — The variation- 
coefficient of the " Flat Coil " was taken from the preliminary experiments. 
This was given by a fairly good series of ex]5eriment8 ; and a first approxi- 
mation was considered sufficient, since the coil during the final experiments 
never varied in temperature more tban two degrees, being always bathed in 
the tap-water. A similar remark applies to the middle coils. The coils used 
for middle coils were 29 and 43 (F and G) when neither of these was being 
measured, in which case 2 and 3 (A and B) were used. The coefficients of 
these coils, so far as required for small temperature-corrections, were taken 
from the preliminary experiments. 

Method of experimenting. — The method used in the final experiments was 
as follows : — 

First. AH the coils (the flat coil, the two middle coils, and the coil to bo 
compared with the flat coil) were bathed in a stream of tap-water, the tem- 
perature of which was carefully taken by means of a Casella's thermometer 
(lent us by Mr. Gordon), reading to tenths of a degree Centigrade and easily 
estimable to hundredths. After the temperature of the stream had been con- 
stant for twenty minutes or so, the difference between the coil to be compared 
and the flat coil was found. 

Secondly. Another series of experiments was made in which the flat coil 
and the middle coils were kept at the temperature of the tap as before ; but 
the remaining coil was raised by careful nursing, which lasted two hours or 
more, to the temperature (or to one of the temperatures) at which, ac- 
cording to the B.A. Report, it is correct. 

Lastly. The coils Avere compared with each other at the standard tempera- 
tures, the middle coils being kept at the temperature of the tap-water. 

Variation-coefficients, how found. — The first two sets were used to give the 
variation-coefficients, being peculiarly fitted to do so, because in them the 
temperature of the flat coil did not alter much in comparison with the altera- 
tion in the coil compared with it. 

Differences between the coils, how found. — Then using the low-temperature 
experiments the differences of resistance between the respective coils and the 
flat coil (all at lO"^ C.) were found. 

Control experinwnts, how used. — From this, of course, the difference 
between any two coils at any temperatures could be calculated. This was 
done for the old standard temperatures, and the results compared with the 
results of direct experiment obtained from our third set of experiments. 
This gave a test of the accuracy of our work ; and it is on this mainly that 
we rely in claiming to have stated the temperatures at which the coils are . 
equal within 0°'l C. in all cases. 

Degree of accuracy. — The degree of accuracy of resistance varies, of course, 
for the different coils. For the platinum units 0"-l C. corresponds to a 
variation of "03 per cent, resistance, for the platinum-silver to about -002 
per cent. 

In the B.A. Eeport, 1865 (p. 303)*, aUthe coils are stated to be accurate at 
the temperatures indicated within -01 per cent. This corresponds to about 
one thirtieth of a degree Centigrade for the platinum units. It is not stated 

* Eeprint, p. 137 



ON THE B.A. UNITS OF ELECTRICAL RESISTANCE. 



15 



how this degree of accuracy was attained. Some such statement was per- 
haps necessarj', considering the difficulty of controlling the temperature of an 
inaccessible wire, even within 1° Centigrade. 

Arranr/ement ^'c. of apparatus. — The instruments used in these experiments 
for resistance measurements were theWheatstone's bridge and Thomson's gal- 
vanometer belonging to the Association. The arrangements in the low-tempe- 
rature experiments were as in the annexed figure. At one corner of a large 




table is the bridge A B (see B.A. Report, 1864, p. 353*) ; by means of mercury- 
cups at D and Gr, are inserted the flat coil and the coil being compared with it ; 
at E and JF are similarly inserted the middle coils, which were always two of 
the units, as small and as nearly equal in temperature-variation as possible. 
X, Y, Z are three earthenware jars in which the coils are placed ; these stand in 
a trough, V W, provided with a waste-pipe going to the sink. The jars were 
kept constantly overflowing by means of a feed-pipe fitted with an ofi'set for 
each. The temperature in all three jars was carefully observed, and it was 
found that after the tap had been turned on for fifteen minutes or so the 
temperature in all three in general became constant, and remained so within 
a tenth of a degree for a long time. Now and then irregularities occurred, 
which caused the rejection of the results concerned. Thin wires go from E 
and from the contact-block C to the galvanometer at the other end of the 
table. The last adjustments of the balance were made by observing the 
spot on the galvanometer-scale with the telescope from where the ob- 
server sits. The battery- circuit terminates at H and J, and is made and 
broken by means of a treadle worked by the observer's foot. A small 
Leclanche's cell was found sufficient to indicate a deviation from balance 
of a tenth of a millimetre on the bridge-scale. Since the contact of the 
block-piece could not be relied on within less than this, no higher battery- 
power was ever used. 

Thermoelectric disturbances. — To avoid thermoelectric currents, oAving to 
the junction of copper with brass at the block, the button of the block-piece 
was never touched by the fingers, but always by means of two pieces of 
wood, which were exchanged now and again to prevent heating. It was 

» Reprint, p. 119. 



16 RFPORT 1876. 

louad impossible to avoid tliis disturbance altogether ; and accordingly the 
following mode of procedure was adopted : — 

Direct magnetic disturbances. — We first carefully investigated whether 
there was any direct magnetic effect on the galvanometer owing to the 
currents in the apparatus ; this was done by simply short-circuiting the 
galvanometer. No such effect could be detected. Being assured of this, we 
always operated as follows : — Threw in the galvanometer by pressing down the 
button, then allowed the needle to come to rest with the small permanent 
deflection due to the thermoelectric current. If now, on pressing down the 
treadle for an instant, there was no motion of the spot, we concluded that 
there was a balance. It is to be noticed that since we are near balance 
the battery-circuit is conjugate to the galvanometer- circuit, and that, there- 
fore, making or breaking the battery-circuit does not alter the effective resis- 
tance opposed to any electromotive force, thermoelectric or other, in the 
galvanometer-circuit. (Of this we also assured ourselves by direct experi- 
ment.) Another advantage of this method is that it ensures the least 
possible use of the battery, and thus avoids disturbances from heating. 
During our final experiments both of us had acquired by considerable j^rac- 
tice an acquaintance with the indications of the galvanometer, which enabled 
us to adjuib^t the balance quickly, and thus secure in greater measure the 
advantage above mentioned. 

Self- and mutual induction. — It is also worth remarking that from the 
way the B.A. unit coils are wound, and from the general arrangement of 
the apparatus, neither self- nor mutual induction could have any sensible 
disturbing effects in our experiments *. 

Method of using bridge for finding coejjUcients of variation Sfc. — In finding the 
variation-coefficients of the coils the bridge arrangement was used in the way 
described in the Report on Electrical Standards, 1864 (p. 353, &c.) ; but in 
finding the difference between the resistances of two coils, the method de- 
scribed by Prof. Foster (in the Journal of the Society of Telegraph Engineers, 
October 1874) was used. In this method the bridge is first read with the 
normal coil and the coil to be compared- with it in one position, and then 
the coils are interchanged ; the difference of the bridge-readings gives the 
required difference of resistance in units of the bridge. 

Bridge-miits. — The unit in which we shall state our results further on is 
the resistance of a tenth of a millimetre of the bridge-wire, which is a metre 
long and has a resistance of about •075 ohm. 

Calibration of bridge and thermometer. — The wire was carefully calibrated, 
but no errors were found large enough to affect our results. 

The thermometer used was also compared with a standard thermometer 
belonging to the laboratory, and the corrected temperatures are in every 
case given. The degree of accuracy attained in this last compaiison was pro- 
bably about -05 Centigrade. 

Description of coils in the case. — In the case containing the coils there 
are altogether fourteen coils. Five of these are multiples of the unit, viz. 
2, 3, 5, 8, and 10, and have brass labels on them ; but the inscriptions have 
never been completed by filling in the last two figures of the temperature at 
which they are equal to the standard. We have not been able to get any 
description of these whatever, and have therefore not measured them. 
Besides these there accompany the box two coils marked A and B, which 
are not units, and a flat coil described as a normal coil, besides a set of 

* Another precaution of less importance was to cover the platinum-iridium wire of the 
bridge witii pieces of wood to screen it from dust and radiation from the body of the 
observer. 



ON THE B.A. UNITS OF ELECTRICAL RESISTANCE. 



17 



tubes for mercury units. The flat coil we used and found very couvenient, 
both from its shape and on account of its small variatiou-coefticieut, 
which was only 3i per deg. Gent, in the above-mentioned units. 
The case contains altogether nine unit coils, viz. : — 

2 Pt Ir Nos. 2 and 3. 

2 Au Ag „ 57 and 53. 

2 Pt „ 35 and 3(3. 

3 Pt Ag „ 6, 43, and 29. 

Of the first six, all except 57, which we have not measured, are mentioned at 
p. 146 of the Reports, but none of them have proper labels. All, however, 
were marked in some way or other so as to be identifiable. Of the last three 
all have labels, which are complete in 6 and 43. Nos. and 21) do not 
appear in the Reports. The temperature on 43, which does appear, agrees 
with that given on p. 146. We used 29 as a companion middle coil to 43, 
because its variation-coefficient was small and nearly equal to that of 43 ; 
but otherwise we have not bestowed much care on it. 

Coils measured. — The coils which we have measured are, therefore, 2, 3, 
58, 35, 36, 29, 43. These we call for convenience A, B, C, D, E, F, G. 
The normal coil is the flat coil at 10° Centigrade. This temperature is 
chosen because it was the lower limit of the temperature of the tap-water, 
which varied on diflerent days from 10° to 12°, though it was very constant 
during a good part of any one day. As far as our experience went, the use 
of a stream of tap-water was the best as well as most convenient way of 
reducing the coils to a known temperature *. 

Results of comparison : the first statement. — The following Table exhibits our 
results in "the way which lies nearest the method by which they were ob- 
tained : — 

R stands' for resistance of flat coil at 10° C. 

X „ „ of the respective coils A, B, &c. at 10° C. 

\ „ variation- coefficients. 



Coil. 


\. 


No. of results 
ol'whichmean. 


Greatest devi- 
ation from 
mean. | 


E-X. 


No. of results 
of which mean. 


Greatest deri- 

atiou from 

mean. 


Flat coil. 


3-1 












A 
B 

C' 
D 
E 
F 
Q 


197 

200 

95 

401 

393 

28 

35 


6 
3 
6 
10 
3 
1 
4 


4 
2 
(i 
5 
4 

"■2 


8fi7 
811 
159 
2071 
1954 
-82 
-57 


5 
3 

2 

5 
3 
1 
2 


19 
3 
2 

24 

8 

b 



Second statement. — The above is the most convenient form of representing 
our results ; but for the sake of comparison we give also the following (Y 
now stands for the resistance of the coils A, B, C, &c., at the temperatures, 
or at some one of them, given at p. 483, B.A. Report, 1867 1) : — 

* One of us, in endeavouring to find the conductivity of paraffin, has since found that 
the teuiperature of a wire imbedded in a much greater thickness of paraffin thixn thei-e is 
in the B.A. coils, reaches the temperature of the tap-water in considerably less than an 
hour, the paraffin-jacket having been at a temperature of about 30° throughout to start 
with. . t Eeprint, p. 14(3. 

]876. c 



18 



KEPOBT — 1876. 



Coil. 


Temp, in Eeport. 


E-Y. 


A 


160 


-315 


B 


15-8 


-349 


C 


15-3 


-344 


D 


15-7 


-215 


E 


15-7 


-286 


F 




, 


G 


15-2 


-239 



It will thus be seen that B and C are practically equal at the temperature3 
given, while A does not diflfer very much from these. D and E are not very 
different hiter se, but differ somewhat from the first three; while G, con- 
sidering its small coefficient, is considerably out. 

Statement of standard temperatures. — If we consider B and C to be right 
at the temperatures given above and reduce the others so as to be equal 
to them, we should get the following Table of standard temperatures ; — 



Coil. 


Standard temp. 


A 


o 

161 


B 


16-8 


C 


15-3 


D 


160 


E 


15-8 


F 


194 


G 


18-2 



Results of control experiments. — In the next place we give the results of 
our control experiments, in which the several coils were nursed to tempera- 
tures very near those given in the Keport, and then compared with each 
other. The small deviations from the temperatures in the Beport arise from 
thermometer corrections. The differences thus found are given side by side 
with those calculated from the data given above ; the differences are given 
in the next column, and in the last the greatest possible difference, owing to 
an error of 0°-l C. in temperature determiuation. 



Coils. 


Temp. 




Calculated. 


Observed. 


Difference. 


Maximum 
Difference. 


A 


15-89 


1 B-A 


34 


20 


+14 


40 


B 


15-69 


1 C-A 


42 


19 


+23 


29 


C 


15-20 


' B-C 


-8 


+2 


-10 


29 


D 


15-59 


C-D 


163 


180 


-17 


49 


E 


15-49 


C-E 


132 


119 


+ 13 


48 


F 


13-45 


E-D 


31 


70 


-39 


79 


G 


15-11 


C-G 


100 


102 


_ 2 


13 






G-D 


63 


43 


+20 


44 






C-G 


100 


103 


- 3 


13 






C-F 


156 


150 


+ 6 


12 






G-F 


56 


50 


+ 6 


6 , 



It appears, therefore, that the differences between the observed and calcu- 
lated values are always less than what would arise in the most unfavourable 
case, owing to an error of 0°-l C. in the temperature determinations. 



ON THE TIIEIiJIAL CONDUCTIVITIES Ol' CERTAIN ROCKS. 



19 



Ifou^h comparison of coefficients with IJatthiessen's. — It is perhaps worth 
■while to give the following rough comparison between the results for the 
A ariation-coefficients which we have obtained in the neighbourhood of 10^ C. 
with the mean results of Matthiessen. 





Per cent, increase 
per 1° C. 


j Matth. 


Ptir 


■150 
•071 
■300 

[ •026 *■ 


■059 
•066 
•295 

•031 


Au Ag 

Pt 


Pt Ao- 





There is no striking difference except in the case of Pt Ir, where the 
alloy of which the coil is made must approach much nearer a pure metal 
than Matthiesseu's alloy (33-4 per cent, iridium) did. 

Biscrepaney in Coil G tvith former measurements. — The only other point to 
which we have to call attention is the discrepancj^ between former and 
present measurements in the coil G, whose resistance seems to have gone 
down since it was last tested. 

In conclusion we venture to suggest two alterations in the construction of 
standard coils, which, as far as our experience goes, would be improvements. 

First, to make them flat instead of cylindrical. This would facilitate 
stirring when the coils are immersed in any liquid. 

Secondly, to insert as near the wire as possible a properly insulated junction 
of a thermoelectric couple, the other junction of which should be fastened on 
the outer case of the coil. Several of these fitted to each coil would do away 
with a great deal of the trouble and uncertainty attending the temperature 
determinations required in comparing and copying standards. 



Third Rejiort of a Committee, consisting of Prof. A. S. HerscheLj 
B.A., F.R.A.S., and G. A. Lebour, F.G.S., on Experiments to 
determine the Thermal Conductivities of certain Rocks, showing 
especially the Geological Aspects of the Investigation, 

The object originally proposed by the Committee was to arrange and classify 
the most commonly occurring rocks experimentally according to their powers 
of conducting heat ; and it has hitherto been so far successfully attained that 
the thermal conducti\dties of an extensive series of ordinarily occurring rocks 
have been shown to differ from each other on a very strongly marked scale of 
gradation, which it was endeavoured to represent graphically in the Com- 
mittee's last Report by a series of ascending steps of absolute thermal resist- 
ance, or resistance to the passage of heat offered by the different rocks. To 
every 200 imits of this ascending scale a new letter of the alphabet, starting 
■with A for the interval 0-200 of absolute resistance, was assigned ; the values 
of the resistances were shown graphically, and the various rocks that arrange 
themselves under the several classes so formed could be readily discerned. 
By adopting this graphical mode of representation the values of certain 

c2 



20 REPORT— 1876. 

thermal resistances observed during the past year and communicated in this 
Report may be exhibited with equal clearness, and an easy comparison may 
by this means be made of the values found in this and last year's series of 
experiments where the same rock-specimens, or specimens of very closely 
allied kinds of rock, were submitted in the former and in this year's series 
to examination. A slight change, however, is here introduced in briefly 
describing the results obtained numerically, by employing, instead of the sig- 
nificant figures of those results (as was done in the last Report), the tenth 
part of them as a brief expression for the absolute thermal conductivity. 
Thus the absolute thermal conductivity of galena in the present list being 
0-00705 in centimetre-gramme-second units, hitherto described for brevity by 
its significant figures 705, will be spoken of in this Report as 70-5, to which 
the meaning may conveniently be attached that 70"5 gramme-degree units of 
heat per second pass through a plate of galena one centimetre thick, having 
an area of one square metre, for a temperature-difference of one degree be- 
tween its faces. 

The method of investigation without the use of a thermopile has hitherto 
proved unsuccessful, no soft material capable of effecting a close junction 
with the rocks having yet been found of sufficiently constant resistance to 
afford a useful standard of comparison with them when the rocks are intro- 
duced between its layers ; but the progress of the investigation has shown 
that a simple water-film (if it could be preserved from drying off with porous 
rocks) effects a complete junction between them and any impervious surface, 
as that of caoutchouc, against which they are pressed. A similar film of oil, 
it appears from some experiments recorded in the presscnt list, is less effective 
for the purpose ; and to ensure a constant water-film in which the thin wires 
of the thermopile could be placed, pieces of well-soaked bladder kept soft in 
water rendered antiseptic with carbolic acid were laid on the india-rubber 
faces of the boiler and cooler, so as to press the thermopile-wires against the 
rock with a constantly moist and uniformly wet surface. The duration of an 
experiment and the temperature to which they were exposed (usually be- 
tween 100° and 120° l^'.) were never so great as to cause the bladders to 
approach dryness before the termination of the experiment. The proportion 
of moisture absorbed by the rocks (when sensibly porous) was ascertained, 
and it was always such a small fraction of that imbibed by the same rocks 
thoroughly soaked in vacuo that it i^robably exercised a scarcely sensible 
influence on the results. Its amount, and that of the full quantity of water 
absorbable by the porous rocks tested, is stated in the list; and from the 
corresponding alteration of the observed conductivity some idea of the pro- 
bable correction necessary to be applied for the presence of moisture in some 
of the porous rocks during the process of the experiment may be obtained. 

The two chief defects of the thermopiles used hitherto had been their 
thickness (making them intrude too far from the rock-surface into the badly 
conducting strata with which it is in contact), and the false thermoelectric 
currents proceeding from irregularities of material and internal condition of 
the wires subjected to great varieties of temperature along their length. To 
diminish the former source of error, Avires less than half a millimetre (040 
millim., or -^ inch) in .diameter were used and neatly soldered at the 
junctions ; and to counteract as far as possible the remaining evil, they were 
chosen of the most dissimilar metals (iron and German sUver), and twelve 
junctions above and twelve below the rock-plate formed a continuous circuit 
giving a very strong thermoelectric current. The whole resistance of the 
circuit (including the 20 ohms usually added to bring its indications con- 
veniently within the scale of a Thomson's reflecting galvanometer) was 40 



ON THE THERMAL CONDUCTIVITIES OF CERTAIN ROCKS. 21 

ohms when the wires were coupled for observing a difference of temperature ; 
and it was assumed that, with this resistance and with the probable tendency 
of twelve wires similarly circumstanced to neutralize each other's false efl'ects, 
no sensible errors from local disturbances would arise. The instrument was 
submitted to some careful tests, with a result that, at the highest temperatures 
of the experiments, errors in the temperature- difference amounting to about 
1° F. may have been committed. At the ordinary temperatures of the wires 
between 100° and 120° F. it was found, by substituting a heated iron disk 
(coated on the faces with thin paper) in the place of a rock-plate, so as to 
heat both sets of wires equally, that the only permanent deviations produced 
as the plate sunk verj- slowly in temperature also sunk gradually with it from 
an equivalent value of about |° to about g° upon the scale. As the coiTect- 
ness of the small temperature-differences (of 6° and upwards) lying usually 
between the above two temperatures was thus fairly checked, and for exception- 
all}' higher differences and temperatxires the conditions could not easily be more 
exactly assimilated to those of the actual experiments so as to control and 
estimate them, the effects of these small errors have not been further regarded 
in the calculations ; but in order to avoid changes of value in the divisions of 
the scale, and to enable the actual temperature of each set of wire-junctions 
to be directly observed, an arrangement of the thermopile was made by which 
each set of junctions could be separately combined with a similar set in con- 
tinuous circuit with the galvanometer placed in a small rectangular water- 
bath. The latter is made of tin, and, as well as its lid, is well jacketed with 
cork, and provided with an agitator ; so that by adding hot or cold water, 
which can be withdrawn below, any temperature of the water in the bath 
can be obtained. A simple commutator enables the circuit with the galvano- 
meter to be closed, either through the two principal sets of junctions or 
through one of them and through a set corresponding to it in the bath ; so 
that by changing the temperature of the latter until no current passes through 
the circuit the actual temperature of each rock-face could be observed. This 
mode of observation is fi-ee from all objections, excepting those of false 
currents arising in long wires and plates of the same metal maintained at 
very various temperatures ; but with the exception of the twelve loops of 
German-silver wire projecting on one side from the rock-plate, the corre- 
sponding loops on the other side, and all the rest of the circuits made to the 
galvanometer, were formed from the same piece of iron wire freshly annealed. 
The comb-like teeth of the commutator are pieces of narrow hoop-iron about 
3 inches long, closely set together in wood, and also thoroughly annealed, to 
which the proper terminals of iron wire are soldered at their feet, while the 
upper ends are filed to chisel-edges ; and a small hand-rack of iron wedges set 
on wood at proper distances apart, thrust between them in different positions, 
completes the connexion in the three different orders that are required. The 
additional branch wires used in the arrangement are few, and, as will be seen 
from the following description, add very little to the total lengths of iron 
wire which conduct the currents. The twelve-turn coil of wire in which the 
rock is pressed consists of twelve half-turns or loops of German silver and 
the same number of iron loops. The twelfth looj) of German silver (see 
figure, p. 22) completes the circuit or connexion from the beginning to the 
end of the coil through the medium of the galvanometer. There are 
thus twelve junctions of dissimilar metals above, and twelve below the rock- 
plate in a closed circuit with the galvanometer. To produce a new set of 
twelve junctions corresponding to each of these, the loops of German-silver 
wire are all cut through in the middle, and the free ends soldered to twenty- 
four short pieces of iron wire, the junctions being laid side by side across a 



22 



REPORT — 1876. 



narrow water-tight trough formed of three or four rectangular washers of 
caoutchouc laid on a shest-caoutchouc floor, upon which the sides of the rectan- 
gular tin bath, open at the top and bottom, are pressed down. The tin bath is 
5 inches long (the same as the width of the rock-sections), nearly the same 
height, and 2 inches wide ; and it is provided with a false bottom, through 
the perforations of which the water reaches the wires, and is kept agitated 
above by a thermometer passing through a longitudinal slit in the lid and 
attached to a small tin blade, without injuring them. The twenty-four 
extremities of iron wire projecting 1 or 2 inches beyond the bottom of the 
bath are there soldered to the feet of twenty-four teeth of the commutator, 
and the twelve iron wedges of the hand-rack being inserted between the 
points of these teeth, completes the circuit connexion in the ordinary way for 
observing a diffei'ence of temperature between the two principal sets of 
junctions of the thermopile. As a proof of the trustworthy action of the 
instrument, it may be mentioned that when, in the course of an experiment, 
the reading of the galvanometer with the thermopile thus joined up was 
being noted, and water of various temperatures from 60° F. to 160° F. was 
poured into the bath where the twenty-four supplementary junctions are 
placed and are all included in the circuit, not the smallest effect was pro- 
duced upon the reading as soon as the water in the bath had by gentle 
agitation become uniform throughout in temperature. Not only are the two 
opposing sets of twelve junctions heated in the bath on the average all of 
exactly equal force, so as to balance each other, but the false currents, which 
in such ranges of temperature must be evoked with sensible intensity if any 
of them should prevail, either neutralize each other exactly or are entirely 
absent, as it appears equally probable to conjecture, in this portion of the 
apparatus. As regards formation of the circuit through one of the principal 
sets of junctions only, accompanied by a corresponding set of junctions in the 
bath, this is accomplished as is represented in the annexed outline sketch, 
where two pairs of junctions only 
(a b, a V), above and below the rock- 
plate, are shown, thin lines represent- 
ing iron and thick lines German-silver 
wire. B is the bath in which the 
supplementary junctions, s'sss', ob- 
tained by severing the loops of German- 
silver wire, as at ss, are immersed. 
The two extreme half-loops and cor- 
responding teeth of the commutator 
serve to complete the circuit with the 
galvanometer; and the arrangement 
for every additional severed loop of 
German-silver wire introduced be- 
tween them will easily be apprehended 
from the single intermediate one, 5 s, 
here shown. The iron wedges, lu lu iv, 
of the rack-piece pushed downwards 
between. the yielding iron blades of the 
commutator are shown by black dots, 
forming a circuit in the usual manner 
for obtaining a reading of difference 
of temperature between the junctions 
rt rt', h b'. Each loop or half- turn (bfa, 
b'f'a') of iron wire is continued past 




ON THE THERMAL CONDUCTIVITIES OF CERTAIN ROCKS. 23 

tho upper junctions (a, a') and carried through the, bath to a separate tooth of 
the commutator ; and by moving the wedges of the rack-piece together one 
tooth-space to tho right or left (as shown in new positions by a x in tho 
figure), combinations of junctions in the bath with junctions (a a') above or 
{bb') below the rock-plate are put into connexion with the galvanometer. 

By the same mode of trial as before, a heated iron plate coated with thin 
paper being substituted in the place of an experimental plate, the tempe- 
ratures of its two faces, as exhibited by the thermometer in the bath when 
the commutator was shifted from one of its two supplementary positions to 
the other, were sensibly the same as the heated plate slowly cooled, and no 
false difference of temperature arising from false currents differently excited 
in the two circuits thus joined up were found to be indicated as a result of 
several such determinations of the really equal temperatures of the two faces 
of the plate. This mode of observing the actual temperatures and the 
temperature-differences of the rock-faces in the present series of experiments 
was therefore constantly employed, and the values of the scale-divisions in 
degrees for the other more usual method of employing the thermopile were 
not determined with special care, although this adjustment of the commutator 
was also used to check and follow the gradual variations of temperature- 
difference that were less speedily, although more certainly, measured by the 
absolute method of determination. The only case of failure to observe a 
sensible difference of temperature between the two sides of an experimental 
plate occurred with iron-pyrites, which (as weU as galena), being a good 
conductor of electricity, it was foimd necessary to coat with two thicknesses 
of the thinnest tissue-paper on each face; and the apparent difference of 
temperature recorded (which was decidedly less than 1°) may have arisen 
from the resistance offered by the slight obstructions of these thin paper 
sheets (soaked with water) to the passage of the heat : although certainly very 
great, no definite value of the thermal conductivity of ordinary iron-pyrites 
can therefore be assigned. It was also necessary to use oil junctions instead 
of wet bladders, from the galvanic effects produced by the saturated salt 
solution, when rock-salt was tested ; and it appears probable from some 
measurements of quartz with the same kind of luting that the conductivity 
of rock-salt thus found is somewhat less than, rather than likely to be in excess 
of, the real thermal conductivity of that substance. As a good assurance that 
when membranes wetted with water were used to press the thermopile 
against the rocks the true temperatures of their faces were very nearly 
marked, the experiment with iron-pyrites may be instanced, as the small 
temperature-difference of less than 1° could not have been observed if the 
wires were not very nearly indeed at the same temperature as the two paper- 
covered faces of the pyrites against which they were pressed ; and as the 
circumstances of their adjustment in other cases were exactly the same as in 
this instance, it may be assumed that the method of pressing the thermopile 
against the rocks with wet bladders adopted in the present series of experi- 
ments exhibited the true temperature -difference of the faces, and afforded 
correct values of the thermal conductivities. The pressure was applied by 
means of strong spiral springs (instead of the weights described in the last 
Report), whose extensions in a graduated tube indicated the pressures which 
they were made to exert. The pressure thus applied was usually SO lbs. 
upon a surface of nearly 20 square inches of the rock-plates, or about 4 lbs, 
per square inch. The general agreement of the results with those formerly 
obtained also serves to verily the correctness both of the thermal conduc- 
tivities now air^signed and of those previously observed. The principal 
differences in the two m.elhods of determination consist in the use of an im- 



u 



REPORT 1876. 



Rock specimeu tested, 
1876. (Water-satura- 
tion in vacuo.) 


Grains and 
per cent, 
(on rock- 
weight) 
of water 
absorbed. 


Absolute conducti- 
vity observed. 


Absolute 
Resis- 
tance. 


Comparisons with former 
observations, 1875. 


Luting of 

Oil and 

Red-lead. 


Wet- 
bladder 
junction. 


Absolute 
Conducti- 
vity (1875). 


Rock-specimen 
tested (1875). 


Rock-.<!alt (observed ) 

Do. allowing for radiation 
Fluorsna r 




0-011.54 
001130 

0-00753 
0-00738 

0-00204 




87 

88 

108 

about 117 

to 133 

135 

142 

164^ 

182 
165 ■ 

177. 
184 

317 
214 

272 
286 

575 

340 

351 

373 

382 
490 
538 

592 
971 

1818 

1754 


} 0-00880 

000594 
000549 

0-00660 

0-00325 

0-00462 

to 

000488 

f 0-00332 

1 0-00366 
' 0-00247 

0-C0147 

•00363 
-00325 
■00234 

0-00065 


The same specimen. 

Kenton sandstone, 
thorouglily wet 
(5-7 per cent.). 

Do. dry (or moist 
by Ist experi- 
ment). 

The same speci- 
men. 

The same speci- 
men. 

Various marbles. 

Calton Hill Trap- 
rock. 

Wliinstone. 

Fine red brick 
thoroughly wet 
(15-6 per cent). 

Do. dry (or moist 
by 1st experi- 
ment). 

Welsh slates cut 
pai-allel to tlie 
cleavage. 

English alabaster 
(or gypsum). 

Cannel-coal. 








0-00926 

J about 
\ 0-00850 


Opaque white quartz 

Do. a new specimen 

Galena (intersjjerspd with 

a little quartz). 
Pennant sandstone (near 

Bristol), thoroughly 

wet. 
Do dry 






80 grns. 
= 1-3 per 

cent. 


000705 
0-00608 

0-005.^)0 
0-00607 

0-00565 
0-00542 

0-00315 

00467 

0-00368 
0-00349 

0-00174 

0-00294 

000285 

0-00268 
0-00262 


Hard grit (Lee Abbey 
quan-y, Linton, N. De- 
von), thoroughly wet. 

Do. moistened by 1st ex- 
periment. 

Festiniog .slate (specimen 
A, cut across the cleav- 
age). 

Festiniog slate (sjiecimen 
A, cut parallel to the 
cleavage). 

Oalcite (soft crystalline 
vein-stuff in red sand- 
stone, Clifton). 

Trap-rock, Pokham quar- 
ry, near Exeter. 

Firebrick (fine gi-ound 
Kewcastle, thoroughly 
wet). 

Do. moist by 1st experi- 
ment. 

Cornish elvan (Christow 
Lead-mines, near Exe- 
ter). 

Clay-slate from same lo- 
cality cut across the 
cleavage. 

Do. a specimen cut paral- 
lel to the cleavage. 

Another do. do 


358 grns. 

= 0-3 per 

cent. 
98 gTns.= 
1-75 per ct. 






. 


8.59 grns. 
= 170 per 

cent. 

432 gms.= 

8-6 per ct. 








English plate- glass 

Heavy spar, opaque crys- 
tallized (Cln-istow, Exe- 
ter) : two experiments. 

Pumicestone thoroughly 
wet. 

Do. dry (or moist by 1st 
experiment). 

Newcastle house-coal 






000180 

to 
0-00169 
0-00103 

0-00055 

0-00057 


1374 grns. 
= 70-3ixct. 

110 grns. 
=5-6 p. ct. 





proved thermopile, and in the substitution of vret membranes for the pre- 
viously emijloj'ed moist luting of vret linseed-meal in the present series. 
Where considerable discrepancies still exist, the discordance is rather to be 



ON THE THERMAL CONDUCTIVITIES OP CERTAIN ROCKS. 25 

ascribed to the numberless small precautions required to ensure perfect 
accuracy, than to any constant errors of the methods with which either of the 
two series of determinations is now believed to be aifected. 

In concluding this description, some remarks on the results of the new 
experiments that have been carried out will serve to show what new data 
have been obtained, and how far the observations made last year are corro- 
borated and confirmed by the slightly modified apparatus and method of 
procedure that has been adopted to extend the series. 

Among the points of principal importance noticed last year the following 
facts of great interest already ascertained have now been verified and con- 
firmed. Quartz is still found to have about the same high thermal conduc- 
tivity (85-88 concisely expressed, as explained at the beginning of this 
Repoi-t) compared to the other rocks which had been pre^^l0usly observed. 
The direction in which heat is transmitted through slate is a very important 
condition in regard to its conductiug-power — the conductivity of good Welsh 
(Festiniog) slate cut across the cleavage being, however, to that of a plate of 
the same stone cat parallel to the cleavage-planes, as 5 : 3 from this year's 
experiments, instead of 6 : 3 very nearly, as observed in the same slate 
specimens last year. The notable part of this difference of the two years' 
observations is in the better-conducting cross-cut plate (54 instead of 66), 
although the other Icss-conductuig plate (31-5 and 3:2-5) has nearly the same 
conductivity as it appeared to have last year. Cleavage-fractures which the 
cross-cut plate has suffered, and their repairs, rendering its surfaces uneven 
and the water-junction contacts consequeutlj^ somewhat imperfect, have 
probably caused this apparent loss of conductivity in the transverselj' cut 
specimen of slate. But this latter still exhibits a much higher thermal con- 
ductivity than that shown by the plate from the same piece of slate cut 
parallel to its cleavage-planes. A less distinct difference was found this 
year in similarly sawn and tested plates of clay-slate cut across and parallel 
to the planes of cleavage or of foliation ; biit the stronger kinds of the stone 
which supplied a transverse section (as well as the less fragile plates cut 
parallel to the planes of cleavage) presented the appearance of cleavage and 
foliation only very imperfectly, and much less remarkably than the specimens 
of ordinary slate from Wales. The thermal conductivity of the soft clay- . 
slate is also less in all directions (26-28-5) than the least observed conduc- 
tivity (31-5) of Welsh slate cut parallel to its cleavage-planes. 

The observations of the effect of moisture in increasing the conductivity 
of the porous rocks, when thoroughly saturated with water, entirely corro- 
borate the similar observations made last year. When the great pressure 
required to force a sensiblequantity of water through such rocks as sandstone 
and others which were tested is compared with the verj' feeble currents 
which differences of temperature and of density of the water in their cavities 
can produce, it appears evident that the very marked increase of conductivity 
observed in such cases cannot be owing to convection- or gravitation- 
currents in the water which the saturated rocks contain, although the 
mobility of the liquid by diffusion and consequent intermixture of its mole- 
cules probably assists the direct condueting-power of water in the transmission 
of the heat ; and the resulting conductivity of water, free from the action of 
convection-currents, appears to be at least equal to that of some rock-species 
whose thermal conductivities are either the last or nearly the lowest in the 
present list. 

The thermal conductivities of certain new species of rocks are now also 
assigned, the values of which, although they are few in number, appear to 
possess considerable interest from a mineralogical as well as from a geological 



26 REPORT— 187G. 

aspect. Some crystalline rocks and minerals of simple composition (and of 
the cubic system of crystallization) were selected, and, like quartz, they 
proved to have heat-conducting properties in a high degree. The thermal con- 
ductivity of iron-pyrites, resembling apparently that of the metals, could not, 
from its high value, be accurately determined by the method of experiment 
pursued ; and it is accordingly omitted (as undetermined) from the list. The 
diathermancy of rock-salt for the heat radiated and absorbed by the oiled 
surfaces between which the tiial plate of it was placed will not account for 
more than Jjj part of the heat which the plate actually transmitted ; and 
the high position of this substance in the list is consequently due to a really 
high conductivity which rock-salt possesses (about 113), greater than that 
of quartz (85-88), and even of fluorspar (92|), the substance found to rank 
nest to it in high conducting-power. A specimen of galena nearly pure, but 
enclosing a few fragments of quartz, presented the highest thermal conduc- 
tivity (TO^) next to that of quartz. A plate of soft, white, opaque calcite, 
perfectly but irregularly crystallized (forming vein-stuff in Clifton sandstone), 
agrees exactly in its thermal conductivity (-iG'T) with various kinds of marble 
(46-49) which were tried last year. On the other hand, a similar specimen 
of heavy spar (barium sulphate) from a mine of that substance npar Exeter 
presents, in spite of its great density, a remarkably low thermal conductivity 
(17-18 in two experiments), not very far removed from that of English 
alabaster (gypsum, or calcium sulphate, 23-4). English plate-glass (20-4), it 
may also be remarked, has a low thermal conductivity, differing not very 
greatly from those of the two substances last named. Finally, the lightest 
species of rocks examined in the course of these experiments, pumicestone 
and Newcastle house-coal, have also the lowest conductivities (5-5 and 5-7) 
hitherto presenting themselves in these investigations. 

As, with the exception of rock-salt, clay-slate and elvan, house-coal and 
pumicestone, no new thermal resistances of great importance, in a geological 
point of view, are added in the present list to those already exhibited in the 
diagram of these Reports (vol. for 1875, p. 59), a new graphic representation 
of the resistances now found is here deemed unnecessary — the values of the 
absolute resistances furnished in this Table enabling them to be added without 
'difficulty in that diagram, where they may thus be exhibited in the same 
normal scale with the earlier determinations. 

The applications to questions of underground temperatures which these 
observations suggest have not yet engaged the Committee's attention suffi- 
ciently to enable them to arrive at definite conclusions certain enough to 
entitle them to be noticed in this Eeport. Examples of very reliable mea- 
surements of imderground temperatures, such as have recently been obtained 
in the tunnels of Mont Cenis and of St. Gothard, and in the deep vertical 
boring at Sperenberg, near Berlin (the last of which, although extremely 
deep, passes almost entirely through rock-salt), are ill-adapted to test distinctly 
the relative values of the thermal conductivities of different species of rocks — 
the former two from the irregular surface-configurations, and the last from 
the absence of any change of the strata through which these borings pass. 
In view also of the many disturbing conditions that affect both the local rate 
of change and the actual observations and measurements of underground 
tcmperatui'es in other borings more suitably adapted to exhibit clearly the 
differences of thermal resistance in geological formations, which the Com- 
mittee is endeavoiuing to distinguish and to recognize in actual cases, it 
would be premature, in the present stage of the investigation, to deal more 
particularly with results derived immediately from these and from similar 
comparisons, the degree of dependence to 1 e placed on which cannot very 



ON THE ASSESSMENT OF DIRECT TAXATION. 27 

casilj"- be defined. The agreement which they trust eventually to trace 
between the observed temperatures and the experimentally determined 
thermal properties of the locally predominating rocks is liable to be masked 
and concealed by causes of disturbance of so many unknown and unsiispccted 
kinds, that plain and obvious corroborations are not frequently to be expected ; 
and the nature of those causes which principally tend to disturb the results 
Avill probably become better known by the progress of further comparisons 
such as the Committee is now endeavouring to pursue. While it was thus 
anticipated by Prof. Everett*, from the slow rate of temperature-variation 
from the surface observed in the rocky excavations of the Mont-Cenis tunnel, 
that quartz (which is a principal ingredient of the rock) would prove to have 
a high thermal conductivity, this property is now also found to belong to 
rock-salt, through which the Sperenberg boring passes with an average rate 
of temperature-variation (1° F. in 51 English feet) scarcely differing sensibly 
from the mean rate obtained from a mass of similar observations taken in 
other places and recoi'ded by the Underground Temperature Committee. 
The apparent contradiction presented by these two cases may possibly proceed 
from a more rapid local rate of variation of temperature in the neighbourhood 
of Sperenberg than around Mont Cenis ; and the fact that in the first GO 
fathoms of ordinary strata overlying the rock-salt the observed rate of 
variation was slower than below (contrary to what would be expected from 
the relative conductivities of the superincumbent strata and the underlying 
masses of rock-salt), is said, in Herr Bunker's description of the obser- 
vations, to be probably accounted for by the intrusion into the boring near 
its mouth of the Avaste warm water of the engines on the surface. The 
effect, it may be observed, of a highly conducting mass, like that of the deep 
bed of rock-salt here penetrated, by diminishing the local resistance and 
increasing the flow of internal heat outwards through the Sperenberg strata, 
would be to cause the local rate of variation of temperature in this locality 
to be abnormally rapid ; and perhaps this may explain why a slow rate of 
variation is not observed in this instance, from the great depth of the ex- 
cellently conducting rock-salt formation, which considerably exceeds 3000 feet. 
The Sperenberg boring thus presents examples of secondary conditions which 
will perhaps prove to be in good agreement (instead of, as they at first appear 
to be, somewhat at variance) with the results of the Committee's observations. 



Report of a Committee, consisting o/the Right Hon. J. G. Hubbakd, 
M.P., Mr. Chadwick, M.P., Mr. Morley, M.P., Dr. Farr, Mr. 
Hallett, Professor Jevons, Mr. Newmarch, Professor Leone 
Levi, Mr. He\wood, and Mr. Shaen [with power to add to their 
number), appointed for the purpose of considering and reporting on 
the practicability of adopting a Common Measure of Value in the 
Assessment of Direct Taxation, local and imperial. By Mr. 
Hallett, Secretary. 

YorR Committee, appointed to inquire into the subject of a Common Measure 
of Value in Direct Taxation, have proceeded in this inquiry, have considered 
the matters to them referred, and have agreed to the following Report : — • 

* See these Eeports, vol. for 1875, p. 16, r.ote at bottom of the page. 



28 REPORT— 1876. 

1. Measure of value wanted.- — The question of a common measure of value 
is one of a class that may be literally called standard questions, and its 
solution is at the basis of equality in taxation both general and particular. 
Values are the object matters of taxation, their measurement and comparison 
are the necessary condition of its equal incidence ; and measurements with 
unequal measures are like weighings with luijust balances. Taxation, how- 
ever pure its intention, without a common measure of value, is what navigation 
would be without sextant and chronometer, or architecture without compass 
and level. And this perhaps is not an unfair description of what it actually 
is, though not, it may be hoped, of what it must be. One of the chief marks 
of advancing science has been a progress towards better measures and better 
measurements, a substitution of the uniformities of rules of reason for the 
unrestricted vagaries of rules of thumb ; and such is the aim of the present 
inquiry. This question of a common measure of value is the question of the 
common measure of taxation ; or if there be several such measures, what is 
their common ratio ? what are they in terms of one another ? 

2. Tivo Methods of General Valuation: Capital-Value and Usable Value. — 
Measurements of the value of things (employing this word " things " as 
inclusive of land, labour, stock, &c.) may have reference to their absolute 
worth or to their temporary uses. They may have reference to their pro- 
perty, capital, or absolute values, or to their products, profits, or annual 
values. The one measure is exemplified in contracts of sale and purchase, 
the other in contracts of letting and hiring. Each has its special advantages 
and special applications. Capital or absolute value is ajjplied in the assess- 
ment of probate and legacy duty ; usable value in the assessment of local 
taxation and in those of the imperial income-tax. Moreover, as the capital- 
value of the thing must be equivalent to the present value of the sum of its 
future uses, the two measures, if consistently defined, though differing it may 
be year by year, must be in the long run equivalent. But such consistency 
of definition is an essential. Tlie idea of capital-value is tolerably well fixed, 
but that of usable or lettable value is indefinite. Usable value is, or is 
equivalent to, the consideration paid for, the income received from, the use 
of things. This consideration, however, may be paid under such totally 
different conditions of contract that, unless these conditions are first assimi- 
lated, the payments regarded as measures, either of the values of the things 
or of the abilities of their owners, are worse than useless : they are mis- 
leading. 

3. Usable Valve unrestricted and indeterminate and lience unfit as a com- 
mon measure. — To illustrate this : things having a use, and hence capable of 
becoming sources of income, are all, by the very nature of the process, liable 
to outgoings ; some more, some less. Production involves productive con- 
sumption. Efficiency implies cost — cost, for the most part of insurance 
against natiual risk ; of repairs ; of necessary depreciation. But the user of 
a thing, be it land, labour, or stock, may engage for its use with or without 
liability to these outgoings ; their costs may be borne by the user or by the 
owner, or they may be divided between the two in any proportion that con- 
venience may direct. The user may bear repairs and the owner natural risk 
and depreciation, or the user may bear natural risk and repairs and the owner 
natural depreciation, or the user may bear all and the owner none, or the user 
none and the owner all, the consideration given (the income received) of 
course varying accordingly. Were the things valued by absolute sale or 
capitalization, all the incidents, whether of efficiency or cost, plus or minus, 
would be wholly and uniformly included, and the test would fix the things' 
relative positions. In valuation by uses, hoAvever, it is evident that these 



ON THE ASSESSMENT OF DIRECT TAXATION. 29 

incidents are not as a matter of practice uniformly included, and the valutitiou, 
founded upon unfixed conditions, can fix nothing ; its possibilities of variation 
are coextensive with those of free contract itself, and hence, being absolutely 
unrestricted, as a measure it must be inherently unfit. 

4. Exemplified in incomes of Income-tax. — Such valuations, some tempering 
effect of deductions notwithstanding, have been those ol' local taxation ; and 
hence the local chaos which Mr. Sclater-Booth's bill was the last attempt to 
reduce to order. 8uch also, without any tempering influence, are the 
valuations of income under the present income-tax. In this latter the 
returnable and taxable incomes of interest, land-rent, house-rent, royalties, 
wages, including professional fees and salaries, are the considerations that 
are paid for the uses of principal monies, land, houses, mines, and labour 
respectively. Interest, however, is the consideration paid for the use of the 
principal, neither user nor owner being subject to any outgoings. Land-rent 
is the consideration paid for the use of land, the user bearing almost all 
outgoings. House-rent is the consideration paid for the use of houses, the 
owner and user sharing the outgoings in various proportions. The owner 
also largely bears outgoings in the contract of mines and royalties ; he wholly 
bears them, as a rule, in that of labour and wages. Moreover these out- 
goings vary according to the nature of the thing ; they may vary from zero 
up to 40 or 50 per cent., or even more, of the gross production. It is these 
differences that give rise to the various characteristics of incomes, as gross, 
net, certain, precarious, terminable, permanent, nominal, real. All, indeed, 
are in the catalogue of considerations paid ; all are so-called incomes 
received, but only 

" As hounds and greyhounds, mongrels, spaniels, curs, 
Shoughs, water-rugs, and demi-wolves are cleped 
All by the name ot dogs." 

The true account " distinguishes " we are told, and gives to each " particular 
addition : " the measure of incomes, too, that lays claim to scientific truth 
must do the same, and to the " bill that writes them all alike " and taxes 
them aU ahke, must add natural differences and just discrimination. 

5. Usable value specialized and determined as Interest-value. By consis- 
tent deduction of outgoings. Interest-value as the common measure required. 

And if the cause of these inequalities of valuation be rightly stated, the dis- 
covery of such measure ought not to be difficult. As the inequalities arise 
from the different conditions in respect to outgoings under which the various 
incomes are calculated, the remedy must be the assimilation of these condi- 
tions ; and the case of principal and interest, which in one aspect may be 
regarded as a common expression of sources and uses generally, may be 
employed as a precedent. Interest, as before said, is the income received 
from a thing free of outgoings. It leaves the thing or its capital value 
unimpaired. The extension of this idea to revenues or incomes in general 

is simply the universal deduction from them of their productive outgoings 

equivalent to the general restoration of the capital-values of their respective 
sources. Under such a regime, returnable and taxable income would not be 
land-rent, house-rent, mine-royalties, labour-wages ; but land-rent minus 
land-outgoings, house-rent minus house-outgoings, mine-roj'alties minus 
mine-outgoings, labour-wages mimis labour-outgoings ; and similarly with 
terminable annuities and the profits of business, the outgoings, however, 
being in all cases only the necessari/ ones of the production. The result thus 
obtained would be what by analogy Ave may call the interest-value of the 
various sources ; and such interest-value of land, of labour, of houses, of 



30 EEPORT — 1876. 

economic agencies generally, would be the common measure required. And 
the measure is a perfectly scientific one, and, indeed, admits of mathematical 
expression. As the exact difference, comprehensively considered, between 
the total receipts and total outgoings of a source, it is the pure annual 
increment of its capital-value, and hence is identical with absolute profit. It 
would rejiresent the pure annual growth of national wealth taken in its 
■widest sense, and the returnable income of national taxation. 

6. Precedents for its practicahility. — But are such deductions of outgoings 
on the sources of income and the determination of the interest-value practi- 
cable ? In many cases this question has been already solved by actual 
legislation. That such deductions are practicable for lands, houses, and 
mines may be proved by reference to the Metropolis Valuation Act of 1869, 
and to the Local Valuation Bill before referred to, both of which are grounded 
on them, and have schedides of deduction for different cases attached. That 
they are practicable for machines, ships, trade fixtures, horses, and stock 
generally, the Income-tax Act, with its special clauses for repairs and re- 
supjjly, itself recognizes ; and though no schedules or deductions are attached 
for these cases, the deductions are wcU known in the estimates of business 
and recognized in the Surveyor's office. But if such deductions of outgoings 
are practicable for the labour of horses, are they not practicable for the labour 
of men ? Economically considered, the two labours are analogous ; both are 
productive agents, both have productive powers subject to consumption. 
Natural risk, maintenance, and terminability belong to the labour of men 
just as they belong to the labour of horses, just as risk, repairs, and termina- 
bility belong to machines, ships, or implements. All these outgoings are facts 
equally ascertained by experience, and it is difficult to see why their valuations 
are not equally practicable. They are as much an item in a source's general 
account as the receipts themselves, forming its debit as these form its credit 
column. Nor can any account, be it individual or national, be said to be 
complete unless both sides are considered. 

7. Effect on Income-tax Act.- — The application of this interest-value measure 
to the Income-tax Act would give these results : — Incomes from lands, houses, 
and mines would be charged much the same as under the proposed new local 
valuation system. Dividends and profits of capital, pui-ely considered, would 
be charged as at present. Government and other terminable annuities would 
not be taxed on the amount representing the restoration of caintal. On the 
same principle the incomes from labour, whether pure, as in the case of 
salaried officers and some professors, or mixed with the proceeds of capital, 
as in other professions and as in businesses, would be entitled to material 
deductions varying with the relative proportions of skill and capital engaged. 
In all cases the tax would be collected at the source and levied on the net 
value of the produce ; and the deductions would be made without reference, 
as such, either to the position or fortune of the owner. 

8. Practicahility exempJiJied in comjjosite incomes. — Questions may be raised 
on the practicability of applying an outgoings dcduclion to incomes from 
businesses and professions which are the mixed results of labour and cajjital. 
It may be objected either, first, that as labour and capital enter into these 
mixed incomes in vai-ying proportions, and as the percentage of labour- 
outgoings is very different from that of capital-outgoings, a deduction common 
to these mixed incomes and to unmixed labour-incomes would be unjust ; or, 
secondly, that if the labour-income and capital-income be assessed separately 
a separate return of capital will be necessary, and that this must entail an 
objectionable exposure of affairs. To meet the first objection, a classification 



ON THE ASSESSMENT Ol' UIIIKCT TAXATION. 31 

of business and professional incomes, with a varying percentage deduction 
according to the average proportion of capital in each class, has been pro- 
posed ; but it may be doubted if the second objection has any just foundation. 
That the assessment of an income from conjoint sources does not necessarily 
involve an official return of these sources, may be seen by looking to the 
return of the income of capital or stock itself, as exemplified in all large 
trading companies. This income, regarded in the concrete, consists of the 
conjoint incomes from houses, ships, machinery, stock, trade fixtures, all of 
which incomes having diiferent outgoings, are singly and differently assessed 
by the owner, but all of which are united, without statement of particulars, 
in one common official return. What is practicable, however, with the 
incomes (derived, say, from horse labour plus machinery) is also practicable 
with those derived from human labour plus capital generally. Doubtless, in 
order to value the labour-income separately from the cajntal-income, the two 
must be separately known to the valuer, but not, therefore, separately 
returned to the Government unless Government undertakes the work of 
accountant. Tlie distinction between the two (the one technically known 
as profits, the other as interest) is a primary distinction in book-keeping 
usually given in every profit and loss account. Capital being [known (and 
this knowledge is as necessary to the preparation of an accurate return under 
the present system as to that under the proposed one), its interest subtracted 
from the mixed income will give the technical profits, gross labour-income, 
or gross wages of the capitalist. The deduction of labour-outgoings from 
the labour-income will give the labour's interest-value, which, j^lus the 
interest of the capital, will be the interest-value or returnable income of the 
business or profession. 

Example 1. — A (a barrister, physician, or salaried officer) has ^1000 a year, 
an unmixed gross labour- income. Assuming, c.(/., 40 per cent, to be 
the average labour-outgoings for risk, maintenance, and " depreciation," 
the deduction will be ,£400 and the interest-value ,£600. A's returnable 
and taxable income will be ^600. 

Examjile 2. — B (a solicitor or general medical practitioner) has ^2000 capital 
in his practice, and a gross income as now returnable of £1000 a vear, 
the joint result of his personal labour and his cajjital. Interest bein"- 
reckoned at 5 per cent., £100 will be the interest-value of his capital, 
and £900 the gross income, wages, or so-called jorofits of his labour. 
The deduction of 40 per cent, from this for labour-outgoings leaves £540 
as the labour's interest-value, which, jj?«s £100 as the interest of capital, 
gives £640 as the interest-value of his practice. B's returnable and 
taxable income will be thus £640. 

Example 3. — C (a merchant, manufactnrer, or shopkeeper), having a capital of 
£10,000 in his business, has a gross income of £1000 a year, the joint 
result of his cajntal and personal labour. Here, under the former 
suppositions, the interest of his capital will be £500, and the '-ross 
income of his labour wiU be £500. Deducting 40 per cent, for labour- 
outgoings, as before, we obtain £300 as the labour's interest- value, 
which, ^j/i(s the interest of the capital, equals £800, the interest-value 
of the business. C's returnable and taxable income will be £800. 

Zero-p)oint of Direct Taxation. — In the remuneration of labour, as we 
descend in the scale, there must be a point at which income and outgoings 
balance, and at which, therefore, interest-value or real profit is zero. This 
important point in labour, analogous in land to the commencing point of 



32 REPORT — 1876. 

rent, is the scientific division in labour between exemption and taxation 
that a common measure of value determines. Wherever the point may be, 
below it there is no interest-value, and hence ought to be no taxation ; and 
it is above this point that in strictness the percentage deduction for outgoings 
ought in every case to begin. 

Example 1. — A, a labourer, earns 30s. per week, an unmixed gross labour- 
income. Assuming this sam to be only sufficient to meet the necessary 
labour-outgoings, then the interest-value of the income wiU be nil. A's 
income will be whoUy untaxable. 

Example 2. — B, a clerk or artisan, earns =£150 per year. Assuming, as 
before, 30s. per week or .£78 per year, as the necessary labour-outgoings, 
then the subtraction of this sum will mark the zero-point of the labour's 
taxable income, and =£72 wiU be the margin to which alone the per- 
centage deduction for outgoings ought . to be applied. Assuming this 
deduction at 40 per cent, as before, we have £22 as such deduction, and 
£44 as the labour's interest-value. B's returnable and taxable income 
wiU be £44. 

A similar preliminary process of correction applies to aU higher labour- 
incomes, the zero-point being determined by the amount fixed on as the 
labour's necessary outgoings. 

9. Proposed new Valuation System intermediate to the Self-assessment and 
Official Systems. — The practical working of a measure of value, like other 
measures, has necessarily a relation to the persons by whom it is a,pplied. A 
just measure, through careless or wrong application, may act unjustly ; but 
unjust application is no argument for an unjust measure ; an unjust measure 
even when rightly applied must act unjustly. In the income-tax, as now 
arranged, with its five or six inconsistent measures of value, the valuation 
for some of the chief schedules ranges between the loose liberties of self- 
assessment and the inquisitorial stringency of ofiicial : the one system con- 
scious of a radical injustice in the law, which it is itself called on to api^ly, 
the other in total ignorance of the facts which the law covers, and both 
working in antagonism to each other. In the valuation for probate duty we 
have a third system, applied not by the interested individual nor by the 
official, but by a third and independent party, authoritatively licensed, indeed, 
by the Government, but selected by the individual, and hence whilst ne^itral 
himself, having responsibilities to each. Under an equitable measure of 
value, self-assessment might in the first instance exist as at present ; but in 
cases of doubt Government might require the guarantee of such an independent 
authority (licensed valuer, accountant, lawyer, acting as a semiofficial com- 
missioner in income-tax) for a second evidence to the truth of the return, 
reserving its own power of official examination as a last resort. At the 
present time many firms do actually call in professional accountants to make 
up their returns ; and with a growing sense of justice in the tax, such an 
independent guarantee to the truth of the return might not improbably 
become general, and might even acquire the force of a custom, 

COMPAKISON BETWEEN CaPITAL-VaLTJE AND InTEKEST-ValXJE. 

10. Capital-value and Interest-value equivcdent on a series of years, but not 
for each year. — The two measures, capital-value and interest-value, are, as 
before observed, on a series of years equivalent. Interest-value is capital- 
value for a year. Capital-value is the present worth of interest-value for all 



ON THE ASSESSMENT OF DIRECT TAXATION. 33 

years. But though the two measures are thus equivalent ou an average of 
years, they are not equivalent for each specific year. Interest-value measures 
the gains of capital for one year, and capital-value measures its gains for 
that year, with the expectant or probable gain of future years added. As, 
however, national gain for any year has, as a rule, the closest relation to the 
national expenses for tliat year, the interest-value is a more specific measure 
for annual taxation than the capital-value ; and this is probably the reason 
that has imconsciously led to the adoption of an annual-value measure, both 
in local and imperial taxation, in preference to one of capital or perpetual 
value. 

Capital-value in comparative relation to things and to tenures generalli/. — 
Measures practically equivalent may, however, through differences of appli- 
cation, give contrary results ; and of this the two measures in question afford 
illustrations. Taxation, according to capital-value, may look either to the 
sources, things, or objects owned, or to the rights and tenures of their 
owners — to the land, labour, or stock possessed, or to the- freehold, leasehold, 
life-tenancy, or jointure, as the case may be, of the possessors. Prima facie 
it would appear that as the value of the tenures of a thing, however manifold, 
can be neither more nor less than the value of the thing itself, the results of 
the scientific capitalization of the tAvo should be identical. As a matter 
of fact, however, this has not been admitted to be the case ; and it is on the 
question of tenures that the deepest controversies of the income-tax have 
arisen. 

Capital-value in relation to terminahle tenures. — As the capital-value of a 
limited tenure in an estate, for example, is less than that of a permanent 
one, its taxation, it is argued, ought to be less, and therefore it ought to pay 
at a lower rate. Putting aside for a moment the question of the truth of 
this inferejico, it is evident that its enforcement would make an estate's 
taxation vary with the character of its tenure, thus giving power to the 
subject to alter taxation by altering tenure, and that to almost any extent. 
To avoid this it has been proposed to derive the whole tax from the estate 
as at present, but to levy on the limited tenure according to its capital-value, 
and to make the reversion liable for the balance. 

Terminalility of tenure does not influence the Annual Tax. — "Without dis- 
cussing the administrative difficulties of this view, it may be questioned 
whether such a view be a logical deduction from the principle of taxing 
tenures according to their capital-value. Assuming that a limited tenure in 
an estate ought to pay less than a permanent one, with reference to its 
capitalized value, it would not therefore follow that it ought to pay at a lower 
annual rate. Be the tenure long or short, the estate for any given year is 
the same, the value for that one year's tenure is the same, the government 
protection afforded to it for that year is the same, and hence it would appear 
that the payment for each year ought to be the same also. But if each year's 
payments be the same in both cases, the total payments are not therefore 
equal ; the limited tenure pays only for a limited time, whilst the perpetual 
tenure pays for all time ; and if these payments bo aggregated it will be found 
that their amounts are in exact proportion to the capital-values of the 
respective tenures. Should it be said that the reversioner, having interests 
in the good government of the present, ought therefore to contribute according 
to the value of these interests, the reply is that the present possessor has been 
the reversioner of the past, and has had similar interests in the good govern- 
ment of the past. If, therefore, i)resent possession has a claim on the future, 
it owes a debt to the past ; and it may be mathematically shown, what 

1876. D 



34 REPORT — 1S76. 

perhaps a sense of the fitness of things indicates, that for any given year the 
claim and debt will cancel each other, and leave every year's possession to 
pay the whole year's tax on the estate possessed. 

Difference between incomes from terminable tenures and tJiose from termi- 
nable things. — That a terminable income by paying at the same annual rate as 
a perpetual income is equally paying according to its capital-value, is a pro- 
position insisted on by Mr. AVarburton and by Mr. Mill in the two Commissions 
on the Income-tax ; and as far as the above class of terminable income is 
concerned, the proposition is true. But these gentlemen unfortunately 
carried it into a region where it had no status, and iu virtue of it denied the 
applicability of capital-value, if not of arithmetical proportion generally, as 
a reforming measure of the income-tax. As there are incomes and incomes, 
so there are terminable incomes and terminable incomes. If the terminable 
income be the terminable tenure of a pure interest-value, such, practically 
speaking, as a life-interest in land or iu consols, to tax it at the same rate 
as a permanent income is to tax each according to its capital-value. If, 
however, the terminable income be an income that is made up partly of 
interest-value and partly of capital that terminates, not simply as a legal 
right, but by gradually exhausting its source, then to charge such income at 
the same annual rate as a permanent one of similar amount is not to tax it 
according to its capital-value — a truth repeatedly demonstrated by the 
actuaries before Mr. Hume's committee, and evident from the reflection that 
the capital-value of the source is, by the very nature of the income, continu- 
ally passing away, whilst the tax remains the same. Under the conditions 
stated, the tax on the one terminable income would be a tax on pure 
interest-value, the tax on the other would bo a tax on a mixture of interest- 
value ^j7its capital. By combining the propositions of the actuaries and of 
Mr. Warburton, each true in its own sphere, but each erroneous when 
applied to the other, we may conclude that the results obtained from the 
capitalization of tenures are identical with those obtained from the absolute 
valuation of sources ; and both may be quoted in confirmation of those 
obtained from the principle of interest-value. 

Capital-value in relation to 'personal riches and property. Common measure 
of value as needful for equal exemption as for equal taxation. — Another appli- 
cation of capital-value as a measure, however, cannot be so quoted. The 
taxation of a particular property according to capital-value may be inter- 
preted as taxation, not according to the worth of that particular property, 
but according to the absolute worth or financial position of the person who 
owns it ; and siich a method of levy has been erroneously defended as 
taxation according to ability. In this view a rich man ought (considerations 
of practicability apart) to pay a heavier duty upon his dog, liis bottle of wine 
or whiskey, than a poor man ; and, the estates being equal, the owner of a 
permanent tenure would pay more for each year's possession than would the 
owner of a limited one. Such a theory of capital-value may not be general, 
but it has a certain degree of popiilarity, and seems to be constantly getting 
itself mixed up not only with discussions but even with legislation .on the 
incidence of the income-tax. It may be questioned whether the operation of 
this theory is not visible, for example, in the exemption from imperial direct 
taxation (recently so largely extended) of large masses of property in the 
country including many thousands of acres of land, in consequence of the 
accident of their ownership. Property thus exempted becomes property 
taxable by mere change of possession, irrespective of the intrinsic nature or 
value of the property itself. To exempt in an income-tax the necessary 



^ ON THE ASSESSMENT OF DIRECT TAXATION. 85 

outgoings of the source of income, be it labour or land, is merely to confine 
the tax to its own stated objects, viz. to income proper ; but to exempt or 
lo^Yer the rate on this income proper, merely in consideration of the personal 
status of its owner, is to travel into quite a different region — it may be into 
the region of national charity, or into that of some other pi'inciplc, but 
assuredly far away from that of equality in taxation. It may be added that 
such exemptions, even when admitted, need a common measure of value for 
their rational application. There are small incomes and small incomes — 
incomes that are pure interest-values, incomes that are pure drafts on capital, 
and incomes that are mixtures of interest- value and draft on capital ; and 
the equal exemption of these kinds, as in the present income-tax, is as un- 
equal as would be their equal taxation. As before said, the interest-value 
measure itself would exempt all small labour-incomes to the extent of their 
necessities without further special rule. 

Beaeings of Common Measttee ov Value on General Taxation and 

National Income. 

11. Common measure of value necessary to tlie adjustment of general tax- 
ation : fallacies from its absence. — " Your Committee also feel that it would 
be unjust to make any alteration in the present incidence of the income-tax, 
without at the same time taking into consideration the pressure of other 
taxation upon the various interests of the country, some of it imposed by recent 
legislation, and in one case especially, that of the succession duty, to some 
extent by way of compensation." This, written in 1861, is the last sentence 
of the Eeport of the Select Committee appointed in that year on the equa- 
lization of the Income-tax ; and perhaps no paragraph could be qiioted as a 
stronger argument for the necessity of determining a common measure of 
value. It may, indeed, be thought by some that for the j)urpose of internally 
equalizing a tax over its own area, be that area sugar, coffee, or incomes, a 
preliminary inquiry into the pressure of taxation in general is somewhat of 
a work of supererogation ; and it may not be mathematically obvioi;s to 
others what possible sort of compensation can exist between the inequalities 
of a tax, or a set of taxes, that are almost stationary, and those of one that 
changes with every national emergency — that in twenty years has actually 
compassed the extremes of sixteenpence and twopence in the pound, with 
every variety of intermediate oscillation. But assuming it to be advisable 
for the purpose in question, as it must doubtless be always generally useful, 
to know the comparative pressure of taxation as a whole upon the interests 
of the country, it is clear that such a knowledge implies their valuation 
through a common measure, and is, indeed, as impossible without it as would 
be the knowledge of the weights of different things without weighing them 
by a true balance. Eminent statists have, indeed, attacked this problem, 
using income itself as the means of the comparison, though oftentimes without 
a sufficient preliminary examination of the accuracy of their instrument. 
Comparing the statistics of different classes of income, as collected from the 
government returns and from inquiries specially made, with the statistics of the 
corresponding classes of taxation, they have sometimes concluded that general 
taxation is, as a whole, tolerably equal. The truth of this conclusion evidently 
depends upon the uniformity of the standard employed. As, however, this 
uniformity has no existence (the government returns alone presenting at 
least five or six different modes of estimate), the argument can prove nothing 
as regards general equality, except its absence ; but does prove that taxation 

D 2 



36 • REPORT— 1876. 

in general, regarded as a larger income-tax, is equtdl)' in want of a common 
measure with the income-tax proper. So far from the measurement of the 
income-tax proper being dependent on the measurement of general taxation, 
the measure that underlies them both is one and the same ; and, indeed, the 
tnie view of an income-tax is that it should be a perfectly just and equal 
tax in itself, rather than an imperfect tax compensating the imperfections of 
other taxes. 

Common measure of value necessary for finding national income andtuealth : 
fallacies from its absence. — The evil consequences of a want of a common 
measure of value, seen in the comparison of incomes for purposes of taxation, 
is also seen when they are added togetlicr for the exhibition of the amoi;nt 
of national income and wealth. To find this national income, the government 
returns of the income-tax have been taken, and to this miscellaneous aggre- 
gate the exempted incomes of the country, including manual-labour wages, 
■have been added, as if all were of one equal and uniform denomination. 
Much of such income, however, as has been repeatedly pointed out, is only 
the consumption of capital. Within the period of a generation, say thirty 
years, all the value of human labour, pZus the cost of maintaining it, passes 
into the category of labour-income. Within longer but varying periods the 
value of all houses, j^Iks the cost of repairing them, passes into the categorj' 
of house-income. Within still more varying periods all the mining wealth 
of the country must pass into the category of mining-income and disappear ; 
and all capital of terminable annuities passes into terminable income. By 
some writers this medley of so-called income (but no more income than the 
payments for exj)orts are income, or drafts on bankers are income) has ever 
been capitalized at one (and that an extreme) rate, to get the national wealth, 
the result of the whole process being an exaggerated and practically mis- 
chievous estimate of national income, of national wealth, and of the nation's 
capacity to bear taxation. Probably no better example than this could be 
given of the necessity of a common measure of value. Common measures 
(common units) are the souls of statistics, as, indeed, they are of knowledge 
generally. Without them statistics are a mere incoherent mass of facts, 
usurping the semblance and function of exact science. A common measm'e 
of income, discovering the amount of the element common to rent, wages, 
profits, and interest, determines the true increment of wealth considered in 
its widest sense, and expresses both the extent and the ratio of economic 
progress. This common measure may be briefly described as interest-vahie : 
it is an essential, if not the fundamental, basis of taxation. 



Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Clerk Maxwell, 
Professor J. D. Everett^ and Dr. A. SciiusteRj for testing experi- 
mentally Ohm's Laiv, 

TnE statement of Ohm's laAV is that, for a conductor in a given state, the 
electromotive force is proportional to the current produced. 

The quotient of the numerical value of the electromotive force divided by 
the numerical value of the current is defined as the resistance of the con- 
ductor ; and Ohm's law asserts that the resistance, as thus defined, docs not 
vary with the strength of the current. 



ON OHM^S LAW. 37 

The difficulty of testing tliis law arises from the fact that the cinrcnt 
generates heat and alters the temperature of the couductor, so that it is ex- 
tremely difficult to ensure that the conductor is at the ^ame temperature 
when currents of different strengths are passed through it. 

Since the resistance of a conductor is the same in whichever direction the 
current passes through it, the resistance, if it is not constant, must depend 
upon even powers of the intensity of the current through each element of 
the conductor. Hence if we can cause a current to pass in succession 
through two conductors of different sections, the deviations from Ohm's law 
will bo greater in the conductor of smaller section ; and if the resistances of 
the conductors are equal for small currents, they will be no longer equal for 
large currents. 

The first method which occurred to the Committee was to prepare a set of 
five resistance-coils of such a kind that their resistance could be very accu- 
rately measured. Mr. Hockin, who has had great experience in measuring 
resistance, suggested 30 ohms as a convenient magnitude of the resistance 
to be measured. The five coils and two others to complete the bridge were 
therefore constructed, each of 30 ohms, by Messrs. Warden, Muirhead, and 
Clark, and it was found that a difference of one in four millions in the ratio 
of the resistance of two such coils could be detected. 

According to Ohm's law, the resistance of a system consisting of four 
equal resistance-coils joiued in two series of two should be equal to that of 
any one of the coils. The current in the single coil is, however, of double 
the intensity of that in any one of the four coils. Hence if Ohm's law is not 
true, and if the five coils when compared in pairs with the same current arc 
found to have equal resistances, the resistance of the four coils combined 
would no longer be equal to that of a single coil. 

A system of mercury-cups was arranged so that when the sj^stem of five 
coils was placed with its electrodes in the cups, any one of the coils might be 
compared with the other four combined two and two. After this comparison 
had been made, the system of five coils was moved forward a fifth of a revolu- 
tion, so as to compare the second coil with a combination of the other four, 
and so on. 

The experiments were conducted in the Cavendish Laboratory by Mr. G. 
Chrystal, B.A., Fellow of Corpus Christi College, who has prepared a report 
on the experiments and their results. 

A very small apparent deviation from Ohm's law was observed ; but as this 
result was not confirmed by the much more searching method of experiment 
afterwards adopted, it must be regarded as the result of some irregularity in 
the conducting-power of the connexions. 

The defect of this method of experiment is that it is impossible to pass a 
current of great intensity through a conductor without heating it so rapidly 
that there is no time to make an observation before its resistance has been 
considerably increased by the rise of temperature. 

A second method was therefore adopted, in which the resistances were com- 
pared by means of strong and weak currents, which were passed alternately 
through the wires many times in a second. The resistances to be compared 
were those of a very fine and short wire enclosed in a glass tube, and a long 
thick wire of nearly the same resistance. When the same current was passed 
through both wires, its intensity was many times greater in the thin wire 
than in the thick wire, so that the deviation, if any, from Ohm's law would 
be much greater in the thin wire than in the thick one. 

Hence, if these two wires are combined with two equal large resistances in 



38 KEPORT— 1876. 

Wheatstone's bridge, the condition of equilibrium for the galvanometer will 
be different for weak currents and for strong ones. But since a strong current 
heats the fine wire much more than the thick wire, the law of Ohm could not 
be tested by any ordinary observation, first with a weak current and then 
with a strong one, for before the galvanometer could give an indication the 
thin wire would be heated to an unknown extent. 

In the experiment, therefore, the weak and the strong current were made 
to alternate 30 and sometimes 60 times in a second, so that the temperature 
of the wire coiUd not sensibly alter during the interval between one current 
and the next. 

If the galvanometer was observed to be in equilibrium, then, if Ohm's law 
is true, this must be because no current passes through the galvanometer, 
derived either from the strong current or the weak one. But if Ohm's law is 
not true, the apparent equilibrium of the galvanometer-needle must arise from 
a succession of alternate currents through its coil, these being in one direction 
when the strong current is flowing, and in the opposite direction when the 
weak current is flowing. 

To ascertain whether this is the case, wo have only to reverse the direction 
of the Aveak current. This will cause the alternate currents through the gal- 
vanometer-coil to flow both in the same direction, and the galvanometer will 
be deflected if Ohm's law is not true. 

Mr. Chrystal has drawn up a report of this second experiment, giving an 
account of the mode in which the various difficulties were surmounted. 
Currents were employed which were sometimes so powerful as to heat the 
fine wire to redness ; but though the difficulty of obtaining a steady action of 
the apparatus was much greater with these intense currents, no evidence of 
a deviation from Ohm's law was obtained ; for in cverj- experiment in which 
the action was steady, the reversal of the weaker current gave no result. 

The methods of estimating the absolute values of tho currents are described 
in the Keport. 

A third form of experiment, in which an induction-coil was employed, is 
also described ; but though this experiment led to some very interesting re- 
sults, the second experiment gives the most searching tost of the accuracy of 
Ohm's law. Mr. Chrystal has put his result in the following form. 

If a conductor of iron, platiniim, or German silver of one square 'centimetre 
in section has a resistance of one ohm for infinitely small currents, its re- 
sistance when acted on by an electromotive force of one volt (provided its 

temperature is kept the same) is not altered by so much as -^tj^ part. 

It is seldom, if ever, that so searching a test has been applied to a law which 
was originally established by experiment, and which must still be considered 
a purely empirical law, as it has not hitherto been deduced from the funda- 
mental principles of dynamics. But the mode in which it has borne this test 
not only warrants our entire reliance on its accuracy within the limit of 
ordinary experimental work, but encourages us to believe that the siinplicity 
of an empirical law may be an argument for its exactness, even when we are 
not able to show that the law is a consequence of elementary dynamical 
principles. 

First Experiment. Christmas 1875. By Gr. Chrystal, Cavendish Laboratory, 
Cambridge. Communicated by J. Cleek Maxwell. 
If the electromotive force between two points of a uniform linear con- 
ductor measured in appropriate units by means of an electrometer be E, and 



ON ohm's law. 39 

tho quantity of electricity that passes through any section of the conductor in 

unit time, measured either by a galvanometer or by a voltameter, bo C,»thcn, 

E 
according to Ohm's law*, - is directly proportional to the length of tho con- 

ductor, and inversely proportional to the area of its section. 

The coefficient of proportionality for a definite-^ substance depends merely 
on the temperature of the substance ; for unit length and unit section of a 

given substance the value of the ratio — for a given temperature is called the 

\j 

specific resistance of the substance for that temperature, and is one of the 

most important of its physical constants. 

This law has been directly verified by its discoverer, and by Becquerel, 
Davy, Fechncr, Kohlrausch, and others ; and indirectly it has been verified 
for a great variety of substances with a degree of accuracy approached in few 
physical measurements. 

Lately, in discussing some experiments of his own, Dr. Schuster has raised 
the question whether after all Ohm's law is only an approximation, the limit 

of whoso accuracy lies within the region of experiment. We might suppose 

■pi 
that tho ratio -^, J was some function of C", say 

c 

where R is a constant very nearly equal to what has hitherto been called the 
specific resistance, and S is a small constant which, according to Dr. Schuster's 

suggestion, would be positive. It is clear that — call only be an even function 

\j 

of C, unless we admit unilateral conductivity, for which there is no experi- 
mental evidence in a purely metallic circuit. 

A Committee of the British Association, appointed to consider the subject, 
were of opinion that it Avas of importance to attempt a further experimental 
verification of Ohm's law. 

At the suggestion of Professor Maxwell, the experimental details of two 
methods of verification proposed by him were undertaken by the writer of 
this Report. Of the two experiments representing these methods the second 
is by far the most conclusive. It not only avoids the difiiculty of eliminating 
temperature effects, which to a certain extent interfere with the first experi- 
ment, but it pushes tho verification of Ohm's law very near the natural limit 
of all such verifications, viz. the limit of the solid continuity of the conductor. 
It has thus been rendered proba))le that experiment cannot detect any 
deviation from Ohm's law, cither in the direction indicated by Dr. Schuster, 
or in the opposite direction as suggested by Weber, even in wires that have 
been brought by the electric current to a temperature beyond red heat. 

A third experiment was also tried by the writer of this Report ; its result 
agreed with the others, but, owing to certain peculiarities, it is less conclusive 
than they are. It led, however, to interesting results of another kind, which 

* The current is Bupposecl to be steady. 

t By definite is meant in a given physical condition, except as regards E.M.F. and flow 
of E, and temperature. The last is excepted because we are brought face to face with 
possible temperature variations iii the first experiment. 

X We suppose tlie conductor to be of unit length and unit section. It is of course the 
specific resistance which is in question ; and this, if variable, will depend on the current 
per unit of section. 



40 



KEPORT 1876. 



seem to show, among otlicr things, that conclusiocis rcBpccting the accuracy 
of Ohm's law cannot safely be drawn from experiments of the nature of 
those made by Dr. Schuster. 

FiEST Experiment. 

Suppose that we had five resistance-coils, which, when compared with each 
other by means of the same current, were equal, say each = E. That is to 
say, if any two of the resistance-coils were inserted in the branches A B and 
U D of a Whcatstone's bridge, the other tAvo arms, A C and C D, being two 
other equal resistances, then the galvanometer G inserted betM'cen E and C 
would indicate no current. 



Fig. 1. 



Kg. 2. 





Suppose now that we replace the coil E in BD by four of the equal coils 
arranged in multiple arc, as in fig. 2. Then, if Ohm's law be true (i.e. if 
resistance be independent of current), if p be the resistance between B and D, 

1 _ ^ J. = 1 
p 2E 2R E' 

I.e. p=E, and there will still be no deflection in the galvanometer. But if 
Ohm's law bo not true, and the resistance be a function of the current, then, 
since the current through A B is nearly the same as in the first experiment, 
while that through B E D and B F D is half, the resistances in B E, E D, B F, 
F D will bo no longer eqiial to E, but either greater or less, and the galvano- 
meter will be deflected. 

Under the direction of Professor Maxwell, part of the funds at the disposal 
of the Committee were devoted to providing two sets of coils sijecially 
adapted for the above experiment. One set consisted of five coils of silk- 
covered German silver wire (diameter -G millim.), each of resistance as nearly 
as possible equal to 30 B.A. units. These were all wound together in the 
usual way round one bobbin ; the terminals consisted of ten pieces of stout 
copper wire, insulated from each other by a ring-shaped piece of ebonite, 
through which all of them passed. These stout wires were bent over, and 



ON OHM S LAW. 



41 



cut as nearly as possible of the same length, so that their amalgamated ends 
might go in pairs into mercury-cups. The wire and bobbin were enclosed 
between two coaxial cylinders of sheet brass, which were fastened to the 
ebonite piece above, and connected by a ring of sheet brass beloAV. The 
whole had a rough resemblance to a large spider. The other set consisted of 
two coils made of the same wire, and having each as nearly as x^ossible the 
same resistance. They were arranged in the same way, except that the ter- 
minals of the same coil were adjacent. 

As the adjustment of the coils was necessarily not perfect, the experiment 
could not bo tried exactly as described in the above scheme. I decided, 
therefore, to operate as follows : — First, to compare each coil of the five with 
the coil next in order ; the differences between any two coils could then be 
found in terms of an arbitrary unit (the resistance of a tenth of a millimetre 
of the platinum-iridium bridge wire at the temperature of the room during 
the experiment) ; second, to compare each coil with the f oux others arranged 
in multiple arc, as before described. The results thus obtained were com- 
pared, as will be described further on. 

To facilitate these comparisons, the following aiTangement of mercury-cup 
connexions was made for me by Mr. Garnctt, of fit. John's College, the 
Demonstrator at the Cavendish Laboratory : — 

Fig. 3. 







To a massive board are glued five large mercury-cups, made of boxwood, 
with a piece of amalgamated sheet copper at the bottom. Into these go the 
ten teiininnls of the five coils, so that there would be metallic connexion 
round all the five coils in scries were it not that the cuj) A is divided by a 
piece of vulcanite, which insulates the two terminals in that cup. ? is a 
stout copper bow connecting B and the lower division of A ; to this bow is 
soldered one of the galvanometer terminals. Into the cups u and v dip the 
two terminals of one of the two coils, m is a stout bow of copper connecting 
the upper half of A with u. Another bow goes from v to F, one end of the 
bridge, which is the instrument used by the British-Association Committee of 
1863, and will be found described at p. 353 of the Eeport (1864) of the Com- 



42 HEPORT — 1876. 

mittee on Electrical Standards. To m is soldered one of the battery terminals. 
The connexions on the right are similar to those on the left, and may be un- 
derstood from the diagram. The other galvanometer terminal goes to the 
contact-block L. The battery used consisted of twelve Leclanche's cells, the 
Avhole internal resistance of which was about 13 B.A. units, its E.M.F. being 
about 16 times that of a Dauiell. The whole resistance of the bridge from F 
to Gr was about -075. The galvanometer is an instrument made by EUiott 
Brothers, belonging to the British Association ; its resistance is about half a 
B.A. unit. 

Good contact between the feet of the copper terminals of the quintuple coil 
and the bottom of the mercury-cups was secured by placing a weight on the 
top of the coil ; the spring in the terminals was thou sufficient to ensure 
contact everywhere. 

In the arrangement figured in the diagram the coil p is balanced against a 
multiple arc, containing q and r in one branch, and s and t in the other. 
To compare one single coil with the next single coil, I is removed, and one 
end of the galvanometer wire connected instead with the cup E, while m is 
made to connect the lower instead of the upper half of A with u ; with this 
arrangement the coil t is balanced against the coil s. 

The coils in the quintuple coil are numbered 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 ; and in experi- 
ments with multiple arc the coil between A and B is referred to as the 
" single coil ; " in experiments with single coUs those between D and E 
and E and A are called right coil (E.G.) and left coil (E.G.); the coils 
between iv and .v and u and v are called right and left middle coils (E..M.C. 
and L.M.C.), and are numbered 1 and 2. The bridge is read from left to 
right. 

Some preliminary experiments were made with the apparatus, which 
showed that the coils had been very well adjusted by the makers, Messrs. 
Warden, Muirhead, and Glark. It was found that with the arrangement 
described (the best at our command in the Cavendish Laboratory), the bridge 
could be read to a quarter, if not to an eighth of a millimetre. A small 
correction was found necessary for the magnetic field, due to the current in 
the bridge connexions ; this was allowed for by adjusting a loop of the 
battery-wire till the galvanometer showed no effect when the battery was 
turned on. Thermoelectric currents in the galvanometer circuit, owing to 
heating from the hand at the contact-block, were avoided almost entirely by 
using two pieces of wood, which were interposed between the fingers and the 
block, and were continually changed so as not to get hot. 

The order of experiment was generally as follows : — The weight was ad- 
justed on the quintuple coil, the battery was thrown in for a moment by 
means of a treadle which closed the battery circuit ; if there was no direct 
effect on the galvanometer, the battery was thrown out, and contact made at 
the block ; the spot of light on the scale was watched through a reading- 
telescope, and if it was at rest* the battery was thrown in : the deviation 
indicated which way the block had to be moved to get a balance. Two or 
three trials in general sufficed to get the balance. Tlic bridge was then 
read ; the middle coils were then reversed, the balance foimd, and the bridge 
read again. The difference of the readings gives the difference of the resist- 
ances of the middle coils, as may easily be shown (see ' Journal of Society of 
Telegraph Engineers,' Oct. 1872). The middle coils being replaced as before, 
the quintuple coil was moved round one step, and the same process repeated. 

* On the avoidance of small thermoelectric effects, see below iu the discussion of the 
second experiment. 



ON OHM S LAW. 



43 



Formula of Reduction. 

Let the right-hand middle coil (No. 1) be taken to be 30 ohms, the bridge- 
wire being -075 of the same units. Let t denote the resistance of this coil, 
the unit being the resistance of a tenth of a millimetre of the bridge-wire, 
therefore 

30x10000 



r=- 



•075 



: = 4000000. 



Let the resistances of 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 of the quintuple coil, measured in the 
same units, be r-f-a, r + /3, r + y, r + o, 7--|-e. 

Hence, comparing middle coil 1 with 2, 1 being on the right, 

r + g _ r + 5 4-D + a? ,.. 

r + fl 7 + rOOOO + a-a?' ^ '' 

where r + D = resistance of middle coil 2, x the bridge-reading, a and h the 
resistances of the connexions at its two ends. This gives 

«-/3={D-a~6 + 2(.r-5000)}{l-^'^^^^'}, • • (2) 

all other terms being negligible. 

Now the greatest possible value of 10000 — x is 6000, since the readings 
never went below 4000, and D -|- 2ix — 5000) was never greater than 400. 



Hence the terra involving 



1000- 



--- is less than 



400x6000 



To' 



4000000 

and is therefore negligible, since we do not read beyond tenths of a milli- 
metre. Hence we may use the formula 

o-/3 = D-^?^-|-2(^'-5000) (3) 

Similarly, in comparing one coil against four, we get the formula 

«-?(|3 + r+S+e) = D-^^-l-2(^-5000). . . (4) 
To find a — h, the "bridge correction," a reading is taken with tlie coils 

Fig. 4. 




arranged as usual either for a single experiment or for a multiple-arc ex- 
periment : let this reading be x. Then the connexions are crossed, as in the 



44 REPORT — 1876. 

figure, fey introducing two new pieces of copper and two more mercury-cups, 
the arrangement independently of the bridge being very nearly symmetrical : 
let the reading now be x' . 

Assuming that the resistances of the movable cups and bows at the two 
ends are equal, =-lc in one case, =7^' in the other, then 

P + 7c-+rt + Z-.r _ A 
P + Ar+rt + Z-.r A 



Similarly, 



r + Q4-27.- + « + ^ + ^ A + B 

P + 7c-- + 7> + .r' ^ __A^ . 

p + (i + 27c:'+« + 6 + Z ~ A + li' 
r ^ Tc^a^l-x 1 f -, _ 2X-+a + 6 \ 
■ ■ I ' P J I P+Q+T J 

-|i + --p- I r~ p+a+z /' 

• 1 U ^^• + «+lllf _ 7c: + |(« + ^>) 
• -^-h- P P 

-i+ p ^p , 

.•.rt-6=a,'+.'j;'-10000. 

A variety of experiments were made with the coils arranged sometimes in 
one way, sometimes in the other, and closely agreeing values of « — 6 were 
found varying from 52 to 58. 

Correction for want of Syminetr)/. 

Referring back to fig. 4, we see that in the arrangement for multiple- 
arc experiments the connexions are not quite symmetrical. Tlic copper bows 
were all nearly of the same length and thickness : let the' resistance of one 
of them be 2h. Let also the average resistance of a mercury-cup be 2r. 
Then we get for the addition to ^(l3 + y + S + e), 

i(2b + 10r) + b + r, 
for the addition to a 2h + 4r. Hence a — :^(/3 + y +2-|-e) is too great owing 

. .(>,'>' 
to the connexions byp+^- 

Various experiments were made to find the value of h-{-r, and all gave 
very nearly the same result. The following is a specimen :— A copper bow 
very slightly longer than those in the connexions was inserted l)y means of 
an additional mercurj'-cup, first on the right then on the left of the bridge ; 
the readings were 5032 and 4982, the diflTercnce being 50 ; 

.•.2(6 + r) = 50, 

h r 
•••2+2=12. 

The correction was actually taken to be 10. 

Limits of Temperature Effects. 
The coils were arranged for a multiple-arc experiment ; the balance was 



ON OHM S LAW, 



45 



taken at 3.25; the battery was then thrown iu and kept in for about a 
quarter of an hour with the following results : — 

h m X. 



3 25 


5007 


3 35 


5020 


3 42 


5022 



The reading therefore increased by 15, the greater part of increase taking 
place in the first 10 minutes. Another series of experiments were made with 
Biiiglc coils against single, as follows: — 



Time of Ob3. lE.M.C. E.G. 

I I 



L.C. 



4914 
5137 
5220 
6008 



D. 



223 
218 



These experiments were done as quickly 
as possible ; the balance, already approxi- 
mately known, was found by three or four 
instantaneous contacts, so that the coils 
were as little heated as possible. 



The battery was thrown in at 12.36 and kept in, the coils being as in last experiment. 



At 12.36... 


1 


2 


1 


12.41 r 
to 12.44 1 


1 






2 


it 


?J 


12.56 1 


1 






to 1.00 1 


2 


»i 


)) 


1.3 ... 


1 


3 


2 




2 


)) 


ii 



5008 


218 


5013 




5224 


211 


5018 




5223 


205 


4920 




5138 


209 



The idea was to get 2 heated and then 
compare it again with 3, which had been 
very little if at all heated. 



1.8 ... 
1.25... 
1.30... 



5036 
5036 
5234 



209 
198 



Two fresh coils were taken, the middle 
coils being as before at dilferencc 209. 



Crossed connexions 



4818 



Bridge correction 52. 



Reducing these experiments by the formitla given above svo get 



D 


X, 


D-52 

2(,r-5000). 




Time. 


223 


4914 


- 1 


(3-y 


12.30 


218 


5008 


+ 182 


a- 13 


12.S6 


211 


5013 


+ 186 




12.41 


205 


5018 


H-189 




12.56 


209 


4929 


+ 15 


/3-y 


1.3 


209 


6036 


+229 


( — e 


1.8 


198 


5006 


+ 218 


S-e 


1.30 



Several important inferences may be drawn from these experiments, 

1. The difference of resistance between the middle coils decreases as the 
temperature increases, and that so rcgularlj^, that the value of D may be used 
as a sort of thermometer, indicating how nearly these coils are kept at the 

' same temperature during any series of experiments. This fact sliows the 
propriety of using the appropriate value of D for each case in our reducing 
formula instead of the average value. 

2. The coils 4 and 5 possess the same property, though in a less degree, 

3. The coils 1 and 2 possess this property to a very slight extent. 

4. The greatest effect that could be produced in a reasonable time on the 



46 



REPORT 1876. 



diiference between 2 and 3, by heating 2 and comparing it with 3 scarcely 
heated, if at all, was 16. 

The above peculiarities suggested to me to make a set of experiments on 
the plan of keeping the current going as much as possible. It was hoped 
that thus a certain hmiting state, as regards temperature, would be arrived 
at, which from the construction of the coils would in a great measure be 
independent of small variations of temperature in the experimenting-room *. 

This method of proceeding would not introduce any error in the com- 
parison of single coil with single, and the error introduced into multiple-arc 
experiments would be regular and could be alloM'ed for. The last of the sets 
of experiments given below was conducted on this plan with satisfactory 
results. 

Tabular Scheme of best Experiments. 



Single Coirwitli Single. 


Multiple Arc. 




E.M.C. 


R.C. 


L.C. 


X. 


D. 


R.M.C. 


Single 
C. 


X. D. 




2 
1 
1 
2 
2 
1 
1 
2 
2 
1 


2 

3 
4 
5 

J) 

1 


1 

n 

2 
3 
4 

5 


5234 
6022 
4921 
5135 
5074 
4862 
5046 
5255 
4973 
4760 


212 
214 
212 
209 
213 










.Starting fresh and work- 
ing quickly. 


2 
1 
1 
2 
2 

1 

1 
2 
2 

1 


2 , 

1 

5 

4 

3 

1> 


1 
5 

)» 

4 
3 
2 


5228 
5011 
4768 
4982 
5250 
5039 
4861 
5078 
5140 
4925 


217 
214 
211 
217 
215 


1 
2 

o 

1 
1 

2 

2 

1 

1 
2 


1 

5 
4 
3 
2 


5000 
5223 
5035 
4810 
4960 
5180 
5106 
4891 
4892 
5110 


223 

225 
220 
215 

218 


The multiple-are experi- 
ments were .started fresh ; 
battery reversed, but no dif- 
ference found. The single- 
coil experiments followed 
some little time after, some 
experiments with cups and 
bows having been made in 
the interval. 


2 
1 
1 
2 
2 
1 
1 
2 
2 

1 


2 
1 

5 
4 
3 


1 

J) 

5 
4 
3 
2 


5228 
5028 
4771 
4972 
5238 
5038 
4861 
60C7 
5143 
4935 


200 
201 
200 
206 

208 


1 

2 
2 

1 
1 
2 

2 
1 

1 
2 


1 

5 
4 
3 
2 


5024 
5227 
5032 
4825 
4963 
5170 
5089 
4884 
4905 
5108 


203 

207 
207 
205 
203 


These experiments were 
worked slowly, the current 
being kept on as much as 
possible. The single-coil ex- 
periments came first. The 
last line gi^es a control ex- 
periment. The correction 
for magnetic field was for- 
gotten in tlie niultiijle-arc 
experiments, and in conse- 
quence 4 must be added to x 
throughoutinthesecond set. 


1 


2 


1 


5024 




2 


1 


5228 





* No special means of keeping the double and quintuple coils at a constant temperature 
was resorted to. The object was not to find the resistances of the coils at any definite 
temperature, but to compare them under the same circumstances as regards temperature. 
It was therefore thought that any attempt to surround the coils with watei', &c. would 
introduce greater errors than would arise from small variations of temperalui'e in the room 
during the experiment. 



ON OHM S LAW. 



47 



Reduction and Comparison of the foregoing Experiments. 



D. 


X. 


D-58 

+ 
2(a--5000). 


: 


D. 


x. 


D-58-10 
+2(a;-5000) 


Calc. 


Diff. 
Obs. 
Oalc. 




1- 


^212 
214 
212 
209 

L213 


5022 
4921 

4862 
5046 
4760 


+198 
- 2 
-112 
+243 
-325 


198 

196 

84 

327 












■ 
The third cohiran gives 
the values of a— (3, 
P — y,y — B,6 — 6,e — a ; 
the fourth the values 
of a—jS, a — y, a — S, 
a — e, calculated from 
these. 






+ 2 




,^217 

215 

2^217 

211 

V214 


5011 
4925 
4361 
5039 
4768 


+181 
+ 7 
-119 
+231 
-308 


181 

188 

69 

300 


223 
218 
215 
220 
225 


5000 
4892 
4891 
4960 
4810 


+ 165 

- 66 

- 69 
+ 72 
-223 


+184 

- 42 

- 51 
+ 98 
-191 


- 29 

- 24 

- 18 

- 26 

- 32 


The seventh and eighth 
columns give the values 
of a-i(/3 + y + 5+6), 
/3-i(a + y + 5+e),&c. 
lobserved in multijsle- 
arc experiments, and 
calculated from the 
values of a — /3, a — y, 
&c. before found. 






- 8 








-131 




-129 


3- 


^200 
208 
208 
200 

,201 


5028 
4935 
4861 
5038 
4771 


+204 
+ 26 
-124 
+224 
-309 


204 
230 
106 
330 


203 
203 
205 
207 
209 


5028 
4909 
4888 
4967 
4829 


+ 197 

- 41 

- 81 
+ 79 
-197 


+217 

- 38 

- 70 
+ 85 
-195 


- 20 

- 3 

- 11 

- 6 


The last column gives 
the excess of the ob- 
served over the calcu- 
lated values of 
a-i{P+y+d+e),&c. 






+ 21 








- 43 




- 42 



If .B. — In the last set of experiments 52 was used instead of 58 as the bridge correction. 



The first thing to remark is the smallness of the sums of a — ft, 13— y, 
y — ^) c — e, e— o, as found from single-coil experiments ; the sum is theoreti- 
cally zero, and the largest deviation is about 20, which divided by 5 gives 
only 4 for the average error of a determination. Here no error from want 
of symmetry comes in, and errors from irregular temperature effects very 
nearly balance each other. 

In the next place, taking the multiple-arc experiments of series Xo. 2, we 
see that there is a deviation of the observed from the calculated values of 
a-|(|8 + y-f c + e) which averages 26; and here, from the way the experi- 
ments were conducted, the temperature disturbances are probably verj^ small. 
Again, take the multiple-arc experiments of series No. 3. Here, from the' 
manner of experimenting, the temperature effects will appear. We found that 
the greatest effect we could produce on one of the coils in a reasonable time 
was about 15 ; supposing that the whole of this was manifested in the 
single coil, we shoiild get a quarter as much in each of the coils in the 
multiple arc (because the current is halved), that is, we have | of 15 alto- 
gether in a— ^(ft + y+B + e): this necessitates a correction of about 10 to 
be subtracted from the observed values. This is clearly the maximum 
correction, for after the first experiiiient we turn into the multiple-arc coils 
that have ab'eady been fully heated. Supposing, however, that we apply 
the full correction in each case, we get for the average difference — 1 8. 

This deviation is in the direction indicated by Schuster's experiments, but 



48 REPORT — 1876. 

it is excessively small : suppose we call it —20 for convenience of calculation ; 
this corresponds to the fraction ^^^^=^^ of 30 ohms. 

But the whole deviation is probably introduced by some slight defect in 
the apparatus, and part at least can be accounted for ; for it occurred to me, 
in looking over the results quoted above, that a defect in the insulation at 
the divided cup would partly account for such a deviation. Suppose that 
the divided cup offered a very large, but not infinite, resistance / to the 
passage of the current, then the single coil in multiple-arc experiments would 

111 

be replaced by a multiple arc of resistance E', where i7l=5r) + :^' 

^"^'" 11^ = 30-^'. 

Now let us find what / inust be to give a decrease of 20 in our observed 
value of u — Kft + y + o + e): 

30^_ 20 
/ lOOOO'^'^ 
7=6,000,000 

that is,/=6 megohms. Curiously enough, when I proceeded to measiu'c the 
insulation resistance of the divided cup it came out very nearly 6 megohms ; 
but the insulation resistance between any two of the remaining cups was 
found to be about 12 megohms, which reduces the correction somewhat. The 
complete solution of the problem would be complicated ; but we may approxi- 
mate by considering each of the coils in the multiple arc replaced by a 
multiple arc whose arms are 30 ohms and 12 meghoms respectively ; this 
requires that /3, y, 2, e should each be reduced by 10. Hence the whole reduc- 
tion in a—^Q3+y + d + e) would be on this supposition 10. It would really 
be somewhat less ; however, this would almost bring the deviation between 
observation and calculation within the limits of experimental error. Any 
remaining ditference is probably duo to a defect in some mercury-cup in the 
multiple arc, for there being more there than on the other side of the balance 
the chance of a defect is greater. 

It ought to be mentioned that the insulation of the quintuple coil was 
tested, and found in every case to be of a higher order of magnitude than a 
megohm. 

Some time after the series of experiments just described, I dismounted the 
mercury-cups from the stand, which had meantime been carefully dried on 
the hot-water pipes in the laboratory. Each cup was remounted with a 
piece of gutta percha between it and the board ; and the divided cup, which 
was found radically defective, was replaced by two mercury- cups on separate 
'pieces of insulating material. The insulation between every pair of cups was 
then tested afresh and found in every case of a higher order than a megohm. 

The experiments were then repeated with the altered stand. The sensi- 
bility of the arrangement was about the same as before, although a less 
electromotive force was used (10 cells). The results were much the same 
as before, except that the sum of the values of a — K/S+y-f^-l-e), &c. was 
now much smaller, two experiments giving —-31 and —34. Dividing this 
by 5, we get — G for the average deviation, which is very small. The fact 
that we still get a result in the same direction shows that this is not an 
accidental error ; but it might very well be accounted for by some of the 
suppositions mentioned already. It might also arise from over-correction for 
symmetry. -^ 



ON ohm's law. 49 

On the whole, therefore, we cannot conclude that there was any denation 
fronti Ohm's law under the circumstances of this experiment. It is hardly 
worth while to estimate the value of this experiment quantitatively, as the 
second experiment now to be described is so far superior in this respect. 

Second Experiment. 
Introduction, by Prof. Maxwell. 

The service rendered to electrical science by Dr. G. S. Ohm can only be 
rightly estimated when we compare the language of those writers on electri- 
city who were ignorant of Ohm's law with that of those who have understood 
and adopted it. 

By the former, electric currents arc said to vary as regards both their 
" quantity " and their " intensity," two qualities the nature of which was 
very imperfecly explained by tedious aud vague expositions. 

In the writings of the latter, after the elementary terms " Electromotive 
Force," " Strength of Current," and " Electric Resistance " have been defined, 
the whole doctrine of currents becomes distinct and plain. 

Ohm's law may be stated thus ; — 

The electromotive force which must act on a homogeneous conductor in 
order to maintain a given steady current through it, is numerically equal to 
the product of the resistance of the conductor into the strength of the current 
through it. If, therefore, we define the resistance of a conductor as the 
ratio of the numerical value of the electromotive force to the numerical 
value of the strength of the current, Ohm's law asserts that this ratio ig 
constant — that is, that its value does not depend on that of the electro- 
motive force or of the current. 

The resistance, as thus defined, depends on the nature and form of the 
conductor, and on its physical condition as regards temperature, strain, &c. ; 
but if Ohm's law is true, it does not dejiend on the strength of the current. 

Ohm's law must, at least at present, be considered a purely emjiirical 
one. No attempt to deduce it from pure dynamical principles has as yet 
been successful ; indeed Weber's latest theoretical investigations * on this 
subject have led him to suspect that Ohm's law is not true, but that, as the 
electromotive force increases without limit, the current increases slower and 
slower, so that the " resistance," as defined by Ohm's law, would increase 
with the electromotive force. On the other hand, Schuster t has described 
experiments which lead him to suspect a deviation from Ohm's law, but in 
the opposite direction, the resistance being smaller for great currents than 
for small ones. 

LorentzJ, of Leyden, has also proposed a theory according to which Ohm's 
law would cease to be true for rapidly varying currents. The rapidity of 
variation, however, which, as he supposes, would cause a perceptible deviation 
from Ohm's law, must be comparable with the rate of vibration of light, so 
that it would be impossible by any experiments other than optical ones to 
test this theory. 

The conduction of electricity through a resisting medium is a process in 
which part of the energy of an electric current, flowing in a definite direc- 
tion, is spent in imparting to the molecules of the medium that irregular 
agitation which we call heat. To calculate from any hypothesis as to the 
molecular constitution of the medium at what rate the energy of a given 

* Pogg. Anu. 1875. t Eeport of British Association, 1874. 

X Over de Terugkaatsiug en Breking van het Licht. Leiden, 1875. 
1876. B 



50 REPORT — 1876. 

current would be spent in this way, would require a far more perfect know- 
ledge of the dynamical theory of bodies than we at present possess. It is 
only by experiment that we can ascertain the laws of processes of which we 
do not understand the dynamical theory. 

"We therefore define, as the resistance of a conductor, the ratio of the 
numerical value of the electromotive force to that of the strength of the 
current, and we have to determine by experiment the conditions which affect 
the value of this ratio. 

Thus if E denotes the electromotive force acting from one electrode of the 
conductor to the other, C the strength of the current flowing through the 
conductor, and E. the resistance of the current, we have hy definition 

C 

and if H is the heat generated in the time t, and if J is the dynamical equi- 
valent of heat, we have by the principle of conservation of energy 

"F" 
JH=EC<=EC2f=^ t. 

The quantity R, which wo have defined as the resistance of the conductor, 
can be determined onlj- by experiment. Its value may therefore, for any 
thing we know, be affected by each and all of the physical conditions to 
which the conductor may be subjected. 

Thus we know that the resistance is altered by a change of the temperature 
of the conductor, and also by mechanical strain and by magnetization. 

The question which is now before us is whether the current itself is or is 
not one of the phj-sical conditions which may affect the value of the resist- 
ance ; and this question we cannot decide except by experiment. 

Let us therefore assume that the resistance of a given conductor at a 
given temperature is a function of the strength of the current. Since the 
resistance of a conductor is the same for the same current in whichever 
direction the current flows, the expression for the resistance can contain 
only even powers of the current. 

Let us sujjpose, therefore, that the resistance of a conductor of unit 
length and unit section is 

r (l+sc^+sV + &c.), 

where r is the resistance corresponding to an infinitely small current, and 
c is the current through unit of section, and s,s' iSrc. are small coefficients to bo 
determined by experiment. The coefficients s, s' &c. represent the devia- 
tions from Ohm's law. If Ohm's laAV is accurate, these coefficients are zero ; 
also if e is the electromotive force acting on this conductor, 

e=rc(l+sc^ + s'c* + &c.). 

Now let us consider another conductor of the same substance whose length 
is L and whose section is A ; then if E is the electromotive force ou this con- 
ductor, and e that on unit of length, 

E = L<'. 

Also if C be the current throvigh the conductor and c that through unit of 
area. 



ON ohm's law. 



Uonce the resistance of this conductor will be 






l+«^+?^ + &c.' 



Now lot us suppose two conductors of the same material but of different 
dimensions arranged in series and the same current passed through both : 






where the suffixes indicate to which conductor the quantities belong. TIio 
ratio of the resistances is 

Hence if Ohm's law is not true, and if, therefore, any of the quantities s, s', 
&c. have sensible values, the ratio of the resistances will depend on the 
strength of the current. 

Now the ratio of two resistances may be measured with great accuracy 
by means of Wheatstone's bridge. . ^ . 

We therefore arrange the bridge so that one branch of the current passes 
first through a very fine wire a few centimetres long, and then through a 
much longer and thicker wire of about the same resistance. The other 
branch of the current passes through two resistances, equal to each other, 
but much greater than the other two, so that very little of the heating-effect 
of the current is produced in these auxiliary resistances. 

The bridge is formed by connecting the electrodes of a galvanometer, one 
to the junction of the fine wire and the thick one, and the other to a point 
between the other two resistances. 

We have thus a method of testing the ratio of the resistances of the fine wire 
to that of the thick one ; and by passing through the bridge sometimes a feeble 
current and sometimes a powerful one, we might ascertain if the ratio differed 
in the two cases. 

But this direct method is rendered useless by the fact that the current 
generates heat, which raises the temperature of both wires, but that of the 
thin wire most rapidly ; and this makes it impossible to compare the effects 
of strong and weak currents through a conductor at one and the same 
temperature. 

It is also useless to work with weak currents, as the effect dej^ends on 
the square of the current, and is so small as to have escaped observation in 
all ordinary experiments. 

Again, if we were to use a single very strong current acting for a very short 
time, we should not be able to observe the galvanometer "in a satisfactory 
manner. In fact it was found in the experiment that currents which lasted 
for a sixtieth part of a second produced a heating-effect which interfered 
with the measurements. The experiment was therefore arranged so that a 
strong current and a weak one were passed through the bridge alternately ; 
and when the bridge was so arranged that the galvanometer was in equili- 
brium, the direction of the weaker current was reversed. If Ohm's law were 
not true, the condition of equilibrium for strong currents would be different 

e2 



o:c 



llEPORT — 1876. 



from that for weaker ones, so that when the weak cnrrents were reversed 
there would be no longer equilibrium. Since, in point of fact, the reversal 
of the weaker currents did not affect the cqiiilibrium, it follows that the 
bridge was in equilibruun for the weaker currents as well as for the stronger 
ones, and therefore the conditions were the same for both, and Ohm's law 
is true to within the limits of error of tlie experiment. The mode in 
which the actual strength of the currents was measured and tlie limits of 
error ascertained, are described in the following Report by Mr. Chrystal. 



Report on the Second Experiment. By G. Chrystai, 

As has been pointed out by Professor Maxvv'ell, the change in the specific 
resistance of a linear conductor, if there be any such change owing to increase 
or decrease of the current, will depend on the amount of current that passes 
through unit of area of its section ; so that if C be the whole current passing, 
r the specific resistance for infinitely small current, I the length, lu the section, 
and h a constant depending on the nature of the conductor, then the resis- 
tances of the conductor will be 

or if E be the resistance for infinitely small currents, llf 1 — 7t— ) *. 

It is clear, therefore, that by making up a resistance of very fine wire, say 
■^^ of an iuch in diameter, any such efiect as that we have been looking for 
would be greatly multiplied. Accordingly the following experiment, the 
principle of which is due to Professor Maxwell, was undertaken by the writer 
of this Eeport. 

The figure represents a Wheatstone's bridge, in which the resistances AB 
and BD are each equal to a (in the actual 
experiment 30 ohms), AC a resistance made 
up of a thin wire wliose resistance for in- 
finitely small currents is E, (this we sui^pose 
to be duly corrected for temperature, as will 
be explained by-and-by), and partly of a 
length of the thick platinum-iridium wire 
of the B.A. bridge, whose resistance is ,r. 
CD consists of a resistance composed of thick 
wire equal to E, and of the rest of the 
bridge-wire, whose resistance is I — x. 

With a current C, w being the section of 
fine wire, its resistance is = E(l — /,C-), 
where 

h 

" W 

If P=j{nr7j tc the approximate resistance of the whole bridge (we suppose 

that there is nearly a balance), B Ihat of the battery circuit; then E bcing- 
the electromotive force of the battery. 



Fig. 5. 




C = 



E 

B-i-|o2E 



= PE. 



* The sign of h is chosen according to Schuster'^ 6ugg6stion. 



ON OHM^S LAW. 53 

Then A denoting tho dctcriuinant of the system of resistances (see Max- 
well's ' Electricity,' vol. i. p. 399), we have rj denoting the current in the 
galvanometer, 

5r='^{Z-2.i- + R/.FE=}. . (1) 

Prom (1) it follows at once that tho greater E, the further to the right the 
balance will bo, provided /i is >0. 

Let us now, instead of keeping up an electromotive force E constantly, make 
an alternation some hundred times a second between an electromotive force 
E and an electromotive force i/E *; then supposing each to operate for an equal 
time, tho whole current through tho galvanometer is given by 

o=i^W-^^^){^-\-y)'^+'^Fr-w{i+,f)} (2) 

if the electromotive force has in both cases the same direction, and by 

^=^i(^-2-^'Xl-2/)E + R^FE\l-y')} (3) 

if the directions are opposite. 

It appears, therefore, as was obvious without calculation, that the values 
of X which give a balance are neither the same in the two cases (2) and (3), 
nor equal to that in the case of either electromotive force acting continuously, 
.In fact the balance is an apparent one if jeo be >0, due to the fact that we 
are in case (2) as much under the balance for the larger electromotive force 
{qua effect on the galvanometer) as we are over that for the smaller, so that 
the needle is kicked equally this way and that so rapidly that it remains still. 
Similar reasoning would show that the balance for case (3) lies most to the 
right of all. In fact the values of x are : — 

Smaller electromotive force alone x = 4{Z+Ey.(P-?/^E-}, 

Case (2) x^ l{l+llf,VXl-y + 7f)W}, 

Larger electromotive force alone x = ^{Z+EyuP^E^}, 

Case (3) x = i{l+R^,ni+y-\-f)W}, 

which are evidently in ascending order if ?/ be < 1, 

Suppose now we find the balance for case (2) and then reverse our smaller 
electromotive force ; the balance being thus disturbed, there will be a current 
through the galvanometer ; and in order to experiment at the greatest advan- 
tage this must be made a maximum. 

Substituting the second of the above values of x in formula (3), we get 

ff=lll^,V^W(y-f), (4) 

which is a maximum as far as y is concerned Avhen y=l-, the value off/ 
being then 



«EP-E^ 
ff=f^ 4A (^) 

The advantage of this method of experimenting is that it eliminates to a great 
extent the temperature effect, which is similar to the eftect we arc lookiug 
for, except that it depends on the time, which the other probably would not 

* N.B. In what follows ?/ is supposed < 1. 



54 REPORT — 1876. 

do ; and it is of course opposite in direction. If we make our alternations 
quick enough the wire will not cool sensibly during the smaller current, nor 
heat sensibly during the larger, but will settle down to a mean temjierature 
between that due to the larger and smaller currents. 

In the above calculation we have supposed the resistance of the fine wire 
for infinitely small currents to be that corresponding to this mean tempera- 
ture, which will be constant throughout the experiment provided the electro- 
motive forces do not vaiy. 

If, however, the alternations are not quick enough to ensure temperature- 
equilibrium, then the thin wire will be hotter during the passage of the larger 
current than it is during that of the smaller ; and there will be an effect 
opposite to that we arc looking for, a result which appeared- in many of the 
experiments. 

The experiment proved very difficult in practice, chiefly owing to the diffi- 
culty experienced in getting a good alternator; and it was only after a great 
many total or partial failures that any thing like success was attained. A 
sketch of the progress of the experiment, with an account of the more im- 
portant difficulties, and how they were finally avoided or overcome, may be of 
some interest. 

In the fii'st place the galvanometer indications in a Wheatstone's bridge, 
arranged as above described, are somewhat peculiar. 

Suppose we are somewhere near a balance for some temperature of the 
thin Avire above that of the room ; then on turning on the current there is a 
sharp kick in one dii-ection, say to the right, then a slower but still tolerably 
quick swing over to the left, and then a gradual subsidence back to zero or 
thereabouts, which may last for haK an hour or longer. If this were due 
solely to variation in the resistance of the thin wire the curve of time-resis- 
tance would be of this nature — 

Pig. G. 



It had been found that the thin wire was very sensitive to air-currents, 
merely blowing towards it from a considerable distance sending the spot off 
the galvanometer-scale ; in fact to get any approach to steadiness the wire 
had to be enclosed in a box, and latterly it was enclosed in a narrow tube, 
and that again loosely rolled in a silk pocket-handkerchief, and the whole 
enclosed in a box. It was therefore at first suspected that the peculiarity in 
question was due to air-currents ; but some experiments with the wire in an 
exhausted tube showed that it was due to some other cause. This cause was 
found in the slow heating of the thick wire against which the thin wire was 
balanced; and some obvious experiments were made confirming this con- 
clusion*. 

* The behaviour of the galvanometer is therefore explained in this way :— The first sharp 
short lack ia due to the fact that before the thin wire is heated its resistance is much smaller 



ON ohm's law, ,55 

This slow variation of the balance was sometimes avoided by letting the 
batteries work until it had died away, and sometimes it was allowed for by 
suitably arranging the order of experiment. 

As it was of considerable importance to have a battery which could bo 
relied on for constancy for some time, six large Dauiells were charged for 
the purpose. They were cells intended for a Thomson's battery, but were 
fitted up for convenience with copper plates IS inches square, upon which 
was strewed sulphate of cojjper, which again was covered with a thin layer 
of sawdust moistened with zinc sulphate, and on the top of this was placed a 
heavy grating of zinc. Two piles were made consisting respectively of four 
and two of these elements, and were used in most of the experiments. The 
internal resistance of these piles ran to about 4 and 3 ohms respectively. The 
electromotive force was repeatedly tested during the experiments. 

At first a " Morse key " worked rapidly by the hand was tried for an alter- 
nator; this method, though leading to no definite results, seemed to show 
the possibility of success. Then a rotating alternator driven by hand was 
tried ; but it was found that the results though much better were still very 
much disturbed by the irregularities of the driving. Next a rotating alter- 
nator was made by Mr. Garnett and fitted to a Jenkins governor ; this also 
after repeated trials was given up, the main difficulty being that of getting up 
sufficient speed without introducing so much resistance as to go beyond the 
range of the governor. Some of the results got with this arrangement Avere 
fairly good, however, and will be given below. In the arrangement adopted 
in the final exiieriments the alternation "was managed by means of a pair of 
electric tuning-forks. For the use of these during the Lent term I am in- 
debted to the kindness of Dr. Michael Poster. 

Final Arrangement. 

Fig. 7, p. 56, gives a scheme of the final arrangement. AB is the 
bridge already mentioned in the Eeport. EGG is the galvanometer circuit. 
Between D and E and E and F are inserted two resistances of 30 ohms 
each ; W is the fine wire, H a coil of thick German-silver wire of resistance 
nearly equal to that of the fine wire, K a small resistance-box from which 
twentieths could be got, the final adjustment being of course made by moving 
the block G. D is connected with the stem of the tuning-fork PQ, whose 
prongs are each provided with a dipper, and corresponding to the dippers 
are two mercury-cups whose heights are adjustable. M and N are the piles 
of four and two Dauiells. is a commutator, by means of which the smaller 
battery can be thrown in either way, or thrown out altogether as desired. 
One terminal of the commutator goes to the cup T, the other to F. The other 
cup, S, is connected with one pole of the larger battery, the other pole of 
which is connected with F through a key, L, by opening or closing which the 
battery M may be thrown out or in at pleasure. The rest of the figure re- 
presents an auxiliary battery, U, whose circuit goes throiigh another foi-k,V W, 
working a break at W, and through the electromagnets of the forks VW 
and PQ. This latter battery and fork therefore simply drive the fork PQ. 



than that corresponding to a balance ; the quick swing in the opposite direction is due to 
tlie sudden rise of temperature causing a corresponding increase of resistance; the slow 
return movement is due to the increase of the balancing resistance owing to the gradual 
development of heat in the thiek wire. 



56 



JIEPORT 1876. 

rig. 7. 




v@^, 



The action of PQ, is obvious. "VMjen the prongs approach each other the 
iipper dipper is depressed into the mercTiry iu S, while tlie lower dipper is 
raised out of the mercury in T, so that the current of the larger battery 
passes, aud vice versd when tlio prongs separate ; and it is easy enough liy 
throwing a galvanometer iu instead of one of the batteries, and then setting 
the fork going with the other on, to adjust the break in such a way tliat there 
is perfect indepojidenee between the two currents. This test was in fact ac- 
tually applied either at the beginning or end of each set of experiments. Wo 
have thus alternately sent through the bridge certain definite fractions of 
the whole current due to the large and small batteries. What fractions these 
are will depend on the nicety with which the break is adjusted (with perfect 
adjustment it would be one half of each), and also on the state of the mercury 
surfaces and of the dippers. As may be imagined, the main difficulty of the 
experiment lay in getting the dippers to work properly. Several sorts were 
tried; plain copper amalgamated was found to act fairly well, but broad 
spade-shaped pieces of platinum-foil answered on the whole best. The sur- 
face of the mercury was covered with spirit, which is effectual so far in x>re- 
ventingthe spoiling of the surface ; but ultimately the cups get clogged with 
finely divided mercury, and tlien all regular action is at an end. It was 



ON ohm's law. 57 

found, however, that with some care the break could be got to work long 
enough to allow of good results being obtained. 

On account of this gradual alteration of the break, and for other reasons 
n-i well, it was of vital importance to be able during the experiment to obtain 
some measure of the amount of current that passed as representative of the 
large and small current respectively ; for the experiment would obviously be 
nugatory if, instead of the smaller current being nearly half the larger, 
it became, owing to deterioration of contact in the cup S, equal to what ought 
to be the larger current. To provide for this the experiments were conducted 
as follows : — The balance was found, whether for larger currents alone or 
smaller alone (acting directly or with the fork going), or for both together 
in the same or in opposite directions ; then the block was moved as quickly 
as possible 6 centims. from the position of balance, and the deflection which 
then appeared was read off; this deflection is approximately proportional to 
the current. Knowing then the electromotive force of either battery and its 
internal resistance, one could not only tell v.'hether the currents wore passing 
nearly in the right proportion, but also estimate roughly how much current 
absolutely passed in each case. In some of the best experiments a more ac- 
curate method was adopted: — The point D was "put to earth," and the point 
E connected by means of a long insulated wire with one pair of the quadrants 
of a Thomson's electrometer in the flat of the laboratory below the room where 
tlic experiment was carried on; the other pair of quadrants being "put to 
earth," the deflection observed on the electrometer-scale was a direct measure 
of the electromotive force between D and E — that is, of the quantity denoted 

above by g^E. 

Before giving the quantitative results obtained from the most satisfactory 
experiments, it maybe well to explain the principle on which these have been 
selected from the others. In all the experiments quoted there was either 
something remarkable, such as a high battery power, &c., or else the balances 
were obtained imder very favourable circumstances, the spot of light being 
very steady, and the proportions of current passing, as indicated by the 
sensibilities* or electrometer measurements, being near the theoretically best 
amounts. Often where the breaks were not working satisfactorily, by work- 
ing quickly a qualitative experiment could be made, the behaviour of the 
galvanometer indicating to an observer practised in the experiment that the 
])roportions of current passing were not far wrong; and often part of an 
experiment could be made perfectly satisfactorily, and then the apparatus 
Avould go out of order. But in all the experiments, whenever the results were 
at all intelligible (regular), the conclusion pointed to never differed from that 
given by the best experiments, viz. either the balance for the currents in 
opposite direction lay more to the left than that for the currents in the same 
direction, or the two coincided. Of this the observer spared no trouble in 
assuring himself even in experiments that wero quantitatively utterly value- 
less. 

The first set of experiments quoted, which are not of much value quan- 
titatively, may serve to illustrate what has just been said. In this set the 
time is given because the experiments 'were made during the slow heating- 
effect already alluded to. The spot of light was not perfectly steadj-, though 

much steadier for the -\ balances than for the others ; the bridge-reading 

is given to tenths of a millimetre, though of course in the present case for 

* The deflection clue to six centimetres deviation from balance is called the sensibility. 



58 



KEPORT 1876. 



the + + balances accuracy to less than a millimetre was not attained. The 
alternator was the rotating piece made by Mr. Garnett, driven by the 
governor, which, judging by the regularity and smallness of the oscillations 
of its brake-wheel, went very uniformly during the whole experiment. The 
rate of revolution was about three turns (causing as many alternations) 
per second. The sensibilities for -f- -|- and + — were respectively about 150 
and 45 during the experiment, so'that the large and small currents would be 
proportional to about 97 and 52 respectively. The fine wire Avas a small 
length of German-silver wire -^-l^ in. in diameter, whose resistance was 
about 7"3 ohms ; and the counter-balancing resistance was 7'3 ohms, taken 
entirely from the small resistance-box. The governor being started, the 
batteries were set on at 4.G. 



Time. 


Large Battery. 


Small Battery. 


Bridge. 


4.15 


+ 




5880 


.17 


+ 


+ 


5080 


.18 


+ 


— 


6805 


.23 


+ 


4- 


5770 


.25 


+ 


— 


6518 


.47 


+ 


— 


6612 


.49 


+ 


+ 


6785 


.51 


+ 


-'r 


7032 


.52 


+ 


— 


6478 


.65 


+ 


+ 


(•)820 


.57 


+ 


_ 


6418 . 


6.00 


+ 


+ 


6605 


5.10 


+ 


— 


6308 



It will be seen that with some little irreg-ularity the balance on the whole 
went steadily to the right dui-ing some three quarters of an hour. In one 

point aU the observations agree, viz. that the -\ balance is more to the 

left by 1 to 3 centimetres than the -| — \- for the corresponding time. If AE 
be the amoiint by which the average resistance is less for the smaller than 
for the larger current, then taking 250 as the difference between the balances, 
we get easily, from the formulae given abov6 (our imit of resistance being 
the resistance of -^ millim. of the bridge-wire, i. e. ' j^Jgy ohm), 

250 

AE = — = 500 (takmg y = |). 

Now the variation in resistance of German silver being about -044 per cent. 
per deg. Ceut., we get for 1°C. on 7-3 ohms a variation of about 430 in our 
pi-esent units. Hence the average temperature of the thin wire Avas some- 
thing over 1° C. less during the smaller than during the larger current. 
Neither the magnitude of the cooling effect nor the irregularities in the 
progression of the balance in this experiment is to be wondered at, since 
we know that air-currents have a very powerful effect in cooling the thin 
wire ; and here the wire was merely enclosed in a box to protect it from air- 
gusts, but was otherwise unprotected. We ought therefore to expect very 
little of this effect in most of the following experiments, where the alterna- 
tions were 20 times as fast, and Avhcre the Avirc was enclosed in a narrow 
tube protected from temperature variations. 

In the experiment next quoted, the alternations were made by means of 



ON OHM S LAW. 



59 



the tuning-forks, and were at the rate of 60 per second. The resistance of 
the thin wire was very nearly the same, and it was enclosed in a narrow tube. 
The four Daniells had run down a good deal, being not quite equivalent to 
three, and the two had varied in in'oportion. The resistance which balanced 
the wire was, exclusive of the bridge-wire, 7-25 ohms. 



Tiarge Battery. 


Small Battery. 


Bridge. 


Sensibility. 


+ 


+ 


5140 




+ 




A little to left. 




+ 


+ 


4830 




+ 




No difference. 




+ 


+ 


... 


05 


4- 


— 


... 


45 


H- 






70 




+ 


... 


20 



It will be seen that the effect that was so conspicuous in the first experi- 
ment scarcely appears here at all. It was in fact so small that its appearance 
might be due to progress of the balance in the interval between the five 
observations. 

In the next experiment the wire had a resistance of about 4*4 ohms ; the 
material was German silver, and the diameter the same as before. The 
resistance against which it was balanced was a German-silver wire of about 
•12 centim. diameter, wound on a bobbin, the resistance of which was 4-45 
ohms. The Daniells had been fresh charged, and were arranged in piles of 
four and two as usual, the respective internal resistances being about 5 and 3. 
The small resistance-box was on the left with the thin wire. 



L. B. 


S. B. 


Bos. 


Bridge. 


Sensibility. 


+ 
+ 


+ 


000 
0-00 


2165 
2165 


165 

42 


Here the dippers were slightly adjusted. 


+ 
+ 

+ 


+ 


000 
000 
000 
005 


2330 
2330 
4310 
5940 


53 
170 
105 

51 



The experiment is marked in the laboratory book as very steady. It will 
be remarked that the sensibilities are large and well proportioned ; for if 
we had theoretically perfect adjustment, the sum would have been 156 and 
the difference 54, as against 170 and 53. The -|- + balance is of course 
much more delicate than the -f- — ; but even for the latter (6 centimetres 
o-ivino-, say, 54) we have 8 scale-divisions to a centimetre, so that we may 

rely on our -| balances to about a millimetre. This experiment therefore 

indicates a coincidence of the two balances within -0016 per cent. 

A good many experiments were tried with higher electromotive forces ; but 
though qualitative results of some interest were got, sufficient steadiness could 
not be obtained to make the results of use quantitatively. In most of these 
the thin wire Avas over a red heat ; in fact in many of them the experiment 
ended with the melting of the wire. In general there appeared to be a good 



60 



REPOllT — 1876. 



deal of the effect duo to temperature oscillations already referred to. lu one 
experiment in particular in wliicli a Grove's batter}^ was used, with alterna- 
tions at the rate of only thirty per second, this effect came out very strong, 
the spot swinging off the scale when the smaller battery was reversed. 

Without dwelling on these, I proceed to give the results of the final set of 
experiments, which were in every way by far the most satisfactory. 

In the three following experiments the Daniells were used as before ; the 
alternations were made by means of the tuning-forks at the rate of GO per 
second. Three wires were experimented on, a platinum, a German-silver, 
and an iron wire. The balancing resistance was the German-silver bobbin 
with small resistance-box, which was on the left, except in the second experi- 
ment, where it Avas on the right. The electromotive force between D and F 
was now found directly by the electrometer ; as a control the sensibilities 
are given as well. New spade-pointed platinum dippers were used, and 
answered admirably during the whole time the experiments were going on. 





L.B. 


S.B. 


Box. 


Bridge. 


Sensi- 
bilities. 


Electro- 
meter *. 




(1) Pt wire 

(„oo m. diauictcr, 
•U42millim.). 


-1- 
+ 
+ 


+ 


2-0.5 

205 


4110 
4110 


05 

175 


134 

364 
2.-0 
110 


• Very steady. 


(2) G. S. Avire f 

ish) ill- diameter, " 
•051 millim.). 


+ 

+ 


+ 

-f 


-•25 
-•25 


337 U 
3370 


65 
160 


133 

375 
257 
118 


• Very steady. 


(3) Fc wire J 
(•14millim.diani'.). 


+ 

+ 


+ 
+ 


4-25 
4-25 


2090 
2000 


170 

02 


368 
139 
255 
114 


Perfeetly 

steady. 



In the last set of experiments a higher electromotive force was used, viz. 
four cells of Grove and two, every thing else being as before. The same three 
wires were experimented upon, but with perfect success in the case of the iron 
wire only. In the experiments on the other two, although the electrometer 
readings were very stead}' and satisfactory, yet a steady balance could not 

be obtained ; stiU it could be seen that the -1- -1- and -| balances did not 

differ by much; it seemed that there was, in the case of the German-silver 
wire, a tending towards the effect so often alluded to. 

The following is the experiment with the iron v,-irc : — 





L.B. 


S.B. 


Box 

on left. 


Bridge. 


Sensi- 
bilities. 


Electro- 
meter. 




(4) Fewire [ 
(14 millim. 
diameter). 


+ 
+ 


+ 
+ 


4^25 
4^25 


090 
690 


1.50 

Off scale 

(i.f.>S60). 


307 
895 
591 
271 


Perfectly 
steady. 



Using the additional data that the resistance of the metre of platinum- 

iridium wire on the bridge is "075 ohm, and that Latimer Clark's Standard 

Cell (1'457 volt) produces a deflection on the electrometer used of about 320 

divisions, we get roughly the following results {e denotes the electromotive 

* Electrometer deflection for Latimer Clark's Standard = 320. 



ON OHM S LAW. 



61 



force in volts between D and F, i. e. the ^ , E of the formula above ; s do- 
Jo +p 
notes the radius iu centimetres of the line wire ; the other letters have the 
same meanings as before) : — 





E. 


e. 


PE. 


y- 


s. 


A< 


(1) ... 


2-44 


114 


0-23 


•44 


•0021 


253 


(2) ... 


4-75 


1-17 


0-12 


•4(5 


•0*025 


918 
101' 


(3) ... 


027 


IIG 


214 


■45 


■0070 


320 

1014 


(4) ... 


0-31 


2G9 


4-32 


■4G 


•0070 


068 
10' » 



The formula by which the limit to 7t is calculated is 

_ A.r;rV 
~ 7/RP^E^ ' 

where Av is the diifercncc between -f + and -f- — balances (see above). In 
the four experiments discussed, the arrangement was abundantly sufficient 
to indicate a difference of a millimetre, so that A.v is 

<10^ohm; 

757rV 



:7i< 



10^1^ (PE)^ 



Assuming, then, that the heating- and cooling-effect discussed above may be 
neglected, the result of the experiments is that 7i is certainly less than 



10'-' 



In other words, if we have a conductor whose section is a square centimetre, 
and whose resistance for infinitely small currents is an ohm, its resistance 
(provided the temperature is kept the same) is not^ diminished by so much as 

the Y~Ji P^rt when a current of a farad per second passes through it= 

With regard to the heating- and cooliug-eifect, it must evidently be very 
small, since it takes place, if at all, in something like the y^ part of a seconcl. 
It is of course possible that these alternations were at that particular rate for 
which the two effects would balance each other ; but when we consider that 
the temperatures of the thin wire were very different in the different ex- 
periments (notably so in (3) and (4) with the iron wire, where the current 
passing was in one case more than double that in the other), and that the 
heating- and cooling-effect must depend on the temperature of the wire, while 
the other is independent of that as well as of the rate of alternation, the pro- 
bability that any such balancing of the two effects existed at all is reduced to 
almost nothing. We may therefore look on this experiment as a verification 
of Ohm's law to the degree of accuracy indicated above. 

Appendix. 

While thinking how to repeat Dr. Schuster's experiments as nearly as was 
possible without the command of a sine-inductor, the writer of the Ileport 



62 EEPORT — 1876. 

was led to try a third experiment in verification of Ohm's law. If there be 
a periodic variation of the primary of an induction-coil, the time integral of 
the electromotive force in the secondary through one complete oscillation 
will be zero ; but if the variation consist of a sharp break, although this 
law holds, yet the oscillation in the secondary may be divided into two parts, 
in one of which the maximum intensity is very much greater than in the 
other. If it be true, then, that a more intense current encounters less 
resistance than a less intense current, clearly the law above stated can no 
longer hold ; the law has, in fact, been deduced on the supposition that the 
resistance is independent of the strength of the current. 

It follows, therefoi'e, that if we send the induction- currents from the 
secondary of an induction-coil, whose primary is made and broken by a tuning- 
fork, througli a helix of fine wire to make sure of bringing out the efi'ects we 
are looking for, then the needle of a galvanometer introduced into the 
secondary will bo deflected so as to indicate a current in the direction of the 
current due to breaking the primary. 

Certain anomalous, and at first sight contradictory, results led the writer 
to study the behaviour of a galvanometer under these circumstances. The 
result was the suggestion of a theory which explained the anomalies com- 
pletely, and indicated the existence of certain other phenomena which were 
afterwards observed. 

The results are, so far as the writer has been able to learn, partly new. 
Although not of suificicni importance in connexion with the present subject 
to require detailed mention here, yet it was thought best to state the results 
so far as they bear on the question, reserving a detailed account for publica- 
tion elsewhere *. 

It was found that, under the circumstances indicated above, the indication 
of a galvanometer is a function of the ratio of the strengths of the magnetic 
field when there is no current and when the currents are passing, and also 
of the position of equilibrium of the needle when there is no current. 

Theorj!- and observation give alike, among others, the following peculiari- 
ties : — 

1. If the ratio of the magnetic forces due to the currents to that acting 
on the needle when there is no current does not exceed a certain quantity, 
then if the position of rest of axis of the needle is inclined at an angle a ( < 90°) 
to the plane of the coil-windings, the effect of the alternating currents is to 
increase that angle, so that, according as the needle is deflected one way or 
the other by means of the deflecting magnet, we get opposite eflfects. 

The eff'ect is zero when n is zero. 

2. If the above-mentioned ratio exceeds a certain value, the position of the 
needle parallel to the windings (i. e. for a = 0) becomes unstable, and there now 
appear two positions of equilibrium of equal inclination cither way to the 
coU-windings. Either of these the needle will take up and keep if brought 
there with sufficiently small velocit}^ 

The greater the ratio, the more nearly these two positions approach to 
parallelism with the plane of the coil-windings. 

The last-mentioned phenomenon was described long ago by Poggendorfi", 
under the name of ' ' doppelsinnige Ablenkung," and was and has been regarded 
apparently as an unstable phenomenon. 

The first-mentioned form of the phenomenon has not, so far as the writer 
knows, been hitherto described anywhere. 

In repeating Dr. Schuster's experiments by superposing a small current 
* PliU. Mag. [v.] vol. ii. p. 401. 



ON THE DESIRABILITY 01? ESTABLISHING A " CLOSE TIME." 63 

of constant direction on the alternating current, the writer has never been 
able to detect any effect that could not be explained by 1>he' above results. 
He has not been able to use a sine-inductor as yet, so that a complete discus- 
sion of Dr. Schuster's results from this point of view has not been possible. 

Tho strong analogy of the phenomena to those obtained by Dr. Schuster, 
and the fact that it has been found possible to produce the phenomenon in 
three difierent galvanometers (it is of importance to remark that the needle 
was elongated in all cases where the effect was strong), must, however, be 
regarded as affecting tho probability of conclusions drawn from experiments 
of this kind about the truth of Ohm's law. 



Report of the Committee, consisting of the Rev. H. F. Barnes, H. E. 
Dresser (Secretary), T. Harland, J. E. Harting, T. J. Monk, 
Professor Newton, and the Rev. Cauou Tristram, appointed for 
the purpose of inquiring into the possibility of establishing a " Close 
Time " for the 2^'>'otection of indigenous animals, and for watching 
Bills introduced into Parliame^it affecting this subject. 

Your Committee has the pleasure of stating that Mr. Chaplin, II.P. for Mid 
Lincolnshire, lost no time in fulfilling his promise, announced in its List 
lleport, and immediately on the meeting of Parliament introduced into the 
House of Commons the Bill for the Preservation of Wild Powl, which had 
been prepared by your Committee, and has been referred to in its former 
Reports. 

In order to aid Mr. Chaplin's efforts and to explain the objects of tho Bill, 
yoiir Committee in February last issued and extensively circulated the 
following statement : — 

"The Committee deems it expedient to offer a summary of its former 
Reports, and a statement of its present views, in regard to the probability 
of action being taken in Parliament during the ensuing Session for the 
attainment of further protection of birds. 

" It has long since been stated by the Committee — and the statement is 
beyond contradiction — that the birds which are comprehended under the 
common designation of Wild Powl have, of all others, with the exception of 
Birds-of-prey, most rapidly diminished in numbers throughout the United 
Kingdom, and it cannot be doubted that their decrease is still going on. 

" The reasons which hinder the Committee from recommending any legis- 
lative protection to Birds-of-prey are almost too obvious to need explanation. 
The Committee, while believing the existence of such birds in certain 
districts, and in numbers which are not excessive, is beneficial, is aware 
that the contrary opinion is very strongly upheld by a large class of persons, 
and is fully persuaded that were it possible to pass an Act for the protection 
of these birds, its enforcement in a single instance would give the signal for 
an agitation for its repeal, which would seriously damage the cause of bird- 
protection in general. 

" On the other hand, no charge of injuriousness has ever been brought^ 
or, if brought, could possibly be maintained — against AVild Fowl as a whole ; 
while the employment that their capture affords to a considerable portion of 
the population, and their utility as an article of food to almost the whole 
community, render their protection highly desirable from an economical point 



6i REPORT 1876. 

of view. The notorious and rapid decrease in their numbers is to be ascribed 
to causes tha't diay be classed under t^yo heads : — (1) ' Indirect ' and (2) 
' Direct.' 

" (1) The indirect causes of the decrease of Wild Fowl are attributable to 
the diminution of their breeding-haunts by draining, the reclamation of 
waste lauds, and agricultural improvements generally ; and with these it 
would of course not only be impossible, but manifestly improper, for the 
legislature to interfere, for with them the prosperity of the country at largo 
is intimately bound up. So far, then, as regards thdr effects, the birds must 
take their chance. 

" (2) The direct causes, on the other hand, arc as plainly capable of 
control, for they are attributable to tlie destruction of the breeding-stock, 
and chiefly by the gun. As soon as Inrds pair in the spring they lay aside 
much of their habitual caution, and become easy victims to the gunner. 
Long after the pairing-season has begun our markets arc plentifully stocked 
with Wild Fowl of every description ; and it is obvious that every pair of 
birds killed at that time of year signifies the destruction, of a whole brood, as 
well as that of its intending parents. 

" Wild-Fowl shooting gives, as has boon above stated, employment to a 
large number of men, who make a profession of it. These men, however, 
are accustomed to certain restraints in pursuing tlieir vocation. They are 
all compelled to take out a gun-license, and many of them are aware that 
they are prohibited from exercising their calling in certain waters and over 
certain lands. The notion of restraint to them is, therefore, not new ; and 
the Committee believes that the most intelligent of them would gladly re- 
cognize the propriety of a well-considered and strijigeut measure, that by 
effectually protecting Wild Fowl during the breeding- season would secure to 
them a greater abundance at other times of the year. 

" The Wild Fowl, for whose protection a more stringent measure is now 
about to be proposed, are, it is true, already named in the ' Wild-Birds Pro- 
tection Act;' but owing to their marketable value being greatly in excess of 
the penalties which that Act prescribes — very projierly, may be, in regard to 
the other birds it names — they enjoy little or no real protection tlierefrom. 

" The great success which has attended the working of the ' >Sea-Birds 
Frescrvation Act,' in which the penalties are much higlior than in the ' "\^'ild- 
Birds Protection Act,' encourages the Committee to liclievc that an Act on 
the same principle of the former, but aj^plied to Wild Fowl, would be equally 
successful; and to this end the Committee recommend the passing of such 
a Bill as was introduced by Mr. Andrew Johnson in 1872. This Bill, it will 
be remembered, was the foundation of the existing 'Wild-Birds Protection 
Act,' but was so entirely altered in its passage through Parliament as to 
become useless for the protection of the group of birds it was at fii-st intended 
to protect. 

"The 'Wild-Birds Protection Act' may we'll be left as it is, since public 
opinion was, and is, decidedly- in favour of some such legislation. Its failing 
to protect Wild Fowl efficiently gives no room for its repeal ; but the Com- 
mittee regards it as being virtually ineffective to produce any practical good. 

" The Committee thinks it necessary to state once more, that of the Small 
Birds which so deeply engage the sympathies of many of the public, there 
are but few kinds which have been proved, on any good evidence, to bo 
diminishing in numbers, and that the decrease of these is owing much less 
to any direct destruction or persecution than to indirect causes, such as have 
been already referred to, and declared to be uncontrollable by the legislature. 



ON THE DESIRABILITY OF ESTABLISHING A '' CLOSE TIME." G5 

The diminution of such birds as the Wheatear, the Goldfinch, and Linnet can 
be immediately traced to the breaking up, and bringing under cultivation, of 
commons, and so probably of the rest ; while, on the other hand, it is obvious 
that many kinds of Small Birds have largely increased in number owing to 
the spread of plantations, and the security from molestation during the 
breeding-season they enjoy through the incessant attention given to the 
preservation of game. 

"At the same time the Committee is of opinion that some steps for the 
Regulation of Bird-catchers might well be taken, with the approval not only 
of the general public, but of the better class of bird-catchers themselves ; 
and, should success attend its present attempt, the Committee would readily 
direct its efforts to that object." 

Your Committee has the gratification of reporting that the opposition which 
the Bill encountered in the House of Commons, though seriously intended, 
Was happily overcome by the good management of Mr. Chaplin and his 
seconder, Mr. Rodwell, Q.C. A division was taken on the motion for the 
Second Eeading, when the numbers against it were 13, and in its favour 337 
• — an almost absolute majority of the whole House. 

In deference to certain objections which were raised in Committee, Mr. 
Cha2)lin consented to an alteration of the original draft Bill as regards the 
days when the proposed " Close Time " should begin and end. Your Com- 
mittee cannot wholly approve of this change ; but as it does not affect the 
length of the season, the modification seems not to be very important, while 
Mr. Chaplin's adroit acceptance of it unquestionably saved the Bill. 

No further alteration was made. The Bill, having passed the Commons, 
was kindly taken charge of in the Upper House by Lord Henniker, and 
finally received the Eoyal Assent on the 2-tth of July. 

In congratulating all who have at heart the protection of indigenous 
animals in this happy result, your Committee desires to point out that their 
most sincere thanks are due to the nobleman and gentlemen already named, 
as well as to others who aided the passage of the Bill through both Houses, 
and, in particular, the efforts of Lord Walsingham deserve especial recognition. 

With regard to the taking of any further steps, your Committee can only 
suggest the possibility of something being done in the direction indicated by 
the last paragrajih of the foregoing statement. The difficulties, however, in 
the way of passing any measure for the Regulation of Bird-catchers, which 
should be at once effectual and acceptable to Parliament, seem to be very 
great, and your Committee is not sanguine of the success of any immediate 
attempt to attain this end. 

The Sea-Birds Preservation Act continues to work satisfactorily on the 
whole, though your Committee has reason to fear that its provisions have 
been disregarded in certain places. Some time has elapsed since any prose- 
cution under it has taken place ; and its enforcement in a few instances in 
the course of the next j^ear may be needed to show that it cannot be violated 
wi:h impunity. To this object your Committee, if reappointed, will give its 
attention ; meanwhile it may be observed that the Act is very favourably 
regarded in most places, and that, by authority of its third section, the 
Secretary of State for the Home Department has, on the recommendation of 
the justices of the East Biding of York in Quarter Sessions assembled, ex- 
tended the "Close Time" on the coast of that county from the 1st to the 
15th of August. , 

Your Committee respectfully urges its reappointment. 



1876. 



I 



66 REPORT— 1876. 

Report of the Committee, consisting of James E. Napier^ F.R.S., Sir 

W. Thomson, F.R.S., W. Froude, F.R.S., and Osborne Reynolds 

(Secretary), appointed to investigate the effect of Propellers on the 

Steei'ing of Vessels. 

[Plate I.] 

The Committee commenced operations by printing the following Circular, and 
sending copies of it to the Admiralty and to those shipowners with whom 
the individual members of the Committee were personally acquainted, or 
those who in their opinion were likely to assist in the investigation : — 

" The British Association foe the Abvancement oe Science. 
" Experiments on tlie Turning of Screw Steamers. 

" At the Meeting of the British Association in Bristol last year, a paper 
was read by Professor Osborne Eeynolds, in which it was shown, from ex- 
periments upon models, that in a steamer when the screw is in motion, the 
direction in which the rudder tends to turn the ship depends on whether the 
screw is driving ahead or astern, and is independent of the actual motion of 
the ship through the water ; for instance, if when a ship has headway on 
the screw is] reversed, then the action of the rudder is the same in direction 
as that of a ship going astern ; or if the ship have sternway on, and the 
screw be started to drive her ahead, then the rudder acts as if slio were going 
ahead. 

" After the discussion of the paper, Mr. James R. Napier, Sir William 
Thomson, Mr. "W. Froude, and Professor Eeynolds were appointed a Com- 
mittee to carry the investigation further, and particularly to ascertain if the 
same results would be obtained when the expei'imcnts were made with full- 
sized ships. 

" In order to collect sutHcient data to establish a general conclusion, the 
Committee are anxious to obtain the assistance of such shipowners and 
captains of ships as may be willing to aid them. 

" The Committee accordingly ask that certain trials and observations may 
be made, and the results, together with the name, size, tonnage, and condi- 
tion of loading of the ship, as well as the depth of immersion of the screw, 
the date and name of the officer in charge, may be forwarded to Professor 
Reynolds, Owens College, Manchester, or to any of the Members of Com- 
mittee. 

" It is also particularly requested that the kind of screw and the number 
of blades may be stated, and whether the screw is right- or left-handed. By 
a right-handed screw is imderstood one in which the uj^per blades move from 
port to starboard when driving the ship ahead. 

" The following are the trials requested : — 

" Trial I. — That when the ship is going full speed ahead, the screw should 
- be suddenly reversed and the rudder put hard over, as if to turn the ship to 
starboard of her course, and careful notice taken as to the way in which the 
ship turns before all headway is lost. 

" Trial II. — The same repeated with the rudder set in the opposite 
direction. 

" Trial III. — That when the ship is going fast astern the screw should 
suddenly be started to drive her ahead, and the rudder put hard over to the 
same side as in Trial I. 

"Trial lY. — Trial III. repeated with the rudder. in the opposite direction. 



ON THE STEERING OP VESSELS. 67 

" Trial Y. — ^That the ship should bo driven full speed ahead with the helm 
amidships, and notice taken as to the direction in which the ship turns 
under the action of the screw, 

" Trial VI. — That the ship should be driven full speed ahead, then the 
screw reversed, with the helm amidships, and notice taken in which direc- 
tion the ship turns." 

" May 3, 1876." 

After sending the Circular the Committee received a communication from 
the Secretary to the Admiralty, to the eifect that the Admiralty had ordered 
the experiments to be made, and that the results should be forwarded. 

As the result of their application to private owners, the Committee obtained 
the use of three vessels, upon which the following trials were made. 

Experhneiits made with the ' T'aJetta,' belonging to the Earl of Glasgow, 
Captain E. Hunter, on the 6th June, between Weniys Bay and the Cumbrae. 

The ' Yaletta ' measures 80 tons, and was drawing during the trials 
5' 6" foi'ward and G' G" aft. Her screw, which is right-handed, is 5' 6" in 
diameter, and during the trials was immersed about 1' ; it is 3-bladed, and 
has a pitch of 8' 6". When at full speed the ' Valetta ' makes about 9| 
knots an hour. 

During the trials the seconds were called out by Mr. James E. Napier. 
Mr. Bottomley, who was acting for Sir William Thomson, watched the angles 
thi-ough which the boat turned, by means of a dumb compass, while the 
signals for turning and stopping the vessel were given by Professor Eeynolds. 

Tiie first trial was of the effect which the screw exerted to turn the ship 
with the helm amidships. When at full speed she turned to port at the rate 
of about 7° per minute, or, as it is usually expressed, she carried a port helm. 
However, as the speed of the engines was reduced the tendency to turn the 
ship to port was reduced, and when going very slow (about 5 miles an hour) 
the ship turned slightly in the opposite direction. When going fast the 
screw churned air into the water, but not when it was going slow. 

The effect of the screw to turn the ship with the helm amidship, although 
appreciable, was not of sufficient magnitude to be taken into account in the 
results of the subsequent experiment. And as this effect was almost the 
same with the wind on cither bow, it was evident that, although the wind 
was blowing with some little force, its effect to turn the vessel was also 
unimportant. 

These preliminaries having been settled, the ship was driven fuU speed 
ahead, then the screw reversed as suddenly as possible, and immediately the 
engines began to turn astern the rudder was put hard over. At first on 
reversal the engines turned but slowly, and it was not until the boat had lost 
some of her way that they turned full speed astern. 

Four observations were taken in this way with the helm to port, two with 
head to wind, and two before the wind ; and similar observations were taken 
with the helm to starboard. All four observations with the helm to port 
gave nearly the same results, and so with the helm to starboard. 

The mean results were as follows : — 

With the helm ported (which, had the engines been going ahead, would 
have brought the ship's head round to starboard at a rate of nearly 2° a 
second) the vessel at first, while the screw was turning but slowly, com- 
menced turning to starboard, and had turned through 5'^ in 9 seconds ; she 
then commenced turning to port; and in IG seconds more, when she had 
nearly lost all way, she had returned 13° to port or about 8° to port of her 

F 2 



68 EEPOiiT — 1876. 

original direction, i. e. iu the opposite way to that in which she would have 
turned had the screw been kept on ahead. 

With the helm to starboard, at the end of 10 seconds she had turned 
through 6° to port, and in 14 seconds more, when she had nearly lost way, 
she had come back 14° to starboard or S° to starboard of her original direc- 
tion ; that is, as before, in the opposite way to that in which she would have 
turned had the screw been kept on ahead. 

With this ship, therefore, althougli the reversing of the screw did not at 
once reverse the action of the rudder, it greatly reduced its effect, and 
reversed it in time for the ship to have turned S° out of her course before she 
had come to rest — that is, 8° out of the direction iu which she headed on 
the reversal of her screw ; and considering that, during the 25 seconds in which 
she was stopping, had her screw been kept on ahead she Avould have turned 
through some 50°, the effect of reversing the engines was to bring the ship 
some 58° out of the direction she might have occupied. 

Experiments with the Hopper Barge, No. 12, belonging to the Clyde 
Navigation Trust, Captain J. Barrie, on June 7, off lulcreggan, Rosneath. 

These experiments were conducted in a similar manner to those on the 
' Valetta,' the same members of the Committee taking part in them. 

The barge when loaded carries 400 tons of mud, is 140 feet long, was 
drawing during the first set of experiments 11' 6" aft and 9' 6" forward, and 
when light, during the second set, 8' 2" aft or 4 ft. forward. The top of the 
propeller is 8' 6" from the bottom of the keel. The screw, which is right- 
handed, has three blades, and is 8 feet in diameter and 16 feet pitch. 

The first set of experiments were made with the barge head to windward, 
the wind being of much the same force as on the previous daj'. The mud 
was then discharged, and the barge put before the wind, and the experiments 
repeated. 

When loaded and going to windward with the helm amidships, the barge 
sheered first to port and then to starboard. This was apparently owing to 
the screw churning the water intermittently ; when the wake was apparently 
clear the boat turned to starboard, and when the screw was churning air 
into the water she turned to port. 

When the screw was reversed with full way on, and afterwards the helm 
put hard over either to port or starboard, the action of the rudder was 
always reversed, and was very decided. It required 1 minute for the screw 
to bring the boat to rest, and during that time she turned from 35° to 60° ; 
moving slowly at first, aud more rapidly as her speed diminished. 

The reverse action of the rudder Avas therefore much more decided than iu 
the case of the ' Valetta,' which was accounted for by the fact that the screw 
was reversed to full speed at once, the engineer being an old locomotive 
engine-driver accustomed to reverse suddcnlj', besides which the boat being 
much heavier allowed more time for the operation. 

When the boat was going full speed astern, the screw reversed to full speed 
ahead, the action of the rudder was the same in direction as if she had been 
going ahead, but it was very slow. 

When the bai-gc.was steaming full speed ahead with the rudder hard over, 
she turned at the rate of 1° in 1 second. 

With this vessel, therefore, the effect of reversing the screw wof. to cause 
her to turn through more than 30° from the direction in which she 
headed when the reverse action set in ; and considering that in the same 
time she would have turned through 00° in the opposite direction had the 



ON THE STEERING OF VESSELS. " 69 

engines been kejit on ahead, the effect of reversing was to turn her through 
90° from the iwsition she would have occupied had the CDgincs kept on 
ahead. 

E.vpeviments with the Steam Yaclit ' ColumJxi,' hehnginr/ to His Grace the 
Duke of Arfjyll, June 29, in Gare Loch, the weather very fine, with little 
wind. 

The draught of the vessel was 10 feet aft and 8' 2" forward. She was 
fitted with a Griffith's screw 7' 1" in diameter and 12' pitcli. The experi- 
ments were witnessed by Mr. James E. Napier and his son, Mr. Eobert T. 
Napier. "When the vessel was going full speed ahead (about 10 knots) the 
engines were reversed, and the helm immediately put to starboard ; the ves- 
sel turned to starboard until her forward way was lost, the time between the 
reversal of the engines and the stopping of the ship being about 1 minute. 

When the vessel was going full speed ahead the helm was set to port, and 
shortly after the screw reversed. The vessel turned to starboard at first, 
and then to port until all way was lost. The turning to starboard at first 
was the natural result of the helm having been ported before the screw waa 
reversed. 

In the trials on this ship no measurements were made of the angles 
turned through. The direction of turning, however, was the same as be- 
fore, the reversing of the screw at once reversing the eflfect of the rudder. 

In all three of these vessels, therefore, the same effect on the steering waa 
produced by the reversing of the screw when the vessel was at full speed. 

The importance of this effect may perhaps be best seen from the diagrams 
(Plate I.), showing the various positions occupied by the ' Valetta ' and the 
barge compared with those they would have occupied had the screws not been 
reversed. 

In these diagrams the directions of the vessels correspond with the actual 
measurements during the trials ; the positions and distances travelled being 
estimated from the known speed of the vessels. It had been the intention 
of the Committee to use one of Mr. Napier's pressure logs in order to ascer- 
tain exactly the positions of the vessels during the trial, but this intention 
was not carried out. 

DiagTam 1 shows the courses run by two ships after the reversing of the 
screw until they had lost all way compared with the courses they would have 
run had they continued under full steam, the helm being hard to port. 

A glance at this diagram is sufficient to show what a fatal mistake it must 
be when a collision is imminent to reverse the screw, and then use the rudder 
as if the ship would answer to it in the usual manner. 

But perhaps, as regards collisions, the most important result is that 
shown in diagram 2 — namely, the positions of the ships when they have not 
lost more than half their way, and when, as regards the distance run, the 
effect of reversing the screw is but small. 

As is shown in this diagram, it appears that whether the reversing of the 
screw reverse the action of the rudder or not, the rudder is nearly powerless 
to turn the ship, and that she will turn not only more rapidly, but in less 
room when going full speed ahead. 

Before closing their Eeport, the Committee desire to express their thanks 
to the Earl of Glasgow, the Clyde Navigation Trust, and His G race the Duke 
of Argyll, for the use of their vessels, and to the officers and crews who 
assisted in making the arrangements and conducting the experiments. 



70 EEPORT— 1876. 



On the Investigation of the Steering Qualities of Ships. 
By Prof, Osborne Reynolds. 

[A communication ordered by the General Committee to be printed in exicnso.] 

The primary object of using steam power in ships is to enable them to pass 
quickly over long distances. Under normal circumstances rapidity aud cer- 
tainty iu manoeuvring are matters of secondary importance ; but circum- 
stances do arise under -which these powers are of vital importance. Experi- 
ence has taught those who go down to the sea in steam-ships that their 
greatest danger is that of collision ; and fogs are feared much more than 
storms. That there must always be danger when long ships are driven at 
full speed through crowded seas iu a dense fog caimot be doubted ; but this 
' lugcr is obviously increased manyfold when those iu command of the ships 
are under the impression that a certain motion of the helm will turn the 
ship in the opposite direction to that in which it does turn. 

The uncertainty which at present exists iu the manoeuvring of large ships 
is amply proved by the numerous collisions which have occirrred between the 
ships of our own navy while endeavouring to execute ordinary movements 
under the most favourable circumstances, aud M'ith no enemy before them, 
•xhcse accidents may be, and have been, looked upon as indicating imperfec- 
tions iu the ships or the manner in which they were handled ; but it must 
be admitted that the ships are the best and best found iu the world, aud 
that they are commanded by the most skilful and highly trained seamen 
alive. And if peaceable ships fail in their manoeuvres when simply trying 
not to hurt each other, what will be the case of iighting ships when trying 
to do all thoy can to destroy each other ? If the general impression as to 
the important part which the ram is to play in the naval combats of the 
fature is ever reahzed, then certainty iu manoeuvring must not ouly be of 
very great importance (this it has always been in sea fights), but it must 
occupy the very first place in the fighting qualities of the ship. 

Now the results of the investigation of the effect of reversing the j^ro- 
pellers on the action of the rudder appear to show that, however capricious 
the behaviour of ships has hitherto seemed, it is in reahty subject to laws ; 
and that by a series of careful trials the commander of a ship may inform 
himself how his ship will behave iindcr all circumstances. 

The experiments of the Committee on largo ships have completely esta- 
blished the fact to which it was my principal object last year to direct atten- 
tion, namely, that the reversing of the screw of a vessel with full way on 
very much diminishes her steering-power, and reverses what little it leaves ; 
so that where a collision is imminent, to reverse the screw and use the rudder 
as if the ship would answer to it in the usual manner is a certain way of 
bringing about the collision. Aud to judge from the accounts of collisions, 
this is precisely what is done in nine cases out of ten. In the paper of 
to-day I find the following (August 22, 1876) : — 

"The Fatal CoUision off Ailsa Craig.— The Board of Trade inquiry into 
the collision between the steamer ' Owl ' and the schooner-yacht ' Madcap ' 
was continued at Liverpool j^esterday. Two passengers by the ' Owl ' were 
recalled, and spoke to some of the facts of the collision. The night was not 
misty, though some rain had fallen. They saw the green light of the yacht 
shiniug brightly after the collision. "VVilham Maher, third officer of the 
' Owl,' said it was the chief officer's watch at the time of the collision. 
There were five able seamen in the watch. Witness and the chief officer 



ON THE STEERING QUALITIES OF SHIPS. 71 

were on the bridge. One man was on the look-out from the starboard side 
of the bridge. His ordinary place was on the forecastle-head, but he was 
not placed there that night, as there was a heavy head sea, and the vessel 
was shipping water. His attention was called to a light by the look-out 
man. It was almost ahead about a mile and a half off. He could not at 
first distinguish whether it Avas red or green, as it was dim ; but when he 
made it out to be a green light it bore two to three points on the port bow, 
and it was only three or four lengths off. He heard no order given to the 
man at the wheel when the light was first reported ; but when witness found 
that it was a green light he ordered the helm hard aport. If the steamer 
had starboarded at this time she would have gone right over the yacht. The 
' Owl ' had been going at the rate of six or seven knots ; but when she col- 
lided there was Jio way on her, the engines having been reversed. After tho 
yacht went down the captain ordered a boat to be got out, but subsequently 
countermanded the order, on the ground that more lives would be lost, as it 
was not fit to go out. At the close of his examination the witness stated 
that he would not have gone out in a boat on such a night as that, even if 
the captain had ordered him — a remark which appeared to greatly astonish 
the nautical assessors." 

Ho ported his helm to bring his ship round to starboard, but he also 
reversed his screw ; and as he says nothing about having again starboarded 
his helm, it would appear that from the time of reversing the screw until 
the collision (time enough to stop the ship), she had moved straight for- 
ward or inclined to port. Had ho not reversed his screw, but kept on full 
speed, it is clear the collision could not have happened, for at the time tho 
collision did happen his ship would have been more than her own length 
away from the spot where the collision occurred. Ho admitted himself that 
to have starboarded his helm must have brought about the collision, so he 
ported his helm and reversed his screw, which, as it had the same effect, did 
bring about the collision. 

From the Committee's report just read, it appears that a ship will turn 
faster, and for an angle of 80°, in less room when driving full speed ahead, 
than with her engines reversed, even if the rudder is rightly used. Thus 
when an obstacle is too near to admit of stopping the ship, then, as was done 
in the case of the ' Ohio,' mentioned in my paper last year, the only chance 
is to keep the engines on full speed ahead, and so to give the rudder an 
opportunity of doing its work. 

These general laws are of the greatest importance, but they apply in dif- 
ferent degrees to different ships ; and each commander should determine for 
himself how his ship will behave. A ship's ordinary steering-power may 
soon be learnt in general use, but not so the effect of stopping ; there is 
thought to be a certain risk in suddenly reversing the engines, which any ono 
in charge of a ship wiU shrink from, unless he knows it is recognized as part 
of his duty. 

It is also highly important that the effect of the reversal of the screw 
should be generally recognized, particularly in the laAV courts ; for in tho 
present state of opinion on the subject, there can be no doubt that judgment 
would go against any commander who had steamed on ahead, knowing that 
by so doing he had the best chance of avoiding a collision, or who had 
ported his helm in order to bring his ship's head round to port, with the 
screw reversed. It seems to me, therefore, that it would be well if steps 
could be taken by this Association to bring the matter prominently before 
the Admiralty, the Board of Trade, and those concerned in navigation. 



73 REPORT — 1876. 

So far as the capabilities of each individual ship are concerned, there is no 
insuperable difficulty or risk about the experiments, and to have determined 
these will be a great point. When the officers know exactly what can be 
done in the way of tui-niug their ships, and how to do it, the chances of 
accidents must be greatly reduced. 

But at all events for fighting ships it is desirable that the officers should 
have experience beyond the mere turning powers of their own ships. AVhen 
two ships are mana3uvring so as to avoid or bring about a collision, each 
commander has to take into account the movements of his opponent. To 
enable him to do this with readiness, it would be necessary to have friendly 
encounters. A fight between two ships Avhose captains had never before 
fought, would be like a tournament between two novice knights who had 
never practiced with pointless spears ; and such a contest, although not un- 
equal, must be decided by chance rather than skill. 

Unfortunately sham fights or tournaments between ships with blunt rams 
would bo about as dangerous as a real fight ; and the chance of an accident 
would be far too great for such friendly tournament, however important, 
ever to become an essential part of the training of a naval officer, as they 
were of the knights of old. Por although, should war arise, the danger from 
want of experience may be even greater than the danger of an accident in 
gaining such experience by friendly fights, yet, as the chance of. war is 
always remote, the former risk would be preferred ; and this is not all. 

As yet there has been no such thing as a ramming fight between steam- 
ships ; so that not only are our officers without actual experience, but even 
the rules by which they are instructed to act (the rules of naval tactics) aro 
based entirely on theoretical considerations, and hence are very imperfect. 

Now there appears to me to be a means by which experience of the 
counter-manoeuvring powers of ships, as well as the manoeuvring powers of 
single ships, could be ascertained without any of the risk and but little of 
the cost attending on the trials of large ships, and which, if not equal to an 
actual fight, would be verj^ useful as a means of training the officers. 

If small steam-launches were constructed similar to the ships, so that 
they represented these ships on a given scale (say one tenth linear measure), 
and tlieir engines wei'c so adjusted that they could only steam at what we 
may call the speed corresponding to that of the larger ships, then two 
launches would manoeuvre in an exactly similar manner to the large ships, 
turning in one tenth the room ; and the time which the manoeuvres with 
the launches would take would only be about half that occuined by similar 
manoeuvres with full-sized ships. The only points in which it would bo 
necessary that the model should represent the ship would be in its shape 
under water and as regards the longitudinal disposition of its weights. The 
centre of gravity should occupy the same position amidships, and the longi- 
tudinal radius of gyration of the model should bear the same proportion to 
that of the ship as the other linear dimensions. In other respects the model 
might be made as was most convenient. It might be made of wood, and so 
strengthened that two models might run into each other with impunity. 

There would not be much difficulty in so strengthening the models, as the 
speed of the models would be very small. For instance, if the speed of the 
ship were 13| knots, then that of the model would be 4| knots. 

The study of the quahties of ships from experiments on their models has 
not until recent years led to any important results. But this in great part 
was owing to the fact that proper account had not been taken of the effect 
of the Avave caused by the ship and the consequent resistance. It was not 




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ON THE STEERING QUALITIES OF SHIPS. 73 

kuown that the waves set up by the model bear the same relation to the 
size of the model as the ■waves set up by the ship do to the ship when, and 
only when, the speed of the model is to the speed of the ship in the ratio of 
the square root of the ratio of their lengths. 

Since this fact has been recognized, most important information has been 
obtained by experimenting on models. Mr. Froude, by recognizing this law, 
has been able to bring the comparison of ships by means of their models to 
such a degree of perfection, that he can now predict with certainty the com- 
parative and actual resistance of ships before they are constructed, and the 
great practical value of his results have been recognized by the Admiralty. 

What I propose is virtually to extend these experiments on models so as 
to make them embrace the steering-powers of ships as well as their resis- 
tances. The manner of experimenting would have to be somewhat altered. 
Steam-launches would have to be substituted for dummy models ; but the 
principle of the experiments would have to remain the same, and the speed 
of the launches must be regulated by the same law as that of the models. 

The turning qualities of such launches might be verified by comparing 
them with the turning qualities of the ships as found by actual experiment ; 
and then the models might be handed over to the officers of the ships, and 
they might practice encounters and manoeuvres until they knew not only 
what they could do with their ships, but what it was best to do in order to 
outmanoeuvre each other, and this without any cost or risk. 

The behaviour of the models would be in all respects similar to that of the 
ships, the only difference being that the manoeuvres would be on a smaller 
scale ; and the scale of the manoeuvres would be the same as that of the 
models, so that the step from the models to the large ships would be easy ; 
and familiarity with the working of the ships as well as the models under 
ordinary circumstances would prepare the officers for using the ships in an 
actual fight as they have been accustomed to use the models in their friendly 
encounters. The scheme here proposed has its parallel in military schools. 
Although " autumn manoeuvres " and sham fights afford soldiers a much 
better opportunity of preparing themselves for battle than any thing at 
present within reach of the sailors, still the war game appears to be 
growing in favour, and this is nothing more than practising manoeuvres in 
miniature. 

Independently of their value as a means of training naval officers, such 
models would afford a means of studying naval tactics. From them might be 
learnt the way in which a ship should strive to approach another of nearly 
equal power and speed, so as to use her ram to the greatest advantage ; and 
of this as yet but very little can be known ; and, except on models, it can 
only be learnt from experiments oji the ships. 

Important as are the laws which have been verified by the Committee on 
the steering of screw-steamers, it appears to me that the most important 
lesson to be learnt from their investigation is, that there is nothing capri- 
cious in the behaviour of these ships. To realize the value of this lesson 
the investigation must be followed up ; and it appears that the best way to 
do this would be by the aid of model launches on the plan thus roughly 
sketched out. 



74 REPORT — 1876. 

Seventh Report on Earthqualces in Scotland, drawn up by Dr. Bryce, 
F.G.S., F.R.S.E. The Committee consists of Dr. Bryce, F.G.S., Sir 
W. Thomson, F.R.S., J. Brough, G. Forbes, F.R.S.E., D. Milne- 
Home, F.R.S.E., and P. Drummond. 

Tke state of quiescence alluded to in last year's Report has suffered 
scarcely any interruption during the current year. No movement has oc- 
curred of sufficient intensity to affect any of the instruments employed by 
the Committee for testing the shocks. The Association wiU be aware that 
these are the seismometer, constructed on the principle of the inverted pen- 
dulum, which is placed in the tower of the parish church of Cpmrie, and two 
sets of upright cylinders, described in last year's Report, Avhich stand on 
boards on the sanded floor of a building erected two years ago by the Asso- 
ciation upon a site, half a mile west of the Comrie church, kindly granted by 
P. Drummond, Esq., of Dunearn, in the grounds surrounding his house. 
This building stands in the Comrie valley, on a boss of rock of the same 
kind of slate of which the adjacent hills and ridges arc composed, and which 
can be traced into continuity with those on both sides of the valley. It Avas 
therefore expected that cylinders so placed would readily respond to any 
movement affecting the rocks on either side of the valley, more especially 
as the centre or focus from which it has hitherto been considered that the 
movements have emanated is at no great distance on the north side of the 
valley. 

This expectation has not been realized, inasmuch as two slight shocks were 
experienced on the 14th and 16th of January, in the morning and afternoon, 
without affecting the seismometer or the cylinders, even those of smallest dia- 
meter, which a very slight movement is sufficient to lay prostrate in the sand. 
It is easy to see that a very extreme sensibility must be avoided in order to 
guard against the effects of other disturbing causes — as a storm of wind, a 
peal of thunder near at hand, or a heavy footfall on the rock outside ; and 
hence that an undulation, propagated from a distant centre, might be so 
retarded by the resistance of rocky masses as not to produce the required 
amount of distui'bance. The evidence furnished by several most intelligent 
and trustworthy persons leaves no doubt that on the day mentioned a very 
slight shock was reaUy felt on the north side of the valley ; that the move- 
ment seemed to come from the westward, and was attended by a slight 
noise, which died gradually away towards the south-east. 

This somewhat disappointing result has led your Committee to add two 
more cylinders of increased delicacy to each set, and to use every effort to 
obtain suitable sites for other sets more to the west and north, and also 
further down the valley, as near Dunira, the conjectured focus, and that 
fixed on by Mr. Milne-Homo in the former inquiry, in Glen Lednoch near 
the edge of the eruptive granite tract, whence the late disturbance seems 
to have proceeded; and, if possible, also at Ardoch, Dunblane, and Bi-idge 
of AUan, at all of which the shocks of 1873 were so severely felt. The 
expense would be inconsiderable ; the difficulty to be encountered is the 
procuring of a suitable and safe site and a competent observer. Your Com- 
mittee earnestly hope that these obstacles will be overcome in the course of 
the succeeding year. 



ON OTTR PRESENT KNOWLEDGE OP THE CRUSTACEA. 75 

Report on the Present State of our Knowledge of the Crustacea. — 
Part II. On the Homologies of the Dermal Skeleton {continued). By 
C. Spencb BatEj F.R.S. 6fc. 

[Plates II., III.] 

As in the first part of this lleport the carapace or dorsal surface of the 
Crustacea was considered, it is now intended to examine the plastron or 
ventral surface, aud so complete our inquiry into the form and structure of 
the dermal skeleton, previous to a consideration of the internal viscera and 
development of the animals of the various forms in the class. 

The head, or ccphalon, is more clearly defined in Edriophthalmous Crustacea 
than in any other order ; but even here the somites posterior to the mandi- 
bular ring have the dorsal surface wanting ; but a clearly defined character 
distinctly separates them from the somites that pertain to the succeeding 
seven, which constitute the ijereion. 

This condition is less complete in Squilla (which M. Milne-Edwards has 
selected as being " of aU Crustacea that in -which the 21 segments of the body 
are the most distinct "), where the posterior somites of the cephalon as well 
as the anterior two of the pcrcion are only represented by their ventral sur- 
faces. 

This apparent incompleteness of structure, which is due rather to an 
economy of material, has led carcinologists to consider generally that the 
cephalon and pereion should be treated anatomically as one portion of the 
animal imder the general name of cephalothorax. 

Thus Dana, in writing on the " Classification of Crustacea," in his ' Report 
on Crustacea of the United- States Exploring Expedition under Capt. Chas. 
Wilkes, U.8.iSr.,' p. 1397, says, " In these highest species, nine segments and 
nine pairs of appendages out of the fourteen cephalothoracic belong to the 
senses and mouth, and only five pairs are for locomotion." 

This he has taken from the Brachyural or Macrural decapod, as being the 
highest tj'pes of the order; but if we are to report our experiences and define 
the names and conditions of things according as they are represented in a 
single type or groiip, every student of any special form wlU draw his own 
conclusions from that which he has alone closely considered, and the study of 
Crustacea as a class in the animal kingdom must be retarded, if not mis- 
represented. 

In studying scientifically the Crustacea as a whole, it will be found not 
only more correct but more convenient to describe and name the several 
parts of the animal by their homologous certainty rather than by their adapta- 
tion to fulfil different functions which demand a variation of form with the 
greater or less importance of their requirements. 

The seven somites that form the cephalon are most closely associated, and 
diificult to be separated from those that follow, in the Brachyural type. This 
circumstance appears to be largely due to the powerful character of the man- 
dibular appendages. The great strength of these organs requires such an 
internal development of parts that they appear to preclude the posterior 
somites from the power of growth ; consequently they become merely sufiicient 
to siipport appendages of a supplementary character. 

This is very apparent in the Macrural order. In Palinurus the mandibles 
are so broad and large that their removal is almost a complete decapitation. 
It is therefore a structural necessity that tho posterior two somites of the 
cephalon -should be supported by those to which they are most closely 



76 REPORT — 1876. 

approximate; consequently they are frequently found fused with the anterior 
somites of the i^ereion. 

Yet in this very genus, in a young state, we have the most complete evidence 
of the limits that define the cephalon from the percion, and this again from 
the pleon. 

In the larva of Pcduuims, as well as in the animal known as Fhijlhsoma, 
which is now generally accepted as being the young of Pcdimirus after some 
weeks' growth, the cephalon is seen to coincide with the limits of the cara^ 
pace and terminates anteriorly to the seven somites of the pereion. It there- 
fore appears tliat it is desirable to identify these first seven somites as belong- 
ing to the head or cephalon and that only. 

The pereion, or thorax, is also composed of seven somites or segments; and 
this number is never departed from, even in the most depauperized condition 
of the animal. These several somites Prof. Milne-Edwards, in his " Obser- 
vations sur Ic Squelette tegumentaire des Cnistaces dccapodes, et sur la 
Morphologic dc ccs animaux," Ann. des Sciences Nat. p. 268, 1854, says : — ■ 
" In order to determine easily each of these anatomical elements of the integu- 
mentary skeleton, it is desirable to define them by a name ; and I shall call 
them jyi'otosomite, deutosomite, mesosomiie, or iritosomite, tetartosomite, pemp- 
tosomite, Jiectosomite, and hehdosomite, following the order which they occupy 
from before to behind." 

In the lower types they form, as in the Amphipoda, separate and distinct 
segments ; but in the higher groups, as we see the dorsal surface of the somites 
of the cephalon developed and produced posteriorly so as to cover and protect 
the upper part of the pereion, so we find the somites of this latter division 
coalesce ventrally more or less perfectly until in the Macrura and Brachyura 
they reach the highest degree of consolidation and are much more dense and 
strong than is the structure of the carapace. 

This condition is gradually seen to be approached through different stages 
from the Edriophthalmia upwards. In the genus SqiuUa (which has many 
analogies with the sessile- eyed Crustacea, and appears like an enormous 
stalk-eyed Amphipod) three or four of the posterior somites are exposed 
beyond the carapace and have the dorsal arc complete and separately perfect. 
In the Diastylida) we see the same : and ultimately in the genus Paguriis, 
among the Anomurous Crustacea, there is but a single somite that is not 
embraced within the limits of the carapace, and that is reduced to a very 
slender ring. 

AVith the deterioration of tlie dorsal arc of each somite of the pereion the ven- 
tral arc increases in density and coalesces the more perfectly with its neighbours. 
This appears much to depend upon the habits and character of the animal. 
If it be one whose habits arc perambulatory, as in Pcdinwus, the somites 
are strongly fused together into a strong broad sternum ; whereas in such 
animals as Palcemon and Homarus the sternum is less strongly developed, 
and apparently of a more feeble character. 

This depreciation of the sternum gradually goes on as we approximate the 
short-tailed orders, and arises from the absorption of the first joint or coxa 
of the leg into the general system of the animal. 

In Palinurus the sternum (PI. II. fig. 1), corresponding to the posterior 
five somites, is very broad, and the legs are very widely separated from those 
on the opposite side ; in Homarus, Neplirops, and Astacus {V\. II. fig. 2) they 
approximate each other so nearly that the sternum consists of a small cal- 
careous longitudinal cord, to which the apodema are attached and receive 
their support. 



ON OUR PRESENT KNOWXEDGE OF THE CRUSTACEA. T7 . 

Tn the Anomura, of which wo may take Litliodes (PI, II. fig. 3) as an 
example, the coxaj of the legs are so closely compressed together laterally 
that, without coalescing or being fused together, thoy are apparently united, 
while the inferior part of each coxa is completely fused with its neighbour 
for about half its extent. 

This is carried still farther in the true Brachyura (PI. II. fig. 4), where 
the first joints of the legs are all consolidated into a tolerably perfect 
mass of calcareous structure, and resemble the nature and character of a 
sternum. 

The ventral plastron, therefore, is formed of the first joint of the leg, and 
the inferior arc of these seven somites is wanting iu the true Brachyura in 
the adult stage, the inferior surface of the legs fulfilling the duty of the sternal 
plate. As I have already observed, this state can be traced gradually from the 
Macrura to the Brachyura ; and it may also be observed gradually to assume 
this condition by following the development of the young, in which the coxal 
joints may be distinguished separate and individually present, and gradually 
coalescing as the animal increases in dimensions with age. I am aware that 
this assertion is not in accordance with the teachings of previous carcinolo- 
gical anatomists ; but it is one that can be proved to demonstration. 

Milne-Edwards, " Observations sur le Squelette tegumentaire des Crus- 
tacea de'capodes," Ann. des Sc. Nat. p. 269, 1854, says, " These rings exhibit 
all the tergal pieces, and are closed above by a carapace, except among a small 
number of Anomura, as the Cenobitts, where the seventh ring is complete. We 
can distinguish always a ventral arc, constituted normally by two sternal and 
two episterual pieces, and a dorsal arc, represented upon the sides of the epi- 
meral pieces of the sclerodermic prolongations extending between the ven- 
tral and dorsal arcs of each ring, so as to enclose between them each side of 
the body, and to circumscribe before and behind the articular cavities destined 
for the insertion of the corresponding members. When the rings are free, each 
of these arcs' extremities I shall call artJirodkds, for the sake of bein" dis- 
tinct ; but when the zones are soldered together it is diff'erent. The anterior 
arthrodial of each thoracic ring is united to the posterior arthrodial of the 
preceding zone, and is more or less completely united with it, so that the 
interarticular space situated between two such legs, instead of presenting 
two sclerodermic rings, lodges only a single artlirodial prolongation, which 
becomes common to the two approximating frames, so that it appears to 
depend more especially upon the last of the two rings so united. To simplify 
the description, I shall consider these complex arthrodials as if they were 
formed only by their most important parts, and shall neglect consequently 
their anterior plate ; but it should be observed that we can nearly always 
recognize its existence. There is also an interannular symphysis which 
results from the formation of an interior fold of the sclerodermic lamella, a 
fold the two plates intimately sustain between them. These processes must 
be looked upon as if they were produced by the simple lamella of the posterior 
border of one of the segments so imited bj^ symphysis. 

" It is always in the anterior portion of the thorax of the decapods that 
consolidation of the integumentary skeleton is carried to the furthest limit by 
the soldering or fusion of the anatomical elements." 

Now what I contend is, that the structure of the somite has, as a part of 
the dermal skeleton, ventraUy disappeared in the Brachj-ura, and its place 
has been taken by the dermal tissues of the first joint of the several legs of 
the pereion, and the apodema is formed in the various families of Crustacea 
out of parts that are homologically distinct. 



78 REPORT — 1876. 

In the Anomura, of which TAtliodes may form the best example, the coxaj 
may best be dissected out ; and it does not require any very extreme care to 
separate the frame of one appendage from those by which it is compressed 
both anteriorly and posteriorly, bj' which compression the joint partakes of 
a quadrilateral form. The plates are in many places reduced to an extreme 
tenuity, and practically fulfil the office of a ^^single wall, although in reality 
they are produced by two lamellae closely compressed but not united. The 
i7iferior or ventral wall, that forms the sternum, is very much more strong, 
and extends until it meets the corresponding plate upon the opposite side. 
In Lithodes this simple condition extends from the anterior to the posterior 
extremity of the percion. 

In the Brachyura, of which we may take Cancer as the type, the walls of 
the coxal joint form the floor of the percion from the anterior extremity to 
the fourth or tetartosomite, from which posteriorly an upright wall in the 
median line separates the right side from the left, and encloses the muscles 
of the four posterior pereiopoda within as many corresponding chambers, 
forming a strong arch that supports the internal viscera and precludes their 
sinking into the ventral cavity. 

If, as I contend, this condition of the structure may be demonstrated 
beyond doubt, it follows that the episternal pieces lose their homological 
signification, as defined by Prof. Milne-Edwards, in the same way as the 
epimera of the dorsal arc. 

The episternal plates are parts of the first or coxal joint of the legs pro- 
duced as plates, valuable as supporting tlie articulations of the next succeed- 
ing joint with the first. It is interesting to observe that these so-called 
episternal plates can be traced back to large spinal processes in the young 
animal, and to less important processes in the pupal or thii'd stage in the 
process of the development, where they can be distinctly seen as parts of the 
coxee of the appendages attached to the poreion (fig. 7). 

This appears to be the anatomical condition in the Brachyura, and also 
in some of the Anomural groups. 

But in the Macrural tjpe the ventral surface of the pereion is formed of 
the lower arc of the several somites which belong to this division of the ani- 
mal. Some slight variations of form and apj^earance exist in separate genera. 
In Palinurus the anterior part of the sternvim is narrow and longitudinally 
longer than broad, while the posterior part gradually increases in width 
from the anterior to the posterior extremity. Each somite is completely 
fused with those with which it is in contact at the centre, while deep lines 
of fissure define their separation on each side, the posterior process of which 
somites corresponds analogically with the so-called episternal plates in the 
Brachyura, but homologically they are distinct, being, in this form, parts of 
the true somite, and not a portion of the coxa of the leg incorporated with it 
(PL II. fig. 1). 

In the genus Astacits the sternal plates are all narrow, being scarcely 
broader posteriorly than they are anteriorly, while in the genus Ilomanis the 
sternal plates are still more narrow and less important. This appears to be the 
general characteristic of the ventral plates in Nephrops, Palamon, Crangon, 
&c., but more delicately and feebly constructed, so far as the external condi- 
tions ; but in the lower forms of Crustacea, such as the Amphipoda and the 
I^opoda, the sternal plates are broader than they are long, and consequently 
the several pairs of appendages are widely separated from each other, cor- 
respondingly so throughout the entire length of the pereion. 

The internal structure in the Podophthalmous types is more complex than 
the same parts in the lower or sessile-eyed forms. 



ON OUR PRESENT KNOWLEDGE OF THE CRUSTACEA. 79 

In Astacus, where the structure is perhaps more distinct, the margins of 
the approximating somites are seen to be compressed together, the anterior 
margin of one with the posterior of the next, and to thin out and ultimately 
combine together into a thin wall or plate of partition, separating the several 
sets of muscles connected with appendages belonging to one somite from 
those belonging to adjoining ones. Independently of being walls of separa- 
tion thcj are points of attachment on which some of the muscles are securely 
fixed. Not only do they exist near the lateral margin, but continue in- 
wards and extend forwards until they reach the corresponding processes on 
the opposite side of the percion, and also anteriorly until they unite with a 
similar system of osseous plates in the adjoining somite. Each plate appears 
to form a basis on which a strong muscle may take root on cither side, thus 
forming a fulcrum for muscular power and a means of separating one set of 
muscles from another. In Palinurus these plates, when they approximate 
the median line, turn over and lie horizontally with the longitudinal axis of the 
animal. These plates thus displayed form a perforated floor on which the 
larger and more important internal viscera rest. This osseous system con- 
tinues from the postmandibular somite persistently to the penultimate somite 
of the percion, where it is united with the floor of the pereion by a central 
and lateral point of contact. 

The anterior margins of the two halves of the first somite of the pereion 
meet together in the centre and form an oblique and prominent bridge that 
supports the posterior portion of the stomachic viscera, while the internal 
processes of the apodema, as tkey are termed by M. Milne -Edwards, that spring 
from the posterior two somites of the cephalon, are closely attached to, and 
at their extremities are perfectly ossified with, the lateral and central parts 
of the apodema of the anterior somite of the pereion, a point of union that the 
structure of the animal requires to be of considerable strength, as the enor- 
mous processes of the internal movable mandibular plates occupy so large a space 
that their points of attachment necessitate a structure of greater resistance 
and strength than the impoverished character and condition of the two 
posterior somites of the cephalon are capable of securing to them, without 
the additional support which they receive from a union of a more or less 
perfect character with the anterior somite of the pereion. 

The apodema that support the internal viscera are perforated by a series 
of foramina that, whUe they correspond in form on each side of the central 
line, yet diff'er in size and shape according to the relative proportions of the 
organism that are connected with them. The dimensions of the foramina, 
through which the muscles move the large and more important appendages, are 
larger and more conspicuous than they that relate to those that move the 
less efficient and smaller organs of the body. Thus we find that, generally, 
the largest and most conspicuous foramina correspond with the third somite 
of the pereion in Palinurus, Astacus, &c., whereas in those genera where the 
great prehensile hand is produced by the increased growth and proportions of 
any other pair of appendages, the foramina in the apodemal plate correspond 
with the increase of their dimensions. 

In the Anomura, of which we will take Liiliodes as the type, the internal 
and apodemal plates do not project so as to reach the corresponding pro- 
cesses on the opposite side. There are only six somites fused together on the 
ventral surface, or, I should rather say, contributing to the formation of the 
sternal plastron ; the seventh somite exists as a separate and distinct ring, 
both dorsally and ventraUy free from ossified union with the anterior somites 
of the pereion. 



80 REPORT— 1876. 

In this genus the sternal plate, as an anatomical part of the animal, is 
wanting, or represented only in a theoretical character by the median line 
of fusion. 

The coxae are existent without fusion with each other for some extent, 
visible on the ventral surface before their close contact reaches ossification so 
perfect that their line of union is represented by marks of depression only 
on the external surface, and corresponding crests or ridges on the internal 
surface. Dorsally this appears to be similarly repeated, and the lines of con- 
tact are imperfect in their fusion until the plates have thinned out into a 
membrane. Laterally the walls of the coxoe of the several pairs of appen- 
dages are so closely compressed that their lines of union are with difficulty 
determined not to be fused together. That they exist for some distance as 
thin plates in close contact is certain ; but they ultimately reach a point 
where the distinction is lost in perfect ossification. The internal plates ap- 
proach the corresponding ones on the opposite side in the first two somites 
only, which form a bridge that supports the posterior extremity of the stomachic 
region ; behind this the ventral surface rapidly widens, but the apodema or 
internal plates abruptly terminate, leaving a large expansion for the internal 
viscera to occupy. 

In the Brachyura the central fusion of the sternal plates is still more perfect, 
and the ventral portion of the somites appears to be covered entirely ; this 
exists in a vertical plate that appears to be formed by being compressed 
between the coxee of the corresponding pairs of appendages, the external 
surface of which may be traced to a sinus (PI. II. fig. Grt) that opens in the 
median line between the third and fourth somites. The segments of the 
pereion in this order of Crustacea, as may be seen in the genus Cancer, 
are very closely compressed, and apparently overlap each other dorsally, 
while ventrally the several appendages, from their proportionate dimensions, 
preclude the possibility of too close a contact. The consequence is that the 
general arrangement of the entire muscular system that moves the appen- 
dages or the pereion, together with the osseous structure that supports them, 
is arranged in a circular fonn, the superior or extensor muscles forming the 
upper or dorsal arc, and the inferior or flexor muscles forming the lower or 
ventral arc. The plate, therefore, that is produced internally in the median line 
is in continuation with the anterior portion of the ventral floor of the pere- 
ion, and is the homologue of the sternal plate. This tendency of the muscles 
to form round a common osseoiis centre appears to give a similar relation of 
the several somites to one another. Thus we find that the apodema narrows 
the dorsal extremity corresponding to each somite to such a degree that a 
deep notch or fold takes place over the fourth pair of appendages, at which 
point the curvature is greatest (fig. 5). It is this circular portion of the 
muscles that facilitates that peculiar arrangement by which the posterior 
two pairs of legs in Dromia, Boripe, &c. appear to be attached to the dorsal 
surface of the animal, which enables them to adhere to floating pieces of 
wood or weed, or seci:rely attach themselves to univalve shells by means of 
these appendages. 

The pleon, or that portion of the animal to which the appendages are 
attached which, in their most perfect condition, are adapted for swimming, 
undergoes a great variety of forms. It is perhaps most perfectly developed, 
in accordance with the value and usefulness of its parts, in the Macrurous 
division of Crustacea. 

In the Edriophthalmia it is perhaps more simple in character ; but it is in 
the Anisopoda, or that intermediate stage that unites the Isopoda and the 



ON OUR PRESENT KNOWLEDGE OF THE CRUSTACEA. 81 

Amphipoda, that we are enabled to determine the true homologlcal relation 
of one part to the other. 

In all Crustacea above the Entomostracous forms the several somites are 
distinguished by a dorsal and a ventral arc. The dorsal is invariably a hard, 
strong, and osseous plate. The ventral arc is mostly represented by an osseous 
band that reaches across the animal, aud is united anteriorly and posteriorly 
to the contiguous somites by large and flexible membranous tissues. The 
dorsal arc is wide, and dips under the adjoining one anteriorly in all except 
the second somite in the Macrura, which overrides the plates of the adjoin- • 
ing somites both anteriorly and posteriorly. This arrangement does not 
exist in the Edriophthalmia, because, there being no dorsal carapace pro- 
tecting the pereion, all the somites have a separate and distinct dorsal arc. 
The consequence is that each somite posteriori}'- overlaps the anterior margin 
of the next succeeding ring, except the first or anterior somite of the pereion, 
which overlaps anteriorly the posterior margin of the cephalon and posteriorly 
the anterior margin of the second somite of the pereion. In each of these 
orders of Crustacea we find that the greatest power of flexion is given 
to the animal at these points. 

In all the distinguishable somites of the Edriophthalmia, from one extre- 
mity of the auimal to the other, each separate one is observed to support 
laterally a large plate. These, in the pereion, are firmly attached to their 
respective somites, but not ossified to them ; in the pleon they are so united 
by ossific matter that one part is not capable of being separated anatomically 
or distinguished in structure from the other. It is these parts in this 
particular division of Crustacea that originated the idea of the theory of the 
Crustacean somite as enunciated in 1830 by Prof. Milne-Edwards. The 
fact that the supposed side-plates, or epimera, were merely the first joint of 
the normal legs or appendages has been satisfactorily demonstrated in the 
Edriophthalmia, as far as relates to the somites of the pereion ; but hitherto 
the I'elation of the side-plates of the pleon to the normal condition of the 
mobile appendages had not been demonstrated until the structure of the 
-dermal anatomy of the genus A23seHdes had been made out* : that " one inter- 
esting and, as far as we know, unique feature in these Crustacea yet remains 
to be noticed. The segments of the pleon have the lateral walls (long known 
as the epimera of Milne-Edwards, called also the pleura by many authors) 
existing as articulated appendages, demonstrating two important features in 
the homologies of these parts: 1st, that they are all really portions of the 
appendages, being the first joint or coxae of the pleopod . . . aud 2ud, that, 
since the peduncle consists of three joints, the second branch in the appen- 
dages of the pleon, as in other parts, is shown to take place invariably at the 
extremity of the third joint." In the Macrura and higher Stomapods the 
coxal joint of the several appendages is united to the dorsal arc in a ver}' 
perfect and complete state of ossification, with the exception of the first 
somite, where there are no appendages, and the sixth, where the coxa is free 
and articulates, with small lateral motions, with the dorsal arc of the respec- 
tive somite. The seventh somite {teIso7i) is reduced in character and altered in 
foi-m ; it universally covers and holds the terminal exit of the alimentary 
canal, the inferior arc of which is represented by a membranous tissue. In 
the Amphipodous order of Crustacea the fifth and sixth somites carry their 
appendages with free coxa;, and the terminal somite exists only in the form 
of a scale very liable to vary in shape, or separated into two of minute 

* Hist. Brit. Seasile-eyecl Crust, vol. ii. p. 146 {Aimeudcs), 
1876. G 



83 . KEPORT — 1876. 

dimensions. In the Isopoda the sixth somite only has the coxte free, and the 
appendages attached to them bear no very distant analogy to the homologous 
pair as they exist in the Macrura. In numerous genera of Isopods the 
sixth somite is developed to a very large size, and either absorbs or displaces 
the terminal somite or telsou altogether, which in some genera is repre- 
sented by a notch or cavity only, while in many others it is produced to a 
point or terminates in a smooth and even margin ; with the exception of 
some of the Anisopocl genera, the telson probably is absent throughout the 
order of Isopods. 

The form of the pleon in the Brachyura bears as close a resemblance to 
that of the Isopoda belonging to the tribe Liberatka as that of the Macrura 
resembles Parasitica in the same order. 

The coxse or side-pieces, as they have been very commonly supposed to be, 
are, in the Brachyura, very densely ossified with the dorsal arc, and this to 
such an extent in the male animals that it is very difficult to determine their 
presence. In the female, where the lateral development assumes a greater 
extent, the line of union is capable of being determined by a marked depress 
sion that defines the limit of the somites and the altered position of the appen.- 
dao'es ; but that they are homologicallj' present in both sexes there can be no 
reasonable cause of doubt. This, I think, may be generally depended on-^ 
that the more the coxa departs from the normal typo of the joint, as we see 
in the Macrurous Crustacea, and becomes associated with the dorsal arc of 
the theoretical somite, the more the character of the appendage becomes sim- 
plified or depreciated ; but, on the other hand, the more intimately it be- 
comes associated with the ventral arc, the more it becomes developed in its 
connexion with the requirements of the animal, and any variation of form is 
dependant on the value of its position and the habits and necessities of the 
creature. Thus we find that aU the appendages of the cephalon and pereion 
are associated with the ventral arc in the Brachyura and Macrura, but in 
the Edriophthalmia those of the pereion are associated with the dorsal arc ; 
whereas the ap])eudages of the pleon are, in all divisions of Crustacea, so 
intimately associated with the dorsal arc that in most cases the coxa is in- 
corporated with the somite, and generally the remainder of the appendages 
disappear or are reduced to merely a rudimentary condition, useful in some 
females for the attachment of ova ; while in the males they disappear more 
or less completely, or in the general conditions of Kfe become variated so as 
to fulfil special requirements or peculiar functions. 

Thus the 21 somites of which the typical Crustacean consists each sup- 
ports in its most simple condition a single pair of appendages ; and if we were 
to suppose every segment of the animal to be reduced to its most simple cha- 
racter, and the appendages attached to each segment reduced to the most 
simple form of articulated hmbs, and all of them uniform in size, the animal 
would bear a close analogy to a segmented annelid. 

This we must take as the archetype of a crustaceous animal, and assume 
that the appendages are attached to the spaces that exist between the dorsal 
and the ventral arcs of each somite. Thus when we observe any extreme 
variation of form, we must consider the earliest and most simple condition of 
the appendage in the archetype ; and it is not at variance with our idea of 
progression to assume that any great departure from the most simple type 
that appears to be common to the entire or a large portion of the subking- 
dom of Crustacea had its origin at an earlier period in the history of its 
evolution. 

The organs of vision arc common to all the Crustacea; and in those species 



ON OUR PRESENT KNOWLEDGE OF THE CRUSTACEA. 83 

that arc blind in their adult condition, the eyes are generally well developed 
in the younger stages. 

The eyes are, independent of their value as organs of vision, of great im- 
portance in the study of the natural arrangement of the various forms of 
animals in the subkingdom. They vary in form and character from the 
most incipient ophthalmic spot to the compound eye erected on pedestals ; 
but whether single or compound, solitary or in pairs, their form and compo- 
sition is generally so persistent with certain forms and characteristics of the 
life and habits of the animals that the few exceptions to the general rule do 
not preclude them from being au important and valuable means of arranging 
. Crustacea. 

This was first appreciated by Leach, in 1815, in his Classification of the two 
great divisions of these animals. He arranged them under the two great 
heads of PoDOPnTHALiiiA and EDEiorHTHALMiA — or those Crustacea that in 
their adult stage have the eyes elevated on peduncles or footstalks, and those 
which have them sessile or Avithout any footstalk. To this general observa- 
tion the exceptions are very few. Among some genera that inhabit subter- 
ranean passages and live in the dark, the footstalks are so reduced in size that 
they can only be said to exist theoretically, inasmuch as we find them well 
exhibited in their young and early stage. We must therefore assume that 
they have depreciated from their normal condition through adverse circum- 
stances. On the other hand, among the Edriophthalmia we have the genus 
Tanais with its compound eyes elevated on their own pedestals, differing from 
the pedunculated form only in being rigid and incapable of movement. ; 

In the Podophthalmia the eyes are implanted at the extremities of appen- 
dages that are supported upon a separate and distinct somite. 

In 1837 Prof. Milne-Edwards demonstrated this to be the case in the genus 
Squilla ; in 185-1 he states, in his " Observations sur le Squelette tegumen- 
taire des Crustaccs decapodes," Ann. des Sciences Nat. p. 254, which I have 
since confirmed (fig. 7 ), that in the genus Palmunis (the Langouste) " I'anneau 
ophthalmique est parfaitement distinct, et se pre'sente sous la forme d'une piece 
sclerodermique impaire, courte et large, situec en avant du bord frontal de la 
carapace, et au-dessus de I'anneau antcnnulaire. Les appendices ophthal- 
miq'ues, ou tiges oculaires, naissent des deux extremites de ce segment, et se 
composcnt chacun de deux articles : une piece que j'appeUerai hasophthahnite, 
et une seconde, qui porte a son extremite la cornee transparente, et qii'on 
peut nommer podophihalmite" 

Milne-Edwards in the same manner shows how in several species of Pali- 
nurus the antero-median portions of the carapace project more or less com- 
pletely over the ophthalmic ring, and so {I. c. p. 255) " par consequent, 
ouvert a ses deux extremites laterales pour le passage des tiges oculaires, et 
I'espece de cadre ainsi constitue autour de la base de ces tiges forme la por- 
tion fondamentalc de I'orbite ou trou orhitaire." 

Thus the orbit in Crustacea is formed by the thii'd or second antennal 
somite reaching over and coming into contact more or less perfectly with the 
first antennal somite. The greater or less in degree the separation between 
the second and third somite above the ophthalmic somite the more or less 
complete is the orbit in Avhich the eye is protected. This varies in different 
genera, and is very complete in the genus Cancer (PL II. fig. 9), where the 
ophthalmic somite is enclosed entirely by the union without fusion of theantero- 
dorsal projection of the posterior antennal somite with the anterior antennal 
somite ; but, according to Mihie-Edwards, in the genus Palinunis this perfec- 
tion of the orbit varies. In P. vulgaris (fig. 8) the ophthalmic somite is naked, 

g2 



81 • REPOKT 1876. 

in P. frontalis it is covered, and in P. verrecnuvii it is enclosed ; and Milne- 
Edwards observes that many other Crustacea offer examples of these three 
organic forms. For instance Pagunis ccenohites and Calianassa have the 
ophthahnic somite exposed as in. Palinwus vulgaris; Honmrus, Crangon, Pa- 
Icemon, Galathea, Lithodes, lianina, &c. have this somite covered as in 
Palinur us frontalis; and Homola has the ophthalmic somite enclosed. 

In Astacus the ophthalmic somite is reduced to a minimum extent, and it 
is only partially protected by the anterior projection of the rostrum of the 
carapace. 

Milne-Edwards says that, independently of the somite, the ocular appen- 
dages are formed of three " articles " or joints, a eoxophthalmite, a basoph- 
thalmite, and a podophthalmite, but that ordinarily the eoxophthalmite is 
rudimentary or obsolete. 

In the genus Alplueus (fig. 10) and other fossorial marine forms the ocular 
appendage is reduced to an extent that allows the carapace to cover it 
entirely; but in the larval form the organ (fig. 11) is seen to be as well de- 
veloped and as prominent as that of any aquatic species. It is in this way 
we may assume that the sessile condition of the organ in the Edriophthalmia 
(fig. 12) has been attained, first by the contractiou or redaction in extent of 
the ocular appendage, so that the anterior wall of the carapace shall cover it, 
and then by the more intimate connexion of the organs with the structure of 
the parts that protect them, and ultimately with entire absorption of the 
ocular appendage ; the eye receives its support from the walls of the cara]3ace 
alone. 

Even here the organs are themselves still liable to depreciation ; thus 
those that exist where light is absent (which inhabit decj) wells, subter- 
ranean caves, and excavations in the depths of the ocean) first lose the 
dark colour of the reflecting pigments, which is soon followed by a degene- 
ration of the character and appearance of the lens. In Amjpelisca, an Am- 
phipod that lives in muddj- bottoms, all the lenses but two have disappeared, 
and the pigment has become red ; in the well-shrimp {Niphargus) the only 
trace of an eye exists in some yellow-looking pigment; while in the Podo- 
phthalmia we find that Polycheles (Heller), a jn-awn from the Adriatic closely 
allied to (if not identical with) Didamia from the deep-sea dredging of the 
' Challenger ' expedition, and another from the Mammoth Caves of America, 
as well as Nephrons Stewarti (Wood-Mason) from Formosa, have the eyes 
wanting as organs of vision, while they retain them as obsolete appendages. 

The second pair of appendages is the first pair of antenna?. These M. 
Milne-Edwards has named (for the sake of convenience in distinguishing them 
from the second pair) the antenmdes. Eut as this term is one, in itself, 
that is suggestive of dimiuutiveness and inferiority, I think that it had better 
be employed as little as possible. Generally speaking, this pair is smaller in 
proportion than the second ; but usually it is of a more highly organized 
structure, and diminishes in dimensions as it becomes important in its 
functional properties. 

The appendage consists, in its normal condition, of three joints, homo- 
typical of the coxa, the basos, and ischium of the true legs in Crustacea. 
These three joints support an extremity that is very liable to vary in form, 
number of branches, and general appearance ; but one of them must be re- 
garded as the primary branch, iuasmucli as it is invariably furnished with a 
set of organs peculiar to it, and found on no other part of the animal. 
These are slender, delicate, mcra1n-anous, thread-like processes, that are 
liable to vary somewhat in form and size, but are all but universally present 



ON OUR PRESENT /KNOWLEDGE OF THE CRUSTACEA. 65 

in aquatic Cnistacca, and whicli, from their supposed connexion with the 
sense of hearing, I have elsewhere denominated aural cilia. The secondary 
branch is less important, and frequently divides into two or more rami. 
Sometimes these flagelliform branches are reduced in size to a minimum 
amount, and this generally corresponds with the highest character of tlie 
organ ; for it appears to be in inverse ratio — the longer and more extensive 
the character of the terminal ilagella, the less developed is the structural 
condition of the organ of sense contained within the peduncle ; and, on the 
other hand, the more developed the sensational organ, the feebler and less 
numerous is the organism and less antenna-lilve is the general character 
of the distal portions of the appendage. To this very constant condition in 
the aquatic forms of Crustacea we have a variation in the terrestrial 
species. In the genus Onisms and allied forms of Isopoda, as well as in 
the littoral varieties of Amphipoda, such as Talitnis, Orchestia, &c., the first 
pair of antennae are reduced to a minimum proportion consistent with their 
presence, without any increased importance in the structural condition of the 
peduncular joints, as far as I have been able to ascertain. 

In the highest types of Crustacea the coxal joint is considerably enlarged 
{vide pi. i. fig. 8 h, lleport for 1875), and contains within it a complicated 
chamber and highly developed organ of sense ; while in the Macrurous forms 
a less complicated chamber exists, with an external opening into which 
small grains of sand find their way : in others, as first shown by Professor 
Huxley in a species of Stomapod, well-developed forms resembling otolithes 
are present ; this Dana has observed, and I have been enabled to confirm in 
a species of Anchistia from Australia (PI. II. figs. 13 & 14). 

In some genera, as My sis among the Stomapoda, they vary in form 
according to sexual distinction. The male animal has the two terminal 
flagella feeble and slender, while a fasciculus of strong hook-formed hairs 
are planted on the inner and lower angle of the most distal extremity of the 
second joint of the peduncle, while a similar but less powerful group of spine- 
like hairs are planted on a strongly projecting process on the inferior distal 
extremity of the first joint (PI. II. fig. 15). There are other hairs implanted 
on the lower margin of this joint of a very delicate ciliated character. The 
peduncle of this antenna is very powerful, and there can be little doubt but 
that it is useful as an organ of prehension, most probably employed in se- 
curing the mate. These several facts are demonstrative evidence that the 
first pair of antenna are connected with the acoustic properties. 

Of this I purpose treating, as well as discussing the observations made by 
Dr. Hcsen in his researches (published in 1864) on the auditory organs of 
the Decapod Crustacea, when I report on the internal structure of the animal. 

Contrary to a possible condition of all other appendages, the coxal joint 
of the first pair of antennae is never absorbed into or fused with the sternal 
portion or ventral arc of the somite to which it belongs. 

The third pair of appendages consists of the second pair of antennte. 
These are often very large and powerful organs, frequently adapted as 
weapons of offence and prehension. They consist of two divisions similar 
to the first pair, that is, a peduncular and flagelliform part. Of these the 
peduncular consists of five joints, the flagelliform extremity of a strong, 
solitary, multiarticulate rod in its most normal condition ; but it very fre- 
quently varies in form, but never increases in the number of its branches. 

• In the Macrura generally the flageUum is produced, on an average, to 
about the length of the animal, and is mostly multiarticulate in its character, 
the small articuli varying in ntimber and length. .Sometimes, as in Scyllarus 



86 REPORT — 1876. 

(fig. 16), it consists of a single disk -like plate. But the greatest tendency to 
variation in form exists in the Amphipod and Isopod Crustacea. In some 
of these it reaches to a very considerable length and is multiarticulate, hut 
in others it is reduced sometimes in length, sometimes in form. In Talitrus 
it is reduced without alteration of character to a very small size ; so it is in 
Hyperia ; but while in the former it stands on a long and powerful peduncle, 
in the latter the peduncle is short and feeble. In Ohehira the flagellum is 
broad, fiat, and uniarticulate, and fringed with a dense mass of soft hairs. 
In Podocerus and a few closely allied genera the flagellum is formed of one 
or two large articuli or joints, and the hairs are reduced in number but 
increased in strength, and become hook-like spines. In Coroj)Mimi the 
whole antenna bears a near resemblance to a true walking-appendage, and 
is no doubt used to assist in progression, as is mostly the case with Crus- 
tacea that inhabit tubes and hollows of their own excavation or building. 

The peduncle of this antenna is invariably formed of five joints. These 
are :— 

The first, for which Professor Milne-Edwards has suggested, in the memoir 
quoted, the name of coxocerite. This contains within it an organ of sense 
which Milne-Edwards believes to be connected with that of hearing ; 
but I think there will be little difficulty, when reporting on the internal 
anatomy, in showing that it is connected with the olfactory sense. In 
the Amphipoda and Isopoda, with but few exceptions, such as Talitrus, 
OrcJiesiia, &c., the first joint is free ; but so it is in many of the Macrurous 
forms, such as Astacus, Homarus, &c. But in Palinurus it is strongly built 
into and fused with the ventral arc of the fourth or next approximating 
somite. These parts are stOl more closely associated in the Brachyurous 
form, so that it is difficult to determine where the antennae end and the 
region named by Latreille the epistome commences. 

The second joint, named by Milne-Edwards the hasocerite, is generally 
short and supports at its extremity a movable squamiform appendage, to 
which the same carcinologist has given the name of sccqJiocerite. This 
apx^endage is coiastant in all Macrurous forms of Crustacea. It appears to 
be .wanting in the genus Palimirus only ; but even here it is represented, as 
I had the opportunity of showing, in the Eeport on " The Marine Fauna of 
Devon and Cornwall," by a figure of it incorporated in the integument of the 
succeeding joint, as if it were absorbed by pressure against it. 

This appendage (scaphocerite) does not exist in any of the forms higher or 
lower than the Macrura, except Pontki (PI. II. fig. 18) in the Entomostracous 
forms, and that peculiarly interesting little Isopod A2')seudes, in which genus 
we find a small squamiform plate resembling and probably homologous with it. 

The third joint the above author has named the ischiocerite, and the tAVo 
following the mesocerite and the carpocerite, while the multiarticulate 
fiagellum, which corresponds "to the penultimate joint of the thoracic 
member," he calls the procerite. It is rather a curious oversight that, while 
Milne-Edwards has been most particular in identifying the several parts of 
the second antennge by an especial name, he has omitted to give any to those 
of the first pair of antennae, the three joints of the peduncle of which are 
homotypical of the coxocerite, the basocerite, and the ischiocerite of the 
second pair of antennae; but the flagellum, instead of being homotypical of 
the procerite, represents the mesocerite and the successive articulations. 
% In the Macrura generally the joints of the peduncle are distinctly separated 
from one another ; but in some of the higher forms, such as Astaciis, Homarus, 
and Palinurus, they exhibit a tendency to crowd and coalesce with each other. 



ON OUK PRESENT KNOWLEDGE OF THE CRUSTACEA. 37 

that is increased in the Anomura, and carried to such a degree in tlie 
Erachyura, that in some, as in Meiiethceus, Leptopodus, Maia, &c., the first 
two or three articulations arc not to be distinguished from the surrounding 
structure except bj- the position of the olfactory opening. 

In the Cancerida3 all the joints of the peduncle (PI. II. fig. 17) are fused 
together and are so closely implanted in the structure of the facial portion of 
the two first somites that they assist m.ore or less perfectly in forming the 
walls of the ocular orbit, the several variations of which are made use of by 
Alphonse Milne-Edwards as a means of assisting him to distinguish the several 
genera of the Cancerides from each other, and which, from theii- easily acces- 
sible position, might be found a convenient aid in assisting to determine 
genera among fossil forms. 

Among the Amphipoda all the several articulations are distinct from one 
another and from the body of the animal, and the olfactory organ is carried 
in a long tooth-like process that is open at the extremity. This arrangement 
is not so distinct in the Isopoda and the terrestrial Amphipoda. It also dis- 
appears in certain abnormal forms of aberrant and parasitic Isopoda. 

The next succeeding, or fourth pair of appendages is among the most con- 
stant in the subkingdom. Within certain limits the mandibles vary with every 
genus, and would form when detached a very certain means of generic diag- 
nosis. In the most simple condition, where they approximate in form to that 
of the peduncular portion of the second pair of antennas, they exist in Nehalia 
(PL III. fig. 19). But, as stated by Milne-Edwards (" Squelette tegumentaire 
des Crustace's de'capodes," p. 256, Ann. des Sc. Nat. 1854), the mandibles are 
not appendages simply applied against the mouth, but occupy of themselves 
a special cavity, flanking on either side the entrance to the alimentary canal, 
which, when the two are brought into juxtaposition in the median line, they 
generally close. The mandible in Nehalia (PI. III. fig. 19) is formed of a long 
osseous process that projects internally, and is secured by muscular attachments 
to the internal dorsal surface of the carapace ; a large obtuse-pointed process 
is projected inwards across the mouth, and antagonizes with a corresponding 
process on the one opposite. This process is very liable to vary in form in 
different genera. Beyond this process, at the root of it, springs a cylindrical 
osseous continuation, at the apex of which are articulated two equally long 
and important joints. These two joints are homologically the same that form 
the small appendicular appendage attached to the mandible of all Crustacea 
(PI. III. fig. 21 ) so persistently that their absence is a fact to be recorded in the 
structure of special genera, such as Talitrus and Orchestia among the Amphi- 
poda. In a scientific point of view, this appendage must be part of the 
primary portion of the theoretical limb. This idea also receives confirmation 
in the form of the mandibles of the genus Pontia of Milne-Edwards, where may 
be observed a secondary ramus attached to the extremity of the first joint of 
the appendicular branch (PL III. fig. 20). 

This appendage M. Mdne-Edwards, in the nomenclature that he has 
given, proposes to name the protognutli ; but the first joint, or true mandi- 
bular portion, he calls the proto-coxor/nathite, and the second joint the proto- 
lasognathite, and the other joints in succession after the names of the 
respective joints in the ideal appendage which they homologically re- 
present. While wishing to give all honour to that distinguished carcino- 
logist for the care and exactitude in determining the several parts of the 
structure of a crustacean by means of a distinct nomenclature, it is with 
regret that I am compelled to admit that they would be more practically 
useful, and consequeutly more generally adopted, if the terms were less 



88 KEPORT— 1876. 

lengthy, and -with a less redundancy of expression, I shall therefore in this 
report, as far as possible, adopt the terms of definition proposed by Milne- 
Edwards, but omit generally the appendicular term so constantly repeated 
by him. Thus the terms coxa, basos, ischium, mesos, carpus, propodos, and 
dactylos -will be sufficient for -whatever appendage I may be -writing about, 
without repeating the name of the appendage, yvhether gnaihite, podite, cerite, 
or other, after that of each individual joint. 

But it is only just that Professor Milne-Edwards's reasons for adopting 
these terms should be reported in his own words. Writing of the appendages 
of the mouth, he says : — 

" Depuis les beaux travaux do Savigny sur la bouche dcs animaux arti-. 
cule's, on e'accorde gcnc'ralemcnt a considerer tons ces organes comme etant 
des homologues des pattes, mais on les distingue presque toujours entre eux 
sous les noms particuliers de mandibules, machoircs proprement dites et 
machoires auxiliaires ou pattes-machoires ; ces designations spe'ciales sont 
•quelquefois utiles ; mais, dans la plupart des cas, il est preferable de con- 
siderer tons ces appendices masticateurs comme des membres d'un seul et 
raeme groupe orgauique, de leur donner un nom commun, et de specialiser 
ce nom par radjonction d'une racine adjective ; on pourrait de la sorte les 
nppeler protognathe, deutognathe, etc. et faire entrer le mot gnathitc, comme 
racine constant, dans la composition dcs noms applique's a chacun des articles, 
ou elements sclerodermiques, dont ils sont formes. Ces gnathites seraient 
diffe'rencics a I'aide d'un certain nombre de racines adjectives indiquant leur 
position dans le membrc, et lorsque dans les descriptions zoologiques on 
aurait a en parler, on pourrait se borner a ajouter aux noms compose's, qui 
appartiendraient en commun h tons les termes de chaque serie des pieces 
liomologues, un uumcro d'ordre pour indiquer leur position dans cette scrie 
organique, c'est-a-dire les appendices auxquels ils appartiennent. Ainsi je 
proposcrai d'appeler coxognatMte, hasignatkite, mesognathite, etc. les articles 
(jui, dans la serie dcs appendices maxillaires correspondent au co.vite, au hasite, 
etc. dans les autres membres, et d'appeler premier coxognatliite la piece de 
cet ordre qui appartient au protognathite, deuxieme co.vognathite celle qui 
appartient au deutognaihite, etc. Ce systcme de nomenclature est a la fois si 
bref, si commode et si eminemment significatif, que je demande aux carci- 
uologistes la permission d'en faire usage uon seulement dans les considerations 
morphologiques dont je m'occupe ici, mais aussi dans les travaux taxolo- 
giques que je me propose de publier proehainement."- — " Squelette iegummtaire 
des Crustaces decapodes" Ann. Sc. Nat. 1S54, p. 267. 

The mandible or protognathe is sometimes very large, and at others reduced 
to a rudimentary condition. In Pcdinurus it occupies on each side one half 
of the breadth of the animal, and to remove the two mandibles is almost to 
decapitate the animal. In some of the parasitic forms it is reduced to a 
rudimentary condition. In the female of Anceus {Pranisa) it, with other 
appendages, coalesces to form a probing or lancing instrument that projects 
like a proboscis beyond the head ; while in the male of the same genus the 
niandibles are situated on the anterior margin of the head, and stand pro- 
jecting like a pair of rude irregular antennae. Eut in this animal the mouth 
is closed, or at most represented by a microscopic aperture, as it, in this 
stage, exists without eating. 

In most forms of Crustacea the space that exists between the anterior 
margin of the protognathe or mandible and the posterior margin of the 
epistome is occupied by a fold of the membranous tissue that encloses the 
oral cavity. This fold is frequently ossified and projected into a strong 



ON OUR PRESENT KNOWLEDGE OF THE CRUSTACEA. 89 

labium or movable Kp. It is very conspicuous in young animals, and fre- 
(jucntly iu adult forms, particularly among the Amphipoda. It is represented 
by two small osseous disks in Palimtrus, and a single small triangular plate 
in Cancer, Corresponding with this labium posteriorly is another that 
protects the opening between the mandibles in this direction. This is also 
supported frequently by osseous plates ; bat this organ is not constantly 
developed beyond a limited extent, except in a fe^v instances. In Pallnurus 
it consists of a central osseous plate, having a suture through the median 
line ; from this base it projects in two long membranous sacs, supported on 
the outer or posterior surface by one or two osseous plates (PI. III. fig. 22). 
It is this organ, it appears to me, that represents and is homologous with the 
lip-plate or metastoma in Eurypterus, Pteri/gotus, &c., that has been so fully 
described by Huxley, Woodward, and Salter. 

The fifth or next succeeding pair of appendages is that which Prof. Milne- 
Edwards has called the deutognathe. It is what has been known in popular 
carcinology as the first pair of foot-jaws, and first maxilla or siagnopoda in 
the ' History of the British Sessile-eyed Crustacea,' the latter name being sug- 
gested by Prof. Westwood " as the Greek equivalent for the Latin name of 
the five pairs of appendages succeeding the mandibles, which were collectively 
teTxaed pattes-mdcJwires by Cuvicr, Savigny," &c. 

The deutognathe in all known form^ of Crustacea exists in the adidt stage 
in an embryonic condition ; it is small in size, feeble in power, and consists, in 
different genera and families, of a varying number of thin squamiform i:)lates. 
Each joint of the typical limb, as far as present in the adult condition (PI. III. 
fig. 23), offers no very exceptional distinction from the same iu the embry- 
onic stage (fig. 24). 

The ti-itognatJw, or sixth pair of appendages, supports the idea of the adult 
form bearing a close resemblance to that of the zoea or embryonic condition 
stiU more decidedly (PI. III. figs. 25 & 26), 

The seventh pair of appendages, the teiarfognatJie of Mihie-Edwards's 
nomenclature, is the first pair of muclioives aiuviliaires of Savigny, or the 
anterior mdclwires or foot-jaws of most authors. 

These, in the adult Brachyura, are still more embryonic in appearance. 
In Maia and Cancer they are very reduced in size and apparent importance 
(PI. III. fig. 27) ; but in some less highly developed types, such as the Am- 
phipoda and Isopoda, where they are generally recognized under the name of 
maxUlipeds (PI. III. fig. 28), they assume a more important feature, and 
bear a not very distant resemblance to the typical form from which they 
are supposed to depart. In NihuUa they closely resemble the posteriorly 
succeediug pairs of limbs ; but in this genus the whole of these gradually 
degenerate to the embryonic condition as they recede from this point. 

In the larval or zoea stage of Crustacea they are wanting in the higher 
forms. 

These three pairs of limbs appear to me to offer an interesting and valuable 
example of the manner in which any great changes in the variation of the 
structure of an animal takes place. The crowding together so to speak of 
the three posterior somites of the ccphalon, so as to bring, as much as possible, 
the several pairs of appendages within the limits of the oral region, so crushes 
them in their position, that their usefulness as separate organs must be much 
impeded. It would therefore appear that the crowding of appendages 
together interferes with and arrests the progress of their development, while 
they are best suited to exist under the altered conditions where they are 
the least inconvenient. That they are of little or no importance iu the 



90 REPORT — 1876. 

economy of the animal can, I think, be demonstrated in the habits of theii- 
life — a circumstance which, I think, can be shown in the slight variation of 
their structure in the adult stage from that of the larval form, to depart in 
the anterior members towards the mandibular form, and posteriorly to put 
on conditions most consonant with the usefulness of the succeeding appendage ; 
that is, while the anterior ones feebly approximate the mandibular form, the 
posterior have attached to them parts resembling immature branchial organs. 
These seven pairs of appendages are all that belong to the cephalon or head ; 
and it appears to me that, however closely any of those that succeed may be 
associated with them in functional purposes, they are homologically distinct, 
and, as members of separate portions of the body, they should be named 
and distinguished in a scientific nomenclature more in accordance with their 
homological relationship than with their functional power. 

The next pair of appendages is the first that belongs to the pereion or 
thorax in the Crustacean typo of animals. It is the eighth pair in posterior 
rotation, but is generally named by authors according to its relation to the 
mouth. It is the 2'>^^^^ptognatlie of Milue-Edwards's more recent nomenclatvu'e, 
the second pair of mdcJioires auxiliaires of Savigny, and the second pair of 
maxUlipeds or foot-jaws of most carcinologists. It is the fourth siagnojoodos 
according to Professor Westwood's suggestion, and the fii'st pair of gnatlio- 
poda of the 'History of British Sessile-eyed Crustacea,' according to the 
nomenclature of the author of this report. 

This multiplication of names for a single appendage, signifying, as they 
severally do, various affinities, is by no means flattering to the students of 
Crustacea; but, to a large extent, it occurs from the circumstance that while 
one anatomist has contemplated the animal in the adult and higher concen- 
trated forms, others have contemplated it in the more imperfect types. It 
is therefore the object in this report to bring together these several and 
various discrepancies, and demonstrate the relationship) of jiarts through 
their various degrees of growth and change, and retain by one fixed name 
the same part however it may vary in structure or functional conditions 
through all stages of variation in Crustacean life. 

• In Crustacea the eighth pair of appendages in the structure of the ani- 
mal is the first pair that belongs to the body. In the Brachyura it 
exists in the same type as is found in the zoea or larva form (fig. 29), 
from which it varies only in the more robust character of some of the 
joints of which it is constructed (PL III. fig. 30). In this state it varies in 
form and degree only within a limited range, gradually becoming more pedi- 
form in character as we examine it through the Macrura (PL III. fig. 31) in 
the descending order until we reach SquUla (PL III. fig. 32), where we find 
it developed as a large and important organ that gives a decided and distin- 
guishing feature to the animal. Through this genus we are led to the 
Eriophthalmia (PL III. fig. 33), among which we find that in the Amphipoda 
it is formed on the same type as in SqiiiUa, but gradually approaching in its 
general characteristics and appearance those of the succeeding pairs of legs, 
until in the Isopoda it is in most families uniform with them. 

Thus we see that not only in their relation to the body of the animal, but 
also in their most general appearance and affinities they are part of the 
game system of appendages as those posterior to them, and that their relation 
to those anterior arises from that crowding together of parts in the higher 
types of Crustacea that forces an abnormal form as the result. 

This fiair of appendages, as being the first attached to the " pereion " or 
body of the animal, may with consistency be called, as it reaUy is, the 
first pair of pereiopoda. But throughout the higher Crustacean forms the 



ON OUR PRESENT KNOWLEDGE OF THE CRUSTACEA. 91 

first two pairs of appendages are functionally utilized as attendants upon the 
mouth]; and where this is not the case they are formed as organs of prehen- 
sion, more especially among the male animals. This is exemplified even in 
those species, as among the terrestrial Isopods, where the outward form is 
less striking, but tlie whole appendage is strengthened for grasping piirposes. 

The next or ninth pair of appendages is almost if not universally formed 
upon the same type as the preceding. There is a departvire in degree to bo 
found, more pronounced in the Brachyura, in consequence of the appendages 
crowding so much on one another. Thus, while those that experience most 
the pressure of those that overlap them are precluded from attaining their 
fully developed forms, the external ones, or they that overlap the preceding, 
have, in order the more perfectly to fulfil their duties, extended their own 
surfaces, so as more effectually to protect the oral cavity, as an operculum 
covering the month. 

These two pairs are variated so constantly from the other appendages 
of the percion that I think it will be foiind convenient in most cases to 
designate them by distinguishing names. The licporter has, in the Eeport 
on the Amphipoda in 1865 and elsewhere, called them gnathopoda, as feet 
or appendages connected with the mouth ; and I see every reason whj' this 
name should be adopted throughout the whole subkingdom, as one better 
adapted, both functionally and homologically, than those proposed either by 
Milne-Edwards's latest nomenclature, or the still less correct ones in popular 
use of previous authors. 

In the larval form the second gnathopod is less advanced than the first, 
but in the adult stage it is larger and more efficient. An exception to this 
exists in Nehalia, where all the appendages of the pereion are developed 
upon an immature or embryonic type. These gradually decrease in power 
and form the more they recede posteriorly. All these appendages exhibit 
the seven joints that are present in the formation of a single limb ; and in 
those instances where there is a decrease in that number, the joint that is 
wanting is lost at the extremity. This appears to be very general through 
aU the Brachyural and Macrural divisions. 

In the higher forms both pairs of gnathopoda carry a secondary branch 
as well as another that has generally been known as the " fiabelliform 
appenage." For these Milne-Edwards has proposed the name of endognathe 
for the primary or internal ramus, exognathe for the external or second 
ramus, and epignatJie for that which is generally known as the " fiabelliform 
appendage," and mesognathe for the fourth. But as the representatives or 
homotypes of these same appendages occur in different grades of Crustacean 
form, and whenever they do occur they bear the same relation to the limb 
from which they spring, it would be better that they should consistently 
be known by their homotypical character, rather than vary their name with 
every succeeding appendage. Thus the fiabelliform appendage invariably 
springs from the coxa or first joint, and is homotypical of the branchial 
organs in other pairs of limbs ; another is invariably connected with 
the hasos or second joint, and the third has its origin in the ischium or 
third joint. One or all may be suppressed ; but whenever either the 
one or the other is present it has its origin in its own peculiar joint, 
and as such should be identified in any scientific nomenclature. I there- 
fore suggest the names of coxecjjJii/sis, hasecphysis, and iscliiecpliysis for the 
several parts*, as branches springing fi'om those joints, in whatever appen- 
dage they may be found. Thus the secondary branch that exists attached to 
the legs in Phyllosoma or the yoimg of Palinurus is an ischiecphysis ; in 

* The name of the joint being compounded with the word eKipvais, sprout or branch. 



93 . REPORT — 1876. 

Mysis a very similar appendage is the 'basecptj-sis, while the bfanchise ard, 
in all cases when present, the homologaics of the coxecphj-sis. 

The next five succeeding pairs of appendages are the true legs as they 
exist in the typical forms of Crustacea, and it is from the general appearance 
of them that the higher forms are known as Decapoda, or Ten-footed Crus- 
tacea. In a scientific point of view the name is incorrect and misleading ; 
for in manj^ of the Macrura and the Edi-ioplithalmia they are twelve or 
fovirteen in number, while in the Anomura the departure of the last two 
pairs of pcrciopoda from the tjpical form is as great as the two first in 
many other forms ; consequently the name of Decapoda, as well as Dana's 
name of TetracUcapoda, is both incorrect and homologically untrue. These 
five pairs constitute the tenth to the fourteenth pairs of appendages ; but as 
they are limbs attached to the pereion, I have elsewhere suggested that they 
should bo known as pereiopoda. Milne-Edwards, in his nomenclature, has 
not identified them with any distinguishing name ; he merely calls the anterior 
pair, which is cheliform in many genera, by the name of bras (arms), and the 
lestjyattes (feet), and it is remarkable that he should identify each one of the 
seven joints that is present in its construction by a distinguishing term ; but 
the entire member he defines by an imscientific but popular phrase that is 
inconvenient, as it is found that the prehensile power is not confined to a 
single pair, but, as in Asfacus and Homarus, is the property of other limbs, 
while in some, as in Sc)/UarHS, it does not exist in any. Carrying this 
observation into other forms, we find that in certain Amphipoda the great 
chelate or arm-like organ exists in the fifth pair of pereiopoda, as in 
Phronima. Thus we see that the power of being developed into a grasping 
forceps or hand exists in each or all the pereiopoda in succession ; therefore 
the term of arm, or bras, is inadmissible in a scientific nomenclature. I there- 
fore propose to call these five pairs of appendages the pereiopoda, in accordance 
with the terms used in the ' History of the British Sessile-ej-ed Crustacea.' 

They invariably consist of seven joints ; these are most distinguishable in 
the Macrura and the lower forms. In the Report on the Sessile-eyed 
Crustacea, 1855, the author clearly demonstrated the several joints respec- 
tively in the Amphipoda. This required no effoi't on his part to interpret 
in the Macrura, since in Homariis, Astaciis, and Pcdinurus the general 
points are very distinguishable ; but as we examine higher in the scale of 
animals, we find that in the Anomura the coxce of the several pairs of legs 
are gradually becoming absorbed and becoming part of the ventral surface 
of the body ; and this in the Brachyura is earned still further, inasmuch as 
it is difficult to define how much of the structure is due to the legs and how 
much to the body, and it is not improbable that the appendages have en- 
croached upon and absorbed the generallj' more important structure. 

The coxa or first joint appears to be essential to the existence of the animal, 
inasmuch as it is the seat of all the more important organs connected with 
the vital existence. The auditory and olfactory senses are situated in the 
cosas of the antenna?, and all the branchial appendages have their origin in 
the coxfe of the pereiopoda, while the sexual organs, both male and female, 
are implanted in the coxfc of the seventh and fifth pairs respectively. The 
next two joints of the limbs may, and in some of the Stomapoda do, carry 
appendages attached to them ; but none of the joints beyond the ischium are 
ever so furnished. 

The anterior pair is the one most commonly developed in the higher forms 
into large chelae or hands. It is the more general in the male than in the 
female, and I have commonly observed that the female chela generally 
corresponds more closely with the less-developed chela in males than with 



ON OUR PRESENT KNOWLEDGE OF THE CRUSTACEA. 93 

the greater. Sometimes the male appendage is developed so monstroiisly 
that they appear inconvenient and burdensome, and are occasionally so long 
that they arc useless in an attempt to reach the mouth. Thus in Homarus 
the animal feeds itself with the small posterior pair. In GeJassirmis no 
ingenuity on the part of the animal would enable it to reach the mouth with 
the extremities of the large chelate organ. In the process of feeding they 
are useful only as holding food while the animal carries it to the mouth with 
the smaller but more convenient organs. The chela is always formed by the 
greater or less amountof development that is given to the inferior angle of the 
distal extremity of the antepenultimate joint. This power of production ap- 
pears to be dormant in every limb, since we see it occasionally exhibited in all. 
Thus in Palinurus it is rudimentarily present in the posterior pair of pereio- 
poda, and in the genus Pa<jnrus it is developed into a small but efficient organ, 
by which the animal cleanses out and removes obstructive objects that may 
have found their way into the branchial chamber, and so fulfils the same 
duties as those performed by the fiahella attached to the gnathopoda, and 
which are wanting in the Anomura. 

The fact that the coxtc of all the legs attached to the pereion are in some 
orders absorbed into the sternal plastron, while they are not so in others, 
offers a ready and safe means by which pahieontologists may determine the 
order to which a fossil Crustacean might belong by the evidence of a single 
leg. Thus it will be seen invariably that seven distinct and free joints are 
visible in the Macrura, while only six are free in the Brachyura ; whereas 
in the Anomura there are six free and one partially so. This evidence 
might be carried still further, inasmuch as in Astacus and Homanis the coxae 
are seen to approximate to each other on the opposite sides closely, while 
in Palinurus thej- are near anteriorly and broadly separated posteriorly. 

The appendages that follow are those that are modified for swimming. 
When exhibited in the most normal condition, they consist of a long pedun- 
cular stalk supporting two oblong leaf-like plates, surroiiuded by a fringe of 
small hairs. Sometimes they consist of a scries of multiarticulations, as in 
Amphipoda ; sometimes of long cylindiical imiarticular branches, as in Cancer. 
In some instances, as in tSquUla, there is a third branch that springs from 
the side of the peduncle near the base ; this is so membranoiis in character 
and ramified in construction, that it is evidently formed for the purpose of 
assisting in aeration of the blood. 

The pleopoda are utilized, according to the habits of the animal, for various 
purposes, and throughout them all their adaptation to propulsion through the 
water is not only the most constant but also very generally associated with 
other offices. 

In the Isopoda they appear to bo the only organs adapted for respiration 
that the animal possesses. Tet their rapid motion is the only means which 
the)' possess of swimming. 

In the Amphipoda, it is this latter use alone for which these organs are 
adapted, while respiration is fulfilled by other means. But here only the ante- 
rior three pairs are adapted for swimming purposes, while the posterior three 
are utilized for leaping when on laud, or forcibly dashing through the watei-. 
The Isopoda have only the posterior pair so variated, and the Macrura have two 
pairs; but in this latter order they are more adapted for producing a retro- 
grade motion, darting backwards as they frequently do to a^oid unexpected 
and sudden danger. In the Macrurous forms they are also available for the 
purpose of retaining connexion with the ova, and supporting the life of the 
embryo until it is matured. Throughout most of the Macrurous forms the 
pleopoda fulfil this doiible purpose in the female. 



94 REPORT — 1876. 

In the Anomiira they are only adapted for swimming in the long-tailed 
forms ; but in Erachyura they are only utilized for the suspension of ova in 
the female, and never used for swimming except in very young animals, and 
reduced to two pairs only in the male, where they are interlocked in each 
other and adapted as organs aiding intromission, 

I cannot close this portion of the report without expressing great admi- 
ration of the valuable memoir of Milne-Edwards, so frequently quoted in 
these pages. With the exception of Professor Huxley's Hunterian Lectures, 
St. George Mivart's Memoir on the Lobster in the ' Popular Science Eeview,' 
and a Memoir on the same subject by J. S. Kingsley, recently published 
in the 'American JN^aturalist' (Aug. 1876), little has been written on this 
subject of late years. 

It is remarkable that so large and important a class of animals should 
have been left so long without being anatomically studied, and it is to be 
hoped that the important' part that they must take in the great history of 
progressive evolution will gradually induce naturalists to give them the 
attention that their importance deserves. 

EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 

Plate IL 

Fig. 1. Sternum from Palinurus. 

2. Sternum from Ncphrops. 

3. Sternum from Lithodes, 

4. Sternum from Cancer. 

.5. Sternum from Cancer, lat. est. aspect, t Dorsal notcli. 

G. Sternum from Cancer, longitudinal section. * Ventral sinus. 

7. Spinal processes attached to legs in Megalopa. 

8. Eyes from Palinurus. 

9. Eyes from Cancer. 

10. Eyes from Alphteus, adult. 

11. Eyes from Alphceus, young. 

12. Eyes from Amphipoda. 

1.3. Antenna, first, from Anchistia. 

li. Otolith from same. 

1.5. Antenna, first, Mysis, male. 

16. Antenna, second, Hcyllarus. 

17. Antenna, second, Cancer. 

18. Anteima, second, Pontia. 

Plate III. 

19. Mandible from Ncbalia. 

20. Mandible from Pontia. 

21. Mandible from Palamon. 

22. Labium, postei-ior, from PaUmirus. 

23. Deutognathe from Cancer, adult. 

24. Deutognathe from Cancer, young.' 

25. Tritoguathe from Cancer, adult. 

26. Tritoguathe from Cancer, young. 

27. Tetartognathe, or maxilliped of authors. Cancer. 

28. Tetartoguatlie, or ma?iilliped, of Amphipod. 

29. Gnathopoda from Cancer, young. 

30. Gnathopoda from Cancer, adult. 

31. Gnathopoda from Macrura. 

32. Gnathopoda from Squilla. 

33. Gnathopoda from Amphipoda, 



■4-t!'^ Re/Hvr Bi-ir-^s.ror. Ifi7fi. 



Pl.ite U. 




^Tit^ruved hy W.FaOhoi'n^. 



4 6 'h Report Brit.^ssoc Ifl^tS. 



pi.ite m. 




£ruijna.vait hv W^J\j.ufu'rji. . 



ON THE CIRCULATION OF UNDERGROUND WATERS. 95 

Second Report of the Committee for investigating the circulation of the 
Underground Waters in the Neiv Red Sandstone and Permian Forma- 
tions of England, and the quantity aiid character of the water 
supplied to various towns and districts from these formations. The 
Committee consisting of Professor Hull^ Mr. Binney^ Rev. H. W. 
Crosskey, Captain D. Galton^ Professor A. H. Green, Professor 
Harkness, Mr. H. Howell, Mr. W. Molyneux, Mr. G. H. 
Morton, Mr. Pengelly, Professor Prestwich, Mr. J. Plant, 
Mr. Mellard Reade, Mr. C. Fox-Strangways, Mr. W. Whi- 
taker, and Mr. C. E. Be Rance. Drawn up by Mr. De Range 
[Secretary). 

Since the last Meeting of the Association your Committee have continued to 
distribute largely the circular forms of inquiry, and a large amount of valu- 
able information has been obtained, especially as to the deep wells of Liver- 
pool, Birkenhead, Nottingham, and Birmingham. But in several districts, as 
in Staffordshire, important information is promised so soon as works now in 
I^rogress are completed ; and the members of your Committee taking charge 
of those districts have considered it best to defer making a report until they 
present you with a final one on their particular areas. Your Committee, 
should they be reappointed, have every hope, from promises already received, 
of completing the trust which you have given them by the next Meeting 
of the Association. 

In the present Report the details of weEs in the New Eed Sandstone are 
collected, which yield at Livei-pool no loss than 7,197,330 gallons daily ; at 
Birkenhead more than 7 millions ; at Coventry, Birmingham, and Leaming- 
ton 4^ millions ; at Nottingham nearly 4 miUiou gallons ; at "Warrington 
572,360 gallons ; at Stockport 1,073,820 gallons. 

The largest yield of one individual well is that at Green Lane, Old Swan, 
near Liverpool, the average daily yield of which in 1875 amounted to 
2,533,050 gallons, and the present maximum of which amounts to no less than 
3,243,549 gallons pumped up by three engines, one at least of which is 
always at work, from a depth of 136 feet. 

In regard to the Liverpool wells, it appears to be established by the obser- 
vation of Mr. Deacon, the Borough Engineer, to quote the words of his Report, 
" That the water in the public wells is regularly sinking to a lower level, or 
that if it be maintained at a constant level, the water capable of being pumped 
is a continually diminishing quantity." But there is not yet sufficient evi- 
dence to prove what balance of absolute quantity of water stUl remains in the 
sandstones of the area capable of being drawn on by additional wells. 

Amongst the borings, of which the details will be found in the present 
Report, is one at Rampside, near Barrow-in-Furncss, which reached a depth 
of no less than 2210 feet from the surface, in a fruitless search for coal. At 
a depth of 250 feet a spring of water was cut in the Permian Red Sandstone, 
which yields 13,500 gallons of water daily, flowing out at the top of a one- 
inch pipe, and rising to a height of 12 feet above the surface of the ground. 

The rocks beneath the Permian have been proved by this boring to be of 
Yoredale age, the Coal-measures being absent, as stated would j^robably be 
the case by Mr. Aveline and other geologists before the boring was carried 
out. 

An interesting feature in this boring is the presence of petroleum-oil in 
the Yoredale rock near the bottom, which caused the water cut in penetra- 
ting this sandstone to be much charged with oil. 



9(5 • REPORT— 1876. 

Tour Committee •would wish to call attention to the publication, since the 
last Meeting, of the sixth and final Eeport of Her Majesty's Commissioners 
appointed to inquire into the best means of preventing the pollution of rivers. 
The volume treats of the Domestic Water Supply of Great Britain, and in 
it the Commissioners state that the New lied Sandstone Rock constitutes one 
of the most effective filtering media known ; and being at the same time a 
powerful destroyer of organic matter, the evidence of previous pollutiou, in 
water drawn from deep wells in this rock, may be safely ignored, " for being 
a porous and ferruginous rock, it exerts a powerful oxidizing influence upon 
the dissolved organic matter which percolates through it. To such an extent 
is this oxidation carried, that in some cases, as in those of the deep-well 
waters supplying St. Helen's and Tranmere, every trace of organic matter 
is converted into innocuous mineral compounds." 

The Commissioners further add that, though the quartz sand constituting 
the bulk of the New Red Sandstone is usually cemeuted together by carbonate 
or sulphate of lime, the hardness of the water is generally modei'ate, and of 
a nature that can be softened by lime, according to Dr. Clark's method, and 
that the " unpolluted waters drawn from deep wells in the New Red Sandstone 
are almost invariably clear, sparkling, and palatable, and are amongst the best 
and most wholesome waters for domestic supply in Great Britain. They, con- 
tain, as a rule, but a moderate amount of saline impurity, and either none or 
but the merest traces of organic impurity. There is every reason to believe 
that a vast quantity of hitherto unutilized water of most excellent quality 
is to be had at moderate expense from this very extensive geological for- 
mation." 

This area is certainly not less than ten thousand square miles in extent in 
England and "Wales, with an average rainfall of 30 inches, of which certainly 
never less than 10 inches per annum percolates into the gi'ouud, which would 
give an absorption of water amounting to no loss than one hundi'ed and forty- 
three millions three hundred and thirty-six thousand gallons per square mile 
per annum, which, on an available area of ten thousand square miles, gives 
an annual absorption of nearly a billion and a half of gallons in England and 
Wales. 

How small a proportion tlie enormous quantities pumped at various stations 
(as exemplified in this and the previous Report) bear to the available resources, 
will be at once apparent. The abundant balance loft will, we trust, ere long 
be made available for those towns and country populations in the Midland 
Counties now suffering all the ills so prolifically springing from a polluted 
water supply. 

Midland Counties. 

Name of Member of Committee asking for information. Rev. Henry W. 
Crosskey. 

Name of Individual or Company applied to : — 

Waterworks, Coventry. 

1. One 196 ft. deep, one 75 ft. deep, and oue 800 feet from surface. 2. 256 
ft. 3. 10 ft., 4 ft. diameter; 290 feet, from 2 ft. to 6 in. 4. 14 feet ; difference 
12Lom-s. 5. 800,000. 6. Yes, diminished slightly. 7. Yes, in a few hom-s. 8. No. 
9. Red Sandstone and clay. 13. No. 14. Not aware of any except at Leaming- 
ton. 15. No. 

Birmlughani Corporation. 

1. Asion, juxia Birmingham. 2. 295 ft. 3. 120 ft., diameter 10 ft.; 407 ft., 
18 in. bore-hole. 4. Overflows 10 ft. above siuface, 100 ft. ; pump night and day. 
5. 3 million gallons. 6. Not observed to have altered. 7. Not observed. 



ON THE CIRCULATION OF UNDERGROUND WATERS. 97 

Grains per gallon. 

8. Total solids 12'88 

Volatile combustible matter 0-84 

Chloride of lime 0-91 

Nitric acid 0-00 

Hardness before boiling: 9'^'3 

9. 28 ft.; iron tube through top soil and drift- gravel, the rest all sandstone -with 
marl and partings and some fine conglomerate ; linisli of bore-hole in 25 ft. thick of 
marl. 10. Yes. 11. Yes. 12. No. 13. No. 14. None nearer than Cannock. 
15. No. 

Name of Member of Committee asking for information, T. Mellard Eeade. 
Name of Individual or Company applied to : — 

Leamington Local Board, per Mr. Bright. 
1. North-east portion of Leamington. 2. 20-5 ft. 3. 80 ft. deep, 8 ft. diameter ; 
234 ft. deep, 18 in. diameter. 4. Normal level 20 ft. below surface. 5. 750,000 
galls, per day. 6. Works not yet completed. 7. Top of water is 26 ft. above 
river Learn. 8. Analysis attached; water remai'kably pure and sq/i;, whereas sur- 
face-wells contain very hard water. 

Analysis of loater from the new bore-hole, by Dr. Horace Swete, taken from a 
depth of 200 ft. from surface. Water very clear, almost as clear as distilled water 
— the smallest point being easily read at a depth of 2 ft. Temperatm-e at well, 
50° Fahrenheit \ requires no filtration. 

Grains per gallon. 

Total solids 20-0 

Chlorides 1-3 

Sulphates — very sparingly. 

Nitrate — a trace. 

Faint trace of iron. ^ 

Temporary hardness . . . .......... 5-5 

Permanent „ 6-5 

. 12-0 

, , Parts per million. 

Free ammonia , -000 

Albumenoidal ammonia. -020 

This water is an extremely pure specimen, even for a deep well, and requires no 
filtration. It contains less than one. tenth of the amount of organic matter than the 
present town supply, and is not only a softer water for domestic purposes, but 
the deposition of carbonates causing incrustation in boilers is considerably less in 
quantity. . 

February 2nd, 1875. . Horace Swete, M.D., Analyst. 

9. Map of strata previously sent, consisting of sandstone of various thickness divided 
by marls. 10. Yes. 11. Yes. 12. Not within a mile, where one is known south 
of Borough, and another two miles k-est. 13. No. 14. Yes, in the valley half a 
mile south. 15. Yes ; the first experimental boring was discontinued in consequence 
of finding, under the saliferous marls, very salt water, one layer of this marl being 
more than 100 ft. thick. 

Name of Member of Committee asking for information, C. Tylden Wright. 
Name of Individual or Company applied to : — 

The Manager, Nottingham Waterworks. 

1. Bestwood pumping Station, near Nottingham. 3. Depth of shaft 64 yards ; 
size 16 ft. X 10 ft. ; two tunnels are driven out from the bottom about 60 yards. 
5, Maximimi quantitv pumped for 24 hours 3,772,800 galls. ; minimum quantity 
3,450,000 galls. 9. Pebble beds of the New Red Sandstene. 

1. Worksop. 3. Bore-hole 4 inches in diameter, depth SCO ft. 5. Pumping in 
1875, 40 gallons per minute. 

1876. n 



yds. 


ft. 


■ 9 


1 


36 


2 


46 





335 






98 REPORT — 1S76. 

Shire Oaks Colliery, Worksop. 

1. Shire Oaks Colliery, Worksop. 3. 3 shafts, 12 ft. diameter. 

•^ Galls. Depth. 

I Yellow limestone 400 17 yds. 

5. Water per hour.. -^ White „ 350 25 „ 

(Dark „ 60 38 „ 

9. Permian marls and magnesian limestones ; the principal feeder of water occurs 
in a soft coarse sandstone lying on the bottom of the magnesian limestone. 

Papplewick Colliery, through Mr. W. F. Webb, of Newstead Abbey. 
1. Papplewick, near Annesley. 3. 335 yards shaft. 5. At 3 yds. a little wafer, 
at 44 yds. 7 in. 18 galls, per minute tubbed out, at 60 yds. 50 galls. ; below this 
only an increase of 5 or 6 galls. 9. Drift. 

Magnesian limestone at 

Black shale (coal-measures) „ 

First coal „ 

Plant impressions » 

13. At 126 yds. 2 ft. a small salt spring, 3 galls, per minute. 

Mr. Ptobert Stevenson, through Mr. W. F. Webb, of Newstead Abbey. 
1. Newstead Colliery. 3. Bore-hole at Colliery gives off 25-44 galls, of water 
per minute. New Eed Sandstone, near outcrop of the formation. 

Mr. W. F. Webb, Newstead Abbey. 

1, Blidworth. yds. 

3. Depth of well at the Hut 42 

„ „ Gurnall's 3 

„ Needham's 6 ^ ^^^^^ fragments 

„ Forsters 1. { and gravel. 

„ Town-pump well o | ° 

School well 6 J 

Well at C. Clarkes' 50 

Waters' 40 

,, Hutchinson's .... 40 

„ „ Wilson's 39 

„ „ Herbert's 6 , j^ Sandstone. 

Town well 30 f 

Well at Flairs 30 

G. Johnson's 27 

Dixon's 26 









In clay, with lime- 



I 



„ „ Mount Pleasant . . 31 



, Cresswell's 28 

New Lane 31 

jj . j,, Lucas Cross Lane . . 34 

J, , , Blidworth Bottom . . 8 

,, „ Long Dale 26 

„ Wells at Fishpool 6-25 

9. Drift-gravel and clay ; red sandstone ; the water occurs immediately after 
passing through a seam of conglomerate 3 inches thick. At Fishpool is a spring, 
which, after 20 years' cessation, commenced running during the dry summer of 1808, 
and then stopped, but recommenced in the summer of 1874. 10, Yes, which supply 
the shallower of the above wells. 

Name of Member of Committee asking for information, W. Whitaker. 
Name of Individual or Company applied to : — 

Staffordshire Potteries Waterworks, Hanley. 
1. North Staffordshire, 4 miles S.E. from railway-station, Stoke-upon-Trent (1 in 



ON THE CIRCULATION OF UNDERGROUND WATERS. 



99 



Ordnance sheet, 72N.W.). 2. G15ft. 3. Shaft 145 ft. deep, 12 ft. diameter; bore-hole 
500 ft. deep, 24 in. diameter. 4. The level of water in this case is kept down neai-ly 
to bottom of shaft, but the water has been found to fill 900 cub. yards of standage 
drift and rise about 20 ft. up shaft in 24 hours. 5. 900,000 galls. 6. The seasons 
affect this shaft very little ; the feeders hare been permanent during the past 5 years, 
but less than when the shaft was ;««< down (bore-hole in hand at present). 7. No. 
8. Water of good quality ; about 9° hardness. 9. New Ked Sandstone (with band 
of marl of considerable thickness), cover about 20 ft. If a section of the shaft and 
bore-hole woidd be of service I should be glad to supply the same. 10. About 1 mile 
N.E. there are several copious springs, and apparently quite unaffected by the above 
sinking. 11. No surface-spring near well. 12. There are several /««7fe in the im- 
mediate locality. A large fmdt running about JV.K, and about 1 mile north of this 
shaft, supposed to be the southern limits of the N.-Staifordshire coal-field ; but 
borings just completed to the south have proved coal at a depth of 265 yards. 13. 
None. 14. None to my knowledge. 15. The above well is the only one in the 
neighbourhood sunk for the purposes of water supply. 

Messrs. Mather and Piatt. 
1. Messrs. Lonsdale and Adshead, Macclesfield. 3. 12-inch bore, 94 ft. deep, 
5. 66,240 galls. 



Lancashiet! and Cheshiee. 

Name of Member of Committee asking for information, G. H. Morton. 
Name of Individual or Company applied to : — 

Ml'. George F. Deacon, C.E., Municipal OfEces, Dale Street. 
1. Litherland Road, Bootle, near Liverpool. 2. CO feet. 3. Depth of shaft 
108 ft.; oval, 12'0"x9' 0"*. 4. Pumping continuously, except when stopped for 
repairs. During a stoppage from oOth Jan. to Feb. 18, 1876, the water rose 11 ft. 
above Ord. datum, or 50 ft. above the bottom of the well. 5. Average for 1875, 
1,399,791 galls.; present maximum 1,433,720 galls. 6. See repoi-ts herewith. 
7. See No. 4. Ffl'ect of local rains not traced. 



8. Copy of Analyst's last report. 



Total 
BoUd 

Matter 
in 

Solution. 


Organic 
Carbon. 


Organic 
Nitrogen. 


Ammonia. 


Nitrogen 

as 
Nitritea 

and 
Nitrates. 


Total 
combined 
Nitrogen. 


Chlorine. 


Total 
Hardnesa. 


Suspended 

Matter. 


.36-6 


gr. 
■181 


gr- 
•055 


gr. 
•002 


gr. 
•345 


gr. 
•401 


gr. 
3-6 


23i 


Clear 
and 
bright. 



9- F 2 ; drift about 12 
10. No. 
12. Yes. 



ft. (pebble beds and "Lower soft Bimter Sandstone"). 
11. The well is lined with brickwork in cement down to the hard rock. 
13. No. 14. No. 



1. Green Lane, Old Swan, near Liverpool. 2, 136 ft. 3. Shaft 10 ft. diam., 
depth 185 ft. ; 1 bore-hole 9 in. diam. for 173 ft.9 in., and 6 in. diam. for 25 ft. 10 in. 
from bottom of shaft ; 1 bore-hole 24 in. diam. for 12 ft., and 18 in. diam. for 298 ft. 
4. There are 3 engines, and the whole are never stopped at one time. . Average 
for 1875, 2,533,060 galls. ; present maximum 3,243,549 galls. 6. It has diminished 
(see reports herewith). 7. Effect of local rains has never been directly traced. 

* There are altogether about 16 bore-holes in the lodges connected with this well. 
They were sunk many years ago, and records have not been preserved of tlie details. Tlie 
principal bore-hole is 6 in. diameter at the top, and its depth from the surface is about 
GoO ft. 



100 



EEPORX — 1876. 



8. Copy of Analyst's last report. 



Total 

solid 

Matter 

in 
Solution. 


Organic 
Carbon. 


Organic 

Nitrogen. 


Ammonia. 


Nitrogen 
as 

Nitrites 

and 
Nitrates. 


Total 
combined 
Nitrogen. 


Chlorine. 


Total 
Hardness. 


Suspended 
Matter. 


gr. 

28 


•085 


•06 


•003 


gl'- 

•345 


gl-. 

•408 


gr. 
2-72 




20 


Clear 

and 

briglit. 



9. Rock F 2 (" Bunter Pebble-beds ") ; cover of drift and clay 15 to 20 ft. 10. No. 
11. There are none. 12. Yes. 13. No. 14. No. 15. No. 

1. Dudlow Lane, Wavertree, near Liverpool. 2. 200 ft. 3. Depth of well 
247 ft. ; shaft oval, 12' 0"x9' 0" ; depth from surface to bottom of bore- hole 439 ft.; 
diameter of bore-hole 18 in. 4. Pumping continuously except when stopped for 
repairs. Stoppage from 5th to -SOth Nov. 1875, water rose to 95 ft. from bottom of 
well. 5. Average for 1875,1, 103,.307galls.;presentmaximuml,329,107 galls. 6. See 
printed reports herewith. 7. See No. 4 ; effect of local rains not directly traced. 

8. Copy of Analyst's last report. 



Total 

solid 

Matter 

in 

Solution. 


Organic 
Carbon. 


Organic 

Nitrogen. 


Ammonia. 


Nitrogen 

aa 
Nitrites 

and 
Nitrates. 


Total 
combined 
Nitrogen. 


Chlorine. 


Total 
Hardness. 


Suspended 
Matter. 


gl-- 

18 


gr- 
•G91 


gr- 
•031 


gl-- 

•003 


gr- 
•3G8 


gr. 
-402 


gr. 

2-87 


o 

8 


Clear 

and 

bright. 



. F 2 (" Bunter Pebble-beds ") : rock nearly to the surface, only thin cover of 
rift. 10. No. 11. There are none. 12. No. 13. No. 14. No. 



9 

drift 



1. Lodge Lane, Toxteth Park, LiverpooL 2. 186 feet. 3. Depth of shaft 210 ft.; 
oval, 1 2' 0" X 10' 0" ; depth from surface to bottom of bore-hole 454 ft. ; diameter of 
bore-hole 6'' for 189 ft., 4" for 55 ft. 4. Pumping continuously, except when 
stopped for repairs. In a stoppage from the 3rd to the 13th April the water rose 
to 50 ft. 6 in. from bottom of well. 5. Average for 1875, 821,182 galls. ; present 
maximum 876,428 galls. 6. See printed reports herewith. 7. See No. 4 ; effect 
of local rains not traced. 







8 


. Copy oi 


Analyst's 


last report. 






Total 

solid 

Matter 

in 
Solution. 


Organic 
Carbon. 


Organic 
Nitrogen. 


Ammonia. 


Nitrogen 

as 
Nitrites 

and 
Nitrates. 


Total 
combined 
Nitrogen. 


Chlorine. 


Total 
Hardness. 


Sus])ended 
Matter. 


gr- 

35 


gr. 
•051 


gl-- 

•Oil 


gr- 
•003 


gr. 
•276 


gr. 
-29 


gr. 
2-72 


23A 


Clear 

and 

bright. 



9. F 2 (" Bunter Pebble-beds "j. Cover of drift about 20 ft. 10. No. 11. There 
are none. 12. No. 13. No. 14. No. 

Messrs. Mather and Piatt. 

1. Messrs. Roberts and Robinson, Liverpool. 3. 18-in. bore. 463 ft deen 
5. 1,440,000 galls. 9. New Red Sandstone. , . i». 



ON THE CIReULATIOJI OF UNDERGROUND WATERS. 



101 



Name of Member of Committee asking for information, T. Mellard Reade. 
Name of Individual or Company applied to : — 

Ormskirk Local Board. 

1. The well is situate within a short distance from the town of Ormskirk, on the 
N.E. side, and near to Bath Wood. 2. 1:^9-1 ft. above Ordnance datum. 3. From 
surface to bottom of well 60 ft. deep, 7 ft. diameter. There is no bore-hole in the 
well. 4. Before pumping the water rises to the surface of well ; after pumping 
the water stands 2 ft. deep at bottom of well. Ordinary level restored in 2 hours 
after pumping. 5. 232,000 galls. 6. The water-level varies slightly in summer 
and winter, but has not diminished during the last 10 years. 7. The ordinary level 
is affected by local rains within 24 hours afterwards. 8. Analysis of the Ormskirk 
water by Dr. Brett, of Liverpool. This water, when left to stand, is perfectly colour- 
less, devoid of odour, and pleasant to the taste ; its composition is as follows, the 
amount of ingredients being calculated to the imperial gallon : — 

grains. 

Chloride of sodium, or common salt 3-20 

Sulphate of lime, or gypsum 1-92 

Carbonate of lime 104 

Carbonate of magnesia 040 

Oxide of iron with a little silica 0'12 



Total 



6-68 



9. The strata are, first marl 11 ft., sand 7 ft., the remainder is New Red Sandstone. 

10. Yes. 11. No. 12. Yes, especially a very large fault on the west side of well. 
13. No. 14. No. 15. No. 

Name of Member of Committee asking for information, George H. Morton. 
Name of Individual or Company applied to : — 

St. Helen's Waterworks. 
1 . Eccleston Hill, adj oining turnpike, and at the sandstone-quarry, marked 260 ft. 
above Ordnance datum (see Ordnance sheets). 2. 260 ft. 3. Depth 70 yards, 
diameter 10 ft. ; depth from surface to bottom of bore-hole 388 ft. 4. As the 
pumps never cease pumping it is difficult to say, meanwhile the water is practically 
kept down to one level. 5. 640,000 galls, per day of 24 hours. 6. The yield 
varies at different seasons, but to what extent it is difficult to say : the water has 
diminished during the past 10 years. 7. Yes ; but after a dry summer it takes 8 
or 10 weeks before the 1 or 2 extra hours out of the 24 can be resumed by the 
extra engine. The water-level in wells stands below adjoining streams. 8. We 
have no analysis ; the water is of very excellent quality'. 9. No drift. The wells 
or shafts are sunk in the New Red Sandstone formation, through the middle or 
pebble-beds division of the Bunter, and to a depth from the surface of about 18 ft. 
into the lower division, 70 yards in all. Thus, 



After boring 60 ft. deep, no 
water-yielding strata found — 
that is, 00 ft. below bottom of 
well, and in lower formation. 



my-m'/z/yy/y/w/Miy/////// 




i/^Mifm'yMi'imiiiiiii, • 


PeUJe i, 




ilPfizia 


Beds 1 






'^l 




■If 

i 


JJauKT 








« 


i 
*. 



10. No drift. 11. No. 12. Cannot speak of these (if any) with certainty; none 
proved. 13. No. 14. No. 15. No. 



103 EEPORT— 1876. 

Name of Member of Committee asking for information, Mr. T. Mellard 
Eeade. 

Name of Individual or Company applied to : — 

Messrs. Mather and Piatt. 

1. Seedley, near Manclaester. 3. 102' X 87"; 382' X 18", 354' x 18", 167' X IS", 
5. 750,000 galls, from the three holes*. 9. Red Sandstone with bands of raddle. 

1. Chester Street, Oxford Street, Manchester. 3. 70' X 4'; 536' x 15". 5.570,000 
galls. 

1, Messrs. Bayley and Craven, Manchester. 3. 18 in. diameter, 454 ft. in depth. 
5. 648,000 galls. 9. New Red Sandstone. 

1. Messrs. Aitkeu Brothers, Manchester. 3. 18-in. bore, depth 378ft. 5. 800,000 
galls. 9. New Red Sandstone. 

1. Messrs. William Sumner, Manchester. 3. Bore 12 in. diameter, 189 ft. in 
depth. 5, 4G,0S0 galls. 9. New Red Sandstone. 

1. Messrs. Rylands and Sons, Manchester. 3. 12-in. bore, 312 ft. in depth. 
5. 90,720 galls. 9. New Red Sandstone. 

1. Messrs. B. I). Brookes, Manchester, 3. 12-inch bore, 259 ft. in depth. 
5. 86,400 galls. 9. New Red Sandstone. 

1. Loudon and Manchester Plate Glass Company, St. Helen's. 3. 9-inch bore, 
depth 348 ft. 5. 48,000 galls. 9. New Red Sandstone. 

1. Messrs. A. and J. Stott, Flixton, Manchester. 3. 12-iuch bore, 284 ft. in 
depth. 5, 317,520 galls. 9, New Red Sandstone. 

1 . Messrs. Chadwick and Taylor, Higher Bronghton, Manchester. 3. 75' X 10' ; 
671' X 15". 5.800,000. 9. See Section. 

1, The ConTalescent Hospital, Cheadle. 3. 12 in. diameter, 145 ft. in depth. 
5. 55,200 galls. 9. New Red Sandstone. 

1, Messrs. Ermen and Robj', Patricroft. 3, 18 in. diameter, 315 ft. deep. 
5, 100,800 galls. 9, New Red Sandstone. 

1. Salford Ironworks, Manchester. 3. IS in. diameter, 212 ft. deep. 5. 50,000 
galls. 9. New Red Sandstone. 

1, Messrs. Thoms, Chadwick, Salford. 3. 12-inch bore, 432 ft. deep. 5. 50,000 
galls. 9, New Red Sandstone. 

1. Messrs. J. J. M. Worrall, Salford. 3. 18 in. diameter, depth 400 ft. 5. 480,000 
galls. 9. New Red Sandstone. 

1. Messrs. Roberts, Dale & Co., Cornbrook. 3. 9-inch bore, 178 ft. deep, 
5. 30,000 galls. 9. New Red Sandstone. 

Name of Member of Committee asking for information, George H, Morton. 
Name of Individual or Company applied to : — 

Birkenhead Conmiissi oners, per ISIr. W. T. Callow, Water Engineer. 
1. Elaybrick well, Birkenhead. 2. 176 ft. 3. Shaft 205 ft., 16 ft.x8 ft.; 
the bore-hole 322 ft., 18 in. wide ; the bore-hole 773 ft., 18 in., Aug. 11, 1876t. 
4. 156 ft. from the surface. 5. Usually 1^ million galls, in 13 hours; 2 or 3 mil- 
lions have sometimes been obtained by continuous pumping for 24 hours. 6. No. 
7. A little additional in wet seasons. 8. Residt of analvsis expressed in parts per 
100,000:— ■'I 

* The three bore-holes are all in the same well, and the water rises into well, and is 
pumped up to the surface. 

t in progress and will probably be 800 ft. ; the deepest in the neighbourhood of 
Liverpool. 



ON THE CIRCUJjATION OP UNDERGROUND WATERS. 103 

Total solid matter in solution 15 

Organic carbon '074 

Organic nitrogen '066 

Ammonia "002 

Nitrogen as nitrites and nitrates •345 

Total combined nitrogen '413 

Chlorine 3'7 

Hardness, total 4g° 

Suspended matter clear and bright. 

9. No drift ; base of Keuper Sandstone, upper soft Bunter Sandstone, Pebble-beds. 

10. No drift. 11. There are none. 12. There is a fault close to the well, with a 
thi-owofabout70ft. 13. No. 14. No. 15. No. 

George H. Morton, Birkenhead Commissioners, per Mr. W. T. Callow. 
1. Spring Hill, Claughton, Birkenhead. 2. 125 ft. 3. Shaft 95 ft. deep (2 shafts 

7 ft. diameter); bore-hole 395 ft. from surface. 4._ 115 ft. from the surface. 

5. 5 million galls, per week are obtained by pumping night and day. 6. Does not 

vary ; has diminished 20 ft. since 1858. 7. No. 8, Eesult of analysis expressed 

in parts per 100,000:— 

Total solid matter in solution 21 

Organic carbon "HO 

Organic nitrogen '062 

Ammonia "002 

Nitrogen as nitrites and nitrates .... "253 

Total combined nitrogen '317 

Chlorine 3'1 

Total hardness _ lOJo 

Suspended matter clear and bright. 

9. No drift; base of Keuper Sandstone; Upper soft Bunter Sandstone. 10. No 
drift. 11. There are none. 12. No, not very near. 13. No. 14. No. 15. No. 

Wirrell Waterworks Company, Prenton, Birkenhead. 
1. Prenton valley, 3 miles S.W. of Birkenhead. 2. 80 ft. 3. 90 ft., diameter 
about 12 ft., bore 295 ft., diameter 18 in. 4. 68 ft., fills rapidly pumping. 
5. About 2,000,000 galls. 6. No. 7. No. 8. Very pm-e and good. 9. Boulder- 
clay about 10 ft., the rest Upper Bunter, but the bore-hole chiefly in the -jDebble- 
beds. 10. No. 12. Only of the ordiuarj' kind. 13. No. 14. No. 15. No. 

1. Wirrell Waterworks, Oxton, near Bii'kenhead. 3. 22' 6"x4', 369'xl5". 
5, 750,000 galls. 9. White and Red Sandstone, chiefly red. 

Tranmere' Local Boai-d, per Mr. W. A. Eichardson, C.E, 
1. Harjpy Valley, western side of the township of Tranmere. 2. 89 ft. 15 in., 
3. 128 f^t., 9 ft. diameter of shaft ; bore-hole 250 ft., 9, 6, 4 in., and 130 ft. 
15 in. from hottom of well ; 378 and 318 ft. from surface. 4. 78 ft. 8 in. below surface. 
5. 720,000 galls. 6. No ; it has diminished 9 ft. 6 in. in 10 years, but only 2 ft. 1 in. 
during the last 8 years. 7. No ; 23 ft. 2 in. above sea-level. 8. Clear, pure, and 
tasteless ; about 8-75 degrees of hardness; analysis : — 

Grains per gall. 

Free ammonia 0-0035 

Ammonia derived from organic matter 0'0018 

Organic matter, exclusive of nitrogen 00180 

Carbonate of lime and magnesia 5-8770 

Carbonate of soda 1-6960 

SiUphate of lime 3-5720 

Nitrate of magnesia 0-9640 

Chloride of sodium 38440 

Silicic acid, a mere trace. 

15-9763 

9. 15 ft. of drift ; no clay : Upper soft Bunter Sandstone. 10. No. 11. There 



lOi REPORT— 1876. 

are none, 12. One. about .150 yards to the east of well 13. No. 14. No. 
15. No. ■ , . . 

Wallasey Local Board. 

1. Township of Seacombe, parish of Wallasey, county of Chester, between 
the Great Roat, Birkenhead, and River Mersey. 2. About 20 ft. 3. 90 ft. ; 
246 ft., 12 in. and 8 in. diameters. 4. If at rest many hours, about 16 ft. before, and 
after pumping' about -50 ft. from surface. 5. Present machinery has pumped about 
f million galls, per diem ; it is estimated that at least twice can be by addi- 
tional boring, &c. (in hand). 6. Does not vary much ; diminution, during time 
named, due to increased pumping. Cannot say otherwise, as engine cannot be 
stopped long enough to test the question. 7. Not perceptibly. Level when at 
rest would stand a few feet above mean high-water level. 8. Have not an 
analysis at hand ; water about 6° of hardness (Clark's test) ; water very good and 
clear. 9. Section sent herewith : — 

ft. 

Red marl to 78 

Sand and marl „ 87 

Marl ...- „ 93 

Clay and sands „ 96 

White rock „ 108 

Red rock „ 164 

Grey rock „ 176 

Hard red rock „ 198 

Soft red rock „ 246 

Bottom of bore-hole at 300 

11. Yes. 12. It is believed so. 13. No. 14. Not aware of any. 15. Not aware 
of any deep ones. 

Mr. William Inman, J.P. 
1. Upton, 4 miles W. of Birkenhead. 2. About 100 ft. 3. 173 ft., diameter 
about 8 ft. ; bore 278 ft. diameter, and 6 in. wide. 4. About 100 ft. above Ord- 
nance datum. 5. Not kuown. 6. Not known. 7. Not known. 8. Very good. 
9._ AUred marl of Keuper. 10. No. 12. One about a mile E. of the well, which 
brings the Upper Banter and red marl in contact. 14. No. 

Name of Member of Committee asking for information, T. Mallard Eeade. 
. Name of Individual or Companj' applied to : — 

Messrs. N. Mathieson & Co., Widnes. 
. 1. Our own. No. 1 well, at N.E. end of works, Widnes. 2. 10 ft. 3. 4 ft. 
6 in. diameter X 30 ft. deep ; bore-hole 366 ft. from surface, 6 in. diameter. Before, 
about 6 ft. from surface ; after 5 hours, about 25 ft. from surface. 5. About 2000 
galls, per day of 12 hours. 6. Not being used. No means of testing. 7. No, 
8. No analysis taken ; moderately good. 

ft. iu. 

9. Marsh clay 7 

Quicksand 23 

Brown clay 10 

Quicksand 6 

Bouldor-clay 90 10 

Red rock 275 2 

10. Little, from quicksands. 11. Not entirely. 12. Boring in the fault. 13. No. 
14. No. 15. None. 

Messrs. Sullivan & Co., British Alkali Works, Widnes. 

1. We have two wells, Nos. 1 and 2, at these works ; they are about 500 yards 
apart, and each about 300 yards from the River Mersey. 2. No. 1 well is about 
25 ft., .ind No. 2 "well about 15 ft. above the mean sea-level. 3. No. 1 well, for a 
depth of 27 ft. from the surface is 6 ft. diameter, for a further depth of 31 ft. is 
5 ft. diameter, equal 58 ft. total depth of well from surface ; the bore-hole is 390 ft. 
deep from surface X 4 in. diameter. No. 2 well, for a depth of 38 ft. fi-om the sur- 



ON THE CIRCULATION OF UNDERGROUND WATERS. 105 

face is 10 ft. diameter, for a further depth of 22 ft. is 8 ft. diameter, equal to 60 ft. 
total depth from surface; the bore-hole is 400 ft. deep from surfacexl4 in. dia- 
meter. 4. No. 1 well : water stands 10 ft. from sm-face before pumping, and takes 

4 to 5 hours to rise to the same level again after pumping. No. 2 well : water 
stands 6 It. from surface before pumping and takes 1 to 2 hours to rise to the 
same level again after pumping. 5. No. 1 well about 70,000 galls, per 12 
hours: No. 2 well about 300,000 galls, per 12 hours. 6, At No. 1 well the 
yield is less during the summer months than the winter months, and the yield 
is much less all the year round than it was when the well was first sunk some 
7 years ago. No 2 well has only been finished some six months ; no variation in 
the yield has yet been perceived. 7. Not when the water from the quicksand is 
kept out of the well. In No. 1 well the water-level is about 15 ft., and in No. 2 
well about 9 ft. above the mean water-level of the River Mersey, which is the 
nearest stream. 8. The waters from both wells yield about 24 gi-ains of solid matter 
per gallon when evaporated down ; chiefly salts of calcium. 9. No, 1 well : 2 ft. 
of soil, 36 ft. of strong brown clay, 17 ft. of quicksand, 2 ft. 9 in. of sand and pebbles, 
01 ft. of strong brown clay, 5 ft. of quicksand and pebbles ; remainder Red Sand- 
stone. No. 2 well : 2 ft. of soil, 28 ft. of strong brown clay, 21 ft. of quicksand, 61 
ft. of soft clay ; remainder Red Sandstone. 10. No ; the quicksands passed through 
of course yield water. 11. Yes ; the water from quicksands is kept out, but can be 
.turned in at pleasure. 12. No. 13. No. 14. No. 15. We are not aware of any. 

The Sankey White Lead Company. 
• 1. On the works of the Sankey White Lead Company Limited, Sankey Bridge, 
near Warrington. 2. About 25 ft. ? 3. 33 ft. 4 in. from surface to bottom of well, 

5 ft. 6 in. diameter ; 100 ft. from surface to bottom of bore, 8 in. diameter. 4. 3 ft. 

6 in. from surface, height to which the water rises ; rose 23 ft. 4 in. in 4 hours. 5. 40 
galls, per minute. 6. No perceptible variation ; only at work from 5 to 6 years. 
7. No observations. 8. No accurate analysis. 9. No rock was met with. Sec- 
tion as follows : — 

ft. in. 

Soil 1 61 „, , 

Sand and gravel 6 6 J " ®'- 

Clay with boulders 45 Absolutely dry. 

Sand and gravel 2 Spring of 15 galls, per minute. 

Clay as above 25 

Sand and gravel 5 A little increase of water; drift coal. 

iBore ends in a bed of clean gravel, 
about 3 ft. thick ; the last 15 ft. 
increased supply to 40 galls, per 
minute. 

100 

11. All surface-springs kept out. 12. We know of none. 13. No. 14. Not very 
near. 15. In Warrington bores have been abandoned from this cause. 

Messrs. Mather and Piatt. 

1. Warrington Wire Company, Warrington. 3. 18-inch bore, 212 ft. deep. 
5. 63,360 galls. 9. New Red Sandstone. 

1. Messrs. Roberts, Dale and Co., Warrington. 3. 9-iuch bore, 225 ft. in depth. 
5. 28,000 galls. 9. New Red Sandstone. 

1. Messrs. Jas. Owen and Co., Winwick, Warrington. 3. 18 in. diameter, 
212 ft. deep. 5. 461,000 galls. 9. New Red Sandstone. 

Wm. Wood-Blake, Esq., Warrington House, Northwich, Cheshire. 

1. Alsager boring, within 300 yards of Alsager Railway Station. 2. 310 ft. 
3. Tapped' water at a depth of 553 ft. in a 3-inch bore-hole. 4. The water rises to 
the surface, supplying first a 4-inch bore, then a 5-inch bore at the top ; when a 
3-inch iron tube is screwed on the 5-inch tube, the water rises to 10 or 12 ft. above 
the surface. 8. Has been analyzed, and is very pure and soft, and suitable for brew- 



106 REPORT — 1876. 

ing purposes. 9. Passed through red marl and grey rock, wth thin bed of gypsum, 
to the red sandstone rock, when the water was met with ; continued the boring in 
the red sandstone to a depth of nearly 1000 ft., but the water was not increased 
thereby. 10. No. 11. This is a report of boring operations. 12. Within 1 mile. 
13. No. 14. Within 2 miles. 15. No. Within § a mile of the above boring there 
is a large mere, called "Alsager Mere," 11 acres in extent, with neither an inlet or 
outlet on the surface, the water of which is very clear and pure. This lake ebbs 
and flows, rising sometimes even in very dry seasons. 

Messrs. Mather and Piatt. 

1. Stockport Waterworks, Wilmston. 3. 12-inch bore, 170 ft. deep. 5. 54,700 
galls. 9. New Red Sandstone. 

1. Messrs. Charles Marsland, Stockport. 3. 12-inch bore, 182 ft. deep. 5- 30,oG0 
galls. 9. New lied Sandstone. 

1, Messrs. R. Sykes and Co., Stockport. 3. 18 in. diameter, 42 4ft. in depth. 
5. 806,400 galls. 

1. Messrs. J. E. & W. Christy, Stockport. 3. Diameter 12 in., depth 228 ft. 5. 
3,200 galls. 9. New Red Sandstone. 
1. Messrs. S. & T. Carrington, Stockport. 3. Diameter of bore 12 in., depth 190 ft. 
5. 50,000. 8. New Red Sandstone. 

1. Messrs. Robert Orme, Stockport. 3. 12 inches diameter of bore, depth 192 ft. 
5. 24,960 galls. 

1. Messrs. Bayley & Co., Stock-port. 3. 18-iuch bore, 274 ft. deep. 5. 30,000 
galls. 9. New Red Sandstone. 

Name of Member of Committee asking for information, C. E. De Ranee, 
through Mr. W. S. Aveline. 

Name of Individual or Company applied to : — 

John Vi\ian, C.E., for the Diamond Boring Company, Furness District. 

1. Rampside, near Barrow-in-Furness. 2. 25 ft. 3. 8 in. hole at surface and 
3 in. at bottom ; 2,210 ft. deep. 4. Water cut at 250 ft. from surface, and will rise 
about 12 ft. above siu-face in an inch pipe. 5. 13,500 galls, flowing out of hole 
daily. 6. Always running about the same quantity for the past 4 years. 7. A 
beck runs within 5 ft. of hole, but at 5 ft. lower level than top of hole. 8. Peculiar 
water was cut in the petroleum-bearing sandstone, but it only flowed ti'om that 
place for a short time. 9. Water was cut in the New Red Sandstone; drift 
about 100 ft. thick, consisting of gravel, sand, boulder-clay and cobbles. 10. No ; 
but a little water was found on top of rock. 11. Tubed out of hole. 13. Brackish 
water impregnated with petroleum-oil. 14. None. 

Yorkshire. 
Messrs. Mather and Piatt. 
1. Messrs. Bolckow Vaughan, Middlesboro'. 3. 18 in. diameter, 1132 ft. deep. 
5. 806,400 galls. 9. New Red Sandstone. See section of upper portion, previ- 
ously published in last report. 

Name of Member of Committee asking for information, C. Pox-Strangways. 
Name of Individual or Company apj)lied to : — 

Messrs. Steward and Sons.* 
1. Messrs. Steward & Sons, Comb Works, Walmgate Bar, York. 2. About 50 ft. 
3. 8 yards to bottom of shaft, 46 yards to bottom of first bore-hole, 129 yards to 
bottom of second. 4. Water stands at about 22 to 23 ft. from smface. 5. 500 
galls, per minute from 3 bore-holes. 

* The present owners of these wells do not appear to know much about them ; there- 
fore I have filled in the form from information previously obtained, and from my own 
personal knowledge of the locality. — 0. F.-S. 



ON THE CIRCULATION OF UNDERGROUND WATERS, 107 

yards. 

9. Clav and stones 8 

Sand 20 

Fine sandstone 18 

46 
The other bore-hole went to a depth of 129 yards. 10. Probably. 12. The geology 
of the solid strata around York is too much obscured by drift to be sure on this 
point. 13. No. 14. No. 15. No. 

Kev. R. D. Owen. 
1. In the centre of St. James's Sc^uare, Borobridge. 2. I believe about 30 ft. 
3. 256 ft., diameter 4 in. bore-hole. 4. Before 17 ft; after 36 hours pumping a 
reduction of 2 inches in the bore-pipe. 5. Number of gallons would depend on 
the kind of pump used. Supply of water is supposed to be unlimited. 6. The 
pump above is not yet in full work ; wells in this neighbourhood vary very little 
at diilerent seasons of year. 7. Surface-water cut off to depth of 158 ft. from top 
by iron (30 ft. 6 in.) anil copper (158 ft.) pipes. 8. Vide analysis already sent to you. 
9. Soft red sand with boulders in it 28 ft. thick ; remainder New Red Sandstone, 
with about 4 layers of red marl 3 to 4 in. thick. 10. Yes. 11, Yes. 12. No. 

13. No. 14. No. 15. No, 

Messrs. Brett, Sparringate, York. 
1. My own. 2. 18 ft.* 3.80 ft. 4. 6 ft. from surface. 5. Constant flow 14-inch 
pipe. 6. Not more than 2 ft. at any time. 7. Not at all ; not any communica- 
tion. 8. Much peculiarity; analysis enclosed. 9. Clay, sand, white sand, at 70 ft., 
at which depth a piece of oak was pulled up in good preservation ; 100 ft. iron- 
stone and sand ; sand continued more or less to 130 ft. ; gravel, sand, and water, 
came up pipe out of ironstone at ISO ft. 10. No. 11. Yes. 12. No. 13. No. 

14. Do not know. 15. Not to my knowledge. 

Dr. Gill, Bootham Asylum, late of the North Eiding Asylum, York. 
1. North Riding Asylum, Clifton, York (north side of Asylum). 2. 40 ft. 
3. There is no well ; bore-hole begins at sm-face ; depth of bore-hole 232 ft. 9 in. ; 
diameter 12 in. at surface, narrows to 6 in. 4. 8 ft. from surface before pumping ; 
after pumping 24 hom-s, at 7000 galls, an hour, water lowered 9 ft. from water-level. 
5. 70,000 galls, have been pumped a day without altering the level of 17 ft. fi-om 
surface. 6. 1 do not know. 7. I do not know. No sm-face-water can get into 
the bore-hole, as it is tubed with an iron pipe nearly to the bottom. 8. The water 
is an ordinary hard water ; contains only a small percentage of sulphate of lime, 
but qidte an appreciable quantity of iron ; it is very drinkable. 9. 1st, 7 ft. of 
sand ; 1 ft. of peat moss ; 13 ft. dense blue clay ; 23 ft. dense blue clay, containing 
boulders, many of which are ice-worn ; 10 ft. red sand; 16 ft. soft red sandstone 
(with layers of slate ?) ; 23 ft. white sandstone ; 25 ft. red sandstone, with layers 
of red clay and soft slate ; 10 ft. white sandstone ; 6 in. red clay ; 20 ft. red sand- 
stone ; 8 ft. white sandstone ; 1 ft. red clay ; 15 ft. white sandstone ; 3 ft. red sand- 
stone ; 2 ft. white sandstone, containing large quantities of water; 11 ft. white 
Fandstone ; 42 ft. red sandstone to well-bottom. 10. Yes. 11. Yes. 12. Not that 
I know of. 13. No. 14. Not salt springs, but some iron springs much stronger 
than this water has been found in boring in York. 15. Not that I know of; the 
bore-hole, I hear, was discontinued on account of the large quantity of iron the 
water contained. 

APPENDIX. 
Abstract of Analysis of Waters from the New Red Sandstone given in the 6th 

Report of the Pi,oyal Commission of Inquiry into the Pollution of Rivers. 

(Table, p. 108.) 
The numbers in the Table can be converted into grains per imperial gallon 
by multiplying them by 7, and then moving the decimal point one place to 
the left. The same operation transforms the hardness in the Tables into 
degrees of hardness on Clark's scale. 

* This must probably mean 18 ft, above level of Elver Ouse. The well is about 30 ft, 
ove sea-level. 



108 



REPORT 1876. 



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no REPORT — 1876. 



Fourth Report of the Committee, consisting 0/ Professor Harkness, 
Prof. Prestwich, Prof. Hughes, Rev. H. W. Crosskey, Prof. W. 
Boyd Dawkins, Dr. Deane, Messrs. C. J. Woodward, L. C. 
MiALL, Gr. H. Morton, and J. E. Lee, appointed for the purpose of 
recording the position, height above the sea, lithological characters, 
size, and origin of the more important of the Erratic Blocks of 
England and Wales, reporting other matters of interest connected 
with the same, and taking measures for their preservation. Drawn 
up bij the Rev. H. W. Crosskey, Secretary. 

The Committee has pursued the same course as during former j-ears. The 
time for generalization has not yet arrived. There are many erratic blocks 
scattered over the country as yet unrecorded, and their character and distri- 
bution -svill largelj' aftect any conclusions that may ultimately be reached. 
The Committee has for its present duty the collection of facts ; Avhen its 
labours have resulted in a complete account of the isolated boulders and 
groups of boulders of England, Wales, and Ireland, material now unavailable 
■will exist for theoretical discussion, and many important incidents in the 
history of the glacial epoch will be more accurately determinable. 

The importance of the work undertaken by the Committee continues to be 
emphasized by the destruction which is constantly going on. AYar is waged 
upon the boulders (which in many cases are our only source of information 
respecting the epoch to which they belong) by agriculturists, and builders, 
and road-makers with unceasing energy. They are built into walls, buried 
in the earth, used as foundation-stones, and often lilastcd to pieces ; their 
preservation is difficult to secure, on account of their interference with the 
cultui'e of the land. In a few years it is not too much to say that the evi- 
dence of glacial phenomena will in many districts be almost effaced. 

The Committee directs attention to (1) the distribution of erratic boulders 
from different centres of ice action ; (2) the agencies by which they have 
been transported ; (3) the different periods in the glacial epoch to which they 
belong ; (-1) the heights above the sea at which they are found, indicating 
large changes in phj'sical geology. 

The schedule of inquirj-, indicating the various points of the information 
required, printed in a former Report, has been issued, and copies may always 
be had on application to the Secretaiy of the Committee. 






DfiVONSHlKE. 

A Very remarkable group of boulders has been reported upon by Mr. 
George Doe, of Great Torrington. 

It is found in the estate of Eivalton, in the parish of Langtree, Devon, 
about four miles from Great Torrington. 

The dimensions of the largest boulder of the group are 13 ft. X 6 ft. x 3 ft. 
It is subangular in form ; but there are no groovings or striations. It rests 
on clay, close to a small brook, and is about 500 feet above the sea-level. 
The only legend connected with it is the old story of its having been thrown 
by the Devil. 

At the distance of about 25 ft. N.E. is another boulder 3 ft. X ^ ft. X 2| ft. 
At a distance of 35 yards are sis small boulders, cropping out from the 
ground. 



ON THE EllKATIC BLOCKS OF ENGLAND AND WALES. Ill 

At a distance of nearly half a mile are tkree more, similar to the last men- 
tioned. 

Near them is a deposit of flints in clay and a gravel-pit. 

All these blocks except the first are south of the large boulder. 

These boiilders consist of felsite, resembling that in many of the " Elvaus." 
A felsitic Elvan, at Tresavaen, Gwen-nap, Cornwall, cannot be discriminated 
from them. Possibly, however, a nearer locality may be found. 



OXFOEDSHIEE. 

Professor Prestwich describes a boulder found last summer, near Oxford, 
in a bed of subangular flint-gravel (high-level river-gravel), at Wolvcrcote 
bricli-pit, on the high road from Oxford to Woodstock, at an altitude of 
about 40 feet above the level of the river Isis. 

It consisted of a mass of hard saccharoid sandstone of concretionary origin, 
some portion of it broken away, and the broken edges quite angular ; it 
weighed about three tons. It bore no trace of ice-scratches. There were no 
fossils to identify the sandstone ; but from general characteristics. Professor 
Prestwich thinks that it is of Tertiary origin. Several smaller boulders, of 
from I to 2 or 3 ft. cube, more or less worn, were dispersed irregularly 
through the gravel, which is scarcely at all stratifled, and contains no fossils. 



Midland Cotjnties. 

Dr. Deane and your Secretary have examined numerous boulders in the 
neighbourhood of Harborne, to W. and S.W. of Birmingham, between the 
Hagley and Bristol roads. 

One hundred and sixty rounded and subangular masses of stone have been 
examined in this district. Fifty-five of these are clearly traceable to local 
rocks — Carboniferous, Permian, or Triassic; the remainder are of distant 
origia. 

Very few of these travelled boulders are in situ. They have been rolled 
or dragged off the land into ditches and by roadsides. Some, when the size 
has been convenient, have been used by the " nailers " of the district for 
hammering (or rather anvil) purposes. 

Ninety are of the varieties of felstone so abundant in the Bromsgrovc 
district. About half of these are of small size. Five are of considerable 
magnitude — 5 ft. 6 in. x 5 ft. X from 2 to 3 ft. ; the rest are from 2 to 4 ft. in 
length and breadth, with variable thickness. One of these felstone boulders 
(near Hole Farm, Moor Street, about two miles east of Hales Owen) is 
worthy of special notice. Its dimensions are 3 ft. 6 in. x 2 ft. 6 in. x 2 ft. ; 
and it contains in one specimen the three characteristics named in a previous 
report as occurring separately in the boulders of Bromsgrove, A compact, 
almost hornstone-hke matrix contains distinct included fragments and por- 
phyritic felspar crystals. This specimen, therefore, confirms the view that 
these felstone boulders, which are so numerous to the west and south of Bir- 
mingham, as far as and beyond Bromsgrove, are portions of highly indurated 
ash-beds. 

At FlaveU's Farm, California, is one boulder of grey granite 2 ft. by 
1 ft. 8 in. by 1 ft. Yein-qnartz and quartzite constitute nine small and 
three large boulders ; and one of these, found near Harborne station, contains 
included brecciated fragments of rock. The size of these quartzite boulders, 



112 REFOKT— 1876. 

the largest of whicli measures 3 ft. x 2 ft. 6 in. x 2 ft., negatives the idea 
that they have come from the Bunter pebble-beds. 

The general character of the boulders of this district is similar to that of 
the Bromsgrove district ; but in the presence of granite, quartz, and meta- 
morphic rock resembles the district north and west of Wolverhampton. 

North and west and south-west of Wolverhampton, however, granite is 
very much more abundant than in the district west and south-west of Bir- 
mingham. The large boulders north and west and south-west of Wolver- 
hampton are, it is probable, chiefly CriiFeU, or (more sparingly) Wigtonshire 
granite*; but there is Eskdale granite in the neighbourhood, especially about 
Bridgnorth. 

The Welsh felspathic drift covers abundantly the west and south-west of 
the Midland tableland, while felspathic rocks from the Lake-district accom- 
pany the Eskdale granite, and are often mixed with the Criffell granite. 

The boulders occur in two distinct positions — (1) in the older glacial beds, 
(2) in the upper clay. 

Lancashire. 

Large striated boulders have recently been exposed in the extensive exca- 
vations which have been made in the boulder-clay at Bootle, a northern 
suburb of Liverpool. The site excavated is intended for new docks, and 
extends along the river Mersey, being reclaimed from shore within the tidal 
range. 

Mr. G. H. Morton describes for your Committee the position of these 
boulders, and gives the following section of the drift deposits which have 
been exposed continuously over many acres. The thickness of the various 
beds varies considerably according to position, and the middle sands and 
gravels often thin out and leave the upper boulder-clay reposing on the 
lower. 

Section, 

1. Sand and silt, old Bootle shore 17 feet. 

2. Upper Boulder-clay 15 „ 

3. Sands and gravels 6 „ 

4. Lower Boulder-claj^ 6 „ 

Upper Bunter Sandstone. 

The whole of the subdivisions, 1 to 4, repose in succession on the Bunter 
Sandstone at that part of the section nearest the old coast-line. 

The Lower Boulder-clay contains a much greater quantity of small stones 
than the Upper Clay. No large boulders were observed ; but as the Lower 
Clay is not exhibited to any considerable depth, it may possibly contain some. 

The Middle Sands and Gravels consist of sands which frequently, by the 
great increase of rounded pebbles, become gravels, resembling those at Preston 
Junction, Wigan, Gresford, and Colwyn. 

The Upper Boulder-clay contains comparatively few small smooth stones, 
but many large boulders two or three feet in diameter. Many of these 
are striated, and are composed of greenstone, but some are Eskdale granite. 
These large boulders possibly occur at an average distance of twenty yards 
from each other. A large mass of compact gypsum, about 4 feet in dia- 
meter, was noticed. 

The sections described are still exposed at the present time, August 1876. 

* See paper by Mr. Mackintosh, Quart. Journ. Geol. See. vol. xxix. p. 358. 



ON THE ERRATIC CLOCKS OF EJjGLAND AND WALES. llS 

Cumberland. 

Pi-of. Harkness reports that a boulder of Silurian conglomerate (tlie 
Queeusbiiry grit of the Geological Survey) occurs at the village of Bothel, in 
the parish of Sorpenhow, North Cumberland. In length it is about 20 feet, 
in height feet, in breadth 8 feet. It is beautifully striated on the western 
side. It is situated between the 400 and 500 feet contour-line, and has been 
transported from the north-west portion of DumfriesshirCj having travelled 
about forty miles from N.N.AV. to S.S.E. 

This boulder goes by the name of " Samson." 

Prof. Harkness further reports that some fragments of Shapfell (Wastdale 
crag) granite occur in a field in the farm of Hindrig, near Duftou, West- 
moreland, at about 800 feet above the sea-level. These have for the most 
part been blasted, and many fragments occur in the wall adjoining. Some 
of the blocks are untouched ; but these are so imbedded in the soil that their 
size cannot be determined. 

There are also several small blocks of this granite iu gravels, which Prof. 
Harkness regards as Eskars, in a gravel-hole on the farm of Luhau, in the 
parish of Edcnhall, about three miles east of this. Near the village of Newton 
Eeigny, about two and a half miles west from Penrith, large boulders occur. 
They are so imbedded in the soil that their size cannot be determined. They 
consist of the Lower Silurian trap of the Lake country. Boulders of the 
same kind and of a large size are also seen on the cast side of Newton Moss, 
which is a short distance S.W. of the village. The height of these Newton 
boulders is about 600 feet above the sea. 



NoKXH Wales. 

Mr. D. Mackintosh contributes the following account of the boulders in 
North Wales. An account of previous observations will be found in the 
Quart. Journ. of Geol. Soc, Dec. 1874. 

Between a mile and a mile and a half west of Llan-y-cil, on the north- 
west side of Bala Lake, the glacial striaj in several places average between 
45° and 50^ north of geographical west ; and the boulders are of precisely the 
same kind as would have come from about the north-west or from the neigh- 
bourhood of Llyn Arenig. Both the direction of the stria) and course of the 
boulders would cross Bala Lake at nearly right angles to its length ; so that 
if the basin of the lake had ever been scooped out by land- ice, this ice must 
have come from the soiith-west before the period of the great boulder trans- 
portation from the Arenig mountain. 

At the south-west end, and along the south-east side of Bala Lake, many 
of the boulders are not the same as those from the Arenig mountain, which 
are chiefly found on the north-west side ; and they decrease in number north- 
eastwards, suggesting the idea that they came from the south-west. 

Through the gap immediately south of Mocl Ferna, numbers of boulders 
appear to have found their way into Glyn Ceiriog, and cast as far at least as 
Chirk. Numerous large boulders have gone nearly duo east along the valley 
of the Dee, as far at least as Cefn and Buabon. The east and north-cast 
boundary of the Arenig dispersion may be roughly defined as extending from 
Chirk by Cefn, Euabon, Wrexham, Caergwrle, Mold, and the east sid« 
of Halkin mountain to Holywell, and thence in a Avesterly diicction to tlie 
vale of Clwvd. This lino neurlv coincides with the boundary of the great 

187G. ' " I 



114 REPORT — 1S7G. 

northern granitic drift. Both drifts (the Welsh and northern) have, to a slight 
extent, crossed the average boundary, and a few small Arenig boulders have 
found their way across the estuary of the Dee into the peninsula of Wirral, 
where they have become mixed with the very abundant northern drift from 
the Lake district and the south of Scotland. 

The western boundary of the Arenig felstone drift would appear to run 
from the Arenig range in a N.X.E. direction as far at least as the celebrated 
Cefn Cave, near St, Asaph, where, to a slight extent, it has become mixed 
with the northern drift, and Ukewise with erratics probably from the neigh- 
bourhood of Conway. Few or no boulders from the southern part of the 
Snowdon range would appear to have found their way over the high table- 
lands situated to the east of Llanrwst and Bcttws-y-coed, the Snowdon dis- 
persion having radiated in all directions to short distances only, excepting 
towards the south. This Arenig dispersion is one of the most remarkable in 
South Britain. The felstone boulders from the Arenig range have radiated 
to great distances over an area extending from N.N.E. to E., and to short 
distances from E. to S.E.- — that is, over the fourth of a circle. The boulders 
have found their way across valleys and over watersheds and high mountains. 
In most places they have wholly ignored the configuration of the ground, 
excepting where gaps in mountain-ranges have facilitated their transporta- 
tion. A detailed examination of the surface- configuration, viewed in con- 
nexion with the positions occupied by the boulders, would seem to favour 
the idea that they could only have been carried by floating ice ; but it ought 
to be observed that there is an apparent distinction between the large angular 
and subangular boulders which are seen chiefly on the surface, and those 
smaller and well-glaciated boulders which are found imbedded in the Lower 
Boulder-clay at comparatively low levels. 

Among the Arenig felstone boulders, which arc so remarkable for size, 
for the unexpected routes thej^ have taken, or for the distances they have 
travelled, as to render tliem worthy of being preserved, the following may be 
mentioned :—(l) The Cefn boulder, a short distance west of Cefn station, 
near Euabon, which measures 15 x 14 feet, and at least 10 feet in depth ; 
(2) the Maendigwycliyn, or great immovable stone in the village of Eryrys, 
near Llanarmon (about 5 miles east of Euthin), which measures 15 x 15 x 12 
feet, and is situated about 1130 feet above the sea ; (3) a boulder in a field 
near Bryn-Cloddian, north-east of Caerwys railway-station, and a few miles 
south-west of Holywell. 

The direction of glacial strife on rock surfaces in the eastern part of North 
Wales, as well as in the neighbourhood of the Arenig mountain, Corwen, &c., 
in general agrees with the course the boulders have taken. On the summit 
of Halkin mountain, in a quarry a short distance west of Holywell, there are 
well-defined stria;, indicating the passage of ice from the south-west ; and in 
the neighbourhood of Llangollen, especially near Trevor (as lately ascertained 
by Mr. Morton, E.G.S.), there are several instances of stria; pointing from 
west to east. 



ON THE EXPLORATION OF THE SETTLE CAVES. 115 

Fourth Report of the Committee, consisting o/Sir John Lubbock^ Bart., 
Prof. Prestwich, Prof. Busk, Prof. T. M'K. Hughes, Prof. W. 
Boyd Dawkins, Prof. Miall, Rev. H. W. Crosskey, and Mr. R. 
H. Tiddeman, appointed for the purpose of assisting in the Explora- 
tion of the Settle Caves [Victoria Cave). Drawn tip by II. H. 
Ti DDE MAN, Reporter. 

The Committee have to report that work has been carried on at the Victoria 
Cave throughout the year, with the exception of the interval from the 24th 
December, 1875, to January 3rcl, 187G, and that the Settle Local Committee 
have expended during the year ending August 13th, 1870, the sum of 
.£90 13s. M., besides the grant of oElOO entrusted to them by the British 
Association. 

A considerable amount of work has been done in the course of the year in 
excavating the central chamber A and that wliich lies to the right of it, 
called D. These, though formerly separate chambers^ are now seen to form 
one large one. They consisted at first of mere spaces between the roof and 
the cave deposits, which had not been filled up entirely by the latter, branch- 
ing off from one another and merely communicating at the bifurcation. 
From the lowering of the deposits by excavation, thej' now form only one 
large and long entranee-hall to the remainder of the cavern, and the old 
line of demarcation can now only be distinguished on the present ceiling by 
the following circumstance. Chamber A cuts higher into the roof than 
chamber D, and is marked off from it b)^ a line of joint, along which a thick 
bed of limestone has fallen down on to the floor in chamber A, but still forms 
the roof of chamber D. This huge block, which extended a distance of about 
60 feet, from about Parallel 1-5 to 44, at the extreme end of chamber A, has 
given us great trouble in the course of the year, partly from its size, and also 
because, being fissured by cracks here and there and lying on a clayey layer, 
it was subject to successive slips. Considerable downfalls threatened from 
time to time, and these had to be anticipated by quarrying it away. The 
large body of laminated clay which has been described in former reports 
ended off for the most part against this block towards the north, and must 
have been deposited against it. This is the mass of laminated clay which 
overlay the bone-beds containing the older mammals Eleplias anfirpius, 
Rhinoceros leptorliinns, Hippopotamus, Ilyccna, and others, with Man. 

There can be no doubt now, to whatever agents the formation of that inter- 
esting deposit be due, that there arc somewhat similar beds also underlying 
that Pleistocene bone-bed in places. From about 2 feet Parallel 10 as far as 
present workings inwards at Parallel 30 an exceedinglj' dark, tough, waxy 
clay lies below that layer. It varies much in thickness, from 7 or 8 feet on 
the right or east side of the cavern to lesser dimensions towards the west, 
and eventually loses itself amongst large fallen blocks of limestone on the 
left. 

A thin layer of stalagmite, varying from 8 inches to a mere film, occurs at 
the base of the above clay. It is often very fibrous, and in some places it 
has a distinctly greenish hue. At the suggestion of the Committee, Dr. 
Marshall Watts kindly analyzed it ; and his report is as follows : — 

" The mineral is as neai'ly as possible pxire Calcium Carbonate. It contains 
no Phosphoric Acid. Its specific gravity is 2-879 ; that of Calcspar varies 
from 2-70 to 2-75, and of Arragonite from 2-92 to 3-28, so that for a non- 
crystalline deposit of stalagmite the agreement is sufhciently close. 

(Signed) \V. M. Waits."' 
i2 



] 16 REPORT— 1876. 

To return to our section. Here and there this stalagmite rises into small 
bosses, showing that its existence was mainly owing to the dripping of water 
from the roof. It forms a kind of dotted line of demarcation between the 
dark clay above and the layer next to be described beneath. 

The bed beneath this stalagmite is somewhat like the dark clay above it in 
arrangement, but is not of so fine a texture. Its colour is much lighter, a 
yellowish brown. It is someM'hat sandy, pi'esents on digging a rougher sec- 
tion than the waxy lustre of the dark clay above, and is more clearly lami- 
nated, though the laminations in it are wider apart. This clay appears to 
follow the upper surfaces of the fallen blocks on which it rests, and is rudely 
parallel with them. "We find that as these blocks rise in successive steps 
towards the south-west, so this clay rises on them, and covers them con- 
tinuously at higher and higher levels. 

There is one point about this loM"cr light-brown laminated clay which is 
of much interest ; channels appear to have been formed in it. ' HoUow 
troughs occur, which may perhaps be due to its subsidence through chinks 
in the rocks beneath, or they may have been formed by little streams of 
water cutting out channels subsequentlj- to the formation of the main mass 
of it. However they were formed, the thin overlying stalagmit* appears to 
have made a tliin coating over their walls simultaneously with the like forma- 
tion on the flatter surfaces between them. The overlying dark waxy clay, 
ou minute examination, is seen to dip into these cavities sometimes at a con- 
siderable angle. It is only possible to sec this lamination when the clay is 
cut with a clean knife ; the spade obliterates the bedding. This arrange- 
ment of the layers at the sides of the trough would seem to point rather to 
our first hypothesis of their formation as being the more probable. 

It has been suggested in former reports that the laminated clay which lies 
above the Hyaiua-bed may possibly be the result of a deposit from glacier 
water at the time of the ice -sheet, it being now distinctly proved that the 
animals whose bones occur some distance beneath it existed in that district 
at a time prior to that cold period. The chief evidences for this last consist 
of — ( I) the superposition of the boulder-deposits at the entrance of the cave 
upon the edges of the bone-bed, and (2) the total removal of the remains of 
these animals from the oj^en ground in those particular areas where direct 
evidence of the former extension of an ice-sheet exists. 

^,Vc must not forget, however, that further south and east the same 
animals arc found in the river-gravels under such circumstances as imjDly 
that a cold period occurred also previous to their ranging through the country, 
the gravels being of later age than certain glacial beds in the south and east 
of England. These facts im^jly that the animals whose bones are found in 
the lowest known bone-beds in the Victoria Cave lived in this country in 
the course of a well-raarked interval between two periods of extreme cold, 
and that the earlier left traces of its effects further south than the later. It 
is therefore within the limits of possibility that this lower waxy laminated 
clay is a representative in time of some of the earlier glacial beds of the 
south-east of England. The subject, however, is an extremely wide one, 
and our present knowledge of the age and succession of the drifts must 
receive many additions before such an hypothesis can be either proved or 
disproved. 

Bronze Objects. — The Eomano-Celtic layer is probably now completely 
eliminated from Chamber A. That portion of the present large entrance- 
hall which we used to call Chamber D was apparently never occupied by 
the folk who used the bronze articles. Chamber B,'that to the left of 



ON THE EXPLORATION' OF THE SETTLE CAVES. Ii7 

Chamber A, may still, perhaps, contain some relics of that period ; but Ave 
have not worked in that chamber for some years ; our finds of articles of 
that age are consequently rare and exceptional. On the i2th of Tebruary, 
1876, whilst blasting and removing a portion of the huge fallen mass of lime- 
stone already referred to, a bronze harp-shaped fibula was found, in good 
preservation, with traces of its iron pin. It was in Parallel 10, 5 feet left 
of the datum-line, and at a depth of 9 feet, below a chink in the limestone 
block ; and, as Mr. Jackson suggests, there is every probability of its having 
fallen down the crack from above. Whether dropped there by one of vhe 
cave refugees, or fallen down a crack which had been enlarged by the settle- 
ment of the blocks consequent on the explorations, is immaterial. It was 
certainly far below its natural level, and the block of limestone beneath which 
it was found extended up to the Eomano-Celtic floor. 

Another object in bronze was found during the year upon the old upper 
tip. It is in the form of an ovate leaf, with a broad midrib and rude vein- 
ing ; the apex of the leaf is broken off. Where the leaf-stalk would be is 
a quadrate expansion pierced with a rivet-hole. It is 1-5 inch long and 
I'l inch broad, and cui-ved in the direction of its length. 

Animal Remains. — Professor Busk has again kindly examined the bones, 
and given their determination in a register. He remarks : — 

" As usual, the collection is chiefly interesting on account of the large pro- 
portion of Ursine remains, some of which, as you Avill perceive, I am inclined 
to assign to Ursus spela:us ; but most belong to the ferox type, whilst some few 
could not be well distinguished from Vrsus arctos. Some of the bones arc 
remarkably perfect, and have the same polish as that already recorded. The 
only addition to the former fauna, if I remember rightly, is Mustela martes. 
There is also a remarkably small fox, but not Canis lagopus. 

(Signed) G. Btjsk." 

Amongst the remains returned by Prof. Busk is a lower jaw of Weasel. 
This was found in the Lower Cave-earth, beneath the boiilders ; so that that 
is another addition, besides the Marten, to our list of animals from the early 
Pleistocene layer. 

In speaking of the animals found, the place of honour necessarily falls to 
the Hycena — not by reason of the number of his remains discovered, but because 
to him we are indebted for by far the larger number of bones of other animals 
introduced. It is, indeed, singular to note that, notwithstanding the abun- 
dant evidence of his presence, from the characteristically gnawed and cracked 
bones of other animals, we have hardly any remains of him this year except 
teeth. There can, indeed, be scarcely a doubt that a dead hyrena was as 
acceptable to his survivors as the carcass of any other beast. 

Of Bear we have found a fine series of tusks. We have already given 
Prof. Busk's remarks upon them. A very large humerus, which he attri- 
butes to the Grisly Bear, was found in Parallel 21, at a depth of 12 feet. 
From the way in which its proximal extremity has been gnawed off, and 
some of its more prominent ridges removed, there can be no doubt that it 
was coexistent with Hy.xna. Some remains of very young Bears have been 
found — so young, indeed, as to make it doubtful whether they ever had an 
independent existence. 

Of Bhinoeevos we have a femur, found in Parallel 30, at a depth of 7 ft. 6 in. 
It has been gnawed, as such bones always are, by the Hyajna, and to the usual 
extent. Several exceedingly fine teeth of Rhinoceros have been found since 
the bones were submitted to Prof. Busk, and their determination must be for 
the present postponed, A lower premolar 4 of Rhinoceros, which was the 



118 KEPOET ISrO. 

first of that animal found in the cave, together with the human fibula, and 
hitherto supi3osed to ho B. tichorinus, is now considered by Prof. Busk to be 
H. leptorhinus. 

Of Deer found this year we have several. One is a base of an antler with 
brow-tine (Cervus tarandus), but the species is marked as doiibtful; another 
tine is doubtfully referred to C. elaplius ; another is a fragment of a very 
large antler, and no species is assigned to it ; also there is a patella of a very 
large deer, which was near the surface. 

Of Gout several remains have been found; and it would almost seem pos- 
sible, from the depth to which some of them occur, that this animal may have 
existed in Britain at an earlier age than has usually been assigned to it ; but 
we cannot put forward this idea confidently without further confirmation. 
One humerus of an exceedingly small Goat has cuts upon it which are evi- 
dently human worknifinship ; but there are circumstances which render it 
desirable to reserve any further remarks upon it to a future occasion. 

In our last year's report we called attention to the existence in the Victoria 
Cave of a " fauna which we may confidently assign to a cold climate, separated 
in some parts, by an accumulation of deposits 12 feet or more in thickness, 
from an earlier one, which is equally characteristic of high temperatures ; 
whereas in another part of the cave not far oft', where the material to separate 
them is wanting, we have animals from icy and tropical countries inter- 
mingled in a confusion which would be puzzling did we not get the clue hard 
by." AVe remarked that it was evident that the separation was natural and 
regular, the mixture abnormal and accidental. "As distinguished from the 
lower bed, the chief characteristics of the upper were the presence of the llein- 
deer, and the absence of Elephant, Ehinoccros, Hippopotamus, and Hyaena." 
Tliese remarks were made solely on the evidence which passed through your 
present reporter's hands since he undertook to conduct the ex2)loration of the 
cavern. Prof. W. Boyd Dawkins has kindly written to remind us that Rein- 
deer was found in the lower cave-earth, below the laminated clay, when he 
had charge of the explorations, and he has no doubt that it was dragged in 
by Hyffinas. The Hyaena-bed at that spot, viz. the mouth of the cavern, was 
at a depth of 16 feet below the laminated clay ; and your reporter had an 
impression that the Reindeer-remains occurred at some height above the 
Hyiena-bed. Be that as it may. Prof. Dawkins's ojnnion is entitled to great 
weight, and is, indeed, the view generally held. At the same time, consider- 
ing that Hyaena and Reindeer are not uncommonly found together in caves, 
when, as in this case, we see them mixed together at one or both ends of a 
section but separated through an interval of 70 feet in length by a thickness 
of deposits, we may regard the fact as at least an interesting one, and, when 
found, noteworthy. 

Tlie excavations still throw light upon how the Cave was formed. As far 
as we have yet worked at the present level, the right wall of tlie cave is seen 
to have been hollowed out by streams. Several grooves occur, indicating 
water-levels ; but, except quite at the entrance, we have not got down to the 
ancient floor. We are ah'cady working in deposits Avhich are probably of 
greater age than the older Thames gravels. The river is now running 
900 feet below us. What earlier records wc may disentomb wc cannot tell ; 
we must work on and wait. 



OBSERVATIONS OP LUMINOUS METEORS. 119 

Report on Observations of Luminous Meteors during the year 1875-76, 
bi/ a Committee, consisting 0/ James Glaisher, F.R.S., R. P. Gkkg, 
F.G.S., F.R.A.S., C. BiiooKE, F.R.S., Prof. G. Fokises, F.K.S.E., 
Walter Flight, D.Sc, F.G.S., and Prof. A, S, Hebschel, 
M.A., F.R.A.S, 

[Plate IV.] 

The principal subjects of discussion in the present Eeport are, as they have 
been in former years, the descriptions of meteors and meteor-showers of 
whicli the Committee has received information during the interval of a year 
■which has elapsed since the presentation of the last Report. 

Of such materials a large supply has as usual been contributed to, or has 
been sought for by, the Committee. Most of the appearances described are 
fireballs of an occasional character, some of which have given rise to a good 
deal of remark and scientific discussion in the public journals of the day, 
both from the exceptional character of brightness and from the quick re- 
petitions of their occurrence. 

Large fireballs were seen on the 3rd, 7th, and 14th of September last, 
which were observed over such a considerable extent of country as to allow 
of their real heights and paths to be calculated with a somewhat unusual 
degree of accuracy. The paths of these meteors were calculated by Captain 
G. L. Tupman, of the Eoyal Observatory, Greenwich ; aud very satisfactory 
conclusions were arrived at as to the proljable meteor-showers or systems to 
which these large fireballs, two of which were detonating, appear pretty 
certainly to have belonged. 

Other instances have occurred where bright fireballs have been seen at 
several points in England sufficiently far apart, and have been observed with 
sufficient accuracy to lead to definite although not generally more than very 
rough determinations of their actual heights, velocities, and directions. One 
of the largest of these bolides was seen in bright sunshine on the 22nd of 
December, 1875 ; another of great brilliancy was noticed on the evening of 
July 25th, 1876 : of these meteors, as only a few well-recorded descriptions 
were obtained, the probable real paths are only generally indicated, or have 
only hitherto been provisionally computed. Meteors of this conspicuous cha- 
racter appeared also on the 16th of August, 1875, aud on the 15th of April, 
llth,13th, loth, and21st of August in the present year. Some heights of shoot- 
ing-stars observed in the August shower in 1874, and described in the Cata- 
logue of last year's Eeport, are deduced from the observations, and are hero 
presented as completely as the accuracy of the observations would permit. 

The occurrences of meteor-showers during the past year have been very 
slight and ill-defined, with the exception of the August-shower displays of 
1875 and of the present year. The present year's recurrence of the August 
shower was, however, less plentiful than has been visible for several years 
past, and has amounted to a real minimum of intensity of its annual appa- 
ritions. 

A new general catalogue of meteor radiaut-points, with an accompanying 
key-map, compiled diulng the past year by Mr. Greg, appears in the Eeport, 
and a valuable contribution of reviews of the past year's records and exami- 
nations of aerolites (of which the many remarkable occurrences continue to 
increase in scientific importance year by year), by Dr. Flight, concludes its 
pages. One of the most interesting of such events, it will be recollected, took 
place this year in England, when a mass of iron weighing 7| lbs. fell at 
Eowton, near the Wrekin ; and this, it may be observed, is only the seventh 
instance where a mass of metallic iron of meteoric origin, or an aerosiderite, 
has actually been seen to fall. This event took place in Shropshire, at 20 
minutes to 4 o'clock p.m., on April 20, 1876. 



120 



BEPORr^l876. 



OBSERVATIONS 
IN 1875-76, AND IN 



Place of 



Hour 

I Date. G. M.T. (orl ,,, ,. 

1 w \ I Observation, 
local tunc).! 



1871. 
Aug.ll 



1873. 
.Mavl4 



Apparent Size. I Colour. 



Duration. 



Position or 
Apparent Path. 



h m s I 

12 33 a.tn.lNeavTroubridgc, f.arge meteor 
Salop. i 



I 



3 5 a.m. 



1874.1 
Aug.lOilO 15 30 
p.m. 



10,10 10 p.m 



About as large as Wbite About 3 or 

I the planet Venus seconds. 

\ ^vhen most bril-' 
' liant. ; 



I 



Sept. 6 

13 

N'cv.lO 

11 

1875. 

Feb. 4 

.M.1V ] C 



8 40 p.m 



8 53 30 
p.m. 

11 30 
p.m. 

9 44 p.m, 



9 30 p.m, 
8 40 p.m. 



Lynton,!s'. Devon Very bright meteor 



[Perhaps the same 
as that seen! 
at CardifT and 
Bristol at 12'' 
22'" to 23™ 
A.M. See these 
Reports for 
1872, p. 81.] 
4 'First appeared a 
little eastward 
of the moon 
(then in the 
S.S.W.), and 
passing a little 
below it dis- 
appeared to 
the westward 
of that lumi- 
nary at about 
15° above the 
horizon. 
Position of the 
streak 

From 337^° + 5° 
to 331 +3 



Radcliffe Ob- 
servatory, 
Oxford. I 

Bristol 1=; Jupiter 



Crediton, Devon = Jupiter 



As bright as Venus 



Rapid 



Bristol . 



Brighter than 
Venus, 



IVcrv slow 



Ibid, 



.Melrose, Scot- 
land. 
GreenhitliCjlvent 



= Venus 



Brilliant meteor , 

I 
About=Venus ...Tied 



Slow 



i'rom y to (S An- 
dromeda?. 

«= S= 
From 275° -f 20^ 

to 255 -12 

Passed between 

/3 and y Oplii- 

uchi. 
From 15° above the 

hori/.on to i Urs.T 

Majoris. 

«= S = 
From 43° +30° 

to 7 -4 
«= d = 
From 31°- G° 

to 24 -13 
[Travelling north.. 



About 6 or 
seconds. 



OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 



121 



()F LARGE METEORS 
SOME EARLIER YEARS. 



Length of 
Path. 



Direction or Radiant-point. 



Appearance, Remarks, &c. 



Observer 
or Reference. 



A very brilliant meteor ; lighted 
up the country. Seen after 
two hours observations of the 
August meteors on the \Yreldn 

iim. 



G. T. Ryves. 

Communicated by 
G. J. Symons. 



Descended at an angle of about Died gradually out, and left no ^ F. V. Jacques 



40°, from S.E. to N.W. 



visible tail or sparks — perhaps 
from the brightness of tlic 
moon, which was shining wit! 
great splendour. 



Communicated by 
W. F. Denning. 



[The recorded courses of thisi Illuminated all objects wiih 



meteor and of llie next are 
not reconcilable with each 
other.] I 



S. J. Johnson. 



Communicated by 
W. F. Denning. 



I ' 



ij" ; long patli 



a flash like that of light- 
ning. On looking upwards, 
1 saw the streak as stated, 
which remained visible eight 
I seconds. 

[The meteor seemed to burst at /3 J. Lucas. 

j Andromedai. [Identical wiih| ' Radcliffe Observa- 
! tlielastmeteor: W.F.Denning.]; tions,' vol. for 1872. 

Directed from y Lyrtc 'Left a streak almost vertical in W. F. Denning. 

S.W. for a second. 



.(7° Radiant Fj 



Very bright ; left no streak 'S. J. Johnson. 

Communicated bv 
! W. F. Denning. 
Left a long train for 3 seconds ...:W. F. Denning. 



9° 'Radiant the Ilyades, or « Au-Only the end of the flight ob- Id 



ngae. 



Its visible From west to east 
course e\- i 
tended half 
across the 
sky. 



served ; no visible streak. 

Falling stars on February 4th at, Communicated by G. J. 

G'' A.M. I Symons. 

Nucleus with a continuous tail, Extract from a News- 



and pieces dropping from it at 
intervals. A faint vapour ap- 
peared to precede it, falling 
back upon it as it sailed along. 
A large and fine meteor. 



pa))fr; coramunicaterl 
by W. F. Denning. ! 



122 



REPORT 1876. 



Date. 



Hour 
G. M. T. (or 
local time) 



1875. h m 
June 2 About 

10 30 p.ni 



Place of 
Observation. 



Apparent Size. 



Colour. 



Duration. 



Wolverhampton Large 



Position or 
Apparent Path. 



7| 2 15 a.m. Melrose, Scot- | Brilliant meteor , 
1 land. 
25ill 20 p.m. 'Cambridge . 



About 7 or 8 Its course was 



seconds. 



nearly 
east. 



south* 



July 7 10 54 p.m. Bristol. 
8,12 2 a.m. Ibid. . 



Fine meteor. 
= Jupiter. ... 
= Venus .... 



Aug. 1 9 25 p.m.. Ibid = Jupiter. 



8 10 10 p.m. 'Ibid About=Venus 

I I I 

16 10 20 p.m.jThe Garden Cliff, Large meteor ., 
near St. Agues. 
Cornwall. i 



White, like 
I burning 
magnesium. 



Sept. 2| 9 22 p.m. Regent's Park, Large and brilliant Rather ruddy. 
London. 



?.; 9 52 p.m, 



4 .\bout 

I 8 45 p.m. 
10 p.m, 



Rapid 



Several 
seconds. 



In the north 



Passed just under 

Cassiopeia. 
Shot towards the 

sword-hand of 

Perseus. 



From 126° -4-53° 
to 125 -f46 

Shot across or near 
■K Pegasi. 

From a point in the 
S.E. to a little N. 
of E. ; but a few 
degrees above 

j the neighbouring 

I hills of Peuhall's 

I Mine. 

Came from about 
Corona, its course 
ending about 10° 
below a, /3 Ursae 
Majoris. 



RadcIifFe Obser- .\bout3x 5^. [Disk Blue, changingjo seconds. [I'D First apppared just 



vatory,Oxford, 
[Royal Obser- 
vatory, Green- 
wich, &c.]. 

West Dereham... 

Bristol 



ij, of dazzling 
brightness.] 



to green. 



7 11 21 p.m. Radcliffe Obser 
vatory, Oxford, 
Ipswich, Kent, 
Surrey, Essex, 
&c. 



Splendid meteor . 
Large fireball .... 



or 2 seconds 
rapid] 



Brighter than Ju- 
piter or Venus. 
Disk about \ ap- 
parent diameter 
of the moon. 



Blue with red 
sparks. Blue 
colour of 
nucleus very 
bright. 



west of Saturn. 

[Passed between 

« and /3, disap 

pearing close to 

B Aquilae.] 

jln the north-west.. 

In the eastern skv.. 



Duration 2 or 
3 seconds. 
(Oxford, 
or 7 sees.) 



Seven or eight well 
observed appa- 
rent positions of 
its course. 



OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 



123 



Length of 
Path. 


Direction or Radiant-point. 


Appearance, Remarks, &c. 


Observer 
or Reference. 






Very vivid ; made a startling 
glare in the sky. Nucleus 
with a long train and a 
bright flame-like head, flick- 
ering like a torch carried 
against the wind. 


Arthur Hinde. 
Communicated by 
G. J. Symons. 

Communicated by G. J. 

Symons. 
Id. 

W. r. Denning. 

Id. 

Id. 

Id. 

F.R.S. The 'Times,' 
Aug. 19th, 1875. 

T. Cruraplen. 

J.Lucas. (See 'Nature,' 
Sept. 9, 1875; 'Astroii. 
Register,' April 1876, 
and Appendix I. of this 
Report.) 

Communicated by G. J. 

Symons. 
Communicated by W. F. 

Denning. 

The 'Times,' Sept. 9, 
' Astron. Register,' Oct. 
1875, &c. (See Ap- 
pend. I. of this Report.) 











Very brilliant. Seen also at 
Calathorpe, 11" 20''> p.m. 




Directed from the Pointers in 
Ursa Major. 

From direction of a Ursae Mi- 
noris. 

From X Persei, a Perseid 




Left a train for 3 seconds. Im- 
mediately afterwards another 
meteor = Jupiter shot down 
at right angles to the path 
of the former one, leaving a 
streak for 1 second. 

Left a very bright train for two 
seconds. 

Visible behind clouds ; left a 
long train. 

Light brighter than that of the 
moon. Nucleus like a chain 
of bright beads. Seen also in 
Wales and in Brittany, France. 
(See Appendix I.) 

A fine meteor seen through 
clouds which obscured the 
stars; the apparent path ap- 
proximate. Nucleus with a 
broad tapering train visible 
several seconds after it on its 
course. 

Threw off a spark at disappear- 
ance about the apparent size of 
Saturn. [Ended with a flash 
of excessive brightness.] 


70 








Sloping downwards towards 
the northern horizon. 

- 

Descending, slightly eastward. 
[Fell vertically. Radiant- 
point of the projected tracks 
at 311°, +52°.] 


IP or 12° 
[19^] 

f, 


1 ' 


"■■ 

Descending, slightly inclined 
from the vertical towards 
the left. 

/ 

Radiant-point of the projected 
tracks 347°, +15°. 


Nucleus globular ; illuminated 
the sky like a flash of light- 
ning. Seen by many persons 
at Bristol ; the flash seen also 
by Mr. Denning. 

Fireball with train of scattered 
sparks 10° long. Divided in 
mid course into two, with flash 
of blue light, accompanying 
each other very closely to ex- 
tinction. Detonated. Left no 
streak. 


Long course... 



121 



REPORT — 1876. 



Date. 



Hour 

K5.M.T. (or 
local time). 



1875. 
Sep. 1 1 



14 



U 



Place of 
Observation. 



Apparent Size. 



h m s 

11 p.m. (Edinburgh, 

Burntisland, &c. 

Scotland. 



8 20 p.ra.i Lynn, Norfolk... 



8 27 30 
p.m. 



Royal Oljserva- 
tory, Green- 
wich, and in 
all parts of 
England. 



Large meteor. Ex- 
tremely blight. 



Colour. 



Duration. 



2 seconds. 



3 or 4 X Venus 



Large disk ; nearly 
apparent size of 
the full moon. 



Pale blue . 



25i 8 25 p.m. 



Oct. 4 
5 

2S 



Bath 



; About half appa- 
rent diameter ol 
the moon. 



25 8 30 p.m 



Near Dristol 



White or hlu 
ish-white ; 
tail of some 
coloured 
sparks. 



Various 
colours. 



II 32 p.m. 
10 13 p.m. 

Evening ... 



Bristol 



Xearly half ai)|ia-jWliitc, like 
rent diameter of Venus, 
the moon. 

= Jupiter 1 Bluish 



Royal Observa- 
tory, Greenwich, 



Near Aberdeen, 
Scotland. 



Mean observed 
duration 
8 seconds. 



Position or 
Apparent Path. 



Very bright 



Very large 



Bluish white, 



I '5 second . 
About 1 sec. 



Nov. 15 6 30 a.m. Leicester iVery brilliant Reddish Quick 



22 About 
10 p.m 



Dec. 9 



West Dereham. 



4 45 p.m. 



Burnham 



Brilliant meteor 



Zigzag course a- 
crossthe Ila;dula' 
in Auriga. 



Close above the 
E. by N. hori- 
zon, which it 
did not reach; 
before disappear- 
ing. 

Twelve or fifteen 
well - observed 
positions of ap- 
parent course. 



Descended from 
not far above 
the northern 
horizon, as if 
■with full bright- 
ness, to th<- 
earth. 

Almost due nor;ii, 
from altitude 
about 40° to 
about 30°. 

From I to j3 Ceti... 

From altitude 4^ 
N., 08° W. to 
altitude 3° N.. 
78° W. 



Shot down to thc' 
S.E. horizon andi 
disappeared not 
far from Spica. 



Large meteor ; :fn the south 



OBSERVATIONS OP LUMINOUS METEORS. 



125 



Length of 
Path. 



Direction or Radiant-point. 



Appearance, Remarks, &c. 



Observer 
or Reference. 



Loup; course.. 



Moving northwards 



Radiant-point of the projected 
tracks, 348^4:0°. 



similar accounts 
the ' Scotsman.' 



Meteor with strong light casting ' Nature,' vol. xii. p. 460, 
shadows. Halted and flashed; Sept. 23, 1875 ; other 
as if at angles on its course ; 
formed a zigzag streak visible 
for three or four minutes after- 
wards, which disappeared in 
form of a ring. 

Grew gradually larger until it J. J. Allinson. 

disappeared. Followed in 4 or 

5 minutes by the next meteor. 
[For description of the following 

meteor, see Appendix!.] 

Nucleus pear-shaped and uui-iThe 'Times,' Sept. IG, 



form in brightness, with flick 
ering tail of sparks ; faded outl 
at disappearance, leaving a 
faint white streak. Light of 
the meteor intense. Detona- 
tion loud at Bradford ; heard 
also at Wath and York (?). 



Course diagonally downwards Nucleus of oblong shape 
from east to west. 



Fell obliquely as it passed frc 
cast to west. 



1 Nucleus followed by a streaming 
train ; left no streak. 



Nature,' Sept. 23, 
1875, &c. (See Ap- 
pendix 1. of this Re- 
port for the real path 
and other particulavs! 
of the meteor.) 



J. L., Newspaper ac-j 
count; communicated 
by W. F. Denning. ! 



II. H. Olver, Id. Id. 



\V. F. Denning. 

G. L. Tupman. The 
'Times,' Oct. 8ih, 
1875. 



Directed from some point in 
! Leo. 



In the night of Octobei Communicated by A. S 

28th. Like a huge rocket, llerschel 

leaving numberless sparks on 

its course. 
Vivid meteor ; lit up the sky in 

spite of the glare of the moon. 



\V. S. Franks. The 'As- 
tronomical Register, 
Jan. 1876. 



.lit made two descents, andjCommunicated by G. J 
i flashed off at an acute angle,] Symons. 
i -4K:. in the sketch. i 



Id. 



126 



REPORT 1876. 



Date. 



1875. 
Dec. 13 



22 



Hour n, - 

G.M.T.(or r,u ? 
local time). Observation. 



Ii ni s 
10 8 p.m 



1 33 p.m. 



Bristol 



Dorking, Surrey 



Apparent Size. 



Colour. 



Duration. 



Position or 
Apparent Path. 



= Jupiter. 



About ^ dianielei 
ol" the moon. 



1 38 45 
p.m. 

22iAbout 

1 40 p.m. 



Southampton ... 



Braughing, near 
Ware. 



1876. 
Jan. 4 



23| 8 41 p.m. 
9 28 pm. 

9 13 p.m. 



Feb. 2 8 31 p.m. 



4 7 35 p.m, 



7 8 54 
p.m. 



Bristol 



Laiae 



Large 



= Jupiter. 



Street, Somerset 2 x Venus 



Bristol 



Ibiil. 



Ibid. 



= Venus 



: Mars 



Very slow ... Passed just undei 
(3 Ursae Majoris. 



Xot very rapid; In the N.N.W. ... 



i apparent diaii.e- 
ter of the moon. 



Yellowish 
green. 



1 second 



Rather slow... 



Very slow 
speed. 



[Moved very 
I slowly. 



Crediton, Devo:; Precisely like the lirccnisjl! 
I planet Venus. I 



From W. to N.W., 
disappearing 
about 25° above 
the N.W. ho 
rizon. 



Passed across /( 
Geminorum, 



From 210° + 72° 
to 172 +35 



Path observed. 
From 64° — 12° 
to 60 —30 

In the S.S.W, 
sky. 



From J 75° +31° 
to 185 +35 
on line from c> 
Leonis to Cor 
Caroli. 

From 74°+4'= 
to 50-1 
from y Orionis 
to a few degrees 
below a Ceti. 
..._. From /3 to 3° be- 
yond 6 Leporis. 1 



OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 



127 



Length of 
Path. 



Direction or Radiant -point. 



Appearance, Remarks, &c. 



Observer 
or Reference. 



From direction of the moon. Left no streak. On Dec. 19, at 



Radiant Geminorura. 



From S.S.E. to N.N.W., 
seendinK thus 



6'' la"" P.M., an intense flash 
I probably of meteoric origin, 
j seen in a clear sky. 
dc-:.\'ucieus an irregular luminous 
l)all, with no well-defined disk 
like tlie moon ; followed by a 
long train of fire : broke up 
and disappeared before reach- 
ing the horizon. 



S.W. to N.E. 



Inclined about -10' 



VV. F. Denning. 
'Astronomical Regis- 
ter,' Feb. 1876. 

H. J. Powell. 

The 'Times' and 
Letter to W. F. 
Denning. 



Seen in full sunshine. Its form F. \V. The ' Times.' 
like a common rocket. 



to the ho- Shaped 
left a 



• Directed from Polaris. 
j diant in Draco (about x Dra 
: conis?). 



ke a pear or a kite ; 

faint white streak for 
two or three seconds, an(i 
disappeared without exploding. 
Seen in bright sunlight. No 
detonation heard. The ap- 
parent lengtli and incHn.i- 
tion of the path were ap- 
proximately measured with a 
rod. 
Ra-;Left no streak 



18° Radiant AGj 



\ 



Short path ...'Radiant-point in Leo . 



Cast a strong light. Disappeared 
behind a cloud. 



Seen through clouds. Left no 
visible train. (Radiant proba- 
bly just north of a Tauri). 



Left no streak. This meteor and 
the next proceeded from the 
same radiant-point in Leo. 



Slightly descending from left Nucleus globular ; left no train, 
to right. Radiant in Leo. 



Shot downwards. 



.'Seen on looking away from the 
j planet Venus. 



E. Daw. 

(See also Appendix I 
for description of the 
same meteor by Mr. 
Webb.) 



W. F. Denning. 



J. E. Clark. 



\V. F. Denning. 



Id. 



Id. 



J. Johnson. 

' Astron. Register,' 

Jane 1876, p. 141. 



128 




REPORT 1876. 






Date. 


1 

Hour 
G. M. T. (oi 
local time). 


Place of 
Observation. 


Apparent Size. 


Colour. 


1 

Duration. 


Position or 1 
Apparent Path. 


1876. 
Mar. 1 


h m s 
6 46 p.m. 


Bristol 


> Jupiter 




Slow motion... 


Passed near ^ and 
V Urste Majoris, 
or slightly above 
those stars. 








19 


11 18 p.m. 
(Paris time.) 


Luxembourg, 
Paris. 


Large meteor 
















Apr. 15 


8 31 p.m. 


Bristol 


Much largerthougli 
little brighter 
than Venus. 


White 


2-5 seconds ... 


From 90° + 24° 
to 52 +31 
Passed about 5° 
above $ , and 
disappeared be- 
hind liouses in 
the W.N.W. 




15 


.\bout 
8 35 p.m. 


(lawkhurst, 
Kent. 


Very bright 






First appeared close 
to the planet 
Venus, and 
streamed past 
the Pleiades to 




















the horizon. 


Jiinel5 
July 8 


About 

8 10 p.m. 
(local time.) 

8 55 p.m. 
(local time.) 


Suez, and sta- 
tions on the 
Suez Canal. 

Iowa, U. S., 
.'America. 


Large fireball 








Large fireball 
















20 
24 
2i 
2J 

2u 


11 42 

10 25 30 

11 34 
11 37 

About 

10 p.m. 


Bristol 


:>2^ 




Rather swift... 
.\ot very swift 


From 337°- 7° 

to 348 +18 
«= d = 
From 306^+27° 

to 317 +49 

From 38°+53= j ' 

to 55 -f39 
From 50 Cassio- 
peia; (/ Custo-' 
dis. Bode) to Ca- 
pella. 
From R.A. IC' 15"\ 
S. Decl. 17^ 
to R.A. 12^ 
30™ N. Decl. 
18°. 
Observed while' 
comet • seeking 
near the planet 
Jupiter. 1 ., 


Ibid 


= 2 




Ibid 


r=1l. 




Radcliffe Obser- 
vatory, O.xford. 

Poplar, East 
London. 


" 1st mag.* 


White 

Red, then vivid 
green. 


1-5 second ... 

About 6 se- 
conds. Mo- 
tion quite 
uniform. 


Nearly i apparent 
diameter of the 
moon; 12'orl5' 
wide, but much 
longer, with no 
change. 



OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEOR^. 



129 




Long path ...'Radiant at a Persei j Left no streak. Seen by F. Den- 
ning ; the recorded path from 
description. 



, A fireball recorded in the watch 
for meteors kept at the Ob- 
servatory of the Luxembourg 
in March 1876. Mean hourly 
number of meteors for the 
month 2'1 ; ordinary average 
for the month 5-6. 

Directed from between Procyon Pear-shaped nucleus, emitting ^^'^- F- Denning, 
' ~ faint sparks as it rolled along; 

left no streak. 



\V. F. Denning. 



Chapelas Coulvier Gra- 
vier. ' Comptes 
Rendns,' vol. Ixxxii. 
p. 924. 



A beautiful meteor; seen in the ^- Humphrey, 
western twilight. ! 



I 



Detonating; burst with a loud (See Appendix IL, 
report. Large Meteors.) 



2G- 



21 ' 



; Radiant in Aquarius 



Id. 



Very fine meteor ; left sparks and W. F. Denning, 
a train. 



Left a bright train for 2 seconds 



Radiant in Cassiopeia ILeft no streak. 



, 'Train. [Identical with the last 
I meteor.] 



Id. 
[d. 

J. Lucas. 



.At first small, and appeared to be Jolin Lane. 
I getting red-hot; then burst j Communicated by 
j forth with a vivid green flarae,| W. F. Denning. ^ 

which continued to near tlie 
I end of its path, when it seemed 
] to be burned out and disap- 
I peared. 



(See also Appendix 
II., Large Meteors. > 



i87(ir 



130 



REPORT 1876. 



Date. 



I 1876. 
t/uly25 



Hour Til e 

G.M.T.(or cl f 
local time)J Observation. 



25 



h m 

About 

10 p.m. 



Near Maiden- 
head, Bucks. 



10 2 p.m. Ikistol 



23 10 5 p.m. Edgeware Road, 
London. 



Apparent Size. 



Large meteor 



Colour. 



Duration. 



Vivid green, 
like an arti- 
ficial light 
rather than 
a natural 
shooting- 
star. 



Position or 
Apparent Path. 



Very large 



Large apparent disk 



25 10 7 p.m. Street, near Glas-'4X 3^ 
tonbury,Somer-| 
setshire. 



25iAhout Ilersham, Surrey Large meteor 

10 12 p.m.i ' > 



31 



'Aug. 4 



Vivi<l emerald- More than five 
green ; train seconds ; 



of fiery red. 



Blue' or 
' green ' (two 
observers). 



9 43 p.m 



17 p.m. 



12 p.m. Bristol 



llristol i = Sirius 



In the northeri 
sky near thi 
Great Bear. 



Passed from eas 
to north at 
altitude [?] abovi 
the horizon abou 
the same as tha 
of the plane 
Jupiter at 9 p.m 



From the constel 
lation of Aquili 
[?] through tha 
of Hercules [?] 
curi'ed slightl; 
downwards,pass 
ing a few degree 
under, and dis 
appearing a littli 
nortliward o 
.A.rcturus. 

From about 270' 
-10° to 5' 
-f53° (nearly 
view of the star; 
near its coursi 
obstructed b; 
clouds). 



Speed of ap- Passed close unde 
parent mo-j Arcturus, as i| 
tion very] the sketch. 
leisurely. 



leisurely 
speed. 



.\.bout 5 or C 
seconds. 



Glasgow 



....iN'ot very large or 
brilliant. 



10 39 p.m, 



RadcliflFe Obser- 
vatory, O.xford. 



Rather fast 



4 seconds. 



= ¥ : 

= lst mng.t !Red 



1 second 



I 



From 284°+ 10° 
to 286 -10 \} 

I'assed over thi 
south side o 
Glasgow. 



From 

to 

Passed 


20°+47° 
8 +38 
1} Bootis .. 




1 



OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEOKS. 



131 



Length of 
Path. 



Direction or Radiant-point. 



Appearance, Remarks, &c. 



Observer 
or Reference. 




From west to east , Rocket-like ; seen by several pcr-W'. Wayte. 



Moved horizontally, thus 



sons. [An equally large me 
teor, writes the Paris corre 
spondent of the ' Echo,' July 
21 or 25, had recently been 
seen in Paris. — T. Crumplen.] 

The meteor burst at the end of 
its flight and left a bright train. 
[The recorded altitude of its 
apparent course disagrees with 
that assigned at Street, below, 
and with other more distant 
observations of the meteor's 
track.] 

Almost horizontal. [The earlylBody of the fireball a large sphe 
part of the meteor's course] rical head tapering away into a 



here described differs very 
widely from that assigned to 
it by other observers in the 
neighbourhood of London.] 



Nearly 90° ... Almost parallel to the horizon 



About 50° ...I Left to right, nearly horizontal 
Arctaras * 
PutTi ofMttcor 



8 



!^^° [Radiant Lyra or Draco 



From north to south, angle at Like a rocket, with an extra- 



ordinarily long tail. Tra- 
velled in a zigzag or tre 
muloua manner. 




tail of fiery-red colour, followed 
by a luminous track. Appeared 
with sudden brightness, and as 
it travelled on collapsed sud 
denly with a bright effulgence, 
exactly resembling a firework 
close at hand 



Left a splendid train of frag, 
ments redder than the head, 
two of which were as bright 
as 3rd mag. stars. Disappeared 
with a sudden flash. 



Sky very clear, and appearance 
of the meteor very startling 
Its head had the appearance 
of being double — thus, the 
larger of the two parts above 
(but this impression may have 
been a deception) : — 

A fine meteor; left no streak 
seen througli clouds. 



Directed about from 
Venaticorum [?]. 



: Canum 



Left a bright train 



The 'Times,' Julv28, 
1876. 



Communicated by W. F 
Denning. 



K. Ommanney. Letter 
to Mr. Glaisher. 



Communicated by J. E 
Clark. 



George Dines. Letter 
to Mr. Glaisher. 



Train. [Identical with the next 
meteor.] 



W. F. Denning. 
James Thomsoffl, 

W. F. Denning.- 
J. Lucas. 



133 



REPORT — 187G. 



Date. 



1876. 
Aug. 5 



Hour i p. , 
G. M. T. (or; ^, ""^^ °' 1 Apparent Size, 
local time). Observation. I ^^ 



h m 
10 40 p.m. 



8 11 57 p.m. 



10 About 

9 28 p.m. 



Colour. 



Bristol : = 2^' 



Duration. 



Rather swift.. 



10 



About 
9 51 p.m. 



Ibid. 



Ibid. 



Ibid. 



■ =n- 



Xot very swift 



= V-. 



10 About 
I 8 30 p.m. 
i(localtime.) 



Very large meteor ; 
2X ?. 



Off New York. Like a planet, or 



Long, about 
54V W., Lat. 
about 42|° N. 



Bristol Nearly = 11 



brigliter. 



1112 59 a.m, 



1110 38 p.m.'Bristol =y. 



11 About 
11 15 p.m. 



Cardiff, Souili i Large and brijjht 



Wales. 



I 



llAbont Clifton (and Very large meteor . 

11 20 p.m. I Bristol). i 



Rather rapid.. 



Position or 
Apparent Path. 



From Z Ursa^ 
Majoris to t] 
Bootis (199° I 
+ 54° to 207°; 
+ 19°). I 

From 6° + 25° | 
to 356° + 39°,1 
just to left 
of « Andre- 
medae. 

a= ? = 

From 53°+ 79° 

to 214 +74 

From 85° + 78° 

to 183 +68 

(observed path). 



In the west . 



From /3 ArietU to 
2° below the 
moon, or from 
27° + 20° to 23° 
+ 11°. 

<r= S = 
From 151°+69° 
to 170 +53 
Burst forth over- 
head and travel- 
led in a westerly 
direction. 



A{ parent course 
thus, above Ursa 
Major. (From 
slightly below 
Polaris towards 
the W.S.W. ho- 
rizon. — Another 
description.) 



OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEOKS. 



133 



^^"S'l^ of J Direction or Radiant-point. [ Appearance, Remarks, &c. 
rath. ' 



35° :Radiant in Perseus or Cassio- 
peia. 



16" Moved upwards 



A splendid meteor 



Observer 
or Reference. 



27<= 



Left a briglit train 



Left a briglit train for 2 seconds. 



Left a short bright train at 
I 150=-t-78° visible for 5i mi- 
} nutcs, and drifting thence to 
j 183° + 7°. 
to S., in a line nearly paral-;From 8^ 15™, eight meteors seen ; 



jel to the horizon. 



9^ to 10", 14 meteors ; 10" 
to 10" 30'", 3 meteors. On 
the nth, 8>> 45" to 9'', 8 me- 
teors; 9*" to lO", 8 meteors 
seen. Aug. 12th, 8'' 30-" to 
10", only 2 meteors. Sky 
quite clear most of the time of 
observation. 



W. F. Denning. 



(d. 



Id. 



Id. 



Communicated bv J. 
Clark. 



E.! 



10= 



\V. F. Denning. 



19' illadiant in Cassiopeia 



I'erseid. 



Very fine meteor ; left a streak. 



Id. 



Rocket-like ; caused a brilliaut'C. J. 
flash of light, and left a vividi (' Western Daily 
streak on about 10° of itsj Times.') 
course, which remained visiljlcj 
several minutes. 



Extremely bright, like vivid light- 
ning, even in the strong moon- 
light. Left a broad bright train 
visible for fully a minute. (Nu- 
cleus round or oval. Keynish, 
near Bristol : another, rather' 
smaller, visible ten minutes' 
later. See Appendix II., Large! 
Meteors.) | 



Communicated by W. F. 
Denning, from ac- 
counts by G.F.Burder, 
Clifton (and by other 
observers near Bris- 
tol). 



134. 



REPORT 1876. 



Date. 



Hour 
G. M. T. (or 
local time). 



Place of 
Observation. 



Apparent Size. 



Colour. 



Duration. 



Position or 
Apparent Path. 



1876. 
Aug. 11 



h m s 
11 21 p.m.|Sunderland, 

i Durham. 



Large and bright.,. 



11 



11 22 30 
p.m. 



Crediton, North 
Devon. 



Fully as bright as 
Venus appears at 
her brightest. 



White. Streali 
red above, 
yellow at 
lowest 
point. 



Greenish 
white. 



11 About ;\Vrittle, near 

11 21 p.m ' Chelmsford, 
Essex. 



13 



I'' 



15 



Much brighter than 
Venus. 



I 



9 27 p.m. 



Radeliffe Obser- Large meteor 
vatory, Oxford. 



9 27 p.m. Buntingford, 
I Herts. 



15 



About 
9 20 p.m. 



Bristol 



= ?. 



U least as bright 
j as Venus appears 
I at its maximum. 



Point of disappear- 
ance a— S = 
28r-21^° 



First appeared be- 
tween the con- 
stellations Per- 
seus and Ursa 
Major. From 
10 {(3; rfjBode) 
Camelopardi, 
halfway towards 
a Ursa; Majoris 

First appeared 
about 6° north, 
preceding • Co- 
ronae ; passed be^ 
tween that star 
and 6 Bootis, 
and died out 
few degrees S.W. 
of a Coronae. 



Starring - point 
near a Cassio- 
peia. End of 
course hidden 
by the Tower 
of the Obser- 
vatory. 

At least 2 sees. Passed close to 
Moderate a Cygni. 
speed. j About «= S= 

from 30<'-f67° 
to 305 -1-37 



Slow motion. 



9 30 p.m 



Radeliffe Obser- 3 or 4 X Jupiter 
vatory, Oxford. 



Blue to green. .U seconds 



First seen slightly 
above Arcturus ; 
disappeared un 
der the star 
group of Comae 
Berenices, on 
the N.W. hori- 
zon ; descending 
obliquely. 

From «, passing 
jj Bobtis, to a 
point on the 
horizon in a 
line with j/ 
Ursae Majoris 
and a Canum 
Venaticorum. 



OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 



135 



Length of 
Path. 



Direction or Radiant-point, 



(Terminal part'Directed from ij Aquilae. 
2° or 3°.) 



Form of the streak : 






Coratitu/ 
« 




Shot southwards. 



33° 



Appearance, Remarks, &c. 



Observer 
or Reference. 



Not a Perseid; radiant appa 
rently in Aquila. 



End of course only seen, dis- T. W. Backhouse, 
appearing behind trees, with 
a strong glow extending many 
degrees round. Streak 2° 
long left for three seconds, 
1° or 2° above the point of 
disappearance. 



Left a streak visible for 50 se- 
conds, which became curved 
hke a reaping-hook before 
disappearing. Also seen at 
Lytham (coast of Lancashire), 
at ll"" 18"" P.M. ; apparent path 
near the zenith and to the 
southward. 

Meteor like a long pale-green 
flash, leaving an orange train 
for fully a minute. 



Left a long train. [For a descrip 
tion of this meteor's course at 
Folkestone, see Appendix IIL, 
Periodic Meteor-showers.] 



A fine Perseid ; left a streak fo: 
5 or 6 seconds. [Identical witli 
the last meteor.] 



S. J. Johnson. 
(' Exeter & Plymouth 
Gazette.') 



H. Corder. 
(' Astronomical Re- I 
gister,' Sept. 1876.) j 



Communicated by J. 
Lucas. 



R. P. Greg. 



Nucleus pear-shaped, emittiiigiW. F. Denning, 
sparks as it rolled along, buti 
leaving no persistent streak 
visible in the hazy sky. 



J. Lucas. 



136 



EEPORT 1876. 



Date. 


Hour 
G. M.T. (o 
local time) 


i 

: Place of i . , „. 
[ Observation. Apparent Size. 


Colour. Deration. ^/p^S^Vath. 


1876. 


h m 


i i ' 1 ■ i 


Aug. 15 


About Swansea 


Very brilliant ininish- litp 


Anneared as il 




! 9 30 p.m.; 

1 i 

1 i 

1 


meteor. 


the lime- 
light. 


falling from a 
i great altitude ; 
! and disappeared 
I somewhat above 




; 








the horizon, 




i 








in the north- 












west. 


15 


9 30 p. in 


Newton St. Loe 
near Bristol. 




At first bril- 
liant yellow 




Passed just be- 
low 6 Bootis, 














changing to 




and proceeded 










vivid green 




in a descending 










before dis- 




direction be- 


1 








appearing. 




tween tt Ca- 
num Venat. and 
the cluster of 
Comse, rather 
nearer to the 
latter. 


' 15 


[About 


iVcwlown, Wale."! 


Large and intensely 


Changed from 


Slow motion 


First appeared 




9 30p.™..'] 




bright. 


light yellow 
to red, and 
finally to 


duration 
9 seconds. 


I about the centre 
j of Ophiuchus ; 
j traversed Libra 








dazzling 


1 


and Virgo, and 








white. 




disappeared in 
Leo near Re- 














gulus. 


21 

i 


8 13 p.m. 


Clapham 
(London), 
Surrey. 


Twice or rather 
more than twici 
as bright ai 
Venus appears 
at brightest. 


Bluish white... 


2 sfconds 


Commenced in 
Camelopardus 
and disap- | 
peared in 
Lyra [i. e. | 
probably very 
near Capetla]. 


2J 


About 


Four miles due 


Horizontal diame- 


Changed from 




Its line of flight 
passed half-' 


1 
i 


8 10 p.m. 


south of St. 


ter 20'. 


red to violel 








Paiil's, Lou- 




(commen- 




way between 1 






don. 




cing at the 
edges). 




Polaris and a, 
Ursa; Majoris, 
and it disap- 
peared about 
IS-^ from the 
horizon ; be- 
ginning not 
seen. 


21 


8 10 p.m. 


Sheerness 


>y 


i 




[ts course crossed, 
a line from- 





















the Pole star 














joining the 














' Pointers.' 


21; 


\bout 
8 10 p.m. 


Twelve miles S. 
of Manchester. 


Bolide 


1 




Fell down in the 
S.W. from al- 




















titude about 














25° to about' 






1 








20°. j 

1 



OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 



137 



Length of 
Path. 



Direction or Radiant-point. I Appearance, Remarks, &c. 



Observer 
or Reference. 



S.W. to N.E. 



lOO'-' 



[The ajiparent course described 
only traverses the northern 
parts of Libra and Virgo : 
and at the observed time of 
appearance the star Regulus, 
near which it terminates, wa'^ 
15° below tlie nortli-west 
horizon.] 



r.cft a train like that of a rocket 
Attention attracted by the 
moving shadow of a tree which 
it cast on the ground. 



Nucleus globular, like a Roman- 
candle-ball, leaving no lumi- 
nous track. 



Newspaper extract. 
Communicated bv 
W. F. Denning. 



J. L. Stothert. 
The 'Times,' Aug. 18, 
1876. 



A-t first it appeared large but'H. de H. Haigh. 
not much more brilliant thaii| 
an ordinary shooting - starJ 
but it rapidly increased in 
splendour, changing its colour 
and appearance. [For thc 
general appearance and for 
other descriptions of this fire- 
ball, see Appendix If.]. 



(Ibid.) 



Direction of motion exactly Appeared very near, like an arti 
I perpendicular downwards, i ficial firework. Jupiter in 
■ { another part of the sky ap 

j j peared quite dull in compari- 

' i son with it. 



tell vertically 



Nucleus just before disappearance 
j very elongated ; pear-shaped. 



Nucleus with a white luminous 
train about 5° in length. 



Harold John. 
The ' English Me- 
chanic,' Sept. 1, 187G. 



Richard Verdon. 
' Nature,' Ang. 24, 
1876. 



Paul Robin. Ibid, 



V fine bolide, with oval nucleus... Communicated by R. P. 



Greg. 






138 REPORT-— 1876. 

APPENDIX. 

I. Meteoes Doubly Observed. 

In the list of observations presented with last year's Report, several 
exarajjles of meteors doubly observed, chiefly in the August meteor-shower 
in 1874, occurred, and the heights and real paths of these meteors have been 
calculated. The computed real paths and velocities, and the radiant-points 
from which the meteors were directed, are shown in the Table opposite. 

It is probable that few observations are sufiiciently trustworthy to give 
correct values of the speeds of individual meteors ; but among several 
such determinations the average velocity of the Perscids here found may be 
regarded as approximately ascertained, and it does not greatly exceed the 
value which theory assigns to it. The real path and radiant-point of the 
fireball of August 10th, 1874, has been recalculated, as weU as the velocity 
from tlie average of two observed durations of its flight ; the calculated speed 
is within a mile of the velocity- of a bod}'^ moving in a parabolic orbit from the 
direction of the radiant determined by its apparent paths. The latter point 
is very near a known radiant-point of a shower to which it may be presumed 
that this large fireball belonged, and a marked centre of radiation of 
shooting-stars near (^ e Aquarii, duiing the annual shower of Pcrsei'ds, is 
thus probably confirmed by this double observation. The recorded tracks of 
the fireball at Birmingham and Xewcastle-on-Tyne diverge from a centre 
at R.A. .313°, S. Decl. 14° ; and a radiant-point from the 3rd to the 31st of 
August is shown by Dr. Schmidt's investigations to be observable at E.A. 
306°, S. Decl. 8°. The star e Aquarii (R.A. 310°, 8. Decl. 10°), near this, at 
some distance from which several other radiant-points for July and August 
are clustered in Aquarius, occupies the extreme west, while the latter radiants 
more nearly adjoin a star (Il.A. 333°, S. Decl. 8") which is in the eastern 
part of the same constellation *. 

In the list of large meteors which accompanies this Report, an observation 
of a large fireball on August lOtli, 1875, at lU'' 26"" p.m., near St. Agnes, 
Cornwall, is described, of which two other descriptions also appeared in ' The 
Times' of August 21st and 25th, showing that the meteor was A^sible over 
a very wide area, from Wales to Erittanv in France. 

Ty Mawr, Ty Llangelly, near Criekhow"ell ; Mr. H. Ball.—" On August 16th, 
at lO"* 26"' P.M., I saw a very bright meteor, which is probably the same as 
that seen by your correspondent F.R.S., from St. Agnes, Cornwall. From 
this place its position was nearly 5° below and to the right of the full moon, 
on a line inclined 4.5° to the horizon." 

Redon, Lower Brittany, France'; F.R.G.S. — " It may be worth while 
mentioning that the meteor seen in Cornwall and Wales was also seen by 
me at Redon, Lower Brittany, at the same time. It was exceedingly bril- 
liant, and, as F.R.S. remarked, it much resembled a string of magnesium 
beads. The night was singularly clear and the moon very bright, but the 

* In the copy of Schmidt's list of radiant-points printed in the vohime of these Eeports 
for 1874, p. 321, it should have been observed that the positions to which days as well as 
months of duration are assigned are asterisked in the original list as accurately (tlie rest 
being less accurately) determined. The radiants near 9 Aquarii in Schmidt's and 
Tupman's lists are erroneously quoted in the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical 
Society (vol. xxxvi. p. 218) as being the " nearest known "' radiants to the above deecribed 
point of emanation of this meteor's real course. 



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in a 



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-^Astronomical Kegister • lor apni lo/o. xne nmu rcsuns ui u.^ umcumiiuu., ui 
30 meteors' real paths are aleo contamed in the number for February, 18/b, ot the 
onthly Notices ' of the Astronomical Society, vol. xxxvi. p. 216. 
' Astrouomical Eegisler ' for October 1875, vol. sii. p. 246. 







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OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 139 

light of the meteor Avas very striking ; it appeared to luc to be moviug 
slowly in a comparatively horizontal course." 

The most important instances when duplicate observations of meteors were 
collected during the past year, permitting tlio height and direction of the 
meteors' real paths to be determined and very accurate results to be obtained, 
occurred on the 3rd, 7th, and 14th of September, 1875. It would occupy 
too large a space in these Eeports to relate at length the various accounts 
that were published of these meteors ; and those which offered the greatest 
accuracy of description and position only arc hero extracted from the compa- 
rison and reduction of a great many excellent records of their appearance 
published by Captain Tupman in the ' Astronomical llegister' for April 1876. 

Meteor of September 3rd, 1875, 9'' 52'" p.m. — A meteor ending with a 
flash almost as blinding as the sun, seen by G. L. Tupman at the Eoyal 
Observatory, Greenwich, with au apparent diameter of about 15' of arc, 
falling exactly vertically in 1| or 2 seconds to a point less than 1° below 
and rather less than this to tlie loft of k Aquilse, from a distance of some 20° 
above that point. It diminished in brightness at first, but disappeared with 
a flash at last, having about lialf the moon's apparent diameter, as far as its 
brilliancy allowed the eye to estimate apparent dimensions of its disk, and it 
appeared globular and left no streak on its course. 

This is the description given of it by Captain Tupman, and similar accounts 
of its path and appearance were. obtained at other places. At Tedstonc Dcla- 
mere Eectory, near YV^orcester, it was visible in the S.E. by S. falling verti- 
cally, and also falling vertically at the Eadcliffe Observatory, Oxford, by 
Mr.' Lucas ; while at Leighton Buzzard the direction of its path was also 
vertically downwards ; and its appearance at all these places was extremely 
brilliant'. The radiant-point of this meteor was very nearly in the zenith at 
the time of its appearance ; and from the positions of its apparent course 
furnished by the diff'creut observers, Captain Tupman concluded approxi- 
mately its real course, as will be seen in the annexed Table (p. 144) of the real 
paths of this large meteor and of two other brilliant fireballs which appeared 
a few days later in the same month*. 

The second large meteor generally observed in the southern parts of 
England in the first week of the same month appeared at 11'' 21'" p.m., 
September 7th, 1876 ; and eight or nine reliable obsei-vations of its apparoit 
course at different places, principally in Kent or Surrey, and Essex, and at 
Ipswich and Oxford, were collected and compared together by Captain Tup- 
man. Among these are dcsciiptions by the observers at the Royal Observa- 
tory, Grreenwich, and at the lladclifte Observatory, Oxford. It appears to 
have been of somewhat less splendour than the other two bright fireballs of 
which numerous accounts in the beginning of September were obtained ; but 
yet, as seen from Writtlc near Chelmsford, almost immediately below its 
real point of disappearance, it M'ill be seen, from Mr. H. Corder's excellent 
description of itt which foUows, that its light was sufficient to illuminate all 
objects with a bright flash, and that a very distinctly audible detonation 
followed its disappearance. 

" I did not see it at first, but heard that it rose upwards from the S.W. 

* The details of llie various descriptions, and a valuable series of conchisions and 
deductions from them, will be found in au article communicated by Captaiu Tupman in 
the ' Astronomical Kegister ' for April 1876. The final results of his calculations of 
these meteors' real paths are also contained in the number for February, 1876, of the 
' Monthly Notices ' of the Astronomical Society, vol. xxxvi. p. 216. 

t ' Astronomical Register' for October 1875, vol. xii. p. 246. 



140 REPOET— 1876. 

[■? S.E.], bursting like a skyrocket into a number of pieces, then fading away 
and bursting out again. At first it was of a blue colour. It was sufficiently 
brilliant to light up the country. When I saw it it had just passed above 
a Andromedse, and was of a decided mauve tint and double. It rushed along 
at a great speed, with an unsteady flickering light of great brilliancy, and 
disappeared near the cluster [j^] in Perseus. It left no train, but was followed 
by a few sparks. One minute and three quarters after disruption I heard a 
double explosion like the firing of a double-barrelled gun at a distance, fol- 
lowed for about 15 seconds by a roUing sound like distant thunder. I also 
heard that on the Friday previous (the 3rd of September) a bright meteor was 
seen, just befoi-e 10 p.m., bursting into several red sparks. It went about in 
a direction N. to S.'' 

Another well-described account of the magnitude and appearance of the 
bolide of September 7th is that of Mr. W. A. Schultz, who saw it at 
Lewisham (near London), Kent, and writes that it appeared to be three 
times the apparent size of the planet Jupiter, of bluish-white colour, 
leaving a fine train. The nucleus was of extreme brilliancy, and emitted 
magnificent blue and red sparks. Its duration was 1^ second. From Mr. 
Corder's account near Chelmsford it appears that the fireball detonated, or 
broke up and disappeared with an audible explosion, the sound of which 
occupied 1| minute in reaching his position. This being, according to the 
calculated real place of the meteor at disappearance (21 miles above a point 
near Wilham in Essex), about 2i5 miles distant from his place of observation 
(a distance which sound takes 1™ 50'' to travel at its ordinary speed in air), 
it affords a satisfactory' ground for the conclusion that this fii-eball, although 
not so brilliant as that which preceded it on September 3rd, was yet certainly 
of the detonating or " aerolitic " class, which was also the character of the 
fireball of 14th September, to be next described. 

This was one of the largest meteors which has been visible in England 
for several years ; and numerous notices of it were published in the daily 
newspapers, in addition to which several private accounts of its appearance 
were collected by the Committee, and more particularly by Captain Tupman, 
who himself observed the meteor, and who has compared together all the 
available descriptions. Omitting details of the apparent positions of the 
meteor's path by the stars, which have been recorded and carefully reduced 
by Captain Tupman in the above-mentioned communication in the ' Astro- 
nomical Ilegister," the following are some of the particulars recorded at 
diff'erent places of the meteor's brightness and general appearance. 

IS'ear the Iloyal Observatory, Greenwich, Sept. 14th, 8" 27^'", G.M.T., 
Captain Tupman states: — "The fireball was very bright, but of ordinary 
appearance, three or four times brighter than Venus ; long train ; left no 
streak ; colour white ; motion slow and stately. I estimated the duration at 
two seconds, perhaps more ; but I did not count. Lieut. Neate, R.N"., saw 
it from the Observatory grounds, but lost it behind a roof at mid course, 
after seeing it for two seconds. Colour deep yellow, with red lower edge. 
Time 8.27 p.m." 

Train Inn Station, near Hereford, S'' 30'" p.m. — The Eev. T. J. Smith 
describes the colour as a beautiful greenish blue of intense brightness, even 
in the strong moonlight. The train narrow and straight, of red sparks, 
which continued longer than the light of the head. It aj^peared to extin- 
guish without any detonation. 

Near Wisbech, Mr. S. H. Miller writes : — " I was driving towards the 
■west, and the moon shining brightly in a cloudless sky, when my attention 



OBSKRVATION9 0¥ LUMINOUS METEOKS. 141 

was attracted towards the north by the bright light of this beautiful meteor. 
At first it was as large as Venus thi-ee times magnified, and of a blue colour. 
In about a second it passed into the pear-shape, leaving a thin streak behind 
it. [The appearance of a fireball seen at Wisbech on March 4th, 1872 (see 
these lleports for 1872, p. 76), "like a drop of molten silver," is here referred 
to by Mr. Miller as exactly resembling the aspect which this fireball assumed 
at its greatest brightness.] In another second it diminished to the size of 
a star of third magnitude and appeared yellow. There was no explosion, 
but it disappeared about 15° from the horizon."' 

Other ||descriptions at Teignmouth, Wath near Eotherham, Halstead in 
Essex, Faringdon in Berks, York, Ludlow, Bath, Cambridge, and Manchester 
agree in describing the luminous appearance of sparks, corruscations, and light 
flakes accompanying the meteor as confined to a short flaming and flickering 
tail, sometimes divided, following the head, somewhat redder than the fore- 
most brightest part, which had an apparent width of i or |, while the whole 
apparent length of the oval disk of the meteor was fully equal to or some- 
what surpassed one lunar diameter, and the nucleus collapsed on nearing 
the horizon without any signs of an explosion. Some portions of the train 
of sparks appear to have been of more persistency than the rest, as an observer 
at Sudbury, Sufi'olk, writes : — " The shooting-star itself was very large 
and bright ; and attached was a long tail, broken at about a third of its length 
from the end into dashes and dots of bright colours, leaving a white track 
behind for several seconds after the meteor itself had disappeared." The 
accounts at other places describe a flame-like tail and sparks following the 
head, although not a persistent light-streak left iipon the meteor's course. 
An observer at Duxford, near Cambridge, saw not only the meteor but the 
sparks also througJi an ordinary white calico window-blind, which was cloiun 
at the time. 

As regards the meteor's brightness, its light at some points of observation 
fully equalled and perhaps surpassed the intensity of full moonlight. In a 
letter to Mr. Glaisher, an observer at St. Ives, Hunts, Mr. J. King "Watts, 
relates that the meteor " started into view from Ursa Major immediately 
opposite the moon ; it travelled slowly, was of the most intense bright white 
light, round, and five or six times the size of any of the planets. The sky 
was clear and cloudless. "VVe were travelling between the moon and the 
meteor, and our shadows on the road caused by the moon were of course 
large and clear, but those caused by the meteor were more clear and more 
sharply defined." A notice of no less interest and importance (but with which 
no name and locality were given) appeared in the ' Northumberland Daily 
Express,' affording good proof of the intensity and duration of the meteor's 
light. " There was a tree in the passage ; and suddenly I found myself sur- 
rounded by a wonderfully bright light, and the shadow of the tree was cast 
on the wall on my left, every leaf and twig more distinctly than in the sun- 
shine." Believing the light to proceed from a window in the house, and per- 
ceiving it to come from beyond the house, the observer stepped back a few 
paces to the corner, and was just in time to see a most brilliant meteor de- 
scending towards the earth. " It did not burst or explode in any way, but 
gradually diminished till it became extinct." The glare of the meteor's light 
on the ground, already strongly lighted up by the moon, attracted Mr. J. AV. 
Proctor's attention to it when driving north-westwards from Grimstone 
towards York ; and an observer near Carlisle, driving southwards to that 
town from Longtown, describes the meteor's appearance thus: — " At 8'' 2.5™ a 
meteor of most dazzling brightness caught my eye. I saw it first apparently in 



142 REPORT— 1876. 

close proximity to the full moon, -which hy the side of the meteor appeared 
quite pale. In colour it was not xiulike a Roman candle [white or blue]. 
It moved very slowly through the sky, in a direction westwards and down- 
wards." [The direction assumed in the calculations is towards the point iv** 
or 20™ indicated by the hands of a clock, having the moon at the centre of 
the dial.] 

The earth-point of this meteor, as concluded from the observations by Cap- 
tain Tupman, or the place where the meteor's real path prolonged would 
have reached the ground, is in the neighbourhood of Sedburgh, a town in the 
extreme north-west part of Yorkshire, and not far south-south-eastwards 
from Carlisle. The point of disappearance was at a height of only 13 or Id- 
miles above the earth's surface, not far from Pately Bridge, West Eiding, 
Yorkshire. The distance of this latter point from Wath, near Eotherham, 
is about 47 miles, which sound Avould traverse, with its ordinary speed in air, 
in about 3'" 47*. Mr. W. M. Burman, who saw and describes the meteor as it 
appeared at this place, heard a detonation which, from its close agreement 
with the calculated time required by the sound of the meteor's disruption at 
disappearance to reach him, was probably a distinctly audible sound of its 
explosion. He writes: — "The magnificent meteor of Tuesday night, Sept. 
14th, was well seen here in a cloudless sky at S"" 26"" G.M.T. I was walk- 
ing, and the full moon was throwing my shadow on the wall on my right, 
when suddenly a dazzling light shone around, and my shadow vanished from 
the wall. Upon looking up, I saw this magnificent meteor slowly careering 
across the sky, quite overpowering the light of the moon. It passed nearly 
overhead, and disappeared in the N.W. by W. It was of a half-moon shape, 
the preceding part being convex and sharp, the following part flame-like and 
flickering, and of a brilliant bluish-white colour. No red tinge was seen 
from first to last, nor train, nor sparks. Its diameter was about half that 
of the moon. In that dazzling light it was impossible to see any star ; but 
soon after it had passed I tried to make out its path*. Its total visibility 
was about 6 seconds ; but I only saw it during 4 or 4| seconds, as it wect 
behind the roof of an adjacent house; but a friend (who saw the end of its 
course from a neighbouring place) says that it simply disappeared, no sparks 
being visible, nor any change of colour. Three and a half minutes after it 
disappeared I heard a sharp and sudden explosion, like the report of a small 
cannon at a distance, exactly from the direction that the meteor had taken ; 
but whether it had any thing to do with the meteor or not I cannot tell." 
Mr. Burman adds that " the rumbling of a distant train prevented me from 
hearing any sound during the passage of the meteor, if any such were 
audible; " and it was, in fact, remarked by several who described the meteor, 
that while it was in sight a rushing or hissing sound accompanied its pas- 
sage through the air. Passing over these descriptions as impressions of very 
doubtful positive reality, the case of such a sound recorded at York by Mr. 
Proctor may perhaps be explained as due to a real detonation, of which he 
gives the following description at that place: — "I have some impression that 
it Avas accompanied or followed by a rushing sound, and a friend of mine 
thought the same, but amounting to an explosion at a great distance." In 
a note of some length in ' Nature ' (vol. xii. p. 460) on large meteors in the 

* Mr. Burnian's positiou, so nearly under the brigLtest portion of the meteor's track, 
may have led to its extreme brightness biding and OTerpowering the sparks and duller 
fragments which, at more distant stations, are said to hare attended and followed tho 
meteor in some part of its course as a train of redder colour than the head. 



OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 143 

early part of September, 1875, particulars of the appearance of that of 
September 14th as seen at Bradford are extracted from the ' Bradford Ob- 
server' of September 15th, where it is related that "to a spectator it bore 
the appearance of some solid body in a state of combustion, the sparks flying 
out on all sides, and a track of flame being left after its passage. Its passage 
was accompanied by a noise as of a loud explosion, which was plainly heard, 
not only by those who were outside, but by persons inside the houses who 
did not see the aerolite itself. All parties concur in saying that so strong a 
light was cast around that a newspaper could easily be read for the space of 
half a minuto." 

It should be remarked as a curious coincidence, not unfrequently recorded 
in the accounts of large meteors, that a companion fireball of the brilliant 
meteor of September 14th was noticed by one observer of its appearance, Mr. 
J. J. Allinson, at Lynn, Norfolk, states that " at 8** 20™ p.m., the moon 
shining brilliantly in a cloudless and clear sky, I saw very low down in the 
eastern heavens a bright meteor of a bluish colour, three or four times the 
size and two or three times the brightness of Venus at her largest and 
brightest. The bearing was about E. by N., and it seemed moving in a 
northerly direction, but, by its getting larger, to be approaching the spot 
where I was standing. I should say it disappeared before reaching the 
horizon. [There is little doubt. Captain Tupman observes, that this meteor 
belonged to the same meteor-system as the much larger companion fireball 
by which it was shortly followed.] About 4 or 5 minutes afterwards, whilst 
looking in a south-westerly direction, I was attracted by a bright light in the 
north-western sky, and on looking towards that quarter observed a most 
splendid meteor, about the size and colour of the first, but much more 
brilliant, descending from near the last star [>;] in the tail of the Great Bear 
in an almost vertical, but I should say somewhat irregular course." Of the 
former of these two fireballs no corresponding observations (as it must have 
been seen over distant parts of the North Sea or over Belgium) from other places 
have hitherto been obtained ; but from its central position over the midland 
and northern counties of England, observations of the second extremely bright 
meteor of the pair were recorded abundantly at all stations throughout the 
country, as has been described, from its interest and importance, in the fore- 
going paragraphs at considerable length. 

Both this large fireball and that which preceded it on Sept. 7th may be 
presumed from these descriptions to have been " aerolitic " or detonating 
ones ; and it is remarkable that they had nearly a common radiant-point, and 
that this point of divergence or real direction of the two meteors' flights is 
in close agreement with well-established radiant-points of shooting-stars in 
the first half of September, to which the observations of Ileis and Schmidt, and 
the meteor-shower lists of Greg and Tupman, all agree in assigning very nearly 
corresponding places and durations. The following Table, p. 144 (from the 
'Monthly Notices' of the Astronomical Society stij). cit.), describes the results 
of calculation from observations of these three large meteors ; and the closing 
words of his communication to the 'Astronomical Eegister' (from which the 
foregoing particulars are extracted) will here describe the astronomical deter- 
minations obtained by Captain Tupman as regards the actual orbits and the 
probable known showers or systems of ordinary shooting-stars to which the 
last two detonating fireballs of these three bright September meteors may, in 
all probability, be conjectured to have belonged. 



114 



REPORT — 1876. 



5 

•i 

o 

ft; 



Ui 
00 






I 

s 






Nearest known Meteor. 
Radiant-point. 


S. & Z. No. 140. 
Sept. 5, 321°, +60°. 


O' o' 

CO O 

til 7. 
t~ + + 

do" «o' 

a'^.s'". 

d irf 'oi lO 

a 1-H hj .-1 


Schmidt. 
Sept. 3-14, 346°, +3° : 
and Sept. 344°, -3°. 


Length of Path, Dura- 
tion, and Velocity. 
Statute miles per sec. 


About 20 miles per se- 
cond (approximate 
conjectural value 
from two observa- 
tions). 


18 miles per second 
(average of four least 
discordant observa- 
tions ; probable error 
+5 miles). 


121 miles in 8 seconds 
(mean of nine esti- 
mates of duration). 
Velocity 15 miles per 
second; certainly a 
close appro.\imation. 


.4.3 

1 

O 

o 

■§ 

P^ 
1 


0^ 

o 

a 

d' 
en 

s 


Miles). 

11 75 to 40 ( + 1) 
1 14 miles S.S.E. of 

3 Sussex coast, 50° 


22 miles above a 
point 5 miles 
S.S.E. of Wi- 
tham. 


14 miles over Heb- 
den Moor, West 
Elding, York- 
shire (54° 3' N., 
1° 53'-5 W.). 


8 

a 

d 


(Statute 

Fell vertically froi 

miles above a poin 

Selsey Bill, on th 

31' N., 0° 37' W. 


82 miles over mid 
point between 
Ashford and 
Hythe,Kent,and 
thence 67 miles 

above Faversham, 
Kent (Writtle 
observation). 


63 miles over Hin- 
dringham, Nor- 
folk (52° 53' N., 
0° 66' B.). 


i 

'o 

i 
1 


1 

p 


SI 

O 
X 

IJ OJ 


344° +14° 

(near a Pegasi). 

A second inde- 
pendent re- 
duction gave 

347° +15° 
4- 2° 


348° 0° 
(+2°) 
(Near y Piscium) 


Weight or 
degree of 
accuracy. 


From tliree ac- 
cordant ob- 
servations. 


From six ac- 
cordant and 
two discor- 
dant observa- 
tions. 


From twelve (8 
of wluch are 
good) accor- 
dant observa- 
tions. 


G. M. T. 


a?i s 
-aci 


11 21 

P.M. 


00 




1 1875. 
1 Sept. 3 


l- 


r-4 



OBSEllVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 145 

Regarding the second, which, like the last of these meteors, was probably 
aerolitic. Captain Tupman observes : — " It had two heads, one close behind the 
other, or it divided itself at mid course, the two parts slowly increasing their 
distance apart by retardation of the hindermost as they rushed through some 
50 miles in something under 3 seconds of time. This appears to be a proof 
of sensible retardation by the density of the atmosphere, although its pres- 
sure could hardly have exceeded two tenths of an inch of mercury. Had the 
meteor remained in existence another second it would have fallen into the 
village of Castle Hedingham, 5 miles S."W. of Sudbury. The heated matter 
left behind it in the form of a tail was visible along 10 or 15 miles of its 
path " *. On the resemblance of the orbit of the last of the three meteors 
to that of the second, the following considerations are also adduced : — " The 
astronomical radiant-point is within 15°, probably within 10° of that of the 
meteor of Sept. 7th. The two meteors were also similar in character, and 
they appear to have moved with nearly equal velocity, something under 20 
miles a second. This part of the heavens has also been known for many 
years as a radiant-region for shooting- stars at this period of the year. 

" Dr. Heis found for September 343 4-10 

Messrs. Greg and Hersoliel, September 344 -f 1 2 

Dr. Schmidt, Sept. 3-14 346 + 3 | g^.^ ^qo 

„ Sept 344 — 3/ — 

Tupman, 1871, Sept. 3-15 345 +13 

" The mean of the two found by Schmidt is within 3° of the Sept. 14 fire- 
ball radiant, and the mean of the other three is as close to the Sept. 7 
radiant. The old positions, therefore, receive a genuine and unexpected 
confirmation from these two fireballs, the radiants obtained for which are 
certainly quite as accurate as the others, and merit being classed as new 
determinations." 

An interesting notice (as observed above) of the remarkable fireballs of the 
first two weeks in September appeared in ' Nature ' of Sept. 23rd, 1875 (vol. 
xii. p. 460), in the course of which some particulars similar to those related 
above of the appearances of these splendid meteors are described. 

Among the few accurate descriptions which were obtained of the large 
daylight fireball of the 22nd of December, 1875, the accounts of its appear- 
ance by observers at Dorking, at Southampton, and near Ware are included 
in the list of large meteors accompanying this Report. The following obser- 
vation of it by Mr. T. W. Webb (' Nature,' vol. xii. p. 187) furnishes some 
further extremely valuable notes of its apparent course. 

* It should be observed that in his investigations of the stonefall of Pultusk (Jan. 30, 
1868) it was shown by Galle that the area upon which the stones fell was vertically below 
the point of the fireball's disappearance (twenty miles above the earth), and not, as might 
have been anticipated, in the line of the meteor's obliquely descending course prolonged 
onwards from that point to meet the earth's surface. A drawing of the fireball of Sep- 
tember 7, 1875, from a sketch at the time, was recently communioated to the Committee 
by Mr. H. Corder, representing his view of the meteor in the end part of its course, which 
he observed. After a bright disruption into several pieces (seen by other observers), 
two large nuclei were visible, not following each other, but moving side by side, equally 
bright and tapering, and one of them about half a length in advance of the other, with 
a clear interval of about one diameter of each between them. A very small fragment 
was also visible, which disappeared quickly, while the two heads continued their course, 
with scarcely any changes of brightness or of relative position, from near o Andromedre to 
near x Pcrsei. where they died out rather suddenly, leaving no streaks, almost together. 
The sound came from the S.E., where the meteor burst, not from the east, where it died away ; 
and persons who saw it before the disruption said that the meteor was then a single body. 
1876. i 



146 REPORT — 1876. 

Hay, S. Wales. — " Dec. 22. As our servants -were sitting at dinner by the 
kitchen -window, two of them were startled by the sudden appearance of a 
brilliant meteor, apparently descending in the east, with a little inclination 
to north. It was not so large as the moon, but much larger than Saturn or 
Mars; white and like lightning, with a very quick course, leaving a train as 
broad as itself, and preserving its full size tiU lost behind the top of au oak 
tree at a little distance, whose branches, though leafless, seem to have con- 
cealed it from view. The next day I found, by means of a compass and 
joined ruler, that its azimuth was E. by N., its inclination towards north 
about 10°; the upper window-frame, where it probably came in sight, 48°, 
and the top of the tree about 18° above the horizon. I have not as yet 
heard of any other observation of this remarkable meteor. The position of 
Hardwicke Vicarage, where it was seen, according to the Ordnance Map is 
long. W. 3° 4' 23", lat. N. 52^ 5' 20"." 

A comparison of this account with the observation at Braughing by Mr. 
Daw affords a rough detenmination of the real path and direction and of the 
probable place and altitude of this unusually bright meteor's course above 
the earth's surface ; but owing to the absence of estimates of the duration of 
its flight, no probable value of the meteor's real velocity can bo assigned. 
The course of this daylight meteor appears to have been from about 45 miles 
above the southern part of AVarwickshire to about 15 miles above the centre 
of Northamptonshire, disappearing about 50 miles from Mr. Daw's position 
near Ware, in Herts, where he states that no sound of an explosion fol- 
lowing its appearance could be perceived. The direction of its flight was 
from a radiant-point at about E. A. 250°, N. dccl. 20° (near /3 Herculis), distant 
about 45° above and westward from the apparent place of the mid- winter 
sun, which was shining brightly above the southern horizon when the meteor 
came in sight*. 

The bright meteor seen in twilight on April 15th, 1876, at Biistol and 
Hawkhurst (see the accompanying fireball-list), must have passed over Ire- 
land or the Irish Channel far west from Bristol, as the position of its apparent 
path there, near the setting planet Yenus, differed very little from the simi- 
lar account of its ajiparent path in Kent. The position of its radiant-point 
cannot have been the usual one in Virgo (about 196°, -j-0) in the early part of 
April, as its recorded path at Bristol, prolonged backwards nearly parallel to 
the ecliptic, crosses the constellation Virgo about 20° south of the equator in 
the neighbourhood of this position, proceeding from the direction of a region 
where no well-established radiant-point of ordinary shooting-stars has hitherto 
been observed. 

The next large meteor, of which many contemporaneous observations were 
communicated to the Committee, some of which have also appeared in the 
daily newspapers, was that of July 25, 1876, about 10'' 5" p.m. Several ac- 
counts of this fireball are contained in the list of large meteors accompanying 
this Report. It resembled the fireball of September 14th, 1875, in appearance, 
excepting that a decided green hue of the nucleus was observed, and a some- 
what more voluminous train of red sparks and fragments appears to have 
followed the head. The light which it cast was not so intense as that of the 
fireball of September 14, and no sound of a detonation is related to have 
been perceived. The radiant-point of this large fireball was near Antares ; 
but, owing to its recent appearance, the descriptions of it hitherto collected 

* ' Monthly Notices ' of the Eoyal Astrouomical Society, vol. xxxvi. p. 217. Mr. Daw's 
place of observation, given as "Brangling" in that arcnnnt, should have been Branghing, 
neai- Ware, in Herts. 



OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 



147 



have not been submitted to exact calculation, although some of those recorded 
in the present list are sufficient to determine with considerable accuracy ita 
real path. 

From the following descriptions it appears probable that a companion 
meteor may also have been visible, corresponding nearly in the time of its 
appearance with the principal large fireball which was generally observed. 
Mr. John Lane, whose very exact observation of the meteor at Poplar, 
London, is included in the list, remarks : — " It appears to me there must 
have been two meteors seen near tlie sarne time, one sea-green and very large 
[the meteor of 10'' o" p.m., July 2o], the other purple and somewhat smaller. 
The clear observation and description given by Mr. H. Pratt from Brighton I 
cannot harmonize with my own, while some others agree very well with it. 
My results are that it began vertically over a point in W. long. 1°, N. lat. 
50° 10', and ended over AV. loug. 2° 15', X. lat. 51° 4-3', at an elevation of 
about 34 miles. Distance travelled in relation to the earth 120 miles, in the 
orbit of the meteor 170 miles. Actual diameter about 500 yards." 

The following duplicate observation of a shooting-star from the direction 
of o Lyrae on the date of this large meteor's aj^pearance was obtained (as the 
Committee was informed by Mr. Denning) from a comparison of his own ob- 
servations at Bristol with those made by Mr. Clark on that date at Street, 
near Glastonbury, about 20 miles south-south-westwards from his point of 
observation. 



Ashley Down.Bristol 


1S76, 


= 1st 


Rapid, Radt. 


From 276°, +4° 


9° length 


(W. F. Deuning). 


July 25, 
lO^ 5.')"' P.M. 


mag. 
star. 


near a Lyrre. 


to 275° -5° 


of path. 


Street, near Gtlaston- 


1876, 


= 1st 


1-J^seo. Direc- 


From 280'', 4-22° 


22°length 


bury, Somerset- 


July 25, 


mag. 


ted straight 


to280'',±0° 


of path. 


shire (J. E.Clark). 


10'»55™p.M. 


star. 1 


from Vega. 







Another large fireball, apparently a Persei'd, was very generally seen and 
recorded in the southern counties of England at about 11'" 23'" p.ji. on the 
11th of August, 1876, several descriptions of which are included in the 
accompanying fireball list. Of this bright meteor (which had a long course 
and possessed great illimiinating power, and which left a persistent streak 
visible for about a minute, becoming curved or serpentine before it dis- 
appeared) the real path derivable from the observations hitherto collected has 
not yet been computed from the few exact observations of it which have been 
preserved. But of this fireball, and of an equally bright one which appeared 
at about 9*^ 26"" p.m. on August 15, sufficiently abundant materials exist to 
enable their real heights and the true radiant-points or meteor-systems to 
which they must have belonged to be satisfactorily ascertained. As regards 
their brightness and appearance, some observations not contained in the 
above list are here subjoined, for which the Committee is indebted to the 
active correspondence and communicatioris of Mr. Denning respecting the 
several bright meteors which have been visible in quick succession dui-ing 
the past month of August. 

Keynshara, near Bristol (Mr. H. Marks).— On the 11th of August (1876) 
I was walking along a valley from about 10'' 45"' to 11'' 15"' p.m. [the time is 
a rough approximation], when all at once — I did not notice the star there 
before — an exceedingly bright star shot from about N.E. close to the horizon 
to S.W., leaving a tail I should say about halfway across the heaven, 
gradually disappearing, but not entirely gone, I should thinlc, for 5 minutes. 
The star appeared about the size of a cocoanut, and caused a grand iUumi- 

j, 2 



U8 REPORT— 1876. 

nation, so much like summer lightning that a friend whom I met afterwards 
walking in the opposite direction, and who had not seen the star, asked me if 
I saw the lightning, when I pointed out what it was, and showed him the 
tail. A similar one appeared in about 10 minutes, but not quite so bright, 
taking its course from a little nearer north, and stopping a little nearer south. 
Both of these stars were larger and brighter than anj' I ever saw before, and 
they increased twofold in size and brightness as they went." A sketch is 
annexed showing the courses of the meteors Nos. 1 and 2, the first from 
about N.E. by N. to S.W. by S., and the second on a course from about 
N.N.E. to S.S.W., both tracks extending between points at no very great 
altitude and at nearly equal apparent elevations above the horizon in those 
directions. It appears probable that both of these large meteors were Per- 
seids of considerable brightness, of which the first, however (at about ll*" 23"*, 
as observed elsewhere), left the most conspicuous and long-enduring light- 
streak on its course. 

Meteor of August loth, 1876, about O*" 30" p.m., Bath (Mr. W. Bush).— 
" On the above evening I took a seat in my garden at about O*" 45"° p.m. 
at the back of the house, which faces the south-west. I had scarcely been 
seated more than a minute, when I beheld an exceedingly brilliant meteor 
of a bluish colour, having a very long white train. It was the second largest 
meteor I have ever seen. It was at first perceptible to me on the eastern 
extremity of Ursa Major, but a little nearer the horizon, I should say at an 
apparent altitude of about 45°. It travelled somewhat obliquely downwards 
from north-east to south-west, and it finally disappeared behind some houses. 
In its transit, which occupied several seconds, it passed behind a cloud, 
and emerging from thence was again equally brilliant." [The duration given 
is 20 or 30 seconds ; but this cannot be regarded as more than a very rough 
estimation of the real duration of the meteor's flight. The point of first 
appearance described is between Arcturus and the tail-stars of Ursa Major, 
which were on its left, or " eastern extremity " (practically), in the observer's 
situation facing the south-west.] 

The account of this meteor's appearance by Lieut. H. de H. Haigh at Penn 
Ilthon, JSTewtown, in Wales (other particulars of his description being given 
in the above list), was as follows : — " At first it appeared larger, but not much 
more brilliant, than an ordinary shooting-star ; but it rapidly changed colour 
from light yellow to red, and finally to a dazzling white resembling the 
magnesium light, but far more intense, at the same time giving off volumes 
of smoke, which trailed behind it like the tail of a comet. Its light about 
the middle of its course was so brilliant that one could have read by it." 

At Pontardawe, Swansea, it is described as the largest meteor ever seen 
in the district, falling in the north, and illuminating the country for miles 
around. 

At St. Clear's, near Caermarthen, a splendid meteor, with a light like 
that of daylight, moved rapidly "eastward," followed by a train of most 
brilliant hues — green, orange, crimson, and violet. It lasted for about eight 
seconds. Mr. J. P. IN'orris, at Bristol, wrote : — " A splendid meteor has this 
moment fallen due west of this house. It first appeared in the neighbour- 
hood of Arcturus, then seemed to burst and trail light of rainbow colours, 
and was visible nearly to the horizon slanting toivards the north. Its 
distance cannot have been great, for we saw it for two thirds of its course 
against a dark cloud. It may therefore have fallen in the neighbourhood of 
Clevedon." 

The direction of the meteor's motion in these accounts, its long dura- 



OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 149 

tion, and the absence of a persistent liglit-streak on its courflo, proves it 
not to have been a Perseid, and the radiant was found by Mr. Denning, from 
other descriptions of its apparent course, to have been in the constellation 
Aquila. A similar optical illusion to that described b}' Mr. Norris, of the 
fireball appearing to be projected on a background of dark cloud during a 
part of its course, -was noticed by an observer of the largo fireball of Sep- 
tember 14th, 1875, at Faringdon, Berks, Mr. AV. Dundas, who writes that " the 
sky above was cloudless ; but shortly before I lost sight of it some heavy 
clouds low in the sky (and before and after invisible) were brightly displaj'cd 
as it passed them. To me it seemed at the time as if the meteor passed 
between mo and them, and that the light on them was refiected, not trans- 
mitied. Of course, if the meteor was seen also at Bath it could not be so ; 
but it suffered no visible diminution of brilliancy while passing these 
clouds " *. 

An observer of the same meteor (August 15, 9.30 p.ir.), at Cirencester, 
describes it as very magnificent, " passing slowly across the north-western 
heavens, about midway between Arcturus and the horizon. The colour was 
a vivid pale green ; it left a greenish wake behind it, and burst with brilliant 
scintillations of whiter light." 

II. Large Meteors. 

1876, June 15, about 8^ 5" or S"* 15" p.m. local time, Suez, and several 
stations on the Grand Canal. — In the ' Comptes Rendus,' vol. Ixxxiii. p. 28, 
a number of accounts from the station-masters at many places on the Suez 
Canal, from Suez to Rouville Simsah and Baz-el-beh, are reported by M. 
Lesseps of a very large detonating meteor which appeared at the above time. 
At the two latter places no sound of a detonation is described ; but the 
meteor was extremely bright, bursting at last like a rocket, and moving in 
the south-east from west to east. This was also the direction of its motion 
at the midway station El-Ferdan, where its hght was dazzling, its dura- 
tion was three seconds, and a detonation followed it like distant thunder. 
The detonation was most violent at the " deversoir," where the meteor like a 
mass of white light moved from south to north, apparently approaching, 
and left in the zenith after its disappearance a comet-like cloud of light 
visible for several seconds (a perfectly similar appearance of tho meteor was 
observed at Barneses). Almost immediately after its disappearance, a noise 
like that of thunder and detonations, which were for an instant terrifying, 
were heard. At the station of Xabret the meteor, intensely bright and 
lasting three seconds, was seen to burst like a rocket, and was immediately 
followed by a thunder-like report. At one of the southernmost stations the 
meteor seemed to fall in the neighbourhood, descending like a fiery dart, 
which burst at last, and sounds like distant cannons followed two minutes 
after its disappearance. At Suez the meteor illuminated the horizon bril- 
liantly for a few seconds. 

1870, July 8, about 8" 55" p.m. (local time), Indiana, U.S.— The following 
letter from Prof. D. Kirkwood appeared in the 'New York Tribune' of 
July 19, 1876, describing the appearance of a very brilliant fireball in the 
State of Indiana, U.S., on the above date, leaving a streak of light of unusual 
duration on its track : — 

" Sib, — A meteor of extraordinary brilliancy was visible in all parts of 

* ' ABtronomical Kegister' for April 1876, Appendix, p. 11. 



150 REPORT — 1876. 

Indiana on -Haturday evening, July 8, about five minutes before 9 o'clock. 
Observations of the plienomeuon have been reported from Paoli, Eloomington , 
ludianopolis, Elkhart, and various other points — the distance apart of the 
first and last-named localities being over 270 miles. Mr. J, W. HoUiugs- 
Avorth, of Paoli, says, ' Spectators agree in giving it a path from jST.E. to 
N.W., with an altitude of at first 20°, and disappearing below the horizon. 
One careful observer states that the streak of light following remained visible 
more than 40 minutes of time, and all agree in ascribing a diameter of one 
fourth to one third of a degree.' At ludianopolis, according to tho ' Daily 
Journal ' of July 10, the meteor appeared ' in the constellation Cassiopeia at 
a point about 25° above the horizon, whence it proceeded in a right liue to 
the north-west, and passed over an arc of about 30°, and vanished in space 
10° above the horizon.' 

"According to the observations at Paoli and ludianopolis, the meteor 
became visible at an elevation of 130 miles above the earth's surface. It is 
to be regretted tliat sufficient data have not been furnished for determining- 
its height at disappearance, the length of its visible track, and tho eccentricity 
of its orbit." 

III. Periodic Stae-Showers, 1875-76. 

With the exception of the annual reappearances of the Persci'ds, there have 
been no marked occurrences of periodic star-showers during the past year. 
The few particulars relating to them wliich have been received will be 
described below ; and the following details refer chiefly to the display of 
JPersei'ds in 1875 observed on the continent, accounts of which in England, 
as described in the last Eeport, were obtained at a few stations onlj', owing 
to the stormy weather that prevailed on the principal periodic nights. 

Stcir-SJiower of August 9th-llih, 1875 : Observations by the French Scientific 
Association (' Comptes Pendus,' vol. Ixxsi. p. 439, September Gth, 1875). — 
Report on the shower in Switzerland and elsewhere, by Dr. C. Wolf, of 
Ziirich. At Eochefort, Messrs. Simon and Courbebaisse counted, on the average 
of the whole time of their combined watch during the nigbt of the 10th of 
August, 133 meteors per hour. At Avignon 858 meteors were mapped in the 
same night between tho hours of 8.35 p.m. and 3'' 40" a.m. by M. Giraud, 
assisted by several observers. At Lisbon, M. Capello noted at the Observa- 
tory of 'I'lnfant Don Louis ' what appeared to be a maximum reappearance 
of the shower, 1227 meteors being counted during the v>'atch on the night 
of August 10th. Details of the shower and of the radiant-points distin- 
guished in it were also received from M. Tisserand at Toulouse and from the 
Observatory at Marseilles. 

Prof. Tacchini obtained at Palermo a number of distinct centres of radia- 
tion of the shower, of which the following is a list; and he remarks that all 
these definite centres, when projected on a map, are included, as he has 
.already formerly observed, in a narrow elongated area. 

ct= S= a= d= a= S= a= 5 = 

o 



1875. r42 -f.54-5 f4y-2 +54-0 

Aug. 9th. ■^44-2 -1-50 5 ,^^ j 41-0 -1-55-7 Aug.^ 
i44 -1-51-2 f"^-^ 41-7 4-54-5 11th" 



44-0 +53-0 Aug.-l ,, , ,„.„ 
390 +5()-3 12lh/"^"^ +^'*'* 
41-7 +53-5 
44-u +510 
^45-1 +52-0 

Average of ;ill llie above siibradianl positious 42°-72, +53°-21. 



OBSERVATIONS OV LUMINOUS METEORS. 151 

At Dijon radiant-positions were also observed by Abbe Lanioy, who noted 
the mean place of the principal radiant for all the nights at R.A. 37°, N. 
Decl. 45° (A), and recorded also the foUowing general centres of showers 
which appeared to accompany the display : — atll.A. 320°-4, S. Decl. 1°'8 (B), 
and E.A. 331°, Decl. 0°. 

At Bordeaux, M. Lespianlt noticed the existence of several secondary 
radiant-points in or near the constellation Cassiopeia. 

N^otes of an abundant shower were also received from llouen, Sainte 
Honorine du Pay, and from Courtcnay, where M. Coruu observed a remark- 
able light-cloud, or band of light, stretching with blunted terminations to 
a full length of 120°, and moving eastward, which he conjectures may have 
had some connexion with the display. 

In addition to these observations collected and published in France under 
M. Le Terrier's superintendence, M. Ernest Quetelet communicated to the 
Belgian Academy of Sciences * an account of the August meteor observations 
made at the Eoyal Observatory at Brussels, and the following numbers of 
meteors were observed: — 

August 9tli, August lOtb, August lltli, 

10"-llh. 9h55'"-10i'55'"; ll^ 4o"-12i^ 45". 9'' 50'"-10'i 50'". 
(much cirrus) (some clouds) (quite clear) (clear) 

No. of meteors 16 31 59 34 

seen. (3 observers) (3 observers) (2 obseiTers) 

Do. iu order of' 
brightness(de- 

scendiug from > 3, 5, 7, 1, 0, 0. 13, 17, 34, 15, 8, 0. 2, 6, 10, 8, 7, 1. 

1st to 6tli mag- 
nitude). 

Totals 18,28, 51,24,15,1. 

The largest meteor of the shower, at 11'' 15™ (Brussels time), on the 10th, ex- 
ceeded Jupiter in brightness, and left a persistent streak visible for 20 seconds, 
which disappeared without presenting any indications of rapid currents in the 
upper atmosphere. Although a pretty bright display, this annual return of 
the August meteors was yet not so remarkable as to distinguish it as an cscep- 
tionall}' great reappearance of the shower. 

At Cheadle, in England t, a very similar view of the shower, confirming 
its marked but not very extraordinary intensity, was obtained by Mr. G. T. 
Rj^es, whose observations of tlie Persei'ds in 1871, communicated to the 
Committee by Mr. Symons, as follows, must have enabled him to make a fair 
comparison between the abundance of the meteors seen on this and on that 
earlier occasion : — " Took up a station at the top of the Wrekin with a party 
of friends for the purpose of observing the periodic display of meteors, 
Aug. 10th, 1871. Counted about 70 between 9" 30™ and 11" 30™ p.m., nearly 
all in the neighbourhood of the constellations of Perseus and Cepheus ; none 
very remarkable. A larger number seen on our way home from ll"" 30™ p.m, 
to 2" 15™ A.M., and of larger size, but not coiuited. One very briUiant one [sec 
the fireball-list in this Eeport], about 0'' 33™ a.m., lighting up the country." 

* Bulletins de I'Acad. E. des Sciences de Belgique, 2' serie, tome 39, 1875. 

t ' Astronomical Eegister,' 1875, p. 222. Erratum. — The position of the radiant-point 
of the Perseids in 1874 assigned by Mr. W. F. Denning at Bristol, in the ' Astronomical 
Eegister ' of Sept. 1874, " bewteenB, C Camelopardi and x Persei, at E.A. 2'> 55™, D. 58° 
30' N.," was at E.A. 44°, N. Decl. .58°'5; not, as misprinted in these Eeports (for 1875, 
p. 213), at E.A. 39°, N. Deel. 58°-5. 



153 REPORT— 1876. 

October, Novemher, and Decemher Star-Showers, 1875. — Of the annual 
mcteor-sliowers in October and December no observations have been received. 
The state of the sky was unfavourable for continued observations on the 
periodic dates, and in the intervals of cloudless hours devoted at some sta- 
tions to a watch, the preparations for recording the Orionids and Geminids 
in 1S75 were unsuccessful, these showers being apparently absent on the 
expected dates. At Stouyhurst Observatory a meteor-watch was kept on the 
mornings of November 12th and 15th, and also at the Royal Observatory, 
Greenwich, on the latter morning, with favourable conditions of the sky, but 
in bright moonlight*. In 2| or 3 hours before daybreak on the first 
morning eight meteors were mapped at Stonyhurst College, two or three of 
which were Leonids, three Taurids, and the rest apparently sporadic. 
Twenty-four meteors at Stonyhurst and twenty-six meteors at Greenwich 
were mapped in 3| or 4 hours of generally clear sky on the morning of the 
15th, of which ten or twelve meteors noted at each place were Leonids, and 
the rest were either Taurids or were directed from less certainly determined 
radiant-points. On the intervening mornings of the 13th and 14th the sky 
was either whoUy or almost entirely overcast. 

The Geminids of December 11-13, 1875, were watched for in England 
without success on account of cloudy skies ; and equally unfavourable con- 
ditions prevented any satisfactory observations of the meteors of the lst-2nd 
of January, 1876, from being made. But the night of January 1st proving 
clear at Sunderland, Mr. Backhouse saw two meteors, unconformable, on that 
evening-, in a few minutes' watch, and towards five o'clock on the morning of 
the 2nd of January two others in 15 minutes, which were conformable to the 
radiant-point of the annual shower. On the following morning also, at about 
2*" A.M., Mr. Backhouse noted one meteor only in a watch of 23 minutes, 
when the sky, which had been overcast before, cleared partiaUy, and it was 
conformable to the radiant-point of the shower. 

The following notice of some shooting-stars seen by the expedition under 
Captain Parry in the Arctic seas occurs in the narrative of his third voyage 
(p. 64), relating the events of the winter at Port Bowen in the year 1824, 
and it appears to indicate an appearance of the Geminids with considerable 
brightness in December of that year ; but the description includes meteors 
from other radiants as well as a particularly bright one directed exactly 
from the radiant in Gemini of the annual shower. The changes of the 
weather which accompanied these appearances being regarded by Captain 
Parry as in some intimate manner connected with the apparition of the 
meteors, are described in full detail ; but except to observe that the meteors 
seen appear to have been as exceptionally remarkable as the sudden changes 
of the weather with which they were presumed to be associated, the notable 
features of the wind and weather which are stated in the original account to 
have accompanied them need not here be reproduced at length, but only 
the passages of the narrative may be transcribed in which the apparent paths 
and appearances of the meteors seen Avere recorded with careful accuracy and 
completeness. The particulars of a few meteors thus successfully preserved 
will doubtless be held by navigators and explorers as offering them a use- 
ful example for repeating wherever practicable, and malving known in 
future to the best of their information, such highly valuable observations. 
" The meteors called falling stars were much more frequent during this 
winter than we ever before saw them, and particularly during the month 



1875 



' Monthly Notices of the Astronomical Society,' yol, xxxvi. pp. 83 and 272 (December 
5 and March 18761. 



OBSERVAXrONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 153 

of December [1824]. On the 8th, at 71" r.Ji., a large auci pretty brilliant 
meteor of this kind fell in the S.S.W. On the following day, between 
4'' and 5'' p.m., another, very brilliant, was observed in the N., falling from 
{in altitude of about 35° till lost behind the land. On the 12th no less 

than 5 meteors of this kind were observed in a quarter of an hour ; 

the account furnished me by Mr. Eoss, who with Mr. Bell observed the 

phenomena [ was] as follows: — At 11" 15™ my attention was 

directed by Mr. Bell to some meteors which he had observed, and in less 
than a quarter of an hour five were seen. The two first, noticed only by 
Mr. Bell, fell in quick succession, probably not more than two minutes apart ; 
the third appeared about eight minutes after these, and exceeded in bril- 
liancy any of the surrounding stars. It took a direction from near ft Tauri,^ 
and passing slowly towards the Pleiades left behind it sparks like the tail of 
a rocket, these being visible for a few seconds after the meteor appeared to 
burst, which it did close to the Pleiades [the direction of this meteor is 
exactly from the radiant-point r Geminorum, close behind it, of the Geminids 
of December 12th]. The fourth meteor made its appearance very near the 
same place as the last, and about 5"° after it. Taking the course of those seen 
by Mr. Bell, it passed to the eastward, and disappeared halfway between 
ft Tauri and Gemini. The fifth of these meteors was seen to the eastward, 
passing through a space of about 5° from north to south, parallel to the 
horizon, and moving along the upper part of the cloud haze which still 
extended to the altitude of 5° or 6°. It was more dim than the rest, and of 
a red colour like Aldebaran. The third of these meteors was the only one 
that left a tail behind it as above described. There was a faint appearance 
of aurora to the westward, near the horizon." [With the exception of the 
third of these five meteors, the radiants from which they were directed arc 
undetermined, and appear to have had no connexion with that of the annual 
meteor-shower in Gemini.] 

The April Meteors in 1876. — No intimations of the appearance of the 
Lyraids on the nights of April 18th-20th, 1876, have reached the Committee, 
probably owing to the very unfavourable weather for observation which pre- 
vailed. This year being a leap-year, the occurrence of the shower might be 
expected to be a day earlier than on ordinary years (April 19th-20th) ; and 
the following letter in ' Nature ' (vol. xiv. p. 26) from Professor Kirkwood, 
of Bloomington, Ind., probably describes a considerable apparition of these 
meteors in the United States on the expected meteoric date. 

"Between 10 and 12 o'clock on the night of April 18th, Mr. W. L. 
Taylor, a member of the Junior Class in the State University, with several 
other gentlemen, observed an unusual number of shooting-stars. These 
gentlemen were returning in an open waggon from EUetsville, eight miles 
north of Bloomington. No count was kept of the number of meteors observed, 
but the appearance was so frequent as to attract the attention of all the com- 
pany. Mr. Taylor thinks the number noticed cannot have been less than 
twelve or fifteen. Prom the descriptions given of the meteor-tracks, I find 
that they were nearly conformable to the radiant of the Lyraids. The 
meteors were remarkably brilliant, apparently equal to stars of the first or 
second magnitude. At my request, Mr. Benjamin Vail, a student of the Uni- 
versity, made observations on the nights of the 19th and 20th of April. 
Both nights were so cloudy, however, that a continuous watch would have 
been useless. About 11 o'clock on the night of the 19th three meteors 
were seen in the north-west, where the sky at the time was partially clear." 
The Awjust Meteors in 1876. — A large list of observations of the Perseids, 



154 REPORT — 1876. 

in 1876, has been communicated to the Committee by observers at Birming- 
ham, Bristol, Buntingford (Herts), Hawkhurst (Kent), Sunderland, and York; 
and the past year's list of meteor observations at the Eadcliffe Observatory, 
Oxford, contains very numerous observations on the meteors of the shower. 
The state of the sky was generally very favourable for observations (although 
the moon had passed its first quarter during the second week in August), and 
the number of observations is rather ascribable to this cause than to any 
great intensity of the shower which was observed. The maximum hourly 
frequency of the meteors noted by one observer at any time during the watch 
scarcely exceeded twenty-five or thirty meteors per hour, of which five or sis 
were unconformable and the rest Persei'ds ; and the latter were not con- 
spicuous in brightness or in leaving very persistent streaks. A few large 
Persei'ds were recorded, details of the brightest of which (on the 11th at 
11" 22"", and on the 13th at 9'' 27'") are included in the descriptions of 
large meteors given in the foregoing list. The maximum frequency of the 
meteors took place during the night of the 10th to 11th of August, when 
one observer might count from 25 to 30 Persei'ds in an hour ; but the number 
visible on the nights of the 9th and 11th were much less than this, and not 
more than 15 or 20 Persc'ids could be noted in the same time. Their radia- 
tion was in general accurate, and the centre of divergence of the recorded 
paths was not far from the usual position of the radiant-point of the shower 
near rj Persei. The number of unconformable meteors visible during the 
period of the annual watch was about 6 or 8 per hour, and more than 60 of 
their paths were mapped. The radiant-points which they indicate arc very 
numerous, their tracks belonging, with very little apparent ascendancy of 
any particular shower, to almost all those known to be in activity during the 
time of continuance of the August shower. Several accordances of meteors 
simultaneously observed at distant places, besides those of large meteors above 
mentioned, are contained in the observations ; and of these and of other points 
of special interest in the several descriptions the Committee trust to com- 
municate the details, and an account of the results of a complete discussion 
which they are at present undergoing, in another year's Report. 

The annexed extract from the 'English Mechanic' of September 8, 1876, 
contains, besides some observations on the shower, a notice of a lai'ge Perse'id 
of which some other exact observations are described (at p. 134) in the general 
fireball list of this Rex^ort : — 

" August Meteors. — The following note of the August meteors as seen from 
this i)lace may interest some of your readers. On the night of the 10th, 
between 9"^ 15"" and P 15", 131 were observed. Of those seen before mid- 
night the greater portion appeared to have a radiant-point in Cassiopeia, but 
those seen afterwards came from the cluster j^ Persei. Tlio numbers observed 
during this month are as follows : — 

Date, 1876, August 9th, 10th, 11th, 12th, 13th, 27th. 

Meteors observed 21 134 25 8 13 12 

One of the meteors seen on the 13th deserves special mention. It appeared 
at about 9'' 27™, as nearly as I could judge, in semidarkness, moving in a line 
from X Persei, and passing with a rapid motion across a small star distant 
about 30' (minutes of arc) vertically over B Ursa; Majoris. It was as bright 
as Yenus, and it left a tail for 4 or 5 seconds. — J. Pabneli,, Folkestone," 



OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEOKS. 155 



Special Catalogues and General Comparative Lists of Meteor-Showers. 

As the scattered lists of meteor radiaut-points, or general centres of diver- 
gence of sliootiug-st.ars, on ordinary nights of the year are at x)reseut, from 
the dispersed materials and limited accessibility of such catalogues, most unser- 
viceable for the use of observers, the attempt which has during the past year 
been made by Mr. Greg to present a carefully condensed and revised collection 
of all such observations in a single comprehensive list will be recognized by 
assiduous recorders of shooting-stars as affording them an invaluable fund of 
useful information on the previously ascertained positions of all the best 
known and best determined radiant-points of such probably distinct showers 
or meteor-systems as they may meet with in their observations. With a 
view to grouping new observations of the places and durations of shower-apices 
under the best-established average dates and directions of the hitherto known 
centres of divergence of ordinary shooting-stars, Mr. Greg compiled last year 
a valuable condensed list of meteor-showers from all the published catalogues 
and observations accessible to him, including all the older and all the most 
recently recorded showers of the northern or southern hemispheres visible in 
the latitude of Greenwich. A single chart illustrating the list was at 
the same time drawn by Mr. Greg, and it was the intention of the Com- 
mittee to have printed and issued this catalogue and map, together with 
an introduction containing directions for their use, in the form of a separate 
pamphlet during the past year to assist observers ; but the additional 
matter sought to be included with it in the pamphlet being yet unfinished, 
and the necessity felt by observers for a full and correct list of the known 
average centres of radiation of ordinaiy shooting-stars being one of the 
most urgent and important of the requirements which it has been the object 
of the Committee during the past year to supply, the course which it has 
appeared to them most desirable to adopt (the first stage of the projected 
compilation having thus far been completed) is to present Mr. Greg's Cata- 
logue and Map (which here follow) in this Report, as a useful companion 
to observers for reference aud guidance in recording appearances of meteor- 
showers. The reference-numbers of the list coincide with those of Mr. Greg's 
earlier list (contained in the volume for 1874 of these Reports), with some 
rearrangements and with considerable additions (from the last No., 187, of 
the earlier list *) to embrace new showers. By consulting the earlier list, 
references more or less complete wiU be found to all the original observations 
of these meteor-showers ; and with the assistance of the key-map a ready 
and convenient, and for tlie most part perfect, means is thus afforded of de- 
termining the degree of importance or the possible distinctness of a newly 
observed meteor radiant-point from any previously known observations of 
meteor-showers resembling it which may already have been elsewhere 
recorded. 

* III the uew entries some numbers temporarily assigned last year (these Eepoi-ts for 
1875, p. 223) to new showers there for the first time poiutecl out are not uniformly 
adliered to in the following list, which is condensed and extended tlu'oughout, directly 
from the last similar complete comparative list of the year 1874. 



156 



REPORT 1876. 





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OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 



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00 Oi 
TtHrf 



158 



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161 




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OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 



163 



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164 KEPORT— 1876. 



IV. Aekolites. 

Several falls of meteorites (one of them of much importance) have recently 
occurred, detailed accounts of which, and of recent researches on aerolites 
and on aeroHtic meteors, have been collected during the past year by Dr. 
Plight, and form in this Appendix (see Part II.) a continuation of the similar 
abstracts contained in last year's Ilepo]-t. 

Part I. — A Review of recent Stonefalls and of Papers relating to Meteorites. 

By A. S. Herschei,. 

The following falls of meteorites have been placed on record since the date 
of the last of those which were there described :^- 

A.D. 1814, — — Gurramconda, near Chittoor, North Arcot, Madras, 

India. 

„ 187.5, Sept. 1 4, 4'' p.m. Supino, circ. Prosinone, Italy. 

„ 1876, Apr. 20, 3" 40"^ p.m. Eowtou, near Wellington, Salop, England 

(Ironfall). 

„ 187G, June 28, ll''-12'' a.m. Stiilldalen, Dalecarlia, Sweden. (See ac- 
count of this aerolite at the end of this Appendix.) 

The following descriptions have also been given of meteoric appearances, 
presumably aerolitic, of which no further corroborations have hitherto been 
received. 

1875, Feb. 10th, Isle d'Oleron, and March 9th, Orleans, France. (See 
these Eeports, vol. for 1875, p. 206.) In the French weekly scientific 
journal ' Les Mondes,' vol. xxxvi. p. 458 (March 25th, 1875), these meteors 
are described as falls of aerolites. It appears probable from this description 
that they were detonating fireballs ; but of this, and of their possible aerolitic 
characters, no other evidence has been produced of which the Committee has 
yet received intelligence. 

The following notice of large meteors seen in America in December and 
January last, by Mr. C. W. Irish, of Iowa City, U.S., although affirming them 
to have both been of the detonating class, does not distinctly pronounce them 
to have been accompanied by falls of aerolites ; but one at least of these fire- 
balls produced a very loud explosion. " In the last week (the 27th) of 
December, 1875, at 9'' p.m., and also in the first week of January, 1876,. large 
meteors traversed the air near the south boundary of this (Iowa) State. One 
passed near Ilingold Co., south-easterly ; the other passed over St. Joseph, in 
the State of Missouri, travelling eastwards ; and both came to the earth, I 
think, very brilliant and noisy. It is stated, in the ' Kansas Chief ' of 
December 30th, tliat after a lapse of 2 minutes after the disappearance of 
the meteor of the 27th, a sound like the discharge of a heavy cannon was 
heard, or rather one loud explosion followed by a lighter one. It jarred houses 
and rattled windows." 

From the ' Scientific American ' of August 12th, 1876 (p. 98), Mr. Wood 
communicates the following apparently authentic record of a recent fall of an 
aerolite in Kentucky, U.S., no meteor, however, being described, and no other 
details of the occurrence having yet been received : — •" The Louisville ' Courier 
Journal ' states that on July ISth (1876), at 4'' a.m., Mr.White, watchman of the 
Whiteford engine-house, whilst on duty, was startled by a loud report, lilce 
that of a pistol, and instantly following some heavy substance fell into the 



OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 165 

sh-eet a few feet distant. Mr. "White searched, and found imbedded in the 
ground a stone of the appearance of dark flint, weighing about two pounds. 
The stone was broken to pieces, and examined during the day by several 
scicntifio gentlemen, who pronounced it genuine meteoric substance. The 
probable solution is that the explosion occurred at a greater distance than was 
supposed, and that this was but a small fragment of a large aerolite." 

To the many valuable essays on the physical characters of aerolites with 
which Professor Maskelyne has from time to time enlarged the extent of our 
knowledge of the real nature of these bodies, and to the unremitting zeal with 
which he has collected in the British Museum a series of authentic specimens 
of meteorites not excelled in any other national mineralogical collection, we 
owe many of the most interesting discoveries and conclusions of scientific 
importance regarding the probable history of meteorites which have been 
arrived at in recent yeai's. Some outline of the progress that has been 
made in these investigations was given in the concluding paragraphs of last 
year's Report ; but a very valuable summary of the existing state of know- 
ledge on the composition, structure, and probable history of meteorites has 
appeared in a series of papers*, published during the past year by Professor 
Maskelyne, entitled " Some Lecture Notes on Meteorites," to which, as they 
contain a most instructive review of the many points of information accu- 
mulated during a prolonged period of successful and diligent research, the 
Committee has especial satisfaction (while noticing in this Report the prin- 
cipal contributions to acrolitic science during the past year, notable additions 
to which were made in our own country) in being able to refer. These 
useful Lecture Notes contain in a few condensed and readily accessible pages 
the mature results of almost numberless scattered treatises and memoirs ; 
and besides the certain basis of instruction which they olTer on the ordinary 
features of composition , structure, and typical characters of meteorites, and 
of the circumstances which attend their fall, a store of useful hints and germs 
of fixture theories are thrown out regarding the extra-terrestrial conditions of 
rock-formation on distant astronomical bodies from which these strange frag- 
ments are derived. In connexion with the discoveries (and especially with 
the views advanced by Mr. Lockyer to explain them) of the spectroscope 
regarding the selective arrangement and definite elevations of certain ele- 
ments forming the ordinary ingredients of terrestrial rocks in the outer layers 
of the sun's atmosphere, the low degree of oxidation which invariably cha- 
racterizes the constituent minerals of meteorites appears, among the conjec- 
tures to which Professor Maskelyne draws attention, no longer to be a singular 
peculiarity of the parent bodies from which they were projected, but a condition 
of their surfaces which corresponds exactly with the common assumption of 
their small dimensions, usually regarded as a necessary supposition to account 
for the projection and liberation of aerolites from the attraction of those 
distant spheres by forces of ordinary eruptive violence. Such views of the 
arrangeinent and concentration of the elements by gravity in condensing cos- 
mical masses, tending, in the order of superposition of their densities, to eli- 
minate as much oxygen and other light-atomed elements as they contain 
towards the surfaces, if, as appears very probable, they should soon be con- 
firmed by a more perfectly discriminating scrutiny of the sun's atmosphere 
with the spectroscope, will link together more closely than before the evidence 
which the spectroscope affords, and which has independently been gathered 

* ' Nature,' vol. xii. pp. 485, 504, 520 (September 30 and October 7, 14, 1875). 



166 REPORT— 1876. 

from a minute examination of meteorites, that the materials and the laws 
of aggregation of the elementary substances constituting the largest and the 
smallest suns and planets are essentially the same, only differing very strikingly 
from each other in their scale. Conditions which we notice on the sun and 
on our own globe we may regard as having in all probability once presided 
over the process of condensation of every planet from a state of vapour, and 
as having notably collected on the surfaces of the small meteorite-yielding 
planetoids, in exact proportion to their size, less oxygen than we find existing 
on the surface of the earth. Passing over many valuable pages of descriptive 
matter in the ' Notes,' containing exact accounts and appropriate discussions 
of many new as well as formerly narrated particulars and observations, it 
should be stated that the explanation given in one of the first paragraphs 
of the first article in ' Nature ' (loco sk^. cit. p. 487) of the characteristic 
pittings of the surfaces of meteoric stones and irons, supposing them to arise 
from exfoliation of pieces of the stone or iron by the sudden expansion of the 
material produced by heat, is set aside in a later paper by Professor Maskelyne 
in favour of a far more natural and more probable hypothesis, the leading 
points of which will be presently described. 

The meteoric fall of the greatest interest during the past year was that of 
an aerosiderite, or piece of metallic iron, which fell in Shropshire, eight or ten 
miles north of the Wrekiu, on the 20th of April, 1876. Rain was falling 
heavily, unaccompanied by lightning or thunder, and the skj' was thickly 
overcast for some time before and after the hour, 3'' 40" p.m., when the event 
took jjlace. At that time a strange rumbling noise was heard, followed by a 
startling explosion like a discharge of heavy artillery, audible over an area 
several miles in extent among the neighbouring villages of Shropshire. The 
meteorite was found about an hour after this occurrence by the tenant of a 
grass field, near the town of Wellington, Mr. Brooks, who had occasion to 
visit the spot, and observing the ground to have been disturbed, probed the 
hole which the meteorite had made, and discovered it at a depth of 18 inches 
below the surface. Some men at work at no great distance had heard the 
noise of its descent, but without being able to indicate the exact place or its 
direction. The hole was nearly perpendicular, the meteorite having entered 
the ground almost vertically in a north-west to south-easterly direction, and 
Avhen found it was still quite warm. It weighs 7| lbs., and is a mass of 
metallic iron irregularly angular, although aU its edges appear to have been 
rounded by fiision in its transit through the air, and, except at the jjoint 
where it first struck the ground, it is covered with a thin black pellicle of the 
magnetic oxide of iron. The surface is somewhat pitted or marked with 
slight depressions, one of which occurring in a fiscure of the mass affords some 
instructive evidence of the causes of their formation. The exposed metallic 
part of the surface exhibits crystalline structure vcrj- clearly when it is etched. 
The meteorite was first exhibited publicly at a local bazaar, held in Wolver- 
hampton, and afterwards at a meeting of the Natural History Society of Bir- 
mingham, by whose representations to the agent of the Duke of Cleveland, 
and by the Duke's consent, in whose property it fell, it was presented to the 
British Museum. It is only the seventh aerosiderite, or meteoric iron, of 
which the fall has been witnessed*, although upwards of a hundred iron 
masses have been discovered in different parts of the globe, which are un- 

* For a list of the earlier known examples of sneli ironfalls, sec these Eeports (vol. 
forl§7fi,p.24G), 



OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. " 167 

doubtedly meteoric, and two such have been found in Great Britain. The 
falls of eight stony meteorites have been recorded in this country, of which 
the last happened at Killetcr, in Ireland, on the 29th of April, 1844. A 
Section of the llowton siderite for analysis wiU shortly be made ; and the 
foregoing description of the meteorite, and of the circumstances attending 
its fall, are extracted from an account of the occurrence of the aerosiderite by 
Professor Maskelync, in ' Nature ' of July 27th, 1876 (vol. xiv. p. 472). 

llegarding the origin of tho remarkable pittings of the surfaces of aerolites 
and aerosidcrites, an opinion was lately expressed and advocated by Daubree *, 
that in their flight through the air they undergo erosion and excavation by joint 
effects of fusion and combustion, assisted mainly by air vortices attacking most 
violently certain portions of their surface. An important paper on this subject, 
by Professor Maskelyne, was published more recently in the ' Philosophical 
Magazine ' of August 1876. It is true that pittings identical in appearance 
with those of meteorites are found on the surfaces of certain large grains of 
powder blown unconsumed from the mouths of tho large modern rifled 
ordnance (excellent specimens of this kind received from Professor Abel 
and Major Noble having been shown by Professor Maskelyne to Mr. 
Daubree in the summer of 1875) ; but two important grounds for exception, 
in regard to this explanation, are pointed out by Professor Maskelyne, 
which must not be overlooked. The closest examination of the molten 
glaze with which, like other parts of their surfaces, the pittings or depres- 
sions of meteorites are coated over, shows no indications of vorticose action 
of the air, although stream-lines of the glaze from front to rear are of 
freqiient and conspicuous occurrence. The process of atmospheric combina- 
tion, or combustion, is also rare, if not entirely absent, during the period of 
most intense operation of the heat, as is shown by particles of metallic iron 
which are occasionally found imbedded in the glaze, and even by cases 
where the highly oxidizable mineral Oldhamite (calcium sulphide), occurring 
in spherules in the Bustee meteorite, is glazed over equally with the Augite, 
without offering any signs of combustion or of the production of cavities 
where they are exposed. On the other hand, the readier fusibility of some 
constituent minerals of meteorites appears to determine the formation of 
depressions of the surface where they present themselves ; and among the 
magnesian silicates which form the principal materials of stony meteorites, it 
appears that the more ferruginous varieties are somewhat more fusible than 
the more purely mngnesiferous silicates, which, with minor assemblages of 
other minerals, enter, in very various proportions, into the composition 
of the stony masses of aerolites. If the entire process of surface-melting 
and abstraction which meteorites undergo is thus correctly represented, the 
question of the amoimt of fracture and division into separate parts which they 
may suffer by their collision with the atmosphere is one which is yet undecided ; 
and many difficulties beset the inquiry if meteorites are single bodies, or if, 
as numerous examples appear to testify, they sometimes enter the atmo- 
sphere in swarms. An important dissertation on this question by F. Mohr 
appeared during the past year in Liebig's ' Annalen'f ; and a paper by Yon 
Tschermak (of which a brief abstract was presented in last year's Ilepoi*t), 
on the same subject of the probable origin and of the original forms of 
aerolites, is now translated in extenso in the Supplementary No. for June 
1876 of tho ' Philosophical Magazine.' 

* ' Comptes Eeudus,' April 24tb, 1876, 
t Vol. clxxix. pp. 257-282. 



168 REPORT — 1876. 

Part II.' — Accounts of Aerolites and Aerolitic Meteors, and Abstracts of 
recent Eesearches on them. By W. FiiaHx. 

1875, Pebruaiy 12th, 10.30 p.m. (Chicago time). — Iowa Co., State of Iowa*. 

The conclusions arrived at by Wright, on examining the gases occluded by 
the iron of these meteorites, have been referred to in the Iteport (B.A.) for 
1875, p. 240. He considered that the stony meteorites were distinguished 
from the iron ones by having the oxides of carbon, chiefly the dioxide, as 
their characteristic gases instead of hydrogen. This theory has been called 
in question by Mallet, who refers to his examination of the gases of the iron 
of Augusta Co., Yirginia, where the ratio of the oxides of carbon to hydrogen 
is 4 : 3, and to his having pointed out in 1872 that hydrogen could no longer 
be regarded as the characteristic gaseous ingredient of meteoric iron. In his 
paper of that date he stated that although it might be assumed that carbonic 
oxide would be the original form in which the gaseous carbon-compounds 
existed in the iron, and that it lirokc up at the temperature of the experiment 
into carbon retained by the iron and into carbonic acid, yet in view of the 
steady decrease of the quantity of the latter gas which was evolved as the 
experiment proceeded, it seems more likely that a larger amount of carbon 
originally existed in the higher state of oxidation. Mallet considers that, 
when all the circumstances of the experiment are considered in each case, 
Wright's conclusion cannot be sustained. 

In a paper dated some months later, Wright replies to Mallet's criticism. 
He states that he only meant this expression of opinion to be tentative, Init 
that the results of further work completely justify the conclusion at which 
he had arrived. He has re-examined the gases of the iron of this meteorite, 
and examined those of the iron of some other stony meteorites, such as Ohio, 
• Tultusk, Parnallee, and Weston, and finds that not only do the stony mete- 
orites give off a much larger volume of gas at low temperatures, but the 
composition of the gas in all the cases studied is quite different from that 
evolved from meteoric iron. In no case among the results obtained with the 
alloy is the amount of carbonic acid greater than 20 per cent, at 500°, nor 
than 15 per cent, of the A^hole quantity evolved, while in every case but 
one the volume of carbonic oxide is considerably larger. In the chondritic 
meteorites, on the other hand, the percentage of the latter gas is conspicuously 
small, while the carbonic acid constitutes more than half the total gas evolved 
below a red heat, except in the case of the meteorite under consideration 
which fell at Iowa, and here the percentage is not much less, especially if we 
reject the numbers representing the amount obtained by a second and long- 
continued application of a red heat. At a temperature of about 350° it 
constitutes from 80 to 90 per cent, of the gaseous products, and at 90° it 
forms more than 90 per cent, of the gas evolved. The hydrogen, on the 
other hand, progressively increases in quantity with the rise of temperature, 
and is the most important constituent of the first portions removed at a red 
heat. The form in which the carbonic acid is occluded is a problem which 
he cannot at present solve. That it is actually absorbed appears to be certain. 

* J. W. Mallet, ' Amer. Journ. Sc' 1S7.5, rol. x. p. 206 ; N. E. Leonard, ib. vol. x. 
p. 367; A. W. Wright, 'Amer. Journ. So.' 1876, vol. xi. p. 253; "An Account of the 
Detonating Meteor of February 12, 1875," by C. W. Iri.sli, Iowa City, 1875, Daily Pres.s 
Job Printing Office, Dubuque Street; M. Delafontaine, Bibliotheque Universelle,' October 
1875, p. 188; G. A. Daubree, ' L'Institut,' 1875 (Nos. 105-122), p. 138; C. W. Giimbel, 
' Sjtzungsber. Ak. Wiss. Muncben,' 1875, vol. v. p. 313. 



OBSKRVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 1G9 

That it has been taken up from tlie atmosphere has been proposed. He finds, 
however, that tlie iron of the Iowa meteorite contains no more carbonic acid 
now than it did at tlio time of its fall. 

Leonard gives a detailed account of the appearance presented by the meteor, 
which is stated to have been seen throughout a region 400 miles from S.W. 
to N.E., and 250 miles in breadth. The stones vary in weight from a few 
ounces to 74 lbs., and the aggregate weight is 500 lbs. ; the area over which 
they were scattered appears to be 7 miles in length, and 4 miles at its greatest 
breadth. A plan of the townships included in this area is given in Leonard's 
paper, and it shows where the chief stones fell. By reason' of the frozen 
condition of the ground at the time of the fall, and the low angle of descent, it 
appears probable that almost all the fragments which fell have been secured. 
The velocity of the meteor has not been satisfactorily determined ; it appears 
probable that during the last 60 or 70 miles of its course it travelled at the 
rate of from 6 to 7 miles per second. 

An interesting pamphlet by Mr. Irish, C.E., deals with the appearance 
presented by the meteor. He has incorporated in his paper a number of 
letters received from observers stationed over a wide ai'ea, describing their 
impressions as to its altitude, velocity, and appearauco ; and he has given a 
drawing of the meteor, and prepared a map of the district, showing the pro- 
jection of its path through the air. I learn by a recent letter from Mr. Irish 
that two blocks, one weighing 72 lbs., the other 48 lbs., which evidently 
formed one and the same mass which was disrupted during the descent, have 
since been found ; and the aggregate weight of the stones now collected cannot 
be less than 700 lbs. I am also indebted to Mr. Irish for six excellent 
photographs of the Iowa stones, sixty-seven in number, which form the 
collections of Prof. Hinrichs, Mr. J. P. Irish, and himself. They were taken 
by Mr. Thomas James, of Iowa citj', and are in the very best style of photo- 
graphic art. 

Prof. Giimbel, of Munich, lias recently published an interesting paper oii 
the characters of this meteorite. He finds the crust to possess a deep bottle- 
green or brownish-red colour, and to possess in polarized light all the 
characters of an amorphous glass-like mass. "NYhen a fragment is heated it 
turns of a dark brown colour, like that noticed by him in the eruptive rocks 
of the Fichtelgebirg, and he regards this change as a safe indication of the 
presence of olivine. 

The composition of the stone is found to be : — - 

Meteoric iron 1232 

Troilite .5-2.5 

Silicate, decomposed by acid 48"11 

Silicate, not acted upon by acid 34'32 

10000 

The silicate decomposed by acid is an olivine, having the formula 
2 (I MgO, iFcO), SiOj ; and the insoluble silicate, which has been regarded 
by Dr. Lawrence Smith as pyroxene, gave the oxygen ratios — silicic acid 
= 29-08 ; bases = 10-29. It appears not improbable that in this case the 
silicate was not completely decomposed during analysis. 

The paper is illustrated with an interesting plate of a microscopic section 
showing olivine, augite, meteoric iron, chromite, troilite, particles of a reddish 
hue which resemble garnet but which doubly refract light and exhibit optical 
characters which will not allow of tbeir being identified with nosean, and 
chondra showing fibrous, radiate, and granular structure, as well as others 



170 REPORT— 1876. 

which evidently consist of olivine, and some which are opaque and finely 
granular. The meteoric iron has a hackly angular structure, and has the 
appearance which it would present if reduced to the metallic state in the 
position which it at present occupies. 

1875, December 27th, 9 p.m. — Kansas. 

I have to thank Mr. Irish, C.E., of Iowa City, for two cuttings from 
newspapers (the Kansas Chief of December 30th, and the Kansas Even- 
ing Post of December 29th) recording the fall of a detonating meteor of 
the above date. It traversed the heavens in a direction from N.W. to S.E., 
leaving a lurid streak in its wake. The whole heavens were lighted 
up, and " made all out of doors almost as light as full moonlight." The 
, meteor was of the usual Avhitish-red colour, and when it exploded the fiery 
fragments were scattered in all directions. " Perhaps two minutes later, and 
after all appearance of the meteor had disappeared, the sound of the explo- 
sion came like the discharge of a heavy cannon ; or rather one loud explosion, 
immediately followed by a lighter one like an echo. The explosion jarred 
houses and rattled windows. The size of the meteor and the terrible force 
of the explosion may be imagined from the fact that the distance M'as so great 
that it required about two minutes for the sound to reach the earth, and the 
concussion was so jilainly felt and heard at that distance. The phenomenon 
was witnessed over a large extent of country." An observer, writing from 
Fort Leavenworth, states that it appeared to have its origin in the constel- 
lation Cassiopeia, and its course was due east. llr. Irish states that he has 
made every effort to secure possession of the meteorites which must have 
fallen, b\it has been unsuccessful. The time of flight is estimated to have 
been from 12 to 15 seconds. 

1875, December 27th, 9.20 p.m. — State of Missouri, U.S.A. 

I am indebted to Mr. Irish, C.E., of Iowa City, for an interesting description of 
this detonating meteor, as well as for a map, on which he has traced its course. 
The point where it was first seen in the zenith is at Thayer, in Nebraska, 
near the borders of Kansas, and about 120 miles ^. of the Missoiiri river. It 
was seen by him at Iowa City first as a small meteor, which rapidly became 
brighter, and was hidden from view when at an altitude of about 40° by a 
building ; at this moment it gave out a very brilliant quivering flash of light, 
which illuminated the whole heavens. It appears from Mr. Irish's map to 
have been seen over a wide area, from Stillwater in Minnesota on the north, 
to Bufl'alo in Missouri on the south, and as far west as the shores of Lake 
Michigan. Near the termination of the flight sounds were heard: over 
Archer, in Nebraska, a rushing roaring sound, as of a mighty wind, was 
noticed ; at St. Joseph, in Missouri, the first distinct explosion was remarked, 
and between that town and Livingstone Co. frequent and very heavy detona- 
tions occuiTcd. In the last-mentioned district, and at places as far as 60 miles 
distant, numerous red fragments were seen to fall. He says,"I have had several 
persons looking for the meteorites where the fall must have taken place ; but 
the whole district is covered with dense forest, and is mountainous and broken, 
and the ground was very soft from the long-continued rains preceding the 
fall, so that no fragments have been found. All the observers of the final 
explosion agree that the great bulk of the material M'as thrown upward and 
backward upon the course of the meteor, as the arroAV-pointed dots in 
my sketch indicate. The luminous appearance continued in sight for 
15 minutes." 



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I 



&rJS74, tht^tJ .11'4-JJ9 rtj tita ,1.1 w ifie prrjtnt Andosm 
Avtmge exOMC <'f i^uUaiH iina about 10" ritumW. 



OBSERyATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 171 

1876, Januarj' 5th, 10.30 p.m. — Iowa and Missouri. 

This meteor, according to Mr. Irish's letter and accompanying map, was 
witnessed over an area extending from Cass, in Iowa, to Grundy, in Missouri. It 
appeared to descend almost perpendic\ilarty, and was a very brilliant meteor, 
and a very noisy one also. A series of reports twenty-two in number were 
heard during its transit from Cass to Grundy. The rumbling thunder of its 
artillery, together with its flashes of brilliant light, brought people from their 
beds with an apprehension that the great Civil War had broken out afresh. Its 
time of flight over the area indicated was not more than five seconds, and the 
light it emitted is said to have equalled that of noonday. None of the 
meteorites which must have fallen have been found, for the reasons already 
referred to when speaking of the detonating meteor of December 27th. 

1876, January 31st, 5.30 p.m. — Louisville, Kentucky. 

Dr. Lawrence Smith, of Louisville, observed a magnificent meteor traversing 
the heavens on the afternoon of the above day. He first saw it at an altitude 
of about 60° above the horizon, and it disappeared from view behind some 
houses at an elevation of about 20°. Its direction appears to have been from 
X.W. to (S.E., and the angular magnitude about one sixth that of the disk of 
the moon. It was seen over an area 120 miles in diameter. A number of 
observers witnessed an explosion which took place when the meteor was 
about 10° above the horizon ; all the fragments disappeared instantly, except 
the largest, which also became invisible before it reached the horizon. One 
or two of the eye-witnesses think they noticed a whizzing noise, and at the 
time of bursting heard the explosion. jS^o fragments of a meteorite have yet 
been met with ; but it is the opinion of Dr. Smith that they feU about the 
range of the Cumberland Mountains in Kentucky, or in the north-east of 
Tennessee. 

1876, April 7th (evening). — Eperjes, Hungary*. 

A fireball passed over Eperjes 8° [?£. or W.] from the meridian, and 
detonated at an altitude of 38° above the horizon. It exploded with a very 
loud noise, and broke into numerous fiery fragments. 

1876, June 28th, 11-12 a.m. — StiiUdalen, Dalecarlia, Sweden. 

A meteor traversed a part of Central Sweden in a W.N.W. direction, and was 
plainly visible in the vei-y bright sunshine. It was observed at Stockholm and 
at Sodermanland ; at 13 English miles S.W. of Liukoping it was seen first in 
an 'N.W. direction, and at a considerable altitude, and it descended almost to 
the horizon in the west. A loud whistling noise was heard in the air from 
E. to "W., followed by two sharp reports, and others less loud resembling 
thunder. The fall of the meteorites was witnessed by eight or ten persona, 
and three or four fragments have been secured by Dr. Lindstrom. The 
largest, about the size of two fists, weighs 4^ skalpund [1 lb. av. = 1-068 Itt. 
or skalpund], StiiUdalen is a station on the Swedish Central Railway, on 
the northernmost part of Crebrolan, Some of the meteorites which fell ia 
■water have been lost. 

^ Egyet^rtds es Magyar Ujsag. Budapest, April 13, 1876. 



172 - REPORT— 1876. 

Rejiort on the Rainfall of the British Isles for the years 1875-76, by 
a Committee consisting of C. Brooke, F.R.S. [Chairman) , J. Y. 
Bateman, C.E., F.R.S. , Rogers Field, C.E., J. Glaisher, F.R.S. , 
T. Hawksley, C.E., The Earl of Rosse, F.R.S., J. Smyth, Jun., 
C.E., C. ToMLiNSON, F.R.S., G. J. Symons [Secretanj) . 

In accordance ■with the resolution of the Association, the Rainfall Committee, 
originally appointed in the year 1865, now present their final report. 

They gave in the report presented at Bristol in 1875 a condensed account 
of the contents of their previous reports. 

This year they present the various tables and explanatory remarks upon 
them which are necessary to complete the work up to the i)resent time, ex- 
cepting that referred to in the 7th following paragraph. 

The tables are as follows, namely : — 

I. Examination of Eain-Gauges. 

II. Eainfall of the years 1874-5. 

III. Monthly returns from new Irish stations. 

Examination of Kain-Gavges in situ. — Appended to this report are the 
results of the examination of 2(j rain-gauges visited since August 1875. 
This brings the entire number which have been visited and examined up 
to (J55. The Committee regard this as a very important subject, and the 
best guarantee of the records furnished by the observers. They have more 
than once expressed their conviction that the proper course would have 
been to appoint a travelling inspector, so that the whole of the gauges might 
be properly examined ; but they have never had adequate funds for the pur- 
pose. In fact, the total amount they had been able to devote to it in the 15 
years during which the inspections have been going on has only been =£210, 
or an average of exactly ,£14 a year. The explanation of the smallness of the 
amount in comparison with the work effected (about Gs. 5(7. x^er station visited) 
arises from the fact that it has been almost entirely done by our Secretary, 
who, as a member of the Association, received nothing for his services but 
mcrelj'- repayment of actual expenses, and even these have been materially 
reduced by the hospitality of the observers. 

Ilainfail of the years 1874-5. — The usual biennial tables of monthly rain- 
fall at selected stations arc appended. Ever since their apjiointment the Com- 
mittee have continued these biennial tables, and as IMr. Symons had submit- 
ted similar ones for some years previous to their appointment, the entire series 
embraces 16 consecutive years. Subject only to changes rendered necessary 
by the removal or death of obsei-vers, the same stations have been quoted in 
each biennial table, and thus these tables contain about 200 perfect records, 
each extending over 16 consecutive j-ears. Only those persons who are aware 
of the great importance of continuity in physical researches will fully realize 
the value of this series, both for physical and hydrological purposes. 

The Rainfall of 1874 was slightly below the average, owing to a rather 
dry spring and exceedingly dry summer. The most remarkable feature of 
the year was the heavy fall of rain on October 6th, when the average fall 
over England and Wales was slightly above 1 inch in the 24 hours, and the 
fall at many stations in North Wales and the Lake District was iipwards of 
5 inches. So heavy a fall over so large an area is a very rare occurrence. 

The Rainfall of 1875 was greatly above the average in England (especially 
in the Midland Counties), and irregular in Scotland and Ireland. A very 
heavy rainfall occurz-ed in Wales and the southern parts of England on July 



ON THE RAINFALL OF THK BRITISH ISLES. 173 

l-ith ; the fall in 24 hours exceeded 1 inch at 252 stations, 2 inches at 109, 
3 inches at 39, 4 inches at 7, and 5 inches at 3 stations. 

Ncv) Irish Stations.— We reported last year the success of our efforts to 
improve the geographical distribution of Rainfall Stations in Ireland, showed 
that ihe gauges started at the cost of the Association had been supplemented 
by many others established at the cost of private individuals, and gave a map 
showing the present complete distribution of stations. Almost all the ob- 
servers have proved good ones, and, as the table shows, the returns have 
been forwarded with regularity. The period is too short to yield precise 
results, but a good system has been inaugurated and is in full operation. 

At the commencement of this report it was stated that there was one very 
important exception to the otherwise satisfactory completion of the work up 
to the present time. This exception is the classilied list of stations, and the 
results of the " position-returns " which we intended to have incorporated 
therewith. In 1865 we published a complete list of every station in the 
British Isles at which rainfall observations were known to have been made, 
giving the observei-s' names, the height of the stations above mean sea-level, 
the epoch of the observations, and various other details. Owing to the large 
development of rainfall work during the subsequent 10 years, the list has 
become very imperfect, and the Committee have been actively engaged in the 
preparation of a revised list. In addition to the details previously given, the 
list was also to have contained other most valuable information. The 
"position-returns" obtained from the various stations, and which have been 
mentioned in previous reports, were to have been summarized, and the results 
indicated by symbols affixed to the stations in the classified list, and references 
to publications in which the records could be found were also to have been 
added. The classified list of stations would thus have formed a complete 
catalogue raisonne of all the existing rainfall data, and have given most 
useful information at present non-existent. To the great regret of the Com- 
mittee, the Association declined to publish the portion of this list presented 
last year, and the Committee have therefore felt compelled to relinquish its 
completion. They the more deeply regret this, as they consider that the 
publication of this list would have been a fitting termination of their work, 
and would have redounded to the credit of the Association. 

Notwithstanding the above most important omission, the Committee feel 
they have done good service to rainfall work. When they commenced their 
labours, the weakest part of rainfall observations was the defective geographi- 
cal distribution of the stations. This defect has now been very materially 
lessened. By the grants of the Association nearly 250 gauges have been 
erected in districts hitherto without observations. The work done in the inspec- 
tion of stations has already been mentioned. A definite unit has been adopted 
for the term " rainy day," namely, any day on which one 100th of an inch of 
rain falls. A complete code of rules has been drawn up, so as to secure uni- 
formity of practice among observers. The secular variation of the rainfall of 
the British Isles has been investigated. A determination of the average 
proportion of the total yearly rainfall which occurs in each month has 
been effected. Elaborate observations have been made and discussed on the 
relative quantity of rain indicated by gauges of various sizes and shapes, and 
erected at different heights above the ground. 

To sum up their labours in a sentence, your Committee have aimed — they 
hope not without success — primarily at obtaining unimpeachable records ; 
and, secondarily, at so discussing and arranging these records as to render 
them as useful as possible to physical inquirers and hydraulic engiiieers. 



174 



KEPORT 1876. 



List of stations supplied -mih. Eain-gauges by the British 



County. 



Cork 

Kerry 

j» 

Tipperary 

»j 

Limerick 

7> . . .. . 

Clare 

)) 

Kilkenny 

)) 

King's County, 

Kildare 

Dublin 

Meath 

It 

Longford 

J) .... . 

Galway 

Mayo 

siigo '.!!!!!...!! 

Lei trim 

»* 

>i 

»» 

I) 

jj •• • 

Fermanagli . , 

Monnghan 

Armagh 

Down 

TJ 

»» 

J) 

t7 •• 

)) ♦• 

Antrim 

»» 

»i 

Londonderry . , 
Tyrone 

)» 

)f 

Donegal 



Station. 



Skibbereen 

KiUarney, Gap of Dunloe 

Tralee, Godfrey Place 

Tipperary, Henry Street 

Nenagli, Luska Lodge 

Newcastle, Baile au Teampul . . . 

Limerick, Kilcornan 

Janevillo, Tipperary 

Kilrush 

Miltovvn Malbay 

Corofln 

Kilkenny, Butler House 

Castlecomer 

Banagher 

Naas, Ballymore-Eustace 

Ratbgar 

Navan, Balrath 

Kells 

Longford Barracks 

Granard Barracks 

Ballinasloe, Kilconnell 

Westport, Eossbeg House 

Bangor, Gleuturk Lodge 

Sligo, Ballinful 

Carrick-ou-Sbannon, Drumsna. 
Mobill, Dromraban 

j» 

Carrick-on-Sbannou , 

Drumkeeriu, Spencer Harbour.. 

„ Coll 

Irvinestown, Eglinton Lodge . . 

Rockcorry 

Newtownbamilton 

Kilkeel 

Warrenpoint, Summer Hill . . 

Newry, Newcastle 

Ratbf riland 

Hillsborougb, Anahilt 

Newtownards, Model School . . . 

Crumlin 

Bnllymoney, Chui-eh Street 

Bushmills 

Londonderry, Knockan 

Moy, Benburb 

Stewartstowu 

Strabane 

Inver Glebe 

Carndonagh 



Jan. 



6-77 

59° 
(3-96) 
496 

(3-92) 
7-57 

4'2I 

476 

4'33 

(4-64) 

311 

(5-47) 

(4-75^ 



476 

5-12 

(609) 

478 

573 
2-93 

5-43 
4-86 



(3'99) 
(3-89) 

(7-10) 

(4-89) 
4'99 
(4-83) 



4-83 

12'13 

(5-58) 

3-59 
4-16 

4-29 
377 
3*iS 
(3-64) 
3-48 
5-38 
4-16 

(3-52) 



Feb. 


March. 


April. 


May. 


June. 


2-39 


1-62 


'•S3 


3^02 


3-14 


•96 


179 


'■'4 


3^21 


4^02 


1-39 


1-51 


124 


2-05 


341 


•89 


119 


■99 


'■43 


3"3o 


I '00 


1-6, 


I"20 


iSZ 


396 


1-03 


IM9 


I 96 


1-82 


4'o9 


ri!3 


rSo 


1-93 


3'29 


4^03 


•92 


I'll 


1-67 


'•91 


5^o6 


1-31 


172 


1-91 


2-76 


S'i7 


•96 


III 


170 


278 


4-S9 


1-27 


•91 


•90 


'•52 


278 


'•6s 


1-31 


•86 


•68 


3"S4 


•83 


•99 


•83 


2^11 


3^52 


3-57 


1-32 


74 


2'00 


3-13 


171 


•85 


•84 


2-38 


3-12 






1-03 


2^og 


3^S' 


1-21 


•94 








1-21 










78 


■91 


'•34 


3-15 


4^87 


77 


17s 


1-72 


2-39 


3'64 


1-89 


1-82 


2'12 


4-" 


4-64 


i-o6 


I '23 


I'OI 


2^17 


2'94 


1-51 


■90 


1-50 


3-63 


4"34 


1-23 


voo 


•99 


2-88 


2^75 


1-42 


79 


115 


2-37 


4-36 


2'o6 


2-04 


III 


4'35 


b^i7 


2-17 


2-03 


1-52 


4^70 


7 '40 


1-53 


1-59 


78 


361 


3^02 


J-54 


1-23 


■34 


213 


4'oo 


2'00 


'■S3 


•54 


2-22 


4^02 

3-58 


2-57 


'•94 


•52 


^•15 


4-74 


2-l6 


'■4S 


•62 


2-50 


4^99 


2-22 


'■38 


•18 


1-67 


4^52 


1-41 


i'04 


•'3 


'•83 


3^o8 


•96 


I -02 


•39 


184 


3^32 


III 


1-05 


•39 


i-8o 


3-40 


1-47 


1-63 


•09 


1-83 


2^65 


1-26 


1-41 


•43 


2-03 


2-98 


•87 


192 


•Si 


2^20 


2-94 


1-41 


•96 


•36 


1-82 


291 


ri4 


1-26 


•39 


2^01 


3 "02 


1-15 


'•35 


•70 


2^11 


^•95 


1-63 


1-56 


'•59 


2-42 


4-42 




1-47 


•72 


3-00 


4'oo 

I 



ON THE RAINFALL OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 



175 



Association in 1874, and Eetums therefrom for 1875-76. 



July. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


Jan. 


Feb. 


March. 


April. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


•9S 


260 


8-30 


5-88 


4-88 


273 


2-6i 


5-21 


2-59 


475 


•10 


1-17 


2'55 


a"53 


2-22 


876 


676 


3-37 


4-02 


3'°3 


4-99 


472 


2-89 


III 


2-88 


175 


4-58 


2-42 


7-84 


7-38 


3-56 


2-30 


1-28 


4-11 


4-93 


3-23 


73 


1-34 


1-32 


213 


2-94 


5-46 


3-48 


3-54 


2"09 
















1-93 


3-17 


7-12 


5-26 


4"20 


223 


1-13 


4-39 


4-82 


2-49 


1-14 


1-46 


1-43 


278 


4-80 


576 


4-99 


3-34 


2 '04 


•96 


378 


4'45 


3'37 


■91 


1-45 




3-36 


3'6o 


7'6o 


2-97 


4'i3 


i-Si 


172 


5-27 


4"43 


2-38 


79 


2-i8 


2-03 


4-41 


i'59 


5-98 


663 


2-93 


2-97 











2-93 


1'22 


■51 


3-22 


4-24 


697 


473 


3-59 


3-60 


2-36 


4-50 


3-87 


3'-26" 


■93 


2-56 


3-10 


1-97 


274 


7-02 


5-09 


3-43 


371 


2-13 


4-87 


4"5S 


2-8o 


•69 


1-68 


271 


4-05 


2-54 


5-66 


5-90 


2-52 


173 


•93 


4'63 


3-i8 


2-24 


•61 


III 


1-26 


3-57 


1-98 


6-13 


6-53 


477 


•94 
















i-8i 


3-04 


5-16 


3-95 


3-87 


2'22 


1-26 


4-69 


3-90 


2-26 


•94 


170 


171 


3-04 


1-31 


4'St 


3S1 


4-14 


2-55 


1-53 


3-98 


3-52 


2-43 


•85 


2"I2 


r6i 


4-68 


I '48 


5-47 


4-39 


(3-93) 


2'O0 


77 


3 60 


2-54 


I-8S 


•67 


i"47 


1-27 


1-58 


2 '04 


5-97 


5-31 


4-60 


















2-28 


2-42 


S'Sa 


379 


3-67 


3'20 


2-07 


4'94 


4-63 


3-02 


74 


1-68 


2-53 


278 


3-iS 


6-32 


476 


3-18 


4-28 


3-39 


5-34 


5-22 


259 


■54 


2-55 


2-35 


3-29 


212 


4-81 


5-39 


S-ii 


4-24 


5'37 


6-37 


7-13 


4'20 


2"II 


4'99 


2-14 


3-49 


2-68 


3-24 


4'44 


,'^'l\ 


2-09 


1-24 


4'47 


3-80 


2-55 


•52 


i'35 


III 


1-69 


4-21 


4-49 


5"°9 


(4-81) 


3'i4 


2-25 


4-83 


4-39 


2'69 


?-oo 


?77 


1-59 














2-27 


5-55 


365 


2-5,0 


•92 


1-55 


2-33 


r8i 


3-48 


4-04 


3'°5 


3-6I' 


2-33 


2-26 


563 


4-09 


2-54 


•47 


i"49 


1-26 


2-43 


462 


5-25 


5-04 


5-32 


371 
















2-66 


6-32 


577 


5-60 


6-67 


4-86 
















274 


4-50 


379 


572 


4"49 


2-34 
















2-6o 


371 


4-64 


583 


5-03 


2-27 


1-65 


4-48 


3-87 


2-i8 


•59 


1-41 


2*00 


3'47 


4' 60 


5'53 


5"93 


5-55 


2-88 


'•95 


5'o5 


4-82 


280 


75 


2-28 


2'02 


3-32 


4'02 


5-29 


574 


4-59 


1-63 


I '2 I 


3 '44 


2-28 


2-42 


•40 


175 


176 


320 


3-62 


8-40 


7-86 


5-87 


3-05 


2-26 


518 


3 43 


2-67 


•42 


2-48 


1-31 


3-8i 


3-06 


8-99 


7-90 


896 


366 
















3-51 


264 


6-38 


628 


5-10 


2'IO 


I -60 


3-14 


2-i8 


3-09 


i-io 


2-17 


i"4o 


4-17 


3-17 


4-22 


594 


4-57 


1-54 


1-49 


4-50 


271 


1-39 


•44 


270 


2-26 


■^■ss 


I 90 


4-28 


519 


4-37 


2-i6 


1-34 


3-55 


2-47 


1-56 


■44 


2'69 


i'69 


3-i6 


4-52 


3-23 


4-5' 


3-88 


2-28 


'•45 


4*20 


3-02 


211 


•8 1 


2-59 


2-42 


3"oo 


3-37 


3-32 


3-93 


4-15 


2*13 


173 


3-.8 


4-32 


2*22 


•84 


2'30 


2-39 


2-05 


4''7 


3-98 


5:19 


474 


261 


1-67 


3 '47 


4'49 


2'03 


•57 


2-97 


278 


2'45 


2-90 


4-54 


470 


4-86 


3-28 


2-34 


5-44 


5-52 


272 


•54 


270 


2-39 


+•38 


4-13 


S-26 


6-69 


691 


1-95 


1-51 


foS 


4-64 


2-03 


■33 


'•65 


185 


3-IO 


2-85 


3'S5 


492 


5-98 


2-84 


2'C9 


S16 


4'45 


211 


•56 


2'90 


1-36 


J-45 


(3-55) 


2-13 


410 


4-89 


2-97 
















276 


498 


3-87 


5-66 


5-40 


3-59. 


278 


5'39 


7-02 


4-38 


1-27 


321 


2-54 


2-40 


2*64 


431 


6-31 


5-3* 


3-36 


3-03 


579 


473 


2-8i 


•64 


2-93 

i 


2-45 



176 



REPORT — 187G. 



EXAMINATION OF 



as 



630. 



631, 



632. 



633 



634. 



635- 



636. 



fi'2 



COUNTY. 

Station. 
OWNER. 
Observer. 



1875- 
Aug. 31, 



Sept. 10. 



Sept. J I 



Oct. 7. 



Oct. 7. 



Sept. 27. 



Oct. 26. 



637. Sept. 25. 



GLOUCESTEESHmE. 

South Parade, Clifton. 

J)E. G.F.BURBEE. 

Br. Burdcr. 



DEVONSHIEE. 

Martinhoe. 

BEV. C. SCRIVEN. 

Rev. C. Scriven. 



KEVONSHIRE. 

Ilfraeombe Hotel. 

ILFRACOMBE HOTEL COMP. 

Mr. Tafhttm. 



DURHAM. 

Eabv Castle. 

O. J. SYMONS, ESQ. 

Mr. Wesfcoii. 



DURHAM. 

Whorlton. 

REV. A. W. HEABLAM. 

Rev. A. W. Hcadlam. 



YORKSHIRE. 

Great Aytou, Middlesborough. 
MR. BIA'ON. 



KENT. 

St. Augustine's Monastery, R.amsgate. 

REV. FATHER QUELCH. 

Rev. Father Quclck. 



DURHAM. 

EggleBcliffe. 

REV. J. HULL. 

The Gardener. 



c 
o . 

■^& 

o o 
O 



Maker's name. 






X. 



XII. 



Merely 
funnel 

dis- 
cbarg- 1 

ing 

into 

tube. 

X.* 



Negretti & Zambrji 



Casella 

Glass anon. 



Anon. 



9 a.m. 



Irregu- 
lar. 



9 a.m. 



Height of 
gauge. 



Above 
ground. 



ft. in. 
o 6 



I o 



12 6 



Above 
sea- 
level. 



feet. 
192 



82s 



Casella 



. 9 a.m. i I o 



III. Anon. 



III. i Anon. 



X. 



XII. 



Negretti &Zambra ga.m 



Casella 9 a.m. 



34 



460 



400 



4 8 3C0 



* This mark denotes that the gauge has a deep Snowdonian rim. 



ON THE KAI.NIALL Ol' THE JSKITISH ISLES. 



177 



ItAlN-GAUGES (continued from Brit. Assoc. Hep. 1875, p. 111). 



^ 


Equi 


ralent.s of 


Error at 


Azimuth and an- 




's ^ 


"S^ S S m 


V 


t'ater. 


scale-poini 


gular elevation of 




£| 


Q> 03 '4 tU 

,s - g II 






specified in 
previous 


objects above 
mouth of rain- 


Remarks on position &c. 




Scale- 


Grains. 




'- ^ 


point. 




column. 


gauge. 




in. 


ill. 




in. 


1 




8-00 


-I 


1250 


+ ■00 1 


I S.E. Tree, fi5°. 


lu garden at back of house, and 


630. 


.8-00 


•2 


2510 


+ -002 


i S.-.S.\V.House,45= 


mucli sheltered. 




8-00 


■3 


3750 


+ -C03 


N.E. Tree, 40°. 






TH 


•4 


5010 


+ •004 








U 7-985 














5-00 


•I 


500 


— •001 


Notliing injurious 


Gauge only emptied at intervals. 


631- 


4-98 


-2 


1040 


— -010 




and monthly total recorded. 




5-co 


■3 


1520 


— •008 




Observer had an S-in. Hovfard's 




.. ^^'9^ 


■4 


2000 


— -005 




tube-gauge fairly correct ; sug- 




M 4-990 


■5 


2470 


correct. 




gested its erection and daily record. 




12-00 

J2*00 


-I 

-2 


2850 
5700 


correct, 
correct. 




On apex of a summerhouse-like 
thermoinetcr-staiid, iu grounds 


632 




12-00 


•3 


8460 


+-004 




of hotel. 




12-00 














Ml 2-000 














1 8-OI 


•I 


1300 


— ■003 


N.E. Greenhouse, 22^ 


In garden N. of Castle; clear, 


633. 


1 • 798 


•2 


2550 


— ■001 




except as noted. 




1 8 -co 


•3 


3810 


correct. 








f 8-C2 


•4 


5050 


+ -003 








M 8-002 


•5 


6350 


correct. 








5-08 


•I 


480 


+ -006 


Qute clear, in garden 


This is evidently a 5-in. glass ap- 


634. 


5-05 


•2 


99° 


+ •006 


E. of church. 


plied to a gauge 5-0(i in. diam- 




5'°7 


■3 


1450 


+ -015 




eter ; hence the recorded fall is 




, ^■°5 


■4 


i960 


+•015 




too large. 




M 5-062 


•5 


2450 


+ -018 








5-02 


-1 


460 


+•007 


N.W. Trees, 30°. 


Gauge on a pedestal, very ricketty 


635- 


4-98 


-2 


960 


+ -006 




and not well attended to. 




5-00 


•3 


J460 


+ ■005 








5-00 


•4 


1950 


+ •006 








M 5-000 


•5 


2450 


-|--oo6 








8-01 


•1 


1248 


+ •002 i 


N. angle of Mo- 


Good position in garden of Mo- 


636. 


8-00 


•2 


2500 


+-003 


nastery, 32°. 


nastery. 




799 


■3 


3760 


+-004 , 








801 


•4 


5050 


+ •003 1 








M 8-002 


■5 


6300 


+-004 








5-03 


•1 


520 


— •005 


S. one Poplar, 30° Gauge on lawn. Trees rather too 


637. 


4-96 


•2 


1020 


— -006 


S.W. Acacias, 41° close, but probably not sensibly 




4-98 


•3 


14S0 


correct. 


N.N.W.House.30' 


injurious. 




1 4-98 


■4 


1980 


— -001 


E. Lihics, 45°. 






M 4-988 


■5 


2500 ! 


— ■006 


S.E. Acacia, 35°. 





187G. 



N 



178 



REPOllT 1876, 



EXAMINATION 01 






B 

fig 



COUNTY. 

Stition. 
OWNER. 
Ohscrver. 



o 




■-3 

o 


So 


'^ 


3 






-^ 


bB 






c 




b 





Maker's name. 



O 5ao 

a>.S 

•F-< C3 

HO) 



O I 



Height of 
gauge. 



j Above 
Above sea- 
ground, le^el. 



, 1875. 

638. Nov. 1 . 



639- 



Nov. 3. 



640. Nov. 5. 



WILTSHIEE. 

The Green, Marlborough. 

REV. T. A. PRESTON. 

Rev. T. A. Preafon. 



GLOITCESTEESHIRE. 
County Asj^bim, Gloucester. 

dr: toller. 



IIEREFORDSIIIEE. 

Richmond Place, Hereford. 

E. J. ISBELL. ESQ. 

E. J. Ishell, Esq. 



XII.^ 



Casella 



' ft. in. 
9 a.m. I o 



feet. 
472 



X. Negretti &Zambra' 9 a.m. 



9 a.m. 60 li 



641. Nov. 5. 



642.! Nov. 4. 



643. 


Nov. S. 

1 


644. 


1 

!Xov. 9. i 


545. 


Dec. 20. ' 

1 


546. 


Dec. lo. 

1 



HEREFORDSHIRE. 

The Asylum, Hereford. 

T. A. CHAPMAN, ESQ., M.D. 

T. A. Chapman, Enq., M.D. 



HEREFORDSHIRE. 

The Graig, Ross. 

//. SOUTHALL, ESQ. 

H. Southall, Esq. 



MERIONETH. 

Rhiwbrifdir. 

MAJOR MATHEW. 

Mr. 0. Jones. 



CARNARVON. 

Warwick House, Llnndudno. 

DR. NICOL. 

Dr. Nicol. 



NORFOLK. 

Hillington Scliool. 

REV. H. EFOLKES. 

Rev. H. Ffoll-ci^. 



NORFOLK. 

Hillington Rectorv. 

REV. H. EFOLKES. 

Eev. H. Ffolketi. 



III. Anon. 



9 a.m. 1 3 



III. 



Anon qa.m. 



I O 2CO 



III. j Ca.?clla 9a.m. 10 o i: 



X. Negretti&Zambra I9 a.m. i o 



XI. Negretti (fcZambra 9 a.m.' 3 6 



X. I Negretti itZambra 9 a.m. i o 



This mark denotes that the gauge has a deep Snowdonian rim. 







().\ TIIK K.XIN-FALL OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 179 


lAI N"-G AUGES {vontlmwd). 




1^ .MM ' — ^ 


Equivalents of 


Error at 


Azimutliand an- 




S t: 


ll?ll 


w 


:'.fer. 


scale-point 
specified in 


gular elevation of 
objects above 


1 

Remarks on position &c. 


u 


E-£ S = 






fV) -^ 


J -a II 


Scale- 


G ■ 


previous 


mouth of rain- 






fi :^ 


point. 





column. 


gauge. 




« 


in. 


in. 


! in. ; 






4-98 


•I 


500 


correct. Clear 


In meteorological enclosure, 30 


638. 


5'02 


•2 


990 


+ -00 1 


feet from nearest (low) building. 




4-97 


■3 


1480 


-f -003 






5-08 


•4 


1980 


+ •002 






M 5-012 


"5 


2470 


+ •004 






775 


•I 


1350 


— -007 Fair exposure ... 


Gauge had been struck by a mow- 


639. 


80a 
7-98 


-2 


2600 


— -007 i 


ing machine and very much in- 




•3 


3850 


— ■006 ' 


dented. 




8-03 


•4 


5040 


— -003 ' 




1 


M 7-945 


•5 


brolven. 










S-oi 


•1 


1290 


— -002 


W.N.W.House,22° 


In small garden in rear of house. 


640. 


t 7'99 


-2 


2540 


correct. 


S.E. Tree, 33°. 


Gauge fixed in a box upon a 




7-99 


■3 


379° 


+ ■001 




post. 




8-01 


■4 


5020 


+•004 








M 8-0O0 


"5 


6300 


+ -004 








4-92 
5-00 


-I 


490 

980 


correct. 




Perfectly clear on open lawn 


641. 


•2 


correct. 




5-02 


■3 


1480 


— -003 








4-92 


•4 


1980 


— -005 








M 4965 


•5 


2470 


— -005 








5-02 


I 


500 


— ■001 


N. Tree, 34". 


On lawn ; good exposure except 


642. 


5-00 


-2 


970 


-f -004 


N.W. Tree, 38°. 


as noted. 




4-99 


•3 


1470 


+ -0C4 








5'oo 


■4 


1980 


+ •001 








M 5-002 


•5 


2460 


+ ■004 








5-06 
498 


•I 

•2 


500 
99° 


— •001 
correct. 


Clear 


In angle of a stack of slates, in 
the best position the works af- 


643- 




5-00 


•3 


1480 


+ -002 




ford. 




4"97 


■4 


1980 


+ ■001 








M 5'0O2 


•5 


2480 


correct. 








7-93 


I 


1300 


— •002 


N. Tree, 50°. 


In garden in front of house, rather 


644. 


7-95 


-2 


2540 


correct. 


S. „ 35°. 


sheltered. 




8-01 


•3 


3790 


+ •001 


N.W. House, 35°. 






8-o8 


■4 


5060 


+ ■001 








M 7-998 


■s 


6310 


+ -00 3 








4"99 * 


•I 


480 


+•003 


W. School, 22°. 


In garden in front of school, on a 


645. 


5-02 ' 


•2 


97° 


+ -004 


N.E. Tree, .33°. 


.short post. 




5-00 


"3 


1465 


+ •005 








5-00 


■4 ' 


1970 


+ ■003 








M 5-002 


•5 


2470 


+ -C02 








8-01 
8-00 








Clear 


On lawn near Eectory 


646.' 










8-00 








1 




8oi 








1 




M 8-005 






1 
i 
















n2 





180 



REPORT— 1876. 



EXAMINATION OF 






M 



CD ff 



647. 



1875. 

Dec. 21 



1876. 
648. Mar. 16, 



649, 



650. 



651 



652. 



653. 



654. 



655. 



Mar. 16 



Mar. 17 



Mar. 17 



Mar. 17. 



Mar. 17, 



Mar. 18. 



Mar. 20. 



COU]STY. 

Station. 
OWNER. 
Observer. 



CAMBRIDGESHIRE. 

The Observatory, Cambridge. 

THE OBSER J 'A TOR Y. 

Mr. Todd. 



WESTMORELAND. 

Kirkby Stephen. 

T. MAS OS, ESQ. 

T. Mason, Esq. 



WESTMORELAND. 

Applebv- 

DR. ARMSTRONG. 

Dr. Armstrong. 



YORKSHIRE. 

Mickleton. 

G. J. SYMONS, ESQ. 

Mr. Wade. 



DURHAM. 

Gainford. 

A. ATKINSON, ESQ. 

A. Atkinson, Esq. 



YORKSHIRE. 

BaiTiiugbani Park. 

A. SUSSEX MILLBANK, ESQ. 



YORKSHIRE. 

Rokeby Rectory. 

EEV. H. CLARKE. 

Rev. H. Clarke. 



DURHAM. 

Wolsingham. 

MR. A. MITCHELL. 

Mr. A. Mitchell. 



NORTHUMBERLAND. 

Allenheads. 

W. B. BEAUMONT, ESQ. 

Mr. Kidd. 



1^ 
Q 



III. 



XII. 



III. 



XII. 



III. 



X. 



Maker's name. 



Casella 



Casella 



Anon. 



Casella 



Casella 



Anon. 



CaseUa 



Anon. 






Height 
of gauge. 



Above 
ground. 



I : tt. ni. 

. 8 a.m. I o 



9 a.m. 



9 a.m. 



9 a.m 



9 a.m. 



9 a.m 



9 a.m, 



Negretti &Zambra 9 a.m. 



I o 



I o 



I o 



o 6 



Above 
sea- 
level. 



ON THE RAINFALL OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 



181 



RAIN-GAUGES {contimml). 





i-^i 


Equivalents of 


Error at 


Azimuth and an- 




. 




water. 


scale-point 


gular elevation of 




fci 
- 2 




1-^12 






specified in 


objects above 


Eemarks on position &c. 


0) XI 

's. a 










I'^S II 


Scale- 


(TPn.in^ 


previous 


mouth of rain- 








ft a 


point. 


VJl 1. UPllxa* 


column. 


gauge. 




Pi 




in. 


in. 




in. 










498 


-I 


500 


— •001 


E. Tree, 30°. 


Gauge in garden of the Observa^ 


647. 




5-02 


•2 


980 


-f -002 


S.E. „ 30°. 


tory ; fair position. 






5-01 


■3 


1480 


+-001 


S.W. Trees, 25°. 








4'99 


•4 


1950 


+ -006 


W.Apple Tree, 30° 








M 5-000 


■5 


2450 


-)--oo6 










5-02 


-1 


480 


+ •003 


E. WaU, 30°. 


On edge of path in garden ; no 


648. 




5'oo 


-2 


950 


+ -008 


N. Tree, 62°. 


better position available. 






5 'GO 


•3 


1460 


-t--oc6 


S.W. „ 28°. 








5'oo 


•4 


i960 


+ •005 










M 5 '005 
















8-o8 


•I 


1250 
2550 


-H'002 


Clear 


Gauge in garden E. of house. It 
appears to have been made by 


649. 




7-92 


•2 


+ -OOI 






8-00 


•3 


3780 


+ -002 




Mr. Marshall of Kendal ; the 






801 


■4 


5120 


— -003 




receptacle being broken, a new 






M 8-002 


■s 


6300 


+ -OO4 




gauge was supplied. 






7"95 


-I 


1250 


4--OOI 


Quite clear ... 


In small enclosed paddock near 


650. 




802 


-2 


2540 


— •001 




the middle of the village. 






7-98 


•3 


3770 


+ •002 










8-00 


■4 


5050 


4- -001 










M 7-988 


■s 


6320 


+ •001 










498 


-I 


500 


— -001 


E. Building, 38° 


Mr. Atkinson has recently started 


651. 




5-01 


•2 


1000 


— -002 




a new verified 5-in. Snowdon- 






5'oo 


•3 


1460 


+ ■005 




pattern rain-gauge 3 feet N. of 






5"oo 


■4 


1950 


+ •006 




the above. 






M 4-998 


•s 


2470 


+ -001 










5-03 
5-00 


-I 


480 
950 


-f-003 
-f-008 


Quite clear 


On lawn, S.S.W. of house 


652. 




-2 








4-98 


•3 


1450 


4- -008 




, 






5-00 


■4 


1980 


-I--001 










M 5-002 


■5 


2440 


+ -008 










8-00 


"I 


1270 


correct. 


Clear 


In Eectory garden, near corner of 
lawn. 


653. 




8 -00 


•z 


2540 


corret-t. 






8-00 


•3 


3780 


+ -002 










8-00 


■4 


5080 


correct. 










M 8-000 


■5 


6350 


correct. 










4-98 


-I 


475 


+ -004 


Nothing over 20° 


In garden N. of house; fairly 


654. 




503 


-2 


970 


+ -C05 




open. 






5-00 


■3 


1470 


+ -004 










5-01 


■4 


1970 


-f-003 










M 5-005 


■5 


2490 


— -ooi 










7-98 


-118 


1530 


— -001 


S.W. Chimneys of 


In small yard at rear of mining 


655. 




8-07 


-244 


3140 


— -003 


house, .35°. 


offices. 






799 


•5 


6410 


— ■005 


S. Wall, 20°. 








7-98 
















M 8-005 















183 



REPORT 1876. 

TABLES OF MONTHLY RAIN-1 
ENGLAND. 



Division I. — Middlesex, 


Div. II.— S.E. Counties,' 


Middlesex. 


Si'UREir. 


Height of 

Eain-gauge 

above 

Ground 

Sea-level 


Camden 

Square. 


Vpper 
Clapton. 


Hampstead, 
Squire's 
Mount. 


Muswell 
Hill. 


Dunsfold, 
Godalmiug. 


Weybridge 
Heatli. 


ft. 6 in. 
Ill ft. 


1 ft. 1 in. 
98 ft. 


1 ft. in, 

388 ft. 


ft. y in. 
310 ft. 


2 ft. 6 in. 
166 ft. 


ft. 6 in. 

150 ft. 


1874. 1875. 


1S74. 


1875. 


1874. 


1875. 


1874. 


1875. 


1874. 


1875.- 


1874. 


1875. 


January 

February . . . 

Marcli 

April 


ri8 
■91 

•39 
126 

114 

2-05 

•82 

3-32 

262 

334 

2-21 
158 


in. 

3-22 

i'o6 
•69 

1-53 
i-6i 
2-40 
463 
179 
2-86 

4-35 
336 

■94 


in. 
1-14 
•82 

•5^ 
121 

136 
1-88 
2-47 
1-24 
2-63 

3-21 

1-97 
153 


in. 

2-74 
■84 
•57 
,•38 
r6S 
2-90 

477 

■83 

2-67 

3'94 

3-21 

-82 


in. 
1-34 
i-io 
-62 

1-33 

i-o8 

211 
111 

177 
3-02 
3-64 
2-24 
1-65 


in. 
3-21 
1-03 

77 

1-62 


in. 
1-46 
1-16 

•67 

1-43 

■71 


in. 
3-30 
1-09 

79 
1-40 


in. 

i-6o 
2-03 

•4» 

2- 1 5 

•93 
2-96 

2-22 
171 

3-47 
4-38 
3-90 
1-92 


in. 

377 

1-33 

-83 

•98 

-98 

2-54 

411 

i"35 

'•45 

479 

370 

-68 


in. 
1-19 
1-52 

■49 
1-69 

i-ii 

3-54 
1-33 

1-42 
3-01 

4-13 
2-62 
1-65 


in. 

376 
1-28 

■55 
1-65 
1-31 

2-74 

4-53 

■84 

164 

4-39 
3-38 

I'OO 


May 


June 


2'27 1 2-42 2'Sq 


July 


4-67 

-98 

2-36 

394 

3-03 
1-05 


•88 1 ■;-20 


August 

September ... 

October 

November ... 
December ... 


1-46 

3-23 
3-6o 

211 

2-09 


.•51 

2-87 
4-07 

3-6i 


Totals 


18-82 


28-44 


19-98 


26-35 


2I-01 


26-43 21'22 


30-20 


27-68 


26-51 


23-70 


27-07 







Division II.- 


— SorTH-EASTERN CouxxiES (cont 


'nued). 








Keut '{continued). 


Sussex. 1 


Height of 

Eain-gauge 

above 

Ground 

Sea-level 


Eiver Head, 
Sevenoaks. 


Acol, 
Margate. 


Sidcup, 
Foot's Cray. 


Brighton, 
Lewes Eoad. 


Chichester, 
Sho2)wyke. 


Bleak House, 
Ha.stings. 


ft. 6 in. 
300 ft. 


1 ft. in. 
00 ft. 


ft. 8 in. 
231 ft. 


■ 3 ft. 8 in. 
■ 90 ft. 


1 ft. 2 in. 
01ft. 


1 ft. 1 in. 

77 ft. 


1874. 


1875. 


1874. 


1875. 


1874. 


1875. 


; 1874. 


1875. 


1874. 


1875. 


1874. 


1875. 


January 

February . . . 

March 

Anril 


iu. 
1-96 

2-24 
72 
2-57 
■60 
3-91 
3-07 
221 
371 
5-78 
2-87 
3-60 


in. 

5'i7 

1-34 

•87 

1-24 

1-35 
3-27 
4-83 
1-44 
1-84 
481 

5-39 
1-81 


in. 
-86 

79 

-78 

I -41 

•94 

1-43 


in. 

a-57 
-81 

-68 

i'33 

1-78 
1-40 


in. 

■97 
1-39 

■43 
1-50 


in. 
2-79 
-S2 
-48 

117 


1 in. 
! a-52 
1-57 

i •71 
i'93 
-41 
1-88 
2-02 
224 

: 3'95 

: 4*42 

, 2-63 

2-9I 


in. 

4' 34 

2-00 

•89 

1-28 

1-40 

3'50 
3-33 
'•55 

2-10 
4-52 

575 
1-15 


m. 
2-32 
171 

•54 
1-83 

•34 
226 
2-66 
2-26 
2-90 

478 
2-80 

273 


in. 
4-29 

174 
■95 
•84 

1-20 

3-55 
2-73 
i-i I 
2-52 
5-97 
5-25 
•98 


in. 

2-24 
•85 

75 
2-50 

•8, 
1-24 

-56 
r6i 
3-42 
4-07 

2-00 
2-62 


in. 

4-03 

•93 
■84 

1-24 
■92 

2-12 

2-22 
2-41 
3-29 
4-47 

6-n 
1-49 


May 


-63 1-16 

2-70 2-71 

-80 1 4.-q2 


June 


July 


•63 


4-00 


August 

September . . . 

October 

November ... 
December ... 


1-17 
2-85 

275 
1-41 

1-45 


r62 
r8o 
2-59 
5-38 

133 


2-10 

2-74 
4-1 1 

2-46 

128 


1-85 
2-24 

4-11 

3-31 

-96 


Totals 


33'i4 


3336 


1747 


2547 


2I1I 


26-52 


1 27-19 31-81 


27-13 


3113 


22-67 


30-07 



ON TMU RAINFALL Ol-' XIU: HUITISH ISLKS. 



183 



?ALL IN THE BRITISH ISLES. 

ENGLAND. 







Division II.— Sovxh-Eastekn Counties 


(continued). 






1 




SuKKEY {continue 


i). 






Ki 


NT. 






1 

i 


Giiildfoid, 


Kew 


Kennington 


Canterbury, 


TTiT 


1.., 


Lin 


ton, 


1 
Falconhurst, | 


Giiildown. 


Observatory. 


Eoud. 


Bridge Street. 




Maid 


stone. 


Edenbridge. 


it, 11 in. 


1 ft. 9 in. 


5 ft. in. 


1 ft. 6 m. 


Oft. 


(5 in. 


Oft. 


6 in. 


1 ft. 


Oin. ! 


22U ft. 


19 ft. 


19 ft. 


52 ft. 


12 


ft. 


29G ft. 


400 ft. ; 


1674. 


1875. 


1874. i 1875. 

1 


1874. 1875. 


1874. 1875. 


1874. 


1875. 


1874. 


1875. 


1874. 


1875. j 


iu. 


in. 


in. in. 


in 


in. 


in. iu. 


in. 


in. 


m. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


1-23 


301 


•98 3-00 


•90 


2-84 


1-56 


3-68 


2-28 


4-42 


1-27 


3-62 


1-47 


3-80 


1-87 


1-59 


i-i6 -93 


■82 


•79 


1-29 


-86 


1-08 


1-31 


1-31 


•93 


2-30 


ri3 


'47 


092 


-44 -62 


•28 


-60 


•98 


-62 


1-3.! 


•82 


•«3 


-92 


77 


•88 


I 8i 


1-23 


1-261 1-70 


i-io 


I 2-67 


2-20 


1-22 


3'5i 


-82 


1-91 


1-38 


2-46 


1-31 


■59 


113 


•60 


1-39 


i-oy 


1-06 


1-05 


■93 


1-72 


1-21 


1-38 


•57 


1-20 


2-97 


2'6o 


2-52 


2-63 


2-62 


2-18 


1-72 


2-15 


2-58 


2-16 


2-63 


2-30 


2-55 


2-93 


1-24 


476 


i-i6 


477 


■97 


4-21 


•89 


5-90 


2-34 


4-31 


•72 


5-60 


2-44 


4"5i 


1-74 


117 


1-29 


•fe5 


-98 


I-C3 


1-96 


1-67 


377 


2-51 


2-07 


1-38 


2-41 


1-86 


269 


1-36 


293 


2-02 


1-58 


1-96 


2-63 


2-13 


5-'5 


3-04 


3-02 


2-20 


3-C5 


1-86 


4-29 


463 


3-55 


3-8i 


3-42 


3-82 


3-26 


3-55 


3-50 


4-86 


359 


3-!^5 


5-21 


5-20 j 


2-44 


4' 10 


2-31 


2-94 


2-25 


2 65 


2-38 


6-02 


2-6i 


8-82 


1-98 


4-39 


2-69 


4-13 


1-54 


1-56 


1-42 


■93 


1-38 


•73 


2-36 


r8o 


3-21 


3-24 


295 


2-30 


2-54 


I 54 


22-88 


28-06 


19-62 


25-39 


17-37 


23-48 


22-29 


30-65 


32-28 


38-03 


23-49 


30-25 


28-46 


30-35 



Division II. — South-Eastekn Counties {continued). 



Sussex {continued). 



Dale Park, 
Arundel. 



3 ft. 5 in. 
Slfi ft. 



1874. ! 1875. 



2-25 
2-26 

-50 
2-34 

-28 
2-66 

3-55 
2-10 
4-90 
4-61 
2-67 
i-6o 



29-72 



in. 
3-81 
1-90 
I -40 
1-15 
1-20 
2-30 

3*65 
1-30 
3-61 

5"3o 
4-91 
i-2i; 



31-78 



Eastbourne. 



4 ft. in. 
100 ft. 



1874. 1875. 



24-68 



in. 
4-22 
1-2S 

-88 
1-48 

•91 
2-78 
2-91 
222 
3-28 

5-05 
6-01 
1-78 



32*80 



Uckfield 
Observatory. 



(5 ft. in. 
149 ft. 



1874. 1875 



in. 

2-22 

1-90 

•69 

2-29 

•59 
2-10 

•58 
1-97 

315 
4-18 

2-66 
2-32 



24-65 



in. 

3-! 



■15 

71 
•87 
28 

74 
40 

45 
80 

74 
82 



Cbil grove, 
Chicbester. 



ft. 6 in. 
284 ft. 



1874. 1875. 



in. 
2-56 
2-33 

-61 
2-80 

-40 
3-C9 
1-43 
2-51 
2-74 

4"93 
2-82 
2-79 



29-02 j 29-01 



in. 

475 
241 
1-50 
1-39 
1-22 
3'i3 
4'39 
1-66 
2-61 

5'59 
5-28 

i'35 



35-33 



Balcomb 

Place, 
Cuckfield. 



1 ft. 8 in. 
300 ft. 



1874. 1875. 



in, 

2' 
I 
1' 
2 

2' 
2' 
2' 

3 
3' 
3-48 
2-17 



05 
y3 
00 
38 

4^ 
22 

27 
38 
61 
82 



2778 



m. 

3'57 

2-01 

-85 

•94 
1-08 

348 

4' 54 
1-61 
1-84 
5 '44 
499 
1-03 



3>-3S 



Petwortb 
Eectory. 



2 ft. in. 
190 ft. 



1874. 1875. 



2-43 
3-08 

■53 
2-83 
2-06 
3-07 
1-66 
2-70 

3-55 
578 
3-56 

3'47 
34-72 



in. 
4-50 
1-98 
1-25 
1-27 
232 
318 
3-98 

1-45 
2-c6 

5-82 

4-64 

1-69 
34'H 



Hampshiuk, 



St. Lawrence, 
Isle of Wight. 



1 ft. in. 

75 ft. 



1874. 1875. 



in. 
2-14 

i'55 

•76 
2-34 

.62 
2-26 

•56 
I '45 

4-63 
•?-l7 
2-68 



25-59 



in. 
5'o6 
2-83 

■77 
1-44 

•93 
2-04 

3-15 

1-57 
1-95 
5-6; 

5-6. 



31-95 



184 



REPORT 187G. 

ENGLAND. 



^Division II. — Sottth-Eastern CouNTrES {contimied). 


Hampshire (confinued). 


Height of 

1 Rain-gauge 
above 


Eyde, 
Isle of Wight. 


Osborne, 
Isle of Wight. 


Otterbourne, 
Winchester. 


Cadland, 
Southampton. 


Selborne. 


Liss, 
Petersfield. 


Ground 

Sea-level 


7 ft. in. 
20 ft. 


ft. 8 in. 
172 ft. 


1 ft. 3 in. 
115 ft. 


4 ft. fi in. 
52 ft. 


4 ft. in. 
400 ft. 


7 ft. 7 in. 
2.50 ft. 


1874. 


1875. 


1874. 


1875. 


1874. 


1875. 


1874. 


1875. 


1874. 


1875. 


1874. 


1875. 


January 

February ... 

March 

April 


in. 

1-62 

1-88 

•22 
2-52 

'P 
169 

1-91 

2-89 
3-07 

4'6i 
4'26 
3-28 


in. 
4-28 

2-79 
•93 

1-28 

•94 
2-31 

3-52 

•88 

178 

5-84 
5-66 
1-25 


in. 

1-82 

2-i8 
-46 

2-70 
•61 

1-63 

75 
2-46 

2-96 

4-67 

3-32 

2-92 


in. 
4-30 
2-74 
•69 
I-07 
121 
1-97 
3-23 
1-05 

1-43 
5-11 

4-48 
1-20 


in. 
1-86 
1-98 

■47 
2-47 

•36 
1-83 

•99 
2-62 
4-50 
4-52 
3"io 
1-99 


in. 

4-58 
2-55 

■91 
1-22 
198 

4-31 
4-16 

2-76 

1-34 
466 

4'57 

•59 


in. 

2-29 

2-64 
•58 
3-07 
•98 
1-98 
1-70 
2-99 
375 
5'43 
379 
3-41 


in. 
5-08 
2-97 

75 
1-46 
2-13 
321 
3-92 
2-12 
1-67 
6-57 
4-67 
1-24 


in. 
2-36 
3-42 

77 
2-93 

-42 
2-63 
1-03 
3-07 
2-76 
6-28 
4-02 
3-32 


in. 
S-io 
2-20 
1-30 

174 
1-95 
3-60 
6^46 
1-32 
1-87 
5-83 

473 
1-61 


in. 
2-89 

2-23 

75 
3-63 

-21 
1-92 

-81 
2-6i 

3'3i 
5-48 

3-60 
3-12 


in. 
5-04 

I-20 

1-09 

-96 

1-46 

4-15 
5-10 

i-oi 

2-58 

578 

4-61 
1-60 


May 


June 


July 


August 

September ... 

October 

November ... 
December ... 


Totals 


28-44 


31-46 


26-48 


28-48 


26*69 


3363 


32-61 1 35-79 


33-01 


37-71 


30-56 


34-58 



Division III. — South Midland Counties (confinued). 


I!u(KIXG[IA.M.SniRE. 


Northampton. 


Bedford. 


Cambridge. 1 


Height of 

Eain-gf.uge 

above 

Ground 

Sea-lev-el 


HighWycorab. 


Althorpe 
House. 


Welling- 
borough. 


Cardington. 


Wisbeach. 


Stretham, 
Ely. 


ft. 9 in. 
225 ft. 


3 ft. 10 in. 
310 ft. 


ft. 2 in. 


ft. in. 
106 ft. 


ft. in. 
10 ft. 


4 ft. 9 in. 






1874. 


1875. 


1874. 


1875. 


1874. 


1875. 


1874. 


1875. 


1874. 

in. 
128 

■93 
III 
1-14 

1-53 
1-63 
1-31 
2-o6 

2^78 

1-44 
2-21 
2-03 


1875. 


1874. 


1875. 


January 

February . . . 

Marcli " 

April 


in. 

,-87 
1-59 
-66 
175 
1-43 
1-28 
173 
1-57 
3-48 

3-^5 
2-44 

2-CO 


in. 
3-69 

I -00 

77 
1-07 
1-62 

3-07 

5'4i 1 

-82 j 

17s 
4-81 

3'5i 

■87 


in. 
178 
1-83 

78 
1-13 

•95 

•53 

■83 

2-16 

373 
2-96 
2-56 
1-33 

20-57 


in. 

271 

SO 
1-87 
1-70 
4-10 
8-00 
1-19 
2-85 

7-49 

4-76 

•96 


in. 
1-90 
1-70 
•88 
1-15 
1-51 

71 
-82 
1-94 
3-68 
2-99 
2-12 
2-C7 


. 
in. 

3-08 

I '44 
-92 

2-14 

1-63 

2-28 

5-91 

'■59 
279 

473 
4-40 
1-47 


in. 
I -60 
1-25 
70 
1-25 
1-50 
i-io 
1-16 

1-37 
3-20 
1-70 

2-,0 
1-70 


in. 

2^30 
I^OO 

•50 
174 

2'00 

4^66 
6'5o 
2-50 
2-36 

4-00 

375 i 
I -20 


in. 

2-05 

1-21 

•44 
-85 

i-6i 

3-28 

7-14 
2-39 

2-22 

2-71 
4TO 
169 


in. 

1-20 

•48 

■75 
•98 

-63 

1-41 

•50 

1-53 
2-41 

2^10 
151 
1-20 


in. 
1-51 

77 

•22 
1-05 
1-44 i 
2-21 

5-59 
2-26 

239 

2-92 

4-23 

•63 


May 


J una 


July 


j Augii.'it 

September . . . 

October 

November ... 
Decoiibei* ... 


Totals 


23-05 


2839 


36-88 


21-47 


32-38 


18-63 


31-51: 


i9'45 


29-69 


'4-70 


25^a2 



ON THE RAINFALL OF THK BRITISH ISLES. 

ENGLAND. 



185 



Division 11. — [jouth- 


















Eastebn 


Counties 




Division III.- 


—South Midland Counties. ' 




{continued). 


















Kahpshiue 


Berkshire. 




Heetfordshire 






Oxfordshire. 




{confhmed). 




















Aldersliot. 


Long 
Wittenham. 


Berkhanip- 
stead. 


Royston. 


Hitchin. 


Radcliffe 
Observatory. 


Banbury. 


(t ft. 6 in. ; 


1 ft. in. 


1 ft. 


6 in. 


ft. 6 in. 


1ft. 


Oin. 


Oft. 11 in. 


7 ft. in. 


. 325 ft. 
1 


170 ft. 


370 ft. 


269 ft. 


238 ft. 


208 ft. 


350 ft. 


1874. 


1875. 1 


1874. 


1875. 


1874. 


1875. 


1874. 


1876. 


1874. 


1875. 


1874. 


1875. 


1874. 


1875. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


171 


4-53 


2-28 


4-10 


216 


329 


1-40 


209 


1-52 


2-15 


2-30 


3-57 


2-15 


2-69 


2'12 


3-05 


174 


i-6o 


2-19 


118 


I -22 


75 


1-41 


1-05 


1-68 


1-45 


1-95 


-96 


•46 


•64 


•61 


•77 


•82 


75 


■86 


■47 


•72 


-63 


•61 


1-09 


•«s 


-80 


aai 


1-64 


1-05 


I-2I 


2-28 


'•47 


1-37 


1-42 


1-84 


1-58 


1-28 


1-46 


I '43 


213 


•77 


r6s 


1-49 


2-OI 


1-83 


2-46 


i-oi 


1-90 


•62 


2-00 


1-56 


176 


1-76 


2-12 


2*2 I 


2-55 


•67 


2-32 


1-22 


373 


1-26 


2-88 


1-35 


2-75 


•68 


2-96 


•50 


2-97 


i-?o 


5-88 


i'09 


4-46 


•93 


5-14 


•53 


4-52 


2-05 


6-24 


•49 


470 


2-14 


5'39 


2-24 


1-54 


i-6i 


'■3S 


1-69 


1-56 


I-I7 


i"57 


i-n 


1-32 


1-82 


i-8o 


2-09 


I-I2 


272 


170 


3-42 


. 2-54 


4'02 


2'62 


2-80 


2-66 


3-01 


2-07 


3-34 


2-03 


321 


2-38 


4"34 


6-o6 


3-II 


7-39 


3-ib 


6-54 


219 


3-66 


2-59 


3'94 


3'i3 


7'53 


3-13 


7-80 


2-04 


4'i9 


2-17 


379 


2-37 


4"02 


2'OI 


3-f5 


1-96 


4-16 


2-53 


3-76 


2-52 


484 


2-36 


179 


2-34 


•96 


3-57 


I-II 


1-97 


79 


2-07 


1-04 


1-82 


-87 


i-8i 


I-I2 


24-48 


35-32 i 


21-58 


32-50 


25-24 


33'87 


17-79 


26-36 


20-25 


28-93 


21*24 


32-98 


23-54 


34-32 









Division iV. — Eastern Counties. 














Essex. 






Suffolk. 


rhe Hemnalls, 
Epping. 


Dorward's 
Hall, Witham. 


Dunmow. 


Booking, 
Braintree. 


Ashdon 
Rectory. 


Grundisburgh. 


Culford, 

Bury St. 

Edmund's. 


ft. 8 in. 


1 ft. 6 in. 


ft. in. 


1ft. Oin. 


1 ft. in. 


3 ft. 


Oin. 


1ft. 


6 in. 


345 ft 


20 ft. 


250 ft. 




300 ft. 
















II 


1874. 


1875. 


1874. 


1875. 


1874. 


1875. 


1874. 


1875. 


1874. 


1875. 


1874. 


1875. 


1874. 


1875. ; 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


•47 


3-26 


1^12 


2^19 


115 


2^48 


I^20 


2^28 


1-46 


3'QO 


■99 


1^9 1 


1-24 


2-34 i 


114 


•92 


75 


75 


•86 


•72 


1^04 


•98 


•92 


■«5 


1^02 


•96 


•75 


I -2 I 


72 


•61 


■88 


-46 


74 


•42 


1-29 


■51 


•60 


•40 


•69 


-53 


1-07 


■42 j 


152 


1-48 


128 


1-40 


IT2 


118 


1-44 


1-32 


i-oS 


•84 


i^36 


1-13 


•69 


1-05 


•66 


2-41 


■8i j 2^51 


•90 


153 


•82 1 1-93 


1-66 


'•99 


1-51 


2-36 


■49 


2-15 


2-86 


3-02 


1-93 ! 179 


2^43 


4-25 


2-li>| 3^l6 


1-40 


2-33 


'■^0 


2-68 


1-64 


2-83 


2^95 


5-86 


1-37 4-48 


2-OI 1 3-90 


I-I4 


4-99 


1-58 


5-09; 


1-28 


4-33 


-76 


5-29 


ro7 


ro8 


•96 


■S6 


1-57 -85 


1-53 


•81 


1-20 


•81 


'■'4 


0-61 


i-i8 


•88 


3^00 


3-33 


1-82 


2-64 


2^04 


2-52 


2^6l 


2-94 


2-47 


3-56 


2-95 


2-21 


3-14 


2-67 ;| 


397 


3-63 


2-87 


2-44 


3-24 


3-IO 


2-43 


3-40 


2^69 


3'54 


1-69 


4-48 


2-o8 


3-24 !i 


1-91 


4-C9 


1-90 


3-56 


2-25 


3'59 


219 


4-04 


2'00 


4^26 


2-34 


4-88 


2^62 


5-26 


2-33 


'■37 


2-33 


•47 


131 


•89 


2-03 


1-27 


177 


•89 


1-79 


1-43 


2^17 


1-84 


22*6o 


3KC6 


18-02 


23^25 


i9^62 


25-43 


19^88 j 27-63 


18-83 


27-57 


i8^o7 


27-51 


17-83 


29-18 



186 



KKPORT 1H76 



ENGLAND. 



1 Division IV.^Eastern Counties (continued). 


Division V. — 

South-Westekn 

CotnfTiES. 


1 

Norfolk. 


Wilts. 


1 

' Height of 
Rain-gauge 

1 above 

Ground 

Sea-level 


Geldeston, 
Beccles. 


Cossey, 
Norwich. 


1 
Swaffham. j Holkham. 


Wilton, 
Salisbury. 


Marlborough, 

Mildenhall. 


1 ft. in. 
40 ft. 


1 ft. in. 


1 ft. in. 
160 ft. 


ft. in. 
39 ft. 


ft. 5 in. 
180 ft. 


1 ft. in. 
467 ft. 







1874. 


1875. 


1874. 1875. 


1874. 


1875. 


1874. 


1875. 


1874. 


1875. 


1874. 


1875. 


1 January 

February . . . 

March 

April 


in. 

•89 

■97 

•93 

1-03 

1-23 

2-91 

1-52 

1-73 

3-68 

1-30 

2-35 

2'46 


in. 

170 

•97 

■5^ 

75 

i"35 

'75 

4"'3 

075 

2-00 
3-69 
5-29 

.78 


in. in. 
1-07 2-23 
i-o8! 1-29 
•85 1 -56 

1*04 '60 


in. 
1-41 
-91 

I-2I 

I-I2 

•81 

196 

1-07 
2-o6 

281 

1-66 

2-8o 

2-87 


in. 
2-48 
1-33 

■57 

•88 

179 

5-96 
1-62 
241 
3-00 

5-15 
1-89 


in. 
1-25 

135 
1-05 
1-25 


in. 
1-70 
1-68 

77 
-8; 


lU. 

2-So 

3-00 

-60 

210 


in. 

471 
2-56 

J-54 


in. 

3'i3 
2-49 
1-09 
1-62 


in. 

4'55 
2-14 

1-35 

T'CT . 


May 


1-94 
206 
i-ii 

1-35 
319 
1-65 
3". 6 

2-45 


1-49 

1-57 
5-08 
•69 
2-42 
3-56 
S-8i 
2-39 


i-c8 -oc 


•80 1 1-69 

i-zo [ 2-98 
•qo A-o6 


■59 2'44 
-89! 2-70 

1-27 c'l!1 


June 


1-30 

-60 

1-65 

2-02 
2-25 
2-70 
3-10 


2-02 

8-31 

■99 

i-8o 
2-30 
5-63 

2-75 


1 July 


, August 

September ... 

1 October 

1 November ... 

December ... 


2-50 
4-30 
5-10 
3-00 
3 '40 


2-29 
2-OI 
6-03 

471 
I'2I 


2-46 
392 

4-37 
2-89 
2-38 


2-i8 

3'5o 
7-22 
4-o8 
1-16 


Totals 


2I-00 


24-68 


20-95 


27-78 


2069 


28-72 


19-60 


29-75 


29-70 


35-33 


27-10 


3822 




Division V. — Souxh-Westken Couniies {continued). 


Devonshire (i-ontinued). 


Height of 
1 Rain-gauge 
! above 
Ground 

Sea-level 

1 

1 
1 
1 


Landscore, 
Teignmouth. 


Clevelands, 
Lyme Regis. 


Cove, 
Tiverton. 


Ca.stle Hill, 
S. Melton. 


t 

Clawton, -„ XI 
Holsworthy. l^«r»staple. 

1 1 


ft. 6 in. 
200 ft. 


1 ft. 1 1 in. 
463 ft. 


ft. 4 in. 
450 ft. ? 


3 ft. 1 in. 
300 ft. 


1 ft. 1 in. 
400 ft. ? 


1 ft. in. ■ 
31ft. 


1874. 


1875. 


1874. 


1875. 


1874. j 1875. 


1874. 1875. 


1874. 1875. 


1874. ! 1875. j 


\ January 

j February ... 

Marcli 

April 


in. 

3'37 

3-35 
187 
2-52 
119 

173 
i-iS 


in. 
5-63 

2'12 
I 48 

i-6i 
2-86 
3'6i 

438 
2-51 

4-43 
9-11 

599 
I '09 


in. 
2-8 1 
3-03 
-63 
234 
1-04 

3'03 

1-27 

199 

6-So 
566 
3-46 
4'39 


in. 
6-11 
1-85 
•98 

J-53 
282 
2-86 
4-61 
321 
2-89 
8-25 
6-45 
-98 


in. 

453 
4-01 
1-32 

1-55 
i-o8 


in. 
6-32 
2-13 

175 
2-47 
3-06 

399 
3-91 

3-53 
363 
9-64 
6-7. 

1-50 


in. 
5-38 

2'32 

2' 1 2 

1-98 

•36 

-92 

4'oo 
5-87 

8-12 

6-49 

3-06 

io-o8 


in. 

8-20 

2-04 
1-68 
2-13 

374 
3-61 
2-78 
2-55 
5-37 
7-85 

8-21 

2-25 


in. 
3-89 
3-15 
•95 

2-47 

■99 
1-97 

3-04 
488 
8-19 
3-31 

2-94 
574 


i n. 
8-04 
176 
1-65 

195 

205 

3*57 
2-76 
2-56 

579 
6-68 
7-48 
2-19 


in. 
4-06 
2-81 
2-07 
i-8o 


1 
in. 1 

579 
1-79 

1-23 


May 


•70 ; 2-6 1 
1-48 4-01 
277 3-35 
5-65 [ 3-30 
5-93 553 
4-44 6-40 
3-06 7-15 
7-10 2-02 


June 


I '20 


Julv 


2-40 

4-59 
7-56 

5-3° 
3-51 
6-90 


August 

September . . . 

October 

1 November ... 
i December ... 


2-02 
5 70 

8-49 
4-41 

577 


Totals 


41 '60 


44-82 


3645 


42-54 


43"95 


48-64 


50-70 


50-41 


42-52 


4648 


41-96 45-34 





























ON THE RAINFALL OF THE URlTISll I.SLES. 

ENGLAND. 



1H7 









Division V.— 


-South- Western C 


ouxTiES {continued). 








Wi 


LT8 






Dorset. 






t 




Devonsuire. 






•nfi 


lued). 






















1 
C'hi]jpenliam, 
Tytherton. I 


Longthorns. 


Wcymoiitb, 

Osmingtou 

Lodge. 


Shafte 


sbury. 


Saltram. 
ft. 3 in. 


Fore Street 

Hill, 
Kingsbridge. 


Holne Vic. j 
Dartmoor. | 

1 


1 ft. 


2 in. 


ft. 


4 in. 


1 ft. in. 


1ft. 


Sin. 


1 ft. in. 


1 ft. 


in. 


l->7 


ft. 


340 ft. 


225 ft. 


722 ft. 


96 ft. 


63 ft. 


050 ft. ! 

1 


1674. 


1875. 


1874. 


1875. 


1874. 


1875. 


1874. 


1875. 


1874. 


1875. 


1874. 


1875. 


1874. 


1875. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


iu- 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


2-8i 


4-16 


3-33 


5-67 


2-94 


5-56 


294 


4'44 


7-S9 


10-37 


508 


7-64 


9-81 


14-19 


1-88 


2-C2 


341 


2-67 


2-42 


2-99 


2-39 


2-74 


398 


1-50 


4'i5 


1-79 


7'4i 


2-70 


•92 


•78 


•46 


1-22 


•66 


117 


•63 


■86 


1-36 


I "43 


1-24 


1-17 


1-71 


2-70 


1-30 


1-75 


2-09 


1-55 


2-26 


1-23 


2-9S 


1-87 


2-5b 


3-80 


2-27 


r8i 


4-99 


2-87 


■34 


2-49 


•45 


1-72 


•61 


2-23 


■88 


2-51 


■89 


■90 


1-29 


2-45 


1-38 


477 


1-09 


2-58 


1-57 


2-75 


1-50 


1-89 


2-22 


278 


^•35 


3-b5 


1-89 


3-«5 


9-10 


5-64 


■73 


5-37 


1-41 


5-29 


•98 


3-89 


171 


5-91 


175 


5-39 


1-55 


5-C0 


1-79 


6-24 


269 


1-32 


2-78 


1-68 


280 


2-79 


319 


1-04 


2-25 


3 '44 


2-65 


2-14 


619 


4-21 


4"93 


3'34 


3'93 


1-03 


3'74 


2-3b 


6-is 


2-53 


9->5 


6-79 


4-A2 


7-80 


8-85 


7-31 


3-55 


7-36 


5-84 


832 


581 


8-15 


5-69 


6-90 


7'36 


«-35 


6-87 


680 


10-83 


12-04 


! 2-14 


3-98 


3"53 


5-40 


3-3« 


5-67 


2-56 


5-IO 


470 


602 


429 


689 


•53 


10-55 


2-27 


087 


3-94 


1-30 


4-16 


I-3S 


2-6i 


I -41 


! 5-54 


2* 10 


7-46 


2-22 


10-33 


3-37 


24-65 


3602 


3274 


38-60 


31-26 


39-28 


33-92 


38-09 


1 4978 


5374 


43-16 


49-56 


72-92 


76-59 









Division V.— 


-Sotjth-AVes' 


CERN C0DNTIE8 {continued] 


, 




1 














Cornwall. 












Crowan, 
Camborne. 


Penzance. 


Tehidy Park, 
Eedruth. 


Ti-uro, Royal 
Institution. 


Trevarna, 
St. Austell. 


Bodmin, 

Castle Street. 


Altai 


•num. 


Oft. 


S in. 


3 ft. 


Oin. 


Oft. 


6 in. 


40 ft. 


in. 


ft. 6 in. 


2 ft. 


4 in. 


1ft. 


in. jl 


519 ft. 


94 ft. 


100 ft. 


56 ft. 


300 ft. 


338 ft. 


570 ft. 1; 


1874. 
in. 


1875. 


1874. 


1875. 


1874. 


1875. 


1874. 


1875. 


1874. 


1875. 


1874. 


1875. 


1874. 


1875. ! 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in- .|1 


562 


8-64 


5-15 


9'54 


4-53 


6-90 


4-80 


798 


5-34 


9'55 


570 


993 


7-52 


1275 


3-86 


2-57 


37° 


3-24 


4-05 


215 


4 35 


i-4S 


4-21 


1-74 


5-22 


1-59 


5-04 


2-44 


1-31 


1-30 


1-58 


1-20 


4-25 


1-35 


1-17 


1-39 


182 


I 59 


2-03 


178 


2-78 


•VS^ 


234 


239 


2-68 


2-54 


rSo 


2-00 


1-96 


I 94 


276 


249 


2-34 


2 04 


363 


3-05 


-80 


3-11 


-68 


2-88 


l-oS 


2-30 


'•31 


2-35 


•5^ 


3-20 


•94 


292 


■96 


3'67 


1-80 


3-5« 


2-24 


3-33 


2-00 


310 


I 84 


2-56 


1-92 


4-08 


2-05 


333 


2-26 


4-33 


•■53 


3-70 


1-38 


3-40 


1-50 


2-80 


i-6o 


2-70 


130 


3-57 


I 99 


3-20 


224 


5-5° 


408 


2-50 


3-07 


1-99 


3-90 


3-45 


371 


278 


4-31 


2-30 


4-56 


2-66 


6-55 


298 ■ 


7-15 


4-55 


5-25 


4-95 


6-30 


4-50 


5-90 


5-53 


7-54 


7-48 


6-55 


740 


7-76 


7-02 i 


6-11 


7-47 


5-61 


8-77 


5»5 


6io 


4-59 


7-17 


4-78 


9-85 


533 


8-49 


809 


7-32 


4'59 


5-09 


5-21 


6-6 1 


4-20 


679 


4"43 


580 


5"4i 


8-27 


4-73 


683 


5-28 


976 


814 


3-38 


9-92 


3-12 


770 


3-60 


8-04 


221 


9'43 


2-0^ 


6-72 


273 


8-99 


3-57 


4733 


48-28 


46-47 


5«-57 


46-46 


45-04 


4373 


44-86 


49-34 


56-76 


48-16 


52-90 


6110 


63-95 



188 



REPORT 1870. 

ENGLAND. 



Division V. — South- Western Counties (continued). 


Division YI. — West i 
Midland Counties. 


Somerset. 


GtOUCESTER. 


Height of 

Rain-gauge 

above 

Ground 

Sea-level 


Fulland's 

School, 
Taunton. 


Ilcbester. 


Sherborne 

Reservoir, 

E. Harptree. 

1 ft. in. 
338 ft. 


Batheaston 
Reservoir. 


Clifton. 


The Firs, 
Cirencester. 


1 ft. 4 in. 


2 ft. 6 in. 
30 ft. 


2 ft. in. 
226 ft. 


ft. 6 in. 
192 ft. 


ft. 8 in. 
352 ft. 




1874. 


1875. 


1874. 


1875. 


1874. 


1875. 


1874. 


1875. 


1874. 


1875. 


1874. 


1875. 


January 

February ... 

March 

April 


in. 

2-IO 

2-J4 

•56 

209 

1-02 

I 06 

•90 

1-66 
465 

477 
221 
2-6o 


in. 
3-02 
2-45 

•49 
1-69 

2-8o 

2-47 

4"54 
2-09 
265 
6-59 

449 
-48 


in. 
2-52 
279 
i-oi 
1-79 

•85 
1-08 

I-I2 
2-84 
4-26 
412 
2-52 
3-29 


in. 

4-87 

2-06 

•68 

•78 

2-07 

2-46 

4-88 

2-17 

1-92 

4-56 

2-87 

•16 


in. 
6-05 

4-59 
2-54 
3-06 
III 

174 
1-09 

5-30 
7-94 

6-22 

4-17 
6-22 


in. 
846 
319 
1-96 
2-71 
416 
5-92 
6-84 
1-94 
4-88 

8-37 
6-85 
2-o6 


in. 
3-10 
2-30 

1-25 

i-6o 

■45 
i-6o 

•95 
3-5° 
6-15 

4-15 
2-55 
2-40 


in. 

4-85 

2-00 

i-io 
i-8o 
2-35 
3-35 
6-25 
1-30 
4-25 
6-35 

4'45 
-80 


in. 

3-93 
2-40 
2-14 
1-99 
■66 
I 06 
156 
4-64 
7-07 
382 
2-36 
362 


in. 

5-14 
2-25 
1-46 
2-09 
2-87 
3-52 

599 
179 

4' 60 

698 

608 

1-28 


in. 
3-28 
2-39 
1-08 

1-59 
101 
1-84 
1-09 
3-i8 
545 
3-8i 

2-8i 

2-78 


in. 

5-3° 
2-56 

I -07 
1-98 
2-39 
3-42 
5-56 

1-21 

280 

7-82 
5-04 
1-64 


May 


June 


July 


August 

September . . . 

October 

November ... 
December ... 


Totals 


2576 


33-76 


28-19 


29-48 


50-03 


57-34 


30*00 


38-85 


35-25 


44-05 


30-31 


40-79 



Division VI. — West Midland Counties (continued). 


Division VII. — North 
Midland Counties. 


Worcester (continued). 


Warwick. 


Leicester. 


Height of 

Rain-gauge 

above 

Ground 

Sea-level 


Worcester. 


Orleton, 
Tenbury. 


Arden House, 

Henley-in- 

Arden. 


Birmingham. 


Fleckney 

Market, 

Harboro'. 


Thornton 
Reservoir. 


ft. 8 in. 
112 ft. 


ft. 9 in. 
200 ft. 


2 ft. 2 in. 
400 ft. 


ft. 8 in. 
340 ft. 


ft. 8 in. 
411 ft. 


2 ft. 8 in. 
420 ft. 


1874. 


1875. 


1874. 1875., 


1874. 1875. 


1874. 


1875. 


1874.1 1875. 


1874. 


1875. 


January 

February ... 
March "....- 
i April 


in. 
2-29 
280 

-79 
1-86 

2-27 

-75 
III 
1-91 

3-57 
2-62 
269 
2-07 


in. 

3-37 
.-56 

64 
■99 

2-51 

-■39 
669 
1-96 
2-97 
6-68 
481 
1-30 


in. 
2-51 
3-06 

1-04 
1-59 

2-C5 

1-15 

•80 

264 

3-67 

i-r I 
329 
283 


3'i6 
214 
■98 i 
1-14 
256 
2-32 
6-;7 


in. 
2-64 
2-26 
114 

1-45 
2-25 

■81 


in. 

3-17 
1-17 
-52 
112 
2-52 

2-6l 

6-83 

•-54 
3-48 
7-26 

4-71 
1-51 


in. 
1-96 
2-69 
119 

1-98 


in. 

4-58 

1-68 

■80 

1-09 


in. in. 

2*28 ! 3-03 

•51 ; 1-64 

-70 j 1-09 

103 ' lOl 

1-27 2-14 

1-23 611 

•88 i 6nn 


in. 
1-61 
1-65 

-79 

1-14 

.-38 

71 

-82 

2-51 

2-73 
2-24 
269 
2-0 1 


in. 
3-19 

-9» 

•52 

•91 

1-33 

555 
6-64 

I 84 
291 
6 18 

395 
1-28 


1 Mav 


June 

July 


■87 J 3-20 

1-2 <; ' 8-Sc 


August 

September . . . 

October 

November ... 
December ... 


4-08 1 1-85 
3-26:: 3-73 

5-94 '-97 
4-04! 2-83 
1-63 i 2-32 


2-18 
3-57 
3-58 
2-77 
2-60 


2-02 
3-30 
7-36 
3-46 
•92 


2-67 
2-92 

1-88 

248 

r8i 


2-57 
2-40 

5-51 
398 
I 02 


Totals 


24-73 


35-87 


26-74 


37-42 


24-7S 36-44 1 27-88! 39-36 


19-66 


36-59 


20-28 


35-2' 



ON THE RAINI'ALL OV THE BRITISH ISLES. 189 

ENGLAND. 



Division VI. — West Midland Counties (continued). 


Gloucester 
(continued).- 


Hereford. 


SlIKOPSlIIRE. 


Stafford. 


-Worcester. 


Saul Lodge, 
Frampton- 


Stretton 
Rectory,' 


Haughton 
Hall, 


Hengoed, 
O.swestry. 


: Barlaston, 
Stokp 


North wick 
Park. 


West Malvern. 


oii-Sevorn. 


Hereford. 


ShifnaU. 






1 

i 


o ft. 6 in. 


1 ft. in. 


3 ft. 6 in. 


6 ft. in. 


ft. 6 in. 


1ft. 


6 in. 


1ft. 


6 in. 1 


42 ft. 


198 ft. 


353 ft. 


470 ft. 


500 ft. 






850 ft. 






1874. 


1875. 


1874. 


1875. 


1874. 


1875. 


1874. 


1875. 


1874. 


1875. 


1874. 

1 . 
i m. 


1875. 


1874. 


1875. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


iu. 


in. 


3-28 


4-68 


2-8o 


3-76 


i-8i 


2 46 


2-88 


4-66 


2-92 


3-69 


3-12 


370 


2-72 


373 


219 


1-83 


2'53 


2-23 


2-41 


1-56 


2-95 


1-96 


2-8i 


i-i I 


2-24 


r6i 


2-98 


»'43 


i-oz 


129 


■7^ 


i-i8 


•88 


-82 


1-69 


1-37 


1-59 


-81 


-60 


79 


■68 


1-06 


I-li2 


2-8o 


1-54 


■86 


1-17 


-66 


2-01 


1-29 


1-49 


•5' 


r8i 


2-30 


2-i8 


-98 i 


•54 


193 


1-41 


2-53 


1-98 


i-i< 


2-55 


3-05 


1-44 


1-82 


2-73 


2-53 


1-52 


324 


75 


3-14 


I 02 


2-52 


77 


2-63 


75 


375 


-81 


3-18 


•35 


2-05 


i-ii 


2-74 


•97 


4'43 


•85 


4-80; 


1-17 


5-59 


1-88 


4-68 


1-69 


6-7 s 


2-10 


6-32 1-82 


7 '49 


219 


•96 


2-49 


1-88 


2-62 


3-56 


3-39 


3'33 


3-66 


2-69 


2-47 


1-31 


2-26 


2-03 


478 


3-04 


4-09 


4-31 


2-88 


4-14 


3-^3 


4-60 


3-36 


379 


3-76 


2-70 


3-75 


3-68 


2 46 


522 


2-93 


6-03 


1-65 


5-32 


2-86 


5-«3 


2-83 


4-65 


3-96 


8-7, 


3*o6 


8-18 


201 


5-31 


269 


"^'Pt 


373 


3-5^ 


4-82 


3«5 


4'43 


yib 


3-13 


5-22 


2-70 


4-96 


232 


1-68 


2-67 


1-82 


2-43 


1-03 


3-62 


1-62 


3-27 


1-29 


2-95 


•81 


2-00 


-91 


H'33 


36-31 


25-80 


36-91 ' 


23-50 


32-48 


32-53 


39*99 


30-30 


33-85 


29-22 


38-05 


26-78 


40-43 j 



Division VII. — Noeth Midland Counties (continued). 



Leicester 






LiNC 












continued). 


1 

1 




;OLN. 










elvoii- Castle. 


Lincoln. 

j 


Market Rasen. 


Grainsborough. 


Brigg. 


Grimsby. 


New Holland. 


1 ft. in. 


1 3 ft. 6 in. 


3 ft. 6 in. 




3 ft. 6 in. 


15 ft 


in. 


3 ft. 


6 in 


237 ft. 


26 ft. 


Ill ft. 


76 ft. 


16 ft. 


42 ft. 


18 ft. 


.874. 


1875. 


i 1874. 


1875. 


1874. 


1875. 


1874. 


1875. 


1874. 


1875. 


1874. 


1875. 


1874. 


1875. 


.n. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


iu. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


1-58 


1-96 


1-24 ! 3-08 


•98 


1-27 


■78 


1-59 


1-06 


1-32 


-86 


i-6i 


i-o8 


1-63 


'•59 


1-44 


1-53 


1-19 


'•35 


-60 


1-41 


1-12 


1-09 


•37 


i-i6 


-83 


1-16 


1-05 


1-05 


•57 


-74 


•57 


■71 


1-57 


-30 


•68 


•75 


■71 


-85 


•43 


-72 


-63 


1-13 


•97 


1-36 j -54 


•44 


•92 


1-48 


-72 


1-74 


•52 


79 


•34 


■94 


•29 


•97 


i-oi 


1-68 I -85 


•82 


1-09 


1-46 


•91 


119 


•93 


1-04 


•98 


•94 


1-75 


•45 


2-44 


117 2-64 


1-05 


2-78 


•91 


1-96 


-66 


2-95 


-46 


262 


•49 


2-02 


•90 


5-42 


-46 


3-66 


2-29 


4-91 


1-46 


4-07 


I -00 


4-02 


1-13 


4-02 


I'12 


3-65 


1-94 


1-92 


1-64 


2-00 


2-43 


1-30 


219 


2-49 


1-72 


1-80 


1-80 


1-79 


1-94 


3-91 


2-14 


224 


1-65 1-63 


2-42 


•<'5 


1-97 


2-12 


1-57 


2-58 


169 


1-97 


1-55 


2-00 


1-60 


4-95 


'•34 3"89 


2-41 


5-99 


2-17 


4'34 


1-35 


3-14 


1-37 


3^65 


1-69 


4-03 


2-06 


4-20 


2-43 1 4-41 


i-6i 


3-60 


1-70 


3-51 


2-01 


4-86 


3-05 


5-01 


2-8i 


5-41 


1-69 


1-10 


1-34 1-28 


1-25 


-23 


1-08 


-82 


1-47 


-76 


2-18 


-98 


1-84 


1-13 


7-10 




28-22 


16-58 25-74 


17-76 


24-91 


16-91 


24-33 


15-61 


23-96 


16-38 


24-23 


16-28 


27-50 



190 



REPORT 187C). 



EXGLAXD. 



! 

Division VII. — ^""orth Midlaxd Counties {continued). 


Div.YIII.— 

X.-Westebx 

CorNTIES. 


NoTTINGIiAlI. 


DEiiBr. 


Cheshire. 


Height of 

Rain-gauge 

above 

Ground 

Sea-level 

i 
1 


Welbeck. 


Spondon, 
Derby. 


Cliepterfield. Comb's Moss. 


Chapel-en-le- 
Frith. 


Cliolmondelly 

Castle, 

Nantvrich. 


4 ft. 6 in. 

88 ft. 


ft. 7 in. 
262 ft. 


3 ft. in. 
248 ft. 


3 ft. 6 in. 
ir,69 ft. 


3 ft. 6 in. 
965 ft. 


1 ft. fi in. 
42 ft. 


1874. 


1875. 


1874. 


1875. 


1874. 


1875. 


1874. 


1875. 


1874. 


1875. 


1874. 


1875. 


January 

February . . . 

March 

April 


in. 
1-48 

»74 
•97 

2'12 

1-49 

78 

1-84 

2'05 
2-02 

3-03 
2-82 
.•87 


in. 
262 
123 

75 
•92 

i'59 
3-34 
3-86 
3-8i 
282 
5-01 
4-32 

1-21 


in. 
1-98 

1'62 

j 1-31 

[ 1-22 

ro8 

•51 
114 

2-2 3 
1 2-67 

: 179 
2-67 

2-01 


in. 

3"25 

'•47 

72 

79 

2-OI 

2-87 
6-29 

33" 

3-97 
510 
378 

I -2 I 


in. 
289 

175 

1-33 
2-32 

77 
•46 

1'20 

2'S5 
215 
3-25 

4'"5 
1-85 


in. 
3-64 

■87 
rc5 

•85 
1-31 
2-96 

4'54 
4-72 
311 
577 
4'37 
1-60 


in. 
5-61 
3-24 

3 '49 
2-09 
1-70 
1-13 
1-86 
4-65 

3 '44 
4-04 
4-23 
1-42 


in. 
3-91 

•97 

■58 

I-I3 

2-32 
3-42 
601 

396 
5-32 
7-65 

477 
1-51 


in. 

4-24 

2-28 

3-52 
2-67 

1-57 

-63 

2-66 

6-.3 

3-21 

4-92 
5-i8 
243 


in. 
4-90 

1-25 
-67 
1-37 
2-18 
3-14 
3-90 
2-83 
4-69 
6 -02 

474 
1-96 


in. 
2-44 

2-05 

•94 
i-6i 
1-89 

•40 
1-87 
3-20 
3-02 

2-91 

3-96 

3-07 


in. 1 

2-60' 

,■65 

•80 

■5i 
2-05 

2-93 

5 '34 
3-05 

4-75 
5-,8 

363 
i-o6 




June 


July 


August 

September... 

October 

November ... 
December ... 


Totals 


22'2I 


3'-48 


20*23 


3477 


24-67 


3479 


36-90 


41-55 


3944 


37-65 


27-36 


3356 



Division YIII. — Xorth-Western Coitnties {continued). 


Div. IX. — Yorkshire. 


L.\sCASHiRE {continued). 


York. — West Riding. , 


1 

Height of 

Rain-gauge 

above 

Ground 

Sea-level 


Stonyhurst. 


Cat on, 
Lancaster. 


Holker, 
Cartmel. 


Couiston. 


Broomhall 

Park, 
Sheffield. 


Redmircs, 
Shefileld. 


1 ft. 3 in. 
376 ft. 


1 ft. in. 

117 ft. 


4 ft. 8 in. 
1.55 ft. 


1 ft. in. 
287 ft. 


2 ft. in. 
330 ft. 


5 ft. in. 
1100 ft. 


1874. 


1875. 


1874. 


1875. 


1874. 


1875. 


1874. 


1875. 


1874. 


1875. 


1874. 


1875. 1 


j January 

February .. 

March 

April 


in. 
5-26 
1-78 
6-45 
i-8i 
1-84 
2-05 
3-04 

7-21 

5-56 
6-90 

5-35 
3-95 


in. 

5-13 
1-40 
1-25 
1-59 
2-92 

4-47 
5-69 
3-76 
5-88 
3-78 
581 
2-58 


in. 
4-72 
177 
3-77 
1-59 
1-49 

I-I2 
2-42 
6-70 

4'75 
638 

5-26 
4-08 


in. 
5-20 

•93 
1-03 
1-29 

2-57 
4-24 
4-03 

3-83 
4-19 

3-24 

5-12 

2-73 


in. 
4-61 

2-34 
3-08 
0-98 
1-23 
1-62 
2-15 
7-i6 
5-01 

8-59 
4-61 

3-71 


in. 
6-67 

1-37 
1-08 

J-35 
2-50 


in. 
io-8g 

5-33 
5-75 
2-67 

I-!2 


in. 
13-41 

363 
2-66 
2-78 
3-77 
5-35 
3-ig 

4-73 
938 
7-72 
9-06 
5-77 


in. 
1-51 

'•57 
174 

I'^2 


in. 

2-84 

1-25 

o-8o 

•68 


in. 
2-81 
1-70 

277 

T"on 


in. 1 
4-58 
1-38 
1-31 
1-44 
2-37 
4-32 

5-30 
5-29 

4-51 
7-15 
6-31 

1-76 


May 


-87 1-621 i-j8 


June 


3-99 1-1/3. 


■71 


3-59] 1-33 

4-06 1 2-CO 


July 


2-52 


4*4' 


■72 

2-64 

1-72 
3-15 
3-^7 
2-81 


August 

September ... 

October 

November ... 
December ... 


3-54 
6-06 
5-29 

6-35 
2-46 


12-07 
764 

13-99 
8-70 
5-03 


4-98 
3-49 

6-35 
4-52 
1-42 


■' 
4-07 

2-68 

4-31 
4-78 
2-30 


! Totals 

1 


51-20 


44-26 


44-05 


38-40 


45-09 


43-17 79-14 


71-44 


22-23 


3560 


32-21 


45-7* 



ox TUK RAINr.VLL OF Til K lUlITISII ISLES. 

ENGLAiND. 



191 





Division 


YIII. 


— Noeth-Western 


Counties (continued). 






Cheshire 
continued). 


Lancashire. 


tlacclesfield. 


Manchester. 


Waterhouses. 


Bolton-le- 
Moors. 


Rufford, 
Ormskirk. 


Over Darwen. 


South Shore, 
Blackpool. 


3 ft. 6 in. 


2 ft. 


7 in. 


3 ft. 


6 in. 


3 ft. 


6 in. 


Oft. 


Sin. 


1 ft. in. 


1ft. 


Sin. 


539 ft. 


106 ft. 


345 ft. 


286 ft. 


38 ft. 


600 ft. 


29 ft. 


1874. 


1875. 


1874. 


1875. 


1874. 


1875. 


1874. 


1875. 


1874. 


1875. 


1874. 


1875. 


1874. 


1875. 1 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


i 

in. ! 


2*6o 


2-66 


3-53 


3-57 


4*99 


4-27 


486 


5-60 


2-8o 


3-79 


5-82 


6-16 


2-88 


3'55 


2-17 


•58 


'■59 


■74 


1-99 


-98 


1-88 


1-08 


1-61 


•«5 


2-75 


1-20 


1-90 


I -00 i 


I -65 


•55 


3'37 


•82 


4-10 


•48 


4-66 


•87 


2-96 


76 


6-51 


1-57 


1-45 


•58 i 


i-8o 


•60 


I'OO 


•90 


1-29 


1-26 


1-46 


i-ii 


1-15 


•71 


2-31 


1-68 


i-o8 


•6s! 


2-3« 


1-46 


1-39 


2-07 


i'9o 


1-80 


1-96 


2-39 


1-42 


2-02 


1-95 


2-77 


1-20 


1-40 


•68 


2'o6 


I'OO 


3-56 


1-29 


37« 


1-63 


5-0 1 


1-09 


3-19 


1-90 


4-22 


-25 


3-85! 


2-95 


478 


177 


4-60 


1-69 


4-42 


3-46 


5-67 


2-65 


6-37 


3-67 


5-80 


1-72 


6-30; 


406 


1-44 


4-34 


5-00 


4-39 


2-87 


6-77 


3-00 


4-12 


2-62 


776 


3-51 


4-00 


220 { 


4-52 


272 


3-86 


474 


4-60 


5-04 


4-20 


5-91 


3-27 


4-59 


5-09 


5-52 


3-25 


4-65; 


270 


3-8i 


376 


4'45 


4-24 


4-34 


5-97 


6-13 


5-19 


4-82 


7-42 


5-68 


5-40 


4-55! 


4-40 


2-59 


4-85 


4-22 


4-42 


4-17 


7-38 


5-57 


4-53 


3-55 


6-11 


4-58 


4-25 


3-80! 


i-8i 


118! 

1 


3-64 


-82 


3-07 


1-53 


4-44 


1-59 


3-06 


1-32 


3-68 


2-32 


2-35 


1-40 


3172 


24-43 


34-10 


35'49 


37-97 


34-94 


48-67 


43-94 


33-85 


34-59 


54-97 


45-01 


29-73 


33-93 











Division IX 


— YoEKSHiKE (continued) 






York. — We.st Riding {continued). j 


Tickhill. 


Penistone. 


Saddleworth. 


Aekworth, 
Pontefract. 


Goole. 


Stanley Vic, 
Wakefield. 


1 
Ovenden j 

Moor, 
Hahfax. 


1 ft. 


Gin. 


3 ft. 


6 in. 


ft. 5 in. 


1 ft. 6 in. 


3 ft. 4 in. 


1 ft. in. 


ft. 6 in. 


61 


ft. 


717 


ft. 


640 ft. 


1.^5 ft. 




100 ft. 


1375 ft. 






1874. 


1875. 


1874. 


1875. 


1874. 


1875. 


1874. 


1875. 


1874. 


1875. 


1874. 


1875. 


1874. 


1875. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


•96 


2-15 


,•63 


3-95 


4-31 I 3-22 


71 


2^32 


•95 


2-31 


1-02 


3-08 


3-00 


5-90 


1-26 


133 


1-53 


■52 


'•51 j 3-20 


i-io 


»-34 


1-02 1 114 


i-io 


1-22 


1-40 


1*40 ' 


■97 


•S3 


3-23 


•63 


4-22 , -94 


•95 


•5° 


•96 43 


1-38 


-42 


4-50 ; 1-90 


r6i 


•57 


1-24 


-84 


2-40 ! 1-05 


'•14 1 -34 


1-27 -41 


I-IO 


-48 


i-6o 


1-50, 


•98 


1-25 


1-53 


.-56 


1-17 


2-99 


-901 1-13 


1-22 


1-09 


-84 


1-41 


1-50 


2-00 1 


1-58 


271 


•19 


3-43 


1-41 


4-05 


72 


4-65 


•27 


1-80 


■74 


3-52 


1-80 


4-10 ! 


1-98 


5-60 


132 


4-57 


1-86 


4-67 


1-36 


5-01 


1-34 


3-88 


1-83 


4-08 


2-70 


6-401 


2-53 


2-97 


3-73 


3-05 


5-60 


I 80 


I-S3 


2-10 


1-43 


2-68 


1-50 


2-46 


5-00 


3"20 


1-57 


2-22 


161 


2-92 


2-03 


4-74 


2-26 


264 


1-49 


2-42 


2-19 


2-70 


4-10 


4-90 


184 


S-13 


3-90 


5-56 


4-04 


3-62 


2-03 


4-37 


1-56 


4-10 


1-66 


3-93 


5-70 


6-30 


2-62 


3-95 


1-16 


4-73 


4-34 


4'37 


2-51 


3-74 


2-6i 


3-33 


2-64 


3-48 


4-60 


6-10 


1-98 


•83 


1-61 


1-60 


2-6i 


'•47 


2-75 


•65 


ri6 


1-34 


2-30 


■79 


4-00 


2-50 


19-88 

i 


29-24 


22-68 


33-36 


35-50 


3612 


17-96 


28-79 


15^28 


24-93 


18-30 


27-57 


39'9° 


46-20 I 



19> 



RKPORT 1876. 

ENGLAND. 



Division IX. — Yoekshiee (continued). 


York. — WEfST Riding {continued). 


York. — East Riding. 


Height of 

Rain-gauge 

above 

Ground 

Sea-level 


Leeds. 


Harrogate. 


Arncliffe. 


BeverleyRoad, 
Hull. 


Warter, 
Pocklington. 


ft. 9 in. 
340 ft. 


ft. 6 in. 

50 ft. 


ft. 6 in. 
330 ft. 


2 ft. 9 in. 
750 ft. 


3 ft. 10 in. 
11 ft. 


1 ft. 10 in. 
230 ft. 


1874. 1875. 


1874. 


1875. 


1874. 


1875. 


1874. 


1875. 


1874. 


1875. 


1874. 


1875. 


January 

Febi-uary . . . 

March 

April 


in. 
2-14 
1-40 

2-OI 
1-44 
■72 
■58 
1-89 
2-40 
2-25 
2-51 

2'69 
2-94 


in. 

378 

2-22 
1-30 
-67 
1-38 
2-36 
3-06 
257 
3-01 

4"39 
4-13 

1-25 


in. 
1-09 

i'35 
1-36 
1-28 
1-96 
•99 
i-i8 
2-34 
2-85 
2-17 

3*22 
3-35 


in. 
2-29 
I -20 

•55 

■44 

1-61 

2-10 

3-°5 
2-17 

2-23 
4-21 

3-83 
•89 

24-57 


in. 
2-05 
I -41 
2-64 
1-32 
1-66 
•8i 

2'33 
2-90 
2-25 
2-74 
2-48 

379 


in. 

4-37 
2-49 
1-66 
•48 
1-20 
2-42 
2-86 
2-81 
2-00 
4-64 

4'39 
1-35 


in. 
820 
3-12 
6-61 

2-95 
2-52 

1-53 
3-92 
9-52 
7-19 
8-47 
5"J3 
571 


in. 

10-78 
1-92 
2-25 
3-01 
4-45 

4'9J i 

3-56 

5-23 

5'i4 
7-66 

479 


in. 

1-05 

1-33 
i-i8 
i-oi 
1-56 

*57 

1-48 
1 98 
r8o 

177 
3-71 

2-75 


in. 

2-35 
1-07 
-81 
•47 
i'35 
1-85 

3-69 
3-56 
2-49 

4-34 
5-76 
113 


in. 
1-32 

i'55 
1-90 
1-82 
2-18 

75 
1-58 
2-6i 
1-68 

2-42 
4-60 
3-92 


in. 

2-94 
I '45 
■97 
•61 
1-71 
1-96 
3-87 
2-69 
3-08 

5-59 
6-18 

1-67 


May 

June 


July 


August 

September . . . 

October 

November ... 
December ... 


Totals 


22-97 


30'12 


23-14 


26-38 


30-67 


64-87 


58-35 


20-19 


28-87 


26-33 


32-72 



Division X. — -Noethern Counties (continued). 


NOETHUMBERLAND. 


Cumberland. 1 


Height of 

Rain-gauge 

above 

Grroimd 

Sea-level 


Bywell. 


North 
Shields. 


Haltwhistle. 


Lilburn 
Tower. 


Rootle. 


SeathvPaite. 


ft. 6 in. 

87 ft. 


1ft. in. 
126 ft. 


ft. 9 in. 

380 ft. 


6 ft. in. 
300 ft. 


1 ft. in. 

87 ft. 


Ift.Oin. 
422 ft. 


1874. 


1875. 


1874. 


1875. 


1874. 


1875. 


1874. 


1875. 


1874. 


1875. 


1874. 


1875. 


January 

February . . . 

March 

April 


in. 
2-65 
2-28 

1-47 
1-61 


in. 

2-58 

1-83 

•98 

1-09 

I-2I 


in. 
1.50 

•95 
1-04 

-72 
2-30 
i-oo 
i'47 
1-55 
1-76 
,-65 

3-30 
379 


in. 

a'33 
1-21 

•51 

-76 

-72 

1-57 
5-38 

3 '41 
2-59 
3-26 
5-81 
1-44 


in. 

3-48 

1-77 
3-82 

2-75 


in. 
4-58 
1-59 
-81 

1-23 


in. in. 
1-33 1-86 
1-50; 3-18 

1-84 I-2I 

-89 1-97 

2-09 I-II 

•91 : 276 

2'oo ; 1-62 


in. 
3-88 

3-09 
2-33 
1-51 

1-03 


in. 
5-60 
1-24 
1-22 
i-s6 


in. 

20-82 

10-50 

14-24 


in. 

22-88 

3-45 
5-66 


May 


2-85 
i-oi 

1-72 
2-60 
2-63 
2-18 
4-28 
5-06 


195 


2-48 


2,' CO 'y'R-x i tSoI 




2-11 
4-21 
4-19 
2-92 

5 '44 
6-03 
2-o6 


1-68 
2-48 
5-02 
3-96 

477 
473 
3'i3 


2-29 
4-41 
1-97 

379 
2-86 

5-52 
2-55 


1-06 ! 452 3-02 lo-gol 

2-OQ 1 1' CA. Tan' C'Tcl 


July 


August 

September . . . 

October 

November ... 
December ... 


3-16 
1-25 

1-80 
4-02 
3 '44 


'■54, 
2-26 

3-81 
4-64 
2-891 


7-72 
5-38 

591 
4-67 

4'i7 


4-17 
5-89 
6-01 
4-67 
2-35 


18-60 
16-06 
30-18 
13-29 
7'34 


7-87 

14-45 
10-08 
12-10 
1393 


Totals 


3°'34 


34'65 


21-03 


28-99 


39-54 


34-08 


24-23 


28-85 i 


42-84 43-27 148-79 ii8-8ol 



ON THE RAINFALL OF THE BRITLSH FSLES. 

ENGLAND. 



193 



l< 


Division IX. 


— Yorkshire 


(continued). 






Division X. — Northern \ 
Counties. 


ORK. — E.R. i 
continued), j 


York. — North Eiding. 


Durham. 


1 
an ton Hall, { 
sarborough. 


Malton. 


WTiitby. 


Northallerton. 


Middles- 
borough. 


Durham 
Observatory. 


Wolsingham. 

1 
1 


1 ft. iu. 


1ft. 


Oin. 


2 ft. in. 


1 ft. 3 in. 


1ft. 


Bin. 


4 ft. 8 in. 


1 ft. in. 


2.W ft. 


75 ft. 


184 ft. 


133 ft. 


21 ft. 


340 ft. 


464 ft. 


m. 


1875. 


1874. 


1875. 


1874. 


1875. 


1874. 


1875. 


1874. 


1875. 


1874. 


1875. 


1874. 


1875. 


1. 


in. { 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


iu. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


I'22 


2-36 


i-6o 


272 


119 


1-86 


1-85 


2-25 


i'09 


1-74 


2-28 


4-25 


2*8o 


4"49 


1-72 


•88 


1-36 


•82 


1-27 


75 


1-57 


1-29 


76 


•66 


206 


1-74 


i-6i 


1-98 


f8(j 


■83 


1-50 


•58 


i-S8 


•56 


•47 


•30 


113 


•33 


J -54 


-70 


2-OI 


•71 


I-2I 


•60 


126 


•40 


•73 


■95 


•97 


•99 


•60 


-73 


1-82 


1-02 


1-86 


1-12 


179 


I'lO 


2'o6 


i"59 


3-5° 


•88 


1-98 


1-24 


2-22 


1-05 


3-21 


1-14 


2-54 


1-44 


3-39 


3-07 


■93 


2-78 


•84 


2*90 


•78 


2-63 


,•36 


2-67 


1-42 


2-6i 


1-51 


2-15 


1-30 


4-59 


1-29 


3"94 


2-51 


4-74 


i^6o 


4-21 


1-13 


3-24 


1-85 


4-31 


■79 


4-59 


i-c6 


2-26 


2-34 


3 '45 


2-38 


2-25 


2-36 


••75 


1-66 


225 


2-77 


2-59 


*-53 


2-77 


i'99 


2-48 


2-40 


1-89 


214 


1-63 


270 


2-07 


s-59 


1-71 


2-54 


3-24 


2-8o 


296 


(•78 


5-39 


2-00 


3-9° 


1-38 


4-61 


2-67 


2-46 


-95 


277 


2-40 


669 


2-54 


5-60 


5-5* 


6-57 


3-27 


5*23 


2-93 


6-6o 


•96 


4'oo 


2-o8 


566 


4-63 


7-13 


3-48 


6-46 


V'9 


'•74 


3-i8 


1-19 


3-46 


162 


4^oi 


1-07 


275 


'•47 


6-53 


1-84 


5-12 


2-51 


yog 


31-87 


2319 


28-49 


2391 


*9"3S 


2 1 92 


2426 


18-32 


24-28 


33-05 


37-26 


29-59 


3678 

li 



Division X. — Northern Counties (contimied). 


CuMBERLAXD {co?itiniied). 


Westmorela.nd. 


hinfellHall, 
■ckermouth. 

— 


Post Office, 
Kesvfick. 


Scaleby HaU. 


Kendal. 


Kirkby 
Stephen. 


Appleby. 


Great 

Strickland, 

Penrith. 


2ft. Oin. 
265 ft. 


1 ft. in. 
270 ft. 


1 ft. in. 
112 feet. 


1 ft. 6 in. 
146 ft. 


1ft. Oin. 

574 ft. 


1ft. Oin. 
442 ft. 


1ft. Oin. 
650 ft. 


S74. 

1. 

'•39 

^•55 
1-97 
•■C3 
-06 

|;-26 
•■34 

I'OO 

-38 

•45 
'96 

■75 


1875. 


1874. 


1875. 


1874. 


1875. 


1874. 


1875. 


1874. 


1875. 


1874. 


1875. 


1874. 


1875. 


in. 
6-36 

'•43 
1-60 
1-48 
3-10 
4-35 
3-47 
4-24 
6-66 
4-69 
4-76 
3-95 


in. 

6-94 
4-91 

4-57 
368 
I-I7 
»'47 

2-82 
9-13 
8-19 
14-76 
4-40 
3-85 


in. 
8-si 
1-25 
2-02 
1-58 
3-32 
4-24 

3-41 
3-10 
6-38 
4-42 
5-40 

5-90 


in. 
4-00 

a'5S 
2-50 

1-29 
1-58 
1-70 
2-87 
6-65 

4-25 
563 
4-85 
2-64 


in. 

4-23 

•97 

•69 

•96 

1-70 

278 

3-73 
2-13 
3-69 
3-19 
3-36 
195 


in. 
6-76 
3-10 

4-38 
1-96 
1-05 

1'21 
2-98 

7-40 
5-76 

i2-6o 

4-22 
369 


in. 

8-44 
1-43 
173 
169 

2-63 
5-28 
2-40 
3-06 
575 
3-33 
6-57 
3-91 


in. 
S-63 
2-85 
3-98 
313 
2-07 
1-14 

'•55 
4-83 

5'54 
871 
3-20 
2-88 


in. 
6-41 
•91 
1-16 
1-29 
173 
3-04 
3-14 
2-92 
5-26 
3-42 

4-57 
3-66 


in. 

4-35 
2-77 
3-44 
2-72 
1-52 
-92 
1-62 

4-77 
4-24 
672 
3-26 
2-69 


in. 
5-28 

•69 
1-31 

•54 
1-61 

3-30 
3-61 
1-71 

4-98 
2-8i 

3-12 

3-48 


in. 

5-02 

2-69 

3-02 

3-.6 
1-86 
1-60 
1-50 
5-20 
5-97 

943 
2-84 

3-05 


in. 
6-14 

•62 
1-41 

•80 
2-04 

3-35 

379 

2-05 

4-77 
3'5' 
3-41 

3-12 


•'4 


46-09 


65-89 


49"S3 


40-51 


29-38 


55-11 


46-22 


45-51 


37-S« 


39-02 


3*44 4534 


3S-C1 




187( 


y. 


























104 



REPORT 1876. 

WALES. 



Division XI. — Monmouth, W.\ies, and the Islands. 



1 

' Monmouth. Glamorgan. 

1 


Cakmartiier. 


Pembroke 


ITeiglit of 

Rain-gauge 

above 

Ground 

Sea-level 


1 
! 

Newport. Abergavenny. [{ Swansea. 

i! 


Pentvrch, 
Cardiff. 


Carmarthen 
Gaol. 


Haverford 
west. 


1 ft. in. j 1 ft. in. 

180 ft. 1 2:iO ft. ; 

1 1 


14 ft. in. 1 ft. 1 in. 
40 ft. 1 100 ft. 


ft. G in. 
«2 ft. 


1 ft. in. 
95 ft. 




1874. 


1875. 


1874, 


1875. 


1874. 


1875. 1874. 


1875. 


1874. 


1875. 


1874. 


187 


J.-jnuary 

February ... 

j\L-ii-ch 

; April 

IMay 

' June 


in. 
6-IO 
3-32 

2-51 

2-20 
■37 

>-95 
1-42 
5-07 
5-96 
S-,8 
299 
4-52 


in. 
6-61 
2-51 

2-1 8 

2-80 
3'>5 

^-Q2 


in. 
4-91 

3-54 

-88 

2-15 

•65 
■a 


in. 

576 
■2.-2.1 

1-72 

2-C9 

2-83 

3''7 


in. 

475 
2-76 
2-79 
1-19 
•43 

2-12 


in. in. 
6-03 6-91 
212 2-99 
i-ij 3-50 
1-41 1-89 
184 2-03 
3-40 2-14 
3-82 1-63 
6-33 ' 6-45 
4-39 636 

5-72 i 5'97 
7-20 ! 3-36 

2-11 5-77 


in. 

7-54 
2-97 

2-02 
3-08 

3-48 
6-49 
7-22 

5-87 
5-02 
8-09 

8-88 
^-56 


in. 
6-34 
438 

3-70 

3-34 
•87 

1-47 
2-23 
7-30 
8-07 
6-88 
3-08 
5-97 


in. 
9-51 

2-75 
I '60 
2-98 

3-55 
376 
6-56 
7-02 
5-8, 
6-30 
7-47 
3-56 


in. 
5-62 
4-73 
3-48 
2-34 

•97 
1-31 

2-55 
6-11 

4'47 
6-16 

5-32 
8-09 


in. 

9": 

2-i 

ri 

2" 

2-; 

3- 

5- 
4-' 

6- 

7- 

7-' 

3-' 


;j"iy 

! August 

I September . . . 

! October 

: November ... 
1 December ... 


7-891 -83 
1-87! 2-99 
4-66! 5-29 

7-48 4'43 
7-96 ' 2-90 
2'6i 3-99 


6-08 '\ 1-55 
1-97 4-69 
395 4-74 
7-4° 4"3S 
6-93 , 271 

215; 4-22 


Totals 4>"S9 


55-64 


33-°9 


I 
46-27, 36-30 


45-52 49-00 


63-22 


53-63 


60-87 


5115 


58-. 



Division XI. — Mokjiouth, Wales, and the Islands (continued). 



Mei!ioneth. 


Flint. 


Carxarvos. 1 


Height of 
Kain-gauge 
1 above 

i Ground 

\ Sea-level 


Dolgelly, 
Britlidir. 


Bala. 1 


Maes-y-dre. 


Bryn Alyn. 


Beddgelert. 


Cockeidia, 
Carnarvon 


1 ft. 6 in. 
465 ft. 


1 it. in. 
544 It. 


6 ft. in. 
400 ft. 


1 ft. 2 in. 

483 ft. 


3 ft. in. 

264 ft. 


1 ft. 1 in. 

120 ft. 




1874. 


1875. 


1874. 


1875. 


1874. 


1875. 


1874. 


1875. 


1874. 

in. 
14-32 

5-13 
9-8.S 
6-^4 
4-24 
3-27 
7-15 
14-99 

9-55 
19-74 
17-12 

9-75 


1875. 1874. 1 I87I 


i 

January 

February . . . 
March 


in. 

779 
6-83 

3-71 

372 

1-97 

1-83 
4-24 

lO'Il 

9-78 

898 

10-18 

7-28 


in. 
969 

3-45 
2-62 

3-43 
3-48 
4-03 
4-3S 
2-28 

7-77 
7-88 
9-92 
5-53 


in. 
5-11 

3-36 
5-30 
2-63 
2-02 

I'OA 


1 
m. 

7-36 

193 

i-8i 

1-97 

2-75 

i1 TlT 


in. 
,-87 
1-18 
1-23 

•95 
2-15 

-52 
2-38 
2-53 
171 
2-86 
3-13 
1-82 


in. 
172 
•61 

■25 
•60 

i'77 
r8i 
2-51 

2-07 
2-8c 

3-74 
3-ie 

•77 


in. 
215 
2-08 

1-34 
1-25 
2-30 

•48 
273 

3-47 
2-89 

3-69 
4-09 
3-6i 


in. 
3-27 
2-c8 

•79 
III 

1-88 

2-10 

5-25 
308 
4-28 
4-02 
4-96 
1-24 


in. 

»3-45 
7-40 
5-07 
371 

5-34 
8-C7 

4-54 
6-63 

10-22 
13-25 

13-99 
8-47 


in. 

3-79 
3-31 
1-67 
1-90 
2-21 
■90 
3-11 
4-50 

4-55 
4-69 
4-52 
4-29 


in. 
4-' 

2-. 
I- 
V 

2- 

3- 

3- 

2- 
4- 

5" 
3- 

2- 


! May 


1 June 


July 




August 

September .. 

October 

November ... 
December ... 


5-93 
5-33 

8-23 
5-04 

6-21 


2-82 
4-61 
5-25 
5-50 
3-82 


Totals 

L. • 


76-42 


64-46 53-48 


46-02 


22-33 


21-8 1 i 30-08 34-06 


121-58 100-14 39-44 


36- 



ON THE RAINFALL OF THE BBITISH ISLES. 

WALES. 



195 







Division XI. 


— MOK 


MOri'H 


, Wales, and 


THE Islands 


(continued). 






PE.MBROKE 


Brkcknock. 


Montgomery. 




Care 


IGAN. 






Radnor. 




lo'ritmited). 
























Ivy Tower, 
Tenby. 


Brecknock. 


Liani 


dioes.. 


Lampeter. 


Gogiuan. 


Nantgwilt. 


Heyhope 
Rectory. \ 

1 


1 ft. in. 


2 ft. in. 


2 it. 


Oin. 


6 ft. 


Oin. 


2 ft. 


G in. 


1ft. 


Oin. 


1ft. 


Oin. 


180 ft. 


437 ft. 


550 ft. 


4-20 ft. 


290 ft. 


767 


ft. 


690 ft. !i 

1; 


1874. 


1875. 


1874. 


1875. 


1874. 


1875. 


1874. 


1875. 


1874. 


1875. 


1874. 


1875. 


1874. 


1875. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


S-03 


876 


S'43 


6-67 


5-10 


5-11 


5-01 


5-91 


4-52 


5-69 


7-56 


io-i6 


3-86 


5-24 


4'35 


2-46 


4-1 1 


2-30 


4-03 


2-91 


4"39 


1-56 


2-72 


2-50 


5-52 


175 


2-8 I 


2-82 


2-52 


i-Sb 


2-52 


1-99 


4-11 


1-94 


2-79 


179 


37b 


J-23 


3-46 


1-66 


2-15 


1-90 


a-i6 


279 


2-8o 


2-56 


1-92 


3-88 


2-1 1 


1-87 


1-9 1 


1-71 


3-14 


275 


I-I9 


2-o8 


■79 


2-97 


79 


2-8o 


1-70 


3'59 


171 


2-10 


i'59 


2-36 


1 1-78 


3-64 


•«7 


276 


1-64 


3-84 


2-24 


3-56 


1-39 


3-3a 


1-56 


2-55 


1-28 


3-69 


. 2-23 


6-35 


•42 


366 


1-86 


7-02 


1-25 


4-17 


2-64 


4-10 


2-50 


5-21 


3-11 


4"47 


j 51'42 


7-2b 


1-66 


5-89 


616 


S-H 


4'io 


2-98 


6-23 


2-41 


1 4'36 


4-27 


7-6, 


4"i7 


! 8-6i 


4-63 


S'44 


359 


S-'7 


6-67 


4-68 


5'4i 


539 


4-C0 


6-04 


S'25 


4-80 


S-6i 


6-8 1 


6-56 


368 


4-34 


.S-»5 


696 


5-6 S 


6-72 


5-38 


8-18 


S"°7 


6 68 


4-04 


5-54 


7-33 


8-89 


4-58 


7-24 


5-10 


«-3S 


2-6i 


8-44 


4-76 


615 


4-29 


7-85 


5-18 


5-21 


1 7-II 


8-12 


4'o5 


5°5 


6-59 


3-21 1 


2-32 1 1-88 


6-35 


2-30 


5 "44 


1-72 


5'54 


2-i8 


7-12 


3"S4 


5-03 


2-60 


4662 


5973 ' 


38-50 49-48 


49-00 


47-89 


4S'*7 


4676 


46-10 


4436 


6309 


65'3i 


3S74 


47"i7 





Division XI 


— Monmouth, Wales, and the Islands 


(continued). 




Carnarvon 


[continxed). 


j 
Isle of Man. 


Guernsey. 


Sark. 


Jersey. 


Llanfair- 
fechan. 


Llandudno. 


Douglas. 


Point of Ay re. 


Guernsey. 


Sark. 


MiUbrook, 


ft 8 in 


ft 8 in 


1 ft 


1 I'n 




12 ft. in. 


1 ft. in. 


1 ft. in. 


150 ft. 


99 ft. 


79 ft. 




204 ft. 


340 ft. 


50 ft. 




1874. 


1875. 


1874. 


1875. 


1874. 


1875. 


1874. 


1875. 1 

i 


1874. 


1875. 


1874. 


1875. 


1874. 


1875. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


1 
m. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


373 


4-50 


2-88 


3 '03 


5-J5 


665 


2-35 


3-83 


1-94 


S-00 


1-62 


4-07 


242 


5-3« 


3-H 


2-8o 


1-46 


2-14 


2-39 


2-^S 


1-21 


-64 


2-41 


3-27 


1-91 


2-75 


2-04 


2'96 


2-66 


1-67 


212 


•89 


176 


1-26 


1-10 


1-12 


-85 


•66 


111 


-45 


1-38 


•65 


1-91 


1-26 


1-40 


■94 


179 


•91 


1*11 


-91 


3-62 


1-14 


2-89 


•94 


1-99 


•85 


3'35 


2-02 


2-68 


1-46 


,•39 


264 


77 


1-84 


•94 


1-30 


•50 


1-28 


-65 


-80 


-27 


244 


■35 


i-8i 


-48 


2-93 


•15 


1-78 


1-13 


2-59 


-89 


2-28 


78 


2-o6 


a-04 


4-20 


1-97 


3 '47 


2-6i 


4-56 


1-64 


1-67 


1-85 


2-84 


1-64 


3-15 


^74 


2-51 


3-18 


2-22 


2-8i 


2-00 


,•89 


2-15 


396 


I-II 


1-67 


1-23 


1-62 


1-78 


1-86 


I-I3 


3-27 


4-91 


2-53 


4-65 


2-38 


3-39 


1-44 


2-46 


2-68 


2-94 


1-94 


2-46 


268 


2-70 


5-04 


S-co 


3-42 


530 


482 


4-56 


3-42 


4-68 


6-82 


6-15 


S-21 


6-25 


5-17 


7-62 


567 


4-37 


5-64 


4-25 


7-00 


5-63 


3-95 


4-46 


3-57 


6-13 


2-86 


6-50 


3-20 


579 


475 


2-02 


4'43 


1-41 


3-80 


1-90 


3-12 


1-48 


7-90 


2-39 


5-39 


1-99 


8-11 


1-53 


39-01 


37-41 


3169 


3>-35 


39-46 


39-13 


24-22 


25-98 


35-38 


35-64 


27-58 


33-9C 


32-02 


33-91 
























o2 







196 



REPUKT 187(3, 

SCOTLAND. 



Division XII. — Southern Counties. | 


Wigtown. 


KlRKCODnRIGIIT. 


Du.MFRIES. 1 


Height of 

Rain-gauge 

above 

Ground 

Sea-level 


Balfern. 


Little Ross. 


Carsphairn. 


Cargen. 


Drumlanrig. 


W.inlock- 
head. 


Oft. 11. in. 
75 ft. 


3 ft. 3 in. 
130 ft. 


3 ft. 10 in. 
574 ft. 


ft. 4 in. 

soft. 




ft. 5 in. 
1330 ft. 


161 ft. 


1874. 


1875. 


1874. 1875. 


1874. 


1875. 


1874. 


1875. 


1874. 


1875. 


1874. 


1875. 


January 

February . . . 

March 

April 


in. 
4-24 
2-26 

3-21 

1-90 

•95 
1-39 

3-J4 
6-27 

3-24 
803 

5-70 
4-38 


in. 

772 
1-29 

1-20 
I'lO 

2-83 

3*23 
2-40 
4-32 

7-041 
5-721 

4-91 ' 

2-67! 

1 

44-43 


in. 
271 
1-85 
179 

1-24 

•73 

•83 

174 

3-93 
223 

4'49 
4-29 

2X1 


in. 

3-38 

1-19 

-83 

■59 
1-85 

2-54 

1-86 

3-03 
472 

6-12 

6-55 

377 


in. 
6-92 
3-46 
3-86 
4-50 
I'll 
1-68 
3-20 
6-38 

5-95 

12-63 

9-21 

2-90 


in. 
15-13 
2-o8 

3-H 
1-52 

3-42 
3-80 
2-50 

3-7° 
7-70 

5-41 
8-6i 
6-27 


in. 

570 
230 

2-74 
3-98 

1-17 

1-35 
1-84 
7-07 
6*oo 
10-72 

5-5° 
2-69 


in. 
8-42 

1-21 
1-60 
1-50 
1-84 
4-58 

2-45 

2-30 

5-47 
5-22 

4-44 
4-1 I 


in. 
590 
3-00 

3-90 
3-80 
1-20 

1-45 
3'9° 
6-8o 
6-60 

II'IO 

6-30 
2-28 


in. 

II-IO 
2*IO 

2-80 

2-10 
2-90 
590 
2-70 
3-10 
7-60 
4-80 
6-40 
4-90 


in. 

7-51 
4-62 
3-88 


in. 

14-14 
2-o8 
3-56 


May 


^33 -" J"| 


June 


99 
1-71 

3-15 
7-96 

7-04 
12-47 

4-71 
2-59 


5-63 
2-S3 
2-85 
952 

5-25 
7-19 
6-96 


Julv 


August 

September ... 

October 

November ... 
December ... 


Totals 


44-71 


27-94 


36-43 6i-8o 


63-28 


51-06 


43-14 

1 


56-23 1 56-40 


6i-i6| 65-73^ 



Division XIY. — South-Westekn Counties. 

1 


L.tXARK. 


Ayr. 


Renfrew. 


Height of 

Rain-gauge 

above 

Ground 

Sea-level 


Newmains, 
Douglas. 


Auebinraith, 
Hamilton. 


Glasgow 
Ob.servatory. 


1 

Hole House, Mansfield, 

Patna. Largs. 


Newton 
1 Mearns. 


ft. 4 in. 
783 ft. 


4 ft. in. 
150 ft. 


ft. 1 in. 
180 ft. 


1 ft. in. 
446 ft. 


ft. fi in. 

30 rt. 


1 ft. in. 
350 ft. 


1874. 


1875. 


1874. 


1875. 


1874. ! 1875. 


1874. ' 1875. 


1874. 


1875. 


1874. 1875. 

i 


January 

February . . . 

March 

April 


in. 
4-56 
2-59 
293 

2-43 
1-04 
113 
2-04 
606 

4-83 
7-16 
4-36 

2-70 


in. 
5-06 
2-31 
1-33 
1-60 

'•43 
3-56 
2.78 
2-07 
5-65 
4-74 
3-87 
4-48 


in. 
2-84 
•60 

2'00 
1-40 


in. 

4-55 
•90 

'-37 
-86 


in. 

4-27 
1-03 

3-45 
1-88 
2-50 
-90 
4-03 

4-74 
4-41 

8-02 

4-26 
2-87 


in. 
6-67 

1 74 
2-13 
1-68 

1-55 
3-57 
1-89 
2-98 

5-45 
5-86 

5-19 
S-58 


in. 

4-83 
2-28 
3-66 
.-58 

1-43 
1-71 
3-10 
5-08 
4-59 
7-64 
5-77 
279 


in. 

4'6o 

1-44 

1-45 
1-69 

2-44 
2-64 
2-14 
2-83 
4*94 
4'39 
4-82 
3-21 


in. 

5-30 
1-40 
1-20 
2-70 
1-80 

I"00 


in. 

10-80 

2-IO 
1-80 
2-00 
2-90 


in. in. 

6-44 7-10 
1-841 2-25 
5-20 1 3-03 


May 


1-90 -83 
l-'52 ! 2-20 


i by 
j 2-75 
i 1-30 

2-66 

•4-83 

6-24 

II-17 

1 4-88 

4-50 


3-CO 

2-86 
1-83 

3-47 
5-97 
5-07 

5-94 
7-07 


June 


July 


3-20 

5-48 

3-3° 
4-90 
2-90 

1-38 


171 

2-25 
3-60 
4-30 
3-76 
3-06 


2"6o '?- tn 


August 

September ... 

October 

November ... 
December ... 


5-CO 
5-IO 
8-30 
5-60 
2-50 


4-90 
8-90 
7-60 

5-50 
4-50 


Totals 41-83 


38-88 


31-02 29-39 42-36 


44-29 


44-46 j 36-59 j 42-50 56-50 


55'4o 


49-10 









o> 


' THE 


RAINFALL OF 


THE 1 


3HITISH ISLES. 




197 




¥ 










SCOTLAND. 
















Division XIII. 


— Sotjth-Eastekn Counties. 






EOXB 


UEGH. 


Selkirk. 


Peebles. 


Berwick. 


HADDINGTO^f. 


Edinhurgh. 


Silverbut 
lall, Hawick. 


Bothwickbrae. 


North Esk 
Reservoir, 
Penicuick. 


Tliirlestane. 


East Linton. 


Gleneorse. 


Charlotte Sq., 
Edinburgh. 


4 ft. 


Oin. 


Oft. 


2 in. 


ft. 6 in. 


ft. 3 in. 


ft. 3 in. 


Oft. 


6 in. 


ft. 6 ill. 


ra: 


!tt. 


800 ft. 


1150 ft. 


558 ft. 


90 ft. 


787 ft. 


230 ft. 


874. 


1875. 


1874. 


1875. 


1874. 


1875. 


1874. 


1875. 


1874. 1875. 


1874. 


1875. 


1874. 


187.5. 


In. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


2-1 I 


4-09 


4-00 


7 '60 


3-45 


4*45 


2-50 


3-80 


I-20 


1-91 


3*45 


5-70 


1-74 


2-74 


2-i6 


1-07 


2-40 


1-50 


•«5 


1-30 


1-50 


1-90 


•60 


1-39 


I-20 


I -00 


-70 


1-17 


1-88 


i-2i; 


3'3° 


i'90 


2-35 


175 


1-50 


•80 


I'OO 


•64 


2-20 


i-6o 


173 


•90 


J-9? 


•97 


2-50 


i-io 


2-15 


1-40 


1-15 


•45 


-68 


•40 


2-75 


1-15 


•90 


-67 


1-72 


1-36 


1-60 


1-80 


1-60 


1-55 


•95 


1-30 


1-37 


•48 


2-00 


I -60 


1-50 


75 


•78 


2-76 


1-80 


2-70 


i-oo 


2-70 


I"O0 


2-30 


1-47 


2-73 


1-50 


2-75 


i-6o 


2-00 


2-20 


2-54 


2-40 


3-20 


2-70 


3'3o 


2-00 


2-60 


4-52 


2-65 


2-55 


3-85 


3-34 


3-26 


5-03 


2-38 


720 


2-20 


6-50 


2-55 


5-20 


•90 


4'54 


•9b 


6-60 


2-50 


4-8/ 


113 


3-33 


348 


4-00 


5-90 


3'3o 


4-60 


2-00 


37° 


2-i6 


2-64 


3-20 


4-50 


175 


2-67 


4-83 


2-54 


8-90 


3-40 


4-80 


3-60 


3-IO 


4'4S 


226 


3-93 


5-15 


3-40 


2-42 


2-34 


4-65 


3-71 


5-40 


4-60 


4"45 


570 


4-30 


5-00 


4-69 


5-05 


370 


5-75 


3-11 


4-92 


2-81 


2-64 


4-10 


5-00 


1-90 


3-40 


3-13 


2-30 


2-98 


1-15 


1-55 


2-90 


210 


1-81 


i3-45 


28-75 


47-60 


40-90 


35-05 


36-30 


28-33 


29-50 


27-47 


23-93 


35-85 


36-70 


25-76 


24-36 



Div. xrv. 






Division XV. — "West Midl 


\NI) Co 


UKTIES 








{continued). 




















i 


Renfrew 




Dumbarton. 


Stirling. 


1 Bute. 




Argyll. 


i 


{(■ontinued). 


Balloch 

Castle. 


Arddarock, 
Loch Long. 




j 










i 


Glenbrae, 
Greenock. 


Arnott Hill, 
Falkirk. 


1 

Pladda. 


Castle 
Toward. 


1 
Gallon Mor. 1 


ft. 9 in. 


Oft. 


4 in. 


ft. 10 in. 


1 ft. 6 in. 


3 ft. 


3 in. 


4 ft. 


Oin. 


4 ft. 


Oin. 


574 ft. 


91 ft. 


80 ft. 


135 ft. 


55 ft. 


65 ft. 


65 


ft. 


1874. 


1875. 


1874. 


1875. 


1874. 


1875. 


1874. 


1875. 


1874. 


1875. 


1874. 


1876. 


1874. 


1875. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


9-60 


io-6o 


6-24 


9-07 


ii-i8 


12-86 


4-52 


5-84 


3-77 


4-65 


4-87 


8-13 


691 


6-97 


2-8o 


2-6o 


2-18 


1-46 


2-95 


a'62 


1-15 


I"2 1 


1-25 


1-24 


1-54 


1-50 


2-89 


2-15 


6-10 


2*6o 


5-55 


2-i8 


9-78 


3-51 


3-03 


1-39 


3-45 


1-54 


4-37 


2-27 


6-04 


2-34 


3-70 


2-50 


2-28 


2-24 


623 


3-66 1 


i-8i 


1-20 


2-37 


J 24 


2-94 


1-15 


3-90 


2-84 1 


2-40 


4* 10 


2-64 


3-74 


2-78 


5-3° 


2-30 


2-20 


1-95 


2-18 


2-63 


3-05 


2-09 


3-54 


1-90 


3-50 


1-60 


3-84 


1-84 


5-21 1 


1-20 


2-78 


1 -93 


1-99 


[ 1-21 


2-94 


i-b5 


3-59 


3-50 


2-50 


3-57 


2-02 


4-70 


2-26 . 


3-95 


2-19 


2-37 


1-58 


: 2-76 


2-35 


4-21 


2-65 


6-20 


4-80 


6-33 


5-'5 


67S 


673 


5-18 


2-12 


4-96 


3-06 


4-49 


4-55 


5-58 


6-29 


8-8o 


5-30 


648 


590 


11-22 


6-03 


2-31 


1-98 


4.-08 


3-01 


! ^-9' 


4-69 


8-23 


3-72 


12-20 


8-60 


9-00 


7-35 


34-03 


10-43 


4-39 


4-02 


7-17 


6-22 


9-47 


6-72 


8-76 


7-15 


6-00 


630 


6-10 


5-57 


979 


7-36 


4-51 


4-92 


5-50 


5-47 


6-12 


4->7 


b-27 


6-26 


2-30 


7-10 


310 


5'93 


2-94 


9-28 


2-50 


4-55 


2-83 


3-90 


2-28 


4-50 


2-77 


470 


65-00 


60-50 


55-07 


54-45 


84-22 


75-25 


36-95 


34-40 


4.0-63 


36-08 


49-59 


46-02 


59-30 


52-20 



198 



REPORT— 1876. 

SCOTLAND. 



Divisiou XV. — WEiSX Midland Counties (continued). 



Argyll (contimicd). 



1 Height of 
; Kain-gauge 
I above 

1 Ground 

' Sea-level 

i 


Inverary 
Castle. 


Airds, 
Appin. 


Corran. 
Loch Eil. 


Ardnamur- Dev!«ir, 
clmn. Campbeltown. 


Skipnesa 
Castle. 


ft. 2 in. ft. 3 in. 
30 ft. 38 ft. 


ft. 4 in. 
14 ft. 


3 ft. 6 in. 1 3 ft. 4 in. 
82 ft. j 75 ft. 


1 ft. 6 in. 
20 ft. 


1874. 


1875. 1874. 


1875. 


1874. 


1875. 


1874. 


1875. j 1874. 


1875. 


1874. 


1875. 


i 

January 

i February . . . 
j Ma reh 

April 


in. 

lo-oo 
3 -00 
9-00 
4"oo 

2-00 

i-oo 
5 00 
6'oo 
1 1 -co 
i3'oo 
9'oo 
4-00 


in. 
6-00 

2-00 
2-50 

2-00 
4-00 
5-00 
1-50 

6-00 
7-00 
5-00 
4-00 

I TOO 


in. 

7-20 

3-10 
7-20 
4-10 
260 
2-90 

5»° 
7-70 
9-20 
io-8o 
4-30 
2-39 


6-40 

2-JO 

2-6p 
2-8o 

4-80 

4-30 

270 

8-6o 
3-40 
440 
5-50 
6 -op 


in. 

12-33 
3-20 

10-35 
5-10 
220 
230 

3*5 

3-57 
7-10 
8-80 
3-05 
1-90 


in. 
495 

'•45 
2-20 

3-10 

4-20 

2-27 
2-64 
12 61 
3-90 
5-60 
5-30 
9-65 


in. 
6*04 
2-80 
4-83 
3-50 
1-49 

J 97 
3-17 
5-24 
964 

7-85 
4-61 

2-30 


in. 

6-37 
1-72 
1-93 

2-20 
3-48 
2-58 

,-97 
6-17 
2-52 
4-19 
4-65 
3-70 


in. 
4-02 
1-41 
2-91 
3-.6 
1-03 

■52 
a-77 
4-68 
425 
699 
8-32 
3-65 


in. 
604 

'•45 
2-03 

-50 
2-29 
2-52 

'-53 

3-25 
3-42 
9-67 
5-74 
3*39 


in. 
5-40 
3-40 

5-20 

3-30 
1-40 
1-70 
2-90 
5-00 
7-30 
7-6o 
6-20 
4-70 


in. 

4-90 j 
1-90 t 

2-50 

•50 1 


May 


3-00 ; 

3-ioi 

2-70i 

3-60 1 

5-70 
5-80 
660 

5-00 ' 


1 June 


July 


August 

] September ... 

[October 

j November . . . 

December ... 


Totals 


77'oo 1 56-00 


66-50 


53-80 


63-15 


57-87 


53-44 


41-48 


43-71 


41-83 


54-10 


45-301 



Division XVI. — East Midland Counties {continued). 


Perth {continued). 


Height of 

Ilain-g;uige 

above 

Ground 

Sea-level 

i 
1 


Ledard. 


Loch 
Katrine. 


Auchterarder 
House. 


Dunkeld. 


Bonskeid, j Scone 
Pitlochrie. ■ Palace. 

1 1 
1 1 




ft. 6 in. 
830 ft. 


2 ft. 3 in. 

162 ft. 


1 ft. in. 
225 ft. 




2 ft. 6 in. 


150 ft. 




80 ft. 






1874. 


1875. 


1874. 


1875. 


1874. 


187.5. 


1874. 


1875. 


1874. 


1876. 


1874. 


1875. 


! January 

1 February . . . 

March 

April 

i May 

1 June 


in. in. 
4-301 12-30 
1-90' 1-40 
4-80 3-70 
1-90 rgo 
3-80 i 4-70 

2-00 1 C"JO 


in. 
8 -co 
3-50 
850 
4-20 
2-70 
2-80 
7-10 
5-20 
1 1-60 
13-60 

7-90 
2-70 


in. 

14-60 
2-40 
3-70 
2-40 
5-70 

5-40 
2-20 

5-7° 

7-20 

lo-io 

8-00 

10-20 


in. 

3-97 
•68 
1-96 
2-30 
2-1 1 
•70 
4-22 

3-39 
2-97 
563 
4-72 
1-48 


in. 

6-61 

1-26 

1-83 

•63 

1-54 
2-00 
2-8i 
2-14 

2-79 
4-S6 
5-IO 
5-n 


in. 
4-00 
1-52 

3-21 

3-05 
2-31 
1-25 
501 
3-91 
4-19 
5-30 

328 

3-06 


in. 
5-66 
1-51 
1-72 
1-28 
1-30 
3-40 

2-02 

3-57 
5-26 
5-58 
4-70 
5-19 


iu. 
5-82 
1-29 

1-33 
329 

-59 
1-84 
3-52 
6-88 
4-00 

5-50 
2-40 

2-10 


in. 

4-54 
1-17 

1-54 

1-07 

2-10 

2-77 
2-59 

2-21 

3-75 
7-46 

3-45 
2-70 


in. 
2-50 

•70 
i*6o 
114 
1-51 

•61 
2-32 
6-25 
1-97 
2-45 

4-'5 
i-io 


in. 

4-97 
I -00 
1-67 
1-66 
j-oo 

1-14 
1-92 
2-39 

3-43 
567 
5-60 
2-46 


j July 

; August 

September ... 

October 

November ... 
December ... 


5-20 
6-90 

8-90 

lo-oo 

4-30 

i-6o 


2-30 
6-8o 
8-00 
8-60 
6-10 
7-60 


Totals 


55-60 


68-70 


77-80 


77-60 34-13 


36-68 


40-09 


41-19 


38-56 


35-35 ! 26-30 


32-91 



ON THE R.VINF.VLL OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 

SCOTLAND. 



199 



Div. XV.— 


West Midland Counties 


{continued). 


1 
Division XVI. — East Midland 

COUNXIE,?, 

1 




Argvi.l {co7itinued). 






Kinross. 


Fife. 


Pehth. : 


Rliinns of 

Islay. 


Eallabus, 
Islay. 


Lisinore. 


Hynisli. 


Loch Leven 

Sluice. 


Nookton. 


i 

Kippenross. i 


o ft. in. 
74 ft. 


1 ft. in. 
67 ft. 


3 ft. 
37 


4 in. 

ft. 




ft. 6 in. 

300 ft. 


ft. 6 in. 

80 It. 


ft. 4 in, i 
150 ft. 






1874. 


1875. 


1874. 


1875. 


1874. 


1875. 


1874. 


1375. 


1874. 


1875. 


1874. 1875. ■ 


1874 


1875. 


in. in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


a-55 476 


4'44 


6-53 


Sm6 


5-15 


7'34 


8'9i 


3 '40 


5-50 


2-39 


4-99; 


3-70 8-0O 


2-33 175 


2-92 


2"JO 


1-84 


1-S6 


4-87 


3"47 


i-io 


1-90 


1-05 


1-86 


•60 


-90 j 


^■o^ 


1-47 


3-bS 


2"00 


4-48 


173 


8-47 


1-49 


2-40! 1-90 


2-10 


1-58! 


3-10 


1-70 


2-35 


■63 


3-30 


'■37 


3-25 


i-i6 


3-53 


154 


2-IO , I'OO 


1-46 


76 j 


1-85 


•50 


1-33 


i-6j 


129 


2-5S 


2-S7 


2-49 


3-30 


3-07 


2-10 


1-30 


: 1-74 


1-19 i 


1-00 


1-50 


•H 


1-93 


I -06 


2-63 


i'96 


2-6o 


1-65 


3-58 


-40 


2-20 


•63 


2-41 


1-15 


2-70 


2-63 


•64 


3'i3 


1-42 


4-65 


I "47 


369 


189 


2-70 


2-IO 


i I '99 


2-91 


2-10 


,1-70 


3'02 


3-5« 


4-4i! 


5 '46 


3"4+ 


4-63 


4-28 


4-48 


480 


■2,-2.0 


1 3-97 


1-51 


4-50 


2-10 


4-67 


3-50 


6-41 


4-40 


6-23 


1-59 


12-25 


3-39 


4-00 


3-90 


2-48 


3-05 


3-60 


3-60 


4-68 


6-12 


7-39 


7 '47 


8-o6 


1-82 


6-76 


7-22 


5-20 


5-70 


3-32 


4-03 


6-30 


5-30 


5-00 


4-14 


7-86 


6"03 


3-51 


2-64 


1 978 


4-72 


3-20 


5-30 


1 ^-38 


4-51 


4-20 


5-00 


2-92 


2-63 


4-3° 


4-17 


i-oi 


3-08 


2-93 


3-63 


2-00 


4-60 


I 2-02 


1-57 


-80 


5-20 


34-36 


3276 


50-23 


46-i6 


46-16 


29-92 


1 68-86 


47-39 


33-40 37-60 


^5-53 31-37 


i 32-9° 


38-20 



Division XVI. 


— Eas- 


c Midland Counties 


Division XVII. — 


-Noeth-Easiebn 






{continued). 








Counties. 


! 

i 


Pekth 

{continued). 

Dabiaspidal. 






Forfar. 






Kincardine. ' 




Aberdeex. ! 


















! 


Dundee 
Necropolis. 


Arbroath. 


Montroseness. 


The Burn, 
Brechin. 


Braemar. 


Aberdeen, 
Eose Street, j 


1 ft. 6 in. 
1450 ft. 


ft. 5 in. 
167 ft. 


2 ft. in. 
CO ft. 




ft. 6 in. i 
250 ft. 


ft. 9 in. 
1114 ft. 


ft. 5 in. 1 
95 ft. 






1874. 


1875. 


1874. 


1875. 


1874. 


1875. 


1874. 


1875. 


1874. 


1875. 


1874. 


1875. 


1874. 


1875. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 1 


in. 


in. 


in. in. 


8-00 


9-07 


2-IO 


4-15 


2-22 


3-92 


2-05 


3-20 


2-40 


4-90 


2-91 


4-30 


1-31 


3-36! 


275 


2-02 


•75 


1-50 


i-io 


1-30 


1-15 


2'00 


1-30 


2-20 


2-54 


-81 


i'54 


1-60 j 


7-84 


3-37 


■95 


1-80 


I -02 


I 77 


I -02 


1-90 


160 


2-70; 


2-32 


i'34 


1-89 


2-41 : 


4-48 


2-04 


•80 


-65 


-81 


•66 


•60 


1-20 


2-20 


1-20 ; 


2-42 


1-35 


97 1 1-39! 


3-i6 


4-02 


2-75 


•«s 


2-43 


-S4 


i-8o 


J-20 


2-20 I -40; 


1-20 


1-64 


1-34! 1-70 


2-62 


3-10 


-75 


3-55 


-64 j 3-40 


-05 


2-45 


-50 3-40 j 


2-45 


2-00 


103 3-15 


6-05 


3-69 


2-70 


2-35 


1-70; 2-43 


2-05 


2-50 


2-60 2-80 ' 


4-41 


3-53 


261 3-75 


7-15 


564 


5-55 


>-4S 


4-971 1-56 


5-05 


I-5S 


5-50 3-90 i 


6-79 


3-20 


6-31 2-10 


7-79 


6-51 


1-90 


3-40 


2-10 3-41 


.•85 


4-4.0 


1-80 


5-50! 


3-34 


4-12 


2-33 


s-fi 


11-78 


8-29 


1 2-30 


5-90 


1-99 


4-17 


2-20 


3-65 


3-20 


7-00 


5-72 


5-54 


2-44 


3-82 ! 


4-90 


47> 


i 2-60 


4-70 


2-19 


4-84 


2-30 


3-90 


3-10 


5-I0I 


2-56 


4-07 


3-60 


3-69: 


I 2-70 


10-63 


1 2-20 


I'SS 


1-75 


r8i 


I -CO 


1-90 


2-40 3'io 


1-42 


4-39 


3-01 1 1-721 


69-22 63-09 


*5-35 


31-85 


22-92 30-1 1 


21-12 


29-25 


28-80 ' 43-20 


3808 


36-2q 


28-38 34-67; 



200 



REPoax — 1876. 
SCOTLAND. 



Division XVII. — Nokth-Easteen Counties (continued). 


Div. XVIII.— North- 
western Counties. 


Aberdeen {continued). 


Banff. 


Elgin. 


Ross AND Cromarty. 


Height of 

Rain-gauge 

above 

' Ground 

\ Sea-level 

1 


Leochel, 
Cushnie. 


Tillydesk, 
Ellon. 


Gordon 
Castle. 


Grantown. 


Inverinate 

House, 
Loch Alsh. 


Gairloch. 


3 ft. in. 

882 ft. 


ft. 4 in. 
349 ft. 


1 ft. 6 in. 

70 ft. 


1 ft. 1 in. 
712 ft. 


3 ft. in. 
150 ft. 


G ft. in. 
13 ft. 


1874. 


187.'). 


1874. 


1875. 


1874. 


1875. 


1874. 


1875. 


1874. 


1875. 


1874. 


1875. 


January 

February . . . 

March 

April 


in. 
1-15 

'■35 
2-i6 
•88 
1-96 
1-88 
2-47 
964 
2-59 
3-38 
3-85 
3'54 


in. 
1-99 

1-59 
1-63 
1-24 
i'76 
2-87 

4*47 
470 

3-55 
7-34 
4-96 
i"96 


in. 
1-56 
1-91 

2-77 

•87 
1-49 

•93 
2-29 
6-83 
1-94 
294 
4-5' 
395 


in. 
3-29 
1-94 
1-80 
1-59 
223 
2-91 

399 
2*46 
5-30 
4-85 
475 
1-91 


in. 

i'47 
1-31 
1-78 

74 
2-o6 

162 
158 

S'37 
244 
3-21 

2-85 


in. 
2-49 
1-48 
i'46 

'•34 
1-72 
1-99 
6-i6 
2-i6 
4-24 
2-38 
371 
1-94 


in. 
2-16 
1-04 
2-82 
i-io 
2-39 
1-23 
3-30 

6-55 
2-74 
3-n 
2-51 
195 


in. 
1-94 
115 

2-07 
i"io 

1-45 
3 06 

5 '44 
329 
3-80 
1-88 

3"43 
3-04 


in. 

11-37 
285 

12-45 
6-40 
2-70 

5'55 
5-40 
7-20 
13-60 
14-80 
650 
3-65 


in. 
770 
1-60 
3-90 
370 
8-95 
5-05 
4-10 

10-75 
5-60 
5-08 
5-80 
8-95 


in. 
5-61 
206 
5-05 
281 

325 
275 
3-83 
4-26 
7-41 
7-05 
3-02 
2-28 


in. 

2-6l 

1-82 
2-33 

2-37 
356 
2-97 
469 

5-35 
2-92 
2-59 
3-8, 
3-57 


May 


June 


July 


August 

September ... 

October 

1 November ... 
December ... 


Totals 


34-85 


38-06 


3199 37-02 


28-17 


31-07 


3090 


3165 


92-47 


71-18 


49-38 


38-59 



Division XVIII. — North-Western Counties 
(continued). 


Division XIX. — Northern Counties. 


t 


Inverness (continued). 


Sutherland, 




Height of 

Rain-gauge 

above 


Island Glass, 
Harris. 


Corriniony, 

Glen 
Urquhart. 


Laggan. 


Dunrobin. 


Scourie. 


Cape Wrath. 




Ground 

Sea -level 


3 ft. 4 in. 
50 ft. 


ft. 8 in. 
537 ft. 


ft. 9 in. 

821 ft. 


3 ft. in. 
9 ft. 


ft. 4 in. 
26 ft. 


3 ft. 6 in. 
355 ft. 






1874. 1875. 


1874. 


1875. 


1874. 


1875. 


1874. 


1875. 


1874. 


1875. 


1874. 


1875. 




January 

February ... 

March 

April 


in. 
7-25 
2-04 
568 
3-48 

2-23 
2-76 

2-94 

5*39 
5-55 
8-47 
498 
1-84 


in. 
6-o8 
173 
1-42 
1-67 
3-12 
2-99 

5-03 

1-72 
3-98 
3-95 
3-74 


in. 
5-60 
i-8o 
4-10 

4-70 
i-8o 
i'4o 
3-70 
5-5° 

5-90 
9-00 

3-20 
I-IO 


in. 
S-IO 
1-50 
2-40 
•70 
2-50 
2-00 
2-70 
2-90 
2-80 
3-20 
3-50 
6-30 


in. 
1-04 
2-13 

6-02 

6-6i 

5-34 
578 
4-34 
6-57 
968 
io-o6 
5-22 
6-19 


in. 

4-94 
219 
346 
2-31 
5-16 
4-62 
3-09 
683 
4-11 

5-75 
4-26 
792 


in. 
4-00 
-50 
3-30 
1-45 
1-60 
1-40 
i-io 
5-00 
260 
3-15 
3-26 
3-40 


in. 
3-72 
1-50 
I -06 
1-53 
1-38 

2-28 

2-66 

2-26 

2-02 

3-10 

4-07 

'•95 


in. 

5-30 
i-oo 
4-30 
2-90 
2-90 
2-90 
3-30 
4-30 
4-80 
6-00 
6 00 
2-80 


in. 

4-40 

2-20 
1-10 
2-20 
3-20 
1-10 
2-50 
5-10 
2-30 
2-20 
5-60 
3-70 


in. 
6-5. 
1-25 
3-96 
1-93 
•74 
2-70 
2-07 
386 
3-80 
6-24 
2-37 
275 


in. 

4-81 
1-50 
•70 
1-62 
2-26 
1-52 
2-30 
1-33 
1-32 
2-48 
410 
3-87 1 




May 




June 




July 




August 

September . . . 

October 

November ... 
December ... 




Totals 


52-61 


37-34 


47-80 


35-60 j 68-98 


54-64 


30-76 


27-53 


46-50 


35-60 


18-18 


27-81 





ON THE RAINFALL OF THE BRITISH ISLES, 201 

SCOTLAND. 





Division XVIII. — North-Western Counties (continued). 






Boss AND CnoMARTY {co7it'mued). 


Inverness. 








Lochbroom. 


Cromarty. 


Ardross 
Castle, 
Alness. 


Oronsay. 


Barrahead. 


Ushenish, 
South Uist. 


1 
Culloden ! 
House. 


ft. 8 in. 


3 ft. 4 in. 


1ft Oin. 


ft. 6 in. 


3 ft. (i in. 


Oft. 


4 in. 


3 ft. 


Oin. I 


48 ft. 


28 ft. 


450 ft. 


15 ft. 


40 ft. 


157 ft. 


82 ft. 


1874. 
in. 


1875. 


1874. 


1875. 


1874. 


1875. 


1874. 


1875. 


1874. 


1875. 


1874. 


1875. 


1874. 


1875. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


7-97 


4*49 


2-13 


2-37 


3^65 


4-82 


22 -oo 


4-89 


2-79 


369 


7-08 


5-10 


2-45 


2-63 


1-76 


2-30 


-c6 


•51 


•41 


126 


7-20 


1-87 


1-41 


•88 


2-25 


r8s 


■52 


•7' 


6-8« 


272 


1-26 


-98 


3-02 


2-09 


15-25 


2-08 


2-51 


1-04 


3-41 


1-15 


171 


1-78 


469 


184 


1-32 


-16 


3-23 


1-29 


8-72 


2-25 


i^ii3 


1-24 


3-70 


2-25 


160 


•99 


'"45 


4->7 


1-71 


-61 


3^34 


1-78 


4-50 


4-06 


1-29 


1-98 


^•4.« 


3-10 


1-59 


•86 


541 


3-05 


■74 


7« 


150 


2-82 


5-«5 


2-38 


-86 


2-00 


2-70 


2-05 


•78 


1-58 


293 


477 


1-39 


2 -06 


229 


4-32 


6-55 


2-05 


2-85 


151 


2-49 


2-0O 


1-92 


333 


4-25 


3-8i 


3-60 


1-52 


6-41 


3-05 


695 


7'6o 


3'33 


4-30 


4-40 


6-30 


6-40 


2-06 


4-28 


4-05 


1*40 


2-05 


4" 00 


329 


10 '40 


3-23 


3-46 


1-96 


6-65 


'•45 


273 


2-65 


11-04 


2-97 


1-74 


1-82 


5-24 


3-45 


768 


a-55 


5->5 


3-05 


6-43 


3-70 


2-88 


1-33 


6-12 


477 


1-30 


2-25 


3-7b 


3-59 


3^75 


3-45 


3^78 


2-94 


'iM 


435 


1-71 


3-09 


4-35 


419 


-28 


1-77 


2-04 


3-48 


2-30 


4-32 


1-56 


2-37 


245 


2-05 


1-02 


2-33 


5i'io 


43-13 1693 


16-89 


38-89 


35^24 


10115 


40-73 


3082 


26-96 


51-66 


35-35 


25-31 


23-34 


Division XIX.— N 


ORTHERN Counties {continued). 








Caithness. 


Orkxet. 




Suet 


LAKD. 




Nosshead. 


Holburnhead. 


Pentland 
Skerries. 


Balfour 
Castle. 


Sand wick 
Manse. 


Stourhead. 


Bressay. 


3 ft. 4 in. 

127 ft. 


Oft. 4 in. 

60 ft. 


3 ft. 3 in. 

72 ft. 


ft. 6 in. 

50 ft. 


2 ft. in. 

78 ft. 




ft. 4 in. 
60 ft. 






874. 


1875. 


1874. 


1875. 


1874. 


1875. 


1874. 


1875. 


1874. 


1875. 


1874. 


1875. 


1874. 


1875. 


n. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


271 
•66 


389 


4-60 


4-50 


3-88 


4-08 


5-00 


5-60 


3-98 


5-02 


580 


6-50 


3*43 


5^'S 


«'34 


•70 


•90 


■44 


1-32 


1-20 


1-20 


1-39 


1-99 


1-50 


3-00 


^•33 


2-27 


2-62 


•75 


3-20 


•40 


2-47 


i-oo 


2-70 


-50 


3^46 


•!^3 


4-20 


5-60 


292 


i-oi 


'•SO 


2-o8 


2'00 


3'oo 


1-31 


1-92 


TOO 


2-20 


2-IO 


2-6l 


3-70 


3-00 


3'49 


I -60 


roy 


165 


i-8o 


1-70 


-69 


1-86 


•60 


I-OO 


1-51 


1-51 


3-10 


5-30 


'•34 


191 


99 


2-I1 


1-90 


•90 


112 


i-8i 


•80 


I-oo 


167 


'•45 


3-20 


1-30 


2-25 


1-44 


1-90 


2-64 


2-O0 


3-60 


180 


2-20 


1-90 


2-50 


2-75 


2-94 


2-40 


6 90 


•77 


3-98 


346 


2-78 


3-70 


1-90 


291 


2-68 


2-50 


2-20 


5 00 


2-68 


4-40 


7 •40 


5^47 


3 "49 


3'56 


2-6o 


2-50 


2-10 


3-05 


2-85 


4-60 


2-20 


4-86 


286 


5-30 


470 


4-29 


368 


3'o5 


3-09 


4-20 


2-8o 


2-27 


212 


370 


2-20 


4-10 


3-76 


6-50 


5'5° 


4-80 


S'5S 


3-01 

2■8.^ 


3-6i 


2-50 


3-50 


2-85 


4-16 


3-50 


4-10 


4-00 


4-05 


4-70 


4-80 


2-84 


4-27 


rgi 


2'20 


2-30 


3-04 


1-53 


3-20 


2-IO 


3 '44 


3-36 


2-6o 


8-00 


1-98^ 


3-55 


7-37 


28-45 


3110 


27-60 


25-83 


27-53 


30-70 


2680 38-26 


3306 


47-40 


6200 


359» 


37'90 































202 



HEPORT — 1876. 

lEELAND. 



Division XX. — Muisster. 


Div.XXI.- 

Leixster. 


Cork. 


Kbkry. 


Wateufokd. 


Claee. 


Carlow. 


Height of 

Rain-gauge 

above 

Ground 

Sea-level 


Cork, 
Queen's 
College. 


1 
Fernioy. ' 


Dai-rynane. \ 

! 

1 


Waterford. 


Gurteen. 


Fenagli 

Hou.se, 

Bagnalstown 


6 ft. in. 
G5 ft. 


1 ft. in. 
114 ft. 


1 ft. 1 in. 
12 ft. 


4 ft. 6 in. 
(iO It. 


1 ft. in. 
267 ft. 


1 ft. in. 
340 ft. 


1874. 


1875. 


1874. 1875. 


1874. 


1875. 1 


1874. 


1875. 


; 1874. 


1875. 


1874. i 1875 


January 

February . . . 

Maroh 

April 

May 


in. 

277 

5-41 

I -OS 

i"64 

•i8 

•91 

1-27 

1-66 
3'36 
3-26 
3-69 
5>5 


in. 
7-88 
1-41 
1-22 
1-09 
2-42 
3-01 
i-g6 
2-41 
648 
649 
4-21 
2-28 


in. 

2-48 

5-43 
1-68 

2-21 
•98 
I -01 
2-11 
2-29 

3-93 
4-08 
471 
4-91 


in. 1 
7-82 
1-35 
1-92 
.■63 
2-44 

2-55 
2-09 

'•97i 
6-10. 

5-37 
4-19 
2-31 


in. 
5-27 

5-54 
3-20 
326 

I-20 

2-34 

4- J 3 
4-41 
5-19 
6-44 
5-28 
8-17 


in. 
7-36 
2-48 
2.35 

3-12 

3-31 
5'37 
2-04 
3-24 
10-61 
6-96 

4-37 
2-97 


in. 
2-64 
298 
2-31 
261 

•51 

1-69 

2-40 

1 3-0? 

1 3-37 

! 6-30 

i S-'9 
4-68 


in. 
7-84 
2-33 
1-31 

1-50 
2-6i 
3-27 
3-80 

2-28 
5-56 
9-89 

4-44 
2-03 


in. 

j 2-61 

1-64 

i I -90 

1-62 

'•53 

1-97 

! 2'9o 

5-3* 

1 4- 18 

: 4-04 

3-55 

4' 24 


in. 
4-82 
1-04 
1-23 
-85 
1-89 
3-20 
2-27 
2-38 

7-C2 

3*64 

2-83 

2-02 


in. 

3-05 
2-8i 

1-14 
1-71 

1-34 
1-80 
1-81 
4-65 
278 
4-96 
2-96 
3-82 


in. 

57' 
2-4 
1-6. 

-9 
18 
2-6 
29 

2-0 

5-' 

5-5 
29 

1-6 


June 

Julv 


August 

September ... 

October 

November ... 
December ... 


Totals 


30-35 


40-86 


3580 


3974 


54*43 


54-18 


3777 


46-86 


35-5° 


33-19 


32-83 


35-5 



Division XXIT.— Connaught {continued). 


Division XXIII. — Ulster. 


1 
Roscommon. 


Mavo. 


Si.ioo. 


Cavan. 


Fermanagh. 


Dow.N. 


i 

Height of 

Rain-gauge 

above 

Ground 

Sea-level 


I 
Holywell. 


C'loona Castle. 


Mount 

Shannon, 

Sligo. 


Red HiUs, 
Belturbet. 


Florence 
Court. j 


Waringstow 


5 ft. 6 in. 


2 ft. in. 

80 ft. 


4 ft. 5 in. 
70 ft. 


ft. 9 in. 

208 ft. 


1 ft. 9 in. 
250 ft. 


ft. 4 in. 
190 ft. 




1874. 


1875. 


1874. 


1875. 


1874. 


1875. 


1874. 


1875. 


1874. 


1875. 


1874. 


187 


January 

February . . . 

Maroh 

April 

May 

June 


in. 
2-70 
i-io 
3-00 

'•54 
2-25 

1-79 
2-60 

3-00 
3-72 
2-57 
3-87 
3-40 


in. 

3-50 

1-78 

-80 

-45 
2-20 

3-15 
1-75 
3-25 
5-»5 
4-85 
568 
3-65 


in. 
5-10 
3-10 

2-50 
4-80 
1-00 

2'20 
260 
390 
5-10 
8-50 
2'00 

6-00 


in. 

5-50 

■50 

1-50 

1-30 

3-20 

3-00 

I'OO 

3-20 

4-00 

3-50 
340 

360 


in. 

4-35 
2-40 

2-45 
3-46 
178 
1-58 
3-80 
4-89 
5-8, 

4-95 
426 

5-83 


in. 

3-97 
1-52 
1-79 
-81 
2-65 
3-89 
2-96 
3-77 
3-4° 
4-99 
4-17 
1-58 


in. 

2-38 
,•63 
2-09 
2-56 
138 
1-28 
2-42 

4-48 
3-30 

4-43 
3-01 
3-19 


in. 

507 

1-53 
■98 

-52 
2-49 
3-58 
2-64 
3-29 

4-21 

5-22 
4-57 
2-55 


in. 
4-06 
3-05 
3-18 
4-22 
1-91 

-77 
1-46 

3-35 
671 
7-20 

4-57 
4-58 


in. 
8-76 

1-77 

1-89 

-67 

3-47 
4-16 
1-72 
4-06 

7-55 
7-14 
4-58 
4-70 


in. 
1-98 

2-20 
.-63 
1-41 

•75 
1-40 

2-46 
4-72 
2-92 
366 
3-29 
3-24 


in. 

4- 
1*. 

I' 

3" 
4" 

2'J 

3' 
3 
3 
1 


July 


August 

September ... 

October 

November ... 
December . . . 


Totals 


31-54 


36-21 


46-80 

1 


33-7° 


45*56 


35-5° 


32-15 


36-65 


45-06 


50-47 


J 29-66 


32 





























' 


































ON THE RAINFALL OF THE 


BRITISH ISLES. 




203 


1. 










IRELAND. 
















Division XXI. — Leinster (continued). 






Division XXII. — 

CONNATJGHT. 


Cab 


LOW 




King s Co. 


WiCKLOW. 


Dublin. 




Galway. 


tonti 


niteiV). 

■s Hill, 
.ow. 




















•own 
Car 


iPortarlington. 


Tullamore. 


Fassaroe, 
Bray. 


Glasnevin. 


Cregg 


i 
Park. 


Galway, 
Queen '.s 

College. 


Ifi. 


Oin. 


1 ft. 


2 in. 


3 ft. in. 


5 ft. in. 


Oft. 


11 in. 


3 ft. 


Oin. 


9 ft. in. 


l"tl ft. 


240 ft. 


235 ft. 


250 ft. 


65 ft. 


130 ft. 


30 ft. 


74. 


1875. 


1874. 


1875. 


1874. 


1875. 


1874. 


1875. 


1874. 


1875. 


1874. 


1875. 


1874. 


1875. 
in. 


1. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


:-87 


5-88 


2-31 


4"45 


i'54 


4-62 


2-s6 


5-03 


2-00 


1-89 


326 


5-22 


,-16 


5'5* 


.•87 


2'o6 


'•54 


178 


i-i6 


1-44 


3-67 


3-II 


2-27 


2-83 


2-37 


-90 


2-68 


1-04 


|-i8 


115 


i"35 


132 


1-94 


78 


1-23 


1-70 


1-12 


-89 


2-15 


i-o8 


4' 34 


1-20 


1*22 


•88 


r6i 


•71 


1-89 


-81 


1-57 


1-07 


1-34 


76 


2-76 


1-41 


3-07 


2-19 


;-o8 


2-04 


1-48 


174 


1-55 1-72 


1-70 


1-65 


1-51 


•93 


1-59 


2-27 


3-09 


3-68 


-48 


2-54 


•82 


2-29 


•69 3-01 


-89 


2-47 


•^3 


3-55 


2-16 


4'3S 


3-68 


3-91 


•72 


3-b2 


2-73 


2-27 


3-30 


i-6o 


1-21 


3-25 


2'67 


2-87 


3-72 


2-47 


4-98 


1-13 


.•24 


i'6o 


4-19 


1-63 


376 


1-9S 


4-8i 


1-49 


4-24 


196 


679 


3-5^ 


3-6S 


3-59 


;-26 


4'S4 


3-51 


5-62 


3-34 


4-S6 


196 


5-36 


1-82 


3-26 


6-48 


6-90 


4-00 


1-10 


;-o4 


6-68 


3-26 


471 


3-25 


4'49 


3-60 


8-90 


2-58 


7"i4 


6-45 


4-39 


673 


3-57 


;•!« 


3-68 


2-8i 


3-12 


2-49 i 2-94 


4-31 


5-45 


3-09 


470 


3-66 


3-10 


4-63 


2-84 1 


!7b 


rSo 


3-41 


,-76 


3-6i 


I-S9 


3'97 


1-91 


342 


1-40 


4'95 


3-23 


5-«3 


2-89 


1-90 


36-47 


29-02 


31-40 


28-52 


29-84 


31-48 


41-39 


2,6*29 


32-18 


46-34 


38-84 


51-84 


32-66 







Division XXIII. — 


-Ulster (continued). 






- 




■ Antrim. 


Londonderry. 


Tyrone. 


Donegal. 


.A.gahalee, 
Ijurgan. 


Belfast, 
Queen's 
College. 


Jilonedig, 
Garvagb. 


Londonderry. 


Omagh. 


Dun 


gloe. 


MoTille. 


I ft. in. 


7 ft. 4 in. 


1 ft. in. 


Oft. 


6 in. 


1 ft. in. 


Oft. 


8 in. 


4 ft. 


Oin. 


105 ft. 


68 ft. 


121 ft. 


80 ft. 


276 ft. 


10 ft. 


100 ft. j 


m. 1875. 


1874. 


1875. 


1874. 


1875. 


1874. 


1875. 


1874. 


1875. 


1874 


1875. 


1874. 


1875. 


1. in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


171 429 


1-88 


4-44 


2-51 


5-82 


363 


3-85 


2-07 


4-02 


4-05 


4-20 


3-42 


4-32 


1-98 


1-32 


2-50 


1-06 


2-32 


1-26 


1-70 


1-50 


1-32. 


1-28 


2-00 


1-27 


2-44 


1-37 


176 


-96 


1-69 


I -00 


2-39 


1-93 


2-8o 


1-55 


2-gl 


1-40 


3-89 


1-75 


3-38 


2-CO 


1-49 


■51 


1-39 


-29 


248 


-26 


2-85 


1-10 


2-45 


•63 


1-61 


1-40 


2-63 


-83 


■5b 


1-97 


1-02 


•5' 


i'47 


205 


2-60 


3-01 


1-93 


2-79 


2-20 


2-97 


1-89 


2-49 


1-41 


3-S3 


i-io 


3-05 


2-74 


2-43 


1-42 


287 


3-18 


2-64 


1-64 


3-70 


1-64 


3-47 


1-17 


3'3S 


2-93 


3-13 


2-79 


2-65 


3-90 


2-8o 


2-86 


2-39 


3-21 


3-47 


4-01 


2-22 


488 


2-82 


5-04 


290 


5-03 


2-87 


4-60 


2-95 


3-26 


3-98 


6-00 


5-55 


4-48 


3-92 


1-51 


313 


3-90 


377 


5-20 


4'47 


5-70 


3-50 


4-33 


3-94 


5-19 


2-68 


4-84 


4-98 


Vio 


5-35 


501 


4-92 


4-40 


4-00 


6-20 


4-97 


3-82 


5-13 


7-05 


4-47 


5-86 


5-4« 


371 


3'94 


4-92 


377 


4-33 


4"99 


4-35 


4-80 


319 


4-10 


4-25 


3-bi 


4-95 


7-06 


375 


2-l6 


3-40 


2-14 


463 


2-57 


5-IO 


3-20 


428 


2'50 


4-62 


389 


4-86 


3'02 


3-03 


33-63 


3478 


31-98 


1 4o'a9 


35'3° 


44-85 


36-10 


35-50 


34-80 


4571 


38-96 


44-40 


41-09 































204 REPORT— 1876. 



Ninth Report of the Committee, consisting of Pi'of. Everett, Sir W. 
Thomson, F.R.S., Prof. J. Clerk Maxwell, F.R.S., G. J. Symons, 
F.M.S., Prof. Ramsay, F.R.S., Prof. A. Geikie, F.R.S., James 
Glaisher, F.R.S., George Maw, F.G.S., W, Pengelly, F.R.S., 
Prof. Hull, F.R.S., Prof. Ansted, F.R.S., Prof. Prestwich, 
F.R.S., Dr. C. Le Neve Foster, Prof. A. S. Herschel, G. A. 
Lebour, F.G.S., and A. B. Wynne, appointed for the purpose of 
investigating the Rate of Increase of Underground Temperature 
downwards in various Localities of Dry Land and under Water. 
Drawn up by Prof. Everett, Secretary. 

A remarkable series of observations have recently been taken in a boring 
at Sperenbcrg, near Berlin. The bore was carried to the depth of 4052 
Rhenish (or 4172 English) feet, and was entirely in rock-salt, with the excep- 
tion of the first 283 feet, which were in gypsum with some anhydrite. Tlie 
observations were taken under the direction of Herr Eduard Danker, of 
Halle an der Saale, and are described by him in a paper occupying thirty- 
two closely printed quarto pages (206-238) of the 'Zeitschrift fiir Berg-, 
Hiitten- und Salinen-AVesen ' (xx. Band, 2 and 3 Lieferung : Berliu, 1872), 

The instrument employed for measuring the temperatures was the earth- 
thermometer of Magnus, which gives its indications by the overflowing of 
mercury, which takes place when the instrument is exposed to a higher tem- 
perature than that at which it was set. To take the reading, it is immersed 
in water a little colder than the temperature to be measured ; the tempera- 
ture of this water is noted by means of a normal thermometer, and at the 
same time the number of degrees that are empty in the earth-thermometer is 
noted. From these data the maximum temperature to which the instrument 
has been exposed can be deduced, subject to a correction for pressure, which 
is not very large, because the same pressure acts upon the interior as upon 
the exterior of the thermometer. 

In the following resume (as in the original paper) temperatures are ex- 
pressed in the Reaumur scale, and depths in Rhenish feet, the Rhenish foot 
being 1-029722 English foot. 

Observations were first taken, at intervals not exceeding 100 feet, from the 
depth of 100 feet to that of 4042 feet, the temperature observed at the former 
depth being 11°, and at the latter 38°-5 ; but all these observations, though 
forming in themselves a smooth series, were afterwards rejected, on the 
ground that they were vitiated by circulation of water and consequent con- 
vection of heat. 

It has often been supposed that though this source of error maj' affect the 
middle and upper parts of a bore, it cannot aflect the bottom ; but the Speren- 
berg observations seem to prove that no such exemption exists. When the 
bore had attained a depth of nearly 3390 feet, with a diameter of 12 inches 
2 lines at the bottom, an advance-bore of only 6 inches diameter was driven 
17^ feet further. A thermometer was then lowered halfway down this 
advance-bore, and a plug was driven into the mouth of the advance-bore so 
as to isolate the water contained in it from the rest of the water above. After 
twenty-eight hours the plug was drawn and the thermometer showed a tem- 
perature of 36°-6. On the following day the temperature was observed at the 
same depth without a plug, and found to be 33°- 6. Another observation with 
the plug was then taken, the thermometer (a fresh instrument) being left 
twenty-four hours in its position. It registered 36°-5, and again, without 



ON UNDJCRGKOUND TEMPERATURK. 



205 



pluggiug, it gave on the same day 33°-9. It thus appears that the effect of 
convection was to render the temperature in the advance-bore 3° R. too low. 

Apparatus was then employed for isolating any portion of a bore by means 
of two plugs at a suitable distance apart, with the thermometer between them. 
This operation was found much more difficult than that above described ; but 
in several instances it gave results which were deemed quite satisfactory ; 
while in other instances the apparatus broke, or the plugging was found im- 
perfect. The deepest of the successful observations by this method was at 
2100 feet, and the shallowest was at 700 feet. The first 444 feet of the bore 
were lined with iron tubes, between which the water had the opportunity of 
circulating even when the innermost tube was plugged ; hence the observations 
taken in this part were rejected. 

All the successful observations are given in the third column of the follow- 
ing Table, subject to a correction for pressure ; and, for the sake of showing 
the error due to convection in the ordinary mode of observing, the tempera- 
tures observed at the same depths when no plugs were used are given in the 
second column : — 





Teiuperatur 


e Reaumur. 


1 

1 


Depth in 






Difference. 






feet. 


Without 


With 






plugging. 


plugging. 




700 


1608 


1706 


• 0°98 


900 


17-18 


18-.5 


1-32 


1100 


1908 


20-8 


1-72 


1300 


20-38 


211 


072 


1500 


22-08 


22-8 


0-72 


1700 


22-9 


24-2 


1-3 


1900 


24-8 


25-9 


1-1 


2100 


26-8 


280 


1-2 


3390 

1 


34-1 


3615 


2-05 

1 



These temperatures are not corrected for pressure, but they are corrected 
for rise of zero in the normal thermometer ; and this last circumstance 
explains the difference of 0-4 between the temperature 36°-15 here given and 
36'-'-o5, which is the mean of the above-mentioned observations at the depth 
of 3390 feet. 

Another proof of the injurious effect of convection was obtained by com- 
pariug the observed temperatures (without plugging) in the first 400 feet of 
the great bore, designated Bore I., with the temperatures observed at the 
same depths during the sinking of another bore, designated Bore II., near it, 
the observations in this latter being always taken at the bottom. The fol- 
lowing were the results : — 



Depth in 
feet. 
100 . 
200 . 
300 . 
400 . 



Temperature. 
Bore I. Bore II. 


11-0 

11-n 

12-3 
13-6 


9-0 
10-4 
11-5 
12-5 



The temperature at the depth of 100 feet in the great bore thus appears 
to have been raised about 2' R. by convection. 

The following is a Table of the successful observations, corrected for 
pressure : — 



206 



REVOKT — 1876. 



])rpth in Teitiptraturo 

illioTiish B'^aiiiiiur. 

feet. o 

700 :. 17-270 

900 18-780 

nOO 21-147 

1300 21-510 

1500 23-277 

1700 24-741 

1900 26-504 

2100 28-668 

3390 37-238 

Assuming, with Herr Dunker, the mean temperature of the surface to be 
7°-18, which is the mean annual temperature of the air at Berlin, we have 
the following increments of temperature with depth : — 



Depths in Ehenish 
feet. 


Increment 
of depth. 


Increment of 
temperature. 


Increase 

per 100 feet: 

deg. Etau. 


Increase 

per 100 feet: | 

deg. Fahr. 


Oto 700 


700 


10-095 


o 

1-442 


3-24 


700 to 900 


200 


1-505 


•752 


1-69 


SOO to 1100 


, 200 


2367 


1-184 


2-66 


1 100 to 1200 


200 


0-363 


-182 


•41 


1300 to lf)00 


200 


1-767 


-884 


1-99 


loOOto 1700 


200 


1-464 


-732 


1-65 


1700 to 1900 


2(:!0 


1-763 


-882 


1-98 


1900 to 2100 


200 


2-164 


1-082 


2-43 


2100 to 3890 


1290 


8-570 


•664 


1-49 


to 3390 


3390 


30-058 


-887 


2-00 



The mean rate of increase found by comparing the temperatures at the 
surface and 3390 feet is exactly 1° Fahr. for 50 Ehenish or 51*5 English 
feet. 

The numbers in the last two columns exhibit upon the whole a diminu- 
tion with increase of depth ; in other words, the temperature increases less 
rapidly as we go deeper down. As regards the first 700 feet, which exhibit 
a decidedly more rapid rate than the rest, it must be remembered that nearly 
half of this distance was in a different material from the rest of the bore, 
being in gypsum with some anhydrite, while all the rest was in rock-salt. 
Prof. Herschel has found, in recent experiments not yet published, that the 
conductivity of rock-salt is exceedingly high ; and theory shows that the 
rates of increase, in superimposed strata, should be inversely as their conduc- 
tivities. We may therefore fairly attribute the rajnd increase in the first 
700 feet to the relatively small conductivity of the portion (283 feet) which is 
not rock-salt. The slow rate of increase observed in the long interval between 
the depths of 2100 and 3390 feet is not so easily accounted for ; we can only 
conjecture that this and the other inequalities which the above Table pre- 
sents, for depths exceeding 700 feet, are due to fissures or other inequalities 
in the rock which have not been put in evidence. 

With the view of summing up his results in small compass, Herr Dunker 
has assumed the empirical formula — 

t = 7-18 + ax + hx", 



ON UNDERGROUND TEMPERATURE. 207 

t denoting the temperature (Reaumur) at the depth .^■ (Rhenish feet), and 
has computed the most probable values of a and h by the method of least 
bijuares. He finds 

a = -0129857 h= - -00000125791, 

the negative sign of h indicatiug that the increase of temperature becomes 
sloAver as the depth increases. 

A paper by Prof. Mohr, of Bonn, as represented by an abstract published 
in ' Nature ' (vol. xii. p. 545), has attracted attention from the boldness of its 
reasoning in reference to the Spcreuberg observations. Prof. Mohr, however, 
does not quote the observations themselves, but only the temperatures calcu- 
lated by the above formula, which he designates, in his original paper (' Neuea 
Jahrbuch fiir Mineralogie,' &c., 1875, Heft 4), " the results deduced from the 
observations by the method of least squares." In the abstract in ' Nature ' 
they are simply termed " the results of the thermometric investigation of the 
Sperenberg boring," a designation which is still more misleading. 

Attention is called to the circumstance that the successive increments of 
temperature for successive equal increments of depth form an exact arith- 
metical progression, as if this were a remarkable fact of observation, whereas 
it is merely the result of the particular mode of reduction which was adopted, 
being a mathematical consequence of the assumed formula — 

< = 7-18 + ax + bx\ 

The method of least squares is not responsible for this formula, but merely 
serves, after this formula has been assumed for convenience, to give the best 
values of a and b. 

Herr Dunker, in his own paper, lays no stress upon the formula, and gives 
a caution against extending it to depths much greater than those to which 
the observations extend. Writing to Prof. Everett under date April, 1876, 
he requests that, in the summary of his results to be given in the present 
Report, the formula should either be suppressed or accompanied by the state- 
ment that its author reserves a different deduction. 

The following are the differences between the temperatures computed by 
tlie formula and the observed temperatures : — 

Difference (computed 
Depth. minus observed). 

700 -1-621 

900 -1-931 

1100 -1-204 

1300 -f 0-427 

1500 -1-0-553 

1700 -f 0-882 

1900 -fO-811 

2100 +0-238 

3390 -0-482 

The necessity of adopting some means to prevent the circulation of water 
in bores has for some time been forcing itself upon the attention of your 
Committee. Many of the observations taken by their observers have con- 
tained such palpable evidence of convection as to render them manifestly 
■useless for the purpose intended ; and iu the light of the Sperenberg experi- 
ments it is difficult to place much reliance on any observations taken in deep 
bores without plugging. The selection of a suitable form of plug is now 
occupying the careful attention of your Committee. 



308 RETORT— 1870. 

Herr Bunker's paper gives a very full account of the different kinds of plug 
employed at Sixrenberg. 

For stopidiig Ihe mouth of the advance-bore the plug had a tapering shape, 
and was of hard wood, strengthened by two iron rings, one at each end, and 
covered with a layer of tow 5 lines thick, outside of which was thick and 
strong linen, nailed above and below to the wood through a leather strap. 
It was lowered into its place by means of the iron rods used for boring ; and, 
when in position was pressed home by a portion of the weight of the rods. 
The plug carried the thermometer suspended from it. Its extraction was 
commenced by means of a screw on the beam of the boring-machine, in order 
to avoid a sudden jerk, which might have broken the thermometer. The force 
which was found necessary for thus starting the plug, as well as the impres- 
sion observed upon it when withdrawn, showed that it had fitted tight. To 
insure a good fit, the top of the advance-bore had been brought to a suitable 
shape, and its inequalities removed, by means of a revolving cutting-tool. 
Herr Bunker remarks that this plan is adapted to a soft material like rock- 
salt, but that in ordinary hard rock it would be better to make the bottom of 
the main bore flat, and to close the advance-bore by an elastic disk pressed 
over it. The method of observation by advance-bores can only be employed 
during the sinking of the bore, a time when it is difficult to avoid error arising 
from the heat generated in boring. The expense of making an advance- 
bore at each depth at which an observation is required is also an objection to 
its use. 

Another kind of plug devised by Herr Bunker, and largely used in the 
observations, consisted of a bag of very stout india-rubber (9 millimetres 
thick) tilled with water, and capable of being pressed between two wooden 
disks, one above and the other below it, so as to make it bulge out in the 
middle and fit tightly against the sides of the bore. On the suggestion of 
bore-inspector Zobel, the pressure was applied and removed by means of 
screwing. Two steel springs fastened to the upper disk, and appearing, in 
Herr Bunker's diagram, very like the two halves of a circular hoop distorted 
into an oval by pressing against its waUs, prevented the upper disk from 
turning, but offered little resistance to its rising or falling. The lower disk, 
on the contrary, was permitted to turn. Both disks were carried by the 
iron boring-rods. Eotation of these in one direction screwed the disks 
nearer together, and rotation in the other direction brought them further 
apart. The india-rubber bag could thus be made to swell out and plug the 
bore when it was at the desired depth, and could be reduced to its original 
size for raising or lowering. In order to prevent the boring-rods from be- 
coming unscrewed one from another, when rotated backwards, it was neces- 
sary to fasten them together by clamps, a rather tedious operation in working 
at great depths. 

In taking observations at other points than the bottom, two of these plugs 
were employed, one above and the other below the thermometer. 

In some of the experiments, the apparatus was modified by using linen 
bags filled with wet clay, instead of india-rubber bags filled with water; 
and, instead of screwing, direct pressure was employed, the lower disk being 
supported by rods extending to the bottom of the bore, while the upper disk 
could be made to bear the whole or a portion of the weight of the rods above 
it. Some successful observations were obtained with both kinds of bag ; but 
the water-bags were preferred, as returning more easily to their original size 
when the pressure was removed, and consequently being less liable to injury 
in extraction. In some observations since taken in another place (Suden- 
berg), Herr Bunker states (in the private letter above referred to) that 



J 



ON UNDKlteilOUND TEMPERATURK. 



209 



india-rubber bags, filled with water, and pressed, not by screwing, but b}- 
the weight of the rods, were employed with much satisfaction. 

All the methods of plugging employed by Herr Dunker involved the us*^; 
of the iron rods belonging to the boring-ajiparatus, and therefore would be 
inapplicable (except at great expense) after the operation of boring is finished 
and the apparatus removed. 

It seems desirable to contrive, if possible, some plug that can be let down 
and raised by a wire. In the first report of your Committee, it was suggested 
that two bags of sand, one above and the other below the thermometer, 
should be used for this purpose. Bags of sand, however, would be liable to 
rub ofl:' pieces from the sides of the bore, and thus to become jammed in 
drawing up. Mr. Lebour has devised a plug which will be of small diameter 
during the processes of lowering and raising, but can be rendered large and 
made to fit the bore, when at the proper depth, by letting down upon it a 
sliding weight suspended by a second wire. Sir W. Thomson suggests that 
a series of india-rubber disks, at a considerable distance apart, will pro- 
bably be found efi"ectual. 

Mr. Boot has continued his observations in the bore which he is making 
at Swinderby, near Scarle (Lincoln). It has now been carried to the depth 
of 2000 feet, and is in earthy limestone or calcareous shale, of Carboniferous 
age. Its diameter in the lower part is only 3^ inches. In April last the 
temperature 78° F. was observed at 1950 feet ; and more recently 79° F. 
was observed at 2000 feet — the water, in each case, having been undisturbed 
for a month. Supposing these results not to be vitiated by convection, and 
assuming the mean temperature at the surface to be 50°, we have an increase 
of 29° in 2000 feet, which is at the rate of 1° in 69 feet. 

Mr. Symons has taken a series of observations at the depth of 1000 feet in 
the Kentish-Town well, with the view of determining whether the tempe- 
rature changes. The instrument employed is a very large and delicate 
Phillips's maximum thermometer. The following is a list of the obser- 
vations : — - 



i Date of lowering. 



1874, — 
May 

July 
.Tulj- 
Sept, 
Sept. 29 
Oct. 30 
Dec. .3 
ISTi'). Jan. 
Feb. 
Mar. 
Maj- 
June 
July 
Aug. 
.Sept. 
Oct. 
Oct. 
Nov. 



8 
2 

28 
8 



10 



Depth 
indicated. 



10 
1 



feet. 
1000 
1000 
1000 
1000 
1000 
1000 
1000 
1000 
1000 
1000 
1000 
KXtO 
1000 
1000 
1000 
1000 
1000 
1000 
1000 



Thermo- 
meter 
set at 



64-50 
63-80 
63-20 
65-10 
65-80 
65-81 
63-40 
63-80 
63-75 
63-90 
03-90 
03-95 
63-00 
03-87 
63-87 
64-00 
63-9() 
63-80 
63-70 



Date of 



1874, May 8 
July 2 
July 28 
Sept. 8 
Sept. 29 
Oct. 30 
Dec. 3 

1875, Jan. 7 
Feb. 1 
M.U-. 3 
May 3 

1 
7 
3 



Depth 
indicated. 



June 
July 
Aug, 
Sept. 10 
Oct. 2 
Oct. 19 i 
Nor. 1 . 
Dec. 1 I 



feet. 
1007 
1009 
1005 
1004 
1004 
1000 
1006 
1009 

loor, 

1005 
1006 
1005 
1005 
1(KJ4 
1001 
1003 
1004 
1005 



Temperature 
Fahr. 



66-82 
(reading lost.) 
67-40 
67-51 
67-43 
67-68 
67-52 
07-63 
67-56 
67-58 
(;7-62 
07-49 
G7-53 
67-58 
67-58 
67-58 
67-62 
67-62 



Wire broke. 



1876. 



210 REPORT— 1876. 

The "• depth indicated " is shown by a measuring wheel or pviUey, over- 
which the wire runs by which the thermometer is raised and lowered, as 
described, with a diagram, in the Eeport for 186t). The above Table shows 
that there is always some stretching, real or apparent, in the interval be- 
tween lowering the thermometer and raising it again. Hecent observations, 
by means of a fixed mai'k on the wire, have shown that the change is not, 
in the main, a permanent elongation, but an alternation of length. It is 
probably due in part to the greater tension which the wire is iinder in rais- 
ing than in lowering, a circumstance wliich will cause a temporary differ- 
ence of length variable with the rapidity of winding up ; also in part to the 
circumstance that the wire is warmer when it has juet left the water than 
when it is about to be let down. Home portion of the irregularity observed 
may be due to variations of temperature in that part of the well (210 feet) 
which contains air. The observations, taken as a whole, show that any 
variations of temperature which occur in this well at the depth of 1000 feet 
are so small as to be comparable with the almost inevitable errors of ob- 
servation. The observations will be continued at intervals of six months, 
with additional precautions, and with an excessively slow (specially con- 
structed) non-registering thermometer, in addition to the maximum ther- 
mometer hitherto employed. 

Through the kindness of the eminent geologist M. Delesse, of the Ecole 
j^ormale at Taris, observations have been obtained from the coal-mines of 
Anziu, in the north of Prance. They were taken under the direction of 
M. Marsilly, chief engineer of these mines. Maximum thermometers of 
the protected Xegretti pattern were inserted in holes bored horizontally to 
the depth of -G or -7 of a metre in the sides of shafts which were in pro- 
cess of sinking, and in which there was but little circulation of air. A 
quarter of an hour was allowed to elapse in each case, after the boring of 
the hole, before the thermometer was inserted and the hole plugged. Four 
different shafts were tried. Those designated as Nos. I., II., III. were in " 
the mine C^haband La Tour, and No. TV. was in the mine Eenard. 

In shaft I. observations were taken at eight different depths, commencing 
with the temperatiu'c 56|° F. at a depth of 3S-5 metres, and ending with 
(171° F. at 200-5 metres. 

In shaft II. there were observations at four depths, commencing with 
55° at 87-3 m., and ending with G3j° at 185 m. 

In shaft III. there were observations at three depths, commencing with 
5G° at 87-8 m., and ending with 62|° at 144 m. 

These three shafts, all belonging to the same mine, were very wet, and 
the temperature of the air in themVas 11° or 12° C. (52° or 54° F.). 

In shaft lY., which was very dry and had an air temperature of about 
15° C. (59° F.), observations were taken at six depths, commencing with 
70|° F. at 21-2 m., and ending with 84° F. at 134-8 m. 

The mean rates of increase deduced from these observations are: — 

In Shaft I., 1° F. in 14-4 m., or in 47-2 feet. 
II., „ 11-5 m., „ 37-7 „ 
„ III., „ 8-G5m, „ 28-4 „ 

IV., „ 8-57 m., „ 28-1 „ 

The observer mentions that in shaft II. there was, at a depth of 90 m., a 
seam of coal in which heat was generated by oxidation; but no such 
remark is made with respect to any of the other shafts, although it is 
obvious that some disturbing cause has rendered the temperature in shaft 
IV. abnormally high. Possibly the heat generated in boring the holes for 



ON NITROUS OXIDE IN THE GASKOUS AND LIQUID STATES. 211 

tbe thermometers in this shaft (which was dry) has vitiated the observations, 
the instruments employed being maximum thermometers. Two of the slow 
non-registering thermometers mentioned in last year's lleport have been 
sent to M. Delesse, to be used for verification. 

The slow- action thermometers are constructed on the foUo'ndug plan : — • 
The bulb is cylindrical and very strong, and is surrounded by stearine or 
tallow, which fills up tlic space between it and a strong glass shield in 
which the thermometer is inclosed. The shield is not hermetically sealed 
(not being intended for protection against pressure), but is stopped at the 
bottom with a cork, so that the thermometer can be taken out and put in 
again if desired. Stearine and tallow were selected after trials of several 
substances, including paraffin-wax, bces'-wax, glue, plaster of Paris, pounded 
glass, and cotton-wool. The thermometers are inclosed in copper cases 
lined with india-rubber. When placed, without these cases, in v/ater dif- 
fering 10° from their own temperature, they take nearly half ti minute to 
alter by one tenth of a degree. 

In concluding this Eeport, your Committee desire to express their regret 
at the losses which they have sustained by the deaths of Prof. Phillips, Sir 
Charles Lyell, and Col. Strange, of whose valuable services they liavo been 
deprived -flithin the last three years. 



Nitrous Oxide in the Gaseous and Liquid States. 
By W. J. Janssen. 

[A communication ordered by the General Committ.ee to be printed in e.vlenso.'] 

The experiments of Faraday on the liquefaction of gases have already proved 
that gases at the ordinary conditions of pressure and temperature are vapours 
at a remote stage from their points of condensation. If several gases sub- 
mitted to great pressure and the cold of the carbonic acid and ether bath 
did not exhibit any appearance of liquefaction, the cause is probably that 
Faraday did not obtain a temperature low enough to produce liquefaction. 
Hence we may conclude that the gaseous and liquid states of matter depend 
only on the temperature and pressure to which it is exposed. The interest- 
ing experiments of Dr. Andrews with carbonic acid (Philosophical Trans- 
actions for 1869) not only verified this conclusion, but gave the important 
result that gases and liquids are distant stages of the same condition of 
matter, which may pass into one another without breach of continuity. The 
temperature at which matter, without sudden change of volume or abrupt 
absorption of heat, passes from the ordinary liquid to the ordinary gaseous 
state is called by Dr. Andrews the critical point ; above that temperature a 
gas never can be liquefied by pressure, it behaves like a permanent gas ; 
below that temperature it will be liquid or gas, or more exactly liquid or 
vapour, according to the pressure to which it is exposed. For the details I 
refer to the above-mentioned paper. 

I have made the same kind of experiments with nitrous oxide, a gas whoso 
physical properties agree much Avith those of carbonic acid. The apparatus 
was similar to that used by Dr. Andrews, to whom I am much indebted for 
the great kindness with which he has afforded me every instruction, and for 
his invaluable advice about tlie use of Lis apparatus during my stay at Belfast 
and afterwards. 



p li 



•■> 



312 



llEPOKT — 187(). 



As my expel imeiits with nitrous oxide presented anomalies which did not 
occur with carbonic acid, I first made some experiments with the latter gas, 
in order to try whether they were to be ascribed to observational errors or to 
the nitrous oxide I used. The results are given in the following Tables, 
where S is the fraction representing the ratio of the volume of the air after 
and before compression to one another at the temperature i, e the correspond- 
ing fraction for the carbonic acid at the temperature t'. and I the number of 
volumes which 17,000 volumes of carbonic acid, measured at 0° and 760 
millims., would occupy at the temperature and pressure of the observation. 
The number 17,000 has been taken as unit to compare thef5e Tables with 
those of Andrews. 

Table I.— Carbonic Acid at 21°-45 C. 



_JL- 

67-S-' 



Tl-SO 
1 



I '^' 



■20 



1 

78-!(6 

81-40 



t". 


f. 


e. 


f. 


/. 


1 

.^8-70 


13-18 


1 

105-70 


21-44 


173-6 


1 


13-18 


1 


21-47 


162-1 


j 59-81 


113-20 


1 

60-02 


12-20 


1 
164-20 


21-41 


111-7 


1 

61-n 


12-20 


1 
350- iO 


21-49 


52-4 1 


1 

62-18 


12-40 


1 
42'7-13 


21-50 


42-9 



Table II.— Carbonic Acid at 31°- 15 C. 



1 ('. 


;■. 


e. 


^'• 


f. 1 


! 1 




1U-. 


-.1 


1 
109-20 


31-20 


173-6 1 


61-o2 



6y-i3 
1 

TO-eu" ; 

1 i 

72-03 I 

1__ i 
"73-36 ' 

1 



lO-OO 
10-00 
10-49 
10-97 
10-.30 
10-52 
10-65 
10-30 
10-30 



1 

124-^36 

1 

i32-7t> 



UO-21 

1^_ 

lof>-76 

1_ 

lesTi 



31-12 
31-19 
31-13 
31-U 
31-18 



152-4 
142-8 
135-2 
121-7 
112-8 



1 

2U6-69 


31-14 


91-7 


1 
293-37 


31-13 


04-6 


1 

370-8-1 


31-19 


51-1 


1 
397-70 


31-15 


47-4 



ox NITUOUS OXTDE IN THE GASEOUS AND LIQUID STATES^. 



213 



Those results agree closely with the experiments of Dr. Andrews at the cor- 
respoudiug temperatures, tlie differences being ouly 0*2 of an atmosiihere. At 
21°-47 the gas passed into the liquid state at a pressure of GO'S atmospheres, 
whilst its volume had diminished from 17,000 to 162 ; with Dr. Andrews 
this pressure amounted to GO'05 atmospheres, and the corresponding volume 
of the carbonic acid to 160. As the quantity of air in my case was about 
^^ of the entire volume of the gas, the increase of pressure to liquefy the 
whole after liquefaction had begun, amounted to about 2-4 atmospheres, viz. 
from 59'81 to 62-18. The critical temperature I found to be 30°-87. It 
wUl be observed that the pressures are those indicated by the apparent con- 
traction of the air in the air-tube. 

In the following Tables ^ and e have the same meaning as before, but ap- 
plied to nitrous oxide ; I, however, represents the number of volumes which 
1000 volumes of nitrous oxide, measured at 0° and 760 millims., would oc- 
cupy at the temperature and pressure of the observation. The experiments 
■were made at the temperatures of 25''-15, 32°-2, 36°-4, 3S°-4, and 43°-8, two 
series below, and three above, the critical point, which was found to vary 
between 36'^-3 and 36°-7. The appearances were the same as with carbonic 
acid. 



Table I. — Nitrous Oxide at 25--1.5. 



I. 


t. 


e. 


t'. 


1 

I. 


I 

51-.50 


5ol 


1 
78-97 


25-09 


1 

13-83 


1 


.5-26 


1 
Wo-i'l 


25-11 

1 


11-50 


06-1.5 


1 


5-73 


1 

io3-.3d 


25-16 


10-56 

i 


57-83 


I 
58-44 


4-98 


1 

146-90 


25-19 


7-44 i 


1 

60-76 


4-98 


1 
316-90 


25-19 


5-04 ! 


-63-34 


4-98 


1 
302-39 


25-19 


3-61 


1 


4-.55 


1 • 


25-19 


3-10 ! 


6B-8'J 


?.48-84 


1 


5-02 

1 


1 


25- U 


o.'7~; 


70'5o 


394-73 


- 1 ( 


1 

72-9:3 ; 


4-98 


1 1 


25-19 


2-65 . 


413-56 


1 


4-98 1 


1 


25-19 


2-61 


73-63 


419-16 


I 


4-12 


1 


25-19 1 

i 


2-57 


76-01 


435-34 

1 


1 
84-65 


4-16 


1 I 

43f-85 ! 

i 


25-19 


2-53 i 

i 



21 A 



REPORT — 1870. 



Table II.— Nitrous Oxido ut 32°-2. 



' 


t. 


f. 


f. 


1 


1 

45^11 


8-97 


1 

6011 


32-17 


18-62 


1 
•17 -So 


753 


1 
65-34 


32-28 


17-16 


1 
51-2» 


G-S2 


1 

73-73 


32-21 


15-39 


1 


5-4U 


1 
84-53 


32- lb 


13-24 


5o-7y 


1 


5-31) '■ 

t 
■ 


1 

9u-iy^ 


32-21 


12-41 


oT"J4 


1 
"62-21' 


5-11 


1 i 


32-21 


10-42 


107--U ' 


1 
64-86 


o-2t) 


1 
118-37 


32-10 


9-45 


1 
07-45 


(J-50 


1 


32-28 


8-07 


138-63 


1 
67-63 


5-63 


1 
140-70 


32-20 


7-95 


1 

6S-ia 


4-30 


1 
166-65 


32-29 


6-71 


1 

69-92 


-1-3U 


I 
21415 


32-23 


5-23 


1 
73-87 


4-30 


277-05 


.32-21 


4-04 


I 


4-3U 


1 
3io-9i 


32-26 


3-23 


7»-29 


1 
80-U 


4- 05 


1 
380^93 


32-21 


2-93 

■ 


1 
'84-09 


1 4-31 

i 


1 

:;9B-62 


32-21 


2-82 


1 
85-92' 


; 4-:>i. 

i 


1 
102-119 


32-23 


2-78 


1 
'91-31 


4-oi 

i 


1 
! 12-21 


32-21 


2-71 


1 

B4-56 


i 4-GO 


H?13 


32-11 


' 2-67 


lUl-02 


- 7-31) 


I 
12.5-U3 


32-4G 


2-64 


1 
1 117-lf4 


7-73 


I 
113-16 


32-46 


2-52 



ON NITKOUS OXIDK IN THE GASJJOUS AND LIQUID STATES. 215 



Table III. — Nitrous Oxide at 3ti'-'-4. 



s. 




1 
1 


1 

; i' 


I. 


I 

65-41 


3-41 


1 

110-87 


36-39 


10-23 


x 

69-01 


3-07 


i 

j 1 
i:30-4o 


36-41 


I 8-69 

i 
i 


1 
7:;il 


:j-12 


1 
151-32 


36-40 


7-50 


1 

vaoT 


4-i)U 


1 
159-42 


36-41 


i 

7-12 


1 

7i-92' 


4-42 


1 

208-20 


36-39 


5-45 


1 

'76-61' 


4-6;j 


1 

2-15-08 


36-37 


4-63 i 


1 

77-78 


4-68 


1 
282-31 


36-4U 


4-02 


1 

78-00 


4-7-' 


1 
:;o9-c6 


36-36 


3-66 

} 


1 
SO-Oo" 


4-i;0 


1 
345-30 


36-38 


3-23 


1 
85-46 


4-94 


I 
369--12 


36-39 


3-U7 1 


I 
89-62 


4-75 


1 

383-56 


36-39 

1 


2-96 


1 

'95-25 


0-80 


1 
397-99 


36-37 


2-85 


1 

io'o-71 


7-41 


1 
411-51 


36-37 


2-75 


i 

1 • 1 

108-04 


7-49 


1 
420-85 


36-37 


2-69 


I 
1 10-22 


7-54 


I 
431-85 


36-38 


2-63 

i 



216 



REPORT— 1876. 



Takle IV. — Nitrous Oxide at 3^'^-k 



1 



70-8tJ 



7-3-49 



I 1 

i 70-13 



! 76-77 



Jl 

?7-eo 



79-19 I 



82-10 



1 

S4-t58 



87-13 



99-fa 



__1_ 

111-87 



1 



122-30 



152-87 



I 157-52 

i i 



G'-lS 
4-61 

0-50 
4-35 
6-o'J 
4-89 
4-85 
4-08 
0-10 
7-48 
8-22 

7-i»a 

8-10 
5-81 



75-7» 



a8-;3'j 14-19 



i:;i-w 'J^ 



8-38 



I 



1 

i4o-3tf 



160-58 



1 

i;'6-o8 



2U1-11 



524-94 



1 



i 302-81 



1 



336-07 



1 
lo6-.'0 



_1 
596-'72 



419-31 



1_ 

4o2-9i 



38-36 
38-37 
38-3U 
38-37 
38-45 
38-12 
38-40 
38:33 
38;31 
38-40 



8-0'J 
7-85 
7-11 
6-47 
5-67 
5-08 
3-77 
3-39 
3-20 
2-87 
2-72 



38-35 2-64 



I 
4eo-87 


38-30 


2-48 


1 

461-18 


38-55 


2-47 



ON MTROUS OXIDE IN' THE GASEOUS AND LIQUID STATES. 

Tabu; Y.— Nitrous Oxide at 4y°-8. 



21/ 



. 


f. 


e. 


r. ' 

1 


/. 1 

1 


1 

65-29 

I 




5-01 


1 
100-72 


4;3-8i 


lloi 


1 1 

mo 


(MS 


1 
127-li8 


43-90 


9-10 


1 

'80-S3 


()-4.5 


1 
I70-0"! 


4:3- SU 


(r84 


I 
¥4-37 


J^-80 


209-38 


4^-81 


5-55 


1 


7- 09 


1 
289-11 


43-76 


4-02 


1 


7"o5 


1 


43-88 


3-52 

1 


94-40 


329-59 


1 


7-61 


1 


43-71 


3-09 


103-84 


1 375-16 


1 
U':s-01 


7-79 


1 
i 416-49 


43-75 

1 


2-79 



Comparing these results for nitrous oxide with those for carbonic acid found 
by Dr. Andrews, we find the compressibility of the two gases nearly the same 
at temperatures equidistant from their critical points. At the temperature of 
25°-16, liquefaction begins under a pressure of r)7-83 atmospheres ; at 32°-2S, 
the gas passes into the liquid state under a pressure of 67-45 atmospheres : at 
this point a great diminution of volume occurs, but not abruptly as in the case 
of carbonic acid ; this must be ascribed to the presence of a greater quantity 
of a permanent gas in the nitrous oxide. 

In the li'iuid state, nitrous oxide yields as much to pressure as carbonic 
acid ; the rate of expansion by heat wiU be therefore very great. This is a 
confirmation of the results of Driou (Ann. de Chim. et de Phys. t. Ivi. p. 37), 
that the coefficient of expansion of volatile liquids at a temperature still below 
the critical point grows equal to the coefficient of expansion of gases and in- 
creases further, tiU at the critical point it may attain to a value any number 
of times greater than that of air. 

At temperatures above the critical point, the volume of nitrous oxide 
diminishes with tolerable regularity with increase of pressure, though much 
faster than according to the law of Boyle ; the higher the temperature the 
more the compressibility approaches to that of a perfect gas. When the gas 
is reduced to the volume at which it might be expected to liquefy, no trace 
of liquid is to be seen, the whole mass of the gas remaining homogeneous ; " 
but a rapid diminution of volume occurs from a small increase of pressure : 
this diminution of volume is not abrupt as in the case of liquefaction, and 
diminishes greatly at higher temperatures. 

The anomalies presented by nitrous oxide were : — 

1. Under a given pressure and temperature the volume of the compressed 
gas is variable, or vice versa. This anomaly is very obvious in that condition 
of matter where a rapid diminution of volume occurs at a small increase of 
pressure ; under a given volume of the gas the difference of pressure can 
amount here to 2 atmospheres, in the other cases this difference is very 
slight, about 0-2 to 0*4 of an atmosphere. This appears from the folloAving 
results : — 



318 



RKFOKT — 1876. 



1 d. 

i 


'■ 


(-. 


' '^'• 


1 '■ 


i 

1 1 

j '■U-97" 


§•26 


1 

63-55 


2o-01 


17-46 


1 
4o-21 


7-13 


1 
62-61 


L'5-00 


17-44 


1 
'ol'SO 


8-47 


1 

"78-99' 


25-09 


13-83 

■ 1 


1 

51-59 


419 


1 
78-91 


25-09 


13-84 j 


1 
61-63 


3-87 


1 

78-98 


25-09 


13-83 


1 

55-72 


10-37 


1 

94-13 


25-21 


11-62 


I 
66-01 


8-20 


1 
94-20 


25-30 


11-01 

1 

i 


1 

78-41 


0-14 


1 
3U'J-64 


30-35 


3-66 


I 

78-80 


4-66 


1 

309-08 


30-37 


3-67 


1 
89-06 


8-67 


1 
383-51 


36--^^ 


2-96 


1 
00-31 


4-98 


1 
383-67 


36-40 


2-96 


1 
100-12 


7-71 . 


1 
4U-5tf 


36-42 

1 


2-76 


1 ; 

103-05 


7-07 


1 
411-83 


36-35 

1 

1 


2-75 


1 1 

To-72 


7-43 


1 
131-54 


38-37 


8-68 

r 


1 1 

71-01 


5-43 

i 


1 

131-57 


38-40 


8-68 . ; 

1 


1 

77-25 


5-79 


1 
205-05 


38-29 \ 


i 

5-56 : 


1 i 
77-75 ' 


8-37 


1 
205-09 


38-35 ; 

1 


5-56 


1 
TIOS, i 


4-81 


1 
l'J--l--i 


38-40 


5-79 



ON NITROUS OXIDK IN TUli UASliOUS AND LiqUlU MATES. 



310 



2. The pressure required to liquefy the nitrous oxide und the volume of 
this gas at the bcgmniug of liquefaction arc variable. 

The pressure required to liquefy the gas at 25°-15, recorded in Table I., is 
the mean of the following observations : — 



s. 


f. 


p. 


f. 


/. 


I 

58-70 


4-57 


1 

108-06 


25-17 


10-11 


1 
'57-90 


4-93 


1 

104-03 


25-18 


10-51 


1 
57 83 


4-38 


1 
103-68 


25-10 


10-54 


t 

57-7S' 


4-34 


1 
102-35 


25-19 


10-68 


1 
57-29 


8-65 


I 

101-01 


25-09 


10-81 


I 
57-42 


7-54 


1 
101-84 


25-19 


10-74 

i 



The following series of experiments was perfbi-med iu the course of a 

day:- 



ct. 


t. 


e. 


/.'. 


/. 


1 

58-89 


7-84 


1 
111-36 


25-34 


9-82 


1 
58-7o' 


7-59 


1 

107-82 


25-24 


10-14 


1 
59-16 


7-51 


1 
109-67 


25-57 


10-03 


1 
57-53 


7-82 


1 
101-40 


25-23 


10-78 i 


1 
o7-o7 


8-47 


1 
103-52 


25-40 


10-57 


I 

! 07-85 


8-40 


1 
l63-3o 


25-24 


10-58 


1 . 1 
57-80 


8-41 


1 
163-35 


25-30 


10-58 


1 
S8-12 


8-41 


1 
104-30 


, 25-39 


10-49 


i 1 
oT-lO 


8-44 


1 
103-00 


25-35 

1 


10-61 



At 32°-2 the greatest difference of pressure amounted to 2 iitmosphcres, as 
appears from the next series of experiments. 



220 



REPORT — 1870. 



c. 


''- 


€. 




/. 


1 

66-95 


(°)-;)G 


1 


\i2-2l 


1 
8-35 


68-91 


.5-(37 


] 
io7-2U 


.'32-21 


7-12 j 


1 
67-85 


5-7o 


1 
lJl-74 


32-21 


7-8» 


1 
67-79 


7-U} 


1 
139-07 


32-01 


8-05 



3. After liquefaction has begun an increase of pressure of 16 atmospheres 
or more is required to liquefy the whole mass of the nitrous oxide ; for at 
25°-17 liquefaction began at a pressure of 57'S3 atmospheres, ■whilst the 
whole was liquid at a pressure of 73*G8 atmospheres. At 32°"2 I found the 
commencement of liquefaction at a pressure of 67'63 atmospheres, and the 
terminatiou at a pressure of 84-On atmospheres. For carbonic acid, that was 
mixed with ^^i^ to y^Vu of air, tlie increase of pressure amounted to 1*5 at- 
mosphere. Had the gas been pure no increase of pressure could have oc- 
curred. This shows that a greater quantity of a permanent gas must be 
mixed with the nitrous oxide ; the variations of the volume of the gas under 
a given pressure and temperature result perhaps from its whole mass not 
being homogeneous, as the diminution of the volume is too fast to allow a 
perfect diffusion of the two gases. 

Tlie gas used for these experiments was prepared from 2)uro nitrate of am- 
monium. The salt was carefully heated in a tin bath in order to prevent an}^ 
decomposition of the liberated gas by a too irregular lieating when directly 
exposed to a flame. It was washed by transmission through a strong solu- 
tion of caustic potash and dried over sulphuric acid. The caustic potash de- 
composes any solid particles of the salt that might be carried over mechani- 
cally and retains the nitric acid, whilst the free ammonia is absorbed by the 
sulphuric acid. Purified in this manner, the gas was made to pass through 
the glass tube wherein it was to be compressed. A pressure of about 90 to 
100 millims. of mercury was required to maintain a moderate current of gas 
through the capillary bore : this current was continued for five hours or more 
in order to ensure the complete removal of the air ; the capillary end was then 
sealed and the other end introduced under mercury. As the experiments 
with the tube filled in this manner indicated always the presence of a per- 
manent gas, I tried afterwards to remove the air by exhausting the tube with 
the air-pump and then to fUl with the gas ; this operation was successively 
repeated from twenty to thirty times, but with no other result. 

As I could not get the gas pure by heating nitrate of ammonium, I tried 
to get it from liquid nitrous oxide as it is made in iron bottles in London ; it 
was probable that the permanent gas would escape first and the nitrons oxide 
remain pure. This, hoAvever, did not occur, and I got nearly the same result 
as before. 

In order to prevent diffusion as much as possible, all the caoutchouc joints 
were besmeared with a solution of tar and asphalt, and the current of gas 
issued under sulphuric acid. The amount per cent, of this permanent gas 
was determined in the following manner : — The absoi-ption-tube of Bunsen's 
absorptiometcr was partly filled under water with nitrous oxide and then left 
standing three days or longer. The whole of the gas was not absorbed : 



0\ .NlTROl'S OXIDK IN I'Hl! GAistOL"!^ AND LIQUID STATKS. 221 

there remained a certain quantity, about 7/ij to ^^ of the entire volume, or 
about 3-5 to 5 per cent. 

This permanent gas cannot be nitric oxide nor oxygen ; for the current of 
nitrous oxide being made to pass successively through strong solutions of siU- 
phate of iron and of pyrogallate of potassiiim, these solutions did not change 
colour. 

The only known permanent gas that could be disengaged is nitrogen. It 
is a known fact that nitrate of ammonium, in presence of spongy platinum, is 
decomposed at 160° into nitrogen, nitric acid, and water; the same decom- 
position of a part of the salt could have been effected by the asperities of the 
inner surface of the retort. This quantity of nitrogen would exert a con- 
siderable influence on the specific gravity of the gas. The theoretical specific 
gravity of pure nitrous oxide is 1-524 ; but being mixed with nitrogen to an 
amount of 3-5 to 5 per cent., it should be found much smaller, 1-504 to 1-496 
respectively. This result, however, does not accord with actual experiment. 
The specific gravity of nitrous oxide, prepared from nitrate of ammonium, 
Avas determined according to the method of Bunsen (' Gasom. Methoden,' von 
R. Bunsen) ; for that purpose I used a balloon of 200 cubic centims. Four 
experiments gave the following results: — 1-531, 1-525, 1-529, and 1-527: 
the mean value is 1-528, agreeing verj- well with the theoretical specific 
gravity of pure nitrous oxide, but giving a difference of 0-024 to 0-032 from 
the specific gravity that would have been found if the gas had been mixed 
with nitrogen. These differences are too large to be accounted for by ex- 
jierimental errors. 

An analj-sis of nitrous oxide was made according to a somewhat modified 
method of Franklaud and Ward. The hydrogen used in these experiments 
was obtained from the electrolytic decomposition of water, and the oxygen 
was generated by heating mercuric oxide. To ensure that the mercuric 
oxide is free from nitrogen, it must be prepared by i)recipitating corrosive 
sublimate with caustic potash. 

Three analyses of air gave the following satisfactory results : — 



Nitrogen 

Oxygen 


. . . 79-18 

. . . 20-82 


79-15 

20-85 


79-10 
20-90 



I 



100-00 100-00 100-00 

The following are the results of tlie analysis of nitrous oxide ; — 

I. Nitrous oxide obtained from the liquid 'nitrous oxide of an iron bottle. 

(1) Volume of nitrous oxide used 117-39 

Vohime after the admission of hydrogen 263-62 

Volume after explosion 149-12 

Volume after the admission of oxygen 20 6" 88 

Volume after explosion 160-19 

Hence the volume of the hydrogen 140'23, the volume of the oxygen 
57-76, and the contraction after the second explosion 46-69. 

The remaining volume (160-19) is a mixture of only nitrogen and oxygen, 
where the amount of oxygen is 57-76— i x 46-69 = 42-20 ; hence the volume 
of the remaining nitrogen 160-19—42-20 = 117-99. This vohime is by 0-6 
larger than the volume of the nitrous oxide used ; hence the amount per 
cent, is 0-52. 

The amount of hydrogen that remained after the fir^it explosion is | x 



222 REPORT— 1870. 

46-69=31-12; therefore the amount of hydrogen required to combine with 
the oxygen of the nitrous oxide is 146-23— 31-12=115*11 ; hence the 
volume of the oxj'gen contained in the nitrous dxide is equal to ii|-!-=57"5;j, 
differing by 1"9G per cent, from the calculated volume of oxvgen, -which is 
iy:3?=58-()9. 

Hence in 100 volumes of nitrous oxide we find : — 

By experinieiit. Calculalod. 

Nitrogen 100-52 100 

Oxygen 4iJ-02 50 

(2) Volume of nitrous oxide iised 116-93 

Volume after the admission of hydrogen 266-20 

Volume after explosion 151-69 

Volume after the admission of oxygen 207-19 

Volume after explosion 1 55-71 

Hence in 100 volumes of nitrons oxide — 

By expei-Iiiif-nt. Caleiiliited. 

Nitrogen 100-38 100 

Oxygen 49-14 50 

(3) Volume of nitrous oxide usel 126-42 

Volume after the admission of hydrogcu 284-38 

Volume after explosioii 160-55 

Volume after the adm!Fsio:i of oxygon 217-53 

Volume after explosion 107-25 

Hence in ] 00 volumes of the gas — • 

By experiment. 'Calculated. 

Nitrogen ." 100-49 100 

Oxygen 49-22 50 

(4) Volume of nitrous oxide used 149-39 

Volume after the admission of liydrogen 345-92 

Volume after cxplo.sion ] 99-65 

Volume after the admission of oxygen 326-34 

Volume after explosion 252-43 

Hence in 100 volumes of the gas — 

By oTpei-iment. Calculated. 

Nitrogen lOO-Gti 100 

Oxygen '. . . 49-28 50 

IT. Nitroits oxide obtained by lieating nitrate of ammonium. 

(5) Volume of nitrous oxide used 128-20 

Volume after the admission of hydrogen 297*05 

Volume after explosion 171-29 

Volume after the admission oi" oxj-gen 229-80 

Volume after explosion 166-58 

Hence in 100 volumes of the gas — 

By exporiiiu^nt. Calcidatixi- 

Nitrogen Imi-T:'. 100 

Oxvjrou i-'-4i? 50 



ON NITROUS OXIDE IN THE GASEOUS AND LIQUID STATES. 223 

(6) Volume of nitrous oxide iised 123-33 

Volume after the admission of hydrogen 283-23 

Volume after explosion 102-73 

Volume after the admission of oxygen 223-21 

V-olume after explosion lGo-09 

Ilenco in 100 volumes of the gas — ■ 

By expei-inieul. CaU'iilated, 

• Nitrogen 100-54 100 

Oxygen 49-12 50 

(7) Volume of nitrous oxide used 156-81 

Volume after the admission of hydrogen 343-27 

Volume after explosion 190-60 

Volume after the admission of oxygen 205-66 

Volume after explosion 218*80 , 

Hence in ] 00 volumes of the gas^ — ■ 

Bj- experiment. Caleiilalecl. 

Kitrogen 101-06 100 

Oxygen 49-49 50 

(8) Volume of nitrous oxide used 147'50 

Volume after the admission of hj'drogen 340-10 

Volume after explosion 196-15 

Volume after the admission of oxygen 290*78 

Volume after explosion . . . ; 220*13 

Hence in 100 volumes of the gas — 

By oxppviment. C'aleulateil. 

Nitrogen 101-05 100 

Oxygen 49-32 50 

(9) Volume of nitrous oxide used 165-52 

Volume after the admission of hydrogen 303*19 

Volume after explosion 200-91 

Volume after the admission of oxygen 271-40 

Volume after explosion 221-67 

Hence in 100 volumes of the gas — 

By experimciit. C';ilciilute(l. 

Nitrogen 101-34 100 

Oxygen 49*09 50 

(10) Volume of nitrous oxide used 100*23 

Volume after the admission of hydrogen 357*88 

Volume after explosion 2o2*91 

Volume after the admission of oxygen 272-54 

Volume after explosion 21 1*27 

Hence in 100 volumes of the gas — 

By expoi-inieul. CaKuUifeil. 

Nitrogen .' 101-14 100 

Oxvgcn 48-94 50 



^o"- 



The only analysis of nitrous oxide I found in Bunsen's ' Gasom. Jlethoden ' 
is on page 56. Here Quincke gives the results of nn analysis of nitric oxide, 
to which is added a measured o^uantity 'n nitrous oxide in order to effect 
the explosion. 



2:^4 REpoiiT—isro. 

Volume of nitric oxide used 20-99 

Volume after the admission of nitrous oxide . . 102'44 

Volume after the admission of hydrogen 233-90 

Volume after explosion 123-10 

Volume after the admission of oxygen 167-62 

Volume after explosion 122-08 

Hence we find, on the supposition that the nitrous oxide is pure, the 
amount of nitrogen and oxygen in the nitric oxide in 100 volumes : — 

By experiment. Calculated. 

Nitrogen .' 52 50 

Oxygen 47 50 

99" Too 

But, on the supposition that the nitric oxide is pure, this analysis gives re- 
BultB according with my own. 

In 100 volumes of nitrous oxide we find- 
By experiment. Calculated. 

Nitrogen 100-98 100 

Oxygen 49-18 50 

The general result of these analyses is : — 

(1) The volume of the oxygen in the nitrous oxide is smaller than the 
volume of the nitrous oxide used by 0-61 to 2-13 per cent. 

(2) The volume of the nitrogen is larger than the volume of the nitrous 
oxide used by 0-38 to 1-66 per cent. 

That the volume of the oxygen is smaller than half the volume of the 
nitrous oxide used can be explained by the presence of a certain quantity of 
nitrogen, ranging from 0-61 to 2-13 per cent., a quantity much smaller than 
the total amount of nitrogen mixed with the nitrous oxide, which was found 
to be between 3-5 and 5 per cent. 

That the volume of the nitrogen contained in the nitrous oxide is larger 
than the volume of the nitrous oxide used could be explained by the presence 
of a gas containing more nitrogen in a molecule than nitrous oxide, for in- 
stance N3 ; such a gas, however, is not known. 

It will be observed that these analyses do not agree among themselves 
very nearly ; and having been prevented from making more experiments, I 
will not venture to draw any conclusions from these results, as more analyses 
should be made, chiefly because the apparatus with which they were per- 
formed was somewhat defective vdth regard to the diameter of the glass 
tubing connecting the absorbing with the measuring tube. 

Faraday was the first who observed an anomaly with nitrous oxide ; his 
results were very uncertain as to the pressure of its saturated vapour. At a 
temperature of 0° F. this pressure amounted to 19-05 atmospheres when 
working from lower to higher temperatures ; but after waiting a day he found 
24-40 atmospheres, consequently a difterence of 5-35 atmospheres. This dis- 
crepancy he ascribed to the gas being a mixture of two different bodies solu- 
ble in each other but differing in the elasticity of their vapour. 

Stefan (Sitzungsber. der K. Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Wien, Bd. Ixxii. 
1875), in his researches on heat-conduction of gases, also found the nitrous 
oxide mixed with another gas. He says, " Von diesem Gase wurde vor dem 
Abschlusse der Durchleitung durch den Apparat eine Probe in einer Absorp- 
tionsrohr iiber "Wasser aufgefangen. Nach zwei Tagen war das Gas bis auf 
cinen etwas iiber 10 Procent des urspriinglichen Volumens betragenden 
Biickatand (Stickstoff) verschwunden." 



ON THR TREATMENl! AND UTILIZATION OF SsEWAtJE. 



225 



Eighth Report of the Committee on the Treatment and Utilization of 
Sewage, reappointed at Bristol, 1875^ and consisting of Richard 
B. Grantham (Chairman), C.E., F.G.S., Professor A. W. Wil- 
liamson, F.R.S., Dr. Gilbert, F.R.S., Professor Corfield, M.A., 
M.D., William Hope, V.C, F. J. Bramavell, C.E., F.R.S., and 
J. Wolfe Barry, C.E. 

YouE Committee have duriug the past year, ending 24th March, 1S76, been 
able to conduct more complete observations at Breton's Farm, near Romford, 
and have been also able to test experimentally the value of last year's obser- 
vations by having analyses made of samples of sewage and effluent water 
kept under various conditions. The expense attending this year's experi- 
ments has been generously borne by a Member of the Association. 

From Table I. it appears that the quantity of sewage received from the 
town was greater than in any year during the period over which the Com- 
mittee's observations extend, not excepting the year 1872-73, when the rain- 
fall was larger by 3 inches than this year ; it is therefore clear that the quan- 
tity of sewage proper received from the town has increased steadily year by 
year, thus : — 



Year. 



Sewage. 



Eaiufall. 



1870-71. i tons. 

June li to July 1 5. 1 583,936 

(399 '•ap). ! 

I 

1871-71. ; . . 

March 25 to Moroli 24. 416.787 

1872-73. : 

Sfarch to Mareli. : 479.941 

1873-74- 
I Marcli to Marcli. not gauged. 

j 1874-75- 

March to March. 482,335 

I ■ i 

t 1875-76. * 

I March to March. ! 546,982 



inches. 
22-64 



2i*56 
2989 
not gauged. 
1979 
■-^675 



It should be observed again that, as stated in last year's Report, it has not 
been possible during the past two years to gauge the sewage directly in the 
distributing-trough, and so the amount is calculated as follows: — the "day" 
sewage from gaugings taken in the sewers during the working hours of the 
engine, and the "night" sewage from the difference in the contents of the 
tanks at the times of stopping and starting the engines night and morning. 

It is worthy of note that while the weekly average of the noonday atmo- 
8i)heric temperatures varied from 31° to 79°rahr., the average temperatures 
of the sewage only varied from 55° to 70° Fahr. 

Table II, is given again after a lapse of two years, during which it was 
impossible for want of funds to have a sufticicnt number of analj'ses made. 

1876. a 



2.20 



REPORT — 1876. 



It appears that during the months of June, July, August, and September 
little or no nitrogen as nitrates or nitrites was found in the effluent water ; 
and from this it might hastily he concluded th'at for some reason or another 
the usual amount of oxidation had not gone on in the soil ; hut the fact turns 
out to he that ozahc acid had been added to the samples (both sewage and 
effluent water) of these months with the view of preyenting oxidation going 
on in them during and after collection, and this prevented the estimation of 
nitrogen in these forms by the process used. 

To test this some experiments were made as follows : — The October efflu- 
ents, to which no oxalic acid had been added, gave 0*49 of nitrogen as nitrates 
or nitrites per 100,000 parts ; to 500 cubic centimetres of this effluent 0-5 
grain of oxalic acid was added, and the mixture allowed to stand for five 
days ; no nitrites could then be discovered in it. Again, the effluent water col- 
lected at Breton's during June 1876 was examined as follows : — " One portion 
of it was analyzed, taking the sample from the full bottle ; at the same time 
another portion was poured ofi' into a bottle, filling this bottle quite full, and 
to this portion 18 grains of solid oxalic acid was added and this allowed to 
stand for seven clear days, then analyzed. It was kept in a cool cellar. The 
18 grains of oxalic acid to the quantity taken is in the proportion of 2 oz. to 
the carboy of 12 gallons. 



At 


lalyscs. 






Without 
Oxalic Acid. 


With 
Oxalic Acid. 


Nitroffen as Ammonia 


o'oo4 1 oxo6 


Nitrogen as Nitrates 

Nit,roffpT\ not Nitrates 


0-889 

0-137 
9-30 


O'OOO 
C'I27 

9-50 


chlorine 





(There is no doubt that the process of analysis accounts for the total disap- 
pearance of the nitrates.) "■ — Dr. Ettssell. 

The " total nitrogen " in the effluent waters for those four months is 
therefore represented in the Table as less than it should be. Leaving out 
these four months, the " total nitrogen " in the effluent waters is, however, 
higher than it was during the preceding year, this being chiefly due to an 
increased amount of " nitrogen as niti-ates," the amount of nitrogen " not 
nitrates " being very low throughout the year except in the month of June. 

Table III. is also given again in its original form, except that the effluent 
water has only been gauged when it was mixed with the sewage, although in 
collecting the samples for analyses portions were taken from all the effluent- 
water drains ; and it is the results of the analyses of these mixed samples that 
are used in calculating the amount of nitrogen in the effluent water returned 
to the tanks. 

From this Table it appears that the true average amount of nitrogen in the 
sewage was 5-53 parts per 100,000, and that the amount of nitrogen calcu- 
lated to be applied to the farm in the sewage was 30-2525 tons; of this 
quantity 0-1406 ton was collected in the effluent water repumped over the 
farm. 



ON THE TKEATMENT AND UTILIZATION OF SEWAGE. 



227 



It is remarkable how little the true average composition of the sewage 
differs from the results obtained in previous years ; and the Committee con- 
sider that this circumstance affords considerable proof of the accuracy of their 
methods of sampling, the principle of which has always been that the samples 
should be taken in proportion to the amount of flow at the time ; thus the 
amount of nitrogen in parts per 100,000 in the sewage has been, according 
to the calculations from the results of the gaugings and analyses, as follows :— 



1871-7^. 


S'S^-9 


1871-73. 


5-I5I 


1873-74. 


not taken. 


1874-75. 


S'56 


1875-76. 


5-53 



With regard to these figures your Committee would observe that the rain- 
fall in the year 1872-73 was excessive, and this no doubt accounts for the 
sewage containing a smaller proportion of nitrogen in that year ; and that 
with regard to the year 1874-75, the number given was the result of a single 
analysis of a mixture made of all the monthly samples taken in quantities 
proportionate to the amounts of sewage distributed each month. 

The Committee have thought it desirable to make some observations on the 
changes which occur in sewage and effluent water when kept for some time, 
with the ^iew of ascertaining how far this result for 1874-75 is reliable. 

Bottles were filled with portions of the samples of sewage and of effluent 
water collected during November 1875, and put aside in a cool cellar ; they 
were analyzed in May 1876, and the results of these analyses compared with 
the previous ones of the same samples were as follows : — 




'^2fi 



REPOllT — \S7C>. 



This shows that the total amount of nitrogen in the solid mutt«r contained 
in a sample of sewage or of effluent water is not altered by keeping, provided 
the bottle be well filled. It is worthy of 'note that the nitrogen in the 
effluent water was almost all converted into nitrates*. 

In order to ascertain the effect of keeping sewage in unfilled bottles, the 
following experiments were made. The remnants of the January sewage 
and effluent water, which had been left in the bottles, were analyzed again 
on July loth, 1876, and the sewage again on July 31st, and the following 
results obtained: — • 



Description of Sample. 


Chlorine. 


Nitrogen, ' 


1 

i As 
As Nitrates 
Ammonia. and 
Nitrites. 


1 
Total in 
solution 
and sus- 
pension. 


Sewage, Jan. 1876. 
1st Analysis, February 1876 ... 
' 2nd Analysis, July 15th, 1S76.. 
' 3rd Analysis, July 31 at, 1S76 ... 


141 

139 


1 

«'34 

0-025 '■'='5 

1 


648 

1-52 1 
1 


; 

Effluent water, Jan. 1876. 

I st Analysis, February 1876 ... 

2nd Analysis, July 15th, 1S76 ... 


lO'O 
IC'O 


1 
0174 ' 0-87 

0x05 1 1-14 


.-28 • 

.•Z2 



It appears, then, that a large quantity of the nitrogen in the sewage was 
lost between February 1870 and July loth, 187C, while the nitrogen in the 
effluent water was only slightly diminished in amount, but was almost all 
oxidized to the condition of nitrates. 

It appeared desirable to ascertain how much of the nitrogen in the sewage 
was thus oxidized, and a third analysis was therefore made on July Slst, 
1876, which showed that a still further loss of nitrogen had taken place, so 
that the total nitrogen which was at first 6-48 parts had been actually re- 
duced to only 1-52 part per 100,000; and of this 1-52 no less than 1-05 
part was in the form of nitrates. It is probable that much of the nitrogen 
thus lost escaped in the free state. 

The total amount of nitrogen received from the town in the sewage wa.s 
greater than during any previous year, and shows conclusively that the in- 
creased amount of sewage does not merely depend on the rainfall, which was 
considerable, but that new connexions with the sewers are being made in 

* The unusually small amount of nitrogen "not nitrates" in the effluent waters in 
187-1-75 was doubtless partly owing to the fact that the samples were not analyzed until 
the end of the year. 



ON TICK TRE.iTMENT AND UTILIZATION OV SEWAGE. 



ooo 

t^ (*• tr 



the town from time to time. The cnlculated amounts for the past years arc 
as Ibllows : — 



i'ear. 


Nitrogen. 


1 




tons. 




1871 71. 


27-22C9» 


i 


IS7I-73- 


271-16 


1 
1 

j 


1873-74- 


nu analyses ni8 


de. 


1874-75. 

t 


28-38 




; J875-76- 

i 


30'2525 





The figure for 187-1-75 is of course obtained by using the result of the one 
analysis made that year. From these figures we see that the amounts of 
nitrogen delivered on to the farm in the sewage were approximately the same 
during the first two years of the observations, and that they have increased 
during the last two. 

Table IV. gives as usual a detailed account of the crops grown, and the 
facts relating thereto arc summarized in Tables V. and YI. 

From Table V. it will be seen that the total produce of the farm was under 
2115 tons, or less than last year, and less than the average of the last four 
years, which was 2232 tons ; and the main reason of this is the considerable 
increase in the acreage of cereals and of pulse grown, thus : — 



1871-72. 


1872-73. 


1873-74- 


1874-75. 


1875-76. 


Puke 

Cereals 


acres. { tons. 
a-33 , ^-59 

-90 3-co 


acres. 
..•53 

26-18 


tons. 
33"o 

861 


acres. 
4"97 

3882 


tons. 
4-29 

84-2S 


acres. 

2-78 

38-13 


tons. 
8-45 

72-68 


acres. 
23-04 

2679 


tons. 
46 46 

74-96 




3"23 ■ 5'59 


3871 


1191 


4379 


88-54 


40-91 


81-13 


49-83 


111-42 



About Table VI. the same remark must be made as was made last year, 
viz. that the acreage of Italian rye-grass includes the spring sowings as well 
as the regular crops ; aud this accounts for the small average produce per acre 
of that crop ; the three regular plots of this crop yielded respectively 68, 53, 
and 48 tons per acre. 

The mangold crops were also very fine and gave the highest total tonnage 
per acre yet recorded for those roots, viz. very nearly 47 tons per acre. 

The nitrogen recovered in the crops was 20,558 lbs., a somewhat larger 



♦ This is not tlie amount idilhal, as given in tLe Report for 1871-72, but the amount 
recfived, as shown in the Report fi>r 1872-73. 



230 



KErcRT— 1876. 



amount than last year ; this is equivalent to SO'Si per cent, of that received 
in the sewage. 

The Table shows that 139 lbs. of nitrogen were recovered per acre over the 
aggregate acreage under crop during the year, viz. 147-87 acres ; it will, 
however, be more correct and of greater practical utility to show the amount 
of nitrogen recovered in the crops per acre of the fai'm under crop, viz. 
108-44 acres, during the past five years. 

In the following Table the amount of nitrogen applied to the farm in the 
Bewage and that recovered in the crops is shown for each of the last five 
years ; and it appears that the amount of nitrogen recovered in the crops 
during the whole period is equal to 32-88 per cent, of the amount applied in 
the sewage, and that the amount recovered per acre of the farm under crop 
averaged 182 lbs. 



Year, 


Scsrage. 


Nitrogen. 1 

i 


In Sewage. 


In Crop. 


Percentage 
recovered 
in Crops. 


Recovered 
per acre 
of Farm. 


1S71-72. 
1S72-73. 

1873-74- 
1874-75. 
1875-76. 


tons. 

380,227 

523,810 


lbs. 
47.095 

60,438 
6i,924» 
63,410 
67,765 


lbs. 
19,667 

15.7C4 

22,766 

20,166 

20,558 


41-76 
26-00 

3674 
31-80 
30-34 


Iba. 
181 i 

J45 

1 
210 ) 

186 

189 


509,139 
546,982 






300,632 


98,861 


32-88 


1S2 

1 



It will be observed that the small amount of nitrogen recovered per aero 
during the year 1872-73 was compensated for by the unusually large amount 
recovered in 1873-74, which latter was due to the fact that certain crops 
taken off the ground in 1873-74 had derived the greater part of their 
nitrogen from the sewage of the previous year. 

The value of these results is much enlarged by the fact that they have been 
obtained by a series of observations and experiments extending over a period 
of five years, so that the effect of the inevitable annual variations, of which 
a notable example is furnished by the first three years, is got rid of. 



* As the Ecwaga was not gauged in the year 1873-74, tl^o amount of nitrogen applied 
is tateh as the mean of that applied in the years 1872-73 and 1874-75. 



Table I. — Breton's Smuge-Farm. 

Statement of Weekly Quantities of Sewage received on the Farm from the 
Town of Romford, from March 25, 1875, to March 24, 1876. 



No. of 
weekly 
return. 



Dates (inclusive). 



252. 
253. 
254. 
255. 
25^. 
257. 
25S. 
259. 
260. 
261. 
262. 
263. 
264. 
265. 
266. 
267. 
s68. 
269. 
270. 
271. 
272. 
273. 
274. 

275- 

276. 

277. 

278. 

279. 

280. 

2S1. 

282. 

283. 

284. 

285. 

236. 

287. 

288. 

289. 

290. 

291. 

202. 

293. 

294. 

295. 

296. 

207. 

298. 

299. 

300. 

301. 

302. 

3°3- 



1875. March 25 to Murtli 28 
„ „ 29 „ April 4 

„ April s „ 
11 »» 12 ,, I 



Average 
noonday 
tempe- 
rature. 



Kainfall 
during 
■week. 



May 



June 



July 



Aug 



Sept. 



Oct. 



Nov. 



Dc 



1876. Jau. 



Feb. 



19 >' " 

26 „ May 

3 >i »' 

10 ,, „ 

17 .. 

24 .. .. 
31 „ June 

7 II n 
^4 II 11 

21 •> I. 
28 „ July 

5 II I* 

12 fj ,j 

19 >i .. 

26 ,, Aug. 

2 J, J. 

9 13 II 

16 •> I. 

23 I. >i 
30 „ Sept. 

6 „ 11 

13 .. 

23 )i II 

27 ,, Oct. 

4 II II 
II ,. 

18 ,, ,1 

25 11 

I „ Nov. 

i> II 

15 II 'I 

22 ,f ,1 
29 ,1 Dec. 

6 „ „ 
13 .. 

20 II 

27 ,, Jan. 

3 II II 
10 „ „ 

17 >. " 
24 II II 
31 „ Feb. 

7 »» »» 
1^ 



2 1 

,',' 28 ,',' March 5 
M:".rch 6 „ „ 12 

„ 13 .. .1 19 
„ 20 „ ,, 24 



II .. 

18 .. 

25. 

2 . 

9 ■ 
16. 

23- 

30, 
6. 

13 • 

20 . 

27 ■ 

4- 

II . 

18. 

25- 
I . 
8 . 

15 • 

2.2 

29. 

s • 
12 . 
19. 

26 . 

3 ■ 
10 . 

17' 
24. 

3! ■ 

7 

14 

21 

f- >' 

-o 

5 
12 

19 

26 

2, 1876 

9 

16 

23 

30 

6 

13 

20 

27 



°F. 
54 
52 
SI 
5° 
57 
64 
62 
69 
62 
64 

71 
64 
64 
66 
65 

67 
61 
67, 

71 
72 
74 
79 
69 

6S 
71 
69 

63 

62 
60 

54 
S3 
45 
51 

44 

49 
36 

33 
37 
i.o 
48 

45 
37 
31 
43 
46 

44 
35 
50 
49 
50 
47 
43 
a6 



in. 

O'lO 

0-07 
0-82 

O'OO 

0'33 

0-57 

'0-38 

O'OO 

0-34 

0'2I 

o-oo 

0-94 

0-37 
0'02 

I '44 
o'4i 
2-63 
116 
0-09 

O-QO 
0'20 
0-38 
0-45 
012 

o-ii 

0"00 

1-98 

i'09 

o-o8 
0-37 
2-35 
0-17 
072 
2-31 

0'22 
0-07 
0-40 
020 

c-oo 
0-31 
013 

0-2I 

0'09 
0-31 
o'03 
0-37 

O'OO 

0'64 
0'55 
0-79 
095 
o'Sg 
0-28 



Sewage 
delivered 
on farm. 



Total , 



26-75 
Total . 

Tons . 



gallons. 
1,061,000 
1,970,000 
2,429,000 
2,025,000 
1,783,000 
2,051,000 
2,173,000 
1,803,000 
2,147,000 
2,135,000 
1,959,000 
2,078,000 
2,036,000 
1,951,000 
2,723,000 
1,937,000 
2,898,000 
2,626,000 
2,005,000 
1,839,000 
1,981,000 
2,388,000 
2,081,000 
2,069,000 
2,083,000 
2,242,000 
3,121,000 

2i433.ooo 

2,315,000 

2,087,000 

3,662,000 

2,709,000 

2,513,000 

2,955,000 

2,688,000 

2,510,000 

2,260,000 

2,551,000 

2,420,000 

2,439,000 

2,484,000 

2,752,000 

1,803,000 

2,414,000 

2,150,000 

2,587,000 

2,145,000 

1,464,000 

2,685,000 

2,640,000 

2,857,000 

2,572,000 

1,835,000 



Average 
tempe- 
rature 
thereof. 



122,524,000 
546,982 



°F. 

55 
56 

59 
62 
63 
63 
63 
64 
65 
65 
66 

67 

66 

69 

66 

69 

63 

63 

66 

69 

69 

68 

68 

67 

70 

68 

69 

66 

64 

64 

66 

60 

61 

62 

61 

57 

57 

57 

S3 

57 

57 

59 

57 

59 
60 
60 
58 
59 
59 
60 
60 
5S 
58 



232 



REPORT — 1876. 



Tablk II. — Breiott's >Semi(/e-Farin. 

Statement showing llesults of Monthly Analysis of Sewage as pumped and of 
Effluent Drainage-water, from March 1875 to March 1876. 

Besults given in parts per 100,000. 





Sewage as pumped. 


EfHuent drainage-water. 


Month. 


Am- 
monia. 


Chlorine. 


Total 
Nitrogen 
in solu- 
tion and 
suspen- 
sion. 


J-^: Chlorine, 
monia. 

I 

! 


Nitrogen 

as 
Nitrates 

and 
Nitrites. 


Nitrogen 

not as 
Nitrates. 


1 

Total i 
Nitrogen. 

1 


1875- 
April 

Mav 


3-90 
03 


I2"30 
12-10 


5-02 

5-98 


1 
i 

o'co5 ' 11-40 

0-CC2 ll-CO 


o"37 
0-44 


0-23 

0-22 


1 
o'6o 
0-66 1 



Junt'* 2-53 • 1170 

Julj* 2-So I2"C0 

i ' 

I I ■ 

I > 

August* ' ;'C6 12-40 



4-46 c-333 11-74 ' none 0-95 , 0-95 
818 0-368 10-30 i 0-05 I 0-37 0-42 

4-1S 0-131 11-20 none 0-41 0-41 



September*... 2-69 11-36 4-32 0-125 iico trace 0-24 0-24 

October , 4*07 ■ 10-90 4-47 0-025 lo-co 0-49 0-15 0-64 



November ...! 3-33 ' ia'50 ' 5-58 0*224 ii"og 0-76 0-34 



1876. 1 i 

January ; 2'58 '. 14-10 



6-48 



March 3-64 • 10-20 6'29 o'ooS j 9'io 0-73 



1-10 



December 2-30 I 9-60 527 0-004 1 ^75 °"7^ I °''^^ '. ^-82 



o'2i I 10-00 0-87 j 0-41 1 I'zB 



February ; 3*44 9-70 ' 5-93 0-178 9-40 • 1-07 j 0-23 1*30 | 



009 0-82 



* Oxfilic acid bad l)een added to tlicee samples. 



ON THK TREATMENT AND UTILIZATION OP 8EWA0E, 



233 



Tablk III. — Breton's Sewage-Farm. 

Statement showing the Monthly Quantities of Sewage and Effluent "Water 

distributed on the Farm, and the Nitrogen contained therein, 

from March 25, 1875, to March 24, 1876. 





ates (ineluBire). 




Sewage. 




Eflluent Water.' 


D 

i 


Quantity. 


Nitrogen 

per 

100,000 

tons. 


Total 
Nitrogen. 


Quantity. 


Nitrogen 

per 

100,000 

tons. 


1 
! 

Total 1 
Nitrogen. 


! 
Mar. 


1875. 
»5 to Mar. 31 


tons. 
8,500 


tons. 
♦5-02 


tons. 
•4267 


tons. 


tons. 


tons. 


1 April 


I „ April 30 


39.H7 


5-02 


1-9652 


1.375 


0-60 


0-0082 


; May 


1 „ May 31 


40,946 


598 


2-4486 


4."3 


0-66 


0-0271 


, June 


I „ June 30 


39'S38 


4-46 


17625 


2,263 


0-95 


0-0215 


July 


1 „ July 31 


49,522 


818 


4-0509 








Aug. 


I ., Aug. 31 


39.393 


4-18 


r6466 


4.77a 


0-41 


0-0196 


Sept. 


1 „ Sept. 30 


45.857 


4'3* 


1-9810 


6,897 


0*24 


0-0166 


Oct. 


1 „ Oct. 31 


53.187 


4"47 


^"3775 








■ Nov. 


1 „ Nov. 30 


50.594 


5-58 


-.-8:3. 








Dec. 


1 „ Dec, 31 


48,170 


5"*7 


2-5386 








j 

. Jan. 


1876. 
I to Jan. 31 


45.«6i 


648 


2-9264 


2,536 


1-28 


0-0325 


Feb. 


1 „ Feb. 19 


46,130 


593 


17355 


625 


1-30 


0-0081 


i 

1 Mar. 


I ., Mar. 24 


40,857 


629 


2-5699 


848 


0-82 


0-0070 


i 
1 




546,982 


5-53 


30-2525 


*3.4*9 




01406 



* There being no analysis for March 1875, the April composition has been adopted 

for that month. 



334 



HEPORT — 1876. 



* Table IV. — Breton's 

Statement sliowing Crops grown from 



Plot. 


No. of beds 
(inclusive). 


Acreage. 


Crop. 


Date when sown or 
planted. 




A 

ti 
t* 


I to 29 

I „ so 

21 „ 29 


9-8o 
6-41 

3-39 


Mangold 


Anril 1S7C 




Cabbage 


Nov. 1875 




Fallow. 






Total A 




9-8 
















B 


1 to 26 


12-12 
12-12 


Barley 






Italian rye-grass 












Total B 




I2'I2 
















C 

1) 
II 


All. 
Part. 

11 


1-97 

■5° 

1-47 


Oats Afarcb 787c 




Cabbage 

FaUow. 


Oct. 1871; 








Total C 




'■97 
















D 

1* 
It 
If 

11 


All. 

12 

13 to iS 

19 .. 22 
I „ 22 


693 
•31 
1-89 
1-26 
6-93 


Cabbage 


Oct. and Nov. 1874 ... 
ADril 187c 




Kohlrabi 




Hardy green plants 

Sprouting broccoli 

Italian rye-grass 


Mav 187^ 




April 187^ 




Oct. 1875 










Total D 




6-93 
576 














E 


I to 22 


Italian rye-grass 


Sept. 1874 , 










F 

n 
)> 


itoi4&i7&i8 

15, 16 

I to 5 

6to9&i4toi6 

All. 


339 

•42 

I -06 
1-48 
3-82 


Cabbage 


Oct. 1874 ••• 




Spinach 


Aoril 187 c 




Hardy greens 


June 1875 




Cabbage-plants 


July 1 8 7 5 . 




Wheat 


Feb. 1876 










Total F 




3-82 












G 


I to 22 


S'^7 


Italian rve-grass 


Sent. iSta 








1 
1 





ON THE TREATMENT AND UTILIZATION OF SEWAGE. 



335 



Sewaffe-Farm, 

March 25, 1875, to March 24, 1876. 



Date when cut or 
gathered. 


Produce. 


Bemarks. 


Total. 


Per acre. 


tons. 

Oct. and Nov. 1875 ••■ 4^9'A^ 

. ... 

j 

1 


tons. 
47-9 


One eleventh of crop ploughed in. 
Crop remained March 1876. 




469-41 47-9 


Part of plot under crop at end of 
year. 




II .!■■ 

Auff. 187? 


32-16 2-7 


Including 20-83 tons straw. 

("Sown with Barley. One cutting 

\ only. 

[The crop remained March 1876. 


Oct. 1875 


i8-i6 


1-5 






5°'3* 


4-» 


Plot all under Grass at end of 
year. 




Auff. iStn 


6-05 
1-71 


3-' 
3 4 


Including 3*47 tons straw. 


March 1876 






776 


3 9 


Plot all fallow at end of year. 




April to Sept. 1875 ... 


79"4i 

16-40 
12-44 


11-S 

4-^ 
87 
99 


Crop remains. 


July and Aug. 1875 ... 
Sent. 187C 






I09"56 


iS-8 


Plot under Grass at end of year. 




April to Nov. 1875 ... 


33372 


57-9 


Seven cuttings. Plot fallow at end of 
year. 


April to Sept. 1875 ... 
Julv 187c 


41-59 
1-25 

19-68 
2-41 


12-3 
3-0 

i8-6 
1-6 


Wheat remains. Bye-grass sown Mav 
1876. 


Sept. and Oct. 1875 ... 
Nov. 1875 








64-93 


17-0 


Plot under Wheat at end of year. 




April to Nov. 1875 ...; 150-56 48-5 


Seven cuttings. Plot fallow at end of 
year. 



236 



BEPORT — 1870. 



Taulk IV 



i 1 

p, . No. of beds 
; ^^°^- (inclusive). 

1 


Acreage. 


--, Date when sown o>' 
^'^i'- ; planted. 


i 

H 


I to 24 


640 


Italian rye-gra83 \ June 1874 



! I 


t i.. iS 


fi-fi. 


P.-irlfv 




: „ j ,, 6-67 Turnips 


Aug. 1875 1 


Total I 




6-67 


i 1 




i 


K 

tl 


1 to 3 ! I '19 
4 & 5 -82 
4 to 8 i 2*56 
fi A- 1 i •«■, 


Walchoren cauliflowers... 
Spinach 


June 1875 

March 1875 

June and Aug. 1875... 
April 1875 


Cabbage 

Hardy green plants 

Sa vo V plant s 


8 .. 9 
' 11 


•83 




flnhhntro ife Bnis. snrnn'K 


" " '■ 


•"^K Walnliprpn p.;itiliilowpr<3_ 


" ■' i 


„ 1 to II j 4-44 Wheat 


Feb. 1S76 ' 




Total K 




444 


; ! 




! 













I to 20 ! 2-87 j Beans. 



March 1875 



M 


i I to 12 ' 


289 


»j 


; n 


•28 


>i 


1 'to 9 


a-33 


■ 1 


i '5 ' 


•28 


»» 


! «toi3 , 


3''7 



Total M 



3''7 



I Peas March 1875 | 

Sproutingbroccoli plants' April 1875 ' 

Kohl rabi ' Aug. and Sept. 1875.. i 

I Sprouting broccoli ' Sept. 1875 ' 

Wlieat 1 Feb. 1S76 



N 



1 to 16 



4-15 ^ Mangold April 1875 



1. 



! Total O 



Total P 



All. I S"9?. i Carrots 1 April 1875 , 

„ j 5-91 ! Peas ] March 1876. 



All. 



! 5'9^ 



3-50 



3-50 Oils March 1875 

3-50 I Sprouting broccoli Sept. 1S75 ... 



ox THK TREATMEhft AND UTILIZATION OF SF-W.^QB. 



2S7 



(fonthnied). 



Date when cut or 
gathered. 


Produce. 


Remarka. 


Total. 


Per acre. 


Apr. 1875 to Mar. 1 876 


tons. 
341-48 


tons. 
53-4 Five cuttings. Plot fallow at end of 
year. 


1 ! 

Aug. 1875 18-71 j 2-8 

March 1876 i6-o6 24 


Including 11-5 tons straw. 




3477 f* 


Plot fallow at end of year. 




Aug. and Sept. 1875... 

June 1875 

Sept. 187s to Feb. 1876 

July and Aug. 1875 ... 

July 1875 

j Nov. and Dec. 1S75 ... 

! June 1875 

1 


S-24 

2-00 

24-42 

7-19 

7-57 
4-40 

1-68 


44 

2-4 

9-S 

8-8 

9-1 

no 

4'4 










52*co : 11*8 Plot all under Wheat at end of 




j year. 

1 


Sent. 187? 


3-42 


I ! 

■ i 
1 

'"9 Straw 376 tons included. Plot fallow 
at end of year. 

i 




Julv l87« 


5'S7 2'0 Including 4-22 tons straw. 
•80 2-9 1 

15-60 : 67 i 
•40 11-41 

j 1 Wheat remains. 




Nov. and Dec. 1875 ... 
Feb. 1876 








2267 ! 7-2 Plot all under Wheat at end of 
year. 

1 




; Nov. 187c 


184-90 44-6 

i 


1 i 
Plot fallow at end pf year. 




Nov. J87C 


80-80 13-6 






i i ■ . ,. 




So-So , 13-6 Plot in crop nt end of year. | 

i 1 


i 

i 




J 9-82 a'8 i TiK'luding 69 tons straw. 

5*54 "'^ j 

1 


' March 1876 


i 


It -16 ! .(-A Plot fallow at end of rear. 








1 



238 



REPORT — 1876. 



Table IY. 



Plot. 


No. of beds 
(inclusive). 


Acreage. 


Crop. 


Date when sown or 
planted. 




Q 


All. 


a-34 




March 1875 










R 






Eeana 


March iS-rc 




Part. 


2-40 








" 






Total R 




2-5Z 


1 












S 




"22 


Rhubarb 


Feb. 187^ 














u 


All. 


*"53 
2-53 


Oats 


March 1875 




Sprouting broccoli 


Sent. i87<; 








Total U 




2-53 


1 










V 


All. 


5-93 


Beans ,, 


March 1875 










w 

•> 


All. 


275 
275 


Peas 


March 1875 




Sprouting broccoli 


Sept. 187'; 








Total W 




27s 
















X 


All. 


3S6 


Beans 


March 187c 










Y 


All. 


5'6o 


Hav 


Permanent grass 








Various 


• )» t 


0-20 


Oziers.... 


Permanent 











ox THE TREATMENT AND UTILIZATION OF SEWAGE. 



239 



(continued). 



Date when cut or 
gathered. 



Sept. 1875 ' 



Sept. 1875 , 



March 1876 



Aug. 187s ... 
March 1876 



Produce. 



Total. 



tons. 
518 



Per acre. 



tons. 

2*2 



i'9o 



713 



071 



8-22 
685 



2'2 

iS-8 



2-8 



3'2 



3-2 

27 



Eemarks. 



Including 376 tons straw. Plot fallow 
at end of year. 



Including 376 tons straw. 
Oziers remain. 



Plot nearly all fallow at end of 
year. 



Bhubarb remains. 



Including 578 tons straw. 



Sept. 1875 



1507 



5"9 



Plot fallow at end of year. 



11-88 



Including 8*io tons straw. Plot fal- 
low at end of year. 



June & July 1875 
March 1876 



5-09 
10-52 



1-9 
3-8 



Including 3-70 tons straw. 



Sept. 1875, 



1561 



57 



Plot fallow at end of year. 



June and Sept. 1875 ... 



7-44 



i"9 



5-20 tons straw. Plot fallow at end 
of year. 



83-80 



37 



4'a 



i8'5 



Two crops. Grass remains. 



iiMailiM'^iMeaMnflaeMapwiiijai 



2W 



HfipoRT— 1876. 

Table V. — Breton's Seiva<je-Fann. 
Season 1875-76. — Summary of Cropping lleturn. 



Plot. 



A 

B 
C 
D 

E 
P 

a 

H 

I 

K 

L 
M 

N 
O 
P 

Q 

R 

S 

u 

V 

w 

X 

r 

various 



Acreage. 



9-80 

1212 

1*97 
6-93 

#5-76 
3-82 

*S'»7 

» 6*40 

667 

4'44 

287 
3-17 

41S 
5-92 

3-50 

*'34 
2*52 

0*22 

S'93 
275 
386 
560 

O'20 



108-64 



Crops. 



Produce. 



Total. 



Mangold and cabbage 

Barley and Italian rye-grass 
Oats and cabbage 



Cabbage, kohl rabi, hardy greens, sprout, 
ing broccoli. 



Italian rye-grass 



Cabbage, spinach, hardy greens, and cab- 
bage-plants. 



Italian rye-grass 

Italian rye-grass 

Barley and turnips 

CauUflowers, spinach, cabbage, hardy 
green plants, sayoy, Brussels sprouts, 



Beans 



Peas, sprouting broccoli plants, and kohl 
rabi. 



Mangold 

Carrots 

Oats and sprouting broccoli 

Beans 

Beans and oziers 

Rhubarb 

Oats and sprouting broccoli 

Beans 

Peas and sprouting broccoli 

Beans 

Hay 

Oziers 



tons. 
469'4i 

5032 

776 

109'56 

3337* 
6493 

250-56 
341-48 

3477 
52-50 

54* 
22-67 

184-90 

8o-8o 

15-36 

5-i8 

7-13 

071 

15-07 

11-88 

15-61 

7'44 
23-80 

•3-70 



Total I 2114-68 



Per acre. 



tons. 
47 9 

4'i 

3'9 
15-8 

57-9 
17-0 

485 

53-4 

nS 

1-9 

7'i 

44-6 
13-6 

4'4 
2-2 
2-8 
3'» 
59 

2-0 

S7 
>-9 

4» 

I9"S 



• See Not« at foot of Table VI. 



ON THE TREATMENT AND UTILIZATION OF SEWAGE. 



241 



Table VI. — Breton's Sewage-Farm. 

Summary of Crops gathered from March 25, 1875, to March 24, 1876, 
showing the quantity of each kind of Produce and Nitrogen contained therein. 



Crop. 



Italian rye-grass 

Hay 

Oziera 

Cabbage 

Hardy greens 

Savoys 

Brussels sprouts & cabbage 

Broccoli 

Spinach 

KohlEabi 

Cauliflowers 

Beans 

Peas 

Carrots 

Turnips 

Mangold 

Oats 

Barley 

Rhubarb 



Total 
acreage 
of each 
descrip- 
tion of 

crop. 



Produce of each crop. 



Total. 



*29-45 

5"6o 

0*32 

I4.-86 

377 

0-83 

0-40 

io'6o 

1"24 

2'64 

'•57 
17-40 
5-64 
5-92 
6-67 

13-95 

8-00 

1879 

0'22 



147-87 



tons. 
94392 

23-80 

5-60 

i49'S4 

43-27 

7'57 
4-40 

36-55 
3-25 

16-91 
6-92 

35-15 
r peas 3-04 
\ straw 7-92 

8o-8o 
i6*o6 

654-31 

("grain 7-94 

I straw 16-15 

f grain 18-54 

[straw 32-33 

0-71 



2114-68 



Per acre. 



tons. 
32-1 

4-2 

17-5 
lo-i 

11-5 

9-1 
ii-o 

3-4 

2-6 
6-4 
4-4 

2-0 
0-5 

1-4 
13-6 

2-4 

46-9 

10 
2-0 
i-o 

1-7 

3-2 



14-3 



Total Nitrogen estimated 
to be in crops. 



Per cent, 



0-54 

2-00 

0-25 
0-25 
0-25 
025 
0-25 
0-25 

°-375 
0-25 

0-50 

3-40 
0-80 

0-20 
0-18 
0-25 

2-00 
0-60 
1-60 
0-50 

0-2 



Total. 



lbs. 
11,418 

1,066 

63 

837 

242 

42 

25 
205 

18 
142 

39 

394 

232 
J 42 

362 

65 

3,664 

355 
217 
665 
362 



Per acre, 



20,558 



lbs. 
388 

190 

196 

56 
64 

51 
62 

'9 
15 

54 
25 
23 
66 
61 
10 
263 
72 
55 
14 



139 



* This acreage of Italian rye-grass includes not only the 17-33 acres of plots B, G, and 
H (marked * in Table V.), but also the 12-12 acres of plot B, which were sown, according 
to the usual practice, for the following year's use, and from which only one very light 
cutting was t^ken. 



1876. 



242 



REPORT 1876. 



Table VII. — Breton's Seiuage-Farm. 
Statement of Land in crop and Land lying fallow on March 24, 1876. 



Plot. 


Acreage. 


Area in 
crop. 


Area 
fallow. 


Comparison. 


A 


acres. 
9-80 


acres. 
6-41 


acres. 
3"39 






B 

C 
D 
E 


12-12 
1-97 

6-93 
576 


12 12 
6-93 


1-97 
576 


In crop. Fallow, 
acres, acres. 
March 24, 1872 ... 40-49 63-39 
„ 1873 ... 87-62 19-93 
„ 1874. . 8909 19-35 
„ 1875... 79-40 29-04 
„ 1876... 48-75* 59-69 


Total, 
acres. 
103-88 

107-55 
108-44 
108-44 
108-44 


F 
G 


3-82 


3-82 


S'17 










H 
I 


6*40 
6-67 




6-40 
6-67 


* Including (as pointed out in previous 
Eeports) spring sowings, amounting this 
year to about 17 acres. 


K 


4"44 


4'44 








L 


2-87 




2-87 






M 


3-17 


3-17 








N 


4-JS 




4-15 






O 


5-92 


5-92 








P 


3-50 




3-50 






Q 


2-34 




2-34 






E 


2-52 


•12 


2*40 






S 


-22 


■22 








u 


^•53 




2-53 






V 


593 




593 






w 


2-75 




2-75 






X 


3-86 




3-86 






Y 


5-60 


5-60 




• 




108-44 


4875 


59-69 



O.V TilE PLOW OF WATKtt THKOUGH ORIFICES. 243 



Improved Investigations on the Flow of Water through Orifices, with 
Objections to the modes of treatment commonly adopted. By Prof. 
James Thomson, LL.D., D.Sc. 

[A communication ordered by the General Committee to be printed in extenso among 

the Keports.] 

The methods usually put forw^ard for treating of the flow of water out of 
vessels b}- orifices in thin plates, slightly varied though they may be in different 
cases, are ordinarily founded on assumptions largely alike in these different 
cases, and largel}' erroneous. The theoretical views so arrived at, and very 
generally promulgated, are in reality only utterly false theories based on sup- 
positions of the flow of the water taking place in ways which are kinemati- 
caU}' and dynamically impossible, and are at variance with observed facts of 
the flow, and even at variance with the facts as put forward by the advancers 
themselves of those theories. The admittedly erroneous results brought out 
through those fallacious " theories," and commonly miscalled " theoretical 
results," are afterwards considerably amended by the introduction into the 
formulas so obtained of constant or variable coefficients, or otherwise, so as 
to be brought into some tolerable agreement with experimental results. 
These means of practical amendment, however, being themselves not estab- 
lished on any scientific principles, can at best only conduce to the attainment 
of useful empirical formulas, but cannot, by their application to the orio-i- 
naUy false theoretical views, come to develop any true scientific theory. A 
theory may, no doubt, be regarded as a good scientific theory, and as bein» 
good for practical purposes, which leaves out of account some minor features 
or conditions of the actual facts. In so far as it leaves any influential 
elements out of account, it is imperfect ; but if the conditions which, for 
simplicity, or from want of complete knowledge of the subject, or for any 
other reason, are left out be of very slight influence on the practical results 
in question, the theory may be regarded as a very good one, though not quite 
perfect. In the case, however, of the hydraulic theories now referred to, the 
false principles involved in the reasonings relate to the main and important 
conditions of the flow, and not to anj' mere minor considerations, the imper- 
fections or errors of which might be of but slight importance in the develop- 
ment of the main principles involved, and but little influential on the results 
sought to be attained. 

I will now proceed to give some examples or sketches of the usual 
methods of treating the subject. 

I will first take the case of water flowing from a state of rest through an 
oiifice in a vertical plane face. This case is ordinarily treated bj' supposing 
the orifice to be divided into an infinite number of infinitely narrow horizontal 
bands of area, and supposing the velocity of the water in each l)and to be 
that due, through the action of gravity, to a fall from the still-water smi'ace- 
level down to that band ; then multiplying that velocity by the area of the 
band, and treating the product as being the volume flowing per unit of time 
across that horizontal band or element of the area ; and integrating to find 
the sum of all these volumes of water for all the bands, and treating this 
sum as being the " theoretical" volume per unit of time flowing across the 
whole area of the orifice. This result is commonly called the " theoretical 
discharge " per unit of time ; but, as it is known not to be the actual dis- 
charge, it is then multiplied by a numerical coefficient called by some " the 

r2 



244 



REPORT 1876. 



coefficient of contraction.'' and by others the " coefficient of cKscharf/e," in order 
to find the actual discharge per unit of time. 

Th\i.s for the case of a rectangular orifice in a vertical plane face, as in 
fig. 1 — where AY L is the level of the still-water surface, and A B C D is the 



Fijr. 1. 



Fig. 2. 



vr 





1 


1 


T 




7^ 


1 

lit 


7t3 


A 




: 


^ 






1 r 
1 1 


B 


E 




J? 


ID 


i 


c 




^- 




..-Z-_ 


■9* 






orifice, with two edges A B and C D level, and E F is an infinitely narrow 
horizontal band extending across the orifice at a depth h below the stiU- 
water surface-level, and having dh as its breadth vertically measured, while 
it has Z, the horizontal length of the orifice, as its length, and where, as 
shown in the figure, the depths of the top and bottom of the orifice below 
W L are denoted by 7tj and 7i, respectivelj'— if q is put to denote the so-called 
" theoretical " volume per unit of time, and Q the actual volume per unit of 
time, it is commonly stated that 



whence 



or 






and then when c is put to denote the so-caUed '^coefficient of contraction" it 
is stated that the actual quantity flowing per unit of time is 



Q=|cZy/29(A.,^ 



h'\ 



0) 



It is then customary to deduce from this a formula for the case of water 
flowing in a rectangular notch open above, as in fig. 2, by taking \ = 0, and 
so deriving, for the open notch, the formula 



^for.ofck^h^'^'^ff 



■^. iJ 



(2) 



These examples may suffice for indicating the nature of the method 
commonly advanced ; and it may be understood that the same method with 
the necessary adaptations is usually given for finding the flow through circular 
orifices, triangular orifices, or orifices of any varied forms whatever. 

Now this method is pervaded by false conceptions, and is thoroughly un- 
scientific. 

First. Throughout the horizontal extent of each infinitely narrow band 
of the area the motion of the water has not the same velocity, and has not 



ON THE FLOW Ol' WATER THROUGH ORIFICES. 245 

the same dii'ectiou at diiferent parts ; and the assumption of the velocity 
being the same throughout, together with the assumption tacitly implied of 
the direction of the motion being the same throughout, vitiates the reasoning 
very importantly. It is thus to be noticed at the outset that the division of 
the orifice into bands, infinitely narrow iu height, but extending horizontally 
across the entire orifice, cannot lead to a satisfactory process of reasoning, and 
that the elements of the area to be separately considered ought to be infinitely 
small both in length and in breadth. 

iiecondli/. For anj' element of the area of the orifice infinitely small in 
length and breadth it is not the velocity of the water at it that ought to be 
multiplied by the area of the element to find the volume flowing per imit of 
time across that element, but it is only that velocity's component which is 
normal to the plane of the element that ought to be so multiplied. 

Thirdly. Whether, for any element of the area of the orifice, we wish to treat 
of the absolute velocity of the water there, or to treat of the component of that 
velocity normal to the plane of the orifice, it is a great mistake to suppose 
that the velocity at the element is that due by gravity to a fall from the still- 
water surface-level of the pent-up statical water down to the element. The 
water throughout the area of any closed orifice in a plane surface, with the 
exception of that flowing in the elements situated immediately along the 
boundary of the orifice, has more than atmospheric pressure ; and hence it can 
be proved * that it must have less velocity than that due to the fall from the 
still-water surface-level down to the element. 

The foregoing may be illustrated by consideration of the very simple case 
of water flowing from a vessel through a rectangular orifice in a vertical 
plane face, two sides of the rectangle being level, and the other two vertical, 
and end contractions being prevented by the insertion of two parallel guide 
walls or plane faces, one at each end of the orifice, and both extending some 
distance into the vessel perpendicularly to the plane of the orifice, so that 
the jet of issuing water may be regarded as if it were a portion of the flow 
through an orifice infinitely long in its horizontal dimensions. 

Thus if the jet shown in section in fig. 3a be of the kind here referred to, 
while W L is the still- water surface-level, the so-called " theoretical velocities" 
at the various depths in the orifice, which are dealt with as if they were in 
directions normal to the plane of the orifice, can be, and very commonly are, 
represented by the ordinates of a parabola as is shown in fig. 36, where B D 
represents in magnitude and direction the "theoretical velocity" at the top of 
the orifice, C E the " theoretical velocity " at the bottom of the orifice, and 
F G that at the level of any point F in the orifice — these ordinates being each 
made = ^2gh, where h is the depth from the still- water surface down to the 
level of the point in the orifice to which the ordinate belongs. Then, under 
the same mode of thought, or same set of assumptions, the area of that 
parabola between the upper and lower ordinates (B D and C E) will represent 
what is commonly taken as the " theoretical discharge " per unit of time 
through a unit of horizontal length of the orifice. But this gives an exces- 
sively untrue representation of the actual conditions of the flow. Instead of 
the parabola, some other curve, very different, such as the inner curve 
sketched in the same diagram, fig. 3h, but whose exact form is unknown, 
would, bj- its ordinates, represent the velocity-components normal to the 
plane of the orifice for the various levels in the orifice, and its area would 
represent the real discharge in units of volume per unit of time through 

* Theorem I., further on, will aflbril proof of this. 



246 



REPORT 1876. 



3 a, 



Fig. 3. ' 



3 6. 




a unit ol liorizontal length of the orifice. Although the exact form of this 
true curve is untnown, yet we maj' observe that it must have its ordinates 
each less than the ordinate for the same level in the parabola. 

The truth of this may be perceived through considerations such as the 
following. First, it is to be noticed that for the very top and the very bottom 
of the orifice, instead of the ordinates B D and C E of the parabola, the ordi- 
nates of the true curve must be each zero ; because, at each of these two 
places, the direction of the motion is necessarily'tangential to the plane of the 
orifice *, and so the velocity-component normal to the plane of the orifice 



* The assertion here made, to the efTect that the directions of the stream-lines which 
form the external surface of the jet on its leaving the edge of the orifice must, at the edge, 
be tangential to the plane of the orifice when the orifice is in a plane face, or must in 
general be tangential to the marginal narrow band or terminal lip of the internal or water- 
confining face of the plate or nozzle in which the orifice is formed, can be clearly and easily 
proved, although, strangely, the fact has been and is still very commonly overlooked. 
Even MM. Poucelet and Lesbros, in their delineations of the forms of veins of water 
issuing i'rom orifices in thin plates, after elaborate observations and measurements of those 
forms, represent the surface of the issuing fluid as making a sharp angle with the plane 
wetted face in leaving the edge ("Experiences Hydrauliques sur les Lois de I'Ecoule- 
ment de I'Eau," a Memoir read at the Academy of Sciences in November 1829, and pub- 
lished in the Memoires, Sciences Mathematiques et Physiques, tome iii.). Other writers 
on Hydraulics put forward very commonly representations likewise erroneous. Weisbach, 
for instance, in his valuable works (Ingenieur ur.d Maschinen-Mechanik, vol. i. § 313, fig. 
427, date 1846 ; and Lehrbucli der theoretischen Mechanik, 5th ed. date 1875, edited by 
Hermann, § 433, fig. 772), has assumed (not casually, but with deliberate care, and after 
experimenial measurements made by himself), as the best representation which, with avail- 
able knowledge of the laws of contraction of jets of water, can be given for the form of the 



ON THE FLOW OF WATER THROUGH ORIFICES. 217 

must be zero ; and that component, not the velocity itself, is what the 
ordinate of the true curve must represent. On the hj'pothesis of perfect 
fluidity in the water (which, throughout the present discussions and investi- 
gations, is assumed as being a close enough representation of the truth to 
form a basis for very good theoretical views), the velocities at top and bottom 
of the orifice will be those due by gravity to falls from the still- water surface- 
level down to the top and bottom of the orifice respectively, because at these 
places the water issues really into contact with the atmosphere, and 
consequently attains atmospheric pressure. At all intervening points in the 
plane of the orifice it maj' readily be seen, or may with great confidence be 
admitted, that the pressure will be in excess of the atmospheric pres- 
sure ; because, neglecting for simplicity the slight and, for the present 
purpose, unimportant modification of the courses of the stream-lines caused by 
the force of gravity acting directly on the particles composing the stream- 
lines, as compared with the courses which the stream-lines would take if the 
action of gravity were removed, and the water were pressed through the 
orifice merely by pressure applied, as by a piston or otherwise, to the fluid 
in the vessel, we may say, truly enough for the present purpose, that an 
excess of pressure at the convex side of any stream -line is required in order 
that the water in the stream-line can be made to take its cui-ved path. The 
mode of reasoning on this point suggested here may be obvious enough, 
although, for the sake of brevity, it is here not completely expressed. It fol- 
lows that at all these intervening points in the plane of the orifice the absolute 
velocity of the water will be less than that due to a fall from the still-water 
surface down to the level of the point in the orifice ; and besides, at aU depths 
in the plane of the orifice except a single medial one, the direction of the 
flow will be oblique, not normal, to the plane of the orifice. Hence, 
further, through these two circumstances, jointly or separately as the case may 
be, it follows obviously that the ordinates of the true curve will everjTvhere 
be less than those of the parabola. 

Fig. 4 illustrates in like manner the false theoretical and the true actual 
conditions of the flow over a level upper edge of a vertical plane face, which 
may be exemplified by the case of a rectangular notch without end contrac- 
tions, or of a portion of the flow not extending to either end in a very wide 
rectangular notch. In this case it is to be observed that the ordinates at 
and near the top of the issuing Avater in the vertical plane of the orifice 
must be only slightly less than those of the parabola — because, at the very 
top or outside of the stream, atmospheric pressure is maintained throughout 
the length of any stream-line, and so the velocity will be very exactly that 
due by gravity to the vertical depth of the flowing particle below the still- 
water surface-level in the vessel ; and because, also, the direction of the 



contracting vein of water issuing from a circular orifice in a thin plate, a solid of revolu- 
tion specilied clearly in such a way that the water surface in leaving the plane of the plate 
makes an angle of about 67° with that plane, and states to the effect that that water sur- 
face is just a continuation of the paths of the stream-lines within the vessel which he 
represents at the margin of the orifice as crossing the plane of the orifice with conrerging 
paths making the angle already mentioned of about ti7° with that jslane. They ought in 
reality to leave the lip tangentially to the plane, and then to make a very rapid turn in a 
short space (or to have a very small radius of curvature) on just leaving the lip of the 
oiiflce. The prevalence of erroneous representations and notions on this subject was 
adverted to, and an amendment was adduced, by myself in a Report to the British Asso- 
ciation in 1861 on the Gauging of Water by V-Notches (Brit. Assoc. Rep. Manchester 
Meeting, 1861, part 1, p. 156). 



248 



REPORT 1876. 



4«. 



Fig. 4. 



4 6. 




motion does not deviate mucli from perpendicularity to the plane of the 
orifice. Lower down in the plane of the orifice the direction of the 
water's motion will approach still more nearly to being perpendicular to 
that plane ; bnt there the pressure will be considerably in excess of the 
atmospheric pressure, and so the velocity will be considerably less than that 
due by gravity to a fall through the vertical distance from the still-water 
surface-level down to the stream-line in the plane of the orifice. At places 
still further down in the orifice the flow comes to be obliquely upwards ; 
and this obliquity is so great as to render the normal component very 
much less than the actual velocity, while the actual velocity itself is 
less than that due by gravity to the depth of the particle below the still- 
water surface-level. At this region of the flow then, for both reasons, the 
ordinates of the time curve are less than those of the parabola. Lastly, at 
the very bottom of the orifice, or immediately over the top of the crest of 
the notch, the water issues into contact with the atmosphere, and so attains 
to atmospheric pressure, and must therefore have the velocity due by gravity 
to its depth below the still-water surface-level. Here, however, its direction 
of flow is necessarily tangential to the plane face of the vessel from which 
it is shooting away, and consequently is vertically upwards. Hence the 
normal component of its motion is zero, and so the ordinate of the true 
curve at that place is zero in length, instead of the normal component 
being greater at the bottom of the orifice than at any higher level, and 
instead of that component being properly represented by the ordinate there 
of the parabola. 

Like explanations to those already given might be offered for other forms 
of orifices (for circular or triangular orifices or V-notches, and for orifices 
in general which may be in vertical or horizontal or inclined plane faces, 
or in faces of other superficial forms than the plane), and it might be 
shown that in general the ordinary modes of treating the subject are very 
faulty. 

The examples already discussed may suffice to direct attention to the 
faulty character of the ordinarilj^ advanced theories, and to give some sug- 
gestions of directions in which reforms are requisite. 

I will now proceed to offer some improved investigations which are appli- 



ON THE FLOW OF WATER THROUGH ORIFICES. 



249 



cable to many of the most ordinary and most useful cases iu practical 
hydraulics, in reference to the flow of water through orifices in thin plates, 
or from the wetted internal surface of vessels terminating abruptly in 
orifices. In devising and arranging these investigations I have aimed at 
putting them in such form as that they may be intelligible and completely 
demonstrative to students even in the early stages of their progress in 
d3'namical studies. 

Definition. — The free level for any particle of water in a mass of statical 
or of flowing water is the level of the atmosphei-ic end of a column, or 
of any bar straight or curved, of particles of statical water, having one end 
situated at the level of tlie particle, and having at that end the same pres- 
sure as the particle has, and having the other end consisting of a level 
siirface of water freely exposed to the atmosphere, or else having other- 
wise atmospheric pressure there ; or briefly we may say that the free level 
for any particle of water is the level of the atmospheric end of its pressure- 
column, or of an equivalent ideal pressure-column. 

Theorem I. — In the case of steady flow from approximate rest of water 
or any liquid considered as frictionless and incompressible, the velocity of any 
particle in the stream is equal to the velocity which a body would receive in 
falling freely from rest through a vertical space equal to the fall of free level 
tvhich is incurred by the pirticle in the stream dunng its flow from rest to its 
existing p)Osition. 

Or, in briefer words sufficiently suggestive, it may be said that, in respect 
to water or any liquid flowing so as to admit of its being regarded as truly 
enough frictionless and incompressible. In steady jhw, the velocity generated 
from, rest is that due by gravity to the fall of fre.' level. 

Or if 'Q be the fall of free-level sustained by any particle in passing from 
a statical region of the mass of water to a point in the region of flow, and 
if V be the velocity of the particle when at that point, then 



In fig. 5, let W L be the still-water surface-level, and let B'BB" be a 

Fig. 5. 




250 REPORT— 1876. 

bounding interface separating the region' of flow with important energy of 
motion from the region which may be regarded as statical, or as devoid of 
important energy of motion. Let U' U U" be another interface crossing the 
stream-lines at any place in the region of flow. 

Now taking as the unit of volume the cube of the unit of length, taking 
as the unit of area the square of the unit of length, taking the unit of 
density as unit of mass per unit of volume, so that the density of a body 
will be the number of units of mass per unit of volume, taking as the unit 
of force the force which acting on a unit of mass for a unit of time 
imparts to it a unit of velocity (that is to say, using the unit of force 
selected according to the system of Gauss, and which is often called the 
" absolute " or the " kinetic " unit of force *), and taking water-pressures 
as being reckoned from the atmospheric pressure as zero, let 

p = density of the water ; 
V = velocity at U ; 
/ij= pressure-height at B, or the height of a column of statical water 

which would produce the pressure at B ; 
h = pressure-height at U ; 
^j= pressure in units of force per unit of area at B ; 
/)= pressure in units of force per unit of area at TJ ; 
/ = fall from B to U, measured vertically ; 

5 = fall of free level in the flow from the region of statical water to U ; 
then 

and 

p=gph. 

Let a small mass, m, of the water, whose volume (or content voluminally 
considered) is denoted by c, be introduced into the stream, its first place 
being at B just outside of the initial interface B' B B", and let it flow forward 
in the stream tiU it reaches a second place at U where it is just past the inter- 
face U' XJ TJ". In the stream filament B U E the space between the two inter- 
faces at B and TJ is traversed alike by both front and rear of the small mass 
m ; and therefore no excess of energy is given or taken by the mass in conse- 
quence of the pressure on its front and of that on its rear, for the passage 
of its front from the interface at B to that at TJ, and of its rear over the 
same space. 

* The units of force derivable by the method of Gauss from the various units of 
length, mass, and time, in common use, though spoken of imder general designations such 
as "absolute tmits of force" or "kinetic units of force," have until lately been individually 
anonymous: and this deficiency, notwithstanding the important scientific and practical 
uses which these units were capable of serving, has been a great hindrance and discou- 
ragement to their general employment in dynamical investigations, aud even to any satis- 
factory spread of knowledge of their meaning. Three years ago, the British- Association 
Committee on Dynamical and Electrical Units (Brit. Assoc. Report, 1873, part I, p. 222), 
taking the centimetre, the gram, and the second as units of length, mass, and time, 
named the force so derived tlie Dyne. For the unit of force derived from the foot, 
the pound, and the second, the name Powndal has been introduced by myself ; and it 
seems likely to come into use. At this Meeting of the British Association I have proposed 
the Crinal and the Funal as names for the two imits of force derived respectively, one 
from the decimetre, the kilogram, and the second, and the other from the metre, the 
tonne, and the second (see Proceedings of Section A in the present volume). The 
familiarization of these important units to the minds of students of dynamics will, 
in a very important degree, aid the acquisition of clear and true views in hydrokinetics, 
as also in dynamics generally. 



ON THE FLOW OF WATER THROUGH ORIFICES. 251 

But work given to it by pressure from behind, while it is passing the 
initial interface at B, is 

= gp\.c; 

or that work is 

=gm\, 

since pc=m. 

Again, during the emergence of the mass past the interface at U, it gives 
away to the water in front of it a quantity of work which, in like manner, is 

=p . c 
= (jpll . c 
= gmh. 

Also during the passage of the particle from its first place at B to its place 
at U it descends a vertical space = /; hence during that passage it receives 
from gravity a quantity of work = gmf. 

On the whole the mass receives an excess of work beyond what it gives, 
and that excess of work received is 

=gm\-\-cjmf-gmh 
= gm{7i^+f-h) 
=gmi; ; 

and as this is the work taken into store as kinetic energy, we have to put it 

= «f. That is, 

or V =>/^' 

which is the result that was to he proved in Theorem I. 

Theorem II. — On the Flow of "Water through Orifices similar in form 

AND SIMILARLY SITUATED RELATIVELY TO THE StILL-WaTER SuRFACE-LeVEL. III 

the flowing of water, from the comUtioii of approximate rest, through orifices 
similar in form and similarly situated relatively to the still-ivater surface- 
level* , the stream-lines in the different flows are similar in form: also the 
velocity of the water at homologoiis places is proportional to the square root of 
any homologous linear dimension in the different flows : and also (2iressures 
henig reckoned from the atmospheric pressure as zero) the pressure of the water 
on homologous small interfaces in the different flows is proportional to the cube of 
any homologous linear dimension; or, in other words, the fluid pressure (super- 
atmospheric), per unit of area at homologous places, is proportional to any 
homologous linear dimension. 

Preparatively for the demonstration of this theorem, it is convenient to 
establish some dynamic principles, which, for present purposes, may he 
regarded as lemmas or preparatory pro])03itions, and which will be grouped 
here together under the single heading of Proposition A. _ 

Proposition A. — If there he two or more vessels containing ivater pent xip in 
an approximately statical condition, and if they have similar orifices similarly 
situated relatively to the free level of the statical water — and if we imagine the 

* Or free level of the still water. 



252 REPORT— 1870, 

water to be guided in each case to and onwhrd past the orifice by an infinite 
number of infinitely small frictionless yiiide-tubes arratufed side by side, like 
the cells of a honeycomb, and having their walls or septums * of no thiclness — 
and if, in the different vessels, these guide-tubes be, one set to another, similar 
in form, though they may he of quite different forms from the forms ivhich the 
stream-lines wotdd themselves assume if the fioivs were unguided — and if, at 
the homologous terminations of the guide-tubes, fiuid pressures be anyhow main- 
tained 2iroportioaal, per honiologous areas, to the cube of any homologous linear 
dimension, or, what is the same, if pressures be maintained proportional, 
per unit of area, to the homologous linear dimension, — then the velocity of 
the water at homologous places will be proportional to the square root of the 
homologous linear dimension, and the pressure of the ivater at homologous 
places on homologous areas ivill be proportional to the cube of the homologous 
linear dimension ; and the ivater will press, at homologous places, on homo- 
logous areas of the septums, tvith a force on one side in excess of that on the 
other, which tvill he proportiorud. to the cube of the homologouslinear dimension. 

Note. — For brevity in what follows, pressures at homologous places on 
homologous areas will be called homologous pressures, and pressures per unit 
of area will be called unital pressures ; and any difference of the fluid pres- 
sures on the opposite sides of any small portion or element of a septum will 
be called a differential pressure. 

The demonstration of the proposition will be aided bj fii'st noticing the 
following relation in respect to two small solid masses in motion. It' two 
similar small solid bodies of masses m and m', having their homologous linear 
dimensions as 1 to n, are guided to move along similar curves, having likewise 
their homologous linear dimensions as 1 to n (fig. 6), and if the velocities of 
the bodies at homologous points in their paths be as 1 to Vn , then — 

First. Their gravities are as 1 to n^, evidently. 

Second. Their "centrifugal forces "f applied by them in the plane of 
curvature and normally to the guide are also as 1 to n^. 

Let r and r be put to denote the radii of curvature of the paths at homo- 



logous places. Then centrifugal forces are as 

r 

But 



mv m V ■ 



m'^n^m, 

v'=^n . V, 
r z=yir. 

* The English form for the plural of septum, when septum is used as an English word, 
is here purposely preferred to the Latin sepfa. 

t The name " centrifugal force" is here adopted in the sense in which it is commonly 
used. I fully agree with the opinion now sometimes strongly urged to the effect that 
this name is not a very happily chosen one ; for two reasons : — first, because the name 
centrifugal would be better applied to a moticm of flying from the centre, than