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Full text of "Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science"

S. I. ^ 



REPORT 



OF THE 



FORTY-SEVENTH MEETING 






OF THE 






BKITISH ASSOCIATION 



FOB THE 



ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE; 



HELD AT 



PLYMOUTH IN AUGUST 1877. 



LONDON: 
JOHN MURRAY, ALBEMARLE STREET. 

1878. 

[Offke of the Association: 22 Albemarle Street, London, W.1 



PRINTED BY 
TAYLOR AND FRANCIS, RED LION COURT, FLEET STREET. 

ALEKE Y FLAMMAM. 





CONTENTS. 



Page 

Objects and Rules of the Association xvii 

Places of Meeting and Officers from commencement xxiv 

Presidents and Secretaries of the Sections of the Association from 

commencement : xxx 

Evening Lectures xli 

Lectures to the Operative Classes xliii 

Table showing the Attendance and Eeceipts at Annual Meetings . . xliv 

Treasurer's Account „ xlvi 

Officers of Sectional Committees present at the Plymouth Meeting . . xlvii 

Officers and Council, 1877-78 xlviii 

Report of the Council to the General Committee xlix 

Recommendations of the General Committee for Additional Reports 

and Researches in Science li 

Synopsis of Money Grants lvii 

Place of Meeting in 1878 lviii 

General Statement of Sums paid on account of Grants for Scientific 

Purposes lix 

Arrangement of the General Meetings lxvii 

Address by the President, Professor Allen Thomson, M.D., LL.D., 

F.R.S., F.R.S.E lxviii 



REPORTS OF RESEARCHES IN SCIENCE. 

Thirteenth Report of the Committee for Exploring Kent's Cavern, Devon- 
shire — the Committee consisting of John Evans, F.R.S., Sir John 
Lubbock, Bart., F.R.S., Edward Vivian, M.A., George Busk, F.R.S., 
Professor Boyd Dawkins, F.R.S., William Ayshfokd Sanford, F.G.S., 
John Edwakd Lee, F.G.S., and William Pengellt, F.R.S. (Reporter). 
(Plate I.) 1 

Second Report of a Committee, consisting of E. C. C. Stanford, James 
Dewae, Alfred E. Fletcher, E. W. Parnell, T. R. Ogilvie, and 
Alfred H. Allen (Secretary), appointed to inquire into the Methods 
employed in tho Estimation of Potash and Phosphoric Acid iu Com- 
mercial Products and the mode of stating the Results. Drawn up 

by Alfred H. Allen 9 

2 a 



JV CONTENTS. 



Page 



Third Report of a Committee, consisting of E. C. C. Stanford, A. E. 
Fletcher, J. Dewar, E. W. Parnell, T. R. Ogilvle, and Alfred H. 
Allen (Secretary), on the Methods of estimating Potash and Phos- 
phoric Acid in Commercial Products containing them, and on the 
Statement of the Results. Drawn up hy Alfred H. Allen 26 

Report on the Present State of our Knowledge of the Crustacea. — Part 
III. On the Homologies of the Dermal Skeleton (continued). By C. 
Spence Bate, F.R.S. &c 36 

Third Report of the Committee for investigating the Circulation of the 
Underground "Waters in the New Red Sandstone and Permian Forma- 
tions of England, and the quantity and character of the Water supplied 
to various towns and districts from these formations, including Report 
on the South-Lancashire Wells, hy T. M. Reade. The Committee 
consisting of Prof. E. Hell, Rev. H. W. Crosskey, C. E. De Rance, 
Captain D. Galton, Prof. A. H. Green, Prof. R. Harkness, H. H. 
Howell, W. Molyneux, G. H. Morton, T. Mellard Reade, Prof. 
Prestwich, and W. W r HiTAKER. Drawn up hy C. E. De Rance 
(Secretary). (Plate II.) 56 

Fifth Report of the Committee, consisting of Prof. Prestwich, Prof. 
Harkness, Prof. Hughes, Prof. W. Boyd Dawkins, the Rev. H. W. 
Crosskey, Messrs. L. C. Miall, G. H. Morton, D. Mackintosh, 
R. H. Tiddeman, J. E. Lee, T. Plant, W. Pengelly, and Dr. Deane, 
appointed for the purpose of recording the position, height above the 
sea, lithological characters, size, and origin of the Erratic Blocks of 
England, Wales, and Ireland, reporting other matters of interest con- 
nected with the same, and taking measures for their preservation. 
Drawn up hy the Rev. H. W. Crosskey, Secretary 81 

Fourth Report of a Committee, consisting of Prof. A. S. Herschel, M.A., 
F.R.A.S., andG. A. Lebour, F.G.S., on Experiments to determine the 
Thermal Conductivities of certain Rocks, showing especially the Geo- 
logical Aspects of the Investigation 90 

Report on Observations of Luminous Meteors during the year 1876-77, 
by a Committee, consisting of James Glaisher, F.R.S., R. P. Greg, 
F.G.S., F.R. A.S., C. Brooke, F.R.S., Prof. G. Forbes, F.R.S.E., F.R A .S., 
Walter Flight, D.Sc, F.G.S., and Prof. A. S. Herschel, M.A., 
F.R.A.S. Drawn up by Prof. Herschel (Secretary) 98 

Tenth Report of the Committee, consisting of Prof. Everett, Sir W. 
Thomson, F.R.S., Prof. J. Clerk Maxwell, F.R.S., G. J. Stmoxs, 
F.M.S., Prof. Ramsay, F.R.S., Prof. A. Geikie, F.R.S., James 
Glaisher, F.R.S., W. Pengelly, F.R.S., Prof. Hull, F.R.S., Prof. 
Ansted, F.R.S., Prof. Prestwich, F.R.S., Dr. C. Le Xeye Foster, 
F.G.S., Prof. A. S. Herschel, F.R.A.S., G. A. Lebour, F.G.S., A. B. 
Wynne, F.G.S., W. Galloway, and Joseph Dickinson, F.G.S., ap- 
pointed for the purpose of investigating the Rate of Increase of 
Underground Temperature downwards in various Localities of Dry 
Land and under Water. Drawn up by Prof. Everett, Secretary . . 194 



CONTENTS. V 

Page 

Report of the Committee, consisting of James R. Napier, F.R.S., Sir "W. 
Thomson, F.R.S., W. Froude, F.R.S., J. T. Bottomley, and Osborne 
Reynolds, F.R.S. (Secretary), appointed to investigate the Effect of 
Propellers on the Steering of Vessels 200 

Report of the Committee, consisting of the Rev. H. F. Barnes, C. 
Spence Bate, Esq., H. E. Dresser, Esq. (Secretary), Dr. A. Gunther, 
J. E. Harting, Esq., J. Gwyn Jeffreys, Esq., Professor Newton, and 
the Rev. Canon Tristram, appointed for the purpose of inquiring into 
the possibility of establishing a Close Time for the protection of 
Indigenous Auimals 207 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. W N. Hartley, F.R.S.E., 
Mr. W. C. Roberts, F.R.S., and Mr. John M. Thomson, appointed for 
the purpose of investigating some Double Compounds of Nickel and 
Cobalt. By Mr. John M. Thomson 209 

Fifth Report of the Committee, consisting of Sir John Lubbock, Bart., 
Prof. Prestwich, Prof. Busk, Prof. T. M'K. Hughes, Prof. W. Boyd 
Dawkins, Prof. Miall, Rev. H. W. Crosskey, and Mr. R. H. Tidde- 
man, appointed for the purpose of assisting in the Exploration of 
the Settle Caves (Victoria Cave). Drawn up by R. H. Tiddeman 
(Reporter) 215 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Sir W. Thomson, F.R.S., Major- 
General Strachey, F.R.S., Captain Douglas Galton, F.R.S., Mr. G. 
F. Deacon, Mr. Rogers Field, Mr. E. Roberts, and Mr. James N. 
Shoolbred (Secretary), appointed for the purpose of considering the 
Datum Level of the Ordnance Survey of Great Britain, with a view 
to its establishment on a surer foundation than hitherto 220 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Prof. Huxley, Dr. Carpenter, 
Mr. Sclater, Mr. F. M. Balfour, Dr. M. Foster, Prof. E. Ray Lan- 
kester, and Mr. Dew-Smith, appointed for the purpose of arranging 
with Dr. Dohrn for the occupation of a Table at the Zoological 
Station at Naples 228 

Report of the Anthropometric Committee, consisting of Dr. Beddoe, 
Lord Aberdare, Dr. Farr, Mr. Francis Galton, Sir Henry Raw- 
lixson, Colonel Lane Fox, Sir Rawson Rawson, Mr. James Hey- 
wood, Dr. Mouat, Professor Rolleston, Mr. Hallett, Mr. Fellows, 
and Professor Leone Levi 231 

Report on the Conditions under which Liquid Carbonic Acid exists in 
Rocks and Minerals, by a Committee consisting of Walter Noel 
Hartley, F.R.S.E., E. J. Mills, D.Sc, F.R.S., and W. Chandler 
Roberts, F.R.S. Drawn up by W. N. Hartley, F.R.S.E 232 



VI CONTENTS. 



NOTICES AND ABSTEACTS 



OF 



MISCELLANEOUS COMMUNICATIONS TO THE SECTIONS. 



MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICS. 

Page 

Address by Professor G. Carey Foster, F.R.S., President of the Section . . 1 

Mathematics. 

Professor J. C. Adams on the Calculation of Bernoulli's Numbers up to B G2 by- 
means of Staudt's Theorem 8 

• on the Calculation of the Sum of the Reciprocals of 

the First Thousand Integers, and on the Value of Euler's Constant to 260 
Places of Decimals 14 

on a Simple Proof of Lambert's Theorem 15 

Professor Cayley, Suggestion of a Mechanical Integrator for the calculation 

of \(Xdx-{-Ydy) along an arbitrary Path 18 

Mr. J. W. L. Glaisher on the Values of a Class of Determinants 20 

on the Enumeration of the Primes in Burckhardt 

and Dase's Tables 20 

Dr. D. Bierens de Haan on the Variation of the Modulus in Elliptic 
Integrals 23 

Mr. Henry M. Jeffery on Cubics of the Third Class with Three Single Foci 26 

— on a Cubic Curve referred to a Tetrad of corre- 
sponding Points 28 

Mr. F. G. Landon on a Method of Deducing the Sum of the Eeciprocals of 

the First 2 p w Numbers from the Sum of the Reciprocals of the First n 
Numbers 30 

Astronomy. 

Professor J. C. Adams on some Recent Advances in the Lunar Theory 31 

Professor Hattghton on a new Method of Calculating the Absolute Duration 
of Geological Periods 31 

■ , the Solar Eclipse of Agathocles considered, in reply 

to Professor Newcomb's criticism on the Coefficient of Acceleration of the 
Moon's Mean Motion 31 

Mr. F. G. Landon on the Tendency of a System of Heavenly Bodies to 
Centralize and Applanize, if subject to Resistance in their Motions 31 

Major G. N. Money on a Meteor which passed over Bhawnpore, in India, in 
October 1873 f . . . 31 



CONTENTS. Vll 

Light. 

Page 

Captain Abney on a Method of showing the Sun's Rotation by Spectrum 

Photography 31 

Mr. A. Vernon Harcourt on a new Unit of Light for Photometry 31 

Lord PiAYLEiGH on the Lower Limit of the Prismatic Spectrum 32 

Mr. J. Traill Taylor on a Binocular Microscope for High Powers 32 

Mr. Silt anus P. Thompson on some new Optical Illusions 32 



on the Relative Apparent Brightness of Objects 



in Binocular and Monocular Vision 32 

Electricity. 

Messrs. W. E. Ayrton and J. Perry on the Viscosity of Dielectrics 33 

on the Contact Theory of Voltaic Action 33 

Mr. Charles Chambers on Magnetic Induction as affecting Observations of 
the Intensity of the Horizontal Component of the Earth's Magnetic Force 33 

Professor Gr. Carey Foster on the Mode of stating some Elementary Facts 

in Electricity • • • 34 

Mr. W. H. Preece on the Telephone 34 

Mr. S. P. Thompson on an improved Lantern Galvanoscope 37 

Sir W. Thomson on the Effect of Transverse Stress on the Magnetic Suscepti- 
bility of Iron 37 

Mr. T. T. P. Bruce Warren on the Determination of Temperature-coefficients 
for insulating Envelopes 37 

Sound. 

Professor H. M'Leod on a new Method of Determining the Vibration-number 

of Tuning-Forks 37 

Ma-. Silvanus P. Thompson on Binaural Audition 37 

Meteorology. 

Dr. Barham on some Relations of Sea and Land Temperature in the South- 
west of England 38 

Mr. G. Dines on Difference of Rainfall with Elevation 38 

Mr. A. Mallock on the Measurement of the Height of Clouds 38 

Mr. C. Meldrum on the Diurnal Variations of the Barometer and Wind in 

Mauritius i 39 

Mr. John Merrifield on the Meteorology of Plymouth 39 

Miscellaneous. 

Mr. P. Braham, Experiments illustrative of the Flight of Projectiles 40 

Commander Cheyne, Suggestion for a new Polar Expedition, with a proposed 

Route __40 

Captain Evans and Sir W. Thomson on the Tides of Port Louis, Mauritius, 

and Fremantle, Australia 40 

Mr. J. A. Ewing and Dr. J. Gordon MacGregor on the Volumes of 

Solutions 40 



Vlll CONTENTS. 

Page 
Dr. J. H. Gladstone on some Points connected with the Chemical Con- 
stituents of the Solar System . .' . 41 

Professor Hattghton, Summary of the First Reduction of the Tidal Obser- 
vations made by the recent Arctic Expedition 42 

Professor Hennessy on the Physical Properties of Solids and Liquids in Re- 
' lation to the Earth's Structure 42 

Mr. A. Mallock on the Molecular Changes which take place in Iron and 
Steel while Cooling 42 

Professor Osborne Reynolds on the Rate of Progression of Groups of 
Waves, and the Rate at which Energy is transmitted by Wind 42 

Messrs. C. H. Stearn and J. W. Swan on a new Form of Sprengel's Air- 
pump 43 

Sir W. Thomson, Solutions of Laplace's Tidal Equation for certain special 
Types of Oscillation 43 

on Diurnal and Semidiurnal Harmonic Constituents of the 

Variation of Barometric Pressure 43 

on a Marine Azimuth Mirror and its Adjustments 43 

• on the Possibility of Life on a Meteoric Stone falling on the 

Earth 43 

Mr. C. J. Woodward on a new Form of Apparatus to illustrate the Inter- 
ference of Plane Waves 43 

CHEMISTRY. 

Address by Professor Abel, F.R.S., President of the Section 43 

Professor Barff on the Formation of the Black Oxide of Iron on Iron 
Surfaces, for the Prevention of Corrosion 50 

Mr. P. Bbaham on the Explosive Character of a Mixture of Magnesium and 
Potassium Chlorate 5-1 

Mr. T. Fairley on Hydrogen Peroxide and some Uranium Compounds 51 

on the Thermo-ehernistry of Oxygen 51 

Professor J. H. Gladstone on some Candles altered by long Exposure to 
Sea-water 51 

Mr. A. Vernon Harcourt on the Application of a new Unit of Light to 
the Examination of Coal-gas 51 

Mr. Charles T. Kingzett on Hederic Acid and Resin of Scammony 52 

Dr. B. H. Paul and Mr. C. T. Kingzett, Preliminary Account of the Al- 
kaloids from Japanese Aconite 52 

Mr. C, T. Kingzett and M. Zingler on the Albumen of Commerce 52 

Mr. James Mactear ou an Improved System of Alkali Manuf acture 52 

— — on a new Mechanical Furnace used in the Alkali 

Manufacture and for Calcining Purposes generally 52 

— — °n the Regeneration of Sulphur employed in the Alkali 

Manufacture by the Mactear Process 52 

Dr. Odling on some Properties of Gallium 53 

on Benzine Derivatives 53 

°u Dr. W. Gibb's Researches on Cobaltamines 53 

Mr. S. E. Phillips on the Constitution of Mellitic Acid 53 

on the Principle of Uric Acid Genesis 53 



CONTENTS. IX 

Mr. T. A. Read-win on some recent Changes of Gold Surfaces 53 

on some recent Gold Pseudomorphs 53 

Dr. D. C. Robb on the Oxidation of Colophony 53 

Mr. S. P. Thompson on some Circular Tables for Analysis 53 

Mr. William H. Watson on the Action of various Fatty Oils upon Copper 53 
Dr. John Watts on Pyrocateehin as a Derivative of certain Varieties of 

Tannic Acid 53 

Mr. T. Wills on the Arctic Coal brought home by the late Expedition .... 53 

Dr. C. R. Alder Weight, Contributions to Chemical Dynamics 54 

on the Aconite Alkaloids 54 



GEOLOGY. 

Address by W. Pengelly, F.R.S., F.G.S., President of the Section 54 

Mr. Arthur Champernowne on the Succession of the Palaeozoic Deposits 
of South Devon 66 

Professor J. W. Clarke on the Origin and Antiquity of the Mounds of 
Arkansas, U.S 67 

Mr. J. H. Collins on the Serpentine of Duporth, in St. Austell Bay, Cornwall 68 

on the Drift of Plymouth Hoe 68 

Mr. C. E. De Rance on the Correlation of certain Post-Glacial Deposits in 
West Lancashire 68 

M. G. Dewalque on the Devonian System in England and in Belgium 69 

Dr. 0. Le Neve Foster on some of the Stockworks of Cornwall 70 

■ on some Tin-Mines in the Parish of Wendron, 

Cornwall 70 

on the Great Flat Lode south of Redruth and Cam- 
borne 71 

Mr. R. A. C. Godwin- Austen on the Geological Significance of the Boring 
at Messrs. Meux's Brewery, London 71 

Mr. W. Gcnn, a Short Sketch on the Finding of Silurian Rocks in Teesdale. . 71 

Professor Heer on the Fossil Flora of the Arctic Regions 72 

Mr. J. Gwyn Jeffreys on the Post-Tertiary Fossils procured in the late 
Arctic Expedition ; with Notes on some of the Recent or Living Mollusca 
from the same Expedition 72 

Mr. G. A. Lebour on the Occurrence of Pebbles in Carboniferous Shale in 
Westmoreland 72 

on the Age of the Cheviot Rocks 72 

Mr. William Molyneux on the Occurrence of Aviculopecten and other Marine 
Shells in Deposits associated with Seams of Coal containing Salt Water in 
the Ashby Coalfield 73 

Mr. George H. Morton on the Carboniferous Limestone and Millstone Grit 
in the Country around Llangollen, N. Wales 74 

M r. A. S. Mott on the Source and Function of Carbon in the Crust of the 
Earth 75 

M r. S. R. Pattison on the Carboniferous Coast-line of North Cornwall .... 75 

Mr. W. Pengelly, Sketch of the Geology of the Coast from the Rame Head 
to the Bobb Tail 76 



X CONTENTS. 

Page 

Mr. J. S. Phene on some Peculiar Stalactitic Formations from the Island of 
Antiparos 76 

Mr. T. Plunkett on the Exploration of some Caves in the Limestone Hills 
in Fermanagh 76 

Mr. Clement Reid on the Junction of the Limestone and Culm-measures 
near Chudleigh 76 

Mr. H. C. Sobby on a new Method for Studying the Optical Characters of 
Minerals 77 

Mr. Arthur Wm. Waters on the Influence of the Position of Land and 
Sea upon a Shifting of the Axis of the Earth 77 

Mr. Henry Woodward on the Occurrence of Branc7iijnis or Chirocephalus in 
a Fossil State in the upper part of the Fluvio-marine Series (Middle 
Eocene) at Gurnet and Thorness Bays, near Cowes, Isle of Wight 78 

Mr. Hoeace B. Woodwahd on the Devonian Rocks near Newton Abbot and 
Torquay ; with Remarks on the Subject of their Classification 78 

Mr. R. N. Worth on the Pala3ontology of Plymouth 79 



BIOLOGY. 

Address by J. Gwyn Jeffreys, LL.D., F.R.S., Treas. G. & L.SS., President 
of the Section 79 

Zoology and Botany. 

Mr. Gwyn Jeffreys's Address ' 79 

Mr. Wm. Ackroyd on the Colour of Animals 100 

Dr. G. Bennett on the Habits of the Pearly Nautilus (Nautilus pompilius) . . 101 

Dr. Otto Finsch on the Biological Results of the North-German Exploring 
Expedition 101 

Mr. R. M'Lachlan on the Colorado Beetle, and on the Panic existing as to 
the possibility of its becoming obnoxious in this Country 102 

Professor Rolleston on New Points in the Zoology of New Guinea 102 

Mr. J. B. Rowe on Specimens of Philongria rosea exhibited 103 

Mr. T. R. Archer-Briggs on the Roses of the Neighbourhood of Plymouth 103 

Mr. G. S. Bottlger on Anticipatory Inheritance in Plants, especially with 
reference to the Embryology of Parasites 104 

Professor Dickson on the Structure of the Pitcher of Cephalotus ....". 104 

, Exhibition of a Specimen of Pogonatwm alpinum 104 

Professor M'Nab on the Classification of the Vegetable Kingdom 104 

on the Classification of Flowering Plants considered Phyto- 

genetically 104 

on the Movements of Water in Plants 105 

on an Abnormal Plant of Primula ten's 105 



Professor Heer on the Fossil Flora of the Arctic Regions ; an Extract from a 
Letter to Sir Joseph Hooker, K.C.S.I., F.R.S. (Communicated by the 
Rev. W. S. Symonds.) 106 

Mr. Henry Trimen on the recent occurrence of Lavatera sylvestris, Brot., in 
the Scilly Islands 106 

Mr. A. S. Wilson on Structural Characters in relation to Habitat in Tlants . 106 



contents. xi 

Anatomy and Physiology. 

Page 

Professor A. Macalister's Address 87 

Mr. G. T. Bettany on the Structure and Development of the Vertebrate 
Skull 106 

on the use of the terms Assimilation and Metastasis .... 107 

Dr. D. J. Cunningham on the Manimillary and Accessory Processes as Per- 
sistent Epiphyses in the Human Spine 107 

on the Myology of the Shoulder and Upper Arm of the 

Thylacine, Cuscus, and Phascogak 107 

on the Brachial Plexus of the Cascus 110 

Kev. W. H. Dallinger on the Life-history of the Simplest Organisms .... Ill 

Rev. Professor Hattghton on Transcendental Anatomy, or a Geometrical 
Investigation of the best possible number of Limbs for Terrestrial and 
Aquatic Animals Ill 

Dr. B. Howard on an Improvement in the Marshall-Hall and Sylvester 
Methods of Artificial Respiration Ill 

Professor MTJendrick and Dr. W. Ramsay on the Physiological Action of 
the Substitution Compound of Chinoline and Pyridine Ill 

Dr. William H. Pearse on the Geography of Consumption in Devonshire. — 
Deaths from Consumption during the ten years 1861-70 112 

Dr. Allen Thomson on Photographs of Representations"of Vascular Injection 
by Professor Dantscher, of Innsbruck 114 

Mr. W. Thomson on a Method of excluding Germs from Rooms used for 
Surgical Operations 114 



Anthropology. 

Mr. Francis Galton's Address 94 

Dr. Barham on Flint Flakes from Cornwall and the Scilly Isles 114 

Mr. C. Spence Bate on Prehistoric Remains on Dartmoor 114 

Rev. Professor Beal, Exhibition and Description of a Soapstone Image from 
Pekin 115 

Dr. J. Beddoe on the Bulgarians 115 

Miss A. W. Buckxand on the Ethnological Hints afforded by the Stimulants 
of the Ancient and Modern Savages 115 

Dr. J. Evans on some Palaeolithic Implements found in the Axe Valley .... 116 

Colonel Lane Fox on some Saxon and British Tumuli near Guildford 116 

Mr. J. Park Harrison on some Rune-like Characters on Chalk 117 

Mr. Bertram F. Hartshorne on the Ancient People and Irrigation-works 
of Ceylon 117 

Mr. F. M. Htjnter on Socotra 118 

Mr. Ed. Laws on the proposed Exploration of certain Caves in the neigh- 
bourhood of Tenby , 118 

Mr. A. L. Lewis on the Devil's Arrows (Yorkshire) 118 

Dr. J. S. Phene on the District of Mycenae and its early Occupants 1 19 

Mr. II. Rivett-Carnac on Indian Archaic Remains and their resemblance 
to European Types 120 



Xii CONTENTS. 

Page 

Professor Rolleston on the Rationale of Artificial Deformations of the Head 1 20 

on the Rationale of Brachycephaly and Dolichocephaly 120 

on the Flora and Fauna of Prehistoric Times 120 

( Exhibition and Explanation of the Uses of a Flint 

Hammer from the Western Coast of New Guinea 121 

Mr. Alfred Simson on the Zaparos 121 

Mr. H. C. Sorby on the Colouring-matter in Human Hair 121 

Rev. W. S. Lach-Szyrma on the Ethnology of West Cornwall 121 

Rev. S. J. Whitmee on some Characteristics of the Malay o-Polynesians .... 122 



GEOGRAPHY. 

Address by Admiral Sir Erasmus Ommanney, Knt,, C.B., F.R.S., F.R.A.S., 
President of the Section 122 

Major-General Sir J. E. Alexander on the supposed True Site of Mount 
Sinai 141 

Commander V. L. Cameron on proposed Stations in Central Africa as Bases 
for future Exploration 141 

Mr. Ernest A. Floyer on Bashakard in Western Baluchistan 143 

Lieut-Colonel H. H. Godwin-Austen on the Lower Course of the Brah- 
maputra or Tsanpo 144 

Mr. F. Holmwood on the River Kingani in East Africa 144 

Dr. J. Kirk on a Visit to the Mungao District in East Africa in 1876 145 

Lieutenant Kitchener on the Line of Levels run from the Mediterranean to 

the Sea of Galilee 146 

Dr. 0. Finsch on the German Expedition to Western Siberia 146 

Captain H. C. Marsh on a Journey overland to India in 1872, via Meshed, 
Herat, Candahar, and the Boulan Pass 148 

Dr. J. S. Phene on Recent Tours in Unfrequented Parts of Greece 148 

Mr. Alfred Simson on a Journey from Guayaquil to the Napo by the Upper 

Patassa Route 148 

on the Ascent of the River Putumayo, South America. . 149 

Mr. W. H. Tietkens, an Account of the Latest Expedition across Central 

Australia 150 



ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 

Address by the Right Hon. the Earl Foetescue, President of the Section. . 151 

Mr. G. C. T. Bartley on Thrift as an Element of National Strength 162 

Mr. J. H. Batten, Notes and Recollections on the Cultivation of Tea in the 
British Himalayan Provinces of Kumaon and Gurhwal 168 

Dr. John Beddoe on the Statistics of Victoria (Australia) 163 

Mr. William Botly on Agricultural Statistics 104 

Mr. Stephen Bourne on the Growth of Population with Relation to the 
Means of Subsistence 165 

Mr. F. J. Bramwell on the Water Supply of London 173 

Mr. A. Burrell on the Tea-consumption of the United Kingdom 174 



CONTENTS. Xlll 

Page 

Mr. Hyde Clarke on the Debts and Liabilities of Sovereign and Quasi- 
Sovereign States due to Foreign Creditors 174 

Dr. Fabb on some Doctrines of Population 174 

Dr. W. Neilson Hancock on the Cost of adopting the System of Public 
Prosecutors in England, as illustrated by the results of the Scotch and Irish 
Systems 1' ^ 

on the Law of Succession to Property 176 

on the Importance of Increasing the Punishment 

of Habitual Drunkards, and of Punishing those who Seriously Injure their 

Children by what they spend in Drink 177 

, on the Assimilation of the Laws of the United 

Kingdom, with especial reference to the Town Laws of Scotland as to 

Ruinous Buildings 179 

M. Akin Kaboly on Rates of Interest and Banks of Issue 179 

Mr. Thomas Littleton on the Health of Plymouth 180 

Mr. Thomas Moegan on the Amendment of the Patent Laws, referring to 
several points not hitherto discussed 181 ■ 

Dr. Lawson Tait on Hospital Mortality 181 

Rev. W. Tuckwell on School Banks 182 

Sir James Watson on Improving the Sanitary Condition of Large Towns . . 182 
Sir Geobge Young, Bart., on a proposed Reduction to System of the ' Modi- 
fications,' cr Privileges to work Overtime, which are granted under the 
Factory Acts to particular Trades 185 

MECHANICAL SCIENCE. 

Address by Edwabd Woods, Esq., C.E., President of the Section. (Plates HI. 

& IV.) 186 

Captain Aynsley on the Experiments of the Boiler Committee of the 

Admiralty 199 

Professor Babff on the Preservation of Iron 199 

Mr. W. H. Bablow on the Upward Jets of Niagara 199 

Professor Gbaham Bell on Recent Experiments in Telephony 201 

Mr. G. D. Bellamy on the Plymouth Waterworks 201 

M. C. Bebgeeon on the Removal of Sand Bars at the Mouth of Harbours . . 201 

Mr. F. J. Bbamwell on the Circulation of Hot Water in Buildings 201 

Mr. J. H. Collins on Lode Mining in the West of England 201 

Mr. J. N. Douglas on the Eddystone Lighthouse 202 

Mr. William Fboude on the Resistance of Ships, as affected by length of 

parallel middle Body "92 

on a new Dynamometer for large Marine Engines .... 202 

Captain Douglas Galton on the Works now in course of execution for im- 
proving the Navigation of one of the mouths of the Mississippi, under the 

direction of Mr. James Eads, C.E. . ; 202 

on the Jetties of the Mississippi 206 

Mr. Baldwin Latham on the Interception of Rainfall from Sewers 207 

on Indications of the Movement of Subterranean Water 

in the Chalk Formation. (Plate V.) 207 

Mr. Thomas Lidston on Thomas Newcomen's Steam-engine (1712) 217 

Professor M'Leod on the Cycloscope 217 



XIV CONTENTS. 

Page 

Mr. James Mactear on a new Mechanical Furnace used in the Alkali Manu- 
facture and for Calcining-purposes generally 217 

Mr. P. J. Margary on the Saltash Bridge 217 

Mr. Loftus Perkins on Perkins's High-pressure Engine 217 

Professor O. Reynolds on certain Dynamometers 217 

on Compound Turbines 217 

on the Difference of the Steering of Steamers with the 

Screw reversed when under full way and when moving slowly 218 

Mr. J. N. Shoolbred on a more extended use of the Ordnance Datum of 
Great Britain 218 

Mr. G. Stevenson on a Suspended Railway 218 

Sir William Thomson on the Importance of giving a Distinctive Character 
to the Needles Light 218 

on an Improved Method of Recording the Depth in 

Flying Soundings 218 



on a Navigation Sounding Machine for use at Full 



Speed 218 



on the Mariner's Compass, with Correctors for Iron 



Ships 218 

Mr. R. C. Townsend on the Plymouth Breakwater 219 

Mr. F. H. Varley on Electric Block Telegraphs , 219 

Mr. R. N. Worth on the Government Establishments of Plymouth and 
Neighbourhood 219 



LIST OF PLATES. 



PLATE I. 

Illustrative of the Thirteenth Beport on Kent's Cavern, Devonshire. 

PLATE II. 

Illustrative of the Third Report on the Circulation of Underground Waters. 

PLATES III., IV. 
Illustrative of Mr. Edward Woods's Address to the Mechanical Section. 

PLATE V. 

Illustrative of Mr. Baldwin Latham's Paper on Indications of the Movement 
of Subterranean Water in the Chalk Formation. 



ERRATA IN REPORT FOR 1876. 

Page lvii, line 2, for " Bristol " read " Glasgow." 
Page 151 (Sections), line 12, for " Sight " read " Light." 



OBJECTS AND RULES 



OF 



THE ASSOCIATION. 



OBJECTS. 



TnE Association contemplates no interference with the ground occupied by 
other institutions. Its objects are : — To give a stronger impulse and a more 
systematic direction to scientific inquiry, — to promote the intercourse of those 
who cultivate Science in different parts of the British Empire, with one 
another and with foreign philosophers, — to obtain a more general attention 
to the objects of Science, and a removal of any disadvantages of a public kind 
which impede its progress. 

RULES. 

Admission of Members and Associates. 

All persons who have attended the first Meeting shall be entitled to be- 
come Members of the Association, upon subscribing an obligation to con- 
form to its Rules. 

The Fellows and Members of Chartered Literary and Philosophical So- 
cieties publishing Transactions, in the British Empire, shall be entitled, in 
like manner, to become Members of the Association. 

The Officers and Members of the Councils, or Managing Committees, of 
Philosophical Institutions shall be entitled, in like manner, to become Mem- 
bers of the Association. 

All Members of a Philosophical Institution recommended by its Council 
or Managing Committee shall be entitled, in like manner, to become Mem- 
bers of the Association. 

Persons not belonging to such Institutions shall be elected by the General 
Committee or Council, to become Life Members of the Association, Annual 
Subscribers, or Associates for the year, subject to the approval of a General 
Meeting. 

Compositions, Subscriptions, and Privileges. 

Life Membees shall pay, on admission, the sum of Ten Pounds. They 
shall receive gratuitously the Iteporta of the Association which may be pub- 

6 



Xviii RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

lished after the date of such payment. They are eligible to all the offices 
of the Association. 

Annual Subscribers shall pay, on admission, the sum of Two Pounds, 
and in each following year the sum of One Pound. They shall receive 
gratuitously the Keports of the Association for the year of their admission 
and for the years in which they continue to pay without intermission their 
Annual Subscription. By omitting to pay this Subscription in any particu- 
lar year, Members of tbis class (Annual Subscribers) lose for that and all 
future years the privilege of receiving the volumes of the Association gratis : 
but they may resume their Membership and other privileges at any sub- 
sequent Meeting of the Association, paying on each such occasion the sum 
One Pound. They are eligible to all the Offices of the Association. 

Associates for the year shall pay on admission the sum of One Pound. 
They shall not receive gratuitously the Reports of the Association, nor be 
eligible to serve on Committees, or to hold any office. 

The Association consists of the following classes : — 

1. Life Members admitted from 1831 to 1845 inclusive, who have paid 
on admission Five Pounds as a composition. 

2. Life Members who in 1846, or in subsequent years, have paid on ad- 
mission Ten Pounds as a composition. 

3. Annual Members admitted from 1831 to 1839 inclusive, subject to the 
payment of One Pound annually. [May resume their Membership after in- 
termission of Annual Payment.] 

4. Annual Members admitted in any year since 1839, subject to the pay- 
ment of Two Pounds for the first year, and One Pound in each following year. 
[May resume their Membership after intermission of Annual Payment.] 

5. Associates for the year, subject to the payment of One Pound. 

6. Corresponding Members nominated by the Council. 

And the Members and Associates will be entitled to receive the annual 
volume of Reports, gratis, or to purchase it at reduced (or Members') price, 
according to the following specification, viz. : — 

1. Gratis. — Old Life Members who have paid Five Pounds as a compo- 

sition for Annual Payments, and previous to 1845 a further 
sum of Two Pounds as a Book Subscription, or, since 1845, a 
further sum of Five Pounds. 

New Life Members who have paid Ten Pounds as a composition. 

Annual Members who have not intermitted their Annual Sub- 
scription. 

2. At reduced or Members' Prices, viz. two thirds of the Publication 

Price. — Old Life Members who have paid Five Pounds as a 

composition for Annual Payments, but no further sum as a 

Book Subscription. 
Annual Members who have intermitted their Annual Subscription. 
Associates for the year. [Privilege confined to the volume for 

that year only.] 

3. Members may purchase (for the purpose of completing their sets) any 

of the first seventeen volumes of Transactions of the Associa- 
tion, and of which more them 100 copies remain, at one third of 
the Publication Price. Application to be made at the Office 
of the Association, 22 Albemarle Street, London, W. 



RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. XIX 

Volumes not claimed within two years of the date of publication can only 
be issued by direction of the Council. 

Subscriptions shall be received by the Treasurer or Secretaries. 

Meetings. 

The Association shall meet annually, for one week, or longer. The place 
of each Meeting shall be appointed by the General Committee two years in 
advance ; and the Arrangements for it shall be entrusted to the Officers of 
the Association. 

General Committee. 

The General Committee shall sit during the week of the Meeting, or 
longer, to transact the business of the Association. It shall consist of the 
following persons : — 

Class A. Permanent Members. 

1. Members of the Council, Presidents of the Association, and Presideuts 
of Sections for the present and preceding years, with Authors of Reports in 
the Transactions of the Association. 

2. Members who by the publication of Works or Papers have furthered 
the advancement of those subjects which are taken into consideration at the 
Sectional Meetings of the Association. With a view of submitting new claims 
under this Hide to the decision of the Council, they must be sent to the Assistant 
General Secretary at least one month before the Meeting of the Association. 
The decision of the Council on the claims of any Member of the Association to 
be placed on the list of the General Committee to be final. 

Class P>. Temporary Members. 

1. The President for the time being of any Scientific Society publishing Trans- 
actions or, in his absence, a delegate representing him. Claims under this Ride 
to be sent to the Assistant General Secretary before the opening of the Meeting. 

2. Office-bearers for the time being, or delegates, altogether not exceeding 
three, from Scientific Institutions established in the place of Meeting. 
Claims under this Hide to be approved by the Local Secretaries before the 

opening of the Meeting. 

3. Foreigners and other individuals whose assistance is desired, and who 
are specially nominated in writing, for the Meeting of the year, by the Pre- 
sident and General Secretaries. 

4. Vice-Presidents and Secretaries of Sections. 

Organizing Sectional Committees*. 

The Presidents, Vice-Presidents, and Secretaries of the several Sections 
are nominated by the Council, and have power to act until their names aro 
submitted to the General Committee for election. 

From the time of their nomination they constitute Organizing Committees 
for the purpose of obtaining information upon the Memoirs and Reports 
likely to be submitted to the Sections f, and of preparing Reports thereon, 

* Passed by the General Committee, Edinburgh, 1871. 

t Notice to Contributors of Memoirs. — Authors are reminded that, under an arrange- 
ment dating from 1871, the acceptance of Memoirs, and the days on which they are to bo 
read, aro now as far as possible determined by Organizing Committees for the several 

62 



XX RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

and on the order in which it is desirable that they should be read, to be pre- 
sented to the Committees of the Sections at their first Meeting. 

An Organizing Committee may also hold such preliminary Meetings as the 
President of the Committee thinks expedient, but shall, under any circum- 
stances, meet on the first "Wednesday of the Annual Meeting, at 11 a.m., to 
settle the terms of their Eeport, after which their functions as an Organizing 
Committee shall cease. 

Constitution of the Sectional Committees*. 

On the first day of the Annual Meeting, the President, Vice-Presidents, 
and Secretaries of each Section having been appointed by the General Com- 
mittee, these Officers, and those previous Presidents and Vice-Presidents of 
the Section who may desire to attend, are to meet, at 2 p.m., in their Com- 
mittee Rooms, and enlarge the Sectional Committees by selecting individuals 
from among the Members (not Associates) present at the Meeting whose as- 
sistance they may particularly desire. The Sectional Committees thus con- 
stituted shall have power to add to their number from day to day. 

The List thus formed is to be entered daily in the Sectional Minute-Book, 
and a copy forwarded without delay to the Printer, who is charged with 
publishing the same before 8 a.m. on the next day, in the Journal of the 
Sectional Proceedings. 

Business of the Sectional Committees. 

Committee Meetings are to be held on the Wednesday at 2 p.m., on the 
following Thursday, Priday, Saturday, Monday, and Tuesday, from 10 to 
11 a.m., punctually, for the objects stated in the Rules of the Association, 
and specified below. 

The business is to be conducted in the following manner : — 
1. — The President shall call on the Secretary to read the Minutes of tho 

previous Meetiug of the Committee. 
2. — No Paper shall bo read until it has been formally accepted by tho Com- 
mittee of the Section, and entered on the Minutes accordingly. 
3. — Papers which have been reported on unfavourably by the Organizing 
Committees shall not be brought before the Sectional Committees f. 
At the first meeting, one of the Secretaries will read the Minutes of last 
year's proceedings, as recorded in the Minute-Book, and the Synopsis of 
Recommendations adopted at the last Meeting of the Association and printed 
in the last volume of the Transactions. He will next proceed to read the 
Report of the Organizing Committee %. The List of Communications to be 
read on Thursday shall be then arranged, and the general distribution of 

Sections before the beginning of the Meeting. It has therefore become necessary, in order 
to give an opportunity to the Committees of doing justice to the several Communications, 
that each Author should prepare an Abstract of his Memoir, of a length suitable for in- 
sertion in the published Transactions of the Association, and that he should send it, toge- 
ther with the original Memoir, by book-post, on or before , addressed 

thus— " General Secretaries, British Association^ Albemarle Street, London, W. For 

Section .." If it should be inconvenient to the Author that his Paper should be read 

on any particular days, he is requested to send information thereof to the Secretaries in a 
separate note. 

* Passed by the General Committee, Edinburgh, 1871. 

t These rules were adopted by the General Committee, Plymouth, 1877. 

\ This and the following sentence were added by the General Committee, 1871. 



RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. XXI 

business throughout the week shall be provisionally appointed. At the close 
of the Committee Meeting the Secretaries shall forward to the Printer a List 
of the Papers appointed to bo read. The Printer is charged with publishing 
the same before 8 a.m. on Thursday in the Journal. 

On the second day of the Annual Meeting, and the following days, the 
Secretaries are to correct, on a copy of the Journal, the list of papers which 
have been read on that day, to add to it a list of those appointed to be read 
on the next day, and to send this copy of the Journal as early in the day as 
possible to the Printers, who are charged with printing the same before 8 a.m. 
next morning in the Journal. It is necessary that one of the Secretaries of 
each Section should call at the Printing Office and revise the proof each 
evening. 

Minutes of the proceedings of every Committee are to be entered daily in 
the Minute-P»ook, which should be confirmed at the next meeting of tho 
Committee 

Lists of the Reports and Memoirs read in the Sections are to be entered 
in the Minute-Book daily, which, with all Memoirs and Copies or Abstracts 
of Memoirs furnished by Authors, are to be forwarded, at the close of the Sec- 
tional Meetings, to the Assistant General Secretaiy. 

The Vice-Presidents and Secretaries of Sections become ex officio temporary 
Members of the General Committee (vide p. xix), and will receive, on ap- 
plication to the Treasurer in the Reception Room, Tickets entitling them to 
attend its Meetings. 

The Committees will take into consideration any suggestions which may 
be offered by their Members for the advancement of Science. They are 
specially requested to roview the recommendations adopted at preceding 
Meetings, as published in the volumes of the Association and the communi- 
cations made to the Sections at this Meeting, for the purposes of selecting 
definite points of research to which individual or combined exertion may be 
usefully directed, and branches of knowledge on the state and progress of 
which Reports arc wanted : to name individuals or Committees for the exe- 
cution of such Reports or researches ; and to state whether, and to what de- 
gree, these objects may be usefully advanced by the appropriation of tho 
funds of the Association, by application to Government, Philosophical Insti- 
tutions, or Local Authorities. 

In case of appointment of Committees for special objects of Science, it is 
expedient that all Members of the Committee should be named, and one of 
them appointed to act as Secretary, for insuring attention to business. 

Committees have power to add to their number persons whose assistance 
they may require. 

The recommendations adopted by the Committees of Sections are to be 
registered in the Forms furnished to their Secretaries, and one Copy of each 
is to be forwarded, without delay, to the Assistant General Secretary for pre- 
sentation to the Committee of Recommendations. Unless this be done, the 
Recommendations cannot receive the sanction of the Association. 

N.B. — Recommendations which may originate in any one of the Sections 
must first be sanctioned by the Committee of that Section before they can bo 
referred to the Committee of Recommendations or confirmed by the General 
Committee. 

Notices Regarding Grants of Money. 

Committees and individuals, to whom grants of money have been entrusted 
by the Association for the prosecution of particular researches in Science, 



XX11 RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

are required to present to each following Meeting of the Association a Report 
of the progress which has been made ; and the Individual or the Member 
first named of a Committee to whom a money grant has been made must 
(previously to the next meeting of the Association) forward to the General 
Secretaries or Treasurer a statement of the sums which have been expended, 
and the balance which remains disposable on each grant. 

Grants of money sanctioned at any one meeting of the Association expire 
a week before the opening of the ensuing Meeting; nor i3 the Treasurer 
authorized, after that date, to allow any claims on account of such grants, 
unless they be renowed in the original or a modified form by the General 
Committee. 

No Committee shall raise money in the name or under the auspices of the 
British Association without special permission from the General Committee 
to do so ; and no money so raised shall be expended except in accordance 
with the rules of the Association. 

In each Committee, the Member first named is the only person entitled to 
call on the Treasurer, Professor A. W. Williamson, University College, London, 
"W.C., for such portion of the sums granted as may from time to time be 
required. 

In grants of money to Committees, the Association does not contemplate 
the payment of personal expenses to the members. 

In all cases where additional grants of money are made for the continua- 
tion of Researches at the cost of the Association, the sum named is deemed 
to include, as a part of the amount, whatever balance may remain unpaid on 
the former grant for the same object. 

All Instruments, Papers, Drawings, and other property of the Association 
are to bo deposited at the Office of the Association, 22 Albemarle Street, 
Piccadilly, London, W., when not employed in carrying on scientific inquiries 
for the Association. 

Business of the Sections. 

■ The Meeting Room of each Section is opened for conversation from 10 to 
11 daily. The Section Booms and approaches thereto can be used for no notices, 
exhibitions, or other "purposes than those of the Association. 

At 11 precisely the Chair will be taken, and the reading of communica- 
tions, in the order previously made public, be commenced. At 3 p.m. the 
Sections will close. 

Sections may, by the desire of the Committees, divide themselves into 
Departments, as often as the number and nature of the communications de- 
livered in may render such divisions desirable. 

A Report presented to the Association, and read to the Section which 
originally called for it, may be read in another Section, at the request of the 
Officers of that Section, with the consent of the Author. 

Duties of the Doorkeepers. 

1. — To remain constantly at the Doors of the Rooms to which they are ap- 
pointed during the whoie time for which they are engaged.. 

2. — To require of every person desirous of entering the Rooms the exhibi- 
tion of a Member's, Associate's or Lady's Ticket, or Reporter's Ticket, 
signed by the Treasurer, or a Special Ticket signed by the Assistant 
General Secretary. 



RULES OK THE ASSOCIATION. XX1U 

3. — Persons unprovided with any of these Tickets can only be admitted to 
any particular lloom by order of the Secretary in that Room. 
No person is exempt from these Rules, except those Officers of the Asso- 
ciation whose names are printed in the Programme, p. 1 . 

Duties of the Messengers. 

To remain constantly at the Rooms to which they are appointed, during 
the whole ti*ne for which they are engaged, except when employed on mes- 
sages by one of the Officers directing these Rooms. 

Committee of Recommendations. 

The General Committee shall appoint at each Meeting a Committee, which 
shall receive and consider the Recommendations of the Sectional Committees, 
and report to the General Committee the measures which they would advise 
to be adopted for the advancement of Science. 

All Recommendations of Grants of Money, Requests for Special Researches, 
and Reports on Scientific Subjects shall be submitted to the Committee of 
Recommendations, and not taken into consideration by the General Committee 
unless previously recommended by the Committee of Recommendations. 

Local Committees. 

Local Committees shall be formed by the Officers of the Association to 
assist in making arrangements for the Meetings. 

Local Committees shall have the power of adding to their numbers those 
Members of the Association whose assistance they may desire. 

Officers. 

A President, two or more Vice-Presidents, one or more Secretaries, and a 
Treasurer shall be annually appointed by the General Committee. 

Council. 

In the intervals of the Meetings, the affairs of the Association shall be ma- 
naged by a Council appointed by the General Committee. The Council may 
also assemble for the despatch of business during the week of the Meeting. 

Papers and Communications. 

The Author of any paper or communication shall be at liberty to reserve 
his right of property therein. 

Accounts. 

The Accounts of the Association shall be audited annually, by Auditors 
appointed by the General Committee. 



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XXX 



REPORT 1877. 



Presidents and Secretaries of the Sections of the Association. 



Date and Place. 



Presidents. 



Secretaries. 



MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES. 

COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, I. MATHEMATICS AND GENEHAL PHYSICS. 



1832. 

1833. 
1834. 



Oxford 

Cambridge 
Edinburgh 



Davies Gilbert, D.C.L., F.R.S.... 

SirD. Brewster, F.R.S 

Rev. W. Whewell, F.E.S 



Rev. H. Coddington. 

Prof. Forbes. 

Prof. Forbes, Prof. Lloyd. 



SECTION A. MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICS. 



1835. 

1836. 

1837. 

1838. 

1839. 

1840. 

1841. 
1842. 

1843. 
1844. 
1845. 

184G. 

1847. 

1848. 
1849. 

1850. 

1851. 

1852. 

1853. 

1854. 

1855. 

1856. 

1857. 

1858. 



Dublin 

Bristol 

Liverpool . . . 

Newcastle... 

Birmingham 

Glasgow . . . 

Plymouth. . . 
Manchester 

Cork 

York 

Cambridge. . 

Southampton 

Oxford... 

Swansea . 
Birmingham 

Edinburgh . . 

Ipswich 

Belfast 

Hull 

Liverpool . . . 

Glasgow . . . 

Cheltenham 

Dublin 

Leeds 



Rev. Dr. Robinson Prof. Sir W. R. Hamilton, Prof. 

Wheatstone. 
Prof. Forbes, W. S. Harris, F. W. 

Jerrard. 
W. S. Harris, Rev. Prof. Powell, Prof. 

Stevelly. 
Rev. Prof. Chevallier, Major Sabine, 

Prof. Stevelly. 
J. D. Chance, W. Snow Harris, Prof. 

Stevelly. 
Rev. Dr. Forbes, Prof. Stevelly, Arch. 

Smith. 
Prof. Stevelly. 
Prof. M'Cuiloch, Prof. Stevelly, Rev. 

W. Scoresby. 
J. Nott, Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. Win. Hey, Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. H. Goodwin, Prof. Stevelly, G. 

G. Stokes. 
John Drew, Dr. Stevelly, G. G. 

Stokes. 
Rev. H. Price, Prof. Stevelly, G. G. 

Stokes. 
Dr. Stevelly, G. G. Stokes. 
Prof. Stevelly, G. G. Stokes, W. 

Ridout Wills. 
W. J. Macquorn Rankine, Prof. Smyth, 

Prof. Stevelly, Prof. G. G. Stokes. 
S. Jackson, W. J. Macquorn Rankine, 

Prof. Stevelly, Prof. G. G. Stokes. 
Prof. Dixon, W. J. Macquorn Ran- 
kine, Prof. Stevelly, J. Tvndall. 

B. Blaydes Haworth, J. D. Sollitt, 
Prof. Stevelly, J. Welsh. 

J. Hartnup, H. G. Puckle, Prof. 

Stevelly, J. Tyndall. J. Welsh. 
Rev. Dr. Forbes, Prof. D. Gray, Prof. 

Tyndall. 

C. Brooke, Rev. T. A. Southwood, 
Prof. Stevelly, Rev. J. C. Turnbnll. 

Prof. Curtis, Prof. Hennessy, P. A. 

Ninnis, W. J. Macquorn Rankine, 

Prof. Stevelly 
Rev. S. Earnshaw, J. P. Hennessv, 

Prof. Stevelly, H. J. S. Smith, Prof. 

Tyndall. 



Rev. William Whewell, F.R.S.... 

SirD. Brewster, F.R.S 

Sir J. F. W. Herschel, Bart., 

Rev. Prof. Whewell, F.R.S 

Prof. Forbes, F.R.S 

Rev. Prof. Lloyd, F.R.S 

Very Rev. G. Peacock, D.D., 

Prof. M'Cuiloch, M.R.I.A 

The Earl of Rosse, F.R.S 

The Very Rev. the Dean of Ely 

Sir John F. W. Herschel, Bart., 

F.R.S. 
Rev. Prof. Powell, M.A., F.R.S. 

Lord Wrottesley, F.R.S 

William Hopkins, F.R.S 

Prof. J. D. Forbes, F.R.S., Sec. 

R.S.E. 
Rev. W. Whewell, D.D., F.R.S., 

Prof. W. Thomson, M.A., F.R.S. 

L. &E. 
The Dean of Ely, F.R.S 

Prof. G. G. Stokes, M.A., Sec 

T> g 

Rev. Prof. Kelland, M.A., F.R.S 

L.&E. 
Rev. R. Walker, M.A., F.R.S. ... 

Rev.T. R. Robinson,D.D.,F.R.S., 
M.R.I.A. 

Rev. W. Whewell.D.D., V.P.R.S. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



XXXI 



Date and Place. 



1859. 
1860. 
1861. 
1862. 
1863. 
1864. 
1865. 

1866. 
1867. 
1868. 
1869. 
1870. 



Presidents. 



Aberdeen ... 
Oxford...... 

Manchester . 
Cambridge .. 
Newcastle 

Bath 

Birmingham 

Nottingham 

Dundee 

Norwich . . . 

Exeter 

Liverpool . . 



Secretaries. 



1871. Edinburgh . 



The Earl of Rosse, M.A., K.P., 

Rev. B. Price, M.A., EJt.S 

a. B. Airy, M.A., D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Prof. G. G. Stokes, M.A., F.R.S. 

Prof. W. J. Macquorn Rankine 

C.E., E.R.S. 
Prof. Cayley, M.A., F.R.S., 

F.R.A.S. 
W. Spottiswoode, M.A., F.R.S. 

F.R.A.S. 

Prof. Wheatstono, D.C.L., F.R.S 

Prof. Sir W. Thomson, D.C.L. 

Prof. J. Tyndall, LL.D., F.R.S.. 

Prof. J. J. Sylvester, LL.D., 

J. Clerk Maxwell, M.A., LL.D 
F.R.S. 

Prof. P. G. Tait, F.R.S.E 



1872. 
1873. 
1874. 

1875. 
1876. 



Brighton ... 
Bradford ... 
Belfast 



W. De La Rue, D.C.L., F.R.S.. 

Prof. H. J. S. Smith, F.R.S 

Rev. Prof. J. H. Jellett, M.A., 
M.R.I.A. 



Bristol |Prof. Balfour Stewart, M.A., 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
Glasgow .JProf. Sir W. Thomson, M.A., 

D.C.L, F.R.S. 



1877. Plymouth... 



Prof. G. C. Foster, B.A., F.R.S., 
Pres. Pbysical Soc. 



J. P . Hennessv, Prof. Maxwell, H . J. S . 

Smith, Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. G. C. Bell, Rev. T. Rennison, 

Prof. Stevelly. 
Prof. R. B. Clifton, Prof. H. J. S. 

Smith, Prof. Stevelly. 
Prof. R. B. Clifton, Prof. H. J. S. 

Smith, Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. N. Ferrers, Prof. Fuller, F. Jenkin, 

Prof. Stevelly, Rev. C. T. Whitley. 
Prof. Fuller, F. Jenkin, Rev. G. 

Buckle, Prof. Stevelly. 
Rev. T. N. Hutchinson, F. Jenkin, G. 

S. Mathews, Prof. H. J. S. Smith, 

J. M. Wilson. 
Fleeming Jenkin, Prof. H. J. S. Smith, 

Rev. S. N. Swann. 
Rev. G. Buckle, Prof. G. C. Foster, 

Prof. Fuller, Prof. Swan. 
Prof. G. C. Foster, Rev. R. Harley, 

R. B. Hay ward. 
Prof. G. C. Foster, R. B. Hayward, 

W. K. Clifford. 
Prof. W. G. Adams, W. K. Clifford, 

Prof. G. C. Foster, Rev. W. Allen 

Whitworth. 
Prof. W. G. Adams, J. T. Bottomley, 

Prof. W- K. Clifford, Prof. J. D. 

Everett, Rev. R. Harley. 
Prof. W.K.Clifford, J.W.L. Glaisher, 

Prof. A. S. Herschel, G. F. Rodwell. 

Prof. W. K. Clifford, Prof. Forbes, J. 

W. L. Glaisher, Prof. A. S.Herschel. 

J. W. L. Glaisher, Prof. Herschel, 

Randal Nixon, J. Perry, G. F. Rod- 
well. 
Prof.W. F. Barrett, J.W. L. Glaisher, 

C. T. Hudson, G. F. Rodwell. 
Prof. W. F. Barrett. J. T. Bottomley, 

Prof. G. Forbes, J. W. L. Glaisher, 

T. Muir. 
Prof. W. F. Barrett, J. T. Bottomley, 
J. W. L. Glaisher, F. G. Landon. 



CHEMICAL SCIENCE. 



COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, II. — CHEMISTRY, MINERALOGY. 



1832. Oxford 

1833. Cambridge.. 

1834. Edinburgh... 



John Dalton.D.C.L., F.R.S James F. W. Johnston. 



John Dalton, D.C.L., F.R.S... 
Dr. Hope. 



Prof. Miller. 

Mr. Johnston, Dr. Christison. 



1835. Dublin 

1836. Bristol 



1837. Liverpool. 



SECTION B. CHEMISTRY AJfD MINERALOGY. 



Dr. T. Thomson, F.R.S. 
Rev. Prof. Cumming — 



Michael Faraday, F.R.S. 



Dr. Apjohn, Prof. Johnston. 

Dr. Apjohn, Dr. C. Henry, W. Hera- 
path. 

Prof. Johnston, Prof. Miller, Dr. 
Reynolds. 



XXX11 



REPORT — 1877. 



Date and Place. 



1838. Newcastle. 

1839. Birmingham 

1840. Glasgow ... 

1841. Plymouth... 

1842. Manchester. 

1843. Cork 

1844. York 

1845. Cambridge.. 



184G. Southampton 

1847. Oxford ... 

1848. Swansea 

1849. Birmingham 

1850. Edinburgh 

1851. Ipswich . 

1852. Belfast .... 



Presidents. 



Kev. William Whewell, F.R.S.. 

Prof. T. Graham, F.R.S 

Dr. Thomas Thomson, F.R.S. . 

Dr.Daubeny, F.R.S 

John Dalton, D.C.L., F.R.S 

Prof. Apjohn, M.R.I. A 

Prof. T. Graham, F.R.S 

Rev. Prof. Cumming 



Secretaries. 



1853. Hull , 



1854. Liverpool.. 

1855. Glasgow .., 
185G. Cheltenham 



1857. Dublin ... 

1858. Leeds ... 

1859. Aberdeen .. 
18G0. Oxford... 



1861. Manchester. 

1862. Cambridge . 

1863. Newcastle. 



1864. Bath... 

1865. Birmingham 

1866. Nottingham 

1867. Dundee . 

1868. Norwich . 

1869. Exeter 

1870. Liverpool., 

1871. Edinburgh 

1872. Brighton .. 

1873. Bradford., 

1874. Belfast 

1875. Bristol 



Michael Faraday, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Rev.W.V.Harcourt, M.A., F.R.S. 

Richard Phillips, F.R.S 

John Percy, M.D., F.R.S 

Dr. Christison, V.P.R.S.E 

Prof. Thomas Graham, F.R.S. . 
Thomas Andrews, M.D., F.R.S. . 

Prof. J. F. W. Johnston, M.A., 

F R S 
Prof. W. A. Miller, M.D., F.R.S. 
Dr. Lyon Playfair, C.B., F.R.S. . 
Prof. B. C. Brodie, F.R.S 

Prof. Apjohn, M.D., F.R.S. 

M.R.I.A. 
Sir J. F. W. Herschel, Bart., 

D.C.L. 
Dr. Lyon Playfair, C.B., F.R.S. . 

Prof. B. C. Brodie, F.R.S 

Prof. W. A. Miller, M.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. W. A. Miller, M.D., F.R.S. 

Dr. Alex.W. Williamson, F.R.S. 

W. Odling, M.B., F.R.S., F.C.S. 
Prof. W. A. Miller, M.D.,V.P.R.S. 

H. Bence Jones, M.D., F.R.S. 

Prof.T.Anderson,M.D.,F.R.S.E. 

Prof.E. Frankland, F.R.S., F.C.S. 

Dr. H. Debus, F.R.S., F.C.S. ... 

Prof. H. E. Roscoe, B.A., F.R.S., 
■prj g 

Prof. T. Andrews, M.D., F.R.S. 

Dr. J. H. Gladstone, F.R.S 

Prof. W. J. Russell, F.R.S 

Prof. A. Crum-Brown, M.D., 

F.R.S.E., F.C.S. 
A. G. Vernon Harcourt, M.A., 

F.R.S., F.C.S, 



Prof. Miller, R. L. Pattinson, Tliomas 

Richardson. 
Golding Bird, M.D., Dr. J.B. Melson. 
Dr. R. D. Thomson, Dr. T. Clark, 

Dr. L. Playfair. 
J. Prideaux, Robert Hunt, W. M. 

Tweedy. 
Dr. L. Playfair, R. Hunt, J. Graham. 
R. Hunt, Dr. Sweeny. 
Dr. R. Playfair, E. Solly, T. H. Barker. 
R. Hunt, J. P. Joule, Prof. Miller, 

E. Solly. 
Dr. Miller, R. Hunt, W. Randall. 
B. C. Brodie, R. Hunt, Prof. Solly. 
T. H. Henry, R. Hunt, T. Williams. 
R. Hunt, G. Shaw. 
Dr. Anderson, R. Hunt, Dr. Wilson. 
T. J. Pearsall, W. S. Ward. 
Dr. Gladstone, Prof. Hodges, Prof. 

Ronalds. 
H. S. Blundell, Prof. R. Hunt, T. J. 

Pearsall. 
Dr. Edwards, Dr. Gladstone, Dr. Price. 
Prof. Frankland, Dr. H. E. Roscoe. 
J. Horsley, P. J. Worsley, Prof. 

Voelcker. 
Dr. Davy, Dr. Gladstone, Prof. Sul- 
livan. 
Dr. Gladstone, W. Odling, R. Rey- 
nolds. 
J. S. Brazier, Dr. Gladstone, G. D. 

Liveing, Dr. Odling. 
A. Vornon narcourt, G. D. Liveing, 

A. B. Northcote. 
A. Vernon Harcourt, G. D. Liveing. 
H. W. Elphinstone, W. Odling, Prof. 

Roscoe. 
Prof. Liveing, H. L. Pattinson, J. C. 

Stevenson. 
A. V. Harcourt, Prof. Liveing, R. Biggs. 
A. V. Harcourt, H. Adkins, Prof. 

Wanklyn, A. Winkler Wills. 
J. H. Atkerton, Prof. Liveing, W. J. 

Russell, J. White. 
A. Crum Brown, Prof. G. D. Liveing, 

W. J. Russell. 
Dr. A. Crum Brown, Dr. W. J. Rus- 
sell, F. Sutton. 
Prof. A. Crum Brown, M.D., Dr. W. 

J. Russell, Dr. Atkinson. 
Prof. A. Crum Brown, M.D., A. E. 

Fletcher, Dr. W. J. Russell. 
J. T. Buchanan, W. N. Hartley, T. E. 

Thorpe. 
Dr. Mills, W. Chandler Roberts, Dr. 

W. J. Russell, Dr. T. Wood. 
Dr. Armstrong, Dr. Mills, W. Chand- 
ler Roberts, Dr. Thorpe. 
Dr. T. Cranstonn Charles, W. Chand- 
ler Roberts, Prof. Thorpe. 
Dr. H. E. Armstrong, W. Chandler 
Roberts, W. A. Tilden. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



XXX111 



Date and Place. 



Presidents. 



Secretaries. 



1876. Glasgow . 

1877. Plymouth. 



W. H. Perkin, F.E.S 

F. A. Abel, F.E.S., F.C.S. 



W. Dittmar, W. Chandler Roberts, 
J. M. Thomson, W. A. Tilden. 

Dr. Oxland, W. Chandler Eoberts, 
J. M. Thomson. 



GEOLOGICAL (and, until 1851, GEOGEAPHICAL) SCIENCE. 

COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, III. GEOLOGY AND GEOGRAPHY. 



1832. Oxford B. I. Murchison, F.E.S. 

1833. Cambridge JO. B. Greenougli, F.E.S. 

1834. Edinburgh .'Prof. Jameson 



John Taylor. 

W. Lonsdale, John Phillips. 
Prof. Phillips, T. Jameson Torrie, 
Eev. J. Yates. 



SECTION C. — GEOLOGY AND GEOGRAPHY. 



1835. Dublin , 

1836. Bristol . 



1837. Liverpool... 

1838. Newcastle. 

1839. Birmingham 

1840. Glasgow ... 

1841. Plymouth.. 

1842. Manchester 

1843. Cork 

1844. York 

1845. Cambridge . 

1846. Southampton 



E.J. Griffith 

Rev. Dr. Buckland, F.E.S.— Geo- 
graph/. E. I.Murchison,F.E.S. 

Eev.Prof.Sedgwick.FE.S.— Geo- 
graphy. G.B.Greenough,F.E.S. 

C. Lyell, F.E.S., V.P.G.S.— Geo- 
graphy. Lord Prudhope. 

Rev. Drl Buckland, F.R.S.— Geo- 
graphy. G.B. Greenougli. F.E.S. 

Charles ' Lyell, F.E.S.— Geogra- 
phy. G. B. Greenougli, F.E.S. 

H. T. Dela Beche, F.E.S 

E. I. Murchison, F.E.S 

Richard E. Griffith, F.E.S., 

M.E.I.A. 
Henry Warburton, M.P., Pres. 

Geol. Soc. 
Eev. Prof. Sedgwick, M.A., F.E.S 

Leonardllor a er,F.E. S. — Geogra- 
phy. G. B. Greenougli, F.E.S. 

Very Eev. Dr. Buckland, F.E.S. 



1847. Oxford 

1848. Swansea ... 

1849. Birmingham 

1850. Edinburgh* Sir EoderickI.Murchison,F.E.S 



Sir H. T. De la Beche, C.B., 
Sir Charles Lyell, F.E.S., F.G.S. 



1851. Ipswich 

1852. Belfast ., 



section c (continued). - 
William Hopkins, M.A., F.E.S... 

Lieut.-Col. Portlock,E.E., F.E.S. 



Captain Portlock, T. J. Torrie. 
William Sanders, S. Stutchbury, T. J. 

Torrie. 
Captain Portlock, E. Hunter. — Geo- 
graphy. Captain II. M. Denham.R.N. 
W. C. Trevelyan, Capt. Portlock — 

Geography. Capt. Washington. 
George Lloyd, M.D., H. E. Strickland, 

Charles Darwin. 
W. J. Hamilton, D. Milne, Hugh 

Murray, H. E. Strickland, John 

Scoular, M.D. 
W. J. Hamilton, Edward Moore.M.D., 

E. Hutton. 
E. W. Binney, E. Hutton, Dr. E. 

Lloyd, H. E. Strickland. 
Francis M. Jennings, H. E. Strick- 
land. 
Prof. Ansted, E. H. Bunbury. 

Eev. J. C. dimming, A. C. Eamsay, 

Eev. W. Thorp. 
Eobert A. Austen, J. H. Norton, M.D., 

Prof. Oldham. — Geography. Dr. C. 

T. Beke. 
Prof. Ansted, Prof. Oldham, A. C. 

Eamsay, J. Buskin. 
Starling Benson, Prof. Oldham, Prof. 

Eamsay. 
J. Beete Jukes, Prof. Oldham, Prof. 

A. C. Eamsay. 
A. Keith Johnston, Hugh Miller, Prof. 

Nicol. 

-GEOLOGY. 

C. J. F. Bunbury, G. W. Orrnerod, 

Searles Wood. 
James Bryce, James MacAdam, Prof. 

M'Coy, Prof. Nicol. 



* At a Meeting of the General Committee held in 1850, it was resolved "That the 
subject of Geography be separated from Geology and combined with Ethnology, to consti- 
tute a separate Section, under the title of the " Geographical and Ethnological Section," 
for Presidents and Secretaries of which see page xxxvii. 

1877. c 



XXXIV 



REPORT — 1877. 



Date and Place. 



1853. Hull 

1854. Liverpool . . 

1855. Glasgow ... 

1856. Cheltenham 

1857. Dublin 

1858. Leeds 

1859. Aberdeen .. 

1860. Oxford 

1861. Manchester 

1862. Cambridge 

1863. Newcastle ... 

1864. Bath 



1865. Birmingham 



1866. Nottingham 

1867. Dundee 

1868. Norwich ... 

1869. Exeter 

1870. Liverpool... 

1871. Edinburgh.. 

1872. Brighton ... 

1873. Bradford ... 

1874. Belfast 

1875. Bristol 

1876. Glasgow ... 

1877. Plymouth... 



Presidents. 



Prof. Sedgwick, F.R.S 

Prof. Edward Forbes, F.R.S. 

Sir R. I. Murchison, F.E.S. ... 

Prof. A. C. Ramsay, F.R.S. . . . 

The Lord Talbot de Malahide ... 

William Hopkins, M.A., LL.D 

Sir Charles Lyell, LL.D., D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
Rev. Prof. Sedgwick, LL.D., 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Sir R. I. Murchison, D.C.L., 

LL.D., F.R.S., &c. 
J. Beete Jukes, M.A., F.R.S 

Prof. Warington W. Smyth, 

F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Prof. J. Phillips, LL.D., F.R.S., 

F.G.S. 
Sir R. I. Murchison, Bart.,KC.B. 

Prof.A.C. Ramsay, LL.D., F.R.S. 

Archibald Geikie, F.R.S., F.G.S. 

R. A. C. Godwin-Austen, F.R.S., 

F.G.S. 
Prof. R. Harkness, F.R.S., F.G.S. 

Sir Philip de M. Grey Egerton, 

Bart., M.P., F.R.S. 
Prof. A. Geikie, F.R.S., F.G.S... 

R. A. C. Godwin-Austen, F.R.S. 

Prof. J. Phillips, D.C.L., F.R.S., 

F.G.S. 
Prof. Hull, M.A., F.R.S., F.G.S. 

Dr. Thomas Wright, F.R.S.E., 

F.G.S. 
Prof. John Young, M.D 

W. Pengelly, F.R.S 



Secretaries. 



Prof. Harkness, William Lawton. 

John Cunningham, Prof. Harkness, 
G. W. Ormerod, J. W. Woodall. 

James Bryce, Prof. Harkness, Prof. 
Nicol. 

Rev. P. B. Brodie, Rev. R. Hepworth, 
Edward Hull, J. Scougall, T.Wright. 

Prof. Hai-kness, Gilbert Sanders, Ro- 
bert H. Scott. 

Prof. Nicol, H. C. Sorby, E. W. 
Shaw. 

Prof. Harkness, Rev. J. Longmuir, H. 
C. Sorby. 

Prof. Harkness, Edward Hull, Capt. 
Woodall. 

Prof. Harkness, Edward Hull, T. Ru- 
pert Jones, G. W. Ormerod. 

Lucas Barrett, Prof. T. Rupert Jones, 
H. C. Sorby. 

E. F. Boyd, John Daglish, H. C. Sor- 
by, Thomas Sopwith. 

W. B. Dawkins, J. Johnston, H. C. 

Sorby, W. Pengelly. 
Rev. P. B. Brodie, J. Jones, Rev. E. 

Myers, H. C. Sorby, W. Pengelly. 
R. Etheridge, W. Pengelly, T. Wil- 
son, G. H. Wright. 
Edward Hull, W. Pengelly, Henry 

Woodward. 
Rev. O. Fisher, Rev. J. Gunn, W. 

Pengelly, Rev. H. H. Win wood. 
W. Pengelly, W. Boyd Dawkins, Rev. 

H. H. Winwood. 
W. Pengelly, Rev. H. H. Winwood, 

W. Boyd Dawkins, G. H. Morton. 
R. Etheridge, J. Geikie, J. McKenny 

Hughes, L. C. Miall. 
L. C. Miall, George Scott, William 

Topley, Henry Woodward. 
L. C. MiaU, R. H. Tiddeman, W. 

Topley. 

F. Drew, L. C. Miall, R. G. Symes, 
R. H. Tiddeman. 

L. C. MiaU, E. B. Tawney, W. Topley. 

J. Armstrong, F. W. Rudler, W. 
Topley. 

Dr. Le Neve Foster, R. H. Tidde- 
man, W. Topley. 



BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES. 

COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, IV. — ZOOLOGY, BOTANY, PHYSIOLOGY, ANATOMY. 



1832. Oxford 

1833. Cambridge* 

1834. Edinburgh 



Rev. P. B. Duncan, F.G.S 

Eev. W. L. P. Garnons, F.L.S... 
Prof. Graham 



Rev. Prof. J. S. Henslow. 
C. C. Babington, D. Don. 
W. Yarrell, Prof. Burnett. 



* At this Meeting Physiology and Anatomy were made a separate Committee, for 
Presidents and Secretaries of which see p. xxxvii. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



XXXV 



Date and Place. 



Presidents. 



Secretaries. 



1835. Dublin 

1836. Bristol 



1837. Liverpool... 

1838. Newcastle... 

1839. Birmingham 

1840. Glasgow ... 

1841. Plymouth... 

1842. Manchester 



Dr. Allman 

Eev. Prof. Henslow 

W. S. MacLeay 

Sir W. Jardine, Bart 



Prof. Owen, F.E.S 

Sir W. J. Hooker, LL.D 



1843. Cork . 

1844. York. 



1845. Cambridge 
184G. Southampton 

1847. Oxford.... 



SECTION D. ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY. 

J. Curtis, Dr. Litton. 

J.Curtis, Prof. Don, Dr. Eiley, S. 
Eootsey. 

C. C. Babington, Eev. L. Jenyns, W. 
Swainson. 

J. E. Gray, Prof. Jones, E. Owen, Dr. 
Eichardson. 

E. Forbes, W. Ick, E. Patterson. 

Prof. W. Couper, E. Forbes, E. Pat- 
terson. 

J. Couch, Dr. Lankester, E. Patterson. 

Dr. Lankester, E. Patterson, J. A. 
Turner. 

G. J. Allman, Dr. Lankester, E. Pat- 
terson. 

Prof. Allman, H. Goodsir, Dr. King, 
Dr. Lankester. 

Dr. Lankester, T. V. Wollaston. 

Dr. Lankester, T. V. Wollaston, H. 
Wooldridge. 

Dr. Lankester, Dr. Melville, T. V. 
Wollaston. 



John Eichardson, M.D.,F.E.S... 
Hon. and Very Eev. W. Herbert, 

LL.D., F.L.S. 
William Thompson, F.L.S 

Very Eev. The Dean of Manches- 
ter. 

Eev. Prof. Henslow, F.L.S 

Sir J. Eichardson, M.D., F.E.S. 

H. E. Strickland, M.A., F.E.S... . 



section d (continued). — zoology and botany, including physiology. 

[For the Presidents and Secretaries of the Anatomical and Physiological Subsections 
and the temporary Section E of Anatomy and Medicine, see p. xxxvii.] 



1848. Swansea ... 

1849. Birmingham 

1850. Edinburgh.. 



1851. Ipswich. 

1852. Belfast . 



L. W. Dillwyn, F.E.S 

William Spence, F.E.S 

Prof. Goodsir, F.E.S. L. &E. ... 

Eev. Prof. Henslow, M.A., F.E.S. 

W. Ogilby 



1853. null 

1854. Liverpool ... 
j.855. Glasgow ... 
1850. Cheltenham. 



1857. Dublin 

1858. Leeds 

1859. Aberdeen ... 

1860. Oxford 

1861. Manchester. 

1862. Cambridge... 

1863. Newcastle 

18G4. Bath 



C. C. Babington, M.A., F.E.S.... 

Prof. Balfour, M.D., F.E.S 

Eev. Dr. Fleeming, F.E.S.E. ... 
Thomas Bell, F.E.S., Pres.L.S.... 

Prof. W.H. Harvey, M.D., F.E.S. 

C. C. Babington, M.A., F.E.S.... 

Sir W. Jardine, Bart., F.E.S.E.. 

Eev. Prof. Henslow, F.L.S 

Prof. C. C. Babington, F.E.S. ... 



1865. Birmingham 



Prof. Huxley, F.E.S 

Prof. Balfour, M.D., F.E.S 

Dr. John E. Gray, F.E.S 

T. Thomson, M.D., F.E.S 



Dr. E. Wilbraham Falconer, A. Hen- 

frey, Dr. Lankester. 
Dr. Lankester, Dr. Eussell. 
Prof. J. H. Bennett, M.D., Dr. Lan- 
kester, Dr. Douglas Maclagan. 
Prof. Allman, F. W. Johnston, Dr. E. 

Lankester. 
Dr. Dickie, George C. Hyndman, Dr. 

Edwin Lankester. 
Eobert Harrison, Dr. E. Lankester. 
Isaac Byerley, Dr. E. Lankester. 
William Keddie, Dr. Lankester. 
Dr. J. Abercrombie, Prof. Buckman, 

Dr. Lankester. 
Prof. J. E.Kinahan,Dr.E. Lankester, 

Eobert Patterson, Dr. W. E. Steele. 
Henry Denny, Dr. Heaton, Dr. E. 

Lankester, Dr. E. Perceval Wright. 
Prof. Dickie, M.D., Dr. E. Lankester, 

Dr. Ogilvy. 
W. S. Church, Dr. E. Lankester, P. 

L. Sclater, Dr. E. Perceval Wright. 
Dr. T. Alcock, Dr. E. Lankester, Dr. 

P. L. Sclater, Dr. E. P. Wright. 
Alfred Newton, Dr. E. P. Wright. 
Dr. E. Charlton, A. Newton, Eev. H. 

B. Tristram, Dr. E. P. Wright. 
H. B. Brady, C. E. Broom, H. T. 

Stainton, Dr. E. P. Wright. 
Dr. J. Anthony, Eev. C. Clarke, Eev. 

H. B. Tristram, Dr. E. P. Wright. 
c2 



XXXVI 



REPORT — 1877. 



Date and Place. 



Presidents. 



Secretaries. 



section d (continued). — biology*. 



I860. Nottingham. 



1867. Dundee 

1868. Norwich .. 



1869. Exeter 



1870. Liverpool.. 



1871. Edinburgh 



1872. Brighton .. 



1873. Bradford 



1874. Belfast , 



1875. Bristol 



1876. Glasgow .. 



1877. Plymouth. 



Prof. Huxley, LL.D., F.E.S.— 
Physiological Bep. Prof. Hum 
phry,M.D., F.E.S. — Anthropo 
logical Bep. Alfred E. Wallace, 
F* E G S 

Prof. Sharpey, M.D., Sec. E.S, 
Bep. of Zool. a?id Bot. George 
Busk, M.D., F.E.S. 

Eev. M. J. Berkeley, F.L.S, 
Bep. of Physiology. W. H. 
Flower, F.E.S. 



George Busk, F.E.S., F.L.S.— 
Bep. of Bot and Zool. C. Spence 
Bate, F.E.S.— Bep. of Ethno. 
E. B. Tylor. 
Prof. G. Eolleston, M.A., M.D., 
F.E.S..F.L.S.— Bep. Anat. and 
Physiol. Prof. M. Foster, M.D., 
F.L.S.— Bep. of Ethno. J. 
Evans, F.E.S. 
Prof. Allen Thomson,M.D.,F.E.S. 
— Bep. of Bot. and Zool. Prof. 
Wyville Thomson, F.E.S.— 
Bep. of Anthropol. Prof. W. 
Turner, M.D. 
Sir John Lubbock, Bart,, F.E.S. 
— Bep. of Anat. and Physiol. 
Dr. Burdon Sandereon, F.E.S. 
— Bep. of Anthropol. Col. A. 
Lane Fox, F.G.S. 
Prof. AUman, F.E.S.— Bep. of 
Anat. and Physiol. Prof. Eu- 
therford, M.D. — Bep. of An- 
thropol. Dr. Beddoe, F.E.S. 
Prof. Eedfern, M.D.— Bep. of 
Zool. and Bot. Dr. Hooker, 
C.B., Pres. E.S..— Bep. of An- 
thropol. SirW.E.Wilde,M.D. 
P.L.Sclater.F.E.S.— Bep. of Anat. 
«?;<£7%«W. Prof.Cleland.M.D., 
F.E.S.— Bep. of Anthropol. Prof. 
Eolleston, M.D., F.E.S. 
A. Eussel Wallace, F.E.G.S., 
F.L.S.— Bep. of Zool. and Bot 
Prof. A. Newton, M.A., F.E.S. 
— Bep. of Anat. and Physiol. 
Dr. J. G. McKendriek.F.E.S.E 
Gwyn Jeffreys, LL.D., F.E.S. 
F.L.S. — Bep. of Anat. and 
Physiol. Prof. Macalister, M.D. 
— Bep. of Anthropol. Francis 
Galton, M.A., F.E.S. 



Dr. J. Beddard, W. Felkin, Eev. H. 
B. Tristram, W. Turner, E. B. 
Tylor, Dr. E. P. Wright. 



C. Spence Bate, Dr. S. Cobbold, Dr. 
M. Foster, H. T. Stainton, Eev. H. 

B. Tristram, Prof. W. Turner. 

Dr. T. S. Cobbold, G. W. Firth, Dr. 

M. Foster, Prof. Lawson, H. T. 

Stainton, Eev. Dr. H. B. Tristram, 

Dr. E. P. Wright. 
Dr. T. S. Cobbold, Prof. M. Foster, 

M.D., E. Eay Lankester, Professor 

Lawson, H. T. Stainton, Eev. H. B. 

Tristram. 
Dr. T. S. Cobbold, Sebastian Evans, 

Prof. Lawson, Thos. J. Moore, H. 

T. Stainton, Eev. H. B.Tristram, 

C. Staniland Wake, E. Eay Lan- 
kester. 

Dr. T. R. Fraser, Dr. Arthur Gamgee, 
E. Rny Lankester, Prof. Lawson, 
H. T. Stainton, C. Staniland Wake, 
Dr. W. Eutherford, Dr. Kelburnc 
King. 

Prof. Thiselton-Dyer, H. T. Stainton, 
Prof. Lawson, F. W. Eudler, J. n. 
Lamprey, Dr. Gamgee, E. Eay Lan- 
kester, Dr. Pye-Smith. 



Prof. Thiselton-Dyer, Prof. Lawson, 
E. M'Lachlan, Dr. Pye-Smith, E. 
Eay Lankester, F. W. Eudler, J. 
H. Lamprey. 

W. T. Thiselton-Dyer, E. O. Cunning- 
ham, Dr. J. J. Charles, Dr. P. H. 
J. Murphy, F. W. 



Pye-Smith, J. 

Eudler. 

E. E. Alston, Dr. 

W. E. M'Nab, 



McKendrick, Prof. 
Dr. Martyn, F. W. 



Eudler, Dr. P. H. Pye-Smith, Dr. 
W. Spencer. 
E. E. Alston, Hyde Clarke, Dr. Knox, 
Prof. W. E. M'Nab, Dr. Muirhead, 
Prof. Morrison Watson. 



E. E. Alston, F. Brent, Dr. D. J. 
Cunningham, Dr. C. A. Kingston, 
Prof. W. E. M'Nab, J. B. Eowe, 
F. W. Eudler. 



* At a Meeting of the General Committee in 1865, it was resolved : — " That the 
title of Section D be changed to Biology ; " and "That for the word 'Subsection,' in the 
rules for conducting the business of the Sections, the word ' Department ' be substituted. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. XXXVli 



Date and Place. 



Presidents. 



Secretaries. 



ANATOMICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL SCIENCES. 



COMMITTEE OP SCIENCES, V. 



1833. Cambridge.. 
1831. Edinburgh.. 



Dr. Haviland 

Dr. Abercrornbie 



-ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY. 

Dr. Bond, Mr. Paget. 

Dr. Eoget, Dr. William Thomson. 



SECTION E. (iTNTIL 1817.) ANATOMY AND MEDICINE 

1835. Dublin ]Dr. Pritchard 

1836. Bristol Dr. Eoget, F.R.S 

1837. Liverpool . . JProf. W. Clark, M.D 



1838. Newcastle . . . <T. E. Headlam, M.D 

1839. Birmingham John Yelloly, M.D., F.R.S. 

1840. Glasgow . . . ! James Watson, M.D 

1841. Plymouth , 



1842. Manchester . 

1843. Cork 

1844. York 



P. M. Eoget, M.D., Sec.R.S. ... 

Edward Holme, M.D., RL.S. ... 

Sir James Pitcairn, M.D 

J. C. Pritchard, M.D 



Dr. Harrison, Dr. Hart. 

Dr. Symonds. 

Dr. J. Carson, jun., James Long, Dr. 

J. E. W. Vose. 
T. M. Greenhow, Dr. J. E. W. Vose. 
Dr. G. O. Eees, F. Eyland. 
Dr. J. Brown, Prof.Couper,Prof.Eeid. 
Dr. J. Butter, J. Fuge, Dr. E. S. 

Sargent. 
Dr. Chaytor, Dr. E. S. Sargent. 
Dr. John Popham, Dr. E. S. Sargent. 
I. Erichsen, Dr. E. S. Sargent. 



SECTION E. PHYSIOLOGY. 



1845. Cambridgo .Prof. J. Haviland, M.D. .. 
1846.Southampton , Prof. Owen, M.D., F.E.S... 
1847. Oxford* . . . Prof. Ogle, M.D., F.E.S.| . . 



Dr. E. S. Sargent, Dr. Webster. 
C. P. Keele, Dr. Laycock, Dr. Sargent. 
Dr. Thomas K. Chambers, W. P. 
Ormerod. 



1850. Edinburgh 
1855. Glasgow ... 

1857. Dublin 

1858. Leeds 

1859. Aberdeen ... 
1800. Oxford 

1861. Manchester. 

1862. Cambridge . 

1863. Newcastle... 

1864. Bath 

1 865.Birminghmt . 



PHYSIOLOGICAL SUBSECTIONS OP SECTION D. 

Prof. Bennett, M.D., F.E.S.E. 
Prof. Allen Thomson, F.E.S. ... 

Prof. E. Harrison, M.D 

Sir Ben jamin Brodie, Bart., F.E.S. 
Prof. Sharpey, M.D., Sec.E.S. ... 
Prof. G. Eolleston, M.D., F.L.S. 
Dr. John Davy, F.E.S.L. & E. ... 

C. E. Paget, M.D 

Prof. Eolleston, M.D., F.E.S. ... 
Dr. Edward Smith, LL.D., F.E.S. 
Prof. Acland, M.D., LL.D., F.E.S. 



Prof. J. H. Corbett, Dr. J. Struthers. 
Dr. E. D. Lyons, Prof. Eedfern. 
C. G. Wheelhouse. 
Prof. Bennett, Prof. Eedfern. 
Dr. E. M'Donnell, Dr. Edward Smith. 
Dr. W. Eoberts, Dr. Edward Smith. 
G. F. Helm, Dr. Edward Smith. 
Dr. D. Embleton, Dr. W. Turner. 
J. S. Bartrum, Dr. W. Turner. 
Dr. A. Fleming, Dr. P. Heslop, Oliver 
Pembleton, Dr. W. Turner. 



GEOGRAPHICAL AND ETHNOLOGICAL SCIENCES. 
[For Presidents and Secretaries for Geography previous to 1851, see Section C, p. xxxiii.] 

ETHNOLOGICAL SUBSECTIONS OF SECTION D. 



1846.Southampton|Dr. Pritchard 



1847. Oxford 

1848. Swansea ... 

1849. Birmingham 

1850. Edinburgh.. 



Prof. H. H. Wilson, M.A. 



Vice-Admiral Sir A. Malcolm . . 



Dr. King. 
Prof. Buckley. 
G. Grant Francis. 
Dr. E. G. Latham. 
Daniel Wilson. 



* By direction of the General Committee at Oxford, Sections D and E were incorporated 
under the name of " Section D — Zoology and Botany, including Physiology" (see p. xxxv). 
The Section being then vacant was assigned in 1851 to Geography. 

t Vide note on page xxxvi. 



xxxvm 



KEPOET 1877. 



Date and Place. 



Presidents. 



Secretaries. 



SECTION E. GEOGEAPHT AND ETHNOLOGY. 



1851. 

1852. 
1853. 
1854. 
1855. 
1856. 
1857. 
1858. 
1859. 
1860. 
1861. 
1862. 
1863. 
1864. 
1865. 
1866. 

1867. 
1868. 



1869. 
1870. 
1871. 
1872. 
1873. 
1874. 
1875. 

1876. 

1877. 



Ipswich . . . 

Belfast 

Hull 

Liverpool . . . 
Glasgow . . . 
Cheltenham 

Dublin 

Leeds 

Aberdeen .. 

Oxford 

Manchester 
Cambridge 
Newcastle.., 

Bath 

Birmingham 
Nottingham 

Dundee 

Norwich ... 

Exeter 

Liverpool . . . 
Edinburgh. 
Brighton ... 
Bradford ... 

Belfast 

Bristol 



Sir E. I. Murchison, F.E.S., Pres 

E.G.S. 
Col. Chesney, E.A., D.C.L. 

E. G. Latham, M.D., F.E.S. .. 

Sir E. I. Murchison, D.C.L. 

FES 
Sir J. Eichardson, M.D., F.E.S. 



E. Cull, Eev. J. W. Donaldson, Dr. 

Norton Shaw. 
E. Cull, E. MacAdam, Dr. Norton 

Shaw. 
E. Cull, Eev. H. W. Kemp, Dr. Nor- 
ton Shaw. 
Eichard Cull, Eev. H. Higgins, Dr. 

Ihne, Dr. Norton Shaw. 
Dr. W. G. Blackie, E. Cull, Dr. Nor- 
ton Shaw. 
Col. Sir H. C. Eawlinson, K.C.B.|K. Cull, F. D. Hartland, W. H. Eum- 

sey, Dr. Norton Shaw. 
Eev.Dr.J.HenthawnTodd.Pres.iE. Cull, S. Ferguson, Dr. E. E. Mad- 

E.I.A. den, Dr. Norton Shaw. 

Sir E. I. Murchison, G.C.St.S., E.Cull,FrancisGalton,P.O'Callaghan, 

F.E.S. Dr. Norton Shaw, Thomas Wright. 

Bear-Admiral Sir James Clerk Eichard Cull, Professor Geddes, Dr. 

Eoss, D.C.L., F.E.S. Norton Shaw. 

Sir E, I. Murchison, D.C.L. Capt. Burrows, Dr. J. Hunt, Dr. C. 



F.E.S. 
John Crawfurd, F.E.S 



Francis Galton, F.E.S 

Sir E. I. Murchison, K.C.B., 

F.E.S. 
Sir E. I. Murchison, K.C.B., 

F.E.S. 
Major-General Sir H. Eawlinson, 

M.P., K.C.B., F.E.S. 
Sir Charles Nicholson, Bart., 

LL.D. 

Sir Samuel Baker, F.E.G.S 



Lempriere, Dr. Norton Shaw. 
Dr. J. Hunt, J. Kingsley, Dr. Norton 

Shaw, W. Spottiswoode. 
J. W. Clarke, Eev. J. Glover, Dr. 

Hunt, Dr. Norton Shaw, T. Wright. 
C. Carter Blake, Hume Greenfield, 

C. E. Markliam, E. S. Watson. 
H. W. Bates, C. E. Markham, Capt. 

E. M. Murchison, T. Wright. 
H. W. Bates, S. Evans, G. Jabet, C. 

E. Markham, Thomas Wright. 
H. W. Bates, Eev. E. T. Cusins, E. 

H. Major, Clements E. Markham, 

D. W. Nash, T. Wright. 
H. W. Bates, Cyril Graham, C. E. 

Markham, S. J. Mackie, E. Sturrock. 
Capt.G.H.Eichards,E.N.,F.E.S. | T. Baines, H. W. Bates, C. E. Mark- 
ham, T. Wright. 



section e (continued). — geography. 



Sir Bartle Frere, K.C.B., LL.D., 

F.E.G.S. 
SirE. I. Murchison, Bt.,E.C.B., 

LL.D., D.C.L, F.E.S., F.G.S. 



Francis Galton, F.E.S 

Sir Eutherford Alcock, K.C.B.... 

Major Wilson, E.E., F.E.S., 
F.E.G.S. 



Glasgow . 
Plymouth. 



H. W. Bates, Clements E. Markham, 

J. H. Thomas. 
H. W. Bates, David Buxton, Albert 
J. Mott, Clements E. Markham. 
Colonel Yule, C.B., F.E.G.S. ...Clements E. Markham, A. Buchan, 

J. H. Thomas, A. Keith Johnston. 
H. W. Bates, A. Keith Johnston, Eev. 

J. Newton, J. H. Thomas. 
H. W. Bates, A. Keith Johnston, Cle- 
ments E. Markham. 
E. G. Eavenstein, E. C. Eye, J. H. 
Thomas. 

Lieut. -General Strachey, E.E., H. W. Bates, E. C. Eye, F. F. Tuckett. 
C.S.I.,F.E.S.,FE.G.S,F.L.S., 
F.G.S. 

Capt. Evans, C.B., F.E.S H. W. Bates, E. C. Eye, E. Oliphant 

Wood. 
Adm. Sir E. Ommannev, C.B., H. W. Bates, F. E. Fox, E. C. Eve. 
F.E.S., F.E.G.S., F.E.A.S. 



PRESIDENTS AND SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 



XXXIX 



Date and Place. 



Presidents. 



Secretaries. 



STATISTICAL SCIENCE. 

COMMITTEE OF SCIENCES, VI. STATISTICS. 



1833. Cambridge .IProf. Babbage, F.R.S 

1834. Edinburgh .(Sir Charles Lemon, Bart 



J. E. Drinkwater. 

Dr. Cleland, C. Hope Maclean. 



SECTION F. STATISTICS. 



1835. Dublin 

1836. Bristol . 



1837. Liverpool... 

1838. Newcastle... 

1839. Birmingham 

1840. Glasgow ... 

1841. Plymouth... 

1842. Manchester. 



1843. Cork 

1844. York 

1845. Cambridge . 
184(5. Southampton 

1847. Oxford 



1848. Swansea 

1849. Birmingham 

1850. Edinburgh .. 



1851. Ipswich. 

1852. Belfast . 



1853. Hull 

1854. Liverpool 

1855. Glasgow .. 



W. Greg, Prof. Longfield. 

Rev. J. E. Bromby, C. B. Fripp, 

James Heywood. 
W. R. Greg, W. Langton, Dr. W. C. 

Tayler. 
W. Cargill, J. Heywood, W. R. Wood. 
F. Clarke, R. W. Rawson, Dr. W. C. 

Tayler. 
C. R. Baird, Prof. Ramsay, R. W. 

Rawson. 
Rev. Dr. Byrth, Rev. R. Luney, R. 

W. Rawson. 
Rev. R. Luney, G. W. Ormerod, Dr. 

W. C. Tayler. 
Dr. D. Bullen, Dr. W. Cooke Tayler. 
J. Fletcher, J. Heywood, Dr. Laycock. 
J. Fletcher, W. Cooke Tayler, LL.D. 
J. Fletcher, F. G. P. Neison, Dr. W. 

C. Tayler, Rev. T. L. Shapcott. 
Rev. W. H. Cox, J. J. Danson, F. G. 
P. Neison. 

J. H. Vivian, M.P., F.R.S J. Fletcher, Capt. R. Shortrede. 

Rt. Hon. Lord Lyttelton Dr. Finch, Prof. Hancock, F. G. P. 

Neison. 
Prof. Hancock, J. Fletcher, Dr. J. 

Stark. 
J. Fletcher, Prof. Hancock. 
His Grace the Archbishop of Prof. Hancock, Prof. Ingram, James 

Dublin. MacAdam, Jun. 

James Heywood, M.P., F.R.S. ...Edward Cheshire, William Newmarch. 

Thomas Tooke, F.R.S E. Cheshire, J. T. Danson, Dr. W. H. 

Duncan, W. Newmarch. 
R. Monckton Milnes, M.P J. A. Campbell, E. Cheshire, W. New- 
march, Prof. R. H. Walsh. 



Charles Babbage, F.R.S 

Sir Charles Lemon, Bart., F.R.S. 

Rt. Hon. Lord Sandon 

Colonel Sykes, F.R.S 

Henry Hallain, F.R.S 

Rt. Hon. Lord Sandon, M.P., 

"F "R S 
Lieut, -Col. Sykes, F.R.S 

G. W. Wood, M.P., F.L.S 

Sir C. Lemon, Bart., M.P 

Lieut.-Col. Sykes, F.R.S., F.L.S. 
Rt. Hon. The Earl Fitzwilliam. . . 
G. R. Porter, F.R.S 

Travers Twiss, D.C.L., F.R.S. ... 



Very Rev. Dr. John Lee, 

V.P.R.S.E. 
Sir John P. Boileau, Bart. 



section f (continued). ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 



1856. Cheltenham 

1S57. Dublin 

1858. Leeds 

1859. Aberdeen ... 

1860. Oxford 

1861. Manchester 

1862. Cambridge.. 



Rt. Hon. Lord Stanley, M.P. 



His Grace the Archbishop of 

Dublin, M.R.I.A. 
Edward Baines 



Col. Sykes, M.P., F.R.S. .. 
Nassau W. Senior, M. A. . . 
William Newmarch, F.R.S. 

Edwin Chadwick, C.B 



Rev. C. H. Bromby.E. Cheshire, Dr. W. 

N. Hancock, W. Newmarch, W. M. 

Tartt. 
Prof. Cairns, Dr. H. D. Hutton, W. 

Newmarch. 
T. B. Baines, Prof. Cairns, S. Brown, 

Capt. Fishbourne, Dr. J. Strang. 
Prof. Cairns, Edmund Macrory, A. M. 

Smith, Dr. John Strang. 
Edmund Macrory, W. Newmarch, 

Rev. Prof. J. E. T. Rogers. 
David Chadwick, Prof. R, C. Christie, 

E. Macrory, Rev. Prof. J. E. T. 

Rogers. 
H. D. Macleod, Edmund Macrory. 



xl 



REPORT 1877. 



Date and Place. 



1S63. Newcastle 
1864. Bath 



Presidents. 



William Tite, M.P., F.R.S. 



William Farr, M.D., D.C.L. ; 
F.R.S. 
1865. Birmingham Et. Hon. Lord Stanley, LL.D. ; 
M.P. 
Prof. J. E. T. Rogers 



1866. Nottingham 

1867. Dundee 

1868. Norwich .. 

1869. Exeter 



M. E. Grant Duff, M.P. 



Samuel Brown, Pres. Instit. Ac 

Till T*l f^ 

Rt. Hon. Sir Stafford H. North- 
cote, Bart, C.B., M.P. 
1870. Liverpool... Prof. W. Stanley Jevons, M.A. . . 



Rt. Hon. Lord Neaves. 



1871. Edinburgh 

1872. Brighton ... Prof. Henry Fawcett, M.P 



1873. Bradford 
187-4. Belfast. 



1875. Bristol 

1876. Glasgow ... 

1877. Plymouth... 



Rt. Hon. W. E. Forster, M.P.... 



Lord O'Hagan. 



James Heywood, M.A., F.R.S., 

Pres.S.S. 
Sir George Campbell, K.C.S.I., 

M.P. 

Rt. Hon. the Earl Fortescuo 



Secretaries. 



T. Doubleday, Edmund Macrory, 
Frederick Purdy, James Potts. 

E. Macrory, E. T. Payne, F. Purdy. 

G. J. D. Goodman, G. J. Johnston, 

E. Macrory. 
R. Birkin, jun., Prof. Leone Levi, E. 

Macrory. 
Prof. Leone Levi, E. Macrory, A. J. 

Warden. 
Rev. W. C. Davie, Prof. Leone Levi. 

Edmund Macrory, Frederick Purdy, 

Charles T. D. Acland. 
Chas. R. Dudley Baxter, E. Macrory, 

J. Miles Moss. 
J. G. Fitch, James Meikle. 
J. G. Fitch, Barclay Phillips. 
J. G. Fitch, Swire Smith. 
Prof. Donnell, Frank P. Fellows, 

Hans MacMordie. 

F. P. Fellows, T. G. P. Hallett, E. 
Macrory. 

A. M'Neei Caird, T. G. P. Hallett, 
Dr. W. Neilson Hancock, Dr. W. 
Jack. 

W. F. Collier, P. Hallett, J. T. Pim. 



MECHANICAL SCIENCE. 



SECTION G. MECHANICAL SCIENCE. 



1836. 

1837. 
1838. 
1839. 

1840. 

1841. 

1842. 

1843. 
1844. 
1845. 
1846. 
1847. 
1848. 
1849. 
1850. 
1851. 
1852. 

1853. 

1354. 

1855. 

1856. 



Bristol I 

Liverpool ... 

Newcastle ... 
Birmingham 

Glasgow . . . 

Plymouth . . . 
Manchester . 

Cork 

York 

Cambridge .. 
Southampton 

Oxford 

Swansea 

Birmingham 
Edinburgh .. 

Ipswich 

Belfast 

Hull 

Liverpool ... 

Glasgow . . . 
Cheltenham 



Davies Gilbert, D.C.L., F.R.S... 

Rev. Dr. Robinson 

Charles Babbage, F.R.S 

Prof. Willis, F.R.S., and Robert 

Stephenson. 
Sir John Robinson 



John Tavlor, F.R.S 

Rev. Prof. Willis, F.R.S 

Prof. J. Macneill, M.R.I.A 

John Taylor, F.R.S 

George Rennie, F.R.S 

Rev. Prof. Willis, M.A., F.R.S. . 
Rev. Prof. Walker, M.A., F.R.S. 
Rev. Prof. Walker, M.A., F.R.S. 
Robert Stephenson, M.P., F.R.S. 

Rev. Dr. Robinson 

William Cubitt, F.R.S 

John Walker.C.E., LL.D., F.R.S. 

William Fairbairn, C.E., F.R.S.. 

John Scott Russell, F.R.S 

W. J. Macquorn Rankine, C.E., 

F.R.S. 
George Rennie, F.R.S 



T. G. Bunt, G. T. Clark, W. West. 

Charles Vignoles, Thomas Webster. 

R. Hawthorn, C. Vignoles, T. Webster. 

W. Carpmael, William Hawkes, Tho- 
mas Webster. 

J. Scott Russell, J. Thomson, J. Tod, 
C. Vignoles. 

Henry Chatfield, Thomas Webster. 

J. F. Bateman, J. Scott Russell, J. 
Thomson, Charles Vignoles. 

•James Thomson, Robert Mallet. 

Charles Vignoles, Thomas Webster. 

Rev. W. T. Kingsley. 

William Betts, jun., Charles Manby. 

J. Glynn, R. A. Le Mesurier. 

R. A. Le Mesurier, W. P. Struve. 

Charles Manby, W. P. Marshall. 

Dr. Lees, David Stephenson. 

John Head, Charles Manby. 

John F. Bateman, C. B. Hancock, 
Charles Manby, James Thomson. 

James Oldham, J. Thomson, W. Sykes 
Ward. 

John Grantham, J. Oldham, J. Thom- 
son. 

L. Hill, Jun., William Ramsay, J. 
Thomson. 

C. Atherton, B. Jones, jun., H. M. 
Jeffery. 



LIST OF EVENING LECTURES. 



Xli 



Date and Place. 



1857. 

1858. 
1859. 

1860. 

1861. 

1862. 
1S63. 

1864. 
1865. 

1S66. 

1867. 

1S68. 

1869. 
1870. 

1871. 

1S72. 

1873. 



Presidents. 



Dublin The Right Hon. The , Earl of 

Eosse, F.R.S. 



Leeds 

Aberdeen ... 

Oxford 

Manchester . 

Cambridge .. 
Newcastle . . . 

Bath 

Birmingham 

Nottingham 

Dundee 

Norwich ... 

Exeter 

Liverpool . . . 

Edinburgh 

Brighton .. 

Bradford . . 



William Fairbairn, F.R.S 

Rev. Prof. Willis, M.A., F.R.S. . 

Prof. W. J. Macquom Rankine, 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
J. F. Bateman, C.E., F.R.S 

William Fairbairn, LL.D., F.R.S. 
Rev. Prof. Willis, M.A., F.R.S. . 

J. Hawkshaw, F.R.S 

Sir W. G. Armstrong, LL.D., 

F.R.S. 
Thomas Hawksley, V.P.Inst 

C.E., F.G.S. 
Prof. W. J. Macquom Rankine 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
G. P. Bidder, C.E., F.R.G.S. .. 

C. W. Siemens, F.R.S 

Chas. B. Vignoles, C.E., F.R.S. 

Prof. Fleeming Jenkin, F.R.S... 

F. J. Bramwell, C.E 

W. H. Barlow, F.R.S 



Secretaries. 



Prof. James Thomson, LL.D., 

C.E., F.R.S.E. 
W. Froude, O.E., M.A., F.R.S. 



1S74. Belfast .. 
1875. Bristol.. 
1S76. Glasgow 
1877. Plymouth... Ed ward Woods, C.E 



C. W. Merrifield, F.R.S. 



Prof. Downing, W. T. Doyne, A. Tate, 

James Thomson, Henry Wright. 
J. C. Dennis, J. Dixon, H. Wright. 
R. Abernethy, P. Le Neve Foster, H. 

Wright. 
P. Le Neve Foster, Rev. F. Harrison, 

Henry Wright. 
P. Le Neve Foster, John Robinson, H. 

Wright. 
W. M. Fawcett, P. Le Neve Foster. 
P. Le Neve Foster, P. Wcstmacott, J. 

F. Spencer. 
P. Le Neve Foster, Robert Pitt. 
P. Le Neve Foster, Henry Lea, W. P. 

Marshall, Walter May. 
P. Le Neve Foster, J. F. Iselin, M. 

A. Tarbottom. 
P. Le Neve Foster, John P. Smith, 

W. W. Urquhart. 
P. Le Neve Foster, J. F. Iselin, C. 

Manby, W. Smith. 
P. Le Neve Foster, H. Bauerman. 
H. Bauerman, P. Le Neve Foster, T. 

King, J. N. Shoolbred. 
H. Bauerman, Alexander Leslie, J. P, 

Smith. 
H. M. Brunei, P. Le Neve Foster, 

J. G. Gamble, J. N. Shoolbred. 
Crawford Barlow, H. Bauerman, E. 

H. Carbutt, J. C. Hawkshaw, J. N. 

Shoolbred. 
A. T. Atchison, J. N. Shoolbred, Johu 

Smyth, jun. 
W. R. Browne, H. M. Brunei, J. G. 

Gamble, J. N. Shoolbred. 
W. Bottomlcy, jun., W. J. Millar, J. 

N. Shoolbred, J. P. Smith. 
A. T. Atcliison, Dr. Merrifield, J. N. 

Shoolbred. 



Date and Place. 



1842. Manchester 



1843. Cork 



List of Evening Lectures. 



1844. York 



Lecturer. 



Charles Vignoles, F.R.S. . 



Sir M. I.Brunei 

R. I. Murchison 

Prof. Owen, M.D., F.R.S. 
Prof. E. Forbes, F.R.S. . 



Dr. Robinson 

Charles Lyell, F.R.S. 
Dr. Falconer, F.R.S. 



1845. Cambridge..' G. B. Airy, F.R.S., Astron. Royal 
I R. I. Murchison, F.R.S 

1846.Southampton' Prof. Owen, M.D., F.R.S 

| Charles Lyell, F.R.S 



Subject of Discourse. 



The Principles and Construction of 

Atmospheric Railways. 
The Thames Tunnel. 
The Geology of Russia. 
The Dinornis of New Zealand. 
The Distribution of Animal Life in 

the iEgean Sea. 
The Earl of Rosse's Telescope. 
Geology of North America. 
The Gigantic Tortoise of the Siwalik 

Hills in India. 
Progress of Terrestrial Magnetism. 
Geology of Russia. 
Fossil Mammalia of the British Isles. 
Valley and Delta of the Mississippi. 



xlii 



report — 1877. 



Date and Place. 



Lecturer. 



Subject of Discourse. 



1816. Southampton 



1847. Oxford 



1848. Swansea . . . 

1849. Birmingham 

1850. Edinburgh. 

1851. Ipswich 

1852. Belfast 



1853. Hull 



1854. Liverpool .. 

1855. Glasgow 

1856. Cheltenham 



1857. Dublin 

1858. Leeds 

1859. Aberdeen .. 



1860. Oxford 

1861. Manchester 

1862. Cambridge 

1863. Newcastlc- 

on-Tyne. 



W. B. Grove, F.E.S. 



Eev. Prof. B. Powell, F.E.S. ... 
Prof. M. Faraday, F.E. S 

Hugh E. Strickland, F.G.S. ... 
John Percy, M.D., F.E.S 

W. Carpenter, M.D., F.E.S. ... 

Dr. Faraday, F.E.S 

Eev. Prof. Willis, M.A., F.E.S. 

Prof. J. H. Bennett, M.D., 
F.E.S.E. 

Dr. Mantoll, F.E.S 

Prof. E. Owen, M.D., F.E.S. 

G. B. Airy, F.E.S., Astron.Eoyal 
Prof. G.G. Stokes.D.C.L., F.E.S. 

Colonel Portlock, E.E., F.E.S. 



Prof. J. Phillips, LL.D., F.E.S. 
F.G.S. 

Eobert Hunt, F.E.S 

Prof. E. Owen, M.D., F.E.S. .. 
Col. E. Sabine, V.P.E.S 

Dr. W. B. Carpenter, F.E.S. .. 
Lieut.-Col. H. Eawlinson 



Col. Sir H. Eawlinson . 



1864. Bath 



W. E. Grove, F.E.S 

Prof. W. Thomson, F.E.S 

Eev. Dr. Livingstone, D.C.L. ... 
Prof. J. Phillips, LL.D., F.E.S. 
Prof. E. Owen, M.D., F.E.S. ... 

SirE.I.Murchison, D.C.L 

Eev. Dr. Eobinson, F.E.S 

Eev. Prof. Walker, F.E.S 

Captain Sherard Osborn, E.N. , 
Prof. W. A. MiUer, M.A., F.E.S. 
G. B. Airy, F.E.S., Astron. Eoy. . 
Prof. Tyndall, LL.D., F.E.S. ... 

Prof. Oilling, F.E.S 

Prof. Williamson, F.E.S 



James Glaisher, F.E.S. 

Prof. Eoscoe, F.E.S 

Dr. Livingstone, F.E.S. 



Properties of the Explosive substance 
discovered by Dr. Schonbein ; also 
some Eesearches of his own on the 
Decomposition of Water by Heat. 

Shooting-stars. 

Magnetic and Diamagnetic Pheno- 
mena. 

The Dodo (Didus ineptus). 

Metallurgical operations of Swansea 
and its neighbourhood. 

Eecent Microscopical Discoveries. 

Mr. Gassiot's Battery. 

Transit of different Weights with 
varying velocities on Eailways. 

Passage of the Blood through the 
minute vessels of Animals in con- 
nexion with Nutrition. 

Extinct Birds of New Zealand. 

Distinction between Plants and Ani- 
mals, and their changes of Form. 

Total Solar Eclipse of July 28, 1851. 

Eecent discoveries in the properties 
of Light. 

Eecent discovery of Eock-salt at Car- 
rickfergus, and geological and prac- 
tical considerations connected with it. 

Some peculiar phenomena in the Geo- 
logy and Physical Geography of 
Yorkshire. 

The present state of Photography. 

Anthropomorphous Apes. 

Progress of researches in Terrestrial 
Magnetism. 

Characters of Species. 

Assyrian and Babylonian Antiquities 
and Ethnology. 

Eecent discoveries in Assyria and 
Babylonia, with the results of Cunei- 
form research up to the present 
time. 

Correlation of Physical Forces. 

The Atlantic Telegraph. 

Eecent discoveries in Africa. 

The Ironstones of Yorkshire. 

The Fossil Mammalia of Australia. 

Geology of the Northern Highlands. 

Electrical Discharges in highly rare- 
fied Media. 

Physical Constitution of the Sun. 

Arctic Discovery. 

Spectrum Analysis. 

The late Eclipse of the Sun. 

The Forms and Action of Water. 

Organic Chemistry. 

The Chemistry of the Galvanic Bat- 
tery considered in relation to Dy- 
namics. 

The Balloon Ascents made for the 
British Association. 

The Chemical Action of Light. 

Eecent Travels in Africa. 



LIST OF EVENING LECTURES. 



xliii 



Date and Place. 



Lecturer. 



Subject of Discourse. 



1865. Birmingham 

1866. Nottingham. 

1867. Dundee 



1868. Norwich ... 

1869. Exeter 

1870. Liverpool .. 

1871. Edinburgh 

1872. Brighton ... 

1873. Bradford ... 

1874. Belfast... 



1867. Dundee.... 

1868. Norwich .. 
I860. Exeter .... 



1870. Liverpool . 

1872. Brighton . 

1873. Bradford . 

1874. Belfast.... 

1875. Bristol.... 

1876. Glasgow . 

1877. Plymouth. 



J. Beete Jukes, F.R.S 



William Huggins, F.R.S 

Dr. J. D. Hooker, F.R.S 

Archibald Geikie, F.R.S 

Alexander Herschel, F.R.A.S. . . 

J. Fergusson, F.R. S 

Dr. W. Odling, F.R.S 

Prof. J. Phillips, LL.D., F.R.S. 
J. Norman Lockyer, F.R.S 

Prof. J. Tyndall, LL.D, F.R.S 
Prof. W. J. Macquorn Rankine, 

LL.D, F.R.S. 
F. A. Abel, F.R.S 

E. B. Tylor, F.R.S 

Prof. P. Martin Duncan, M.D, 

Prof. W. K Clifford 



1875. 




1876. 


Glasgow . . . 


1877. 


Plymouth... 



Prof. W. C. Williamson, F.R.S 

Prof. Clerk Maxwell, F.R.S 

Sir John Lubbock, Bart., M.P. 

F.R.S. 
Prof. Huxley, F.R.S 

William Spottiswoode, LL.D, 

F.R.S. 

F. J. Bramwell , F.R. S 

Prof. Tait, F.R.S.E 

Sir Wyville Thomson, F.R.S. .. 
W. Warington Smyth, M.A 

F.R.S. 

Prof. Odling, F.R.S. 



Probabilities as to the position and 
extent of the Coal-measures beneath 
the red rocks of the Midland Coun- 
ties. 

The results of Spectrum Analysis 
applied to Heavenly Bodies. 

Insular Floras. 

The Geological origin of the present 
Scenery of Scotland. 

The present state of knowledge re- 
garding Meteors and Meteorites. 

Archaeology of the early Buddhist 
Monuments. 

Reverse Chemical Actions. 

Vesuvius. 

The Physical Constitution of the 
Stars and Nebula). 

The Scientific Use of the Imagination. 

Stream-lines and Waves, in connexion 
with Naval Architecture. 

Some recent investigations and appli- 
cations of Explosive Agents. 

The Relation of Primitive to Modern 
Civilization. 

Insect Metamorphosis. 

The Aims and Instruments of Scien- 
tific Thought. 

Coal and Coal Plants. 

Molecules. 

Common Wild Flowers considered in 
relation to Insects. 

The Hypothesis that Animals are 
Automata, and its History. 

The Colours of Polarized Light. 

Railway Safety Appliances. 

Force. 

The ' Challenger ' Expedition. 

The Physical Phenomena connected 

with the Mines of Cornwall and 

Devon. 
The new Element, Gallium. 



Lectures to the Operative Classes. 



Prof. J. Tyndall, LL.D, F.R.S. 
Prof. Huxley, LL.D, F.R.S. ... 
Prof. Miller, M.D, F.R.S 



Sir John Lubbock, Bart, M.P, 

F.R.S. 
William Spottiswoode, LL.D, 

0. W. Siemens, D.C.L, F.R.S... 

Prof. Odling, F.R.S 

Dr. W. B. Carpenter, F.R.S. ... 
Commander Cameron, C.B,R.N. 
W. H. Preece 



Matter and Force. 

A piece of Chalk. 

Experimental illustrations of the 
modes of detecting the Composi- 
tion of the Sun and other Heavenly 
Bodies by the Spectrum. 

Savages. 

Sunshine, Sea, and Sky. 

Fuel. 

The Discovery of Oxygen. 

A piece of Limestone. 

A Journey through Africa. 

Telegraphy and the Telephone. 



xliv 



REPORT 1877. 



Table showing the Attendance and Receipts 



Date of Meeting. 


Where held. 






Presidents. q,-. 
Men 


Life 
ibers. 


New Life 
Members. 




1831, Sept. 27 ... 

1832, June 19 ... 

1833, June 25 ... 

1834, Sept. 8 ... 

1835, Aug. 10 ... 

1836, Aug. 22 ... 

1837, Sept. 11 ... 

1838, Aug. 10 ... 

1839, Aug. 26 ... 

1840, Sept. 17 ... 

1 841, July 20 ... 

1842, June 23 ... 

1843, Aug. 17 ... 

1844, Sept. 26 ... 

1845, June 19 ... 

1846, Sept. 10 ... 

1847, June 23 ... 

1848, Aug. 9 

1849, Sept. 12 ... 

1850, July 21 ... 

1851, July 2 

1852, Sept. 1 

1853, Sept. 3 ... 

1854, Sept. 20 ... 

1855, Sept. 12 ... 

1857, Aug. 26 ... 

1858, Sept. 22 ... 

1859, Sept. 14 ... 
i860, June 27 ... 
1 861, Sept. 4 

1863, Aug. 26 ... 

1864, Sept. 13 ... 

1865, Sept. 6 ... 

1866, Aug. 22 ... 

1867, Sept. 4 ... 

1868, Aug. 19 ... 

1869, Aug. 18 ... 

1870, Sept. 14 ... 

1872, Aug. 14 ... 

1873, Sept. 17 ... 

1874, Aug. 19 ... 

1875, Aug. 25 ... 

1876, Sept. 6 

1877, Aug. 15 ... 

1878, Aug. 14 ... 


York 


The Earl Fitzwilliam, D.C.L 

The Eev. W. Buckland, F.E.S. .. 

The Eev. A. Sedgwick, F.E.S 

Sir T. M. Brisbane, D.C.L 

The Eev. Provost Lloyd, LL.D. 

The Earl of Burlington, F.E.S. . 
The Duke of Northumberland. .. 
The Eev. W. Yernon Harcourt . 
The Marquis of Breadalbane ... 
The Eev. W. Whewell, F.E.S. ... 1 ( 

The Earl of Eosse, F.E.S 1 c 

The Eev. Gr. Peacock, D.D 2: 
Sir John F. W. Herschel, Bart. . 3 
Sir Eoderiek I. Murchison, Bart. zi 

The Marquis of Northampton ... 1 t 
The Eev. T. E. Eobinson, D.D. . 2: 

Gr. B. Airy, Esq., Astron. Eoyal . i- 
Lieut.-General Sabine, F.E.S. ... 1 
William Hopkins, Esq., F.E.S. . u 
The Earl of Harrowby, F.E.S. .. 2 

The Duke of Argyll, F.E.S 1 < 

Prof. C. G. B. Daubeny, M.D. . . . 1 < 
The Eev. Humphrey Lloyd, D.D. 2 
Eichard Owen, M.D., D'.C.L. ... 2 
H.E.H. The Prince Consort ... 1 
The Lord Wrottesley, M.A. 2 
William Fairbairn, LL.D..F.E.S. y 
The Eev. Prof. Willis, M.A. ... 2 
Sir William G. Armstrong, C.B. 2< 
Sir Charles Lyell, Bart., M.A.. . . 2 
Prof. J. Phillips, M. A., LL.D.... 2 
William E. Grove, Q.C., F.E.S. 2< 
The Duke of Buecleuch, X.C.B. 1 
Dr. Joseph D. Hooker, F.E.S.... i< 

Prof. G. G. Stokes, D.C.L a! 

Prof. T. H. Huxley, LL.D, 3 
Prof. Sir W. Thomson, LL.D.... 2. 
Dr. W. B. Carpenter, F.E.S. ... 2. 
Prof. A. W. Williamson, F.E.S. 2 
Prof. J. Tyndall, LL.D., F.E.S. K 
Sir John Hawkshaw, C.E.,F.E.S. v 
Prof. T. Andrews, M.D., F.E.S. 2: 
Prof. A. Thomson, M.D., F.E.S. i- 
W. Spottiswoode, M.A., F.E.S. 


'9 
>3 
'9 
.6 

'3 
1-' 

'4 

r9 

-7 
55 

72 

»4 

J8 

H 

?2 

56 
12 

H 

56 

SI 

59 

17 

)* 

>7 
57 
J6 

'4 
r 6 
1-5 

t2 
)2 

!9 
.1 

'3 






Oxford 


65 

169 

28 
150 
36 
10 
18 

3 
12 

9 

8 

10 

»3 

2 3 
33 
J 4 
J5 
42 
27 

ZI 

113 

IS 

36 

40 
44 
3i 
as 
18 
21 

39 
28 
36 

27 

13 
36 

35 
19 




Cambridge 








Dublin 








Newcastle-on-Tyne .. 




Glasgow 




Plymouth 




Manchester 








York 




Cambridge 




Oxford 












Edinburgh 








Belfast 




Hull 












Cheltenham 




Dublin 












Oxford 








Cambridge 




Newcastle-on-Tyne .. 
Bath 




























Brighton 




Bradford 




Belfast 
















Dublin 













ATTENDANCE AND RECEIPTS AT ANNUAL MEETINGS. 



xlv 



at Annual Meetings of the Association. 



Attended by 


Amount 

received 

during the 

Meeting. 


Sums paid on 
Account of 
Grants for 


Old 


New- 








Annual 


Annual 


Associate s. 


Ladies. Fore 


igners. Total. 


Scientific 


Members. 


Members. 








Purposes. 












£ s. d. 


£ s. d. 


... 


... 


... 


... 


353 

900 
1298 
























20 












167 

435 ° ° 
922 12 6 










1350 
1840 




... 


... 


... 


... 










1 1 00* 


2400 

34 H38 

^° 1353 

891 

18 1315 




932 2 2 

1595 11 

1546 16 4 

1235 10 11 

1449 17 8 

1565 10 2 

981 12 8 

831 9 9 

68s 16 

208 5 4 

275 1 8 






















46 

75 
7i 
45 
94 
65 
197 

54 


317 
376 
185 
190 
22 




60* 




33+ 


33i* 
160 






407 
270 

495 
376 


260 






172 


35 i°79 

36 857 

53 1320 
15 819 




39 

40 

25 


196 
203 
197 






•joy 


93 


33 


447 


237 


22 1071 


963 


159 1 9 6 


128 


42 


510 


273 


44 1241 


1085 ° ° 


345 18 


61 


47 


244 


141 


37 7i° 


620 


391 9 7 


63 


60 


510 


292 


9 1108 


1085 


304 6 7 


56 


57 


367 


236 


6 876 


903 


205 


121 


121 


765 


524 


10 1802 


1882 


380 19 7 


142 


IOI 


1094 


543 


26 2133 


231 100 


480 16 4 


104 


48 


412 


346 


9 "15 


1098 


734 13 9 


156 


120 


900 


569 


26 2022 


2015 


5°7 15 4 


in 


9 1 


710 


509 


13 1698 


1931 


618 18 2 


125 


179 


1206 


821 


22 2564 


2782 


6S4 11 1 


177 


59 


636 


463 


47 1689 


1604 


766 19 6 


184 


125 


1589 


791 


15 3138 


3944 


1 1 j 1 s IO 


150 


57 


433 


242 


25 1 161 


1089 


1293 16 6 


»54 


209 


1704 


1004 


25 3335 


3640 


1608 3 10 


182 


103 


1119 


1058 


13 2802 


2965 


1289 15 8 


215 


149 


766 


508 


23 1997 


2227 


1591 7 10 


218 


105 


960 


77' 


11 2303 


•469 


1750 13 4 


J 93 


118 


1163 


771 


7 2444 


2613 


1739 4 


226 


117 


720 


682 


45t 2004 


2042 


1 940 


229 


107 


678 


600 


17 1856 


1931 


1622 


3°3 


195 


1 103 


910 


14 2878 


3096 


1572 


311 


127 


976 


754 


21 2463 


2575 


1472 2 6 


280 


80 


937 


912 


43 2533 


2649 


1285 


237 


99 


796 


601 


11 1983 


2120 


1685 


232 


85 


817 


630 


12 1951 


1979 


1151 16 


307 


93 


884 


672 


17 2248 


2397 


960 


33 1 


185 


1265 


712 


25 2774 


3023 


1092 4 2 


238 


59 


446 


283 


11 1229 


1268 


1128 9 7 



* Ladies were not admitted by purchased Tickets until 1843. 

t Tickets for admission to Sections only. J Including Ladies. 



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OFFICERS OF SECTIONAL COMMITTEES. xlvii 

OFFICERS OF SECTIONAL COMMITTEES PEESENT AT THE 
PLYMOUTH MEETING. 

SECTION A. MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICS. 

President. — Professor G. C. Foster, B.A., F.R.S., President of the Physical Society. 

Vice-Presidents.— Professor J. C. Adams, M.A., LL.D., F.R.S.; Professor W. Qt. 
Adams, M.A., F.R.S. ; Professor Carle y, LL.D., F.R.S., ; Rev. Professor Haugh- 
ton, M.A., D.C.L., F.R.S.; Rev. Professor Bartholomew Price, M.A., F.R.S. ; 
Lord Rayleigh, M.A., F.R.S., F.R.A.S. ; Sir "William Thomson, M.A. ; D.C.L., 

Secretaries.— Professor Barrett, F-.R.S.E. ; J. T. Bottomley, M.A., F.C.S. j J. W. 
L. Glaisher, M.A., F.R.S., F.R.A.S. ; F. G. Landon, M.A. 

SECTION B. CHEMISTRY AND MINERALOGY, INCLUDING THEIR APPLICATIONS TO 

AGRICULTURE AND THE ARTS. 

President, — F. A. Abel, F.R.S., Past President of the Chemical Society. 
Vice-Presidents.— Br. Gladstone, F.R.S., F.C.S. ; A. G. Vemon Harcourt, F.R.S., 

F.C.S. ; Dr. Longstaff, F.C.S. ; Professor Odling, M.B., F.R.S., F.C.S.; W. H. 

Perkin, F.R.S., F.C.S. ; Dr. W. J. Russell, F.R.S., F.C.S. j H. C. Sorby, F.R.S. ; 

Professor A. W. Williamson, Ph.D., F.B.S., F.C.S. 
Secretaries.— Dr. Oxland, F.C.S. ; W. Chandler Roberts, F.R.S., F.C.S. ; John M. 

Thomson, F.C.S. 

SECTION C. GEOLOGY. 

President.— W. Pengelly, F.R.S., F.G.S. 

Vice-Presidents.— R. Etheridge, F.R.S., F.G.S. ; Captain Douglas Galton, C.B., 

F.R.S., F.G.S. ; Rev. Professor Haughton, M.A., D.C.L., F.R.S., F.G.S. ; War- 

ington W. Smyth, M.A., F.R.S., F.G.S. ; T. Sopwith, M.A., F.R.S., F.G.S. ; 

H. C. Sorby, F.'R.S. ; Rev. W. S. Symonds, M.A., F.G.S. 
Secretaries.— Dr. Le Neve Foster, F.G.S. ; R. H. Tiddeman, M.A., F.G.S. ; W. 

Topley, F.G.S. 

SECTION D. BIOLOGY. 

President— J. Gwyn Jeffreys, LL.D., F.R.S., F.L.S. 

Vice-Presidents.— Dr. Acland, M.A, F.R.S. ; Dr. Beddoe, F.R.S. ; John Evans, 
D.C.L., F.R.S. ; Francis Galton, M.A., F.R.S. ; Professor A. Macalister, M.D. ; 
Professor M'Kendrick, M.A., F.R.S.E. ; Professor Newton, M.A., F.R.S. ; Pro- 
fessor Redfern, M.D. ; Professor Rolleston, M.A., M.D., F.R.S. ; P. L. Sclater, 
M.A., Ph.D., F.R.S. 

Secretaries. — E. R. Alston, F.L.S. ; F. Brent; Dr. D. J. Cunningham ;C. A. King- 
ston, M.D., B.Sc; Professor W. R. M'Nab, M.D. ; J. B. Rowe, F.L.S. ; F. W. 
Rudler, F.G.S. 

SECTION E. GEOGRAPHY AND ETHNOLOGY. 

President— Admiral Sir Erasmus Ommanney, C.B., F.R.S., F.R.G.S., F.R.A.S. 
Vice-Presidents. — Major Wilson, R.E., F.R.S., F.R.G.S.; Captain Verney, R.N., 

■p ri p o 

Secretaries'— H. W. Bates, F.L.S., Assist. Sec. R.G.S. ; Francis E. Fox, F.R.G.S. ; 
E. C. Rye, F.Z.S., Librarian R.G.S. 

SECTION E. ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 

President. — The Right Hon. the Earl Fortescue. 

Vice-Presidents.— Six T. D. Acland, Bart., M.A., D.C.L., M.P. ; William Farr, 
M.D., F.R.S. ; Dr. W. Neilson Hancock, M.R.I.A. ; The Right Hon. Lord 
Houghton, M.A., D.C.L., F.R.S. ; AV. F. Moore, Mayor of Plymouth ; Sir James 
Watson ; Sir George Young, Bart. 

Secretaries.— W. F. Collier; P. Hallett, M.A. ; Joseph T. Pirn. 

SECTION G. — MECHANICAL SCIENCE. 

President. — Edward Woods, C.E. 

Vice-Presidents.— W. H. Barlow, C.E., F.R.S.; C. Bergeron, C.E. ; F. J. Bram- 

well, C.E., F.R.S. ; Edward Easton, C.E. ; William Froude, M.A., C.E., F.R.S. ; 

C. W. Merrifield, F.R.S. ; J. R. Napier, F.R.S. 
Secretaries.— A. T. Atchison, M.A. ; Dr. Merrifield, F.R.A.S. ; J. N. Shoolbred, 

C.E., F.G.S. 



OFFICERS AND COUNCIL, 1877-78. 



PRESIDENT. 
PEOFESSOE ALLEN THOMSON, M.D., LL.D., F.E.S.L.&E. 

VICE-PRESIDENTS. 
The Eight Hon. the Earl of Mount-Edgcumbe. I William Froude, Esq., M.A., C.E., F.E.8. 
The Eight Hon. Lord Blackford, E.C.M.G. Charles Spence Bate, Esq., F.E.8., 

William Spottiswoode, Esq., M.A., D.C.L., F.L.S. 
LL.D., F.E.8., F.E.A.S., F.E.G.S. | 

PRESIDENT ELECT. 
WILLIAM SPOTTISWOODE, Esq., M.A., D.C.L., LL.D., F.E.S., F.E.A.S., F.E.G.S. 

VICE-PRESIDENTS ELECT. 



The Eight Hon. the Lord Mayor of Dublin. 
The Provost of Trinity College, Dublin. 
*His Grace the Duke of Abeecorn, E.G. 
*The Eight Hon. the Earl of Enniskillen, 
D.C.L., F.E.S., F.G.S., M.E.I.A. 



The Eight Hon. the Earl of EoSSE, B.A., D.C.L., 

F.B.S., F.E.A.S., M.E.I.A. 
The Eight Hon. Lord O'Hagan, M E.I.A. 
Professor G. G. Stokes, M.A., D.C.L., LL.D., 

Sec. E.S. 



* Nominated by the Council. 

LOCAL SECRETARIES FOR THE MEETINC AT DUBLIN. 
Prof. E. 8. Ball, M.A., F.E.S. I John Norwood, Esq.. LL.D. 

James Goff, Esq. Prof. G. Sigerson, M.D. 

LOCAL TREASURER FOR THE MEETINC AT DUBLIN. 
T. Maxwell Hutton, Esq. 



ORDINARY MEMBERS 
Abel, F. A., Esq., C.B., F.E.S. 
Barlow, W. H., Esq., F.E.S. 
Bramwell, F. J., Esq.. C.E., F.E.S. 
Cayley, Professor, F.E.S. 
De La Eue, Warren, Esq., D.C.L., F.E.S. 
Evans, J., Esq., F.Ii.S. 
Farr, Dr. W., F.E.S. 
Foster, Professor G. C, F.E.S. 
Froude, W., Esq., F.E.S. 
Grant, Col. J. A., C.B., F.E.S. 
Heywood, J., Esq., F.E.8. 
Houghton, Et. Hon. Lord, F.E.S 
Huggins, W., Esq., F.E.S. 



OF THE COUNCIL. 

Maskelyne, Prof. N. 8., M.A., F.E.S. 
Maxwell, Professor J. Clerk, F.E.S. 
Newton, Professor A., F.E.S. 
Ommanney, Admiral Sir E., C.B., F.E.S. 
Pengelly, W., Esq., F.Ii.S. 
Prestwich, Professor J., F.E.S. 
Eolleston, Professor G., M.A., F.E.S. 
Eoscoe, Professor H. E., Ph.D., F.E.S. 
Eussell, Dr. W. J., F.E.S. 
Sanderson, Prof. J. S. Burdon, F.E.S. 
Smith, Professor H. J. 8., F.E.S. 
Smyth, Waiungton W., Esq., F.E.S. 



CENERAL SECRETARIES. 
Capt. DOUGLAS Galton, C.B., D.C.L., F.E.S.. F.G.S., 12 Chester Street, Grosvenor Place, London, S.W. 
Philip Lutley Sclater, Esq., M.A., Ph.D., F.E.S., F.L.S., H Hanover Square, London, W. 

ASSISTANT CENERAL SECRETARY. 
George Griffith, Esq., M.A., F.C.S., Harrow-on-the-hill, Middlesex. 

CENERAL TREASURER. 
Professor A. W. Williamson, Ph.D., F.E.S., F.C.S., University College, London, W.C. 

EX-OFFICIO MEMBERS OF THE COUNCIL. 

The Trustees, the President and President Elect, the Presidents of former years, the Vice-Presidents and 
Vice-Presidents Elect, the General and Assistant General Secretaries for the present and former years, 
the General Treasurers for the present and former years, and the.Local Treasurer and Secretaries for the 
ensuing Meeting. 

TEUSTEES (PEEMANENT). 

General Sir Edward Sabine, E.C.B.. E.A., D.C.L., F.E.S. 

Sir Philip de M. Grey' Egerton, Bart, M.P., F.E.S F G 8 

Sir John Lubbock, Bart., M.P., F.E.S., F.L.S. 



PEESIDENTS OF FOEMEE XEAES. 



The Duke of Devonshire. 
The Eev. T. E. Eobinson, D.D. 
Sir G. B. Airy, Astronomer Eoyal. 
General Sir E. Sabine, K.C.B. 
The Earl of Harrowby. 
The Duke of Argvll. 
The Eev. H. Lloyd, D.D. 



Eichard Owen, M.D., D.C.L. 
Sir W. G. Armstrong, C.B., LL.D. 
Sir William E. Grove, F.E.S. 
The Duke of Buceleuch.E.G. 
Sir Joseph D. Hooker, D.C.L. 
Professor Stokes, M.A., D.C.L. 
Prof. Huxley, LL.D., Sec. E.S. 



Prof. Sir W. Thomson, D.C.L. 
Dr. Carpenter, F.E.S. 
Prof. Williamson, Ph.D., F.E.S. 
Prof. Tyndall, D.C.L., F.E.S. 
Sir John Hnwkshnw, C.E., F.E.S. 
Prof. T. Andrews, M.D., F.E.8. 



F. Galton, Esq., F.E.S. 
Dr. T. A. Hirst, F.E.S. 



GENEEAL OFFICEES OF FOEMEE VEAES. 

I Gen. Sir E. Sabine, E.C.B., F.E.S. I Dr. Michael Foster, F.E 8. 
I W. Spottiswoode, Esq., F.E.S. J 



Professor W. H. Flower, F.E.S. 



AUDITORS. 
Professor G. C. Foster, F.E.S. 



W. Spottiswoode, Esq., F.E.S. 



REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. xllX 



Report of the Council for the Fear 1876-77, presented to the General 
Committee at Plymouth on Wednesday, August 15th, 1877. 

The Council have received Eeports during the past year from the General 
Treasurer, and his Account for the year will be laid before the General Com- 
mittee this day. 

The following Eesolution was referred by the General Committee at 
Glasgow to the Council for consideration, and for action, if it should seem 
desirable : — 

" That the Council be requested to consider and take steps, if they think 
it desirable, to urge upon Her Majesty's Government the advisability 
of forming a Museum of Scientific Instruments and Chemical Products, 
as suggested in the Memorial presented in June last to the Lord 
President of Her Majesty's Council." 

The Council having considered this Eesolution, came to the conclusion that 
while they believe that a Permanent Museum of Scientific Instruments might 
be of great value, it is their opinion that the objects of the Memorial referred 
to in the Eesolution submitted to the Council are, as a whole, neither so 
clearly defined, nor so free from valid objections, as to justify the Council of 
the British Association in supporting the proposals of the Memorial in its 
present form. 

The attention of the Council having been drawn to the character of some 
of the Sectional Proceedings at late Meetings of the Association, a Committee 
was appointed to consider and report to the Council on the possibility of 
excluding unscientific or otherwise unsuitable papers and discussions from 
the Sectional Proceedings of the Association. 

The Committee recommended that papers which have been reported on 
unfavourably by the Organizing Committees shall not be brought before the 
Sectional Committees, and that, in the rules for conducting the business of 
the Sectional Committees, the following rules should be inserted, viz. : — 

1. The President shall call on the Secretary to read the minutes of the 
previous Meeting of the Committee. 

2. No paper shall be read until it has been formally accepted by the 
Committee of the Section, and entered on the minutes accordingly. 

The Council propose that this alteration of rules shall be carried into effect. 

The Committee in their Eeport further considered that some of the 
subjects brought before Section F could not be considered scientific in the 
ordinary sense of that word, and that the question of the discontinuance of 
Section F deserved the serious consideration of the Council. 

The Council have requested the Committee to report more fully the reasons 
which had induced them to come to this conclusion, but the Committee have 
not yet mado a further report. 

1877. d 



1 



UEroRT — 1877. 



The Council regret to state that Mr. Griffith has informed them that he is 
desirous of -withdrawing from the office of Assistant General Secretary, -which 
he has held for nearly sixteen years. 

The Council having carefully considered the steps expedient to be taken in 
consequence of Mr. Griffith's proposed withdrawal, have resolved to select 
Mr. J. E. H. Gordon, B.A., of Caius College, Cambridge, for nomination as 
Assistant Secretary after the Dublin Meeting in 1878. The Council propose 
that Mr. Gordon be requested to attend the present Meeting, and to assist 
generally during the ensuing year. 

To cover his expenses during this preliminary period, the Council re- 
commend that a grant of £100 be made to him. 

The following Foreign Men of Science, who had attended the Glasgow 
Meeting, have been elected Corresponding Members : — 



Professor Cremona. 

Professor Eccker. 

Dr. B. A. Gould. 

Professor Hiickel. 

Professor Von Quintus Icilius. 

Dr. G. Jung. 



Dr. Lasaulx. 
Professor P. D. Silva. 
Baron Von Wrangcll. 
Professor Wullner. 
Dr. "W. J. Janssen. 



The Council have been informed that invitations for the Meeting in 1870, 
or following years, will be presented from Swansea and Nottingham, and 
from York for the year 1881, being the fiftieth anniversary of the British 
Association, the first meeting of which was held in that city. 

The following are the names of Members of Council for the past year who, 
in accordance with the regulations, are not eligible for re-election this year, 
viz. : — 



Sir Rutherford Alcock. 
Professor Flower. 
Mr. Gassiot. 



Mr. Merrifield. 
Mr. Gwyn Jeffreys. 



The Council recommend the re-election of the other ordinary Members of 
Council, with the addition of the gentlemen whose names are distinguished 
by an asterisk in the following list : — 



Abel, F. A., Esq., F.R.S. 
*Barlow, W. H., Esq., F.R.S. 

BramweU, F. J., Esq., C.E., F.R.S. 

Cayley, Professor, F.R.S. 

De La Rue, "Warren, Esq., D.C.L., 
F.R.S. 

Evans, J., Esq., F.R.S. 

Farr, Dr. W., F.R.S. 
*Foster, Professor G. C, F.R.S. 

Froude, W., Esq., F.R.S. 
*Grant, Lieut.-Col. J., C.B., F.R.S. 

Heywood, J., Esq., F.R.S. 

Houghton, Lord, F.R.S. 

Huggins, W., Esq., F.R.S. 



Maskelyne, Prof. N. S., M.A., F.R.S. 

Maxwell, Professor J. Clerk, F.R.S. 

Newton, Professor A., F.R.S. 

Ommaney, Admiral Sir E., C.B., 
F.R.S. 

Pengelly, W., Esq., F.R.S. 

Prestwich, Professor J., F.R.S, 

Rolleston, Professor G., M.A., F.R.S. 

Eoscoc, Professor H. E., Ph.D., 
F.R.S. 

Russell, Dr. W. J., F.R.S. 
*Sandcrson, Professor Burdon, F.R.S. 

Smith, Professor H. J. S., F.R.S. 
*Smyth, Warington W., Esq., F.R.S. 



RECOMMENDATIONS OF THE GENERAL COMMITTEE. li 



Recommendations adopted by the General Committee at the Plymouth 
Meeting in August 1877. 

[When Committees are appointed, tbo Member first named is regarded as the Secretary, 
except tbere is a specific nomination.] 

Involving Grants of Money. 

That the Committee, consisting of Professor Cayley, Professor G. G. Stokes, 
Professor H. J. S. Smith, Professor Sir William Thomson, Mr. James Glaisher, 
and Mr. J. W. L. Glaisher (Secretary), be reappointed ; and that the sum of 
£100 be placed at their disposal for the purpose of calculating a Factor Table 
of the fourth million, as a continuation of Burckhardt's tables which extend 
from 1 to 3,000,000. 

That the Committee, consisting of Professor G. Forbes and Professor Sir 
William Thomson, for the purpose of making arrangements for the taking of 
certain observations in India, be reappointed with the addition of the name 
of Professor Everett ; and that the sum of £15 be placed at their disposal in 
order to enable them to have observations on Atmospheric Electricity under- 
taken at Madeira. 

That the Committee, consisting of Mr. James Glaisher, Mr. It. P. Greg, 
Mr. Charles Brooke, Dr. Flight, and Professor A. S. Herschel, on Luminous 
Meteors, be reappointed; and that the sum of £10 be placed at their dis- 
posal. 

That the Committee, consisting of Dr. Joule, Professor Sir W. Thomson, 
Professor Tait, Professor Balfour Stewart, and Professor J. Clerk Maxwell, 
for effecting the Determination of the Mechanical Equivalent of Heat, be 
reappointed ; and that £65, being the portion that has lapsed of the £100 
granted last year, be renewed. 

That the Committee, consisting of Professor Sir William Thomson, Pro- 
fessor Tait, Professor Grant, Dr. Siemens, and Professor Purser, for the 
Measurement of the Lunar Disturbance of Gravity, be reappointed ; and that 
the graut of £50 which has lapsed be renewed. 

That Dr. Crum Brown and Messrs. Dewar, Dittmar, and Dixon be a Com- 
mittee for the purpose of investigating some Methods that have been recently 
proposed for the Quantitative Estimation of Atmospheric Ozone ; that Mr. E. 
M. Dixon be the Secretary, and that the sum of £10 be placed at their 
disposal for the purpose. 

That Mr. W. Chandler Roberts, Dr. C. R. Alder Wright, and Mr. A. P. 
Luff be a Committee for the purpose of investigating the Chemical Composi- 
tion and Structure of some of the less-knowu Alkaloids— Ycratrine and Be- 
beerine in particular ; that Dr. Wright be the Secretary, and that the sum of 
£25 be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Dr. J. Evans, Sir John Lubbock, Bart., Mr. E. Vivian, Mr. W. 
Pengelly, Mr. G. Busk, Professor W. B. Dawkins, Mr. W. A. Sandford, and 
Mr. J. E. Lee be a Committee for the purpose of continuing the explora- 
tion of Kent's Cavern, Torquay ; that Mr. Pengelly be the Secretary, and 
that the sum of £50 be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

d2 



lii report — 1877. 

That Dr. J. Evans, the Rev. T. G. Bonney, Mr. W. Carruthers, Mr. F. 
Drew, Mr. R. Etheridge, Jun., Mr. G. A. Lebour, Professor L. C. Miall, 
Professor H. A. Nicholson, Mr. P. W. Rudler, Mr. E. B. Tawney, Mr. W. 
Topley, and Mr. W. Whitaker be a Committee for the purpose of carrying 
on the Geological Record ; that Mr. Whitaker be the Secretary, and that 
the sum of £100 be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Mr. Godwin-Austen, Professor Prestwich, Mr. Davidson, Mr. 
Etheridge, Mr. Willett, and Mr. Topley be a Committee for the purpose 
of assisting the Kentish Boring Exploration ; that Mr. Willett and Mr. 
Topley be the Secretaries, and that the sum of £100 be placed at their dis- 
posal for the purpose. 

That Professor Harkness and Mr. Jolly be a Committee for the purpose of 
investigating the Fossils in the N.W. Highlands ; that Mr. Jolly bo the Se- 
cretary, and that the sum of £10 be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Rev. Dr. Haughton, Professor Leith Adams, Professor Barrett, Mr. 
Hardman, and Dr. Macalister be a Committee for the purpose of Exploring 
the Fermanagh Caves ; that Dr. Macalister be the Secretary, and that the 
sum of £30 be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Professor A. S. Herschel and Mr. G. A. Lcbour be reappointed a 
Committee for the purpose of making experiments on the Thermal Con- 
ductivities of certain rocks ; that Professor Herschel be the Secretary, and 
that the sum of £10 be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Professor Hull, Rev. H. W. Crosskey, Captain D. Galton, Mr. 
Glaisher, Mr. H. H. Howell, Mr. G. A. Lebour, Mr. W. Molyneux, Mr. Morton, 
Mr. Pengelly, Professor Prestwich, Mr. Plant, Mr. W. Whitaker, and Mr. 
Do Ranee be reappointed a Committee for the purpose of investigating the 
Circulation of the Underground AVaters in the Jurassic, New Red Sand- 
stone, and Permian Formations of England, and the Quantity and Charac- 
ter of the Water supplied to various towns and districts from those forma- 
tions ; that Mr. Dc Ranee be the Secretary, and that the sum of £15 be 
placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Sir John Lubbock, Bart., Professor Prestwich, Professor Busk, Pro- 
fessor T. M'K. Hughes, Professor W. Boyd Dawkins,. Professor MiaU, Rev. 
H. W. Crosskey, Mr. H. C. Sorby, and Mr. R. H. Tiddeman be a Com- 
mittee for tho purpose of assisting in the exploration of the Settle Caves, 
Victoria Cave ; that Mr. R. H. Tiddeman be the Secretary, and that the 
sum of £100 be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Mr. Dew-Smith, Professor Huxley, Dr. Carpenter, Dr. Gwyn 
Jeffreys, Mr. Sclater, Dr. M. Foster, Mr. F. M. Balfour, and Professor Ray 
Lankester be reappointed a Committee for the purpose of arranging with Dr. 
Dohrn for the occupation of a Table at the Zoological Station at Naples 
during the ensuing year ; that Mr. Dew-Smith be the Secretary, and that 
the sum of £75 be placed at their disposal for the purpose, 

That Colonel Lane Fox, Professor Rolleston, Dr. John Evans, Mr. Hilton 
Price, and Mr. Park Harrison be reappointed a Committee for the purpose 
of Exploring Ancient Earthworks ; that Colonel Lane Fox be the Secretary, 
and that the sum of £25 be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Professor McKendrick and Mr. J. T. Bottornley be a Committee for 
the purpose of investigating the Phenomena of the Pulse by means of Sir 
William Thomson's Siphon Recorder ; that Dr. McKendrick be the Secretary, 
and that the sum of £10 be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Professor Rolleston, Colonel Lane Fox, Professor Busk, Professor 
Boyd Dawkins, Dr. John Evans, and Mr. F. G. Hilton Price be a Committee 



RECOMMENDATIONS OF THE GENERAL COMMITTEE. Hii 

for the purpose of examining two Caves containing Human Ecmains in the 
neighbourhood of Tenby, and certain adjacent Tumuli -whence it is possible 
that some of these remains may have been derived ; that Professor Eolleston 
be the Secretary, and that the sum of £25 be placed at their disposal for the 
purpose. 

That Mr. Stainton, Sir John Lubbock, Bart., and Mr. Eye be reappointed a 
Committee for the purpose of continuing a Record of Zoological Literature ; 
that Mr. Stainton be the Secretary, and that the sum of £100 be placed at 
their disposal for the purpose. 

That Dr. Allen Thomson, Professor Sir 'William Thomson, Dr. Henry Mmr- 
head, Mr. J. T. Bottomley, and Professor McKendrick be a Committee for the 
purpose of an investigation " On the Transmission of Electrical Impulses 
through Nerve Structure as bearing on the general phenomena of Nervous 
Action ;" that Professor McKendrick be the Secretary, and that the sum of 
£30 be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Dr. Farr, Dr. Beddoe, Mr. Brabrook, Sir George Campbell, the Earl of 
Ducie, Mr. F. P. Fellows, Colonel Lane Fox, Mr. F. Galton, Mr. Park Harri- 
son, Mr. J. Heywood, Mr. P. Hallett, Professor Leone Levi, Sir Eawson Eaw- 
son, and Professor Eolleston be reappointed a Committee for the purpose 
of continuing the collection of observations on the Systematic Examina- 
tion of Heights, Weights, &c. of Human beings in the British Empire, and 
the publication of Photographs of the typical races of the Empire ; that 
Colonel Lane Fox be the Secretary, and that the sum of £66, being the 
balance of the grant made last year but not drawn, be placed at their dis- 
posal for the purpose. t . 

That the Committee on Instruments for Measuring the Speed of Ships, 
consisting of Mr. W. Froude, Mr. F. J. Bramwell, Mr. A. E. Fletcher, Eev. 
E. L. Berthon, Mr. James E. Napier, Mr. C. W. Merrifield, Dr. C. W. Siemens, 
Mr. H. M. Brunei, Mr. W. Smith, Mr. J. N. Shoolbred, Professor James 
Thomson, and Professor Sir "William Thomson, be reappointed; that Mr. James 
N. Shoolbred be the Secretary, and that the sum of £50 be placed at their dis- 
posal. . 

That the Committee, consisting of Professor Sir William Thomson, Major- 
General Strachey, Captain Douglas Galton, Mr. G. F. Deacon, Mr. Eogers Field, 
Mr. E. Eoberts, and Mr. J. N. Shoolbred, be reappointed for the purpose 
of considering the Datum-level of the Ordnance Survey of Great Britain, 
with a view to its establishment on a surer foundation than hitherto, and 
for the tabulation and comparison of other Datum-marks, with power to 
communicate with the Government ; that Mr. James N. Shoolbred be the 
Secretary, and that the sum of £10 be placed at their disposal for the 
purpose. 

That " The Eules of Zoological Nomenclature," drawn up by the late Mr. 
H. E. Strickland, and adopted by Section D, be reprinted and published at 
the cost of the Association, and that Mr. Sclater be requested to edit the New 
Edition. 

Applications for Reports and Researches not involving Grants of 

Money. 

That the Committee, consisting of Professor Sir William Thomson, Professor 
Clerk Maxwell, Professor Tait, Dr. C. W. Siemens, Mr. F. J. Bramwell, Mr. 
W. Froude, and Mr. J. T. Bottomley, for commencing secular experiments 
upon the Elasticity of Wires, be reappointed. 



liv REPORT — 1877. 

That the Committee, consisting of Professor Everett, Professor Sir William 
Thomson, Professor J. Clerk Maxwell, Mr. G. J. Symons, Professor Eamsay, 
Professor Geikie, Mr. J. Glaisher, Mr. Pengelly, Professor Edward Hull, Pro- 
fessor Ansted, Dr. Clement Le Neve Foster, Professor A. S. Herschel, Mr. 
G. A. Lebour, Mr. A. B. Wynne, Mr. Galloway, and Mr. Joseph Dickinson, 
on Underground Temperature, be reappointed. 

That the Committee, consisting of Dr. W. Huggins, Mr. J. N. Lockyer, 
Professor J. Emerson Reynolds, Mr. G. J. Stoney, Mr. Spottiswoode, Dr. De 
La Rue, and Dr. W. M. Watts, for the purpose of preparing and printing 
Tables of Wave-frequency (Inverse Wave-lengths), be reappointed. 

That a Committee, consisting of Professor Cayley, Dr. Farr, Mr. J. W. L. 
Glaisher, Dr. Pole, Professor Fuller, Professor A. B. W. Kennedy, Professor 
Clifford, and Mr. C. W. Merrifield, be appointed to consider the advisability 
and to estimate the expense of constructing Mr. Babbage's Analytical Machine, 
and of printing tables by its means ; and that Mr. C. W. Merrifield be the 
Secretary of the Committee. 

That a Committee, consisting of Professor Sir William Thomson, Mr. W. 
Froude, Professor Osborne Reynolds, Captain Douglas Galton, and Mr. James 
N. Shoolbred (with power to add to their number), be appointed for tho purpose 
of obtaining information respecting the phenomena of the stationary tides in 
the English Channel and in the North Sea, and of representing to the Go- 
vernment of Portugal and the Governor of Madeira that in the opinion of tho 
British Association, tidal observations at Madeira or otber islands in the North 
Atlantic Ocean would be very valuable, with the view to tbe advancement of 
our knowledge of the tides in the Atlantic Ocean ; and that Mr. James N. 
Shoolbred be tho Secretary. 

That the Committee, consisting of Mr. Spottiswoode, Professor G. G. Stokes, 
Professor Cayley, Professor H. J. S. Smith, Professor Sir William Thomson, 
Professor Henrici, Lord Rayleigh, and Mr. J. W. L. Glaisher, on Mathemati- 
cal Notation and Printing, be reappointed. 

That the Committee, consisting of Professor Balfour Stewart, Professor 
Clerk Maxwell, and Professor W. F. Barrett, on tho Magnetization of Iron, 
Nickel, and Cobalt, be reappointed. 

That tho Committee, consisting of Professor Stokes, Dr. Do La Rue, Pro- 
fessor Clerk Maxwell, Professor W. F. Barrett, Mr. Howard Grubb, and Mr. 
G. Johnstone Stoney, for examining and reporting upon the reflective powers 
of Silver, Gold, and Platinum, whether in mass or chemically deposited on 
glass, and of Speculum Metal, be reappointed. 

That Professor G. C. Foster, Professor W. G. Adams, Professor R. B. Clifton, 
Professor Cayley, Professor J. D. Everett, Professor Clerk Maxwell, Lord 
Rayleigh, Professor G. G. Stokes, Professor Balfour Stewart, Mr. Spottis- 
woode, and Professor P. G. Tait be a Committee for the purposo of endeavour- 
ing to procure reports on the progress of the chief branches of Mathematics 
and Physics ; that Professor G. Carey Foster be the Secretary. 

That Professor Clifford be requested to prepare a report on the Physical 
Applications of Quaternions. 

That Mr. C. W. Merrifield be requested to report on the present state of 
knowledge of the application of Quadratures and Interpolation to Actual Data. 

That Dr. F. Clowes and Dr. W. A. Tilden be a Committee for the purpose 
of examining the action of Ethylbromo-butyrate on Ethyl-sod-acetate ; that 
Dr. Clowes be the Secretary. 

That Mr. W. N. Hartloy, Dr. E. J. Mills, and Mr. W. Chandler Roberts 
be a Committee for the purpose of investigating the conditions under which 



RECOMMENDATIONS OF THE GENERAL COMMITTEE. lv 

liquid Carbonic Acid occurs in Minerals ; that Mr. W. N. Hartley be the 
Secretary. 

That Mr. W. N. Hartley, Mr. J. M. Thomson, and Mr. W. Chandler 
Roberts be a Committee for the purpose of investigating the constitution of 
double compounds of Cobalt and Nickel ; that Mr. Thomson be the Secretary. 

That Dr. "W. Wallace, Professor Dittmar, and Mr. Thomas Wills be a Com- 
mittee for the purpose of reporting on the best means for the development of 
Light from Coal-gas of different qualities ; that Dr. Wallace be the Secretary. 

That Professor Prestwich, Professor Harkness, Professor Hughes, Professor 
W. Boyd Dawkins, Rev. H. W. Crosskey, Professor L. C. Miall, Messrs. G. H. 
Morton, D. Mackintosh, R. H. Tiddeman, J. E. Lee, J. Plant, W. Pengelly, 
Dr. Deane, Mr. C. J. Woodward, and Mr. Molyneuxbe a Committee for the pur- 
pose of recording the position, height above the sea, lithological characters, size, 
and origin of tbe Erratic Blocks of England, Wales, and Ireland, reporting 
other matters of interest connected with the same, and taking measures for 
their preservation ; that the Rev. H. W. Crosskey be the Secretary. 

That the Rev. H. F. Barnes, Mr. Spence Bate, Mr. H. E. Dresser, Mr. 
J. E. Harting, Dr. Gwyn Jeffreys, Professor Newton, and the Rev. Canon 
Tristram be reappointed a Committee for the purpose of inquiring into the 
possibility of establishing a " close time " for the protection of indigenous 
animals ; that Mr. Dresser bo the Secretary. 

That Mr. Spence Bate be requested to continue his Report " On the present 
state of our knowledge of the Crustacea.'' 

That the Right Hon. J. G. Hubbard, M.P., Mr. Chadwick, M.P., Mr. 
Morley, M.P., Dr. Farr, Sir George Campbell, M.P., Mr. Hallett, Professor 
Jevons, Mr. Newmarch, Mr. Shaen, Mr. Macneel Caird, and Mr. Stephen 
Bourne (with power to add to their number) be a Committee for the pur- 
pose of further developing the investigations into a Common Measure of Value 
in Direct Taxation ; that Mr. Hallett be the Secretary. 

That the Committee, consisting of Mr. W. H. Barlow, Mr. H. Bessemer, 
Mr. F. J. Bramwell, Captain Douglas Galton, Sir John Hawkshaw, Dr. 
C. W. Siemens, Professor Abel, and Mr. E. H. Carbutt, for the purpose of 
considering the use of Steel for structural purposes, be reappointed ; and that 
Mr. E. H. Carbutt be the Secretary, 

That the Committee, consisting of Dr. A. W. Williamson, Professor Sir 
William Thomson, Mr. Bramwell, Mr. St. John Vincent Day, Dr. C. W. Siemens, 
Mr. C. W. Merrifield, Dr. Neilson Hancock, Professor Abel, Mr. J. R. Napier, 
Captain Douglas Galton, Mr. Newmarch, Mr. E. H. Carbutt, and Mr. 
Macrory, be reappointed, for the purpose of watching and reporting to the 
Council on Patent Legislation ; and that Mr. F. J. Bramwell be the Secre- 
tary. 

That the Committee, consisting of Mr. James R. Napier, Sir William 
Thomson, Mr. WiUiam Froude, Professor Osborne Reynolds, and Mr. J. T. 
Bottomley, for the purpose of making experiments and of reporting on the 
effect of the Propeller on the turning of Steam-vessels be reappointed (with 
power to communicate with the Government) ; and that Professor Osborne 
Reynolds be the Secretary. 

Communications ordered to be printed in extenso in the Annual Report of 

the Association. 

That Dr. Gwyn Jeffrey's paper, " On the Post-Tertiary Fossils procured in 



lvi REPORT — 1877. 

the late Arctic Expedition, with notes on some of the Recent or living Mol- 
lusca from the same Expedition," he printed in extenso among the Eeports. 

That the paper of Mr. Stephen Bourne, F.S.S., " On the growth of Popu- 
lation with relation to the Means of Subsistence," be printed in extenso in 
the Sectional Proceedings. 

That Mr. Baldwin Latham's paper, " On the Indication of the Movements 
of "Water in the Chalk Formation," be printed, with the Appendix and the 
necessary diagrams, in extenso among the Eeports. 



Besolution referred to the Council for consideration and action if it seem 

desirable. 

That the question of the appointment of a Committee, consisting of Mr. 
E. J. Bramwell, Mr. J. F. Bateman, Mr. G. F. Deacon, Mr. Eogers Field, 
Captain Douglas Galton, Mr. E. B. Grantham, Mr. Baldwin Latham, Mr. C. 
W. Merrifield, and Mr. G. J. Symons, for carrying on observations on the 
Eainfall of the British Isles, be referred to the Council for consideration and 
action if it seem desirable ; and that the sum of .£150 be placed at the dis- 
posal of the Council for the purpose. 






SYNOPSIS OF GRANTS OF MONEY. lvii 



Synopsis of Grants of Money appropriated to Scientific Purposes by 
the General Committee at the Plymouth Meeting in August 1877. 
Tlie names of the Members who would be entitled to call on the 
General Treasurer for the respective Grants are prefixed. 

Mathematics and Physics. 

*Cayley, Professor. — Continuation of Burckhardt's Tables .£100 

*Forbes, Prof. G. — Observation of Atmospheric Electricity at 

Madeira 15 

*Glaisber, Mr. J. — Luminous Meteors 10 

* Joule, Dr. — Determination of the Mechanical Equivalent of 

Heat (renewed) 65 

*Thomson, Sir "William. — Measurement of the Lunar Disturb- 
ance of Gravity (renewed) 50 



Chemistry. 

*Brown, Prof. Crum. — Quantitative Estimation of Atmospheric 

Ozone 10 

Roberts, Mr. Chandler. — Chemical Composition and Structure 

of some of the less-known Alkaloids 25 



Geology. 

♦Evans, Mr. J. — Kent's Cavern Exploration 50 

*Evans, Mr. J. — Record of the Progress of Geology 100 

Godwin- Austen, Mr. — Kentish Boring Exploration 100 

*Harkness, Professor.— North-West Highlands Eossils 10 

Haughton, Rev. Dr. — Fermanagh Caves Exploration 30 

♦Herschel, Professor A. — Thermal Conductivities of Rocks 10 

*Hull, Professor. — Circulation of Underground "Waters in the 

New Red Sandstone 15 

*Lubbock, Sir J., Bart. — Exploration of Victoria Cave, Settle . . 100 

Carried forward <£690 

* Keappointed, 



lviii report — 1877. 

Biology. 

Brought forward £690 

Dew-Smith, Mr. — Table at the Zoological Station, Naples . . 75 

*Eox, Col. Lane. — Exploration of Ancient Earthworks 25 

McKendrick, Dr. — Investigation of Pulse Phenomena by 

Thomson's Siphon Recorder 10 

Eolleston, Professor. — Examination of two Caves and Tumuli 

near Tenby 25 

*Stainton, Mr. — Eecord of Zoological Literature 100 

Thomson, Dr. Allen — Transmission of Electrical Impulses 

through Nerve-structure 30 

Statistics and Economic Science. 
*Farr, Dr. — Anthropometric Committee (renewed) 66 

Mechanics. 

*Eroude, Mr. "W. — Instruments for Measuring the Speed of 

Ships (renewed) 50 

*Thomson, Sir W. — Datuni-Lcvel of the Ordnance Survey ... . 10 

Total.... .£1081 

* Reappointed. 



The Annual Meeting in 1878. 
The Meeting at Dublin will commence on Wednesday, August 14, 1878. 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



lix 



General Statement of Sums which have been paid on Account of Grants 

for Scientific Purposes. 



£ s. d. 



1834. 



Tide Discussions 20 



1835. 

Tide Discussions 62 

British Fossil Ichthyology • 105 



£IC,7 



1836. 

Tide Discussions 163 

British Fossil Ichthyology 105 

Thermometric Ohservations, &c. 50 
Experiments on long-continued 

Heat 17 1 

Rain-Gauges 9 13 

Refraction Experiments 15 

Lunar Nutation 60 

Thermometers 15 6 



£435 



1837. 

Tide Di-cussions 284 

Chemical Constants 24 

Lunar Nutation 70 

Observations on Waves 100 

Tides at Bristol 150 

Meteorology and Subterranean 

Temperature 93 

Vitrification Experiments 150 

Heart Experiments 8 

Barometric Observations 30 

Barometers 11 



1 





13 


(1 








12 











3 











4 


6 








18 


8 



1839. 

Fossil Ichthyology 110 

Meteorological Observations at 

Plymouth, &c 63 

Mechanism of Waves 144 

Bristol Tides 35 



£922 12 6 



1838. 

Tide Discussions 29 

British Fossil Fishes 100 

Meteorological Observations and 

Anemometer (construction) ... 100 

Cast Iron (Strength of) 60 

Animal and Vegetable Substances 

(Preservation of) 19 1 10 

Railway Constants 41 12 10 

Bristol Tides.., 50 

Growth of Plants 75 

Mud in Rivers 3 6 6 

Education Committee 50 

Heart Experiments 5 3 

Land and Sea Level 267 8 7 

Steam-vessels 100 

Meteorological Committee 31 



£932 2 2 



£ a. d. 



Meteorology and Subterranean 

Temperature 21 

Vitrification Experiments 9 

Cast-Iron Experiments 100 

Railway Constants ■ 2S 

Land and Sea Level 274 

Steam-vessels' Engines 100 

Stars in Histoire Celeste 171 

Stars in Lacaille H 

Stars in R.A.S.. Catalogue 160 

Animal Secretions 10 

Steam-engines in Cornwall 50 

Atmospheric Air 16 

Cast and Wrought Iron 40 

Heat on Organic Bodies 3 

Gases on Solar Spectrum 22 

Hourly Meteorological Observa- 
tions, Inverness and Kingussie 49 

Fossil Reptiles 118 

Mining Statistics 50 





10 

2 

18 6 



11 





4 


7 








7 


2 


1 


4 








18 


6 








16 


e 


10 


a 








1 























7 


s 


2 


9 









£1595 11 



1840. 

Bristol Tides 100 

Subterranean Temperature 13 

Heart Experiments 18 

Lungs Experiments 8 

Tide Discussions 50 

Land and Sea Level 6 

Stars (Histoire Celeste) 242 

Stars (Lacaille) 4 

Stars (Catalogue) 264 

Atmospheric Air 15 

Water on Iron 10 

Heat on Organic Bodies 7 

Meteorological Observations 52 

Foreign Scientific Memoirs 112 

Working Population 100 

School Statistics 50 

Forms of Vessels 184 

Chemical and Electrical Pheno- 
mena 40 

Meteorological Observations at 

Plymouth 80 

Magnetical Observations 185 

£1546 









13 


(i 


19 





13 











11 


1 


10 





15 











15 

















17 


(i 


1 


H 















7 




13_9 
T6~ 4 



1841. 

Observations on Waves 

Meteorology and Subterranean 

Temperature 8 

Actinometers 10 

Earthquake Shocks 17 

Acrid Poisons 6 

Veins and Absorbents 3 

Mud in Rivers .....*. 5 

Marine Zoology 15 

Skeleton Maps 20 

Mountain Barometers 6 

Stars (Histoire Celeste)... 185 



30 



8 











7 























12 


8 








18 


e 









k 



REPORT — 1877. 



£ 

Stars (Lacaille) 79 

Stars (Nomenclature of) 17 

Stars (Catalogue of) 40 

Water on Iron 50 

Meteorological Observations at 

Inverness 20 

Meteorological Observations (re- 
duction of) 25 

Fossil Reptiles 50 

Foreign Memoirs C2 

Railway Sections 38 

Forms of Vessels 193 

Meteorological Observations at 

Plymouth 55 

Magnetical Observations 61 

Fishes of the Old Red Sandstone 100 

Tides at Leilh 50 

Anemometer at Edinburgh 09 

Tabulating Observations 9 

Races of Men 5 

Radiate Animals ■ 2 

£l235 

1842. 

Dynamometric Instruments 113 

Anoplura Britanniae 52 

Tides at Bristol 59 

Gases on Light 30 

Chronometers 26 

Marine Zoology 1 

British Fossil Mammalia 100 

Statistics of Education 20 

Marine Steam-vessels' Engines... 28 

Stars (Histoire Celeste) 59 

Stars (Brit. Assoc. Cat. of ) 110 

Railway Sections 161 

British Belemnites 50 

Fossil Reptiles (publication of 

Report) 210 

Forms of Vessels 180 

Galvanic Experiments on Rocks 5 
Meteorological Experiments at 

Plymouth 68 

Constant Indicator and Dynamo- 
metric Instruments 90 

Force of Wind 10 

Light on Growth of Seeds 8 

Vital Statistics 50 

Vegetative Power of Seeds 8 

Questions on Human Race 7 

£1449 



s. 


d. 


5 





19 


6 



































6 


1 





12 








18 8 





1 10 
6 3 





10 11 



11 2 

12 
8 

14 7 

17 6 

5 







10 







8 6 











1 11 

9 



17 8 



1843. 

Revision of the Nomenclature of 

Stars 2 

Reduction of Stars, British Asso- 
ciation Catalogue 25 

Anomalous Tides, Frith of Forth 120 

Hourly Meteorological Observa- 

tionsatKingussieandlnverness 77 12 8 

Meteorological Observations at 

Plymouth 55 

Whewell's Meteorological Ane- 
mometer at Plymouth 10 



£ 
Meteorological Observations, Os- 
ier's Anemometer at Plymouth 20 
Reduction of Meteorological Ob- 
servations 30 

Meteorological Instruments and 

Gratuities 39 

Construction of Anemometer at 

Inverness 56 

Magnetic Cooperation 10 

Meteorological Recorder for Kew 

Observatory 50 

Action of Gases on Light 18 

Establishment at Kew Observa- 
tory, Wages, Repairs, Furni- 
ture and Sundries 133 

Experiments by Captive Balloons 81 
Oxidation of the Rails of Railways 20 
Publication of Report on Fossil 

Reptiles 40 

Coloured Drawings of Railway 

Sections 147 

Registration of Earthquake 

Shocks 30 

Report on Zoological Nomencla- 
ture 10 

Uncovering Lower Red Sand- 
stone near Manchester 4 

Vegetative Power of Seeds 5 

Marine Testacea (Habits of) ... 10 

Marine Zoology 10 

Marine Zoology 2 

Preparation of Report on British 

Fossil Mammalia 100 

Physiological Operations of Me- 
dicinal Agents 20 

Vital Statistics 36 

Additional Experiments on the 

Forms of Vessels 70 

Additional Experiments on the 

Forms of Vessels 100 

Reduction of Experiments on the 

Forms of Vessels 100 

Morin's Instrument and Constant 

Indicator 69 

Experiments on the Strength of 

Materials 60 

£1505 



s. 


d. 














6 





12 

8 


2 
10 



16 




1 


4 
8 



7 










18 


3 














4 
3 


14 


6 
8 




11 









5 




8 




















14 


10 









10 2 



1844. 

Meteorological Observations at 

Kingussie and Inverness 12 

Completing Observations at Ply- 
mouth 35 

Magnetic and Meteorological Co- 
operation 25 8 4 

Publication of the British Asso- 
ciation Catalogue of Stars 35 

Observations on Tides on the 

East coast of Scotland 100 

Revision of the Nomenclature of 

Stars 1842 2 9 6 

Maintaining the Establishmentin 

Kew Observatory 117 17 3 

Instruments for KewObservatory 56 7 3 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



hi 



£ 

Influence of Light on Plants 10 

Subterraneous Temperature in 

Ireland 5 

Coloured Drawings of Railway 

Sections 15 

Investigation of Fossil Fishes of 

the Lower Tertiary Strata ... 100 
Registering the Shocks of Earth- 
quakes 1842 23 

Structure of Fossil Shells 20 

Radiata and Mollusca of the 

iEgean and Red Seas 1842 100 

Geographical Distributions of 

Marine Zoology 1842 

Marine Zoology of Devon and 

Cornwall 10 

Marine Zoology of Corfu 10 

Experiments on the Vitality of 

Seeds 9 

Experiments on the Vitality of 

Seeds 1842 8 

Exotic Anoplura 15 

Strength of Materials 100 

Completing Experiments on the 

Forms of Ships 100 

Inquiries into Asphyxia 10 

Investigations on the Internal 

Constitution of Metals 50 

Constant Indicator and Morin's 

Instrument 1842 10^ 

£981 



a. 


d. 














17 


6 








11 


10 














10 


















3 



7 


3 
































3 


6 



12 8 



1845. 
Publication of the British Associa- 
tion Catalogue of Stars 351 14 6 

Meteorological Observations at 

Inverness 30 18 11 

Magnetic and Meteorological Co- 
operation 16 16 8 

Meteorological Instruments at 

Edinburgh 18 11 9 

Reduction of Anemometrical Ob- 
servations at Plymouth 25 

Electrical Experiments at Kew 

Observatory 43 17 8 

Maintaining the Establishment in 

Kew Observatory 149 15 

For Kreil's Barometrograph 25 

fiases from Iron Furnaces 50 

The Actinograph 15 

Microscopic Structure of Shells 20 

Exotic Anoplura 1S43 10 

Vitality of Seeds 1843 2 7 

Vitality of Seeds 1844 7 

Marine Zoology of Cornwall ... 10 
Physiological Action of Medicines 20 
Statistics of Sickness and Mor- 
tality in York 20 

Earthquake Shocks 1843 15 14 8 

£831 9 9 

1S4C. 
British Association Catalogue of 

Stars 1844 211 15 

Fossil Fishes of the London Clay 100 



£ s. d. 
Computation of the Gaussian 

Constants for 1829 50 

Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory 146 16 7 

Strength of Materials 60 

Researches in Asphyxia 6 16 2 

Examination of Fossil Shells 10 

Vitality of Seeds 1844 2 15 10 

Vitality of Seeds 1845 7 12 3 

Marine Zoology of Cornwall 10 

Marine Zoology of Britain 10 

Exotic Anoplura 1844 25 

Expenses attending Anemometers 11 7 6 

Anemometers' Repairs 2 3 6 

Atmospheric Waves 3 3 3 

Captive Balloons 1844 8 19 8 

Varieties of the Human Race 

1844 7 6 3 
Statistics of Sickness and Mor- 
tality in York 12 

£685 16 

1847. 
Computation of the Gaussian 

Constants for 1829 50 

Habits of Marine Animals 10 

Physiological Action of Medicines 20 

Marine Zoology of Cornwall 10 

Atmospheric Waves 6 9 3 

Vitality of Seeds 4 7 7 

Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory 107 8 6 

£208 5 4 

1848. 
Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory 171 15 11 

Atmospheric Waves 3 10 9 

Vitality of Seeds 9 15 

Completion of Catalogues of Stars 70 (I 

On Colouring Matters 5 

On Growth of Plants 15 

£275 1 8 

1S49. 

Electrical Observations at Kew 

Observatory 50 

Maintaining Establishment at 

ditto 76 2 5 

Vitality of Seeds 5 8 1 

On Growth of Plants 5 

Registration of Periodical Phe- 
nomena 10 

Bill on account of Anemometrical 

Observations 13 9 

£159 19 6 

1850. 
Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory 255 18 

Transit of Earthquake Waves ... 50 

Periodical Ph?nomena 15 

Meteorological Instruments, 

Azores 25 

£345 18 



lxii 



report — 1877. 



£ s. 
1851. 

Maintaining the Establishment at 
Kew Observatory (includes part 

ofgrantin 1849) 309 2 

Theory of Heat 20 1 

Periodical Phenomena of Animals 

and Plants 5 

Vitality of Seeds 5 6 

Influence of Solar Radiation 30 

Ethnological Inquiries 12 

Researches on Annelida 10 

£391 9 

1852. 
Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory (including 

balance of grant for 1850) ... 233 17 
Experiments on the Conduction 

ofHeat 5 2 

Influence of Solar Radiations ... 20 

Geological Map of Ireland 15 

Researches on the British Anne- 

lida 10 

Vitality of Seeds 10 6 

Strength of Boiler Plates 10 

£304 6 

1853. 

Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory 1G5 

Experiments on the Influence of 

Solar Radiation 15 

Researches on the British Anne- 
lida 10 

Dredging on the East Coast of 

Scotland 10 

Ethnological Queries 5 

~£205 

1854. 
Maintaining the Establishment at 
Kew Observatory (including 

balance of former grant) 330 15 

Investigations on Flax 11 

Effects of Temperature on 

Wrought Iron 10 

Registration of Periodical Phe- 
nomena 10 

British Annelida 10 

Vitality of Seeds 5 2 

Conduction of Heat 4 2 

~£.)80 19 

1855. 
Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory 425 

Earthquake Movements 10 

Physical Aspect of the Moon 11 8 

Vitality of Seeds 10 7 

Map of the World 15 o 

Ethnological Queries 5 

Dredging near Belfast 4 

£480 16 

1856. 
Maintaining the Establishment at 
Kew Observatory : — 

»854 £ 75 01 B „ e „ 

1855 £500 0/ 575 ° 



d. 



£ 
Strickland's Ornithological Syno- 
nyms 100 

Dredging and Dredging Forms... 9 

Chemical Action of Light 20 

Strength of Iron Plates 10 

Registration of Periodical Pheno- 
mena 10 

Propagation of Salmon 10 

£734 

1857. 
Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory 350 

Earthquake Wave Experiments. . 40 

Dredging near Belfast 10 

Dredging on the West Coast of 

Scotland 10 

Investigations into the Mollusca 

ofCalifornia 10 

Experiments on Flax 5 

Natural History of Madagascar. . 20 
Researches on British Annelida 25 
Report on Natural Products im- 
ported into Liverpool 10 

Artificial Propagation of Salmon 10 

Temperature of Mines 7 

Thermometers for Subterranean 

Observations 5 

Life-Boats 5 

£3oT 

1858. 
Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory 500 

Earthquake Wave Experiments.. 25 
Dredging on the West Coast of 

Scotland 10 

Dredging near Dublin 5 

Vitality of Seeds 5 

Dredging near Belfast 18 

Report on the British Annelida... 25 
Experiments on the production 

of Heat by Motion in Fluids ... 20 
Report on the Natural Products 

imported into Scotland 10 

£6JF 

1S59. 
Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory 500 

Dredging near Dublin 15 

Osteology of Birds 50 

Irish Tunicata 5 

Manure Experiments 20 

British Medusidte 5 

Dredging Committee 5 

Steam-vessels' Performance 5 

Marine Fauna of South and West 

of Ireland , 10 

Photographic Chemistry 10 

Lanarkshire Fossils 20 

Balloon Ascents 39 

" £684~ 

1860. 
Maintaining the Establishment 

of Kew Observatory 500 

Dredging near Belfast 16 

Dredging in Dublin Bay 15 









13 


9 



























13 9 

















































s 





7 


4 









15 4 



























5 





3 


2 














































































1 


1 1 


n 



1 1 




6 




GENERAL STATEMENT. 



lxiii 



£ s. d. 

[nquiry into the Performance of 

Steam-vessels 124 

Explorations in the Yellow Sand- 
stone of Dura Den 20 

Chemico-mechanical Analysis of 

Rocks and Minerals 25 

Researches on the Growth of 

Plants 10 

Researches on the Solubility of 

Salts 30 

Researches on the Constituents 

of Manures 25 

Balance of Captive Balloon Ac- 
counts 1 13 6 

£766 19 6 

1861. 
Maintaining the Establishment 

of Kew Observatory 500 

Earthquake Experiments 25 

Dredging North and East Coasts 

of Scotland 23 

Dredging Committee : — 

I860 .£50 0"! 

1861 £22 J 

Excavations at Dura Den 20 

Solubility of Salts 20 

Steam-vessel Performance 150 

Fossils of Lesmahago 15 

Explorations at Uriconium 20 

Chemical Alloys 20 

Classified Index to the Transac- 
tions 100 

Dredging in the Mersey and Dee 5 

Dip Circle 30 

Photoheliographic Observations 50 

Prison Diet 20 

Gauging of Water 10 

Alpine Ascents 6 

Constituents of Manures 25 



1862. 

Maintaining the Establishment 
of Kew Observatory 

Patent Laws 

Mollusca of N.-W. America 

Natural History by Mercantile 
Marine 

Tidal Observations 

Photoheliometer at Kew 

Photographic Pictures of the Sun 

Rocks of Donegal 

Dredging Durham and North- 
umberland 

Connexion of Storms 

Dredging North-east Coast of 
Scotland 

Ravages of Teredo 

Standards of Electrical Resistance 

Railway Accidents 

Balloon Committee 

Dredging Dublin Bay 

Dredging the Mersey 

Prison Diet 

Gauging of Water 









2 


































































5 10 




£1111 5 10 



500 








21 


6 





10 








5 








25 








40 








150 








25 








25 








20 








6 


9 


6 


3 


11 





50 








10 








200 








10 








5 








20 








12 


10 






£ s. d. 

Steamships' Performance 150 

Thermo-Electric Currents 5 

£1293 16 6 



1863. 
Maintaining the Establishment 

of Kew Observatory 600 

Balloon Committee deficiency... 70 
Balloon Ascents (other expenses) 25 

Entozoa 25 

Coal Fossils 20 

Herrings 20 

Granites of Donegal 5 

Prison Diet 20 

Vertical Atmospheric Movements 13 

Dredging Shetland 50 

Dredging North-east coast of 

Scotland 25 

Dredging Northumberland and 

Durham 17 

Dredging Committee superin- 
tendence 10 

Steamship Performance 100 

Balloon Committee 200 

Carbon under pressure 10 

Volcanic Temperature 1 00 

Bromide of Ammonium 8 

Electrical Standards 100 

Construction and distribu- 
tion 40 

Luminous Meteors 17 

Kew Additional Buildings for 

Photoheliograph 100 

Thermo-Electricity 15 

Analysis of Rocks 8 

Hydroida 10 

























3 10 


















































































£1608 3 10 



1864. 
Maintaining the Establishment 

of Kew Observatory 600 

Coal Fossils 20 

Vertical Atmospheric Move- 
ments 20 

Dredging Shetland 75 

Dredging Northumberland 25 

Balloon Committee 200 

Carbon underpressure 10 

Standards of Electric Resistance 100 

Analvsis of Rocks 10 

Hydroida 10 

Askham's Gift 50 

Nitrite of Amyle 10 

Nomenclature Committee 5 

Rain-Gauges 19 

Cast-Iron Investigation 20 

Tidal Observations in the H umber 50 

Spectral Rays 45 

Luminous Meteors 20 

















































































15 


8 























(1 



£1289 15 8 



1865. 
Maintaining the Establishment 

of Kew Observatory 600 

Balloon Committee 100 

Hydroida 13 












(1 









lxiv 



REPORT 1877. 



£ s. d. 

Rain-Gauges 30 

Tidal Observations in the Humber 6 8 

Hexylic Compounds 20 

Amyl Compounds 20 

Irish Flora 25 

American Mollusca 3 9 

Organic Acids 20 

Lingula Flags Excavation 10 

Eurypterus 50 

Electrical Standards 100 

Malta Caves Researches 30 

Oyster Breeding 25 

Gibraltar Caves Researches 150 

Kent's Hole Excavations 100 

Moon's Surface Observations .. . 35 

Marine Fauna 25 

Dredging Aberdeenshire 25 

Dredging Channel Islands 50 

Zoological Nomenclature 5 

Resistance of Floating Bodies in 

Water 100 

Bath Waters Analysis 8 10 10 

Luminous Meteors 40 

£1591 7~To 

1866. 
Maintaining the Establishment 

of Kew Observatory 600 

Lunar Committee 64 13 4 

Balloon Committee 50 

Metrical Committee 50 

British Rainfall 50 

Kilkenny Coal Fields 16 

Alum Bay Fossil Leaf-Bed 15 

Luminous Meteors 50 

Lingula Flags Excavation 20 

Chemical Constitution of Cast 

Iron 50 

Amyl Compounds 25 

Electrical Standards 100 

Malta Caves Exploration 30 

Kent's Hole Exploration 200 

Marine Fauna, &c, Devon and 

Cornwall 25 

Dredging Aberdeenshire Coast... 25 

Dredging Hebrides Coast 50 

Dredging the Mersey 5 

Resistance of Floating Bodies in 

Water 50 

Polycyanides of Organic Radi- 
cals 20 

Rigor Mortis 10 

Irish Annelida 15 

Catalogue of Crania 50 

Didine Birds of Mascarene Islands 50 

Typical Crania Researches 30 

Palestine Exploration Fund 100 

£1750 13 4 
1867. ■== 
Maintaining the Establishment 

of Kew Observatory 600 

Meteorological Instruments, Pa- 
lestine 50 

Lunar Committee ,, 120 



£ s. d. 

Metrical Committee 30 

Kent's Hole Explorations 100 

Palestine Explorations... 50 

Insect Fauna, Palestine 30 

British Rainfall 50 

Kilkenny Coal Fields 25 

Alum Bay Fossil Leaf-Bed 25 

Luminous Meteors 50 

Bournemouth, &c. Leaf-Beds ... 30 

Dredging Shetland 75 

Steamship Reports Condensation 100 

Electrical Standards 100 

Ethyl and Methyl series 25 

Fossil Crustacea 25 

Sound under Water 24 4 

North Greenland Fauna 75 

Do. Plant Beds ... 100 

Iron and Steel Manufacture ... 25 

Patent Laws 30 

£1739 4 

1868. 
Maintaining the Establishment 

of Kew Observatory 600 

Lunar Committee 120 

Metrical Committee 50 

Zoological Record 100 

Kent's Hole Explorations 150 

Steamship Performances 100 

British Rainfall 50 

Luminous Meteors 50 

Organic Acids 60 

Fossil Crustacea 25 

Methyl series 25 

Mercury and Bile 25 

Organic remains in Limestone 

Rocks 25 

Scottish Earthquakes 20 

Fauna, Devon and Cornwall ... 30 

British Fossil Corals 50 

Bagshot Leaf-beds 50 

Greenland Explorations 100 

Fossil Flora 25 

Tidal Observations 100 

Underground Temperature 50 

Spectroscopic investigations of 

Animal Substances 5 

Secondary Reptiles, &c 30 

British Marine Invertebrate 

Fauna 100 

£1940 

1869. 
Maintaining the Establishment 

of Kew Observatory 600 

Lunar Committee 50 

Metrical Committee 25 

Zoological Record 100 

Committee on Gases in Deep- 
well Water 25 O O 

British Rainfall 50 O 

Thermal Conductivity of Iron, 

&c 30 O 

Kent's Hole Explorations 150 O 

Steamship Performances 30 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



lxv 



£ g. d. 
Chemical Constitution of Cast 

Iron 80 

Iron and Steel Manufacture ... 100 

Methyl Series 30 

Organic remains in Limestone 

Rocks 10 

Earthquakes in Scotland 10 

British Fossil Corals 50 

Bagshot Leaf-Beds 30 

Fossil Flora 25 

Tidal Observations 100 

Underground Temperature 30 

Spectroscopic Investigations of 

Animal Substances 5 

Organic Acids 12 

Kiltorcan Fossils 20 

Chemical Constitution and Phy- 
siological Action Relations ... 15 

Mountain Limestone Fossils 25 

Utilization of Sewage 10 

Products of Digestion 10 

£1622 



1870. 

Maintaining the Establishment of 

Kew Observatory 600 

Metrical Committee 25 

Zoological Record 100 

Committee on Marine Fauna ... 20 

Ears in Fishes 10 

Chemical nature of Cast Iron... 80 

Luminous Meteors 30 

Heat in the Blood 15 

British Rainfall 100 

Thermal Conductivity of Iron &c. 20 

British Fossil Corals 50 

Kent's Hole Explorations 150 

Scottish Earthquakes 4 

Bagshot Leaf-Beds 15 

Fossil Flora 25 

Tidal Observations 100 

Underground Temperature 50 

Kiltorcan Quarries Fossils 20 

Mountain Limestone Fossils ... 25 

Utilization of Sewage 50 

Organic Chemical Compounds... 30 

Onny River Sediment 3 

Mechanical Equivalent of Heat 50 

£1572 



1871. 
MaintainingtheEstablishment of 

Kew Observatory 600 

Monthly Reports of Progress in 

Chemistry 100 

Metrical Committee 25 

Zoological Record 100 

Thermal Equivalents of the 

Oxides of Chlorine 10 

Tidal Observations 100 

Fossil Flora 25 












































£ 

Luminous Meteors 30 

British Fossil Corals. 25 

Heat in the Blood 7 

British Rainfall 50 

Kent's Hole Explorations 150 

Fossil Crustacea 25 

Methyl Compounds 25 

Lunar Objects 20 

Fossil Corals Sections, for Pho- 
tographing 20 

Bagshot Leaf-Beds 20 

Moab Explorations 100 

Gaussian Constants •■ 40 

£1472 

1872. 
Maintaining the Establishment of 

Kew Observatory 300 

Metrical Committee 75 

Zoological Record 100 

Tidal Committee 200 

Carboniferous Corals 25 

Organic Chemical Compounds 25 

Exploration of Moab 100 

Terato-Embryological Inquiries 10 

Kent's Cavern Exploration 100 

Luminous Meteors 20 

Heat in the Blood 15 

Fossil Crustacea 25 

Fossil Elephants of Malta 25 

Lunar Objects 20 

Inverse Wave-Lengths 20 

British Rainfall 100 

Poisonous Substances Antago- 
nism 10 

Essential Oils, Chemical Consti- 
tution, &c 40 

Mathematical Tables 50 

Thermal Conductivity of Meta ls 25 

J1285 
1873. 

Zoological Record 100 

Chemistry Record 200 

Tidal Committee 400 

Sewage Committee 100 

Kent's Cavern Exploration 150 

Carboniferous Corals 25 

Fossil Elephants 25 

Wave-Lengths 150 

British Rainfall 100 

Essential Oils 30 

Mathematical Tables 100 

Gaussian Constants 10 

Sub-Wealden Explorations 25 

Underground Temperature 150 

Settle Cave Exploration 50 

Fossil Flora, Ireland 20 

Timber Denudation and Rainfall 20 

Luminous Meteors •• 30 

£1685 



(, 


d. 














2 


G 

























































2 6 













O 

















































O 

























1877. 



lXVl 



REPORT — 1877. 



£ s. d. 
1874. 

Zoological Record 100 

Chemistry Record 100 

Mathematical Tables 100 

Elliptic Functions 100 

Lightning Conductors 10 

Thermal Conductivity of Rocks 10 
Anthropological Instructions, 

&c 50 

Kent's Cavern Exploration ... 150 

Luminous Meteors 30 

Intestinal Secretions 15 

British Rainfall 100 

Essential Oils 10 

Sub-Wealden Explorations ... 25 

Settle Cave Exploration 50 

Mauritius Meteorological Re- 
search 100 

Magnetization of Iron 20 

Marine Organisms 30 

Fossils, North-west of Scotland 2 10 

Physiological Action of Light. . 20 

Trades Unions 25 

Mountain-Limestone Corals ... 25 

Erratic Blocks 10 

Dredging, Durham and York- 
shire Coasts 28 5 

High temperature of Bodies ... 30 

Siemens's Pyrometer 3 6 

Labyrinthodonts of Coal-Mea- 
sures 7 15 

.£1 151 16 

1875. 

Elliptic Functions 100 

Magnetization of Iron 20 

British Rainfall 120 

Luminous Meteors 30 

Chemistry Record 100 

Specific Volume of Liquids ... 25 
Estimation of Potash and Phos- 
phoric Acid 10 

Isometric Cresols 20 

Sub-Wealden Explorations 100 

Kent's Cavern Exploration 1 00 

Settle Cave Exploration 50 

Earthquakes in Scotland 15 

Underground Waters 10 

Development of Myxinoid 

Fishes 20 

Zoological Record 100 

Instructions for Travellers 20 

Intestinal Secretion 20 

Palestine Exploration 100 

■£960 

1876. 

Printing Mathematical Tables .159 4 2 

British Rainfall 100 



£ s. d. 

Ohm's Law 9 15 

Tide Calculating Machine 200 

Specific Volume of Liquids ... 25 

Isomeric Cresols 10 

Action of Ethyl Bromobutyrate 

on Ethyl Sodaceto-acetate ... 5 
Estimation of Potash and Phos- 
phoric Aoid 13 

Exploration of Victoria Cave, 

Settle 100 

Geological Record 100 

Kent's Cavern Exploration 100 

Thermal Conductivities ol'Rocks 10 

Underground Waters 10 

Earthquakes in Scotland 1 10 

Zoological Record 100 

Close Time 5 

Physiological Action of Sound . 25 

Zoological Station 75 

Intestinal Secretions 15 

Physical Characters of Inhabi- 
tants of British Isles 13 15 

Measuring Speed of Ships 10 

Effect of Propeller on turning 

of Steam Vessels 5 

£1002 4 2 

1877. 
Liquid Carbonic Acid in Mine- 
rals 20 

Elliptic Functions 250 

Thermal Conductivity of Rocks 9 11 7 

Zoological Record 100 

Kent's Cavern 100 

Zoological Station at Naples ... 75 

Luminous Meteors 30 

Elasticity of Wires 100 

Diptcrocarpa?, Report on 20 <> 

Mechanical Equivalent of Heat 35 
Double Compounds of Cobalt 

and Nickel 8 

Underground Temperatures ... 50 

Settle Cave Explanation 100 

Underground Waters in New 

Red Sandstone 10 

Action of Ethyl Bromobutyrate 

on Ethyl Sodaceto-acetate ... 10 

British Earthworks 25 

Atmospheric Elasticity in India 15 
Development of Light from 

Coal-gas 20 

Estimation of Potash and Phos- 
phoric Acid 1 18 

Geological Record 100 

Anthropometric Committee ... 34 
Physiological Action of Phos- 
phoric Acid, &c 15 

£1128 9 7 



GENERAL MEETINGS. 



General Meetings. 



lxvii 



On Wednesday, August 15, at 8 p.m., in the Guildhall, Professor Thomas 
Andrews, M.D., LL.D., F.P.S., President, resigned the office of President to 
Professor Allen Thomson, M.D., LL.D., F.R.S., who took the Chair, and 
delivered an Address, for which see page lxviii. 

On Thursday, August 16, at 8 p.m., a Soiree took place in the Guildhall. 

On Friday, August 17, at 8.30 p.m., in the Guildhall, W. Warington 
Smyth, Esq., M.A., F.E.S., delivered a Discourse on " The Physical Pheno- 
mena connected with the Mines of Cornwall and Devon." 

On Saturday, August 18, at 7 p.m., in the Guildhall, W. H. Preece, 
Esq., delivered a Lecture, on " The Tolephone," to the Working Classes of 

Plymouth. 

On Monday, August 20, at 8.30 p.m., in the Guildhall, Professor Odling, 
M.B., F.R.S., delivered a Discourse on " The new Element, Gallium." 

On Tuesday, August 21, at 8 p.m., a Soiree took place in the Guildhall. 

On Wednesday, August 22, the concluding General Meeting took place, 
when the Proceedings of the General Committee, and the Grants of Money 
for Scientific purposes, were explained to the Members. 

The Meeting was then adjourned to Dublin.* 

* The Meeting is appointed to take place on Wednesday, August 14, 1878. 



ADDEESS 



OF 



PROFESSOR ALLEN THOMSON, M.D., LL.D., 

F.R.S., F.R.S.E., 
PRESIDENT. 



After the long interval of sis and thirty years the British Association for 
the Advancement of Science holds its annual meeting, the forty-seventh 
since its foundation, in this beautiful and interesting locality ; and, it so 
happens that, on this occasion as on the former, it passes from Glasgow to 
Plymouth. We are delighted to be assembled here, and are even surprised 
that the Association has been able so long to resist the power of attraction 
by which it has been gravitating towards this place. "While we are prepared 
to be charmed with the surpassing beauty of its scenery, and know the 
deep interest of its prehistoric vestiges, its historic memories, and its artistic 
associations, we have been -frequently reminded of its scientific vigilance 
by the records of its active work ; and we are now ready and anxious to 
witness all we can behold of its energy and success in the application of 
scientific discovery to the practical arts. Should we, as might be expected 
in a place hitherto so famous in its relation's to our naval and military 
history, find most prominent that* relating to the mechanism of war, we 
shall still hope that the attainment of greater perfection in the engines of 
destruction may only be the means of rendering peace more permanent and 
secure. 

It is a source of regret to myself, and may be, I fear, a cause of detriment 
to this Meeting, that the choice of a President should have fallen upon 
one whose constant occupation with special branches of science has fitted 
him very inadequately for the distinguished position to which he has been 
called. I can only derive comfort from knowing that, wherever it may 
bo necessary, there are many others present most able to supply what may 



ADDRESS. lxix 

be wanting on my part ; and I must therefore at once bespeak their assistance 
and your indulgence. 

I have selected for the subject of the remarks which I am about to offer 
a biological topic, namely, the " Development of the Forms of Animal 
Life," with which my studies have been occupied, and which has important 
bearings on some of the more interesting biological questions now agitating 
the scientific world. But before proceeding with the discussion of my 
special subject, it is my desire to call your attention shortly to the remark- 
able change in the manner of viewing biological questions which has taken 
place in this country during the last half-century — a change so great, 
indeed, that it can scarcely be fully appreciated except by those who, like 
myself, have lived through the period of its occurrence. 

In the three earlier decades of this century it was the common belief, in 
this country at least, shared by men of science as well as by the larger body 
of persons who had given no special attention to the subject, that the various 
forms of plants and animals recognized by naturalists in their systematic 
arrangements of genera and species were permanently fixed and unalterable, 
that they were not subject to greater changes than might occur as occasional 
variations, and that such was the tendency to the maintenance of uniformity 
in their specific characters that, when varieties did arise, there was a 
natural disposition to return, in the course of succeeding generations, to 
the fixed form and nature supposed to belong to the parental stock ; and it 
was also a necessary part of this view of the permanency of species that each 
was considered to have been originally produced from an individual having 
the exact form which its descendants ever afterwards retained. To this 
scientific dogma was further added the quasi-religious view that in the exercise 
of infinite wisdom and goodness, the Creator, when He called the successive 
species of plants and animals into existence, conferred upon each precisely the 
organization and the properties adapting it best for the kind of life for 
which it was designed in the general scheme of creation. This was the older 
doctrine of "Direct Creation," of "Final Causes," and of " Teleological 
Eelation of Structure and Function ; " and those only who have known the 
firm hold which such views formerly had over the public mind can under- 
stand the almost unqualified approbation with which the reasoning on these 
questions in writings like the ' Bridgewater Treatises ' (not to mention older 
books on Natural Theology) were received in their time, as well as the very 
opposite feelings excited by every work which seemed to present a different 
view of the plan of creation. 

On the Continent of Europe, it is true, some bold speculators, such as 
Goethe, Ofcen, Lamarck, and Geoffroy St.-Hilaire, had, in the end of the last 
and commencement of this century, broached the doctrine that there is in living 
beings a continuous series of gradations as well as a consistent and general 
plan of organization, and that the creation, therefore, or origin of the 

1877. / 



IxX REPORT 1877. 

different forms of plants and animals must have been the result of a gradual 
process of development or of derivation one from another, the whole standing 
connected together in certain causal relations. But in Britain such views, 
though known and not altogether repulsive to a few, obtained little favour, and, 
by some strange process of reasoning, were looked upon by the great majority 
as little short of impious questionings of the supreme power of the Almighty. 
How different is the position of matters in this respect in our day ! — when 
the cautious naturalist receives and adopts with the greatest reserve the 
statement of fixed and permanent specific characters as belonging to the 
different forms of organized beings, and is fully persuaded of the constant 
tendency to variation which all species show even in the present condition 
of the earth, and of the still greater liability to change which must have 
existed in the earlier periods of its formation — when the belief prevails that, 
so far from being the direct product of distinct acts of creation, the various 
forms of plants and animals have been gradually evolved in a slow gradation 
of increasing complexity — and when it is recognized by a largo majority of 
naturalists that the explanation of this wonderful relation of connexion 
between previously existing and later forms is to be found in the constant 
tendency to variation during development and growth, and the perpetuation 
of such variations by hereditary transmission through successive generations 
in the long but incalculable lapse of the earth's natural mutations. These, 
together with the adaptation^ structure and function to external conditions 
securing the survival of the fittest, are, as you must all be aware, in their 
essential features the views now known as Darwinism, first simultaneously 
brought forward by Wallace and Darwin in 1858, and which, after being 
more fully elaborated in the works of the latter and ably supported by the 
former, secured, in the incredibly short space of ten or twelve years, the 
general approval of a large portion of the scientific world. Opinion has, in 
fact, now undergone such a change that there are few works on Natural 
History, whether of a special or more general character, in which the rela- 
tion the scientific facts bear to the newer doctrines is not carefully indicated ; 
that, with the general public also, the words " Evolution " and " Develop- 
ment" have ceased to excite the feelings, amounting almost to horror, which 
they at first produced in the minds of those to whom they were equally 
unfamiliar and suspicious ; and that, even in popular literature, illustra- 
tions are not unfrequently drawn in such terms of Darwinian theory as 
" struggle for existence," "natural selection," " survival of the fittest," and 
the like. 

It cannot be doubted that in this country, and partly on the Continent, the 
influence of authority had much to do with the persistence of the older 
teleological views ; and, as has been well remarked by Haeckel, one of the 
ablest and keenest supporters of the modern doctrine, the combined influ- 



ADDRESS. lxxi 

ence more especially of the opinions held by three of the greatest natu- 
ralists and biologists who have ever lived, Linnoeus, Haller, and Cuvior 
(men unsurpassed in the learning of their time, and the authors of im- 
portant discoveries in a wide range of biological science), was decidedly 
adverse to the free current of speculative thought upon the more general 
doctrines of biology. And if it were warrantable to attribute so great a 
change of opinion as that to which I have adverted as occurring in my own 
time to the influence of any single intellect, it must be admitted that it is 
justly due to the vast range and accuracy of his knowledge of scientific facts, 
the quick appreciation of their mutual interdependence, and, above all, the 
unexampled clearness and candour in statement of Charles Darwin. 

Eut while we readily acknowledge the large share which Darwin has had 
in guiding scientific thought into the newer tracks of biological doctrine, we 
shall also be disposod to allow that the slow aud difficult process of emanci- 
jiation from the thraldom of dogmatic opinion in regard to a system of 
creation, and the adoption of large and independent views more consistent 
with observation, reason, philosophy, and religion, has only been possible 
under the effect of the general progress of scientific knowledge and the 
acquisition of sounder methods of applying its principles to the explanation 
of natural phenomena. 

I have already referred to Goethe, Oken, Lamarck, and Geoffroy St.-Hilairc 
as among the most prominent of the earlier pioneers in the modem or reformed 
conceptions of biological laws. But were it desirable to mark the progress 
of opinion by quoting other authors and labourers whose contributions have 
mainly supplied the materials out of which the new fabric has been con- 
structed, I should have to produce a long catalogue of distinguished names, 
among which would be found those of Lyell and Owen, as earliest shaping 
the doctrines and guiding opinion in this country, Johannes Miiller and 
Yon Baer, as taking the places of Haller and Cuvier on the Continent, and 
a host of other faithful workers in Biology belonging to the earlier part 
of this century, such as G. Treviranus, J. F. Meckel, Carus, and many 
more*. To Huxley more especially and Herbert Spencer the greatest influ- 
ence on British thought in the same direction is to be ascribed. 

Let us hope that in these times, when it has been found necessary to modify 
the older teleological views to so great an extent, although there may still 
be much that is unknown, and wide differences of opinion in regard to the 
nature and sequence of natural phenomena and the mode of their interprota- 

* It would also be unjust to omit to mention here one of the earliest attempts to bring 
British opinion into a new channel, by the remarkable work entitled ' Vestiges of Creation,' 
wbich appeared in 1844, nor to conceal from ourselves the unmerited ridicule and obloquy 
attempted to be thrown upon the author, not perhaps so much on account of tbo many 
inaccuracies unavoidable in the- endeavour at that time to overtake so large a field, as 
directed against the dangerous tendencies supposed to lurk in its reasoning. 



lxxii REPORT — 1877. 

tion, all naturalists will now concur in one important principle, viz. that 
as truthful observation and candid judgment must alone be our guides in the 
interpretation of Nature, that theory of Creation is best deserving of our 
adoption which is most consistent with the whole body of facts carefully 
observed and compared. 

To attempt to trace, within the limits to which my remarks must be con- 
fined, the influence which the progress of knowledge has exercised upon the 
scientific and general conception of biological doctrines would be impossible, 
for the modification of opinion on these subjects has proceeded not less 
from the rapid advance which our age has witnessed in the progress of 
general science, especially of physics and chemistry, than from that in the 
department of biology itself. 

Thus, to go no further than the most general laws of nature, the whole 
doctrine of the conservation and transmutation of force in Physics, so ably 
expounded to this Association by Mr. Justice Grove, the theory of com- 
pound radicals and substitution, with the discovery of organic synthesis, in 
Chemistry, and the more recent advance in speculation with regard to the 
molecular constitution and properties of matter, with which we must asso- 
ciate the names of our last President and of Clerk Maxwell, in completely 
changing the aspect of physical and chemical sciences within the last thirty- 
five years, have paved the way for views of the constitution and action of 
organized bodies very different from those which could be formed at the time 
of the first Meeting of the Association in this place. And if, confining our- 
selves to the department of Biology, we note the discovery by microscopical 
observation of the minuter elementary forms of organization, more especially 
as flowing from the comprehensive views of organized structure promulgated 
by Schleiden and Schwann nearly forty years ago, the later discovery and 
investigation of living protoplasmic substances, the accumulated evidence of 
progressive and continuous types of animal and vegetable forms in the suc- 
cession of superimposed strata composing the crust of the earth, the recent 
discoveries as to the conditions of life at great depths in the ocean, the vast 
body of knowledge brought together by the labours of anatomists and phy- 
siologists as to the structure and functions of almost every plant and animal, 
and (still more, perhaps, than any other single branch of biological inquiry) 
if we note the rapid and immense progress which has been made during the 
last fifty years in the study of the entirely modern science of the develop- 
ment of individual living beings, we shall be able to form some conception 
of the enormous extension in our time of the basis of observation and fact 
from which biological phenomena may now be surveyed, and from which just 
views may be deduced as to their mutual relations and general nature. 

It is now familiarly known that almost all (if not, indeed, all) the plants 



address. lxxiii 

and animals existing on the earth's surface derive their origin from parents 
or previously existing heings vrhose form and nature they closely reproduce 
in their life's history. By far the greater number spring from germs in tho 
form of visible and known spores, seeds, or eggs ; a few may be traced to 
other germs, or to vestiges of the parental body, the exact nature of which 
may be doubtful ; and some, including even a certain number of those also 
produced from known germs, are either constantly or occasionally multiplied 
by budding, or by a process of cleavage or direct and visible division of tho 
parent body. 

The germ constituting the basis of new formation, whether it be of un- 
known nature or in the form of spore, seed, or ovum, is of the simplest kind of 
organization, and the process by which a new plant or animal is produced is 
necessarily one of gradual change and of advance from a simpler to a more 
complex form and structure : it is one of " evolution " or, more appropriately 
named, of " development." But before proceeding to discuss the subject of de- 
velopment in beings of which the germs are known, it is right to advert to the 
preliminary and often debated question, which naturally presents itself, viz.: — 
Do all living or organized beings, without exception, spring from germs, or 
from any kind of organized matter that has belonged to parents? or may 
there not be some, especially among the simpler forms (with regard, indeed, 
to which alone there has of late been any question), which are produced by the 
direct combination of their component elements, in the way of the so-called 
spontaneous or equivocal generation, heterogenesis or abiogenesis ? 

The importance of the right solution of this problem is not confined 
merely to the discovery of the mode of origin of the lowly organisms which 
have been the more immediate object of investigation by naturalists in recent 
times, but is one of much wider significance, seeing that, if it shall be satis- 
factorily proved or even rendered probable that in the course of cosmical 
development all the various kinds of plants and animals have been gradually 
produced by evolution out of preexisting simpler forms, and thus the whole 
series of organized beiugs in nature is shown to be one of hereditary con- 
nexion and derivation, then it would follow that the history of the origin of 
the simplest organisms may be the key to that of the first commencement of 
life upon the earth's surface, and an indication of the relation in which 
the whole succeeding progenies stand to their parental stocks. 

From the very lucid and masterly view of this subject given by Prof. Hux- 
ley in his Address to the Association at Liverpool, so recently as in IS 70, 
in which the conclusion he formed was mainly based on the exhaustive 
and admirable researches of Pasteur, I might have dispensed with making 
further reference to it now, but for the very confident statements since made 
by the supporters of the doctrine of Abiogenesis, among whom Dr. Bastian 
stands most prominent in this country, and for the circumstance that the 
life-history of many of the lower organisms was still imperfectly known. 



lxxiv report — 1877. 

During tho last seven or eight years, however, renewed investigations hy 
most competent inquirers have followed one another in quick succession, from 
a review of which we cannot but arrive at a conclusion adverse to the theory 
of Hetorogenesis, namely, that no development of organisms, even of the 
most simple kind, in fermenting or putrefying solutions, has been satisfac- 
torily observed to occur when the conditions of the experiments were such 
as entirely to exclude tho possibility of their being descended from germs, 
or equivalent formative particles, belonging to preexisting bodies of a similar 
kind. I can do no more here than name the authors of the most conclusive 
experiments on this subject, nearly in the order of their publication, as those 
of Mr. "W. N. Hartley in 1872, Messrs. Pode and Ray Lankester in 1873, Dr. 
Burdon Sanderson in that and tho following years, Dr. W. Roberts in 1874, 
Professor Lister in 1875, and most recontly of Professor Tyndall, Professor 
Cohn, and of Messrs. Dallingor and Drysdale *. 

But, admitting that the evidence from direct experiment is such as entirely 
to shut us out from entertaining the view that spontaneous generation 
occurs in the present condition of the earth, we are not relieved from the 
difficulty of explaining how living organisms or their germs first made 
their appearance, nor are we debarred from attempting to form hypo- 
theses as to how this may have taken place. First, upon the theory of 
Evolution, which, strictly carried out, supposes the more complex organisms 
to be derived from the more simple, it might be held that the conditions 
affecting the combination of the primary elements of matter into organic 
forms may at one time have been different from those which now prevail, and 
that, under those different conditions, abiogenesis may have been possible, 
and may have operated to lay the foundations of organic life in the simpler 
forms in which it at first appeared — a state of things, however, which can 

* I may refer to Dr. Bastian's paper in ' Nature ' of June 30, 1870, and to his two 
works, ' The Origin of the Lowest Organisms' and 'The Beginnings of Life,' and papers 
to Boy. Soc. 1873. Mr. Hartley's researches, which were commenced in 1865, are described 
in a paper printed in the Brocecdings of the Eoyal Society for 1872, and in his ' Lectures 
on Air,' 2nd edition, 1876, where an interesting account of the whole subject will be found. 
The experiments of Mr. Bode, of Oxford, and Brofessor Ray Lankester are described in 
a paper on the " Development of Bacteria in Organic Infusions," in the Eoy. Soc. Broc. 
1873, vol. xxi. p. 34:9. Dr. Burdon Sanderson's researches are contained in the Reports of tho 
Medical Officer of the Brivy Council, and in various papers in ' Nature ' ; Dr. W. Roberts's 
paper is printed in the Transactions of the Royal Society for 1874, vol. clxiv. p. 457. Bro- 
fessor Lister's " Contribution to tho Germ Theory of Butrefaction and other Fermentative 
Changes," &c. is contained in the Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh for 1875, 
p. 818, and is also given in ' Nature.' Brofessor Tyndall's researches are described in his 
papers in the Broceedings of the Royal Society during the last two years. The work of 
Brofessor Cohn, of Breslau, entitled ' Beitrage zur Biologie der Bflanzen,' 1873-76, contains 
many memoirs bearing upon this subject, which have been partly published in abstract in 
tho ' Microscopical Journal,' in which also will bo found, in a series of contributions extending 
from 1873 to the present time, the interesting observations of Mr. W. H. Dallinger and 
Dr, J, Drysdale. 



ADDRESS. lx.W 

only be vaguely surmised, and in regard to which no exact information can 
be obtained. Or, secondly, evading the difficulty of strict cosmical evolution, 
we might suppose that vital conditions may have been coeval with the first 
existence of physical and chemical properties in the rest of natural bodies. 
But this hypothesis would be exposed to the objection that, according to the 
cosmical view generally held by physicists, the whole materials composing 
the earth have originally been subjected to incandescent heat. Nor is the 
difficulty abolished, but only removed to a more remote period, by the suppo- 
sition of the transport of germs from another planet or their introduction 
by means of meteorites or meteoric dust ; for, besides the objection arising 
from the circumstance that these bodies must have been subjected to a very 
high temperature, we should still have every thing to learn as to the manner 
in which the germs originated in the far distant regions of space from which 
they have been conveyed. 

The incompleteness of the geological record leaves us in the dark as to the 
time at which the first dawnings of life appeared in the lower strata of the 
earth's surface. The most recent researches tend to carry the origin of life 
back to a much earlier period than was at one time believed, and (if the 
famous Eozoon be admitted as evidence) even into that of the Laurentian 
strata. But if doubts should still prevail with regard to the presence of 
definite organized forms in the older sedimentary strata, the occurrence in 
them of carbon in the form of graphite in large quantities makes the previous 
existence of living organisms at least possible, and it may bo that the com- 
plete metamorphosis which these rocks have undergone has entirely removed 
all definite traces of organization. 

Nor have we the means from geological data of determining whether the 
beings of the vegetable or of the animal kingdom first made their appearance. 
If we adopt the view which has for some time been entertained by physio- 
logists that animals are entirely dependent, directly or indirectly, on plants 
for the material which constitutes their living substance, and that plants, as 
constructive agents, alone have the power to bring together the elements of 
lifeless matter, from such states as carbonic acid, water, and ammonia, into 
the condition of the living solid, the inference would be inevitable, at least 
for the great majority of the animal creation, that they must have been 
preceded by plants. But palaeontology is as yet silent on this interesting 
question ; and, if we consider the remarkable approach which is made in 
structure and properties between the lowest and simplest members of the two 
kingdoms of organic nature, so that at last all distinction between them 
seems entirely to vanish, and a set of organisms is found partaking equally 
of animal and vegetable characters, or, rather, exhibiting properties which 
are common to them both, wo shall hesitate to postulate confidently for the 
primitive antecedence of vegetable life, although, perhaps, in later epochs the 
preexistence of vegetables may be looked upon as necessary to the life of 
more developed animal organisms. 



lxxvi REPORT — 1877. 

But while we thus speculate on the first appearance of organized bodies in 
nature, we ought to keep in mind that we are equally ignorant of the mode 
of origin of the inorganic elements and their compounds ; and we may 
therefore be excused if we suspend all theory and conjecture until we shall 
be guided to more reliable hypotheses through the plain track of observation 
and experiment. 

The practical applications of the increased knowledge of the origin of 
minute animal and vegetable organisms are so numerous that it would 
occupy a much longer time than is at my disposal to give any detailed account 
of them ; but they are of such immense importance in their commercial, 
social, and sanitary relations that they ought never to be lost sight of. 

It is now proved beyond doubt that the origin of putrefaction and fermen- 
tation is dependent on the presence in the substances which are the seat of 
change in these processes, or in the surrounding air, of the gerrns of minute 
organisms of an animal or vegetable nature, and that the maintenance of the 
chemical changes in which these processes mainly consist is coincident with 
and casually (if not essentially) dependent upon the growth and multiplica- 
tion of these organisms. 

Professor Lister had the merit of being the first to apply the germ theory 
of putrefaction to explain the formation of putrid matters in the living body ; 
and he has founded on this theory the now well-known antiseptic treatment 
of wounds, the importance of which it would be difficult to overestimate. 

The success or failure of plans for the preservation of meat and other 
articles of food without question depends on the possibility of the complete 
exclusion of the germs which are the cause of putrefaction and fermenta- 
tion ; and the management of such plans must therefore be founded on the 
most accurate knowledge of these organisms, and the circumstances influenc- 
ing the persistence of their vitality and the vigour of their growth. 

The theory of Biogenesis has also lately been the guide in the investigation 
of the causes of various forms of disease, both in the lower animals and in 
man, with the result of showing that in many of them the infective substance 
consists, in all probability, of germs of minute animal or vegetable organisms. 

There is very great probability, indeed, that all the Zymotic diseases (by 
which we understand the various forms of fevers) have their origin in germs. 
As has been well remarked by Baxter in an able paper on " The Action of 
Disinfectants," the analogies of action of contagiaare similar to those of septic 
organisms, not to processes simply of oxidation or deoxidation. These orga- 
nisms, studied in suitable fluids, multiply indefinitely when introduced in all 
but infinitesimal proportions. Thus they are, as near as we can perceive, the 
very essence of contagia*. 

* For the most interesting information on this subject, I cannot do better than refer to 
the very able Papers by Dr. Burdon Sanderson in the ' Eeports of the Medical Officer 
of the Privy Council,' 1873, 1874, and 1875. 



ADDKESS. lxwii 

Leaving, however, these and many other general questions regarding the 
origin of the lowest forms of animal and vegetable life, let us now turn 
our attention to the mode of development of a new heing in those possessing 
more obvious and known germs. The general nature of the formative pro- 
cess, in all instances where fertilized germs are produced, will be best un- 
derstood by a short sketch of the phenomena ascertained to occur in different 
kinds of plants. 

In the higher or Phanerogamic plants it is generally well known that tho 
combination of two parts of the flower is necessary to the production of a seed 
containing the embryo or young plant. Beginning with the discovery of the 
pollen-tubes by Amici in 1823, the careful and minute investigations of a long 
liue of illustrious vegetable physiologists have broiight to light the details of 
the process by which fertilization is effected, and have shown, in fact, how the 
minute tube developed from the inner membrane of the pollen-granule, as 
soon as it falls upon the stigmatic tissue of the seed-bearing plant, insinuates 
itself by a rapid process of development between the cells of the style, and 
reaches at last the ovide, in the interior of which is the embryo-sac ; how, 
having passed into the micropyle or orifice of the ovule, it makes its way 
to the embryo-sac ; how a minute portion of the fertilizing substance of 
the fovilla transudes from the pollen-tube into the cavity of the embryo-sac, 
in which by this time a certain portion of the protoplasm has become differ- 
entiated into the germinal vesicle — thereby stimulating it to further growth 
and development, the earliest phenomena of which manifest themselves by 
the formation of an investing cell-wall, and by the occurrence of cell-division 
which results in the formation of the embryo or plantule of the seed. 

Thus it appears that the essential part of the process of production in Pha- 
nerogamic plants is the formation in the parent plant of cells of two different 
kinds, which by themselves have little or no independent power of further 
growth, but which, by their union, give rise to a product in which the power 
of development is raised to the highest degree. 

By further researches it is now known that the same law prevails in all tho 
remaining members of the vegetable kingdom, with the exception only of tho 
very simplest forms *. 

In viewing the reproductive process in the series of Cryptogamic plants, 
two facts at once strike us as remarkable in the modifications which are 
observed to accompany the formation of a productive germ, viz. : — first, that 
the difference between the two productive elements becomes more prominent, 
or as it were more higbly specialized, in the Cryptogamic than in the Pha- 
nerogamic plants ; and second, that in the simpler and lower forms this differ- 
ence gradually disappears till it is lost in complete uniformity of the pro- 
ductive elements. 

* It will be observed that I leave entirely out of view the whole subject of the multipli- 
cation of plants by budding or simple division. 



lxxviii repokt — 1877. 

Thus in the whole tribe of the Ferns and Vascular Cryptogams, in the 
higher Algas and Fungi, in the Characeae and in the Mosses, the differentia- 
tion of the productive elements is carried to a very high degree ; for whilo 
that belonging to the embryo or germ presents the structure of a simple cell 
which remains at rest, or in a comparatively passive state, and, absorbing 
into itself the substance of the other, becomes the seat of subsequent 
development, the other, corresponding to the pollen of the staminiferous 
phanerogam, is usually separated from the place of its formation, and, having 
undergone a peculiar modification of structure by which it acquires active 
moving cilia, it changes place and is directed towards the germinal structure, 
and, coming in contact with its elementary cell, is more or less absorbed or 
lost in the fertilizing process. The protoplasm of the germinal cell thus 
acted on and fertilized then proceeds to undergo the changes of development 
by which the foundation is laid for the new plant. 

In the Algte and Fungi, however, there are gradations of the differentiation 
of the two reproductive elements which are of the greatest interest in lead- 
ing to a comprehension of the general nature of the formative process. For 
in the lower and simpler forms of these plants, such as the Desmidiea?, Heso- 
carpese, and other Conjugatoe, we find that there is no distinction in structure 
or form to be perceived between the two cells which unite in what is termed 
conjugation ; and a complete fusion or intermixture of the two masses of 
protoplasm residts in the production of a single, usually spherical, mass holding 
the place of an embryo. And that there is an absence of specialization be- 
tween the two uniting cells is clearly shown, in both Desmidium and Meso- 
carpus, by the fact that the embryo or zygospore is formed in the mass 
resulting from the union of the protruded portions of the two cells ; while 
in more ordinary cases, as in Spirogyra, where the embryo is formed in 
one of the two cells, it seems to be indifferent in which of them it is 
formed. 

From this, which may be regarded as the most elementary type of new 
production by the union of two cells, the transition is not a great one to 
the development of a progeny without any such union. We might conjecture, 
then, that the capacity for separate or individual existence extends in the 
lowest organisms to the whole or to each structural element of their organi- 
zation, while as we rise in the scale of vegetable life (and the same view 
might apply to the animal kingdom) this capacity is more and more divided 
between the two productive elements, or, at least, is only called into full 
action by their combination. 

The germinal element of plants thus consists of a simple primordial cell, 
varying in different kinds, but in all of them probably containing the essential 
substance protoplasm ; and the most immediate result or effect of fertilization 
is the multiplication by repeated fissiparous division of the previously existing 
cells. The new individual resulting from this cellular growth usually remains 



ADDRESS. lxxix 

■within the parent body, without, however, direct union or continuity of tissue, 
till the embryo has attained some advancement, as in the well-known case of 
tho seeds of a phanerogam ; but there are many varieties in the mode of its 
disposition among the lower plants. 

A remarkablo exception to the more direct relation of the process of ferti- 
lization to the formation of the new individual or embryo occurs in some 
plants, simulating in some respects that kind of variation in animal reproduc- 
tion which has been named alternate generation. A well-known instance of 
this is observed in the Vascular Cryptogams. The prothallium of the Ferns, 
for example, results from the development of so-called spores or unicellular 
biids, which are familiar as being formed in small capsules on the lower leaf- 
surface ; and in this prothallium, when it has reached a certain stage of vege- 
tation, there are formed the archegonia, containing the oospheres or germ- 
cells, which are fertilized by the moving ciliated particles developed in the 
cells of the antheridia, the process resulting in the production of a new 
spore-bearing frond or fern-plant. 

Recent researches have also called attention to the remarkable arrange- 
ments in many Phanerogamic plants for the prevention of fertilization of the 
pistils by pollen from the same flower, or even from the same plant. In the 
latter case this is effected by the separation of stamens and pistils in different 
flowers. In the former case, where both organs occur in the same flower, 
the adaptations, whether of a mechanical or of a physiological character, by 
which self-fertilization is prevented, as ascertained by numerous recent inves- 
tigations (among which those of Darwin are most conspicuous), are of the 
most varied and often the most complicated kind. 

Let us now turn to the consideration of the Development of Animals ; 
and let me say in the outset that it will be necessary for me to confine my 
remarks chiefly to the higher or vertebrated animals, and to certain parts 
only of the history of their development — more particularly the structure and 
formation of the ovum or egg, some of its earlier developmental changes, and 
the relation of these to the formation of the new animal. 

I cannot enter upon the consideration of this topic without adverting to 
the very recent acquisition of some of the most important facts upon which 
this branch of knowledge is founded ; and I feel it to be peculiarly appropriate, 
in the year of his death, to refer to a Biologist whose labours contributed 
more powerfully than those of any other person to give to animal embryology 
the character of a systematic branch of science, and to whom we owe some 
most important original discoveries — I mean Karl Ernest von Baer of 
Konigsberg, St. Petersburg, and Dorpat. 

Of observers who, previous to Yon Baer, were mainly instrumental in 
preparing the way for the creation of a more exact modern science of embry- 
ology only two can be mentioned, viz. Caspar Frederick Wolff of St. Peters- 



lxxx REPORT — 1877. 

burg, well known as the author of a work entitled ' Theoria Generationis,' 
published in 1759, by which the epigenesis or actual formation of organs 
in a new being was first demonstrated, and Christian Pander, 'who, by his 
researches made at Yviirzburg, explained, in a work published in 1817, the 
principal changes by which the embryo arises and is formed. 

Von Baer was born in the Eussian province of Esthonia on the 29 th of 
February, 1792. After having been fifteen years Professor in the Prussian 
University of Konigsberg, he was called to St. Petersburg, and having some 
years later been appointed to a newly established professorship of Compara- 
tive Anatomy and Physiology, he remained in that city for nearly thirty years 
as the most zealous and able promoter of scientific education and research, 
stimulating and guiding all around him by his unexampled activity, compre- 
hensive and original views, sound judgment, and cordial cooperation. In 
1868, at the age of 76, he retired to Dorpat, from the University of which 
he had received his degree in 1814, and continued still to occupy himself with 
Avorking and writing in his favourite subjects, as well as interesting himself 
in every thing connected with educational and scientific progress, to very 
near the time of his death, which occurred on the 28th of November, 1876, 
in his 85th year. 

Although Yon Baer's researches, according to the light in which we may 
now view them, contributed in no small degree to the introduction of the 
newer views of the morphological relations of organic structure which have 
culminated in the Theory of Descent, yet he was unwilling to adopt the views 
of Darwin ; and one of his latest writings, completed in the last year of his 
life, was in vigorous opposition to that doctrine. 

It would have been most interesting and instructive to trace the history of 
the progress of discovery in Embryology from the period of Von Baer down 
to the present time ; but such a history would not be suitable to the purpose 
of this address ; and I can only venture here, in addition to Rathke, the 
colleague of Baer in Konigsberg, to select two names out of the long list of 
distinguished workers in this field during the last forty years, viz. : — Theodor F. 
W. von Bischoff, of Giessen and Munich, to whom we owe the greatest progress 
in the knowledge of the development of Mammals, by his several memoirs, 
appearing from 1842 to 1854; and Robert Bemak, of Berlin, whose researches 
on the development of Birds and Batrachia, appearing from 1850 to 1855, 
gave greatly increased exactness and extension to the general study of deve- 
lopment. 

The germinal element from which, when fertilized, the new animal is 
derived is contained within the animal ovum or egg — a compact and definite 
mass of organic matter, in which, notwithstanding great apparent variations, 
there is maintained throughout all the members of the animal kingdom, 
excepting the Protozoa, which are destitute of true ova, a greater uniformity 
in some respects than belongs to the germinal product of plants. 



ADDRESS. lxxxi 

Usually more or less spherical in form, the animal ovum presents the 
essential characters of a " complete cell," in the signification given by Schwann 
to that term. The germinal substance is enclosed by an external vesicular 
membrane or cell-wall. Within this coveriug the cell-substance (generally 
named yolk or vitellus, from the analogy of the fowl's egg) consists, to a greater 
or less extent, of a mass of protoplasm ; and imbedded in this mass, in a deter- 
minate situation, there is found a smaller internal vesicular body, the germi- 
nal vesicle or nucleus, and within that the somewhat variable macula or 
nucleolus. 

Now the first thing which strikes us as remarkable connected with the 
ovum is the very great variation in its size as compared with the entire animal 
to which it belongs, while in all of them the same simple or elementary struc- 
ture is maintained. The ovum of mammals, for example (discovered by Von 
Baer in 1827) is a comparatively small body, of the average diameter of 
about y^g- of an inch, and consequently scarcely weighing more than a 
minute fraction of a grain, perhaps not more than the 1 2 1 ^ part. And 
further, in two animals differing so widely in size as the elephant and the 
mouse, the weights of which may stand towards each other in the proportion 
of 150,000 to 1, there is scarcely any difference in the size of the mature 
ovum. 

On the other hand, if we compare this small ovum of the mammal with 
the yolk of the egg in the common fowl, the part to which it most nearly 
corresponds, it may be estimated that the latter body would contain above 
three millions of the smaller ova of a mammal. 

The attribute of size, however, in natural objects ceases to excite feelings 
of wonder or surprise as our knowledge of them increases, whether that be 
by familiar observation or by more scientific research. We need not, at all 
events, on account of the apparent minuteness of the ovum of the mammifer 
or of any other animal, have any doubts as to the presence of a sufficient amount 
of germinal substance for explaining in the most materialistic fashion the 
transmission of the organic and other properties and resemblances between the 
parent and offspring. For we are led to believe, by those who have recently 
given their attention to the size of molecules composing both living and dead 
matter, that in such a body as this minute ovum of the mammal there may 
be as many as five thousand billions of molecules ; and even if we restrict 
ourselves to the smaller germinal vesicle, and, indeed, to the smallest germinal 
particle which might be made visible by the highest microscopic enlargement, 
there are still sufficient molecules for all the requirements of the most exact- 
ing material biologist *. 

* According to a calculation made bj Mr. Sorby, the number of molecules in the ger- 
minal vesicle of the mammalian ovum is such that if one molecule were to be lost in every 
second of time, the whole would not be exhausted in seventeen years. See Address to the 
Microscopic Society, in Journ. of Microscop. Science, vol. xv. p. 225, and ' Nature,' vol. 
xiii. p. 332. See also Darwin on "Pangenesis," in his work on 'Variations,' &c. (18C8), 



Ixxxii report — 1877. 

This great disparity of size, however, is connected with an important 
difference in the disposition of the yolk-substance, according to -which 
ova may he distinguished as of two kinds — the large- and the small-yolkcd 
ova, between which there are also many intermediate gradations. The 
larger-yolked ova belong to the whole tribe of birds, scaly reptiles, osseous 
and cartilaginous fishes, and the Cephalopods among, the Invertebrates ; and 
are distinguished by the strictly germinal part or protoplasm being collected 
into a small disk, known familiarly as the cicatricida of the fowl's egg, and 
to be seen as a whitish spot on that side of the yolk which naturally floats 
uppermost, while the rest of the yolk, of a deeper yellow colour, contains 
a large quantity of vitelline granules or globules of a different chemical 
nature from the protoplasm. 

The phenomena of embryonic development are, in the first instance at 
least, confined to the germinal disk, and the rest of the yolk serves in a 
secondary or more remote manner to furnish materials for nourishment of 
the embryo and its accessory parts. Thus we distinguish the germinal from 
the nutritive or food-yolk, or, as the younger Yan Beneden has named them, 
the protoplasm and the deutoplasm. 

In the smaller ovum of the mammal, on the other hand, it seems as if the 
whole, or nearly the whole, of the yolk were protoplasmic or germinal. 
There may be some admixture of yolk-granules ; but there is not the 
marked separation or limitation of the protoplasmic substance which is so 
distinct in birds, and the earliest changes of development extend to the 
whole component substance of the yolk, or, in other words, the yolk is entirely 
germinal. Hence some have given the names of merohlastic and holollastic 
(meaning partially and entirely germinal) to these two contrasting forms of ova. 
There are many of the invertebrate animals of which the ova present the 
same entirely germinal arrangement as in those of mammals, and the Am- 
pMo.vus may be included in the same group. 

The Amphibia stand in some measure between the two extremes— the 
purely protoplasmic or germinal part occupying one side, and the nutritive or 
vitelline the other. But among the Invertebrates the gradations are often 
such as to make it difficult to determine under which group the ova should 
be placed. 

The genesis or formation of the ovum itself, if it be considered with refe- 
rence to its first origin, carries us back to a very early period of the develop- 
ment of the parent in which it is produced ; and it is one of the most 
interesting problems to determine what is the source of the cells in the parent 
from which the reproductive elements originally spring. All that I can ven- 
ture to say at present in regard to this point is, that the primordial ova or 

vol. ii. p. 374, and the Review by Ray Lankester of Haeckel's work, ' Perigenesis dor 
Blastidule,' &c, in 'Nature' for 1876, p. 235, and Ray Lankester's essay on ' Comparative 
Longevity,' 1870. 



address. lxxxiii 

germs appear in the parental body, while still embryonic, at a very early period 
of its development, and clearly derivo their origin from a deeply-seated part 
of the formative cells which are undergoing transformation into the primitive 
organs ; but the exact seat of the origin of the two kinds of reproductive 
cells is still a matter of doubt. 

When the ovum attains its full maturity in the ovary, the scat of its 
formation within the parent, it is separated from that organ, and when fer- 
tilized proceeds to undergo embryonic development, differing in this respect 
from the germinal product of the higher plants, in which the embryo is deve- 
loped in the place of formation of the seed. 

The period of maturation of the ovum is marked in the greater number 
of animals by a series of phenomena which have generally been interpreted 
as the extrusion or absorption of the germinal vesicle ; and various observers 
have actually traced the steps of the process by which that vesicle appears 
to leave the yolk and is lost to sight, or has passed into the space between 
the yolk and its membrane in tho shape of the peculiar hyaline bodies named 
the polar or directing globules. But recent researches, afterwards to be 
referred to, tend to show that some part at least of the substance of the ger- 
minal vesicle remains to form, when combined with the fertilizing element, 
the newly endowed basis of future development. 

Among the earliest changes to which the perfect animal ovum is subject, 
I have first to refer to the segmentation of the germ, a series of phenomena 
the observation of which has been productive of most important results in 
leading to a comprehension of the intimate nature of the formative process, 
and which is of the deepest interest both in a morphological and histo- 
logical point of view. This process, which was first distinctly observed by 
Prevost and Dumas more than fifty years ago, and is now known to occur in 
all animal ova, consists essentially in the cleavage or splitting up of the 
protoplasmic substance of the yolk, by which it becomes rapidly subdivided 
into smaller and more numerous elements, so as at last to give rise to the 
production of an organized stratum of cells out of which, by subsequent 
changes, the embryo is formed. 

The process of yolk-segmentation may at once be distinguished as of two 
kinds, according as it affects in the small-yolked ova the whole mass of the 
yolk simultaneously, or in the large-yolked ova is limited to only one part of 
it. The cleavage process, in fact, affects the germinal and not the food-yolk ; 
so that to take the two most contrasting instances of the bird and mammal, 
to which I have before referred, it appears that while the mammal's ovum 
undergoes entire segmentation, this process is confined to the substance of the 
cicatricula or germinal disk of the bird's egg. This process is essentially one 
of cell-division, but it is also in some measure ono of cell-formation. The 
best idea of its nature will be obtained from a short description of the total 
segmentation occurring in the mammal's ovum. 



lxxxiv REPORT — 1877. 

When, as before mentioned, the germinal vesicle has been in part ex- 
truded or lost to sight, the -whole yolk-substance of the ovum forms a nearly- 
uniform mass of finely granular protoplasm, enclosed within the external 
cell-membrane. Within a few hours later a clear nucleus has arisen in this 
mass. To this more definite form of organization assumed by the germinal 
substance of the future animal, which is about to be the subject of the seg- 
menting process, the name of the first segment-sphere may be given. 

By the process of cleavage which now begins, this first segment-sphere 
and its nucleus undergo division into two nucleated spheres of smaller size, 
the whole substance of the yolk, in a holoblastic ovum, such as that of the 
mammal, being involved in the segmenting process. 

The second ■ stage of division follows after the lapse of a few hours, and 
results in the formation of four nucleated segment-spheres ; and the process 
of division being repeated in a certain definite order, there result in the 
succeeding stages (that is, the third, fourth, fifth, and up to the tenth) the 
numbers of 8, 12, 16, 24, 32, 48, 64, and 96 nucleated yolk-spheres, germ- 
spheres, or formative cells. 

In the rabbit's ovum the tenth stage is reached in less than three days ; 
and as during that time the size of the whole ovum has undergone very little 
increase, it follows that the spheres of each succeeding set, as they become 
more numerous, have diminished greatly in size. These segment-spheres 
are all destitute of external membrane, but are distinctly nucleated ; and their 
protoplasmic substance is more or less granular, presenting the usual histo- 
logical characters of growing cells. 

By the time that segmentation has reached the seventh or eighth stage, 
when 32 or 48 spheres have been formed, the ovum has assumed the 
appearance of a mulberry, in which the oi;ter smaller spheres, closely massed 
together, project slightly and uniformly over the whole surface ; while the 
interior of the ball is filled with cells of a somewhat larger size and a more 
opaque granular aspect, also resulting from the process of segmentation. 

Already, however, the mutual compression of the spheres or cells on the 
surface, by their crowding together, has led to the flattening of their adjacent 
sides ; and by the time the tenth stage is reached, when the whole number 
of the cells is about 96, the more advanced superficial cells, having ranged 
themselves closely together, form a nucleated cellular layer or covering of 
the yolk, enclosing within them the larger and more opaque cells, derived 
like the first from the segmenting process. In a more advanced stage, the 
deeper cells now referred to having taken the form of an internal layer, there 
results at last the bilaminar blastoderm or embryonic germinal membrane. 

The process of partial segmentation, such as occurs in the bird's egg, 
though perhaps fundamentally the same as that of the mammal previously 
described, stands in a different relation to the parts of the whole yolk or 
egg, and consequently differs in its general phenomena. The segmentation 



ADDRESS. l.XXKV 

is mainly restricted in the meroblastic ova of birds to the germinal disk or 
cicatricula, and does not immediately involve any part of the larger re- 
mainder of the yolk. This takes place during the time of the descent of 
the yolk through the oviduct, when the yolk is receiving the covering of the 
■white or albumen, the membrane, and the shell, previous to being laid — a 
process -which, in the common domestic fowl, usually occupies less than 
twenty-four hours. Corresponding essentially to the more complete segmen- 
tation of the mammal's ovum, the process leads to the same result in the 
production of two layers of nucleated formative cells in the original seat of 
a protoplasmic disk — a bilamiuar blastoderm resulting as in the mammal's 
ovum, though in a somewhat different relation to the yolk. 

I will not fatigue you with a description of the details of these phenomena, 
interesting as they may be, but only mention generally that they consist in the 
formation of deep fissures with rounded edges running from the surface into the 
substance of the germ-disk. The first of these fissures crosses the disk in 
a determinate direction, dividing it into two nearly equal semicircular parts. 
In the next stage another fissure, crossing the first nearly at right angles, 
produces four angular segments. Then come four intervening radial fissures 
which subdivide the four segments into eight ; and next afterwards the central 
angles of these eight radial segments are cut off from their peripheral portions 
by a different fissure, which may be compared to one of the parallels of latitude 
on the globe near the pole where the radial or longitude fissures converge. 
And so thereafter, by the succession and alternation of radial and circular 
clefts (which, however, as they extend outwards, come soon to lose their 
regularity), the whole germinal disk is divided into the two layers of nucleated 
cells, constituting the blastoderma or germinal membrane of Pander and 
subsequent embryologists *. If a laid egg be subjected to the heat of 
incubation for eight or ten hours, the cicatricula, now converted into this 
segmented blastoderm, is found to be considerably expanded by a rapid 
multiplication of its constituent cells ; and in as many more hours, by further 
changes in its substance, the first lineaments of the chick begin to make their 
appearance. Similar changes affect the blastoderm of the mammal ; and thus 
it appears that the result of segmentation, in the bird as well as in the mammal 
and other animals, is the production of an organized laminar substratum, 
which is the seat of the subsequent embryonic development. 

I must still request your attention to some details connected with the 
process of segmentation, which bear upon the question of the origin of the 

* The more exact nature of the process of segmentation was first made known by the 
inli resting researches of Bagge in 1841, and more especially of Kolliker in 1843. The phe- 
nomena of complete segmentation were first fully described in the mammal's ovum in 
Bischoff's description of the development of the Babbit, 1842, and followed out in his 
succeeding memoirs on the Dog, Guineapig, and Eoedeer. The phenomena of partial 
segmentation were first made known, in their more exact form, by Kolliker's researches 
on the development of the Cephalopoda, published in 1844. In birds the process was 
first described by Bergmann in 1846, and more fully by Coste in 1848. 
1877. a 



lxxxvi REPORT — 1877. 

new cells, and on which recent research has thrown a new and unexpected 
light. 

With respect to the nature of the first segment-sphere of the ovum and 
the source of its nucleus, as well as of the other segment-spheres or cells 
which follow each other in the successive steps of germ-suhdivision, it appears 
probable, from the researches of several independent observers, and more 
especially of Edward Tan Beneden and Oscar Hertwig, that in the course of 
the extrusion of the germinal vesicle a small portion of it remains behind 
in the form of a minute mass of hyaline substance, to which Yan Beneden 
has given the name of pronucleus, and that, as the residt of the fertilizing 
process, there is formed a second similar hyaline globule or pronucleus, 
situated near the surface, which gradually travels towards the centre and 
unites with the first pronucleus, and that these two pronuclei, being fused 
together, form the true nucleus of the first segment-sphere. According to 
this view the original germinal vesicle, when it disappears or is lost to sight, 
as described by so many embryologists, is not dissipated, but only undergoes 
changes leading to the formation of the new and more highly endowed nucleus 
of the first embryonic or segmental sphere. It further appears that the sub- 
division of each segmenting mass is preceded by a change and division of 
the nucleus, and that this division of the nucleus is accompanied by the pe- 
culiar phenomenon of a double conical or spindle-shaped radial lineation of the 
protoplasm, which, if we were inclined to speculate as to its nature, seems 
almost as if it marked out the lines of molecular force acting in the organizing 
process. These lines, however, it will be understood, if visible with the 
microscope, even of the highest magnifying-power yet attained, belong to 
much larger particles than those of the supposed molecules of the physicist ; 
but, considered in connexion with what we know of the movements which 
frequently precede the act of division of the yolk-spheres, we seem in this 
phenomenon to have made some near approach to the observation of the 
direction in which the molecular forces operating in organization may be 
supposed to act*. 

With respect to the nature of the blastoderm, the organized cellular stratum 
resulting from segmentation, and its relation to the previous condition of 

* The observations referred to above as to the division of the nucleus are so novel and 
of such deep interest that I am tempted to add here a short abstract of their more im- 
portant results from a very clear account given of them by Dr. John Priestley, of 
Owens College, Manchester, in the ' Journal of Microscopical Science ' for April 1876. 

The researches now referred to are those of Auerbach, Butschli, Strasburger, Hertwig-, 
and Edw. Van Beneden ; and the following may be stated as the points in which they 
mainly agree : — 

The nucleus when about to divide elongates into a spindle-shaped body, becomes irregular 
and indistinct, acquires a granular disk or zone in the plane of its equator; this divides 



ADDRESS. lxXXVli 

the ovum on the one hand, and the future embryo on the other, there is pre- 
sented to us, by modern research, the interesting view that the blastoderm 
consists, after completion of the segmenting process, of two layers of cells — an 
outer or upper (usually composed of smaller, clearer, and more compact 
nucleated cells), named ectoderm or ejpiblast, and an inner or lower (consisting 
of cells which are somewhat larger, more opaque and granular, but also 
nucleated), named endoderm or hypoblast. 

In the meroblastic ova, such as those of birds, the bilaminar blastoderm 
is discoid and circumscribed as it lies on the yolk-surface, and only comes 
to envelop the whole of the food-yolk in the progress of later development ; 
while in the holoblastic ova, and more especially in mammals, the blastoderm 
from the first extends over the whole surface of the yolk, and thus forms an 
entire covering of the yolk known as the " vesicular blastoderm," the space 
within being occupied by fluid. 

Huxley long ago presented the interesting view that these two layers are 
essentially the same, in their morphological relations and histological structure, 
as the double wall of the body in the simplest forms of animals above the 
Protozoa. Haeckel has more recently followed out this view, supporting it by 
his researches in the Calcareous Sponges, and has founded upon it his well- 
known Gastrcea theory. According to this view all animals take their origin 
from a form of Gastrula, or simple stomach-like cavity. In the lower tribes, 
as in the instance of the common freshwater polype or Hydra, they proceed no 
further than the Gaatrula stage, unless by mere enlargement and slight differ- 

into two, and each half moves towards the pole of the spindle on its own side, there being 
radiated lines of protoplasm between the poles and the equatorial disk. 

The disk segments are the new nuclei, and the subsequent division of the cell takes 
place in the intermediate space. 

Although these observers still differ in opinion upon some of the details of this process, 
and especially as to the fate of the germinal vesicle, all of them seem to agree that there 
are two pronuclei or distinct hyaline parts of the yolk-protoplasm, a superficial and a 
deep one, engaged in the formation of the new nucleus ; and both Hertwig and Van Bene- 
den are of opinion that the two'proceed from different productive elements. 

The radiated structure of the nuclei had been previously recognized by Fol and Hem- 
ming, and further observed by Oellacher. 

1. Butschli's researches are published in the Nov. Act. Nat-Cur. 1873, and in the 
Zeitschr. fiir wissensch. Zool. vol. xxv. 

2. Auerbach's observations iu his Organolog. Studien, 1874. 

3. Strasburger's observations in his memoir 'Ueber Zellbildung und Zelltheilung,' 
Jena, 1875. 

4. Edward Van Beneden's researches, partly in his memoir "On the Composition and 
Significance of the Egg," &c, presented to the Belgian Academy in 1868, and more parti- 
cularly in the extremely interesting preliminary account of " Researches on the Develop- 
ment of Mammalia," &c, 1875, and in a separate paper in the Jouru. of Microscopical 
Science for April 1876. 

5. Oscar Hertwig's memoirs are contained in the Morpholog. Jahrbuch, 1875, and his 
most interesting and novel observations in the same work, 1877. 

</2 



lxxxviii report — 1877. 

entiation of the two primitive layers of cells representing the persistent 
ectoderm and endoderm *. 

If, pursuing this idea, we take a survey of the whole animal kingdom 
in its long gradation of increasing complexity of form and structure from the 
simplest animal up to man himself, we find that all the various modifications 
of organic structure which present themselves are found, in the history of the 
individual or ontological development of the different members of the series, 
to spring originally from two cellular laminae, ectoderm and endoderm, the 
component elements of which may again he traced back to the first segment- 
sphere and primitive protoplasmic elements of the ovum. 

Time does not admit of my conducting you through the chain of observa- 
tion and reasoning by which Haeckel seeks to convince us of the universal 
applicability of his theory ; but I cannot avoid calling your attention to the 
extremely interesting relation which has been shown to exist between the 
primary phases of development of the ovum and the foundation of the blasto- 
derm in very different groups of animals, more especially by the researches 
of Haeckel himself, of Kowalevsky, Edward Yan Beneden, and others, and 
■which has received most efficient support from the investigations and writings 
of E. Ray Lankester in our own country ; so that now we may indulge 
the well-grounded expectation that, notwithstanding the many and great 
difficulties which doubtless still present themselves in reconciling various 
forms with the general principle of the theory, wo are at least in the track 
which may lead to a consistent view of the relations subsisting between the 
ontogenetic, or individual, and the phylogenetic, or race history of the for- 
mation of animals and of man. 

In all animals, then, above the Protozoa, the ovum presents, in some form 
or other, the bilamiuar structure of ectoderm and endoderm at a certain 
stage of its development, this structure resulting from a process of segmen- 
tation or cell-cleavage ; and there are three principal modes in which the 
double condition of the layers is brought about. In one of these it is by 
inward folding or invagination of a part of the single layer of cells immediately 
resulting from the process of segmentation that the doubling of the layers is 
produced ; in the second, perhaps resolvable into the first, it may be described 
rather as a process of enclosure of one set of cells within another ; while in 
the third the segmented cells, arranged as a single layer round a central 
cavity of the ovum, divide themselves later into two layers. But the dis- 
tinction of ectodermic and endodermic layers of cells is maintained, whether 
it be primitive and manifested from a very early period, or acquired later by 
a secondary process of differentiation. Thus in many Invertebrates, as also 

* At this place I will only refer to one of the most recent of Haeckel's works, in which 
the views alluded to above are fully exposed in a series of most interesting memoirs, viz. 
' Studien zur Gastrasa-Theorie,' Jena, 1877 ; and to Dr. E. Percival Wright's translation 
of the account of Haeekel'i views in Joum. of Microsc. Science, vol. xiv. 1874. 



ADDRESS. lxxXlX 

iu Ampliioxus among the Vertebrates, a distinct invagination occurs, •while 
in Mammals, as recently shown by Yan Beneden's most interesting observa- 
tions in the rabbit's ovum, and probably also iu some invertebrates, the cells 
of the ectoderm gradually spread over those of the endoderm during the pro- 
gress of segmentation, and thus the endodermic comes to be enclosed by the 
ectodermic layer of cells. 

From tho very uovel and unexpected observations of Yan Benedcn it further 
appears that from the earliest period in tho process of segmentation in the 
mammal's ovum it is possible to perceive a distinction of two kinds of seg- 
ment-spheres or cells, and that when this process is traced back to its first 
stage it is found that the whole of the cells belonging to the ectoderm are the 
progeny of, or result from the division of the upper of the two first formed 
segments, and that the whole of the endodermic cells are the descendants of 
the lower of the two first segmented cells. This, however, is not an isolated 
fact belonging only to mammalian development, but one which very nearly 
repeats a process ascertained to occur in a considerable number of the lower 
animals, and it seems to promise the means of greatly advancing the compre- 
hension of the whole process of blastodermic formation. Thus ectoderm and 
endoderm, which are in fact the primordial rudiments of the future animal 
and vegetative systems of the embryo, are traced back as distinct from each 
other to the first stage of segmentation of the germ. 

Accepting these facts as ascertained, they may be regarded as of the deepest 
significance in the phylogenetic history of animals ; for they appear to open 
up the prospect of our being able to trace transitions between the earliest 
embryonic forms occurring in the most different kinds of ova, as between the 
discoid or meroblastic and the vesicular or holoblastic, through the inter- 
mediate series which may be termed amphiblastic ova*. 

In the lowest animals, the two layers already mentioned, viz. ectoderm 
and endoderm, are the only ones known to constitute the basis of develop- 
mental organization ; but as we rise in the scale of animals we find a new 
feature appearing in their structure, which is repeated also in the history of 
the formation of the blastoderm in the higher animals up to man. This 
consists in the formation of an intermediate layer or layers constituting the 
mesoderm, with which, in by far the greater number, is connected the forma- 
tion of some of the most important bodily structures, such as the osseous, 
muscular, and vascular systems. 

I will not stop to discuss the very difficult question of the first origin of the 
mesoderm, upon which embryologists are not yet entirely agreed, but will 

* I ought here to refer to the elaborate memoirs of Professor Semper on the morpho- 
logical relatione of the Vertebrate and Invertebrate animals, contained in the ' Arbeiten 
aus dem Zoolog.-zootom. Institut in Wurzburg,' 1875 and 1876, in which the conclusions 
arrived at do not coincide with the views above stated. 



XC REPORT 1877. 

only remark that a view originally taken of this subject by the acute Von 
Baer appears more and more to gain ground ; and it is this — that the meso- 
derm, arising as a secondary structure, that is, later than the two primary 
layers of ectoderm and endoderm (corresponding to the serous and mucous 
layers of F'ander), is probably connected with or derived from both of these 
primitive layers, a view which it will afterwards appear is equally important 
ontogenetically and phylogenetically. 

But whatever may be the first origin of the mesoblast, we know that in 
the Vertebrata this layer, separating from between the other two, and 
acquiring rapidly by its cell-multiplication larger proportions and much 
greater complexity than belongs to either ectoderm or endoderm, speedily 
undergoes further subdivision and differentiation in connexion with tho 
appearance of the embryonic organs which arise from it, and in this respect 
contrasts greatly with the simplicity of structure which remains in the 
developed parts of the ectodermic and endodermic layers. Thus, while 
the ectoderm supplies the formative materials for the external covering or 
epidermis, together with the rudiments of the central nervous organs and 
principal sense-organs, and the endoderm by itself only gives rise to the 
epithelial lining of the alimentary canal and the cellular part of the glands 
connected with it, the mesoblast is the source of far more numerous and 
complex parts, viz. the whole of the true skin or corium, the vertebral 
column and osseous system, the external voluntary muscles and connective 
tissue, the muscular walls of tho alimentary canal, the heart and blood- 
vessels, the kidneys, and the reproductive organs, thus forming much the 
greatest bulk of the body in the higher animals. 

There is, however, a peculiarity in the mode of the earliest development 
of the mesoblast which is of great importance in connexion with the general 
history of the disposition of parts in the animal body, to which I must now 
refer. This consists in the division of the mesoblast in all but its central 
part into two laininpe, an outer or upper and an inner or lower, and the separa- 
tion of these by an interval or cavity which corresponds to the space existing 
between the outer wall of our bodies and the deeper viscera, and which, from 
the point of view of the vertebrate animals is called the pleuro-peritoneal 
cavity, but, viewed in the more extended series of animals down to the Annu- 
loida, may receive the more general appellation of pleuro-splanchnic or 
parieto-visceral cavity, or, shortly, the coelom. Thus, from an early period 
in the vertebrate embryo, and in a considerable number of tho invertebrate, 
a division of the mesoderm takes place into the somatopleural or outer 
lamina and the splanchnopleural or inner lamina — tho outer being the seat 
of formation of the dermal, muscular, and osseous systems (the volunto- 
motory of llemak), and the inner of the muscular w T all of the alimentary 
canal, as well as of the contractile substance of the heart and tho vascular 
system generally. 



ADDK1SSS. XC1 

It is interesting to find that there is a correspondence between the 
later division of the mesoderm of the higher animals derived from the two 
primitive blastodermic laminae and the original absence of mesodermic 
structure in the lowest animals, followed by tho gradual appearance, 
first of one layer (the external muscular in the higher Coelenterata), and 
soon afterwards by the two divisions or laminae with the intermediate 
ccelom. 

In this account of what may be termed the organized foundation of the 
new being, I have entered into some detail, because I felt that our conception 
of any relation subsisting between the ontogenetic history of animals and 
their phylogenetic evolution can only be formed from the careful study 
of the earliest phenomena of embryonic organization. Notwithstanding the 
many difficulties which unquestionably still block the way, I am inclined 
to think that thero is great probability in the view of a common bilaminar 
origin for the embryo of all animals above the Protozoa, and that the 
Vertebrate equally with the Invertebrate animals may be shown to possess, 
in the first stages of their blastodermic or embryonic formation, tho two 
primitive layers of ectoderm and endoderm*. 

To attempt, however, to pursue the history of the development of animals 
in detail would be equivalent to inflicting upon you a complete system of 
human and comparative anatomy. But I cannot leave the subject abruptly 
without an endeavour to point out in the briefest possible manner the bearing 
of some of the leading facts in embryology upon the general relation of onto- 
geny and phylogeny. 

We are here brought into the contemplation of those remarkable changes, 
all capable of being observed and demonstrated, by which the complex 
organization of the body of man and animals is gradually built up out of the 
elementary materials furnished by the blastodermic layers— a process which 
has been looked upon by all thoso who have engaged in its study with the 
greatest interest and admiration. By comparing these phenomena as observed 
in individuals belonging to different classes and orders of animals, it is 
found that not only are they not different, but, on the contrary, that 
they present features of the most remarkable resemblance and conformity, 
and we are led to the conclusion that there is a general plan of development 
proved to extend to the members of considerable groups, and possibly capable 

* If we reserve the words ectoderm and endoderm to designate the two layers of the 
primary bilaminar blastoderm, we may apply the terms epiblast and hypoblast to their 
derivatives after the formation of the mesoderm, and indicate the relations of the whole 
to the secondary or quadrilaminar blastoderm by the following Table : — 

r Ectoderm ... f Epibkst } 

Primarv ^r ^ f Somatopleuro I Secondary 

BkstodZi Mesoderm . . . | Splancmiopleure .. bias 

(.Endoderm ... { Hypoblast 



xeii report — 1877. 

of being traced from one group to another ; this being in fact equivalent to the 
statement that there is a similar type of structure pervading the animals 
of each group, and a probability of a common type being ascertained 
to belong to them all. The main question, therefore, to be answered is 
whether there is or is not a general correspondence between the phenomena 
of development and the gradation of type in animal structure upon which 
anatomists and zoologists are agreed ; and my object will now be to bring 
rapidly before you one or two of the most marked illustrations of the 
correspondence, drawn from the early history of development in the higher 
animals. 

As one of the examples of the earlier phenomena of development I may 
refer to the change which is perceptible as early as the 18th or 20th hour 
of incubation in the chick, and which is reproduced in the course of develop- 
ment of every member of the Yertebrate subkingdom. It consists in the 
formation of cross clefts on each side of the primitive neural cavity, which 
divide off from each other a number of segments of this wall in the length 
of the axis of the embryo. At first there are only one or two such clefts ; 
but they rapidly increase in a backward direction in the body of the embryo, 
and as development proceeds they extend into the tail itself. These 
are the protovertebrce of cmbryologists — not corresponding, as might at 
first be supposed, with the true or actual vertebra) which are formed later, 
but representing in an interesting manner transverse vertebral segments 
of the body, and containing within each the elements of the several 
structures belonging to the body-wall afterwards to be developed, in- 
cluding the true cartilaginous or osseous vertebral arches and the muscular 
plates. 

This change, however, belongs to the mesodermic lamina, and occurs 
in an elongated thick portion of it, which makes its appearance on each 
side of the primitive neural canal between the epiblast and the hypoblast. 
The transverse cleavage is ascertained to commence near what afterwards 
forms the first cervical vertebra, but does not extend into the base of the 
cranium. And it is most interesting to note in this cleavage the formation 
at so early a period of the succession of metameres or series of similar parts, 
which forms a main cb aracteristic of vertebral organization. 

As intimately connected with the formation of tho vertebral column, the 
appearance of the chorda dorsalis or notochord presents many points of 
peculiar interest in embryological inquiries. 

The notochord is a continuous median column or thread of cellular struc- 
ture running nearly the whole length of the rudimentary body of the 
embryo, and lying immediately below the cerebro-spinal canal. It occupies, 
in fact, the centre of the future bodies of the vertebras. It exists as a pri- 
mordial structure in the embryo of all Vertebrates, including man himself and 
extending down to the Amphioxus, and, according to the remarkable discovery 



ADDRESS. *CU1 

of Kowalevsky in 18G6, it is to to. found among the Invertebrates in the 
larva of the Asoidia*. 

In Amphioxus and the Cyclostomatous Fishes the notochord, growing with 
the rest of the body into a highly developed form, acts as a substitute for the 
pillar of the bodies of the vertebrae, no vertebral bodies being developed ; but 
in Cartilaginous and Osseous Fishes various gradations of cartilaginous and 
osseous structures come to surround the notochord and give rise to the simpler 
forms of vertebral bodies, which undergo more and more distinct development 
in the higher vertebrates. In all instances the substance forming the vertebral 
bodies is deposited on the surface of or outside the notochord and its sheath, 
so that this body remains for a time as a vestigial structure within the 
vertebral bodies of the higher animals. 

The observations of Kowalevsky with respect to the existence of a notochord 
in the Ascidia, which have been confirmed by Kupfer and others, have pro- 
duced a change little short of revolutionary in embryological and zoological 
views, leading as they do to the support of the hypothesis that the Ascidian 
is an earlier stage in the phylogenetic history of the mammal and other 
Vertebrates. The analogy between the Amphioxus and Ascidian larva is 
certainly most curious and striking as regards the relation of the notochord 
to other parts ; and it is not difficult to conceive such a change in the form 
and position of the organs in their passage from the embryonic to the adult 
state as is not inconsistent with the supposition that the Yertebrates and 
the Ascidia may have had a common ancestral form. Kowalevsky's discovery 
opens up at least an entirely new path of inquiry ; and necessitates the modi- 
fication of our views as to the entire separation of the Yertebrates from the 
other groups of animals, if we do not at once adopt the hypothesis that 
through the Ascidian and other forms the origin of the Yertebrates may bo 
traced downwards in the series to the lower grades of animal organization. 

The notochord extends a short way forward into the cranial basis ; and an 
interesting question here presents itself, beginning with the speculations of 
Goethe and Oken, and still forming a subject of discussion, whether the series 
of cranial or cephalic bones is comparable to that of the vertebra. On the 
whole it appears to me that it is consistent with the most recent views of tho 
development and anatomy of the head to hold the opinion that it is composed 
of parts which are to some extent homologous with vertebral metameres f. 

The history of the formation of the vertebral column presents an interesting 
example of the correspondence in the development of the individual and the 
race, in that all the stages which have been referred to as occurring in the 
gradual evolution of the vertebral column in the series of Yertebrates are 

* Mem. de l'Acad. de St. P6tersbourg, vol. x. 

t See the interesting and valuable memoirs of W. K. Parker, " On the Anatomy and 
Development of the Vertebrate Skull," in Trans, of Eoy. Soc., the researches of Gegenbaur, 
Mihalkovics, and more particularly the memoir by F. M. Balfour, " On the Development 
of the Elasmobranchs," in tho Journ. of Anat. and Physiol, vols. x. and xi. 



xeiv report — 1877. 

repeated in the successive stages of the embryonic development of the higher 
members of the series. 

There is perhaps no part of the history of development in the Vertebrates 
which illustrates in a more striking manner the similarity of plan which runs 
through the whole of them than that connected with what I may loosely call 
the region of the face and neck, including the apparatus of the jaws and gills. 
The embryonic parts I now refer to consist of a series of symmetrical pairs of 
plates which are developed at an early period below the cranium, and may 
therefore, in stricter embryological terms, be styled the subcranial plates. 

Without attempting to follow oirt the remarkable changes which occur in 
the development of the nose and mouth in connexion with the anterior set of 
these plates (which, from being placed before the mouth, are sometimes 
named preoral), I may here refer shortly to the history of the plates situated 
behind the mouth, which were discovered by Rathke in 1826, and formed 
the subject of an elaborate investigation by Eeichert in 1837. 

These plates consist of a series of symmetrical bars, four in number in 
mammals and birds, placed immediately behind the mouth, separated by 
clefts passing through the wall of the throat, and each traversed by a division 
of the great artery from the heart — thus constituting the type of a branchial 
apparatus, which in fishes and amphibia becomes converted into the well-known 
gills of these animals ; whilst in reptiles, birds, and mammals they undergo 
various changes leading to the formation of very different parts, which could 
not be recognized as having any relation to gill-structure, but for the obser- 
vation of their earlier embryonic condition. The history of this part of deve- 
lopment also possesses great interest on account of the extraordinary degree 
of general resemblance which it gives to the embryos of man and the most 
different animals at a certain stage of advancement (so great, indeed, that it 
requires a practised eye to distinguish between them though belonging to 
different orders of mammals, and even between some of them and the embryos 
of birds or reptiles), as well as in connexion with the transformations of the 
first pair of branchial apertures, which lead to the formation of the passage 
from the throat to the ear in the higher Vertebrata. There is equal interest 
attached to the history of the development of the first pair of arches which 
include the basis of formation of the lower jaw with the so-called cartilaye of 
Meckel, and which, while furnishing the bone which suspends the lower jaw in 
reptiles and birds, is converted in mammals into the hammer-bone of the ear. 

The other arches undergo transformations which are hardly less marvel- 
lous, and the whole series of changes is such as never fails to impress the 
embryological inquirer with a forcible idea of the persistence of type and 
the inexhaustible variety of changes to which simple and fundamental parts 
may be subject in the process of their development. 

It is also of deep significance, in connexion with the foregoing phenomena, 



ADDRESS. XCV 

to observe tho increase iu the number of the gill-bars and apertures as we 
descend in the scale to tho cartilaginous fishes and lampreys, and the still 
further multiplication of these metamoros or repeated parts in the Amphioxus ; 
and it is interesting to note that in the Ascidia tho arrangement of the gills is 
exactly similar to that of the Amphioxus. 

The study of the comparative anatomy of the heart and its mode of for- 
mation in the embryo furnishes another striking illustration of the relation 
between ontogenetic and phylogenetic development in the Vertebrates, and is 
not without its applications to some of the invertebrate groups of animals. 

I need only recall to your recollection the completely doublo state of this 
organ in warm-blooded animals, by which a regular alternation of the 
systemic and pulmonary circulations is secured, — the series of gradations 
through the class of Eeptiles by which we arrive at tho undivided ventricle 
of the Amphibian, and the further transition in the latter animals by which 
we come at last to the singlo heart of Fishes j and state that in the embryo 
of the higher animals the changes by which the double heart is ultimately 
developed out of an extremely simple tubular shape, into which it is at first 
moulded from the primitive formative cells, are, in the inverse order, entirely 
analogous to those which T have just now indicated as traceable in the 
descending series of vertebrate animals ; so that at first the embryonic heart 
of man and other warm-blooded animals is nothing more than a rhythmically 
contractile vascular tube. By the inflection of this tube, the constriction of 
its wall at certain parts, and the dilatation at others, the three chambers are 
formed which represent the single auricle, the single ventricle, and the aortic 
bulb of the fish. By later changes a septum is formed to divide the auricles, 
becoming completed in all the air-breathing animals, but remaining incom- 
plete in the higher animals so long as the conditions of fcetal life prevent the 
return of arterialized blood to the left auricle. The growth of another septum 
within the ventricular portion gradually divides that cavity into two ven- 
tricles, repeating somewhat in its progress the variations observed in different 
reptiles, and attaining its complete state in the crocodile and warm-blooded 
animals. 

I must not attempt to pursue this interesting subject further; but I cannot 
avoid making reference to the instructive view presented by the embryo- 
logical study of the nature of the malformations to which the heart is sub- 
ject, which, as in many other instances, are due to the persistence of 
transitory conditions which belong to different stages of progress in the 
development of the embryo. Nor can I do more than allude to the interest- 
ing series of changes by which the aortic bulb, remaining single in fishes and 
serving as the channel through which the whole stream of blood leaving the 
heart is passed into the gills, becomes divided in the higher animals into the 
roots of the two great vessels, the aorta and the pulmonary artery, and the 



xcvi REPORT — 1877. 

remarkable transformations of the vascular arches which proceed from the 
aortic bulb along the several branchial arches, and which, in the gills of fishes 
and aquatic Amphibia, undergo that minute subdivision which belongs to the 
vascular distribution of gills, but which in the higher non-branchiated animals 
are the subject of very different and various changes, in the partial obliteration 
of some and the enlargement of others, by which the permanent vessels are 
produced. 

These changes and transformations have for many years been a subject of 
much interest to comparative anatomists, and will continue to be so, not only 
from their presenting to us one of the most remarkable examples of confor- 
mity in the plan of development and the type of permanent or completed 
organization in the whole series of vertebrated animals, but also because of 
the manifest dependence of the phenomena of their development upon ex- 
ternal influences and atmospheric conditions affecting the respiration, nutri- 
tion, and modes of life of the animal. 

Nor is the correspondence to which I now refer entirely limited to the 
Vertebrata. For here, again, through the Amphioxus and the Ascidia, we 
come to see how an affinity may be traced between organs of circulation and 
respiration which at first appear to belong to very different types. The 
heart of vertebrates is, as is well known, essentially a concentrated form of 
vascular development in the ventral aspect of the body, while the heart of 
the invertebrate, whether in the more concentrated form existing in the 
Articulata and Mollusca or in a more subdivided shape prevalent in the 
Annelida, is most frequently dorsal ; yet the main aorta of the Vertebrates 
is also dorsal; and it is not impossible, through the intermediate form of 
Amphioxus, to understand how the relation between the Vertebrate and the 
Invertebrate type of the blood-vascular system may be maintained. 

But I am warned by the lapse of time that I must not attempt to pursue 
these illustrations further. In the statement which I have made of some of 
the more remarkable phenomena of organic production — too long, I fear, for 
your endurance, but much too brief to do justice to the subject — it has been 
my object mainly to show that they are all more or less closely related toge- 
ther by a chain of similarity of a very marked and unmistakable character j 
that in their simplest forms they are indeed, in so far as our powers of obser- 
vation enable us to know them, identical ; that in the lower grades of animal 
and vegetable life they are so similar as to pass by insensible gradations into 
each other ; and that in the higher forms, while they diverge most widely in 
some of their aspects in the bodies belonging to the two great kingdoms of 
organic nature, and in the larger groups distinguishable within each of them, 
yet it is still possible, from the fundamental similarity of the phenomena, to 
trace in the transitional forms of all their varieties one great general plan of 
organization. 



ADDRESS. XCV11 



Iii its simplest and earliest form that plan comprises a minute mass t f 
the common nitrogenous hydrocarbon compound to which the name of 
protoplasm has been given, exhibiting the vital properties of assimilation, 
reproduction, and irritability. The second stage in this plan is the nucleated 
and enclosed condition of the protoplasmic mass in the organized cell. We 
next recognize the differentiation of two productive elements, and their com- 
bination for the formation of a more highly endowed organizing element in 
the embryonic germ-sphere or cell ; and the fourth stage of advance in the 
complexity of the organizing phenomena is in the multiplication of the fer- 
tilized embryo-cell and its conversion into continuous organized strata, by 
further histological changes in which the morphological foundations of the 
future embryo or new being are laid. 

I need not now recur to the further series of complications in the formative 
process by which the bilaminar blastoderm is developed and becomes trila- 
minar or quadrilaminar, but only recall to your recollection that while these 
several states of the primordial condition of the incipient animal pass insen- 
sibly into each other, there is a pervading similarity in the nature of the his- 
tological changes by which they are reached, and that in the production of the 
endless variations of form assumed by the organs and systems of different 
animals in the course of their development, the process of cell-production, 
multiplication, and differentiation remains identical. The more obvious 
morphological changes are of so similar a character throughout the whole, 
and' so nearly allied in the different larger groups, that we cannot but 
regard them as placed in some very close and intimate relation to the 
inherent properties of the organic substance which is their seat, and the 
over-present influence of the vital conditions in which alone these properties 
manifest themselves. 

The formative or organizing property therefore resides in the living sul> 
stance of every organized cell and in each of its component molecules, and is 
a necessary part of the physical and chemical constitution of the organizing 
elements in the conditions of life ; and it scarcely needs to be said that these 
conditions may be as varied as the countless numbers of the molecules which 
compose the smallest particles of their substance. But, setting aside all 
speculation of a merely pangenetic kind, it appears to me that no one could 
have engaged in the study of embryological development for any time without 
becoming convinced that the phenomena which have been ascertained as to 
the first origin and formation of textures and organs in any individual animal 
arc of so uniform a character as to indicate forcibly a law of connexion 
and continuity between them ; nor will his study of the phenomena of 
development in different animals have gone far before he is equally strongly 
convinced of the similarity of plan in the development of the larger groups, 
and, to some extent, of the whole. I consider it impossible therefore for any 
one to bo a faithful student of embryology, in the present state of science, 



xcviii report — 1877. 

•without at the same time hecoming an evolutionist. There may still be mam- 
difficulties, some inconsistencies, and much to learn, and there may remain 
beyond much which we shall never know ; but I cannot conceive any doctrine 
professing to bring the phenomena of embryonic development within a general 
law which is not, like the theory of Darwin, consistent with their fundamental 
identity, their endless variability, their subjugation to varying external in- 
fluences and conditions, and with the possibility of tho transmission of the 
vital conditions and properties, with all their variations, from individual to 
individual, and, in the long lapse of ages, from race to race. 

I regard it, therefore, as no exaggerated representation of the present state 
of our knowledge to say that the ontogenetic development of the individual 
in the higher animals repeats in its more general character, and in many 
of its specific phenomena, the phylogenetic development of the race. If we 
admit the progressive nature of the changes of development, their simi- 
larity in different groups, and their common characters in all animals, nay, 
even in some respects in both plants and animals, we can scarcely refuse 
to recognize the possibility of continuous derivation in the history of their 
origin ; and however far we may be, by reason of the imperfection of our 
knowledge of Palasontology, Comparative Anatomy, and Embryology, from 
realizing the precise nature of tho chain of connexion by which the actual 
descent has taken place, still there can be little doubt remaining in the minds 
of any unprejudiced student of embryology that it is only by the employment 
of such an hypothesis as that of Evolution that further investigation in these 
several departments will be promoted, so as to bring us to a fuller compre- 
hension of the most general law which regulates the adaptation of structure 
to function in the Universe. 



REPORTS 



ON 



THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



It E PORTS 



ON 



THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



Thirteenth Report of the Committee for Exploring Kent's Cavsrn, 
Devonshire — the Committee consisting of John Evans, F.R.S., Sir 
John Lubbock, Bart., F.R.S., Edward Vivian, M.A., Georgia 
Busk, F.R.S., Professor Boyd Dawkins, F.R.S., William Aysii- 
tord Sanford, F.G.S., John Edward Lee, F.G.S., and William 
Pengelly, F.R.S. (Reporter). 

[Plate L] 

The Committee in their Twelfth Report, read at Glasgow last year*, brought 
up the history of their researches to the end of August 1S76. They have 
now the pleasure of continuing that history to the end of July 1877. 
During the intervening eleven months the work has been continued without 
interruption, on the same method and under the same daily superintendence 
as heretofore. The •workmen named in the Twelfth Report, George Smerdon 
(foreman) and William Matthews, are still employed on the exploration, 
and coutinuc to give unqualified satisfaction. 

On the 2nd November, 1870, Mr. Busk, a member of the Committee, 
visited the Cavern, accompanied by one of the Superintendents, -when he 
inspected that portion of the work which was then in progress, as well as the 
principal parts where the exploration has been completed. 

The researches continue to attract large numbers of visitors, most of whom 
are admitted by the authorized guide, who, under well-defined and strictly 
observed regulations, conducts them through such branches of the Cavern 
as are of general and popular interest, but not to those in which the work is 
in actual progress or has not been begun. 

In addition to the foregoing, the following visitors Ixave been accompanied 
by one of the Superintendents: — The Revs. T. G. Bonncy, A. N. Mackray, 
aiid It. R. Wolfe, Professor Balfour, Captain Smith (India), Dr. A. M. Cash, 
and Messrs. 8. Ashton, J. R. K. Aston, P. Atkins, T. Pall, A. Barclay, It. B. 
Barclay, P. Blood, R. A. Charlton, W. Cook, (J. Critchctt, T. Diane, 8. 
Elliott', J. D. Enys (Now Zealand), W. Findlater, D. A. Fox, A. Frederick, 
C. Goodrick, J. B. Grimshaw, C. H. B. Hambly, P. Hcpworth, A. 11. Hunt, 

* See Eeport Brit. Assoc. 1876, pp. 1-8. 

1>77. a 



2 report — 1877. 

A. N. Johnson, W. H. Johnson, J. T. Bough, F. L. Latham (Bombay), A. S. 
Lukin, C. A. Merman, S. Morse, J. Nield, P. H. Nind, W. W. Phillips, J. 
Sivewright, J. Steele, L. Tetlow, A. Tylor, P. P. Walker, J. Whitehead, F. R. 
Wolfe, W. Wolfe, and C. L. Wollcy. 

The Bears Den.— The Chamber termed " The Bear's Den " by the Bev. 
J. MacEnery measures about 67 feet in length, from north to south nearly, 
from 8 to 38 feet in width, and from 8 to 15 feet in height, the last dimen- 
sion being measured, as everywhere else in the Cavern, from the bottom of 
the excavation. The limestone roof is extremely rugged, fretted, and water- 
worn. The "Lake"* opens out of the north-eastern corner of the Den, 
and nearly opposite, in the western wall, is the eastern mouth of the " Great 
Oven" t. On the same side as, and immediately south of, the latter opening 
is a vast boss of stalagmite, which the (Superintendents of the work have 
preserved intact. 

This boss is crowded with inscriptions, most of which are, unfortunately, 
difficult to decipher, partly because they cross one another, and also becauso 
they are much scratched, apparently by the nailed shoes of visitors. The 
following, however, have been distinctly made out : — ■ 

1. " William Pctre, 1571." 

2. « A. T., 1662." 

3. " I. Bertie, 1706 " (in a rude segment of a circle, of which the chord is 
8'5 inches, and the height 5 - 5 inches). 

4. " I. B., 1706 " (in a rectangular figure, 2 x 1"5 inches). 

5. " A. Chard, 1817." 
6 " B. D., 1822." 

7. < : W. Crew." 

8. " S. Crocker." 

9. " F. Davy." (In lotters 6 inches high, produced apparently with a series 
of blows with a pointed hammer. The last letter is Y by inference only. 
Its place is occupied by a triangle placed thus — V , formed by the complete 
removal of a thin lamina of the stalagmite. This removal was probably 
accidental, and caused with the unintentional effect of the blows of the hammer 
in the attempt to form the Y.) 

10. " Anton Hay." 

11. " Dauid More " (in engrossed letters). 

12. " John Skinner." 

13. " F. D." (within a heart-shaped figure, measuring 5-5 inches from the 
indent to the point opposite, and 5 inches in greatest breadth). 

14. " W. B." 

15. " W. E." 

There is also a date belonging to the second decade of the 17th century, 
but to what precise year cannot bo determined, as the right or units numeral 
is not decipherable. All that can be made out is 161 [?]. 

No. 1 is of considerable interest on two accounts : — 

First. The date, 1571, is, so far as is at present known, the earliest in the 
Cavern, and the only one belonging to tho 16th century. 

Second. Its genuineness can scarcely be doubted, as it is known that there 
were at the period in question two natives of South Devon named William 



* See R?port Brit, Assoc. 1869, pp. 186-0. 
t Ibid. 1375, p. 12 ; and 1876, pp. 2-3. 



on Kent's cavern, Devonshire. 3 

Petre— Sir "William Petro, the statesman, -who obtained the manor of Brent, 
near Totnes, at the dissolution of Buckfast Abbey, about 1553 ; and William 
Petro, his nephew. 

Mr. It. Dymond, F.S.A., of Exeter, writing to the Superintendents on the 
question, says : — " Sir Wm. Petre, the statesman, does not appear to have 
maintained much connexion with Devonshire after attaining manhood ; and 
as the date of the inscription in Kent's Cavern (1571) was that of the year 
preceding his interment in Essex, it would seem unlikely that it referred to 
him. 

" On the other hand, there is much that points to the conclusion that it was 
the work of William Petre, his nephew, who owned Hays in St. Thomas, a 
suburb of Exeter, but who was described as of Tor Newton, and was buried 
at Tor Brian, near Totnes, in 1614. His mother was a ltidgway of Tor- 
mohun, the parish in which the Cavern is situate ; and his wife was a 
South cote of Bovey Tracy, South Devon. Thomas Bidgway, the then owner 
of the land which contains Kent's Hole, was the trustee of his marriage 
settlement in 1585. He probably held frequent intercourse with these con- 
nexions, and was familiar with the objects of interest on their property. 
His monumental inscription (see Prince's ' Worthies of Devon,' p. 633) docs 
not state his ago, but he died in 1614. His marriage settlement was 
apparently a postnuptial one; and he was probably young in 1571, when 
the youthful freak of carving the name in stalagmite was perpetrated. 

" May we not fairly conclude that he was identical with the ' William 
Petre ' of the Cavern?— B. D., 20th May, 1877." 

It may not be out of place to add here that Mr. J. T. "White, whilst 
preparing his ' History of Torquay,' discovered a lease dated December 22nd, 
1659, and appertaining to " closes, melds, or pieces of ground" forming part 
of the property in which the Cavern is situate, in which occur the words 
" one close caUed Kent's Hole ; " thus showing that in the middle of the 17th 
century the Cavern was so well known as to have given a name to a portion 
of an estate leased to a " husbandman," and rendering it eminently probable 
that the inscription of 1571, and all those of subsequent date, may be taken 
as genuine. 

As Mr. MacEnery broke ground in every part of the Bear's Den, the con- 
dition in which he found it can only be learned from the description which 
he has left, and which may be given in the following very condensed form : — 
" The floor of the Boar's Den was studded with conical mounds of stalagmite, 
supporting corresponding pendants from the roof. Fallen masses of limestone 
were strewed about, and some of them wore incorporated in the crust. An 
irregular sheet of stalagmite, about a foot thick, overspread the floor, and 
was based on a shallow bed of indurated rubble, containing tubes of stalactite 
collected in heaps in particular places, a great abundance of album grcecum, 
an unusual proportion of Bears' teeth, and an iron blade much corroded, 
Points of stalagmitic cones were observed to protrude upwards into the 
rubbly bed, and 'were found to rise from a lower sheet of stalagmite. Tho 
cones of this lower sheet were precisely under those of the upper, denoting 
that they were successively deposited from the same tubes above ; but the 
lowermost set exceeded by double the thickness of tho uppermost, and the 
depth of the stalagmitic sheet was in the same proportion. The lower sheet 
extended over the entire area of the den ; but the superincumbent bed of 
rubble, and its overlying thin sheet of stalagmite, disappeared gradually or 
' thinned out ' towards the sides. The removal of these partial beds displayed 
the entire surface of the lower sheet, which exhibited a most singular 

b2 



I REPORT — 1877. 

appearance. Over the whole area it was cracked into large slabs, resembling 
flags in a pavement. The upper sheet was not in the least fractured. The 
average thickness of the cracked sheet was about two feet. It possessed the 
hardness of rock, and, but for its division into insulated flags, it would have 
been almost impossible to pierce it. Powder made no impression on it. 

" The first flag we turned over displayed a curious spectacle. Skulls and 
bones of Bear, crowded together, adhered to its under surface. Flag after 
flag disclosed the same phenomenon ; but in one place numerous skeletons 
lay heaped on each other ; the entire vertebral column and its various other 
bones, even to the phalanges and claws, were discovered lying in their natural 
relation in a state of preservation as if belonging to the same individual. 
The remains of Bear prevailed here to the exclusion of all other animals. 
Some of the teeth were of the most dazzling enamel, and the bones of their 
natural fresh colour. Others, on the contrary, were of a darkish brown ; 
even the enamel was of a greenish tinge. Owiug to the induration of their 
earthy envelope, or their incrustation by stalagmite, few were extracted 
entire. Two skulls were buried in the stalagmite as in a mould, and were 
brought away in that state. In no case were the remains broken or gnawed 
by the jaws of Carnivores. The long bones were generally found entire, 
and when observed broken it was only mechanically from pressure. The 
bones were highly mineralized, heavy, brittle, easy of fracture, and when 
struck rang like metallic substances." (See ' Trans. Devon Assoc' vol. iii. 
(1869) pp. 233-10, 272-4, and 307-16.) 

" The annexed section," says Mr. MacEnery, " will indicate the relative 
arrangement or position of the alternating strata of stalagmite and loam " 
(ibid. p. 311). It must not be supposed, however, that the section makes 
any thing like an approach to accuracy of scale or proportions (Plate I.). 

The portions of the Stalagmitic Floor which Mr. MacEnery had faded to 
break up, chiefly adjacent to the walls and other confines of the Bear's Don, 
were sufficient to furnish the Committee with two good examples of tho 
remarkably cracked condition of which he speaks. One of these was in the 
north-east corner, where a crack about half an inch wide extended from 
wall to wall, dividing the Bear's Den from the " Lake" area, passing quite 
through the stalagmite, which was nowhere less than 2 feet thick, but 
Avitkout " faulting " it in the slightest degree, or, so far as could bo observed, 
in any way affecting the underlying deposits. Mr. MacEnery, however, 
states, though somewhat obscurely, that iu some instances a derangement 
had taken place in the materials covered by the broken stalagmite (ibid. 
p. 301)). The second existing crack varies from '25 inch to 2-5 inches wide, 
and passes completely through the boss of stalagmite already mentioned, but 
without faulting it. It is, perhaps, worthy of remark that there is no 
unoccupied space between the base of this boss and the deposit beneath it. 
The two arc in direct and undisturbed contact. No such cracks appear to 
be mentioned by Mr. MacEnery as occurring elsewhere, nor have the Com- 
mittee met with any thing of the kind in any other branch of the Cavern. 

Tho ground broken by Mr. MacEnery extended to a depth of from 8 to 
20 inches over almost the entire area of the Bear's Den. As was his wont, 
he left the excavate! materials almost where he found them, and, as in all 
previous cases of the kind, there were amongst them a large number of 
specimens which had been overlooked or neglected. These, Carefully 
collected by the Committee, were kept apart from the relics they found in 
the deposits below his diggings, and, when the exploration of the Den was 
completed) such was their number and volume that a horse and cart were 



on rent's cavern, Devonshire. 6 

required for their removal from the Cavern. They included 1 tooth of Horse, 
1 of Fox, 2 teeth of Deer, 4 of Hyscna, 4 of Mammoth, upwards of 200 of Bear, 
very numerous hones, especially of the vertebral column and feet, a crowd of 
broken bones and bone splinters, numerous balls of coprolite, and a few bits 
of coarse pottery. 

It cannot be doubted that such cracks as Mr. MacEnery describes, if at all 
approaching in width to that still existing in the Stalagmitic boss, must be a 
possible, and, indeed, probable source of uncertainty respecting the position 
and relative chronology of some of the objects found in the underlying 
deposit, especially if, as he states, this deposit shared in the disturbance ; 
for it must be supposed that portions of the overlying Cave-earth or, as Mr. 
MacEnery calls it, the Rubble-bed, together with teeth, bones, and coprolites, 
such as he found in it, would pass down through the cracks, and be lodged 
oh, and perhaps in, the underlying Breccia. 

In accordance with Mr. MacEncry's description and the foregoing con- 
siderations, the deposit the Committee had to excavate was the Breccia, with 
a small amount of Cave-earth lying on it here and there. Fallen blocks of 
limestone were extremely numerous ; many of them were of great size, and 
required to be blasted before they could be removed ; whilst others, still larger, 
penetrated the Breccia below the depth to which the excavation was carried, 
and were allowed to remain undisturbed. 

The excavation in the Bear's Den was limited, as in other branches of the 
Cavern, to a depth of four feet below the bottom of the Stalagmite, and the 
Limestone Floor was nowhere reached. 

The "finds" in tho Den were 216 in number, of which 12 were in the 
Stalagmite, 101 in the first or uppermost foot-level of the underlying 
deposits, 47 in the second, 32 in the third, 23 in the fourth or lowest, 
and 1 in a small recess in the north-west corner of the Den, where no 
attempt was made to define the exact position of the objects. Omitting 
those found in the Stalagmite and the Recess, 32 of the " finds " were in 
Cave-earth, 05 in a mixture of Cave-earth and Breccia, and 96 in the Breccia, 
whilst the matrix of the remaining 10 must be regarded as uncertain. The 
colour and other characters of the specimens, however, indicate with toler- 
able certainty to what beds and eras they belong. 

Besides a considerable number of bones and pieces of bone representing 
every part of the skeleton, the specimens included upwards of G20 teeth of 
Bear, 24 of Hyaena, 10 of Horse, 7 of Fox, 5 of Mammoth, 4 of Lion, and 1 of 
Dog (?) or Wolf (?). There were also 20 " finds " of coprolite and 11 flints. 

Amongst the bones, the skull of a Bear may be mentioned, which, to 
requotc the language of Mr. MacEnery, was " buried in the stalagmite as in 
a mould, and was brought away in that state." Many of the specimens arc 
of considci'able interest, but, perhaps, none of them differ so much from those 
mentioned in previous Reports as to require detailed description. There is, 
however, a portion of a large canine tooth, probably of Bear, which is note- 
worthy as having been apparently chipped artifically. From its colour and 
general characters, it belonged to the breccia, or oldest known deposit ; but 
it was met with, as part of " find " No. 6993, in the cave-earth, with two 
teeth of Hyaena and a coprolitic ball, on 9th of June, 1 S77. Specimens similar 
in character, and found under corresponding conditions, have been previously 
met with in the Cavern, and were first pointed out by Professor Boyd 
Dawkins, a member of the Committee, in 1SG8. 

None of the flints found in the Bear's Den are of so much interest 
as many of those exhumed in other branches of the Cavern, and described 



6 REPORT — 1877. 

in previous lleports. Tho following, however, deserve more than a passing 
notice : — 

No. 6895 is a small, delicately-proportioned, white, flake tool, 1*75 inch 
long, -6 inch in greatest width, which it retains for about two thirds of its 
length, and # 2 inch in greatest thickness. Both its ends are blunt, but its 
edges are sharp ; the inner face is almost flat, whilst the outer is strongly 
ridged. It was found in the first " foot-level," with 6 teeth of Bear and 1 of 
Mammoth, on 1st November, 1876, and is undoubtedly a true Cave-earth 
implement. 

No. 6929 is an irregular rolled flint nodule, from which two flakes have 
boon dislodged since it ceased to be exposed to any action capable of scratching 
its facets or injuring its edges. It is about 2-5 inches long, 1*4 inch in 
greatest breadth, 1-1 inch in greatest thickness, and was found, without any 
object of interest near it, in the Breccia, or lowest known deposit, in the 
fourth or lowest " foot-level," on 17th November, 1876. It has the dark, 
manganic smutty surface which occasionally characterizes the Breccia tools. 

No. 6943 is a white flake implement, 2-2 inches long, "5 inch in greatest 
breadth, and -3 inch in greatest thickness. It is broadest at one end, whence 
it gradually tapers towards the other, but is somewhat scimitar-shaped in 
outline, and has lost its point. It is nearly flat on one face, but is strongly 
ridged on the other, whence three longitudinal flakes have been dislodged, 
and its lateral margins are thin and sharp. It was found on 28th November, 
1876, in tho Cave-earth, in the first " foot-level," with relics of Bear, Elephant, 
and Hysena. 

No. 6986 is a white flake, 1 inch long, -6 inch wide, and "2 inch in greatest 
thickness. It is a parallelogram in outline ; slightly convex on the inner 
face, doubly ridged on the outer ; quite thin at the lateral margins, one of 
which is somewhat notched, from which the other is free ; thick at each end, 
and is in all probability the central portion of a tool of greater length. It 
was found with 4 teeth of Bear, 1 of Hyama, and pieces of bono, on 30th 
December, 1876, iu the first " foot-level," and belongs to tho Cave-earth 
series. 

No. 6997 is a cherty flint nodule implement, 3-2 inches long, 2-5 inches in 
greatest breadth, and 1*8 inch in greatest thickness. It may be described as 
a somewhat sharply-pointed, rudely heart-shaped tool, retaining some of its 
original surface as a rolled nodule. It was found on 10th January, 1877, 
in the second " foot-level," without any object of interest near it, in the 
Breccia, and is characteristic of that deposit. 

No. 7040 is a very rough specimen, 2-75 inches long, 1-6 inch in greatest 
breadth, and *95 inch in greatest thickness. It retains remnants of the 
original surface of the nodule, and was found in the Breccia, in tho first 
"foot-level," without any object of interest near it, on 5th March, 1877. 

No. 7059 is 2 inches long, 1-1 inch in greatest breadth, and •(> inch in 
greatest thickness. It is irregularly convex on each face, pointed at one 
end and rounded at the other, and retains traces of the original surface of 
the nodule. It was found in tho Breccia, in the second " foot-level," without 
any object of interest near it, on 15th March, 1877. 

A column or pillar of stalagmite was met with in November 1870, 
adjacent to the cast wall of the Bear's Den, and about 22 feet from its 
northern end, under the following peculiar circumstances : — It measured 
about 51 inches in basal circumference and 3-75 feet in height. The base was 
of nondescript outline, but everywhere above it the pillar was rudely ellip- 
tical in horizontal section, and it measured 30 inches in girth at the height 



on kent'b cavern, Devonshire: • 

of 2 foot, where it was least. When found, however, it was in two parts, 
having been divided along an almost horizontal plane where it was thinnest. 
Each of the segments stood perfectly erect, but not one on the other ; for 
though the bottom of the upper segment was on precisely the same level as 
the top of the lower, the upper portion had been moved towards the right, or 
west, to tho extent of 15 inches horizontally, and stood there on the Breccia. 
In other words, the pillar had been " faulted," so to speak, about 5 inches 
more than its thickness. It cannot be doubted that when the dislocation 
occurred the pillar had reached its full height, and the Breccia had accumu- 
lated round it to the height of 2 feet — that is, it had reached the level of the 
plane of fracture. It is difficult to see how, by any possibility, the deposit 
could at that time have reached a greater height, and difficult also to under- 
stand how any thing other than human hands could have shifted the upper 
segment of the pillar and placed it so as to preserve its erect position. On 
the other hand, it is just as difficult to see what motive man could have had 
for such a work. The whole pillar, when found, was completely buried in 
the Breccia, and the top of tho upper segment was about a foot below the 
bottom of the thick remnant of the Stalagmitic Floor, which Mr. MacEnery 
had left intact, and which contained no cracks of any kind. 

Rats still continue to follow the workmen into the Cavern. The foreman, 
George Smerdon, whose special work is that of excavating the deposits, uses 
a lump of clay, but little, if at all, less than 2 lbs. in weight, as his candle- 
stick ; and when ho leaves work he removes the candle and places it in a 
box lest it should be carried off by rats, a precaution which experience has 
taught him to be necessary ; but the lump of clay, which, it is needless to 
say, is more or less covered with candle-grease, he leaves to its fate. During 
the latter end of February and beginning of March 1877 he observed 
every morning that, not only had the candle-grease been removed during 
the nigh,t, but almost half of the clay (that is, nearly a pound in weight) 
had disappeared also, as if it had formed a part of the meal of the depredator 
or depredators. Having observed no rats for some time, he was inclined 
to ascribe the work to bats, of which he had frequently seen several flying 
about. On Saturday, 10th March, however, seeing a rat crossing tho Bear's 
Den, he at once prepared a gin for it, and when he next entered the 
Den he found the rat was caught. 

The Tortuous Gallery. — As soon as tho work in the Bear's Den was 
completed, the exploration of a narrow passage opening out of its southern 
end, and termed " The Tortuous Gallery," was begun. At and near the 
entrance this Gallery is from 13 to 15 feet high ; but at 11 feet from tho 
Bear's Den a second, or branch, Gallery presents itself, almost immediately 
above it, the two being divided by a continuous sheet of limestone, forming 
the floor of one and the ceiling of the other. The branch extends, with 
some irregularities of direction, towards the south-cast for a distance of 
30 feet, where it becomes too narrow for a man to pass. Immediately 
beyond this point it is seen to be somewhat broader, but its further character 
and length are unknown. At tho entrance, where its dimensions are 
greatest, it is 7 feet high and 3 feet broad. Throughout its entire accessible 
length its walls and roof have .strongly marked indications of the action 
of water. With the exception of a few largo blocks of limestone, it was 
entirely empty. 

The principal gallery, "The Tortuous Gallery"' proper, after throwing off 
a second and lower branch towards the west, turns sharply towards the 



8 hepokt — 1877. 

cast at a distance of 23 feet from the Bear's Den; and at 11 feet further it 
expands into a small Chamber, the floor of which is a pavement of bloeks of 
limestone, some of them of considerable size. The Gallery varies from to 
8 feet high, and from 1*5 to 4 - 5 feet wide, and has obviously bceu a -water- 
course. Ground had been broken here and there by the earlier explorers 
up to 11 feet from the Bear's Den. Everywhere further in there was a 
continuous unbroken Floor of Stalagmite, from 1-5 to 3-5 feet below the 
limestone roof; but at 3 feet beyond the point at which, as already stated, 
the Gallery turns eastward, an unoccupied interspace was found. between 
the lower surface of this Floor and the top of the underlying deposit. At 
first this hiatus did not exceed a foot, but as the work progressed it gradually 
reached 4 feet. 

The underlying deposit was exclusively the Breccia, or, so far as is known, 
the oldest the Cavern contains. Its upper surface formed a continuous 
declivity, so great that at the small Chamber previously mentioned the level 
was 103 inches below that of the nearest part of the Bear's Den — a mean 
gradient of 1 in 2"5. For the first 9 feet the thickness of the Breccia was 
not more than from 3 to 3 - 5 feet, the limestone floor being everywhere 
reached within tbese limits; but elsewhere the ordinary four-feet sections 
failed to disclose the limestone. 

The "finds" met with in the Tortuous Gallery up to tho end of August 
L877 were but 14 in number, and the objects they contained were of but 
little importance: G of them were met with in the first or uppermost foot- 
level (all near the entrance), 2 in the third, and 6 in the fourth (all at 
some distance from the entrance"). They included, besides bones and bone- 
chips, 14 teeth of Bear, some of them being in portions of jaws, and 1 of 
Horse. The latter was found on the surface, near the Bear's Den, with 3 
bits of coarse, friable, black pottery. A "core" of black flint — in nil pro- 
bability a " strike-light " of the present century — was found under the same 
conditions about a foot from them. 

On reviewing the work of the last eleven months the Superintendents 
cannot but express disappointment at not having found the very large 
number of choice specimens which Mr. MaeEncry's glowing description 
had led them to expect in the Bear's Den. Nevertheless the discoveries 
they have made not only justify his description, but show that in that branch 
of the Cavern the osseous remains were almost entirely confined to the 
uppermost foot of the Breccia, and mainly to its actual surface. So long as 
the lower levels remained untouched, the belief that they were equally rich 
would have naturally prevailed; and it cannot be doubted that in disposing 
of this belief very satisfactory work has been done. 

The Committee have again to state that since their last Beport was pre- 
sented they have found no relic of Machairodus latidens. It is satisfactory, 
however, to know that since the last Meeting of the Association the crown 
of a canine tooth of this species has been found, by the Bev. J. M. Mello, in 
ltobin-Hood Cave, Creswell Crags, Derbyshire. 



«0 




ON THE ESTIMATION or POTASH ANJ) PHOSPHORIC ACID. 9 

Second Report of a Committee, consist imj of E. C. C. Stanford, 
James Dewar, Alfred E. Fletcher, E. W. Parnell, T. R. 
OgilviEj and Alfred II. Allen (Secretary), appointed to inquire 
into the Methods employed in the Estimation of Potash and Phos- 
phoric Acid in Commercial Products and the mode of stating the 
Results. Drawn up by Alered H. Allen *. 

Determination of Potash. 

The evidence on this subject obtained previously to the lust meeting of the 
Association (Bristol) showed that the method of determining potassium by 
precipitation as a platinum salt was almost universally employed by chemists 
of large experience in the assay of potash salts. The Committee thought it 
desirable, therefore, to subject the process to an exhaustive examination, with 
a view of ascertaining the origin of the discrepancies known to occur 
between the results of chemists using different modifications of the general 
method of estimation by platinum chloride. 

Tho process of determining potassium by platinic chloride is well known 
to depend on the sparing solubility of chloroplatinatc of potassium and tho 
easy solubility of the ehloroplatinates of the associated metals. The pre- 
cipitate is crystalline, of a bright yellow colour, and is easily dried. On 
account of its solubility in aqueous liquids it is necessary to operate on con- 
centrated solutions and to employ alcohol for washing. When the precipitate 
is produced suddenly by addition of platinic chloride to a concentrated solu- 
tion of potassium chloride, or by rapidly cooling a hot saturated aqueous 
solution of potassium chloroplatinatc, it is obtained in a finely granular or 
pulverulent form. When the chloroplatinatc is formed by gradual concen- 
tration of a dilute aqueous solution, or by adding chloride of platinum to a 
dilute solution of chloiide of potassium and then concentrating, the precipi- 
tate assumes the form of dense crystalline scales, the subsequent manipulation 
of which is very easy. 

The following modifications of the general process have been employed by 
the Committee with the view of testing their comparative accuracy under 
various conditions likely to occur in practice. 

The information forming the basis of the experiments was communicated 
to the Committee chiefly dining last year, and to a great extent was 
incorporated in the Eeport presented at the Bristol Meeting. 

Modification I. — Essentially the process of Professor Presenilis described 
in his ' Manual of Quantitative Analysis,' being shortly as follows : — The 
solution of mixed chlorides of potassium and sodium, freed, if necessary, 
from calcium, magnesium, and sulphates, was evaporated nearly to dryness 
with excess of solution of platinic chloride. (In many of the experiments 
a considerable excess of platinum was employed beyond the quantity required 
to convert both the alkali metals into ehloroplatinates.) The evaporated 
solution was then treated with alcohol of about 80 per cent., allowed to 
stand for some time, transferred to a small filter, washed with alcohol of 
80 per cent., and carefully dried. The bulk of the precipitate was then 
transferred to a weighed capsule, dried at 100° C, and weighed. Tho filter 
with from 1 to 3 milligrammes of adherent precipitate was ignited, the 
weight of the filter-ash (-0004 gramme) subtracted, and the residue of 
Pt+2KC1 calculated to rtCl, + 2KCl, the amount thus obtained being added 
to the main quantity. 

* Kc;d at the Meeting at Glasgow, 1876. 



10 REPORT 1877. 

Modification II. — The above process, with the following precautious, was 
recommended by Dr. Presenilis in a communication to this Committee : — 

" To make sure not to keep any chloride of sodium along with the chloride 
of platinum and potassium, I first extract the chloride of platinum and 
sodium with spirits of wine of 80°, and then wash the chloride of platinum 
and potassium with a few cub. ccntims. of water, drop by drop ; then I 
evaporate this solution, adding a little chloride of platinum, treat the small 
precipitate again with spirit of wine, and add the small quantity of chloride 
of platinum and potassium to the bulk." 

Modification III. — The third modification is that of Drs. Frank and 
Berrand, of Leopoldshall. These chemists employ only about *2 grm. of the 
potash salt, and manipulate like Freseuius, but they wash the precipitate 
with alcohol of 98 per cent., which is practically absolute. They dry tho 
precipitate at 110° C. 

Modification IV. — The fourth modification is that of Mr. It. E. Tatlock, 
who thus describes it in his communication to the Committee :— " A portion 
of the solution, equal to 10 grains of the original sample, is delivered into a 
small basin, diluted with 400 grains or so of water, and acidified slightly 
with hydrochloric acid. About 500 grains of platinic chloride solution (con- 
taining at least 25 grains of platinum) are added, and the fluid evaporated 
nearly to dryness on a water bath. A few drops of water are then added to the 
residue, and the evaporation repeated to expel the excess of hydrochloric 
acid. About 50 grains more of tho strong platinic solution arc mixed with 
the precipitate, and the whole stirred well and set aside in a cold place for 
at least an hour, with occasional stirring. The precipitate is then thrown on 
a very small filter (unweighed), the basin rinsed out with about 10 drops 
more of the platinum solution, and the precipitate on the filter washed with 
10 or 15 drops more. The basin and the filter and contents arc then washed 
with the smallest possiblo quantity of alcohol of 95 per cent, strength, and 
dried at 100° C. The dried precipitate is transferred as completely as 
possible to a small capsule, in which it is further dried until it assumes a 
distinct, orange colour, and weighed. The filter, with a trace of adhering 
precipitate, is ignited on a crucible lid, and the residual metal, with its cor- 
responding chloride of potassium, calculated to potassio-platinic chloride, and 
the weight added to that of the precipitate." 

From the above descriptions it will be seen that tho chief points of 
difference in the processes arc as follows : — 

Freseuius (Process I.) uses moderately strong alcohol (80 per cent.) for 
washing the precipitate ; but in his modified process he subsequently uses a few 
centimetres of water, and recovers any potassium salt thus dissolved. 

Frank and Berrand use a very small weight of the sample and wash with 
absolute alcohol. Tatlock washes first with a strong solution of platinic chloride, 
and then with strong alcohol. In all editions of his ' Quantitative Analysis ' 
prior to the 7th English, Freseuius directs the drying of the precipitated 
chloroplatiuate at 100° C. In the last edition drying at 130° C. is recom- 
mended. Frank and Berrand use 110° C. Until after the conclusion of the 
investigations the words "further dried" in Tatlock's method were understood 
by the Committee to signify longer drying at 100? C, but it has since been 
learnt that drying at a somewhat higher temperature was intended. 

In all cases in which the temperature used for drying the precipitate is 
not expressly stated, the Committee employed 100° C. The experiments 
instituted to ascertain the influence the temperature used in drying had on 
the weight of the precipitate showed a loss of -067 per cent., by subjecting 



ON THE ESTIMATION OF POTASH AND PHOSPHORIC ACID. 11 

the precipitate thoroughly dried at 100° C. to a temperature of 140° C. for 
one hour. This loss represents only -02 for 100 parts of potassium chloride. 

In order to obtain a satisfactory basis of investigation, it was necessary, in 
the first place, to obtain perfectly pure potassium salts ; and as a necessary 
condition of the requisite purity was complete freedom from sodium com- 
pounds, their preparation was found less easy than might be expected *. In 
the first place an attempt was made to obtain pure potassium chloride by 
repeatedly evaporating pure nitre with hydrochloric acid. The result showed 
that the reaction took place with far less facility than was expected, and the 
process was abandoned. Chloride of potassium was next obtained by dis- 
solving the purest commercial acid potassium carbonate in hydrochloric acid, 
filtering, and repeatedly crystallizing the product. Ignition of the crystals 
on platinum wire in the Bunsen fiame showed the presence of sodium in 
abundance, and two determinations of the real chloride of potassium as 
platinum salt gave 98-93 and 98-85 per cent, respectively. 

A highly satisfactory product, was at length obtained by the _ following 
process : — Cream of tartar was dissolved in boiling water, the liquid filtered, 
and the acid tartrate of potassium obtained by cooling the solution. The 
product was recrystallized, and then tested for sulphates and sodium, neither 
of which was found. The dried crystals were ignited, the mass dissolved in 
water, the liquid filtered, nearly neutralized with hydrochloric acid, a few 
drops of ammonium oxalate added, the solution again filtered, and then eva- 
porated to dryness. The resultant chloride of potassium was heated to 
fusion and reduced to powder. The product was absolutely free from sul- 
phates, completely soluble in water, and the solution was perfectly neutral. 
The salt showed no trace of sodium when heated on platinum wire in the 
Bunsen flame. 

The hydrochloric acid used in the experiments was prepared by acting on 
common salt by non-arsenical sulphuric acid and passing the washed gas into 
distilled water f. 

The platinic chloride was obtained by reducing the commercial chloride 
(which contained iron and other impurities), by boiling with caustic soda and 
alcohol, thoroughly washing (first by decantation and afterwards on the 
filter) the resultant platinum black, boiling it for some time with hydro- 
chloric acid, and again thoroughly washing with hot water and igniting in a 
muffle. The metallic platinum was boiled with nitric acid, rewashed and 
reignited, and then weighed and dissolved in aqua regia. 

The platinic-chloiide solution thus obtained was evaporated nearly to 
dryness, first with hydrochloric acid and then several times with water, in 
order to get rid of the free acid as much as possible* Ultimately the solu- 
tion was diluted, filtered from any insoluble residue (which was ignited and 
weighed, and the weight deducted from the original), and the filtrate further 
diluted until 100 cub. ccntims. contained about 6 grammes of metallic 
platinum. 

* A shorter method than those tried would probably have been to ignite pure 
potassium chlorate. — A. 31. Allen. 

t For some years all the hydrochloric acid used in my laboratory lias been prepared 
by this process. It is more convenient, and furnishes a far superior product to that 
obtained by distilling the impure liquid acid. — A. It. Alle.v 

+ This method of preparing pure chloride of platinum is practically identical with 

that recommended by Messrs. Chalmers and Tatlock in a paper read before the Chemical 

lie Philosophical Society of Glasgow, April 20th, 1868. The Committee has 

adopted I process for recovering the platinum from the precipitates and filtrates 

obtained in the experiments, 



12 REPORT — 1877. 

As the projected researches required that the weight of potassium salt 
used in each experiment should be known with the greatest possible accurac3 r , 
it was considered desirable to avoid direct weighing of the solid salt, by 
employing a definite amount of solution of known strength. 

For this purpose the capacity of a pipette, which nominally held 10 cub. 
ccntims., was accurately ascertained. The pipette was filled to the mark 
with distilled water at a temperature of 20° to 21° C. The contents were 
then allowed to flow into a small accurately tared beaker. The pipette was 
then allowed to drain for exactly thirty seconds, when the last drop of fluid 
was expelled by gentle blowing, the nose of the pipette being held in contact 
with the beaker so as to avoid any chance of loss. This plan was found to 
result in the delivery of a more constant weight of fluid than spontaneous 
draining, with or without subsequent contact of the point of the pipette 
with the main volume of the liquid. The same pipette was always employed, 
and the contents were delivered in the same manner. All the measurements 
were made at pretty nearly the same temperature. As a result it was found 
that in a series of nearly twenty experiments the extreme variation in the 
weight of distilled water delivered was 8 milligrammes, or about -08 per cent, 
of the weight, while the great majority of the determinations were within 
2 milligrammes of the mean. The result of using the pipette for measuring 
out 10 cub. ccntims. of a 10 per cent, solution of chloride of potassium would 
be that the maximum deviation from the mean would amount to -04 per cent, 
of the Weight, though the maximum difference in two successive measure- 
ments might equal twice this proportion. 

The experiments showed that at 20° C. the pipettes delivered a mean 
weight of 9-9329 grammes of distilled water. 

The most convenient quantity of chloride of potassium for precipitation 
with platinic chloride is about *7 gramme, or 10 grains. A solution of pure 
chloride of potassium was therefore prepared of such strength that the 
pipette should deliver about that amount. 

The exact amount of chloride of potassium contained in one pipette delivery 
of the solution was next ascertained. Two determinations were made by 
precipitating a pipette full with nitrate of silver, and one by direct evapora- 
tion of the liquid to dryness with subsequent cautious heating of the residue. 

A 1 AgCl 1-3395 = KC1 -G968 gramme. 

A 2 AgCl 1-3400=KC1 -6971 

B 1 .... By evaporation = KC1 *6.970 „ 

The mean of these closely concordant results is -69097 gramme ; -697 
gramme was therefore considered as the true amount of chloride of potassium 
in the solution delivered by the pipette. 

At a somewhat advanced period of the investigations some irregularities 
in the results led to a doubt as to the degree of accuracy attainable by pipette 
measurements, and it was decided to commence an entirely new series of 
experiments on a different basis. Recognizing the advantage the em- 
ployment of solutions has over direct weighing of the solid salt, it was 
decided to weigh each quantity of solution employed, merely trusting to 
measurement to obtain approximately the same quantity. By proceeding in 
this manner all errors due to unequal deliveries of the pipette or accidental 
alterations of temperature were entirely eliminated. 

For these experiments a fresh solution of chloride of potassium was pre- 
pared, by dissolving a known weight of the pure potassium chloride in exactly 



ON THE ESTIMATION OF POTASH AND PHOSPHORIC ACID. 13 

ten times ita weight of distilled water*. In the experiments made on the 
weighed solution, the required quantity was approximately measured by 
running it from a buretto into an accurately tared beaker, and tho exact 
quantity taken was then ascertained by weighing. In this manner the 
amount of potassium salt employed in each experiment was ascertained with 
great accuracy. The error in the amount taken could not be more than 
•00005 of a gramme, or about -007 per cent, of the quantity used. With 
the new solution the following experiments were made as a check on its 
strength : — 

By precipitation with nitrate of silver, 



Weight of =KC1 Weight of = K01 = 

solution. Agul. 1 

Al 7-7065 -70060 1-3459 -70017 99-94 

A 2 7-7455 -70414 1-3534 -70403 09-00 



By direct evaporation, 

Wt. of sola. KC1. Residue = KOI per cent. 
B 1 7-711 -701 -7005 99-93 

In this case half a milligramme loss of chloride of potassium, probably due 
to decrepitation on heating the residuo, caused a difference of -07 per cent. 

In the foregoing and all subsequent experiments the following atomic 
weights and factors were employed : — 

Chlorine 35-457 Stas, 1SG5. 

Potassium 39-137 „ „ 

(Silver 107-930 „ 1866. 

AgCl x -52023 = KC1. 

The atomic weight of platinum was calculated from the original data of 
Berzclius, obtained by the analysis of potassium chloroplatinate, but substitu- 
ting Stas's numbers for chlorine and potassium for those employed by 
Berzclius. This gives the result 

Pt iv = 197-1937. 
Hence 

K 2 PtCl x -16033 = K„ 
K,PtCl c x -19310 = ICO 
K 2 rtCl,. x -30560 = 2KC1. 

Fresenius, in the last edition of his ' Quantitative Analysis ' (7th English), 
adopts the number 98-59 as the atomic weight of the divalent platinum, 
which also gives the factor -3056, for calculating the chlorojnatinatc into 
chloride of potassium. In former editions Andrews's number 98*94 was 
adapted for platinum, which caused a sensible difference in the percentage of 
potassium chloride obtained. The factor -30507, resulting from the employ- 
ment of Andrews's atomic weight for platinum, is adopted by Drs. Frank and 
Berrand in their communication to this Committee. 

The consequence of employing the above factors in calculating the per- 
centage of chloride of potassium corresponding to the precipitate of chloro- 
platinate obtained is shown in the following statement : — 

* It is obvious that the subsequent calculations would hare bsen facilitated by dissolving 
a known weight of the pure potassium chloride in exactly nine times its weight of dis- 
tilled water instead of ten. This consideration did not present itself till it was too late 

to take advantage of it. 



14 



REPORT — 1877. 



Precipitate. Factor = KOI per cent. 

Committee 3-2723 x -30560* 100-00 

Fresenius 3-2723 x -30560 100-00 

Frank and Berrand 3-2723 x -30507 99-83 

The Committee is informed that the factor -194 is adopted by some chemists 
for calculating the chloroplatinate to anhydrous potash, a plan which would 
cause the result of 100-52 of chloride of potassium to be obtained instead 
of 100-00. 

With the view of testing the relative accuracy of the different modifications 
of the platinum process when applied to the estimation of potassium in the 
form of pure chloride, the following experiments were performed : — ■ 

The letters P and W refer to the mode of taking the required quantity of 
chloride of potassium, P signifying pipette measurement and W the weighing of 
the solution used. In the former case the percentage of chloride of potassium 
was obtained by calculating the chloroplatinate precipitate to potassium 
chloride, dividing the result by -6D7 and multiplying by 100. When a 
weighed quantity of potassium chloride solution was employed, the following 
equation was used for calculating the percentage of chloride of potassium 
found (S is the weight of solution used, P that of the precipitate obtained) : — 

Px -3056x11x100 _ P X -3361 _percentage of 
g " s = ~ KG found. 

Results bracketed together in the following tables were obtained from 
experiments executed side by side. 

Table I. — Results of Experiments on pure Chloride of Potassium, using 
considerable excess of Platinum Solution. 



Experi- 


Process. 


Weight of 


= KC1 


Weight of 


= KC1 


= KC1 


ment. 


solution. 


taken. 


precipitate. 


found. 


per cent. 


1. 


I. Fresenius 


7-7080 


•70072 


2-3039 




100-48 l w 
100-39 / " • 


2 




7-7540 


■70490 


2-3156 




,{ 


III. Frank"! 
& Berrand J 


77165 


•70150 


2-3092 




100-60 "1 
100-48 i W - 


4. 




7-7345 


•70310 


2-3118 


... 


5. 


IV. Tatlock 




•697 


22793 


•69655 


99-94 P. 


6. 






•697 


2-2792 


■69052 


99-93 P. 


7. 






•697 


2-2787 


■09637 


99-91 P. 


8. 




7-7130 


•70118 


2-2947 




10001 1 
99-98 ] W - 


9. 


J? 


7-7145 


•70140 


- 2-2945 


... 



These results, so far as they go, are decidedly in favour of Tatlock's method, 
and conclusively prove that it is capable of great accuracy. 

At a later period of the investigations it was supposed that the exces- 
sive results obtained by some of tho methods might be due to the fact that 
a very considerable excess of platinum solution was employed — a condition 
not in accordance with the directions of Fresenius and of Frank, but essen- 
tial in Tatlock's method. The experiments made to elucidate this point did 
not immediately succeed those already detailed, but it is convenient to record 
the results hero rather than in another place. 

In the following experiments the quantity of platinum solution employed 

* This factor was adopted by Messrs, Chalmers and Tatlock as long ago as 1868. 



ON THE ESTIMATION or POTASH AND TIIOSTHORIC ACID. 



15 



was but slightly in excess of the amount required to convert the whole of 
the potassium into chloroplatinate. 

Table II. — ltesults of experiments on Pure Chloride of Potassium by Pro- 
cesses I. and III., employing only a slight excess of Platinum solution. 



Experi- 
ment. 


Process. 


Weight of 
solution. 


= KC1 

taken. 


Weight of 
precipitate. 


= KC1 

found. 


=KC1 

per cent. 


10. 


I. Presenilis 


7-7180 


■70104 


2-2915 


•70028 


99-81 1 


11. 




7-0995 


•6990!-. 


2-2875 


•C>6905 


90-87 \W. 


12. 




7-7250 


•70227 


2-2947 


•70125 


99-85 ) 


13. 




7-7020 


•70114 


2-2931 


•70077 


100-08 1 , v 
10018/ u - 


14. 




7-7125 


•70150 


2-2985 


•70242 


15. 




7-7815 


•70741 


2-321S 


•70954 


100-30 "I w 
100-80 J VY - 


10. 


>> 


7-7965 


•70877 


2-3202 


•71088 


17. 


III. Frank 


■2-232 


•20291 


•6633 


•20269 


99-90 \ w 
99-97 J " • 


18. 




2 232 


•20291 


■6637 


■20283 


19. 




2-2U4 


•20037 


•6573 


•20052 


10025 \. 
100-05 j r "• 


20. 




2-201 


•20009 


■6553 


•19991 


21. 




2-2415 


•20377 


•6677 


■20404 


100-13 \ w 
100-23/ "• 


22. 


it 


2-212 


•20109 


•6596 


•20157 



These results showed a great improvement, and indicated pretty clearly 
the importance of avoiding a large excess of platinum solution when alcohol 
only was employed for washing the chloroplatinate. 

The following Table shows the relative accuracy and limits of variation 
obtained in experiments on pure chloride of potassium by methods L, III., 
and IV. 



Table III. — Analysis of the Results obtained in the estimation of Potassium 
when in the form of Pure Chloride. 



Process. 


No. of 
Experi- 
ments. 


Highest 
Eesult, 


Lowest 
Eesult. 


Average. 


I. Freseniue. With large excess 
With slight excess of pla- 


o 

7 

2 

6 

5 


100-48 

10030 

100-60 
100-25 

10001 


100-39 

99-81 

100-48 
99-90 

99-91 


100-44 

100 06 

100-54 
100-09 

99-95 


III. Prank and Berrand. Large ex- 
cess of platinum solution 

Slight excess ditto 

IV. Tatlock. Large excess of 



From these experiments, therefore, it was concluded that the method of 
estimating potassium by precipitation as chloroplatinate was very accurate 
when proper precautions were taken. 

This conclusion is generally accepted, the chief discrepancies arising when 
mixed alkaline chlorides are analyzed, the different methods then giving results 
which sometimes exhibit wide variations. 

The following Table shows the results obtained by the analysis of various 
mixtures of the pure chlorides of potassium and sodium : — 



16 



REPORT 1877. 



Table IV. — Results of Experiments on Mixtures of Pure Chlorides of 

Potassium and Sodium. 

A. Using a considerable excess of Platinum Solution. 



Experi- 
ment. 


Process. 


.Weight of 
solution. 


=KC1. 


1 

NaCl 
taken. 


Weight of 
precipitate. 


=KOI 
found. 


= KC1 par 

100 parts taken. 


23. 


I. Presenilis 


3-8525 


•3502 


•350 


11518 


... 


100-59 1 


24. 




3-8970 


•3543 


•355 


11690 




100-84 I W. 


25. 




3-8705 


•3519 


•350 


11590 




10000 | 


20. 




3-8530 


•3503 


■350 


1-1542 


... 


100-70 1 


27. 




38725 


•3520 


•350 


1-1000 


* >• 


100-75 I W. 


28. 


»? 


3-8770 


•3524 


•350 


1-1618 




100-73 J 


29. 


II. Fres. mod. 




•097 


•154 


2-2887 


•09942 


100-34 \-p 
100-54/ ' 


30. 






•097 


•154 


2-2932 


■701 181 ) 


31. 






•097 


•154 


2-2908 


•70007 


100-351 -p 
1OO-40 J 1 • 


32. 






•097 


•154 


2-2912 


•70019 


33. 






•3485 


•350 


1-1403 


•:;.-)022 


100-53 P. 


34. 






•3485 


■:r.o 


11517 


■3519(5 


100-99 1 p 
100-83 J l ■ 


35. 






•3485 


■350 


1-1498 


•35138 


30. 






•3485 


•350 


1-1458 


■35015 


100-471 „ 
100-47 J 


37. 


:» 


... 


•3485 


•350 


1-1457 


•35012 


38. 


IV. Tatloek 




■097 


•154 


2-2830 


■69778 


100111 p 
100-19/ - 


39. 




... 


■697 


•154 


2-2851 


•69832 


40. 






■697 


•154 


2-2843 


■69808 


100- 15 1 p 
100-25 J r - 


41. 






•097 


■154 


2-2805 


■69793 


42. 


j) 


... 


•3485 


•350 


1-132'.) 


•34021 


9934 P. 


43. 




• 


•3485 


■350 


11312 


•34509 


99-20 P. 


44. 




... 


•3485 


•350 


1-1308 


•34711 


99-00 P. 


45. 






•3485 


•350 


11340 


•34055 


99-44 P. 


40. 


ii 


3-8600 


■3509 


•350 


1:1452 




99-73 1 
99-82 \ W. 

99 97 J 


47. 


J) 


3-8615 


•3510 


•350 


1-14117 


. . . 


48. 




3-8500 


•3505 


■350 


1-1408 




49*. 




. >• 


•7053 


■350 


2-2940 


... 


99 45 W. 


50*. 


JJ 


... 


•7007 


•350 


2-2850 


... 


99-66 W. 



* Experiments 49 and 50 were made on a special solution containing about two parts of IvC'l 
to one of NaOl. These two determinations were made by Mr. W. Galbraith, who has had much 
experience in the determination of potassium by Tatlock's method. 



B. Using slight excess of Platinum Solution above that required to convert 
all the K and Xa into Chloroplatinatcs. 



Experi- 
ment. 


Process. 


Weight of 
solution. 


i=E01 

taken. 


= NaCl. 


Weight of 

precipitate. 


= KC1 
found. 


= KC'l per 
100 parts taken. 


51. 


I. Presenilis 


3-8S0 


•35273 


•35 


11509 


■35354 


100-23 W. 


52. 




3-873 


-."..-209 


•35 


11030 


•35559 


100-94 W. 


53. 




3-8005 


■3516 


•35 


11470 


•35052 


99-72 1 w 

99 77 1 " ' 


54. 


|f 


3-8775 


351:5 


•35 


1-1505 


■: 5159 


55. | 


III. Prank 
and Berrand 


| 2-200 


■20000 




■65708 


•2008 


100-40 W 


56. 




2-2135 


•20123 


•2 


■66038 


•20181 


100-80 J 


57. 




2-2195 


■20177 


'2 


•06038 


■20181 


100-28/ U - 


58. 




2-2070 


■20064 


2 


•65838 


•20120 


59. 




2-2321 1 


■20291 


■2 


■6782 


•20724 


102141 w 
102-09/ vv - 


60. 


)» 


2-2395 


■20359 


..-> 


•6891 


•20783 



ON THE ESTIMATION 01' POTASH AND PHOSPHORIC ACID. 



it 



Tauli: V. — Comparison of the Actual Composition of Mixtures of Potassium 

and Sodium Chlorides with tho results obtained. 

A. Using large excess of Platinum Solution. 



Experi- 


Process. 


KC1 per ceut. NaCl per cent. 


KC1 per cent. 


Error. 


ment. 


taken. taken. 


obtained. 


23. 


I. Presenilis 


50 


50 


5029 


+ •29 


24. 


n 


50 


50 


50-42 


4- -42 


25. 


jj 


50 


50 


50-33 


+ •33 


26. 


it 


50 


50 


50-35 


+•35 


27. 


ii 


50 


50 


50-37 


+ ■37 


28. 


ii 
Average 


50 


50 


503(3 


+ •36 
+•35 


29. 


II. Fres. mod. 


82 


18 


82-28 


+•28 


30. 


ii 


82 


18 


82-44 


+ •44 


31. 


a 


82 


18 


82-29 


+ •29 


32. 


ii 


82 


IS 


82-33 


+ •38 


33. 


ii 


50 


50 


50-20 


+•20 


31. 


a 


50 


50 


50-49 


+ '40 


35. 


a 


50 


50 


50-41 


+•41 


30. 


it 


50 


50 


50-23 


+ •23 


37. 


>i 
Average 


50 


50 


50-23 


+ •23 
+ 34 


38. 


IV. Tatlook 


82 


18 


8209 


+ 09 


39. 


)) 


82 


18 


8215 


+•15 


40. 


it 


82 


IS 


8212 


+•12 


41. 


•i 


82 


18 


82-20 


+ •20 


42. 


r j 


50 


50 


49-07 


-•33 


43. 


!1 


50 


50 


49-60 


-•40 


44. 


it 


50 


50 


49-80 


-•20 


45. 


II 


50 


50 


49-72 


-■28 


40. 


)> 


50 


50 


40-80 


-•14 


47. 


J) 


50 


50 


40 91 


-•09 


48. 


»» 


50 


50 


4098 


--02 


49. 


j? 


07 


33 


66-63 


-•37 


60. 


)* 


07 


33 


66*77 


-•23 




Average 






-11 





"B. Using slight excess of Platinum Solution 


• 


Experi- 


Process. 


KC1 per cent. 


NaCl percent. 


KC1 per cent. 


Error. 


ment. 


taken. 


taken. 


found. 


51. 


I. Freseniua 


50 


50 


5011 


+ •11 


52. 


•j 


50 


50 


50-47 


+ •47 


53. 


„ 


50 


50 


49-86 


-•14 


54. 


Average 


50 


50 


49-88 


-12 

+•08 


55. 


III. Frank 


50 


50 


50-20 


+ •20 


56. 


,. 


50 


50 


50-15 


+■15 


57. 


n 


50 


50 


50-01 


+ -ot 


58. 


>» 


50 


50 


50-14 


+ •14 


59. 


j> 


50 


50 


51-07 


+ 107 


60. 


Average 


50 


50 


51-04 


+ 1 04 
_ +-43 



18 



/ 1 . 



18 KEPORT — 1877. 

From these experiments it appears that the employment of the processes 
of Fresenius and Frank leads to results sensibly above the truth if a largo 
excess of platinum he employed. The fact that in all the experiments the 
error is in the same direction, indicates that it is not due to defective mani- 
pulation. When only a slight excess of platinum is employed in the above 
methods the results are decidedly better, but present greater differences among 
themselves, as if some other disturbing cause came into operation. This is 
notably the case with Frank's method, the error in only six experiments 
varying from "01 per cent, to 1'07. 

The residts by Tatlock's method distinctly indicate a tendency to loss ; but 
this is chiefly noticeable in the cases in which the proportion of sodium 
chloride was very high (50 per cent.). In fact four experiments with a 
mixture similar to that which usually occurs in practice (i. e. V2 per cent. 
KC1 and 18 JSTaCl) gave results showing an error in excess of the truth 
varying from -09 to -20 per cent. The thirteen determinations by Tatlock's 
method show a maximum error of — '40 per cent. 

In this experiment the quantity of material employed was measured in 
the pipette, and for several reasons this plan was found lese trustworthy 
than the weighing of the solution used. 

With the view of ascertaining the cause of the loss observed in some cases 
by Tatlock's method in presence of a large proportion of sodium chloride, an 
experiment was made by treating a mixture of 30 milligrammes of KC1 and 
•7 gramme of pure jN T aCl with 30 c. c. of the platinum solution (the usual 
quantity), and estimating the potassium in the usual way. 

By employing a small quantity of KC1 it was thought that other errors of 
manipulation would be avoided, and that the experiment would be practically 
to ascertain the extent to which chloroplatinate of potassium was soluble in 
a solution of platinic chloride containing much chloride of sodium (or, in 
other words, in a solution of sodium chloroplatinate). The weight of potas- 
sium chloroplatinate which should have been yielded by the above quantity 
of KG is "0982 gramme, whereas the weight actually obtained was only 
•0915 gramme. Hence there was a loss of "0067 gramme. In another 
experiment in which only -35 gramme of Nad were used, the quantities of 
KG and platinum solution remaining as before, a loss of -0042 gramme of 
chloroplatinate was observed. In this last experiment the potassium chloride 
corresponding to the chloroplatinate obtained was only 95-7 per cent, of the 
quantity added, while in the previous experiment it amounted to only 93'2 
per cent. From these residts, and those recorded in the Tables, it appears 
that the percentage error is larger the greater the proportion of sodium salts 
present, a fact which appears to point to the solubility of the precipitate in 
solution of sodium chloroplatinate as the origin of the loss. Thus in the 
experiments in which pure chloride of potassium was employed, and in those 
in which the amount of sodium chloride was small, the variation from the 
truth was exceedingly slight, but the errors became greater with the amount 
of sodium chloride present. In experiments 42 to 50 the amounts of chloride 
of sodium and platinum solution employed were the same as in the test ex- 
periment, in which a deficiency of '0042 gramme of precipitate was observed. 
If we assume that this loss is the weight of K.,PtCl c dissolved by the use 
of -35 gramme of NaCl and 30 c. c. of platinum solution, then a correction 
of -0042 gramme ought to be applied to each of the results of experiments 42 
to 50. This correction of -0042 gramme in the weight of the precipitate 
corresponds to "37 per cent, of KG. The mean of the nine experiments 
above referred to is 99*58 per cent, of KG, which, with the correction -37, 
amounts to 99-95 per cent. 



ON THE ESTIMATION OF POTASH AND PHOSPHORIC ACID. 



19 



From these considerations it appears almost certain that the deficiency is 
due to the solubility of the precipitate in platinum solution containing sodium 
chloroplatinate. 

If a loss of about four milligrammes produces an error of -37 by Tatlock's 
method, the discrepancy would be much greater by Frank's, in which a 
smaller weight of the sample is employed. This fact, and the very strong 
alcohol required, renders this process less satisfactory than that of Fresenius. 
Why the latter process should give results in excess of the truth, even when 
the modified method (II.) was used, seemed difficult to explain. With a 
view of ascertaining the cause, three quantities of pure chloride of potassium, 
with equal weights of chloride of sodium, were treated by method I. After 
weighing, the precipitates were dissolved in hot water, 10 or 12 drops of 
platinum solution added, and the process of evaporation, &e. repeated. The 
following results were obtained : — 

Table VI. 



Experi- 
ment. 


Weight of 
solution. 




First precipitation. 


After re-dissolving. 


=KC1 

taken. 


Weight of 
precipitate. 


=K01. 


=KC1 

per cent. 


Weight of 
precipitate. 


=KC1. 


= KC1 
per cent. 


61. 
62. 
63. 


3-8530 
3-8725 
3-8770 


■35027 
•35204 
■35245 


1-1542 
1-1606 
11618 


■35272 
•35469 
•35504 


100-70 

100-75 
100-73 


11527 
1-1615 

11609 


•35226 
■35495 

•3547S 


100-57] 

1U0-82 

100-66J 



In these and in all previous experiments the precipitates were dried at 
100° C. In the last edition of his ' Quantitative Analysis,' Fresenius directs 
the precipitate to be dried at 130° O. To ascertain if this difference of treat- 
ment was the cause of the error, some pure potassium chloroplatinate was 
prepared by rapidly cooling a saturated solution of the salt in boiling water. 
In this way it was obtained as a Sue crystalline powder. By the slow 
evaporation of the mother liquor another sample was obtained in the form of 
" scales." The products were dried for half au hour at 100° C, and 3 grammes 
of each exposed to a higher temperature, with the following results : — 

Table VII. 





Crystals. 


Scales. 


Loss on 
3 grms. 


Loss per 
cent. 


Loss on 
3 gnus. 


Loss per 
cent. 


After 1 hour additional at 100° C. 
,. =| „ 130° C. 
„ 1 „ 140° C. 
„ i „ 200° C. 


none 
•0005 
•0015 
•0080 


none 
•017 
•050 
•270 


none 
•0015 
•0005 
•0075 


none 
0-05 
0-017 
0-250 



It will bo seen that no loss occurred on further drying at 100° C, and a 



very trilling loss at 130° 



After heating to 140° there was a slight change 

c2 



20 



REPORT 1877, 



of colour. At 2u0° decrepitation and incipient decomposition ensued. The 
total loss at a temperature not exceeding 140° was only -067 per cent, of the 
weight of the precipitate. This, in the experiments by method I., would only 
cause a difference of -02 per cent, in the quantify of chloride of potassium 
found. Hence it is clear that there is no advantage in drying the preci- 
pitate at 130° rather than at 100°. On the other hand the occurrence of 
decrepitation shows that the crystals contain cavities filled with water or 
platinum choride solution, and therefore that the production of large crystals 
should he avoided. It seems possible that the difference in the nature of 
the liquid filling the cavities may he the cause of the greater error observed 
when a large excess of platinum solution is employed than when little more 
than the theoretical amount is used. 

In the foregoing Tables the results obtained by Frank's method were 
calculated with the Committee's factor -3056 instead of that employed by 
Prank and Berrand themselves (-30507)*. By the use of the latter factor 
the results would come out about "17 per cent, lower than the figures given in 
the Tables. Some of the results by this process are exceedingly good, but in 
other cases they are seriously in excess of the truth (see Experiments 3, -1, 
59 and 60). 

One very considerable advantage attaches in practice to Tatlock's method 
which is not shared by the others. In consequence of employing an aqueous 
liquid at first, any sulphates present can be readily washed out, and therefore 
there is no occasion to separate any moderate amount beforehand. The 
influence of sulphates is well shown by the following results by Tatlock's 
method : — 

Table VIII.— 82 per cent, KC1 + 18 per cent. Ha. SO.. 



Experi- 
ment. 


Weight of 
Solution. 


=KC1. 


Weight of 
precipitate. 


found. '™KC1 per cent. 


G4. 

65. 


•697 2-2838 
•697 2-2865 


•69793 

•69875 


100-13 1 p 
100-25 J l • 



Table IX. — K.,80, with sufficient NaCl (-5grm.) to ensure the reaction 
K 2 S0 4 -f- 2NaCl + PtCl 4 =K 2 TtCl c + Xa 2 S0 4 . 



Experi- 
ment. 


Weight of 
Solution. 


= K 2 SO,. 


Weight of 
precipitate. 


=K 2 S0 4 

found. 


= K,SO., per 
cent. 


G6. 
67. 
68. 
69. 

70. 


7-71 so 
7-7010 
7-7250 
7-7280 
7-7095 


•70163 1-9560 
•70009 1-9549 
•70226 1-9591 
•70255 L-9637t 
•70087 1-9596 


■69820 99-51] 
•69780 99-67 \ W. 

•69930 99-57 J 
•70094 99-78 } w 
•69948 , 99-80 J " ' 



* The factor employed by Frank and Berrand is based on Andrews's determination of 

the atomic weight of platinum. This observer states that potassium chloroplatinatc 
retains -55 per cent, of water even when dried at temperatures considerably above 100° C. 
If this be true, the low factor employed by Frank and Berrand would partly compensate 
the error thus introduced. In the experiments detailed in the text only' '25 per cent, 
was lost at a temperature of 200°, but decrepitation occurred on raising the temperature 
still higher. 

t This precipitate, after drying at 130° G, gave 9972 per cent, of K,S0 4 . 



ON THE ESTIMATION Ol' fOTASH AND THOSI'IIOIUC AC1U. 



21 



Tlic next experiments were made to ascertain the effect of employing 
hydrochloric acid in place of chloride of sodium, according to the reaction 
K>.0 4 + 2HC1 + PtCl 4 =E 2 PtCl + U,K0 4 . 

In Experiments 71, 72, and 73, 2 cub. ccntims. of hydrochloric acid were 
employed ; in Experiments 74 and 7-3, 2| cub. centime, were used. The 
acid in each case had a density of I'll. 



Table X. 



Experi- 


Weight of 


=K 2 S0 4 


Weight of 


= K..SO, 


= K.,SO l per 


ment. 


Solution. 


taken. 


precipitate. 


found. 


cent. 


71. 


7-7460 


•70419 


1-9661 


•70 ISO 


99-66 W. 


72. 


7-7190 


•70173 


1-9483 


•09547 


99-11 1 w 
99-23 J VV ' 


73. 


7-7470 


•70427 


1-9579 


•69887 


74. 


7-7145 


•70132 


1-9590 


•69927 


99-71 1 w 
99-72 j w • 


75. 


7-7155 


•70141 


1-9595 


•69944 



In the first three experiments the quantity of HC1 appears to have been 
insufficient to effect complete conversion, but in tho latter experiments the 
reaction seems to have been more perfect. 

The following experiments Avere made in illustration of the use of Tatlock's 
process in tho analysis of a German niuriate, which was represented by a 
mixture containing 85 per cent. KC'l, 10 per cent. MgS0 4 (anhydrous), and 
5 per cent. NaCl. 

Table XI. 



Experi- 
ment. 


Weight of 

Solution. 


=KC1 

taken. 


Weight of 
precipitate. 


=KC1 
found. 


= KC1 per cent. 


70. 
77. 
78. 


6-5440 
6-5415 
6-5460 


•5949 
•5947 
•5951 


1-9467 
1-9442 
1-9497 


•59463 
•59414 

•59582 


99-999 ) 
99-910 I W. 
100-120 J 



A mixture containing 50 per cent. KC1, 25 per cent. XaC'l, and 25 per cent. 
ilgSO, was found by Mr. Galbraith to contain 99-83 per cent, of KC1 for 
100 introduced, equal to 49-915 per cent, in the actual sample. 

In many of the experiments detailed it must be remembered that the 
actual departure from the truth is only a fraction of what it appears to bo 
on calculation to 100 parts. Thus in the above Tables the results are com- 
pared -with 100 parts of the potassium salt taken, whereas in practice tho 
results would be stated on 100 parts of the sample. Hence in a mixture of 
equal parts of the chlorides of potassium and sodium, to obtain 100-5 parts 
of KC1 instead of 100 would be expressed in practice by stating the sample 
to contain 50-25 of KC1 and 49-75 of Nad, thus reducing the actual error 
to half what it appears to bo in some of the Tables. This view finds expres- 
sion in Table V. 

The next experiments were made by Tatlock's method on pure nitrate of 
potassium, to which was added enough chloride of sodium (-42 grm.) for tho 
reaction — 

2KNO a + 2NaC'l + rtC'l 1 = X j PtC , l ( + 2NaNO,. 



22 



REPORT — 1877. 



Table XII. 



Experi- 
ment. 


Weight of 
Solution. 


=KN0 3 . 


Weight of 
precipitate. 


= KN0 3 
found. 


= KN0 3 per 

cent. 


79. 
80. 
81. 


7-7090 
7-7330 
7-7325 


•70082 
•70300 
•70296 


1-6868 
1-6944 
1-6953 


•69879 
•70212 
•70249 


99-72] 
99-87 I W. 
99-93 J 



It appears therefore that Tatlock's process is applicable to the analysis of 
sulphates or nitrates, provided that there is sufficient chloride present for 
the formation of th.G chloroplatinate of potassium. If not, it must be added 
in the form of sodium chloride, or, in the case of sulphates, hydrochloric acid 
may be used. When much sulphate is present, the quantity of platinum 
solution used for washing the precipitate must he somewhat increased, or the 
results will be too high, owing to the insolubility of the sulphates in alcohol. 
Magnesium appears to cause no difficulty, the result 99-999 having been 
obtained in its presence. 

When it is remembered that none of tho foregoing experiments were mado 
on a larger quantity than -7 of a gramme (about 10 grains), it will be seen 
that the determination of potassium as chloroplatinate is, when due care is 
taken, as accurate as the estimation of most elements, and, when heavy metals 
arc absent, quite as easily effected. 

In practice it is rarely required to determine potassium very accurately in 
presence of large proportions of foreign metals, but in the accurate assay of 
the better class products is becoming daily more important. If the propor- 
tion of sodium salts present in a sample exceed 3 per cent, the product is 
unfit for certain purposes ; and as tho determination of the sodium is strictly 
dependent on that of the potassium, any error in the latter is reproduced. 

Although the results obtained by Tatlock's method show a decided loss 
when a very large proportion of chloride of sodium is present, this error 
nearly disappears with smaller amounts ; and as the method is available in 
presence of svdphates, nitrates, and magnesium, and is • very readily con- 
ducted, it seems the best suited for the general assay of commercial potassium 
salts. 

From a general consideration of the foregoing researches on the deter- 
mination of potassium as chloroplatinate it appears that : — 

1. Potassium in the form of pure chloride can be determined with great 
accuracy by precipitation as chloroplatinate. If a large excess of platinum 
solution be employed, and alcohol alone used for washing the precipitate, the 
results have a tendency to exceed the truth. By avoiding tho use of a large 
excess of platinum solution more accurate results arc obtained. If a small 
volume of platinum solution be employed in the first instance for washing 
the precipitate (as recommended by Tatlock), and the washing be then com- 
pleted with alcohol in the usual way, the results are very accurate. Potas- 
sium chloroplatinate appears to be practically insoluble in a concentrated 
solution of platinic chloride. 
^ 2. In presence of a considerable proportion of sodium, washing the pre- 
cipitate with alcohol alone tends to give results in excess of the tnith. If 
the precipitate be first treated with platinum solution the results are some- 
what low, apparently owing to the solubility of the precipitate in a solution 



ON THE ESTIMATION OF POTASH AND PHOSPHORIC ACID. 23 

of sodium chloroplatinatc. The error increases with the amount of sodium, 
but is never very large, and a correction may be applied if desired. 

3. If Tatlock's method be employed there is no occasion to separate any 
sulphates, nitrates, or magnesium ; but if the amount of chloride present is 
insufficient for the existence of all the potassium as chloiido of potassium, 
the deficiency must be supplied by addition of chloride of sodium or hydro- 
chloric acid." The results obtained are in many cases very accurate, but 
have a tendency to be somewhat below the truth. 

-1. There is practically no advantage in drying the cbloroplatinatc of po- 
tassium at 130° C. rather than at 100° C. The loss at the higher tempera- 
ture was found not to exceed -07 per cent, of the weight of the precipitate, 
but is probably governed by the conditions of precipitation. 

5. The Committee is of opinion that a preliminary washing of the preci- 
pitate of chloroplatinatc of potassium with a solution of platinic chloride is 
a valuable modification of the usual process. As the method so modified is 
capable of direct application to the commercial salts of potassium, and does 
not necessitate the previous removal of sulphates, nitrates, or magnesium, 
the Committee considers that it deserves to be generally applied for the 
determination of potassium in commercial products containing that metal. 

So far the Committee has not thought it necessary to make any experi- 
ments on other methods of determining potassium than that in which it is 
converted into chloroplatinatc 

Statement of the Results of Analysis of Potash Salts. 

Your Committee has devoted considerable attention to the difficult question 
of the proper mode of stating the results of analyses of potash salts. 

Hitherto the statements of various analysts appear to have been charac- 
terized by a lamentable want of system, and in many cases they are greatly 
at variance with the generally accepted principles of chemical combination 
and double decomposition. 

The Committee has been furnished with copies of analyses of potash salts 
in which carbonate of potassium is reported as coexistent with sulphate and 
chloride of sodium, and the cases are numerous in which similar anomalous 
statements occur. 

These various modes of statement are by no means solely due to eccentric 
notions respecting chemical affinity, but appear in many cases to be owing 
to the desire to attribute as high or low (as the case may be) a commercial 
value to the article analyzed as is compatible with its percentage composi- 
tion. Thus a commercial carbonate is chiefly valuable on account of the 
potassium carbonate it contains ; aud therefore if the whole of the potassium 
be stated as existent in that form, while the valueless sulphate and chloride 
arc relegated to the sodium, the apparent value is considerably greater than if 
only that portion of the potassium be assumed to exist as carbonate which 
is in excess of the quantity necessary to combine with the more powerful 
salt radicals. 

The Committee believes it would be practically impossible to lay down 
general rules for statement of results which, if followed, would necessarily 
and invariably lead to an exact and scientific statement of the mode of 
existence of the various metals and salt radicals in a complex commercial 
salt of potash ; but it is of opinion that whatever modifications in detail 
individual analysts may think proper to adopt, the following general prin- 
ciples should be adhered to : — 



24 report — 1877. 

The plan should bo adopted of combining the strongest metal with the 
strongest salt radical, after due allowance for the tendency to form insoluble 
or nearly insoluble salts. Thus the soluble calcium should always be stated 
as existent as sulphate. The excess of the salt radical should be combined 
with potassium on the ground that chloride, nitrate, or carbonate of potassium 
is incapable of coexistence with sodium sulphate. 

In the case of artificial or acid sulphates, produced by treating " muriates" 
with vitriol, the Committee is of opinion that the free acid is sulphuric acid, 
not hydrochloric acid. The reason for this opinion is to be found in the fact 
that any free hydrochloric acid would inevitably have been volatilized at the 
temperature employed in the production of the sulphate. The same remark 
applies to sulphuric acid if actually free, but if in combination with sulphate 
of potassium, to form an acid salt, it might resist volatilization. The acid 
salt here mentioned as a compound of sulphuric acid and sulphate of potas- 
sium would be more correctly described as potassium-hydrogen-sulphatc, 
KHSOj but your Committee believes that the practical inconvenience of 
stating a certain amount of potassium in this form and the rest as neutral 
sulphate would outweigh any advantage to be derived from a scientifically 
exact statement*. 

It is evident that the presence of free sulphuric acid or of an acid sulphate 
in artificial sulphates can only be due to imperfect admixture of the vitriol 
and muriate, otherwise the following well-known reactions would havo taken 
place : — 

KIISO, + KC1 =K 2 S0 4 +IIC1. 
NaHS0 4 + NaCl=Na 2 S0 4 + IIC1. 

In the event of the bulk of the muriate consisting of chloride of potassium, 
it may be argued that there is a greater probability of that salt remaining 
unacted on than that chloride of sodium should remain undecomposed ; but it 
is evident that the circumstances are such as must vary with the conditions of 
each case; and your Committee therefore prefers to recommend the adop- 
tion of the arbitrary assumption that all potassium exists as sulphate, pro- 
vided that there is sufficient of the salt radical present to combine with the 
whole of the potassium, after allowing for the free acid and the sulphate of 
calcium. 

On the other hand, it may be argued that as sulphates are always converted 
into carbonate or caustic alkali, any chloride present in the sample would 
ultimately be lost in the worthless form of chloride of potassium, whatever 
the metal with which it was originally combined. This argument has con- 
siderable force, and to meet it the Committee recommends that all statements 
of the results of analyses of artificial sulphates should have appended the 
equivalent in chloride of potassium of the chloride found. In artificial sul- 
phates there is considerable probability that the chlorino exists chiefly, if 
not wholly, as potassium chloride ; but such cannot be assumed to be the 
case with other sulphates, and in the statement of the composition of those 
the Committee considers the above calculation undesirable from a scientific 
point of view, though it is clear that there are other considerations in its 
favour. 

The distribution of the salt radicals among the remaining metals (sodium, 
magnesium, and iron) appears to the Committee to be a matter of indifference, 



remark applies to other double salts, such as MgSOj-^-K.SO,,, and (lie 
ind SK.SOjXiS'a.SO,, often met with in kelp products. The recognition 



* The same 
curious eouipouni 

of the presence of such compounds in the statement of the results of analysis of com- 
mercial s-Jts containing them appears to the Committee to be quite unnecessary. 



US THE ESTIMATION OP POTASH AND PHOSPHORIC ACID. 25 

as the precise arrangement will not affect the value of the sample, nor cause 
any alteration in the sum of the constituents, while there appears to be no 
reliable evidence of the actual mode of combination. 

In the case of " muriates," aud sulphates having an alkaline reaction, such 
as those made from kelp and beetroot, potassium and sodium arc the only two 
metals present in larger quantities than traces. In the statement of all 
such analyses your Committee is of opinion that the only proper method is 
to calculate the potassium as sulphate, chloride, and carbonate in succession, 
assuming no sodium to exist as sulphate or chloride unless the amount of 
potassium present is insufficient to satisfy the latter or both of those salt 
radicals. 

The impossibility of the coexistence of sodium sulphate or chloride with 
potassium carbonate is proved by the fact that double decomposition occurs 
when solutions of these salts are mixed and concentrated. 

The non-deliquescent character of kelp sulphates and muriates also furnishes 
a strong independent proof of absence of potassium carbonate. 

The same principles apply to the statement of the results of the analyses 
of commercial carbonates of potassium, and in their case its adoption becomes 
still more important. 

In the case of saltpetres only that portion of the potassium can be pro- 
perly considered to exist as nitrate which is in excess of the quantity 
required for calculation as potassium sulphate (after allowing for the sul- 
phate present as calcium sulphate) ; whether some of the potassium will also 
exist as chloride, or whether there will be some sodium nitrate present, must 
depend on the respective amounts of potassium and N0 3 found ; but having 
regard to the well-known reaction KCl+NaN0 8 =NaCl+KNO s3 your Com- 
mittee is of opinion that the presence of both chloride of potassium and 
nitrate of sodium in the same sample is improbable. 

In brief, the Committee is of opinion that in calculating the results of 
analyses of potash salts, the following method should be adhered to in com- 
bining the various metals and salt radicals present in the portion of the 
sample soluble in water. 

Basic hydrogen, which is met with only in artificial sulphates, exists as 
sulphuric acid, or, more strictly spcakiug, as potassium-hydrogen-sulphate, 

KHS0 4 . . 

Calcium docs not occur in practice in excess of an equivalent amount ot 
sulphate, so that it should always be calculated to CaS0 4 . 

The remaining constituents of the soluble portion of the sanrple should bo 
arranged on the principle of combining the strongest metal with the strongest 
salt radicals. 

The order of affinity which the Committee considers most in accordance 
with observed facts and theoretical propriety is shown in the following list, 
in which tho strongest metals and salt radicals are placed first : — 

Potassium. Sulphate. 

Sodium. Nitrate. 

Magnesium. Chloride. 

Iron. Carbonate. 

Tho Committee is of opinion that in all cases in which one of the con- 
stituents of a sample is determined by subtracting the sum of the others 
from 100-00, the fact ought to be indicated in the statement of results. 
This can readily be done by appending the words " by difference '' or " esti- 
mated by difference " to the name of the constituent thus determined. The 
adoption of this plan would obviate many of the disadvantages attendant on 



26 



REPORT 1877. 



indirect determinations ; but the Committee strongly recommends the em- 
ployment of direct processes whenever possible. 

In all cases where such a course is possible it is very desirable that the 
various compounds of potassium present should be calculated into the salt 
which the name of the article indicates as the leading constituent of tho 
sample. In the case of sulphates, muriates, and carbonates, the correspond- 
ing amount of anhydrous potash should bo stated. Thus the Committee 
recommends that an analysis of a German muriate should be stated some- 
what in the following manner : — 



Centesimal composition. 



Calcium Sulphate. 
Potassium Sulphate. 
Potassium Chloride. 
Sodium Chloride 
Magnesium Chloride. 
Insoluble Matter. 
Water. 



A. 
B. 



100-00 



=Potassium Chloride. 



B 



B + a. 



= Anhydrous Potash. 



X 

y 



x+y 



In the case of carbonates, the anhydrous potash corresponding to the car- 
bonate of potassium present should always be stated separately from that 
calculated from the sulphate and chloride, as it is only in certain cases that 
the potassium existing in the latter forms is of any real value 



Third Report of a Committee, consisting of E. C. C. Stanford A 
E. Fletcher, J. Dewar, E. W. Parnell, T. W. Ogilvie, and 
Alfred H. Allen {Secretary), on the methods of estimating Potash 
and Phosphoric Acid in Commercial Products containing them, and 
on the Statement of the results. Braion up by Alfred H. Allen. 

Estimation of Potash. 

Although the process of determining potassium by precipitation with 
chloride of platinum is Ihe method almost universally adopted by chemists of 
large experience m tho assay of commercial potash salts, the Committee 
thought it desirable to investigate also the volumetric method of Stolba, 
which is based on the precipitation of potassium as silicofluoridc and the 
titration Ox the precipitate with standard alkali, according to the equation— 
K 2 SiP G + 4KHO = 6KF + H.SiO,. 

This process is thus described on page 176 of the 7th English edition of 
iresemuss 'Quantitative Analysis':— "To. the moderately concentrated 
solution of the potash salt in a beaker add a sufficiency of hydro- 
ihiosilicic acid, and then an equal volume of pure strong spirit The 
silicofiuoiide of potassium will separate as a translucent precipitate. When 
it has settled, filter, wash out the beaker with a mixture of equal parts strong 
spmt and water, and wash the precipitate with the same mixture till the 
washings are no longer acid to litmus paper. Put the filter and precipitate 



ON THE ESTIMATION OF POTASH AND PHOSPHORIC ACID. 27 

into the beaker previously used, treat with water, add some tincture of litmus, 
heat to boiling, and add normal alkali solution till the fluid is justbluo, and 
remains so after continued boiling." 

With a view of preparing pure chloride of potassium for these researches, 
the Committee abandoned the method employed last year, in favour of a 
simpler process suggested in a note appended to the last report. 

Commercial chlorate of potassium was rccrystallized and heated until no 
more oxygen was evolved, and the product was dissolved in water, filtered, a 
few drops of hydrochloric acid added to the clear solution, and the whole 
evaporated to dryness and ignited in a muffle at a low red heat. The product 
was powdered and bottled. When heated on clean platinum wire in a 
Bunsen flame it gave no trace of yellow colour to the flame. 

Thirty-five grammes of this pure salt were dissolved in 315 grammes of 
pure water, in order to make a solution containing exactly one tenth of its 
weight of pure chloride of potassium. 

In the following investigation a roughly measured quantity of this solution 
was run into a beaker and the exact weight taken. This method was 
adopted during the experiments of last year in preference to pipette measure- 
ments, which were not considered satisfactory. 

The solution was first analyzed by precipitation by nitrate of silver. The 
following tablo shows the quantities taken, and the number of parts of KC1 
found for one hundred taken * : — 



No. of Expt. 


Weight of 


Weight of AgCl = 


= KC1 found 


= KOI found for 




Solution. 


obtained. 




100 parts taken. 


1.... 


. . 7-0805 


1-3619 


•70850 


100-06 


2 


..7-0275 


1-3509 


•7027S 


100-00 



The six following experiments were made by adhering strictly to the 
description of the process already quoted. A quantity of potassium chloride 
solution containing about -7 gramme or 10 grains of tho salt was employed 
in each case. The standard alkali employed was very carefully prepared and 
was strictly normal. 

It was not found practicable to wash the precipitate till the washings were 
no longer acid to litmus. The washing was therefore arrested when the 
filtrate gave no reaction with silver nitrate. 



8 C 



Expt. Wt. of Soln. C. c. normal alkali = KOI - KCl found per 100 

used. parts taken. 

1 7-1155 18-80 S -70110 98-54 

2 7-1100 18-83 P -70236 98-80 

3 7-0200 18-75 S -69937 99-90 

4 7-0190 18-75 S -69932 99-62 

5 7-1365 19-10 S -71237 99-50 

6 7-0210 18-70 P -69745 99-34 

Although it was not to be expected that there could be any advantage in 
employing caustic potash in the titration instead of caustic soda, it was 
considered that the case was one in which it was just possible that there 
might be a choice, and therefore both alkalies -were tried. The alkali em- 
ployed in each experiment is distinguished by the letters P and S placed 
after the number of centimetres of normal alkali required. 

* The following are the atomic weights employed in the investigation : — 
K = 39-137; Si=28; Ag=107-93; C1-35--457; F = 1896. 



28 report — 1877. 

In experiment 1 an excess of alkali was employed, and the liquid was 
then titrated back with sulphuric acid. It was hoped in this way to ensure 
the complete and speedy decomposition of the silicofluoride ; but the end of 
the reaction was very dim cult to read, perhaps owing to the formation of 
silicate. It was also found to be no advantage to add the acid in sensible 
excess and again titrate with alkali. In some cases decinormal alkali was 
employed towards the conclusion of the titration, but the end of the reaction 
was not sufficiently defined to make the precaution valuable. No. 2 can 
scarcely be considered a test experiment, for the precipitated silicofluoride 
was dried on the filter and then scraped off. 

The next three experiments were made on about 1-5 gramme (twice the 
former quantity) of potassium chloride, the precipitated silicofloridc being 
dried on the filter, scraped off, and weighed. 

Expt. Wt. of Sola. Wt. of Precipitate. = KC1 = KC1 found per 

100 parts taken. 

7 15-0525 2-2150 1-5018 99-77 

S 15-0475 2-2115 1-4994 99-64 

9 15-0365 2-2070 1-4964 99-52 

Theso results do not show any great departure from tho truth, especially 
as traces of the precipitate probably adhered to the filter and were thus 
lost. The manipulation was very easy, filtration occurring rapidly, and the 
precipitate being easily washed, dried, and separated from tbe filter. 

After weighing, the precipitates obtained in the last experiments were 
suspended in boiling water and titrated with normal alkali, with the follow- 
ing results : — 

j; f Wt. ofppt. C. c normal Kj,SiP 6 found 

J ' i ' taken. alkali used. per 100 parte taken. 

7 A.... 2-2150 39-60 P 98-4 

8 A.... 2-2115 31-60 8 98-6 

9 A.... 2-2070 40-10 S 99-95 

In the last experiment the titration was slightly overdone. It appears, 
therefore, that tho volumetric method gives results sensibly below the truth. 
Probably the error was greater in the last three experiments owing to the 
precipitates baring been dried, and thus reacting less readily with alkali 
than the undried silicofluoride. 

In these, as in all other experiments, the alkali was added very slowly 
towards the end of the reaction, and the liquid was well boiled after each 
addition. 

Three more experiments by direct titration of the silicofluoride with 
alkali gave the following results : — 

jl^ Wt. of soln. C. c. of normal _ ,, pl KC1 found for 
'*■"• taken. alkali used. " *^ L 100 parts taken. 

10.. ..15-0525 40-10 P 1-4956 99-4 
n ... . 15-0475 39-90 S 1-4881 98-9 
12.. ..15-0365 40-10 S 1-4956 99-4 

In these last experiments the large quantity of silica produced rendered 
the end of the reaction difficult to observe. In fact the want of sharpness 
in tho termination of the reaction is a serious defect of the process. A 
porcelain basin was found preferable to a beaker for conducting the titration. 

Although in the above experiments the volume of alkali "used was read 
to ^L of a cubic centimetre, the end of the reaction could not be defined 



OM THE ESTIMATION OF POTASH AN I) PHOSPHORIC ACID. 29 

so closely, even after considerable practice. A difference of 0-1 cub. centim. 
in the volume of the standard alkali employed corresponds in the last three 
experiments to about -2.3 per cent, of the chloride of potassium taken, and 
In the first six experiments to '5 per cent, of the sample. As the quantity of 
potassium chloride worked on cannot be conveniently increased beyond the 
weights used in experiments 10, 11, and 12, it is evident that the process 
is not susceptible of great accuracy even if no other disturbing influence 
existed. 

The fact that the volumetric method gives results below the truth is pro- 
bably due to the difficulty of decomposing tho last traces of silicofluoride by 
alkali, without introducing an excess of the latter. The trace of free 
alkali which suffices to change the tint of the litmus to blue seems incapable 
of reacting on the silicofluoride. An attempt was made to overcome this 
difficulty by adding a sensible excess of alkali, boiling well, and titrating back 
with standard acid ; but the result was not satisfactory, the end of the 
reaction being very obscure. 

In practice it would be preferable to sot the standard alkali by its action 
on moist silicofluoride prepared from a known quantity of potassium chloride, 
rather than to trust to its theoretical neutralizing effect. 

As the drying and weighing of the silicofluoride requires but little more 
time than the titration with alkali, and gives better results, the gravimetric 
estimation is to be preferred. Although the process is not to be compared in 
accuracy to the precipitation and weighing of potassium as potassium 
chloroplatinate, it might no doubt be advantageously employed in particular 
cases. 

The next experiments were made on a mixture of 75 per cent, of chloride 
of potassium with 25 per cent, of chloride of sodium. 

-p, . . Wt. of KC1 sola. KaC'l C. c. nurmal _ j-,-,, „ , KC1 found for 

1 ' taken. taken. alkali used. ' 100 parts taken. 

13 .. ..11-7505 -375 42-95 S 1-6019 136-3 

14 ....11-7530 -375 42-95 S 1-6019 136-3 

These results show that 96-9 per cent, of the total amount of alkali metal 
present was precipitated as silicofluoride. In two other experiments of 
equal weights of potassium and sodium chlorides, 222 and 218 parts of Iv( 1 
were found for 100 parts taken. The former number represents a precipi- 
tation of 96-8 per cent, of the sum of the alkali metals present. 

Two experiments were next made on mixtures of potassium and sodium 
chlorides by precipitating the solution with hydrofluosilicic acid as before, 
but using a smaller proportion of spirit. One third of the bulk of solution 
and wash water consisted of rectified spirit, instead of one half, as in all 
previous experiments. The weights of the precipitates corresponded respec- 
tively to 109 and 188 parts of potassium chloride for 100 parts taken. 

It is evident from these experiments that the process is quite worthless 
for the separation of potassium from sodium, and consequently that the 
number of cases in which it can he advantageousl}' employed is greatly 
limited. Althoivgh this result was anticipated from the known properties of 
sodium silicofluoride, it was thought desirable to establish the fact by direct 
experiment. 

Since the above experiments were completed the original paper of Stolba 
has been consulted *. The author recommends the suspension of the preci- 
pitated silicofluoride in a much larger quantity of water than was employed 

* ZeiUch. lur anal. Chem. iii. p. 298. 



30 REPORT — 1877. 

by the Committee. This plan would cause the more perfect solution of the 
precipitate, and probably yield somewhat higher results ; but the author's 
experiments on pure potassium salts gave results sensibly below the truth. 
As the value of the process is greatly limited by its uselessness in presence of 
sodium compounds, the Committee did not think it necesssary to perform a 
fresh series of experiments with more rigid adherence to Stolba's directions. 

Methods of determining Phosphoric Acid. 

With respect to the general method of procedure in the assay of com- 
mercial phosphatic materials, the Committee has not thought it necessary to 
make any original experiments, the published and collected evidence on the 
subject being sufficient for the purpose. 

As the result of a very careful consideration of the subject, the Committee 
make tho following recommendations and suggestions. In most eases theso 
are quite free from novelty ; but as the evidence collected by the Committee, 
and the results of many commercial analyses, show that the following con- 
siderations and precautions are in many cases partly or wholly neglected, the 
Committee is of opinion that the general adoption of the following sugges- 
tions would tend greatly to diminish the number and extent of the dis- 
crepancies common in determinations of phosphoric acid. 

Solution of the Manure. 

The Committee is of opinion that for dissolving the soluble phosphate 
contained in a manufactured manure, cold water should invariably be em- 
ployed. The water should be employed in successive small quantities, and 
the treatment and digestion with tho solvent should not be extended over 
more than two or three hours. Hot water should be wholly avoided, both 
for the original extraction of the soluble matter and for washing the residue. 

The neglect of the above precautions may cause an error in either direc- 
tion. The effect of employing hot water for dissolving the soluble phosphate 
is shown by the fact that the cold aqueous extract of many superphosphates 
yields a precipitate on boiling. On the other hand the di- and tricalcic 
phosphates undergo change on boiling with water, with partial solution in 
some cases. 

For the solution of the portion of the manure insoluble in water, or for 
tho determination of the total phosphoric acid, hydrochloric acid is the most 
suitable. In manures containing iron the addition of a few drops of nitric 
acid is desirable, to ensure the complete peroxidation of any ferrous com- 
pound which may be present. 

In manures containing silica the evaporation of the acid solution to 
dryness should never be omitted. The neglect of this precaution causes the 
precipitation of the silica at a subsequent stage, and is liable to cause a 
serious error. Another advantage of the evaporation to dryness is the partial 
elimination of any fluorine which may be present. 

In cases in which much organic matter is present, iron and aluminium cannot 
be precipitated satisfactorily. In such cases the original sample or the 
residue insoluble in water should be ignited with an alkaline oxidizing 
mixture before treating it with acid. 

Fresenius, Neubauer, and Luck* havo recommended the employment of 
dilute sulphuric acid for the extraction of the total phosphoric acid from a 
manure. The advantage claimed for this modification is that the iron and 

* Zeitschrift, x. p. 103. 



ON THE ESTIMATION OF POTASH AND PHOSPHORIC ACID. 31 

aluminium remain chiefly undissolved. As, however, a small and not very 
constant amount of iron undergoes solution, the advantage of this method 
is considerably diminished. 

Separation of the Iron and Aluminium. 

In all cases in which more than traces of iron or aluminium are present, 
the Committee is strongly of opinion that they should he separated. In the 
first place several of the most satisfactory methods of determining phosphoric 
acid are vitiated by the presence of these metals ; and secondly, the manorial 
value of the sample is affected by their presence. It is therefore doubly 
important that they should not be ignored. 

The removal of the aluminium and iron from the solution is readily 
effected by neutralizing any excess of acid witli ammonia and adding 
ammonium acetate, when iron and aluminium are thrown down as phos- 
phates, which may be filtered off and weighed. The operation should be 
conducted in a cold or but slightly warm solution. If the liquid be heated, 
a calcium phosphate is thrown down. 

The precipitate can be conveniently analyzed by the following method, 
contributed by Mr. 11. Warington : — " The precipitated phosphates of iron 
and aluminium are washed, ignited, and weighed, rcdissolvcd in strong hy- 
drochloric acid, and the iron determined volumetrically. From the iron 
the quantity of ferric phosphate in the precipitate is calculated, the phosphate 
of aluminium found by difference, and thus the iron, aluminium, and phos- 
phoric acid in the precipitate are obtained. A little phosphoric acid is liable 
to be removed from the precipitate during washing, and basic salts are thus 
reckoned in the calculation as of normal composition." 

The Oxalic-Acid Method. 

In employing this method it is very desirable to previously separate iron 
and aluminium acetate. Besides the advantages already mentioned, this 
precaution renders it unnecessary to add an organic acid beforo precipitating 
the phosphate with magnesia. The use of an organic acid prevents the 
complete separation of the lime (oxalate of calcium being soluble in citrate 
of ammonium), and tends to falsify the subsequent precipitation with 
" magnesia mixture." 

The presence of ammonium acetate facilitates rather than prevents tho 
precipitation of the calcium as oxalate. 

On rendering the filtrate from the oxalate of calcium precipitate alkaline 
with ammonia, a small additional precipitation of oxalate of calcium may 
occur. If the solution of the manure has been made with acid, and sub- 
sequent evaporation of the acid liquid to dryness has been neglected, the 
precipitate here formed may contain silica or fluoride of calcium. If the 
separation of the iron and aluminium has been omitted, citric acid must be 
added before making the solution alkaline with ammonia. Of course it' a 
precipitate is formed at this stage, from whatever cause, it must be separated 
beforo adding " magnesia mixture.'' 

Direct Citric-Acid Method. 
In this method the iron, aluminium, and calcium are all retained in solu- 
tion by means of citrate of ammonium, and no attempt is made to separate 
the calcium as oxalate ; but the phosphate is at once precipitated from the 
ammoniacal solution by " magnesia mixture." Although in the hands of 
several chemists of high repute this convenient method gives very good re- 



32 report— 1877'. 

suits, the sources of error are too numerous to be wholly disregarded. 
Titration of the precipitate with uranium appears preferable to direct 
weighing. 

Precipitation ivith " Magnesia Mixture." 

Repeated experiments having shown that the employment of sulphate of 
magnesium for the precipitation of ammonio-magnesium-phosphate is at- 
tended with considerable tendency to error, the Committee is of opinion that 
it should bo definitely abandoned in favour of the chloride. 

The volume of " magnesia mixture " employed for the precipitation should 
only be in moderate excess of the amount necessary to completely precipitate 
the phosphate present. 

The use of a large excess of the precipitant causes a more rapid separation 
of the double phosphate, but is attended with such a serious tendency to 
error that any advantage gained is more than counterbalanced. The pre- 
cipitant should be added slowly. 

The precipitation should be conducted in the cold, and solution should 
not be too concentrated. The proportion of free ammonia in the liquid 
should be large. The minimum amount of ammonia water should be em- 
ployed for washing. 

If the above precautions are duly observed, and silica, fluorine, iron, and 
aluminium be previously removed, it will rarely be necessary to purify the 
precipitate by solution in acid and reprecipitation with ammonia. In re- 
precipitating, some "magnesia mixture" should be added, as its presence 
tonds to reduce the solubility of the precipitate in the ammoniacal liquid. 
Any correction for solubility of the precipitate should be applied to the 
ammoniacal washing, and not to the original filtrate. 

In igniting the precipitate the heat should be very gentle at first and 
afterwards be raised as high as possible. If citric acid has been employed, 
the ignited precipitate is often discoloured. This may be remedied by 
cautious treatment in the crucible with strong nitric acid followed by 
reignition. 

If the precipitate of ammonio-magnesium-phosphato be titrated by 
standard solution of uranium instead of being weighed, many of the above 
precautions are rendered superfluous. 

Estimation by Uranium. 

The removal of iron and aluminium by addition of an alkaline acetate in 
the cold, with determination of the phosphoric acid in the filtrate by means 
of a standard solution of uranium, is a method which, in the opinion of the 
Committee, deserves extended employment. The use of an acetate in a 
slightly acid solution brings the liquid into just the condition required for 
the use of the uranium process. The proportions of acetic acid and alkaline 
acetate employed, and the volume of the solution, should bo approximately 
constant. The uranium nitrate should bo standardized with an acetic-acid 
solution of pure precipitated ammonio-magnesium-phosphate or tricalcic 
phosphate, instead of with phosphate of sodium. 

The titration should be converse, the solution of the phosphate being added 
to that of the uranium. The latter should be mixed with a constant pro- 
portion of acetic acid, and heated on a bath of boiling water. The indicator 
should bo powdered potassium ferrocyanide on a white porcelain slab. 
Owing to the reversal of the usual process, the brown colour of the ferro- 
cyanide of uranium becomes gradually fainter till the end of the titration. 



ON THE ESTIMATION OP POTASH AND PHOSPHORIC ACID. 33 

Mohjbdic-Acid Method. 

Konnenschein's process of precipitation with molybdic acid, with subsequent 
treatment with magnesia mixture, and weighing as magnesium pyrophosphate, 
is probably the most uniformly accurate of all known processes for deter- 
mining phosphoric acid. It appears always to be employed when great 
accuracy is desired, and some chemists use it habitually. In some respects, 
however, the process is not well fitted for general uso, for the following 
reasons : — 

A very large excess of molybdic acid above that which is actually precipi- 
tated as " phospho-molybdate of ammonium " is re .pared for' the complete 
separation of the phosphoric acid of the solution. The reagent is somewhat 
expensive, and there is no simple process of recovering the molybdenum 
from the filtrate. 

The yellow precipitate contains le.33 than four per cent, of anhydrous 
phosphoric acid, and thus becomes very balky and unmanageable when the 
quantity of phosphoric acid present exceeds -1 or -2 of a gramme. This fact 
leads to the employment of very small quantities of the material ; and as the 
yellow precipitate has to be subsequently redissolvod and precipitated with 
magnesia mixture in the ordinary way, the error liable to occur from the 
use of an unusually small weight of the sample detracts greatly from the 
value of the method. 

The above considerations, together with the loss of time and expense in- 
cident to the use of the process, prevent the Committee from recommending 
it for general adoption, though it is of opinion that in many instances the 
method may be used with great advantage, and that in some cases it is 
invaluable. 

Pisani has described a method of determining molybdic acid by reducing 
its acid solution with zinc, and titrating the brown liquid with standard 
permanganate. 

J. Macagno has proposed to apply this process to the determination of 
phosphoric acid, by first precipitating the latter with " molybdate solution " 
and then titrating the molybdic acid in the precipitate in the above manner. 

The Committee has instituted some experiments on this process, but the 
results were very unsatisfactory 

Reduced Phosphates. 

It is well known that the soluble phosphate of somo superphosphates has 
a tendency to pass back into the insoluble condition. It is plausibly argued 
that the finely divided insoluble phosphate thus produced is equal in mano- 
rial value to the soluble phosphate originating it, and therefore that in 
judging of the value of the manure tho insoluble " reduced " phosphate 
should be stated separately, and regarded as of equal manurial value to the 
actual soluble phosphate. 

The methods which have been employed for the determination of " re- 
duced " phosphate are based on the ready solubility of such precipitated 
phosphate, in certain liquids, or on its easy decomposition by certain alkaline 
salts. For its solution, citrate of ammonium has been employed, and for its 
decomposition with formation of a soluble j)hosphate, oxalate of ammonium* 
or bicarbonate of sodium f is used. 

A series of very suggestive experiments on Chesshire's bicarbonato-of- 
sodium and Gibson's oxalate-of-ammonium methods have been communicated 

* Cheui. News, Sept. 10, 18G9, p. 123. 

t Cheui. News, Sept. 3, 1869, p. Ill ; Church's ' Laboratory Guide,' 3rd edition, p. HO. 



is 



i i, 



34 report — 1877. 

to the Committee by Mr. M. J. Lansdell j and as they appear to show con- 
clusively the valueless character of either of the above processes for deter- 
mining " Reduced " Phosphates, the results are given in full. The samples 
were all passed through the same sieve, and the proportions employed were 

those recommended by the authors. 

Dissolved (equal to Ca 3 P 2 0„). 

Sample contained By Sibson's By ChesshiveV 

(equal to Ca 3 P 2 H ). method. method. 

Cambridge coprolite 56-07 per cent. 8-32 p. c. 2'23 p. c. 

Bone-ash 76-87 „ 10-58 3-07 

Navassa phosphate 65-62 „ 7*48 5-73 

German phosphate 60'74 „ 8-04 2-09 

Bedonda phosphate (dried) 87-42 „ 19-72 56-97 

Bedonda phosphate (lump) 86*58 „ 19*10 64-65 

By employing a solution of bicarbonate of twice the above strength, the 
Bedonda phosphate gave equal to 84-3 of Ca 3 P 2 O a in solution. 

Using a smaller quantity of the sample in the oxalate method, 47'76 per 
cent, passed into solution. 

It appears, therefore, that " reduced '' phosphates are indicated by each 
process, even in natural phosphatic materials which have never been treated 
with acid, and hence the methods of determination are useless*. 

The same objections apply to the citrate-of-ammonium method, especially 
with respect to the phosphate of aluminium known as " Bedonda Phosphate." 

It follows, therefore, that the latter comparatively cheap material would 
(if introduced into a superphosphate) be mistaken for and quoted as " re- 
duced phosphate." 

From the above considerations it appears that the known methods of 
determining the reduced phosphates are purely arbitrary. 

It is now generally admitted that the cause of the "going back" to the 
condition of insoluble phosphate is the presence of iron or aluminium in the 
manure; and many chemists are of opinion that the "reduced" phosphates 
actually consist of the phosphates of iron and aluminium produced by some 
such reaction as the following : — 



*B 



CaH 4 (P0 4 ) 2 + Al 2 (S0 4 ) 3 = 2 Al P0 4 + CaSQ , + 2H 2 S0 4 . 

At any rate it is a fact that only manures containing iron and aluminium 
have a tendency to form reduced phosphates ; so that the manufacturer has 
the remedy in his own hands, to avoid using mineral phosphate containing 
iron or aluminium. 

In the analysis of mineral phosphates the proportion of oxide of iron and 
alumina is usually stated, but these constituents rarely appear in the analyses 
of " superphosphates " made therefrom. 

It is generally held that the phosphates of iron and aluminium have a 
very limited manurial value, and this fact is a strong argument against the 
reduced phosphates being calculated into and credited as phosphate of 
calcium. The value of a manure so largely depends on the proportion of 
oxide of iron and alumina present, that the Committee is very strongly of 
opinion that the united percentage of these two bases in a manufactured 
manure (superphosphate) should always be stated. By doing so the manu- 
facturer or purchaser would be enabled to judge of the probability of a newly 
made manure " going back " on keeping, and he would be in a better posi- 
tion to form an opinion of the true value of the sample. At the same time 

* Mi-. John Hughes has made experiments leading to a similar conclusion. Chem. 
News, vol. xix, p. 220 and vol. xx. p. 111. 



ON THE ESTIMATION OF POTASH AND PHOSPHORIC ACID. 35 

the estimation of the " reduced " phosphates would often be rendered super- 
fluous. 

The actual mode of occurrence of some of the constituents of manures is 
very uncertain, and although interesting in a strictly scientific sense, is of 
very limited practical importance. The Committee is of opinion that the 
methods of statement now generally adopted are sufficient for commercial 
purposes ; but with the view of securing greater uniformity in the statement 
of rosults by different chemists the adoption of the following plan is 
recommended : — 

Statement op the Results of Analysis op Commercial Phosphates. 

With respect to the mode of statement of the results of analyses of manu- 
factured phosphates the Committee holds the following opinions : — 

"When found in quantities greater than traces, the proportions of oxide of 
iron and alumina in the sample should always bo stated, and also their 
equivalents of the corresponding phosphates (JFe P0 4 and Al P0 4 ) and the 
equivalent of the latter in tricalcic phosphate. Hence that item would 
appear somewhat as follows : — 

Oxide of iron and alumina A°/ 

(Equal to phosphates of iron and aluminium . . B°/ ) 
(Equal to neutral phosphate of calcium C°/ ) 

If it be proposed for any reason to state the iron and aluminium as phos- 
phates instead of oxides the following form would be suitable : — 

Phosphates of iron and aluminium B°/ 

(Equal to neutral phosphate of calcium C°/ u ) 

(Containing anhydrous phosphoric acid D°/ ) 

The object of stating the equivalents in phosphate of calcium and phos- 
phoric acid is to give the manufacturer or purchaser an estimate of the 
tendency of the sample to " go back " owing to tho formation of reduced 
phosphates. 

The Committee is of opinion that the soluble phosphate in a manure pre- 
pared with acid is best stated as acid calcium phosphate, though in some 
cases it may be questioned whether it wholly exists in that form. The term 
" bi-pbosphate " should as far as possible be abandoned ; but as this cannot 
bo done suddenly it is recommended that the equivalent of CaH 4 (P0j„ in 
Ca P., O e should also be given. It is likewise desirable to state the equivalent 
amount of bone phosphate (Ca 3 (P0 4 ) 2 ) from which the soluble phosphate 
has been derived. Hence the statement of the soluble phosphate will be 
somewhat as follows : — 

Soluble acid phosphate of calcium E% 

(Equal to so-called bi-phosphate of lime E%) 

(Equal to neutral phosphate of calcium (bone 

phosphate) made soluble Gc°/ ) 

(Containing anhydrous phosphoric acid H%) 

The statement of the insoluble phosphate presents no difficulty. 

The Committee is not prepared to make any recommendation respecting 
the statement of the calcium sulphate, but is of opinion that whether the 
anhydrous or the hydrated substance is entered as existent in the sample, 
tho equivalent of the other should also be added in parenthesis. 

The Committee believes that it has clone all in its power to secure tho 
objects for which it was appointed, and therefore presents this as its first 
report. 

1)2 



36 report — 1877. 

Report on the Present State of our Knowledge of the Crustacea. — 
Part III.' On the Homologies of the Dermal Skeleton {continued) . By 
C. Spence Bate, F.R.S. fyc. 

Correlation of Ajipendages. 

By the term " correlation " I mean a change of form associated with func- 
tional variations, tho character of which is sufficiently distinct to produce, 
both in appearance and application, an appendage that is essentially dif- 
ferent from the type with which it is homologically connected. 

The eyes are less subject to correlate with other forms than most other 
appendages. This probably arises from the circumstance that their func- 
tional properties are only liable to vary in a greater or less degree of utility. 
It is true that Alphonse Milne-Edwards has observed in a species of 
Palinurus the eye to become altered into an antenna-like appendage : and 
the author of this report contends that it is homologous with the first pair of 
appendages in Nauplius, and therefore correlates with a free-swimming appen- 
dage (Proceedings Hoy. Soc. vol. xxiv. p. 377) ; but our knowledge of the 
cases is small where the eye loses its functional power ; consequently we must 
assume that its variation in form must be limited in degree only consistent 
with its uses. 

In Podopldhalma and allied genera the organ is extended on a very 
long appendage, whereas in others the peduncle is extremely short ; and in 
those genera that reside in dark habitats the visual organ has become so 
depauperized that it can only be traced through the anatomical arrangement 
of the nervous system. This is the case with the Cirripedia, where, from 
the fixed nature of the animal, sight would only be a means of inflicting 
pain, since the animal could not escape any object of terror it observed 
approaching. 

The eye in the Nauplius form, whether in young specimens of the higher 
types or adult forms of Entomostracous Crustacea, is not homologous with 
the true orgaii of the higher forms of Crustacea, and therefore cannot be said 
to correlate with it. 

The first pair of antennae, called the antcnnules by some writers, is 
generally of a very simple character. They usually consist in their outward 
form of a base or peduncle made up of three separate joints, the remaining 
portion being broken up into numerous minute articuli, that gradually 
decrease in size towards the extremity, and so become long and flexible, like 
the lash of a whip, and consequently are named the flagellum by anatomists. 
It is usual for this to break into two separate branches ; and it is clear that 
one must be of a superior character to the other, since there are certain 
organisms attached to it that are invariably constant, whereas they are never 
attached to the other. I have therefore, when desirous to distinguish the 
former, identified it as the primary branch of the flagellum and the other as 
the secondary, which in different species is again liable to be rcdivided at 
various points along the branch, but every time forming more feeble and 
less important branches. This appendage, when compared with its homo- 
type, a truly formed walking-limb, differs from it in the same way as the 
latter changes in the lower forms of Crustacea when variatcd for other pur- 
poses, as in Mysis. A true or normally developed limb adapted for walking 
consists of seven separate joints. The first pair of antennas consists of seven 
also ; but three of these only retain their normal character, the four others 
being differentiated so as to comply with other conditions necessitated by 
distinct wants. 



ON OUR PRESENT KNOWLEDGE OF THE CRUSTACEA. 37 

The first, or coxa, is the joint that is most important to the necessities of 
the animal; it is the part that invariably contains the functional organ with 
which the appendage is endowed, and is most capable of internal organic change. 
In the lower types of Crustacea it differs little in external form from the 
other less important joints of the same limb, and appears to become depre- 
ciated as it corresponds with the increasing length of the ftagellum. In 
Aniphipoda the length of this antenna is often very considerable in the deep- 
sea genera; whereas in those that live on the shore or on land, as Talitrus 
and Orchestia mostly do, not only do the flagclla diminish in general pro- 
portion, but the entire organ, as an appendage, becomes enfeebled and weak, 
arguing strongly that its higher endowments arc best capable of full develop- 
ment under the former than the latter conditions. 

Moving upwards in the grade of animal life, in those Crustacea that pursue 
a wholly aquatic existence this first pair of antennae, while decreasing in the 
length of the flagellum, does so apparently by diminishing its tenuity, and 
so condensing all its power within less extent. This also corresponds with 
a similar change in the coxal joint of the peduncle. 

This ehango appears to bo carried to the highest extent in the short-tailed 
genera, of which wo may find a convenient example in the common edible 
Crab (Cancer pagurus) of the British seas. The coxa in this genus is very 
much larger than the other joints of the peduncle, and on being opened is 
found to contain an osseous chamber, attached by one extremity only to the 
antcro-extcrnal surface of the outer walls of the joint. 

In the genus Maia a similar chamber, but different in form, exists ; and 
this probably will be found to be true of all the Brachyura or short-bodied 
forms of crabs. 

In the Macrura a chamber of a similar nature, but longer in form, cor- 
responds with the depreciated appearance of the coxal joint of the antenna, 
which is longer, narrower, and carries a longer and more slender flagellum 
than the Brachyura. But the chamber in the Macrura is certainly of a 
very peculiar character, for it is in some of the species, such as Homarus, 
Astceus, and Paliimrus, more or less completely filled with particles of sand. 
This sand is thrown off with the exuviations of the animal at each successive 
moult, and is again replaced by the voluntary act of the crustacean itself. 

In some genera, such as Anchistia, Palcemon, and Lucifer, there exist 
various forms of otolithes. 

In lower orders, such as the Amphipoda, the antenna is very simple, and 
generally long and slender. The second filament, which in the higher 
groups is commonly equal in length with the primary branch, is in this 
order reduced to a rudimentary condition, and is frequently wanting in the 
adult form, although almost invariably present in the young stage. We 
generally find, however, that in those genera where this antenna is reduced 
in length the coxa increases in dimensions, while the two succeeding joints 
are less so in proportion. 

A marked exception to this is perceptible in Orchestia and Talitrus and 
the terrestrial Isopods, where the appendage is short and unimportant, ap- 
proximating towards a rudimentary condition. In the Hyperidians it has a 
I endency to become enfeebled and diminutive. The tendency to variation 
in these two widely separated forms is certainly the result of certain altered 
circumstances which interfere with the characteristic development of the 
organ. 

Talitrus and Orchestia. arc genera that live in an intermediate position ; 
their habits are between the aquatic and land Crustacea, They do not live 



38 report— 1877. 

in the water, and some species are found some miles inland. Their short 
antennae differ from those of the truly aquatic genera of the Lysianassidce, 
and are evidently organs in a rudimentary condition, impoverished in charac- 
ter and small, because they have no duties to perform. In the Ilyperidce they 
have also assumed an impoverished condition probably from a similar cause, 
although the habits of the creature are very distinct. In the Orchesticlce and 
Oniseidce the animals live out of what might be pronounced to be their 
accustomed element ; whereas in the Ilyperidce they are inhabitants of tho 
sea, but exist if not parasitic, certainly encased within Medusae in such a 
way as to lose much power of free action. Organs of sense, such as the 
anterior antennae are generally considered to be, must lose their power 
from want of use, owing, in the one case, to altered conditions, and in the 
other to incapacity for action. 

Talitrus and Hyperia arc generally considered by carcinologists to rank 
at opposite extremities of the order ; and when generalization is adopted 
from too narrow observation, a faulty conclusion is liable to be enunciated, 
such as that which identifies a short antenna as typical of an improved 
organization on the one hand, or as evidence of a more feeble typo on 
the other. 

Among tho Entomostracous forms of Crustacea the first pair of antennae 
correlates with various forms, and apparently loses its functional sense. In 
Nebalia it varies so little from the normal form, that it must be admitted as 
part of the evidence that this genus ranks higher in the natural order of 
Crustacea than the Entomostraca. In Limnadia these appendage appear 
to have degenerated into a. simple flagcllum, the peduncle or stalk having 
become impoverished to the same extent. In Daphnia they appear to be 
wanting. In Cypris they are Hagelliform and robust. In Pontia they 
are fiagelliform and long, and they are very long in Cychjis. In Caligvlidce 
they are reduced in size and feeble in form, and frequently support organs 
of adhesion of sucker-like appearance. In the Lerneans and close allies 
they are wanting, unless, as is probable, they homologize with the organs 
of insertion, in which case correlation is carried to an extreme elcgrce. 

The object or function of this pair of antennae has by all the older carcino- 
logists been supposed to fulfil the duties of an olfactory organ. Dr. Farrc, 
in the ' Philosophical Transactions' for 1843, was the first who attempted to 
reverse this decision. In 1S51 Professor Huxley communicated to the 
' Annals of Natural History,' 2nd ser. vol. vii. p. 304, some " Zoological Notes 
and Observations made on board H.M.8. ' Rattlesnake ' during the years 
1840-51. I. On the Auditory Organs of Crustacea." He says that " The older 
authors, Fabricius, Scarpa, Brandt, and Trcviranus, unanimously confer the 
title of auditory organs on certain sacs filled with fluid which arc seated in 
the basal joint of the second or larger pair of antennae ;" but " by the 
majority of the older writers no notice is taken of the sac existing in 
many genera in the bases of the first or smaller pair of antenna?. Rosen- 
thal *, however, describes this structure very carefully in Astaeus flaviatilis 
and Astaeus (Paliiiurus) marinus. He considers it to be an olfactory organ, 
while he agrees with previous writers in considering the sac in the outer 
antennae as the auditory organ." 

This view is supported by Professor Milne-Edwards, as I shall show when 
writing about the second pair of antennae. 

This distinguished carcinologist appears to have given no consideration to 
* "Ueber Gerucbsorgane cl. Insekten," Keifs Arcliiv, Bd. x. (1811). 



ON OUH PRESENT KNOWLEDGE OF THE CRUSTACEA. 39 

the apparatus attached to the base of the first pair of antenna 1 , which, with 
the exception of Rosenthal, appears to have been overlooked by most car- 
cinological anatomists. Prof. Huxley, in the paper quoted, admits its 
presence only in Macrurous Crustacea ; for he says, "It is universally ac- 
knowledged that in the Macrura there exists in the basal joint, of both the 
first and second pair of antennae a sac containing a liquid, and that in the 
Brachyura such a sac exists, at least in the second pair." 

•• Although," the same author continues, " the structure of the organ 
contained in the first pair of antenna? in the Macrura departs somewhat 
from the ordinary construction of an acoustic apparatus in the Invertebrata, 
yet the argument from structure to function, as enunciated in the paper 
referred to (Dr. Farre's), seems almost irresistible. Still, as it has obviously 
not produced general conviction, I hope that the following evidence may be 
considered as finally conclusive." 

Mr. Huxley then describes and figures a small transparent Crustacean 
(taken in the South Pacific) of the genus Palcemon; and states that the "basal 
joint of the first pah.' of antenna? is thick, and provided with a partially 
detached ciliated spine at the outer part of its base. Between this and the 
body of the joint there is a narrow fissure. The fissure leads into a pyriform 
cavity contained within a membranous sac, which lies within the substance 
of the joint. The anterior extremity of the sac is enveloped in a mass of 
pigment-granules ; on that side of the sac which is opposite to the fissure, a 
scries of hairs with bulbous bases are attached along a curved line ; these are 
in contact with, and appear to support, a large ovoid, strongly refracting 
otolithe. 

" The antennal nerve passes internal to and below the sac, and gives off 
branches which terminate at tho curved line of the bases of the hairs. The 
sac is about T -> ro of an inch in length, the otolithe about vrL, T in diameter. The 
structure is obviously very similar to the ordinary apparatus in Mollusca &c."' 
A similar kind of formation I have observed in a species of Anchistia from 
Australia ; and also Dana has figured a similar structure in the same 
appendage of an Anchistia. It may be that Huxley's Palcemon may be a 
species of Dana's Anchistia. 

The form of the otolithe observed by myself was irregularly ovoid. It is 
described in the ' Proceedings of the Zoological Society ' for the 24th of 
November, J 813, p. 5, pi. xxi. fig. 5G, where I observe that it " bears a near 
resemblance to that which Van Rencden considers to be an otolithe, and 
which was found by him in the inner ramus of the posterior pair of pleopoda 
in some species of Stomapoda." 

Huxley likewise has observed and figured the same structure as being 
present in the genus Lucifer ; where he says that " wo have an organ pre- 
cisely similar to the auditory sacs of the Mollusca, while Palcemon offers a 
very interesting transition between this and the ordinary Crustacean form of 
acoustic organ as described by Farre." 

M. Souleyet has also noticed the structure in Lucifer, but only gives it a 
passing notice, in Froriep's 'Notizen,' 1843, p. 83. 

The second and third joints appear to possess no peculiarity of structure, 
but generally diminish in length and breadth, perhaps in a corresponding 
ratio to the increased functional development of the first or coxal joint. 

A filaincntal appendage is almost universally attached to the extremity. 
In some genera the lash is consolidated to a plate, as in Scyllarus, Ibaccits, 
or rigid rod, as in Clydonia &o. ; but, as a rule, throughout the entire list of 



40 KEPORT — 1877. 

genera in all the Podophthalmous Crustacea, whether Brachyura, Macrura, or 
Stomapoda, there are universally present two or more of these filamentary 
appendages, often subequally long, only one of which, the primary, appears 
to fulfil any important office. 

In Amphipoda there is never more than one secondary appendage, and 
that is always of a rudimentary character, and frequently only determinable 
iu the very young stage of the animal and obsolete in the adult. In the 
Isopoda, with the exception of the Anisopod group, it is always absent. 

The secondary appendage, even in those families where it is most de- 
veloped, appears to fulfil but an unimportant office. 

In this it differs from the principal filament, or tige, as it is named by 
Milne-Edwards, which, in addition to the numerous simply-fornicd hairs 
with which it is covered, is furnished with a considerable number of mem- 
branous cilia, which arc peculiar to this organ in Crustacea, and may be 
found in every form of animal iu the class, except where the entire appendage 
has become impoverished from the peculiar nature of the animal's habits 
or conditions, such as in the Terrestrial Isopods or parasitic families of 
Crustacea. 

The forms of these cilia vary a little in separate genera ; but in whatever 
Bhape they are found there is, I think, no doubt but that they arc actively 
concerned in communicating vibrations, analogous to the waves of sound, to 
the nerve-system in this pair of antennae ; and on this account it is that 
I named them, in my lieport on the Sessile-eyed Crustacea to this Asso- 
ciation in 1855, as being auditory cilia. 

In 1853 M. Lcuckart (Troschel's ' Archiv,' i. p. 255) stated that the 
organ attributed to auditory consciousness was not to be found at the base of 
the antenna) in the genus M>/$is as in other Crustacea, but that a chamber 
containing an otolithe, similar to that found in the antennae of Macrura, 
existed in the inner ramus of the caudal plcopoda, which has been confirmed 
by Ivrbyer, Van Beneden, and, I can add, my own observations. Kroyer and 
Van Beneden have traced the branch of a nerve to the chamber, and have 
no doubt but that this organ fulfils the functions of an auditory apparatus. 

This small otolithe, according to Van Bcncden's description, shows an 
extreme regularity in the arrangement of the several layers of which it is 
formed, as if it were a little agate or highly polished siliceous stone. 

It is liable to vary somewhat in form in separate species. 

In 1863 Dr. V. flensen published his researches on the auditory organs 
of Decapod Crustacea (Zeitsehr. f. wissensch. Zool. xiii. Bd. 3 Hit. 1863). 

His observations extended to twenty- eight distinct forms, and he confirmed 
the assertions of Farre and others that the sand found in the auditory chamber 
of the Prawn &c, is but common sand, ho having seen the animal introduco 
it after having ruovdted. But in those Crustacea in which the auditory 
chamber is closed and the otolithes are cast at every moult and again repro- 
duced, these organisms Professor Huniby, after having tested some 200, thinks 
to be fluate of lime. 

Dr. Hensen, however, appears to attribute more of the power of hearing 
to the hairs of certain forms that exist, (1) attached to the otolithes; 
(2) attached to the auditory chamber ; (3) attached to the external surface of 
the animal. 

The first of these he finds to exist chiefly among the Macrurous Decapoda, 
in some cases springing from among the otolithes, in others supporting, as in 
the tail of Mysis, the otolithe in its position. 

The second kind of hair exists in the auditory chamber of the Brachyurous 



ON OUR PRESENT KNOWLEDGE OF TOE CRUSTACEA. 41 

Crustacea, which contains no otolithe, but is a large chamber filled with a 
fluid in which these hairs stand in great numbers. 

The third kind exists on the peduncle of the first antenna and on the 
second joint of the second antenna, and, in Palccmon, on the uropoda ; in 
Mi/sis they exist in the same member ; so that the function of hearing must 
be considered as established in this part of the animal. In Palcemon squilla 
the auditory hairs are replaced, as the animal increases in age, by those 
of the ordinary kind. Dr. Henseu classifies the several forms of auditory 
apparatus under separate heads : — 

1. Those which have one otolithe within the auditory chamber — as Lucifer, 
Sergcstes, Mysis, Hippolytc, and Mastigopus. 

2. Those that have no otolithe and no auditory chamber— as Thysanopoda 
and Pandalus. Dr. Hensen also mentions Al'nna, Erichthus, and Phyllosoma ; 
but these being the immature forms of known Crustacea must be excluded 
from his list. 

3. Those that have a chamber with numerous otolithes — as Palcemon, 
Pasiphae, Crangon, Alphceus, Astacus, Qebia, Pagnrus, Palinurus, Ncphrops, 
and Lithodes. 

4. Those that have a closed auditory chamber but no otolithe — as Por- 
cellana?, Hippa, Pinnotheres, Myctiris, Ocypoda, Grapsus,Licpea, Sesarma, 
Nautilograpsus, Platy card nits, Pilumnus, Chlorodius, Grtashnvs, Trapezia, 
Carcinus, and Hyas. 

From the experiments which he made, Dr. Hensen found that the animals 
living in water took no notice of sound made in the air, and that they were 
only slightly affected by sounds made with a fife or bell in contact with a 
membrane connecting the same with the water, the only effect being that the 
crab would first jump and then quit the place. He has observed freshly- 
caught specimens of Palcvmon ant en narius on the first experiment leap out 
of the water when a sound was made against the side of the vessel. He per- 
foimed various other experiments on distinct species, among others that of 
removing the auditory apparatus from the tail of Mysis, and was disappointed 
to find the powers of hearing were not interfered with as much as he had 
anticipated. 

In experiments made with musical notes, he was induced to believe that 
certain hairs vibrated to certain sounds. Under these conditions, Dr. Hensen 
found that a certain hair, which only vibrated under one note, will, under a 
different one, shake to the very base so powerfully that it cannot be 
distinctly observed, and that as soon as the sound ceases the movement also 
ceases. To illustrate the extent to which Dr. Hensen believes this to be 
capable of being carried, he has drawn up a scale of musical notes adapted to 
the various hairs which he thinks belong to this sense. 

As we descend in the scale of Crustacean forms the antenna; naturally 
become simplified ; but as they lose their internal structural character they 
increase their external functional arrangement. Thus in Amphipoda the 
auditory chamber and otolithes are wanting, but in all the aquatic normal 
forms the filaments are long, and richly studded with those membranous 
organisms that I have named auditory cilia. 

The second pair of antenna? has a tendency to vary in form to a greater 
degree than the first, but the functional variation is as limited. 

In the higher forms, such as the Brachyura, some of the joints of which 
they consist are fused together, and not unfrcquently ossified with the 
tegumentary tissues of the head or cephalon, in some instances to such an 
extent that' their separation cannot be identified. But whether free or fused 



42 report— 1877. 

with other parts, the normal character of this pair of antennae is that of a 
peduncle of five joints and a terminal flagcllum, variahle in length, and, with 
but few exceptions, consisting of a solitary branch. 

The centre or third joint of the pedunclo in some orders, as the Macrura, 
invariably carries a squamose or scale-like plate ; this varies in size and a 
little in form, but disappears in the higher and lower orders, and again 
reappears in the genus Apseiides among the Isopoda. This squamiform 
plate is, I believe, homotypical with the secondary branches of the flagcllum 
of the first pair of antenna?, therefore a correlative of the same. 

In the Brachyura the first three joints of the base or peduncle of this 
antenna are more or less perfectly fused with the dermal tissues of the 
cephalon. In some, as in most of the triangular genera, as Stenorhynchus, 
Pisa, &c, the line of separation between the somite and the appendage is 
indistinguishable in the adult. This is also more or less the case in several 
forms of Brachyura, and makes a ready and safe key to generic distinction. 
In all these forms the flagellum is reduced to a feeble condition, and becomes 
almost rudimentary in those of terrestrial habits. 

In the Macrura the genus Scyllarus and its near allies have the flagcllum 
transformed into a broad plate or scale ; but in Crustacea generally this 
appendage is niultiarticulate, robust, and long. In some genera, as in 
Palinurus, it is used as a weapon of offence as well as for other requirements. 

In the Amphipoda this antenna is simple and normally well defined, the 
five joints of the peduncle and the flagellum being separate and distinct, and 
the whole appendage robust and long, the two parts (■/. e. the flagellum and 
peduncle) being generally subcqual. But in those genera that exhibit a 
variation, the higher class has the peduncle the more important, as in the Or- 
chestidce, whereas in the male of Cerapus, as compared with the female of the 
same and the Hyperidce in general, it is less so. Almost universally the flagcllum 
is delicately multiarticulate, varying from a small number of articuli, as in 
Corophium, to an innumerable quantity, as in some species of Bath/poreia. In 
the genus Clydonid the flagellum consists of a long, rigid, non-articulate spine. 
Among the Hyperidce the antenna is considerably impoverished, and in many 
genera it is rudimentary, while in Phrosina it appears to be absent. 

In the parasitic Amphipods, such as Cyamus, as compared with the pre- 
ceding antenna, the second is well developed and important, but not so much 
so as in the organs of the normal Amphipods. 

In the Isopods this appendage is seldom very important, being largest it 
the terrestrial forms, as Ligia, Oniscits, &c, and in some aberrant genera, 
like Arcturus &c. 

By most carcinologists this pair of antenna? is considered to be tbo scat 
of an organ of sense. It has been worked out and displayed by M. Milne- 
Edwards, in his ' Histoire Naturelle des Crustacea,' vol. i. p. 124, pi. 12. 
figs. 9, 10, both in Homarus and Maia. He argues that the structure 
demonstrates the auditory character of this organ, as we have shown in 
investigating the evidence relative to the functional properties of the pre- 
ceding pair of antennae. 

As Milne-Edwards, in his 'Histoire jSTaturcllc des Crustaccs,' vol. i. p. 124, 
1840, suite a Buffon, bases his opinion on the character of the structure of 
the organ at the base of the second pair of antennae, it is but just that his 
reasons should be communicated as literally as translation will convenient!)- 
admit. He says : — " In Maia and other short-tailed Crustacea there is a 
very curious operculum. M. Audouin and I have observed that it is con- 
nected with a moderately large osseous plate, which separates from it at 



ON OUR PRESENT KNOWLEDGE 01' THE CRUSTACEA. 43 

right angles, and is directed upwards towards the organ, and ends in a 
point ; near its base this long plate is pierced by a great oval aperture, and 
over this opening is stretched a thin elastic membrane, which we call the 
internal auditory membrane, and near which the auditory nerve appears 
to terminate ; some small bundles of muscles arc attached to the extremity 
of the osseous plate, which supports also the opercular disk of the auditory 
tuberelo, and which by its form recalls somewhat the stirrup (bone) of the 
human ear : moreover on the anterior border of the exterior opening, which 
is shut by the dish, there raises also a small plate, which is parallel to the 
internal auditory membrane ; and when the anterior muscle of the little 
operculum is contracted so as to turn slightly this little apparatus forwards, 
the delicate membrane to which wo allude becomes more and more stretched. 
After the researches of M. Savart on the transmission of sound, we know 
that an aperture closed by a thin and delicate membrane is one of the circum- 
stances most favourable for increasing the power of an acoustic organ 

It therefore may ho assumed that this kind of tambourine that we have 
described as covering the external ear of the Crayfish serves to communicate 
to the auditory nerve the sensations that are transmitted to it, and affect 
them in the same manner as if the nerve was in direct communication with 
the external membrane. The mechanism by means of which the auditive 
membrane is alternately extended and relaxed is analogous to that which 
is produced in the human car by that osseous chain which traverses the 
tympanum, and its effects should be the same. It must serve to augment or 
diminish the extent of the undulations on the vibrating membrane, and to 
moderate the intensity of the sounds which strike the ear. 

u The existence of the long rigid lash belonging to the second pair of 
antenme, which is in connexion with the auditory organ, appears to be 
another circumstance of a character that must facilitate the perception of 
sound. This opinion has already been enunciated by M. Strauss, and appears 
to agree well with the results of M. Savart." 

In most of the Brachyura the entrance to the organ in this pair of antennae 
is covered and protectee! by a movable operculum, and again covered by the 
several appendages of the mouth, a situation of much value in enabling the 
animal to appreciate the character of food it is about to consume, but one 
that canuot be available for an acoustic organ, seeing that sound could not 
reach it unless interfered with to an important degree. I therefore fully 
indorse the opinion, which I think all recent observations demonstrate 
as true, that the second pair of antenna) is the scat of the olfactory nerves, 
while the first contains the auditory apparatus. These antenna; arc frequently 
developed with great power; and in the genera OoropMwn and Podocerus 
they arc frequently used for climbing, and not improbably for clasping 
foe and friend. 

The fourth pair of appendages is represented by the mandibles (the 
protognaihe of M. Milne-Edwards's nomenclature of 1854, 'Annales des 
Sciences Naturelles'). The correlation that this pair of limbs undergoes is 
not very extreme. 

We sec them in the simplest form most probably in N&alia, where they 
differ little from a truncated pair of appendages, the molar or masticating 
surface being represented by a pair of opposing tubercles attached to the first 

joint. 

In the Brachyura the tubercle is increased to a maximum, while the rest 
of the appendage is reduced to a minimum. This exists to a greater or less 
degree throughout the several orders of Malacostraca, varying in shape and 
altering in form, but universally present with the same functional powers. 



4:4 REPORT — 1877. 

In Anceus the functional property is evidently lost, for the male animal 
ceases in the adult stage to live on substances that require mastication. In 
this stage it is doubtful if the animal imbibes nourishment even in the form 
of fluids ; yet the organ retains the general form of a mandible, but is 
planted, both in position and arrangement, as if it were an antenna. 

In the female, Anceus (Praniza) retains the general form of structure of 
the young animal, 'when it lived a parasite on fish ; the mandibles are therefore 
delicate and slender needle-like styles, arranged with the succeeding ap- 
pendages so as to act together in consort with power as a proboscis or organ 
of penetration. 

In the genus Cyamus the mandibles appear to be reduced to a ininirnuni, 
both in physical and functional qualification, and so also in several genera of 
the Hyperidce. 

The appendages of the fifth pair, the deutognathe of Milne-Edwards's latest 
nomenclature, are those that are called mdchoires by Milne-Edwards in his 
' Hist. Nat. des Crust.,' foot-jaws by many authors, maxiUce in my " Eeport 
on the British Edriophthalma," and for which Professor Westwood has 
suggested " sjagnopoda," as the Greek equivalent for this and the succeeding 
pair of appendages which belong to the mouth. Neither this nor the sixth 
pair, the tvitognaihe of Milne-Edwards, appears to undergo any change of 
form with a relative change of function that can be accepted within the 
meaning of the term correlation. They vary little in character from the larva 
to the adult Brachyura, and from the Edriophthalma to the Podophthalma. 
Their functional power is invariably connected with manducation, in which 
they assist in conveying food to the mouth ; and from the delicacy of their 
structure compared with other appendages, it is probable that they may have 
gustatory capabilities ; but of this as yet we have but small independent or 
structural evidence. 

The seventh pair of appendages is the last that belongs to the cephalon or 
head. They arc generally absent in the larva of the Brachyurous forms that 
pass through the zoea stage, and only appear when the animal is approxi- 
mating the adult condition. From the time that these appendages iii>t 
appear to that of the permanent form of the adult animal there is little 
variation in form, but between their external shape in the various orders 
of Crustacea there is a considerable degree of variation. 

In the Decapoda tho tetartognathe of Milne-Edwards takes an interme- 
diate character between the maxiUce and gnathopoda, and its functional pro- 
perties probably assume the character of the former rather than the latter. 

In the Edriophthalma and some Schizopoda they are modified on the type 
of gnathopoda in the Macrura, and they fulfil the functions of the posterior pair 
as they exist in the Decapoda ; that is, they act as an operculum, and 
efficiently protect the mouth and its more delicate appendages. 

The eighth pair of appendages undergoes a very considerable amount of 
correlation in Crustacean life. In the higher forms they are functionally 
employed as aiding in mastication. Passing through the Macrura they assimi- 
late a pediform character of an imperfect type, while in Squilla and tho 
Amphipods they are developed into a well-formed grasping-organ. Among the 
Isopoda they are formed as true walking appendages, and differ little from the 
succeeding pairs except in being somewhat more robust. Among the Phyl- 
lopoda they assimilate to the larval character, and possibly disappear in some 
of the lower types. 

The correlation is equally great in the ninth pair of appendages, which, as 
a general rule, is formed on the same type as the preceding pair. There arc 



ON OUR PRESENT KNOWLEDGE 01' THE CRUSTACEA. 15 

many instances of variation in form, not only between these two pairs, but 
between the appendages of the same pair. This variation is generally estimated 
as of sufficient importance for generic classification ; but whatever variation 
may exist, it is one of degree only, and not inconsistent with the same 
functional characters. These are so universally connected with cither seizing 
or directing food to the mouth, that I do not think that a better term can 
be suggested than gnathopoda for tho eighth and ninth pairs of appendages, 
which arc the first two that belong to the pereion. 

The five following pairs of appendages (that is, the true pereiopoda or 
perambulatory legs) correlate between organs adapted for walking, grasping, 
and swimming. When adapted for walking, we consider them in their 
normal condition ; they consist then of seven simple subcylindrical joints, 
of which the last is formed into a simple pointed extremity. 

When intended for grasping or holding any object, the anterior distal 
angle of either joint of the leg may be produced to a corresponding process 
against which the extremity of the ultimate joint impinges, and so forms a 
prehensile organ that represents a two-fingered hand. 

The power of producing a chelate process appears to exist in the various 
joints of all the five pairs of pereiopoda. 

This, I think, is strongly exemplified in the presence of chelae, more or 
less perfect, in the young of many Crustacea, which disappear in the adult 
stage. Thus in the freshwater Astacus, while in the embryonic condition 
rudimentary chelae are apparent in each pair of appendages, they are found fully 
developed only on the three anterior pairs of the adult. Again, wo frequently 
see, both in this genus as well as in Cancer, that supplementary chelae are 
developed at various parts of these appendages, not only when they are not 
wanted, but often when they are absolutely detrimental to the animal's 
requirements. 

In some forms we find the chela is prominently developed in the larval or 
young stage, while it entirely disappears in the adult. Evidence of this exists 
in some genera of the Hyperine Amphipoda, such as Vibilia and Brachysceltts. 
In the adult Vibilia the leg is long, slender, and simple, not very unlike 
that of the same appendage in the normal character of Amphipoda; in 
Bracliyscelus it has the basis developed to a large scale, and the remaining 
five joints are reduced to little more than a rudimentary limb. In these very 
dissimilar genera the penultimate pairs of pereiopoda are in the larval condition 
developed into chelate appendages ; in the former genus by a process attached 
to the carpus, in the latter by a similar process attached to the propodos. 

These animals probably resemble Hyperia in their habits, and pass most of 
their lives within the cavity of some Medusa-like creature, where 
prehensile appendages are of little use, and consequently the force of 
chelate production is not stimulated. It is an interesting problem, and pro- 
bably true, that the not very remote ancestor of cither or both these genera 
is to be found in a form not very distant from one like Phronima, where the 
chelate organ is large and well developed in the antepenultimate pair of pereio- 
poda of the adult animal. 

In some genera, as Gclasimtts, the difference in extent of development is 
very great between the right chela and the left, and between those of the 
males and females. When, in the latter case, the part varies from the type, 
the variation generally exists in the male animal, the chela) of the female, 
and less altered appendage in the male, corresponding generally with the 
normal form. In Oelasimus the variation in the male is so great that the 
chief characteristic limb, which may be either of the first pair of pcreio- 



40 REPORT — 1877. 

poda, loses much of its original functional power. It may hold any 
object, hut it cannot reach its mouth with it ; consequently we may 
assume, finding it only in the male, that it is used chiefly as a weapon of 
offence and defence. 

In the common Lobster (Homarus marinus) we find the same to a certain 
extent, but not to such an exaggerated degree ; nor is it confined to the 
male, only that the large chela is developed to so great an extent that it 
cannot reach the mouth. In this case we have learned, from observation, 
that the animal feeds itself with some of the posterior chelate appendages, 
while it uses the first pair only for holding the food. 

It is not often that any of the posterior pairs of pereiopoda arc developed 
into important chela?, but eveu this is the case in some genera. The most pos- 
terior pair in which we arc aware of a largely developed chelate organ exists 
in Stenopus among the Macrura, and Phronima an&Phrosina among the Amphi- 
poda. In some genera, particularly among the Anomura, the two lust pairs 
of pereiopoda are developed into small chelate organs. In Dorype they are 
adapted for grasping any piece of wood, shell, or foreign body that the animal 
may hold on its back sufficiently important to find protection under. In the 
genus llomola the posterior only is so developed, tho penultimate resembling 
those anterior to it. In Pagurus and Cenobitus they are developed into very 
small chelate organs, and are used for very different purposes. 

One of the most important is to supply the place of a flabellum that is 
wanting in the branchial chamber of this family. With this purpose the 
animal passes it into the gill-cavity, and there cleanses and wipes the branchial 
organs with the brush of hairs that is attached to it, or removes particles of 
dirt or objects of detriment by means of the pincers. Moreover, it has the 
power of feeding itself with these same organs under peculiar circumstances, 
as related by Mr. Darwin in his ' Naturalist's Voyage.' 

lie tells us that some of these animals, as Birgus, live chiefly on the 
land, that they frequently live on the cocoanuts which fall from the trees, 
and that they first pidl off all the husk or rind from the outside, invariably 
selecting the end where the eyelets are. These being exposed, they, 
with their heavy claw, tap one repeatedly until they break it in; 
then, inserting one of the posterior pairs of pcreiopoda into tho hole, they 
draw up the juice of the cocoanut with the brush on the leg, and feed on 
the milk — as singular and ivnusual an adaptation of means to an end as is 
perhaps to bo found in the history of animal instinct, being one that is highly 
suggestive of educational knowledge. 

\\ ncre the pereiopoda are developed for natatory purposes, they are gene- 
rally of a more feeble and less perfect type. In the 8chizopoda they have 
the character of weakened or impoverished appendages. The secondary parts 
increase in importance, while the primary become depreciated. The 
branchial organs lose much of their internal character as well as their high 
structural features, while the hairs on the appendages and general surface 
arc increased both in number and size. In fact tho rigidity of the leg is 
lost, and tho flexile nature of a fin is acquired. This would appear as if 
atavism, or a retrograde character, were apparent in the development of the 
pereiopoda in the Schizopod group. 

In Nebalia and the Thyllopoda the general characteristics of the pereiopoda 
partake more of a larval or embryonic form, bearing, as they do, a near re- 
semblance in character and general appearance to the oral appendages in the 
zoea of Crustacea than to any retrograde or impoverished condition. 



ON OUR PRESENT KNOWLEDGE OF THE CRUSTACEA. 47 

The pleopoda arc very liable to undergo a considerable amount of cor- 
relation. 

In the ISrachyura the anterior arc adapted for introinittcnt organs, and 
cany the penis -\vithin their folds. 

In the females of Brachyura and Macrura they arc formed for carrying 
and suspending the ova in the water, and for swimming purposes in both 
males and females in tho latter order. 

In the Stomapoda, while they arc used for swimming purposes, in some 
genera, as Squilla, they support branchial organs also. 

In the Amphipoda they are adapted for swimming only. 

In the Isopoda they are constructed as foliaceous plates, and often enclosed 
in a chamber and adapted for respiration, though they arc constantly used as 
natatory appendages also as a secondary condition. This generally refers 
to the five anterior pairs of appendages. 

The sixth pair universally in Macrura and Isopoda, the fourth, fifth, and 
sixth in Amphipoda, are variated into leaping or pushing appendages, by 
winch they are enabled to spring forwards or backwards to a very consider- 
able extent, as Macrura in the water, and Talitrus and Orchestia on the 
land. 

The last pair of appendages is seldom present; in one or two genera 
among the Schizopods they exist in a rudimentary state, but in so feeble a 
condition that they can only be considered as present in an anatomical sense, 
as for all functional purposes they are practically useless. 



On Exuviation. 

One of the most curious and interesting phenomena connected with the 
dermal skeleton is the power of its being cast or shed as a whole. This 
is exhibited in the Crustacea more perfectly than in any other group of 
animals. 

The exuviation is not confined to the external or dermal tissue only, but 
extends to all that which in the higher groups of animals is known as the 
mucous membrane, or internal continuation of the true skin. 

In all Crustacea, from the smaller Entomostracous forms to the large 
Podophthalmous animals, every hair and spine upon the external surface, as 
well as every cilium and minute organ that may exist on the walls of the 
various internal cavities, is detached and shed in continuous connexion with 
each other. 

How this could bo accomplished was for a long time a mystery. Accord- 
ing to Mr. Couch, Olaus AVormeus, in the early part of the seventeenth cen- 
tury, speaks of it as a thing not to be doubted. The first to observe, with 
experimental accuracy, the process, was M. Reaumur; as long ago as 1712 
and 1718 he published, in the ' Me'moires de 1'Academie des Sciences,' pp. 226 
and 263, his " Observations sur la mue des Ecrevisses." 

He kept specimens of Astaeus Jhtviatilis, or river Crayfish, in cases that he 
had perforated with holes, and placed in the river stream. He found, in the 
latter part of the summer or the commencement of the autumn, that these 
Crustacea change tho skin. He observed that for some days previous to the 
uommencement of this operation the animal abstains from solid food, 
from which circumstance ho was able to anticipate tho period of the opera- 
tion, for he was able by the pressure of his finger on the carapace or surface 



48 repout — 1877. 

of the dorsal somites to observe that the dermal tissue yielded to the touch 
and was less resistant than at other times. 

Soon after the animal appears to he restless, and commences to rub its legs 
one against the other. It then turns itself over on the back, and agitates the 
whole of the body ; then all of a sudden it bursts the membrane that unites 
the carapace -with the body, and raises the groat dorsal carapace. 

The animal now rests for a while ; then it recommences by agitating its 
legs, and moving every part of the body. The carapace is then gradually 
elevated along the base of the legs, and in less than half an hour the animal 
is disembarrassed of its old integument. It draws back it head, disengages 
both its eyes and antennas, then draws out its legs from the case formed of 
the old integument. 

This latter part of the operation appears to be performed with a great deal 
of pain, and sometimes in the struggle to liberate the legs from the old skin 
one or more are broken off. This is probably induced from some incident 
precluding the external case from being ruptured ; for if the old skin does 
not split in a longitudinal direction, it is difficult to understand how the logs 
can bo withdrawn from the old case. But as soon as the crayfish has over- 
come this painful portion of the moulting, it rapidly disembarrasses itself 
from the rest of the envelope. It withdraws its head from the carapace, 
presses forward, and quickly liberates itself from the posterior part, and soon 
frees itself entirely from the old skin. 

The carapace then falls back into its old relative position, and joins itself to 
the percion and pleon : thus the old skeleton appears in general form exactly as 
it did before it was stripped from the animal ; consequently it bears a perfect 
resemblance to that of a crayfish of the same character. The new skin 
which succeeds the moulting is soft and membranous ; but in three or four 
days, or even in twenty-four hours, it becomes encrusted with calcareous 
matter, and becomes as hard as the old integument. 

Milne-Edwards says that all the higher orders of Crustacea change their 
skin in nearly tbe same manner. If, he says, we examine a species of Main 
some time before it has commenced moulting, we shall find between the tost 
and the chorion a membranous mass that resembles the cellular tissue, im- 
perfectly condensed at first, but becoming more and more solid and thick 
as it approaches the period of moulting. 

" This new membrane is evidently," says Milne-Edwards, " secreted by 
the chorion, and moulds itself upon the test that covers it." We find attached 
to it nearly every hair that should be present at a later period ; but these 
appendages are not enclosed within the hairs that are attached to the ancient 
moult, as Reaumur believed he observed them in the crayfish. Generally 
they project upon the surface of the new skin, and are folded like the finger 
of a glove which is inflcctod within itself. 

Collinson, in the 'Phil. Trans.' 1770, art. 51, published some observations 
on Cancer major, probably the common edible crab. The account which 
ho gives of the manner in which the animal escapes from the old shell varies 
from Reaumur's description of the process in the crayfish. 

Instead of the carapace being raised as a whole and thrown off perfect, it 
divides along the lateral sutures that extend from the anterior portion of the 
mouth to the posterior margin of the carapace. This, according to Milne- 
Edwards, separates the lateral pieces (or epimera) from the dorsal piece, or 
somite proper ; but, according to Dana and myself, the line of division sepa- 
rates the second antennal and mandibular somites. 



ON OUK ritESENT KNOWLEDGE OP THE CRUSTACEA. 49 

Milne-Edwards contends that this splitting of the carapace in the Brachyura 
is a necessity demanded by the formation of the animal ; and he says that 
in those Brachyura where this suture does not exist he is inclined to believe 
that exuviation takes place as described by Reaumur in the crayfish. Ono 
argument against this idea is that this suture exists in every one of the Bra- 
chyurous forms of Crustacea. 

The new tegumentary structure continues in a soft condition, according to 
Collinson, for a longer period than described by Re'aumur in the Crayfish ; and 
the period of moulting for these animals is considered a period of sickness. 
They generally during this state hide themselves in sheltered places where 
they may be best protected from the animals to which they are most liable to 
become a prey. Some hide themselves beneath stones, others burrow into 
the mud. At this period some exotic land-crabs are most preferred for their 
edible properties ; but the marine forms aro valueless for food. 

In tho ' Annals of Nat. Hist.' vol. vii. p. 29S, 1851, the author of this 
Report gave an account of the manner in which he had observed exuviation 
take place in the common Shore-Crab ( Oarcinus mcenas). 

The manner in whicli it appears to free itself from the skin depends upon 
tho internal growth of the animal. 

From the period of quitting the ovum to that of old age the skin is thrown 
off at certain periods. When very young it is accomplished every few days ; 
as the animal grows larger, weeks and then months interrene, until the 
animal arrives at an adult condition, when it is cast but once a year ; and 
when it has become old, and ceases to increase in size, it is probable that the 
shell is cast off less frequently, if we are to judge from tho state in which 
specimens have been taken on which oysters of two or three years' growth 
have been found attached to the animal. In old age the absence of the 
internal growth appears to be wanting as a stimulus for the reproduction 
of the new skin. 

Tho increased bulk of the growing animal becomes compressed within 
limits too small. The old carapace is therefore raised out of its position bv 
the mechanical pressure of the internal structure ; and one of the first signs of 
the approaching change in the animal's economy is an increased thickness of 
the animal. 

As the period of exuviation approaches the crab wanders about in search 
of a retired spot, and frequently exhibits a savage disposition, darting at any 
thing that approaches it. When it finds a suitable position, it inserts the 
point of one or more of its legs into some crack or crevice, and withdraws 
itself from tho old skin by raising the carapace, and escaping between it and 
the pleon, in the manner described by Re'aumur and Collinson. 

The carapace of the new structure is at first in a very wrinkled and 
crumpled condition ; but it almost immediately expands to its full size, thus 
becoming much larger than its old proportions, and continues without further 
increase in dimensions until its next period of exuviation. 

The animal has the power for a certain period of retaining its shell at will 
until suitable circumstances both as to time and place occur for the casting 
of its shell with security. It appears also to be very shy. In several 
instances I have seen animals before and after the process has commenced, 
having patiently watched for hours at a time without success to seethe actual 
process proceed ; upon returning, after a few minutes' absence, I have found 
the old skins cast off, and the animal at rest by the side of it. This would 
indicate that it is done rapidly, if not with ease. 

1877. b 



50 report — 1877. 

Reaumur described exuviation in the Crayfish (Astacus Jluviatllis) as being 
one of great labour and difficulty, as "well as being of long duration. 

In all the cases that the Reporter has observed in the common Shore- Grab 
(Carcimis mamas), and they have been numerous, the process has been easily 
and quietly performed in a short time, when conditions have been favour- 
able, and without a struggle. One condition is the capability of securing 
the feet in some crevice or notch ; another is retirement. Unless it 
has the former, the duration of the period is considerably prolonged ; it 
seems to be almost impracticable, since without it there would be no 
point of resistance against which the animal can act in its efforts to with- 
draw itself from the old structure. Neither of these conditions was pro- 
bably present in Reaumur's experiment ; hence the animal had the appear- 
ance of undergoing prolonged labour and struggling. 

One specimen of the Common Crab the Reporter frequently took into his 
hands, and with a pair of scissors cut away the old carapace as it was 
loosened and raised from the surface of the new shell. After the whole of 
the integuments had been removed from the animal, it hung attached to tho 
cyestalks reversed ; here it continued for a considerable time, nor had the 
animal power to free itself from it without assistance — a circumstance that 
induced the Reporter to conclude that the anterior portion can only bo re- 
moved by the assistance of the legs, which failed in this instance because the 
carapace being cut away, the legs had no object against which to press. The 
carapace, therefore, is rejected naturally in an inverse direction, and only 
returns to its old position by the elasticity of the membranous ligaments that 
have not been ruptured. 

This has been interestingly exemplified by a scries of Trilobites that have 
been found in the locality of Newton Abbot, many of which were observed 
with the heads reversed lying close to the bodies of the animals. There is 
no doubt, I think, but that all the specimens so found were the exuviations 
of animals then living rather than the representatives of defunct ones. 

When they have thrown off the old skeleton, the Crustaceous animals are 
very liable to become the prey of others, both of their own and other forms. 
Of this they appear to be aware, and are consequently more afraid of an ap- 
proaching object, and through fear are much more active and less easily 
caught than at any other period. 

It is at this time also (that is, immediately after shedding the skin) that 
the female is in a state adapted for the approaches of the male. For some 
days previously the male may bo seen running about and hiding itself under 
stones and in crevices of the rocks, holding the female clasped by one or more 
of its legs, tho carapace of the female being pressed against the sternum of 
the male. In this position they continue until the female throws off 
the old calcareous shell, when the female is reverse in its position relative to 
the male, and connexion between the two immediately ensues, and continues 
for a day or two, perhaps iintil the shell of the female attains its hard calca- 
reous character. 

It would therefore seem to be tolerably certain that the period of the 
exuviation in the male must be at a separate period of the year from that of 
the female. 

Mr. Gosse, in the ' Annals of Natural History,' 2nd series, 1852, vol. 
x. p. 210, gave an account of his observations of a crab (Maia sqmnaih) 
during the period of moulting, in which he appears to confirm all that has 
been previously described as to the manner in which the Brachyura and Ma- 
crura get rid of the old integuments. 



ON OUR PRESENT KNOWLEDGE OV THE CRUSTACEA. 51 

As to the lower forma, such as the Edriophthalma, it was long assumed, on 
the authority of Professor Bell, who relied on the assertion of the late Mr. J. 
Couch, that the animals of this order never shed their skin at all, but con- 
tinue adding to and increasing it until they arrive at tho adult stage. Those 
who have observed these animals, and seen how the old skin, in a not very 
long period of time, is liable to become iucrusted and overgrown with foreign 
material, must rejoice to know that, like their higher neighbours, these animals 
can at certain periods of their existence eject their old skin, and swim about 
in a new one, fresh and clean. 

This fact may easily bo demonstrated by any who may like to retain a few 
specimens in a glass tank, when the exuvia) will be seen soon to strew tho 
bottom as dead animals, but which, on close examination, will be found to be 
the remains of the cast-off skins. 

I have kept these creatures long in small vessels, and watched them closely 
for years, and have seen them shed their exuviaj not unfrequently. 

Tho manner of so doing appears to be upon the same plan as that of tho 
higher forms, such variation as takes place being consistent only with tho 
variated conditions and forms of the animals. The animal, having no cara- 
pace, escapes from the old skin by a separation immediately behind the 
cephalon, between it and the pereion ; the pereion splits along the lateral 
walls just above the coxal plates of the legs. This separation corresponds 
with the lateral opening between the carapace and the legs in the higher 
orders, where, there being no dorsal arcs to tho somites of the pereion, the 
legs appear to separate from the carapace or cephalon rather than from tho 
pereion, of which they form an attached portion. 

The little animal clings to a fragment of weed or stone, and resting there 
for a time, gradually liberates itself through the opening that I have de- 
scribed, first by removing the whole of the body posterior to the cephalon, 
then, after resting some short time, withdrawing tho head and its appendages 
from the anterior portion. 

In the terrestrial forms, chiefly represented by the Ligia and Oniscus, 
a variation in the exuviation appears to depend upon the nature of the 
habitat ; thus, living in the air and creeping about among bushes, the worn- 
out old epidermal tissue appears generally to be shed in portions, a circum- 
stance that I attribute to the animal's surface coming into contact with 
rough projectiug bodies, so ripping off portions before the whole is ready 
to be cast off. In these creatures the new skin appears to have arrived at 
a firmer and more resisting state before being shed than in the aquatic forms. 

When the Crustacea cast their old integument, and appear as renewed 
animals, they exhibit afresh and uninjured all the appendages that have been 
broken off or wounded. 



On Renewal of Appendages, 

It has long been known that these animals, after losing any of their ap- 
pendages, have tho power of reproducing them. But the manner in which 
this is done has been known only through the results of modern observations. 

The late Mr. H. Goodsir, in the 'Annals of Nat. Hist,' 1844, vol. xiii. p. 67, 
writes, " That he has found that a small glandular-like body exists at the 
basal extremity of the first phalanx in each of the limbs, which supplies the 
germ of the future logs. This body completely fills up the cavity of tho 
shell for the extent of about half an inch in length. Tho microscopic struc- 

F.2 



52 report — 1877. 

tare of this glandular-liko body is very peculiar, consisting of a great number 
of large nucleated cells, which are interspersed throughout a fibro-gelatinous 
mass. A single branch of each of the great vessels, accompanied by a branch 
of nerve, runs through a small foramen near the centre of this body, but 
there is no vestige of either muscle or tendon, the attachments of which are 
at each extremity. In fact this body is perfectly denned, and can 
be turned out of the shell without being much injured. When 
the limb is thrown off, the blood-vessels and nerve retract, thus 
leaving a small cavity in the new-made surface. It is from this cavity that 
the germ of the fixture leg springs, and is at first seen as a nucleated cell. 
A cicatrix forms over the raw surface caused by the separation, which after- 
wards forms a sheath for the young leg." 

When a part receives a hurt beyond repair, or sometimes for a 
less cause, such as a passing fright received by the animal or from 
the dread of capture by an enemy, a crab or lobster will throw off 
the injured limb. This 'appears to be known to them, for it not unfre- 
quently forms a plan of attack on one another. I have known the common 
Velvet-Crab (Carcinus puber) attack for some purpose the common Shore- Crab 
(Carcinus mcenas), and, with a pinch from its nippers, induce the weaker 
animal to eject all its legs in rotation, and leave it a helpless mass, at the 
mercy of any passing terror. But when a limb receives a less intended 
injury, it appears to be removed by a violent muscular contraction, termi- 
nating with a blow given by another limb or against some foreign body. 
The amputation is the work of a few seconds, except when the exuvia has 
been recently cast ; then for the few succeeding days before the external 
shell is hardened it has not that easy capability, and the wounded limb 
will sometimes remain attached to the animal for half an hour or longer 
before it is rejected. (Ann. Nat. Hist. 1851, vol. vii. p. 300, "Notes on 
Crustacea.") 

The newiy-formed limb is developed within the old shell, and lies folded 
within its case until the animal moults, when it appears as part of the newly 
perfected animal, the sac-like membrane in which it was folded being cast 
with the rest of the exuviae. The new limb is larger or smaller in accord- 
ance with the duration of time which elapsed between the period that the 
limb was amputated and that at which the skin is shed. The form and con- 
dition iu which the limb then is in remain to all appearance stationary 
until the next time of moulting, when the whole creature again advances in 
size, but the new or small limb more in proportion than the rest of the 
animal, until it equals it in relative proportion. 

The size of the restored appendage is therefore dependent upon the length 
of time which occurs between the accident and the next succeeding moult — 
that is, the length of time from the commencement of repair to that when 
the limb is freed from the saccular membrane. 

The legs during development generally lie folded upon themselves ; but the 
long flagelliform appendage of the antennae is adapted to a spiral case until 
ihe period of the general moidt arrives, when it is withdrawn, and assumes a 
straight lino, the old skin retaining its spiral form (" Ilepoit of Committee 
appointed to explore the Marine Fauna of the South Coast of Devon : No. 2," 
Brit, Assoc. Eeport, 1867, p. 283, pi. iii. fig. 4). 

It may readily be supposed, after having seen the animal withdraw from 
the old shell, that we arrive at a full knowledge of how the act is performed. 
It may appear comparatively an easy natural process to withdraw the soft 
and yielding body from the hard and rigid case ; and this may be so when 



ON OUK 1'RESENT KNOWLEDGE 01' THE CRUSTACEA. 53 

the appendages are not very much larger at the extremity than they are at 
the points of articulation. 

Tho late Mr. Couch, who, at his place of residence, had valuable oppor- 
tunities for studying marine animals under various conditions, gave much 
attention to this subject. 

In the Report of the Royal Polytechnic Society for Cornwall for tho year 
1843 is a communication on tho process of exuviation in Crabs and Lobsters, 
by J. Couch, Esq., and again, in the Journal of the same Society, is a paper 
giving an account of "A particular Description of some circumstances 
hitherto little known connected with the process of Exuviation in the 
common Edible Crab," by Jonathan Couch, Esq., E.L.S. &c. (1852). This 
last memoir chiefly refers to the manner in which the animal withdraws the 
large claws from the old shell. 

Bell says, in his Introduction to his ' History of the British 
Stalk-eyed Crustacea,' p. xxxv, that " It is impossible to imagine 
that the crust of the legs, especially of the great claws of the larger 
species, could be cast off unless it were susceptible of being longitudi- 
nally split ; and Reaumur states that such is actually the case, each of tho 
segments being composed of two longitudinal pieces, which, after separating, 
to allow of the passage of the soft limb, close again so accurately that it is 
very difficult in the last crust to discover the line of division. When the 
animal has disembarrassed itself of the crust, the latter is found absolutely 
entire, and has exactly the form which it possessed previous to the opera- 
tion." 

In the ' Annals of Nat. Hist.' 2nd ser. vol. x. p. 210, Mr. Gosse, in his ac- 
count of the exuviation in Maia squinado, states that the animals withdrew 
the legs, first one and then another, until they were quite out, as if 
from boots. The joints as they came oirt were a great deal larger than the 
cases from which they proceeded. It was evident that in this instance 
neither were the shells split to afford a lateral passage for the limbs, nor 
were the limbs reduced to tenuity by emaciation. 

It is this point which the late Mr. Jonathan Couch took up in his last 
memoir alluded to. He Avrites : — " That in my former studies of this process 
I had myself overlooked or misapprehended the mode by which the claw- 
legs were withdrawn from the loosened crust, is in the first place to be ascribed 
to the fact that my attention was chiefly occupied with what was going on 
in the body and its immediate organs, the eyes, antennse, and inward frame ; 
and in the next place to the circumstance that the portions of the legs 
which alone answer to Reaumur's description in any degree are by their 
situation hidden below the under portion of the carapace, to which they arc 
pressed close by the principal joints of the legs themselves, so that they could 
not have been attended to without a greater degree of violence than I judged 
myself warranted in using with due regard to the other observations I was 
desirous of carrying out. 

" It was evident, from an inspection of the proceeding in this specimen," — 
a female (technically a bon crab) of the stage of growth only one degree 
short of the full size, — " that Mr. Gosse's statement relative to the withdrawal 
of the smaller legs is correct, and therefore the language quoted from Re'aumur 
will not correctly express what takes place in the Common Crab ; nor, I be- 
lieve, for reasons presently to be assigned, even in the species on which his 
observations were made — the River Crayfish. The bony covering, where 
this remarkable process takes place, is not simply divided by splitting, but by 
a far more complicated action, which yet is beautifully expressive of tho 



5i REPORT — 1877. 

simple means to which creative wisdom has had recourse when a natural 
proceeding was to he regulated. But the most remarkable part of the pro- 
cess, and that which particularly leads me to present this communication to 
the Society, is what I found to take place in the larger or claw-legs. 

" In these the flesh of the two outer sections is much shrunk ; but the por- 
tion occupied by the third, or innermost, is, on the contrary, very much dis- 
tended. This is especially seen on the inner concave surface of this portion 
of the limb, where, if we examine the part under ordinary circumstances, wo 
find three lines, which meet at an angle, their diverging extremities being 
hounded by a curved border that is directed at its termination towards the 
body of the animal. As a preparation for exuviation, in the same manner 
as the well-marked line in front of the carapace or shell between its margin 
and the mouth becomes loosened by absorption, so this curved line on the 
claw-leg has become separated along its course, while the other lines (those 
which are straight and meet at an angle) are only so much changed from a 
firm crust as still to remain connected together by a membrane, and thus 
assume the nature and offices of movable joints or hinges. The hitherto firm 
structure of this part of the claw-leg being thus turned into a movable cover, 
which admits of being lifted at the curved circumference, the swollen por- 
tion of the limb is protruded through the opening ; and, by the tension thus 
produced below, the wasted extremity is drawn downward, the greatest ac- 
commodation of space being thus afforded with the least expenditure of effort 
or displacement. 

" In the specimen examined I found that a portion of the muscular sub- 
stance of the limb had become so much distended as to be thrust out of its 
sheath, and partly wrapped round the outside of the loosened crust. 

" But while this may be supposed t^o be of great mechanical use in drawing 
downward the remaining wasted portion of the limb occupying the more dis- 
tant segments, it offers but a slight hindrance to the final passing of the 
whole through the final ring or coxa, where the leg is united to the body. 
For this last remaining space is narrow ; and the distention being chiefly pro- 
duced by a liquid diffused through the fleshy fibres, it offers but little positive 
obstruction to the passage. A dragging action, therefore, accompanied pro- 
bably by a muscular contracting power, is all that is required to enable it to 
slip through ; at the same time that a portion of the distending fluid, if not 
the whole, is so much thrust backward as still to occupy the opening, and 
thus contribute to bring down each successive part in turn. 

" The extremity of the claw-leg, then, being not only smaller naturally, but 
more wasted in this process than the rest, finds no hindrance to its escape ; 
and thus the imprisoned limb is set at liberty. It is a fact beyond doubt, as 
appears by examination of many specimens, that no splitting process takes 
place in the slender or walking legs. 

" It is a matter of some interest to ascertain whether and to what extent 
this remarkable process takes place in others of the great family of Crusta- 
ceous animals ; and I have exercised no small extent of effort in following 
the examination in species of both the sections, the long-bodied or lobster 
kind, and the short-tailed or crabs." Mr. Couch's results were not attended 
with any great success in point of number of species. 

" Nothing of this kind appears," he says, " in the Norwich Crab {Mala 
sqmnado), C'orj/stes cassivellaunus, the common Crayfish (Palinurus vulgaris), 
or various species of shrimps. We may therefore conclude that all the limbs 
in those instances are withdrawn from their covering in the same manner as 



ON OUR PRESENT KNOWLEDGE Or THE CRUSTACEA. 55 

the smaller legs of the edible crab. The Eiver Crayfish (Astacus fluviatilis), tho 
particular subject of the French naturalist's researches, as well as the common 
lobster, havo such lines marked on the innor segment of their claw-legs as 
leavo no doubt in my iniud that an opening takes place in them when tho 
process of exuviation prococds, although not such a mechanical splitting as 
Reaumur describes ; and it does not take place in any shape in the smaller, 
or walking legs. 

" Tho same may bo said of the common Harbour-Crab (Carcinus mcenas), 
Xantho fiorida, the Velvet-crab (Carcinus puber and pusiUus), and Atele- 
cyclus heteroclon, all of which I have examined." 

It would be interesting to know how in tho male of the genus Gelassimus, 
the enormously large distal joints of the prehensile claw can bo drawn 
through the small opening of the coxa. I am much inclined to believe that 
the splitting of the Avails at the point alluded to by Mr. Couch may bo more 
for the purpose of enabling the animal to withdraw the great osseous tendon, 
which at this joint must be extremely in the way of the passage of the rest 
of the limb during the withdrawal from the old case. 

In a very large number of exuviae that I have examined I have never seen 
the splitting process as described by M. Reaumur. 

Whatever may be the period, whether it be during the larva state or that 
of the adult animal, the process of development under which the new shell 
is produced must be similar. 

M.Milne-Edwards, in the introduction to his 'Histoire des Crustaces,' 
p. 55, says that it is evidently secreted by the chorion, and moulds itself 
upon the integument that covers it. 

In the ' Annals of Nat. Hist.' 1851, vol. vii. p. 298, are published some ob- 
servations on the development of tho shell of crabs, with illustrations. I 
state that I found immediately above the heart a mass consisting of nucleated 
cells, areolar tissue (and blood-vessels?), extending to the internal surface of 
the old shell, from which it is separated by a layer of pigment, which gives 
colour to the new formation. Towards the base (that is, immediately above 
the heart) the cells are uniformly large and distinct, while the areolar tissue 
ramifies throughout tho whole. As advance is made from the base, colls of a 
less size mix with them, which increase in number as they diminish in dia- 
meter, until they approach the layer of pigment, immediately beneath which 
they adapt themselves, by mutual pressure, into a polygonal form. Tho 
layer extends over the whole periphery of the crab, immediately beneath the 
shell, the thickness of the mass decreases with the distance from the centre, 
and tho larger cells become fewer in number, the mass being chiefly made up 
of tho smaller cells, which become lime-absorbing organs for the future shell, 
which process commences previously to, and is completed after, the removal of 
the exuviae. 



5G KisroiiT — 1877. 



Third Report of the Committee for investigating the Circulation of the 
Underground Waters in the New Red Sandstone and Permian Forma- 
tions of England, and the quantity and character of the Water 
svpplied to various towns and districts from these formations , in- 
cluding Report on the South-Lancashire Wells, by T. M. Reade. 
The Committee consisting o/Prof. E. Hull, Rev. H. W. Crosskey, 
C. E. De Rance, Captain D. Galton, Prof. A. H. Green, Prof. 
R. Haiikness, H. H. Howell, W. Molyneux, G. H. Morton, 
T. Mellard Reade, Prof. Prestwich, and W. Whitaicer. 
Drawn up by C. E. He Rance {Secretary). 

[Plate II.] 

WnEN the Report of your Committee, presented at Glasgow, was written, it 
was believer! that sufficient information would have been collected this year 
to enable them to draw up a final Report on the subject of the inquiry with 
which you entrusted them. 

Your Committee, in the prosecution of their duties, have largely distri- 
buted the circular form of inquiry ; but they feel, though a large amoimt of 
valuable information has been obtained through this source, it for the most 
part only gives to the general public information as to local areas already in 
the hands of the inhabitants of those districts, and that to collect informa- 
tion that may be of general value as to the probable depth and quantity 
of water available in adjoining areas, requires personal examination and 
study of a trained geologist. 

As far as the time and opportunities of your Committee go, they have 
endeavoured to carry out such personal examination ; and the results, 
with those obtained during the coming year, they propose to lay before 
you at the next Meeting of the Association, should you thiuk fit to 
reappoint their Committee, Avhich they trust will be the case, as much 
information is at present promised them, and facilities are more frccl) r 
given as the existence of the Committee becomes more widely knoAvn. 

In regard to their general fitness for drinking and cooking, the Rivers 
Pollution Commissioners classify waters in the order of their excellence in 
respect to wholesomeness and pnlatability as follows : — 

(1 . Spring water. 1 y r , , , , 

2. Deep-well water. J ' • ll 

3. Upland surface water. "1 Moderately 

o . . f 4. Stored rain-water. f palatable. 

* [5. Surface water from cultivated land. ") 

-r. 16. Diver-water which scwasre gets access to. I Palatable. 

Dangerous. ■{ ►, „, ,, ,, , ° ° [ 

b [ i . Shallow well-water. J 

The value of spring and deep-well waters is not merely due to their 
greater intrinsic chemical purity and palatability, but to their being pecu- 
liarly suited for domestic supply, from their almost invariable clearness, 
transparency, and brilliancy, and their uniformity of temperature throughout 
the year rendering them cool and refreshing in summer, and preventing 
them readily freezing in winter ; and their utilization and conservation 



ON THE CIRCULATION OF UNDERGROUND WATERS. 57 

appear to be a matter not only worthy of inquiry into by the Association, 
but one of national importance, and to demand imperial legislation. 

The average amount of hardness of the water of the deep wells of the 
New Eed Sandstone, tabulated by the Rivers Pollution Commission, being 
1 7°-9, and of the springs from the same formation no less than 18°-8, the 
relation of hardness of water to the rate of the mortality of the persons 
drinking it becomes a matter of great importance. 

The Commissioners give thrco Tables of Statistics that bear directly upon 
this point. 

From Table I. it appears that in twenty-six towns inhabited by 1,933,524 
persons, supplied with water not exceeding 5° of hardness, the average 
death-rate was 29 - l per 1000 per annum. 

From Table II. we learn that in twenty -five towns inhabited by2,041,3S3 
persons, drinking water of more than 5°, but not exceeding 10°, the average 
death-rate was 28-3 per 1 000. 

In Table III. we find that sixty towns, with an aggregate population of 
2,687,846, drinking water of more than 10° of hardness, the average death- 
rate was only 24'3. 

Of the towns in Table I. none are supplied from the New Eed or Permian 
formations. 

In Table II. three are so supplied. 

In Table III. ten are so supplied. 

From which it will be observed that the largest number of towns supplied 
with New Red water is found in the Table with the lowest death-rate and 
the hardest water. 

The same result is obtained if we compare towns of corresponding popu- 
lations and occupations supplied from surface-areas with soft waters, and 
those supplied by deep wells in the New Red Sandstone. Thus ^Manchester, 
with 351,189 inhabitants, has an average death-rate of 32-0 per 1000 ; 
while Birmingham, with 313,787, has only 24 - 4. And, again, Stirling, with 
14,279 inhabitants, has an average of 26*1 per 1000; while Tranmere, with 
16,143 inhabitants, has only 18-8. 

But it may possibly be objected that the high death-rate of Manchester is 
not due to the softness of the water supplied to the inhabitants, but to tho 
density of the population, the close proximity to the houses of cesspools and 
ashpits, and the want of care experienced by children in the manufacturing 
districts ; and, again, that the low death-rate of Tranmere is due to the 
constant emigration of adults. And that these averages, being dependent 
on so many external causes, not due to tho purity or impurity, hardness or 
softness, of the water supply, is borne out by the facts that Greenock and 
Plymouth, both supplied with soft water, with an equal number of in- 
habitants, have a death-rate respectively of 32-6 and 23-3 per 1000, due to 
difference of density of population, Greenock having only one house for every 
twenty-eight people. And, again, Liverpool and Birkenhead, both supplied 
with moderately hard water ; the former an old and densely populated town, 
with a site saturated with what is injurious to health, has a death-rate of 34 
per 1000 ; while Birkenhead, a new town on an open site with wide streets, 
has a death-rate of only 24 per 1000, though mainly inhabited by a poor 
and struggling class of persons. 

But, at the same time, it is worthy of note that the five inland manu- 
facturing towns with the lowest death-rate are all supplied with hard water, 
and all from the New Red Sandstone. 



58 



REPORT 1877. 



Birmingham 

Leicester 

Nottingham 

Stoke-on-Trenfc 

Wolverhampton 

Average 



Population 
1871. 



343,787 
95,220 
86,621 

130,985 
68,291 



144,981 



Mortality 

per 1000 

per annum. 



244 
270 
242 
27-9 
25-9 



9S 



OO 



And, again, the average death-rate of twelve inland non-manufacturing 
towns supplied with soft water was 26-0 per 1000 ; while that of twenty- 
similar towns supplied with hard water was only 23-2. 

"When, however, the mortalities of the districts including the principal 
English watering-places are compared, there appears to be little variation in 
the death-rate, whether the population he supplied with soft, moderately- 
hard, or hard water ; so that it may be safely concluded that where sanitary- 
conditions prevail with equal uniformity, the rate of mortality is practically 
uninfluenced by the degree of hardness of the water drank ; and H.M. Rivers 
Pollution Commission are of opinion that " soft and hard waters, if equally 
free from deleterious organic substances, are equally wholesome." 

Your Committee has as yet not been able to obtain much information as 
to the water supply to bo obtained from the Permian rocks. These beds in 
different areas of England present so many distinct types that an analysis of 
them may be found useful to those inclined to work up information for your 
Committee. 

Its Salopian type*. 

Well shown in the neighbourhood of Enville, south of Bridgnorth. In 
descending order : — 



UrPER Series. 



Middle Series. 



Lower Series. 



lied and purple sandstones and marls. 

f Breccia in a marly base GO to 120 feet. 

I Sandstone and marl 40 to 

•^ Calcareous conglomerate 

] Sandstone and marl 30 to 

^ Calcareous conglomerate 

" Purple sandstones, passing various shades 
of red, brown, and occasionally white, 
often calcareous, and interstratified 
with red marls 

(Coal-measures of Forest of Wyre.) 

In Warwickshire the lower series occur, and the overlying calcareous 
breccias may be seen at Coleshill and Hurley, near Easterly ; whilo the 
higher beds have been penetrated in a boring for water at Warwick at a 
depth of 700 feet, and arc pierced in shallow wells at Kenilworth. The whole 
of this triple series is believed to belong to the Rothiodtliegen<le, or Lower 
Permian. 



50 
30 
40 
12 



850 



* Memoirs of the Geological Survey. "The Triassic Rocks of the Midland Counties 
of England." By E. HuU F.B.S. London : 1869. 



OX THE CIRCULATIOX OF UNDERGROUND WATERS. 59 



CoTlyhurst {near Manchester) type. 

These beds arc believed to have been formed contemporaneously with the 
Enville group, but in a separate hydrographical basiu, separated from that of 
Shropshire, Staffordshire, and Warwickshire by an east and west upheaval of 
Lower Carboniferous rocks across the plain of Choshiro. 

The Lower Permian beds of South Lancashire have been worked out in 
great detail by Mr. Binncy, E.R.S., who gives tho following sequence in 
descending order : — 



'Red marls, with numerous bands of fossili- 

ferous limestone, worked at Astle3 r and 

Red Marls. -^ Bedford. At "Worsley this series attains a 

thickness of 131 feet, with fifty-two thin 

^ beds of limestone 131 feet. 

j . p ( Bright red sandstone, obliquely laminated, of 
. , J \ uniform texture, seen at Collvhurst and at 
Sandstone. j Sto(kj) oTt .... 1500 feet. 

On the southern edge of the Lancashire coalfield these beds are slightly 
unconformable to the underlying Coal-measures between Manchester and 
Sutton, allowing the reappearance of the "Spirorbis Limestone " at Whiston. 
North of the coal-field the unconformity is much more marked ; at Skillaw 
Clough, near Bispham, Roach Bridge on the River Darwen, near Plea- 
sington Station on the Blackburn Railway, the Permian rests directly on 
tho Millstone Grit ; and in the wide spread of Lower Permian Sandstone, 
found by your Reporter to underlio the low drift-covered plain of Garstang, 
between Preston and Lancaster, the underlying rocks are of Lower Toredale 
age, as is also the case in the deep borings of tho Furncss district, on the 
opposite side of Morecambe Bay, carried out by the Diamond Boring Company. 

There are a few wells in the Garstang Permian Sandstone, the deepest of 
which is at Higher Crookey. 

In Cumberland the same series obtains, but is overlaid by the St.-Bees 
Sandstone, so finely developed in the cliffs of that name, and referred by Sir 
Roderick Murchison to Permian age, though formerly referred to the Trias. 
The Collyhurst Sandstones are described by Prof. Harkness in the Yale of 
Eden, under the name of " Penrith Sandstones," as attaining a thickness of 
nearly 3000 feet. 

Durham type. 

In Durham and the north-cast of England the sequence is widely different. 
That at Durham is described by Prof. King as follows : — 

G. Crystalline and Concretionary limestone. 

5. Brecciatcd limestone. 

4. Fossiliferous limestone. 

3. Magnesiau limestone. 

2. Marl slate. 

1. Lower Red Sandstone (with Coal-plants). 



60 REPORT — 1877. 

The Lower Eed Sandstone lies irregularly and un conformably on the Coal- 
measures in hollows eroded in its surface, but contains many species of Coal- 
measure plants. Large quantities of water are pumped from these sandstones, 
and from the Magnesian Limestone of this. county, for the supply of Sunder- 
land, South Shields, Jarrow, Seaham, and several villages — the quantity 
pumped from an area of 50 square miles overlying the Coal-measures being, 
according to Messrs. Daglish and Forster*, no less than 5,000,000 gallons 
per day, which abstraction has not in the least altered or lowered the per- 
manent water-level in the rock of this district, which occurs along the coast 
at mean-tide level, rising to 180 feet above it inland. 

The following analysis of the Sunderland water is given by the Rivers 
Pollution Commission : — 

Total solid impurity 4448 

Organic Carbon "035 

Organic Nitrogen '030 

Ammonia 0*0 

Nitrogen as nitrates and nitrites -416 

Nitrogen, total combined -446 

Previous sewage contamination 3*840 

Chlorine 4-17 

{Temporary -8 

Permanent 13*9 

Total 14-7 

The Commissioners comment on the fact that spring water, Waterham's 
Pield, Pontefract, is not only excessively hard, but differs from the Sunder- 
land well-water in having a large amount of temporary hardness (24*9) ; but 
it is important to notice that the water of Sunderland, unlike that of 
Pontefract, is obtained from the Sandstone beneath the Magnesian Lime- 
stone, and not from the Dolomite itself. 

These limestones, as stated by the Commissioners, are rarely used as a 
source of water-supply ; dolomite being a double carbonate of lime and 
magnesia imparts both these substances to the water. 100,000 lbs. of the 
Sunderland water contained 5*89 lbs. of lime and 3*96 lbs. of magnesia, 
which must be due to the percolation of the water through the porous lime- 
stone before it reached the underlying sandstone. 

These limestones of Durham gradually thin away to the south, through 
Yorkshire and Derbyshire, and die out near Nottingham. The thin lime- 
stones of Lancashire, already described, may be considered their debased and 
argillaceous equivalents, the fossils occurring at Astley and Bedford being 
the well-known magnesian limestone genera Tragos, Schizodus, BaJcevellia, 
and Turbo. 

The less crystalline limestones hold 3-45, 6-0, 13-13, 14-87, and even 
17-0 lbs. of water to the cubic foot. The Sandstones vary less, 10 lbs. of 
water (a gallon) being the average point of saturation. The more crystallino 
limestones absorb very little. 

Of these Yorkshire and Nottinghamshire Limestones, the Commissioners 
give the following analysis : — 

* Report Brit. Assoc. 1863, Newcastle Meeting, p. 726. 



ON THE CIRCULATION OF UNDERGROUND WATERS. 



Gl 



Pontefract, 
Yorksliire. 



Mansfield, 
Well, 75 feet 
deep, Water- 
works. 



Mansfield, 

Mr. Peat's 

Well. 



Total solid impurity 

Organic carbon 

Organic nitrogen 

Ammonia 

Nitrogen as nitrates and nitrites 

Total combined nitrogen 

Previous sewerage contamination 

Chlorine 

(■Temporary 

Hardness < Permanent , 

Total 



84-92 
•054 
•021 

2-673 
2694 
26,410 
5-55 
26-5 
408 
673 



25-24 
•053 
•014 


•599 
•613 
5,670 
1-40 
60 
16-4 
22-4 



54-32 
•139 
•039 

1-888 
1-227 
11,560 
3-20 
23-4 
260 
494 



From Somerset and Devon your Committee has received no returns ; but 
they would wish to call attention to the classification of the Triassic rocks of 
the South-Devon coast, recently published by Mr. Ussher* of the Geological 
Survey, in which he gives the following sequence : — 

1. Upper Marls 1350 feet. 

2. Upper Sandstone 530 „ 

3. Conglomerates 100 ,, 

4. Lower Marls 600 „ 

5. Lower Sandstone and Breccias. . . . 1000 „ 




3580 



But he states that this maximum total thickness is probably 1000 feet 
greater than the actual vertical distance, but from various causes an estimate 
is very difficult. 

In Leicestershire, Mr. Plant reports that for many years water good in 
quality and abundant in quantity has been known to exist at the base of the 
great gypsum bed which lies in the Upper Keuper Marls. This supply has 
been proved wherever the marls have been penetrated in wells from 30 to 
80 feet in depth, and in excavations for brick-making &c. 

In one of these excavations near the town of Leicester, on the base of tho 
gypsum being reached at a depth of 40 feet and the last layer cut through, 
a copious supply of clear water burst through in such abundance as to 
require special arrangements to carry it to an adjacent brook. The water 
was found to have worn a deep channel in the red marl lying immediately 
beneath the gypsum. The stream remains constant in dry and wet weather. 

The marls above and below this gypsum bed are quite dry and free from 
water, and the water occurring in it must be derived from the various out- 
crops of this bed in Nottinghamshire, Derbyshire, and Leicestershire. 

Mr. Plant has been led to conclude that this water, running constantly at 
the base of the gypsum bed, must be the source of supply of sulphate of lime 
found in the underground waters of the Midland Counties ; and he has always 
found it difficult to account for the water obtained in deep wells (pump and 
draw wells) in tho Upper Bed Marls of this county whenever the gypsum 
bed was penetrated; he is now of opinion that, as far as domestic and 
farming requirements are concerned, in the Upper Bed Marl district, this 
horizon affords the most abundant and valuable source of supply. 
* Quart. Journ. Geol, Soe. vol, xxxii. p. "92. 



62 repokt— 1877. 

And though this gypseous bed does not strictly come under the head of an 
inquiry into the Permian and New Red Sandstones formations, yet it is 
important as affording another and undescribed source of underground water- 
supply in the Midland Counties. 

The various sources of supply he tabulates thus in descending order : — 

1. Great Gypsum bed. 

2. Upper Keuper Sandstone. 

3. Lower Keuper Sandstone. 

4. Bunter Sandstone. 

5. Permian Sandstone. 

Mr. Plant states that he trusts to have some further information about 
deep borings now in operation in Leicestershire in addition to those he has 
already obtained, and which are published in the previous lleports. 

In Staffordshire, Mr. Moltneux reports that he has obtained a large 
amount of information ; but as important borings for water are still in 
progress, he would prefer waiting until they are completed, so that he may 
be able to present the Committee with a connected Eeport on the area he 
has taken charge of, which shall include the resources of the Bunters of the 
Cannock -Chase district, where the South-Staffordshire Waterworks are 
erecting two large pumping stations, and also the results of mining opera- 
tions through the so-called Permian beds south of "Walsall and elsewhere. 

Mineral Waters of St. Clement's, Oxford. 

It has lately been suggested by Prof. Prestwich that some of the saline 
springs occurring in the Oolites may derive their supply from deep-seated 
underlying New Red rocks. 

In a paper read before the Ashmolean Society ho describes the character 
of tbe water now issuing from an artesian bore-hole carried 420 feet 
through the Oxford Clay and Oolitic strata in 1832. An analysis by 
Mr. Donkin proves tbis water to contain 1277 grains per gallon, a 
quantity not exceeded by many of the continental saline waters. In tbe 
large proportion of sulphates, this water more nearly resembles some of the 
German mineral waters, such as Friederickshall and Eehme, than those of 
England ; for that of Cheltenham only contains G94 grains of saline ingre- 
dients, of which 104 grains per gallon consist of sulphate of soda, which, at 
St. Clement's, amounts to 357 grains. 

As stated in your Committee's second Report, not less than 10,000 square 
miles of area are occupied in England and Wales by the New Red Sandstone 
and Permian formations, which absorb not less than 10 inches of rainfall 
annually, and probably more in districts where the overlying drift is porous, 
or absent altogether, and the sandstone is of an exceedingly open and per- 
meable character and is traversed by joints and fissures. 

This area is a fertile source of shallow wells, and both the sandstone and 
the overlying drift sand and gravel form an excellent water-bearing stratum ; 
but unfortunately these shallow wells, though yielding clear and palatable 
water, from the numerous and potent sources of pollution surrounding them, 
are almost all valueless as a source of domestic supply, being charged with 
organic matter derived from animal refuse matters, the total" solid impurity 
amounting to 240 parts per 100,000, or 168 grains per gallon, in the water 



ON THE CIRCULATION OF UNDERGROUND WATERS. 



63 



Results of Analysis expressed in Parts per 100,000. 



(The numbers in the table can be 
converted into grains per imperial 
gallon, by multiplying them by 7, and 
then moving the decimal point one 
place to the left. The same process 
transforms the hardness into degrees 
of hardness on Clark's scale). 



Birmingham. 

Pump, No. 5 Court 

Pump, 30 Ravenhurst Street 

Congleton, ClIESIIIIiE. 
Town pump at Star Inn 

Coventry. 
Well in Cow Lane 

Cratiiorne, Yorkshire. 

Orchard well 

Pump in well 

Darlington, Durham. 
Blackwell pump 

Dawlisii, Devonshire. 
Well at Marine Terrace 

Greaseley, Notts. 
Morley's pump , 

Hugglescote, Leicestershire. 
Mr. Moore's pump , 

Hurworth, near Darlington. 
Well at Eectory , 

Kidderminster. 
Well in " Three Tuns " Yard 

Leaminoton. 
Mr. Jones's well 



Malpas, Cheshire. 
Town well 



Newark, Notts. 
Well near Trent 



Newent, Gloucestershire. 
Well 

Newnham, Gloucestershire. 
Mr. Everett's well 



Retford, West Notts. 
Well in Mermaid Yard 



Stafford. 
Pump in Station-Master's Yard. 

Stockton-on-Tees. 
Mr. Trotter's well 



WlLNECOTE, NEAR TaMWORTH. 

Public pump at head of village . 

Worksop, Notts. 
Park-Street well 



ft, 



45 



60 

* . 

EC g 

«! .a 

3 3 
.2 § 

SI 

fcl o 



151,960 
31,830 

10,456 

32,620 

16,270 
490 

66,920 

70,940 

59,600 

29,330 

25,880 

52,900 

60,540 

3,790 

560 

113,620 

35,930 

73,240 

5,020 
18,930 
78,510 
20,940 



Hardness. 



PM 



27-5 
136 

40 

37-0 

6-4 

22-3 

36-9 

22-2 

323 
11-3 
35-6 
12-0 
13-0 
25-3 
42-2 
14-1 
170 
52-0 

157 



99-6 
30-6 

13-1 

35-7 

36-2 
19-6 

41-7 

30-6 

407 

371 

3-8 

17-3 

28-3 

10-7 

18-9 

31-1 

40-7 

433 

124 

35-1 

57-5 

28'5 



o 



1271 
44-3 

17-1 

72-7 

42-6 
41-9 

786 

306 

62-9 

371 

361 

28-G 

G3-9 

22-7 

319 

56-4 

829 

57-4 

294 

871 

575 

442 



Remarks. 



L Palatable. 



Slightly turbid, 
J 

Clear and palatable. 
Slightly turbid. 



Clear and palatable. 



• Slightly turbid. 



Clear and palatable. 

Slightly turbid. 
Turbid. Palatable. 



64 report — 1877. 

of one of the shallow wells of Birmingham. An examination of the analyses 
of eighty-seven samples of these waters made by the Rivera Pollution Com- 
mission shows, in the high figures of the column of previous sewerage or 
animal contamination, how largely sewers and cesspools contribute to the 
contents of these wells. 

The preceding Table of the composition of waters from shallow wells in 
the New Red Sandstone is compiled from the sixth Ecport of the Rivers 
Pollution Commission. 

The pollution of these wells is easily understood when it is remembered 
that in most of the villages and in many of the smaller towns the water- 
supply is obtained, and the sewerage disposed, by digging two holes in the 
cottage garden, often within a few feet of each other, into the shallower of 
which the refuse of the cottage is discharged, and out of the deeper of which 
the water-supply is pumped from a porous soil, which soon gets replenished 
from the soakage of the soil lying beneath and around the shallower cesspool. 
The dangerous and disgusting liquids making their way into the well, after 
passing through a foot of porous soil, are sufficiently deodorized as to not 
impair the palatability of the water ; and such polluted waters are drank for 
years, until an outbreak of epidemic disease calls attention to them. 

At least 12 millions of the British population obtain their water-supply 
from shallow wells of this class. 

In regard to village water-supply, the evidenco of Mr. James Caird, C.B., 
one of the Inclosure Commissioners, examined by the Chairman of the Select 
Committee of the House of Lords on Improvement of Land (Minutes of 
Evidence, 2nd May aud 24th June, 1873, pp. 42 and 348), is of importance, 
as he states that both he and bis colleagues, Messrs. Darby and Ridley, consider 
" that in the case of charges for the supply of water to a village for sanitary 
purposes it would be very advantageous, where the village belongs to an 
estate, that it should be included in the objects of the loan, the improvement 
being one that is for the convenience of the agricultural labourers resident 
on the estate ; " and Mr. Ridley further suggests " that in any Sanitary Act 
that may be passed, a provision of that kind should be inserted, making the 
providing of water an improvement under the Act of 1864." 

It was suggested in 1865 to the Rivers Pollution Commissioners by the 
late Sir George Grey, then Secretary of State, that they should endeavour, if 
possible, to carry out the suggestions of Mr. Charles Ncate, M.P., that they 
should inquire " how far the general level of springs in the country has been 
lowered " by agricultural drainage ; " how far it depends upon the height at 
which water is maintained in the neighbouring river, and what is the 
number of springs that have altogether failed, or at least that fail during the 
summer." This inquiry they do not appear to have been able to carry out, 
possibly from a belief that springs that would be affected by local drainage 
would be subject to surface-pollution, and consequently be of no value as a 
source of water-supply. But when it is remembered that many deep-seated 
springs derive their supply from distant outcrops, often of an exceedingly 
porous and permeable character, the question of cutting off the available 
rainfall by means of intercepting drains becomes one of great importance ; 
and your Committee intend inserting a clause in their forms of inquiry in 
the hope of elicitating information on this point. 

Through increase of population and manufacturing requirements, the 
quantity of water annually consumed in England is steadily increasing, 
while the number of available sources of supply being necessarily limited, 
the competition for the possession of suitable water-bearing areas, especially 



ON THE CIRCULATION OF UNDERGROUND WATERS. 65 

those adjoining the more densely crowded centres, becomes keener and keener, 
and the parliamentary and other preliminary expenses larger and larger. 
Rival townships after severe competition obtain the whole of the water 
rights of a district to the exclusion of those who, from apathy, ignorance, or 
want of funds, neglected to claim a portion of the supply naturally belong- 
ing to them. 

The Local Government Board and Parliamentary inquiries at the best 
only endeavour to ascertain whether any water-scheme laid before them is 
likely to fulfil the particular objects proposed ; and they have no means of 
judging whether it is the best scheme, or whether it will interfere with the 
interests of other districts who may not be represented. To take two cases 
in point : — 

Tho urban sanitary district of Pemberton, near Wigan, with 10,374 
inhabitants, situated on the Coal-measures, has suffered much from an in- 
adequate supply of water. After much opposition in Parliament, an Act has 
been obtained to construct reservoirs to impound waters flowing off cultivated 
land, and consequently belonging to that class considered suspicious by the 
Rivers Pollution Commission. 

In the adjoining urban sanitary district of Ashton-in-Makerficld, with a 
population of 7463, situated on the Pebble Beds of the New Red Sandstone, 
which at present gives a very inefficient supply of water from shallow and 
dangerous wells, an Act of Parliament has been obtained, after much cost, 
opposition, and litigation, to construct works to obtain surface-water from 
adjoining cultivated land on the Coal-measures, which will, moreover, neces- 
sitate constant pumping. 

Colliery-shafts sunk in the New Red Sandstone and Permian formations 
south of this district yield an almost inexhaustible supply of pure water ; and 
your Committee cannot but feel it a matter of regret that this source of 
supply should be so systematically disregarded, which could not be the case 
were the Local Government Board empowered to see that districts choose 
the purest water and cheapest scheme available in a given area. 

The supply of New Red water just referred to, east of Ashton and 
Golborne &c, may possibly be made available for the additional supply of 
Liverpool, the water-pipes of which borough pass through the district in 
question from Rivington. 

Your Committee are of opinion that it is desirable that they should con- 
tinue to inquire into areas where New Red and Permian water may be 
obtained by means of deep wells. 

That, looking to the national importance of utilizing the underground 
waters of England, it is desirable that the sphere of their inquiry should be 
extended so as to include the Oolites, which the results obtained by the Rivers 
Pollution Committee prove contain an almost inexhaustible supply of pure 
water, which is not made available for the supply of the population living 
upon it until it is hopelessly contaminated with sewerage. 

That the result of their labours since the formation of the Commission 
has been to prove that there is an available daily supply of water from the 
New Red Sandstone and Permian of England of not less than 3600 million 
gallons of water, the quality of which is remarkably free from organic im- 
purity, and the hardness of which does not in tbe least appear to affect the 
health of the population at present taking their supply from it, the death- 
rate of this area comparing well with the best soft-water district. 



1877. 



66 report — 1877. 

On the South-Lancashire Wells. By T. Mellard Beade, C.E., F.G.S. 

As a member of the Committee I have devoted considerable time to obtain- 
ing information on the subject we are engaged in investigating, especially as 
regards South Lancashire ; I have exhausted the information available to me 
through the means of your printed forms of inquiry. Much more ought to 
be obtainable ; but companies undertaking the supply of districts are, perhaps 
naturally, jealous of giving answers which they imagine may boused to their 
detriment at some future time. 

Having collected all the answers to the queries of the Committee, I next 
attempted to analyze them, with a view of ascertaining whether I could help 
the Committee further by a digest of the, to some extent, crude facts and 
statements relative to the district I am more immediately acquainted with. 

In doing this I was met by the difficulty of reducing the replies to one 
common datum for comparison. With existing wells there are only a few in 
which the quantity pumped, the variations in the supply, and correct analyses 
of the water from time to time are taken and recorded with the scientific 
exactness which would enable me to draw deductions having the force of 
demonstration. 

So far as I am able I purpose now to present for your consideration the 
facts and my deductions therefrom, arranged with the object of enabling you 
to test for yourselves their relative importance. 

The area of the country over which my information extends (and here I 
must acknowledge my indebtedness to Mr. G. H. Morton, F.G.S., who has 
kindly placed at my disposal all the valuable facts in his possession relating to 
Liverpool and Cheshire wells) includes in Lancashire the Triassic rocks lying 
between the south and south-western borders of the Lancashire coalfield, 
and the shores of the Mersey and of the Irish Sea as far north as South port. 
In Cheshire the area occupied by the wells of which I have any reliable in- 
formation lies within a radius of 5 miles from Liverpool. 

For the purposes of comparison, however, although there are outlying wells 
which I shall have to refer to, there are three nuclei or centres about which 
the most important systems of wells are grouped, viz. Liverpool, Birkenhead, 
and Widnes. These " systems " I have shown on (wo sheets of vertical sec- 
tions annexed to this report (Plate II.), reduced with as much accuracy as was 
available to a common datum, on which I have shown the extreme variation of 
level of water in each well produced by pumping. As regards seasonal varia- 
tion it will have to be treated separately. 

I have also shown on the 6-inch Ordnance Surveys, coloured geologically, 
the position of each well in the Liverpool and Widnes Systems, and in other 
cases have shown the position of the wells in the 1-inch scale Geological 
Survey sheets. 

Widnes Wells. — With the exception of the town supply, these wells have 
been sunk for manufacturing purposes. As a great chemical manufacturing 
town, Widnes has been entirely created within the last 30 years *, and a 
large supply of water is a necessity. 

Widnes occupies what I have shown to be the site of the old course of the 
river Mersey t> a rock valley having a depth of 141 feet below Ordnance 
datum, now filled up with glacial-marine drift*. It is through this drift, of 

* The first works were established by Mr. John McClellan in 1840, the second by Mr 
Jolm Hutchinson in 1847. 

t Buried valley of the Mersey, PrOc. of Liverpool Gcol. Soc., Sess. 1871--. 






ON THE CIRCULATION OF UNDERGROUND WATERS. 67 

varying thickness according to the position of the well, that the well-sinkers 
and borers had to penetrate to get to the water-bearing rock below. This 
portion has of course in each case been tubed. The succession of those strata 
is shown on the sections, and consists first of Marsh Clay or Silt (Postglacial), 
Quicksand (Glacial), and a great depth of a tenacious, unctuous, fine clay of 
a brown colour, evidently recomposod to a considerable extent from the 
Triassic Marls, but being itself of glacial marine origin, as shown by the 
shell-fragments and occasional erratic boulders and pebbles it contains. This 
reposes on a red sand often containing erratic pebbles, the top sand of the 
red rock below. According to the Geological Survey the bed-rock belongs to 
the Pebble Beds, or middle division of the Bunter. 

It is pretty certain from the consensus of evidence on the subject that when 
this retentive bed of brown marl was first pierced the water rose above the sur- 
face of tho ground. A reference to the section will show that the water-level has 
been permanently lowered by pumping to an average of about 8 feet below the 
surface ; when the pumps are at work, of course the level of the water in the 
well is entirely dependent upon tho power of the pumps. I have not been, 
able to obtain returns from all the well-owners, but the amount of water of 
which I have returns, if we include the Local-Board well at Crouton, is 
1,670,000 gallons per diem ; I should think, however, there must be a mil- 
lion more gallons pumped*. The form of the printed questions, however, 
creates a difficulty, as the " Quantity capable of being pumped up in gallons 
per day " is not necessarily the same thing as the actual yield. 

There can be no doubt, however, that a very considerable quantity of water 
in this area is tapped and utilized. It will be seen from the sections that 
the extreme height the water rises above ordnance datum is 18 feet. 

Stocks Well, Cronton. — This is a well belonging to the Widnes Local 
Board. It is situated about 2 5 miles from Widnes, and is 70 feet above O.D. 
(not 45 as stated in the return) ; but as it does not lie in the Preglacial 
valley of the Mersey, I mention it separately. It yields 800,000 gallons per 
day. Before pumping the water flows over at the surface, and therefore 
rises 52 feet above the water-level at Widnes. The Widnes Board are sink- 
ing a well at Netherley Bridge, and, I understand, get a yield now of about 
350,000 gallons per day. 

Garston Iron Works. — The yield of this well is 240,000 gallons per day. 
It is situated on the margin of the river Mersey, and the water-level appears 
to be approximately the same as at Widnes. As it is nearly 7 miles from 
Widnes and 4 from Liverpool the water-level appears to be governed by 
proximity to the river. The water-level is stated to have diminished. 

At Whiston the St.-Helen's Corporation have established a well; but 
further than that the yield is 1,000,000 gallons per day I have no reliable 
information. 

Ince Waterworks, Qolbourne. — In a direct line this well is over 10 
miles from Widnes. The surface-level is 125 feet above O.D. ; the yield 
240,000 gallons per diem. The water-level before pumping is stated to be 
80 feet below the surface, or 45 feet above O.D. 

The Sankey White-lead Works, Well, Sankey Bridges. — The peculiarity 
of this well is its being all in the drift, finishing in a bed of gravel about 100 
feet below the surface. The water, rising to within 3 feet 6 inches of the 

* Mr. Boult, who has collected a great amount of information on the subject, gives 
480,000 as the yield of the Ditton Iron Company's well, Pilkington's 240.000, and tho 
Tharsus Copper Works 192,000, or a total of 912,000, all of which will be additional to 
my returns. 

f2 



68 report — 1877. 

surface, is, as I reckon it, about 16 feet 6 inches above O.D. It is evident 
tbe river governs the height to which the water rises. It is stated not to be 
perceptibly affected by the seasons. 

Ormslcirh Local Board Well. — This is a well lying out of the special area 
I have marked out for further investigation. It is remarkable as being 
affected by local rains within 24 hours. The water-level is stated to vary 
slightly in summer and winter, but has not diminished during the last 10 
years. The water is pronounced to be remarkably good and soft. There is 
a very large fault on the west side of the well. 

Borings through the New' Bed Marls. — In two cases I know of, these marls 
have been pierced ; the one at Alsager within 300 yards of the railway-sta- 
tion, in which 553 feet of the marls were pierced, and water tapped which 
rises in an iron tube 10 or 12 feet above the surface. The level of the 
surface is 310 feet above O.D. The water is very pure and soft, and suitable 
for brewing-purposes. Though the bore was continued to a depth of 1000 
feet, the water was not increased thereby. The second case is at Preston 
Brook, at which the water was tapped after piercing 400 feet of marls. 

An attempt was made to pierce the marls at the Palace Hotel, Birkdale, 
near Southport, but was given up at a depth of 558 feet. 

I have now recapitulated the leading features of the wells outside of Liver- 
pool and Birkenhead of which I have information. As the answers are 
already printed in extenso in the two Reports of the Committee, any one 
wishing for more detailed information can there obtain it. 

Inferences. — Though the information is any thing but of a scientifically 
exact character, it appears to me that some useful inferences can be drawn 
from it. They are these : — 

As to the present Water-level. — It is quite clear that, when a well or a 
system of wells is established in a district, the permanent water-level is 
lowered to the extent of the draw upon the supply. Though I call this 
the permanent water-level, I merely do so to distinguish it from the tem- 
porary level of water in the well produced by, say, 12 hours' pumping. It 
is not naturally, but becomes artificially, the permanent water-level of the 
country ; and in any case, were the pumping-operations to cease entirely, I 
should expect to see the natural water-level restored in 12 months. 

As to the effect of load Bains. — In only a few instances have the observers 
stated that they could distinguish the effect of rain on the wells. Even in 
the one in the drift at Sankey Bridges my informants say they can distinguish 
no seasonal changes. It is quite possible, however, that this bottom- drift gravel 
may be supplied from springs in the rock below. The Ormskirk well is a com- 
paratively shallow one, and the local rains affect it, I should say, by immediate 
local percolation. It will be seen that the Liverpool wells are not altogether 
exempt from this local percolation ; at all events the Bootle well is not. This, 
however, is only in accordance with what we would expect inferentially from 
a consideration of hydraulic principles ; the larger the area from which the 
supply of water is drawn, the less likely is the well to be affected by local 
rains. The nature of the top rock, the dip of the beds, the number and 
position of the fissures in the rock, the proximity of a fault, will all assist to 
determine the extent of local percolation. If, however, the well and the bore 
is made watertight by tubbing and tubing to a considerable depth, local 
rains cannot influence the yield to any perceptible extent. When a great 
thickness of clay or marl is penetrated I know of no recorded instance of 
seasonal variation in the supply from the Triassic rocks. 



ON THE CIRCULATION OF UNDERGROUND WATERS. 69 

As to the Mode of Circulation of Underground Waters. — A few minutes' 
consideration will show that the supply to a well or bore cannot arise through 
general percolation through the pores of the walls or internal surfaces of the 
well or bore. According to Mr. Isaac Roberts's experiments, quoted in your 
1st Report of 1875, a pressure of 10 lbs. to the square inch, which I suspect, 
exceeds any hydraulic pressure actiug on the pores of the rocks in any of 
the wells of which I have returns, gives 4| gallons of water per hour per 
square foot of sandstone 10 inches tbick, or 108 gallons per foot per diem. 
If wo take the total area of the surface of the three wells and bore-holes of 
Messrs. Gaskell, Deacon, and Co., at Widnes, which is the largest well-sur- 
face, compared with the yield of water, that I have recorded, it amounts to 
4428 superficial feet, which, with 500,000 gallons per diem, gives 113 gallons 
per superficial foot per diem, assuming the water to ooze out at the same rate 
from top to bottom, which is manifestly absurd ; if, on the contrary, we take the 
Green Lane one recorded in your Report of 1875, p. 123, we find it has an 
area of only 95 superficial feet of surface and a yield of 817,000 gallons per 
diem, or 8600 gallons per foot per diem. 

It is tbus evident to me that the rain-water is absorbed generally by the rock 
at the surface, and that it percolates very gradually to underground fissures, 
traverses planes of bedding and jointing, and so circulates and is drawn off at 
the well. It is, in fact, a large rock-filter, with veins and ramifications ex- 
tending in various directions, which enable us to tap and draw off the supply; 
and it is this freer circulation than what would take place through homoge- 
neous rock that enables us to draw in some cases those immense supplies, 
such as is obtained at Green Lane, of 3,243,549 gallons per diem as a maxi- 
mum, the average quantity for 1876 being 2,903,712 gallons per diem. 

Source of the Supply : Rainfall. — The enormous aggregate yield of wells 
in a given area of the New Red has set many speculating as to the source of 
the underground water, some being unwilling to admit rainfall as a sufficient 
source of supply for the wells ; consequently ingenious theories have been 
devised to account for it. Mr. Joseph Boult, to whom I am indebted for 
much information, does not believe the supply is from surface-percolation ; 
and Mr. Robert Bostock, an excellent practical geologist, of Birkenhead, 
believes that sea-water is decomposed by filtration through the rock, and 
that the water of the sea is the main source of the supply. Unfortunately, 
when tested, none of these theories will themselves " hold water ; " and 
whatever difficulties there may be in " surface-percolation," there are, in my 
opinion, tenfold greater difficulties in any other theories. Again, many 
Cassandra-like water-prophets cry out that because the water-level is reduced 
in Liverpool, therefore we are drawing on capital, and are gradually exhaust- 
ing Nature's storehouse, or rather " store-cistern." A little calculation would 
show this latter fear to be groundless. 

According to information supplied me by Mr. G. J. Symons, which I append, 
the maximum rainfall taken by Mr. Briggs at Sandfield Park, near Liver- 
pool, for 10 years ending 1874, was 34-90, and the minimum 22-64, the 
average for the 10 years being 30-14. Roughly, 25 inches of rain over a 
square mile of surface gives a supply of 1,000,000 gallons per diem ; there- 
fore if we assume that 10 inches are absorbed independently of evaporation 
(and I think this is not an unreasonable assumption in a fiat absorbent dis- 
trict like Lancashire), it would take a contributing area of 7-5 square miles 
to supply 3 million gallons per diem. It must also not be lost sight of that 
rivers having their sources in other strata — the carboniferous system for 



70 iieport — 1877. 

instance, where the rainfall is much greater from the district being hilly* — 
meander through the low-lying Triassic country and supply their quota. 
Many of these rivers have loose sandy beds, favourable for percolation ; and, 
with fissures, however contracted, to convey the water to a distance, a con- 
stant circulation must necessarily be kept up. If we assume the absorption 
to be as much as 10 inches, a circle having a radius of just over 1| mile 
from the well would be sufficient to keep up the supply to 3 million gallons 
per diem. I am not by any means suggesting that nature acts in this uni- 
form sort of way ; on the contrary the water may travel by faults and fissures 
a long distance in one direction and a short one in another t; but of this I am 
assured, that a good well depends upon these underground ramifications, and 
that their existence or absence constitutes the main distinction between a 
well being a good yielder or a bad one, more than on the actual constitution 
of the rock itself, as, according to my experience, all the New Red Sandstone 
is sufficiently porous, looked at as a filter. As regards a greater yield being 
obtained by boring or not will be dependent upon the source of the deeper 
yield and the depths to which the well is pumped down. At Alsagcr no 
additional water was obtained by boring deeply into the rock. 

If the tube was well supplied by the rock first penetrated, and the fissures 
(if any) intersected by the bore lower down had the same " head " or source, 
the supply would not be greater; but if the water were to be pumped down 
below its natural level instead of flowing out of an artesian tube, it is quite 
possible the deep bore might begin to yield. 

As exhibiting the nature of the underground circulation I have made a 
calculation from materials supplied me by the borough engineer of Liverpool, 
Mr. Deacon. 

The Dudlow-Lane well is about 2 miles in a direct line from the Green- 
Lane well, and while the engine stopped in November 1875, the water rose 
to 95 feet above the bottom of the well. This would give a difference of 
level at the time between the water in the Dudlow-Lane well and the Green- 
Lane well of about 80 feet. The velocity of discharge in the 6-inch bore-hole 
of Green-Lane well when delivering 817,000 gallons (see Report of Committee, 
1875, p. 123) per diem would be 459 feet per minute ; a 9-inch pipe, with 
the difference of level of 80 feet, would carry waiter from one well to the 
other at a rate sufficient to supply the bore with the quantity of water it is 
stated to have yielded. Or, to state it in another way, a 6-inch pipe 4000 
feet long and 170 feet head would supply, roughly speaking, the same quan- 
tity of water at the same velocity as that which passes through the bore. 

It is therefore evident that there must be fissures, having a large aggregate 
area, to enable nature's rocky filter to supply water at the rate of 459 feet 
per minute to the 6-inch bore-hole when we consider the smallness of the 
available head, for the friction through rocky fissures would be excessive as 
compared with smooth pipes. 

Quality of the Water : Hardness. — ; So few analyses having been given in 
the papers returned to me, and wishing to further investigate some of the 
questions flowing out of the inquiry, I was under the necessity of applying 
to Dr. Campbell Brown, the public analyst of Liverpool, who has kindly 

* For the distribution of rainfall in England on the various groups of strata, see my 
presidential address on ''Geological Time," Proe. Liverpool Geol. Soc, session 1876-7. 

t I am informed the Green-Lane Well has been proved to "draw" at a distance of 2^ 
miles in a direct line. A reference to Mr. Robert Stephenson's report of 18. r )0 shows", 
according to the evidence of Mr. Bold, that a well at Moseley Hill, distant 5000 yards, 
was affected by the pumping-operations at Green-Lane well. 



ON THE CIRCULATION OF UNDERGROUND WATERS. 71 

supplied me with information respecting the Liverpool wells in the form 
which 1 thought desirable for my purpose. 

I append his statement of the analyses of the water of Bootlc, Green-Lane, 
Windsor, and Dudlow-Lane wells from 18G8 to 1876, together with very 
valuable information kindly given me by Mr. Deacon, the borough engineer, 
as to the nature of the wells and the level of the water in the wells on the 
dates of the analyses. At my request he was also good enough to supple- 
ment it by a table showing the average daily yield of the several wells from 
1868 to 1876. 

To make the information more complete, Dr. Brown has also, for purpose 
of comparison, recalculated the analyses of several Liverpool wells given in 
Bobert Stephenson's Beport of 1S50 into the terms of his own analyses ; I 
also append these. 

Having vainly endeavoured to discover some connexion between the rain- 
fall and the yield of the wells by comparing Mr. Deacon's table with the 
rainfall table supplied by Mr. Symons, which I also append, it suggested 
itself to me that relative hardness might be a test of surface-percolation ; but 
Dr. Brown states that " I do not find that there is any regular difference 
between the hardness in summer and winter. Differences can be traced to 
heavy rainfall and the rate of pumping." It is also clear, from a perusal of 
what Dr. Brown says of the Bootle well, that heavy rainfall does affect its 
hardness ; but that the effect is only a local one is clear from the resumption 
of hardness which took place after 7 days' pumping. As local percolation 
means greater danger of organic contamination, it is open to question whether 
it should not be to a great extent prevented. 

A perusal of Dr. Brown's statements seems to show that the hardness has 
increased from 15° in 1868 to 22°-28 in 1876 in the Bootle well ; in the 
Green-Lane well from 13° in 186S to 18° in 1876 ; in the Windsor well from 
15° in 1868 to 2U° in 1876 ; and in Dudlow-Lane well from 6|° in 1868 
to 7^° in 1876. In some cases the deep-bore water is softer than the well- 
water, in others harder. 

On comparing these analyses with those recalculated from Bobert Ste- 
phenson's report by Dr. Brown and his remarks thereon, it is impossible not 
to be struck with the fact that the Corporation wells at Bootle and Windsor 
are now yielding water of almost identical quality with that supplied in 
1850, although there have been many intermediate fluctuations. Taken 
together with the steady increase of hardness since 1868, it seems to show 
that the deepening and boring done since 1850 must have had the effect of 
softening the water, but that now it is, through greater pumping strain, 
returning to its original hardness ; in fact, the old conditions are reintro- 
duced on a larger scale. 

It is consolatory as showing that the hardness is not due to the depth or 
extent of the contributing area, but to the actual drain on the rocks. This 
is a point that demands more consideration than I have yet been able to give 
it, pressure of professional work having driven me to the last day almost for 
preparing this Beport. I quite agree with Dr. Brown also that there is very 
little, if any, percolation of sea-water into the Corporation w T ells, and con- 
sider his arguments are conclusive on that point; there is no doubt, however, 
that sea-water does enter wells in some cases. It is naturally what we 
would expect ; but each case must be taken by its own evidences, and the 
fact remains that though the mean level of the water in the Bootle well was 
about 20 feet below low-water mark in 1876 and its distance from the sea 
is under a mile, witli the dip of the rocks from the 6ea towards it, yet no 



72 report — 1877. 

sea-water enters the well. Whether this is due to the great north and 
south faults, by which it is cut off from the sea, is a subject for speculation ; 
if so it is easy to understand how those wells belonging to private firms on 
the margin of the river are affected by sea-water, while the wells more inlaud 
are not. 

On the Cheshire side the Wallasey well is on the margin of the great float, 
and is pumped down to below low water, yet it is not affected by the sea ; 
but here, again, the well itself is tubbed, and there is a great covering of 
drift over the rock, which may be impervious. In some cases, on the other 
hand, the bare rock is exposed in the river without any drift covering. It 
appears to me that no general rule can be drawn on the subject, local cir- 
cumstances alone determining what wiJl take place. 

In presenting you with this Report I must apologise for its shortcomings, 
as there are many points touched upon which require more mature consider- 
ation than I yet have had time to give them. As, however, local observers 
who win the facts are necessarily the best able to arrange them in a form to 
be understood and digested, I trust I may have contributed something towards 
a knowledge of the circulation of underground waters. 

APPENDIX. 
I. Vakiotjs Returns. 

Name of Member of Committee asking for information, A. H. Green. 
Name of Individual or Company applied to : — 

The Selby Waterworks Co. James Wetherill, Surveyor and Manager of 

Waterworks. 

1*. There are 7 wells in the town of Selby, obtaining water from the New Red 
Sandstone. 2. 20' 6" above mean water-level at Liverpool. 3. Depth of well 
12' 0"x6'0"; cast-iron pipe to top of rock; diameter of bore in rock 6 inches; 
330 ft. from surface. 4. Water rises to within 4 ft. of natural surface ; when 

S jumping we have to take the water as the bore yields it ; it flows to the above 
leight in 2 hours. 5. About 250,000 gallons, more if the bore was larger. 6. 
Yes; about August, September, and October. 7. No; below the streams, but not 
affected by them. 8. About 8° of hardness, which you will find from the report of 
Mr. Homersham on the Wakefield Water Bill last session ; the water is well adapted 
for domestic purposes. 9. Alluvial soil 5 ft.; clay, 24' 0"; sand charged with 
water one man can pump, 1' 0" ; clay, 24' 0" ; quicksand, 21' 0" ; strong spring of 
water and the bottom of pipes, Red Sandstone, IS' 0" ; marl resembling Fuller's 
earth, 0' 1" ; Red Sandstone, 10' 3" ; Grey Sandstone, 0' 1" ; Red Sandstone, 04' 9" ; 
ditto, harder, 118' 6" ; very hard rock, 10' 0"; Red Sandstone, 6' 9"; very hard 
rock, 4' 9" ; ditto, 22' 0" : total 330 ft. 8 in. to bottom of bore-hole. 10. Yes. 
11. They are kept out. 12. None. 13. None whatever. 14. None. 15. From 
inquiry none have been given up ; plenty of good water can be obtained. 

Name of Member of Committee asking for information, C. E. de Ranee, 
per Mr. Aveline, F.G.S. 

Name of Individual or Company applied to : — 

Mr. John Vivian, C.E., 23 King Street, Whitehaven, for the Furness Diamond 

Boring Company. 

1. About 500 yards from the village of Glaston-in-Furness. 2. About 30 ft. 
3. Bore-hole 2108 ft. deep ; 8" diameter at top, 2± at bottom. 4. About 10 ft. the 
water will rise, always flowing out of the hole. 5. A flow of about 104,700 galls. 
per day. 6. No; only open during the past 12 to 18 months. 7. Not perceptibly ; 

* For nature of questions, see first report of the Committee, Bristol. 



ON THE CIRCULATION OF UNDERGROUND WATERS. 73 

about 4 ft. above their level. 8. Nothing peculiar ; good pure water. 9. 23 ft. 
of drift or boulder-clay, Eed Sandstone and shales, greenstone or Laver Dyke, 
Ma-uesian Limestone, grits and shales, mountain Limestone; there were four 
springs : — 1st cut at 120 ft. from surface in Red Sandstone ; 2nd cut at 244 ft. from 
surface in Red Sandstone ; 3rd cut at 1061 ft. from surface in the Greenstone Dyke ; 
4th cut at 2080 ft. from surface in dark blue shale at junction of Limestone. 10. 
No springs, but a little drainage. 11. The drainage was tubed back. 12. There 
is a dyke, but no known fault, 13. No. 14. No. 15. Not known ; I think not. 

Name of Member of Committee asking for information, C. E. De Ranee. 

At Southport Palace Hotel, Birkdale Park, a boring was made without success 
for water, which reached a depth of 180 yards without finding the base of the 
Keuper Marls. At Scarisbrook Park, east of Southport, the Red Marls were 
penetrated and found to rest on chert, limestone, and grit, which may possibly 
belong to the Yoredale series. 

At Poulton-le-Fylde a fruitless boring for coal, after passing through Upper 
Boulder-clay, Middle Sand, and Lower Boulder-clay, penetrated the Keuper 
Marls to a depth of 179 yards without reaching their base, pseudomorphic crystals 
of salt and pieces of gyysuui occurring as at Southport. 

At the North-Eastern Hotel, Fleetwood, a boring was made for water by the 
War Office without success, a bed of grit being reached at 179 yards. 

Name of Member of Committee asking for information, C. E. De Ranee. 
Name of Individual or Company applied to : — 

Mr. Boult, from Mr. Beloe, C.E. 
1. Neston: (a) Waterworks; (6) Village well. 2. (a) 176 feet; (b) 103 feet. 
3. (a) 119feetx7x5|, 178 feet X 5"; (b) 75 feet X 25 X 9, 332 feet X 3". 4. (a) 
59 feet above O.D.L. normal level. 5. («) 191,000. 8. The water is tasteless 
nd pure. 

Mr. Boult, from Messrs. Macfie and Sons. 

1. Sugar Works : (a) Bachelor Street ; (6) Vernon Street, Liverpool. 2. (a) 
56 feet; (6) 56 feet. 3. («) 127 feet, 504x7 feet; (6) 126 feetxll feet, 603x18 
feet. 4. (a) 4 feet below Ordnance datum line ; (b) 4 feet below O.D.L. 5. (a) 
830,000; (b) 660,000. 

Grains per gallon. 

8. Total hardness 22 

Solid matter 744 

Albumenoid ammonia 0-21 

Ammonia - 33 

Chlorine ._ 406-5 

Water, salt, and acid. 

9. («) Drift 38 feet, Upper Mottled Sandstone 466 feet. 

Mr. Boult, from Mr. E. Tate. 
1. Love Lane Sugar Refinery, Liverpool. 2. 51 feet. 3. 109 feet X 9 feet, 369 
feet x 4" and 8". 4. Normal height 19 feet helow O.D.L. 5.840,000. 8. Water 
has a strong taste of salt. 

Mr. T. Boult, from Mr. Dresser, Edmond Street, Liverpool. 
1. Edmond Street Rice Mills, Liverpool. 2. 60 feet. 3. 79 feet by 4| ; bores 
379 feet ; 3 bore-holes, 12", 6", and 4". 4. 15 feet below Ordnance datum in normal 
condition. 5. 230,000. 

Grains per gallon. 

8. Total hardness 19 

Solid matter 1157-8 

Albumenoid ammonia - 27 

Ammonia 0-6 

Chlorine 588-4 

9. Drift 18 feet, Upper Mottled Sandstone 301 feet. 13. The water is very bitter 
and saline. 



74 



REPORT 1877. 



II. Details op Liverpool Wells collected by Mr. Mellard Reade. 



Booth Well. 

On 5th Dec. 1868 the hardness of Bootle-well water was 
On 8th Feb. 1870 



On „ „ 

On 26th June, 1872 
On 24th Sept., 1872 
On 1st April, 1873 
■ On 28th May, 1875 
On 4th June, 1875 
On „ „ „ 
On 20th May „ 
On 1st Sept., 1876 



deep bore 
well water 



east side of well 
west „ 

deep bore 



o 

15 

15-3 

16 

lGi 

16| 

m 

227 

22-4 

27-25 

22 

22-28 



In 1876 the hardness varied from 22° to 2ii°, and on 7th Dec., 1876, 

it was 25^°. 

I do not find that there is any regular difference between the hardness in 
summer and winter. Differences can be traced to heavy rainfall and the 
rate of pumping : e. g. the hardness of Bootle-well water was taken weekly for 
a year ; it was generally about 23°, but after heavy rains it fell to 22° and 
21 0, 8, and in very dry weather it rose to 24°. On 1st October, 1875, the hard- 
ness was 23°, and on 6th October, when the level of the water was 12 feet 
6 inches above the bottom of the well, the pump was stopped for repairs. On 
the 8th October the water rose to 34 feet, and there was no unusual variation 
in the hardness ; at that time heavy rains began to fall, and on 15th Octo- 
ber, the level of the water being 48 feet, its hardness fell to 18°. The 
hardness due to magnesium salts was almost the same at this time as before 
the change, the difference being due to calcium salts. Pumping was then 
resumed on 15th October after the sample was taken, and in 7 days, viz. on 
22nd October, the level was reduced to 17 feet and the hardness rose again 
to 23°. 

On 31st January, 1877, the water of well was 24-56 

„ „ „ the average water of the deep bore . . 23-44 

the water near the bottom of bore. . . . 20-56 



Green-Lane Well. 

On 2nd Dec, 1868, the hardness of Green Lane well was 
On 26th June, 1872 „ „ deep bore „ 

On 28th March, 1873 „ „ well 

On 25th May, 1875 „ „ deep bore „ 

„ „ „ well 



13 

13| 
16 

14! 



In 1875 the percolating water from the upper strata at 40 feet above the 
bottom of the well was 10°, while the mixed water of the well taken at the 
same time was from 16° to 16^°. 



On 5th Sept., 1876, the water of the deep bore was 

„ „ „ „ well itself „ 

In 1876 the average was from 18° to 19|°. 
In 1877, Jan. „ „ „ 20°-6. 



18-28 
18 



inds 


or Well was 


15 


55 


5) 55 


18 


55 


55 55 


17 


55 


55 55 


16± 


55 


55 55 


19| 


55 


deep bore „ 


19 


1) 


well 


2 H 


55 


55 5) 


231 


5) 


55 55 


24 1 


51 


deep bore „ 


21-16 



ON THE CIRCULATION OF UNDERGROUND WATERS. 75 

Windsor Well. 

On 5th Dec, 1868, the hardness of Windsor Well 

On 26th June, 1S72 „ 

On 30th Sept., 1872 

On 20th Oct, 1873 

On 24th May, 1875, „ 

On 13th March, 1876 " 

On 8th June and Sept. 8th „ 
On 7th Dec. 
On 1st Sept. 

Ludlow-Lane Well. 
On 2nd Dec. 1868, the hardness of Dudlow Lane well was 6i 
On 24th Sept., 1872 „ „ „ „ 6 

On 30th Sept., 1872 „ „ „ 71 

On 20th Oct., 1873 „ „ „ „ 71 

In 1874, when tbe pumps were frequently stopped, the average was 5|° ; 

the highest was 7°. 
On 1st June, 1875, the deep-bore was 7 0, 86. 

„ „ ,, well itself was 8°. 

' On 4th Sept., 1876, the deep-bore was 8°-88. 

„ „ „ well was 8°. 

The average at present is 7|°. 

The hardness was taken weekly in 1874, and there was no regular difference 
between tbe hardness in summer and winter. 

The hardness of Flaybrick-Hill well in Birkenhead was 4|° in 1870, and 
5° in 1874. j Campbell Brown, D.Sc. 

Liverpool Royal Infirmary, School of Medicine 
March 4, 1877. 

Liverpool Corporation Waterworks. 

Particulars of Wells in the New Bed Sandstone belonging to the Liverpool 

Corporation. 

Booth Well. — The depth of tbis well from tbe surface of the ground is 
104 feet. The bottom of the well is 49 feet below Ordnance datum. In 
connexion with the well there are 15 bore-holes, one of which (4 inches in 
diameter) is sunk to 571 feet below O.D., one to 273 feet 5 inches below O.D., 
and one to 268 feet 5 inches below O.D. The other bore-holes are shallow. 

Green-Lane Well. — The depth of this well from the surface of the ground 
is 185 feet. The bottom of the well is 49 feet below O.D. There are two 
bore-holes : one, of 9" diam. at the top and 6" diam. at the bottom, is sunk 
to a depth of 248 feet 6 inches below O.D. ; the other, of 18" diameter, is sunk 
to a depth of 359 feet below O.D. 

Windsor Well. — Depth from surface of ground 210 feet. Bottom of well 
below Ordnance datum 24 feet 2 inches. There is one bore-hole of 6 inches 
diam. at the top and 4 inches diam. at the bottom. Tbe total depth of the 
bore-hole is 269 feet below O.D. 

Ludlow-Lane Well. — Depth from surface of ground 247 feet 3 inches. 
Bottom of well below Ordnance datum 49 feet. Bore-hole 18" diam. sunk 
to a depth of 245 feet below O.D. , 

The following is a tabulated statement of the levels of the water in tbe 
several wells in relation to the Ordnance datum on the dates referred to by 
Dr. J. C. Brown in his report on the hardness of the water: — 



76 



REPORT — 1877. 





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ON THE CIRCULATION OF UNDERGROUND WATERS. 77 

Average daily quantity of Water pumped from Wells, 1868 to 1876. 



Year. 


Green Lane. 


Bootle. 


Windsor. 


Dudlow Lane. 


1868 .. 


2,726,426 


1,405,304 


969,622 


277,626 


1869 .. 


2,661,314 


1,490,745 


844,912 


328,568 


1870 .. 


2,770,167 


1,475,526 


933,515 


1,062,405 


1871 .. 


2,823,032 


1,399,049 


864,000 


1,247,403 


1872 .. 


2,833,639 


1,433,747 


869,761 


184,184 


1873 .. 


2,779,059 


1,469,293 


827,655 


810,590 


1874 .. 


2,517,680 


1,291,189 


899,379 


1,011,260 


1875 .. 


2,533,050 


1,399,791 


821,182 


1,103,307 


1876 .. 


2,903,712 


1,293,772 


830,694 


1,169,494 



Operations in connexion with the Wells during the above period. 

Green Lane. — In 1868 a new well, 12 ft. X 9 ft., sunk 185 ft. In 1869 
a bore-hole, 18" diameter, sunk in new well to 310 ft. below bottom. Engine 
power not increased. 

Dudlow Lane. — Finished sinking well 186S. In 1870 a bore-hole, 18" 
diameter, sunk to 196 ft. below bottom of well. Pumping stopped durin» 
most of year 1872 and part of 1873. 

Tbo Green-Lane, Bootle, and Dudlow-Lane bore-holes are provided with 
plugs, which are occasionally raised or lowered to regulate the depth of water 
in the wells according to the speed at which the engines aro worked. 



Municipal Office, 
Liverpool, May 9, 1877. 



G. F. Deacon, 
Boro' and Water Engineer. 



Constituents of Water expressed in parts per 100,000, recalculated from the 
Analyses quoted in H. Stephenson's Report of 1850. 

No. 2, Bootle, No. 1 Lodgment. January 30, 1850. 

Chlorine 2-777 

Sodium 1-894 

Magnesia 4-714 

Lime 7-627 

Sulphuric acid 2-781 

Silica -686 

Carbonic acid 9-649 

Organic matter, trace of potash, water 

of crystallization, and loss 4-014 

34-142 
Hardness 25°-3 



78 kei'out — 1877. 

The water has undergone a great many variations in composition since 
1850, and has now returned to almost the same composition as it had then. 
After the deep bores were sunk, the hardness was not much more than half 
as great as it was in 1850, owing to the fact that there are extensive alkali- 
waste deposits, which yield a large quantity of lime-salts to the water of the 
upper strata. By continual pumping since the existing bores were sunk, tho 
hardness has gradually risen until it is now slightly higher than it was in 
1850. The deeper water is still less hard than the upper water. The fol- 
lowing are reasons for believing that no appreciable quantity of sea-water 
reaches the well: — If sea-water entered the well one would expect more 
chloride of sodium and magnesium salts when tho well is hard pumped and 
when there is a less strong flow of underground water from the interior 
towards the sea, that is in dry weather. But 

1. The proportion of chloride of sodium is almost exactly the same now 
as in 1850. 

2. Tho proportion of chloride of sodium does not vary beyond very narrow 
limits, and is very nearly the same in Bootle well as in wells further inland, 
such as Dudlow-Lane, Windsor, and Green-Lane wells. 

3. In October 1875, when the hardness was reduced by the simultaneous 
stoppage of the pumping and fall of heavy rains, the proportion of magnesium 
salts was not altered, the change in the hardness having been due almost 
entirely to an alteration in the proportion of lime salts. 

No. 6, Windsor well, 2 feet from the bottom lodgment. January 29, 1850. 

Chlorine 2-964 

Sodium 1-921 

Magnesia 5-055 

Lime 7-250 

Sulphuric acid -414 

Silica 1-714 

Carbonic acid 11-185 

Organic matter, traces of potash, water 

of crystallization, and loss 2-829 

33-332 
Hardness 25°-6 

This water has undergone several changes, having deteriorated as the 
population around it increased ; but since the sewering of the district and 
the paving of the streets were completed it has very much improved and the 
composition is now almost the same as it was in 1850. The hardness appears 
to be less now than it was then ; but this may be due to a difference in the 
test-solution employed, as two experimenters seldom get precisely the same 
figures for hardness. The same standard soap-solution has been used for 
several years, and the hardness is found to be slowly increasing. It is less in 
the deep water than in the upper water. 

No. 11, Green-Lane Well, 50 feet from bottom of well. January 30, 1850. 

Chlorine 2306 

Sodium (in combination with chlorine) .... 1-495 
Soda (as sodium sulphate) 1-391 



ON THE CIRCULATION OF UNDERGROUND WATERS. 79 

Magnesia 0-000 

Lime 4-209 

Sulphuric acid 1-795 

Silica -914 

Carbonic acid 3-302 

Organic matter and loss 4-015 

19-427 
Hardness 7 0, 5 

The proportion of mineral salts, and especially of the hardening salts, car- 
bonate of lime and sulphate of magnesia, has increased very nrach since 1850, 
and is still increasing as the well is pumped to a lower level. The deep 
water is rather harder than the upper water. 

No. 1, Bevington Bush, water out of the lodgment at bottom of well. 
January 31, 1850. 

Chlorine 19-526 

Sodium 12-660 

Magnesia 6-911 

Lime 11-386 

Sulphuric acid 10-084 

Silica -571 

Carbonic acid 11-004 

72-142 
Hardness 40°-86. 

^Votc. — The nitrates seem to have been overlooked in this analysis. 

The well has long ago been closed. 

I analyzed this well for the Water Committee in 1 868, when it contained 
- — total solids 70, nitric acid 12, hardness 36°. The well must have con- 
tained nitrates in 1850, which have been overlooked ; these salts, as well as 
the chlorides, undoubtedly come chiefly from urine and other sewage matter 
with which the ground around the well is saturated. Some of the chlorides 
might formerly have come from the sea, but there is no evidence whatever to 
show that they do. 

No. 3, Copperas Hill, water from lodgment at bottom of well. 
January 21, 1850. 

Chlorine 6-153 

Sodium 3-990 

Magnesia 4-965 

Lime 8-887 

Sulphuric acid 6*355 

Silica 1-371 

Carbonic acid 8-951 

Organic matter, traces of potash, water 

of crystallization, and loss 5-S4."» 

46-515 



80 KEPORT— 1877. 

The chlorides and other salts in this well undoubtedly come from sewage 
matter in the ground in the neighbourhood. In 1868, when it was not 
pumped but contained condensation water from the engines, it yielded total 
solids 14 and nitrates -142. 



No. 5, Soho water, from lodgment at bottom of well. January 21, 1850. 

Chlorine 3-308 

Sodium 3-083 

Magnesia 6-054 

Lime 5-471 

Sulphuric acid 4-571 

Sirica 1-600 

Carbonic acid 8*460 

Organic matter, water of crystalliza- 
tion, and loss 2-886 

35-233 
Hardness 24°-86. 

Note. — The nitrates seem to havo been overlooked in this analysis. 

In 1868, after the well was disused, the water yielded — total solids 
65-1, nitrates 6-43, hardness 20°. It must have contaiued nitrates in 1850. 
The nitrates and chlorides undoubtedly come from sewage matter in the 
neighbouring soil. The carbonates of magnesia and lime could not have 
come from sea-water ; there is no trace whatever of sea- water in the well. 



No. 12, well No. 6. Mr. Jack, boilermaker. January 31, 1850. 

Chlorine 683-304 

Sodium 298-396 

Magnesia 75-413 

Lime 107-666 

Sulphuric acid 121-000 

Silica -457 

Carbonic acid 18-040 

Organic matter, traces of potash and 

iron, and loss 1-857 

1306-163 
Hardness 503°-29 

The salts in this water come either from the sea or from the marine beds 
in which the well is sunk ; a small quantity of the lime salts also comes 
from other sources. Although I do not believe that any of the corporation 
wells contain any serious proportion of sea-water, there are private wells on 
both sides of the Mersey which do contain appreciable quantities of sea- 
water. 









Hate II 



S T HELENS 
ECCLESTON HILL 

. 260 above O.D. 



INCE WATERWORKS 

GOLBORNE 

LANCASHIRE 







■ 

I 



■ 



L I V / /: V O /. 



W E L /. S 

DUDl OVi i \m- 



tal solids 



BOOTLE 


















j 
s 






ON THE E Kit ATI C BLOCKS ()!•' ENGLAND AM) WALES. 



;-:l 



Rainfall at Liverpool. Sandfield Park, Lancashire. 

Observer. Mr. Briggs. 

Rain-Qaugo, height above ground 1 ft. 2 in., above mean sea-level 1-17 ft. 





1865. 


1866. 


1867. 


1868. 


1889. 


1870. 


1871. 


1872. 


1873. 


1874. 


January 


1-94 

210 


320 
2-90 


1-94 
118 


1-90 
1-84 


2*4 
2-70 


200 
■56 


•20 

•80 


430 
270 


100 
1-20 


2-12 
1-00 






•so 

•76 


1-70 
110 


li 18 
3-26 


2-80 
1-64 


1.-.4 
2 90 


■75 
1-50 


•20 
1C0 


2-80 
2-75 


1-50 

•40 


1-40 

•92 




May 


3-50 


1-46 


1-36 


•95 


4-90 


■90 


110 


1-50 


1-20 


1-80 




•70 


390 


■95 


•42 


1-30 


1-40 


2-80 


6-20 


1-70 


•56 


July 


3-10 


2-51 


4-80 


•46 


100 


•80 


370 


7-no 


3-20 


3-:>o 




4-1(1 


3-80 


1-64 


362 


2-50 


2(in 


1-30 


2-30 


310 


3-75 


September 


■63 


550 


214 


2-14 


6-54 


2-30 


4-70 


030 


2-70 


200 




3-UO 


2-10 


4-10 


442 


2-94 


600 


5-90 


6-42 


384 


390 


November 


250 


4-50 


1-92 


2-28 


370 


3-38 


1-75 


2-94 


200 


5-00 




100 


2-23 


3-03 


<;•.->(> 


216 


270 


200 


4-3'i 


•80 


1-60 


Totals ' 


2443 


34-90 


27-42 


29-03 


3502 


24-21 


2.3 7o 


49-57 

1 


22-64 


28-45 

























Fifth Report of the Committee, consisting of Professor Prestwich, 
Prof. Harkness, Prof. Hughes, Prof. W. Boyd Dawkins, the 
Rev. II. W. Crosskey, Messrs. L. C. Miall, Ct. H. Morton, D. 
Mackintosh, R. H. Tiddeman, J. E. Lee, T. Plant, W. Pex- 
gelly, and Dr. Deane, appointed for the purpose of recording the 
position, height above the sea, lithological characters, size, and 
origin of the Erratic Blocks of England, Wales, and Ireland, report- 
ing other matters of interest connected icith Ihe same, and taking 
measures for their preservation. Drawn up by the Rev. II. AY. 
Crosskey, Secretary. 

The Committee during the past year has continued to pursue the method 
described in previous Reports. The schedule printed in the British Asso- 
ciation Report for 1873 (p. 189) has been circulated, and replies of con- 
siderable interest have been received. The problems involved are so vast 
(covering as they do the whole history of the glacial epoch), and the facts 
are as yet so imperfectly recorded, while the destruction of erratic blocks is 
going on throughout the country -with such rapidity, that the work of the 
Committee increases in importance. 

1877. c 



82 report— 1877. 



Denbighshire — Cheshire. 



Mr. D. Mackintosh records a boulder in a brick-pit a short distance S. of 
Wrexham. Its length is 9 ft. ; breadth 4| ft. ; depth unknown ; and it is 
associated with Eskdale granite. Trot. Hull recognizes it as Lower Keuper 
(calcareous conglomerate) in all probability from some part of the escarp- 
ments of the Delaniere or Peckforton hills, the former about 20 miles N.E., 
and the latter about 12 miles E. of Wrexham. The boulder is imbedded in 
Upper Boulder-clay, with its characteristic whitish-grey fractures. It fur- 
nishes an important instance of the intercrossing of the directions in which 
boulders have been transported, as it must have come at nearly right angles 
to the course of the Eskdale granite boulders, with which it is associated. 
The transporting agent was probably floating ice. Mr. Mackintosh bas made 
further observations on the derivation of some boulders already known. 

In the neighbourhood of the Dee and the Mersey the most conspicuous erratic 
in the Boulder-clay consists of a rock which bas been called " greenstone," but 
to which the name of hornblendic felstone may be applied. At Dawpool, near 
Parkgate (where an immense number of bouldors have been left on the sea- 
beach by the encroachments of the waves on the clay cliffs), the two largest 
of these hornblendic felstone erratics measure 7 X 5 x 4 ft. and 6 x 4 X 4 ft. 
Their most conspicuous companion erratic is Criffel granite, from the S. of 
Scotland. In the new dock excavation at Bootlc, near Liverpool, boulders of 
the same character predominate, though the principal granite with which 
they are associated is Eskdale granite, from near Bavenglass, Cumberland. 

Bepcated observations failed to discover any streams of these boulders in 
the Lake-district, either by themselves, or in company with the great exodus 
of Eskdale granite, which is still represented by thousands of blocks scattered 
between the Eskdale fells and the sea-coast. Mr. J. Geikie and Mr. Home 
pronounced specimens sent to them to be from the outskirts of the Criffel- 
granite area ; and also regarded a few specimens of associated Silurian-grit 
boulders to be derived from the S. of Scotland. Lake-district Silurian-grit 
erratics, however, are associated with granite at Dawpool, as well as Enner- 
dale syenite (streams of which may be seen between the mouth of Enncrdale 
and the sea), Wastdale scree-rock, Dudden fclspathic breccia, &c. 

The extent to which these different assemblages of erratics from different 
points of the compass have become mixed up and interwoven is one of the 
most unexpected results at which an observer could have arrived. 

Warwickshire— Staffordshire. 

The Bev. J. Caswell, St. Mary's College, Oscott, has examined the district 
in the neighbourhood of the college, and supplies the following list of boul- 
ders met with (p. S3). The numbers (thus, 50-43) refer to square miles of 
country, as described iu the Beport of the Geological Section of the Birming- 
ham Natural-History Society (British Association Beport, 1873, p. 191). 

Staffordshire, 

Mr. F. C. Woodforde reports a number of boulders in the neighbourhood 
of Stoke-on-Trent and Newcastle. Most of the small ones, which were 
exceedingly abundant, have been moved by man, and are used on some roads 
as marks along the sides of ditches. Great quantities have been used to 



6 



OX THE ERRATIC BLOCKS OF ENGLAND AND WALES. 



83 



Index 


Principal place 










No. to 
square 


marked on Ord- 
nance Maps occur- 


Bock. 


Size in 
inches. 


Position. 




mile. 


ring in square. 










50-43 


Osborn's Barn. 


Felstone. 


3(>x27x ? Bank under tree. 
28xl2xl2lHeaps of stones on road t 
Beacon. 


o Ban 


49-44 


Old naii. 




23x12x18 


Road under Great Barr 
wall. 


Park 


51-44 

)• 
II 


Thornhill. 


• • 


12xlbx ? 
34X15X ? 
12X12X12 


Road-side. 




49-45 


Barr Hall. 


Brown Felstone. 


18x18 


Imbedded in bank. 






" 


Felstone. 


50x24x18 


Lying in stream. 




II 




IJ 


12x12x12 


Imbedded in road. 




50-45 


Queensler, 


Granite. 


12x 6x? 


In a wall. 




51-45 


Sing's Vale. 


Felstone. 


12x12x12 


Imbedded in road. 




50-4fi 


Paper-mill End. 




24x24x24 


Lying in ditch. 








it 


18x18x18 


Road-side. 




52-46 


Old Chester Eoad. 




12X10X? 


In garden-bank. 




53-4(1 


Old Bell & Cuckoo. 


Granite. 


12x12x12 


Road-side. 




51-47 


Wilton Hall. 


Felstone. 


J» 


Brook running into Wilton 


Pool. 


52-47 


Stockland Green. 


» 

: 


12x12x12 


In road. 




55-47 


Castle Bromwieh. 


1 1 


j* 


At Castle Bromwieh. 




50-47 


Perry. 


] 






51-43 


Streetly Hill. 








52-43 


Pool Hollies. 








52-44 


Holly Hurst. 








52-45 


Powel's Pool. 








53-43 
53-44 


Doe Bank. 

Sutton Coalfields. 


1 

► No bouldera found in these squares. 




53-45 


Maney. 








54-44 


New House. 








54-45 


New Hall. 








54-40 


Jones Rough. 








54-47 


Tyburn. 


; 







pave the streets of Newcastle. One of the most remarkable is on the grounds 
of the High School in that town, and is used as a parish boundary. Its size 
is 5 x 3 ft. ; and it formerly stood about 2 ft. 6 in. above the surface, but 
part is now buried. It is rather rounded, but not striated, aud consists of a 
compact felstone. It is about 400 feet above the sea, and indicates the 
boundary between Stoke and Newcastle. It is quite isolated, and rests on 
Bouldcr-clay, containing glacially striated subangular boulders of a different 
mineral character. 

The dimensions of groups of boulders in the neighbourhood of Henley 
farm and Beech Dale are 3 ft. 8 in. x 2 ft., 4 ft. x 3 ft., with others smaller. 
Some are slightly subangular, some more rounded, aud all much weathered. 
The direction, by compass, of the longest axis of one of the group is N.E.E. 
— S.W.W., of another S.S.— N.W., and of another N.— S. The height of 
the group is 450 ft. above the sea. Larger boulders have their bases covered 
by soil and grass, smaller ones are almost completely covered by soil. They 
rest on the Keuper, very near the outcrop of the Bunter sandstone. The 

g2 



81 REPOllT — 1877. 

group lies on the side of a hill facing nearly E. They are visible in one 
field, but the upper part of the .slope is covered with dense underwood and 
timber, in which others may possibly be concealed. Some of these boulders 
are of compact felstonc, and others of granite. 

Shropshire. 

Mr. C. J. Woodward, of Birmingham, reports that he has walked over 
a considerable portion of the district having St. George's, Shropshire, as a 
centre, and a three or four miles radius. In the whole district boulders 
occur, though at times one may walk for a mile or so and not meet with them. 
Their apparent absence, Mr. Woodward believes, is frequently from accidental 
circumstances ; for, as mentioned by him in the Report of this Committee for 
1873 (British Association Report, 1873, p. 192), many boulders are buried 
as soon as mot with by farmers, many, too, get broken up for road purposes. 
The most likely place to meet with boulders is about the buildings of a farm 
or at the corners of streets in villages, for in these places the stones serve a 
useful purpose, and consequently are not destroyed. The size of the boulders 
in this district is- from 2 to 3 feet in length, by about the same in width and 
thickness ; but besides these, which are boulders proper, there are stones of 
various sizes down to pebbles, composed of the same kind of rocks, and indis- 
tinguishable from what are commonly called boulders, except by their size. 
The number of boulders per square mile in the district is probably from 
to 200 or so. The boulders consist mainly of granite and felstonc. In 
the neighbourhood of Lilleshall Hill are several boulders, which consist of 
compact felstonc, containing iron pyrites and garnets. Boulders of similar 
rock, containing garnets, have been met with at Wightwick, near Wolver- 
hampton, and in a lane near Wroxeter, Salop. 

Hertfordshire. 

Boulders are found at Boyston and Ashwell, upon which Mr. II. G. Ford- 
ham, of Boyston, reports. The characteristic materials are a millstone-giit 
and a fine compact sandstone, the latter being the most prevalent. Tn the 
village of Ashwell there are as many as forty boulders, the largest of which 
is 3 x 2-G x 1*6 ft. It is much worn and rounded by exposure to the wheels 
of carts. Another smaller cubical boulder measures about a foot in each 
direction, and is of fine yellowish sandstone. Other boulders of this material 
occur of larger size, up to about 2 ft. 6 in. in the longest diameter. There 
are patches of Boulder-clay and gravel on most of the neighbouring hills, 
and probably these boulders have been derived from them. These gravels 
are mostly composed of Hints, but they also furnish fossils and fragments 
from the Oolite and Lias. 

In Boyston is a boulder remarkable for its size and history. It is of 
millstone-grit, and measures 4 ft. 8 in. X 3 ft. 6 in. X 2 ft. 2 in. The history 
of this boulder, so far as known, is given in the notes to ' Boyston Winter 
Recreations in the Days of Quceii Ann ' — a translation from a Latin poem 
printed in 1710. It has been used as the footstone of a cross of considerable 
antiquity, and is now preserved in the garden of the Boyston Institute. 

Two boulders, one of millstone-grit, 3x2x1 ft., with rounded angles, 
and another of sandstone, smaUer, occur in the garden of a house in Mel- 
bourn Street. 



ON THK 1SKHATIC BLOCKS 01' ENGLAND AND WALES. 85 

In the district the boulders are used for paving, marking the sides of roads, 
and protecting the corners of buildings. 

South Devon. 

Mr. Pengelly reports as follows respecting boulders and scratched stones in 
South Devon : — 

In 1875 Mr. P. F. S. Amery wrote me respecting boulders of "green- 
stone " on his father's estate of Druid, near the town, and within the parish, 
of Ashburton ; and during a visit there, in July 1876, he kindly accompanied 
me to inspect them. 

The boulders occur about -5 mile north-west from Ashburton, in two ad- 
jacent fields, the easternmost being known as Loin/bottom, whilst that on the 
west of it is termed Cole's Bottom. In the southern corner of Longbottoni 
there is a boulder measuring 2-i x 18 X 11 inches, having rudely quadrilateral 
faces, with the angles well rounded off. It contains no marks or scratches, 
and it is known that it does not now occupy the place in which it was found, 
which, however, was, no doubt, in the same field and not far off. It is now 
near the bottom of the field, and about 30 feet above the level of Ashburton, 
which is itself about 200 feet above mean tide. 

A similar but smaller stone occurs on the opposite side of the same field. 
The soil on which both specimens lie, and in which they were found, is a 
clay, sometimes yellowish and sometimes bluish, in which stones of the same 
character as the boulders, but of much smaller dimensions, are numerous. 
The labourers term them " water-stones." 

Near the top of Cole's Eottom there are the fragments of a boulder, which 
must have been considerably larger than either of those already mentioned, 
which it resembles in Hthological character. It M'as encountered by the 
plough in 1875, and unfortunately broken in pieces and dislodged by the 
workmen who found it. The fragments, which are themselves of consider- 
able size, are now lying by the hedge in the same field. The boulder appears 
to have bad all its angles rounded off, like those already mentioned; but on 
what was probably its lower surface there are several grooves, sensibly 
straight, about 6 inches long, from 2 to 3 inches broad, and parallel to one 
another. These grooves are crossed and partially effaced by two others of 
greater breadth. This specimen is about 70 feet above the level of those in 
Longbottom, and rather further from Ashburton. It must be confessed that 
the grooves it bears do not impress one with the conviction that they arc of 
glacial origin ; and were it not that they occur on what was apparently the 
lower surface of the mass, they might rather, perhaps, be ascribed to the 
plough. 

The only greenstone formations known to exist in the immediate neigh- 
bourhood are those forming Roborough Hill, on the eastern side of North 
Street, Ashburton, and Sparnhani Hill, on its western side; but to have 
travelled from either of them, the largest boulder must have ascended an 
acclivity to the height of 200 feet above the valley separating the spot in 
which it was found from the hills just named ; whilst the smaller specimens 
must have performed a similar journey, but failed to attain so great a height. 

In July 1870. Air. Paige-Browne, of Great Englebourne, Harberton, South 
Devon, was so good as to inform me of the existence of a large number of 
boulders in his neighbourhood, and to invito me to make him a visit for the 
purpose of a joint inspection of them. I availed myself of this invitation 



80 kepokt — 1877. 

on tho 28th of the following September, and on the next day we proceeded 
to the hamlet of East Leigh, also in Harberton parish. On our way thither 
Mr. Paige-Browne directed my attention to the frequent occurrence of large 
stones, of a reddish colour, in the foundation courses of hedges and other 
rough walls, and all differing strikingly from the slate or "shillet" of tbe 
district. These were the outposts, so to speak, of the boulders we were to 
examine ; and whilst they were considerably smaller than most of the spe- 
cimens to be visited, they were so large as to render it probable that they 
had not been transported by man from any great distance, but had been 
found near at band and utilized. 

At East Leigh, about a mile north-westerly from Englebourne House, and 
nearly as far in a south-westerly direction from the village of Harberton, 
boulders arc very numerous and of great size. They are generally angular 
and subangular, but with one face more or less rounded, and even polished, 
but without any scratches or strise. They are all of a red colour and jaspi- 
deous aspect, and so siliceous as to scratch glass readily. One of them, pro- 
bably the largest of the group — so near a cottage-door that we felt called 
on to apologize to the inmates for our seeming intrusiveness when engaged 
in examining it — mcasuics 17x10x5 feet, and, taking its specific gravity 
at 2-5, its weight can be little less thau 60 tons. It lies on the common soft 
shillet of the district, and is certainly a travelled block. This is, no doubt, 
the history of all the numerous blocks near it. 

A short distance towards the north-west there is in a field a large mass 
of the same kind of rock, rising above the soil, and probably in situ, having 
on it a loose, but in all likelihood untravelled, block of the same character. 
Both of them, and especially the upper one, are smoothed and rounded on 
certain parts of the surface. Indeed one portion of the upper stone has a 
polish a lapidary might envy ; but it was no doubt produced by the rubbing 
of cattle. Neither of the stones is scratched or striated. 

East of these blocks, in the adjoining field, is the striking and abrupt pile 
known as Berry-Stone Rock. It is distinctly stratified and jointed, and is, 
I have no doubt, the undisturbed remnant of a much larger mass — the parent 
of all the numerous boulders covering the district immediately on the south ; 
and it seems more than probable that some of the isolated masses rising above 
the greensward, not far from the Hock, as well as in the adjacent field on 
the west, are untravelled, undisturbed prolongations of the same mass. 

In tho south face of the pile, which is almost vertical, Mr. Paige-Browne 
detected fragments of crinoidal stems, and we found subsequently obscure 
casts of Brachiopods, all of which we left uutouched. Information has 
reached me that Mr. Champcrnowne, E.G.S., of Darlington Hall, has since 
found several corals in the same mass, but none of them sufficiently perfect 
for specific identification. 

Mr. Paige-Browne informed me that a common mode of freeiug cultivated 
ground from boulders was to dig deep adjacent pits, into which, by under- 
mining, they were caused to fall, and were then buried. The process, how- 
ever, being attended with risk, is not now much resorted to, as the workmen 
object to it. 

Whilst descending to Leigh Bridge, on the cast of Berry-8tone Hock, we 
entered a very small field, in which the boulders were very numerous, and 
many of them of great size. Here we found an intelligent villager named 
Heath, who stated that all the blocks of which he had had experience lay either 
in the common soil, or on rock utterly unlike themselves ; that unsuspected 
boulders of precisely the same character were frequently encountered iii tho 



& 



ON THE ERRATIC BLOCKS OF ENGLAND AND WALKS. S7 

district by men engaged in cutting deep gutters and drains, and that they 
were sometimes of such dimensions as to render it much the wisest course to 
leave them undisturbed and to deviate from the proposed line of excavation. 

From the observations I was able to make, and the information furnished 
to me, it appears that the boulders occupy a zone, about "75 mile long and •-"> 
mile broad, south of an east-and-west lino from Leigh Bridge on the east, 
through and a little beyond the Berry-Stone Hock on the west, and that 
none have been detected north of that line. 

The Berry-Stone Bock occupies a place in the map of the Geological Survey 
of Great Britain, but it does not appear that Sir H. De la Beche, or any other 
Writer, has directed attention to its remarkable character, or to the multitude 
of boulders lying in its vicinity and undoubtedly connected with it. 

Having learnt that, on account of the proximity of the numerous and very 
large boulders, its limited extension, its supposed metamorphic character, its 
dissimilarity to all the other rocks of the district, and its resemblance to 
certain metamorphic rocks surrounding Dartmoor, it had been suggested 
that the Berry-Stone Bock was itself an erratic block, and derived probably 
from Auswell Mod; about 8"5 miles due north, I decided on making it a 
second visit, and requested that, as a preliminary step, an excavation should 
be made immediately adjacent to its southern or precipitous side. Having 
secured the ready consent of Mr. Helyar, of Coker Court, Somerset, who is 
the proprietor of the land, and of Messrs. E. and E. Whiteway, the tenants, 
this was done ; and on the 25th May, 1877, I proceeded, with Mr. J. S. 
Amery, to the spot, where we found Mr. Paige-Browne and Mr. E. Whiteway. 
Two pits had been dug, one five feet deep and the other somewhat less, the 
work having been stopped in each case by the occurrence of a mass of rock, 
which was either a large boulder or a subterranean prolongation of the Berry 
Stone in situ. In short, there was no indication that the base of the pile 
had oven been approached. 

The entire mass is rudely rectangular in form, measuring 145 feet long in 
an east and west direction, 56 feet high from the top of the southern face 
to the bottom of the deepest pit at its base, 11 feet high on the northern 
side (the difference in height being clue, not to the form of the pile, but to 
inequalities in the level of the ground), and 32 feet broad at the top. The 
beds dip at about 2G° towards the north, and are of considerable thickness, 
one of them measuring 7'5 feet ; and the numerous well-defined joints are 
sensibly vertical, in no instance " open," and have a north-and-south 
direction. 

It will be seen from the foregoing data that the portion of the pile which 
has been actually examined contains upwards of 250,000 cubic feet, and, at 
a specific gravity of 2-5, weighs upwards of 18,000 tons — facts sufficient of 
themselves to show that the Berry-Stone Bock is certainly not a travelled 
mass, but is distinctly in situ. According to Professor Heer (see his ' Prinmeval 
World of Switzerland,' edited by James Heywood, M.A., F.B.S., 1876, vol. ii. 
p. 181), the largest block in Switzerland — the "Monster Block " on the hill 
of Montct near Devent— contains no more than 161,000 cubic feet, that is, 
less than two thirds of the volume of the Devonshire pile ; and we learn from 
the First Beport by the Committee on Scotch Boulders (1872, p. 24), that 
the largest block they have detected— that at Kemnay, in Aberdeenshire — 
measures 38x30x10-5 feet, =11,970 cubic feet at most; i. e., less than 
one twentieth of the bulk of the Berry Stone. 

If these aro the measures of the greatest efforts of Switzerland and Scotland 
respectively — countries possessed of mountains entitled to look with scorn on 



88 report— 1877. 

our Dartmoor, and which we know were the scenes of glacial labours on a 
most magnificent scale, whilst we have done no more than, if we have done 
so much as, to show that Devonshire was glaciated at all — Ave can scarcely 
hesitate to dismiss the hypothesis of the Berry-Stone Rock being a travelled 
block. 

Again, to have travelled from Auswell Rock, or any spot in that neigh- 
bourhood, the blocks must have bid defiance to at least many of the hills and 
valleys of the interjacent country. True, their route for a part of the way 
might have been the Dart valley ; but they must have left this as high up 
as at Staverton, and been regardless of the contour of the country throughout 
the residue of their journey ; and since they abound at the level of the River 
Harber, at Leigh Bridge, that contour must have closely resembled that 
which obtains at present. Of those at a distance from it, there are none at 
so high a level as the base of the Berry Stone itself. 

Further, had the Berry-Stone Hock, or any of the undoubted boulders 
south of it, travelled from Auswell Rock, we might surely have expected 
that, here and there, and at by no means wide intervals, blocks of the same 
character would have presented themselves in the intervening country ; but 
it is admitted, even by those who have diligently sought them, that, so far 
from any thing of the kind being met with, the boulders of East Leigh, as 
alii arly stated, are confined to a narrow zone, having the Berry-Stone Bock 
on its northern margin, and without a single block to tho north of that pile. 

Finally, it is difficult to believe that such a mass could have fallen on a 
glacier without being divided along some of its numerous joints ; in other 
words, that a pile traversed by so many divisional planes could, after such a 
fall, have remained so large. 

The foregoing reasons, as well as the general aspect of the rock, forbid tho 
acceptance of the notion that it is a travelled block, and compel me to hold 
that it occupies the place it always did, and that it is the parent of the nu- 
merous blocks scattered over the district immediate!}' on the south. 

With regard to the characters which distinguish it so strikingly from tho 
surrounding formations, if it has undergone metamorphosis at all, the fossils 
it yields show that it has not been to an extent sufficient to obliterate them. 
Unfortunately they are too ill-preserved for specific identification, so that they 
fail to tell us whether they belong, like the Auswell Rock, to the Carboniferous 
period, or, like the adjacent "shillet" and slate, to the Devonian era. If, 
however, the Rock has been metamorphosed, it is not inconceivable that 
subterranean granitoid rocks may exist in various directions very far from 
Dartmoor, and, without reachiug the surface anywhere, may in certain places 
rise very near it in sharp conical masses, and that such metamorphosis as 
the Berry Stone has undergone may be due to such a subterranean boss. 
Such an explanation of the highly metamorphosed condition of the rocks 
extending from the Start Point to the Boll Tail, in the southern angle of 
Devonshire — the cause of which is no more exposed to view than in the case 
now under notice — has been suggested by Dr. Harvey Hull, F.G.S., and the 
late Mr. Bcete Jukes, F.R.S. &c. (see Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. Lond. vol. xxiv. 
pp. 439, 440, 1868, and ' Notes on Tarts of South Devon and Cornwall,' 
. p. 15), and a glance at the known distribution of the granitoid rocks 
in Cornwall, Devonshire, and Lundy Island will show that it has at least an 
air of probability. 

The extension of the Berry-Stone pile, though now confessedly very limited, 
was of necessity considerably greater before the crowd of huge boulders wa3 
severed from the mass; and, as already stated, there can be little doubt that 



ON THK ERRATIC BLOCKS OF ENGLAND AND WALES. 89 

at least some, of the so-called boulders rising through the greensward in a 
line with the Berry-Stone, and on the west of it, are indications of its subsoil 
prolongation in that direction. 

A degree of resemblance to the Auswcll Rock may be the result of simi- 
larity of composition and of exposure to corresponding treatment. It may 
be sufficient, perhaps, to justify the question, " Has the southern been derived 
from the northern mass?" but not sufficient to justify an affirmative reply. 

I cannot conclude this note without expressing my gratitude to Mr. Paige- 
Browne for having directed my attention to phenomena so unexpected and 
so striking as the Leigh boulders, and which are certainly amongst the most 
pronounced indications of ice-transportation known to me in Devonshire. 

Leicestershire. 
Mr. J. Plant, of Leicester, reports as follows: — 

IsoJa ted Bo ulde rs. 

Loseby, Leicestershire, about 9 miles from Leicester. Gravel-pit, in map 
under letter o in Loseby. 4| feet long, 3 feet wide, 3| feet deep. Sharp 
angles and edges on one side, the other side rounded off. Long shape ; never 
moved by man ; S.E. by S. No groovings can be seen. Granite. About 
650 feet above the sea at mean tide Liverpool. 

The erratic is in a gravel-pit of " drift," flint, rounded pebbles of liver- 
quartz, &c. ; this gravel-bed forms part of a long "ridge" of drift-gravel ; the 
pit opened is 20 feet deep, and rests upon gravel, which again lies upon the 
upper clays of " Lower Lias." 

This "erratic" is 10 miles distant from its nearest possible source, and is 
the largest of this kind that I have found at that distance. It is reported to 
me that when working (some years ago) this gravel-pit, a large block of pure 
coal (as large as this " erratic ") was found, but it was speedily utilized for 
domestic purposes. 

I was informed of another block of coal (large size) found in a gravel-pit at 
Beeby, 4 miles west of Loseby. These blocks of coal must have travelled in 
ice, as they would certainly have been broken up by any other means of 
transport, such as water. Both blocks were buried many feet in the gravel. 

i have never met with any " erratics " of any kind on the " marlstonc," 
and, in fact, there is very little " drift " upon any of it, the red rock being 
nearly at the surface ; and hence the name of these marlstone-districts, " the 
red lands." The mean height of the marlstone is G80 feet, all lying south, 
south-east, and east of Leicester, and the mean height of Chain wood Forest 
(the presumed source of these erratic blocks of granite, syenite, greenstone) 
is about 700 feet ; there are a few peaks 840 feet, and one, Bardon Hill, 
802 feet. 

Groups of Boulders. 

Group No. 1. — At Evington, about 1 mile east of the town of Leicester. 
The size of the boulders is from 3 feet x 2| x 1| down to cubic blocks about 
1 foot on each side. The greater part have sharp angles and edges, and when 
free of clay and sand the rock-surface is very fresh, not at all weathered ; 
the grits and sandstone arc rounded and worn. 

Many of the limestone blocks are covered with grooves and scratches. 
Iloeks at south end of Charnwood Forest would supply the granite, syenite, and 



90 REPORT 1877. 

greenstone, and north end of the same district would furnish the grits, sand- 
stone, and limestone. Nearly half are granites, others millstone-grit, with 
limestone, chert, Triassic sandstone, and coal-measure sandstones. About 
280 feet above sca-levcl. 

The group extends over an area of about \k mile by i a mile wide. At 
depths of from 1 foot up to 20 feet in " drift, -0 ' these boulders arc found in 
heaps; the "drift" has been penetrated (for a deep sewer) 30 feet, arid 
bottom not reached. 

Group No. 2.— At Thurnby, 5 miles south-east of Leicester. Size of 
boulders from 2 feetx l|xl| down to cubic blocks about 9 inches on each 
face. All edges sharp and angular. Rocks of the same nature occur at the 
south end of Charnwood Forest. All seen are granites, syenites, greenstones. 
Height above the sea is about 500 feet mean tide Liverpool. 

The area occupied is a mile square, but they are scattered in groups and 
patches. The boulders occur at depths of 1 to 2 feet in " drift.'' Great 
numbers of them have been collected and idilized for roads, others arc now 
seen for many miles along the turnpike, supporting the footpath at intervals 
about lii feet apart : this is a very common way of utilizing these boulders 
in modern times; formerly they were all used up in foundations of houses, 
churches, abbeys, walls, barns, &c. 



Fourth Report of a Committee, consisting of Prof. A. »S. Herschel, 
M.A., F.R.A.S., and G. A. Lebour, F.G.S., on Experiments to 
determine the Thermal Conductivities of certain Rocks, showing 
especially the Geological Aspects of the Investigation. 

Having been led during the past year, by a renewal of their appointment 
(with the provision of a grant amply sufficient to enable them to recommence 
it), to pursue, and if possible to complete the experimental investigation in 
which they have now for the fourth year been engaged, of the Thermal Con- 
ductivities of certain Bocks, the Committee have attempted to complete this 
research as far as the different kinds of rocks within their reach appeared to 
offer geologically the most practical inducements to fix their places exactly 
in a thermal-resistance scale, and to verify as certainly as possible the re- 
sults of the observations which they have obtained in former years. 

The same form and size of rock-plates, the same steam-heater and cooler, 
and exactly the same form of thermopile as that described in the account of 
the experiments presented in last year's lleport were resorted to in order to 
extend, and in part also to repeat, some of the former experiments in this 
year's series of similar determinations. The apparatus was, however, modi- 
fied in some essential points, in order, by changing entirely the circumstances 
of the experiments, to leave no doubt of the reality of the observed thermal 
conductivities, and of the extent to which their values can be trusted as repre- 
senting correctly the true conductivities of the rock-specimens examined. For 
this purpose a new thermopile was constructed, having as one of its elements 
iridio-platinum instead of iron wire (German silver being, as before, the 



ON THE THERMAL CONDUCTIVITIES OF CERTAIN ROCKS. [)\ 

other clement), which, with the fine gauge (0-4 mm., rolled to l>2 mm.) of 
the wires used, was not so destructible as iron, while it yielded with German 
silver a thermoelectric current whose electromotive force was scarcely less 
considerable than that obtained with a combination of iron and German silver. 
The series of twenty-four junctions of dissimilar wires contained in the con- 
tinuous circuit which enclosed the rock, while opposite to each other (above 
and below the rock-plate) in twelve pairs, were so distributed equally over 
its area as to indicate by their total action an average difference of tempera- 
ture between its faces for all the different points of the area of the plate *. 
The wires, where not used to touch the plate, were secured to a band of thin 
leather 4 or 5 inches wide, two similar bands of thin silk above and below 
the rock-plate forming the rest of their support, so that the rock-plate could 
be placed between the two silk bands in a flexible loop of a twelve-fold coil 
of wires, the right half of which consisted of German silver and the left of 
iridio-platinum half-turns of the coil. The latter were cut through, and 
being joined to twenty-four ends of German-silver wire in a water-bath, 
which proceeded from as many teeth of a commutator, it was easy (as described 
by a sketch of the arrangement in last year's Report) to note the actual mean 
temperature of cither the upper or the lower set of junctions touching the 
rock-plate, by varying the temperature of the water in the hath until no 
current passing through the galvanometer indicated that the water in the 
bath had reached the same temperature as that of the set of junctions above 
or below the rock-plate with which the junctions in the water-bath had been 
connected up. 

Several independent proofs having already been obtained that water, with- 
out convection, possesses a thermal conductivity which is not only high 
among liquids, but is actually not inferior to that of some solid rocks whose 
place is low in the conducting- scale, no difficulty was anticipated in making 
the wire junctions assume identically the existing temperatures of the rock- 
faces touching them, nor was the bibulous or porous stratum of thin silk upon 
which they rested, when soaked with water, expected to vitiate the observa- 
tions by any inequality of temperature in a water-filni of such exceeding 
thinness, touching the rock, in which the thermopile wires were placed. In 
order to press them close, smooth sheets of unvulcanizcd india rubber were 
placed outside of the wet silk ; and the wires being thus effectually squeezed 
against the rock with a simple luting of pure water (which, under the pressuro 
of 4 lb. per square inch on every part of the surface, could nowhere well 
attain half a millimetre in thickness), the equality of their temperature with 
that of the rock-face contiguous to them might be regarded as assured. In 
some of the most porous rocks, as chalk and firestone, the water laid on the 
silk was nearly absorbed by the stone, leaving the silk damp, but steaming ; 
and as equally steady and satisfactory observations were yet obtained in theso 
cases when air and water-vapour must to a great extent have replaced the 
water-film, it deserves a future trial if steam (and it may be even air) in 
such an extremely thin film as contained the wires in these experiments may 
not be as effective a medium of heat-conduction with which to surround the 
wires as water; but, beyond the evidence that air saturated with water- 

* The thickness of the plate was also similarly gauged with steel calipers at several 
points, so as to obtain the average thickness, the exact value of which as thus obtained 
was used in all the experiments described in theso Reports to calculate the conductivity of 
the plate. 



92 report — 1877. 

vapour (at a tension of a few inches of mercury, and at a temperature of 
110° F. to 130° F.) is as efficacious as water itself, no special experiment 
with the thin wire thermopile to solve the question as regards dry air alone 
was made in further trial of what would he, if found to he successful, a 
practically very valuable simplification. 

The other variations introduced in this year's series of experiments were 
to increase the temperature differences and the heat-flow through the tested 
plates by removing all but the most necessary sheets of caoutchouc lining 
between them and the heater or cooler, and by raising a more rapid supply 
of steam in the heater with a stronger flame. The actual temperature of the 
plates was also raised in 6ome experiments by shifting all the movable 
linings from underneath to above the plates so as to bring the latter further 
from the cooler and nearer to the source of heat. The success of these ex- 
periments was only partial, because, in the strong temperaturo differences 
which prevailed (when temperatures between 130° F. and 160° F. were 
noted in the water-bath), false currents arising from want of homogeneity 
in the heated wires presented themselves in the thermopile, which, in spite 
of the number of its coils, did not neutralize each other entirely ; and it was 
found necessary to test it very carefully (as described in the last Report) 
by introducing a hot paper-covered thick plate of iron between the lappets 
of the thermopile in place of a rock-specimen, and observing the temperatures 
of its two faces at the water-bath. Errors of indication of the thermopile 
were thus discovered, and were noted at different temperatures of the iron 
plate, arising from the abrupt changes of temperature along the wires. The 
way in which the temperature of the water in the bath was changed, quickly 
or slowly, from hot to cold, or vice versa, seemed especially to influence these 
considerably ; and it was finally resolved to abandon the attempt to obtain 
new results, by these means, of the thermal conductivities of the rock-plates 
at higher temperatures and under very different circumstances of the heat- 
flow through them from those which had been employed before, although the 
known allowances for the small erratic deportment of the thermopile always 
gave under these entirely new conditions results which did not differ appre- 
ciably from those which were previously observed, and which have been re- 
corded in the earlier tables of these Reports. Temperatures of the rock- 
faces between 100° F. and 120° F. were found by trials with the iron plate 
to be easy to observe correctly in the water-bath, with proper care in its 
management, with errors not exceeding two or three tenths of a degree, 
while the temperature differences requiring to be thus observed varied from 
between 3° and 4° with quartz to between 30° and 40° with shale and sand. 
About this range of temperature of the rock-faces was accordingly adopted, 
by properly thickening the lining between them and the heater, in the expe- 
riments which afforded the following table of results (p. 94). While it would 
be necessary, in order to deliver the individual wires of the thermopile from 
strong effects of temperature-differences, and to obtain scientifically accurate 
results, to discard steam-heating and the use of temperatures much above 
those of the outer air altogether, resorting for, example, rather to cold water 
from a main to produce the temperature difference necessary to transmit heat 
through the rocks, or using water otherwise cooled artificially in the cooler, 
and exposing the under surface of the rock with a lining and a metal plate 
to the ordinary temperature of a room, yet with the small uncertainties 
which, without doubt, remain in the indications of the thermopile from the 
cause here pointed out, in this and in all the earlier tables of absolute con- 
ductivities and resistances which the Committee has appended to its Reports. 



ON THE THERMAL CONDUCTIVITIES OF CERTAIN ROCKS. 03 

ii can furnish some additional support from these provisional experiments to 
the assurance which it has already gained in former years, that the values 
assigned to them will not be found to differ, except in some rare accidental 
cases, more than 10, or, in the least satisfactory cases, it may ho 15 or 20 per 
cent, from the real thermal conductivities of the rock-plates examined. The 
heat-capacity of the cooler and the rate of loss of heat through it to the outer 
air were reobserved, and Avcro used independently in the preparation of this 
Table, although they differed slightly (perhaps from setting and tightening 
of its jacket with time) from similar measures of them which were used 
last year. 

The conductivities observed this year are, for the most part, a little higher 
than those found formerly, perhaps by reason of the new determinations used 
of the heat-capacity and heat-loss of the cooler : but some exceptions to this 
rule are also found ; and it must be remembered that no allowance is made 
in these or in the earlier results for the small quantity of heat absorbed by 
the rock-plate itself during the progress of an experiment, nor, again, for 
the fact that the rate of absorption of heat and of its emission to the outer 
air by the jacketed vessel of the cooler is dependent on the rate of rise of 
water temperature inside it. The specific heats of the materials of the 
rocks themselves and of the apparatus are not sufficiently known to determine 
these corrections surely ; but at the common specific heat (0-2) of a great 
number of rocks it appears that about one thirtieth of their values may have 
to be added to the observed conductivities for the first of these considerations. 
Whether an additive or subtractive correction is required for the second 
cause cannot be decided, because it is an uncertainty already occurring in 
the determination of the heat-capacity and rate of heat-loss of the cooler, 
the judgment necessary in assigning which must be regarded as providing 
sufficiently for this correction. Thus a correction for heat-capacity of the 
cooler vessel and its jacket of one tenth was added to the conductivities beforo 
observed directly, while one eighth was added in the experiments of the 
present year, allowing a rather longer time (of three or four minutes) for the 
heat to penetrate the vessel and its jacket. At the 6low rate (about 1° F. 
in the same time) that the temperature of the water rises in the cooler 
during an experiment no higher correction than this could well be admitted ; 
for after this length of time the loss of heat from the water depends sensibly 
upon its escape to the outer air, and no longer perceptibly upon the absorp- 
tion or capacity for heat of the vessel and its jacket, when an experiment is 
made to find the amount of this heat-loss by absorption. The uncertainty 
of this correction must therefore range between one tenth and one eighth of 
the observed conductivities, which have been used as its extreme values in 
different cases. The apparatus may fairly be regarded in other respects as 
perfectly heat-tight in its connexions by the thick belts of caoutchouc which 
surround the tested plate of rock and the meeting ends of the boiler and 
cooler pressed against it by great pressure ; and a thick wooden table 
(through which the padded boiler top just reaches the level of its upper 
surface) prevents any extraneous heat from the source below it from reaching 
the testing apparatus. The discrepancies which are observed can therefore 
only be ascribed directly to two disturbing causes. These are, the imperfect 
closeness of contact of the thermopile wire junctions with the tested rocks, 
and the want of absolute freedom of the wires from extraneous currents 
arising from other actions than those of the temperatures at their points of 
junction. It is impossible to prevent entirely the operation of these dig- 



9i 



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a •3 ^ fc* a ^ ^ ^$.0 « 

«) «> 5 2 — ^a-^ >," a — 
pEs^aoaoasS-bc 


1 a > s e • / -S 

J5 1 fc 5-So g I 

fa £ >■/« eiD .03 m 
£ g § S jj Q 

3q ta oJ^ S 
; ^ riPHE-i? g 



96 report — 1877. 



turbing causes ; and the best endeavours of the Committee have therefore been 
used to obviate and to diminish the effects of their action as much as possible. 
This they have, they believe, accomplished in the main successfully ; but 
instances yet frequently occur which show that without special and very 
close attention to them the most unequivocal experiment, apparently, may 
yet mislead ; and it is not without this recognition and probable explanation 
of some of the obvious discrepancies in the accompanying Table that they 
venture to produce the values which it contains as probably exhibiting very 
approximately the true absolute thermal conductivities of the various rock- 
specimens which they have tested. 

The quartzites (compact siliceous rocks) from Schiehallion agree in their 
conductivities with crystalline and opaque white quartz. Another class of 
rocks from the neighbourhood of Schiehallion experimented on is the class 
of micaceous sandstones, or flagstones, which cover a large area in the in- 
terior of Scotland. The mica, which is abundant in these sandstones, appears 
to have imparted to them a slaty cleavage, the plane of which in their actual 
positions is seldom horizontal, and is more often 30° or 40° inclined to the 
horizon. Like other sandstones they may be readily broken across, as well 
as in the direction of their cleavage-planes, and no difficulty occurred in 
obtaining some trial sections of them in these different directions. The 
result shows that the conductivity increases (on the average of the samples 
tried ) continuously from that of heat transmission across to that of its trans- 
mission along the direction of the cleavage-planes in the proportion of 
2 : 3, not quite so great as that observed in slate *, apparently from the less 
perfect ease and liability to cleavage which these stones present. A kind of 
firestone kindly supplied to the Committee by Mr. Baldwin Latham, C.E., 
from quarries at Godstone, in Surrey, where it is largely extracted on account 
of its unalterable qualities under the action of certain furnace-heats, which 
exhibits very regular bedding in the quarries, but of which the cleavage is 
yet either insensible or exceedingly imperfect, exhibits no signs of increase 
of conductivity for heat-transmission in the direction of the bedding-planes. 
But some specimens of altered shale compacted apparently to perfect uni- 
formity and hardness by contiguity to the once molten intruder of whin 
rock under which they lay, so as to break with the same facility in all 
directions excepting where shrinkage-cracks in and across its plane of bed- 
ding (apparently like those in whin rocks) have parted it by the heat to 
which it lias been exposed, still exhibits a tendency of heat to traverse it 
more freely in the direction of its original bedding-planes than in the trans- 
verse direction, in the proportion of about 3 : 4 1. The conductivity is, at the 
same time, raised considerably by the semifusion of the materials above 
that of ordinary shales, of which some new trials which were made this 
year aro also included in the present Table. 

The specimens of granite, of porphyritic trap rock, and of mica schist 
obtained from Loch Bannoch in Perthshire, present conductivities which 
resemble very nearly that of the grey Aberdeen granito with which they are 
here compared ; and some new trials of varieties of limestone, chalk, and 
marble have been made, which maybe regarded as in satisfactory accordance 
with what have been previously observed. 

In order to establish and confirm the good conductivity of water which 
was revealed in some of the experiments made with it last year, dry clay 

* About 3 : 5. See these Reports, vol. for 1870, p. 24 

t The experiment having been made on two specimens only, which were not cut from 
the same block, very great weight cannot bo claimed at present for this preliminary trial. 



OM THE THERMAL CONDUCTIVITIES OF CERTAIN ROCKS. 1)7 

and sand were saturated with it after their conductivities in a dry state had 
been tested, the soft materials being placed for this purpose in one of the 
thick caoutchouc belts, which was closed at the top and bottom with sheets 
of thin paper and gutta-percha tissuo (used to keep water of the thermopile 
lappets from the dry saud, and roughened to make it touch the sand per- 
fectly inside, like sandpaper, with a coat of sand attached to it with shell- 
lac). The water was added to the sand in its cell (by a pipette introduced 
below, until it overflowed from an opening in the top), so as to effect its 
thorough saturation ; whilst the pressure (of 60 lbs. or 80 lbs.) upon it in 
the apparatus would prevent any water from remaining in the cell, except 
saeh as was contained in the interstices of the sand. The low conductivities 
of dry sand and of dry clay are (for their weights) remarkable; and tho 
effect of adding water to them is to increase their low conductivities very 
considerably. But the effect is much more evident in sand than in wet 
clay, where the possibility of any convection-currents of the enclosed water 
assisting the heat-transfer is effectually excluded ; in the interstices of the 
sand, on the contrary, however feeble they must be, it is yet possible that 
the}' may materially assist the process of transmission of the heat. Jt indeed 
appears probable that the fluid freedom of the water in the interspaces which 
it fills in the sand may in this case enable gravity to have some share in 
carrying through the open channels some ascending currents of warm water 
and some descending currents of cold water, in spite of the effects of friction. 
If this explanation can bo conceded, it may be fairly granted from the great 
increase of conductivity imparted to loose sand by water in its passages, 
which will be noticed in the Table, not less than what is found in some 
rocks notable for their good conducting qualities, that tho presence of the 
water used to saturate the lappets of the thermopile, easily percolating their 
silk tissues, must place the thermoscopic wires as thoroughly in contact with 
the rock as if they were cemented to it with a thin film of rock at least as 
good in its capacities of conduction as some of the best conductors of the 
ordinary varieties of rocks which have been examined. The Committee has 
recorded this observation of the good conducting-powcr of water contained in 
such a vehicle as sand or other freely permeable substance with considerable 
satisfaction, from the renewed confidence which it enables it to place in 
the method of experimenting which was adopted, and from the fresh assur- 
ance that it gives of the correctness of the results which have thereby been 
obtained. 

In presenting the results arrived at by these means of experiment during 
the past year, the Committee feel very certainly persuaded that the lists of 
absolute thermal conductivities and resistances which accompany this Report, 
and which are appended in three previous Tables to the earlier Reports of 
the Committee during the last three years, arc near approximations (although 
they differ by fluctuating and insidious faults of observation from a constant 
mean) to those expressions for the thermal conductivities of the most im- 
portant and abundant kinds of rocks which it has been one of the Committee':- 
principal objects in the present investigation, by the best and in oat conclusive 
possible processes of experiment, to ascertain. 



1S77. H 



98 report— 1877. 



Report on Observations of Luminous Meteors during the year 1876-77, 
by a Committee, consisting of James Glaisher, F.R.S., R. P. Greg, 
F.G.S., F.B.A.S., C. Brooke, F.R.S., Prof. G. Forbes, F.R.S.E., 
F.R.A.S.,WAi J TERYi.iGiiT,D.Sc. ) F.G.S.,and~Prof.A. S.Herschel, 
M.A., F.R.A.S. Drawn up by Professor Herschel {Secretary). 

The meteoric occurrences and the results of observation and research relating 
to luminous meteors during the past year have presented many points of 
interest and importance, and, as will he seen in the present Report, they 
have occasionally furnished materials for discussion, of which the results 
must he regarded as possessing considerable scientific value. 

A large part of the Committee's time and attention since the presentation 
of the last Eeport has been bestowed on discussing and comparing together 
the summaries and reductions of meteor-registers supplied to them by a few 
active observers of shooting-stars at monthly and even at more frequent 
intervals from their own and from more extensively recorded meteor obser- 
vations, from which a large store of additional information on special and 
ordinary showers of shooting-stars has been derived. The object at first 
intended to be pursued by the Committee, of providing observers with a full 
review of the existing lists of meteor-showers and of the radiant-points of 
comets and meteors, with commentaries and instructions how to observe and 
project the apparent paths of shooting-stars so as to note their horary num- 
bers and to recognize their radiant-points, has, for this reason, not been 
carried out. But the large accessions to the known orbits or directions of 
individual meteors and of meteor-streams which the past year's observations 
have contributed exceeds what the Committee has been able to report in any 
previous year, and affords ground for the assumption that the brief delay 
in its compilation which has thus arisen will not materially affect the utility 
of a complete synopsis of meteor-showers, and of instructions to assist obser- 
vers in tracing and identifying them, which, with more leisure in another 
year to bestow upon it, the Committee hopes to provide regular and occasional 
observers of shooting-stars with at no very distant period. 

A few stone-falls have taken place, or their occurrences have been an- 
nounced, during the past year ; but none of these were remarkable for the 
size or weight of the discovered meteoric fragments. On the 16th of August, 
1875, a small aerolite, weighing about 14 oz., fell in the district of La 
Calle and Constantinc, in Algeria. On the 25th of June, 18th of July, and 
19th of October, 1876, aerolites are said to have descended in America, the first 
in Kansas city, Missouri, about as large as and of the shape of a small oyster- 
shell, which struck and nearly penetrated a tin roof, where it rebounded and 
lay too hot to be touched immediately. Of these three aerolites little more 
than the brief announcements of their falls has yet been published. A small 
meteoric fragment weighing about three quarters of a pound fell from the 
prodigious fireball of December 21st, 1876, near Rochester, in the northern 
part of Indiana, U.S.; and aerolites in Missouri, Georgia, and Kentucky, 
U.S., are stated to have been discovered, and to be now in Dr. Lawrence 
Smith's possession, which fell from detonating meteors seen in the United 
States on the 3rd, 20th, and 23rd of January, 1877. 

Particulars of these stone-falls and of recently discovered iron masses and 



OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. ( J9 

meteorites, together with a review of recent progress in the special ex- 
amination and investigation of certain meteoric stones and irons, are inclu- 
ded in the last Appendix of this Beport. 

Of the detonating fireballs visible in 1870-77, two appear to have been of 
unusual magnificence, that which passed over the northern States of America 
on the 21st of December last having traversed a distance of about 1000 miles, 
from near the river Kansas to near the town of Eric and the western boundary 
of New York state, appearing in a great part of this prodigious flight to 
consist of a multitude of fireballs pursuing each other in a cluster of great 
length and breadth, produced apparently by a disruption of the meteor 
attended with very loud explosions about the middle of its course. Another 
surpassingly bright detonating fireball was seen in Cape Colony, South Africa, 
on the evening of the 16th of March, 1877, the light and the violence of 
whose explosion, like those of the last meteor, were quite unusual. A deto- 
nating- fireball passed over the southern counties of Ireland on the 6th of 
April last, from Wieklow to Cork, off the coast of which latter county it 
burst with a very loud explosion. In the Appendix, where these large 
meteors are described a uotice of some recent memoirs by Professor von 
Nicssl, of Briinn, in Moravia, will also be found, showing that two deto- 
nating fireballs seen in Bohemia and Hungary on the 10th of April, 1S74, 
and 9th of April, 1870, were directed from a common radiant-point in 
Cassiopeia, and must without doubt have been pursuing almost identical orbits 
round the sun, which Professor von Nicssl considers there is evidence enough 
to show were of a hyperbolic form. 

Descriptions of various large meteors seen in England are given in a fire- 
ball list, and also in the first Appendix of this Eeport with more detail, 
where sufficient data were collected to enable the meteors' real heights and 
the lengths, directions, and velocities of their real courses to be ascertained. 
For such determinations more or less complete materials were afforded by 
the meteors of July 25th, August 11th, 13th, 15th, September 24th, and 
November 8th, 1876, and January 7th, March 17th, and April 6th, 1877, 
permitting the heights, the radiant-points, and in some cases the velocities of 
these meteors to be assigned. Notwithstanding very conflicting statements 
which even professedly exact descriptions of these meteors' paths contain, an 
impartial discussion of all the observations allows of their combination and 
comparison together, so as to produce the most accordant representations of the 
real courses along which these meteors passed over England or the adjacent 
coasts. A table in the first Appendix contains the most reliable of these 
deductions ; and sufficiently distinct descriptions of the eight fine meteors 
which it records were secured by observations to make the real paths here 
assigned to them free from any greater uncertainties than those which 
naturally attach to and interfere with exact vision and perfectly correct 
descriptions of such unexpected and startling celestial phenomena. The light 
emitted by the large fireball of September 24th, 1876, was unusually vivid 
and intense, and many remarkable instances of deception as to the real 
direction and nature of its source, as well as in the views of tho fireball's 
appearance as modified by clouds and otherwise, occurred among the de- 
scriptions, some instances of which are cited in the general account given of 
this meteor in the first Appendix. The same Appendix also contains a list 
of ordinary shooting-stars doubly observed in England during the past year, 
a huge proportion of which accordances were obtained from a comparison of 
the meteor-register kept by Mr. Denning at Bristol with the published list 
of meteors f.cen and recorded by Professor Main's assistants in the Eadeliffe 

n2 



iOO REPORT — 1877. 

Observatory, Oxford, the remainder being extracted from this or other pub- 
lished lists and from occasional records of meteor-tracks furnished to the 
Committee by various observers. 

No very important occurrences of star-showers during the past year have 
been recorded. The Leonids and Andromedes of November 1876, the 
meteors of the 1st to 3rd of January, and the Lyrids in April 1877 were 
either very scarce or quite absent on the annual dates of maximum of those 
showers, as far as a watch for their appearance could be kept successfully ; 
but clouds prevented observations on the Leonid meteor-nights of November 
13th to 15th. Some meteors of this shower were seen on the mornings of 
November 19th and 20th by Mr. Denning, who also observed a conspicuous 
shower of shooting-stars very similar to the Leonids on the mornings of 
November 26th to 29th, with a radiant-point in Leo Minor. The existence 
of this meteor-stream in close proximity to that of the Leonids, with which 
its meteors may occasionally happen to be confused, deserves attention, and, 
if possible, exact verification by future observations. A considerable abun- 
dance of meteors, amounting apparently to an active star-shower, and inclu- 
ding several bright ones, was noticed in America during the night of October 
1 8th to 19th, 1876, the radiant-point being approximately between Taurus and 
Auriga. Scarcely any Orionids were seen on the preceding and following 
nights by Mr. Denning during the annual period of this well-defined October 
shower. A similar fitful shooting-star shower (unconnected with the Per- 
se'ids, since the radiant-point of that shower was far below the horizon at 
the time of apparition) took place in New Zealand on the night of August 
13th ; and Mr. Corder described a very accurately defined shower of small 
meteors from a radiant-point in Pegasus, in about two hours, on the night 
of September 21st, 1876, when at an earlier hour of the evening no such 
frequency of shooting-stars had been observed elsewhere. Collection together 
in such brief and sometimes abundant flights or swarms is a marked and 
significant peculiarity of showcr-metoors, and it is very desirable to determine 
the position of the radiant-point of the meteor-swarm in such cases with as 
much accuracy as possible. In the stormy weather and full-moon light at the 
beginning of this year nothing could be seen of the annual January star- 
shower ; and on one night at least (that of the 20th to 21st) of the April 
meteor-period, with perfectly clear sky, Mr. Denning observed only four 
Lyrids during five hours of uninterrupted watch. Although certainly a 
shower of very brief duration, this is a very remarkable scarcity of its meteors 
to he observed on either the first night following or on the very night itself 
of this meteor-shower's expected maximum display in the year 1877. 

With the exception of the Persei'ds of August 1876 and 1877, the Gemi- 
nids on the nights of the 11th and 12th of December, 1876, furnished the 
most abundant annual or periodic star-shower of the year. In point of 
numbers (about twenty or thirty meteors per hour for one observer) the 
Greminid display occupied a middle place between the above two August 
showers, including, like those showers, several meteors as bright as Jupiter 
or Yen us, only less attractive in appearance than the well-known Persei'ds, 
from their somewhat smaller speed and from the less frequent occurrence of 
enduring light-streaks on their courses. The shower was observed in France 
as well as in England, and the position of its radiant-point in the north-eastern 
part of Gemini was well determined. Of its two nights of chief intensity 
the maximum of the shower appears to have been somewhat more strongly 
marked on the 11th than on the 12th of December. Of the two August 
showers, while that of 1876 was extremely meagre, it was not much surpassed 



OBSERVATIONS OP LUMINOUS METEORS. 101 

by this year's display, these having both been (as will be gathered from de- 
scriptions of them and of other recently observed meteor-showers in the third 
Appendix of this lleport) the scantiest returns of the Persci'ds that have been 
observed for several years. 

A numerous collection of newly recorded meteor-showers is contained in 
the same Appendix of this Iieport — partly obtained by Mr. Corder's and Mr. 
Dcnning's observations between the autumn of the last and the summer of 
the present year, and partly by a systematic projection and reduction by Mr. 
Denning of long lists of shooting-star observations recently published in this 
country and abroad. Inclusive of upwards of 1000 of his and Mr. Corder's 
original observations, about 4000 meteor-tracks from these various sources 
have been projected and were more or less completely reduced to their 
radiant-points \>y Mr. Denning, with results of which the particulars arc 
collected, and have here been arranged together in comparative tables by 
Mr. Greg. About thirty of the meteor-showers thus observed and extracted 
appear to be new to former lists, while about one hundred other previously 
known meteor-shower positions are more or less exactly corroborated and 
confirmed. The newly recorded showers are also in many cases in better 
agreement with comctary shower-dates and positions than any formerly 
assigned individual showers had been, and several new examples of cometary 
coincidences are offered by them, of which, with fuller details of these new 
vigorously and successfully conducted investigations, the third Appendix of 
this Ileport contains a complete description. 

The Committee has now to record with profound regret, at the close of its 
Report, the death, on the 30th of June, 1877, of Professor Heis. The first 
astronomer who systematically devoted his attention to observing shooting- 
stars in order to record their radiant-points, and who published in the year 
1849 an original list of radiant-points of all the then known meteor-showers, 
he began in the year 1842, and continued to superintend without interruption 
until quite recently, the simultaneous observations of shooting-stars which ho 
instituted in the lihenish and neighbouring towns of Germany and Pelgium 
amongst the best observers and most eminent astronomers of those countries, 
and which he also collected from observers and astronomers in more distant 
lands. With the thoughtful care of preserving to posterity the fruits of his 
long-continued records, he undertook, in the last years of his life, the compi- 
lation of all the results of his prolonged researches, from the first recorded 
observation in the year 1833 to the present time ; and his work * " On the He- 
suits of Forty- three Years' Observations of Shooting-stars" was on the point 
of publication, and lacked but little final revision from his hands, before his 
sudden and unexpected death. To the watchful and unwearying labours of 
Professor Heis, which supported its cultivation during the period of indiffer- 
ence into which it had fallen after the disappearance of the great November 
showers of 1832-36, the present high p&sition which the theory and obser- 
vation of luminous meteors has reached among astronomers as an important 
addition to the popular branches of their science must be regarded as being 
greatly due ; and the direction given by his earliest and latest works to the 
formation and promotion of the new science during its rapid stages of de- 
velopment will always be accounted by astronomers as one of the foremost of 
the great achievements by which he won distinguished and honourable titles 
to their grateful recollection. 

* Now published as vol. ii., 1S77, of the 'Publications of the Royal Observatory 
of Minister,' under the joint editorship of his daughters and of one of his pupils, 



102 



REPORT 1877. 



OBSERVATIONS 
SEEN IN RECENT YEARS, 



Date. 



1847. 
Feb. 23 



1861. 
Nov. 15 



1872. 
Sept. 5 



Hour 

G. M. T. (or 

local time). 



Place of 
Observation. 



Apparent Size. 



h m 

(Afternoon) Twenty milesjSeen in full sun- 
north of Iowa shine 
City, U. S. 



About 

10 30 p.m. 

(local time). 



From about 50 Apparentsizesomc- 



milcs S. to 
about 50 miles 
N.W. of Iowa 
City, U. S. 
[Real course on 
map:Mr.lrish. 
Heights not 
stated.] 



1874. 
Sept. 2 



1875. 
Sep. 1 J 



p.m. 
(local time). 



ona city, 
Course 
map 
over 
City to 
City, 



U. S. 

on 

from 

Siou.\ 

Iowa 

Chica 



go, and Pitts- 
burgh, U. S,, 
and thence to 
the Atlantic 
Ocean, out ol 
sight. 

10 53 p.m. Highfield House 
Observatory, 
Beeston 
(Notts). 



8 25 p.m. 



Two miles north 
of Chelmsford, 
Essex. 



what greater thai 

that of the full 
moon 



Very large 



Colour. 



Duration. 



Position or 
Apparent Path. 



Not more than Seen in the cast at 



Red (blood- 
red). 



seconds 



15 seconds 
while in 
sight. 



From a mere point Intense blue. 2 seconds; 
at first to 4j of Train of yel- rapid. 
the apparent size low sparks, 
of the moon. 



Venus 



Greenish blue, About 6 sees, 
with train 
of crimson 
sparks. 



an altitude 
about 40°. 



of 



Appeared in the 
N.W. and passed 
across |3 Ursa? 
Minoris, the S. 
part of Cassio- 
peia, and the S. 
part of Aries, to 
the very horizon 
eastwards. 



a= d = 
44° + 38° 
101 +56-5, 
from below 

y Andromeda; 

across a Persei. 



From 
to 
or 



From near Po 
laris to 4° east of 
the " Pointers," 
and thence to 
within about 2° 
of the horizon, 
N.N.W., where 
it was perhaps 
lost in mists. 






OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 



103 



OF LARGE METEORS 

ESPECIALLY IN THE YEAR 1870-77. 



Length of 
Path. 


Direction or Radiant-point. 


Appearance, Remarks, &c. 


Observer 
or Reference. 






The flash of lisht seen ali 


Communicated by 
C. W. Irish. 






over Iowa State. Several de- 






tonatious, shaking the houses, 








at Iowa. A stone of 48 lb. 








fell and penetrated the earth 








three feet. 




Long course ; 
length of 




Several pieces detached from 
the nucleus, which gradu- 


C. W. Irish. 




train 40°. 




ally enlarged and disap- 
peared with a most bril- 
liant flash, leaving a long 
streak visible for several 
minutes. Reports as of 
a powder - mill explosion 
followed in 31 seconds. 
Seven stones fell. 




Fully 100° ... 


Course on map from about 15° 


Flight majestic and grand, with a 


C. W. Irish and J. E. 




N. of W. to 15° S. of E. 


spiral or wavy motion. Passed 


Blunt. 




(horizontal). 


clean across the United States, 
from the Missouri to the At- 
lantic. 






[In Pisces, near ?, 15°, + 7°, 
or 1 7°, 4-9°. Schmidt, Sept. 


Increased rapidly. The moon 
was conveniently situated 


E. J. Lowe. 
The 'Times,' Sept. 






3-10,1 7°, +0°.] 


for comparison of its size. 
Followed by a comet-like 
train or continuous streak 
of separate sparks, very 
bright at first and visible 
afterwards as a conspicu- 
ous object for fully two 
minutes. 


4th, 1874. 






The meteor not seen at first, but 
was said to have begun near 


H. Corder. 










Polaris. Not so bright a me- 








teor quite as that of September 








7th (1875), at Chelmsford. 








[See these Reports, Vol. for 








1876, p. 139.] 





104 



REPORT — ]877. 



Date. 



Hour 

G. M.T. (or 

local time). 



1875. h 

Dec.27 9 

(lo 



m s 
20 p.m 

cal time) 



Place of 
Observation. 



Apparent Size. 



Colour. 



Iowa City, U. S. At first small. II- White. Frag- 



Duration. 



Position or 
Apparent Path. 



[and Kingston,! 
U.S.;10 orl5| 
miles south of 



its point 
disappear- 
ance]. 



of 



luminated the 
whole heavens 
at disappearance 
with a quivering 
flash of light 



ments and 
train of 

sparks red 



Not more than 
5 seconds. 



1876 

(an. 5 10 30 p.m. Point of disap-j Light as bright 
(local time), pearance ovei noonday, 
the middle 
point of the 
boundary line 
between Iowa 
and Missouri. 

May 8 8 15 p.m. 'Melrose (Scot- Brilliant meteor 
land). 

Fund 10 -14 p.m.|Writtle, near|=2f Green 5 seconds. 

Chelmsford, 
Essex. 



Not more than Appeared in the 



12 or 15 

seconds. 
Moved very 
swiftly. 
Smoke- 
clouds on 
the meteor's 
track visible 
for 1 5 mi- 
nutes. 



west and was lost 
behind houses at 
an altitude of 
about 40° (mid- 
dle point of path. 
over Missouri 
River, at junction 
of Kansas and 
Nebraska). 



f uly 25 10 p.m. 



25 10 2 -10 
p.m. 



Ibid. 



= n. 



Green 4 seconds. 



Brighton 



About 
10 



p.m 



Richmond Par 
(Surrey). 



At first much 
than, but 
length 
2X2|, 
visible 
shaped 



(lis 



ess 

at 

about 

with a 

pcar- 



In Leo; between 
y and S Leo 

nis (?). 

Shot from Ophi- 
uchus through 
Bootes. 



A.bout=H 



Pale sapphire- About 7 sees. Commencing about 
blue; con-> Unusually 
trasting re-j slow motion. I 
markably is 
hue with the 
colour of 
Jupiter. 



Violet at first, 
then green 
(in front), 
and red 
(behind) at 
last. 



About 2 sees. 
Slower than 
meteors usu- 
ally move. 



the middle ol 
Taurus Ponia- 
tovii, it passed 
near i Ophi 
uchi and /3 
Serpentis, mid 
way between 
o and a. lioi'itis, 
near Cor Ca 
roli, and ended 
slightly nortl 
of i// Ursa; Ma- 
joris, 



Moved straight 
from S. to N. 
between the di- 
rections S.S.W. 
and W. 






OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 



105 



Length of >■ D irect ; on 01 . Radiant-point. 
Path. ■ 


Appearance, Remarks, &c. 


Observer 
or Reference. 




Descending thus (a) — 


Disappeared over Bilacothe, 
Grand River, Missouri. Length 
of path 200 miles, descending 
from W. hy N. to E. by S. 
(along the junction line of 
Kansas and Nebraska), and 
entering Missouri. Slope of 
real path not far from hori- 
zontal. Seen in a circle of 
200 to 400 miles, and sounds 
audible in a circle of 30 to 50 
miles radius. 


C. W. Irish. 




a 

b 

[(h) Final appearance at Kings- 
ton.] 




Descended almost vertically 
(or from about altitude 70°, 
N.W.) ; real course. 


Sounds of many heavy explosions 
followed its appearance, which 
was brief but dazzling in its 
flashes. 


Communicated by 
C. W. Irish. 








Communicated by 
G. J. Symons. 








13° 


From direction of i or 6 Ursie 
Majoris. 


Exact position not recorded. Left 
a short streak. 


H. Corder. 




I5 ? ? 


From direction of Tegasus [?]... 


Nucleus followed by a train of 
yellow sparks. 


Id. 




About 105°... 


[The apparent course described 
consists of two nearly equal 
straight parts with a strong 
deflection of ahout 45° be- 
tween them, at c, a. Bootis !] 


Increased continually until its 
disappearance. Accompanied 
at intervals, especially near its 
disappearance, by a slight train 
which was not persistent. 


11. Pratt. 
The 'English Me- 
chanic,' vol. xxiii. 
p. 5C4. (Aug. 11th, 
1876.) 


I.onj course... 


S. to N 


Nucleus pear-shaped, followed at 
last by numerous globules 
which broke off it. Left no 
visible light-streak on its track. 
First appearance, behind trees, 
not seen. 


F. A. R. Russell. 





106 



REPORT 1877. 



Date. 


Hour 
G. M. T. (or 
local time). 


Place of 
Observation. 


Apparent Size. 


Colour. 


Duration. 


Position or 
Apparent Path. 1 


1876. 


h in 












July 25 


A few mi- 


Downham, Nor- 


Very bright and 


Sea-green ; a 


Moved slowly 


First seen while 




nutes after 


folk. 


large. 


" lovely " 


and majes- 


looking at Ju- 




10 p.m. 






colour. 


tically. 


piter with a\ 
telescope ; 
passed from 
the S. meri- 
dian, N. Decl. 
20°, due west- 
wards, right 
over Jupiter, 
disappearing 
15° west of 
that planet. 


Aug, 8 


10 28 p.m. West llendon. 


— v 


Yellow 


0"8 second ; 


Crossed y Cygni 
(exactly) and 






Sunderland 






very quick. 






(Durham). 








disappeared 
at a point 
about i (£, y) 
Aquihe. 
Began over and 
shot to just past 


10 


10 52 p.m. Radcliffe Obser- 


>2l 


White 






vatory, Oxford. 


















/3 Persei. 


11 


A little after 
11 p.m. 


llingweston, 
Soinerton. 


A very bright me- 
teor. 






Approximate po- 
sition by de- 


















scriptions, from 














near X Draco- 

nis to £ and 
i) Urssc Ma- 
joris. 


llll 


Kadclifte Obser- 


3xty 


Red, blue, and 
green. 




From f3 Ursae Mi- 
noris to a Ser- 




-- -- 4-..— . 


vatory, Oxford. 
















pentis. 


15 


9 28 p.m. 


Burnham, near 
Bridgewater 




Yellow to red 
and green. 




From 223° +29° 








(Somerset). 








to 141 + 2G* 
From due W. to 
N.W. 

[* This point of J 
disappearance 
was a little be- ! 
low the N.W. 
horizon at the i 
time recorded.] 


15 


About 


Douglas, Isle of 


> 2/. when first 


Yellowish, 


Moved slower 


Appeared about 




9 35 p.m. 


Man. 


seen ; then in- 


changing to 


than meteors 


alt. 30°, S.S.E., 








creasing its bril- 


greenish 


usually do. 


and moved 








liancy as if ap- 


blue before 




westward, dis- i 








proaching. 


disappear- 
ing. 




appearing by a I 
steep curve to 3 

N.N.W. 


22 


About 
8 40 p.m. 


Scarborough 
(Yorkshire). 


A most brilliant 
meteor. 






Appeared from be- 1 
hind a cloud, 1 


















about S.E., alti- 1 














hide 60°, and 1 














fell, apparently, 1 














into the sea, in 1 














the E.S.E. 



OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 



107 



Direction or Radiant-point. 



Appearance, Remarks, &c. 



Apparent course very nearly [A. E. S., at Brompton, 
horizontal. [The altitude at scribes the meteor as 
starting (57°) is irreconcil- 
able with the rest of this 
description, unless for north 
we read south declination 
20° at the commencement.] 



[Perseid] 



Fell vertically 



de- 

bril- 
fol- 
red 
Mr. 



Observer 
or Reference. 



liant blue, pear-shaped, 
lowed by a train of 
sparks ; time 10 h 5 m . 
F. Dennett, London, says that 
it there appeared " greenish 
purple," about 10 o'clock, 
shooting across the sky from 
E. to W.] Another large 
meteor was observed about 
12 1 ' P.M. 



Bright streak ; remaining visible 
across y Cygni, where it was 
brightest, for 1 second. 



Seemed to burst behind a cloud.. 



The nucleus died away, leaving a 
bright streak for some seconds 
between those stars and in a 
line with them. 



St. Vincent Beechey. 
' English Mechanic,' 
vol. xxiii. ]). 53G, 
Aug. 4th, 1876. 



f. W. Backhouse. 



J. Lucas. 



Communicated by 
F. II. Dickinson. 



Moved nearly horizontally at 
first, then gradually declin- 
ing. [The point of disap- 
pearance is not compatible 
with the direction of the 
course, as described, near its 
commencement.] 



Left a fine train visible at a Co- 
rona; for about 20 seconds. 

Ended in a train of sparks like a 
rocket. [The apparent course 
at Bristol, observed by Mr. 
Denning, was from 208°, +25° 
to 186°, + 23°. For other ob- 
servations of this and of the 
last meteor, see these Reports, 
vol. for 1876, pp. 132-136.] 



Disappeared without bursting 
Left no light-streak on its 
course. [For further observa 
tions of the meteor, at Douglas 
and in Ireland, sec Appendix I., 
p. 133.] 

Direction and altitude at first ap- 
pearance from recollection 
The general position from a 
memorandum at the time. 



J. Lucas. 



Joseph Clark and others 
Communicated bv 
J. E. Clark. 



E. W. Binney. 

Proceedings of the 
Manchester Lit. and 
Phil. Society, vol. 
xvi. p. 12; Oct. 17th, 
1870. 

James P. Joule. 



108 



REPORT 1877. 



Date. 



Hour 
G. M. T. (or 
local time). 



187C. h in s 
Sept. 5 11 50 p.m 



18 



6 43 45 
p.m. 



1910 14 



p.m 



Place of 
Observation. 



Writtle, near 
Chelmsford 
(Essex). 

West Hendon, 
Sunderland 
(Durham). 



Apparent Size. 



Colour. 



n 



Duration. 



• Green 3 seconds 



About = y at dis 
appearance. As 
bright as a street 
gas-lamp 150 or 
250 yards off. 



24 A few mi 

nutes after 
fi 30 p.m. 
(Paris 
time). 



2) 



24 



21 



G 26 
27 



or 
p.m 



Bristol '=11 



Between Marck Litht like that of 



Pure green ... 28 seconds 



and St. Pierre 
(Dunkirk to 
Calais Railway 
Stations). 



a lime-light close 
at hand. 



Kempley, Dy- Very brilliant 
mock, between; 
Ledbury and 

Ross (Here- 
fordshire). 



30 p.m. Hurley, near 
Gnat Marlow 
(Bucks). 



Colour of the 
streak (and 
of the me 
teor's light) 
white. 



25 seconds ; 
very slow 
motion. 



6 30 p.m. Two miles W 
of Cowes, Isli 
ofWieht. 



Nucleus clear 
white; the 
tail rather 
more red. 



Duration 
while in 
sight 2 or 
3 seconds ; 
continuing 
with a red 
Hash be- 
hind the 
lower cloud 
for about 
3 seconds. 



Position or 
Apparent Path. 



From 330° C° 
to 345 —15 
a= S = 

From212°+24° 
to 187 +15 

Beginning of 
its course per- 
haps not seen. 

a— fi = 
From 11° +1° 
to 8-5 -25 



The perpendicula 
streak of li] 
like a chalk- 
mark on the sk 
remained visibl 
in the N.N.W. 



Fell in the S.E. | 
E., at no grea 
distance fron 
the horizon. 



Fell in an east- 
erly direction 
from an alti- 
tude of about 
25°. 

Appeared from be- 
hind a cloud-belt 
at alt. 60°, and 
passed behind a 
lower one at alt 
20°. The di 
rcction of it 
fall would clea 
Selscy Bill am 
Brighton nearly 
towards Bcccliej 
Head. 



u 



OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 



109 



>ngth of 
l'ath. 



Direction or Radiant-point. 



Appearance, Remarks, &c. 



Observer 
or Reference. 



From the direction of o Pegasi Burst into small sparks II. Corder 



; very short Radiant (near Aries) in Pisces 
mill, almost 

■ tationarv. 



while in sight. 

kill of the Direction and appearance ofjllluminated the carriage from 
■freak about the streak a straight, thin, I behind the observer, who 



Point of disappearance exact. 
Grew smaller in last third part 
of its course, as if receding in 
the distance. 



Left a bright phosphorescent 
streak visible for 3 minutes, 
and drifting thus — 



r. W. Backhouse. 



\V. F. Denning. 



10° or 15 c 



perpendicular white line. 



Fell almost verlicallv, thus — 



lout 12° ... Fell quite vertically; or in the 
cloudy sky no slope of its- 
path tould be observed. 



Fell very 
thus.— 



perpendicularly 



noted the appearance and 
position of the streak on 
turning round. This was 
white, sharp, and unbroken 
for several minutes, then 
slowly curling up and seem- 
ing to ascend as smoke 
does. 



It was mistaken by some persons Communicated by 
who saw its flight for lightning. \V. F. Denning. 



M." The 'Times,' 
Sept. 20th, 1876. 




Nucleus well defined ; barb, d oi 
spiked, with a tail following n 
G° in length. Observer well- 
practised in quickly estimating 
altitudes at sea. A dark and 
cloudv evening. 



W. A. Cockbiirn. 
Communicated by 
\V. F. Denning. 



John Thompson. 
Communicated 
W, F. Denning. 



110 



REPORT 1877. 



Date. 



1876. 
Sep. 24 



21 



Hour 
G. M. T. (or 
local time) 



m 
30 



Oct. 14 



19 



G 31 
p.m. 



s 
p.m 



lo 



Place of 
Observation. 



Apparent Size. 



Hull. 



Orwell Parle Ob- 
servatory, near 
Ipswich (Suf- 
folk). 



11 19 p.m. Bristol =21 



2 a.m. 



The disk at maxi- 
mum probably 
not more than 
2' in diameter; 
but its light was 
fully equal tc 
that of full moan. 



Colour. 



22 About 
11 30 p.m. 



Nov. 1 



Newburyport, 
Massachusetts, 
U.S. Numerous 
meteoric stones 
at Led yard 
(Conn.) are sup 
posed to have 
fallen from it. 

Manchester 



White, like a 

flash of light- 
ning. 



Duration. 



Position or 
Apparent Path. 



About 3 sees 



Rather swift.. 



Half the apparent White 
size of and 
nearly as bright 
as the full moon. 



Fully 



I or } s the ap 
parent size of 
full moon. 



8 35 p.m. Bristol = 2/ 



Like a rocket, im 
mediately ove 
Grimsby, at aboi 
the height tha 
a rocket migh 
attain. 

Point of disappear, 
ance at altitude 
14° 6', azimuthj] 
54° 16' E. fren* 
S. ; by compa* 
rison of lowest 
point of thi' 
streak with Sal 
turn at altitudfl 
10° 56', azimuthl 
53° 15' E. fror 



From 43° + 22" 
to 30-2 



About 2 sees. Shot from the con 
stellation Taurus 
near the zenith 
to the south 
vest. 



About 1 or 2 
seconds. 



5 Between 

8 40 and 

9 p.m. 
(Taris time.) 



Choisi le Pioy, Large fireball. Its 
France. (A| flash was brighter 



Slow motion... 



Bluish 



Moved nearly ho- 
rizontally from 
N.E. to E., about 
50° above the 
horizon. 



detonation is 
said to have 
followed its 
appearance at 
Clerey, Aube. 
' Nature,' vol. 
xv. p. 69. 



than moonlight. 



From 34 7° +18° 
to 348 - 9 

From u. Aurigae to 
a Ursrc Majoris ; 
(Course indica- 
ted by the light- 
streak.) 



OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 



Ill 



Length of 
Path. 



Direction or Radiant-point. 



About 2.")° 



27 



About 15° 



28° 



Nearly vertical, thus — 



Appearance, Remarks, &e. 



The explosion only, like that of 
an unusually brilliant rocket, 
seen through clouds. 



Observer 
or Reference. 



T. M. Fallow. 

Communicated by 
\V. F. Denninsr. 



10° 



From the direction of e Fersei 




Fell vertically, N. to S. 



The momentary light-streak 
left on its whole course 
pointed out its track from 
S. to N. [?ATaurid.] 



In first third part of its'J. J. Plummer. 

course rather brighter than 

a first - magnitude star. In 

the second it grew tn 

many times the brightness 

of Venus, and collapsed 

suddenly to its first ap 

pearance. In the last, third 

of its course it expanded 

again to the brightness 

of the full moon, when it 

disappeared suddenly with 

out explosion and without 

sound, leaving a streak vi- 
sible in this part of its 

course for 16 minutes. 

[See other descriptions of 

this meteor in Appendix I 

pp. 135 and 138.] 
A very fine meteor, leaving 

a bright streak for two se- 
conds across £ Ceti. Very ac- 
curately noted. 
The smallest objects were visible 

in its light. Left a streak 10° 

long and £° wide visible for 

more than 15 minutes ; at first 

straight, and soon becoming Z 

shaped. 



Nucleus elongated. Left a light- 
streak on its course which 
remained visible 5 m or 10 m 
after the meteor had disap- 
peared. 



W. F. Denning. 



The 'New York Ob- 
server,' Nov. 9th, 
1870. 



Communicated bv 
R. P. Gre<r. 



A bright meteor, even in full- Communicated by 
moon light. \y. F. Denning. 



Globular nucleus ; the re 
fleeted light from which 
drew the observer's at 
tention to it, so as to 
note its explosion near a Ursae, 
and the streak of light broader 
than the meteor, which va- 
nished quite slowly. 



. Meunier. 
' Comptes Rendus,' 
vol. lxxxiii. p. 862. 



112 




REPORT — 1877. 






Date. 


Hour 
G.M.T. (or 
local time). 


Place of 
Observation. 


Apparent Size. 


Colour. 


Duration. 


1 

Position or 
Apparent Path. 


1876. 


h m 












Nov. 6 


5 45 p.m. 
(Paristime.) 


Orsay, near Paris 


Bright, but smaller 
than the moon's 




Moved slowly. 
50 or GO se- 


About 20° or 25°| 




above the E.N.E.I 








disk. 




conds [!]. 


horizon ; ap- 
peared from be- 
hind clouds, and 
disappeared be- 
hind a house. 


C Between 


Clithcroe (Lan- 
cashire). 


A large but noi 
very bright me- 


Kcl 




Shot about 40° 
from near theK 




8 and 








9 p.m. 




teor. 






zenith to a 1 
point in W.S.W.,1 
where it divided,! 
one part disap- 1 
pearing due W.,l 
at altitude 10°, I 
the other, which' 
moved north-1 
westwards, at al 
little higher alti-l 
hide. 


G 


Between 
8 and 


Pulborough 

(Kent). 








Fell from a little! 
below the ze- 1 










9 p.m. 










nith in the 1 
northern sky, 1 
within a point 1 
or two due 1 
north. 


7 


7 19 p.m. 


Writtle, near 
Chelmsford 


Lit up the clouds 
and sky. 




About 3 se- 
conds (?). 


Disappeared about 1 
G° under /3 Ca-I 








(Essex). 








pricorni. 


8 Tvvoorthree New Cross rail- 


At first = 3rd mag.."; 
afterwards >lsl 




(About 4 or C 
seconds. 


First observed at 1 
about alt. 30° 1 




minutes 


way station 






after 


(Kent) ; (and 


mag.* 




Stoke Poges. 


due north. 




5 p.m. 


near Slough, 
Bucks). 






Slough.) 




8 


About 


Wimbledon 


Unusually large 


Bluish white... 


Moved rather 


Passed at alow alti- 




5 5 p.m. 


(Surrey). 


meteor. 




deliberately. 


tude from N.N. E. 
to nearly west 
(or 5° north of 
west, alt. 9°), 
where it dis- 
appeared at « = 
215°, ci=+10°, 
very near Arc- 
turus. 


8 


About 
5 6 p.m. 


Hay, near Here- 
ford, S. Wales. 


Very bright meteor. 
Would have been 






Traversed a cloud- 
less place in the 












splendid on a 






sky about 20° 








dark back - 






or 25° above! 








ground. 






the W. horizon. 1 



OBSERVATIONS OP LUMINOUS METEORS. 



113 



Length of 
l'ath. 



Short course 
only seen. 



About 10° (?). 



About 20° 



Direction or Radiant-point, j Appearance, Remarks, &c. 



Observer 
or Reference. 



horizontally south- Globular nucleus, leaving a slight Described 
[? A Taurid, near streak on its course, 



Moving 
wards 
its radiant-point.] 



The course before the meteor 
divided was sinuous. 
[Not a Taurid.] 



Directed from Saturn (334°, 
-13°). 



Travelled horizontally towards 
the south [?] or south-west. 
(So also described at Slough, 
moving over a long arc of 
the sky.) 



About 10° of 
its path vi- 
sible. 



Divided into two parts in mid- 
path, one falling to W., the 
other towards N.\V. [? Another 
meteor starting from the path 
of the first. W. F. Denning.] 



Cecil H. C. Percival. 
' Nature,' vol. xv. p 
79. (Nov. 23rd, 
1876.) 



H. Corder. 



S.March(and"J.A.G.") 
The ' Times,' Nov. 
10, 187G. 



Burst twice, emitting bluish 
sparks the last time at its dis- 
appearance. (Seen also near 
Buntingford, Herts ; in the 
east, moving towards the 
north. — R. P. Greg.) 

Probably burst, as there was a 
brilliant flash. The meteor's 
course imperfectly seen. 

Burst into fragments, of which 
five or six were counted 
while disappearing behind 
a dark cloud, and left a 
streak visible after the 
fragments disappeared. Seen 
in fading daylight. 
[See Appendix I., p. 141, 
for further observations of 
this meteor.] 

The path curved downward 
near extinction, like that of a 
projectile, and the meteor sepa- 
rated into several distinct glo- 
bules of light following in the 
same train. 



Passed slanting downwards.'Nudeus with a great tail which Communicated by 



by 
A. Guillemin in 
' Comptes Rendus,' 
vol. lxxxiii. p. 922. 



. Nostro. 

' Nature,' vol. xv. 
p. 59 (Nov. 16,1370). 



F. C. Penrose. 
Ibid. 



[Position at Bristol bv de- 
scription, from 236°, +50° 
to 241°, +35° (?).— W. F. 
Denning.] 



threw off sparks on both sides. 
Twilight still very strong in 
the western sky. The night 
afterwards was clear ; but few 
shooting-stars were visible. 



T. W. Webb, in the 
' English Mechanic' 



1*77. 



114 



REPORT — 1877. 



Date. 



1876. 
Nov. 8 



11 



i; 



Hour 
G. M. T. (or 
local time). 



h in 
About 
5 6 p.m, 



Place of 
Observation. 



Apparent Size. 



Manchester , 



8 30 p.m. 



About 
7 20 p.m. 



Leeds 



29 



Dec. 4 



9 53 p.m. 



About 
8 p.m 



Sutton, near 
Mitcbam 

(Surrey). 



Newcastle-on- 
Tvne. 



Cardiff. 



1.", 



A little 
before 
4 30 p.m 



Cricklewood 
(London). 



Large ; > Venus 
in its whole 
course, and bril- 
liant at bursting 



= lst mag.*. 



Meteor of unusual 
brilliancy. 



Atfirst=lstniag.#; 
then rather 
brighter than ty . 



Fully = Venus at its 
greatest bright- 
ness. 



Colour. 



White 



Bright green. 



Duration. 



3 or 4 seconds, 
not more. 



Very quick 



fi or 6 seconds 



Position or 
Apparent Path. 



From alt. about 38° 
due south, to alt. 
about 20° or 
25° nearly S.W. 
(Twilight too 
bright for any 
stars to be visible 
in the sky.) 



Crossed a point 
at f (e Delphini, 
Altair). 



Shot from the great 
square of Pega- 
sus to Aquila. 



Moved slowly «= $ = 

at first, more From 47 o +20° 



quickly after 

wards. 

35 seconds. 



Fireball ; very large Bright flame- 
colour ; 
train of fiery 
appearance. 



to 7 +14 
Began close to 
the lower edge 
of the moon. 



While walking 
northward the 
meteor crossed 
the observer's 
view from W. 
toE. 






OBSERVATIONS OP LUMINOUS METEORS. 



115 



Length of 
Path. 



Direction or Radiant-point. Appearance, Remarks, &c. 



Observer 
or Reference. 



3(J° or 40° in!Almost horizontal, 
view, by a sketch, 
good esti- 
mation. 




like theory beautiful effect when burst- 
ing ; left a light streak for a 
perceptible time on the whole 
course which it traversed. The 
position measured by house- 
roofs and objects. 



A. Brothers. 



towards due west. 

Directed from S Cygni. A beautiful meteor ; left a bright 
Evidently a Leonid from 1 green streak for I second on 
its appearance. [? A Leo-' its course, 
minorid.] 

[A Taurid.] First waned, and then came out 

much brighter, finally bursting 
in Aquila. Left a magnificent 
trail of fire behind it. Imme- 
diately afterwards another shot 
out nearer to, and passed com- 
pletely through Aquila, fol- 
lowed by a third nearer to the 
horizon. 

Radiant in Taurus ; either 60°, Small, and moved slowly (6° in 
+20°, or 80°, +22° ; but; the first second) in the first 

half of its course. Bright as 



T. W. Backhouse. 



Arthur W. Mitchell. 
[Newspaper para- 
graph from J. E. 
Clark.] 



very probably from the last 
of these two radiants (Tau- 
rids II., W. F. Denning), be- 
tween /3 and £ Tauri. 



Jupiter in the last half, dying 
out gradually at last; no sparks; 
nearly globular ; no train or 
streak left on its course. 



Passed obliquely across the line! A bright moon, foggy atmosphere, 
between a. and /3 Aurigas, as! and cirrus-clouded sky dimmed 



in the sketch. 




M> [1 Try 

Mrty 



the meteor, which was yet a 
beautiful one. It finally ex- 
ploded, noiselessly, with a 
shower of coloured sparks. 



L S. Herschel. 
The ' Astronomical 
Register,' vol. xv. 
p. 16. (Jan. 1877.) 



F. G. Evans. 
Communicated by 
W. F. Denning. 




In full twilight. (At Eastslicen. 
" E. Z.," proceeding from Ken 
to Mortlake by the river, saw 
the meteor in the N.E., of un- 
usual brightness.) 



X." The ' Times,' 
Dec. 15, 1876. 



12 



116 



REPOirr — 1877. 



Date. 



Hour 
G.M.T. (or 

local time). 



1876 
Dec.13 



Place of 
Observation. 



h m 

4 45 p.m. St. James's 

Square, Lon 
don. 



13 



13 



About 
4 50 p.m 



28 p.m. Bristol 



Apparent Size. 



Colour. 



About equal to, or 
rather brighter 
than If.. 



Blackwater, near A small fireball 
Yorktown 
(Hants). 



Duration. 



Position or 
Apparent Path. 



21 



1377. 

Jan. 7 



8 40 p.m, 



About 
10 30 



p. II! 



Illinois and sur- 
rounding 

States, U. S 
America. 

Putney Hill, 
London. 



: 2nd mag.* in 
brightness, but 
large and dull, 
with a sensible 
disk. 



Meteor of the 
largest size ; ae 
rolitic. 



I Meteor of great 
brightness. 



31 p.m. Birmingham 



10 32 p.m, 



Pale yellow, 
changing to 
bluish green; 
at last red, 
with tail of 
the same co- 
lour. 



White 



Nucleus and 
following 
meteors 
white. 



Increased from a 
mere point to 
the brightness of 
Venus, near « 
Leonis, with a 
brighter flash at 
disappearance. 



To an observer 
walking down 
the Square it 
passed from 

north to south 
until it disap 
peared behind 
the houses. 

Fell from the hea 
vens and ap- 
proached but 
did not reach 
the eartb be- 
fore it disap- 
peared. 

From the fore- 
part of Ursa 
Major (near the 
N.E.) to a point 
near Saturn 
(near the south 
horizon). 



Fully a minute|From 75 miles over 
Kansas, to 25 
miles over west- 
ern Nw York. 



Some 10 sees. 



Deep yellow, 
merging into 
ruby-red to- 
wards the 
tail. 



Near London 



5 or 6 sees. ; 
very slow 
speed. 



Motion unusu- 
ally slow. 



Its course began 
between a and 
/3 Geminorum, 
and passed across 
X and ^ Ursse 
Majoris, ending 
a little beyond 
the latter star. 

From a point near 
r\ Hydrse to a 
point below a 
Leonis at 182 , 1 
+ 1G°. Fron.j 
near a Leonis 
vaporous tail fol 
lowed the me- 
teor about 8° in 
length. 

From X, n Ursa 
Majoris to 
point 3° belowl 
a Canum Vena-f 
ticorum ; pro 
ceeding thencd 
several degree| 
further. 



OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEOUS. 



117 



Length of 
Path. 



122°, extreme- 
ly long course. 



\bout 1000 
miles. 



46° 



52° 



(30°) 



Direction or Radiant-point. 



Direction from N. to S. 



Radiant in Leo Minor, then on 
the N.E. horizon. (Posi- 
tion, in degrees, from 135°, 
+66° to 334°, +10 c .) 



Radiant in the south, or east 
part of Capricornus, a little 
south of the ecliptic. 



[Radiant, from this and the 
next two observations, near 
y Eridani, at 58°, -12 
See further notes regard- 
ing it, by Mr. Denning, in 
Appendix II., pp. 135, 142.] 



Radiant-point in Fluvius Eri- 
danus; 96, Tupman, or 16) 
of the B.A. Catalogue, 1874. 



Radiant of shooting-stars on 
this evening apparently near 
those stars in Ursa Major, 
but clouds made its determi 
nation doubtful. 



Appearance, Remarks, &c. 



Twilight and thin clouds pre- 
vented any stars from yet ap- 
pearing. 



Grew alternately slow and faint, 
and again brighter and more 
rapid, until it was spent in a 
thin wreath of white sparks, 
lasting about l - 5 second. 



Broke, in midcourse, into 20 or 
100 lesser fireballs ; detonating. 
A. stonefall. 



Bright nucleus, with a tail of fire 
in its wake about 2° in length. 



Motion unsteady with a slight 
undulation, as if forcing its way 
with difficulty. Matter appa- 
rently projected from the head 
formed a long train behind it. 
Part of the course at last hidden 
by houses. The meteor reap- 
pearing, burst with a flash at 
extinction. 



The meteor halted for 2 seconds 
near a. Canum Venaticorum, and 
a faint portion then left a train 
for several degrees further. 
Several meteors were seen on 
on the same evening which 
equalled Jupiter in brightness, 
for the most part with unusu 
ally slow motions. 



Observer 
or Reference. 



' Nature,' vol. xv. p. 
278. 



' Nature,' vol. xv. p. 
170, Dec. 21, 1870. 



W. F. Denning. 



[See the Appendices on 
Large and Aerolitic 
Meteors in this Re- 
port, pp. 150 and 192.] 

"J. L. M C C." 
(W. F. Denning; 
' Nature,' vol. xv. p. 
346). 



W. II. Wood. 
' Nature,' vol. xv. p. 
295. (Feb. 1st, 1877.) 



Nature,' vol. xv. p. 
244. (Jan. 11th, 
1877.) 



118 



REPORT 1877. 



Date. 


Hour 
G.M.T. (or 
local time). 


Place of 
Observation. 


Apparent Size. 


Colour. 


Duration. 


Position or 
Apparent Path. 


1877. 
Jan. 19 

Teb. 4 

26 

26 

Mar.ll 
16 

17 
17 

17 
17 


h m 
About 
6 25 p.m. 1 
(6 p.m.l 
Irish time). 

9 6 p.m. 

About 
6 20 p.m. 

About 
6 20 p.m. 

2 a.m. 
(Paris time). 

8 p.m. 

(local time). 

9 55 p.m. 
9 56 p.m. 

A few mi- 
nutes be- 
fore 10 
p.m. 

About 
9 57 p.m. 






Variously tint- 
ed. (Pale 
blue at Wol- 
verhamp- 
ton.) 

Yellowish red 


(Moved very 
slowly, lasting 
7or8scconds, 
at Wolver- 
hampton.) 

3 seconds; slow 

Moved very 
slowly. 


Shot westward from I 
a little S.W. ofl 1 
the Pleiades to a 
point south of ' 
Saturn. 

«= $=. 
From 354° +30° 
to 2 +16 

Some two or three 
degrees at least 
below and to right 
of the moon. 

Passed from right 
to left over and 
very near the full 
moon. 

Near the southern 
horizon. 

Appeared near the 
eastern horizon, 
and burst finally 
in the western 
sky. 

From 2° above 
Betelgense (* 
Orionis) to about 
6° below the 
Pleiades. (From 
86° +10° to 54° 
+ 15°.) 

From a point 
about 3° north- 
west of e Hydra: 
to a point in 
Monoceros at 
about 112°-5, 
-20°. 

Near the western 
horizon ; disap- 
peared between 
Orion's Belt and 
the Pleiades. 

From over Taun- 
ton (altitude 60 
miles) to a point 
over Pontypool 
(alt. 29 miles; 
length of path 
58 miles). 


(Seen also bv 
Mr.E. J. Bibb's 
at Wolver- 
hampton.) 

Birmingham ... 

Gloucester Kail- 
way Station. 

Ilford (near Lon- 
don, Essex.') 

St. Etieune, 
France. 

Uitenhage (and 
Cape Colony), 
S. Africa. 

Reading 


— it 


Meteor of large 
size. 




Meteor of the 
largest size. 

Like the finest and 
largest rocket ; \ 
apparent diame- 
ter of the moon. 


Violet-colour.. 
Blue 


Very rapid . . . 

Travelled 
slowly. 

3 or 5 seconds 

Sailed rather 
slowly across 
the sky. 

Moved slowly 

Slow apparent 
speed. About 
2 or 3 to 4 
or 5 seconds. 


Giving an in- 
tense white 
light. The 
train & sparks 
white near the 
head but turn- 
ing redder. 


Rossall, near 
Fleetwood, 
Lancashire. 


About £ the appa- 
rent diameter of 
the moon. 

From about ^ to \ 
apparent size of 
the moon at dif- 
ferent points of 
observation. 


White at first, 
then bluish, 
and at last 
purple 

Yellow, green, 
and red. 


West of England 
and Ireland. 



OBSERVATIONS OK LUMINOUS METEORS, 



111) 



Length of 
Path. 



:,[) 



Direction or Radiant-point. 



Appearance, Remarks, &c. 



Observer 
or Reference. 



(Fell almost perpendicularly to 
the south, at Wolverhamp- 
ton.) 



Length of 
visible path 
about twice 
the moon's 
diameter. 



Magnificent fireball, leaving 
brilliant track, and with a final 
blaze at disappearance. Bright 
moon and twilight. [For other 
descriptions of the meteor 
see Appendix II. (Large 
Meteors), p. 153.] 
K.,(QuadransU)rMG 2 (,noOtes).jNucleus with short tail. Buret 

at last, projecting some sparks 
forwards.. 



At 7 h 40 m p.m.," Feb. 11, 
another bright meteor was 
seen at Birmingham, in the 
N.W., at no great altitude, 
travelling slowly towards N. 
Moved parallel to the horizon, 
from right to left. 



Travelling from west to east 



Left a bright track behind it. A 
brilliant evening, with no stars 
yet visible (except (?) Sirius, 
brightly seen in 20'"), and still 
almost daylight. 

Brilliant, in spite of some day- 
light and of the moon's ex- 
treme brightness. 



No detonation heard 



Hast to west 



Passed obliquely downwards, 
from right to left, towards 
[? from left to right, to near] 
Orion's Belt. 



Due S. to N., at an inclination 
downwards of 34° from ho- 
rizontal. Radiant-point de- 
duced from the observations 
at 145° —4°, in Sextans, 
near Cor Hydro. 



A detonating fireball, producing 
an immense illumination. 



It made the stars appear dull and 
red, and seemed very close to 
the earth. 



The observer's attention, as he 
looked towards west, was 
drawn towards the meteor by 
its light in the south. 



Nucleus pear-shaped, with a 
bright track. [Similarly de- 
scribed at Gunnersbury, near 
London, by " W. M."; Ibid., 
p. 451.] 

The meteor cast a strong light, 
and was followed in its track 
by a train resembling fiery 
ashes. See Appendix I. of 
this Report, pp. 135, 142. 



Joseph Radley. 
' Natural History 
Journal of Friends 
Schools' Societies,' ; 
vol.i.p.25.Mar.l877 



W. H. Wood. 



A. J. Mott. 
' Nature,' vol. \v. 
p. 399. (March 8, 
1877.) 

C. M. Ingleby. 

' Nature,' vol. xv. 
p. 375. (March 1,1 
1877.) 

' Nature,' vol. xv. p. 
4 GO. (March 22, 
1877.) 

The 'Times.' [See Ap-I 
pendix on Aerolitic 
Meteors in this Re- 
port, p. 193.] 

H. M. Wallis. 
' Nat. Hist. Journal 
of Friends Schools' 
Societies,' vol. i. p. 
41. April 1877. 



• II. 

' Nature,' vol. xv. 
p. 471. (March 29, 

1877.) 



W. Ainslie Hollis. 
(Ibid.) 



The ' Observatory,' 
vol. i. p. 19. Cal- 
culation of the me- 
teor's course by 
Captain Tupmar;. 



I 



120 



REPORT — 1877. 



Date. 


Hour 

G.M. T. (or 
local time). 


Place of 
Observation. 


Apparent Size. 


Colour. 


Duration. 


Position or 
Apparent Path. 


1877. 


h ra 












Mar.28 


About 
9 30 p.m. 




Very brilliant 
meteor. 




A few seconds 


Travelling in a 
N.E. direction. 






Apr. 6 


9 p.m. 


Thomastown 


Twice the appa- 


Nucleus with 


4 to 6 seconds 


Began at an alti- 




(Dublin 


(Kilkenny). 


rent size of the 


a deep crim- 




tude of about 




time.) 




moon. Light 
equal to the full 
moon on a clear 
night. 


son tail 4 or 
5 times the 
length of 
the head. 




40°, and shot to 
the S.W. hori- 
zon. 


16 


About 


Leicester [and at 


2 or 3 X Venus. 


Bluish, with a 


[A second or 


In the northern 




10 50 p.m. 


Bristol]. 


[Lit up the sky 
with a strong 
glare.] 


train of yel- 
lowish light. 


two.] 


heavens. Com- 
menced near 
y Cephei, and 
shot towards 
the eastern ho- 
rizon. [In the 
north-east fell 
rather more 
perpendicularly 
than in this 
sketch.] 


1G 


10 50 p.m. 








Tn a south-easterlv 




Man). 






direction. Burst 














within a point 














from Buck's Road 














and Conister. 














The observer 














was in Christian 














Road, whence 














Buck's Road 














runs 25° E. 














from S., and 














Conister Rock 














is 70° E. from 
S. 
Dropped down from 
Cassiopeia to the 


1G 


10 50 p.m. 


Cambridge (and A snlendid meteor. 


White 






Newcastle-on- 


(Lighted up thr 










Tyne). 


sky.) 






horizon. (Rose 
upwards in the 
E.S.E. to alti- 
tude about 40°; 
burst and de- 
scended again 
towards the 
east.) 


May 13 


About 




About 4 X V 


Ruddv ; not 


3 or 4 seconds; 


Appeared a little S. 
of Arcturus, and .' 




10 35 p.m. 






unlike Mars. 


slow motion. 














disappeared near j 














/3 Herculis. 



OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 



121 



Length of 
Path. 



Direction or Radiant-point. 



[S.W.toN.E.?] 



Appearance, Remarks, &c. 



Observer 
or Reference. 



Disappeared with a final flame.C. 0. 



From N.E. to S.W. 



Descending at an angle of 
about 30° from perpendi- 
cular. 



X 



and without audible explosion. 



Appearance of the meteor with 
its narrow deep-red streak — 



1 Natural History 
Journal,' vol. i. p. 41. 

C. Budds. 

Communicated by 
G. J. Symons. 



[A detonating fireball. See 
Appendix II. Large Meteors.] 

Sky cloudless ; general appear- 
ance like a rocket ; but it dis- 
appeared suddenly without 
noise or sparks. A slight zig- 
zag but no curvature was visi- 
ble in its path. 



F. T. Mott. 
' Nature,' vol. xv. p 
549. (Apr. 26, 1877.) 
[Communicated by 
W. F. Denning.] 



Burst twice with such intense 
light that the time by St 
Thomas's church clock could 
be read. 



(Course ? zigzag, or else 
near its radiant-point ? A 
very rough description, 
giving only the general alti- 
tude and azimuth, by some 
landmarks at Newcastle, 
pretty closely.) 



(Disappeared with a flash) 



Moved eastward , 



Paragraph in ' The 

Mona's Herald,' 

April 18th, 1877. 



Communicated by 
A. S. Herschel. 



Threw out sparks as it ad- 
vanced. Followed in about 
half a minute by another, 
smaller hut quite similar, from 
almost exactly the same point 
and direction, visible 3 se- 
conds. 



\V. II. S. J. Hope. 
1 Nature,' vol. xvi. p. 
43. (May 17, 1877.) 



m 




REPORT — 1877. 






Date. 


Hour 
G. M. T. (or 
local time). 


Place of ■ . c- 
Observation. Apparent S.ze. 


Colour. 


Duration. 


j 

Position or 
Apparent Path. 


1877. 


h m 










June 4 


35 a.m. 


East G [instead A white hall nl 


White 


Not more (by 
recollection) 


Stationary; about 
2° nearer the 


(Sussex). 


light, like the 










moon. 




than 3 sees. 


zenith than 
«? Pegasi (then 
nearly due east). 


14 


8 40 p.m. 


Observatory of Disk of 5' or 6' 


Dazzling 


About o sees. 


Descended from an 




(Clermont 


Clermont Per- diameter while 


white. Tail 


while in 


altitude of about 




time.) 


rand, Clermont, visible. Obser- 


with some 


sight. 


40° to a point 






Farnce. 


vers who saw it 
reach the hori- 
zon compared it 


red and blue 
in its tints. 




at alt. 10° 50', 
azimuth 75° 15', 
W. from S.,| 




to the full moon 






where it disap- 1 


i 


then. 






peared behind J 
the base of all 
chimney. 


16 


About 
9 33 p.m. 


BrMol 


>- y . Like a large 
and brilliant 






In the western sky. 
Disappeared be- 














comet. 






hind a screen ofi 

trees. 


16 


10 50 p.m. 


Ibid 


About- y 






Proceeded from the 1 
stars of Ursa 1 




















Major, as in thej 










sketch. Ap-;l 












proximate posi-j| 


1 










tion, according} 














to a projection! 














on a globe, 














from 177° +52° j 














to • 149 +30 


July 2 


About 


Street, nearGlas- 


Four times as bright 


Bluish white.. 


4 seconds ; 


From 30° W. of S., 1 




10 20 p.m % 


tonbury (So- 
mersetshire). 


as a 1st mag. star. 




moved 

slowly. 


alt. 30°, to a J 
point 75° W. of! j 
south. 


2 


10 90 r. .in. 




Larger but not 
much brighter 




Slow motion. . 


Shot horizontals 1 1 
about 3° or 4*° 


-- -- i 










than Jupiter. 






above a Virginis. 














(From about 














a= S= 














212° -10° 














to 183 - 3) 


2 


About 

10 30 p.m. 


Filton, near 
Bristol. 


Verv fine meteor 




Moved slowly 


Passed from south- 
east to west ; 








or a little 




f 






about ^ of the 




earlier. 




' 




way, in altitude, 














from the horizon 










1 




to the zenith. 



OBSERVATIONS OP LUMINOUS METEORS. 



123 



Length of 
Path. 



Direction or Radiant-point. 



[Radiant (or stationary point 
of foreshortened path) at 
323°, +11°.] 



Appearance, Remarks, &c. 



Observer 
or Reference. 



It had no visible motion, J. K. Esdaile. 
but flashed out and dis- 
appeared just as if the sky 
had opened and shown the 
moon through, and then 
closed again. 



Descended to the right, or Sky foggy. A train of cousider- 
northwards, at an inclination able length and brightness fol- 
of 30° to the vertical line ol lowed the head or nucleus of 
the chimney, where it reach- the meteor 
ed it. 



. Descending obliquely 
northerly direction. 

I 



M. Gruey. 

' Comptes Rendns,' 
vol. lxxxiv. p. 1462. 
(June 18, 1877.) 



a In spite of daylight and'Newspaper paragraph, 
moonlight, which were both Communicated by 
strong in the clear western sky. 1 \Y. F. Denning, 
the meteor was yet distinctly 
visible. 

(Perhaps from the same radiant- C. Holt. 

point as the other bright me- ! (Communicated by 
teors noted on this evening ) W, F. Denning.) 



Path carefully represented by 
the stars. 



Descending slightly (about 15°) 
from horizontal. 



(Radiant apparently Schmidt's, 
for June and Julv, at 260" 
-10°.) 



A fine bolide, seen in twilight. 
Burst, leaving a trail of sparks. 



W. S. Clark. 



The star Spica identified by Mr. A 
Denning with Mr. Carell on a 
following evening. 



Moved 

thus- 



' The Natural History 
Journal,' vol. i. p. 97. 
(Sept. 1877.) 
S. Carell. 

(Communicated by 
W. F. Denning.) 



quite horizontally, ! Left very little train or light- F. W. Gayner. 

track ; but the size of the (Communicated by 
meteor and its blaze of light! Wr F. Denning.) 
were quite surprising. 



First appeared from be- 
hind a house, and disap- 
peared behind a knot of elm 
trees. 



124 



REPORT 1877. 



Date. 



Hour 

G. M. T. (or 

local time). 



Place of 
Observation. 



Apparent Size. 



Colour. 



Duration. 



Position or 
Apparent Path. 



1877. 
July 7 



h m 

5 a.m. Bristol, 



Quite= If. 



Aug.10 



10 25 p.m. 



Birmingham ... 



White 



= ¥■ 



Pale green . . . 



1-5 second .. 



Part of the path 
seen close to fi 
Cephei. 



From £ Ursas Mi- 
noris to 227 
+29°. 



OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 



125 



Length of 
Path. 



Direction or Radiant-point. 



'Directed apparently from % 
Lyra:, but clouds made 
the exact line of its path 
uncertain. Near ji Ce- 
phei. 



Appearance, Remarks, &c. 



Observer 
or Reference. 



[A Perse'id.] 



Lit up the clouds with a strong W. F. Denning 
glow of light (shining through 
them). 



Left a streak 30° in length 
Twenty-six meteors seen be- 
tween 10 h 15 m and 12 h 30 m , 
with no clouds after 11' 
p.m. A rather poor August- 
shower display. On the 11th, 
sixteen meteors in clear sky 
between 10" 30 m and ll h 30"' 
p.m. 



VV. H. Wood. 






126 



KEPOllT — \S77. 



LIST OF DUPLICATE OBSER- 

FOR THE 



Hour 

Date. G. M. T. (or n , Place ° f 
local time), Observation. 



1875. 
Nov. 15 



15 



Apparent Size. 



15 



18 



19 



h m s 

54 a.m. Stonyhurst Ob' 
servatory, 
Yorkshire. 
53 50 Royal Observa- 
a.m. tory, Green'- 
wicb. 
2 4G a.m.' Stonyhurst Ob- 
servatory, 
Yorkshire. 
Royal Observa- 
tory, Green- 
wich. 
Bristol , 



15 2 46 13 
a.m. 
1876.' 
July 18 11 42 p.m 



11 43 p.m. Radcliffe Ob- 
servatory, 



10 58 p.m. 



1910 58 p.m, 



20 11 28 p.m. 



:2nd mag.* 
> 1st mag.* 



:3rd mag.* 



= 1 st mag.* 
= 2ud mag.* 

= 3rd mag.* 



Oxford. 
Bristol 



Radcliffe Ob- 
servatory, 
Oxford. 

Ibid 



■n 

:1st mag.* 
:1st mag.* 



201129 p.m. Bristol =lstmag.« 



21 
21 
24 



10 25 30 
p.m. 

10 26 p.m. 

11 34 p.m. 



Colour, 



Duration. 



White 



White 



Position or 
Apparent Path. 



Rapid 



Ibid. 



Radcliffe Ob- 
servatory, 
Oxford. * 

Bristol 



=Venus. A 

fine meteor. 

= 1st mag.* 



Yellow- 



Rather swift.. 
0-3 second ... 



From Pollux to 
about 10° above 
S Orionis. 

From direction of 
S Draconis to- 
wards a. Cygni. 

From between a 
and i] Leonis. 

About 5° below ft, 
and 8° to right of 
i|/UrsaeMajoris. 
«= S= 

From 233° +31° 
to 340 +20 

From i (ft Ophi- 
uchi, \ Aqui- 
lae) to £ Aqui- 
Ife. 

« = £ = 

From 346° +25° 
to 337 +12 

From Z Cygni to ft 
Aqiiilpc. 

From 9 Pegas- 
past ft Aquariii 
to below k Ca, 
pricorni. 



i 



very 

Reddish 



From 341° +6° 
to 335 -8 
Just above 
Saturn. 
Not very swift «= J= 

From 306° +27 c 
to 317 +49 
0-6 second ... From « Ophiuchi 
to « Corona;. 



n- 



24,11 37 p.m. Radcliffe Ob- 
servatory, 
Oxford. 



= lst mag.* 



White 1-5 second 



«= fi = 
From 38° +53° 

to 55 -j-39 

on the right of 

a Persei. 
From f Custodis 

(Bode) to Ca- 

pella. 



OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 



127 



VATIONS OF BHOOTING-STAKS 
VKAIt L875-76. 



Length of 
Path. 



Direction or Radiant-point. 



Appearance, Remarks, &c. 



Observer 
or Reference. 



About C -'. 



Very short 
course = 0°-5. 



13° 



A Leonid [?] Left a faint white streak Communicated by 

o« J» terry* 



[Radiant-point, 154°, +37°]. , 

Observed by W. C. Nash 

Shot towards the S.E. horizonlLeft no streak 



[Identical with the last meteor.] ' Monthly Notices,' 

R. A. S., vol. xxxvi 
p. 272. 
Communicated by 
S. J. Perry. 



I Almost stationary at 158°, [Identical with the last meteor.] 

+ 40°.] ' 



Radiant o Draconis . 



20° Radiant in Cassiopeia [at £, a, 

10°, +32°.] 



[Radiant at r, v Pegasi, 351°, 

+25°]. 



1 .'> Radiant in Cassiopeia , 



24 



Radiant 6 Antinoi 



Observed by W. C. Nash. 
Left no streak . 



Left a very fine streak for 1*5 
second. 



Left a fine streak 



Left a bright streak for 2 seconds 



[Radiant 294°,- 9°, <c Antinoi] Left a streak 



19 'Cassiopeiad 



Left no streak. 



[Radiant a Draconis, 292°, Left a streak 
+ 51°.] 



' Monthly Notices,' 
R. A. S., vol. xxxvi. 
p. 272. 

W. F. Denning. 



J. Lucas. 

W. F. Denning. 
J. Lucas. 
Id. 

W. F. Denning. 

Id. 

J. Lucas. 

W. F. Denning. 

J. Lucas. 



128 



REPORT 1877. 



Date. 



1876. 
Aug. 5 



8 



8 



10 



Hour 
G. M. T. (or 

local time). 



Place of 
Observation. 



li m 

10 39 p.m.Radcliffe Ob- 
servatory, 
Oxford. " 



Apparent Size. 



= 1st mag * 



10 40 p.m 



10 33 p.m. 



10 34 p.m 



9 56 p.m. 



!• 9 53 p.m. 



10 



About 

10 p.m 



1011 59 p.m. 

10 11 59 p.m. 

11 10 27 p.m. 
11 10 27 p.m. 



Bristol 



Ibid. 



Sunderland 



West Hendon, 

Sunderland 

(Durham). 



; y . A splendid 
meteor. 



= lst mag.* 



= lst mag.* 



= Venus, near the 
end of its course. 



Edgbaston, Bir- A very brilliant 
mingham. meteor. 



Writtle, Chelms- 
ford (Essex). 



Bristol 



Radcliffe Ob- 
servatory, 
Oxford. ' 

Bristol 



= V- (?) 



= 3rd mag.*; small 
meteor. 

= 3rd mag.* 



= 1st mas;.* 



Radcliffe Ob- = 1st mag.# 
servatory, 
Oxford. 
11 10 38 p.m. Bristol 



y. ; a very fine 
meteor. 



Colour. 



Red 



Duration. 



Orange (?) 



Red 



Yellow- 



Rather swift.. 



2 seconds. 



Rapid 



1110 38 p.m. Ibid = 2nd mag.-;; 



1 second 



Position or 
Apparent Path. 



From a Canuml 
Venaticum [a 
misdirection, cer-J 
tainly], passed! 
j; Bootis 7° orj 
8°, curving 
downwards. 

a= — 

From 199° +54° 
to 207 +19 
(from % Ursae to 
i] Bootis). 
a= £ = 

From 44° +46° 
to 445 +37 

On a line from 
e Pegasi to 2° 
above /3 Acruarii 
prolonged, began 
12° or 15° be- 
yond the latter 
star. 

Passed a roint at 
269°, -15°, and 
went about 5° 
further. 

Passed from jj 
Draconis nearly 
across (to a point 
about 2° beyond) 
y Corona;. 

Burst below A re- 
turns and went 
on a short dis- 
tance ; no small 
stars visible 
there. 



*= 8= 

From 40° +39 c 
to 40 +33 

From between 6 
and X to \ Cas- 
siopeia;. 
«= o = 

From 3 15"+ 9° 
to:'07 +3[?-3; 

From ^ (a, Z) Aqui- 
hc toaOphiudii 

a= 8= 

From 151°+69° 
to 170 +53 

From 170 +73 
to 182 +55 



OBSERVATIONS OE LUMINOUS METEORS. 



129 



ength of 
Path. 



Direction or Radiant-point. 



[No Radiant-point assignable. 
The commencement and di- 
rection of motion at Oxford 
were evidently ill seen.] 



Appearance, Remarks, &c. 



A Perseid or Cassiopeiad 



A Pegasid 



Accurate. Left a streak across 
Algol. 



[Radiant i Cassiopeia?, 40°, 
+ 72°]. 



Directed from 1° to right of 
9 Serpentis. [Perseiid.] 



Perseid 



I Perseid 



15° 



[Radiant r\ Persei, 40°, +57°.] 
Perseus or Cassiopeia 



19° 



19° 



[\ Andromedae (a Honorid) 
352°, +45°.] 

Cassiopeiad 



From the same radiant 



Burst at disappearance. Left a 
streak. 



W. F. Denning. 



Id. 



T. W. Backhouse. 



End of the course seen through 
trees. Left a pretty bright 
train. 



Flared up suddenly at a Corona?, 
leaving a light-streak there 1^° 
long, for l m . [Seen also by 
Mr. Denning at Bristol.] 



Left a spot of light where it 
burst. Seen through clouds. 
[Identical with the last 
meteor, and with one seen 
at Bristol, at 9 h 54 m , by 
Mr. Denning (these Reports, 
vol. for 1876, p. 132). For 
183°, +7°, in that description, 
read 183°, + 79°.] 

Left a streak 



Left a bright streak 



Left a streak. Very accurate 



Left a streak 



Left a streak.." 



Appeared almost 
together ; rather 
doubtful paths, 



Observer 
or Reference. 



J. Lucas. 



Id. 



T. H. Waller. 



H. Corder. 



W. F. Denning. 

J. Lucas. 

VV. F. Denning. 

J. Lucas. 

W. F. Denning. 



1877. 



130 



REPORT — 1877. 



Hour 

ite. G. M. T. (or 
local time). 



1876. 
Aug. 11 



11 



11 



11 



11 



12 



h m s 
10 40 p.m 
and 5 se- 
conds later, 



11 8 p.m, 

11 8 30 
p.m. 

11 48 p.m 

11 49 p.m 

1 49 a.m 



12 1 50 a.m. Bristol 



Place of 
Observation. 



Apparent Size. 



Sunderland 



Birmingham 



Sunderland .. 
Birmingham 



Radcliffe Ob- 
servatory, 
Oxford. 

Ibid 



14 11 3 p.m 



Radcliffe Ob- 
servatory, 
Oxford. 



14 11 6 p.m. Bristol 



14 11 24 p.m. Ibid 



14 11 24 p.m. Radcliffe Ob- 
servatory, 



11 



11 35 p.m. 



Oxford. 
Bristol 



4 11 36 pm. Radcliffe Ob- 
servatory, 
Oxford. 



= Sirius to Tj. 
= 5th mag.* . 
= 2nd mag.* , 
= 3rd mag.# 
= 2nd mag.* 
= 3rd mag.* 
= 2nd mag.* 
= lst mag.* 
= 3rd mag.* 

= 2nd mag.* 
= 3rd mag.* 
= 3rd mag.* 
= 1st mag.* 
= 1st mag.* 



Orange-yellow 



Colour. 



Duration. 



Blue 



Blue 



White 



Red 



White 



1*4 second 



0-5 second 

Rapid 

0*5 second 



Rapid 

0-5 second 

Rapid 



Rapid 



Position or 
Apparent Path. 



From 266° + 3 C 
to 260 —15 
5° further to the 
left. 



From 26° +61° 

to 26 +56 
Disappeared at f 

(a Equulei, e 

Aquarii). 
From e [? ?] Cygni 

to 5° south of 

a Aquihe. 
From S Draconis to 

tt Herculis. 

a— $ = 
From 123° +62° 
to 132 +49 

From 108° +62° 
to 128 +55 

Shot from £ Ursa; 
Majoris towards 
a Canum Venati 
corum. 

a— S = 

From 156° +70° 
to 164 +62 

a= 8 = 

From 84° +73° 
to 121 +74 

From a Draconis 
to r) Ursa; Ma- 
joris. 

a= 5 = 

From 212° +42° 
to 204 +36 

At I («, e) Bootis.. 



OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 



131 



Length of 
Path. 



1G° or 17° 
Long course... 



I2 C 



Direction or Radiant-point. 



Inclined a good deal more to- 
wards the right. 



Radiant N 12 , l3 



Appearance, Remarks, &c. 



f 



[Radiant ahout x Persei, and 
0, v Persei. Identical with 
the last pair.] 



[Cassiopeiad ? Accordance of di 
rections not exact.] 



Directed from 1° below e Pe-Left a streak 
gasi. 



Directed from k Persei 
[k (near j; )Persei.] ... 



A Perseid 



[Radiant y Pegasi (?), at 3°, 
+ 15°.] 



A fine moonlight night. Twelve 
meteors seen from 10 h 30 m to 
12 h 15 m . 



[Some eiTor of position in this 
track, or in that of the next 
meteor.] 

Left no streak 



Cassiopeiad . 



[Radiant 18°, +5°; rather 
distant and uncertain.] 

[Radiant o Draconis.] 



Left a bright streak W. F. Denning 



Observer 
or Reference. 



T. W. Backhouse. 

W. H. Wood. 

T. W. Backhouse. 

W. H. Wood. 

J. Lucas. 

Id. 

W. F. Denning. 

J. Lucas. 



Accurate position. Left a streak 



Shone out like a star, almost 
stationary, at last. 



Id. 



J. Lucas. 



W. F. Denning. 



J. Lucas. 



k2 



132 report — 1877. 



APPENDIX. 
I. Meteors Doubly Observed. 

In the list of observations of large meteors presented last year, several de- 
scriptions are contained which more or less certainly and correctly describe 
the same meteor seen at different places. But the observations are not 
always very perfectly compatible with each other. The following are the 
principal conclusions which, as far as the data would permit, it has been 
found possible to obtain from them*. Some of the observations referred to 
are described in the list of observations of large meteors annexed to this 
Report, especially of the three last meteors mentioned in the present Table, 
which were seen after August 1876, and whose real paths have been de- 
termined from the accounts of them which are now about to be recorded 
(see, for the Table, pp. 134, 13-5.) 

Notes on the Results of the Comparisons presented in the Table. 

1876, July 25, 10 h 3 m p.m. — The descriptions giving accurate particulars 
of this meteor's apparent course (at Poplar and Edgeware Road, London, 
Brighton, Downham, Hersham, Street, and Burnham, Somersetshire) are 
seven in number ; but three of them exhibit anomalies of the meteor's track 
among the constellations which put them out of useful reference for calcula- 
tion. The meteor's long path appears to have been traced backwards after 
its disappearance by a natural tendency of the eye to wander round the sky 
at a constant altitude in prolonging a great circle to constellations much 
above those from which it was directed. An account received from Burnham, 
in Somersetshire, by Mr. Cordcr, states that the meteor passed from Ophiu- 
chus through Bootes on a line directed from the constellation Pegasus, a 
line which cannot be a great circle on the globe. The meteor's course, de- 
scribed at Brighton as being remarkable for its apparent length, is still more 
extraordinary by the unnatural deflection at the middle of its track, by which 
it proceeded thence on a course about 45° inclined to its original direction. 
As far as can be gathered from the only thoroughly consistent accounts of 
its apparent course recorded (a correction of " north " to " south " declina- 
tion in that at Downham, Norfolk, includes this latter among the most pre- 
cise of the descriptions), the particular account of the meteor's course through 
the constellations " Aquila and Hercules to Arcturus" at Edgeware Road, Lon- 
don, while not self-contradictory like the above, appears yet to be affected 
with the same source of error ; and it is the only account so signally in con- 
trast with the remaining well-recorded ones as to make the possibility of two 
meteors having been visible, either appearing nearly at the same time or to- 
gether, a question which could be reasonably offered for consideration. The 
calculated path presented in the Table is derived from the observations at 
Street (Somersetshire) and Poplar, with the corroborative evidence shown at 
Hersham (Surrey) and at Downham (Norfolk, assuming the above small but 
important correction of the point of origin) of its approximate exactness. That 
the meteor proceeded from a very low southern radiant- point is pretty clearly 
proved by these accounts ; but it is unfortunate that the other circumstan- 
tially detailed descriptions of its apparent course point apparently to an origin 
of the meteor's flight far north of the equator, and accordingly (if they could 

[* 'Monthly Notices of the Astronomical Society,' vol. xxxvii.pp. 208-210, with some 
amplifications in the present columns of the Table.] 



OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 133 

be accepted) to a very widely different conclusion. The point of first ap- 
pearance was too far from the observers to be very ccrlainly determined; but 
the length and duration of the flight at Street give a velocity (19*5 miles per 
second) which does not perhaps exceed the theoretical velocity in a parabolic 
orbit (12-3 miles per second) with the radiant-point observed more than can 
be accounted for by the unavoidable errors of observation. With regard to 
the meteor's appearance, an interesting description of the view obtained of 
it (apparently in London, as no place of observation is named in the letter to 
'The English Mechanic,' vol. xxiii. p. 668, September 8, 1876, where this 
account appears) by Mr. W. J. Lancaster is as follows : — " I saw the meteor 
of July 25th splendidly at about 2" 1 after 10 o'clock. Its course terminated 
far above t; Bootis. In fact I fancied that it was higher than e Bootis, but 
of this 1 could not be positive because my whole attention was upon the 
meteor. Of one thing I am, however, positive, and that is, that immediately 
before it vanished it split into two principal nuclei and a quantity of appa- 
rent nuclei. The two fragments were about j and 3 the size of the original, 
the larger fragment being the anterior one ; the other fragment vanished 
first, then the anterior one. The colour before explosion was a magnificent 
bluish green. In fact it at once impressed me with an idea of its composi- 
tion. It was as nearly as possible the colour produced by burning magne- 
sium and zinc with a trace of copper. Some of the fragments burned with a 
red tint. I did not hear any sound of an explosion." 

1876, August 11, 11" 22 m p.m.— This was a splendid Persei'd fireball, of 
which the streak remained visible for a few minutes, assuming a serpentine 
form, and which was visible from Sunderland in the north to Clifton and 
Somerton in the south of England. The length of the light-cloud was about 
12 miles, and it must have been fully half a mile in width before it disap- 
peared, at the height of 50 miles above the earth's surface, 20 or 30 miles 
northward from Swansea and Cardiff, at which it was deposited. The metcir 
produced a white lightning-like illumination 'over S. Wales and the whole 
country in the neighbourhood of the Bristol Channel. No durations of its 
flight were, unfortunately, recorded by which its velocity might have been 
exactly ascertained, as the length of its path and the real height and locality 
of its luminous track were very accurately noted and determined The 
radiant-point is indicated with some precision, near the usual radian , -point 
of the August " Persei'ds." 

1876, August 13, 9" 27 m p.m. — The observations of this Persei'd at Bunt- 
ingford, near Ware, in Herts, and at Folkestone, arc in perfect accordance 
for the point of disappearance ; but the meteor's oblique descent towards 
these places makes the distance from them at which it first appeared diffi- 
cult to decide. The point of first appearance assigned at Oxford (near a Cas- 
siopeia;) limits the height of the meteor there at 1-10 miles ; but a less early 
point of appearance by a few degrees at either of the stations diminishes 
this height to 90 miles over Walton, where the meteor is taken to have first 
entered the atmosphere. Like the last meteor, although penetrating it to 
little more than 40 miles above the earth's surface, it gave rise to no audible 
explosion. 

1876, August 15, 9 h 30 m i>.m. — This fine Aquariad fireball was observed 
over an extensive area in England, Wales, and Ireland, and in the Isle of 
Man. It crossed the Irish Channel from St. Bride's Bay, near Milford Haven, 
to Arklow in Ireland; and the extent of its further flight is imperfectly 
known from the distance from all the observers in England who recorded it 
■which it there attained. At Newtown (Montgomeryshire) in Wales, a news- 



134 



REPORT 1877. 



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OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 



135 



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i-aa 

"as 



•£ sa. 



136 



REPORT 187". 



paper might have been read for some time by its light, as it passed along ; 
and it was remarkable for its sustained brilliancy at Bath, Bristol, Ciren- 
cester, Swansea, Oxford, Rochdale, at Douglas in the Isle of Man, and at 
Cookstown, near Loch Neagh, in Ireland. Its course was noted at the Rad- 
cliffe Observatory, Oxford ; and here, as at other more western places over 
which its course began, it was followed without extinction to the N.W. ho- 
rizon. The observation at Douglas enables the radiant-point to be deter- 
mined, to which the observations in the S.W. of England only point back- 
wards by a nearly common line. As seen to commence, from the new pier, 
over Douglas Head, and to skirt the high ground of that southern headland 
of the bay before coming into clearer view westwardly over the town, the 
altitude of its horizontal motion westwards from the point of origin nearly 
due south cannot have much exceeded 30°, the apparent altitude assigned by 
Mr. Binney. If by a reduction which no eye-estimations of altitude near 
the horizon can dispense with, 25° or even 20° is substituted for the real 
altitude at which the meteor started horizontally westwards at Douglas from 
the south meridian, the position for the radiant-point is obtained (by inter- 
section with the other projected courses) which is entered in the Table, and 
which agrees without discordance with the place which had already been as- 
signed to it generally and independently from their common intersection. 
The place so found (at 310°, —10°) agrees well with a known radiant centre 
for August in Aquarius, close to which the radiant-point of a bright fireball 
seen on the 10th of August, 1874, was already found to be situated (as de- 
scribed last year in these Reports), at 313°, — 14°, near u, e Aquarii. The 
velocity (like that of the fireball there described, of 19 miles per second) 
agrees with the theoretical velocity of bodies moving in a parabolic orbit with 
this radiant-point. 

The President of the Manchester Literary and Philosophical Society, Mr. 
E. W. Binney, who obliged the Committee with the present details of his ob- 
servation of the meteor at Douglas, has also kindly communicated two other 
observations, which it is difficult to reconcile with those of this large meteor, 
but which may yet indicate that it pursued its course to a considerable 
distance over Ireland. The annexed map of Douglas town and Bay repre- 
sents the point (a) on the New Pier from which Mr. Binney relates that he 
obtained the first view of the 
meteor in the direction a b, 
commencing its course over 
the New Hotel, whence it 
took its flight westward, 
skirting the hills of Douglas 
Head (whose elevation is 
about 300 or 400 feet), until 
it passed clear of them, and 
pursuing its way over 
Douglas town, appeared to 
him to vanish in the north- 
west near the horizon. Some 
friends who saw the meteor 
from near the New Hotel 
also followed it in view until 
it disappeared over Port 
Anne Hotel (c in the sketch), 
which is nearly in the same , ** 

[Scale, one mile to an incli.l 




OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 137 

north-west direction. The dotted lines 1, 2, 3 are the directions, 
respectively, of St. Bride's Bay (Milford Haven), Axklow, and a point 
near Mullingar in Ireland. It thus appears that a much longer night 
than that above supposed must presumably have been performed; but it 
must yet be remembered that intervals of azimuth, like those of altitude, are 
commonly far overrated near the horizon ; and the real course of the meteor 
was very probably not more prolonged (even if it was so much, at last) at Mr. 
Binney's point of observation*, from due south to about west, or a little south 
of west. 

Mr. Binney mentions the occurrence on the night before the 15th of August 
of another meteor equally brilliaut with this large fireball, which made its 
appearance in the west at Belfast. The hour of its occurrence was the same, 
and it answered, a correspondent wrote to him, in every particular to the de- 
scription of the meteor seen at Douglas ; and no doubt of the date, he added, was 
possible, which was the 14th of August. Mr. H. Darbishire, who communi- 
cated this intelligence, states that he was on the watch for meteors on the 
night of August 15, between 9 h and 10 h p.m., and saw nothing at Belfast re- 
sembling the large meteor elsewhere recorded at about 9" 30 m on that night. 
On the other hand, a notice of such a meteor, seen at Cookstown, 30 miles 
west of Belfast, appeared in a later Part of the ' Proceedings of the Literary 
and Philosophical Society of Manchester ' (vol. xvi. p. 60, December 12, 1876), 
showing that either this fireball, or one perfectly resembling it, was very 
brilliant in that part of Ireland at the hour when other observers noted its 
appearance. 

The following account of the meteor was given by Mr. N". Staples, 
whose letter to him of December 4th, 1876, on the subject of the meteor, 
Mr. Binney then communicated to the Society : — " As I noticed in the 
Paper that you observed a meteor on the night of August 15th, when in 
the Isle of Man, I beg to inform you that a meteor was observed in Cooks- 
town, about long. W. 6° 45', on the night of Tuesday, August 15th, about 
9 h 45 m , local time, passing over from S.E. to N.W. It was described to me 
as lighting up the whole street ; colour reddish green [!]." Mr. Binney 
adds that the meteor was also seen at Rochdale in Lancashire, but of its ap- 
parent course there he has not been able to obtain particulars. Remarkable 
as was the brilliancy of the meteor at this far northern point in Ireland, it 
is not necessary to assume a further continuation of its course than to such 
a low height as 15 miles over a point; near Mullingar (about 80 miles S.S.W. 
from Cookstown) to satisfy the uncertain information which can alone he 
gathered without recourse to measurements from such a general description 
of the meteor's apparition. The earth-point of its course, as derived from the 
exact observations of its course in England, was 15 miles west from Carrick, 
90 miles S.W. by W. from Cookstown, and instead of passing " over " that 
town towards N.W., if the same meteor (as there seems no reason to doubt) 
was seen there, it must have moved at no great altitude above the south, on a 
slightly descending course nearly towards the west point of the horizon. 
The meteor did not burst or detonate, and left no persistent light-streak on 
its course ; but the strong bluish light of its nucleus cast moving shadows 

* A point a. is added in the map where Christian Bond branches off from Buck's Boad. 
The direction of Buck's Boad and of Conister from tin's point (referred to in a description 
of the meteor of April 16, 1877, in the accompanying fireball-list) are shown by dotted 
arrow-lines in the map. The point j3 is the tower of St. Thomas's church, which is also 
referred to in the same description. 



138 report — 1877. 

in S. Wales, and it was followed by a long train of red and yellow 
sparks. 

1876, September 24, 6 h 30 m p.m. — Far tbe most splendid meteor seen in 
England for somo years past burst over the English Channel on the last Sun- 
day evening in September 1876. A view of the phenomenon, complete in 
every point from first to last, was obtained of the brilliant spectacle at the 
Orwell Park Observatory, near Ipswich, by Mr. J. J. Plummer, who kindly 
supplied the Committee with the following details * : — " It was bright twi- 
light throughout the whole time (from G h 31 ra to 6 h 47 m , local time) that the 
meteor and its streak were visible. The whole course (whose length I esti- 
mate at 25°, traversed in about 3 seconds) may be divided into three por- 
tions (roughly equal) in order to describe it accurately. In the first portion 
its brightness was not remarkable, though it exceeded a first-magnitude star. 
In the second or middle portion it rapidly increased in brilliancy to many 
times the brightness of Venus, and then almost suddenly sunk to its former 
magnitude. In the third portion it again increased in brilliancy, this time 
much exceeding its former maximum, and with the like suddenness was to- 
tally extinguished. This portion of its course was, however, marked out by 
a narrow luminous train, about 6° long, and with scarcely perceptible width, 
which enabled mo to fix the position of the point of disappearance [by a com- 
parison with the neighbouring planet Saturn, about 3° below it] with con- 
siderable precision. There was no explosion ; no noise. The diameter of 
the disk could not exceed 2' [the inappreciable width of the light-streak 
plainly betokens this], and might have been less, and was slightly pear- 
shaped, which appearance may, I think, have been due to the persistence of 
the impression on the retina. It is very difficult to estimate with any accu- 
racy its maximum brightness, as there is no object in the heavens with which 
to compare it. I have recently shown that Venus has only ^jj of the bril- 
liancy of the full moon, and there is thus a very wi'de gap between these two 
standards of reference as regards brilliancy. If the moon had a diameter no 
greater than that at which I estimate the meteor, with the same amount of 
light, its intrinsic lustre would of course bo 240 times that it has at present, 
making it a very brilliant body. Still 
I do not think I exaggerate when I 
say that the meteor would be equal to such 
a body. The glare closely resembled that 
of a very vivid Hash of lightning, for which 
it was mistaken by somo persons. After the 
disappearance the train was seen as a lumi- 
nous cloud drifting slowly northward, taking successively the 
following forms (A), and gradually losing its definite outline. 
During its visibility it drifted about 12° or 15°. The wind 
was south-south-westerly at the time." 

A similar description of the streak to this is given by Mr. 
P. Harding, at Ipswich, as shown in the annexed sketch (B) 
received from Mr. Corder. " Time, 6 h 20 m . Apparent size 
equal to the moon, but much brighter. Fell very rapidly 
from a height of 50° or G0° in the S.S.E. White, followed 
by a train of brilliant colours, and leaving a broad streak 

* A similar notice of the meteor, by Mr. Plummer, appeared in 'Nature,' vol. xiv. 
p. 505. The particulars of the observed positions are recorded in the list of large meteor 
observations included in the general catalogue annexed to this Report. 





OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 139 

which lasted some minutes and broke in halves, one halt' gaining on the 
other, appearing thus when it began to break up in clouds." 

Tho sharply denned character of the white streak is mentioned by an 
observer on the Dunkirk to Calais railway (sec the accompanying catalogue), 
who likens it to a straight vertical chalk-mark on the sky ; and at a 
few places in England where (as in the neighbourhood of Ipswich), after a 
very wet showery day, the sky had cleared in the evening, the luminous streak 
which it left was a very notable feature of its unusual appearance. 

The ' Daily News ' gives the following description from the Stoke Hills, 
near Ipswich, adding, in some introductory lines on the occurrence, that " it 
must have fallen quite close to Ipswich, for the noise when it burst was 
plainly distinguishable"; but no other announcements of an audible repoit 
having attended it, from places nearer to the meteor's real outbreak and 
nearest approach to the earth, as far as the Committee has been able to as- 
certain, were elsewhere recorded. 

" It first made its appearance about thirty-two minutes past six, in a S.S.E. 
direction, about 60° above the horizon, and above and a little to the right of 
Saturn [altitude 11°]. It descended rapidly, leaving a long tail or train of 
golden light behind, like a long thin cloud, more or less broken. Just as it 
was in a line with Saturn, and apparently about a yard [1°] to its left, it 
opened or burst in the middle like a pod with a crackling noise, showing in 
the centre a very bright ball of light like the electric light. The light was of 
greater intensity than that of the moon at the full, quite illuminating a largo 
room from which it was seen. The luminous train or trail was visible for a 
quarter of an hour after the meteor burst, at first in the tail-like form with a 
marked division in the middle, but soon afterwards the two divisions became 
widely separated, assuming the appearance of two horizontal white clouds." 
Its appearance at Norwich and at Eramford is also noted in the 'Daily News,' 
at the latter of which places it passed from W.N.W. to the S.S.E., " leaving 
a stream of light behind it, and casting a lurid crimson belt of light upon 
the earth immediately beneath its course." 

At numberless places in England (and on the mainland of the continent) 
the intensity of its illumination was a singularity of this meteor, which took 
observers by surprise, lighting up the interior even of large rooms where 
they were seated, and revealing all objects out of doors with lightning-like 
distinctness. 

Near Harleston in Norfolk, " a pale light shone through an east window 
and passed thence about 6 or 7 feet from the floor of the room to a north 
window, like a flash of lightning." It was mistaken for lightning even at 
Dymock, near Ross in Hereford ; and in the south-eastern counties of 
England scarcely any persons within or out of doors had not noticed the 
peculiar brightness of the flash, which, the day having been sultry, was for 
the most part attributed to unusually vivid Hghtning. An outhouse was 
thought, in Kent, to be on fire, and apprehension was not much relieved ou 
looking up to see that the fire was* in the sky, " as big as a square room, 
thrown open," instead of on the earth close by. Tho illumination of the 
clouds, where the sky was covered, like that within doors, where the meteor 
was not seen, caused many erroneous impressions of its real course and 
aspect, to which few accurate particulars beyond what the accompanying 
catalogue contains can here unfortunately, from the dark aud cloudy nature 
of the evening generally, now be added. 

Mr. H. W. Bele, writing to Mr. Denning, gave a very clear dc- 



140 



REPORT— 1877. 




1T0 Dover ■ 




DeaV y 

Observer® 
Jiiuffsdow. 
Dover '. ' 



°BouIo^ne sur Ifer 



scription by a sketch (and an ac- 
companying outline map) of the 
general direction, from his position, 
of the meteor's apparent course, 
near Walrner on the coast of Kent, 
as it descended directly before him 
nearly to the sea. From this de- 
scription, the meteor was visible 
nearly in the east from Deal or 
Walmer (descending to a small al- 
titude ; and this direction is also 
given near Folkestone, by Mr. C. 
J. W. Valpy at Burniarsh, at 
Broadstairs by " T. W. H." in 
'The Standard,' and at Hawk- 
hurst, in Kent). The coast-line of 
France and Belgium is here added 
to Mr. Bole's map, with the calcu- 
lated position over the latter coast 
of the meteor's real course. 

At Walton-on-the-jSTaze ('The 
Times ") the meteor descended ver- 
tically in a south-east by east direction; and this agrees almost exactly with 
Mr. Plummer's view of it near Ipswich, from which, with combination of these 
observations and of that at Hull, and from the traveller's note of its bright 
streak, on the railway between Dunkirk and Calais, marking the sky vciti- 
calby in the "north-north-west,'' this approximate place of explosion and dis- 
appearance of the meteor over the German ocean is arrived at. The direction 
of its downward descent, though nearly vertical, is inclined from south to 
north in all the accounts recorded in the south, while this is less observable 
in those reported from the neighbourhood of Ipswich. In Paris also the ap- 
parent line of motion was " almost perpendicularly " downwards; and a 
general comparison of these particulars proves the true place of the radiant- 
point to have been about 15° or 20° from the zenith on its S.S.E. side, at a 
point then nearly occupied by c Lyras, in lt.A. 285°, N. Deck +35°, as is re- 
presented in the Table. If it is exact, this position differs sensibly from the 
point, at 311° +52°, from which, as found by Captain Tupman*, a meteor 
very similar to this, and almost as strikingly brilliant, fell, off the coast of 
Sussex, on the 3rd of September, 1875. The latter radiant-point, a little 
west of the zenith, disagrees with the notes of several observers of the fireball 
of September 24th, 1876, in the south and west of England, that its falling 
path in the east, from their points of view, declined northwards very visibly 
from a vertical direction. 

'The Galignani's Messenger' of Paris thus describes the appearance of 
the meteor in that town : — " It emerged from the dark storm-clouds at 30° 
above the horizon in the northern sky, and descended slowly towards the 
earth, emitting showers of sparks and a scintillating train. It fell almost 
perpendicularly, and grew elongated in falling ; it disappeared behind houses, 
and thereafter illumined the whole northern sky with two successive blazes of 
fire like lightning, by which the surrounding clouds were tinged as with gold." 

* These Reports, vol. for 1876, p. 14-) ; and 'Monthly Notices of the Astronomical 
Society,' vol. xxxvi. p. 216. The traveller on the Dunkirk railway must be assumed to have 
rnisest iniated the bearing of the luminous streak left by the meteor by a few points west- 
wards from its above assigned position. 



OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. Ill 

In ' The Times,' a writer from Broadstairs relates that " from the clouds 
an immense body of blue flame, beaded by a brilliant red colour, shot out. 
Although no report was heard, it appeared distinctly to explode twice, and 
was visible for from 8 to 12 seconds. It left behind it a streak of reddish- 
coloured light, indicating the course it had taken." At Waltoii-on-the-Naze, 
" the colour was white with a rose edging ; and from the old pier, persons 
standing there say they distinctly saw sparks fly off from the meteor as it 
rushed down. It left a thin streak of white cloud, which did not wholly dis- 
appear for half an hour." The Broadstairs correspondent of the ' Standard ' 
writes that it was '• as large as the sun at noonday, with a sort of crown on 
the top and a long pointed tail. The head was of dazzling brightness and 
surrounded by a dark rich blue outline, and it left a large white fissure in 
the clouds [the white streak] where it passed through them, which remained 
about 3 minutes." 

These and similar descriptions (that the meteor-head was " rayed or 
spiked," that " it split " and " threw out arms," &c, and that it "rose up," 
lighted the clouds, was perhaps meant, with a second flash), which might be 
multiplied, when compared with Mr. Plummer's description (which, with a 
clear view of every feature, mentions none of these singularities), may prove 
what caution is required not to accept too readily the suddenly received and 
often hastily formed and doubtfully recalled impressions which are produced 
upon the minds of unprepared observers by these very startling apparitions. 

1S7G, November 8, 5 h 3 m p.m. — Although the twilight was strong, espe- 
cially in the west, when this meteor traversed the central parts of England 
from east to west, it was a fino object on most of its course, especially near 
disappearance, when it separated into a string of several shiuing globes. 
The observers remarked (which may be a misconjecture) that it at the same 
time underwent a sensible downward deflection of its course. Its brightness 
varied little, surpassing Yenus gradually on its long course, and becoming 
Bomewhat suddenly brighter at disappearance, and besides a sparkling train 
it left a persistent light-streak, not visible for many moments. By the ac- 
count of all observers, it followed with rather slow motion a long horizontal 
course from between the north and east to between the south and west, the 
long career of the meteor showing also that its real path must have been 
nearly horizontal on this course. One exact position only was recorded of 
its point of disappearance, by Mr. F. C. Penrose at Wimbledon. The alti- 
tude of the early part of its flight in the north from that point of view is 
known approximately from an observer's estimate, 30° (equivalent in measured 
height to not more than 20°) above the northern horizon, at New Cross. It 
disappeared at Wimbledon at an altitude of 9°, very nearly, in the west ; and 
even at Hay, near Hereford in Wales, an altitude of 20° or 25° in the west 
of the last part of its flight was recorded by approximate descriptions. A 
very different account from this long course is given by Mr. Brothers at 
Manchester, who estimates its whole path at about 40° in length in the S. 
and S.W., altitude about 30° as the least admissible, but at 38° as measured 
from recollection, going almost horizontally between S. and S.W., with a 
gradually descending course towards the west. This and the imperfect ob- 
servations at the two or three other points already mentioned only enable 
its real course to be roughly fixed in space ; and especially its length or extent 
at the starting and disappearing points are quite uncertain. The height in 
miles cannot have been much more or less than from 50 to 30 miles, along 
its course ; and very slenderly accordant as the observations arc for its ter- 
minal positions, the apparent radiant-point of the meteor's flight is yet, by 



142 report — 1877. 

the common evidence of these three observations, shown with little uncer- 
tainty to have been very near the E.N.E. horizon. The meteor was thus found 
to have been a ' Taurid ' from the earliest of the three Taurid centres (at 58°, 
+ 18°, a noted radiant-centre in November) ; and the characteristic appear- 
ance of the meteor was also that which the long bright meteors often seen 
coursing the sky from east to west in evenings early in the month present 
by the parallelism of their stream to the horizon, and by the brightness of 
many of its members, which makes this ordinary meteor system a conspicuous 
shower of shooting-stars in the early portion of November. 

1877, January 7, about 10 h 30 m p.m.- — Besides tho fine shooting-star 
doubly observed at this time in London and at Birmingham, Mr. Denning 
has described the occurrence of other meteors seen by himself*, which are 
traceable to the same radiant-point in the first few weeks of January. On 
the radiant-point near y Eridani, to which he shows that the meteor of 
January 7th can be assigned, and on some other meteors seen on the same 
night as this one, Mr. Denning offers the following observations : — " I can 
confirm the position of this radiant-point from other meteors seen in January, 
including one as bright as Venus on the 4th, 8 h 51 m p.m., which exhibited 
the same slow halting motion as that noted in regard to the fine one seen on 
the 7th. I have received other accounts of the latter, but they are mostly 
vague. At Bermondsey it was seen at 10 b 30 m , and described as large and 
remarkably brilliant, closely resembling in size and colour the meteor which 
appeared on September 24, 1876. It was of a bluish colour, left a long tail 
of light, or streak, in its wake, and its course in the heavens was from 8.W. 
to N.E. At 10 h 37 m , on the same evening, a very large and brilliant meteor 
was seen at Lower Clapton, and this no doubt refers to the same object. 

" Mr. Barrington (' Nature,' vol. xv. p. 275) notes another bright meteor 
at G h p.m. on January 19 (Dublin time, or C h 25 m r.M. Greenwich time, see the 
account at Bray, below, p. 153) ; but its apparent path shows it to have been 
different from one seen by a correspondent at 6 h 27™, January 19, who writes 
that he witnessed a meteor of unusual brilliancy. It moved almost per- 
pendicularly in a southerly direction very slowly, the time occupied in its 
passage being about 7 or 8 seconds." 

1877, March 17, 9 h 57 m p.m. — Several observations of this very luminous 
fireball were recorded (some of which are included in the accompanying list) 
and were collected and compared together, with the results given in the pre- 
sent Table, by Captain Tupman. The meteor was exceedingly luminous at 
places near its line of flight over the Bristol Channel and in Ireland, as its 
body of brightly-coloured light sailed slowly through the sky. "From 
Waierford the meteor was seen to be double, one part closely following the 
other in the same track f, while the light was so brilliant that the coast of 
Kilmore, 9 miles distant, became distinctly visible. All along the track fiery 
ashes were observed to fall nearly vertically downwards. At Basingstoke, 
90 miles distant, green and red masses of fire seemed to be falling into ad- 

* 'Nature,' vol. xv. p. 346 (February 15, 1877). See also the accompanying Large 
Meteor-list, January 7th, 1877, Putney Hill, London. 

t A sketch of the double-headed meteor of Seistember 7, 1875, by Mr. H. Corder, 
at Writtle, may here be noticed (see these Reports, vol. for 
1876, p. 145, footnote), as the division into two heads which 
it, portrays is much rarer than the formation of a second 
head (perhaps of sparks), like that described in the text, fol- 
lowing the principal body of the meteor. Tho two heads, 

certainly not in line, after travelling in company for about 20°, Mr. Corder states, dis- 
appeared almost together. 



OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEOHS. 



113 



jacent fields. From Tctbury, red matter was seen falling after the body of 
the meteor was extinguished." The point of disappearance, at 20 miles over 
Pontypool, is very well established by several observations, and a good posi- 
tion of the radiant-point between Sextans and Hydra is dcducible from the 
descriptions. Many estimated durations of the meteor's flight, combined 
with a very fair determination of its actual length, give in this case a meteor- 
speed which is a little in excess of what would belong to a parabolic orbit ; 
but it should be remembered that only partial views are generally obtained of 
a meteor's motion, while more of its real length of path will often be discern- 
ible from the streak of light, or sparks, left visible upon its course. 

Among the occasional observations of shooting-stars communicated to the 
Committee during the year 1876 (including long lists, especially from Mr. 
W. F. Denning, at Bristol, and from the lladcliffe Observatory, Oxford), 
several duplicate observations of ordinary shooting-stars have been extracted. 
The second List, above (p. 12(i), describes these observations, and it may fur- 
nish useful conclusions of their apparent radiant-points to examine these ac- 
cordances more critically, which the Committee hopes at some future period 
to accomplish. To these it may be added that among the meteor-paths 
noted in the list of twice-recorded tracks, one described at Writtle (Chelms- 
ford), and at Sunderland at about 10 o'clock p.m., on August 10, 1876, cor- 
responds to that of a meteor observed at Bristol simultaneously (at 9 h 54 m ) 
by Mr. Denning, as described in the list of large meteors presented with last 
year's Report. 

The following double observation (and a real path deduced from it) was 
also obtained, as Mr. Denning has informed the Committee, from his point of 
view at Bristol, and from Mr. H. Corder's at Writtle, of a fine meteor well 
situated for simultaneous observation between them, which appeared on the 
30th of May last (1877), at ll h 26 m p.m., as recorded at each station : — 



Tlace of 
Observation. 


Apparent 
Size and 
Colour. 


Duration. 


Position of Apparent Path. 


Length of 
Path ; and 
Remarks. 


Observer. 


From 


To 


Bristol 


= y. ; yellow- 
ish. 

+ U ; at first 
deep yellow, 
then turn- 
ing bluish 
white. 


2"0 seconds ; 
slow motion. 


a 5 
333° +27° 

335 +47-5 


324° +14° 
319 +36 


15°. Left a 
streak. Very 
accurately 
observed. 

A sudden 
flash near 
its end ; a 
small spark 
went on £° 
further. 


W. F. Den- 
ning. 

H. Corder. 


Writtle, near 
Chelmsford. 





was looking 



Mr. Corder adds, " I never mapped one much better, as I 
exactly at its position when it appeared." Mr. Denning was also watching 
for meteors, looking eastward towards Chelmsford, so as to have this meteor 
when it appeared in his full view. The common radiant-point obtained from 
a projection of these paths is near I Cassiopeia), at 20°, +58°; a position for 
the end of May and beginning of June which has not yet been recognized 
in any existing radiant-lists. Mr. J. E. Clark, of York, has calculated the 
height and real path of the meteor, which he found to be from ] 01 miles over 



li h REPORT 1877. 

a point 87 miles E.N.E. from Yarmouth to 75 miles above a point (>0 miles 
E.S.E. from Yarmouth, with a real course of 90 miles performed in 2 seconds, 
as Mr. Denning estimated its duration. The heights at appearance and dis- 
appearance are somewhat greater than usual ; and the meteor-speed corre- 
sponding to this radiant-point for a parabolic orbit would be 24-5 miles per 
second instead of 45 miles per second, the actual velocity with which the 
meteor appears to have been moving, from this comparison of the correspond- 
ing observations. 

II. Large Meteors. 

1873, June 17, 8 h 46 m (Breslau mean time) ; Hungary, Austria, and 
Bohemia. — In July and December 1873, Prof. G. von Niessl of Briinn, in 
Moravia, and Prof. J. G. Galle of Breslau, in Silesia, respectively published 
investigations * on the real path of this large detonating fireball, which in 
the main corroborated each other with wonderful exactness, although the 
accounts which they employed were principally collected from the west and 
east sides respectively of the tract of country over which the meteor passed 
near the termination of its course. One very striking difference, however, 
was exhibited between the independent results which they obtained. While 
scarcely three or four miles in the locality (Blernhut or Grosschdnau in 
Saxony, on the Lausitzer-Gebirg dividing that province from Bohemia), and 
scarcely half a mile in the height (20| miles above the earth), separates the 
points of disappearance of the fireball as found by these two computers, while 
the radiant-point, or direction of the real path along which the meteor ap- 
proached this place, coincides within about 3° in the results of the two 
calculations, the meteor was found by Prof, von Niessl to have begun its 
flight over a point near Chrudim in Bohemia, at a height of 39£ miles, 92 
miles from its point of disappearance ; while the length of its course, according 
to Prof. Galle, was 285 miles, and its point of first appearance was far south- 
eastward from Bohemia, at a height of 101 miles over Raab, in the southern 
part of Hungary. Some observations in Silesia, especially one at Eybnik, 
where the meteor appeared at starting to emerge from the planet Saturn, had 
led Prof. Galle to this result ; and the following comparison (taken from Prof, 
von Messl's later paper) will show how exaggerated it must have appeared 
to Prof. Niessl, from all the observations at Briinn, and in Moravia and Bo- 
hemia, which he had been able to collect : — 

Distance of the point 

observed from the end Height above 

Place of observation. of the Meteor's course, the Earth. 

miles. miles. 

Rybnik 281 92 

Schemnitz 230 78 

Vienna, Koritschan, Schbnberg 124 51 

Briinn, and most other stations. (The first 

point of the streak) 92 41 

Point of the meteor's disappearance (and 

end-point of the streak) 20 

* In the ' Yerhandlungen des naturforschenden Vereins in Briinn,' vol. xii. 1873-74 ; 
and in the ' Jahresberk'ht der schlesischen Gesellschaft 1'iir vaterlandisehe Cultur,' -\ol. 
for 1S73-74. Abstracts of these papers by the authors also appeared in the ' Astrono- 
mische Nachrichten,' Nos. 1955, 1989-90 ; and they were reviewed at some length in the 
volume of these Eeports for 1874, p. 270 et scq. The present notice is taken from a 
memoir on the meteor to which it relates, by Prof, von Niessl, excerpted from the above 
mentioned volume of the Briinn ' Verhandlungen,' for the obliging communication of 
which the Committee is indebted to the author. 



OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 145 

A belief that the planet Jupiter had accidentally been mistaken at Rybnik 
for Saturn (although not participated in by Professor Galle) led Prof, von Niessl 
to extend his inquiries for descriptions of the meteor to the eastward, and 
especially to Southern Hungary : but neither in Hungary nor from any 
eastern towns could he obtain fresh proofs of this early commencement of 
the meteor's course, nor even any evidence of its having been visible in 
Steiermark, about half as far off as Raab (in the same direction) from the 
meteor's point of disappearance, until this was at length furnished to him 
from Seheinnitz, in Hungary, by Baron A. von Pronay, who had noted the 
meteor's passage thorc with the greatest care. Although attracted by its 
light from behind, so as not to see its very first commencement, two thirds 
of its course, the Baron relates, were traversed with great brightness, but 
without leaving any very long-enduring streak. It was only in the last 
third part of its course, near the horizon, that the luminous streak was left 
which remained visible at his point of view 17 m 20 s . This point of first 
commencement of the streak must, it appears, have been attended with a 
considerable increase of the meteor's light, since it was the point almost 
universally assigned by all the observers in Bohemia and Moravia as the first 
point of the meteor's course ; and Prof, von Niessl himself, who saw the 
meteor at Briinn, in Moravia, very favourably, was under no impression 
whatever that an earlier portion (at least half) of its visible track had 
escaped his view. A curious illusion also happened in his view of the end 
point, which he believed to have taken place behind the roof of a house, but 
which the calculated place shows must have been actually visible close above 
it from his point of view, aud that the sudden extinction there must have 
led him to believe that the end of the meteor's course was prolonged behind 
the roof, and had been hidden from him by its neighbouring obstruction. It 
is remarkable that but two or three observations of the meteor's early com- 
mencement — at places as distant as Yienna, Schemnitz, and Bybnik from 
the neighbourhood of its terminal, streak-leaving course and explosion — should 
have been made among the many scores which were recorded of the latter 
portion of its flight, while yet the brightness there, some hundred miles from 
the point which it ultimately reached, was sufficient to make an observer 
turn round and see it appearing from behind him. A streak was left on its 
whole course ; but only for a few seconds, Baron von Pronay states, during 
the first two thirds of its path across the sky. 

Adopting, therefore, the Bybnik observation as perfectly confirmed, and 
employing it with all the new materials at his disposal, Prof, von Niessl finds 
his previous determinations, except in the least significant particular of the 
total length of course, to require no sensible modifications, and to differ also 
almost insensibly from those arrived at by Prof. Galle. The apparent radiant- 
point was at 248°-6, — 20°-2, and the velocity found from the short streak- 
bearing portion of the flight, of which several well accordant durations were 
observed, was 19 miles per second, differing little from those found by Prof. 
Galle, at 246°-7,— 19°-3, and between 18-5 and 28-5 miles per second, ac- 
cording to two estimates of the duration from which he separately deduced 
the meteor's velocity in its entire length of flight. The radiant-point is so 
near the ecliptic, that when corrected for ' zenithal attraction,' one of the 
positions thus assigned to it is in north and the other in south latitude, so 
that the meteor's orbit was almost absolutely zodiacal, dr nearly coincided 
with the plane of the ecliptic. It is perhaps not impossible that the fireball 
of July 25, 1876, observed in England with a nearly ecliptic radiant-point 
at 258°, —24° may have had some connexion with the hvperbolic meteor 

1877. l 



146 report— 1877. 

stream to which it appears that we must have recourse in order to explain, 
with Professors Galle and von Niessl, the somewhat sensible excess of speed 
above that in a parabolic orbit with which this great detonating meteor of 
June 17, 1873, pursued its long and, it appears, very rapid flight over central 
Europe. 

1874, April 10, 7 h 57 m p.m. (Prague mean time), Bohemia*. — Several de- 
scriptions of the appearance of this detonating meteor were published in 
Bohemian newspapers, in Heis"s ' Wochenschrift fur Astronomie,' and in the 
Proceedings of the Austrian Meteorological Society, while it was well observed 
at Briinn ; and some private communications from other points, especially the 
Royal Observatory at Prague, and a place near Kuttenberg, in Bohemia, near 
which the final explosion took place, were received by Prof, von Niessl. It 
strongly illuminated for two or three seconds the towns of Prague and Briinn, 
and its flash resembled that of lightning in some of the towns of Silesia. At 
Leipzig its apparent brightness was about that of the planet Venus ; but in 
the immediate neighbourhood of its fall, where it burst nearly overhead, its 
glare was like sunlight, and its terrifying flash was followed in about a minute 
by a hollow peal of thunder, the echoes of which were endlessly reverberated 
for nearly the space of a minute more. This was at Kuttenberg, where its 
path among the stars was noted. Combined with the observations at Briinn 
the point of extinction is found from this account to have been not far south- 
westwards from Kuttenberg, 18J miles high over the village Majelovic, in 
Bohemia. A good position of the radiant-point is afforded by six astrono- 
mically described tracks, at 26°, -f 62°, close to the star e Cassiopeiae, which 
was then 33° above the N.W. by W. horizon. The point of first appearance 
lay 52 miles along this course from the termination, at a height of 45 miles, 
unless some imperfect indications of a greater initial height and length of 
path than this can be trusted for its prolongation to an earlier point. The 
average duration of this portion of its visible flight gives a velocity of 14 
miles per second, while the velocity corresponding to a parabolic orbit with 
the observed radiant-point is about 14-5 miles per second. Prof, von Niessl 
is not, however, satisfied with this appearance of agreement, as some of the 
observations of position render a rather greater length of path than that just 
assigned for the average observed duration somewhat probable ; and he has 
calculated a hyperbolic orbit of this detonating meteor, at the same time re- 
peating his formerly expressed conviction that aerolites and detonating meteors 
will be found to differ from ordinary periodic star showers and from the 
great majority of comets by native velocities of motion in space carrying 
them with independent speeds from the region of some distant star spheres 
into the neighbourhood and the attraction of the solar system. 

1876, April 9, 8 h 20 m (Vienna and Briinn mean time), Hungary and 
Galiciaf- — The scene of this meteor's explosion was the neighbourhood of 
Rosenau, Eperies, and Iglo on the Hungarian flank of the Carpathian Moun- 
tains, which witnessed the descent of the great meteorite of Knyahinya (June 
9, 1866) ; and at Eperies the extinction of this fireball is said to have been 

* Accounts of the meteor and investigation of its real course. A memoir in the ' Ver- 
handlungen des naturforschenden Vereins in Brimn, ' vol. xiii. p. 81, by Prof. G. von 
Niessl (received from the author). 

t " Contributions to the Cosmical Theory of Meteorites," by Prof. G-. von Niessl, of 
Briinn (' Sitzungsbericbte der k.-k. Akademie der Wissensehaften in Wien,' vol. Ixxv. 
part 2, April 19, 1877), containing a description of the fireball of April 9, 1877, and an 
investigation of its real path, together with some general directions for observing luminous 
meteors (recsived from the author). 



OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 147 

followed by even more violent detonations than accompanied the descent of 
Ili.it ponderous aerolite It shot from N.N.W. to S.S.E. over that district of 
Hungary and Galicia, disappearing at a height of 20 miles over a point about 
30 miles south of Iglo and Eperies. It presented the appearance of a bluish 
ball of light as large as the moon, followed by a dense train of sparks and 
ending with a great outburst of such corruscatious as were likened by some 
to a tree top, and which produced a most intense illumination. Even at 
Eriinn and in Vienna, where it was seen by Prof. Jelinek, its apparent 
brilliancy was several times greater than that of Venus, and the duration of 
its luminous course was variously estimated by different observers at between 
three and eight seconds. For the position of the radinnt-point, seven re- 
corded tracks could be compared together, which confirmed the conjecture, 
already formed by Prof, von Niessl from the observation at Briinn, of its 
probable situation in Cassiopeia, by indicating 17°, +57° as its true place 
(within three or four degrees in right ascension and declination), at an alti- 
tude of 23° above the N.W. by N. horizon, from which the meteor was 
directed. The earliest point of observation of the meteor along this line was 
obtained at Lemberg, when the fireball was still 200 miles from its point of 
disappearance and its height above the earth's surface was 100 miles. Com- 
paring the lengths of path and durations together which were observed at 
Lemberg and seven other places, an average velocity of 25 - 5 miles per second 
is found, by giving equal weights to all the individual results — a velocity 
which, Prof, von Niessl again notices, considerably exceeds, as before, the 
theoretical velocity (of 14'5 miles) in a parabolio orbit, and points to 
hyperbolic elements being probably assignable also to this aerolitic fireball's 
real orbit. 

With regard to the observed radiant-points of this fireball and of that of 
April 10, 1874, a rediscussion of the observations of the latter, retaining some 
previously rejected observations, enables him to present the following im- 
partial comparison of all the observations available for their eomputatiou in 
each case : — • 







Velocity, 


Long. 


Position of 


in miles 


of &. 


Radiant point. 


per sec. 


1874, April 10, 8 h 9 m (Vienna mean time) 20°2 


«=19° 5= +57° 


14 


1876, April 9, 8 h 20'» „ 20° -3 


17° +57° 


255 



The almost absolute agreement of these positions can scarcely be altogether 
accidental ; but it still deserves attention, as Prof. Schiaparelli has pointed 
out, that unless the velocities agree together, this apparent identity of the 
radiant-points is not sufficient to establish the identity of the two meteor's 
orbits, since the cosmical motion is the resultant of two parts, one the motion 
of the earth itself, and the other the meteor's motion relatively to the earth ; 
and the latter must be the same in magnitude as well as in direction, in order 
that two fireballs occurring on the same date of the year may have identi- 
cally the same motions in space, or about the sun, and that the identity of 
their orbits round the sun can be inferred. It cannot be said that the ob- 
served velocities of these two fireballs relatively to the earth were observed 
to be identical, like their radiant-points ; but if, as seems to accord fairly 
with the observations, a velocity of between 14 and 25 miles per second is 
accepted as a common speed, with which both of these fireballs moved rela- 
tively to the earth, the almost absolute coincidence of their orbits round the 
sun may then fairly be assumed, and a common origin of this fireball-pair 
in a system of bodies foreign to the solar system, following each other on 

l2 



148 



REPORT — 1877. 



nearly the same hyperbolic orbit round the sun, becomes at once a very 
probable and a new and remarkable conclusion from these very exact recent 
observations*. 

* A case of probable coincidence of orbits of two aerolites is noticed by Prof. Kirkwood 
in ' Nature,' vol. xiv. p. 526 (Oct. 12, 1876)— those of Meno (Mecklenburg, 1861, October 1 , 
12 h , noon), and one named by Dr. Lawrence Smith after its donor, Mr. Claywater, who 
described its fall (in Vernon Co., Wisconsin, U.S., 1865, March 25, 9 h a.m.), having been 
recently shown by Dr. Lawrence Smith (Amer. Journ. of Science, September 1876) to be 
almost identical in their composition, as if fragments of one and the same very unusually 
constituted meteorite. Reckoned on the ecliptic the dates of their fall are 183° or 177° 
apart in longitude, greatly favouring the supposition that in some conic section, the incli- 
nation of whose plane to that of the ecliptic is not necessarily restricted, these two bodies 
may have been pursuing one and the same astronomical orbit round the sun, whose perihe- 
lion (if it exists) must evidently lie midway (in longitude 97° or 277°) between the two 
points of the earth's encounter with the meteorites. Supposing, however, that no very 
sensible inclination of the orbit plane to that of the ecliptic should exist, the condition 
either of conjunction or of opposition (or of a six months' interval between the dates) of two 
meteoric occurrences is not a necessary condition to their belonging to a common circum- 
solar orbit ; and Prof. Kirkwood mentions the great similarity of composition between the 
meteorites of Somer Co., U.S. (May 22, 1827), and Utrecht, Germany (June 2, 1843), re- 
marked by Baumhauer, which, if these meteorites were pursuing the same orbit, would 
oblige us to suppose it to have had two intersections with the earth's orbit very near to- 
gether, and to have therefore had either no sensible or at least only a very small inclina- 
tion to the ecliptic. As regards the probable inclination of the Meno-Wisconsin pair of 
strongly resembling meteorites, a very simple consideration of the aspects of the horizon 
with regard to the sun and to the apex of the earth's way at the times and places of the 
two aerolitic falls (which were very analogous to each other at the two places) shows that 
the perihelion of the common orbit (if it was nearly parabolic) must have had southern 
latitude, lying somewhere on an arc included between long. 97°, S. lat. 5°, and long. 277°, 
S. lat. 45°. If with this southern perihelion the descending node of the orbit was at Meno 
(in ecliptic longitude 8°) and the ascending node was at Vernon Co. (in ecliptic longitude 
185°), the meteorites' real courses must have been from a low altitude in the north or 
north-west at Meno, and from a low altitude above the south to east horizon in Wisconsin. 
If the reverse was the case, and (he ascending and descending nodes of the meteoritic 
orbit were respectively at Meno and Vernon Co., the meteorites must have come from very 
near the south- and north-western horizons of those two places ; but on neither of these 
two hypotheses have any cometary orbits been recorded which come even roughly within 
the wide limits of the requirements established by these astronomical conditions. These 
are summed up in the following table of the orbit elements necessary to satisfy the known 
circumstances of the aerolitic falls, and the elements of the comets of 1264 (and 1556), 
which among several such apparent resemblances entirely fail of satisfying them, are 
added for comparison in the Table. 



Meno-Claywater 

Meteorites and 

Comets. 



Longitude 
of a. 



Radius vector 

of orbit (®'s 

rad. vect. = l). 



Stonefall,inWis- ) 
consin, from V 
north-west. J 

Stonefall.inWis-] 
consin, from I 
south-east. J 

Comets 1264 
(and 1556) ; 
(equinox of \ 
1860). J 



185° 



184° 



100 



100 



098 



Motion. 



Long, of 
perihelion. 



Inclination. 



Retrogr. 
Direct. 

Direct. 
Retrogr. 

Direct. 



97° 

277° 

97° 

277° 

281° 



Latitude of 
perihelion. 



between 5° 
and 90° 

between 90° 
and 45°. 

between 45° 
and 90° 

between 90° 
and 5°. 



30° 



5° to 90° S. 
45° to 90° S. 

45° to 90° S. 
5° to 90° S. 

29°-5 N. 



The perihelion of the orbit of the comets 1264 (and 1556) is north of the ecliptic, as 
are also all those of the comets (of A.i>. 178, 1580, 1683, and 1763) which otherwise appear 






OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 149 

187G, July 8, about 8 h 45™ (Chicago moan time), Indiana and Michigan, 
IT. S.* — The course of this meteor was nearly from the westernmost point of 
Lako Erio (beginning at a point 88 miles over Ottohee, Fulton County, Ohio, 
30 miles west of Toledo on tbat lake) to the southern extremity of Lake 
Michigan (ending 34 miles above a point about 35 milos from Chicago, and 
25 miles from Michigan City, over the lake), traversing a distance of 1 4-5 
miles over the line of junction between Michigan State and those of Ohio 
and Indiana with sttrprising brilliancy. Of its real speed of motion the 
observations of the duration of the meteor's flight unfortunately afford no 
satisfactory determination. The direction of the flight was from 12° S. from 
E., alt. 21° [or from about the apparent radiant-point 305°, + 7°, near the small 
star k Aquilse], as deduced, with the other particulars of its real path, from 
observations made at Bloomington and Paoli in the south, and at several 
points in the north of Indiana State, as well as at Chicago. At the latter 
place, " The meteor was a very brilliant one. It lighted up the sky like 
the glare of the calcium-light, the intensity being several times greater 
than the light of full moon." It did not seem to burst ; but its matter was 
apparently exhausted in the latter part of its flight, leaving a luminous train 
along its track, which remained visible at least 40 minutes. ISTo detonation 
was heard, and if any stones were precipitated at the end of its flight these 
would necessarily have fallen into the waters of Lake Michigan. 

A writer from Stratford, Connecticut, informed Prof. Kirkwood that at 
nearly the same hour as that of this fireball's appearance, he noted a brilliant 
meteor shoot from the northernmost visiblo star in Camelopardus, about 8° 
from Polaris, and vanish immediately behind a projecting roof after lighting 
up the eastern portico from which it was observed. Connecticut being far 
cast of Lake Erie, this observation is irreconcilable with the course of the 
above fireball, and it must without doubt be ascribed to a second large meteor 
appearing almost simultaneously with the first. A largo meteor, very much 
resembling that one above described, and like it leaving a very persistent 
light-streak on its course, was seen on the 8th of July, 1856, in Alabama and 
Mississippi f, and the occurrence of a stonefall in Spain, Prof. Kirkwood 
remarks, has been recorded on the 8th of July, 181 1 ; but the absence of any 
statements in the accounts of its appearance that sounds of an explosion were 
noticed in connexion with the present fireball, makes it doubtful if with all 
its brilliancy it may properly be regarded as having been an ae'rolitic me- 
teor, or one projecting any solid residue of its substance from its track. 

1876, December 21, 8 h 43 m p.m. (Bloomington mean time), Kansas to Penn- 

to offer some agreement with the other conditions of the double stonefall. Although it 
had a high altitude in its descending node, at Meno on October 1, the radiant-point of 
the comet of a.d. 1264 was in fact 75° below the north horizon of Wisconsin, U.S., when 
the aerolite fell there, owing to the apse or perihelion of this comet's orbit midway be- 
tween its two nodal longitudes being at a considerable distance in latitude on the north 
side of the. ecliptic. Even the comet of a.d. 178, which satisfies the conditions generally 
more nearly than any other, has its perihelion in north latitude 18°, and its radiant-point 
at the ascending inward-moving node was, for that reason, about 40° below the visible 
horizon of Wisconsin when the aerolite fell there, as the position of the horizon precludes 
the impact upon it of meteorites "ascending" and moving inn-arch in their orbits from 
without. 

* This account (and other notices below) of bright meteors recently observed in America 
is contained in a paper " On eight Meteoric Fireballs seen in the United States from July, 
1876, to February, 1877," read before the American Philosophical Society by Prof. I). Kirk- 
wood, of Bloomington, Ind., on March 16, 1877, for a copy of which communication the 
Committee is indebted to the author. 

t ' American Journal of Science,' November, 1856, and January and May, 1857. 



150 



REPORT 1877. 



sylvauia aud to Western New York, U. S. — A fireball of unprecedented 
magnificence and length of course (not excluding even the great fireball seen 
in England on the 18th of August, 1783), was extensively observed in the 
northern part of the United States of America on the night of the 21st of 
December last, of which some highly elaborate investigations have been made 
and an unusual number of exceedingly extraordinary descriptions have been 
published. The following particulars of its real path and appearance are 
taken from two very complete discussions of the various accounts and state- 
ments concerning it which had appeared, by Prof. H. A. Newton and Prof. 
1). Kirkwood, in the ' American Journal of Science ' of February and March, 
1877 (vol. xiii. pp. 166 and 207), and from a further review of its real 
course by Prof. Kirkwood, contained in a paper (see the note appended to the 
date and place of appearance of the last meteor) read before the American 
Philosophical Society on March 16, 1877. 



Minesota \7- 



•fo Wisconsin // 




Br f an booster 
) Peoria^r^^o^hisur'; 'j^PMsburgk 

^JaolcsonMU-, Indianapolis ^^f-—-.. 

<tylcsviu\~\ j u . ois i tiloomington um u f 

" ouis f Indiana ,'"' — % /'' 



Kansas \ Missouri 



J' Scale of Miles 

.' O 50 100 200 300 400 



lieal tracks of large fireballs observed in the United States of America, 18151-77*. 



1. November 15, 1861 (stonefall). 

2. September 5, 1872. 

Z. February 12, 1875 (stonefall). 



4. December 27, 1875. 

5. January 5, 1870. 



6. July 8, 1876. 

7. December 21, 1876 
(stonefall). 

According to Prof. Newton the meteor first made its appearance at a height 
of about 60 miles over the neighbourhood of Topeka, in Kansas, crossed the 
Missouri and Mississippi rivers near the towns of Leavensworth and Hannibal 
respectively, undergoing some explosions over the centre of Missouri State, 
and breaking into several fragments over Illinois, soon after crossing the 
Mississippi. The breaking-up continued while the meteor was crossing the 
States of Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio, and in fact it consisted at this time of 
a large flock of from 20 to 100 brilliant balls chasing each other across the 
sky ! How far it pursued its course over Pennsylvania into Western New 
York is uncertain, as a cloudy state of the sky appears to have interfered 
with its visibility in the latter State, and no accounts of its appearance 
further east had been received. An appalling sound of an explosion reached 
the earth in central Illinois, which was less distinct in the southern part of 
the State, and was not audible at Chicago and St. Louis ; but detonations 

* Tracks 1-5 communicated by Mr. Irish. For descriptions (except of the Iowa me- 
teorite, No. 3) see pp. 102-4 ; No. 0, sec p. 140. 



OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 151 

were heard at Erie, and as -far east as Concord, in Pennsylvania. The 
assigned durations of its flight varied from 15 seconds up to 3 minutes ; and 
the speed with which it pursued its long nearly horizontal course above the 
earth for a well-determined distance of nearly 1UU0 miles did not probably 
much exceed 10 or 15 miles per second. Deducting a certain amount (for 
the earth's gravitation) from the nearly horizontal altitude, 15° 8. from west, 
from which its course was directed, the radiant-point freed from this zenithal 
attraction was in the eastern or southern part of the constellation Capri- 
cornus, a little south of the ecliptic, where no radiant-point of meteors at 
the same time of the year appears to have been previously recorded. 

With many exact accounts from all points along its course from west to 
east, Prof. Kirkwood has obtained yet more definite particulars of its real 
path. Its first appearance, a little SJ3. of the zenith of Emporia in Kansas, 
shows it to have begun its course in the S. W. corner of that (State at a height 
which neighbouring observations make about 70 or 75 miles. When passing 
the meridian of Bloomington its height, about over Rochester, was 38 miles, 
and as seen from Wooster its height due north from that town over Lake 
Erie must have been 29 miles. In its course over Pennsylvania Prof. Kirk- 
wood conjectures from this that its height over that State cannot have much 
exceeded between 25 and 30 miles ; and as after an explosion near the south- 
western border of New York State it speedily became extinct, it appears 
to be satisfactorily demonstrated that its real course as a fireball ceased here, 
and that no particles of its mass can afterwards have escaped out of the 
atmosphere, although only one small fragment, 12 oz. in weight, is known 
to have fallen from the meteor. A farmer, 3 miles from Rochester (Indiana ), 
heard this stony fragment fall in the snow (six inches deep), when he left his 
house to ascertain the cause of the explosion. Returniug the next morning 
to the spot, the meteorite was found close to the spot where it had first fallen 
and rebounded. In structure it is pisolitic and friable, and from its com- 
position Prof. Sheppard, to whom a portion of it was transmitted, concludes 
that it resembles the meteorite of Pegu, which fell on December 27, 1857 
(in two pieces about ten miles apart, as will be recollected from the accounts 
and from the discussion of the occurrence of that stonefall which were pub- 
lished by Prof. Maskelyne). 

The prodigious violence of the explosion may be gathered from the fact 
that its sound and jar were heard and felt (and were by some attributed to 
an earthquake) by hundreds in Monroe Co. round about Bloomington (Ind.), 
at an interval of 15 minutes, as noted on a clock by one observer near 
Bloomington, after the passage of the meteor. The corresponding distance, 
accomplished with the ordinary speed of sound, is 185 miles, representing not 
the nearest point, over Rochester and Wicamac, of the meteor's course, 135 
miles from Bloomington, but a point over Peoria in Central Illinois, where 
by far the greatest disruption of the meteor in its course must have taken place. 
Speaking of the meteor's form after this disruption Prof. Kirkwood writes, 
" When crossing Indiana [according to the exact descriptions at Blooming- 
ton] the principal fireball was followed by a train or group of smaller meteors, 
many of which were superior in apparent magnitude to Venus or Jupiter. 
The breadth or apparent diameter of this cluster, as seen from Bloomington, 
was 3 degrees, and its length at least 20 degrees. Its true diameter was 
therefore five miles, and its length about forty miles. These smaller meteoi j 
were chiefly the results of the explosion over Central Illinois. A final dis, • 
ruption occurred over Erie County, Pennsylvania, several minor explosions 
having taken place during the passage over Indiana and Ohio." 



152 report — 1877. 

From the list of towns over "which its track appears to have been vertical, 
Prof. Kirkwood concludes that its real courso was not a perfectly straight 
line, and that a convexity towards the north (amounting perhaps to a more 
or less abrupt deflection at the principal poiut of explosion) is indicated 
by the observations near the beginning and near the termination and 
along the intermediate portions of its track. With this exception, and that 
the meteor's course approached the earth with a sensible downward inclina- 
tion, there is no very material difference between the real courses assigned to 
it independently by Prof. Newton and Prof. Kirkwood. The whole extent 
of its prodigiously long flight, according to the latter, from the extreme boundary 
of Kansas in the west to that of Pennsylvania in the east, was not less than 
between 1000 and 1100 miles ! 

Accounts in the 'Indianopolis Journal' thus describe the meteor as seen in 
Southern Indiana : — " A fireball surpassing the moon in apparent magnitude, 
followed by a great number of smaller meteors, was seen in the northern 
heavens, from about 10° above the W. by N. to 5° above the N.E. horizon. 
Many of the meteors following in the train of the principal bolide were 
larger than Yenus or Jupiter. No attempt was made to count them, but 
their number was certainly nearly one hundred. A remarkable feature of 
the meteoric group was the slowness of its apparent motion ; while it was 
variously estimated, most of tho observers think that its time of flight could 
not have been less than threo minutes." An observer near Columbus, in 
Southern Ohio, describes it as " a cluster or flock of meteors seemingly 
huddled together, like a flock of wild geese, and moving with the same velo- 
city and grace of regularity. The colour of their light was a yellowish red, 
like red rocket-balls. There was no illumination-nimbus or train from them. 
We saw it first in the west, and some of us only as it was slowly nearing the 
earth and about crossing the railroad in the north." 

Prom a place on the track, close beneath the point of the meteor's principal 
outburst and disruption in mid-course, at Jacksonville, 111., the ' Philadelphia 
Enquirer ' gives a description recording tho extreme brilliancy and the 
startling appearance of tho meteor. No notice, however, occurs in this de- 
scription of the violent explosion, whose sound is said to have been terrific 
in some counties of Illinois adjoining that from which the writer dates his 
graphic narrative of the splendid sight. Neither are any descriptive accounts at 
places near the beginning and end points of its course given in the two memoirs 
above quoted, which would be of special interest regarding the aspect of the 
meteor in those parts of its course which were either at or close to the points 
of its first and last appearance. 

Jacksonville, 111., U. S. — " On Thursday evening [Dec. 21, 1870] a beautiful 
meteoric display was witnessed here about half-past eight o'clock. The 
meteor first came in view away to tho west, and about 30° above the horizon. 
It passed but a short distance north of the city, and was finally lost to sight 
away to the eastward. When first seen it seemed a blazing burning ball, 
nearly as large as the full moon, and appeared to bo moving directly towards 
this city. As it swept along with its fiery tail, some 20° in length, and some 
ten to twenty 1 dazing fragments following it [even before the great dismem- 
berment over Peoria, soon afterwards], it presented a sight of surpassing 
magnificence and beauty. When this great ball of fire reached a point con- 
siderably north of east [about over Peoria, Central 111.], it burst into ten or 
twelve fragments not unlike in appearance the bursting of a rocket, and these 
fragments seemed finally to disappear in a bank of clouds which hung near 
the eastern horizon. The meteor was of such surpassing brilliancy that the 



OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 153 

whole earth and heavens wcro lighted up so brightly, that persons could bo 
distinguished at a distance in the streets almost as plainly as in daylight. 
The light was such that it gave a subdued green colouring to the earth, trees, 
buildings, and ever}' other object. From the time the meteor was first seen 
in the west till it was lost sight of in the east, full twenty seconds must have 
elapsed. A singular feature of the phenomenon was that, instead of passing 
in its flight earthward, its path from west to east seemed in an exact hori- 
zontal direction. Nothing of the kind of such grandeur, brilliancy, and 
beauty was ever before witnessed here. It was also seen at Burlington, 
Iowa, St. Louis (Mo.), Laurence (Kansas), and at several places in 
Indiana." 

Regarding the explosions in the early and middle portion of its flight, 
Prof. Kirk wood states that, " some observers in Missouri report an explosion 
of the moteor when passing over the central part of the State. At Blooming- 
ton, Indiana, Prof. H. B. Boisen, who saw the meteor when duo west, and 
watched it till it disappeared near the eastern horizon, observed it separate 
into several parts when nearly north-west, or in the direction of Peoria, 
Illinois." In his estimation of the meteor's real velocity, although very 
difficult to arrive at accurately, Prof. Kirkwood very nearly corroborates the 
value given by Prof. Newton, and considers it to have been about 8 or 12 
miles per second. 

Notices of other large meteors seen in the United States on January 23, 
and February 8, 1877, contained in Professor Kirkwood's paper, will pre- 
sently be given, below, in the order of their dates. 

1877, January 19, 6 h 27™ p.m., England and Ireland. — Besides the descrip- 
tion at Lisburn, near Belfast (given in the above list), of this large meteor, 
the following particulars of its appearance at other places were gathered from 
newspapers and from other sources by Mr. W. H. Wood. 

Wolverhampton. — A meteor of unusual magnitude and brilliancy moved 
almost perpendicularly in a southerly [south-westerly ?] direction, very slowly, 
the time occupied in its passage being seveu or eight seconds. It passed 
behind a cloud for the space of a second, reappearing with equal brilliancy 
until it vanished. Colour pale blue ; it left no visible streak, although this 
may have been obscured by clouds. 

Walsall, 6 h 30 m p.m. — A luminous body fell from the heavens, from about 
tho apparent altitude of the moon at the time, in the direction 8.W. by W. 

Bray, co. Wicklow, Ireland : precisely at 6 h p.m. (Irish time ; or 6 h 2o m 
r.M., G. M. T.). — A splendid meteor traversed the sky from a point about 
midway between Orion's Belt and the Pleiades, to a point directly under the 
moon and about 10° above the horizon. It was pure white and dazzling, 
and lasted five seconds, emitting no sparks except at the moment of disap- 
pearance. It was about half of the moon's apparent size at the time. 

Tho long low flight of the meteor in the south at Bray near Dublin, and 
at Lisburn" near Belfast, 90 miles north of Bray, below the equator, from a 
little east of the south meridian to an altitude of only 5° or 10° in the south- 
west (southwards from Saturn, and apparently just below the moon), indi- 
cates evidently a very distant line of flight from these towns, which the ob- 
servations there are not sufficiently exact to make it possible to assign pre- 
cisely. But their combination with the recorded path at Walsall, near Bir- 
mingham (descending in the S.W. by W. from about the moon's altitude), on 
a course which the Wolverhampton account describes as " nearly perpen- 
dicular " towards the horizon, presents a very fair accordance for the point 
of commencement, and a good determination of tho radiant-point and of the 



154- report — 1877. 

reiaaiuing portion of the meteor's flight to its termination, if* it is assumed 
that the direction of its fall, so near the moon (which was then due S.W. at 
Walsall, at an apparent altitude of between 30° and 35°), requires a small 
westerly correction to about W.S.W., instead of descending in the S.W. by 
W. as it was described. With this apparent course, or with a direction 
about half a point more westerly at Walsall (which is adopted to diminish 
the otherwise extravagant length of path and real height of the track found 
by combination with the Irish observations), the meteor's real path was fiom 
75 miles over the promontory of St. Ann's Head, Milford Haven, to a point 
45 miles over the sea at the entrance of St. George's Channel, 130 miles due 
south of Cape Clear in Ireland, describing thus from the coast of Wales a 
course to the extreme west longitude of Ireland at about the distance from 
the Irish coast, along its southern shores, of the Nymph Bank near the middle 
of the channel. The length of path is about 230 miles, performed with a 
speed of 35 miles per second (taking 6^ seconds as the mean observed dura- 
tion at Bray and Wolverhampton), from a radiant-point between 130°, +25° 
and 140°, +30°, which was then about 10° above the E.N.E. horizon at the 
places over which the meteor passed. This position, between y Cancri and 
k Leonis, slightly noticed by Mr. Denning (at c Cancri, see the first list of 
comet- accordances, p. 167) in the beginning of last January, is new in that 
month, although catalogues contain positions very closely adjacent to it in 
the months of February and December. Tbe theoretical speed of a meteor 
from this radiant-point, having a parabolic orbit, would be 23 miles per 
second which would only be satisfied by the observations if the length and 
real distance of the meteor's course from the observers' stations could be di- 
minished by about one third, or if the observed time of duration of its flight 
could be increased one half, from 6| to 10 seconds ; either of which assump- 
tions it would not be difficult to reconcile with the scanty data afforded for 
such determinations by the recorded particulars of this very brilliant and 
lengthy fireball, seen over a large area of England and Ireland in the twilight 

sky. 

1877, January 23, about 4 h r.ai. (local time), Kentucky and Indiana, 

tj g. The final explosion of this meteor took place over Harrison County, 

and an aerolite reached the earth (see the last Appendix of this Report, p. 193) 
nine miles north of Cynthiana, in Kentucky, U. S. The fireball was observed 
simultaneously near Bloomington and near Greensburgh, 56 miles east from 
Blooinington, in Indiana, but only the height at first appearance, which was 
at least 70 miles, can be roughly assigned from the observed positions. Near 
Bloomington its visible track was very nearly perpendicular to the earth's 
surface descending from an altitude of 35° in the south-east to the horizon 
of a hill-top, south-east of the observers, behind which it disappeared. In 
Kenton County, Ky., a rumbling sound was heard as if coming from a point 
hi»h in the heavens about S.S.E., resembling the discharge of numbers of 
heavy ordnance blended together, which jarred the earth perceptibly and 
made windows rattle. 

1877, February 8, 2 h 30 m a.m. (local time), Indiana, TJ. S. — A meteor, 
about half the apparent magnitude of the full moon, seen near Ellettsville, 
in Monroe County (chief town, Bloomington), Indiana, U. S., passed a little 
south of the zenith from south-east to a point 10° above the horizon, 30° or 
35° south of west. The body of the meteor emitted numerous sparks in the 
latter part of its track, and left a luminous streak on its course for seveial 
seconds. No sound of an explosion was heard, but its light was so intense 
that the observer's horse took fright at the sudden vividness of the flash. 



OBSERVATIONS OV LUMINOUS METEORS. 155 

1877, April 6, 9" 26™ p.m. (Greenwich time), Wicklow to Cork Harbour, 
Ireland. — A detonating fireball passed with great brilliancy south-westwards 
over the southern part of Ireland, at about it o'clock, P.M. (Irish time), bursting 
about 40 miles 8.W. from Cork Harbour over the open sea. A number of 
published and other particular accounts of its appearance were collected to- 
gether by Mr. Robert J. Lecky in the ' Observatory ' (vol. i. p. 52. May lt>77 I, 
embracing chiefly a great many points of observation from Cork in the south 
to Stranorlar in the extreme north of Ireland. Among the most exact 
accounts were those furnished to him by Mr. R. H. Scott, Director of the 
Meteorological Office of the Board of Trade, from St. Ann's Head* and 
Roche's Point, two stations connected with the Meteorological Office, at Mil- 
ford Haven and in Cork Harbour. The meteor's course was also approxi- 
mately noted by the stars in Dublin, and at Shillelagh, County Wicklow. 
It probably commenced its flight 80 or 90 miles over the neighbourhood 
of the latter place, and proceeded on a south-west course nearly over the 
mouth of Cork Harbour to a point about 12 miles south of Gaily Head, where 
it burst with a violent explosion (probably at a height of about 20 miles 
above the sea) heard in three minutes at Roche's Point, and in about five 
minutes as estimated by observers in the City of Cork. The report was 
double and so heavy there, and in Queenstown in the harbour, that the houses 
were shaken, and the powder-mills at Ballincollig, four miles from Cork, were 
thought to have exploded. It was heard at Waterford and Limerick, 80 or 
90 miles from the meteor's point of disappearance. At St. Ann's Head, 150 
miles from the same point, and about 100 miles from the nearest point of the 
meteor's course, its light was equal to that of the full moon, and the body of 
the meteor, three or four times the apparent size of Sirius, was extended be- 
hind to a length equal to the distance between two stars in Orion's belt. It 
shone with the intensity of the lime-light at Cork, especially at bursting, and 
objects six miles off were lighted up brilliantly by the glare ; at Roche's 
Point the body of the meteor appeared white, tinged outside with blue, 
and throwing out jets of coloured light. At Clonmel (under the middle or 
early part of its course) it was a light blue circular body of some appareut 
width with, first, a body of crimson flame two or three times its width in 
length, and then a long train of yellow light following it. At Shillelagh 
(earlier along the track, where the apparent course was " from the east side 
of Orion's shoulder to the west of Sirius "), it seemed to " break out again 
and again, lighting up the country with successive flashes." At Dublin it 
" fell from the direction of a Orionis, bursting in a shower of vivid sparks." 
Coloured " stars " or fragments are described as falling from it at other sta- 



* It is difficult to reconcile a course beginning " a little west from Polaris " at St. 
Ann's Head with an observer's view of the meteor between Collon and Drogheda (30 
miles north from Dublin), " descending slowly (from an altitude of about 50° in the 
S.S.W.) with a very slight, inclination towards the east" (which substantiates perfectly 
the recorded paths at Dublin and Shillelagh), without assigning an improbable height to 
the meteor at its commencement. But though the entire course may have had a some- 
what more north-west position (laterally shifted about l!l) miles) over the southern part 
oi' Ireland (as from Portarlington to Cape Clear) than that above assigned to it. yet the 
slope and the height and direction of the meteor's real path cannot have differed materi- 
ally from that here described. The length of the path was about 185 miles, and the time 
of describing it was reckoned at Shillelagh, Thomastown, and Collon, as " three or four," 
" four to six," and " quite seven or eight seconds." The meteor's velocity with an average 
of these durations was ol miles per second, and the theoretical velocity, with a parabolic 
orbit, of a meteor with the above assigned radiant-point is between 21 and 25 miles per 
■econd. 



156 report — 1877. 

tions ; and at Stranorlar, 230 miles from its terminal point, after glancing, 
red and globe-like and very brilliant, from behind a clond to the horizon, 
" suddenly a flame sprang up and all was over " (describing apparently a 
considerable flash which must have accompanied the terminal disruption). 

From the apparent course at Dublin and Shillelagh the commencement 
cannot have lain southward of the latter place ; and if " near the pole star," 
at first, at St. Ann's Head, it must have then had an elevation of not less 
than 80 miles. With a south-west flight from this point to a height of 20 
miles at disappearance 40 miles S.W. from Cork, a radiant-point of its real 
course at 275°, + 50° is obtained. Although this is suspiciously near the 
radiant-point of the Lyrids of April 20 (at 270°, -f 35°), the course can- 
not be adjusted to this point without making it very nearly horizontal, a 
direction of flight which is not at all borne out by the observations ; and 
there is no reason for supposing that this large detonating meteor (even if, 
like the Lyrids of the brighter class, it had left a long-enduring light-streak) 
was connected with the cometary or with any tributary system of the 
Lyrid meteor-stream. Greg's shower ' Draconids I.,' at 267°, +53°, in 
March and April, also noted by Schiaparelli on April 1 and 14, is the 
nearest recognized general meteor-system of which this fine detonating 
fireball may not improbably have been a member. 

1877, April loth, 10 h 50 m p.m., Yorkshire. — A very luminous fireball ex- 
hibiting two bright flashes of intense light, descended over the eastern part 
of Yorkshire, and was visible in many parts of England. Besides the notes 
of its visible path included in the above fireball-list, the following description 
of its appearance at Chipstead, Surrey, where its course was well seen, was 
obligingly communicated to the Committee by Mr. 11. H. Scott. The ob- 
server, who had seen many meteoric phenomena at sea, had never before 
witnessed one of such great brilliancy. " The light was so strong, that I 
could have seen a pin upon the doorstep where 1 stood "; and it cast this il- 
lumination over the surrounding country. It appeared in the north-west as 
a bluish-white fireball falling towards the east, and leaving behind it a long 
train of sparks. The words italicized corroborate the description at Leicester 
that it descended in the north (from y Cephei) on a course inclining east- 
wards about 30° from vertical towards the right ; and from the accordant 
appearance which its course presented in the north at these two places, the 
same must also have been about the slope or direction in which it "dropped" 
(probably at the end of its flight) " from Cassiopeia " above the northern 
horizon at Cambridge. The direction of its explosion within a point of 
Conister from the junction of Christian lload and Bucks Koad, as seen at 
Douglas in the Isle of Man, indicates about the neighbourhood of Hull as 
its locality in the north from Chipstead, Leicester, and Cambridge ; but 
whether it appeared to descend vertically, or with a horizontal or inclined 
motion at Douglas was not recorded ; and no intelligible agreement of its 
apparent course and position as observed at lN T ewcastle-upon-Tync with those 
described at Douglas and at the southern points of view can be extracted 
from the note of its appearance there, for further determining the height in 
miles and the position and direction of the meteor's real course. Its radiant- 
point may be presumed to have been near 6, t, k Ursee Majoris (20° or 30° 
west of the zenith), and its real path descending from a height of about 60 
miles between Leeds and Hull to a height of 30 miles over the sea near the 
neighbouring coast of Yorkshire, between Flamborough Head and (he Humbcr ; 
but in the absence of good observations of the meteor from that neighbour- 
hood, or from more northern points of view, no exact or positive conclusions 



OBSERVATIONS OP LUMINOUS METEORS. 



157 



of the real direction and position of its visible flight over the comities of the 
seacoast, near the Iluinber, can be arrived at. 

III. Meteoric Showers. 

The moderate intensity of the display of Perse'ids on the 9th-l 1th of August, 
1870, was noticed in the last lleport. The descriptions of the shower by English 
observers, which tho Committee has received, generally confirm this, although 
the light of the moon on the 9th, 10th, and 11th concealed many small 
meteors, and the sky was hazy or partially cloudy at many of the stations. 
Among the lists of tracks recorded under the most favourable conditions, tho 
following table shows the hourly numbers of conformable and unconformable 
meteors, respectively, mapped on the principal nights of the shower, together 
with the percentage numbers of meteors exceeding the first and second mag- 
nitudes of the fixed stars, respectively, in brightness which were recorded on 
the successive nights. 

Though the moon's light interfered, yet as it was in its third quarter on the 
12th, and as in two hours after midnight on the night of the 11th there were 
seen at the Radcliffe Observatory, Oxford, 3 fourth mag., 29 third mag., 13 
second mag., and only one meteor as bright as a first magnitude star, when 
the moon was at its brightest, it is evident by comparing this residt with the 
much larger proportion of bright meteors seen on the previous nights, that the 
most brilliant meteors of the shower were considerably more abundant on the 
nights of the 9th and 10th than on the 11th. The observations, even where long 
continued, elsewhere agree with each other very imperfectly in this respect; but 



Date, 1876, August 



9. 



10. 



11. 



12. 



Totals mapped, 
Perseids and 
unconform- 
able, and me- 
teors of plane- 
tary & 1st to 4th 
magnitudes. 



York, 
J. E. Clark. 

Sunderland, 
T. W. Back- 
house. 

Ijirmingham, 
r\V. H. Wood. 



f Conformable and unconformable 

•j meteors per hour 

[ 1st and 2nd magnitudes, per cent. ... 



{Meteors per hour (for a clear sky) 
Jupiter or Sirius, and 1st to 4th 
magnitudes (totals seen) 



Glasgow, 
E MWlure. 

Radcliffe 

Observatory, 
Oxford, 
J. Lucas. 

Hawkhurst, 

K ent, 

A. S. llerschel. 



I Meteors per hour (^ of the sky) . . 
\ 1st and 2nd magnitudes, per cent. 

f Meteors per hour (cloud and haze) 

[ 1st and 2nd magnitudes, per cent. 

(Conformable and unconformable 
meteors per hour 
1st and 2nd magnitudes, per cent. 



| Conformable and unconformable, 

\ per hour (clear) 

[ 1st and 2nd magnitudes, per cent. 



11 



(cloudy.) 



(cloudy.) 
(cloudy.) 

7,3 
36, 39 

11,2 
30,38 



18,4 
39, 32 

14 



5,3 
50, 40 

10 

40,33 

6,5 

18, 3G 



25, 6 

21.24 



0,2 
50,30 

12 



50, 40 

11 
25,40 

8,0 
5, 20 



9,3 

32,32 



57,21. 

6, 22, 24, 16, 9. 

42,11. 

8, 17, 9, 15, 9. 

14,8. 
1,11,9,0,0. 

(Nearly all 
Perse'ids.) 
0, 8, 8, 7, 0. 

66, 50. 
3,16,41,55,3. 



50, 9. 

1, 10, 14, 13, 8. 



158 report — 1877. 

they combine to show that the hourly numbers of the Perse'i'ds, especially as 
compared with the unconformable meteors visible at the same time, was below 
the average of what is ordinarily observed. Mr. Backhouse states that, making 
all allowances for haze and moonlight, the display was by no means equal to 
that of August 1875 ; and Mr. Wood, who has watched the appearance of the 
shower annually for fifteen years, regarded it as decidedly the most meagre 
and insignificant of all its exhibitions that he has witnessed in that time. 
In the above analysis of the observations, the shooting-stars counted as 
" Perse'i'ds" include meteors from several centres, apparently subordinate to 
the main stream, but associated with it, of which Mr. Clark gives the follow- 
ing positions, rj, ^, and n Persei, and t and y Cassiopeise ; the last of these 
points he regarded as distinctly marked at 10°, +59°-5 on the 10th, and 
somewhat more diffusely near the same place on the 14th. 

An abstract of the radiant-centres, which he obtained from 88 meteor-tracks, 
recorded between July 16th and 25th at Bristol (chiefly in the two hours 
preceding midnight), is recorded by Mr. Denning in the ' English Mechanic ' 
of Aug. 4th, 1876, (vol. xxiii. p. 536) in which this radiant in Cassiopeia 
was shown to be very active towards the end of July*. Fifty-five of the 
meteor-tracks observed diverged from the following radiant-points. The 
Cassiopeiads were a marked shower of often very fine meteors, with long 
courses and trains. 

« /"Schmidt, 6° +59°, 

/"i^o.iwr. ■ • io . J July 20-20. 

( 18° +63°, Cassiopeia 19 meteors, -( „ J 10 , , »qo 

«a , r* -n • very good. \ ^i y7toAug .'4 

284 + 57 o Dracoms 14 meteors, ■ J 6 

good. 

July 16-25 330+70 /3 Cephei 12 meteors, 

1876, Bristol . good. 

(from 83 meteor- ] 298 4- 2 9 Antino'i 10 meteors, 

tracks recorded) good. / Schmidt , 342 ° _ 9 °. 

348 + 22 /•) Pegas. 5 meteors, 2Q 

.... „ . . fa ! rlv f ocL jNeumayer,:337 o -10°, 

33< -- i Aquarius 4 meteors, -{ A > 

{ fairly good, j Tnpm B an 3 40° - 10°, 

( July 27-28. 

Mr. Greg's average position of this last shower is now at 328°, — 12°. 

Again, in the following month to August 25th, continuing his observations 
until (exclusive of Perse'i'ds) 60 more meteor-tracks were reduced to well- 
centred radiant-points, 9 more of these tracks were assigned by Mr. Denning 
to the meteor-shower in Cassiopeia, 7 more were assigned to o Draconis, 6 
more to ft Cephei, and two new meteor-tracks to the radiant-point uear H 
Antino'i. Only the shower at d Aquarii was not prolonged ; but from ft 
Pegasi, a and ft Andromeda?, Honores or Lacerta, a Lyra?, a Cygni, and I 
Ursa Majoris some accurately diverging tracks afforded fairly exact positions 
of August meteor-showers. Clouds prevented observations between July 26th 
and Aug. 4th, and meteors were remarkably scarce on July 20th and 25th, and 
(as regards the Perse'i'ds) also between 10 h and ll h p.m. on Angnst 11th, when 
the Cassiopeia shower prevailed, which it did also (with Cephei'ds) very abun- 
dantly on July 24th. The latter shower was most marked on July 19th, and 
it was pretty plentiful, accompanied by radiants in Draco and Honores or 

* The principal radiant between August 5th and 11th, Mr. Denning found, from 37 
Persei'd tracks selected for their accuracy, to be at 43°, +59°, with very little indication 
of subradiants, unless one of a few meteors from 50°, +59°, (B Camelopardi), and 
another of less frequent tracks from ^ Persei, may have been separately active. 



OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. ] 59 

Lacerta, on August 14th; Mr. Clark recorded on that date seven Perseids and 
five meteors from other radiant-points in three quarters of an hour ; on the 
16th, Mr. Clark saw 3 Draconids in half an hour, and Mr. Denning noted two 
Perseids between 10 h and ll h p.m. 

Resuming observations during the same periods in the present year, Mr. 
Denning noted numerous meteors in July and August, 1877 (' Nature ' July 
27th and Aug. 9th, 1877, vol. xvi. pp. 286, 362), with a similar but more 
complete list of the radiant-points which were most conspicuous in the middle 
of July ; and among them certain radiants in Cassiopeia and Perseus were very 
active. These latter correspond approximately in epoch and position to the 
theoretical radiant-points of the comets of a.d. 770 and 1764, and they ap- 
pear to be distinct from the true Terseus shower, the first member of which, 
Mr. Denning states, was not visible until the morning of July 29th, nor any 
perceptible abundance of them until the 5th of August. During the later 
period of the first ten days of August, 1877, Mr. Denning recorded 229 meteors 
unconformable to Perseus, among which a radiant in Cassiopeia was again an 
active and conspicuous centre of divergence. It thus becomes important to 
trace in future the exact places and durations of these Cassiopeiad showers, 
and to fix their dates of maximum abundance, so as to distinguish them com- 
pletely from the Persei'd shower with which they have probably been confused, 
and from whose diffuse region of scattered radiation it will perhaps be possible 
hereafter to separate their meteors. 



Principal radiant-points ob- 



4° +35° w Andromeda;; 21 meteors, 
served at Bristol (W. R , fi +53 a Cassiopeia; ; 11 meteors. 
Denning), July 6-20, 1S77 j 47 +45 a, (3 Persei ; 5 meteors = $ 1764, ® (?). 

(197 meteors seen). | 3(5 +47 Persei ; 6 meteors =$ 770, ??(?). 

I, (and 15 other showers, in Aquarius, Cygnus, Pegasus, &o.) 
/"333°+46°. Lacertids. 
Ditto, Aug. 3-10, 1877 (229 j 10 +38 Greg, key map, 1875-76, Nos. 100 and 132. 
meteors unconformable to J 30 +36 ,, „ No. 98. 

Perseus, in a total watch j 70 +65 A new shower, well marked on the 7th and 10th. 
of 15 h 30™). | 315 +51 Cvgnids. 

^ 6 +53 Cassiopeids, Greg, 1875-76, No. 98. 

Between the 9th and 12th of August, 1876, there were mapped 115 meteor- 
tracks (by Messrs. Backhouse, Clark, Denning, Herschel, Lucas, and Wood) 
unconformable to the Perseus radiant region, a preliminary reduction of which 
was made to assign their radiant-points. No less than seventeen distinct 
centres of divergence are recognizable in the collection, only the numbers of 
the meteor-tracks belonging to whose different systems can here be recorded, as 
they are in general too few to allow positions of any important accuracy to 
be derived from them ; and further corroborations of these meteor-systems 
contemporaneous with the Perseus shower will be required to define their real 
centres with precision. 

Liar 9-19 1876' [Cassiopeia. « Draconis. aPegasi. Honores. SAquarii. Musca. /3Aurig&\ UrsaMaj. 

SSTitSn.} 16 13 10 9 8 8 8 7 

Polaris, j; Draconis. r\ Hcrculis. y Pegasi. /^Aquarii. Delphinus. Cygnus. 
6 5 5 5 5 4 3 

One or two meteors with short tracks also indicated radiant-points near 5 
Vulpeculse or Serpentis and i Ophiuchi ; five or six Pegasids were derived 
by Mr. Clark from each two points at 337", + 25°, and 355°, +18°; aud on 



160 REPORT — 1877. 

reprojecting all the Draconids of Aug. 6-14, 1870-73 (14 meteors), which he 
had observed, Mr. Clark obtained from them a good centre point at 276°, + 55°, 
showing them all to have proceeded from a radiant-point near o Draconis. 

1876, Aug. 13th, 10 h r.M. local time, New Plymouth, New Zealand. — " A 
singular discharge of small meteors was seen here on the 13th inst. [August 
1876] from the E.N.E., which lasted an horn-, at about 10 h p.m. A person 
to he trusted told me that there was a very brilliant one afterwards, over 
the sea, very near the horizon. They appeared to descend in all directions." 
— Letter from Mr. AVm. Crompton, communicated to Mr. Glaisher by Mr. J. 
Crompton, Bracondale, Norwich. 

The time of this shower corresponds to about Aug. 13th, 10 h a.m., mean 
time at Greenwich. The shower cannot have been a branch stream of the 
August Persei'd-showcr, as the radiant-point of that shower near n Persei' was 
35 degrees below the N.E. horizon at New Plymouth at the time of the oc- 
currence. The stars e Pegasi and a, ft Aquarii were about 20° or 30° above 
the N.E. and E.N.E. horizon when the phenomenon was observed, and it may 
have been from these constellations that a flight of more numerous and fre- 
cpient meteors than usual was directed. 

1876, Aug. 23rd. — Mr. T. W. Backhouse observed several shooting-stars 
on this night. Out of 15 tracks mapped, 4 and perhaps 7 appeared to be 
Persei'ds ; some others were swift meteors, and they probably belonged to the 
radiant No. 78 in Greg's list, 1874. 

1876, Sept. 21st. — A good centre of radiation of several extremely small 
meteors was noticed by Mr. H. Corder, at Writtlo in Esses, on this night, at 
352°-5,-r-16°-5, in Pegasus; and it was the most conspicuous centre of di- 
vergence of ordinary meteors which he noticed during August, September, 
and October. The following list includes all the results of his observations 
for some months up to the latter date *. 

"Radiants in Jvhj. — Upper part of Aquila and of Cygnus ; near a 
Aquarii (on the 29th) ; two radiants in Lyra ; west part of Pegasus ; and 
Cepheus. 

"Radiants in August. — On the 9th, 15 [?5] Vulpecuke, y Cephei ; on 
the 10th, Perseus, e Pegasi ; on the 11th, Cygnus. 

" Radiants in September. — Lacerta (17th, 21st, and 23rd), principally small 
meteors; I Cygni (20th and 21st): Pegasus, 352°-5, + 16°-5, or +17° (on 
the 21st; ten of the smallest meteors on this date); near Polaris (near the 
end of the month). 

"Radiants in October. — Near Polaris (nearly every night to about the 
18th). Near ft Tauri, or a little south of ft (13th and 16th), rather large 
orange meteors with trains and long courses. Numbers of small meteors from 
Aries, Musca, Triangulum, and Lacerta, those from Aries generally getting 
brighter. Cassiopeia (14th-18th), nearly all 3rd and 4th magnitude, with 
short courses near the radiant ; very white, frequently brightening ; a very 
distinct family. The end of the month quite overcast. 

On September 21st, in 2£ hours, 43 meteors ; 12 to 30 per hour. 
On October 14th, in 2^ hours, 36 „ 16 per hour. 

October 13th-18th (inclusive) 106 ,, about 9 per hour. 

* A brief account of these observations was given by Mr. Corder in the 'Astronomical 
Register ' (November 1876). Mr. Denning was noting meteors on the night of September 
21st, somewhat earlier than the hour (from 8' 1 15 m to ll h p.m.) of Mr. Corder's watch, 
when small meteors were plentiful at Writtle, and he recorded them as rare on that night 
during the hour when he observed. The marked prc\ alence of small meteors from Pegasus 
must therefore either have been local, or have presented itself later on that night than 
during the period of Mr. Denning's watch. 



OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 1GI 

187G, October 18th-21st. — The only observation which appears to indicate 
a return of the Orionids of October, on the annual dates of the 18th-21st, 
was recordod by Professor Kirkwood, in the following paragraph in the ' New 
York Tribune ' of October 27th, 1876 :— 

" Shooting-stars in unusual abundance, as I am informed by trustworthy 
witnesses, were observed at this place last evening (October 18th) from 6 h 
45 m to 9 b . The meteors appeared to radiate from Auriga, or rather from a 
point between Taurus and Auriga. No count was kept, but the numbers 
were such as to attract the attention of several persons in the street. Most 
of the meteors were small, though two were observed of extreme brilliancy." 
Professor Kirkwood adds that in consequence of a meteor-shower of this epoch 
having been recorded * in 1436, 1439, 1743, and 1798, returns of which were 
observed in 1838 and 1841, a strict watch should be kept on the annual date 
of the present meteor display for any future apparitions of the shower that 
may hereafter be observed. 

A similar announcement appeared in the ' Newbtirvport Herald,' Massa- 
chusetts^ U. S. ; « New York Observer,' November 9th, 1876 (see the list of 
fireballs in this Report, p. 110, for the description of a large meteor which it 
records). — "A meteor of remarkable size and brilliancy passed from the zenith 
to the south-west, at 2 o'clock on the morning of the 19th [of October, 1876], 
leaving a train which remained visible over a quarter of an hour. While the 
train was being observed, a large number of smaller meteors passed, as often 
as one a minute, over the same field [from Taurus towards the south-west], 
one or two of them leaving a slight train." The time of occurrence of this 
meteor-shower would be five or six hours later, in local time at Greenwich, 
its commencement accordingly occurring in England at about midnight on 
the night of the 18th of October, when no observers of shooting-stars in 
England were upon the watch. 

At Bristol Mr. Denning's nightly registers of meteors were pursued in 
October, chiefly in the early hours of the evening, with the following 
results : — 

Date, 1876, October 13th. 14th. 15th. 17th. 19th. 21st, 25th. 29th. Total, 
ration of watch 3 h 30'" 3" 30 m 5 h 45 m 2 1 ' 30 m 3 h 15'" 3 h 15™ l h 15'" 23 h 



23 


28 


11 


17 


29 


13 


15 


155 


18 


23 


9 


12 


21 


11 


12 


122 



). of Meteors ( seeu •■;- 
[mapped... 

Besides these tracks, 28 meteors were mapped between the 10th and 20th 
of September, making a total of 150 meteor-tracks for September and 
October. 

Very few of the meteors mapped proceeded from either of the well-marked 
radiant-points for the month, near v Orionis and 5 Auriga? ; but a radiant, in 
the constellation Musca, of small trainless meteors with short swift courses (at 
46°, -{-26°, 19 meteors, principally noted on the loth), was in great activity 
during October, and 15 other radiant-points comprised the rest of the recorded 
paths in about equal numbers among their radiations. The very slow-moving 

* See these Reports, vol. for 1871, p. 51 ; and Prof. Eirkwood'a work, recently published, 
on ' Comets and Meteors.' In tbe ' Astronomical Register ' of May 1877 (vol. xiv. p. 124), 
a letter from Mr. E. F. Sawyer, of Boston, U. S., records the results of 21 months' meteor 
watchings, giving 2-4 meteors as the average half-hourly number there at9 h to9 h 30 m p.m. 
The number reached six on 1875, May 26, July 30, Oct. 31, and 1876, Oct. 17 and Nov. 13. 
Of the ten seen on Oct, 17, 19, and 20, 1876, five bright slow ones diverged accurately from 
the star a Ceti (44°, +4°). This is probably the radiant Tupman 81 (43°, +4°, Oct, 14), a 
neighbouring shower to the ' Eridanids ' of September and October, at 40°. - 6° (Greg, 138). 
1877. 3[ 



162 report — 1877. 

Piscids (at 15°, +11°, near d, r\, 14 meteors) were the next most active shower, 
and a rather large proportion (13) of the meteors also came from a point in 
Cassiopeia, at about 14°, + 50° ; others of the radiant-points detected hy Mr. 
Denning in October are included in the Table given below (pp. 166, 167), 
and some of their positions will be referred to again in this Appendix. 

The ' Leonids,' ' Andromedes,' and ' Taurids/ in November 1876. — No 
marked returns of the periodical meteor-showers of the 14th, 15th, and 27th 
of November were detected in 1876. A single determination of the radiant- 
point in Leo was, however, made by Mr. Denning, from five distinct Leonids 
(three of them small and short near the radiant-point), leaving white streaks 
for two or three seconds, on the mornings of November 19th and 20th ; 
constant rainfall interrupted meteor observations almost completely on the 
ten preceding days, and it is not possible to say if this observation indicated 
a later recurrence of the Leonids in 1876 than was ever discovered previously 
among the latterly diminishing evidences of their annual displays. A fine 
" Leonid-like " meteor, seen by Mr. Backhouse on Nov. 11th (see the fireball 
list), may not impossibly have belonged to a different meteor-system (in Leo 
Minor) of which Mr. Denning found, last November, many members leaving 
streaks, and of great swiftness, abundant in the later days of the month*. 
Of the ' Andromede ' star-shower of November 27th no recognizable meteor 
representatives were observed. 

Mr. Denning and Mr. Corder were again successful during the month of 
November in securing a great number of observed meteor-paths, and in de- 
ducing from them their radiant-points. Up to this time 1300 meteors (in- 
cluding Perseids) had been registered by Mr. Denning, and his revised list of 52 
radiant-points, deduced from 740 ordinary shooting-stars and 560 Perseids, 
was communicated to the ' Astronomischo Nachrichten ' at the end of October, 
where it formed an extension of a shorter list of 27 radiant- points commu- 
nicated in April of the same year to the Royal Astronomical Society, and 
already included in the ' Monthly Notices ' of the Society for April, 1876 
(vol. xxxvi. p. 284). During November and following months of the past 
year Mr. Denning's observations were resumed more often and systematically 
than before, and were continued chiefly in the morning hours of the night, 
after moouset, when few observations of shooting- stars had hitherto been 
collected. The Journal of his observations contained at this time 464 meteor- 
tracks, recorded since January 1876, and by its comparison with that kept at 
the Eadcliffe Observatory, Oxford, and with other lists furnished to them by 
observers during the same time, the Committee was able to trace among 
these records fifteen or twenty simultaneous observations of ordinary shooting- 
stars, particulars of whose appearance have been given in a foregoing list 
(p. 126). The advantago, in frequency, of the meteors observable in the morn- 
ing hours over their rate of visibility before midnight was soon found by Mr. 
Denning to be very sensible. Thus in 23 hours of observation (nearly all p.m.) 
between October 13th and 29th, 1876, 155 meteors were mapped, while 212 
were registered in 25| hours (both a.m. and p.m.) in November ; of these latter 

* The two meteors simultaneously observed at Stonyhurst and at the Royal Observatory, 
Greenwich, on the morning of Nov. 15th, 1875 (see the list of shooting-stars doubly ob- 
served, above, p. 126), one of which appeared stationary, at the latter place, at 158°, +40°, 
and of which the other had a radiant-point at 154°, +37°, seem both to hare been early 
representatives of the same shower in Leo Minor, whose radiant-point on Nov. 26-29 Mr. 
Denning found to be at 155°, +36°.— [On the nights of Nov. 5 and 7, 1875, Mr. Backhouse 
saw 14 meteors in about an hour of cloudless watch, chiefly directed from the radiant - 
point R 4 ; and one or two meteors, apparently ' Andromedes,' in 20 minutes' watch on the 
night of Nov. 28th. (Note omitted from last year's Report.)] 



OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 163 

79 wore seen in 13g hours before midnight, and 133, or nearly double the 
number, in 12 hours of observation after midnight. Since November last 
Mr. Denning has continued his early morning observations of shooting-stars 
at Bristol, whenever the absence of the moon and of overcast and tempestuous 
Weather, which were especially prevalent during manymonths at the beginning 
of this year, would permit him to persue them with success. 

The best-known meteor-shower in November, to which Mr. Denning's and 
Mr. Corder's attention was specially directed by the abundance and by the 
large size and brightness of its meteors, was that of the ' Taurids,' of whose 
epoch and radiant-point, in the early part of November, many very accordant 
accounts have already been given in different observers' catalogues of meteor- 
showers. Two or three different centres of divergence of these meteors, 
besidos the double focus principally assigned to them (at 51°, +13°, and 56°, 
+21°, in the early part of November) in Captain Tupman's list, appear to 
exist simultaneosly with this; and the result of Mr. Corder's and Mr. 
Denning's observations is to trace the continuation of a shower, with nearly 
this general region of divergence, for several weeks in October and November, 
presenting various dates of maxima and subordinate radiant-points belonging 
apparently to its group, followed by another shower of Taurids towards 
December, the position of whose radiant-point is sensibly different from that 
of the already known Taurids of the first few weeks in November. The 
earliest symptoms of the return of these closely allied Taurid showers wore 
noticed on tho 13th and 16th of October, by Mr. Corder, producing fine 
orange-coloured meteors from the direction of ft Tauri (79°, +28°; Mr. 
Denning's position for October 21-29 was at 61°, +18°). Between the 7th 
and 16th of November the position of the radiant-point appeared to Mr. 
Corder to lie sometimes on the S.W. and sometimes on the N.E. side of 
the Pleiades, between the usually assigned position (52°, +22°, from 19 
meteors between November 7th and 10th) and a point near \f, Tauri (at 
58°, +28°,_ from 8 meteors on November 16th and 17th). Somewhat more 
distant points were found at 

60° +2(5° Nov. 9-10 3 meteors, 

63+9 „ 16-17 6 meteors (pretty good position), 

67 +26 „ 16-17 4 meteors (with short courses), 

69 +20 „ 16-17 6 meteors (good position), 

62 +22 „ 21 3 meteors, 

showing an apparent tendency of the radiant-point to advance in right as- 
cension towards the middle of the month, without at the same time ever 
departing very far from the position which it occupies in the early days of 
November. Kadiants of five or six meteors each were also noted near ft Persei 
(44°, +37°), x Andromedae (24°, +43°, one at least of which seemed to be a 
member of the Bielan comet shower), and a Auriga? (75°, +45°), which are 
distinct, but not always very easily distinguished meteor-systems, from the 
Taurus shower. 

Besides the position already noticed in October, Mr. Denning found the 
position of the ' Taurid ' radiant-point, from 19 meteors recorded in November, 
to be at 58°, +16°, and 62°, + 22°-5. Seven of these meteors (from the first 
point) were seen on the morning of the 8th, and nine meteors (from the 
second point) on the morning of the 20th of November. They formed an ex- 
ceedingly fine shower on the latter morning, and the position of the radiant- 
point on that morning was obtained with unusual exactness. Mr. Denning 
regards the three positions which he observed from October 21st to the end of 
November as all belonging to a continuous shower (at 60°, + 19°), which, in 

m2 



164 report — 1877. 

distinction from later showers in the same vicinity, he has designated 
" Taurids I." The immediately following shower-system, " Taurids II.," with 
a radiant-point near (3, f Tauri (78°, + 25° Corder, and 80°, + 23° Denning, 
from Nov. 22 to Dec. 14), he regards as distinct from a continuation (at 57°, 
+ 26°) of the e or rj and \p Tauri shower of November, which he observed in 
sparing activity from November 28th to December 24th, and which he identi- 
fies, under the title " Taurids III.," with the long-enduring shower AG t in Greg's 
list, at 60°, + 20°, lasting from Dec. 21st(?) to Feb. 6th. The new shower near 
/3, £ Tauri presented a very decided maximum, nearly half of all the meteors 
seen in a watch of 3± hours proceeding from it, with a well-marked radiant- 
point on the morning of December 6th, while few symptoms of this new 
Taurid shower remained in activity after the morning of December 8th. 

Among other conspicuous new showers detected by Mr. Denning in No- 
vember and December 1876 (some of the chief of which he noticed and de- 
scribed in letters in ' Nature,' vol xv. pp. 158, 217) a very important one, 
situated in Leo Minor, at 155°, + 36°, was remarkably fine and abundant 
on the mornings of November 26th to 29th, furnishing (about equally in thoso 
successive nights) nineteen meteors with a very exactly denned centre of di- 
vergence. It appears not to have been quite unnoticed in the earlier radiant 
lists of other observers on dates extending from November 7th to December 
9th ; but the present date and position agree, much better than any previously 
assigned to it, with the time and direction of the earth's nodal conjunction, 
with a meteor-stream following the orbit of the comet 1798 II. at its de- 
scending node (Dec. 2, 162°, +34°) ; and it may be added that the brightness 
of the " Taurid I." shower on the morning of November 20th, at 62°, +22°, is 
also in much better agreement as to date than any earlier observations had 
been, with a pretty close appulse to the earth's orbit of the comet of 1702, 
about the 27th of November, with a radiant-point at 56°, +20°. The Leo- 
Minorids arc swift white meteors, leaving very bright, persistent streaks, and 
presenting a great resemblance to the Leonids, with which, perhaps, some 
bolides of its stream, visible before the hour when Leo rises on the east horizon, 
may have been occasionally confused (see a note, ante, p. 162, of some meteors, 
apparently of this shower, visible on the morning of November 15th, 1875). 

Several other cometary radiant-point positions were remarkably identified 
with recorded star-shower centres during Mr. Denning's observations in 
November and December, 1876, the principal of which may be here briefly 
noticed. To make the list of observed meteor-showers presenting analogies 
with cometary orbits, as indicated by Mr. Denning's recent observations, 
complete, some examples of such coincidences in September and October and 
in January and February, as well as the more frequent accordances which 
were noted in November and December last, are included in the Table (p. 166). 
The present list of twenty such compai'isons would be much increased if those 
obtained during later months, when (the overcast state of the sky preventing 
regular observations) Mr. Denning's investigations were chiefly confined to 
a systematic examination of the long lists of meteor-tracks in printed and 
MS. catalogues which the Committee has during the past few years received 
from observers in Austria, Hungary, and Italy *, could be regarded as of the 

* The Catalogue of shooting stars observed by the Italian Luminous-Meteor Association 
(see these Keports for 1872, p. 108) in 1872, containing about 7000 meteor-tracks, including 
Perseids, was, a few years since, presented to tbe Committee, and a still larger catalogue of 
about 12,000 shooting-star observations, made in later years by the same Association, has 
quite recently been presented to Mr. Denning by Professor Scbiaparelli. Professor Weiss, 
of the Imperial Observatory of Tienna, transmitted to the Committee, during the past 
year and in 1874 (see these Reports for 1874, p. 344), two volumes of observations of 



OBSERVATIONS Or - LUMINOUS METEOKS. 165 

same original importance, and were to be comprised in tlic same Table with 
his own independently observed determinations. A separate table (p. 1G8) of 
eleven such comparisons is annexed; and from the care bestowed upon its re- 
duction and verification, a very important one is besides included in the previous 
table, presenting a very close analogy with the orbit of Donati's comet, near 
tho date of the earth's nodal conjunction with it on September 8th. It is 
scarcely possible to say exactly what importance may really be attached to 
such apparent accordances of meteor-showers with comets, whose recorded 
paths are in general very far from even nearly intersecting the earth's orbit 
where they pass nearest to it ; but many such cases of exact accordance in 
time and position of the radiant-points of some meteor-showers with those 
of comets whose orbits are far removed from proximity to the earth's orbit 
have now been detected. One of the most memorable and at the same time 
extreme instances of such defective correspondences is afforded by the coin- 
cidence first noticed by Schiaparelli (and here reproduced in the second 
list of Mr. Denning's accordances), where the perfect parallelism of the 
' Coronids ' (of about April 11th) with the distant orbit of the great comet of 
1847 must, in spite of the excellent agreement between them, be ascribed to 
accident, unless very bold hypotheses of the mode of derivation of meteor- 
streams from comets may be adopted to explain it ; for the nucleus of the 
comet in its node and perihelion almost grazed the body of the sun, and only 
the lengthy tail which it swept or wheeled round with it can be supposed to 
have reached and even to have extended far beyond the orbit of the earth ! 
What quantity of matter, visible and invisible, may be thrown off from comets 
by the cloud-jets which appear to be projected from them on all sides during 
their circumsolar passages, and what forms and varieties of meteor-streams 
this matter and that projected in the tail may possibly produce, associated 
with large comets, remains a reasonable subject for conjecture ; and no im- 
possibility exists that feeble streams, allied in their radiant-points to such 
large comets as Donati's and the first comet of 1847, and perhaps to all tho 
ancient comets and to those recent ones which have been more or less plainly 
visible to the naked eye, may be occasionally detected by observers. It is in 
fact remarkable that among the plentiful instances of good agreement which 
might now be enumerated, at least one half (as will be seen by consulting 
the above two lists) are partial or defective by the remoteness of the comet's 
orbit, and not nearly so many can be ranked and regarded as unexceptional 
by the closeness of the conjunction or by the practically direct intersection 
of the comet's orbit with the orbit of the earth. The new-found accordances, 
and those which aro now established much more closely than before by Mr. 
Denning's recent observations and reductions, are marked with an asterisk (*) 
in the lists ; and fifteen out of seventy good resemblances (which the total 
number of approximate cometary coincidences has now reached) have either 
been brought to light or are raised to a position of considerable certainty, for 
such determinations, by the close watch and well-directed labour of a few 
months of meteor-mapping with which Mr. Denning has (prompted by no other 

shooting stars made in Austria, under his directions, during the years 1867-70 and 1871- 
74 ; tho first, of these volumes contains 319G and the second 3039 observations, in which 
are included some lists and accounts at the Bielan shower of November 1872, and 'many 
observations at Herr von Konkoly's observatory at Ogyalla, in Hungary, to whom the 
Committee is also indebted for a list of meteor-tracks recorded there during the years 
1872-73. Besides these lists, Mr. Denning examined and projected the unreduced meteor- 
tracks contained in Captain Tupman's Catalogue, and the long lists recorded at the Ead- 
cliffe Observatory, Oxford, and, during the year 1869, by Padre Denza, at the Observatory 
of Moncalieri, near Turin. 



166 



REPORT — 1877. 




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OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 169 

succour and incentive than that of his own unfailing ardour in these investiga- 
tions) succeeded in surpassing, during the past year, in his own catalogue 
of meteor-showers the number which any single observer has before been able 
to chronicle in a protracted time of many successive years of observation. 
(Sufficient illustrations to describe in full the particulars of the meteor-showers 
which he observed, and the characters of their appearance, in which he was con- 
firmed by Mr. Corder's simultaneous observations, and by tho reductions 
which he contemporaneously made of foreign observers' catalogues, cannot 
without the aid of tables be presented for discussion in the concise form which 
the limits of space assigned to this Report require. Comparative Tables of the 
new meteor-showers and radiant-points, showing the values attached to the 
observations and the extent to which they agree among themselves and 
extend or assimilate with earlier determinations, have been arranged and 
compiled by Mr. Greg, and will be found at the end of this appendix. 

Speaking of his observations in October last, when the 1300 meteor-tracks 
from which his last published list of 52 radiant-points was constructed were 
all recorded, Mr. Denning wrote, " I found meteors rather frequent between 
the 13th and 29th of October. Altogether I watched 23 hours (chiefly before 
midnight) and saw 155 meteors, of which I recorded 122. Subtracting 2 
hours of moonlight (when only 4 meteors were mapped), and deducting one 
sixth from tho time of the watch, during which my attention was engaged in 
mapping, temporary absence, &c, we get an average horary number of 8-6 
meteors for October 13th to 29th (p.m.), 1876 ; but I hardly think meteors 
during this period were more frequent than during the latter half of July, 
when Cassiopeiads, Draconids, &c. were very active. 

" Confirming a remark which was made some time ago, that the luminous 
streak of a meteor will occasionally brighten visibly after the actual extinc- 
tion of the nucleus, I noticed an instance of the kind quite recently. I was 
looking towards Orion, and had just glimpsed a very faint meteor, almost 
doubting whether or no it was one at all. While hesitating about it, I kept 
my eye directed to the same spot, and there, two or three seconds later on, 
a small train came out very plainly, and enabled me to mark the path of this 
well-nigh unseen shooting-star most accurately." At 10 h 52 m p.m. on the 
12th of August, during the Persei'd shower in 1876, Mr. Clark also noticed a 
nearly stationary Persei'd, as bright as a star of the second magnitude, at 
32 3 -5, + 58°-7, with a course scarcely longer than |°, which was visible for | 
of a second, and its streak for two and a half seconds afterwards, very brightly. 
This shooting-star, Mr. Clark wrote, " looked almost like a double meteor, its 
streak flared up so brightly." The Orionids (of which the meteor seen by 
Mr. Denning was probably one) are even more remarkable than the Persei'ds 
or the Leonids for the breadth or volume and for the brightness of the per- 
sistent light-streaks which mark their tracks, and the long-enduring or even 
rekindling lines of light that remain on the tracks of the meteors of these 
showers indicate their extreme velocity, due to the close proximity of their 
radiant-points to tho apex of the earth's way. A sign so certain of this pecu- 
liar situation or proximity to a well-known point in the sky of a meteor's 
radiant-point is of such essential value in assigning to individual shooting- 
stars the probable shower-centres from which they emanate, that no ambiguous 
words should be used, if possible, to describe it ; and in recording any luminous 
appearance, continuous or interrupted, visible in a meteor's wake, observers 
would do well to reflect and to state in as unambiguous terms as possible if it 
presented that appearance of rightly-named " phosphorescence" which is so 
easily recognized and distinguished by the peculiar property of rekindling 



170 REPORT— 1877. 

which it always possesses more or less strongly, as described above in Mr. 
Clark's and Mr. Denning's observations. While the words " train " or " tail," 
used to denote " something bright " in a meteor's wake distinct from the head, 
are perfectly ambiguous (since they would equally be used to denote sparks 
and flakes or detached embers of every kind which meteors leave or draw 
after them along their course), the word " streak," implying the mark im- 
pressed or impiiuted by the meteor upon the air when its velocity and heat 
are great enough to make this visible, is incapable by its ordinary signification 
of being applied to fragments of the meteor itself, such as constitute the great 
variety of glowing products or residues which are often observable during 
the process of a good many meteors' deflagrations ; but in its proper meaning 
of a mark made or left by a meteor upon the atmosphere, it probably ex- 
presses the real origin of the above-described vapours or cloud-like evolutions 
of light sometimes produced along a meteor's track. Such streaks (as they 
should be called) are not always white, nor oven, when very permanent, of 
unchanging colours ; for those of the Perseids are sometimes orange-yellow, 
and those of the Leonids bright green, changing when long-enduring to white 
and yellow, and even occasionally to dull red beforo they fade away ; and in 
their spectra the lines of incandescent magnesium-vapour have been found to 
be visible up to the extinction of a streak for noarly a quarter of an hour, 
showing that they are composed of some self-luminous gases in whose light 
it is believed that the lines of several metallic vapours have been observod. 
The words " streak " and " no streak," denoting whether a meteor left or 
did not produce a hue of phosphorescence or of kindling and ignited gases 
along its line of flight, should not be omitted in recording the appearance 
of even very faint and inconspicuous shooting-stars ; while the words " traiu " 
and "tail," or " track of sparks," &c, should never be employed to denote 
it even it' its brightness is very marked, but should be used exclusively to 
describe those luminous appearances in a meteor's flight which evidently 
proceed from more or less pulverized solid portions of the meteor's substance 
separated from it in its flight, and which, however luminous at first, in general 
soon become extinguished. 

A very complete review of his observations in November and December, 
1876, was given by Mr. Denning in the ' Astronomical Register ' of Dec. 
1876 (p. 296) and January 1877 (p. 18), to the very carefully compiled 
results of which sufficient reference will here be made by this allusion. 
Besides about 30 meteors mapped from September 10th to 20th (which 
gave nearly the same radiant-points as the October tracks), 122 meteors were 
mapped from October 13th to 29th, and 183 meteors from November 8th to 
30th ; the former group presented 16, and the latter 18 meteor-showers. As 
a class they were small, and mostly white and swift, the magnitudes of 306 
which were registered between October 13th and November 28th being thus 
distributed, beginning with those equal to or exceeding stars of the first 
magnitude in brightness, and reckoning in their order those equal to the re- 
maining inferior magnitudes of the fixed stars to the 6th inclusive : — 



1st mag. or brighter, 19 ; 49 ; 61 ; 107 ; 65 ; 5 sixth mag. Total 306*. 
During the first half of December 117 meteors were registered, principally 

* On the Gth of December, 1876, Mr. Denning counted 14 stars of tlie Pleiades distinctly 
with the naked eye ; and be varied the monotony of a long and fruitless watch for the 
Lyrids on the night of April 19th-20tb, 1877, by glimpses of Winnecke's telescopic comet, 
in Lacerta, without instrumental aid. This acuteness of vision will perhaps account for 
many small meteors being noted in his records which would have passed unnoticed, and 
even have escaped detection by the eyes of observers less sensitive to exceedingly faint objects. 






OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS, 171 



in the evening hours, belonging chiefly to tho showers of the ' Geminids ' 
and of the ' Taurids II.,' from /3, £ Tauri. These meteors were, as a class, 
slower and brighter thau the majority of tho shooting-stars which had been 
recorded in October and November. Mr. Corder's observations were con- 
tinued simultaneously with Mr. Denning's in November and December, and, 
as will be seen by the Tables at the end of this Appendix, in general corro- 
borated very nearly the results which ho obtained. 

The ' Geminids ' of December \Qth-13th, 1876. — This annual star-shower 
returned with rather greater brightness than usual on tho principal nights 
(December 11th and 12th) of its periodic display. As was related by Mr. 
Corder (in the same page of the ' Astronomical Register ' as that above re- 
ferred to), his register included ninety-six meteors from the usual radiant- 
point in Gemini between the 4th and the 12th (inclusive) of December. 
Mr. Denning recorded 37 meteors of the same shower ; but the night of the 
11th being cloudy at Bristol, these were principally noted on the 12th ; and 
the 11th was, by Mr. Backhouse's estimate of the intensity of the shower at 
Sunderland, rather the better-marked of the two maximum dates of their ap- 
pearance. He writes : — " On December 11th and 12th the Geminids were 
numerous, most so on the 11th. On the two nights I saw 28 meteors, which 
was at the rate of 18 per hour for a cloudless sky. On the 8th and 9th the 
Geminids were less numerous, but I saw three of them ; and I will forward 
full particulars of the shower if they should be required." On the nights 
of the 9th, 10th, and 11th the sky was either quite or partly overcast at 
Writtle ; but in a clear interval of 40 m on the night of the 11th Mr. Corder 
saw 16 Geminids. He saw the first member of the shower on December 
4th, and he reckoned the horary number of meteors on the 11th and 12th as 
" about 13 ' Geminids ' for one observer, or 16 shooting-stars, when uncon- 
formable meteors are included." Although it was very clear on the 13th, 
but few meteors, Mr. Corder adds, were seen, of which one or two were pos- 
sibly from the radiant in Gemini. 

"With regard to their brightness Mr. Denning writes : — " The radiant in 
Gemini supplied many large meteors, and I noted two as bright as "Venus, 
and several others as bright as Jupiter." Mr. Corder states that " in ap- 
pearance they were generally quick, short, and white, without trains or 
streaks, except in the case of the larger ones, [of these] six first magnitude 
meteors being lemon-yellow in colour, some leaving streaks and others having 
trains. Several 2nd magnitude ones were bluish in colour." 

The radiant-point was very well marked, according to Mr. Corder's de- 
scription, " between a and Geminorum, at R. A. 107°, Decl. + 35°-5, a few 
meteors, however, radiating from near Pollux." Mr. Denning also sus- 
pected the existence of a second radiant confirming this last position, and 
while obtaining nearly the same radiant-point, at 106°, + 32°, for the principal 
shower, believed that there must be two contemporary showers in Gemini 
for December, one giving slow meteors with radiant-point between a and d 
Geminorum, and the other a few degrees west of j3 Geminorum [and some- 
what eastward from the former point], giving rapid meteors. The first true 
Geminid was seen on November 21st ; and the meteors of this shower must 
not be confused with the ' Gemellids,' a totally distinct shower in Gemini 
(first seen by Herrick near e Geminorum, between October 20th and 26th, 
1839, and discovered as a very abundant star-shower near e Geminorum from 
the 21st to the 25th, and especially on the morning of the 23rd of October, 
1868, by Zezioli). This shower Mr. Denning found very active, with a 
radiant-point at $ Geminorum, from the 25th to the 29th of October, and 



172 report — 1877. 

again from the 8th to the 17th of November. From its occurring at an 
earlier date, in the stars of the southern twin-comrade asterism (Pollux), 
than the Geininids, which radiate from the northern part of the constellation, 
the epithet ' Gemellus ' (twin brother) is applied to distinguish the shower of 
Gemcllids in October and November from the only other meteor-system (the 
annual shower of the Geminids on December ll-12th) whose radiant-point 
at any season of the year has yet been discovered in that constellation. A 
pretty active December shower in the Lynx was observed by Mr. Cordcr and 
Mr. Denning, whose radiant-point agrees very nearly with one noted by Mr. 
Gruey at Toulouse on the 10th and 11th of December, 1874, at 130°, +46° 
(see these Reports, vol. for 1875, p. 214). 

The Geminids were also well observed in France, according to the bulletins 
of the Trench Scientific Association (vol. for 1876-77, p. 208), by the ob- 
servers under M. Tisserand's direction at the Observatory of Toulouse. Two 
observers counted 106 meteors in two hours between ll h p.m. on the 11th 
and l h a.m. on the 12th of December, most of their courses proceeding, ac- 
cording to Mr. Perrotin's determination of its place, from a radiant not more 
than 2° or 3° from a position at 115°, + 33° (which is a little east of, while 
Mr. Denning's and Mr. Corder's places, coincidiug nearly with several 
previous determinations near r Geminorum, are a little west of Castor). 
A translation of this French notice will be found in ' Nature ' (vol. xv. 
p. 207), which also records (p. 208) that the Annuaire du Bureau des 
Longitudes for the year 1877 contains for the first time, for the guidance of 
observers, a full table of the situations throughout the year of the various 
radiant-points of shooting-stars. 

The January and April meteor-showers in 1877. — No regular watch was 
kept, owing to very tempestuous weather, for the meteors of January 1st to 
3rd, at the beginning of this year ; and although the full moon by its return 
on the last night of the preceding year partially dispelled the clouds, few 
stars were visible through the haze, and no meteors of this periodical star- 
shower were observed. 

The watch for the Lyrids on the nights of April 18th to 21st was also 
very unsuccessful, from the absence, apparently, of the stai-shower on its 
annual date. An account of his attempt to catch some view of the shower on 
the night of April 19th-20th is given by Mr. Denning in ' The Observatory,' 
(vol. i. p. 50), when he watched continuously for five hours, from 10 h 30 m to 
15 h 30 m , in a perfectly clear sky, and recorded 29 paths of shooting-stars. 
Of these four only were Lyrids, and only one was a Coronid, a very re- 
markable example of the irregular and intermittent intensity of some annual 
meteor-streams. During two hours on the morning of April 17th three 
Lyrids and none at all from Corona were registered. In April 1873 and 
1874, Mr. Denning states, the Lyrids and Coronids were the most active 
showers of that month, only the former having a decided maximum of inten- 
sity about the 20th of April, while the second, beginning in the first half of 
April, lasted with little abatement through the whole of May and even into 
June. The radiant of the few Lyrids mapped was at 269°, +37°. A similar 
place was obtained (at 265°, + 38°) from 31 tracks in the Italian Catalogue 
between March 31st and April 13th, and again from 15 tracks in the same 
Catalogue between May 3rd and 13th [the mean position of 6 stationary 
Lyrids recorded in the Austrian Catalogue, April 20-23, 1867-74, was at 
266°*5, +36°-5]. The positions of six other radiant-points faintly marked by 
the unconformable meteor-tracks of April 19th-20th, 1877, were similarly 
confirmed by Mr. Denning's reductions of the foreign observers' catalogues, 



OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 



173 



as will be noticed in the comparative Tables at the end of this Appendix 
containing his deductions from the Italian and Austrian observations. No 
other observations of the Lyrids of the 18th-21st of April last were re- 
ceived by the Committee in the present year. 

The Perseids of August, 1877.— The Committee is indebted to Mr. Denning 
and to Mr. Wood for the following abstracts of the rates of frequency and 
of the time of maximum of this shower on the night of August 10th. The 
nights of the 9th and 11th were overcast at Bristol, and a cloudy state of the 
sky was so prevalent during the period of the shower in other parts of Eng- 
land, that equally systematic observations of the intensity of the shower else- 
where have not yet been received. 



Times of watch, 


Length 


Number 


Number 


Total 


State of the 


Bristol, Aug. 10th, 
1877. 


of 
watch. 


of 
Perseids. 


of other 
meteors. 


number. 


sky. 


9" 30™ to 11" 


30 ra 


57 


13 


7(n 


Very clear ; stars 
bright ; no 
nioon. 


11" to 12" 
12 to 12 30 m 


1" 
30 m 


70 
25 


13 
9 


83 1 
34 f 


12 30 to 13 


30 


33 


11 


441 




13 to 13 30 


30 


30 


9 


391 

41/ 


Sky hazy ; 


13 30 to 14 


30 


31 


10 


slight fog. 


14 to 14 30 


30 


39 


4 


43 [ 


Partly overcast ; 
fog and clouds. 



9 30 to 14 30 



285 



69 



354 



Seen by one observer looking uninterruptedly towards Cassiopeia. 



At 12" 89», 9 meteors seen in one minute. 1 Eadiant ^ 430+530 most accurate an(1 
At 1':-. 15 6 meteors seen in half a minute. > exa( .t 

Observer, W. F. Denning. 



Maximum between 14" and 14" 30 m . 



Times of watch, 


Length of 


Number of 


State of the 


Birmingham, 1877. 


watch. 


meteors seen. 


sky. 


f 10" 15 m to 10" 30 m } 
Aug. 10th \ 10 30 toll \ 






f Cloud %. 
• Cloud {. 
[ Clear. 


2" 15"' 


26 


[ 11 to 12 30 ) 






Aug. 11th 10 30 to 11 30 


1 


16 


Clear (cloudy before 









10" 30°>). 



Meteors brighter and more numerous on the 10th than on the 11th. 
General appearance of the shower below the average of its intensity in 
brightness. — Observer, W. H. Wood. 

For the whole interval of Mr. Denning's observations since the publication 
of his last list of 52 radiant-points (see this Appendix, p. 176) at the end of 
October, 1876, until June 1877, about 800 shooting-stars were observed, and 
were reduced to the radiant-points of which the two Tables (Mr. Greg's 
comparative Tables I., II.) at the end of this Appendix contain the positions 
compared with the results at the same time obtained by Mr. Corder's obser- 
vations. These Tables exhibit the places and durations of 83 meteor-showers, 
of which some twelve are new, and cannot be fairly included in any of the 
known groups of meteor-showers contained in Mr. Greg's earlier general 
Catalogues. The two following tables (Tables III. and IV.) contain similar 
epochs and positions of 105 radiant-points deduced from projections of about 
1S00 meteors in the Catalogue of shooting-stars observed by the Italian 
Luminous-Meteor Association in the year 1872, and about 16 or 18 of theso 
showers appear to be distinct from any that have been previously recorded. 
Among the ten or twelve showers found in Captain Tupman's unreduced 



174 report — 1877. 

observations, and nineteen showers obtained in a preliminary reduction of 
the meteors recorded in the Austrian Catalogue (added, with a list of sta- 
tionary meteors extracted from the latter catalogue, to the above Tables), 
and among the fifty-two radiant-points contained in Mr. Denning's published 
catalogue of meteor-showers at the end of this Appendix, seven or eight 
well-marked positions are also new to any previously existing records of known 
or suspected meteor-showers. Upwards of 35 new radiant-points have ac- 
cordingly been added, and at the same time about 100 of the already known 
200 or 220 general centres of radiation of meteor- showers throughout the 
year have received from these extensive observations and reductions more or 
less repeated confirmations. 

Some important deductions from his observations during the fourteen 
months from April 1876 to May 1877 (inclusive) were also presented by 
Mr. Denning in a paper on the " Visibility of Shooting-stars," in ' The Ob- 
servatory ' of July last (vol. i. p. 106), exhibiting the average horary numbers 
of meteors visible in the different months, and the total number of shooting- 
stars observed of the different apparent magnitudes or degrees of brightness. 
Of these magnitudes 1090 were registered during the interval; and of the 
various brightnesses recorded, from that of Sirius or of the planets (and 
brighter), and from the first and successive magnitudes of the fixed stars to 
the fifth, inclusive, there was noted in all the following series of numbers : 
Sirius, or brighter, 39 ; 65 ; 190 ; 274 ; 337 ; 176 fifth-magnitude meteors. 
Total number of apparent magnitudes registered, 1090. 

In calculating the horary numbers, both the numbers seen and the lengths 
of the watches having been regularly noted, one sixth is deducted from the 
latter times to obtain the times actually spent in observation ; and clear moon- 
less nights having been generally selected, the numbers found represent very 
nearly the rates of frequency of the meteors for one observer keeping his 
gaze constantly directed eastwards to an altitude of about 40° above the 
horizon. 

Horary Numbers visible in 



P.ii. 

A.M. 

In reference to this summary Mr. Denning writes : — " Consulting the 
Table it will bo seen that shooting-stars were especially numerous in the 
mornings of October, November, and December, and very rare in the evenings 
of January and February. The frequency of the Perseids in August will 
account for the large hourly proportion a.m. (17'2) in that month ; but I 
have not excluded them from the list, as they have a trivial influence on the 
total results. I found that as a rule the rate of frequency is at a minimum 
soon after dark, and at a maximum just preceding dawn, the relative horary 
numbers being about 6-7 for the former and 12 for the latter period. In 
fact, as the night advances the numbers go on increasing ; and I suppose 
this would theoretically be the case considering the improving position 
taken up by the apex of the earth's way during the successive hours of the 
night," 

The position of the apex of the earth's way in the sky is about 90° east- 
wards along the ecliptic from that point of the ecliptic which is opposite to 
the sun, or which is on the meridian at midnight. It therefore rises nearly 



Jan. Feb. 


Mar. 


Apr. 


May. June. July. Aug. Sept. 


Oct. Nov. Dec. Av. 


(in 1876) 


• • • 


68 


110 ... 81 8-0 59 


74 6-9 8-51 7 . 5 , 
... (in 1877). f 7 01 


5-7 48 


7-5 


7-8 


6-5 


(in 1876) 
84 11-0 


7 : i 


8 : 3 


17-2 ... 

69 


13-4 133 ll-9") ]0 . 74 
...(in 1877). r 7 



OBSERVATIONS OP LUMINOUS METEORS. ] 75 

at that time, and passes the meridian at ahout 6 h a. jr. But at the time of 
tho September equinox it is above (and in that of March it is below) the 
eastern horizon at midnight. As the tendency of the earth's motion is to 
make five or six times as many meteors (supposing them not to be collected 
into streams) come from the hemisphere about the apex as reach the earth 
from that round the antiapex of the earth's way, the altitude which this 
meteor-apex reaches above the horizon materially affects their horary abund- 
ance. Small changes of its altitude when the apex is near tho horizon (as it 
is at midnight) must be much more perceptible in their effect upon the fre- 
quency of shooting-stars than the same changes occurring when its altitude 
above or its distance below tho horizon is greater, as it is towards sunrise 
and sunset. While, therefore, midnight observations are better adapted than 
those made either at sunrise or at sunset for exhibiting an annual variation 
of the rate of frequency, a somewhat singular and anomalous result is notice- 
able in the present table, where the annual maximum and minimum of fre- 
quency are not so strongly marked in the result of the evening watches as 
they arc in the morning observations (although the minimum in the first 
series towards March and the maximum in the latter series towards September 
are yet both very plainly indicated). Two sufficient explanations of the dif- 
ference will, however, probably be found in these considerations, that the 
collection of meteors into irregularly situated streams must disturb their rate 
of frequency in the evening hours most sensibly when it is naturally small; 
and, again, that the a.m. observations may have really been made at an 
average interval after midnight less than that of the p.m. observations before 
midnight, and that in consequence the meteor-apex was further from the 
horizon (below it) during the evening observations than it was above it, on 
the average, during the morning watches. By consulting the special circum- 
stances of each watch, and applying for the hour when it is kept a ' tabular 
reduction ' for the altitude of the earth's apex above the horizon, so as to 
determine the absolute meteor frequency for the hour, with the apex of the 
earth's way in a level position or situation in the horizon, a real knowledge 
of the actual scarcity and abundance of shooting-stars at different times 
throughout the year might eventually be obtained. A table of the kind 
required does not admit of precise calculation ; but as it can be approxi- 
mately constructed and applied, the exact time (the middle of the watch) 
for which an horary frequency of shooting-stars seen and counted collectively 
has been determined should be recorded with the date of the watch ; and 
longer watches than two or three hours (at the furthest) should, whenever 
clear and kept uninterruptedly enough, be divided into two or more inter- 
vals, over which separate determinations of the mean horary frequency, for 
the purpose of determining the true or absolute rate of frequency ' reduced 
to midnight ' in each, should be made to extend. 

Professor Schiaparelli and Padre Denza continue to invite the united co- 
operation of Italian observers of shooting-stars on a series of nearly weekly 
morning and evening dates of the year 1877-78 favourable by the moon's 
absence or for contributing special materials to the Italian Catalogue for 
observing shooting-stars. At the beginning of this year they circulated the 
eighth annual pamphlet of directions for this purpose, containing besides the 
concerted and other general occasions for meteor watching, a list of the 14 
stations in Piedmont, Italy, and Spain, with the names of their directors, 
whose connexion with the Association is still zealously maintained. Anions 
the new contributors whose names appear in the present list, Signor Arcimis° 
of Cadiz in Spain, is this year one of the active Members of the Italian Meteor- 
registering Association. 



176 



REPORT — 1877. 



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OBSERVATIONS OP LUMltfOt'S METEORS. 



177 



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178 



REPORT — 1877. 



A List of Radiant-points of Meteor-showers found from a partial reduction of 

Dr. "Weiss's Austrian Observations of Shooting-stars in the years 1867-74. 

By W. F. Denning (April 1877). 



Dates. 


Radiant ; and number of 
meteors alligned to it. 


Value. 




O 

83 +23 27 meteors 
83 +20 8 meteors 
33 +3G 

204 +43 

200 +G7 9 meteors 

160 +32 11 meteors 

240 +02 new. 

180 +53 

28G +39 

173 +12 10 meteors: 
new. 

170 +48?? 
72 +55 
100 +31 
109 +20 
130 +20 new. 
300 +55 10 meteors 
304 +12 "i fi m**«M* 


cl 
c2 
c2 

d 

c 3 or d 

c3 

d 

c3 
c3 
c2 

d 

d 

d 
eS 

d 

eS 

d 

d 


February 20 to March 3... 
February 20 to March 1... 


December 7-13 






November to December ... 
October 20-29 


November 13-29 


December 7-13 


February to March 




December 7-1 1 


December 7-13 


October 19-29 


April 22 


April 20-23 


284 + 8 
203 + 5, 


• new. 









All these showers were regarded as clearly indicated from the paths examined. (In some 
cases the number of Meteors was uncertain, ranging from about 6 to 12.) 



OBSERVATIONS OP LUMINOUS METEORS. 



179 



A Lis of Twenty-eight Stationary Meteors, selected from Dr. Weiss'a 
Austrian Observations, 1867-74. By "W. F. Denning. 



18G9. 



1870. 



18' 



J 8 



Date. 



August 13.... 
December 1 1 

January 20 . 
February 23. 
April 5 

;, 19 



21 



„ 23 



July 20 . 

„ 29 .. 
August 22 
„ 10 

12 

October 22 

July 27 

April 20 .. 



21 



Position of Melcor. 



o 
48-7 



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1-207 


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2370 


+ 43 


2701 


4-31-4 


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4-41-4 


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4-20-4 


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4-27-7 


225 


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4-19-3 


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+ 01 



Radiant-point, 
or Meteor-shower. 



Perseid, 

Lyncid. 
Taurid II. 
Cassiopeiad. 
/3 Trianguli. 

Lyrid. 
Lyrid ? 



Lyrid. 

Lyrid. 
Lyrid. 
Lacertid. 
Pegasid. 

Perseid. 



Cepheid. 



Lyrid. 



Mean radiant-point of six Stationary Lyrid?, April 19-23, =2GG°-5, +3G°-5. 



N2 



180 



iiEPORT — 1877\ 



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OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 



187 



1 " Draconiih" II. 

' Continued to August ? 

Continued to August ? At 312°, +21°. 

Continued to August. = Comet III. 
= Comet III. 1618 ? [18:.'2 ? 

Continued to August. 


Well-marked shower. 

? = No. 101 (July to August?). 


f Possibly commences April 1 : But 
\ probably distinct from No. 53a. 
Confirmed by Denning, at .'ifi4 ,+41 . 
New shower '.' [New shower. 

| = Comet I. 1781 ? 

Confirms Neumeyer. 

[Confirms Schmidt at 359°, + 17° for 
I July. 

Corder, at 240°,+70°, June 3-9, 1877. 

Continues to September ? 
" Aquilids" I. 

See ante (? also in May). Rather 

[doubtful. 
New shower ? 


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"Pemsids," So. I. 

Denning, 290°,+42°, July 6-16, 1877. 
New shower ? [New shower. 

"Cyt/nids"!. (May and June; doubtful.) 


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188 



REPORT 1877. 



Table of Meteor-radiants deduced by Mr. Denning from 130 unreduced 
Meteor-tracks, Jan. 21-Feb. 23, 1869, and February, 1870, in Captain 
Tupman's Catalogue of shooting-stars observed in the Mediterranean. 

Previously known radiant-points 
confirmed. 



Tupman, 16, 21 ; Greg, 27. 

T. 6 ; G. 8, 20. 

(Jan. 21-Feb. 23), T. 10, 19, 17 (G. 18, 

too far north ?) 
(Feb. 16-23) ; a new shower. 
T. 11, 17 ; G. 44 (March 11-19); new 

for February. 
T. 15 (Feb. 13). 
T. 2 ; G. 5. 
T. 11, 13. 

T. 17, at 217°, -41° (suspected). 
T. 5 ; G. 28. 



V G. 18 ; probably one shower. 

A new shower. 
G. 8. 
G. 12. 

The Serpentids, no. 3, are a very fine shower of swift, white meteors, often 
leaving streaks, with a very exactly centred radiant ; confirmed by Mr. Den- 
ning, February 1877, at 236°, + 11° (10 meteors). Nos. 1, 2, 7, and 10 were 
also confirmed by Mr. Denning in February 1877. No. 4 seems new ; and 
also no. 9, though the latter was suspected by Tupman from a stationary 
meteor at 217°, -41°, seen at 3 U 41 m a.m. on February 23rd, 1869. 



No. 


Position of 
Radiant-point. 




No. of 
Meteors, 






a = 


S= 








o 


O 




1. 
2. 
3. 


/3 Ophiuchi 
a Virginis 
a Serpen tis 


260 
195 
236 


+ 4 
- 7 
+ 11 


8 

6 

20 


4. 
5. 


a Scorpii 
it Hydra; 


245 
209 


—22 
-27 


9 
10 


6. 

7. 

8. 

9. 

10. 


Serpens 
Leo 

Capricornus 
jj Centauri 
a Leonis 


22S 
168 
188 
218 
174 


- 4 
+ 4 
-26 
-37 
+ 13 


8 
5 
8 
8 
5 








Suspected , 




f e Bootis 
\ Corona 

Monoceros 

Libra 

Coma; 


221 +26 
234 +31 
120 - 5 
212 -13 

180 +27 


— 



Appendix IV. — On Aerolites and Detonating Meteors. 
By Walter Flight. 

The Meteoric Irons of the Mexican Desert*. 

Dr. Lawrence Smith takes stock afresh of our knowledge of the masses of 
meteoric iron of that region of Mexico called the Bohon de Mapini, or the 
Mexican Desert situated in Cohahuila and Chihuahua, two of the northern 
provinces of the Mexican Republic. In 1854 he described three masses, two of 
which (one weighing 630 kilogrammes and the other 125 kilog.) were subse- 
quently conveyed to the United States ; in 1868 eight other masses, the largest 
of which weighed 325 kilog., were conveyed to the United States ; and later 
still, in 1871, |Dr. Smith published a description of a still larger block, estimated 
to weigh 3500 kilog., now lying in the western boundary of the Desert near El 
Para. There is, moreover, some account of a mass yet vaster to be seen in the 
very centre of the desolate region. In this district alone not less than 15,000 
kilogrammes in weight of meteoritic masses have been discovered. 

While examining sections of two of the above-mentioned masses, Dr. Smith 
noticed a number of nodular concretions imbedded in the metal, having at 

* J, L. Smith, ' Arner. Journ. Sc' 1876, sii. 107- 



OBSERVATIONS OP LUMINOUS METEORS. 18'J 

first sight the appearance of "very finely crystallized troilite ;" closer inspec- 
tion, however, reveals the fact that most of these nodules have more or less 
of a Mack mineral associated with them. This substance was ascertained to 
he — not graphite, as might at first sight have been supposed,- — hut chromium 
monosulphide, a mineral new both to terrestrial and celestial mineralogy. 

Daubreelite, as Dr. Smith has named it, is a black lustrous mineral, highly 
crystalline, usually occurring on the surface of the nodules of troilite, but some- 
times traversing them ; in one nodule a vein of the mineral, 2 millims. wide 
and 12 millims. in length, crosses the very centre of a nodule. It exhibits 
a distinct cleavage, is very fragile, and is feebly magnetic : the powdered 
mineral is perfectly black and is but slightly acted upon by strong acids, with 
the exception of nitric acid, in which it completely dissolves : this reaction 
serves to distinguish and separate it from chromite. The mineral has not yet 
been completely analyzed; one hundred milligrammes were examined and 
found to contain 36-48 per cent, of sulphur, the remainder being chromium 
with nearly ten per cent, of iron and a little carbonaceous matter. (Chromiun 
monosulphide contains chromium = 62-38, and sulphur = 37*62 ; iron- 
monosulphide troilite contains iron = 63-64, and sulphur = 36-36.) The 
discovery of this new body is of great interest in extending the knowledge 
already arrived at by aid of the spectroscope of the distribution of chromium 
in cosmical bodies. 

Foirnd about 1850. — Pittsburg, Alleghany Co., Pennsylvania*. 

This large mass of meteoric iron, weighing 132 kilog., was turned up by a 
plough at Pittsburg. It was briefly described at the time by Silliman, and 
has now been analyzed by Dr. Genth. The specific gravity appears to bo 
7-741 ; and the chemical composition of a somewhat oxidized specimen was 
found to be 

Iron 92809 

Nickel 4-665 

Cobalt 0-395 

Copper 0-034 

Manganese 0-141 

Sulphur 0-037 

Phosphorus 0-251 

98-332 

Tho phosphorus corresponds with about 1-8 per cent, of Schreibersite. The 
iron, when etched, exhibits "Widmannstattian figures, and the presence of mi- 
nute crystals of a phosphide coidd be recognized on the surface of the section. 

Found 1870. — Ovifak, Disko, Greenlandf. 

M. Daubree gives the name Lawrencite to the iron protochloride, the presence 
of which he has detected in the curious meteoric irons of Ovifak. It was 
earlier recognized in the Tennessee meteoric iron by Dr. Lawrence Smith. 

Found August 1873. — Duel Hill, Madison Co., N. Carolina*. 
A mass of meteoric iron was found in August 1873, on the land of Mr. 

* F. A. Genth, 'Amer. Journ. Be.' 1876, vol. xii. p. 72. Eeport of Geological Survey 
of Pennsylvania, 1875. 

t G. A. Daubree, ' Compt. Bend.' 1877, January 8th, vol. lxxrdv. p. 06. 
{ B. S. Burton, ' Amer. Journ. Sc' 187<>, vol. xii. p. 43«. 



190 REPORT — 1877. 

Robert Farnesworth, lying on a hillside, where it had been used probably by the 
first settlers to support a corner of a rail fence since rotted away. (A similar 
block, weighing about 40 lb., was discovered about a mile further west, " before 
the war, perhaps about 1857," but has since been covered over and lost.) 
The mass above referred to originally weighed some 25 lb. ; but specimens 
have been hammered off it, and it now weighs 21 lb. and measures 9 x 6^ 
X 3| inches. It has the usual coating of magnetite, and from various points 
of the surface bead-like drops of iron chloride exude. When polished and 
etched " the usual markings appeared, though rather indistinct," and when 
the action of acid was prolonged distinct particles of Schreibersite were seen 
to protrude from the face of the metal. The meteorite has a specific gravity 
= 7'4G and the following composition: — ■ 

Iron 94-21 

Nickel 5-17 

Cobalt 0-37 

Copper Trace 

Phosphorus - 14 

ltesiduc 0-15 



100-05 



Found 1S74. — "Waconda, Mitchel Co., Kansas*. 

This meteorite was found in 1S74, lying above ground upon the slope of 
a ravine about two miles from the village of Waconda. Fragments amount- 
ing to about one half of the stone were removed at the time ; the remainder, 
weighing about 58 lb., is partially covered with a black crust. The freshness 
of the original fracture, at the time when the stone was submitted to ex- 
amination, points to the fall being one of recent date. 

It closely resembles the stone of Searsmont (21st May, 1871) in colour, 
but is less choudritic, and only exhibits this characteristic of certain meteorites 
in a very imperfect manner. Crystals of what appear to be augite are ob- 
served imbedded in an amorphous whitish ground-mass ; nickel-iron is present 
thickly scattered throughout the stone in minute rounded lustrous grains ; 
while troilite is now and then met with in grains of considerable size or ag- 
gregations of imperfect-crystals. A fragment partially covered with crust was 
found to have a specific gravity =3-81; that of another fragment without 
crust was =3-58. 

Mechanical separation of the ingredients was attempted and 5-66 per cent, 
of nickel-iron and 1-34 per cent, of troilite were isolated. Of the remaining 
siliceous portion rather more than one half gelatinized with acid and was, 
presumably, olivine ; the remainder, according to Prof. Shepard, consists of 
" augite, some felspathic species, and chladnite," by which last mineral en- 
statite presumably is meant. There exists a rumour that a second meteorite 
has been met with twelve miles distant from the above. 

1874, April 10th, 7 h 57 m p.m. (Prague meau time). — Bohemiaf. (See 
Appendix II. Large Meteors, p. 146.) 

A detonating meteor ; conforms in radiant-point with that of 1876, April 
9th. 

* O. U. Shepard, ' Arner. Journ. 8c' 1876, vol. xi. p. 473. 

t Prof. G. von Nicssl, ' Sitzungsber. Akad. Wiss. Wien,' vol. lxxv., April 19tff , 1877. 



OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 191 

Found 1875 (?). — Red River, northward of Young Co., Texas*. 

There is preserved in the State collections at Austin a mass of meteoric iron 
weighing- 315 lb., which is said to have been found on the head waters of the 
Red River, northward of Young County. 

1875, August 16th (about noon). — Feid-Chair, Cercle de la Calle, 

Constantine f. 

This meteorite fell about midday at a spot named Feid-Chair, about 30 
kilometres from La Calle, tho descent being attended with the accustomed 
luminous appearance. It weighs about 3S0 grammes ; all search to discover 
other stones has proved of no avail. The stone has a black crust and a 
grey interior, in which particles of nickel-iron and troilite are imbedded. 
Spherules are recognized, but the matrix likewise exhibits a brecciated struc- 
ture ; grains of a dull black hue are also distributed through the mass. The 
siliceous portion acts on polarized light. The enclosed crystals are too small 
to allow of their form being recognized. This portion of the stone is acted 
upon by acid, and appears to consist of a mixture of olivine and enstatite. 
The Feid-Chair meteorite closely resembles the stones which fell at La Baffe 
Dep. des Yosges (1822, September 13th), Heredia, Costa Rica (1857, Aprillst), 
Canellas, near Barcelona (1861, May l4th), and Khetrcc, Rajpootana, India 
(1867, January 19th). This is the third occasion within tho space of twelve 
years that meteorites have been seen to fall in Algiers and have been 
preserved. 

1875, September 14th, 4 p.m. — Supino, circ. Frosinone, Rome. 

The asserted fall of an aiirolite on this date, recorded in the last volume of 
these reports (vol. for 1876, p. 164), and again as an authentic stonefall in the 
' Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society ' (vol. xxxvii. pp. 205-6), 
is entirely refuted by a letter from Padre Secchi, in the latter volume of the 
' Monthly Notices ' (p. 365), in which the real circumstances of the supposed 
meteor and stonefall are related and described. A flash of lightning which 
occurred in the public square of Supino struck a neighbouring house with suf- 
ficient violence to dislodge a stone from the roof, without doing any more 
material damage to the house. The supposed " meteorite," which fell in the 
courtyard of the house, is identified by Padre Secchi with the ordinary 
volcanic stones of the district, which is in the neighbourhood of an extinct 
volcano, and it probably lay (as it is customary to protect them against the 
force of the wind) upon the tiles of the roof until it was projected from its 
place by the lightning-stroke. 



1876, April 9th, 8.20 p.m. (Vienna mean time). — Hungary 
A detonating meteor ; see above, 1874, April 10th. 



1876, June 25th, 9-10 a.m. — Kansas City, Missouri §. 
A small meteorite fell between nine and ten in tho morning of the above 
day, on the tin roof of the house, No. 556 Main Street, Kansas City. It 

* S. B. Buckle}', ' Second Annual Report of the Geological and Agricultural Surrey of 
Texas.' Houston, Texas, 1876. 

t G. A. Daubree, ' Oompt. Bend.' 1877, vol. lxxxiv. p. 70. 

| Prof. Ton Niessl, ' Sitzungsber. Akad. Wiss. Wien,' vol. Ixxv., April 10th, 1877. 

§ J. D. Parker, ' Amer. Journ. So.' 1876, vol. xii. p. 316. 



192 report— 1877, 

struck the roof with sufficient force to cut a hole in the metal ; but it did not 
pass through, bounding back a few feet and coming to re3t on the roof. Two 
observers who were at a window close by heard the sharp concussion when 
it struck the roof, and one of them immediately picked up the meteorite as 
it lay near her on the roof, but let it fall again, rinding it too hot to retain in 
the baud. It is described as of a plano-convex form, one inch and three 
quarters along its greatest length and about one third of an inch thick. " The 
convex surface possesses the usual crusted appearance, while the inside or 
plane surface differs from ordinary meteorites in possessing the appearance of 
sulphuret of iron, subjected to some degree of heat, instead of nickeliferous 
iron. One might easily infer that the meteorite was shaled off from a large 
bolide that passed over the city at that time." It is much to be desired that 
this meteorite will pass into the hands of a scientific expert for examination 
and description. 

Prof. Kirkwood describes eight large fireballs, between July 1876 and 
February 1877 (American Journal of Science, 1877, vol. xiv. p. 75) ; tbe 
time and the real path aud appearance of one was : — 

187(3, July 8th, 8.45 p.m. — From an altitude of 88 miles, passed N. 7S° W. 
across the N.E. of Indiana and exploded over Lake Michigan at an altitude 
of 34 miles. The path was iuclined 21° to the horizon ; no detonation 
reported ; train visible 40 minutes. The account of the meteor given in 
Appendix II. of this Report contains all the observed particulars of its 
appearance. 

1876, December 21st, 8.40 p.m. — Rochester, Fulton Co., Indiana. 

[Lat. 41° 8', long. 80° 12' *.] 

This remarkable meteor passed over the States of Kansas, Missouri, Illinois, 
Indiana, and Ohio, a distance from E. to W. of about 800 miles.- It burst into 
numerous fragments during its passage, pi-oducing " a flock of brilliant balls 
chasing each other across the sky, the number being variously estimated from 
twenty to one hundred." Over all the regions of Central Illinois a series of ter- 
rific explosions was heard. Over the northern part of Indiana the passage of 
the body was followed by loud explosions. A piece of the meteorite, a few 
ounces in weight, fell near Rochester, la. A portion in the possession of Prof. 
Shepard was discovered on the following day lying in the snow. Two places 
were noticed where it had previously struck, whence it had bounded to its rest- 
ing place. It is stated by Prof. Shepard to closely resemble the meteorite of 
Pegu, India (27th December, 1857), and to consist of dark ash-grey spherules 
(Boltonite),imbcdded in a nearly white pulverulent matrix, " chladnite," olivine 
in distinct grains, nickel-iron, and a little troilitc. The specific gravity of a 
fragment partially covered with crust was 3-65. 

1877, January 3rd (sunrise). — Warren County, Missourif. 
[Lat. 38° 50', long. 91° 10'.] 

A brief note by Dr. Lawrence Smith records the occurrence. At sunrise 
the usual phenomena accompanying the fall of meteorites attracted the 

* H. A. Newton, 'Amer. Journ. Se.' 1S77, vol. xiii. p. 1GG; J. L. Smith, ' Amer. Jouni. 
So.' 1877, vol. xiii. p. 243, and xiv. p. 219; C. TJ. Shepard, 'Amer. Journ. Sc.' 1877, vol. 
xiii. p. 207. 

t J. L. Smith, ' Amer. Journ. Sc' 1877, vol. xiii. p. 213, and vol, xiv. p. 222. 



OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. l'J3 

attention of soveral observers, who saw the stone strike the branch of a 
tree, which it broke ; then fall to the ground, penetrating it slightly and 
melting the snow which lay on the frozen surface. The meteorito was picked 
up immediately afterwards, and a portion of it has been sunt to him for 
examination. 

1S77, January 23rd (afternoon). — Cynthiana, Kentucky*. 
[Lat. 38° 25', long. 84° 15'.] 

A meteorite was seen to fall to the ground, at a spot a few miles north of 
Cynthiana, on the afternoon of the above day. It penotrated the soil to the 
depth of thirteen inches, and the fall was accompanied by " great atmospheric 
disturbance." An observer close at hand immediately dug it up. It weighs 
15 lbs. 

1877, March 16th, 8 p.m.— Uitcnhage, Cape of Good Hope, 8. Africa f. 

A magnificont fireball, such as few would ever see in a lifetime, made its 
appearance in the East, " coming out of the eastern horizon " at Uitcnhage, 
" and travelling slowly across the firmament in an oblique direction to the west- 
ward, when it burst, sending forth streams of fire, as if from a hundred 
rockets, and then was heard alow rumbling noise as of thunder in the distance. 
The meteor appeared to be nearly if not quite as large as the full moon, 
but not round, more of an oblong shape, and while travelling through the air 
it very much resembled a large turpentine ball. It gave forth a bright 
bluish light, which lit up the whole sky, and you could distinguish every thing 
around you for miles as plainly as in the daytime." Native Hottentots and 
Kaffirs, the account adds, were so terrified that they sought refuge in the nearest 
houses, and the apparition of the fireball was regarded by them as a warning 
of approaching famine, drought, or some other calamity. None of them had 
ever seen a meteor of any thing like the size or half so brilliant as the present 
one. The oxen in the waggons stopped on the road and could not for some 
time be got to start again, others turned round, snapped off the dissclbooms 
of the waggons, and bolted for some distance into the bush. The consterna- 
tion was general in the country round Uitcnhage. The illumination lasted 
nearly a minute, and the light was such that it dazzled the eyes of all who 
saw it. The events recorded took place on a beautiful starlight evening. 

1877, June 12th, 9.15 p.m. — A largo meteor passed over Indiana, in the 
United States J. It did not detonate. 

* J. L. Smith, ' Amer. Journ. Be' 1877, vol. xiii. p. 243, and vol. siv. p. 225. 

t 'The Times,' London, May 21, 1*77. 

I D. Kirkvvood, 'Auier. Journ. So.' 1877, vol. xiv. p. 163. 



1877. 



194 report — 1877. 



Tenth Report of the Committee, consisting of Prof. Everett, Sir W. 
Thomson, F.R. S.j Prof. J. Clerk Maxwell, F.R.S.,G. J. Symons, 
F.M.S., Prof. Ramsay, F.R.S., Prof. A. Geikie, F.R.S., James 
Glaisher, F.R.S., W. Pengelly, F.R.S., Prof. Hull, F.R.S., 
Prof. Ansted, F.R.S., Prof. Prestwich, F.R.S., Dr. C. Le 
Neve Foster, F.G.S., Prof. A. S. Herschel, F.R.A.S., G. A. 
Lebour, F.G.S., A. B. Wynne, F.G.S., W. Galloway, and 
Joseph Dickinson, F.G.S., appointed for the purpwse of investi- 
gating the Rate of Increase of Underground Temperature doivn- 
ivards in various Localities of Dry Land and under Water. 
Drawn up by Prof. Everett, Secretary. 

Observations on a very elaborate scale have been received from the important 
mining district of Scbemnitz, in Hungary. A request for observations was 
sent by the Secretary in 1S73 to the Imperial School of Forests and Mines 
at Schemnitz ; and, on the receipt of two thermometers, a Committee was 
formed to plan and carry out observations. The leading part in the ob- 
servations has been taken by Dr. Otto Schwartz, Professor of Physics 
and Mathematics, who has furnished an elaborate Report of the results 
obtained. This is accompanied by a geological Report drawn up by Pro- 
fessor Gustav von Liszkay, and by a geological map with plans and sections 
of the mines. 

The two thermometers sent being deemed insufficient for the numerous ob- 
servations which were eomtemplated, 25 large thermometers were ordered 
from a local maker (T. T. Greiner), and the 10 best of these, after being 
minutely compared with one of the two thermometers sent (which was non- 
registering, and had a Kew certificate), were devoted to the observations. 
Three of them were divided to tenths, and the others to fifths of a degree 
Centigrade, and all had bulbs of thick glass to ensure slowness of action. 
They were found not to change their indications during tLc time requisite 
for an observation. 

The observations were, for the most part, taken by boring a hole in the rock 
to a depth, in the earlier observations, of -422, and in the later ones of -70 
of a metre, then filling the hole with water, and, after leaving it, in some cases 
for a few hours, in others for several days, to plunge a thermometer to the 
bottom of the hole, and after 30 or 45 minutes take it out and read it. The 
tenths of a degree were read first, and there was time for this to be done before 
the reading changed. As a rule, three observations were taken in each 
gallery, two of them in bore-holes to give the temperature of the rock, and 
the third in the air of the gallery at an intermediate position. Pyrites and 
also decaying timber were avoided, as being known to generate heat ; and, 
as far as possible, currents of air and the neighbourhood of shafts were 
avoided also. 

A table which forms part of Dr. Schwartz's Report contains observations 
made in no fewer than thirty-eight galleries. Besides the temperatures, it 
gives the depth of the place of observation beneath the shaft-mouth, and the 
height of the latter above sea-level. Dr. Schwartz takes exception to a few 



OX UXDEKGKOUXD TEMPERATURE. 



l'Jj 



of the observations in the tabic, as being vitiated by the presence of pyrites 
or by currents of air. 

All the galleries mentioned in the tabic arc classified according to the 
sbaits with which they arc connected, and there are, tor the most part, six 
of these galleries to each shaft. In the final reductions, Dr. Schwartz com- 
pares the temperature in the deepest gallery of each shaft with the assumed 
liican annual temperature of the ground at the shaft-mouth. For determining 
this latter element the following data are employed. 

The mean temperature of the air at the School of Mines, fiorn twenty 
years' observation, is 7°-2 C, at the height of 012-6 metres above sea-level. 
The shaft-mouths arc at heights of from 498 to 703 metres above sea-level ; 
and it is assumed that the temperature of the air falls 1° C. for 100 mctus 
of elevation. It is further assumed that the mean temperature one met] c 
deep in the soil is, in these particular localities, 1° C. higher than the mean 
temperature of the air. The reasons given for this last assumption may be 
thus summarized : — 

(1) Observations in various localities show that in sandy soils the excess 
in question amounts, on the average, to about half a degree Centigrade. 

(2) In this locality, the surfaco is a compact rock, which is highly 
heated by the sun in summer, aud is protected from radiation by a covering 
of snow in winter ; and the conformation of the hills in the neighbourhood is 
such as to give protection against the prevailing winds. Hence the excess is 
probably greater here than in most places, and may fairly bo assumed to be 
double of the above average. 

Omitting one shaft (Franz shaft), in which, owing to tho presence of 
pyrites, the temperatures are abnormal, the following arc the principal re- 
sults : — 



Name of shaft. 


Deptli in 
metres. 


Increase 

c 1' temp. 
Gent. 


Quotient] F 

or metres , l 

Der dew : ° e e ne 

l pc ' ! g " Fahr. 
C ent. 


Elizabeth 


417 
253 

218 
414 


o 

8-5 
6-4 
8-1 

7-2 
81 


c 

40 1 
395 
352 
303 
511 


89-5 
72-0 

04 2 
55-2 

'.>3-2 












15S7 


3S-3 


414 


75 5 



The best mode of combining the results from these five shafts is indicated 
in the last line of the above Table, where the sum of the depths is compared 
with the sum of the increments of temperature. We have thus a total in- 
crease of 38°*3 C. in 1587 m., which is at the rate of 1° C. in 41-4 metres, 
or 1° F. in 7~>-"> feet. 

As these results depend on an assumption regarding the surface tempera- 
ture, it seems desirable to check them by a comparison of actual observa- 
tions, namely, by comparing the deepest with the shallowest observation in 
each mine. We thus obtain the following results : — 



o2 



196 



REPORT 1877. 



Name of shaft. 


Difference 

of depth. 

Metres. 


Difference 

of temp. 

Cent. 


Quotient. 
Metres per 

degree 

Cent. 


Feet per 
deg. Fahr. 




145-2 
191-6 

228-2 

820 

4003 


o 

46 
3-9 

5-1 
4-7 
80 


o 

31-6 

491 

44-8 
174 
500 


57 
89-5 

81-7 
31-7 
91-2 


Maximilian 








Sums, &c 


1047-3 


263 


39-8 


72-5 



Combining these results in the same manner as the others, we have a total 
difference of 26°-3 0. in KMT'S m., which is at the rate of 1° C. in 3'J-S m., 
or 1° F. in 72-5 feet. 

The near agreement of this result with that obtained from comparison 
with the assumed surface-temperature is very satisfactory. The mean of the 
two would be 1° F. in 74 feet. The rocks consist, for the most part, of 
trachyte and greenstone. 

Dr. Schwartz concludes his Report with the suggestion that the heat deve- 
loped by the decomposition of pyrites and galena, in scams which are not alto- 
gether air-tight and water-tight, may possibly be utilized as a guide to the 
whereabouts of metallic lodes ; and that " we shall thus obtain, by means 
of the thermometer, scientific information which the ancients sought by means 
of the divining rod." 

Thanks are due to Herr Antoine Pech, Ministerial Councillor and Director 
of the Mines, and to Herr Edouard Poschl, Director of the School, for ener- 
getic cooperation in this extensive and valuable series of observations. 

Mr. Lebour, having been requested to supplement the above resume of the 
Schcmnitz observations by an account of the connexion (if any) between the 
geological and thermal conditions of the several mines, as indicated by a 
comparison of the Eeports of Dr. Schwartz and Professor von Liszkay, re- 
marks : — 

" The rock at all the mines except Franzschacht is green hornblende- 
andesite (in German Grunstein-Traclujt), a compact, fine-grained, crystalline, 
more or less vitreous rock, containing crystals of oligoclase and hornblende, 
but no quartz or sanidine. This rock is a good heat-conductor, with a con- 
ductivity probably nearly approaching that of ' Calton trap-rock.' 

" The Franzschacht is sunk in rhyolite (a highly siliceous vitreous trachyte), 
a rock the conductivity of which would presumably be nearly the same as 
that of hornblende-andesite, probably a little greater. Elements of tempe- 
rature-disturbance are, however, present in the form of thermal springs and, 
possibly, in the proximity of a basaltic cone. Tbis last element of disturb- 
ance is, I should imagine, a very doubtful one indeed, although Councillor 
A. Pech appears to think it of importance. The rate of increase, as deduced 
from observations in the rhyolite hero, was 1° C. for 40-55 metres, or about 
1° F. for 74 feet. 

" The Eeport brings out strongly the important variations of rock-tempera- 
ture, which may be, and are occasionally, generated by the decomposition of 
metallic sulphides, a point which, I think, is here prominently mentioned for 
the first time." 

At the request of Mr. Lebour, observations have been taken by Mr. 



ON UNDERGROUND TEMPERATURE. 197 

Matthew Heckels, Manager of Boldou Collier)-, between Newcastle and 
Suuderl and, in holes bored upwards to a distance of 10 feet from some of the 
deepest seams. The mine is doscribed as " perfectly dry," and those parts of 
it in which these observations were made are quite free from currents of air. 
The surface of the ground is tolerably level, and is 07 feet above Trinity high- 
water mark. 

Hole No. 1 is bored up from the roof of the Bensham seam. The thermo- 
meter (one of the new slow-action instruments, not self-registering) was 
placed at the end of the hole, so as to be 10 feet within the rock, and pro- 
tected by air- tight plugging. The surrounding strata consist of arenaceous 
strata known as " grey metal." The distance of the thermometer from the 
surface of the ground overhead was 1365 feet. 

The hole had been standing idle for some time when the thermometer was 
inserted, April 5, 1876. The first reading was taken April 26, and was 75°, 
the surrounding air being at 75|° and almost stagnant. The readings were 
repeated during four consecutive weeks, without change of the indications. 

Hole No. 2 is in the same vertical with No. 1, and is bored up (also to the 
height of ] feet) from a deeper scam — the Hutton seam. The same thermo- 
meter was employed and in the same manner. The surrounding strata con- 
sist of a close compact sandstone known as " hard post." The distance of 
the thermometer from the surface of the ground overhead was 1514 feet. 

Immediately after the drilling of the hole, June 6, 1876, the thermometer 
was inserted, and on July 4 the first reading was taken, namely 81°. On 
July 24 it had fallen to 791°, and on August 1 to 79°. Readings taken 
August 15 and 29 and September 1 also showed 79°, the surrounding air 
having never altered from the fixed temperature 78|°. It would therefore 
appear that the first observation in this hole was 2° too high, owing to the 
remains of the heat generated in boring, notwithstanding the lapse of 4 weeks 
which had intervened. Four readings have since been taken at regular in- 
tervals, endiug with July 1877, and the same temperature, 79°, continues to 
be shown. 

Assuming 4S° as the mean annual temperature of the surface, we have the 
following data for calculating the rate of increase downwards : — 

Surface 48° F. 

1365 feet 75 

1514 feet 79 

For the interval of 149 feet between the two holes we have an in- 
crease of 4° F., which is at the rate of 1° F. in 37 feet. 

For the whole depth of 1514 feet, from the surface to the lower hole, we 
have an increase of 31°, which is at the rate of 1° F. in 49 feet. 

In explanation of the length of time required for the heat of boring to 
disappear in the second hole, Mr. Heckels remarks that " it required two men 
sixteen hours with a hand boring-machine to drill this hole, so hard is the 
stratum." He further says, " the tool by which this hole was bored, on 
being drawn out, was too hot to allow of it being touched with the hand, so 
that the temperature of the hole, on being fiuished, must have been con- 
siderable ; and no doubt it would be, when we consider the immense pres- 
sure required to bore holes in such strata as this." "With respect to the per- 
manent temperature (781°) of the surrounding air, Mr. Heckels remarks — ■ 
" The air of this district is almost stagnant, and what circulation there is will 
have travelled a distance of three miles underground, and hence it may be 



198 report— 1877. 

expected to be itself pretty near the temperature of the rocks through which 
it is circulating." 

Ihe dryness of the mine, the absence of currents of air, and the great depth 
render these observations extremely valuable for the purpose which the Com- 
mittee have in view ; and their best thanks are due to Mr. Heckels and the 
proprietors of the colliery for the trouble and expense which have been in- 
curred in procuring them. Observations will shortly be taken in another 
bore in the same colliery. 

During the past year the first observations have been received from India. 
They were taken by Mr. H. B. Medlicott, M.A., of the Geological Survey, in 
holes made in search of coal, and have been published by him in the ' llecords 
of the Geological Survey of India,' vol. x. pt. i. The instrument employed was 
a protected Negrotti thermometer, sent by the Secretary of this Committee to 
Dr. Oldham, the Director of the Survey. A Casella-Miller thermometer was 
used to check the observations, but was found much less sensitive and steady, 
and its readings, though placed on record, are therefore left out of account 
by Mr. Medlicott in his reductions. 

The observations were taken in three bores, at places named Khappa, 
Manegaon, and Moran ; but the observations at Moran were made only fcur 
hours after the boring tool had been at work ; and the Khappa bore exhibited 
a strong bubbling, besides other marks of convection. The results obtained 
at these two bores must therefore be discarded : but in the Manegaon bore 
every thing was favourable for satisfactory observation. "It was closed on 
the 24th of April, 1875, so that it had been at rest for 20 months. There is 
only one guide-pipe, ten feet long, at the top of tho bore, there never having 
been any pressure of water in the hole. The position is low, and the water 
had always stood at or near the mouth of the tube. There was no difficulty 
in removing the plug. The very equable series of temperatures is the natu- 
ral result of these conditions. The observations were taken in the evening 
of the 5th and morning of the 6th of December. At 5 p.m. the air temperature 
was 72° ; at 8 r.M., 5!,°; at 8 a.m., 65°; at 11 a.m., 8-1°. Tho slight decrease 
of temperature in the top readings is a good proof of the perfectly tranquil 
conditions of observation. It is no doubt due to the excess of summer In at 
not yet abstracted ; and it is apparent that that influence reaches to a consi- 
derable d( pth, quite to 60 feet." The following arc the observations : — 

Depth in Temperature 

feet. Fahr. 

10 81-15 

20 81-1 

40 81-0 

60 81-0 

80 81-3 

100 81-8 

150 82-7 

200 83-3 

250 84-0 

300 84-65 

310 84-70 

The observation at 310 feet was in mud, the hole, which had originally a 
depth of 420 feet, having silted up to such an extent that 310 feet was the 
lowest depth attainable. The increase from 60 feet downwards is remarkably 






ON UNDERGROUND TEMPERATURE. 



190 



uniform, and tho whole increase from this degth to the lowest reached is 
3°-7, which is at tho rate of 1° F. for 68 feet. 

The elevation of Manegaon is estimated at L400 feet. It lies "in an open 
valley of the Satpuras, traversed by the Dudhi river, south of tho wide plains 
of the Narbada valley, about halfway between Jabalpur and Hoshungabad, 
which arc 150 miles apart." Jabalpur is 1351 feet above sea-level, and has 
a mean annual temperature of 75 0, 2. Hoshungabad is 1020 feet above sea- 
level, and has a mean annual temperature of 78 3 vi. 

" The geological conditions of the position are favourable for these obser- 
vations. The rocks consist of steady alternations, in about equal proportions, 
of fine softish sandstones and hard silty clays of the Upper Gondwana strata, 
having a steady dip of about 10°. . . . Strong trap-dykes are frequent in many 
parts of the stratigraphical basin ; but there are none within a considerable 
distance of these borings. There are no faults near, nor any rock features 
having a known disturbing effect upon the heat-distribution."' 

Mention was made in last Report (p. 209) of two methods, which had 
been suggested by members of the Committee, for plugging bores to prevent 
the convection of heat. Mr. Lebour, at the request of the Committee, has con- 
ducted experiments during the past year on both forms of plug. He reports 
t hat — " In accordance with Sir W. Thomson's suggestion, disks of india-rubber 
fixed to the lowering wire above and below the thermometer have been tried. 
The chief difficulty met with was the unwieldiness of the armed portion of 
the wire, which could not be wound and unwound from the drum, owing to 
the fixed disk-holders. This difficulty prevented the placing of the disks any- 
where but at the extremity of the wire, whereas it would be very desirable 
to have a large number of them at intervals along the greater part of its en- 
tire length. Disks for a 21-inch bore were found to work well with a dia- 
meter of 2-1- inches. The lowering and especially the raising of the wire 
armed with the disk-plugging were very slow operations, owing to the resist- 
ance opposed by the water to the passage of the disks." 

Experiments with the form of plug devised by Mr. Lebour himself were 
continued with a set of better made plugs. " The great disadvantage of this 
system of plugging is the necessity of using two wires, one to lower the 
thermometer and plug as usual, and the other to let down weights upon the 
upper ends of the plugs when they are to be expanded, and to remove them 
when they are to be collapsed. This necessitates not only the ordinary drum 
for the first wire, but also an independent reel for the second. With care, 
however, and after some practice, the apparatus was found to work well ; but 
it certainly is extremely inconvenient for rapid work, as it requires a good 
deal of setting up." 

Experiments were made with both forms of plug at the depth of 800 feet, 
in a bore of the total depth of 420 feet. In the one case eight india-rubber 
disks were employed, four above and four below the thermometer ; in tho 
other, two collapsible plugs, one above and one below. 

The experiments had chiefly in view the mechanical difficulties of the sub- 
ject, and are not decisive as to the sufficiency of the plugs to prevent convection. 



200 report — 1877 



Report of the Committee, consisting of James R. Napier, F.R.S., Sir 
W. Thomson, F.R.S., W. Froude, F.R.S., J. T. Bottomley, and 
Osborne Reynolds, F.R.S. (Secretary), appointed to investigate 
the Effect of Propellers on the Steering of Vessels. 

Since the meeting of the British Association held in Glasgow last year, the 
Ccmmittee has been able to carry out some further experiments on steering 
as affected by the reversing of the screw. 

The largest vessel experimented upon last year was the barge No. 12, of 
about 500 tons, and it appeared, on comparing the behaviour of this vessel 
with the behaviour of those of smaller size, that the larger the ship the more 
important would the effect of reversing the screw become. This view has 
been completely borne out by the experiments of this year, made with one 
vessel of 850 tons and another of 3594 tons. 

In May last the 'Melrose,' a new vessel belonging to Messrs. Donald 
Cnrrie & Co., was tried at the instance and under the superintendence of Mr. 
James R. Napier. The ' Melrose ' is 228 feet in length by 29 feet in breadth, 
and 16 feet 3 inches hi depth. She is 850 tons gross register ; her propeller 
makes 90 revolutions per minute with the vessel going at a speed of 

lOf knots. 

The following is Mr. Napier's report of the trials:- — "These expciiments 
were made on 3rd of May 1877, between Wemyss Bay and Rothsay. There 
was little or no wind; the sea was glassy smooth. The draft of water was 
9 feet 1 inch forward, and 12 feet 5 inches aft ; the diameter of the propeller 
was 11 feet G inches, the pitch 14 feet 3 inches, it had 4 blades and was 
ri^ht-handed. The maxinmm speed at the nautical mile was 10| knots ; but 
the speed was about 10 knots when the trials were made. 

"A trial was made with the rudder said to be amidships, and the ship's 
head turned to starboard : but it was found afterwards that the pointer on 
the bridge had been misplaced, and, as it was difficult at the time to ascertain 
the rudder's position, the result was uncertain. 

•■'First mock collision trial. — The vessel was steaming about 10 knots when 
the telegraph bell warned the engineer to stand by his engines, and shortly 
after the bell was rung for him to reverse at full speed (no intermediate 
order to slow or stop being given) ; in 15 seconds after this order was given 
the engines began to reverse, and in 2 minutes 15 seconds after the giving 
of the order to reverse, the forward motion of the ship had entirely stopped. 

"At the instant that the engineer below telegraphed to the captain on deck 
that his engines were reversing, the captain gave the order " Hard aport" 
which was quickly obeyed by the two men at the week The vessels head 
almost immediately commenced turning to port, and when the ship's way was 
stopped, or about 2 minutes after the order to port was given, the vessel's 
head had turned 26 or 2S degrees to port._ 

" Second mock collision trial. — Every thing was done in the same manner 
as in the first trial, except in this case the order was to starboard hard. 
The vessel's way was lost in about the same time. Tlie vessel's head com- 
menced to turn to starboard cdmost immediately after the enr/ines began to 
reverse, and when the forward way was lost, her head had gone round 40° to 
starboard. 



OX THE STEEIUXG OF VESSELS. 



201 



" These results were so contrary to the expectation of some of the nautical 
party on hoard, that they made a third mod- collision trial (a second one with 
the helm hard aport) ; but on this occasion the orders to reverse the engines 
and to port the helm were given simultaneously. The result was similar to 
the first trial, the head turning a long way to port ; but I was not on the 
bridge to note the angle through which her head moved before head-way was 
lost. 

" Mr. Currie, one of the owners of the ship, most of the nautical men and 
visitors on board learned, I think, something regarding the steering of screw- 
steamers, and a cause of some, if not of many, collisions which they did not 
know before. The Captain of the ship, however, when asked before the 
trials what would be the result of the sudden reversal of the engines, with 
the helm aport or starboard, stated the direction in which the ship's head 
would turn as it actually happened." 

The Committee wish to thank Mr. Currie for allowing them the use of his 
ship for the experiments. 

It will be seen, from Mr. Napier's report, that the 'Melrose' behaved in 
precisely the same way as did the vessels last year, except that the effect of 
the reversed screw on the action of the rudder was even more apparent than 
in the previous trials. This was obviously owing to the greater size of the 
ship, and the consequently greater time taken by the reversed screw in bring- 
ing her to rest, and the result led the Committee to conclude that with still 
larger ships the result would be yet more pronounced. 

This conclusion has been verified in a somewhat unexpected although in a 
most satisfactory manner; for, after arriving at Plymouth, the Secretary 
received the following account of trials made in the s.s. ' Hankow,' of London, 
3594 tons, by Captain Symmington, the commander, in response to the 
circular issued by the Committee last year, but otherwise at his own 



instance. 



Capt. Symmington's Report. 



" S.s. ' Ilankow,' of London, 
"8th March, 1877. 

« Gross tonnage 3594 12 , net 2331 75 tons. 

"Length 389 feet, breadth 42-1, depth 28-8. 

"Some experiments were conducted this forenoon from 9.20 a.m. to 
11.20 a.m., in lat. 8° 50' S., long. 153° 58' E., in order to determine how 
the ship's head turned on reversing the engines suddenly when going full 
speed ahead with the helm amidships, port, and starboard : also the time 
and diameter of the circles made when going slow and full speed ahead on 
the port helm. 

" Sea smooth or between No. 1 and 2 of the Beaufort scale ; ship drawing, 
on leaving Svdney on the 28th ult., 26 feet forward and 24 feet 3 inches aft ; 
today the probable draft will be 24 feet 8 inches forward and 23 feet 8 inches 
aft, mean 24-2. 

"First Experiment. 

" Ship going ahead full speed, engines were suddenly reversed, helm put 
hard aport ; immediately the engines started, time noted and bearing of ship's 
head by standard (Admiralty compass) noted, and the bearing of the ship's 
head also noted at every 15 seconds until the ship came to a dead stop. 



202 



REPORT 1877. 



Time. 


A.M. 


Interval. 


Ship's Head by 
Compass. 


Head turned to 
Port. j Starboard. 

1 


h. 111. 


S. 


HI. s. 










9 20 


7 




N. 62 W. 








22 


15 




Oh 






37 


15 


„ 66 


H 






52 


15 


„ 69 


3 




21 


7 


15 


„ 78^ „ 


41 






22 


15 


„ 77 „ 


3£ 






37 


15 


„ so „ 


3| 






52 


15 


.. 84J „ 


4 




22 


7 


15 


,, 88 „ 


3| 






22 


15 


n 88 ,, 


Stationary. 






;J7 


15 


„ 87 




1 




52 


15 


„ 85* „ 




H 


2:3 


7 


15 


,. 84 




U 




22 


15 


82A 




1* 




37 


15 


794 




3 


3 


30 


3 30 




26 


84 



"Ship camo to a dead stop in 3 min. 30 sec, and turned to port 26 in 
2 min., then turned to starboard 8^° in 1 min. 30 sec. 

" Second Experiment. 

" Ship going ahead full speed, say 10 knots. The engines were suddenly 
reversed full speed astern, helm put hard astarboard ; bearing of ship's head 
taken and time. At every 15 seconds the bearing of ship's head was also 
noted until the ship came to a dead stop. 



Time. 


A.M. 


Interval. 


Ship's Head by 
Compass. 


Head ti 
Port. 


rned to 
Starboard. 


h. m. 


8. 


m. s. 








9 45 


30 




N. 39 W. 






45 


45 


15 


„ n 


2 




46 





15 


n "H 






46 


15 


15 


,, ''•'■2 n 




u 


46 


30 


15 


37i 

>> •-" 2 i) 


, , , 


2 


46 


45 


15 


001 

It "^2 I! 







47 





15 


n 28 „ 




4 3 


47 


15 


15 


44i 




Sh 


47 


30 


15 


,, 21* „ 




3 


47 


45 


15 


„ 18 „ 




0$ 


48 





15 


„ 13 „ 


... 


5 


48 


15 


15 


» 9 ,. 




4 


48 


30 


15 


i» 5 ,, 




4 


48 


45 


15 


II -*-2 »» 




24 


48 


53 


8 


•2 

»> w i> 




0* 


3 


23 


3 23 




2 


39 



" Ship came to a dead stop in 3 min. 23 sec. Her lead payed off to port 
2° during the first 15 sec., and afterwards turned to starboard 39° before 
coming to rest. 

" Third Experiment. 

"Ship going full speed ahead, say 10 knots, the engines weic suddenly 



ON THE STEERING OF VESSELS. 



203 



reversed, full spied astern, the helm put amidships, aud the bearing of the 
ship's head noted by the standard azimuth compass (Admiralty) at every 
1-1 seconds until tho ship came to absolute rest. Wind and weather as 
before. Going full speed ahead 10 knots, reversed full speed astern, helm 
amidships. * 



Time. 


A. SI. 


Interval. 


Ship's Head by 


Head turned to 








Compass. 


Port . 


starboard. 


h. m. 


S. 


111. 8. 




















in 34 


i<; 




N. 29* E. 






34 


31 


15 


., 29 „ 


Hi 




.-it 


40 


L6 


„ 29£ „ 




0* 


35 


1 


15 


„ 3(i.i ., 




1 


85 


16 


I. - ) 


,. 32 




I. 1 , 


35 


31 


15 


,. 36 




4 


35 


46 


15 


„ 39 „ 




3 




1 


15 


„ 44 




5 


36 


16 


15 


„ 4fii „ 




2,i 


36 


31 


15 


„ -18 „ 




n 


36 


46 


15 


>, 50£ „ 




2$ 


37 


1 


15 


.. 51# ,. 




i 


37 


16 


15 


» 52 „ 




(!', 


37 


31 


15 


„ 53| „ 




U 


37 


JO 


15 


54 




0i 


38 


1 


15 


r vlL 




04 


38 


10 


15 


„ 55 




0.1 


38 


3.1 


15 


„ 56 


... 


1 


4 


15 


4 15 




O.J 


27 



"Ship came to absolute rest in 4 min. 15 sec., her head turned to port 
l° and then 27° to starboard before coming to rest. 

" Fourth Escperimt nt. 

"In this case the ship was going full speed astern, say about 9 knots, 
when the engines were suddenly reversed to full speed ahead, helm put hard 
to -port, time and direction of ship's head noted until the ship came to a dead 
stop. Sea, wind, and weather as before, viz. most favourable conditions for 
these trials. 



Time. 


A.M. 


Interval. S 


hip's Head by 


Head turned to 








Compass. 


Port. | Starboard. 


I), in. 


S. 


m. s. 








11 3 


11 


i 


5. 05.V E. 


° 





3 


20 


15 


> 66 „ 


0* 




3 


41 


15 


, 07 „ 


1" 




3 


56 


15 


671 „ 


0i 




4 


11 


15 


. fi 7i 






4 


20 


15 


, 661 „ 




1 


4 


41 


15 


• 651 „ 




1 


4 


50 


15 


'■ .. 




o 


5 


11 


15 


• 60| „ 


i ;; 


• > 


20 


15 


.. 


., 


5 


41 


15 


1 ,- 




4 


5 


56 


15 


- -I s 


... 


;. ; 


* 


45 


2 


i 2 


19.} 



204 



REPORT — 1877. 



"Ship came to a dead stop in 2 min. 45 sec, and her head turned 2 C to 
port in the first 45 seconds and 191 to starboard in the next 2 minutes. 



" Making the circle : 
long. 153° 58' E, 



Fifth Experiment, 
hard to port : fall speed ahead. 



Lat. 8° 50' S., 



" Ship started full speed from a position of absolute rest, with the helm 
hard aporfc, and at the instant of starting an empty flour barrel was dropped 
from the stern to mark the point started from. Sea smooth or nearly so, 
between No. 1 and 2 of the Beaufort Scale. Wind very light, about No. 1 
to 2. 



Time. 


A.M. 


Interval. 


Ship's Head by 
Compass. 


Arc 

turned. 


b. 111. 


S. 


111. s. 


o 


o 


9 27 


54 




n. mi w. 




28 


24 


1 SO 


„ 54 „ 


2* 


28 


54 


30 


„ 49 „ 


5 


29 


24 


30 


,, 38 „ 


11 


29 


54 


30 


,, 28 ,, 


10 


30 


24 


30 


i. 18 „ 


10 


30 


54 


30 


,. 5 „ 


13 


31 


24 


30 


N. E. 


11 


31 


54 


30 


„ 19 „ 


13 


32 


24 


30 


„ 30 „ 


11 


32 


54 


30 


„ 43*. „ 


13£ 


33 


24 


30 


„ 58 „ 


144 


33 


54 


30 


i) 74 


16 


34 


24 


30 


„ 89 ,. 


15 


34 


54 


30 


S. 75 E. 


16 


35 


24 


30 


,. «1 „ 


14 


35 


54 


30 


„ 461 n 


14*. 


30 


24 


30 


„ 33 „ 


13.i 


30 


54 


30 


„ 20 „ 


13 


37 


24 


30 


„ 7* „ 


12* 


37 


54 


30 


„ H , 


12 


38 


24 


30 


„ 16| „ 


12 


38 


54 


30 


„ 30 „ 


13* 


39 


24 


30 


451 


1.4 


39 


54 


30 


„ 61 


15} 


40 


24 


30 


„ 78* ,. 


17* 


40 


54 


30 


„ 84 ., 


17* 


41 


24 


30 


„ 67 „ 


17 


41 


40 


16 


„ 57 „ 


10 



" Ship completed the circle in 13 min. 4fi sec, and came outside the barrel 
(point of starting), about 150 feet, when the barrel was abreast of the taffrail. 
That is, we had the barrel on our starboard side when circle was completed. 

(Signed) " W. Stmmington, 

" Commander s.s. ' Hankow.' " 

These experiments need no comment ; they are conclusive as to the truth 
and importance of the results previously obtained ; and the Committee thank 
Capt. Symmington for his report. 

In answer to the request of the Committee, made last year, the Admiralty 
have caused experiments to be made as to the effect of reversing the screw 
on the steering of H.M.S. ' Speedy,' 273 tons, with a maximum speed of 



ON THE STEERING OE VESSELS. 205 

5 knots an hour. The perusal of the extract of the report on these trials 
received by the Committee and appended to this report, shows at once that 
the conditions under which the experiments were made were such as to pre- 
clude the possibility of their throwing much light on the subject. The 
greatest speed of tho vessel was 5 knots, and the effect of the rudder with 
the screw reversed was so small, that the vessel, in most instances, turned 
her forward end into the wind. 

On the receipt of the report of these trials, a letter was written to the 
Admiralty, urging them to have experiments made with larger and more 
powerful ships, but as yot no further communication has been received. 

In accordance with the resolution by which they were appointed, the 
Committee have communicated with the Admiralty, the Board of Trade, the 
Elder Brethren of the Trinity House, and other Corporations, and copies of 
the last year's report were forwarded as soon as they could be obtained ; no 
intimation has yet been received of any action being taken by these bodies. 

It appears, from an article in the ' Nautical Magazine ' of December, that 
the last report of the Committee was discussed at the conference of the 
Association for the Reform and Codification of the Law of Nations, held last 
year at the Ancient House, City of Bremen, when the following resolution 
was agreed to : — 

" It is the opinion of the Conference that the existing international rules 
for preventing collisions at sea are not of a satisfactory character, and that it 
is desirable that the Governments of the maritime states should take counsel 
together with a view to amend these rules and to adapt them more carefully 
to the novel exigencies of steam navigation;" 

The article in tho ' Nautical Magazine ' was written by Sir Travers Twiss, 
and in this and in a subsequent article he discusses the facts established by 
the Committee, and their bearing on the question of the alteration of the 
rule of the road at sea, pointing out the absolute necessity of modifying 
Article 15 of the Amended Board of Trade Steering and Sailing Rules, which 
are likely to become law. 

These and other notices which have appeared in English and foreign pub- 
lications show that the subject has already attracted considerable attention ; 
and it is important to notice that in no way have the conclusions of the 
Committee been in the smallest degree controverted. 

Numerous collisions have occurred during the year, which, to judge from 
the law reports, might in many instances have been avoided had the effect of 
reversing the screw been known and acted upon ; but it does not appear as 
if a consideration of this has influenced any of the judgments given. 

The collisions have for the most part been with small ships, and so have 
not attracted much attention ; but the loss of the ' Dakota ' was a disaster of 
the first magnitude, and if it was not due to the porting of the helm with 
the screw reversed it might have been, for as soon as the officers became 
aware of their extreme danger (the shore being on their port bow) the helm 
was put hard aport and the screw reversed full speed, after which, according 
to the evidence of Mr. Jones, a pilot on board, the vessel turned to port until 
she struck. The evidence offered by the Secretary of the Committee was, 
however, rejected by the Commissioner of Wrecks (Mr. Rothery), on tho 
ground that the ship was virtually lost before the screw was reversed. It is 
to be noted, however, that the orders to reverse the engines and to port tho 
helm were avowedly given in the hope of saving the ship, and that had there 
been a chance of escape, such action, as shown by all the experiments of the 
Committee, must most certainly have reduced it. 



206 report — 1877. 

APPENDIX. 

Extract from Report of Captain of Steam Reserve at Portsmouth, data! 

24th January, 1877. 

Experiments on tlte Turning of Screw Ships. 

I have the honour to report that, as already reported in my letter, dated 
30th "September, 1870, to the Admiral Superintendent (through whom 1 
received the original copy of experiments required), there have been no 
opportunities of making experiments on this subject, on account of ships 
going out on trial having their time fully occupied, and there have been no 
ships in the First lieserve which could be taken out for the purpose. 

Observing, however, from the report in the ' Nautical Magazine ' referred 
to, that the largest vessel of which particulars of trial are given is only 
80 tons, I took the ' Speedy,' of 273 tons, out and tried the experiments 
required with her : her speed is only about 5 knots ; draught of water 7 feel 
10 inches ; rig one small mast forward ; screw right-handed, Griffith's, two- 
bladed, diameter 6 feet 1 inch, pitch feet. The results are given in at- 
tached sheet. 

An opportunity also occurred of getting one trial of No. G in the ' Eu- 
phrates,' while waiting for tide. While going ahead the screw was stopped 
and reversed, the helm being kept amidships ; the ship's head came steadily 
round to starboard (windward) 12 : till head to wind, then fell off to port, 
and continued to do so till stern to wind. An experienced pilot (Mr. 
Harding) who was with me told me beforehand that this would be the case. 

The experiments with the 'Speedy' were conducted by myself, with the as- 
sistance of Staff-Commander Parker, and Mr. Iril By, chief gunner of ' A sia ' for 
lieserve. 

I think it may he taken as nearly certain that in all cases of putting the 
helm over and reversing the screw at the same time the ship will obey the 
helm for a limited time, the amount depending on the way the ship has, her 
rig, and the direction of the wind and sea with reference to her course, and 
that as she loses her way she will fall off from the wind until she brings it 
astern or nearly so. Also, that on reversing the engines with the helm kept 
amidships, she will come up head towards the wind, and then fall off before 
the wind as she loses her way. 

It is going beyond the part of the article marked for my remarks, but I 
would venture to express an opinion that it would be highly undesirable to 
remove the obligation now imposed on ships " approaching each other, so as 
to involve risk of collision," to reverse their engines. If the action of ships 
with engines reversed is as I have said above, the reversing not only reduces 
the risk of serious damage, by lessening the way of both ships, but brings them 
parallel to each other, thereby placing them in a good position to avoid collision. 

I would also submit that it is desirable that attention should be called to 
the power of the steering-gear. I think it probable that in large steamers 
of great speed, with small crews, aud not fitted with steam steering-gear, 
the number of men usually kept at the wheel would be found quite inade- 
quate to get the helm hard over till the speed of the ship was reduced. 

It is worth consideration whether it should not be made obligatory, on 
steam-ships over a certain size and speed carrying emigrants or passengers, to 
be fitted with steam steering-gear, which I believe is not the case at present. 

I believe a doubt exists with many people whether it is safe and proper 
to reverse engines when going at full speed ahead at once to full speed 
astern ; this doubt (if it exists) should be removed, and it should be clearly 
understood that engines arc to stand being suddenly reversed from extreme 
speed one way to the opposite extreme. 



ON THE DESIRABILITY OV ESTABLISHING A "CLOSE TIME. 



207 



H.M.S. 'Speedy,' gunboat, '27'3 tons, 60 horse-powpr, Griffith's screw, right-handed, 
2-bladed, diameter 6 feet 1 inch, pitch 6 feet. January 24th, 1877. 



Trial. 


Engines. 


Helm. 


Wind. 


Eesult. 


1. 


Going lull speed ahead, 
suddenly reversed to 
full speed astern. 


Hard aport. 


Ahead. 


Before headway was lost head 
went to starboard 15°, lost 
headway in 1' 15"; ship's head 
still went to starboard with 
sternway 180° in 8' 15". 


o 


Going full speed ahead, 
suddenly reversed to 
full speed astern. 


Hard astarboard. 


Ahead. 


Before headway was lost, head 
went to port 20°, lost head- 
way in 50" ; with sternway 
ship's head went to starboard 
88° in 3' 20". 


3. 


Going full speed astern. 


Hard aport. 


4 points on star- 


Before sternway was lost, head 




suddenly reversed to 
full speed ahead. 




board quarter. 


went to port 9°, lost sternway 
in 25" : then ship's head went 
to starboard. 


4. 


Going full speed astern, 


Hard astarboard. 


4 points on star- 


Before stein way was lost, head 




suddenly reversed to 




board quarter. 


went to port, lost sternway in 




fidl speed ahead. 






1' 22"; ship's head went off 










to port immediately helm was 










put to starboard 101° in 4'. 


5. 


Pull speed a lien d and 
reversed to full speed 
astern. 


Amidships. 


Starboard beam. 


Ship's head went to starboard : 
lost headway in 1' 10"; still 
going to starboard, 90° in 
4' 20". 


6. 


Full speed ahead. 


Amidships. 


Starboard beam. 


Ship's head went to starboard 
22i° in 5', and G7J° in 9' 32". 




Full speed ahead. 


Amidships. 


2 points on star- 


Ship's head went to port 31° in 




(No cause could be seen 




board quarter. 


3' 37", and continued to go to 




for the ship's head 






port till wind was astern 51° 




going opposite ways 






in 9' 4". 




in these two trials.) 










Fall speed astern. 


Put from hard 
aport to amid- 
ships. 

Put from hard 




Ship's head went fast to port. 




Full speed astern. 




Ship's head went to starboard 






astarboard to 




06° in o' • 






amidships. 







(Signed) 



Chakles J. Wadbilote. Captain, 
W. A. Parker, Staff-Commander, 
"W. J. Riley, Chief Gunner, 



H.M.S. 'Asia. 



Report of the Committee, consisting of the Rev. H. F. Barnes, C. 
Sfence Bate, Esq., II. E. Dresser, Esq. (Secretary), Dr. A. Gi'x- 
ther, J. E. Harting, Esq., J. Gwyn Jeffreys, Esq., Professor 
Nevvtox, and the Rev. Canon Tristram, appointed for the purpose of 
enquiring into the possibility of establishing a Close Time for the 
protection of Indigenovs Animals. 

Your Committee begs leave to report that the ohjc.-t for which it was 
appointed continues to receive a considerable share of public attention, and 
that during the past year the three Acts of Parliament establishing a Close 
Time for certain kinds of Birds have attracted so much notice that there is no 



fear of their falling into neglect. 



208 report— 1877. 

There is no symptom of the diminution of the interest which the Sea-birds 
Preservation Act (1869) has always excited ; and within the past twelve 
months application for the extension of the Close Time has been made, ac- 
cording to the provisions of that Act, by the Justices in Quarter-Sessions of 
Northumberland, Lancashire, and the North Riding of Yorkshire — facts 
which sufficiently speak for the general appreciation of the measure. 

The Wild-Birds Protection Act (1872) is possibly viewed by the public 
with greater favour than either of the others ; but your Committee sees little 
reason to modify the opinion of it expressed in former Reports. Neverthe- 
less a conviction under it, presenting some rather important features, in May 
last, indicates that it is not so entirely useless as had been thought.' 

The Wild-Fowl Preservation Act (1876) came into operation this year, 
and at first undoubtedly caused some discontent in many quarters, a warm 
discussion of its principle and provisions being raised by a portion of the 
public press. Your Committee, however, has noticed with much satisfaction 
that virtually no objection was taken to its principle, while the necessity of 
some enactment of the kind was conceded on almost every side. Further- 
more, very nearly the sole cause of complaint lay in regard to the limits of 
the Close Time therein imposed, on which point no blame attaches to your 
Committee. The limits of the Close Time proposed in the Bill, as draughted 
by your Committee and introduced into Parliament, were, as stated in last 
year's Report, altered in its passage through the House of Commons ; the 
change being such as your Committee then declared did not meet with its 
approval. Your Committee is therefore in no way responsible for the unsea- 
sonableuess of the Close Time which was enacted, and believes that the 
soundness of its views on the subject is now generally admitted. In con- 
firmation of this belief, it may be stated that the Justices in Quarter-Sessions 
of the counties of Dorset, Norfolk, Kent. Somerset, Southampton, Wigtown, 
and Essex have severally made application to the Home Office for such an 
alteration of the Close Time as will bring it more or less nearly in accordance 
with that originally proposed by your Committee. 

Another charge was brought against this Act. It was alleged to be im- 
perfect in that it did not expressly prohibit the possession or sale during the 
Close Time of birds of the kinds professedly protected, which had been im- 
ported into this country from abroad. This charge was supported by the 
dismissal (on the latter ground) by two magistrates of informations laid 
against certain poultrymen or game-dealers in London, and if it could have 
been sustained would undoubtedly have proved the Act to be defective. But 
the Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals appealed against 
one of these decisions ; and on the 15th of June judgment was given in the 
Common Pleas Division of Her Majesty's Court of Appeal against the defen- 
dants in the case, thus proving that the legal interpretation of the Act agreed 
with the intention of its promoters. 

Your Committee has satisfaction in finding that the Fisheries (Oysters, 
Crabs and Lobsters) Bill passed the House of Commons on the 2nd of August, 
and it has now doubtless become law. It appears curious that no Close 
Time had hitherto been provided by the legislature for these important and 
favourite articles of food. 

Having regard to the applications made from time to time to different 
members of your Committee, by various persons interested in seeing the Close 
Time principle more widely applied, your Committee respectfully solicits its 
reappointment. 



I 



ON SOME DOUBLE COMPOUNDS OF NICKEL AND COBALT. 20'J 



Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. W. N. Hartley, F.R.S.E., 
Mr. W. C. Roberts, F.R.S., and Mr. John M. Thomson, appointed 
for the purpose of investigating some Double Compounds of Nickel 
and Cobalt. By Mr. John M. Thomson. 

Part I. 

On attempting to form the conjugated sulphate of Nickel, Cobalt, and Po- 
tassium, the existence of which is mentioned by Vohl (Ann. Chem. Pharm., 
vol. lxv.), who assigns asits composition the formula NiCoK 4 (S0 4 ) 4 ,12H 2 0, 
it was found that the several fractions of crystals deposited consecutively 
from a solution containing molecular quantities of the simple potassic sul- 
phates of the two metals were of different colours, and showed also to a re- 
markable degree the property of dichroism. The operation being repeated 
several times with a like result, it was determined to prepare a series of 
fractions from a solution containing the two potassic sulphates 

NiK 2 (S0 4 ) a ,6H 2 and CoK 2 (S0 4 ) 2 ,6H 2 

in molecular proportions, to submit each fraction to analysis, and to examine 
whether or not any regular replacement between the nickel and cobalt took 
place. 

For this purpose 250 grammes of each potassic sulphate in the anhydrous 
condition were accurately weighed, dissolved in a sufficient quantity of water,: 
and evaporated gently over a water-bath, the temperature of the solution 
never being allowed to rise above 80° C. The solution was thus fractionally 
crystallized, the several fractions consecutively deposited constituting the 
series of salts marked A i., n., in., rv., v. 

A second quantity, consisting of 250 grammes of each potassic sulphate 
in the pure crystallized condition, having been crushed, pressed between 
blotting-paper and finally air-dried, was dissolved in water and fractionally 
crystallized at the same temperature as in the first instance. These fractions 
constitute the series of salts marked Bi., n., iii.,iv., v., vi. In both these 
cases care was taken to purify the salts before commencing the experiments. 

The crystals of the conjugated double sulphates are oblique rhombic prisms, 
having a tendency to modification when allowed to grow to any great size. 
The first fractions possess a greenish-grey colour when seen in the mass, 
showing the preponderance in them of the nickel over the cobalt ; the latter 
fractions, however, become more crimson in colour as the reverse action takes 
place. The salts do not lose their water entirely till between 150° to 180° C, 
and can be fused without decomposition. On heating the first fractions in 
a crushed condition in the air-bath, the colour changes from a light grey to 
purple, finally becoming pink when the water is entirely driven off ; if the 
salts be heated in a porcelain or platinum capsule they fuse, the liquid mass 
becoming of an intensely deep-blue colour, which fades on cooling, the mass 
solidifying to the pink anhydrous salt. This deep-blue colour can be again 
produced, however, by fusing the dried salt, and is evidently due to some 
change not explained by loss of water. 

The following Tables give the details and results of the analyses of the two 
series of salts marked A and P>. The replacement of the nickel and cobalt is 

1877. r 



210 



REPORT 1877. 



also graphically represented by the curves in the diagrams of each series of 
salts given below. 

The method generally employed in the determination of the nickel and 
rx>balt was that of Liebig, viz. by treatment with HCy and KHO to obtain 
the cyanides hi solution, precipitating the nickel as NiO with mercuric 
oxide and separating the cobalt from the filtrate by mercurous nitrate, the 
mercurous cobalticyanide being ignited and weighed as Co 3 4 . It may be 
mentioned that in many cases the determinations by this method were 
checked by others conducted by separating the cobalt as double nitrite of 
cobalt and potassium, incinerating this body, washing out the alkali, and 
finally determining the cobalt as CoS0 4 by evaporation with sulphuric acid. 
In these latter cases the nickel was determined in the nitrate from the double 
nitrite of potassium and cobalt by precipitation with potash. 

The water and sulphuric acid were determined in the usual manner. The 
potash was determined by difference in most cases, but was occasionally 
checked by determining it as potassium sulphate. 

Fig. 1 . — Scries A. 




The Roman numbers indicate the different fractions of the conjugated salts. The co- 
ordinate numbers show the percentage of NiO, and the abscissas numbers the percentage 
of CoO in the several fractions. 



ON SOME DOUBLE COMPOUNDS OF NICKEL AND COBALT. 



211 



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REPORT 1877. 



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ON SOME DOUBLE COMPOUNDS OF NICKEL AND COBALT. 213 

Fig. 2.— Series B. 




The Konnan numbers indicate the different fractions of the conjugated salts. The co- 
ordinate numbers show the percentage of NiO, and the abscissa; numbers the percentage 
of CoO in the several fractions. 



It will be seen from these numbers that a regular replacement between 
the nickel and cobalt oxides takes place, while the percentage amounts of 
water, sulphuric anhydide, and potassium oxide remain the same. In the 
several successive fractions we have a regular decrease of the quantity of 
nickel with an increase in the quantity of cobalt, the amounts of both to- 
gether, however, giving a practically constant number for each fraction. 

Taking the quantities of nickel and cobalt together, the formula given by 
Vohl might express the relation thus (M"M")K 4 (S0 4 ) 4 ,12H 2 ; but to ex- 
press the replacement we have found between the metals, a much higher 
molecular formula is necessary — the one which admits of all the replace- 
ments shown by the numbers we have obtained being 24 [M"M"K 4 (S0 4 ) 4 , 
12H 2 0], and it is possible fractions containing a higher replacement of the 
metals might be obtained requiring a still higher molecular formula ; in fact 
the limits of replacement are only defined by the powers of analysis. 

There are certain further conclusions which may be drawn from the re- 



214 



REPORT — 1877. 



placement in those fractions ; but these must be reserved for the second part 
of the report. 

The examination of the optical properties of the several fractions presents 
some details of considerable interest. When the crystals are examined 
through the two opposite axes, a change of colour in the several fractions 
may be observed to take place in the following order down the series : — 



Salt. 


Colour shown through 
Nickel axis. 


Colour shown through 
Cobalt axis. 


I. 

II. 

III. 

IV. 

V. 

VI. 


Light green. 
Deep green. 
Yellow green. 
Yellow. 
Orauge-yellow. 
Orange (deep). 


Indigo-blue. 
Bluish purple. 
Purple. 
Pink. 
Crimson. 
Deep crimson. 



It may be seen from this Table that the colours shown through the dif- 
ferent axes pass in a direct order down the spectrum in each column. 

In the first fractions the more highly refractive rays of the cobalt spec- 
trum mingle with the green of the nickel, whilst in the last the two rays are 
those adjacent to each other in the cobalt spectrum only. 

It is worthy of remark also, that as the cobalt spectrum consists of all the 
colours except the green, the nickel spectrum consists of none but the green 
rays. 

Differences in the ratio of nickel and cobalt, which would be detected only 
by very carefully conducted analyses, can be remarked by the distinct and 
differing dichroism when the crystals are examined by the dichroiscope. 

That these fractions are not mere isomorphous mixtures, as is generally 
understood by the word, we think is shown from the fact that large crystals 
taken for analysis exhibited the same dichroism throughout. It thus becomes 
interesting to determine, if possible, how far the phenomenon of dichroism 
is dependent on, or consequent upon, molecular constitution ; in this direc- 
tion some preliminary experiments have been made to see whether crystals 
could be stained in such a manner as to show dichroism by the influence of 
their impurities. It is not easy to secure the necessary conditions without 
the possibility of forming molecular compounds ; but results have been ob- 
tained which when thoroughly examined will be reported. 

Wo may mention that from the ease with which the fractions maybe pre- 
pared, and from the great variety in their dichroism, they form an excellent 
series for the study of that phenomenon. 



ON THE EXPLORATION OF THE SETTLE CAVES. 215 



Fifth Report of the Committee, consisting of Sir John Lubbock, Bart., 
Prof. Prestwich, Prof. Busk, Prof. T. M'K. Hughes, Prof. W. 
Boyd Dawkins, Prof. Miall, Rev. H. W. Crosskey, and Mr. R. 
H. Tiddeman, appointed for the purpose of assisting in the Explora- 
tion of the Settle Caves (Victoria Cave). Drawn up by R. H. 
Tiddeman (Reporter). 

The Local Committee have this year sustained a great loss in the death of 
their Chairman, Sir James P. Kay-Shuttleworth, Bart. Sir James took a 
great interest in the work from the commencement. He recommended us to 
employ in working the admirable methods of excavation so inseparably con- 
nected with the names of Mr. Pengelly and Kent's Cavern, and which, with 
slight modifications, were adopted. Besides his liberal contributions to the 
fund, his business-like method of conducting the Committee's meetings was 
of the greatest service to the undertaking. 

The work has been carried on almost continuously since we last reported 
at Glasgow up to the 14th of July last. As the state of our funds was then 
very low, it was determined to give up work for a time ; and it has not yet 
been resumed. 

In our last Report we called attention to a very stiff, dark, laminated clay 
which occurred in chambers A and D at a lower level than the principal 
bone-bed or hyaena-bed. It was separated from the underlying yellow sandy 
clay by a thin bed of stalagmite of varying thickness. A large part of our 
time in the past year has been taken up in removing portions of these beds 
in these two chambers, working them down to a lower level inwards, in order 
to be able to work at the back of the cave. In doing this it was found that 
these beds rose as we proceeded inwards towards the junction of the ends of 
chambers A and D. Large blocks of fallen limestone occurred along the 
right wall of chamber D and much impeded us and others at the junction of 
A and D. No bones occurred in this portion of the work, except at 2 feet 
Parallel 34, where we obtained bones of a large bear, of a goat, of a large ox, 
also a gnawed antler of Red Deer. These were at a depth of 13 feet. 

On the 16th of November we had made a sufficiently good clearance of the 
route to the further junction of these two chambers to enable us to carry on 
our investigation in this direction ; and as the beds were rising inwards, we 
entertained a hope that by working on these we might come to earlier beds than 
we had yet discovered. The result confirmed our expectations, and, although 
not in any way sensational, was very interesting. We had previously worked 
for some time in an easterly direction from this point, but without much 
practical result. The beds were so wet and slippery that the section could 
not be properly observed. There was no drainage for the water which was 
accumulating ; and in short, to use a miner's phrase, we were " drowned 
out." We now resolved to try in another direction ; and finding that at the 
end of chamber A the deposits ran further north beneath the limestone, and 
that there was no true wall to the cave at that spot, we proceeded to make a 
cut to the north in the direction of an old shaft at the end of chamber B. 
There were two reasons for selecting this direction. First, it would show 
us the extent of the cave to the north, and whether B was separated from A 
or continuous with it at the further end, as A and D had been proved to be. 
Secondly, in that old shaft hyaena had been first discovered, many years ago, 
by Mr. Jackson in his earlier researches, and identified by Dr. Buckland ; 



216 report— 1877. 

there was therefore a chance of our again hitting the hyaena-hed at this 
spot. 

We hegan by cutting a level 6 feet wide and 9 feet high (i. e. up to the 
rocky roof) ; but we very soon had to widen this at the top, for the materials 
were of so slippery a naturo that they would not stand in a vertical face for 
long together. The section, however, was carefully measured and drawn to 
scale as the work proceeded ; so that no errors coidd arise from slips. The 
black laminated clay which lies beneath the hysena-bed, and to which wo 
referred in our last Report, was seen to rise towards the roof ; and beneath it 
was a bed of stalagmite about 1 foot thick. This also rose for a distance of 
16 feet, then fell, and rose again when nearing chamber B, except at the end, 
where it again had a slight dip north. In a kind of basin lying on this sta- 
lagmite in the middle part of the cut lay three beds, each about half a foot 
thick, consisting in ascending order of yellow sandy clay, stalagmite, and a 
darker clay. All these beds were destitute of animal remains. The same 
may be said of a lower great mass of dark clay lying below the thick stalag- 
mite, from 4 to 6 feet in thickness, which was similar to that above the same 
stalagmite at the south end of the cut. It ran along the whole section, and, 
indeed, in a mass of broken and confused stalagmite and clay at the end of 
chamber B. 

The entire absence of remains from theso beds, at so short a distance from 
others which present a throng of animal life, would almost lead us to specu- 
late upon the absence of any fauna from the district when they were being 
formed. Or perhaps we might be led to suppose that the wet slippery mud 
of which they arc chiefly composed was not of a nature to tempt beasts of 
prey into these recesses to dovour their quarry. But in this we must be 
cautious. Chamber D, when first explored, was (though not ankle-deep 
certainly, for wo eoidd not stand up in it) at least fist-deep in soft mud. 
Yet in this clay, and in many parts quite at the surface of it, we came upon 
the richest assemblage of remains that we have found in the entire cavern. 
We must therefore beware how wc gauge a hyaena's or bear's ideas of 
comfort by our own. 

After this long interval of lifeless beds it was with no little satisfaction 
that, at the base of the thick clay already referred to, we came upon evidence, 
scanty but yet sufficient, of an earlier occupation of the district. Two teeth 
of a small wolf, a canine and molar (^ and -|j, were discovered resting on 
the surface of a yellow sandy clay. They were 7 feet from the commence- 
ment of the north cut, and 6| feet below the rocky roof. Unfortunately 
these are the only indications of life yet found relating to this time, which, 
judging by the thickness of barren beds between, was long prior to the age 
of the abundant life-assemblage of the hyaena-bed. Of one thing we may 
feel quite sure, that the presence of this carnivore implies the coexistence of 
other animals on which it could feed ; and though at present we know not 
what they were, we may hope that further exploration will give us fuller 
information. 

On the 10th of February, 1877, we succeeded in effecting, at the further 
end of the North Cut, an entrance into the further end of chamber B. Our 
cutting, however, though it kept to the limestone rock as a roof all the 
way, was found to be two feet below the bottom of the old shaft at the end 
of that chamber. Wc calculated that the cut would be about forty feet in 
length, and we found it forty-one and a half. 

When we were obliged to leave off work wc were clearing away the deposits 



i 



ON THE EXPLORATION OF THE SETTLE CAVES. 217 

on the left side of chamber A, consisting of largo blocks of limestone in clay, 
and reducing that part to the same level as the right side of that chamber. 
Our object in doing this is that we may reduce the level of the whole of our 
present floor of working across the chamber to the depth necessary to disclose 
the old river-bed, which must have been the lowest level of the cave. Several 
indications lead us to suppose that we are not far off it, especially at the 
entrance. The arching of the right wall, and the occurrence of several 
grooves along it, apparently indicating old water-levels, are very suggestive 
that we are at last neariug the original bottom of the cave. When that is 
reached we can scarcely fail to meet with much that is interesting. 

The present entire absence of conditions which could render the existence 
of a large stream possible in or near the cave as it now stands, taken in con- 
nexion with the fact of the present stream being 900 feet below us, suggests 
such an enormous interval of time necessary to effect these changes that we 
might almost stand aghast at it did we not remember how great and many 
are the vicissitudes which havo occurred in that interval, and to which the 
cave and the surrounding district bear witness. Prom to-day to Romano- 
Celtic times is our first stage as we go back into the past, and that probably 
the shortest in the whole journey. The next takes us into the cloudland of 
Neolithic times. Then, after an unknown interval, we come to the submer- 
gence and emergence of parts of Lancashire to a depth of several hundred 
feet. A further step, probably a long one, shows us the north of England 
swathed in a great sheet of ice, which advanced and retired perhaps more 
than onco. Again the scene changes, and the hyaena (that admirable histo- 
rian) gives a record of his life and times. Further back, by a long period, 
the wolf takes up the story, and tells us, so far, comparatively little. But the 
bed of tho old river which made the cave before the wolf haunted it should 
tell us a story which may fairly rival in interest any of the annals of cave- 
history. 

The Committee are again indebted for kind assistance to Prof. Leith Adams 
and Mr. William Davies, of the British Museum. 

Appendix. 
Report on the Remains, by Prof. Bush. 

I have gone over the Victoria collection as well as time would allow ; but 
having been mostly out of town for some time, I have not been able to com- 
plete the task as fully as I should have wished, and have left a few doubtful 
specimens for further determination. 

A large part of the collection consists of broken splinters and fragments, 
apparently mostly of bones of the Ox and Deer, and some probably of Rhi- 
noceros from their thickness. Of about 180 determined specimens, about 
46 belong to Bos of two distinct sizes — one probably being Bos primigenius, 
and the other, I should imagine, B. longifrons ; amongst these are a few that 
appear to be comparatively recent. The next in frequency are teeth and 
bones of Ursus — so far as 1 can perceive, U. ferox. Amongst these are somo 
indicating an individual or individuals of very large size ; whilst others would 
indicate a form not larger than U. arctos. Some of the upper molars are very 
much like those of U. spelceus ; but there is no clear indication of that species, 
and most of the teeth and bones are undoubtedly those of U. ferox fossilis. 

Next comes Ilycena spelcea, with 30 specimens, which call for no remark, 
except that they show individuals of various ages, as usual. 



218 REPORT — 187/. 

Rhinoceros is represented by at least eleven well-marked specimens, all of 
which, are in my mind, clearly referable to R. hemitcechus. They are mostly 
teeth, but there is one well-marked fragment of a metatarsal. 

I have noticed only three or four fragments of a molar of Elephas antiquus. 

Fourteen specimens belong to Cervus elephas, though it is not impossible 
that some of the teeth may belong to C. tarandus ; but there is no clear 
indication of that species. 

A small ruminant, probably a Goat, is represented by sixteen specimens, 
some of which appear to be comparatively recent. 

The Badger affords seven or eight specimens, mostly of teeth, and the Fox 
five or six teeth and bones. 

Three or four specimens, but not very good ones, indicate the presence of 
a Wolf of small size, but not, I think, a Dog. 

Besides these are bones of the Hare, and perhaps Babbit, several Birds, 
Arvicola, &c, which I will examine when more at leisure. 

(Signed) Geo. Busk. 

Summary of Bones and Teeth determined in the past year. 

Bos 46 

Cervus 14 

Sheep or Goat 16 

Hare 3 or 4 

Fox 5 

Bear 41 

Canis lupus ? 4 

Hyana 30 

Rhinoceros 11 

Elephant 3 

Badger 7 



180 



Postscript. By the Reporter. 

In the Report for 1876 reference was made to the existence of Goats' bones 
in the cave, to all appearance in the hyasna-bed, one of them bearing marks 
which could only be referred to human agency : but it was thought that, as 
many geologists and osteologists are of opinion that these animals were intro- 
duced into Europe at times not earlier than the Neolithic age, the matter 
could not be fully and fairly discussed without further and careful considera- 
tion. Your reporter, noticing that in some of the Belgian bone-caves Goats 
had been discovered with the remains of extinct Pleistocene animals, and 
reported on by Monsieur E. Dupont, the distinguished cave-explorer, wrote 
to him to inquire whether he was still of the same opinion that they were 
contemporaries. The result, so far as M. Dupont's opinion goes — and it is 
one of deserved weights — is strongly in tho affirmative ; but as his answer was 
not received until after the Association Meeting, the matter was not discussed 
in the Report. Your reporter now offers these remarks on his own respon- 
sibility. 

M. Dupont writes as follows : — 

"Bruxelles, le 24 aout, 1877. 

" Mon cher Monsieur, — Votre aimable lettre du 22 juillet dernier m'est 
arrivee pendant que j'etais occupe avec mes aides a lever le specimen de la 






ON THE EXPLORATION OF THE SETTLE CAVES. 219 

Carte Gcologique du royaume que notre Gouvernement vcut fairo cxecuter. 
C'est cette absence qui m'a empeche de vous repondre plus tot, et je pronto 
pour lo faire de la premiere suspension du travail. 

" Depuis longtemps du reste je desirais vous ecrire, tant pour vous remercier 
de l'envoi de vos tres-interessantes publications que pour avoir quelques ren- 
seignements sur la position definitive que vous assignez au depot ossifere de 
la Caverne Victoria. Vous prevenez obligeamment mes desirs en resumant 
dans votre lettre les rcsultats si curieux de vos recherches. II est certaine- 
ment peu de cavernes qui aient fourni des faits aussi positifs dans l'ordre 
gcologique. 

" La Chevre de nos cavernes ne peut etre distingue'e de la Chevre ordinaire. 
Elle y est associe'e au Mammouth, au Rhinoceros tichorhhuis, a YUrsus 
spelccus, etc. J'en maintiens absolument la coexistence avec ces especes 
perdues. Ces observations corroborent done la votre, et je ne doute pas 
qu'elles ne soient constamment confirmees a l'avenir. 

" Vous trouverez dans le compte-rendu du Congres prehistorique de 
Bruxelles (1872) la discussion que M. Steenstrup a soulevee sur le memo 
sujet. II admettait aussi que la Chevre, un petit Bceuf qui doit etre le Bos 
taurus et d'autres especes avaient du etre amenees dans le pays apres 
l'extinction des especes perdues. Je crois plutot que ces especes sont la 
souche indigene de plusieurs de nos especes domestiques. Je regrette de 
devoir vous ecrire en si grande hate, et vous prie d'agreer l'assurance de mes 
sentiments tres-distingues. 

" E. Dupont." 

Goats' bones appear to be not uncommon in the hyaena-layer ; and an 
obvious inference by those who disbelieve in the antiquity of that species is 
that they have fallen from the upper beds of the Roman or Neolithic layer, 
and become accidentally mixed with an older fauna. But our method of 
working precludes such a supposition. The upper beds had been well worked 
away some time before these bones were uncovered, and no such accident 
could therefore arise. One rib of a small ruminant from the Iryaena-bed, with 

artificial marks upon it (No. ~\, has been already mentioned in the Report 

for 1875, p. 173. 

On the 2nd of May, 1876, another bone — a small humerus, No. ^ — was 

found, bearing very evident tool-marks. It occurred in Parallol 17, at 
17 feet right of the datum line and at a depth from the original surface 
of 15 feet. The marks are very clean cuts, as if made by a sharp instrument 
— so sharp, indeed, as almost to suggest that they may have been done with a 
metallic tool. The cuts, however, have evidently not been made subsequently 
to the discovery of the bone ; for the surfaces therein exposed are of the 
same colour and have the same dark and ochreous staining and incrustation 
as the general surface of the bone. Its occurrence, moreover, at the depth 
of 15 feet in the hyaena-layer, surrounded by bones and teeth of the hyaena, 
bear, elephant, and rhinoceros, precludes us from assigning to it a modern 
origin in spite of the sharp nature of the cuts. The heel of a milk-tooth of 
ElepJias antiquus was found within six inches of it. It may be a question 
whether a sharp flint-flake, properly hafted, may not be capable of producing 
in a bone of a freshly-slaughtered animal marks similar to these. In the 
absence of Prof. Busk it was forwarded to Mr. William Davies, of the British 
Museum, and he pronounced upon it as follows : — The humerus " is that of 



220 report— 1877. 

a very small goat, but evidently of an adult. It is smaller than the humerus 
of a true Shetland sheep with which I compared it, and besides the narrower 
fossa, which you refer to, there are other points in which it differs from the 
same bono in the sheep." Mr. Davies goes on to remark on the state of pre- 
servation of the bone, which leads him to think it must be of comparatively 
recent age. This, however, is the common condition of bones from the clay 
of the Victoria Cave, and has been already mentioned in a previous report *. 
Dr. Buckland found this also to be the case with bones of equal antiquity in 
Kirkdale Cave, which in many ways is comparable with the Victoria Cave. In 
this case he proved by experiments that " nearly the whole of their original 
gelatine has been preserved ;" and cites other instances of preservation in 
stiff clay f. We cannot, therefore, take the condition of this bone to be any 
evidence against its antiquity, but rather the reverse ; for, as a rule, the 
chief parts of the bones in the upper beds in the cave are much decayed. 

The actual finding of remains of man or his works in the cave is, after all, 
a matter of little importance. It would, at most, only give completeness in 
this particular instance to the picture of the life of the period. That the 
fauna found there in beds beneath the glacial clay at the entrance was con- 
temporary with man in other parts of Britain and Europe, is generally 
admitted without dispute. If there were an absence of evidence of his pre- 
sence in the North of England at this time, it could not in any way invalidate 
the proofs of his coexistence with the same fauna, and presumably at the 
samo time, in the South of England in days before the last great advance of 
cold conditions in the North J. 



Report of the Committee, consisting of Sir W. Thomson, F.R.S., 
Major-General Strachey, F.R.S., Captain Douglas Gaxton, 
F.R.S., Mr. G. F. Deacon, Mr. Rogers Field, Mr. E. Roberts, 
and Mr. James N. Shoolbred {Secretary) , appointed for the purpose 
of considering the Datum Level of the Ordnance Survey of Great. 
Britain, ivith a view to its establishment on a surer foundation 
than hitherto. 

This Committee was appointed in 1875 at the Bristol Meeting to inquire into 
some uncertainties (alleged to exist by Mr. J. N. Shoolbred in his communi- 
cation to the Association " On the Half-Tide Level at Liverpool ") as to the 
exact position of the Datum Level of the Ordnance Survey of Great Britain. 

It may be prefaced that the Ordnance datum is described in the 'Abstract 
of Levelling in England and Wales,' 1861, as follows: — "The datum level 
for Great Britain is the level of mean tide at Liverpool, as determined by our 
own observations ; it is -^ of an inch above the mean tidal level obtained 
from the records of the self-recording tide-gauge on the St. George's Pier, 
Liverpool." 

The level of the sill (long ago removed) of the Old Dock at Liverpool 
is the datum to which the records in question of the gauge on the St. 

* Third Keport, 1875, p. 171. 
t 'Beliquioo Diluviante,' p. 13. 

| See also " Ou the Age of the Hyrena-bed at the Victoria Cave, Settle, and its bearing 
on the Antiquity of Man," by the writer, 'Quart. Journ. Anthropol, Inst.' 1877. 



ON THE DATUM LEVEL OF THE ORDNANCE SURVEY. 221 

George's Pier are referred. Being consequently the lovel to which the 
Ordnanco Datum is referred, it is therefore of the greatest importance 
that its exact position should be clearly determined ; and the primary object 
of this Committee is to set at rest the doubts which have hitherto existed on 
the subject. 

The uncertainties appear to have arisen from the following causes : — 

(1) The difference between the levels given in the Ordnance Book of Levels 
('Abstract of Levelling in England and Wales,' with plates, 1861) and in 
the tracings of original levelling in Liverpool in 1843-44, sheet 29, as sup- 
plied by the Ordnance Department to the Borough Engineer's Office, 
Liverpool. 

(2) The existence in Liverpool of two gauges, each purporting to be a re- 
production of the Old Dock sill. 

(3) A published statement under the authority of the Mersey Docks and 
Harbour Board as to the position of the Ordnance Datum with reference to 
the Old Dock sill. 

1. («) 'Abstract of Levelling in England and Wales.' 

At page V of this book occurs the above-quoted definition of the Ordnance 
Datum ; and at page 2, in the list of levels, we find " Zero of the Tide-Gauge 
at George's Ferry Basin, near George's Baths, Liverpool. Altitude in feet 
above Mean Level of the Sea at Liverpool 4-670 ;" a minus sign ( — ) should 
evidently have been prefixed to this level, as the zero of the tide-gauge was 
below, not above, the mean sea-level. The zero of the tide-gauge was re- 
garded as identical with that of the Old Dock sill ; and, judging from the 
remarks on page 599 of the same volume, it was assumed to be so by the 
Ordnance Department. 

These remarks* begin by saying that the mean-water datum plane depends 
upon the observations taken by the Ordnance Department in 1844. Then 
follows a statement showing that the Department were in possession of 
the records of the self-registering gauge for four years, from 1854 to 
1857, and that the mean water during that period was 4-968 feet above the 
level of the Old Dock sill. Notwithstanding this fact, recourse was had (as 
is stated further on) to the tidal curves traced by the self-registering gauge 
between May 13th and June 14th, 1859 (one month) ; the mean water of 
which period is there announced as the true mean water at Liverpool, 
and that it differs but 0-068 foot (the -fa of an inch of the definition) from 
the assumed Orduance Datum plane. 

The statement in the definition, " the mean tidal level obtained from the 
records of the self-recording tide-gauge," without any qualification as to the 
time during which the records were taken, might therefore be misappre- 
hended, as it only refers to the mean obtained from one month's observa- 
tions, and is not borne out by the records taken over longer periods. 

The tidal curves, moreover, shown under the head of " Liverpool " in the 
volume of Plates issued with the Book of Levelling above named, would natu- 
rally be supposed to be those taken by the Ordnance Department for deter- 
mining the mean level of the sea. The letter of Lieut.-Col. Clarke, B.E., 
Ordnance Department, Southampton, sent to the Secretary of this Committee, 
shows, however, that such is not the caset. 

(b) Tracings of original levelling in Liverpool, 1843-44, sheet 29 (as supplied 
to tho Borough Engineer's Office, Liverpool, by the Ordnance Department). 

On this sheet, at a point near to the S.E. corner of the Canning Dock (the 

* See Appendix. 

t See Appendix for this and other letters from Lt.-Col. Clarle, E.E. 



222 report— 1877. 

site of a gauge purporting to be a reproduction of the Old Dock sill), the fol- 
lowing remark occurs : — " 17'8 Bottom of 22nd figure on gauge." By exa- 
mination of this gauge it appears that this would give 4*20 feet as the height 
of the Ordnance Datum above the zero of the Old Dock sill. Tet on page 2 
of the 'Abstract of Levelling' above quoted, the difference is given as 4 - 67 
feet. Both levels cannot, of course, be correct. 

The Liverpool Borough Engineer's Office had ever since 1847, when the 
above tracings were supplied, observed the 4-20 feet difference for the levels 
throughout the town ; while the Waterworks Office (until lately distinct from 
the former, though now combined with it) had made use of the 4-67 feet 
difference. It may here also be remarked (as will be seen further on) that 
the Engineer's Department of the Mersey Docks and Harbour Board made 
use of and published 5 feet as the difference between the Ordnance Datum and 
the Old Dock sill level. 

2. The existence of the two gauges, each purporting to be referred to the Old 
Dock sill. 

A few words as to the history of the Old Dock sill may not here appear 
inappropriate. 

The Old Dock at Liverpool (whence the Old Dock sill datum takes 
its name) was opened on August 31st, 1715, and closed on August 31st, 
1826. During this interval a " Dry Dock " had been added on the river 
side of the " Old Dock." This dock having been altered into a wet dock, 
and opened on December 12th, 1829, the level of the Old Dock sill, thence- 
forward covered with water, was transferred to the S.E. corner of the new 
dock ; in 1832 this new dock assumed the name of the " Canning Dock." It 
was subsequently enlarged and reopened on May 9th, 1842. During this 
operation the Old Dock sill gauge must have been temporarily removed else- 
where, since the present eastern wall (near to the S.E. corner of which this 
gauge now stands) is considerably further inland than was the eastern wall 
of the " Dry Dock " against which it formerly stood. 

In 1844 the approaches to the Canning Dock, having been enlarged, were 
opened under the name of the Canning Half-tide Dock, the two entrances 
from the river having between them the " Canning Island." To the river- 
face of this " Canning Island " was also transferred the level of the Old Dock 
sill by Mr. John B. Hartley, the Engineer to the Liverpool Dock Committee, 
and subsequently to the Mersey Docks and Harbour Board. Captain Graham 
H. Hills, B.N., the present Marine Surveyor to the Mersey Docks and 
Harbour Board, was informed in 1861, by Mr. J. B. Hartley, that this was 
the only trustworthy tide-gauge, as representing the Old Dock sill one. This 
gauge is placed in a conspicuous position facing the river, with the following 
heading in large letters over it, " Tidal datum, as transferred in 1843 from 
the Old Dock sill ;" while the gauge at the S.E. corner of the Canning Dock 
(which must have been re-transferred there when the dock was enlarged, and 
during which process the error might have occurred) is placed unostentatiously 
in an obscure corner, where its existence is almost forgotten. 

A series of check-levels*, taken under the direction of Mr. G. P. Deacon 
of Liverpool, whose attention was naturally drawn to the anomaly in 1871, 
when the Borough Engineer's and the Waterworks Departments were both 
placed under his charge, show that the zero of the Old Dock sill gauge at the 
Canning Island (the prominent one) is 4 # 66 feet below the Ordnance Datum 
(thus conciding nearly with the 4-67 feet of the Ordnance Book of Levels); 

* See Appendix. 



I 



ON THE DATUM LEVEL OF THE ORDNANCE SURVEY. 223 

while the zero of the inner gauge at the Canning Dock is only 4*20 feet below 
the Ordnance Datum. 

3. Published statement of the Mersey Docks and Harbour Board. 

In an annual printed statement issued by this body there is given, 
among other matters, information as to the " Levels of Tides at Liverpool " *. 
This has been issued regularly for some years past. At the commencement, 
and for some time after, the " mean-tide level " was there given as " 4 ft. 9 in. 
above the Old Dock sill." Towards the end of 1853 the self-registering 
tide-gauge was established. In 1864 the information derived from the ten 
completed years' observations (1854-63) of the self-registering gauge was 
tabulated, and the " Levels of Tides " were henceforth given as " derived " 
from that information. In this amended form the " mean-tide level " became 
" 5 feet above 0. D. S " (in lieu of the previous 4 ft. 9 in.). This informa- 
tion continued exactly in this form for some years, until in 1871 the words 
" (Ordnance- Datum) " were inserted after the " mean-tide level " and before 
the "5 feet"f. 

But the Ordnance Datum (as stated at p. 599 of the 'Abstract of Level- 
ling,' see Appendix) depends upon tidal observations taken by the Ordnance 
Department in March 1844 ; and it has therefore nothing whatever to do 
with the 1854-63 observations of the Mersey Docks and Harbour Board. 

Another very erroneous view of the Ordnance Datum, but one which hardly 
needs consideration in order to dispel it, is, that it continues to represent the 
mean tidal level at Liverpool. The mere mention of the facts that in 1844 
the Ordnance Department considered the mean sea-level at that port to be 
4-67 feet above the Old Dock sill, while the records of the self- registering tide- 
gauge from 1854-63 give it as 5-01 feetj above that datum, and that the 
records of the succeeding decade, 1864-73, show it to have stood during 
that period at 5*24 feet over the same datum, clearly points out that the 
moan sea-level, at Liverpool at least, is a varying one, and therefore cannot 
now represent the Ordnance Datum. 

In conclusion, the Committee are of opinion : — 

1st. That of the two tide-gauges at Liverpool, now purporting to be 
referred to the level of the Old Dock sill, the zero of that fixed at the 
S.E. corner of the Canning Dock is about 5-54 inches above the zero of that 
on the river-face of the Canning Island, Liverpool. 

2nd. That in order to reconcile the statement in the Ordnance Book 
of Levelling, that "the Datum Level for Great Britain is -f^ of an inch 
above the mean tidal level obtained from the records of the self-recording 
tide-gauge on the St. George's Pier, Liverpool," with the actual facts which 
the Committee have collected, it is necessary to bear in mind that the records 
of the self-recording gauge referred to were the observations of one month 
only taken in the year 1859, and that the mean tidal level of that month 
was 6-26 inches below the mean of the period from 1854 to 1873, taken by 
the same self-recording gauge. 

3rd. That the difference of level between the Old Dock sill and the Ord- 
nance Datum, given in the Ordnance Book of Levelling as 4-67 feet, is 
correct on the assumption that the zero of the gauge on the river-face of tho 

* See Appendix. 

t [Since this report was presented to the Association, the engineer to the Mersey 
Docks and Harbour Board, on the matter being explained to him, lias directed that the 
words " (Ordnance Datum) " be in future omitted, thus restoring the information as to 
the tides at Liverpool to its original form. — Secretary of the Ordnance- Datum Committee.] 

t Sec Report of the British Association for 1875, Bristol, p. 164. 



224 report — 1877. 

Canning Island, and not that of the gauge in the Canning Dock, be taken as the 
correct level of the Old Dock sill ; and that, as is stated in the Ordnance 
Book of Levelling, the Ordnance Datum be taken at T 8 ^ of an inch above the 
mean tidal level of the month of May 13 to June 14, 1859, as ascertained 
by the self-recording tide-gauge of the Mersey Docks and Harbour Board. 

4th. It is thus apparent that the Ordnance Datum is an entirely arbitrary 
level, which could not be again obtained from tidal observations. 

The Committee have further thought it advisable to take advantage of 
the present inquiry in order to obtain information as to some of the various 
local datum-marks in use in the British Isles, and to endeavour to ascer- 
tain the difference of each relatively to the Ordnance Datum, which would 
thus become a means of comparison between them. In order to enable 
the Committee to carry out this work, they request to be reappointed. 



APPENDIX. 

Extract from '■Abstract of Levelling in England and Wales,'' 1861 (p. 599). 

Tidal Observations. 

This assumed mean water at Liverpool is the same imaginary plane to 
which all the heights in the preceding pages are referred. It depends upon 
tidal observations taken by this Department in March 1844. The error, 
however, is very small, as appears from the results shown by the self- 
registering tide-gauge at that Port. 

The Tide-gauge at Liverpool in connection with the self-registering 
gauge is divided from zero in both directions. The zero corresponds with 
the level of the Old Dock sill. 

By taking the annual means of H.W. and L.W. of self-registering gauge, 

{1854, 15-424 above zero. f 1854, 5-544 below zero. 

1855,15-425 „ M L w I 1855, 5-570 „ 

1856,15-515 „ ^^^'l 1856,5-449 

1857,15-478 „ [1857,5-532 

These results are remarkably close, and give + 15-460 as the mean of 
H.W. for four years and — 5-524 as that of L.W. for the same period. If 
we assume the mean of these to represent mean water, we should have 
4-4*968 as the reading of mean water. Mean water is, however, strictly 
speaking, not the mean of H.W. and L.W., but the mean of all heights re- 
corded at indefinitely small intervals, and for as long a period as possible. 

An examination of the curves traced by self-registering gauges, even 
for one month or less, affords an accurate means of determining the mean 
height, inasmuch as we can measuro the heights at any intervals of time as 
small as we please. By this means we find from the curves traced between 
May 13th, 1859, to June 14th, 1859, that the true mean water at Liverpool 
reads 4-602 above the zero of the gauge. Now, by levelling, it appears that 
this zero is 4-670 feet (see page 2) below our assumed plane of difference. 
Consequently the true mean water at Liverpool is 0-068 foot below our as- 
sumed plane of reference. 

If, therefore, we woidd strictly refer our heights to mean water at Liver- 
pool, we should increase every quantity in the preceding pages by 0*068 
foot, 



ON THE DATUM LEVEL OF THE ORDNANCE SURVEY. 



22'. 



Copies of Letters from Lieut.-Col. Clarke, R.E., Ordnance Survey Department. 

j r i r r,sc / T i; 1 f Ordnance Survey Office, 

JUL Office Of Works, cjv. Southampton, September 22, 1875. 

The tidal observations taken at Liverpool in 1844, by which the mean level 
of the sea at that port was determined, have never been published. 

The curves shown in the volumo of Plates of the initial levelling for Liver- 
pool are those of the self-registering tide-gauge for a selected period. 

I do not think that Mr. Shoolbred has noticed page 599 of the volume of 
levelling*. I do not get mean tide by the formula L(high + low). And I 
used one month of the self-registering tide-gauge, viz. May 13 to June 14, 1859. 

(Signed) A. K. Clarke, Lt.-Col. 

KM. Office of Works, J* SoSm^^U llh. 

Sir, — In answer to your letter to Colonel Bayley of May 3rd, which he 
has referred to me, I beg to say that the height of " bottom of 22nd figure on 
gauge" is not 22-00, but 22-265, which gives 22-265 -17'8= 4-46 (date of 
Jris determination 1843) against the 4-67 (determined in 1857). 

I cannot explain this discrepancy of 0-21 foot ; but it happens to corre- 
spond to some extent with the change you have observed in the mean tide. 

Yours truly, 
(Signed) A. K. Clarke, Lt.-Col. E.E. 



JUL Office of Works, Sfc. 



Ordnance Survey Office, 
Southampton, May 1G, 1877. 

My Dear Sir, — Perhaps the enclosed diagram may help to clear up the 
mystery of the Ordnance Datum. The 22-265 feet has been measured 
(twice, I believe) from the surface of the stone to the lower edge of XXII. 
(Canning Dock). The 4-67 refers to a different place altogether (George's 
Ferry). There is no uncertainty whatever about our datum. 

Tours truly, 
(Signed) A. K. Clarke. 

Perhaps I omitted to notice in my last letter that the 4-40 (your 4-20) and 
the 4-67 referred to different gauges. 

2iftct marlc 





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[See preceding. — Secretary Ordnance-Datum Committee.'] 



/ 



226 report— 1877. 

Extract from Tracings of Original Levelling Sheet 29 (1843-44) supplied 
Ordnance Department to Borough Engineer of Liverpool. 

feet 
At Old-Dock Sill gauge, S.E. corner of Canning Dock ... 178 ( bottom, of 22nd 

[ figure on gauge. 

„ ,, „ 19'8 top of coping. 

Copy of Results of Check-levels taken by Mr. G. F. Deacon, C.E., Liverpool. 

Municipal Offices, Dale Street, 
Borough Engineer's Department (entrance Crosshall Street), 
Liverpool, 28 Aug., 1876. 

Ordnance Datum and 0. D. Sill. 

Dear Sie, — I am instructed by the Boro' Engineer to forward you the en- 
closed copy of the relative level of the Ordnance Datum and the Old Dock 
Sill on Canning Island. 

I am, dear Sir, 
J. N. Shoolbred, Esq., Yours obediently, 

Westminster Chambers, London. (Signed) John M. Sadler. 

Relative Level of Ordnance Datum and Old Dock sill transferred to river-face 

from Canning Island, marked 

Tidal Datum as transferred in 1843 from Old Dock Sill. 

C VidoriaXck b0lt ° n faC6 ° f riVer " Wan ° Pp0Site } S above Ordnance datum. 
Fall to Old Dock sill" at Canning island .'..'.'.'.'.'...'..... 2242 



4'67 under 

Ordnance B.M..N.W. corner of St. Nicholas Church- 1 n . .- , 

yard J 2440 above 

Fall to Old Dock sill at Canning Island 2905 

4 - 65 under 



Ordnance B.M. on house, Strand Street, comer of j 22 . QQ &h 0rdnauce datum . 

James street j 

Fall to Old Dock sill at Canning Island 27 "57 

467 under „ „ 

Ordnance B.M., N.W. corner of Custom House 2284 above Ordnance datum. 

Fall to Old Dock sill at Canning Island 27 50 

466 under „ ,, 

Ordnance B.M., S.W. corner of Custom House 2276 above Ordnance datum. 

Fall to Old Dock sill at Canning Island 27"36 

4 60 under ,, „ 

This B.M. sunk -05 

465 under „ „ 

Mean level of Old Dock sill 4'66, say 4 feet 8 inche?, under Ordnance datum. 

Borough Engineer's Department, 
Municipal Offices, Liverpool, 28 Aug., 1876. 






ON THE DATUM LEVEL OF THE ORDNANCE SURVEY. 



227 



Municipal Offices, 
Liverpool, 7th Sept., 187G. 

Dear Sir, — Enclosed I forward tracings showing relative heights of 
O.B.M. on Custom House, ccc. 

( trdnance Datura. Also copy of particulars 28th August, 1876. 

I took observations this morning from O.B.M., north-west corner of Custom 
House to gauge on the east side of the Canning Dock, and find the bottom of 
the 22nd figure to be 17 - 78 feet (against 17'8 feet Ordnance, which is prac- 
tically the same thing). 

Their 22-0 feet bottom of figure on Gauge, = 17 - 8 feet Ordnance Datum, 
gives 4-2 ,, the figure used in this Department since 1847. 
Also Tidal datum as transferred to river-face of Canning Island in 1843 
from Old Dock sill (see observations taken Aug. 1876). 
Sill 4-06 feet, say 4-8 feet, below Ordnance Datum. 



You will observe these Datums do not agree. 



Yours obediently, 

(Signed) Thomas Hough. 



P.S. Figures on Gauge. 



feet. 
1826 



Above Ordnance Datum... 17'80 




Copy of Correspondence with the Engineer of the Mersey Docks and 

Harbour Board. 

Dock Yard, Liverpool, 
30th July, 1874. 

Dear Sik, — I have your letter of the 28th instant making inquiry respect- 
ing the actual difference of level between the datum of the Old Dock sill and 
that of the Ordnance Survey, in reply to which I may say I have not by 
me the result of any critical examination of the relative levels ; but I enclose 
a copy of that part of our tabular statement referring thereto, from which 
you will find that the Ordnance is called by us 5 feet above the level of the 
Old Dock sill. 



J. N. Shoolbred, Esq. 



Yours faithfully, 

(Signed) George Fosbery Lyster, 
per J. A. S. 



Q2 



228 report — 1877. 

Enclosure referred to in Mr. Lyster's letter, July 30th, 1874. 

Levels of Tides at Liverpool. 

Derived from the Record of the Self-registering Gauge at St. George's Pier, 
deduced from ten years' observations, 1854 to 1863. 

Datum, Old Dock sill. 



An extraordinary high tide as marked on the Leasowe 
Lighthouse 

An extraordinary high tide, 20th January, 1863 

Average high-water mark of eqivinoctial spring-tides .... 

Average high water of spring tides, including equinoctial 
tides 

Average high-water mark of ordinary spring tides, excluding 
the equinoctial tides 

Mean high-water level 

Highest high-water mark of neap tides 

Average high-water mark of ordinary neap tides 

Lowest high- water mark of neap tides 

Mean-tide level {Ordnance Datum) 

Highest low-water mark of neap tides 

Average low-water mark of ordinary neap tides 

Lowest low-water mark of neap tides 

Mean low- water level 

Average low- water mark of ordinary spring tides, exclusive 
of equinoctial tides . . 

Average low-water mark of spring tides, inclusive of equi- 
noctial tides 

Lowest low-water mark of equinoctial spring tides 



ft. in. 

25 
23 9 
21 1 



19 0| 



18 10 
15 6 
14 8 



11 7 
8 7 
5 

4 1 
1 5 
3 10 

5 61 

8 8 

8 10 
10 4 



> 



a 4 

o 
< 

o 

§ 

i 



> 



in 

o 

4 



p 



Report of the Committee, consisting of Prof. Huxley, Dr. Carpenter, 
Mr. Sclater, Mr. F. M. Balfour, Dr. M. Foster, Prof. E. Ray 
Lankester, and Mr. Dew-Smith, appointed for the purpose of 
arranging with Dr. Dohrn for the occupation of a Table at the 
Zoological Station at Naples. 

The duty of your Committee seems not so much to report on the Zoolo- 
gical Station itself, which is now fully established and equipped, as to select 
fitting naturalists to proceed to Naples, and to occupy the Table engaged for 
the British Association. 

Since the last report was made, three naturalists have occupied this Table, 
viz. Dr. "W. B. Carpenter, F.R.S., Mr. Francis M. Balfour, and Mr. Arthur 
W. Waters. 

These gentlemen are required by the Association to report the result of 
their work there. These reports will be found appended. We may say 
that the Institution is now thoroughly well established and is daily becoming 
an Institution of world-wide reputation. 



I 



ON THE ZOOLOGICAL STATION AT NAPLES. 229 

Tables have been engaged by most of the Continental Governments, and 
many of the most eminent living naturalists have availed themselves of its 
advantages. 

Your Committee would most strongly urgo the desirability of renewing 
the grant, as such an Institution necessarily requires annual support, as it is 
in no way subsidized. 

(Signed) Peoe. Huxley, 
P. L. Sclatee, 

E. Rat Laxkester, 
Michael Foster, 

F. M. Baxfoue, 

A. G. Dew-Smith, Secretary. 



University of London, 
Gran 
August 11, 1877. 



Burlington Gardens, W. 



Deae Sie, 

As I attended in person last year both at the Sectional Committee and at 
the Committee of Pecommondations, and made a verbal report of my ex- 
periences at the Naples Zoological Station, on the strength of which the vote 
was passed without any difficulty, I do not see what more I have now to say. 
I found the arrangements entirely satisfactory ; every facility being given 
in the supply of animals, the keeping them alive in special tanks, and tho 
provision of apparatus, reagents, &c. for scientific investigation. And I 
hope in the course of the next year, by means of tho information and 
material I there obtained, to complete my Memoir on Antedon (Comatula). 

It seems to me that the continuance of the grant should rather be decided 
by its results during the last year. 

I am sorry that I shall not be able to be at the Meeting of the British 
Association at Plymouth, as I had intended. The depressed state of health 
in which I am at present — partly depending on the severe bereavements I 
have sustained, and partly on the excessive wear and tear of official duties — 
makes it necessary for me to devote my vacation to bodily and mental re- 
freshment. Yours sincerely, 

William B. Cakpenter. 

A. G. Deiv-Smith, Esq. 

Report by Mr. Francis M. Balfour, on the Zoological Station 

at Naples. 

In accordance with the Regulations of the Committee appointed to report 
on the Zoological Station at Naples, I have the honour to lay before you the 
following. 

I reached Naples on June 5th, and having given previous notice of my 
intended arrival, found every thing prepared for mo. 

My objoct in going to Naples was to work out tho development of Amphloxus, 
and also to complete my researches on the development and anatomy of 
Elasmobranch fishes. An ample supply of Amphioxus was provided for mo 
every morning ; and since with a fair supply of fresh sea-water those animals 
live in a healthy condition, I had a continually increasing stock of them on 
hand. For the most part I kept them in small aquaria, which were daily 
examined to seo if ova had been deposited. A considerable number of 
animals were also placed in one of the large tanks of the Aquarium, which 



230 report— 1877. 

was most liberally cleaned out for my special use. From time to time a 
surface-net was dragged through the tank with the hope of finding larva?. 
In addition to these means of obtaining embryos I also employed the surface- 
net in those parts of the bay in which Amphioxus usually lives. All these 
means unfortunately proved ineffectual, and I failed to obtain any larvae of 
Amphioxus ; this was probably owing to the lateness of the season, since 
at the time I left Naples (July 1st) the majority of examples of Amphioxus 
were filled either with spermatozoa or ova. In any case the Zoological 
Station, so far from being in any way responsible for my failure, furnished 
me in a much more ample manner with all I required than any private in- 
dividual could possibly have done for himself. 

My researches on Elasmobranch fishes proved more fortunate. I obtained 
an ample supply of material, which I was partly able to investigate at Naples 
and partly to preserve for further study in England. 

I ma)- perhaps also be permitted to add a few words with reference to the 
present condition of the Station. Since the summer of 1875, when I last 
worked at Naples, considerable improvement has been effected in many of 
the departments. A carefully determined collection of the animals of the 
bay has been commenced, and has already attained considerable dimensions. 

The department for supplying naturalists and museums with preserved 
specimens has now been fully organized ; and I can answer for the very 
beautiful manner in which the specimens are preserved, under the direction 
of Dr. H. Midler, who has charge of the department. 

The library has been steadily, not to say rapidly, increasing, and in most 
departments is fairly well supplied. There is still, however, a slight 
deficiency in systematic works. The greatest addition, however, has been 
made in the fishing department. Through the munificence of the Berlin 
Academy, Dr. Dohrn has been enabled to procure a steam launch made by 
Messrs. Thornycroft, of Chiswick, and specially designed for marine research. 
By means of this the area of fishing will be enormously extended, and will now 
include the adjoining bays of Salerno and Gaeta. It scarcely requires to be 
pointed out how greatly this will increase tho number of forms to be procured 
as well as the constancy of the supply. 

In conclusion, I would bear testimony to tbe unceasing kindness and 
willingness to assist naturalists displayed by the acting director, Dr. Hugo 
Eisig, and would strongly urge the desirability of renewing the grant of the 
Association. 
August 1, 1877 

Wooclbrook, Adderley Edge, 
Near Manchester, 

August 15, 1876. 
Dear Str, 

I promised to send you word as to the use I had made of the table at the 
Naples Zoological station, wbich was granted me by the British Association. 

The pressure of business has prevented me from having any paper ready 
for the Glasgow meeting this year, but as far I can find time I shall still 
go on with the determination of the material I collected. 

I took up the systematic study of the Bryozoa with the intention of com- 
paring them with the Tertiary fossil forms from Italy, which I have from 
various horizons of the Tertiaries. 

I have now determined fifty known species collected at Naples, and expect 
the number will be considerably added to, though I do not suppose I shall 



I 



REPORT OE THE ANTHROPOMETRIC COMMITTEE. 231 

find as many species as I at one time expected, as by study I shall find 
specimens which I thought different to be tho same species. Concerning new 
species I cannot form any idea until the completion of my work of deter- 
mination. 

I found tho arrangements of the institution were thoroughly well adapted 
for any one wishing to follow up the systematic study of any group of smaller 
animals. 1 have already called attention in one or two places to the library, 
Avhich although very good for embryology, is not at all satisfactory for those 
who wish to determine the fauna or flora on the spot, and it is to be hoped 
that it will receive such additions from authors as will make it much more 
complete. 

I have also said that I should advise any naturalist who intends to study 
there, to previously obtain the catalogue that he may know what books that 
he is in the habit of using ho had better bring with him. 

After using the British Association table I became connected with the 
institution for a short time, and made a beginning for a museum by putting 
aside specimens from various groups for this purpose. Dr. Dohrn's report 
will probably give latest particulars as to what has been done in this direc- 
tion. At the time that I left a good number of Crustacea, Tunicata, and other 
animals had been determined by Prof. Heller and others, and I completed a 
Catalogue of all the Echinodermata in the collection, which I had given some 
study to during my stay. 

My experience gained during tho few months I was in Naples makes me 
say in the most emphatic manner that this is a most useful institution, and if 
there are (as there doubtless always will be) zoologists who are anxious to 
avail themselves of it, then the grant of £75 by the British Association is 
one which it is to be hoped, in the interest of science, they will continue. 

Yours truly, 

Arthur War. Waters. 
A. G. Dew-Smith, Esq. 



Report of the Anthropometric Committee, consisting of Dr. Beddoe, 
Lord Aberdare, Dr. Farr, Mr. Francis Galton, Sir Henry 
Rawlinson, Colonel Lane Fox, Sir Rawson Rawson, Mr. James 
Heywood, Dr. Mouat, Professor Rolleston, Mr. Hallett, Mr. 
Fellows, and Professor Leone Levi. 

The Committee has met six times since tho last general meeting at Glasgow. 
The following new members have been added to the Committee, viz. Dr. 
Lawson, Dr. Mouat, Capt. Dillon, and Mr. lledgrave. 

A report on measurements of the 2nd ltoyal Surrey Militia at Guildford 
by Col. A. Lane Fox has been received, and has been published in the ' Jour- 
nal of the Anthropological Institute ; ' a hundred copies of this paper have 
been retaiued for the use of the Committee. 

Schedules of measurements filled in by Dr. Farr, Mr. Redgrave, and other 
observers have also been received by the Committee. 



233 Heport — 1877. 

Mr. E. W. Brabook made a proposal to the Committee for carrying out the 
provisions of the vote of the Association in relation to typical photographs, 
and fifty copies have been printed in pamphlet form for the use of the Com- 
mittee. 

A series of photographs of natives taken at tho Straits Settlements have 
been submitted by Mr. Francis Galton. 

The results of the communications received and the measurements which 
have been taken have shown that more detailed instructions are necessary to 
enable the various observers to conduct their measurements upon a uniform 
plan, without which the returns are misleading, and the printed instructions 
have been modified accordingly. 

With a view further to ensure uniformity in returning the colour of the 
hair and defining the terms to be employed in the descriptions, ton litho- 
graphed patterns of hair-colours corresponding to some of those used in M. 
Broca's tables have been printed, and three hundred copies havo been bound 
up for distribution to the collectors of the statistics. 

Coxeter's spirometer having been found too small to record tho breathing 
capacity of large men, measures have been taken to ensure tho improvement 
of the instrument. An additional set of instruments for measuring height, 
weight, and strength of arm have been obtained from Messrs. Tisley and 
Spiller, opticians. 

It being the opinion of the Committee, as the result of their examination 
of the measurements already received, that the necessary uniformity is not 
likely to be obtained without trained observers, measures havo been taken to 
secure the services of a non-commissioned officer of the army, by whom it is 
proposed to promulgate a uniform system of measurement in different localities. 
The arrangements for carrying out this experiment are still in progress. 

Although the Committee has not yet obtained sufficient data to enable 
generalization to be formed, it is thought that the necessary preliminaries have 
been taken to secure accuracy, and that the measurements taken under the 
new instructions may be relied upon. 



Report on the Conditions under which Liquid Carbonic Acid exists in 
Rocks and Minerals, by a Committee consisting of Walter Noel 
Hartley, F.R.S.E.,E. J. Mills,D.Sc.,F.R.S.,«^W. Chandler 
Roberts, F.R.S. Brawn up by W. N. Hartley, F.R.S.E. 

In a paper read before the Chemical Section of the British Association at the 
Glasgow Meeting, I described the method of determining the exact tempera- 
ture at which the carbonic acid which is sometimes found enclosed in the 
cavities of rocks and minerals becomes gaseous. This temperature is called 
by Prof. Andrews the critical point, and has been determined by him, in the 
case of carbonic acid in as pure a state as it could be procured artificially, to 
bo 30°-92 C. 

The following Table shows the critical point of the carbonic acid enclosed 
in various minerals, and certain variations are apparent which may be 
accounted for, when the critical point is below the normal temperature, by 
the carbonic acid being mixed with some incondensible gas like nitrogen. 



ON LIQUID CARBONIC ACID IN ROCKS AND MINERALS. 233 

Critical point. 

Topaz 28° C. 

Topaz 28° C. and 2G°-5 

Topaz 27°-55 

Tourmaline 27°-27 

Tourmaline 26°-9 

Sapphire between 30°-5 and 31° 

Sapphire between 25 0, 5 and 26° 

Sapphire 29°-5 

Rock crystal 30°-95 

Rock crystal 30°-95 

Rock crystal 32°-5 

Rock crystal 33°-7 

Rock crystal 29° 

Rock crystal 30°-95 

Beryl 30°-92 

Rock crystal from India 30°-0 C. 

Topaz, Aberdeen 29°-l 

Oriental White Topaz 28 c -2 

Rock crystal 21°-0 

It seemed to be very desirable to ascertain whether the presence of liquid 
carbonic acid in rocks was not of frequent occurrence, whether, in fact, the 
immense number of minute cavities dispersed through quartzite, granites, 
and porphyries, which are usually cousidered as containing water, may not 
often contain liquid carbonic acid, or whether the occurrence of liquid car- 
bonic acid in rocks might not be characteristic of certain formations. 

Method of Working, Sfc. — The microscopic observations of Bryson on the 
quartz porphyry of Arran, also of Zirkel on Labradorito, tend to show that 
if some means could be devised of readily recognizing minute quantities of 
this substance it would be frequently met with. The apparatus shown at 
the last meeting of the British Association was made use of. Its action 
raises the temperature of the specimen under examination to above the 
critical point of carbonic acid, and but for a single instant of time only if 
desirable. So marked is the change in appearance of cavities containing 
liquid carbonic acid when a current of warm air is blown upon them, that a 
layer of carbonic acid no larger than ^^ of an inch in diameter may bo 
detected. 

It has been necessary to examine a great variety of rocks, and very thin 
cctions have been cut from about two hundred different specimens during 
the past year. These were polished but not covered with a thin glass, be- 
cause a better examination may be made with high microscopic powers. A 
^-inch object-glass was made by Messrs. R. and J. Beck, after the pattern of 
one made according to Mr. Sorby's directions. Its definition is perfect at 
any depth in a reasonably well-cut rock-section. A considerable number of 
minerals were examined, including about 30 sapphires, a like number of 
zircons, 60 garnets from the Cape of Good Hope, several topazes and sec- 
tions of fluor-spar, sulphate of baryta, and arksutite (a fluoride of aluminium, 
calcium, and sodium) from Greenland. 

Motion of bubbles in fluid-cavities under the influence of heat. — Incidentally 
this inquiry has led to the discovery of curious facts concerning the motion 
of the bubbles in fluid-cavities when influenced by a source of heat. An 
extensive scries of experiments were made, the details of which are fully 



234 report— 1877. 

recorded in the Proceedings of the Royal Society. The following is the 
summary of this part of the research : — 

" 1st. The bubbles in certaiu fluid- cavities approach a source of heat 
which is brought near them. 

"2nd. The bubbles in certain fluid-cavities recede from the same source 
of heat. 

" 3rd. That a rise of 5° C. above the temperature of the specimen suffices 
to cause the apparent attraction. 

" 4th. Tbat a rise of only ^° C. will in some cases cause the apparent re- 
pulsion. 

" 5th. That in certain cases a bubble which receded from the source of 
heat at ordinary temperatures approached it when raised to 60° C, the 
source of heat always being from J° C. to 5° C. warmer than the specimen. 

" 6th. That this could occur in cavities containing liquid carbonic acid as 
well as water, but that it made no difference whether the carbonic acid was 
raised above its critical point or not." « 

This latter fact affords a means of controlling to some extent the conditions 
of the experiment, since we know that the tension of liquid carbonic acid 
when it has just passed the critical point amounts to 109 atmospheres. 

Hence gas-bubbles enclosed in minute tubes containing water may be 
caused to recede from or approach a source of heat according as their tempe- 
rature is below or above 60° C, and even when the gas is confined under 
enormous pressure. It was found that the warmth of the fingers is sufficient 
to propel even in a vertical direction a plug of water contained in a capillary 
tube open at both ends. The apparent attraction of bubbles by heat is evi- 
dently due to the same cause which occasions this movement. Professor 
Stokes assigns this apparent repulsion of the liquid to a diminution by heat 
of the surface-tension at one end of a plug of liquid in a tube, or side of a, 
bubble in a cavity. 

When attraction of the liquid takes place it may be because a slight rise 
of temperature effects a disengagement of gas from the water on the side of 
the bubble nearest to the source of heat, which increases the surface-tension 
at this side : the bubble is therefore propelled in the opposite direction. 

This explanation is similar to that which Professor James Thomson gave 
of the cause of the " tears of wine," published in the Reports of the British 
Association (1855, Proceedings of Sections, p. 16). 

On vibrating bubbles and the Brownian movement. — Mr. Sorby was the first 
to notice a remarkable vibration of minute bubbles in the fluid-cavities of 
minerals precisely of the nature of tho Brownian movement. 

This motion was repeatedly seen in some sections of granites, as, for 
instance, many specimens from Cornwall, quartzite from Snowdon, and 
granite from Shap Fell in "Westmoreland. All the most minute cavities 
contain bubbles incessantly vibrating. It was found that all these bubbles 
approached a warm body, and that they ceased moving and clung for some 
time to the warmer side of a cavity. After repeated and varied experiments 
on these moving bubbles the following conclusion was arrived at. It is 
impossible to imagine a body which is not gaining or losing, or, at the same 
time, both gaining and losing heat ; it is therefore impossible to imagine it 
entirely throughout at a uniform temperature. It is evident, then, that an 
easily movable particle which can be set in motion by exceedingly slight 
rises of temperature will make the transference of heat from one point to 
another plainly visible. The minute bubbles in fluid-cavities are such par- 



ON LIQUID CARBONIC ACID IN ROCKS AND MINERALS. 235 

tides, and these vibratory motions afford an ocular demonstration of the 
continual passago of heat through solid substances. 

A further continuation of this research was extended to the conditions 
under which minute solid particles exhibit the Brownian movement. It 
was found that solid particles are subject to the same influences and behave 
in the same way as minute bubbles, a fact which was anticipated. As to the 
cause of tho movement there can be no doubt, since the very recent investi- 
gations of M. Delsaulx of Louvain, on the thermodynamic origin of the 
Brownian movement, lead to the samo conclusion ; but with regard to the 
modus operandi of this cause it will be well to reserve further statements 
until an cxbaustive study of JM. Delsaulx's views may warrant a decision. 

General views concerning the. occurrence of liquid carbonic acid in minerals. 
— Liquid carbonic acid is not of common occurrence in rocks and minerals, 
although occasionally met with. 

The critical point is rarely to be found exactly the same as that deter- 
mined by Professor Andrews, and it ranges from 32° 0. in a sapphire to 
21° C. in quartz. 

The conditions of pressure under which the liquid carbonic acid exists are 
very varied : thus, in some cases the quantity of liquid in proportion to gas 
is so small that a rise of 5° or 6° C. above 16° causes it to disappear by eva- 
poration. In other cases it may be made to expand and fill the cavity at or 
about its critical point ; and in one instance, in the case of a piece of felstone 
from Snowdon, it was found that tho liquid had expanded to the fullest 
extent possible at so low a temperature as 18° C. 

Continuity of the gaseous and liquid states of matter exemplified in certain 
specimens. — In other instances noticed in large cavities in a white topaz, the 
liquid was in sufficient quantity to fill the cavity at 2° or 3° C. below its 
critical point. 

Under such circumstances when the liquid was completely converted into 
gas it condensed on cooling ivitJiout undergoing any visible change. 

It may well be asked how the fact of this change of state was ascertained. 
The following description of experiments will explain all. 

In a section of a colourless oriental topaz containing a large number of 
cavities, one of large size was easily studied with a magnifying-power of 40 
diameters. A jet of warm air raised the liquid above its critical point. 
After waiting for a minute, during which no change of any kind was seen in 
the cavity, a very slight puff of warm air was directed on to the specimen, 
and immediately a crowd of little bubbles made their appearance in its centre ; 
these instantly vanished, closed up in fact, but could be reproduced again 
and allowed to disappear as rapidly and as often as one could desire. The 
jet of air coidd be regulated so gently that only two or three bubbles were 
formed. It is evident, then, that the cavity is completely filled with liquid. 
When the jet of warm air was forcible no change was seen to take place, but 
a gentle warmth no longer caused the formation of bubbles therefore the 
cavity must have been filled with gas. It is evident, then, that in the first 
case the gas had passed into the liquid state without breach of continuity, 
and in the second the passage, in a reverse direction, from liquid to gas had 
taken place in like manner. 

Thus one sees beautiful illustrations in natural specimens of Professor 

Andrews's famous law of continuity in the gaseous and liquid states of matter. 

On the temperature of formation of rocks and minerals. — Regarding the 

proportions of gaseous and liquid carbonic acid, an important generalization 

has been arrived at. 



236 report — 1877. 

In rock-crystal, in arksutite, in felstone from Snowdon, and in some 
topazes and beryls the carbonic acid is not contained in every cavity, though 
■water is seen in them all. In one topaz it was noticed that nearly all the 
cavities contained merely a trace of water, but there was a sufficiency of 
liquid carbonic acid to occupy two thirds of their capacity at 16° C. One or 
two cavities, however, of large size were noticed which contained one third 
water, one third gaseous and one third liquid carbonic acid. I believe, for 
reasons I am about to state, that all these substances were formed by the 
action of a temperature below 340° C. In sapphires, in tourmalines, and in 
some other topazes the condition of things is different. Irregular though 
the cavities may be, it is easy to see that they have about the same propor- 
tion of gas, of liquid carbonic acid, and of water, and minute search shows 
that there is not a single cavity which does not contain in some proportion 
all of these substances. In a colourless and clear topaz there were discovered 
thousands of perfectly cylindrical tube-like cavities, round at each end. 
In the case of fifty-two cavities, as far as lineal measurement could decide, 
they each contained the same proportions of carbonic acid liquid, carbonic 
acid gas, and water. Hence at the time they were enclosed in the mine- 
ral these fluids must have existed in the state of a homogeneous vapour. 
This of necessity places the temperature of formation of the mineral some- 
where above 342° C, the critical point of water. In other cases in which 
the cavities differ in the nature of their contents, the water at the time of 
the formation of the mineral must have been in the liquid state. It is pos- 
sible to determine within certain limits the temperature which a rock or 
mineral has endured (and that, too, very easily) if liquid carbonic acid is 
found enclosed in it. 



NOTICES AND ABSTRACTS 



OF 



MISCELLANEOUS COMMUNICATIONS TO THE SECTIONS. 



MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICS. 

Address by Professor G. Carey Poster, F.B.S., President of the Section. 

When any one fears that lie lias accepted a duty that is too difficult for him, or 
that he has allowed himself to be placed in a position, the responsibilities of which 
are greater than he can properly discharge, probably the very worst thing he can 
do is to proclaim his misgivings to the world. But though I fully believe in this 
rather obvious maxim, I cannot avoid saying that I enter upon my duties here 
to-day with very great diffidence, and that I feel the necessity of asking your in- 
dulgence at the outset for what I fear will be my inevitable shortcomings in dis- 
charging the functions of the honourable post that has been assigned to me. And 
I am sure that no one who calls to mind the names of some of those who, within 
recent years, have occupied the chair of this Section, and who knows — however 
imperfectly — what those names stand for in connexion with Mathematics and 
Physics, will be surprised that I should deprecate comparisons which might tend 
to degenerate into contrasts, or that I should shrink from having my performances 
measured by the standard of such predecessors. But I have neither the right nor 
the desire to detain you longer with this purely personal topic, and 1 therefore 
proceed to ask your attention to matters more closely connected with the business 
which has brought ns here. 

The periodically recurring character of these meetings unavoidably suggests, at 
each recurrence, a retrospect at the scientific work of the year, and an attempt to 
estimate the advances which have been the result of this work. At first sight 
nothing would seem to be more natural or appropriate than that each President of 
a Section should occupy the introductory remarks, which the custom of the Asso- 
ciation demands from him, with an account of the chief forward steps made during 
the past year in the branches of science represented by his Section. 

Very little consideration, however, is sufficient to show that, in the case at 
least of Section A, to give any thing like a general report of progress would be a 
task which few, if any, men could perform single-handed. To say nothing of the 
enormous amount of the material which is now the result of a year's scientific 
activity, the variety — or I might even say the unlikeness — of the subjects of which 
this Section takes cognizance is so great that, in most cases, it would be safe to 
conclude, from the mere fact of a man being able adequately to expound the recent 
advances in one of these subjects, that he must have given so much attention to 
this one as to have made it impossible for him to have followed carefully the pro- 
gress of the rest. 

But even supposing that all Presidents of Section A were able to discourse with 
full and equal knowledge of hyper-Jacobian surfaces, the influence of temperature 

1877. 1 



2 REPORT — 1877. 

on the capillary constant of dilute sulphuric acid, or the latest improvement in the 
construction of aneroid harometers, some consideration would still be due to their 
audience. And, long-suffering as British-Association audiences have often shown 
themselves to be, there is no doubt that before a tenth part could be read of a 
report on the year's work on the subjects included in this Section, the room would 
be cleared and most of those who came to hear about Mathematics and Physics 
woidd have gone to try whether they could not find in Section E or F something 
appealing more directly to the common sympathies of mankind. 

But, although a serious report of progress would thus be both impossible and 
unsuitable in the form of an Address to the Section, it remains none the less true 
that such reports are in themselves of the utmost scientific value ; and, as has 
been pointed out repeatedly, there are few ways in which the British Association 
could more effectually fulfil its function of promoting the Advancement of Science 
than by aiding in their preparation and publication. But when one tries to think 
out in detail the way in which the Association could do this, the practical diffi- 
culties of the scheme are seen to be neither few nor trifling. It may be sufficient 
to point out that there is no evident reason why help of this kind should be afforded 
to one branch of science rather than to another, and that the publication of reports 
upon all branches would completely overtax the resources of the Association. 

In the case of some important sciences, however, the work of reporting recent 
advances has already, with more or less of help from this Association, been 
undertaken by other bodies ; thus there are the ' Abstracts ' published monthly 
in the Journal of the Chemical Society, and there are the Zoological Record, 
the Geological Record, and other publications of a like nature ; but hitherto 
nothing of the kind has been done in this country for those departments of 
science with which this Section is specially concerned. But without attempting 
to commit the Association to any burdensome outlay, or to any larger scheme 
than it would be practicable to carry out, it seems to me possible that a sys- 
tematic series of reports might be established in connexion with this Section 
which would have a very high value. In the early volumes of the British 
Association's Transactions we find, more frequently than in recent ones, reports, 
not merely on some special investigation, but on the recent progress and present 
state of some more or less compreheusive branch of Science. Thus in the first four 
volumes we find the following, among other reports, presented to this Section : — 
On the Progress of Astronomy, On the Present State of Meteorology, On the 
Present State of the Science of Radiant Heat, On the Progress of Optics, On the 
Magnetism of the Earth, On Capillary Attraction, On Physical Optics, On the 
Recent Progress and Present Condition of the Mathematical Theories of Electricity, 
Magnetism, and Heat. Now I venture to think that this form of the activity of 
the Association might with great advantage be revived and systematized. I would 
suggest, as a plan that seems to me worth consideration by the Committee of this 
Section, the appointment of Committees charged to report to the Section periodi- 
cally on the advances made in each of the chief departments of Science of which 
we here take cognizance. For example, to confine my remarks to Physics, we 
might have a Committee on Optics, a Committee on Acoustics, one on Heat, one 
on Electricity, and so on. It would not be in accordance with the usages of the 
Association to nominate these as standing Committees, but they might be made 
virtually such by annual reappointment. I would suggest that they should not 
report annually, but at intervals of perhaps five or six years, the times being so 
arranged that different Committees should report in different years, the report in 
each case being a systematic account of all the work of any importance done on 
the subject and within the period to which it related. In order not to make the 
work too heavy, it would probably be needful to make each Committee compara- 
tively numerous, so that individual members might each undertake to report upon 
some" limited part of the general subject. Some one member of each Committee 
would also require to act as editor ; his function woidd be not merely to put 
together the detached fragments sent in by his colleagues, but to distribute to 
them the materials on which they would have to report. For this purpose it would 
be needful that copies of all the important scientific periodicals relating to Physics 
should be supplied to the Committee ; but, besides providing these and printing 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. 3 

the Reports, I do not see that the Association need be put to any expense ; and if 
it were thought well to sell the Reports independently of the yearly volumes of 
the Association, probably a good part even of this expense might be recovered. 

The mutual relations subsisting between the two great groups of sciences which 
we discuss in this Section under the names Mathematics and Physics offer so many 
deeply interesting points for consideration, that, at the risk of reminding you how 
admirably aud with what fulness of knowledge the same subject has been treated 
by more than one of my predecessors in this Chair, I venture to ask your attention 
once more to a few remarks on this topic. 

The intimate connexion between Mathematics and Physics arises out of the fact 
that all scientific knowledge of physical phenomena is based upon measurements— 
that is to say, upon the discovery of relations of number, quantity, and position — of 
the same kind as those which form the subject-matter of mathematics. It is true 
that in studying physics we have to learn much about the quality of phenomena 
and of the conditions under which they occur, as well as about their purely quan- 
titative relations ; but even in the qualitative study of physical phenomena we 
find it impossible to determine what is really characteristic and to distinguish the 
essential from the accidental, except by the aid of measurements. In fact if we 
take the most elementary treatise upon any branch of physics that we can meet 
with (a book, it may be, which aims at giving a purely descriptive account of 
phenomena), we find, when we examine it, that numberless careful measurements 
have been required to establish the truth of the merely qualitative statements 
which it contains. To take a simple and well-known example, the old question, 
whether the ascent of water in a pump was due to the pressure of the atmosphere 
or to Nature's horror of a vacuum, was not conclusively settled by Torricelli's di- 
C3very that mercury would not rise beyond a certain height in a glass tube, even to 
prevent a vacuum being formed at the top of it, for the same thing was already 
known about the water in a pump. But when he measured the height of the 
mercury column in his tube and found that, if he multiplied it by the speciiic 
gravity of mercury, the product was equal to 32 feet, the height to which, as 
Galileo said (probably between jest and earnest) nature's abhorrence of a vacuum 
in a pump extended, it was clear that the ascent both of water and of mercury 
depended upon the particular depth of each liquid that was needed to produce some 
definite pressure ; and when Pascal had persuaded his brother-in-law to carry a 
Torricelli's tube to the top of the Puy de Dome, and he had measured the height 
of the mercury column at the top of the mountain as well as at the foot, the proof 
was completed that the pressure which determined the height of both the water 
and the mercury was the pressure of the atmosphere. 

Again, let us examine a still more familiar phenomenon, the falling of heavy 
bodies to the ground. So long as we consider this merely under its general or, 
as we may call them, its qualitative aspects, we might reasonably infer that it 
is the result of some inherent tendency of bodies ; and, so far from its seeming 
to be true, as stated in Newton's First Law of Motion, that bodies have no power 
to alter their own condition of rest or of motion, we might infer that, however 
indifferent they may be as regards horizontal motion, they have a distinct tendency 
to move downwards whenever they can, and a distinct disinclination to move 
upwards. But when we measure the direction in which bodies tend to fall [and 
the amount of the tendency in different places, and find that these vary in the 
way that they are known to do with geographical position and distance from the 
sea-level, we are obliged to conclude that there is no inherent tendency to motion 
at all, but that falling is the result of some mutual action exerted between the 
earth and the falling body ; for if we suppose falling to be due to any internal cause, 
we must imagine something much more complicated than a mere tendency to 
motion in one direction, else how could a stone that has always fallen in one 
direction in England fall in almost exactly the opposite direction as soon as it is 
taken to New Zealand ? 

These two simple examples illustrate a principle that we meet with throughout 
Physics, namely that, in the investigation of the causes of physical phenomena, 
or, in other words, of the connexion between these phenomena and the conditions 
under which they occur, the really decisive guidance is afforded by the study of 
their measurable aspects. 



4 REPORT 1877. 

The consequence is that from the very outset of his investigations the physicist 
has to rely constantly on the aid of the mathematician ; for, even in the simplest 
cases, the direct results of his measuring operations are entirely without meaning 
until they have been submitted to more or less of mathematical discussion. And 
when in this way some interpretation of the experimental results has been arrived 
at, and it has been proved that two or more physical quantities stand in a 
definite relation to each other, the mathematician is very often able to infer, from 
the existence of this relation, that the quantities in question also fulfil some other 
relation that was previously unsuspected. Thus when Coulomb, combining the 
functions of experimentalist and mathematician, had discovered the law of the 
force exerted between two particles of electricity, it became a purely mathematical 
problem, not requiring any further experiment, to ascertain how electricity is dis- 
tributed upon a charged conductor ; and this problem has been solved by mathema- 
ticians in several cases. 

It thus happens that a very large part of our knowledge of physics is due in the 
first instance to the mathematical discussion of previous results, and is experimental 
only in the second or perhaps still more remote degree. 

Another way in which the mathematician cooperates in the discovery of physical 
truths is almost exactly the converse of that last mentioned. In very many cases t he 
most obvious and direct experimental method of investigating a given problem is 
extremely difficult or, for some reason or other, untrustworthy. In such cases the 
mathematician can often point out some other problem more accessible to expeii- 
mental treatment, the solution of which involves the solution of the former one. 
For example, if we try to deduce from direct experiments the law according to 
which one pole of a magnet attracts or repels a pole of another magnet, the 
observed action is so much complicated with the effects of the mutual induction 
of the magnets and of the forces due to the second pole of each magnet, that it 
is next to impossible to obtain results of any great accuracy. Gauss, however, 
showed how the law which applies in the case mentioned can be deduced from 
the deflections undergone by a small suspended magnetic needle when it is acted 
upon by a small fixed magnet placed successively in two determinate positions 
relatively to the needle; and, being an experimentalist as well as a mathematician, 
he showed likewise how these deflections can be measured very easily and with 
great precision. 

It thus appears not only that mathematical investigations have aided at every 
step whereby the present stage in the development of a knowledge of physics has 
been reached, but that mathematics has continually entered more and more into 
the very substance of physics, or, as a physiologist might say, has been assimilated 
by it to a greater and greater extent. 

Another way of convincing ourselves how largely this process has gone on 
would be to try to conceive the effect of some intellectual catastrophe, supposing 
such a thing possible, whereby all knowledge of mathematics should be swept 
away from men's minds. Would it not